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DICTIONARY 

OF THE 

HAUSA LANGUAGE 



VOLUME II. ENGLISH-HAUSA 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

A Dictionary of the Hausa Language. Vol. I. 

Hausa-English. Crown 8vo. 3rd ed. 12s. net. Vol. II. 
English-Hausa. Crown 8vo. 3rd ed. 10s. net. (Cambridge 
University Press.) 

Specimens of Hausa Literature. Small 4to. 10s. 

Translation, Transliteration and Notes, without Facsimiles. 58. 
(Cambridge University Press.) 

Hausa Grammar, with exercises, readings and vocabulary. 
4th ed. 6s. (Kcgan Paul, Triibner & Co.) 

Magana Hausa. Hausa Stories and Fables collected by 
J. F. ScHON, D.D., re-edited by C. H. Kobinson, D.D. 2s. 6d. 
(S.P.C.K.) 

The Interpretation of the Character of Christ to 

non-Christian Races: an apology for Christian Missions. 
Seventh thousand. 2s. 6d. In paper covers. Is. (Longmans.) 

The Missionary prospect, including a survey of 
Christian Missions in the past. 5s. net. (Partridge.) 



DICTIONARY 

OF THE 

HAUSA LANGUAGE 



by 
CHARLES HENRY ROBINSON D.D. 

SOMETIME LECTURER IN HAUSA IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 
HONORARY CANON OF RIPON 



VOLUME II 
ENGLISH-HAUSA 



THIRD EDITION 



Cambridge 

at the University Press 

1914 



PK- 

1913 

r a. 



§ 



39235 

77^ 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

C. F. CLAY, Manager 

ilOtttlon; FETTER LANE, E.G. 

etriniurfit) : lOO PRINCES STREET 




aSttUn: A. ASHER AND CO. 

ILeipjte: F. A. BROCKHAUS 

(Qeto gork: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

■©ombap ant) Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 

STorontti: J. M. DENT AND SONS, Ltd. 

3rofeao: THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 



First Edition 1900 
Second Edition 1907 
Third Edition 1914 



All rights reserved 



PEEFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION 

TN preparing this third edition of the English-Hausa 

Dictionary for the press I desire to express my gratitude 

for much valuable assistance received from Major Frank 

Edgar, author of three volumes of Hausa stories {tatsuniyoyi), 

Mr W. J. Gowers, the Resident at Kano, Captain Roland 

Fletcher, author of Hausa Folklore, Dr Walter Miller, of the 

C.xM.S. Mission, Zaria, the chief translator of the N.T. into 

Hausa, Dr J. M. Dalziel and others who have supplied 

corrections and additions to the former edition. To Major 

Edgar I am specially indebted for many suggestions in regard 

to the transliteration of Hausa words, and to Dr Dalziel I 

am indebted for much help in compiling lists of plants and 

animals. 

The system of transliterating Hausa which has been 
adopted in this volume and in the fourth edition of the 
Hausa Grammar recently published, differs in several respects 
from that followed in Vol. I. The changes have been made 
in order to render the system of transliteration uniform with 
that which has recently been adopted by the English Govern- 
ment authorities in Nigeria. It is impossible by any system 
of transliteration to represent the exact sounds of many 
Hausa words. Thus we might almost equally well write 
yanka or yenka ' to cut,' kwai or kwoi ' egg,' hanya or hainya 
' road,' hakiuai or hokkoi ' seven.' In each case the sound to 



VI PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION 

be represented lies between the sounds suggested by the 
alternative forms. The Hausa script affords no help 
in deciding between e and a in a word such as yanha 
* to cut,' as the script contains no symbol for a short e. In 
order to bring the system adopted in this dictionary into line 
with that of the books issued by the Government of Nigeria 
I have adopted the former alternative in each of these cases 
which are typical of many others. 

Several changes have also been made in respect of the 
divisions between nouns or pronouns and prepositions. 
Prepositions will be found written as separate words except 
in cases where the words to which they are attached cannot 
be used as independent words apart from the prepositions. 
Thus we have ma shi or masa ' to him.' The possessive 
pronouns are joined to the nouns to which they belong. In 
some cases, e.g. wurinsa * in his place,' where the pronoun is 
really possessive the noun although used as a preposition 
cannot be separated from the pronoun : the same rule would 
apply to a use such as ina hinsa ' I follow him.' In a few 
cases a preposition followed by a noun has become so closely 
united that it would be pedantic to separate them, e.g. 
dayawa, cf. English ' forasmuch,' ' overmuch ' etc. 

There are many instances in which it is impossible to 
say whether a double consonant should be used for purposes 
of transliteration. In the former edition of this dictionary 
in such doubtful cases the second consonant was placed in a 
bracket, e.g. dag{g)a ' from.' As this method of trans- 
literation is clumsy and is otherwise unsatisfactory the use 
of brackets has been abandoned. In a considerable number 



PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION vii 

of cases a word may be written either with a single or a 
double consonant. Thus we ma}^ write ddga or dagga, tdfi 
or taffi * to go/ hisa or hissa ' top. The general rule is that 
wherever a consonant is doubled both consonants should be 
pronounced: thus amma *but/ should to pronounced am-ma. 

In accordance with the use adopted by the majority of 
Hausa students I have avoided the use of chch, shsh and 
tsts, as, although in a word such as chikache ' full/ the sound 
chikachche may be heard when the word is pronounced with 
unusual deliberation, the double ch is not heard when the 
word is used in ordinary rapid conversation. 

As this dictionary is intended for the use of those who 
desire to speak the ordinary colloquial Hausa, I have 
omitted rare words and rare plurals or other formations. 

CHARLES H. ROBINSON. 

June, 1914. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



ans. 


= answer. 


neut. 


= neuter. 


art. 


article. 


obj. 


objective. 


coll. 


collective. 


part. 


participle. 


comp. 


compavati^e. 


pass. 


passive. 


concr. 


concrete. 


pers. 


person. 


conn. 


connective. 


phys. 


physically. 


dem. 


demonstrative. 


possess. 


possessive. 


diff. 


different. 


pregn. 


in a pregnant sense. 


expr. 


expression, also = ex- 


prep. 


preposition. 




pressed. 


pr, n. 


proper noun. 


feni. 


feminine. 


pron. 


pronoun. 


fig. 


figuratively. 


rel. 


relative. 


foil. 


following. 


rep. 


repeated. 


fut. 


future. 


sep. 


separate. 


gent. 


gentilic. 


spec. 


specially, also = special 


id. 


the same. 




special term or terms 


impers. 


impersonal. 


suff. 


suffixed. 


instr. 


instrumental. 


techn. 


technical. 


inter j. 


interjection. 


tr. 


transitive. 


interrog. 


interrogative. 


trop. 


tropically. 


intr. 


intransitive. 


V. 


verb, also = see. 


loc. 


of place. 


vv. 


verbs. 


neg. 


negative. 







The letters (K.), (S.) or (Z.) placed 
word is specially used in the districts of 



after a Hausa word denote that the 
Kano, Sokoto or Zaria. 



ENGLISH-HAUSA DICTIONAEY 



When more than one Hausa equivalent is given it is not intended to 
suggest that the Hausa renderings are synonyms. For the exact 
meanings of the Hausa words the student is referred to the Hausa- 
English Dictionary. 

Words to which * is attached are not in general use amongst the Hausas, 
and should not he employed without reference to the Hausa-English 
Dictionary. 



a, 1. indef. art.; there is no 
word generally used in Hausa 
corresponding to the English 
indefinite article, the simple 
noun sufficing, e.g. ha ni 
goro give me a kola nut. 

2. as indef. pron. taking 
the place of an art., day a one 
and wani, fem. wata, pi. wan- 
su, wasu orwadansu are some- 
times used, e.g. wani gari ke 
nan there was a city, akwai 
wata TYiache sunanta Amina 
there was a (certain) woman 
named Amina. 

3. a-, found as a prep, pre- 
fix with Engl, words, as a- 
shore a, da, e.g. afoot a kafa, 
alive da rai. 

aback, 1. adv., see back. 

2. fig. e.g. I was taken 
aback (i.e. I was staggered 
or surprised) at this wannan 
ya ha ni mamaki. 
R. H. D. 



abandon, tr. v. hari, har. 
abandoned, adj., see profli- 
gate. 

abase, tr. v. maida or yin ka- 
rami ; refl. with kai ( = self), 
e.g. he abases, or humbles, 
himself ya maida kansa ka- 
rami, or ya tankwasa kansa. 

abash, tr. v. sa, ha or hada 
kumya ; I feel abashed na ji 
kumya (or kunya). 

abate, tr. v. raga, rage, ragi ; 
intr. ragu, ragi. 

abatement, n. (decrease) rage- 
wa, raguwa-, = amount de- 
ducted from price of anything 
rangwame, grant me an a. 
ka yi ma ni rangwame. 

abattoir, n. wurinfawa. 

abdicate, intr. v. (used of a 
king) kawuy maida rawani. 

abdomen, n. chiki; jiki, pi. 
jikuna (lit. body) is some- 
times employed in this sense. 
1 



abhor 



abruptly 



abhor, see hate. 

abide, intr. v. (dwell) zamna ; 
see abode. 

ability, n. 1. (power) iyawa, 
iko, a. to do what one likes 
samun dama. 

2. (mental power, under- 
standing) cf . hankali, dubara, 
dabara, dibara, lura^ wayo. 

abject, adj., see despised. 

able, to be, v. iya, i ma, isa, 
e.g. I am a. to do this work 
ina iya yin aikin nan, you 
can do this ku isa yin wan- 
nan, or ku isa ku yi wannan ; 
to be unable or not able is 
expr. by gaza, or the neg. of 
the above, e.g. we are unable 
to lift this ba inu isa mu 
dauka wannan ba, I cannot 
na gaza or yafaskare ni (lit. 
it surpasses me). 

able, (clever) gwani. 

ablutions, ceremonial, n. al- 
waUa, arwalla ; a. made with 
sand taimama ; to make a. 
shafe, shafo. 

abode, n. mazamni, gida. 

abolish, tr. v., see take away, 
destroy. 

abominable, adj. mugu, fem. 
mugunya, pi. miyagu, or 
mugaye. 

abominate, tr. v., see hate. 

abomination, n. abin mugu, 
abin kazamta, abin haram. 



aborigines, n. habe. 
abortion, ashara, to produce 

a. bata chiki, yasda diya. 
abortive, adj. babu anfani, 

banza. 
abound, intr. v. faye, kdru, 

yin girma; see abundance, 

abundant, 
about, adv. and prep. 1. (a. 

so much, nearly) ko, kwatam- 

ckin (kwatanchin, kdza). 
2. (around) kewaye ; a. 

him kewayensa. 
about, to be, v. za followed by 

the personal pronouns, e.g. T 

am a. to start za ni tashi ; 

yin kUsa, kusata, e.g. su kv^- 

sata in yi haka ; cf . makdda. 
above, adv. and prep, bisa, 

a bisa, ddga bisa, birbishe (S. ), 

darap ; as prep, bisa ga, and, 

when followed by personal 

pronouns, gare, e.g. bisa ga 

tudu but bisa gare shi ; cf . 

biz-biz. 
abreast, adv. ajere, ajera, gaba 

daya, dahara, daura. 
abroad, adv. a waje, dag a 

waje; (at a distance) daga 

nesa. 
abrogate, tr. v. kauda, kawas 

da ; to a. a law gushe. 
abrupt, adj. (precipitous) da 

gangara. 
abruptly, adv. (suddenly) da 

sauri, da samri. 



abscess 

abscess, n. kurji, kureji, kirchi, 
(jurje, pi. kuraje, maruru, 
(jyamho, pi. gyamhmia, han- 
tukuriya {K.\ jmnbade. 
absence, in his hay ansa. 
absent, see under present, 
absorb, tr. v. sha, shanya; 
(used of cloth, etc.) tsotsa; to 
be absorbed in thought or 
business (so as to forget all 
else) yin shagalchi, e.g. I 
was so absorbed that I for- 
got this na yi shagalchi har 
na manta wannan. 
abstain from, tr. v. daina, 

dena ; bari, bar. 
abstract, tr. v. debe, Jltasda ; 
(to purloin) sache, sata, yin 
sata. 
absurd, adj. banza. 
Abubekr, pr. n. Abubakar, also 

contracted form Bube. 
abundance, n. yaiva, yawan- \ 
chi, auki^,yahva,yayalwachi, 
kdri, malala, ru/ogo, walawa, 
tululu, tilli, tnlli, rikumbu* ; 
(a. of food) zari, machiya, \ 
tinjim * 
abundant, adj. dayawa, ma- 

yaiva^ mai-yawa. 
abundantly, yalwache. 
abuse, n. (i.e. abusive words) 
habaichi, pi. habaitai, kazaf, 
kazap, zambo. 
abuse, tr. v. 1. (to revile) 
zage, zagi, birga, burg a ; (to 



accompany 

a. behind one's back) yin 

habaichi^ chim baya. 

2. (to make ill use of) 

turn by yin with abin wqfi^ 

etc. 
acacia, bagaruwa, gabaruwa, 

dakwara, dushe, fara kaya, 
farchin shafo, gaba chara, 
gardayi, gawo, pi. gawake, 
kwarkwara, karkara, kak- 
kara, kwandariya. 
accede to, v. 1. yarda, e.g. 
abin 7ian da ya fada ma ka 
mun yarda = wQ a. to the 
terms he mentioned to you ; 
amsa. 

2. (as heir) gdda. 

3. (to the throne) cAm 
sarauta, chi, yhi sariki. 

accelerate, to hamzarta, see 

hasten, 
accent, he has an a. bakinshi 

yana da kwata. 
accept, tr. V. karba, karbi, 

samu; cf. also prec. I. 
acceptable, adj., it is a. to me, 

periphr. ya gamshe ni, da or 

abifi da ya gamshe ni. 
acceptance (receipt), amsa. 
accident, n. kure, pi. kura- 

kuri, sabdbi, tsautsayi ; an a. 

happened to him sababi ya 

same shi. 
acclamation, n. guda. See 

shout, 
accompany, tr. v. raka, raki, 
1—2 



accompanying 



accustom 



rake, yin rakiya, chi ma, 

I will a. thee za ni tare 

da kai. 
accompanying, act of, n. 

rakiya (S.), rako (K.). 
accomplish, v. iyas, iyas da, 

kare, chika, gama, yi. 
accomplished, particip., see 

finished, 
accord, to a. with yin haki 

daya, yin kdma da. 
according as, adv. particle 

kdma da, kctman da, kanda, 

tamkan da, tamkar da, tam- 

kad da, yadda. 
accordingly, see therefore, 
accouchement, jego, 
account, n. 1. lisafi, lesafi, 

kidaya, kida, kididiga : to 

render an a. yin lisafi, yin 

kidaya, to take a. of zdna. 

2. fig. e.g. he held of no a. 
ha ya kula or ha ya yi kula 
constr. with da or ga. 

3. (narration) lahari, to 
give an a. hada, ha or gaya 
lahari ; I will give you an a. 
of the war zan gaya ma ka 
laharin yaki. 

account, on a. of, prep, sd- 
ha da, sdhad da, sdho da*, 
a Msa, don, domin, e.g. on 
a, of this sdhad da wan- 
nan, on a. of what? where- 
fore? don mi, dommi, or 
domi. 



accoutred, one who is a. 
mai-daurin jiki. 

accoutrements, i.e. arms, etc. 
kayan ddga, kayan yaki. 

accrue, v. 1. (of gain) see 
profit. 

2. (happen, en%ue) faru. 

accumulate, see gather. 

accurate, adj. and adv. na- 
kwarai, fern, ta-kwarai, dai- 
dai, sosai ; to be a. yin 
daidai. 

accursed, adj., e.g. it is ac- 
cursed ya yi la!ana. 

accusation, n. sara, ahin sara, 
rada*, kdra ; false a. rinto, 
kage. 

accuse, v. sare, sara, kai kdra 
(lit. bring an accusation, 
constr. with ga), e.g. they 
a. this man s^m kai kdra ga 
mutuTTien nan, kaga ma*. 

accuser, n. mai-sara, pi. masu- 
sara, mai-kawon kdra, dan- 
kara, mai-kara. 

accustom, v. 1. to be accus- 
tomed saha, e.g. I am accus- 
tomed to this na saha da 
wannan, domestic animals 
are accustomed to men, 
hisashen gida sun saha da 
mutane. 

2. (to be wont, used) 
employ the verbal form with 
kan, e.g. he was accustomed 
to do thus shi kan yi haka. 



ache 



adhere 



3. tr. I accustomed him 
to this food na sa shi shi saba 
da ahinchi'ii nan. 

ache, n. chiwo ; I have a head- 
ache na ji (or 7ia yi) chiwon 
kai. 

achieve, v. aikata, samo*, yi, 
see accomplish. 

acid, adj. da tsami, da tsamiya, 
da yami. 

acidity, n. tsami, tsamiya, 
yccmi. 

acknowledge, see confess. 

acquaint, tr. v. (i.e. tell, inform 
of) gaya,fadi, sanas da, sanan 
da, sanar da, sanashe. 

acquaintance, an, n. masani, 
pi. masana ; he is no a. of 
mine, I am not acquainted 
with him ha shi ne m^asanina 
ban san shi ba. 

acquainted with, 1. see prec. 
2. (versed in) ; see ac- 
custom 1. 

acquiesce, v. yarda ; I a. in 
this na yarda wannan. 

acquiescence, yarji. 

acquit, v. (used of a judge) 
chechi, bada gaskiya ; to be 

. acquitted barra, kubuta. 

acrid, see acid. 

acrobat, danfoto. 

across, prep. 1. e.g. a. the 
sea ketaren (or daga ketaren) 
gidbi. 

2. (beyond) bayan. 



act, n. aiki; phr. a bad a. 
mugunta, mugun aiki; a 
good or kind a. alheri. 

act, to aikata, yi. 

active, karsani^. 

actually, adv. hakika, da gas- 
kiya, ko ; the last is emphatic 
(=even), e.g. this man a. 
surpasses a lion in strength 
m/uitumen nan ya Ji ko zaki 
karijl. 

Adansonia digitata (the 
baobab or monkey-bread 
tree), kuka. 

add, tr. V. kdra, jimilla. 

adder, puff-a. kasa. 

addicted, to be a. to fay e, e.g. 
the boys are a. to (or fond 
of) play yara suna /aye yin 
wargi. 

addition, in a. to bam da, ban 
da. 

address, to a. to, v. ambata, 
ambache. 

adduce, tr. v., e.g. to a. 
testimony kai (or kawo) 
shaida. 

adept, n. gwani, pi, gwanaye ', 
he is an a. at... shi ne gwani 
na... ; also ya saba da... 

adhere, to a. to, v. rike, daje, 
like, lazum,che, lazumta^ na- 
na, nane, the last is used 
of things stuck together with 
gum etc. ; those who a. to 
the commandments of God 



adhering 



6 



affair 



masu-riken hakumtai na 

Allah. 
adhering, n. nani. 
adhesive, adj. mai-yauki. 
adieu, inter j. sai wata rana ; 

a. for the present sai anjima, 

a. till to-morrow sai gohe, 
adjoin, intr.v. kusata, kusanta, 

kusache, yin kusa. 
adjure, v., I a. thee by God na 

gama ka da Allah. 
administer, tr. v. (to give to, 

e.g. medicine) ha^ bada; to a. 

justice or law yin shari'a; to 

a. government, cf. mallaka, 

hakumta ; an administrator 

of law and justice marahan 

shari^a da gaskiya. 
admit, tr. v. 1. I admitted him, 

periph. na bar shi shi shiga. 
2. to a., e.g. error, guilt etc., 

see confess, 
admonish, see warn, 
adoption, n. yanchi. 
adoptive, a. -father uban rana. 
adorn, tr. v. gyarta. 
adorned, adj. gyartache, fern. 

gyartata, pi. gyartattu. 
adornment, n. sha'awa, ado, 

the last used of trinkets, etc., 

also of dress. 
adulteration, algus, algusu, 

tsirariya, tsinariya, hdinchi. 
adulterer, n. kwarto, fem. 
kwa/rtuwa, mazinachi, mazi- 
nanchi, mai-zina. 



adulteress, n. onaziriachiya, 
mazinanchiya, farka, falka, 
fasika. 

adultery, n. zina, kwartonchi, 
zamba^. 

advance, intr. v. yin gdba, to 
get in a. of chin gaba, riga, 
rigaya, rigayi, e.g. he outran 
us ya riga mu. 

advantage, n. anfani ; of no a. 
babu anfani, 

advantageous, adj. da anfani, 
mai-anfani. 

adversary, n. makiyi, pi. ma- 
kiya, abokin-gaba, mai-kin-ji. 

advice, n. dahara, dubara, 
dibara (S.), shawara, my a. 
is abin da na gani. 

advisable, adj. see advan- 
tageous. 

advise, v. yin dabara. 

advocate, n. (helper, defender) 
mai-taimako. 

afar, adv. nesa, ddga nesa, e.g. 
I saw him from a. na hange 
shi ddga nesa. 

affair, n. abu, abin, pi. abubuwa, 
shalani, shdgali, e.g. a sad a. 
mugun abu, abin mugu ; 
avoid deceit and falsehood in 
your affairs a bar (or bari) 
tsalumchi da kariya ga abu- 
buwanka ; aVamari, e.g. a 
wonderful affair aVamaringa ; 
the affairs (= the vicissitudes 
or changes) of this world 



affect 



agent 



aVamarin duniya] zamanchi, 
zamaii.e. condition of affairs), 
e.g. how are affairs with you 
in the city % ina zaman gari 1 
ans. we have reason to be 
thankful for the condition of 
affairs zaman gari da godiya. 

affect, to sdbe', the heat of 
the fire affected her wuta ta 
sahe ta. 

affection, see love. 

affinity, (by marriage) sur- 
kunta. 

affiict, tr. V. yin wahala. 

afflicted, adj. (one who endures 
affliction and toil) mai-wa- 
hala, pi. masu-wahala, 

affliction, n. wahala, masiba, 
matsuwa, see pain. 

affright, 1. n. tsoro. 

2. tr. V. bada tsoro, tsorata. 

afoot, adv. a kafa, da kafa. 

afraid, adj. I am a, na tun- 
zera, or na firgita ; he made 
him a. ya ba shi tsoro ; to 
be a. ji7i tsoro. 

afresh, adv., see again. 

after, 1. prep, bay a, bay an, 
baya ga. 

2. adj. na-baya, fem. ta- 
baya. 

afternoon, n. la'asar, see under 
rana. 

afterwards, adv. (after this) 
bayan wannan, bayan haka. 

again, kuma, haryo, har yau, 



na sdbo, ddda, dai, de ; the v. 
kara (add), e.g. I did not do 
so a. ban kara yin haka; a 
and a. (i.e. repeatedly) mai- 
maiche ; go again ka sake 
tafiya, 

against, prep, gaba ga, ga ; to 
stumble a. tuntube da ; a. his 
will (perforce) da tilas. 

agate, a brooch of talhatina. 

age, n. 1. (period or time) yayi, 
e.g. in the a. of the prophet 
da yayin annabi. 

2. (time that a person 
has lived) shekara or pi. 
shekaru, e.g. what is your a. % 
shekarunka nawa% or shekara 
nawa kana da rai ? or shekara 
nawa tun haijuwarka ? I am 
eighteen years of a. shekarata 
ishirin biyu babu. 

aged, adj. 1. (of a certain age), 
see prec. 2. 

2. (advanced in years) 
tsofo, fem. tsofuiva, pi. tsojffi, 
tsofaffi, or tsojoffi ; he is a. 
yayinsa ya tvuche, lit. his 
time is past ; see old. 

agent, n. naiibi* ; nouns de- 
noting the a. may be formed 
from verbs, substantives or 
adjectives by prefixing mai 
or ma, e.g. gudu to run, 
mai-gudu a fugitive, sassaka 
to smooth wood, masassaki 
a carpenter ; for further 



aggressor 



8 



alike 



illustrations see under mai 
and ma. 

aggressor, to be an harzuka. 

agitate, tr. v., see shake. 

ago, adv. tun, tun da, e.g. this 
was written twelve days a. 
kwaua ska hiyu tun da wan- 
nan an ruhuta shi; long a. 
da, lokachin da, tun dadewa, 
da wuri, dauri, tuntuni. See 
age 2. 

agree, v. gama, gamu, yardd, 
yarje, yin haki daya, sddu, 
jito, jeto, damre magana ; 

. my friend and I a. exactly 
da ni da abokina 7nu ne 
tangas; he agreed with you 
ya yarda ma ka; agreed to 



agreeable, adj. 1. (pleasant) 
da dadi, dadi, daidai, dede. 

2. (willing), e.g. if you 
are a. in (or idan) ka yarda, 
in ka (or kana) so. 

agreement, n. sulhu, sulfu, 
sulha*, yardi, yarji ; a trade 
a. sallama; to make an a., see 
agree ; a. to work for a 
certain sum sharadi. 

ague, n., see fever. 

ahead, adv. gaba. 

aid, tr. v. taya, yin taimako, 
tanya, tanyo, koro sauki. 

aid, n. taim,ako, taimakawa, 
sauki; (a helper) mai-tai- 
mako. 



ail, v., e.g. what ails you? mi 
ya same ka 1 

ailment, n., see sickness. 

aim, (point aimed at) bar a', 
to aim at, yin bara, barata, 
barache, bartaka, nuna, nuno. 

aimless, a. toil aikin hanza. 

ainhum, n., i.e. a disease of the 
little toe, hamhudiga, mage- 
duwa; cf. also kudumbiya 
a disease which may affect 
all the toes. 

air, n. iska, hiska ; shan iska is 
the Hausa idiom for to take 
a walk, e.g. let us take a 
walk to enjoy the air mu yi 
yawo garin shan iska. 

air, v. kekashe, see to dry. 

ajar, to put a door a. say a kofa. 

akimbo, put your arms a. chi 
dununka da hannu. 

alarm, to yin ruba, see 
frighten. 

alarm, n. yagatu (K.). 

alas, inter j. kaito, (S.) kaicho, 
(K.) kaitaro, wai, wai niya, 
tir, ashslia. 

albino, n. zabiya. 

alien, n. bare*-, see also 
stranger. 

alienate, to a. a person kan- 
gara da. 

alight, intr. v. sabka, safka, 
sapka, sauka, soka, sabki, 
sapki, shida, shide, jida. 

alike, adj. daidai, suwa-suwa. 



alive 



although 



tangan/i, tmiyas, sakke (S.) ; 
they are all a. duka daya ne, 
suparsu (or sifassu) daya, or 
sun yi tangatn da juna. 

alive, adj. da rai ; to keep a. 
ray a, e.g. may God preserve 
us a. Allah shi ray a mu. 

all, adj. duka, duk, dukanta, 
jama^a; a. together tarsashi, 
tararre, fern, tararra, pi. 
tararru ; a. of you dukanku, 
tarinku ; a. men mutant duka 
or dnkan mutane \ all (i.e. 
total) dokachi ; all (i.e. every- 
thing) dokachin komi. 

Allah, by wallah, wallahi 

allay, tr. Y.futas da, kwantas da. 

allegory, n. misali, michali*, 
ahnara. 

alliance, n. gdya. 

alligator, n. kdda, kddo, pi. kd- 
dodi, kaduna, or kadunduna. 

allow, tr. V. hari, bar, yarda ; 
e.g. let me depart bar ni in 
tafi, if you a. we will do so 
in ka yarda za mu yi hdka, 
a. me ha ni yarji. 

alloy, n. ha'inchi ; unalloyed 
babu ha'inchi, saji. 

allure, tr. v. rude. 

almighty, adj. mai-iko da 
kowa, mai-iyawa. 

almond, n. chanza^. 

almost, adv. kilsa; it is a. 
finished ya yi kUsan kare or 
ya kusa karewa. 



i alms, n. sadaka, zakka,kurdin 
I gurasa, kono* (K.), alms- 
j giving, n. sadaka. 
aloe, (Aloe zebrina) zabo. 
alone,. adv. kadai, kawai, abin 
followed by a personal pro- 
noun, thus, he a. abinshi, 
I a. ni dayana or ni kadai, 
leave him a. bar shi day ansa ; 
they a. dayansu ; a state of 
being a. kadaichi, to be left a. 
waiwai. 
alongside, daura, daba.ra, da- 
■ bra, or followed by da as a 
I prep., e.g. they stood side by 
I side su tsaya daura da juna. 
j aloof, to keep a. from nesanchi, 
I nisanchi. 
! aloofness, nisanta. 
alphabet, n. abajada, letter of 
the a. haraji, pi. haruffa. 
j already, adv. na da, dazu, 
j wuri, dauri, tun da wuri ; he 
j is gone a. ya rigaya ya tafi. 
I also, adv. kuwa, kau (S.), kawa 
(S. ) ; usually placed after that 
which it connects ; haryo^, 
har yau. 
alter, v. 1. tr. sake, saki, sauya, 
niusaya. 

2. intr. sauya, 
altercation, haya-haya, har- 

gowa, hayaniya, tankiya. 
altered, particip. adj. sauyaye, 
fem. sauyayya, pi. sauyayyu. 
although, adv. ko, ko da. 



altogether 



10 



annoy 



altogether, adv. haki daya, cf . 
faujfofo*, also /aye a,nd fi. 

always, adv. koyaushe, kul- 
yaushe, tutur, tutul, kullutn, 
da kulluni, yini*, chikin ko- 
wanne yayi*, judu*, to con- 
tinue a. tuturta. 

am, v., see be. 

Amaranthus (native spinach), 
alayafu, zakin hanza. 

amazed, to be yin mamaki, 
jin TYiamaki, jin damuwa. 

amble, n. , of a liorse tdkama ; 
a horse which ambles doki 
mai-takama. 

ambuscade, n., see seq. 

ambush, n. kwanto, hdgo,fako, 
mar ay a; to set an a. yin 
fako; to lie in a. lobe (S.), 
robe (K), place of or for an 
a. mafaka. 

amen, amin*. 

amidst, prep, tsdka^ tsdkan, 
tsdkanin. 

amount, large, n. chushe ; see 
quantity. 

amulet, talili, see charm. 

amuse, tr. v. bada (or sa) 
murna. 

ancestor, n. kdka; ancestors 
kakan7ii. 

ancestry, see under ba. 

and, conj. da, wa*. 

angel, n. malaika, pi. malaiku. 

anger, n. fushi pronounced 
fhushi, haushi, kankanchi, 



kuna, takaichi, zauta, zajm 
rai, bijira (S.), kumchin zu- 
chiya. 

angle, n. kusuruwa. 

angry, to be, v. yin fushi, 
fusata, yin tsiwa ; to be a. 
with harzuka ga, hasdla ga, 
chichika, yin chichika, takaita, 
jin takaichi; he feels a. yana 
jin haushi. 

angry, adj. da fushi; one who 
is a. mai-fushi. 

anguish, n. azaba, zogi. 

angular, mai-kusuruwa. 

animal, n. bisd, pi. bisashe or 
bisaje, dabba; domestic ani- 
mals bisashen gida, wild 
animals bisashen daji, abin 
daji or naman daji, pi. na- 
7nun daji. 

animosity, n., see hate. 

ankle, n. idon kafa, idon sawu 
(or sau), pi. ijiyan sawu, or 
ijiyar sawu, or ijiyas sawu ; 
a. bone dombubu, or dam- 
bubu. 

announce, tr. v. gaya, fadi, 
labarta; to a. as a herald 
does the coming of some one 
gabato. 

annoy, tr. v. dame, ddma, 
fUina, hayydta, tayas, wa- 
halda, wahalshe, sa wahala, 
aVale ; sawarwara, dawai- 
niyasda, tozarta, I am not to 
be annoyed ba ni damuwa. 



annoyance 



11 



ant-hill 



annoyance, n. tvahala, sawar- 
loari, takaichi, see anger. 

anoint, e.g. with oil or water, 
tr. V. shd/a, shafe, yin shafa. 

anointing, n. shafa. 

anon, adv. sai an jima, jima 
kadan. 

another, pron. wani, fem. wata, 
pi. wasu or wadansu; often 
rendered with kuma, e.g. 
ivani kuma. 

answer, n. amsa, amshe, am- 
sawa, jawdbi, karbawa. 

answer, v. amsa, yin amsa, to 
give an a. kdda hdki, karha 
tnagana ; I answered him na 
mayas masa da magana. 

ant, n. different species are : 
small stinging a. farmani, 
tirmani, kwankvmmhishi ; 
small black a. chinnaka or 
chirnaka or tum,a da gay a ; 
driver a. kwalkwasa, kwar- 
kwasa ; the stink a. gwana, 
gwano, geno ; a red travel- 
ling a. makwaiwa; harvest- 
ing a. tururuwa ; very small 
black a. kudaji, kudahi (S.); 
a red biting a kumo ; an 
a. which feeds on honey sha- 
zumami; small red a. kiyashi; 
white ants(i.e. termites)M^o, 
fem. gar a, gaira, pi. gdrani, 
sansamiya; the white a. in 
the winged stage shinge, gina; 
gara is also used of ants 



generally ; an a. with a large 
abdomen maidauro a gato ; a 
reddish biting ant ba-fula- 
tana. 

ant-bear, see ant-eater. 

ant-eater, the great a. or ant- 
bear, dapgi, dabgi, dubgij 
daugi. 

antelope. The following are 
some of the antelopes found 
in Hausaland. Senegal or 
red-fronted gazelle, barewa, 
pi. bareyi; Dorcas gazelle 
farin baretva; the roan a. 
(Hippotragus equinus) gwan- 
ki, gwamki (S.) ; the W. 
African hartebeeste kanki, 
pi. kanoki] oryx m.ariri, ma^ 
7'ili ; BufFon's red cob a. 
m,areya ; Addra or red-necked 
gazelle mai-farin gindi ; a 
Senegal hartebeeste (Dama- 
liscus korrigum) ddri ; the 
oribi a. batsiya ; the red- 
flanked duiker makurna ; the 
' crowned duiker ' gada ; klip- 
springer gadar dutsi; the 
water buck (Cobus defassus 
unctuosus) gwambaza, gwan- 
zama, ambache, dodoka; reed 
buck kwantarafl, kaji; bush 
buck mazo; a. leucoryx wal- 
waji ; an old solitary a. kishi- 
mi ; see also matso, karoM- 
goda. 
ant-hill, n. suri, pi. suwura, 



anticipate 



12 



apron 



sura, jiba, juha ; kunku- 

wa. 
anticipate, v. tsaitse, e.g. I 

anticipated him na tsaitse 

shi ; wada*. 
anticipation, zdto. 
antimony, n. kwalli, tozali ; 

small skin bottle for holding 

a. tandun tozali, gidan kwalli ; 

a stick used for applying a. 

mashiyi, masayi. 
anus, diwa, tsuli, tsuliya, kar- 

kashi*, shakira, inurda, mu- 

riya. 
anvil, n. makera. 
anxiety, n. machiyata, niata- 

Ttiache, mamdbi. 
any, adj. kowanne, fern, kowor 

che, pi. kowddanne. 
anyhow, indef. pronl. adv. ko 

kaka. 
anyone, indef. pron. kowa, ko- 

wanene, fem. koiva, kowa- 

cheche. 
anything, indef. pron. komi, 

kome; not a., nothing bahu 

komi, ba koyni. 
anywhere, indef. pronl. adv. 

kdina. 
apart from, adv. banda, bam- 

da, dabam dabam. 
apartment, n. (room) daki, pi. 

dakuna. 
apex (of house, etc.), ka7i daki. 
apostatize (from Islam), rin- 
da, ridda. 



apparatus, n. kaya, pi. kaya- 
yeki, or kayaryeki. 

appear, intr. v. baydna, bai- 
ydna, givadu, 

appearance, n.Mma, pi. kdmd- 
nu, or kamannu (S.), hala- 
mu*, wato*, watau*. 

appease, tr. v. lallaski, lillashi, 
sdda. 

appetite, n.kwadai*, kwadayi*. 

apple, Akee a. alele; balsam 
a. garafuni ; wild custard a. 
gwandardaji; hairy thorn a. 
zakami; Dead Sea or Sodom 
a. tumfajiya. 

appoint, tr. v. (to order, used 
of God) kadarta ; (to select 
for an office) zaba, zabe ; ap- 
pointed zababbe, fem. za- 
babba, pi. zababbu. 

apportion, to yin fasali. 

approach, intr. v. nache, yin 
kusa, doshi, dosa, see near. 

approval, sale on chinikin 
shawara. 

approve of, v. yardd ; approved 
of, adj. yardadde, fem. yar- 
dadda, pi. yardaddu, tdbor 
tache, fem. tdbatachiya, e.g. 
magana tdbatachiya ap- 
proved, i.e. true words ; he 
approves o. hankali ya ktvan- 
ta da. 

apricot, a tree with fruit like a 
• wild a., n. tsada* ; see plum. 

apron, n. bante, banche, pi. 



Arab 



13 



arrow 



hantunaj kudu; a woman's 

a. darazau. 
Arab, n. ba-ture, pi. turawa; 

an A. ba-Larabe, pi. Lara- 

bawa; the Arabic language 

Arabiyya, larabchi. 
arch, (used in building) kafo- 

fin guga (S.), masharuwa* . 
arched, an arched roof dam- 

ren-guga, dauren-guga, ma- 

sha-ruwa*. 
are, v. ne^ che^ ke; phr. there 

a. ina, akwai; there a. to 

me, i.e. I have sun yi ma ni, 

a yi ma ni; there a. many 

ina da su dayawa. 
argument, jiyeya*, jiyaiyya*. 
aright, to direct a. daidaita. 
arise, intr. v. falka^ tashi, taso, 

tsira, tsire, tsiro, or chira, 

chire, chiro. 
arithmetic, hisabi (S.). 
arm, n. 1. (from the wrist to 

the elbow) damchi, damtse, 

pi. damasa; the forearm gdba; 

to hold up at arm's length 

daga; a man with a bent 

a. mai-laushi, mai-lauje, mai- 

kwarda. 

2. arm (i.e. weapon), see 

arms, 
armhole, n. ha^nata, pi. ha- 

matu, hamatta, hamutta. 
annlet, n, gen. kwandage, a. 

made of metal karafa ; a. 

made of natron kdrau, kdro, 



pi. ka7'aurawa, ungurnu ; a. 

made of plaited grass, worn 

by children darambuwa; a. 

made of leather and wood 

daga. 
armour, n. chain or iron a. 

sulke, saba; a hoi'seman's a. 

kumakumi. 
annpit, n. hamata, pi. hamatu, 

hamatta, or hamutta. 
arms, coll. (weapons, etc.) ma- 

kami ; battle a. kayan daga, 

kayan yaki. 
army, dako (S.) ; the centre 

of an a. uwar yaki. 
around, adv. kewaye, gewaye, 

prep, ketvayen, gewayen. 
arouse, tr. v. tada, tashe, tayas, 

tayas da, falkad da. 
arrange, tr. v. gyara; to a. 

the hair (i.e. to comb or 

dress the hair) gyarta, shata, 

shache. 
arranged, adj. shiriyayye, fem. 

shiriyayya, pi. shiriyayyu ; 

gyartache*. 
arrangement, (contract) wa- 

habi, sharadi. 
arrive at, v. isa, iso, sadu. 
arrogance, n.foma, homa. 
arrogant, n. one who is a. mai- 

foma, pi. m^asu-foma, mai- 

homa, pi. masu-homa. 
arrow, n. kibiya. pi. kibau, 

kulere, gora, pi. gororo, or 

gorina ; bow and arrows 



art 



14 



assembly 



bakan kihiya ; a. head fasa, 
pdsa; a, projecting from 
quiver zagiya ; barbs on an 
a. kdlemu (K.), a quiver 
for arrows kwariu kibiya; 
special names of a. poison 
are tumia or tinia^ kwankwa- 
ni, sainya*, tu7'urubi, uwar 
magunguna, womagunguna, 
zabgai, zabo, utval dafi, gen. 
dafi; e.g. they (the arrows) 
are poisoned suna da dafi. 
Ingredients for making arrow 
poison are obtained from 
many different plants. Arrows 
are made from the reed-like 
plants, e.g. kyamro, kyamru, 
kyarnare, sheme, gazara, san- 
sari ; a. notch gofi. 

art, n. gwani. 

article, the definite a. n, see 
the ; the indefinite a., see a. 

as, adv. kcima, yadda, ydda, 
kauda, ya*^ yi* ; a. before 
kdma ta da or kdma na da; 
even a. kdrnar yadda. 

ascend, v. shirga, hawa, hau, 
constr. with bisa or bisa ga ; 
e.g. he ascended the hill ya 
hau bisa tudu. 

asceticism, gudun-duniya^ 
tsantsani, tsintseni. 

Asclepias gigantea, n. tum- 
fafiya, pi. tumfafi. 

asham.ed, to be, intr. v. Jm 
kumya, jin kunya. 



ashes, n. toka, pi. tokuna, 
habdi (S.); hot a. rufushi, 
rubshi, habdi (S.). 

aside, e.g. I turn a. from the 
path ina ratsewa ddga bisa 
hanya ; a baya^ ga bay a*. 

ask, V. roka, roko^ yin tam- 
baya ; one who asks mai- 
tambaya; to a. of or from 
roko, roka. 

asking, roko, continued a., n. 
kokanto. 

ass, n. jdk% fem. jdka^ or jd- 
kanya^ pi. jdkai, or jdkicna, 
dsuwa; danbakuru, Tnatuwa; 
large male a. bingi, a cas- 
trated ass aguru ; diff. species 
have the foil, names ; a. with 
red body jimrau ; a. with 
black mouth gofo, red a. 
aura, reddish brown a. idu- 
bar, tawny a. oraki and dan 
oraki ; large black a. jaba ; 
white a. mugo, shawu (S.) ; 
a spec, of wild a. shiyaki ; a 
pad for an ass akumari, le- 
/eru,ip\. leferai; la/ero,laheru. 

assault, n. (as in war) falmaki, 
farmaki, firmaki. 

assemble, v. gayya, gayyata, 
tar a, intr. tdru. 

assembled, to be taru, par- 
ticip. tarare. 

assembly, n. gayya, aVumma ; 
royal assembly-room /age, 
dandali. 



assent 



15 



attention 



assent, v. kdda kai, gyada kai ; 
assent is very frequently 
expr. by kyau as in the phr. 
da kyau. 

assess, to kimanta, aza ma. 

assimilate, they will not a. 
ha su haduwa. 

assist, tr, V. taya^ tamaya, tai- 
maka., taimaki, yin taimako, 
yin shalli. 

assistance, n. tamayi, taimako, 
tai'tnakawa, shalli, sauki ; a. 
in war gudummawa ; he 
called for a. ya huga gdyya. 

assurance, tahhas. 

assure, to a. a person of the 
reality of anything gaskata 
or gaskanta. 

assured, to be a. of (to feel 
sure) tahhata, tdhatta, tdh- 
hache, cf. seq. 

assuredly, adv. da gaskiya, 
habu shakka, Idhudda, hahu 
wawa,faufau ; he is a. there 
ya tahbata nan ; he is a. a 
heathen ko tahhata kafiri ne. 

asthma, n.fuka, see breath. 

astonished, to be, v. jin da- 
muwa, jin mamaki, yin ma- 
maki. 

astonishment, n. damuwa, 
exclamations expressing as- 
tonishment haha, gdsara^. 

astray, to go hakita (S.). 

astringent medicine, n. ma- 
gani mai-kama chiki. 



astrologer, to act as an zuha 
tamrarai, 

at, prep, a, e.g. a vniri chan at 
that place ; often prefixed to 
gave, ch%ki7i and hisa ; ga 
[gare with pronouns), e.g. ga 
gida at home ; ddga, e.g. shi 
ne ddga nan he is at that spot, 
i.e. he is there; gun*, e.g. 
gun chan = a wu7'i chan. 

atmosphere, n. duniya. 

attack, n. farmaki, falm^aki, 
firmaki ; a feint or pretended 
a. zanzom,a. 

attack, to girsa, girshe, mama, 
mami. 

attain, to a. to same, samu, kai. 

attempt, v. yin kokari, tdga. 

attempt, n. kokari. 

attend, to a. to (to look care- 
fully into) hcra ; to listen to 
ji, saura7'a, dadddra ; see 
attention (2). 

attendant, n., an a. on one sick 
majinyata ; the attendants 
of a king fadawa. 

attention, 1. n. (serious 
thought) hankida, hankali ; 
ruwa, e.g. it is no matter worth 
my a. ha or hahu ruwana. 

2. to pay a. to tuna, 

constr. with da, maida hiin- 

I ma ; to give a. to what is 

I said ji, saura^-a ; give a. with 

your ears (incline your ears 

i to) ka kakartsa kunnuiva. 



attentively 



16 



back 



attentively, to look at a. tso- 

kachi. 
attest, V. shaida, yin shaida, 

kai shaida. 
attested, particip. adj. shai- 

dadde, fern, shaidadda, pi. 

shaidaddu. 
auction, gwanjo*. 
auger-beetle, gunda, yumda. 
augment, tr. and intr. v. ddda. 
aunt, n. gwaggwo, a. on the 

mother's side rafaniya. 
authority, n. iko, pi. ikoki, ikon- 

taka, alfarma*,&, person in a. 

mahakumchi, mahitkumchi. 
avarice, n. zargi, zalimi, za- 

lumij rowa, roivwa, mdda, 

madda. 
avaricious, adj. mairowa, da 

mdda. 
avaricious, to be yin zalumchi. 
avenge, tr. v. rdma, sdka. 
avenger, mai-rama. 
average (adj .), tsdka-tsdka^ 

madaidaichij pi. madaidaita. 
avoid, V. kalmdsa^ kalmashe, 

haudij waske, zdge, cf . a thing 

to be avoided abokin kiyeye. 
avoidance, i.e. of a missile, etc. 

gochiya, guchiya, waskiya. 
await, to wait for one jira, 

jirache, jinkirta. 
awake, intr. v. farka, falka \ 

awaking falkawa; a start 

or exclamation on awaking 

Jirgigi *. 



awaken, to tdsad da,/alkad da. 

away, to get a. (escape) Jichi, 
Jiche. 

away, adv. phr. a. with him 
yi da shi. 

awkward, shallali. 

axe, n. gatari ; a. for cutting 
stones dundurusu; a. for 
cutting grass gizago, gisago ; 
a. with broad blade baran- 
dami, tsitaka ; battle a. gd- 
fiya, gita (K.), walwada, war- 
wada ; the point of an a. 
head which projects through 
the handle suga (S.). 

axe-handle, n. bota (K.), kota. 

babbling, n. rawatsa. 

baboon, n. bika, pi. bikoka, 
gogo, yimki (K.). 

baby, n. jarlri, jarlli, yarili, 
jinjiri. 

bachelor, n. gwabro, gwauro, 
gauro, gwamro, balaguro* ; 
namiji da shara, lit. one who 
has to sweep his own dwell- 
ing. 

back, n. bay a, janfi*^ hence 
badajanji to put to flight ; to 
turn the b. bada bay a ; phr. on 
the b. rigingine, on the b. 
of reran-, to be hollow backed 
gantsarwa, 

back, e.g. to come b. komo ; to 
go b. koma ; to move b., intr. 
V. gusaj gulgusa, gurgusa. 



backbite 

backbite, tr. v. chim haya. 
backbiting, tsegumi, tsogumi. 
backbone, n. tsatso, tsotso, ka- 

shin tsatso. 
backward, adv. (on the back) 

rigifigine. 
backwards, adv. baibai, e.g. 
they walked b. su ka tafi 
baibai. 
bad, adj. mugu, fern, mugunya, 
pi. miydgu; mamuna, mum- 
muna*; used of corn tsadari ; 
b. man dan duniya-, the expr. 
fariko 6aK often = good or bad. 
bad, to go b. ridm, riba, as 
meat or fruit; to render b., 
to spoil rubachi. 
badger, n. takas. 
badness, n. mugunta. 
baft, grey b. akoko; see cloth, 
bag, n., a small b. aljiji, 
aljiju, pi. aljifaye or aljifai; 
b. made of grass with 
narrow opening ashasha; b. 
for cowries birgami, burgami, 
burgame (S.); woman's b. 
made of grass burma, burima; 
small b. for carrying salt 
chukurfa; b. of feminine 
luggage /ago* or pago'^ ; 
leathern b. for camels, etc. 
gurara; large skin b. for 
cowries jikka, pi jikkuna, or 
jikkoki, kyankyandi ; b. hold- 
ing 20,000 cowries kwaroro ; 
very small b. rarita, lalita* ; 

R. H. D. 



17 



bakemeat 



long, narrow salt-b. lange ; a 
leathern pouch used by 
barbers etc. zabira ; skin b. 
or bottle salka, pi. salkuna; 
small leathern or grass b. 
sarita; large b. for holding 
rice siibolo, saido ; a small 
leathern b. kumaro, komaro, 
tdnwara(K.); a large leathern 
b. mala, pi. malalaki ; a b. 
made from tukuruwa leaves 
tddali ; leathern narrow- 
mouthed b. sidkumi (S.), sur- 
kumi (K.); large skin b. 
taiki, pi. taika, tayukka, or 
taikuna, buhu (Z.)j small 
goat-skin water-b. tandawa- 
ra; small provision-b. tan- 
wara ; leathern bag closed by 
two strings pulled in op- 
posite directions alagtvami; 
a money-b. made of skin or 
cloth tsaleta, salita. 
baggage, n. kaya, pi. kayayeki; 

see goods, 
bail, see surety, 
bake, tr. v. tuya, toya, gdsa, 
the latter also spec, used of 
baking bread, e.g. ya gdsa 
gurasa; baked (i.e. fully 
baked = the Engl, colloquial 
'done') ninanne (S.), nu- 
nanne (K.), pi. nenannu or 
nunannw, (cooked) toyayye, 
tuyayye. 
bakemeat, tuya, pi. toye-toye. 
2 



balance 



18 



bargain 



balance, n. a pair of scales 
maauna, maauni, mazani, 
mizani ; ahin aivo. 

balance, v., to b. a load on the 
head digirgire. 

Balanites aegyptiaca, n. 
aduwa. 

bald, adj. mai-kora, mai-saiko, 
mai-sanko, mai-kwambe. 

baldness, n. kora, saiko (S.), 
sanko (K.), kundumi, kun- 
dimi, kundumin kai ; cf . prec. 

bale, of goods Juguma, hu- 
guma ; see load. 

ball, n. makodi^, kwdlo, mul- 
mule; a small b. dan kodi; 
b. or brick made of mud 
tuhali ; b. of the eye kwayan 
ido ; (bullet) harsa, harsashi ; 
to roll into a b. dunkula, 
kudundune. 

ballad, n. waka. 

bamboo, a sort of, n. gora, 
kwangi*. 

banana, n. the b. tree, or fruit 
ayaba. 

band, n. 1 . (company or gather- 
ing) taro or taru, pi. tarori. 

2. (strip for binding) cf. 
seq., a leathern band worn 
round the neck goli (S.). 

bandage of any kind, n. ra- 
wani, pi. rawunna. 

bandit, n. mai-fashe, pi. masu- 
fashe. 

bandy-legged, adj. gwami, 



mai-gwami, chassa (K.), tar- 
koshi (S.). 

bang, an exclamation ^907?2, pam. 

bangle, for wrist kdrau, kdr- 
karau, munduwa, Tnanduwa, 
pi. mundaye, mandaye. 

bank, n. (-edge or margin) 
ba.ki, gdba, gachi ; b. of a 
river gefe, bdkin ruwa, gachi, 
gdba, refe. 

banner, n., see flag. 

baobab (Adansonia digitata), 
n. kuka, pi. kukoki; fruit of 
the b. tree kwame (S.). 

bar, n. (a rod or stick of wood, 
iron, etc.) sanda, pi. sanduna; 
a b. of iron sanda ta karife ; 
b. used to close a doorway 
gagara-bado. 

barbarians, n. 1. (of men in a 
rude, uncivilised state) 6ai6ai, 
baibaya, baibayi, or baubawa 
(S.). 

2. (cruel) da muni. 

barbarity, n. (cruelty) muni. 

barbarous, see barbarians. 

barber, n. wanzami, pi. wan- 
zamu, wanzamai; a hair- 
dresser is mai-kitso. 

barbs, on an arrow M^emw (K.), 
kun-nuwan kibiya. 

bare, see naked. 

bareness, n. wofi. 

bargain, n. (bargaining) chini- 
ki, tdyi ; a discussion before 
making a b. alwdshi; the 



bargain 



19 



basket 



conclusion of a b. yardaje- 
niya; to haggle over a b. yin 
chiniki ; to make an offer in 
bargaining, see seq. ; a b. 
(cheap) da araha, da arha; 
into the b. (= besides, as well) 
handa wannan. 
bargain, v. tdya, tayi, yin 

tayi, yin chiniki. 
bark, n. (of a tree) fata, pdta, 

hawon itache. 
bark, tr. v. (to strip off b.) 

kware, kwari. 
bark, intr. v. (of dogs, etc.) 
yin hafshi, yin hapshi, yin 
hahshi, yin haushi, yage. 
barking, n. (of dogs, etc.) 

hafshi, hahshi, haushi. 
barley, n. sha'air. 
barn, n. rumbu, ra/oniya, 

rujbgo. 
barrel of a gun, n. baki; a 
double-barrelled gun bindiga 
mai-baki biyu. 
barren, adj. (used of the female 
sex) karara, bakarariya, ma- 
tauriya ; (used of a sheep or 
goat which has not had young) 
kazgainya; a b., or fallow, 
Held sabra, sabara, sau7'a, 
tsandauri. 
barrenness, n. (of woman, 
etc.) tauriya, rashinhaifuiva. 
barricade, n. kdgara, kega- 
ruwa, pi. kcigaru, gagara- 
bado. 



barrier, n. kdfi. 

barter, n. chiniki, sdrafi, tdyi, 
furfure, sdrafa, rangama. 

barter, to sdrafa, yin chiniki, 
tdya, yin tdyi; see bargain. 

base, adj. (of low worth) banza. 

base, n. 1. (lowest part or 
bottom of anything) kalkashi, 
karkashi. 

2. (= support or founda- 
tion of anything) gutsu, or 
guzu*, which is used physi- 
cally and also figuratively; 
gindi, tushe. 

bashful, adj., see seq. 

bashfulness, n. kumya or 
kunya; to feel bashful jin 
kumya, e.g. v/hen asking you 
for this, I felt bashful da na 
roke ka wannan na ji kumya. 

basil, wild b. daidoya (K.), 
dodoya (S.). 

basin, n. kwachiya, gwangwan, 
a metal b. ddro. 

basket, n., a large b. for salt 
etc. adila or adilak kaya ; 
large b. or pannier made of 
grass gufa, gufata, kantalma; 
a b. made of palm fibre lefe ; 
a small grass b. used in mak- 
ing bread marari; a large 
grass b. sayifo or samfo, pi. 
sanfuna ; kwando ; a b. used 
as a strainer kindi, pi. kin- 
dodi, marari] a small b. 
used by women kwatashi, 
2—2 



bastard 



20 



bead 



taskira, tazkira ; a b. used in 
fishing sum; a b. full of 
com totsiya. See under bag. 

bastard, adj. sliege, fern, shegi- 
ya, pi. shegu, dan farka, dan 
nema. 

bat, n. tattapara, hirhiri, rugi, 
tsabilbila, yabirbira, kanen 
jemdge; a large-sized fruit 
b. jemdge. 

bathe, to kurma, kuruma. 

bathing, kurme. 

battle, n. fama, fada, gdba, 
yaki, the latter is also the 
proper word for war, q.v.; b.- 
field ddga. 

battle, to draw up in line of 
b. ja ddga. 

battlefield, n. kanganfada. 

bawl, n. yin kuka, yin ufu. 

bdellium, African b. dasld. 

be, V. 1. ne with masc. subject, 
che with fern, subj., ke with 
either ; they may follow the 
subj. but are often found at 
the end of their clause ; e.g. 
he is truthful shi mutura 
mai-gaskiya ne ; she is very 
beautiful ita kyakkyawa che ; 
both of them are old su biyic 
tsofi su ke ; the above chiefly 
express the simple copula, 
but see below (3). 

2. kashi, kashe, kasanche, 
used where emphasis is laid 
on the fact or continuance 



of existence; they are fre- 
quently used in written, but 
seldom in colloquial Hausa. 

3. akwai (sometimes pro- 
nounced akwoi), implying 
real existence, there is, there 
are, there was, there were, 
e.g. are there elephants in 
this town? akwai giwaye a 
garinga? ans. there are ak- 
wai : ke is often found with 
nan in this sense, e.g. there 
was a certain jerboa ivani 
kurege ke nan — akwai wani 
kurege. 

4. na (masc), ta (fem.), 
are sometimes used in place 
of the substantive verb, e.g. 
the men are doing so inutane 
na yin hdka^ the horses are 
running away dawaki na 
g2cdu ; for this use of na see 
H. Diet. I. p. 273. 

bead, n., beads chasbi, chasba- 
ha ; a large white b. in a set 
of black aldma, pi. alo.momi ; 
round blue b. galan kumburi; 
a large white seed used as a 
b. gimba, pi. gimbai ; a large 
(Phoenician) b. dilari ; a 
small red b. rigigi ; a red 
coral b. bajumba; a blue 
cylindrical b. worn by women 
samfalwa; redheads dimbujin 
zu/a, dumbaji, jinin kajiri; 
beads made from black seeds 



bead-tree 

kantururuwa ; necklace of 
hea.dBkutofi; beads worn round 
the neck by women tagode; 
string of beads worn round 
loins kwatana ; pearls or red 
beads murjan, murjani; large 
red b. murjanin tudu, rigigi 
(S. ), rikiki ; prayer beads tashi, 
pi. tasbai; a woman's girdle 
of beads kwatana, tsdkuwa. 
bead-tree, kuman nasara. 
beak, n. koto, hakin tsuntsuwa, 

gehe *. 
beam, n., b. above door alma- 
ndni ; a cross b. kuba ; b. or 
post stuck in the ground to 

support a roof dirka, jigo, pi. 

jigu7ia; b. for pumping water 

jtgo, kutdra. 
beam, of light giraza, girazal 

rana. 
bean, n. wake, pi. wakoki or 

wakaikai; red edible b. 

tsarariya, tsurariya (K.), 

kwama (S.) ; small b. komo ; 

mahogany b. kawo ; sword b. 

barankachi; yam b. girigiri; 

beans ground up and cooked 

in water tubdni, tabdni, tu- 

buni; a species of large b. zako. 
bear, 1. (to carry) kai, shide, 

constr. with da. 

2. (to produce their kind, 

of animals, trees, plants, etc.) 

haifa, haife ; to b. in the ear 

as corn goyo. 



21 



beaten 



3. (to endure) jimri, (to b. 
with one) jimra^he. 
beard, n. geme (S.); gemu (K.), 
pi. ge7na, or gyamma (S.), 
gyammai (K.) ; b. of goat 
rairo, rero. 
bearded, a b. man mai-geme, 

pi. masu-geme. 
beardless, adj. shagiri, pi. 

shagirai. 
beast, n. bisa, pi. bisashe or 
bisaje, ddbba, ddbbo, pi. dab- 
buna or dabbobi; wild b. 
naman daji, Jlrdi* ; wild 
beasts bisashen daji, namun 
daji. 
beat, tr. v. 1. buga, doke, duka, 
dirka, the last is sometimes 
written tsirka, bada kdshi. 

2. to b. down, as earth etc. 
taka, taki, tsaga, tsatstsaga, 
ddbe. 

3. to b. or tread grain 
ddka, intensive form ddd- 
daka, swaba (S.), surfe, taki, 
tingama. 

4. to b. a drum yin wargi; 
see drum. 

5. to b. in war, intr. yin 
nasara, trans, chi. 

6. to b. in a game chi, e.g. 
na chi ka I have beaten 
you. 

beaten, part. adj. in sense of 
prec. 3. takakke, fem. takakka, 
pi. takakku. 



beating 



22 



beetle 



beating, n. 1. tsirka, dirka ; see 
beat. 

2. kdshi, (a defeat in war) 
artai. 

3. b. of wings tafi (K.), 
tabi (S.). 

beautiful, adj. da kyau, kyau, 
mai-kyau, kyaivkyawa, kekya- 
wa^ kyakkyawa. 

beauty, n. 1. of persons and 
things kyawo or kyau. 

2. of dress ornaments etc. 
ddoy armashi. 

because, conj. don^ chewa*, 
domin chewa*, gama, zania 
(S.); cheiva and domin chewa 
are used in written, but not 
in colloquial Hausa. 

because of, prep, domin, don, 
scihada or sabad da, sdboda*, 
sdbo (K.)' gctma, sabili da, 
zama (S.); b. of me domina, 
b. of him dominsa. 

beckon, v., to b. with the head 
(in token of assent) gyada 
kai ; to b. or shake the head 
(in token of denial) kdda kai ; 
to b. with the hand yafuche, 
yafuto. 

beckoning, (with the hand) 
yafuchi. 

become, intr. v. (to come to 
be) zdma, zam (S.), samma*, 
kawa*, sawoya. 

become, intr. v. (to befit, to 
be proper) kdmata, kdmache. 



becoming, adj. (lawful, cere- 
monially right) halal, halas 
or halata, daidai ; it is b. ya 
yi daidai. 

bed, n. gddo, pi. gddaje or 
gddashi, karaga* ; to go to 
b., V. kwanta; a b. of mud 
dakali, tugufa', space under a 
b. in which a fire can be put 
tsdriya, tsdri. 

bed-clothes, coll. n. maydfi. 

bee, n. kudan zuma or kudan 
zummuwa, pi. kudashenzuma; 
the mosquito b. or stingless b. 
gala, galla, rakuwa ; young of 
b. gudajen zummuwa ; small 
bees so/o/uwa; ground bees 
ganya. 

bee-eater, (bird) tsuntsun ha- 
yaki, tsiriyar kogi. 

beef, n. nama7i sa, naman shanu. 

beehive, n. ainya, amya (K.), 
hamya, butumi, pi. butuma, 
burtumi (S.), gidan zum- 
muwa. 

beeswax, n. dankon zummuwa^ 
kakin zummuwa. 

beetle, n., spec, large, black, 
long-legged b. gurgunguma, 
kurgunguma, burgungumay 
sari; the * plush b.'or 'velvet 
mite ' karamuski or mulufi* ; 
burying b. or dung b. buzuzu; 
click b. makeri ; blister b. han- 
gara ; auger b. or wood borer 
kichichiya, gunda ; longicorn 



befall 



23 



behind 



b. or leaf -cutting b. mage- 
duwa-, tiger b. {\siV\a,)JuTau ; 
water b. kumbudiya (S.), 
kumhudewa (K.). 

befall, intr. v. samit, same, sama, 
sami; it befell him ya sameshi. 

befit, intr. v. kdmata^ kdmache. 

before, adv. of time dafari, fM- 
kun or tukuna, na dd, kaman 
na dd or kamandd, wuri, da 
wuri or dauri, dazu ; in former 
time lokachin dd; see ever. 

before, conjunctive adv. gdba, 
kdjin, b. that kani*, kamin, 
kana, kan da, kan*, e.g. finish 
this b. (that) you do that 
kare wannati kana ka yi 
wanchan ; tun and Htn da 
are employed with negative 
clauses, e.g. b. (that) he died 
he composed a book titn ha 
ya mutu ha ya yi wani 
litafi; to go b. gahdta, ga- 
hdche, rigaya, he was at the 
farm b. her ya riga ta gona. 

befriend, tr. v., see assist. 

beg, Y: 1. (to entreat, suppli- 
cate) roka, yin roko, hiko. 

2. (to ask a thing of, as 
alms) bdra, yin hdra, roko ; I 
b. pardon gqfara ma ni (or 
mini) ; to b. for help zukatta*. 

beget, tr. V. (of the male) haife, 
yin cla. 

beggar, n. mai-hdra, mai-7'oko, 
inarok*, fem. marokiya, al- 



majiri, fem. almajira, pi. 
almajirai, maddha, mauro^ 
gardi* ; spec, an idle b. 
7nai-kas(da, a b. on the road 
tnasarchi, a b. who sings a 
great man's praises ina'aha, 
one who lives by begging 
food mai-ktvaraka. 

beggar, to wander alone as a 
b., intr. v. kasala*. 

begging, n. marokachi, roko, 

begin, v. fdra, yin /dra, dora^ 
som.a (K.); to b. work kdma 
aiki, farma* ; it cannot be 
begun ha shi somuwa. 

beginner, a (i.e. learner) bayni. 

beginning, participial n. fara^ 
wa, farko, ta-farko, somi, 
7nasomi, mafdi'i; from the 
b. of the world ddga mafa^^in 
duniya. 

beguile, tr. v. rude ; see de- 
ceive. 

behave, intr. v. (to turn out, 
prove) zama, e.g. na zama da 
hankali I shall b. wisely ; 
maida*. 

behaviour, n. (character, con- 
duct) Aa^'i. 

behead, tr. v. yanke, dehe kai. 

behind, adv. hay a, a hay a, 
ddga haya ; that which is b. 
ahin haya. 

behind, prep, haya, haya ga, 
with sufiP. prons. gare, e.g. b. 
them 6«ya gare su. 



behold 



24 



bend 



behold, V. duha, duho, gani, 
tsokachi, yin kallo, exclam. 
phr. b. duha! b. him or it 
ga shi! b. her or it ga ta ! 

behove, to kdmache, kdmata. 

belabour, tr. v. hiiga-y see beat. 

belated, to be, i.e. to be late in 
arriving yin yauchin zakuwa, 
tnakara. 

belch, intr. v. gyatsa^ yyci'Sa, 
gyashi (S.). 

belief, n. 1. (creed) addini, 
imanchi. 

2. (credence) ban gaskiya. 

believe, v., to b. a fact gaskata, 
gaskanta, to b. a person hada 
gaskiya^ yin gaskiya constr. 
with prep, ga; to b. in, esp. to 
b. in God, kasada ; I do not 
b. it ban karba ba. 

believed in, particip. adj. yar- 
dadde, fern, yardadda, pi. 
yardaddu. 

believer, n. mumini, fem. mu- 
mina, pi. muniinnai. 

bell, n., small b. attached to 
horse gwarje, gwalje, g'^'^j^ ', 
small bells on horses' heads 
chikasaura, chikasabra, cha- 
kasabra, chikasaura ; bells 
attached to goats etc. kdraii- 
rautva or kararawa. 

bellow, intr. v. ruri^ yin bu. 

bellowing, n. bu. 

bellows, n. mafuri, mafurin 
wuta, zigazigai, zv^azugi ; a 



man who blows b. mazigi ; 
the stick of the b. maziga. 

belly, n. kundu ; lower part of 
b. mdra, chiki, 

belong, intr. v. 1. (to be the 
property of) na, fem. ta with 
the forms of the v. to be, e.g. 
this book belongs to Hassan 
litafin nan na Hasan ne, the 
horses b. to the king dawaki 
na sariki ne, that stick be- 
longs to this man sanda chan 
ta mutumennan che, it belongs 
to me nawa ne or ni ke da shi. 
2. (to be native of) e.g. 
he belongs to Kano shi dan 
Kano ne. 

belongings, n. (property) dii- 
kiya, and in a still more 
general sense abubuwa. 

beloved, n. masoyi, fem. ma- 
soya, pi. masoyu, lele or na- 
lele* ; a thing b. abin kamna. 

below, 1. adv. a kasa, a kas, 
baya*. 

2. prep. kalkashi7i (S.), 
karkashin (K.). 

belt, n. abin damre, madamre, 
damdra, pi. damdru ; b. for 
sword hamila, see girdle. 

bench, n. kujera, kushera, pi. 
kujeru. 

bend, tr. v. kalmdsa, kalmisa 
(S.), kahnashe, karkdta, gusda, 
kantara, sunkwiyad da, tan- 
kosa, tankwasa, tankware, 



bending 



jirga, lauya; spec, to b. the ; 
head kdda kai, kankanda kai, j 
sada kai, karkdta or kakartsa * 
with or without kunne (ear) 
to b. down (the ear) in order 
to attend to what is said; : 
intr. dukad da, jirge, kan- \ 
tare, lankwashe, lankwasa, 
sunkwiya, duka; see bent. 

bending, n. dukawa, laudi. 

beneath, adv. and prep., see , 
below. 

beneficial, adj., see seq. 

benefit, n. anfdni ; of b. (bene- 
ficial) da anfdni, mai-anfdni. 

benefit, (confer a b. upon) 
anfdna. 

benevolence, n. (an act of b.) 
kyauta, abin kyauta, alheri. 

benign, see kind. 

beniseed, ridi, lidi. 

bent, adj. gangare or gangara, 
pi. gangaru ; b. or tottering, 
as of a wall, karkache, fern. 
karkata, pi. karkatu ; a b. tree j 
kwandariya, kondariya* ', a i 
man with a b. arm mai- \ 
laushi, maikwarda, with a j 
b. leg gwami, old man with ; 
b. back takoko ; it cannot be 
b. ha shi tankwasawa. \ 

bent, to be yin gangare, kar- ^ 
kache. \ 

Benue, the river, pr. n. Tsdda, i 
or ruwan Tsdda. 

benumbed, to be, intr. v. 



25 better 

kage* or kaga* ; my foot is 
b. dela ya kama kafata. 

bequeath, to wasiche*. 

bereavement, n. kewa, kiwa. 

bereft (devoid of) in phrases 
like b. of sense maras, rashi, 
e.g. maras-kankali, b. of 
shame maras-kumya, b. of 
strength rashin karifi ; see 
under rasa. 

beseech, v., see ask. 

beseem, v., see befit. 

beside, prep, (at the side of) 
wajen, a wajen ; in a looser 
sense, kusa ga, tare da. 

besides, prep, hamda, ban da, 
baya, bayan, haya ga. 

besprinkle, buta, ydfa, yafa 
ruwa. 

best, adj. this can only be 
expr. by the phr. ya fi duka, 
mafi duka, or ya fi kowa ; 
this is the b. of these 
ivannan m,afifichi ddga wa- 
dannan ; this is the heaviest 
wannan ya fi duka nauyi; 
he is doing his b. yana da 
jimri ; cf. Hausa Gr. p. 75. 

betray, tr. v. (to deliver up 
treacherously) bashe ; to b. 
confidence chin amana, or 
chinye amana; to b. one 
another bada juna. 

betroth, tr. v. rike, rika, riki. 

betrothal, riko. 

better, adj. 1. gen. dama, 



between 



26 



big 



gtoama, gwamma, e.g. it were 
b. ya yi dama; (superior) 
majifichi foil, by daga, e.g. 
this is better than that wan- 
nan mafijichi ddga wanchan, 
or wannan ya dadi wanchan ; 
fi, e.g. it is b. BO ya fi ; gara, 
gaira, guma, gwamma^ e.g. it 
is b. gara, it is b. so gara 
hcika, or gwamma haka^ it is 
b. for me to stop ni gara in 
tsaya, rather than I should 
do this it would be b. to die 
da na yi ivannan gara in 
mutu. 

2. a b. state of health is 
expr. by means of dama, 
afuwa, rangiva77ie, e.g. to 
feel b. jin dama, jin ran- 
gwame., to get b. samu dama, 
also by wartsaka, b. to-day 
than yesterday gwamma yau 
da jiya, see Hausa Gr. 
p. 75. 
between, 1. adv. tsdka. 

2. prep, tscikan, tsdkanin. 

3. n. (a space), b. tsdkani. 
bewail, v. 1. intr. yin kuka. 

2. tr. expr. by 1. with 
preps, given under on ac- 
count of. 
bewailing, 1. particip. n. (the 
act of b.) kukawa. 
2. concr. (wail) kuka. 
beware of, V; yin hankali, 
tuna, constr. with prep, da, 



e.g. b. of that log lest you 
fall over it ka tuna da ichen 
7ian kdda ka/adi bisa. 

bewilder, tr. v. dame. 

bewildered, to be, intr. ddniu, 
jin damuwa, rude. 

bewilderment, n. damuwa. 

beyond, 1. adv. of place hay a, 
gaha; (further on, at a 
distance) nesa, da, or ddga 
or na nesa, e.g. that which 
lies b. ahin haya. 

2. prep, baya, bayan, ke- 
taren. 

3. fig. (suYipassmg) Jaskare, 
Ji, e.g. it is b. me ya faskare 

ni or ya ji ni, b. the power 

of man ya ji mutum or ya 
ji karjin mutum. 
beyond, to go, v., e.g. he went 

b. sea ya ketare gulbi. 
biceps, kwanduwan hannu. 
bid, n., a b. tayi. 
bid, V. 1. (to command) ha- 

kumche, hakumia. 

2. (to offer a price for) 

taya, tayi, yin tayi. 
bier, mdkarai. 
bifurcate (of a path), bii-kichi, 

birkita. 
big, adj. 1. (of size) babba, pi. 

many a, ruku-rukit* ; also fig. 

(important), e.g. a b. man 

babban matum or mutum 

babba, a b. thing ridimin abu ; 

to grow b. gawurta, gawusta, 



bile 



27 



bird 



the boy has grown b. yaro ya 
gaivurta ; full-grown gawur- 
tache^ pi. gawurtattu. 

2. (pregnant) da chiki, 
karambiki. 

3. (pompous, arrogant) da 
girnian kai, mai-homa, pi. 
masu-homa. 

bile, n. machiwa (S.). 

bill, n. 1. (account) lisaji or 



2. (beak, q.v.) koto. 

bind, tr. V. 1. damre^ daure, 
damra^ darme, tanka, tanke, 
lamyache (K.), sarkafe-, spec, 
to b. fast tsuke ; to b. grass 
with cords so as to form roof 
yamche or yamchi. 

binding, particip, n. sarkafe^va ; 
boards or stiff covers for b. 
books bango, iadarishi ; b. of 
com bambu. 

bird, n. tsuntsu, zu7izu*, fern. 
tsuntsuwa, zunzuwa^, pi. 
ts2intsaye,zunzaye*. The fol- 
lowing are some of the com- 
monest birds in Hausaland : 
bishop-bird, dala, mulufi ; 
bustard, the lesser b. kadab- 
kara, kadafkara, katakara, 
sokara * ; the greater b. tuje ; 
crow shimkake, a white- 
backed c. hankdka, pi. han- 
kaki or hankaku ; crane, 
crested c. gauraka^ goraka, 
garmaka, gamraka, kurki* ; 



cuckoo (lark-heel c. or crow 
pheasant) ragon maza ; dove 
kurchiya, garda, bardo, haz- 
biya^ wala ; eagle gaggafa ; 
egret (great white e. or heron) 
zarbi, zalbi ; little e. balbela, 
badbila, bilbila ; finch chi- 
goro, sisita, shaida, baiwar 
Allahf zalaidu ; honey-guide 
gunda, maganiya ; hoopoe 
chigi da tuku, katu tu ; horn- 
bill burtu, bultu, chilikowa, 
ka-ki-ganin- Allah] ibis (Afri- 
can wood i.) tsagagi, jinjimi ; 
Hadadah ibis vara; partridge 
(or francolin) fakara (K.), 
makeruiva (S.) ; pigeon tanta- 
bara, tandabara\ plover %a7'e- 
kyare^ zakaran yaki, zakaran 
assuba, dan raguwa ; black- 
headed p. or crocodile bird 
ladin kogi ; roller or blue jay 
chanwaka, tsanwaka ; starling 
dokin buntu ; glossy s. or 
grakle tsakwaikwaiwa ; stilt 
taka bado ; stork shamo, sha- 
muwa, kasheri, rtiai-jika, bo- 
rintumke, babba da jikka^ 
tsagagi, juhurma -, sun-bird 
sha kauchi ; swallow (a 
species of s.) tsaitsewa, mashi- 
rari ; weaver b. jira, kdbare. 
The following have not yet 
been identified : a small white 
diving b. benema; a large 
carnivorous b. duki; a yellow* 



bird lime 



28 



blade 



breasted b. gado ; a species of 
sparrow gora ; a small b. with 
red plumage which feeds on 
guinea-corn marai; a small 
singing b. wali, waliya; a 
long-beaked water b. sulhi ; 
see also banupiya, huwa, 
kajarini, kilabtu, 

bird lime, n. dankon tsunt- 
suwa. 

bird's-eye, idon zakara. 

birth, n. 1. (coming into life) 
haifuwa ; since your b. tun 
haifuwarka = since you were 
born. 

2. (the act of bringing 
forth) haifuwa, jeyo. 

3. an untimely b. ha- 
kwaini, harin chiki. 

birth, to give b. to, tr. v. hai/a, 
haife, yinjego. 

birth, a woman about to give 
b. to a child karamhiki. 

birthday, n. rana ta haifuwa, 
ranan haifuwa. 

birthplace, n. 7nahaifa*, phr. 
wurin da oka haifa. 

biscuits, akara*. 

bishop-bird, or cardinal- 
bird, dala, mulufi, 

bit, n. 1. (of a horse) lizami, 
linzami, lizzami (S. ) ; the strap 
tied to a b., n. kamazuru. 

2. (small piece, fragment) 
gutsura, pi. gutsatsari. 

bitch, n. kdriya. 



bite, n. chizo; b., e.g. of a 
scorpion ddni ; b. of a snake 
sari. 

bite, tr. V. chizo, yin chizo, 
chije (followed by pron. obj.); 
of snakes etc. (to sting) sdra, 
taha, halhi, tdma (S.) ; to b. 
off gdtsa, zahta ; to b. at 
gurgura; to seize with the 
teeth tasamma, tasoma (S.). 

bitter, adj. da divachi, da dachi, 
yainama, yanyanna, da yami, 
madachi ; to make b. or to be 
b. tsamama. 

bitterness, n. dwachi, dachi. 

bivouac, on a field of battle 
kwananddga. 

black, adj. hdki, fern, hdka, pi. 
babbaku; veryh. bdki kirin (or 
kerin), baki wur ; a b. horse 
akawali, kiyara, chichiro. 

blacken, intr. v. (to become or 
turn b.) zama bdki, sauya 
bdki, babake* ; tr. (to make 
black) babaki*. 

blackish, bdki-bdki. 

blackness, bakintaka. 

blacksmith, n. mai-kira, ma- 
ker i, fem. maker iy a, pi. ma- 
kera ; the fem. = a black- 
smith's wife. 

bladder, n. mafitsara, jika*. 

blade, n. 1. (of corn etc.) 
kdra, pi. karare, tofo, fofo, 
zangare, zangarniya. 

2. (of knife) karifen wuka. 



Dlame 



29 



blister 



3. (broken b. of sword) ku- 

blame, n. 1. (finding fault, re- 
proof) foro^ tsawa^ harasa, 
rarauka (K.), zarge. 
2. (fault, guilt) laiji. 

blame, tr. v. 1. (to reprove, 
check) yin tsawa. 

2. (to impute guilt) hada 
laiji. 

blam.eless, adj. maras-laifi, 
babu laiJi. 

blanket, n. bargo, burgo, hiru, 
kuntu*, kuntukuru*. 

blaspheme, v. yin al/asha, yin 
swabon Allah. 

blasphemy, n. alfasha magana, 
ma'asi *. 

bleaching, chalk used for, n. 
alii. 

bleat, intr. v. km^c and gen. 
yi7i kuka, yin bu. 

bleating, n. bu, kara. 
, bleed,v. intr. tsaga or phr. zubda 
jini ; tr.Jitajini or Jidda jini, 
constr. with prep. ma. 

bleeding, particip. adj., see 
bloody. 

bleeding sickness, n. tsagiya; 
b. from nose hdbo. 

blemish, n. 1. material or 

1 physical b. aibi, aibu, pi. aibo- 

bi, aibu, Idhani; e.g. a b. in the 

eye Idhaniga ido ; b. , e.g. aspot 

of different colour in cloth 

j etc. sqfdne, sofdni, surfani. 



2. moral b. aibu. 
bless, V. barka, albarka used 

with yi or wa, e.g. he blessed 

ya wa albarka ; albarkata, 

kyautaye. 
blessing, n. albarka, salati*. 
blight, e.g. on corn domana, 

mando. 
blighted, adj. applied to corn 

kupturu, kuturu (S.), see 

birtuntuna. 
blind, adj. makafo, pi. makafi; 

a b. person makdfo, fern. 

makafuiva (S. ), makauniya 

(K.), pi. makafi; makabta 

(S.), makanta (K.). 
blind, tr. v., to make b. ma- 

kamta ; intr. to become b. 

makafche, makamche, ma- 

kanche. 
blindness, n. makamta, ma- 
kanta, makopchi, makabche, 

makabchi. 
blink, intr. v. rumtse, runitsi, 

runtsa (S.). 
blinkers, leathern b. for a horse 

furtali. 
blinking, n. kifil kifil. 
bliss, n. ni'ima*. 
blister, n. 1. i.e. something 

to cause blistering farsa. 
2. of the skin sali, swali, 

swale, bororo. 
blister, v. 1. tr.farcha. 

2. intr. (to be blistered) 

yin sali. 



block 



30 



blunder 



block, e.g. of salt or potash 
haura (S.) ; b. of wood fir de. 

blood, n.jini ; b. letting jiniy a, 
jir/a, jar/a, majinachiya. 

blood-feud, tama. 

bloody, adj. (bleeding or blood- 
stained) dajini ; his face was 
all h. fuskassa duka saijini. 

blossom, n./ure, pi. furori or 
fur aye. 

blot, n., e.g. of ink dole, dan- 
gwale ; to make a b. dardasa. 

blot out, V, yin maimai, sha- 
shafe. 

blow, n. gen. hug a, kadi, rotse, 
roche] a b. esp. in boxing 
dambe, tika, a b. in fighting 
fdda, pi. fddodi, a b. with 
hand mari, pi. marumari, or 
Tnaremare, bugu, bugo, a hard 
b. causing wound or swelling 
rotsi, rochi (S.), pi. ratsa, a b. 
in punishment fig. sanda, pi. 
sanduna. — To strike or give 
blow or blows, v. gen. buga, 
in tens, bubbuga or bugabuga; 
mari or mare with intens. 
participial n. marmarawa ; 
rochi, rotsa, wtdakanta, tsam- 
ki, daka with intens. forms 
daddaka and dandaka ; a b. 
with clenched fist dundu, 
naushi, I gave him a b. that 
left its mark na yi ma sa 
rotsi, the sound of a b. ku- 
mus (S.). 



blow, V. 1. tr. busa, ddbar, yin 
ddbar, e.g. the trumpeter 
blew the trumpet mai-busa ya 
busa kafo ; to b. away bushe. 
2. intr. busa, e.g. the wind 
used to b. all night iska ta 
kan busa dare duka ; spec, to 
b. the fire under a cooking 
pot girke, girki ; to b. water 
out of the mouth tuddas; 
to b. a fire zuga, fura, e.g. b. 
up the fire with the bellows 
ka fura wuta da mafuri ; 
to b. up, e.g. an empty bag 
yin bokoko, to b. up a bag 
fura salka ; to b. about jake. 

blowing, n. busa, e.g. the b. of 
the trumpet, wind, etc. bUsan 
kafo, busan iska ; b. of water 
out of the mouth tudaswa. 

blown upon, i.e. dried, adj. 
busashe. 

blue, n. shuni or juni*, ddfuwa. 

blue, adj. shudi, fem. shudiya, 
pi. shudodi, da shuni or da 
juni*, ddfdfi; spec. b. cloth 
shiyodi, turkudi, saki, swaki ; 
light b. shudi-shudi ; a b. 
stone kaule ; a dark b. thread 
nati. 

blue, to be, intr. v. saki*, soki* 
or swaki* ; to stain the face 
b. dambara ; to dye b. shuda, 
shiyuda. 

bluff, alwdshi. 

blunder, see mistake. 



blunt 



31 



boot 



blunt, adj. da laushewa ; in the 
sense of devoid of edge hahu 
kaiji. 
blunt, to be, v. dallashe, dal- 

lishi, dakushe, yin dakusa. 
bluntness, n. (of a knife) tade- 

rishi, laushiwa, dakusa. 
boar, the wild, n. alhanzir, 
hanzir, gyado, fem. gyadain- 
ya, pi. gyadodi or gyaduna. 
board, n. ([)lank) faskare ; to 
make into boards yin faskare, 
coll. boards karauki, boards 
for binding books tadarishi*. 
boast, V. gawurta, gawusta, 
yin kurari, yin rdha, ruha. 
boaster, n. mai-foma, pi, masu- 
I foma, mai-homa, mai-tama, 
pi. masu-tama; b. in war 
gugirma. 
I boasting, n. foma, homa, tama, 
j alfahari, ahvashi,fari,fariya, 
i kurari. 

boat (i.e. canoe), n. jirigi or 
i jirgi, p\. jirage. 
boatman, n. mai-jirigi, pi. 

masu-jirigi. 
bobbin, mdtdri. 
body, jiki, pi. jikuna. 
body-guard, one of the king's, 
n. zarumi, zaromi, zarmi or 
jarimi, pi. zarumai. 
boil, n. kurji, kureji, pi. ku- 
rareji, kuraje; kirchi, gurje, 
girje, bambaroki, maruru. 
boil, V. tr. or intr. ia/asa, yin 



ta/asa, fa/asu, ta/ashe, taso; 
it is boiling a7ia tafasa. 
boiled, past part., tafasashshe, 
iem. ta/asashiya,p\. tafasassu. 
boiling, n. tas?/;a ; the rise and 
fall of b. water habuma, ham- 
buma. 
bold, adj., see brave, 
bolt, v., to b. food rushe (K.). 
bolt, see lock. 

bone, n. kashi, pi. kasussuwa or 
kassa ; back-b. kashin tsotso ; 
bones in a fish kayar kifi\ 
shin-b. kobri, kwabri, kwauri 
(K.), kiibri, pi. kwabruka; 
hip-b. kwankwasso; marrow- 
b. tantakwashi, tantakoshi. 
bone-setter, mai-dori. 
book, n. litdfi, letdfi, pi. Utd- 
taji, or litattaffai, or litat- 
taffaye; takarda^, pi. takar- 
du*^ kundi, pi. kundaye, dan 
kundi, kitdba * ; leathern 
case for a b., n. gafaka, 
gafakka^ or gufaka (S.) ; 
large thick b., n. sufuri, 
sujili ; page of a b., n. ivarka, 
waraka ; stiff covers for a b., 
n. tadarishi*, bango, pi. ban- 
gaye or banguna. 
book-marker, n. alama or ha- 

lama, pi. alamomi, amara. 
boot, n. kubuta* ; spec, long 
leathern b. safe, high riding 
b. karufa, kurufa, kurfa, 
long riding b. with spurs 



booth 



32 



bow 



kufita, kufuta, pi. kufitai, 

kufutai. 
booth, n. bukka, pi. bukkoki; 

sayi, pi. sayoyi. 
booty, n. ahin kwache. 
border, n. 1 . of a country iyaka. 

2. silk b. on woman's dress 
hashiya. 

3. b. of cloth lafe^ lafi. 
bore, tr. V. fuda, fude^ buda, 

huda, yin rarake. 

boring, n./udi, yxirake. 

born, pass. part, haifaffe, fern. 
haifaffa, pi. haifaffu. 

borrow, tr. v. yin dro, ramta, 
yin ramche, e.g. I did not b. 
much money ban yi ramchen 
kurdi dayawa ba ; to b. 
money chin bashi. 

borrower, n. mai-chin bashi, 
niai-daukan bashi. 

bosom, n. gaba, pi. gabobi, 
kirji, pi. kirjai, kiraza. 

both, 1. adj. biyu, e.g. b. of 
them duka biyu or su biyu; 
this may also be expr. by 
ddga wannafi sai wannan. 

2. conj. da, e.g. b....and 
da... da. 

bottle, n. tasa or dasa*, pi. ta- 
soshi, kwalaba, kwaliba ; tulu, 
pi. tuluna, dalulu ; small 
earthenware b. buta, water 
b. calabash kurtu, burmi, 
gyandama, skin water b. 
salka or salka, pi. salkuna, 



scent b. wakiya, wakiyya ; a 
large leathern b. for holding 
butter giwan basa; a small 
skin b. tandu. 

bottom, 1. (the lowest part or 
foundation) gutsu, kalkashi, 
gato, e.g. b. of a fence gaton 
darnij gi^idi. 

2. (buttocks) gato^ gindi. 

bough, n. reshe, refe (S.), rehsy 
refo, pi. rassu, rassa, raffu^ 
refuna; see branch. 

bound, intr. v. (to leap up or 
forward) tuma. 

bound, past part. 1. (tied up, 
fastened with a band) dam- 
rarre, pi. damrarru, oka 
damre, faskarari*. 

2. fig. (obliged, required) 
wajib, wajibi with ne or ke, 
e.g. we are b. to go to the 
war wajibi ne mu tafi yaki. 

boundary, n. iyaka, gayya, 
or gay a (K.), kaida, makarin 
kasa, matuka. 

bow, n. (i.e. the weapon) bakd, 
pi. bdkuna, b. and arrows 
bdkan kibiya ; to discharge a 
b,, V. halbi or harbi; b. for 
cleaning cotton bdkan shlba. 

bow, 1 .intr. V. (to incline the head 

in salutation) yin dJi,duka{S. ). 

2. (to b. down as in the 

native prostration) yin dfi^ 

gurfana, yin gurfane rusuna, 



"bowels 

3. to b. or stoop sunkwiya, 
sunkuya^ sunkurya (K.), 
kurda (S.), duka. 

4. (to b. the head down or 
sideways in order to listen) 
karkata or kakartsa. 

bowels, n. hanji. 
bowing, n., i.e. so as to touch" 
the ground with the forehead 
sujada, sajada, alkafura ; see 
bow. 
bowl, n. tdsa, pi. tdsoshi, gi- 

dauniya, gwongwon, kata*. 
bow-legged, chassa. 
bowman, n. mahalbi, pi. ma- 

halba or masu-halhi. 
bowstring, n. tsirkiya, tsar- 
kiya, chirkiya, igiyar baka. 
box, n. akodi, akwati, san- 
duki, or sanduki, pi. san- 
dukai, mai-sutura* ; spec, a 
small skin b., e.g. for snuff 
batta, pi. battochi; barta, pi. 
bartochi; small glass b. for 
frankincense lulu. 
box, V. danibe, nausha, naushe, 
nushe, dankwasa, dankwashe. 
boxer, dan dambe. 
boxing, n. naushi, dambe. 
boy, n. 7/aro, pi. yara, yaraye, | 
yaye or yayaye ; spec. b. who | 
is third or fourth child, the I 
previous children being all 
girls tanko*. 
boyishness, n. halin yaro. 
bracelet, n. tagula, tagulla, 

R. H. D. 



33 



break 



tugula, tagura, munduwa, 

pi. mu7idaye. 

brackishness, zartsi. 

braid, to tu/ka, tubka, tupka 

(K.), tumka (S.); see plait. 

' brains, n. coll. kwallutva, kwa~ 

kwalluwa, kokolwa. 
branch, n., of trees reshe, refe 
(S.), refo, pi. refuna, raffu; 
spec, small b. hamso*, b. 
stripped of leaves kututture, 
kututturo, kututturu ; wither- 
ed branches coll. kwabruka; 
thin bending b. tsumanjiya. 
brass, n. jan karife, farin 

karife, gachi, janjache. 
brave, adj. mazakuta, da zu- 
chiya babba, mai-zuchiya, 
mai-karijin zuchiya. 
bravery, n. mazakuta, maza- 
. kunta, mazakunchi, tasiri 
(S.), zarumta. 
bray, intr. v. (of the ass) bir- 

bira, barbara, yin kugi. 
bray, tr. v. (to beat small', 

pound) daka. 
bread, n. (made of wheat) gy;^ 

rasa. 

breadth, n.fddi,faski*. 

break, v. 1. tr. chiri ; fdsd, 

fdso.pdsa.fashe, pashe,palshe ; 

kariya, kariyi, karye ; kalle 

(K.), rotsa, roshe, rosa, tsinke, 

tsunke-, to keep breakilig 

tsuntsunke, .. 1' 

2. fig. to b. a promise skki 



breakage 



34 



alkawali or warwari alka- 
wali. 

3. fig. intr. of the da}^ 
daylight or morning, see 
dawn. 

4. tr. with various modi- 
fications of meaning: to b. 
open rihe, Jalke (S.) ; to b. 
to pieces farfasha or pal- 
pashe (in tens, forms oifashe, 
pashe), rugunguza*,/an/atsa; 
to b. off kudure ; to b. up 
kakkariya, karereya, rumd da, 
bcdgache, kaririye intensive 
forms of kariya; to b. up 
again dandaka intensive form 
of daka ; to b. off katse. 

5. to b. a horse hirga, hurga. 

6. to b. the law taka skari'a. 
breakage, aras, a sound as of 

b. garan-garan, kilin-kllin. 
breakfast, n. kalachi, or karin 

kumallo (also = midday meal), 

kariyan azumi, sahur, suhur. 
breaking, participial n. kari- 

yewa. 
breakwater, to hold water back 

by a b. datse , a b. used for 

catching fisl» gando, tdshi{S.). 
breast, 1. (bosom) kirji, pi. 

kiraza, kirijai, gaba. 

2. (b. of mother or dam) 

mama, nono, pi. nonuna, 

nonaye or nonna. 
breath, shortness of, n. fuka ; 

to hold the b. dauki lumfashi. 



bridle 

breathe, intr. v. lumfasa (S.), 
numfasa (K.), to b. heavily 
dauki lumfashi, yin sheda, 
I b. hard na yi fuka. 

breathing, n., heavy b. lum- 
fashi, numfashi, lunfastu, 
sheda, habuiria*, hambuma. 

breed, v. ba diya, yin diya, 
haifi, haife, haifu. 

brethren, n. yan-uwa; my b. 
yan-uwana. 

bribe, n. toshi ; b. given to a 
judge fila or hila, kirsa, ri- 
shiwa. 

bribe, tr. v. chidacheto*. 

brick, n. (made of mud) tubals 
ku7iku (S.), pi. kunkaye; a 
grass used for making bricks 
ramno (S.), rauno (K.). 

bricks, to make, v. yin tubali. 

bride, n., specially applied to 
the latest wife amariya ; the 
state of a bride amarchi; the 
friend of a b. kdwa. 

bridegroom, n. ango, pi. an- 
guna or angaye*; a feast for 
a b. and his friends ambaru- 
wa, sansambi; a dowry or a 
gift given to a bride sadaki. 

bridge, n. kadarko. 

bridle, n. lizami, lizzami, li- 
zani, linzami ; a strap round 
horse's head fastened to b. 
inaraya-, a brass appendage 
to a b. peluwa ; head of a 
b. kwalkwada, kwalkwali. 



l)rigand 

Tjrigand, n. ma/ashi ; pi. only, 

masu-tari. 
l)right, adj./aW, fern, fara, pi. 
farari or /aru/aru ; fari/at, 
da tachi, tachache, pi. tacha- 
chu or tatattu ; b. as silver 
tangarai, the last also = un- 
clouded, 
l^rightness, tachi, tdshi, 
iDrim, n. burbishi; up to the 
b./a?^, e.g. it was filled to the 
b. ya haufau, ya tashifau. 
l)rimstone, n. faral wuta, ki- 

brit*, kaule*. 
bring, tr. v. kawo, kayo, kai; zo 
constr. with da (lit. come 
with), e.g. he brought the 
book ya zo da litafi ; spec, 
modifications are to b. back 
(i.e. to restore) maida, iumbe; 
to b. forth fUo da; (to 
give birth to) haiji or hai/e ; I 
to b. forward (to adduce) 
kai or kawo, e.g. b. proof 
kai shaida, they would b. 
forward a reason su kan 
kawo dalili; to b. near to 
the speaker, also simply b. 
here or b. near kawo ; to b. 
together gabato, ja7A)o ; to b. 
up (to nurse, educate) gwoiyo, 
reno; to b. up a child or 
animal whose parent is dead 
tallafi ; to take and b. tareyo 
or tariyo; to b. together 
Jibche, jibta, iara. 



35 



brood 



bringing, participial n. kawowa. 
brinjal, (tomato) gauta, 
brink, n. baki, pi. bakuna. 
brittleness, aras, gaushi, gau- 

tsi. 
broad, adj. fddi, da faski, 

bikiki, tafkeke, 
broadcast, adv. a zube. 
brocade, n. dibajo, kambori* ; 
white cotton b. samasadowa. 
broil, tr. v. soya or suya. 
I broiled, past part, soyayye or 
i soyeye, fern, soyayya, pi. 
I soyayyu. 

broken, past ^d.vi. fasashe, pi. 
I fdsassu, kararre, matache *, or 
mafMche, fem. matachiya or 
matatta, pi. matattu, e.g. a 
b. vessel matattar kwariya, 
mara^. 
broken, to be b. up, v. war- 
wari, wariwari or wawa- 
ri. 
broker, n. dildli or dillali, dan 
baranda; to act as b. yin 
dildli, or yin dilanchi ; 
broker's commission, cf. seq. 
brokerage, n. (fee or com- 
mission as intermediary in 
sales) la'ada, ladda; if the 
price paid is to be la'ada 
chiki (b. included) the seller 
pays the b. (usually 5 p.c), 
if la'ada waje (exclusive of 
b.) the buyer pays the b. 
brood, n. colL (offspring) diya, 
3-2 



brook 



in a wide or general sense 
iri, pi. irare, q.v. 
brook, n. rafi, pi. rafuna or 

rafafuka. 
broom, mashari"^, tsintsiya; 

see brush, 
broom-weed, sweet b.-w. 

roma fada. 
broth, n. miya^ romuwa (S.), 
romo (K.), halu* ', b. made 
from fruit of dm'owa tree 
daddawa^ daudawa. 
brother, n. dan-uwa ; used as 
an expression of regard in 
addressing others (usually 
with suff. pron. tia) = brother ! 
or dear friend! dan-uwana, 
pi. yan-uwana or yan uwa, 
shikiki, shakiki ; elder b. wa, 
pi. yeye ) younger b. kdne, 
pi. kannai, or kanne. 
brotherhood, kanenchi. 
brow, n. (forehead) goshi ; he 
bent his b. or knit his brows 
(= he -frowned) ya damre 
\gi7itse or jirkiia) fuskassa. 
bruise, n. rauni, taryade. 
bruise, tr. v. falfasa, 
brush, n. tsintsiya, abi/rt shara, 

mashari. 
brush, tr. V. (i.e. to sweep with 
a broom or b.) shao^a, share, 
shache, kabe ; to b. thoroughly 
kakkabe ; to b. the hair shafa 
gashi. 
brushing, tsl/a. 



36 ^^1 

buck, n. prefix namiji, e.g. b. 
antelope namijin barewa; b. 
goat bunsuru, pi. bunsurai; 
water b. gwambaza ; reed b. 
kxiji, keji, kwantarafi. 
bucket, n. guga, pi. gugunay 
kwariyar guga; a leather b. 
wdsaki. 
bucking, e.g. of a horse or 

donkey tutsu, butsari. 
buckle, n. maballi. 
bud, intr. v. yin gunda, yin. 

tofo, kumpsa*. 
bud, n. gunda. 

buffalo, n., dwarf b. or bush- 
cow bauna, pi. bakane, or 
baunaye ; kutunkun bauna. 
buffalo-horn, (plant) magari^ 

yar kura. 
buffet, V. buga, dambe. 
bug, n. kazunzumi, gazunzumi 

(S.), kudi. 
build, tr. V. gina, kafa; the 
former is also spec, applied 
to construction of roads, the 
latter to that of roof etc. 
with beams : kasantada*. 
builder, magini. 
building, a, n. garu*. 
built, past part, ginanne, pi. 

ginannu. 
bull, n. 1. (male of horned 
cattle) sa, bajimi (S.), bajini 
(K.), bijimi, bishimi, kinna : 
spec, large (castrated) b. bur- 
tumijurtumi ; b. for carrying 



bullet 



37 



bush-cat 



loads takarkari^ p]. takar- 
karai. 

2. gen. (male of any large 
animal) toro, pi. toranni, to- 
rone, e.g. bull elephant toron 
giwa; toro with omission of 
gitva is often specially applied 
to the male elephant = ria- 
mijin giwa. 

bullet, n. harsashe, pi. harsa- 
sai ; harsa (S. ), pi. harsashi, 
dutsim hindiga; see cart- 
ridge. 

bulrush, shalla. 

bunch, n. (e.g. a b. of flowers) 
dame or dami, pi. ddmuna 
or damraa, dunji. 

bundle, ddme^ dam% dunji., 
gwallo; to place in bundles 
yin jeni. 

burden, n. kaya, pi. kayayaki. 

burdensome, adj., see heavy 
and troublesome. 

burial, abstr. n. hiso, bizni, 
birni. 

burial-cloth, native, n. zugu ; 
see winding-sheet. 

burial-place, n. makwanche, 
wurin bizne, wurin kushewa, 
wurin kusheyi^ kusJieya. 

burn, V. 1. tr. kona, kone, kuna, 
soya, suya, surya, toyi, towi, 
toya, tuya; to b. up com- 
pletely konkone, spec, to b. 
with a hot iron lalas*. 
2. intr. kuna, kone ; fis. of 



desire etc., the heart burned 
zuchiya ta kuna. 

burning, particip. adj. mai- 
fura, konewa', b. disease kona 
or kuna* ; a smell of b. 
karni, kas7ii, kaur. 

burnous, alkyahba, pi. alk- 
yabbu. 

burnt, past part, konanne, fem. 
konanna, pi. konannu ; spec, 
b. food, n. kamzo, kanzo ; b. 
all over, adv. kurmus*. 

burrow, to raraka, raruke. 

burst, V. tr. and intr. fashe, 
pashe ; bursting out laughing 
fashewa da dariya ; sounds of 
bursting (onomatopoeic) /«^s ; 
to b. open tsiyayye (K.). 

bury, tr. v. bizne, bisne, birna, 
bisa, bishe, binne*, turbude, 
turumbude* ; spec, to b in 
the earth as locusts do their 
eggs turbude. 

burying-place, n. see burial- 
place. 

bush, n. spec, thorny b. kwab- 
dodo, kaudodo, sarkakiya ; 
thick-foliaged b. used as food 
sukuki* ; b. in the sense of 
uncultivated forest land daji, 
rukuki ; b. in sense of scrub or 
farm b. jeji, kunchi, kumchi. 
bush-buck, lesser b. or 'har- 
nessed antelope' (i.e. Trage- 
laphus scriptus) mazo, ganjar. 
bush-cat, see cat.! 



bush-cow 



38 



butt 



bush-cow, or dwarf buffalo 
hauna, pi. hakane, haunaye. 

business, n. 1. (trade, com- 
merce) cJmiiki, shag all, pi. 
shagulla (S.), or shagulgula 
(K.), bukdta, sha'ani ; to do 
b. yin shdgali; to do b. with 
yin da. 

2. gen. ( = concern) hukata] 
also, in neg. and interrog. 
sentences, ruwa, e.g. it is no 
b. of mine ba ruwana or habu 
ruwana^ what b. is it of yours 
ina (lit. where?) ruwankul 
go about your b. ka tafi 
abinka ; minding one's own 
b. sha'ani; mind your b. 
shiga sha'anlnka; he went 
about his b. ya yi zamansa. 

3. (affair or thing) abu, e.g. 
a bad b. abin mugu. 

bustard, the lesser b. kadab- 
kara^ kadafkara, sokara* ; 
the greater b. tuji. 

busybody, mai-kwarmato. 

but, 1. adversative conj. amma ; 
cfo is at times found where 
the opposition is not (as with 
amma) explicit and logical, 
e.g. but are you able to do 
this 1 da kana iya yin haka ? 
/ache*, balshe*, bari dai. 

2. exceptive prep, and conj. 
sai, e.g. a woman's entire 
body ought to be strictly 
concealed 'but the soles of 



her feet and her eyes jikin 
mache duk yi aVaura ya ke 
sai ko matakai sai ido ; those 
who love thee can but salute 
again m,asowa naka sai kum,a 
salmawa ; neg. there is no 
health in it, nothing but 
sickness babu lajiya chiki 
nata sai chiwuta ; there is 
often an idiomatic ellipsis 
before sai, e.g. the whole 
street was nothing but water 
dukan kasuwa sai ruwa,. 
nothing but blood sai jini ; 
in this way is to be explained 
the phr. sai lafiya, i.e. no- 
thing but well, i.e. quite 
well. The expr. bamda or 
banda may = English but, e.g. 
put nothing in the pot but 
meat kada ku sa komi chikin 
tukunya bamda nama where 
sai nam,a would be equally 
correct. 

butcher, n. mafauchi, mahau- 
chi, pi. Tnahauta. 

butcher, tr. v., i.e. to slaughter 
animals in technical sense 
yin fawa. 

butcher-bird (shrike), bam- 
baini. 

butchery, n. tech. (slaughter- 
ing of animals) yai(;a. 

butt, intr. V. kdra, yin kdro^ 
tunkwiya, tunkuda, e.g. the 
two goats are butting each 



butter 



39 



cake 



other awaki su biyu suna 
tunkuda junansu or da juna. 
butter, 11. 1. gen. whether 
animal or vegetable mai. 

2. cow b. main shanu, 
dunguli, dungule, turde; a 
large leathern bottle for 
holding b. giwan hasa. 

butterfly, n. hamota or bama- 
wuta, kwalkwcda, kilikili, 
kilkili ; the expr. litdfin A llah 
(writing of God), or dokin 
Allah (God's horse) is often 
used to designate the butter- 
fly ; cf. tadawal Allah, malam 
hude litafinka. 

butter-tree, n. the shea-butter 
tree (Bassia Parkii) kadanya\ 
shea-butter, i.e. its thick 
butter-like oil, inain kadanya, 
main kade, or man kade. 

butting, n. kdro, tuni, tunk- 
wiyi. 

buttock, n. gato. 

button, n. makuhli or makulli, 
pi. makuhlai, mabantari (K.), 
mabantali (S.), mxjthallen riga, 
anini*. 

buy, \\ saya, sayi, saye, sai ; 
to b. and bring back sayo ; 
to be bought sayu. 

buyer, n.mai-saye,^\. masu-saye. 

buying, sayi ; espec. wholesale 
b. faja; b. and selling saye 
da sayarwa, or saye da sa- 
yaswa. 



buzz, n. amo ; b. of bees kugi^ 
kogi. 

buzz, intr. v. amo or yi7i amo. 

by, 1. prep, instr. (with) da, 
e.g. he was struck by an 
arrow aka halbe shi da kibiya, 

2. prep. loc. (near) kusa, 
kusa da, or kusa ga, e.g. by 
the shore of the pool kusa ga 
bakin gulbi ; (along by) baya, 
e.g. we walked by the town 
mun yi yawo bayan birni. 

3. prep, distributive, e.g. 
by fours fudu fudu, by tens 
goma goma. 

4. adv. (near) kusa. 
by-and-by, a7^ jima and zuwa 

zuwa. 
byword, of. her character be- 
came a b. halinta ya zama 
sara. 

cackle, intr. v. yin karkara. 

cackling, w.kyarkyara, kirkira. 

cactus, a prickly Euphorbia 
with c.-like habit and milky 
juice tinya, tunya, kyarana. 

cadger, bakanchi, maichile, 
masha-chile. 

cage, n. akurke, akurki, pi. 
akurkai, gidan tsuntsuwa ; 
a cage for fowl (a hencoop) 
akurkin kaza. 

cake, n., c. of rice or guinea- 
corn waina (K.), tsala, tsaliya 
(K.), tswala (S.),ma5a(Zaria); 



calabash 



40 



calm 



' p. of wheat flour and honey 
fankasu \ c. of bean flour and 
oil soto ; c. made from beans 
of the dorowa tree daddawa; 
c. of oil, honey and rice or 
wheat tsatsafa, hankuru, 
hakuru, kosai, shashaka. 

calabash, n. gora, pi. gorina, 
kwariya, burmi, gyandama, 
maburmi, muburmi ; spec, 
small c. kumbu ; long-necked 
c. used as water-bottle kurtu, 
kortu ; c. finger-basin kwa- 
chiya ; c. strainer rariya ; 
a small c. placed in a water 
pot to prevent water spilling 
when carried magumki, gum- 
karuwa. 

calamity, n. (distress, adver- 
sity) tsiya, maslfaj maydta^ 
wahala ; a c. (a distressing 
or adverse thing or event) 
abin muyu or mugun abu. 

calculate, v. (to compute, 
reckon) yin kidaya, kilga, 
kirga, yin lisafi. 

calculation, n. 1. (act of com- 
puting or reckoning) kidaya, 
kida, kididdiga. 

2. (sum or amount reached 
bye.) kidaya, kida, kididdiga. 
lisafi, the last commonly ap- 
plied to accounts, bills, etc. ; 
beyond c. (incalculable, in- 
numerable) sun fi kidaya. 

caldron, n. tukunya. 



calf, n. 1. (young of large ani- 
mal) da, connective dan, pi. 
yaya or ya, connect, yayan 
or yan, coll. pi. diya, connect. 
diyar. 

2. (young of cow) mardki, 
fem. mardka, pi. maruka or 
ynarukka ; spec, a young 
female c. karsana. 

calf, n., i.e. of the leg dambubu, 
tukatukai* (K.). 

calico, n. alkdmura ; white 
c. for making tobes maha- 
mudi, alawayo (S.). 

call, tr. V. (to summon) kira, ki- 
raya, Mraye; to c. or summon 
to where the speaker is, and 
also simply to c. kirawo ; to c. 
in the sense of to name kira 
suna ; 'called,' i.e. named 
or entitled is expressed thus : 
a man called Bube want 
7nutuin sunansa Bube, a great 
man who was called the 
Madaki baba ana che da shi 
Madaki ; calling out, verbal 
n. kira ; one who calls to 
prayer makiran salla. 

callous, dakanta. 

calm, n. (absence of wind, still 
weather) natsu, natso, natsu- 
wa, nitso, nitsuwa, also used 
fig. in the sense of relaxation 
or rest. 

calm, tr. v. (to appease) lal- 
lashi or lUlashi, sanyaya. 



caltrop 

caltrop (plant), tsaidau, tsidau, 

dayi ; water c. gyadar ruwa. 
calumniate, v. chim-haya, 

rada*. 
calumny, n. chimbaya, rada. 
camel, n. rakumi, fern, rakuma, 

pi. rakumma ; the female c. 

taguwa, pi. taguwai, tagu- 

woyi ; spec, large male c. 

■amale ; a two-humped camel 

uturkumami, f. aturkumama; 

s, running c. jeraya ; the 

constellation of the C. ta- 

gmva. 
camp, n. 1. (halting ground 

of travellers etc.) zango, pi. 

zanguna. 

2. (in the military sense) 

sansani ; camping-place, n. 

ivui'in sabka or sapka. 
camphor, n. kdfur. 
camwood, majigi. 
can, auxiliary v. iya, aho samu; 

he could not enter ba ya 

samu ya shiga ; with passives 

a iya may be employed, e.g. 

it cannot be lifted ba a iya 

a dauke shi. 
cancel, to c. an agreement 

warware. 
cane, n. 1. gora, pi. gorina; 

spec, water-cane burgu ; sort 

of bamboo c. kwangi, kwagiri; 

sugar c. takanda, rake. 

2. (walking-stick) sanda, 

pi. sanduna, kulki. 



41 



capture 



cannibal, n. 1. jan-maye, mai- 
chin mutane. 

2. c. people, or tribe yam- 
yam^ nyamnyam. 

cannon, n. madafa*, agwa. 

canoe, n. jirigi, abara^, jirgi, 
pi. jirage ; c. cover rumpa^ 
komi* (S.), rum/a ; c. paddles 
filafile or fulafule ; c. paddle 
used as a rudder matuki ; a c. 
pole gwangwala*, kwangwala. 

canoe, to paddle a c, v. tuka, 
the participial n. of which is 
tukatva. 

canter, n. hammadanchi. 

canter, intr. v. zugurubtu, 
jigeribti, jigribti, kwakkwafa, 

cantle, of a saddle kwachiar 
baya. 

cap, n. tagiya ; spec, a white 
c. worn inside fez fula, pi. 
fuluna ; a blue or black c. 
/ula saki ; c. of red cloth 
with tassel (fez) fuladdara, 
fulandara, faladara ; a c. 
with two flaps to cover the 
ears hdbal kdda. 

cape, made of palm fibre 
kabido, kabudo. 

capsicum, barkono. 

capture, tr. v. 1. (to catch or 
take, of prisoners, slaves) 
kama, kankaraa^ same. 

2. (to conquer, get dominion 
over a city or people) c^^, e.g. 
he conquered the people, the 



caracal 



42 



carrier 



king was captured ya chisu 
oka kama sariki ; to c. and 
bring back chiwo. 

caracal, (lynx) dage. 

caravan, n. ayari ; the chief 
of a c. jaji; head-man of a 
c, who walks behind it ma- 
dugu, pi. madugawa; guide 
or forerunner of a c. jdgdba 
or shugaha ; the tax paid by 
a c. for permission to travel 
kurdin boda, /dto, /ito ; a 
collection of caravans kd/ar 
fatake. 

carcass, n. gawa^ pi. gawa- 
waki. 

card, to c. cotton shlha. 

cardinal-bird, the scarlet 
muluji, maluji. 

cards, playing c. yaya*. 

care, n. 1. (heed) ruwa in neg. 
and inter rog. clauses, e.g. 
what c. of mine is it? ina 
ruwanal hankali, which also 
has the sense of forethought. 
2. (anxiety) matamache*^ 
e.g. the cares of the world 
matamachen duniyan nan ; 
see sorrow. 

care for, v. (heed, regard) 
tvaiwaya, kula or yin kUla, 
tara, tsere ; to c. for (to pay 
attention to and so beware 
of) tuna, yin hankuri ; all 
of these verbs except the 
first govern an object by 



means of prep, da^ e.g. he 
cared nought for his reproof 
hai kula da foronsa ha. 

careful, adj. (\\Qediu\)mai-han- 
kali ; be c. ! hdtara, hutara. 

carefully, adv. 1. (heedfully, 
prudently) da hankali. 

2. (attentively) sdrai, e.g. 
look c. duba sd^^ai. 

careless, adj. (imprudent) ma- 
ras-hankali, bizki ; (inatten- 
tive to work) mai-lalachi. 

carelessly, adv. babu hankaliy 
da lalachi, da lala/anchi, da 
sakafchi; to act c. through 
absence of mind shagalchi. 

carelessness, n. 1. (want of 
care) sakafchi. 

2. (indifference, idleness) 
lalachi, lala/anchi. 

caress, n. lalaba. 

caress, v. yin lalaba. 

cargo, n. kaya. 

carpenter, n. mdsassaki, pL 
masassaka ; shop of a c. ma- 
saka. 

carpet, n. kilishi*. 

carriage, karusa*. 

carrier, n. gen, mai-daukan 
kaya ; spec, hired c. dan 
aldro ; head or chief c. sarikin 
aldro ; a trader who carries 
his goods on his head dangu- 
rum/a, bojuwa, bujuwa, mai- 
kaya ; money paid to carriers 
su/uri, su/urchi; an epithet 



carrion 



43 



catch 



applied to a carrier who keeps 
putting down his load mai- 
hari. 

carrion, mdsai^ mosai, mushe. 

carry, tr. v. kai, shidi, the 
latter constr. with da ; to c. 
in shiga da, shigo da (lit. to 
enter with), nothing shall be 
carried tied up into the town 
of Zaria ha a shigo da komi a 
hirni; to c. on (transact) yi \ 
to c. off tafi da ; to c. through 
(accomplish) iyas, iyas da. 

cartridge, harsa, harsashi; c. 
case kamsir, kurfi, kwanso, 
kwasfar harsashi ; see bullet. 

case, n. (receptacle, cover) gida, 
e.g. needle-c. gidan alura ; 
spec, leathern c. for holding 
a book gdfaka, gufaka. 

case, n. 1. (state or condition) 
zarna. 

2. (event, thing) ahu, e.g. 
a bad c. (i.e. a bad business) 
mugun abu. 

cassava, rogo. 

cast, tr. V. jefa, jefi, jefo ; to 
c. aside yas da, yadda, yashe ; 
to c. out (throw out) je/a da, 
je/as, jefas da, je/sa*,jefshe*; 
(to expel as from the mind, 
the throne, etc.) Jidda, Jita 
with da, fishe, e.g. he was c. 
(or driven ) out akajitad da shi 
or aka fishe shi ; to c. up (to 
reckon), yin lisafi to c. the 



young hari ; cf. hai/uwa hari 
still-born ; see calculate. 

castigate, tr. v. 1. (punish) 
fallasa, pallasa. 

2. (beat) huga, bubbuga. 

castigation, n. 1. (punishment) 
fallasa, pallasa. 

castor-oil, (plant) zurma. 

castrated, tauri*. 

castration, fidiya, pidia. 

casualty, see accident. 

cat, n.muzuru, muzulu,7nazuTU 
m., fem. kaiiwa or kyanwa,. 
pi. kyanwuria,kyanwai,mdgey 
mussa, micsa, pi. mussoshi, 
mussai (S.) ; spec, tortoise- 
shell or spotted c. tsawarwara;. 
tabby bush c. tsara ; civet-c. 
jibda, mdgen tantal, muzu- 
run juda, muzurun tantal., 
kyanwar tantal, tunkun jibda ;. 
African palm civet or genet 
madadashi ; wild c. jimolo, 
baudari, tunku, wazagi (S.) ; 
serval-c. rabji, rabi*, robe'^y 
inyawara. 

cataract, n. (or corneal ulcers) 
hakiya or hekiya, tsauriya,. 
tsawuriya. 

catch, tr, V. kama, ruski, chdfa,. 
chafe, sarbe ; to c. a cold, 
e.g. I caught cold sanyi 
ya kama ni (lit. the cold 
caught me) ; to c, up chika, 
da ; catching chdfiya ; to c. 
intr. (of a fire) habaka. 



caterpillar 



44 



cemetery 



caterpillar, hairy, n. gizdka, 
gisaka, kisdka*, tsutsa, gama- 
toro ; an edible c. tsarna ; a 
light green c. wutan ganye. 

•cat-fish, gondo (S.), kulume, 
mari, kurungu; electric c.-f. 
(Malapteruruselectricus)mm- 
jiriya (K.), mijiriya (S.). 

cattle, n. coll. dabha or dabbo, 
pi. dabboni or dabbobi; (cows) 
shanu ; c. disease bingiri; 
humped c. jdba-jdba ; c.-shed 
garke, gerke, garge (S.) ; a 
place for feeding c. makiyaya; 
a Fulani c. camp rugga. 

caught, particip. adj. (of a 
lire) gasashe, fern, gasashiya, 
pi. gasasu ; to get c. in falling 
sage. 

caul, Hgar haifuwa. 

cause, n. 1. (origin or ground) 
gutsu, sabdbi, sanadi ; with- 
out c. babu sabdbi. 

2. (reason adduced in proof 
or explanation) dalili, sabili, 
hamzari, e.g. they give a c. (i.e. 
a reason for confidence) and 
an excuse su kan kawo dalili 
da huja ; hence often applied 
to texts from the Koran. 

cause, tr. v. sa, ba or bada, 
maida, yi, rataya*, tdsdda* ; 
these are construed as follows : 
I caused him to laugh na ba 
shi dariya^ he caused me to 
fear ya ba ni tsoro, he caused 



him to sleep ya sa shi shi 

kwanche or ya maida shi shi 

kwanche. 
causeless, adj. babu sababi, 

kakarai. 
caution, n. (prudent care) 

hankali. 
cautious, n. da hankali ; to 

be c. yin hankali. 
cavalry, n. barde, pi. barade ; 

c. with shields garki or gari- 

kine ; collection of c. kangar*. 
cave, n. kogo^ pi. koguna, ma- 

raya*. 
cease, intr. v. daina or dena, 

e.g. she did not c. ba ta daina 

ba, tr. she ceased crying ta 

daina kuka ; the rain ceased 

ruwa ya dauke. 
ceaselessly, adv. kul yaushe. 
ceil, tr. V. ydba, ydbe. 
ceiled, particip. adj. yababbe, 

fem. yababba, pi. yababbu. 
ceiling, damren-guga, dauren- 

guga. 
celebrate, tr. v. (to praise, 

honour) yin yabo. 
celebrated, particip. adj. yab- 

abbe,iem. yababba, pi. yababbu. 
celebrity, n. yabo. 
celestial, adj. mai-sama, spec. 

applied to God. 
cement, (used in making roofs) 

babarkiya, katsi. 
cemetery, n., see burial- 
place. 



centipede 



45 



change 



centipede, n., a harmless c. 
shanshani, soiisoni*, pi. shan 
shame, aimaka (S.), daidaya) 
see millipede, 
centre, n. tsdka, tsdkiya ; spec, 
c. of the inside of thatch 
roof kwando. 
certain, adj. 1. (assured, true) 
e.g. c. (i.e. true) words maga- 
na tabbatachiya; are you c. ? 
ka tabbata ? ka tabbata or ka 
shaida ; to be c. sakankanche, 
tdbata, tdbache ; to make c. 
yin tabbas, wajabta. 

2. (one, some) wani, fern. 
wata, wota, pi. wadansu, 
wansu, wasu, wosu \ cf. a 2.; 
to express a e. person known 
but unnamed ( = so-and-so) 
kaza^ e.g. a c. person passed 
mutum kaza ya louche. 
certainly, adv. da gaskiya, 
an che, hakika, Idbudda, la- 
buddi, tabbas, takar (K.) ; c. 
is expressed also by means 
of tabbata, e.g. he is c. there 
ya tabbata rian, babu shakka. 
certainty, n. gaskiya. 
certificate, n. Idya*. 
certified, particip. adj. shai- 
dadde, fem. shaidadda, pi. 
shaidaddu. 
certify, v. hakikanta. 
cesspit, n. saiga, ^\. salgagi. 
Chad, pr. n." of lake, Tsada or 
ruwan Tsada; see Benu6. 



chafe, intr. v. (to feel irritated) 
ji7i haushi ; he chafed at this- 

ya ji haushin wannan. 
chaff, n. dusa (K.), dussa (S.)^ 

kaikai, soshiya, kona ; small 

piece of c. tsinki. 
chagrin, n. haushi. 
chain, n. sarka, salka, pL 

sarkuna or sarkoki ; coll. 

chains sasdri ; c. armour 



chair, n. kujera, kushera*. 
chalk, n. aljibus, alzibus ; chalk 

or white earth used for 

bleaching thread alii. 
chamber, n. daki, pi. dakuna; 

very small c. or closet lolokiy 

pi. lolokai. 
chamberlain, n. madaki, ma- 

daiki. 
chamber-pot, shdda. 
chameleon, n. hawainiya (K.), 

hawaniya, hanwawa (S.). 
champion, gamzo. 
chance, n., see accident, 

opportunity, 
chance, impers. v., it chanced 

ya faru. 
change, v. 1. tr. and intr. 

sauya, sawaya, sawoya. 

2. tr. maida, maishe, mu- 
saya, musayi, musaye ; to c. 
one's mind sake shawara, 
sake, saki. 

3. intr. may as da, riklda, 
jirkita, the last referring to 



change 



46 



charm 



any c. of position whether 
material or figurative; e.g. 
he changed his body ya sauya 
or sawaya jikinsa, I changed 
to a moslem na sauya rnu- 
sulmi, the king has changed 
(the value of) the Spanish 
dollar sariki ya maida kurdin 
madafa, my master changed 
my wages ubangijina ya sake 
ladana, I am changing into 
some creature or other ina 
rikida wani abii, I changed 
myself into a bird na rikida 
tsuntsuwa, they changed 
sides sun swaba juna. 

change, n., e.g. of money kwaro, 
cMko ; (alteration) jirkita. 

changed, particip. sauyaye, 
fem. sauyaya, pi. sauyayu ; 
sakakke, fem. sakakkiya, pi. 
sakakku; rikidadde, fem. riki- 
daddiya, pi. rikidaddu. 

changing, participial n. sa- 
kiwa, sauyi, jirkitawa, for 
the application of the latter 
cf. jirkita under change. 

chapping, e.g. of skin fdso. 

chapter, n. (division of a book) 
kai, sura*, pi. surori*, e.g. 
the tenth c. kai na-goma or 
sura ta-gonia. 

character, n. 1. (disposition) 
hali, e.g. such is his c. halinsa 
shi ke or halinsa ke nan ; 
tabi'a, dahi'a. 



2. (good repute) suna ; he 
bears a high c. sunansa na- 
gari ne ; see fame. 

3. to have a certain c. is 
expressed by means of the v. 
tarika, e.g. he is a quarrelsome 
c. (he is always quarrelling) 
ya tarika fada. 

characteristic, n. hdli, pi. 

hdlaye ; theft is a c, of the 

thief sata hdlin barawo. 
charcoal, n. 1. gawayi, pi. 

gawaye, not used of burning 

c. for which cf. 2. 

2. burning c. garwashi, 
pi. garwashosJii. 

3. charcoal- tree, a small 
tree kiriya, from which is 
made smith's c. garwashin 
kiriya. 

charge, v. 1. (to load) chlka 
or dora, e.g. they have 
charged their guns suka dora 



2. (to command) hakumche, 
hakumta. 

3. (to rush on, to attack) 
fadi (bisa, bisa ga or) a bisa. 

charity, n., see alms. 

charm, n. 1. gen. whether 
written or of any other kind 
mdgani, Idya, pi. lawaye, 
layu ; hatumi, katumi*, saka- 
tubu*, bara, talili ; sunan 
Allah (lit. the name of God), 
this is used of various charms 



charmer 



47 



chief 



which are written on a smooth 
board, the ink from which is 
washed oflf and swallowed. 

2. spec, a c. to promote a 
successful deal tsdrdka ; stone 
c. for woman's neck kandu 
or kandun ido ; c. against 
injury in war layan sahani; 
an inverted c. placed in a 
field as a charm against 
thieves kwanda, kunda, tsdji ; 
love chsivaxstsihbn, raantawa* ; 
c. to render anyone invisible 
Idyar zana; c. to ward off 
arrows sha hara, Idyar sahani ; 
injurious c. saminu or savnmo ; 
see also tira. 

charmer, snake-, n. gardi, 
pi. gardawa, turde, pi. tur- 
daiva. 

charms, 1. to write c. tsubbu; 
one who writes c. mai-tsubbu ; 
one who utters deadly c. 
maita. 

2. (female attractions) see 
beauty. 

chase, n. (hunting) yarawto. 

chase, v. 1. (to hunt) yin 
farauta. 

2. (to drive away) kore. 

chaste, adj. tsari. 

chattels, urula. 

cheap, adj. da araha, da arha ; 
it is c. shina da araha ; a c. 
sale gwanjo. 

cheapness, n. araha, arha. 



cheat, n. 1. (fraud) kura, riba, 
rikichi, 

2. (one who cheats) machi 
kura, pi. machiya kura ; tnai- 
chin kura ; mai-^^iba, pi. masu- 
riba or mai-riba da kura; 
mai-zambachi, mai-zarnhata. 

cheat, V. chin kura, chin riba, 
rikiche, rinta, zambache, zam- 
bata, sdfa (S.), zantara. 

cheating, n. kui-a, hayinchi ; 
see prec. 

check, V. 1. (reprove) kwaba. 
2. (hinder, restrain) hdna. 

cheek, n. kumchi, pi. kumatu ; 
hair on the cheeks saje; a man 
with fat cheeks dan kumatu. 

cheer, v. bada murna, yin 
murna. 

cheese, n. chukumara, chuku. 

cheetah (or hunting leopard), 
rabbi, gundumau*. 

chew, V. tr. tamna, tona, tauna, 
tsuke, tuke, e.g. we are chew- 
ing kola-nut muna tamna 
goro. 

chewed, particip. tamnanne, 
fern, tamnaana, pi. tarn- 
nannu. 

chewing, n. tamna, tsiko (K.), 
tsuku. 

chew-stick, (i.e. name of trees) 
marke, marike, tafashiya, 

chicken, n. dan tsdko, tsiyako, 
pi. yan tsdko. 

chief, n. bagare, pi. garewa, 



child 



48 



circling 



haha, e.g. he is their c. shi 
ne babansu, also in sense of 
a c, a great man ; sariki, 
often in the sense of head or 
president of any body, trade 
etc. ; ido (lit. eye) is used 
in poetry thus, behold Bello, 
chief over his kingdom duba 
ga Bello idon malki nai ; 
turcari* ; see under fadawa. 
child, n. 1. (son or daughter) 
da, connect, dan^ fem. diya^ 
pi. yaya^ yayaye and ya, 
connect, yan. 

2. (young person) yaro, pi. 
yara. 

3. a very young c, an 
infant up to one year of age 
jariri, jarili, yarili, jinjiri ; 
spec. c. carried on a woman's 
back bumbu, goyo, goiyo ; a 
c. which dies soon after birth 
dan wabi. 

4. with c, see pregnant, 
childhood, n. yarinta, yaran- 

chi (K.), yaranidka (S.), 

kurichiya, kuruchiya. 
childishness, n. halin yaro, 

halin kankanta, kuruchiya or 

kurchiya. 
chill, n. funturu, especially 

that felt at night, 
chillies, barkono. 
chin, n. hdba, pi. hdbobi ; double 

c. mar or or malolo ; the 

lower part of the c. leke (S.). 



China, n. geogr. ^S'm*. 

chip, to c, e.g. with a hammer 

kwarsana. 
chisel, n. kurufi*,furufi*. 
choice, zabe, zabi, 'zabantakay. 

zabanchi. 
choke, tr. and intr. v. mdkure ;. 

to cause to c. sumanchey 

sunanche. 
choking, due to swallowing 

anything, n. mdkura, kwdra*. 
choose, V. zaba, zabe ; spec, to 

c. out one or more pieces i 

of anything (to select) wari. \ 
chosen, 1. pass. v. zabu. 

2. particip. zababbe, fem. 

zababba, pi. zababbu. 
Christian, a, n. annasdra, also- 
used as coll. pi. Christians; 

to become a C nasaranta. 
Christianity, n. addinin an- 

nasara. 
church, i.e. a place of worship^ 

n. masallachi, pi. masallataL 
chum, V. burka, burga^ tunk- 

wiya nono. 
churning, tuguwa*. 
cicatrice, n. tambo, tabo. 
cigarette, stump of a guntun 

taba. 
cinders, n. garwashi, pi. ga/r- 

washoshi ; garwashin wuta, 
circle, n. bukdri*, kawanya 

(K.). 
circling, of a bird over its 

prey jewa, 



circuit 



49 



clean 



\ circuit, to make the c. of, tr. 
V. kewaye, kewayi, yin kewaye', 
see under round. 

circumcise, v. yi7i kdchiya or 
yanke kdchiya, sdlasdd da{^.). 

circumcision, n. kdchiya, sala- 
suiva, sha. 

circumspectly, duhanaii du- 
banan, lekanan lekanan. 

cistern, large, n. bingi, kurkud- 
duji, kunduddufi or kudud- 
duji ; a c. for collecting rain- 
water kwiyaka, kuyaka. 

citizen, n. dan-gari, pi. yan- 
gari. 

city, n. birni, pi. birane or 
birnuwa, used of large and 
walled towns, while gari, pi. 
yaruruwa, garuruka and ga- 
rigaru, is applied to less im- 
portant and to country towns. 

civet-cat, n. jibda, juda (K.), 
magen tantal ; frankincense | 
obtained from the c. htrare. I 

civil-war, basasa. \ 

claim, n. alhaki, e.g. the c. of 
one defrauded. 

claim, tr. v. (to demand as 
one's own) nema, e.g. I claim j 
my own ina nema abin nawa; \ 
to claim a debt bim bashi ; I 
cf. bi. 
clamour, n. (loud outcry) ku- 

riiruwa, dilmi, surutu (S.). 
clamour, v. (to cry aloud) yin 
kururuwa. 
R. H. D. 



clan, n. dangi, pi. dangogi, 

iri, pi. irare. 
clang, the c. of metal on metal 

kyang. 
clap, V. (to strike the hands 
together in applauding etc.) 
td/a or yin taji (K.), yin tabi 
(S.), ban hannu. 
clapping, tafi, tabi (S.). 
clarify, by straining, tr. v. 

tachi. 
clasp, n. kugiya. 
clasp, V. (to embrace) rungume. 
claw, n. of an animal, akaija^ 

dagi. 
claw, to yayctga; see scratch, 
clay, n. yimbu, yumbu, yambu, 
e.g. they are built of c. an 
gina su da yimbu ; a lump of 
c. burugushe* or burbushi* ; 
a yellow c. used as a dye for 
women's faces ddla ; white c. 
karmatako, karmantako (K.); 
a hard c. soil kekuiva. 
clean, adj. 1. gen. sdrai, of 
wheat chari or tsari. 

2. (ceremonially and so also 
morally c, pure) halal, halas, 
tsari or chari. 
clean, tr. v. e.g. with water 
darwaye, dariwaye*, kwdla, 
kwarkware (S.) ; of the hair, 
garments etc. tsabta, cf. wanke; 
(to scrape off, c. off) gogi, goge'^ 
to c. from husks surfe, surfa ; 
(to render c.) yin saraij 
4 



cleaned 



50 



clock 



maida, sarai, gyarta; to c. 

the teeth kivalkwale ; to c. 

raw cotton sMha. 
cleaned, particip. gyartache^ 

fern, gyartatta, pi. gyartattu ; 

wankakke, fem. wankakka, pi. 

wankakku; c. from husks etc., 

of rice, shanshere, surfaffe. 
cleaning, of cotton sMhi. 
cleanliness, n., of the person, 

clothes etc. tsahta, tsapta. 
cleanness, n. karari ; esp. in 

a religious or moral sense fear- 

ki, tsalki ; cf. seq. 
cleanse, tr. v. (of the heart) 

tsarkaka or charkaka. 
clear, adj. 1. (of liquids, the 

sky etc.) da tachi, tangarai, 

tangaran ; the sun looks like 

clearing gari yaishirinsarari, 

2. (manifest, plain) zahiri, 
sdrai, kwarai. 

3. (pure, irreproachable) 
tsari or chari. 

clear, tr. v., to c. ground before 
ploughing, sdsabe. 

clear, to make, tr. v. (to ex- 
plain) waye, e.g. this matter 
is difficult, I wish you to 
make it c. to me abin nan da 
wuya ina so ka waye mini. 

clearing, c. ground for sowing 
za/a (S.). 

clearly, adv. (manifestly, ob- 
viously) sdrai, kwarai. 

clearness, tachi. 



cleave, tr. v. (to cut with a 

blow) sare. 
cleave to, to, intr. v. rike, 

like, rika, kakka/e, riki, 

ddfe. 
clerk, akawu. 
clever, adj. 1. i.e. in an art or 

profession gwani, goni, pi. 

gwanaye, gwannai. 

2. gen. (astute or cunning) 

shaitan, i.e. as c. as Satan, 
cleverly, adv. (cunningly) da 

wayo. 
cleverness, n. 1. (in an art 

etc.) gwaninta. 

2. gen. azanchij hudi, hiki- 

ma, fahimta. 
click, made with tongue or 

teeth, a sign of vexation 

kwafa, kyache (S.). 
climb, V. hawa or hau, e.g. he 

climbed the hill ya hawa 

dutsi or ya hawa hisa dutsi. 
c\itoiC\^,Jilaniya, tsele. 
cloak, n. alkyabha, pi. alkyahbu^ 

riga*. 
cloak, tr. v. 1. (to put on a c.) 

sa alkyabba. 

2. (to conceal) ru/e, riiji or 

ri/e. 
clock, n. sa'a, lotu*, loto*. 

Hausas who are acquainted 

with clocks express ' o'clock ' 

thus, three o'clock sa'a uku ; 

half past eight o'clock sa'a 

takwas da shashi; karife is 



clogs 

also used in describing the 
time, as the hours are often 
marked by beating iron, thus, 
what time is it now ? karife 
nawa ne yanzu ; it is two 
o'clock ya yi karife biyu. 
clogs, wooden dan garafai (S.). 
close, V. 1. tr. sdda; to c. a 
door, box etc. rufe, rufi or 
rife^ like ; to c. the fist tan- 
kwashe; to c. a hole done, 
danne, ddne ; the door is 
closed (also in fig. sense) an 
rufe kofa. 

2. to c. with, used of a 
bargain or agreement yarda. 
CSlose by, adv. kusa, daura da, 
duhbara da, dahda, da/da, 
dabrada. 
blosed, particip. (fastened up) 
girkakke, fern, girkakkiya, pi. 
girkakkw, cf. phr. the road 
is c. ha7iya ta mutu. 
ploset, bayan gida, makewaye ; 
(small room) loloki, pi. lolo- 
kai. 

^Oth, n., spec, names of stuffs 

are : blue c. shudi ; blue, 

shiny c. turkudi, ^l.turkudda; 

\ c. formed of blue and white 

; strips keke; native blue or 

black c. with silk inwoven 

; ridi; black striped c. from 

Ilorin bunu; a black and 

white women's c. zalwani ; a 

coarse white c. gwado ; a c. 



51 cloth 

I with white stripes gwanda ; 
a white c. with red stripes 
I yorori (K.) ; a black and red 
c. kudi; a c. with alternate 
strips of two colours luru ; a 
variegated c. zaura, zawara or 
idon zaura; variegated c. used 
for turbans barmushi ; a kind 
of velvet c. yapki, karamiski, 
kadamiski; a red c. shali ; 
a white native c. aljinti, dimi* ^ 
zauwati ; a c. that has no seam 
in it liwdsa ; woollen c. mu- 
lufi or maluji; a brocade c. 
worked with gold inside 
dibajo; (a piece of c. used 
in various senses and spec. = 
Engl, 'a cloth') a loin c. 
bante, banche, pi. bantuna ; 
a shoulder c. leki ; a small 
piece of c, a c. kalkafi -, a 
woman's c. zdne, pi. zannuwa 
or zanna, gyauto (K.); c. 
gusset in a tobe shiga; a strip 
of c. zugii ; a piece of c. made 
of about twenty strips wawa ; 
a roll of c. turumi ; long strip 
of c. ausagi ; a single thick- 
ness of c. palle; a double 
thickness of c. ribe, ribi, rubi; 
a narrow strip of c. fari ; a 
blue pepper and salt pattern 
c. zabako, saki, swaki] a narrow 
silken line in c. barage ; a 
breadth of c. between two 
seams chiki ; a professional 
4—2 



cloth-measure 



52 



c. hammerer muhugu, mu- 
hugi, mabugi; see also 
barbaro, hamakuku, mai-san- 
da-orchi-goriba. 
cloth-measure, n. cubit kdmu; 
8 kdmu = l zmie, the last - 
about 15 ft.; a short length 
of cloth kyalle. 
clothe, tr. V. sitira, sutura and 
sitirta, iu/ata, tufasad da; 
sa (lit. to put on or upon), 
e.g. to put on one's clothes 
sa riguna ; e.g. the brokers 
who have made unjust profits 
shall be clothed with gar- 
ments of fire dillalaifa masu- 
riba da kura a sa ma su 
riguna wuta. 
clothes, n. {i.e. clothing) iu- 
fuwa; coll. tufa as well as 
its pi. tufafi; riguna; spec, 
beautiful c. sutura, sitira, 
haiba*, abin rufa; fine, ex- 
pensive c. kambi* ; old c. 
keso, tsumma, ragga (S.). 
clothing, n., e.g. fine c, beauti- 
ful c. ; cf. prec. 
cloud, n. habaki*, pi. habaka ; 
special names are: moving 
c. gilgije, girgije, girigiji ; 
small white, still clouds lum- 
shi; a c. that produces a 
shower zirnaniya, jitau ; 
clouds coll. gajimare, gashi- 
mare* ; to rise in clouds like 
■■ smoke turnike; the dust 



cocoa-nut 

rose in clouds kura ta tur- 
nike. 

cloudy, adj. expr. by da with 
prec, e.g. da lumshi. 

cloven, particip. rababbe, fem. 
rababba, pi. rababbu. 

cloves, n. coll. kanumfari, 
kanun/ari, hanchin kade 

<^-^- • , 1 

club, n. gwami, guduma, pi. 
gudumai; a c. for throwing 
kere. 
coal, n., see charcoal, 
coat, n. 1. riga. 

2. c. of mail made of cloth 

and padded with cotton, wool, 

etc. lifidi; a white cloth c. 

gwado. 

coaxing, lalldshi, rarrashi. 

cobra, (Naia nigricolis) he- 

machi, kumurchi, kwamachi, 

kwamarchii aarikin machizai. 

cobweb, zaren gizo, tautauchi^ 

yana. 
cock, n. 1. (male of poultry) 
zakdra, pi. zakdru ; mai-chara^ 
mai-chara. 

2. to express precisely the 
male of birds miji or namiji 
(hen mache) must be used 
where the gender is not 
denoted by different words. 
cockroach, n. kyankyaso, ka- 

fata. 
cocoa-nut palm, kivakwa\ 
attagara. 



coerce 



53 



combing 



coerce, tr. v. 1. (restrain) 

hdna. 

2. see to force, 
coffee, n. gahawa, gahiva. 
cogitate, v. tima, the obj. of 

thought is constr. with da or 

ga. 
cogitation, n. tunane. 
cohabit with, v. gamu da 

mache. 
CoiJGfure, a helmet-shaped c. 

worn by women kitso. 
coil, intr. v. ndde ; intr. and 

refl. to c. up nddu. 
cold, n. 1. ddH^ sanyi, sansan- 

ya ; I feel the c. or I feel c. 

ina jin ddri. 

2. (catarrh) ddri, nidjina, 
macassar a* y mura, sanyi, e.g. 
I have caught c. or a c. ddri 
(or sanyi) ya kama ni ; a man 
with a c. in the head mai- 
shako (S.). 

3. spec. c. felt at night 
funturu. 

4. the c. ^QBiBon funturu. 
cold, adj. ddri, da ddri, da 

sanyi; it is c. ya yi ddri; 
e.g. c. water ruwan ddri, 
ruwan sanyi, sanyin ruwa, 
they are c. suna da ddri ; to 
be stiff with c. sandare. 

colic, tsamki. 

collapse, V. to afka, auka, abka. 

collapse, I collapsed na fadi 
reran, or na fadi warwar. 



collar, n., spec, a padded cloth 

collar used in war to protect 

the back of the neck dagumi ; 

to seize a person by the c. 

dagurtie. 
collar, to make a kalmdsa, 

kahnisa (S.), kalmashe. 
collar-bone, alan gaba, alan 

kafadaj. 
collect, V. 1. tr. tdra, tar she, 

jibche, jihta ; spec, to c. a 

debt hiyo hashi, dauki bashi. 
2. intr. taru, an tara. 
collected, particip. tararre, 

fem. tararra, pi. tararru. 
collection, n. (of men and 

things) taro or taru, pi. ta- 

rori ; tsibi ; chushe. 
collector of taxes, n. jakdda*, 

jekdda*. 
colloquy, n. zanche. 
colour, n. la^mi, pi. launoni, 

launoka, rini or rina, jin si 

(S.) ; blue c. shuni or ju7ii*. 
coloured, particip. turarre*, 

fem. turan^a*, pi. turarru*. 
colt, n. dan dukushi or dan 

dukuslii. 
comb, n. masarchi, mashachi, 

matsefa, matseji, masoshi, shata. 
comb, c. of a cock tsoro. 
comb, tr. V. gyarta, tsefe, tsatsefe, 

shata or shache, tsefi, e.g. I 

am combing the hair of my 

head ina shata gashin kaina. 
combing, tslfa. 



come 



54 



common 



Com.e, intr. v. zo ; (used with 
pronominal forms ending in 
no) zuwa, zaka ; tafo or taho*, 
e.g. c. to me zo or ta/o ma 
ni, but when used to invite 
attention or cooperation 2/«^«, 
fern, yaki, e.g. c. ! let us sit 
down and converse together 
yaka mu zamna rau yi zanche 
tare ; we came to a city mu- 
ka zaka ga wani birni. Some 
idiomatic combinations of c. 
with preps, etc. are : to c. 
about or to c. to pass /aru ; 
to c. at isa, ishe, iske ; to c. 
back dawo, dawayo^ komo, 
birkito; to c. by or acquire, 
obtain samo ; to c. down 
shida, shide, sabka ; to c. in 
shigo \ to c. out fUo and 
(with pronominal forms end- 
ing in n«) firjitowa ; to c. 
out from fUo ; to c. quickly 
sheko ; to c. to gabdto ; c. 
here to me gabdtoni ; to c. 
towards iso, jirgo ; to c. up 
ta^o ; to c. up with tarda, 
taras da. 

comfort, n. 1. (satisfaction) 
dadi, dadin ziichiya. 

2. (consolation) hankuri, 
hakuri, ha7ikura or Jiakura, 
sanyi or sanyin zuchiya. 

comfort, tr. V. bc(da hankuri, 
sanyaya^, e.g. he comforted 
them ya bada ma su hankuri. 



comfortable, to feel, intr. v. 
jin dadi, jin dadin zuchiya ; 
he felt c. rai ya kwanta. 

comforted, to be, (feel con- 
soled) jiyi sanyi, I am c. 
zuchiyata tana jin dadi. 

COm.ing, participial n. zuwa, 
zowwa, zakuwa; c. back ko- 
mowa ; c. here tafowa ; they 
are c. here S2i7ia tafowa. 

command, n. (order) hakumchi^ 
hukumchi, abin hakumta, abin 
liakurachi, kaliye, UTnarni. 

command, v. hdkumta, hd- 
kumche, yin umarni, umar- 
che. 

commander, n. (leader, chief) 
baba, e.g. tell me the name 
of their c. ka fadi ma 7ii 
sunau babansu. 

commandment, n., see com- 
mand. 

commence, v., see begin. 

commend, see approve of 

commission, 1. a c. to pur- 
chase saftu, sabtu, sautu, sako, 
dolashi. 

2. broker's c, see broker- 
age. 

3. (order) izni. 
commit, v. 1. (to do, to per- 
petrate) yi, he committed 
theft ya yi sata; one who 
commits adultery mai-yin 
zina. 

common, adj. 1. (shared in 



companion 



55 



completed 



•y all) 



duka. 



their 



common good fortune arziki 
iia su duka. 

2. (defiled) haram. 
companion, n. kama 



pi. 



kft- 

iiiannu, ahoki, dan-uwa* \ a c. 
of the same age tsara ; a play 
c. taubashi, ahokin wasa. 

companionship, n. tsaranclie, 
guji (S.), abuta. 

company, n. taro or taru^ pi. 
tarori, jama'a ; in c. (together) 
tare ; in c. with tare da. 



misalto. 



by measuring 
or (jwargwada^ 



compare, v. 

kwatanta. 
2. to c. 
, ytcalgwada 
' givargwado. 
compass, iron, n. bukari*. 
compass (mariner's), for points 
j of see husuruiva. 
compassion, n. tausai or 
, tausayi, jdje, jaijaito*,jinkai, 
i sauna ; to feel c. jin (or gin) 

tausayi. 
compassionate, the, (of God) 

errahimi*. 

compel, V. gin tilas, sa tilas, 

tilasa, tilas da, dolata, tan- 

i ktvasa, yin wofi, e.g. you c. 

me kana yin tilas or kana sa 

I ni tilas, I was compelled to 

' work an sa ni tilas aiki, I 

compelled the fellow na tilasa 

I mutum, I was compelled an 

tilas da ni, if he refuses c. 



him ida7i ya ki a sa shi tilas; 

see compulsion, force, 
compensate, to ramka. 
compensation, ramko, rdmu- 

tea. 
competition, takara. 
complain, v. kururuta, kai 

kdra. 
complainant, mai-kawonkdra, 

makari. 
complaint, n. 1. (loud ex- 
pression of grief, pain, etc.) 

kururuiva. 

2. (sickness) chiwo, chiwuta 
or chuta. 

3. (a grievance, a cause of 
c.) kdra ; and so 

4. (accusation, a legal term) 

kdra, sara*, abin sara. 
complaisance, bajinta ; to 

comply with yin bajinta. 
complement, n. chlko, abhi chi- 

kafca, yayalwachi*, kishiya*. 
complete, adj. 1. chikakke, fem. 

chikakka, plur. chikakku, 

fdfafdta. 

2. (of number) ba gaira, 

e.g. a c. hundred dari ba 

gaira, lit. a hundred without 

deduction. 
complete, tr. v. gdma, hdda*, 

Ida, kdrasa ; (to bring to an 

end) kare. 
complete, to be, intr. chika ; 

cf. seq. 
completed, to be, chika, kare] 



56 



completely 

often used at end of composi- 
tions, stories, etc., e.g. the 
song is c. waka ta chika. 
completely, atattare, kap. 
completion, n. cMkatva ; note 
of c. placed at end of com- 
position iyaka. 
compose, tr. v. 1. (of an 
author) tvaUafa, yi. 

2. (to settle or decide a 
dispute) soda, raba. 
comprehend, v. (to under- 
stand) yin fahimta, ji. 
compress, tr. v-. matse, matsi, 

mache, dankara*. 
compressed, to be, intr. and 

pass, matsu. 
compulsion, abin tilas ; under 
c. tilas, da tilas ) it was a 
case of c. tvofi ya shiga. 
compute, v., see calculate, 
comrade, n. kama*, pi. ka- 
mannu*, aboki, pi. abokai, 
abokin wasa. 
conceal, tr. v. rufe, rufi or 
rife*; boye, boy% intens. 
bobboye, jiche (S.), k^fa (K.), 
sulla ; kawaichi, e.g. a crime ; 
to c. oneself, to hide boya or 
boye, also with kai, e.g. he 
concealed himself under the 
leaves ya boye kansa ddga 
kalkashin sansami ; to c. 
oneself (of lying in wait) 
fake. 
concealed, particip. rufaffe, 



concubine 

fem. rufaffa, pi rufaffu]\ 
boyayye, fem. boyayya, pi. 
boyayyu. 
concealment, n. boya, boye- 
wa; c. of defects in goodj 
offered for sale tadilisi ; place 
of c. maboya, wurin boyewa ; 
see ambush, 
concede, tr. v. 1. (to agree to) 
yarda. 

2. (to yield up) bari, bar. 
conceit, fddi7i kai, hini (S.), 
homa{K.), tashinkai,fariya; 
see pride, 
conceive, tr. v. 1. (of thought) 
tammaha, tamaha. 

2. (of the female sex) haifrh 
samu chiki. 
concern, n., see affair and 

business, 
concerned about, be, v. kula 
constr. with direct ace. or 
with da or ga* ; ruwa used 
with subst. v., e.g. you are 
not concerned babu ruwan- 
ka. 
concerning, prep, bisa ga, 
with prons. gave ; da, saba da, 
sabad da, sabaddo or sabo da,*, 
garni da, game da. 
conciliation, sdduwa. 
concoct, to c. a story damre 

magana. 
concord, n. saduwa ; see 

agree, 
concubine, n. saddka, pi. 



condemn 



57 



confusedly 



saddku^ ivahaya (a neglected 
wife or c), bora* ; kwarkwa- 
ra, kwarakwara, makubliya, 
I mutumniya* . 

I condemn, tr. v. kdda^ hdda 
laifi, laifa*, kusanchi. 

condemnation, n. kayaswa, 
kyazwa, kaye^ alhaki, lalata, 
the last quite general = per- 
dition. 

condition, n. (state) zama, za- 
nianchi. 

condition, to come into a, or 
state zama, zam (S.). 

condolence, (on any mis- 
fortune other than deiath) 
jaijaito ; c. in bereavement 
taaziya*. 
, conduct, n. (habit) tsahi'a, 
dahi'a ; letter of safe-c. 
watikal (or wasikal) lamuni. 

conduct, tr. V. (to lead, bring) 
, kai. 

cone, the form of a c. zallo ; 
c. -shaped da zallo. 

coney, (Klip-Das), see cony. 

confectionery, n. allewa, ale- 
wa. 

confer, v. 1. (to consult to- 
gether) yin shatvara. 

2. (give, bestow) ha, hada. 

conference, kuchi, pi. kiiche- 
kuche ; see talking. 

confess, v. yin furuchi, yin 
furchi, yin huruchi, banya, 
dauki laifi. 



confession, n. furuchi, furchi, 
huruchi. 

confidence, n. (reliance, trust) 
anidna, aminchi, aminchewa, 
dangana, saduda, shaduda* ; 
to have c. in dangana, dogare, 
sadujda, e.g. I have c. in... 
ina dangana da...', we have 
c. in thee mu dogare ka ; 
to betray c. chinye amana, 
chin amana ; to justify c. (to 
be trustworthy) yin aminchi. 

confine, n. (boundary) iyaka. 

confined, adj. (narrow) cf. 
kumchi ; to be, v. (of women) 
haifu. 

confirm, to tabbache. 

conflagration, n. gobdra, tur- 
nuka, e.g. pro v. gida biyu 
maganin gobdra two houses 
are a provision against a c. 

conflict, n. fada, fam,a, yaki. 

conflict, intr. v. kdra, yin 
kdro, e.g. this conflicts with 
that wannan ya yi kdro da 
wanchan. 

confluence, n. of rivers, ma- 
gangami, magdma. 

confounded, to be, v. damu. 

confuse, tr. v. (to confound 
or perplex) ddme, ddma, riki- 
ta, shirbata. 

confused, to be, v. damn, sha 
kai; he was c. ya sha kansa. 

confusedly, adv. damai, mar- 
bika*. 



confusion 



58 



consul 



confusion, n. damasa, mar- 
bika*, damuwa, kirmiche (S.), 
rigima, shirbache, purmutsi 
(K). 

congeal, intr. v. chibarii, e.g. 
my blood is congealed with 
the cold jinina ya chibaru 
sabad da dar% sandare. 

congratulate, tr. v. barkata, 
gaishe, gaida. 

congratulation, barka. 

congregate, intr. v. faru. 

congregation, n. jama'a. 

conjecture, to kintata ; see 
suppose. 

conjoin, tr. v. gama. 

conjuring, rikirkida. 

connections, n. coll. dangi^ 
danga or dagi, pi. dangogi, 
kabila. 

conquer, tr. v. 1. (to acquire 
by war) chi. 

2. (to overcome) i, i ma, 
yin \^asara, yin nasarchi, 
kdda, kdshe. 

consciousness, n. tunane (a 
particip. form), pi. tunannu, 
is used substantively for 
thought or consciousness. 

consent, n. yarji. 

consent, v. yarda^ bada yarji, 
izni, karba, so, e.g. do you 
c. ? I do kana so ? ina 
so. 

consequence, n. 1. (effect), 
e.g. in c. of this don wannan, 



domin wannan, don haka, 
sabad da wannan. 

2. (importance), e.g. it is 
of no c. babu komi. 

consider, v. 1. gen. tsokachi 
and yin tsokachi, tuna and 
titnane with da. 

2. (of a council, delibera- 
tion) yin shdwara. 

consideration, n. (delibera- 
tion) shdwara. 

consolation, n. hankuri, ha- 
kurchi, hankura, hakura, 
hakuri, sanyin zuchiya. 

console, tr. v. bada hankuri ; 
to be consoled jin sanyi. 

consort, n. 1., see companion, 
comrade. 

2. (of married people) 
namiji, miji, fern. mata. 

conspiracy, to form a, v. 
gania*. 

conspire, intr. v. yin baki 



constancy, 7idchi, nachiya. 
constant, adj. da ndchi. 
constantly, adv. ko yaushe, 

kullum*, kul yaushe*, tutul, 

tutur. 
constellation, see star, 
constrain, tr. v. tilasda (S.), 

tilasa (K.); see compel, 

force, 
construct, tr. v. 1. gen. yi. 

2. spec, of roads gina. 
consul, n. gunsul*. 



consult 



59 



contrivance 



consult, V. 1. intr. (to deliberate) 
I /ill tihaicara, 

2. tr. V. yin shawara constr. 
with ma, ga^ da, e.g. I am 
going to c. you za ni yin (or 
i7i yi) shawara da kai, sha- 
warta^ shatvarche. 
consultation, n. shavMva, 

roshi*. 
consume, tr. v. 1. (used of 
fire) lasa^ lashe^ kona*^ kone*. 
2. (generally) c/w, chi da, 
chanye^ chinye. 
contain, tr. v., see hold, 
contaminate, tr. v. yin ka- 

zamta. 
contemn, kyale, see despise, 
contemplate, tr. v., see con- 
sider, 
contemplation, mddai. 
contempt, n. reni ; an ex- | 
pression of c. wus, wush ; I 
tsaki ; see despise, 
contemptuous, adj., see ; 
proud. I 

contend, tr. v., see fight, 

strive, 
content, adj. kosctshe, pi. ko- 

sassu ; to be c. koshi. 
content, tr. v. kosada, kosasda. 
contention, n. (disputing) ha- 
yaniya, haniya, haya-haya, 
^nuhawara*, inusuwa ; see 
Strife, 
contentment, kwanchiyar 

hankali. 



contents, (that which is con- 
tained) ahin chiki. 

contest, n., see contention. 

continually, adv., see con- 
stantly. 

continuance, n. tabbata, tabba- 
tawa, dawama, duma, dinga, 
ndchij na^hiya, zaina, zaraan- 
chi ; long c. tsawa, tsawanta. 

continue, intr. v. dawama, 
duma, dada, dadi, tabbata, 
tabbache, dunga, kdra* ; to c. 
to exist kashi*, ka^she*, ka- 
sanchi; phr. we e. giving 
thanks muna ddda godiya ; 
I c. travelling until evening 
ina yini tajiya ; they con- 
tinued thus sicka kdma haka, 
he continued crying ya kdra 
kuka. 

continuing, tnai-dawama, 7nai- 

tabbatatva. 
contract, n. wahabi. 
contract, tr. v. 1. (a disease) 
tarda. 

2. to c. the idbcedamrefuska. 

3. intr. v. (to shrivel up) 
yin yaushi, yin yoshi. 

4. (to make an agreement) 
see agree. 

contradiction, gardama. 
contribution, n. (e.g. of food) 

tarbache. 
contrivance, n. dabdra, du- 

bdra, dibdra, chimi*, wayoy 

waya, abin vmyo. 



contrive 



contrive, v. wayo^ ivayau. 
control, tr. v., see restrain, 
convalescence, n. rangwame. 
convalescent, be, intr. v. ji7i 
or yin rangwame^ yin dama, 
wartsaka. 
convenient, adj. sawaha^, 

daidai ; see fit, suitable, 
conversation, n. bdtu, zanche, 
pi. zantatuka, zanzanche, fira, 
hira*, tadi, kurga (S.), roka 
(Z.), tankawa, zantawa ; hum 
of c. dumi*. 
converse, intr. v. tanka, tamka, 
hdta, yin bdtu, yin zanche, 
yin magana, yin tadi. 
conversing, part, tankawa^ 

zantawa. 
converted, be, intr. v. sauya, 
e.g. he was c. from heathenism 
to Islam ya sauya da arna 
musuliYii. 
convey, tr. v., see carry, 
convict, n. dan sadaka. 
convince, tr. v. (satisfy by 

evidence) hakikanta. 
convolvulus, a species of 
awarwaro, fdrin gamu, kafi- 
boka, yaryadi, yambururii, 
duman kada, yako. 
convulsions, n. mijiriya, 

minjiriya, misiriya. 
cony, agivdda, rema*. 
cook, tr. V. ddfa, ddfe; c. 
without water tuya, soya; 
cooking ddfuwa; to c. meat 



60 copy 

with hot stones sulala; a 

fire for cooking ivutar gdshi. 

cook, n. inai-ddji, mai-ddfuwa, 

sarikin wuta. 
cooked, be nina (S.), nuna 
(K.); c. part, ddfdfe; c. 
without water soyayye, fem. 
soyayya, pi. soyayu ; well 
c. ninanne, pi. ninannu, 
nunanne, pi. nunannu^ tap- 
shi, ta/shi, tabshi* ; c. food 
dd/au. 
cooking, gdshi, dafuwa ; c. 
place maddfa, wurin ddfa, 
wurin dafuwa; c place on 

which a pot is set murufu; 

a c. pan algidiri, alkidiri; 

a c. pot with holes pierced 

at the bottom madam- 

bachi, madamfachi. 
cool, adj. sanya, shanya, da 

sanyi; c.-headedness sanyin 

hall. 
cool, tr. V. sanya, shanya; 

intr. V. fuche, huche. 
cooled, part, sanyayye. 
coop, n. akurki, pi. akurikai, 

kurki, akurikin kaza. 
copaiba, tree maje, kadaura. 
coping stones, kalankuwa. 
copper, n. jan karife (lit. red 

iron), gachi ; girdle made of 

c. tagula*, tugula*. 
coppersmith, the c bird ma- 

kwabkwafi. 
copy, tr. v., see imitate. 



copy 



61 



cotton 



I copy, to c. a drawing etc. 
sifata, sifanta. 

\ coral tree, majiriya. 

I cord, n. siliya, pi. siliyu or 
siliyoyi ; igiyct, pi. 'i'ffoyi or 
igiyoyi, yagiya (S.) ; a c. to 

' tie trousers round the waist 
kiibaka. 
coriander seed, ridi, lidi ; oil 
made from c. s. main ridi ; 
a plant resembling c. yaudo, 
yodo (S.). 
cormorant, madundicmi*, 

kazar ruwa. 

corn, n. hatsi, (wheat) cdkama ; 

a grain of c. kivaya ; guinea-c. 

dawa, q.y. tsaba{^.); Egyptian 

c. masara (see maize) ; a tuft 

of c. geza, pi. gezuna ; an ear 

of c. kuhe ; a pit for storing c. 

tsunjiya; to rub or grind c. tu- 

she, nika, daka ; reaped c. laid 

in rows sankache, sang ache ; a 

bunch of c. ku7'dsa (S.) ; c. 

stalks karandafi (S. ) ; a woman 

who sells c. almuda (S.), 

maauniya, alkwararo (S.). 

corn-stalk, tip of suUai, siliya. 

corner, n. kusuruwa, pi. kusur- 

woyi, sukuruwa, sukuriva ; 

c. of a fence dungu, htngu. 

corporal, mai-igiya biu, lit. the 

owner of two stripes. 
corpse, n. gdwa, pi. gawawaki, 
mushe, matache, fem, mata- 
chiya, pi. niatattu, mamachi. 



corpulence, kauri^ kabri, kosa. 

corpulent, da kauri, ginshimi, 
tunturum', to be c. kabrara; 
see fat. 

correct, tr. v. (punish) /oro, 
horo*, wahalshe. 

correct, adj. daidai, dede, na- 
kwarai, fem. ta-kwarai, sdrai, 
sosai, ainin ; it is c. ya yi 
daidai. 

correctly, adv. daidai, sosai, 
kwarai, sdrai ; to count c. 
kilga sdrai. 

cost, n. ('price) kiirdi ; what 
does it c. 1 kurdinsa nawa ? 
its c. kurdinsa, an tayansa, 
tamaninsa. 

costly, adj. da tsada ; to be c. 
yi7i tsada. 

cotton, n. kada ; c. before it has 
been spun abduga, auduga; 
spun c. abawa; white c. for 
sewing silili (K.), silale (S.) ; 
small piece of twisted c. shu- 
siya; seeds of c. plant an- 
guriya ; silk c. tree rimi ; 
c. from silk c. tree kaderi ; 
a bow string used in cleaning 
c. labe (S.); a pin used in 
pressing c. (so called from 
a resemblance to the bida 
snake) dan bida ; a c. farm 
garge (S.) ; to press c, seeds 
out of the pods or to roll c. 
gurje, gurza ; intertwined c. 
staples hddan zare ; to clean 



cotton-wool 



62 



covering 



raw c. shiha; to clean or 
prepare c. by drawing it out 
(on the masahi) sdbi, yin 
sutu ; a white c. brocade 
samasadowa ; for various sp. 
of cotton see bakatuka, yat- 
sauri, yatabshi. 

cotton-wool, sabi, ta/a*. 

couch, n., of a king or judge, 
kardga. 

cough, n. tar% twari, toari. 

cough, intr. v. yin tari. 

council, Yi.fdda, roshi*, magan- 
tawa, magantirwa ; to hold 
a c. yin fadanchi. 

councillor, bafdde^ pi. fadawa ; 
mafada, pi. mafadawa-, ma- 
faje (K.). 

counsel, n. dabara, dubara, 
dibdra, wayo. 

counsel, tr. v., see advise. 

count, tr. V. yin kidaya, kilga, 
kirga, yin lisaji. 

count, n. kidaya, lisaji. 

countenance, n. fuska, pi. 
fuskoki or fuskuna. 

counterfeiting, (coin) tsira- 
riya. 

country, n, kdsa, pi. kdsashe, 
kdsaisai, gari, pi. garuruwa, 
garigari or garigaru ; un- 
inhabited c. jeji. 

coupling, of animals or birds 
barbara ; of horses, camels 
etc. baye. 

courage, n. mazakuta, maza- 



kunta, mazakunchi, tasiri 
(S.). 

courageous, adj., see brave. 

course, n., the c. of the world 
taki-takin duniya. 

court, n., c. of a king fdda, 
wurin shawara, /age, kindi- 
gaye ; c. yard dandali ; c. of 
justice fagachi, fakache* ; to 
appear in c. hdlara or liallara. 

courtiers, n. fadawa. 

courting, n. bazaware*^ shiri- 
ya*. 

cover, n., c. of a book bango, pi. 
bangaye, banguna, tadarishi; 
dish c. made of grass fai/ai, 
pi. jiyafai ov fayafayai ; see 
covering. 

cover, tr. V. rufe, rnfa, rufi, 
rife, ydne, yin sutura, su- 
turtay turbude ; to c. up a 
hole done; to c. (i.e. to 
concQBX) jiche (S.), kifa (K.) ; 
to be covered rufu, rurrufu; 
to c. (used of horses, bulls, 
etc.) yin baye, hawa. 

covered, part, rufaffe^ fem. 
rufaffa, pi. rufaffu. 

covering, n., e.g. a blanket 
bargo, mayafi, sutura, sitira, 
maydfi, maruji, pi. marufai] 
rufa, rurrufe ; the c. of a door 
kyaure ; c. of skins tunku ; c. 
for a horse mashimfidi, pi. 
TYiashimfida ; temporary c. for 
the night sayi, pi. sayoyi. 



covet 



63 



crawcraw 



covet, tr. V. shahawa, yin guri, 
yin kdri; the coveted horse 
dokin kdri. 
coveting, n. hadama. 
covetous, adj. da rowa, mai- 
rowa, makwadaifa, mai-kawa- 
zuchi, marowachi, da mdda. 
covetousness, n. rowwa^ rowa, 
katvaziichi, tsumulmula (K.), 
zowari, zwari, zari, makzva- 
daichi, madda. 
COW,n. sdniya, pi. shanu; bush- 
cow or dwarf-buffalo bauna, 
pi. hakane ; a black and 
white c. nordi ; an old c. the 
mother of the herd sayi (S.) ; 
an old lean c. guzuma ; c- 
shed turken shanu ; a c. tied 
up by the feet dunguli ; cow- 
hide kilago, kilabo, pi. kilagai. 
coward, n. matsorata, matsora- 

chi, lala/a*, mairaki. 
cowardice, n. matsorachi. 
cow-bird, or ox-pecker, charki. 
cowhide, n., see cow. 
cow-itch (Mucuna pruriensis), 

karara. 
cowry shell, n. ijiya, wuri, 
pi. kurdi, kudi, kawara or 
alkatvara, yaya ; a large c. s. 
gandi, sarmadawa ; a bag 
containing 20,000 shells kesu, 
kwaroro, kwororo ; a lar^e 
skin bag for cowries jika ; 
a grass bag for holding 
cowries ktvasahro, kwasauro ; 



a small c. s. ago; gambling 
games played with c. s. ddra, 
chacha, modi ; a faked c. s. 
used by gamblers, made by 
joining two shells together 
so that the lips or back are 
always exposed godogo ; a 
girdle made of c. s. kiribi ; a 
c. s. with a hole in it kuru- 
Tinan wuri ; a blocked-up c. s. 
with hole at back filled up 
likakken wuri ; to throw c. s. 
in the game of chacha, sdba, 
sdbi*. 

crab, n. kdguwa (K.), kwdgutva 
(S.), pi. kagunai, kwagunnai. 

crack, intr. v. tsagu ; to c. or 
open (used of a wall) dare. 

cracking, of the skin under 
the toes, kudumbiya, kura- 
budeya. 

crackling, of fire babaka*. 

craft, n. wayo. 

crafty, adj. da wayo^ mai-ivayo, 
mai-sane. shaitan* ; to be c. 
hilata. 

crakle, see starling. 

cram, tr. v. (stuff) dora, dura. 

cramp, n. mijiriya, mijirya, 
minjiriya, misiriya. 

cramped, to become, e.g. with 
cold sdge^ 9CLge, kage. 

crane, crested c. or crown- 
bird, n. goraka, gauraka, 
garmaka (S.), gamraka. 

crawcraw, n., see crowcrow. 



crawl 



64 



crow 



crawl, intr. v. rarrafe^ ruhda 

(or rn/da) chiki. 
crawling, n. janjiki, rarra/o. 
crazy, tababhe, see lunatic, 
crease, to tdkura, takure. 
create, tr. v. halitta, talittci*, 

halichi. 
creation, halitta. 
creator, n. mahalichi. 
creature, n. halitta, dabba, 

dabbo, pi. dabbuna, dabbobi ; 

creatures talikai*. 
credit, n. bashi, pi. basusuka; 

one who wants to buy on c. 

mai-bashi ; cf . idiom it is 

to a man's c. ya chika mutum. 
creditor, n. mai-bada bashi, 

mabachi. 
creed, n. imanchi. 
creep, intr. v. rarrafe, sandu, 

sanduwa, kurda* ; to c. 

like a cat stealthily ba^/a- 

baya*. 
cress, water c. lafuwa ; common 

or garden c. labsur. 
crest, of a bird tukku, tukkuwa, 

tsoro, zanko, tuntu. 
cricket, n., large burrowing c. 

yyare ; a small species of c, 

tsanya. 
crier, n. (one who cries aloud 

or proclaims) babbam bade, 

pi. bamhadawa, dan ^na'abba; 

(one who calls to prayer) 

mai-kiran salla, ladan. 
crime, n. zamba, janaya. 



crocodile, n. kdda, kddo, pi. 
kddodi, kdduna or kadun- 
duna. 

crocodile-bird, (black-headed 
plover) ladinkogi,jakin gulbi. 

crooked, be fandare^, lan- 
kwashe ; of a tree to grow c. 
kantare. 

crooked, a karkache. 

crookedness, karkdta. 

crop of a bird, n. maroro, 
malolo, kururu, baroro. 

cross, (or crossing) n. gilme*, 
pi. gilmomi* or gilnomi* ; a 
c. gilmen itache* ; c. beam 
on top of doorway dzara. 

cross, tr. V. gilma, ketare, etare, 
swaba, sdba, yin ketara; capa- 
ble of being crossed ketaruwa; 
it cannot be crossed ba shi 
ketaruwa ; to make to c. (i.e. 
to ferry over) ketare da (S.), 
ketara^ da (K.), ketarshe (be- 
fore a pron.); to c. intr. 
ketaras. 

crossing, n. ketara, pi. ketare- 
ketare. 

crossing, part, ketarewa. 

cross-legged, to sit, intr. v. 
tamatela, tamataila, gijirta, 
ginchira (S.). 

cross-ways, n. mararraban 
hanya. 

crouch, to lobe (S.), robe (K.), 
raba, rabke, rafake, tdkura*. 

crow intr. v. yin chdra, yin 



crow 



65 



cure 



kakaruko, yin kukaruku ; 
cock-crow charan zakara. 
crow, n. species of, shimkake ; 
white-backed c. hankaka, pi. 
hankaki or hankaku. 
crowbar, ddgi. 

crowcrow, n (disease) kaikai, 
kazuwa ; a herb supposed to 
cure c. kaskawani. 
crowd, n. (of people) gayya, 
taru, masu-tariya, runduna, 
jmrmitsi, kirmitsi (S.). 
crowding together, purmutsi. 
crowing, n. chdra, kakaruko, 
I kakarako, kukaruku, kiki- 
^ rikyi. 

crown, to ndde*. 
cruel, adj. muni, maketachi. 
cruelly, adv. da muni. 
cruelty, n. keta, muni, zafin 

rai. 
crumb, n. burugushe, hurhushi, 
bulbudi, barbadi, gutsura, pi. 
gutsure, diddiga, marmashi. 
crupper, (of a saddle) jabaya, 

jakuturi. 

crush, tr. v. matse, matsa, latse, 

laze, murjeki, murtsuki, murt- 

sekyi, kumtata*, kuntata*. 

crust, a dried c. kamzo, kanzo. 

cry, n. kuka, pi. koke-koke; 

kuwa, muriya, pi. muriyoyi, 

kira, tsawa, tsuwa, sowa; loud 

c. u/u, ihu, tsuwa tsuwa, ku- 

ruruwa, rakadi, rakwato (Z.). 

cry, intr. v. (cry out) yin kuka, 

R. H. D. 



yin kururuwa, yin tsawa, 
rubsa (ru/sa, ra/sa or rapsa), 
kuka; raise a c. dora kira; 
c. for joy guda ; c. wares for 
sale talla, pi. tallata; there 
was a c. of tire ana ta rigimar 
gobara. 
cubit, n. kdmu, sabi, ziraH*. 
cuckoo, lark-heel c. or crow 

pheasant ragon maza. 
cucumber, African c. kur- 

zunu. 
cucurbita, n., see gourd, 
cud, chewing the c. tuka. 
cultivate, tr. v. noma, nomi, 
7iome ; cultivated land round 
a town or village karkara, 
karikara. 
cultivator, n. manomi, pi. 

m,anom,a. 
cummerbund, mulufi, malufi. 
cunning, n., see craft, 
cup, n. tdsa, pi. tdsoshi, gora, 
pi. gorina, kwariya, koko ; 
a large c. shintali, sin- 
tali or shantali, pi. shin- 
talai. 
cup, to 2/m ma wani kafo. 
cupboard, n. loloki*, pi. lolo- 

kai*. 
cupping, n. yin kafo, jiniya. 
curb, n. mudu. 
curdle, to daskdra; to cause 

to c. daskdre. 
curds, n., of milk guntsari. 
cure, tr. v. warkadda ; to be 
5 



cured 



66 



damsel 



cured warke; the fool is 
incurable mahaukachi ha shi 
warkewa. 

cured, part, warkakke^ fern. . 
warkakkiya, pi. warkakku. 

curl, intr. V. (used of a snake) 
tdkura. 

curls, a woman's c. dauri, taura. 

current, (of a stream) igiyar 
ruwa. 

curse, n. la'ana, wada^ wadda. 

curse, tr. V. wa mugunta, 
la'anta, la^ane Manchi, zcbge, 
bdchi, garni may you be 
cui'sod ! tir, fMs, ush. 

cursed, part. Wane, feui. 
la'ana^ pi. la^anu. 

curtain, n. (made of fibre and 
let down in front of a door- 
way) tsaiwa, bunu, arsabari, 
zabori, kyaure. 

CUSCUS, n. kuskus^, kuskus*. 

cuscus-grass, jema. 

cushion, n. laferu^ leferu, 
laheru, pi. laferai ; c. placed 
on a donkey akumari. 

custodian, mai-riko. 

custom, n. ada, al'dda, ta'ada, 
tada (S.), pi. tadodij sabo*, 
hanya*y pi. hanyoyi*, hdli, 
pi. hdlaye. 

cut, tr. V. yanka, yanke, save, 
keta, farke, yin saisaya (or 
sosaya) ; c. into small pieces 
sassabe, y any ana (K.), yan- 
h /qfa, girtsa; c. into 



strips rede; c. round sha7i- 
kumbu ; c. down kade ; c. 
cloth shifta, shifche ; c. with 
a hoe shema ; c. down the 
harvest, girhi ; one who cuts 
off the hands of tliieves 
birgiji. 

cut, part, yankakke, fern, yan- 
kakka, pi. yankakku ; sararre, 
fem. sararriya, pi. sararru. 

cuticle, fiska, see skin. 

cutlass, n. takobi, pi. takuba, 
tama, tagonias, tamogashi, 
adda. 

cutting off of hands (a 
punishment for thieving), 
yankan hannu, 

cutting-up, yanyane. 

cylinder, c, on which thread 
is wound for use in shuttle 
kwarkwaro. 

cymbal, a kind of kuge. 

dagger, n. cheru (S.), kanga*^ 

wuka*. 
daily, adv. kowache rana. 
dainty, he is d. over his food 

shina da taran (or tadan) 

abinchi. 
dais, tugufa*. 

dam, for catching fish labuni. 
damage, n. bama, taskdro (S.). 
damage, to bamata. 
damp, n.daushi, damshiylaima^ 

rima (S.). 
damsel, n. yarinya^ huduruwai 



dance 

dance, n. rawa^ Ma, zariya, 
dawara ; a d. performed by 
young men hauta^ lela; an 
inspired d, hori. 
dance, intr. v. yin rmva, taka 
ravm, ray a, vmra, yin zariya, 
ff^alle, hirkida. 
dancer, a danfoto. 
dancers, e.g. those possessed by 
a spirit masu-bori, masu-boli. 
dancing, tsalle, zariya. 
dandruff, n. toto, totau, tautau. 
danger, n. hatsari (K.), hadari 
(S.), ahi7i tsoro ; a dangerous 
place wurin tsoro. 
dangle, to wo lilo. 
daring^ adj., see brave, 
dark, adj. da dufu ; phr. it is d. 
^ ya yi dufu or rana ta dushe. 
darkness, n. dufu, dufuwa, 
dushewa ; utter d. dufu kirin. 
darn, to yin lalaftu, see seq. 
: darning, lalaftu, lalaptu,lalah- 

tu, la'plaptu'^. 
dart, n. hankaltilo, hargi, margi ; 
a d. used for catching fish 
hdgu, zdgo. 
darter, (the name of a bird, 
Plotus) kazarruwa, mddmi- 
dumi. 
dash together, tr. v. gwabra, 

gobure. 
date, n. (tree and fruit) dabino ; 
desert d. aduwa ; a bunch 
of dates zaraba^ ; dates tied 
up in a mat lubiya ; a species 



67 



day 



of dark coloured d. zabiya^ 
pi. zabiyoyi. 
date, n. (time of an event) 
yayi, zamani*, loka/^hi^, wo- 
kachi*. 
daub, tr. V. ydba, ydbe, dam- 

fara, shafa*, shafe*. 
daubing, ydbe, pi. ydbe-ydbe. 
daughter, n. diya (S.), pi. yam- 
mata (for yan-mata), ya (K.). 
dawdle, intr. v. yin tsaiko. 
dawdling, n.fatara, tsaiko. 
dawn, n. wayewa, assuba, 
fudowa, fudawa; the first 
glimmer of light before the 
d. aljiffr, alfjir, jijiji, jijif 
jibjib ; let us start before the 
d. mu yi jijif. 
dawn, intr. v. waye ; the day 
dawns ga^i ya waye or less 
commonly Allah ya waye. 
day, n. (the time from sunrise 
to sunset) rana, ran or ra, pi. 
ranuka, ranukka or ranak- 
ku, used as masc. or fem., 
wuni ; a day's work wunin 
aiki ; (twenty-four hours) 
kwana, pi. kwanaki or kwa- 
nukka ; to-day yo, yau ; to 
stay at a place for a d. yini ; 
three days ago wanshekaran- 
jiya; the d. before yester- 
day shekaranjiya ; yesterday 
jiya ; the following d. rana 
mai - zakuwa ; to - morrow 
gobe, kashegari (Kats.), 
5-2 



dazzle 



68 



debtor 



, wanshekare (S.) ; the d. after 
to-morrow jlhi ; the d. after 
the d, after to-morrow gata ; 
the d. after gata^ i.e. the 
fifth d. chitta; some d. or 
other ko ha dade ; the last d. 
ranan gohe or ranan kiyama ; 
the d. on which randa (a 
shortened form of rana da) ; 
every d. kowache rana ; all 
d. rana duka; the d. on which 
a child receives its name ran 
suna. When d. is used with 
ordinal numbers the singular 
form is usually employed, 
thus : three days rana uku 
or kwana uku ; to do a thing 
every d. dimanta. The days 
of the week are : Sun. lahadi 
or ladi, Mon. litifii, Tues. 
talata, Wed. laraba or larba, 
Thurs. alhamis, Fri. aljimii'a, 
jumma^a^ jummu'a, aljimma, 
jimrna'a or jimmu^a, Sat. 
assuhat, assabat or assibit. 

dazzle, tr. v., to d. the eyes 
makamche ; the lightning has 
dazzled thine eyes walkiya ta 
Tnakamche ka. 

dead, a4j. matache, fem. mata- 
chiya, pi. matattu, amache^ 
mamachi, fem. lyiamachiya ; 
a d. body mushe^ gawa, pi. 
gawawaki ; (that which has 
died of itself) guba ; see die. 

deaf, adj. kuruma, kurma, pi. 



kurumai ; d. and dumb bebe^ 

pi. behaye. 
deaf, be, intr. v. kuruma 
deafness, n. kurumchi, karum- 

ta, bebantaka, tosuwa (S.). 
dealer, a corn d., fem. maau- 

niya. 
dear, adj. (costly) da tsdda ; 

to be d. tsadanta ; (beloved) 

masoyi, fem. masoya, pi. 

masoyu, lele, abin kamna* ; 

to be d. yin tsdda. 
deamess, n. (high price) tsdda. 
dearth, n., see want, 
death, n. mutuwa, macheway 

rasuwa, jinkiri*, mata*, (lit. 

last sleep) makarin barchi ; 

a natural d. mutuwar Allah ; 

sudden d. saukin mutuwa ; 

the angel of d. (lit. he who 

separates) marabiwa. 
death-watch, (insect) gunda, 

gum,da, kichichiya. 
debt, n. bashi, pi. basusuka^ 

ramche, ranche ; to pa}' a d. 

biya bashi ; to get into d. 

chi bashi ; to recover a d. 

biyo bashi, bim bashi ; surety 

for payment of a d. lamuni, 

phr. he is in my debt shina 

da bashina or ina bin sa 

bashi. 
debtor, n. mai-chin bashi^ mai- 

karban bashi, mai-daukan 

bashi, m^abachi, mabarchi 

(K.). 



decapitation 69 

decapitation, kunkurus, ku- 
Tunkus, kurungus, kungurus. 

decay, to ruha^ riha. 

decayed, rubahbe, pi. ruhabhu. 

deceit, n. munafuchi (S.), 
manafuchi, munafichi (K.), 
munafuki, barkwanchi, riki- 
chi, ha'inchi, wayo, Idbo*, 
rudi*, yaudara, algus, algusu, 
algushi, rigingini, zankam 
(K.); (lit. two hearts) zuchiya 



degrade 



deceitful, adj. marikichi, mai- 
rigingini, mai-zalumchi, mai- 
algus, mai-algusu, azzalumi^ 
marude, mai-rude, pi. maruda^ 
mai-yaudara. 

deceitfully, adv. da zalumchi ; 
to treat d. yin zalumchi ; to 
act d. rikiche. 

deceive, tr. v. ruda, rudi, rude; 
chuchi, chuche, yaudara, shor 
mata, shamache, zantara, hdge. 

deceived, be, v. rudu, rude. 

deceived, part, rudadde, fern. 
rudadda, pi. rudaddu. 

deceiver, n. marude^ mai-rude^ 
see deceitful. 

decide, tr. v. (of a judge) raba, 
yanka shari'a, yanka magana. 

deck, to sitirta, suturta. 

declaration, e.g. before a 
judge, biyayya. 

declare, tr. v. hadichi, labarta, 
habarta, fada; d. openly 
baydna, bayena, chashe ; d. 



positively furuchi, furch% 
hurchi^ hurta. 
decline, v. (grow less) karkdta, 
rage; the day declines rana 
ta tawaya, see decrease ; 
(refuse) ki, kiya. 
decorous, adj., see becoming, 
decrease, n. rdguwa. 
decrease, tr. v. rdg% rdge, 
tawaya, tauwi ; intr. v. ragu, 
tawaya, tawayo, tauwi, tauye, 
kasa^ da. 
decree, n. ajali*. 
deed, n., see act. 
I deep, adj. da zurfi, mai-zurfi ; 
I a d. place (usually with water 
I in it) gulbi, pi. gulabe. 
i deer, n., see antelope. 
I defect, n. Idhani, aibi, aibu ; 
see blemish, 
defence, kdriya, datsiya*. 
I defend, tr. v., see guard. 
I defer, tr. v./dsa. 
defiance, tamanya, tamayya 

(S.). 
defile, tr. V. tozarta, kasanta, 
kazamtad da; see pollute, 
defraud, tr. and intr. v. chin 
kura, chin riba, sdfa (S.), 
zantara; one who defrauds 
maizamba, mai-chin kura ; 
see cheat, 
defy, to harzuka ga, hasala 

ga. 
degradation, kankanchi. 
degrade, to maida baya. 



dejected 

dejected, see disheartened. 

delay, n.fdshi, yauchi, dadewa, 
indainda, jinkiri ; without 
d. babu fashi. 

delay, intr. v. yin fdshi, yin 
yauchi, wanzu, dada; to 
d. to deliver a message ida 
labari ; he delays to come ya 
yi nauwa or ya yi yauchin 
zakuwa ; to d., tr. fdsa. 

deliberate, intr. v. yin sha- 
wara. 

deliberately, adv. da gangan. 

deliberation, n. shdwara, pi. 
shawarori, shawaruna, shd- 
warwara ; place of d. wurin 
shdwara. 

delicacy, a abin marmari. 

delight, tr. v., see please. 

delirious, adj.,d. persons masu- 
bori, masu-boli, yan-bori. 

deliver, tr. v. (give over) bada, 
bashi, yarda; (save) cheto, 
cheche, tsiras da, tsirad da, 
tsar da, chira, kwache, kwashe. 

deliverance, n. cheto, tsiraro, 
machechiya, tsira, fansa, 
pansa, hansa. 

delivered, be, v. haifu. 

deliverer, n. machechi, pi. ma- 
cheta. 

demon, n. aljan, aljani, fern. 
aljana, pi. aljannuov aljinnu, 
jinnu; bori, pi. boruruka, 
boruruwa. 

demonstrate, to yin tabbas. 



70 desert 

demonstration, gaye. 

denial, n. (dispute in which 
something is denied) gar- 
dama, musu, jayaiyya. 

deny, tr. v. musu, hana*, ki. 

depart, intr. Y.fUa, rdsu, rabu, 
hard. 

departure, n.fUa. 

deposit, n. amdna, karo, la- 
muni* ; to steal a d. chin 
amdna; those who steal a 
d. masu-tabin amdna; a place 
in which to d. anything maaji. 

depression, a kwdri, kware (S. ). 

deprivation, n., e.g. of goods 
woji. 

depth, n. zurji ; he got out 
of his d. ruwa ya sha kansa ; 
it is out of a man's d. here 
ruwa ya shake mutum, a nan. 

depute, to wdkala. 

deputy, mdm,ayi, na'ibi ; see 
regent. 

deranged, a person, n. mai- 
wauta, mahaukachi ; to act 
as one d. yin raurawa. 

deride, tr. v. yin boHa, ba^a^ 
zunda, yin zunde. 

derision, n. ba^a, zunde, zumde. 

descend, intr. v. shida or 
shida, shide, shido, jlda, 
sabka, sapka ; descend ! jido. 

descendants, zuri'a. 

desert, n. (i.e. a solitary place) 
ddwa, daji, sabra*, saura*^ 
hamdda, jeji. 



desert 



71 



deviate 



desert, (worthiness) chinchinta, 
chanchanta. 

deserter, n. (in war) kazum. 

designedly, adv. da gangan. 

desire, n. 1. (wish) so, karana^, 
marddi (S. ),murddi( K,),/ata ; 
eager d. kwala7na(K. ), kagdra, 
marmari ; desires zuchiya*, 
na/si*, kodai, kwadai ; evil 
d. shawa, sha^awa, guri. 

2. (the thing wished for) 
abinso, maradi, muradi, guri, 
nufi, nufe ; he accomplished 
his d. ya chika hadama. 

desire, tr. v. so, nufe, nufi, 
yin kagdra, yin fata ; to burn 
with d. kona, kuna*, kone, 
kwadaye, lamiranta ; intr. v. 
direct the d. maida kamna. 

desist, intr. v. daina, dena, 
bari, bar. 
I desolate, to make d. yin 
kadaita. 

desolation, n. kango, pi. kan- 
gogi or kanguna ; afko, ka- 
daita, risbawa, rizbawa, ruz- 
gawa (S.), rubzawa (K.). 

despair, to fida zuchiya. 

despicable, adj., see despised. 

despise, tr. v. rena, kyale, yin 
tsantsani, tarsa*. 

despised, part, renanne, fem. 
renanna, pi. renannu, kas- 
kastache, pi, kaskastu. 

despising, part, renawa, reni ; 
the d. of advice renin wayo. 



despoil, tr. v. (in war) yin 
buruntu, chin ganima. 

destiny, n. ajali, jinkiri, ku- 
dira, kudura, kadara^ rdbo*. 

destitute, one who is, u. gande, 
gindau, gyande, fem. gyandu- 
wa, pi. gyandaye, fanko, mat- 
siyachi, pi. matsiyata, mayun- 
wachi*, pi. mayanwata*, ko- 
maro, karare ; cf . rashi, maras. 

destroy, tr. v. bdta, bdche, 
bachi, bdtas, haldka, afka, 
fdsa, banna, yakuta, chi*. 

destroyed, be, v. lalache, gur- 
bache, yakache, yamutse* ; 
about to be d. rnai-afkawa. 

destroyed, part, bdtache, fem. 
bdtachiya, pi. bdtattu, 

destruction, n. afko, halaka, 
lalata, ta'adi, ta'ada, bdtachi. 

detain, tr. v. riko, tsaida, tsai- 
she, tsayas da, tsere, hana. 

detect, tr. v. (e.g. in a fault) 
y^itse, rutse. 

detention, riko. 

deter, tr. v., see prevent, 

determined, one who is d. 
mai-daurin anniya. 

detour, to make a d. zaga. 

devastate, tr. v. yin afko, yin 
kadaita, waso. 

developed, i.e. full-grown 
gawurtache, fem. gawurtachi- 
ya, pi. gawurtatu ; kasaitache. 

deviate, intr. v. (from a straight 
course) bauda, baude used 



deviation 



72 



diligence 



with hanya ; ratsa^ yin raise ; 

causing to d. haudewa. 
deviation, raise, ratsowa. 
device, n. hila, fila. 
devil, n. shaitan, shetan, shai- 

tani, iblis, ibilis ; see demon, 
devoid of, see without, 
devour, tr. v. rida, chinye, 

chanye, chingi, hadiye, rushe 

(K.). 
dew, n. raba; a drop of d. 

digar rdba. 
dialect, yare, halshe*. 
diarrhoea, n. gudawa, gudun- 

daji, zawo, zawayi ; a 

medicine for d. filasko. 
dibble, (hoe) sungumi. 
dice, n. kuri^a, karen chacha ; 

a throw of d. jefan kuri^a; 

to cast d. yin modi (cowrie 

shells are generally used 

instead of d. for purposes 

of gambling). 
dictation, writing from d. 

shibta*. 
die, iiitr. V. mache, machi, mutu 

(this is seldom used except 

to denote the past tense), 

rdsu ; d. a natural death 

yin mushe. 
differ, intr. v. yin dabam, yin 

daban, yin bambam. 
difference, n. dahamchi, bam- 

bamchi, bambanta, baram- 

baran ; what is the d. 

between this and that? 



minene bambamchin wannan 
da wanchani or ina marabin 
wannan da wanchan 1 there 
is no d. ba su bambanta ; 
differences (points of vari- 
ance) tsakankani. 

different, adj. dabam, daban, 
dabam dabam ; d. from da- 
bam da, dabam ddga, bam- 
bam ddga; a d. sort iri dabam. 

differentiate, to bambanta, 
yin dabam. 

difficult, adj. da wuya ; it is 
d. to know all things abin 
duniya da wuyan sani ; it is 
too d, for me ya buwaye 7ii, 
ya faskare ni, ya faye ni, na 
kasa or ya Ji karijina. 

difficulty, n. wuya ; with d. 

dakyat {^.), dakyal, dakya/r 

.(K.). 

dig, tr. V. gina, gino, tona*, 
haka ; d. in the ground fuda, 
turbude, yasa, yashe, to dig 
a new well gina rigiya ; to 
dig out or clean out an old 
well yasa rigiya ; d. up land 
karta, kirta ; d. with a hoe ' 
shera, hira (S.) ; d. holes, 
e.g. for planting trees bisa^ 
bushe. 

dignified, adj., a d. person i 
datijo. 

dignity, mutum^chi. 

diligence, n. kokari, himma^ 
kwazo, anniya. 



, diligent 



73 



disdain 



diligent, be, intr. v. yin anni- 

ya, maida hirtima, maida 

kokari ; be d. ! ku hada 

kokarinku. 
diligent, adj. da kwazo^ mai- 

kwazo. 
diligently, adv. da himma, da 

anniya. 
dim, to be, intr. v. dindimi, 

dundumi ; to become d. dushe 

or dishe. 
diminish, see decrease, 
dimness, n. dushe wa, dishewa ; 

d. of sight makamchi, bam- 

harakwai* . 
dip, tr. V. tsoma, soma* ; d . 

under water nuta^ nutse, 

7iutsa ; to d. the head in 

water yin kunduma. 
dipping, (e.g. of meat in soup) 

tso7ni. 
direct, adj., e.g. a d. path 

hanya sosai. 
direction, sassa, bige, guge, 

luaje. 
directly, adv. yanzii, ko yanzu, 

na7i da nan. 
dirt, n. guiba, gwiba, gwibi, 

dauda, kazdmi^ kazamta, 

kazanta. 
dirty, adj. da dauda^ kazami, 

fern, kazama ; to make d. 

yin dauda. 
disagree, intr. v., see quarrel, 
disagreement, n. saban% swa- 

bani (S.), see discord. 



disappear, intr. v. gurbache^^ 
rutsa*. 

disappointed, be, intr. v. kal- 
niashe zuchiya. 

disapproval, a gesture of d., 
the hand being extended 
and all the fingers pointed 
forwards, ambola^ dakuwa. 

disaster, see misfortune. 

discern, tr. v. ji*, gane. 

discernment, n. baslra. 

discharge, tr. v. 1. (fire ofF) 
buga, halbi, harbi. 

2. (send away) see dis- 
miss. 

disciple, n. almajiri, fem. 
ahnajira, pi. alm.ajirai. 

discomfort, n. mako. 

discontent, an exclamation of 
gasa. 

discontented, adj. one who is 
d. matsiyachi, pi. matsiyata. 

discord, n. fasadi, fasada, 
kiyayya, swabani, rikichi*, 
fiisuma, gardama* ; see dis- 
pute. 

discount, n. jdra ; a special d. 
Ict'ada ; what d. is allowed ? 
ina rangwame ? 

discourage, tr. v. sake fuska 
(lit. to change the face). 

discover, tr. v. kaga, see find. 

discussion, n. maganta, ma- 
gantawa, magantirwa ; to 
hold a d. yin maganta. 
disdain, tr. v., see despise. 



disease 



74 



distance 



disease, n. chitvuta, chiwo. 

disgrace, n. walakanchi', see 
shame. 

disgrace, tr. v. falasa, fallasa, 
'palasa, kumyata. 

disgust, n. kyama, see dislike. 

dish, n., a large wooden d. 
akushi, akoshi, pi. akussa, 
jemo ; a flat d. made of 
plaited grass taitai ; d. -cover 
(made of plaited grass)ya{/ai, 
pi. fiyafai ; the knob which 
forms the top of a d. -cover 
tuku, tuntu, tsoro, tukkuwa. 

dishearten, tr. v. kariya 
zuchiya ; phr. you d. me 
ka kariya ma ni zuchiya, I 
am disheartened zuchiyata 
ta hachi ; see discourage. 

dishonour, n. kankanchi, 
kumya*. 

dishonour, to ka^kasta, kus- 
kunta. 

dislike, n. haushi, kiyayya, ki- 
yeya, kyeya, kyama ; see hate. 

dislike, tr. v. ki, kiya, yankan 
kamna, tsangwama ; they d. 
him suna jin haushinsa. 

dislocate, to, a bone gule. 

dismay, n., see fear. 

dismount, intr. v. shido, sahka, 
shida kasa, jlda ; see alight. 

disobedience, n. kinji, kiwuya, 
shishige, tayazwa. 

disobedient, he is d. shi ne 
mai-kangara. 



disobey, tr. v. kiji, tayas. 

disperse, tr. v. kawas da, 
watsa, ware, walwache, war- 
watse ] disperse ! ku waru. 

dispersed, wararre. 

displease, tr. v. hata zuchiya; 
this displeased him wannan ya 
hata zuchiyarsa ; see distress. 

disposition, n. (temper) hdli, 
pi. halaye ; good d . farinjini 
(lit. white blood); bad d. 
bakin zuchiya (lit. blackness 
of heart) ; lalata, kafirchi,. 
mugun gashi*. 

dispute, n. gardama, sabdbiy 
subabi, binch%ki,fusuma, swa- 
bani, tsalmi, tsarmi. 

dispute, intr. v. yin gardama,. 
yin kokanto. 

disregard, tr. v. rena, kyahf 
shdm,uke ; see despise. 

disrespectful, d. language or 
' contempt of court ' ashar. 

dissemble, intr. v., see pre- 
tend. 

dissent, intr. v., express d. by 
turning the head away kauda 
kai, girgiza kai. 

dissimulation, riya. 

dissolute, adj., see profligate. 

dissolve, 1. tr. v. narke. 
2. intr. v. narku. 

distance, n. nesa, nisa, (aloof- 
ness) nesanta; to place at 
a d. nesanta ; to keep a d. 
from nesanchi, nisanchi ; a 



I distant 



75 



do 



measure of d. (as far as the 
eye can reach) jetaka* ; I 
saw him from ad. na hange 
shi ddga nesa. 

distant, adj. ddga nesa, da nesa, 
nesa ; d. from 7iesa ddga. 

distinct, adj., see different. 

distinguish, to kehe, kehanche, 
kehanta, rarrabe ; it was im- 
possible to d. between ha 
a rarrabe. 

distorted, amurgude. 

distrain, to wdshe. 

distress, n. nawdya, wuya, 
icahala,matsiyaxihi,'inatsiyata, 
tsananta. 

distress, tr. v. tsananche, sa 
wahala, dawainiyasda, da- 



nawdya ; that 

which causes d. abin da wuya. 
distressed, be, v. fargaba, 

Jirgaba, matsu, masu, jin 

wahala ; I was d. na ganiu 

da nawaya. 
distribute, tr. v. rdba, rdbas da, 

rdbas (without obj.), kaivama. 
district, n. gari*, wuri*, gun- 

d,uina (S.). 
distrust, to farga*, tsangwama. 
ditch, n. ganwa, wuriya. 
dive, intr. V. nutsa (K.), nuto 

(S.), nutse, nitso, ninkdya, 

auka. 
divide, tr. v. rdba, rdbi*, ra- 

bas da, rarrabi, rarraba, kdsa; 

to d. in half bar a. 



divided, be, intr. v. rdbu^ 

warwari, wawari. 
divided, part, rababbe, fem. 

rababba, pi. rababbu ; marar- 

raba. 
divination, duba. 
diving, n. nuta. 
division, n. rdbo, rdbu, pi. 

raberabe ; mararrabi ; the 

dividing point of two roads. 

mararrabin hanya; d. of a. 

town (within the walls) shiya, 

unguwa, pi. unguwai or un- 

guni*; d., i.e. allotted portion,, 

J'asali. 
divorce, n. sakeiva, shiki, yayi*^ 
divorce, tr. v., d. a woman 

shika, saki, kore all followed 

by mache. 
dizziness, jiri. 
do, tr. and intr. v. 1. (act) yi 

aiki. 

2. (accomplish) yi, {, yiwa^ 
iwa, yiwo, two, wa, aiki. 

3. (succeed) yi. 

i. to do a thing once tdba. 

5. to labour at aikata ; phr. 
it is done an yi shi, it does 
(i.e. it is satisfactory) ya yi; 
I never did so ban tdba yin 
haka ; can it be done ? shi 
yiwul it cannot be done ba 
shi yiwuwa ; which way did 
he go ? wanne waje ya yi 1 na 
yi I did, is often contracted 
into nai. 



doctor 



76 



drain 



doctor, n. mai-mdgani, atta- 
bibi*, likita* ; a quack d. 
boka, pi. bokaye. 

dog, n. kdre^ f. kdriya, pi. kar- 
nuka, auzu ; house d. kdren 
gida; wild hunting d. hjal- 
kechi, karkechi, kyarkyechi, 
kirikinji, kilikinji; a mad d. 
mahaukachin kdre. 

dollar, n. ddla (usually applied 
to the Austrian Maria 
Theresa d.), riycd% liyar, 
madafa*. 

dominion, n., see kingdom. 

done, part., see do. 

donkey, n. jaki, fern, jakanya, 
pi. jakai, jakkai or jakuna ; 
d.'s pad Idheru, laferu; for 
names of various species of 
donkeys, see ass. 

door, n. kqfa, pi. kofoji, ko- 
funa or kofai ; kofal gida^ 
ganfibu ; doorway bdkin kqfa ; 
a mat made of grass or 
reeds let down in front of 
doorway tufaniya, arsabari, 
askuniya, marufin kofa, 
tsahore, zabore, bunu, pi. 
bunai, kyaure, tsaiwa, tsa- 
waya ; a d. made of corn 
stalks kwadabe (S.); d. post 
kwabrin kofa, kulkin kofa ; 
pole or bar to keep the d. 
shut mataushin kofa, ma- 
dogara, gagarabado ; door- 
keeper sarikin kqfa ; a d. 



made of palm planks kyauren 
kyami. 

dot, n. (e.g. the d. placed 
above or below a letter) guda 
(S.) ; the large d. placed 
below the line to denote the 
sound e yamald*, imala*. 

doubt, n. zuchiya biyu (lit. 
two hearts), tajnbaba, kokanto, 
tantama, zulumi, zalumi, 
zato, shakka ; without d. babiv 
wawa, babu shakka, babu 
shak, babu tambaba ; an ex- 
pression of d. wai. 

doubt, intr. v. yin (or da) 
zuchiya biyu, yin tambaba, 
yin tantama, yin shakka, 
hasashi, hasashe. 

dough, n. gaya. 

dove, n. kurchiya, pi. kurdche, 
kurchiyoyi ; ring d. wala, pi. 
walu, aguwa : red-eyed d. 
hasbiya, hazbiya ; bronze- 
winged d. gar da, ; long- tailed 
African d. bardo ; a rock d. 
jdba dutsi. 

down, adv. a kasa, a kas; to 
put d. sako. 

down, n. (of birds) sabon 
gashi. 

dowry, n. gdra, baiko. 

doze, to gyangyadi, yin angaje. 

drag, tr. V. janye, jaye ; see 
draw. 

dragon-fly, masu*. 

drain, (ditch) wuriya. 



drake 



77 



droop 



drake, n. zakaraa dumya, sa 
! kaza. 

j draw, tr. v. ja, jajaya, kak- 
kare, karkare ; to d. forth or 
out fisge, fizge, fusge, Jlshshe, 
zara, tabe, tabi, sakatta, saka- 
che ; to d. towards one3elf;a^oo, 
zaro ; to d. after one jaka ; 
d. a line or a furrow kirta, 
karta; to d. strokes zdna; 
to d. a sketch sifata, sifache; 
to d. out sabule ; d. a sword 
zara, zari ; to d. the foot on 
the ground murjeki, mur- 
tsiki ; to d. water jan ruwa, 
gugana, debe ruwa, clebo ruwa, 
dauka ruwa ; to d. near 
duno*; to d, \ia.(ik. jayi ; to 
d. out, e.g. from water tsamo. 

drawer, n. akodi*, sanduki*, 
sanduki*. 

drawing, (sketch) sifa. 

dream, n. mafalki (S.), mafarki 

dream, intr, v. yin mafalki. 

dregs, n. gwiba, gwibi. 

dress, n., gorgeous d. daraja ; 

see clothes, 
dress, tr. v. (put on clothes) 

sa \ d. leather jemi ; d. meat 

feda nama. 
dressed, part, (prepared) gyar- 

tachche, fern, gyartatta, pi. 

gyartattu. 
dresser, n. (of leather) majemi, 

mai-jima. 



dried, part, kekasashe, fern. 
kekasashiya, pi. kekasassu, 
busashe, busheshe, bushebushe, 
sanyaye, shanyaye, fern, shan- 
yaya, pi. shanyayu ; dried-up 
tree kalun itache, kwaurin 
(or kwahrin) itache*. 

drill, to d. soldiers birga. 

drill, of soldiers rawa*, 

drink, n. abinsha ; a d. made 
of honey, pepper and water 
betso, baiso* ; a d. made with 
flour, etc. koko; an intoxi- 
cating d. made from oruinea- 
corn giya ; 
ruwan-sha. 

drink, tr. v. sha, shawo, 

shanya, shay a ; to d. greedily 
dirki ; to give to d. shadda, 
shayad da, shayas da ; it is 
undrinkable ba shi shayuwa. 

drinking, n. sha, pi. shaye- 



drinking- water 



drippings, e.g. from trees ru- 
wan ganye. 

drive, tr. v. (d. away) kora, 
kore, koro, famfare, i ma, iza^ 
ije, yin artai ; d. to a distance 
nesanta; d. away in disgust 
kaskasta, kuskunta; d. out 
Jishe, fishshe. 

driver-ant, n. kwarkwasa^ 
kwalkwasa. 

driving, n. (away in war) 
artai, kora. 

droop, to lankwasa, lankwashe. 



drooping 



78 



dum-palm 



drooping, lankwaso. 

drop, n. diga, dugo, pi. dugogi, 

ddso, darso, tarfi ; a d. of 

dew dug on raha. 
drop, tr. and intr. v. 1. (pour 

out by drops) tarfi, tarfa, yin 

darshi; it is dropping yaiia 

diga. 

2. (let fall) saki, tsaga, 
kuhche. 

3. intr. v., see fall. 



dropping, n. 

dropsy, n.fdra. 

dross, n. (scum of metals) 
kashin tama, kwam makera. 

drought, n. far in yunwa^fari*, 
firi, furi. 

drown, tr. v. gangante*, nitsa- 
she*', intr. v. nitso, sha ruwa ; 
he was drowned ya sha ruwa. 

drum, n. kida, kidi, kalango, 
kurkutu (S.), kuntukuru* ; 
a large d. gang a, pi. ganguna, 
banga, dundufa, gangami, 
jdmi* ; a small d. bishi ; a 
d. shaped like an hour-glass 
held under the arm, covered 
with skin in front but open 
behind kotso, koso,jauje.juje ; 
a d. made out of a gourd 
talle ; ad. with pointed 
bottom carried in a royal 
procession tom5ari ; a stringed 
d. open at one end kuriya, 
kwuriya ; the sound of a d. 
wasa*, girib ; large d. used 



by a king 

(s.)- 

drum, intr. v. yin kidi, yin 

wargi^, kankada, Mda. 
drummer, n. makidi ; a 

mounted d. ma^archi. 
drumming, n. kidi, pi. kide- 

kide ; (accompanied by danc- 
ing) kidin dambe, garaya. 
drum-stick, makidi, makadi. 
drunk, to be yin niaye, bugu ; 

pai-ticip. bugage. 
drunkard, n. mashayi. 
drunkenness, n.hajijiya,maye. 
dry, adj., see dried, 
dry, 1. tr. v. kekashe, kekasa, 

bushe, sanya, shanya, kdfe ; 

put out to d. sanyato, jibe ; 

to d. in the sun bdri* ; to d. 

meat before a fire kyafa, 

kyapa. 

2. intr. v. shekare; to d. 

up (used of a well) kafe, 

(wither or d. up as water) 

tsotsa*. 
dryness, kekasa. 
dry season, n. rani. 
duck, n. kazan yariba, agwa- 

gwa ; small water d. jalili ; 

African tree d. kirinjijiya ; 

comb of a d. dani. 
duck, v., to d. the head kauche 

kai. 
dumb, (d. and deaf person) 

bebe, pi. bebaye. 
dum-palm, n., see palm. 



dun 

dun, to d. a person for debt 
hi. 

dung, n. kdshi, taki, artai, 
najasa, najasu, gaitsi, toroso, 
taroso, tutu, tsura, tsula (S.) ; 
d. of cows or camels kandilu ; 
d. hole saiga, pi. salgagi, 
sarga, salanga (Zanf.), hay an 
gida*, kwarkware; d. hill 
jujai, jihji, hirhizo, hizo (S.). 

dungeon, n. kurkuku, see 
prison. 

duration, matsayi. 

during, prep, chikin, a, da, ga, 
muddar ransa d. (or all) his 
life. 

dust, n. kura, toka^, pi. to- 
kuna* ; d. storm gugutva, 
holoko, huluku. 

dwarf, n. wadd,iem. wadaniya, 
pi. wadani, kuru. < 

dwell, iiitr. V, zamna, zauna. 

dweller, n. mai-zamna. 

dwelling, n. mazamni, ma- 
zauni, wurin zamna, shigifa, 
pi. shigifu or shigifoji. 

dye, n. Hna; a black d. 
kwaloko* ; a reddish d. ga- 
lura ; a yellow clay used as 
ad. for women's faces dala ; 
a red d. majigi. 

dye, tr. V. rini, rina, yin tabsa, 
tura, yin turi ; d. pit marina, 
pi. mdrinai, karofi (K.); a 
place where clothes are 
beaten when being dyed 



79 early 

mahugiya ; owner of a d. 

pit or dyer mdrini, pi. ma- 

surini. 
dyed, part, rinanne, fern, rin- 

anna, pi. rinannu, turarre, 

fern, turara, pi. turaru. 
dyeing, tahsa, tausa, turi, tu- 

ranta, yanayi. 
dyer, n., see dye. 
dysentery, n. gudun daji, 

gvdun dawa, zawo, anago, 

ana gudawa, atuni ; medicine 

for d. domashi. 

each, pron. adj. kowanne, fem. 
kowache ; e. of us kowan- 
neniinu ; e. of them kowan- 
nensu. 

eager, adj. da kwardka. 

eagerness, n. kwadayi, kodai, 
kwada*, kwardka; see desire. 

eagle, n. jisasa (K.) ; crested 
e. angulun kwakwa; white- 
necked e. gagdfa. 

ear, n. kunne, pi. kunnuwa; 
hollow behind the ear geto, 
gato ; wax in the e. kwanyan 
kunne, daudan kunne ; to 
erect the ears kere ; to turn 
back the ears Id/e ; e. of corn 
kuhe, zangarniya, zangarko \ 
e. of gero cooked for eating 
tumu. 

early, adv. wuri, da wuri, 
dauri ; very e. wuri wuri ; 
e. in the morning sassa/e, 



earnest money 



80 



egret 



fudowa, fudawa^ tangarai, 
assuba ; e. or an e. start 
samako, sammako. 

earnest money, n. amdna*, 
shigam hiya. 

earth, n. 1. (the world) duniya. 
2. (soil) kdsa, pi. kdsashe, 
kdsaisai, turhaya, turda (S.); 
very hard e. tsandauri. 

earthquakes, raye-rayen duni- 
ya. 

earth-worm, tana^ pi. tanu. 

earwig, tsatso. 

easily, adv. hahu wuya, ha da 
wuya ha, sannu*, da sauki. 

east, n. gdhas, gdhaz^ ; one who 
comes from the e. hagahasi. 

eastward, adv. gahachi. 

easy, adj. that is easier ya fi 
sauki ; see easily. 

eat, tr. V. chi; to e. greedily 
chanye, chinye, rushe (K.), 
ginsu, gundura, yin hamfude, 
hamfudi, gamha, chingi, da- 
gwiya-j to snatch in order 
to e. rida ; anything to e. 
ahinchi ; plenty to e. zar% 
zowari, jihgi, lashe ; that 
which is good to e. tu- 
tushi; to give to e. chida, 
chishe or chiyad da \ eating 
a little at a time chiye-chiye ; 
cf. prov. to eat a little at a 
time is better than to eat 
up all at once chiye-chiye ya 
fi chainyewa; eating in secret 



kurmusu; one who hides him- 
self in order to e. mai-kur- 
musu. 

eavesdrop, to Idhe. 

eavesdropping, rafake. 

ebony-tree, kainya, kaiwa. I 

echo, n. kuruwa, koguwa*, jeji 
ya amsa. 

eclipse, n., e. of the moon 
husvji (Ar.), kamunwata, du- 
shewa ; e. of the sun kusuji. 

ecstasy, n. hauka, haukachi* . 

edge, n. kauye, kowi, kawachi* ; 
(of stream) refe, kauyen ruwa ; 
(of a knife) kaiji ; (of a sword) 
hdki ; (of cloth) lafe, laji '^ 
madaji*, chinkai*. 

edged, adj. (sharp e.) da kaiJi. 

educate, tr. v. yin reno*,foro^. 

education, n. Iddahi, kardtu*. 

effective, mai-anfdni. 

egg, n. kwai (kwoi), kwan 
kaza, pi. kwanyaye ; e. shell 
kwasfa, kwasta, pi. kosfofiy 
kwasfofi) kamhori, hamharokiy 
hawon kwai; a bad e. dunge; 
yolk of e. gwabduwa, kwabdua, 
gwanduwa; a hen laying egg'& 
dakwalwa ; to lay eggs kanya 
kwaij aje kwai, ajiye kwai 
(K.). 

egg-plant, gauta, yalo. 

egret, zarbi^ zalbi; the great 
white e. or heron ^arm zarbi ; 
little e. halhela, badbila, hil- 
hila. 



: Egypt 

Egypt, n. Masar, Mazar'^ ; the 

inhabitants of E, inasaraiva. 

eight, adj. takwas. 

eighteen, adj. goma sha ta- 

ktvas, sha takwas, ishirin 

hiyu habu. 

eighth, adj. na-takwas, fem. 

ta-takwas; one e. sumuni. 
eighty, adj. tamanin. 
either, adj. ko ; e.... or ko... 

ko ; walau*. 
elaeis guineensis, n. (= oil 

palm) kwakwa. 
elapse, intr. v. (of time) shige ; 

see finish, 
elasticity, yauki^ yabki. 
elbow, n. kusuruwan hannu, 
sukuruwan hannu, diddigin 
I hannu, gwiwar hannu; from 
f the e. to the shoulder damtse, 
damchi, pi. damatsa or da- 
mutsa. 
elder, e. brother wa, pi. yeye ; 

e. sister ya. 
eldest, adj. hahha^, dan far i. 
elect, tr. v., see choose, 
elephant, n. giwa, pi. giwaye j 
a young e. parma; male e. 
toron giwa, toro ; trunk of e. 
hannun giwa; tusks of e. 
(i.e. ivory) hakorin giwa, 
haurin giwa. 
elephantiasis, n. gugi, maku- 

lashe. 
eleven, adj. goma sha day a, 
sha daya, 
R. H. D. 



81 



encamp 



eleventh, adj. na-goma (fem. 

ta-goma) sha daya. 
else, see other, 
emaciated, part, a rame, ra- 

mamme ; see lean, 
emancipate, tr. v. yanchi, 

bada diyauchi. 
embankment, Idbuni, 
embark, intr. v. haujirigi. 
embarrassment, fulako, see 

shame, 
embezzlement, hdinchi. 
embrace, tr. v. runguma, run- 

gume. 
embroider, tr. v. yin sharaba. 
embroidered, (e.g. trousers) 

mai-surfani. 
embroidery, n. tindumi, shara- 
ba ; e. on a shirt algaba, aska ; 
e. on front of a tobe kunkun- 
gaba, gudungaba, mumbari. 
embryo, tdyi (S.). 
emerald, n. zumurruz*. 
emetic, n. katala. 
emir, n. amiru, amiri. 
emperor, n. sultan. 
emphasize, to karfafa. 
employment, safara (S.). 
emptiness, n. wofi, yofi (S.). 
empty, a place that is e. kango, 

pi. kangogi or kangaye. 
emulation, n. klshi, kishiya, 

pi. kishiyoyi, gdsa. 
enable, tr. v., see help, 
encamp, intr. v. shida, shide, 
sapka. sabka, sauka. 

6 



encampment 



82 



entice 



encampment, n. sanscmi, zan- 

go^ umrin sahka. 
enchantment, sihiri ; see 

sorcery, 
encircling, n. kewaya^ kewayo. 
enclosure, n. (for cattle, etc.) 

garke, garge (S.), sayi ; see 

fold, 
encompass, tr. v. (e.g. a town 

in war) rize. 
encounter, tr. v. gama da, 

ganiu da, tariye. 
end, n. kdre, karko, makari, 

makare, karshe, makoma ; 

(boundary) iyaka. 
end, 1. intr. v. kdre, tsaya, 

tsayi, mutu*, yamutse; come 

utterly to an e. karkare. 
2. tr. V. wanya, wanye, 

wanyi, kdre; (e. conversation) 

yanke mag ana ; the affair is 

ended ya kare. 
endeavour, n. kokari. 
endeavour, intr. v. yin kokari ; 

one who endeavours mai- 

kokari. 
ending, karewa, karko, tukewa. 
endurance, tasiri (S.), see 

courage, 
endure, 1 . tr. v. jimri, daure. 
2. intr. v. (suff'er) dauri ; 

(continue) yin karko, dada, 

dadi. 
enduring, part. 1. (lasting) 

dadewa, matahhdta. 

2. (suffering) see patient. 



enemy, n. ahokin gdba, makiyi, 
pi. makiya, mai-kinji, magah- 
chi. 

enfranchise, tr. v., see free. 

English, adj. wherever the 
word is known the form 
Ingliz or Ingilis borrowed 
from the Arabs of N. Africa 
is used ; an Englishman 
would be mutum Ingilis. 

engrossed, to be e. in anything 
shagula, natsu. 

enjoy, tr. v. sha*, chi* ; to e. 
the shade sha inuwa. 

enjoyment, n. murna, abin 
murna', see joy. 

enlarge, tr. v. fadada, yin 
girma. 

enmity, gdba, zaman. 

enough, n. da ya isa, buss, kul; 
to have e. koshi ; one who has 
eaten e. kosashshe, pi. kosas- 
su ; it is e. ya isa, ya koshi*. 

enquire, see inquire. 

ensign, n. tuta, pi. tutochi. 

enslave, tr. v. maida bawa, 
bautad da-, to be enslaved 
shiga bauta. 

ensure, to wajabta, see certain. 

entangle, to nanade, ddne*y 
jiche (S.), ki/a (K.), surmuka ; 
to become entangled sarke. 

enter, tr. v. (go in) shlga; 
(come in) shigo ; cause to e. 
shigas da. 

entice, tr. v. rude.. 



i 



entire 

entire, adj., see complete, 
entirely, adv. kap-^ see also 
I faye and ji. 
entrails, yan chiki. 
entrance, n. (aperture) kofa; 
e. room (e.g. to palace) dan- 
I, dali. 

I entrap, tr. v. yin hako, yin 
' tarko. 
entreat, tr. v. hiko, roko. 
entrenchment, n. kdgara, 
kdgaruwa, pi. kdgaru, san- 
sani. 
entrust, tr. v. hada, yin sabtu, 

danka. 
enumerate, to lisafta, lisalta, 

lasalta, Hsabta, lisanta. 
envy, n. keta, kiyaiya, kishi, 
I kishiya, hdsada^ haushi. 
enwrap, duntsa, duntse. 
epilepsy, n. falfada (S.), /«r- 
i fada {K..),farfadiya. 
^equal, adj. sosai, daidai, tan- 
gam, tangas; to make e. 
daidaita, yi ya ; to be e. isa ; 
a thing which is e. to abin 
gamawa; this is e. to that 
waiinan ya yi ya wunchan. 
equal, (fellow) tsdra, p].tsarare. 
equality, sauwi. 
equivalent, n. wato*, watau*. 
erase, tr. v. yin maimai, shdfa, 

kankara. 
srect, tr. V. tashe, tada, 
3rr, intr. v. manta^ manche, kus- 
kure, saha. 



83 



even 



errand, n. sako. 
error, n. mantuwa, kure, sabo. 
eructate, to yunkiXra. 
escape, n. place of e. wurin 

tsira. 
escape, intr. v. Jtchi, furche, 
tsira, gudu, kurchi, kurche, 
kubche, subuche, subiche. 
escort, n. rakiya(^.), rdko (K.), 

kuto. 
escort, tr. v. yin rakiya, rdka, 

rdki, rake, roma*. 
espy, to hanga, hangi, hange, 
hango ; I espied him afar na 
hange shi ddga nesa, he was 
the first to e. me ya hango ni. 
establish, to tuturta, kafa. 
established, part, (firmly fixed) 
tabbatachche, fern, tabbatach- 
chiya; kdfaffe^i^m. kafaffiya, 
pi. kdfaffu. 
esteem, n. hasafi. 
estimate, tr. v. kauwama, 

kawamata*, kimanta. 
estrangement, n. rabuwa. 
eternal, adj. hal (ovhar) abada, 
eunuch, n. babd or babani, pi. 

babdnni, laihi, marmdta. 
euphorbia, n. kumkumiya, 
fidda-sartse, kyarana, tinya. 
European, n. ba-Ture, pi. 

Turawd^. 
evade, to zuke. 

even, adj. 1. (smooth) dasamtsi. 
2. ef. e. or odd chika ko 
mara. 



6—2 



even 



84 



excel 



even, adv. ko ; e. now ko yanzu. 
evening, n. mareche, maraiche ; 
yamma ; late e. almauru^ 
almuru^ magaruh, mcigariba, 
mangariba, lisha, cf. under 
rana; in the e, da mareche^ 
da yamma; phr. I continue 
travelling till e. ina yini 
tafiya^ it is e. mareche ya yi; 
to depart in the e. maraita. 
eventually, adv. yauyau^ yo- 
yo. 
ever, adv. 1. (at any time) da- 
dai, taba, e.g. have you ever 
seen him 1 ka tdba ganinsa ? 
have you ever been to 
Sokoto? ka tdbaje Sakwato ? 
2. (for ever) tutul, tutur, 
tutu, tutuk, tutut, hal (or 
har) abadd. 
everlasting, adj. matuturchi, 
m,adawam,i*f matabbatawa*. 
every, adj. duka, duk,kuUum*; 
everyone kowa, kowanne, 
fern, kowache, pi. kowddanne, 
see Gr. p. 18 ; everything 
duka komi, dukachin komi, 
komi ; e. day kowache rana ; 
e. morning kullum safe ; e. 
night kullum dare. 
everywhere, ko'ina. 
evil, n. abin mugu, bannai, 
m,ugunta, shara, shariri, 
gaya*, swabo, zunufi; zun- 
ubi*, e. desire sha'awa; e. 
disposition lalata, mugunta, 



ka/archi, kafirchi ; e. thought 
bdkar zuchiya ; e. spirit ibilis ; 
e. speaking annam^imi ; e. 
principle existing in the 
world duniya* ; e, doer mai- 
swaho ; to e. intreat kan- 
kanta. 
evil, adj. m,ugu, fern, mugunya, 
pi. Tniyagu, m,um/m,una* \ see 
bad. 
ewe, n. tumkiya, pi. tumdki. 
exact, adj. sarai. 
exactly, rab, rap ; it fits e. ya 

kama rab. 
exactly, adv. tangas. 
exaggerate, glna waiwai, yal- 

wata labari. 
exalt, tr. v. daukaka, daiikake, 

m,aida girm,a. 
exalted, part, (epithet applied 

to God) ta'ala, madaukaka. 
examine, tr. v. dandana*, dan- 

dani* ; see look at. 
example, n. koyi, nuni, koko- 

ya* ; his e. kokoyansa. 
exceed, tr. v. buway 
Ji, zoba (S.) ; dada* ; 
strength gargara, gagara. 
exceed, to e. in (have much 

of) yawaita. 
exceedingly, ainin. 
excel, intr. v. faye, ddra (S.), 
yin fifiko, gota, girme ; to e. 
in size go/a ; who excelled^ 
the other 1 wanene ya j\ 
wani ? 



e. in 



I 



excellence 



85 



experienced 



excellence, n.fiyayya.fiyayye, 
flko, kayatazwa, kwari. 

except, adv. sai, sai dai, sai ko. 

excess, n. abinda ya faye, 
ymva. 

exchange, tr. v. sake, yin 
miisaya, furfura, furfuri. 

exchange, in exchange for 
a bdkin, maimakin, sdbad da. 

exchange, to (barter) furfuri. 

excitement, n. kardya. 

exclamation, n. (expressing 
astonishment or incredulity) 
huha, hdba, kaiya, kdsa ; (ex- 
pressing doubt or grief) wai ; 
words used as an e. maganar 
zuchiya; e. of annoyance kash, 
gasa ; e. denoting exultation 
woho, oho ; (expressing pity or 
disgust) asha, hasha ; (e. to 
attract attention) ihu, uhu, 
nfu, yeho ; e. of welcome 
mar aba; see also oho; an e. 
used in driving sheep us, as ; 
e. of despair wayuniya*' ; e. of 
pleasure yauro ; see indeed. 

excrescence, e.g. a swelling 

guda (S.). 
excuse, n. huja, yarji*, ham- 
zari, hanzari ; a poor e. 
gajeren hamzai'i ; he made 
e. ya yi sdne. 
excuse, tr. v. gafara, yin 
gafarta; phr, e. me ba ni 
yarji, gafara. 
executioner, n. hauni (K.). 



exercise, n. to take e. (by walk- 
ing) yawo, wasa jiki ; (by 
riding) kilisa. 

exhausted, part, sumamme ; e. 
land semu* (S.). 

exhibit, tr. v. nuna, nuni, 
gwada, goda. 

exhort, tr. v. gargada, galgada^ 
wajabta. 

exhortation, gargadi, galgadi. 

exist, intr. v. kashi, kashe, 
wanzu ; see be. 

expand, 1. tr. \. shimfiday 
shmfida. 

2. intr. v. yalwata, yin 
auki, yin abki, habama^. 

expansion, auki. 

expect, tr. V. (to await with 
expectation) jira ; (to antici- 
pate) tam^aha, tammaha, yin 
tamaha, yin zojche. 

expectation, halamu, zax^he, 
zdto ; unfulfilled expectations 
tsamanin warabuka. 

expectorate, intr. v. tofi, fesa, 
furja. 

expedition, military debe, 
sd'ati. 

expel, tr. v. kora, kore. 

expense, n., see cost. 

expensive, adj. da tsada; phr. 
it is too e. ya fi tsada or ya 
faye tsada; to be e. yin 



experienced, part, gwani, 
goni, pi. gwanaye. 



expert 



86 



fail 



expert, adj., see prec. 

explain, tr. v. waye, nuna, 
nuni, hadichi, yin fassara, 
fasalta, habarta* ; phr. e. it to 
meka gdya ma ni, amhato ni. 

explanation, n. wayewa, nu- 
nawa, fassara, fassaranta, 
azanchi. 

extend, tr. and intr. v. yalwata^ 
see expand. 

extended, be, intr. v. miTm. 

extensive, tafkeke*, tabkeke*. 

extent, n. matsawa, matuka; 
see limit. 

extinguish, tr. v. bishe, biche, 
kufuli*. 

extract, tr. w . jawo, fisge, fizge, 
fusge, Jishe, fishshe, fushe ; to 
e. juice etc. tatsa. 

exult, intr. v. yin rdha. 

exulting, n. rdha. 

eye, n. ido, iphidanu, idanduna, 
idanuwa ; eye-ball kwayar 
ido; e. socket gurbin ido, 
gulbin ido ; pupil of e. ijiyar 
ido, matsokachin ido ; eye- 
brow gira, pi. girare ; e. -lashes 
kain ijiya ; ridge over the e. 
kashin ido ; e.-glass madubin 
ido; mucus from the e. 
kwamtsa, kwamtso; diseases 
of the e. hakiya^ hakanya, 
chizara, shawora ; cataract 
in thee, tsauriyaovtsawariya; 
medicine for the eyes korino, 
fidilii giwa-kamba ; a man 



with deep-set eyes mai-kwar- 
min ido* ; a man with only 
one e. mai-ijiya na giida, 
mai-kishin ido ; a blemish 
in the e. lahani; watery e. 
(i.e. desire) ruwan ido ; evil 
e. kandu or kandun ido ; 
one with evil e. maye, fem. 
mayya; to put the evil e. 
on anyone jifa wani da ido ; 

e. witness shaidan ido ; to 
have dim eyes dindimi, dun- 
dumi ; to look with eyes 
nearly shut yin kankanin \ 
ido. 

eye-brow, gira, pi. girori^ 
girai or girgira. 

fable, n. tatsuniya, pi. tatsuni- 
yoyi, misali, almara*, fira*y 
gdtana. 

face, n. fuska^ pi. fuskoki and 
fuskuna, huska* ; to f. to- 
wards the speaker gabdto ; 
to f. in a given direction 
fuskanta ; f . to f . fuska biyu ; 
to fall on the f. fadi jiche ; 
he looks one straight in the 

f. idonsa kirikiri ne. 
fade, intr. ^'fafe^fofe, yaushiy 

yin yaushi, (used of cloth) 

kwaki. 
fading, adj. kwaki. 
fading away, part, kwdhe. 
fail, intr. v. (decay) rasu; (f. 

to keep a promise) kuskure^ 



faint 



87 



far 



kurkura ; (fall short of) kdsa, 

gdza ; f . to get tdhe, tafe ; 

f. to understand rudi ; cf. 

he failed me in nothing ba 

ya kdsa una ni komi ha. 
faint, adj. sumamme. 
I faint, intr. v. yin suma, jin 

suma, suma, gaji. 
faintness, n. suma, jiri, ku- 

mallo, falfada (S.), farfada 

(K.)-_ 

fair, adj. kyau, da kyau, mai- 
kyau. 

faith, n. aiman, imani, amin- 
chi* ; the faith of Islam 
niusuluTYichi ; see believe. 

faithful, adj. yardaji, salihi^, 

pi. salihai*, mummuni, fern. 

[ mummuna ; the f . amintattu. 

faithfulness, n. aminchi. 

fakir, wali (Ar.), waliyi, pi. 
waliyai. 

falcon, n. shafo, shaho. 

fall, n.fdduwa, saraya. 

fall, intr. v. fddi, fdda, yin 
saraya, kucha*, sako; f. down 
before anyone rusuna, run- 
suna* ; f. in (used of a 
well) gabche, gache, gwabche, 
abka, hurme ; make to f . 
goche ma ; f . upon falma, 
farma, parma, haye ; f . in 
with tsayi, tsaya; to let a 
thing f . fdda da ; to f. in 
price, yin goino* ; to f . out 
with sha bambam. 



falling, part, fddmva; f. into 
ruin rushewa] sound of f. 
glass kilin kilin, kirin kirin ; 
f. in of a well burma. 

false, adj. m^arorgaskiya ; to 
spread f. news kwarm^ato, chi- 
newa, tsinewa ; it is f. kariya 
ne ; f. witness shaidan zur. 

falsehood, n. kariya, kariya- 
' chi, zur. 

falsely, adv., to swear f. yin 
kafara. 

falsify, to kirfa. 

fame, n. ydbo. 

familiarity, saho. 

family, n., members of f. iyali, 
uma^, dangi. 

famine, n. yunwa, farin yun- 
wa. 

fan, n. fijiche, mafuchi, pi. 
majilfichi (S.), vnafifichi, 
mafirfichi (K.); (made of 
woven grass) faifai, "^A.faya- 
fai; f. made of ostrich 
ieELthers,Jigina,Jigini ; (made 
of palm leaves) giginya, pi. 
gigangani, giginyoyi or gi- 
ginai ; (for winnowing) ba- 
kache, Tuatankadi, rereya, 
rairaiya. 

fan, tr. v. fifita, feta, bakache ; 
one who fans mai-bakache, 
m,afechi. 

fancy (supposition) usuwasi. 

fanning, Jijitd, jitara. 

far, adj. da nesa. 



far 



88 



feather 



far, adv. nesa ; as far as har, 
hal, har ga, tun, tun da ; to 
place f. off nesanta. 

farewell, n., to bid f. yin ban 
kwana, yin salama ; an ex- 
pression of f. sai wata rana. 

farm, n. gona, pi. gonaki or 
gonakai, karkara, pi. kar- 
karai; farming aikin gona; 
owner or cultivator of a f. 
mai-gona ; a farm lent by a 
master to a slave gayauna* ; 
a f. labourer who works for 
wages kwadigo, dan kwadigo ; 
f . work noma ; farming in 
one place and living in an- 
other nomijide. 

fashion, n. (mode, custom) 
hdli^ pi. halaye, yayi ; rings 
were the f. ana yayin mun- 
daye. 

fast, n. dzumi ; the f. month 
laharan. 

fast, intr. v. yin dzumi. 

fasten, tr. v. (e.g. with nails) 
kdfa ; (tie) damre, halla. 

fastened, part, kafaffe, (closed) 
girkakke, fem. girkakkiya, pi. 
girkakku. 

fastening (or loop), maballi. 

fat, n. kiha, pi. kihohi, kitse, 
kiche (S.), m,aski (S.), kauri, 
kabri, gwabi', f. of meat mai. 

fat, adj. da kiba, da gwabi, 
mai-gwabi, da kauri, da 
kabri, ginshim,i, da taiba. 



tunturum; one who is f. 

mai-tumJ}i, m,ai-gato, mai-jiki, 

kutumba, gandi,iein. gandiya ; 

to grow f. yin kiba, taiba, yin 

tiriniya ; to fatten kibata. 
fate, n. jinkiri ; see destiny, 
father, n. uba, pi. ubanne, 

ubannai or ubanni, bdbd ; 

father-in-law suruki. 
fathom, gdba. 
fatigue, n. gdjiya, gdjewa, 

gajiyawa, gayara. 
fatigued, to be f. gaji, yin 

gajiya. 
fatness, n. taiba, tiriniya. 
fault, n. 1. (defect) aibi, aibu, 

pi. aibobi. 

2. (offence) laifi ; i. finding 

bimbini. 
favour, n. alheri, tagomashi. 
favourite, dan tatangi ; f. wife 

mowa. 
fear, n. tsoro, tunzura, dim^auta 

(S.), tunzuruwa*, razdna, 

gizo*, falgaba, fargaba, raki ; 

to cause f. bada tsoro, tsoratad 

da, tsorata. 
fear, tr. and intr. v. jin tsoro, 

razdna, rdzani, tsantsanta. 
feast, n. buki, biki, idi, laiya, 

adaras* ; to make a f. yin 

buki. 
feasting, part. (esp. used of 

marriage f.) wasan buki. 
feather, n. fikajike, fiffike, fika- 

fiki, pi. fikajikai ; fukafuki^ 



fee 



89 



fez 



pi. fukafuka% gashi* ; a wing 
f. lili. 
fee, n. (paid by recipient of a 
royal present) tukuichi, takwi- 
chi ; market f. or the com- 
mission paid to a broker in 
the market lada; a court f. 
ijara, ujera*. 
feeble, adj. kumdma, mara^s- 

karifi. 
feebleness, n. kumamanchi. 
feed, 1. tr. v. (to supply with 
food) chida, chishe, kiwata, 
chisad da, chiyar da. 
2. intr. v. (to eat) kiwo. 
feeding, chima. 
feel, tr. v. to perceive by 
touching y^, taba\ to feel 
or grope for lalabe, lalaba; 
to be aflfected ji ; to f. about 
, whilst searching fd/ake, md- 
1 Tnare ; to f . anything in order 
i to test its weight jinjini ; to 

f. afraid ji'm tsoro. 
\ feint, n. (pretended attack) 
zanzoma. 
fell, tr. V. (to cut down) sare. 
fellow, n. (partner, match) 
kama, pi. kamannu ; tsara, 
pi. tsar are ; a f. traveller 
maraki, marako. 
female, n. (of human beings 
and animals) mache, pi. mdta ; 
phr. male and f. wane da 
wanche. 
female, adj. ta-mata, ta-mache. 



fence, n. damfdmi, darni ; a 
f. round garden danga, pi. 
dangogi ; a f . made of stalks 
or thorns to keep in sheep, 
etc. shinge, skingi, shimgi, 
shimge, pi. shimgaye. 

fencing, n. (a game) sharo, 
takai. 

fern, hare's spear f. mashin 
zomo ; elk's horn f . dafaddu. 

ferry, to f. across yin fito, 

. ketarad da (S.), ketaras da 

(K.), ketarshe (before a pron.). 

ferryman, n. sarikin ruwa, 
maketari, mai-jUo. 

festival, n. sallata. 

fetch, tr. V. kawo, zo da \ see 
bring. 

fetish, a f. spot matsafa, 

fetters, n. malwa, mulwa (S.), 
pi. mulwoyi (S.) ; mdri, pi. 
maruruwa, maluluwa, gigar, 
sarka, dilka. 

feud, a blood-feud tarna. 

fever, n. masassara, zazzabi, 
jante, janti, gyante, mura] 
I have fever jikina ya yi 
dumi ; a f. which occurs 
when the guinea-corn is ripe 
chiwo na sabon dawa. 

fever, to have f. yin zazzabi. 

few, adj. kddan, kankane, fern. 
kankanuwa, pi. kankana, 
kanana, tsaraurau, kvma. 

fez, Ti.fula, wula*,fulan dara, 
fulad dara, tagiya. 



fibre 



90 



fine 



fibre, n., f. of palm tree kaba ; 

a f. used for making rope 

tsaiwa. 
field, n. a cultivated f. fil% pi. 

jilaye; fako, pi. fagaigai; 

gona, pi. gonaki or gonakai ; 

a barren f. sabra, saura (Z.) ; 

a very large f. karkara, pi. 

karkarori. 
field-mouse, gyabji, gyauji. 
fierce, adj., to be f. haukache. 
fiercely, adv. da kangara, zafi, 
fifteen, adj. goma sha biyar 

(or biyal) sha biyar. 
fifteenth, adj. na-goma (fern. 

ta-goma), sha biyar. 
fifth, adj. na-biyar, fem. ta- 

biyar ; one f. humusi. 
fifty, adj. hamsin. 
fig, n., f.-tree itachen baure; 

t fruit baure ; for other 

species of ticus see chediya, 

gamji (S. ), ganji (K.), durumi, 

kawuri or kawari shirinya, 

uwar yara, wa, rubiya. 
fight, n. fdda, faraa^ kokuwa^ 

kokowa, yaki, jayaya or ja- 

yaiya, sabuwa. 
fight, intr. v. fdda, yin fdda, 

yin fama, yin kokowa, yin 

jayaya. 
file, n. zarto, darto^^ maga- 

gari*. 
file, tr. V. gurjago, gurzago ; 

to f. a sword yin akaras. 
fill, tr. V. chika, yin fal ; to 



f. full chikakka; to f. up a. 
hole turbude ; phr. fill them 
up kawo chikonsu. 

filled, part, chikakke, fem. 
chikakkiya, pi. chikakku ; to 
be f . chika. 

filling, part, chikawa. 

filter, n. (usually in form of 
small basket through which 
water is strained out) marari^ 
abin rlga, maregi. 

filter, tr. v. rare, twatsa, tatsa^ 
tache, rege (S.) ; one who filters 
TYiai-rarewa. | 

filtering, rlga, tachewa, lata. I 

filth, n. dauda. ' 

filthiness, janaha. 

filthy, adj. da dauda ; to be f. 
yin najasa. 

fin, (of a fish) kd/a. 

finch, a species of, with grey- 
blue plumage and red tail 
sisita; black-headed weaver 
f. shaida; fire f. baiwar 
Allah; widow f. or Whydah 
bird, or widow weaver za- 
laidu, zulaidu. 

find, n., e.g. treasure-trove 
galala. 

find, tr. V. samu, same, sami, 
sama ; try to f . tuske, tuski ; 
to f . out (discover) kaga ; to 
f . and bring samo. m 

fine, n. tara, taro. " 

fine, 1. adj. (thin, delicate) 
laushi, da taushi. 



fineness 



91 



fish 



2. (beautiful) da kyau ; 
very f, kdlo halo ; very f . 
thread arafia. 
fineness, arafichi, rahsh% roshi, 

taushi. 
^nger, n. ydtsa, pi. ydtsosi, 
ydtsu; the little f. autan 
j/atsa, dan kure ; middle £. 
ijatsan tsaka ; f.-nail farch% 
farche, kamhari, kumba, pi. 
kumbuna or kumbai, danuha. 
finish, n., see end. 
finish, V. kdre, kark% wanya, 
wanyi, wanye, gdma^ guma, 
fuka, tuke, Ida, shide. 
finished, part, kafaffe, fem. 
kafaffiya or kafaffa, pi. 
kafaffu ; phr. it is f. ya kare, 
ya tsaya tammat*; he f. speak- 
ing ya yi magana ya kare ; the 
month is f. wata ya mutu. 
fire, n. wuta, pi. wutaitai, 
nmtache ; fire-place murufu, 
inurfu ; a f. which has burnt 
downru/ushi, rubshi, rabchi* ; 
restoration of a dying f. 
(jwamin wuta ; to light a f. 
fura wuta, hasa wuta ; to 
catch f. chin wuta ; make a 
large f. gdsa; to strike f. 
with a flint kyastu wuta ; to 
miss f. (of a gun) fasa, yin 
kariya ; to f. a gun halbi (or 
buga) bindiga; a f.-swallower 
kumuria. 
fire-brand, bakin wuta. 



fire-finch, haiwar Allah. 

fire-fly, n. dimin dawa, make- 
suwa, mai-kesuwa, mai-kya- 
suwa. 

firewood, n. itachen wuta^ 
kirari, kirare. 

fireworks, n. wasan wuta; 
(display of) wowo. 

firmament, n. hawa*, sama*. 

first, adj. na-fari, fem. ta-fari. 

first, adv. na-farko, da farko, 
da fdri, tukun, tukuna ; to 
be f. to do anything wada, 
I am the f. to come na wada 
zuwa. 

fish, n. klji, pi. kifaye, kifofi; 
mud- or lung-f. gaiwa; elec- 
tric cat-f. minjiriya, miji- 
riya, misiriya ; large f . from 
which oil is obtained gin% 
zau ; a kind of dog-f. kardya ; 
a shell-f. kuTnba*, pi. kum- 
buna* ; a flat f . with reddish 
snout kuma ; cat-fish rag on 
ruwa, tarwada, mari, ku- 
rungu, gwando (S.), gartsa 
(K.), kulme ; sting-ray ku~ 
ndmar ruwa; a f. with a 
belly like a frog talibamban ; 
thread-fin abokin taru, Nile 
perch giwar ruiva ; cichlid 
perch karpasa, karfasa, kar- 
pashe, gargaza ; tiger-f. tsage, 
kawara, shambana ; mormyr 
lulu, dan sariki ; a f. like 
a salmon f ally a, fariya; 



fish 



92 



flax 



for other species of f. see 
under gargaza, baramchi, 
bana, boddmi, dummi, hariya, 
ishi, kuku, milgi, rajiya, silla, 
sololuwa, yauni ; f . bones 
kayan kifi ; a hand-net for 
catching f. koma, homa,/oma ; 
a spear for catching f . hagu ; 
. a f . trap murumuru, sankuja 
(K.), sankiya ; wicker-work 
snares for catching f. tsatsara, 
sasasara; a cord or stalk 
on which f. are carried leshi. 

fish, tr. V. sunta, sunche, intr. 
yin/atsa, kama kifi ; f. with 
small hand-net su. 

fisherman, n. masunta, pi. 
masu-su, dan fatsa, masun- 
chi. 

fishing, sunta ; a place for f . 
masunta. 

fishing-basket, sum. 

fishing-hook, kugiya, pi. kugi- 
yoyi, fatsa, kugiyar fatsa. 

fishing-line, igiyarfatsa^ mam- 
mari, marimari, murumuru, 
murimuri. 

fishing-rod, itachen fatsa. 

fissure, e.g. in stick or rock 
gebe. 

fist, n., to close the f. tunkushe ; 
to strike with the f. dan- 
kwasa, dankwashe, naushe ; 
see box. 

fit, n. (fainting f.) gamata^ 
falfada. 



fit, to, cf. it fits exactly ya 
kama rab (or rap) ; that 
which is fitting sawaba. 

fit, adj. da ya kam^ata, sawabe*, 
sawaba*. 

fitting, be, intr. v. kamata, 
gam^she, gam,a*. 

five, adj. biyar (K.), biyal 
(Kats.), biyat (S.) ; f. thou- 
sand hamsa*, q.v. 

fix, to f. a tax yanka gandu ; 
to f . a price yanka kurdi ; 
see fasten. 

fixed, to be 1, e.g. in a tree 
runguma. 

flag, n. tuta, pi. tutochi. 

flame, n. halshen wuta (lit. 
tongue of fire), balbalniya. 

flap, v., to f. the wings fuffuka, 
fiffika. 

flapping, e.g. of wings fuffuka, 



flat, a f. place without trees 

kanga; he fell f. ya fadi 

kUa. 
flatten, tr. v. nana. 
flattened, part, nananne, na- 

nake. 
flattery, n. kirari, lallashij 

ban magana, godo, yin godo, 

ma-abanchi. 
flavour, n. gardi, zaki, zazza- 

ka* ; the nut has a good f. 

gyada tana da gardi. 
flax, n. string made of f. 

kirtani. 



I 



flay 



93 



fly 



flay, tr. v. feda^ fede, fida, fide, 
fiye*, figi*, saba, sahe. 

flaying, rlda. 

flea, n. tunkwiyo, tunkwiya^ 
chichifi ; pite pite f. tsando, 
kuma. 

flee, intr. v. gudu, guje, furche, 
tsire,yin chiri,J\jffika,fuffuka, 
tunzura, sukuwa, suka, su- 
kwani, ruga, rugo ; a place 
to which to f. ivurin gudu ; 
to make to f. rauga ; see 
drive away. 

flesh, n. nama, pi. namomi, 
namuna; uncooked f. nama 
danye ; (bush-meat) naman 
daji ; cooked f . ddfau. 

flight, n. gudu, guduwa, chiri, 
fartat*; to put to f. hadajanfi*. 

flint, n. kyastu, ketu, kyetu ; 
f. in a f. lock gun damishi, 
kankara, dutsim hindiga ; to 
strike fire with a f. kyastu 
wuta ; f . and steel for striking 
a light masabi, masebi. 

float, used by fishermen, made 
of twigs karu. 

flock, n. garke, garge (S.), pi. 
garkuna. 

flog, tr. V. fyada, fyade, doke, 
buga, yin kurfu, yin buldla, 
fiade. 

flogging, n. kurafu, kurfu, 
karfu*, fyddi, kdshi. 

flood, n. rigyawa, chikowa, 
L chichikowa, tabki, malala*. 



floor, n. 1. (for threshing) 
masussuka. 

2. to stamp down a f. 
ddbe. 

florin, fataka*, pataka*. 

flour, n. gdri ; the coarse f. 
which is separated from the 
finer f. of wheat tsdki ; f. 
mixed with water tally a*. 

flourish, intr. v. yalwata. 

flow, inti'. V. f. quickly tum- 
budu ; to f . together sqje. 

flower, n. fure, pi. furanyi, 
furaye ; a plant with a 
thistle-like flower which 
grows in cultivated fields 
(Vernonia perottetii) burzu. 

flute, n. algaita, algaitu, sare- 
wa, sheshe (K.) ; a reed from 
which flutes are made kusum- 
buruwa. 

fly, n. (common house f.) kuda, 
kuje, pi. kudaje, kudaidai ; 
horse f. gwarje, bobuwa, bar- 
baje, damisan dawaki; a 
piece of leather placed on 
horses' eyes to keep off flies 
furtali, futali ; fire-fly dimin 
dawa ; sand-f. fiffilwa, filfil- 
wa, kyafirfita, kiyashi, kudan 
garke ; a large horse f. 
makafon kuda ; dragon-f. 
masu ; a large biting f. 
tsanji. 

fly, intr. v. (of a bird) shawage, 
jawagi*. 



foal 



94 



for 



foal, n. dukushi, fem. dukusa, 
pi. dukusai, dan dukushi. 

foam, n. kunfa, kumfa, kwmpa. 

foam, to yin kunfa. 

fodder, kansuwa, kyasuvja ; see 
grass. 

foetus, of animals tdyi. 

fog, n. hdzOj kdsashi. 

foggy, adj. da hazo. 

fold, n. (for sheep, etc.) garke, 
garge (S.), pi. garkuna, turke, 
pi. turdku (K.), turuka (S.), 
rugga ; cutting folds of cloth 
kirfawa. 

fold, tr. V. (cloth, etc.) nimka, 
linke, yd/a, yd/o, kunsa, 
kuns/ie, lauya, tdkura. 

folding, (the arms) huku; 
f. cloth rihiye. 

foliage, n. ganyen itache. 

follow, tr. V. bi ; t a path bi 
hariya ; to f . in the direction 
of the speaker biyo ; following 
(esp. used of loyalty to a 
patron) biyeya, biyawa. 

followers, n. masu-bi. 

folly, n., see foolishness. 

fond, adj. tobef . oiyinmarmari. 

fondling, n. act of f. lalaba, 



food, n. chima, chimaka, abin- 
ch% tuwo*, jibi* ; much f. 
machiya; f. shared in com- 
mon chiydya; a calabash 
full of f. kabaki, pi. kabuka ; 
remains of f. sanso, sud% 



marmashi; to gather f. for 
the poor tarbata (S.). 

fool, n. wawa, pi. wawaye, 
hauka, magagachi, afalalu, 
badada, bada-bada, dolo, gabo, 
hamsoro, limota (S.), loto,ieui. 
lotuwa ; 7)iai-wauta, mawauta^ 
mahaukachi, fem. mahau- 
kachiya, pi. mahaukata ; 
foolish talking badagula, they 
talked foolishly sun yi bo- 
bawa ] a f. who pays without 
counting ba-turen chacha. 

foolish, da wawa. 

foolishness, n. wawanchi, 
hauka, mabuya, barkwanchi ; 
foolish talking badagula ; 
tawa, gaga (S.). 

foot, n. kdfa, pi. kafafu, kafoji, 
kafuna ; a f . regarded as a 
measure of length tdki, pi. 
tdke-tdke, tdki-tdki ; a foot- 
print sau, sawu ; foot- rings 
munduwaycn kdfa ; sole of 
f. tajin kdfa, mataki, pi. 
matakai; tendons of f, 
matsarbaje (S.) ; on f . «^ kdfa] 
a f. soldier dan-kasa, sa'ati*. 

footman, e.g. a man who 
walks in front of a chief's 
horse zdgi, pi. zaga^i. - 

footstool, mataki. ■ 

for, 1. prep, (for the sake of) 
domin, don ; for his sake 
dominsa ; see account of ; 
(in view of) ga. 



forbearance 



95 



fortunate 



2. conj. (because) /a, zama. 
forbearance, n. hankuri, 

hankura, hakura, hakuri. 
forbid, tr. V. dakile, harm. 
force, n. tllas, karifi ; by f, 

da tilas, til as, dole, doli ; to 

use f. yin tllas, tilasa (K.), 

tilasda (S.) ; phr. I was 

forced to go na taji tilas or 

wajibi ne na tafi. 
ford, n. mahayi, maketari, 

mashigi. 
ford, to hayi. 
forearm, n. gaba, kusun-hannu, 

bauni (S.), pi. baunukka. 
forefather, n., see ancestor, 
forefinger, n. manuni. 
forehead, n. goshi. 
foreign, adj. ajaini* ; f. (i.e. 

unintelligible) bobawa, bau- 

bawa, pi. bobayi ; i. speech 

bauchi. 
foreigner, n. Ture*, ba-Ture ; 

that which pertains to a f. 

turanchi. 
foresight, tdnadi (S.). 
foreskin, loba, sulli. 
forest, n. rukuki, daji, ddwa ; 

dense f. kurmi, kurumi, 

kumchi*. 
forethought, n. hankali, ta- 

nadi (S.). 
forge, n. (anvil) makera ; worker 

at a f. (blacksmith) makeri, 

inai-ktra, pi. mukira, makeri. 
forge, tr. V. klra. 



forget, tr. v. manche^ shdgala 

da, yin mantutva, manta. 
forgetfulness or forgetting, 

n. mantuwa, sakafchi. 
forgive, tr. v. yafe, yafe ma, 

gafarta, yin gafara, yarda ; 

f. me ka yi Tnini gafara. 
forgiveness, n. gafara, gafar- 
ta. 
fork, n. (iron toasting f.) rino, 

rinu ; the f . of a bifurcating 

stick gofa, gwafa ; a stick 

with a f. in it itache maigofa. 
forked, adj., af. stick shishini' 

ya (S.), shushiniya (K.) ; a f. 

iron stick on horse's neck 

kasagi. 
forlornness, n. kewa, kiwa. 
form, n. (shape) kama, supa*, 

sifa. 
former, adj. nafari; the f.... 

the latter wanchan . . . wan- 

chan. 
formerly, adv. dazu, dafari; 

in former times na da ; as 

in former times kaman na da. 
fornication, n. shakalichi,fasi- 

kanchi. 
fornicator, Vi.mashakalchi,sha' 

kali, bambagi, maifasikanchi. 
forsake, tr. v. bari, bar. 
forthwith, adv. nan da nan, 

ana nan, ko yanzu. 
fortunate, adj., it was f. ya yi 

arziki; to be f. yin daula; 

see lucky. 



fortune 



96 



frequent. 



fortune, n. (prosperity) arziki, 

a man of f. mawadachi, pi. 

mawadata ; good f . gamon- 

katar. 
forty, adj. arhdin. 
forward, adv. gaba; to move 

a little f. guso, gurguso. 
foster, f. mother uwal rufi ; 

f . child dangana* ; one 

who fosters tallafi, gona ; 

to act as a f. parent tallafa^ 

taulafa. 
foul, i.e. to make muddy gur- 

hache. 
foundation, n. gato, gindi; 

f. of a wall tushi, tushiya. 
founded, part, kdfaffe, fem. 

kafaffiya, pi. kdfaffu. 
fountain, n. maromaro, mar- 

maru. 
four, did], fudu^ hudu (Zanf ara), 

pudu (Daura), arha^a*, arha^ ; 

by fours fudu fudw, four 

each furfudu. 
fourteen, adj. goma sha fudu, 

shafudu. 
fourth, adj. na-fudu, fem. ta- 

fudu ; f . day chitta. 
fowl, n. kdza, pi. kaji; speckled 

fowls wakewaken kaji; a f. 

plucked for cooking shikir- 

kita* \ a place where fowls 

are kept akurki ; a f . laying 

eggs dakwaluwa. 
fox, n. long-eared f . nyanyawa, 

yanyawa. 



fracture, kariya, karaya ; see 
break. 

fragment, n. gutsura, pL 
gutsure, guntu, guntun abu, 
fara (S.) ; f. of broken pots, 
etc. sakaina, tsingaro (S.),. 
katanga. 

francolin, see partridge. 

frankincense, n. turare; small 
box for f. dan lulu ; a tuber 
from which f. is made kajiji, 
gajiji ; f. tree hano, ararra- 
hi. 

fraud, n., see deceit. 

free, adj., one who is f. da^ 
diya. 

free, tr. v. hari, hada diyauchiy 
yanchi, ymitas, yauta dUy 
diyanta, yanta, kwankwan- 
che, sdka, yin sdki, sawanta. 

freed, part, hararre, fem. harar- 
riya, pi. bararru. 

freedom, n, yanchi, diyauchiy 
diyanchi, diyantaka, sdk% 
sawani ; a certificate of f. 
laya, layan diyauchi ; f . given 
to a slave on the death 
of his master muddhar (S.), 
madabar. 

frenzy, n. wdhami, hauka. 

frequent, adj., see often. 

frequent, tr. v. (visit often) 
expressed by use of kan with 
verbs meaning to go to ; he 
frequents the place ya saba 
da wuri. 



fresh 

fresh, adj. sdbo, fem. sdbuwa, 

pi. sababbi; applied to plants, 

etc., fem. ganye*, danye, 

danya, pi. danyu or danyoyi, 

Friday, n. aljimma, aljimmu'a, 

jumma'a, jummu'a, jinima'a, 

jiinniu'a. 

fried, part, soyayye, fem, so- 

yayya, pi. soyayyu. 
friend, n. aboki, fem. abokiya, 
abuya, pi. abokai, abokanai, 
kciwci) masoyi, fem. masoya, 
pi. masoyu; maso, pi. niaso- 
wa; tsar a, kama,ip\. kamanu ; 
dmi-mva, pi. yan-uwa; zumu, 
fem. zumunya, juna, amini*^ 
•sahibi*, sahabi*, dangi, 
danya, pi. dangogi', makwab- 
chi, pi. Diakwabta: friends 
tsarare; my friends yan- 
tiwana. 
friendship, n. abtita, zumun- 
chi, ztcmunta, halin aboki, 
shiriya, dan-dadi-dadi. 
fright, n. tu7izuru, tunzuruwa, 
tsoro. 
1 frighten, tr. v. tsorata, bada 
tsoro, yin ruba, burga ; to f. 
or be frightened Jirgita, 
Jirgiche, razana. 
fringe, giraza, geza ; a f . for 
horses' eyes hutali, futali, 
fiirtali. 
fro, going to and f. yauchi, 
zdgo ; to go to and f . zazzaga, 
zazzage, kai da kawo. 
R. H. D. 



97 



fruitful 



frog, n. talibambam*,kwado, pi. 
kwaddi, kwadodi ; small dark 
coloured f. warnu ; an edible 
f. burdudugi, burtutiki ; tree 
f. tsumbe ; bull f. kozo. 
frog-spit, or cuckoo-spit, kum- 

/a, kakas. 
from, prep, ddga ; (when fol- 
lowed by the personal pro- 
nouns) ddga gare; tun, f. birth 
tun haifuwa ; f. within ddga 
chiki', f. afar ddga nesa. 
front, n. gdba, pi. gdbobi, 
goshi ; in I a gdba ; in f . of 
gdban; to go in f. tsaitse ; 
go in f . ! ku chi gdba ; he 
got in f. of us ski ya rlga mu. 
front, to doshi, dosa, doso ; he 

fronted them ya doshe su. 
frontier, iyaka; a f. town 

kai7i iyaka. 
froth, n. kun/a, kum/a ; f. 
skimmed off in making bread, 
etc. kulli, kullu ; f . at mouth 
of a dying man dafara. 
frown, intr. v. damre fuska, 
yin bakin (or bakar) fuska, 
jirkitafuska, murtsuka fuska. 
frowning, n. hardra*. 
fruit, n. (of trees) dan itache, 
diyan itache, yayan itache ; 
(of grains, etc.) kwara, 
kwaya; the f. of the earth 
diyan kasa, yan kasa. 
fruitful, adj., an epithet 
applied to corn mai-ido. 



fruitless 



98 



game 



fruitless, adj., e.g. f. toil aikin 

wofi. 
fry, tr. v. soya. 
frying, suya. 
fuel, n., see firewood, 
fugitive, n. gujaje, mai-gudu, 
korarre, pi. korarru ; inaguje, 
maguji, pi. magudane, ma- 
guda. 
Fulah, pr. n., a F. native 
ba-Fillache, ba-Fillata, ha- 
Fillatana, Fulata, pi. Fillani, 
Fulani; the F. language 
Fillanchi, Fulatanchi ; the 
F. people Fulhe. 
fulfil, to chika ; to £. a promise 

cMka alkawali. 

full, adj. cMkakke, fem. cMkak- 

kiya, pi. chikakku ; a chike, 

fem. a chika, pi. a chiku ; (f . to 

thehrim) fau; see complete. 

fulness, n. yayalwachi. 

funeral, n. biso ; lamentations 

at a f . makoki. 
fungus, a club-shaped f. which 
grows on ant-heaps tumukun 
suri. 
funnel, mazurari. 
furbish, tr. v. (e.g. a sword) 

kuda. 
furrow, n. kwdri, pi. kwaru- 
ruwa, kwdre (S.), rumaniya ; 
to draw a f . karta ; furrows on 
the cheeks karrara maya{S.). 
further, adj. (=more distant) 
mqfi nisa. 



future, adj. (= that is to come) 
mai-zutva; in f., adv. zut 
gdba. 

gadfly, bobuwa, bubu (S.). 
gag, n. majanga. 
gain, n. riba; unlawful g. 
kura, riba, haramiya ; to 
make unlawful g. chin riba, 
chin haramiya, chin kura. 
gall, n. madachi, saifa, dwatana, 
ruwan dwatana; g. bladder 
matsarmama. 
gallant, mai-dauki. 
gallantry, n. dauki. 
gallop, n. suka, pi. sukaikai; 

at a g. a sukwane. 
gallop, intr. V. yin sukuwa, 
sukuwa, sukaya, sukayo, su- 
kani, sukwani ; a place for 
horses to g. masukwani, /age. 
galloping, a place for g. 

masukwani. 
gambler, n. bakanchi, dan 
chacha ; see ba-turen chacha. 
gambling, n., a game for g. 
chacha, alfowa, ddra, modi', 
to throw down money in g.i 
yin wasa da kurdi ; see mu^ 
zuru. 
gambol, kiriniya, tsalle-tsalle. 
game, n. wargi ; games played 
by children karkachi, darei 
gdre, gyauga, lambe (S.), l(m 
laya, langa, shillalo, tulatuM 
ubulunguwi, runfuki, wdhd 



game 



99 



giddy 



dokin wuya, zure, izgili ; g. 
played by fortune-tellers in 
order to discover secrets 
dirka; a g. played with 
cowry shells dara] a gam- 
bling g. chacha ; a call to 
join in a g. shu, shiyo, or 
shiyu ; a wrestling g. giimaza ; 
a fencing g. toA;ai, sAaro. 
game, n. (food) naman daji. 
gaol, see prison, 
gap, e.g. between two teeth 

wishiriya. 
gape, intr. v. yin hamma. 
gaping, n. hamma. 
garden, n. danga, pi. dangogi ; 
Jambu, pi. lambuna, aljanna*. 
gardener, n. mai-gona*. 
gargle, n. wanken makoshi 
gargling, n. kurkura. 
garlic, n. ta/arnuwa, pi. ta- 

farnai ; taparnuwa. 
garment, n. riga, pi. riguna ; 
old garments tsumma, pi. 
tsummoki, keso, pi. kyassa, 
ragga; see clothes, 
gamer, n. (a place for storing 
grain) rufogo, rafoniya, rum- 
bu, ru/etva. 
garnished, part, gyartache, 
fern, gyartachiya, pi. gyar- 
tattu. 
^asp, intr. V. (for breath) yin 
fuka, shesheka, shasheka; one 
who gasps mai-fiichi. 
Jasping, n. haki (S.), shashaki. 



gate, n. kofa, pi. kofofi-, gate- 
way, see doorway, 
gather together, 1. tr. v. tara. 

2. intr. v. taru^ gayya. 
gathered, part, a tara, a taru, 
tararre, fern, tararra, pi. 
ta7'a7'ru. 
gathering, n., e.g. of people 
before a king kindigaye ; see 
assembly, 
gaze, n. kallo, tsokachi. 
gaze at, tr. v. kallo, tsokachi, 
choka/ihi, dauro, doro^, nuri^, 
(generally in a bad sense) yin 
zuru. 
gazelle, n., see antelope, 
generosity, n. baiwa. 
generous, adj. da kdra. 
genii, n, jinnu ; see demons, 
gently, adv. sanu, sannu, lako- 

lako, sdko-sdko. 
genuine, adj., g. money kurdi 

tsaba. 
Germany, pr. n. (used in 

North Africa) Bursiya. 
gesture, a g. expressing dis- 
approval ambola, dakuwa. 
get, tr. V. samu, same, sami, 
sama, samo ; g. out ! je ka, 
f em. je ki ; g. along ku yi ta 
tajiya. 
ghost, n. fatalwa, m,agiro. 
giant, n. gazaguru. 
giddiness, n. gigichi, jiri, 

hamani. 
giddy, adj. phr. I am g. kahia 
7—2 



gift 



100 



gnashing 



shina kewayewa or ina jin 
jiri ; to be g. gigita ; to make 
g. dame, ddma. 

gift, n. kyauta, kaya, pi. kaya- 
yaki, ahin gaisuwa, haiko ; 
free g. alheri; g. given to 
conciliate tsaraha, see bribe ; 
gifts coll. baiwa. 

gimlet, n. berlma, mararaki. 

gin, n. (for animals) tarko. 

gin, n. (a spirit) baraza, barasa. 

ginger, chitafo, chitan Afo. 

giraffe, rakumin daji, rakumhi 
ddwa. 

gird, tr. V. damre, daure, dam- 
7'a, yin damdra, darmi*. 

girded, part, damrarre, pi. 
damrarru. 

girdle, n. damarichiki, damdra^ 
madamrin chiki, tamantaka* ; 
a g. made with copper tagula, 
tugida, tagura ; a g. of cloth 
taraya ; a woman's g. gyauto, 
dan gy auto, jigida; a woman's 
g. of beads tsakiya, kwdtana; 
a g. of cowries kiribi. 

girl, n. yarinya, pi. yam-mata, 
diya ; a young g. tantabara. 

girth, ri. (of a horse) bauji ; a 
g. strap majayi, kaitaro. 

give, tr. V. ba, bdda, bashi, 
bay as, baya* ', to g. back 
bayas da ; to g. up bayas, 
bayar, sallame, bdda, bashi, 
yarda bashi* ; to g. alms 
yin sadaka. 



giver, n. mai-bada, mabaya*. 
gizzard, of a bird kundu. 
glad, to be, intr. v. yin farin- 

chiki, yin (or jin) murna. 
gladden, tr. v. bada (or sa) 

murna, faralta. 
gladiolus, a wild rimana, ru- 

mana. 
gladness, n. farin-chiki, m,ur- 

na. 
gland, kaluluwa. 
glass, n. mddubi ; a dish made 

of g. tamgaram,, kwachiya*^ 

pi. kwachaye; a looking-g. 

mddubin ido, matsokachi ; 

the sound of falling g. kilin 

kilin, Mri kiri, girin-girin. 
glean, tr. v. kdldta, yin kdla^ 

Tore, yin saura (or sabra). 
gleaning, roro. 
gleanings, n. (of a harvest) 

kdla, saura*. 
glorious, adj. (of God) j alia*. 
glory, n. daraja, darajiyaf 

girma*. 
glove, n. rigar hannu. 
glue, n. danko*, 
glutton, n. mai-loma, mach% 

pi. machiya, mai-rida, mafS^ 

lashi, mai-kwa7'aka. 
gluttonous, zwari. 
gluttony, may in chi, zivari,l 

zari; see greed, 
gnash, tr. v. tamna hakori. 
gnashing, n. (of teeth) tsu, 

hahori. 



gnaw 



101 



gorge 



gnaw, to chisya, chizga, gur- 
yura. 

go, intr. V. taji, je, zaka, zatsa*, 
to be about to go za ; to go 
round a place ziyara, zaga, 
zagi ; to go before gahdta, 
gabdche ; to go forth fita ; 
to go away kau ; to go con- 
stantly to a place shishiga; 
to go as far as tusga, tusge ; 
go with a person tare ; to 
go to meet tariye ; go out 
of fita ; to go by night hi 
dare ; to go after a wife in 
order to bring her home 
hiko ; phr. go on with what 
you are doing yi ta yi. 

goat, n. akwiya, akuya, akwuya, 
pi. aivaki ; he-goat hunsuru, 
pi. bunsurai or hunsuraye ; 
a young g, hui'guma ; a long- 
haired species of g. huzu- 
ruvKt ; a speckled g. gitsawa 
(S.), gwalande ; a vicious g. 
tvatsatsi^ fem. watsatsiya ; old 
lean g. guzuma ; a castrated 
g. <a6re, to?*re ; beard of a 
g. rairo, rero; a g. in milk 
karduwa. 

goat-sucker, see night-jar. 

God, pr. n. Allah, the plural 
allohi is used of idols. 

going, part, tafiya ; they are 
g. suna tafiya ; a g. away 

gold, n. zinariya. 



gonorrhoea, chiwon sanyi, 
masuna, fyauka. 

good, adj. ndgari, fem. tdgari, 
pi. ndgargaru, mai-kyau, 
kyau, kekyawa^ salihi; phr. 
g. or bad fari ko baki ; g. 
used as an exclamation to ; g. 
morning sa7iti da safe, sanu 
da rana; g. evening (on 
parting) sai da safe, (on 
meeting) sa7iu da dare ; good- 
bye for the present sai an 
jima ; g. news albishir ; g. 
news for you albishirinka ; 
a g. disposition kyakyawan 
hali; something g. abin ki- 
7'iki ; see under sanu. 

good-bye, to say ba7i kwana. 

goodness, n. 7iagarta, naga?-- 
chi, kyauta ; (of flavour, etc.) 
zaki. 

goods, n. dukiya, pi. dukoki 
or dukiyoyi ', kaya, pi. kaya- 
yaki; g. for sale haja,faja*', 
(property) tarkache. 

goose, n. dumya, dinya ; a 
wild g. gdba*. 

gore, n. jini. 

gore, tr. v. (of horned animals) 
tu7ie, tunkuda, tunkuji or 
tunkwiyi, e.g. the bull and 
the cow gored each the other 
sa da saniya suka tunkuda 
junansu ; soka, soke or soki 
with intens. sossoke. 

gorge, n. 1. see throat. 



gorgeous 



102 



grandmother 



2. (a narrow defile) kwa- 

zazzabo. 
gorgeous, adj. (splendid) na 

ado J e.g. g. robes riguna na 

ado (or masu-kawa). 
goro-nut, n. goro, pi. gwarra; 

see kola-nut. 
gory, adj. da jini, na jini, sai 



gospels, tlie linjlla. 

gossip, n. 1. (talk) raushi, 
roshi, tadi, waiwai, algungu- 
manchi, kwarmato, azuzan- 
chi, hira. 

2. concr. an idle talker, 
a gossip alguagumi, pi. al- 
gunguma,, azilji, sururi (S.). 

gourd, n., a plant whose fruit 
is either eaten or formed 
into cups and calabashes; 
among the various kinds 
which are eaten are kahewa 
(K.), kubewa (S.), goji^ kabus, 
karamiya; among those used 
as vessels are kwariya, korya^ 
kurtu^ masaki, maseki, and 
duma ; see also baska, guro 
(S.), jallo (K.), tsana (S.). 

gourds, roots of, coll. n. yado. 

govern, v. (rule, reign) mal- 
laka; see rule. 

governor, n. hdkimi*, pi. 
hdkimaij ma^arauchi, wakili ; 
sariki is sometimes used in 
this sense. 

gown, n. riga, pi. riguna^ 



salaha; the body of a g. as 

opposed to the sleeves [han-' 

nuiva) uwar riga. 
grace, n. (favour, free gift) 

jinkai, aikin gajhi'a, alheri, 

kyauta ; he showed g. to us 

ya yi ma mu alheri. 
graceful, da nasiya, da nasiha. 
gracious, adj. (of God) karimu, 

good g. ! haba mana. 
grain, n. 1. kwara, kwaya, pi. 

kwarori; g. that springs up 

of itself ^2/^mro ; g. which has 

been kept a long time suna ; 

g. which has been husked 

surfe. 

2, fig. grains (as of sand) 

barbadi. 
grain, receptacle for, n. taska, 

pi. taskoki, rufogo (K.), ra- 

foniya, rufewa (S.), 7'umbu, 

tsunjiya. 
grammar, nahau, nahauri ; 

one who is learned in g. 

nialamin nahau. 
grand, adj. (important) babba^ 

pi. many a; mai-girma, pi. 

masu-girma. 
grandchild, n. jika, fem. 
jlkanya, pi. jikoki^ jlkannu; 

a great g. tabakunne. 
granddaughter, n., see prec. 
grandfather, n. kdka, pi. 

kakanni, uban uba, e.g. your 

g. uban ubanka. 
grandmother, n. kdkanya. 



grandson 



103 



great 



grandson, n., see grandchild. 

grapes, forest g. tsibir-kinkini, 
chihir-kiyikini. 

grasp, with the hand, tr. v. 
junka, rumchi, rumtse, jimke ; 
with the arms (to embrace) 
rungume. 

grasping, adj. fig. (covetous, 
greedy) da rowwa, maro- 
tvachi. 

grasping disposition, n. 
rowwa, kawazuchi. 

grass, n. 1. gen. chiyawa, pi. 
chiyayi, yayi, haki, pi. hakii- 
kutua ; green g. chiyawa, 
da7iye, haki, pi. hdkuiva; 
green g. which has recently 
sprung up tsatse (S.). 

2. spec, of various kinds 
and uses : Bermuda or dub- 
g. kiri-kiri or tsirkiyar zomo ; 
comb fringe g. gude-yude', 
cuscus g. or Vetiver g. jema ; 
elephant g. yambama, ham- 
banui, dawar kada \ prickly 
bur g. karangiya] Spanish 
reed g. gabara ; a grass used 
for filling cushions roba, pi. I 
roboba, robuna ; a g. append- 
age worn by certain pagan \ 
tribes takatsara ; dried or I 
chopped g. for horses in- 
girichi or ingirochi; un- j 
dried g. as fodder karisuwa, j 
kyasuwa, komayya ; a g. 
eaten in times of famine ! 



(Eragrostis tremula) bum- 
bu7'uwa, bubbuTwa; a low 
coarse g. birbiro, birobiro ; 
a g. eaten by horses gadagi, 
garaji, larnbusu ; a g. for 
making brooms tsmtsiya ; 
plaited g. tsaiiva, tsawa ; a 
soft hairy g. yan-hutu ; g. 
used for thatching shifchi, 
ydma, yantso, bunu,ip\. bUnai, 
daudau ; a g. used in making 
mortar datsi ; a g. shelter or 
hut dabi (S.) ; see also bun- 
surun daji, gazama, karareyo, 
machara (K.), tuji (Eleusine 
indica), burgu (Panicum sp.), 
harkiya or harikiya ( Digitaria 
debilis), 

grasshopper, dindiba, dun- 
kurkuda; green g. askalaya 
(S.) ; spotted g. ivukar sariki 
(lit. king's knife). 

gratitude, maida girma. 

gratuitous, adj. banza. 

grave, n. kushewa, kusheya*, 
pi. kusheyi, kushewoyi, ma- 
kwanchi, kdbari, kabri, wurin 
bisne, vnirin kushewa. 

gravel, n. tsdkuiva.. 

graze, v. 1. tr. kiwo. 
2. intr. of cattle id. 

grease, n. mai. 

greasy, to be or become ndshe, 
ndshi. 

great, adj. 1. (both physically 
and morally) babba, pl.manya 



great 



104 



grief 



or maya, mai-girma, da gir- 
ma ; a g. king sariki habba 
or hahhan sariki; very g. 
(very important) many a 
manya. 

2. (quantitatively and of 
degree) da yawa. 

3. spec, applied to God 
jalla*, jalala*, dkhar*. 

4. of one in authority as 
a king or prince madau- 
kaki. 

great, to declare g., v. 1. (to 
honour) girmama. 

2. kabbar*, e.g. to declare 
that God is g. kabbar ga 
allah akbar. 

3. to be g. bunkdsa, kasaita. 
greater, adj. comp. mafi-girma, 

pi. masu-fi-girma ; in the 
absence of superl. forms the 
idea is expr. by phr. ya fi 
duka or ya fi kowa appended 
to the adj.; he was greater 
than he ya fifiche shi. 

greatness, n. gii'ma, zati. 

greed, n. rowwa, marowwachi, 
tsumulmula (K.). 

greedy, adj. da rowwa, zargi, 
bahilchi, mayinchi, hadamaj 
kanwa, kwalama, Tnachi, 
zwari, makwadaita, mai-kwa- 
; raka^ ma/dlashi, mai-kur- 
musu*, marowwachi. 

green, adj. 1. (the colour) al- 
gashi, fem. algasa, pi. algasai, 



algasUy tsamva, chamva ; dark 
g. kore, fem. koriya, pi. 
kwarrai ; light g. kore-kore ; 
g. esp. applied to g. dyed 
leather korino. 

2. (fresh) of plants etc. 
danye or danyi, pi. danyoyi, 
danyu. 
greet, tr. v. 1. gaida, gaishe, 
gaisa, yin/awo, e.g. I greeted 
the man and he accepted my 
greeting na gaida mutum ya 
karbagaisuivata ; we g. muna 
gaisuwa; I g. thee a gaishe 
ka. 

2. (of religious salutation) 
yin salatu ; we g, muna 
salmawa. 

3. to g. by shaking the 
hand jinjina ; to wave or 
extend the hand in greeting 
mika hannu, e.g. I greeted 
them with my hand and 
departed na mika ma su 
hannu na tafi. 

greeting, n. gaisuwa. 

grey, e/b, turning g., as from 

age furfura. 
grief, n. 1. (pain of mind, 

sorrow) naddm^a, ladwma. 

2. (cause of pain or sorrow) 
wahala. 

3. (expression of grief) 
ktika, e.g. he made great 
g. over him ya yi kuka 
dayawa a bisansa. 



grieved 



105 



guard 



grieved, be, intr. v. wahalda, 

jin tvahala. 
grimace, a gwalo, kogatna^ 

zumde. 
grind, tr. v. 1. gen. nika, tusa, 

tushe, reda, ddka, intensive 

to g. to powder dadddka, 

dandaka, dadddga ; to g. 

tliorouglily harza ; to g. rice 

etc. tingama. 

2. (to whet or sharpen) 

icasa, gyarta. 
grinding, of wheat, n. esp. used 

of regrinding harzawa, tushi. 
grindstone, mawashi, niki ; 

a stone for smoothino; a ff. 

niakodi. 
grip, to kivaktvume, damka ; to 

g. ihQthrosAjkwakwurtiewuya. 
gripe, tr. v. (of medicine) 

nturda. 
gristle, n. gurunguntsi. 
i groan, intr. v. yin nishi. 
groaning, n. 7ii8hi. 
groom, n. 1. shamdki, pi. sha- 
g Qnakai, dan muri, dan turke. 
I 2. (bridegroom) ango, pi. 
1^ angu7ia. 
grope, V. lalahe, ondmare ; (to 

search one's way with the 

hands in the dark) burkuti, 

bidkuchi, dundumi. 
ground, n. 1. (surface of the 

earth) kdsa ; on the g. a kdsa 
I or a kas ; hard flat g. kekuwa. I 
2. (cause) sabahi or suha- \ 



hi* without g. (or grounds) 
habu sabahi. 

3. (first principle or founda- 
tion) gutsu. 

ground, to (of a boat) kdfa. 

ground, pass, participle 1. 
(finely) raushi, roshi, rabshi. 
2. (roughly) da tsaki ; 
badly ground flour barzo. 

ground-nut, n., i.e. Arachis 
hypogaea gyada ; a smaller 
species of g.-n. gujiya, pi. 
giijiyoyi,gujeye; oil extracted 
from g.-n. man gyada. 

grouse, sand-g. barwa, kwanta- 
toi, suivaka, ladin rogo. 

grow, intr. V. 1. of plants fc'ira, 
tsire, tsiro, chira. 

2. to increase in size girma^ 
yin girraa. 

3. to g. (i.e. to become) 
zama ; to g. old tsufa. 

growing, mdtdshi. 
growl, to (of a lion) babhaki. 
growling, gurnani, ruri. 
grown, full g. rikakke, kasai- 

tache. 
gruel, n., made of guinea-corn 

kunu ] a thin g. salala. 
grumble, v. yin gunaguni, yiii 

guri, yin bimbirii. 
grumbling, n. bimbini, bibiyii, 

zargi, gunaguni. 
grunting, (of a pig) n. tsinua. 
guarantee, to lamunta. 
guard, n. 1. (heed, care) tsari, 



guard 



106 



gums 



e.g. be on your g. against 
ka nema tsari. 

2. (soldier of king's body- 
guard) dakare, pi. dakaru, 
dogari, pi. dogarai. 

guard, tr. V. tsdra, tsdri, tsdre, 
tsdro, batdka, ritse, rutse, ratse. 

guardian, mai-tsari, mai-tsaro. 

guard-room, jam*, jarum*. 

guest, n. hako, fern, bakuwa, 
pi. bakuna, baki or bakokuna. 

guide, n. jag aba, shugaba, pi. 
shugabai, koranga (K.), ma- 
jan-hanya, 

guide, tr. V. (lead, conduct) 
kai, bida, bishe ; (to instruct) 
galgade, gargadi. 

guile, n. munafuchi, munafun- 
chi, or manafuchi ; (cunning) 
wayo, with g. da wayo. 

guilt, n. laiji. 

guiltless, adj. babu laifi, maras- 
laiji. 

guilty, to declare, v. kada, 
bada laiji, kayas*. 

guinea-corn, n. ddwa (Sor- 
ghum vulgare), tsaba (S.), 
gero*. There are four chief 
kinds of ddwa : kaura used 
for feeding horses, fara/ara, 
farfara used when ground 
for making gruel, murmura 
or muramura* eaten whole 
when cooked, giwakamba 
used as a medicine for rub- 
bing on the eyes; the red 



or grey g.-c. with close- 
growing head ja7ijare; husks 
of g.-c. kwardo ; g.-c. pod 
tsirgagiya ; an intoxicating 
drink made from g.-c. giya; 
g.-c. fever, occurring when 
the g.-c. ripens chiwo na 
sabon ddwa ; g.-c. which has 
sprung up in an unsown 
farm kakarya ; see badawa, 
dan-jigdwa, gangariya, malle, 
shinkafar-talaka. 

guinea-fowl, n. zabo, fem. 
zabuwa, pi. zabi, kazar yor 
raba ; cry of the g.-f. kilkal, 
kukui. 

guinea-pig, beran turawa. 

guinea-worm, n. kurkmm, 
girgamo ; a small plant used 
as a medicine for g. dama7t- 
kdda, dumankdda; a swell- 
ing caused by g. hangara, 

guitar, n., a kind of kofsa. 

gullet, n. janai (S.), janyaro 
(K.). 

gully, a dry g. kozazzabe, kwa- 
zazzabo. 

gum, n. danko, jirai; spec, a 
g. put in ink kdro ; a g. used 
in perfumes karon maje, 
ba/ur ; gum-bearing trees 
chiriri, dakwara, duli, dum- 
she, dundu, karkara, kwwi^s 
kwara, fara kaya, taura. 

gums, n. (seat of the teeth) 
ddsashi (K.), dasori (S.). 



d 



gun 



107 



hairy 



gun, n. bindiga, pi. hindigogi; 
adakka* ; a double-barrelled 
g. bindiga da baki (or mai- 
baki) biytt, tagwayen bindiga ; 
to load a g. dora or chika 
bindiga \ to discharge a g. 
^rt/6i (or A«/6e or buga) bin- 
diga ; flint of a g. kankara, 
dutsim bindiga; report of a 
g. kdrar bindiga, dmo ; a 
flint-lock g. mai-kamsir, man- 
tampas (S.) ; a maxim g. 
niai-ruwa* ; a long-barrelled 
Arab g. sawaila, tsaicila. 

gunpowder, n. albarus or 
albarushi. 

gush out, intr. v. zuba, zubo ; 
to g. out abundantly gushe- 
gushe. 

gusset, n. tsiimma, pi. tsum- 
moki ; cloth g. in a tobe 
shiga. 

gypsum, n. aljibus, alzibus. 

habit, n. ta'ada, tdda (S.), pi. 
tadodi, ada, hali, kabiya*, 
sabo*, the last especially of 
aptitude acquired by practice, 
phr. nothing can be done 
except by practice aikin 
duniya duka sai sabo ; see 
habituated. 

habitation, n. mazamni. 

habituated, to be, intr. v. 
saba constr. with da. 

haggle, intr. v. yin chiniki, 



tallata, yin talla ; see bar- 
gain. 

haggling, talla. 

hail, n. kankara, ruwa da 
kankara. 

hail ! exclamation = welcome ! 
sanu, a gaishe ka, sai lafiya. 

hair, n. gashi, pi. gasusuwa ; 
spec, head of h. when cut 
oS suma ; h. on the cheeks 
saje ; h. of tail of horse, 
elephant, etc. tsagiya ; abun- 
dance of h. gizo ; absence of 
h. on head kundumin kai; 
long ridge of h. left in 
shaving shasanda ; tuft of h. 
in the middle of head zanko', 
h. of woman plaited bijaji, 
bujaji, buji-buji ; h. worn by 
women in curls down their 
cheeks kitso ; twisted locks 
of woman's h. at side of face 
dauri ; grey h.furfura; h. on 
cheeks and upper lip washefe ; 
h. tied in knots with a ridge 
in the middle shetambuwa ; 
a head of h. sura* (S.); a 
tuft of h. of a young man 
toliya ; the h. came off gashi 
ya tushe. 

hairdresser, n. mai-kitso, fem. 
makitsiya, wanzami, raai- 
kcdmishiya. 

hairy, adj. da gashi, e.g. its 
face is all h. /uskassa duk da 
gashi or fuskassa sai gashi ; 



half 



108 



handle 



a h. person galgasa, gargasa-. 

h. all over duguza. 
half, n. shashi, sJiashe, sashe, 

rdbi, nusuji* ; h. a piece of 

cloth, paper, etc. ausagi, bare. 
hall, n., entrance h. zaure, pi. 

zauruka. 
halt, adj. gurgu, pi. guragu, 

makasari. 
halt, intr. V. 1. (to limp) yin 

gurgunta. 

2. (to stop marching, to 
stand still) tsayi, tsaya, tsai. 

3. spec, to h. for the night 
shida or shide. 

4. fig. to h. between two 



opinions yin zuchiya 
halter, n., also a leading-rope 

for horses, etc. dsalwayi, 

rdgama. 
halting, n. tsayi ; (limping) 

gurgunta, gurvnunta, gur- 

gunchi. 
halting-place, for the night, 

n. zango, mashidi, the last 

in the sense of a lodging 

or khan ; spec, temporary h. 

for carriers loko. 
halve, tr. v. bare, bara ; in less 

strict sense (to divide) raba. 
hamlet, unguwa, anguwa, 

tunga, pi. tungaigai. 
hammer, n. kwarikwasa* -, a 

blacksmith's h. masdba, pi. 

masdbai ; a large h. ama- 

deshi* ; a small h. matalaga, 



muntalaga ; h. of a gun 
kundma. 

hammock^ rdga*. 

hand, n. 1. hdnnu, pi. hdnnu- 
wa, hanndye ; the right h. 
dama or hannu na dama ; 
the left h. hagum, hagu, 
hauni, hannu na hagum or 
hannu na hauni ; the palm 
of the h. tdfin hdnnu; the 
back of the h. bay an hannu. 
2. of place or direction, 
right h. dama, wajen dama ; 
left h. ha^um, hagu, hauni 
or wajen hagum,, etc. ; of 
time, at h. kusa, da kusa ; 
to raise the h. chira hannu ; 
see hands. 

handed, left-, adj. bahago. 

handful, n. (of mud, flour, etc.) 
du7ikule, churi, damka,jimki; 
to take a h. jimke, chura, 
chibra (S.), damke, dimtso, 
jimka. 

handkerchief, n. mahar^na, 
maharama, adiko, mai-yani, 
mayani ; spec, a h, on 
woman's head kallabi; h. to 
bind round woman's head 
alfuta, pi. alfutai. 

handle, n. mariki, pi. marika, 
makdm,a, madauki, maratayi ; 
h. of axe bakin gatari, bota 
(Kats.), kota (K.) ; h. of box 
makama, kota, zoben kaya. 

handle, tr. v. tdba. 



hands 



109 



hartebeest 



hands, to clap the, v. tafa^ taji, 
tahi (S.) ; to shake h. yi7i 
7nusajiha, ban hannu. 

hands, a man with his h. tied 
to his neck, n. kukumtache^ 
pi. kukumtattu ; the tying of 
a man's h. kukumi, kunkumi ; 
shaking h. niasctfiha, musajiha. 

handsome, adj. da kyau, mai- 
kyau; a building h. to look 
at gida da kyaun gani. 

hang, tr. v. rataya^ rataye, 
yin rataya ; to h. up rataya, 
yin rataya ; to h. up meat 
done, kere. 

hanging, n. (curtain, etc.) reto, 
rataya. 

hanging, n. (e.g. h. up of 
curtains) yaiii. 

hanging, 1. adj. (suspended) 
a rataye. 

2. part, ratayawa. 

hank, of yarn sulu (S.). 

happen, intr. v. 1. afku, ahkti, 
faru, e.g. it happened ya 
faru, what has happened ? mi 
yafaru ? 

2. (i.e. befall) same, saina, 

■ sami, sam,o, guddna, e.g. 
what has happened to you? 
(i.e. what is the matter with 
' you 2) mi ya same ka ? 

happiness, n. 1. (satisfaction) 
dadi, dadin zuchiya, alheri, 
m,urna*, fdrin'chtki, gatan- 
chi 



2. (in a religious sense) 
sa^ada*. 

happy, feel, intr. v. jin dadi. 

harass, tr. v. tsananche, tsananta. 

hard, adj. 1. phys. tattaura, 
fem. tattauriya, da tauri, 
tsandauri ; see seq. ; also 
morally hard, obstinate. 

2. (difficult of accomplish- 
ment, etc.) da wuya. 

harden, 1. intr. v. (to become 
hard) yin tauri, taurare. 

2. tr. V. to h. taurata, 
tsaurata, yin tauri. 

hard-headed, n. (an obstinate 
person) 7iiai-kinji, mai-taurin 
ziichiya. 

hardness, n. tauri, tsauri 
(Zanf.); also in a moral sense, 
e.g. taurin zuchiya h, of heart. 

hare, n. zomo, pi. zomai. 

harlot, n. shakaliya, pi. sha- 
kalai ; sarkachiya, bombegi* ; 
child of harlot dan-farka. 

harlotry, n. sakarchi,shakalchi. 

harm, n. banna, laiji, e.g. there 
is no h. in it babu laiji. 

harm, tr. v. hata, bache, 

Harmattan wind, iskan buda. 

harpoon, n., for river fishing 
zdgo, hagu, margi ; an iron- 
tipped h. fired from a gun 
sango. 

hart, n., see deer. 

hartebeest (Damaliscus Sene- 
galensis) dari ; West African 



harvest 



110 



hawk 



h. kanki, pi. kanoki, kan- 
kuna, 

harvest, n. girhi, (i.e. the 
season) kaka. 

harvest, to cut down the, v. 
girba; see reap. 

haste, n. sauri, samri, anniya, 
garaje. 

hasten, intr. v. yin anniya, 
hanzarta (K.), hamzarta, 
hamzanta (S.), kwarare, gau- 
gata, gagauta, gagawa ; to h. 
after zazari ; h. to catch up 
ku chika; to h., i.e. to ac- 
celerate hamzarta. 

hastening, n. garaje, gaugawa. 

hastily, adv. da sauri, da 
hamzari. 

hat, straw, n. gurumfa, garwm- 
fa, garunfa ; a large straw 
h. mdlafa, malfa, pi. mala- 
funa, malafai ; dan gurumfa 
designates a small trader, 
who carries goods on his 
head ; see cap. 

hatch, tr. V. kyankyashe, kyan- 



hatchet, n. gdtari, pi. gdtara, 
gdtura, gdturuwa,gdfiya,wal- 
wada, warwada ; small h. 
dan gatari ; handle of a h. 
bakin gatari ; spec, small h. 
for cutting grass for fodder 
kurdda, kuradda] h. with 
broad blade barandami, tsi- 
taka. 



hate, n. kiyeya, kiyaiya, kiyo, 
kiwo. 

hate, tr. V. ki, kiya*. 

hater, n. ag. makiyi, pi. makiya. 

hatred, kiyaiya, see anger. 

haughtiness, n. fddin rai, 
fddin zuchiya, girman kai, 
girman rai, homa,foma, toma. 

haughty, adj. da gh-man rai, 
tomo. 

haul, tr. \.ja. 

haunch, n. (of a cow) kwan- 
kwaso. 

Hausa, pr. n., the Hausa nation, 
country, language Hausa; a 
H. native ba-Haushe, pi. 
Hausawa; the H. language 
Hausa, magaua Hausa, hal- 
shen Hausa, after the manner 
of the Hausas Hausanchi, 
I understand H. ina jin 
mxagana Hausa, to speak H. 
yin magana Hausa; see 
language, 
have, tr. v. (to possess) na da, 
ke da, also expr. by ga (to), 
or with pronouns gare, e.g. I 
h. a friend named Hassan ina 
da aboki sunansa Hasan, a 
certain man has a camel 
wani mutum, shina da raku- 
m,i, we h. mu ke da, I h. 
much money kurdi dayawa 
gare ni. 
haversack, amasai. 
hawk, n. shirwa, pi. shirwoyi, 



hay 



111 



health 



in- 






or shirwuiia, karamdta, tan- 
karki, tsinkaki, shahu*, shafo ; 
swoop of a h. hara^ sura. 

hay, n. haro, ingirichi, 
girochi. 

haze, n. hazo, kdsashi. 

hazel nut, n, chanza. 

hazy, adj. da hazo, 

he, pers. pron, sh% ya^ yi, 
shi is emphatic and used as 
separate pron. before ya, e.g. 
but my brother he saw her 
afar off amma kanena shi ya 
gan ta da nesa, it is also used 
with dependent clauses and 
wishes ; ya is used in the 
aorist and in impersonal ex- 
pressions as ya isa it is 
enough. 

head, n. 1. (of animated beings) 
kai, pi. kanuwa, kawana, 
kawuna. 

2. (chief point or substance 
of a statement) kai. 

3. (chief person) see chief; 
back part of h. keya ; a man 
whose h. protrudes at the 
back mai-kyeya) a person 
with a large h. mai-kai ; 
standing on the h. rimi; to 
hang the h. sunkwiya da kai 
(K.); leaning the h. on the 
hand in token of distress 
tagumi. 

headache, n. chiwon-kai, jiri, 
jeri. 



head-dress, n. rawani, pi. 
rawunna ; (of a woman) 
fatala, patala. 

headlong, adj. and adv. da 
gangara; to fall h. sulla da 
kai,fada da kai. 

headman, 1. (of a village, 
place, etc.) sariki or sarki, 
q.v., dagachi, pi. dagatai, 
kunduda, makwayo, haki- 
mi^. 

2. (of a caravan) mad^igu, 
pi. Tuadugawa. 

heal, tr. v. warke, warkad da ; 
pass, to be healed warke and 
the pass, form, e.g. remain 
here until he be healed ku 
zamna a wurin nan sai ya 
warke or sai a warke shi. 

healed, particip. (h. in body 
or restored in mind) warkak- 
ke, fem. warkakkiya, pi. war- 
kakku. 

healing, warkasuwa. 

health, n. (i.e. good h.) Idfiya; 
in h. Idfiya and da lafiya, 
frequently used in salutations, 
e.g. are you in h. ? kana 
Idfiyal answ. in very good 
h. Idfiya lau ; to be in good 
h. yin Idfiya ; to improve in 
h. jin dama, warware ; re- 
storation to h. afuwa; he 
recovers his h., he becomes 
better ya samu afuwa (or 
lafiya), ya ji rangwame ; one 



healthy 



lis 



height 



in bad h., sick, a patient 

maras-lafiya. 
healthy, adj. lafiyaye. 
heap, n. taro or taru, pi. tarori, 

tuli or tulli, pi. tuloli, kitila; 

a h. of branches, etc. zuhugi. 
heap up, tr. V. hada^ dora ; 

spec, to h. up earth round 

Y)\a,nts /i7'i,furi, yin maimai, 

q.v. 
hear, tr. v. ji. 
heart, n. 1. (the bodily organ) 

zuchiya, pi. zukata, zuchiyoyi, 

zutochi or zukochi, gaba*. 
2. (the feelings) zuchiya^ 

e.g. zuchiyata ta hache my h. 

was broken ; to be cut to the 

h. jin zafin zuchiya ; to learn 

by h. samu harda ; to know 

by h. yin harda, hardache ; 

to say off by h. yin tulawa ; 

they lost h. hankullansu 

duka SU71 tashi. 
heartburn, kwamafi, kwan- 

tiaji. 
heartless, adj. mag ay a or ma- 

gauchij pi. magauta or magata. 
heat, n. zdji, zufa ; spec. h. of 

the sun gumi. 
heathen, n. arne, pi. asna, azna, 

arna ; kafiri, pi. kafirai and 

kajirawa ; majusi, pi. majusa- 

wa] ba-Maguje, yil.Maguzawa. 
heathenism, n. kajlrchi*, ka- 

furchi*, halin kafirai''^, as- 

nanchi, aznanchi, arnanchi. 



heave, tr. v., to h. a sigh aje 
zuchiya, yin sheda. 

heaven, n. sdma, pi. samaniya, 
samraai, samomi, gidan da- 
wama ; h. and hell (the after- 
world) lahii^a; the Moham- 
medan paradise aljanna. 

heaviness, n. (great weight) 
nauyi. 

heavy, adj. da nauyi, mai- 
nauyi. 

heddles (of a loom), allera, 
annera (S.). 

hedge, n. (fence) darni, danga, 
dam/dmi, shimge, shinge, pi. 
shimgaye, kiliya. 

hedgehog, n. hushiya, baushi- 
ya, babagumi. 

hedges, a plant used in making, 
n. Jidda sartse, bi-ni-da-zugu, 
chi-ni-da-zugu. 

heed, n. tsdri ; take h. iiema 
tsdri. 

heed, v. 1. (to take notice 
of anything) kula, tuna, 
tunane, all constr. with da. 
2. (to attend to what is 
said) saurara, ji ; spec, to 
take h. to an agreement, etc. 
damre magana. 

heel, n. dudduge or diddigi, 
duga-duga, pi. dugadugai, 
dunduniya. 

heifer, karsana. 

height, n. tsawa, tsawo, tsai, 
tsayi, hawa, e.g. it is three 



heir 



113 



herb 



cubits in h. tsawonsa kamu 
nku. 

heir, n. magadi, magaji, pi. 
magata, magada, mdmayi ; 
h. to the throne chiroma, 
yarima ; h. to the throne 
inajirmi gado, at Kano wam- 
hai, daudu, dauda ; to have 
as h., i.e. to be succeeded 
by gdda da. 

Hejira, the, n. hijira. 

held, particip. rikakke, fern. 
rikakkiya, pi. rikakku. 

lell, n. jahannama,jahima', h. 
and heaven (the future 
world) lahira. 

lell-fire, n.jahlma. 

lelmet, n. biishiya, kwalkwali, 



lelp, n. tamayi, taimako, tai- 
makawa, sauki, agaji, agaza, 
shalli, tanyo (Zanf.) ; h. es- 
pecially in war gudummuwa, 
(judummawa, gudunmawa ; 
to ask for h. zukatta ; to 
obtain h. samu sauki ; to 
send h. koro sauki. 

lelp, tr. V. taya, tanya (S.), 
tanye, tanyo, yin taya, tai- 
/naka, taimaki, taimake, 
tamaya, yin taimako, agaje, 
yfcuki, sauwaka, sawaka, yin 
shalli ; to ask for h. gdyato. 

lelper, n. ag. mataimaki, ma- 
tanyi, abokin tayo. 

lem, n. lafi or lafe shafi, 

K. H. D. 



shafe', to make a h. kalmd- 
sa, kalmashe; to h. round 
ddje. 
hemorrhoids, bdsur. 
hemp, African bowstring h. 

moda; Indian h. rama. 
hen, n. kdza, pi. kaji ; a hen 
laying eggs dakwaluwa, da- 
kivaliva ; the Hen and 
Chickens constellation which 
appears when the rainy season 
is coming kaza mai-yaya or 
kaza da yaya. 
hence, adv. ddga nan, ddga 

wurin nan. 
hen-coop, n. akurkin kdza, 

akurki. 
henna, lalle. 

her, 1. possess, pron. suffixed 
to a masc. n. -nta, suffixed 
to a fern. n. -Ita, -Ha, e.g. 
h. daughter diyarta, h. camel 
rakuminta; used separately 
if the object possessed is 
masc. nata, if fern, tata, see 
H. Grammar; these stand 
also for Engl, 'hers.' 

2. pers. pron. objective 
suffixed to verbs and preps. 
-ta, e.g. he saw h. ya gan ta, 
to h. gare ta ; and separate 
(after prepositions) ita, e.g. 
he returned along with h. ya 
komo tare da ita. 
herb, n. (green blade) ganye, 
fern, ganya, pi. ganyaye. 



herd 



114 



hinder 



herd, n. garke*^ gO'i^g^ (S.), pi. 

garkuna. 
herdsman, n. makiyayi, pi. 

■makiyaya, makyayi^ pi. mak- 

yaya. 
here, adv. nayi, a wurin nan, 

ddga nan, the latter also = 

from h., from this point, e.g. 

do you know the way from 

h. ka sani hanya ddga nan 

ko? 
hereditary, an h. profession, 

chinikin gida. 
heretofore, adv. (until now) 

har yanzu ; li. I have not 

heard this dadai ban ji 

wannan ha ; as h. kaman 

na da ; see ever, 
hermit, mai-halwa*, mai-kiya- 

mal du7iiya*, suji*. 
hero, gamzo. 
heron, n. zarbi, zarbe, zalbi ; 

great white h. or egret /arm 

zarbi ; see egret, 
hers, separ. possess, pron. nata, 

lata ; see her. 
hesitate, intr. v. yin zuchiya 

biyu. 
hesitation, n. zuchiya biyu. 
hiccough, n. shdkuwa, chiwon 

shdkuwa. 
hid, to be, v. boye^ boyi. 
hidden, particip. boyaya, boyu, 

rufaffe, fern, rufaffa, pi. 

rufaffu. 
hide, n. kildgo, pi. kildgai ; 



kilabo, kirgi, the latter used 
of h. after tanning, the un- 
tanned h. is called fata. 

hide, 1. tr. V. rufe, rufi or rife*, 
boye, boyi, sakaye, sulle. 

2. intr. v. (to hide oneself) 
boye, boyi, Idbe (S.), rabe (K.), 
fake, see ambush ; to h. 
behind a person in fear 
rafake, ranfake, rampaki ; to 
h. oneself boyo ; to h. right 
away or completely bobboye. 

hiding, n. boyewa. 

hiding-place, n. maboya, mar 
boyi, mafaka, fako* ; a place 
for hiding or laying up any- 
thing ma-aje, ma-aji. 

higgle, V. talla"^. 

high, adj. dogo, fem. doguwa, 
pi. dogaye, da tsawo. 

hill, n. tudu, pi. tudodi or 
tnduna, tsauni, pi. tsaunoni, 
tsaunaye, tsaununa ; a h, 
covered with sand jiggawa\ 
or jigawa, pi. jigawoyi or I 
jigawuna ; hillock burji. 



himself, pron. both emphatic 
as shi da kansa, and also 
reflexive, e.g. pro v. he who 
weeps for another weeps for 
h. kowa shi ke kuka da wani 
shi kuka da kansa. 

hinder, adj. na-baya, fem. ta- 
baya. 

hinder, tr. v. hdria, kwahe 



hip-bone 



115 



hold 



kwaha, kwabo^ laruranta, 
tankosa, tankwasa. 
hip-bone, n. kdtara. 
hippopotamus, n. dorina, pi. 

dorinai or dorinnaA. 
hire, n. (wages) lada, sufuri, 
<ddro, ijdra; a hired labourer 
kwadigo, dan kwadigo ; a 
person seeking h. mai-koda; 
to work for h. yin sufuri. 
hire, tr. v. yin sufuri^ sufurche, 
xufurta^ sufurchi, jinyanta, 
ijarta. 
hiring, n. ijarchi. 
his, possess, pron. suffixed to 
a masc. n. -nsa, suffixed to a 
fern. n. -ha, -rsa, e.g. h. 
camel rakuminsa, h. mare 
, godiyarsa ; as separate pron. 
if the object possessed is 
masc. nasa or nai, if fern. 
tasa or tai. 
liss, intr. v. yinfuchi. 
aissing, n. shishita ; of snakes 

fuchi. 
listory, tdriyo*. 
lit, tr. v., see strike, 
lither, adv. nan*, ga wurin 

nan*. 
10 ! inter j. to call attention 

kai. 
loard, to tsimi da. 
lobble, a rope used to h. 
horses, n. dabaibayi, dahai- 
hiya (S.), tabaibayi, tarndki. 
hobgoblin, n.fatalwa. 



hoe, n. fatanya, fartanya, hau- 
ya, pi. hauyu, hauyuna or 
hauyoyi, mashemi, kyante, 
kuruga; spec, a large h. 
bent like small plough galma 
(S.), garma (K.) ; a long- 
handled h. with triangular 
blade kumbu, kumbuwa ; a h. 
with long handle and broad 
blade used for cutting stubble 
kwasa ; a h. used as a dibble 
sungumi. 
hoe, tr. v., to dig or stir the 
ground noma, nomi, nome, 
chira, furi, firi, fuda, huda ; 
to cut down grass with a h. 
shema ; the first hoeing after 
sowing gwarzo (S.), turbe, 
chirbe (Z.) ; the first hoeing 
before sowing kaflu, kabtu, 
kufurtu ; clearing ground for 
hoeing zdfa (S.). 
hoed, nomamme, fern, nomam- 

miya, pi. nomammu. 
hog, n., see pig. 
hoist, to h. a flag chira tuta 

bisa. 
hold, tr. V. rika, rike, riki, 
riske, riski, ruska, aje*, e.g. 
he held the door ya aje kofa; 
to h. fast in the mind rike, 
rika, riki ; to lay h. on kama ; 
to h. up at arm's length duga ; 
to h. back turke, zamne* ; to 
h. the breath hadiye {hade 
or d^uki) lumfashi. 

8-2 



holding fast 



116 



horn 



holding fast, n. rikawa. 
hole, n. rami, rame (S.), pi. 
ramuna, 7'amu, kwarmi, pi. 
kwarmu, hariya or hahhariya 
(^'),f(^ff<^90,fago,fuji, kurfi, 
pi. kurfofi, kurfu, pampama 
(S.),mashiga, sdra ; h. for game 
to fall into hdko, pi. hdkoki, 
hima ; a h. for dung kwakwari, 
masaiy saiga ; a back entrance 
to a fox or rat h. buga ; a h. in 
which grain is planted kam/a; 
a h. in a wall kus/a, kusuwa 
(S.); h. where dirty water 
is thrown katami, kwatami ; 
a h. to look out at taga ; h. 
for storing corn tsunjiya ; h. 
made in nose of ox for rope 
a^sirka, zari ; h. for entrance 
kofa ; h. in a seam hardka ; 
to make many holes huhuda, 
fuffuda. 

hollow-backed, adj. gantsar- 
wa. 

holy, adj. da tsarki ; a holy 
man sharif. 

homage, n. chaffa, chappa, 
mubaya, mabaya. 

homage, to do (by kneeling 
down) intr. v. durkusa, yin 
chaffa. 

home, n. gtda; at h. chlkin 
gida. 

honest, adj. mai-gaskiya, da 
gaskiya ; an h. man mutumen 
gaskiya. 



honey, n. zummuwa, zuma, 

ruwan zummuwa ; a stick of 

h. algarwai. 
honey-guide (bird), gunda, 

maganiya, dan zuma. 
honour, n. yabo, daraja, daror 
jiya, manyanchi, mayanchiy 

girma, daukaka. 
honour, tr. v. yin yabo, gir- 

mama, bdda girma, ba (or 

bdda) daraja. 
honoured, participial adj. ya- 

babbe, fern, yababba, pi. ya- 

babbu. 
hoof, n. kofato, pi. kofatai. 
hook, n. kugiya, pi. kugiyoyi 

or kugiyuna ; large wooden 

h. kwandariya; hooks on a 

fishing-line, coll. mammari, 

Tnurumurw, a fish h. fatsa, 

kugiyar fatsa. 
hook, to h. on to kalgame (S.);l 

to stick with a h. makdta. \ 
hoopoe, chigi da tukku, katutu. 
hop, to h. on one foot, intr. v, 

lange, bira, dira. 
hope, n. bege, see expectation 
hope, intr. v. yin bege, ta- 

tnaha, yin tamaha. 
hopping, n. langa, lange. 
hopping, n. dire; a h. gani< 

shillalo. 
horn, n. kdfo, pi. kafoni an( 

kafuna, kaJio ; (a trumpet 

kdfo, waza; a cow with a 1 

growing downwards saniy 



hornbill 



117 



hot 



mai-dauri ; without horns 

diigumi. 
hornbill (Bucorvus pyrrhops), 

i^round h. burtu ; African h. 

chilikowa ; shamo, shamuwa ; 

.see also ka-ki-ganin Allah. 
homed, da kd/o. 
hornet, n. rina, pi. rinoni, 

rinainai. 
horse, n. doki, fern, godiya, 

pi. dawaki, dawakai ; spec. 

young h. sdji, safe, fern. 

mjiya', dukushi, fem. dukusa, 

pi. dukusai ; old lean h. 

guzuma, gwahta ; war h. in- 

gavTna, pi. ingarmu ; a h. 

that walks with its ankles 



on ground mai-takin 



n ; a 



h. with a hollow back doki 
mai-lotso ; a bay h. furde, 
sari; a black h. akaivali, 
kyara, kiyara ; a speckled 

' black and white h. chichiro ; 

i a brown h. aharas, ahara- 
shi, fem. aharasa; a cream- 
coloured h. akaza; a light 
brown h. gunya, sira (S.) ; a 
bay or dun h. sari; white- 
faced h. hola ; a white h. 

I • Mlij fem. kiliya ; a roan h. 
bidi, dandas saki ; a black 
and white h. kilikamya (S.), 

• aheji ; h. speckled white with 

I black alshafi, fem. alshafa. 

'I Horse's harness, diseases, 

etc. : small bells on h. head 



chikasaura, chikasabra ; strap 
round h. head maraya ; h. 
breast-band dan gdba; h. 
breast-strap fastened to 
saddle majayi ; h. cloth put 
under saddle kafio ; a disease 
of h. foot just above the hoof 
ala/a ; a skin disease in a h. 
simiriya ; a disease on legs of 
a h. tijo ; a medicine poured 
into h. mouth chushe ; a 
place for horses shamdki, pi. 
shamdkai; a h. disease which 
causes the hair to fall off 
dasusu ; a runner in front 
of a h. gurgure. 

horseback, on, adv. phr. bisa 
(or bisan) doki ; a man on h. 
mai-doki, pi. masu-doki ; to 
mount on h. hau bisa doki ; 
to take exercise on h. ki- 
lisa. 

horse-fly, n. barbaje ; also 
called damisan dawaki being 
spotted like a leopard ; a 
large buzzing h. gwarje. 

horseman, n. mai-doki, pi. 
masu-doki. 

horse-raddish, tree (Moringa 
pterj^gosperma) zogalagandi. 

hospitality, to show h. yin 
bakonchi. 

host, n., entertainer mai-md- 
shidi, mai-masabki ; a great 
multitude babban taro. 

hot, adj. da zafi, dumi, da dumi, 



hot-tempered 



118 



hue 



dimi, da dimi ; h. water 
ruwan zafi or ruwan dumi ; 
it is h. (of the weather) rana 
da dumi; the h. or dry 
season rani ; the hottest part 
of the dry season just as the 
rains are beginning bdzara ; 
the h. month at end of rains 
agazari (K.), agajeri (S.). 

hot-tempered, mai-jaji. 

hound, n., see dog. 

hour, sa^a] the hours of the 
da}^ are only reckoned ap- 
proximately by the Hausas, 
they are : jijiji the twilight 
just before the dawn; assuba 
or azuha* the dawn; hantsi 
two hours after dawn, i.e. 
circ. 8 a.m. ; walaha circ. 
10 a.m. ; rana tsdka or tsdkar 
rana mid-day ; zawal circ. 
2 p.m. ; azuhur^ azahar, time 
of the call to prayer, circ. 2 or 
2.30p.m.; la' asar 4: to b p.m.; 
magariba or magarub just 
before sunset ; mareche late in 
the evening; almauru, lisha 
very late in the evening ; dare 
time between lisha and jiji/i. 

house, n. glda, pi. gidaje, 
gidadaji, shigifa, pi. shi- 
gi/u and shigifoji ; a four- 
cornered thatched h. ta/ar- 
/ara, see hut; h. of one 
room ddki, pi. dakuna; he 
is in the h. yana daku ; 



top of h. or upper storey of h. 
kan daki; a desolate ruined 
h. kango, pi. kangogi, kan- 
gaye; all the people belong- 
ing to one h. kabila ; master 
of h. mai-gida ; a flat-roofed 
h. soro (K.), pi. soraye. 

household, n. gida ; father of 
the h. ubangida, fern, uwal- 
glda or uwargtda. 

householder, n. mai-gida. 

hovering, (of a bird) shaivdgi, 
jewa. 

how, adv. 1. interrog. kaka. 
2. rel. kaka, kanda, yaya 
(S.), wdda, ydda, yadda; h. 
dost thou know ? kaka ne ka 
sani; h. are you going to 
manage 1 kaka za ka yi ; h. 
long 1 har yaushe, tun yaushe ; 
h. many? nawa or guda 
nawa; h. much ? nawa ; phr. 
h. many persons were there ? 
mutum, nawa ke nani h. 
long will it be before you 
finish? sai yaushe za ka 
gama 1 

however, 1. rel. adv. (in 
whatever manner) ko kaka. 
2. adversative conj. (but) 
bari dai ; fache*. 

howl, intr. v. yin kuka, yin 
hargowa. 

hucksters, yan shimjida, see 
retailer. 

hue, n. (of colour) launi. 



p 



hum 



119 



hyena 



hum, n. amo; h. of conversa- 
tion flUmi. 

hum, intr. v. yin amo. 

humanity, n. (the nature of 
mail) mutumchi. 

humble, adj. da karamin rai. 

humble person, laddfi, la- 
ddbi. 

humble, tr. v. kaskantad da, 
nmidakarami, e.g. he humbled 
himself ya maida kansa kara- 
mi. 

humiliate, to kankanta. 

humiliation, n. kankanchi. 

hump, n, doro, kazaza, ku- 
sumbi ; h. on bull, etc. tozo ; 
humped cattle jahajaha ; 
without a h. muturu. 

hump-backed, adj. mai-doro, 
ynai-gantsarwa, da kusumhi. 

hunch-back, n. kazaza, kusum- 
hi, 7nai-doro. 

hundred, num. dari, miya, 
minya, zangu, the last is 
generally restricted to count- 
ing cowries ; two h. dari 
hiyu, metin*, m,etan*. 

hunger, n. yunwa, yunwa- 
chi. 

hunger, to suffer, n. matsu^, 
rnatsi, jin yunwa. 

hungry, adj. da yunwa ; I 
am h. ina da yunwa; a h. 
pei'son mayunwachi, pi. ma- 
yunvmta. 

hunt, \ . yin far aula. 



hunter, n. rtuifarauchi, pi. 
mafarauta. 

hunting, n.farauta. 

hurry, n. garaje. 

hurry, to be in a, v. gaugata, 
gagauta; h. up ku chtka, ku 
jika or ku yi da jika; I 
am in a h. na kosa. 

hurt, tr. v.fama ; I have h. my 
leg nafama kafa. 

husband, n. miji or namiji, 
pi. muza, gwarzo* ', h. and 
wife m,iji da mata. 

husk, n. (of grain) surfe ; a h. 
of maize totuwar ma^ara. 

husk, to h. grain, tr. v. surfe, 
surfa, swaha, saha, sabe. 

husked, (rice, etc.) surfaffe. 

husks, coll. dusa, dussa (S.) ; 
h. from wheat, etc. tsdki ; h. 
of guinea-corn kono (K.), 
kouu (S.) ; h. enclosing an 
ear of corn buniya. 

hut, n. shigi/a ; a h. for storing 
grain in shirayi ; a light 
thatched h. rudu ; a grass h. 
bukka, tsangaya ; a h. with 
grass walls but with distinct 
roof dakin zana (K.), dauke, 
dabi (S.) ; a round h. kago; 
a mud h. kudandani, tseko ; 
a h. in a compound reserved 
for domestic work tsaka- 
kari* ; a rectangular h. ta- 
farfara. 

hyena, kure*, fem. kura, pi. 



hypocrisy 



120 



idolatry 



kuraye, wmlna*^ daguyau 
(K.), gazau*, shaki (S.), she- 
yaki (K.) ; striped h. sayaki, 
shakiy saki, sheyaki/, young 
of h. harmakai. 

hypocrisy, n. riya, pi. riyoyi ; 
to practise h. yin riya. 

hypocrite, n. mai-riya, pi. 
masu-riya. 

hyrax, West African tree h! 
(squirrel) heran bisa. 

I, 1st pers. pron. comm. gender; 
1. ita, prefixed to aor., e.g. 
1 went na tafi; I saw him 
na gan shi ; witli ha, often 
.contracted, e.g. I did not 
see liim ban ga7i shi ba ; see 
H. Gram. p. 9. 

2. ni suffixed zo fut. and 
passives, e.g. I shall go za 
ni taji ; I was wounded by 
a gunshot aka halbe ni da 
bindiga. As a prefix to a 
verb ni expresses the fut., 
e.g. ni tafi I shall go ; pre- 

■ fixed to the aor. it denotes 
an emphatic past, e.g. It was 
I who went or I indeed went 
ni na tafi ; ni is also to be 
used in emphatic expressions, 
e.g. I myself ni da kaina ; I 
alone ni kadai ; is it I ? do 
you mean me ? niya. 

3. ina expresses the present 
and should be followed by 



the participial form if there 
be such, thus, I am coming 
i7ia tafowa ; but ina so I am 
willing. 

ibis, rara, tuntumi ; the African 
wood i. tsagagi ; see stork. 

idiot, n. 1. from birth sarziru*, 
shashasha*. 

2. tig., see fool, foolish. 

idle, adj. 1. (doing nothing) 
lalafa ; an idle person raggo, 
fem. ragguwa, pi. raggaye, 
raggaje, raggage, ragguna ; 
dan karma, madudu (S.), 
bakurogi ; one who is i. 
mai-lalachi, malalachi, mai- 
kasala, bahili* ; to be i. yin j 
huji. 

2. (in vain, unprofitable) 
banza, babu anfani. 

idleness, n. rdgaita, pi. rdgaiiu, 
ragganchi, raggonchi, karma, : 
lalachi, lalafanchi, sausauchi, \ 
sosochi, the last also of un- I 
willingness to work ; to fight ' 
shy of work rdfashe aiki, \ 
ragaiche, yi^i huji. I 

idler, n., see idle. 

idly, one who saunters about 
i., n. mai-ragaita. 

idol, n. tsdfi, pi. tsdfuna and 1, 
tsafaffuka, gumki, gtvumki, 
ph gwumakai. 

idolater, n. matsafi, pi. ma- 
tsafa. 

idolatry, n. shirku, kafirchi. 



if 



121 



impediment 



if, conj. idan^ in, kddan (S.), 
kan, izan, da, e.g. if I had 
known, I would not have 
done it da na sani da ban 
yi shi ha ; ka7i (before b, 
kam), kur*, kul*. 

ignoble, adj. banza, na banza. 

ignorance, n. (i.e. religious 
ignorance) jahilchi. 

ignorant, adj. (relig.) jahili. 
To be i. in a general sense 
must be expressed by means 
of the verbs sani, ji or (in 
the case of an art or science) 
saba with negatives. 

ignorantly, da jahilchi. 

iguana, n. tsari, tsare, guza. 

ill, n. (misfortune, loss) barna, 
^ hasdra, asdra, tasari. 

ill, adj. 1. (bad) mugu, fern. 
mugunya, pi. miydgu, banza. 
2. (sick) da chiwo ; to be 
i. yin chiwo, ji7i chiwo ; he 
is i. shina da chiwo ; to 
become i. chiutu, chutu. 

illegitimate, child, n. shege, 
dan shege, dan farka. 

illiberal, adj. (stingy) da taurin 
zuchiya ; he is i. hannunsa ya 
bushe or hannunsa busashshe 
ne lit. his hand is dry. 

illiberality, n. taurin zuchiya, 
kalmashen zuchiya. 

illicit, adj. haram. 

illness, n. chiwo, chiwuta. 

illTiminate,tr. v. 1 .gen. haskaka. 



2. to i. a manuscript zaya- 

na. 
image, n. 1. (likeness, picture) 

kdma, pi. kdmdnu, kdmannu. 
2. (a graven image or idol) 

gumki, gwamki, pi. guma- 

kai. 
imagination, wasuwasi* ; she 

imagined within herself ta 

yi wasuwasi a zuchiya lata, 
imagine, v. yin tamaha, zato, 

yin zache ; see suppose, 
imbibe, tr. v. (to drink in or 

absorb) sha. 
imitate, tr. v. to i. another's 

pronunciation or actions kok- 

koya, rikida, e.g. I imitate 

him ina kokkoyonsa. 
imitation, kokkoyo. 
immediately, adv. ko yanzu, 

nan da nan. 
immerse, tr. v. tsoma, nuche, 

7iutse, niche, dulmiya, yin 

dihnane. 
immigrant, shigege. 
immorality, (between women) 

mddigo. 
impasse, (a place from which 

there is no outlet) kiirewa. 
impatience, garaje. 
impatient, adj. maras-hankuri. 
impede, tr. v. hana. 
impediment, n. 1. hindrance 

abin hana. 

2. impediment in speech 

ininar halsh'e. 



impertinence 



122 



indecency 



impertinence, tsitva, janjan- 
chi, giggiwa (K.), taurin ido. 

impertinent, adj. mai-tsiwa^ 
matsiwachi. 

importance, manyanchi, ma- 
yanchi. 

important, adj. hahha, pi. 
manya or may a; an i. person, 
n. datijo, kunkumi*. 

impossible, it is, impers. v, 
ha shi yuuwa, ya gagara, ya 
fa^kare, ya gaza, ya kdsa ; 
an i. task tarki* (S.). 

improper, adj. ba daidai 

improve, tr. v. gyarta. 

improve, in health, intr. v. 
warware, yin rangwame, jin 
dama ; see health. 

improvement, e.g. in health 
dama. 

impudent, adj., see imperti- 
nent. 

impurity, of water zartse. 

in, prep, chikin or ddga chikin, 
a, gun^ e.g. in the basket 
chikin sanfo; in this place 
a wurin nan. 

in order that, conj. phr. a Msa, 
domin, do7i, e.g. practise 
diligently in order that you 
may shoot well ku yi anniya 
har da za ka iya halbin bin- 
diga da kyau, in order that 
he might hear domin or don 
shi ji. 

inability, n. gajewa. 



inasmuch, i. as da shi ke or 

da ya ke. 
incantation, tsubbu, daho. 
incense, n. turare, kamshi*. 
incessant, madawami, fem, 

77iadawamiya. 
incline, a steep, n. gangare or 

gangara, pi. gangaru. 
incline, tr. v., to i. the head 

tsugunna ; to i. the ear kar- 

kata kunne. 
incomplete, to be yin kwabro. 
incompletely, to do a thing i. 

saya. 
incompleteness, kwabro, 

ky)auro. 
incorrigibility, shakiyanchi. 
incorrigible, shakiya. 
increase, n. ddduwa, auki, 

abki, kdri, karuwa. 
increase, v. 1. tr. kdra ; ddda, 

dddi, yin auki (or abki), dora, 

sdfa, sufa, riba, shirga. 
2. intr. ddda, yin ddduwa, 

yado, yadu, kdru, gawurtcb, 

gawusta, taska, zarche*. 
incredulity, an inter j. ex- 
pressing i. ayat haha ! hiobbal 
incurable, e.g. an i. disease j 

chiwon woji ; the fool is i. 

Tnahaukachi ba shi warkewa. 
indebted to, intr. v., e.g. I 

am indebted to you iiia da 

bashinka. 
indecency, n. kazamta, slmki- 
yanchi. 



indecent 



123 



ingratitude 



indecent, adj. kazdmi, pi. 

kazdmai, maras-kumya, babu 

knmya, shdkiyi. 
indecision, zara. 
indecorous, adj. ba daidai. 
indeed, 1. adv. (in truth, in 

fact) hakika, babu shakka or 

babu shak, babu watca, da 

gaskiya, takar (K.). 

2. as affirmative emphatic 
particle «^, ashe, aiwa or ewa, 
anche, mddala, dai or de, the 
last is enclitic following the 
word which it is desired to 
emphasise. 

3. interj. of doubt or sur- 
prise to! ashe! anche! haba ! 
Thus, in question and answer, 
indeed 1 indeed ! ashe ? ashe ! 
da gaskiya ? da gaskiya ! 

indemnification, ramko. 
indemnify, to ramka. 
independence, zdman kansa. 
india-rubber, n., see rubber, 
indicate, v. nuna, nuni^ 9<^yf(^' 
indifference, n. (carelessness) 

lalachi. 
indigence, n. talauchi. 
indigenous, kado,^\. habe. 
indigent, adj. talaka, talakka 

(S.), pi. talakawa, talakkatva ; 

an i. person mai-talaka. 
indigo, n. bdba, shioni, ta- 

laki* ; spec, the second 
. annual crop of i. kususu ; 

an indigo dye-pit marina, 



pi. marinai ; old used-up i. 
dagwalo, dagalo. 

indistinct, to become, intr. v. 
dnshi. 

indistinctness, n. dushewa. 

industrious, n. maaikachi. 

infant, n. (up to one year old) 
ji7ijiri, pi. jirajirai, jariri, 
jarili. 

infantry, coll. n. kirma ; in- 
fantry leader sarikin kirma. 

infidel, n. kafiri, pi. kafirai 
and kafirawa. 

infidelity, n. (in a religious 
sense) kafirchi. 

infirm, adj. ktmidma, see 
weak. 

infirmity, n. kuinam^anchi. 

inflict, tr. v., to i. blows buga, 
bubbuga ; see beat ; to i. 
punishment pallashe,fallashe. 

influence, n. (authority, power) 
hukum^chi. 

inform, v. (to bring intelli- 
gence, to apprize) lobar ta, 
ba labdri, sanan da, sanas 
da, sanar da, sanashe ; to i. 
against sare, sara or zara* ; 
see accuse. 

information, n. (news, ac- 
count) labdri. 

informer, n. mai-sara, pi. 

m.asu-sara. 
ingrate, n. butulu, m,ai-butul- 

chi, pi. masu-butulchi. 
ingratitude, n. butukhi. 



inhabitant 



124 



instruct 



inhabitant, n. mai-zamna, pi. 
form mazoiva. 

inherit, v. gdda, gdde, gddo, 
gdji, gdje, 

inheritance, n. gddo. 

inheriting, gadowa. 

inheritor, magaji, pi. magada. 

iniquity, n. mugunta, keta; 
see evil. 

injure, tr. v. (to damage) bdta, 
bdchi, barnatadda. 

ink, n. taddawa, adawa, tawa- 
da (K.) ; a tree from the 
fruit of which i. is made 
fara-kaya ; a gum which is 
put in i. kdro ; a powder 
used in making i. kawiya, 
kunkuniya* . 

ink-blot, n. dangole. 

inn, n. (i.e. a khan or halting 
place for the night) mashidi. 

innkeeper, n. mai-mashidi. 

innocent, adj. babu laifi, bar a; 
an i. person maras-laifi ; to 
be declared i. kubuta. 

innuendo, karin-magdna. 

innumerable, adj. expr. by 
phr. fi kidayawa, e.g. he has 
innumerable books shina da 
litatafi sun fi kidayawa. 

inquire, v. tambaya, yin tam- 
baya^ yin binchike. 

inquiry, n. tambaya^ sha-loga 
(K.), binchike, bahasi, ba- 
hatsi*. 

insane, adj., see mad. 



insanity, tabuwa. 

insect, n., spec, minute i. 
found in kola-nuts sankara; 
a night-flying i. which has 
a bad smell buzuzu ; a boring 
i. gunda, gumda ; see beetle. 

inside, n. cMki ; i. the house 
chikin gida ; its inside or 
inside it may both be ex- 
pressed by chikinsa ; see in. 

insight, n. (clear perception) 
lura. 

insipid, adj. Idmi, da Idmi, 
babu zaki. 

insolence, gigiwa (K.), jan- 
janchi, tsiwa. 

insolent, adj. mai-tsiwa, da 
tsiwa, matsiivachi. 

inspire, v. (to breathe in) tofo. 

instance, n. nuni ; see ex- 
ample. 

instantly, adv. nan da nan, 
koyanzu. 

instead of, prep, gurbin, 
umrin, bigeri, madadin, e.g. 
instead of it gurbinsa, gun- 
sa*, wurinsa, bigerensa. 

instigate, to chuna. 

instruct, v. 1. (teach) koya, 
e.g. instruct me in reading 
ka koya ma ni karatu ; gal- 
gade, gargadi. 

2. (of religious instruction 
especially that combining re- 
proof and threatening) fora, 
fori^fore, yinforo. 



instruction 



125 



interpret 



instruction, n. foro, wa'azi*, 
wa^azu*, aldma or haldma, 
pi. alamom% almajirchi ; all 
these words refer to religious 
teaching, i. in a general sense 
must be expr. by verbs etc., 
e.g. a man of no i. wanda bai 
san komi ha; he received 
much i. from them in litera- 
ture suka koya masa karatih 
daymva ; self-i. haye*. 
instrument, n. 1. (implement) 
kaya, pi. kayayeki, makami. 
2. (musical i.) kidi or kida, 
any kind of wind i. husa^ pi. 
bushe-bushe ; spec, a kind of 
stringed i. machirkiya, ma- 
n tsirkiya; a wind i. pampami, 
^ f am/ami; wind i., flute 
sarewa; wind i. resembling 
bagpipes algaita or alyaitu ; 
a player on a musical i. ma- 
i kidi; see music. 

insubordination, tayasuwa, 
1 1 kin ji, kangara. 

insufficient, to be yin kwabro. 
integrity, n. (honesty) yaskiya. 
II intelligence, n. 1. (mental 
power), tsimi, hasikanchi, 
wayo^ fasaha*; see under- 
standing. 

2. (news) labdri^ e.g. let 
me give you i. of the war 
im ha ka labdrin yaki. 
if intelligent, adj. gwmii, mai- 
tsimi, da tsimi, hasiki. 



intend, v. for the idiomatic 
use of da to express un- 
fulfilled intention see Gr. pp. 
34, 46, e.g. I intended to go 
da za ni tajiya, had I known 
I would not have thrown her 
down on purpose da na sani 
da ha najefa ta da gang an ha. 

intention, n. (purpose) kuli^ 
ganganchi; (fixed application) 
anniya, aldma ; see prec. 

intentionally, adv. da gangan. 

intercede, to i. for cheta^ 
chetas. 

interceder, mai-chechi. 

interceding, fa/o. 

intercession, machechiya. 

interest, on money ruwa, fifi- 
ko, 7'iba. 

interfere, v. shXga shdgali, yin 
karamhani. 

interference, n. gadauniya, 
janjanchi, shishigi* ; i. with 
what does not concern one 
karambdnij kazallaha, izgili, 
isgili. 

interior, n. (the inside of any- 
thing) chiki. 

interloper, shigege. 

intermarry, to garwaye. 

intermingle, tr. v. hautsina ; 
intr. V. saje (K.), sade (S.). 

intermingling, surki, see 

mixing, 
interpret, v. 1. (to translate) 
juya da magana or juya 



interpretation 



126 



iron 



magana, yin fasara, fasarta, 
mayas da] he interprets ya 
rabbi fasalinsa. 

2. (to explain) waye. 

interpretation, n. (both trans- 
lation and explanation) fa- 
sara, /asali*, wayewa. 

interpreter, n. alfdkani, ta- 
furta, mayayi*. 

interrogative. This sense is 
expr. by a change in the 
intonation, by ko placed at 
the beginning or end or at 
both beginning and end of 
a clause, or by adding the phr. 
ko ha haka bal also by ha 
when answer is in affirmative, 
ni ha 1 It is I, is it not 1 

interrupt, to i. yin shishige, 
tura magana ; a nickname 
for one who interrupts a 
conversation kazalldtuiva. 

interruption, w.fdshi. 

intersection, gichi, gichiya. 

intertwine, to kalgame, kar- 
game. 

intervals, at i. wuche-touche. 

intestine, n. spec, the large i. 
tumhurkuma, tuhurkuma, 
karera, mazawuri ; the in- 
testines coll. hanji. 

into, prep, chikin or ddga 
chikin, e.g. he fell i. the 
water ya fadi chikin ruwa ; 
he was turned or changed i. ' 
a sheep ya sauya tumkiya. 



intoxicant, n., an i. drink 
harasa, this word is also 
applied specially to gin ; an 
intoxicating drink which is 
made from the palm tree j 
(tuknruwa) hammi, ham ; an 
intoxicating drink made from 
guinea-corn giya ; an i. drink j 
made with honey, salt and 
water huza; a place of in- 
toxicating drinks mashaya. 

intoxicated, maye. 

intoxication, n. maita. 

introduction, a letter of, n. 
hishara. 

invalid, machuchi, majiyachi, 
majinyachi. 

invasion, farmaki, /almaki, 
firmaki. 

invent, to kaga. 

invention, kage (S.). 

investigation, judicial hahasi, 
hinchike. 

invisibility, (the power to 
vanish at will) haduhu, hor 
dufu. 

invocation, n., i.e. to God % 
zikiri, sajirchi, safurchi ; we 
make i. muna zikri. 

invoke, to sdha, sdhi. 

invulnerable, dan tauri. 

iron, n. karife, karfe, pi. kara- 
fa, karfaifai, karfuna ; spec, 
i. wrought into cups, bright 
i. zuhi ; to burn with hot 
i. lalas] an i. for brand- 



iron 



127 



jelly-fish 



I ing zarto; an i. pot karife^ 
karipe. 

iron, adj. na karife, fem. ta 
karife^ with plurals na karife, 
e.g. i. bars sanduna na karife. 

iron ore, n. tdma, matamachi ; 
i. dross kashin tdma. 

irons, leg-, n. gigar, malwa. 

irony, gdtse. 

irregular, of i. lengths sahe. 

irrigate, to shayas da. 

Irrigated, garden, n. lamhu. 

irritable, adj. da zafin rai. 

irritated, particip. adj. husan- 
che*. 

irritation, takaichi, see anger. 

is, subst. V. 1. (simple copula) 
with masc. subject ne, with 
fem. che, with either ke. 

2. (implying real existence 
= there is) akwai ; ina, na, 
fem. ta, thus, there is ina da 
shi, there are many ina da 
su dayaiva ; ke with nan, 
e.g. there is a book which I 
know wani litafi ke nan da 
na sani; see be. 

island, n .gungu*, pi . gunguna*, 
Jnngu*, chibiri*, tsibiri*. 

isolate, tr. v. ym kadaita. 

it, pers. pron. neut. ya, fem. ta; 
separate and emphatic forms 
shi, fem. ita; its -nshi, -nsa, 
fem. -rsa; nasa or nai, fem. 
tasa, tas or tai. 

itch, n. kaikai, kaikayi, kaswa, 



kazuwa, susa, zuza, kurji ; 

one who has the i. mai-kurji. 
itch, to yi7i susa or yi7t zuza. 
itching, n., spec. i. sore on toes 

or fingers kurkushe, kusa- 

kushi, kushekusheya] aprickly 

plant that causes i. karara. 
ivory, n. hakorin giwa or 

haurin giwa ; a piece of i. 

haurin giwa, kdkara*. 

jackal, n. dila, pi. diloli, mala- 

min ddwa, kdrem huki, ka- 

rem biki, dan ba^ura, ballo ; 

the cry of the j. kyakkyewa, 

kekewa. 
jail, n. kurkuku, see prison, 
jailer, mariko. 
jam, tr. v. (to press) mache, 

machi or matse; (to stick 

fast) tokdra*. 
jar, small, n. sintali, shintali, 

tulu*. 
jaw, n. kumatu, kumche (S.) ; 

fig. jaws baki. 
jaw-bone, mummuke, pi. mu- 

kamukai. 
jealous, to be kisanta. 
jealousy, n. kishi or kishiya, 

pi. kishiyoyi, hdsada, sha- 

mata. 
jeer at, v. ba'a or yin bcHa, yin 

g6ri, rena, kwalla'*^ ; ba dariya, 

e.g. they jeered at us suka 

ba mu dariya. 
jelly-fish, n. kawara. 



Jerusalem 



128 



judgment 



Jerusalem, pr. n. birnin kudus. 

jester, n. (bufifoon) hahambade, 
bade, maba'achi ; (foolish 
trifler) wawa. 

jesting, n. bananchi, annashu- 
wa. 

Jesus, Isa, Yasuhi, the latter 
form represents the original 
Arabic name. 

jet-black, adj. baki kirin. 

Jew, gent. n. ba-Yahude, pi. 
Yahudawa. 

jewel, n. yakutu* -jdutsi* (stone) 
often denotes a precious stone. 

jog, e.g. of a donkey sassaka, 
see trot. 

join, tr. V. gdma, gwarmi*, 
rika, lika ; to j. heads to- 
gether (in consultation or 
forming a plan) gama kai ; 
intr. (to fall in with anyone 
by overtaking or meeting 
him) gamu or gamo constr. 
with prep, da; tarda, tarad 
da and tar as da, e.g. we 
joined him mun gamu da shi 
or mun tar as da shi ; to j. 
issue kulla* ; to be joined 
together kullu. 

joiner, n. (carpenter) masas- 
saki, pi. m,asassaka. 

joint, n. ido*, pi. idanu*, idan- 
danu*, idanuwa; ankle j. 
idon sawu, idonkafa; wrist j. 
idon hannu (also = knuckle) ; 
godawa* ; j.oi scissors kwarm,i, 



pi. kwarmu, gwarm,i ; to be 
out of j. gochi and goche ; j. 
of the body gdba, pi. gabobi ; 
to suffer from a disease in 
the j. targade. 

jostle, tr. V. tunkuda, ture. 

journey, n. tafiya, pi. tafifiya; 
provisions for a j. guzuri ; to 
make provision for a j. yin 
guzuri. 

journeying, n. tafiyawa. 

joy, n. (the inward feeling) 
farin chiki ; (coupled with 
the outward expression) 
murna, bushasha, bashasha, 
fara'a ; to experience j. (to 
rejoice) yin far a' a, yin or 
jin m,urna ; a cause for 
j. abin murna ; j. or a cry 
of j. guda; to cause j. bada 
m^urna. 

judge, n. alkali, pi. alkdlai, 
alkallai (S.); the office of a 
j. alkalanchi. 

judge, V. 1. gen. (to look into, 
discern) yin bibiya ; in a 
weaker sense, to imagine, 
or think tammaha or yin 
tammaha. 

2. (of a judge) yin shari'a, 
kdda, yin alkalanchi. 

judgment, n. 1. gen. bibiya. 

2. (of law and justice) 

shari^a, hakum^chi or hukum- 

chi,fukum,chi* , alhaki, hisabi ; 

the j. day ranan (or ran) 



jug 



129 



kicking 



gobe (lit. the day of to- 
morrow), gohe ; j. seat karaga. 
jug, n. tulu*, randa'^ ; a brass 
j. with narrow neck shintali, 
shmitali ; see j ar. 
juggling, ddbo. 
juicy, mai-mai. 
juju house, (in a pagan 

village) gidan dodo. 
jujube-tree, magariya. 
jump, n., of a fish or frog, 
hulma^ burma; he gave a j. ^/a 
yi wuf. 

jump, intr. v. tuma ; dira, 
db'i, diro, dara, daro ; tsalle, 
tsiUi, tsallache\ to j. back- 
wards and forwards wura ; 
to j. down gangara, tsirga, 

! tsirgo ; to j. over haura. 

jumping, n. dire, tsalle, tuma, 
tumi. 

just, adj. da gaskiya, daidai ; 

' of things (= lawful) halal ; a 
j. man mutumen gaske [gaski- 
ya) or mutum na gaskiya. 

just, adv., as in expression j. 
(now) ko (yanzu). 

justice, n. 1. (administration 
of the law) shari^a. 

I 2. (moral right) ddilchi. 

justify, tr. V. 1. (to prove to 
be in the right, to vindicate 

' as true) gaskanta. 

2. (of a judge etc. to 
declare in the right, to 
ascribe right to) bada gaskiya, 

R. H. D. 



he was justified am ba shi 
goAikiya. 
jute, malafiya, lalu, turgunuwa ; 
bastard j. rama. 

Kano, Kano the chief com- 
mercial town of the W. 
Sudan. 

keen, adj. 1. (sharp-edged) da 
kaifi. 

2. (of acute intelligence) 
mai-lura, jnai-wayo. 

keep, n. (to retain, hold) rike, 
rika or riki ; (to tend, e.g. 
sheep or cattle) kiwo ; to k. 
carefully kiyaye ; to k, a 
promise chika Tnagana, kama 
magana; to k. on doing any- 
thing rika. 

kerchief, n. maharma ; a 
woman's k. kallabi, alfata.- 

kernel, n. kwdra, kwaya. 

kettle, n. shintali, sintali or 
shantali, pi. shintalai ; an 
earthen k. karife* or ka- 
ripe*. 

key, n. makubli, makulli, ma- 
budi, dan makubli. 

kick, n. shuri. 

kick, tr. V. shura, shure or 
jure*, bangaje, habri or harbi 
used of horses ; to k. forwards 
mangara ; to k. away han- 
bare, hambare. 

kicking, n., e.g. of a donkey 
butsdri. 

9 



1^4 130 



kid, n. dan akwiya, pi. yan (or 
yayan) akwiya. 

kidney, n. gidibi (S.), kidibi, 
pi. gidibaif kidiba ; koda, 
kwoda. 

kill, V. kdshe^ kdsa^ kisa, with 
a shortened form kas, kibe, 
fauchi* ; he was killed out- 
right aka yi masa take. 

killing, adj. (murderous) kd- 
saUj kdso. 

kilt, c£. a mail with a k. of 
grass mai-bunu a gindi. 

kind, n. iri, pi. irare, launi*. 

kindle, tr. and intr. toyi, towi, 
toya, toye, tuya, tuna ; to re- 
kindle or blow up a fire which 
is nearly out fur a, intv. fur u, 
e.g. they re-kindled the fire 
suka fur a wuta^ the fire 
was re-kindled wuta tafuru ; 
dosana^ hasa, haza, tr. he 
kindled the fire ya hasa umta. 

kindness, n. (goodness of 
heart) nagarta ; (favour, 
benevolence) alheri, chiki 
daya^ gafara and gafarta, 
ni'ima, nema^ hasali (S.) ; an 
act of k. kyauta, aikin ga- 
fara, jinkai ; to do an act of 
k. yin alheri^ yin kyau, e.g. 
they did me an act of k. sun 
yi ma ni kyau. 

kindred, n. kabila*, dangi, 
dang a or dagi*, pi, dangogi. 

king, n. sarki or sariki, pi. 



4 



sarakuna or sarakai, sardh,^ 
sultan^ ; a king's son yarmia^ 
gimba, pi. gimbayi; daughter 
of a k. gimbiya; epithet 
applied to a k. da7i furdi ; 
a reigning k. sariki mai-chi ; 
a deposed k. Jitachen sariki. 

kingdom, n. sarauta, sarota, 
daula ; to gain possession of 
a k. chin sarauta ; see ac- 
cede. 

kingfisher, pied k. 
chinuya ; African 
machi tsundum ; 
tsitar or tsintar. 

kiss, n. sumba. 

kiss, tr. V. tsotsa, sumbunta, 
sumbunche ; to k. hands to 
yin sumba. 

kissing, tsotso. 

kitchen, n. madaf, pi. mada- 
fai, wurin ddfuwa. 

kite, n. (the bird) shafo^ shaJiOy 
kolo, shirwa. 

knead, to k. 



chinoya, 
belted k. 
blue k. 



together. 



tr. V. 



garwaya. 

knee, n. gwiwa, pi. gwiwaye, 
gwiwoyi, gwiwu, guwawu ; 
pushing with the k. gula. 

kneel, intr. v. durkusa ; kneel- 
ing dulkiishi, durkicshi ; to , 
k. down or prostrate oneself I 
gurfana (S.). 

knickerbockers, dan wando. 

knife, n. umka, pi. wukake, 
wukaikai (usually with two 



knit 

edges); barho (with one edge); 
mayanki ; to sharpen or whet 
a k. gyarta (or wasa) tvuka, 
yuka (Zanf.); spec, a small k. 
almosa ; a k. used by women 
kududuri ; a kind of k. with 
handle to fit wrist and blade 
projecting backwards kan- 
gar or kanga; a k. carried 
up the sleeve, attached by 
a leathern ring wukar hannu ; 
a scoop-shaped k. majitsara ; 
a sort of missile k. gariyo, 
q.v. ; handle of a k. hota, kota 
(K.) ; see kijigi. 
knit, V. sharaha*. 
knock, V. gen. huga ; to k. 
^ against, intr. gochi, goche, 
gwahche, kdbra, kafra, tr. as 
the hand against a wall 
gwabra, gwahre, gwahure, 
, gwahri, gumhari ; to k., e.g. 
with a stick zungura ; to k. 
or kick bangaje ; to k. at a 
door buga ko/a, kwankwasa ; 
to k. down tankade, bige (K.), 
kirme (K.), kilme (S.). 
cnot, n.kulli, pi. kullai, kulloli; 
a k. made in thread fco prevent 
the strands from unravelling 
hanchi; to tie in a k. kum- 
buche ; to get into a k. sarke. 
:now, V. sard, shina, rahe da ; 
to k. clearly shaidani, fahim- 
ta*; to k. and understand 
well sansanchei to k. 



131 



koran 



certainly tabbache, tabbata, 
e.g. do you k. for certain 1 
ka tabbata ? had you known ? 
da kun sani 1 it cannot be 
known ba ta sanv/wa. 
knowledge, n. azanchi, lura, 

shini, shina, sani. 
known, to make, v. ambachi, 

gaya, chashe. 
knuckle, n. gwiwar yatsa, 

idon hannu. 
kola-nut, n. goro, pi. gwarra ; 
gamagari ; spec, a variety of 
k.-n. from Gvvanja ataras, 
from Yoruba ibi ; a light- 
coloured k.-n. ^anji^a^a- see 
also labuje, gamagari, ibi, 
kursan-goro, gazari, sandalu, 
hannun ruwa ; a bad k.-n. 
gobro* ; a large k.-n. goriya; 
packing placed round k.-nuts 
fufu, huhu ; an insect found 
in the k.-n. sankara; a 
basket of palm fronds in 
which k.-nuts are packed 
makara, mankara ; a late 
crop of k.-nuts jankarago ; 
large selected k.-nuts marsa ; 
large and small k.-nuts mixed 
sara7iwaga; little k.-nuts 
minu; an early crop of k.- 
nuts nata. 
koran, n. kuran, alkorani, al- 
kiyrani ; the all-night reading 
of the k. tukuri ; saying the 
k. by rote- tulawa*. 



labour 



132 



language 



labour, n. aiki, pi. ayuyuha, 

ayuka, aikoki or aikuna ; 

farm 1. aikin gona ] 1. pains 

wahalar haifuwa, nakadar 

haifuwa. 
labour, v. yin aiki ; aiki. 
labourer, n. maaiki, fern, ma- 

aikiya, pi. masu-aiki, ma- 

aikachi, maaikata; kwadigo, 

dan kwadigo. 
lack, n. rashi. 
lack, tr. V. tabe, tafe, rasa, 

kdsa, tozarta'^ ; they 1. money 

suna da rashin kurdi, see seq. 
lacking, adj. mai-rashi, by 

prefixing mara, e.g. 1. sense 

mara-hankali. 
lad, n. yaro, pi. yara. 
ladder, n. mahayi*, karan- 

gama, kuranga (K.), kwaran- 

ga (S.), uwaranga (S.), tsani, 

matakara, matakala. 
laden, participial adj. lahche 

or labtache. 
Lagos, the town of Iko. 
lair, makwanchi. 
lake, n. kogi*, pi. koguna, ko- 

gina or kogai, koramna*. 
lamb, n. dan tumkiya, pi. yan 
tumkiya; the paschal 1. 
ragon lahiya. 
lame, adj. gurgu, fem. gur- 
guwa, pi. gurdgu, gurmu 
(S.), mai-gwami, pi. masu- 
gwami, amurgude, makasari, 
fern, makasariya. 



lame, to be, intr. v. yin gur- 
gunta, dangyasa, dungashiy 
targade* ; he goes 1. yana 
takwashi or tarkoshi ; to 
make 1. gugurta. 

lameness, n. gurgunchi, guru- 
gunta, gurmunta, gwami, 
takwashi, tarkoshi, dangyashiy 
dungashi, dingishi, kage*. 

lament, v. yin kuka, see seq. 

lamentation, n. kuka, pi. koke- 
koke ; 1. at a funeral makoki ; 
to make 1. takaba ; see cry. 

lamp, n. fitila, pi. Jltilu, Jitilai 
or Jitiloli ; 1. oil man Jitila ; 
he lit the 1. ya kunna jitila ; 
we are working by 1. light 
muna yin aikin JitUa ; 1. wick 
la^wani. 

lance, n. mashi, pi. masusuka 
or masu. 

land, n. (phys.) kdsa, pi. kcisa- 
she, kasaisai ; (country) kdsa 
and gari, pi. garuruwa, garu- 
ruka or garigari. 

landing place, n. mafichi. 

landlord, hakimi*. 

landslip, matusge*. 

language, n. 1. (speech) ma- 
gana. 

2. (tongue of particulai 
nation) yare, magana ; t( 
speak the Hausa 1. yin ma 
gana Hausa; halshe, harshe 
pi. halshina or halassa 
hausa*, pi. harata* ; the; 



lapwing 



133 



lay 



have no 1. but Hausa ha su 
da yare sai Hausa. 

3. (literary expression) 
karatu. 

lapwing, see plover. 

large, adj. babba, pi. many a, 
girma ; a 1. book babban litaji 
or litafi babba ; very 1. ban- 
kami. 

large, to become, intr. v. girma 
and yin girma. 

larynx, rakumin wuya. 

lasciviousness, kwartonchi. 

lasso, to zarge. 

last, the, n. (iinal state or case) 
TYiakarshe, makari, makare, 
makara) karshe used ad- 
verbially = at the last, at last. 

last, adj. na-baya, fern, ta-baya; 
phr. the 1. day ranan (or 
ran) gobe, gobe; the 1. sleep 
(death) makarin barchi ; 1. 
night jiya da dare ; 1. month 
watan jiya ; 1. year bara ', at 

• 1. adv. yauyau, karshe. 

last, to, intr. v. ddda, dddi, 
see continue. 

lasting, n. (state of continu- 
ance) dddawa. 

lasting, adj. matabbata*, mada- 
wami ; long 1. madawami, 
fem. madawamiya. 

latchet, maballi. 

late evening, n. of time ma- 
garub or ma^ariba, manga- 

'■ riba; later evening lisha. 



late, to be, v. jinkirta, nazvaj 
yin nawd, yin yauch% e.g. 
he was 1. in arriving ya yi 
yauchin zakuwa ; to be 1. in 
doing anything makdra ; one 
who is 1. mai-makdra. 

lateness, n. makdra^ nawa\ 
(delay) yauchi. 

laths, thin wooden, coll. ka^ 
tamha*^ kwangi. 

latrine, makeway% shadda. 

laud, tr. V. yin kirari, yin 
yabo also with pres. form na, 
e.g. I laud thee ina yabonka, 

laudation, n. kirari, yabo ; see 
praise. 

laugh, intr. v. yin dariya; to 
cause to 1. ha (or bada) dari- 
ya, e.g. ya ha ni dariya he 
made me 1. ; to 1. at zunda, 
yin zunda, yin zumda (S.), 
ddra, e.g. they laughed at 
me sun darani; he laughed 
at him yai gdtse ga shi ; to 
1. heartily keta da dariya. 

laughter, n. dariya. 

law, n. gen. shari'a, haddi^, 
umarni; to decide in 1. 
raha shari'a ; (religious 
ordinance) sunna, kaida ; a 
prohibitor}'- 1. doka*. 

lawful, adj. halal, halas ; to be 
1. halalta, halatta, halasta. 

lay, tr. V. sa; of a bird, to 
1. eggs aje {jefa, saka or y%) 
kwai ; to 1. aside sa ; to 1. 



laziness 



134 



leather 



down kwantad da ; to 1. hold 
of or on kama ; to 1. down, 
e.g. a load sabkad da. 

laziness, n. raggonchi, ra^aita, 
kiwuya, kuya, lalafanchi. 

lazy, adj. lalafa, (idle) raggo, 
kumdma^ mai-raggo, mai- 
ragaita, mai-son jiki, maga- 
jiyi, shallali. 

lead, V. bida, bishe. 

lead, n. (the metal) dalma, 
darma ; 1. for making bullets 
harsasshe. 

leader, n. babba, tunari*, ko- 
ranga (K.), also uba^ pi. 
ubanne and ubanai, e.g. their 
1. babbansu ; 1. of a fight uban 
yaki; spec. 1. of infantry 
sarikin karma ; 1. of caravan 
(chief) jaji; (the headman 
who precedes it) jdgdba or 
shugdba; (the man who 
walks behind it) madugu, 
pi. madugawa; 1. in prayer 
liman, limami, pi. limammai. 

leaf, n. (of tree) tofo, toho*, pi. 
tofuna, waraka^, ganye^ gan- 
ya, pi. ganyaye, danyen itache \ 
1. of a book warka, waraka ; 
spec, a 1. used for thatching 
Jitta. 

league, n. (alliance) gdya. 

leak, n. darsh% kdfa, yoyo; to 
stop a 1. toshe. 

leak, intr. v. darsa, tardra, 
tardro, yin darshi^ yin kd/a, 



tsiyaya, yoya, yin yoyo, zuba^ 
zubo. 

lean, adj. ramani'me, fem. ra- 
mammiya, pi. ramammUy 
guzuma, lange-lange. 

lean, to be or become, v. rame, 
yin rama. 

lean, intr. v., 1. against jin- 
gina,jingine, dangana*, rdbo, 
e.g. the fence against which 
he was leaning dang an da ya 
rdbo da shi ; to 1. upon dan- 
gana, dogara, the last also 
fig. to 1. upon in trust or 
confidence, e.g. we 1. on thee 
mun dogare ka. 

leanness, n. rama, ramuway 
ramanchi (K.), ramantaka 
(S.), alala. 

leap, intr. v. tuma, dira, dirOy 
diri, yin zariya. 

leaping, n. zariya. 

learn, v. koya, yin koyo, sanas; 
to 1. by heart samu harda. 

learned, adj. mai-karatu ; a 1. 
man Tndsani, pi. mdsana y 
malami, pi. mallam,ai ; a 1. 
woman nialama*. 

learner, a bam,i, makoyi, sahon 
shiga. 

learning, n. koyo. 

leather, n. (after it has been 
tanned) kirgi ; (before it 
has been tanned) fata ; spec, 
strips of 1. coll. gunda ; strips 
of black 1. coll. kwaro; a 



leather-dresser 



135 



less 



» 



scraper used in dressing 1. 

ka7'taje. 
leather-dresser, n. majem% 

pi. majema ; bciduku, pi. du- 

kawa, badukai. 
leathern, case for book, n. ga- 

Jaka, yafakka (S.). 
leave, tr. v. bari, bar, raida (S.) ; 

to 1. a thing and come back 

baro ; to leave a path or 

track sau (or sake) hanya ; \ 

to 1. behind bari or 6«r, raga ; \ 

to 1. off daina^ dena. 
leaven, n. yami, kullu ; spec, j 

1. made from the acid pulp 

of the tamarind tsamiya. 
leaves, coll. kunnen itache, 

ganyen itache, safisdmi, san- 

sdrain itache. 
leech, n. matsatsaku, turguni 

(S.), tsatseku (Zanf.), cha- 

cheku, chichekko. 
left, 1. (remaining, remainder, 

rest) saura, kingi, e.g. there 

is little 1. sauran kadrnt ya 

rage ; food 1. over sudi. 

2. (of position) the 1. hauni, 

hagu or hagum ; the 1. hand 

hannu na hauni ; 1. -handed 

bahago. 
left, part, bararre, fem. bararra, 

pi. bararru ; what is 1. 1 mi 

ya rage ? 
leg, n. kdfa^ pi. kafafu, kafa- 

fuwa, kafafe, kdfofi, chinya, 

pi. chinyoyi ; 1. bone kwabrin 



kdfa ; calf of the 1. dambubu, 
tukatukai(K.), shardba; bent 
1. (a disease) gwami ; 1. bent 
by disease gwami, kage* ; 
with bent legs (i.e. tli rough 
disease) gurgu, iem.gurguwa, 
pi. guragu, this also = with- 
out legs. 

legend, tariyo*. 

leg-irons, n. malwa, gigar. 

leisure, sukuni (S.), see op- 
portunity, 

lemon, n. lemu, lemo. 

lemur, a species of (Potto) 
beran bisa*. 

lend, V. bada dro, ramta ; see 
loan. 

length, n. 1. (of space and 
time) tsawa, tsawo, isayi, 
tsai ; tsawanta, matsawa, 
tsatstsawo. 

2, (long continuance), of 
life yawan rai, tsawon rai. 

lengthen, to tsawaita. 

leopard, n. damisa, pi. dam%- 
sai, argi^ii^, tsawarwara* ; 
hunting 1. (or cheetah) rabbi. 

leper, n. kilturu, pi. kutare, 
mai-kuturta*, mai-kuturchi*. 

leprosy, n. kuturchi, kulurta ; 
spec, a mutilating form of 1. 
machiri ; white 1. albaras. 

less, adv. 1. (= minus in com- 
puting) bus, gaira, e.g. metin 
gortia bus or metin gaira 
(/oma = 200 - 10, i.e. 190. 



less 



136 



lick 



2. (== English negative 
suffix -less) maras- (used as 
prefix), e.g. shameless maras- 
kumya, 

less, much 1., comp. adv. hale, 
halanta, halante, barshe, e.g. 
this man was not able to 
walk, much less take up his 
load wannan ha ya iya yin 
tafiya hale shi dauke kay an- 
sa. 

less, to grow or make 1., see 
seq. 

lessen, v. tr. and intr. rdgi or 
rage, tawaya, towi, tauye ; 
intr. raxfu, tawaya, tauwi, 
kasad da ; the waters are 
lessening ruwaye suna ragu- 
wa ; see seq. 

lessening, participial n. ragu- 
wa. 

lest, conj. (for fear that, that. . . 
not) kdda, e.g. he took the 
medicine lest he should die 
ya hadiye magani kdda shi 
TTiutu; don kdda. 

let, tr. V, (allow) hari, har ; to 
1. alone hari, har, kyale* ; to 
1. go shika ; to 1. down sahka, 
sahki or sauka, also (with 
da) sahkas or sapka^, shida, 
e.g. I 1. down the load na 
sahke kaya or na sahkas da 
kaya or na shida da kaya ; 
particip., 1. down sahkakke ; 
to 1. go sallarae, sdka, sake. 



sdki ; to 1. loose saki, kunche, 
kwanche, hanya, hanye ', to 
1. out (of hire, etc.) sufuri, 
sufurchi, yin sufuri or yin 
sufurchi ; the particle in or 
im before a following h is 
sometimes elliptically used 
to express 1., e.g. 1. me follow 
you im hi ka. 
letter, n. 1. (epistle) watika, 
wasika, wasichi*, pi. watiku, 
wasiku; takarda, pi. takardu^ 



2. (a sign of the alphabet) 

harafi, harifi, pi. haruffa. 
lettuce, n., spec, water 1. 

kainuiva. 
level, adj. and adv. sosai, tan- 
gam, tangas ; it is 1. ya yi 

sosai, ya hazu. 
level, to, e.g. a road baji, baje; 

to rub smooth darje ; levelled 

hazu. 
liar, n. makariyachi, fem. ma- 

kariyachiya, pi. makariyata. 
liberality, n. haiwa. 
liberate, tr. v. yanchi, yantas, 

see free, 
liberation, from slavery, n. 

diyauchi or diyanchi. 
liberty, n. yanchi. 
lice, coll. kwalkivata, kwar- 

kwata, see louse, 
lichen, n. toto (S.), tautau (K.). 
lick, or lick up, V. Idsa, lashe, 

suda ; to 1. the hand tanda. 



licking 



137 



like 



licking, tandewa ; 1. of fingers, 

etc. tsotso. 
lie, intr. v., tol. down kwanche; 
to 1. down to sleep kwana 
and ktvanta ; to 1. face down- 
wards ruhda chiki ; a place to 
1. down makwanchi ; to 1. in 
wait yin fako ; a place to 1. 
in wait mafaka ; to 1. with 
gufa (S.). 
lie, n. kariya, keri. 
lie, intr. v. (to tell lies) yanke 
kariya, yin keri ; to give the 
1. to kariyata. 
life, n. rai, pi. rayu or rayuka, 
rayukka, rawuka; in more 
general sense (=^ Engl, time) 
zamanij yayi, e.g. during the 
1. (= in the time) of the 
prophet zamanin annahi ; to 
come or come back to 1. rayu ; 
coming back to 1., participial 
n. rayuwa ; to restore to 1. 
raya ; position in 1. mutum- 
chi ; a l.-time kwakwaro ; 1.- 
long matseyi. 
lift up, tr. V. chira, chire, 
■ chiro or tsira, tsire, tsiro, 
j; , tdda, tashe, tsaida, hauda^ 
I haushi, hausa, daukaka, do- 
kaka ; spec, to 1. up a heavy 
weight sunguma. 
light, adj. (not heavy) shakap, 

sakwap, sdkai, sakat. 
light, adj. (full of light) mai- 
^ haske ; 1. coloured patsi. 



light, n. haske, pi. haskoki^ 

haskaikai ; see seq. 
light, tr. V. 1. (to give light) 
haskaka, hada haske, e.g. the 
moon gives light wata shina 
hojda haske. 

2. (to set alight) to 1. a 
fire hdsa {hdza, dza), wuta, 
fura (or hura) wuta, ydda 
wuta, dosana, kuna, kunna ; 
the fire is lit wuta ta furu; 
to 1. a lamp kunna Jitila. 
light upon, intr. v. tsaya. 
lighten, tr. v. 1. (to illuminate) 
haskaka*, sarasara. 

2. (of lightning) yin wal- 
kiya. 
lighting, (of afire,etc.) 2/ao?i2/a. 
lightning, n. walkiya. 
like, adv. tamka, tamkar, tam- 
kan, tamkat, tankat, tanfari, 
kdma, kakakat^, kdman or 
kdmal, e.g. this is 1. that 
wannan shi ne tamkat wan- 
chan; ya, yi, ta'ada*; adj. 
tanfari or tamfari ; the 
following are substantival 
(as in Engl, one's 1.) kama, 
pi. kamannu, e.g. his 1. ka- 
mansa, misalinsa ; see like- 
ness ; what is 1. to something 
mai-maki, wani, e.g. 1. him 
waninsa, sMge, e.g. 1. them 



shigensu, kwatanchi, e.g. 1. 
this kwatanchin haka, niisali, 
see seq. 



like 



138 



lioness 



like, adj. mai-kdma ; it is more 
1. this than that ya yi kdma 
da wannan ya fi wanchan, 

like, as, adv. tamkar da or 
tankar da, kdma or kdmad da 
and kdman da, misali*, awa, 
kamar yadda, ; 1. this kwatan- 
chin hdka. 

like, to make, tr. v. daidaita; 
pass, it is made 1. unto a kwa- 
tanchi; to be 1., i.e. to 
resemble yin daidaiche, yin 
kdma da. 

like, tr. V. so, marmari. 

liken to, tr. v. kwatanchi, 
kwatamchi (S.), kddara, 
kudira. 

likeness, n. kdma, pi. kdm,an- 
nu, misali, supa*, sifa, wani*, 
e.g. his 1. kamansa, supansa, 
waninsa or m-isalinsa ; he 
gave me his 1. (his portrait) 
ya ha ni kam,ansa. 

likewise, adv. kuwa, ma*. 

liking, n. kauna, kamna (S.). 

lilac, African and Persian 1. 
(pride of India) kurnan 
nasara. 

lily, water kwala (K.), hddo, 
kola hddo (S.) ; climbing 1. 
baurere ; spider 1. hatsin ma- 
noma. 

limb, of body gdha, pi. gabohi. 

lime, n. (the fruit) lemu, lemo. 

limit, n. iyaka,iyakachi,m,atuka. 

limping, dangya^hi, dingishi. 



line, n. (row, series) jeri, pi. 
jerori, zdne* ; in a 1. a jera 
or a jere ; spec, a 1. formed 
for prayer saffu ; a broad 
blue 1. in cloth saki, or 
swaki ; to draw up a 1. of 
battle ja ddga: they are 
forming 1. suna jeruwa; it 
is arranged in 1. ya jeru ; a 
1. of writing shatsdra, sha- 
dara ; to arrange in 1. zura, 
jera, jere; to form a 1. yin 
saffu ; a 1. of men hata ; to- 
go in 1. ja hata ; see lines. 

line, a 1. of writing shaddra,. 
shatsara. 

lineage, n. zuriya, usali, asalL 

linen, n. alkamura. 

lines, coll. zone ; to draw 1. 
zana or zani. 

linger, intr. v. ddde, dada,. 
nauwa ; to 1. about lalata. 

lingerer, n. mai-nauwa ; a 1. at 
home in time of war kazum. 

lint, made from cotton taffa^ 
lappa. 

lintel, n. almandni. 

lion, n. zaki, zaiki*, fem. za- 
kanya, pi. zakoki, furdi*y 
wan ddwa, m^anyan ddwa; 
a male 1. toron zaki ; a young 
1. dan zaki ; a strong 1. wan 
ddwa; the adj. gadanga 
strong is specially used as 
an epithet of the lion. 

lioness, n. zakanya. 



Up 



139 



load 



lip, n. leho^ lebe, pi. lebu, lebuna; 
lips ddburi, pi. daburori ; a 
disease of the lips chizal ; a 
disease on the under lip beli 
(K.), chande (S.); a disk 
embedded in the lips of 
pagans maran lebo, pelele* ; 
thickness of lips ndbuwa. 
list, n. (written) zumami, ta- 

karda, pi. takardu, lisafi. 
listen, V. (to hear with atten- 
tion) saurara, sorara or ju- 
rare* ; (to eavesdrop) lobe ; 
to 1. intently with bowed 
head karkata and karhasa 
used with or without kunne 
(ear). 
listener, n. majiya^ sauraro. 
little, adj. karami, fem. karama^ 
karamiya, pi. karamu ; kan- 
kane, kankani, fem. kanka- 
. nuwa, pi. kankana^ kanana; 
substantively (=:a 1., also 
few) kddan^ sama sama, kima, 
tsarari ; very 1. kddan kddan, 
kima kima; I ate but very 
1. ban chi ba sai kddan kddan ; 
wait a 1. while jima kddan 
, or jim kddan ; to take very 
I 1. of tsakdra or tsakura; a 1. 

chim. 
ittleness, kankanta, karamchi. 
ive, intr. V. yin rai. 
ivelihood, zaman du7iiya. 
iver, n. hanta, anta, kidibi*, 
'> gidibe*. 



living, adj. da rai, e.g. this is 
not a 1. child wagga ba diya 
mai-rai ba che. 
living One, the, adj., epithet 

of God mai-haya*. 
lizard, n. kadangare, fem. ka- 
dangariya, kadangarwa, pi. 
kadangarru ; gwada, sharin- 
dOf sharundo ; skink kulba ; 
Sudan monitor (Yaranus 
exanthematicus) damo] Nile 
monitor tsari, guza ; a small 
brown 1. (Gecko) tsdka ; sare- 
kutup, sarekutu, a small black- 
headed 1. gaguware ; a 1. with 
orange and black bars (Scino- 
pus fasciatus) which buries 
itself in the sand dama- 
tsiri* (which also = the green 
snake) ; when the male 1. puts 
on its mating colours it is 
called kutu in Kano, kiski 
in Sokoto, and jangwada in 
Zaria. 
lo ! bum*, duba. 
load, n. kaya, pi. kayayaki, fu- 
guma, karba ; heavy 1. adila 
or adllan kaya, alaro, sanji ; 
a small addition to a carrier's 
1. doriya; to get ready a 1. 
gydra kaya ; to pack up a 1. 
labda ; I took his 1, na taboshL 
load, tr. V. labda ; to 1. a 
gun dura (or chika) bindiga, 
kimsa, yin kimshi ; to 1. up 
dura. 



loadstone 



140 



long for 



loadstone, n. mijin karife. 

loaf, n., of salt or sugar kantu. 

loafer, n. dan karma, see 
idle. 

loan, n. dro, bashi^, ramche ; 
a cooperative!, adashi, adashe, 
wujiji; see lend. 

loathe, tr. v. jin kyama. 

loathing, kyama, tsantsani. 

locality, n. wuri, pi. wurare. 

lock, n. makuli (K.), kuhli, 
kuli ; 1. (padlock) of a door 
kwadon kqfa. 

lock, tr. V. kuble, kule ; to lock- 
up, id. it is locked shina 
kule. 

locks, of a woman's hair taura; 
see under hair. 

locust, n. fara, pi. farori, 
faruna, gam., jinnu, farat 
tumfafiya ; a large 1. babe, 
fem. babaniya, pi, babaye, 
babuna ; a black 1. burdu- 
duwa, pi. burduduwuna ; a 
black 1. which Hies at night 
faran-dare ; an insect like a 
1. taki, pi. takoki ; young 
locusts ('hoppers') dango, 

locust-bean, dorowa*, dorawa ; 
husk of l.-b. makuba. 

locust tree, n. dorowa, do- 
. rawa, pi. dorowayi ; pod of 1. 
t. sabdda. 

lodge, intr. v. sabka, sauka, 
sabki or sapka. 

lodging-place, n. mdshidi, 



masabki, masapki, masafki, 
majidi, masauki. 

log, n. (of wood) itache and 
iche, spec, a 1. of wood 
fastened to feet of slaves as 
a punishment turn ; a 1. of 
wood tied to the head as a 
punishment for thieving 
kangalai; 1. fastened to the 
neck to prevent escape gu- 
dungumi. 

loin, n. kugu, pi. kugogi ; mdra, 
tsdra. 

loin-cloth, a man's bante, 
banche ; leather l.-c. warki 
(K.), walki (S.); a woman's 
/atari, mukuru ; a l.-c. which 
is the badge of a thief bdkin 
bante. 

loneliness, n. kewa. 

long, adj. 1. (of considerable 
length) dogo, fem. doguwa, 
pi. dogaye, da tsayi. 

2. (of dimension) expr. by 
n. tsawa, tsawo etc., e.g. it 
is seven cubits long tsawonsa 
kamu bakwai ; see length. 

3. (of time) how 1. ? tun 
yaushe 1 1. ago tuntuni ; from 
a 1. time dadadde; 1. since 
tun dadewa ; 1. lasting, adj. 

. mai-dawami ; (of space) a 1. 
way off daga nesa, da nesa 
and nesa ; a 1. way da jaya- 
wa, da rata, da tabawa. 

long for, V. tuski, tuske, kwa- 



longing 



141 



loss 



daye, lamiranta ; to 1. after, 
e.g. absent friend yin heye. 
longing, n. (also = 1. for) kwa- 
dai^ kciri, marmari, kdwa 
(only used of women) ; evil 1. 
yuri ; 1. for an absent friend 
beye. 
look at, V. duha, dubo, yin 
kallo, see behold ; 1. at this ! 
ya shi tuannan ; to 1. atten- 
tively at tsokachi, yin zuru ; 
i to 1. carefully into yin bibiya; 
to 1. for (seek) nema, bida ; 
to 1. into, constr. with da or 
ace. lura; to 1. proudly on 
yin hardra*; looking round 
(i.e. spying) dauroro ; to 1. 
out for hanya, hanyi, hanyo; 
see espy ; to 1. over leke ; 
looking over the wall leken 
garu ; to 1. like, cf . it looks 
like him shina da halamun- 
shi or shina da halaman 
kamanshi -, it looks like rain 
sama tana da halamun yin 
f 1 ruwa. 

looking-glass, n. mddub% md- 

dvhin fuska, matsokachi. 

'; loom, n., the pulley on the 1. 

on which the peddles work 

chikalkora ; the handle fixed 

into the pole of a 1. matuki ; 

the pole of 1. on which the 

, woven cloth is wound takala. 

I loop, in a string, n. zarge, pi. 

zaryuna \ mazargi, maballi. 



loose, adj., kwaranga (S.), 
kwaraprap (K.); (my shoe) 
is too 1. for me ya yi kwaro 
kwaro. 

loosen, tr. v. kunche, kwanche 
(K.), banya^ banye, sassabta^ 
sassqfta, sa^sapta, sunche, 
bambare ; to come loose (e.g. 
of head of an axe) kwdbe. 

loosened, particip. kunchachey 
fem. kunchachiya, pi. kuncha- 
chu. 

loosening, n. kunta, kwabiya*. 

loot, e.g. the sack of a town 
buruntu. 

lop, to kudure. 

lopping, of branches sdran 
bisa. 

lord, n. ubangiji ; sidi applied 
to Mohammed ; Lord, an 
epithet of the Deity, rabbity 



lose, tr. V. rasa, yin rashi, bdta, 
yin hasdra, gagata, the last 
constr. with da, rubushi ; to 
1. the way rasa hanya, ga- 
gata da hanya, raise, gochi 
and goche, gwabche (S.), bdta 
(or bdche) hanya, dimanta, 
diinauta, karkache, the last 
also tig. of moral deviation ; 
to 1. one's case kayas ya 
shari'a ; they lost heart han- 
kulansu duka sun tashi ; 
losing bdchewa; see lost. 

loss, n. barna, e.g. they caused 



loss 



142 



luxury 



him 1. su kai ma shi harna ; 
rashi, hasdra, asdra, tasari, 
ta'adi, ta'ada, taskdro (S.), tas- 
gdro (Daura), kampa, karafa. 
loss, to sufifer, intr. v, yin 

hasdra, yin tobodi. 
lost, n., the state of being 1., 

e.g. in the forest dimana*. 

lost, particip. lalatachche, fern. 

Icdatachchiya, lalatattu ; to 

be 1. bdche, makuwa, rasa. 

lot, n. (portion) rabo or rabu, 

pi. raberabi. 
lots, coll. kuriya; to draw 1. 

yin kuriya. 
louse, kwarkwata^ kwalkwata, 
kyaya^ kyeya] crab-1. dan 
kadafi ; see also lice, 
love, n. soyaiya, soy ay y a, so- 
waya, soyuwa (S.), kamna, 
kauna, so*, muhibba. 
love, tr. V. so, san* ; (after 
pronouns ending in na) kam- 
na, kam^nache ; soye, yin so 
yaiya ; sha^awa. 
love-bird (Agapornis pullaria), 

tsiriya, 
love-charms, tsibbu. 
loved, one much, n. lele*, 

m,asoyi*. 
lover, n. maso, pi. masowa ; 

masoyi, pi. masoya. 
low, intr. V. yin boda, see 

lowing, 
low, adv. a kdsa, a kas ; lower 
na kasa, fern, ta kdsa. 



lower, tr. V. kasashe, sabka, 
sapka, sa/ka, sauka, sahki, 
sauki, sabkas da, saukad da ; 
to 1. to the ground kasa ; to 
1. a bucket into a well zire. 
lowering, participial n. (a 
bucket into a well) zirawa. 
lowing, n. (of cow or camel) 

boda, umbu. 
luck, n. (good) nasara, arziki, 
gamon-katar, gata, gatanchi ; 
he has brought me good 1. 
ya yi ma ni gata, katar, 
kdtari. 
lucky, to be aruzzuka; a 1. 
day buruji, yin daula ; a 1. 
person dangware, Tnai-arziki. 
luggage, n. kaya, pi. kayayeki ; 
spec, a woman's \.fago,faggo 
or pago. 
lull, tr. V. rene. 
lump, n. (e.g. of flour) dunkule; 

tsdba or tsula*, bangori. 
lunatic, tabi, tabu, tdbo, fem. 
tdbuwa ; mahaukachi, fem. 
mahaukachiya, pi. mahau- 
kata, tahabbe, shinkinkim,i ; 
see fool, 
lung-fish, Gambian l.-f. or 
mud-fish, i.e. Protopterus 
annectens gaiwa. 
lungs, n. fufu, kufu, sufe (S.), 

pi. sufoji. 
lust, n. guri, sha^atva, hwa- 

dayi. 
luxury, buki, marma/ri. 



lying down 



143 



malingering 



lying down, n. kwantawa ; 1. 
on the back with the legs 
up riyinginij rigingine. 

lying in wait, n. fako, kwanto. 

lynx, (caracal) dage. 

macaroni, n. taliya*, wasa- 

wasa. 
mad, adj. mahaukachi, fern. 

niahauk(jichiya, pi. Vfiahmi- 

kata; mai-hauka ; a m. dog 

ynahaukachin kdre. 
mad, to be, intr. v. hauka, 

haukache. 
madden, tr. v. haukata. 
madman, dolo, fem. doluwa, 

pi. dololi ; you m. ! kai yofi 

(S.) ; see fool. 
t madness, n. hauka^ wdhami, 

tabuwa-, Bta.vk in. hauka ja. 
maggot, tsutsa. 
magic, n. maita, siddabaru, 
'< tsibbu, akokari, dabo. 
magnet, n. mijin karife. 
magnify, tr. v. (to honour, or 

extol) girmama, bada girma, 

yin yabo. 
IQagnitude, n. girma, e.g. the 

sun surpasses the moon in 

m. rana ta fi wata girma. 
magpie, n., Senegal m. (also 

used for ' ox-pecker ') charki. 
mahogany, tree madachi ; m.- 

bean tree kawo. 
maid, an old ra. iuzuruwa. 
maiden, n. buduruwa, pi. 



budurai, diya ; a young m. 
bera. 
maidenhood, n. budurchi or 

buduruwanchi. 
mail, coat of, n. (made of 
cloth) lifidi ; (made of chain) 
sulke, safa, kumakumi. 
mail-clad, pi. masu-lifidi. 
maimed, adj. kuduru. 
maintain, tr. v. 1. (to retain) 
rike, rika, riki. 
2. (to feed) chida. 
maize, n. masara, dawa ma. 
sara or damasara* (i.e. dan 
masara); roasted m. barn- 
bar a; a m. -cob goy on masara; 
see com. 
make, tr. v. 1. (to construct, 
fashion, create) yi, yiwa, 
yiwo, iwo*, yo, wa ; I m. 
nai = na yi ; (to produce or 
effect) e.g. to m. an outcry 
yin kururuwa. 

2. (to cause) sa,e.g. they m. 
the householder run away sun 
sa mai-gida shi guje. 
malady, n. chiwo, chiwuta ; see 

under ill. 
male, adj. and n. namiji, pi. 
mazaje, toro* ; the m. lion 
toron zaki; m. and female 
namiji da tamata. 
malice, n. kiyaiya^ kiyayya, 
7nasifa, keta, mugun hali 
Tnugunta, tsegumi. 
malingering, sane. 



mallam 



144 



mare 



mallam, (teacher or learned 

man) n. malam, malami, pi. 

mallamai; chief m. liman* 

or limami*. 
m.allet, for beating leather 

kantukulo. 
mallow, Jews' m. malafiya. 
maltreat, tr. v. walakanta, 

wulakanta ; see injure, 
maltreatment, n. walakanchi. 
man, n. mutum or mutume, pi. 

mutane ; (as contrasted with 

woman and wife) miji, pi. 

mdza, mazaje, mazaizai ; mai- 

miji ; married m. miji da 

mache; the m. with the 

broom (i.e. a bachelor who 

has to sweep his own house) 

namiji da shara. 
manacles, see chains, 
manatee, the African species 

of m. ayu, 
mane, n. (of horse, etc.) geza^ 

pi. gezuna, rahaja (S.). 
mango, mangoro* (a word used 

by traders). 
manifest, adj. zahiri. 
manifest, tr. v. hobydna, bai- 

yana, gaya, gwada. 
manifestation, n. nunawa. 
manifestly, adv. zahiri. 
manioc, rogo. 
manis, n. (i.e. pangolin, a kind 

of ant-eater) A:^r^A:^r^, kikiriki. 
mankind, coll. mutane duka, 

dukan mutane^ duniya. 



manliness, n. mazakuta, maza- 
kunta, mazakunchi. 

manner, n. hdli, pi. hdlaye^ 
ada^ the latter used especially 
of religious ra. ; such is his. 
m. halinsa ke nan. 

manners, coll., good m. kumyay 
kunya^ Iddabi; want of good 
m. rashin kumya. 

mantis, dokin Allah^ dan kama^ 
koki. 

manumission, n. (of slaves) 
m,uddhar ; a certificate of m. 
laya, layan diyauchi. 

manure, n. taki. 

manure, tr. v. takanta, yin 
taki. 

manuscript, a m. from which 
a copy has been made- 
uwa*. 

many, adj. dayawa and (esp. 
of persons) m,aiyawa, pi. ma- 
su-yawa ; barkatai, Jul (S.), 
pal, pul* (K.), rututu (Zanf.); 
how m.? ndwa, guda ndwa, 
e.g. how m. years is it since 
your birth? shekara ndwor 
tun haifuwarka ? how m» 
were there 1 sun yi ndwa % 

marabout, the bastard ji 
jim,i, 

march, by night in war, 
kwanan daga. 

mare, n. godiya, pi. gwaddi 
dukusa (fern, of dukushi) pL 
dukusai; a young m. dnn 






margin 145 

dukushi ; a large m. inyar- 
miya, inyaramniya ; a brood 
m. kabama, kabuma^ kam- 
bama, 
margin, m. of a page bayala, 

kora. 
mark, n. tabo^ tambo (S.), pi. 
tabuna; a in. on paper or 
cloth dugo or diga, pi. di- 
gogi ; m. on animals, trees, 
etc. or of a person unable 
to write ahaida, pi. shaidai, 
s/iaidu ; a m. on the ground, 
a land-mark (miara; for tribal 
marks see marks, 
mark, tr. v. 1. (to note, ob- 
serve) ji, gani. 

2. to make a m. on shaida 
or yin shaida, kaskasta, kyas- 

Ikyasta j to m. off kebe, keban- 
che, alamta ; to m. out on 
the ground shaya, shata, shan 
tvuri. 
marker, in book, n. haldma, 

aldma, amara. 
market, for some special 
article, n. kasuwa, kausuwa 
(Zanf.); spec, a very small 
m. dan kasuwa ; officer of 
the m. sa^ikurmi ; president 
of the m. sarikin kasuwa. 
marketing, sayaya, 
marks, coll. (cut on face to 
point out tribe etc. to which 
a person belongs) shaushawa, 
jarfa, shatani, ziibe, kyaskyas- 

R. H. D. 



mash 



tu, e.g. (m. cut from the corners 
of the mouth) yambaka ; (m. 
on cheek nearly horizontal) 
bille (K.); tattoo m. behind 
the eyes kadango; m. painted 
on faces of women katambiri ; 
tribal m. on temple kurmajo 
(Zanf.); the Beriberi tribal 
mark tsagan goshi ; to cut 
tribal m. shaushauta. 
marksman, n. mahalbi, pi. ma- 

halba or masu-halbi. 
marriage, n. amre, amri, aure, 
arms (S.), anganchi ; to give 
in m. amrad da; m. feast 
buki or biki, also wasam buki; 
m. presents (wife's) gdra ; to 
rejoice at a m. yin gdra. 
married, adj., a m. man 
miji mai-mache, magidanchi ; 
a m. woman mache maimiji. 
marrow, n. bargo, Idka*; m. 

bone tantakwashi. 
marry, v. amre, aure or yin 
amre, damre amre, darme 
arme (S.). 
marsh, n./ddama, dausayi, 
martyrdom, shdhada^. 
marvel, n. (a wonder) abin 
mamaki, abin chewa, ajub*,, 
ajaba. 
marvel, v. yin mamaki, jin ma- 
maki, yin woba ; to m. at a 
thing unseen before kdkdbi. 
mash, tr. v. far/asha or palpa- 
she, kirba, take. 

10 



mashed 



146 



meaning 



mashed, participial adj. dakak- 
ke^ fern, dakakka, pi. dakakku. 

mashing, n. (e.g. of yams) 
kirbi. 

m.ass, n. tsaha ; am. of any- 
thing zuri (K.). 

master, n. ubangiji ; uba, pi. 
ubanne, ubanai. 

master, tr. v. (to overpower) 
rinjayi or rinjaya, Ji*, i*. 

masticate, tr. v. tamna or 
tauna, tsuke. 

masticated, particip. tamnan- 
ne, fern, tamnanna, pi. tam- 
nannu. 

m.at, n. gen. abin shimfida, 
mashimfidi ; a grass m. leso ; 
spec, an old grass m. keso ; 
a reed m. tabarma ; a goat- 
skin m. buzu, kilishi ; a 
round m. tdfin giwa ; a round 
grass m. tmindi, windi (S.), 
asalo ; a mat let down in 
front of a doorway asabari, 
tufaniya, mayamfadi (S.) ; 
a grass or reed m. for cover- 
ing the outside of houses 
zdna ; a split-cane woven m. 
kwara-kwdra ; a m. used as 
a door cover kyaure ; a hang- 
ing m. tihu, tifu ; a m. made 
of palm leaves mulli, mui'li, 
gazari ; see mats. 

match, (fellow) tsdra, pi. 
tsarara-raki ; look for your 
m. nema tsaranka. 



matches, ashana* ; to strike 
m. kyarta or karta ashana. 

mats, coll. (used for rooting) 
amdme; grass used for making 
m. tsintsiya*. 

matter, n. (subject) tada, pi. 
tadodi ; what is the m. 1 mi 
ya/aru 1 what is the m. with 
you 1 mi ya same ka 1 

mattress, cloth, n. darduma, 
katifa. 

mature, adj. and v. nena ; see 
ripe. 

me, personal pron. ni, e.g. he 
caused me fear ya ba ni 
tsoro, they followed me sun 
bi ni; with prep, to me 
m,a ni, gareni; exclamatory, 
me! do you mean me? 
niyal 

meal, n. 1. (repast) kalachi, 
which also = midday m. 

2. (ground corn etc.)gari', 
see flour. 

mean, n. (midway position) 
matsakaichi. 

mean, adj. (worthless, con- 
temptible) lalatachche, fern. 
lalatachchiya, pi. lalatattii, 
banza. 

meaning, n., e.g. the m. of a 
word or a phrase log a, gutsuy 
tushe, azanchi, baichi, kdri^ 
m,a'ana, dalili* ; e.g. there 
is no m. in it babu loga; 
what is the m. of it? 



measles 



147 



meditate 



minene gutsunsa or wannan 
ina TYioHana tasa ? 

measles, n. karamhau, ka- 
7'iinhau. 

measure, n. 1. gen., both in 
the strict sense and also of 
comparison, estimation, pro- 
portion, one's m. or standard 
gwalgwado, gwargwado. 

2. an instrument or means 
of measuring abin auna, abin 
awo, ma-auna, magwadi, ma- 
gwaji. 

3. spec, the foot regarded 
as a m. of length taki, pi. 
take-take ; am. of length 

. from elbow to tip of middle 
finger kamu; a cloth m. of 
about 15 feet zarie, pi. zari- 

. nuwa or zanna ; a m. of 
capacity mudu (K.), pi. mu- 
duna; a m. for grain zakka 
(S.) ; see span. 

m.easure, tr. v. gwalgwada, 
gwargwada, gwada, awo, yin 
awo, auna] to m. with the 
thumb and middle finger ra- 
tsa; to m. with the hand tdka. 

measuring, 1. participial n. 

Igwalgwadawa. 
2. anything used for m. ; 
see measure (2). 
f meat, n. (flesh used as food) 
nama, pi. namomi, dctgu (K.), 
yome (S.) ; spec, thin strips 
yt of cooked m. kiltshi, kills ; 



a piece of m. roasted on a 
stick chanchanga, tsire, tsiri, 
pi. tsirare; a small piece of 
m. tsoka (S.), pi. tsokoki ; 
thin strips of m. dried in the 
sun ydwara ; the fat of m. 
mai, kitse ; epithet applied to 
broth without m. da lami. 

meddlesome, kasarantam. 

meddlesomeness, karamhdni, 
kazalaha. 

mediator, n. matsajkanchi. 

medicine, n. mdgani, pi. ma- 
ganguna, 7nagunguna ; to 
take m. sha or hade mdgani ; 
to administer m. sa, ha or 
hada mdgani ; a m. for the 
eyes korino^ giwakamba ; a 
m, taken to ward off" an 
enemy's blows sagau ; a m. 
for children dauri ; sources 
of m. — a tree whose root is 
used as a m. for dysentery 
domashi ; a sharp, thorny 
grass ground up as a m. 
rairai ; a root used as a 
purgative m. zagarafi; a 
plant with small black seeds 
from which a purgative m. 
is made nandfa ; see also 
tsuhu, tsumi, etc. ; m. con- 
sisting of charms tsubbu, 
tsihbu, dabo. 

Medina, Madina. 

meditate, intr. v. zache ; see 
think. 

10—2 



meditation 



148 



merchant 



meditation, n. tunane, tunan- 
ne, pi. tunannu. 

Mediterranean Sea, Bahar 
Ilmal. 

medium, (average) tsaka-tsdka', 
m. sized matashi. 

meek, adj. da hankuri \ cf. 
seq. 

meekness, n. hankuri^ han- 
kura. 

meet, adj. daidai, and in 
stronger sense halal, halas ; 
not m. haram, ha daidai, ha 
halal etc. ; cf. seq. (2). 

meet, v. 1. tdriye, tar a, yin 
td7'iya, (to assemble) tdra ; 
to m. as in conflict or op- 
position karo with da ; to m. 
with gdmu or gamo da ; tare 
or tarda, ta^'as da, tariyo* ; 
tsaya da ', same or samo ; 
hdda da, karamta da, sddu ; to 
m. a person coming from the 
opposite direction karamta 
da; to m. (i.e. to reach to) 
taras ; to go to m. tarha (S.) ; 
to m. unexpectedly chin kdro. 
2. (to m. so as to be fit, 
suitable, sufficient) gamshe, 
ishe; this meets our case 
wannan ya ishe mu. 

meeting, n. taruwa, (assem- 
bling) tdriya ; m. of rivers 
(confluence) m^agangami ; a 
day of m. (with God on the 
last day) ran gamu ; an un- 



expected m. kachibis, kitihis; 

they have met sun yi kachi- 

his. 
melon, n. dila*; spec, water- 

m. guna, kankana. 
melt, tr. V. (e.g. m%t^\^) narke, 

narka ; it is just at melting 

point ina kan narkewa. 
melted, be, intr. v. narku. 
melted, participle narkakke, 

fem. narkakka, pi. narkakku. 
melting, n. narki. 
memorandum, of goods, writ- 
ten on paper, n. zumam% 

zumame. 
memorial, n. amhdto. 
memory, n. tunane'*, tuna*, 

famu. 
men, n. 1. (males) m^dza, ma- 

zaje, mazaizai. 

2. (human beings) mutane. 
mend, tr. v. 1. gyarta, gyara. 

2. to patch clothes etc. 
hanke, lallaha, toshe, taushe. 

3. fig. (to set right, to ' m. 
matters ') gyara. 

4. to m. a road tdda 
hanya. 

mendicant, n., see beggar. 

mending, participial form 
gyartawa. 

mention, tr. v. amhdta, am- 
hdto, amhache. 

merchandise, n. hukdta, abin 
chiniki, fatauchi, urula. 

merchant, n. falke, fem. fat- 



merciful 



149 



miller 



kiya^ pi. fatake., dtajiri or 
tdjiri, mai-fatmichi, dan ga- 

rumfa*', see trader. 
m.erciful, adj. (epithet applied 

to God only) errahimi*. 
im.ercy, n. jinkai, tausayi* ; 

see compassion. 
m.erely, adv. sai dai, sai. 
message, n. (errand, mission) 

sako, (news or information 

brought) labdri, jawdbi ; to 

complete the delivery of a 

m. ida labdri. 
m.essenger, n. maaike, maaiki, 

pi. masu-aike; jekdda,jakdda, 

fern, jekddiya, makirayi; 

manzo^ pi. manzan^ii^ which 

is also specially used of a 

king's m. 
m.essiah, the almasihu. 
meteorite, gatarin arddu. 
^ midday, n., of time tsakar 

rana. 
middle, n. tsdkiya, tsdka, a 

fi^dka\ the space between 

two places or things tsdkani; 

in the m. of (prepositional 

phr.) tsdkani; to be in the 

m. tsdkaita. 
midge, ('sand-fly') kyashi, kyar- 

firfita. 
midnight, tsdkan dare. 
midst, n., see middle, 
midwife, n. ungozuma, un- 

gozoma, unguwanzoma, ingo- 
; zoma. 



might, n. iko, {pi physical 
power) karifi, karji; with 
m. da iko. 
mighty, adj. mai-iko, mai- 
kariji, bajini*, gugara* ; (as 
epithets of God) jabbaru, 
aljabbaru,jalala; see power- 
ful. 

mignonette, an amaranth 
plant with a flower like m. 
zaki banza. It is closely re- 
lated to the native spinach ; 
cf. alayafu. 

migrate, to zakuda, zauda. 

migration, kaura ; a place to 
which anyone migrates ma- 
kaurachi. 

mildew, n. fumfuna^ funfuna, 
fufuna, damshi, laima, lam- 
niya, rima. 

milk, n. nono, pi. nonuna ; 
sweet or fresh m. mddara 
curds of m. gunt^ji't 
and water tsararauka ; a 
herb, the root of which is 
put in m. to preserve it loda, 
da/ara ; to skim m. yade. 

milk, tr v. tatsa, tatse, twache, 
twatsa (S.). 

milkweed, gigantic m. or 
Dead Sea apple (Calotropsis 
procera) tumfajiya. 

mill, n., see millstone. 

mill, tr. V. (to grind) nika. 

miller and mill-owner, n. 
mai-reda. 



m. 



millet 



150 



miss 



millet, n., bastard m. tumhin 

jaki ; bulrush or pearl m. 

gero, maiwa ; great m. dawa ; 

' marua ' or ' ragi ' m. tamha ; 

the first ripe heads of m. 

before the general crop is ripe 

tumu; m. which has sprung 

up by itself on an unsown 

farm ydbdrL 
million, adj. alif alif; duhu 

(iari yoma. 
millipede, kadandoniya^ aima- 

ka ; see centipede, 
millstone, n. dutsin nika, 

niki, tnaredi, pi. maredai. 
mimosa, kaidaji ; Egyptian 

m. bayaruioa. 
minaret, hasumiya (S.), sumi- 

ya (S.), sumaya (K.). 
mince, tr. v. (cut into very 

small pieces) yanyana. 
mind, n. znchiya* ; I am of 

two minds ina da zuchiya 

hiyu. 
mind, v. (to regard, heed) kula 

with da, see care, 
mine, sep. possess, pron. nawa 

when obj. possessed is masc, 

tawa when fem., e.g. your 

horse is stronger than m. 

dokinka yaji nawa karifi. 
mingle, tr. v. chudnya, see mix. 
minimum, kadane*. 
minister, a king's, n. hafade, 

pi. mafadawa; m. of the 

household magaji. 



minstrel, n. zabiya, pi. zabi- 

yoyi. 
minute, n., of time gari^, 

diga. 
mirage, n. diyal-rana (lit. child 

of the sun), kawalwalniya. 
mire, n. Idka, tabo, pi. tabuna; 

see mud. 
mirror, n. madubi, madubin 

ido, madubin Juska, 7natso- 

kachi. 
miscarry, v. bari, yasda diya^ 

bata chiki*, lalache. 
mischief, n. keta, maslfa, bar- 

na ; to do m. yin sabdbi ; m. 

making kwarmato*. 
mischief-maker,n.wai-sct6«6i, 

pi. masu-sababi ; machuchi. 
mischievous person, n. mai- 

maslfa, mai-ta^adi. 
miser, n. bahili, marowachi. 
miserable, to be or to render 

m. sifiihi. 
misery, n., see distress, 
misfortune, n. hasdra, asdra, 

tasaj'i, sababi, maydta, via- 

slfa, halaka or hallaka. 
mislead, tr. v. rude ; one who j 

misleads marude or mai-rudey \ 

pi. Tnaruda. 
misled, particip. rudadde, fei 

rudadda, pi. rudaddu. 
miss, n., used of an ai 

gun, etc. kuskurewa. 
miss, V. (e.g. to pass overi f 

omit words in a book) ratsa* 






missing 



151 



mole 



fatara ; to m. the way ratsa 
hanya ; to m. (of an arrow) 
Jeuskure^ kurkura^ kure (S.), 
yin kundu ; to m. fii'e fdsa ; 
to m. one's aim baucle ; shctn 
kuskure, shan hara ; to in. 
or fail to meet yin sivahdni. 

missing, used of two persons m. 
each other on a road swahani. 

mist, n. hrXzo,/eshi, kdsashi. 

mistake, n. mantuwa, rikichi, 
pi. rikita, rikichetva ; kure, 
pi. kurakuri; I made a m. 
na yi kure ; to make a m. 
manta, mmiche, yininantuiva, 
hata zanche. 

mistletoe. West Indian m. 
kauchi. 

mistress, n., m. of the house 
uwaryida, uwalgida, m. of 
slaves uwargijiya. 

misty, adj. da hdzo. 

misunderstand, v. yigiche. 

misunderstanding, yiyi. 

mix, tr. V. dame or ddma, 
yarwaya, ganyama, kwdhe, 
kwdha, yauraye, hautsina, 
kada ; to m. together chuda 
or chudaya, surka, yatnutsa, 
yamuche ; to m. mud chuda 
yimbu, chuda ; mixing chu- 
dawa. 

mixed, what is, e.g. mortar, n. 
dannamiya. 

mixing, gdmawa, gauraya, 
kwahi, surki. 



moat, baza, gwalalo. 

mob, gurtgu. 

mock, V. bananche, yin ba'a, 

yin gori, reda. 
mockery, ba\i, bananchi, gaiya, 

gori, izgili. 
mode, n. hdli, pi. hdlaye. 
moderate size, n., a thing of 

m. s. madaidaichi. 
moderately, adv. da dama 

dama. 
modest, adj. (bashful, or under 

a sense of shame) da kumya. 
modesty, n. (sense of shame, 

bashfulness) kumya, kunya. 
Mohammed, pr. n. Muham- 

madu, Muhammnad, Ahmadu, 

Ahamadu, dan Amina. 
mohammedan, a, n. niusulm,i, 

pi. musulmai ; the m. religion 

7nusulumchi ; to be a m. 

musulmnta ; I changed from 

a heathen to a m. na sauyad 

da arna musulm,i. 
moist, m. ground dausayi, lai- 

ma, dim.au (S.). 
moisten, tr. v. jika, jike. 
moisture, n. damshi, rima ; 

see damp, 
molar, a m. tooth matamni, 

pi. matamna. 
molasses, a kind of, n. mddi, 

madiya. 
mole, n. (birth-mark) tadawal 

Allah ; an animal resembling 

a large m. yyahji. 



molest 



152 



more 



m.olest, tr. V. tsananta, alale. 

moment, n,, of time kyapta- 
wan ido, gari* ; in a m. 
(forthwith) na7i da nan. 

Monday, n. litini, latini and 
racial latini, attanin (S.). 

money, n. kurdi, kudi ; for 
m., on payment of m. da 
kurdi; (the only money re- 
gularly used by the Hausas 
consists of cowrie shells, 
about 2000 of which are 
equivalent in value to a 
shilling ; the Austrian dollar 
is occasionally used, see 
dala) ; ready m., i.e. cash 
down hannu da hannw, much 
m. kurdaidaij kurade (S.). 

money-bag, small, n. tsaleta. 

mongoose, a species of ayarabi. 

monitor, guza, damo, tsari. 

monkey, n. hiri, fem. hirinya, 
pi. hirai, hiraye or hiruna ; 
different species are : jan 
birij kirka, hi kuka, gata or 
gatan biri ; a small reddish 
m. tsida ; an old m. gauji ; 
a baboon gogo, gwaggwo, 
yimki (K.), bika (masc). 

monkey-bread, tree, n., i.e. 
the baobab kuka. 

monkey-nut, n. gyada; oil 
from the m.-n. main gyada. 

month, n. masc. wata, pi. 
watanni; this m. watan yaw, 
last m. ivatan jiya ; next 



m. watan gobe ; the m. after 
next watan jibi ; four months 
7vata fudu ; the fourth ♦ m. 
wata na-fndu. 

monument, n., see memorial. 

moon, n. wata, pi. watanni, 
masc. ; the new m. ^abon 
wata, farin wata, jinjirin 
wata (S.); a new m. when 
seen with the old m. amari- 
yan wata ; moon-light farin 
wata; a bright m. wata 
farifat ; a halo round the m. 
sansani ; phr. the m. is ended 
wata ya mutu ; the m. is new 
wata ya tsaya. 

more, adj. 1. (greater in amount) 
maji-yawa, e.g. he gave him 
books m. than ours ya ha shi 
litataji mafi-yawaddganamu] 
m. considerable than this 
maji-girma dag a nan. 

2. (to a greater degree) as 
in our comparison of adj. and 
adv. ji, e.g. he is m. cunning 
than a ground squirrel ya ji 
kurege wayo ; he likes me m. 
than you ya Ji so na da kai ; 
faye, faskare, e.g. you ask m. 
than I am equal to ka^ia son 
abin da (ya faye ma ni or) 
ya faskare ni. 

3. (m. in addition, further) 
kara, e.g. add m. (to the 
price in bargaining) ka kara 
ma ni ; give me m. money 



moreover 



163 



moth 



dada ma ni kurdi ; he is 
i; asking for m. ya ke 7teman 
kari; although they made 
every attempt to console him, 
be cried the m. koda suka yi 
kokari dayawa sun ha shi han- 
kuri shi ya kara kuka ; he 
stabbed him, then he moved 
no m. ya yanke shi bay a nan 
bai kara yin motsi ba ; a little 
m. da dama ; much m. hale, 
bare, balanta, e.g. he would 
receive anyone, much m. 
would he receive me ya 
dauki kotva halanta niya. 
moreover, adv. haija7i hdka, 

fa*, ananan. 

morning, n., the early m. safe 

and safiya; when m. came 

da safe ya yi ; in the m. 

da safe; every m. kowache 

safiya ; good morning ! sanu 

da safe or sa^iu da rana ; 

; very early in the m. sassafe ; 

m. two hours after sunrise 

hantsi. 

morning-glory, (plant) yako, 

yaryadi. 
morrow, n. yobe, rana mai- 
! zuwa ; good-bye till to-morrow 
sai gobe; for 'day after to- 
morrow ' etc., see day. 
morsel, n. gutsura, pi. gutsure, 
mortar, n. 1. (made by scoop- 
ing out a log) turumi, pi. 
, turame. 



2. (building cement) dama- 

raiya, damamma (S.) ; to mix 

m. dame or dama. 

mortgage, to tolma, see pledge. 

moslem, n. musulmi, pi. mu- 

sulmai ; see mohamme- 

dan. 

mosque, n. masallachi, pi. 

masallatai or masaUataye. 
mosquito, sdhro, sauro, samro, 

pi. sabruna or sahraye. 
most, adv. 1. (denoting the 
relative superlative) is ex- 
pressed by a defining phr. 
mafi (or yafi) duka (or kowa), 
i.e. surpassing all or any, e.g. 
he is the m. powerful shina 
da karifi ya fi duka; for 
similar phrases cf. the m. 
excellent Mohammed Mu- 
hammadu ya fi kowa; He 
(i.e. God) who is m. powerful 
mai-iko da kowa. 

2. the absolute superlative 
(=in a very high degree) 
faye, e.g. the cat is m. 
addicted to crying at night 
kyanwa ta faye yin kuka da 
dare. 
moth, n, gishi, majihari, huta 



ivuta, bam,ota^ 



spec, a m. 



from a black caterpillar aso, 
asu ; am. with red ab- 
domen, white thorax and 
black and orange wings ga- 
madidi. 



mother 



154 



much 



mother, n. uwa^ iya, inna (S. ), 
jatoma*, gyatuma*; children 
of one m. chiki daya. 

m.other-in-law, n. sarakuwa, 
suruka. 

motion, n. motsi. 

mould, n. alashaf. 

m.ound., n. tudv^, pi. tudodi. 

mount, V. hawa or hau ; to 
ra. a horse or to m. on horse- 
back hawa doki or hawa bisa 
doki ; to m. up or upon tdka, 
taki, taska ; to cause to ra. 
hawas da, haushe. 

mountain, n. tudu, pi. tudodi, 
tudunduna, tsauni. 

mourn, v. yin tdkaba, yin 
kuka, yin makoki. 

mouse, n. lera (K.) or hira, 

. dam her a, damhariya, kusu 
(S.), pi. kusa; the striped 
or zebra m. harewar kuau \ 
water m. (or cane-rat) heran 
kyamro ; a poison used to 
destroy mice madat, madas] 
a special name given to a m. 
mi-kwana-ka-ha-ni. 
m.OUth, n. baki, pi. bakuna ; 
also tig. of the opening or 
entrance to anything, e.g. 
the m. of a well hakin rijiya; 
spec, a disease at the corners 
of the m. dacha, datsa; to fill 
the m. gumde. 
mouthful, n. loma, lauma*. 
move, V. tr. and intr. motsa, 



intr. yin motsi ; to m. away 
from gurgiisa, gurgushe ; to 
m. a little back gusa, gidgusa, 
gurgusa ; to m. a little 
forward guso or gurguso ; to 
m. backwards and forwards 
gusa, guso; to m. forward 
or backward so as to make 
room zakuda, zauda ; to ra. 
nearer to the speaker zakudo; 
to m. from a place gurgushe; 
to m. towards gurguso : it 
cannot be moved ya ki 
motsuwa. 
movement, n. motsi, 
moving, m. a little away, 

particip. gusawa. 
mow, tr. V. yanka or yanke. 
much, 1. adj. and adv. (in 
great quantity) yawa*, da- 
yawa, mai-yawa, e.g. m. 
money kurdi dayawa ; he 
rejoiced m. ya yi murna 
dayawa ; yawa connective 
form yawan, da gugu, con- 
nect, gugun, gugin, tuli, ru- 
tutu (Zanf.), sununu, e.g. 
m. sand gugun rairai ; how 
m. 1 ndwa, nauwa 1 e.g. how 
m. money am I to give you \ 
kurdi ndwa ni ba ka 1 to do 
something very m. faye, e.g. 
children laugh very m. yara 
sun faye yin dariya ; to be 
too m. for buwaya or buwaye. 
faskare, e.g. it is too m. for 



I 



mucus 



155 



musician 



P me ya huivaye ni ; it is too 
m. ba shi kai hakanan ba or 
(/a faskare ; m. more hale^ 
hare^ barshe, or with pre- 
ceding negative much less; 
very m. pal (K.), fed (S.). 

mucus, from the eyes, n. 
kwamtsa, kwantsa, kwamtso. 

mud, n. yimbu, yambu, yumbu, 
tabo, pi. tabuna, Idka, kd/o, 
kd/au, potopoto ; spec, a hand- 
ful of m. churi ; a round 
piece of m. chibirin kasa ; 
slippery m. talalabiya* ; m. 
or sand in water yashi. 

muddy, adj. da tabo ; m. water 
(/wiha, gwibi, gurbatctchen 
ruwa ; to make m. gurbata. 

m.ud-fish, or Gambian lung- 
iish, i.e. Protopterus annec- 
tens, n. gaivxi ; noise made 
by the m.-f. chituuki, tsuki 
(S.). ^ 

muezzin, n. laddn, laddni, 
wazanu (S.), wazinu, mai- 
kiran salla. 

mule, n. alfadari, fem. aJfco- 
Ij dara, pi. alfadaru, alfa- 
1 darai. 

multiply, tr. v. yawanta, kara*, 
riba ; I multiplied it by ten 
na riba ski goma. 

multitude, n. yawa, taro or 
faru, pi. tarori. 

murder, n. kdshinkai, klsan- 
kai. 



murder, intr. v. yin kdshin- 
kai, yin kisankai. 

murderer, n. makashi, maka- 
shinkai, see kill. 

murmur, intr. v. yin guna- 
guni. 

muscular person, n. gyande^ 
fem. gyandiya. 

mushroom, naman kaza. 

music, n. molo, maulo, pi. mo- 
luna; to play music yin ivasa. 

musical instrument, n. abin 
molo, kida, kidi ; any kind'of 
wind m. i. busa, pi. bushe- 
bushe ; to play on a m. i. 
that is touched or struck yin 
kidi ; spec, a m. i. like a 
guitar gurumi or gurimi ; a 
m. i. held under the arm, a 
kind of drum kotso ; a m. i. 
made of a long gourd zu7i- 
guru; a m. i. played by 
rubbing on it kukuma ; a 
stringed m. i. matsirkiya ; 
strings of a m. i. tsarkiya; 
a stick for m. i. goge; a m. i. 
played before a king pam- 
jKimi, famfami, a wind m. i. 
s^>^^^,a wind m. i. resembling 

o 

a bagpipe algaita, algaitu ; a 
trumpet or trombone kakaki. 
musician, king's, n. zabiya 
(K.), zabaya (S.), pi. zabi- 
yoyi ; m. who performs on 
a drum, n. makidi ; on 
trumpet mai-busa. 



musk 



156 



natal 



musk, n. muska. 

muslin, n., used for turbans 

harsa, hassa, hirsa. 
mussel, pond-m. kumha. 
mussulman, to be a, intr. v. 

musulumta^ ; see moham- 

medan. 
must, V. (i.e. be obligatory or 

necessary) lalle, kamata, e.g. 

we must work lulls ne (or 

ya kamata) mu yi aiki ; see 

necessary, 
musty smell, as of grain long 

kept, n. suna*. 
mutilate, to gunche, kire ; 

mutilating kirewa. 
mutilation, e.g. loss of hand 

or foot dungulmi, gundulmi. 
muttering, jiza. 
muzzle, for goat or donkey, 

n. takunkumi. 
my, possess, pron. 1. sufF. -na 

when the obj. possessed is 

masc, -ta when fern., e.g. 

my father uhana, my mother 

uwata. 

2. separate, nawa with 

masc, tawa and tata* with 

fem., e.g. my horse doki 

nawa; my mare godiya tawa. 
myriad, n., of number ribbi*. 
myrrh, jawal. 
myself, pron. kaina ; I m. w^ 

da kaina. 

nail, finger-n. kumba, pi. 



kumbuna or kumbai, /archie 
farche. 

nail, an iron, n. kusa. 

nail, tr. V. kafa. 

naked, adj. tsirara, funtu, 
huntu, da tsiraichi, mai- 
tsiraichi or da /u7itu, jir ; 
a n. person tumbar* ; he is 
n. ya yi tsirara. 

nakedness, n. tsiraichi, funt- 
unchi, kdsau ; woji, e.g. a 
naked lie kariyar wofi. 

name, n. suna, pi. sunaye, 
sunanaki; a city whose n. 
is Kano birni sunansa Kano ; 
what is his n. ? wa sunansa ? 
or mi an che da shil phr, 
name its price ba shi suna. 

name-day, for a child, n. ran 
suna; a meal connected with 
the n.-day tuwon suna. 

napkin, n. kalkdfi, maharma. 

narrate, \.fadi,fada. 

narrative, n. labdri, aljama. 

narrow, adj. kumchi, kunchi, 
kunkunta ; a n. place tvurin 
matse. 

narrow, v. 1. tr. (to make n.) 
kwmtata, 

2. intr. (to be n.) matsu. 

narrowness, n. kumchi, kun- 
chi. 

natal, adj. na-haifuwa, fem. 
ta-haifuwa, e.g. your n. day 
ra7ia ta haifuwarka or 7'anan 
(ran) haifuwarka. 



nation 



157 



needle 



nation, alumma or aVumma. 
native, 1. adj. (of animals, 
etc. belonging to a particular 
country or district) expressed 
by means of kasa or yari, 
'.g. the n. trees itatuwan 
kfisa', the n. fish kifayen 
ijaringa. 

2. gentilic n. (a native) of 
a country ha with terminal 
vowel e or i, e.g. a Hausa n. 
ba-Haushe ; of a town or 
locality da followed by its 
name, e.g. a n. of Zaria dan 
Zazzau. 
nativity, n. haifuwa. 
natron, n. kanwa, gallo-, a 

heap of n. btirdumi*. 
nature, n. (character) hali. 
nausea, tsanda (K.). 
navel, n. chlbi (S.), chlbiya 

(K.), pi. chibobi. 

near, adv. da kusa, kusa, e.^. 

he went n. ya tafi kusa; he 

sat n. at hand ya zamna 

kusa ; very n. kusa-kusa, kur- 

kusa, kulkilsa ; n. to ktisa da 

or kusa ga; n. to him kusa 

gave shi. 

near, to be etc., v. intr. to be 

or draw n. yin kusa, kusata, 

kusache, kusanta ; to draw n. 

j duno; to draw n. to gzva- 

matsi, shi7ikaya*. 
near, com ingn., participial form 
, kusatowa. 



nearly, adv. kusa; it is n. 
finished ya yi kusan kareiva 
or ya kusa karewa ; he n. 
forgot it ya kusa manta shi. 
nearness, (proximit)'-) kusa. 
necessary, adj. wajib, wajibi, 
lazumtache ; the necessaries 
of life abin bukdtar i-ai. 
necessary, to be, v. wajaba, 
wajiba, lazum^che, kamata ; 
impers. it is n. ya wajiba, ya 
kamata, lalle ne. 
necessity, n. larura, lalle, 
tllas ; of n. da lalle, da tilas, 
da wuya, wajib, wajibi. 
neck, n. wuya, iviya, pi. wiyayi. 
neck-hole, of shirt, n. wundi. 
necklace, mdkura, n. of red 
beads kutoji ; (worn by 
women) dumbujin zufa; a 
n. composed of black seeds 
kantururuwa, tagode. 
need, n. bukdta. 
need, v. bukata, yin bukata; 

cf. prec. 
needful, it is, impers. ya ka- 
mata, lalle ne. 
needle, n. alura, pi. alurai, 
madunkiya, matsiyachiya, 
matsefata*, tamfasuwa, tan 
fasuwa; spec, large n. tsiko, 
sumjiya, sumdiya ; a sail-n. 
masilla, misilla; a large 
curved n. used for thatching 
bida (S.) ; a needle's eyekd/cd 
alura. 



needle-case 



158 



nice 



needle-case, n. gidan alura. 

needlework, e.g. yellow n. on 
a burnous, n. yarrani*. 

needy, adj. makaskaschi, pi. 
makaskasta, talaka, pi. tala- 
kawa or talakka, mai-talaka) 
pi. masu-talaka, mai-talauchi, 
pi. masu-talauchi. 

neglect, n., e.g. of work kwa- 
takwana*. 

neglect, tr. v. kyale, rena, 
shdmuke ; (to take no notice 
of) zuha idanu. 

neigh, intr. v. yiii haniniya. 

neighbour, n. makofchi (S.), 
makobchi, makubchi, pi. ma- • 
kofta, makochi (K.), makwab^ 
chi, pi. makwabta. 

neighing, n. haniniya. 

neither, adv. ko* ; after a neg. 
neither... nor ko...ko. 

nerve, n. jijiya, pi. jiwoji or 
jiyoji. 

nerves, coll. n. dagura. 

nest, n. sheka, sheka (S.), pi. 
shekuna and shekoki, gurbi. 

net, n. taru, pi. taruna, mare- 
fiya (8.) ; spec, names for 
fishing-nets also rdfa (S.), 
rdga, pi. ragogi, foma, homa 
(S.), koma) a n. used for 
carrying grass chali', the 
piece of wood to which the 
{Joma) net is attached 
furnai. 

nettle-tree, zuwo. 



network, n. aikin raga. 

never, adv. expressed by v. 
tdba with negative, e.g. I n. 
acted thus ban tdba yin wan- 
nan ba ; we n. went there ba 
mu tdba je nan ba ; n. until 
now dadai with negative 
verb, e.g. I n. saw it dadai 
ban gani ba. 

nevertheless,adv.sa^^o, tareda 
wannan, koda*, duk da hdka. 

new, adj. sdbo, fern, sdbuwa, 
pi. sababbi or sabbi ; a n. 
comer haddka; the n. moon 
sdbon wata, farin wata; to 
make n. sabunta ; making 
n. (renewing) sabunchi (K.), 
sabuntaka (S.). 

news, coll. n. labdri, kisa* ; 
what is the news ? ina labdri 
or i7ia labdrin duniyal I 
heard n. of you na ji labd- 
rinka • to publish n. labarta ; 
to spread false n. chhiewa, 
kwarmdto. 

next, adv. (as a qualification 
of nouns of time) gobe, e.g. n. 
month watan gobe ; the n. 
world lahira, gidan gobe ; 
the 11. day rana mai-zuwa 
or rana mai-zakuwa, kashe- 
gari (K.), wanshekare (S.). 

nibbling, e.g. of ants, n. tausan 
(gara). 

nice, adj. da dadi; something 
n. abin dadi. 



R 



aiche 



169 



nose 



niche, alkuki. 

nickname, fakahi, sunan wasa. 

Niger, Hausa name for the 

river ; n. Kwdra, Kuwara or 

ruivan Kwara. 
,nigh, adv. kusa or da kusa ; n. 

to kusa da or kusa ga. 
night, n. dare ; sahanin yana* ; 

all n. dare duka; at n, or 

by n. da dare ; good night ! 

sanu da dare, sai da safe ; 

last n. jiya da dare; it 

is n. dare ya yi or duniya 

fa yi dare ; to go by n. bin 

dare ; to pass the n. wuni ; 

when n. comes or came da 

dare ya yi; the n. overtook 

him dai'e ya yi masa. 
nightjar, (Macrodipteryx ma- 

crodipterus) yaute, yotai, 

yautai. 
nightshade, black n. gautan 

kaji. 
nine, num. tara, n. hundred 

dari tara, by nines tara tara. 
nineteen, num. goma sha tara, 

sha tara, ishirin d.aya habu. 
ninety, num. tisain, tasaJin, 

dari goma bus, dari gaira 

goma, the two last = 100 less 

10. 
ninth, num. 1. ordmsX na-tara, 

fern, ta-tara. 

2. fractional n. tusu'i. 
no, 1. interj. a*, a' a. 

2. adj. babu, ba, e.g. no 



money babu kurdi ; no one 
babu kowa, ba kowa, babu 
wanda or ba wanda. 

no, to say, v. hama, ki, kiya. 

nod, to, in assent, v. kdda kai, 
gyada kai. 

noise, n. dmo, dumi, dimi, 
hayaniya, hdniya*, yagatu 
(K.), mita, holo ; loud and 
angry n. hargowa; a vague 
unexplained n. burum; a 
distant n. jiza. 

nomadic, adj. pi. raasu-tashi. 

none, adj. babu (or ba) wanda, 
babu (or ba) kowa, babu, the 
last applied to things ; n. 
used of persons babu mutum. 

nonsense, n. wawa, wawanchi ; 
he talks n. shina mag ana 
barkatai. 

noon, n. tsdkar rana. 

noose, n. gen. zarge, pi. zar- 
guna ; spec, a n. for catching 
animals mazargi, azarga^gi, 
azazargi (S.) ; kiri, pi. kirra. 

nor, adv. ko with negative, 
e.g. he gave them neither 
bread n. money for bread ba 
ya ba su ko gurasa ko kurdin 
gurasa. 

north, n. arewa; on the n. 
or to the n. da arewa or 
arewachi. 

northern, the, region, n. are- 
wachi. 

nose, n. hanchi ; the bridge of 



nostrils 160 

the n. goral hanchi ; the 
part of the n. between the 
nostrils zozon hanchi ; a man 
with flattened n. mai-hanchi 
nanakke; to blow the n. 
fyache majina. 

nostrils, n. hanchi, pi. hantuna. 

not, adv. ba, e.g. I know not ban 
sani ; the ba is placed before 
and after the verb or sen- 
tence which it negatives, e.g. 
I did not see the man ban 
yani mutum ba, or less cor- 
rectly ban gani ba mutum', 
babu, e.g. it is not good babu 
kyau ; with imperative or sub- 
junctive clauses kada^ e.g. do 
not fear kada kaji tsoro ; that 
you may not fall (or lest you 
fall) kada kafadi ; kada dai, 
e.g. let her n. be heard kada 
dai a ji ta ; ' or not ' when 
the words form the end of a 
question ko ba haka ba * 

notch, n., e.g. in a tree for 
resting a load against loko. 

note, V. duba or duho, e.g. note 
this duba wannan. 

nothing, n. babu, babu komi, 
ba,,.kom,i or ba komi ba, e.g. 
who knew n. wanda bai san 
komi ba; n. but sai, sai dai. 

notwithstanding, adv. sai ko, 
tare da wannan, koda. 

nought, n., see nothing. 

novel, adj. 1. see new. 



nurse 

2. (strange) bako, fern. 
bakuwa, pi. bakuna, baki or 
bakokuna, da bako. 

novelty, n. (strangeness) bako7i- 
chi, bakontaka. 

now, adv. yanzu, ko yanzu, 
lokachin nan ; even n. ko 
yanzu, yanzu yanzu ; just n. 
yau yau ; till n. har yanzu. 

nude, adj., see naked. 

nullah, n. koram^a, njere*, 
in j ere*. 

numb, to be, v., see numb- 
ness. 

number, n. guda, lisafi ; five in 
n. guda biyar ; without n., 
beyond n., is expressed by 
Ji kidaya, e.g. fishes without 
n. kifaye su Ji kidaya. 

number, tr. v. lisaji, kilga or 
kirga. 

numbering, method of, n. 
kidaya, kididdiga. 

numbness, n. dela, my hands 
are numb dela ya kama han- 
nuwana, lit. n. has seized my 
hands. 

numeral adverbs, these are 
formed by prefixing sau, so 
or guda to the cardinal 
numbers, e.g. once sau daya, 
thrice sau uku or guda ukn. 

numerous, adj., see many. 

nurse, n. m,ai-reno, mareniya, 
majiya*. 

nurse, tr. v. rene. 



O ! iiiterj. ya, aj\ ashd, ap. 

I oak, i.e. African o., n. gwinki*, 
namijin kadanya. 
oath, n. raiitsuwa, safirchi* ; 
to take an o. rantse and yin 
rrmtsuwa ; a common oath 
1 is tcaUahi, i.e. by Allah ! 
, oats, wild o. bunsurun daji. 
i obduracy, n. taurin zuchiya, 

matanriyar zuchiya. 
, obdurate, adj. da taurin zu- 
chiya. 
Obedience, n. da\i,Jisa'a (K.). 
obedient, cf. he is disobedient 
\ ha shi da'a. 

R. H. D. 



nursing 161 

nursing, n. reiw. 

nut, n. hcalo, kwaluica, yirchi 
(S.), the small edible groimd- 
n. called also the monkey-ii. 
yyada (S.), yeda (K.), gujiya 
(S.), pi. yujeye, monkey-n. 
oil main yyadn\ Bambarra 
ground-n. (Yoandzeia) kwa- 
ruruj gujiya^ this n. when 
roasted is called yaro da 
dariya; kola-n. goro q.v. ; 
hazel-n. chanza'^, anza*) 
shea-n. kadanya ; tiger-n. 
aya; physic or purging n, 
hi ni da zugu ; see also 
hawayen zaki ; the inside of 
a small ground-n. which re- 
sembles in colour that of a hidi 
(roan) horse, hidi; a dried- 
up n. kauda^ koda. 



occasion 



obeisance, do, v. yin sujada, 
runsu7ia, rusuna, yin aji, he 
did 0. to him ya yi masa aji. 
obey, tr. V. hi, ji ; to o. a com- 
mand kiyaye magaria, also 
hi {or ji) magana. 
object, n. ahu, e.g. a wonder- 
ful o. abin mamaki; a de- 
lightful o. ahin murna] a 
sad o. ahin tausayi. 
object, tr. v. ki; to o. to 
labour etc. yin kiimiya (or 
kyuya); to o. to an agree- 
ment walwale. 
objection, n. kiwuya, makan- 

gara. 
obligatory, lazumtache, see 

necessary, 
obliterate, tr. v., see blot out. 
observance, religious, n. ada. 
observe, tr. v. 1. see notice. 
2. (to comply with, e.g. 
the commandments of God) 
rike, rika, riki ; to o. a 
promise damre magana, chika 
magana, kula hisa magana. 
obstinacy, n. kin ji, shishige, 

taurin kai. 
obstinate, adj. mai-kin ji, he 
became more o. ya kara 
shishigi. 
obtain, tr. v. same, sami, samo, 

risks, riski, ruska, chi*, 
obtained, to be, v. samu*. 
obvious, adj. zahiri. 
occasion,' n. (time of an 

11 



occupation 



162 



oil 



occurrence) loto, lotu, lauto 
(S.), lokachi*. 

occupation, n. 1. (a being 
occupied or busied) shagali, 
sa/ara (S.), e.g. the occu- 
pations of this world sha- 
galin duniya. 

2. (a trade, profession etc.) 
gwani*, sana^a, antieshuwa. 

occupied, to be yin safara. 

odd, adj. 1. (strange) bako. 

2. (uneven) mara ; even or 
o. cMka ko mara. 

odour, n. wari, wardi, fre- 
quently of a bad, disagree- 
able odour, so also doyi, 
dwai (S.) ; an agreeable or 
sweet o. kamshi ; concr, a 
thing producing an agreeable 
o. or scent «6m kamshi ; to 
get or emit a bad o. zaman 
wari, yiii wari, ruha or riha ; 
to perceive ^uchsino. jinwari. 

oesophagus, garera^ jannai 

(S.). 
of, prep, (genitive) na^ fem. ta ; 
also expressed by the con- 
nective forms in -n, fem. -r, 
-Z; e.g. history of the kings 
lahari na sarakuna or laharin 
sarakuna. The genitive re- 
lation is often expressed by 
the addition of a possessive 
pronoun, thus, the house of 
the king gidan sarikior some- 
times sariki gidansa. 



oflf, adv., e.g. far off, at a dis- 
tance off daga nesa ; to be o. 
(to depart) tafi-, to come o. 
(to happen) faru ; to go o. 
(to escape) ^cAe, tsira, gudu*; 
be o. ! arr. 

offence, n. 1. (displeasure) hau- 
shi ; to feel o. jifi haushi. 

2. (transgression, sin) zarn- 
ba or za7iba, zunuji or zunubi, 
pi. zunufai. 

3. (an annoyance) alale, 
abin alale. 

offend, tr. V. 1. (to commit a 
transgression) yin zamba, yin 
zunuji. 

2. (to annoy) alale. 

offer, in bargaining, to make 
an, V. taya, yin tayi ; an o. 
is made an taya. 

officer, n. zarumi, zaromi, 
zarmi or jarumi, pi. zarumai; 
spec. o. at court turaki, ba- 
Juda. 

officers, n., a king's o./adawa, 
q.v. ; spec, one of the chief 
o. ma'aji; for non-commis- 
sioned o. in English employ 
masu-igiya (i.e. bearers of 
stripes) is used. 

official, n. galadima*'. 

offspring, n. diya^ iri, pi. 
irare, zuriya, zuri^a. 

often, adv. sau tari, sau da- 
yawa. 

oil, n. mai ; any dark o. ala- 



I 



oily 



163 



only 



ycidi ; spec, castor o. main 
zurma ; o. from ground or 
monkey-nut main gyada; o. 
from the kwdkwa palm w,ai7i 
ja, alayadi ; o. obtained by 
distillation from sesamum 
seed (cf. samsam) main ridi ; 
o. from the seeds of the shea- 
butter tree m,ain kadanya ; 
meni o. tree mamijin kadan- 
ya ; a large tish from which 
o. for eating is obtained gini^ 
shambdna (S. ), zau ; o. palm 
kivakwa, gima (S.), 
oily, to be or become ndshe^ 

ndshi. 
ointment, n. mai7i shafewa, 
J jihda. 

okra, (plant) kubewa. 
old, adj. tsofo, fern, tsofuwa, pi. 
tsoffi, tsofaffi, tsofoffi; o. age 
tsufa ; to grow o. tsofa^ tsofe, 
fsufa and yin tsufa ; he is o. 
yayinsa ya wuche ; an o. 
man with bent back takoko ; 
o. woman gyatuma, jatuma ; 
to be older than girme ; o. 
clothes ragga, pi. raggufia ; 
to make o. (i.e. to wear out) 
tso/e ; see aged, 
old, of, adv. da and lokachin 

da ; as of o. kaman na da. 
olden, in... time, adv. phr., see 

prec. 
olive, tree, n. zaiti*. 
on, prep, bisa and a bisa, e.f?. 



o. a horse bisa doki ; o. a 
hill a bisa tudu. 
once, adv. san day a; to do a 
thing o. taba^ e.g. I saw him 
o. na taba ganinsa ; at o. 
(forthwith), I will go at o. 
zan rika tajiya ; o. (in former 
times) lokachin dd; in a 
weaker sense (on one oc- 
casion), e.g. there was o. a 
man mutum. ke 7ian or akwai 
wani mutum,. 
one, num. adj. day a; o. of you 
dayanku ; o. another ju- 
na7isu ; o. at a time daya 
day a ; o. here o. there daya 
daya ; not even o. (in nega- 
tive sentence) ko daya ; but 
o. sai daya] o. (i.e. French 
'on' used as a prefix to 
verbs to form a kind of 
passive voice) a. 
oneself, periphr. for, refl. pron. 

zuchiya, see self, 
onion, n. albdsa, pi. albdsoshi ; 
wild o. hahki ; spring o. al- 
bdsa mai-kunne, safa*; spec, 
onions cooked in soup taushi, 
taushe ; leaves of onions 
lawashi. 
only, adj. and adv. makadaichi^ 
mukadaich% kadai, sai, sai 
dai, kawai, kauwe or kauwi, 
e.g. he only shi makadaichi 
or shi kadai; there was 
nothing in it, stones o. babu 

11-2 



onwards 



164 



order 



' chikinta sai duwatsu ; you 
have o. to stretch out your 
hand and take it sai dai ka 
mika hannunka ka karha ta ; 
my o. brother guda kanena. 
onwards, adv. gaba ; to go o. (to 
advance) yin gaba, chin gaba. 
ooze, intr. v., also to o. out, 

zuba, zubo. 
open, adj. (i.e. unabashed) 
kirikiri ; an o. place sarari ; 
come out into the o. fUo 
sarari. 
open, to be, intr. v. budtt ; the 
way is o. an shika hanya or 
hanya ta budu ; cf. seq. 
open, tr. v. buda, budi, bude, 
fuda, huda, wari ; to o. by 
making a hole in anything 
fuda or huiia ; to o. wide 
bubbude ; to o. out Jida or fide, 
e.g. of unfolding a standard ; 
o. the umbrella yaye lema; 
to o. by untying bale. 
opened, particip. budadde, fem. 
budadda, pi. budaddu, also 
expressed by the pass, form 
a bude ; to be o. fadu, e.g. 
when all the gates were o. 
lokachin da dukan kofofi am 
bude su. 
opening, n. (aperture) budi, 
baki, pi. bakuna ; (hole) 
bariya; (commencement) /a- 
rawa ; the act of o. budawa, 
fudawa. 



openly, adv. a bude, a sarari, 

fai. 
ophthalmia, dmodari. 
opinion, in my o. abin da na 

gani, a tsamanina. 
opponent, n. abokin-gdba, see 

enemy, 
opportunity, n. da7na, zarafi, 

zarahi, sukuni (S.), e.g. he 

had not the o. ba ya samu 

dama ; I have o. to ina 

da zarafi ; God give thee a 

favourable o. Allah ya ba ka 

so' a ; if I get an o. idan na 

samu sarari. 
oppose, V. hana, kara, karo, 

yin karo, see conflict, 
oppress, tr. V. tsane, tsani, 

tsananche. 
oppressed, particip. adj. mor 

kaskachi, mai-kaskasta, kas- 

kastache. 
oppression, n. alhaki, tono, 

yaji. • 

option, o. of sale chiniki7i zabi. 
or, conj. ko. The correlatives 

either... or ko...ko. 
orb, n. guda*, its o. gudanta. 
orchid, manta uwa, muruchin 

bisa. 
ordeal, by water, n. gwaska. 
order, n. 1. (custom, rule or 
method of procedure) ada, 
tada, aVada. 

2. (a command) hakumchi, 
hukumchi, dola^hi. 



order 



165 



other 



3. adv. phr. in o. (in good 
order, correct) daidai ; conj. 
in o. that domin, don, in, 
har dai, a bisa, e.g. he took 
medicine in o. that he might 
be cured i/a sha mayani 
domin a warke shi (or shi 
warke) ; in o. that not domin 
kdda, e.g. let us take great 
care in o. that we may not 
miss the way mu tiinane 
kwarai domin kdda mu rasa 
hanya; in o. to garin, e.g. 
you and I will go out in o. 
to take a walk 7ii da kai 
za mu tafi garin yawo. 

! order, v. hdkumta, hdkamche, 
hukumche, yin umarni, ka- 
darta ; the last used of God. 

ordered, particip. (arranged) 
shiriyayye, fern, shiriyayya, 
pi. shiriyayyu. 

orderly, an maji-kira, inajiya- 
kira. 

ordinance, n. sharVa. 

ordure, n. kaaJii ; see dung. 

ore, iron, n. tama. 

oribi (antelope), hatsiya. 

origin, n. mafdri, usali, dsali, 
sabili, tnshiya, e.g. the o. of a 
fable or story, i.e. what the 
fable explains or accounts 
for dallli ; their o. is the 
same tushiyarsa daia. 

orion, (the constellation) ma- 
halbi. 



ornament, n. 1. abstr. (embel- 
lishment) «x«?o, e.g. foro. naado. 
2. concr. ornaments kayan 
ado. 

ornamental, adj. na ado. 

orphan, n. luardya, fem. ma- 
rainiya, pi. mardyu ; orphans, 
i.e. children whose parents 
died soon after their birth 
who have been entrusted to 
strangers to bring up davgana, 

orphanhood, maraichi. 

oryx, n. mariri, marili ; wliite 
o. walwaji, ivarwaji. 

ostentation, fade. 

ostrich, n. jimlna, pi. jiminu. 

other, pronominal adj. 1. (dif- 
ferent) dabam, daban ; o. 
words magamganu dabam. 

2. correlatives, the o. wan- 
chan, fem. wachan, pi. 7va- 
dannan; less emphatic of 
various members of a group, 
e.g. the one . . . the o. , pi. some . . . 
others wani, fem. wata, pi. 
wansu, ivasu or wadansu 
repeated, e.g. the one said 
yes the o. said no, quarrel- 
ling wani ya che, i wani ya 
che a^a suna yin gardam,a. 

3. o. than (equivalent to 
Engl, else) sai, this is seldom 
used except in negative state- 
ments, e.g. nothing other 
than blood sai jini ; bamda^ 
e.g. we have nothing o. than 



otter 



166 



over-eat 



this ha mu da komi bamda 
wannan ; see another. 

otter, African clawless o. karen 
ruwa. 

ought, aux. V. 1. (personal 
construction) wajaba, wajiha, 
e.g. we o. to repent mu 
tvajaha tuba. 

2. (impersonal constr.) kd- 
mata, kdmache, tvajiba, e.g. 
ya tvajiba mu tuba or ya 
kdm.ata m,u tuba ; tvajib or 
wajibi is used with the v. to 
be, e.g. wajibi ne (or ke) m,u 
tuba. 

ounce, an o. weight wakiya*^ 
wukiya*. 

our, poss. pron. 1. suffixed -mih 
or -nmu., e.g. o. relations 
danginm,u. 

2. separate, when obj. 
possessed is masc. nam,u, 
when fern. tam,u ; thus, o. 
horse doki namu, o. mare 
godiya tamu. 

ourselves, refl. pron., see self. 

out, adv. waje, e.g. he has gone 
o. ya tafi ivaje ; the fire has 
gone o. wuta ta mutic ; o. of 
ddga, e.g. he took a stone o. 
of his pocket ya fitas da 
dutsi daga aljifunsa ; to go 
o. or to put o. (used of a fire) 
biche. 

outcry, 7'akadi, suwa suwa, 
see cry. 



outdo, tr. V. (surpass) Ji,/aye. 

outrun, tr. v. rigaya, riga, 
tsere, tsire. 

outside, adv. a waje, waje and 
daga waje ; o. the town 
bayan birni. 

outward, adv. daga waje. 

oven, n., i.e. a pit for cooking 
bread in tanda (S.), tanderu 
(K.). 

over, adv. (left, remaining) to 
be o. wanza and wanzu, 
saura, what is o., n. bur- 
bishi; to be o. (to be finished) 
kare ; o. and above, preposi- 
tional phr. bamda ; o., prep. 
bisa, a 6^.s«, with or without 
ga, e.g. he fell o. a big log 
ya fadi bisa bahban ita^he, 
he spread his gown o. the 
stones ya shimjida rigassa 
bisa ga duwatsu. 

overcharge, n. (an excessive 
price) kiira. 

overcharge, v. (to charge an 
excessive price) skirga with 
tsada (dear), e.g. he over- 
charges yana shir g a tsada. 

overcome, tr. v. rinjdya, rin- 
jayi, rinjaye, faskare, kdda, 
kdshe, ima, i ; sleep overcomes 
me berchi ya kam,a ni ] see 
overpower. 

overdo, to shirga. 

over-eat, to ginsu, gundnra^ ' 
guinide'^. 



overflow 



167 



pack-saddle 



overflow, intr. v. (of rivers) 

tjin (jiln. 
overflowing, used of a measure 

amaiche. 
overpower, tr. v. kdshe, gctga- 

!'((, huwaye ; he overpowered 

me ija huwaije ni. 
overpowering, rinjaya. 
oversee, to taakilta. 
overshadow, to innwantad da. 
overstep, to swaha, sdha. 
overtake, tr. v. tdras da, tsare, 

Uhe, iske, chi ma, kwarari, 

kwarare. 
overthrow, n. kaye, pi. kayoyi. 
overthrow, tr. v. birkichi, 

hirkiche ; yiche or gichi ; jir- 

kita,jirklche ; hankada, jefas 

da (K.), jefad da (S.), jefashe 

(Zaiif.). 
overturn, tr. v. tankade, kdshe, 

kmie, juya; the latter used 

with da. 
overwhelm, to yi7i kaye ; see 

overthrow, 
owe, tr. V. hdda hannu da, 

also expressed by n. hashi 
^ (debt), e.g. I o. him ina da 
y bashinsa (lit. I have his 
I debt) ; he owes me shina da 

bashiyia ; see debt. 
I owl, n. mujiya, pi. mujiyai. 
own, tr. v. expressed by ga or 

with pronouns gare, the pres. 

Iform in na with da ; ke, fern. 
die with da; and by the 



forms in mai-, e.g. I o. the 
horse doki gare ni, ina da 
doki, ni ke da doki or ni ne 
mai-doki. 

own, adj., e.g. my o. nawa, 
with fem. obj. tawa ; cf. 
H. G. p. 24. 

owner, n. mai-chi, mai-ahu, 
connective form mai-abin; 
the forms in mai- frequently 
express ownership, e.g. house 
o. mai-gida; o. of a boat 
tnai'jirigi. 

ox, n. sa, pi. shanu ; hurtumi, 
pi. hurtumai ; o, with red 
body and white face buli; 
pack o. with wide spreading 
horns takarkari, pi. takari- 
karai ; hole in nose of an o, 
azii'ka, zari (S.). 

ox-pecker (bird), charki, tsar- 
ki. 

oyster, freshwater o. 7nakan- 
kari, kawa. 

pace, a tdki, pi. tdke-tdke, tdki- 
tdki. 

pack, tied up, n. rizuma. 

pack, up, to, tr. v. (e.g. a load) 
Japta, labda. 

package, n. kaya, pi. kayayeki. 

packet (e.g. of paper), n. ri- 
zuma, risTTia. 

pack-saddle, n. sirdi, shirdi, 
pi. siradi, sirduna, sirida, 
siridda or sirada. 



pad 



168 



palsy 



pad, n. (placed on donkey) 
Idheru, leferu, lafero^ aku- 
mari ; (on head of carriers) 
gamo^ yanwo, Tnatsetsi ; a 
p. at the back of a camel's 
saddle suldki. 

paddle, tr. v. tunkuda (or 
tukob)^ jirigi. 

paddle, fito, used as a rud- 
der, n. matuki. 

paddles, coll. karoki, p. of a 
CAnoe/ulafuIe ( ^.),filajili (S. ), 
pilapili (K.). 

paddling, participial n. tu- 
kawa. 

pagan, n. mme, pi. asna or 
arna; in a less strict sense 
(unbeliever) kafiri, pi. kafirai 
or kajirawa. 

paganism, n. addini na {asna 
or) arna or addinin asna, 
kajirchi] to fall back from 
Islam to p. rinda. 

page, of a book, n. warka, 
waraka, tabaka, taba'al ta- 
karda, shaft, shafe. 

pain, n. zafi, azdba, alala, ar- 
kdne, kuda, masiba, wahala, 
jitsa, marwa, radadi (K.), 
harbawa, zogi; labour pains 
wahalar haifuwa; to feel p. 
jin zafi, jin arkdne, shayi^. 

pain, tr. v., to cause p. azabta. 

painful, adj. da zaft, da wuya, 
da zogi, tnai-radadi (K.). 

paint, to sifata, sifojche, zdna. 



pair, a ivari. 

palace, royal, n. fdda, pi. fa- 
dodi, dandalin sariki. 

palate, n. ddbori, ddburi. 

palaver, n. kuchi, pi. kuche- 
kuche, aldmari, shawara*. 

Palestine, sham*. 

palisade, kdwara. 

palm, of hand, n. tdfin hannu. 

palm, n. (the tree) deleb, fan 
or Palmyra p. giginya, pi. 
yigangani, giginyoyi or gigi- 
nai, kdri*, the dum p. goriha, 
pi. goribai, goribobi ; fronds 
of dum p. kdba ; the oil p. 
kwdkwa, gima (S. ) ; flowers 
of a young p. tree kilili; 
wine p. tukuruwa ; a bag 
made from leaves of the last 
kororo ; nut of the giginya 
p. kodago (8.), kurdugo ; p. 
leaves tsaiwa; p. oil main 
ja; p. wine from the tuku- 
ruwa p. bam, bambi, bammi ; 
a species of p. from leaves 
of which hats and mats are 
made kajinjiri ; beams made 
from the fan p. kwangi\ 
cocoa-nut p. kwakwan atta- 
gara ; the ball-like fruit of 
the fan or deleb palm ktvolo ; 
the unripe fruit of this p. is 
called kwalshini (S.), shoots 
of the fan p. used as a vege- 
table murichi, m,uruchi. 

palsy, inna. 



pan 



169 



pass 



pan^ cooking, brass, with 
; handle, n. algidari, alkidarl. 
pangolin, see manis. 
panic, n. (sudden terror) tun- 

znr^iwa, tunzura, razana, 

rhaTnpi. 
pannier, grass, n. giifa, gufata, 

ad'da. 
pant, intr. v. yin sheda, she- 
she ka. 
panther, t-abji*, rabbi*, da- 

misa*. 
panting, n. hdki (S.), shashakl. 
pap, n. (of the breast) nono, 

pi. nonna, nonnaye. 
papaw, n., see pawpaw, 
paper, n. takarda, pi. takardu ; 

a p. (a document) laya; a 

^heet of p. taba'al takarda. 
parable, n. misali*, almara; 

to speak in parables yin mi- 

sfdi, kfvatamta, kwatanta. 
paradise, n. aljanna. 
paragraph, of the Koran, n. 
, izuji. 
parakeet, (Agapornis pullaria) 

fsiriya ; see love-bird 1 
parallel, that which is, or like, 
■ adj. mai-maki. 
parallel, to make, tr. v. dai- 

daita. 
oaralysis, inna. 
Daramour, kumrto. 
parasite, n. (a hanger on 

at others' tables) mai-kwa- 

i raka. 

k 



parch, tr. v. surya, soya, suya. 
parched, particip. soyayye, 

fem. soyayya, pi. soyayyu. 
pardon, n. gafara. 
pardon, tr. v. gafarta, yafe ; 
as a polite expr. I beg your 
p. (excuse me) gafara or ka 
gafarta ma ni. 
parent, n. mahaifi, pi. ma- 

haifa. 
parents, n. uwaye, iyaye, ba- 

fayu ; cf. also prec. 
parrot, n. aku, jiljilmako. 
part, n. rabi, rabo or rabu, pi, 
raberabe, wari, shashi, sashe 
(S.), e.g. each of them shall re- 
ceive his p. kowannensu zai 
samu rabonsa ; (region) waje, 
pi. ivajeje. 
part, tr. v. (to separate) 7'aba. 
parting, n. rabmva, rabo. 
partition, n. (i.e. wall) sha- 

rnaki, pi. shamakai. 
partner, n. abokin taraiya. 
partnership, karo, cf. kurdin 
chaffa (or cha'ppa) the fees 
paid on the establishment of 
a partnership, 
partridge, red-legged, n. ma- 
karwa, makivarwa, fakdra, 
pakdra. 
parts, which make up a whole 

jimilloj. 
paschal lamb or ram, n. 

ragon laya, 
pass, V. wuche, fuche ; to p. 



passage 



170 



pay 



anyone on the path goche or 
gwahche ; to p. the night kwa- 
na, kwanta, wuni ; to p. away 
shude^ shuda^ shudi, wuche or 
fuche ; to p. by widga, widge, 
tourga^ ivuche, fuche, zage, 
zwdge (S.), zdga, zdgi ; to p. 
near gege ; p. on ! ku shige ; 
to p. over (to cross) ketare, 
(to skip words in book) ratsa 
chingara. 

passage, a mctshigi. 

passionateness, n. hardra. 

passover, feast corresponding 
with, n. scdlal lay a. 

past, the, n. (former times) dd, 
baya, e.g. the wars of the p. 
yakoki na dd ; the things of 
the p. ahuhuwa na-baya; a 
thing p. abin baya. 

pastor, n. (shepherd) makiyayi 
or ^nakyayi, pi. makyaya. 

pasture ground, n. tvurin 
kiwo, makiyaya. 

pasture, v. tr. and intr. (to 
graze) kiwo. 

patch, n. bmike, shaft, ftto, 
fihiga, pi. shiyuna. 

patch, tr. V. (of cloth, clothes) 
banke, toshe, shaft, shafe. 

path, n. turba, pi. turbobi, 
hanya, hayya, hay a, pi. han- 
yoyi, tafarki, pi. tafarkoki, 
godabe ; a straight p. hanya 
sosai ; a narrow p. labi ; fig. 
the p. of religion or conduct 



hanya or tafarki, e.g. the 
paths of Mussulmans han- 
yoyin rausulmi. 

patience, n. hankuri, hakuri, 
hakurchi, hankura or hakura, 
dangana ; a man of extra- 
ordinary p. rakumin Allah; 
to show p. (to be patient) 
yin or the forms ending in 
-na followed by hankuri, e.g. 
they have p. suna yin han- 
kuri or suna hankuri. 

patient, 1. adj. (calm, not 
fretful) da hankuri, mai- 
hankuri, ynai-hakurchi, da 
safiyin rai ; to be p. jimri, 
juri, hankura, yi^i harikui'i] 
he is p. towards everyone 
ba shi kosawa da Tniitane; 
cf. prec. 

2. n. (a sick person) maras- 
laftya*. 

patois, (i.e. bad Hausa) hd- 
bauchi, baubauchi. 

pattern, a p., e.g. in cloth zane. 

paw, dagi. 

pawn, to yin ramche. 

pawpaw, n., i.e. both the tree 
and the fruit gwanda, gwad- 
da (S.). 

pay, n. lada, biya, e.g. that is 
their p. ladansu ke nan ; 8 
soldier's deferred p. kurdin 
huji. 

pay, tr. V. biya, yika, rama ; tht 
last is also used in the sense 



jayment 



171 



people 



of to requite and to reward ; 

to p. a debt hiya bashi ; to p. 

;i second time or over again 

kwatamtawa. 
Dayment, n. blya, lada. 
oea, earth p. kwaruru, kwa- 

hilu^ gyada; pigeon p. (Indian 

dhal) wakmi turawa ; heart 

}). gautan kwado. 
)eace, n. lajiya, limdna, natsu, 

jiatsuwa, wdli, pi. wale-wale ; 

there is p. between us lajiya 

fsakanhi mu ; you can travel 

in p. kana iya yin tafiya da 

lafiya ; p. of njind dadin 

.tichiya; p.! (a salutation) 

^(dlama; to be at p. yin 

fcdli. 
beace-maker, n, matsakanche, 

maitsakanta husutna. 
3eak, n. kai, e.g. p. of a hill 

kan tudu; spec. p. of a 
' saddle kivachiya ; the front 

p. of a saddle kwachiyar gaba ; 

its hind p. ku-achiyar haya. 
Deal, of thunder, n. t»awa. 
Dearl, n. murjan* ; idon zau- 

ra ; pearls coll. kwan kiji. 
oeck, tr. v. koto. 
peculiarity, n. (of animate 

beings) hdli, pi. hdlaye. 
Deddler, mai-sari. 
Deel, n. (of fruits, etc.) kwas/a, 

kosfa*, pi. kwas/oji, bawo, 

tsiyayi. 
Deel, V. 1. tr. kivare, kwari, 



bdra, bdre, bambaro, konkole^ 

kwalkwale, kankari^feke (S.), 

fire (K.). 

2. intr. to p. or p. off, as 

the skin from a blister sale, 

male, swale; it peeled off ya 

baru. 
peep, to leka, lek% leko, rega (S.), 

see spy. 
peering, p. into re^o (S.). 
peg, n. maratayi. 
pelican, n. kwasakivasa, jin- 

jimi* ; a short-legged p. bu- 

bukuwa (S.). 
pelt, to, with, tr. V. jejeji da, 

jajjefa da ; to p. with stones 

jefit da dutvatsu. 
pen, n. 1. (for writing) alka- 

lami, pi. alkalamai. 

2. (enclosure for sheep, 

etc. ) garke, pi. garkuna, turke, 

rugga, garge (S.). 
penalty, jaraha, 
pendant, e.g. a p. stone worn 

by women, n. talhatina, pi. 

talhatinu. 
penis, azakari, bura, didi, ku- 

tunia, tnazakuta, (of animals) 

gandari, talolo (K.). 
pennisetum, n. (Cenchrus ca- 

tharticus) karangiya ; cf. 

gero, maiwa. 
people, n. mutane, pi. of 7nu- 

f/am (in the sense of popula- 
tion and persons generally), 

e.g. the p. of Lingi mutane^i 



pepper 



172 



persistence 



Lingi ; (connections, rela- 
tions, etc.) kibanta* ; (fol- 
lowers, congregation, etc.) 
aVumma. 

pepper, n., red or chilli p. 
barkono ; a large green p. 
tatasaiy tivashshi, tushi ; spec. 
a red p. (capsicum) kole, 
tankwa, tsidifu ; Melegueta 
p. or 'grains of paradise' 
chitta; African, Guinea, or 
negro p. kimba ; West Afri- 
can black p. masoro ; the 
hotness or sharpness of p. 
yaji, pi. yazuzzuka. 

per ad venture, adv. watakila, 
halama. 

perceive, tr. v. 1. gen. (to 
apprehend by the senses) ji ; 
to p. by sight gani. 

2. (of comprehending, 
understanding) fahimta, ji, 
also sani ; to p. something 
wrong farga, e.g. I p. that 
you are cheating me nafarya 
da kai. 

percolate, to yoya, see leak. 

perfect, adj. inyatachi. 

perfect, tr. v. chika. 

perforate, tr. v. fuda or liuda, 
sossoke, fiosoke ; see pierce. 

perforce, adv. tilas, da tilas, 
e.g. we had to go on board 
p. mun hawa bisa jirigi da 
tilas ; see force. 

perfume, n., see odour. 



perhaps, adv. watakila, halama. 

peril, n. hatsari. 

perish, intr. v. (to be spoiled, 
wasted or destroyed in any 
way) bata, bache, yakuche^ 
e.g. they p. together sum bache 
tare, lalache, mache ; (to die) 
7nutii, e.g. they perished of 
hunger sun mutu da yunwa. 

perished, participial adj. Ma- 
tachche, fem. lalatachchiya, 
pi. lalatattu. 

perishing, participial n. Idor 
chewa. 

perjury, n. kapara, kafara (S.) 
to commit p. (to swear falsely 
yiu kapara. 

permanence, n. tabbatawa. 

permanent, adj. matabbata 
to make p. tuturta. 

permission, n. yarji, yardi 
yarda, izni, e.g. grant me p 
ba 7ii yarji ; by the p. of Go( 
da yardan Allah or bisa yar 
dan Allah. 

permit, tr. v., see allow. 

perplex, to dame, ddma; se< 
confuse. 

perplexed, to be, intr. \ 
damn. 

perplexity, n. tunzura. 

perquisite, a corn-dealer's p 
rara. 

persist, to zage^, dora*. 

persistence, ndchi, nachiya^ 
see continuance. ! 



oerson 



173 



pierce 



iDerson, u. mutum, pi. mutane, 

also (with or without mutum) 

Irani, fern, fcata, pi. wansu, 

/('((Ml, ivadansu, yasu, e.g. 

some persons wadansu mu- 

f<nie or wadmisu ; a certain 

p. who shall be nameless 

muturn kaza. 
iperspiration, n. jibi, gumi, 
! zu/a. 
Iperspire, intr. v. yinjibi, zu/a, 

yru gumi. 
persuade, tr. v. lallasa, biko, 

f'ffra kunne, kuta. 
persuaded, particip. pass, (sure 

or certain) is expressed by 

means of tabbata, etc., e.g. 

he was p. tha.t...ya tabbata. 
'persuasion, lallashi, pi. lalla- 

Hoshi. 
pervert, tr. v. (to lead from 

truth or right) rude. 
perverted, part. pass, (misled) 

nidadfle, fern, rudadda, pi. 

rudaddu ; to be p. rudu. 
pestilence, n. alloba, aloba, 

hala^i'^. 
pestle, n. kayan ddka, tabariya, 

pi. tahare. 
pet, (favourite) da^i tatangi. 
pheasant, crow p. or lark-heel 

cuckoo ragon inaza; rock p. 

kazan dutsi. 
phoenix bird, fufunda*. 
physic, n. (medicine) magarii, 
I pi. mayunguna. 



physician, n. mai-magani, pi, 
masu-magani ; see doctor. 

pick, n. dundurusu, kalme. 

pick, tr. V. (to choose) zabe, 
zaha or zabi ; to p. a quarrel 
tona fada ; to p. out tsina, 
tsinche, tsunche and tsinta, 
kwalkwale, konkole, kwakule ; 
to p. up jide, sarbe ; to p. the 
teeth kwakivala, hakori, sa- 
kata hakori. 

pickaback, (a children's game) 
dokin wuya. 

picked, part. pass, (chosen) 
zababbe, fem. zababba, pi. 
zababbu. 

picking a thing off the 
ground, particip. n. tsin- 
tuwa, tsuntuwa. 

pick-pocket, dan sane. 

picture, n. misali*, kdma* ; 
his p. jnisalhtsa or ka- 
mansa. 

piece, n. wari, bangori; small 
p. of anything tsibiri, chibiri 
or chibri, gutsure, pi. gutsa- 
tsari, tarfi, guntu, gutsi ; 
a small fragment guntun 
abu ; to break a p. off gut- 
sari. 

pieces, to tear to, tr. v. tsats- 
tsaga. 

pierce, tr. Y,fuda, huda, huji, 
soka, soke, soki, yin sakiya, 
tune, zarta; intensives, to p. 
many holes fufuji, furfuje, 



piercing 



174 



pitch 



huhuda; to p. through sos- 

8oke. 
piercing, n., e.g. of the skin by 

an arrow sakiya, soka, pi. 

soke-soke. 
pig, gursunu, pi. gursuna, ala- 

de* ; wild p. and red river hog 

aladin daji, durungu ; wart 

hog gyado, gadu, fern, gado- 

niya, pi. gyadodi, gyaduna, 

alhanzir, mugnn ddwa^ rishi. 
pigeon, n. tantabara^ pi. tanta- 

baru; fruit p. or green p. 

biribiri or kurchiyar gamji, 

see dove, 
pike, n. (spear) mashi, pi. ma- 

sussuka or masu. 
pile, n. (heap) taru or ta7'o, pi. 

tofirori. 
pile up, tr. V. tara^ tattdra^ 

hdda, tula. 
piles, kiirya (K.), basur*. 
pilfer, V. sata, yin sata, sache, 

see steal, 
pilferer, n. mai-sata. 
pilgrim, n. hdji, hajji (S.), 

pi. hajoji. 
pilgrimage, n. haji ; to go on 

the p. haji and taji haji, 

ziyarta. 
pill, n. chibiri* or chibri*. 
pillage, n. (booty) abi7i kwache. 
pillage, tr. v. kwache, e.g. he 

conquered them, he pillaged 

their property ya chi su ya 

k uache dukiyansu. 



pillar, n. gimshiki, gumshiki*, 
pi. gimshikai. 

pillow, n. matashin kai, ma- 
jingi^ii. 

pimple, bar-ni-da-mugu. 

pin, n. tsiko*, tsinke* ; a p. 
used for pressing cotton dan 
bida ; a large wooden p. used 
in winding the thread on the 
cylinder which is fixed in the 
shuttle tangori. 

pincers, n. kwdguwa, hafitsaki, 
madebin kaya*. 

pinch of, to take, v. tsakura, 
gutsnra. 

pinch, tr. V. tsamuka, tsakura*, 
tsamka*, tsungule, yin kwan- 
ta, muntsini. 

pinching, n. kwanta, tsainuki. 

pinnacle, n. kokuwa, kokowa. 

pipe, tobacco-, n. tukunyar 
taba, lofin taba. 

pistol, n. akotiya, algaxieriya. 

pit, n. rami, rame (S.), pi. 
ramuna or ramu, ganwa; 
spec, a deep wide p. han- 
garrria^, kwdri* ; p. for cook- 
ing bread in tanda or tan- 
dem ', p. for storing corn 
tsunjiya ; p. for game to fall 
into hdko, pi. hdkoki, dra; 
a cesspit saiga, pi. salgagi; 
dye-p. marina, pi. marin- 
nai. 

pitch, tr. V. 1. (to cast, throw) | 
jefa. \ 



I 



Ditcher 



175 



plain 



"2. spec, to p. a tent ka/a 
'<ma (or laima). 

Ditcher, n. tulu, pi. tuluna^ 
f iiknnya, pi, hikwane, tukane ; 
randa, pi. randuna ; a p. 
with a narrow mouth dan 

. tozo. 

oitfall, n. hako^ pi. hakoki. 

Dity, n. tausai, tausayi, juyaye, 
sauna; to have or feel p. 
Ilin (or ji7i) tausai, jika ; 
what a p. ! abin tausayi, 
fazanko, tanzanko. 

3ity, tr. v., cf. prec. 

Dlace, n. wur% pi. wurare ; 
Trtje, pi. wajeje, bigeri, bige, 
'>igi; (district, country) ^ari; 
an uninhabited p. ddwa; in 
circumlocution to supply the 
want of various special nouns 
and adjectives, e.g. a p. to 
dee to (refuge) wUrin gudu ; 
so also gida, e.g. p. or abode 
of pain gidaii azaba ; a secret 
p. lolokin asiri ; in that p. 
nniririnan, a wurin nan, dag a 
nan, e.g. there are many 
hippopotami in that p. aktvai 
dorinnai dayawa daga nan ; 
in p. of (instead of), e.g. in 
his place gii^rbinsa, bigerinsa, 
'i-ivrinsa ; the last also = at 
his p., i.e. near him, with 
him; to give p. to, let him 
take the p. of another shi 
koma matsayin wani ; an- 



other was put in his p. an sa 
waniwurinsa; to takep.y^rz^^. 
place, nouns of, these are 
formed by means of prefix 
ma-, e.g. hiding p. maboya, 
kitchen madafa, inn mashidi 
from boya, dafa, shida re- 
spectively. 
place, tr. v. sa, sanya, kdfa, 
aje, which denotes also to 
p. aside, dora, aza or aza ma ; 
to p. on, e.g. he placed me 
on the camel ya dora ni bisa 
ga rakumi ; to p. on the 
ground (e.g. a load) jibe, 
je/o*, kasa; to p. together 
(e.g. for the purpose of com- 
parison) kwatanchi ; to give 
p. kau. 
placing, of a thing, participial 
n. sawa; p. one thing upon 
another Hbiye. 
plague, n. 1. (pestilential dis- 
ease) alloba, dawainiya, ran- 
gdza ; ' he caught the p. ' 
turn by ' the p. caught him ' 
alloba ta kam,a shi (or sam,e 
shi). 

2. (an annoyance) alale, 
wahala. 
plague, tr. \. (to vex) wahalshe, 
dawainiyas da ; see annoy, 
plain, n. fili, pi. Jilaye, sarari, 
karkara, pi. karkarori or 
karkaroni, kanga ; the battle 
p. kangan fada. 



plain 



176 



please 



plain, adj. (of language simple 

and open) a sdrdri. 
plait, tr. V. tubka, tufka, tupka, 
tukka, tumka (S.), yin kitso. 
plaiting, sdka; p. of mats 
sdkar zana; (of hair) doka, 
kitso ] p. of hair in two lines 
jaki; hasty p. of woman's 
hair kumbuchi. 
plaits, coll. n. kaikainya, (of 
woman's hair) hijaji, buji- 
buji, biji-biji. 
plan, n. (scheme, device) wayo, 

9cayau, dabara. 
plank, n. faskare, gunyume, 
pi. gungumai, riirn/a, pi. 
ru7n/'iina, kange*. 
planks, to make into, v. yin 

faskare. 
plant, tr. V. 1. (to set or sow 
in the ground) shibka, shipka, 
shuka, yin shibka, ddsa, dashi, 
dashe. 

2. (to set or place) sa, e.g. 
there was no place to p. our 
footsteps babu wurin da mu 
sa matakai bisa. 
plant, n., i.e. a cutting dasashe. 
plantain, n. ayaba applied 
both to tree and fruit, also 
used to denote the banana. 
planter, n. ma^iomi. 
planting, of seeds, n. biso. 
plants, small, coll. n. shibka, 

shipka, shuka. 
plaster, tr. \^ (of walls etc.) 



ydba, ydbe, dampara, dam- 
/ara; (of floors) niamari. 

plastered, participial adj. ya- 
babbe, fem. yababba, pi. ya- 
babbu. 

plastering, ydbe, pi. ydbe-ydhe. 

plate, n. tangaram, tangaran ; 
a p. made of plaited grass 
taitai, pi. taitaye ; see dish. 

play, n. (the doing of any- 
thing for amusement) tvargi, 
gyauga*, wa^a; hail to you 
at your p. (salutation to 
persons at p.) sanunku da 
wargi. 

play, V. (of sport, amusement) 
yhi wargi ; (of music) yin 
wojsa, yin kidi \ the last 
particularly applied to in- 
struments struck or beaten. 

player, on drum, n. makidi. 

playing, n. (of amusement) 
wargi, gyauga* ; (of music 
and especially drumming) 
kida or kidi, molo, pi. mo- 
luna. 

plaything, n. abin wargi: 
spec. p. made from a seed pod 
kachau-kachau ; see rattle. 

pleasant, adj. mai-dadi, da 

dadi. 
please, tr. v. sa dadi, gama, 
gamshe, e.g. it pleases me yo 
game ni or ya gamshe ni ; p. 
(elliptical = if you ^.) mana 
e.g. come here, p. zo mana 



^leased 



177 



pod 



p. (i.e. allow me) bari ; p. do 
yarje mana. 
Dleased, to feel, intr. v. ji7i 

dadi. 
Dleasure, n. (agreeable sensa- 
tion or emotion) dadi,ni'ima ; 
(a gratification) abin dadi, 
((bin murna. 
)ledge, n. jingina, dangana ; 
]). held for money owing ka- 
nviiwa*. 
i)ledge, tr. V. (to leave any- 
thing as a p.) jingina, tolma. 
ji'leiades, pr. n. tarsowa. 
)lentiful, to be p. yalwata. 
)lentifully, adv. tari, kain- 

n.ain*. 
)lenty, n. yawa, dayawa, kari, 
lari, tuli, bdro, dumbuje, 
Hialala, tinjini, e.g. p. of 
words yawan magana or 
mag ana dayawa; p. to eat 
zari, zwari, an chiya^. 
lliancy, rauni*. 
"lot, n. wayo, wayau, to form 
a p. gama. 

lot, v., to p. together darnra 
dabdra. 

lough, n., spec, a large hoe 
bent back like a small p. 
galma (S.), garma (K.). 
lough, to fuda, huda, ka/che, 
kabche. 

lover, a kind of, n. kyare- 
* kyare, zakaran yaki, zakaran 
^ assuba, dan raguwa; black- 
R. H. D. 



headed p. or ' Niger bird ' or 
'crocodile bird' ladin kogi, 
jakin gulbi (S.). 
pluck, tr. V. chira, chire, chiro 
or tsira, tsire, tsiro, debe, dlba, 
debo, tuge, tumhuke, zum- 
buke (S.); (to p. fruit etc.) 
tsinki, tsunke, tsinko, tslge, 
ts'itsige; (to p., e.g. a fowl) 
flge,/lgi, piga, tuza; top. out 
yin dono; plucked figagge, 
fem. figaggiya, pi. figaggu. 
plucking, n.figa. 
plum, n., gingerbread p. ga- 
wasa, pi. gawasai, gawasuna 
and gawasoshi; hog, Spanish 
or Jamaica p. tsadal lama- 
rudu ; a tree with plum-like 
fruit danya, loda (S.). 
plunder, n. abin kwache. 
plunder, tr. v. kwache. 
plunge, V. 1. tr. (to immerse) 
tsoma, nutse, nuche. 

2. intr. fadi, e.g. he leaped 
plunging headlong into the 
water ya tuma ya fadi ya 
gangara chikin ruwa; see 
also dive, 
plural, n. (grammatical term) 

jam'i*. 
pneumonia, pleuro-p. of cattle 
balagiro, malagiro (S.), aran- 
gaza (K.). 
pocket, n. aljifu, pi. aljifai 

or aljifuna. 
pod, n. (of nuts, etc.) kobsa^ 
12 



poem 



178 



pond 



. kwasfa, kopsa, kohso, kwanso ; 
p. of the locust tree (dorowa) 
sahdda, safada ; p. of guinea - 
corn tsirgagiya. 

poem, n. (in the sense of metri- 
cal composition, song) waka. 

poet, n. mai-waka. 

point, n. kokuwa*, tsini, ga- 
ratse ; points above or below 
letters wdsali. 

point, out, tr. V. nuna or nuni, 
gwada, gaya. 

pointed, adj. da tsini. 

poison, n. ddfi ; a p. given in 
food sammu, kwarche ; in- 
gredients used in making 
poisons used for smearing 
arrows uwal ddfi, zabgai*, 
yabi, kwankwani (Strophan- 
thus hispidus), taramniya* 
(Combretum), kokiya (Strych- 
nos spinosa), sanya or uwar 
magunguna{^ec\XY\da,cfi longi- 
pedunculata), tururuhi (La- 
siosyphon krausii), zahon 
ddfi ; a p. used for destroying 
mice madat, madcis. 

poison, to gubantaj sammache. 

poisoned, participial adj. da 
dafi. 

poke, to p. with a stick zun- 

gura, zungau. 
poking, e.g. with the elbow 

gobsOf gwah'e. 
pole, n. gimchiki, gimshiki, 
esp. used of the middle sup- 



porting p. of house; p. of 

tent tankari, kekimaka (S.); 

])oles used in supporting a 

tent coll. shikashiki, pi. shika- 

shikai, cf. post; iron p. karko; 

a p. in the middle of a hut 

shushuniya, shishiniya ; a p. 

used for purposes of irrigation 

lambu ; a p. carried across 

the shoulder from either end 

of which a load is suspended 

taula. 
policeman, dan sanda, dogari; 

the office of a p. dogarchi; 

the chief of the police ma- 

kama. 
polish, tr. V. gogi or goge, 

chudanya. 
pollute, tr. V. yin haram^ 

kazamta, kazamtad da. 
polluted, Sidj. janaba, kazami. 
pollution, n. 1. gen. kazamta, 

kazanta, janaba, jaraba, 

jaHra. 

2. (religious or ceremonial 

uncleanness) haram, abin ha 

ram. 
polo, the game of wasan kwdlo*. 
pomegranate, n. ruman, ruma- 

niya, pi. rumanina, rumanai 
pommel, n. (of a saddle) ; see 

peak, 
pommel, tr. v. (to beat) buga. 

bubbuga, see beat, 
pomp, n. sitira or sutura. 
pond, n. a large stagnant p 



m 



[ony 



179 



post 






bmgij gaji, kududduji, ku- 

duddifi^ dankam, tabki, tafki, 

tapki, see pool, 
^ony, n. kuru and doki kurti, 

dukushi, fern, dukusa. 

ool, n. tahki, tapki or tafki, 
fi, gaji, pi. rafuna or ra- 
ffuka, fadama, korama, 

'lankam, tauga, see pond. 
oor, adj. talaka (K.), talakka 
' (S.), pi. talakkawa; Tiiakas- 

k-achi, pi. makaskasta ; to be 

}). talauta, tsiyache. 
oor person, a, n. talaka, mai- 

tidaka, matalauchi, mai-tsiya, 

iiiatsiyachi, gyande, fera. 

ijyandiya, pi. gyandaye, 

<l iiulau, tagajafi. 
opping, into a hole kudus. 
oppy? yellow Mexican p. 

kwarko. 
torch, n. shigifa, pi. shigifu 
1 and shigi/oji; spec, a small 
• p. sJdrayi ; a p. with double 
' entrance zaure, pi. zauruka, 
I zaurukka. 
orcupine, n. beguwa, makaya 

(lit. thorny), makibiya (lit. 
■ possessor of arrows). 
orridge, n. far a; spec. p. of 
' guinea-corn and rice surki ; 

p. of beans, guinea-corn or 
I (in N. Africa) macaroni 
wasawasa. 

orter, n., see carrier, 
ortion, n. rabo or rabu, pi. 



raherabe, kashi, kashe ; a p. 
(when one of two or more 
portions) shashi or sashi*, 
sashe (S.),fasali, see piece, 
possess, tr. v., this idea is ex- 
pressed : 1. by the prono- 
minal forms ending in 7ia 
with da, e.g. I possess much 
money ina da kurdi dayawa. 
2.hy ke with da, e.g. all the 
property that you p. dukiya 
duka da ku ke da shi (or ita). 
3. by the prep, ga or with 
pronouns gave (is to or be- 
longs to), e.g. he possesses no 
money babu kurdi gare shi. 
possessed, e.g. with evil spirit, 

pi. masu-bori, masu-boli. 
possession, n. 1. abstr., e.g. to 
gain p. of a kingdom chin 
sarauta. 

2. concr. pi. possessions 
dukiya, tarkache. 
possessor, n. mai-abu con- 
nective mai-abin, mai-chi ; 
the idea is often expressed 
by the prefix mai-, e.g. the 
p. of a farm or a boat, mai- 
gona, mai-jirigi ; the p. of a 
horse mai-doki. 
possible, yuwuwa, yiyuwa. 
possibly, adv., see perhaps, 
post, n. (of door) kwabrin kofa, 
kwilkin kofa, shishike (S.), 
shishiniya (S.), shushuniya 
(K.); a p. for tethering 
12—2 



posterior 



180 



poui 



horses turke, tuhe\ a p. for 
supporting roof jlgo^ pi. 
jiguna. 

posterior, adj. (both of time 
and space) haya, na-haya, 
fern, ta-haya^ e.g. the p. 
limbs gahobin hay a or gabobi 
na-baya ; the hinder part of 
an animal kuturi. 

post-haste, zuwan inanzo, 

postpone, tr. v. fasa^ jinkirta, 
see delay. 

postponement, ko-ta-kwa7ta. 

postponing, particip. n. fasor 
tva. 

pot, n. (of earth or iron) tu- 
kunya, pi. tukane or tukwane ; 
a metal p. karife or karipe ; 
a large earthen p. with a 
narrow mouth randa, pi. 
randuna^ kwatarni (S.), kwa- 
tarniya (K.) ; a large earthen 
p. used as oven tmida or tan- 
dem ; a water p. tulu^ pi. 
tuluna. 

potash, broken p. tsaha^e (S.) ; 
a kind of hard p. takarna, 
tafarna. 

potato, sweet (i.e. Ipomoea 
batatas), n. dankdli ; various 
species are : kudaku, lawur 
(S.) ; Kaffir p. rizga. 

potent, adj. isheshe, fem. isha- 
shiya, pi. isassu ; see power- 
ful. 

potter, n. mai-tukunya, pi. 



masu-tukunya, mai-tukane, 
m,ai-yu7nbu*, magini. 

pouch, n. tumbi, pi. tumbuna; 
a sort of leathern p. zabira ; 
a p. or crop of a bird maroro, 
malolo. 

poultry, n. kaji, pi. of kdza fowl. 

pounce, n. su7'a. 

pounce, to kawo sura. 

pound, n. (of 12 ounces) rotd, 
pi. ratalai*. 

pound, tr. v. ddka, dandaka, 
dandaki, daddaka, rarratse, 
kirba, kirbe (without object), 
ribde, rifde, rubde ; a woman 
who pounds corn mai-koda. 
mai-kodiya. 

pounded, p. flour ribdijruhvdi 

pounding, n. (e.g. of yams' 
kirbi, rubudi ; the action oi 
a woman p. in a mortal 
lugude ; the sound of p, 
rupkarupki. 

pour, V. tr. and intr. (also tc 
pour out, down, off, away, 
etc.) zuba, zube, zubo; tr. onlj 
zitbas, zubas da, zubad do 
and zuhda, zubshe (Zanf.) 
dole, tushe, bulbula, bungula 
tar/a; I poured out ever} 
drop of it na zubas da sk 
babu kingi ; intr. only zubu 
e.g. the rain is pouring oi 
pours down ruwa ya zubu 
to p. water in a jet zurara 
to p. out (or scatter) tsiyayi 



poured 181 

to p. out grain so that chaff 

may blow away shika ; to p. 

over (to overflow), intr. tuda 

or tude, tr. tudas da. 
boured, to be p. out like wheat 
I through a sieve or like 

water, intr. v. tarara. 
pouring, zubi, zubawa. 
pout the lips at, to, v. (in de- 
' rision) zunde and yin zunde. 
Doverty, n. talauchi^ talau- 

cJiiya^ tsiya. 
Dowder, n. (gunpowder) al- 

harus or alharud. 
'powder, tr. v. (to reduce to 
' p.) daddaya. 
DOwer, n. 1. (faculty of doing 

or causing anything) iko, pi. 

'koki, yi; by the power of 

i^od da yin Allah. 

2. (bodily or material 
-trength) karifi. 

3. (political or social p., 
.luthority, influence) hakimi, 
'hiula. 

\. (surpassing p., excel- 
lence) flko. 
powerful, adj. 1. gen. isashe, 
isheshe, fern, ishashiya, pi. 
/'sassu, mai-iko. 

2. (cf. prec. 2) mai-kariji, 
pi. masu-karifi^ e.g. a p. man 
iniUum mai-karifi. 

3. spec, applied to God 
t kadiri, see mighty, strong, 
powerfully, adv. da karifi. 



pray 



practice, n. sabo, e.g. no work 
in the world can be accom- 
plished except by p. aikin 
duniya duka sai sabo ; (cus- 
tomary procedure) ada, tada, 
aVada. 

practised, be, intr. v. saha, 
e.g. I am p. in this na saba 
da wannan. 

praise, n. ydbo^ kirari, the last 
also=self-p. ; (of praisingGod) 
shukra ; self-p. ydbon kai. 

praise, tr. v. ydba, shukra; yin 
ydbo and yiyi kirari ; also ex- 
pressed by nouns of prec. 
with the present forms in na, 
e.g. I praise thee ina yabonka. 

praised, particip. adj. yababbe, 
fern, yababba, pi. yababbu. 

prattling, n. rawatsa. 

pray, tr. v. (whether of prayers 
to God or requests to men) 
roka, yin roko ; construed 
with an ace. of the person 
or with ga (before pronouns 
gave) ; the thing asked is 
expressed either by the ace, 
e.g. I p. our Lord for that 
which I seek and for my 
needs ubangijinmu ni ke 
roko ko7ni ni ke bida da 
bukatata or by a dependent 
clause, e.g. we p. to the Lord 
that we may obtain provision 
for our journey from the 
heathen mu roki ubangiji 



prayer 



182 



present 



mu yi guzuri da asna ; intr. 
V. in a religious sense only 
yin addvCa^ yin salla, yin 
zikiri ; to p. for a person 
sallashe*. 

prayer, n. addu'a, salla, salati, 
zikiri*; call to p. about 4 p.m. 

.^ azuhur (S.), azahar (K.) ; 
the man who calls to p. ladan, 
laddnij makiran salla, wa- 
zinu, wazanu (S.); a leader 
in p. limam, liman, pi. li- 
mami; prayers said by a 
mallam at a funeral al/atiya ; 
time of p. about 10 a.m. 
walaha; the four attitudes 
(Moslem) for prayer are 
(1) standing up and looking 
towards Mecca kama, (2) rais- 
ing the hands and calling upon 
Allah rdka, rdka'a, (3) bend- 
ing down with hands on knees 
rukxCu, (4) prostration sa/rt€i?a. 

prayer-beads, (a flower) idon 
zakara. 

prays, one who, n. mai-salati. 

preach, v. yin wa^azi* and 
tva^azu. 

preaching, n. wa^azi, wa'-azii ; 
p. in mosque after prayers 
hutsuba (S.), huduha (K.). 

precious, adj. (costly) da tsada. 

precipitous, a p. rock mikakken 
dutsi. 

precisely, rah, see exactly. 

prefer, tr. v. Ji so, yin Jin so, 



gwama^he, e.g. we p. mutton 
to beef mun Ji so naman 
rago ya Ji naman skanu; 
I p. this to that 7ia Ji so 
wannan da wanchan. 

preferable, to be, intr. v., see 
better, 1. 

preference, fin so. 

pregnancy, kunlka. 

pregnant, adj. da chiki ; she is 
p. ta chi wake ; to be p. yin 
juna biyu. 

preparation, n. shiri, shirya, 
tdtali, tdnadi (S.), jajibir, 
jajibera, in a religious sense, 
e.g. day of p., i.e. day before 
any feast ranan jajibir. 

prepare, tr. v. gen. gyara, e.g. 
to p. a way gyara hanya, 
gyarta; shiriya and yin 
shiri; used in the intensive 
form = p. diligently shish- 
shiriya; exclam. phr. p. ! ka 
watane. 

prepared, particip. form shiri- 
yayye, fern, shiriyayya, pi. 
shiriyayyu. 

present, n. kyauta, e.g. I made 
him a p. na yi masa kyauta, 
abin gaisuwa, tsaraba*, kai- 
wa; the last especially of a 
p. made to a king ; spec, a 
fee paid for bringing a p. 
tuktvichi, tukuichi; a wife's 
marriage presents to bride- 
groom gdra ; a p. made to a 



presently 



183 



price 



, person on his arrival sauka ; 
a first p. as a token that a 
larger one is to follow ga- 
rawa (K.) ; a p. sent by the 
bridegroom to the bride 
several days before the wed- 
ding lefe ; a p. given by a 
man when he sends for his 
wife taskira ; a p. by a bride- 
groom toshi. 

presently, adv. (soon after the 
present time) yanzu yanzu; 
(immediately) nan da nan. 

ipreserve, tr. v. kiyaye, ki- 
yada (S.), kiyas da (K.), 

' kiyashe; in a looser sense 
tsira, rayad da. 

I president of the market, n. 
sarikin kasuwa. 

press, tr. v. taushe (S.), tausa 
''K.), mana, mani, matse, 
iiatsa, ddna^ dcine, danfara^ 
dankara \ to p. down tawa- 
ya or taitwi, chdchdka, chusa, 
chushe, kimshe ; to p. a trigger 
(lane ; the trigger was pressed 
an dana kunama. 

pressed, particip. adj. tau- 
sashe, fern, tausashiya, pi. 
t tausassu. 

presser, n. instr. mataushi 

found, e.g. in mataushin kofa 

a piece of wood to keep a 

door closed, mataushin wa- 

{ tika signet. 

i pressing, particip. n. taushewa. 



pretence, riya, sane. 

pretend, v. maida kansa, riya. 

prettiness, sha^awa (K.), sha- 
tva (S.). 

pretty, he is p. shina da ma- 
gdna. 

prevail over, v. rinjayi or 
rinjaya ; also expressed by 
means of Ji, e.g. I prevailed 
over the man na rinjaya 
ynutum or na Ji mutum da 
karifi or raiUum na ji kari- 
Jinsa. 

prevent, tr. v. hayia, tankwasa, 
dakile, tare* ; to p. a person's 
leaving hume, e.g. I prevented 
his leaving na hume shi. 

previous, adj. 7ia-fari, fem. 
torfari; (of time long p.) na 
da, e.g. p. time or age lokor 
chin da ; men of p. ages 
mutane na da or 7uutanen da. 

previously, adv. da fari, e.g. 
why did you not tell me this 
p. ? domi ha ka fadi ma ni 
nan da fari ? 

prey, n. 1., see booty. 

2. (food of an animal of 
p.) nama, e.g. the lion catches 
deer, that is his p. zaki ya 
kam,a hareyi ya chi su na- 
mansa ke nan. 

price, n. kurdi, an taya, kima, 
tam,ani*, sdllartia, haki*, e.g. 



what is its 



1 kurdinsa 



nawal ovnawa an tayal name 



prick 



184 



profit 



its p. ha shi suna ; to tix a 
. p. for kawamata, e.g. let their 
goods be gathered together 
and their p. fixed a gangama 
dukiyansu a kawamata ; a 
reduction in ip.gwanjo ; to fall 
in p. yin goino (or gwano). 
prick, tr. V. soka, soke or soki, 
tsokana ; to p. much (intens.) 



prickle, n. (on grass, etc.) 
kaya, pi. kayayuwa. 

pride, n. foma, homa, tama, 
tamanya, girman ka% buki, 
tashin kai, gatsina (K.), fa- 
din zuchiya, fadin rai, giiri, 
fahari or fahri, e.g. leave off 
p. ku bar fahari. 

pride of India, (flower) kur- 
nan nasara. 

priest, liman*. 

prince, n. amiru* ; (son of a 
king) maina*, dan sariki ; 
princes sarakuna. 

prison, n. kurkuku, kililu, 
kilulu, sadaka, salka, sarka, 
dakin dufu, wurin azdba, 
gidan kwaliba* ; chief of a p. 
bakurme (K.), bango (K.) ; 
p. officer bay are (S.), yari, 
pi. yarawa. 

prisoner, kamamme, dan sa- 
daka. 

privet, Egyptian p. lalle. 

probe, to kure. 

procession, n. jera, jeffe or 



jire ; spec, a royal p. hanga 
banga. 
proclaim, v. 1. to make an 
official announcement or 
order yin shela, yin yekuwa. 

2. to announce or publish 
labarta, habarta*. 

3. spec, to p. the end of 
the fast yin ganganiin azumi. 

proclamation, n. 1. (an official 
public announcement or 
order) shela, doka, doki, ka- 
liye, yekuwa. 

2. (deliverance of religious 
or moral instruction) wa^azi, 
wa^azu. 

procrastinate, v., see delay. 

procure, tr. v. same, samo and 
samu. 

procuress, kaivaliya, kalwa- 
liya (S.). 

prodigy, kardma, see wonder. 

produce, n. diya, yaya. 

produce, tr. v., to p. young or 
fruit haife ; to p. evidence 
kai (or kawo) shaida. 

profanely, to act, v., e.g. he 
acted p. ya yi swabon Allah. 

profession, n. (of an art or 
craft) gwani', the termina- 
tion -chi is often used to 
denote a person's p., e.g. the 
p. of a boka = bokanGhi, the 
p. of a malam — malamchi. 

profit, n. (both lawful and un- 
lawful) kura, Hba, moriya; 



profitable 

unlawful p. haramiya; to 
make a p. chin riba, mori ; a 
man who sells a second time 
at a p. mai-mri; men who 
make unlawful p. 7nasu-riba 
da kura; to p. by anfdni, 
(lufdne. 
iprofitable, to be, v. yin moriya. 
WO^ig^cy, karma, karuwanchi. 
profligate, n, a p. ashege, 
Jarka-, a p. msinfdsiki, pi. 
^asikai, dan karma, mai-yin 
'na, mai-zina, mai-nema ■ 
a p. woma.n fasika, karuwa. 
profligate, adj. shege- to be 

p. ym zina. 
prohibit, to hdna. 
prohibited, a p. place bataka, 
hnrumi*: it was p. an yi 

prohibition is expressed by 
I kada, also by kada dai, e.g. 
do not hinder them kada ka 
' hana su or kak ka hana su 
prohibition, n. hani, doka^, 

kashedi, kasheji (S.). 
project, to gota; (e.g. of a 
single man in a row) saba, 
zaba, billo^ bulo, bullo. 
prolong, tr. and intr. v. dadi, 
dade, tsaivo, wanzu, eg 
may God p. your life Allah 
shi clack da ranka; impers 
we prolonged our stay here 
^un zamna nan ya dade; 
the last idea can be expr 



185 



proper 

by dade alone in personal 
constr., e.g. I prolonged my 
stay in Tripoli to four months 
na dade ga Tarabulus wata 
fuciu. 

promenade, intr. v. yawo, yin 
yawo. 

promise, n. alkdwali,alkdwari, 
wa'adi', to make a p. yin 
alkawali; to break a p. sdki 
and warwari alkawali; to 
keep a p. chika alkawali, 
chika maga7ia, kama ma- 
gana ; a p. to pay waka. 
promise, v. yin baki daya, 

yin magana ciaya. 
prone, (on the back) a rigin- 
gini. 

pronounce, v. (to declare 
openly or positively), see 
declare, 
pronimciation, n. hahhe, har- 

she, pi. hahhina or halusm. 
proof, n. shaida; to adduce p. 
kai or kawo shaida ; p. (e.g. 
from the Koran) in support of 
conduct or statement dalili. 
prop, n. mcidogara, makari, 

tankari ; see bar. 
prop, to, V. dogare, tankare. 
propagate, tr. v. (to have 

young) haife, haife diya, 
propel, tr. v., e.g. a canoe tun- 

kucia. 
proper, adj. na-kwarai, fern. 
ta-kwarai, halal, hcdas, sosai 



properly 



186 



proudly 



daidai ; that which is p. 
sawaha. 

properly, adv. kwarai, daidai^ 
tcmiaUj sosai, hajau. 

property, n. (goods, riches) 
dukiya, pi. dukoki and duki- 
yoy% jdli, mallaka,, tarkache ; 
a man of p. mai-dukiya, 
mai-ctbin dukiya, mutum da 
dnkiya dayawa, mai-wadachi 
and raai-wadata. 

prophecy, n. annabanchi, an- 

- nabchi^ wcdiyanchi. 

prophesy, v. yin annabanchi. 

prophet, n. annabi, pi. anna- 
bawa ; tlie office of a p. 
annabanchi. 

proprietor, n. gen. (owner) 
mai-ahu, conn. 7nai-abin, mai- 
chi; (hoxxse. owner) ubangiji; 
see under inai. 

propriety, n. halalchi*. 

prosper, v. 1. tr. ba (or hada) 
arziki, e.g. may God p. you 
Allah shi ba ku arziki. 
2. intr., see prosperous. 

prosperity, n. arziki, abki, 
afki, auk% katari, katarta*, 
yalwata, bijinta, alkariya, 
gata, gatanchi ; he has en- 
joyed p. ya sha ruwa; he 
has enjoyed p. in this world 
ya sha duniya. 

prosperous, adj. da arziki, 
mai-arziki, mai-katarta ; he 
is p. ya yi bijinta; he 



shall not be p. ba a yi masa 

arziki ba. 
prostitute, n. karuwa, kwar- 

tuiva (f em. of kwarto), falka, 
farka, mai-nema. 
prostrate oneself, to, v. yin 

aji, kafa goshi, gurfana and 

yin gurfani ; {pi prostration 

in worship) yin sujada, also 

with na, e.g. follow after 

God, p. yourselves before 

Him ku bi Allah kuna sijir 

jada. 
prostrate, to be, v. rubda (or 

rufda) chiki, yin ciji. 
prostration, n. (i.e. in prayer) 

raka. 
protect, tr. V. tsdra, tsdri, 

fmre, tsdro, batdka. 
protection, n. lamuni*, kd- 

riya* ; he has the king's p. 

ya shiga rigar sariki. 
protector, n. (defender) mai- 

taimako. 
protopterus, n. (mud-fish) ^ai- 

wa ; the noise made by the 

p. chiivuki. 
protrude, to zazzale. 
protruding, e.g. of an eye 

after a blow zazzalo. 
proud, adj. mai-girman kai, pi. 

masu-girman kai, da girman 

kai, mai-girima, mai-foma, 

tnai-homa. 
proudly, adv. da girman kai; 

to speak p. yi7i raha ; to 



p 



prove 187 

f\ walk p. takcvma ; one who 
walks p. mai-takama. 
prove, tr. V. (to establish the 
truth of anything) gashata 
or ijaskanta ; (to evidence by 
testimony of any kind) kai 
(or kawo) shaida ; (by ex- 
position or argument) gay a, 
iiuna or nuni. 
proved, particip. (attested, 
certified) shaidadde, fem. 
[i shaidadda, pi. shaidaddu. 
proverb, karin magana^ sara. 
provided that, this conj. is 
i; expressed by adding em- 
i I phatic particles da% fa to m, 
idan, e.g. in dai, idan/a. 
provision, n. provisions for a 
journey guzuri ; to make or 
obtain p. gin guzuri ; fig, of 
\h for the next world, e.g. 
t-epent, seek p. for the way 
that thou mayest prepare to 
make a journey ka tuba ka 
ij nemi guzuri don ka shiriya 

yinin tafiya. 
provoke, tr. v. harzuka ga, 
hasdla ga, haye* ; I was 
i provoked at this saying na 

jifushi da Tnaganan nan. 
prowl, to p. round zdga, zazzaga. 
proximity, see nearness, 
proximo, adv. (e.g. next 

month) ivatan gobe. 
prudence, n. hankali, fahimi 
\ basira. 



pull 



prudent, adj. mai-hankali, pi. 
tnasu-hankali ; to be p. shxga 
hankalij hankalta. 

prudently, adv. da hankali. 

Psalms, n. zabura*. 

puberty, one who has reached, 
n. balagagge, pi. balagaggu ; 
children approaching the age 
of p. banawa; a boy ap- 
proaching p. matashin balaga', 
a girl approaching p. mata- 
shiyar balaga ; the age of p. 
lokachin balaga. 

puberty, to reach, intr. v. ba- 
laga. 

publish, tr. v. (i.e. to p. a 
thing or news of a thing) 
labarta, habarta^. 

pudenda, n. aVaura*, matu- 
chi fem. 

puerility, n. halin yaro. 

puif-adder, kasa. 

puggaree, a red. p. jan tunka. 

pull, tr. V. ja, jaka ; to p. out 
chira, chire, fitas da, fusge, 
fizge or fisge, tabe, tabi, sa- 
katta, sakache, tuge, zara, zare, 
zari, zaro, e.g. he pulled a 
pistol out of his pocket ya 
fitas da akotiya daga alji- 
funsa; to p. out (as a hair, 
grains from a stalk) tsefe, (as 
roots) tona or tone, tumbuke ; 
p. out the grass a tumbuke 
chiyawa ; to p. towards one- 
self jawo ; to p. in towards 



pulley 



188 



purity 



oneself miko ; to p. up a 
horse zami, zame ; p. up 
here ! zami nana. 

pulley, on a Hausa loom 
on which the peddles work 
chikalkora ; see under weav- 
ing. 

pulse, daldal. 

pumping beam, n. kutara^. 

pumpkin, n., names of different 
species are : large garden p. 
(Cucurbitapepo) A;a5ewa(K.), 
kuhewa (S.), goji (Z.) ; a 
smaller p., used in making 
soup miya; a white p. not 
eaten, used for making water- 
pots dmna, masc. pi. dumai- 
mai or dumaye, 

punch, to Jidda naushi. 

punctuation, signs oUfdri. 

punish, tr. V. fallasa, pallasa 
or pallashe, foro^ yin tvahala^ 
yinforo. 

punishment, n. fallasa or j^cd- 
lasa, azdba, foro ; a legal p. 
ukuba (S.). 

pup, n. kwikuyo, kwikwiyo, 
kuyikuyu, pi. kuyikuyai, fol- 
lowed by kare. 

pupil, n. 1. (a school-boy) dan 
rtiakaranta, pi. yan maka- 
ranta, yaron (pi. yaran) ma- 
karanta ; (of adults and spec, 
those of a religious teacher, 
i.e. disciples) almajiri, fem. 
almajira, pi. almajirai. 



2. p. of the eye ijiya, ijiyar 
ido, rnatsokachin ido. 

P^PPy, n., see pup. 

purchase, tr. v., see buy. 

pure, adj. 1. (in a material 
sense) tsari, tsalka or tsa- 
tsalka, da tsalki, tsatsarka, 
e.g. p. wheat, i.e. clean, in 
good condition alkama tsari, 
(of metals = unalloyed) saji 
or safe, e.g. p. silver azurfa 
saji — azurfa bahu haHnchi; 
(— simply) tsdba and tsala, 
kuna, e.g. p. and simple 
cowries, i.e. nothing but 
cowries tsdban kurdi ; noth- 
ing but water kuna ruwa. 

2. (in a ceremonial or 
moral sense) tsari, ckari, da 
tsarki, da tsabta, halal, halas; 
p. water ruwa da karari ; to 
be p. yin tsabta, tsalkaka, 
tsarkaka. 

purgative medicine, n. ma- 
ganin zawo, maganin gudun- 
daji; purging nut binidazugu. 

purge, to kawashe. 

purification, n. esp. ceremonial 
p. tsalka or tsatsalka, lullo; 
p. of a woman after the birth 
of a child blki. 

purify, tr. v. tsarkake, char- 
kake. 

purity, n. tsarki, tsalki (S.), 
tsabta^ tsapta, tsauta, halal- 
chi, karari. 



purloin 

purloin, tr. v., see steal. 

purple, shuni. 

purpose, n. gmiganchi, hayyi- 

zari, hanzari. 
purpose, on, adv. da gcmgan ; 

to no p. hanna. 
purring, e.g. of eat or hyena 

gurnani. 
purslane, /am kaha ; horse p. 

gadon machiji. 
pursue, tr. v. (as in war) 
farfaro or faffaro ; he pur- 
sued his way ya kama 
I hanya, 

push, tr. V. tuka, iza, ije, 
mrmuka, tura, turi, ture, 
zu7igura, dam/are, the last of 
^ pushing so as to cause one to 
stumble ; to p. towards one- 
self ture ; to p. aside tunkuda, 
hankada, bankade, kide ; to 
p. into water gangante ; push- 
ing with the knee gUla. 
pushing, turo. 
pustule, n. (boil) kurji, pi. 

kuraje, kureje, kuraraji. 
put, tr. V. sa, sanya, aje ; to 
put one thing on another dza 
or aza ma; to p. aside (to 
cease from) sa, e.g. let us p. 
aside quarrelling mu sa kan- 
kanchi (to lay up) aje; to p. 
away kauda, kawas ; to p. on 
(of clothes, etc.) sa; to p. 
together tara ; to p. down a 
load jMe. 



189 



quarrel 



puzzle, n. zauranche, see rid- 
dle, 
puzzle, tr. v., see perplex, 
pyramid, see cone, 
python, n. mesa, tnulwa*. 

quack, n. (a pretender to 
medical science) hoka, pi. 
bokaye. 

quackery, n. bokanchi ; cf. 
prec. 

quake, intr. v., see tremble. 

qualm, n. 1. (a feeling of 
nausea) kumallo. 

^. (a conscientious scruple 
or hesitation) kumya. 

quantity, n. (an amount of 
anything) mashasha, afki, 
sunmm, tsibi ; a large q. 
gugu, gugi, e.g. a large q. of 
sand gugin rairai, jibgi, the 
last esp. of food ; taro, taru, 
yawa, yawanchi, also dayawa, 
e.g. his discourse was noth- 
ing but a great q. of words 
wa'azinsa saiyawan mag ana; 
see much; a small q. ka- 
ranchi. 
quarrel, n. fusuma, jaya, ja- 
y^iyya, husuma, tsalmi, see 
seq. 

quarrel, intr. v. yin jaya, kan- 
kani, yin kankanchi ; to q. 
with yin kankanchi da, in 
the sense of to maintain 
opposite opinions gardama 



quarrelling 



190 



quite 



with the forms in na or with 

yi ; fada (lit. to fight) is also 

used. 
quarrelling, kankanchi, sdba. 
quarrelsome, sidj./utsu, hutsu, 

mafadachi, mai-ijiat yaki ; he 

is q. ya tarikafada. 
quarter, n. 1. (a fourth part) 

ruhu^i*. 

2. (a division in a town) 

shiya, pi. shiyoyi, unguwa, 

pi. unguwai and (in Sokoto) 

ungunni ; cf . seq. 
quarters, n. (place of stay, 

lodging) masabki, mazamniy 

also loosely wuri. 
quash, tr. v. (to make void) 

wofinta. 
queen, n. 1. (a female sovereign) 

sarkanya. 

2. (a king's wife) sarauniya, 

matan sariki. 
quench, tr. v. (to put out a 

light or fire) ku/uli* ; pass. 

to be quenched (to go out) 

mutu, e.g. the fire is quenched 

tvuta ta mutu. 
query, n., cf. seq. 
question, n. tambaya, binchike, 

mcts'ala*. 
question, v. tambaya, yin 

tambaya, yin binchike, tan- 

tambaya. 
questioning, n. (discussion 

about something doubtful) 

kokanto, binchike, binchiki. 



quick, adj. 1. (rapid, im. 
mediate) sauki, da sauri; a 
q. death (or a sudden death) 
saukin mutuwa. 
2. (alive) da rai. 

quickly, adv. (at once, with 
the least delay) da sauki, da 
sauri, nan da nan ; (at a 
rapid rate) mdza, ribta,rupta, 
garr, kldis, kudis, samli, 
rugu* ; very q, maza maza 
contr. malmdza, e.g. he is 
counting the cowries very q. 
ya7ia kilgan alkawara mdza 
mdza; to go q. (lit. to blow 
a hole through the ground) 
fura kasa. 

quicksilver, n. zaiba. 

quiet, adj. (implying cessation 
from speech or cries) da 
kawaif jurum ; to be q. yin 
shiru (or shu7'u), yin kawai, 
kawaita, ruma (S.), yin ku- 
rum ; (of disposition) lalafa ; 
cf. seq. ; keep q. kam,e bakinka. 

quietness, n. kawai ; (of dis- 
position) lalafanchi. 

quit, V. (to leave or abandon) 
bari or bar, e.g. q. this cus- 
tom ku bari tadan nan; of 
a path sau. 

quite, adv. 1. (wholly, nothing 
but) sai which is either 
applied to the entire clause, 
e.g. if he refuses this you 
may call him quite a coward 



imver 



191 



ram 



in ya ki nan sai ha kira- 
wo shi matsorata, lit. jou may 
quite call him a coward, or, as 
in Engl., applied to a par- 
ticular term, e.g. his face was 
q. h\oody fuskassa saijini ; he 
is not q. dead ha ya ida mu- 
tuwa ; so in the very common 
expression sai lajiya quite 
well. 

2. (less precisely = very 
much, indeed, truly) dayaiva, 
kwarai, e.g. we are q. pleased 
muna jin dadi dayawa ; I 
was q. frightened na ji tsoro 
P dayawa ; I q. understand naji 
sdrai ; adv. phr. quite so ashe, 
da gaskiya, ya yi haka. 

luiver, n. kwari, kwarin ki- 
hiya, gidan kihiya. 

luiver, intr. v., see shake, 
tremble. 

•abble, n. (low class of men, 

the mob) taro hanza. 
*abid, adj. mahaukachi, e.g. a 

r. dog mahaukachin kare ; see 

mad. 
'ace, n. 1. (ancestral stock) 

il'^ali^ asali. 

2. (a particular breed of 
men or animals) iri, pi. irare. 

3. (a running in contest of 
men or horses) tsere, tseray- 
ija. 

;addish, a kind oifijir. 



radiant, adj. (emitting light) 
mai-haske, pi. masu-haske, 

rafter, n., used in roofs dzara ; 
see reed. 

rag, n. (in the sense of a small 
piece of any stuff) da, e.g. a 
cloth r. da7i zane, dan barki, 
dan yanki ; see rags. 

rage, u.fushi. 

rage, intr. v. haukache, yin 
J'ushi, jinfushi ; see angry. 

rags, n. coll. ragga, pi. rdgguna, 
tsumma, pi. tsummokarai^ 
tsummoki, keso*, chuna* ; 
singulars of both are used 
as collectives, old r. chuku- 
chuku ; trop. (in the sense of 
old or tattered clothes) rdga, 
ragga, pi. raggogi (S.), tsimi- 
ma; clothed in r., sid}./unfu 
or da funtu. 

raid, n. sati, esp. a surprise 
slave r. by horsemen hdri ; 
raiding of a town bdsdsa. 

raider, (i.e. slave-raider) ma- 
lidri, pi. mahara. 

rain, n. rutva, pi. ruwaye, 
ruwan hisa, ruwan sama ; 
spec, gentle r. yayya/a, yin^ 
yifi; a cloud which threatens, 
or produces rain zirnaniya ; 
heavy or lasting r. malka 
(S.), marka (K.), mako, ma- 
mako, pashi, tagutva ; light 
r. tsatsafa; the night has 
been passed in the r.. an 



ram 



192 



ransoi 



kwari da ruwa ; the r. pours 
down ruwa ya zuba ; in 
the r. da ruwa; a r. cloud 
jitau. 

rain, v. 1. impers., it rains ana 
ruwa and yana ruwa ; it 
rained an yi ruwa; to r. 
heavily or long yin taguwa, 
yin malka, sarafa* ; the r. 
stopped aka dauke ruwa ; it is 
raining slightly ana yayyafa. 
2. used in a fig. sense to 
cast or shower down like r. 
turn by means of a com- 
parison common in Hausa 
kaman ruwa^ e.g. our guns 
r. bullets on the enemy 
hindigoginmu sun jefa da 
harsashe a bisa ahokan-gaha 
kaman ruwa; he speaks 
fluently ya yi ma^ana ka- 
man ruwa^ lit. he speaks 
like r. 

rainbow, n. masha-ruwa^ ma- 
shan-ruwa, bakan gizo, ba- 
kan Allah ; the spirit of the 
r. gajimare. 

rain-drop, n. tarfi*. 

rainy, adj., see rain; r. season 
dam,dna or damuna^ cf . rani ; 
a break during the r. season 
fari. 

raise, tr. v. (to make or cause 
to rise, also to set up) tada, 
tayojij taya^ da^ tashe^ tdsdd 
da, hankada, hau da, hauski, 



hausa; (to lift or pick u 

anything) dauka contr. dm 

do. 
raisin, zabibi*. 
rake, n., with two pron^ 

mashari. 
rake, tr. v., spec, to r. togethe 

cinders or embers of a fir 

aza (or hasa) wuta; I r. u 

cowries towards me na ton 

kurdi. 
ram, n. rago, pi. raguna, bun 

sum, pi. bunsurai or bun 

suraye; spec, a large Bor 

nuese r. dradra ; a red an( 

white r. kargo ; a long-earec 

r. uda. 
Ramadan, n. (the moham. 

medan fast month) watar.^ 

azumi. 
ramble, intr. v. (to wanderj 

about) yin yawo. 
rambling, n. yauwa. 
rampart, n. ganuwa. 
ramrod, n. tsatsagawa, dkit- 

washi. 
rancid, to be or become, intr. 

V. ruba. 
range, n. (of hills) kuduniya. 
range, tr. v. (to dispose in 

regular order) daidaita. 
rank, (i.e. line) jeri, pi. jerori, 

to form r. jera. 
ransom, n. pan8a,/an8a, hansa; 

or r. paid for a captured 
slave gumki, kurdin turu ; 



msom 



193 



ready 



money paid to set a slave 
free kurdin kariya tttru. 

ajisom, tr. V. panshey panshi, 
fanshe, e.g. pass, let him be 
ransomed a fanshe shi. 

isomer, n. ag. mai-fansa. 

ansoming, n. pansawa^ fan- 
saiva. 
ipid, adj., see quick. 

usp, n., see file. 

asp, tr. V. gogi or goge. 

a-t. n. damhariya, hera or bira 
(K.), kusu (S.); large palm 
r. (cane r. or ground r.) 
(/gttbji, gyauji, or kusun 
kyamro ; large Gambian r. 
hnrgu, fem. gajiya ; the stink- 
ing r. or shrew ja6«. 

ittle, a chdki; a pod used 
by children as a r. baran- 
chaki, kachokacho. 

.ittle, to yin chdki. 

ive, intr. v. haukache and 
hauka^ see raving. 

ivening, n. zowari, zwari. 

ivenous, to be kwaraka. 

ivine, n. kanga-, a r. with 
water in it kogi, pi. ko- 

guna or kogai, korama ; a 
waterless r. kwazazzabo, 

kwdri. 

LVing, adj. mai-hauka, mai- 
( haukachi ; to become r. yin 

raurawa ; see mad. 

^W, adj. dcmye, danyi, pi. 
; danyoyi. 

R. H. D. 



ray, of sun giraza, girazal 

rana. 
raze, to, a town, baji, baje. 
razor, n. aska, pi. asake or 

askake. 
reach, v. 1. tr. (to extend, or 

hold out) mika, e.g. I reached 

my hand to him na mika 

niasa hannu. 

2. intr. (to arrive at) isa, 
i^he, iske, kai, e.g. the boys 
swam and reached the land 
yara sun yi iyo sun kai 
kasa. 

3. (to overtake) tar as. 

4. trop. (to be sufficient as 
in Engl, 'the money will r. 
so far ') iya, isa, ishe, kai, 
e.g. it wont r. (it is insuffi- 
cient) ba shi kai. 

read, tr. v. kardtu, yin kardtu, 
karanta; to r. through shide; 
to r. a second time tUsa ka- 
ranta. 

readiness, n. shiriya. 

reading, n. karatu, bita. 

ready, participial adj. (pre- 
pared or in readiness) shiri- 
yayye, fem. shiriyayya, pi. 
shiriyayyu; r. money hannu 
da hannu ; cf. seq. 

ready, to make, v. 1. (in a 
general sense but also very 
commonly of preparation for 
an expedition, journey etc.) 
yin shiri, shiriya, e.g. a 

13 



real 



194 



rebellioui 



prudent man would prepare 
for to-morrow's journey to- 
day don tafiyar gohe mutum 
mai-hankali shi kan yi shirin 
yau ; we have a journey 
before us which cannot be 
put aside, whether you are 
prepared or unprepared muna 
da tajiya hafasawa in ka yi 
shiri da izan ba a shiriya ha ; 
so also gyara, e.g. to make r. 
a way or a load yyara hanya 
or kaya ; to make r. (by 
mending or by putting to 
rights and in order generally) 
gyarta. 

real, adj. na gaskiya, da gas- 
kiya, also gaskiya and gaske 
added to the term to be thus 
qualified ; of persons mai- 
gaskiya^ e.g. he is a r. friend 
shi ne aboki mai-gaskiya, 
which may also be expressed 
by shi ne aboki da gaskiya, 
lit. he is a friend in reality. 

reality, n. sakankanchewa, gas- 
kiya, e.g. whether this be r. 
or falsehood I know not ko 
gaskiya ko kariya ban sani 
ba ; of. seq. 

reality, to assure of the r. of, 
tr. V, gaskanta. 

really, adv. da gaskiya, gaskiya, 
gaske, Jidda*, e.g. it is r. so 
da gaskiya hakanan shi ke or 
simply gaskiya ne ; (used as 



interrogatives or expressions 

of surprise) ashe, ai, ainin. 

any a, e.g. r.? or r. ! ashe. 
realm, n. sarauta, mulki*, zati 
reanimate, tr. v. (to recall to 

life) 7'aya. 
reap, tr. v. girba, girbi, yauka, 

yanke, yin sdra. 
reaped, e.g. r. corn sankache, 

jene. 
reaper, n. mai-girbi. 
reason, 1. (cause) sabdbi, kibu 

(S.), sabili, sanadi. 

2. (a r. given as an excuse) 
huja onfuja. 

3. (authority from Koran 
etc. or origin of a myth, 
story etc.) dallli. 

4. (the intelligent faculty} 
see ability ; adverbial 
phrases, for this r. domin 
haka, don haka, for that r. 
domin or don wannan, do- 
min chewa* ; this is the r. 
ita che dalili or shi ya sa ; it 
was past r. ya wuche misali ; 
what is the r. ? ina sabili 1 

reasonable, to be shiga han- 
kali ; be r. shiga hankalinka. 

reasonable, mai-dalili. 

reasoning, n. kokanto-, to en- 
gage in r. yin kokanto. 

rebel, n. makangari. 

rebel, intr. v. yin kangara. 

rebellion, tawaye. 

rebellious, pi. tawaye. 



1 bound 



195 



reconcile 



1 bound, n., e.g. of an arrow 

(nra. 

1 bound, intr. v. tankwashe, 
!<nikwashe, e.g. the spears 
iel)ounded from the coats 
oi mail masussuka sun tan- 
kwashe dag a lijida. 
ibuke, tr. v. tsaushi, tsawata 
<l'i, yin tsawa, e.g. the learned 
man rebuked his disciples 
malami ya yi tsawa ma 
■'liaajiransa; he rebuked me 
ya yi ma ni tsawa. 
roeipt, amsa. 

rceive, tr. v. 1. (to take what 
is offered) karba, karbi, dau- 
^a, doka, samu, imperat. 
receive ka7^ho. 

2. (of a salutation) karba, 
?.g. they received, i.e. acknow- 
edged your salutation suoi 
■i^arba gaisuwakka ; (of news 
itc.jji, e.g. we received news 
'nun ji labari; to r. as a 
^uest shide, e.g. they received 
ne joyfully suka shide ni da 
nurna. 

'«;eived, particip. (approved 
•f, agreed to, believed in) 
•ardadde, fern, yardadda, pi. 
ardaddu. 
i eptacle, n., any kind of r. 
•aay be expressed by gida, 
1. gidaje or gidadaji ; by 
leans of this are formed 
be Hausa equivalents of 



various Engl, terms, e.g. a 
needle-case (lit. r. of needles) 
gidan allura ; a quiver gidan 
kibiya; an envelope gidan 
takarda. 
reception, a royal, n. turaka, 
recess, n. (nook, closet, small 
room etc.) loloki, pi. lokokai, 
lungu; secret recesses coll. 
lolokin asiri. 
reciprocal, adj., turn by the 

recipr. pron. juna. 
reckless courage, with, adj. 

jan namiji. 
reckon, v. kida, kilga, kirga, 
see count, number ; to r. 
up (take account of) zdfia. 
reckoning, n. 1. (computing, 
calculating) kidaya, kida and 
kididdiga, hisabi (S.) ; (of 
accounts) lisafi or lasafi. 
recline, intr. v. dangana, ki- 
shingida or kishinkida (this 
also=--to sit with crossed legs), 
jingina, jingine. 
recognise, to gani*, gane*. 
recollect, tr. v. (to remember) 

tuna, tuna da. 
recollection, participial n. 

tunawa. 
recompense, n. (both of pe- 
cuniary reward, wages, and . 
also generally) lada. 
recompense, tr. v., see repay, 

requite and reward, 
reconcile, tr. v. gama dadi^. 

13—2 



reconciliation 



196 



reference 



reconciliation, sulhu, sulfa*, 

sulba*. 
record, n. ambdto. 
recover, v. 1. tr. (to get back), 
e.g. he recovered his property 
ya sarnu dukiyassa kuma. 

2. intr. (of health) samu 
afuwa, yin rangwame, mike; 
he recovered his health ya 
samu lafiya ; to r. from a 
swoon yiu hankali ; he is 
not quite recovered ba ya ida 
warkewa ba ; I recovered na 
samu sauki, 
recovery, n. (of health) rang- 

wam^, afuwa. 
red, adj.Jrt, p\.jaja,ye ; staining 
r. jaje ; very r. ja wur ; a r. 
dye garura. 
reddish, adj. jaja kadan, jache, 
redeem, tr. v. fanshe, panshe, 
yin /ansa, e.g. we redeemed 
him from slavery muka fan- 
she shi daga bauta. 
redemption, n. fansa, pansa, 
fansawa ; diyauchi (lit. free- 
dom) also bears the pregnant 
sense of r. 
reduce, tr. v. 1. (generally, to 
lessen, to decrease) raxji or 
ra)ge ; to be reduced ragu. 

2. to r. amount of an 
account or charge yin ran- 
ywame, rangwamta. 

3. (to conquer, subdue) 
chi. . 



reduction, n. 1. (lessening 
assuaging of anything) ra 
guwa. 

2. (of an account) ran 

gwarne, e.g. make me a i 

ka yi ma ni rangwame. 

reed, n. gora, pi. gorori, kdn 

Y>\. kdrdre, kara,jiniya; spec 

of various qualities and uses 

a kind of r. or rough grass 

Spanish r. gabara ; a r. grov 

ing amongst and resemblin 

guinea-corn kusumhurwa ; a 

edible water r. bindu, bindc 

a r. used for making arro\^ 

kyamro (S.), kyauro (K.), p 

kyamare, gazara*, shenu 

reeds such as are used f( 

making doors etc. asahm 

tsabre; reeds forming circ 

lar bindings near the ktvam 

inside a roof murdaka, mi 

daka, magwadi (S.) ; a pla 

where reeds meet in t 

centre inside thatched ro 

kwando; reeds bound 1 

gether forming inside bin 

ing of a thatched roof tank 

a r.-like plant of which nati 

ropes are made rama; a 

used as a pen alkdlami; 

also gar any a (K.). 

reed-buck, kaji. 

reeling, n. (staggering) w 

gagi. 
reference, with r. to bdtnn. 



« 



I 



reflection 

reflection, n. (consideration, 

thought) ttmanne, pi. tu- 

nunrm. 
refrain from, tr. v. hari, bar, 

e.g. r. f. falsehood ka bar 

kariya-, r. f. laughter rike 

dariya. 
refuge, n. matsira, macheto. 
refusal, n. kimuya, kiyuya, 

hduaica, tayazwa ; r. to hear 

km ji ; r. to work kiwuya, 

riidainda. 
refuse, n. kazamta ; r. food 

kamzOj kanzo. 
refuse, v. ki, kiya, kinkinta, 

rena^ yin kishi, dakile, tayaz ; 

to r. an offer in buying and 

selling hdna and midaba* ; 

to r. exertion (or labour) 
1 1 yin kiwuya; to r. to keep 
I ! a pi'omise yin gase ; to r. to 
I i listen kyale. 

Tefuses, one who r. to work, n. 
' makiyachi, tnai-kiwuya, 
refusing, n. participial form 

hanmva., kiyatva, kiyaya. 
regard, n. 1. (attention, heed) 
if hankali. 

2. (affection) soyayya or 

soyaiya, kauna, kamna, e.g. 

an object of r. abin kamna ; 

you have forfeited ray v.ka 
i yanke ma ni kauna. 
regard, tr. v. 1. (to look at 

attentively both physically 
\ and mentally) dnba. 



197 relationship 

2. (to heed) yin hankali, 

kula, construed with da 

before the object regarded, 
regent, n. makadashi, makad- 

dashi, makadas. 
region, n. waje, pi. wajeje. 
regret, v. (to repent) tuba. 
reign, n. 1. (royal authority, 

power) sarauta. 

2. (the time a r. lasts) 

zamani. 
reign, intr. mallaka ; see rule, 
rein, v., to r. in zami, zame. 
reining-in, n. zamiya. 
reject, tr. v. ki, kiya, yada*, 

e.g. they rejected the right 

way sun yada hanya ; to r. 

as something bad yhi tsan- 

tsani. 
rejoice, v. 1. intr. yin or jin 

far in chiki, yin or jin murna\ 

to r. with anyone yin bishara. 
2. tr. bada (or so) murna. 
rejoin, intr. (to answer) yin 

amsa. 
rejoinder, n. (answer) amsa. 
relate, v. /adi, fada. 
related, to be danginta. 
relation, n. dangi or ddgi*, 

pi. dangogi, kwatana^ \ cf. 

seq. 
relations, coll. dangi both in 

the sing, and pi., kibanta, 

makusata. 
relationship, n. zumunta*, 

juna. 



relax 



198 



remind 



relax, v. 1. tr. (of bonds etc. 
to loosen) kwanche, kunche, 
sake ; (of efforts, rule etc. to 
make less severe or strict) 
ragi, rctge. 

2. intr. (to become less 
strict or severe, of anything, 
e.g. pain) ragtt. 

relaxation, n. 1. (in sense of 
2. prec.) raguwa. 

2. (rest) natsu, natsuwa. 

release, tr. v. saki and in a 
looser sense hari^ bar ; see 
let. 

reliable, adj. (vulg.), see trust- 
worthy. 

relieve, tr. v. (e.g. one of a 
load) tariyo* ; (to assist) see 
help. 

religion, n. addini ; the true 
r. addinin gaskiya ; the mo- 
ham medan r. musidumchi ; 
he was converted to the 
mohammedan r. ya zama 
musulmi. 

religious person, n. mai- 
addini, pi. masu-addini. 

rely on, v. dangana, ingata, 
constr. with da or ga, yarda 
with da; to r. on God ka- 
sada; to r. upon a person 
shaduda or saduda. 

remain, intr. v. 1. (of staying 
or stopping in a place) zamna, 
zau7ia, kasanchi*, kwana (lit. 
sleep), e.g. we remained there 



two days rmm kwana nan 
kwana hiyu ; we remain for 
this one day only mu ke yini 
ranan nan. 

2. (of remaining in one 
state as well as place) duma, 
dawama, kasanchi, tabbatawa; 
(to be over) yi7i raguwa. 

remainder, n. saura, shaura, 
shawara,dudduga, kanfa (S.), 
kingi^ raguwa, rdgowa (S.), 
shingi (K.), ringi ; r. of food 
marmashi, sud% suddi; r. of 
nuts, food, etc. kola. 

remaining, 1. participial adj. 
(also r. over) mai-wanzuwa. 

2. (continuing) mai-da- 
wama. 

3. n. (continuance, staying) 
dawdma, tdbbata. 

remains, see remainder. 

remedy, n. (in medicinal and 
also in general sense) ma- 
gani, e.g. the Jilasko plant is 
a r. for diarrhoea Jilasko 
maganin gudawa ; pro v. if 
a town be far off the r. is 
travel maganin gari da nesa 
tajiya. 

remember, v. tuna \ to come 
to r. tuna with da before 
object. 

remembrance, n. (recollec- 
tion) tunanne, tunawa, tun- 
tuna. 

remind, to taso*^ tuna ma. 



i 



-emiss 



199 



repel 



i^emiss, adj. lalafa. 
:'einission, n. (forgiveness) ga- 

fara-^ yafetca*. 
"emissly, adv. da lalafan- 

chi. 
i-"emissness, n. lalafanchi. 
:'eniit, tr. v. (to forgive) yarda, 

(jafarta, yhi gafara ; to r. a 

debt yarda hashi', to r. a 

law tsaida. 
remnant, e.g. after cloth has 

been measured, n. gutsura, 

see remainder. 
:'emorse, n. nmldma (S.), ni- 

ddma, laddma, da-nct-sani ; 

where there is no wrong, 

there is no r. hahu laifi, habu 
. tunanne. 
*emote, adj. 1. (distant in 

place) na nesa ; also da nesa 

and daga nesa^ e.g. a r. town 

(jari da nesa. 

2. (distant in time) na dd^ 

also da wuri or dauri, e.g. r. 

customs tadodi na dd. 
"emoval, kaura. 
remove, tr. v. kauda, kaushe, 

kauwa^ kawas^ katva^ da. 
fend, tr. V. keche, kiche, keta, 

murtsuka, tsdga ; to r. in 

pieces yato<to>^e, tsatsaga. 
render, tr. v. 1. (to give) ha 

or hada. 

2. (of an account, to give, 

give in, present) to r. an 
' account yin lisafi. 



3. (to translate) ,juya., sail- 
ya, fasara, yin fa^iara. 

4, (to cause to be or be- 
come) periphr- e.g. the heat 
of the fire rendered his face 
very red zafivi wuta ya sa 

Juskassa ta zamaja nnir. 
rending, n. fatattdka, tsdga, 

see tearing, 
renew, to sabunta; renewing 

sabunchi (K.), sahuntaka. 

(s.). 

rent, n. ijara, sufui'i. 

rent, tr. v. (of houses, etc.) 

siifui'che, sit/urchi, sufurta, 

yin sufuri. 
repair, tr. v. (to mend) gy- 

arfa, gyara, lallaba*, yin 

adana. 
repairing, adana. 
repast, n. 1. (a meal) kalachi. 
2. (food, victuals) abinchi, 

chima, chimaka. 
repay, to yika. 
repeal, tr. v. kauda, e.g. the 

king repealed the prohibition 

sariki ya kauda doka. 
repeat, v. 1. (to do again), see 

again ; to r. an action yin 

maimai, maimaita, kdra, 

ribhi *. 

2. (to say a thing over 

again) tusa. 
repel, tr. v. kora^ kore ; to be 

repelled (of an arrow, etc.) 

tankwashe. 



repent 



200 



resign 



repent, intr. v. tuba, e.g. re- 
pent ! Ml tuba ; if he refuses 
to r. idan ya ki tuba. 

repentance, n. tuba, nidama, 
naddma {^.), laddma. 

repents, one who, n. mai-tuba. 

repetition, (i.e. doing any- 
thing over again) takidi*. 

reply, n. amsa, amshe ; to give a 
r. ba (or bada) amsa ; cf. seq. 

reply, intr. v. amsa, yin amsa, 
e.g. he replied to them ya 
amsa ma s^i or ya yi ma su 
amsa. 

report, n. 1. (rumour, news) 
labdri, e.g. we heard a r. 
about war m,uka ji labarin 
yaki. 

2. (fame, repute) ydbo. 

3. (noise of gun) dmo*, 
kdrar bindiga. 

4. false r. tsegumi, pi. 
tsegungum.a. 

report, v. (to bring news) yin 
labdri, ba (or bada or fadi) 
labdri] to r. against (to 
inform against) sare, sara. 

repose, n. 1. (lying at rest) 
kwantawa. 

2. (rest, quietness) futa, 
futawa. 

3. (sleep) barchi, kwana. 
repose, v. 1. tr., to n con- 
fidence in sa with bisa or bisa 
ga and substantives given 
under confidence, q.v. 



2. intr. (to lie, to be 

placed) pass, of aje and sa-, 

(to lie at rest) kwana^ 
reprehend, tr. v. (to reprove, 

censure), see blame, 
reprehensible, adj. da laiH 
representative, n. (an agent 

or substitute) wakili. 
repress, kwdbe, kwdba, kwdbo, 

see hinder, 
reproach, n. zargi, zagi. 
reproach, tr. v. yin zagi, 

bache. 
reproaching, zagi, zage. 
reproof, n. foro ; harasa, ra- 

rauka (K.). 
reprove, tr. v. yin foro. 
reptile, n. mair.arrafe, pi, 

niOySU-rarrafe, abin kasa, igi- 

yar kasa, 
reputation, n. yabo, suna, 

e.g. his r. spread throughout 

the Sudan mutane duka su 

ji sunansa chikin Sudan. 
requital, n. /ansa, ^yansa, 

hansa, saka-mako. 
requite, tr. v. biya ; (in a bad 

as well as good sense) rama. 
rescue, tr. v. kwache or kwashe; 

see also deliver, 
resemble, to daidaiche, yin 

kama. 
reserve, (i.e. suppoi*t in war) 

ribadi. 
reside, intr. v., see dwell, 
resign, tr. v. (to give up, 



resignation 



201 



retained 



abandon) hari, bar ; to r. 
office rnaida rawani. 

resignation, n. hankuri, han- 
kura, hakura, hakuri. 

resigned, to be, v. jin sanyi, 
also hcmkuri with yi or the 
forms in na, e.g. I am r. to 
this i7ia hankuri da wannan ; 
he was r. to this pain ya yi 
hankuri da azaban nan. 

resist, tr. v. (gen. to withstand, 
baffle) hana ; to r., request 
etc. hana q.v., ki ji, e.g. he 
resisted every proposal ya ki 
ji magana duka. 

resistance, n. in sense of prec. 
init. hanawa, makatva. 

resolution, (i.e. firmness) ha- 
rama, hazama. 

respect, n. (i.e. esteem) hasafi, 
kauna. 

respond, v. (to answer) amsa^ 
yin amsa. 

rest, n. 1. {YQmm.iidkiv) shawara, 
x(mra, kingi, shingi (K.). 

2. (repose, quiet) futa,ffau, 
j'x tawa, hutawa, mugdma *, 
cf. repose; (of the grave) 
place of r. makwanchi ; (of 
death) the last r. makarin 
barchi. 

rest, V. 1. tr. (to lay, place) aje, 
^v<, e.g. he rested his hands 
on the book ya sa hannu- 

' wansa bisa litafi. 

2. intr. (to be at rest) 



futa, fucha, yin mugdTna ; (to 

be laid, placed) pass, of aje, 

sa. 
resting-place, n. (lodging) ma- 

shidi ; his last resting-place 

makwanchinsa, 
restitution, make, v. rama. 
restive, be, intr. v. yin tuma. 
restlessness, kiriniya. 
restore, tr. v. 1. (to give or bring 

back) maida, mayas, kwanda, 

ramka, bayas da. 

2. (to make good) rama. 

3. (to r. to life) raya ; (to 
be restored to life) rayu. 

4. (to renew) sabimta. 
restrain, tr. v. hana, kwdbe, 

kwdba, kwdbo, tsere ; see 
hinder. 

result, n. akiba. 

resurrection, n. tashi daga 
matattu, tayaswa, kiydma ; 
the r. day ranari gobe 
(lit. the day of to-morrow), 
ran gobe, ranal (or ranan) 
kiyama; periphr. the day 
when the sounder of the 
trumpet shall sound ranad 
da mai-busa ya busa kafo 
nasa, 

retail, a r. seller of corn dan 
kwarami, mai-sari * ; retailers 
yan shimfida. 

retain, tr. v. rike, rika, riki*. 

retained, particip. rikakke, 
fern, rikakkiya, pi. rikakku. 



retainer 



202 



retainer, to become a r. of 

yin chaffa (or chappa). 
retaliate, intr. v. rama, saka, 

see revenge, 
retaliation, n. (in a good as 

well as bad ^Qn^o) saka-mako', 

see requital, 
retch, to yunkura. 
retching, n. yunkuri. 
retire, to r. into shelter 

7ioke. 
retreat, to ja da haya. 
return, n. dawaya. 
return, intr. v. koma ; to r. to 

where the speaker is, to r. 

here komo, dawo, dawayo ; 

to r. from a place dawaya; 

to r., tr. V. may as da, mayar 

da. 
returning, n. (of place) ko- 

mawa, kome, pi. kome-kome ; 

(of state, = a changing back, 

reversion) juyawa, waiwai- 

yawa. 
reveal, tr. v. gdya, waye, 7tuna, 

e.g. they revealed the secret 

to the king sun gdya asirin 

nan ga sariki. 
revenge, n. /ansa, pansa, 

hansa, ramuwa, tarna. 
revenge, v. rdma, zoje ; see 

requite, 
revere, tr. v. ; cf. seq. 
reverence, n. kwarjini. 
reverence, tr. v. tsarkaka, 

tsarkaki, charkaka and, in 



freer sense (= to honour) gir- 
mama, and hada girma. 

revile, tr. v. yui zagi, fallasa 
or pallasa, kwdla. 

reviling, zage, zagi. 

revive, intr. v. (as from faint- 
ing) farko. 

revolt, n. tawaye. 

revolt, to danka shappa, yin 
tawaye. 

reward, n. lada, akiba. 

reward, tr. v., see requite. 

rhinoceros, n. kili/ori, kilhore 
(a Fullani word), karkanda*. 

rib, n. awoza, awaza (S.), pi. 
awazu, awazai ; ribs coll. 
hakarkari. 

rice, n. shinkafa, more parti- 
cularly = r. in the husk ; 
husked, clean r. shinkafa, 
sanshera, surfaffe, gumi ; 
tuft of r. geza, pi. gezuna ; 
the swelling of r. when 
boiled auki, abki ; a soft 
mash of r. fate-fate ; a mix- 
ture of r., milk and honey 
gumha; a cake made of r. 
and guinea-corn masa ; a 
cake made of r., oil and 
honey tsatsafa ; a large rice- 
bag saulo; ' hungry' r. acha; 
a dark coloured kind of r. 
jimero* ; r. husks (used for 
washing ink off writing 
boards) buntu, shefe. 

rich, adj. 1. (wealthy, also 



rich 



203 



ring 



concr., a r. man) mai-dukiya, 
i)iawadach% pi. mawadata. 
2. (abundant) dayawa. 
n 3. (splendid as ' r. dress ') 
I na ado, fern, ta ado. 
raich, to be, intr. v. tajarta, aj ar- 
ia, ivadata, walata, yalwata. 
riches, coll. dukiya, pi. dukoki 
or dukiyoyi, wada, wadachi, 
itrziki, ajiya, dfajirchi, ta- 
jirchi, falaJa, gatanchi. 
riddle, n.marauchi, zauranche. 
ride, intr. v., express by pe- 
riphr., e.g. he was riding 
along yana tafe hisa doki ; 
I rode to the town na hau 
doki na taji gari ; spec, to r. 
at a gallop sukuwa (Kano), 
!<uka (Sokoto), sukane, su- 
kwane; tor. for exercise kilisa. 
rider, n. mai-doki, pi. masu- 
doki, mahayi ; an expert r. 
gwani7i doki. 
ridge, n. kokuwa ; a ridge in 
a field kunya, coll. kiviya 
(S.), kadada. 
ridicule, tr. r. ddra, shamata-, 
he turned him into r. ya 
ha shi dariya. 
riding, zaman sirdi ; a place 
for r. in fagen doki ; a place 
for riding in at the gallop 
i masukwani. 
right, n. 1. gen. gaskiya. 

2. (authority or privilege) 
J iko, pi. ikoki, inganchi. 



3. (claim) alhaki ; to be 
in the r. in a dispute hu- 
janta. 

4. (the opposite of left) 
dama. 

right, adj. 1. (in conformity with 
truth and justice) da gaskiya, 
da gaske, or simply gaskiya, 
nakwarai*, ddili ; to be r. 
inganta, ingata, see also 
lawful, proper. 

2. (opposed to left) na- 
danna, fem. ta-dama\ the r. 
hand (i.e. the bodily mem- 
ber) hannu na dama ; the r. 
side wajen da^na. 
righteousness, n. adilchi. 
rightly, adv. (truthfully, justly) 
da gaskiya, da gaske. 

2. (correctly, exactly) 
kwarai, sarai, e.g. if I r. 
understand you will come to 
this house in the eveninoj 
idan na ji kwarai za ku zo 
gidanga da mareche ; he did 
not count them r. bai kil- 
ga su sarai ha. 
rind, n. fdfM, pdta, hawo, hawa. 
ring, n. zohe ; seal r., signet r. 
zohe7i shaida ; finger r. ka- 
wainya; a metal r. placed 
round the hands and legs 
of women karafa, chakan- 
kami; a r. put through a 
man's lower lip baibayi* \ a 
leather r. worn as a charm 



rings 



204 



roasting 



on the wrist kumbu, kum- 

huwa, see kdrau. 
rings, coll. arm r. mundaye ; 

foot r. mundayen kafa. 
ringworm, makero, kyazhi 

_ (K.), kyasfi (S.). 
rinse, tr. v. darwaye, darwaya. 
rip, tr. V. keta, participial n. 

ketuwa, ketawa ; see tear, 
ripe, adj. iiuna, nina (S.) or 

nu7ianne, pi. nunannu. 
ripe, to be, intr. v. n%na (S.), 

nuna (K.), yin tdbo ; to be 

over-r. kosa. 
ripeness, tdbo, tafshi, tabshi, 

tapshi*. 
rise, n., of a fish bulma, burma ', 

of a star keto. 
rise, intr. v. tashi ; to cause to 

r. tctshe ; to r. up taso, gusa, 

gulgusa, gurgusa ; to r. up 

against yin Jirmaki ; to r. 

high (of the sun) karu ; to r. 

(to swell, of anything cook- 
ing or fermenting) yin auki 

or yin abki. 
rising, participial n. tashi, 

tasawa ; tayaswa is used in 

sense of resurrection, 
risk, n., he ran a great r. ya 

sha hdtsari dayawa. 
rivalry, n. kishi, gdsa, hamiya. 
river, n. ruiva, pi. ruwaye, e.g. 

the r. Benue ruwan tsada ; 

gulbi, pi. gulabe, tabki, tapki 

or tafki ; a large r. kogiy pi. 



koguna, kogina or kogai ; the 
r. of paradise kausara and 
alkausara. 

river-horse, hippopotamus, n. 
dorina, pi. dorinnai. 

rivers, confluence of, n. magan- 
gami. 

road, n. hanya, hayd*', pi. 
hanyoyi, bube, godabe, ta- 
fark% pi. tafarkoki, turba, 
pi. turbobi; on the r. (tra- 
velling) chikin tajiya; he is 
on the r. yana tajiya ; do you 
know your r. from this points 
ka sani hanya daga nan ko 1 
a broad r. godabe, rimdi, 
karabka, karauka (S.) ; a 
hedged r. between farms 
used by cattle burtali. 

roads, n. branching off of r. 
(pi. of kwasfa) kwoMfoji ; 
dividing of r. laloki, loloki, 
pi. lulokai ; meeting-point of 
two or more r. mararrabin 



roar, n. kugi, tsawa; r. of a 

lion gumza. 
roar, intr. v. yin tsawa, yhh 

kugi, yin kuka ; (of camel, 

donkey, fire, etc.) yin ruri: 
roast, tr. V. soya or suya, 

bandata, gdsa, the last used 

with gurasa bread, 
roasted, particip. gasashshe, 

fem. gasashshiya, pi. gasassu. 
roasting, banda, gdshi. 



rob 



205 



roof 



rob, tr. V. (to take openly, by 

force) ktvache. 
robber, n., one who robs openly 
mai-sane ; a highway r. (bri- 
. gand) mafaxhi, mai-fashe, pi. 

mdfasa. 
robbery (with violence), par- 

maki. 
robe, n. riga, pi. riguna ; 
splendid robes riguna na 
ado ; silken robes riguna na 
alharini. 
robe, tr. V. sa (lit. put on), e.g. 
they shall be robed in white 
a sa ma su rigu7ia farfaru. 
rock, n. dutsi, pi. duwatsu, 

duchi, falale, J\ pa. 
rock, tr. V. (to shake or swing 
• to and fro) reta^ yin reto. 
rock-salt, n. gallo. 
rod, n. sanda, pi. sanduna. 
rogue, n. mazambache mai- 

zambata. 
roll, V. 1. (to move along by 
turning over and over) tr. 
. bingira, mirgina, mirgine, 
laydta, layache, yin birgima ; 
intr. to r. down gangara 
or gangari ; to r. away 
gangarad da. 

2, (to fold round on itself) 
tr. ndde; to r. together or 
up ndde ; to r. up kalmdsa 
or kalmashe; to r. up, e.g. 
a covering of a doorway, or 
a piece of cloth etc. linke, 



ninke ; to r. into balls as clay 
for building chibra, tsibra^ 
chura, dunkida ; intr. and 
reflexive to r. up or together 
nadu. 

roller, (bird) tsanwaka. 

roller, i.e. a stone used for 
crushing rice etc., n. dan 
magurji. 

rolling, particip. n. birgimia] r. 
down gangaraiva and ganga7'o. 

roof, n. jinka; the following 
apply to the native thatched 
roofs ; the centre of r. k wan- 
do ; the conical grass top of a 
r. boto ; a beam to support a 
r. dirka ; a binding line in- 
side r. formed of two or three 
reeds mirdaka, murdaka ; a 
band of grass rope outside a r. 
jiniya; an arched r. damren- 
guga^dauren-guga; an oblong 
r. bakan-gizo ; to bind grass 
with cords so as to form a r. 
yamche or yamchi, yin kan- 
dama ; the plaited mat-work 
which acts as the keystone 
of a conical r. kirinya ; the 
horizontal ties of grass which 
bind the sloping rafters of 
a r. tanka ; the sticks which 
slope from the upright poles 
of a r. to the cross piece 
imafyadi) tsaiko ; the cross 
pieces tied to the sloping 
sticks {tsaiko) for the grass 



room 



206 



rope 



of the r. to rest upon karan 
tanka ; the sticks placed in a 
r. to prevent the grass from 
slipping down kini ; the 
highest part of the inside of 
a r. kwankuwa, kokuwa; a 
cross piece of wood which 
rests on two {gofa) sticks 
and supports the r. of a 
house mafyadi ; the apex of 
a r. kan daki ; house with 
flat r. soro ; upper storey of 
such a house sm^on bene ; a 
flat mud r. rufi. 
room, n. 1. open, unoccupied 
space in any sense sarari ; 
unoccupied space on a flat 
surface as a plain, a floor 
Jili, e.g. there was no r. for 
(putting down) my load hahu 
Jili ga kayana^ cf. seq. 

2. an apartment or r. in a 
house cLdki^ pi. dakuna; a 
private sleeping r. bar ay a 
(S.); an upper r. in a two- 
storeyed house, bene ; a small 
dark r. loloki, laloki, pi. lolo- 
kai or Idlokaye ; a r. made of 
mud and thatched with reeds 
tsaiko. 
room, to have plenty of r. to 

sit down, intr. v. wala. 

room.y, adj. mai-sai-ari, da 

sarari J e.g. this chamber is 

r. dakin nan yana da sarari. 

root, n. (of vegetables, etc.) 



saiwa (K.), saye (S.), p). 
sayu, sauya (Kats.) ; r. of a 
tree tushi. 
rope, n. gen. igiya, pi. igiyoyi, 
yagiya (S.); to plait a r, 
tumka (S.) or tukka (K.) igi- 
ya; spec, of various uses and 
materials : a r. for hobbling 
horse tarnaki, dangwali, da- 
baibayi (K.), dabaibiya (S.); 
a r. for leading a horse dsal- 
wayi ; a r. halter for horses or 
camels m^ama; a r. (also coll.) 
tied to anything, e.g. to a 
rafter ragaya; a r. tying a 
horse's leg to a post gindi ; a 
r. for tying up a camel dkala ; 
a r. fastened between two 
posts to which animals are 
tied rande; a r. used for 
tying a thief kogawa-, a 
twisted hide r. kiri, pi. kirra', 
materials for r. (plaited grass, 
palm leaves, fibre) tsaiwa; 
leaves and fibre from a large 
species of palm for r. kaba^ 
yadiya) a fibre for making r. 
yawa; a reed -like plant 
(Hibiscus cannabinus) for 
making r. which is called by 
the same name rama] a r. 
made of rama^ tamagi^ ta- 
magye; a large tree from the 
bark of which small ropes are 
made tawatsa ; a trailing r. 
plant kuranga, see also raba. 



rosewood 



207 



rub 



rosewood, African r. mado- 

biya. 

rot, intr. v. (to putrefy) riba, 
ruba ; (to go bad) bache. 

rote, by, 1. n., saying by r. 
tidawa. 

2. v., to say by r. yiyi 
tidawa; to learn so as to 
say by r. (by heart) samxi 
harda. 

rotten, particip. adj. (of fruit, 
etc.) rubabbe, fern, rubabbiya, 
pi. rubabbuj (of corn) tsadari, 
gen. batache^ fern, batachiya, 
pi. batattu^ a lalache ; to 
become r. ruba, riba. 

rough, adj. da kaushi, da kxir- 
zunu. 

roughness, n. (unevenness of 
surface) kaushi, kurzunu ; r. 
of skin kaushin jiki. 

round, adj. express by the 
nouns = a r. object chibiri, 
kumbu, kawanya (K.), e.g. a 
r. piece of mud chibirin kasa; 
to make r. chibra ; to cut 
r. shaft kumbu ; v., to go 
r. dauraro, zaga, gewaya, 
kewaya, jiwaya, kewaye, ke- 
wayo, kewayi, the last also 
tr., e.g. they went r. the city 
sun kewaye birni ; hulo or 
hullo; to go r. zdge, zdga, 
zwage (S.), zdgi ; to go r. in 
order to examine a thing 
gewaya or jewaya ; to look r. 



dauraro ; prep, kewaye, e.g. 
they made a road r. the 
pool sun gina hanya ke- 
wayen tahki; the storm is 
going r. over there hadari 
yaua zagawa. 

rouse, tr. v. (to make rise, e.g. 
from the ground or from 
sleep) tashe, tayas, falkad da. 

rout, n. kdshi, to put to r. 
hada kdshi. 

row, n. (series, line, rank) sdfu, 
jeri ; to form a r. yin sdfu ; 
in 8i V. a jere ; to lay out in 
rows tsdra, tsdre. 

row, n. (angry dispute), see 
dispute, quarrel ; (noisy 
outcry) kururuwa. 

row, tr. and intr. v. tuka, yin 
tuka (lit. to push, or propel). 
Hausas acquainted with 
European oared boats em- 
ploy this word which is the 
term used for 'paddling' 
native canoes. 

royal, adj. na-sariki, fem. ta- 
sariki; r. officers or attend- 
ants ya(ia?/;«, q.v. 

rub, tr. V. /a/e, yd/a and ydfo, 
sdba, chuda; to r. (or grind) 
corn tushe ; to r. anything, 
e.g. corn in the hands murje, 
murda, mulmula, murtsuka; 
to r. the back of a knife 
backwards and forwards dd- 
dara; to r. the hair off a 



rubbed 



208 



rust! 



hide or skin jemi ; to r. 
out or erase shafe, yin mai- 
mai ; to r. smooth chudanya, 
darje. 

rubbed, particip. adj. murjaje', 
murtsukakke^ fern, murtsu- 
kakka, pi. murtsukakku. 

rubber, n. 1. (e.g. a cloth, 
used for rubbing or wiping) 
abin shafe. 

2. (india-rubber) danko, 
dankon ga'inji, alihida ; rub- 
ber-vine chitvo, chuwo ; india- 
rubber trees yctmji, gcmji 
(K.), cf. durumi, baure, bore 
(S.), chediya, kawuri, tva, 
taha-ni-kasamu. 

ruby, n. yakutu*. 

rudder, paddle used as a, n. 
matuki. 

rug, a woollen sleeping r., n. 
kilishi. 

ruin, tr. v., to spoil, destroy 
bata ; to be ruined or to fall 
into r. (of a house, etc.) roshe, 
rushi ; participial n. and 
pres. form rushewa. 

ruins, coll. (of a place, town) 
kufai, pi. kufaifai, kofai, 
kango ; falling into r. 7m- 
shewa. 

rule, n., government, royal 
sway sarauta ; an established 
mode of procedure tadoi, pi. 
tadodi, ada, kaida. 

rule, V. (to hold sway as a king) 



mallaka, mallaki, mallake^ yii, 
sarauta, chude, umarche ; (tc | 
decide, order authoritatively' i 
hukumta, e.g. he ruled that 
we should do this ya hukumta\\ 
tnu yi haka. |! 

ruler, n. mai-mallaka, masaravJ^. 
chi, mahukumchi, hdkimi, pl.^ 
hakimai; (king) sarki or sor 
riki, pi. sarakuna or sarori 
kai. 

rumour, rigima, waiwai. 

run, intr. V. gudu; (to melt) 
narku ; to r. away gudu, 
guje, tsire; to r. away quickly 
sheka; to outrun tsire; tc 
r. out (to come to an end)| 
kai'e; of water, to r. over (to I 
overflow) tuda, tude ; at a r. 
a guje ; the following expres- 
sions are used to denote to 
r. fast zura da gudu, sheka 
da gudu, karta da gudu, 
fashe da gudu, tantala da 
gudu, gudu kar, ruga da 
gudu ; running away tawaga. 

runaway, n. 1. (of slaves): 
gujajje, pi. gudaddu. 

2. (in war) maguji or m/u-i' 
guji. 

runner, a r. in front of ;i 
horse gurguri, zagi. 

rush, intr. v. kutsa; to i., 
e.g. out of a crowd ruza. 

rust, n. tsatsa. 

rust, intr. v. yin tsatsa. 



rustling 



209 



sadness 



rustling, e.g. of wind in trees 
kaya-kaya \ r. of grass sukun- 
sTikun, 

sabbath, n. 1 . (in the scriptural 
sense = Saturday) assabat, as- 
-■>hit, ranan assabat. 

2. (Sunday) lahadij ranan 



\l 

sabre, n., see sword. 

jack, n., a largeskins. or bagfor 

cowries jika, jikka, pi. jik- 

kuna, kwasabro, buhu (Z.), 

i| hirgami, burgame these are 

I not used as water skins for 

! which see under skin ; a skin 
s. for loading camels, donkeys, 
etc. waga, kyankyand% gu- 
rara, kaiwa* ; a s. made of 

' network raga, pi. ragogi ; a 
large s. of salt (one donkey 
load) lange, pi. la^igaye, see 
bag. 

iack, tr. V. (to pillage or plun- 
der a place or town) kwache, 
e.g. he took and sacked the 
town ya chi gariri nan ya 
kwache dukiyassu duka. 

lack, (of a town) n. buruntu. 

'.acred, adj. (connected with 
religion) na addini, fem. ta 
addini, e.g. honour s. things 
and do not ridicule them ku 
giinnama abubuwa na addini 
kada ku ba su dariya ; (holy, 

. pure) tsarki. 

R. H. D. 



sacrifice, n. sadaka*, hdya. 

sad, adj. (depressed, sorrowful); 
to be s., see sadness; a s. 
business (causing sorrow or 
pity) abin tausayi ; as. busi- 
ness (i.e. bad, wicked) abin 
mugu. 

saddle, n. sirdi, pi. sirdde 
and sirduna, siradda or 
sirdodi, bukuru, bakuru* ; 
a native s. cloth which is 
laid on the s. jelala, lappa, 
labba, kafu (S.), rnashimjidi ; 
a s. peak kwachiya, that in 
front kwachiyar gdba, that 
behind (the CR,nt\e) kwachiyar 
bay a ; btuffing or panels of a 
s. zubuka, zabuka ; a pack s. 
with pockets for water pots, 
etc. mangala ; a s. embroi- 
dered in gold or silver talka ; 
crupper of a s. jabaya, jaku- 
turi; the leather thong at- 
tached to a s. and passed 
through the ring of the girth 
kaitara, kaitaro ; ornamental 
s. flaps zaggin sirdi ; a s. of 
meat takandar nama. 

saddle, v. (of camels, etc.) 
labda, (of horses) damre or 
darme (S.), sirdi, yin sirdi. 

sadness, n. baki7i zuchiya ; to 
experience s., to feel sad jin, 
yin or the forms in ua with 
the n., e.g. I experience s., 
I feel sad ina bakin zuchiya. 

U 



safe 



210 



sail 



safe, adj., s. from peril amin- 
tache, pi. amintattu. 

safe conduct, letter of, n. 
watikal lamuni. 

safety, n. (security from harm) 
lamuni, amana] (deliverance 
from harm) chira, tsiras, 
chiraro, tsiraro. 

sagacious, adj. da basira, da 
hankali, mai-hankali. 

sagacity, n. basira, hankali. 

Sahara, Hamada. 

said, it is, determinative or 
causal phr. wai, e.g. thou art 
proud because it is s.. Thou 
excellest all kana kumburawa 
wai ka fi kowa. 

saint, (fakir) wali, waliyi, pi. 
waliyai. 

sake, for the s. of, prep, domin, 
don, garin, sabad da, sahado* 
or saboda*, e.g. for his s. 
dominsa, sabili da shi ; for 
the s. of this domin (or don) 
haka; for the s. of a walk 
gafin yawo ; for the s. of 
what? domin mi, don mi, 
dommi, and sabad da mi. 

sale, to expose for s. talla ; it 
is on s., it is for s. a say as 
da; on s. sayarwa, saisuwa; 
a cheap s. gwanjo ; the ex- 
hibition of goods for s. koli ; 
s. on approval chinikin sha- 
wara ; a s. under a guarantee 
uda* ; a s. in which the 



buyer is allowed time t( 
decide whether he will accept 
the offer remaining oper 
chiniki7i zabi, 

saleableness, sayuwa. 

salesman, n. mai-saida, dat 
kasuwa. 

saline, adj. da gishiri, m 
gishiri. 

saliva, n. sallabi, miyau, ym 
(K.), dululu. 

salmon, fish resembling, n 
faliya. 

salt, n. gishiri ; prov. a mai 
may boil horns with his owV 
s. (i.e. one may do what on(! 
likes with one's own) mutur), 
da gishirinsa shi kan daf(\ 
kqfo; spec, a dark kind o| 
s. manda ; a s. brough I 
from Asbeii, beza; black s 
from Bornu manda ; han 
rock s. gallo; an inferio; 
kind of s. balma; as. (o! 
natron) used in dyeing as f' 
mordant, also used medi| 
cinally ashauma, ashoma; :\ 
cake of s./oche,J'ochen gishirv 
mangul ; round flat piece I 
of s. coll. aserimi* ; a load o 
s. cut small bakan gishiri ; ; 
pyramidal load of s. kantu; ; 
smaW kantuot inferior s./?asAi 
a large kantu of s. azurumi 
a wood ash from which s. i 
obtained zdkanko*. 



I 



ftlt-bag 



211 



sand 



;ilt-bag, n., long, narrow b. 
for carrying s. lange, langi ; 
a small s.-bag chukurufa*. 

iltless, adj. hahu gishiri ; 
spec, of anything eaten with- 

, out salt (insipid) da lami. 

iltness, (brackishness) zartsi. 

altpetre, n. kanwa; spec. s. 
used medicinally jan kan- 

1 wa. 

aJutation, n. gaisuwa, e.g. 

J he paid no heed to my s. bai 
kula ha da gaisuwata or ha 

I ya karba gaisuwata ha; as. 

, addressed to an important 
person ingwayya, ungwaiya; 

. a public s. muhaya. The 

j language is rich in expressions 

\ of s., e.g. s. to you (Engl. 

i hail ! welcome !) pass, a gaishe 
(-ka, -ki) -ku, a tuski ; the 

; commonest expr. of s. is sanu 

\ or rep. sanu sanu and this is 

; most frequently accompanied 

, by a reference to the time of 

I day, or the state and occupa- 
tion of the person saluted, 

; e.g. good morning (lit. s. to 

you in the morning) sanu da 

safe, good evening sanu da 

mareche, welcome out of the 

"/ rain sanu da ruvja ; s. to 

I you in your bereavement 

8a7iu da kewa ; s. to you at 

your play sanu da wargi ; s. 

^ to you at your work sa7iu da 

i 



aiki or sanu da aikinku or 
sanunku da aiki ; spec. s. 
(among moslems) salam ; 
shaking a spear or hand in 
s. jaji (S.) ; see also jin- 
jina. 

salute, tr. V. gaida, gaishe, 
gaisa, jinjini, e.g. I saluted 
the man na gaida mutum ; 
spec, to go to s. (of sacred 
persons or places) ziyara ; to 
s. several persons in turn 
gaggaishe. 

salvation, n. tslra, tslraro, 
cheto. 

same, adj. daya (lit. one), e.g. 
they are the s, duk daya ne ; 
this is the s. as that wannan 
daya kaman wanchan ; to- 
gether at the s. time or place 
gaha dai or gaba daya ; the s. 
hakanan ; as a determinative 
employ demonstrative pro- 
nouns, e.g. I saw the s. man 
yesterday in the market na 
gani wannan (or wannan 
TYiutum, or mutumen nan)jiya 
chikin kasuwa. 

sanctify, tr. v. tsarkaka, tsar- 
kaki. 

sand, n. rairai, rerai, jiggawa 
or jigawa ; spec, fine s. tur- 
hay a, turda (S.) ; white s. in 
water yashi ; grains of s. 
barbadi ; s. mixed with grain 
tarke. 

14—2 



sandal 



212 



savoury : 



sandal, n. takalmi, pi. takalma, 
kufita, kufutaj kupta, pi. kufi- 
tai or kufutai ; sandals with 
red leather tops and hole for 
toe samhatsai ; a light kind 
of decorated s. tajawankai. 

sand-fly, filjilwa^ fiffilwa, ki- 
yashi, kyashi, kyafirjita. 

sand- grouse, kwantatoyi, bar- 
wa, ladin rogo. 

sand-hill, a, n.jiggawa,jigawa. 

sand-piper, sharafage (S.). 

sangar, shirgiya. 

sarcasm, gatse. 

sasswood, gwaska. 

Satan, pr. n. Shaitan, Shetan 
or Shaitani. 

satchel, n. (leathern) gdfaka, 
Idki. 

satin, talashi*, antalashi. 

satisfaction, n. 1. (of the 
appetite) koshi. 

2. (of the feelings and 
emotions) dadi^ e.g. we felt 
great s. mu7i ji dadi dayawa. 

3. see requite, 
satisfactory, it is, phr. ya yi. 
satisfied, to be, intr. v. (of the 

appetites) koshi, yin koshi, 
e.g. they ate, they drank 
and were s. sun chi sun sha 
sun koshi ; (of the emotions) 
jin dadi ; cf. seq. 
satisfied, a being, n. koshi; 
one who is s., n. kosashe, pi. 
kosassu. 



satisfy, tr. v. (of the appetite) 
kosad da; (to pay claims, 
etc.) biyaj rama. 

Saturday, pr. n. of time dsa- 
bat, assabat, dsabar, dssibit, 
ranan assabat. 

sauce, n. miya*. 

sauciness, taurin ido. 

sausage-tree, rahaina. 

saunter, to ragaiche, see idle. 

saunterer, mai-ragaita. 

savage, n. (barbarians, un- 
civilised human beings) bai- 
bayij pi. baibai, babbawa or 
baubawa. 

savage, adj. (barbarian), cf. 
prec, (cruel) da muni. 

savagery, n. (cruelty) immi, 
zajin rai, keta. 

save, tr. v. 1. (to rescue, de- 
liver) chira, chire, chiro or 
tsiras da^ tsar da (K.), tsar she, 
tsaras da (Daura), tsirad da^ 
cheche. 

2. (of money = to lay by 
or up) aje. 

save, exceptive prep, sai, see 
but 2. 

saved, to be, intr. v. chim, 
tsira. 

saviour, n. mai-cheto, machech i, 
pi. macheta. 

savoury, adj. gardi, fern, gar- 
diya, da gardi, da zaki ; 
for the opposite quality s' 
insipid. 



IW 



213 



scent 



aw, n. zarto, sassaka, sasago*, 
rnagdgdri. 
aw, to gdgdra. 
awdust, dauso. 
ay, tr. v. che with pres. forms 
chewa^fddi^ fdda, tdne*, e.g. 
, what do you say ? mi ka che 1 
we are saying muna chewa ; 
it is said an che, aka che ; he 
said to them ya che da su, ya 

< fddi ma su\ he says, it is 
said, they s. (used to deter- 
mine a phr. or clause as 
uttered or admitted to be 
true by others, like Engl, 
fam. 'you know') wai) s. a 
thing over again tusa\ to s. off 

, by heart or rote yin tulawa. 

aying, n. 1. (something said) 
magana, pi. maganganu ; (a 
popular s.) sa7'a. 

2. participial n. (act of s.) 
chewa used with pres. forms 
in na. 

icab, n. kurji, pi. kuraraji, 
kuraje ; also kirchi, gurje, 
Ixxmharoki, gyamho ; a s. 
which has healed up tamho ; 
scabs coll. halli-halli. 

icald, tr. V. (i.e. with hot 
water) sale (K.), swale (S.). 

JCale, n. (as lichen, dandruff) 
toto, tautau. 

5cale, to s. a fish kankale, 
k'inkare. 

JCales, n. 1. (of fish) kumha, 



pi. kiMubuna, kumhahi or 
kumbai, fofon kifi ; (of dead 
alligator) kirgin kdda. 

2. (balance) maauna, m,a- 
auni, ynagwaji, mizani, m,a- 
gwadi. 

scan, V. (to look at with scru- 
tiny) yin kallo, e.g. we walked 
about scanning everything 
rriun yi yawo muna kallon 
dukachin abu. 

scandal, tsegum,i, pi. tsegun- 
guma; one who spreads s. 
mai-tsegumij mai-tsegunchi. 

scar, n. (cicatrix) tabo, tambo, 
kufa ; scars balli-balli ; scars 
made on face serving as 
tribal marks shaushawa ; see 
marks. 

scatter, v. 1. tr. watsa, wache, 
watsar da, barbada, wal- 
wanche, warwache, warwatsa, 
rarraba or rarrabi. 

2. intr. watse ; they scat- 
tered or were scattered a7t 
watse su. 

scattered, particip. pass, watsu. 

scattering, barbaduwa, kacha- 
kacha. 

scent, n. 1. (characteristic odour 
of animals) wari, cf. seq. 

2. (a sweet or agreeable 
odour) kamshi, kanshi, kamsa, 
turare, wardi; a plant the 
root of which furnishes a s. 



scent 



214 



scre"v 



scent, tr. v. (to recognise by 
the odour) jin wari ; the dog 
scented the lion kare ya ji 
warin zaki. 

scent-bottle, n. wakiya, wa- 
kiyya. 

scented, keen-, adj. (of hounds) 
mai-jin wari. 

scheme, n. (artful contrivance) 
wayo, wayau. 

scholar, n. (a great scholar or 
teacher) mdlam, mdlami, pi. 
malamai; masdni, pi. masana; 
(a pupil) almajirij pi. almaji- 
rai, dan makaranta, makoyi, 
makoyi, makaranchi ; (used 
adjectively - learned), mai- 
karatu. 

school, n. makaranta. 

scissors, n. almakashi ; joint 
of s. gwarmij kwarmi, pi. 
kwarmu. 

scoff at, to, V. ba'a and yin ba'a. 

scold, V. yin tsawa^ huga tsawa, 
tsawata da, e.g. he scolded 
her well ya yi ma ta tsawa 
dayawa. 

scold, a, mai-fitina. 

scorch, tr. Y.farcha^ yinfarsa. 

score, n., of number /aso, hauya, 
the latter is esp. used in 
counting cowries, e.g. he 
looses two thousand cowries 
ya bar hauya dari. 

scores, to pay off s. rama gaya. 

scorn, n. yaya^ ha'a^ hananchi. 



scorn, V. rena, see despise. 

scorpion, n. kundma, pi. kul 
namomi or kunamai, durniv 
munumunu. | 

scourge, n. bulala. 

scourge, tr. v. yin bidala. j 

scout, n. majewayi, see spy. 

scowl, intr. v. damrefuska. 

scramble for anything, v' 
wasa^he, watvashe, yasash^ 
(S.). 

scrambling, wasoso. 

scrape, tr. v. karkari, (to i\ 
clean and so polish) gogi oi 
goge^ fafe, kwarzane, e.g. h; 
is scraping the axe-handlj 
shina gogewa bakin gatari 



to s. or s. out 9'( 



tuj(\ 



tuttuje ; to s. up or grub uf I 
e.g. roots tona, tone ; to i 
out a dish sude. 
scraper, a gurzago, gurjago 
a s. used in dressinsf leathe 



kartaje. 
scrapings, e.g. of a dish sudi 
scratch, tr. v. ym susa, yi 

zuza, yin farta, gurza^ yo 

yaga ; to s. up with the nail 

karche, kwarzane. 
scratching, susa. 
scream, n. ihu^ ifutva 

kururuwa, tsuwa. 
scream, intr. v. yin ifu, 

tsuwa. 
screw, v., to s. up the eye 

rumchiy rumtse. 



1 



scribe 



215 



secure 



scribe, marubuchi, pi. tnar'u- 

huta. 
scum, n. kunfa^ kumfa, yaiia; 

s. from molten lead kdshin- 

tdma. 
,sea, n. gulbi*, kogi*. 
seal, n. zohe, zohen shaida, ma- 

zubi, hatumi, hatimi, hadufl, 

tambari. 
seal-ring, n. zobe7i shaida. 
seam, n. (in cloth) albada, pi. 

albadu or albadodi, shaji, 

shafe, pi. sha/oji or shafe- 
\\ shafe; spec, a breadth be- 
tween seams of cloth chiki. 
seamless, adj. (applied to 

cloth) liwasa. 
sear, tr. v. (with hot iron, to 

cauterise) lalas^ sa lalas. 
search, n. chigiya, chiwirwiri, 

tsiwurwuri; to make diligent 
j s. yin chigiya, bada chigiya, 

bida. 
search, v., to s. after or for 

nema, bida, chigita, nufe, 

nuji, ni/a* ; to s. for with 

the hand lalabe, fafake ; 

make search nema. 
searching after, n. (desire 

and object of desire) maradi 

or nmradi. 
season, n. 1. gen. (usual or 
. proper time) sa^a, lokachi, loto. 
2. (division of the j^ear 

I with respect to weather, etc.) 
dry (and hot) s. rani; it is 



the dry s. ya yi rani ; the 
hottest part of dry s., when 
the rains are beginning ba- 
zara; the wet s. damana, 
damuna^ damina. 

seasoning, yakuwa. 

seat, n. tnazamni (i.e. spot on 
which anyone sits), kujera, 
bige*, turdka (K.) ; as. out- 
side a house dakali; judg- 
ment s., also s. on which a 
king is carried about karaga. 

secede, intr. v. (to separate 
from, withdraw from) raba 
and rabu with da or daga. 

second, ord. num. na-biyu, 
fem. ta-biyu, also na-baya, 
fem. ta-baya. 

secrecy, asiri, ashiri*. 

secret, n. boya, asiri, kara* ; in 
s., see secretly. 

secret, adj. na-asiri, fem. ta- 
asiri, da asiri; a s. place 
lalokin asiri ; vv. to keep s. 
rufe, rufa, rufi or rife, ka- 
rata* ; to make s. or to 
discuss secretly asirta; to 
talk secrets yin gdna. 

secretly, adv. da asiri, a boye ; 
see prec. 

section, n. gedaiva^. 

secure, adj., see safety. 

secure, tr. v. (from danger, 
harm, etc.), see guard, (fam. 
to catch, capture, e.g. a 
prisoner) kama, (to guarantee 



security 



216 



self-laudation* 



payment of a debt, etc.) see 
seq. 
security, u. 1. (part payment 
of a debt as s., earnest money) 
amdna. 

2. (a thing left as s., a 
pledge) jingina. 

3. (responsibility for a 
debt, etc. = guarantee) la- 
muni, taulahif tallafi; I stood 
or went s. na yi lamuni. 

sedge, fragrant s. kajiji ; wild 
s. dan tunuga, gemen kusu, 
aya aya. 

sediment, n. gtviba, gwihi or 
guihi. 

seduce, tr. v. farke, rude, 
hdshe. 

see, tr. V. gani, gano, often 
contracted to gan, e.g. I saw 
her na ga^i ta, also to gd 
which is very commonly used 
as an imperative, e.g. s. him, 
or s. here ga shi, gani is 
also used in a pregnant sense 
to perceive, recognise, under- 
stand ; to s. from afar tsi7i- 
kaya, tsifikayi, hango. 

seed, n. gen. (of plants, men, 
creatures) iri, pi. irare, iri- 
iri ; spec, seeds crowded to- 
gether gurguzu, gurgusu. 

seedling, shuka, shukakke. 

seeing, participial n. ganewa. 

seek, tr. v. (to search for) nema, 
hida, e.g. wait till you are 



sought for sai am hide ka; to 
s. after (often implying to set 
the heart upon) dawainiya ; i 
to s. again zohe ; to s. for | 
tuski, tuske ; pregn. s. and 
return with h%do, e.g. let her 
be sought and brought here, 
a hido ta\ to go to s. and I 
return with 7iemo. 

seen, pass, particip. ganarme, i 
fern, gananiya, pi. ganannu. 

segment, e.g. of a kola-nut 
azara (Z.), hare (K.). 

seize, tr. v. (to lay hold oi)kdma, 
intens. kankam,a, make \ to 
s. (esp. in order to eat) rida \ 
to s. forcibly as in war yin 
huruntu, kwache ; (to snatch) 
amshi ; to s. and bring kan- 
kamo ; to s. in the arms da- 
dume ; to s. a person by the 
collar dagum,e. 

select, tr. v. zaha, zahe, zahi*, 
wari, the last often used of 
choosing out one or more 
pieces. 

selected, pass, particip. za- 
bahbe, fem. zababba, pi. za- 
babbu. 

self, n. expressed by kai and 
rai with possess, pronouns, I , 
myself ni da kaina, ni kaina, 
also less commonly ni raina 
and raina. 

selfishness, kurmusu*. 

self-laudation, n. kirari. 



sell 



217 



separate 



sell, tr. V. sayas, sayar^ and 
when followed by an object 
saida or sayas da, saishe, 
sawOy talla ; the last also esp. 
of having or exposing on or 
for sale, e.g. good camels are 
to-day selling in the market 
rakumma nagargaru ana sa- 

I yar da su yau chikin kasuwa ; 

I I in the sense of consenting to 
ij s. the pass, of sallama is often 
[( used, e.g. I agree to s. = I 
li let it go or you can have it 

a sallame shi ; it is unsaleable 
ya ki sayuwa. 

seller, n. mai-saida, pi. tnasu- 
saida. 

selling, saisuwa, buying and s. 

' saya da sayarwa. 

send, tr. v. aika^ aike, which 
also — to s. forth, from or to ; 
to s. to where the speaker is 
aiko, (with a person only as 
obj., lit. to rouse up, to start) 
tclda, e.g. I sent a messenger 
na tdda manzo ; to s. back 
mayas da, mayar da, yarda ; 
to s. away tayas da; to 
cast, throw, e.g. a bullet 

sending, n. aike. 

senna, n.Jllasko*. 

sense, n. 1. (i.e. good s., 
understanding) hankali ; a 
man of s. mutum mai- 
hankali. 



2. (signification) see mean- 
ing, 
senseless, adj. (stupid, foolish) 
maras-hankali, mayagachi ', 
(insensible, unconscious) see 
seq. 
senses, n. (the faculties of 
sensation) hankali, e.g. he is 
in a faint and senseless but 
in a little while he will come 
to his s. again shina suma 
hankalinsa kurva ya bache 
ammajima kadan hankalinsa 
zai komo kuma gare shi. 
sensible, adj. (prudent, intelli- 
gent) mai-hankali. 
sensibly, adv. (with good 

sense) da hankali. 

sent, pass, particip. aikakke, 

fem. aikakka, pi. aikakku ; 

one s., n. ma-aika, manzo ; 

spec, one s, from God rasulu*, 

sentence, n. (judicial decision) 

shari^a ; to pass s. yin shari'a. 

sentinel, n. gdta, pi. gataye, 

hage. 
sentry, n., see prec. 
sentry-post, mahdga (S.). 
separate, adj. bamham, akebe, 
e.g. s. from that bamham 
daga wanchan. 
separate, v. 1. tr. rdba and 
rdbi*, rabda, rabshe, kebe, 
kebanche, kebanta, wdre. 

2. intr. rdbu; to s. ivomzau- 
da* ; separating bambarmva. 



separated 



218 



seventeen 



separated, pass, particip. ra- 
babbe, fern, rababba, pi. ra- 
babbu. 

separately, adv. (Mki ddki. 

separation, n. rdbo^ rdbuwa, 
baran-baran. 

serene, adj., see calm, clear, 
quiet. 

serious, cf. the matter has 
become s. magana ta bunkdsa. 

Serjeant, saje*, 

sermon, n. wa^azi. 

serpent, n., see snake. 

serval-cat, rabji, rabbi. 

servant, n. (not slave) bdra, 
fern, bar any a or barainya, 
pi. bdrori and pi. of multi- 
tude bdruwa or barwa, which 
implies a large number such 
as a king would have, clan 
daki ; a female s. maaikiya ; 
s. of God bawan Allah (lit. 
slave of God). 

serve, v. 1 . (of one not a slave) 
yin barantdka. 

2. (of a slave) yin bauta ; 
this is also the proper term 
(as the more respectful) for 
to s. God or to s. false gods. 

service, n. 1. gen. ibdda. 

2. (of one not a slave) 
barantdka, that of a slave 
being bauta (servitude, sla- 
very), hence its use as given 
in prec. 2. 

3. (relig.) s. of God ibdda; 



concr. divine s. (public wor- 
ship) salla. 

servitude, n., see slavery. 

sesame, n. ridi, lidi. 

set, tr. V. (gen. to place) sd', 
intr. (of the sun) fadi, e.g. 
the sun s. rana ta fad%\ 
combinations of to s. with 
particles, etc. are : to s. apart 
from raba, to s. aside (to 
reject) ki, to s. aside (to 
omit for the present) bariy 
bar ; to s. by and to s. down 
(e.g. on the ground) aje ; to 
s. forth (to exhibit, state) 
gay a ; to s. up tayas, kafa, to s. 
upon (to assault) yin firmaki) 
he is s. upon ana yi da shi. 

setting, the s. of a fractured 
limb dori ; a bone setter 
mai-dori. 

settle, V. 1. tr. (gen. to ar- 
range, set right) gyara; (to 
pay, liquidate) biya, e.g. I 
settled the debt 7ia biya 
basJii ; he settled the dispute 
ya raba gardama. 

2. intr. (to alight, or to 
fix one's habitation or stay) 



seven, card. num. bakwai; s. 

times sau bakwai ; by sevens 

bakwai bakwai ; s. thousand 

saba'a. 
seventeen, card. num. goma 

sha bakwai, sha bakwai. 



seventh 



219 



shamelul 



seventh, ord. num. na-bakwai, 
fern, ta-hakwai. 

seventh, ones, part subu'i. 

seventieth, ord. num. na- 
sabain, fem. ta-sabain. 

seventy, card. num. saba'in. 

sew, tr. V. dumke, dunke, duni- 
ka or du7nk% Idfe. 

sewing, n., s. at edge of a 
garment tindumi ; v., to darn 
or tack in s. yin Icdabtu ; s. 
thread mandawari. 

sh! n. (the sound of hissing) 
shishita. 

shackle, v. sd with seq. and 
ma, e.g. we shackled them 
mun sa ma su malwa ; let him 
be shackled a sa masa gigar. 

shackles, n. malwa, marwa, 
gigar, see also fetters. 

shade, n. inuwa ; a broad s. 
inuiva m,ai-fadi ; to enjoy 
the s. of sha inuwa. 

shadow, n. inuwa, e.g. a man 
does not leave his s. behind 
him 7)iutum, bai bari ba inuwa 
tasa ga baya. 

shake, v. 1. tr. gilglza, girgiza, 
yin shillu, rauda, e.g. he 
shook his head ya rauda kai 
nasa ; to s. the head in token 
of assent kdda kai ; to s. as 
in winnowing tankade, m,otsa; 
to s. off, e.g. dust kalkada, 
kalkade, kankade, karkade 
and kakkabe ; to s. out wal- 



wache, ivalwanche, warwache ; 
to s. to and fro yin reto, yin 
shillu ; to s. violently jijiga. 
2. intr. motsa, also fig. in 
the wider sense of being 
agitated, influenced, moved, 
e.g. the whole multitude 
were shaken at the news of 
war taro duka ya motsa da 
labarin yaki ; to s. (as to 
tremble, shiver, shudder with 
cold, etc.) raura. 

shaken, pass. part, gilgizazze, 
fem. gilgizazzaya, pi. gil- 
gizazzu. 

shaking, n. (or trembling) 
raurawa ; s. hands ban han- 
nu, masdfilia. 

shall, aux. V. 1. (of futurity) 
za, e.g. what s. I do now? 
mi za ni yi yanzu 1 

2. (of obligation), see 
must, necessary. 

shallow, adj. bn, (or babu) 
zurfi, ba mai-zurfi. 

shambles, n. wurin fawa. 

shame, n. kumya (S.), kunya 
(K.), fulako ; the parts of s. 
aVaura ; to feel s. jin kumya ; 
to put to s. sa [ba and bada) 
kumya, kum^yata, kum,yache, 
e.g. he put him to open s. ya sa 
shi kumya (a bude or) a sarari. 

shameful, adj. na kum,ya, da 
kumya ; a s. thing abin 
kumya. 



shameless 



220 



shed 



shameless, adj. da kwarkwasa, 
shdkiyi, maras-kumya, babu 
kumya. 

shamelessness, n. kolkosa^kor- 
kosa, shdkiyanchi, walle. 

shape, n. (form) kama, si/a. 

shape, tr.v. (to fashion, create), 
see make 1. 

share, n., see part, portion. 

share, tr. v., see divide ; spec, 
to invite to s. in one's food 
chuna; to s. a house tara 
gida; a room shared with 
another dakin taraiya; one 
who shares abokin taraiya. 

sharing, (i.e. possessing in 
common) taraiya (K.), tare- 
wa (S.). 

sharp, adj. 1. (having a fine 
edge) da kaiji, da chabi. 

2. (finely pointed) da teini, 
mai-tsini. 

sharp, to be chabe, kaifafa. 

sharpen, tr. v. wdsa^ yin 
wa^hi, chaba, ddda, yin dddi, 
fika^ feke, kaifafa, gyarta, 
e.g. let this knife be sharp- 
ened a wdsa wukagga ; it is 
sharpened ta wasw, to s. a 
sword koda. 

sharpening, wdshi. 

sharpening swords, a tool 
for, n. magagari. 

sharper, a dan tugu. 

shatter, tr. v. (mtens.)/ar/asha 
or palpashe. 



shave, v. (with razor) aski^ 
aske, aska, and yin aski. 

shaving, verbal n., spec. s. the 
front of head or so as to 
leave only a tuft on top of 
head kwam.be ; s. one side of 
the head by a woman as sign 
of sorrow faskare ; baldness 
caused by s. kundumi ; s. 
the whole head or s. in two 
longitudinal lines each side 
of the crown sariya. 

shavings, of wood totuwa. 

shawl, made in strips, n. al- 
killa. 

she, pers. pron. fern. 1. separate 
and emphatic ita, e.g. it is s. 
ita che. 

2. in combination with 
verbs ta, e.g. s. saw him ta 
gan shi, the woman said no 
mache ta che a'a. 

shea-butter, n. dankon ka- 
danya ; the s.-b. tree kor 
danya ; fruit of the s.-b. tree 
kdde. 

sheaf, n. (also bundle of any- 
thing) ddme, ddmi, pi. damnia; 
spec. s. of arrows shiba*. 

shear, tr. v. yi7i sosaiye. 

shearing, verbal n. sausaye. 

sheath, n. (for knife, sword) 
kube. 

shed, n. rumbu, rumpay rumfa, 
pi. rumfuna, rinfa (K.), esp. 
used of a s. or booth in a 



shed 



221 



market-place; a temporary 
s. hukka, pi. bukkoki, am- 
buta, ddbi ; a cattle s. garke, 
garge (S.), zauren shanu. 
shed, tr. v. (to pour out or 
down) zuba, zubo ; to s. tears 
yin hawaye. 
sheep, tumkiya, pi. tumdki ; a 
s. with two wattles hanging 
from lower jaw tumkiya mai- 
lawaye (or mailayu). 
sheep-fold, n., see fold, 
sheet, n. (of paper) taba'al 
takarda ; a winding s. likka- 
fani, kafan. 
sheikh, shaihu. 
shelf, a alkuki* ; rope support- 
ing a s. ragaya, pi. ragayu ; 
' a s. made with mud zaga. 
shell, n. (hard covering of 
; fruit, eggs, etc.) kwasfa, kos- 
''■ fa, pi. kwasfofi or kosfoji, 
' kwanso, e.g. break the nut, 
and peel off the s. ka kariye 
gujiya ka bare kwasfa ; s. of 
snails katantanwa, alkoto, 
alkwato, sl mussel s. makan- 
\\ kari ; s. of a tortoise kwariya 
(K.), kwachiya (S.). 
shell, tr. V. (to take off the 

»' >■ peel or shell) bare, feke (S.), 
yinfira {ov fira). 
shell-fish, an edible, n. kumba, 
1| pi. kumbuna or kumbobi, 
™ kumbai. 

shelter, n. (protection from 



shirt 

light and heat) inutva, (a 
place of refuge) gidari chira, 
wurin chira-, a rough grass 
s. sangaya. 
shepherd, n. makiyaye, ma- 
kyayi, pi. makiyaya or ma- 
kyaya (S.). 
sherd, of pots, etc. n. katanga, 
tsingaro (S.), sakaina, pi. 
sakaniu. 
shield, n. gen. garkuwa, pi. 
garki, garkinne, kariya, also 
in a loose sense (lit. battle 
equipment) kayan ddga\ spec. 
a large round s. made of 
skin kutvfdni ; a large white 
oblong s. like that of the 
Zulus, usually carried by high 
officials kwangara ] a small 
s. kunkeli; a s. made of 
skin makdri, dangi ; a s. 
made from the skin of the 
white oryx ivahmji, warwaji, 
pi. walwazoji. 
shin-bone, kwabri, kobri, 
kwauri (K.), pi. kivabruka, 
kwobruka, kobruka. 
shine, intr. v. ba (or bada) 
haske, haskaka; the lightning 
shines brighter than the sun 
walkiya ta fi rana haske ; the 
sun is shining ana rana. 
shining, adj. mai-haske. 
shirking, n. bahilchi. 
shirk work, v. huji, see idle, 
shirt, n. tufa, tu/uwa, pi. tu/qfi 



¥ 



shiver 



222 



shoulder 



or tufoji worn under the gown; 
a shirt with narrow sleeves 
aganiya, riga, pi. riguna, 
which sometiDies=a large s. ; 
a small s. ya-chiki ; an inside, 
pleated s. kwakwata ; a s. 
without arms hinjima, hi- 
jima; a s. like a tobe but 
smaller with short sleeves 
tdgo (S.), pi. tagogi, taguwa 
(K.), pi. taguwoyi; a s. worn 
by women shay a ; a quilted 
s. of mail worn by horse 
soldiers lijidi, lifdi. 

shiver, (to tremble, shudder) 
firgita^ firgiche, raura. 

shivering, n. makarkata. 

shoe, n. takalmij pi. takalma, 
wuji*^ vmpi* ; he took off 
the s. ya Jitas da takalmi ; a 
s. strap ma-hallin takalmi; 
spec, small s. worn inside 
boots sufadu, pi. svfadai; 
two odd shoes gamin hauta. 

shoot, V. 1. tr. (to hit with a 
shot, etc.) halhiy harbi ; e.g. 
he was shot aka halhe shi da 
bindiga (if with an arrow da 
kihiya); cf. the leopard is 
hard to s. dam,isa da wiiyan 
halhewa; to s. towards the 
speaker halbo, past particip. 
shot halbebe. 

2. intr. (to discharge a 
gun) halbi bindiga or buga 
bindiga. 



3. of plants to s. or s. forth 
yin tqfo, sumbula. 

shooting, n. (the killing of 
game) farauta ; to go s. yin 
farauta. 

shooting star, n. mashin tam- 
raru. 

shoots, of plants yabainya. 

shopkeeper, sambani, see 
trader. 

shore, gdba, gdchi, see bank. 

short, adj. 1. (of length) gdjere, 
fem. gdjera and gdjeriya, pi. 
gdjeru, also karami (lit. 
small), cf. guntu; s. sighted 
garara; to give s. measure 
bante, tsakare. 

2. (of time) kadan^ e.g. a 
s. while J/ma kadan. 

short of, fall, intr. v. kdsa^ 
gdza^ e.g. thy days are num- 
bered, thou canst not pass 
them nor come s. of them 
kwanukanka madudai ne ba 
ka wuche su ba ka kdsa 
su. 

shortness, n. gajarta, gajerta^ 
hilafa*. 

shot, n. (ball, bullet) harsashe, 
yahaya*. 

shoulder, n. kafada, pi. kafa- 
duj kafadodiy kanfdle (S.), 
karfata^ karpata (S.) ; the 
two last are especially ap- 
plied to the shoulders of 
animals, the part from the 



shout 



223 



side 



^1 s. to the elbow damtse, pi. 
damutsa or damatsu. 

shout, n. i/?/, wu, guda ; see cry. 

shout, intr. v. yin ifu. 

shouting, sowa, sowwa ; there 
fj was s. ana sowa ; much s. 
sowa sowa. 

shove, tr. v., see push. 

show, n. (ornamental display) 
ado. 

show, tr. V. (to point out an 
object, also to inform, ex- 
plain) ywada, goda, 7iuna, 
nuni, e.g. he showed me it. 

showing, verbal n. in both 
senses of prec. nunawa. 

shrew-mouse, with bad odour 

jaba. 
' shrike, n. hamhami ; helmet s. 
kare-dangi. 

shrink, intr. v. (from cold, 

etc.) firgita ; (to shrivel up) 

' takura ; to s. from toge ma ; 

' they shrank from him sun 

kare da shi. 

shrinking, tsika. 

shrivel, intr. v. yin yaushi, 
kandare ; it shrivels up ya 
yi yaushi. 

shrivelling, n. yaushi. 

shroud, n. likkafani. 

shrub, n., see kaikaya, yadia, 
biyarana,Jidali, etc.; a shrub 
forming hedges (Jatropha 
curcas) bi-ni-da-zugu, chi-7ii- 
da-zugu. 



shudder, intr. v. raura. 

shuddering, tsika. 

shun, tr. v., see avoid. 

shut, tr. V. rufe, ruji or r*/e, 
sdda^ e.g. let not the door be 
s. kada a rufe kofa ; to s. a 
box, door, etc. yane ; to s. up 
sada, turhude. 

shuttle, n. masaka, koshiya ; 
the sliding wooden cylinder 
which works longitudinally 
in the s. kwarkwaro. 

shy, v., of a horse haude. 

sick, adj. da chiwo, marili* ; 
one who is s. mai-chiwo, pi. 
masu-chiwo, maras-lajiya, ma- 
jinachi, majinyachi, maji- 
yachi. 

sick, be, V. 1. (to be in bad 
health) jin (or yin) chiwo, 
also da chiwo with forms in 
na, e.g. he is s. shina da 
chiwo. 

2. (to feel nausea) jin 
kumallo. 

sickle, a small semicircular s., 
n. lauje, laushe (Zanf.), ma- 



sickness, n. chiwo, chiwuta, 
chiwurivuta, jinya, jinya-jin- 
ya; the following words desig- 
nate special forms : (a cold) 
mdjina ; (a fainting tit) fal- 
fada ; (pestilence, plague) al- 
loha, bala'i ; (vomiting) amai. 

side, n. 1. gen. waje, pi. wajeje ; 



sieve 



224 



silent 



one on this s. and one on 
the other s. daya ga wajen 
nan daya ga wajen chan ; 
from this s. (of a room, glen, 
etc.) even to that s. ddga 
sassan nan har ga sassan 
chan; the right s. wajen 
dama, dama ; the left s. 
wajen {hauni or) hagum^ 
hagum, hayun; s. of a body 
(also = edge) kauye ; the s. 
or edge of a stream kauyen 
ruwa. 

2. s. of the body (esp. 
between the bottom of the 
ribs and the thigh-bone) 
kwibi; s. (rib) of an animal 
awaza, pi. awazzai; on one 
s. a kauye. 

sieve, n. rariya, rairaya^ le- 
leya* \ a vessel with holes 
used as a coarse s. tu- 
kunya, mataxihiyaf mararaki, 
7narari* ; a s. used for sepa- 
rating gold from sand, etc. 
matankadi. 

sift, to tache, tankade or yin 
tankade, bakache. 

sigh, n. sheda, pi. shedodi. 

sigh, intr. v. yin sheda, sinihi*, 
sinishi*. 

sighing, n. ajiyar zuchiya. 

sight, n. 1. (the faculty of 
vision) no precise equivalent, 
turn, e.g. he lost the s. of 
his eye idonsa ya hache. 



2. (the act of seeing, also 
view) ido, gani thus, in the 
s. of all men idon duniya ; 
the s. of her will console them 
ganinta zai ma su hankuri; 
the s. of them made every- 
body laugh ganinsu ya sa 
koivanne dariya ; dim (or 
dimness of) s. hamharokai -, 
one who has defective s. 
garara. 

sign, n. gen. shaida, pi. shai- 
dodi, which also = s. or 
mark made by one who 
cannot write his name; 
(important or wonderful 
token, intimation) alama 
often pronounced halama, ] 
pi. alamomi ; aya, pi. ayoyi, 
nuni ; a s. adduced or ap- 
pealed to as a reason ori 
authority dalili. | 

signet, n. mataushin watika; 
s. ring zohen shaida. ' 

silence, n. shiriyu, shiru, shiyu, 
shuru or shu, kurum, kawai, 
kurumta, kurumchi, zugum 
(S.); in s. shiriyu, kunim, 
e.g. leave them in s. a har m 
kurum ; to keep s. yin katcai : 
he kept s. ya ja hakinsa. 

silence, to kawaita. 

silent, adj. kawai or kauwai,' 
jurum. 

silent, to be, v. shiriyu, ku- 
rum and kawai with yi or 



silently 



225 



sink 



the forms in n«, e.g. be 
silent ! ka yi shiru, kame 
hakinka ; we were s. mun yi 
kurum ; he is s. shina kurum 
or shina yin kawai. 
i silently, adv. shiru, 
silk, rdharini, sirki*, adnlashi ; 
a cord or chain of s. siliya, 
pi. siliyu and siliyoyi. 
silk cotton tree, n. rimi, 
rini; red-flowered s. c. t. 
gurjiya; the seed of the 
s. c. t. guriya (S.), anguriya 
(K.). 
silken, adj. na alharini. 
silkworm, a species of, n. 

tsamiya. 
silly, adj., see fool, foolish, 
silver, n. dzur/a. 
silver, adj. na-azur/a, fern, ta- 

azurfa. 
similar, adj., see like, 
similar, to be, v. daidaiche, 

see under like, 
similitude, n. misali ; to speak 

by a s. yin misali. 
i3in, n. zmiufi, zunubi, laiji, pi. 
laifufuka, kuskuri* ; to com- 
mit s., see seq. 
3in, intr. v. yin zunubi (or 

zunufi), yin laiji. 

since, 1. prep, (after, from the 

; time of) tun, e.g. s. your 

birth Urn haifuwarka ; s. the 

commencement of the war 

, tun faratvar yaki. 

R. H. D. 



2. conj. of time (after that, 
from the time that) tun day 
e.g. s. we learnt that he was 
an infidel tu7i da mun sani 
shi kafiri ne. 

3. adv., long s. tun dade, 
tun dadewa, tuntuni, tuni ; 
how long s. ? tun yaushe ? e.g. 
how long s. did you learn 
Hausa? tun yaushe ka koyo 
Hausa 1 

4. conj. (because) don, 
zama, e.g. they cannot move 
since they are lifeless ha su 
iya yin motsi ha don ha su 
da 7'ai. 

sincere, adj., see honest. 

sing, V. yin waka. 

singe, to hahhake. 

singer, a mounted hamhade, 

pi. hamhadawa. 
single, adj. hardhara ; a s. one 

of a pair, of which one has 

been lost kangarwa', see 

alone, one. 
singly, adv., e.g. question them 

s. (one by one) ka tambaya 

su daya daya, see also alone, 
singular, adj. mufivradi, see 

plural, 
sink, n. (a place of filth, also 

fig.) saiga, pi. salgagi. 
sink, V. 1. intr. (to go under 

water) nutsa (K.), 7iuta (S.), 

nutse, nitso, ninkdya, e.g. 

the boat is sinking jirigi 

15 



sinless 



226 



skin 



shina nutsa; to s., i.e. to fall, 
e.g. of a raan wounded or of 
the sun descending fadi. 

2. (to subside) kd/e. 

3. tr. (to immerse) nuche, 
nutse ; spec, to s. a well gina 
rijiya. 

sinless, adj. maras-laifi. 

sinner, n. mai-zumibi. 

sip, n. guwa; to take one s. 
sha daya. 

sip, V. kurha, 

sipping, n. kurhi. 

sister, n. shikikiya, zumniya 
(S. and Daura), (usually = 
younger s.) kanuwa ; elder s. 
ya. 

sit, intr. V. (also to s. down) 
zamna or zauna', to s. on 
the ground with legs crossed 
and elbows on knees gishhi- 
kida, kishinkida, gijirta ; to 
s. with outspread legs tagan- 
gana ; to s. at ease mimike ; 
to make to s. down zamshe ; 
a sitting place mazauni, ma- 
zamni. 

site, n. wuri, pi. wtirare ; to 
mark out a s. sha nmri. 

six, card. num. shidda; s. 
times, adv. sau shidda', by 
sixes or s. each shidda shidda. 

sixth, adj. na-shidda, fern, ta- 
shidda ; one-s. part sudusi*. 

sixtieth, ord. num. norsittin, 
fern, ta-sittin. 



sixty, card. num. sitthi ; also 
gomiya shidda. 

size, n. girma employed thus: 
its fruit is large in s. diyata 
suna da girma ; the s. of the 
jerboa exceeds that of the 
mouse kurege ya fi her a gir- 
ma ; to become (or grow) large 
in s. yin girma. 

skewer, tsinken 7iam,a ; to fix 
on a s. soke a tsinke, tslre*, 
done. 

skilful, adj. (in an art, etc.) 
goni, gwani, gwanaye^ mai- 
gwani; (in artifice) mai- 
wayo, pi. masu-wayo, (esp. in 
war) gardaye. 

skilfully, adv. gwan% da gwani, 
da wayo, da duhara. 

skill, n. (in an art or profession) 
gwani, gwaninta; (in arti- 
fice) wayo ; (in contrivance, 
resource) dabdra or dubdra; 
(with implication of oppor- 
tunity and readiness) tsa- 
raji*. 

skim, tr. v. (milk) ydde, kwcd/e, 
kolfe. 

skimming, of milk kwalfa, 
kolfa. 

skin, n. gen. fata, pi. fatuna, 
pdta, fiska \ (hide) kildgo, pi. 
kilagai ; kilaho, agalemi, lan- 
gabu* ; s. after tanning kir- 
gi; cast s. of serpent swaba 
or saba, zana: he casts his 



skin 

s. ya yi swaba ; a s. bag or 
bottle salka, pi. salkuna; a 
s. used for drawing water 
from well guga; a covering 
of skins tunhu ; a s. wrapper 
ivalki. 
skin, tr. V. kware, kwari,feda, 

fede : see also flay, 
skink, banded s. (Scinopus 
fasciatus) damatsiri, tama- 
tsiri (S.) ; red-bellied s. (Ma- 
buia Perrotteti) kulba. 
skip, V. (to spring along or 
over lightly) bira ; (to pass 
over without reading passages 
in a book) chingara, tsdlache. 
skipping, tscdle. 
ikull, n. kwalluwa, kwakwa- 
lutva, kollo,kwanya, kwanyan 
kai, kashin kai (lit. bone of 
the head). 
kunk, a kind of tunku^ see 

under cat. 
ky, n. sdma^ pi. samaniya or 

sammai, duniya, gari*. 
lacken, v. 1. see loosen. 

2. tr. V. (to relax, mitigate) 
ragi or rage; intr. (to be 
relaxed, mitigated) ragu, e.g. 
the heat of the fire slackened 
zafiii wuta ya ragu. 
ackness, sainyin jiki. 
.ander, chimbaya, tsurutu (S.), 
hardi. 

anderer, maradi. 
ap, V. kalle. 



■227 



slavery 



slash, tr. v. (to cut by striking, 
i.e. not by drawing the edge 
along, which is yanka) sare. 
slaughter, tr. v. yanka or 
yanke, karkdshe, kakkdshe ; 
to s. animals yinfauta. 
slaughter-house, n. wiirin 

fawa, mahauta. 
slaughtering, n.fawa. 
slave, n. bawa, fern, baiwa, 
bauya, boy a (S.) or bawuya*, 
pi. bayi or bai ; spec, chief s. 
of a king kackalla, yari ; a 
female s. baiwa (as above), 
kuyanga or ktviyanga, pi. 
kuyangai, kuyangi; yan tu- 
rdka, (also con cubine)mc^a/^a, 
kwarakwara or kwarkwara, 
bawan gida; the son of a 
s. but free bachucheni, di- 
majo; a s. the offspring of 
a negro father and Tuarek 
mother buzu ; as. who begs 
mauro; a s. about 14 years 
old magudanchi, mugudanchi, 
pi. magudantai; a strong s. 
kato, fern, katuwa; a run- 
away s. gujajje* ; a s. holder 
mai-bawa; a s. raiding ex- 
pedition samame^ sMri ; v. 
to free a s. yanchi; a s. 
raider mahdri. 
slavery, n. bauchi, bauta, ba- 
watichi; liberation from s. 
dvyauchi or diyancki; re- 
demption from s. /ansa 

15—2 



slay 



228 



slip 



usually pronounced pansa; 
to redeem from s. yin/ansa, 
hada (or ha) diyauchi, e.g. 
he freed them from s. ya 
hada su diyauchi. 

slay, tr. v., see kill. 

sleep, n. harchi, kwana, kwan- 
chiya; the last s. (death) 
makarin harchi. 

sleep, intr. v. harchi with yi 
or forms in na, also kwana 
or kwanche ; the former refer 
rather to the physical con- 
dition, the latter convey also 
the idea of reposing, lying 
down to s., e.g. we did not 
hear the howling of the dogs, 
we were sleeping ha mu ji 
ktikan karnuka muna harchi ; 
we slept at that place mun 
kwana a tvurin nan ; sleep- 
ing kwantawa^ kwanchiya ; 
cf. my foot has gone to s. 
mijiriya ta kama kafata. 

sleepiness, n. gyangyadi ; to 
be overcome by s. yin gyan- 
gyada. 

sleeping-place, n. makwanche ; 
spec. s.-p. (e.g. in a tree) 
affording protection from wild 
beasts saura*. 

sleeping sickness, hamota. 

sleeve, n. hdnnu or hdnnun 
riga; a sleeve-knife the 
blade of which is worn along 
or up the s. wukar hdnnu. 



sleight of hand, daho. 

slender, lange lange, see lean 

slice, a gunduwa. 

slide, intr. v., see slip. 

slight, adj., see thin. 

slight, tr. V. rmia, rairia. 

slim, shallali. 

sling, v., to s. anything ovei 
the shoulder sdha. 

sling, n. hindo, elawa, maja^ 
jaiwa, majejawa, majaujawa 
majujawa] sword s. hamila 
a s. for carrying a child oi 
the back gumya. 

slinging, ragaya, rataya. 

slip, n. (loss of foothold by 
sliding) samtsi, santsi, sand 
(S.) ; to make a s. yin sam\ 



tsi, ym 



he 



made a s. ya yi samtsi. ' 
slip, intr. V. 1. (to lose foot 
hold by sliding) samtse, yi', 
samtsi, yin talalabiya, gwol 
chi, tuzga, tuzge, rabkana 
rafkama ; the last also = to s 
into, e.g. he slipped into th 
well ya gwahche chiki^i rijiya 
to s. as in soft mud kajiya. 
2. (to escape hold) kubch 
sumhule ; of things, e.g. th 
sword slipped from my gras 
takohi ya kuhche daga hat 
nuna ; of persons (to leav 
or get away easily fror 
companions, etc.) zuke, rahn 
to try to s. out (used of a 



slipperiness 



229 



smoke 



animal in a trap) kubche- 
kubche; of a knot to s. 
sumhule. 
slipperiness, n. samts% santsi, 
sandi (S.), samche, sulbi, tala- 
labiya. 
slippery, adj. dasamtsi, see slip, 
slipping down or out, parti- 
cipial n. sumbulewa. 
slit, n., as. in a seam bardka ; 

a s. in a stick gebe*. 
slit, tr. V. keta. 

slough, n. (cast skin of ser- 
pent) swaba or saba ; to cast 
a s. yin swaba. 
slow, adj. (one who goes slowly 

or deliberately) mai-nauwa. 
slowcoach, madudu (S.), see 

idle, 
slowly, adv. sannu-sannu; very 

s. sannu-sannu. 
^slumber, n. and v., see sleep, 

sleepiness, 
slush, tabo, chabi, potopoto. 
sly, adj. da wayo, mai-wayo, 

pi. masu-wayo ; see skilful, 
small, adj. karami, fern, kara- 
ma, karamiya, pi. karamu, 
ka7ika7ie,iem. kankanuwa, pi. 
kankana, ka^iana; smallest 
aukc* ■ anything s., n. kima, 
abuhika, kusugu* ; s. quantity 
oikarunchi; s. money (shells) 
yaskan kurdi (S.). 
•mall-pox, n. dgana, ado, zan- 
-<'na, karambo, yar-rani. 



smart, a s. fellow ddje, fern. 

ddjiya, pi. dazoji. 

smash, tr. v. (to break to 

pieces with violence) far- 

fasha, palpashe, ribde, ri/de, 

rubde, rugunguza*, murtsuke. 

smashed, particip. pass, mur- 

jaje, fem. murjajiya, pi. mur- 

jaju; murtsukakke, pl.murtsu- 

kakku. 

smear, tr. v. (e.g. with oil) 

shdfa, shdfe, yafa*. 
smell, n. (odour), an agreeable 
s. kamshi; a bad s. doyi, 
dwai, wari, wardi* ; s. of 
dam^^Jumfuna ; an evil s. as 
of putrefying animal bodies 
karni, kazni, kauri. 
smell, tr. V. 1. (to perceive by 
the sense) ji, sunsuna, e.g. 
I s. the scent of lions na 
ji warin zakoki. 

2. (to s. at with the intent 

to enjoy or test) shaka (S.) 

or sheka (K.) ; to emit a bad 

s. yin doyi. 

smelt, tr. v. narke. 

smile, intr. v. yin murmushi, 

yin mulmushi. 
smite, tr. v., see strike, kill, 
smith, n., see blacksmith, 
smithy, mdkera. 
smoke, n. hayaki; spec. s. of 

a conflagration turnuka. 
smoke, v. 1. (to emit s.) yin 
hayaki. 



smooth 



230 



snore 



2. (to s. tobacco) shan taha. 

smooth, adj. da {samtsi or) 
santsi, nani. 

smooth, tr. V. (of wood, by 
paring, shaving) sassaka, sab- 
che, sabta, sanche ; (by daub- 
ing, plastering, etc*) ydba; 
to rub s. darje. 

smoothed, particip. adj. (by 
plastering, etc.) yababbe^ fem. 
yahabba, pi. yababbu. 

smoothly, adv. sansamtsa*, 
sarr*. 

smoothness, n. samtsi, santsi, 
samche. 

snail, n. katantanwa, alkoto*. 

snail shell, alkoto (S.), 

snake, n. machiji, fem. 'tna- 
chijiya, pi. machizzai, igiyar 
kasa, sago (S.) ; names of 
different species many of 
which await identification 
are : a small s. with a tail 
which resembles a second 
head and a double mouth 
bida; a s. which spits like 
a cat dan mussa; a green 
s. (Philothamnus semivarie- 
gatus) damatsiri, danyen chi- 
yawa; a black s. masasau; 
a black cobra from 14 inches 
to 6 ft. in length without spec- 
tacles kumurchi, kwamarchi ; 
another species of cobra gam- 
sheka, gamshika, or tamatsiri 
(in S. this = a skink) ; a black 



s. about 18 inches long dan 
magurji ; a puff adder kasa ; 
a long, slender, light-coloured 
s. kivakiya ; a python mesa, 
tnuluwa* ; a short black and 
white viper gajera, kubu- 
buwa* ; a harmless s. sha- 
nono; a yellow viper with 
flat head injihau, tsada-raki ; 
a poisonous s. sanadi ; a brown 
harmless s. which comes out 
at daylight tafi ga rana; a 
large spotted s. tandara; a 
large s. uwayara; a plant 
used as antidote to s. bite 
filasko ] a s. charmer gardi, 
pi. gardawa; turde, pi. tur- 
dawa or turdodi', a s. skin 
swaba or saba, zana*, a water 
s. ani. 

snare, n. hako, pi. hakoki, 
tarko; to lay a s. yin hako: 
a bird s. asuta, asibta. 

snatch, tr. v. kwache, karba, 
karbi, amshi, Jisge or fusge \ 
spec, to s. goods wasashe ; to 
s. with violence rupta, rupto. 

snatcher, n. mai-kwachewa. 

snatching, wasoso, wasaso. 

sneeze, intr. v. atisha; sneeziug 
atishawa, furji. 

sniff, V. sheka, shaka; to s. up 
(for the purposes of smelling) 
id. 

snore, intr. v. 7ninshari, han- 
sari, 7idsari, hansdri, givarti. 



snort 



231 



sojourn 



snort, to sheka hiska. 
snow, talji* (Ar.). 
snuff, n. (powdered tobacco) 
(jarin tdba, tahan hanchi ; 
taking s. shekawa. 
snuff, v., see sniff, 
snuff-box, n. hatfM, pi. hattochi. 
so, adv. (thus) hdka, hdkanan^ 
e.g. or is it not so? ko ha 
hdka ba ? so it is shi ke nan ; 
kdza, or kdza da kdza is 
often used in a less demon- 
strative sense and when 
something is referred to not 
named = so and so, e.g. he 
did so and so ya yi abu kdza ; 
wane is similarly used of 
persons, e.g. where is so and 
so ? ina wane ; about so much 
kwatanchin kaza ; so, express- 
ing doubt or some surprise, 
so ! to; so it is ana nan ; so 
that, see under that ; so 
then (therefore), see there- 
fore, 
soap, n. sabuni (S.), sabulu 
(K.), toka\ spec, a superior 
kind of s. used for washing 
the face sabunin sdlo. 
socket, n. kwarmi, pi. kwarmu^ 
gwarmi ; s. of the eye gurbin 
ido; prov. the s. of the eye 
is not the eye itself gurbin 
ido ba ido ne ba. 
sodomy, ludu, lutsu. 
soever, affix to words to em- 



phasise the notion of con- 
tingency ko (used as a prefix), 
e.g. where? ina; wheresoever 
ko ina ; who? which ? what ? 
wa, ivanne', whosoever, which- 
soever, whatsoever koiva, ko- 
wanne, e.g. whomsoever you 
find seize him kowanne .ka 
samu ka katna shi. 
soft, adj. (e.g. of mud, dough, 
etc., also of cloth) da tafshi^ 
da tabshi, da taushi, da lau- 
shi*, labu-labu ; to be or be- 
come s. yin tapshi, yin ka- 
bushi ; of ripe fruit yin tabo 
(or tambo), e.g. the date is s. 
dabino ya yi tabo. 
soften, tr. v. ym tafshi, 

zabki. 
softly, lako-lako, sdko-sdko. 
softness, kabushi, tabo, tapshi, 
tafshi, tabshi, taushi, laushi*. 
soil, n. 1. (ground, land) kdsa, 
pi. kdsashe, kdsaisai ; very 
hard s. tsandauri. 
2. see dirt, 
soil, tr. V. yi7i dauda. 
sojourn, n. (temporary stay) 
zama, e.g. how have you 
been faring during your s. 
in this town? ina zaman 
gari ? 
sojourn, intr. v. (to make a 
stay) zamna, zauna, e.g. we 
sojourned there twelve days 
niun zamna nan kwana goma 



sojourner 



232 



sonship 



ska biy2i, shida or shide (lit. 
to alight at a place). 

sojourner, mai-zamna, pi. mch 
su-zamna. 

Sokoto, the town of Sakwato 
or Sakkwato. 

solder, a sort of, (sal-ammonia) 
sinddari (S.), shinddari (K.), 
sunddari. 

soldier, n. mdyaki, pi. mdyaka^ 
dan yak% pi. yayan (or yan) 
yaki ; askar^ pi. askarawa ; 
spec. as. of a king's body- 
guard dogari, dakdre, dakdra, 
pi. dakdru ; a foot s. dun kasa ; 
foot-soldiers coll. kirma, sa- 



ati^ 



see guriguri^ 



sole, n. (of the foot) sau, sawu, 
sauwcmvai, pi. sauwuna, ma- 
taki, pi. matakai, tdjin kdfa. 

sole, adj. makadaichi, muka- 
daichi, s. in its idiomatic 
use, however, is best ex- 
pressed by means of sai, e.g. 
his s. request was this ba ya 
roko ha sai wannan-, our s. 
food is guinea-corn abinchi 
7iamu sai dawa. 

solely, adv., see alone. 

solid, adj. (sound, trustworthy) 
ingatachi. 

solitary, gwabro*. 

some, 1. (used adjectivally and 
pronominally) wani (often 
pronounced woni), fern, wata, 
pi. wadansu, wa^u, yasu (S.), 



wansu; wait, I have some- 
thing to say bari ina da wani. 
2. wani is also used to 
express the correlatives s. 
one... another, pi. s.... others, 

also s s., e.g. s. one said 

yes, another said no wani ya 
che i wani ya che a'a. 

somersault, the act of turn- 
ing zuragadauniya, juyeu- 
mdsa (see under mdsa). 

sometime, adv. wani yayi. 

son, n. da^ connective dan, pi. 
yaya, ya, connective yayan 
and yan, e.g. first-born s. da 
nafari ; the s. of Amina dan 
Amina (i.e. Mohammed) ; 
used as an expression of 
regard, e.g. my s. da7ia; s. 
of my mother (i.e. friend) 
dan uwana ; also used (as at 
times in English) to expr'^ss 
contempt or aversion, e.g. s. \ 
of the ignorant (heathen) 
dnn jahili (stronger than 
jahili alone) ; s. of the wicked 
dan mazugu. 

song, n. waka, pi. wakoki, wake- 
wake, sara, wasa ; v., to sing 
a s. waka with yi or the 
forms in na, e.g. I sang them 
a s. na yi ma su waka; to 
compose a s. id. ; a religious 
s. tsdri; foolish songs wake- 
tvaken banza. 

sonship, n. diyauchi, diyanchi. 



soon 



233 



source 



soon, adv. (after a little while) 
jima kadan, e.g. I shall s. 
return to you jima kadan ni 
komo gare ku, cf. also while ; 
(in a short time, with quick- 
ness) 7naza and frequently 
maza maza, e.g. I will s. catch 
him zan kama ski maza maza. 

soot, ffifin {^.),Ji7iJini(K.), kun- 
kwiLuiya, kunkum,niya (S.). 

soothsayer, n. hoka, pi. ho- 
kaye ; to act as a s. ym duhi. 

soothsaying, n. arwa, duha. 

sorcerer, n. maye, mayi, fem. 
mayiya, mayya, pi. mayiv. 

sorcery, n. maita, dahu, daho, 
kwarche (S.), sihiri, kandu, 
akokari, tsuhu. 

sordid, adj., see filthy, base. 

sore, n. kushe kushe, miki, pi. 
miyaku, see ulcer, boil; s. 
on a horse's back getsi. 

sore, adj., see painful. 

sores, pi. balli balli. 

sorrel, red s. yakuwa. 

sorrow, n. baki7i chiki, ma- 
ydfM, see affliction, grief. 

sorrowful, to be, intr. sinihi. 

sorry, (distressed, pained) da 
wahala; to be s. haiya; I 
am very s. ya hata ma ni 
zuchiya or zuchiyata ta hache, 
see grieved ; to be or feel s. 
for, see compassion. 

sort, n. iri, pi. irai^e, launi; 
see species. 



sort, tr. V. (to divide, distri- 
bute into classes) raba; (to 
s. out) see choose. 

sorted, pass. part, rababbe, fem. 
rababba, pi. rababbu. 

soul, n. rai, pi. rayu, kurutou, 
both are used of the dis- 
embodied as well as the 
embodied s. ; (the seat of 
the mental feelings and 
qualities) rai, e.g. of haughty 
s. da girman rai ; patient of 
s. da sanyin rai, 

sound, n. (e.g. of bees, a bell, 
gun, trumpet) amo ; a con- 
fused s. dumi. 

sound, adj. (trustworthy) inga 
tachi ; s. (in health) da lafiya. 

sound, intr. v. yin dmo. 

soup, n. romuwa (S.), ronio 
(K.), miya, ruwan nama; 
spec. s. in which fura has 
been mad e farau farau, faro 
faro, ruwan fura ; red sorrel, 
a common ingredient in s. 
yakuwa; a herb the leaves 
of which are used in making 
s. sure. 

sour, adj. da tsami; to be s. 
yamama, yanyama ; the soup 
has gone s. miya ta yi yami. 

source, n. (spring of water) 
idon ruwa-, s. of a river 
gindi; (origin, beginning 
mafari ; (of words, the primi- 
tive meaning or derivation) 



sourness 



234 



spear 



gutsu^ e.g. what is its s. ? 

minene gutsunsal (first cause) 

sababi, e.g. the s. of the ilhiess 

was this sahabin chiwuta ke 

na7i. 
sourness, tsmni, tsamiya, yami. 
souse, tr. V. (to immerse) tso- 

ma, nuche (S.), nutsa. 
south, n. kudu, kudus, gusum, 

tsdkar rana ', adv. id., e.g. 

he went s. ya tafi kudu. 
southward, adj. (towards the 

s.) gusumchi, kudanchi. 
sovereign, n., see king, 
sovereignty, n., see kingdom, 
sow, n. (female of wild swine) 

gadoniya, gyadainya (S.) ; 

(of domestic) gursuna mache. 
sow, tr. V. shipka, shibka, 

shuka ; a hole in which to s. 

seed sdra. 
sower, n. mai-shipka, ma- 

shipki. 
sowing-time, n. manomi, also 

fig., e.g. this life is a s.-t. 

for the future life, ita du- 

niya nana che manomi a 

lahira. 
space, n. (open, free room) 

sarari, /age ; unoccupied sp. 

(e.g. on the ground, etc.) 

fill, pi. filaye, kanwuri, far- 

fajiya, sarari, e.g. there is 

no s. here for my load 

bohu fili a unirin nan ga 

kayana; in a less precise 



sense wuri (place) may be 
used. 

spacious^ adj. mai-sarari, mai- 
yalwa, 

span, n. (a measure of length, 
i.e. the space between ends 
of thumb and first finger 
extended) tdki, dani. 

sparks, tsai'tsatsi. 

sparrow, n., the African s. 
magwara. 

speak, V. fdda and fddi, tmi% 
zantai^.), e.g. I s. the truth 
to you ina fdda ma ku gaS' 
kiya ; (in the sense also of 
conversation) yin zanche ; to 
s. with zantad da ; to s. a 
language yin magana, e.g. 
we are able to s. Hausa mu- 
na iya yin maganar Hausa ; 
to s. evil of hdchi ; to s. evil 
of behind one's back chim- 
baya ; to s. proudly yin raha; 
to s. secretl}'- or to s. in 
whispers rada; speakingy«- 
dalle, see say. 

spear, n. mdshi, pi. masu- 
suka, or masu ; spec, a long 
s. not thrown kasausawa; 
a small s. for throwing han- 
kaltilo; a small s. tied to 
wrist and which after being 
thrown is pulled back hargi, 
pi. harugga ; a s. or dart for 
catching fish hdgu, margi] 
V. to cast a s. as a sign of 



spear 



235 



spike 



declaration of war yasda (or 
yada) mashi; s. throwing 
ndshi, pi. nashe-nashe. 

spear, tr. v. soka^ soke or sok'i, 
halhe^ halhiov harbi, chdke, e.g. 
he speared a fish ya soka kifi. 

spearman, n. mahalh% pi. ma- 
fialba and masu-halbi. 

species, n. iri, pi. irare, latmi, 
e.g. they had collected stones 
of various s. suka tattara du- 
watsu na iri dabam daham. 

speckled, adj. (of birds, etc) 
wake-wake^ see spotted. 

specks, coll. (spots or dots, 
e.g. on plumage of birds) 
zane; spec. s. in eyes of 
blind tsauriya ; see spot. 

spectacles, n. (the optical 
instrument) minzari*. 

spectre, n.Jatalwa. 

speech, n. 1. gen. magana, 
which can be used in all the 
following senses. 

2. (the uttering of words) 
fadi, pi. fade-fade, fada, ja- 

tvdbij e.g. he would hear my 
s. shi kan ji fadata ; until s. 
be heard (i.e. is ended) har 
magana a ji ta ; confused, 
noisy s. durni. 

3. (uttered words and so 
talk, discourse) zanche, ka- 
lami*j aljama, aljima,jawabi. 

4. (native language) hau- 
sa*, pi. harata, halshe, har she, 



pi. halshina, halussa (S.), 
e.g. in the s. of the Fulahs 
da halshen Fillani ; he under- 
stands the Hausa s. ya ji 
maganar Hausa. 
speechless, adj., see dumb, 

silent, 
speed, n., see haste, 
speedily, adv., see quickly, 

soon, 
spell, n. (charm) magani, pi. 
maganguna and magunguna. 
spend, tr. v. kdshe, kisa, kma^ 
bdtas, (with the idea of waste 
more or less implied), e.g. he 
spent much money ya kdshe 
kurdidayawa; aikatada; to 
s. time samu ; he spent one 
month ya samu wata guda. 
spew, v. tofi, kurkure. 
sphere, azurumi^. 
spice, hot, n. yaji, chefane 
(S.); cf. kula* ; spices coll. 
jauwi* ; see pepper, 
spider, n. gizo, girgizo, toto, 
tautau, rozo ; female s. koki ; 
spider's web sumya, shau- 
shaudo (S.), tautauchi, yana ; 
the spider's wife (in stories) 
koki. 
spiderwort, bulasa. 
spike, n., an iron s. tsinke, 
chinke (S.), pi. tsinkai ; also -= 
a little s. of straw; s. for 
making holes in skin, etc. 
tsiko, pi. tsikuna. 



spill 



236 



splashing 



spill, V. 1. tr. (to let run over) 
tuddas. 

2. intr. tuda or tude. 

spilling, harhaduwa. 

spin, V. 1. tr. (to twist into 
thread) zare, zari, yin kadi ; 
to s. yarn sabi*. 

2. intr. (to revolve) kewaye, 
kewayi, e.g. the top spins ma- 
kodi ya kewaye. 

spinach, native s. alayafu, 
alayapo. 

spindle, n. mazari, kadamin 
abduga ; a sort of s. made of 
skin mataki; a mud ball on 
a kind of s. used in winding 
thread gululu. 

spine, (backbone) tsatso. 

spinning, n. kadi, wddira*, 
tcodira*. 

spinning round, anything, n. 
makodi, e.g. ball, top, etc. 

spinster, n. givabruwa ; an old 
s. tuzuruwa. 

spirit, n. ruhu*, (soul of man 
generally, also as the seat of 
feelings, etc.) see soul, (an 
immaterial being, as.) id. ; 
the evil s. eblis, shaitan, she- 
tan, shaitan, shaidane, iblis ; 
an evil s. aljani, fem. aljana, 
pi. aljannu, janziri*', jan- 
zari*, kankama, kaura ; evil 
spirits coll. jinnu, also the 
pi. rayuka; (a ghost) see 
spectre ; (mind) zuchiya, 



e.g. tranquillity or happiness 
of s. dadin zuchiya; spec, 
terms connected with popular 
superstitions are : a s. de- 
scribed as having hair hang- 
ing down its face and often 
appearing in trees dodo, pi. 
dodani ; a s. that renders a 
man mad or delirious bori; 
evil s. said to kill mother 
and child at birth uwayara ; 
an evil s. supposed to injure 
tamarind and other trees 
doguwa; an evil s. in form 
of snake gajimare ; persons 
and esp. women possessed by 
an evil s. masu-bori or masu- 
boli. 

spiritless, adj. da karamar 
zuchiya. 

spit, n. tsinke. 

spit, V. 1. tofa, toJi,fesa, pesa, 
furji, furza, kaki ; to s. out 
tofi, tofar da, miyau, yau, 
tsalga (S.), tsalte, tsarta; to 
s. out water from the mouth 
tsartso, see spurt. 
2. see pierce. 

spite, n. chegi, for s. don chegi. 

spitting, participial n.fesawa, 
feshi, tofi, e.g. s. accompanied 
by s. of h\ood /esawan jini. 

spittle, n. dalele, salabi, miyau, 
yau (K.). 

splashing, e.g. of water bun- 
dum-bundum, funjum, tsin- 



spleen 



237 



spotted 



dum, pinjum, jirivaye* ; an 
exclamation descriptive of s. 
tsiU, tsulut. 

spleen, n. (the bodily organ) 
sefa^ saifa^ pi. saifofi ; (dis- 
ease of the s., splenitis) 
chiwonsaifa; trop. (vexation) 
haushi, e.g. his s. was roused 
at this yaji haushin wantian. 

splendid, adj. (of dress, orna- 
ments, etG.)naado,i&m. taado. 

splendour, n. (of dress, etc.) 
ado. 

splenitis, n., see spleen. 

splinter, n. (e.g. in the skin) 
sartse. 

split, n. tsdga, tsdgi. 

split, tr. V. tsdga, keta, firda, 
farde, datse (S.), fdsa, the 
last also used of cold, faskara. 

splitting, 1. participial n. ke- 
tuwa, fasawa, faskari. 
2. adj. mai-fasawa. 

spoil, 1. tr. V. (to waste, injure) 
bdta, bdchi, bdche. 

2. intr. (to be spoiled, 
wasted, etc. ) bdche ; of fruits, 
etc. (to go bad, rot) riba or 
ruba. 

3. n. and tr, v., see 
plunder. 

spoiled, pass. part, bdtache, 
fern, bdtachiya, pi. bdtattu, 
rubabbe, fem. rubahbiya, pi. 
rubabbu; to be s., see spoil 2. 

spoils, a half share of s. paid 



to the leader of an expedition 
after a raid hamushi. 

sponge, n., soso (K.), susu (S.), 
i.e. the fibrous network of the 
fruit of a species of gourd, 
the ' loofah ' gourd ; anything 
used as a s. abin shafe. 

spool, matari. 

spoon, n. (made of wood) 
chokali, koshiya, kwiyafa, 
kuyafa (S.) ; a s. used for 
measuring madebi ; a large 
wooden s. moda; spoons 
made from pumpkin rinds 
pi. luddai. 

spoor, lawali. 

sport, n. (play, diversion) war- 
gi; (mirth, also mirthful 
contempt) dariya, e.g. we 
made s. of him mun ba shi 
dariya; (of the field, as 
fowling, \miitmg) farauta. 

spot, n. tabo, pi. tabuna, tavnho 
(S.), dangole ; a s. or blot, e.g. 
of ink dole, kyanda, pi. ky- 
andu, zane, pi. zane-zane ; (a 
blemish in an article) aibi, 
aibu, pi. aibobi, sqfa7ie, pi. so- 
fanai ; a s. of grease maski ; 
fig. (moral blemish, fault) aib% 
aibu ; (a particular locality) 
wuri, pi. wurare; (speckle) 
rodi, pi. rode-rode. 

spots, having s., adj. wake- 
wake. 

spotted, mai-rodi. 



spout 



238 



squatting 



spout, n. mazurari. 

sprain, n. targade, 

spread, tr. v. (e.g. a cloth, a 
mat) shimfida ■ intr. (to sepa- 
rate, scatter) watse, wache; 
to s. out, tr. (esp. used of 
spreading out goods for sale 
on a mat) shimfida ; to s. out 
(the legs) tantana ; to s, out 
wheat to dry haza ; (to expose 
to view) haydna or haiyana ; 
intr. to s. out or abroad, 
increase yado, yadu, malala^ 
nasa. 

spring, n., of water, idon niwa^ 
rtiaroinaro, raarrmxro^ niar- 
maru ; the mouth of a s. or 
well bakin rijiya; for other 
senses see source. 

spring, intr. v. 1. see jump. 
2. to s. or s. up out of the 
ground (of seeds, plants) 
tsira^ tsire^ tsiro, chira; (of 
water) balbadu, barbadu. 

sprinkle, to buta, bursuna 
(K.), fantsama. 

sprinkling, n. kurmuwa. 

sprout, n. (of guinea-corn, etc.) 
karmdmi ; (of trees) tofo, pi. 
tofuna; spec, new sprouts 
after trees, etc. have been 
cut down kankama ; sprout- 
ing corn yahanya. 

sprout, intr. v. 1. (to spring 
up out of the ground) tsira, 
tsiro, tsiri, see spring. 



2. of trees and plants (to 
put forth buds, leaves, etc.) 
tqfu, yin tqfo, yin /oge, yin 
gunda, e.g. the trees s. ita^ 
tuwa sun tofu ; the melon 
sprouts kabewa tana gu7ida. 

sprouting, gauro, gyauro. 

spue, v., see spew. 

spur, n. kaimi, pi. kayame; s. 
of a cock kafa. 

spur, i.e. to prick with a s. 
chdchdka. 

spurs, long riding-boot with, 
n. kufita or kufuta, pi. kufitai, 
kufutai, kubutai (S.), kuftai 
(K.). 

spurt, to s. out tartso, tudas, 
fantsama. 

spurting, tartsatsi, tudaswa. 

spy, n. gdta, pi. gataye^ maje- 
wayi, magewayi, pi. maje- 
waya. 

spy, to s. or s. out jewayi, 
jewaye, leka, leki, leko, yin 
shigoro. 

spying, n. dauraro, dararo, 
jewaya, shigoro. 

square, n., a s. of men ketvanya. 

squash, to (e.g. with the foot) 
latse^ lowatse. 

squat, intr. v., to s. down with 
legs crossed kishinkida, gi- 
jirche (S.) ; to s. on the 
ground tsugunna. 

squatting, n. tsugum; (the 
body resting upon the inside 



squeeze 239 



stalk 



of the thighs with the feet 
splayed outwards) zaman ra- 
kumi ; s. with outspread legs 
tantana. 
squeeze, tr. v. mache, matse, 
matsa, taushe (S.), tausa (K), 
damfare, tsamki, tattara^ rum- 
chiy riimtse ; to s. a lemon, etc. 
tatsa, tatse, twatsa, twache. 
squeezed, pass, particip. tau- 

shashe, fern, taushashiya. 
squeezing, participial n. tau- 
shAiiva; s. through a narrow 
place hokoto. 
squint, n. idon mage. 
squirrel, n. kusum-hisa ; Afri- 
can flying s. heran bisa; 
the spiny ground-squirrel 
kurege. 
squirt, to tsurara. 
stable, n. muri^ harya, mai- 
tivrke] and less precise (a 
place for horses) shamaki, 
pi. sltamakai, shamakoki. 
stable-man, n. dan muri, 
barga, birga, see also groom, 
stack, a s. of corn matdra, 

mataran hatsi. 
staff, n. sanda, pi. sanduna; 

kulki, pi, kulake. 
stagger, v. 1. intr. magagi 
with forms in na, e.g. he 
was struck by a bullet, he 
staggered and fell aka halbe 
shi da bindiga yana magagi 
yafadi. 



2. (to confuse, perplex) 
dame, ddma and pass, to be 
staggered damu. 
staggering, n. (e.g. of a dying 

man) magagi. 
stain, n. (colouring matter), 
e.g. a red clay used for stain- 
ing eyelids, etc. koya, kowa ; 
a red vegetable s. for the 
teeth kuriya, see dye ; (spot, 
blemish, fault) aibu, kufa. 
stain, V. (to tinge fabrics, etc. 
with colouring matter), see 
dye ; pass, to be stained (in 
a wider sense), turn by 
general terms for 'change' 
with the appropriate com- 
plements, e.g. the field was 
stained with blood wurin 
fada ya sauya ja da jini or 
wurin fada sai jini; the 
waters were stained all red 
ruwaye sun sauya ja ivur ; to 
s. the face dambara, dan- 
dambara ; esp. to s. the face 
blue dambara. 
staining, yanayi. 
stairs, pi. n. (steps) mahayi, 

karangama ; see steps, 
stake, n. rino, rinu% shishike 

(S.) ; a s. in gambling riko. 
Stalk, n. (of plants) kdra, pi. 
karare, alkdjiya, tsirgagiya; 
(of corn, etc.) zangare, zan- 
garniya, pi. zangarnu, kar- 
mdmi, Jirchi ; stalks (of 



stalk 



240 



state 



beans, ground-nuts) Jiardwa ; 
stalks of i^rass used for horses' 
food tattaka ; corn stalks used 
by tanners karanddfi (S.). 

stalk, to s. an animal robe. 

stall, n. 1. (for cattle) garke, 
pi. garkuna ; s. (or paddock) 
harga. 

2. (a stand in the market) 
rumbu, rumpa, pi. rumfuna. 

stallion, aiigarma, ingarma ; 
mounting of a mare by a s. 
nuni. 

stammer, intr. v. ininaj inna. 

stam.mering, n. inina7i halshe, 
kikiniya. 

stam.p, n. (seal) mazub% ma- 
taushin watika. 

stam.p, to s. down ddhe, tattaka-, 
stamping down (e.g. a floor) 
ddhe-ddhe. 

stand, on which things are ex- 
posed for sale, n., see stall 2. 

stand, intr. v. tsayi, tsaya or 
tsai which also = to s. up 
and to s. still, e.g. s. there 
till I am ready ka tsayi nan 
har na yi shiri ; to cause to 
s. still tsaishe ; I s. upright 
na tsaya daidai ; to s. by or 
up for (to aid), see help. 

standard, n. 1. (of proportion, 
measure), see measure. 

2. (flag of a king) tuta, 
tuti, pi. tutochi. 

standing, tsaye. 



star, n. tami'dro, taurdr'o (Dau- 
ra), pi. tamrdru, taurdra% ; 
tatsuniya, pi. tatsuniyoyi ; | 
spec, the morning s. gam- 
zaki ; a shooting s. rnashin \ 
tamraru. 

stare, n. kallo, zuru. 

stare, v. also = to s. at (of 
curiosity) yin kallo, yin zuru, 
e.g. you keep staring at me i 
kafaye kallona. 

starling, dokin huntu ; the 
glossy s. or grakle tsakwai- 
kwaiwa. \ 

start, n. sabko, safko. I 

start, V. 1. intr. (to move ' 
suddenly through fear, etc.) 
razana or razani; (of a 
horse) to s. or s. back za- \ 
bura ; to cause to s. zaburi ; j 
(of a restive horse) to s. tuma. : 
2. intr. (to move off, set ; 
out) tashi, sabko, safko, sapko, \ 
yin sabko, e.g. he prepared 
to s. ya sake tashi; tr. (to 
send off) tada, tayas da, e.g. I 
I started a messenger na j 
tada manzo. ! 

starve, intr. v. (to perish by j 
starvation) mutu da yunwa. [ 

state, n. (condition) zama and j 
zamanchi; intr. v. to come 
into a s. zdma, zam (S.), 
zama, e.g. he came into a \ 
s. of distress ya zama matsi- j 
yachi. i 



state 



241 



stick 



state, v., see narrate, 

statement, e.g. before a judge 
hiyai/a. 

stay, intr. v. zamna, zauna, 
i^auka: wanzu, which also 
means to delay ; to s. at 
a place (i.e. to rest) yi7i 
mugdma ; to s. at a place or 
occupation for a day only 
yini, e.g. there we s. a day 
nan mu ke yini daya; I s. 
at work the whole day ina 
yini aiki ; a s.-at-home (per- 
son) klfin Tijiya) to s. pro- 
ceedings tsaida magana) to 
cause to s. zamnas da, zamshe. 

5teal, tr. V. sache, yin sata, yin 
swane (or sane); spec, to s. 

' goods kwache. 

itealing, n. (theft) sata, hara- 
tconchi, sane, swane, harauchi; 

i s. earnest money chin amdna; 
cattle-s. wdgi*, tvogi*. 

tealth, he went by s. ya yi 
sanda. 

tealthily, suUup. 

tealthy, s. walk as of a thief 
sanda. 

team, surachi, turari. 

team-boat, n.,as.-b. is usually 
designated by Hausas who 
have seen one by jirigin 
icuta or jirigin hayaki; a loco- 
motive s.-engine dokin wuta. 

teep, tos. in water ^,9m«, tsoma. 

keeping, in water tsime, tsimi. 
R. H. D. 



stem, n. (of plants) karct, kare. 
stepchild, agola, pi. agololi, 

tahyo. 
stepfather, n. uhcm rana. 
step-parent, tdlafi, taulafi. 
steps, n. mahayi, tdkawa, 
karangama; spec. s. formed 
of mud mataki, pi. matakai ; 
s. by which to come down 
from a place mashidi ; s. 
placed for mounting a horse 
Hkkafa^ and likkafan doki^. 
sterile, adj., see barren, 
steward, n. (manager) wakili ; 

to act as a s. wakiJta. 
stewardship, n. wakilchi. 
stick, n. sanda, pi. sanduna, 
kurki, kidki, pi. kulake, ku- 
ina ; walking s. kandiri, kwa^ 
giri; (such as is used by a blind 
man) jagora, givalma ; a s. cut 
from a tree and in this sense 
usually fern, iche or itache ; 
a thin bending s. tsumanjiya; 
a heavy s. guduma ; a s. 
carried by porters loko^ ; a 
s. used for stirring soup etc. 
muchiya, ynaburgi, mabur- 
kaki (S.); a crooked s., e.g. 
one used for pulling down 
fruit 7'orami] a s. with a 
bent handle pauma. 
stick, V. 1. tr. (to pierce) soka, 
soke or soki. 

2. intr. to stick fast (e.a 
m a narrow passage) yin 

16 



stickiness 



242 



stop 



harankam; also s. to or to- 
gether lazumta^ lazumche, 

kakkafe, like, liki, nana, see 

adhere, cleave to. 
stickiness, yauki, yapki, yabki. 
stiff, to be, intr. v. gage, gaga, 

sankare, sandare, kdge, sage ; 

of skins etc. kandare (K.), 

kangare (K.), kangare (S.). 
still, to be, intr. v. kawaita, 

pass, impersonal, be still ! a 

kawaita. 
still-bom, haifuwa hari. 
stilt, black-winged s. takahddo, 

takabarhado (S.). 
stilts, kadarko*. 
sting, tr. V. halbi, harhi, sdra, 

tdha, halle, halla. 
stinginess, n. kalmashen zu- 

chiya, rowa, tsimi. 
sting-ray (Trygon), kundmar 

ruwa. 
stingy, adj. dM rowa, mai- 

rowa, bahili*. 
stink, n. doyi, dwai, ivari ; 

see smell, 
stink, intr. v., e.g. they s. suna 

doyi. 
stinking, to become, intr. v. 

zama wa7^i. 
stir, V. 1. tr. (for the purpose 

of mixing) ruda; to s. about 

in a pot while cooking taiga, 

talgi, iuka. 

2. intr. (to move oneself) 

yiri motsi. 



stirrup, n. likkafa; an iron s. 
kehe* ; leather cords by which 
the s. hangs kinami; brass 
stirrups zarnawi. 

stock, n. (seed, kind, tribe) 
iri, pi. irare. 

stockade, kdji, kahi (S.). 

stocks, e.g. a log to which a 
recaptured slave is fastened 
turu. 

stolen, ktvachache ; a receiver 
of s. property dan tugu. 

stomach, tumbi, pi. tumbuna. 

stone, n. dutsi, duchi (S.), pi. 
duwatsu and duwarwatsi*, 
pa (S.), pi. pdni ; a flat s. 
for rolling rice on magurji ; 
a precious s. yakutu* ; a 
white s. zaura*, idon zaura ; 
a s. ball makodi ; slinging a 
s. majaujawa, majajaiwa; a 
small s. burguje (S.) ; a stony 
plain hamdda* ; a s. in the 
path kauwa*. 

stones, n. in coll. sense, small 
s. tarki*, tsdkuwa ; s. col- 
lected together, e.g. round a 
well marmara ; s. used as a 
support magirkai*. 

stool, n. kujera. 

stoop, intr. v. sunkwiya, sun- 
kuya, tsugunna ; one who 
stoops dukau. 

stop, full, n. kora. 

stop, V. 1. tr. (to make or 
cause to stand still) tsaishr. 



store 



243 



strange 



kwdbe, kwdba, kwdbo, tare, 
tdra; s. it with your hand 
tdre shi da hannu ; to s. up 
a hole like, toshe. 

2. intr. (e.g. of one walk- 
ing, running, etc.) tsayi, 
tsaya or tmi ; (to come to 
an end) id., e.g. at that 
point it stopped daga nan 
ija tsaya; (of a horse etc.) 
zame. 

3. to delay ddde. 

4. to s. up dwade; stop 
thief! ku tdre ku tdre; (to 
stay, stay at, etc.) see stay. 

tore, n. 1. (a supply laid up) 

(ijiya ; a large s. of anything 

fuli,jibgi. 

2. (a place for storing 

things) Tumhu, rufogo, gun- 

sakawa. 
.tore, tr. v., also to s. up aje ; 

to s. up goods jihga ; to s. 

up treasure tarkache. 
tore-room, n. taska, pi. tas- 

kaki, see store 2. 
:orey, upper, in a house, n. 

kandaki, pi. kandakuna, soro, 

tsoro. 

ioring grain, a ciiamber for, 
n. ra/'oniya, pi. ra/oni ; a 
large barn for s. g. ru/ogo, 
see store 2. 

ork, n., black s. kasheri, mai- 
jikka; the marabout s. horin- 
, tumki, babba da jikka ; a tall 



red and white s. tsagagi; 
the saddle-billed s. or Jabiru, 
jahirma; rosy s. or African 
wood-ibis tsagagi; sacred ibis 
jinjimi ; Hadadah ibis rara. 
Storm, n. hddari, pi. hddara; 
a whirling dust s. gugmva, 
holoko, huluku ; a heavy rain 
s. or rain cloud zirnaniya or 
zurnaniya. 
story, n. kariya*, tatsimiya, pi. 
tatsuniyoyi (latter also = a s. 
told at night, a fireside s.), 
gdtana, riwaya (S.), aljama, 
aljima; an untrue s. kariya, 
fira or Aim* ; the telling of 
a s. riyaya ; a s. (told as an 
allegory) almara. 
stout, adj. 1. (of persons = fat, 
of things =: thick) da kabri, 
da kauri. 
2. see brave, 
stove, n. murufu, madaji. 
stow, tr. V. (to lay up) aje. 
straight, adj. sosai, daidai*, 
e.g. they followed the s. path 
sun bi hanya sosai. 
Strain, tr. v. (to filter) rare, 
tache; to s. out rare, tardre, 
tardro. 
strainer, n. marari, mar are. 
straining, n., a calabash witli 

holes for s. rariya. 
strand, e.g. of rope nunki, 

ninki, ribe. 
Strange, 1. (foreign) bako, fern. 

16—2 



strangeness 



•244. 



hakiiwa, pi. bakuna, baki and 
bakokuna. 

2. (odd, extraordinary) 
bako ; this notion is also ex- 
pressed by the n. aVamari 
(matter) in the pregnant sense 
of 'as. matter,' e.g. what a 
s. thing ! aVamaringa ; this s. 
war wannan aVamarin yaki. 
strangeness, n. bakonchi, ba- 

kontaka. 
stranger, n. bako, fem. bakuwa, 
pi. bakuna, baki and bako- 
kuna, haddka, pi. haddku, 
ba-ture; to act as a s. yin 
bakonchi or yin bakontaka ; 
service done to a s. bakonchi, 
bakontaka. 
strangle, tr. v. shctki, shake, 

makure. 
strap, tied to bit, n. kamazuru. 
stratagem, n. wayo, hila, 
. fila, yaudara, idon-yaki ; to 
use s. gajna with wayo or 
kai. 
straw, n. tsaiwa ; s. hat mala- 
fa, malfa, pi. malafuna and 
malafai, garumfa, garunfa. 
stream, n., small running s. 
malala ; a fast flowing s. 
korama ; the hollow of a s. 
kwazazzabo. 
street, n. hanya, pi. hanyoyi, 

see way. 
strength, n. (inherent power 
or firmness) karji, kariji, 



striking 

kwdri* ; (power over some- 
thing else) iko, pi. ikoki; 
these terms differ as absolute 
and relative, e.g. s. of mind 
karifin zuchiya ; he surpassed 
him in s. ya fi shi karifi: 
we do this by the s. of a 
charm muna yin haka da 
ikon magani, kambi* ; to ex- 
ceed in s. gdgara. 
strengthen, tr. v. karfafa. 
stretch, forth, tr. v. rtuku, 
mike; to s. a bow-string 
tanka] intr. to be stretched 
forth or out mikw, to s. out 
the hand zurma; to bei 
stretched out (used of a dog j 
lake (S.); stretching one','j 
limbs sleepily on waking 
magagin barchi. 
stride, chirawa ; to s. yin chi 

rawa, mike tsawo. 
strife, n. fdda, fama; (s. o 
tongues, contention) haya 
niya, gardama. 
strike, tr. v. mdra, see beat 
and the verbs given unde 
blow n. ; to s. (and so bruise 
smsish)/al/asa, bubbuga, ribdt 
rifde, rubde ; to s. a tent nmj 
laima ; to s. with the fist dan 
kwasa, dankwaahe; to s. i 
drum buga, kdda,ktvankwasn 
striking, tabi; s. repeatedl}' 
participial n. marmarawo 
buga-buga. 



string 245 

string, n. iyiya^ pi. igoyi and 
Hl^y^U^\ silly a, pi. siliyu or 
siliyoyi ; wadari, pi. wadura ; 
spec. s. for tying up trousers 
mazargi, zariya; strong white 
s. made of flax kirtani. 
strip, n., of cloth kwariya; 
strips of black leather ktvaro; 
to cut into strips rede. 
strip, tr. V. ktcare, kwoH, fige ; 
to s. (skin of fruits, etc.) 
hare, hdra ; to s. leaves from 
a stalk hralde; to s. off' 
garments tv,he riguna, dehe 
rig una. 
stripe, n. (blow) fig. sanda. 
stripe, 11. (in cloth, blue) saki, 
.^a-aki ; stripes (e.g. on a 
bird, etc.) za7ie ; having 
stripes, adj. wake-wake ; to 
(h'aw stripes za7ia, zani. 
3triped, (cloth) saki-saki. 
strive, intr. v., see attempt, 
stroke, n. mari, pi. maremare ; 

see also blow, 
stroke, to, with the hand 

hdlaya^ saha. 
strokes, n., see lines, 
strong, a.dyma.i-kariji, ^X.masu- 
karifi, da kariji, kodago, da 
i/azau, da iauri, ishashe, fern. 
'shashiya, pi. ishashu ; very 
s. kakkarifa-, to be s. yiri 
kwdri] he is stronger than 
I ya huwaye ni ; I am 
stronger than you 7ia hu- 



stump 



ivaye ka ; spec. s. in war 
gargami, garkami ; very s. 
(epithet of lion) gadanga ; a 
s. man kodago, gwarzo, pi. 
gwaraje; to be s. bunkdsa ; 
s. slave kato, fem. katiiwa, 
pi. katta. 
strongly, adv. da kariji. 
strophanthus, (usedforpoison- 

ing arrows) kwankwani. 
strutting, tdkama- (of a wo 

man) made. 
stubble, n. kulutfura, kiUut- 
ture, kotuttura; the s. of 
guinea-corn, wheat, etc. tu- 
shiya. 
stubborn, adj. mai-kinji, pi. 
masu-kinji, da taurin zuchiya, 
da tsayaya. 
stubbornness, n. ta^iri, taurin 

zuchiya, tsayaya. 
study, v. (to endeavour dili- 
gently) yin anuiya, e.g. s. to 
follow the true path ku yi 
anniya ku bi hanyar gaskiya. 
stumble, intr. v. tuntsure, yin 
timtuhe, yin tangadi ; to s. 
against a stone kdro da 
dutsi. 
stumbling, n. sansarifa, sas~ 
sar'ifa, shekarakki*, tangadi 
(K.), tuntuhe. 
stump, n., of tree gutsnn itache, 
gatsa, ko7'i, kwabri, gungume, 
pi. gumagumai, guntu, ku- 
tuttura, kotuttura ; a small 



stupid 



246 



sudden 



s. tsatsage ; s. of a leg or arm 



stupid, adj. (wanting in sense) 
maras-hankali. 

stutter, intr. v. i^ina, 

stuttering, n. i'inar halshe. 

sty, n., in the eye hazbiya, 
hitnunutva. 

subdue, tr. V. (to conquer, e.g. 
a people) chi. 

subject, n. (matter) tada, pi. 
tadocli, e.g. a s. of enquiry 
tadat tanibaya. 

subject to, to be, intr. v. (to 
be characteristically prone 
to) turn by means of tarka, 
e.g. he is s. to terror ya tarka 
razana, see character. 

submission, putting earth on 
the head as a sign of huruwa. 

submissive, aid].mai-tankwasa. 

submissiveness, n. tmikwasa. 

submit, intr. v., e.g. I s. my- 
self na tankwasa kaina. 

subscription, (e.g. a contribu- 
tion of food) tarhache. 

subside, intr. v. (e.g. of water) 
kdfe, wuche, fuche\ (gen. to 
abate, lessen) raye^ ')i'<^y% ragu. 

substitute for something, n. 
maitnako, maimaki, madadi, 
madadin*. 

suburb, n. unyuiva, anguwa, 
pi. unguwai, ungwanai, un- 
gunnai. 

succeed, intr, v. 1 . (to be suc- 



cessful) iyas, iyas da, iyar da, 
kdrasa, yin zama; impers. it 
succeeds ya kama, ya yi ; to s. 
(as heir) gdda, gciji or gdje. 

2. to s. (i.e. to take the 
place of another) tnaya, mayi ; 
to be succeeded by gada da. 

success, dache* ; (in war), n. 
ndsara and nasarchi ; to 
obtain s. (in war) yin nd- 
sara, katari. 

successor, inamayi. 

such, demonstr. adj. 1. (like 
that) e.g. we cannot do s. a 
thing ha tnu iya yin abu kaza. 
2. (that referred to, the 
naming of which is avoided 
by narrator), e.g. ho ! (or 
here !) s. a one ya ka mutum 
kaza; takethis money to s. and 
s. persons ku tafi da kurdin 
nan ga miitane kaza da kaza. 

suck, tr. V. tsotsa, tsotse, sha; 
to s. a lime or lemon sha 
leniu ; (of infants) sha nono ; 
to s. in or up (e.g. as a 
sponge water), id. 

sucked, tsotsatse; a s. lime 
tsotsatsel lemu. 

sucking, tsotso. 

suckle, tr. V. (to give suck to) 
goyo, yin goyo, ba nono. 

Sudan, pr. n. Sudan. 

sudd, (floating grass) tsambo, 
datnba. 

sudden, adj., s. death saukin 



suddenly 



247 



superior 



mutiitva ; s. action is some- 
times expressed bj'- tvuj\ e.g. 
he gave a s. jump ya yi wuf; 
see quick, 
suddenly, adv. da sauki, bum, 
mamaye, tnatne. 

suffer, V. 1. tr. (to endure) 
jimri ; (to allow) hari, bar, 
e.g. s. me to enter bar ni in 
xhtya, phr. s. me kiyaye ni. 

2. intr. (to undergo pain 
or distress) sha wahala. 

suffice, V. isa and ishe. 

sufficient, adj. ishashe, fern. 
ishashiya, pi. ishashu, also 
expressed by appending the 
impers. ya isa or ya ishe, 
e.g. we have s. bread muna 
da gu7'asa {ya isa or) ya ishe 
mu ; exclamatory phr. s..! 
bus, which =^ say no more ! ; 
to be s., see prec. 

suffocate, suffocation, v. and 
n., see choke, choking. 

sugar, sukur*, takanda*. 

sugar-cane, n. takanda, rake, 
urakke (S.), kdran sariki. 

suicide, kiskansa (S.),kaskansa 
(K.). 

suit, n. (claim at law) kara, 
q.v. ; to make or bring a s. 
kara and kai kara. 

suit, v. yamshe, gama, e.g. it 
suits me ya cjamshe ni ; this 
dress does not s. me riyan 
luni ba ta karbe ni. 



suitable, adj. daidai. 
suitor, mai-7ieman aure. 
sulk, to dakile. 
sulphur, fara rvuta, kibrit^. 
sum, n. (aggregate of numbers) 
kida or kididdiga; (of a 
statement), see substance, 
summit, n. kai, kololuwa, 
tsololuwa, bisa; s. of hill 
kan tudu, tuluwa (K.). 
summon, tr. v. kira, kiraya or 
kiraye ; to s. to where the 
speaker is kirawo. 
sun, n. fem. rana, ra, pi. ra- 
nuka* ; the s. rose rana (ta 
fita or) ta tashi ; the s. set 
rana ta fadi, the s. is about 
to set rana ta kusa fadn,wa ; 
heat of the s. gumi. 
sunbird, s/ta kauchi ; ruddy- 
throated s. ja7ibarde. 
Sunday, n. lahadi, Iddi. 
sunder, tr. v., see divide, 
sunken eyes, one with, adj. 

and n. mai-kwarnii*. 
sunrise, time of, n. tasawal 
hantsi ; cf. it is s. I'aiia ta 
fita chim. 
sunset, n. futiiru, fadawar 

(or faduwar) rana. 
sunstroke, n. jiri. 
superfluity, n. wanji. 
superior, adj. mafifichi, pi, 
majijita : this is s. to that 
irannati mafifichi dag a wan- 
chaw, to express 'this thing 



superiority 



248 



or this method is s.' use the 
impers. yara haka, or givama 
haka, lit. it is better so, see 
also surpass. 

superiority, fiydya, fiydye- 

supplicate, tr. v. (to pray 
earnestly) bar a, kdma kafa. 

support, n. madogara^ makari, 
tankari ; the last also fig., 
e.g. a king is the s. of the 
world sariki shi ne tankarin 
duniya ; spec, (pole of house) 
gimshiki ; he called for s. ya 
huya goya ; see also aid, 
assistance, help. 

support, tr. V. (e.g. as a pole 
supports a tent) tokdra, tan- 
kare; spec, to s. anything 
with the hand spread out 
tall aha ] to s. oneself with 
the palm of the hand dafa. 

suppose, V. zdto, zachi, zache, 
tamaha, kintata. 

supposition, ivasuwasi. 

sure, adj., see trustworthy. 

sure, to be or make, v, tah- 
bata, tahbache ; I am s. na 
tabhoia. 

surely, adv. (certainly) tabbas, 
ashe, da gaskiya, da gaske, 
gaske, hakika, hakika ; s. is 
also idiomatically expressed 
by the particle sai as well 
as the V. tabbata, e.g. the 
people will s. rise mutane 
sai su tashi ; he is s. there 



susp^H 
3u ma^fl" 



ya tabbata nan ; you ma; 
assume that he is an infidel 
hi tabbata kafiri ne. 

surety for a debt, n. lamuni -. 
(a person who is s.) mai- 
lamuni ; to be or become 
s. lamunta, lartiunche ; with 
ace, e.g. we becanie s. for 
the merchant muka lamuntu 
falke. 

surfeit, ginsa; to cause ^ 
ginshe. 

surging, n., e.g. s. backwards 
and forwards in battle dau- 
kakkeniya. 

surpass, tr. v. Ji, yin fifiko, 
waye (S.), tsere, dada, e.g. 
the strength of elephants 
surpasses that of camels kari- 
fin gitvaye ya Ji na raJmynma; 
this surpasses that tvannan 
ya dadi wanchan ; to s. any- 
one .it his trade or profession 
shashe. 

surpassing, n. fi., pi. fiye-fiir 

surpassing, adj. mafi. 
surrender, tr. v. (to give up, 

resign) sallame. 
surround, tr. v. keivaye, h- 

ivayi, kewayo. 
survivor, the sole s. of. 

family barau. 
suspect, to tuhuma. 
suspend, tr. v. rataya, yw 

rataya. 



1 



suspicion 



249 



swim 



suspicion, n. matsina*, tu- 

hnma. 
sustain, tr. v., see support, 
swagger, to yin tdkama. 
swaggering, n rangwada (S.), 
rangaji (K.), takama, yanga, 
made; (used of a woman) 
alfarma, manti, yatsuna. 
swallow, n. tsaitsewa, tsaijewa, 
tsetf^etva, chechewa, chichiya ; 
the large mosque s. hvar- 
dodo ; the snjall mosque s. 
mashirare, masherera. 
swallow, tr. v. hade, hadiye ; 
s\vallo^ying hadiya ; the act 
of trying to s. hvdra. 
swamp, n. kdfo, kafau (S), 

tapki 
sway to and fro, intr. v. rau- 

f/cji (K.), rangwada (S.). 
swear, intr. v. rantse, ranche, 
yin rautsufva, sdha, sdbi, e.g. 
I swear by God na rantse da 
Allah. 
sweat, n. and intr. v. ; see 

perspiration, perspire, 
sweep, tr. \. shara or share, 

f/iit shara. 
sweeping, participial n. shara. 
sweet, adj. (to the taste) da 
zaki, tutushi, (nice, agreeable, 
grateful to any sense or feel- 
ing) da dadi. 
sweetly, adv. da dadi, e.g. the 
bird sings s. tsuntsutva tana 
icaka da dadi. 



sweetmeat, n. allewa, aJewa; 
spec, a s. made from the aya 
reed dakmva. 
sweetness, n. (taste) zaki, 
dadi, the last gen. and of 
taste too, e.g. thou shalt 
taste of its s. za ka sha dadi 
nata. 
swell, intr. V. 1. kumhura or 
kundjiire ; (of a sore, etc.) 
kaha. 

2. fig. (to be inflated with 
pride, etc.) kumhura, e.g. 
thou swellest with pride 
because it is said thou ex- 
cellest all ka^ia kumhurawa 
wai ko. fi kowa; the same 
may be expressed by means 
of chichika (lit. be filled 
with), 
swelling, kumburi, kumhu- 
riya; (with sickness) kabuwa; 
a s. caused by guinea-worm 
hangara; a s. on the back 
doro; a slight s. on the 
body or itch kazuwa, guda 
(S.) ; a s. in front of a 
man's body (elephantiasis) 
gugi; a s. on hand or foot 
kakari\ a s. on the foot 
kurkushe ; a s. on the throat 
hangum* ; ef. also kivikwi, 
kullutu. 
swept, pass. part, shararre, 

fem. shararra, pi. shararru, 
swim, intr. v. iivo, yin iyo, 



swimmer 



250 



tal 



futo^ yin linkdya ; I can s. 
na iya rmva. 

swimmer, an expert gtvanin 
ruiva. 

swim.m.ing, n. iyo, ktirme^ lin- 
kdya^ ninkaya. 

swindler, n. mai-zambachi or 
ormi-zambata, mai-zamha. 

swine, n. (domestic) gttrsunu, 
see pig. 

swing to and fro, tr. reta, 
intr. (TO, Wo. 

swinging, n. veto, shillo. 

switch, n. (i.e. one for driving 
away flies, made from cow's or 
horse's tail) izga, tsagiya (S.). 

swoop, (e.g. of a hawk) bara 
masc, sura. 

swoop, to kaivo sura. 

sword, n. takobi, pi. takuhba, 
kansdkali ; spec, a s. with a 
broad blade findi ; as. with 
a double sharp edge tagoyyuis, 
tagomashij tatuga, taniogashi ; 
s. with one cutting edge ta- 
malaulo ; a cheap, roughly 
made s. tdma ; a rasp for 
sliarpening s. magagari ; to 
draw a s. zare, zware, zari, 
takobi ; a curved s. worn by 
Arabs bisalami* ; a wooden 
s. pauma. 

sword-sling, n. hamVa. 

synonym, sauivi. 

syphilis, n. chitvutaii birni, 
tunijere, kaba, kabuwa, man- 



gyaUj mingyau, 7nanjau (K, 
maigyau (S.), chusayi (K, 
a medicine for s. rig a kafi. 
syrup, n. madya*. 

table, n. rumfa, riimpa, pi. rWi 
puna or rumfuna., maida*. 

taciturn, adj. (habitually 
lent) turn by tarka q.v< 
e.g. he is t. ya tarka ( 
kurum, yin shiru, kurum o 
shirti. 

tackle, n. (implements, instr 
ments, apparatus) kaya. 
kayayeki or kayayaki. 

tail, n. wutsiya ; cow's 
horse's t. used as a switcl 
izga, tsagiya (S.). 

tailor, n. madutnki, fem. m 
dumkiya, pi. inadumkai. 

take, tr. v. gen. (seize, lay ho) 
of) kama, saniu, dauka, dau 
doka, dau or do, karba, karb 
amshi, make ; to t. (of a] 
object running away, abo 
to escape or resist) kaTna 
(with the added notion 
reaching, overtaking, finding] 
samu ; (of taking or pickin 
up an object from the ground,* 
a table, shelf, etc.) dauka, 
doka, chdfa \ to t. up an 
carry away kwashe ; to t.* 
and bring kwaso ; (of receiv- 
ing) karba and especially as 
an imperative karbo q.v., also 



take 

amjo, ingo (S.); to t. back 
fAtmbe ; to t. (conduct, guide) 
kai; to t. (of game, fish) 
kama; (of road, way) id., 
e.g. he took his road (pur- 
sued his journey) i/a kama 
hanya; (of medicine) if 
liquid sha and hade, if solid 
hade; cf. the fire caught 
imtta ta kama; t. and 
bring tariyo"^, kankamo ; to 
t. a thing to yabata da ; to 
t. away kai, kawa, kaiida, 
kaushe, kaivas, kawas da, 
jishe, jige or figi^ dcmka, 
doka, gushe, jidadda, tafi da, 
e.g. he took it away ya tafi 
da shi; fitada, fishe ; to t. 
away by force kivache or 
kwashe, anishe ; to t. down 
(gen.) shida or shide, shido ; 
(a tent) nade ; to t. for one- 
self dauko; to t. hold of 
ilaiika or doka; to t. in (to 
let or bring in) shigas da; 
to t. oft" dehe or debo, daibo, 
fuda, fitas da, fisge, fizge or 
fusge; (garments) tube; to 
t. off garments as sign of 
grief takaba ; to t. off a load, 
etc. zubda; to t. iy\it fidda, 
fUar da,fitas,fita8 da, debe, 
debo, dlha and daibo, fisge, 
fizge, fusge, tsami ; t. up 
and bring it here ! debo ; to 
t. a little of gutsura; to 



251 



talk 



t. to oneself karbo ; to t. up 
dauka or doka ; to t. up with 
hand or spoon mara ; to t. a 
handful dimtso ; to t. care, 
heed or notice of tuna da, 
kula da; (in proclamations 
't. notice that') ji, ji^a, 
saurara, sorara ; he was 
Haken in' banza ta shashe 
shi. 

taking away, participial n. 

karbawa, amshewa. 
tale, n. (story) tatsuniya, p|. 
tatsuuiyoyi, riwaya ; to tell 
at. riya; (of fiction, unreal 
or false t.) kariya*, fira or 
hira, see story, 
talebearing, amiamimi, an- 
namimanchi ; telling tales 
against anyone kivarmato. 
talent, n., see ability 2. 
talk, n. (= conversation, mutual 
discourse) zanche or zanchi, 
battt, roshi, and in a less 
precise sense magana ; loud 
t. dumi, see talking, 
talk, V. (converse) zanche, tan- 
ka or tamka, the first with 
forms in na or with yi, e.o-. 
I am talking with my friends 
ma zanche (or ina yin zanche) 
da ahokaina, zantatva with 
forms in na, yin batu, yin 
magana, e.g. we talk in 
Hausa muna yin maganar 
Haum; he talks nonsense 



talkative 



252 



taster 



shhia may ana harkatai ; (pa- 
laver) aVamari^. 

talkative, very, adj. mai- 
yaraje^ (S.). 

talkativeness, saniyd^, sururi 
(S.), surutu (K.). 

talking, participial n. (con- 
versing) fadi, fade-fade^ hu- 
chi, pi. kuche-kuche, zayitawa ; 
much t. tankiya ; noise of 
angry or loud t. hargoiva, 
haya-haya. 

tall, adj. dogo, fern, dogtiwa, 
pi. dogaye, zarau, pi. zara- 
zara ; the comparative taller 
and superlative tallest are 
expr. hyji, cf. H. Gr. pp. 75, 
76 ; at. thin man yankare. 

tallness, n. tsawo. 

talon, n. akaifa ; spec, inside 
of a bird's t. dunduniya. 

tamarind tree, n. tsamiya. 

tame, adj. (subdued, domesti- 
cated), no general term, the 
distinction between t. and 
wild species being sometimes 
expressed by different words, 
e.g. t. swine gursunu opp. to 
hanzir and gyado ; t. dog 
kare and karen gida ; t. 
animals hisashen gida. 

tame, to lele ; the hyena can- 
not be tamed kura ha ta 
kiyayuwa. 

tameness, n. (easy disposition, 
want of spirit) lalafanchi. 



tan, tr. v. jemi, jima, shema, 

shiyna, tuje*. 
tank, n., see cistern, 
tanner, n. majemi, pi. majema, 

masherni. 
tanning, a tree used for, n. 

hagaruiva, gabaruiva, po,tako, 

sari. 
tap, to (e.g. a pot) kwankivasa. 
tapeworm, Uila^ tamza, dauda- 

chiki. 
tarry, intr. v. 1. (to stay) 

zamna, e.g. we tarried in 

Timbuctoo three months niun 

zamna chikin Tumhutu ivatu 

nku. 

2. t. for (to wait iov) jira 
and jirache, 

3. (to delay) yin yauchi. 
task, n. aVamari, and in a 

general sense aiki. 

tassel, tuntu. 

taste, tr. V. 1. (to try the 
flavour of) dandana and daa- 
ddn% e.g. have you ever 
tasted pepper 1 kun tdha dmi- 
dana harkono 1 

2. fig. (to experience) sha, 
e.g. thou shalt taste its sweet- 
ness za, ka sha dadi nata : 
he tasted trouble ya sha 
tvahala. 

taste, n. dandana. 

tasteless, adj. Idmi and da 
Idmi, da babu zaki. 

taster, n. madaiidani. 



tasty 



253 



tempt 



tasty, adj. (of food, etc., nice 
to taste) da dad% da zaki. 

tattoo, to kaskasta, shaushauta. 

tattoo marks, akanza, see 
under marks. 

taut, tarn, tamau-tamau. 

tax, n. humushi, haraji ; spec, 
a t. paid on leaving a country 
garama, Jito ; the latter 
also = a t. which used to 
be paid to the king in the 
Kano market when buying 
a slave; a caravan t. fdto; 
a t. on cows jarigali ; a t. 
on an inlieritance tirka ; see 
taxes. 

tax, to tirkata. 

tax-collector, n. mai-karbar 
garama. 

taxes, n. gen. kurdin kasa, 
jinga ; to pay t. 7/in jinga. 

teach, tr. v. koya Tna, bada 
koyo, karantas da, karantasa, 
karantashe, cdmajirtad da, 
sanas da or saada*. 

teacher, n. mai-koya, mai-foro, 
mafori, shaihu*. 

teaching, n. (the act of teach- 
ing) A*o?/att;rt; (doctrine) koya. 

teal, tlie whistling t. jalili, 
kirinjijiya, the latter also 
= the African tree duck ; a 
species of t. kivarra (S.). 

tear, n. (also coll. = tears) ha- 
waye ; witli tears da hawaye; 
to shed tears yin haiuaye. 



tear, n. (rent in clothes, etc.) 

yaguiva, dan barki. 
tear, tr. v. (clothes, paper, etc.) 

yaga, yage, tsdga, tsdge, tsa- 

gagge, chage, keta, katsa, 

katse, keche, kiche, murtsuka, 

barke, barka, karantsaye ; 

to t. out iona and tone ; 

to t. to pieces tsatsaga, 

fatattake ; to t. up chi- 

chira. 
tearing, n., e.g. of a gown, 

barkutca, karantseyi, ketuwa, 

tsdga. 
tease, to ddme, ddma. 
tease, a mai-fUina, unai-ta''- 

adi. 
teeth, n., see tooth, 
tell, tr. V. (to inform, also to 

command) fdda or fddi, 

furta*. 
temerity, gadauniya. 
temper, n. (disposition) hdli, 

pi. hdlaye ; evil t. hdlin mu- 

gu ; (irritation, passion) hau- 

shi, kumchin znchiya, e.g. he 

is in a bad t. with you shina 

jin haushhika, 
tempest, n. hadari, zirnaniya ; 

see storm, 
temple, n. (a place of worship) 

niasallachi, pi. rnasallatai. 
tempt, tr. V. 1 . (to test or put 

to trial) yin jaraba. 

2. (in bad sense, to allure, 

mislead) rude. 



temptation 



254 



thank 



temptation, n. (trial) jar aba. 

tempter, n. marude or mai- 
rude, pi. maruda. 

ten, card. num. goma, pi. go- 
miya ; the latter is some- 
times used to express mul- 
tiples of t., e.g. gomiya uMi. 

tenant, mai-dro. 

tend, tr. v. (to watch cattle) 
kiwo. 

tender, adj. (soft, in a material 
sense) da tapshi {tabshi or 
tafshi) ; to be or to make t. 
yin tapshi ; the t. leaf danye 
or danyi, pi. danyoyi. 

tendon of Achilles, dga7-a; 
t. of foot matsarbaje (S.). 

tent, n. lema, laima, bukka, pi. 
bukkoki; to pitch a t. ka/a 
lema; to take down a t. 
node lema; spec. t. of skins 
or leather only al/arwa, pi. 
alfaruwa. 

tenth, n. of number, 1. (one 
part of ten) ushuri. 

2. (one t. devoted to re- 
ligious purposes, alms) zakka. 

tenth, adj. na-goma, fern, ta- 
gom,a. 

tentpole, n. tankari; shika- 
shiki, pi. shikashikai. 

terebinth, n. gwinki. 

term, n. 1. (limit, end, bound- 
ary) iyaka. 

2. (the time a thing lasts) 
zam,ani. 



termites, (i.e. white ants) n. 
gdra (also used as coll.), pi. 
gdrani, shinge. 

terms, n. pi. (conditions, stipu- 
lations) shardi, shartu, sha- 
ratsa*. 

terrify, tr. v. tsorata, hada 
tsoro, burga. 

terror, n. 1. abstr. (the emotion) 
tsoro^ tsantsanta^ matsorachi, 
razd7ii. 

2. concr. (an object of t.) 
abin tsoro. 

test, n. jaraba. 

test, tr. V. dandana, dandani ; 
spec, to t. anything hy smell- 
ing it sunsuna ; to t. the 
weight of a load jijiga. 

testament, (with) wasichi*. 

testator, umsiya*. 

testicles, gwaiwa, marena, 
tsugau, tsugwaigwai. 

testimony, n. shaida, pi. shai- 
dai and shaidodi ; to adduce 
t. kai (and kawo) shaida 
which also = to bear t., as do 
shaida and yhi shaida, e.g. 
he bore or gave t. ya shaida 
or ya yi shaida. 

tether, to tie with a long t. 
talala. 

thank, tr. v. goda, gode, barka, 
gaida, gaishe, yin albarka, sa 
albarka; * thank you' na 
gode ma ka or godiya; 'no 
thank you ' albarka. 



thanks 255 

thanks, n. pi. godiya; expres- | 
sions for to give t. are: 1. 
(to God) gode, and with yi 
or pres. forms godiya followed 
by ma, ga or zwva ga, 
shukra. 

2. (to men) gode, yaha; 
for the Engl, phrase 'thanks' 
cf. prec. 
that, 1. demonstr. pron. point- 
ing out remote object ivaii- 
chan, fem. ivachan, pi. 
(= those) wadanchaii ; an 
emphatic form =- 1. one wan- 
chananka ; the following = 
those as well as t. chan, chana 
or (in written Hausa) chan- 
anka, e.g. t. lion zaki chan; 
nafi is also employed in this 
sense, e.g. t. business abin 
nan. 

2. rel. pron., see under 
who. 

3. conj. t. (in order t.), t. 
not (in order t. not), see 
order 3. 

4. Engl, t., as a conjunc- 
tive particle, pointing out 
one sentence or clause as 
logically the object of an- 
other, is unrepresented in 
Hausa, which expresses such 
a connection, in nearly every 
case, by simply placing the 
dependent after the principal 
sentence. This is so with 



thatch 



verbs of asserting, knowing, 
perceiving, judging, wishing, 
commanding, e.g. this woman 
says t. she will not go on 
machen nan ta die ha za ta 
tafiya ha; I said to them t. 
I did not perceive t. I had 
been struck by a shot na 
fadi ma su han sa^ii ha aka 
halhe 7ii da hindiga ; I desire 
t. you give me my money 
ina so ka ha ni kurdina ; he 
ordered t. they should be 
fettered ya hakumche a sa yna 
su gigar. In the same way 
may be expressed a con- 
sequence, e.g. he terrified 
him (so) t. he fell down ya 
tsorata ski ya/adi a kas ; he 
beat it t. it died ya yi ma ta 
hulala ta mutii ; similarly 
verbs of causing and the 
like may govern a clause, 
which takes the emphatic 
pronouns, expressing the 
effect, e.g. I will make bin. 
run (= I will cause t. he run) 
7ii sa ski ski gudu ; permit t. 
I depart har ni in tafi. 

That, used after to say, 

assert etc. cheiva, this use is 

however very limited, cf. 

dominchewa. 

thatch, grass used for, n. bunu, 

pi. hunai. 
thatch, to, with grass baibaya, 



thatched roof 



256 



thing 



heheya, yin jinka, yhi kan- 
dama. 

thatched roof, n. tanka, jinka. 

thatching, a leaf used for, n. 
Jitta; millet stalks used for 
t. maiwa ; a grass rope used 
in t. jiniya. 

the (definite article), -n, e.g. 
where is the woman 1 ina 
machen ? 

theatre, n. gidan wascC*. 

thee, pers. pron., see thou. 

theft, n. sata, sani or swane^ 
loallo*, 

their, possess, pron. suffixed 
-su, -nsu, e.g. t. town garinsu ; 
t. wives matayensu ; separate, 
if the object possessed is 
masc. nasu, if fern. tasu. 

them, pers. pron. suffixed to 
verbs and prepositions as ob- 
ject, e.g. he destroyed t. yahal- 
laka su ; to t. ma su, gave su. 

then, adv. (at that time) sa^an 
nan, lokachin nan, yanda, 
yatvan da, yayin da, yaanan ; 
(t. and not till t. or and t.) 
kana*, kan* , kanda^, e.g. do 
my work (tirst) and t. do 
your own ka yi aikina kana 
ka yi naka ; (in that case, in 
its weakest sense) fa, mana, 
e.g. come, t. zo Jiiana. 

thence, adv. ddga chan. 

there, adv. chan, ddga chan, 
imiri cha7i, a tvuri chan ; t. 



is, t. are, etc. akwai, e.g. t. 
is a journey before us akwai 
tafiya gdhan imt ; I went t. 
na tafi gurin. 

therefore, don tvannan, fa, 
dada. 

these, dem. pron., see this. 

they, pers. pron. prefixed to 
various forms of past tenses 
su, SU71, suka, suffixed to the 
aux. verb of the future, e.g. 
t. will... za su.... 

thick, adj. da kahri, da 
kauri. 

thief, n. harawo, fem. harau- 
niya, pi. harayi or barai, 
mai-sane, mai-sata ; a t. who 
comes in the night kwaro* ; 
a receiver of stolen property 
dan tugu. 

thieving, n. harawonchi, ha- 
rauchi, sata, sane or swane ; 
secret t. ja chiki. 

thigh, n. chi7iya, pi. chinyoyi, 
kdtara, pi. katatari, kar- 
fata. 

thin, adj. (tine, as flour, dust, 
etc.) laushi; (not stout) ha 
kahri; (lean, emaciated) a 
rame, shalma, siriri, fem. 
siririya, e.g. her young were 
quite t. diyata sai a rame ; to 
become t. rame, yin rama. 

thing, n. abu, connective ahhi, 
pi. abuhuwa or abu; (in the 
gen. sense of matter, subject) 



think 



257 



thousand 



tada, pi. tadodi; things 
created talikai*. 
think, V. (to reflect, ponder) 
tuna, tunane; to t. of, or 
about tuna da ; (to deem) 
■:(cto*, zache, tsamdni ; (to 
imagine, expect) tamaha 
with yi and the pronouns 
in na. 
thinness, silili (S.), siriri 

(K.), 
third, 1. ordinal num. na-uku^ 
fern, ta-uku. 

2. fractional num. (one 
part out of three) sulusi* ; 
two-thirds sulusani* ; the t. 
day, i.e. the day after the 
day after to-morrow gata. 
thirst, n. kishiruwa, kishirwa, 
kishi; to feel t. jin kishiruwa, 
jin kishi. 
thirsty, adj. da kishirutva (or 

kishirwa). 
thirteen, cardinal num. goma 

sha uku, also sha uku. 
thirty, card. num. talatin. 
this, dem. pronominal adj. 
wannan, pi. (these) waclan- 
nan, wanga, fern, wagga, 
walga, warga (S., Zanf.), pi. 
(these) wada7iga; nan used 
for all genders and numbers 
usually placed after the word 
to which it refers, e.g. t. 
woman machen nan ; suffixed 
also to the connective is ga, 

R. H. D. 



e.g. t. house gidanga; t. 
town garinga. 

thither, adv. of place nan, 
chan, wurin chan. 

thong, leather guru, karho 
(S.), kangi*. 

thorn, kaya, pi. kayayuwa or 
kayoyi, kararigiya; spec, a 
tree with white thorns, from 
fruit of which ink is made 
farak kaya; a thorny bush 
sarkakiya. 

thorn-apple, (Datura metel) 
zakami, haukat yaro, babha 
juji. 

those, demonstr. pron., see 
that 1. 

thou, pers. pron. separate and 
emphatic kai, fern, ki or ke ; 
prefixed to past and suffixed 
to fut. auxiliary ka, fem. ki, 
e.g. t., O woman ke mache ; 
t. wilt return here za ka 
komo ; t. wast stung by a 
scorpion an halbe ka da ku- 
nama ; the above also ~ thee 
after prepositions and tr. 
verbs, e.g. along with thee 
tare da kai ; to thee ma ka ; 
I saw thee (fem.) 7ia gan 
ki. 

though, conj. ko da, sai dai. 

thought, n. tunani, tunane, 
lunani*, pi. tunanu, zdto, 
tamaha, ruwa*. 
thousand, num. dubu, zambar, 

17 



thread 



258 



thrust 



alif', a t. cubits tyiH* (S.) ; 
two t. aljin^ alfyan. 
thread, n. zdre, mandawari ; 
spec, very fine t. arafiya; 
coarse t. huruda. 



thread, 



to t. beads zura 



duwatsu. 
threadbare, jula-jula. 
thread-worm, kwaraba. 
threat, empty, n. narko (S.), 

kyachewa, alwashi, kuri (S.), 

ruha (K.). 
threaten, v. yln kurari, kyci- 

che (S.). 
threatening, n. kurari. 
three, card. num. uku, taldta ; 

the latter in counting cowries 

often stands for t. thousand; 

t. days ago wanshekaranjiya. 
thresh, tr. v. ddka, dandaka, 

daddaka, sussuka, chasa. 
thresher, n. mai-taki. 
threshing-floor, n. masussu- 

ka, wurin sussuka, mabuga, 

mabugiya, pi. mabuyai, Juko, 

threshold, i.e. a raised ridge 
in front of a door, n. garama, 
dan-garama. 

thrice, numeral adv. sau (or 
so) uku, guda uku. 

thrive, v. (to Y)vosTper)yi7iarziki. 

throat, n. makwaruwa (S.), ma- 
kwarwa (K.), makogwaro,ma- 
koshi ; swelling on t. m-akoko, 
hangum ; a sore t. mashako. 



throne, n. kujeran sariki, ku- 
jera, kursiyi, aVarshi ; heir 
to the t. majiran gado. 

throng, n. taro, pi. tarori, see 
crowd. 

throttle, tr. v. murda, makure. 

throttler, n. murdxigo, mir- 
dago. 

throw, n. chdka. 

throw, tr. V. yas, yasda, jej'a, 
3^A jefe, jefo, e.g. he throws 
stones ya jefa duwatsu; to 
t., e.g. a spear chdka, ndsa, 
ndshe ; to t. away yas, yasda, 
ydda, zubas*, zubas da*, 
wulga, wurga, kayas, kayas 
da, watsar da, e.g. he threw 
away his gun and fled ya 
yasda bindiga ya gudu ; to 
t. back mayas*; t. out (also= 
to cast out, overthrow) ye/k<f 
da (K.), jefad da (S.), jefashe 
(Zanf.) ; to t. with dicajefa 
kuriya ; spec, to t. (food) into 
the mouth hamfude, ham- 
fudi ; to t. up and catch chafi. 

thrower, a champion t. sarikin 

throwing, n. jlfa, ndshi, pi. 

nashe-nashe ; t. away wulgi, 

wurgi. 
thrush, a yellow-breasted chat 

t. gabachara, gwanno. 
thrust, tr. v., see push ; to t. 

through (pierce) soka, soke or 

soki, e.g. he t. their chiei 



thumb 

through with a spear ya soka 
hahhansu da mashi. 
thumb, n. babban yatsa. 
thunder, n. tsawa; distant 
rolling t. chidda ; a burst of 
t. or thunder-bolt aradu. 
thunder, to yui aradu. 
Thursday, n. alhamis or ranar 

alhamis. 
thus, adv. (in this or that way 
or manner) hdka, hdkanan, 
kaza; the last is also used 
(see under so, such) where 
the speaker mentions the 
way or manner, but the 
actual author of the account 
avoids it, e.g. he said the king 
, spoke (t., or) t. and t. ya che 
sariki yafadi kdza da kdza ; 
(in a weak sense =. so then) fa. 
thy, possess, pron. suffixed -ka, 
1 -nka, fem. -ki, -nki, e.g. t. 
wife matakka, t. husband 
mijinki ; separate, if the ob- 
ject possessed is masc. 7iaka, 
naki, if fem. taka, taki. 
thyself, 1. re^QxiYe kanka, fem. 
kanki. 

2. emphatic kai da kanka, 
fem. ke (or ki) da kanki- see 
self, 
'ick, (insect) kaska. 
ickle, to tsikara (K.), tsakara 

(a). 

ickling, tsikari (K.), tsakari 

• (s.). 



259 



time 



tidings, n., see news, 
tie, tr. V. damre, daure, damra, 
darmi (S.), ta7ika, tanke, ra- 
taya, balla, sarkafe; to t. up 
together layache (K.), goya, 
goye; spec, to t. up kumsa, 
kumshe, to t. the hands to- 
gether bankare; to t. grass 
in thatching tsara, tsdre; to 
t. two pieces of string together 
kulla; to be tied together 
kullu] to t. in a knot kum- 
buche; to t. up a bag tsuke; 
tied up kumshashe, fem. kum- 
shashiya, pi. kumshashu. 
tied, participial adj. sassabta, 

ballu. 
tiger-fish, (Hydrocyon linea- 
tus) tsaffye ; a species of t.-f. 
kawara (Alestes dentex). 
tiger-nut, aya. 
tight, adj . (used of a string) kyar, 

(taut) tarn, tamau-tamau. 
tightness, runtsi. 
till, prep, and conj., see until, 
till, tr. V. noma, nonti or nome, 

mainiai. 
tiller, n. (i.e. of the ground) 
mai-noma or mai-nomi, pi. 
masu-noma. 
tilt, to t. anything up against 

something jitta, ki/a, ki/e. 
Timbuctoo, pr. n. Tumbuta. 
time, n. lokachi, wakati, wakti*, 
tvakachi, sa% yayi, za7nani, 
zamanu* ; a short t. zamani 
17—2 



times 



260 



to 



kddan, jimawa; at that t. 
lokachin nan, sa'an nan] 
at the t. when he returned 
here lokachin da (or sa'an da) 
ya dawayo; at what tJ wache 
sa'al some t. wani yayi ; 
(period, age) yayi, zamani, 
e.g. in the t. of the prophet 
ga yayin annabi or zama- 
nin annabi; his t. is passed 
(i.e. he is old) yayinsa ya 
wuche; (set t. or proper 
occasion) loto, ivakati, wakti* ; 
every t. wakati duka ; by (or 
about) this t. warhdka ; at 
any t. ko yaushe ; at what t. 
(when) yanda; at what t.? 
yaushel heiore-time wuri ', in 
former times or some t. ago 
da wuri or dauri; from a 
long t. dadadde; from what 
1. 1 daga yaushel since what 
t.1 tun yaushe'^ until what t.1 
har yaushel one at a t. guda 
guda ; length of t. tsawa or 
tsawo; I have not t. to ha ni 
da dama ; what t. is it? karife 
nawa% do not come before 
your t. kdda ka Hgaya loka- 
chinka; see also times, hour, 
times, pi. (of repetition) sau 
or so, guda, e.g. five t. sau 
biyar, or guda biyar ; how 
many 1. 1 guda nawa % 
timid, adj. matsorachi. 
tin, n. chinkal,8inddari*,shind- 



dari* or sunddari* ; t. ore 
kuza. 
tinder, n. alfawami. 
tinge, tr. v. rini, rina. 
tinged, pass, particip. rinanne, 

fem. rinanna, pi. rinannu. 
tinkle, n. dindi7idin. 
tip, n. (of the finger) dan yatsa, 

(of the ear) dan kmme. 
tire, V. intr. (to be fatigued, 
weary) gdje, gdji, jin gdjiya, 
ddgagaji, e.g. he was tired 
with travelling ya gdji da 
tafiya; we are tired with 
over-work muna jin gdjiya 
da yawan aiki; to be tired 
of waiting kosa. 
tithe, n. 1. (tenth part) ushuri. 
2. t. or tithes (one-tenth 
devoted to religious purposes, 
alms) zdka. 
title, n. (name, appellation) 
suna, pi. sunuwa or sunanaki 
to, 1. prep, ga, with pronoum 
gare, used of both persons 
and things, e.g. he came t( 
me ya zaka gare ni; near 
to the bank of the river kusc 
ga hakin ruwa; tva (no 
before personal pronouns 
specially used after verbs t- 
tell ; do not tell anyone kad* 
ka gay a tva kowa ; ma, af 
plied not to persons but t 
things, mostly to pronouns 
e.<^. to me ma ni, also mim 



toad 



261 



toil 



to thee ma ka; ma some- 
times expresses the datives 
of advantage and interest, 
e.g. grant to me an abate- 
ment ka yi ina 7ii rangwame ; 
a, found in a few phrases, 
e.g. he fell to the ground ya 
^'adi a kasa or a kas, some- 
times prefixed to yare, e.g. 
to thee a yare ka - yare ka ; 
after verbs of motion etc. 
the English to may be wholly 
unrepresented, e.g. he went 
to his house ya taji gidansa ; 
they swam and came to land 
sun iyo sun kai kasa. 

2. conj. (in order that, so 
that, so as to) in placed im- 
mediately before the verb 
and rarely used except with 
the 1st person, see under 
order 3. 

toad, n. 2)asha, kwado. 

to-and-fro, going t. yauchi. 

tobacco, n. tdha, t.-pipe tu- 
kunyar taba; to smoke t. 
shan tdba ; a stick of rolled 
t. sandan tdba; seed of t. 
plant tam,na-yardi. 

tobe, n. riya, pi. rig una -, spec. 
a black or blue t. rigal saki; 

I a t. of black or shiny blue 
\ cloth kore ; a red t. jabba* ; 
I a white t. gave, pi. garuruka, 
f girke ; a white t. with short, 
lined body and wide single 



skirt kwakwaia, kwakota ; 
embroidery on a t. sharaba^ 
tambari ; the pattern on 
front of a t. fuskar riga, kwor 
she, linzamin riga, mumbari ; 
double thickness of cloth 
in a t. sabdda; for various 
kinds of tobes see under riga. 
to-day, adv. yau, also pro- 
nounced yo ; existing t. mai- 
yau. 
toddle (or to walk on all fours), 

intr. V. dtlbo dubo. 
toe, n. yatsa, pi. yatsotsi or 
yatsu, yatsa na kafa; big 
t. babban yatsa ; spec, a 
disease of the toes kudum- 
biya, kumhudiya*. 
together, adv. tare, gaba dai, 
gaba daya, jeni ; t. with tare 
da, garni da, gamA da ; v. to 
put t. tar a; to put up t., to 
gather t. gangama; to be 
gathered t. (to assemble) 
taru ; to come t. with vio- 
lence kara or karo ; to go t. 
tare, hdda tafiya, e.g. we will 
all go t. duka za mu tare; 
keep together ! ku taji jeni ; 
collecting t. jama^a; a hun- 
dred rose up t. za7igo ya 
tashi tsaitsaye. 
toil, n. (fatigue) ta%a*. 
toil, intr. v., see labour, e.g 
he toils after vanity shina 
dawaniya da abin wofi. 



token 



262 



tornado 



token, n. shaida, pi. shaidai 
and shaidodi. 

toll, n. humushi (lit. one-fifth), 
see tax. 

tomato, n., the bitter native 
t. gauta, pi. gautaye, gautan 
kura, kulufita* ; a plant with 
a fruit like large t. yalo, pi. 
yaluna. 

tomb, n. kushewa or kusheya*, 
pi. kusheyi, kushewoyi, wurin 
kushewa, wurin bisne, kahar% 
kabri. 

to-morrow, n. gobe, kashegari 
(K.), wanshekare (S.), cf. 
prov. yau da gobe kayan 
A llah ; the day after t. jlbi, 
the day after jlbi is called 
gata, that after gata, i.e. the 
third day after t. chitta. 

tongs, n. atvartaki, hantsaki. 

tongue, n. 1. (the bodily mem- 
ber) halshe, harshe, pi. hal- 
shina, halussa. 

2. (a particular language) 
see language 2. 

too, adv. 1. (likewise) kuwa, 
kuma, ma. 

2. (more than enough) 
express by the verbs faye 
and buwaye, e.g. it was t. 
severe for me ya faye ni 
kariji ; he was t. big yafaye 
girma; he was t. much for 
me ya buwaye ni ; t. much 
ya faye yawa. 



tools, n. pi. kaya or the pi. 
kayayeki. 

tooth, n. hauri, hakori, pi. 
hakora, zaga, pi. zagogi; a 
molar t. matamni, pi. ma- 
tamna ; back teeth turame* ; 
spec, a tree the bristles of 
which are used for rubbing 
the teeth dashi ; t. -gaping, n., 
used of one who has lost two 
teeth gibi, e.g. shina gibi ; a 
t. that has been filed flke ; 
eye t. gaboba ; a wide space ! 
between two front teeth wu- ! 
shirlya. 

toothless, adj. mai-dasashi. 

top, n. kai, pi. kanuwa, kawana \ 
and kawuna, km'oruwa, tso- \ 
loloj tsororo, pi. tsololutva, ; 
tuluwa (K.), bisa; on the 
t. of a kan, bisa or a bisa ; 
a spinning t. makodi*. 

toper, a mashayi, pi. mashaya. \ 

topple over, to, intr. v. yin i 
kunduma. 

torch, n. bakiti wuta ; a display 
of torches wowo (K.), wauwo I 
(S.). 

torment, n. tsanani ; spec, 
place of t. for unbelievers 
guTYiki''^^ gamki^^ gwauki* ; 
to suffer t. jin tsananta. 

torment, tr. v. tsananta, tsane, 
tsani, tsananche, hdsada, arjo 
(K.), alja {^.). 

tornado, n. hadari. 



torrent 

torrent, n. korama; noise of 
a rushing t. handam-handam. 
tortoise, n., a land t. with 
convex shell kunkuru -, a 
water t. with flat shell or 
mud turtle kififiya, yuma 
(S.); a small t. kafarji^^ 
farkaji; the shell of a t. 
kwachiya, kwariya. 
toss, tr. V. (of cattle, etc. when 
butting or goring) tunkuda, 
tunkwiya. 
total, n. dokachi (sum or 
amount reached by reckon- 
ing), see calculation 2. 
totter, to, adj. (applied to the 
walk of the old or Wind) 
kutup kutup ; (of walls, etc.) 
karkache. 
touch, tr. V. tdha, tdbi ; to 
engage slightly in, id., e.g. 
he just touched the work ya 
tdha yin aiki. 
towards, prep, ga, before pro- 
nouns gave, e.g. some men 
are coming t. us wadansu 
mutane suna zakuwa gave mu. 
towel, n. bante, banche, pi. 

bantuna, kalkdfi. 
tower, bene; a watch t. ma- 

bdga (S.). 
town, n., a large, walled t. 
hirni, pi. birane or birnuwa ; 
a small, unwalled t. gari, pi. 
garuruwa and garigaru; a 
quarter of a t. sUya, \\. 



263 



transform 



sUyoyi, unguwa ; a frontier 
t. kain iyaka. 
toy, n. (plaything) abiji wargi. 
track, n. (beaten path) tafarki, 
pi. tafarkoki; a broad beaten 
t. rimdi, godabe; (a spoor) 
lawali ; let him not go back 
on his tracks kdda ya bi 
saivunsa na da. 
trade, n. chiniki, jaura, ko- 

rami, sana'a,/atauchi. 
trade, intr. v. yin chiniki ; to 

t. successfully chin kasmva. 
trader, n. falke, fem. falkiya, 
pi. fatake, mai-fatauchi, mai- 
chiniki, mai-dillanchi*, sam- 
bani, fajiri, dan kasuwa, 
mashimjidi. 
trading, n.'fatauchi, dillanchi ; 
corn t. kwarami, traders in 
corn yan kivarami. 
tradition, n. (doctrine orally 
handed down) sim^t^, tariyo*. 
traduce, tr. v., see calum- 
niate, 
trample, tr. v. taka, bijigi, 
intensive form tattaka or 
tattake, e.g. let us not t. it 



under foot kada mu tatta- 
ke shi. 
transform, tr. v. riklda, sauya 
and sawaya, e.g. by the 
power of a charm he trans- 
formed himself into an ele- 
phant da ikon magani ya 
sauya kansa giiva. 



transformed 



264 



tree 



transformed, pass, particip. 
rikidadde, fern, rikidaddiya, 
pi. rikidaddu ; to be t. sauya 
and sawaya, nnayas da, rikida, 
e.g. he was t. into a sheep 
ya sauya tumkiya ; she was 
t. into something or other ta 
mayas da wani abu, see also 
change 3. 

transgress, intr. v. (to do 
wrong) yin laifi, (to commit 
sin) yi7i zunuji. 

translate, v. mayas da, see 
interpret 1. 

translated, pass, particip. sau- 
yayye, fern, sauyayya, pi. 
sauyayyu. 

transport, n., oxen used for t. 
takarkari, pi. takarkarai. 

trap, n. hako, pi. hakoki, fig. 
(a thing leading into harm 
or error) id. ; a t. consisting 
of a hole in the ground 
burma or buma*, mashako ; 
a t, for wild animals tarko, 
pi. tarkuna, burma', to lay 
or set a t. hako with yi 
or the forms in na ; a fish 
t. sankuja (K.) ; a t. con- 
sisting of a hole and noose 
taskira. 

travail, n. 1. (severe labour) 
see toil. 

2. (pains of childbirth) 
wahalan haifuwa, nakudar 
haifuwa ; to be in t. nakuda. 



travel, intr. v. tafi; also tajiya 
with yi and the forms in na, 
e.g. as we were travelling 
much rain fell da muna tajiya 
an yi ruiva dayawa ; spec, 
money paid to a king for 
permission to t. garama ; to 
t. hard yi7i haramat tajiya. 

traveller, fellow, n. abokin 
tajiya, maraki. 

travelling, n. tafe, pi. tajijiya. 

travelling-ant, n. (or driver- 
ant) kivarkwasa, kwalkivasa ; 
a red t.-a. makwaitva. 

treachery, tsegumi, pi. tsegun- 
guma, yaudara, kissa. 

tread, v., to t. down taka, tak% 
take, intens. tattaka, tattake, 
bijigi, ddbe ; to t. upon (to 
crush) latse. 

treasure, n. wada, wadaa, 
taska ; treasures ajiya, azawa; 
royal t. stored up kambi* ; 
spec, chamber for storing t. 
rafoniya, pi. rafoni ; to lay 
up t. taskache; t.-trove galala. ' 

treasury, n. taska, pi. taskoki. 

tree, n. itache, iche (the former 
is sometimes used as a plural 
of iche esp. in Sokoto), p]. 
itatuwa ] in this sense the 
word is masc, a stick cut 
from at., i.e. itache is usually 
regarded as fem.; a dried-up, 
withered t. koren itache ; a 
t. used to hang meat on 



tree 

jigo, p], jiguna; a pair of 
trees so planted as to grow 
into one gdminbauta ; a bent 
t. kwandariya^ kondariya. 

The following are some of 
the more common names of 
trees found in Nigeria: 
various species of ficus, e.g. 
chediya, gamji, durumi, ka- 
wuri, shirinya, uwar yara, 
wa, rubiya; various species 
of acacia, e.g. gawo, dakwara, 
farak kaya, tdwasa, dorowa, 
gabaruwa, bagaruwa, dundu, 
kiriya ; the baobab t. kuka ; 
various species of euphorbia, 
e.g. kumkumiya, fida-sartse, 
jida sarde (S.), kirana, kya- 
nara (S.), tiny a ; the copaiba 
t. kctdaura, maje -, a t. with 
yellow hard-shelled edible 
fruit (Strychnos spinosa) ko- 
kiya; the bloodwood or 
African rosewood t. mado- 
hiya; a t. (Vitex cienkowskii) 
from the fruit of which mo- 
lasses are made dinya , a t. 
(Detarium Senegalense) from 
which molasses and gum are 
obtained taura; the 'ebony 
tree' kainya or kanya ; a tall, 
straight t. dilo', a large t. 
with flat, winged fruit (Termi- 
nalia macroptera) baushe ; a 
t. with yellow plum-like fruit 
(Spondias) danya; a large, 



265 



tree 



bushy t. (Zizyphus spina- 
Christi) with red edible 
berries kurna ; a t. with long 
thorns, white flowers and 
edible leaves chizaki; a t. 
(Zizyphus jujuba) the fruit 
of which is made into cakes 
magariya-, a small t. with 
reddish wood and edible 
leaves (a chew-stick) marke ; 
a small t. from which black- 
smith's charcoal is made ^^Vy«, 
kariya ; a t. from the bark of 
which small ropes are made 
tawatsa; the silk-cotton t. 
(Eriodendron orientale) rimi, 
pi. rimaye; sl red-flowered 
silk-cotton t. gurjiya ; a t. 
the leaves of which furnish a 
yellow stain and, mixed with 
indigo, a green dye magina ; 
a small t. (Bauhinia reti- 
culata) the leaves of which 
are often used for wrapping 
food and the bark of which 
is used as a stain to darken 
lips kalgo or kargo ; a t., 
with reddish bark (Hymeno- 
cardia acida), used for shed 
supports etc. janyaro ; a t. 
(African bdellium) the bris- 
tles of which are used as a 
tooth-brush dashi ; a large t. 
the aromatic bark of which 
is ground up as a medicine 
fasa-kwariya or pasa-kwari • 



trek 



266 



trouble 



a t. with fragrant flowers and 
leaves and a black or purple 
berry (Eugenia owariensis) 
malmo, raarmo ; the horse- 
radish tree (Moringa pterygo- 
sperma) zogalagandi: a small, 
t. with yellow blossoms, an 
infusion of its leaves (Cassia 
goratensis) used by women 
near childbirth runhu. 

trek, to yin tafe. 

tremble, intr. v. (with terror,* 
cold, etc.) Jirgita, raura, zaz- 
zaga. 

trembling, participial n. (from 
terror, cold, etc.) raurawa, 
kaduwa, adj. form makarkata, 
makyarkyata ; t. all over 
zazzagawa; t. (from excite- 
ment, agitation) kardya. 

trench, a hafaru*. 

trespass, intr. v., e.g. on a 
forbidden area kutsa, see 
transgress. 

trial, n. (a putting to the proof, 
testing) jar obi, jar aha) to 
make t. of, v. yin jaraba. 

tribal marks, n pi. (cut on 
face) shaushawa, kyaskyastu 
(K.), kyakkyastu (S.), (cut 
from corners of the mouth) 
yamhaka^ see also hawayen 
zaki. 

tribe, n. ir% pi. irare^ kauwi*, 
kahila. 

tribunal, n. ivurin shari^a. 



tributary, adj., a t. stream 
hannun rafi. 

tribute, n. humushi, gandu, 
tuda, biko, jiziya (S.), kurdin 
kasa; t. money kurdin gan^ 
du ; spec. t. paid by the 
heathen tar a, tdfo ; see taX 

trick, n. (dexterous artifice) | 
wayo ] tricks wasa-wasa. 

trickery, n. (fraudulent decep- 
tion) harkwanchi. 

trickle, to tardra^ tardro, zu- 
rare, see leak. 

trim, tr. V. (to put in order) j 
gyarta. i 

trinkets, coll. kayan ado ; see 
ornament. | 

trip, intr, v. tuntsure^ yin tun- j 
tube^ the last is used as a tr. j 
and intr. v. ; to t. a person j 
up tojde- 1 

Tripoli, pr. n. Tarahulus or 
bir7ii7i Tarabulus. 

triumph, n., see victory. 

trodden down, takakke, fern. 
takakka, pi. takakku. 

trombone, kakaki'^. 

troop, n., see company. 

trot, intr. v. (of a horse) kilisa. 

trotting, rishi^ sakaraftu, sas- 
saka. 

trouble, n. (distress) wahala, 
hawdla, tsananta, kinke, alale, 
sanadi, sawarwari, tono ; to 
be in t. yin wahala ; to feel 
t. jin wahala, tangara*. 



trouble 

trouble, n., one who is in t. 

maitvahala. 
trouble, v. tr. wahalda, wa- 
halsa, wahalshe, tsananche, 
tsananta, hasada, alale, ar- 
kcina, gayara, kinke, sawar- 
wara, shamache, shamata, 
fitina, haiyata ; do not t. (i.e. 
feel distressed) kada ha wa- 
halda kanka; (as a polite 
exp.= spare yourself the t) 
k'lyaye kanka. 
troublesome, adj. da wuya. 
trough, n. komi, jirigi, jirgi, 

pi. jirage. 
trousers, n. (i.e. the loose, 
baggy native t.) wando, pi. 
tvandima, buje (K.), duithu ■ 
two pieces of cloth sewn on 
at the bottom of native t. 
kamun kdfa; trouser-string 
mazargi; t. embroidered up to 
the top wando mai-kamu ; a 
fold in the waist of t. through 
which the cord (zariya) runs 
kubaka. 
true, adj. gen. da gaskiya, da 
gaske, gaskiya and gaske, (of 
persons, veracious, sound, 
honest) mai-gaskiya ; (faith- 
ful) salihi*; t. as an adverbial 
phr. (i.e. quite right) ainin 
as well as the words given in 
seq. 
truly, adv. da gaskiya, da gaske, 
gaskiya, gaske, ashe, ainin, 



267 



trustworthy 



haklka, aiwa, ainin, wallahi, 
labudda. 
trumpet, n. kafo, pi. kafoni or 

kafuna, kakaki. 
trumpeter, n. mai-kafo, mai- 
busa, mai-shantu (lit. blower) ; 
a mounted t. masarchi. 
trunk, n. 1. (a small box, 
usually of leather) sanduki, 
sanduki (S.), pi. sandukai. 

2. (proboscis of elephant) 
hdnnun giwa. 

3. (the t. of a tree) kore 
or koren itache, kututtura. 

trust, n. (confidence, certainty 
of safety) amdna, shaduda or 
saduda, dangana, (a deposit 
of money etc.) sabtu, saptu, 
sautu, sotu; he betrayed t. 
ya chinye amdna, I left 
money with them on t. na 
yi ma. su sabtu. 
trust, intr. v., or t. in (i.e. rely 
on) dogara, dangana, sha- 
duda or saduda, ingata^^ 
sakankanche, I t. in God ina 
dangana da (or ga) Allah; 
follow Mohammed, t. in him 
ku bi Muhammadu kn sakan- 
kanche. 
trustee, n. madaukan bashi. 
trustworthy, adj. (to be relied 
on, depended on) yardaji, 
ingatachi*, tabbatache, fem. 
tabbatachiya, e.g. this account 
is t. wannan labari ingatachi ; 



trustworthiness 



268 



turn 



t. language magana tahhata- 
chiya. 

trustworthiness, inga7ichi. 

truth, n. gaskiya ; to speak the 
t. ha gaskiya ; to establish 
the t. gojskata or gaskanta. 

try, tr. v. (make trial of), see ! 
trial; (endeavour) yin ko- 
kari, taha kokari; t. diligently 
to follow his tradition ku 
hada kokarinku ga sunna tai. 

tsetse-fly, tsando, aworo. 

Tuarek, n. gent. Azbin, Asbin, 
Ba-Azhine, pi. Azbifiawa, 
Ashinawa. 

Tuesday, n. ranar taJata. 

tuft of hair, n., a t. on the 
head tukku, tukkmva ; t. o, 
h. in the middle of the head 
zanko ; see hair ; t. of grain 
geza, pi, gezuna^ tuntu. 

tug, tr. V. (to haul along) ja; 
see draw. 

tumour, kurji, gyaynbo, jam- 
badej see abscess. 

tumult, n. (noisy clamour of a 
multitude) hargoiva ; t. (e.g. 
of war) Jhrmaki, rigima, fal- 
maki. 

turban, n. rawani, pi. rawunna ; 
spec, a white muslin t. with 
red ejJges zabuta; t. of 
whitQ muslin harsa, ha^sa; 
white stuff for making t. 
mabaras ; a variegated cloth 
used for making turbans, 



barmushi; twisting of a 
double black and white 
t. round the head bania, 
/uni; a black and white t. 
mahawara; the winding of 
a t. nanndde. 

turkey, n. talotalo. 

turmeric, gangamau, ganga- 
mu. 

turn in, a, at the edge of a 
garment, n. shafi. 

turn, V. 1. tr. (to move round) 
maida ; to t. away from juya 
ma; to t. the head away from 
kau da kai ; to t. back, or t. 
over juya; to t. upside down 
jiche, jichi, jirkiche, kifa 
(K.) ; to t. over (e.g. a mat, 
piece of cloth etc. for the 
purpose of folding) lijike or 
nimka ; to t. round, or t. over 
bankada, hankade^ kifa^ kife ; 
intr. to t. aside (off the road, 
or out of the way) ratsa, 
rache, raise, baudi, karkache, 
e.g. we t. aside from Kano 
7mcn ratsa Kano ; to t. back 
tankwashe ; to t. over kewaye 
or kewayi ; to t. round (to 
revolve) id., e.g. my head 
turned round (of giddiness 
etc. ) kaina ya kezvaye ; to t. 
round (of a single change of 
position) waiwaya, waiga, 
e.g. when he called me I 
turned round and saw him 



turning 



269 



ulcer 



da ya kira rii na waiwaya na 
gan shi; to t. out (to become 
eventually) fUa, e.g. he 
turned out well ya fita na- 
gari. 

2. (to change or change 

into) tr.andintr., see change. 

turning, participial n. juyawa, 

jujuyawo, waiwayaiva, waige 

(K.), p]. waige-ivaige. 

turtle, n. ijuma (S.) ; mud t. 

kijifiya. 
turtle-dove, n. kurchiya, pi. 
kurchecheki and k^irchiyoyi, 
u-(da, pi. walu. 
tusk, n. zaga ; an elephant's t. 
haurin giwa, hauri; cf. ivory, 
tweezers, matsefata. 
twelfth, ord. num. na-goma sha 

hiyu, fem. ta-goma sha hiyu. 
twelve, card. num. goma sha 
hiyu, also sha hiyu ; t. times 
sau goma sha hiyu. 
twentieth, ord. num. na-ishirin 
01- na-ashirin, fem. ta-ishiri7i. 
twenty, card. num. ishirin, 
as]Liri7i; in counting by twen- 
ties hauya and Idso {= a score) 
are especially employed, e.g. 
hauya uku = sittin. 
twice, numeral adv. sau hiyu. 
twig, n. tsumanjiya, tsumajiya, 
tsumagiya, reshe, rishe, kirare. 
twilight, n. (that before dawn) 

jijiji a.ho ji/jif, oMjir. 
twinkling of an eye, n. (a 



moment of time) kyaptawan 
ido or keptawa da gani. 
twins, n. pi. tugwaye, tatvaye, 
spec, next child born after 
twins gamho, gumhd^. 
twist, tr. V. gusda, kitso (e.g. 
the hair); to t. the neck 
nadiye (K.), murda, murde 
(K.), mirde (S.), murgude, 
kwakwume; to t. thread, etc. 
murje^ hurka, ndde, yin nadi, 
lauya; (in plaiting rope, etc.) 
fMhka, tujka, tupka, tumka, 
tukka, darza; intens. form 
mummurda ; twisting cotton 
round a pin before spinning 
kulla. 
twisted, adj. a inurgude. 
twisting, n. nddi; t. of strands 

into threads tilka, tukka. 
two, card. num. hiyu ; by twos 
hiyu hiijw, t. hundred dari 
hiyu or metin- t. thousand 
aljin. 
tying, kumshi, see tie. 
tyranny, alfarma, yaji. 



udder, n. nono, pi. nonuwa, 

hantsa. 
Ugliness, kwarjini, muni, mu- 

gunta. 
llgly, adj. da kwarjini, mam- 

muna, mummuiia, da muni. 
Ulcer, n. gyamho, pi. gyam- 

huna, mele; corneal ulcer 

hakiya; see scab. 



umbrella 



270 



undress 



umbrella, n. le^na*, laima*, 
tuta* or tuti*, pi. tutochi. 

unabashed, da kwarkwasa. 

unable, to be gdza^ kasa ; I am 
u. to go na gdza tafiya ; they 
were u. to overcome sun gaza 
isa; buwaya, e.g. I am u. to 
do it na buwaya. 

unalloyed, adj. safi; see un- 
mixed. 

unbaked, an u. pot danyen 
kasko. 

unbecoming, adj. haram, ha 
daidai ; e.g. he did what was 
u. ya yi abin da ba daidai ba. 

unbeliever, n. kafiri, pi. kd- 
firai, kdfirawa; to become 
an u. kafirta. 

unbind, tr. v. kunche, kunchi, 
kwanche. 

unbound, pass. part, kwanche, 
fern, kivanchiya, pi. kuntu. 

uncertain, adj. da zuchiya 
biyu ; I am u. ina da zuchiya 
biyu ; to be u. yin tantama. 

uncertainty, n. (a state of 
doubt) kokanto, tambaba, tan- 
tama, tachetache. 

unchaste, adj., see profligate. 

unchastity, n. zallantaka. 

uncle, maternal, n. rdfani, 
kaww, (father's brother) bd- 
bani. 

unclean, adj. (dirty, foul) da 
dauda, kazdmi; ceremonially 
u. haram. da haram. 



uncleanness, n. (in a physical 
sense) dauda ; (in a wider 
sense) kazamta, kazanta, 
tozari, jdraba, ja'ira, janaba. 

uncooked, adj. danye ; u. flesh 
nania danye. 

uncover, tr. v. yaye. 

under, adv. and prep, kalka- 
shin (S.), karkashin (K.), ka.'<. 

underneath, adv., cf. preced- 
ing. 

understand, v. ji, fahimta or 
fakumta*, hankalta, yin 
tsimi,_ e.g. I u. your words, 
I u. quite well na ji ma 
ganakka sarai ; he under- 
stood (i.e. you need say no 
more) ya yi kdrin Tuagana ; 
to u. well intens. sansanche ; 
to fail to u. gigiche or gigi, 
rudi*, gagata, the last taking 
da before object, e.g. I failed 
to u. it na gagata da shi. 

understanding, n. 1. (compre- 
hending, comprehension) /a- 
himchi, jiyayya, tsimi, kari ; 
(knowledge, cleverness) azan- 
chi ; lack of u. gigi, see also 
ability. 

2. (a good u.) jiyayya. 

undo, tr. v., see untie; (to 
annul, render vain) wqfinta ; 
(to ruin) bata. 

undress, v. debe or debo, tube, 
jitas da all with riguna, 
etc. 



undressed 

undressed, pass, particip., see 

naked, 
uneven, adj. (of a surface) da 

kurzuna, see rough, 
unfasten, to halle. 
ungird, tr. v. sunche, e.g. he 
ungirded his camel ya sunche 

rakuminsa. 
ungrateful, adj. huUdu, mcd- 

hutulchi. 
unintelligible talk, hauhawa, 

hobawa. 
unique, adj. kadaichi. 
unit, guda. 
unite, tr. v. gama; intr., to u. 

closely garwaya. 
unity, n. dayanchi^ -, spec, to 

profess the u. of God tau- 

hida* or tauhidi*. 
unkind, magaya, magauchi, 

pi. magata. 
unlawful, adj. da haram or 

haram; n., anything u. or 

what is u. haram or haramu, 

abin haram, shirku ; u. gain 

or profit haramiya. 
unless, conj. sai, sai ko, e.g. he 

is not without reason, u. he 

refuses to listen to that 

which thou showest to him 

ba shi rasa huja ha sai ya ki 
jin abin da ka nuna mai. 
unload, tr. v. gen. shida or 

shide; to u. camels, etc 
1, sabki, sapka, safka, 
I, sauki. 



271 



until 



unloose, katsi, see untie. 

unlucky, something u. shu'wmi. 

unmixed, adj. (pure from ad- 
mixture) tsalka,tsatsalka,saji, 
kuna ; u. water kuna rutva. 

unprofitable, adj. babu anfani, 
da babu an/ani, banza, babu 
riba. 

unravelled, to become u. war- 
wari. 

unripe, adj. da7iye or danyi, 
pi. danyoyi, danyu ; u. fruit 
jimbiri (S.). 

unsaleable, ya ki sayuwa. 

untidiness, barkatai ; cf . 
everything in his house is 
untidy duka gidansa bar- 
katai ya ke. 

untie, tr. V. kunta, kunche, 
kwanche (K.), sunche or sin- 
che, balle, katsi, bainye, banye. 
untied, pass, particip. kunche, 
kwanche, fern, kunchiya, pi. 
kuntu. 
until, till, prep, and conj. ha,r, 
hal, kamin, prep., e.g. he fol- 
lowed the true path u. now 
ya bi hanyar gaskiya har 
yanzu; conj., e.g. let them 
quarrel u. they are tired a 
bar su su facia har su gaji ; 
sai, prep, with nouns of time, 
e.g. u. to-morrow sai gobe ; 
u. evening sai mareche ; these 
expressions are elliptical, 
some such v. as wait, etc. 



untimely 



272 



usage 



being understood before them, 
as is the case also when sai 
is used as a conj., e.g. give 
up delaying u. you are 
old bari jira sai ka tsufa ; 
kana, kan*, kanda, kamin, 
conj, = then and not u. then, 
so that the corresponding 
English sentence contains a 
negative, e.g. don't eat our 
bread u. you have eaten your 
own ka chi gurasanka kana 
ka chi tamu. 

untimely, an u. birth kwatan- 
tanwa^. 

unto, prep, (a strengthened 
form of to) ga\ with pro- 
nouns gare^ zuwa, ya zuwa; 
in correlative expressions 
combined with har, e.g. from 
this border unto that daga 
iyakan na7i har ga iyaka 
chan. 

untrue, adj. kakari^ ; the n. 
kariya {- Engl. ' a story ') is 
constantly used in this sense, 
e.g. whether true or u. I do 
not know gaskiya ko kariya 
ban sani ba. 

untrustworthy, an u. person 
danyen kasko (lit. an unbaked 
pot). 

unwell, adj. ra^hin lafiya, 
maras-laRya ; see ill. 

up, adv. (upwards, aloft) bisa, 
a bisa, dqf; e.g. the falcon 



soared u p sha/o ya tashi bisa ; 
he climbed u. the tree ya hau 
itache daf daf. 

uphold, tr. V. (to support, e.g. 
as a tent-pole) tokdra. 

upon, prep, bisa or a bisa, 
which may also be followed 
by ga ; e.g. u, it bisa garesa ; 
he got u. the horse ya hau 
bisa7i (or bisa ga) doki. 

upright, e.g. I stood u. na 
tsaya daidai. 

uproot, to tumbuke. 

upset, V. 1. tr. jirkiche, jiche, 
jichi, kifa (K.), birkichi or 
birkiche ; to u. (so as to spill 
water, etc.) zubda, zubda ma, 
dole, kikkifa. 

2. intr., to u. or to be u. 
(of men, etc.) tuntsure ; (of a 
boat) durimi, dirimi, dulmiye. 

upside down, to turn, tr. v. 
jirkiche, jiche, jichi, shiche, 
shida. 

urinate, intr. v. yin bawali, yiv 
bowali, yin boli, yin fitsari. 

urine, n. fitsari, bawali, bowali, 
boli. 

us, pers. pron. obj. mu suffixed 
to verbs and prepositions, 
e.g. he called u. ya kira mu ; 
to u. ma mu, or with assimi- 
lation m,umu. 

usage, n. (custom) ada, taada, 
tada (S.), pi. tadodi, see cus- 
tom. 



use 



273 



use, ID. (utility, advantage, pro- 
fit, gain) anjxmi; e.g. what 



vaunt 



is the u. of ink? tadaiva 
minene an/mmita'i of u. da 
anfani • of no u. babu anfdni; 
a man of no u. muhmien 
woji-; I am making u. of him 
ina moronsa. 
use,tr. V. (toemploy),nogeneral 
term, e.g. they u. flesh for 
food abinchinsu nama ; they 
u. skins only for clothing 
rigunansu duka sai da fata ; 
they u. force suyia yin tilas; 
lie can u. the axe shina iya 
yin aiki da gatari; (to make 
"• of, i.e. profit by) a^ifdni, 
anfdne • (to be wont) verbal 
forms with ka7i, e.g. he used 
to come home at night shi 
kan tafo gida da dare ; to be 
used to (to be accustomed to) 
saba da ; e.g. camels are used 
to men rakumma sun saba da 
mutane ; which do you u. ? 
wanne ka ke moro % 
useful, adj. da anfans ^nai- 
anfani', it is u.shinada akiba 
useless, adj. babu anfani, 

hanza ; u. toil wata reran. 
uselessly, to work, intr. v. 

sunktviya or suftkuya. 
aselessness, n. wojt. 
^sury,^;^^^o*. 
iterus, mahaifa. 
itility, 11. J see use. 



uvula, beli, belli, hakiu wuya, 
kwadon halshe. 



R. H. n. 



I vaccination, dashin yar-rani 
vagabond, adj. gujeje, dan 

karma. 
vagabondage, ynagi. 
vagina, tsele.farjL 
vain, adj. (empty, worthless) 
banza, kakari, amere ; in v. 
harna{-K.),ba7ma{^.)- (con- 
ceited) see conceit, 
valiant, mai-yaji. 
valley, kwari, hvare (S.), n , 

see ravine, 
value, n. (estimated worth in 
money) daraja, antaya, see 
price, 
vanity, n. (emptiness, worth 
lessness) kakari, abin woji ; 
(conceit, foolishness) wauta, 
fadin kai, see conceit, 
vapour, n. (mist, fog) hazo ; v. 
rising in hot sun kawalwal- 
niya. 

variance, n. (dissension, dis- 
agreement), see discord. 

variation, n., see difference. 

various, adj. dabam dabara,^ 
daban daban, e.g. v. things 
are sold in the market 
abubuwa dabam dabam a 
sayas da su chikin kasuwa. 

vase for scent, n. wakiya. 

vaunt, to rangwada (S.), ra^i- 
gaji (K.). 

18 



veal 



274 



victory 



veal, n. naman maraki. 

vegetable-marrow, kabushi, 
ruguguwa. 

veil, n., long V. lulluhi, lid- 
lube or lillibi, zane* ; a v. 
worn over the mouth and 
hanging down in front amd- 
wali. 

veil, tr. V. luUuba ; refl. to 
V. oneself, id. 

vein, n. jijiya, pi. jiwoji or 
jijiyoyi, maji^idya (K. ) ; veins 
coll. dagura. 

velvet cloth, kind of, n. kada- 
miskin, kararniskiri, muhijl, 
yapki, yauki. 

velvet-mite, karamiskin, kara- 
muskin, karmuskin. . 

vendor, of small goods dan koli. 

venereal disease, basiru, miri- 
yau, piyauka. 

vengeance, to take, v. rama. 

Venus, (the planet) n. matan 
wata, lit. the wife of the moon. 

verandah, shirai, shirayi. 

verify, to hakikanta. 

verily, adv. hakika, an che, ai, 
da gaskiya, see truly, 

vermin, see tick, etc. 

verse, a v. of the Koran, n. 
aya, pi. ayoyi ; verses of a 
song tsarin maganganu. 

vertigo, n., see giddiness. 

very, adv. dayawa, most fre- 
quently with the expression 
thrown into a nominal form. 



e.g. he was v. fearful ya ji 
tsoro dayawa, etc. ; some- 
times this idea is expressed 
by repetition, e.g. v. fast, or v. 
quickly 7naza maza; v. slowlj 
or V. quietly sannu sannu ; 
spec. V. red ja wur ; v. black 
baki kiriii, baki wur ; v. 
white /ari fat ; v. much (of 
habitual actions) is often ex- 
pressed by V. /aye, e.g. dogs 
bark v. muchait night karimka 
sun /aye ha/shi da dare. 

vessel, n. 1. (utensil for hold- 
ing anything) tukunya, pi. 
tukane or tukwane ; a v. made 
of clay kasko, pi. kasake ; a 
V. made of skin tandu; spec. 
a glass V. ta7igaram. 
2. see boat. 

vex, tr. V. wahalshe, refl. to ^ . 
oneself wahalda. 

vexation, n.haushi; see anger. 

vexed, to be, intr. v. jin haushi, 
e.g. he is v. with me yana jin 
haushina; phr. my heart is 
v. zuchiyata ta tafasa. 

vice, n. 1. (profligacy) zina. 
2. (a defect, blemish) aibi, 
aibu. 

vicinity, habarra (Ar.). 

victory, n. nasara, na^archi. 
bijinta ; to gain a v. nasara 
with yi or samu, e.g. li^ 
gained a v. ya yi (or ya samv 
nasara. 



victuals 



275 



wages 



victuals, n. ahinchi, tuivo, 
chwta, chimaka. 

view, 11., see sight 2. 

vigorous, karsani. 

vile, adj. kazami, ditniya*. 

village, n. kauye, pi. kauyuka, 
unyuiva, angthiva. 

villain, n. mai-masifa, mugun 
mufum. 

villainy, n. (mischief, wicked- 
ness) masifa, muyunta, she- 
go n taka, shege *. 

vine, wild v. ayana, dafura, 
tsibiri kinkhii, chibrikinkini ; 
edible-stemmed V. (Vitisquad- 
rangularis) dadori ; rubber 
V. alubada, alibada, chiwo. 

vinegar, n. ruwan tsami, yami. 

violate, to taka. 

violence, n. (i.e. tyrannical or 
wrongful V.) tsanani; (physi- 
cal force) karifi, e.g. by v. 
(by force) da kai'ifi, da tilas. 

violin, a musical instrument 
resembling a goge*. 

viper, gajera, injihau, tsada- 
raki, kububiitva, sha-7iono, see 
snake. 

virago, kazgama. 

virgin, n. budurutva, pi. budu- 
rutvai, ktirkiya, pi. kurkoki, 
kurkiyoyi, bikira, sagara. 

virginity, budurchi, buduru- 
tvanchi. 

visible, to become (of a star) 
keio, bidlo*. 



vision, n., see sight 1. 

visit, tr. V. jaurtyi ; spec, of a 

religious v. to a shrine or 

holy person ziyara, ziyarche. 
visitor, n. (guest or stranger) 

bako, fern, bakiiwa, pi. baku7ia, 

baki or bakokuna. 
vital, a V. spot makdsa. 
vizier, ivaziri*. 
voice, loud, n. muriya, pi, 

muriyoyi. 
void, to make, tr. v. wofinta. 
vomit, V. yin amai, (to dribble) 

tumbudi, artiaye, gdtse. 
vomiting, gashi, (e.g. after 

drinking poison) bard. 
voracious, see greedy, 
voracity, n. zowari, zwari, zari. 
vowels, n. hajatu* ; points or 

V. placed above or below 

letters wasali. 
vulture, n. angidu, agidu, 

augulu, fern, angula, agula, 

pi. angullai; the crested eagle 

angidun kwakwa; the fishing 

V. jayaki, meke, maiki, mai- 

kiya, niikiya. 

wag the head, to, v. (in token 
of assent) gydda kai, also 
kdda kai ; to w. or move the 
head (in token of dissent) 
kauda kai. 

wage war, to, v. yin yaki. 

wages, coll. lada, jinga, aldro, 
ijdra ; one who pays w. mai- 
18—2 



wagtail 



276 



wand 



jinga ; to pay \v. yin jinga, 
ijarta; a w. -earner dan ijdra, 
dan jinga. 

wagtail, madikin kasa. 

wail, n. kuka. 

wail, V. kuka with yi or the 
forms in na. 

waist, dunu. 

wait, intr. V. gen. expressed by 
means oi jima, e.g. w. a little 
jlma kddan, or jim kddan \ 
w. a while sai anjirtia ; to 
w. a short timejinjima ; where 
the meaning is obvious tsaya 
(stop) is often used; to w. 
iorjira, jirache, jiratajiraya 
(S.), tsumaya (K.), yi7i jin- 
kiri, dakata, dakanta, e.g. 
T waited for you 7ia dakanta 
7na ku, yin ddko', to w., i.e. to 
linger ddde. 

wait, lying in, n.fako, aranfak% 
kwanto ; a place for lying in 
w. 7nafaka. 

wait, to lie in, intr. v. yinfako. 

waiting, dakachi, ddko, jinkiri, 
tsayi. 

wake, to, intr. v. (to cease to 
sleep) falka ; tr., to w. one 
up tada, tayas, falkad da. 

wale, made by a whip etc., n. 
kidu, pi. kulayi. 

walk, n. (pathway) hanya, pi. 
hanyoyi ; also fig. of the 
religious w., e.g. to follow the 
true w. bi hanyan gaskiya. 



walk, intr. v. (to move slowly 
on foot) yin yawo ; this is 
used of the act of walking 
itself and of promenading, or 
taking a w. ; very frequently 
in this sense the phr. shan j 
iska (lit. to drink the wind) is \ 
combined with yatvo or tafi^ 
e.g. we walked for an airing 
muka yi yawo shan iska ; to w. 
about zago; to w. backwards 
and forwards zago, jaivagi* ; 
to w. on all fours rarrafe ; to 
w. on tiptoe sanda ; to w. 
proudly takama; to try to w. 
(to toddle) of infants dubho \ 
dubbo. 

walking, verbal n. yauiva; w. 
fast or excitedly gagawa ; w. 
up and down in weaving | 
tvadari. 

walking-stick, gwalma. 

wall, n. katanga, gam, rmya 
(Z.), shirgiya, barza, e.g. if 
he comes out his wits are at 
the house wall (i.e. at home) 
idan ya jito hankalinsa da 
barza ; the w. of a house 
built of mud bango, pi. barir , 
gaye or banguna ; the inner Jj 
w. of a house kwasandi ; 
a w. round a town gantva ; 
the grass covering of aw. to 
keep off rain boto. 

wand, carried by officials, n. 
rukuke. 



wander 



277 



wash 



wander, to, intr. v. ; fig. to w. 
from (to stray from) a path 
sail hanya or tafarki ; to w. 
aimlessly shishu/a. 

wanderer, landi*. 

wandering, n. yauim-, w. of 
animals matataki. 

wane, intr. v. rayu, e.g. the 
day wanes (or is on the w.) 
noiii ta rcujii. 

want, n. 1. (need, lack) rashi ; 
Av. of health rashin lafiya. 

2. (penury) talauchi, see 
poverty ; v., to be in w. of 
rasa, e.g. he is not in w. of 
an excuse ba shi 7'asa huja ba. 

want, to, 1. (to be without) tr. 
V. i'dsa, kasa. 

2. (to desire) so, e.g. I w. 
you to give me money ina so 
ka ba tii kurdi. 

wanting, particip. (lacking, 
devoid of) prelix maras-, e.g. 
w. sense maras-hankali ; w. 
strength 7naras-karifi ; w. (in 
the sense of short) hilafa^. 

wanton, n., see profligate. 

wantonness, n., see vice 1. 

war, n. yaki, pi. yakuna or 
yakoki, gdba*, zaman ; spec, a 
holy w. jihddi, jahddi ; a civil 
w. basasa ; a proclamation of 
w. fdyara ; a charm for pro- 
tection in w. maganin yaki ; 
a day fixed for w. ranar 
yamu ; a large bird whose 



cry is considered an omen of 
war zakaran dawaki ; v., to 
make or wage w. yin yaki ; 
instruments of w. kayan ddya. 

warbler, grass w. purpur, sari- 
ki7i kridi. 

ward off, to, tr. v. tsdra, tsdri, 
fmre, tsdro, tsdrlma, kdre. 

warm, to, tr. v. zd/a/a ; to w. 
the hands yasa hannu ; refl. 
to w. oneself at a fire, and 
intr. to become w. jin wuta ; 
to w. up food dumama. 

warm, adj. mai-dunii, see hot. 

warmth, dumi. 

warn, tr. v. harbarta, kadarta, 
garydda, also galkadi with yi 
or the forms in na. 

warning, n. galkadi, gargadi, 
kashedi, habartatva *. 

warrior, n. mayaki, gungama, 
jajirma*, zarumi, zarmi, pi. 
zarumawa or zarumai, ja- 
rimi *, sadauki, sha-bauje ; 
fig. (lit. a large snake) gam- 
sheka, gamshika; (lit. a black 
snake) mrcsasau* ; a boastful 
w. gugara* ; a chief w. rago* ; 
a strong w. gizgari* ; w. with- 
out load, i.e. carrying only 
arms sunku7'u* ; see soldier. 

wart-hog, alhanzir, hanzir, 
durungu. 

wash, tr. v. wa7ike or waTika ; 
in pregn. sense w. and bring 
back waiiko'j to w. over wii,h 



washed 



278 



waterspout i 



water ycifa, yafo; w. well 
kivala, kwara, wanke kalai. 

washed, pass. part, n-ankakke, 
fern, wankakka, pi. wankakku. 

washing, n., w. (ablution) al- 
walla. 

washing, w. away zarni. 

wasp, n. zirnako, jinako, zhiako, 
damafifito, rina; the mason 
w. zanzaro, zazaro (S.). 

waste, n. 1. (destruction, 
harm, loss) barua, banna. 
2. (wilderness) daji. 

waste, tr. v. (to spoil, destroy) 
bdta, bdtas, banna; to w. 
money (i.e. dissipate, squan- 
der) bdtas (and kdshe) kurdi; 
to lay w. yin kadaita. 

wasted, pass. part, batache, 
fem. batachiya, pi. batattu; v., 
to be w. (i.e. spent) bache, 
e.g. the ink is w. (i.e. dissi- 
pated, dried up) tadawa ta 
* bache] (of man, with disease) 
yanktvayie, see emaciated. 

waster, raygo^ see idle. 

watch, n. (time-piece) ?oto*, 
sa^a*. 

watch, V. tsdra, tsdri, tsdre, 
tsdro and tsdrmia, kulo, yin 
shigoro, zura ido ; to w. care- 
fully duba, dubo; to w. cattle 

^ kiiiio. 
watching, shigoro. 
watch-tower, mabdga (S.). 
water, n. ruwa, pi. ruwaye^ 



ruwaiwai; cold w. ruivcm \ 
sanyi; hot w. ruwan zafiy \ 
ruwan dumi ; drinking w, I 
ruwan sha ; rain w. ruwan j 
Allah or ruwan sama ; a sip j 
of w. guwa ; a beam for j 
drawing w. jigo, pi. jiguna^ \ 
kutdra^ ; splash of w./unjurriy 
bundum-bunduni ; v., to 
draw w. jan ruiva, kwalfa^ 
debe and debo ruwa, dauka 
ruwa; pure w. kutia ruwa; i 
to make w. yin fitsari, boli ; \ 
muddy w. gurbatachen ruwa ; : 
w. which wells slowly up ru- 
wan jira ; still w. kuruma ; 
the sound of running w. [ 
kur-kur-kur, war-war-icar. \ 

water, to (i.e. to give to drink) 
shdda. 

water-buck, ambeche, dodoka, 
yaktwiba, gwambaza. \ 

water-cress, lajuwa. 

water-fowl, a black w.-f. di- 
niihnilo, dumulmuli (S.). 

watering, shadawa. 

water-lily, bddo, kola (S.). 

water-pot, n. tidu, pi. tiduw ; 
spec, pumpkin or gourd from 
which w.-pots are made dnma, 
pi. dumaimai, dumame, iiy^"^- 
dama, jallo (K.). 

waterproof, riyar ruwa. 

waterside, n. (watering-place) 
inashaya. 

waterspout, inda,raro (S.). 



watery 



279 



weaver-bird 



watery, adj. da ruwa. 
wattles of a cock, n. lehatu^ 

laihatu. 
wave, tr. v. (to move to and 
fro) yin shillo, veto; she is 
waving her kerchief tana 
(/il(jiza kallahinta. 
waves, n., of water rakummau 
ruwa; heat w. in the air diyal 
rana. 
waving, shillo, 

wax, n. gabduw€t* (from the 
ear) daudan kunne ; see bees- 
wax, 
wax-bill, (bird) asisi, baiwai^ 

Allah. 
way, n. (road and also fig. of 
rehgion, etc.) hanya, pi. hnn- 
yoyi, fafarki, pi. tafarkoki, 
babe, turba, p]. turbobi ; (of 
temper, character) kali, pi. 
halai, e.g. that is his w. 
halinsa ke nan ; in this w. 
hakanga, see thus ; v., to go 
out of the vv. (to make room 
for) raise; to lose the w. 
ratsa (or ratse) hanya, kar- 
kache ; to build or construct 
a w. gina hanya and gen. to 
prepare a w. gyara hanya; 
phr. I know my w. about na 
sani duniya. 
we, pers. pron. nominative sep., 
e.g. all we or we all 7nu duka; 
we two mil biyu ; prefixed 
to past tenses, e.g. we saw 



him mun gan ski ; suffixed to 
auxiliary of the future and 
to the passives, e.g. we will o-o 
together za mu tare ; we were 
driven out aka jitas da mu. 
weak, adj. rashin kariji, maras- 
kariji, babu karifi, kumdma, 
raunana, dagogo (Kats.). 
weakness, n. kumamanchi, 

ramni. 
wealth, n. gatanchi, fajirchi, 

see property, riches, 
wealthy, adj., see rich 1. 
wean, tr. v. yin yaye. 
weapon, mahalbiyi, see arms, 
wear, tr. v. m* (lit. put on) 

used with riga etc. 
weariness, n. gajiya, gajetva, 

gajiyawa, angaje. 
weary, adj. da ycijiya ; v., to 

feel w. jin gdjiya. 
weather, fine, n. duniya dadi; 
it will be fair w. za a yi 
sarari ; the w. is bad to-day 
yau ba sarari ba. 
weave, v. saka ; a frame used 
in weaving through which 
the warp threads pass after 
leaving the all era, masefi. 
weaver, n. ag. masaki, ma- 
saka; weaver's loom takala ; 
weaver's shuttle masaka. 
weaver-bird, the yellow w.-b. 
jira; the long- tailed w.-b. 
(Vidua principalis) zidaidu, 
zulaidi, sometimes called 



weaving 



280 



sarikin tsuntsaye ; the black- 
headed yellow w.-b. kahare ; 
the black-headed w. finch 
shaida. 

weaving, sdka ; to walk up 
and down for purposes of 
w. wadari ; the pulley on a 
loom on which the peddles 
work chikalkora ; the wooden 
board to which the unwoven 
thread of the warp is fastened 
kunkuru ; the revolving cage 
on which the spun yarn is 
wound before w. yaro-ha-ki- 
wuya. 

web, spider's, n. sumya, shaii- 
shando (S.). 

wedding, n., see marriage; 
w. festivities amarchi. 

Wednesday, n. ranal laraJm, 
laraha, larha. 

weed, tr. V. yin tsintsuwan 
chiyawa. 

week, this day w. ydda yau : 
to-morrow w. ydda gohe. 

weep, intr. v. yin hawaye ; 
see cry. 

weevil, a small w. which eats 
corn ku7i-ki-chi*. 

weigh, tr. V. auna, aii7ii, 
awuna, yin awo, gwada ; 
actions are weighed ayiika 
awonsu. 

weighing, verbal n., anything 
for w. with ahin awo; any- 
thing used for w. ma-auna. 



tea'^H 
culaVi 



weight, n. 1. (measured hea 
ness) aroo \ for particulal 
measures of w. see mishuiL 
rotaV^ ; v., to feel in order to 
discover the w. of a thing 
jinjini ; giving short w. tm- 
kure. 

2. (heaviness) nauyi, na)i- 
wa*. 

weighty, adj. (heavy) da nan- 
yi. 

welcome, interj, used as a 
salutation on meeting after 
a long time marhaha, mdrahu 
harka da zuwa, harka da yini ; 
see also under sanu. 

welcome, tr. v. (to leceive as 
a guest) shide, marhabshe, 
tarairaiya, tarha, tarhi, 

well, n. rijiya, pi. riyoji or 
rijiyoyi ; a deep w. rijiya da 
zurfi^ tumniya ; spec, a beam 
for drawing water out of a 
w. jiyo, pi. jiguna ; v., to dig 
a w. gina rijiya ; falling in 
of a w. hurma. 

well, to w. out tsatsdfa. 

well, adj. 1. (right, proper, 
advantageous) da kyau. 

2. (in good liealth) dc 
lajiya and lajiya, e.g. are you 
w. ? kana lajiya ? quite w. 
sai lajiya or lajiya lau ; he 
came back here w. ya komo 
lajiya ; to be w. yin lajiya. 

3. adverbial expressions 



west 



281 



wherever 



are : (of approbation) w. da 
kyau; (of doubt, hesitation) 
w. ! to, aya, aiya ; as w. as 
(together with) tare da; w. 
then (introducing a state- 
ment) ddga nan. 
west, n. yamma, magariba. * 
westward, adv. yammachi. 
wet, n. (rain) ruiva; cf. seq. 
wet, to be, intr. v. (of the 
weather) e.g. it is w. ana 
ruwa; it was very w. an yi 
rmva dayawa ; (to become 
wet) jiki ; (to be wetted or 
put in water) a jika tsant- 
sama, mma (S.) ; to be very 
w. jika sharkap. 
wet-season, n. damdna or 
damuna; to pass the w.-s. yin 
damdna ; see under rainy, 
what, pron. 1. dependent rela- 
tive (that which) abin da, 
e.g. I see what you want na 
ga7ii abin da ka ke so. 

'2. interrog. what 1 mi, me, 
mirie and mhiene, e.g. what 
has happened to you ? mi ya 
same ka 1. what shall we do ? 
mi za mu yil also adj. wa, 
ivanene, fern, tvac/ie, wacheche, 
pi. sutva, smvane and suwa- 
nene, e.g. what is his name ? 
wa simansal what kind of 
bird is this? wanne irin 
tsu7ht8nwa ke nan 1 see under 
who. 



whatever, indef. rel. pron. 
komi, e.g. whatever begins 
will come to an end komi ya 
faru za shi shi kare ne. 
whatsoever, indef. rel. pron. 
komine, e.g. wh. you do, it 
will be of no use komine ka 
yi babu anfani. 
wheat, n. alkama; w. in good 
condition alkama tsa^-i ; tuft 
of w. geza, pi. gezuna ; ear of 
w. kube, see ear. 
wheel, n. 7'umbuiva^, ujalaJ^, 

keke. 
whelp, n. kwikuyo or kurk- 

wiyo, pi. kwikuye. 
when, adv. 1. rel. da, yanda, 
yawanda, yaushe, sa'an da, 
lokachin da, ran da, kagada 
(S.), idan or izan, kddan, kan, 
kamin, kur^ or kul*. 

2. interrog. when 1 yaushe, 
wache sa^a, wa7ine lokachi ; 
since wh. 1 tun yaushe, ddga 
yaushe ; until wh . ? har yaushe ? 
whence P ddga iyia 1 
whenever, adv. ko yaushe, e.g. 
wh. he gets up he falls down 
again ko yaushe shi tashi ya 
fadi kuma, 
where, adv. 1. rel. inda, wurin 
da. 

2. interrog. where? inal 
wherefore P adv. domi 1 dom- 

mi or domin mi 1 see why. 
wherever, adv. koina. 

18—5 



whether... or 



282 



who 



whether... or, correlatives y al- 
ia... ko^ ko...ko. 

which, see who. 

while, a little, n. jitna kadan 
and jira kadan. 

while, adv. rel. tun da, e.g. 
while they were speaking 
together I ran oflf ttun da 
suna yin magana na taji da 
gudu ; wh. they were about 
to kill him a wonderful thing 
happened tun da za su ka- 
she shi abhi mamaki yafaru. 

whip, n. (of skin) kurfu, pi. 
kurafu, bulala, pi. bulalai. 

whip, tr. V. yin bulala, yin 
kurfu, e.g. he whipped them 
ya yi ma su bulala. 

whirling, n. juyi. 

whirlwind, n. guguwa, used 
esp. for dust storm. 

whiskers, saje, pi. sajoji; w. 
and moustache washefe. 

whisper, intr. v. rada, chim- 
baya, both esp. in bad sense. 

whisperer, n. ag. mai-rada. 

whispering, n. rada. 

whistle, n., made of horn 
ktvabura (K.), kwabira (S.). 

whistle, intr. v. (with the lips) 
yinfito, yinflto. 

whistling, participial n. fe- 
duwa, fito, feto, shewa. 

white, adj. fdri, fern, far a, 
farfara, pi. fdrare, fdru-fdru 
or far/aru; very wh. fdri 



fat ; a wh. (i.e. one of a wh. 
race) ba-ture. 

whiten, to far anta. 

whitened, pass, particip. fd- 
raya, pi. fdrayu. 

whitish, (i.e. dirty white) far i 
fari. 

who, pron. 1. rel. (also which, 
the objective whom, and the 
I'el. that) wanda, fern, wadda, 
pi. wadanda, also simply 
da ; the possess, whose is 
expressed by the foregoinoj 
with the corresponding po> 
sess. pron. suffixed to the 
object possessed, e.g. the man 
whose camel I killed mutum 
wanda na kashe rakuminsa. 

2. pronominal interrogative 
who 1 (also = which 1) wa, 
wa7ie and wanene, fem. wa^he, 
lOacheche, pi. suwa, suwane, 
e.g. who is this ? wa ke nan ; 
who are you? wanene kai; 
which are they ? suwane m' ; 
which of them? wane ch'i- 
kin su; which woman amoni;, 
them ? waxihe chikin su ; who 
is this? wanene wannan\ the 
possess, whose? is expressed 
by placing the name of the 
object possessed in the con- 
nective before the interrog., 
e.g. whose daughter art thou % 
(i.e. who is thy mother?) diyar 
wacheche ki ke ; whose son is 



whoever 



283 



will 



he ? dan wa shi ke ; whose 
horse is this? dokin wa kenan. 
3. the adjectival interroga- 
tive forms are wanne, fern. 
wache, pi. wddanne ; who is he? 
wa7ine shi; what woman is 
it that has come? wache mache 
che wannan wadda ta zo; 
what men are these? wadanne 
mutane ke nan. 
whoever, indef. pron. kowa^ 
duka wannan da; see soever, 
whole, n. dukachi, dukanta, 
e.g. the w. of mankind 6^0- 
kctchin mutane. 
whom, rel. and interrog. pron., 

see who. 
whore, n. shakaliya, pi. sha- 

kalai, karuwa. 
whoredom, n. shakalchi, karu- 

tvanchi. 
whose, possess, rel. and in- 
terrog. pron., see who. 
why, dependent rel. adv. domi, 
dommi, don mi, domin mi, 
he did not tell us why he did 
this thing ha ya fadi ma mu 
domi ya yi abin nan; in- 
terrog. why? domi, dommi 
or domin mi, sahilin mi, 
mi ya sa, sabad da mi. 
wick, n., lamp w. made of 
twisted cotton lagwami, la- 
gwani. 
wicked, adj. muyu, fem. mu- 
gunya, pi. miyagu ; a w. 



person mugun mutum, mala- 
loAihi. 
wickedness, n. mugunta, Idbo, 

shegantaka. 
wide, adj. da Jddi, maifadi, 
bikiki, da faski ; n., a w. 
place yalwa ; it is two cubits 
w./adinsa (=its width) kaimi 
biyu. 
wide-opened, adj . kurkurkur*. 
widow, n. zauwara, zaura, 
gwabruwa, jaura, bazawara, 
gwamruwa, pi. gwamraye ; 
a w. during her time of re- 
treat tdkaba. 
widower, gwabro, gwauroy 

gwamro, jauri, zauri. 
widow-finch, zulaidu. 
widowhood, zauwarchi. 
width, n. fadi, faski, e.g. its 

w. is ihiii fadinsa ke nan. 
wife, n. mata, pi. mataye; spec, 
chief w. iiwar gida or uwal 
gida ; w. of a polygamist 
kishiya (q.v.), pi. kishiyoyi; 
a favourite w. mowa. 
wild, adj., see tame 1. 
wilderness, n. daji, ddwa, see 

desert, 
wile, n., see stratagem, 
will, n. 1 . (assent, consent and so, 
permission) yarda, (pleasure, 
wish, determination) turn, e.g. 
work your w. ku yi abin da 
kii ke so. 

2. (testament) ivasichi*. 



will 



284 



with 



will, V. 1. (of consent, also 
willingness) yarda. 

2. as auxiliary of the fut. 
za, e.g. I w. run za ni gudu; 
he w. return here za shi komo. 

willow, rimni, ha ruwana. 

win, V. (in gambling) ka^a, chi, 
e.g. I w. na chi. 

wind, n. iska or hiska, pi. 
iskoki or hiskoki, holoko* ; a 
dusty w. malalo ; the Har- 
mattan w. iskan buda; the 
w. is now blowing hard iska 
yana husawa yanzu da kariji ; 
to break w. yin tusa. 

wind, tr. v.viurda^ murde(K.)y 
7mrda, mirde (S.) ; to w. 
thread wadarta ; intr. (to 
coil) 7iade. 

winding-sheet, n. likafani, 
likka/dni. 

window, n. ^i.e. a hole to look 
out) sakata, taga (K.), pi. 
tagaigai ; dan kofa. 

wind-pipe, n. muriya, pi. 
muriyoyi, janai, janyaro. 

wine, palm-, n. bam, bami. 

wing, n. (of bird) fifike, Jikafike, 
pi. Jlkafikai, fukafuki, ipl./u- 
ka/ukai, faifeto, fefeto ; w. of 
an insect kallemu (K.); flap- 
ping of w. fuffuka, pup^ika. 

winged, adj. niai-fefeto. 

wink, V. kyabta (or kyapta) 
ido, jajache, runitsa ; to w, 
with one eye yin kanne. 



winking, participial n. kyah- 
tawa, kyaptawa, kanne. 

winnow, v. tankada and yhi 
tankade., bakache, sheka, shi- 
ka. 

winnower, n. ag. mai-bakache, 
mashekiya*. 

winnowing, tankade. 

winter-season, buda. 

wipe, tr. V. shafe, karta (K.), 
karche (S.), katse ; wiping 
(e.g. of a dish) katsa; any- 
thing used for wiping abi7i 
shafe. 

wisdom, n. 1. (sagacious in- 
sight) lura, budi, hikima*. 

2. (prudence, good sense) 
hankali. 

wise, adj. in sense of prec. 1. 
mai-lura ; in that of prec. 2. 
da hankali. 

wish, n. abhi so, fata ; a strong 
w. guri* ; unless I w. sai 
na ga dama. 

wish, tr. V. so, nufe or nifa; 
to w. ior /ache; to w. rather 
Ji so, e.g. I w. this rather 
than that na fi so wannan 
da wanchan. 

wit, cf. I am at my wits' end 
dabara ta kare. 

witchcraft, n., see sorcery. 

with, prep. 1. instrumental, 
da, e.g. they slashed him w. 
a sword suka save shi da 
takobi. 



withdraw 



•285 



woman 



2. comitative, da which is 
commonly used with verbs 
of motion, e.g. go off w. it 
(take it away) taji da shi ; 
(in company w. ) tare da ; 
(near, by) wuri na or wurhi, 
gun, e.g. w. the king tvuri 
na (or wurin) sariki ; thou 
must seek knowledge w. the 
Mallams kai dai a netni 
shiui gun mallamai ; (of com- 
petition and contest) da, e.g. 
he fought w. a certain man 
ya yifada da ivami milium ; 
he jnade war w. Kaffi ya yi 
yaki da Kafi. 

withdraw, tr. v. kauda, kau- 
she, turje, turjo ; to w. the 
hand danko ; intr , to w. 
from (to move away from) 
gusa, gulgusa or gurgusa, 
toge ma, kude (S.) ; to w. 
into shelter noke. 

wither, v. yaushi, tsotse and 
tsotsi, kvmke^ ; (of plants) 
yankwane. 

withered, pass. part, shan- 
yayycy fem. shanyayya, shan- 
yayyu ', spec. w. branches 
kivahrvha. ; w. tree koreii 
it a eh''. 

withering, n. yaushi. 
withhold, tr. v. ha^ia. 
within, prep, chikin or dclga 

cMkin, tsakan* ; from w. 

ddga chikin. 



without, prep. 1. (devoid of, 
wanting) ba, babu, bamda, 
e.g. w. doubt babit shakka, 
babu wawa ; with the prefix 
maras- compounds are formed 
equivalent to the English 
prepositional phrase, e.g. w. 
shame maras-kuTnya ; v., to 
be w, rasa, tafe, taji, tabe, 
kasa. 

2. (not within) see out- 
side. 

witness, n. 1. (testimony) 
shaida, pi. shaidai and shai- 
dodi ; eye-w. shaidar ido ; 
false w. shaidar zur. 

2. (a person who testifies) 
ynai-shaida, pi. masu-shaida ; 
v., to bear w. shaida with yi 
OJ' the forms in 7ia ; to bring 
or adduce w. kai (or kawo) 
shaida ; to bear false w. 
dartire magana. 

wizard, n. maye or mayi, fem. 
mayya, boka, pi. bokaye. 

woe ! interj. wai, tir, e.g. w. is 
me ! tvai iiiya ; w, unto you ! 
tir da ku ; see alas. 

wolf, an animal resembling a 
w. (the hunting dog), n. 
kyarkechi, kyalkechi, kiri- 
kiiiji, kilikinji. 

woman, n. mache, pi. mata, 
'mtitumniya ; young w. ya- 
rinya, pi. yammata ; a bad 
w. karuwa, shakaliya ; a w. 



womanliness 



286 



worse 



without a husband hazaivara; 

a woman's loin-cloth faUiri ; 

an old w. yyatuma, goma, 

l/akimiJm. 
womanliness, ivanchi. 
wonder, n. 1. (the feeling) 

woha*. 

2. (something wonderful, 

aw.) mmnaki and abin ma- 

maki, ajaba, ajub, kardma. 
wonder, intr. v. yin woba, jm 

matnaki, saurara*. 
wonderful, adj. da matnaki. 
wont, n. (= habit) tada, ada, 

e.g. this is their w. ta- 

dansu ke nan ; v., to be w., 

see accustom 2. 
wood, n. 1. (forest) rukuki. 
2. (the material of trees) 

itache and iche-, a little 

piece of w. dan itache ; spec. 

a long piece of w. tied behind 

the ear as a punishment for 

thieving kangalai. 
woodpecker, green makokofo, 

^nakokoji. 
wool, n. mulufi or malufi, ulu, 

f<uji^ rero^. 
woollen, adj. da (or w«) ynu- 

lufi or malufi ; woollen cloth 

rnidufi or malufi. 
word, n. ^nagana, pi. magan- 

ganu, zanche, pi. zanfMuka, 

kalma, kalami^, kardtu ; 

pleasant words (lit. ear broth) 

rotnon kunne. 



work, n. (employment, busi- 
ness, labour) aiki, shdgali, 
shugala*, pi. shagulgula, tsur- 
fa', concr. (a production, an 
act, a w.) aiki, pi. aikoki ; 
net- work aikin raga ; a bad 
w. aiki mugu; a day's w. 
wunin aiki; v., to refuse to 
w. or to shirk w. ki rvuya, 
huji ; to start w. kaina aiki. 

work, intr. v. aiki with yi and 
the forms in na; to w. dili- 
gently yin sawabe; to w. 
uselessl}^ sunkwiya or i^un- 
kuya; n. unwillingness to w. 
sassaucJti. 

working, n. (action, operative 
power) 2/i* q.v. 

workman, n. ag. maaikachiy 
pi. maaikata. 

workshop, n. maaikachi*. 

world, n. duniya ; the next 
vv. lahira, gidan gobe. 

worm, n., an earth-w. tana, pi, 
taiiu, tsutsa ; earth-worms 
abin kdsa; thread-w. kwaraba; 
tape-w. tslla ; guinea- w. kur- 
kunu, girgamu; worms in 
horses or asses coll. dznmaki, 
dzurmaki. 

worry, tr. v. wahalshe, dame; 
he worried people beyond 
endurance ya chika dam(t 
imitane. 

worse, comp. adj. mafi mv- 
gunta daga. 



worship '2S7 

worship, n. (religion, creed) 

addini* ; (divine service) 

salla; Mohammedan \\. mu- 

sulumchi. 
worth, (deserts) chinchinta. 
worthless, adj. hanza, Ja'ane, 

fern. la^ana, pi. Ja'anu, lala- 

tache, fern, kdatachiya, pi. 

lalatattu, amere, ivoji, yofi 

(S.) ; n., a w. fellow dan 

hanza, wofin mutum ; to be 

w. lalache, tunkushe. 
worthy, adj. kirki, kiriki. 
wound, n. rmmi, makami, 

miki ; scar of a healed w. 

faho, tamho. 
wound, tr. v. rauni ; to w. 

witli a spear choke. 
wounded, pass. part, da r'auni. 
wounding, jinaya. 
woven, pass. part, sakakke^iem. 

mkakkiyn, pi. sakakku. 
wrap, tr. v. ya/a, yafo, sunke, 

kanshe*. 
wrapper, n. (goatskin loin w.) 

ivaiki (S.), warki (K.). 
wrapping, grass, for packing 

salt, etc., n. burdumi. 
wrath, n., see anger. 
wrestle, intr. v. yin kokuwa. 
wrestler, n. mai-kunche. 
wrestling, n. kokuwa, kokovja; 

a. w. game gumaza. 
wring, tr. V. murda, e.g. they 
wrung the fowls' necks suka 
niurda ivuyan kaji. 



yam 

wrinkled, to be takura. 

wrinkling, n. yaushi, yoshi. 

wrist, n. wuyan hannu, tsird- 
siyar hannu; w.-bone idem 
hannu ; spec, a w. ornament 
worn by the heathen warami, 
pi. waramai; a wristlet made 
of leather and wood daya ; 
w. bangles kdrau, kambu, 
kambutva, warami. 

write, V. rubuta, rubiitu, yin 
rubutu, rubuche. 

writer, marubuchi, pi. maru- 
biUa. 

writing, n. abstr. ridnitu or 
rubuchi; a w. board alio; 
concr. (anything written, a 
w.) lay a, pi. I away e, layii, 
takarda, pi. takardu, rtdmtii, 
rubuchi, litafi, pi. litattafi, 
litatafai; a line of w. sha- 
dara, shatsdra; spec, writing 
from God (used of the Koran, 
the Psalms or Gospels) za- 
bura*. 

wrong, n. (violation of right) 
laiji; v., to do w. yiu laifi, 
karkache, e.g. he did me w. 
yet yi ma ni laifi ; I will pro- 
duce proof so that anyone 
may see that you are in the 
w. ni kawo shaida kowa shi 
gani ku ke da laifi, 

yam, n. doyei, pi. doyoyi, ma- 
gurazei; a y. cooked and 



yard 



288 



young 



beaten up sakwara : koko 
y. givaza; a kind of y. (the 
Kaffir potato) rizga; a root 
resembling a y. turmiku, cha- 
kara. 

yard, (measure of length) san- 
da *. 

yarn, (thick cotton) n. ahawa. 

yawn, intr. v. mika* ; he does 
nothing but y . saishina mika. 

yaws, kyambi (S. ). 

ye, pers. pron., see you. 

yea, adv., see yes. 

year, n. shekara, pi. shekaru, 
e.g. how many years old are 
you 1 shekarunka nawa or 
shekara nawa kana da rai or 
shekara nawa tun haifu- 
walka; last y., adv. bara, 
hariya ; next y. hadi ; this y. 
hdna ; v., to live (so many) 
years shekara; y. after y. 
shekara da shekaru. 

yeast, n., spec. y. made of acid 
pulp of the tamarind tsamiya. 

yellow, adj. r away a, pi. rawa- 
yu, spec. y. needlework on a 
bernouse yar-rani. 

yes, adv. i, na^am, mddalla*, 
yau*, yo* ; to say y. (to as- 
sent or consent) kada kai ; 
see certainly. 

yesterday, n. jiya ; the day 
before y. shekaranjiya, three 
days ago tcanshekaranjiya ; 
y. evening jiya da mareche. 



yet, adv. har yanzu^ e.g. is your 
father y. living ? id)anka har 
yanzu shina da rai ; while y. 
tu7i da, e.g. while they were 
y. running tun da suna gudu ; 
not y. tukun, tukuna with 
ha, e.g. he has not y. gone 
away ha ya tafi tukuna, ha\ 
I have not y. found it />«// 
samu har yau. 
yoke, put on necks of slaves, 

n. karkiya. 
yokel, a hagidaje, dan kauye. 
yolk of egg, n. gtvahduwc 

gicanduwa. 
yonder, 1. dem. adj. (also = the 
one y.) wa7ichan,iem. wachari, 
pi. wadannan, chan or cJiana, 
e.g. on the y. side dag a waje 
chan. 

2. adv. (over there) chan, 

chana, ddga chan, wuri chan. 

Yoruba people, Hausa name 

for ayagi, Yarihawa. 
you, pers. pron. (also ye) ku ; 
to you ma ku or with assimi- 
lation 'muku. 
young, adj. 1. (new, fresh, nut 
used of animals or men) sdh<\ 
fem. sdhuwa, pi. sahui, sahohi. 
sahabi or sahbi. 

2. (of animals) da, conn. 
dan, fem. diya, pi. ya, conn. 
yan, coll. diya, e.g. a y. lion 
dan zaki or da^t zakanya] 
y. lions yan zakanya', the 



youngest 289 

hyena brought forth her y. 
kura ta haife diyanta. 

3. (of human beings) special 
terms are used requiring no 
adj., e.g. ay. ladi/«ro, lA.yara; 
a y. woman yarinya, pi ycmi- 
mata; a y. man, see youth, 
youngest, adj. auta. 
youngling, n. (of animals) 
kwikuyo, lahuhu, kurkiviyo, 
kuyikuyu, pi. kwikuye, kuyi- 
kuyai. 
your, possess, pron. suffixed to 
a masc. n. -nku, suffixed to 
a fem. n. -rku, -Iku, e.g. y. 
king sarikinku; separate, if 
the object possessed is masc. 
naku, if fem. taku, if pi. 
nakii. 
yours, (the form of prec. 
employed when the object 
possessed is not expressly 
stated but implied) with 
masc. object naku, fem. taku, 
pi. 7iaku, e.g. our horses are 



zizyphus 



better than y. dawakinmu 

sun fi naku. 
yourself, yourselves, refl. and 

emphatic pron. ; see self, 
youth, n. 1. abstr. yarantaka, 

yarinta. 

2. concr. (ay. from fourteen 

to twenty years of age) 

samrayi, saurayi, sarmayi, 

pi. satnari. 

Zaria, the town, Zazzau, Zozo 

or Zakazak; the people of Z. 

Zagezagi. 
zeal, n. himma, harama, ha- 

zama, yaji*; v., to show z. 

maida (or yin) himma. 
zigzagging, kurda nan kurda 

nan. 
zithern, a kind of garaiya, 

guraiya, karaiya. 
zizyphus, n., Z. spina Christi 

kurna; Z. lotus magariya ; 

Z. mucronata (buifalo-horn) 

magariyar kura. 



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