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Full text of "A dictionary of the Hok-këèn dialect of the Chinese language, according to the reading and colloquial idioms: containing about 12,000 characters. Accompanied by a short historical and statistical account of Hok-këèn"

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In the absence of the author of this Dictionary, a note explanatory of the 
delay in its publication seems necessary. The printing of it was commenced at 
the press of the Hon. E. I. Company in 1831, and continued with some inter- 
ruptions until their charter expired in April, 1834, when the work stopped at the 
320th page. It remained untouched until December, 1835, when Mr. Medhurst, 
being in China, circulated a subscription paper to procure funds to complete the 
printing, and obtained upwards of one hundred names. Messrs. Olyphant & Co. 
of Canton advanced the necessary funds on the guaranty of this subscription, and 
the printing was immediately resumed, the Company having loaned the use of 
their font of Chinese types for the purpose. 

It is probable that the student will discover some errors in the work^ but at 
present, a full table of errata cannot be made out. The following, however, 
have been noticed, 

Page 16, for 
Page 48, for^ 
Page 87, for fg 
Page 95, for ^ 
Page 127, for ^ 
Page 144, for ■j^ 
Page 221, for fjj^ 
Page 241, for j|^ 
Page 252, for ^ 
Page 266, for ^ 
Page 274, for jg 
Page 276, for ^ 




































Page 328, for ^t 
Page 332, for 
Page 351, for 
Page 354, for 
Page 357, for 
Page 388, for ^ 
Page 436, for ^ 
Page 541, for 
Page 542, for 
Page 577, for "^ 
Page 6ll, for Jfi 
Page 675, for ^ 

Keeo, also read ^ 

read Keet, ^. 

K'hak, read W 
K'hadu, read 
K'he, read 

K'hwuy,/ead ^ 

Le, cranspose Xg 

P'hwat, read ^ 

PJn, read ^ 

Sedng, read ^ 

Soe, read 1^ 
Tht^a, read 

vf>H{ ^ ^2^^ 

Some errors in marking the tones, and in distinguishing the reading sounds 
from the colloquial, may also be found ; but when the circumstances attending the 
printing of the work are considered, it is hoped these imperfections will not be 
severely criticised, 

S, Wells Wih,iams. 

Macao, Jtttie 1, 1837, 


AFTER the numerous and elaborate works on Chinese Philology 
already before the Public, the presentation of a new one would seem almost to need 
an apology, were it not that the object of the present Dictionary is not so much 
to elucidate the Chinese language generally, as that of one of its dialects, in particu- 
lar. Previous efforts have been confined to the Mandarin or Court dialect, with the 
exception of a Canton Vocabulary published in 1828, and (so far as the Author's in- 
formation extends) nothing has yet been done to elucidate the Hok-keen or Emoey 

The Mandarin tongue is partially understood throughout the whole Empire, by 
the better informed part of the inhabitants, and, in some central districts, it is said to 
be the current language of the people, but, in the southern provinces, the vulgar 
dialects differ more or less from the Court language, and in Hok-keen, where the dif- 
ference is most marked, the cultivation of the Mandarin tongue is less general. The 
author, having never visited China, has had little opportunity of conversing with the 
higher ranks of the Chinese, but from a constant intercourse with the middling and 
lower classes who emigrate to the Eastern Islands, his uniform experience for the 
last fourteen years has been, that not one man in five hundred knows any thing of the Man- 
darin tongue, or can carry on a conversation of more than ten words in it. In Hok- 
keen, a doctor, a fortune-teller, a stage-player, or a police officer may sometimes be 


met with, who hflivmg travelled into other provinces, or been employed about Govern- 
ment offices, will perhaps be able to converse a little in the Court dialect ; but, in 
most cases, the people are totally unacquainted with it, and never think of studying 
it till, having succeeded at the literary examinations, and got a prospect of preferment 
or employment, they go to a regular school for the study of the Mandarin, and acquire 
it almost as they would a new language. Indeed, instances have been known of 
literary graduates of considerable standing giving up the prospect of Government situa- 
tions, rather than take the trouble of studying the Oourt dialect. 

Not only does the Mandarin tongue differ from the vulgar idioms, but these 
provincial dialects differ considerably from each other, so that an inhabitant of Hok- 
keen will not be able to understand a native of Canton, — and the author has frequently 
had occasion to interpret for two Chinese from adjoining provinces, who could not 
understand each other. Even in the same province, the difference of dialect is some- 
times so great, that people divided by a mountain, a river, or twenty miles of country^ 
are by no means intelligible to each other. In the ten counties of Hok-keen, 
there are certainly as many different dialects, and if the same obtains throughout every 
onB of the eighteen provinces of China, the different dialects in that Empire will be 

neatly two hundred. 

- ! :f:oft->i(' 

. ... . '.^: person, whd^ Qontemplates learning the Chinese language, without much pros- 
pect pjf verbal : intercourse with the people, or who will be generally conversant with 
the. higl^r , clashes and Government officers, throughout all the Provinces, would certainly 
do well to study the Mandarin dialect; — but he whose intercourse will probably be 
confined to one district, and who will have to do with the great mass of the people 
residing in it, would do better to study the vulgar dialect of that particular place. 

The author, on commencing the study of Chinese, attended solely to the Man- 
darin, but, finding that it was not understood by the mass of emigrants in the Malayan 
archipelago, he turned his attention, in the year 1818, to the Hok-keen dialect. In 1820, 
a small Vocabulary was drawn up, and a few sheets of it printed at Malacca ; in 1823, 
this work was enlarged, and sent to Singapore, to be printed under the patronage of 
the Singapore Institution, the Committee of which offered to publish it at their own 
expence. The affairs of that Institution, however, not having prospered, the Manuscript 
lay untouched for several years, was since sent to Malacca and Penang, and, in the 
year 1829, came back untouched into the author's hands. Considerable advancement 
having in the mean time been made in the knowledge of the language, and the Select 

Gotnnaittee for managing the affairs of the Honorable East India Company, in China, having 
gen:eroti8ly offered to bring the work through the press, the author undertook to re- 
compose it entirely, to enlarge it by the addition of several thousand characters, and to 
illustrate the meaning of each principal word by a quotation from some respectable 
C^hipe?^ ,?itflAos„, ,.,.„„ 

■ ' ^he presenivvork is founded on a native Dictionary of the Hok-keen dialect, 

published in the year 1818, called the "f" 3l "^ Sip gnoe yim, or "fifteen sounds," 
which contains both the Reading and Colloquial idiom, with the sounds and tones very 
accurately defined. The inhabitants of Hok-keen have a method of expressing themselves 
in common conversation, very different from the style in which their books are written ; 
and this variation appears, not only in the substitution of more easy and familiar words 
for the abstruse and difficult terms used in books, but also in the inflection and altera- 
tion of even common words, giving them sometimes a nasal or contracted termination, 
and sometimes completely changing their sound and tone. This has given rise to the 
distinction between the Reading and Colloquial forms of speech, which, in the native 
Dictionaries, are distinguished, by having the former printed in red, and the latter in 
black ink; while the same is attempted to be marked in the following work, by putting 
the Colloquial in italics, and printing the Reading idiom in roman letters. 

The Chinese have a method of spelling their words, by dividing them into 
initials and finals, and taking the initial of one word and the final of another, they 
form a third by the conjunction. In the native Dictionary above alluded to, fifteen initials 
(hence the name) and fifty finals are employed, to express all the possible variations in 
sound, of which the Hok-keen dialect is capable. These initials and finals are hereafter 
described, and attempted to be expressed in European letters ; the system of orthography 
which has been adopted to elucidate these sounds may not possibly be the best, and 
no doubt they would be differently expressed by others ; but whatever may be the 
faults or deficiencies of his system, the author flatters himself that it is uniform, ^d 
that any given word will be found to bear the same orthography throughout the work. 
Walker's and Sheridan's pronouncing Dictionaries have been consulted, but it was found 
impossible to adopt their systems in every instance, as the Hok-keen dialect contains 
sounds, which neither of those orthoepists had ever occasion to illustrate. The nasals, 
in particular, can be accurately expressed by no possible system of European orthography, 
and if twenty people had to define them, they would no doubt write them in as many 
different ways; the author has therefore adopted that mode of spelling which appeared 


to him the best, following, in most instances, the orthography of Dr. Morrison, in his 
Dictionary of the Mandarin tongue, where the sounds at all resembled each other ;^ 
and having once adopted it, he has found it necessary to adhere to the same through- 
out the work, in order to prevent mistakes and confusion. 

In addition to the sounds formed by the junction of the fifteen initials and fifty 
finals, the inhabitants of Hok-keen have a method of multiplying their few monosyllables^ 
by the application of various tones, which, while the word retains the same form of 
spelling, produce an alteration of the intonation, by a variation of the accent. Respect- 
ing these tones of the Chinese language, some difference of opinion has obtained, and 
while some have considered them of the first importance, others have paid them little 
or no attention. The author inclines decidedly to the former opinion ; having found, 
from uniform experience, that without strict attention to the tones, it is impossible for a 
person to make himself understood in Hok-keen. Chinese children, as soon as they begin 
to speak, learn the tones, as speedily as they do the sounds themselves, and the 
poorest people invariably observe the minutest regard to the tones; so that the author 
has never heard a real native of Hok-keen make the slightest mistake in the tones, 
even in the hurried conversation of common life. Indeed a Chinese is more likely 
to make a mistake in the orthography than in the accent of a word, and when charged 
with pronouncing tiiem instead of leem, will defend himself, by saying that, at any 
rate the words are in the same tone, and therefore there cannot be much difference 
between them. A horse in Hok-keen is 6ay, in the upper tone, with an acute accent, 
but the Chinese, in speaking of a horse, would as soon think of changing the orthogra- 
phy into bang, as of altering the accent into bdi/, which is in the lower even tone, 
with a circumflex over it. In the native Dictionary which is made the basis of the 
present work, the to'ies are most particnlarly defined, and the arrangement of each section 
is more according to the tone than the orthography ; for instance, the first section contains 
all the words of the even tone, under a certain final, as connected with the different initials, 
and not a single upper tone is brought forward, till all the even tones of that final are 
given ; the second section then contains all the words under the upper tone of the same 
final, and so on; so that h-wun in the even tone Avill be found under one section, 
and kwi'iti, in the upper tone under another. This arrangement, in which the accent 
is regarded more than the spelling, is peculiar to the Chinese, and shews what great stress 
they lay on a difference of tone, even more so than on a difference of orthography. In 
the following paii<s, this arrangement has been reversed, and the words are classed ac- 
cording to their alphabetical order, yet the author has endeavoured to mark, in every 
instance, the peculiar tone to be afhxed to each word, and that not only in the words placed 

for reference at the head of each line, but also in the examples adduced; so that, with 
the exception of typographical errors, each word will be found to have, not only the same 
mode of spelling', but also a uniform intonation, throughout the book. 

It is possible that, in the meaning given to each particular word, some dis- 
similarity may be observed between the present work and the Dictionary published by 
Dr. Morrison ; if such should be the case, the author would not be understood as inten- 
tionally differing from his indefatigable 'predecessor, whose elaborate work he has seldom 
or ever consulted for the meaning of words ; but, having followed an entirely independant 
authority, and having adopted the meanings assigned in native Dictionaries, and illustitited 
in .the quotations referred to, it is not unlikely but some trifling discrepancy may arise. 
Fewer meanings may also be found in this, than in the Doctor's work ; but it must 
be remembered, that the present undertaking is on a much smaller scale than the preceding 
one, and to have given all the meanings of etich word, and proofs of their being used 
in every several sense, from Chinese authors, would have swelled this Dictionary to 
too great a size, particularly as it is designed to illustrate, not so much the language, 
as a single dialect of it. However, the most common and approved sense of each word 
is generally given. 

The quotations adduced are most of them from Chinese authors of the best 
reputation, viz. from the Five Classics, the Four Books, authentic Histories, and approved 
Odes, being generally the same which are quoted in the Imperial Dictionary, under the 
characters referred to. A few vulgar phrases may be found here and there, and some 
quotations from novels and unauthorized productions ; but good authors, however ancient, 
have generally been preferred, both as being held in greater respect among the Chinese 
themselves, and as giving the most appoved sense of the characters in question. It may 
be that the author has mistaken the meaning of some passages, and has awkwardly ex- 
pressed the sense of others, while published translations of the works quoted from may 
be brought, in triumphant proof of alledged ignorance or carelessness; — but it must be 
remembered, that a person giving the sense of an isolated passage is very likely to 
express himself differently from one who translates the book in detail ; and that some variation 
or amplification is indeed necessary in a quotation, in order to give the reader a correct 
idea of the sentence, which would be less requisite where the passage stood in its 
proper connection. If it be asked, — why not give sentences from modern authors, or 
examples of every-day conversation, in illustration of each character? the answer may 
be, that there are no modern authors, of any reputation, but what are built upon, and 
imitators of ancient writings ; and to manufacture sentences for the occasion would be 


liable to this very serious objection, that ^uch Sentencefe. may or rhaynnot be good [Chi- 
nese, according to the proficiency or i ijjiskilfillue6&> of tli© ''Compiler,' land'tO; adduce' 
ungrammatical or un-idiomatical sentences in elucidationv ' would be to l^ad the mind 
astray, and to retard instead of promote the progress of the student. Shoujd the author 
be spared to compose tlic Second Part pf this Dictionary^ viz. the English and Chinese, 
it is his intention to adduce, under each important , word,, a phrase, fropi. 
author, and to give (''6 sense of it in Chinese^ by wliich means the , stjide'nt will be 
enabled to judge of the familiar way of writing und speaking Chinese^, aujdi|9Jf,the method 
of rendering English composition into it. , j).,i ,ri,ij -■ i,];d j . dh 

For the short historical and statistical account of Hok-keeii, the aiuthor is indebted 
to Chinese histories and geographical works, to Malte Bruh's Universal Geography, 
aud to an account of the Dutch embassy to Hok-keen in the seventeenth century. These 
productions are most of them old, yet, as China remains long stationary, the present 
state of the province differs perhaps little from what it was formerly. In estimating 
the population of Hok-keen, a different opinion is hazarded from what Dr. Morrison has 
given, in his View of China for Philological Purposes : it is however proposed with 
diffidence, and not without being substantiated by two independant authorities. Hok-keen 
contains ten counties, of which only one, viz. j!^ ^'l'| Cheang chew, riear the port of Emiiey, 
is the identical spot where the dialect illustrated in this Dictionary is spoken in its purity; 
in the adjoining county to the east, viz. -^ >)\\ Chwan chew, the dialect differs very 
little; and in the neighbouring county on the opposite side, viz. '/^ ^Tl Teaou chew, in 
the province of Canton, the dialect differs a little more, but still the inhabitants of each 
district are mutually intelligible to each other. Of the dialects of the northern counties, 
of vT i^fl T'beng chew, and ij^ -|- Yeen peng, as well as of the north-eastern counties 
of pl 'fl^ Hin hwa, and fi'^ti 'J\\ Hok.c^ew^ the author is; unable to speak vyith any degree 
«f decision. ..,;il,fm„i-,} „f .,d«f..: ■ 

For any typo2,raphical errors, which may creep in. during the ^xciition of the 
work, the. jiuthor: hopes for the i indulgence ;'«)f the public, as, the work' being printed at 
the distance of nearly two thousand, miles from, his place of abod^, it is impossible for him to 
correct the sheets as they are put to press, or to mark out any errors which might 
have iiladvertehtly dropped from his pen in the composition; To the Rev. Dn Morrison 
and his son, who have kindly undertaken the revision ' of the proofs, the- author' would 
express his unfeigned obligations, and his earnest hopes that they mafy succeed; in Uie difficult 
task of reading and comparing the very minute distinctions, of ac^ceM as' Well' as sound. 


which the author has found it necessary to employ in the work, and that they may send 
it forth to the public^ as correct as his best wishes could desire. 

To the Directors of the Honorable East India Company, and to the Gentlemen of 
the Select 'Committee for the management of their affairs in China, the author acknow- 
ledges himself as under great and manifold obligations, for their kind notice and patro- 
nage of the work, and for their munificent liberality, in printing it, free uf expence, at 
their own press in China. 

May the present feeble undertaking be rendered eminently serviceable in the 
promotion of Chinese literature, and may students of the language, whether for civil or 
religious purposes, derive essential benefit therefrom ! and to that God who has granted 
iiealth for the undertaking, and ability to bring it to a conclusion, shall be all the glory. 

W. H. M. 

Batavia, July 29th. 1831. 






The PROVINCE of is ^ Hok-keen, Mmppy establishment,' lies in the S. E. quarter of tlu 
Empire of China. The latitude of its Capital, )|ig {ffj Hok-chew, 'happy region,' is 86° S' N. and its 
Longitude 1° SO' E. from Peking. The account given of it by Maltc Brun is as followsi 

" Fou-kien (or Hok-ke^n) is one of the smallest, yet richest, provinces of the Empire. Its situation 
" is favourable for fishing, navigation, and trade. The air is very warrn, but pure and healthy. The fields 
"are watered with an infinity of rivers, which come from the mountains, and which the labourers manage with 
"great dexterity, fur watering their, rice-ground». Black tea is the principal product. It also contains musk, 
" precious stones, iron, tin, and quicksilver mines; silk, hemp, and cotton are manufactured « steel is prepared, both 
■'in the form of bars, and ready-made articles of hardware; and among the delicious and abundant fruits which it 
"produces, the oranges are remarkable for the flavour of muscat grapes which they possess. Fou-chew-fuu (Ilok- 
"chew-ho6), the capital of the province, is, above all, celebrated for its aituation, for the great trade which it pos- 
" scsset, for the multitude of its men of learning, fur the beauty of its rivers, which bear the great barks of China* 
'ito its very walls, and, finally, for an admirable bridge, thrown over the gulf, consisting of a hundred arches, and 
"entirely built of a beautiful white utone. Ycn-peng-fou (Ye£n-peng-ho6), situated on the declivity of a mountain, 
" at the foot of which flows the river Min-bu, is not large, but it is considered as one of the handsomest towns in 
"the Empire. Tchang-chew-fou (Chcang-chew-ho6) is near the port of Emouy (Ay-modi^S), a great emporium of 
"trade, frequented by the Spaniards from Manilla." 

The Hok-keen province was formerly called the Bin Bg country: the following notices respecting it^ 
early history arc taken from ^^ |^ ^ /^ 40 Kong kiro c te, or "History of China." 

As early as the first year of ^ {(^ ^ Chtn-s6-h6ng, B. C. SIS, we find mention . mad(i of the Bflu 
country. The Empire being then divided into 36 districts, or BK Kwfln, to which were added four other- 
from the J®. Wat country, namely, Rfl rfl B&n-teung, or Hok-kiien ; ^ jffe Lftm-hae, or Canton ; J^4yt. 
Kwij-Jlm, Cochip China; and ^^ S3^ng-kwQn (perhaps Siam.) 


In the 30th year "f ]^ ^ ^ Han-bootey, B. C. 105, the people of ^ •^ Tong-wat slew T 
^* Ong-fi-seen, and tendered their submission to the Government. In the precedini* year, ^P '^P ae Ong-6- 
seen had rebelled, and the Emperor sent his General [^ «S Y4ng-pok to subdue the country ; after which he 
transplanted the people to the region between the -Vj^ Kang and •Jtg HwaS rivers. The Emperor having con- 
sidered that the country of Bfl Bftn was full of dangerous defiles, and the people ever disposed to revolt, which' 
would be likely to occasion endless trouble to future agej, resolved on completely removing the inhabitants to 
another region, leaving their own country desolate. 

In the period of the ^ Tong dynasty, in the 12th year of ^ ^ Swan-chong, A. D. 849, the Emperor 
appointed -P' JC£ (^ E-Yeen-I6ng to be the ruler of [ffi" mA Kijen-chew. When Yefin-I6ng came in to return 
thanks for the appointment, his Majesty asked, how far Keen-chew was from the Capital? Eight thousand l£, was 
the reply. Upon which the Emperor said, " As soon as you come thither, whether yoijr government be good 
or bad, I shall be fully acquainted with it: do not say to yourself, it is far off, for ten, thousand U are as near 
to me as the steps of my throne. Do you know this?" 

In the 5th year of ^ ^ E-chong, A- P- .8^3, it is ^i^ th*t m»ny of »be »unuchs of the palace were 
natives of Hok-keen, and bad great influence at court. 

In the 4th year of ^ ^ He-chong-, A. D. 868, Hok-chew |g j|>j was taken by the rebel Hdng-chaou 
^ M^ f fFj''S-cha6u ). In the 7th year of the same reign, A. D. 871, arose th« rebel ^ ^ Ong-si: he was 
a native of S MA Sew-chew, in the province of j^J^ ^ Kang-I&m, and by trade a butcher. Having collected 
a company of about 500 men, he seized upon the government of his native district; and about a month afterwards 
got possession of -tt* jN>j Kong-chew, when his adherents swelled to the number of 10,000. There was a magistrate of 
ffl Ifft Koe-s6 district, in the neighbourhood of -^ 'HJ Kong-chew, by the name "f 3£ J'Sl 0"g-'''36u, who, together 
with his younger brethren, 'M: hn Sim-te, and ^ iK Sim-kwuy, was alike distinguished for courage and spirit. 
S ^ Ong-se made this Hp ]M Ong-teaou his Lieutenant-General, and placed much confidence in him. 

In the Ulh year o{ ^ ^ He-chong, A. D. 875, ^ ^ Ong-se took possession of y";!* ij^^ Theng- 
chew and j^ Jllll Cheang-chew, both in the province of j|g ^ Hok-keen. About this time ^ 7^ ^ 
Chin- Chong.k wan, who had been appointed by the Emperor to be Governor of ^ j^^ Kong-chew, demanded 
the taxes due from that district ; and ^ ^ 6ng-se refusing to pay them, ^ ^ Chong-kwin was enraged, 
and marched an army to attack him. 6ng-s5, in his fright, collected the troops of both the ^ Sew and 

^ Kong districts, about 5000 men, and crossing the river, seized upon the three districts of pQ Kang, j|fc 
Hong, and^ K'heen, and the same month took possession of the two districts of ^ T'heng and y^ ChiJang, 
but could not keep them long. 

In the autumn of the same year, ^ ^Ongse came to 'W ijU Cheang-chew, and because the road 
was dangerous and provisious scarce, gave orders throughout the army, that no one should be permitted to 

bring their old and faebie relatives along witb Ibem, on pain of death. But ^^ ^1 Ong-te&ou and his 


brethren ventured ' to carry with them their aged mother. Ong-se reproved them, saying, " All armies have 
laws, and there are no armies without them; you have now disobeyed ray laws, and if T do not punish you, 
it will be the same as if we had no laws." Ong-te&ou and his brethren replied, "All men have mothers, 
and there are no men without them; how is it that your Excellency would have us to throw away our 
mother." Ongrse was enraged, and ordered them to behead the old woman ; but Ong-teftou and his brethren 
interfered, saying, "We must serve our mother, as much as our general; if yon kill the mother, what will be 
the use of the son* ? we beg therefore to die first. " The troops then interposed, and the matter was passed 
over. A certain furtuoe-teller told Ong-se, that there was in the army an individual, who would one day become 
a king; whereupon Ong-se put to death all tb<>se soldiers who appeared to have the least spark of bravery, 
or any disposition to assume command. This rendered the troops uneasy, and when they came as far an Lflm- 
an "^ itr (L6m-u'"a); in the district of ^ JjJ Chwan-chew, Ong-tiiaou directed the commander of the advanced 
guard to conceal some stout fellows among the bamboo bushes, in order to seize Ong-se, and binding him, 
expose him to public scorn. Upon this Ong-teAou was made general, and led his troops to the siege of ^ )|i|i| 

In the 5th year of J0 .^ Cheaou-cbong, A. D. 883. ^ ]i|| Ong-tcSou took possession of ^ j>|>| 
Hok chew. About this time 1^ ^ Tin-gdra, the Governor of j|g ^^ Hok-keen, was sick, and summoned 
i Wi 0"R'*'*""' "^'-" '"^" "^ M ^j'l Chwan-chew, in order to deliver over to him the command of the 
district, but died before his arrival. His Lieutenant, ^ R^ Hwan-hwOy, immediately appointed himself to 
succeed, and sent out troops to oppose Ong-tedou, but upon Ong-teftou'« attacking Sg Mi Hok-chew, tlwan- 
hwQy gave up the city and fled: Ong-teadu then lucceeded to the Government. In the winter of the same year, 
bng-teadu was regularly invested, by the Emperor, with the dignity of Governor of |§ "^ Hok-k£en province » 
from which period is dated the elevation of his family to independent tway in that part of China. 

In the 9th year of J^ ^ Chi-aou-chong, A. D. 888, &ng-telou died. Before his death he had elevated 
his brother ^p :^ Tj] Ong-Sim-te to the rank of Lieutenant-Governor, and on one occasion, for some 
^rror Mhich he had committed, had struck him with his staSf; Sim-te did not however take offence at this; and 
Ong-teftou, in his last illness, set aside his own son, and ordered Sim-te to superintend the affairs of the 
province. This ^x W) Sim-te is still worshipped by the Hok-ki;6n people, as being the founder of 
their state. 

In the 3rd yea* of 9|j* ^ jjij L^ang-T'had-choi, A. D. 900, jj^ ^ Aft 6ng-Sim-tc was appointed, by the 
Emperor, to be King of ^ Bdn. He was a man of econoroicai' and sparing habits, wore hempen shoes, and dwelt 
ill a mean abode, without ever thinking of enlarging or beautifying the place of hii residtnce. He was gentle 
in punishments, and sparing in exactions, so that all ranks became rich and happy, and bis whole teciitpr| 
was tranquil. 


In the 2nd year of ^ ^ S Tong-Chong-chong, A. D. 915, ^ ^ ^0 6ng-Sim-te, the ruler of 
Ban, died, and was succeeded by his son 5^^ Yc6n-han In the following year, 5E ^ ^ Ong-Yc6n-pin, 
the adopted son of ^ ^ j'-p Ong-Sira-te, slew ^ ^ Yeen-h5n, and set up his younger brother, M^ 
YeSa-kin, in his stead. 

In the 2nd year of j^ 0jj ^ Tflng-Bfing-chong, A. D. 918, the Emperor appointed 3l 3^ |^ Ong- Ye&n- 
kin to be king of ^ Ban. In the 7th year of the same reign, A. D. 923, ^ J^ ^\ Ong-Yefin-kin assumed 
the titU of Emperor of ^ Ban, and altered his name to J^ Lin. 

In the 1st year "f ^ ^ '^ T6ng-Hwuy-tey, A. D. 935, ^ ^j^ Le-hong, of the ^ Ban country, 
murdered his sovereign ^ ^ Ong-Lln, and set up in his stead || j[£ Hok-6ng, 'the King of happiness, ' 
caHed ^ OJt Key-p6ng, and altered his name to ^v^ Ch'hiidng. 

In the 3d year of ^ ^ jffl ChinKo-choe, A. D. 931, ^ ^ 6ng-he, of the 1^ Ban country, 
murdered his nephew and sovereign jjfl Ch'htiang, and set up himself in his room; acknowledging fealty to -^ Chin. 
In the 5th year of the same sovereign, A. D. 933, ^ |^ Ong-he, of the ^ Ban country, took the title 
of Emperor. 

In the 1st year of W ^ £ Chin-Ch6y-6ng, A. D. 937, 3E $^ I^ Ong-Yi-an-cheng, of the district of 
^ ^Ij^ Hoo-say, styled himself Emperor, and called his country ^ Yin. This ^ ^ J^ Ong- Yeen-cheng was 
the younger brother of ^ H^ Ong-he; and he had j^ ;r^ j|^ Hwan-Sin-yew, to be his President of the board of 
appointments, and i& B ^ Yang-Soo-keung, to be his President of the military board, and to be associated with 
him in the government of the state. The country was small and the people poor, while the troops had no rest: 
hence .H ^^ Soo-kijung sought to ingratiate himself with his Prince, by collecting as much revenue as possible, 
and therefore increased the taxes on fields and arable lands, even to fish, salt, vegetables, and fruit; nothing was 
left without having a double tax levied on it; insomuch that the people of the country called him "skin-flint." 

In the 2nd year of the same Emperor, A. D. 938, ;jfe ^ j^ Choo-ban-chin, a military officer of the 
Eg! Ban country, murdered his prince ^B He, and set himself up in his stead. In the same year, -H^ ^ i^ 
Choo-bun-chin yielded subjection to the ^- Chin dynasty, and was dignified with the title of bH ^|^ Ban-ong, 
the king of Ban. Upon which the state of ^fi" Yin marched to the attack of ;^^ ^ Jffi Choo-bfln-chin, and the 
Chinese government sent troops to attack ^ Yin. The people of B§ Ban, however, put -^ ^ jtt Choo-bfln- 
chin to death, and sent his head to ^ JAA Keen chew. 

In the following year, A. D. 939, the state of ^ Yin altered ite designation to ^ Ban, after which 
the Emperor's troops contended with those of ^1 Ban, and the latter were routed ; whereupon the Emperor's 
troops entered ^g iWJ Keen-chew, and 5£ iFfr Yefin-chdng came out and surrendered. Thus the country of 
Ban fell into the hands of the Chinese. 




In the statement given to Sir G. Staunton, in 1795. by Cbew-ta-jin, a mandarin of high rank, Uifc jiopula- 
Uon of Iluk-ki-dn is rated at 15,000,000, and that of the whole Empire at 333,000,000. This estimate has been 
by many thought to be exaggerated, but in the appendix to the Report of the Anglochincse College, for 1889, 
it is stated (on the authority of the -^ ^(^ ^ rtlf. Tae-Ch'heng hwOy le£n, or "Collection of statutes of the Tar- 
Ch'heng dynasty," in 261 volume* >, that the Emperor fi^ jjt^ Kecn-lijflng, in his 57lh year, 1792. found the 
amunnt of the whole population to be 307,4S7,^OO. 

In Morrison's "View of China for Philological purposes,'" — which follows the /J^'/pi — ^ Jffl^ sHT*^-Ch'heiij;- 
yit t'hong che, or "Complete statistical account of the Kmpire of the Tae-Ch'heng dynasty, " — the population i<l 
llok-ki-i-n, in 1790, is stated to be 1,684,588, while that of the whole Empire is rated at less than 4 50,000,1.00 
This statement has been preferred by many, on account of its moderation, but it seems to assign very dispropor- 
tionate numbers to several particular provinces, giving in some instances more than is found iv the largest eatimair, 
and assigning in others only a few hundred thousands to districts, which, according to every other statement, arc 
peopled by millions. 

In the possession of Ihc author is a work called the ^^ ^ ~^ Jfl ^ ll^ K'him teng Tae-Ch'heng hwOy 
fi6n', '* Collection of statutes of Ihc Tai'-Ch'heng dynasty, as fixed by authority," in 16 volumes, published in the 
28tti year of A'|r^ 1^ Kccn-tcang, 176.S. According to this, the number of m«i, between the ages of 16 and 60, 
is stated to i>c upwards of irO,C0O,000 Ihronghout Ihe whole Empire, and 4,710,399 in Hok-kc^n. Now if we 
reckon as muny women, infants, and superannuated people, as able-bodied men, we shall hare an aggregate of 
«iOO,()()().000 as the- prolmble population of China. "* 

With Ibis agrefci ttie account published by Father .Vlcrslein, in I74jt, as «jmilid by Malte Bruu, which rates 
Ihe whole population al I98.2lti,485, and that of Huk-ki^en at 8,063,6: 1. The romparative statements are as 
folio**: — 


Barnes of the 

1^ Tit-ley. 
\U ^ San-tong 
lU l§ San sey 
^pT ^ Ild-I4m 
yi ^ Kaiig-soe 
yX IS Kang-sey 

m M "'"'■^'''" 

'^ JH Cbeet-Ung 

ill -^ Hoe-iam 

jWI* |/t| Seem-sey 
n !^ Kam-seuk 
lil Jll Soo-ch'liwan 
\'k ^ Kong-tong 
Ij^ g Kong-sey 
:-^ f^ Yin-lftm 
"a" Ifl Kwuy-chew 

According to 
Sir G. Staunton. 







j4ccording to 
Dr. Jtforrfson. 

(■390,7 14 1 

\ 95,929 I 



1 ,.438,083 ' • 




According to- tt tvork 

in the possession of 

the yfuthor. 

22', 742 

li, 769,872 















103,050,060 males. 
I00,00l),00!> females. 


According to 
.4 Iter stein. 
















e,'! 82,9- 5 





From a comparisoa of the above accoants, mis may perhaps coaclude,. that Ibe first is ralhcr txjggera'.td,. 
and the second disproportionate in the numbers assigned to the various provinces; but the third (allowing the 
numbers to be 4<'ubled on account of the females) and. the fourth agree so nearly together, in circumstantials 
and generals, that it cannot be venturing too much, to consider them as aflFording a true statement, of the popula- 
tion of China; particularly as it regards the provinces of Hok-Ueen and Canton (lbs most known to Europeans ). 
For each of these, — judging from the immense number of emigrants, who, from the two provinces alone, amount, it 
is said, to half a million, — also considering the dense population of the city of Canton, — and taking into ac- 
count the universal testimony of the Hok-kcen people Ihemselves, that the inhabitants of their native province 
exceed the ants in number, —the sura of six or eight millions would seem to approach nearer the truth, than the 
million and a half of Dr. Morrison's account, or the fifteen and twenty millions of Sir G. Staunton's. The 
following extract from the 4^ 'iM w fife Tae-Ch'h'-ng bwuy teen is found in the appendix to the College 
Report aliove alluded to, which abundantly confirms the supposed populousness of these two provinces. In the 
5lh year of ^ "jj Yung-cheng, 1727, it was declared that the population of Hok-keen was so dense, that th<^ 
abundance of commerce must be brought ia to aid effecU of agriculture; and therefore the people of that provinw 


were allowed to trade to the nations of the south, in Ihe China s*a : and the same privilege was extended fa 
Canton, -'which is a narrow territory, with a numerous population. '" 

In order to ascertain the value of each ]irovinre in China, and of llok-kf;ea in particular, the followin); 
comparative view of the land in cuHivation, and the revenue derived therefrom in the 18th year of S£ ^ Ki^en- 
leQng (A. D. 1753), is submitted: 

A'ame* of Ihe 

.-/rea in 

5^. Af.Y«. 

Quantiti/ of Quan. of land 
landyinEng- in cultivalion, 
Ush acrei. in Eng. acres. 

in Taelt. 

Meaaurea of 
grain, each 

^ ^ Seng-keng 

— _ 




ii:l$ Tit-ley 






|1| V^ San-tong 






^ San-sey 


35,37 1,5«0 



It) '',216 

^ "^ Ho-iam 






fX^Kang-soe | 
$#An-hwuy J 



\ 6,762,418 




yl ^ Kang-sey 






IS ^g Hok-keen 






M P^ Cheet-king 











[^ ^,-11 Soera-scy | 
^h ^ Kara-scuk J 



■ 5,047,420 
\ 3,556,626 



^ jjj S.,6-chhwan 






)^ ^ Kong tong 






1^ ptj K6iig-sey 






<Jf? jfe Yiii-iam 






j^|- ^ Kwuy-chew 




10.), 136 


Bundles Measures of Measures 
grain expend- of grain- 
tf ilraw. ed in Ihe pro- sent to Pe- 
vinces. '•"f • 









878,97 1 










i,2H7,9UU 830,719.360 141,624,111 Sg.iil^Sfll 8.416.122 5,145,578 l,606,2b4 4,754,834 


The province of Ilok-k«;£n is divided into ten larger and two smaller counties. The names of the former 
are as follow : 

Hok-chcw Xg )MJ , the happy region. 

Ilin-hwa ]h]\ /V aouri>hing renovatioD. 

Chwan-chcw J^ M ^ i|,e fou itaiu region. 

Cbiidng-chew 1^ Mi ^ tlio region of the river Chcang. 


Yefin-pdng ^h ^^ lengthened pacification. 

Keen-lfing ^ ^^ cstaMished tranquillity. 

Seadu-bo6 «K -Sr awakened military ardour. 

T'heng-chew.J-j- J,jJ the region of the river T'heng. 

Hok-l6ng |g ^ ^ happy tranquillity. 

Tafi-wan ^ j|b5 ^ terraced harbour, — Formosa. 
The two smaller counties are, 

E'ng-ch'hun ^ ^^ elernal spring. 

Leflng-gam ^ ^^ dragon precipice. 
The seat of government is in ]][§ (W4 Hok-chew. 

The whole province is bounded on the north by ^ -Jx Cheet-kang and yX! ^ Kang-sey ; and on the west 
by j'X ^ Kang-sey and ^ m Kong-tong ( Canton ) •, while to the south and. east it is bounded by the ocean. 
The rivers and mountains of this province are picturesque and beautiful, and the inhabitants are generally distin- 
guished for their literary talents. 

The county of |||} jj.j.j Hok-chew conUins ten districU, as follow- 

Bin-heen ^ 1^^ B&n-kwan, the Mn district. 

^ Ho6-kwan ^^. '^ ^ Ra6u-kw"a, noble officer. 

Hok-chheng |g Ij*., Hok-cKhe^a, happy clearness. 

Koe-te6n ^^ j^ ^ Aoe-ch'hdn, ancient field; 

TiJang-lok .M. iM Teo-loh, constant delight. 

E'ng-hok =,|^ Ij^ ^ , eternal happiness: 

B4n-ch'heng ^ -jih, B&.n-cKhe"a, the clear flow of Ban. 

LeSn-kang -^ffi. ^JIj > tbe connected river. 

L6-gwan ^ -jIlS , the netted fountain. 

Pin-iam Bi "m^ , the screen of the soutli. 

The scirt of Government is in \^ \n<< Ban-kwan, and Y^ 1g Ka6ii-kw"a. 

This connt^ is bordered on the west by the ocean, on the east it joins 2^ 35. Yoen-peng, to the north 
il is bounded by ^ {m Keen-lgiig, and to tlie south by Jl'B. 'fK Hin-hwa. The inhabitants are economical, 
but litigious and superstitious^ every family is a school, and every man a scholar. The superior class are fond of 
literature, and the common people are obedient to the laws. — The most celebrated mountains are the -jl \n\ 
Kew-seen, "nine fairies," and the -/^ fflli Tae-peng, "great .ostrich-," there is also a "remarkable r^wky 
iiionastcrv," and "a marsh-mallow cave," the scenery about which is said to be enchanting. The river ^? Go, 
"leviathan," surrounds the district flowing towards the east, and there is a celebrated pool talkd the y|^ El 
Ytjiik-hong, "phoenix bath." Of palaces may be enumerated the .^ ;^ Teang-ch'hun, " constant spring, " and 
yl^ ^ Suy-ch'heng, "water chrystal;" while of temples may lie particularized the i^\ j^ Seflng-liong, "fir 
tree breeze," and the ^ ^ Be-sew, "eye-brow longevity. " — This county has been the residence ol several 
famous men, among whom jf^ §^ Ch'hue-seang may lie mentioned, as having tauj;ht the common people pro- 
priety; and ^ ^ ^ Chin-lek-sew, as having griatlv jrouolcd the general wtUarc. In 'he Jg T6ng dynastj 


lived S iA Chew-p'hok, who would not submit to ^ M. H«5nf-cha6u -, and in Ihe ^ Son^ dynasjty floiirtshed 
four learned men, wlio were called the four teachers of B4a« besides various others celebrated for their talents 
ind worth, who all belonged to this district. — The city of 5g jfjij Hok-chew lies about fifteen leagues westerly 
from the sea, on the southern shore of the river ^ B4d, which falls with a wide raoulh into the sea, and admits 
vessels of considerable burden up to the city walls. The convenience of this river makes the town very 
populous, and the trade ttiereof brisk ; »be city is adorned with many beautiful buildings, and has a (arge suburb 
annexed, called ^ ^ l^m-Ufi, with many idol Temples. Across the bay, near ^ ^ Lara-ta€, Hes a stone 
bridge, 130 rods long, and one and a Aalf broad, built of white free stone, resting «n 100 very high arches; 
provided with rails and benches at the top, and adorned at equal distances with stone lions, neatly carved. The river 
at this place is about half a league in breadth, separated into small arms by several islands, which are all united 
by bridges, the principal one of which is that described above. Near this bridge, at the south end, stands a large 
temple. Another bridge, not tfnKke this, being about 100 rods long, may be seen at the city |g ^ Hok-ch'heng; 
and many more about the principal -cities. About three leagues from || <|l||J Hok-cbcw, stands a temple, reckoned 
to be the largest in the province. 

The oouQty of SL ^ Hin-hwa, contains two districts, viz : — 

Phoc-tcfin tfj ^ Phoi-ch'kin, the field at the water's edge; xai 
Seen-y«w {^ ^ ^ , the fairy ramble. 

The seat of government is in Bp QQ P'hoc-tefin. 

This h a small but fruitful county, bordered -on the south-east by the sea; on the south it skirts M ;Mk| 
■Thwin-chew, on the west ^^ E'ng-ch'hun, and to .the north it is bounded by ^ <||4 Hok-chew. — Here, 
every house has a scholar, and clever men spring up like trees in a forect ; in this respect it is quite a literary 
district, and considered the orown of all Hok-ktien. — The land and water carriage in this county are both good, ^ 
the roads being a rod in breadth, and paved with square free-ftone-; and the number of rivulets with which it 
abounds, affording a great facility for inland navigation^ while heavier goods may be easily transported by the sea, 
which partly surrounds this region. It contains two celebrated hilU, called QV ^ Hoj-kong, and YpT ^S H6- 
16ng, both -of which are the fabled residence of fairies, and the subject of much observation by the Chinese moun- 
tain-gazers. At the foot of the 0r ^ Ho<i-kong hill, aoulh-i-aKtward fromffl ^ Ilin.hwa, lies a village, in 
the splendour and sice of il« buildings resembling a great city, but it has neither walls nor privileges belonging to it; 
yet many rich merchanU reside there, and traffic throughout all Chin*. Here is a well called Ihe Mg 4t Ha*- 
ching, "crab-fish well," Ihe tides of which are said to correspond -to the. tea. The wtod rivers of this county 
are, the ^^ "f^ Kew-chiy, and the ^ ^ Buk-lin ; the Jail received its name from a young woman, of the name of 
^ ^ 0W ^''^^"■'»*'''-""' "*">' grieved at the constant bursting of a flood-^gate ( by which Ihe lands were 
depriwed -of irrigation, and the waters designed for that purpose were lost in the sea ), threw herself into the 
stream, out of vexation, and w^ drowned. Some time after this, a literary gTadu.atc, of the name of T + D& 
Ong-sip-p'heog. pa«siiig by this place, observed the Upubled sUte of ^he wfUers, and asked the reason of it: the 
boatmen told him the foregoing tale, adding that the waters were troubled, because the soul of the deceased was 


not yet appeased, and it was likely never would be, as she died a virgin^ and bad left no posterity, to sacrifice 
to her manes. The graduate then made a vow, that if he should succeed in the approaching literary examina- 
tion, he would return and marry the soul of this 1^ ^fc || CheSn-bok-ian, in order to procure her posterity. 
He succeeded accordingly, and soon returned to fulfil his vow, which he did, hy causing a tablet to be made, 
with the name of the deceased engraven on it, and to this tablet he was regularly married; but as it bore hira no 
children, he married a second wife, and gave the son of this second marriage to -Jr ^ Bok-ISn, to be her heir 
and successor. This lad, when grown up, regulariy sacrificed to' Tt ^| Bok-lin, as his mother; and thus (the 
Chinese say ), her soul was appeased, and the waters became stUl. It is added, that subsequently, in the reign of 
j£ ^ Cheng-tek, of the H0 BSng dynasty (A. D. 1510), the Emperor effectually repaired this flood-gate, at 
the suggestion of an old woman called M jR Tdn-p6, by which means a great quantity of land was brought 
under cultivation, much to the comfort of the people, and the benefit of the revenue. — There has been a conflux 
of famous officers, in this county, celebrated as well for their talents as fidelity, risking their situations rather 
than flinch from duty, and scorning to flatter, while they persevered in equity, — This is the birth-place of -/fBI ^M 
Ma-cho£, the sailor's goddess, who was dignified with the title of ^ '^P T'heen-hwuy, "Queen of Heaven," 
by the present dynasty,, and who is said to be able to foretell the happiness or misery of mankind. Almost every 
ship bears an image of this goddess in its stern, and Chinese seamen scarcely ever venture to sea without her. 
In this county lived a man, of the family name of /ftj H6, who. sought out the philosopher's stone, and when 
bis alcbymic preparations had succeeded, is said to have mounted on a carp fish and sailed away. — The productions, 
of Ibis county are grass<:loth, silks, and cottons, Le^che fruit, snail-shells, &c. 

The county of S AM Chwan-chew, contains five districts, as follow: — 

Chin-kang ^ yj^^ , the district of the Chin river. 

L4m-an ^ ^^ L&m-w^a, southern ease. 
Tdng-aa jpj ^ ^ Tdng^w^a, similar case. 
HwQy-aa S ^ ., Ehsuy-w^a, kind ease. 
An-k'hey iQ yS ., . , the peaceful stream . 

The seat of government is in ^^ vX Chin-kang. 

This county is bounded on the south and east by the sea, on the, west by y^ ^jij Chijang-chew, and on 
the north by ^ :^ E'ng-ch'hun. The city of ^ jJX Chin-kang, its capital, lies near the sea, in a delightful 
plain, and, by a large bay, admits, the greatest ships to ride close under its walls ; and that on both sides of the 
city, for it is built on a promontory, encompassed with water, except on the north and south-east sides. On the 
opposite shore are many populous trading towns, chiefly in a place towards the north-west, called J^ jfe 
Lok-yang. Here is the famous bridge called the V^ |^ 'tS Lok-y4ng-ke6, which has been deservedly considered 
one of the wonders of China; it is built of a black kind of stone, supported by about 250 strong columns or 
buttresses, 125 on eaich side. These columns are sharpened towards the upper part, in order the better to break 
the impetuous egress and regress of the current; they are capped with five stones, of an equal breadth, 
each twenty feel long, and two broad, which successively touch one another, at each buttress, and thus form a path-way 
to walk upon, at least 2500 feet iii length •, oa each side^ rails of the same kind of stone are put for safety. 


adorned wilh lions aiid other images. It is certainly wonderful where so many large stones of equal size could 
have been procured, and how they could have been conveyed to,, and constructed across, such a wide and impetuous 
stream of wafer. Before the bridge was built, the people used to cross this part of the river in boats; but many 
. vessels being every year destroyed by the violence of the tide, squalls, and other accidents, a man of the name of ^ |^ 
Ch'hae-seang resolved, for the safety of passengers, ta build a bridge. The tradition respecting it, as related by 
the Chinese, is as follows : — Formerly, in crossing this sheet of water, many boats were upset, and a number of 
lives were lost: popular credulity soon invented a cause for these numerous disasters, which were imagined to 
originate in two fairies or elfs,.one of whom was a tortoise, and the other a. snake; these wicked elfs hadformerly 
inspired a certain butcher, and prompted him to. destroy nueh animal life, and practise other enormities;, till the 
butcher, determined on reformation, and desirous of obtaining a new heart, ripped biniself open, and threw his 
eld stomach and bowels into this stream; where they remained, in thi: shape of a tortoise and snake,. doing great 
mischief, while the butcher himself became a god. He is still worshipped by the people of Hok-kiicn, under the 
title of "^ W 1^ 'ffr Hefin-l'hijen-seang-tey, "the high Emperor of the darkened Heavens," and is represented 
standing with one foot on a tortoise, and the other on a snake, the two elfs which formerly excited him to do 
so much mischief. hi order to carry- on their wicked designs, the Chinese fable, that the tortoise elf used to 
transform himscK into a boat, and" the snake elf into a boatman, and thus appearing at the side of the stream, 
offered tu assist passengers in crossing it. When arrived at the middle of the river, a storm generally arose, the 
boat sunk, and the two elfs, ansuining their own shapes, devooired the victims at their leisure. On one occasion, 
it is related, that when lht> boat full of passengers was arrived, at the middle of the stream, a storm arose, 
— the prelude to a disaster; but snddealy a nois* was. heard from heaven, saying, Ch'ha^ tae jln chac rh'hw&n, put 

k'ho tcfm^ "^ A ^ lip • >^ ^ 1%' <^*'*"'^ '"* ''•'V '* «*^"' ''"* *'*^"«" «*"»— "The Magnate Chhac 
being abourd, let not the vessel sink ;** — whereupon the storm abated, and all escaped safe to laud. On going 

ashore, the passengers enquired one of another, who among them was railed by the family name of Ch.'had ; but 
when none appeared, a woman of the company said, that though she did not belong to' that clan herself, she bad 
been lately, married to a man of the name of Ch'had, and was now pregnant by him : upon which they- all con- 
cluded, that the infant in her womb must be the person for whom the celestial voiee was sent. The woman ac- 
cordingly made a vow, that if. her child of which she was then pregnant should prove to be a boy, and should, 
afterwards become a magnate, she would insist on his making a bridge over this river. The child proved to be 
a boy, and was called ^. ^ Chhae-siiang j be prospered in learning, and rose to the dignity of Twan-bfing- 
teen TaC-h'ak-soo ^ Dj| 6^ ^ ^ Jt, "Great Doctor of the decidedly clear Hall." Arrived at this pitch 
of greatness, he was reminded of his mother's vow; and judging that if he remained at court, the thing would 
never be done, he fell upon a plan of getting himself appointed to the government of his- native district, which on 
ordinary occasions was not allowed. He flourished in the reign of 'VZ. ^ Jin-chong,. of the ^1^ Song dynasty 
(A. D. 1050),. and observing the Emperor one day about to go abroad, he previously rubbed some honey on the 
stump of a tree,, in order to tempt the ants to swarm there, contriving it so that the ants should form lines to 
imitate certain Chinese characters. The Emperor observing the ants thus swarming in a peculiar manner, went 


up, and read the characters thus curiously formed, which (ounded as follows: — j^ ^ » gfr ^ tSP ♦E 'b 
Ch'hae-twan, Ch'hae-twan, pun hod chok kwan, " Ch'ha^-twan ! Ch'had-twan! be thou an officer in thy native 
district." — This sentence was no sooner out of the Emperor's mouth, than Ch'hae-seang pretended to take it for 
a positive order, and fell down at his Majestj''s feet, thanking him for hi« appointment. The Emperor not 
liking to retract his words, because ^ -y- ^ rS" "=" T'heen cho6 put he gftn, the son of Heaven never speaks 
in vain, confirmed the decree, and he was accordingly appointed to the office. Upon .his arrival at S iHJ Chw&n- 
chew, his native district, he spared neither expence nor labour, to execute the task assigned him; buthe made very 
little progress, at first, and the three years of his officiate were likely toxlose before tbe^orkcouU be completed. The 
j>rincipal difficulty was to carry the bridge across the deepest part of the «treani ; and no hopexouM be entertained 
of success, tmless the tide retired .remarkably low, and the bed of the river was left snusually dry. In order to 
'Obtain this, 'he thought it 'best to zj^\y to the dragon king of the deep, and, withthis intention, he drew up a letter 
■to theCIhinese Jfeptune, but was at a loss how to send it: — in this perplexity, he crisd out <one^ay in the midst 

of the hall, |^ A 7*" 1^ 1^ ^^^ J'" ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ " ^^° '* *''*'* *** **" descend into the sea?"— Upon 
uttering these words, a -se»vant whose name was ~|V ^^ ^ Hay-tek-hai, thinking -himself called, promptly 
answered, "Here;" and the magistrate taking his answer for an assent, insisted upon his going. The poor man 
finding there was no resource, took the letter in his bosom, and went to ^le^ close by the sea side, when it was 
quite low water, thinking that when the tide rose, the sea would .cover .him, and he , could then.delivar his messa<>-e. 
On awaking in the morning, .however, he found himself «till in the same place, and the letter in hi« bosom chano'cd 
for another in a yellow cnvel9pe, which .he immediately took to .his .master. .On opening this letter, only one 
character was found written in it, viz. ffiS Ch'hoe, "vinegar." JFor some time he was at a loss to know 
what to make of this communication; but .on analyzing the character, , he found itxoniposed of.four others, which 
.ran thus, "IP ••-* U M Jeep-yit jit yew, "the 21st day, in the evening, " — at which time he imagined the water 
would be nearly dry. Accordingly he prepared materials and workmen against the appointed period, when the 
water was indeed unusually law.; and having laid the foundation of the central buttresses, before the water rose again, 
,he was enabled to proceed with the work without interruption. Pour million taels of silver are said to have 
.'been expended on .this stupendous work. 

The people .of >thi8 county are peaceful .and economical, while for literature and :poesy they have been 
always celebrated. — To the south of the capital of ^ (MJ Chw4n-chew, is a mountain called W ^ P6-kae, 
"precious covering, " iWhich .has on its top a turret of nine .galleries, serving as a land-mark for seamen.i there 
are also various other hills and mountains, the ^windings and forms of which are very romantic. .Off the coast lie 
(the ^ ^ .P'heng-hofi, or Piscadores; and from the interior flow the -1^ 1^ Lok-yflng and ^ VC Chin-kang 
rivers, with -some other smaller rivuleU. In this county -^ "^ ^ Choo-bfln.kong, the celebrated com- 
mentator on the .Four JBooks, established his school of learning, and hosts of literati flocked to hear his doc- 
trines. Here, also, ^^ g^ y^w-choe purified the minds of his pupils, and |^^ || Tek-sdw emptied the 
prisons, by the clear justice of his punishments. There were others, also, celebrated for their acquaintance with ancient 
laws, and for their firm »pd public spirited conduct, all of whom were brought up in this neighbourhood. 


The count; of YM W Cheang-chew is divided into seven districts, as follow: — 

Leflng-k'hey b^ y^. ^ the dragon stream. 

Cheang-p'h6eJS; ^, Chi-o'^-p'hoe, the banks of the Fiver Chemng. 

Ldra-cheng ^ ^fej? the southern stillaesj. 

Teftag-fhaj ^ ^ , Teo^^-lvi, lenglhened greatness. 

P^Dg-hd JE 'try peaceful harmony. 

Cheaou-an f?? ^ decided ease. 

Ha£-(€ng jtf^ 4?jC the limpid ocean. 

The seat of government is at |S ^ Leflng-k'hey. 

This county is bordered on the east by ^ 4i|4 Chwftn-chew, on the south by the sea, on the west by 
part of the province of Canton, and on the north by pj^ ^ E'ng-ch'hun and »/T m\ T'heng-chew. The inhabi- 
tants attend to their callings, and study plainness, employing their strength in agriculture and fishings their man- 
ners, however, are rough, and the people obstinate and fierce, being violent and difficult to manage. Of the 
noUblehillsinthiscounty,may be particularized, -the /j; ^1; Tae-bo6, "great warrior," and the ^ jj^ Le4og- 
san, "bridge hill," near the district of >^ "/[H Cheang-p'hoe. — The side of the ]^| ^ Lcflng-gAm, or "dragon 
precipice," is beautifully variegated in its appearance; while the rocky islet of ^^ ^ Tan-h4y, "red mist," 
alternately wears a different colour every morning and eveuing. On the east side of the capital of Chcang-chcw. 
is a mountain, on which stands a stone of five rods high, which (according to the Chinese) shivers and shakes 
like a tree blown by the wind, before rain or tempestuous weather; nearer the city lies another mounUin, called. 
'h jlil Kew-leQng, "the nine dragons," which join* the former, and is remarkable for a crystal fountain. 
On the summit of the pft ^ Lftm-hong, "southern peak," is always seen the happy omen of crimson clouds; 
and from the heights of the T? '3* T*heen-kwan, "celestial magistrate," is constantly beard the sound of the pipe 
and flute. The cavern of the ^ H^ Leang-bftn, "dragon gate," is warm in winter and cold in summer; while the 
enchanting grotto of the ^ J^ T'hcn-che, " the pillar of heaven," is enough to tempt people to forsake the world 
and lead a hermit's life. — The river V^ Chiiang, from which this county is named, tiikei its rise near the city of 
1b^ ^ Lcang-gara, runs eastward towards the city of ^ EE Chcang-pfing, and then lakes a southerly direction 
past .& ^ Tt4ng-t"hae, into the sea, into which it empties itself by two mouths. More to the south glides Ihe 
IS ^ Sck-seng, "stone-bank stream," which flows from west to east, and loses itself in Ihe sea, to the northward of 
the garrison of ^ (Ij Tflng-san. On the south side of the capiUl of H^ XIA Cheang-chew, is a large bridge of 
hewn stone, with thirty-six high arches, and so broad, that on Cich side are tradesmen's shops and mechanic's stalls. — 
Of the remarkable people which this county has produced, may be enumerated Llf 4b K'hong-siJcn, a conjurer, 
who sold medicines, and was afterwards honoured as a god; also. /^ M {f^ Clicw-k'hong-but, of the 0- T6ng 
dynasty, in whose time the people of this region first began to understand learning; and ^5 fi|j jS"* G4n-soo-lo<, 
•f the ^ S6ng dynasty, who was so esteemed, that the people of ^ Wi Chw&n-chew made an image of him, 
and worshipped if. Besides, there were IIB JfA Tin-sQn, who read every book, and examined every substance;. 
jr^ J^ Choo-he, the great philosopher and coramcnUtor ; and ^Sl M Go6-hac, appearance, and mind, studies, 
and style of composition were all of an ancient cast. Besides these famous men, fable speaks of some supernatural in- 
dividuals, such as-^ ^ CiLejn-ong, who melted a stone wall, and brought up. a white toad to follow him, and 


^'] -fl) W I^^'^-he-gak, who flew away in the shape of a cockchafer, and was delivered from the body. — The 
chief productions of this county are silver, iron, and shark's-fips. 

The county of ^ 2jl Yefin-p^ng is divided into the six following districts: — 

Lam-pcng "^ 5p j Lam-pai"^, southern pacification. 

Chijang-lok ^^ ^ • future bliss. 

Say-heen VU/ mZ, Swa-kwan, the sandy district. 

Yew-k'hey ^ v^ . blame-worthy stream. 

Sun-ch'heang Jj)& S obedient fulness. 

E'ng-an yl^ d^ eternal ease. 

"The -seat of governiuent is "^ 2E Lim-pfeBg. 

.i;..n.r •,,, 
This county lies in the centre of the Province of Hok-keen ; and is boqnded, on the east by Sjg 4lj Hok-chew, 

on the south by ^^ ^ E'ng-ch'hun; on the west by >^ ni\ T'heng-chew, and on the north by i^K ^ Seaou- 
boo 9nd ^g ^ Keen-lcng. The capital city Hcs on Uie western shore of the river ^ B4n, from whence the 
huildings rise gently up the hill, presenting a delightful prospect to those who gass by, and, though none of the 
largest, it is reckoned the handsomest town in Hok-keen. The walls tower above the aeighbourin" heio-hts, which 
■on the outside, pre reckoned inacce«sible, leaking the city very strong, «Dd the key to the whole territory. The 
city is a league long, hut not abo^ve a mile and ^ half broad, full of large and handsome edifices. Every house 
is furnished with water, conveyed from the ijiountains in cane pi|>es, the like of which is not to be seien elsewhere, 
throughout all China. Provisions arc to be had fliere in great abundance, a,nd at a cheap rate, the streets an.d 
houses being thronged with inhabitants. On the east side of the city, two great rivers, the j^ B4n, and the 
pS Sey, uniting their waters, form a great lake, through which vessels come thither, from all parts of the adjacent 
country. Eacli of these rivers is famished with a handsome bridge. \n the city there are three beautiful tem- 
ples. Most of the coarse Chinese paper is made here-, and the people boast, that Ibey speak a purer mandarin dialect 
than is spoken in any other part of Hok-keen. The town of -Iw Say lies on the north shore of the river ( though it 
formerly stood on the southern -shore), the old city having been pulled down by Imperial command, because 
that in it a young man had murdered his father. To the north-east of the capital city lies a high mountain, 
from whose lop the sun may 'be seen rising over all the other hills; and to the south of the same is an ascent, 
called iro ^C VVat-6ng, on which the ancient kings of Wat used to have many palaces, to serve as retiring places 
from She heat of summer. More soWtherly are the mountains -H fm Kew-seen, "nine fairies," and -|--- @ 
Ch'hit-seng, "seven stars." Here is also an over -hanging precipice, one hundred fathoms in height; and the 
M |I(^ Koe-hong, " orphan peak," which thrusts itself high up into the clouds. — The river 1?^ Bdn, above-mentioned, 
rises in the borders, between jjjS ^g Hok-keen and ji|T y 7" Cheet-kang, near the city ^§ S Leflng-chwftn, in 
B^ mi Ch'he-chew, from whence it passes southerly,— then westward, by the cities of Vffl mJC P'hoe-sfing and '^ ^^ 
Keenlfing, — after that east, by the city of ^ ^ Y<;en-p€ng (where it receives the ^ ^ Sey-k'hey); and 
from thence, still rx)ntinuing eastward, it enters the county of llfS vH»| Hok-chew, and at last disembogues itself into 
the sea, in about the twenty-sixlh degree of north latitude. After passing the city jm W P'hoe-s6ng, the river flows 
with great rapidity, through vallies, and among rocks and cliflfs; but further on it glides along more slowly: the 


General force of the cnrrent, liowever, ni«y be caiculaled liy *his, th»t vessds go flroin Jf& j^ P'hoe-s6ng to the mttro- 
polis, IpI <|^>j Hok-chew, with the itream, ia three days, while they are fifteen in towing up against it. In some places, 
it is dangerou}, on account of the swift current, the multiplicity of r«cks, and the narrowness of the channel, which is 
frequently no wider than V> permit a small Chinese vessel to pass lbroiigb< iience it often happens, that boats arc 
broken to pieces. The ^S 'lii Sey-k'hey rises in the north, in the territory of yT iWJ T'heng^chew, and first 
takes a southerly course, — then an easterly, when it enters the county of ?^ 35. Yefin-pgng, and onites with the 
river R3 Bin-, in the Sey are many waterfalls and dangerous shoals, ia passing by which, the boatmen, to prevent ac- 
cidents, tie trusses of straw before the bows of the vessels; by this means, they bear oi the violence, of the blows, should 
they happen to strike, fhe river yr "/^ Yew-k'hey, which rises in this county, takes its course eastward, by the city of 
■jr y^ Yewrk'hey, an4 turning to the north, falls into the river ^ Bin. — The people of this county encourage One 
another in the study of the classics and odes, while the poorer sort attend to ploughing and weaving. Among the go- 
vernment o£Bcers who have been employed in this district, may be mentioned it 1^ Choo-seflng, the father of the cele- 
brated philosopher, of whom ^ j|^ I.e-tong, Was the instructor? |^ j^ Tln-hwln was distinguished for his steady 
upright conduct: and 2E ^ ;:^ Tiiing-jeak-kok for his exertions in opposing banditti. The productions 
of this county are silver, iron, marble, white grass-cloth, musk, and rock salt. 
The county of ^ ^ Kein-lfng, contains seven districts, m fellow : — 

K«;in-an T^ ^ ^ established ease. 
Aou-l£ng |^q¥ j^ tea-cup tranquility. 

Kcin-ying Mt IS, established vigour. 

ChOng-an ^g ^^ exalted case. 

P'ho^s£ng li^ ^ the river-side ciUdel. 

Chcng-hfl J^>f>D> regulated harmony. 

ScQng-khey i^ y^^ the fir tree stream. 
The seat of government is in the two dislricU K«;*n-an and Aou-l*ng. 

This county is l.ordered, on the north and norlh-ca«. by part of the province of ^ ^ ChceNkang, on 
the east by |)g ^0. Hok-Mng, on the sontb ^J |^ ;)f| Hok-chew and ^ ^ Yeert-pfing. on Ihe west by ^ =^ 
Seiou-bo6, and xm the north-west and north by part of the prevince ef JX [^ Kang-Ky. The capital city. 
Iviag on the eastern shore of the river g^j Bin, is not imich inferior, either in beauty or mie, to the metropolis 
of Hok-kccn. In the last war with the Tartars, it suffered much damage e for, having revolted from the -^ y^ 
Tad-ch'heng dynasty, it was taken, after a long siege, and laid in ashes, most of the inhabitants being put to the 
sword. On this occasion the fire consumed a bridge over the swift river Ew B4n, the pillars whereof were 
built of free stone, to a great height, and finished on the top with wood % it was also adorned with houses and 
shops on each side* being now rebuilt, the town has regained something of its former lustre. Beyond the bridge, on 
the opposite shore, stands a stalely pagoda j and near the city is another handsome bridge, also furnished with shops and 
houses, on both sides. The city of ^ ^ Keia-I6ag is a place of great trade, for all those commodities which 
come either up or down the river must pass through it. The city itself is larger than ^^ ^ Y<;£n-p£ng, but 
not so closely built, having several corn-fields within the walls. The streets are all paved with pebbles, and are 
very full of inhabitants, who get their living hy the manufacture of coarse paper. Farther up the river Rfl Bin, 
is the city *^ Wt l"huc-s€ng, beyond which the river is no longer navigable* here the merchandise i^ taKen 


out of the vessels, and carried by porters over high mountains and deep vallies, a distance of four days journey, 
into the province of Cheet-kang. The whole way, as far as the art or labour of man can make it, is levelled, 
and paved with square stones, being provided at intervals with houses and villages, for the enterUinment of travel- 
lers. The goods to be transported over the mountains are first weighed, and delivered to a head man, who, for 
a certain gratuity, sends them, by porters, to other places, where the merchant receives them without any trouble: if 
any thing happens to be lost, the head man is bound to make it good. It is said, that there are always about 
10,000 porters ready at the spot, waiting to receive goods, and carry them over the mountains. A toll-house 
is erected at the head of the road, for the levying of a small duty, which is employed in keeping the road in 
repair. This county is celebrated for its mountains, among which are the famous jTr* ^^ Bo6-e hills, near the 
city of ^ -^ Ch6ng-an, which produce a superior sort of tea, called Bohea; this hill is divided into nine peaks, 
and has a rivulet running between them called the ^- vS HCng-k'hey, "pearly stream," which is highly spoken 
of, for the beautiful winding of its waters. Here are to be seen a number of temples and monasteries, on the 
bill-tops, the residence of priests and hermits; the scenery about this region is, also, so picturesque, that many 
noblemen and ofiBcers of government, retiring from the world, select this as the residence in which Ihey desire 
to end their days. Near the city of 'jM j^ P'hoe-seng, is a hill called V& iS Gd-l«;4ng, which is reckoned 
one of the ten great mountains of China. The river ^ Ban, which runs through this county has lieen already 
spoken of in the description of ^ ij2 Yiien-peng county ; in addition to this, is the ^ J^ Tong-k'hey, which 
rises in the mountains between the provinces of ■tHr 7J[ Cheet-kang and )JJS i^ Hok-keen, and running south- 
ward, falls into the ra B4n, below the city of i^ ^ KeSn-16ng : also, the brook "jt Iffll Kew-kijak, which 
begins in the "jr" Wf, Bo6-€ mountains, runs from thence south-westward, and, after passing by the city of 1^ |t& 
Keen-y4ng, falls at last into the river ^ B4n, near the city of sfe m' Keen-16ng. The Chinese speak also 
of cataracts, a hundred fathoms deep, the spray of which dashes about like falling pearls ; and of old grottoes, 
with their stone doors, which are to be met with in this romantic district. Here the people are said to be 
incessantly addicted to study, every family being possessed of a library, and every village acquainted with 
righteousness, while the chanting of odes and reciting of books may be beard, throughout all the district : here 
flourished another Orpheus, who played upon an iron flute, and produced sounds that penetrated the clouds, and 
split the soild rocks; and here dwelt a self-denying philosopher, who, as long as his clothes would hold together 
by a hundred patches, despised all the silks and satins of the whole province. This county has had several 
distinguished officers, some celebrated for the suppression of banditti, others for the preservation of human life; 
others, again, discoursed learnedly on the fate of empires, and testified against the vices of the age. Among the 
distinguished natives may be mentioned ^ jlQ ^ Ch'hae-gwan-tCng, who taught, his disciples independence of 
character, and contempt of the world; this man applied to Jj^ ^ /^^ Choo-bfln-kong, the celebrated philosopher, 
to be received as his pupil ; but the latter declined that honour, saying, Gofi tong e 16 yew soo che, put long chae 
ley choo che lijet S '^ )cX ^']^^ 1^ .^ '^ ^^ ^'^'j^] y ''^ ought to «erve him with the 
respect due to an old friend, but cannot think of classing him among my disciples. " His son, ^ ^j^ Ch'hae-sira, 
subsequently became the disciple of the great commentator; and assisted him in writing a commentary on the 
ri B ^^*"2 '"" Besides these, the county of ^ ^ Kiien-lgng has produced a famous man called iH ^ 


HoS-aa-kok, who wrote a coir.roentary on the. ^ ^ Ch'hun-ch'hew, and who wa« dignified with the title of 
the evergreen fir tree of literature: which shews, «ay the Chinese, that celebrated regions neyer fail to prndure 
extraordinary men. Besides these literary characters, the Chinese fable of a superhuman genius, called " the true 
man of the hazy atmosphere," who, — with a bald head and bare feet, — living on air and devouring mists, — used to 
point with a smile to the deepest recess of the ^ ^ B06-6 hills, covered with while clouds, and say, there is my 
residence. The natural productions of this county are, the silver of ^j|| |^ P'hoe-sgng, the iron of j^ 1^ 
Hang-an, the tea of ^ 11 B06-6, and the books of ^ [^ Keen-yaog, which have been always sought after 
by merchants. 

The county of 'SK -^T Seaou-boo contains the- following districts: — 

Seiou-bo6 2R YA > ^'"^^^'^^'^ military ardour. 
Kong-tek ^ ^^ bright favour. 
T'hae-I6ng ^ ^^ great tranquility. 
Keen-lfing ^ ^ ^ established tranquillity. 

The seat of government is in Z[U Tj;r Seaou-boo. 

This county is bounded on the east by J^ ^ Keen-I6ng, on the south by Ji ^ Yeeh-ping and JT iU 
T'heng-chew, and on the west and north by the province of VJ^ ^H Kang-sey. The capital city of this region 
was anciently a mean place, and was first fortified and cnfranchissd in the w Tdng dynasty. Thi»- county possessing 
a firm and profitable soil, and being on the borders of the province, it is fortified with severalgarrison*;. The people 
of this region are sturdy agricullurisb, and elegant scholars, ea.sily. moved, and with difficulty pacified; 4he climate 
here is healthy, and the air pure and cold. The most celebrated mountain in this county U the -f' ^ Ch'hil- 
la«, "seven terraces:" and of rivers may be specified the |.j[|; ^ Cheauu-k*hey, which begins in the. mounUin ot 
J^ ^ Oe-kwun, "black prince," and glides from thence southward, then eastward by the city of ^R ^ Seaou- 
boo; thence bending to the south, in the county "f JS ^ Ye*n-p«ng, it fails into. the TO V^ Sey-k'hey. near 
^ ft^ ChiJang-lok, from whence both streams run easterly, and pour their waters into the ^ B4n. The mosr 
remarkable city is J^ j^ Oe-pan, "the black mound," and the most distinguished village i» that of ^ ^f 
Pik-ch'he, "the while mouse." Of public officers, ^ 0y jE^ Soe-wOy-chdng was remarkable for his purity 
and decision, and -^ ^^ — . Yln-rhi o-yit for his improvement of the public morals; ^ j^ Le-kong and 
jjife ^ Ai^ Se-g«-scng were dislinguishcd, in the ^ 86ng dynasty, fur their lervices to the sttte 1 and ^ ill 
Hflng-teung with ^ [j^ jp^ L6-h6rig.choe were equally celebrated, for their deep erudition, as a proof of which, 
the great philosopher :^ ^ ^ Choo-bQn-kong acknowledged the one for bis teacher and the other for hi*-- 
fciend. The natural productions of this county are said to be, silver, iron, copper, and tea. 

The county of ^T ijitil T'hen^-chew contains the following districts : — * 

Te4ng-l"hcng ^ ^ ^ the lengthened district watered by the T'beng. 

L£ug-hwa ^f ^y peaceful renovation. 

Seang-h4ng _il ij^ j '*'" "PP"^"" Hftng district. 

Bo6p£ag ^{^ -ijZ- ^ Boi-paCS, pacified miliUry ardour. 

Chheng-igw ^^ j^^ Ck:hai"S.ui„^ the pure flow. 



Le«D-s6ng ^ j^ ^ the connected citadel . 

Kwuj-hwa ^^ijj, * returning to complete reaovation- 

E'ng-teng 7|lJ_ ^ eternal settlement. 

The seat of governmept is in -^ 'fT Teing-t'heng. 

This county is bordered on the east by |jE ^ Teen-p6nK, oh the south-east by M S Lefing-g4m, ea 
the south by part of the province of Canton, on the west by that of VE. Uk Kang-sey, and on the north by 
«|) ]pr Seiou-bo6, The manners and demeanour of tlie people of this district resemble, in some respects, those 
of the middle regions of China; they are bold and, courageous, fond of fighting, but at the game time honest 
and upright. The picturesque scenery about the r/^ Tag G6-leflng ("sleeping dragon") hill is well worthy of 
being sketched ; while the h£ P^ Lei3ng-bfln, " dragon gate, " a hill to the westward of the city of ^ Ay 
Leng-hw4, appears as if it were piled up into the clouds; the green freshness of tlie ^ ijj Kim-san, "golden 
hill," would please the admirer of landscapes, but the precious metals therein contained would tempt more strongly 
the cupidity of the multitude; the gold mines discovered in this hill were first Worked in the dynasty TJ^Song; 
it lies south of the capital of VT M T'heng-chew, near the city of J^ ^^ Seang-hang, on the eastern shore 
of the river JT T'heng ; upon it there are three little lakes;, which, the Chinese say, turn the iron that is thrown 
therein into copper. The river >/T T'heng commences in the territory of fT (Ns T'heng-chew, and proceeding 
southward by the city of J^ 7"wi Siiang-hing, enters the county ofVfeH M Teiouchew, in the province of Canton, 
where continuing its southerly course, it discharges itself into the sea. The Chinese remark on it as singular, 
that, while all the other streams of this province flow easterly, this alone should have a direct southerly course. 
Of the drslinguished natives of this county, some have been celebrated for their abstinence and uprightness, others 
for their learning and poesy? so that the county has not been left destitute of talent . This region has abundance 
of all things requisite for the sustenance of mankind, notwithstanding it is so mountainous; and possesses at the 
same time gold, silver, copper, tin, and iron mines- it produces likewise wax, grass-cloth, and various mfedicraal 

The county of jjL?. ^S Hok-l5ng contains the following districts; 

Hfty-p'hoe rB" jm the misty water's edge. 

Hok-teng Ig {i^ , tl^e happy caldron. 

Hok-an jjjg ^ the happy rest. 

L6ng tek ;^ f^ tranquil virtue. 

Sew-lcng s;; ^S long-lived tranquillity. 

The seat of governiii^nt is in^^J jra H4y-p"hoe. 

This county is bordered on the east and south-east by the sea, on the south and south-west by 3^ >)|| 
Hok-chew, on the west by |^ ^ KeJ^n-lSng, knd on the north ^y the province ©f ^jJfr yX Cheet-kang. This 
county is very mountainous, and the ways across the hills 4re Sfarcely lf)a<!»able, espeeiatly towards the north and 
north-east; hence the literary examiner protends to this reigittn, from SS wj Hok-cheW, by water. The city of 
Hi^ uH Hok-!6ng is fair and large, fyWg near the Sea, to its great commercial advantage. A little above this 
iity rises the hill ^^ '^, "dragon head;" sooth of the same appears the high mountain iH: i|i 


U6ag-un\ en the same side is the hill m ^ Lim-kim, "toathern gold;" and north-east thereof stretches 
the iDbuniato -^ Kk Tae-16, with its six high precipices. The river ^ L4ni rises in a mountaia of that 
name, and running from north to south, through the territory of |^ ^L I]ok-I£ag, empties itself iat« 
the sea. This csunty is not celebrated for the possession of many famoas men; but the hills are said to yield 

The county of ^ ^M TaS-wan contains the following districts: 
TaS-wan /^ f^^ *c»ced harbour. 
Hong-san JMl ijj phenix hill. 
Choo-ld ^ ^ ^ diverse note. 

Cheang-hwa ^K 4lj variegated renovation. 
This county is commonly called Formosa, by Europeans, on account of the beauty ef its scenery ; it is 
•ituated O|>posite to the main land of the province of Hok-keen, and is governed by officers sent from China. 
This island was originally in the possession of several savage tribes, resembling the Malays in complexion, but 
speaking a different language; the first Europeans -who visited this' country were the Spaniards and Portuguese'; 
next to Ihem, the Dutch took it, and finding it advantageously situated for their Japanese and Chinese trade, formed 
a considerable settlement upon it~, and in I63S built there a strong fort, called the castle of Zealandia, surrounded 
with a double -wall, and provided with redoubts and ramparts: this fort was taken in 1661 by Coxing Ute famous 
Chinese pirate, whose adherents afterwards submitting to the Tartar dynasty, the city and territory surrounding it 
have since remained in the possession of the Chinese. "Formosa," says Malte Brun, •' has a Chinese Go 
vernment, with a garrison of 10,000 men ; but its authority is limited to the west side. The city of Tae-wan, 
is populous and wealthy ; the streets, in straight lines, and oqwred with awnings for seven or «ight months in the 
year, to protect (hem from the heat of the son, lined wiAistqeehouses and elegant shops, nherfe silks, porcelain, 
varnished and other wares are arranged with admirable art,- so as to give the appearance «f 'so many charming 
galleries, would be delightful to walk in, if less crowded with passengers and better paved. ' This city is dcfcndjcd 
by a good fortress, which was built by the Dutch. The harbour is spacious and deep, ,but the entrances of it are 
extremely narrow, and only eight or twelve feet deep. Between the port of Ta£-wan and the coast of China, 
the little archipelago ' ot the' islaiids of j^ im P'heng-ho£, or Piscadores (Fishermen's islands), afford.s good 
anchorage, and a station which, with a suitable navy, might command the (Channel of *' Formosa. " The Dutch, 
however, complain that they could obtain no fresh water there. The Chinese say, that the inhabitants of For- 
mosa were a set of savage fishnrmen, Inrt now having vsobraitted 10 the Gtlestial fimpire, th«y have (left off their 
barbarous customs, and bid fair to lieconie a civilized people. 

The smaller toudty *>f y^i, ^ E'ng-ch'hiin contains, besides the capital, the two foUowio^ 'dlktricU 
r"" Tek-hwi '0*}, ^ j virtuous rcnovatiotf. 

TaP-lcfin -)^ \\] , T»i-ek'hin, great rice "field. 
Theother tmmll county of'^ ^ Leilng-^ftm contains also two districts, vtz 

Chfejng-p6ng 'jia ai ^ Hte plain ofthe river Cheung. -^'^ «>*•' 
Mngrykag S^ ^^ -tranquillized ocean. ' • i ' 


, ■■yl-.^'Tjipsf ,two inferior counties, being lately separated from the larger counties of J^ nii Chw&n-cbew and 
T& «y| Cheang-chew, exhibit nothing worthy of remark, beyond what has been already specified in speaking of 
the above-named counties themselves. ' 



X HE inhabitants of Hok-keen, having no alphabet, distinguish the sounds of their dialect into initials^ 
jnd finals, the knowledge of which is the key to the whole dialect. 

I. Of the initials. 

The initials, called by them Joo-t'hog i^ ^S Je-t'hadu, "head characters," are fifteen in number, as follow : — 

1. Lew ^Ip 6. P'ho ^ 11. Eng ^ 

8. Peen 5^ 7, T'h^a !(|^ 18. BQn p^ 

3. K6w i^ 8. Cheng "^ IS. Ge |S 

4. Kh6 ^ 9. jip ^ 14. Ch'hut |j[J 

5. T5y jj^ 10. S6 Bf 15. He ^ 

K Lew m^ gives the initial sound of /, in its combination with all those sounds which are not nasal.^ 
but when it is joined to a nasal final, the power of the / is in a great measure merged in the nasal, in which 
case it acquires a sound something similar to n. 

2. Peen y^ gives invariably the initial sound of p. 

3. K6w ^j^ affords the initial sound of k. 

4. K'he ^ affords the initial sound of k'h, which is the k aspirated, to be pronounced with a strong 
emission of the breath, between the enunciation of the k, and the utterance of the succeeding vowel. 

5. Tey ;J^ gives the initial sound of t. 

6. P'ho ^^ gives the initial sound of p'A, which is the j> strongly aspirated ; an apostrophe is inserted between 
the p and the h, to shew that the p is not softened by the A, as in our word Philip, but that, while retaining its- 
natural sound,. the h is -to be strongly aspirated before the utterance of the succeeding vowel.^ 


7. T'h"a /ftjl gives the initial sound of I'h, which is the / strongly aspirated, as explained above. In 
this initial, the I is not soflened by the succeeding Ar, as in our word IMtig, but something like that word as 
atleraptrd to lie pronounced by a Gcrraan or Hollander, just beginning to learn English. 

8. Cheng "^ conveys the initial sound of ch as in cheap. 

9. Jip 7^ gives the sound of J very much softened, as the j in French, or like the sound of s, in the 
English words pleasure, precmon, crosier, &c. 

10. Se Hvt has the coniinou sound of s. 

11. Eng Tjx is a negative initial, denoting that the finals arranged under it retain the sounds of the 
latter part of the final, without any addition; except in those finals which contain two divided vowels, beginning 
with e, expressed or understood, to which the letter g is generally affixed as an initial. Thus under this initial 
will be found words beginning with a, e, i, o, u, w, and y. 

12. Bfin HM gives the initial b; except when connected with a nasal final, in which case it drops the 
sound of h, and takes that of m, as has been already observed under the first initial. 

IS. G6 ^ conveys the initial sound of g hard ; except in nasal words, when it acquires the sound 
of gn, pronounced with a nasal twang. 

14. Ch'hut jj| gives the initial eh'h, which is the ch strongly aspirated, to b« pronounced with a whir- 
zing noise between the ch and the vowel. 

15. He ^ gives the initial h, but more strongly aspirated than is usual in English words. In its conjunc- 
tion with the 1st, 4th, 7fh, lOlh, Utb, 87lh, and 43d finals, being followed by ir, or o. it approaches nearly to 

.»• t'fjl to VMll • 

the sound of /, 

Thus, the fifteen initials, when expressed by our orthography, arc as follow: 

/, and 71, A-'A, or k aspirated, t'h, or t aspirated, », g-, and gn, 

P' '> «■*• «i t^ i, o, y, w, and y, eh'h, or ch aspirated, • 

A-, p'h, or p aspirated, j, h, and m, h. 

These comprise, in all, twenty-four distinct initial sounds; which, arranged according to the £ngli<>h 
alphabet, stand thus; — a, ft, ch, ck'h, e, g, gn, h, i, j, k, k'h, I, m, n, o, p, p'h, t, I, t'h, u, m, and y. 

In this arrangement it will be seen, thai the soft c, d, f, q, r, v, and x, are wanting. However, if wc 
consider that the soft e may be expressed by », the hard c by k, and the q by km, the Hok-kci^n dialect 
will be found to want only the rf, /, r, v, x, and :, of our alphabet, which letters are never found 
in any Hok-ke£n word, neither can the natives of that province easily pronounce any Word beginning 
with them. 

II. Of the FIKAL9. 

The finals used in the Hok-keen dialect, and called Joo-boc 3L -^ , Ji-boi, "mother characters," are 

fifty in number, as follow.— -' 

• ly v« I) •vm;')(iini| .i-a"X 





Koe ^ 




Kai-S ^ 


K-oe ^^ 


Keen ^ 








r™ ^ 


Kim 4^ 


Key 5^ 




Keo fj^ 


Kwang ^ 


Kwuy ^ 




Kea ^ 


Kee»S ^ 




^''^ s 


^° ^ 


Koey l*^ 


Keo"S ^. 


il/».3/ ^ 


Kan ^ 


Kae tM 


^"« i^ 


Ke"a 11 


^S""" li 


Kong (^ 


Kin jji 




Kw"a *g* 


Chom j^ 


Kwae ^ 


Keang ^ 


A« ^ 


Ke"^ ^ 


Gnaou ^^ 


Ke"g IS 


Kam -^ 


K-^ ^- 


Kay lljj 


K^o ;}.t; 

,., ,0 



Kwa JJ:^ 


Kew JJ| 

: 40. 

^-"^ fl 


Gnew .it 

" 1. KwuB ^" is pronounced something like Koo-im, enuhciated as one syllable. 

2. Keen R^ is a divided sound, as denoted by the dicercsis on the first vowel; thus it must be pro- 
DOunced Ke-en, or Ke-yen, and is by some thought to sound almost like Ke-lin. 

3. Kim -^ is sounded like the kim in kimbo; and is by some pronounced as if written Kc-im, enun- 
ciated rapidly, as one syllable. 

4. Kwuy i0 is like qui, in the English word quiet, or sometimes pronounced a little longer, as if written 
Koowy, though still but one syllable. 

5. Kay "^ ; the a in this word is like the sound of a in care, or like the ea in bear, wear, &c. 

6. Kan ^ is to be pronounced with the Italian sound of the a, as in far, father, &c. 

7. Kono- /^ is pronounced like cong, in the word congress. 

8. Kwae jjg is sounded as Koo-wae, pronounced in the time of one syllable, with the Italian a, as in far. 

9. Keng iSl rhymes with leng in lengthen, and is sometimes a little drawled out, so as to appear to 
sound like ke-eng, though still but one syllable. 

10. Kwan S is pronounced as Koo-wan, or like coo, to cry as a dove, and the word wan, "pale," thus, 
eoo-wan, pronounced as one syllable. 

11. Koe Jjt rhymes with our English words toe, and hoe, but differs from them in being pronounced 
with a full mouth, as if written ko-oo. 

12. Keaou -M^ is a diphthong, as containing three separate vowels, viz. e as in me, a as ia/ar, and u as in bully 
all of which, though uttered like ke-yaou, form but one syllable. 

13. Key ^S is a peculiar sound, sometimes a little drawled out as Ke-ay, but generally pronounced short 
as the French e, or as the ey in dey, or bey, when these words are applied to the governors of Algiers and Tunis. 
It is to be distinguished from the 5th final Kayy which is a flat sound like the a in care, and from the 39th 
final Kay, which sounds like the a in fate. 

14. Keung ^^ is a sound that rhymes with young, but is by some persons written keong, and made to 
riiyme with song. 

15. Ko St is precisely like the sound of co, in co-equal. 

16. Kae ^; in this final the a is sounded as in/ar, and the f as in me,.— thus making together the 
sound of £«-e> pronounced as one syllable. 


17. Kin rfj sounds like the English word kin; though occasionally drawled out, so as nearly to resemble ke-j^in. 

18. Keang ^ ; in this sound the vowels are divided, as if written ke-yang, or as if the word key were 
connected with the first syllable of the word anger, thus key-ang. 

19. Kam -tf^ is pronounced like the word kam, "crooked," or like cam, in "camlet." 

20. Kwa TjT is pronounced as if written koo-a, short, with the final a as in papa. 

21. Kang TH is sounded with the a as in far. 

22. Keem ^R contains a double vowel, and is pronounced as if written ke-yem, or according to some 
ke-yim; an idea may be formed of this sound by taking the word key, and 'em, the contraction of them, and 
pronouncing them rapidly together, thus key-'em. 

23. Kaou ^; the a in this word is sounded as ia far, and the ou as in pound; some idea may be formed 
of it, if the word cow had an a introduced, and were to be pronounced ca-ow, but rapid, as a monosyllable. 

24. KiJa rnn ■' in this final the vowels are divided, and must be distinctly pronounced, as if written ke-ya : 
the a being sounded as in far. 

83. Kiicy *w ; in this final the vowels arc also distinctly expressed, as if written ko-mry and have together 
the sound of co-a in co-agent, pronounced with a peculiar turn of the mouth. 

26. K'a ^^ ; this is a nasal sound, with the « as in /«r; pronounced with the fuH sound of the k, but 
the n is only slightly heard: like the ea in carpel, enunciated as if coming chiefly from the nose. It has 
been described as an attempt to pronounce a syllable through the nose, while the nose is ibut. 

27. Koo mt is pronounced exactly like the word cot, to cry as a dove. 

28. Ka ^& is a sound similar to ea, ia earl. 

29. Ke & is sounded like kee, in keep. 

30. Kew 11 is a sound like that which is attached to the letter q, in English : and is pronounced Kke 
eu in euriout, or as if written ke-yew, though but one syllable. 

31. Kai"^ "m^i this sound is similar to the 5th final, kay, turned into a nasal: hence the ng are written 
above, to intimate that they are not to retain their full sound, but to be pronounced through the nose ; the a to 
be sounded as in care, and the i as in marine. 

32. Ktcui'^ 7^ ; this sound is similar to the 4tli final, kwuy, only termiaating in a strong nasal, and 
is seemingly lost in the nose. It may also be written kool'S' the small letters "S not possessing their full sound, 
but intimating the presence of a nasal ; and the t to be pronounced as in marine. 

33. Keo H^ ; in this sound the vuweis are distinctly divided, as if written ke-yo, and pronounced as in 
the syllabic geo, in geometry. 

34. Kee"S ^g \s |i](c the 29th final, ke, only turned into a nasal. 

35. Kgo"^ ^^ resembles the 33d final, ke; converted into a nasal, as if written ke-y'eo'f- 

36. Ke^a j^ Is similar to the 24th final, kea, with a nasal sound introduced. NB. This must not be 
sounded with the full power of the n, as ke-na, but like k'ea, or ke-y"a pronounced through the nose. 

37. Kw^a *^ is the same with the 20th final, kwu, only pronounced with a strong nasal termination : as 
if written koo-w''a. 


38. K^S p^ _ this sound is by some written fco"S', and by others Icu^S, but the difference is immaterial, 
as the word is sounded as if attempted to be pronounced without any vowel, thus fc"^. The vowel is inserted princi- 
pally for the purpose of bearing the accent. 

39. Kay ■fljp is a sound so much resembling the 5th final, that when this Dictionary was commenced the 
same letters were employed for expressing both; but closer examination has discovered a difl'erence; the sound of 
the 5th final resembling the flat a in care, and that of the 39th, the a in fale, to rhyme with gay, may, &c. 

40. Kae"S Ril is like the 16th final, kae, but terminating in a nasal. 

41. K"oe -A is the same with the llth final, koe, converted into a nasal. 

42. t/'" Um is a sound attempted to be formed without opening the lips; something like the con- 
tracted 'm in take 'm. It is in fact merely the sound of m, without any vowel either before or after it, or like 
the reply of an indifferent person, when too lazy to open his mouth. 

43. Kwang ^ is a sound borrowed from the Mandarin dialect, and may be sounded koo-wang, pronounced 
as a monosyllable. 

44. .Kwae°S E9 resembles the 8th final, kwae, converted into a nasal as if written koo-wae"S. 

45. Miiey ^ is something similar to .the 25lh final, kiiey, only beginning with a nasal. 

46. K'^caou tf^ is the same with the 12th final, keaou, turned into a nasal. 

47. Chom '^ ; in this sound the o is full, as in chop, and rhyming with som in sombre, but pronounced 
as though the mouth was quite full. 

48. Gnaou "2/^ resembles the 23d final, kdou, only commencing with a nasal. 

49. K"o iX is like the 15th final, ko with a nasal introduced. 

50. Gncw i+- is a sound resembling the 30th final, kew, beginning with a nasal. \ 

All these finals, with the exception of five, begin with a A-, which being dropped, the remainder of the 
word is what properly constitutes the final. Of the other five, those beginning with ch, m, and g, drop those 
letters, and leave the rest of the word for the final; while a*" having no initial consonant, is a final as it stands. 
The finals without the initial letters are as follow: — 

■24. ea, or e-ya 
25. (iey, or o-wey 

1. wun, or oo-uK 11. oe, or o-oo SI. ang 

2. ien, or e-yen 12. eaou, or e-yaoH 22. eem, or e-yem 

3. im, or e-im 13. ey, or e-ay 23. aou 

4. niuy, or oo-wy 14. cung, or eong 

5. ay 15. o 
(i. an 16. ac 

7. ong 17. in, or e-yin 

8. wae, or oo-wae 18. eang, or e-yang 

9. eng, or e-eng 19. am 
'40, wan, or oo-vcan. 20. wa, or off-o. 

-31. «"«■ 

32, wuing, or ooi"S 
03, iio, or e-yo 
■34. ee^S 

41. "oe 

42. a'" 

43. Wang, or oo-wang 
'44. wae^^, or oo-wae^S 










eu\ or e-yeu' 

35. eo"S', or e-yeo"S. 45. ^dey 

36. e"ff, or e-y"a 46. "eaou, or "e-yaou 

37. w"a, or oo-w"a 47. om 
•38. e"S, or u"S 48. "aou 

39. ay 49 "0 

40. ae"S". 50. ""ei», or "e-yete. 


Of these fifty finals, thirty-three' are plain, -snd scventeea tasal soun^ Tbe plain sounds consist bf— 

Three simple •voweh, • ' 

. . .tei. mU 

Eight dipfathongB, 

Three double vowels, divided by a dioerhesis. 
One triple vowel, divided by a dioerhesis, - - 

Five syllables consisting of a vowel and a consonant, ' 

Three syllables containing a rowel and two consonants. 

Two syllables containing a double vowel and a consonant. 
Two syllables with a double vowel and a double consonant. 

Six syllables, beginning with a w. 

"Y 28. «, as in/ar. 

>— < 89. > 0, as in me. 

t. I^> *>t as in go. 

f 11. oe, as in hoe. 

I 16. ae, something like i. 

I 3. ay, as a flat, in care. 

I 39. ay, as a slender, in gay. 

IS. ry, as in they. 

ST. 00, as in coo. 

30. etc, as in yew. 

S3, aou. 

r 24. ea. 

< 33. eo. 

L as. oey. 

19. eaott. 

r 19. am. 

I 6. an. 

S 3. im. 




17. in. 
47. om. 




38. eem. 
2. Hen. 

18. iang. 

SO. wa. 





L 4. v-'tiy. 

The nasals arc farmed from the plain sounds, by attempting to pronounce them through the nose, or 
by giving them a nasal twang in the termibatioo ; and arc expressed by an it, m, or ng, being prefixed, 
inserted, or affixed, above the line. Of the nasals there are three kinds; first, those in which single vowels or 
diphthongs take, a nasal sound, which are denoted by a small n preceding the nasal vowel. Sdiy, Those formed 
by a half-expressed ng terminating the word, and communicating its nasal sound to the whole. 3dly, Those 
formed by the letter m, in which the sound of the m ii so prevalent, as to communicate its force to the 
whole word. 


Of the .first sort of nasals, there are eight, as follow: — 

2fi. ' 

36. «"fl, 

37. w"», 
41. fo^ 

formed from 38. a 

— — 24. ea 

20. wa 

11. oe 

46. "eaou, formed from 13. eaoti 


49. "o, 

50. "ew. 

23. aou 
30. ew. 

In these instances all the letters after the " are nasal, though the " does not so fully alter the sound, as 
to deserve notic.e in an alphabetical arrangement. Hence in the following Dictionary, the nasal sound "a follows 
immediately after the plain a, and is not reserved to "be inserted under the letter n ; except where one of the initials 
/, b, or g is joined to any of the above nasal finals, in which case the power of these letters is merged into 
-that of n, m, and £71, which are then written large, and arranged under their proper places in the alphabet. 
Of the second sort of nasals, there are seven as follow: — 

SI. fli"^, formed from 5. ay 

32. wui"S, 4. wuj/ 

34. ee"S, 89. e 

44. wae^S, 

35, eo"S', formed from 33. eo 

38. e"*", 7. ong 

40. a^S, 16. ae 

8. wae.' '■ '• " 

•In these cases the ^ is so clearly discernible in the pronunciation of the word, that although it has not 
-seemed necessary to write the "^ large, yet attention has been paid to these letters in the alphabetical arrangement 

Of the third sort of nasals, there are two, as follow: — 

42. u*" 45. moeg. 

The number of these finals is increased by the contracted tones formed from them. These appear to the 
"Chinese to make only a differenf e in- the intonation, but in -European writing they req^uire a variation in the 
orthography. These contracted tones do not always terminate in the same letter, but vary according to the 
orthography of the several finals; thus finals ending in a vowel, whether nasal or plain, form the contracted 
tone by adding a rapid h to the end of the word, with a short mark on the preceding vowel, as ka, kah; the 
presence of this h however does not intimate that the latter p4rt of the wor^ is aspirated, -but only that it is 
•contracted, and suddenly stopped, before the full sound of the word is completed. Finals terminating in n, form 
t in the contracted sound; tliose in m form p; and those in ng form k; according to the following table. 

1. Kwun forms 



Koe forms 




forms kak 


Kai"S forms 


2. Keen 











S. Kim 











4. Kwuy 











3. Kay 











6. Kan 











"!. Kong 











8. Kwae 











■9. Keng 



Kara ' 








10. Kwan 









Kae^ :.: 



41 i 




44. Ktcat^ 




47. Chom 





!■ . 


45. Jloey 


48. Gneaou 





46. Kleaou ■ : ,\ 


49. K"o 


fifty finals, witl 

SO. Gnete 

sounds, i 

f arranged alphabetically 

would be 


1 the thirty-four contracted 

as fpll( 





"iaou ei'^h 



"oe am 







eaoHh eep 



Seg'" 9mk 







"eaoHh eat 



"iiey ong 







■'!'*?* '* 



oiyh «• 







eem eng 



oft oSh 







£pi e"S 



"Sh «"» 




■ "aoH 



e^ eo 







These eighty-four finals, annexed to the fifteen initials, would produce «ne thousand two hundred and aixty 
'distinct sounds, but many of the possible sounds according to this tcheme of orthography are not used, and by 
a reference to the following table, it will be found Tliat abont nine hundred sounds arc all that the Hok-kiien 

people actually employ. 











































































































































gak , 































































ge .. 
























































































. he»k 
























































































































































































































































. «h 




•I. A !".!". ,1 


-•jniiLj^gjngli ••■i 


.ilii paou 
.^ paodh 









.1 ■ 

















pin : 

pit . -., 





























sap ' 







SiiiTTDlltil 9i!j ui <-lfii)iiii.«Ji ililn llo^ 

sua leo 

say teo''S 

swa tc"" 

$wa8°gh tey 

swih *'•»»' 

^ swan . , .^''j.^i*. 

swat "' ' '»'•>*«' 

ii->i{i;L'i!'<||^;a(pi <M.i fkKh) 'I i- 



^\ J 


>iii> nAta 














si in 













.t'cah tW. i 


, . .Tk . 


itl ill 

_ .twi\'-i 

^1- A 



' t«k-' ' 


.1 iify»!< 

•:. ,ll 



■l|. 1 



' m '" 




li I .111 !■; 

.'J -1 1. 



'■• ^'aW' ' 
flMp V 
' tfliftjbi! 












f heng 

^^^, . 


















fbwat '. 


^a wo.'fj 


tofly.fl!!)?; ,i' 












▼ae ,,• 












wat \ 

way ( 

yip I 



.(U'-R ill. 

.nnitf:;-)^ The initials and finals are joined by the first letter of an initial being substituted in the place of th« 

first letter of the final. The Hok-ke£a people are accustomed to join them, by first naming the final, then 

enumerating each initial in order, they drop the first letter of the final, and substitute the first letter of the 

initial in its stead. Thus :— 



I. Kwun connects itself with its initials in the following manner: ... 

i.c . ° .. rlrioil'ij A" 

r l,iw p,een k,dm k'h,e ' t,9y p'h,6 t'*,"a ch,eng j,ip Sjfi itng b,1in gfi ch'h,ut h,6 
K,u)un < ': '■.. ■■ , , . 

{_ lun pun kwuT^ k'hwun tun p'hun i'kun chun jun sun ' teiim bun noDe ch'hun hwun. 

According to this svbtiitic, the KProf'ithe final is omitted in; its connecj(i«jV , with several of the initials, but 

if the final be soundefl' )lcoo-«»«n, that^ omission will not be discernible, thdii:' "i ""'< 

■ ''■■ ' > ■ ' n,,.y.;'.| i;"iri| 

n,tw p,eeifi:i, k,iw *'M 1,13/ .P'Ko t'Ht^a chs/eng jip 'jivf.i ,eng, Sfc. 

Koo,-wuni ^.,,|- ,, ;jf'., . p,, 

\,loo-rWun poprjiiun koo-ieun Ic'hoo-wun too-wuh p'hoo-wun ihoo-wun ch'oo-wuH joo-wun ','tod'Wun oo-wun, Sfc. 

These sounds however must noti'be: too much lengthened out, but pronounced Kiipidl; as monosyllables. 

The 4th, 8th, 10th, 20th, 39d, 37th,' 43d, and 44th finals, air hcginning witH w, may have that w preceded by, 

or changed into oo, and thus be joined with their initials in the same way as, above. ^,,i;,i',, 

8. Keen conneotis i*self with itt initials as follows : — " ' ■■ '! unnd'ij 

r l,iw p,een k,iw k'h,i t,fy^ p'ho t'h,"a ch,etts j,ip >,i ,eng b,un g,i ch'h,ut h,i 
K,eeni ' 

[^ISen p'een ■ kjsen k'heen '\t8^ p'heen t'heen cheen Jeen seen y'een been g'een ch'heen heen 

Here a 3^ is. inserted uii9^ the llui initial, and *ill be foun^ prefixed to the same initial, in itt conjunc- 
tion with all those fiqa;!^ which have e followed by a vowel op diphthong. This is done on account of the 
lengthening of the e, the' consonant y being equivalent to ee, and being formed by 'placing the organs in the 
position of e, and squeezing the tongue against the roof of tbp. mouth. Thq 2d, 12th» I4)(h, 18th, 39d, S4th, 
30th, 33d, 35th, S6lh, ^Sth, and JOth 'finals are inclnded under this rule. The 3d and itth finals, though begin- 
ning with r, yet, as they b^kve a sliglif Sfliund of e connected with them,, are inclu4ed under the same rule. Under all the 

other finals, the conjunction with 'tbO'' llth initial is formed merely by leaving out the first letter of the final. 

<• ■■■ ;■ ''i''- • •' ' '■ 

3. Kim connects, itself with,.)ts initials as follows: — , 

I I 

■^^ k'hii\'.>\t,e>f p'Ko ,fh,"a ch,tfig j,ip s,£ ,e7tg biiM , g,i cKhiut h,e 

f l,ii> P,een '■ ffJi 
l_ lim none «m 


tim k'him '" tim none I' Aim chim Jim sim. yim none giin ch'him him 
;.,: -I- i;': , . ,; ■'- ^ '•■ • • i 

For the y under the lltt), initial, aQ«;XX|le under the; '2d final, -yt^ ?ty od'ij 

4. Kwuy is joineft with its initials in the following manni?:— "^ —'■.<{ 

; . ,, ,, ■•1,1 1 ' ■ '''^' I '■ . ■ ! ' ■ 

r l,ew p,een k;4v>. k'h,i ,Uiy p'h,6 fh,"a ch,eng j,ip s,i ,eng M» ff.e eh'h.ut h,i 
Kwuy \ 

\_luy pwiiy kmuy k'hwky tuy p'hwuy- fhuy chuy ' jtauy siiy isiuy bwuy gwuy chhwuy hwuy 

For the omission of the to in connection with some initials, see remarks under the 1st final. 

5. Kay is thus jbided with its imitials : — 

r l,iw p,een k,iw k'h,i t,ey p'ho Vh,^a ch,eng jjp sj ,eng b,An g,e ch'h,ut h,i 
\lay gay .^9^ f'^J' '".V f^^^ fhay . chay nqn© ■, fay ay bay gay ch'hay hay 

The 6th, 7th, 9th, llth, 13th, 15th, I6th, 19th, 21st, 23d, 25th, 26th, 27th, 2Sth, 29th, Slst, 3Uh, 35th 39tb, 
40th, 41st, ■42d', 45lh, 47th, 48th, 49th', and 50th finals are all join6d in the «ame raanher; Without any variation. 
The Sth, ic/th, 20ih, ssd; snh, 4Sd, and 44tb, may also be refeited' to ilbiS eS&mple, which is the usual method 
of joining imfials with finals, ' . ' '■ 


6. Kan is thus joined with its initials : 

■ •!■ ■.. - ■" • •> •» ' ■•' ■■ 'i ,■■;•■ -1 ■• ■•>\ 

r l,6ui p,een k,tw k'h,i t,ey p'hfd rh,** ek,e»g J^ t,i ,eng M» g>^ cVhtUt h,i 
.^^n J .■'•■'■. ",■'.■<. ^ A'.t v\\ «■;■.■■'. n :. s, ,^ 

[, lun pan kan k'han tan p'han fhan eh»n none fm an ban ^oh cKhan han 

7. Kong forms its junction with its initials in a similar manner, thus: 

l,iw p,een k,tw k'k.i t,ey p'htd fkt"« elt,«H j,ip *A t«H M" 6%^ ek'k,ul^ h,i 

Kong i '''• ' '■ ' ■ '' " ; ■■ . ■■ ' ■ ■■■ •/■y\ - .■■iA'^v ■;',">■■. \ -■ ■_■• ■ .A --"I.-,' 


long pong kong k'hong long p'hong t'hong ehong none tong ong bong gong ch'kong hong 
8. Kwae joins with its initials thus; ., . , , - 

"* ' ' ' - ''■ '\ ',*•».' .' ."-X I*"', ; 

l,iv) p,een fc^io k'h.i ley p'ha ffc"<f ch,eng j,ip \ t6 ,eng b,iin g,i ch'h,ut h,i 


Kmae . 

none pwae kwae k'hwae none none none chwae npnt? none wae bvae gtuae none hwae 

9. Keng is thus joined with its initial! : — ,.n,Ai ^.,A•,^ ,/. \ ,.\.-* sn i^ m',,\ i 

},een k,in) k'h,i t,ly p^h^i , l*»,f» ■<•*,««: j'i? *i< .«"? M" gA ch%vt h,i 

r l,eiB p,e 
l_ leng pen 


peng keng k'heng teng p'heng Cheng chtng jeng seng eng btng geng cVheng heng 

10. Kwan unites thus with its initials: t i4<A ^^ Mf.r, 

l,iw p,«en k,tw *'M '.«* p'A,<J , ,«*# ch,eng j^p ,.n/t ,mg b^ gyi cVh^t h,i 

Iwan pwan kwan k'hiMm tma» pfhmam Ckmam ehwam jwan swan man b»an gwMa dfhwan hwan 
U. Koe connects itself tl)us with its initials: 

iw p,ien • kiim yh^t l,eif p'h,i ('*,*« ck,0ng j,4» 'W,#>''">iiMf b,iin gjt ch'h.iil h,i 

he poe koe k'hoe toe p'hoe fhoe c»#e noUe'"*^""**'"'' '"Wii"'- irs^'^'ivAitf hor 

' IS. Kiiaou is thus Joined with its isitialsi -"Me tiK n«te under the Sd final. t'.^ "^ 

r l,iw p,een k,iw eh,i l,ljf p%i r*,*« eh,eng J,ip »4 ,«ng Mm S,i ch)t,vt hi 

V. ttaou piaou keaou k'hiaou Uaou p'hiaou fhiaou ehiaou jiaou tiaou gaou beaou geaou eh'heaou heaou 

is. Key is thug united with JU iniHuIs: ^ A v*-* "J' »Vi iv.O.i «>.X "^ 

r,iw ?,««'*,<»>••■*•*> l,^ p-ho Ck** ck,eng j;{p- t,t -^^eng '^'i,4n ""g^k ei?i'J h,i 
Key ' 

r.iean < 


K,oe \ 


ley pey key k'hey ley p'hey they chey limi''iei^'^'''^^!i^''gt^"'k'h^ hey 

U. Keung unites thus with it* initials -..-^c the aote under the 3d fiMli '*'''^ '*'*t^ "'^''4 '"''^ I 

L leu 


l,tw p,itn JcM k%i t,iy ph^ rt,"* <ii,eng j^ s,/4^ v. '.lAtff */l* g,t' . chXik J k,i 

ung peuHg keung kfkeung Uung none Chimtg ekiimg jgmtg itumg yimg none gimng eh'hSUtig'iifung 
15. Ko unites thus with its initials : ! ' 




Kae \ 

tw p.een k,iw k>h,i l,ly p'hd «'A,"« ch,eng i,(^ .,f^ .^,^Hg b,4n g,i chh,ui h,i 

po . ko k'Ko to p'ho eho cko nose to p bo go chliff ho 

16. Kae connects itself with its initials thus: 

iw p,ien k,iw kh,i l,(y p'h,6 t'h,"/i ck,«tig jjp t,t /mg ijAn g,i cKhiuf ■ k,i 

lae pae kae . k'ht tae f'hac flue chae none toe mi' <i«r ' gae .. oh'hi ■ iiae 


17. Kin connects iUelf thus with its initials : — see the note under the 2d final. 

1..: !/' !)Mlliuj_ lilKll •'i riK/? ,^ 

{l,iw p,Sen k,iw Vh,h t,ey p'hfi eh,^a eh,eng j,ip »,£ ,eng- b,dn g,i ch%ut h,6 
lin pin kin Whin tin p'hin t'hin chin Jin sin yin bin gin cVhin hin 

,V-\ ■•■,- ■■lI'Mr H\\l\> V.V.y^ \\\\\\'\'^ 

18. Keang joins thus with its initials: — see the note above. 

.-.lii ,i , i; •! •.■: .r;.' I. Ill 'I'.ilini »)} ifliw iioil-xmi, /li p.miol tji; 

l,iti) p,een k,iw Ar'A.d 1,1]/ .p''h,6 th^^a ch,eng j,ip *,( ,eng b,1ln g,i cK'h,ul h,& 

A'^dn^:^ ' ■ ■-•- »v-.\. ;•->''.''■' "''•''■'. • ''\ ■ ' ! 

leang peang kiang k'hSang Viang p'heang Vheang chiang jeang seang yang none geang cVheang heang 

19. Kam joins with its initials in the usual way, fhusi — 

Cam < 


iw p,Sen k,iw k'h,h t,ly p'A.d th^a ch,eng j,ip s,i ,ihg J.ffn g,t ch%ttr h,i 

Kam ^ . ■ . 1 •, ■ 1 

hm none ■' kaM' k'ham tain-\.n»Ab^'t'hiajii cham-- none tarn am ■■ham '■• gam tVham ham 

•••"^ 20. Kwa unites With its initials thnSi"^ '>■•>"' '"■' " ■^""'' > " '■ •• -lA •«»mi\ muii _, 

f l,iw p,^en k,iw k'h,i t,ey p-h,6 t'h»a cA,e«ff- 'i/iJJ/"' i;i '•'',ifni''"'VM''''V>"' ^J^^.t^^' M 

--w* 91V- Rang joins with its initials as follows :^:^'^ -"■■'^'» -"^-^'^ -■'^'^^ ?>-"' -^ ■'A''^''' ■''.""■^ V '\ J 

r/,*u» p.een ft'^iu A'M t,ey p'h,d f'h,'"a ch,eng slili^'%i^' ''■iing'^Mn'%'i "'''ik^h^ut' h,6 
K lang pang kang k'hang tang 'vp'hang Chang chang' none sang ang bang gang ch'hang hans 
22. KiJem is thus connected with ite.initiaJs^iM- see note under the 8d final.' A »uiv.\ ni-.v.>\ nn'a\ I 

f,i*u) p,een k,iw k'h,i t,gy p'h,d Ch,"a chieitg'f}p'-'s\i'-,ing'''Hh^'^ h,e 

f l,i 


Keem { 

/Bern none kHem k'beem teem', nom, a t'hSeM \vh£em\'jeem seem y'iem none giem ch'hiem heem 

23. Kaou is joined thus with its initials;—^,., 

l,iw p,f«B k,ia k'h,6 :t,ey p%9 .ffh,"0 eh,eng , jip .J,t/,\.^eng bM g,6 eh'h,ut h,i 


Kaou <_ 

laou paou kaou Whaou taou p'haou , t'haour^ fhaou none iaou aou baou gaou cKhaou haou 

S4. Kea unites with its initials thus; see the qote under the 8d finali. . . 

>,iw p,een k,tw k'h,& t,Sy p'h,6 l'h,"a eh,eng J,ip f,i ,fng b,An g,i eh'hut h'e 
Kea \ 

_lea none kea Whea tea none none- . chSa jea ti^ii y'ea bea gea ch'hea hea 

"ea < 

25. Kbey unites thus with its initials. ^ ,.■,, ^■^\'\ ,j.„\\ m ..a>-\ x,_,,\ 

C l,iw p,een k,iw Whi t,ey ]fih^\\ ,th,''a eh,eng j,ip »,i ,eng b,iln g,i ch'h,ul h.t 
KSey I 

\_loey pSey kSey k'hiiey tSey p'hSty'tVioej^.'yickSejf. Joey aoey Sey biiey goey ch'hoey hoey 

N. B. Bey is semetimes written wSeyt becauie this final koey has something of the sound of a is in it, and 

may be pronounced ko-uiey. ;^:j.,Ji(ii '1. iU.u iudJ 'iu'-.v-u • 

86. K^ajoins thus with its initials;^ -">•*•' '^"•*'' '"'''« "' 

r l,ivi peen V&w k'h,b t,ey p'h,d t'h,'*a ch,en^ jjp i,S ,eng *,«Jn gi ch'h.ut hi. 

\ na none fc"o Wh^a t^a p-h^a t'h^a ch"a none s"a "a ma none none none. 
This being the first of the nasals, it becomes necessary to notice the variation of some of the initials', when 
connected with nasal finals} such as the Ist, the I2th, and sometimes the 13th, initials, which lose in a great 


measure their original sounds, and merge into those of the nasals ; thus / becomes n or P*, b becomes m, and 
g is converted into gn. Indeed, so much is the sound of the initial letter lost in the nasal, that to a learner's 
ear the words under the above initials appear to have the sound of n, m, and gn full ; and thus it has been 
thought advisable to write them in the following dictionary: but a little closer attention to the sound of the 1st 
initial when connected with a nasal final, will convince the student that the / is not altogether lost, but enters 
in some measure into the sound of the word, as though na were written ?*<», but pronounced through the nose, 
with a little more stress laid on the n than on the /. The sound of 6, in the 12th initial is more completely merged 
into that of m, yet pronounced with a whining noise, like a child crying ma. The sound of g, when con- 
nected with a nasal final, is more evidently preserved than the other two, and is pronounced as though written 
gn full, with a strong nasal sound. 

27. Koo is joined thus with its initials: 

\ l,iv) p,een lc,dio 1c'h,i. t,ey p'h,6 Vh"a ch,eng j,ip s,6 ,eng b,vn g,e ch^h,ut h,6 

(_ loo poo koo k'hoo too p'hoo Vhoo choo joo soo 00 boo goo clChoo liuo 

The sound of 00 under the 11th initial is sometimes written woo, because this final has something of the 

sound of w in it, as though drawled out into koo-woo; and this latter form has usually been followed in the 

succeeding pages. 

28. Ka Joins thus with its initials : 

\ l,iw p,een k,6w k'h,& t,iy p'hfi Vh^a ch^mg j,ip $,6 ^ng b,dn g,e eh'h,ul h,S 
^ la pa ka k'Aa ta p''ha t'ha cha none sa a ba ga ch'ka ha 

29. Ke unites with its initials in the usual way : 

\ l,6w p,een k,6w k'h,h t,iy p'h,6 fhy^a ch,ctig j,iu s,6 ,eng b,un g,e ch'h,ut h,6 
^ le pe ke k'he te p'he t'he che je se e be ge cVke he 

30. Kew connects itself thus with its initials : — see the rule under the 2d final. 

\ l,iw p,een k,6w k'h,i t,iy p'h,6 fhl*a ch,eng j,ip s,i ,eng h,un g,i ch'h,ut h,c 

Kew < 

^ lew pew kew k'hew tew p'hew t'hew chew jew sew yeto bew gew ch'hew hew 

31. Kai"S joins with its initials thug: 

V "S S ^'*"' P)^'" *>^"' k^h,l t,ey p'h,6 t'h^a ch,epg j.ip s,6 ,eng b,vn g,e ch'h,ut h,c 

( nai^'S pat"S kat^S k'hai"S tat"S p'hai"S t'hat"i chat"g none sai^S at^S max"S gnmj ch'haP'S hat"g 
This being a nasal final, the 1st and I2th initials in connection with it are changed from / and 6, to n and m ; and 
the 13th initial ^ is written ^n, with the omission of the final hi/, the t being changed \n\o y ; though it must be 
remembered that this sound is to be pronounced through the nose, rclnining the full power of both the g and n, 
at the beginnin<,' of the word, 

32. Kwui"S connects itself thus with its initials ; 

^„W,tm PfCen k,iw k'h.i t,ey p'h,6 t'h^a ch/ng s,e. ,eng b,un g,e eh'h,ut h,6 
( nooi"S pooi^S kwvi"S k'hwvi^S tooi^S p'hoot"i Vhoot^S chtn^S urui^'S wui^S mooing none ck'hui"S hui"g 
This final being nasal, tiie Ist and 12th initials undergo an alteratitn as raenlionrd under the 26th final; but 



there are also changes in the vowels, which make a difference in appearance while there is none in reality, the 
vowels being changed only to acommodate the vowel sound to the diflferent consonants of tlie initials, but if 
the final be written koo-i^S, the whole will correspond. See under the 1st final. 

33. Kiio unites thus with its initials: — see the note under the 2d final. 


l,tto Pf'een k,&w k^hfi tft'y p'h,6 t^h,^a ch,eng j,ip s,& ,cng bfin g,t cVhyUt h,S 
^ leo p'eo keo k'heo i'eo p'heo t'h'eo ch'eo ji-o s'eo yeo beo g'eo ch'h'eo Keo 

34. Kee"n joins thus with its initials: — see under the 26th and 31st finals. 

\ l,tiB Pj'eeii k,iw k^h,h t,ey p''h,6 fh/^a ch,eng j,ip s,e ,eng b,un g,6 ch''h,ut h,6 
( nee"= pee^^S kee'^S k'hee'^S tee"S p^hee»g fhee^'g cheek's jee^g see^i ee^9 mee'^i none cVhee'^g hee^g 

35. Keo"S unites thus with its initials : — see remarks under ihe 2d, 26th and 31st finals. 

\ Lite p,'een k,iw iVj,fi t,ey p'h,6 Vh^a ch,eng j,ip s,i ,eng b,un g,i cVh^ut h,t 
(_n'eo"g none k'eo^9 k'heo^g t'eo^S none none ch'eo^g none s'eo"g y'eo^^g none none ch'h'eo'^g hio^ff 

36. Ke"a joins thus with its initials: — see remarks under the 2d, 26ih, and 31st finals. 

\ l,ho p,een k,&w k'h,i, t,ey p'h,6 Vh^^a ch.eng j.ip s,i ,eng hfin g,t cVh,ut h,& 

Ke"a i 

(_ na pe'^a , e^a K'he.^a te"a p^he^a t'h'e"a cM^a none se^a y'e^a m'ea g'^'ea cVhe^a h&*a 

Here the little "' denoting the nasal, is omitted under the 1st and 12th initials as unnecessary, it being contained 

in the n and m at the beginning of the words; under the 13th initial it is retained. 

37. Kw"a connects thus with its initials : — see under the 26th and 31st finals. 

\ l,iw p,'een k,iw k^h,h t,ey p''h,6 Vh^a ch,eng j,ip s,i ,eng b,un g,i cVli.,ut h,6 
^ nw^a pu>"a kw^a k'hw''''a tw^a p''hw^a t'/imf^a chw^a none sio^a ki"« mw"a none ch^hw^a hw"a 

38. Ke"S joins thus with its initials: — see remarks under the 26th and 31st finals. 

y,'een k,ito k^h,h t,Mj p'h,6 Vh^a ch.eng j,ip s,& ,eng bfin g,i cVh,ut h,i 
^*"^ * "" pe^'g ke''g k'he^g tc"g none t'he^g chc^g none se^g e^g none none ch'he^g ht^g 

( l,iw p 
\ne"9 p 

39. Kay unites thus with its initials 

• !,6ui p,een k,6w k''h,l t,ey p'h,6 Vh^a ch,eng j,ip s,6 ,eng bfin g,& ch'h,ut h,6 
Kay ^ 

lay none kay k'hay tay none tliay chay none iay ay bay gay ch'hay hay 

40. Kae"S joins with its initials thus: — see under the 26th and 31st finals. 

{l,iw k,lw k'hyh p^hjb ch,eng s,S bfin g,6 h,i 

nae kae^g k'hae^g fhae'^g chae"g sae^g mae gnae hae^g 

Under this final the I, b, and g, are changed by the nasal as noticed under the 26th and 31st finals, but the 
small "^* are omitted, as being included in the nasal at the beginning of the word, though care must still be 
taken to pronounce the whole as coming from the nose. 

■ l,iw kjito g,t 

41. K"oe is found connected with only three initials thus : — K oe I 


k^oe gno€ 


42. U™ is found in connection with only two initials thus : 

.This final u"' is found in connection with only these two initials, the first of which resembles the sound of um 
■and the latter hum, both attempted to be pronounced without opening the mouth. 

{k,6to ,eng h,( 

kwang wang hwang 

( ^j^"" *i^ ^eng bfin 

44. Kae"6 is found connected with only four initials: — Ktoae^S } 

{kwae^S su>a^9 wae^S buae"9 

45. Moey is found connected with only one initial; as 6,l2n, — moey. 

( l,ito k,iw g,i 

46. K"eaou is connected with only three initials, thus: — K^eaou } 

' neaou k*eaou gneaou 

I k^hfi t^y ch,eng s,6 

47. Chom is found connected with four initials, thus: — Chom J 

( h'hom torn chom som 

( /,^io 6,t2n g,i h,6 

48. Gnaou is connected with only four initials, thus: — Gnaou I 

{ naou maou gnaou h'*aou 

( l,6w k,6w b,in g,6 h,6 

49. K"o is found in connection with five initials, thus : — Kno} 

i no k^o mo g^o h"o 

50. Gndw is found connected with only two initials, thus : — Gn&w I 

\ new gnew 

For a complete view of the initials and finals, with the method of joining them, see the following table. 



top L-ew 

j^ P-een 

jjt K-ew 

^K'h-e MT-ey gf P'h-6 ft^T'li-na 

1 ^ KjWun 
^3E. K,een 


7 '/^ K,ong 


9 Wjl K,eng 





14^ K,eung 

15 1p3 K,o 

16 ^ K,ae 


18^ K,eang 

19 P K,am 


21 ]fE K.ang 

22^ K,eem 
■ . 


24 'll K,ea 


28 W K,a 
30 j/ K,ew 

33 ^1 K;eo 

fjl leen 
itTl /«» 

vj Iwae 
-J L /ens' 


111 l^y 

f)l IMng 

^ leang 

JD leem 
tt laou 
[A) iSey 
^ na 
■/■tC lo6 

& lew 


^ pun 
U pirn 
(ii5 pwuy 

jfx pan 
t^ pong 
JTV p\va6 
JEt peng 
T;^ peaou 


'l^t peung 

M P'" 

-fie. peing 
O pam 

^|5 pang 
O peem 
^ paou 












tj nnni o 

^ kwun 
§5 keen 
^i kwuy 
~r kan 
'*» kong 
W|2 kwae 
J, kwan 
fp koe 
$|oj keaou 
ft key 
^ keung 
^ kae 
^^ keang 
P| kam 
JQL kang 
;^ keem 
^ kaou 
^1} kiJa 


y kew 

^ Aeo 



^ k'heen Ij^ teen 
ii^ k'hira 

^ tim 
k'hwuy ' 5^ tuy 
k'hay ' "^ 

^ k'hong 
ifl k'hwae 
M k'heng 
^ k'hwan 
H k'hoe 
T-^ k'heaou 
lM k'hey 

l'^ k'ho 
in k'hae 
flx k'liiiang 
J^S k'ham 
py k'hwa 

^X k'haou 
■rJ" Ai'Aea 
H k'hoey 

n. K'hoo 
Hip iVm 
%k k'he 



I O twae 
["T teng 

; JflfJ toe 
l^^lfl teaou 
*y tijung 

77 to 



I 'fif tod 

/p tiiem 

tftd , 
/L taou 

^ tea 

f\ fohj 


XC k'hew i ■^ tew 
i^k^hai^S :^tai"g 
$]} k'hwuf'S II foofS 
^ ;t'Aed ^ fed 

^ p'hun 
H p'heen 
O p'him 

tK P'han 
?f p'hong 
O p'hwae 
W^ P.heng 
IT p'liwan 
I3 p lioe 
'^ p'heaou 
^J-U p'liey 
W p'heung 
§ P'ho 
iE p'hae 
I p'hin 
O p'liam 

I'M- ,1 


O p'heem 
f/S p'haou 

5f» p'hoey 
"" //A^d 
dT- p'he 
^^ p'hew 

'r^ 1 ; "g 

ll^p'hce " 

7^ t'hun 
7^ t'heen 
^ t'him 
jfi t'huy 
^ t'hay 
P t'han 
iM t'hong 
O t'hwae 
alfe t'heng 
yjflt t'iuvan 
^t t'heaou 
'W ''hey 
\^i t'heung 
p t nae 























^ i'Ace"^ 



# Ch-eng 

AJ-ip il|S-e mE-ng HB- 


up vjr-t; 

tt| Ch-hut 


^ chun 
W cheen 
IS Chan 
^ chong 
}|p chwae 
g cheng 
^ chwan 
^1' clioe 
^ cheaou 
!*• chijimg 

^ chi-ang 
)U;^ chara 
JpX chwd 
^ cAa«^ 
|5 cheem 


^ly cAaou 


jSZ chea 
9P choey 

'/fC choo 
7(1 cliew 

?| cA««"i' 

(^ ^'^eo 
ii cAee"»" 



O jwae 


















'^ sun 

^ siien 


j(j> sim 
l-i^ san 

O swae 



' so 
I sac 

, sam 
; sang 
I saou 



"^ soey 

iS 800 




f^ sew 





1 7iia wun 
S yeen 
IC an 


;E wae 
^ wan 






op i*a 

^ yeem 



TSC oey 






n bun 
lyt, be6n 
i J^ bwuy 
I ,^ 6ay 

: i^ <""'g 
O bwae 

; i^ bwfin 


] Ifl beAou 
j3S bc'y 
\J beuDg 

\J bcang 
O bam 

m bftng 
O biiem 
^P baou 
-|i bei 
^£ 60 ^y 
«^ mA 


/2^ mooi " 




O gwun 



P g4n 

f n gfing 

p)a gwaC 



^ gc^u 


! ^\ gedng 
; i?T g«'»"e 


\ f^ ging 

j M ^''^'* 


\^ god 

I ^ ch'hun 
I ch'hiien 
j^ ch'hira 
1^ ch'huy 
7^ ch'hay 
'^ ch'han 
^ ch'lioiig 
(J ch'hwae 
7^ ch'heng 
jll ch'hwan 
: M ch'hoe 
! ^ ch'heaou 
^ ch'hey 
1 Tu ch'hcung 
^^ ch'hae 
p^ chhin 
' 1^ ch'hcang 
^ ch'ham 
^^ ch'hwa 
/^. cVhang 
^ ch'heera 
^ ch'haou 
$ cAV/i « 

O ch'h"a 
Jli^ ch'hofl 
X ch'ha 
P ch-he 
^ ch'hew 
H cA'Aa."^ 
)I| cA'Au,"^ 

# cA'A«"^ 

^ hiien 

^ hwuy 

^ ban 

^ hong 



lyL bene 
ft^ hwan 
J^ heaou 
^l] heung 
^ h'ae 
^ hi.i 
^P beang 
^J hwa 
'^ heem 

7^ boo 
'VK hew 
I^ hal"S 
j^ htcui' =" 




P L-6w 

i^ P-een 

>jt K-ew 

^ K'h-e 

M T-ey 

lil Fh-6 




O peo"g 


^ il'AeA" 


O p'hco"S 

O t'heo"g 




^ Ae'^a 

fe /.'Ae'*d 

tr tif'a 

p- fhe"a 

I||. <'/,c»a 

37 "^ K,w\ 

')i m."a 

Jw pw"« 


% k'hw"a 

IP- tw»a 

i^ p^hw^a 




W Pe"^ 

IPI /te»^ 


S '^"' 

O fhc"S 

1B ''A«"^ 




1(1 iay 

tftP k'hay 


O p'liay 

§H <'Aay 



O pae"S 


^ k'hae"S 

O ««e"^ 

9' v'kat^S 

O t'hae"S 

41 ^t K,"oe 




O k'li"oe 


O p'h"oe 

O t'h"oe 

42 ^t/"* 


Vj pu 


O k'lu."' 


O P'hu"^ 

O fhu"" 

43 7^ K,ioang 

(_) Iwang 

(_y pwang 

tIQ Icwang 

O k'hwang 

O twang 

C_) p'hwang 

O t'hwang 

44 p^ K,wae"S 

O nwae"^ 

C-) pwae ^ 

P^ kwae ^ 

O k'hwae"^ 

O twae"g 

O p'hwae ^ 

O t'hwae"S 

45 jJI M,oe,j 

O noey 

O p"oey 


O k'hnoey 

V/ t oey 

KJ p'h"6ey 

O t'h"oey 


^^ neaou 

O p eaou 

P^ k"eaou 


O t"eaou 

O p'h"eaou 

O t'h"eaoii 

^~ 3C C,hom 


O pom 

\_) koin 

IJll k'hom 


O p'liom 

O t'liom 

43 jX. G,na6u 

^ naSu 

O p"aou 

O k"aou 

O k'h"aou 

O t"aou 

O p'h aou 

O t'h"aou 




\JU k\ 

O k'h"o 


O p'h"o 

O t'h"o 

50 ■'r' G,ne«! 

fj\| n6\v 


O k"ew 

O k'h"ew 


O p'h ew 

O t'h"ew 


The paucity of words, or of orthographical variations in the Chinese language, has rendered a system of 
tones necessary. Tlie language spoken at court, (commonly called the mandarin dialect,) contains four hundred 
and eleven dilTerent monosyllables, each of which is increased by the application of four tones;* the Hok-kefen 
comprises more than double that number, which are severally varied by almost double the number of tones. 
The four tones of the court dialect are the 35. P6ng, J^ Sijang, -^ K'h^, and ^ Jip, or the 'even,' 'high,' 

* The following verse, taken from the Chinese Imperial Dictionary, will serve to explain the powers of 
these tones: 

^ M ^ M ^ 1^ Mi ^^"S ^^"S P^ng to> ^ok te gang; 
Jt ^ i^ Pf- fS ^ll 5^ ^^^^" ^^"S ^° ^°'^' ''^"S '^^' keing; 
•^ ^. ^ BJ5 ^ JS M ^'''^ ^^"S hwun b6ng, ae win to ; 
A ^ ^M Ij^ ^ ^^ ^ ■''P ^^"S *^^" cheuk, kip sew chfing. 





g| S-e ^ E-ng n B-fln 


ti^ Ch-hut 



£^ cheo ° 
JE chi"a 
^, c/,w"a 
^ c/.e"» 
3^ chay 
^ chae^^ 
\J chwang 
(3 cliwae ° 
O ch"6ey 
Cj ch eaou 
^^ chom 
O ch"aoii 

O jena 
O jw"a 


O jwae ^ 

O j"o<"y 

J eaou 

\^ join 

O J aou 


O .i"ew 


^pse a 

1^ say 

O swang 

O s"6ey 
O s"eaou 

O s"aou 

; .. ng 
,yeo ^ 







Pj^ wang 


y eaou 






^^ n 
^•^ mto a 



^ raae 

CJ raoe 


O bwang 

vj bwae " 

\J meaou 
O mom 
/f* maflu 

[2| TOO 

CJ mew 


O gneo 

O gne ° 

X gnae 
iL gno6 


U gwang 
(J gwae ° 
O gnoey 
P^ gneiou 
O goni 
5^ gnaou 


J cA'Aeo"^ 
jg ch'he"a 
qig crt hw a 

jL ch'hay 
O ch'hae"e 
O ch'hnoe 
O ch-hu™ 
(_) ch'liwang 
O ch'hniiey 
O ch'li"eaou 
O ch'hom 
O ch'h"aou 
O ch'h"o 
O ch'h"ew 



O hOoe ' 

^ hwang 
\J liwae ^ 
O h 6ey 
W h^eaou 
O horn 

'departing,' and 'entering' tones; these in Hok-l«eJ!n are multiplied by dividing them into high and low, or into 
a first and second series, such as: — 

First series : 

Seang pfing, _|^ ^ cheo^i pafff, the upper (or first) even tone; 

Seangseang, _[;;_ J^ the upper (or first) high tone; called more generally the Siiang seng, K 

^ seang s'e^a, the high tone ; 
Seang k'hd, J^. ^ chco"S k'hi, the upper (or first) departing tone ; 
Seang jip, J^ ^ cheo"ff jip, the upper (or first) entering tone. 

" The even tone travels on a level road, neither elevated nor depressed ; 
"The high tone exclaims aloud, being- fierce, violent, and strong; 
"The departing tone is distinct and clear, gruffly traveling to a distance; 
"The entering tone is short and contracted, being hastily gathered up." 


Second series : 

Hay p6ng, "TJ Z^ ay pat^S, the lower (or second) even tone ; 
Hay seang "K J^ ay sedng, the lower (or second) high tone ; 

This being alwaj's like the first high tone, goes by the same name of seang seng, V' ^? seang 
se'^a, the high tone. 

Hay k'hfe, TT ^ ay A'Ag, the lower (or second) departing tone ; 
Hay jip, ~F> yl ai/jip, the lower (or second) entering tone. 
These are the names given them by the Chinese ; it is for us to describe and designate them according to 
our method of accentuation. 

1. The Seang pSng, _£_ ^ cheo^S pai"ff, "upper (or first) even tone," is, as the name denotes, a smooth 
even tone, gently flowing from the lips, without any effort, and is most commonly pronounced with a musical note. 
It has neither rise nor deflection, and is therefore left without any accent, being the natural unconstrained expres- 
sion of the voice ; thus kwun. 

2. The Seang seang, J^ J^, "upper high tone," or simply Siiang seng, J^ ^ s'eiing s'e"a, "the high 
tone," is, as the name imports, a high, shrill tone of the voice, pronounced with strength aud rapidity, and is 
therefore denoted by the acute accent ; thus kwun. 

3. The Seang k'hfe, j[^ -^ ch'eo^S k'M, "upper (or first) departing tone," is a low gruff tone of the 
voice, which seems to come immediately from the throat, and to be lengthened out while proceeding slowly from 
it. The Chinese call it a departing tone, because they say it goes away like the flowing of water, never to 
return. It is marked with the grave accent; thus kwiln. 

4. The Seang jip, J|^ y^ ch'eo^S jip, "upper (or first) entering tone," is a short contracted sound as 
if terminated abruptly, and has at the same time a rapid utterance, something like the Seang seng, p ^£ s'idng 
s'e"a: it is therefore distinguished by a short mark ", followed by a final h, in all those words ending in a vowel, 
zakojkbh; but in words ending with a consonant, the entering tone is marked by changing the long consonant 
into a corresponding abrupt one ; thus words ending in n, take the letter t, as kwun, kiout ; those in ng, take the 
letter k, as keng, kek ; and those ending, in m, take the letter p, as katn, kap. The Chinese consider tliis to 
be nothing more than a variation in tone, and as making no alteration in the orthography of a word ; which is 
indeed true with respect to all those words ending in a vowel or diphthong, where the entering tones^ are merely 
abrupt terminations of the vowel sound of the other tones ; as if a person about to pronounce ko long, should be 
suddenly taken with a hiccup, and stop short before the o was well out of his mouth, thus forming a rapid kb or 
kbh instead of ko : so also with respect to those words ending in the consonants n, ng, and m ; by considering 
the organic formation of those letters, we shall find, that " the entering sound" is nothing more than an abrupt 
termination of them. Thus, the final n is formed by pressing the tip of the tongue against the gums of the 
upper teeth, while a person breathes through the nose, with his mouth open ; now the final t is produced by 
a similar process, with the exception of the nasal breathing. So also, the final vg is formed by pressing the 
middle of the tongue to the roof of the mouth near the throat, while the voice passes principally through the 
nose; and this, it may be observed, is precisely the case with the final *, without the nasal emission. Further, 
the final m is produced by closing the lips till the breath is collected, and then letting the voice issue by the 


nose: the like process is necessary in order to enunciate the final p, except that the sound terminates abruptly 
on closing the lips. 

5. The Hay p^ng, ~T\ Zc. dij pai"^, "lower (or second) even tone," is an inflected sound, beginning 
low and ending high, being dwelt upon a moment during the enunciation, and then turned to another tone 
before coming to a close. It may be exemplified by the drawling tone given to some words when spoken 
ironically, or to the word "indeed/" when used as an exclamation. It should have been marked by a rising 


circumflex, thus kwun ; but that being rarely met with in printing oflices, it has, for the sake of convenience, 
been designated by the falling circumflex ; thus kwfin. 

6. The Hay seang, ~Tn _|2, "lower (or second) high tone," is precisely the same as the Sijang seang, 
-t _Il, ""PP^"" ('"■ first) high tone ;" and is therefore also generally designated the Suang scng, J^. ^ *£«"§' 
se^a, "high tone;" which see. 

7- The Hay k'hfe> |\ -^ ay h'hi, " lower (or second) departing tone," is a low, protracted, monoto- 
nous sound, something like the "upper (or first) departing tone," but not so gruff and guttural; it is therefore 
marked by a horizontal line, as a long sound ; thus kwun. 

8. The Hay jip, ~T\ 1i ay jip, " lower (or second) entering tone," is a combination of two tones, 
having an abrupt sound, like the " upper entering tone," with the addition of an inflected intonation of the vowel, 
similar to that just described under the "lower (or second) even tone." For this tone, as far as it regards the 
abrupt termination of the words, the same letters and marks are employed as notified under the " upper entering 
tone," but the inflected intonation is marked by a perpendicular stroke ', either in the middle of the short mark 
over the vowel, or when followed by an abrupt consonant over the vowel alone ; thus kah, kal, kap, kwiit. 

The power of these intonations may be seen at one view, together with the manner of their proceeding 
from the mouth, and the use of the signs employed, by the following eight figures. 


The first 
even tone >» 
is not 


The upper 
tone marked ^' 

with an 
acute accent 


The first 


tone marked 

with a grave 




The first 
tone marked 
_ jvith a breve 
•J \ accent. 


The second 

even tone 

marked with 

» circumflex 



The upper 
tone marked"^ 

with an 
acute accent 


The second \ 
departing ^) 
tone desig- 
nated by a 
long mark. 


The second 
marked with 
a breve and a 



None of these accents have anything to do with stress or emphasis, always retaining their peculiar force, 
whether at the beginning or end of a sentence — when interrogating or affirming — in angry or in sootliing words — 
when speaking aloud, or when whispering : they remain ever the same. 

The poorer class of people and young children, who are unacquainted with letters, and know not the 
names of the accents, or the rules by which the language is governed, are yet most exact in their accentuation of 
Chinese words ; and generally speaking, the more ignorant they are of letters, and the methods of defining speech, 
the more particular they are in distinguishing the accents. In order to converse intelligibly with the common people 
in the Hok-keen dialect, it is indispensably necessary to attend to the accentuation, particularly as a slight varia- 
tion of decent not only makes a difference in the grammatical inflection of words, but also quite alters their 
sense, and makes them mean very different things. This may be seen from the following short sentences, which 
are put together merely to show the necessity of distinguishing the accent, in words which have precisely the same 

Sek y6w 16 jtn, -S^ /B •^ y^ chd woo laou l&ng, 

Beng pok chfing hoe, ^ .W l]3? [^ in'e^d puh, cheng kaou; 

Yeiik mae t'heet koo, /* & *p^ ^a ah bay Cheek kaou, 
He^m chefin bo8 kofe, ^^ ^ ^ ^ hUm che6'^ bS kabu; 

H66y k'han pe ko6, Ih] ^ ^ ^"pj tooV^i k'han oe ka6u, 

Ge cheak pek hofi, 3^^ ^ |y jj^ to6 teohpayh kaSu ; 

Ko6 hwuy ho6 ho6, ^p| \ij^ |& W^ ka6u pwuy kaSu ha6u: 

Put te, 'Xs -^-p u"' chae, 

Se ko6 wily hofi, -^ ^^ -^ Wi. ^^ ''''^" ^'^"" ^"*^"' 

Hek ho6 wily ko6, ^ ^fe "^ ^^ " *^ ^"^" *^"" ^'°^"- 

" Formerly there was an old man, 

" Whose lot was poor, but his disposition liberal ; 

" And he desired to purchase an iron hook, 

" But found that his money was not sufficient ; 

" Returning, he led after him a black dog, 

" And accidentally met a white monkey ; 

" The dog barked, and the monkey screamed : 

" So that it could not be known, 

" Whether the dog was afraid of the monkey, 

" Or the monkey afraid of the dog." 

In these few lines there are five words written with the same letters — kaou — which, according to the 
eommon system of orthography, would all be pronounced in the same way ; but in tone as well as in sense, they 
severally differ from one another ; thus, there are : 


1 Kaou, in the first even tone, meaning ' a hook ;' 
Kaou, in the high tone, translated ' a dog ;' 
Kadu, in the first departing tone, denoting 'sufficient ;' 
Kadu, in the second even tone, signifying 'a monkey ;' 
Kaou, in the second departing tone, meaning ' liberal.' 

These, without a particular attention to the variation of the tones, could not be distinguished, and with- 
out being distinguished, such a sentence, and very many like it, would not be understood. Another sentence 
is adduced to show iiow all the eight tones may sometimes occur in connection, each requiring to be very 
accurately discriminated in order to have the speaker intelligible. 

Y6w tek clie kay, 7^ |^ ^ ^ tcoo Uk &y kay, " A family possessing virtue, 

Chin j6 bo8 kky, jH. m ITE Ito chin yea bo kdy, " True, and without deceit, 

Soo te tae kav, jjlj^ /jA" ^ jS chty tit twd kdy, " This is of great price, 

K'hwafe e sim kek, kh -M j^\ Bw k'hwal te sim kayh; "And grateful to the heart; 

Hwan choey ta^ kJiy, jf p Ip ^ JJjp hwan chdey ged kdy, " But criminals wearing the wooden collar^ 

Yit be yat)u kiy, — . pi ^ ^S chit be bbeyh kdy, " Who are altogether deceitful, 

Sob bin che hay, nH & "X ~K *^ *''• ^1/ ^^9i "Are the lowest dregs of the people, 

T'heenjJukae g6k, 3^ ^ ^ j3^ t'het^B l&ng kae kiyh, "Alike opposed by Providence and men." 

Here the closing words of each line are expressed by the same letters, (with the addition of a final h in 
the 4tb, and 8th lines, to denote the abrupt termination of the sound,) but by the various inflections they produce 
seven different tones : as 

Kay, the first even tone, denoting ' a family ;' 

Kdy, the upper tone, translated ' deceitful ;* 

Kcly, the first departing tone, meaning ' a price ;' 

K&yh, the first entering tone, which means 'the breast;' 

KcLy, the second even tone, denoting a 'cangue, or wooden collar;' 

Kay, the second departing tone, signifying 'low;' 

K&yb, the second entering tone, which means ' to oppose.' 

Now without a due attention to the tones, a person in uttering the above sentence, would be likely to call 
'a family,' a 'wooden collar;' — to confound 'price' willi Mow,' and 'deceitful;' — or to use the substantive 
'breast' io place of the verb 'to oppose;' which would render mutual conversation difficult, and the best ideas 
frequently unintelligible. 



Exhibiting the fifty Joo boe, ^ ^ j^ hoe, as divided into eight Tones. 

The reading of these characters with a Chinese teacher would enable the student soon to distinguish between them. 






^ kwiln 

^^ keen 
(S ke6n 
^fe keen 
<(A keen 

3 4 

^ kirn ^J^ kwuy 
1^ kim %^ kwuy 
Hi kim ^i kw4y 

^^•^'p o - 

Q kim ^ kwfly 
0j^ kim ^^ kwuy 
tls^ kim 


/j-<| kwuy 

o - 


6 7 
•-F kan ^ kong 
^H k4n IS kong 



O kan J£ kfing 
^kiin ^kong 
(^ kan Xr kong 
Qkat ,)^k6k 


5)^ kwae 
^^ kwa6 
ip^ kwafe 

o - 

Q kwae 
;^?; kwa6 
(~\ kwae 

o - 


:^; k6ng 
.^ kSng 
■cf k6ng 
;f^ keng 
is. kek 


J*g kwan 
"g" kw^D 
XHt kwat 





"j^ koe 


M koe 


12 13 

^keaou If key 
n<? keiou Kt k&y 
PiP keaou =t k6y 
^h keaouh M keyh 
^^ keaou ft^ k^y 
^keAou ]^kiy 
1^ keaou ^jkiy 
[[ijlJT keaduhY~\ keyh 


^ keung 
^ keung 
Yit keiing 
^j keuk 
1^ keAng 
-kjt keung 
ih keung 
|a keuk 




(~\ koh 




/^ kae 



r)3 kin 
11 kin 



18 19 

^^ keang "H' kam 
|^|ki>ang ff^ kdm 
QkSang gk^m 
^Pkeak ^gkap 
?,^ keang :p| idm 



.^g keak r^ kap 


P^ kwah 
(~\ kw4 
^■^ kwa 
(~\ kwah 

;^ ^X kang 
i ^kAng 
# Pl^kang 
:^ ^kak 

•0 -^king 




(i'nil kefem 



■<^ kaou 
jt^ kaou 

'fiJt kabuh 

^^ kaou 
(g kaou 
(~\ kaouh 


Q keah 
^ ke4 
,11 ^ea 
^ keah 





fHey ;^it"a ^ko6 
.^^k6hy ^k"d /^ ko6 
|[5 kdeyh O — g^ *ooA 

^^^kdiy :^k\ ^ko6 
'^T- kdeij r'\ k a ^ koo 
f^ h'deyh Q — r\ kooli 

28 29 

^ka gke 

^■^*^ tf,k6 

^M IjFk^ 

fflMA ^keeh 

Qka t)]k6 

^^ A:a p ke 

gjid ^ke 

y kew 

M kew 


/fV kew 



A TABLE, &c.— Continued. 

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 

^ '^kaing i^kumi^g^keo j^Aee«^ ^ keo»i ^^^"0 'g*^w"a ^/te"^ ^ ^"i/ ^^ *««"*^ 

^ ^^"^"^ ^ /t«,«{"^0 k«o Oke6"S Q _ :JLie«d Jkw"4 Oke°S Q " fe ^"^"^ 

1^ ^iai"^ ^ jti^z/f ^n^. /lei £*c&"^ O - ^^^"'^ ^^"'"'^ ffi*^"^ O -- O - 

:^ O - O - B^^-^O - 0-0- O- 6- ^^"i'AO - 

^ iu'^'^^""" ^^"'"^"^o - o - o - ^*^"" iE"*^"^ o - o - li^"^"^ 

^ 0^°^"^ O - ^^^^ O - #^-^"^ #*"^ 5f ^■"''''' O - O - O - 
^O-Q-Q-O- O - Q- O - Q- Q- O - 

41 42 43 44 45 40 47 48 49 50 

^ J(^k"oe jt^«"« ;J^/tjcan^P^kwae"g^ni6ey ^ k"eaou^ chom ^ gnaou jpl k"o ^ gnew 
#0- 0-0-0-0- O- ^<^h5a. O - O - O - 

?0- 0-0-0-0- 0-0- O- O- ^^'^^^ 
X O - O - ^^""^^ O-Q- 0-0- O- 0-0 - 

The fifty f.nals multiplied by the firteen initials would produce 750 sounds; these diversified by the seven 
tones, amount to 5250. About half of these have no characters attached to them, and there are only 2300 
distinct enunciations actually in use among the Hok-ke^n people. The characters to which these are applied in 
the following Dictionary amount to 12,000; on the average about five characters to each enunciation. The 
distribution, however, is very irregular ; some enunciations having only one character, and others including many ; 
one simple enunciation (k6,) having fifty-six characters applied to it. In Morrison's alphabetical Dictionary, 
two hundred and forty-seven characters appear under the same letters. 



In the Hok-ke^n dialect there are two distinct forms of speech, called the Reading and Colloquial (or 
vulgar). These difier from one another, not only in the more compact or difliise construction of the sen- 
tences, but even in the sounds of many of the words. The Chinese language admitting of a very contracted 
as well as of a more dilated style, and the books being generally composed in the former, they require 



frequently to be commented on, and paraphrased in order to be readily understood. This has given rise to 
the distinction between the reading and vulgar forms of speech. This distinction prevails to some extent in 
the mandarin tongue ; in which, after reading over a passage, it is generally thought necessary to dilate upon 
it, for the sake of elucidation and explanation. But in the Hok-kefen dialect this proceeds to an unusual 
extent ; the explanation of any literary composition being not only much extended and varied, but the words 
themselves frequently differing in their termination and sometimes in their whole construction. So great is the 
distinction between these two forms of speech, that a person well acquainted with the reading dialect, would 
not be able to understand a conversation in the vulgar tongue ; nor could a person fully proficient in the 
latter be able to make out the meaning of any passage recited from a book not previously familiar to him. 
In the following pages the colloquial is distinguished from the reading dialect by being put in italics, and 
the spoken sound of particular characters is denoted by the word Vulg. being prefixed. The examples here- 
after adduced will be sufficient to show how the sentences are extended and varied, but the alterations in 
particular words will need a more distinct notice. 

The variations between the reading and colloquial may be generally referred to two heads ; namely, 
regular and irregular. 

I. The regular variations consist in changes in the termination, and may be arranged according to the 
order of the finals : though it must be remembered that but a few of the characters in the reading dialect 
are changed according to this system, and those only which are of every day occurrence. 

CharaTGters falling under the 1st final kwun form kwui"S in the colloquial ; as kwun, kieuPS; tun, 
tooiPS; sun, swui^i; wun, tcui^i; bun, mooV^S; ch'hun, cVhui^S; hwun, hwupi. 

Words under the 2d final keen form kee'^i in the colloquial; as leen, nee"^; peen, pee^S ; keen, kee^S ; 
teen, tee^S ; t'heen, <'Aee"^; p'heen, p'Acc"^; cheen, cAee"^ ; seen, see";?; been, »n«e"^; ch'heen, cVhee^S ; 
hijen, hee^S. Words in the entering tone keet form keeh in the colloquial; as leet, leeh; peet, pee/»; ttiet, 
teeh; s6ei,seeh; beet, &e£A; &c. 

Words under the 3d and 4th finals kim and kwuy are irregular in their formation of the colloquial. 
Words under the 5th final kay are also irregular, except in the first and second entering tones, which 
are generally vulgarisms, formed from the entering tone of the 9th final; which see. 

Words under the 6th final kan form kw^a in the colloquial; as Ian, nic'^a; kan, kuP'o; k'han, k'hw"a; 
tan, tu>>^a; t'han, t''hvP'a; chan, chw"a; san, stc^a; an, !o"a; ban, mto^a; han, Aw"a. 
Words under the 7th final kong form kang nnd Aeng' in the colloquial ; as: 
/ long r pang ( kang ( k'hang r tang f Vhang 

'°"^'Ue«^ ''""n.e"^ '""^/te"^ '''""^ ^'Ae"^ ""''Ia' '''Ht,.^^ 

r chang f sang ( ang C cVhang C hang 

chong,|^^^^^^ -°H,.«^ °°^i«^ bong, --6a.,; ch'hong, | ^^,^^„^ hong, J ^^„^ 

Words in the entering tone kok form AoA in the colloquial; as lok, loh; pok, poh; kok, koh; tok, tdhi 
chok, choh ; ok, oh ; bok, boh ; hok, hoh. 

Words occurring under the 8th final kwae are seldom formed into the colloquial with any degree of 


Words under the 9th final keng form k(v?^S and ie"a in the colloquial ; as : 
.eog>-"%e„g>-^^^eng>f' k'heng^'^^f teng,$-f P'beog>;;«f engi «^^ 

fhengi''*-"""^ Cheng, ^'^f" ^-g.S^f ch-hong^^'^^f beng, - - me^; heng^^f 
( t'/je"a C '^^'^ " (. *^ " (■ '^^'^^ " C *e a 

Words under this final, in the entering tone kek, form kai/h in the colloquial; as lek, lat/h; pek, payh; 
kek, kayh; k'hek, Jl'AayA; Vhek, t'hat/h; chek, cAayA; ek, ayh; bek, 6ayA; ch'hek, cVhiyh; hek, AayA. 
Words under the lOlh final kwan form kw^a and kwuC'S in the colloquial ; as : 

pwan, - pu,\,- kwan,(*"'\, k'hwan, ( *'*"'"'' ^ twan, - toof^; p'hwan, - p'Aumi^; chwan, ( '*•""!,„ 
( hout^ I k'hwui ® I cAwwi * 

Sometimes words under this final, in the entering tone kwat, form kiiiyh in the colloquial ; as, kwat, koitfh ; 
k'hwat, k'h'deyh; swat, soiyh; ch'hwat, cVhdeyh; gwat, gdeyh. 

Words under the 11th final koe form kaou in the colloquial; as loe, laou; koe, kaou; toe, taou; 
t'hoe, Vhaou; choe, chaov; soe, 5aou; oe, aou. 

Words under the 12th final keaou form k'eo in the colloquial; as leaou, Ko; peaou, p'eo ; keaou, 
k'eo; teaou, <eo; p'heaou, p'heo s cheaou, cAco; jeaou, jeo; seaou, seo ; yaou, yeo; beaou, h'co ; geaou, 
geo} ch'heaou, ch'heo. 

Words under the 13th final key seldom change into the colloquial ; but sometimes colloquial words 
Are found under this final derived principally from the 16th final kae; which see. 

Words under the 14th final ktiung form keng in the colloquial; as leung, leng ; kiiung, keng; teung, 
teng; chiiung, cheng ; jiJung, jeng ; yung, cng ; ch'hiiung, ck'heng ; hiiung, heng. Sometimes the entering . 
tone of this final keuk forms kek; as leuk, lek; keuk, kek; k'hiiuk, k'hek; teuk, tek; chcuk, cAeJE;; jeuk, 
jek; seuk, sek; yeuk, ek; geuk, gek. 

Words under the 15th final ko form koey, kaou, and kuia in the colloquial ; as : 

C laou t kdey (p'hdey C soey 

lo,< cho, - - chaou; ko, ^ P'i>o,< so, -laaou o, bey; ch'ho, cA'AtiOK ; mo, 6ioa; 

l^hoa \kwa (^p'hoa (^swa 

gno, gwa; ho, Aiiey. 

Words under the I6th final kae sometimes form key, and sometimes ktoa, in the colloquial; as lae, Iwa; 
kae, Aey and kwa; tae,ltra; t'hae, t'hwa; ch'hae, ck'htca; raae, bey; hae, Aey. 

Words under the 17th final kin seldom change into the colloquial with any degree of regularity. 

Words under the I8th final keang form kea^ in the colloquial; as leang, nfo^S; keang, keo^S ; 
tijang, t'eo'^i; cheang, cliioH; seang, leo"^; yang, y'66^; ch'heang, ch'heo"S; beang, Aeo"^. 

Words occurring under the 19th final kam form A^o in the colloquial ; as, lam, no; kam, k^a ; tam, 
t'*a; sam, s^a. 


Words under the 20th final kwa are generally in the colloquial, formed from ko and kan ; which see. 

Words under the 21st final kang are principally colloquial, and are derived from kong; which see. 

Words under the 22d final keera sometimes form the colloquial into kee^S ; as leem, need's; keem, 
kee'^S ; k'heem, k'hee^S ; teem, tee^i ; t'heem, Vhee^S ; but the words under this final are principally in 
the reading dialect, 

Words under the 23d final kaou are partly colloquial, derived from ko, and koe ; which see : but 
there are still many reading words under this final which form ha, in the colloquial ; as laou, ^a; paou, pa; 
kaou, ka; k'haou, Vha; p'haou, 'p''ha; chaou, elia; aou, a; haou, ha. 

Words under the 24th final kea are principaly in the reading form, seldom changing into the colloquial 
with any regularity ; there are also under this final a few colloquial words, formed from ke ; which see. The 
entering sound keak is chiefly colloquial, and formed from kek ; which see. 

Words under the 25th final koey are principally in the reading form; but there are some colloquials formed 
from ko ; which see : and words in the entering tone k'deyh are generally formed from kwat ; which see. 

Words under the 26th final k"a are partly in the reading form, and partly in the colloquial, formed 
from kam ; which see. 

Words under the 27th final koo are principally reading words, changing irregularly into the colloquial ; 
and some colloquial words formed at random from the reading. 

. ,. .-■Words under the 28th final ka are partly in the reading form, which sometimes form into the colloquial 
by changing pa into pay; p'ha into pliay : but more frequently words under this final are colloquialisms, 
formed from kaou; which see. 

Words under the 29tli final ke are principally in the reading form, but sometimes form kea in the 
colloquial; as ke, kea; k'he, k'h'ca; ge, gea; in the entering tone kceh, there are some colloquial words 
formed from keet ; which see. 

Words under the 30th final kew are principally in the reading form, without any particular changes 
into the colloquial. 

Words under the 31st final kai'^S are all colloquial, formed from keng; which see. 

Words under the 3?d final kwui^§ are also all colloquial, formed principally from kwun and kwan; 
which see. 

Words under the 33d final k'eo are colloquial, formed generally from keaou ; which see. 

Words under the 34th final ket^S are all colloquial, formed principally from keen ; but sometimes also 
from keem ; which see. 

Words under the 35th final kecPS are colloquial, and derived from keang ; which see. 

Words under the S6th final k'e^a are generally colloquial, derived from keng; which see. 

Words under the S7th final kw^a are principally colloquial, derived from kan and kwan ; which seCi 

Words under the 38th final ke^S are colloquial, derived mostly from kong; which see. 

Words under the 39th final kay are sometimes colloquial, formed from kae, and kwuy. 

Words occurring under the 40th to the 50th finals are few and irregular. 


Thus, taking the summary of the above, the regular formations from the reading dialect into the collo- 
quial are generally as follows: 






forms koh 


\ kiB a 
( kwui ° 












I kaou 









( kwa 



There are some variations from the reading into the colloquial made by changing the initial ; which 
may be arranged according to the order of the initials; thus, 

Under the 
Under the 
Under the 
Under the 
Under the 







noe becomes lot ; and neaou becomes cheaou. 
kira " gim. 



U; jun, /«n; j6, he. 

Under the tenth initial. 



Under the thirteenth initial, 
Under the fourteenth initial. 

Under the fifteenth initial. 

t'hae; sun, chun; s'lm, chim; suy, chuy ; seult, ci'euk ; sim,€hlu>; 


ay; hoi, oi ; him, dm. 
pun; hwuy, pwuy ; hoft, pob, 
kay ; hoe, koe; hok, kdh. 

ge « 

ch'he " 

hay « 

hwun " 

hay " 

heuk « 

II. The irregular variations include a change of both initial and final ; and sometimes give a word 

in the colloquial quite different from the reading; as: 

Sin, \\\\ ch'kun. 
Ch6, f^ cku>d. 
So6, ^ sdn. 

Choe, J3/| chan. 
Uk,' f] lal. 
Bofi, ^ bong. 

6i(ing,\2i diking, 
Hw4n, ^ king. 
Cho, ^ chey. 

Biit, i^ mtmk. 
Gnfiw, ip go6. 

Among those reading words which are totally altered ip the colloquial, may be adduced the following : 

Jim, ^^ Ihn. 
Hoo, ^ pay- 
Sek, 1^ t'hut. 
Sit, 1^ hat. 
Te6n, ^ ch'hdn. 
B6k, ^ cAVid. 

.J6, IL ''"^• 
Hdng> ^ k'hing. 

He, f^ k'hoi. 

Toe, g^ kedou. 

Che, ;j^ t'heaou. 

Seuk, l^ lun. 

E', (j|^ hoi. 

To, ^ chey. 

Lfing, ^1 iy- 

Lan, ^ oh. 

Hak, ^ 6h. 

Sea, ^ Mh. 

Te, ^n chae. 

Sat, ^^ fhal. 

Jc6m, ^ 6aA. 

Jtn, /^ Mn^. 
Hwae, J^ t'Aeep. 

T5, $|j kabu. 

Ho6, j^ ^-aJu. 

Tan, ^ *'Af«. 

Ta6, ^gU. 

Wd, ^ Aifa, 

G^ jjr^^ hia. 

Sit, /^ cheih, 

N4, fe /(fSA. 


KwaTi, ^ Icoey. 

Kan, ^^ ta. 

Cho&, :p Ae"/f. 

Ok, J^ cA'Aod. 

Yabu, ^ bMyh. 

T"d, ^ p'AiiA. 

Ok, 35 p^haH. 

KiJak, pp /fc'Aa. 

Sim, ^ c/i'Aoey. 

Jijiik, ^] 5aA. 

Put, ^^ i'"- 

Hay, ^ Z:io"d. 

Kim, /^ <"a. 

Yea, /^^ maj"^' 

B6ey, -|(j^ ;j<2"'- 

E', ^ hoi. 

Ltfti, y|:J;nd. 

Seic, ^ cAeo/i. 

Ko, l?r kwQ.n. 

Sip, 'J'^ /dm. 

Yew, ^ woo. 

Se,. -f e^S- 

Tw4n, tg <%. 

Se, ^^ cVhayh 

Besides all these, there are a number of words in the colloquial, some of which are not to be met 
with in the following pages, and some do not appear to have any corresponding sounds in the reading dialect, 
being probably introduced from some foreign language, or which were indigenous to the province of Hok-kefen 
before its union with the empire of China. 


Ch'hin ch'ha6, - 
Chin chae, 

Any how. 

T'heara chaa &, 
K'heem chae 4, 

> Perhaps. 

Chin che"a, - 


Leem pee"g, 



Ka la koo ^, 

By and bye. 

Too too, - 


Just now. 

An chw"4, 

How ? 

An ney. 



Ch6 ne^ng, - 

In what way? 

An ney sai"g. 


In that way. 

Chw"i kong, - 

How is it? 

S"4 mee"gh. 



Hei)"g p^ng, - 

On that side. 

S"^ soo, - 


What's the matter? 

Ch6y pSng, - 

On this side. 

K'hah chay, 



Hit lay, - - 
Hwut lay, 

I That. 

Kwuy leepj 
Twa lim. 


A little. 
Very much. 

Chit ley, - - 

I This. 



With, and. 

Chay lay, 

Tek k'hak, 



Che taou. 


Aou sin, - 



Ha taou, - 




- If- 

Hwut taou. 

In that place. 

Che a. 



Chun i, - 

Just like. 

Long, - 



Ch'hin cbe6"g. 

Like as. 

Long chong, 


The whole. 

Chit pw"a, 

The same. 

Te, - - 



Koh yfe6"g, - 


Te lit, - 


At present. 

Lam s&m. 


Tae seng, 



Kin kin, 


Kah kwafe, 


So strange/ 

TammaT"gh, - 

i More speedily. 

Ch6 po6, 
Chb hoey. 


All at once. 

A i> V 

Tdy aoo, •»( ■ 1 1 
Hiyei, . i .'" 
Che"a tlo, 

Che"a ch'beng, 
Bd tae wd,, 
Hwat ling tae w&, 
Le le i, 
Tdk pa6, 
Sa6 sae, - 
Bong, - 
Bong ke"A ke"a, 
Bong kofey, 
Bong kong, 
Cha hwui"5, - 
MaT"gh ohal, 
Mln i chaCf - 
Kadu heftfa twa, 
Kih 16 rS, 
A', - - - 

Aou b&n, 

U"" I'hang, - 

T'hang, - 

Soo ne8"g, - 

T'hek kak, - 



Hwat lin tooi"g, 

Tfe, - - - 


Twa te, 

K'hea, - 

Gadu che^n, - 

Ga6u kwun, 

T'hit t'hO, 

Ch'hit I'hd, - 



By the troop. 

Andf also. 

By the thousand. 

No resource. 

To be a match for one. 

A Uttk. 

Several times. 

What need* 

So so. 

Just walking about. 

Getting on so so. 

Talking in jest. 


This morning. 


So great? 

How widely different.' 



To oppress, to ity'we. 
Do not. 
To. consult. 

I To throw away. 

To give. 

To turn around. 

To wear on the head. 

To rest in. 

To dwell at. 

To reside. 

To play. 

To sport. 

> To ramble. 

Jwa chey, .;q) s;-^ 
Lwa chey, *■ 'v 
Tim k'hfe, > 
K4k'W, ' ,4^'V 
Toh tooi"g, - 
T6ng bin, 
Ay t6yt ,r.,.,.,r- 
Leoh leoh'i) - 
Che6"g loh, - 
Seo k'hwi, 
Cheo k'boSyh, 
Ke"a ne, - 
Chong se, > 
Boeyh cha6 if; 
05 ch'hun, 
Se6"&, - 
Tok tok, 
Chi k'h6, 
K'he t*hada, - 
Swih bo^y, 


Le&h chd, 
Kw&h tew, 
Seep sey, 
ChO hwi se, • 
Se6"g loh k^j 
Toh, - .- 
Se4ou 16y, 
T'ho, - 
Tin tang, 
Pe6"g ka6u lAng, 
Kb tit, 
Sew k'b^, 
T'hedng 16k, - 
Too teoli, 
E w4, - 
P'hfth hwa, - 

t Hold many i 

^ Where are you going 7 

Back again. fn{i 


bO ,xJ 

A little. 
Up and down. 
In a small degree. 
Very few. 
After dR. 
HofB can ? 
Over and abort. 
Very, extreme. 

Early in ike morning. 
In the beginrting. 
At Ihe end. 

To consider. 

To cut down com. 

To flatter. 

To have a lucky hit. 

To repent. 

To burn asfre. 

To be ashamed. 

To take. 

To move. 

To juggle. 

To remember. 

To be angry. 

To be joyful. 

To meet with. 

To rely on. 

To.put out (Jire). 


.•»i\M\ I 

La6u bak cha6, 
TeSm loh chuy, 
Wut chut, 
T'hun lun, 
U™ kefeng, - 
Wi Iwa, - . 

Ey, Can ; and 
Ka laouh, 
Te6"g te, 

Pak t'hayh, 
Ch'li^w wui"g, 
L4 s&tn, »^^^,:, .f 

Cha bo6, •» » •" ', - 
Ne6"g pay, .^> . - 
Neang 16y, . y>^.,:^, r 
Hkng, a sort; i 
Wun koo, r ■ T 
Tang e"g, 
Kip kfey, 
Teiou tit, 

Ham ban, r r 
Sfeyd, - - 
Ch'hin ch'haiiJg, - 
Laou i, - '.i'i ^^ V 
Kate, - T r 
Ch'hai"g hwun, 
Kw^n sh, - r 
Nooingche"4, - - 
Ch'haing majng, 
Ka che&li, - 
Ka ch'huing, - 
Cha6 teaou, . »',' • 
Haou sai"g,'' v'\" . 
HwS.n 16, 
P'hun tw"a, - 

To weep. 

To drown. ''■■''- 

To be grieved. ''^ 

To be patient. J'-^J 

To lose. 

To rely on. ''^ 

Bey, cannoW':'^ l'- 

Tofalldomi '''••' 

To take care. 


Naked, ,^a^^6yL 
A sleeve. , jnddO 
Dirty. ;, ^I.^Jofl 
A male. ,,(|'rfp 60 
A female. '"''I?, 
A father., J^,!" 
A mother. -M h"l 
Chit hang, one sfirt. 
Humpbacked. ■• ', 
The middle. 
Exact, true. 
Dull, stupid. 
A concubine. 
A rogue. 

One's self. 




The back. 

The buttocks. 


A son. 




Sfeyje, - 

U'"tee"gb, r ^..>- 
Tiioh bw3,, 1 »V vV - 
Pwah keiou, - 
Te8, . - - 
Choh ch'hin, 
Gadu k'heem, - 
O 16, - 


A^m koe chcly, t 
Kaou seaou. 
Gin &, - 

Tha& k<>:^^, , , r 
S^ kak. .^.^^^„^..„,i; - 
Sfetwa, (r,^^„^-^^_ - 
36 s^y, - r - 
Sin ne8"g, t 
Sin ke"S, safe, t 
Nw"at'hoe, - 
Keaou t'haSu, - 
Chae sit 16, 
So chae, or gay, 
T'ha8usai"g, - r 
Sbng heung, - 
Tang, - ^. . 
Bit p8, - ''-"h ^^' - 

Pan ge.'-'a '^"l' - 

Boey yeah, - r 
Le k'heet, 
Ch'hek, corn ; 
Kaou 6, a chair; 
Chejlou chwui"g, - 
T'haSu chang b66y, 
Ay, - - - - 
A', . . r 

To he pleasBd. 
To be careful. 
To refuse. 
To be troubled. 
To game. 
To jump. 
To plough. 
To be stingy. 
To praise. 

A few, odd. 

A cockchafer. 

A cheat. ,, 

A servant boy, a slave. ' 

The leprosy. 


Great men. 

The lower ranks of men. 

A bride. 

A bridegroom. 



A virgin. 

A place. 

An animal. 


A reason, 

A bat. 


A butterfly. 

Deep, cunning. 

Ong, aflame. 

Che chuy, who ? 


A cue of hair. 

Sign of the possessive, 

A diminuiipe. 









T?C!fe ■^ ""w- Oe a 1^- Sa^ a black crow. 
^ & A hwuy put to L ^1 ^ ^; ^J ^i 

>| * ■'J oe a p'tiey big kadu sw^a, a crow could 
not flj to tiat hill. When L6 k6iig ^ 1^ went 
to subjugate the Tan e JS -^ nation, he came to 
a hill, and on asking the name of it, was informed, 
that it was called "tlie bill which crows could Dot 
fly over:" for as soon as the crows came to the 
place, their feathers dropped off, so as to. prevent 
tbeir flyiag. 

■ A hwftn J ^^1 a fhadu, a slave girl. 

^^^^ A p'he^n ^H pf Opium. A p'heen kong 

Cm *<"> ^ j^r '^ ^, " P"*'** i^'">g »<■> 
^^•"■^ the Opium farm. 

— «•* Durolii Ejeang fhun t'han wOy a w 

■^■^^^ /'Aii'"i chd ay kdou. Ejiiiing swallowed 
charcoal to make himself dumb (or to change his voice). 

A prefix to a TO»n,'» iwnve: A' soo R3 09, 
a ti, a fofirthsoo^.^ heag Kpf ^, a hi"; 
Brother ! ^ appellation generally given 
to the inhabiUnts of Te4ou-ch?w ^ iUJ, lU cknc. 

_ - One second in order, inferior io rank : i . 
L J seng 5E ^J ■ secondary sage ; Beng 
» * ' ^ choo ^^, the Philosopher Mencius, 
was so called. .mT £- j -■ ' 

K'hdng Beng rh* 4^ ^ ;^ ^^ second Saly to 
Confucius and Mcncios. 

Yin k jj^ jte a familiar epithet used- 
hctwecn penous related by marriage: 

X^-»** Sd s6 yin a 3g ^ j|| ^^ distant 

. - - , . . .. :. bi/liih 



To rely on, to d'^pefc'i'iipJjK."' """'' ' 




'/ n k '/T <l) 

Read Lok: an affirmative; an expression 
of assent. 


The noise made by an ox, or an ass: a 
nasal sound. 

' j^ Minced meat. P6ng teung jeuk "a ^ 
/A Vb \^ ^§' Pe"« te""S ^Ith "a, the 
'■ • minced meat in pies; Koey "a ^H»- ^B> 
minced meat for pastry. 

^ To lament, lamentable: Lok j6 put yim, 

Ae ^ ="= j^ p"t ^^='"s ^ ifii ^ J$ '^ rfii 

-^^r^^- ^P \% t'f>eung lok yea bey ylm Iwan, 
pe- ae yea bey s'eang hae; "Pleasing without wan- 
tonness, sad without wounding." Said of the kM 
B|f Kwan ch'he ode. 

Ae fhong ch'ham t'hat ]^ ^ ^ "fQ, ae I'he^ti 
ek'hdm Chat, sadly pained and grieved. He noe ae 
ke ad od yeuk, wal ch'hit cheng ^ ^, ^ 'l^ 

^ ^ -WC El -fc 'In' ■'"y- ^"S'^'"' S"""^' fear, 
love, hatred, and desire, are called the seven passions. 

Dust; small particles of dust. 

Turned sour: soo e j6 ae /^ ^ Tfn bS, 
rice injured by heat and damp, till it 
turns sour. See the Lftn ge =ffi |E 

Collected, gathered together: ae. ae hew 
Ae *^&L y^^ y^'^' ch'hun kwuy sip je Uw =g 

when the clouds are collected together, and again 
drifted about; — in the season of spring — we can 
return to the twelve-storied gallery. See T6ng se 
gip, the odes of the T6ng Dynasty. 


A collection of clouds. 

,^.^~. Ac lae ^@ ^S^ a dark appearance of 
"^ the clouds, f^ 1J| 


^ Vulg: ay: short: jIn ae ae \ ^ J^ 
l&ng ay ay, a short man. 


t^^^-^ Vule: $eSht to love, to pity; afifeclion, 

e 'iS^ 

jS attachment. 

Sira hoe ae e ^5 ^ ^ %> ^''^" "*= '"^^ 

any at heart. 

H4y put wuy c JH ^ |1 ^, Distance i» 

not considered : 

Teung Sim chfing che \^ jy^ ^ "^^ Being laid up 

in our affections, 

H6 jit bong che ^ ]^»'^, '^'"=" "" ''^ 

forget them .' See the |^ ^ Se keng. 

Goe ho ae yit gnSw ^ 'fPT^ — '^' ^"'^ **"'" 

Vhe''A ch'il cheih gnS, Do you think I am sparing 

of a single ox ? See ^ ^ Beng choo. 

Narrow minded, Pek-6 ae, Lew-hay-hwOy 
put keung; ae e put keung, kwun 

JHL choo put yfiw jeM6 ^ Ri iHP T 

Pek-6 was narrow minded. Lew-hay-hwOy was disres- 
pectful ; but both narrow-mindedness and disrespect, 
are what the good man would not adopt. 

Heem ae Vm Rj^^ a narrow pass, a dangerous defile. 







A disturbed, distressed appearance. 

To han?, to throttle: chooaejfisoo S 

strangle oneVself and die. Geuk teung 
tb i^ 7/^, k^a k'hot lai kd si, he was 

strangled in the prison. 


."^^^ To belch. T"4 ae ^J f^^^ p-hah oSh, to 


throw out wind 

Paou sit k'he l.w&n J* a^ |& '^ ^ j^ '^ %, 
chiih pi k'hi mte"* ji p'hih oik, having eaten to 
the full, the wind rises and is ejected. 

\ .^^^ Toguard, to control. Ch'heera kh 

Ah^ptti? to lake care of the ilipi of bamboo u«cd 

>| f by the Mandarins: ch'hecin »h Ue yel 

'^ ^ A l|if . ""^ "^'^^ ^^° '*''" "'" "'^ ""*" 
slipt of l)arohoo. 

A h song M jg^ ah s4ng, to guard, to escort. A'h wiin 

\\a Ag to agree in «ound, to rhyme with, to rhyme. 

p A duiki a lame duck: Sat key wt kh 

I ^Vkf kill fowU and duck<i. Soo gwat jc ih 

s«ns Py Fl ^L "El ^' '^ ^"''^'* '^* "*'** " '"''*"' 
»i, in the fourth month, the young duck* come out 

of the shell. 

Gd ch'huy 8h li-uk 1^ ^ tpj^ If, (the hill. 

looked) grey as gee«e, and green ai ducka. 


yw * A chest, a casket. Kim kwuy geuk Kh 

^"■^ caskets. 

T'ha«-o ch'hut *»*> ^'JQ M jt^ ^' 'he celebrated 
Thaio »word came oul of iis shealh sponlancously. 



w^^^ To water, to irrigate, to fructify : Ak I'etn 
^Jm^^ "dk. EB' ^^ ch'hin, to water the rice fields. 

\§^ ^ Kw&u ak V^ )4r to pour oat. Ak Thoe 
^F J^^ prcHy ley, ftrtile land. A surname. 

Ak <hak /w fE, restricted, limited. 

Che&ngak ^ ;^^ to hold in the hand: 
Ak J^fK S«;w ak peng kw4n ^ :^ ^ 1^ f»'*e(f 
gtm peng Ay Icwdn, to seize on I he 
military power. 

A curlain; WOy ak ibg EG, poi lefm, a 
curtain, a tent. 

Wun t«w wfly ak teung J^ ^ |^ |§ rfl-> '«> 
be planning; ichemes in the tent. 

The cackling of a fowl : the aonnd of 
loud laughing. 

To drip: Teem ak 
dripping through 

^S) tke rain 

H6ng yin teem "k ^ ,^ ^ ^, '"'"ff 1*9 *» *"» "0 
Ink k'ki, the Imperial favour distilling on the pcoplf. 

Ak chak IS aB, the teeth near to each 

other I closely set; impelled. 

Ak kim ^p ^ to lay oagold; to gild. 

A spindle, a distaff. 



A straw shed; Am beaou 
a temple, a monastery. 

, am bio. 

Am cham 

' a sim, unclean, impure, 


Flesh boiled and preserved. 

ts*— I To understand-. Be am ^ ^j boey h'iaou 

Am rill , ^y^ 

\~r-% I tit, I do not understand. 
Am kan t'heen wuy ^ ^ ^ ^^ to have designs 
upon the Imperial dignity. 

To remember, to recollect: all, every. 

Am ■»• |-i Am leen ch'him py 

l' ^f thing deeply experienced. 

Am IJS^I Dark, closed doors. 

in every 



mjf't^ An appearance of g^eat grief, also grief 
W^ at -parting. ^^i^^ 

A'm jeSn seaou hwfln chiia, wfly peet j6 e e, ^ 

^ '^ «i t '^^ 7iii fftj a ^> «'''*'^'" ^^ 

y'eo"S, Icadit kicAn seaou k'U, chong se seo peit te"a 
lefi, greatlj grievpd, till my, wul ,is eoosiimed, 1 
can only take rty leave, and no more. See the Kang 
yeem peet chip ^jX. y§ ^ij ^^ 

The appearance of disturbed water, bub- 
bling up: also the water in which the 
cocoons of the silk worms have been 


All, every one? to understand. 



^l«« Dark, dismal, no light: Jit beA wfly 

|aj ^m, when the sun does not shine, it is 
dark. Pwan bSng pwin km che sod iii, pB ^^ 

Wl i. ^' ^""^ *^"^ ^^"^ ""• ^* "'"' ^*"^ '^'**' 
and half dark sentences. t^^JJ* t* 

Am k'hang §S jy^ a drain, a spout. 
Suy ftm ^^ '^^ C/«jy ^m, an aqueduct. 

Am keng vg ^g em Aii>un <i, the neck, 
the back part of the neck. 
Am kwut sfiy ^6 '9' ^^ the neck 
bending forwards. 





Peace, rest, quietness, cessation: — how! 
in what way ? A surname. 

ChSng jg hoe 16ng an ^ M^^M^ ''*'"^ •'^^" 
aou ey an, Being tranquil, then we may be at ease. 

See the ^ M Tie hak. 

Pfing an 35. itX^ peaceful and at rest. T'ho an ^ 
^j secure & quiet. An Ifing s6ng hoe ^ B^ ^Jc 
•^' an chw"d ey che"d, how can it succeed?^ 

"Tr||* Vulgarly w"a: a saddles ma an J^ ^ 
^Jl' fjT/ bay w"a, a horse's saddle. 

Pek ma k'hwa kim an, k'hg ch'hut ban jin k'hin 

kliwa kim w'^a, k'lied chliul ban ling *'Aw"d, Riding 
out on a white horse, harnessed with a golden saddle, 
myriads of people will look at us. 

A'it'' YiJen an ^ ^, unemployed, indoleat. 

An sun 

' yien tKhun a quail. 




Vulg; ic''d: to place, to put down, lo put 
the hand on. 

Vulgt w''i: a teMe; an tok ^ i^, tc"^ 
IBh, a table, a magistrate's bench. 

P'hwin kn ^j ^, p'Aip'"^ in, a, judgment seat. 

Vulg: tB^d: late: Jeem-choo t'hd^j 
teiou, Choo Wilt, hd ka yea rfl ^ ?B 
^ ^ 13 fu[ ^ ^li, Jiim-chofi l-htj, 
Udou, Eoo eho6 king, »"« »oo kadu l:i:.h u"j. Ji-6m 
choo came back from court, when C'oiilucius asked 
bini, why are you so late? See the "TJ Tft hSy 
Ifln. A surname. 



An oath. This character is 'dbintiionly 
used in novels. 

^n4?C? '^''^ht: pok ftn H ^ pak dn"in. ^ 

Cl PI Vulg! Aifleisurie: chwan jit bo6 An 
An Pel I ^ g M HI], chwufSjl, ta i„g^ no 
• '■^^-^ leisure throughout the whole dky. 
sip lioe chc kan hCy, song chea h4n hSn h6y -i^ 

II.- (£■(»£: kan, bdn «"§' dy Mn;? in uu, In ;i field of 

ttn acrc«.wjde, the mil Iherry-leaf gatherers go leisure- 

■ ly to work. See the 1^ ^ Se keng, book of odes. 



A limit, a boundary; y6w an Jn WL do 
an, limited. Yit j!n che chengntn yfiw 

Ay Cheng «(ii oS an, one man's spirits and vigour 
are but limited. 


Bfln an H*^ JRj wiCoj"^ tfnp,\\ie threshold 
of a door. 



•/>. r-S 

Read ong: an idol, a god : ong sin 
^, ang .fn, a god : ong kong ^ ^, 
ang kong, a divinity: g£ng gng ^ 
Ift; ffS "4 aii|r. to carry an idol in prflcessioo j pae 
ong ^ iflE pa^ ang, to worship the gods. 
Loe J In p'hok «ng ^ ^ ^ )^, ^"^ ^J' '-in*- 
p'Aafc ong-, the people of the Lo6 country dried 
their gods in the sun ; this was in a time of drought, 
when the people thought to force their gods to 
give them rain, by putting their images under a 

cho twin. 

Ang >, 

burning sun. Sec the ^A^ 
Read on? : A i 

Read ong: A surname : also, overflowing, 
vast as the ocean. Chiiflng go£ seug 
6 ong yftng ^ E ^ ^^ -j^^ 

cheAng ^wi chit si ling i ang yiO"^, to .spend 

one's whole life on tl}e vast Ocean. 

^■v Read ong: a husband, an old tuani. 
l<f "J wife. A surname. -^ r-"-- ' 

MS A'ng 

'^ng ^151' Disorderly, out- 


Read 6ng: a Jarj »fiy 6ng ^ *^, rMy 
ing, a water jar. *Ong wQy ko^ jin 

feiikyin wiiy koi Idng k'hicuy, the liquor jit should 

be opened for ai. old friend. See the ^ ^ ^ 

Sect kay twin. ,, , ,. ,, .• . 

* >^ •Ongseng i^ J^^ ang- te^ vacant 

Ang ~L«tt«^ spare between the outer and inner city 

"^^ gates. Read dng. 

^ ^* - Read dog: the leg ob upper part of a 

^»S *""^'''I°S ' ''^''' ^"^ ^^ tt' *"'** *"'^' 
\y\r^ the leg of a 8 


Hia ing. 


the top part of a boot. 





f^y P'hei^S ang & ^^ the inside of the 
j^v. nose, a disease in the nose. 

'% ! I |;_ Read h6ng : a surname. 

% Read hdng: Red; of a red colour: a 

Ang j\ " f surname : h6ng sam i.^ ^t^, Ang s"a. 
fj% a red coat. 

Yit te6m hdng hwa kwun ch'hae khe, jew 14e chim 
peen swat yin e — ^^ |X ^jg ^^ ^ ^. X 

k'hi, kSh Ide chim t'hadu pee^ fcdng yin e, "one 
speck of a red flower (a drop of blood), you have 
already taken away, and now you come to the side 
of my pillow to whisper and hum." A couplet 
on the mosquito, made by jifht Tlj^ Stie-moey. 

Read ong : A basket : t'ho6 ong nT Lc 
"13 ^5 fhoi ang, a basket of earth. 



CSS t^ Read 06: A surname. Also aou y&ng 
AoU IjOT T [|^ [^, a double surname. 

Aou Inll l# Aou k'heng c'heak stiet heang ^ jlS 
^■•^W ^& ^* :^ aou <i_y chtn se cMj/h 
cheih p'hang, the bottom of the cup was strongly 
scented with the smell of the sparrow's-tongue tea. 

A6u ^OSKEm Uneven, an unevenness in the ground. 



^ , Tey aou ^ [VJ, a hollow place in 
I "^ I the ground. K06 heen bd aou che 
^— ' bek to-^^|^lU]^l#, 
to* chd Ay hee^ k'hwut a k'heih b'ak chey, the hollow 
place in an old ink stone, collects the ink in 





Deep and hollow eyes; the eyes turned 
J^AI • inward. 

To twist; s6w aou ^ ;^, cKkiw aou, 
to twist with the hand. 

Aou t"a Ig^^, pMh Idttg, to beat 

, ^- 13 L6 aou -4^ 'uS, an old woman : an 


lOfl """ t'hog, to vomit up any thing. 


lllf epithet for the terrestrial gods. 

Read oe : to vomit : 06 t'hoe p^ p4- 

f thing. 
06 h6ng p^ ^, aiu hogi/h, to vomit 


06 new Wj tJ, aou laou, to rumple 
up any thing. Che oe new ^ff^ ^1 
'dM- chwi aiu laov, to roll up paper 

into a ball. 



A6u P\ 

To hold fast: chip aou ^ j^^ to 
adhere to one's own opinion. Ong- 
keng-kong chip aou 3E. ^'J '2^ ^ 
jifflj, 6ng-keng-kong obstinately adhered to his own 

A(iu, sek put p6ng yea ^■'^ >f^ 
•fh , adu, ti cheBh u'" pai"S yei, aou 
means a stony uneven place. 
Read oe : stinking, rotten, not fresh. 
But oe k'he ^ ^ ^, mei^h aiu 
k'hi, any thing turned, as meat. 



Aou naou '|M'['g]> sour, surly, stubborn. 

Read bog: the throat: y«en hoe 
■., n& adtt, the gullet. 





Pa yecn ho6 ch-fae ^ Pg P^ 0, pd!> nA adu 
iy way, to guard the important passes of a country. 

Read lok : to assent to. Put k'heng he 
lok ^ |m |ij: ^^ fi" k'hin K-hwai he 
ttiu, not easily assenting to any thing. 

Read hoe ; after, afterwards, behind. 
Chefin hoe nfr ^^, chhtg adu, before 
and behind, first and lait. 

Tiiy hue ^^ ^^ tiy aSu, behind ; boe la« ^ 

Tfe^ aoK la^, afterwards. 


Ap *y#' ^^r^ Beautiful, fair, handsome. 


Mn^^^ Shortness of breath. 

^^ Read yip: to swallow down; to gobble. 

A p pal G« ap sfly ^ Pg ;JC> « -fP 'Wy. the 
^i^A fishes swallow down water. 

To be moistened) ap yip b£ng loe f^ 
VB 'It ^ *° *** moistened by falling 
dew. See the ||| ^ Kok hong. 

To repress, to press down, to descend. 
Tong cbeet, k'beiing y£w hok ap the g€ 

i chiih k'e^a ne woa tiyh ling iy kan tin, if the beam 
should break, it is to be feared tome one may be 
crushed by the accident. 

Why not? ap, h6 put yea 'S joT /^ 

At, ap, si t"a too u"' ap means why 


. Choo wit, ap kok gftn j* «he ^^ |^ ^ ::^ ■=• ^ 

^, Hoo choo kong, «"« too s" «fiy ling king It Ay Hm 

chi, Confucius said, why do you not each one tell 

us of your views? Sec the \j^ g|| Seang iDn. 

> y^^ A casket; Pw4n ip jgft ^, p«"a a*, » 
^ tray for carrying presents on. 



A cage for wild beasts; hoe soo ch'hut 

* ^p r:^ 52 tH i^ Hf ^ *"* *''^ •«'^" 

go& ch'hut ah, the tijier and wild cow 
broke out of their cages. Seethe "N fmj hay iDn. 



Familiar, nearly related. Keen choo soey 
che4, suy ap pit peen |J 7f^ ■'St ^• 
^ jlB ijZ.» ^y k'hw'i kei'^twi te^S 
hi iy Zing, luy te ch'hin ktn, yei teih piin tek, im 
seeing a person in mourning, although a familiar 
friend, he would change colour (i. c. put on a sad 
countenance): Said of Confucius. 


To eat, to unite; also verbose. Yew 

Ap •^'^3% '•''" I** *P -^ P^ ^ B^^ '«« *«* '"^ 
_****L rheih, let us all eat together. 
Se ip, kw4 b6ng ^ ^. J|, ;^, « ip, ,i kwi iy 
me i, Se ap, is the name of one of the diagrams. 



1^ A black kind of bird; also, at at )^ ^, 

t 1 difficult to get out. 

To restrain; at ch6 i& jt> to repress, 
to forbid. BoA k'heuk hdng, boA at 

ch'kdng wan k'hwut chUy ehih, yew 6*" I'hang at cht 
ling teih bt, do not tura aside the aqueduct*, 
and do not repress the selling of rice. See 

\\i\^: payh: to pull up. Song jIn yew 
bin ki bcftou che put tiiing j« al cbe 

(fjp i|^ ^ /^, Song iy ling woa hain 16 e iy po 
cVAf 4 iy fi*" liing two, ji pO^hek'M lat, a roan of 
the Song country was grieved that his corn would not 
grow fast enough, so be pulled it up (to make it longer). 


AY » 

Pit at M. ^, phei"S at, the bridge of 
the nose. Ke chit s6w, ch'heuk at ;|p; 
^E "^ ^ W§, cfco poO t'hdou kak Vhe "d, 
p'hei^ t'hadu gneaou gneaou, they all got head-aches, 
and drew up the skin of their foreheads (by frowning'*. 

^''^ ^ If' ^^"S '•^o^- 




The unevonness of mountains. 

Ay tay ffi ^5 kSaou iy yeo^S, the 
appearance of pride. 

Ay WC J^ Ch'him ay W^ yj^j deepness of water. 

D l-J Ay k'hay H^ "^V^ a contraction of the 


A'y k'ho6 ^5 M d^ tadu, dumb, unable 
to speak. Ch'hfing b6ng ay k'hoe g^ 
0§! ^ P J cKhal"^ mai^S dt^kaou, blind 
and dumb; said of those who can neither write nor 
reidl— "Are you dumb, that you cannot speak?" 
je se ay k'hoe, put leng gSn hoe ^ -^ jj^ P 

•■.\i \n 

"jd fffe S -^ '* fc'Aom se dw Adou, te^ /ledou kong 

Mute: iy jefin jfi ch'heiou 1^5 ^'C Tffl 
,pj d^ kadu tan ch'hed, he was mute, 
and did nothing but laugh. 

Read wfiy: short, dwarfish: T'hoe-h6ng- 
sun wiiy choo, put bwan sod ch'hek 

rhoi-hing-sun te ay & k'e"d, bS mw^d si cKheSh 
kvcdn, Tho6-h6ng-sun was a dwarf; not above four 
spans high. See the ^ fiffl -ffi Hong- sin twin. 



,^,^^1^ Read hay : below, under ; hay t^y ~pC ^, 
I V ay ley, underneath. T'heen hay kok kaj 
' ^ "K [gl ^ fhee''S ay koK kay, the 

Empire, with the different states and families. See 

■^ ^ Beng choo. 

T'heen kang h'ly hia J^^ ~1j< !^ I' hee"S k&ng 

ay Uy dy payh sai"S^ .Heaven has sent down into 

being the lower classes 0f people. 



rt— -^ Readek: calamity; chne ayh jj^ R)g^ 
l-J /|>f affliction, straits. Ek keflng jfi put 

I / U bin, (Jig 1^ j^ :;j^ p. »»« ci"^ tl/h 

kap sdng hHung, yed b6 hwin 16, being in affliction 
and poverty, he still was not grieved.. Said of 
Lew-hay hwDy ;^p "JC ^, in ^ :^ Kng choo. 

.^•jC^ Read ek : a yoke : pok ek 6 kiy gnfiw 

^> $/R ^ ^ ^^' '^ '^ "'"' "^^ ." ^ *''* 

l' ^^ g-o^,. to bind on the yoke, in order to 
yoke in the oxen. 



Read ek: straits, difSculties. Kwun 
choo che ek, & Tin Cb'hae che kan 

kwun choo woo ayh wun, te Tin kok Ch'hai kak 
dy teung kan, the good main''( meaning. Confu'cius) 
was in straits between the countries of Tin and 
Ch'ha^. , See "K ^ hay beng. ■ • - — 




Read ae : t^a ae J^T 

-^ to belch. 

ii^-j.'i A^iiAa i> 



Read heep: narrow, confined. 
Teing tw^n kong hee'p ^ -^0 l|g -jf^ 
t6"S Uy k'hwlth dyh, long and short, 
broad and narrow. , , , \ 

Loe heep ISn hfing ^ ^ |||ff 'oe iiyh)lfhke"i, 
the road is narrow and di£Scult to^ travel.. 




Koe loe heep ae @ jl^ |^ |^j *»« ^A/p p'fteSA, 
tint kw"a fiyA, obstinate aud narrow-minded. 


tf^^ A noise in the throat, made hv belching. 



Read pa: a scar, a mark of a wound. 

"'eiik ba ^ HU., hih ba, a rising of the 
6csh, an inflammation. 

Read bt'Sou: a prostitute; ch'heang bd 
•Ah ngj^ a had woman. B4n jin hoe kfi 

wfly beaou i^ A P^ ^ %i ^' ''^" 
ling keb k£ se bd, the Hok-keen people call a 
prostitute B4. 

Bft hong S^ jif^ the leprosy. B4 hong 
put k-ho e ji|^ ^ ^x TJ ^, W hong 
h6 Chang utiy, the loproiy ii incurable. 

Read mftou: pan mflou 'g^ ^X^ pan bd. 
cantharides: also, pitted with the small 



Bead beaou ; as, beaou le ^ |g, bi U. 
a fox. Bciou 16 y6w hcct |^ |M >^ 
^, bi U vod k'hang, the foxes have holes. 
Giiuk been bSaou £g ^ ^j^, giiik bin bi, a 
pearly faced fox, a while fox. 

^P | . Ba ba /^ /^, a country-born Chinese. 
^^S^^ Ba ba put sit T6ng san kwuy ke » 

bat Ti"S sw"a k-wuj/ ki, half-ca,ste Chinese are not 
acquainted with the customs of China. 

f]^ Hwun hwun bS hi j^ ^ ^ ^, 
sometimes confused and sometimes clear. 





Read ok: bad, corrupt, wicked. 

Ok kwuv S5- ^ bat kauj/, a bad 

i \y ^ devil, ok jo» ^, -j', baiji, a foul 

word : ok biit Ji& {J|j, bai mri"h; a worthless thing; 

ok jin ^B. A' ''"^ '^"^' * '»'«:ked man. 

^ ^ Dull, not bright. Cheak h"6 put hao 

flTjF f^ K ^ ^' '*^ "•""' *"•"' "■" 

/^[^ bai, a little tire will not burn brij;hll>. 
Sec ^J -j^ jll^ I^'el It tKon. 

Vulg. tai: To bury, to inter, to hide 
under ground ; also, the name of a 
Gnoe hofi bafi kim C kim Ifing 5 ij] S !^ ^ 

^ ^, ?"* '* **^ '"^ *"" '*" '* *"" ''"^' ''" ^**' 
llofi's (or foreign states) buried gold at Kim-ICng. 

Chdng ba6 boo hoe ^ j^ X ^' '''^"^ '"' 
pay boe, to bury one's parents. 
So5 tey kfi wit. ^ ba6 jj\^ J^ jji{^ Q /^ M- 
c»'»ae ley tin kong, i bir, to sacrifice to the 
terrestrial gods is called, e baC. 

Rain following wind. Cheung hong 
ch'hc"a bafi, hwOy jedn k'heng la« 

eUt jit wo5 hong kwi hoi, yin hwOy kadu k'king 
lot, after a whole day's wind and rain, he was 
so kind as to be willing to come. 


Read bfi: the eye-brows; bokbfi Q |^, 
b'ak bat, the eye-brows. Kwan-i y*w 





Kwan-e woo go ch'Mng iy bat, Kwan-6 (the 
Mars of China) had eye-brows like sleeping 


Read he: the lintel; bun bfi p^ 
mooi"^ bai, the lintel of a door. 




say k'he eng le ^ ^ :^ fg, '«°«ff »«5' ^31 
k'he Sng mw"a li Ay mooi"S bai, may happy 
influences replenish the lintel of your door. 

Read jeiik: flesh: te jei'ik ^ [^, 
le bih, pork; yftng jeiik ^ |^, 
tfgo"^ bSh, mutton; gn6w jeuk -R" 
1^^ go6 bih, beef. 
Jeuk suy to, put sod sin soo k'he [5j Sff ^ • 

>^ 1$ i^ '^ W*' **'' '"* '^''^^' *" '"'* " **"^ 
pool"^ ay k'he, although he had much flesh, 

yet he would not let it exceed the quantity of 

rice at a meal. Said of Confucius, iu the J^ r,ra 

seang lun. 

ReadjiJem: to defile, to soil. Jeem 
woo ^ ^iPf hkk la s4m, to defile 
with dirt. 

Put jeem seiik k'he yj> ^ f^ ^, "'" '''"'"^ 
bak mh he se'uk dy k'hi, don't defile yourself 
with a common vulgar spirit. 
T6ng-Le-koe bong lew chiiep jijem p'haou j^ 
^ ^ ^P >t ^ ^^' "^""S tedou iy Le-koe 
bang kei"^ liw cheep bak t'eSh e ay p'haou, Le- 
koe of the T6ng dynasty dreamt that thp juice 
of a willow tree spotted his gown, ( and be 
afterwards attained to the highest literary hon- 
ours). See the |g ^^7^ ffif kong soo luy hoo. 



Read bok: the eye; yulg: bak ehea-, the 
eye. Bg, b6k, pit, k'hoe, fS H ©^ 
P bai, bak, p'hei^S, ch'hily, the eye- 
brows, eyes, nose, and moUtfa; 


Be bok p'han h6y ^ g ^^ ^, ch'hin ch'hai "S 
dy bak chew, oe payh pun k'hi hwun bing, beau- 
tiful eyes, with the white and black clearly 
divided. See the V |(B seang lun. 

Read bok : wood ; se bok 5^ "X^^ ch'hew 
bak, timber. Bok ch'hijang Jjt Tfr 
bak cKh'ed^S, a carpenter. 
Yiien bok kew g^ ^ TJ'C ^ S,, P"** cheat's 
ch'hew bak ch'huy hi, to climb a tree in order 
to seek for fish ; ( representing the unsuitableness 
of the means to the end). See "37 -^ Beng choo. 


Read bwat; as bwat le hwa ^ ^ "^^ 
bak nee"S hwa, the jessamine flower. 


Read bek : ink ; bek been ^If; >pH bak 

Bak J JL>5 hee''S, an ink stone. Biin bek che 
piiey "aT ^i 'y ^S.' ^''"' ^"^'dy poey, 
learned men. 
Tong p'hek toe se hoo, sey win hfin bek lim FH 

^ U # /^- ffi ffl ^ ^ #, '""ff '^■'' f^''' 

woo toi ch'hiyh ay hoo, tae ay hwui^S woo han 
bak dy lim, within the eastern wall is the palace 
of books and maps, aud towards the western 
garden is the forest of learned men. 



A way of calling infants. 

I h^ Read bwan : to drag, to pull; k'han 

lI'wW bwan ^ J& k'han bin, to pull along. 

» ^^ Bwan hwuy t'hijen e Jffi |p| ^r ^^ 

ban tooths I'hee^ dy i, to pull back {to reverse) 
the decrees of heaven. 



Read cheet: to pluck, to pick; cheet 

hwa ijfr Ty ban hwa, to picli flowers. 

Wuy tijang chea cheet - ch? ^L -^ 

/^ \fX ^^y "'"^ '^ '"'* '^"^ *^" ch'hiib. *#, to 



• '^AN 

pluck a. branch at the command of a superior. 
See ^ -^p- Beng choo. 




Distant, a far journeT. 

% Ip^ The plaster of a wall. Hwiiy wa ek bin 

xsny §^ ^ ^ -^> '' *^'' p'*"'^ ^^ '*'*"* 

^^^^ Aea, iri mi djf ch'lu:6''S pedh, broken 
liles and scratched walls; (a reproachful ex- 
pression intimating, a bad execution of work). 



The wide and vast appearance of 
water; an inundation. 

JQ py A cake i bin t'hde ^m ^ i,iU I'hdou, 

Ban "Hat^^ a loaf of bread. Fok »e chw4n sit 

•^-^ ban fh6e ^^^^^^ fl|, 

pak le chn-in cheih Mn t'h&nu, in the nortil country, 

they eat nothing liut bread. 



Vulg. mw"d an eel ; hae bin 

ha( mu'^d. a sea eel, a congar eel. 


Ij^^/a ^ foreigner, a barbarian ; b&n bck ^ 
ff* YV^ ^g, uncivilized people. Gin teung 

»Bii> '^ sin, hfng tok ki'-ng, »uy bin bck che 
P-g.heng.f ^^^f^^'J^.ll^lflJ 

Arnif, 11/^1 kttou bin bek djf panp kek, yea cy ke''d, 
when a men's words are sincere, and his conduct 
respectful, even into barbarous countries, be may 
safely travel. 

The province of Hok-kei-n. 
Hok-keen wat Bin seng j[|S ^ Q 
^ '^, Htk-kein hii> Bin M«"«", Hok- 
keen is called the Bin ftroTtnee^' 
Ying-bun-kong cheng lim bin sip pat'tong (.^ 

^ ^ IJE ^ li -fW ifp|, m^-IXin.kin^ 
k'hi eheng hwat Urn bin tai^S 4^ ^i^ap piyh long, 

Yed^S-buorkong coai(u«red vthe eighteen c«ve* of 


the southern Bin. See the ^ d^ Song sod, 
History of the Song dynasty. 

A myriad, teff thousand ; also, a sur- 
name. Bin siiey yii ^ ]^ '^■ 
the lord of ten th<iusand yeHrs: an 
appellation given to the Emperor, similar to "Long 
live the king!" 

Ban sSw bo6 keang M ^ & 3B cl>'"i bin 
nei"^ bi keiing chin, ten thousand years of life 
without limitation ; used as a wish of congratula- 
tion on the Emperor's birth-day. 



Not yet: also used as an expletive. 

Luxuriant, wild, spreading as weeds. 

Ban ^S9 ^'^^ "^'^^ '*" "•* M¥MM- 

_^^^. I>in yein in eKhiou Sh If kaiu rhkeng 
k'he, weeds widely spread are with difficulty 
cleared away. ,See . the ^^ {^ ch6 twin. 

Bat. |b^ ^ '"'."'"' ""' "" tl ^, ^ '"' 

'^ cu 




To slight, to de«pise. 

Inelegant, ravelled: also, the siring of 
a guitar K'heng yin Ian h«y, k^w 

the hanging clouds broken and dispersed, seem 
intertwined and ravelled together. 



, «^ Slowly, leisuMy; ban ban ^ 
'S* very slow. Ch'hc"a ban g, ^, st^p 

a little. 

Ban r;\jfy An expletive, a particle: also, and. 
|l^> V :,-b / 

To despise, lo slight, to neglect; boo 

Ban *l ***# ban /m irB to contemn. Tong yung 

maou, soo wan po ban ^Al ^? lO. 




Jit 1^ ^^ t^j *'" '""^ Idn &y yUng mauu leSh, 
chea ei/ hwui"^ k'hi pb ban, by regulating pro- 
perly the motion of our countenance, we shall 
be able to avoid insult and neglect. 





To be inundated by water. 

The same as bfin 'Wra to slight. Also 
I I6ng ke, ke je put Ifing seen, ban yea, 

-jfl , kliw^il g&ou Idng ji b!;t/ kt yung, ke yung 
j& bey hoe e tae seng, chiy se lae ban yea, if 
on seeing clever people, we cannot employ them; 
and in employing them if we do not prefer them, 
this is really slighting them. See the "4^ ^ 

Ta£ hak. 


A sting, the sting of a bee , or other 
insect. Ban hk yew tok 1|S S 7& 
^Q^y ban b'oiy woo tok, in the tail of 

a stinging insect there is poison. 





1, % Read bun, a musquito, a small gnat. 
UTy^ Bun tiJang ^ |j)^^ bang td; mus- 
I^^J^^k. quito curtains. Pe bun geet so6 
1^ (^ ^ ^, hoe bang ka si, to be bitten 
to death by musquitoes. 

Read bong: a head-kerchief; bong 
kin i^ [jj, biing kin, a kerchief 
formerly worn by officers, to keep 
their hair tied closely together. 

Exuberant, great, abundant. 

A dog with long shaggy hair. Bo6 
so6 bang hwuy ^ j|^ ^ P^, 
u"* Vhang hoe kaou pwBy, don't set 
the dogs a-barking. 

Ban^ r J\^ T" '"Ik incoherently. 




A surname; Bang-t'hong ^'j 
a celebrated man in the — ■ 
Sam kok. 

Read bong: to hope, to expect; kc 
bong ^i 3^ *^ bang, to hope for. 
Bong to j^ be che keen ^ j^ 
j]yj ^;^ "^ ^^ bang to chun a yea boey ey 
k'hwni, he looked towards virtue as one that 
had not yet come within sight of it. Said of 
0^ ^ BQn 6ng, in the "jfC ^ hay beng. 



Read bong: to dream; a dream, a 
vision of the night. Kew c, goe 
put hew bong kiien Chcw-kong 

bo kSh bang kei^S Chew-kong, it is now a long 
time since I have dreamed about Chew-kong. 
Said by K'h6ng-cho6 ^ ^-^ Confucius, in the 

-t pF 

sean? lun. 


Read bong: a net; a fishing net. 
Koe chea bong koe, yfing sod 
ch-hunchebok "j^ ^ ^ ^^ J^ 
^ -;|^ ;^ [^ /toi» tdng ty bang, yung se 
ch'liiin dy hak, " The ancients in their nets used 
meshes of four inches square : " in order to 
allow the smaller fishes to escape, that they 
might grow larger. Seethe commentary of the 



One of the horary characters, used 
by the Chinese in reckoning years, 
months, days, and hours. 
Sip gwat che kaou, sok jit sin baou -r* H 

ehUtfhy cKheif yii »e $in baou, upon the change 







of the tenth niooo, the first day will be denoted 
by the characten sin ba6u. 

One of the 28 constellations; the 






A water plant, a certain vegetable. 
Soo lok p'hwjkn sAy, gftn ch'ba£ 

V, ba6u g. t Jt ;^M" it 
W- on J 'eo"^ ^'^^ p'hw^d. k'eun^ iy chUi/, kong 
boij/h bdn e iy baou ch'hai, thinking of going 
to the pond before the prince's school, and 
talking ahout picking the baou vegetable there. 
See the -Ji^ fft Tae gn&y odes. 

Read boe : to bargain ; to bargain 
for any thing in the lump. Boe ko 
choo 1=1 ^S. -f- baSuh kv6y chi, 
to bargain for the whole of a man's fruit. 



Read sit: to know, to be acquainted 
with. Seang sit jjA ^, $go bat, to 
be mutually acquainted with. 
Sit joo ^nt S! bat je, to know letters. 
Seang koi bo6 seang sit ;);g || & "^ f|, 
SCO k'hw^d bS leo bat, to look at one another, 
without knowing each other. See the m- f^ 
Tdng se. 

Read bit: secret, close, concealed, near, 
not distant. Jip lira, wfly k'heQng 

p"t »•' A W P ^T^^' •'■* 

ek'liB riA, tcHy k'e^a tie fi" bat, when a man enters 
the forest [to secrete himself] he is only afraid 
lest it should not be close and secret enough; — 
(Said of those learned men who retire from the 
world in disgust). 

Read ma: a horse: a surname. K'hd ra& 
1^ Jl^, k'hH bdy, to ride on a horse. 
%*i*# Hwuy k&m hoe yefc, m& put chin 

T»' #^ ^ ii^ :^ 1 ^' '*'" •«^'' 

l^d tAy adu, le bdy bey ke^i, it is not that I 
dare to be behind-hand, but because my horse 
cannot get forward. See the [~ 'Sffi Seang lun. 
Said by Confucius, when he was last in flight. 

—^^^ Read ma: a water dam, built of stones: 
Bay nt\i^ " ^""^ °^ *^^ taxes. Sek m& ^ ^, 
*'>V ch'eSh bdy, a stone dam or mound. 
Ma rhoo t^^ -fi, bdy d, a farm of the taxes: 
ke&ou ma choo (^ ^E ■fi kio bdy d, to let out 
the farms { ch6w m4 cho6 vr|^ Wk t^j chiw bdy d, 
the arrack firm; a p'been ma cbo6 Ati^ tf- AE 4^ 
a p'hein bdy i, the opium farm. 

Mi 16 sek 

M ^ /ff , "-^ '" '*^«*' 

the cornelian stone. 


Read ma£: to buy, to purchase. £ hwa 

I I 

kecm teep che, raa6sekJeaou ytn la^ 

^ji' md hwa I'etn boiy yiik kadu, bdy cheih tri'^ 
kw^H kSk $i lat, removing a flower, the butterfly 
comes along with it, and buying a stone, even 
the surrounding clouds accompany it. See the 

Read mae : to sell, to dispose of. Chd 
.^_- mad mae |^ ^ ^^ chd bdy 'bay, 
Ij A to buy and sell. 
Mac to ma6 tok ^ J\ ^ {j^g, bay to bdy got d, 
to sell a knife, in order to buy a heifer. 



Read hck : wheat; a surname. Tie bek 
-^ .— ^ -^ ^K^. twa bdyh, barley » hwan bek 
'^^% ^f ■^j *ira«i biyh, Indian com. 

Beng hay rhe gwat, bek ch'hew che f£ @ 

/21 ^ ife fS'C ^' *'** ''*''^'' **^ ^^ ^"*** 
biyh tmng kadu, in the first months of summer, 

the wheat harvest comes in. See t&e iS IP 

L«y k«. 




Read b£; : to secrete one'i-self. 

Rice; a surname. Be kwuj ;^ ^j the 
rice is dear. B^ ch'heuk hwuy put to 

,ea TJt H ^1^ ^ ^ ih.^ ** '^'''*^* 
' chey, it is not because the rice and 

paddy are insuflScient. See the J^ "^ Seang beng. 

Be teen pae sek -^ |jg^ ^ ^ ^ bi teen pai cheSh, 

the fool B6 used to worship stones. This was a 

man of the Song Dynasty, who possessed great 

talents, and rose very high in office, but he had 

this failing, that whenever he saw a stone, he could 

not help worshipping it 1 hence he was called a fool. 

Query, Do not many of his countrymen merit the 

same appellation > 

Jl^* To soothe, to pacify. Be Ifing boo 

B^ TP*^ ^ ^ li^' '"' '^"^ *"" ^* *""' *" ^''" 
^J .^^ and pacify warlike concerns. See the 

±^^ se6"S se. 



Any thing got into the eye. 

To stop, to put a slop to. Kwuy-k'hong- 
Be 1^ Fl. choo be t5 ^ Jg rjl 5^ ^, Kn,U„- 
k'hong-choo be bd Id cKhat, Kwuy-k'hong- 
choo exterminated the robbers. 

■^^ Unwearied, not feelin^r tired. Sit che 
Be X J^^M . '■*'''''" ch'hira, tat che be be ^^ ^1 

\SL Ui%-'MZ ® 4^ "'"' ''"''• 

aeo"S ledh cKkim cKhim, kadu bat e chew sed"S bey yed, 
on giving up the study of any thing, we think it 
difficult, but if we persevere till we understand 
it, we shall feel no disposition to be tired. See the 

To stop, to pat a stop to. 

Vuig: Joi^;; a tail, an end; t'hofi h€ ^ 
t'haSu bo6y, head and tail. Wliy 
sew wuy be -^ ^ .^ ^^ te"a i'haSu 
ke"a boiy, to be afraid of both beginning and ending; 
to be irresolute. 

S6w be put leng seang koe "^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^, 
i'he6u bSey bey ey seo koi, not to be able to look 
after both head and tail, i. e. mind two things at once. 

The bleating of sheep. 

A surname, common in the 


Vulg: siy : Beautiful, fine, elegant, good, 
handsome: Cho6 wuy se4ou chin be e 

king, SUn dy gak chin chae sHy, Confucius said, that 

the music of Siin was very fine. 

Sey hong hh jin ^ TR" 3^ ^^ »ae he^ Ay gdou 

Idng, the clever man of the west. 

Sey-se ch5ng ma6u b6 I5y ^ ^ ^ |^ || ^^ 

Sae-te iy ehe"S maou siiy kwd cKhin ch'hai''S, S»e- 

se's appearance was beautiful and engaging. 

, Beautiful, wanton, overturned ; not, a 

[vgV negative particle. Teng woey che yim, 
b6 ban che yim yea ^ ^| ^ p . 
-^ -^ .{jjj '^"ff «»«J' ^V »«""• *' ** *^'' 
dy yim, the expression of amorous ditties have 
generally a wanton sound. 

Be scy tc che ^ 0| |^ jh^ *^ '*^ I'hang twih, 
that which cannot be stopped. 

\,f^m, A kind of vegetable; also, a flower. 

Bg ^^h Ch'ha6 be jg sit ^ ;|^ ifn #, "" « 

"y^^X^ aj6 che'sh, they picked the Bd vegeUble, 
and ate of it; — said of Pek-fi and Seuk-chfiy, who 
wandered into the mounlains, and liTed on wild 





vegetablef, rather than eat the rice of the M 

Chew dynasty. 

Ch'heang bt hwa ^ ^ i^, cV*ed"ff bi haa, a rose. 

Vulg: bai: the eye-browsj bok 1)6 g 

1^ bak ba£, the eye brows. Also written 


Chin s6w g6 li^ !^ "§" $|| /g, cMn fhaSugS bai, 

a head like the Chin insect, and eye-brows like 

the silkworm. 

Bfln be (1^ II?, mooVS bai, the lintel 

of a door. Ch'hun sek fing b« ^ A 

M.^> <^*'*«"» <'*<«"*' 4^»e* ^f»ffmiii"a 

mooi"S bai, may the beauties of spring replenish 

the lintel of your door; -a good wish pasted up 

on people's doors. 

Gd be |l|^|lj^, the name t>fahill. 

Very, more, extensive. Hoo-cho6 che to, 
giJan;; che ht ko, chwaa che b* keen 

kwin, ckmui"S e ni ting, with respect to the doctrine 
of Confucius, the more it is looked up to, the 
higher it appears, and the more it is bored into, 
the harder it seems. See the f^ ^| Si-ang lun. 

•^ -^y^ Full, overflowing, abundant. HO suy 

^ mm " '* ^^ ^^ ^ '^' ""^ '■*'' " 

If Jl^^ mw'i, the waters of the river were 
full and overflowing. See the ^] ffl Kok hong. 

The brink, of water, the water's edge. 

B^ >i 

Chae sfiy che « ^^ TK ^^ j^, '* '*"* 
it/ bi, on the water's edge. See the same. 

A mound or altar of earth. 

The name of a place. Ch'heen toe BC-oe 

jI tiP rip ij|. '■« '"°'"'*^ *•" "•*'"' 

to Be-oe. 


Small, diminutive, worthless, trifling. 
Tae jin put teuk s^y bfi che soo y^ 


bd te teuk tiy bi 6y sod, great men are not par- 
ticular about small, trifling things. 
Ch'hit ch'hek U k'he, e sew boo hoe -^ K ^ 

in ip H ^ -^^ <^*'*'' <■*'**«* '^3f *iy Ay Mn 
«■», My teSk »edou Ity i pay boe, "my seven-span- 
long, diminutive body, has only involved my parents 
in disgrace," — an expression of humility. 

Toe be hwa ^ Wb ^, the name of 

a flower. 

A large kind of stag; also, a doe. Koi 
VpUj, h6ng gin be lok ^g'^HlH^, 
/■JilCr' *'*«>"* iKi cheSh 6i/ gin, kap Ina 
cheih dy lek, looking at the large wild geese, and 
the larger slags. See the t* -^ Seang bing. 

To divide, to part. 


Vulg : moiy ■■ Rice-water, congee, rice 
gruel : a surname. Be rhiiuk ^ ^^ 
dm miiiy, congee. 
Lcftng-hwOy-flng * I'hoi tey che koc b6 Un ke 

bin je cheen che ^ ^ i 11 ± ^ ;^ i(^. S 

m^^W] 1 Z, /-'•'•<-*-^^-^'vr * '^^ 

ley iy yetn koi, bi Un t iy pdyh lai'S, ji kde e 
k'ki lie Chat, Liiftng-hwOy-flng merely on account 
of extension of territory, harassed his people 
(literally, boiled them down into gruel), and drove 
them to war. 


Be ho* 1^ 1^, a kind of monkey. 

- j^ I™ To drag, to influence. Gno jiw h"© 
|^»^ chi-ak, goe e cho6 be «•>« ^ ^ ^ 

Ay ekiak wUy, gmi hot U H e, I have an eligible 





office, which 1 will give to you, to draw it into 
your influence. See the M, «^ Ye4h keng 

Plants growing in the water. 

^^% 1'be noise made in calling ducks; b£ bS, 
^fM^ something similar to the "dill, diliy," 
^r of English housewives. 

Vulg: boei/ : not yef ; not; also, one of 
the horary characters. Be lafi Tfc- ^^ 
boej/ lat, not yet come. 
Hw4n b« sSng j^ 4^ jjj^, yea boey che"d, not yet 
Be I6ng soo jln, yean I6ng soo kwuy ^j^ g^ S 

cAa* e^^ k'lk sae kwAt/, not being able to do your 
duty to men, how can you serve spiritual beings? 
See the ~V> =© H5y lun. 


JL^ Taste. Gnde be ^ ^j the five tastes; 
Be •^Jl^ choo be 1^ IlJ^^ a taste. Sam gwat 
J put te jeik bS ^ ^ Tf; ^ 1^ P^, 

«"« goish jit u"* cfcae bih dy choo be, for three 
months he did not know the taste of flesh; — Said 
of Confucius, when he was trying to learn the 
music of Sun; so ardent was he in his desire to 
get acquainted with it. See the J;^ |^ Seang lun. 

To sleep, to retire to rest. Gno be 

yed kiw e, waking and sleeping he sought 
her. See the [^ j^ Kok hong. 
Seuk hin yea ^^^ J^'^^'^, chd >t VM, dm 
ehiw WhwUn. Early to bed and early to rise. See 
the |Jp |,g Se keng. 

%jw |. A riddle; a dark saying. Chd be kip 

Be £:;Tr ji» ch-hae ^\^i^ ki^, -*« *^- 

f""**^^, koe Idng cKhai, to make riddles, and 
set people to unravel them. 




A slanting look ; read be&, a (uirname. 

Beaou ^ 





The flowing appearance of water. 

The diminutive appearance of things, 
when viewed at a distance. 


The ezpansivenesD of water. 

Dark, indistinct, distant, enlarged. 
Koe heang beaou bo6 chey -fe5[ ^a 
^ & ^^ koo dy hi:o"S It bedm 
hwuV^ bi ehiy, to be removed from one's native 
village, to an unlimited dis'.ance. See the ra"- 
H Tdng se. 

Distant, indistinct; also, to look 
lightly on. Be&ou hoe put te sey 


hwvfS, u™ chae kabu td ISh wuy, distant, to 
an unknown extent. 

Beaou *• J'.J The south-east corner of a hou^e. 



Clear, evident, manifest. 

Dark, unfathomable. 

Beaou ^'ST 

J % -» Deep and distant. Wiiy jefin j* 
Beaou -"^^^^ theng, beaou je6n j« ch'him ^ 

and slill, deep and profound. See ^^ IZL 





' *■ - K'heng be&on 

ih, khin beaou, to 

slight and despise. 


Blind of one eye, dini-si^htcd. P'ho 
leng le, beaou Ifing s^ HiV j|S ^ 

^} m II' *"'^-^ *'*" '■" "'"'^^ 

cKhai''S mai^S gy k"hw"d, the lame can walk, 
and the dim-sighted can sec. See the & ^ 
YeSh kenj. 




The furthest end of any thing, bok 
beaou ~kc "fn) the extremity of a 

Lefin bc4ou sody boe ^ i^' 1^ ^ "^'"^ 
biiiy hiiiy am, the end of the year, and the 
cioie of the season. 



Beaou ^1*3 


Hfl beaou tJ^ ih, eh'heuk mat"e^ 
the blade of corn. 

The appearance of flying dragons. 


Akt A little child; 

I Jr and frightened. 

also, to be alarmed. 


Vulg: bei: to copy any thing by writ- 
ing over the original, BeAou joo 
im Cy', be6je, to copy or decypher 
characters; to trace writing. , 

Vulg: neaou: a cat, a common cat. 
Be4ou ch'h6 t6ngje |g ^ |pj f [, 
neaou kap neaou ch'fii idng clieah leng, 
"a cat and a rat sucking the tame mother." 
This was a singular circumstance, which occurred 
in the Ilao^ 'dynasty, and was considered as a 
bad omen. : ~' '' 



H6 beiou ^Kj m, pi cKhe a, the 
young shoots of corn; a surname. 
Kok che jc seng, wat be&ou t^ j^ 

jl^ ^. Q ^"j ch'hek iy too too a tai^S 

kong beiou, when the grain is beginning to 

grow it is called be&ou. 

dng te hoo be4ou hoe ^ ^ ^ ^ ^-j 

ong li chae pb cKhi a u'", does your Majesty 

know any thing about the young shooting corn? 

See ^ ^ Beng choo. 

Hay lap wat be4ou ;^ } ^ P) W. A«J' fhee"S 

p'bah lih kong be&ou, the summer hunt is 

called bciou. 





Wonderful, deep, mysterious, excel- 
lent; also, young. Sin hwa put 
ch'hfk wuy che beaou X^ ^ ^ 
S'j pH ^j^' "'" '^y Pi^in hmii^ii l%iTni; rh'hek. 
kong keo beaou. Divine transforui^itiuas, un- 
searchable in their nature, are called beiuu. 
Bfi beaou j^ ty, wonderful, minute. 
Beaou Sim ^^ ^j very good; excellent: 
Le«n beaou ^ ^ „ei'*e i,di$ k'hth thefC, 
young in years. 

Fine, minute, excelleqfi — jL 

Vulg; bed: a temple, a place of 
idolatrous worship. Chong beaou 
^ J^. chof chong tty bed, an 
ancestorial temple. 
K'hong-choo jip tae beaou, bo6y soo bQn 

U -f A A |i^- # $ F^l' ^''""S-choi 
jip tvi Ho, tak hang mooi"^, Confucius entered 
the great temple, and enquired about every 
thing he saw. See the -j[^ tfi LQn ge. — Also 
written IB" beaou. 

^Spl^ Read beet, basket work, wiclcer-work. 

j^* Beet Iftm ^ g, irtA ni, •wicker 
y "^i basket. •! - ^"> 

Beet sek ^ ^, beih cVhiiilt, a rOsh lut. 







To avoid, to do without, to escape, 
to conclude. Been chit W* Hr^, to 
be put out of office. 

Y4ng-s6 cheflng Ch'hae-keng yfiw, be be6n pek 
p'hek yew teem \% 1% %%%%.• =^% 
1^ ^ /fe' '^Y, ye6"^-si t'han CKhwd.-keng j/tw, 
bet/ Vein pHyh p'hek woo teim, Ye6"S-se following 
Ch'hw^-keng in his peregrinations, could not 
avoid the evil of the white gem being spotted, 
i. e. he could not avoid contamination. See 
the y? rib S6ng-so6, History of the Song dynasty. 




A low wall to protect people from 
archery ; also, invisible. 

The name of a stream. Been pe ISw 
suy, teaou chong 6 ha6 yjE ^^ ^ 

laSu chdif, k'hi tedou chong 6 hae, the flowing 
waters of the Be6n stream go to pay their 
respects to the sea. See the /|>. ^ Seaou gn&y. 





To urge, to spur on, to animate, to 
exert. Choo pit been che -^ ty^ 
A/j -^, li tek fc'Aflfc teSh been ley e. 
Sir! you must exert yourself in it. 

^ M^ To bring forth children, to bear young. 
'niHr^ Hwun be6a ^ ^ to be delivered 
-A^l-4 of a child. 

The name of a fish, a kind of John 

A crown, an Emperor's cap. Ban kok 
e kwan pae been 16w S [^ ^^ ^^ 

pai bein Uw, the robes and coronets of all nations 
must pay reverence to the Emperor's crown. 
See the J^ ^ T6ng .e. 


To be drowned, to be overwhelmed. 
But peen nae soo bin been 6 chew 

sob u'" peen bing ytw soo ku)"a kap pHt/h sai"S 
tim bein i chiw, why do you not enquire into 
the officers' and people's being drowned in wine- 
See the jf^ ^ Seo"g se. 




Distant; also, been seang ffi ^sB bein 
seo"^, to think. 

Been ke Ex ^j a sacrifice offered 
on every birth-day of a deceased 
relative: read bin. 




Bok beSn -jt }^, the silky cotton 
tree: the name of a tree which has 
flowers like cotton, and of which they 
make cloth. 

Bok bean, Kang-iam to yew che ;;^ ^j^ )X 
|*i ■^ ;fA -y, ch'hd mie^S, te Kang-lam chet/ 
mod, of the silky cotton, there is an abundance 
in Kang-lam. 

BeSn hwa i^ ;|^, mei"S hwa, the cotton tree? 
« >^ Cotton; wool; also, soft and yielding » 
Been Z^jT^ also, unbroken, uninterrupted; also, 
il^l I.J close and continuous, as weeds and 
creeping plants. 
Be6n ySng ^ ^, me^S ye6"S, a wool goat, 

a sheep. 

Be6n befin kat liiy |^ |:S M & intertwined 

and uninterrupted, like the tendrils of creeping 


_,-m Vulg: bin: to sleep, to rest, to lie 

Been Hut» down. T'heen chok kim p'he, tey 

t||<\^ chok chijen, gwat le seung g6 p'hwan 

iS M # 5^ ^' '"'^""^ '*° fcimpAoe^. tey 
ehd cheeks tedou, goiyk lie iy sHng g& p'hw^a 




gwd k'kwiln, "the heaven forms my canopy, and the 
earth ray carpet, while the nymphs of the moon 
sleep by my side." A couplet made by the founder 
of the RH B6ng dynasty, when, in the utmost 
poverty, he commenced his career. 




befin hong ^ i^ ^ ^, Idn liwa 

Connected, uninterrupted. Lin kwuy 

/I kwAy hwa seo twd. p'hang, "the l&n 
flower and cassia blossom? are successively fra- 
grant;" — (used with respect to those whose sons 
and grandsons advance successively to literary 
honors ). 

Befin tuy ^ ^ lUn tii}/, a pair of antithe- 
tical sentences, generally written on boards, and 
stuck up on each side of a room. 

The covering of a bouse. 

Qfc The eaves of a roof. 

Be£n bin |k ^^ the noise of a 
bird: also, cotton threads. 

Vulg: bin: The face, the front, the 
countenance. Jin sim Jt been y^ 
j/^ -hn ffij ling Ay rim eh'hin ched^ 
Idng iy bin, people's minds arc like their faces; 
i. e. varying. 

Yung yea, k'h6 so6 Iftm been ^ "tJl Pf '(^ 
^ ®' rung- yea, t'hang lat e bin" i Urn, Yung 
may be employed in facing the south t (i. e. in 
ruling the people; — because all rulers been I4ro 
m M, bin "i Idm, face the south, and all subjects 
been pak j^ ^, bin "i pak, face the north). 

To turn the back on. Been kwuy 

Been Am] P"«y ^^ MM"^^' '" ""'^ 

I M*| kwu}/ ki, to act contrary to establish- 
ed customs. 


Vulg: mee^S; flour made of wheat: 
been paou iSpQ 'p] bin paou, bread. 
Been paou kan ^B pi -^, bin paou 
kw''a, biscuit. 

E' beSn wfty he sen? |^ ^ ^ ^^ ^, ''*" 
mee'^ cho Chaou »ai"S, "to use wheaten flour 
instead of animals in sacrifice." This was done 
by ^ ^* Boo-tey, of the ^ Leing dynasty, 
out of compassion. See "T^ ■£ 'Sfc Hay 
beng choo. 

To drink wine to excess. 

Yu\g:beih! wicker-work, basket-work, 
beet l&m ^£ "^ beih nd, a wicker 

Not, nothing, diminutive; to slight. 

Beet jllLS Black blood. 


To exterminate, to overthrow, to an- 
nihilate, to extinguish, finish. Biiet. 
kok chik gn6e sip j^ Jg j^ ^ 
-f'^ biet kok goe chap, he overcame fifty states. 
See the Jq "^ Seang beng. 
Ke liiim fing teng, beet hew bfing Ha |W ^, 
j^ jj^ /^ Pjj, kKdj/ leim is hoty kirn chhai"^ 
biel bi yiw kdh kwm"^, just like a few spots of 
fire-fly lamps, at one time extinguished, and then 
bright again: — Said of composition which is in 
some parts dark and in others clear. 
Beet kcw chok |j^ -^ jjf^j beet kdou dj/ ch'ok 
to exterminate all a man's nine relations. 


To exterminate. 






*jffr Viilg: Ao?3^A; stockings; ch'hwan beet 
JyJt^ 5p ^^' cVhing boiyh, to wear 



Te6n liek ^^ [}g cA'Aiin hvi"a, the 
elevated paths between the rice fields. 
Seang-ylng k'hae ch'heen bek ^ jJt 
Rn Iw TO' Siang-yingk'hwuy cKhAn liw"d, Seang- 
j4ng (of the ^^ Chin dynasty) recommended 
the enlarging of the paths between the rice fields. 
See the Ip^ Q |^ Chijen kok chhek. 

HiJet bek .([H ^, hiiei/h mai"h, the 
pulse, the arteries Also written j^^ 

Heet bek kwan t'hong j|q, ^j^ ^ jg, Aoe/A 
ma'i"h kw&n t'hong, the blood of the arteries runs 
through the whole frame. 

Bek ^J Bek ke 7f '^' * double surname. 



Bek > 


Bek p'hek ^k |)jg, secret, close. 



Shallow water. 

A veil, a covering for the eyes. Bek 
bok yQng choo (j^ | J^ |^|, ti 
bin iy kin j/ung oe ay, the veil that 

covers the eyes should be black. See the 'H| jjift 

•' , ;,: ,, :..,.,: ,ii. ^ "'-^ 

Gfi ley. 

A cloth used for covering over food. 

To cover over any thing i ose of the 
radicals. . 'li'^^iki 





lUid -iiil " .ttii'jil'A , 
The covering of a carriage; bek 

has the same meaning. 


%^ij;3i To plaister: bek kwan keung sit jS. 
^^SL |p S Mj *"'^'' ^* **'"'» '"'P l'c'"'g 

sit, lo plaister the school and home. 

The name of an insect. 


Sim bek iip] ^^ ,tm cKhiiey, to seek 
for any thing. Seep chew k'hong, j* 
bek lo5 )^f f^'^M^^ «* 
Chun koiy ch^y ji ch'hdey he, he crossed the water 
in a boat, and sought out for the road. Said of 
^ 5^ *t^ Chin Bo6-tey, in his wanderings. 


A white tiger. 


The barbarians of (he north. Suy ban 
bek Che pang, heng ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ 

y^' 1T y^ '"^ ■'*^" *^" *^* ^^ P""^ 

kok, yea ke^d, even among the most barbarous 
nations, (if we possess sincerity), we may safely 
'^rirel.' See the TT =i^ Hay lun. 

Small rain; ek che e bek bok ^ ~^ 

^^^^1^ added to which there was a drizzling 
rain. See the n\ ^ Seaou gnay. 



The same a> the preceding. 

An excellent horse; to surpass. 






Small threads of silk. 

Vulg: bak: ink ; bek teiou ^t IHrj 6aA" 
j|»Jv^ 'f^ou. a slick of ink, commonly called 
I " 1 ^ Indian ink; bek suy ^ ^^, 6aA c/iiijr, 

liquid ink. 

Bfln bek che p6«y ^ S ^ li^ **^'' ^^'^ ^■S' 

Mr^, the literati. 

Heung bo6 pwan te€m bek ^ ^ ^ |B^^ ^, 

heng Wham bS pw"i teim iy bak chlii/, "on his. 

breast there is not half a dot of inkj" — (enti- 

mating an entire want of liaroing). 

Silent, to meditate, to refraia from 

speaking. Bek bek put g4n 
H^^ V. ^ "g"^ teim teim b6 hdng wS, silent, 
without speaking. 

Bek j6 ch^ fhe ^ iff] ^ ^, tiim llim Ji ka 
ti bat e, to meditate silently and gain a knowledge 
of a thing. See the _J;^ 1^ Seang iQn. 


«J^ Vulg: bkyh: wheat: tae bek ^ 0., 
0^>^ two. Myh, barley. Hwan bek ^ ^^ 
^^% hwan b&i/h, Indian corn. 

Kira hoo bofi bek, pd chi;6ng j6 yew che ■^ 

bk]/h^ 3/ei chi ji k'haou ch'hdou, now with respect 
to the wheat,, when it is sown and harrowed, &c. 
See the ~T> 3r Hay beng. 

A veil for the head. 

A cloth for wrapping up any thing. 

Bold, fierce, ferocious, courageous, 
strong, daring. Y6ng b6ng ^ ^, 
strong and ferocious. 

O cheng gefim fi b6ng boe ^ J|^ J^ ;;J^ ^ 
^ thing k'hdh g'eim 6 bing hoi, tyrannical 
government is severer than a fierce tiger. 





A small kind of boat. 

B£ng ting W^ ST very drunk. 

Fine tea, plucked late from the tree ;- 

bing g4m ^ ^, fine tea. 

Good, fine.. 

A vessel for containing aaj thing.. 

Beng VI y^ Seng sat, k'h* bing, e hok, put pe, 

putkamichiy ij^^. |^JE. ;fe 

bing, yin ehid'^, bi cheiou pi, fi" fc"d i chiy, 
when the sacrificial animals, the vessels, and the 
apparel, were not ready prepared, he did not 
dare to sacrifice. See the [• "5" Seang beng. 



Clear, bright; to illustrate, to ilia- 
mine^ to display, to distinguish; b£ng 
P'^ B^ Qj *o understand clearly. 
BSng bin;; chae seang, hek hek chae hay QH 

R3 '(E _h. ||; ^ ^ 1^ ' *<^ff *-"«''"^ '^ tite 
tin, oe im te &y tiy, clear and bright above, 
dark and dreary below. See the ^JT Jffe Tae gnay. 
Bing gw^a siiflng kan che&ou fl^ ^ \^ f^ 
Hp^ bing gSijfh leUng kan ehti, the clear moon 
shining among the firs. 



To survey, to behold: a surname. 








Dark and dreary. Also written 
b6ng, dim, obscure. 

Blind, the pupil of the eye destroyed. 
Bok lifing S g , bak chew ch'hai"^ 
maV'S, the eyes blinded. 
K'hae bfing jfn bok B^ W A ^' k'hwuy 
cVhai^S mai"^ ling 6,y bak chew, to open the 
eyes of the blind. 
^11^ An oath, a conspiracy. Ch'hap heet 
H^ e keet b6ng ^^M.^X^^, 
J^™^ ch'hap hoiyh 6 kat Hng, to smear 
■with blood, in order to bind with an oath. 
Hwin-kong yew gn6e b6ng che kim ffl ^ 
;fe" ^ ffi[ ^ ^j iSrudn-ftong- woo goe king 
Ay kim, Hwin-kong had five things which he 
interdicted on oath. 

To sprout out, to shoot forth. BSng 
gay ^ ^, paoUh et^S, to bud. 
Ch'hun se seng, jS bSng che ^ flg 
f^ . iljl p& -^^ ch'hun Cheeks k'hi Vhdou sal"^ 
ji paoUh k'hi lai, in the spring they begin to 
grow, and bud forth. 



Vulg: me"d: a name, a designation, 
fame: bfing seng j^ ^ me"d se^a, 

B6ng e beng che ^ |^ j^ "^i >">« e chit Uy 
me'^i, i keb e, to give a person a name, in 
order to call him by. See the |j^ |^ Ley ke. 

^^ fc^ To remember, to record the merits 
BenffAw it-* °^ * person deceased. Teng leng 
ii^'H ^ $^' '^"" *^"^' ^ sculptured 

Beng seng ^ Tj^, a flag recording the merits 
of deceased persons. 

Dark, dismal: bfing hwun ^ ^^ 
mai"S hviuiPS, the evening. Boo 
cheang Ue ke, wfiy tin beng bgng 


ch'hea, tok woo tin ae bing bing, nothing \n& ' 
seen of the great chariot, but a cloud of dust, dark 
and impenetrable. See the /J> 5^ Seaou gnay. 
Hong 6 hoey bdng )![ p|| [fj^ ^, hong kap 
hoe, oe oe am am, with the storm of wind and 
rain, it was dark and dismal. 

B8nff > 



Small rain; also, the sea. Bit k bSng 
bok ^ pl^ }^ JTJt^ b'atdy Ue bing 
■^ bok, the close raih drizzled down. 
Pok bfing yew gg ^[^ j^ /^ ^^, pak hoi: woo 
hi, in the northern sea there are fishes. 

A name; dark. 

I To open the eyes without seeing any 
light: dimness of sight; closing the 
eyes in death. 

Ke sd bSng bfing jt f^ ^ ^, e k'hw"d 

ch'hai^S mat"^, he looked dimly. 

Kara sim bfing bok "H* )1\ [[§1 H , kam tim 

h^hSyh bak chew, he contentedly closed his eyes 

in death. 

B«ng keep ch'ho ^ ^ i^. bing 
Beng w^W keep ch'hdou, a kind of sensitive 
"5^^^ plant, which was said to put forth 
a leaf on the first day of the moon, and to 
continue producing one leaf a day till the full; 
at which time the leaves began to fall, till by 
the end of the moon they were all gone. Spoken 
of in the 


%_ Kong kam. 

The name of an insect, that lends its 
chrysalis to another, to be brought 
"^ up as its own. 
B6ng-16ng yew choo |^ ^^ ^ ^' bing-Ung 
woo ke"d, "the beng-lgng insect has its chrysalis," 
which is stolen by another. 






A fljing iasect, that stings people. 

> _ f - A kind of dart or sharp weapon. 
Bene ■Cy J.lTi Han-Kong-boo chok hwuy bSng 
^JjKJIy^ kong ch'hek bS chek j^ ;^ ^ 
# ^ ^ 7^ ^ 1 ^' ^«H-iir»»ff-*od rAo* 
Airu^ ft^ni" fcang' ch'hek bi Ay ch'hal, the Emperor 
Kong-bo& of the Han dynasty made a kind of 
flying dart, to oppose the red eye-browed robbers. 

Beng (7 

The cry of a bird, or any cry or 
noise; the crowing of a cock, or 
V^^y ringing of a bell, or any other kind 
of sound; vulg: tin, to ring, or I'hi, to crow, 
or hmoii, to cry or call. 
Key bfing koe hwuy bun fi teung kok ^a P& 

t'he^a i Vhong teung kok, the crowing of cocks, 
and barking of dogs, were heard throughout 
all the middle country (i. e. China). See "^ 
^*- Beng cho6. 
Sam lefin put bfing, bfing chek keng jIn _^ 

^ ^ "i. BiPJi 1 A' •"- -'^"^ "'> ''"' 

tAn chew hoe Idng ke"a, it did not sound once 
in three years, but when it did sound, it 
alarmed people. 

A beam, a rafter. 

Clear, fine rice. 

The pith of a tree^, alio, the name 
of a tree. 

A command, a decree, the decree of 
heaven ; fate j to order, to command. 
Chiiang biing chea ch'but hoe i^ '^ 

^ ^ S^ t'hui"S beng Ung At/ ling ch'hut 
mooi"^, the bearer of the message went out at ' 
the door. See the T> ga Hay lun. 
T'heen beng yew chai, k6 wOy Chew-Bfln-6ng 

t'hee"^ iy beng woo te tit, e chd cWhin cheo^^ 
Chew-Blin-6ng hog, "The decree of heaven being 
filed, let him do as Ban-6ng of the Chew 
dynasty." Said by Chd-ch'h6 '^ ^, when he 
wanted his son to assume the title of Emperor. 
See the ^ t^ Sam kok. 

Se wQn put rhfiy, beng to6 to cVhwan ^5: ^ 
7|^ ^. A ^ ^ j^' 'i «^Sn S" chit/ chwui"S, 
me^a toi chej/ ch'hwan ch'hok, the revolution of 
times and seasons is not equal, and the way 
of fate is full of errors. Said by ^^ ^ jfe 

_ _ The beginning of any thing; applied 
Ben"" ''^31^ *** ''"' beginning of the four quarters 
^^^U« of the year: also, a surname. 
Soo sfi kae y6w bing gwkt ^ jj^ "^ /^ 
£ )3,iiti ehb po6 «oS bing gofyh, the four 
seasons, have each their commencing months. 
Beng bo6 sam ch'heen kkou cho6 ^^ ffl- ^£ 
^M:-f-' Beng-choi iy nei"S Uj, t"a kwUy 
pw"a ch'hod biilyh ki e iy ke''i, the mother of 
Mencius thrice removed her dwelling, in order 
to instruct her son. 


y vy.^ Any thing wished, or desired: a sur- 


A surname : B(:i!g-bo6-cho6, pang yew 

Beng ^ t5, chek te ^ p^ ^ ^ ^ it 

vJJ4^ fjll TQ lieng-boochod, panj kok mod 
to iy it cheet, chek ti, Beng-})o6'Cho6, when a 
country possessed the right way, displayed wisdom. 
See the J^ ^ Cheo"g iQn. 


To open one's eyes; also, dark. 




_Vy^ Sorrowful. Put e 6 hiiey, ek bo6 beng 

cJ W ftue g'K'4, cAd Aoi^ beng yea bi hwdn 

16, if you do not admit me to a share of the 
confederacy, I shall not be grieved. See the /^ 
Cho twin. 

Read bedou : to transcribe, to copy ; 
beftou joo jHi 5^, beSje, to trace writ- 

Be4oa sea put chin Tffi ^S. ^^ W be6 ted u"* chin, 

to copy incorrectly. 

Read beaou : a temple : Tae-pek-kong 
beaou ;^ f ^ ^ ]|§ Twa-pdyh-kong 
bed, an idol temple ; the temple of the 
" old great uncle." 

Chong beaou che soo ^ jaS v' S! chong b'eo 
ty too, the business of the ancestorial temple. 







Intertwined, twisted, plaited together. 
Tfiw bfiw yew hoe 

Uw biw i'hang moi"^, "to twist straw 

about the windows and doors," — said of the birds 

who thus form their nests. See the 1^ \M 

Kok hong. 

Erroneous, confused : h6 e ch'hok bew 

Che ch'hoo fpj- H 1^ H M ilt 
an chw^d ch'ho bew kabu an niy sai"^, 
how is it become wrong and confused to so 
great a degree? Said by ^ ^ ^ E-teng-kok. 

Wrong, false, erroneous, wandering. 
Ch'ha che hd 16, Lew 6 ch'heen 16 

ch'hay goe dy hi U, ey bew kabu che"d cKheng lb, 
a difference of only a hair's breath will afterwards 
lead to an error of a thousand furlongs. 

Readmad: to buy, to purchase. Seaou 
cha6 t'hdng mae mae, 6 chit chgy 


chai &y kui"a t'his"a ling biy bey, t ehitpat^S che^i, 
the under governor attended to people's buying 
and selling, in order to promote equity. See the 
M II Chew Uj. 

To be deceived, to err, to wander ; 
bey loe ^ ^^ to go the wrong way, 
Bfiy toe be wan 5^ ^ tJ^; J^, biy 
loe boey woo hed hwuf^, we have not yet 
wandered far out of the way. Said by [&| ^ES ffl 








The sleeve of a coat, a cuff. Sect 
k6w le4ng, twan yew bey ^ 3| -& 

M /^ '^> '"^ ^"^'^^ ^y '"" '«'"' '^"*'. 

ch'hbng tiy che"d eh'hiw dy cKhiw wul^S, his pri- 
vate dress was long, with the right hand sleeve 
short. Said of Confucius, in tbe J^gj^ Cheo^S lun. 

Read mae: to sell, to dispose of. 

"^r^ ^^'^ *° ^^^ *"'' ^ 7/ H ^' **•" 
l^ ,t to, k'hi biy go5 d, to sell a knife, 

in order to buy a heifer. 

To urge, to strive, to exert one's-self. 
Bin been cheflng soo 9B W -f iMp ^*j 
to exert one's self in a person's service. 

Clever, diligent, intelligent. Gno suy 
put bin, ch'heng se4ng se che 4^ Sft 

1^ IJC. PR 1* M :^' ^" '"y ^'^y 

bin, ch'he^d bong ch'hi k'hw^d, although 1 am not 
clever, yet I request the trial to be made. See 
*« Jt ^ SeSng bSng. 

Bin jg h"6 hak ^ ^ jtf ^^ *'« '^^ «* ''*«* 
ch'hdyh, intelligent and fond of learning. 

To force one's-self to any thing, against 
the will and power. 

A surname: Bin-cho6 si ch'hek 

"?" 'f^ l&'L ^'"■''^^ *'*«« ^ «■" Pe<^, 
Bin-cho6 was standing by the side (of 
Confucius). See the "K =^ Hay iQn, 








To be silently grieved, to be displeased 
and sorrowful. Ek kefing jfi put bin 

I9fi H M ^ IPi' ^•^'^ *""'' ^^"^•'■^ 

bey bin, in affliction and poverty, and yet not 
grieved. See the J^ ^ Seang beng. 

To be sorrowful, to lament, to pity. 

G6e tae je choo bin e 5B, IP ^ JZ. 

^\^^% J^ jfe gwd Chty It no ling hicin 16 
I am distressed for both of you. See the ^ 
Cb6 twan. 


To b« annihilated, to be thrown into 
confusion. Bin t tae bin Iwan ^P ^» 
•^ 9B- SI piyh doi"*' &!/ e Mn lua bin 
Iwan, the moral relations of the people were 
thrown into the greatest confusion. See the ra ^^ 
Seo"g se. 

A disapproving name, or codemnatory 
epithet, given to some kings after their 
death. Such as ^ ^ 3E Chew-Bin- 
6ng, the confused king of Chew, and ^yg;/^ 
Song-Bin-kong, the stupid duke of the Song 

To rub, to scrape, to brush) a brush. 

The people ; the common people t te 
bin jfj E? to rule the people. Bin 
bo6 leng bfing ycen ^ |j fj^ J^ 
•S pltt/h iai"S bd chit lij/ me''d Chang kid, " the 
people had no name by which they could designate 
him:" Said of Siin, who was above all prai?e. 
Bin ch«ng tae k'h6 kijdn e j^ f fl ^^ ^ U, ^, 
fiyh lai"^ Ay ting chlng Itca t'hang k'hwnH, the 
dispositions of the people could be extensively seen. 
See the "ip ^ Ko£ bfln. 



The common people, the horde. Bio 
che ch'he ch'he f|^ ^^ ^ ^, P^** 
saj"? gong gong, the common horde 
are stupid as grub9. See the ^ ^L Kok bong. 







The name of a hill. Bin san to Kang 
|IlS |J-I ^ ji, le Bin sw^a eVMci 
Kang chiy, from the Bin hill he led 

the waters of the Kang:" — Said of ^ E", who 

ift y)K tfi suy, regulated the waters. 




A fine kind of stone. Bin geuk put pccn 
^^^^ , cfteJA kap giik bi 
hnun pein, not distinguishing between 
stones and gems. 

The same as the foregoing. 

Sickness, a diseases to gn6 koe bin 

k'bic^d pai"^, many came to visit me 
in my sickness. Sec the ^ ^ Tae gnAy. 

To constrain onc's-self. 



A thread, a string : the string on which 
small coins are strung. Also written 

K6 tcaou wOy hfl, wOy »e e W" ^ ^ ^ 

'fPf. W M- \F ^i, ' '^° " """^ ."/mrf"A. tok 
sf kap sv;"d, "what did he use in angling? nothing 
but silk and thread." See the ^ ^ Kok hong. 

®Rcad been: the face, the countenance; 
a surface s to face, to front. Je bod 
biii'n cbl-iiiij;, t'hoey yew hoc g4n ^ 

1® lit. M ^ t^ 1", '^ *"■ '•*"''^ *'" '""• 

kadu I'hfy ch'hid woo aSu wa, you must not merely 
comply before one's face, and then on retiring 
bring up some after words. See the Kfl ^E 
Seong sc. 


To rest, to be silent : a snrname: Chin, 

JU;, a man famo^sjo the Sam- 
kok. ' ]-'^^^\ 

if V 













A kind of grass. 

_ — — -j^ Honey : bit hong 5^ ^^ bit p'hang, a 

04^ honeybee. KS kara j6 bit ^ "^ -^[J 

J"*\ ^^ ki tce"!^ ch'hin chSS^S m, as sweet 
as honey. 

%- y^ Silent whispers ; quiet, peaceful. Loey 
S^)L1^ gbSy chek bit ^ ^f^ ^ 1^^ laegwa 
^JXl^ cftefc bit, within and without, peaceful 
and quiet. See the "ffla ^s Han se. 

Vulg: bat: secret, close, concealed, re- 
|S% tired. Ch6ng k'he bit bit ^-^^ 
^ k'U'^S k'he bat bat, secretly hidden. 
Bit yin put e, choo gno sey kaou Sfe ^ ^X\ 

ppj. 1^ ^ ^ ^, *«' *""2" «*" '^h hoe, choo 
gwdn sae kaou, close clouds without racin, coming 
from our western border. See the ^ i© Y'ekh keng. 

Dusty and muddy ; also, deep and hid- 

Fragrant wood ; a uame for cassia ; 
cinnamon. Kaou-chew yew bit htiang se 

% *)'H ^^^ \%> Kaou-chew 
woo bit heo"^ ch'hew, in the district of Kaou- 
chew, there exists the fragrant bit tree, — chek kim 
che tira heang yea pH /^ ^ s'lT ^. iff ^ chek 
»S tong kim dy tint heo"^, which is the cinnamon 
of the present day. 

To urge, to exert one's-self. 

The thumb; tae bo ch6 -^ 
po bo, the great thumb. 

The great toe. 




B6 bo 


J a common appellation for 

^,^1^ Vulg: neo"S" /ej^: mother i hoo bo -A^ IB- 
Bo T^T* P"^ *"• ^^^^^^ ^^^ mother. Wfly I'heen 
^ tSy bin but ho5 bo f"^ 7C j^b, ^ ij^ 
y^ -^j wiii/ t'hee"S tey chi ban me&"h A.y pay bo. 
Heaven and earth are the parents of all things. See 




Siio"? se. 


Read bo6 : not, not at all. Bod put keng 
Bo j1ir^ ^ y^ i^. ^^ u™ 'teng-. unfailing res- 
k>CV\ Pect. 

T'heen hay bod put se che hoo bo ^ "K ^ 
^ -^ -^ ^ -Q:^ t'he^S ay bd «"» teSh dy pay io, 
" under the whole Heavens there are no faulty 
parents;" — meaning that children should never 
suppose their parents to be in the wrong. 

A cap, a hat: Pok-taii-hoe e bo se t'hdy 

Ban.t.y Wk^l^UM^U 

"^yT ijE- Pok-tae-hoe Vho chit liy bo se hoe 

the great Empress Pok took a silken 


cap, and gave it tu (her son) the Emperor BQn. 

A mill. Suy bo -kI fiffi chUy bo, a water 
mill. Jfi g6 swftn bo hn ^ jfij^ J^^ 

ch'hin cheo"S h'ea pwan swdn te bo cheih, 
"like an ant going round a mill stone." The 
Chinese say, that an ant always travels round a 
mill-stone in an opposite direction to that in 
which the stone is turned ; from which the an- 
cients obtained their ideas of the motion of the 
heavenly bodies. See the ^ aT ^gTheenbdn che. 



An acre : tefin boe mi OT, ch'hdn boi, 
an acre of ground. Gnoe boe che 
t'hek, se che e song ^ M 2 ^ 
/^ W ^5 ^"^ *"* ^^ t'hSyh, ching e t s^, 
let every plot of five acres be planted with the 
mulberry tree. See the J^ ^ C)xo"S beng. 







The s»me as the preceding. 

The male of domestic animals; the 
name of a floWer. Bo6-tan, hwa 
che hoo kwiiy che4 yea {H^ JO- ^iff 
^ ^ ^ ^ ^, bot-lan le hwa &.y WMh 
pod kwu}/ &y, the Moutan is the richest and 
noblest of flowers. 





An old woman: t'heen bo6 «an ^ 
ij^ Jj, Vhee'^S boi >m"a, the name 
of a bill. 

tf^% Yulgined"^ Uy: a mother: bo£ cho& 
•ttj* •& -?'.' boi k'e^d, mother and child. 
>^ K'hefin go6 hoo jea, kTiwun go6 

boe yH4 ^ ^ ^ {^. ;J^ ^ r^ ^, Vhe^S 
tS gtvin ay ne6"^ pay, ley te gu'dn dy ne6^ Uy, 
heaven is our father, and the earth is our mother. 
See the ^ ^ Scy bfing. 

h -, An instrnctress; an uncle's wife: gak 

HtuL ^°^ ^ M' ''""^ *^'"' * ra^tber-in. 
.'^ ▼ law. Seuk hoe pek che cVhej wfty 

dy boi te a'", iu common conversation we call an 
uncle's wife, aunt. 


Any one, such an one, a certain person. 
Cho6 kd che wat, boe chae soo, bo6 

^k ^ Wt' " Confucius informed him saying, 
this is such an one^ and that is such an one«" 
Mid of his introducing his friends to a blind 
man who waited on him. See the "K iSj Hay iQn. 



The same as the preceding ; also, one 
of the radicals. 

Rang bo6 |ll ^, the name of a tree, 
the wood of which yields excellent 

To Scheme, to contrive, to plan ; key 
bofi =4* ^^, a plan, a sheme. WQy 
jin boe, jfi put tiiung hoe ^ J\^ 

M ^ .S^ f"' ''^ '^"^ *"" "*"'^' •'^ """ 

leung hoe, in consulting people's interests, are 
we unfaithful? See the J^ j^ffi Sijang lun. 
Bo6 chong chek cheflng ^ ^ g|J ^, boi ho 
chew thin e, if the plan is good, then follow 
it. See the -^ ^ Ta5 gn4y. 



Even, equal ta, alike. K'M & jin, 
}& bofi 6 t'heen ^ ^^ \ ^ ^ 
j^ ^, k'hih tud 6 Idng, j6 kap 
fhee^S pal"S iwi, greater than men, and equal 
to heaven. 



Bod nfi ■^J^}^ name of Buddha: 
also, to take, to win; the noise of a 
bull. Seang kan cboo sira, hay bog 
pek s.Jng ±,^^4\j.f :^'^ j^, ling 
bin kan kiw cho6 kong dy rim kw'*a, ay tty boi 
eh" hi pSyk lai'^, above he sought to win the 
heart of the chief, and below to captivate the 
affections of the people. See the -"^ 
Cheen kok ch'hek. 





Bok bog g ^^ bak ang a, the 
pupil of the eye. Chfln hoii Jin chea, 
bek Ie4ng 6 bofi cho6 /^ -^ A 

^ ^ ^ !^ i^ -?' '"• '"* <* "**' ** 
k'hdh ho i bak ang d, (to know) what is retained 

in a man's mind, there is no better sign than 

the pupil of the eye. See the ~T\ ■^ Hay beng. 

l^Ajfck Kwuy bo6 ^ jj^, a pattern, a rule, 
^>lipy a manner, a plan. Sew chwSn bo£ 6 

15^ cho6ch'heang^^;|.^^;|£|?^, 
tew chwuVS h6 dy kwuy boi i bak ch'heo"^, "to 
receive a complete plan from the head carpenter 5"— 
an eapressioa of ^ ^ Ch6-«oo.. 





Bo6-boe ^a -ffl- was a very ugly 
woman, the wife of "|g' ^ H6ng-tey ; 
hence it has become a bye-word for 
any ugly female. 


Vulg: mSh: the thin skin under the 
outer skin: the epidermis. Te jeuk, 
tS kg kin boS, ch'he h"6 chi;& yj^ 

1^- ^ ^ Hi- E ^, ^'^'^^"^ "'^f^ '^«' 
• ■ 

i 6.y kon mih, tMj/h ho dj/, in preparing meat, 
take away the tendons and inner skin, and select 
the best of it. See the M 3^ ^^ gn^y- 

% % f - Vulg: bong: to feel, to touch with the 

Boe J t^f. ^^°^- "^™ ^^^ ^^^ '°^ B§ ^ ^ 

^^7^. ^^ am bong bo loe, it is so dark 
that we cannot feel our way. 


BoS r 

To feel: the same as the preceding. 

To scheme, to plan : the same as 

bog. Gwan Seen-seng h6ng ch'hoo 
gtnan 5171-301"^ cK'hdng k'hSh twa chiy Uy hwul'^S 
boi, I beseech you, Sir, to -enlarge this distant 
plan. See the 

^ Hka se. 





Tlie back; the flesh of the back. 

Tam bog ^ ^, quiet and still: the 
name of a place. Pok hong yew Sa- 

bog Che t^y ^U ^ ^fp'^Z 
y^^ paTc he^ woo Swa-boi dy tey, in the northern 
region is the desert of Sha-m5h. 

An insect that eats the roots of 

A large kind of wheat: g gno lag bog 

En ^ ^^ ^" *^"^ *^""* '''^ ^'' '^" 

biiyh, he presented me with some large 
wheat. See the /j-* ^ Seiou gnay. 



One of the horary characters; alto, 
lucky, fortunate. Kit jit wfly boe 

day is called boe. 

To praise, to admire; also, to urge. 

oe ^^^J^ to exert, t boe nag t^k Hp* ij^ 7^ 
f V^^ ^> S^^ '« '* iy t«^< I applaud 


your virtue. 
Boe ^'•flC^ Niggardly, parsimonious 


To call, to summons. 





A tent, a curtain: wOy boe che teung 
1^ ^ ^ tJ3, wHy boe &y tang t^, 
within the tent, — in the tented field. 

To think of, to long after, to 'desire: 
a surname: wan boe Sfpi^^ to fret 

Jin seaou chek boe hoo bog A /V Slj^^oC 
•fJT) Idng siy chew boe leem pay boi, when people 
are young they long after their parents. See 
^^^"^ Beng-choo se. 
Yit kok che sgy boe, t'heen hay boe che — — 
-^ pjif ^ ^ ~jT ^ ^, chit kok dy siy boe. 
Cheeks ay boe e, he that is desired by a "whok 
country, will be desired by the whole Empire. 
Boe-viinff ^- 5^^ a double surname. 

Hwfln boe J^ 4 ^ hwdn bung, a grave, 
a tomb. Koe put sew boe "g* "J^ 
f^ ^3 , koi dy Idng bS sew ching bong, 
the ancients did not ornament their tombs. S^ 

t*'^ Si E ^^y ^^■ 

Ek boe hwuy koe yea ^ ^ ^\- 1^ ^, """^ 
bong u™ se koi chd dy Ity, to remove a tomb 
is not according to the practice of the ancients. 




The evening, dark^ dusk r. teaou boe 
SH ^*j moruing and evening, jit boe 
ch'hwa hwuu koe ^ j]§ igj ^, 

jit im p'hUh mal^ hwui"S koi,. at the decline of 

<Iay, beat the eveaiflg drum. 

Vulg. Baouh: to exchange,^ to barter, 
to trade ; boe ek "S Sj trade,, cora- 

merre. Boe ch'heen y^w ho6 
^ ali£, boe ch'heen woo b6 6.y mel^li, to exchange 
what we have, for that which we have not. See 
the T|iT ^& Seang se. 

^I^^^ Luxuriant, abundant ; boe seng "^ ^ 

^^ f*J? luxuriant foliage, je^ sedng pek che 

/^^i b"e ^p j^^ Ip ^ ^, ehlUn cked"S 

cVhing pSjfh dy boe, like the luxuriance of the 

fir tree^ 


^■^^^ Every, each, all ; bo6y bo6y M ^ 
■ ^fTw ^ constantly, frequently. Bijey jJn }6 
>§ wat che, jit ek put cheuk i ^ A 

^ f;^ Z ,0 ^ ^ J£ :^' *«* '^"S I'oe 

9<hw''a hi, Jit b6 kiou i/ed, if ]k>u wanted to 

please every body, the day would net be long 

enough. See 7^ -jp Beng choo. 

Bii^y y6w leang pfing ^ ^ g /))], t'ak pai 

woo h6 ping, constantly meeting with a good 

friend. See the /j^ ^ Seiou gniy. 

Biiey jit ^ g /a* jV<^ every day, biity jln 

W-^, tak Idng, every man. 

\PT "^^ pollute, to defile; j6 yeen Ifing 
Boey JJftp biiey gno ^^ W M Ht M ^ 

thae, how can you defile me (by your juresence)? 
See the f~ jEt Seang beng.. 

The name of a placet also, of»*iver. 


Read b£: the tail, the end,^ the ter- 
mination ; tho6 b6 gH jp. Vhdou boiy, 
Ihe head and tail. 

So hey, b6 h6y, ISw 16 che cho* iS '^ S- 

^- ]% it ^ ^. *^* *'^*' *"«* *^*' '^>^ « 
4j/ Ae"a, diminished and reduced to extremities, 
like a vagabond and abandoned person. See the 
^ IS Kok hong. 




Read beaour the- end or extremity. 
1^ of any thing. Soey bwat wat beaou 

^^'i^^, "^^"^ *"^* *»"«■ *»^^. 
the end of the year is called boijf.. 

Bik sey che, way che beaou /j^ j^ /^ |S ;^ 
^^ ch'hew bak iy liy ke king keb boiy, the smalj' 
branches, of a. tree are called bofy. 


B-. A 

Yulgtil'".. A prune, aplam: a surname. 
Jeak chok h6 keng, j6 wfly yeSm 

; na boiyh chd teaou h6 iy kai"^. It thang chi e 
&y iee"S H'" a, " if we want to make a mixed broth, 
you can be the salted prunes in it." — Said to a 
clever man, whose services- were valuable to the 
state. See the J^ ^ Seo"S „. 

The desh of the bact- 

@p The best of the winer BiiAy, ch^w 
^ bo6 ye4 ^ j^ ^ ^^ my se 
•«*p chiw Ay k'hih katu yed, the bofiy. 

Bo^y |ni& ^"^ y«^ MiM^% I'o^M se 

ka«u yed, the bofiy 
the strongest (literally the mother) of the wine. 

^J^^fc Moss V the name of a. plaat. Sfly e 
Bii^y ^ ^J ^ ch5 bofiy t'hae |I^ fg; ^ ^ ^, 
•^p tily i chey le boty Vhi, leisurely sit- 
ting down upon the moss. 



To translate; also, a decoy or trap 
for birds and beasts. Neiou b6£y 
& ^a, chedou boiy, a decoy for 

birds, where a liiving bird is used, to decoy others - 

into the net.. 







B5«y chcak ^jl/j, ''«2'" f^"?- ^ go- 
between, to make up marriages. Put 
t'hae hoo boe che beng, biiSy cheak 

.he g4n ;^ f^ 3C -t ;2- #• € 1!^J ^ f^ 

«"* leng I'hue pay hoi Ay beng leng, hA'" ling &y wa, 

"without waiting for the command of parents, 
or the mediation of the match-maker." Said oi 
young people who venture upon premature mar- 
riages, without consulting their friends. See the 

A collection of soot, biidy t'han /^ 
bo$i/ t'hw"a, coals. 


.^ I % The sacrifice offered by an Emperor, 
|lt M^ when seeking for a son. E' t'hae 16 

||!^^^ so5 g Ko-boey ]cX:k^ M J" 
"^ jj^ yung fhat: 16 cliliae i Ko-bSiy, "to sacri- 
fice with the principal animals to Ko-bbfiy," in 
order to obtain children; because Ko-b(i6y is 
said to have been the first who brought forth 
children. See the |^ "p£ Ley ke. 

»,»^^ The green and black appearance which 

*'*^^^ any' thing wears that has been long 

in the rain; mouldiness. 

A stem : the -+' /lA sip che, ten 
branches, of the horary characters, are 
called |l^ te^ou : and the "f ^ Zl ^ 
sip je k«n, twelve stems of the same, are called ^ 
biifiy. E e te4ou bu6y If^ ^^ f|^ ^, iwa te 
tedou boiy, twining about both branches and 
stem. See the ;^ ^ Tae gnay. 
Also, a numeral, employed in reckoning : ke bciey 
(^ jJj^ kwuy boiy, how many stalfc«7 Boey pok 
kong sin ;j^ ]\ Jjj |5^ ^° '■<^'^''"" "P '"'='■"'■ 
torious servants. 

Also, a piece of wood held in the«K)uth, to keep 
people from talking; a gag: ma k'he kirn, jin 

hSra bofiy J^ ^ 'fe' A ^ ¥^' *"* ""''^ ^"""' 
Ung him b'6(y, " the horses were deprived of 
.their metal ornaments, and the men held the 

wooden gag in their moulba," in order to keep 
■them from talking, that they might 'march in 
silence, and surprise the enemy. See the _^ ^ 
Sam kok. 

Vernal showers: bii^y e seen woo e 



^♦•^^ ay hoe gdou bak Id lim s"a k'hoi, the 
vernal shower* are very ^pt to soil the clothes. 

A double ring ; a great lock or chain. 

Th« same as ^ hbey, a decoy for 

Read be : Not yet, not arrived at, 
unattained. Hak se hoe, tiiy wat, be 

yea ^ |Jf f-. f=) a Jfe ilL' 

woo Thak se a bS, y\n e king, yea boey, "has .he 

studied the odes7 He answered, not yet." 
>v«M>» Read yaou: to want, to desire: 
Boeyh * TkT- ^^'^ yaou, put bong p6ng seng che 

. T>C* s^n ^ ^-. y^^ ]^, ^!ki^ 

~= koo bdlyh, it'" p'hith bey ke, chil se l&ng dy wa, 
1 have long desired it, and have not .forgotten 
the j)rotestations of my whole life. 





Read beet: a stocking, clothing for 
the legs. Cheak hafi, cheak beet 

/^ ¥ik ^ l^ 3 <^f ''*""«■ ^y> ch'heiiJig 
b6iyh, to wear shoes and stockings. 

Read bok: not, do not. Bok wQy, kira 
jit put hak, hwan yew laS jit, ^ =S 

kong, kin a jit u"" I'hah, yed moo lai jit. don't say 
you will not learn to day. thinking that .another 
day may come. 

Vulg: bak: Wood: s5 bok ^| -j^, 
ch'hew fcafc, a tree. Vulg: cVhd, fire- 
wood. Bok ch'heang ^ ^j bak 
ch'heo"^, a carpenter. 





Bok cheflng s!n chck clieng, hoe cheiing Itan chek 

bak Chan tSh chew che"d, liu-iin than l"h chew sciji^ 
when wood (is cut) according to the line, it 
becomes straight, and when a prince (acts) accord- 
ing to advice, he becomes wise. See the tS '^^ 

^ ^ To wash the head, to bathe, to wet, 
Bok ^fJt^ l" drench. K'bong-choo bok yeuk j* 

/^V te4on IL ?- y^Kil^ fffi ^> ^'"»'^- 
hoo-choo ehing ek chew te&ou kei"^ 6ng, Confucius 
used to bathe hefore going to court. See the 

Cheet hong bok e Mt ^ Y^C p|^, cKhSeg leth 
hong, ek teSH hoe, to be exposed to the wind, 
and drenched in tiie rain. 


Elr* Bekb'ok f^ 

a gentle shower, a 

^^^^ drizzling rain. 

— ^ Vulg: bak chew: the eye « bok leuk, 

Bok 1^1 3 ^|:, a table of contcnU. Bok put 

^^ se hwuy Uy che 8ek W^j^^ 4¥ 

1^ -> ^ bak cliew fi" Ihang /.'A«r"i hwuy liy 

&jl tek, let not the eyes look upon improper 


Sip liok si-y sc -4' ^ p|r jhQ ^ chap iy bak chew 
tig k'hw"ii, that which ten eyes have seen, ( i. e. 
exposed to public view). 

f A kind of grass, sometimes used for food. 
Ma Se bok scuk, chek hwdy If,^ j^fe 

iy ch'haou, chew pwHy, when horses feed npon the 
bok siiuk grass, they become fat. • '-^ 

^^J^ Harmonious, amicable, friendly : hA bok 
LI^C ip j]^, peaceful. K6w cbok ke bok 
^■^^ ^ "Jfe fe^^ the nine relations liv- 
ing in amity. 

Harmonious, obedient, elegant, deep 

Bok "TRXfl^ ^"^ distant. A surname. Kit-ho6 

chok seQng, bok j6 ch'heng hong i 


his verses, they were harmonious as the pure and 
gentle breeze. See the -ir 'iv^ Tae gnay. 
T'heen choo bok bok ^ If- Jw- T^ ffSng lev 
bok bok, the Emperor put on a deep and thought- 
ful appearance. See the J- |j^ Seang Ifin. 

^it^ A bad epithet given after death. A 
k^* surname. 

nJk ^^ 


Cheaou bok jS |p-, * succession of generations, — 
the father's line being ranged under the cheaou, 
the son's under the bok, and so on. 
Se e cheaou bok Uy. \p\ j|3 i% arranged ac- 
cording to the cheaou and hok. 

A shepherd, a pastor; bok chca ^ ^ 
may be applied both to those who 
keep sheep, and to those who take 

the oversight of men; a ruler of a province. A 


Kim yew sew jln che pnPw yftng, j6 wDy che 

bok che chea ^^-^iKZ'^^.M 

^Z^'Z,^,'"' «•»« '«« '^"e 'i/i"'^ J"-""*". 

ji kap e ^"g e ig ling, now suppose a man had 
received another's sheep and oxen, and had 
undertaken to feed them, &c. See the J" 'B^ 
Seang b(?ng. 

fc >-, Vul;;: bOh: not, do not: bok gno te 
Bok J^^ yei hoe ij^-^j^^ f ;. M ling 
~^^^^ <•*«' ff"'^» nobody knoWsme; bok put 
chnn ch'hin ^^ 1^ P^^ ^jg, M fl*" chun kfng 
pay boi, thus there will be none who do not 
honour their parents. A surname. 


tr o'F. 

Chek tok ^ ^1, silent, quiet, still. 
Teaou 6 chek bok che hi-ang ^ "r\ 
^ ^ ^ ^ led hi l»a II eking 

chfng iy hio"^ U, to angle in a quiet and retired 

village. See the Afr ^ Hftn bfln. 


Sick; pain, sickness. 




Bok-ye^ ^^^^^ ^^^ name of a sword. 

Sa-l).'.k che I5y ^ ^l^- ^ ^, ^^e 
deserl of Sha-mO. Also, — wide, dis- 
tant: bong che bok bok jeen yga 
~y ^ ■/*'l ^ lb bang khw"i e, chun a 
hwui"S hwufS, looking after him he appeared 
far off. 

iligent ; seldom used. 

A diflferent name for pulse, or beans. 



Read boe, to feel : sew boe ^p ^S 

cKhiw hong, to feel with the hand. 

The appearance of deep grass ; chae 
ye4„ wat ch'ho bong che sin "Jk S? 
^. i^ ^ ;^ ^j '«''« tSyea, kong 
cKhaou bong &,y jin sin, dwelling in the wilder- 
ness, one is called an officer of the long wild 
gras^. See ^ ^ Beiig-choo. 

Careless, rough, slovenly. Kwun wily 
cheng yecn but 16 bong ^ ® jifr 
"S ^ ^ tS kwun cho ching sod, 
m'" fhang 16 bong, in the management of the 
affairs of government, be not rough and slo- 
venly. See ^ ^ Chong-choo. 

^ Pe bong ^ ^, not t*, 





To deceive -, ignorant, stupid. Se 
bong bin yea ;^ fgj ^ ^, >« 
p'hein p&gh sai"^, this is to deceive 

the people. 

Hak j6 put soo chek bon- ^ [fjj ^ ,g, ^ 
Rjj t'hak J6 b& seo"^ king bing, to learn without 
thinking engenders stupidity. See the y IsJ 
Seang lun. 

Vulg: bang! a net for catching fish 
or birds. Chok keet sin, j6 wily 
i,6ng koe, e teen 6 g6 fp ^^ ^ 

m % m ^- Ki fffl n &' '*- *"' «**' /^ 

ch'hdng bang, i phdh ISh kwd. I'e&h hi, they tied 
knots in cords, and made nets, to hunt and 
fish with. See the R M^ Yekh keng. 




The old form of gM bong, a net. 




Having lost one's aim : disappointed. 

An outer ring put to the wheel of 
the Emperor's carriage when em- 
ployed in hunting. 

Bong leang ^ ffiS^ spirits inhabiting 
marshes and damp places, said to 
be like little children of three years 
old, of a dark red colour. 

A large kind of serpent. 

The appearance of wide extensive 
water : also, not clear. 

Not clear ; a dark day, without much 
light from the sun. 

A kind of smoothing iron : ko6 bong 

Bong gp-Hr' t'^*^™ ^ 1^ W' ^ '■*"*'"^ P""' 

,*J^^>? or pond in shape like a Chinese 

smoothing iron. 





T6ng bong |1|S m^^ a hilly appearance. 

Cunning, artful. 

To l>e deceived, to be wrought upon, 
to be tempted. 

To flee away -, to lose, to be lost, 
to die, to be out of exi^teitce. Bflng 
jtnbod 6 wCy p6, jin ch'hin e wDy pd 

ch'hut b6ng &y lAni;, AJ i s"d niie"h wui/ p6, jin 
ai pat/ boi i teOy pd, a fugitive like myself does 
not consider anything of value, except the love 
of one's parents, which is of real Taloe. 
Ch'heQn^ yeuk t'hoe an, liflng bod jit c ^u fj^v 

en ji&n, ling piiey b6 I'i^a teSh jit, when a man 
complies with bis carnal desires, and pilfers self- 
indulgent ease, the day of his ruin is uncertain 
(i. e. it is near). 
^^^^ To forget, to slight, to miss, to lose. 

B6n ke -^^ l^^ bis, ki lit, to forget. 
/vj^ ^ kay nae tck, wat tok put bdng 

lek kong tok fi"* A""** bey ki tit, I applaud your 
virtue, and promise not to forget it. See the 
^ ^ 5«5"ff .c. 

The appearance of grass i abundant. 

B&ng ^^ 


The wide expansive appearance of 

Pok b-ing san Ji\^t^ fir, P"'- ^"r 
tuj^a, the name of a hiJI, in the 
•/H" m H0-I4m province. 


The name of a hill. 




To cover over any thing. 




.h^ Vulg: mttt"S: sharp, sharp-pointed. 
HeOng kek yaou b6ng jjp UJ^ \i^ 
^^ hcAng bing Ay kByh, ySou k-wui"» 
ktei mat ^, the martial spears, were gltaming 
and sharp. 




Hurried, hasty, in a bustle. Boe 
hwun, sin kd peet, boo na£ t'hae 
fh-hong b6ng hoc ^ ^ j^ -^ 

^'J. ^.Vj A ,§v ft f, '""i"" *•'"•"'' *«•"" 
yeen, mafh chai kd tea piet, bi nmt Chat chhong 
bing hoi, to marry in the evening, aftd depart 
the next morning, is it not too hurried and 
hasty? See ;|;J; ^ 1^ Toe-ho6 »e. 

To receive, to be acted on; to be 
thankful for; youth, the time of 
youth. To bOng 4^ ^ to be 
thankful fur. A surname. 

B6ng e ying chdng, sing kong yea ^ l/jf ^S 
JE 11 ^ ibi "''"' '**" J"*"«" cA^'a, $tngjin 
dy kong 16, when from youth a person is brouglit 
up in the right way, he will display the merits 
of a sage. See the & 1M nih keng. 



The name of a hill. 

B&ng ^^j*-"^ Cheem bdng gg ^, to look towards. 

To cover over : a cloth for coTeriog. 





Bon J 





Small drizzling rain; also the name 
of a river. 

The appearance of the sky before 
sun-rise. • 

irV^ The appearance of the sky after the 
moon is gone down. 

Blind } having lost the pupil of the eye. 
||1^ A small kind of insect, that flies in 

B6ng long ■ 
of war. 

I, a war-boat, a vessel 

W-^ A net for catching stags s also, the 
^^^S ' ^J[ '> motion of the eyes. 

'^"^ A net for covering over any thing: 



l"^^ also, a pig. 

The vapours of heaven descending, 
when not answered hy the corres- 
ponding mists of the earth, 

'^r^ Bong seaou J^^ ^|f^ u kind of medi- 
cine, something like saltpetre. 

A great cloth, a large napkin. 

Vulg: bang: to look towards, to look 
Bong; ***'^^ up 'O' to ^°P® ^°^' *° expect. Ke 



Bong bongjeSn k'he che, jiiak cliijang boey yeen 

jeSii k'lid e, chun a cheang bale e Id s&m, looking 
towards Ihem, he got out of their way, as though 
he would have been defiled by them. See "^^ ^ 
Se bin je seang, bong to j6 be che keen jjjg^ 

K 'i(P fl. M 1 ^ ^ ^ f.' ''•■'"""'* "^^^ 
sails' cKhin cheo"^ woo s'eang hae, bang Id chun 

a y'ei boey ey kee"^, he viewed the people as 

though they had been injured by him, and looked 

towards virtue as if he had not yel itorae in 

sight of it. Said of ^ T Bun-oag. 



bong ^ ^> ki bang, to hope, to 


The full of the moon. 

Disorderly, corrupt: vulg. Idm sdin, 
out of all order. Kim che beng je 

yea ^^o^S /^ Z ^ \% ^ ^' 
t^a dy king ked Chak Mh&yh Idng, Idm sum, 

those who are now called learned men, are 

corrupt and disorderly. See the fjn '=^ Ley ke. 

Ch'hoo ek bong jIn yea e e H|^ /jj^ !^^ J\^ 

UJ p-' /c. clii-y yea se Idm nam dy lAng le"d 

<e"a, this then is a disorderly, worthless fellow. 

^jb^Uk Read bang: a dream; bong keen ,^^ 

Sl^^% Wi bang kei"^, to see in a dream. 

_^^ Chong-chew bong wfly hoe teep 

^t- jp] #• %^% Chong-ckew bang cho 

boiy yeih, Chong-chew dreamed that he was a 


Bong tey lae fi lelng P't ^ *p^ ^ "^ .^ 
HflS bdng seang Uy sang gwd ho dy hod pit, 
I dreamed that the high Emperor presented 
me with a good assistant in the government. 
See the ^ ^ SeWS se. 


The same as the preceding. 






Dark, as when the sun and moon 
do not shine; confused. 

Read hoe : a grave : pae l)oe iW- ^^ 
pae bong, to worship at the tombs. 
K6 boe seng ae j^ ^ ^ ^, 

koiy hu-An bong sai''S ae cH'hdm, on passing a 

tomb, we feel melancholy. 






Martial, military, brave. A surname. 
K£w k6w boo hoo, kong hog kan seno- 

bing dy boo hoo, koag hoi iy kan K"d, brave 
military men, are the clubs and forU of princes. 
See the ^ ^ Kok hong. 
Bfln k'ho keng pang, boo k'ho teng kok ^ 
^ |x f-p ^ nf ^ ^, e ii/ b*^ fhang keng 
pang, e &y boo thang le"a kok, his literary lalenlj 
are lufficient to regulate a state, and his military 
ac<|uiremcnU equal to csUblish a nation. Said 
"f ^P 1^ IC Kok-choo-gfi. 

Boo mP Jl^ ^ sofl» effeminate. 

Boo hoo ij5j|^ ^ a ffne kind of stone, 
resembling a gem. 

#Bo6 ban, to iiisull,^ to despise, to revile. 
BoA k'hey theung lap boo M ^ 

thi&ng ae, ke"a ni: lap boo ban, do not begin 
to shew favour, lest you should receive insult. 
See the ^ ^ 5«5''«' .«-. 



To love: boojefin ^ ^ vacant, not 
sclf-posse»sed. Also written ^ boo. 

To soothe, to pacify. Also read hoo. 



The same as mff boo; soft, effeminate. 

Side chambers, round a court: a yard. 

^ m Thick, fat, fine, elegant. Chew gwan 

Bo6 Hyff^ boo boo f^|^;j]M ))&,«..<!, 

/-^^I^^ gwin iiy boo boo, the original terri- 
tory of Ihe Chew dynasty was fertile and fat. 
See the -*r 3ffi Tae gnay. 


To gambol, to frisk, to throw about 
the arms. Also written a£s boo. Boo 


yr^^ ''^^'"^^j '" brandish a sword. 
Boo kan e fi liiang Vzc^^^^ l^J fvg, 
boo ChUg kap chedou mS te teang ptng gSm kag, 
Ihey brandished their clubs and feathers on both 
sides of the stairs. See the ^ ^ Siio"^ se. 

Cbi^uk to sew boo J£, Jf^ ^ ^ , '''*« '" <^*"*^'" 
boo, frisking and gajaboling with the arms and legs> 

Eng bo6 Sbim, a parrot, a cockatoo. 
Eng boo llnggftn, put Ifihwfiy neaou, 

bo6 iy kong tea, teing am li t pu-iiy chedou, a par- 
rot is able to talk, but still it is nothing more 
than a bird. See Ihe ||^ |g Uy k6. 

The name of a hilL 



The same as 'jHf l)o6, to slight, to in- 
sult, to despise. Boo s^ng jin chc gan 

1^ 1^ A ^ ^ *"" '^"SJ^" ^J/ "•"» 
to despise the words of the sages. 

„ /s fcf > The ancient form of Iffi, bo5, not; bo6 

Boo '^■/i^ .^ , ., •"" 

y I. kew ^9^ '"i choly, faultless. 






Also used for ffi boo, not; bo6 j6 

wQyyew C Jlfj 1^ ^*. ^" J^ '*'" 
wao, to pretend the existence of things 
tfaat do not exist. 

\\i\g. b6: no, not, not in cximtence, do 

Boft j jll',^ not. Boo yew put j6 \i.e 3SSL'^/^ 

^ ^V^ Ajl P ^ S" Chang woo ping yew oF tSh 

teSh ka tl, don't have a friend who is not eqnal 

to yourself. See the J: ^ Seang iQu. 
Kwun choo bo6 sey cheng ^ip -]- ^ P/\ ^ > 
kwim choo bo sty chai"S, a good man has nothing 
that he strives aliout. See the J;. |^ ^"^''"S '""" 
%^»^ Overgrown with weeds, and grass. A.e 

Boo ^S^^ '^ "^'^^ '*'* •"»" ^"^^ K K ^ ^ 

•^'wwsT ^SM T^ ae si cKhdou ay bo6 woiy, 
lamenting to see the grass and weeds so over- 

Not, do not, an interdiction. A surname. 
Boo A\h Bo6putkeng|J-:^^'5;,Wfi"'A-^«?, 
r^jf be not in any case disrespectful. 
See the jffl gP Ley ke. 




A conjurer, a necromancer, one who 
performs incantations. A surname. 
Jin jfi boo hgng, put k'ho c chok 

bo6 e K iTn t tl- T- Pi ^X f1^ M t, 

Mng- no 60 A^ng- sim, a" I'hang did sae ko„g 
kwH e seng, if a man does not possess a persevering 
mind, he can neither he a necromancer, nor a 
physician. See the "|^ |^ Hay lun. 

_ _ To deceive, to cheat. Kwun cho3 che 

Bo& ^JR *"• ^"'^" ^'^° ^"'^ y*^^ 1B -^~Z. 

an cAjB"a 8^ p'/i^en tit, the way of a good man, 
how can it he deceitful! See the J^ ||^ ^^^"S 

BoS 'A4-H~ -^ sof' °^ "•^'' neap-sighted. 


A deceitful expression; not; alto used 

for =& bofi, to consult. 

To attend to any thing, to employ 
Boo Tf5fi^ *" ""e's powers in any thing. Soo boo 

Kwun choo boo p6n jS -Ju ^a a!Q fr«ti/n cfcod 
chwan yung k'hwily lat i kin plin, the good man 
attends sedulously to the principal thing. See the 






i ^|_^ A fog, a mist: yin boo ^^ al 

"* '" and mist; bong boo j^ '£8 a mist. 
Lok hSy e koe boo chfiy hwuy J*. 

R ^ in S ^ ^' '^" '^'^ ^^ '"**• ''"P *"" 
fcie^a dy boo chb po3 tit pwuy, scattered hazes and 

solitary mists flying about together. See the 

"Op ^ AJr^Ong-p'ut bfln. 

» k^ To look with the eyes downward*, 

1^^ dim-sighted, nearsighted. Hoo boo se 

chtJa, e hay wfly ch'hek ;^ -^ |^ 

^ I^ji il ^ ^. *'" *^ ^^ '^"^ '''"'' ''"'"^ 
cho cKh'etih, near-sighted people take yellow for red. 

To gallop about in confusion; to go 
swiftly. Tit p'heng wat 16, Iwan te 
wat ho5 d ^ Q |{b, IL ^ g 
■ , lit ke''& kong ti, /dm sum plidoii kong boo. 
to ride straight is called te, to gallop about in 
disorder is called boo. 

\ domestic duck; a wild duck is called 
boo, and a common duck ^^r boo. 


K'hek gok put sfing siiang iQy boo 

M ^,1 ^ ht fp] 11 Wj' ^•■*^^- ""' -<" "•" 

che"d sSang luy Sh, trying to engrave a wild goose, 
if ypu do not succeed, you will only produce 
a tame duck; — said of those who try to imitate 
great men, and fail. 

■Jj^^ the name of a star: 


►'^ Boo-chew ^ i|j,|^ the name of a 






To cut, to cut off; choo bun |& ^ 
ka te kwSh aiu, to cut one's own 
Teang-j6, Tin-fi, le&ngjtn seang e, ho wQy biin 

S@ ^ij S5 ^^ reo"S-je hap Tdn-i, no Idag teo 
i, ho king kwdh nd aou ij/ kaou, Teo^^-j^ and 
T4n-6 both formed an intimacy, which they called 
" cut-throat friendship; "— which. means that they 
would remain faithful to each other till death. 
See the ^ |g Soo ke. 




The sides of the mouth, the dimples> 

Vulg. bang: a muaquito, a small gnat 
Bun b£ng chwan hoc, chek yea put 

bang ka. Idng &y bih, mai^S kan bey k'hwiin, when 
the musquitoes bite our flcHh, we cannot sleep 
by night. See •H; -f' Chong-choo. 


Bun /If tit Separated to a distano*, divided. 


* Ch'he4ng bun ^ ^, the name of a 

United; b6n hap ^ /^^ joined toge- 

% % To wipe, to rub, to handle. Koe choo 

JfyC f'"'- j« ''""'"> m ^ "^ 1 ^ 

^"^ ^ jJAS *'* ''^^ ^"i fliou^ji ck-hit bak 
eh'kat, an orphan child moans and wipes his eyes. 
Ke kwan k«w, be siiing bun sck k'hc yOng ke hok 


kwan ko6, boey woo bong cVhong k'hi jfUng ck'kea 


hok, dwelling long in o£Bce, without handling or 
adorning the furniture, carriages, or apparel. 



The sides of the face: also, bad, im- 


To hold : te bin ^ #^^ to grasp, to 
lay^hold of. Bok bun tim sect ^[ 

^3 ^ ^' "^ "^'^ "^ m^' i» 

cheth, there is no one to hold my tongue. Sec the 

A M '^*"' sn&y. 

^^^ Literary, literature: also, ornamental, 
N/ ornament, surface. A surname. Bfin 

^^^ 16 ^g, polished, civilized: bfln 
cheang ^ ^^ bAn eheo^'S, library composition. 
Hoo-cho6 800 kaou, bQn, hfing, teung, sin, dt 

^ Eg ^. :^ ^ >'S tf . ""'"''"'^ -"» ^ *»"ff 

4y ki hwuH, bUn cheo'V, ,iy ki"A, chin teung, kap 
tin HI, Confucius had four subjects of instruction, 
regarding literature, conduct, fidelity, and sincerity. 
See the _[2_ ^ Sijing iQn. 
H«ng yiw e lek, chek t hak ''•i'' ^ ^ # ^ 

tt'l VX ^ ^' **"' <^>^!l iiD Sed woo ch'hun dy 
k'hwHjf lal, chek yung e i hak Mn, having done 
these, if a man has any remaining strength, let him 
employ it in learning. See the J^ 1^ Seang iQn. 

An autumnal sky, a clear sky. SiJn 
ho khip e bfln theen !^ ^ /^ iN 
-^ ^^ Siin haoM Chi li biin fher"^- 
Siln cried and lamented under the clear heavens. 
See ^ ^- Bing chofr. 

Bfln '^l- 


The variegated appearance of the clouds. 

The stripes in checked and embroidered 





To hold, to lift, to move. Hin 6ng 
seang heung, na6 bfln cheuk Ym ^ 

ti m Tj ff'j ^' '^*" ""^ ^""^ 

teSfc heng Wham, chew k'hi k'ha ji chaou, when the 
king of the Han dynasty was wounded in his 
breast, he took to his heels and fled. See the 

^ tZ S"° ^^■ 




Bdn hoe ffl S mooi"^ hoe, a door: 
ch'hut bfln |f{ p^, ch'hut mooi^S, to 
go out of doors, to go abroad ; bfln 
k'hoe P^ rt moof^ k'haqu, before the door: 
k'hae bfin R3 rn, k'hwui/ moo^^' to open the door., 
Ge loe yea, ley bfln ve4 ^ g^ ^. |j| f^ ^, 
ge chd loe, ley cho mooi"^, righteousness is the 
road, and propriety the door (by which we must 
enter). See 3: ^?- Beng-choo. 
T'heen chod kew bfln ^ -3^ ^ P^^ hong Uy 
kttou Ay moofS^ the Emperor has nine gates to 
his palace. 

Bun jin put k^ng Choo-loe f^ A /^ t^ "J" 
^^ hak seng u" king teung Cho6-loe, the rest of 
the disciples did not respect Choo-loe. 

Vulg. ehe^a: to hear; t'ham bun V^ 
^, fhim Vhi"a, to listen. Ch'heep 
bfln SS ^, Vhaou t'he"a, to hear by 
stealth, a liumble expression, used at the beginning 
of essays, meaning, "1 have heard," &c. 
Bfln chea bok put iiia k'hi yeen ^ ^ ^ "X^ 
^ ^ S, t'he"a dy Idng b6 ft"" hin Whi yeen, 
those who heard, universally arose to action. See 

^'"^ T ^ "^y ''^"^• 

A surname^ and ^ K Bfln-jin, a double surname. 




A kind .of grain. 

An opening in a ravine, where the 
water runs out, and the two banks 
project, like a gate way; hod e chae 



bfln ^ ^ '^'^'' 'he wild ducks stood in the 
mouth of the ravine. See the ^ ^ 1"^* 6"*?- 

M. I 

Bun t'hog fl[@ 5^, eheih ftutSu, to hang 
down the head. 

The sign of the plural number; ji bun 
/|A» -ftlH lin, ye, you people; gno bun 
4fe -JWH /an, we, us. This character 
is common in novels. 



Read bin : a cake ; hftn rhofi peng 
•fiS pg ^j^ Mn t'haSu pe"d, a flat 
cake made of meal, a biscuit: bin 
fS bUn t'haott, bread. 

Vulg: mool"^ : to enquire, to ask ; 
seng bfln ^ Bfl^ sle"a bun, a report, 
a sound. 




Kwuy-loe bun soo kwuy sin, -, Choo wat, be 14ng 
.so5jin, yeenlengso5 kwuy, ^ J^ fj] ^ ^ 

Kwuy-loe moof^ hok sae kwuy sin dy sod ; Hoo-cho* 
kong, boiy iy hok sae Idng, boiyh an ch*v"d iy 
hok sal kwHy, Kwuy-loe asked about worshipping 
ghosts and spirits : Confucius said, we cannot 
yet serve men properly, how then can we wor- 
ship ghosts. See the J^. |iffl Siiang lun. 
Ban jln R^ jr^^mooi^jin, " He asked about be- 
nevolence :"— ! un 15 |jg ^p, mooV'S te, " He asked 
about knowledge." 

A fat and plump appearance. 

Report, fame anything that is heard. 
Lfing bOn k6ng fi, se 6 sin •^ ^ ^g 

k'hwih dy 16, se 6 bin sin, an honorable fame, 
and extensive praise bestowed upon a person. 
.See the "J^ ^ Hay b£ng. 




fCl9 Sorrow, trouble: yew bQo i^ B9 , 
Bun I^^J hwdn 16, to grieve. Hwan bOn ffi B3 , 

' '^ grief: wut bun ^ PM^ vexation. 
Tan si bo6 bQn, jg; -jy^ M^ ^^ chaiu seim si 
kan, jt M tcjrf ckul, to retire from the busy 
world without regret. See the Mj t^ yeth keng. 

.^^L^ To be in confusion, disordered. Kong 
Bun -^^S" ke bOn Iw-an ^ |G ^ §[, the af- 

fairs of government in confusion. 

The name of a stream : chek god pit chae 

Bun iy\/* ^"^ '^^"5 ^ M'J p- 'i^" ^ 5^ -t 

at that time I >ball be dwelling upon the river 
BQn. See the J^ 1^ Siiing iQn. 




The name of a small fish : the tail 
of a fish. 

Bui but a. any thing small. 

. Do not, an expression of prohibition. 

/jfj\ but to« lA j« bong kong ^ ^ ^ 

^wi jt M ktng 16, do not put yourself vainly to 
trouble, without getting the merit of it See the 
f,^ ^ Siri'Vr „. 

But khe yiji ^ & ijl > """ ''""^ P'*'"?". <lo 
not deceive. 

^ ^ To bury, to inter, to put under ground. 
T^>^ T'hoe hap ch'h6 jOng, i li but sin 

Aap <'MjrA jrting', ^ /^ Acj ftut Atn iiri, to contract 
clandestine intimacies, and to take e\erylhing easy, 
till we bury ourselves in ruin. Sec the BP gP 

Bo6 ke. 


J# "Z 

ut but ^m Uj^^ a lofty appearance; 






To beat, to strike, to whip with a 
stick or bamboo. E' m4 peen but IX| 

with a whip, 
w ^ % To end, to finish, to die* not, ^not to 

he. Kwun chuo put e be but lev 


d^ ling bS e ho A'*w"d, but b6 ley soi, the good 
man does not do away with propriety, for the 
sake of elegance. See the fig gP L6y ke. 
Kwun choo chit but se, j5 bfing put ch'heng yecn 

Choi iy ling chit pafS, yin way but b& te si, j£ me" a 
u" ch'heng hoe y'een, the honorable man is pained 
at being nothing in the world, and because his 
name is not celebrated. 

Vulg: mei"*: a thing, an existence, a 
person, another person. Ban but yeik 

y«en H 4^ "S i^. "" ""*"* """^ 

ycuk, all things nourished and growing. See the 
r[l JJ Tiiung yOng. 

But gn6 chc ''•n !^ fj^ ;^ ^, "•'#"* gwi iy 
timmg kan, between one's lelf and othera.^^' 
mri"h chi kek, jitn adu te kaiu t'hadu, when an • 
acquaintance with things is carried to the ut- 
most, then is knowledge at its height. 

^yC5 But jiik ^ ^, myrrk. 


A kind of vegetable. 

^^ -^h l^o die, to d('C(' Seuk-rheem wat, 
But JO^^ Chhoe 6ng k* put biit hoe i^ ^ 

cheem king, Ch'hoi Sng k( fi"* ti hoi, Senk-cherm 


said, why will not the King of Ch'hoi expire i Siii' 
the ^ ^ Ch6 twin 




Ka bwd ^ i& a kind of wood: the 
spreading branches of a tree. 

Read n>fl : to grind ; mo to ^ Tj^ 
bwd to, to grind a knife. J6 tok j€ 
m6 ^p J^ ^p 1^^ ch-hin cheo"S tok 
ch'hin cheats bwi, like chiselling and grinding. 
See the J^ |^ Seing lOn. 

M6 16y 6 se 1^ :^ j/;[ ^^^ bwd Uy i yung. to 
grind anything for use. See the ^£ j|& Cho twiln. 




. ^ Read bwat: to paste, to besmear, to 

^kJ^ anoint. E' hwun bwat been ]^ ^ 

4^ i4^ |S, Vh6 hwAn bwik bin, to 

smear the face with white paint. 


Bwah -% 

Read bwat: the small end, the extreme 
point of any thing. 

Read tat ; as, kwun tat ^5 "gg^ kwun 
bwSh, the beta vulgaris; and hoe 
tat cb'ha^ lg_ ^g 35, kaou bwah 
cKhai, a kind of turnip. 

Hong chin cheaou tat leet IS aS ^p i^ SI, 

I I 

Aong- chin long chSo bwah kdou leih, the wind 

agitated the plantains and turnip tops, till their 

leaves were split. 

Bvvan Ti 


Vulg. mw"d: to fill, to replenish, to 
complete; full. A surname. Ch'ho 
bwan tS t6ng, siiy bw&n gafi ^. 
1^ yk ■}!& ffij cKhaou mw^d ti long, 
chUy mw'"d gai, the grass overspread the pond, 
and the water filled it up to the briuk. 
Ch^ tek 6 bwan i ;j^ ^, yj^^ sim chi tit 
teSh i sod mw"d, obtaining one's wish, and fulfil- 
ling one's intention. 


Troubled: hwun bwan *r5 "^, vexed. 
So6 jin hwin bwan, sit put hay 



hwdn bwdn, cheih bey ISh, to make people so 
vexed, that they cannot stomach it. See the 
^|£So6 ke. 

^_ >• Evening, dusk ; late. Vulg. mai"^ 
r||JLs ftmw"^, evening ; mooj"^, late. Kwun 
y^ h6 keen che bwan ^ ifpf J^ 2l 
gflij li seo kei"^ kabu he&h mooi^S^ how came 
you to see me so late? See the ^f£ Soo ^^■ 
Seang kiJen hwun bwan i^ ^ |^ Bjfej **" 
kei'"S hwun mooi"^, it is a pity we have seen 
each other so late. 

I A» To pull, to drag: yin bwan ^j ^, 
J'ft^ to lead. Bwan hiifiy t'heen e J^ 

dj/ i, to reverse the decree of heaven. 









To pull a carriage. 

Hwun bwan ny flffi ^ to be in labour, 
to be delivered. 

To restrain, to hold back. 

To forget, to let slip out of the mind. 




tf^jt., Bwin ch'heang ^ jfe, pwH ch-hed"S, 
\rnifi ^" climb over a wall. Bw4n ch'hut 
wllf>§ k'he ^ ^ -^^ pw"d ch'hut k'he, 
to run over, as liquor. 

Rice water boiled to a consistency, 
l^l^l and concealed. 



Bw4n e 

a large face. 






Not clear-sighted, to conceal from 
view, to deceive. Tae jfn put bw4n, 
go« sit y6w choSy ^ A ^ B||. 

■^ ^ fE, '""" '^"^ ''^^ »nie"4, gwd rit 

00 choey, your honour cannot be deceived, I am 
really in fault. 

Ch6-ch'bd seiou, joo i-bw4n ^ ^ /[> ^ 
Kpj" ^, ChS-eh'M liy, je d-mw^i, when Ch«- 
ch'ho was young his designation was ' the little 
cheat. ' 

% * Vulg. bwih: to spread, over, to rub, 
^k3p» to smear; to anoint. San bwat b£ 

i^ y>" ll4 tt ^ m, -"- ^'' "' 

hwHn, the hills were overspread with small 

To feed a horse with com. 

Vulg. mih: the pellicle, thin skis. 

The end, the extreme, a minor point; 
not, do not. But y^w p6n bwat 
4fcl ^" aZ "* mei"h woo pUn bwih, 

things have beginning and end, (i. e. weightier 
and minor points). 

w _%^^ The name of a water : yefin bwat ^ 
Bwat WtIP j^, sp>"le- Seang se 6 bwat -^ ^ 
W^ Kl ^^ seo bak i nw"o, befouled 

with spittle. 



Bwat h6 ^ j^^ to rejoice. 

JtXjl^ Vulg. ftoi^A.apair of stockings: bwat 
Bwat ^S j6 teng t&ng ^ iffi ^ ^, cKhfng 
'J ./5AQ boij/hjt cheb"S ti"^, wearing stock- 
ings, he ascended the ball. 
jj» , «| .m^ The same as the foregoing : l£ng p'ho 
Bwat ^jw b« P°e> '* bwksengtln '^^^ 

T^ i^. P ^ ^ E *"^ '*^^ '^^ 

•^^ a^ poi, U Wijffc »«"* <f», going over the 
wmter with small paces, our silk ttockings get 

covered with dirt. 

Bwuy ^tfAF Small rain. 


Dark, the eyes not ieei*c well. 


Out boi lAng ^ ^ A a woman,— (a 
provincial expression). Hoo jln lit 

^^j cha boi ling bat ("a me{''h to li, as to women, 

what do they know about reason ! 



Read ch6: early, soon, quickly, for- 
merly. Ch6 (In SL^^ chd k'hi at, 
in the morning, early. 

Cho teSou J^ ^, «" *'*< oy teiou, an early 
audience, at Court. 

Cho y6w 6 6 t'heen hay .^ ^ ^ ^ ^ "|5", 
ehd woi Utl ehe^ iy, he would soon obtain ce- 
lebrity throughout the Empire. See the ip J^ 
Teung ydng. 

Cho hfing put kcdn ch'heng san been !^^'^ 
B ^ l|| ^^ cM k'hi tt ke^i, b6 ehn^H cVhai'^ 
«ie"a dji bin, travelling early in the morning, we 
cannot see the face of the blue mountains. 






To plant ; a plant : chae 4a5u haou 
^4r ^ ^^ to plant nutmegs. Chae 
chea po6y che j^^ j^ '^ , '^'""' 
Ay «u<e"h pbij/ yaug e, fostering that which is plant- 
1 ed. See the rfj ^ Teung y&ng. 

Te wit chae, teang wat s5 |^ Q ^^ :^ 0M' 
sey Chang kong chae, twa chdng king ch'hew, those 
of smaller growth are called plants, and those 
of larger growth trees. » •^ 

%,^ ^ An expression of wonder, or excla- 
Chae ^"^il? tion; a note of admiration, Heeu chae 

"y\ Ha«y jea ^ "^ |p) ■fji , S^'" '''"'* 
Ho6y a, how clever was Htiey. See the J^ =jm 
Seang I&n. 
Tae chae, Ge&ou che wQy kwun yea^ 'Str ^r 

how great was Geiou as a prince ! See' .the same. 
T'heen h^ gSn chae ^ -^ "g* '^, /'A^e"^ Chae 
t'ho ruoo kdngwa chae, ho\r can Heaven hdild dis- 
course ! See the "TT I^S Hay lun. 

f /# Calamity, affliction : chae Ian jJSJ pff^ 
^M^ trouble. Kdw chae, sut lis, to yei 

itU Uyh p'eih ling, si to yea, to deliver people 
from trouble, and pity one's neighbours, is the 
way of virtue. See the T^ iMt Ch6 twan. 
Bo6 chae bod hae M Jif ifel ^ M chae bo hai, 
without trouble or danger. 
^I-JLm Distress and trouble : chae hai p^ng 
Chae ■ ICC^ '^^^^ *"y y^"' *^^° chea, ek bo6 jS 
jf^ cheh6 e. %^m^M^ 

poi hadu suy oo ho 6y l&ng, yed h6 hwat e tae ud, 
when calamity and affliction come all at once, 
although a good man were at the head of af- 
fairs, he could not help it. See the ^ ^ Tae hak. 

.^Jj^m Pure, respectful ; to fast, and purify 
Chae ^^^S- one's-self ; also, a quiet, retired place, 
/A|>| a school. 


Chae kae bok yeuk chek k'ho e soo seang tdy ] 

^ ?^ M^ i^. ail H W )tiB ± ^' ^""V 

ch'hai ch&ng ek, chiw Chang hok saS teang tty, 
having fasted and bathed, fhen one may worship 
the highest Emperor (i. e. the Supreme). See 
j^ ^ Beng.choo. 

Se chae chek cbeng ^ 7^ ^ |^^ to iih chek eheng, 

a place of learning, quiet a^d retired. 

The ancient form of the above charac- 

Chae ^\if^ *^'' ' ^"* '''** ^J ^^- ^^^ name of 
a hill. 



Goods, wealth, treasure. 


Read te : to know, to be acquainted 
with. Te che, wuy te che, *— put te, 
wuy put te, se te yea ^ :^ ^ ^J 

chi chae, «*" chae I'eHh chb u"* chae, chiy chew $e 
chae yed, when you know anything, account 
that you know it, and when you do not know 
anything, account that you do not know it; this 
is knowledge. See the _[[_ §m Siiang lun. 

. % To rule, to regulate, to arrange : ji 

Chan ^BT— surname. Choo chae ^ ^^ a ruler. 

■^T* T'ha^ chae chijang ke^n pang che 

leuk te6n, e cho 6ng pfing pang kok, yj^^ 

t'hai chat cheang kvcan pang dy lak tein, i hoo 
chb 6ng po^ ti pang kok, the prime minister 
controls the six boards, in order to assist the 
sovereign in pacifying the country. See the B JM 
Chew ley. 

Chae seang ^ jfjA^ a prime minister. Choo-loe 
way Kwuy-se chae ^ !^ |^ ^ ^ ^, Choo- 
loe chi KwAy-iB iy chat, Cho6-loe was a steward 
over the household of Kwily-se. Seethe _K ^fi^ 
Seang iQn. 

Cha6 che ban but $ ^) ]|| ^ , chat kwin 
bin meS^h, to govern all things. 




So6 pfing tek chae t'hcea hay, ek j6 ch'hoo jeuk 

i^^i^^^l^, t^ jffi llfc 1^, "i'-' 

-./I S^a e^ tit chae ti fhee"^ ij/y V^^ cKhin ched"S 

■; l,thej/.l4}i J«aA, let, 1719 succeed in, fnanaging' the Em- 

',,(1 eke, jiust as.I do tjiis, flie^, ofiflesb j — thi? was 

a wifh expressed by ^0 -^ Tin-ping, nHen he 

was offering a sacrifice, and cutting up the flesh 

for the same. See the ^ ^ f^ Ttn-phis twin. 


Chae >y 


P'hene chae •'^ ^p, to boil, to cook. 
" <r» tin 

The grounds or sediments of liquor : 
chey chae -jg -i^ sediment. 

Bold, courageous, daring. 

%Jfc-> A child J the peopk of ^^ ^ Kang- 
Chai' \ J '^"' province, formerly caljed their 

IV^^ children char. 



A year; the beginning i an aflair : then ; 
also, an expletive. J£ lip yew pat 
chad, HoDg-hwun aat'e^oi i*k J^l 

pii/h nei"S, Uong-hwun nat ti I6h, after twenty 
eight|yeais H6ng-hwua i. e. ( Geftou Jlfc ) departed 
. this ^l^fe;„ , ,.^ ^^_,, 
T'hopg s6 Cheng, choo K»t chae }^^ |]E^ 
^M, ^*W Whi ch'hay clfenf; kwl, choS Kat 
ik'IfiJ'hAou, when T'hong began his military opera- 
tions, he commenced from .the , Kat diitrict. See 

:j^ Beng- 


1 1111 lii 


Again, to repeat ; chad sam TH — * . 
ehai ("a, again and again. Yit che 
wfly Sim, k'h^ k'ho chad hoe — ~y 

^ ^. ^ pT # f-. "^' *«*' "«"^ '**^' 

k'kdm iy Chang k9h koi, once is t,oo ofleo, how 
can it be repetted. .>'ilyiin« 

Chae soo k'ho e ||- ffif "pT -^l , *e* cMl Afly, 
cW» Vhang, once more repeated, and it will be 
sufBcient. See the _^ =^ Seang iQn. 

*^* A debt: h< 

Chae ^"S* to be in d 

'^ \ choo sun. 

A debt : hoo chad "S •fW *<'^ cAdj^, 

debt. Mae tefin t'hck, yifuk 

e ch'he4ng chae ^y OT S2 

^ ■?" ^' I5I M 1%j *^-'' ''*''"'" '^'''*"*' *'* *'^'''' 
lun, i ch'hedng ch&g, to dispose of fields and 

houses, and to sell children and grandchildren, in 

order to pay one's debts. See the B|| vM ^^ 

Che£n Wka se. 


Sim seftng chiw chad, hdng ch'he yew ^a 

iP iS. "ft lE W' ''"" "^"ff ^* '■**'" '^''^^l '■*''" 
cAa2 icfi^y woS, common tavern scores for liquor, 

may be met with io every place. 


Talent \ chae Ung ^ ^^ e*a« <ea»i/, 
ability. Chunhefinyeuk cha*, dch^ang 
TM chun A*"*" ffilJu /ii/r. ye"* ch'hi vioo cha( teaou 

licit ' 

Ai/, i Chiang btng ved tek, we should honour the 
good, and foster the clever, in order to bring- 
to light those who have virtue. See the "K i" 
Hay beng. 


Chat Iciou n* Ja., materials : kwan 
chad j^ j^ ^ *'*"« ch'hi, a coffin." 
Chad bok put k'h6 sin yOng yei 

;^ /f: ^ "f # /H ifi, '"'"^ »«* w ''""•e 

leaou e ij/ gang, then the timber will be more 
than can be exhausted by use. See the _J^ ■3r 
Scing beng. 


Money, wealth, cash : chiidn chad ^S 
^ ehel^f chat, money. Hwat chad 
% ftt, '" 5^' wealthy I chad k'hd 

nl- ^^ a wealthy influence. 

Chad hoo ^ ^, » cashier, a book-keeper, a 


Lftm hong che sd hdy, k'ho d hoo god bin che 





Pc I^ Wf '^ ) '^'" ^"^ ^y *^' ''^"ff ch'hdng 
chey gwd pSt/h sai"^ iy chai, the timely influence 
of the southern wind can increase the wealth of 
my people. Part of an ode made by ^E Sdn. 

%,%^ To cut as with a scissors } to regulate, 

ChaS '3-l> *" measure. Cha6 h6ng ^ ^ , a 

^Ir^'^^ tailor, one who cuts out, and stitches 


Hoe e chag sfing t'heen tey che *" ip' J^ ^ 

file ^ ^ y^ ^> '^ ''""'^ '^^"^ ''^^"^ i'See"? 
tey dy to, your majesty can clip and contrive (act 
according to) th((S way of Heaven and Earth. 
See the ^ |^ nkh keng. 


, Read chfiy : the navel •, ch6y tae ^ ^, 
»^ chai twi. the navel strinsr. Jeak put 


chaS twi, the navel string. 

cho toe, hoe cheang se chfiy ^ ^^ 

SL tj] ^^ f^ I^ 1^, «« «" <'*" '^''^ '"^ ^' """ 
lai cheang chekh lot chai, if you do not speedily 
lay a plan to circumvent him, he will eventually 
prevail so far as to eat your very navel. 

To load, to burden, to bear as a bur- 
den, to sustain, to hold. T'heen hok 
tey chae %^]^ 1^, fhee"^ fhak 
tey chae, the heaven overspreads, and the earth 
under-props ( all things ). 

Suy k'ho chae chew, ek k'ho hok chew ^M^ pT 
^ j6x. -j^ pT ^ A- ^ chUy t'hang chae chUn, 
yea Vhang p'hak chUn, water can float vessels, and 
the same element can also overwhelm them. 
The words "f j^ "^ Yftng-choo. 


Vulg. te: at, in, to consist in, to re- 
main at, to be in existence, to be pre- 
sent. Chae ^J te tit, to be present ; 
put chae "^ /fc *^ te tit, to be absent. 
Tae hak che to, chae b6ng bSng tek, chae sin 
bin, chae ch6 S ch^ seen ^ ^ ^ ^ '^ ^ 

hak Ay td li, tl btng btng iy tele, tB cl/hong tin 
pSyh tai^, te hlty"h twa te chi hd, the doctrine 
of the great school, consists in illustrating res- 
plendent virtue, in renovating the people, and in 
stopping at the point of extreme virtue. See the 
^ ^ Tae hak. 

, name of an animal. 

Chae Rg* Hae chae 

^^^ Hae chae iM ^ ^ an animal, found in 
the north-east, with one horn, which 
attacks only vicious persons. 

To beat, to strike. 

A portcullis ; s«ng bOn chSh jhj^ H^ 
P^ ^ ie"i mool^S chkh, the portcullis 
of a city gate. Suy chSh y^ ^ ^ 
chiiy chiih, a water-gate, a flood-gate. 



The same as the preceding. 

Cheet twan W m\ , chSh ioot^S, to 
cut off, to cut short. Kim Tfing cheet 
te&ng po6 tw&n, chiiang gno£ sip le 

kok, chih 16"^ poi tiy, cheang boiyh goi chap li, now 
if you cut off the longer parts of the T£ng 
country, and take them to supply the shorter, 
you will find it to be about 50 square Le in 

Chai "S- 

% \ 

Read cheng : To wrangle, to strive, 
to contend. Kwun cho6 bo6 sey 

Chen? ^ ^UllT # . *"""• 
cho6 &y ling bS sty chai^, a good man never 

wrangles. See the J^ IS Seang lOn. 








Read cheng: a well; a surname. 
Cheng yew jSn yeea ^ /^ A 
t£ chai''S vi woo ling, there is- a 
person in the well. 

Cheng t^y koe I'heen ^\&Wi^,'^^'""^ 
titf Icoi Chei'S^Xo be looking at the heavefls, fronn 
the bottom of a well (by which means the 
heavens woufd look very smalt'); — intimating 
that a person who does so has narrow views. 



Read ch6ng : clear weather, fiae 
weather: 6 chfing ?J3 ^^ ^ hoe 

chafS, Ib^ rain is cic&red up. 

Read chcng: quiet, still ; am cheng 
Rh W-" ""*■ ''*'""^» clandestine. 

Chak M^lf* Ak chak ^ ^^ narrow, confined. 







A weight tied to a net,, to sink- it 
down in the water. 

Am Cham ^ )||^j '« »^. <**'»!. 
filthy, anything not clean. 

The same as the preceding; also, to 
hoil ; sore lip*. 

To peck at any tbingj asabirddoes. 

Cham K/^,,1. ™^i »'»<>> ♦« ^o™'* 




Pointed, sharp. 


Vulg. chom: a bodkin, a hair-pin. Hwa- 

Cham 9^^Ck *^''*™ -t£ W"' "^ flowered bodkin. 
Y"**! Kim cham -^ ^fe, a golden bod- 
kin. Kijey cham ^2, ^^, a hair-pin, 
Luy toe cham eng .^ 'f^ ^ ^, kvri^ na ley 
le cham kwd eng, "for several generations, wear- 
ing hair pins and tassels;'' — an allusion to fami- 
lies which, for successive ages, have been in office. 

^ ^^ 1 o cui o 

Cham mjT $\ M> 

-X7 I cut off. 

To cut off, to bebead;- cham siiey 
the edges of a garment, 
and left uabemmed, as iiv 
uistoraary when mourning for a father. 
Ch4m hwat sod kok llff -f jr; Pt) P] , c***™ *»'" 
lu wug ij) kok, to ciii off the nations all around. 
See the /K 5 1£ Seaou gnay. 
Cham ch'h6 tfi kin ^ ^ ^^^, <^*'''" '^''■'"«"' 
tiih It kin, when cutting off weeds, you should 
extract the roots; — Intimating that the evil roust. 
be completely eradicated. 

Cb6m s*w ban kip ^ "^ 'Iff ^^ cham Ch&ou 
ehi^A ban kip, he cut off heads, to the amount. 
of several myriads. 


..|l. !., 

A •u^namO'^ 

The ,iMme'a{.A,.^iliii-. 

Cham ^ 

Anything steeped or soaked ' ia 
mter. f',^*^ 

To break; to slander; to speak evil 
of any one. Gn6 ycff k^ng i, ch&m 
PJ5^ gftnk6hin^^l^^^||-|- 
y Mi. gad Ay site. It teSh s^j/ je, lai p'hwa 
i.y via tit hin k'hi, my friend you must be careful, 
for slanderous accusations are about to arise. 
See the /J> ^ Seaou gniy. 




Cham y 






To stand alone, to stand long. 

K'heng cham \n My, k^hai''S chSm, 
a ditch or moat round a city wall. 

A chisel, to chizel and cut stones. 
To cut off, to file away. 

Bushy, overgrown with thorns and 

Kw^p^ A cord, a string: a general term 
■^ for silk. 

Chan >Vra^ a net for catching fish. 


A'V Read cheng : a surname : Cheng-choO 
Chanf^^r >*"& Cheng-sek pit yew chfew jetlk 

Chan-choo yei"^ ch'he Chan-tek pit teXh woo cWu>_, 
kai 61th, Chan-cho6, in supporting Chan-sek, 
would always have wine and flesh for him. See 
^ ^ Beng-choo. 


^pWM A cup : chew chan y ^ JS, chiw chw"d, 
"1^^^*^ a wine cup. Also written -^ chan. 

Chan Pii^i- !■ "•y"^"'- ^"'S- ''"• 

\7jtC^ To collect, and assemble together. 





To run away, to be driven away. 

To help, to assist : chek k'ho e chan 
t'heen tey che hwa yeuk H|J "pT LI 

chart I'hee"^ ley &y hwk yeuk, then they (the 
sages) could assist the regenerating and fostering 
efforts of heaven and earth. 





A sacrificial implement used in the 
/ F^l ancestorial temple. 

/-ii V '^?5e^^ Vulg. 16: to praise, to applaud, to 

Chan — ^t* 

r% ps| commend. 

J.>1- To connect, to continue, to succeed. 
^^%^ Bo6-dng chan T'hae-6ng, Ong-kwuy, 
5^ BQn-6ng che si ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 
T ^ ^ ^P Z' ^» Boo-Sng kiy awd Thai- 
6ng, Ong-kwity, BAn-ong &y sw"A, Bo6-6ng con- 
nected the thread of succession from T'hae-6ng, 
Ong-kwuy, and Bun-6ng. See the ptl ^ Teung 

The name of a place: four 16 make 
a chka. 

A story, an upper chamber: yeuk 
kijfing ch'hijen le bok, keng seang 


J ^S' Jr^j "^ boiyh keAng chin che^i ch'heiig 

li dy bak, t'eSh kSh ched"^ chit chart dy l&ou, if 
you want to see to the utmost of a thousand 
le, you should still ascend another story of 
the gallery. 





Superfluous; to add; also, oppressive, 
_ ^.,.^ cruel, injurious. Chek ge chea, wuy 
^ che chau^^^ll;^^^ 
chek hue ge, se king kid chin, to injure what 
is right, is called Ch4n, injurious. 





ChSn jim 
to ruin. 

^^ cruel: ch4n pae ^ 

To injure another from covetous 



Read cheSn: Before. 

Che£n hoe ajj 
chdn aou, before and behind. 
Kwun che^n sin bSng, hoo cheSn 
choo bfing, put ek che '^ jea ^ "mf B ^, 

cMn, jin tin teSh kit) me^d, ned'W pajf ehin, haou 
taC^S teSh ked me"d, bS £ ek ig to U, in a prince's 
presence, a minister should use his own name 
(instead of the personal pronoun I); and in 
a father's pr&sence, a son should use his own 
name -, this is an invariable doctrine. See the 

W. E ^'y "*• 


Read choe: to help, to asistt, Pang 

Chan Vnt '^^°^ ^ ^' P""^ *■*""' *° ""^'P 

and aid. 
Hijfiy jea, hwuy choe gno chci jek, t gofi gin 
bo6 s6y put wit |pj yj Jj. ^ 1^ ^ ^^ 

gwd Ay Idng, nd le te gwd ty wa, e bi $iy i" 
hw^a hi, Hb£y does not assist me in anything, 
but with respect to my words, he is invariably 
pleased with them. See the "K f^ Hay lun. 




Chan pang 

JS^ a warehouse, a 

Read chong: the name of a tree, — 
p'h£ k'h6 chok chong siiey J^ pT 

IF ■''^ ^s> P'^'^9 thang chd chang 
tdey, — the hairy bark of which can be made up 
into rain mantles. It is also used for making 
brushes, trunks, and other things. 


To pull, to drag, to lead. 



Read chong : to run on a sand-bank, 

to run aground. Chiin chong cheak 

chdn chang leBh, the 

ship is aground, 
j^ . % Read chong: a mane: ma chong 

Chang RjrV E) ^w *"•" '■*""«■' » house's mane. 
^2f*J^ Chin chew chin yit m4, chong jfi 
g6w hang hay sQy ^ >jj.| 5^ — B|^ |^^ ^p 
•tt 'Ja^ J> ^g. Chin &y chew ehin chit cheilh 
bay, chang ch'hin cheo^S go6 am kwtin May, 
the Chin country sent in a horse, as a present, 
whose mane was like the banging dewlap of 
a bull's neck. 
% ^ Read chong: a fish of the southern 

Chans rfl"? t-— ^Si which has a stone in its head, 
iUv.oC^ and is called, sek siw g6 ^ g 
^ ckiSh fhaiu hi, stone-headed fish. .\lio 
called, ch'hek chong g* ^ |^ ^^ , ch'hedh 
chang hi, red fish. 

tS^ Read chong : a tail ; t'hoC chong 

Chang Jj^ ^ ^ , '''"'^" '^'"'^' » ••'' °^ ''"''■• 

■^J>^ T'hofi chong hi p'heaou g^ ^ 
JS M ^ fhadu chang boty p-hU, ticket for^ 
a tax on Chinamen's tails, levied in Batavia. 

% % _ Read chong: a lofty tree, with large 
chang TT "Trt leaves and no branches; a kind of 
I vJ^ palm, bushy at the head, like a 
cocoa nut tree. 

Read chong: a queue or tail, made 
of twisted hair. 




Read chong : 

generally, entirely. 

Read chong: a kind of confectionary, 
made of millet, folded up with 
\\ sharp corners, and uaetl. on the feast 
of the 5th day of the 5th moon: it is also called 
kak s£ pq ^^, cornered millet. 





Kk^-^ Read chong: hefin choog ^^, 
Chang 2^j;^« he6'"S cMng, a part of a loom by 
^'n| ' which the threads are separated, to 
admit of the shuttle passing to and fro. 

Read ch6ng: a bush; a numeral of 
trees and flowers; se chdng- ^t ^ 
cKhew chdng, a bush of a tree. 
K'heng loe sey ch6ng keuk |I ^^ ^ ^ ^, 
k^kin di/ loe chiiy hafh te chit chdng keuk hwa, 
the light dew rested upon the bush of the 
chrysanthemun flower. 

To stab, to pierce; also, to hack. 

Wood half burnt; ch'haS chaou ^ 
iM cK'hd chaou, a fire brand but 
half consumed, and put by for 
lighting again. 

Read cho : the grains, or refuse, after 
brewing: chew cho 'ffi ^, chew 



chaou, the refuse of rice after 

Gwa,n-hijen put yeem cho k'hong ^S ^^ ^K 
JD^ !?§ ^fi^j Gi£i/i«-Ae^n id heim ehiw chaou be 
k'heng, Gw4n-heen did not refuse to cut grains 
and chafif. See the ^ =g Soo kd. 

JL,p^ Chaou 16, a sieve made of bamboo, 

Chaou ITT ^°^ straining liquor. When birds 

^W^^t. dwell in caverns their retreats are 

"n^ chaou, and when ia trees they are 


ch^ou, nests. 




Long, anything that looks long. 
Yflng ch4ou 6 j6 ch'he "yeen ^ 
# ^ Ifn li" ^ VcV <^"^ WS 
Ay eh'hod ji Vhea, to erect a long building and 
dwell therein. 



Read cho6: To run, to run away, 
to run quickly. K'he kap e peng 
jSchoe^^ ^£C.^^, 
t'hek kak chehn kSh, fhwa Iwa peng to, ji chaou, 
they threw away their armour, reversed their 
weapons, and fled. See the J^ ^ Seang beng. 

^^^ Read cho : a flea ; kaou cho \^ ^, 

Chadu "^l**^ *« chaou, a flea. Kaou cho cho soo 

KK lay sat ^0'^%^^^%% 

-ffl* ka chaou chd sod luif sat bo, the flea makes 

a disturbance, and involves the louse in trouble. 

For the flea bites sharp, and immediately jumps 

away; while the lazier louse, lingering about 

the place, is caught and killed. Said of sharp, 

cunning fellows, who do all the mischief, and 

leave the duller ones lo bear the brunt of it. 

^ Chaou a, a daughter ; this is an ex- 

ChaoU Ji H pression of inferiority, intimating the 

J\ n « light esteem in which the Chinese 

hold their daughters ; when asked if they have 

got a son, they say, chaau 4 te"o /e"a, only a 

daughter I 


Read cho : a furnace, a fire place, a 
cook-house. Cho keak -m- JkI), 
j^lni chaiu k'ha, a cooking place. 
E' ke me 6 d, ISng me * ch" ]/J[ ^ ^ ^ 

k'ho sSep se 6 chaou, instead of flattering the god 
of the south-west corner of the house, ( who, 
though he is commonly honoured, is yet held 
in but little esteem), is it not better to flatter 
the god of the kitchen, (who, though not entitled 
to a constant sacrifice, yet on certain occasions 
is served with the highest honours). Said to 
Confucius, by one who wanted him, instead of 
seeking the fovour of the acknowledged princes 
of his day, to get into the good graces of their 
ministers, who, at times, might be cabled to do 
him more service. See the J^ |^ Seang lun. 







Read cho*: to report to the Emperor; 
also, to play music. Cho^ k^ gak 
^ ^ 1^, thfiiv-e iygak, to play ^ 

'tbe music (of the ancient kings). 

T6ng-gwuy-tin hcen sip soo soe, choe t6ng 

? T^ -^j Tong-^uy-lin hetn chap hang »'eo''S 

&y 10^ pin, chadu fi^d T'hai-chong, T6ng-gwDy- 
tln presented a document, recommending the con- 
sideration of ten things, which he reported to 

. ■ ;ljni 'li. .'1", ■■ 

Tha^-chone. , 

A nest, a bird's nest : a surname. Neaou 
cha6u 1^ ffi. cheadu sew, a bird's 
nest. Seang chea wfly chadu, hay 
chea' way k'hwut ± :^ ^, i|. 1^ ^ £S 
7^ ; k'hSh kwdn dy way chd chaou, k'Uth kay dy 
tciiy chd k^hwul, in the higher parts or the land 
they form nests, and in the lower, caverns. See 
the J- ^ Ched"e Mag. ' ' < 

The name of a lake which produces 

To exterminate, to kill: y6w chijcy 
chaflu sam chok ^ fp ^ ^ j^t 
woo ckoly chatu ("a ekok, being 

criminal, the family mutt be exterminated to 

the third generation. 

An yDng chaOu h'n ^ ^ ^ ^' ^a $oS 

lesh cha6u chwal piyh laV^, what is the Use of 

,1 .• ,1. ■ . , --llllii );l'', 

extermmatmg the people! 

I /Jill 

ChaOu ^>i 


A deep succession of chambers in 
a dwelling. 

Chaou sim t^ ?«, chaiu ch'huiy, to 
seek after, to search. Chaou hwSn 
44} A^ to pay what is deficient, ' 
to liquidate all demands: when an account is 

squared, the Chinese write in the|r account 
books i^ Chauu, settled. ' " - 


A long oar, used for guiding and 
impelling a boat. K'hey ch'him 
se&ng kii^n chaou, se wan han 
bfln Cheung ^^ g« '^ ^ ;ffi;^ ^ ^ 
^W*'ft' *""*^.y '■*''J' cA'Wm seing se&ng k'hw"a 
ki^S chaou, e^S hwui"S hdn lit Che" a cheng, 
when the rirer is deep we frequently observe 
the oarv when the temple is distant we seldom 
hear the bell. Also written XS chaou. 

f -n- 

'Mu'if; "ra'yiiy and tloil|iy' 'gifoand; 

also, amicable. 

lb tilqii-M) odt . 

The Doiae of a multitude. 

I. nv.j'p iU,i a II < , ,/ 

A gallery, a. railtag. 

Read t'han: to lake, in hold. 

Complete; chew chap yit siiey JS rn 
■— ^^ chew chap chit hoty, on? whole 
year. ' 

The same as the foregoing; bwia chap 
)>H ^' "'k"* chap, fully complete. 

Jtwk ■ Chap choo ^|j ^^ a document : chap 
ChapyC?|| ke leiik :^ij |Q ^, .record. LQn 

V^ >P b^ jin Teangse, yin I'biiung chap choo 

; .IfeM A3^KJia M^^, lankipO^hin 

. , eVhai"S dy Ung Teo"S tg, tew yin t'heiine, ^9 '■*"P «• 
a' document respecting Mrs. TSo"^, a fair, lady, 
w.h(i. enjoyed extraordinary favour. 





Chap > 



To soak through, to imbibe; *l8o, full, 
complete. Kaou hwa chap heep ^^ 
'fl' J^ jA^ instruction diffused 
throughout the mind. ■"• ;■ 'j 

Chap sin che kan, Ch^hoe k*tiek sani toe ^ ^ 
i^ P^. ^ ^ ^ ^> c'lap je jrt ty kan, Ch'hoi 
k'hilh i/e"A i'a dj/ toe yip, in the course of twelve 
days, the Ch'hoe country conquered three capital 
cities. See the ^ -j^ Cho twan. 

A small slip of bamboo, on which 
the ancients used to write notes and 
memorandums. Also, an early death. 

Se chap § f^\j, the modern term for a letter. 

Bin put yaou chap ^^'^^> P'^^^ '"^"^ 

b6 chd ai, the people did not come to an early 

death. See the J^ ^ Cho twan. 



When a flsh opens its mouth to swal- 
low anything, it is called chap: any- 
thing entering the mouth. Chap 
ch'huy Pijl Pj^ t« smack the Ups. 




The five colours mixed together. 


To mix, to blend together % ch'ham chap 

to mix together. Hoo hefin 

h6ng chea, t'heen tSy che chap yea 

wiWS »e ehee"S tSy Ay sSo chap, the mixture of 
black and yellow, intimates the blending of heaven 
and earth together. See the ^ |^ nkh keng. 
A chattering noise: ch'hOy chap chap 

kang 1^ ^ fi li , «**^ ^*«P 
chap king, the month constantly 


Ch6 chd chap chap che seng, sSang bfinsookfing 

che 185y P| Pf ft fl Z f • ^^ f^ B 
*!• -V flq , chip chap jedng jeang dy )ie'*a, seo 

j'W"« a si king dy lai, a chattering and busy 



sound is beard, uninterruptedly, within the four 
borders of the land. 

« ^ Read sip > ten men are called one cAap ; 
/^"■j* ten of anything. Sip h"6 /fj- '^, 

' f chap hoiy, a mixed assortment of 

.g»odst pedlar's ware. 






Read sip: ten; sip chea, soe checheung 

soi bak dy swdh boiy, ten is the ter- 
mination of numbers: a decimal is a perfect 
number. See the Jq pffi '=j^ SeSsng lUn choo. 
GoS sip yew gnoe j$ ch6 6 h'ak -^ ~H ^ 3£ 

rfS ife "f" ^} ^""* '^'"'^ ^"^ ^"^^^ •'^ *"" ''** 

twa. te fkak, at fifteen years.of age, my mind was 
bent on learning. See the Jtl |^ Sijang lun. 

Read cheet; a knot in bamboo; a 
verse in a chapter: a section. CAi<7» 
chat ifl. 'nn economical 

Cheet yung, jg a^ jin |^" ^ ffil ^ A> ''''"'' 
chat hwHy yung ji seSh Idng, economic»l in ex- 
penditure, and affectionate towards ofherp, See 
the J: f^ Seang lun. 


To urge any one extremely,. 

^f^ 1 Bok chek g l^l]^ fti/c cftot, the cuttle 
chat ^aHfl fisbi a certain fish found in the east- 
HVv »>| ern seaSv without bouQS or scales, 
having eight arms, and a ball of black matter in 
the inside, of which iQ)( is made. 

^^-^ A wooden railing : yeak chay «^ ^ 
Chay ^^^S^ ye'^^ chay, the grounds or sediment 
JStm of medicine. Also, to examine; the 
name of a place : a surname. 


To stretch out, to spread. 





Drift wood, floating down a river, 
upon which they fable >that genii ride, 
in order to float into the milky way, 
or heavenly river, and thus get among the stars. 
Seen chay hwan gn8w toe ^ij] ij5 >jP it ^, 
t'een chay chay, hwdn teXh go6-tadu, a genius sailing 
on a float, came across the go6-taiu stw.i 

Chay p] 

I'l -.Hf \i 




Vulg. Idn: I, myself. 

■ln" I' fi .lll-jiwij Jon - i:i' 

The name of a r\vf^^^^^^^^^ ^ , 

The name of afratt, like a pear, but 
rather sour. 

To cut down ; also, a float of drift 
woodi San bok put chay m "^C 

T^ i^, **"" '■*'*^ *'' '^*'**' "''' *° 
cut down the wood on the mountains. See the 
^^^ Kong yftng twan. 
G6 j!n s«ng chay to I'hcen ^^ ^i K^^)0. 

J') ^ i^ J '*" *^ ^^ '^"^ ''*^. '^*''^ ''"*" ''**»'* 
>i^, a fisherman riding on a float arrived at the 

celestiak river, (i. e. thp milky way). 

Read chac: to fast; chay, ek'hiem. 

Read chae: sediment; but chae 
m^"h chay, the sediment of anything. 
S£^g j£ cheep chac seiing cheang 

^ IRj M" 5? ^R '1^. """' J* """p """' "" 

ekap, when it (the wine) was made, the grounds 
and the liquor were mised together. Sec the 
^H Chew 16,. •—»,. 

Read' chea : to indace, to persuade ; to 
kinder, to screen; to talk much. Sam- 
16 T&ng-kong chea swat Hia Ang — ' 





:^ S ^ ii i^ i^ i . ^""-'^ Tang.tcong 
chay toiyh Bin ing, the S''a-I6 officer named 
Tang-kong prevented and persuaded the king of 
Han. See *he ^ ^ jK^^ Ko-tey ke. 

The appearance of walking. 

A preparation of salted, fish and sour 
rice, which, when cured, is put by. 
for food. 

Read cheaj a sister; used in addressing 
females generally. 

This: ch&y ><« Jo5 ^ ^ i^ ^ chiy 
Ity Jl, this character. Ghay ko jin 

aE 10 A i ''**^ '^y "'*' *•"* "***" 



^ % False, deceitful; to deceive, to tell lie«. 
— >^£ Pot gek chiy ^ ^f^, fi" e'k 
V I chiy, do not contend with deceit. 

Ono bod j6 chiy, j« bo6 gnd g« ^ fe ^ |fe 

M M fic J^' ^^ *' '* '*•"* '"*'*'"■ '* ''" f^* 
nicl, I will not deceive you, and do not you 

betray me. See tlit V^ ^ Chd twin. 

A ves-scl for holding wine; a wine-cup. . 
Kcng-kcung le soo k'hat hwat, chiy 
mi hwiin chiiep ylm che J^ ^ ^ 

a $00 eh'hiiy k'hmlUi k'heim k'hijiyh, t'hochiic chiy 
yeS"^ bdy pi'in iy cherp, lot Urn e, Keng-keung, 
an inferior officer, being thiraty. and in want, took 
a wine cup and gathered uf the juices- of horse 
dung, to drink it. 

5yi A.presa for making wine ; also wittea, 
1^ chiy. 



Read cha^, a debt: ho»chad ^ 
hod chiy, to be in debt. P£ng-iwan 
wOy Bchg-seftng-kwnn sew cha£ i 




Pdng-lwdn wuy BSng-sedng'kwun sew chit/ te Seih 
kok, P4iig-lw4a went to collect debts for Beng- 
se4ng-kwun, in the SeSh country. 

lA^ To burst: ch'heiing ch6y k'hd ^ >^ 
Chay fjPl^ ^^ cVhing cUy k'hi, the gun is 
^ I burst. 

Chay P ffl^ To talk rouci;:""* 




Suddenly, qnexpectedly. Kim j in chay 
kiien j6 chod cheang jip 6 cheng, 

kae yew t'hut t'hek ch'hek yin-che sim 


'It i§ Wi 11 ^ >il\ '"" ^f ^"^ "''"^ •'■^^" 

A-'Am)"^ sijy kS"d cMang bSit/h jip tS chai^S, cho 
po6 wSo Chut Vhek ch'hek yin ty nm, now if. 
people were suddenly to see a little child about 
to fall into a well, they would all experience 
a feeling of anxiety and coromiseratioo. See 

■3u" -^ Beng-choo 
-n't i , 4.1* a\ 

K |-> 

4,irf^ tf\ lii a'at-^ 



krl^i A plfe of stones, put iip against a 
wooden fence. 

A camp, an encanipmpnt < hay chay 
T> *? to encamp. Yin hong san 
> JiW t6ng chay ^ ^ jl, J^ ^, hwAn 
hong sw^a ling Ay chay, the clpuds covered the 
camp on the roountaio top.' 

^^jjr A sacrifice offered »t iba mi 'of the 

% % V ulg. t'hiy, a kind of fish, Called also 

Chay Wr\T **? ^"^ /^^ ^1^' "^'^^ **• * ''*''"'' 

I^tI I^ mother. This fish is fpund jn the 
eastern sea, in shape like a lump of clotted blood, 
sometimes square, and sometime* ha$ 
no head nor eyest and i« guided and assisted by 

prawns; hence the proverb, —sfiy boe bok h4y 
jf|^ -B- g jl© ^ chUy boi i hdy cho b'ak chew, 
the water-mother makes use of lobsters- as its 
eyes. Al^o jrritten, ^ chly.^ 


The name of-, §(■ river. 

■•■UL ttmut 
Read cho: to sit down; ch'h6ng cho 

I» cKhe''^d chay, pray lit down. 


>l Ikii 

Chay ^jjp 

ymmM^^ Sek put cheng put cho IfiP "^ J|q 
7^ ^ , cWhmh S™ che^H. a™ chay, if the mat 
was not straight, be would not sit down;. — said 
of Confucius. 


^ - ^ Read chck; oblique: chck yim JfK 
Chayh f/^^ vi > ehUyhyim, an oblique sound i 
•^ any sound that is not even! 

The Chinese divide the tones into p6as ZJS 

;>i ,i> I.' |., ,. . .-!.. ■ ' ■ .' " T^' 

.1 ipafS, even; and chck Hj^ cA<Sj/ft; oblique; and 
Hre very particular in making their verses to 
arrange the even and oblique tones pi-operly. 
Thus, in a verse of five words in each line, 
beginning with an oblique tone, the prosody 
would run in the following nianner: 
chek chek peng peng chck jf^ jy^ ^ ^ JJ^^ 
chayh chiiyh pai"^ pai^S chiyh. 
p6ng peng chek chck pfing ^^\KJK^ 
pai"S pai'"S chayh chiiyh pai^S. ,- 

p6ng pgng pgng chck chek 2p. ^,^5; fjl^ JK^ , 
pai"ff pa'j'S pafS chiyh chiiyh. 
chek chek chek peng peng JK jK,iK ^ ^ 
chayh chUyh chayh pai"^ pai"^. If the, verse 
begins with an even tone, the couplet;, must 

be reversed, the two last lines bei^g pvt first. 

•■ ■., , .\> > •■".•!■,• 

Read ch'hi;ak:'aspa^rarw, a small bird. 

. : ' I- r.'.-\f, .■,. 

Wuy chong k'he ch'heak chea, 

4j/ ^ yin way eh'hew ch&ng kw"d chdyh a ay 
mei"h, chew si &re /r£i>ft,; that,^whiih„drives the 
sparrow into the woods is tb? hawk, §ee the f^ ^ 
^ Seang bS^g. ^n«;i-2.iui'l' ol 




He ch'keak hoe chgng ^ ^ P^ 0^" , *<* ^J' 
chiyh i ked t'hee^ chains, the lock; sparrow 
calls for fair weather. ^» ;;.. ; 

--- C 

» ^1- Read rhek: to spin: hong chek ^ 

Chayh 5^ q j^ , p'Aawff cW^fc, to spin thread. 

•li^S E' ch'heuk che kay jfi cb6, y6w 

chek, ke kan Kwuy-se che no* yea ^ ^ ^ 

■HJ * giro iy kay chd choo Mng, ytiv boiyh p'hang 
eMyh, lie"a nt- kan hwan Kwuy-se &y sew k'hi, 
being the bead of my now ennobled family, if 
you still persist in spinning thread, it is to be 
feared you will stir up the anger of Kwiiy-se (our 
chief). See the Kok ge 
a man to his mother. 

i^ ; — said by 

JL.Jlm Read chifet: a division of time, a 

CL a^ chdyh, times and season*. Yit Icta 
y*w sod s« pat cheet — :^- ^ (JQ H^ A ff)> 
ehil net"^ woo $i it pityh thiyh, each, year has 
four seasons and eight divisions of tiic:. 

To. take in the fingers. 

Not very dry : the appearance of 
flowing water. 

The name of a river; «lso, the sound 
of running water. 

Rice turned sour; the water which 
(ifips from fermenting rice. 

Read cbiiet: to cut off*; chSet twin 
'^ ehiyh ton's, to cut asunder. 

^^ Read chwat : to exterminate ; chwat 
cheung ^p jj^, chdyh chkng, to cut 
off one's posterity. 

Of, belonging to, with respect to ; to go 
to, to proceed ; also, he, she, it. 
Hoo cho6 che k€w che yea, kS choo 
e hoe jin che kfiw che c ^ ^- "^ W "7^ At 

ktw e, kbih kSh yeo^ pat ling dy ktw e, our 
roaster's seeking (information) is perhaps different 
firom (he way in which others seek it. See the 

E chefliig liiang jIn che »*y <*« j^ ^ ^ ^ 
~y f'ff ^ , Chaou M«, i tky k'hw"i ta po ling 
tiy kaiu iy wiy,. they secretly followed to see 
where Iheir husbands, went. See ^ ^ Beng-choo. 
B^k jfi che che S|)|[ ffO H ;^, tcim tiimjt b,t e. 
silently meditating till one comprehends any* 

Ch'heang ch'hijang hoc h* o*« j^ '^ ^ 'jpf ^ 
gSng gong hoe butyh ta Wh k'hi, where are jou 
going so stupidly. 

Che r 


All, every one; a surname; also, to 
gO! che ho€ §n i^j a prince of the 

Che jia p^ A ^ eheUngling, all people; che kong 
^k /^, sirs, gentlemen. 

Put V& }i hiJey chiji, pat pek che hoA "T^ njj jm 
'^ #. A "g" K§ \^> »« tiyiak. jtsio holy 
chii, piyh ptyh the hot, without previous contract 
there met together, eight hundred princes of the 
Empire. Also read, choo. 

Che lAn ^ fi&j a certain flower, very, 
fragrant. Kiicn yit si-en jfr ji|> che 
l&Qchesil, Vim J£ put bO<i k' beng. 

S| ^ ^, khw'i ki^K chit Ity m li-: ch'hin 
ched"S jip che lin iy ch'hnd, hoi Ji 6*" < e e iy 
p'hang, an interview with a good man is like- 





entering a house full of- the che-ldn flower, after 
a time wc perceive not the fragrance. See the 
^ ^ Kay g6. 

A wine vessel; hong geuk che, k'he 
wuy T'hae-seang-h6ng sew ^k ^ jp" 

dj/ ehiw piiei/, k'hi wuy Vhai-seang-hong Ay tfS 
hSty sSw, he took the pearly wine-cup, and rising, 
drank to the long life of (his father) T'had-seang- 
hdng. Said of J^ '^ j|^ Han-Ko-choe. 

-..ii ■ 




Vulg, kes a branch; ley che 22 »* ^ 
the fruit called Litchi. Che yeep be 
hae, pun sit seen pwat X^ ^£ TJ^ ^. 
■^ W^ ke hiiih b'oey hae, kin pdn sit tae 
teng pwat, the branches and leaves are yet unin- 
jured, but the root is already destroyed. Said of 
those who in appearance are doing well, while 
they are really ruined. 






A liral), a member; soo che pek kwut 

j^ J^^ W 'W' *^ ''^P^S'' *"■"'• '•*« 
four limbs and hundred bones. 

%^ An order, a number; also, to divide. 
^i > A surname. Che le ^ TS to regu- 
^>^^^ late. 
Che p'hae ^ ^^^ a distinct family, a tribe. 

^ A Yeen che HM B^ rouge, used by 
5!!^ Chinese ladies for reddening the lips. 
^T Che ko Jjpj n^, ointment, salve ; che 

' Sew j6 jSw t, boo jg geng che ^ i(P ^ ^ 
^ ^P ^ Bp> ''*"**"' ''''''"'" '^''^""^ nooi"S nooi"S 
dy cKhaou, bdh ch'hin ched"^ keen ting dy yiw, 
her hands were like soft yielding grass, and her 
flesh like congealed ointment. See the ^ H^ 
Kok hong. 



The name of a bird. 

Standing water ; tanks for holding water^ 
in order ^o provide against a drought. 

To plough. 

Hong che ^^y ^ufS kee"S, the 
name of a yellow wood, used as a 
dye: the yellow preparation of pulse, 
called toe kan ^ -^^ taou kw"a, ranch used 
among the Chinese, is died with this wood. 

•il -iiU yihd 

To stop, tu halt, to rest, to dwell; 




only, alone. W4nj6ch6 che, j€ che 

ld6u e, e chim haV^h, if any one pulled him to 
detain him, he would stop. Said of L6w-hay-hwuy. 
H6ng neaou ch6 6 k'hew ge ^ ^ it ir^ ^ 
uSj M>ui"» chedou hufh te $w"a kak, the yellow 
bird reBted on the corner of the hill. 
Pang ke ch'heen 16, wQy bin sey che iH ^fe ^ 
M ^ K. Pit Jt , P''"S kok che"d ch'heng li, 
tvuy payh sai"S sty twd, a district of a thousand 
le in extent, for the people to dwell in. 

* % Ke ch6 ^ jtlt, a foundation. T'hae 

'^ 1 1 p6ng, ke ch6 ch'heen leen eng, hwun 

'■"*^^ yit, ke se ban ko6 chfln Tj^ ->P-^ ^; 

thai pars, ke chi ch'heng nei"S ing,-rhtiiun yit, 
ck'hea ch'hiyh ban hot ehdn, in the midst of tran- 
quillity, the foundations of the state. Jast for a 
thousand years; when contending- interests are 
united, the chariots and books of a dynasty are 
preserved for a myriad of ages. 



A small island. 


'T'%'* Pek ch6 |^ It . the name of a fra- 

grant medicinal herb. 




1/^ A sweet taste: sit che put kam ^ p 
^Sm 7f\ -ti" , cheUh tee"S a'" chae e di/ ho, 
!■ J to eat anything sweet, and not to know 
its excellence; said of those who are so affected 
by the death of their parenls, that they do not 
know the taste of what they eat. 
The intention, will; a decree, an order; ch6 e 
M ^ 'will and pleasure; seng che ^ a, 
an imperial decree; ch'heng che ^^ g^ to request 
an order. 



t> A finger; siw che ^ Jp ch'Mw chie, 
V— f a finger of the hand, a ring. Chu si 
r^ TH 7J\ *< »d, to point out anything; 
che tedra Jvt ^ t" beckon. 
K'hwut che k'ho swan j^j ^^ pf ^ , k-hwul 
chi Chang swui^^, bending Ihe fingers you can 
enumerate them. 

Bod bang che ch6 ^- fi ^ \y\, l-i »i''& djf 
ehde, the nameless finger; thai is, the ring finger. 




Ilappincst, delight ; also, to stop. 

A toe; cheuk ch6 f^ |fj)-, k'ka chai'^, 
the toes of the feet. Ltn che chi, 
chin chin kong cho6 j^ ^ ^||- :j^ 
te /^ IT. Un iy chtti''S chit/ ehai/ kong chad, 
the toes of the griffin have produced very many 
children; — alluding to ^ 3l Bfln dug, who had 
ninety-nine clildrcn. See the ^ jM Kuk hong. 

.Ixiifir '.li <ii ifs'.il 


The .same as j£ chfi ; ch6 ISn m^ 1^^ 
the name of a fragrant herb. 

A kind of a lemon-tree, full of thorns; 

a liiue-trce. '' ' 

.. \ 

Cotton wadding, for clothes; to conceal ; 
a surname. 









Ch6 cheang i^ ^^ to bold in the 


Only, alone; ch6 ch'hoo leang soo j^ 
chiy no hang too te"a te"a, only these 

two things, and no more. 

Lok che kwun chod, bin che hoo boe 

kwun ehoS dy Ung, ti piyh sal^S &y pay bot, a 
prince that is pleaded with no other than good 
men, is the father of his people. See the >]> ^ft 
Seaou gnay. 

I%>E« A nankeen colour: ch£ hwa poc 
^^^ ^vL fli "^okeen cloth. H6ng che 
^f^ put e wfly sect hok pL |^ ^^ ^^ 

^ ^ US' ^'^ *"* *^** *^ '"'^^'^ *^** ""' *" ^* 

!"«, red and nankeen colours be would not use 
for common wear. Said of Cohfuciux, in the p 
H Si-ang iDn. 

V The spokes of a wheel ; used for a 

vb I W carriage generally. Chin Ang cho6, 

'^^X^ ^ Kng. •'*"g •■»•* to Pflng ^ i -J- 
^ |(^ ^P, iS' ^ , fW" 6ng Ay k^'d, Eng. Ith 
eh'hia ti lot pcif^, Eng, the Mn of the king of 
Chin, descended from his carriage by the side of 
the road. See the tj^ =^ So6 k<. 




A measure of eight inches; chi ch'hek 
^ R^ /^, in a small degree. 

Vulg. c*ir4. paper; kirn cb6 ^ ^. 

kkm chwd, gilt paper. Cb'hae-lan yOng 

l^rV le p'hfi, kip pe poe, g* bong, wQy chi 

Ch'hwi-Mn yUng eh'hiw p'hofy, kap p'hwd poi, ht 
bang, ehd ekmd, Ch'hw4-IAn, made. «se of the 
bark of trees, and old ra»s, with fishing nets; to ^ 
manufacture paper. See the ^ek iP Hin k6. 




record of the Han dynasty,, about the time of 
the Christian era. Also written & Ch£v 






To slop, to stay, to detain. 

A sister; tae che y^ -flttj tfi cki, a 
sister's husband; cUe moiiey mj^ -|jt j 




Jh f m A mat: ch'bong che che tey, I4n e 

^\ ▼ ^^ cKM^S ch'heSh iy let/, oh kap 
lAng kong, what is done in the land ot beds axtA 
mats (behind the curtain), is difficult to taiii about. 
See the j^ M Cho Iwan. 

The name of a tree, of the bark of 
which paper is made. 

To follow behind, lo come up from 
behind. One of the radicals. 

To boils to seethe > ch6 hwaa ^ ^S 
chi poofS, to cook rice. Che toe 

n&n tos kin i;^'t^^f^, 

ehi taou h'e"d laou kin, in boiling pulse, to burn 
ithe pulse roots: alluding to brethren of the same 
family, who injure one another. Said by w iiti 

P'heng keng ch6 sod. ^^ |;g ^I ^ ^ *** '^^"*^ 
the classics and boil histories; — meaning, to get 
perfectly acquainted with them. 

Che > 

\ JL3 A small island, the same as M; che. 
*i~/P\ *- ^ ch'ha6 hwan, & chaou 6 ehe ^ 

bin hwdn, te chaou tg chi, 1 go to pick herbs, 
about the ponds and islands. See the ^ JS 
Kok hong. 


A kind of stag. 



H^o ch'heem ch<3 #> /44- Hff a needle 
finger, a good sempstress; the same' 
as 1^ eh6 






■m^m. To promise^ to assent to. 

The will, intention,, aim, design, pur- 
pose, object; an historical account. 
Sim chi (tt'a 

Che 6 to ^^ '^ jl 

te to, the mind bent on virtue. 
Ap. kok gin je che ^ i^ -^ H ^^ »»a sod 
«"» sujf ling king li &.y nm chi, why do you not 
each tell us of your purpose. See the p 
Seang lun.. 



Tbe same as tiie preceding. 

•| "fc To injurev to. hart) put cb£ put kfiw, 
«r?> hS yung put chong ;^ JJ^jT ;^ ^^ 

\^\^ fj j^i ^ li , *** *"* ^^"S' **'' ** 

fc'Ad k&w Idng, woft <a KK Vhi u"^ hi, when a 
person does not injure people nor seek their 
favour, where is the place where he would not 
be well ofiF. See the J^ |m Seang liln. 

^ % To remember, to recollect; se soo yit 
.J2 JL keng bok,. teet che 6 sim S- SP. ~^ 

100 chit keng kiiey bak,, cho pod ki te lim, books 
and histories having once passed before his eyes, 
he thoroughly remembered them in his mind. 

The covering of a carriage, let down 
in front. 

Yulg. ki: a spot, a freckle, • 
^Jr^J^' mark in the skin. Cho ko6 ch'bit 
hKL^ sip je hek cho6 cU 51:^-^-}- 
~" p@ rZL ii ti ch'biw ping it) twa Chitey, woo 
eh'hit chap Je- »e I'eim &y ki, on his left thigh 
he bad seventy-two blaqk coloured spots. Said 
of the founder oi the 'Vh Han dynasty; 





To arrive at ; to go to the ntmott ; the 

extreme. Che chek h6ng e ^ H|j 

^ !fe ^ kadu lis e tte ki''d' ledou, 

Trhen he arrived (the old man) was gone. See 

the J2 2& Seang Ifln. 

But kek jg hoc te chc ^ 1^ f^ ;^ ^P Jg, 
mei"h bat kadu kek, j&in aou U kwSg eki, when 
we obtain an universal acquaintance with thingi, 
knowledge may be carried to the utmost extent. 
See the -^ M Tae hak. 
Seaoujin hftn ke, wQy put seen, boA sey put chd 

/Jn a i ^^^^^#. MPjr ;f; ^, se^ou 

jin 6ng k'hea, cho a™ ho, M tig fl"* kabu, when 
worthless people are unemployed, and begin to do 
that which is evil, there are no lengths U> which 
tbcT will not go. 

Cue J^*^ To open; also, to -strike- 

A pledge, a hostage ; Chew Teng kaou 

Che f^Jri '•'^ Ji ^ X % 'he Ctew and 
Teng countries exchanged hostages. 

See tl*« ^ ^ <^l>6 twin. 



A stumbling-block; to stumble. 

To make, to make up a garment. Hwat 
che j'^ ^, regulations. So^^w be 
kim, ynt so6 jln hak cbd yeen |^ 

ig kim twin, kfhim i'" teSk »ti ling iih ckA, 

although you have ever so fine a piece of em- 

iiH^oidery, is it not necesnary to set people U» 

learn to make it up. See Ibe ^ jM Cho twin. 



To fioM in the hand: used for i-hc 

r% A flag, a standard. H&n-hin pwat Teaoa 
chi, se Hin ch'hek cM ^^ ^ 


Ted Ay ki, ehdk Hdn iy ch'heah k6, H&n-sin plucked 
up the standard of Teo, and planted the rt>d 
sUndard of H4n. See the ^ p^ S06 ke* 

Che IfnX^ '^^^ same as the preceding. 

A present offered on the first intro- 
duction to a superior ; — the most con- 
siderable presents offered by m<n, 
consisted of gems and silk stuffs; the inferior 
oaes, of rare birds and beasts: women brought only 
chesnuts and other fruits. Chip chi- ^ 3, to 
hold a present in the hand. 

The more ferocious among the birds 

and beasts. Che neaou che put kwun 

lyjyf h«y, choo cheAn si jf koc je*n 

btng dj/ chedou bi che"d kui'tn, choo ching »e koi 
t, jiH, ferocioiM birds not congregating lo^cther, 
has been usual from former agei. v v 



To regulate, to adjust, to circuihscribi*. 
to form, to make. E' ge cii6 suo. <- 

mil lift ** regulate one's affairs by righteousnc>.>. 

and one's mind by propriety. See the f^ !^ 

Seing se. 

Hwat ch* kim leng •A' -Sfl ^ -W*^ orders and 


Wet, damp: to make anything moist. 

A potatoe, a yam ; hwan ch£ ;& ^S: • 
a foreign or sweet potatoe, — a term of 
reproach, as much as to say, "yoo 
foreign clod-hopper.' 

fCoii/ chl ^ t^, cakes and confec- 
tionary. ' ^ ■ 1 
, /«-tl m fi\ 



fe* , ch'6o*S chi, a 

Cheang chu6 

To dwell; ke che ^ -p't'^S <ff^, , 

to reside, to stop, to stay. Tfiiig ke 

ch^ ma 1^.,^ ^ J^ ^. /^n«- cA'Aea 

hay^h bdy, to delaj the carriage and^stop the horses. 

Hwut L6 che hak, sira bo6 sfij che, je leng eiig 

■1..1 1 , P*=^i, chut tek chiicy 6 seng jia Wn ^^ "^ /® 

'>;»6 it ^ ii. ffn B^ m m. * # # ^ 

"• •§? A J Hwul-choi kwil LA-cho6 Ay hak hu^al^ aim 
kw^a b6 siy che, ji ey ing p'ein, ixu&h biSiy tek 
chSey i sing jin, the (^octrtnes of Buddha aud 
Lo-chod do not settle the mind, and b.j enabling 
their votaries to effect changes, they at length give 
offence to the sages. Said by ■pk- -?-vOhao-cho6. 



-Che ch'heuk 

,.1-..,; 1-,fr|1l.'| 

Ok che I^ J^ c/i'Aod t'headu, a pillar 
of a Teung Igw t^ che tp 
™ ffi, tt, leung la6u hay fhebh cho 
fheaau, \a the middle , of the stream, he placed a 
stone as a pillar^ : 



The wick of a lamp, Je^_n.,teng put 
cbok che, yew y&w na tek bfeng Jw 

leim tengbS cho teem sim, woo y$w boiyh, anchvi"d 
iy kwui''S, when lighting a lamp, if you do not put 
a wick to it, although you have oil, how can it 
shine brightly. 



To' stop, to stay one*8 steps.. 

^t» The standiBg of a horsey che pit EJ 
%•¥* iS ^^y place where the Ertiperor 
rJ^ stops iu travelliog. 

li'l : I. 

; U, T/inft oT 

One of the horary characters. 

To lick Anything with (hte tonglie. P'he 
hoo seaou, chck vi'fin yung che te ; lae, 
chek se hoo e kwun ^R ^ /J^^ ^|J 

dy ling, sty, chew chwm"^ yvng ehe ch'he"^ ; twa, 
chew tiiai pay kap Icwun, thoiits vhid are vulgar 
fellows in a smaller degree, 'will sbck sores and 
lick ulcers (for gain); and those who are such 
in a greater degree, will murder their parents and 
sovereigns. Said by ^?- ■y^ -+• Choo-hoo-choo. 

KJF^^ To collect; che chip |^ ^, to gather 
Che 1^^^^ together; che leem che sin M^ ^ 

^^(^^ ^2. ^S.' ''*^ '*^'" ^y •'''* *^''» * rapa- 
cious minister; a scrape-all. 
Chafi che chek bin san, chafi san chek bin che 

'■ k'hSbh cho hiiiy, piyh sai^S chew sw"iiy — chefS sw"d,. 
pdyh sai''S chew k'heSh cho hiiiy, when a prince 
scrapes money together, his people will disperse; 
but when he disperses his money, the people will 
collect around him. See the 4* ^ Tae hak. 

Vulg. jea: to cover over, to conceal, 
Chea '<i IJLC to hinder, to obstruct, to shelter, to 


Pari-t'heaou hok peng cbea kek jJf *g ^ ^ 
3ft ^ Pan-fheohok feAg'jea .kek, Pan-t'heo 
laid an ambuscade to slop and assault the enemy. 




Chea I& 

firm, but aot virtu- 

To sigh, to exclaim; an exclamation t 
he chea pT' jjg^ alas ! alas * 

A net for catching rabbits; t*hpe chea 
■S ^S^ a rabbit's net. 







y^ That whicli, the pcrso«, who. What. 
j jjl ^ Jg jdw «itg chea; pit se j« hoe jin 

chew woo en ang t'hee"S ay 4j/ l&'ig, P't ttih chit 
U, jeH adu ey jtn, even if there were a person 
#t to reign, it would eerlaiply he an age hefore 
the people were rendered virtuous. See ^ -p 
WOy jin chea, Ifing h"d jin, l«ng oe jin ^ 

tdng, lyseSh Idng, Inci ey itHn ling, a benevolent; 
man alone can properly shew his predilections 
for, and antipathies against, others. See the J^ 
=M Seang iQn. 

The people of Keang ^ called a 
mother chi-a; — a wet nurse. Sip chea 
^ A^ k'helih chea, a^nilwife. 


Red. Chea e W /^^ ted clothes, the 
dress of criminals. Sat chi-a e jd 
put Chun ^,j^^jfn^<V^, 
Chai ing »"a dy chiiey Idng ji bd chtin chat, he 
killed the red apparelled criminab, without dis- 



Sister, mother; also, to slight, to des- 
pise; seaou chc4 /)> •|(Q , nea ched, 
little sister; chea ciiiia {iQ^ flQ , sis- 
ters; a title of respect, applied to young ladies. 
The people of ^ Seiik called a mother |ffl chea. 


^^ Vulg. cAeS/i: to lend, to borrow. Kay 
/» chci lip yOng ^i^^^> kdy 

I Pf chioh Itti yang, to borrow for use. 
Y6wm& ch6a chea jin sei\g che /^ ,^ ^ f^ 
A 3^ "^ wo3 bdy dy Idng eheSh Idng k'tiid, 
those who had horses used to lend them to 
people to ride. 

Ch'h6 le put chi!4 ^ ^1^ ^ , ck'haou dy 
a" tat cheVh, straw shoes need oot be borrowed. 



Song chea ^/fe, the mulberry-tree; 

also written ^& th<;a. 

Kara chei "ft* M{, sugar-cane; kam 
chea cheep k'ho g6 t'hdng ^ Jj^ 
^4- TTT ^ M ^ kam ched dy cheep 

ei/ g6 lit fht"^, the juice of the sugar-cane may 

be manufactured into sugar. 



Cheii koe 

rW cMyh koe, a par- 


The bank of a stream, the edge of 
water. On the west of K? T* Lfiw- 
k£w, there is an island, called P'heng. 
ho6 to £f^ -yijB 1^^ where the water gradually 
descends, and is called lok che4 ^X W", 'des- 
cending to the water's edge:' when vessels enter by 
mistake, they never return. See the -^ i^ ^ 
Go£ hak p'heen. ~ 

^*^ To roast, to heal by the firei chea 
^ y^^\> jeiik fS(^ ^, chid hah, roasted flesh. 
^ ^^ Koey chea € y&ng' cho, siiuk be? 
Bt'ng-cho6 wat, koey cbei chae |j6^ ^ |^ ^ 

kap yefS chi, ley chit dy k'hdh hof Blng-choo 
kong, kdiy ch'ei chae. Of roasted flesh and sheep's 
dates which is the nicest? Beng-cboo said, 
roasted flesh ! 


\ f - To offer up, to depend «»n, to help, 
n I to assist, to borrow, to lend ; elegant, 
P| polished. 
Hong lew w6n chea ^ '-j^ ^ ^^ elegant 
and accomplished manners. 

Chea ^1a^ Read slJa ; a silrnamr. 

- na 




'^ L^ Read cheng : the first. Cheag gwat 

,^XJ^« IE )^ > ''^"'' S<>^y''> the ^rst^nonth. 

% %j Read cheng: a fairy, an elf: yaou 

TJ^Ytl" =*•«"» ^;f^;,*ao«c*e"a> evil genii. 

>| I -J He-hin-bfln ge hek pek seft cheng, 

^ che wfly hoo hoo f^ '^ ^ jSi ^ ^ 

4fe M-,^ ^ ^ ^ if, '^'''oi-hdn-Mn loo 
fiSh oe pii/h chwi chi"a, kap e chd ang p6, K'hoe- 
han-bfln met an elf, which was really a black 
and white snalie; and they became man and 
wife together. These elfs are supposed by the 
Chinese to be beasts, which transform themselves 
into human shape, for the purposes of mischief. 


*^M^ Tasteless; ch'hoo but 
" ch'e^d che^a, this thin 

Tasteless.; ch'hoo but che"a che"a 
che^ liy mei"h 
ing has'no taste 

in it. 

^^^^ Read cheng: right, square, correct, 
Che^a % i* proper; sod cheng pCj j£, se cAe^d 
<^J^^^ four square, in proper Order. Pfing 
cheng Z^ ]£^ pafS chg^i, just. 
Yew tae jln chea cheng ke, j6 but cheng chea 

, woo twS ling &y ling tae seng ciiii''i ka te, ji 

pat ling chew che"i, wherever there is a great 
man, be first correpts himself, and then others 
will be corrected bj hinb See j> ^^ Hay-beng. 



Read sing: to perfect, to complete, to 
adjust, to finish. Sfing but rB ^^ 
che''i mei''h, lo perfect anything, 
to complete a thing. 

Sfing jiB f^J^, chU^&l&ng, to become a man : 
to be fit for something. 
Bo6 soo chae jSn, sgng soo chae fheen |tt ^ 

-^ A. ^ -^ ^ ^, "^ "^^"" '"' "'"'^ '^"S, 
che"A sod chae fhee^S, to plan affairs rests with 

men, but to complete them rests with heaven. 




»«t»^ Read cheng: feelings, passions; jtti" 
£Q ch£ng y^ i|^^ idng che^u, kindness. 

jf^i^ ^^d cheng-. a character in a play. 
rT|i> He cheng jg^ ^^ W c^i, a part 
^ in a play. H6ng cheng ^E ^ 

ang che"a, a red-faced character. 6e'' cheng 
oe che"a, a black-faced character. 

•j^«» Readchit: K'haou chit ^ 5&.^ A'Aa 

Chedh 7^ chMh, the back, the back-bone. L^ 

k'he Cheng chit ^ ^ j£ ^^ ^^ 

U u™ tei^h che"i cheah, never eat the middle 

of the back of a fox. 



Read chek : single, only one, one ; a 

numeral > yit chek gn6w — — <^ LL. 

chit cheUh gSo, a cow. Yit chek 

ch'hwSn •^ jl^, chit cheSh chUn, one ship. 

I Read chek : a trace ; cheuk chek J^ 
^ ^, *^*'' «*«**. afoot-step. Leiik 
keng seen flng che tin chek yiji 

seen 6tig Ay koo eheih, the six classics contain 
the ancient traces of the former kings. See 
^t ^^ Chong-choo. 

1)11/ Ol r 


Read sit-, to eat; sit hwan S 
cheah poofS^ to eat rice. Chin-Bun- 
kong k'hit sit c gnoe lok che yea, 
ea jin e clie k'hwae '^ ^ ^ '^ '^ ^ 

fcong k'hit cheith te goe ISh Ay yei, yid Ay ling 
hoi e chit ley t'koi, Bfin the duke of Chin, 
begged for something to eat in the five-ttag 
desert, when the wild people gave him a lump 
of earth. See the /^ ^ Cbo-twia. 




' Sit put ge ^ ^ =E^ cheik bi' king wa, he 
never spoke while eating. — Said of Confucins, 


"• *''« si l^ LQn-ge. 



To burn, to roast. 

Bo6y cheak jdt^^^ W™ Uug, a 
match-maker, a go-between, in order 
to make up marriages. 
Put t'hae bbfiy cheak che gftn /p» ^ M 5^ 
j^ g", u"" ling I'hae hd'" lAng dif tea, without 
waiting for the mediation of the nialchTmaker. 

^ __ A, handful, a ladle-full. Yit cheak 

Gheak ^^ ^"y "^"^ "> ^ '^ ^ JZ ^ . 

^ «At< cAfiiXr cHi/ iy chiy, a handful 
of- water. 



Piiey cheak ;faC *3^ a wooden, cup 
or bowl, for holding wine. 

Cheak yak ^ ^^, Oj« name of a. 
flower, used in medicine. 


Cheat chew gt| '^ ^ Uh chiw, to 
[•J pour out wine. Chim cheak MS^^ 
to consider, to weigh . a matter. 
Cheak. chek sfly wen g^ ^ij 3| -J^ ^ eheak 
cMw ISBhche chuy d lai leng, in pouring oat 
wine, for whom should we pour out first? 



To cut asunder with a knife, to 
hew down. 

g^ Chew chi-ak )g ^ , a wine-cup, 
Cheak g^ kwan cheak § ^\ kw"a cMak, 
^ <J rank, office. 
Y6w t'heen cheak chijfi, y6w jtn cheak chija 

cMak Ay Idng, woo Idng cheak iy Ung, there are 
men of celestial rank, and men of human rank. 



^^> To bite, to gnaw, to eat 5 choe cheak 
rV^ the taste of anything. 

choo be Pl !§ -]|| 5^ , to try 


.V light, a. fire, a lighted torch. 

To cut, to hack. 

The string of a bow;- to fabten the 
string on a buw. 

Vulg. mh: to clothe,. to put on; also 
added to verbs, to signify their 
Ukingefiect; also,— ought, should, 

right, yes. 

Cheak e sok •»« ^ ^ ^ /^^ ch'hing s"a 

kih twi, to put on clothes, and bind on a girdle. 

K'hin cheak ^ ^ ^ k'kw'^i tiSh, to get a 

sight of. 

Cheak k'P^ ^, hurried, off ftie's guard. 

ChSa^ S06 lo* chafl ^ ^ j^ ^ > «»* «* 

M ehai, you slave, you ought to die! 

•^^_ Cheang ch'hae^ -^ ^ variegated 
Cheang cy colours; bfln chijaog ^ js[ 
f Wn cheo'f<, literary composition; 

chiiang koo W ^ , chapters and sections. 
A. surname. 

Hw4n hoe k6 y«w bOn chijang ^^^^ 
^ ^ > *^»ff kwui^ hoe, e Ag woo bHa cheang, 
how splendid were his literary accomplishments! 
Said of.^ Geftou, in the J; |,|^ Oeo"? lin. 
Kwun cho6 che chi « to yiia, put s*ng cheang 

^ 3^ , *"«"» Choi iy rim chi twS ti to, fi*" 
chi^A cheo^ uf" twdh, the good man, in bending, 
his attention towards sound doctrine, does not 
stop till he has finished the chapter. See the 
"1> ^ Hay beng. 


1 • Cj 


Koe chcang flg Bgi, toa Aray A«i"a, 
a husband's parents. Ch'heep fin 
be hwun bSng, ho 4 pae koe cheang 

Ai/ sin yea biiey hwun bing, hoiyh an chw'"A ey 
pai two, kay kn^a, hefore my persoD is exhi- 
bited, how can I pay my respects to my 
husband's parents? — Said by a young bride (when 
veiled), «n entering her husband'.s dwelling. 

Cheang b6ng ^a y^, fear, alarm 

Cheang ^g> 


To display, (e illustrate-; cheang 
bSng s^ Bh ' *" shew clearly. 
Cheang k'hwat yew seing e^ ra? 
yo" *^ cheang bing e iy woo k'eng aedng, to 
illustrate his possession of constancy. See the 
Seo^ te. 

The name of a river; Cheang-chew 


Cheanff ^JtH^ j^. yi\ > Ae name of a district 
in the province of SS "j^ Hok- 
keen, where the dialect is ^oken which this 
Pictlonary is intended to illustrate. 

rl) til JM^t' 1 ;•( ,-w>..' iiv ' n .'. , v 

.^jtA Shall, will, about to be 4 to take, 

Chean"' ^m>*V* ^^ undertake. Cheang jip bAn, 

^K -9 ch'hek k6 m& wat, hwuy kam hoe 

yea, mk put chin yei ^ ;Av f1. ^ ^ .l| 

io^^A jip moof^ p'htth e &y bay, king, u™ 
se gwa k^i Uiy aou, si bay fi"* cWn ke^i., 
when about to enter the gate (after a defeat), 
Confucius whipped hi« horse saying, it is not 
that I dare to be behind-hand, it is because my 
horse will not go. See the p* §a Seang lOn. 
T'heen cheang 6 hoo-choo wfly bok tok Tr 

boiyh leak Ian &y hoo-chod chd bok tok, heaven 
is about to take our master and make him 
an alarm ( to the worM ). See the same. 

C heang 


Vulg. cheo^S: tljifk water, congee, 
syrup i beSn cheang 3^^^, 

^ mie"S cheo"^, leaven, yeast ; ye& 

chijang iM ^ ^ yed cheo"^, cocoa-nut milk. 
B6 chiJang ^^ ^^ , *^ cheo"^^ ricp water. 

^ 1 * ^ A precious stone, a ki^d of half 
X^fcf^ gem. Long cheang SB Jb^ a son. 

£ cheang- j^ i^ t^e camphor 



Cheang ^ t=^ A «na(I kind of stag, without horns. 
Cheang ffl « . .TI'^ 

rTT _*T'-» a pomfret fish. 

A small kind of locust, of agreea 
Cheang ^{■i^J colour? cheang cheHS-igfe cheo"S 
chi, a toad. , --v 

Vulg. keo"S: a small kind of deer, 
r ^^f] very handsome; an antelope. 

Chew rheang '^g =& . deceitfal; 


Cheang ST 

insane, mad. 

P^ Pi 


^\^_ Vulg. cfceo^ff: the palm of the hand; 

Cheang ^ *^ to hold in the hand; cheang 

^^•■"* kwan ^ f^, to manage, to rule-, 

cheang le ^ J^^ to regulate: s6w che&ng 

^ ^ ^ cft'Aiio cAed"fi', the palm of the hand. 

K6 jfi se choo soo hoe, che k6 cheang ^t 

cheo"^ k''hw''d chey liy^ ki e iy cVhiw cheo"?, • 
it would be as easy as looking at this (said 
Confucius), pointing tp his hand, 
P-sf% A surname. jS jt- Beag-choo's 
Cheang /I ■ I mother's family name was Cheang 





Ig. cheo"^: • curname. 

Cheang k'hwin 3e MI:> *" exhort, 

to induce, to persuade. P6 cheing 

^ , pi cheo'f, to praise, to 


Vulg. eheo'^, aa o»r« lio cheang 
Kt^ kd chei^e, to pull an 
oar, or rather to push over the 
oar, according to the Chinese manner. 
Keea choo tong song cheang, ch'huy song 
bik ch'hew lafi )|i T- S 1 ^. fi i^ 
^ ^ ^ > cAlJn d tat nS iy tihid"^, ch'huy 
ting fi™ lai ktcin 16 bS Int, if the boat is 
provided with a pair of oars, when pushing 
it along you need not fce anxious about it's 
o^t coming. ^\ ' 


CheaBg chin -^ 5^- , to advance, 
to get forward in the world. 

Toe cbelng ^ ^ , uiu cked^'g, 
Cheang ^'n'W ketchup made of pulse. SeeOg 
cbeAng 1^ -^ , .ea"^ chtd't, all 
kinds of pickles and sauces. 
Put Uk k6 cheing put sit ^ ^ -^t ^ 

if he did not get the proper sauce to anything, 
he would not eat it. — Said of Confucius, in 
*»>e J: Ife SSSng lOn. 

|i^^ Cheing so<y tJ^ ^ , • General- 
Ch'eSng 4l\j* issirao, Ui chijing kwun ^ 3^ 

I w ^^ a great General; the middle 
flkige* is also called ^ |^ chiiing ch*. 
Hiu Ko.ch6e teuk tftn, pa^ Hta-sin wOy 

ji^ X ^ , *•>« *»"» Emperor of the H&o 
dynatty built a terrace, upon which he installed 






H&n-siti into the office of frAt General. 
See the ^ pg Soe ki. ' 

|U|^k A lofty and precipitous mountain. 

To limit, to separate, to divide 
by a partition. P£ng cheaog 
)^ Pp^ P^" cheing, a screen, a 
Chin S^-bdng teuk tSng cheang, e teuk jeOng 

CUn Si-h£ng k'hi ting ch^itng. i *»"< Jiang 
ktean iy ling, the first Emperor aif the Chin 
dynasty, built a defence, to keep out the western 

^^^»' A kind of epidemic disease, called 
yj^ abo g H cheang ley. 


One of the radical*. 


^kA Read ho«: to carry on the bark, 
Ip^M to carry pick-a-back. Kiiing hoo 

Jr\ k« cho6 chea J^a ^ g ^ ^- 
^" Th , Cho kin chiing e dy ke^a, to carr* 
a child in a cloth over the back. 

Anything burnt black in the fire. 
A surname. 

Keng rhi-aou ^ ^ ^ keng cheo, 
a plantain, a banana. Pa cheaou 
49>r% l«w p'hi-en leu'k g /|fe ^ ^ 
^, pa cheo laSu chit p'hei^ I'ek, the planUin 
leaf spreads a broad patch of green. 
Chew Bck 6ng hok che t cheaou ^ i^ T 

S ^ Jijil ^ . "*"" ^"^ "'^ ''*"* ' * >^e 

cheo heSh, Bok, the king of Cbew, covered 
it with a planUin leaf. -'It /^ 






HoS cheaou 'xB "M^ hoi cheo, pep- 
per. Hong hoe 6 cheaou to6 pek, 
ch'he k& wun yea J^ jj^ VJ h^xr 
\'S(i^ ;'^l ^ , hdng hoe Vhi hoi 
cheo bwiih p'edh, ch'hi e &.y seo, the empress 
rubbed the walls with pepper, in order toavail 
herself of the warmths — (from the idea that 
pepper warms the outside as well us the inside 
of the body.) ,ii.iij:.| 

Sam cheaou ^ BlE, three divisions 
of the body : viz. from the head 
1^1^^ to the heart, from the heart to 
the navel, and from the navel to the feet. 
According to. others, the cheaou nil is the 
oesophagus, the upper part being reckoned 
from the heart to the stomach, the second 
from the stomuch to the navel, and the third 
from the navel to the bladder. 





Vulg. cheo: to call with the hand; 

to. beckon, 'Vo assembly. Cheaou 

hefin lap soo i(^ J^ j^ J^> cheo 

gadu Idngy kwd sevo Chak ch'hayh ling, to 

assemble clever people, and to receive learned 
men, — (in order to form a party, and strengthen 
one's inteFests.X 



To exaro'ine clearly ;- intelligence;; 
cheaou ge&ou Tffi -|ffi a dwarf. 

Bright, xlear, to display, to illus- 
trate. Cheaou bok ^ ^ , the 


'r f"* order, of generation, the father's 
contemporaries being called ChSaou, and the 
son's Bok. The second word is otherwise 
written %%■ bok. 
Bfln-6ng chae seang, oe cheaou 6 t'heen AT 

i ^ ±. ;^ ^ J'Jk.' ^''■^"s '« '^«ff 

tan, Iwa chid te t'hee^S, Bfin-6ng is highly 
exalted, — how brilliant even to the skies. See 
the ^ H Tae gn&y. 




Distant; also, te urge. 

Cheaou ge&ou ifm J|S, lofty, hilly j 
also, the peak of a hill. 

Clear, evident; cheSm suy hok e, 
ek k'hong che cheaou Jffi ffitt /4r 

^. ^ |L ;^ jl^> '^*'" '<"' "^^y 

suyjiin bat^yea chin chae cheaou bing, although 
they dive 4own (into the water) ever so 
deep, yet they are ver.y visible. Said of fishes 
in a clear pond. See the "iv Ip Tae gniy. 


To steal a glance with, the ejes, 
to look askance. 

A pond: a round pool is. called ^m 
Cheaou ^i/^ 16. one not, straight, ^ cheaou. 
Ong Tip 6 cheaou seang "^ jjT 
TA. ^,3 j- 6ng k'hia Up te cheaou pee^S, 
the king was standing by the side of the pond. 
See the J^ ^ SBang beng. 

^ ^^ Read ch£: an elder sister; eWiiou' 

ChSdou^Mn '*"" ^^, ''" «'•'" *'*'*''* 

■^^ y^ husband. 

Biin. gnd, choQ koe, suy kip pek che RS ^^ 

»Sy kip kabu two, chk, he a^He.d after, my aunts, 
and. then enquired about my, elder sister. 
Woey hong.. 

See the ^ 



Read neaou: a bird ;^ ne&ou che 
cheang soo, k$ bfing yea ae, jin 
che cheang sod, k£ gin yea. seen 


AlU Jal pj -nl i^:^ cheaou kiou- boiyh si, t 
Ay hdou ae ch'him, — lAng kdiou- l/Slyh se, e dy 
king wd, hi, when a bird is about to die it\ 
v,oice is lamentable, and when mea are about 






to die their words are good. See the ^ 

^E LQn-ee. 
PP ^ 

Vulg. ched ■■ to display, to illustrate, 

rl^Jt to reflect, to illumine; according 

yyy^ to. BSng gwat seQng kan cheaou, 

ch'heng chwan sek s'eang ISw 0^ ^ )\^ f^ 

cKhtng kan chei, ch'heng dy chw"& ti cheSh 
ting Idou, the clear moon shining among the firs, 
and the limpid stream flowing over the stones. 
Tae jln k*y bfing 6 cheiou ;/«; A 1^ 9^ 

chid kwrn'S, the great man ( that is the »age ) 
connects the brilliancy of the sun and moon, 
in order to illumine the world. 

To walk quickly, and in a hurried 

_ To inform; a decree, an order 

Cheaou ^xV from the Emperor. Kwun teung 

1(1 ]pF ban cheing kwun che bcng, put 

ban fheen cho6 cheiou ^ ^j? B9 'l^ ■¥ 

I'he^a cheing kwun Ag bing, M t'he"* hing 
My 4y ehSiou, in the army we attend to the 
orders of the general, and not to the decrees 
«f the Emperor. See the "A" '^ K6e bOn. 

^ %.P^ Chekoa b«o i^^ ^ , » w"""*" 

Cheiou ^EnSm •="'*•"■• f^heftou hoo ch'hiiiou soo 

i\v^ /|i ^ ^ ±, '*«"* '^*'''^ ^y 

Ung ch'hed I'hak ch'hdyh it) ling, the wood- 
man smiles at the scholar. 
Cboo-ma£-sln cheftou cb'hae wfly hwat -^ 
1 g^^^iS", Ckoo.n,ai..,n che>h 
ck'hd t'hin chelih, " Choo-mae-stn used to cut 
' and collect wood, for a livelihood ;" — but after- 

wards he attained to high rank. 

Chelou Hff^ To steal a glance. 


%ic4ou chuy|^2j^j grieved, 
wearied out, tired of; lean, e- 
maciated. Bin che che4ou chuy o 
geak cheng, be yew gim 6 ch'hoo sfi chija yoi 

ife ^ ^ "iii ' '^^* '"'"^ ^* *'"'" '" '^ '"' 

geak dy ching sod, boey woo k'hik ch'him i chiy 
iiy st, the people have never been more wearied 
out with oppressive government, than at this 

|0| Seiinff bJng. 

present time. See the 

Cheaou ^Ml '""*°" ''•°yti1*' «"•-"''' •" 

iff;"!? the heart, vexed. 

^ ^^_ A chamber on the top of a city 

Chelou '^^E ''*"• ^°^ '"'"'^ cheiou log 
Ql'kW V seang, kirn b«ng sek sit Icung 

Uh ti chUou ladu chio'^, kirn haou ti chiSh 
ch'hoo lai, the drum sounds upon the chamber 
of the citadel, and the metal rings in Iho 
midst of the itone-built dwelling. 



u "pR 


The name of a small bird. 

To cut graw. 

To gnaw, to bite, to chew. 

Cho chijaou '||^ pft ^ f*o cAM, to 
Cheaou VV UlL perform a sacrifice, and to have a 
'9 religious procession. 


I Cheaoiih 


The chirping of bird*. 







— ^ Read leep: to fold: leep ch6 
cheih chwd, to fold paper. 


Read cheep: to receive: geng cheep 
J^ ^^ , ge"d cheih, to meet, to 

T'hae jin cheep k'hek f ^ A ^ ^ k'hwdn 
Vhae Idng, cheih ling k'hSt/h, to treat people 
and receive visitors. 

Ch'hoe kOng cheep « ^ fj: ^ 0. ch'hoe 
^y gong Idng cheih cKhea, a madman of the 
Ch'ho6 country met the carriage (of Confucius). 

^ The chirping of insects; the squeak- 
ing of mice. 

Lwan cheet ^ j|^ , nooi^S cheih, 
a bull on the neck, or head. 

» I 

Read seat; the tongue: seet keng 

Cheeh Ij 

Cneen ' g ■^ itt yung cheih chSh cKh&n, to 

' plough with the tongue, i. e. to 

follow the occupation of a school-master. 
Soo put k'ip seet ^ ^ ^ "jS* , «* chedh bay 
feuk bij/ kaiu cVhity cheih, Uiar horses cannot 
overtake the tongue. See the T> 5^ Hay iQn. 



Read cheet: to hreak ; cheet chijet 
off Wi' "' ''*''^*> *" break in two. 

To divine, to find out by divination, 
to prognosticate. Put chijem j6 e e 

/f -» pi^ ifn E. ^' ""* pok kwd 

te^a le"a, you have not divined, that is all. 
See the Ti |j^ Hay Ifln. 



To look on. 



To stand in waiting ; to stand awry. 




To look up at, to contemplate. 
^— Cheem che chae che6n, hwut je6n 

O chaShoapt^t^t-iS.^ 
^^X' ''■''""''^ "''"'' ^ '^ t'hadu ching, hwut 
Je£n te adu, (the doctrine of Confucius) ap- 
pears, when looking at it, to be before us, and 
then suddenly seems behind us again ; (meaning 
that it embraces a variety of objects). 

To speak much, verbose. A surname. 
Gc gan cheem cheem, hd kl to yea 


kong lea cheem cheem, s"a sou kaiu he&h chaif^ 
your talk is quite verbose — why so much of it.» 



of a hill. 

Pointed, sharp, of a conical shape ; 
coming to a point. San cheem 
I'l ^> sw"a cheem, the sharp peak 


^^ f put 

needle ; sew cheem ^^ 44-^ to. 
work with a needle. B(i6 chijem 

put yin seen M |j- ^j-^ ^j ^|^ 
bS cheem bey yin til sw"d, without a needle we 
cannot draw the thread ; — (meaning, that without 
an introduction, we cannot get into the ac- 
quaintance of people. 





To cover, a thatched covering for 
a cottage ; a straw bed used when 

The name of a large fish, with hand* 
tinder, the belly. 

The blowing of the wind ; to blow. 
Long tong ySw hong che^ra, seng 
he kcM gwat bSng .)^ f/]^j^ 




cKhoeg, cWhafS ched toe si k'hw^A kei^S goij/h 
kwui"^' the waves are agitated, because the wind 
blows, and the stars appear few, because the 
moon shine* brighU 




To poness alone, to excel eompcti- 
tors, to top the whole, to be the 
first. BiJSy che^m pek hwa klioey 

t^ "S* -?£ ^^ "^^ " cAg^nj che"d piyh 
hwa ty fhaSu, the plum blossom stands out 
as the head of a hundred flowers, 
GO t'hoe t(>k chi-em f]^ 3^ ^ ^, S" ''*""« 
tok cheim, to ride on the head of the sea 
monster, alone distinguished; that is, teilng 
cbAng gw4n fp .)[/^- y^^ tSUng cheing gwin, 
to atUin the highest literary rank. 


j2, Vulg. tijfira? to bide under water, 
to conceal. YdngXh^cheemchOng 

Wj M -fm 'M'J'' '''"'"•"iM k'hi 

tetm k'hi"^, the influences of the sun are hid- 
den J i. e. tlie sun is set See the & tS 
rsah keng. 

G& chiJcw chae ch» '6J, j^ ?&; j3[, M litm 
twi tS cMi/ ch'hadu, Uie fishes dive down among 
the weeds. See the ^^t ^^ Se keng. 

Chegm 'jSpS 

To steep anything in hot water, 
in order to get off the hair; to 
'"ij wann anything; to bull water. 
Gnoe jit, chek chiiCni lliong ch'h£ng yiiuk 

3E. S'J ^ /I/ tf /i>> ^'^J'' """' ''•'" 

ie"d »eo cftiiy, ch'hi"u ching ck, after five days, 
( the new married wife ) must warm some water, 
and invite (her husband's parents) t« bathe. 

A slu)rt time, nut long ■- chSem s& 
W flii", P*"^ tempore. Sfi hwun 
k6w chceni, soo yfiw lAn c 04 ^r 
^ ^^ ^ '!'£) II ^, si hwun ko6 kwi chiem, 
803 tcoS Sh kmi k'hteai, times and seasons are 



divided iat» long and short, — affairs are some 
diflficuit, and some easy. 

Gradual, gradually, by degrees, step 
by step. Chin gS jin to t6 gwSn 
tony, cheem jip kay keng -A' -ifffl 

K n i^(i M 1. iDT A ^ §> ''"• ''''•'' 

&>/ t'hd h6 ty Idng, katiu t& gmdn tang, chiim 
Jip kadu ho kin^, a fisherman of the Chin dy- 
nasty, arriving at the "Peach fountain" cavern, 
gradually entered the fairy land. 

To sell, l<y sell again. 

Tun cheen f^ ^, difiSculty, ina- 
bility to proceed. 

To enter, to advance. 

Tun cheen ^i^ ^, difficulty of 
getting forward, hampered, har- 

A bird of prey, a hawk : wOy chflng 
k'he ch'hcak chc&, cheen ye&, ygL 

^l>( ?^- 1 SI Ife,"^^ '*'*"' 

ching kv>"i chdyh 4, tt chien y'id, what 
drives little birds into the woods, is the hawk. 


Chee,, :g 

Cheen @l 

Soft hair or wool, worked up into 
_pr ^^ tHAou, a carpet, a blanket ; cheen bo. 

Cheen ^tf- cU.lh: cheen tel.Hi|* |i^, cAf<r^ 
'iAou, a carpet, a blanket ; c 


The same as. the prrceding: £ t^a 
yftng mO p'heen p'hiiin cheen ^j 

yeS'*e md, kadu che^i p'hci'^ ch^^d p'he^ iy 
chee''St the rain beats the sheep's wool, till it 
fonns into flakes of felt. 






OT^^ A large kind of fish. 

jfc» % _ Thick rice-water, congee; the thick 

"^ \St is called cheen gS^ and the thin 

^ t % cheuk 5w, mooiy. 






^ _ A certain fragrant wood ; also called 

'^> than heang ^'o^^^ifi, ''''^"^ 

heo"S MM, a kind of sandal- wood. 


A flag with a crooked sUff, used in 
summoning the common people. 
Se jIn e chiien f. A i^ ^fl^ 
cheting l&ng WSh Veiiou e i cheen, people in general 
miwt be summoned bj a flag, with a crooked 
staff. See 'g' 131 Beng-choo, 

_ Y^r- To boil, to cook, to fry: cheen tay^^ 
Hll ^J chw^aUy, to boil tea; cheen 
tr)f^\ gg Htf ft cheen hi, to fry fish. 
Lfiey yung cheang cheen ho che soo ]Js\ ^p 

^ W ^ ^ •$"' '°^* ^""^ ''^ '^""'' cAeang^ 
;twdn cAii)"fl tap Jedoa AS il^^ soo, the Loey- 
yung officer superiateoded the business of 
boiling and preparing the food. 

Cheen pgaou ^ ^^ji public docu- 
ment; bamboo slips, which were an- 
ciently used for books. 

1 J^^ 

Cheen %^^ Fragrant, scented wood. 





,« XS To see clearly ; also, small and 
^* shallow. 

The smell of mutton < also, mutton 

A thread to sew with s putchwatj^ 

cheen ;^ |g i(P ||, »" '""^ 
W^^>^ cKhin ched"S sw"u, unbroken, like 
» continued thread. 

To cut with a scisiors : kaou cheen 

Cheen |9 1 i 5C. ^^ *" ''***''> "■ P*"" of sc>»s<"s- 

'\M^ Y6w ae le peng cheen che beaou 

% ^ M #1^ ^ #'^ ""*" "^ '"'■^''^ ''^ 

/rap penff <;a^ dy cfttJ^n &.y ho, it has all the 
excellent qualities of Ae files, and Peng scis- 
sors. — Ae and Peng were the most celebrated 
jnakers of scissors and 'files, and this expres- 
sion is used to intimate the sharp, cutting 
nature of good literary compositions. 





Bhallow, not deep, applied to car- 

Prepared, anything prepared, a 

plan or view: to a umber, to adjust. 

r-^j^ E hoe sam choo chea che cheen 

•^ f- H T- * ;^ % '" '''"' """" 

ii"a Idng dy chiiti, how different from the views 
of those three gentlemen! See the ~|^ 3m 
Jliy Ian. 

A .scaffold, a temporary erection : 
iheen to ;^ i^^ temporary roads. 
Teang-leang swat Han 6ng seaou 

chwatchgent5 ^ mk]%^''^^^ 
sK' Teo^S-Udng k'hwui^S Hin ong s'eo 100}"^ 
chin to, Teo"S-Ieang advised the king of Han 
to burn and destroy the temporary roads. 

To tread upon, to walk over : cheen 
gSn S^ "=" tith wd, to tread one's 
words, ( i. e. to fulfil one's engage- 
ments ). 
Cheen kfi wuy, hgng k* 16y, choe k€ gak 

6y wuy, kt"d e dy Ity, chdou e dy gak, " to 
walk in their ways, to practise their ceremonies, 
and to play their music." — This when done 
by posterity towards their ancestors, is the 
height of filial piety. See the ffa ^ Teung 




Che^n I'heen choo wuy yeen ^ ^ ^P- Ajf. 
^^§ tiih k6ng Uy dy wa^, to 
'self the rank of an Eniperor. 

•» >^ '^* *^"^ '^^ ^^ "'"^' *° **''^ "'*°° one's- 









A glass drank at parting ^ a part- 
ing feast. 

Hjippy, Iticky ; to exhaust. 

I ^^^ To cot ofiF: 6 koe cheSto beet ch'hoo, 
jfr te4ou .'it ^il^i^\^^ 
rffi ^ ^ > gt»<i ck'hi''d^hgin beet 
chill lfy>ji cheih cU k'hi pooW, I will ju»t 
cut oflf and exterminate this country, and then 
go to breakfast. 


Bruth made of flesh. 

^ ^l) Shallow : 

shallow words. 

^ ^f^ Worms found in hooks and clotbes-t. 
yJ^J they are yellow «t first, but when 
•^^T * old become covered with a white 
powder like silver; hence they are called pck 

To fight, to go to war ; also, to 
fear and tremble. Cho6 che s6y 
sin, chae, chiidn, chit -4p- "7 m 
'M ^^^^ ffoo-choidyiiykfUBin. chSah 
ch'hai, chUn Chat, ehil pai"S, the things about 
which Confucius was partitularly careful, were 
feasting, war, and sickness. 
Chedn chi;*n keng keng jSj^ toj^ ^ j^, trem- 
bling and shaking. 

To splash with water ; the rapid flow- 
ing of water. Ch'h6ng tek t keng 
hiiet chedn tae 6ng ^S iJS K] 
S jk ^ ;^d , «*'W"^ « * king hoiyh 







chtB^d tva 6ng, " I beg leave to take the blood 
of my neck and splash it over your majesty." 
A desperate expression of bM jpa 1(0 Lin- 
«^ % Again, as before : sfiy cheen chi 

pJa^ :^^^, '^^y chHou koo kSk 
)f I J. ^iou, water flowing against the same 
jlace. See the J^ ^ Udh-keng. 

^^5y» Vulg: chei'^, an arrow: sea. cheen 

^MlT M ff > '^*^* cltri^y »" shoot «n 
|>| -^ arrow. Seet-jln-kwily yit cheen 

.0.,, Kwun-san "^ j^ ^ _. |^ ^ ^ 

^J Seih-jln-kwity chit ke chei'^S an tfa Kwun- 

nt'"/!. SeSh-jtn-kwdy with one arrow pacified 

the region of Kwun-sw"a. See the db =P 

So6 k«. 

Again, over again ; also, grass-, a 
straw mat. Chin chiien ke ^ jS. 

^ ^ C*lii kok kik ke hwui^- there 
was again a famine io the Chin country. 

A shaking of the head i a trem- 
bling of the limbs. 

To present, to send in, to introduce 
to notice, to bring forward, to oi- 
fcr up as a sacrifice. 
Kwi;n soo scng, pit seuk jfi chein che ^ Hfi 

ck'hai'V dy mrf"*, pU tiSh ehi Kk jt che^n e, 
when the prince bestows any thing raw, we 
inust cook it, before we offer it up. See the 
-t ft Siting ion. 

The name of a herb, or f rus. 

Vulg. ehtng: Befai:e«, in. tine or 
placet rbod '^heta nS EhT I'hdou. 
ching, ia front. Beea che£n ^ 



/ .. 



*" *Hft", bin ch&n, before one's face; chefin jit 
mj n cUng jH, a former day. 
Sey od 6 chefin, bo6 e seen hoe, sey oe 6 
hoe, bo6 e cheOng chefin ff^ ^, ]^^ ||^. fe 

i^iiA ^ ■ g^j^ „,^„ jg CAaSa ching, u"' Chang chd e te aou, 
siff By viim tl aou lai, u'" Chang Chd.n e te Chadu 
thing, that which we have formerly disapprov- 
ed, we must not subsequently prefer, — and that 
which we should in future dislike, we must 

not do previously. See the -fr ^ Tae hak. 
.■•'i■.i^ \ii /jfla-i: ■'t "^ 





Vulg. chei^ : money, cash : Chwan 

cheen Bffi *^ Chan chei^S,Xo get 

money : tong cheen ^^ ^S tdng 

che&'"S^ copper cash, pice. Also, a surname. 

Te teung ho yeep, teep ch'heng chedn y{b Ip 

'^pT ife ^ pq wg ChAn k'hwut a teung h6 

letn d hSBh, tgep ch'hafS cheS'"^, the leaves of 

the water lily in the midst of the, pool, look 

like So much green' money. 

The name bf a .star: che6n chijuk 
hi IIS ^^> ^ '"*'* ^°'^ longevity, ad- 
• ^ .-J^-J dressed to, females 

. (..,,. .,,,,-i -,..:■. ■■ .,■ .,.,;|,,n 

Base, mean, lowly ; liiy cheen "Tx 

l ^ vulgar. I. rPtn-ei sh<j?n se jln 

che s6y oi yH -^ ^^^ \ 

" y Qh" 55. iM song heung kap hdi/ cheen se 

.^„ ,, 1^ Idng Idng di/ sijf wan, poverty and a mean con- 

iHi -.•i''-. d'tion are what all men dislike. See the p Igj 

Sfiing iQn. ,„-,( ■g.u.a?, -^t J 

Cheen ftjItTp To turii"rouni, to revolve. "^^''^ 
Chee'^Sy/Pili Cheek's sey, ^ 




Read cheen: a sort of woollen cloth, 
or felt : cheen teftou ^f^, cAee^'S' 
te&ttu, a carpet, a rug; cheen bo 
^ ijli chee"^ bo, a felt hafi^f ' ■^ 

The hair collected together. 

yijl|lill :,; 



Young in years, green, not come 
to age or rtiaJturity. Seaou che s^, 
heet k'hd be teng, kae che chae sek ' 

chee''S dy s6, h'uiyh k'he boey fe^a fe'oh king 
kae te ai sek, in' the time of youth, before 
the animal spirits are settled, people should 
guard against the love of beauty. See the 


Ch'hdo keang jVt ^g, 
young, green ginger. 

chei"S iieo"S, 

3liri<r i ^ PI 

■"'" '' ' A 

Read chin: to stick in, to cram, 
to wedge ; a wedge. 

Read cheen : an arrow t h°6 cheen 
>/l^ 5^ ^ hoiy chee"S, a fire arrow. 
Kong yim soo chi^en yf" Vs lW 
^^ kong yim chun a chei"^, time ' flies like 



an arrow. 



Read che^n : money, cash : bo6 chedn 
4lH: /S^ b6 chei"^, no money. 

Till VSi > ' ' 

Yea l6ng wuy che£a, che choo 

yed"S tdng chd chei^S, chi choo Chew Vidou k'hi, 

the regulation for melting copper in order 

■ ,U> piake money, began with the. Chew dynasty. 

'''^■■■'i_^'''^o draV "anything outj '^s 'ifit^: ^ 

Chee'^^JpS '•'■^^"^ ^'o ^ ^1 , to 'ead, to 
>j^ "^ draw. 







Vulg. cheik: to receive, to connect. 
Ke kaou yea e to, k£ cheep yea 

^^ ifej i^ tia " ^^ **" *"^ cheabu to li, , 
« dy sea cAeep cheiou lit/ >oi, intimacies accord- 
ing to virtue, and associations consistent with 

propriety. See the "Tv ]2? Hay beng. 
Chiiep i6w yim "*»? ^^ "^ '0J >^ , «» c**«l?: 
ch'hiw lint' cMy, to descend by holding each 
other's hands, ill order to drink water. ' ' 

Cheep y 


xsAl ti 

^ ^ Gravy, juice, liquid : Theen s£ e 

jP f cheiou si I8h rh'eep, heaven at pro- 

per seasons sends down its juice, (that is rain). 
Ktiung tcung p^ k'hwiin, siiy cheep put t'hong 

'^^^Wi^ W A> M . "'""^ '"""^ 

pe k'hwiin Icip kabu rhliy rh'eep bit/ t'hoitg, Ihey 

were so straightened in the palace,- that the 

.least drop oT liauid could not find a thorough- 


.. . ...... ..,i , ...,./,■( 

aV— The eye lashes : b£ cheep che kan 
A^^ lashes. 

Going out aslant ; also, sharp, pro- 
fitable, convenient. 

.! .'.■•« A- 




Vulg. ctifiht to break, to break off: 
aou cheet Jj^ ifr ^ to twist off. 
WQv ti-ang chc& chi-ct che ^ ^ 

^ ■J'f W "'"^ '* '""^ •' '■*''*"' ''<■<•" P'"'^'' 
off the branch ofa iree for a superior. Sec 

♦he _t ^ Si-ang beng. 

To cut, 1p carve : cheet h6ng 
x^ to join a scant. 

Star-light, the ligtit '«Tithe sUrs.' 


luxe 'jw 








^To turn Ippsy-turvy; to leap, to 
jump, to , hop. . 

A comb, to comb: kw°akwunso6 
pe choo se kin cheet ^^ ^ w 

kwun wno sak gwa li &y cha boe f^n d .vf kin rheel, 
my prince has sent me thine handmaid, to 
wait upon your towel and comb. Said by 
^& ^ H^ii^'eng, to her husband, when she 
went to be married. Sec the j^ j^ Cho twin. 

Chun chijet jSt ^ ^ rhiin chal, to 
' te '^iireful and ecotiomical. 

Bright, clear. 

fo 7i«rf ii!T 
A river in the sou 

of China. 


from which the name of the pri>-» ' 

An insignia or teal of office, given 

J -^ 

by the sovereign, to ensure the coo- 

. Ill lA 


I fidencc of the people in the of- 

ficer appointed. 

^^15^^ A section, a verse i teuk cheet y-j" 
pill ^ lek fkal, a knoy or joint in 
^* f^ a bamboo t no6 cheet vH- gn, a 

ch;qU9 cut through the middli'. to establiMi 

confidence between two parties. 

Tck che, h«ng hoe TiJung-kok, jeak hap ho.". 

^^ tit mh Hm cM, ki'd li Tttms-Kok, VA'Wb 
ehio^S hap hod chiet, obtainint; one's aim, we 
may travel through the whole of China (and 
iSnd all agreeing with us), like thf correspond- 
ence of the two sides of a clieque. 






i heet 





Cbiin cheet yp 'gn cAtin cAa(, economical, 
keeping within bounds. _,» i-i'ii' ■ 

To overcome, to obtain a victory, 
to send news of a victory ; also 
diligent, quick, accompHshed. 
Ch6y ho6 Ia6 he^n cheet ^ -^ ^^\M> 
the prince of the Chfiy country came and 
offered up the news of his victory. See the 
Tt" {S. Cho twan. 

Yit gwat sam cheet — H ^ J^ > cftit goii/h 
jil g"a kwAy lit ye^A, to obtain three victories 
in one month. See the A-y 5ffi Seauu a;nay. 
Cheng hoo cheet cheet ^ ^ :^ i# ^ to 
carry on the war with vigour. 

Cheet cfiod -^ f^ cheet a, a fe- 
male office, first introduced in 
the time of the Han dynasty : also 
' cheet. 


The hair of the eye-Iaihes. 


Rapid, quick. 

A fan ; in the east ijb is called cheet, 

and in the west se^n S sed''^- 

Bo6-6ng se chok cheet ^T ^ 

"ka ^ fl» ^""'^"S '^'^^ I'hadu chd aei'V, Bod- 

fing was the first who made fans. 

Cheet twan ^ ^ ^ •« toot"S, to 
break off. Cheet ch6 ^ {]• to 
stop. Cheet \6^ ^Ml^ at Uw 
, tedou, to break off willow branches. , 


Cheet r^ 

A kind of crab. 

lUitlu ,v..„^, I ,,„ 

I'.. n,ll „ , . .Al I. 

A lofty hill, a high mountain. 








Verbose, talkative; many words. 

To obtain in succession, to make 
progress from one to another. Le6n 
chSet sam gwSn ^ ^ H TC. 
seo swi leang ("a gwdriy to obtain in succes- 
sion the three highest literary prizes. • 

^ ,^1^ To reprove, to- blatne; to seek, to 
■^"^S^^ expect; to sustain an office, or 
E^^ burden. Beng ke t'heen t'ho, yew 
lek kwuy chek f|^ '!& ^H^'lf ^ ^, 
openly ( in the upper world ) afraid of Hea- 
ven's judgments,, and secretly ( in the lower 
world) apprehensive of the devil's torments. 
Chek hwat yew choey ^ ^ 7& |^, chek hwut 
v>od choey, to punish the guilty. 
Y6w g4n chek chea, put tek k6 gftn chek k'he 

kong tea chek Jin 6.y l&ng, H^ til Vhe^a e iy 
wa chew k'hd, those who are entrusted with, 
the office of admonishurs, when their advice 
is not attended to, should quit their situations. 


Merit ; meritorious work. 

. ^^_ Vulg. cheSk-: to borrow ; also, if, 
■^^T^ supposing. Chek wat be te» ek ke 
I ^ p'haSu choo {§ Pj. tI^ ^P. ^ 
gSj iw -f-, ch'hin cheol'S king yed biiey chae, 
yed woo, p'hd siy ke"d, if you say that you 
know nothing about the family, bow is it that 
you are nursing their children > See the =^ j^ 
Se keng. 


The blade of grass. 













>. -i^ To spin : hdng chek ^ ^ ^ p'hdng 
2^C| chai/h, to spin thread; also, merit. 
•fj^^ Kong-hoo-bfln-pek che boe chek 

^ ^ X. fl^ /i ^' ^' ^'>*'S-f'oo-Mn.p&sh 
ay neS''^ Uy p'hdng chiyh, Kong-boo-buop&yb's 
mother was spinning thread. 

To accumulate, to collect, to heap 
up together, to hoard up. Chek 
seeou e ko tae ^ /j> 171 ipj ^, 
chek s^y i che^A kvs&n twa, to accumulate little 
things till they become lofty and large. 
Chek tek luy kong ^ |4' ;^ Si!/ , *o accu- 
mulate virtucj and pile up merit. 

To advance ; the appearance of 



A sleeping mat ; hwi j& wao, tae 
hoor^echeke^ jfj^^-^^ 
^ ^ (jl ^ Aira Ul, far* rif, /c"d, 

se tae hoo it/ ch'heSh, so flowered and elegant ! 

this is surely the mat of a great officer. Sec the 

II $t ^'^ ''- 



The ooise of crying- aloud. 

The kerchief wilh which the hair 
is tied, to keep it in itn place. 

^^.^^ hsLTge (tones in the middle of a 
yflv^"* pond i also, a name for the desert 

\^\ of Swabok Jt|; ^ ^ Sba-m8h. 
Kim kwun toe .say chek, luy gwat twin jin yeen 

("a It kSij/ »ay chek, kwiy giUj/h jit 1001"^ 
Idvg hwun, now you have undertaken to cross 
the desert, for months together you will find 
HO smoke of human habitations. 







Deep and confused ;, song jin yew 
6 kedn t'heen hay . che che chek 

' , sing jin woo ey k'hw''i /.ei"^ l'hee"S hay 
ehi ch'him, a sage can look into the most 
deep and confused things in the world. See the 

M rekh keng. 

A trace, a foot-step ; ko^'cbek. "X 

Chek ^ 

Cheuk chek R jA^ A-'Aa cheSh, foot- 
^ steps; T'hae-6ng Icaou ke ong chek. 
ehi t'hiou ch'hdag ke 6ag iy ckeih, Thae-dng 
first laid the foundation of the traces of roy- 
alty (in bis family.) 

A foot-step, a track ; ke tin ma chek 

s6y put keng che tey S ^ BE 

bAy cheik tit/ bt keng Ay tiy, lands where the 
dust of carriages and the foot-steps of horses 
have never been known. 

To tread, to jump; also, the sole 
of the foot. 

PTo come to, to arrive at ; then ; 
chek kirn ^|J ^ now; chek i6 
in [J.i ^ leem pee"S, immediately; 
chek »e pP ^^ that is. — Also written 6n chek. 
Seen jin kiou bin, ch hit leCn ek k'h6 t chek 

WtX%>''° '^"^ *** ^•''* "'"^> '^*'A'' "^^"^ 
yea Chang kabu tio t'hai, when a. clever man 

teaches the people, in seven years they can be 

fit for war. See the "T^ ||^ Hay iQn. 

The noise of many voices, the hum- 
ming of insects. 






To dislike, to be paiaed with; the 
snuff of a caadle. Tim chek ch'him 
dwat t'heen hgng j^ §|J ^ =# 
^ yfy J gwd ch'h&yh sai p'huii dt/ wd Vhein 
■chwat Ay siy ke"d, I dislike slanderous words 
and Tuinous actions^— said b; the the Emperor 



Vulg. chat : the name of a fish : 
seen chek gin se Vhody mi. filjl 

.aChin ched"S gjn swid pkyh In/ bSh, the raw 
^esh flf the cluit iish is white like silver thread. 





The same as the preceding-; vnlg. dhi't 

A kind of grain, like millet, but 
smaller; lioe chek ]^ 5^ ^ the 
name of .an officer who ^presided 
^ver the grain. 

3 the gods «f''the land and 

Se4 chek jjrf| 

- ^^^ Oblique: iMk grim FfT 'g Ch&ifh 


i/im, an oblique sound ; the Chinese 
.have four tones, viz. peng, seang, 

k'he, jip ^ _t ^ X» P«*"^' ''**""^' ft'A^.i*. 
the even, ascending, departing, and contracted 

or entering tones; these are again multiplied, by 
dividing each of them into upper and lower, 
thus making seven or eight. But the general 
division of them is into p?ng ZE pai"^, and 
chek JK, ch&yK, even and oblique, according 
to which their versesare regulated. Hence they 
«ay, €h6 se pit te pfing chek yira ^j^ ^ )i]^ 
^^ ^^ , cU se pit teSh chae pai"S chSyh 
yim, in making verses it is necessary to be 
acquainted with the even and oblique sounds. 

I ^> The sun declining toward the west. 
^T J't chek jS ch'he g ^j^YJj. 
A^. jit C'ita6u"i $ae chew c)us"& ch'he, 





when the sun declined to the west, the mar- 
ket was held. See the H ^ Chew ley. 




^^T^ To urge, to incite, to bring into 



Narrow, contracted : lee chek | 
loe ayh, the road is narrow . 


Single, alone : yit chek — "^ 
chit cheHh, one, one of anything 
H6ng Un eng 4:hek ^^ ^ ^ 
hing tw"a ye"d eheHh, a single form and 
a lonely shadow. Said of an only son, without 

A dead ghost. 

White rice. 

A small step 4 to walk with a short 
st^; to sit with the legs crossed 
•one over the other. 

^ A rule, a law, an example; then. 

Pill After that. G4n j6 se wfly t'hijen 

JtJ h-aychekf-flTjf:^5!^-|t 

B|J kdng ji tey fey cho t'hee^S hay hwat chek, 
if he speaks ( as a sage ) a man becomes for ages 
an example to the Empire. See the tb ^ 
Teung yftng. 
Wan che chek yew bong, kin che chek put 

Attiat"*" iy Ung chew woo bang Uit, kin dy 
Idng yedb6 yBim Ian, ( wheii we act properly) 
ttiose who are at a distance witi look towards 
us, and those viSio are near wDl not dislike us. 


Head seuk;: aa uncle, a father'* 
brother. Chew-kong nae Sfing-6ng 
che seuk ho« yea S] /#^ Jh kK' 












3E /2l ^ ^ iE ^ C*«B-A:(mff K S6ng-6ns &y 

cheh pay, Chew-kong was tbe uncle of S£ng-dng, 

^ agA Read cbeak: a candle: lap cheuk 

^f>^Sl kong hwuy, bod bS pat cheiou 

m chek kwm"S kieut/, bd chit lit/ siy tiy «"* 
chei bing, by the brightness of a candle, there 
is nothing so minute but what it may be 

Still, quiet, tranquil, retired, inactive, 
■ l *y motionless. Chek je£n put tong 

^^^^ ^^"^ %h '**'« '^^ ** ''■"^*'^ 
still and anmoved. 



far from flie oDrse «f men. 

The appearance of4ofty hills^ k'hae 
been bong ch'hftm chek RM $7" ^ 

•ui"a Arwdn kw&n, on opening the school, we see 
the lofty hiiii afar off. 

Oe chek 

oc dutl, the name 

of a fish, called also, bek chek 
iiiV'^Nl IJjjh f,'„ic ch'hat, the cuttle fish. 

LSng chek ^^ ^^ all in confusion. 

J^^ "JL"- '^ book, a register, a record ; tiien 

fT*^ chek JfflL ^ ^ «n historical record. 
'Iml A surname. 
Choo hoe oi ke bae k6 yea, jfi kae k'be k£ 

j;£ ^g. fjiofl ho£ win e Ay hae ka IS, ji chi poS 
t'kel; kak e it/ cfc'Wyft, the princes of the Empire 
were displeased that the history reflected ea 
themselves, and therefore did away with the 
records. See the ~T» ■^ Hay beng 

Vulg. ^Khal, a thief, a robber, 
an injurious person; to injure.' 
Cbek je hong k'hc 



cVhat ch'hin cheo"S p-hang k'hi, thieves sprunj: 

np as thick as bees. 

Chek jln chea wuy che chek ^ "t. ^ fS 

he who injures benevolence is called an in- 
jurious person. 

Then, how; Ihe sign of the past 
tense-, a surname: cheng sun ■^ 



Pf "U^^ a great-grandson. 

Cheng se c wuy hiou hoe 'W' -^ 0/ ^ 'y 
^r" , cheng an ney ehiw king k'eb woo hiou, 
how can this alone be considered filial piety ? 
S«e the J: 1^ Seing lun. \^ 

GoC i cho6 wDy e che bQn, cheng "yIw i K*W 
Che bun ^J^:^!^^^^^^ 
J^ 3ijt ^ ^ , gTtfl le'ih cM) li woo kSh yco"^ 
Ay mooVS^ ckeng se Ytw kap Ktw dy moai"^, 
I thought you would propose some rare ques- 
tion, how is it that you have only askrd 
about Yfiw and K^w. 
Cheng fcein kt jln, be sit k* bfng '®" H 

^ A. 7^ 1^ ^ ^ ,*"' ^-A-'ae^^Mn^. 
hdly bat e Sy me'd, I have see* the man but 
4o Bot know his name. 

f^ ^ A priest of Budhs, a monk, a re- 
VHf close. Se win cheng la£ seaoo, 
pl keiougwily k'hek kohe^ci^'l^ 

^ ^>\ ^ t ^ ii Ifti . ^"' *«""-"^ >^'' 

aeo'V lai ched, ked gwiiy lAng k'hayh hin kiey, 
when the temple is afar off, few priests come 
to \l\ and when the bridge is dangerous, tra- 
vellers seldom go over it. 

To increase, to add to : kay cheng 
yjP j&, to increase more and more. 
Hoc k'hoi nbij cheng B FJ SS 
J^ ^ moot"f iy Uott chhiy lak ««<"«" k'hSh ehiy, 
the inhabitants of each dwelling increase year 
by year. 




Cheng § 



To hate, to abhor; cheng oe ^ ^, 
to abominate. G6 jlii e k'hoe kip, 
luy Cheng 6 jin. ^§ \ \^ \} 
#V M t^ >5f^ A , *''"'P '^^* ^^"S * ch'hiii/ 
&y wa, lak pad hoe ling cheng hwun, attack- 
ing people in conversation,,, yp frequently be- 
come haled by them. See the J^. |^ ^**"S '""• 


% A-^^ The general name of silk and cloth, 
T^xEr Ch'he-yang hwan cheng chea yea 

1/dvg woo Idng bdy hay cheng, at Ch*lu--va!ig 
people trade in cloth. 

To tie a string on a bow. 

< lieng .. ^B^ff^ A fishing net, a cast net. 

_ A tarset, or bull's eye, used as a 

Chenff 1 1^ mark for shooting at. Kwun cho6 

"^**^ sit choo cheng gok, hwan k6w choo 

kfisin ^:|.^^ jE ^J)C ^ H ^ 

jQ* *iiiu» choo dy Idng ait e iy cheng gok, 
chew hwan tSh tooi"S kiio te e fdn sin, the 
good man, when he misses the centre of the 
target, turns and reflects upon himself. See 
the ^ f^ Teung yflng. 

Cheng gwat j£ H ^ che"a gaiyh, the first 
month of the year. 

Cheng 4j£ 

Hasty walking ; afraid. 


To travel towards, to punish, to set 
to rights, to take. Cheng chea 
seang hwat hay yea, tek kok put 
seang cheng yea ^ ^ J^ -(j^ "f^ {]j |5t ^ 
PT* is tlE "ife cJieng se , li too hwat si liy, 
tek kok b6 seo cheng ySa, "correction" is when 
a superior state corrects an inferior; equal 

states contending together, are not said to cor- 
rect one another. Seethe fa fff Teung yflng. 
: ^wau ke j6 put cheng §| |i^ fffj ;^ ^J , 
i fS kwan ai ke cKhat Ung jin, ji t6 VhSyh mei"h, 
at the passes of a country, examine (travellers), 
but do not take duties from them. See ^ -^ 


The same as the above. 


A kind of gong, or copper instru- 
ment of music. Se t'hofi ch'hay 
jit k-hwa long cheng j^i^ ^^ j^ 
Q \^ i® SlE cKhew t'haou te k'he ch'hay 
ch'hul jit ch'hiu chea^S Idng 16, the rising gun 
looks like a brass gong hung up on the top 
of the trees. 



To view alone, to contemplate. 

Correct, modest, chaste, firm ; cheng 
le Ig -h' chin cheet dy cha boe 
ke^d, a virgiu, a modest young 



Kwun choo cheng j£ pot leang •© 3. ^ 

fin ^ ts^ > '"""'' '''""' '^''™^ '''■ j^ *" *^* *^"' 

the good man is generally upright, without 
attending to the smaller points of sincerity. 

> t To ask, to make enquiry, to spy : 
j|^3 y6w Cheng ijj|: fg , a spy. 

% %^ The name of a tree : le cheng -th 
^^Pl ■^ , *" evergreen ; planks used in 

l^ "S building mud walls, which are 
bound together, and the earth is then beaten 
in between them. 
,^ fc. Cheng seing jja jjHp^ lucky omens, 
TK PI fortunate emblems. Kok kay cheang 
/fj^*^ hin, pit yew cheng se^ng 





Ami k'hi^ pit woo eheng sedng, when a country 
is about to rise into celebrity, there will 
certainly be favourable omens. See the a> ^' 
Teung yflng. 

- I** To wrangle, to strive, to contend; 
siJang cheog tH ^^ tio chaf^, 
to quarrel. 
Soo cheng liSng fi leiuu, seang cheng le t ch'he 

ch'hdi/h ling chai''S vie''& te"a U ledou, chd 
teng li ling chai'f^ li tt ch'hi, the scholar strives 
for fame at court, and the merchant struggles 
after gain in ibe market. See the ^ =P 
Su6 k6. 






steep, lofty, difficult of ascent 

A kind of guitar, with twelve or 
thirteen (trings. 

The pupil of the eye; hong cheng 
chei to sew -^ ^'^ ^ ^ ^, 
bak eheng li kak Ag lAng 11"^ hSiy 
tern, those who have square pupils in their eyes 
will live long. Said by ^.^ ^A Kwan-lok. 

J ,-ty Cheng tfing $*^ 1^^ the dragon-Oy, 
U' yrx an insect with four wing* and six 
r^J f«"l- Cheng tCiigtcera s(ky, hwun 
.eep s,m h.,„g ^^ ^ ,¥^, yj^ )^^| ^ f ^^ 
ch'iAu ai"f! tiim li ekAg, Mtg ygih cKhiiey 
kwa p'hatig, the dragon-fly dips in the water, 
and the painted butterfly seeks the flowers. 



The appearance of falnew. 

Cheng |Y> E^ 'h*' can keep down Ike calamity 

rJ*'^ of 





To beat, to thump, to pouu^. Cheng 
kira koe, ch'hiiey bfing nae iK /4^ 

M PJC ".I ^ , p'*"'' ^■•■'" '"•p '"''• 

ch'hiiey biag &y nae, to beat the gongs and drums, 
and blow the sounding pipe. 

fPf Clear brightness: siiy cheng Tf^ ^a, 
^l^f ehUy chet^S, a crystal. 

%_ > _ A flag, with feathers stuck in at the 

Chen"* ffn* ^"P °^ "'^ ^^^- Cheaou tie hoo 

" M^ * ^heng \^:k^ W J^.'**' 
tae hoo t cheng, a great officer must be sum-' 
moned by a cheng flag. See ^U[ -3^ Beng-choo. 

% _ %-, Correct, good, pure, small, rainuir, 

Chenff TK^rt* *"'>''«. fine. Ge cheng, jiii scuk, 

-^ |>J jfi bflo yit hO soo 6 ^ ^. 'fn 

%. ^\% - €• f-A 1 > ^' ^*-^- >'- -*■ 

jt U chit hi ijf lae Whea Ay i, correct in 
righteousness and accustomed to bencvoleocc. 
without a single atom of sinister intention. 




Read cheung: to pound in a mortar. 
C'hi-ung be ^S yk^ theng bt, to 
pound rice. Cheung kew %| iC^,' 
cheng kou, a mortar. 

A cup: chew cheng j^ 
cup or glass. 

a wine 

J Read chijung: » beJI : cjieung b^ng' 

Oak >iu, gak >in, cheung ko6 yin 

hoe chac ij ^. % ^._ li IJ: ^ f- ^'' 
Un^ king chok gak, chok gak, k'ham te cheng ko* 
an nty king chte, people talk of HMtMc, and of 
music; as if bells and drums cuoalituted muiic 
See the ~|V ^ Hiy iBn. 



Vulg. ffcaf"^: # well: a surname. 
Ch£ng teing yew l£ Jt; J- %T ^^, 
chai "^ ting woo U i, there was a 
pliiio tree over the well. 




P'h8 jeak kwut cheng, kwut cheng k6w jim, j6 
put kip chw4n, yew wOy k'b6 cheng yea' 

kwut chains kaou jim, na b6 kip chvi^i., ytw wHjf 
Vhek kak ckai"^, like as in digging a well, 
if having dug nine rods deep> without coming 
to the spring, you cease your labour, you 
must give up the well. See the ~|-« "jJT Hay beng. 

Jl^ >U. To adjust, to regulate, to adorn, 
Chetlff ^jiig^^" '" P"' ""y thing to righls. Sew 
_ 1 -» cheng ji^ ^, to repair and beau- 
tify : ch6y cheng ^ ^ , to adjust. 
Kwa le€ii put lap le, le hay put cheng kwan 

cWhAn bd payh Ay, li ay bS ching kin, in a 
field of melons, do not pull up your shoes; and 
when going under a plum tree, do not adjust 
your headdress: — (lest you should be suspected 
of stealing the melons or plums). 






A convulsive motioa of the skin 
and muscles. 

The appearance of the rising sun. 

Read chedng: to swell: keak che^ng 
ffiSi BS k'ha ching, a swelling of 
the legs; teang cheiing U^ nS 
ted"S ch6ng, swollen. 

Read cheung: a seed; cheung choo 
tp -4- rhirrg cht, a single seed . 
Sip che6ng choo -|- ^f ^ chap 
ching a, a term of abuse. 

^0^^ Correct, straight, right: cheng keng 

\ 1^ j£ ^^ honest, upright. Cheng tit 

^^*^^^ jF Ifl '^^'"' '''> straight-forward, 

blunts p«ng ch^ng ^ J£ ^ pai"? cAe"d, j ust. 

Choo sut e cb^ng, seuk kam put ch^ng ^ 

^it) 1?I iF. iL 1^ ^ IE , '^ ^*'*»'^ "^"s i 

ehe"A to, che chmuy k"i a'" che"&, if you lead 
people on by correct principles, who will dare 
to be incorrect. See the 1> gSj Hiy lun. 

_ » To regulate, to rectify, to govern : 

Cheng iT^f *^''^"S *°» 5^ ^ > government, 

WyT^k^ politics. Cheng chea, cheng yek, 

s6y i cheng jtn che put cheng yea ]^ ^ jg^ 

chew si che"i, siy e che"& Idng dy u"" che"A, 
to regulate means to put to rights, — that by 
which we set right people's wrongs. Said by 
^v; ^ Cboo-choo. 

^^^.^k Read cheung: to plant, to sow. 

Cheng y^S C''^""S ''"^ •''^''"" fl tf^ %, > 

I _' I '^ ching hoi ch'eo, to plant pepper; 
cheung tek |.^ /^ y ching tek, to plant virtue. 


^l-^A Read chSen: a mat: kaou cheen 
5i,-> iS ka ching, a thick mat or 
mattress, made of straw bound fast 

together, and used foe sleeping on 

A» The feefiBgs, the passions; ch*fait chfing 


't '1^ ''"^ seven passions; jin 
cheng j^ '[§, kindness; chSng If 

reason, reasonable. 


He, noe, ac, lok, be hwat, wuy seng, — hwat, 
chek wuy che ch6ng g ^ :^ ^ ^ ^. f^ 

i% #. W\ t% Z f#, *«-"« «. -" *'«. 
ae ch'hdm, Vh'e&ng lok, yed boey htvat, kong kei 

$ai''S,—hwat leaou, chew king kedt ching, joy, 

anger, grief, and pleasure, before they are 

displayed, are called nature; when displayed, 

they arc denominated pa<sions, 

_ % ^ Vulg. chaV'S : fair weather; a clear 
l"I-_!_* sky; calm, serene; 6 chfing "M V^ 


hoe chai"-^, the raia is cleared up. 
Also written HM chfing. 





T'heen chfing keng seng been 5^ 0w' ;p' S 
^ ^ Ckee'^ chafe kwui"S cVka{^ hein, when 
the sky is clear, the bright stars appear. See 
the ^ pg So6 ke; 


» palace, 


Vulg. chin: a story of a house, a 
first or second floor, an additional 
chamber. Chfiiig keung Wt 'o* ^ 

with a succetisiea of cbambfrs and 

Cheng |W^ ^"" '■*'*"" ^ ''^' "^ '"^"^ *•'■ 

If III pearance of hills. 


^ _%^ Tranquil, peaceful: also, to think; 

Cheng y^Sr '" "-'g"'-'*- An Cheng i^ J^, 

1^ rest and tranquillity ; — answering in 

Chinese to "good night." 

L£ng cheng e te wAn, tSm pok k'h& h£ng lim 

^ it i^'M it j;^ ?fl ^ ?^ '6 . '^-^ 

eheng i ti kadu *»ul"^, tim pSh Chang bing 
ling Ay lim, peace and tranqiMllity will enable 
• a man to extend his thoughts to distant objects, 

and a tasteless indifference to the world will 
enlighten the mind. Said by "1^ ^ ^ ^, 

% ^J^ Rest, the opposite of motion, itill- 
~IY| J^|# » ness, quietness, inactivity. Te chS& 
|>| ^ long, jiii chea chi-ng ^[1 -J^ ^^ 
■y* 7(^ w^ teou /e 4y Mng- Wn ling, woo 
Jin &y Ung ching ching, men of knowledge 
are active, but men of benevolence still. See 
the _Jr =m Seaug iQn. 

Chck chEng Che ch'hi ^ |^ J^ [^ , *e»S* 
cA£>rg Ay wBy, a. still, quiet place. 

^ •^ An earthen pot to boil rice in: e 

Cheng Wff ho6ch5ngch'hwin|r][^^^, 

^■•*\^ nd <g"(i b'ok kadu Chi poot"^, to 

n«e pans and pots in cooking,. See 3: -4^ 




To present, to give as a present ; 
hong cbeiig ^ |^ j to offer up. 

\^^^ Clean : keet cheng ^^ Ji^ ^ ch'heng 

Cheng y jTn t k-ht .eo"?, pure and clean. Lcik 

f >| cheng put k'ho so^y jj^ jg. ^ 

Pf ^ ^ iei* ijy cAiJj^ ch'heng khe, i™ I'Aa;,^ 

y*o"^jf na'a, the waters of the Leuk are clear, 

and must not be defiled by spittle. 



Cheng ^^ 


To adorn ; clear,. 

To reprover koe chea, kwun y«w 
cheng sin, boo y6w cheng cbo6. 

ft^ -J" , *<'<S chd, jtn kwun woo t'hang l^a Ayjin 
ttn, tte3''S pay woo I'hang t"i Ay haiu tai^, 
in former lirae«, princes had ministers that could 
lepcove them, aud fathers, children that could 
advise then. See the jj^ tP L<y ki. 

To look displeated. 

A pit, a hole. Jin kae wat, t te,— 
k'he j« lap choo ko« hwi ham 
cheng chc leung. jfi bok che te 

TJl , '^«e chd pod. king, gwa woo li,—na botyh 
Itw^iji lap e koi hwa. ham ching Ay leung, chew b& 
lAng iy chae teem |)*c"ff, people all say, " I am 
knowing, "—but if you were to drive and catch 
tkem, in a net or a trap, or in the midst of 
a pii-fall, they would none of them know bow 
t» escape. See the »|l ^ Teupg yflng. 

'I^^ Read rhong: thus, chong gcep ^ 
^j"** 5J< > che''^ giep, a farm: chong kay 

^t ^, c**"*" kay, a farmer. Alaov 

a lurname. 







^ ^ Read chongi an ornament, a head- 
}\Ji* dress; to adorn. Chong sek jj^ 

jfc* d^ ^ sey chef's, a toilette. 

Put I'hae chong chfeng, choo jefin y^ou t'heaou 

I'hae che"S ching, choo fein ya6u t'heaou, with- 
out waiting for the aid of the toilette, she is 
naturally handsome. 

Read chong: bribes received by in- 
ferior officers-, stolen goods. Tuy 
chong^ll,'"^^''-''^.*" -'''=»' 
for stolen goods. 

Read chong: goods? chong h^o ^ 

'f^ cft«"ff hoiy, liaggage, stores. 

O'ng lag che jin, sok chong chew 

4y Ung pak chc^S chew ke"d loc, passengers 
travelling to and fro, pack up their luggage, and 
set out in the way. 



Read chong: a farrai te6n chong 
Y^ r^, ch'Mn che^^, a farming 
Ha6 chong f^ J^,Ay chef's, a shoe warehouse. 
Gwan hoe se seng chae ti;6n chong ^ ^ 
& ii ^ ffl )i ^ ff»5" «5a s^ 'ai"S twa 
It ch-hdn che"S, I desire in the next birth to 
be horn in some farm-house :— Said by a sove- 
reign, when about to be killed. 




K6 chong J^ ^, ko che"^. an in- 
dictment, an accusation. T'heen 
hay l)6o to, jin bin b6o k'ho ko 

fhee'^S ay bo to Ay si. King payh sai"S bo ta 
^h Chang Ub che"=, when the Empire is without 
the right way, the people have no where to go 
and prefer theij indictments. 








Read chong: a warehouse ; ho6 chong 
Igy '^•'>»°S he fl^ g^ ^ jf , hoi che^ 
|£^^U k'hang k'hang, the treasury and 
store-house empty. 

JJ^p-m, Read chong : the viscera, the bowels : 
hgh Jlny6wgn6ech5ng y^ ;:^2.H, 
')r^^ l&ng woo goe che"S, people have 

five viscera. 

Read cheaou : to call, to beckon by 
the hand, to assemble. Be kam chek 
cheaou, seen se hong bQn yjC^ TOT 

cheo, tag seng sed p'hay fhdm t'he''a, I do not 
dare directly to call you, but first write a 
letter to make enquiry. 

Read cheaou : a plantain : cheaou 
choo kay ^ '(^ |ij ^ cheo a kay, 
A ^V^ ^^^ plantain street. 

^ Read se&ou: few, not many, scarce. 
1^1 » Koe jjn b66y cheung, kok ch'hut 
^^r siiaou h6 e chey g" K <^ i^^ 

ching, kok ch'hut cheo cheo i chiy, the ancients, 
from every kind of grain, used to take a lit- 
tle of each, to sacrifice it (to the manes of 
those who, first invented food), 

9 -, Read cheaou < to reflect, to illumine. 
^jL jit chiJaou ban hong ^ BS |^ '^y 
VYV^ jh Cha6u eh'eb che"d bin h^, the 
sun illumines myriads of places. 

Read cheaou < a sacrifice, a religious 
procession. Chd cheaou k£ hok 

# > V> # ii Wi Wi > "*" '^^ "*'" '"" 

k'hi, to perform a sacrifice in order to seek 


Read cheaou : to eat, to gnaw. 





f % A foundation. Wfly ke sit, pit-seen 
Chedh +^ lip ke che«h ^ g ^,ji, ^ 

^i^^^ AT. ^ ^ , '■*" '"'" 'A'*""' P'' 'eOh 
tae seng k'hea ke cheilh, in mailing a great house, 

we must first lay a good foundation. 


Liy cheSh ^ |^ , the handle of a 
^5*" plough. 




Read >ek: a stone ; a measure of ten 
peeks ; a surname. Kim boo san, 
yit kwdn sek cbe to '^ ^ Ml 

eheSh iy chit/, now a hill is nothing more than 
a heap of stones. See the fn Iflf Tcung yQng. 

Read cheang: a chapter, a section; 
a surname. BQu cheang "^ ^ 
bUn chio"^, literary composition. 
Song, Ong-an-sek, tcng chok bAa cheang, e 
pat pe wOy liit; the B6ng na6 6 bOn cheang 
se fhi-en h5y 8o5 tR 3E ^' ^ ^ ^ 

X ¥ p^ ^ T i ' ^'^"^ '"""' ^Van- 
cheSh te"a did l/fln chieo"^, t piyh koi chb lit ; 

chi kadu Bin^ ledou, ch'he"i i iHn cheo''S ch'hd 


Read chea: to borrow : na le chija 
^^ la ihh ey cheSh tit chey % meS"li, 
where can we borrow such a thing as this ? 

Ail. Sck h"© ij^ jf^ cheoh huey, to warm 

^^'^^^ AO* one's-selfat the fire. Hfln lafi bo6 

/ W e, long sek h^o ^;^^-i^ 

tML -^ yi>* 'T* >llt ^y^m 

when the cold weather comes, if you have no 
clothes, you must warm yourself at the fire. 

'TCTfr^ Read sek I to cut down. Sek se ^Tff 
^y\ ^, CheSh ch'hew, to fell trees. 







k'hw^i t'hee^S Sy dy rAa!fc ch'hayh ling, dng- 
an-sek of the Song dynasty settled the form 
of literary compositions, and confined them 
to eight sections} till in the Bfing dynasty, 
literary compositions were used for trying and 
examining scholars, throughout the Empire. 
See the ^ ^ So6 lekk. 

Read cheang: the camphor tree. 

Read cheang: the name of a river, 
in the province of ^ '^k Hok- 
keen, which gave rise to the name 
of Cheang-chew i# tyA ^ Cheo^-chew, the 
department where the dialect of this dictionary 
is spoken. There is, also, Chcang-p'boe-h(;en 
^ /^ J^, Cheo"S.p'kot-kwaH, the district 
of Chco"s-p'hoe. 

Read cheang : the name of a fish. 

Read cheang: starch, for stiffening 
clothes; 4m cheang >Q ^^ dm 
cheo"^, starch. 



cheing: a surname. 


, ^^>_ Read cheang: the palm. Sew cheang 

^^P?"" ^ ^ , ch-hiw chU"^, the palm 

"■J"* of the hand. 

Ct gno sey yeuk vci, him cheang ek gno 

.Jy yeuk yi.4 ,a^ ^ 1^ ^|i J- g 

# flc m ^J^ ■©> *^ ^^ "1/ '^ J'"' *''" 
eheii'^S ged gtca liy ai yid, fish is a thing 

that I like,— a bear's palm is also what I like. 

See ^ Zt. Beng-cboo. 

Read cheing: an oar, Kd cheang 

Cheops 7T7J* j^ II, *■" '■*""^< t" P"'i- "■■ 

push over, the oar. 
'1 ednii sntnhHauj 






P6 cheang M Jji^, po cheo"^, a 
mound, a fence. Tae s!n kok clie 
p6 cheang yea [/C S S ^ 
yh twS jin sin kok ty pi ched"^, 
a great minister is the defence of a country. 

Read cheang ; sauce or gravy. Toe 
cheang g^ ^S , taou ch'ed"^, a 
kind of ketchup made of pulse. 
Seen hoo cheang yung pek yew sip je yung 

Hi/ Idng yung ch'ed"S che"d p&yh kw& chap je 
Ang, the cook used one hundred and twelve 
jars of sauces. See the J^ |f Chew ley. 


Cheo ° 

Cheftng ch6 

^^ ch^SngcU, a 

Read seang : to ascend ; up, at the 
top, upon, ahove, on. Seang tong 
kae, chek seen cho cheuk, seang 
sey kae chek seen yew cheuk Jl ^ |5^ 

cheo"S tang kay, chew tae seng to cVhew dy Wha, 
cheo^S sae kay chew tae seng che"it eh'hiw dy 
k'ha, when ascending the eastern stairs first 
set down the left foot; and when ascending 
the western stairs, first set down the right fool, 

•^^ Read yang: to itch. Chw4n sin chin 

M^^!t Mn sin ched"^ ledou ledou, the body 

itches all over. 
^M^ SuiBcient, enough; the feet. Te 
fC cheuk ^0 ^^ to l>e content. 

^^^^ Cheuk sit cheuk peng, bin sin che 

kaou peng, kwi piyh sai"S sin Idn, "asuflBci- 
ency of food, a sufficiency of weapons, and 
the confidence of the people;"— three things 







which a good governor will seek to obtain. 

See the T> =|^ Hay lun. 

Heng ley je sew cheuk, ch'hey choo soo e hok 

he"a le cKhin cheu"S k'ha cKhiw, boe ke"d 
ch'hin cheu''S s'^a k'hoi, elder and younger 
brethren are like one's legs and arms, but 
wives and children are only like one's apparel. 

To confide to, to entrust with; also, 
to assemble, to connect. Han 6ng 
che cheang, tok Han-sin k'ho cheuk 

4^ ^ Hin ung dy chedng, tok Edn-sin Chang 
cheuk Vhok Iwd sod, of all the generals of 
the king of Han, Hin-sin alone could he 
entrusted with the great affairs of state. See 
the ^ |£ Soo ke. 
Nae cheuk k6 U 16, jS ko che J^ ^ ^ 

^n "^ ffil "u y^ ""^ '^^'^ ^"^^ ^ ^^ '""" 
Idiig, ji kap e kong, he then assembled his 

elders, and informed them, &c. See the J^ ^[ 

Seang beng. 

An instrument used for stopping 

The name of an officer, presiding 
over the ancestorial temple. 

To entrust to the care of, Han 
Cheaou-leet ley cheuk koe e 
Choo-kat-boo-hofi J^ ^ f\\ ^ 

le'el tiy Vhok koe ke"d hoe Choo-kal-boo-hci, 
the Emperor Cheaou-leet of the Han dy- 
nasty entrusted his orphan child to Choo-kat- 

A candle. Lap cheuk ^^ '^ ^ dh 
y^ft chek, a wax candle. Cheuk cheaou 
^^ b6okeang^BS^ 15, cAaft 
ch'eo U k'eang, a caadle illumines all around. 










MiJSy chijuk Cff V^ , om mot]/, 
congee, rice water. Ch'hwat 
cheuk, been ch'hira hek, chek wuy 

cKhoiyh am moiy, bin cKhim oe, chek vsuy j& 
k'haou, " drinking watery gruel, and with 
a face as black as ink, he approached the 
throne and wept." This was the conduct of 
a filial SOD, on the death of his royal iather. 
See the J^, ^ Seang beng. 

y yi f l ^ '^^'^ noise made in calling fowls: 
cheuk key 5j5 |& ^ koe key, to 
chuck like fowls. 

Boils and blains, on the hands and 

To bless, to feliciUte, to wish well 
to, to pray for blessings on. A 

Cheuk sew jK? ^^ to wish one long life. 

Cheuk sea ^^, *° thank. 

The belt, tied on the outside of 
a garment I a girdle. 

Read seuk -. an uncle, a father's 
younger brother. 

To collect » a. cup, a certain mea- 
sure; a surname. Chew chiiung 
Y@ ^^ '^''^'^ cAeng- i, a wine cup^ 
Ban cbcuDg 6 gno h6 kay yeen ^ ^ Jj^ 
^ 1^ j/ifl ^ y *"" '^''^""S ^y ck'hek te gvd 
wou s"a mce"h kay, what would ten thousand 
measures of grain add to me ? See jS -jp 

Vulg. Cheng: a bell. Y&ou cheung 

Cheung 16 1^ ^ ' * double sur. 



Sin cheung, boe koe, feng jia beng seng 

Cheng, mat "S hiiiui"^ dj/ koe, ling ling ling 
sing, the morning bell, and the evening drum, 
are to make people alert and watchful. 

Cheung kew ^j Q cheng koo, 
a pestle and mortar. 

Vulg. Cheng: to pound, to beat? 
Cheung be ^ ;^ ^ cheng bt, to 
beat out rice. 

Stupid, foolish : Ac-koog wat, kw"4 

Cheung ^/^^ jin cheung ge :^ -J^ Q, ^ 

*Vli> A ^ J^, , Ae-kong Long, g-ud 

wou Cheung gai, Ae-kong said, 1 am stupid 

and foolish. 




A kind ef insect 

The end, the issue, the termination ; 
final. A surname. But yew pun 
•J* <^ bwat, soo y6w chiiung sc qhl /BT 

/^ ^. ^ ^ q?V >(& ' ""*"* woS pUn bwat, 
too Kod k'h6 I'hauu ticih bii^y, things have 
their origin and termination ; affairs have a 
beginning and an end. 

To scrape anything. 



Vulg. c**nff; the seed of anything; 
offspring. Chi:6ng chijung ^ ^^, 
short hair, 
Gnoc kok chea, chiiung chc be chiia yija 

chew Mi ching &y siy, the five kinds of grain 

are«the best of aH seeds. 

The heel of the foott to tread 
with the heel; to cut off*. Cheung 
bQu jC ko BQn-kong ^ f^ [^ 


■^ ^ ^ ' Ar'Aa tkh moof*S jS kap Blln-kong 
king, treading on the threshold, they informed 
Ban-kong-, &c. See ^ ^ Beng-choo. 




Tekng cheung E^ ^^ ^ iW^S cUng, 
to be swollen, 

Keak cheung ffl^ |5 > '^'''" '^''*"^' 
a swelling of the legs. 

All, the whole, many : cheihigjtn 
^ A chetng l&ng, all people. 
Kw^a kod put k'ho e tek cheung 
IIl;T^'^l^i:fo chUko^l-eytUy 
tek chet/, the few certainly cannot contend 
■with the many. 

Hwan ae cheung j6 ch'hin jin ^ ^ ^ 
rfn ^ f-^ > '""^" °^ f 'leing' l&ngt 3^ ch'hin 
kin woo Jin &y Idng, generally kind to all, 
but intimate with the virtuous. See the Jq 
Seang lun. Also written ^ chiiung. 



Ledng cheung TCE 
not meet with. 

to seek and 


To plant, to sow, cheung ch'hae 


Sfn-I6ng kaou bin cheung gnoe kok |p ^ 
^^ ^ @ -S, ^ ;, Sin-lSng k& bin ching 
gnoe kok, Sin-16ng taught the people to plant 
the five kinds of grain. 

^%% To follow, to comply with; from, 
^^^ out of. A surname. Also written 


iJi cheung. 

Yin cheung leQng, hong cheQng hoe ^ ^ 
SB ISf >J'Jh jn* > f''"^^" ''''^" iedng, hong fkdn 
hoe, clouds follow the dragon, and wind the 
tiger. See the^ 0_ ruh keng. 










^ J. «^ To follow behind, to accompany ; 
^iy» ChiJung gno chea, k6 Y6w e ^ 

•^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ , "^^ S-*^"^ ^^ 
/(}»§■, e fc"a ae Yivo e, he that accomp'anies 

me, will it not be Y6w? See the J;^ |^ 

Seang lun. 

P ^ A boat, a vessel : chewkesey che 

- jTi - ^ ^ pjt M> '^*'^" ^^ '^'''''^'' 

/ >J s^^ A-aiu d^ tt'Cy, wherever boats 
or carriages have travelled. See the tp !^ 
Teung yflng. 

P'hitma yaOu tS ch'heen le tey, k'heng chew 
h ko ban teflng san ^ ^ ^ g^ ^ ^ 

Jay p'haou chaou ch'heng le &y ley, k'hin k'kin 
Ay chUn i kiidy ban leUng dy 8w"a, with one 
horse we have gallopped over a thousand 
miles of country, and with a light boat we 
have sailed past ten thousand ranges of hills. 

> • To cover over, to conceal, to hide : 
/UL sQy chew 6 be || 'fl ^ || , 

,|/ -^f che chuy pey gwd dy ho, who will 
conceal my excellencies. See the ^ ^ 
Kok hong. 

Garrulous, many words; to speak 

The axle or cross-bar, in front of 
a carriage ; sometimes put for a 
fing-k'hoseuk heep chew, 6 choe f^^ 
^^^ U^, ^'"S-k'ho-seuk gnSyh 
ch'hea, e ke"d, Eng-k'ho-si-uk took the carriage 
under his arm, and walked away with it. 
See the ^ \^. Cho twan. 


A flock of little birds, chirping 
to<rether; a cry of distress. 








To circulate, U perambulate, to 

Round, all rouod, coinplet*, univer- 
sal, liberal 5 a surname. Kwun 
cho6 chew jg put p* ^ "^ ^ 

(fii ^ ^ ''™'"" '*"' ''■'' "'"^ '*"" ■'^ *'' 

pi, the good man is liberal and not narrow 
minded. See the Jt f ^ ^eang lOn. 
K'hoog-choo chew l*w soo hong ^ ^ ^ 
WM -)j^ K-hong-choo chew Iho »h lilt's, Con- 
fucius rambled round about all parts. 
Chew p5 ^ 1^, completely prepared ; chew 
chSy El^ completely provided. 



Chew chfiy ^ ^ , *" '"PP'^ ^'^ 
want* of the poor. S06 che scang 

chew f^ ;^ ^ i)^ , "« ' '*" 
chew eMs, make them provide for one another. 

^ k A district, a department. Chew, been 

\\\ 3Wk' '*"•• ""'"' '"'^" Vi! 

/ I I smaller di»trkU. Chew ho6 ^i| 
Ife^ a capital of a district, a colony. 
G4n put teung sin, hfing put tok kcng. su^ 
chew 16, h6ng hoe chae ^ ^ JE^S . 'fT 

wS, M teung rin. Ug ke''i b6 tok king, tuy 
chew li, k-liam iy ke^A tit chae, - when a 
man'"* words are not faithful and sincere, nor 
his actions true and respectful, although in 
his native district and village, how can he get 
forward ! 

The tunings and windings of a 

Chew chek ^lIpP, tbe noise made 
by infants and children. 


High land in fte midst of water, ' 
an island in a river. Chae bd 
Che chew ;^^;^5)H,'»«'S 
kdng iy cheic, in the island of the rWer. 



Chew ^"Sg? Deceitful ; to cheat 



Chew > 


Wine, fermented liquor. 

Sit chiw 
to drink 


at tek chok chew ^ ^ i^ iP , ir« '** 
^y htean ehi chiw, the north-western foreign- 
ers first invented wine. 
E' od che ch6w, j« h"6 sc£n gin ^ ^ Q 

S ffii iT ^ S" ' •^ "'^" '^^ '^''*"'' •'* ** 
ho iyui, E' disliked the best wine, but Uved 

virtuous words. 

Yew chew soo sijen «eng chwan 7^ ^ i^ 

.A. jtt ^1 tcoS ehiw pooV^ hoi pay hc"a 

che'ih, if when we have wine and food, we 

give it to our parents and ■elders to eat, — (how 

can this alone be considered filial piety ! ) 

See the J^, 1^ Seanj lOn. 

_ ^-^ - Siou chew ;}^ i^j ^ besom, a 
^— k,^fc broom. Seaou-k'hong ch'hcy chok 

T^ kechcw/j7]^;^;j>f^^t, 

Sriou-k-hong k'hi ch'hey cho sadu chiw, Seaou- 
k'hong first invented besoms. See the "^^ 
"fr Swat ban. 

The name of a beast, found in the 
west,— about the size of an ass, 
in shape like • monkey, and 
expert in climbing trees. 

^ _ Re«d sew: to keep, to guard, to 

^St Uke care of. Sew keng t^ |f , 

A chiw fcaj"^, »o keep watch. Sew 

\Mt iMi^^ chiw mrf"*, to Uke care •« any 









Sew, seuk wily tae? «ew sin wuy tae ^ 

k'hah twaf chiw Ian pirn sin fc'Aflft twS, of all 
cares, which is the most important ? — The 
care of one's own personal conduct is the 
most important. See the "Ji j^ Hay beng. 

y^ To swear } an oath. Chew se ^ ^^ 

I* Vl '^^^ chwa, to take an oath. Bin 

y U ho6, chek k'hwat k'hoe choe chew 

chiw k-hwat ch'hUi/ chiw chw&, when the people 
have any disputes, they open their months 

"* '*^ Sed"S si. 

scolding; rail- 

with an oath. See the. Tpj 
Ch'han chew "^ 





ing words. 

Read choo: a kind of insect that 
eats wood. 

Then; to go to, to approach to; 
complete. Chew yew to, jS. ch^ng 

-^, _ yHen |IC ;^ it • fln IE ^ ^ 

ch7w wah woo to &!/ ling, ji che"a ka te, to 
approach the virtuous, and adjust one'sself 
by them. 

Jit cheang gwkt chew j^ ^ Hc , *° ""^''^ 
daily advances, and monthly improvements. 

To load, to burden ; to contemplate. 

A great bird, found in the south, 
with a yellow head, red eyes, and 
of a variegated colour. Qu. the 


Even; a sort, a class. Go6 chey 
^j< 3£ ^ ^ gwdn Ay Ung, we, us 

Chin Teng tfing chey ^ §P |^ 
CMn kok kap TSng kok ting chei,, the Chin 
and Teng countries were equal and alike. 



Beng ho6 suy yln ok, ek kok y6w p'hit they 

6.y hoi suy kdng si p'ha"i, ySd kok woo p'hit 
chey, fierce tigers, although they may be call- 
ed savage, yet have each their equals and 

To ascend, to go up. Chey pe kong 
q%, t6ng^^^f:,c«»»^ed,r 
kong long, to ascend up to the public 
hall. See the ^ M Kok hong. 

I _ *— To involve, to be pushed in, or let 
T^TlSfc. fall. Se4ou jIn 16 jg b6o choo, 
"Jy^l te chey fi koe hok e /|^ /\^ ^ 

Idng la-ou J6 b6 kS^d, chae ey chey suk te kaou 
hok i, the little one { i. e. I) being old, and having 
no children, know that I shall be shoved into 
some ditch or another,-( when I die ). See the 
^ ■<i Ch6 twan. 

A sheaf of corn ; to bind corn into 
I— i a bundle. 



To ascend, to go up. Chey « kew 

r/^ leng^f ^/l!^.^"^""^*""" 

kiw ling, to ascend up to the nine 

To present, to send as a gift. Seaou- 
1J3)^ chong Pek sew kS cheang p5 cjhe 

chey f\^ ^i^^% 
-y 3iK Sedou-chong Payh, sew e &y cheang 
pe dy chey, the Sea6u-chong PSyh officer re- 
ceived the presents of silk and cloth. 
^; w», A. certain sweet vegetable,— capsella 
rh T(^^ P"'** pastoris. K6 kam je chey 

^ney ,y^ ^ "B* ^p f , ^ ^^ '-"^ ^"'W" 

eheo"^ chey, as sweet as the chey vegetable. 
See the M M. Kok hong. 




Chey 3^]1 ^'"^ '""^ mm^'"' ""'' ""'• 







dicinal drugi, 

>p^J|jL To cut to pieces, to cut up into 
*■ — ^"- mince meat. 

Chey »^^jj^^ The noise of many voices. 

^ To6 chey B£ |^^ loi chat, the navel. 


l-S To present, to send. Cheyse^ 

to send a letter. Ma-wan-wuy 
G^.Qy-g6 chey se || jg ^ j% 
fi§ J^ ^ Mi-waa Vhig Gu.ul/-g6 chey p'hay, 
Ma-wan carried a letter for GwQy-g6. 

Read chue. A surnanie. Choe c Loe 

hang Ifl :^ ^ ^^ , ^1^^ '"'P ^<^ 
ieo p'hih, the Chey country went to 

war with the Lo« country. See the J^ j^ 

Seang beng. 

The name of a stream ; also, full 
and abundant. Chey chey to soo 

^ '^ ^ i , **'•" **"^ ^* '''''* 
t'hak cVhiyh ling, abundant inQeed was the 

multitude of scholars. Seethe >l|\i^Se&ou 


% __ Elder sister: chey chcyflg^fl^, 
Wj M a respectful mode of addrcising 
^^'^^ females. 

Seaou ch£y j/]r\ h^^ fed chfd, little roiast my 
young mistress. 

This, these. Chey jln put se jtn, nae 
* -^i^ se sey dng b6c, la£ hwi sin i"^ 

-Q: ^ -ft ^ , c»*y liH ling u" ti ling, nat 
tl lae 6ng ay n^i^ Uy, lot hvci tin, this per- 





son is not a human being, but jfr the mother 
of the western king, metamorphosed into this 

Jt9^ To sacrifice, a sacrifice. Chey but 

^■^^ Cheyjdchae, chey sin j6 sin chac. 
Choo wit, go6 put i chdy, jfi put chey ^ 

ai, chiy ttn bhtg ch'kin cheo"S rin bing le tit. 
Hoo-ch»i king, gwi h6 chi poS tMy, cA'A/n 
cAeo"*" M chiy, sacrifice ( to your ancestors ) 
as though they were present, and sacrifice to the 
gods as though the gods were present. Con- 
fuciiw said, if I am not personally engaged 
in the sacrifice, it is to me as if there was no 
sacrifice. See the _t. |^ Seiog lOn. 

The name of a kind of grain. 

A meeting together; an opportunity, 
_ a season. Tflng G6 che chey ]W 
fj^ J^ ^ ^ , in the time of T6ng 
and Gi. 

fc To be pained, to be troubled. Bo6 
^^ cho5chgyyeen^ g ^ i^. 
/^A'\ b6 ka li hvin 16, d« not distress 
yourself about it. 

The cessation of rain $ fair weather. 

To supply, to assist, to regulate, 
^bijuPW to settle, to cross the water. Kew 
I /^l ch'hfi che Ic, bSn bin i ch«y Q 

cke''i ban ling i chit/, by the profits of the 
pestle and mortar, the wants of myriads of people 
are supplied. See the ^ ^ i'W* keng. 




Chey WhH*^ Useless words, garrulity. 

The name of a stream of water. 

A kiRd of grass, of whicfa clotk is 

K* The name of an insect. 
The navel. Se chey h5 kip 





fAJ% bSiyh an aiw"d ey kip kiou, if want- 
ing Xo cat one's own navel, how could it be 
got at ! — ( used to express an impossibility. ) 

l^-l^ Ipf J5t J '"**'** ''" '* ^^ '"^ '^'"'^' 

To regulate, to set rigtit, to put 

in order. A surname. Pit cheang 

^ew ley e chfiy telou, oheng hwat 

chfiy kwan, pSng te e chfiy bin iVL^Jlu t^ 

Wl -^ ^ ^^ A'"-Aat teSh sew lit/ toe e chiy 
te&ou ting, che"a hwat tot e chit/ chd kw^a, 
pafS te e chiy piyh saV^, we must certainly 
cultivate propriety in order to regulate the 
court, adjust the laws in order to regulate 
the officers, and equalize the government in 
order to regulate the people. Said by Im ^- 
Sfin cho6. 

|u7llVTo taste, to eat \ \ 

J^ Read to : many, not few, much. 
^^ji Sim to ^ ^, ">" '^f'^S' very many. 

^^^ "J^o bOn keen chea, hak che p'hok 

dy ling, twui^S chi p'hok hak, those who have 






heard and leen much may be considered as 
extensively learned. 

^% fc Read cho : to sit down. Ch'heng cho 

^tm Ih ^> ^'^'''^"'^ <^*«*> pray sit down. 

^^■*^^ Sek put cheng put cho 1^ ^C 
Jp ^ ^ ^ ch'heSh bi ti che"i, bo boiyh chey, 
if the mat was not put square, he would not 
sit down upon it; — said of Confucius, in the 
_t nffl Seang lun. 

Cb5, gno bfing g6 choo ^ f| f|^ ff ^f-, 
chey, gwA bing bing kap le kong, sit down, 
Sir, and I will clearly explain it to you. 
See ^& ^+- Beng-choo. 

An auxiliary word, seldom used. 

^^ The hands entwined together. Jip 

^^^ kwun, yaou sii&ng chiiet, hong jin, 

y^ sew chJnch^haX^^ 'tilt. 
^^ A ^P" ^S ^^ j'P chew kwun, y'eo sedng 

cheet, — too teoh t&ng, cVhew chin ch'ha, when 

entering a district, the loins are constantly bent; 

and when meeting with people, the hands are 

always joiaed'^^(ui making compliments). 


Ch'lia <ry* To boil, or fry ;|ny thing. 

Jti'Z^ Ch'ha chey ^ ^ ^ missing sne's 




To be angry, to be enraged. 

To boast, to brag ; to deceive. Kam 

Ch'ha ^f^ g^^^i^'hag^-^g^tf . «»'- 

V* \g^ teriog «»rds and boasting expres- 
sions. '•':'' 








ChUn ch'ha M &\) chei"^ ch'hi, 
paper money; — to take. 

Ch'h4 k'ho ^ ^ j to examine, as 
at the public examination*. 

Kwan ch'hae /j^ j^ ^ kw^a ch'hd, 

% |- Read ch'hafi : fire-wood. Tae chea 
W^*\m^ k'ho sek wOy che sin, seaou chea 
!^^T^~ hap sok wDv che ch'hafi y^ "^ 

twa 4y i'hang p'hwll king k'ei tin, tiy iy hap tok 
iking leUd cA'Ai, the gre»t pieces of fire-wood, 
I'which can be split, are called lugs -, and the 

small pieces that ace bound up in bundles, 

are called faggots. 

i!» ■■■>>' in-. -I) I;-, Ion 
To gness, to soppose. Ch'hae ch'hod 

\Y^ ' jIh iH '" <^onjecture wrong. Go4 

r^ choo ck yew ch'hae yiien -^ ■+• 

jjh /^ |m ^ ^ g^fd <y choo yid ttoo cp'hae, 

you, my good sir, have your suspicions. 


A hair-pin, a bodkin. Kim t^ p6 
I'hae yit song, k'ho yaou ntw, 

"g 3 <"« ti ling p6 ch'hae chit tHy, I'hang yaou 
Chdou, now I send you a pair of precious 
bodkinf, that may adorn yoar head. 


Ch'hae frjlr' An auxiliary word t not at iwt. 



Violent, slrongf highly gifted; long 
bearded. K6 jin b^- ch'he"a ch'hat 

tKhin ch'hai"^ kwd ho ch'htty ch'hew, the man 
is baodsome, and has a fioe beard. 


Bun ch^bac pjr j^ ^ variegated, or* 



To plvck, to pick, to gather. 

Ch'hae t4y i^ "^ , to gather tea. 

San yew beng sew, l£y-hok wQy 

che put ch'hae ill ^U^,^^ Mo 

21 '^ ^ > '"'"" ""*" *^"^ **"'' '^•y"*"* ^''M 

e bd ban, wheu^ the hllJs are infested by wild 
animals, the l£y-hok herbs are not gathered. 

-.J* Ch'hew ch'hae ^ |j^ , «" hold in 
estimation. K'han jfn bod ch'hew 




Idng b6 ch'hew eVkai, to look down upon a 

Leiou ch'hae ^ ^, a fellow stu- 
dent, a brother officer. 

To pluck, to gather; also^ variegated 


'hae ^•¥^ colours. Gno^ ch'hai j^ tJ^ 1 
v^^^^ five colours. 

Ch'had ch'ha* hoA-f, pok gftn ch'hai cbe ^ 

ch'ha6u, tai kay lat bdn e, let us go and ga- 
t{ier the hod-d plant ; I say let us go and 
gather it. See the ^ j^ Kok hong. 



Variegated colours ; bright and 
shining. Hwa ch'hae 


^^^i^ A large tortoise; a rule. Vulg. c**»a. 
Ch'hae ^^aL * surname. Chong-bfln-tcQng kc 

^ ch'ha^l^^j^^.^^CW- 
hAn-ISung eh'hing $6 chai hoi Iwfi koo k'kii, 
Chong-bfln-teang made a house for a large 
tortoise to dwell in. See the J^ 3^ Seing iQn. 

The name of an insect, whose veoom 

Ch'hae ir _lv V lie»in its tail; a scorpion. Ch'had 

b6 j<!w tok, hoDg kwun che fhcaog 






■^^ , cK'hai iy bSiy woi tok, hd}tg kiiiun 16 Ay 
tvod s'eo te hoe, in the tail of the scorpion there 
18 poison, how much more in your hon«rabie 
young'er brother. 

The portion .«f territory allotted to 
nobles, and chief officers. Seem 
e tong Chew-kong che ch'hae tey 

Chew-kong dy ch'hae tey, to the eastward of 
Seem was the territory of Chew-kong. See 
""= M t¥ Kok„g^ 



Vegetables. Sit ch'hae ^ 3^ -cheSh 
^SJtP^ cA'Ao^, to eat vegetables only, to 
>^^ V> last. Ch'hae kwa ^ jit ^ cucu- 
mis Japonicus. ' 

Buy soe soo, ch'ha^ keng, kwa, chey pit chae 

up W , suy ch'hoe /iy chJe&h, ch'hai Che"S^ hap 
Jcwa, kaou chiy tek Whak teSh chae kai, although 
we have nothing bi^t coarse provisions, — and 
■r.egetable soup, with melons, yet when we come 
to sacrifice we must do it with reverence. See 
the I gjm Seang iQn. 

A sickness. 

Ij-iliniinx:.' ^ , 

V uig. cAi'W; fire-wood. Sewteetsin 

f h'hae J)^ ^ ^ ^ , '««- k'he''S 
. sin ch'hd, collect and st«re up the 

ch'hag jnrT 

•-»r«iO l^re^wood. A surname. 




A burnt sacrifice, offered up to 
heaven, b^ the Emperor. 


■% ># Just now, just'tlien, then, thereupon; 
■jCfeJp* near, immediately -. also' written ^ 


ch4i»«. ", ■>i 


Gftn-choo ch'haS yew put seen, peen te che; 
ch'hae te che, peen keng, put bfing chok sS 

Jl^ |g^ /f* bB 11^ ' ^^"''^'"'' '"" '"" " "^ *"• 

peen chae e ; tc« too a chae e, peen kdy, bi kSh 
(hd, Gin-choo no sooner had a fault, than he 
immediately knew it; and as soon as he knew 

it, he instantly amended i^ and did not prac- 

• ill ,' /» '■ ' 

tise it again. 

A wolf. So lek put wan, se ch'haS 
>ong yea -^ i^^ Tf^ ^. J| ^^ 

^^ "ife ) **'"" *° ''^ ''* ""* **■" 
e, se ch'hai ling, a man, who, when a sister-in- 
law is drowning, will not help her, must be a 
wolf. See the "K -^ Hay beng, 
To6 pe ch'hag hoe, ch'haS hoe put sit 4^ 

hoi, ch'hai hoi u'" Cheih, if you threw them 
to the wolves and tigers, the wolves and tigers 
would not eat them. See the A\ Jft Seaou gnay. 



Read soo : to) sacrifiee. Soo ong jTrff 
Ttt cVhae ang, to sacrifice to 


Ch'hah p: 





an idol. 

The eyes fixed, and not revolving 

or .wandering about. 

K'l- Jr.- ■H-ti'i t 

Chattering, garrulity,„uA'j 

Read ch'hap : to stick into, to pierce. 
Ch'hap twa iS ^ , cWh&h hwa. 

to stick flowers in the hair. 



Read cb'heng : azure, 

• ff\ ^ Ch'hengb«ng-|^ ^ cA'ia«"f 
r\J maf*e, blind. 

Ch'hepg san put 16, swat^ek t'hofi; lisilk 
suy Jbofi yew, iMDg jeiou been "l^ lU "T^ 







ffi , ch'hai"S iw^t 66 laou, Uh tayh chew 
woo pdj/h t'haiu; lek cMy bo hH:&n li, hong 
ch'hoey chiw woo j'eiou bin, the acure rooua- 
taias grow not old, and yet wkei) the snow 
falls they have hoary heads; the green 
waters are not troubled, and Jet when the 
wind blows Ihey have a wrinkled face. 

Read ch'heng: the flowers of 
_ ^ leeks; full and luxuriant. Hwan 
j^ ch'heng || || ^ hwan cWhti^S, 
indigo, the indigo pianU ^y, 

,:■ ^y, ■ ■': ] 

Read seng: a star. H°6 kim leng 

fK jk M J ***^ '""' <^*'*'""*^' 
a fire-fly. 

Jit, gwat, seng sin, hey yeen H H S^ 

^ ^ M ' •'"' ^''^^''' <'*'*«'"^ "'"' '*' '«*•"'' 
the sun, moon, and stars are hung up therein 
(tiiz. in the heavens). 

P'hi j< pok (In ke kfi siy, j< chl-ung 
seng ke6ng che ^ i]\ ^t W< )t^ ^ 

sin k'hei e At/ to chai, ji chUkng cKhai^S 
kiting e, like the northern star, which ^ests 
in its place, and all Ihe stars move round 
it. See the J^ Im Seang Ifin. 

Read seng-. raw, uncooked. Kwun 
sod seng, pit seuk jS cbeen che 

kwun soi hoi ch'hai"S iy mei"b, pit ieSh cki 
$eJc j6 chein c, when a prinde bestows on 
us raw food, we should cook and then 
offer it See the |~ ^Sj Seang iQn. 

T l)lil!l; • 

Reads^ng: to awake, to arouse, 
to be awake. Pe yt kae chiky, 
jC gno tok sing ^ tit ^^ 

chii}/, tok gwd chit l&ng ch'hai"^, this age is 

altogether intoxicated, and I alone «in awake, 

V > Read ch'hing: cold, chilly. Ch'hin 

Ch'hai^S ^^ ch-h4ng^*^,cW.«cVAiH»ff, 






> _^A The sound of metal, the ringing 
^l~T^» of metal, the -beating of a 

i * -^ Read cb'hat: to examine. Ch'hat 
4 J*^ inspect the watch. 


Readch'huk: a chisel^ to cut with 
a chisel. Ch'bok san t'hong tae 
ha«, Icen sck poc 14m t'hijcn ^S 

1J4 "1 A ffi- ft ^ ti [^ ^' '"'''"' 

tw^a t'hong twa hai, nfi"^ cheSh poi lam Vhrt'^, 
chiselling through a hill, to afford a passage 
for the seat and melting stones, to repair the 
southern heavens; ^ — (all this, as the ChinMe 
pretend, having been done, what then is 

^x "^o nn>V M Mend ; to be eq^al K> '; to 
I'bain visZ. "'" "P""' '*• '•*''■ Kong ch'ham 

.r,-«,in, .luiiJ^, : '. !>"«■ ^3 ; 

,rB.I lb iM,:^! ?*«*>"» "'ffff^Jfy^ •»«"' Which equal* ' 
.that of heaven >nd earth; — an expression 
foolishly applied by the Chinese to their sages. 
-^ >v A carriage borse, two horses appended 

Ch'ham Et^ to a carriage. SisAog I'hwal ch'ham 
^^ ^..Ceng che t i^ II a it. 
*7 chap chap t'hiou bin ^ ^"^ *> be frequently 
took a horse from his carriage, and gave it to 

him; — said of Confuciai, wheh he met an old 
'i<l ; illiw Jaim.oT 



The same as ^ ch'ham. To visit. 
Cb'ham kt-cn l^M^ , «*'*ain fcrt"?. 
to wait upon. 





v^n nam > -^^ ,^^^ ^^^^ ,^j ^^jp ^jj^ough. 


A fine appearance, a man's name. 


tt ^^' 

.'cfttrr V ^ 
The name of a tree. 



A sharp instrument, a plough-share. 


Teing ch'liam, teing ch'ham, pek 
bok peng, gno seng t'hok choo e 

.. ^yhch'h&pai"S,gwdsai^S i'hok It t, chd me"a, 
the long plough-share! the long plough-share I 
with the white wooden handle ; as long as we 
Uye, we depend on this, for the support of life. 

<tt bn« ;. 

Ch'ham -^^J* A. small kind of chisel. 


Ch'ham f 

To assist; to pierce; sharp. T'heen 
ch'ham T^ i^ . the name of a star. 

Grieved, pained ; painful, miserable, 
wretched. Yew sim ch'ham ch'ham 
leem kok che geak ^^ JQ ij& ^^ 

tvL> yJi jC^ /^ J * 

cK'hdm, leem kok ay pt> geak, with a sorrow- 
ful mind, miserable and wretched, pondering 
over the oppressions of the country. See the 
4"^ ^ Seadu gniy. 

Ch'ham >^1 

"'Si .5 r\ui^ 



To meet with ; past and done. 

-mf.-. i.-lT ,<^ 
»^ Sand mixed in food. 



Ch'ham hwijy f^ )[|S to repent, to 
regret exceedingly. 

J^K Ch'ham ge ^ ^^ , a prophecy, a 
Ch'ham ^5lEl7 divination. Ho6 ch'him j?^ ^ , 
a charm. 

To be ashamed. Ch'hfim k'hwiiy 

W^ f/E *fuo" f^Vi to be ashamed 

i\n^^ °^- Gofi Sim ch'ham 6 Beng-choo 

^ S M i^ j^ -T" . «"""* *""■" "'"''^ ''"'" 

lijf e Beng-choo, I feel very much ashamed 
before Beng-choo. 





The same as the 


Ch"h4m g4m ^ ^ , a lofty and 
precipitous bill. 

Ch'hamnO-S?^ satisfied. Suy sit pat kcw, bo6 


To be greedy ; to eat without being 
[-■>r^j— satisfied. Suy sit pat kcw, bo6 

^J^ ch'ham b6ng ii # A :^L li 

^ ^ suy cheSh pSyh kaou hwiin, yea b6 
t'ham cheSh Ay ine"i se"a, although he eats 
eight or nine tenths, yet he has not the name 
of a glutton; — said of the sun, when the moon 
is eclipsed. 

J^L A cunning rabbit. Yeak ch'hSm 
^>^^^ ch'h4m t'hoc, ge k'hiien hek che 

yeak ch'hAm ch'hdm Ay t'hoi, too teSh kaou, hoe e 
Kih, the cunning rabbit, frisking about, when 
he meets with a dog, is taken. See the f\\ &^ 
Seaou gnay. 

% M » To revile, to slander, to backbite. 

Ch'hSm *"-^^^ ^°° y^^ ''^"S '^^^y ch'h4m gan k6 

gwit Ay yiw teSh s^y je, sai p'hwi Ay wa tit 
k'hi, m; friend you had better take care. 





slanderous accusations are about to arise. 
See the /J> ^^ Seaou gnay. 

^_ ^ Weak, cowardly: god 6ng ch'han 

Ch'han y^& ""S >*^^ ^ ^Wf^^>^^" 

^^jri^ ^y ^"g nooi"^ 6ng, our king is a 
weak prince; — said of the king of the ik Tio 

Ch'han A f^^ To rail at, to scoM. 

The noise of water gently rippling 
along; the ap^iearance of weeping. 
Sfing gwat long ch'han wan ^ H 
^ Mi ^ ' *^"^ ff"*** kwui"S I' hit fho I' he" a 
ch^y &y khw"a k'htn^a lain, availing ourselvei 
of the moon-shine, let us go and amuse 
ourselves with the slowly rippling water. 

Jk To eat, to swallow. WDy choo che 
Ch'han ^'''Q ^°^' "*" Sno P"' '^ng chhan h«y 

^^/^ vu!f It &y yetn koi, tat gwd bey chgih, 
on your account, I am so-affected, that 1 can- 
not eat. 
Jt^ A meal. Yit ch'han hwan _^ ^ ^ 
<-n nan ^^>^^, chit lool'^ pooi''S, » meal of rice. 
^ Bwan ch'han ^^ ^^ tnat"e hwui^ 
tooi"^, the evening meal ; the Lord's supper. 


A. red colour; also, damp,- moist. 

Ch'han chew 


a duster. 

Ch'han «"k ^ ;j^ , chhing tsk, 
to dust the tabk. 


f^Jf^ handsome, elegant. 
Ch'han >^<1^ Rice, food, victuals ; elegaot ^ clear 

Ch'han WjjS. "'"'sl't. dear. Ch'han Ian 




The brilliancy of a gear. 

Ch'han 5^rC '^^^ seam of a. garment ; to unloosr. 

TJC't Jl' . ^ °'^" '^*'*''''' •■ * *'"' worm. Gnoe 
Ch'han yl-fcL '>"* che fhek, se che c song, p'hit. 
,^R J^ hoach'hftn che, chek 16 chea cheuk 

^^g-oe hoc dy Chkyh, chinf; e i ««^, phil 
hod ch'he ch'hdm e, chew laou dy cheuk kaou- 
ch'hing ttcan i, a tenement of five acres, if 
pUnted with the mulberry tree, and silk worms 
fed on it by a single woman, will enable the- 
old people of a family to wear silk. See the 

^ f ^ ^^"^ '«*•>: » field. Keng teCn ^ 
\ Irl ffl , <•*«* ch'hdn, to cultivate the 
ground. "Egnci kong tiifn, sfiT kip 

*»e te gwd dy kang eh'hdn, tuy kip gwa dy 
tae k'hea ch'hdn. rato li^st upon our public 
field, and then let it come upon our private 
fields. See the /]■» ^ Seaou gnay. 

««A>^ Read ch^hong: an onion. Koey 

Ch'hang ^^^ •^'•^•'un yang ch-hong f^ ^ ^ 

i V^'^ ^ , cliidh bSk ch'huH fhee''S ydncr 

ch'hang, eating flesh in the spring season, 

we should use onions w»th it. See the 

^E Ley ke. 

|- / . J*e»d ch'hOng: clear, intelligent. 
C*'Aa«g JM Ch-hong bdng ^ p;j , ch-hcng 
^i\m^ "'"*, clever, intelligent. 


Ch'hdng^^^ The hair dishevelled. 





^ Not straight, ali in confusion. 



Read ch'hdng: fend of eating. 
Ch'ham ch'hong ^; m 
ch'hdng, to be greedy. 

y^Jil"^ To take^ to copy, to transcribe; 
also written jAf ■ch'haou. 

Ch'hang^'RAXL Ch'ham ch'hfins Wi IfP cKMm 

Ch'haou " 

To catch fish, with £shing stakes. 

> >>/ Filaments, thin threads. Hoo jin 
Ch'haou fi% IHB— ^h'hSn ch'haou, e wOy e hok 

hoo jin 2/ung ch'hdm dy sw"&, i cho s"a }/in 
cfted"S', women use the filaments spun by 
the silk worm, in order to make clothes. 

■•^jKj To speak for, or on behalf of any 

Ch'haou ^f^^ 




Ch'haou swat m) g^ ^ to borrow 
expressions, to commit plagiarism. 
Bo6 ch'haou fiwat. bo6 luy long 

siiSi/h, fi*" Chavg Mi/ tdng, do not commit pla- 
giarism, do not use tautology. .See the jM 

Read ch'ho: to hold in the hand; 

.^ , to exercise. Ch'ho leen jko iSS , 
\>^T^^ ch'haou leen, to drill soldiers. 
Be Ifing ch'ho to, j^ so6 kat, se6n :put pae e, 

bSey ey ch'haou to, j6 sai kitah mee"h, cheo 
u*" pae, if though unable to handle a knife, 
a person be set to cut an; thiog, it is seldom 
that he will not spoil the work. 



Vulg. ch'hd: to fry, to cook any 
thing without water. 

To joke with pleasing words ; to 

tViS^ whisper; to disturb. 
Ch'haou ImL^ ^ """y ^^'^^' * "^rooked mouth. 


Read ch'ho : grass. Sit ch'hi -^ "j^^ 
chedh ch'haou, to eat grass. Song 
tey che Cheang-chew sc so<5, pek 
ch^ho kae hwa 5^ ^ ^ ^_^ ^.|j ^ ^_ 

^ ^ ^^^^, ^"S^J/ ley kaou Cheang-chew 
fh'he thak ch'hUyh dy Idng, che"d pByh cVhaov 
cho pad k'hwuy huia, when the emperor of 
the Song dynasty came to Cheang-chew, to 
examine the scholars, hundreds of plants all 
J)ut forth their flowers. 

Ch'haou "n^ '''''''''" ^ ^^ ^.>»'«i»er for 

rice, made of wicker work. 


Read hew: stinking, rotten, ill- 
flavoured. Hew ok put sit ]^ 
^/f' '^ , ch'hdou p'htt"i bo 

boSyh cheah, the stinking and bad he would 

oot eat; — said of Confucius. 



To -square accounts, to pay up all 

To stick in, to pierce. Ch'he ch'hap 
*l] t|& to stick in, to thrust. 

Ch'hap teep 
a dwarf 

J a little person, 

The noise of slicing any thing. 




Ch'hap pa£ 

to sbuffle 

A needle, a pick-axe^ a crow-bar. 

Ch'hap heet S^ jjjj ch'hap hitfyh, 
to draw blood, in order to confirm 
an oath. KwOj-k'teir che hiiej, 
choo hofi sok seng chae je, j8 put ch'hap heet 

/^ fflX jnL , A'tt'iJ^-Ar'fceiti Ay hoei/, choo hot pak 
fhadu sai"S^ chae Hng se, ji b6 ch'hap hoij/h, 
at the assembly of Kwuy-khew, the princes 
of the empire tied up the victim, and brought 
the sworn contract, without drawing their 
blood in confirmation. See the ~T> ^ Hiiy 




To receive, to obtain, to lead, to 

Many words, garrulity, chattering. 
Ch'hap ch'hap kan^ P^ P§ |^ , 
ch'htp ch'hap king, to chalU-r. 

Ch'hat ^ 


. % _ To examine, to search, to inquire 
5^i^' into. Kong tae, chiiey seaou, put 
^ij^ Mng bfng ch'hat ^%%^^ 
^ ^ FIj) ^ , *<>»«: « <u>a, eUis khah >iy, 
ioey W0O b6ng Kng ch'hat, my merit has been 
great, and my fault trivial, only I have not had 
the advantage of a <iear examination-, — said 
by ^ 1^ L6-I«ng. 

Ch'hat g4n jfi kwan sek ^ "^ ]ff] |^ ]£' 
ting ch'hat Ung Ai/ wa, ji k'hw^i e ig bin $ek, 
examine a man's words, and survey his coun- 

^ ^ A pillar, a flag&tafiT; also, a pagoda. 
^) I Leet chhat seaog bSng ^J ^jj 

6dng, a row of pillars opposite to each other. 




The name of a tree ; the sound of 
^1^ waving trees and grass. 

To speak slowly, and personally 
^S examine any thing; , 


'^Jjf To rub, to rub out, to blot out. 

Ch'hat ^ysS^ *'*"' * ^"^ "^ varnish, paint. 
f >^|> Soo 

paint, to varnish. 

Read cti'hip : the name of a stream; 

m kind of varnish, paint. 

ch'hip j^ j^ tae ch'hat, to 




(;% Read chck^athief, Cho rhek ^ 
cho ch'hat, to turn thief. Hae 
rhck yfe Bw hae ch'hat-, a pirate. 
Hoe chek 1^ BW > kaoH ch'hat, full of thieves. 
Yew jfi put sun tey, lijang jft bo4 sut yeen, 
(6 j* put soo, se wfly chek ^ j^ /f» ^ 

•^ jS. |y5( , sedou le6n ji b6 sun tey, Itra han 
ji M Atrdt tut, laou ji bey ti, se kong keo 
ch'kal, in youth not to act the part of a 
grandson or younger brother ; in riper years, 
not to have an^ .settled employment-, and in 
•old' age not to be (fit for) death; he who is 
-Mcb is no better than .a, tiiiefr 

■Wrong, errpneou!!.' uneven; to 
send on a message. Ch'hay che 
h* 16, bew c ch'hcen Ic ^ >'' 

li. Mm kiou chit ch'heng li, varying ( at first ) 
but the down of a feather, it may differ (at 
length ) a thousand \t. 

■Ch'hay soo ^g At^ ch'hay tat, to send on 
an errand. 

^(^ The hand* folded together, and 
^^^. intertwinecl ; also, to take. 




settled in mind. 

The outer branches of a tree. 

Ch'hay A^ Ch'haycheyiji^j^, unfixed, un- 

Ch'hay jt^ 

Ch'hay /j^^ 

Ch'hay ^^ 


To take under the arm. 




Young, proud, at ease. 

To be angry, to speak in anger ; 
also written p*t Ch'hay. 

%^. % To boast, to deceive. Cheet jin, 
Ch'hav ""^Tf^ bo^y g^y te&ou so6, pit leet poe 
lEl^J k'he, 6 

choo k'hwa ch'hay 

1^ Tj^ pfe ^ Cheel-kang &y ling, tak pie gay 
cheih leiou ting iy »oo chSi, pit paS leet poe 
ke"d kap k'hH hiy Ay peng, i ka te k'hwa 
cKhiy, the people of Cheet-kang, -whenever 
they go to meet a messenger from the court, 
insist on drawing out their horse and foot 
soldiers, in order to boast and make a shew. 

A privy \ mixed, impure. Lok ch'hay 
^ Mij '** ch'hay, to go to stool. 

A sickness; also, recovery from 

A brokennesj of voice i the voice 
broken and lost. 





Brittle, easily broken ; infirm. 

#^ To examine minutely. Ch'hSy k'ho 

^\^^^ ^ Vk ! *" search and enquire. 

_y '-^ Chay kwan kg jtri, chck sfin j6 

yea; sey ch'hUy k6 sim, chek kaou j6 yea 

^- K'J 1x i(p Hi' '"' •'^^" *'*'^"" * ^^ 

ling, chek cKMn chio^^ «i2n sit ; s'eing sey 
ch'h&y e Ay sim, chek ch'hin ch'eo"S kaou kwet, 
on just seeing the man, he appeared honest 
and sincere; but on narrowly examining his 
heart, he appeared cunning and deceitful. 

The noise of a multitude. 

\% Read ch5. Ch5 h"d ^^^ cVhay 
^ hdiy, to forestall goods, to buy 

up a quantity, in order to raise 
the price. 



Read ch'hek: a book, a record. 
Se ch'hek s6y ch'hae, kae seno- 
hegn che bfing gftn yiia ^J -jJB- 

s6y chai, chb po6 se sing jin giou ling iy 
bing wS, the things contained in the books 
and records, are altogether famous sayings 
of philosophers and clever men. 




Read ch'hek: sorrowful., Song ley 
che yaou- ae t'hong ch'ham ch'hek 

te"S hit iy ley soi, chi tedh ae Vhe^a ch'ham 
ch'hiyh, in funeral obsequies, it is only re- 
quisite to feel anguish and sorrow of heart. 

Read ch'hwat: a handful. Kim hoo 
tey, yit ch'hwat t'ho6 che to -A. 








Ch'lie > 

fAey liy lei/, chit cKMi/h i'hoi ay chey, now 
the whole earth is merely a handful of 
ground. See ih; m 1^ Teung yOng. 

To lift up the eyes, to look full at 
any thing; to look angry. Ch'he- 
ySng Bjfe |(S the name of a dis- 
trict. T hiJen ch'he ^ [lf| ^ 'he name of a 
star. Sometimes confounded with lift Oi'he. 
^^^^ The name of a water bird, reputed 
fcl'CIi for its fidelity to its mate. Kwan 
■^ll"** kwan ch'he k'bew, chae hd che chew 

il lii lif}. ^ vn ± iffl , *-" *- 

hadu iy eKhe k'hew, twi li hi dy chew, the 
cooing turtle doves, dwelling in an island of 
the river. See the |^ j^^ Se kcng. 

CJ To introduce ; to walk slowly, without 
r"l advancing; also, an expletive. 

Yung chhe j^ ^, a sore, an ulcer. 
Chut yew V^"S c^'he chea, K'he 
wOy win che ^ /f^ ^ /XL ^^, 

^ Ml^k. ^ ' '"'"*^ '^*"' ""''' '"'"^ ch'he"^ 
&y Idnf;, IChi lai kap e rhwiii"^, when any of 

his soldiers had a sore or an ulcer, K'he would 

suck it for them;— said of Gofi-k'he jtt^ jW ^ 

who had such a love for his soldiers, that he 

would do any thing for them. 

^ A kind of monkey ; to wait in order 

y\ l^l to find an advantage against any, 
^JDU I.i-ang o K'hek ch'he kck Su-hOng 

^ fa ^ ^ ^ i(^ ^ > ^^^^"^ ^'P """"^ 

ling haou luiyh p'hih St-h6ng, LiJAng and K'hek 
wailed for an opportunity of alUcking Se-h6ng. 
See the ^ f £ Soo ke. 

The name of a river. Ch'he-teong 
■jfl. ^ "^" """"^ °^ * place. 


Chek ch'he $01 iB. , a centipede , 
also called, goS kong jj^ ^, gU 

I > 

kang. €hck chhe sit scS, seft sit 






w3, wa sit chek ch'he, hoe seang sit yea g|[J 

•Jfl -^ -Ijl g'eA kang chedh chwd, chad chi'ah 
kap a, kap a cheih ged kang, the centipede 
kills the snake, the snake eats the toad, and 
the toad poisons the centipede ; thus they de- 
vour one another. 

A kind of hemp, without seeds: also, 
the name of a grass. 

A clay mound covered with stones: 
difficult of ascent. 

The neck. 


% f- Marshy ground, overgrown with 


grass. K'he si-l liiflng jA hong che 

ch'he ^^fMml^Z % 
h'Hi"i ch«d liing ji hiy li chiy lek, he drove 
away the snakcf and dragons, and sent them 
into the marshes. See ^ -^ Beng-chod. 

A fly<blow; the eggs of flies laid in 
raw meat. 

Ch'he ^if^-^T> The Mmc with the 'Allowing. 

Ch'he ijJ^-?» Pool"'', unwise, simple; also, sick 
^p The female of hirds. Tong kwat ch'he 

Ch'he iH^ ^'^^"^ W\>)k^^, '"'' ''"' 

W*^ti^ Incat ch'he heung, to try ones strength 
with any one ; — literally, to see which is the 
man and 'which the woman. 
Sfly te oe che ch'he bcOng |^ ^,{1 ,E^ "^ 
JH |tt chi chay chae oe a dy kang boi, who 
knows the male and female of the vrow? Sec 
the A\ Jf^ Scaou gnay. 














Ch'he heaou R| ^ , a bird of 

A. chicken ; an animal that can eat 
as soon as it is born. 

To walk fast, to go quickly. Keen 
le pit ch'he, keen hae pit pe ^ 

woo IS pit leSh kin ke"ii, k'hw"d woo hae pit 
tSSh s'eim pee"^, seeing an advantage, you should 
hasten towards it, and seeing a danger, jou 
should avoid it. 

To laugh. 

fc U% Ugly. Geen ch'he teMi^ handsome, 
^'Y]iff% and ugly- Je kani che cheaou but, 
j^i*^ gefiii ch'he chae pe '^P~^ ^ 

ty ched mei''h, ck^kin ch'hai"^ Wheep se ti hi 
laou, like as when a mirror reflects things, the 
handsome and the ugly are there ( faithfully 
represented ). 

An order, a series. Ch'ham ch'he 

put chdy ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ mixed, 

Kok yew teng ch'he ^ ^ ^ ^ , kok woo 
ting ch'he, each one according to order. 

A vessel for holding wine. 

Ch'ham ch'he j^ jp 
appearance of hills. 

To collect. 

the uneven 

An insect; also, stupid, foolish. Ch'he- 
yfiw "^ -Jr'^ the name of a country. 
Bin che ch'he ch'he ffi j^ [^ ^, 
pSj/h"S &y gai ga^> tbe stupid mob. 









Walking slowly, without being able 
to get forward. 

Sickly; not thriving. 

To take, to lay hold on, to require, to 
receive. Vulg. Chdyh. Loe-teung- 
lefin wuy jin pa6 I4n, kae hwun, 

^^. jfri fffi ■^J'^ ' Loe-teung-lein k&h ling pai 
k'hwiiy kail Idn, t'hdou ch'hul hwdn Iwan ay 
soo,ji bo biiiyh I'hByh ch'hfe"^, Loe-teDng-le6n 
used to dissolve difficulties, and disentangle 
confused matters, for people, without taking 
any money. See the 4^ =^ Soo ke. 

Extravagant ; great, large. Hong p'hek 
scii ch'he, bo8 put wuy e 'jjk /K 

kwa ch'hea ch'he, b6 siy u'" k"d, dissolute and 
extravagant, and sticking at nothing. See the 

Ch'he te 



VA. ' 


A pestle. Kew ch'he £3 ifc koo 
ch'hi, a pestle and mortar. Chim 
ch'he ^i'^ j^ ^ teem chhi, a slick 
with wliich washer-m-a beat clothes. 

To dwell, to rest in, to take up 
m-,^ an abode. Tek put ch'he jin, j een 

kdn lOh so chae, bd twd te jin dy H'iy, bbiyh 
an chw"d ey til cho tt, if in selecting a residence, 
a man does not fix upon a virtuous neighbour- 
hood, how can he be considered wise? See th« 

Put e kc t6 tek che, put ch'hfi yea ^ K[ 

^ ?I # >2. ^ ^ "tii , *" ^A-^^o" ^ ^y 






to tit tedh, bS hSfyh ch'he tu.a te e, anything not 
obtained according to the right way, ( the 
good man ) does not re^t in. 

Vulg. khe : the teeth. K'hoe ch'h6 
ri 1^ ch'kuy k'hi, the teeth of 
the mouth} also, ago. TQn b6ng 

ch'h6 hin^l^^^, "2» »". ^''•*'^y "^'^ 
kwn, when the lips arc gone, the teeth will 
get cold, — (meaning, that without good neigh- 
bours, men are likely to fail). 
T'heen hay y6wtatchun sam, chiiak yit, ch'he 

yit. tekyitXT'^'^tH- t-. 

. j^ _* t'hee"^ ay ob tat chun »"a 

hang, cheak wuy chit hang, chhity k'hi chit hang, 
tek heng chit hang, there are three things much 
honoured and preferred under Heaven ; one of 
which is office,— another, age,— and another, 
virtue. Sec ^ f- BEng-choo. 

|i^ A mouse. L6 ch'he ^ ^ , neaou 
|.^j| ch'hi, a rat. Ch'h6 pOSy ^ ^ ^ 

^|<^ you rats ! Ge kwuy heen t6 siy, 
ch'h6 tii tcng kay y6w jj^ |ft fft "^ 7^ 
^ ^ j^ M y[l| ^ hea k'hu,"i hec"^ k'hu,ul 
a dy chUyy ticaou ch'hi t'haou ieng kiy Ay yho, 
the ant peeps at the water in the hollow of 
the ink-stone, and the rat steals the oil in the 
stand of the lamp. 



Sick and sad \ also, a sick mouso. 

To marry. Ch'hi ch'hey 
ch'hvlt hot, to marry a wife. Ch'he 
ch'hey jfi h6, hwuy biifiy put tek 

an chui'd, b6 hA"* ling biy chd til, how must 
we act in marrying a wife ? without a mediator 
it will not do. See the 13(1 \M Kok hong. 





£ f \ Congealed ; not flowing ; a hindrance 
I \" "^ in the way, preventing progress. 

■ "V . To stop, to cease from. 



Many. Yit ch he — . -^^ altogether, 
in general. Also read Ch'heet. 

The stones by the side of steps. Also 
written i^ Ch'he. Lijuk ch'ho 
bwaukac ch'he ^f:yj^l?|^. 
Uk eh'hdnu mwH gim kaf iy Ch'hi, t|>e green 
grass covers the stones of the steps. 




The thorns of a tree. 


^ ^ To pierce, to stab, — either with a- 
T3*|| weapon or by words; to ridicule. 
XJ'-J Ko seang ch'he c ch'h^ ke, hoo se 
Vhew e ,eQng 1.6 ^ ;fn m:;( fl 1. il^ 

f% )l^ yX il H > "''"'"^ """"^ "'''' ^^ "' 
i ch'hi ke ling, — Him te k'hew ay hoi, i o 16 

ling, recite "the mouse" ode, in order to 

ridicule men; and repeat "the dove" ditty, in 

order to praise people. 

■""»■' '- * A thorn, a prickle » as sharp as a 
1 1 needle. 



The name of a fish. 

To go towards i the mind trnding 
towards any thing. 'E ch'he ^ fejy 

Pleasant. Gftn y6w ch'hi •>« "§" 5^ j^ ^ . 
king vca wad ch'hi bi, pleasant discourse. 
Ch'hi hcang put tflng, sey wfly c'k 5 j^ [pj 

ting, tiy chi yei kSh yto'^, when the tendency 










of people's minds arc dissimilar, their conduct 
will also differ. 

The flaming up of fire. H"6 che 
ch'he, put k'ho p'hok beet jJ^ ^ 

ch'he, bo t'hang p'h&h hwa, a fire, when blazing 
up, cannot easily be quenched. 

"7 V?_ Wine and food. 

4^ »|^ iji A place. Ho ch'he Ygj' T^ s"a 
IPfft mei^h u-ui/, what plaice ? where ? Also 
/x^^ written ^ ch'he. 
K'heuk keng t'hong yew ch'he, se^n p6ng seung 

ch^ham s« ^ ff M ^ JK M m 1 1 
j|i J wan k'heuk di/ he t'hong kaou yew am &y 
uuy^ hofy seo"S ping til ieem ch'ham -Aj/ si, a 
crooked path leads to dark places, and when 
in a monk's chamber we should recite prayers. 

A wing, a pinion. Tijang lijang ch'he 
yea 5g^J^^^ teo-Sr,-oay 
sit, spreading both its wings. 

Read se: to try, to prove. Sc k'han 

■^ ^ ' '■'' *^ k'hw"-it, to make a 

Gno suy put bin, ch'heng siiang se che ^ 

1% T^ ^. Ih t ^ ;^ . ^^' "'^ *" ^^"^ 

teiou, ch'he"d ch'hi k'hw"a e, although I am 
•not clever, yet I beg you to try me. 

Slow, gentle; to walk slowly; a 

surname. Ch'heng hong ch'h^ Ia6 

I 'J "^ -Jra ^ ^ ^ . ^'''^'"^ ^^ '""^ 

k'hw^a k'hw^a A lai, the pure wind gently 



Dull, stupid. 



Ml I ^ A market. Kay ch'he ^ ^j" ^ in 
III the streets and markets. I^oe chew 
^ f ch'hS h«6, put sit )jt ]g "j^J 

A>s ■^ bilj/ Ay chew, kag chlie &y bah, fi"' 
cheih, vintner's wine and market flesh, Confu- 
cius would not eat; ( lest it should be unclean 
or injurious). See the gffi =-K Lun ge. 

Read .soo: to feed, to give food, to 
brir^g up., ,Soo ch'h4n t'hew se ^A 

Wi lA 1^ . ''''^^ ch'h&m I'hew sw"A 
to feed silk worms and spin the silk. Soo te 
B^ I'D J f^f''^^ '^> t" keep pig?. 





Read ke : a carriage. Ma ke S m 
l/uy cVhea, a carriage drawn by 
horses. A surname. 
Hong-tey chok ke, yin ti-ung te win, Siiaou- 
ho kay gnfiw, che H6y-leung sfi kay ma "gg* fS? 

^ i^ H^ fiP J^ . fVm"S-tey cho ch'hea, yin 
tang te hwuVS dy mei"h, Seaou-ho kay goo, cli^ 
kaou Hey-t'eSng Ay si kay bay, \Vui"g-lcy 
( B. C. 2622) first invented carriages, to carry 
heavy things, and convey them to a distance; 
Seaou-ho ( B. C. 2538) added buffaloes; and 
in the time of Hey-tiiung { B, C. 2142) they 
used -horses. See the -^ ^ Koe soo. 

Ch'hea kg |^ |^ ^ a kind of stone, 
nearly resembling a gem. 

Extravagant, wasteful; stretched out, 
immense. Ch'hea chek put sun, 
k'heem chek koe ^S B|J ^^ ]^ 
■^ pill , ch'hea ch'he chew u"" skn, seo"^ 
k^heem cheic koe loe, from being loo e.xtrava- 
gant,' a man becomes careless; and from being 
too parsimonious, he becomes vulgar ; — said by 
Confucius, who added, nevertheless vulgarity 
is better than carelessness. 








Ch'hS a 

To tear open. 

To open the inotith wide. 

The *nuff of a candle, the ashes ot 
incenses also written j'g Ch'hea. 

To be purged ; a dysentery ; the 

same as i© si;a. 


Ch'he"a JrH*^ A stone. 


/?e«A ch'hS"a ^ ^ , a splinter 
of wood or baml>ou{ to run a- 

gainsl. _ ■;;'H. 

^^^ Also, moreover ;jDSt, merely. Kod 
Cll'he"a tj chhc"4 ^ Ji , dtsordely. carb- 

■«^"*^ less. Koe ch'he''a vX j^ , mere- 
ly, just then, for a time. 
Ch'be*^ t'hctn che . seog but yiia, sod che 

yitpin jL^;S^ftlb.^;^- 

■^ ^ ch'he'^tt t'hfe"S .&y tai^S mei'.'li, sue hoi 

e chit Ag kin pin, rabreover heaven in its 
producing all things, gave them but one ori- 
gin. Siee ^^ ^p Ben^-choo, 

%_J^-t Bead ch'heng: to invite, to beg, 

ClChji^'O, ^'^^ to request, to greet. BoC Ify put 

pj ch'h6ng g ^ :^ If , bins rcy 

b6 ch'he"4 Idng chiih, at cemeteries, do not 

invite people to eat. 

Kim seng 6 e kay v, ytw soo be te sey che, 
kamch'hcng/^w^^Q^g^ 7fJ-J 

-^ ^P fj\ Z.. %. ^t . '"« ^^ '^''''^'^ ^ *"■'» 

*dy, yiw soo Ay kvi^a b'uiy chae sty k'hi iy U'fijr, 
*"<< ch'h'e^ai now the carriage is got ready, 
but the officer in attendance does not know 
where he is to go; I beg therefore to enquire. 
®^^ ^ -^ Beng-choo. 

Ch'h'c a 

Read k'hin: to stand awry; to 
walk lame. 

Read ch''heng: to hire, to em^tloy. 


te bi chei^S cfc'A«''i, just as if wc had no money 
to hire them with ;— said of work-people, when 
Ihcy are Ia2iy, end neglect tiieir duly. 





S^ng hilt ;^ ^ ^ cA'Ae'^ mrtl"*, 
to ftdjnst anything that is awry. 

Read ch'hek: red, a reddish brown 
colour; also, sincere. Ch'hek sim 

Po kok ^ lijv i^ IH , fAAea* 
■tim pd kak, to serve one's country with a 
sincere heart. 




Read ch'hc: to prick, to pierce 
through. Cli'hc sew, fhiiem gnoe 
l>*-> $1] ^ j^ £ X . tVKih 
tite, t'he^S goe liiou tK^i, " in working the 
ciiihroidery». five. :tbrea4ts were added." The 
•nciisnt IMies add«d one thread to their 
embroidery, each day after the winter solstice> 
so that when five were added, it was of 
course five days after mid-wia(er; hence the 
poeU^ used this expression, as an elegant way of 
designating time. "See the l^ Tdng se. 

YitB ch'heSh y^ ^ ^ oil cake,— 

something used in the raanufac 

1 .1 ) 
(Ure of oil. 

S B 






A felicitous bird. He ch'licak ^ 
=ftl| a bird of joy; also called, 


Ch'heak PI 

WmH^ Ijan ch'heak ^£ ^, the dry bird, 
from its abhorrence of damp, 

Vulg. chayh a: a sparrow} said to 
be the most lascivious of birds. 
Suy way ch'hSak bo6 kak, ho 6 
ch'h«an gn6 ok ^ || ^ M ^, -f^ )^ 
^ 4t ^ che chuy a king chdyh hi kale, 
an chw"d et/ ch'hui^'S gwd iy cKhou, who 
says that the sparrow has no horns, — see 
how it has bored through my house. See 
the ^ j^ Kok hoBg. 

j% To respect ; a sturablin^-stone i 
Ch'heak A^Q* also, the variegated colour of 

Slowly, leisurely, easily. K'hwan 

ch'heak W ^S gentle and easy. 

Chek g6e ehin fhiiey, k'he put 

ch'heak ch'hgak jefin ^l] p" ^ M ia ^ 

W-^^' "^^ ^""* '''''" *°^ ' *^^' * ** "" 
ch'hiak ch-Keak join, thus my entering on, or 

retiring from office, how is it not free and 

unrestrained. S(}e Jhe T> 3[ Hay beng. 

^- " 



skinj a wrinkling of the skin. 



To walk and stop, by fits and 
starts* to walk quickly. 





Full, flourishing; also, good words, 
r'h'heanfi" * ^-> A. surname. E' pae ch'heang g4n 
V -/ ^ ff' ^ ~^, E'pai ho ay wd, 
E' bowed when he heard good words. See the 



Ch'heang ge ^^^ ^_ , 
CTTI Uy the ponifret fish 

|g ft cKkio"S a 

The sound of raetil and gems. 

>^^^ A stick, sharpened at both ends, 
and used in repelling thieves. 

Ch'heang yew jg '(^ ;, * female 
musician, a dancing girl. 






Ch'heang kfing ;«g 

^ -_ gant and mad; rude and boister- 

}CmM ous. Ho Keet Tew che ch'heang 

k'luey ^^UZ%^W<' ""''"'''' 
Kiel Tew &y ch'heang k'hiiiy, how wil* and 
wicked were Keet and Tew ! 

>!■> A prostitute. Ch'heang ba,'^^, 
^U^^ a whore. Ch'heang choo jj^ -^^ 

th'heang k'e"d, a whoreson. 

Ch'heang "^ '''''^"^ ''' ^ 

*' «^^=^ plant. 

Ch'heang k'hap ^ 
of heaven. 




a water 

the door 


The sound of a bell ; a spear, a 
lance. Ch'he ch'heang W ^^ ^ 
k'heih ch'h'eo^^, to grasp a spear. 
Teang ch'heang twan keem, chi-en chin 
t'heen hay beng cheang i^ |^^1^.^ 

^ ^ T ^ ^ ' '^"^ ""^'''""^ ''" '''''"' 
ehein twith I'hee^S ay Hy bing chedng, with 

a long spear and a short sword, we may 
contend to the utmost with all the fiercest 
generals in the empire. 
Peng se. 

Ch'heang kong'^ ^£ ^ to wander 

crazily about, without knowing 

Koe chea bo6 seang, ch'heang ch'heang hoe, 


See the Ft*. '. 







e, cheis! eh'heang cVhiang hoi, boiyh ItLh Hh 
k'hi, a blind man, withoat a leader, wander- 
ing wildly about, where will he go? See 

♦^•^ 11 E ^^y ^^- 

Ch'beang kwuy "f^ BS ^ an evil spirit; the- 
(oul of a person devoured by a tiger, which 
does not dare to quit the tiger, till it has 
led him to devour another person. 

The noise of tinkling ornaments, 
"^ I hanging about a person. 

. ^ To stop suddenly. Yin chcang been 
r^^J^ the, eh'heang jijcn chd ^ 5|^ 

biiit/h hein e, eh'heang jeln My"h, the clouds 
were about' to appear, wbca sudifcniy they 




Liberal, gcntfc. 

« I ' High, lofty; also, to- open out, to 
Ch'heangTrtfl\^ discover. Hftn-sln h£»g 6ng, ko 
\ 4r^ cbhi^ing tSy ^ ^ ff % % 
H7 Jrtl , •'W"-*'" *c"<l '"«■> '« kwdn ch'hidttg 
iy ley, Il&a-sin commenced building' his re- 
sidence, on high aad lofty ground. 





icked>. evil. 

A long day ; also, clear,— Milearfy 

h66"S : a ^cd without 

To snatch,^ to take by force, to 
plunder. Ch'heing j»n ift'/^ , 
th'hei"^ Idng, to plunder people. 

/(lijl f !« V' Pek' tew ch'heing twit ^ "ft- t)^ ffe j 
pSyh jll ch'h'ii^S /'ia^*,. plunder, in the open 

day. .l....>n-1 '..ill • ; -jM''. :: 
>f3>_ Bird's feathers ; feathers plucked 
Ch'heans: lHl5w from birds, to make garments, 
^— l"''*^ and ornament flags. 
6ng-keiing cheak hok eh'heang ^ ^ y^ 
|[l|^ ^ Ong-keung ch'h^ng hSh mi &y s"ai 
Ong-keung wore a garment made of stork's 
■^ ^ , To harmoniac, to agree with. 

Ch'heang'^SL Ch-bi-ing h& jg ^,p , harmoni- 
Hf-# ous. 

^ To sing {-also, to lead, to introduce. 
P^L Ch-hcing khi-uk f^ ^^.A*fo"ff 

mJ li^hek, to sing songs. 
Y,il chheang jS sam t'han — • pS (^ ^ 
p3|^ ehil dy ch'hei"Sjt ,"a ineity I'hdou k'hKuy, 
when once he san^, ((he bystanders) thrice 
applauded. See- the- jja =P Ley ke. 
Kwan si-Sng ch'heihg choo Hdng-tc-y -jc^ 
P^ S J^ ^ > Am yin che6"S k'hi Chaou 
choo frul"S-tty, cap* and clothes were first 
i»trodaccd by Wiii^S-tdy ( B. C. 2682 ). 






Clear, bright. 

A field ' where grain is gathered ; 
a barn floor. 

To pay, to make good. Ch'heing. 
to forfeit one's 

Chun-put-g6 wfly 16ng, hck goe tfi tong 
sea l6og kim k'hd ; t6ng s«i^ I6ng e Put- 
gg, Put-ge mac kira cl'Ufftng xhe ^ ^ 

fk" ]]^ J when Chiln-put-g6 was in office, 




some person ( inteading to steal from him ) 
took away the gold of his fellow-lodger 
by mistake ; the fellow-lodger suspected 
Fut-g6, wherefore Put-gg bought some gold, 
and made it good to him. 


An arena, or public field. Cheen 
rofi )& cheen Che6''S, 


a field of battle. K'ho ch'heang 

/^ iM ''''''' ''**^"^' * plaee of public exami- 
nation. Toe ch'he4ng Cl^ ^^ keaou l'he6"^, 
a place for gambling. 




To cut, to injure. Ch'heang chek 
tDc RSS *" ^a.<:^ and injure. 

Ein ch'heing J^ j^ ^ the name 
of an office held by females. 

The bowels, the entrails. Tae 
ch'heing ^ f&^ twa U"^, the 
great gut. 

Ch'heang jeuk twan- 

le"^ a boit/h 


loof'^f "the entrails.about to snap asunder; " 
meaning that a person is greatly affected 
with grief or anger, or that his heart is 
ready to burst. 

A wall. PwAn ch'heAng ^ j}^, 
pw^d ch'hei"^, to climb over 
a wall. ^^J^, 
Hwiin t'hoe che ch'hijing pnt k'ho woo yea 

£1/ Mhei"S bo Vhang budh pdyh-, a wall made 
of dung and mud cannot well be white 






The same as the preceding. 

ch'hiiang be hwa ^^;^^ 

ch'heo^S bi hwf, a rose. 

.'I,Y \' 



Chfln ch'hedng „,„ ..,_, 
of a ship or boat. 

the mast 

EA m< 



A mechanic. Bok ch'heang yjc 
b'ak cKhio"^, a carpenter. 
Ch'hiiiing jin ch'hok jfi siiaou 
che, chek 6ng noe, 6 Wuy put sin k6 jim e 

^ ^ ^ -[^ ^ ^ Jcang ch'heang &y Idng 
ch'hak j6 ch'hdng k'hah sii/ e, chew dng sew 
k'he, yin wfiy bey sin e &y Jim, if the work- 
people were to chisel (the timber), and 
make it too small, your majesty would be 
angry, thinking it insufficient to bear its 
weight. See the J^. 'S ^"^""S heng. 

,^j^ Ch'heang keak h«ng ^ ^ ^f^ 
IqI ch'heang k'ha ke^A, to hop, to 

Hwa ch'heaou -j^ ^^ hwa ch'heo, 
a spade. 



JleaAsoe: to search, to look for, 
.to seek after. Hwat satn ,hoo 
k'hfi SCO, tae soe san lim ^y 

hoo k'hi sod, twS ch'heaou sk)"<z lim, he sent 
out three sfetj of h()riemen, who fully search- 
ed the hills and woods. 

Sorrowful,' discoiqposed^ displeas- 
ed; to change colour. Ch'heaou 
je6n choksekijlK^f^g, 
ch'heaou jein pe^"^ sek, being-di^pleased, he 
changed countenance. 



To signify any thing by the eyes; 
to cast sheep's eyes. 

Ch'heaou giidou 

tall in 





.^ % Sorrowful, hasty, still. Yew sim 

n^JC ch'heaou ch'heaou ^^ j(_£» 'Vh 

I T^m TH *"'''' '" ^y *"" k«}"a cKhedou 

ch'hedou, a sorrowful iniod, discomposed and 


tiif^ Vulg. ch'heo ■■ to laugh, to be pleased, 
'lifiaou f *_ to shew the teeth. H''6 ch'heaou 
jjX- 5^ Ad ch'hed, laughable. 
Keen chht-aou ^ ^ , kein seaou, con- 

Boo ch'hcang tae ch'heaou jM, Jp. y^ ^^> 
kviSh ch'htw chid'^S iwi eh'hed, he clapped 
his hands and laughed aloud. — Also written 


^ Ch'hiJiou. 




Handsome, good-looking. 

benevolent, not well-disposed, 

To pipe with the mouth, to whistle ; 
also written ^ Ch'heaou. 


.Aly'l^ A scabbard. To ch'hekou JJ ^, 

\\t Cl to SCO, the shealh of a sword. 

» ' >| Ch6-ch'ho kae ch'hciou boo Po* 


hoe Pai, Chfl-ch'ho Uiosenrd the scabbard 
and gave it to Poe. See the ^^ ^ Sam-kok. 


H To cut. 


Ch'heaou 'iAyl^ The changing of the countenance. 

To walk further apart. 


Ch'hin ch'heiou ^ |^, *» bar- 
gain, to come near to one ano- 
i l*^ ther*] prices. 
Ch'heaou keng ko i^ W"^^ ch'hedou 
k'h&h kwin, to get up the price; to raise 
the value of any thing. 

To walk backwards and for- 
wards. Ch'heaSuh ch'heaSuh tii, 
to dandle up and down. 

Slips of bamboo, with which they 
beat time, whilst singing songs. 

To approach, to come near. 

: to bow down the head. 

A kind of craw-fish. 

All, the whole i the universal voice i 
all speaking. 

JuM-m S''P' "f bamboo, used in prog- 

Ch'hceni ^fEP^ nosticating. T'hew ch'heera Wb 

gt , 'o draw lots, to prognos- 


Ch'heem /\*His 

Ch'hijem se ^ ^ , a letter, u 
writing. Ch'heem bfing ^& ;g^ 
ch'heem tn'i^&, to sign one's name. 

A lap, the front lap of a garment/ 
also, even, regular. Cheung tcaou 
ch'hac 14m, puf ing yil ch'heem 

chae k'heSklim, b6 Tnu"*! chit ch'heem, all the 

2 c 





morning liusy in gathering the indigo plant, 
without getting a single lap-full. 
E chefia hoe ch'heem jfi jea ;^ |j^ ^ |g 
^ .Jl^ J s"a cMng adu pai"S ching, his 
nt was of an even length before .and 



To exterminate. Ch'hijem k'hwat 

[J k6 k'hoey i^ M '^ 'i: ' 
ch'heem beet e 6.y Iwa I'haSu ling, 
he exterminated their great chief. 

Ch'heem r" slips of bamboo. 

... ^._ The curtain of a carriage: also, to 

Ch'heem |||r=? 

f^m exterminate. 


Square pieces of wood, used to en- 
grave letters on ; printing blocks. 
Kan ch'heem ^ ^^ * '''°''' 
of wood, on which there is writing. 

Ch'heem ^^iJlCr To try to get near. 

Ch'heem '^^^ ""' ''"'''"'" S ^ ' ' '"''"''''"' 

a bodkin. 

>|^_* False, deceitful, erroneous -, also, 
I ^jff/^ to usurp, to intrude. T'heen 

Ch'heem ^^^^ 

beng hwut ch'hi-em ^ f^ TO 
f^, Cheeks beng b6 ch'hi, the decree of 
heaven is never wrong. 

Jt^T^ The name of a fruit, like an 
orange, abounding in Canton. 



To stab, to thrust through. 



Vulg. cfe'Aeng-: a thousand. Ch'heen 
liien -^ SE^ , chit ch'heng nie"S, 
a thousand years. 
Keung ch'heep 6ng hSy, soe pek; sit k'hek 
ko hey, sara ch'heen 'gT ^ ^ "^ $^ W 
^^^'^ ^-^' ''^""S '"« 6>/ sei/ 6 
(ng mw"d, kwiiy nu ptlyh, — cheih Hy ling k'hSyh 
keng, koiy »"a ch'heng, a palace full of con- 
cubines, to the amount of several hundreds; 
and passing strangers entertained, to the 
number of three thousand. 



The head over a thousand men. 

■^ |l Luxuriance; luxuriant herbage. 

Ch'heen: SV— ^^° ^^"^ ^^'^''^^^ ch'hiien 5^ 

^P ^ tit ^ ^, '■"'"'"^ ^1> ^'''*^«' 

k'hw"d. ch'heen ch'heen, the distant trees look 

thick with leaves. 

Ch'heen bek ^ ^g ^ ch'h&n hw^a. 
a path between the paddy-fields; 
a road. 



To stick in. 

P'heen ch'heen MS 
round and round. 

\, to walk 


To remove. Ch'heen se ^R y^, 
to remove one's habitation. Sun 
seng 6 Choo-p4ng, ch'heen £ Hoo- 

Siln sai^S two. te Owo-pdng, $wd. wuy kadu 
Hoo-hay, Sun was born in Choo-ping, and 
he removed to Hoo-hay. See the "T? jg^ 
Hay beng. 

Cheaou ch'heen 13 ;^ ^ the name 
of a tree. 






To gambol, to frisk. 


Ch'hew ch'heen W^ ^ ^ p'hSh \eng, 
eh'hew, a swing; to swing. Ch'hew 
ch'heen yeen lok, yea Itm tira 

te e^S ioh, kabu maVS ch'liim ch'hnn, swinging 
the cradle at the side of the hall, till late 
at night. 

The blazing up of a fire. Ch'heen 

Che e sin jT^ ^ I,^ f , ... 

e tSh leSh yang ck'hi, in order 
te make it blaze, you must put on firewood. 
See the ^ M Cho twan. 


To disperse, to scatter; the same 
as ;^ ch'heen. 



^ '\-^ Shallow, not deep. Suy ch'heen 
W^X^ ch'heen >JC '}§ ^^ > ''''^S *•'*'" 

^ ^^A k'hin, shallow water. 

Chew kfi ch'heen 6, ehg che, y«w che ^ 

&y viiiy, eng e, tiw e, approaching the shallow 
parts of the stream, you may wade through, or 
swim across them. See the ^ ^ Kok hong. 

A broken carriage; the lining of 
a carriage. 

Ch'heen f^S I To open, to display, to enlarge. 



A. slow buSalo. 

A vessel made of bamboo, for 
holding fruits and flowers. 




A vessel, similar to the above, 
made of wood. 







>jQ To exhaust, to complete. Kijuiig 
> y)^ li-6n bdk chhein ^ i^ ^ //tjl, 
X ~ I ~ chuui"^ nie"S Hy twih, for whole 
years it would not be completed. 

jk^^ Handsome; a pretty, smiling, ap- 
^J«i3_^ pearancc; to hire and employ 

I rj people; a son-in-law. 
K'hSou ch'heiou chheen h6y jTJ ^ j^ ^^ 
k'hd ch'hH ch'hgin hfy, a pleasing smile, with 
handsome dimples. See the |6f IS "Wijey 
Cheera koesoo leng wat ch'heen & Sh fOl' 

■n 13 1w ''*'^''" *' *■"*• ^"P '"* yttne '^"ff» 

kong kid ch'he"il, to hire people for a short 
time, and to order and employ them, is 
called ch'heen. 

A tall person. 

The luxuriant appearance of grass- 
"^1 and herbs ; also, new and bright. 

The name of a plant, used as a< 
red dye. 

To cut, to slice. 

Slow, obstructed. 

ch'heen ^ 

Read jeang: to yield, to give- 
preference to, to disclaim one's- 
right to. 
Ling i Uy jeang, wOy kok hoe hO y^w,. 

ch'eiou lit) toi tio ch'hiin, lliou li kok wti 








Ch'hee ° 

»"a mfd"A SA, he that knows how to yield ac- 
cording to propriety, what difficulty would 
he find in managing the country. See the 
J: fi Se5"g lan. 

"^■^ Good words, flattery, artful dis- 
P^ course. 

Readsiien: new, — fresh, as meat, 
not stale or stinking. Seen ge 
H\\ I fe^ # c/rAcc"^' hi, fresh fish. 

Wuj kwun yOng seen 'P ^* Jfj g,^ ^ 
tok jin kwun t/ung clihee"S Ay mei"h, the 
prince especially must have fresh food. See 
the ^ -j^ Cho twin. 

Read ctfliijen : to stick in. 

Ch'hee ^^ >y^ 

Read ch"heen ; a light blue colour, 
^Ji^^ approaching to a grey. Song 
%\^\k ley yung soe poe choo ch"heen 

m III rfl i: ^ Iw yt . ''"' '" ''"' 

jfung ch'hoe pod oe ch'hei"S, in funeral rites 
use coarse cloth, of a dark grey colour. 
See the -^ |^ G6 ley. 





Read ch'he : to pierce, to perforate, 
to draw thread through a peedle. 

Read sek: a carpenter's pencil. 
Bok sek -^ ^^ , b'ak cUhee"S> 
an instrument used by carpenters, 
for marking the length of any thing. 



* Ch'hee"^h ch;heg"Sh ti, 
[l?Ji to sob and weep 

Vulg. s^.y t; a concubine. Yit ch'hey 

yit ch'heep ^ — • ^, ckil 

iy boi chit Ay sty t, one wife 
and one concubine. 


Mae ch'heep, put te kd seng, chek pok che 

i, u'" chae e dy «aJ"S', chek pok e, in buying 
a concubine, if you do not know her fa- 
mily name, then cast lots for it. 

To steal, to pilfer. Ch'heep hOn 

f^ ^ > '"'"""' I'lie"", lo hear by 
Y4ng-h"6 ch'heep p6 geuk tae kcung Bft 

^ li^ ^' ^^^ '^ , -»'<J«ff-*o '"'"'ou 
fhSyh p6 gSuk Iwd keung, Yang-ho stole 
away the precious gem, and the large bow. 




A little man, a dwarf. 

To cut, to slice j to urge, to 
be urgent with ; earnest, true, 

Put kam pek ch'heet yea ^T^ ffif ^n -Pn 
Uj gwi j^n^ pgii ch'htel, not daring to urge 
or constrain. 
B6ng kwun put oe ch'heet k'hak che g4n 

kwun bS win ch'heet k'hak Ay ua, an intel- 
ligent prince does not dislike true and faith- 
ful words. 

Ch'heet bQn j6 kin soo I^Pn] rfn])?; ^, 
kin ch'heet mooi"^ je kin seo^S^ earnestly 
enquiring, and narrowly considerino-. 
Ch'heet yaou -^ ^ ^ important. Chheet 
ch'heet -tn -tp earnest. 

Read liiera : to walk slip-shod. 

At the side, sidelong; to over- 

II turn ; rebellious. Bin-cho6 se 

h'hek, gtn gin j« yea g^ .^ ^ 

!'] S 1^ ^P ■(£, , Bin-choo k-hea te sin 









pee"S', Arf wHt 4g yeo'^, Bin-cho6 wailed at 
his side, hariiionious anil delighted. 

So6 liwio ch'hek choo choo an ^ f^ ffllj 

-J" f I ^ , ««< ^Jfii /tPtf" i^ ke^d ka ti an, 

make the retielliouR people become tranquil. 


To open, to borst, at seeds and 
fluwers, when vegetaliog. Lfly 
£ chok, jC pek ko rb'h6 bok, 
kae kaprh'hek '^; j^ ^^ ^ Ff ^ ^ 
J^ V^ ffl J(V ^ «* kwi hoe chih, Ji piyh 
hang kOij/ chi ch'hauu bak, ehd poo p'hwA k'hak, 
when the thunder and rain prevail, then 
the various fruits, plants, and trees, burst 
frora their seeds. 

To beat, to knock. 

w ,_ ^ To search, to examine. Ch'hek 

^/El 1 1 '"^ '^'i ^ ' *° '^"'*""' *" *^*'™- 
I^^^J prchcnd. 

Yim j4ng put ch'hek chc wfly sin |J^ j^j 

/f* iB'i 2 Bh w'f' , •»"■"' ^^"s ^i/ "-y '*'*'* 

ijf, wSy king keo stn, that which is unsearch- 
able in the operations of nature is called 
•divine.' Sec the ^ ^^ nih keng. 

Grieved, aflfectcd. Ch'hek yln chc 
[I I Sim, jIn chc twan ,ea jjjj] ||^ 

j/in Ay rim kts"a, Jin 6y Ixcan yed, the feel- 
ing of compassion is the principle of bene- 
volence. See the _J^ i^ Seiiig heng. 

A foot measure. Ch'hiin ch'hek 
/^ ^ eVkAn ch'heSh, inches 

■■■ i^ A foi 
r ^ and 


Yit se wily hwun, sip hwun wfly ch'hiln, 
sip ch'hiln wOy ch'hek — • ^ fji^ fj^ ^ -^ 

d chii hwun, ehap hteun cho ch'hiln, chap eh'hitn 
cho chheSh, a grain of corn is a division, ten 
divisions arc an inch, ten inches arc a foot. 



Ch'hek tey bok hwuy kfi jew yei J-? Ijjj 

^ ^^ ^ ^ ^, cfi'il chheSh tiy bS J?" 

se e &y, there is not a foot of ground, but 

what belongs to him. See ~E" --J-- Beng-choo. 

Few, great; t>j fill, to drive away ; 
distant ; to roof a house, 

^^ Grieved, pained, sorrowful ; an ex- 
frlrjr. cess of leeling. Ke song ae ch'hek 

eh'hdm t'honi ch'hek, being in mourning, a per- 
son should be sorrowful and aflTccted. 






To pierce, to perforate. 

A hook. T'hok ch'hek ^ Iffl- , 
Chak ck'hUyh, to read books. A 
plank or board for writing, used 

before the invention of paper. 

Chwftn soo p6 (.in che ch'hek A. {jjfi ^ 

/W /cl W ' '■*'^^" P"'S "><> /"* l^'Mh ye^i 
iy ch'hiyh, the record of an undiminished army, 
and complete victory. 

>^ Vg^ The appearance of little children 
\^^ walking. 

It Red : also, empty, waste, naked. 

^rt^ Chhek been -^ jfj ^ ch-heih bin, 
^J w a red face. 

Ch'hek Ify ch'hcen 1^' ^ i|lj =f- || , ch'heih 
tfy che"& ch'heng li, waste ground to the di<;- 
tance of a thousand le. Ch'hek ki-ak ^ ffl* 
ch'heih k'ha, bare-foot. 

hatchet ; also, near, nearly 
related ; sorowful. A surname, 
in keAnp;, rhek hoo boe put choo, 
hod kwuy, chek ch'hin ch'hek wiiy Ke ''^ j^' 

^i , »ong heung, chek pay hoi u'" IHh Idn ehi> 
ke"i, pod k-Kiiy, chek ch'hin ch'hek ke"a Ian, 

,Jt? A I 

ItU relj 
/*V\i Pin 





when poor, our very parents will not acknow- 
ledge us for their children ; and when rich, 
our nearest relatives will be afraid of us. 

>.^A A plan, a scheme ; a book, a re- 
""B, -^ cord i a whip, to whip. Bo6 key 
^^5^ ch'hek k'h6se|K If g"SJ'J||, 
bS khy ch'hek Chang se, having no plan to 
adopt i unable to suggest a scheme. 
Bun Boo che cheng, poe chae hong ch'hek 

Boo-ing &y chbng soo, poi te hong ch'hek, the 
government of Bun-ong and Boo-6ng is con- 
tained in the historical records. See the 
F|i j^ Teung yeflng. 

Ch'hek ke ma f^ ^ W} ,'>'"' ^ ^H **^' ^^ 
whipped his horse. See the J^ pj^ Siiang lun. 









The same as the preceding. 

A small step ; to walk slowly. 

To break, to burst. Koe h6ng 
kap ch'hek -fej p^ ^ ^^ kabu 
bing g&y k'hak p'hwi, when ve- 
getation commences, the seeds burst. 

An agricultural instrameat. 

The noise made by birds. 

Bad rice. 

Not advancing ; to make no pro- 





To rub, to sifti also, to fall as a 

Pure, clear, clean. Gwat ch'heng 

fheett«y )^ y^ # /S . ^"«^* 
ch'heng kada Uy, the moon is clear, 

through and through. 

Hong h6 sam ch'heen Icgn, yit t6ng ch'heng 

^ M H -f % - ii y-^, ^"^"^ '^» 

$'a ch'heng nefS^ chit dy ting ch'heng, the 
Yellow river becomes still and clear once 
in three thousand years. 

Chheng-/^'^"^'";'^''^! ^^ 

° I v^ to walk as if one 

to walk lame, 
were drunk. 


To call, to name, to praise, Ch'heng 
hoe ijE (.l-Ti to praise. Ke put 
ch'heng ke lek, ch'heng kfi ti'k 

ho biy u'" sai ch'heng hoe e ay lat, ch'heng 
koe e dy tek, a good horse must be praised, 
not according to ils strength, but according 
to its good qualities. See the "H am Hay lun. 


Vulg. ch'hai"^ i azure; light blue. 
'C^ ^ Ch'heng sek -^ ^ ch'haing tek, 
f ^ an azure colour. Ch'heng t'hae 
^ ch'hai"^ t'hi, green moss. Also writ- 

ten ■m' Ch'heng. 


A privy, a necessary. 

Xt A kind of willow, growing by the 
side of rivers, of a reddish colour. 

The name of a fish, of a light green 

Vulg. t'han : a kind of cockle. 

I^K* B4n jin e tefin chiiiinij che, wuy 

ch'heng teSngiy^^^ 51 II 




-^ 1^ j^ [5 ^ Ba» «fli"ff ty ling II ch'han 
ch'he e, king ked I'han t'e"d, the people of 
Hok-keen province feed them in fields, which 
they call cockle piu. See the T^ ^ ?3 
Che"a je t'hong. 



A reddish colour. 

To give, to present. 

The name of a creeping plant. 

Ch'heng " ^^ » ""^" '^''"'"'"S ^ % , *"""» 

I I ch'hai^S, indigo. 
^" ^ %. To invite, to ask, to beg, to greet. 

Ch'heng --m* c'>''^"e J'" •'' "^^^w =*• /^ ^ 

P nJ i@ ' <^*'''«"« i^«S c*e«* cHw, to 
invite people to drink wine. 
Ch'hdng cho =§ ^ ^ ch'he^& cUy, pray sit 

Gfi hong jIn ch'hdng hiidn ^ j;;| ^ =^ ^, 
C< Aons jln f*'Ae"<i botyh kefS, the inspec- 
tor of Gfi begged to sec { Confucius. ) 
Kwun ch'heng Ick fi soo jc chca ^ ^^ |^ 

chiy no hang, I beseech jour highness to 
choose between these two. See the J^ jj^ 
Seang beng. 

.AA* A duster. Ch'han- tok ^ ;ld^ 



ch'heng tSh, to duat the table. 


B6ng ch'heng "m "Ife, to miss the 
p^ way. 




To rub : used for Ylq Ch'hedn, to 
ig hire. 

_^ To weigh, to regulate the weight 

'hen"" 'jtr. 1^ of any thing 5 a pair of scales. 
^>| I Gnd sim jd ch'heng, pu 

put l£og 


wuy jln ley ^6ng ^ ^^^ ^j ^^ J, ^|* 

"Wf /^ iS^ ^P ' S^""* ^.y *"" '^'•"'"" cheo"^ \ 
ch'hin, bey yin wuy l&ng cKhong kay kwiii, 
my mind is like a pair of scales, which are 
not to be elevated or depressed for any man. 

Clothes worn underneath, an inner 
dress V to assist. Ch'heng "6 i|3 
to accord with propriety. 

A sacrifice ; also, monev. 


Vulg. ch'hin: to weigh, to find out 
Ch'hen*^ /PfrL '''^ weight of any thing. S6j e 
ch'heng but, j£ te k6 k'heng teQng 
che4 yea ^ VJ, ^ ^/] , i\]] ^ l[ ^ 
^ 4^ iii , *** * '^* **" mrt"*. ji chae e iy 
k'hin ling yed, that by which we weigh things, 
in order to ascertain whether they are light 
or heavy. 

Cb'h Jng pk :|^ ^^eh'hingp'hel^, 
to blow the nose. 

Ch'heng ch'hing ^Q ^ to run 
away, to run inces8autly. Ch'heng 
ch'bdng j« ch-hoo ^^ |j?| ^p ^^ 

€k'hhig ch'htng an niy, merely thus i always 

so, invariably the same. 



Ch'heng flg 

Unsaleable, that cannot be dispos- 
ed oC. 

Ch'heng leing >ja J^^ ekew ch'hin, 

Ch'heng J tfi '""'• Hwin wOy jln cboo chc 
I ^ Ifiy, tong wun j6 hay ch'heng 

htciu chd Idng kc"d iy Ity, tcSh tang t'hee"S 
hoi pay boi sio, jt hay /'A«e"S' hoi e ch'hin, 
the duty of all children is^ in the winter 
(to keep their parents) warm, and in the 
snmmer, cool. 





pjk^ Vulg. chhe"il ■■ 
X!3^ ploy as a labourer. Ch'heng jin 

to hire, to eiti- 
^ ^ P'oy as a lahou 

1^ chokongf^^X^I^^'''*^"^ 
Mng cho kang kwtii/, to hire people to work. 

Read ch'heuiig : a cannon, a great 

Ch'heng^^ <«K* S""- ^'hae ch'heng fa jin 

ffe -] J ^\. > *''*"'"^ ch'hing phSh 

l&ng, t« fire a gun and shoot people. 

■^t ^ ^ Read yung: the name of a tree, 

Ch'hSw'i'^^f^ which first shoots up as a creeper, 

w^Jpg and afterwards becomes a very 

large tree 4 the Indian fig tree, or banyan 

tree, — very common in tbe provinces of Hok- 

keen and Kong-tong, but is never found 

norlh of the river iW Cheet, in the province 

of Cheet-kang. 

I _ SeOng pek \^ }^'^ , cKMvg pUj/h, 

Ch'hengTt/^^ a cedar or fir tree. J6 seung 

I • pek che yew sim, kwan soo sfi, 

jS put kae k-ho ek yccp ^\i i'> '^ 'Z-'^ 

ch'hin cheats ch'hing piiyh it/ woo sim, Chabu 
si t£ j& bo kdy ke w"d heoh, with a mind 
like the evergreen fir, which passes through 
the four seasons, without altering its branch- 
es or changing its leaves. See the jj^ p^ 
Ley kd. 


Ch'hfing boo "[^ p^, an expression 
of respect. 

IM I To pierce, to stick in; any thing 




with which to pierce a bole. 

A vessel for holding salt 

An implement used in breeding 
si Ik- worms. 



1 % ^ Read ih'hwan : to put on, to wear. 
» I ■ Ch hwiii sara -jji ^^ ^ ch'heng s^a, 

^^^ to put on clothes. Ch'hwan beet 

Sp IjM cKheng biiiyh, to wear stockings. 

M^ Read ch'hong: to collect, to store 

i^ic#^- up 

CA'Ae**'^'^3^ "** ' ^ P'^<^'= f""" gathering, a gra- 
y\^ nary. 

Nae chek nae ch'hong I'j "a" Jn -^ woo 
ig chek, woo ay cKhe"^, some was collected, 
and some was stored ly. 
Ch'hong liin ho6 k'hoe )c.V ^ j^ 0^ ck'he^ 
tint hod k'hoi, a granary and treasury. 
Ch'hong <:hut ^g' A? not hurried. 

Read ch'hong: the hold of a ship. 

* > Kead chhong: the hold of a si 

Ch'he"SM^ K'hae ch'hong f^ ^^ A' 

/■l/0t ch'heng, to open the hold. Ch'h 



^ ch'hUn cVhe^S^ a ship's hold. 




•JTJ^^ Pan ch'hong ^ ^ , pan cKhe'"S, 

an ulcer, a sore. 


Ch'hong choe j^ ^^ cft'W"^ 

chaou, to run away. 


%_ Read ch'hflng : a bed stead. Been 
J4r ch'hong 01^ ^ ^ btn cKhi^, 
f ■>! ^^ a sleeping place. 
Sun chae ch'hong k'hira ^« ;^ KP ^^ ^ 

Siin Iwa le ch'h£''S tw"& k'him, Siin was sitting 
on the bed-stead, playing the guitar. See the 

T" j^ H^y ''^"g- 

>^'^ Scaou k'hoe Djlj p ^ ch'heo cKhity. 
Ch'heo M rM a sharp moulh, clever at speak- 



Ch'heo kei/. 

a game cock. 






Yfn-seaou ^ '^ 

JVAn-ch'heo, the 
name oT a district, in the pro- 
vince of Hok-keenj|S^^^ in the 
department of jfe U\ Cheang-chew, and near 
the border* of yg jffl Ch'eo^S.p'hoi. Also, up 
in the clouds. 


Jtutf^ Read eh'hcaou : to laugh. ({"o 
CA neo ^Jm^ ch'hSaou flJp ^ Ad ch'heu, laugh- 
-X^- able. 
Yit k'hey ch'he, j6 leng jin cb'heaou — 

Ik li^ ifn '^ A 5^ ^ '*" ^^ *'*"""* ^*'*'** 

k'hi, ji ki ling ch'hio, when onee ;ou show 
your teeth, you give occa«ioD to others to 



yy^ shell fish, 

Read je4o u . Kang j efto u ^X. ^ > 
ka ch'h'ei, a imall insect t a small 

Rcadch'hck: a fo»t measure. Yit 
ch'hek — ■ F^ chil ch'h'eSk, one 

Ch'hiin y6w sfey tw&n, ch'hek y6w scy teftng 

woo (1^^. A'AiA Uj/, cMt ck'keSh woo sii/ k'hih 
WS, an'inch is too short, and a foot i< loo 


'liie eating of a duck or goose. 

A reddish kind of insect : a hairy 

Read lek : a mat, for sitliAg or 
sleeping on ; used also for a ta- 
ble, because the ancients ate their 

meals off mats spread iipottllie jround. 

'I*, ,,'• -jp I.I 

Giio sim hwuy »ek, put k'lio kwan jc:i jH? 
2 L 

*B,"a «"> ,e ch'heSh, bey Chang hoe ling Aicui"ff, 

our hearts are not like mats, they cannot 

be rolled up at pleasure. 

bek kwin t'heen hiy ^ J^ ^ ~V\ , ch'h'edh 

kvui^S thee"^ ay, he got possession of the 

empire, like the rolling up of a mat ; i. e. 


% f ^ Read ch'heang: a water plant, a 
Ch'hSo ° f*"y kind of sedge. Ch'hiiang po6 
I "W H ^m ^ ch'hee"^ poi, the hang- 
ing sword plant. 




Ch-heo'^ m6 sin iU. 

of madness. 

a furious kind 
Ch'heang k6ng ^R ^, ch'hio"B 
king, rude, boisterous. 

Ch'heO ° jfl y*^ Read ch'heang : a pomfret fish. 

Read ch'hiiang : a spear. I'ut yung 





tii&ng ch'liiiang rhu I'hiien choo, 
chO sc hwat lut t£ Tliae pen^ 

x^ n\ r< ^^ fit % -T. K m -ik 

^it^-jhZ^, u'" yung li"^ ch'hco"S hod 
fhan hung Uy, chi te htcat lut li kaiu I'hai 
jiC'ng, Ihpre is no need of using a long spuar 
to assist the emperor •, but it is only ne- 
cessary to publish go<id lawn, in order to 
to promote universal tranquillity. 

Read ch'hiiang : to tnutch, to take 
by force, to plunder. Ch'heang 
twit cba« but ^ $ gf iJIO . 

ch'hei"^ t'hilyh ch'hei"f f/iff"*, 40 plunder and 

take money and goods. 


Ch-hed"^ ^^ 

Read ch'he&ng ! an open shed, 
witJuiUt Walls. 

RMd ch'H?in>!te silig. Chheang 
k'lTcu'W'])p, jtti ; (■h-hv6"S khek, 
to sin^' songs. 




B<)8 twan j6 chheing M jf^ jfjj P^ , *" 

s"a sod Ji ch'hed"^ kheb,' to sing without 

any reason. 




Ch'hijang be liwa ^ ^^ /(^ 
cKheo^S bt hwa, a rose. 

Read ch'hSang : a wall. Ch'heang 
p'bek H^ ^ ^ che6"S pedh, a 
wall of a house. 
Chun & teaou ch-hgang ,1,^ ^ ]|| ^^ , 
ku'&n kuidn it/ ch'hod, teaou k'hek t,t/ cKheo"^, 
a high house, and sculptured walls. See the 

.-v^^f Read ying : to winnow. Y4ng 
CA'Aeo"^ ISI^r ch'heuk ^"^ ^ch'he6"S cKkek, 
/•^•\n^ to winnow corn. 
Pd che y^ng che, k'hong pe chae cheSn 

ch'lieu"^ e, k^he"S pi le t'hadu cHng, sifting 
it and winnowing it, the husks and chaff 
will all fly before you. 

Ch'h'eo ^ 


Read ch'heang: a mechanic. Boo 
ch'heang ek jc6n ^j^ j^ JJJn 
W\ , sae kong bak chlwo"S yea 
si anniyy "conjurers and carpenters are also 
thus;" — the former profiting by people's 
living, and the latter living by people's dying, 
in having to make coffins for them. 


Read yiing: to hire, to let one's 
services, to engage in service. 
Tong-koe soo k'he, Hay-hok 
peen seng, wOy yea kay yflng ^^ sffl '^. 

koi Cty soo k'hi, Hay-hok u)"i sai"S> k'he chb 
p'hith t'h'elh kay i,y ch'h'eo^^, when the troubles 
of Tong-koe commenced, Hay-hok changed 
his surname, and hired himself into the 
family of a blacksmith. 

Read siiang: an elephant. K'he 

Ch'heo'^& 13^ ^'^^ P^ **'° seang, j6 wan che, 

t'hiJen hay tae wat 1[| j^* ^7 

hoi pt tae cKed^^, ji hoe e hwtui"S, t'hee"^ ay 
chew Iwa hw^'a hi, driving away tigers and 
leopards, lions and elephants, and removing 
them to a distance, the whole empire was 
greatly delighted. See thej[2 j^ Siiangbeng. 

"^ ^0^ Read k'hip: to draw up. K'hip 
Ch'hed'"-Sy/lrf ady "ijhj^, ch'hed"S chuy, to 
%^^^^ draw water. 
Keng twan chea, put k'ho e k'hip ch'him 

^^ ^ # >r^ "T J^ iR M, •o'^''^-'" 

Chang eKheo^ ch'him ch^y, when the rope 
is short, we cannot draw water from a deep 
place. Said by TJJ 31 Chong-choo. 

Hin-ch'heuk ^^ ■Jffi a man's 
name, who lived under the Hay 

Near, close, short. Pek ch'heuk 
3^ lJ3 to tti^e, to hasten. 





The teeth too near together. Ak 
ch'heuk ^ gB ^ urgent ; also, 
an instrument for marking a hole 

in a door. 





Grass growing in luxuriance ; a 
busby appearance. 

Grieved, sorrowful. 

Ch'heuk poey IS Wj. JeiihpiJeyy 
not straightened', not stretched 

A small step. The two characters 
Ch'hek ^ ■ and Ch'heuk ^ , 
both signifiying a small step. 





when put together form the character /f^ 

Hfing, to walk. 


»- fc » Stretching up, high, elevated, ris- 
^^jJ.V^ '"g straight up. Ch'heng san 




teflng teep, put te ch'heuk tey 
y6w ke to ^ |I^ ^ ^ /f. ^nq g ^ ;^ 
S® -^ ch'heng tw''a ling teep, u™ chae ch'heuk 
tiy woo Ima chey, the green hills piled one 
upon another, I do not know bow mtrch 
elevated from the earth. 

To tread ou, to trample under 
foot. Ch'heuk jcjfic che, k'hit 
jin putseak yea [|i^j p^ j|f] ^1 

liitg, IStn k'hit ehedh u™ k'hw^i ch'heng k'hd 
s*5"ff, if you trample on a things and then 
give it to any one, even a beggar will not 
ci>n<i^er it clean. See -^ ^ Bcng-choo. 

G5n-ch'heuk sB fffln , the name 
of a man, who lived in the 
time of the |p^ ^ Chijen kok. 

B. C. 230. 



To kick,, to touch with the foot, 
step over. 


Vulg. liUJlz to seise, to apprehend, 
to catekr to< take in the band. 
Tok sOy Ichg pe£b hfihg bQn 
se, hwa eng tofi hfing, ch'heuk niiCho-clrho 

^fi -^ '^ 4S Tih auy eKhut long pei» 
ke''d Mn »e, wa ^e"d lot seo"S, k^M uah Ch6- 
cKhb, Toh immediately gave orders for cir- 
culating hand-bills in all directions, -des- 
cribing the form and appearance of the man, 
in order to apprehend Chd-ch'h6. See the 
Sam kok. 

To run against, to offend, to gore 
(as a bull). Seng sin put scang 
ch'hi'uk M ^ 'f^ ij^ 





sh'ha{"S sin b6 »eo htran leSh, the stars do not 

run against one another. 

Ch'heuk .seiig seang noe iS L^ H :^ 

huan leSb' sdng seang ag nne^ to eacife hi-; 

majesty's displeasure. 

Gngw ch'heuk jin JtJL. j^^ ^^ ^ goo tak tioh 

tdng, an ox gorei people. 

To knit the brows, to draw up 

the forehead into wrinkles. Ke 

\(^^ chit sew, ch'heuk at, j6 seang ko 

kiik l'he''d, p'hei"^ t'haou gn'eaou gneaou, ji 
lae kay seo king, they all began to feel 
their heads ache, and knitting their brows, 
they addressed each other. See the h ~& 
Seang beng. 

Narrow, small, applied to the meshes 
of a net. Ch hi-uk koe put j'lp 
woo tfi, ^i peet put k'ho >in sit )ca 

R \iL > *°' **' '•'' **"*^ *'' J'P tt^oo It, chitv 
hi peih bS Chang Uadu chedh, if ynu do not 
allow a net with close meshes tu enter the 
pools, the fish and tortoises | for consumption 
will be inexhaustible. . See the Jk ^ Seang 

The fat part of a wolPs breast. 

To urge, to constrain, to distreM, 
to hasten ; near. 

Ch'heuk ^3 ^''"^' ^'•'■''^'"''PSrPl^ »'"'"«• 


of Budha. 

Careful, a careful appearance. 





Ch'ljeirft ^ jt To ^eak quickly. 

To seek for by flattery, to seek 
for by adulation. 

Gak-ch'heuk ^ fjS ^ the name 
Ch heuk | | |^| of a man, who lived in the time 
of Confucius. 

The teeth meeting each other, wry 

Vulg. ch'heSh: a fuot measure; 
also read Ch'hek, which see. 






To rub, to nib out; to liriish, 
to (lust. 

To extend, to fill up, to carry 
out to the utmo«t, to stop up: 
a surname. Also written O 

Ch'hiiung kwun che pa6u "^^ y^ f^ , 
ih'h'eung mw^d jin kwun Ay paou, to fill the 
prince's cook-house. Seetheffi^gP Ley ke. 
Yew jfi ch'heung Jc ^ ^p ^ If j «**<> 
cIChiw wui"^^ i'hal he k'hang, to take one's 
■sleeve aod stoj) one's ears. See Uie ^M ^f 
Kok hong. 

K'hok je ch'heung cho ^ ffif ^ j^ . 
kotig k'hw&h ji ch'.iung mw"d e, to extend 
and carry it out to the utmost. Sfc the 



The heart moved, the mind 


A gem worn as an ear-ring. 

Ch 'heung T 




To move, to agitate4 to fly up; 
also, deep and empty. Sat k'hc 
ch'heung fheen $^ ^ jrfl 
^fr , thai I&ngAi/ k'hi ch'heung kaou fhee"?, 
the murderous spirit mounted up to the 
very heavens. 

^ Young, small ; the noise made in 
Ch'heunff ^fCP perforating ice. Soo fi ch'heung 

f J'" ^ "^ '4' -Aj *"" S^"'" 

seauu Vein Idng, to nie a young man. 

.Small, young: also, a surname. 

.m, Even, equal, just. Ho^'heenput 
ch'heung, kang ch'lio6 k'heuk 

II) f^^, twS fhee"S u'» pai''S, kdng chiy 
Ity M'" ho, "tbe great heavens are unjust, in 
sending down these calamities :" — an impati' 
cut complaint of tbe dealiqgs of providence. 

The same as Vm Ch'heung; an 
unsettled state of mind. 

Unconstrained, easy, unforced. 

Put been jS teiing, put soo j6 

tek, ch'heung yftng teiing t«, 

sSng jtn y-ea,^^ ^ ffil ^[». ^ .§. (fS 

kidng j6 teiing, u™ sat seo"^ ji tit teSh, 
eh'h'eimg i/Ang te tang e"S dy to li. chty 
chew se sing jin yea, without effort to hit 
upon the centre, without tiiuch thought to 
obtain any thing, and spontaneously to follow 
thp due medium, is what a sage alone can 
attain to. See the 03 ^- Teung yilng. 

Ch'heung y^ 


To withstand, , to oppose, to 
come' across, to rush abruptly. 
Ch'KtJiing hfing biin le ^ |^ 






^ ffi J ch'heung hw*i ban li, spread across 
to the extent of ten thousand le. 
Ch'heung tut ^^, to rush abruptly. 


The name of a plant. 
To be sad and sorrowful. 


Slowly, leisurely; to allow^: .to 
give loose to, to gjve way to; 
»|A'^ although, e»eo, if. 
Ch'heung pae ley, yeuk pae toe |^ ^ 
SSb ^tr Bo |s loose conduct injures pro- 
priety, lustful desires tend to the breach of 
the law):. 

Kam yew je sim hoe ! ch'heung yew, k<:uDg 
kfi liiey, bok keOog kfi gbey W ^ 31 

^y chae k"d wou na djf thm kw^a ' ch'heung 
woS, ing kap lae bin &g ting, bu ko^ gwa. 
btn dy Idng, how dard we' Encourage a 
double heart! and even if we did, it should 
be with those at home, and never with those. 



Vulg. ch'hing: a raanoD, a great 

'To come withbnt being invited. 

.'h'heuns: A3eG Awry, not strtlirht,. incorrect.. 


Vulg. th'hing : to put on, to wear. 
Ch'heung sam ffi ^^ cVheng 
s"a, to put on clothes. 
Yiw e put ch'heQag, y£w selng put cheak, 
cb'hoo che wfly Ian jIn /M ^^ ^ ^£, /& 

8 F 


u'" ch'heng, woo yin chi6^S jj'* cheak yung, 
chig te komg leAou lip dy Idng, one who has 
clothes and does not wear thein^ who has- 
apparel and does not make use of it, — this is- 
what is called a shameful follow. 


The autumn, harvest, ripe. .\ sur- 
name. Ch'hun, hay, ch'hew, long 

ch'hete, long, spring, summer, autumn, winter. 
Ch'hew ha che bwkt T^X^/^^, r*'*** 
M Ay boiy, " the end of an autumn's down -," 
i. e. a very insignificaot thing. 









^ ^ The name of a tree, whose leaf 


at' falls in the early part of au- 


yf V tnmn.. 




^Jv ^ *" ""'"* "^ * river. 


Sh eh-hew ch'heen ^ .|^ , a swing, 


1 TV * cradle. 

The name of a bird. 

The name of a mud fish. 

THe name of a &>h, several thout- - 
aVid t(i in length which is said' 
lo dwell in caverns at'the bottom 
of the Jea rwheii Hunters these caverns, the 
tide rises, art^ iHteh it comes oat, the tide 
falls again: — this is the way in which tne 
Chinese account fdr the ti4e«, 

Ijd ■ turnl round. wiUi the' hand -, ' 
t6 twiu any thing and make it 
small. ' ' 










Read se: a beard, K'hoe sc P 
^, cKhiiy ch'hew, the beard 
about the mouth. 
Co ch'h4n bfi, be jijem se ^U ^ ^, ^ 

</i'Aity cft'Aeto, eje-brows like sleeping silk- 
worms, and a beautiful flowiug beard. See 
the ^^ 1^ Sam kok. 

f=» So ch-hew ^ ^ , *••« *P""S "f 
a locK. 


A surname. 

Vulg. k'heepse: ugly, ill-favour- 
ed. Ch'hiw loe ^ PH , ugli- 
€h'h6w hoo put been kijen kong koe |^ 

boe bey bein lit kee"S tuH kay kw'"a, though 
a woman be ever so ugly, she caBnot avoid 
«eeing her fathe*- and raother-in-Jaw. 


Read sew : a hand. Sew keak 
^. rt|) k'ha ch'hiw, iiands and 


Cho s6w (Aip yeak, ySw sew peng tek ^ ^ 
■ifc -^ /ft' ^ ^ ^ '* '^^'^^^ kedhj/eak, 
che"it ch'hiw gim p'hin, in the left hand he 
held a pipe, and in the right hand, a flute. 
Y6w s6w h^o hin the jtn ^^^jj^ ^ 
•^ K ySw ch'hiw di Sng Ay ling, a wan- 
dering hand, and a fellow fond of leisure^; — 
«aid of those who have no certain employ- 

Read sew^ the head. Sew sek 
■^^^ «A';ieu) sek, ornaments 
for the head, fuch as hair-pins, 
bodkins, &c ^|,,.,„^ . 










Readseuk: to redeem a pledge, 

"^Sr to redeem any thing out of 



E' kong seiik chbey W iW ^ SB ^ t'hi 
kong ch'hew choey, to practise meritorious 
things in order to make iip for one''s faults. 

To bear a burden, to sustain any 

Vulg. cKhaou: stinking, patrid; 
also read hew. JS oe ok ch'ew 

i!0 ^ ^> :^ , ^*'*'" ^''^""^ 

wan p'ha''i ch'haou, like the being disgust- 
■ed with a bad smell. See the ■ic @. Tae hak. 

To build up a wall, to raise a 
parapet. Cheng ch'hew boo kew 

k'h&h kwAn, b6 u^ ho, if the well were built 
higher, it would he no harm, 

Ch'hew ch'hae -^ -j^, to receive 
any ^one in a polite manner. 
Put yaou « che ch'hew ch'ha^ 

^ ^ i>l ^ tt (tR^ *^ *"^'^'' ""P ' '^^^'"' 
cKhde. .to jefusc oroper a.ttention to any one. 

Read sSw : to answer politely, to 
return a compliment. P6 seang 
jin chea, lin wuy s^w tuy mf 

lAng, Bh kap e ch'hiw tiiy, with those great 
people, it i« difficul* to converse and pay 

^■^ % Read se : a tree. Se bok j^ ^^ 

T»l#r| ch'hew bak, timber. Wtiy pok 

f^^P ch'hun t'hijen se, Kang tong jit 

l.oe yla J| ;^ ^ ^ fif. ^X ^ 

;^ 4& Ve JVuy pak le cho cKhun t'hee"^ dy 

ch'hew, te Kang tang gwd cho jit am Sy hwiln, 

^^a th6 north of the rivet Wfiy yon areas 



Itii, l<:-.. 







a tree in the spring season, whilst I on 
the east of the Kang stream am as the clouds 
around the setting sua. Said by one poet, 
A>( another. , ,.■ 

J-^L Yang bS«y 1^ ^ , 
rVAj^ a kind of plum. 

cKUvi A" 

Vulg. boi: a wife. Hoo ch'hey 
-^r- ^^ "IS P'^i husband and 
Soo j6 kwuy ch'hey, tae pcEg be p'hwin 

± iD 1^ i. jt ^^ ^ ^^> "^^ '"''"""' 

lAng chhwA tooi'^ lat boi, t'hAn i^ bdgjf 
y'e6"S, the scholar taking home his wife, 
does it before the ice is melted. See the 

Ch'he ch'hey j6 h6, pit ko hoo boe ^ ^ 

ilD fpj il^-^ "i^ X ^ ^ '■*'*"'* *°* ''" "" 

chm^u, pit leih kap pay boi king, in marry- 
ing a wife how must wc act? we ought 
certainly first to inform our parents. See 
the /]> ^ Sead« gn&y. 

Grass growing luxuriantly t exu* 
berant herbage. 

Sorrowful, grieved. 

The first ; former, early. K'he ch'hey 

yKTJ fe 1^ , *^ beginning. Thae 

^fpFW ch'hey che sfi, bin kae tOn but 

ij/ ti chek, pij/h 101"^ chd po6 tin but, at the 
time of the beginning, the people were ge- 
nerally all Munt aud plain. See the Cp =P 
Soo k£. 

Ch'hey beng wat, te put bion 4c|[] ^ Q 
^ ^ ^ , *'** fha6u iy bing Kng king, 
Chat put hiou iy lAng, th« very first decree 
was — ♦' put the unfilial to d«atb," 

The wind and rain rising up into 
a squall. 

#•-'•111711 • 

')■ U.I 

To thump with the fist. 
• li 

The difierent coloured threads in 
silk or cloth. 

GaS ch'hey Hj^ Q^ , to 'uol^ an- 

Perspiration ; also, clear water. Kft 
song yew ch'hey ^ ^ -^ )^, 
e ty t'haSu kiSh woo ku!"a, on his 
forehead stood the perspiration. See the H 
^ sang beng. ^^*V| 


To marry a person, to give a person 
in marriage to aay one. K'hong- 
«ho6 e kfi beng che choo ch'hey 

IChong-ihoo t'ho e iy he"a iy ke"i hoe e chd 
toi, Confucius took his brother's daughter, 
and fave her to liiiti In marriage. See the 

Be ch'hey ^j^ jS ^ rice flour. 

To scrub clean. Teng ch'hey jlK 
^ij te"d ch'Miy,,\he Krapings ot 
the pot. vi" ,. ., 

Read ch'ily : brittle, easily broken. 

Unable to walk i to drag the feel 

, . .'-U »'-'m:i.'- > 
in walkior. , 







"%^^ Deep. Ch'him bo'6 liy^M]^. 
y/^Amm a bottomless depth. Ji'p san wiiy 
fy^V k'heung put ch'him, j'ip lim wfly 

kheung put bit X P-i 'B f& y^W-A 
J^ \f ft.T^^, fi" -"t ""^^ '';•"'' """ 

ch'him, j'ip ni wAy ke"a a"* bat, entering the 
hills it is only to be feared we cannot go 
deep enough-, and retreating into the woods 
we are only apprehensive lest we be not 
sufficiently concealed ; — said by those who 
forsake the world and adopt a hermit's life. 
K6 jin ch'him w4n ^ J^ A t^ jS ^ ' 
k'hah ye"& ling ch'him hwui^^, surpassing 
others to a great depth and distance. 

^^P A supernatural influence, produc- 
fvt^ ing- both good and bad effects. 





Confused, in disorder. 

To advance gradaally. 

^^ To enter by degrees, to invade, 

il|— JJfc to pare off; calamitous. Gnoe 

1.^^^ kok put teng, wuy che tae ch'him 

k'hi lai, king ked two. ch'him, when the five 
kinds of grain do not come up, this is called 
a great calamity. 

Tek jin ch'him che ^jK ^ /j^ ji^ ^ iek iy 
hwan ch'him hw'at e, the northern barbarians 
invaded him. 

i.%_y To sleep, to rest. Ch'him sit j^ 
)l^3^ ^ k'hwitn keng, a sleeping cham-, 
/\y^^ her. , rr"frff7 

Cha6-S tew ch'him ^ -^ 




time, ffor which Confucius severely reprov- 
ed him. ) See the J^^ |^ Seang lun. 
Ch'him P"t se 1^ ;;7^ R ^ k'hvcHn b6 ch'hin 
ched''S sin se, (Confucius) in his sleep, did 
not lie stretched out like a corpse. See the 

Small of ttatHre ; not inclined to 
grow tall. 

To engrave wooden blocks for 
ti\h ^r printing. 


To game, to play at games of 


Ch'him itfrf^ A kind of cinnamon tree. 


Ch'him keak h6ng jj^ fll ff , 
ch'him k'ha ke^'il, to walk on tip 


fit taou s6 k'hu'iin, Chae-6 slept in the day 



The name of a river? to fathom 
the depth of winter with any thing ; 
to lade. 
Ge chw&n suy che kin, to sek put kara ch'him 

ge Ay chw"d chtty suy che kin, ch'hat &y sSh u"* 
k"d khi t'hdm, the fountain of righteousness 
may be ever so near, yet we must not presume 
to draw frQm,,i^ vi^h a thief's rope. 

"cli.hjm, a large house, with 
deep sets of chambers and courti!. 

Near; to draw miar j near relatives; 
to hold near and dfear. Ch'hin ae 
^1^. '" '"^^ 'itimately. Ch'hin 
**'" f^ ^ ^ to approach. Lijang ch'hin j3^ 
H 3 parents. ■ eh'hik clioo ^ ^ , ch'hin ka 
^&, one's 9el/«''«i"" - •• '■';.'- 




HIn diae loe peen bo6 cbe ch'hek, boo ke 
cli'hin san y£w wan ch'liln ^ /fr S& j^ 

HES^.f Htl^ lij tit 

song lieung two loe p<e"", bS che kin 6y ch'hek 
poo kKuy lied ck'him sw^a KOO hicuing lad ay 
cVhiii, the poor, though dwelling at the road 
side, have no near relatives to own them ; 
while the rich, though retreating to the deep 
mountains, have distant relatives coming to 
seek them. 



A little rising of the skin, a small 
y^r^.j^ bliiter. Chip pit ch'huuk han, 
y^J)\. "^w wfly ch'hin Ii5ct^p^ 

ck'hitti ceh"a ch'tiin lelh, fielding the pencil in 
the cold weather, the hand becomes blistered 
and cbaj)pcd. 

Ch'hin p 



To laugh, Tefin ch'been ch'hew 
yit g4n tc scang, heung noC ch'hin 

^ i^^ ^ ! '^^" '■'''''''''" eh-hew chit kou 
Ka, le kapu cht chai tiing hoi heung no( Ay 
huian cVhei e, Tcen<h'heen-«li'Uew, on ac- 
count of one word was promoted to the of- 
ficer ot prime minister, at which the Heung 
no£ tartars laughed. 

An inner coffin, « shall. . 

The lining ofagannent; also fsed 



Ch'hin >C^SpH Clothe* worn near the body. 

for ch'hin m parents. 


Read ch'heng: coid; ch'hew ch'hin, 
cool and pleasant 

R<-ad ch'hdng : to weigh, to ascertain 
the weight of any thing; see 

A roaltitude of people. 

Persons collected together. 


A sound made by tlie mouUi and 

p,, ,. . 1^ |7 '^'>c same as the above; also, many 



^1 ,1 . ^ V^ The descent of rain, <mter bubblin? 

Ch'hip ^"rt* 


Sew ch'hip *» ^^ , tu repair, and 
put in order t also to cover a 

% ^m^ A small oar, a paddle. Jcak chey 
Clrhip TlVcl* '^"^ ch'hwan, jc chok chew ch'hip 

tia ledou /u'J th'hu:ui"^, li Chang rlw cimn ged, 
when I want to cross a great river, you will 
serve for a paddle. 

V^ Connected, joined together, and 
haitdcd down, without interruption. 

United together, harmonious. lid 
th'liip 5|;p ^^ , agreeing. 

To store up, to lay aside; also, tOj 
slop, to put a stop to. Chad ch'hip 

kan l^" M ^ --f- J^ * '^^"^ *"'''^"^ 
kan ko, to lay aside warlike instruments. 
Peng yfiw h"6 yeA, hwut ch''I>i|>, chcang choo 

S o 




Ml J peng to ch'hin ehSo"^ haky^ bS hoe e Mj/^li, 
ch'eang ka te aeo, military ^reapons are' like 
fire, if we do nat put a stop to them, they 
will burn our awn fingers. 

tree out of which ooies a certain 
Ch'hip ^V ^ liquid, of which they make varnish; 
the varniih tree. 

Ch'hip > 


Vulg. clChal: vamisli, paint; also 
the name of a river. 

Vulg. Ar'Aa I'haSu woo: the knee. 
I-^^ Le4ng ma te t'hofi, k'hoe che ch'hip 

^ r^KW,\^mU Ml 

J^, ho bay kay Vha&u, ch'hUy kagu k'ha I'hdu 
woo, a good horse keeps his head low, till his 
mouth reaches his knees. 
LSang s6w kd k& ch'hip ^ ^ j§ ^ ^ , 
no dy cKhiw, kiiiy e dy k'ha t'hdou woo, both 
his hands reached over his knees (as he stood 
upright) said of Lfiw pe &A fra^ in the ^. 
Sara kok. 

Ch'hip ^tn/ United, harmonious. 


^^ A kind of insect, fo-uni adhering 
to oyster-shells j also found on the 
bottom of nncoppered vessels at 

sea: shingles. 

Ch'hip ^ 


^^j^~ Harmonious ; an appellation indica- 
JTf-JSt^ live of talent and wisdom. 

^'*2f '^^^ name of a plant; grass grow- 
ing thick together. 

^rJT^ Gngw ch'hip ^ ^ , ff^" ch'hip, the 
tl^^n name of a vegetable medicine ; very 

common in the Chinese apothecary's 




\ Seven. Sip ch'hit -j^ -{^ , f*ap 

.^^T' eh^hll, seventeen. Ch'hit sip J^ 

-^ ych'hii chap, seventy. 
Ch'hit sip jS cheflng sim sey yeuk, put j6 ke 

chap hii^y ji t'hin sim kw"a siy ai b6 k'oey 
hwal toe, at seventy I followed whateuer my 
heart desirid, without overstepping the right 
rule. Said by Confucius, in the r ^ro Scang lun. 








The same as the preceding. 

^^ Y P The colour of a gem ; purely white. 
"T^-. . 1 Ch'ho hgy ch'ho hSy kfi che teen 

how white ! and how pure t does it display it- 
self ! See the g ^ Kok hong. 

Ch'ho gfi ||3| i^y hills covered 
with stones. 

^^ ^^. 1*** grind and rub. J6 ch'heet je ch'ho 

yfi3E ^p "tlj -k] T^> ch'hin cheo''S ch'heet 

\^CCm ch'^hin chgd"S ch'ho, like splitting 

and filing (hones.) See the _ |^ gffi SiJang lun. 

Ch'ho t6 !^ Rv to miss an oppor- 
tunity, to miss one's aim. 

To hold, to grasp ; resolution, 
firm adherence to. Chefin ban 
teang t'hong k'hek, te6n keen yew 

been ch'ho Ifi^^^^lBf.^t 
^ M ^ cheSn hd.n teo"S t'hong dy Idng k'hiyh 
tSin klin, woo gaSu ch'ho glm mee"h, in the 
former part of the Han dynasty-Teo"? I'liong 
had a guest called Teen-keeng who was cele- 
brated for his firm grasp. Ch'ho peng ^k ^^ 
ch'haou ftngy to drill soldiers. 









^^ A raw smell ; the smell of raw meat. 
^)^ Tong kay sat gnew, woo hew seng 

B& , lan% pee^ Ay eh'hoo I'hai gad Id sdm ch'haou 
kixi ch'hai'S eh'hoy the next door neighbours 
on the eastern side were in the habit of kil- 
ling oxen, which occasioned dirt afid stink, 
connected with a raw smell. 

G& ch'ho 01 U 
of raw fish. 

hi fVfto, the smell 

Vulg. ch'hauu, grass. Fid ko ch'ho 
^^W, ^thi- W ch'haou, straw. 
Ch'heng ch'ho t6 tflng, ch'he ch'he 
wft ^ ^ ^jll jf It g ^, ch'hai"S ch-haou 
ti U ting, lak usuy woo kap i, when green 
grass grows about the pools, in every part 
there will be frogs. 

Pe sira ch'ho ch'hong chc ^^^. j|lj "Z., 
pe sim eh'hadu ko cVhong e, P»-slra made a 
rough sketch of it. 

Ch'ho se ]^ ^ ^ chho Ja sea, to write the 
running hand. 

Chho ko ^ j[^ , a rough sketch, a hastily 
written thing. 
Ch'ho ch'ho- ^ ^ , short and hasty. 


The same as the preceding. 

Grtevedv sorrowful. Lfl sim ch'ho h6y 

'U* '1^ ^ ' '**** '"^ ^^ *"" 
ch'ho hiy, a troubled mind^ how 

sorrowful '. See the ^ |5^ Kok. bong. 




The female of quadrupeds. 

l^' Cheet ch'ho ¥6 ^, '<> >»«'d »<> one's 
•vi purpose: to adhere to self-prescrib- 


the notes or- rules for 

ed rule*. 

K'faeuk ch'ho | 
■ singing a song. 

To push, to hurl. Soo e yit hd ch'ho 
Ch'ho .^ F^i^ « ji", jeak tat che & ch'he te4ou 

/^ 'jif^ fP ^^ , Ho"^ ni wei chit hS ch'ho kap 
l&ng, ch'hin cheo''S til p'htth /» kag ch'he iHou 
ting, he thought that when be was in the lea^t 
pushed by people, it was the same as though he 
had been struck i« the market or the palace. 
See the J^ "^ Seang beiig. 

Small. Ch'hiiet jeuk wfly ch'ho -t/J 
f^ ^ ^ ^ fA'Aeei bih chb ch^hd, 
to chop up meat till it becomes 

T6 cut off. grassy- to mow down 
grass. . 

N^ S.nall, minute, ChOng eh'h<i.|fe B^^ 
brukca. into small pieces.. 

T6 goto, toentcr, to wait upon. Ch'ho 

ch'hod j^ ^, hurried; Ch'hcng. 

_ l>it bofl kwuy,. jfi ch'hd 6 telou 

II ivt' i? t^M it i^ ^ . ^*'»«"'» "« *« 

t0oi"S lai^ ji ch'hd kaoii t'e&ou, we beseech you 
do not return home, but go lathe court. See 





""^ Jl ri& Selng beng. 






To break, off, to maim; to cut la 
pieces, to dissert. 

♦ kV In action*- to regard our words, and 
fK|g>^ in words to regard our actions^ is 
|« ^ i^ called ch'hd. 

Rice mixed with th* hu>k. Ch'hd be 

Tit ^ , u"'^'''*'' •■'«• 
The noise made by birds; to chirp, 

to whistle. Neaou ch'hd ch'heen llm 




kdo» kabu cKheng Km gaS, the birds Tvhistled 
beyond the thousand groves. 

M*v2 '^° ti*'^^ ^° opportunity^ to lose 

Ch'ho 'wTmI^ time; also to pass over. Jit ^wat 

f^/C*^ ch'ho t6, sbey put gno ^ R H 

liiJei/ bo hoe gwd, days and months are passed 
by, and years of long life are not afforded me. 




Coarse, large, gross, not fine. Cheng 
ch'hoe XjS -^[ fine and coarse. 
IMoe sim kam chiia, kfi seng ch'hoe 

sew k'hd 6.y sim kw"a kiin long e ./Ly s&"a ch'hoe 
kwi ley, when a person is moved by an angry 
feeling, the sound of his music is coarse and shrill. 

Vulgar, coarse, Pe kfi se'aou tae, 

e k6 ch'hoe leing, j6 scang hwat 


M' ff5 'K" ^ ^ ^ ^^ *" ^^ '*^^ '"'"' ''"'' ^ 

iy ch'hoe leAng, ji sS6"S hwal c, compare the 
small and great, the coarse and refined together 
in order to reward or punish them. 


Ch'hoe hwijn ™^ ■ 
and dung. 

p, ch'hoe pUn, dirt 

A bushy tree ; a clump of trees : 
Ch'hoe "^S^sV name of a district. Cheng ch'hoe 




,^^ C^ ^^ ^^ , properly arranged. 
Sin ch'hoe ^^, miserable, wretched. 

The name .of a river. 

The stones at the bottom of pillars-, 
a pedestal. 

To reject, to set aside. Ke tit, ch'hoe 
choo ong chek bin hok ^ ^ JS 

tit &y lAng, k'hl t'hek kak 6ng k'hwul &y ling 
chek pdyh sai"^ kok, when we elevate the up- 
right to places of trust, and set aside all 
crooked fellows, the people will then submit 
to us. See the J^. fffl Seang [un. 



' 1 1, Vinegar. Swan j6 ch'hec ^ h] g^^ 
' — ■ suiui"^ ch'hin ched^^ Wi'/ioe, as sour 






as vmegar. 

"LSng yim sam seng ch'hoe, put keen <h'huy 

jB^^ Ung k'he Urn s'"a seng ch'koi. a"' t'hang 
k'hi ked"S ch'huy h6ng toe, it is better to 
drink three pints of vinegar, than to go and 
see Ch'huy-hong-toe, (who was a, very bad 
tempered man.) 

^ ^ __ The eastern step. Ti-iou hok jfi lip 
Wlp e ch'hoe kae ^ flg ffj] J^, ^Jf^ 
I 1^ |Jp |I^, ch'heng teuou lie Hy hok, 
ji k'h'ea lip U lang pee"^ 4y gim kay^ dressed 
in his court apparel, (Confucius) stood on 
the eastern steps. See the J" =jm SiJang lun. 
.^M % Happiness, emolument, rank. Le€n 
Tf|/p chhoc^il^^ long life. T'heen 

/I' r ch'hoe b«ng tek ^ f|^ l)^ ^i . 

I'hee'"^ sod hok k'hi hoe bing tck dy Idng, 
heaven bestows blessings on men .of illustrious 

«r»JT£* The sacrifice offered at the close 
III t>l of the year. 


To take, to manage, to arrange. 


mi m To place, to lay: vulg. ch'hoo, a 

I J > ■■ house. P'haou h"6, ch*had che chek 

/ ^ sin Che h-ay ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

^fe "V ~T\ p'ho hoiy, hay e te chek ch'hd Ay 

hay liy, this would be to collect fire, and place 

it under a slack of fire-wood. 





y ^ Read ch'huy: blow, to blow a wind 
■Ch'h(Myy*M. instrument. Ch'huy se;^ou yin hon^ 

^ \k Pa ^ '^1 '^. <:^'f'i'fg''e('ouch'hwtt, 
hong, to play on the pipe, and draw the fabul- 
ous bird hon^ out of it retrent. 





Read chhuy : to hj steair. 
Ch'huy ko ;^ ^ , eh'hoey loiy, 
to boil dumplings. Ek choo jfi 
sit che, cheet haS jfi th'huy "^^e S. -3^ |?rt 

cheah e chfih ktvul ji ch'hiiey e, the people ex- 
changed their children and ate them (not bear- 
in» to devour their own offspring) •, and broke 
up the bones for firewood to cook them with 
( speaking of a famine. ) 
Yea lOng j)^ ^^ hmun eh'hliej, a tobaccopFpe. 

marrow.' T'hofi 16 
Chao^ kak ^'liOfj/, the 

*&:# m}^ 



Read ch'huy 
fji 1^ brains. Thong jip kwut ch'h6y 

^ A 'n* M ^ ''''^"" ^'^ ''""' '■'''*'"^^- '^ 

pain that penetrates the bones and marrow. 

Te ch'ho^y f^ ^ ^ pig'« marrow. 

A Club or stick to ,bcat people 

Read tin: to seek, lo. search. Jit 
Ck'hoSy ^J^ *'™ ''*" ''"'^ *'-"""S '^'"-""S ''''° 

tak jil cKhoey kw4ed, i kaou d, sfo fheng p'h&h, 
every day looking for clubs and pikes, to 
fight and contend with. See the ^q 
Cho twin. 


Read ch'hwat : to ^uaff, to drink 
largely, to small. >P.oc k^ cho JS 
ch'hwat U U ^^f(. j^ ^ 


W<^^ y^"^ ''^^ ^''^'^ ffiMU^ji ch'hiiij,h 
e dy pah chttc, to cat the graip^,, and drink 

the sweet wort of the liquor. 


> ^1 To rub, to grind j to fill ; also, to 
'd '"' '" ^"''^- T'hna san che se'k, 
Hf k'ho e wfly ch'hok fffe |i| ;;^ 

lai ehd Ug d, the stones of another hill, may 
be used for grinding stones. 
Ch'hwin ch'hok ^ ||i- ^ an error. Ch'hok 
a mistake. 

Shap. ChMn ch'hok ^ ^^ che^'S 
Vhaiti, the head of an arrows. 

to urge, to 

inoreros horn, QOt yet shaped 

\»]%.fik\h^! a child. Ch'hwan 
clihok ^Sh -not .successful. 

Vulg. rA'Aff"^: a granary. Ch'hong 
Ch'hong'^j9'^ cli'iit ^ 2^ uumjuyx;<i, intrepid. 
Kwan che ch'hong llnr uit, hod) 

Vho'e chheun, '^ "l^ ^ ^^ M ^ 
^ , kwiin ti ig ch'h^^ lim lel"^, hou k'hu^ 
mw^d, yo|ir hif^hness' granaries. are full, and 
your treasuries ovcrflowipg. SeeVbe "jti ^^ 

>i'.l-o<'y J 
Jfc Jt^ ETpansive, wide; the name of a 

Ch'hong: "^ii^Jr river. Ch'hong hae^3 ■Jfe the 


sitJ a.g 

3 B 




Ch'hong 16ng che suy ch'heng hfiy, k'ho e 

chok gn6 eng ^f^ ?^ ^it ;K vt ^ "^ 

tn r^ ^ ^ ch'hong long ay chAy ch'heng, 
Chang lat siy gwd ay kin twA, the clear 
waters of the Ch'hong-16ng, will serve to 
rinse the tassels of my cap. 

^hP^ Green the colour of grass; a sur- 
Ch'hong,,^^^^ name. Ch'liong t'heen ^^ ^ , 
yrT> the azure heavens. 
Ch'hong seng ^^ /Jt the people. 


M>m Vulg. ch'hang: an onions; also 
written^ ch'hong. Kiiey ch'hun 
fO^ yung ch'hong ^ # ^ ^. . 
biih Ic rh'hun t'hee^S yung ch'hang, meat in 
the spring season must be cooked with 



The sound tinkling gems. 

a the name 


an ulcer. Seng 
■hong ^ ^ , w»"ff ch'he^'S' 
to have an ulcer. 

To injure; also written IJJ ch'hong, 
an injury done with a knife. 

To hear clearly. Ch'hong hSng 
J^ W^> '^^'^'"S '"^"^' intelligents, 
i\ ^ clever. 
Soo k'hong che ch'hong, put e leu'k lit, put 
leng Cheng gnoe yim ^ §^^ -^ ^|, >fC 

iy gain Che^a, M t lak Ay lit, chew bey 
c*g"a goe yim, even soo-k'hong with all his 
clever hearing, if he had not the six ruler 
of music, could not correct the fine sounds. 
See the "jT ^ H5y beug. 

^ ^ Hasty, in a hurry. Boo koe ch'hong 

Ch'hong 1^ ch'hong M ^ ^f , ^, > ho ."« 

J V^r^'^ soo ktttiu heah ch'hong ch'hong, 
without any cause, to be in a hurry also 
written 7/1 ch'hong. 

Ch'hong.^C;^^ The same as the preceding. 

Read t'hang : a window ; also writ- 

f\^^ ch'heang wat yew, chae ok wat 

ch'hong ;^ i| p 1 ;^ )1|3 H,^ , 

tS ch'h'eS"^ hong yiw, le ch'hoo hong t'hang, 
a hole in the wall is called Yew, and an 
oppening in a house, is called t'hang. 

A pole for carrying burdens, sharpe- 
^\^^ of a tree. 





ned at both euds; also the name 

- . 1^1 A horse of a white colour; others 

Ch'hong |Ii»^ r 1 

|UV|l%W\ say, of a grey colour. 



A hilly, appearance. 

Ch'hey ch'hong IjM 'Hg' , sarrowful, 

sad, affected. Siiey hwut hwut 

hfiy wfly boc, fi kim sfi hey 

ch'hey ch'hong ]^ ^^ ^, ^ M^ M- ^ 

Ml H^ '1$ '1^ } ""^"^ ^"^^ *"'"' *"*"' '^^ 

iei"S peeng mooi"^, gwd kdm e dy si hiy, 
ch'hey ch'hong, the years go away so suddenly 
till the evening ot life; 1 feel affected with 
the lapse of time, till I am sad and sorrowful. 

_. . . _<^VW Bong ch'hong 

Ch'hong^^^^ " 

^ ^ rude, un- 
cultivated, like a wilderness. 


To creat, to commence, to lay a 
foundation; also to adjust. 
Ch'hong cho t'heen tey MA j^ 

CHHOO 127 

^ Ml , eh'hbn^ chb Chee"^ tej/, " to create 

the heavens and the earth." A Christian Cn'hoo 


Kwun choo ch'hong geep, sQy t'hong wfly 

k'ho Us yea ^ =^ fl) ||^ ^ ^^ j^ Ch'hoo 

"pT- jM W J kwun chad dy lAng ch'hong soo 

geep, ch'he^d iHy hay iy thong t'hang seo stoa, 

the good man commences an undertaking, 

and the clue of his seheme can be connected 

to succeeding ages- See the |- "^ Seing beng. 

T6ng ch'hong ■•*< ^ij to correct and adjust. 




To commence, to form ; also written 
fin ch'h(ng the same as the 






To store up goods. 

Vulg. ch'hi"!^: a bed ylacc. Befin 
ch'hfl.ii; 0^ ^^j;j^ ^ bU ch'ht^, a 

Vulg. ch'hdng: greedy^ gluttonous. 

This, the opposite of that; also to 
stop. L6 choo k'h^ p« ch'he ch'hoo 

k'hi kwul liy, thityh chiy Ify, L6-cho6 rejected 
that and selected this. 




■iPl^ Short; Confusedly; also written h^ 

To measure, to mete out. A sur- 

Clear water ; the name of a. river. 

t'\^ Ch'hoo kean^ jjt ^ ^ rhe«''S keo''S' 
£^1 i young ginger^ greon ginger. 



The colour of a gem; purely white. 

Sniail diminutive. 


To hold in the hand ; the palm ui 
the hand ; a branch. 

Vulg. t'hoOh: to prop up, to poke 
with a stick ; to bl4]me,. to ridi- 
cule, to revile^ 

% In order, second,. ne*t in order. 
Ch'hoo ^'^^t" Chhoo se '9^W» , according to 
^^r ^^ order. 

Yit chhod — » yfr ^ c/u°( pai', the first. Ch'hoo 
jit i^ UJ ^ tlie next day. Seng j6 te che 
chea seing yea, hak J6 te .che chiia cb'ho» 

i^ ^ ^ -{li ^ '"'"^ j^ '^*'"' ' ^j' ''*"«'' *^ 

tiang ting yea Sh ji chae i dy Idng, te tiy 
ji yea, to be born with the knowledge of 
nay thing, is the highest order of talent % 
to acquire the knowledge of it by study is 
tiie next in order. See the "K ^ Hiiy iQu. 




A men's name ; advantageous \ also- 
written ^cirhoo. 

Advantageous ; to help and assist, 
te substitute, to attain to. Jin 
bo6 heug tcy, bo£ put cb'boo yeen 

te,. s"d too u'" chanc, those people have no 
brethren, why do you not assist them I See- 
the ^ jUJ^ Kok hong. 





.^■^ Read ch'hoo : a house, to place ; 

Ch'hob »,■ • a place where we may put a per- 

/ ^1| son to dwell in. Ch'hoe fhck 

^ *^ ch'hob Chah, a dwelling. 



A flowin a gera ; a stone in the 
midst of a gem. 

A sickness a fault, to find fault 
with. E ch'hc ^ kew, put je hSy 

jJP gwa Ihdyh gwd kiw, bu hoe 16 h'eSm u"' 
hi, whether I take it or ask, it I am 
not found with by you. See the ^X il^ 
Cho twin. 

Ch'ho8 jj^ 

The name of a grass, rised as a 
dye ; also edible. 





Read ch'huy: the hissing of hot 
1^ iron, when -put into the water; 
also to harden steel, and temper 
the blade of a sharp instrument. 
Ch'heng suy ch'huy kg hong ^ i^j^ ^ 
/^ ch'haig cMiy rh'hoSh e i.y hong, to tem- 
per the point, by putting it into pure water. 

Read chhwan : a stream ; also 
the anus. San ch'hwan [i] j|| , 
sw"a ch'hui"^' mountains and 
river. Kew ch'hwan ^ J|| ,k'ha cKhui"S, 
the anus. 

Read ch'hun : a village. Heang 
ch-hun l^^i^^^heo-S ch-hui-S, 
a contry village. 
Chiia b^n chfiwRay h6 ch'he yew,\bok ,1i6ng 
yaou ch6 Mng hWa Whun 'l^l^ ^'g ^, 

ch^iih vwofS chili) A''«y <«' iSilv ' »»"". ''"^ 
'tone hwui^S lei'- )ierig'hwa'eK*hfS,' 1 begged 
to ask wherenhe 'vi'ittubrv ^W^s. when the 

OTo- M> 1- 

Ch'hui jRil 

sheperd'g boy pointed to the distant village 
of the almond blossom." 




ch'ea ch'hui"!^ ^ ^^ j *''^ ^^^^' 
tree of a carreage. 



Read ch'hwan: to string through 
to run on a string. Kwaii 
ch'hwan keng twiin "a* ^p t^ 
^^ lneni"S ch'hiu"^ keng twin, to run 
through the classics and records ; i. e. to 
agree with them. 




Road ch'hun : to pierce, to «ting. 

Read cb'hwiin : a string of any 
thing ; to run any thing on*, a 

LOh Ifly hoe, jS choo che ch'hwan ^ ^ 
al Jip jrfi --V ^ seo swU hoi eh'hin ched"S 
choo &y ch'hui''S, connected, together just 
like a string of beads. 

Ch'hui"^ ^^S 

Read ch'hwan : to perforate, to 
pass through. Ge ch'hwan kew 

hea eh'hut"S kaiii ay inun dy choo, an ant 

passes through the hole Of a bead which . 

has nine liends in it. 



Read ch'hwan : an armlet, a 
bracelet. Hwa ch'hwang JjJ»" 
^jl hwa ch'hui"^' an ornamented 
bracelet ; some say, a hair pin. } 




Read ch'hun : to string any thing 
on a piece of bamboo. 

^fc^ The spring season, the spring 
Ch'hun "/^^ Ch'hun wfly jCt»3b.ey_sew bo&j 

• 1^ cheem pek hwalk'hoey ^ ^ 




ka noot"^ nei"S iy I'haou, A"* cheem ehe''d 

piyh hwa &y twA, the spring is the head of a 

irhole year, and the plum blossom is the 
chief of a hundred flowers. 




Vulg. ch'kui"S: a village. Ch'hun 
teung biln yew ch'hoo jin, him 
lag bun sin jj^ ^I^ f^ ^ itH 

ehiy Ity Idng, chi p6o lai moofS uAou sit, 
when they heard in the village that this man 
arrived, they all came to hear the news. 

The ancient form of TKa ch'hun ; 
also written 


ch'hun and 4^ 

Read sin : to stretch out, to extend ; 
to straighten anything that is bent. 

To think, to conjecture, to measure, 
to estimate. T'ha jIn y6w siro, 6 
ch'hOn t'ok che ^ ^"^ i^^ 
-T* Vijr ^r /^ pat ling woo tim, gwd- ch'hun 
tolc e, another man has aa idea,, and- i, past a 
judgement upon it. 




Rich, affluent; thick, kind i 
written ^ ch'hun. 


To turn back, to back; also used 
for the following. 

Wrong, erroneous. Ch'hub ch'liok 
/iil;4Sj an error, a mistake. K6 
ge gnoc ke, kfi to ch'hi'ili pak Bl 

goe 6iy ch'hea, e iy to ch'hAn ch'hok pak chap, 
his books amounted to five waggoa-Ioads, but 
his doctrines were erroneous and confused. 



A kind of tea, which is gathered 
late in the season. 

The moving of the eyes; to blink. 

Ch'hun U'^P Ch'hun sit B^ ,g. . the twinkl 


of an eye. 
Bok rh'hun j« teen H '^'^W^yb'ak chew 
nSyh ch'hin cheo''S teih ni, the eyes move like 
Seen hak put ch'hun, j£ hoe k'ho gftn sei & 

:ft ^ T^ ^. ifij ^ pTt It ^^'-^ 

teng ih bak chew U™ tin tang, jt aou Chang lai 
king chSh chei"^, first learn to keep the eyes 
from blinking, and te then you can talk of 

Ch:hun P' 


Vulg. ch'kwdn : to pant, to breathe 
hard; to speak in a whisper. 

■ ^^ The motion of insects; also stupid, 

Ch'hun ^^^^C. d""- Ch'hun pun g^^ stupid. 

Jj^2^ Ch'hun j£ ban keng |^ ^ ^ 

*|J , ff""ff '* «*AJ' WJ' tiAn keng, you stupid 


Ch;hun W^^ To blow 




Vulg. eA'Aul"*": to string any thing, 
on a piece of bamboo. 

An inch. Yit ch'bOn k'he — « -q* 

^^ chit ch'him k'hi, an inch of 

Ch'hdn sim cb'biien ko6 gisep -^ <|j -4^ Tj 

^ ^ chit ch'himg Ay nm kw'*a >eu"^ kaoU chit 

cVheng koi Ay giep, an inch-square heart 

speculates- for a patrimony, of a.tbousand ages. 

To respect, to honour. 

To push, to beckon, to touch the 

8 I 






To go out. Ch'hut goey j^ ^J» ^ 
ch'hut gwa, to go abroad. Tey 
choo jip chek haou, ch'hut chek 

jip leSh Kuo hauu, ch'hut I'eoh gdnu cho s'e&h te, 
young people at home should be filial to their 
parents, and abroad respectful to superiors. 

See the 



Seans luu. 


A stanza in a song -, a scene in a 
play. Yit ch'hut — ^ ^ one 





A surname. 

To urge, to constrain. Ch'huy 

chhiJuk {^'ffi,t" "''S''' *° '^''S- 

To push forward, to extend and 
carry out. Ch'huy kang .|^ |g, 
ch'huy king, to enlarge upon, and 

extend in speech; to expatiate. 

Ch'huy hefin jeang Icng; se k-uan nae ho 

l&ng j6 neo"^ ey Ay, choo kw"a chew ho, when 
clever people are pushed forward, and men of 
ability yielded to, then all the different of- 
ficers will be harmonious. See the "jp^ ^ 
Seang sc. 


Ch'huy Xt 

Vulg. ch'hdey: to boil, to «team, to 

.yC^ Vulg. cKhiiey: to blow, to play on 
l*it a pipe; also written ^ ch'huy. 

A veo-etable^ also called, ck hoe 

ch'ho ^ iH" S , "profit mother 




To be afraid of, and concerned 
about. Go6 put ch'huy yeen -^ 

should not be afraid of him. See the jh "^ 
Seang beng, 

Ch'huy -^y^q-p Deep water. 



cKh'e.ty: marrow. H4n jip 

^ kwut ch'huy ^;^^^, hw"d 

jip kwut cKhoey, cold penetrating ' 

to the bones and marrow. 
Ch'huy "T*--^^ The brightness of a gem. 

^%» To measure; to rub, to wipe. Put 

Ch'huy A 'T^ ch'huy kfi piin, j6 chfiy kfi bwat, 

hong ch'hiin che bok, k'ho soo ko 

lok e Ay pAn, ji ch'hing chiy e Ay boey, chew 
chit ch'hiin Ay cKhd, I' hang sae k'h/lh kwAn £ 
glm loAu, if you do not measure from the root 
and put the ends together then a piece of wood 
an inch-square, may be raised higher than a 
lofty tower. 

Ch'huy |pfx% "^^ »° ''^'^'"''^■■ds and forwards. 

The name of a bird about the siise 
of a sparrow, whose feathers are of 
a. deep green colour. 

Ch'huy yit 

a bird like a swallow. 

Ch'huy /^Si 

OTVC To taste. Tut ch'huy ^ j)^^ to 

Secondary, assisting. Ch'huy ch'hea 
Y?'. "m , a spare carriage. 



scold, to vociferate. 







Vulg. eh'hoSh: to thrust hot iron 
into water, in order to harden it. 


Broken, broken to pieces. Ch'hOy 
ch'huy J^ Mt all broken to shiverg. 
Lfing ch'huy ^$^j Idn san, mis- 
cellaneous, few, odd. 

S!n t'ho6 6 p'hek ke ch'huy 6 che g ^M 
^S iH. i4^ J^ itt ' ^'"^ ^^ I'hdou kap hwut 
Ity p'hek, ehb po& biilyk p'hih cKhiit/ le I'heSou, 
both jny own head and this gem, will I break 
to pieces against the pillar. 

Vulg. ch'huy: brittle, easily broken. 

The fine hair of animals ; fine furs 
used for a carpet. 

Readk'bue: the mouth; an orifice. 
K'ho6 ch'h6 P 1^ , ch'hiiy k'hi, 
the teeth. Neaou k'hoe ^ p , 
chedou ch'h&t/, a bird's beak, a tattler, a chatterer. 
K'hoe the 6 be yiji, boU che 6 sek ye4, jfi 
chc fiseng ySa, seng ji-i D ^^^ B^-tll. 

J41 ch'hiii/ &>/ te be, bak chew dy le tek, he 
k'hang dy te se^a, chij/ se sing j/ed, the moulh 
in judging of tastei, the eye of coloors, and 
the ear of sounds, are each according to na- 
ture. See the ^ ^- Bcng cho6. 





High and imminent. 

The countenance soft and obliging. 

To beat. Jit hoc ch'hwa hwun koi- 

mai"^ htvui"^ Ay koi, when the day 
declines, we beat the evening drum. 


Ch'hwa koey ^ '^Z a piece of 
hempen cord, tied to the head- 
dress of women, to indicate that 
they are in mourning. 


Not tight 5 a rope not twisted tight. 

Ch'hwa yC< Read ch'hae 

a surname. 


' jSL c**"*"^* p'^" -ra m ^ '° ''*'' ■'"' 

winnow, as corn. 

a snake. Tok soft 

Ch'fnca ||#'t> ^ ^ lok ch'hvd, a poitonous snake; 
also pronouced ehtcd. 
GnCw (• pit I'heng, seft c gan t'hdng it- 1^ G± 

ffi. "^ VX BS II ' ^"^ '■*" "'"''"' ''"""^ 

l'he"a, ch'hwd I'ho bak chew l'he"a, oxen hear with 
their noses, and snakes hear with their cye>i. 

.^^m To abduct, to lead awav. Tin sum 

Ch'hwa ■^ Ti. ''^'"^ S""^" '**"»' *'^*"" '■''■''"'' 

■^ tdn *''a kap vuf^ goi ned^ teo cVhtca 
chaSu, Mr. Tftn-s"* and Miss Wul"S-goc abs- 
conded togelher. 


Read ch'he : to marry, to take in 
marriage. Ch'he ch'hcy hwuy wQy 
van" yea, j6 yew sfi hoC wuy yaiij; 

j[- '^'^ t. itn ^ j^ -f t, 

ch'hKi boi C" ti J/in wOj^ ai e eh'he Ian, 
jt vo5 li »ea ai e ch^hi tin, when a man 
marries a wife, it is not merely because he 
wants her to support him, and yet sometimes 

he is glad of her assistance, Sm the p 3J 

'i ll 11 i>:X 
Hay bcng. 







Read to : to lead. To Ice ^ ^, 
ch'hwa loe, to lead the way. To 
^ gno seen lo5 e ^ ^ ;^ ^ 

^ , ch'hwa gwd Ay seng loe, first lead the 
way for me. 

7,7 " 

Cn nw a 


n , 
Ch'hw a 

n ^ 
ch'hw a 

To bolt. Ch'hwan bfln ^ ^1^ , 
y^S" ch'hw^a moui'^S, to bolt the door. 

Koe sQii ^p] |II| ^ W cft'fcu>"d, the 
name of a wood, used for mak- 
ing handles. 

A bolt. MoofS ch'hw'ii f^ f^, 
the bolt of a door. 

% Ch'hw"A to, ^ ^ , to get out 
Ch'hw a jf^ of *'^e way, to go by another 



ch'hw a 



ch'hwah Twy^ 

rery small kind of fish. 

The eyes moved a*ay. Bok 
ch'hwah B ^Bjbak chew ch'hwah, 
squinting eyes. 

To take any thing by force, to 
snatch by violence. 

Read ch'hat : a grater ; to grate 

any thing. Ch'hae t'ho6 ch'hat 

ch^hai Chaou ch'hwSh, 


a graler, for scraping turnip radishes. 


To be purged, to be griped. 

Vulg. ch'hm^S . a stream, a river. 
San ch'hwan ^ j||, hills and 

way hay pit yin ch'hwan tek ^ "p i^ 
III !^ cfi<> kay pit Vhin ch'hwan tek, for 
a low situntion, we must avail ourselves of 
the rivers and marshes. See the TT ]£ 
Hay beng. 




The same as the preceding ; also 
one of the radicals. 


iV-^^ Read ch'hui"^ : to perforate, to 

string through. 

To select, to choose. 

Ch'hwan S^^T 

To explain, to confer with, to 
reason with. Bfln tey sok i 

ch'hwan ^ ^i:|||^, 
bAn tiy chap chap kap Idng ch'hwan lun, the 
Emperor Bun frequently held people in 
v,^ A scale ; to weigh, to judge of, 
Ch'hwan /T^'t^ ^^ P"* '" "■''^er. Ch'hwan leang 
J^ kJT m k'heng teung ^ -^ M ^ ^ 
ch'hwan neo"^ k'hin tang, to weigh and dis- 
criminate the light from the heavy. 

jt->n Fishing stakes made of bamboo. 

Ch'hwan >^^^ '^^^ ^ ''""^ °^"' **lL ^^ ''^"^ 
ch'hwan 1^ ;§; ,"^, "p . /^ ^^ 

tit i bey k6 Idn Ay tea, tit hi bey 
ki hwul Ky ch'hwan, obtaining our wish, we 
forget our engagements, and when we have 
caught the fish we forget the fishing stokes. 
See the ^ ^ Chong ch6o. 

^ _ ■Whole, recovered from sickness; 
rM.,u CTySw to heal. Se e chea ch'he ch'ham 

Ch hwan J|>jS- 

J Jl t'hong chea, e ch'hwan peng yea 

se i cheH ch'hd ch'ham t'he"cl, chea, o ch'hwa 
ha pai"^, thus we use caustics, probes, pain, 
and suflfering, in order to remedy diseases. 





lew ok put ch'hwan 


>^ To change, to alter, ''to reform 

t^ K 

"PK ^ ^ />ou ay p'ha"t bu kdy, 

)t reformed from old vices. See the J^ 
Seang se. 


^ ^^ The fluidity of water-, fluid and 
Ch'hwan ■>/ ' 'p ^ moveable lilte water. Seog yfw 
jfTTfJ chWn .u, yea ;|^ ^ ^ ;JC 
4k , Idng Sy aai"^ ch'hin cheo"S eh'hwan chiy, 
human nature i& like the fluid and flexible 

To pant, to breathe hard. Ch'hwan 
k'he 4^ M , ch'hwdn k'hmi.V, to 
draw breath. Ch'hwaiisit ^ S ^ 
to breathei also writhen p^ ch'hwan. 

Ch'hwan ^^T 



Valg. ck'tiui"^: to »tring>anything 
on a file or string. 

To usurp, to t&ke what docs not 
lawfully belong to ene. 56 ke 
geiou the kcung,. pek geftou che 
cho6, s5 ch'hwan yea jfjj ^ ^ J^ "g*^ 

k'heS te gUou &y kiung ch'kid. km** geiou 
u.V haou tai"^ »e- ch'hwan ged, but if he had 
dwelt in Gfloii's palace, and driven out 
GeSou's sou, that would have been usurpa- 
tion. See the ~f\ ^ Hay beng. 
Chhwan wfiy ^ tfe > '" us"'? *•>« throne 

To collect together; to arrange 
in order: to compile a book. 
K'hong cho6 san se se, teng ley 
<rak, ch'hwan chew ek, sew ch'hun eh'hew, 
kae sut j« put chok yiJa |t ^ f '] H 

il" ^ ffi) ^ fp ife » *'*"''«^ *'**' ''*"^ 

le te, ta'a Ity gak, chlticin chew tk, tew 
cKkun eh'hew, chi poo tut king j6 hi tin ehd, 

Confucius made selections from the odes, and 
classics, fixed the rules of ceremony and music, 
arranged the diagrams of the Chew dynasty, 
and compiled the spring and' autumn records; 
in all of which he merely republished, and 
did not compose anything new. Sec A- 
-f' choo choo. 

^, .. V t^S^ Vulg. ch'hai"^: to perforate, 

Ch hwai> vp9^ 

to go- 




To separate ; back to back, foot to 
foot : to go in opposite directions. 
Hwun 1*w ch'hwSn tfi ^ j^ 
I& 0^ hvum latii igo poif ehitm, to flow 
in diH'ercnt directions, and> gallop* away from 
one another. 

To run away, to abscond'. Ch'h6 
cb'hw&n ra^ hF > to scamper oft 
like mice. 

Chin pek i ley tuiing yung; tdng ch'hwi^n 
keng bin -^ jf, |fe ^ ^41 II. 1^ ^ 

ffj ^M y ^^" '"* ''"'' ' "^ '*'' '^ leOng i/ung, 
chi poi chaou le krng ban, Chia-pek, and his, 
younger brother Ti-Qng-yuDg, absconded to- 
gether to the territory of the Barbarians. 

Ch'hwan -qifll '^ Wil' '""^'^ ™*' 

."^Kfll a bracelet; an arm-ring. 





Pd ch'hwin 

To pat Wood on the fire, to cook 
f«od, to dress victuals. E' ho6 
^ry^' cheng ch'hwan LJ ^S ^ ^^ 
t'hd li"d. kap iiey lai che mei''h, to cook 
anything in a pot or a pan. 

The ore of met^U. 

A stone ring, a gem bracelet : an 
armlet made of a .single gem. 






Vulg. cMin : a ship, a toat. Cheen 



cheen chAn, 



Ch'hwat "325? 

a ship of war. 
H6ng tey sin Keung koe, H°6-tek, chok 

ch'hwan ^^gihl^t^l^ US' 

wui"S ley iLy jin sin, K'eung-koi kap H"u-lek 

Oho chUn, the yellow Emperor's servants called 
Keung-koe and H^o-tek first built vessels. 
(A. C. 2622). 

,^^ Vxiig. ch'hSiyh: to quaff, to drink 

^^ largely. Also written p^ ch'hwat. 

Scaou go lae ch'hwat, je t'hong 

ak swat /|N#;^:ii(^'lJ^g. 

i^y che'ih twa Urn ch'hin c)ieu"S t'he^S ak teSh 
sayh, to eat little and Jrink much, is like 
throwing hot water on snow: Jl would soon 
melt A man away, 

Tofi.poi ch'hwat 
ch'heng cKheng 
sed"^ cheith Urn iy sod, to think 
■of nothing hut eating and drinking., to taste. 

•C^h'hwat CjjjTf^ The 4kin broken, or split. 

» |ir| To .collect, to .take up with the 
Ch'hwat ^iTP? fingers; to mak'C a collection. 
J^T/C Sam che ch'hwat che yiia ^ jg 
M "^ ^ , x"" ^1/ eft'Aeu. chde"S nSy^h e, 
to take up anything with three finger*. 
Sod se ch'hwat g^" (^ § f^ "g , a com- 
pilation of sentences extracted from the 
four Books. 




A superfluity; anything over ; the 
ends of threads in sowing. 

Black cloth, used in making caps, 
and head -kerchiefs. 




Small, insignificant. 



fc%.^» To pour out, to increase. Chim chew 
jI; *!* ^^:,''''«n chiw, to pour out 

'^ I wine. 
Chim chijak ^ ^ > t« deliberate on, to 

Je hoe 6ng chim chcak fj ^ 3£ ffl @^, 
jein auu ong fhang chim cheak, afterwards your 
majesty can consider of it. 

An instrument made -of wood and 
iron, used in killing people. Sin 
che heung put cheuk e tono- chim 

Ay heng 16 kabu t le"S chim chit, my breast i« 
not equal to bear the iron club. .See the ESfe 
^m ^ff Chiien kok ch'hek. 

A kind of chalk used in drawings, 
found in ravines and hills and te 
be met with after a thunder storm. 

A stone resembling a geni4 an inferior 
kind of gem. 

i-^'Vulg. cheem-: a needle, sewing. 
Cheem-ho e tok kaa se wfly lOii, 
bong chim wuy koe ft ^jlj yj^ ^^sf 

tok king dy se -cho sw''d., t'ho mai"^ cheem chd 
kaou, Cheera-h6 took a single filamint of the 
-silk worni's coocoon for thread 4ind a sharp 
needle for a hook. 



■Vulg. chetm : a needle. T6ng tek 
jin keet stien «him sut S" ^ij^ '{~ 

jin-k'eet ga6u cho sew cheem iy kwat sut, Tek- 
jin-keet, of the Tong dynasty, was well versed 
in the art of sewing. 




Chim P!l^* Chi"' cicuy 0j P^ , to kis».^ 





A pillow, Chim t'hog ^ ^ , c«m 
ehaiu, a pillow for sleeping on. Siif 
put an chim ^ ^ $ ;^. ^■■'"""'' 
6ej^ an chim, unable to sleep easy on oaf* 

The back ef the neck, the b<»nc at 
the back of the neck. 

Read sim, an aunt, an uncle's wife. 

To steep anfl soak, as rn the water, 
^/»— -^ to sink, to enter; grailiially. Chim 
lyV JQnchechomj^jf^;^^, slan- 
der, soaking and spreading, like water. 

^ % The name of a river; als«> gradual, 
^, ^J * by degrees. Chlro bfing chim 

i^^ chhiiang ^^'^^' eraduallj 
becoming brights and clear. 

Read t'h&ro a «urnamc t al«o written 
lim 'j^ cham, a surname. 

Read sim : a crab. 

H6ng sira ^ 


ing chtm, a red crab. 

1^ True, sincere. Chin sin m 
\jpf^ the true god. Chin sit bo6 gnuy 

eh'httt, true and real wthout dissimulation. 
Chia h"© "m. ^ , f*«n *»*yi ^^ «■<»' article-, 
something verj good. 








-. >-i| To itretch open the eyes. Iliing 
HffiT 6ng chin bik I'hay che ;^ j^ g^ 

bak chew i'h^i/ e, the king of Hang stretched 
open iiis eyes, and menaced him. 

Even to, until ; to arrive at, to come 
to. Kwgn hiiung sew tc kek, pek 
lok h4m la£ chin jK^ |2<1 1^ ^ 

^ S P ^ ^ ^ . ^*'' '"• '» """^ 
Jew fha^ si, che"d pdj/h dy lok chi po6 laf kadn 

the multitude of evil things being killed out 

of the way, a hundred emoluments will arrive 

together and come. 

Exuberant herbage. T'h6 chc yaoB 
yaou, kS yeep chin chin UK ~7 

iy ay ay, e Ay heSh boe iing, the Peach-tree is 
but a small jilant, but its leaves are exuberant, 

I .,„^« A tree yielding « fruit, a little sraal- 
JtiiS^ ler than a chesunt. Le che put ko 

1^ chin lek jCf :^^^|S, 
cha boi 4y eUp kein, put ko chin kwi Uh d, 
women offer as the iolroditctory present, noth- 
ing but large and small chesunts. 

The name of a river, Choo sin i- 
kc' -s^ng 6 chey jin c, chin wiiy 

"^^ -^ -^^ , <"*»<' *dM te c chey (y ch'hea hie 
IHng kiiiy te chin kap wuy iy chiy, Cboo-sin 
took the carriiigc he rode in to help people 
across the chin and wing rivers. 


To boil, to distil, to make warm < 
some say, to 4lry in the s«n. 

^^hm The name of a sacrifice, offered 
^^^ in the autumn. Yeak so? chin 
^YY^ '•«^*"8' * ''°»g *«en Ong ^ jj£ ^ 

^. J^ '4^ 3fe i > '''*'"* *** '^'"" •'^""^ ^ 






fhiy, lat hehi seen Sug, the spring, summer, 
autumn and winter sacrifices, are offered to t^e 
manes of the aqcib^t lyings. 

, - A A pearl, a precious things. Chin choo 
^^V ^S|c,«P'^"'l. Chin kg ^^j-, 

"^^ precious and rare. 
J6 yew sek seang che chin 1^ ?a JS Jq 2 
3^ ^ «'/»«* ch'haj/h »» <3* '<?«4r Aj^ cWn, learning 
is a pearl ou the table; (^very valuajjle thing.) 
Cho5 wDy b5ng se chin "^ ^ ^ ^^ , 
ka le cha beng si ay chin, to consider one's self 
as the most valuable pearl of the age. • 










A stone nearly resemhfing a gem. 

A potter, one who makes earthen 
vessels; a surname ; read yeen, to 
cast, to mould ; also bright, clear. 
Hoo seang che hwa hay, hay che cheung seang, 
y^w n^ che chae kin, wuy chin cbea che sey wfly 

hwA se siy, si tiy dy I'Mng si twa ch'hin cheo"S 
t'hoi 6y id kin, eVkut chae seo hwHy iy Idng siy 
chd, superiors refarm their inferiors, and infe- 
riors obey their superiors, just like clay in the 
pottery; it rests solely with the potter how he 
will work it. 
^ _% - A ford, a landing-place, a place where 

^/»#* boats touch, a ferry. Soo choo loe 
If ^ bQn chin yeen j^ ^ ^ ^^ ,^ 

J^^ sae choo loe rhoofS chin, he ordered Choo- 

loe to enquire after the ferry. See the Tt ^ 

Hay IQq 

Read seng : a measure,, the hundredth 
part of a jteck. Sip hap wOy seng, Chio 
sip seng wOy toe, sip toe wQy hak 

Mf m ' '''"P '"'P ^''^ chit chin, chap chin chd 
chit tadu, chip taou chd chit cheSh, ten kaps 
make a chin, ten chins, make a peck, and ten 
pecks make a picul, or hundred weight. 

. » The square piece of wood at the 
l^ back of a carriages. Kaewansi;aug 
^^^ t'heen, chin hong seang tey ^ fg] 
^^^^ ^^''coH ie»S cMn cheo'^S 
'*A-^"«-' .«» si kak ch'hin ckeo-e tey, the top 
of the carriage must be round like the Heavens, 
and i^ back square like the earth. See the 
m m. Chew ley. 


H^^ The paths between the paddy fields. 


A little rising of the skin. 

A single garment, without a lining. 
Tongs6chin t'hek'hek,pitpga6„ 
j6 ch'hut che ^ S. ;M, fee /jjjk 

iJ"* ^ ITD W Z, ' ""'^J^'^' ^y ^ ch'heUng lw"a 
»»«, se Jmah poi Chi Hy. pit iHh pedou Hng jl 
hoi e ch'hut, in the warm weather, when you 
wear a single garment of grass cloth, (you should 
have another garment underneath) and let this 
be outside; (that your body be m>t exposed, 
through the thin cloth ). See the J; ^ Seang 
i^ > BejBt, turned, twisted as a cord • a 

ropes. S5 yew hck chiu kfl heno- che 

si ch'hin ched"S at chin u" he^a ay cKhiw pi, 
that is like twisting round one's elder brother's 
arm. See the "j; ^ Hay Ijiing. 

^^J t To look at, to examine. Chin ch'heet 
g^V ke bek p^^j^, chin ch'heel 
\Z^ * ^Jf mSy^h, to examine the pulse. 













• J^^ Black hair, all in confusion; also 
1]^| written ^.clMa, . ,,;;./; 

J^^EI To tie, to bind. ^ 

<5v^^ ''■"■■■•'■ . - ', '■''■■ 

* To save, to deliveri ■CMir kew T§ 

^^^JV Jwf to help and saviej t* wQy chin 

» ke S sty h^o che teung yea VI 

fi bijit/h chin A'etti ha ti t chUjf hiiit/ iy leung, 
they look upon it as delivering them from the 
midst of fire and water. See the J^ j^ 
Seang beng. 

All ; the whole ; altogether. Chew 
I6y chin chaS lo6 ^ ^ ff f H :^ 
^S* '^k. ''^^^ teHou &>/ Iky toe, chu 
pod luia le loi kok, the ceremonies «if the Chew 
dynasty, are all existing in the Lue. country. 

^^^«^ To give a present to any one .on 
^J(py^ commencing a journey i also iTiri- 
jl ^ thers^^chin. Ht^ng chea pit £ chin 
^ "^ '^VX"^ > Ag''4 he Ay ling pit letSh 
woo mciCh singe, people setting out on a journey 
are accustomed to receive presents. Sec the 

M -— • To save, to help. Chin chey S|^ ^, 
rl Iry to a«sist by charity, to supply wants. 
■^ '^^ Han bfin t6y hwat ch'hong lim e, 


hin bin Uy k'hwtiy hteal ch'he"^ Um, i chin kiw 
pSyh $ai''S, BAn, the Emperor of the Han dy- 
nasty opened out his granaries, to supply the 
wants of the people. 


Sore lips; the same as 9^ chin; 
also written Jj^ chin. 

To act, to commence, to receive. 
Chin ho hae je put sijet J^ '^pj ^^ 
(ffj ^ J^ , chin lim ho hat ji bo 





hoi e laou, ( the Earth ) contains the rivers 
and seas without letting them leak through. 
See the rfj ^ Teung yttng.. _ 

To enter, lo advance, to go forward. 
Cht;€n chin nji ^^-j to advance, 
Kwun choo sam yip jfi chin ^" ^i- 

~ ^ ifn ^ J ***" ''^ ^^ '^"^ *"" *"•'' '^*"*'" 
$fip ji aou chin, the good man makes three bows 

and then advances ; ( speaking of the ceremonies 

usual in archery.) See the \- 3: Seang iQn. 

ChO seen seng * to, ch'he j5 chin ^ ^ f^ 

^ al! j^ ifij jI^ , '"^ ''^* "*" '"'"^ '« '"'■ 
teOk miy"h A-e'i jt cWn, meeting our elders in 
the way, we .should walk quickly and advance 
t(>ward« lliem. , 

^1^^^ The same as the above> the name of 
^S3^» a sUtc. Chin kok t'heen hay bok 
Q kiting yeen ^ (g ^ "fJ ^ 5^ 
jB^ cAj« At)*, fhe^ iy b6 k'hih kHng bknp, with 
respect tn the Chin country it may he .said that 
there is not a more powerful state in the Empire. 

Ii ttvr mlf hae .•M h-iTl*.^ __ 
A hoy. Chin cho6 ban tOng 4^ -+• 

^ M * *^ *8"« f Ae"a ban iSr^, 
about a myriad of 

The same as ^5 Chin ; also written 
^P chin. 






beautiful gem. 


« ■ y To thrust , in, tu cr>m in; to wedge; 
^^£* a w.dgc. Chin hwat M ^ ^ U, 
El .stick the sign-board, or insignia of 
office into one's girdle. 

% ■^r^ C'''" *■" jtQ ^f^ ^*' ^ftip silk round 
JJf^^ * girdle, to be ini tiffice. , Chin sin 
}^\ P| sijen seng lin gSn che ^ ^jjj ^ 
^ Mk g 2_, chin tin iy sin sai"f^ Sh kape king. 
a ■renlleman in office is hard tu be cunvMsed with. 

.^ -"it 




-^ __ To reprove, to bear witness to. Cho 

Chin ^ lp» kan chin f^ ^ siE» t" "^e" witness. 

f ? J ' * So5 wuy, e chin cheng-kok-liwun, 

cheng-kok-kwun put t'heng x; ^<j" JJ^ gJE jj^ 

JP ^. i£^ IP ^ ^^ ^'i^ *"" ""^^ '■■"' '"" 

.. cAeng' kok kwun, cheng-kok-kwun a'" Che^a, Soo- 


wuy reproved Cheng-kok-kwun, but Cheng-kok- 
kwun would not listen to him. 
p& cheen kok ch'hek. 

See the mu [w 

To prove, to testify. Chit chin fS ^^ 
to verify, to' substantiate. K6 hoo 

Chin ^^>' 

'"'' *^ 'V*Jfi» jeSng ying jd choo chin che ^ ^ 

is ^ tfn ^ M i^ ' ^ ''•^ ^"-^ ''*""" *^"^ 

j"^ Aaoi* sai"S" cAa kan chin, the father stole a 
sheep and the son testified against him 

rj; »i . ' ■ _ To be moved, to be moved with fear ; 

* ylry to agitate. LOy chin pek le, jit 

j/i>^ cheaou ban hong ^ "S S '^ Q 

BS ^ -^ lilif tdn kaou chit pdyh l&. Jit chea 

kaoii chit ban *«"§', the thunder rolls to a hun- 

., dred 1^, and the sua illumines to a myriad climes. 






The name of a country ; also a sur- 
name, and the name of a dynasty. 
Chin se h6ng ^ hn S^ > the first 
Emperor of the Chin dynasty, who burnt the 
books and imprisoned learned men; who also 
constructed the great wall of China (B. C. 304). 

A small insect, a kind of snail, a 
periwinkle. Chiu sSw go b6 fe ^ 

^ /a > ''*'" ^^ ''*"*'" *■•*■* ''*'*^"g' 
&y bak bai, with a head like a periwinkle, and 
eyebrows like silk-worms. A Chinese beauty. 

The name of a river. 

A string, a line, a cord; also straight, 
a straight line. Seang koe keet chin 


koi hat siSh Ji IB kok, in early antiquity, they 
tied knots in a string, as memorandums in manag 
ing affairs. 

■^^^•%_ To exhaust, to carry to the utmost; 
■ rl^ « very, extremely ; Also written ^ 
Wt^^ chin. 
Chin t'ho6 ^ "" 








> chin t'hdSu, to the utmost ; 
choo chin H ^g ^ to commit suicide. 

Se put chin gan, gin put chin e ^S- "/^ ^s 

. . .^ , ^^ I nii i 

g ^ ^^W>' ^'^^ *^'*' ''"" ^""^ ^^ '''"' 

Ka bey chin gwd dy d, I cannot by writing exhaust 
all I have to say, nor by words express all my 
meaning. See the H. M^ lElk keng. 

Presents given to any one, on com- 
mencing a journey. 

A kind of grass, used for a yellow 
dye; also to advance. 

% To hold, to keep, to seize, to im- 
tll prison. Chip yew s[j "^ ^ one's 
/ ^^ father's friend. 
Soo choo ch'he te&ou, j6 ch'hey ch'heep chip 

ch'he t'ea6u, ji boi siy 6 hoe ling leith, to be put 
to death in the market or public court, and to 
have one's wives and concubines seized. Sec the 

II IE ^'y ke- 

Chip sew ^k ^, gtm ch'hew, to grasp one's hand. 

to retam one s error. 

Chip "^ 

Chip soo chea 
holding office. 

^ ^ > peron» 

Ropes for tying a horse's feet. 

The sound of crying^. 




Grass growing laxnrtantiy } a kind 
of coarse grass. 

To settle, to collect, to intermingle, 
to assemble, to meet together. Che 
chip ^s '^. to collect together. 

Chin hoev ^. ^t k'h'eSh cho hoiu, to assemble. 

T6ng y£w choo so6 keng chek, bfin chip soo 

ton^ ledou woo choo too keng chek, chea at/ bUn 
chip, si Ay k'hoi, the T6ng dynasty had Philo- 
sophical and historical works, classics and records, 
with such kind of literary collections, enough 
to fill four stone houses. 

Three people assembled together. 

The issuing! out of a fountaiii: a mimU 
opening for water. 


To arise, to ascend. Chit ma 
pS^h cheing buy, to mount a horse. 
Yim chit I]^ 1^ , secret influence, 
operating in. one's favour: protection. 

Tbia, meagre. 

Chit YnA^^ Tlic name of a fish. 


Chit Itng II /g| ,;»<./«, «M5 name 
of a bird. 

#V6iy chit |^ :^ , /m cheih, the back ; 
the br»w of a hill. Lfi k'hd ck^ng 
«•♦'' ^ ■jh' IE ^> *<"* *■'** <^**"^ 
chit, never eat the middle of the back of a fox. 


Thin ground. 





Firm stubborn; also foolish. 

A crooked bend in a hill v alto foolish. 

The seund of reapingr com. 


Fctteis«a the legsj stocks. Some read 
this character lit. Chit k'hok soo 
che4, hwuy ch^ng beng yea 1$ )^ 

^ # ^ JE '^it -tfe ' ''*" *'*»* »* 'S Idng, «-» 
te.ehe'^i bong, to die in fetters and manacles, is 

not a praper death. See the ~T% ^^Hnay beng. 

Stopped' up, closed up^ obstructed. 






A.sboct reap hook, for reaping corn.. 

To arrive at, to go to. 

Office, employment. Chit hwQn g^ 
y^ , a charge, or duty. Kwan chit 

pC ^i '™'*" '*''' *" °®'* under 

Ye* g4A chekchei, put \«k ktfcbit chek. Vhe 

king tea Ag chek chii, bey lit chin e Ay chit hwHn 
chew k^hi, sustaining the office of adviser, if w< 
cannot fulfil the duties of our office, we should 
depart Se« the J|^ 5Ef Siiing beng. 

T6 gather op, to take, to collect. 

pV*? Chit t'hut P|| P{|| , to speak disorderly 
and irregularly. 






To weave. Chit poe ,^ ffi /<> ^^ave 
cloth. T'heen s«n k'haou chit jlA 

t'hee'"S sun l^hd chit hwAn lag ay Mm, the heavenly 
youths skilfully weave the variegated colours in 
the clouds. 

Chit ^^S To talk without -ending. 

P£ _^ 

^ ^ Plain, plainness, substance, form-, to 
fylT demonstrate. Kwun choo Chit j6 e 

^^^ e, h6 e ban '"^J ^ ^ M M B 
jfo /jjr rn -^ ^, tioan choo chU pok le"a te^a, 
biiiyh mh bAn chb ^d meg"*, the good man is 
plain and nothing more, what has he to do with 
ornament ! See the '|^ |^ Hay la*--^ 

Pain, sickness; sick, to be sick of, to 
dislike ! hasty, speedy. Choo che sey 
_ sin, chae, chiien, chit, ■^ ^ 0f 
i^'M^ ■^j /t'ftoBff choo dy sky kin sin cheah 
ch'hai, SCO chedu, chit pai'^S, the things which 
€onfusius was particularly careful abaut were 
fasting, war, and sickness. 
Chit hgng seen Rang chea, wuy che put tey, 

ke"d tae sens si twa Ay Idng, king ked u"* gauu 
cho SCO te, to walk quickly before a superior, is 
ia fail in our duty as a younirer brother- See the 

Sick ; poisonous. 

, Chit toe j^ ji^, envy, jealousy. Hoe 
hwuy leng f hae hay, j6 boo chit toe 
che siro, koe cheiiBg ch'hcep lok che 

1^' :5tl f j^ # T fln t Ji ^ ^ 'j^^4^ 

iM -V hoe hwuy ey kwun t'hae se sey, 
:7l<c jC. > 




inferiors well, without harbotrring jealousy in 
their minds then all the concubines' will be 
pleased with them. ^^ \ 




"ji bo Chit toe &y Sim kw^a, koi cheiing shy e kii&y e, 
when the empress and princesses, can treat their 

Chit ley 
dicioal plant 

4 I 

■^i the name of a me- 

Read yit, one. YK jin — y^j chit 
dy Idng,, one person. H<>cy yea, bfln 
yit j6 te sip, sbo yea biln yit jg te je 

■j?rt tn ^ , hSiy yea t'he^a chit hang, cheiv chae 
chap hang, sod yea t'he^a chit hang, chew chae ne 
hdng, Hoey on hearing one thing knows ten; 
Sow on hearing one thing, knows only two. See 
*he Jt; 1^ Seang iQn. 






Quiet, at rest, peaceful. Kwan choo 
AV* put jip ch'hS, wuy k« clito l(J6ra ^ 

^ho lUm, the good man does not enter markets, 
because he wishes to be quiet and pure. 


The end, the conclusion. 



To meet with, to fall in with. E 
seaou yea y6w, 6 kwun seang cho 

Chdn woo hwAn maf^ Fhit ehu, kap Au-un M seo 
loo teHh, taking advantage, of a cloudy sky, 
to wander out in the evening in order to obtain 
a meeting with you. 

Chew cho ^ |^, chew chaou, grains 

obtained from distilling liquor. Gwin 

^ v-y been put veijn cho k'hong che sit 

El^f^lf lift ^^'/""'" *''"*' 
he&n chiw chaou be k'he"S dy cheah, Gwan-heen 

(one of Confucius' disciples) did not refuse 

grains and chaff for his food. 




|ffl.?^''i.6'"cho ^ ^j;^ anything not yet puri- 

l»_-,^ The left. Cho sew J^ ^ ^ « chiv>, 
Cho y^l* the left hand. Cho y3w ^ ^ , 
^^'^ atlendanU. Cho yew kae wat hc6n, 
be kho yea ^;^ ^ ^ 7^ ^itL.'*" 
^*io ij/ Wng-, chi poi king e gdou, yea boey Chang, 
when your attendants all say that a mail is clever, 
still you must not think of employing him. 



The same as the ahove » ftlio to bend. 


Vulg. cha : early. Cho k'hv J^ ^ , 
chd k'ht, early in the morning;. Cft'hcng 
cb6 yil poey t^y ^ -^ — ^ ^' 

fjk'fleng chd chit aoti lay, early in the morning a 

cup of tta. 

Ch6 chok yJS bi S^ ^ "^ ^ , f^hi k>he chd 

100, mi/^ lean k^ainiy early to work and late 

to rest. 

The same a& the above eoriy. Cho 
in bod sit, pit siin t'hiSen to ^ i^ 

66 tit, pit tHa eheeng dy Id, early and late being 
exempt from faulty we may be obedient to the 
celestial way. 

^ M^ To wash, to cleanse, to purify. Chd 

C^ chet.^^j8:g.>:i^^ 

•jW* -Jt- ^ z' J^ »<y Ail "n, ch*heng eKheng 
k'hi l&n dy lek, t kiw hap neen ong iy to, we 
should cleanse our personal conduct and purify 
our virtue, in order to seek conformity with the 
doctrines of the ancient kings. 


A date. Been j4 boag cho |H hn <^ 
bin ch'hm ckiip^ dnf eko, having 
a face like a red date. Said of bS 
^^, kwan 6. 

Cheng sek se y&ng cli» 'M'^ P§ TT ^j'''^"*" 
sek ai chedh yedng chu, Chcng-sck was fond of a 
certain kind of datesv 
^ ^. To make, t6 do, td perform. Cho 

Cho y^tv* """"S l*"" ^ X ^, <■** ^"^ *«•«*.«< 
1*9'^ {^ work. 
Ch6sengie|^^^2,totrade. ChdjoO^i^, 
chi je, to make an agreement, to make a writ- 
ten contract. 

& % To. help, to assist, to sec<^d> to up- 

Clio ^ Xm ''"'''• T'hetuig chae c oh* 5ng peug 

|CU pangkok^^J^^I&J^-..^ 

^3 J I'heling chat i boo chi uitg, ping l( pang kok, 

the general superintendent is to assM'lfifr king 

in regulating the country. 




To have % peaceful, quiet.. 



VuIg,. ehttiu k'Ma : a cook-iiMMe, a kit- 
chen ; also written ^^ cho. E' kf 
me a <V l«ng m« « ch<> |^ ^ |jR 
j^N ll^ ^ ^ ^ ■^, A:«/, edj, s»tp rill thhoo 
kak, ling k'ho $'erp liy li rhaiu k'ha, compared 
with flattering the God of the corner (Jf iht house, 
is it not better to flatter tlte Go* of the kitchen 
See the J2_ |te SiSang iQn. 

To arrange in orders an, ord^t^ a class,- 
the name of country »• a snmamc. 
HwuD chfl peng chin ^- ^^f lift i^ 

Akmmi che"d piiiyt *hu pod cAJn, divided into clai>sc.s 

they advance tbgelher. 

Ch6 ch'hd kaa heftng ^ ^J^ }/^> Chirch'hd 

was a corrupt villain. 


yJ^S^ The nameof a ciiy. 




3 M 










A manger. Ma ch6 ^ jjM ^ bui/ chu, 
a horse's manger. 

The name of an insect. Cheng seang 
yew le, c\\& sit sit chija ko pwan e 

1^ -^, chai"^ ling oS le, A, ch6 cheiih e tiy sil, 
ITh'dh Uay chit pw^d, over the well there hung a 
pear, mare than the halfuf which had been eaten 
by insects. See the f* "^T Seang beng. 

A' hiat. 

To malie a neise, to ta& iocohereRtly.. 

A kind of basket. 

Sick, diseased. 

t I« ; nail V 

*J» ^ ^^^ WiW^> ""ything not yet re 
| -^ ^ fined, or purified. 




A sickness. 

Vulg. ehSy: to sit. Ch'heng cho ^ ^q^ . 
eh'hc'^d chei/, pray sit down. Choo 
loe, cheng sek, jeem yew, kong sey 

hwa, s5 ch5 ^=^ 3^ t ^. # ^. ^ M 
36 'fi: ^p Choo-loe, Cheng-sek, Jiiem-yew and 
Kong «ey-hwa sat by the side ( of Confucius. ) 
See the "H ^H Hay lun. 

Cho e t'hae t'han ^ £J f^ _B , ehey ^ ling 
futou chd Whi, to sit and wait for the morning. 

^^^ A seat, a settle, a throne. Cho seilng 
Cho I^ pin k'bek bwan ^ ± ^ ^ ^. 
f'"^'^ cfco ting ling k^liilyh mw"d, the seats 
were full of visitors. 

^_ii^ A black colour. Cho ley ^ |]fe , 

^Tv. low people ; also written ^. cho. Cho 

f pek pilt hwun J^ ^ ^ ^ „c 

pSj/h bu hwun peet, not to distinguish between 

black and white. 

Swan cho P_a^ |^ ^ ta make a distur- 
bance to talk at random. 


The imountain streams winding round 
and finding a passage out. 

w ^\^ To make, to form, to create. Cho hwa 





siu chea, t'heen tey che kong yung, 
j6 cb5 hwi che chek yea jP|f^ :^ ^ jjjl, ^ 

St fhee"^ ley Ay kong yung, cho hmi, dy cltedh. 
Ghosts and spirits are the meritorious efforts of 
Heaven and Earth, and the traces of creation. 
See -^t -T* Choo choo. 

The name of a city, the native town 

Confucius. Seuk wuy choejin 

che choo te ley hoe M. sS ¥M 
'«' V -^ A- -im a» "^^ '"^ ^f^^" 

Idng dy ke"4 bat fey hoe, who ever said that 
the son of the man of Chae understood pro- 
priety .' See the _Jh f^ Siiang iQn 

The name of a country ; vulg. ckey : 
a surname. Choe jIn e ch'hoe j!n 

dy Idng kap chlwi ay Idng seo Choi, the people 
of Chae contended with those of Ch'hoe. 

^ 1 



To consult with any one, Choo choe 
to take counsel of any. 






Choe soey ^j]^ ^^ taxes, rent. Tey 
choc -Jjll ^7 ground rent, H^ou 
bfln ke suo I'heen hay biii te£a 



choe -Jjll ^7 ground rent, H^ou 
e SCO I' 

^-H- /Zl ~F 3 *""" *'^'' ''■'' *^ *"" l'liee"S ay piyh 
tai"^ ch'liAn choe chil pti:"d, in the time ofUaou- 
bflii, half of the taxes on rice fields were re- 
mitted to the people. 

A mixture of green and red. 

Choe gS |5|lt [i^ , a corner, a point 
Tlie 1st month of the year is also 
called choe gwat Ifc H the cor- 
ner month. 

Choe "tl^ Gr»ss growing luxuriantly. 

Choochoe ^g T|fl ^ not getting for- 
ward, unable to advance, Chi-uk 
ycuk chin jfi choo choe J^ ;§t Jg 
iffi ^ iE * *'Aa iiifl/h chin ji biy kc'/l, the 
\ feet desiring to proceed, but unable to advance. 






Choc ei ^S, He » benevolent kind 
of animal. 

To go, to advance: to depart ; also 
written p choe. 

To hoe, to weed ; also a hoe, a 
wecder. Ilwuy ke cheung chea, 
choe j6 k'\i6 che ^ ^ @ ^'. 
IH. jljj ^ j;^, <Z'" »« « <»J' chtng is, ling leSh 
t'hK''tt ji k'hi e, those who do not belong to 
that race, must he weeded and rooted out. 

The name of a tree; alto a surname. 


Grass. Seng choe yit sok &^ ^ — 
Jo ^ sa("^ rh'hdou chit pay, there grew 
a bundle of grass. See the »K ^te 

Seaou go4y. 



Pe choe ^ ^, fragrant grassj offer- 
ed in sacrifice. 

TJrC? A ship for going out to sea. 

A small kind of fish. 

,^k^ Vulg. chdou: lo run a way, to flee. 
jJ-T to escape. Long cho6 |}^ ^, ^a,},, 
■^^^^- cWott, a good runner. Pie choe 
^ ^' P^" '•Alow, to bf defeated. 
Khe kap £ pcng j« choe |^ ^ ^ :^ ifi] ^, 
Click kak cheim kih, I'hwa peng I; jt chiou, they 
threw away their armour, drew their weapons 
•fler them, and fled. See ^ ^ beng choo. 



To stop. Choi- ch<i [if] j|- , to hinder. 

Lfin choe +| 

nit"i rtef, to 

P* jin yew chong ch'hotig rhea choc kwnn 

Ung woo chovg cKhong uw"i choe Jin iicun, a 
worthless favourite one Chong-ch'hong, hindered 
tJie prince. See the J^ ^ Seang bi^ng. 


A vessel used in sacrifice. Choe lo? 
che »o5, chek seiing bun chc e 'JH 

Choi toe Ay sod, chiw bat Chfa e, the business 
of sacrificial vessels, I have heard something about. 



Choe ' JtU The same as the above. 




An ancestor. Seen cho* ^ ^ ^ '^ 
former ancestor. A surname. Choe 





irfl ^ ""^ virtue of progenitors. 

Seen choe hoo boe, chek put gno ch'huy ^Q 

m K ^. ^\ T- 1^ ti ' '"^ ""^ "''" ""' 

rhfw bu I'hek kale gu-ti, my first ancestors and 
immediate parents will not reject me. 

To hold in the mouth. Choe cheak 

•j^L '"«» -^ i4 '!ii^. " '° ^^^'' '''"'■ 

soras and ruminate flowers" meaning to meditate 
on literary subjects. 


^ To die. Hong hwun na6 choe lok, 

A^ a pek sfing J6 song k'ho pe jj^ ^ 

hong hwun kabu »d, piyh sak^S ch'hiH cAeo"«' se"S 
paj/ hoe, when Hong-hwun ( U e. Geftou ^) 
died: the people felt as if they had lost their 
father and mother. See the "^ ^ hay beng. 

The threads with which the seal of 
office is tied. Choe sew ^^ ^ , 
a fringe or border. 

To stop: to put a stop to. 116 jit 

soo chofi jfj ^ iS-^ '^^ '''"' 
jh cMt/ Uy iteSh, on what day will 





Vulg. chabu, to report, to send in a 
report, Choe gak ^§ S* , chabu 
guk, to play up music. 
Choe se keng seang, seng tek put ch'hong ^ 
g: It Jt. M !i ^ ^ ^ cft«d«yS« CheSu 
Vhaou cheats, sing teang b6 boiyh Chi"a, reports 
are perpetually sent in, but his majesty will 
not listen to them. 

» » To do, to act, to pepfonn. Choe 

A/A^ kwan j^ *^, choe A-i«"a, to become 

I _ I -(^ a mandarine. Choo soo k'b6 ch'hay 

in performing anything, the commencement is 

Waters meeting in one stream, and 
rushing forwards. 



To assemble. Ke m4 hok choe 
,^ $g(fe| ^ ch'hea bdi/ ehb poS kabu, 
the carriages and horses all arrived 



this stop. 




Cho6 chong ^ ]^ ' » »*=■" °" ^^^'^^ 
the seal of office is engraved ; that 
for a prince of the Empire was five 

inches square, and that for an Emperor seven 

inches and a half. 

Teen cho6 ^ {9^^ « god presiding 
over rice-fields. 



^ ^ Chew cho6 5^ |i , chiv> chwd, to 
d tf curse, to swear. H06 choe ho6 chew 

pJj- ^J] ffl fiB 5l. . '''"' ''*'" '■'■*'" """"' 
swearing irregularly and cursing disorderly. 


•^ p^ Happines. E'ng sek choi jTn ^ ^ 
|I|''l^ T«t IS) ing koo soo hok hoe ke"d 
/ll I Sim, (may Heaven) ever bestow 
happines on your posterity. See the /J\ ^[| 
Seaou gniy. 

To swear » to take an oath pegard- 

Q|rl ing anything gone by. K'hwat k'hoe 

JjL choe ch&w ^\i ^^l, ^ 'iM 

eh-huy eh^ie chwa, his mouth vociferated oaths. 

5^»* A sort of music played in the first 
month of the year. 

Cho6 go6 ^ p^ The teeth uneven 
and irregular ; also used metaphori- 
cally for not agreeing together. 

To scold, to rail at. 







The flesh of a sacrifice ; alto writteb 

- ^ ■ * 

choe. "^ fr' 

'•^■flW The galloping of ahorse; to go swiftly, 
S"^? to gallop. ChoE k'h6 ^ ^ to rise 

up quickl;. 



^^ ^ Vulg. chart : to help, to aid, to assist. 
Uy# Siiang choe ffl OTj seo rAun, to 
jfw help one another. 
Hiifiy yea, hwny cho^ 506 che& yea [pj ^ 

# ^ tfe ^ Hi ^ '*»<'« ^S'i. 5''" *> f*"" ff"^'^ 
liy I4ng, H'6€y does not afford me any help. 

Very, extremely { the chief. Cho^y oe 
•^ US chin chSe icdn, to take very 
much. E rhi-ang chut che tiiung 

kong'way chody M }jf ^^ «^ ^5^ ^^ ^, 
l£ cheing Icaun peng chut dj/ Hung, kong 16 
tin If^f' "Bong generals and soldier*, merit is 

■M ■•■ ■ ■ . . , , ..I i . 

the principal thing. 

Chck tek tong seen, wfly seen'choey lok ^S 

lai seng, cho ho chin chue Cheung lok, tbeaccu-' 
mutation of virtue is of first importance: and ' 
the doing of good afibrdti-the greatest pleasure. 
jt^ To bite, to eat, to gnaw. Sinjiicy 
Choey li^ koe chody che jf I^ j^ P^ ^^ 
h6 sin Chang a kue cheith c, the flics 
and grubs had gnawed and eaten it. 


i^ Chiiay sey g ^ 
Chiiey -^2^^^ /'<*"« «a^. a bridcgn 

Hoo chiJSy 

chin ehiUjf dy 
idegrooro who attaches 
himself to his father in law's family, 
a fleshy e.\crescence, a wart. 



y^ Mftou choey =S feS , a whisp of 
coarse grass, stuck up as a sign for 
people to meet, and drink together. 

A fleshy excrescence, a swelling; the 
same as ^? chiiey. 


United, joined, connected ; to con- 
^^ nect 

To break, to break in pieces. Chofy 
kong wQy jSw ^ ^|J j^ ^ , 
p'hih ch'hily gnaj/ iy cho nooi^S^ tO' 
break up hard things and make them soft. 

A collection of frost and snow ; 
drifted snow. 

Bod chiiey boo koe 
faultless and sin- 





A crime, a fault 

dn> T^ Jjik ~r ' 


A crime, a sin. Yew chiiijy 7h SB , 
woo choiy, sinful. Hek chiiey 6 
t'heen boA sey td yea y& |£ ^ 

^. is 1^ II -tti. . *'* '■*'*•«' ^ ''"'"^ *'' '*•" 
Chang 16, when a man sins against heaven, there 

is none that can intercede for him. See the 

Jt K^ St-ing iQn. 

Chiiey jin put nofi S& /^ "T^ i& ^ woo chaei/ 

ijfidngbi liy ke''i lun, let not criminals involve 

their families ia trouble. 

^ Read sijy, to sleep. Bwat to kok yew 
Ujl||^ gn^c be ch'h6, sit che so6 jin put 

"5b khapsuy^^^^S* 

Koo chit l(y giie bi ch'haou, cheih r aai ling ho 
ki choly, in the Bwat-to country there is a 
plant of fine tastes which when eaten will keep 
people from sleeping. 

Read chok : to make, to commence. 
Chok ch'hiiang ^-fe ^^ chSh chheS'V. 
to build a wall. Siy chok ^ 4p, 
t^n chSh, a spy. 


PRead tek ; to throw. Tek sek 
jjfi ^ chSh chSh, to throw stones. 

i K 






A. % Read sek : to shoot with an arrow. 

■"^^^ let fly an arrow. Ek put sek seuk 
-^ ^ ^ ^j chSh che&^S bi chhh teSh hai^h, 
&g chedou, in archery he did not shoot a settled 
bird. See Jq gSi , Si-aiig iQn. 

X X To make, to commence operations, 
^r^Z to do. Chok soo ^ ^ to make 

f 1^ trouble. 
Chok chea che wQy seng, sut chija che wfly beng 

ty Idng long keb sing, t'htln &y King king kea bing, 
he that first invents a thing may be called a 
philosopher, and he who imitates it may be called, 








an intelligent man. See the |g |P L6y kd, 


a^ When a guest pours out wine to a 
'C host, it is called chok gfe and when 

Chok jit 0^ , c/rd hwuflS^ yester- 

To be ashamed. 

a host answers the libation it is 

called sSw 
Sdw chok 

, mutually to pledge one 

The name of a tree ; also to cut down 

X'TVTjk ^" wash, to rinse, to cleanse. Ch'heng 
y/X-#"» soo chok eng, chok soo chok cheuk 

ch'heng ay siy Mn tviH 16 dy sty k'ha, the clear 

water may serve to wash the tassel of one's cap 

and the muddy to wash one's feet. 
^ MTm Vulg. 16: and tak, muddy dirty. Keng . 
chay bak wiiy chtiy 16, the waters of 

the Heng, render the waters of the Wuy muddy. 

See the ^ M Kok hong. 








To elevate, to promote, to raise to 
office. Chok che hoe pin k'hek cbe 
teung, i& lip che fi kwfln sin che 

^^ E /dl Jt J ** ''*** * '^ '^"S k'htiyh dy 
ttong, jt lip e te kwun sin dy ting, to elevate 
one in the midst of the guests, and to establish 
one over the host of ministers. 

The barb of an arrow ; a relative. 

K6w chok -j^ "^ , the nine series 

of relatives. 

A scorbutic disease. 

Tj V" An eagle. Boo tCng iSng che laS g6, 
'^^^ b6ng ke ydng che gak chok j^ ^ 

t, bod tS t6ng ting dy lai gS, hadu te ke ydng 
dy gak chok, the Phoenix sporting on the hall 
of Tflng (referring to Gcaou 3'^ ) ^ and the eagle 
screaming at the hill of ke ySng (referring to 
Bfln ong A^ ^2. ) } ''°*'' betoken the appearance 
of a sage. 

.^ Chom kwoy ^ 
Chom kad fX' 

, a good rule. 

, good counsel. 

T6ng-b6ng-t6, chok soo but che 

Chora 6 kwuy kae j^^ B|J jg jj: Wi^Z 

Wi ^J 'JM 1^ ' '*"^ '"^"^ '" '''"^ *^ ''"^ ^^ chom, 
i chd kwuy kai, T6ng-b6ng-to made a list of 

the four prohibitions, in order to form a rule 

and a caution. 

A^/f A bodkin, a hair-pin. Kim chom ^ 

_^v3i ^^ > a golden hair-pin. Luy tae 

|C| Chom eng f , f^ ^ || ^ k^Ay 

ni tiy cjidh chom kwi eng, foe several generations 

they have: worn luir-pii>s and tassel» ( i. e. they 

have, 'been in ojSice,, and worn its insignia). 


How. Chom mijh jang ^^ ^ ^^, 

an chm"d yea"S, in what manner. 

^^^^ Chom tek ch'hew p'ho yit chw&n 'g 




t^ to5 i^ ■"* ^ , •" '''^"^ ^9 **'' '^^* ch'hew 
p'ho ehit &}/ t«i>i''f, how shall we get the autumn 
waves to turn ? 

> |.A Vuig. lai pfhwa, to defame, to sland- 
Chom ^Tf^S^ er, to blast a man's reputation. Pe 
I' IHfl chdm jin chea, sOy tek & hoc, /(^ 

^A^ hffc # M Wo *<"«* '^y "^ "*"•'' ^* 

tting, chS chiiff a til 6 soo ned"S, those slanderous 
fellows, who can join in counsel with them. 


See the /J> ?|| ^ S^aoo gniy. 


To bite,, to chew; the noise made 
by eating. 

An ancestor, a forefather $ to ho- 
nour; to respect as a roaster; a 
sarname. Choog chdng ^^ mf ^ 

a doable surname. 

Choc iliong ijjjl ^=j forcfatXecs. Chong heaou, 

yf^ Vm an ance»torial temple. 

Chong biiang chc i£y, <£y 6 soe hoe k& seen 

chong biio dji I6y sty 6 ch'hai cHy sSen Idng, the 
ceremonies of the anccstorial temple, arc in 
order to sacrifice to forefathers. See the 
4* fH^ Teung yuug. 
Yin put sit k£ ch'biu, ck k'ho chong yi-& 

m yf 'k ^K ii V]' ^' ^ (fi. , '•*- '^"^ 

i"" ill e Ay I'hang th'hiH wd iy Idng, yeii t'hang 
leih e chd cho6y va following teachers,, if we do 
aol miss a person that can be nearly approach- 
ed, we may also take him for a. master. 
S*=e _tl Ijfij Seang iQn. 



A dLvinc person W «Uiii]ttH||:. 

'I 'id hl..j: I 

To be pleased and delighted; also 
to consider, to reflect. Ch'hek 
ch'hek jeak bo6 chong M 1^ ^ 

itt 7^ y «*'*«* eh'tam, cKhin cketf^S bd- koiy i, 
sad and sorrowful, as it were displeased.— 




Volg. ch^ : a farm. Choog sea 
/£ Ifft "*«"*■ tSi, a farm house. 
Boe wQy tcidn chong k'hek, teaou 
chok t'heen cho& sin ^ |?, ffl /^ gT. |g 
ffj^^^, maJ'^ hwui^S Chi ch'hdn che"S 
dy Idng k'htyh, min a chae chit h6ng Uy Ay 
jin Hn, in the evening he was a stranger at a 
country farm,, and the next morniag became 
a minister of the Emperor. 

. 'i % A square gem ; a precion» stone, of 
> -• an octagon shape, Iik« the earth. 

P'bek chong •^ J^ , a gera nine 
inches square, used ia inviting the Eknperor. 




A high bunch of hair. T1io< chong 
C^lX^ Ma chong ^ ^^ bay cUang, a horseV 

kl t Vulg. che^K : to ornament, to adorn. 
ri"yj* Hwa sek chong hi ^ "Pt Mr ^ ^ 
' f-^* Ki tek che*^ kaiiu iHy, to paint 
and adorn, till it is very fine. 

A lady's toilette, apparatus for dress- 
ing. Teng lo£ k'hae ckong kcng, 
i kok cheak seen e ^ 1^ GM |tt 

^). it ^M ^ ElT- ^, '^** """ *^"''^ '^"'^ 
ke''A, u'A kiih ch'hing urn »"«, at one time she 

ascends the chambcT to open her toilette and 

looking-glass, and at another slic leans ' 

the gallery dressed in new app«icL 

%. %% An adorning, a setting off; to orna- 

Chnn^Tril |., men t, to dress. Put chesfeyil hwdn 

<J rjr^ chong, chin tek hong lAw I'LaO ^j^ 


yung chit dy huun che^, chin tU leSh hong Uw 
Ay yii*^, without needing a single painting or 




adorning, she has altogether an elegant appear- 
ance. See the "K ■§* Ko6 se, old'p06ras. 



To he established, to stand firm. 




A trace, a footstep. H6 cP-h^ bek 
hong chong f^ ^ ^ 5^ ^ , 
boeyh Id ish li'hi cWhiiey, e dt/ p'hang 

■che&h, where shall we seek for his fragrant 


Straight, upriglit ; lengthways. 

^\.%.^. Stern, sedate ; correct ; adorned ; a 


farm; also .a surname. Lim che 
e chong, chek keng ^ ^^ ^ |i 
Mil ^7 lai kaou e i chong geim Idng chew king 
lun, toming before the people with sedateness, 
they will respect us. Seethe Y Im Siianglun. 




An , ewe^ 4 female ' sheep. 

■ ■ir.'Mit *• 

A fishing net t also written ^tt chong. 
4(1 gtigd . -gnOJi' 

.^i**.^ The noise of waters; the appearance 

Chons: f / ■■ ■ * , „ . 




A stick for beating anything-, a post 
stuck in the ground. 

The inside, or contents of anything; 

to put in, to adorn. Chong hwun 

^j^ to dress. Chong chae ^ 

J/ ch^^ tiy, to put -anythi-ng in. 

li .-'iiii.'i 
Good, excellent, thick, kind. A sur- 

name. Choo waf, se to y^a ho 

chiiuk 6 chong ^'^^^^ 
^q ^p j/J ^w , hoo choo kong, chit/ Uy 15 i/ea 
iSigh chai it) kaou 4 king ho, Confucius said 


bpw can such a way as this be sufficient to be 
called good. See the H gSj Seang lun. 

p A bril)e. Sew chong ^ ^ sew 

cho'''S^ to receive bribes. K6 sew 

jenk sim e fham woo cho chong 

j'euk k'h&h sim i fham koo chey che"^, the 
disgrace and sharoc of it would be greater, 
than coveting dirty advantages and sitting on 

Vulg, Chang : the name -of a tree; 
which has leaves without branches,.- 
of the bark of which rain cloaks 
may be made. A kind of palm tree, in appear- 
ance like the cocoanut tree. 

J>wj^^ Vulg. Chang: to run aground. 
Chong Jjt^^l Ch'hwan chong cheak say ^ Jfl^ 
/^^.^^^ ^ Vy7, chUn Chang teSh twa, the 
ship ran aground on the sand. 




Wa chong ^ ^ the name of a hill. 

To dress the head; when females 
come of age, and adorn their head 
dress, a congratulatory wish, is ex- 


pressed bj hd chong 

To collect and bind together ; the 
whole-, altogether, generally ; also 

Chong se i^, ^ ^ after all, but if only. Chong 

1«ae ^^ W' , '«"§• chong, the whole. 

Chong b«ng ^ ^^ chong meH, a general term, 

an universal appellation, 

Chong tok ijH "& ^ a general supefintendant ; 

a Governor General of a Province. 

Chong peng se kw4n *^ ^^ &■ 1a& ^ to have 

a general hold of the reins of power. 

poor and dis- 



K'hong chong lis;' 


s, <• I *— » tressed ; also not at leisure. Also 
I'Vi^ written |g ^ chong.,- J -^ i ' 






A sheaf of com. 

■^Chong kak. w S A horse's raane. 



m Strong, hale fleurishing, robust. 

hJ* Chong keen yji ^ chi^'g ke"S, 
yl»' • robust. Kip kS chong yci, beet 
k'he hong kong, kae che chae toe l6 ^T Hi 

e 6.y chi"^ J/eii, htiit/h k'hi too too a kong gnay teSh 
king kai to sio p'hSh, but vben people are 
grown strong, and their blood and spirits are 
firu), they should be guarded against quarrelling 
and fighting. 
M4-hok-p*bo 16 long ek chong J^ ilr -W ^g* 

fflT ^m. tI-^ ""* *"* ''*''' *"*" '''^" '^"^ ""■ 
Ween chong, nia-bok-p'bo, when old became much 

stronger then formerly. 
^^ fc^ To bury, to inter, to pot under 
Chong >i^|/^ ground » also written ^ chong. 
^_J.i^^ Seng SCO che e l£y, so6 cbong 

Che e Idy ^ ^ ;2 i^ Ji. ^ ^ :t 
}0l JSm ) '"'"^ *"'' *"* ^ chUou lij/ soi, ai tai e 
ch'eiou lij/ loi^ when our parents are alive we 
raust serve them according to propriety, and 
when dead, we miut bury Ihcttt in proper man- 

ner. See the f* =H Seang lOn. 

'hung chong 

l^slraight, stiff, 

ChonCT j ^^'*^- Transverse threads, in weaving. 


Vulg. ching : a kind of eoBfectionary 
tied up in leaves, with sharp corners, 
and used on the 5th day of the 5lh 
moon. Also written JS. chong. 


Choriff^^* Distressed, reduced to diflSculties. 



The appearance of standing. 

\t'\^ ^ male pig ; a boar; a pig 6th months 
)>^ old 



To exalt, to honour, to respect. Chun 
chfing ^ ^g to honour, and obey. 

Cb6ng ko bok tae £ heo kwuy 

Iwa £ pod ktciiy, there arc none more elevated 
than the rich and great. Sec tb« Mt IM 

Yiiih ken^. 
K'hira ch6ng t'hcen to 


% M ' *'""^ 

khig t'hin I'hee"^ dy to, respectfully to follow 
the dictates of heaven. See the "f^ ^ Seo"S sc. 


cloth, and 

of cloth ; which was called B^ "^ chflng poe. 

Ta.xe3 levied by barbarous states ; 
among whom the wealthy were re- 
quired to pay annually a piece of 
cloth, and the poorer sort about twenty feet 

8 o 

JL-J^ Vulg. k'ht"^ : to hide, to conceal, 

ChOng ^rg\> '" ''*"*' "P* ^^^ chflng hot' pa, 

^0^^ s6y yin kaou leflng [1^ g |,t f^ 

7jC ['2; ^yt H, '""'' *"''^'^ *»* P^^ '^*«^ 'e^" 
kaou liAng, in the hilli, are .secreted lygcrs and 
leopards, and in the waters lie concealed serpents 
and dragons. 
YQng che chek h£og, sei. che chek ch6ng ffl 

pdng kak e chew klii"^, if they employ us, 
then we commence operations, but if they re- 
ject us, then we lay oursclvc» by. See the 
± 1^ Seang iQn. 






To collect in a bunch; to grow in 
a bush ; a bush. YitchSng se — • 
S ^M '^^'^ cMng cKheis) a bush tree. 

Bfi 6 sip ch6ng l&n ^*^ ^ >E ^ ^, »'^.!' '«'« 

ji'un /«m ka noofS cMng Ay Idn hwa, the small 
rain moistens the bushy \kn flower. 

Plants growing bushy and luxuriantly. 


^ tj'ang chfing m ^& j the lofty and 
grand appearance of hills. 

.^'3 To be annihilated, to die; not to 






The name of a ri<ier. 



A form, appearatice ; a sort ; a do- 
cument. K6 chong -^ ^^ J an '"" 
dictment. Teang-choo-pong-chong 

maou j5 boo jin le choo ^^ J^ %iW^ 

^0 1(1 A ^ "?■ ' '*""^ '''"'" y^"S' /^ '^''^"^ 
m-aou cKhin cUo^S che hoi fdng Yi choo, 
T.eo"S.cho6-p6ng's appearance was like that of 

a woman or girl, 

Beng yang, key-sengch'hey sea ch.5ng choe, 

seang, ch'heng tae boo soo 0j^ f |/ |m JUL ^ 

3feo"S .key sens /iy hoo sea che^S chabu hong 
liy cUhe^d i'hiy e dy ang si, in the BSng dy- 
nasty Ye6"S-key-seng's wife wrote out a do- 
cument, and presented it to Uie Emperor beg- 
ging to die in the stea<l of her husbaiwl. 

' ^ The bowels. Gno^ th5ng ^ ^ , 
goe che"^, the five viscera. 

Slronc, vigorous; great and flourish- 






To lay up goods in store; a store- 
house, a treasury. 

Red, vermilion; a surname. Oe che 
che tw'at choo yea g£ #» -j^ ^ 

^■J A^ 4^ wan chi sek dy twat choo 

sek, (Confucius) disliked a red colour because 
it took away from the beauty of the vermilion 
See the 'T' liH Hay lun. 

A pearl. Chin choo ^^ TOj a 
precious pearl. Soo che e choo geuk 
put tek been yeen ^p- \/ LJ j^ 
~jt /f^ X3: 5r^ ^S ''"'•' ^'^^ ^ ^ '^'""' giuk bey 
■til bein yeen, if I serve them with pearls and 
gems, I shall not be able to avoid their aggres- 
sions. See the p 'dC SiJattg beng. 
Put chin choo gijuk, sey chin wiiy seen jin 

•choo geuk, sey chin se hd Idng, they did not value 
pearls and gems, but they valued good men. 

w A vermilion coloured powder. Choo 

^.^XL bek ijjl^ Bp, ?'» '■'«'<' *«^'' ^^^ '"'«• 
'v^^ Giicn choo tijem A, pa pit tey se, 

# # 1 ^. te ^ m l^' ''"' ''""' "'"' 

ye'dh keng, gim pit lai tiy se, with vermilion ink 
he put stops to tTie1)ook of diagrams; and then 
took up the pencil and composed odes. 
•Choo sey Tffc Bh cinnabar. 




Goc choo i^V -jfc. 

the name of a 

The name of a river. 

"^J^-^ To rely on, to borrow, to help; also 
t^P^^* to bestow. Choo p'hin ^^ £« ^ 

^1 natural abilities. 

Siiey ke chek hwat ch'hong lim, e choo I'Wicn. 











Jp , bae nei''^ tang, chek Whwuy ch'he"^ lim, e choo 
fhec^S hay pahy sai"^, in seasons ofscarcity he 
opened the public granaries, in order to supply 
Ibe people of the Empire. 

Black ; also, this, here, now. Bun 6ng 
kc but, bQn put chae choo hoe 

itin 6ng kaiiu U, e dy bUn k'ham fi"* se wa chi 
tauu hoe, since bQn-6ng is dead, does not his 
literature still remain with me? Said by Con- 
fucius, in the J^ gm Si-ang lun. 

■y. \% Juicy ; also abundant. E' Idechoojun 

mwir^ itun lAm, moistoned with the dews 
and rain. Choo he h^ 5?|v: j '***^> Aaver. 


To produce, to be born, to increase. 

^.^jl* An agricultural implement; a hoe, 
yCpAA Suy y6w choo kc, put j6 t'hiie »e 

suy woo choo ke, u" lal leSh ling t'hiie e Ay nf, 
although we have agricultural implements, there 
is nothing like obtaining the right season. See 

*^^ _L ^ ^^'^°^ ''^"^" 

, J Choo J* '^ fn^ ' " dwarf, one of 
'-— -II „i.»..-« Choo jfi choo jfi, pae 


small stature. 

■jjA ^j choo je choo ji pae giid twa lite, this 
diminutive dwarf defeated us at Te. Sec the 
"& ^ Cho twan. 

*^rj5^ Abundance of grass and vegetables; 
j^7 \ 'his, here, now. 

Diligently, earnestly. Key bfiug jt 
k'he, choo choo wfly seoa chl-a, sun 

choo choo cho hti dy ling, se sun iy hpk seng, 










he who rises at cock-crowing, and diligently 
practices virtue, is a disciple of Siin. See the 
T ^ H5y bSng. 

»^ Form, appearance, talent, ability. 
I^J^r T'heen choo e hak lek peng chin, 
^^1^^ suy jiifin seng tek che seo ^r ^S 

Cheeks choo kap hak lek cho poo kawi, cheio siiy 
jein chi^d tek Ay lAng, when heaven-bestowed 
talents, and powers devoted to learning, are both 
united together, then may one succeed in com- 
pleting a virtuous character. 

'^rfy A new rice field, that has only been 
ipr^ cultivated for one year. 

Choo choc ^ ^, ""' a'''" '" 
advance, unable to make any pro- 

The six kinds of grain are called ^^ 

>* ihes. 

%^C^^ choo, when placed in vessels they 
^|>^ arc called ^ ^Sng. 
Choo ho6 keng chof, e kSiing choo si;ng sik 

rhSh ch'hdn. i ki&ng kip choo ting, the princes 
of the Empire assist in ploughing, in order to 
provide the grain used in sacrifice. 

>^|^ Choo bo6 


'^t ^ to consult loge- 
Choo chi-a ^ ^^ an ex- 


' \S\ Black. Choo e III] :^ , "'■ «"«. black 


Waggons for carrying baggage. Chou 
'eung |j||j ^ ^ I'aggag* fJlggons. 

|Vt> Money, wealth. H"6 choo "^ "f^ , 

*^| treasure. Choo k'h^isr li"o hnuy 

Jr^ ke, e if chwfin l\iiip^<»'^^ ^' 

CHOO 153 



tti huiiiy yung chie"^, too leSh e &,y si chwdn hoiy 
choo, choo-k'hong was fond of spending money, 
yet when it came to the time, he got wealthy 
again. See the ^ pg , So6 ke. 

_ 1% -| The lower hem of a garment, tlie 
^»XIW^ border of a dress. Leep choo seng 

J!^| t6ng ^%^^, "«<^"'' »"« ''«-'/ 
pee"S, payh clwu^S te"S, -he gathered up the 
border of his garment, wlien ascending the hall." 
Lest he should trip and fall. See the J^ ^ 
Seang liin. 

Choo e chija ^ /$[ ^ * '^'"^ ''^ ^^ '""^' " 
person in mourning. 


•CCC A dead tree, still standing erect, a 
dry post. 


The name of a river, whose waters 
are as black as varnish. 

■A small kind of iron pan. Nae teng 

k'ip choo ^ ^fr ^ ^ ' '""^ '^"^ 
leap siy te''d, great pans and small 

ones. See the 

Chew seung. 





Hair on the upper lip-, mustachios. 

Corn collected together 

Te choo 

Ld gei, a spider. 

Hard skin on the hands and feet. 

t^if^ Gira choo VK 'i^ , a long incessant 
rain ; also the name of a river. 








Mftou choo ^ "yW a kind of coarse 
grass or rush ; to thatch a house 
with coarse grass ; also to collect. 

a weight of about eight ounces- 

A weight of about 14 ounces. Choo 
choo ^ ji small weights. 

^»\f-% Choo chea 
•*r>^^ a sigh. 

, an exclamation. 

Choo je sun, t'heen che 
lek soe chae je keung =S ^ ^S 

liy siin, t'hee"^ dy lek soi chae li ay sih, O 
thou Sun ! Heaven's calculations centre in your 
person. See the "T* Ih Hiiy lun. 



Dead grain. 

Choo r 

every one ; a surname. Choo hoe 
"sK Ite a prince of the Empire. 

■» *_ An expletive, an au.tiliary word all 

Ke jfi sd choo soo hoe, che k6 cheang H 

cheat's Jc'hw''cl choo chh/ liy, ke e &y ch'hew 
cheu"^, it would be as easy as looking at this 
( said Confucius, ) pointing to his band. See 
the ~p gra Seang lun. 
Choo hoS 16ng cheen jin 6 t'heen choo gS 

j^ ^to S A T 7c ^ . ''""' ^^ ^y ''^ 

che&n lang hoe hong t^y, the princes of the Em- 
pire may introduce a person to the Emperor. 
See the ~K ^^ Hay beng. Also 1* ]M a dou- 
ble surname. 


Vulg. ke"a : a son, a child; a title 
of respect, a philosopher. Se bin 
choo lae ^ ^ :j- ^^ piiyh sai"« 
ch'hin cheo"^ ke"d lai, the people came forward 
just like children. See the J^. ]^ Seang beng. 
Cho6 son suy gfi, keng se put k'ho put t'hok 











sun, suy ga6, keng ch'h&i/h a"* Vhang ho Vhak, 

though cliildren and grand children are dull, 

the; must not neglect reading the classics, 

Choo put ge kwae, lek, Iwan, sin .^ ^ "^IS. 

4^ 'tj W, ilim hoo choo b6 kong, koo kwae, 

k'hwiit/ lat, hwiln IwSn, sin bing, Confucius 
never spoke of strange things, violent deedj, 

disorderly matters, and spiritual subjects. See 
"«= 1^ fp Lfln g6. 

To bear, to sustain, to overcome. 
Choo scy ^ ^ ^ carefully. 

Vulg. a: anything diminutive as, 
Gu6w choo it 'fZ. goo a, a young 
cow, a calf. To stop: also read che. 

The ancient from of the choo ^X', cha- 

To throw up earth on the root of 
the corn ; also written ^ choo. 

The name of a tree, said tu be the 
kins of the trees. Choo I'ban 
14 imi , sandal wood. 
Ki-aou. choo ;^ 5|^ ^ an appellation signifying 
father and son. 

A mark, to know when we are to 
^ slop", a dol, a spot. Teng ti-ung 

h°6 cho6 »^ t|l ^ "> • '""ff '""g 
«"«■ hiity film, a spark of fire in the laqip. 

^ A master, a lord ; also to rest in, to 
^^^J consider as most important. Chfln 
.^^^m choo && ^^ a ship-caplain. Lo6 
choo j^'t ^ " superintendant of a religious 
feast. Pia choo ^ ^ , * g"esl, and host. 
Afi bin jfi h"6 soo, k'ho wDy bCng choo e 

pByh 8al"S je hit"a hi t'hak cKhltyh Idiig, t'hang 
kong se bing choo i, he who loves the people 





and is found of literary men, may be called 
an intelligent prince. 

Choo teung sin Jt ^^is^j leHh teung sin chb 
yabu kin, consider fidelity and sincerity as of the 
highest importance. See the I-' g^ Siiang iQn. 
Sin choo pa6 |ffl ^^ Wl ^ the anccstorial ta- 
blet, near which it is supposed the spirit/ of 
the deceased settles. 

Choo > 


Water flowing to one pari, to set- 
tle, to fix. Choo e y£ F3 , tettled 
intention. Choo k"h4n \J ^a a 
fixed look. 

Cheng sin kwan choo, put t& gocy boo ch'hoo 
nae thok se chc hwat ^ f|^ ^ ^ /f^ 

sin kurin ehod, h6 ti chain te gwa bin Ay sod boo, 
chig tin chew si Chak ch'kigh ig htoal, to keep 
the spirits settled and the mind intent, not 
galloping after outward engagements ; lliis \s 
the rule to be observed in study. 

To slick to stab, to thrust in ; also 
written 'lUu choo. Bok kam rhoo 
jim kong che hok teung ^i TOf 

^ ^ ^ S^ 4* > '*'" ^''' <'*""' '« '"'"f^ 
li it/ pak lot, I du not dare to thrust a weap- 
on into your belly. 


Disordely unrestriiined loose, wanton 
!<ciig Cng put chok, choo hoC hong 

-^ at"h One bi k'hi, choo hoi Idm sdm, wIuti 
holy sovereigns du not arise, the princes of the 
Empire become disorderly. 

To soak ; to steep in water. Checui 
choo ^mi V^ ^ to «oak gradually 

Sliced flesh, minced meal. 




%^ ^ To interpret, to comment on ; a com- 
Choo -^ J^ mentary. Soo se choo he chip choo 

sod se, choo lAn kong chip choo yea, on the 
four books, choo-he compiled a commentary. 








A worrn that eats wood. 

To fly upwards, to mount up in 
^^ flying- 


Timely rain, fertilizing showers. 



t %^ To melt, to cast metal. Choo ch'heng 

4s 4^ to cast cannon, it kim 

P^ chae yi-ayftng cho6, ban leang kae 

k'ho jip hwan |(p :^ ;^ /^ II ^. ^ # 

J^ pi" "K ^|l J cKhin cheats jdm two. le y'ed 
yeo''S choo, ch6"a ban yeu^S long t'hang jip hwdn, 
just like the metal melting in the foundry, in 
ten thousand forms it can be introduced in to 
the mould. J 

IP^-"" a horse with his feet entangled j to 
' \ Y ^ f ^ tie up a horse. 

Excessive, extreme, over and above. 
K'haou g&n, leng sek, choo keung, 
cho k'hew bing fhe che J^ "=* -^ 

^ j£ ^. :fe J6: R^ |«Z. *'w^^Ad„. 

wa, ha &y bin sek, kiiey Vha&u dy kSung, cho k'hew 
bing sedou liy e, artful words, a smooth count- 
enance, and excessive respect, were what Cho- 
k'hew-bfing was ashamed of. 

~^gl^ To collect, to a accumulate. 



Chad choo mjf uJ^ ^ money, wealth. 





% %^ Rotten flesh. Ye6ra lok ba€ choo 
^S^ ^^f^^,!/eSmko-ok,vutM 
K^\M ch'hadu bAh, to bury old bones and 
put under ground rotten flesh. 

Kind, aSectionatc, soft and mild. 
Wfly jin hoo, ch6o & cho6 "& ^ 

AVk> ^ 3^ ii^ ^, ' '^*'' '^"fi' ^^ "^""^ 

pay, yaou kin twS te choo, for one who is a father, 
the most important thing is kindness. See the 
■^ M Ta5 b'ak. 







LoS choo neaou 

chcaou, a kind of cormorant. 

Choo sek 1& ^ ^ h'eep cheSh, a load- 
stone, a magnet. Chod sek yin chiiera 

t'heih the loadstone draws the steel. 

A hard sort of earthenware. 

Rice cakes; a kind of confectionary, 
also written JA cho6. 

■% ^^ Thatching, a thatched cottage. Geaou 

^T^J^^ wfly I'heen choo s€, m&ou cho6 

4/>^ rhoekae^g^ip-Bf^^ 

dfc -^^ jjl^ , gedou cho hung ley &y si, woo hH'" 

a ch'hott Choi dy kay, when GeSou was Emperor, 

they had thatched cottages, and earthen steps. 


The noise made in calling fowls. 

Self, one's-self; from. Choo kc |^ 
F* ki te, one's-self, a near relation. 
T'hae kap choo wan choo gnae, 6 
tong ch'he jin ch'heen S^%^ '^'^.'^ 

u'An ka te gnae, twa te t&ng ch'hi Jin pw"a kedu 
ge, T'hae-kap vexed himself and reformed himself 





at Tong, where he dwelt in bcBCVolcnce, and 
reraoved to righteousness. See the jSl ^S 
Seong se. 
HwAn soo choo gno jd cbok, ek choo gno JS 

JkT hwdn too che^iig gwd ji chi yea cheling gwd 
ji sew jip, every thing rest* with one's self to 
commence aod with one'S-self to complete. 

A. small mouth. 


Read chwau : a brick, a tile. Oe 
ch3 chok chwan J^ ^ f^ ^ j 
oe chS l^hi ChAou chb chiii"^, Oe- 
cho was (be first who made bricks.. 

1*^1^ Read chwan : to perforate anything 
rv^A^ with an awls to penetrate into. 
_ Chwin che h6 keen |^ "^ ^^B 

^ ehui"^ e na kSen koi, the more we 
penetrate into the doctrine the more impe- 
netrable it appears. An awl, a gimlet, Liiuk 



lak chul"^, a bore. 


A kind of raud fish; with red eyes. 
To creep into the mad. 

Read chwin; the whole. Chf y chw4n 
^ ^ cheaiu chui"S, complete, 
CU'hod hwuy ban chwftn.che bofi ^ ^ji |^ 

this is not a perfectly secure plan. 

Read chwan : to suck. Chwan j6 
^1 chuS^S leng, to suck 


A place where the hair turns or 
curls on the head} loBg tiair. 






Ceremonies observed when drinking 
wine in a village. 

Lofty honourable,-noble. Chun keng. 

Vjfl to honour, to respect. 

T'heen chun ley pe, k'biifin k'hwun 

kwdn ley kay, k'heen li'hwun te"a teOh, the heaven 
is lofty and the earth low, and thus the two 
great principles of nature are fixed. 
So6 bin y6w hoo che chun, yew hot che ch'hin, 
iefin hoe k'ho c wQy bin hoo boe ^ R ^ 

^ ^ ^ -0: , «ai pnyh sail's woo 1160"^ pay 
ay chun, it'oo neu"^ ley dy cWhin, j'ein auu t'hang 
cho pHt/h sal's dy pay boi, in employing the 
people, if one maintain tbe dignity of a father 
and the aOcction of a mother, then may he be 
considered the parent of the people. 

A wooden vessel » a battle made of 

An earthen vessel, in tlic shape of a 
bottle. IIA c wuy kwun, tcnng le 


\, an chw'd iy iciiy ktcun, hay leung It chit 
dy chun, bow shall I comfort you, Sir I But by 
setting down a bottle in the midst of the villa^. 

chuB :*s 

To follow, to obey, to learn. Chun 


seen dng che hwat j6 ko chca, be 
che y6w yea j§, ^ ^ Z j^- 

hwal, ji woo kii^y sit dy, biieg woo chiy Uy soi 
yid, to follow the rules of the ancient kings 
and still to be in an error, is impossible. See 

The lofty appearance of hills, 
















Ag Chun ke ^ |]^' , to s'lt cross legged ; 
^■^1 to sit in a reclining, posture. To 
"^■^ sit in an unceremonious manner. 

*2f Sincerity of mind. Chun tek 'J'^ ^ 

— I * sincere virtue. 

Anything beginning to grow ; thick ; 

Earnest and sincere. 

J^lj** Chun sek ^ ^ , laid up in a cof- 
Vf^i fin ; dark like a long night. 

To instruct repeatedly. Chun chun 

Ipl-^F* -^ ^ /ering- /jo/.- kong, ji heng 
leng e, how repeatedly was it inculcated and 

To instruct any one personally-; to 
repeat a caution. 

To collect words together; an ac- 
|Z|^| cumulation of expressions ; also read 

ftl l^gf The name of a fish ; also read chiin. 

^_* Cold and shivering, to tremble with 
hf^r cold. HSn to geet ch'he chit ^ JjJ 

k'ht chun, to be cold till the teeth chatter. 

-v^fc^ To allow, to grant. M'un chun yf* 

J-tt: , to permit. ^ 

choe ^^ -jH }U| ;^ ^ A-yng- /e_y c/iiJn 

/ft u 

■J Ht Jw J to permit. T'heen cho6 chiin 

cliaoii, the Emperor granted the request. 

To diminish, to cut ofl'. 







To hold to, Chun chat ^^'^ , »" 
hold to economical rules. Kwun 
choo keung keng chun chat, t'hiiy 
jrangj hgng ley ^ =f- M '^k W IF. 
1^ ?M PJi 0J1 fM *"""" <^'""' keung kdng, chiin 
chat, I'hty neo"^ Ung, 6 bing Hi/ soi, the good 
man is raspectful, economical and yielding in 
■order to illustrate the rules of propriety. 

Even; a rule, a pattern; to adjust. 
Chunsoh l|1p ^^ a carpenter's line. 
Ke keef bok lek yeen, key chekwuj 
ke chun sin, e wily hong win p6ng tit Eij- ]i^ 

-k m 3S. i^ u^ ueet chin bak chew ay kliwiiy 
lal seo swii kwuy ki chAn sdh, i cho si kak, 
c^"S", pal"S kwa tit, having carried to the utensil 
the powers of vision the ancients added the 
■compass and Tule, and carpenter's line in order 
to make things square, and round, level and 
•straight. See ^ 131 Beng choo. 

Respectful ; to respect, numerous, 
collect together. Keung keng jc 
'^»"'"^J>|5:i!nlf ,t°honorand 


The name of a bird of prey. 

A very swift bird, the name of a bird 
that is rapid in its flight. Teung 
ne chae tin, yew chun chip e tin 
ho^ che'teng ^ ^^Wl^M'^T 

chiin cheaou chip te tin hoi hy te"d, when Con- • 
fucius was in the tin country, there was a flock 
of swift birds collected on the Hall of the prince 
of Tin, 

.V kind of petticoat ; also to honour. 











^ * A man of superior wisdom and talent; 
i| >>^ one eminent for wisdom. Chiin 
1^^^^ ki-'et f^ ^ a man of extraordin- 
ary talent ; a hero. 

Chun kijet chae wuy, cheli t'hcen hay che soo 
kac wat, jC gwln lip & k6 tiiaou ^ ^ ^ 

-F iMl ilB cAun keel Ay Idng thai wuy, chek 
fhee"^ ay &y Ch'ak ch'Imyh fdng chd poi htc"a hi 
ji gw&n lip te i. &y ledou, when a man of su- 
perior talent is on the throne, then all the 
learned men in the Empire will be pleased, and 
will desire to stand in his court. 

Soperiorhto overcome ; slrange ; won- 
derful ; the same as the above. Tek 
Chun wilt k'hek, ;j;H: >p Q ^ , 

m mil ye"d, kong ked l^hek, to obUin. a victory 

is called overcoming.. 

The same as ^ chun. 

>^ Lofty, high > also stern, urgent. Chiih 
Jl^^ kek i I'hecn i^^=f-^, *«^^'' 
^C chi A-aoi Chee"^, high as the hcavcnj. 
hi bo5 wfly geam chun '^^^ ^^l\^, 
chd k}»"a boo chd geim chitn, an oflSccr should 
study ta be stern and urgent. 

>fc Lofty,, long, imiKjnding, dangerous. 
|J|^ San gftm ko chun llj j^ ^ ^, 

JVl j„,»a ya„. ictcdm chitri, the hills and 
caverns, are lofty and dangerous. 



Wise, prudent. 

unning rabbit % also an animal 
that eats tygers and leopards. 






To be finished, to be concluded. Soo 
(i wan ohiln ^. ^ -jr- ^fe so5 i 
ivdn leaou^ the business is brought 
to a conclusion. 


^ J"^ Deep ; to deepen ; to dig a welldecper. 
•^/A^ Soo chiin cheng, ch'hut, cheQng jfi 

\0^ y..mche|^J^^jiiJ-;^]fn 
T«^ "^ J tai e k'hicul chai"S, kaou ch'hul, cheUng 
uou Je yiem e, they ordered him (Sim) to di*; 
a. well deeper, and when he had made his es- 
cape sideways, tfrey proceeded to cover him with 
earth) (thinking that he was still in the well). 
See the ~n '^ Hay bong. 

V ^^ To hesitate, to be midecided j. 
^■^^l^ also read chDn. Chiin sfln wuy siiuk 

0^2^ it M f4: IS • '"'"' '""' **"" '-^ 

ki"d k'hi, tcity fhey, to hesitate, going backwards 
and forwards, fearing and reticing. 

Chun > 

To dig anything deeper: to deepen ai 
ditch, in order to let the water flow. 
Chiiu k'hecn kiiey ku ch'hwan ^& 

^ i^ 105 III ^ **""^ '■*'*'"' '^*'*^'' *■'"'"' 
ch'hdng Iwd chtiy ch'hut''^, to deepen the ditches 

ia the fields and enlarge the streams. 

An officer whose business it was to 
encourage bfisbandry. T'66a chiin 
che he [33 ^ £ ^ , *'*»«<»& 
chd ch'hdn dy chiin A-K'''a /iie"a hi, the officer 
for encouraging, agriculture vas greatly pleased. 


• >j^ The remains after eating; the surplus 
Vy^ of food, what is left. .Sou k'hi-uni; 
S^\^ hek chiin f, koc put i ch'cia ^ */{L 

^ ^ #. tk T- Ja '&> '*"* ^^ "-^"* 

k'hedng kS"a hek ehed. ti cheiih ttn dy, ehea u"' 
k^d lai habu, when food ( is presented ), fearing 
lest it much be the leavings (of the prince) it 
should therefore not be offered to the gods.— 

8 * 









A large fiae horse. Bok 6ng sfing pat 
chun ma yfiw piien t'heen hay ^S 

bok Sng Ic-hed pUyh chiln hay, thil Vb6 pUn mw"a 
t'hee"S uy, Bok-ong mounted on the eighth 
excellent horse travelled throughout the whole 

^^ -_^ Vulg. chui"S: to wind through the 
ffl^ mud. G6 chiin jip ne j^ f^ ^ 
^oi-^jp v|g ^ hi chufS jip nxsi"a Choi, the 
fish o-lided into the mud. 



To look and stare at. 

A ditch of water.; a dyke. Sdy chiin 
'J^iJll chuy chAn, an aqueduct. 

»^!^ To cut, to engrave. Also written 

, chun. 




^ _ To preserve, to remain in existence, 
X*^_ to retain. Ko chun •^ 'j^ ^ *" 
f^ enquire after one's health and pre- 

Siin fhtJen chiia chfin, gek t'heen chi;& bong 

uy Ung chAn, gek fhee^S Ay ling b&ng, he who 
complies with the dicta,tes of heaven will be pre- 
served, bathe who disobeges hAiven will perish. 

The hands held, restricted, embar- 

Read ch'hwAn : a ship, a boat, a vessel. 
'^^— Teong kok che ch'hwAn t'biJet jin, 
V* h8 Ian fhi-et ch'hwan che jin Pp 

/£"«■ «u"fl chwa chAn t'hcili l&ng, ho Ian t'heih 

Chan chwd ling, in China they have paper ships 

ctnd iron men, but in Europe they have iron 


ships and paper men ; meaning that the ships of 
the one country are weak and the men robust, 
while in the other country it is just the reverse. 







To bore through, to perforate. 

jfc _ A soldier, a private soldier; done, 
y^)% finished, at the end : suddenly. Goe 
I k'he wfly chijang, e peng chut tong 

■^ goi Idii chu cheilng, kap peng chut lung 
k'hwUn chedh, Gofi-k'he was a general who slept 
and ate with his soldiers. 
■Ch'hong chut -^ ^ , busy, having no leisure. 

A body of a hundred men. 

The ancient form of 2S chut, also 
written 3c chut. 




To hold, to seize by the hair of 
the head. 

Anything in a cave; about to rush 
out of a cave. 

A lofty and dangerous hill. Chut 
peng ^ ha ^ to precipitate. 

Pek chut ^ ^ , a kind of medi- 

To langh at, to ridicule; to inform,' 
to announce. GoS ong hwin cbo5 
bwat chey chut sim se ^ ^ j^ 
1^ /-^ ^ ^ 1^ •^ , ffoe S"g *■'•«» '•'"'5 htLBt 
chiykok ch'heb sin se, when the king of the Ga« 
country returned from fighting against the Chey 




country, he laughed at Sin-se (because be bad 
dissuaded him from going). 




yj^ a glutinous kind 

» % The capital of a pillar; to insert in 

H|^2fJ* " hollow space. Chiit gwut i^" J^J] , 

II a blunt piece of timber without 

branches, to insert in any hollow space. 




To rub to grind. Chut k'hd l|f( ^ , 
to rub out. 

An awl, anything pointed. Chuy to 
chc bwat, cheang chin ch'he che 

cheem to ij/ boiif, theang chin Chitili e, even to 
the point of a knife or an awl ( I. e. the minutest 
thing) all will be taken from thcni. 
Sun bo6 lip chuy che tey, e yew t'been hay 

Ic'hea cheem Hy Ifj/ t woo t'he^^ hay, SOu had 
not so much ground an to «el up « bodkin on, 
and yet he obtained the Empire. 





An iron bar, a crow bar ; aho to beat. 
Choo hac sew soo sip kin fliifet 
chuy, chuy sat chin p'hc ^ ^ 

hae kUii^S te eh'hiw uiui"S »e rhap kin ting &i/ 
t'heih chvy, boiyh ehui/ t'hat chin fhi, chou-hae 
kept in his sleeve an iron bar of forty pounds 
weight, in order to beat to death chin-p'h«, 
Sec the ^ 1^ So6-ke. 

Great, large, 

^ The fleshy part of a bird's tail ; 
also fat; and a bare bone. 


% .,^Mm ^ small kind of chesnut; also read 
Chuy a5tK* ^^"^- ^*" y^" chuy, sip yew leng 

lat 0, sip tey wou leng, in the hilly parts are 
chesaut and in the damp grounds are rushes. 

Chuy pL^ H~ Kaou chuy -^ Jjtt ka chuy, a dove. 

Ur^^ a fowl's beak « to suck, to peck « also 
to know. 

Vulg. cVhiy: the month, a heak. 

% Read suy : water; a surname. Chw4n 
*ylv *"y A^ '^ > '"^"'"^ cWy, a fountain 

^ ^^ of water. 
WOy yew gwAn t'ho4 hwat luy laft 'Jftz&iK' 
IPJ ^J^ Jk ^ , tBiiy woi gwAn I'hauu wih chuy 
Itti^ only from the fuuDtain head, doe* the liv- 
ing water come. « 

To be drunk. Chiw chuy ^p^^ 
dronk with wine. Ytem ycAu yl^ii 
vim, put chuy bofl kwuy JH^ |§t 
^ Ik ^ S55 fe {^f , ycem cheuk m<,r> y„i^. 
hit ch'eih l.noA chiiy, M hiityh Uxiff', getting 
enough to drink of an ev^ping, men will lipt 
return before they are intoxicated. 

r»\*ll H<a<l Mil: |r> cut Up, tO CUt off. 

Co collect together. 

o be sorrowful, to be dislressod. 
Clin sek chi-fiou cbfly ^ f^ f |fe 
tZ , '^o countenance cast down with 









Lew heang kew t'han koe pok hoo che cheaou 

laoA heitng kaau ay t^ho k'hwuy Ic'hw'^il ch'hia 
hoo Hy cheaau chuy, Laou-hiiang sighed nine 
times, on observing the distress of tlio cliarioteer. 

Distressed, pained. Chi-aou chuy c 

gcik Cheng jt.J^-^J$lX' 
cheAou chuy t: ]w geak &y rheng, dis- 
tressed bj- an oppressive governBieut, 

^y^ Collected to2;<ther ; the dangerous 
^^2CS% appearance of hills, 

-JjP'J^ Distressed, grieved ; the same as 
AJ|5| >\^^ chuy and |^^ chuy, 

very small. ChQy 
f^, a small country. 

ChQyje -^ 
t<f jekok^ 

Read suy : who, what, which, whose. 
Se suy J^ III ^ che chuy, who is it .' 
Choo wfly sfly, wat, wfly tgung y6w 

kong, se teong y&v>, who are you Sir? 
answered, I am Teung-yow. 
Se suy che ko e ^ ||^ ^^ 5^ jl^ , che chuy 
4y k'diy sit, whose fault is it ? 

Read che : paper. Sin che j= ^^, 
sin chwd, letter paper } also written 
@ ch6. 
Ho5 han, ch'hae lun ch'hd poe to ch'haon 

chok che ^ ^i f ft ji ^ ^ W i¥ 
feff- hoe hin teaou ley. ch'hwd. lAn ch'ho poi 
p-hah ch'haou chb chwd, in the letter Han dy- 
nasty ( A. D, 250 ) ch'hwa.lun tore cloth and 
beat it small, in order to make paper. 


Water falling from a high place; 
a cataract. 


Read sda r a snake. 

A path between the paddy fields. 
Seng chwii tju" jfif eAe"d chwa, 
all in a row. 

Read se : to swear. Chew se ^P ^ 
chew chwd, to take an oath.. Lim le 
^X soo yeak ek wit se -^ -^ M ^\ 

jiV pj yT . la po cha boi sae k'h'ea sea yeak, 
yea king chwa, men and women making private 
engagements together, may also be called swear 

y> Read cheen : to boil. CiiiJeu ISy 

A?CV\ K'hipsily cheen t4y jefin Ifiy cheaou 

- Ik i^ W. ^- '1 # ^5 ^' ""'"' ''''■" 

ehw^a Idy, SCO Uy ch'hd chSi kwm"S ch'hdyh, 
draw some water in order to boil the lea, and 
set fire to the lOg, in order ts throw light on 
the book.. 

tRead chftn s a cup, a drinking vessel ; 
also written chka^^chw^d. Yit 
Chan ch'heng tay — ^.]^^^, 
chit chw"d ch'heng tdy, a cup of good tea. 

!j^ 1% V A-, Head chin : to praise. Chok chan 

P J^^ oration, in one's praise. 

^ _f Read chwln : a fountain. Siy chwan 

Chv/'d ^ ^;^,cWycft,c''d, a fountain of 

'y|\|. water, 

Jin chfte cVheng chw^n sek siiang, t5 t'hong 

t'hijen kin gwitk'hwut \ -^ y^ ^ ^ _£.^ 

cheoh ling, e dy to ey t'hong kaou tliea"S a-,„ 
gofyh k'hwut, the man is humbly seated on a 
stone by the side of the pure fountain, but bi& 
system of dqctrine is lofty enough to penetrate 


CHWAH lai} 


to the root of Heaven, and to the cavern of 
the moon. 

>^ Embers. H"6 Ifiw chan >^ '^ ^, 

Chw^d -"^rtl^ **'*J' ^"" chiii"d, 4bet« are stUI 

5f r^ in embers the fire. Hno kaou chan 

4S M .^ ^ Jiui-y ta c/i»"iU a sraajl fire or 


^ • %■% Read ch4n : an overplus, a remmant 

fhlO^^d O"^^ "'^ food. ChSn poey 6 leng chi-a. 

. /^ 1^ ^' 1^ 5^11. »*«''''' r>"^y 

bofi ling b&h,. an odd cup of drink, and some 
cold roasted meat. 

3^^y Read cheen : to sprinkle. E' kcng 

Chw'^d ^g^ heet cheen jtn J5[ g^ jfil j^ A, 

||X%'^^ '**<! a™ /fK-lin «* hoit/h eh«i"a ling, 
to sprinkle -one's life's blood on a person. 


v^ \'\ Read chiien : cheap, easily procur- 
U^U able. Be cheen ;Jj^ J|j^_, Ad c*ir"a, 
7\-^^^ the rice is cheap. 
Che<?n chck ma6 che, kwily. chok put k'ho 

biy e, Aicii^ chite «"• fhang,. if it is cheap, 
buy it, if dear^ refrain. 

Chwac to^ fl^l to slip down. T'hap 
t'hoC chwac ^ ^ ||p^ mh I'haiu 
ekwae,. to fall oa one's head. 

The mootfa full of fbod^ 

To spout out S<iy chwSh chut ^K 
SfH Hj water spilling or running 

Ka chwHh 

a cockroach. 


Read cb'hae : to differ^ to fall short. 
Cheng ch'hae bdo kelo '^ y^ 
M ^ .^ ^ Cheng chwih bi jwa 
chaj/, it does not come far short.. 

Ch.oe ch'hae ^P^k ■ f^"" fJf'^'y ^^ sprain, 
to sljp aside. , . 

• - »:-; To be givjen ,up to ofie thing ; to be 
Ghwan l^S tent oo anything; to engross whol- 

" \A Ijj iGbwan spp ^e che 3[ i\ji ^ 

pt a jnind ,l^en,t on, a^d the will given up 
to anything. See ~pi ^ Hay beng. 
Hin bwat long tok chwan kw4n. seen peng 

boiy, long IXh chwan kwin gim. pai"^,. in the 
latter part of the Han dynasty. Tang-tuh 
engrossed the authority, and seized on the 
ccins of government. 
G^ j6 h"6 choo yOng, cheen j6 h''6 choo chwan 

jt ai ka te J/Ung, hai/ cheen j& ai choo chican, 
the stupid like to get themselves into employ- 
ment, and the mean like to have every thing, 
their own way. See the UJ jjlj' Teung yilng,. 





The name of a water plant. 

fff ^^^ The name of a large fish. 

Vulg, chut^S' a brick \ also written 

chwan. Wfc chwan ^ ^ 

hei. chwCS> bricks and tiles. 

^ % ^ To display, to commence, to set 

"3 * forth. This character is used in 

1 1 f-3 niodern letter writing, where at the 

close of an epistle, it is said, kin ch'hoo chwan 

bfln ^ lH^ ^ Hf] '^'''* '* '■espcctfully set 

forth for the information of such a one, &c. 

The whistling of birds; the scream- 
ing of a parrot ; to turn ; a sound. 

Vulg.. tooi"S : to turn round, to 
return. Wun chwan yff jjM to 
transports. Kcw cbe be tck, te£a 

S a 




chwin hwan ch'hek ^ "j^ ^Ic /fS 
Jw iH|| kiw e bSeif til, pw^tt tooi"^, chwdn 
tooi"^, yew htedn to tooi^S, seeking lier, with- 
x>ut success, he turns and turns, and turns 
again. See the ^ S Kok hong. 
Han-an-kok, chwan ch'heuk e wfly che pe 

icun chwdn vVhek e cho leo^S ti, Han-an-kok 
transported -grain, -in order to make prepara- 



>7^^ Vulg. chnVS : to hore through, to 
^Cl perforate ; an awl, a bore. 

^^ Vulg. chuf^: the whole complete, 
/^^^^ fully prepared, to secure against 
_7P -^ all accidents. WSn chSn ^ ^ ^ 
tvdn chm"S, to complete ; a surname. 
Seng 6ng ke soo. Log ciThut ban chwan ^ 
£ ^ ^, ^ ^ ^ ;^^ rf«r dnr kej/ang 
too, e dff boe ch'hut ban chui''S, a philosophic 
king in commencing an undertaking, will pro- 
duce plans proof against all accidents. Also 
written ^ chw4n, 

€hwan kwun hok but ^ W M y^ chwni"S 
kwun pak lak se, the whole army was over- 
thrown and annihilated. 




Ak chwan 


name of an 

ancient genius, in the time ef ^£ 

A sacrificial animal, perfect and 
without blemisli. 

Vulg. <fhu<"A : a fountain. Suy chw&n 
T|J^ 7|C ^ ' '^^y chw"d, a fountain 
_^^J^^ of water. 
Gwan chwan hwiin, put sea tew yea -te ^ 

^M^M'^%',^^' *"'''^" '^^"^"^ *•""" 

htt'un bo hai/''h jit mai"^, a fountain of water 



bubbling up, without cessalionj day or night. 
See the ~lv j^ Hay beng. 

To inform, to announce ; to publish ; 
also a work, a business. E hoe 
sam choo chea che chwan S; ^^ 

dy sey kd dy soo, my views are very differents 
from what those three gentlemen have stated. 
Sew chwan ^^ jS^ to write a history. 
Jim kwun ke Chae gwin, pek sew k'hin te chwan 

kwun twd te Chai givdn, pdyh t'haou mo k'hin 
kang ti chuian, Mr. Jim dwells atT'haegwan, 
and though his head is grey, he is still busilly 
employed publishing works. 

The same as the above. 

To eat and drink. Yew chew soo 
seen seng chwan ^ 1^ ^ ;^ ^ 
t^'^ ^^j ""''' ^*^"' P""'"^ fioe sin sa'"^ 
cheSh, having wine and food, to give it to 
one's elders, to eat and drink. See the |-* ^&t 
Seiing lun. 




any one. 


To tranquillize a business, to manage 
a matter to select words: to ex- 
plain anything ; to converse with 

T« turn on an axis. 




The small posts an the tops of beams. 
Chong bun teung ke ch'hae, san 
cheet cho chwat |^ ^ JFJJ ^ ^. 
||j 'gft I® W' chong biiu teUng ch'hong so chae 
hoe twd koo k'hed, woo wd sw^a te chat d, wd 




cMy ch'kaiu le I'heaou d, Chong-bun-teung made 
a place for a tortoise to dwell in, and painted 
hills on the Joists, and water plants on the posts. 
See the J^ p^ Seang lun. 


Dull, not clever, unskilful. Soo yew 
Ian c, jin hwun k'haou chwat ^a 

woo oh K'hwae lung huun U'hd tun, things are both 
difficult and easy, men are sometimes clever, and 
sometimes unskilful. 






The grass beginning to grow. LSn 
chwat kSgiy ^^^^, "i" 
hiea too a ch'hut e ay guy, the ISn 
flower just budding forth its leaves. 


To cut oflf; To exterminate; strange; 
supereminent. Chwat t(;4ng poe twan 

4\\\^ |g ^ ti M - '■*"'"' '^"^ p'^ "'•«'' 

to cut off the long, in order to make up for 

the short. 

Beet chwat jg^ Wi, to exterminate, to annihilate. 








He, she, it; an expleti%'e; a surname. 
Also written *^ e. E yin keng 6 y6w sin 


e yin chSk ch'hdn, li yivi tin &y i>>"a yid, E-yin 

ploughed in the wtlderneu. of yiw-sin. 

■fc Clothes; that which is worn «n the body. 

~jt>^ E hok -^ flS, '"" ^''"'^* ^P^""^'- ^ 
■^ #^^^ se4ng chae soo ^^ ^t ^£ -^l > y'" 

cheu"S tt seo^S, the clothes are in the box. 
■ : .! 'ft',' 
. ^ To rest and rely on; to follow, to comply. 

r K^" -fc , fhdn i jin, to comply with the 
dictates of benevolence. 


An expression of sorrow, and pain, -SQn 

chSng chek he £ seng ac, wily e chek 

iV*^ e choo hwac chin |l|Q, *ff ||J ^| ^ 

4 ^. ii S DJ ^ 'U ft 1^, »"" '^"^ ''y 

ching chek Au"fl At sai"^ at, gek Idng Hy i chek e 
choo k'hi"^ chin, complying with men's feelings, they 
are pleased and bear good-will towards one; but 
crossing their views, they are pained, and conceive 


To return. 



In, upon, at; from; to dwell in; an 
expletive. Also read t : a snmarae. Chd 
i to, kc 6 tek, c 6 jin, yew 4 gay' 

lim chi li lit chip lim te tek, t'*in,< jin, Chil t'ho 
t'hS eh'hiw giy, have the will bent on learning, keep 
a firm grasp of virtue, follow the dictates of bene- 
volence, and amuse yourself with th(> fine arts. Sec 

••"^ _h p|^ S«°ff ""'• 

Sam lein bo6 kac £ boo cbe ti^ k'ho wDy liaou e 

»"o nei"^ bu kdy i nei"^ pSy 6y tit, t'hang- king woo 
haoii i, for three years not to liwerve from ene's 
father's way, may be called, filtaf piety. Set- the 




The, same ji»_ Ihe abyyc. 

^ "' l^h ))2i ' """*' : ^'•■''"* c n« j« put 

1 ^ /e /ii«'"ri I hoi Ji bu IS. coming out of 
the ilimc and yet not ^[nuddy. 9aid of the water- 
lily, which grows ip marshy ground, and yet look^ 
so clean. 




Thfe natne of a river. 

To groan. 



Ak e ffl 

^ a forced laugh; a strong 



The name of a •ivood. 

The streaks on rippling water; also syno- 
niinous with ^^ hey. 

The waving ippeardnce, of- a fl>^; also 
the appearance of leeting clouds. 

An exclamotion of admiratib'n -Ar regret. 
E hc^^, alas! alas! 


A healer ; to heal. E seng ^ ^ , a 
doctor; also written ^ e. Jin je boo 
h6ng, put k'h6 6 chok boo e J\^ jfg 

Sim, ft™ Vhang hoe e cho sae kong sin sai^S, if a 
man has not a settled mind, he cannot become a 
conjuror or a doctor. 

E "n^ST" A kind of water fowl. 

An expletive; a particle; also to be, to 

An exclamation of one wounded or 

A particle; in, at, upon; more fltequently 
read 6; a surname. 




By, with; to use, to do; in order to. 
Te ho j6 ho, put e ley chiiet che., ek 
put k'ho heng yiii ^^p |-p jf^ ;(p."^ 

W 11 ® ;t . ^jli^ ^ pT # iH ' ''•- -"" ""' 

ji cKheng ch'heiig h6, M Vho Iki/ lot chdn chat c, yea 
bey ke"a, to study harmony and nothing elso, without 
regulating it by propriety ; this will not do. See . 
th'' ± 1^ Se-ang iQn. 

Kwun so6 sin e ley, sin soo kwun e tcung ^ (^ 
E 1^)1 il. g ^ ^ i^ t> . J'n l^r^un sa^^in 
sin e lei/, fin sin hok sae jin Icwun e teung, a pVince 
should employ his minister according to propfiefy, 
and a minister should serve his prince with fidelity. 
See the j^ g|w Seang lOn. 

S^ k« scy e ll ^ ^ J^ , ''''•»'"« ^ '^^ V"' 
observe what he does. 

B6y e Wj" ]il(, therefore. E' chd W ^, until^ 

eten to. E' hoe Igl ^^ , » aoi, afterwards. '^ 

^^T/T^ E ' j6n ^ ^H the seeds of the e plant, 

W J^ in shape like peirls. 

The appearance of walking alone ; the 
body bent. 

The name of a wood ; also a surname. 

Kee ^\ 
a gem. 

the name of a stone, like 

The name of the first sovereign of the 
"g" , hay dynasty ; A surname. E' sew 


sQn jiiang, yew t'heen hay 
=^ vfei' Tc T* ^ S6IU siiH, Ay ned"S woo Vhee"^ 
ay, E received what was yielded to him by sim and 
obtained the Empire. 

The same as -^ e. 






To rely on, to incline to one side, to 
lean againt. E' wa, to confide upon. 
Chae t, chek keen ke 6 fi hfing yea 

•|E M ll'l 1 S f^ hk Ht -til- '""^ '^ '''''-' 

ehelc k'hw"d e wd' te hw''d ch'hd, when he was in 
the carriage, he might be seen leaning on the cross 
bar. See the "Ti Im Hay iQn. 
Bo6 p'heen, boo 6, Ong to ch^ng tit M ^ ^ 

f^ i li! IE ii^ J *" P'''^^"^ *^ "''' ^ ^^ '" 
che"i til, without partiality and without inclination, 
^he royal way is correct and straight. See the 
Scans se. 



Kaou e g \^, a chair. E'l'hadn, ^ 
a stool. E' teaSu ^^ ^|^, a bench. 

To drag along on oue side. Chin sit 
kfi lok, I6w kwiiy teiik j6 e che ^ 

' chin a"' kei"S e dif lok, la6u h-wi^ lcie"d ji k'han e, 
• • the Chrn country lost their deer, when Lew-kwiiy 
•C ij^* q^er took and dragged them along. 

To give, to l)eslow i the same as |f|. e. 






Boo 6ng tae lac sou hae sty sck c 
chiia, wfly sj-iin jin se hod pg ^ 'J\^ 

boo ing Iwa te lai $i hai, lij/ sod hae chid, tote lok 
ho dy ling ti Vl>dh poo, Bo6-0ng bestowed great 
gifts on all within tlie four seas, but amungsl the 
largesses he conferred, those to good ^ople only 
were the richest. See t'^c H ^ Chew se. 

To walk awry ; to walk in succession. 

^Lpit» Hod e ^ "0* the name of a plaotx the 

I " y plantago ; now called ke cbeSn ch'ho 
f^^ "^S ■mj |& , ch'hea ching ch'haou, the 
grass before the carriage. 

loo 6 ^ '{^Q J a kind of screen, placed 
before a door or window, to prevent 
persons looking into an appartment. 




Vulg. hoe : rain. Lok e ^ ^^ m hoe, 
to rain. T'heen yfiw jefin chok yin, 
p'hae jeSn bay e, chek beada put ji:€n 
bin Che e J^ .Jll| ^M f^ #• ifU B T M- I'J 

Sf '1^- m^ 1^- '^ ^ > ''^^"^ *^'" ^'^^ "''" '"'■'^"' 
p'liad jein ISh hoe, chek lew put jein hin k'hi f, when 

the Heavens become overspread with clouds, and 
send down plentiful showers, then the corn sud- 
denly springs up. See the _£^ ^C Seang beng. 

The excess of weeping. 

E' lo6 ^a ^ "*'' straightened, crooked. 
E' chiia soo che tofi ffi j^ f |^ ^ ^ , 
a'" lit 6g lang, tat e laoA gay, crooked 
people were set to sweep the ground. 
.^M^ To stop, to finish, to end ; extreme. JS e 
E ' 1^^ ffil G» J '**"" '^"°' **"*' """* nothing else. 
^^^ Bofl c, chek 6ng hofi M £^. ^ij 3l 
J|^ lind stcih chek Sng Ajf lo hoi, if you will not 
desist from your enquiries, then I shall refer you 
to the royal way. See the J* ^^ Sermg bijng. 
T'hiiiing nfi put wfly e sin chiia f »j» /g /fN J^ E, 
-yt ^ leung ni bd iiilyh chd k\hah lim &y soo, 
Confucius did not do anything that was to the 
extreme. See the ' |n J^ Hay beng. 
Je ch'hoo jfi e c ^fl |J;l^ fj^ j^ ^s^, an nty Wa i^S. 
thus and thus only. 
%\^ Vulg. hoe: ta give, to bestow, to pro- 
Yjlpl^ mise ; also with, together with. K'ho 
^ "X 6' 6, Vli6 6 bod e, 6 seang bwQy pj* 

t'hang hoe Idng, woo si a seii"S ft"' Chang hoi Idng 
hoi idng, teang yin hu-uy, sometimes we think we 
may give a thing, and sometimes we think we may 
not, when to give would be excessive genero»ily. 
See the (> 3? Han beng. Also written J5f i. 

Wuy gno e je yew s5 boo jjg ^ ^ ^ -^ TE 
Jb lok t'ok gud kap It woo an niy iai"S hoo, you 
only and I arc thus. Sec the J^ pj^ gijapg iQn. 


8 S 




A covering a canopy, to spread over. 
E' ,^31^ E' tew ^ ^ J the universe. E' liiey 
^ fe ffqjintheworld. E'bOn^^j 

a double surname. 

Careful ; to rely on. 

^^ Feathers. E' e'k ^^ ^, wings. E' ni6 
E' >y|^l put hong bwaii chea put Ifing ko hwuy 

sit m& bo hong 7nw"d ched, chew beg kw&n piiey, 
Tfhen wings and feathers are not rich and full, it is 
impossible to fly high. 

Hesitating, doubtful. 

The name of a country. 

Hoo e -Sr 

a kind of screen. 

E' hew P^p^lJ> the groaning of a sick 
person ; internal sorrow. 

An intention. 'E soo t^ M, thought. 
Che e ;^ ^} design. Choo e tfc J& 
#^^|^ purpose. 

Seen sfing J^^ ^ ^ M iMl ^ , '"^ «e"S" ch'hong 
sing sit e dif i, first purify the intention. See the 
-^ ^ Tae hak. 

A kind of swallow. Bok te kfiejS ^ 

^0 ^ II i| , "" '^"^ ' '« ^J^' '">* 
knowing that it was such a kind of 

An exclamation intimating dissatisfaction 
and discontent; a cry of pain. 


^{■^ ^ A certain plant. 'E j!n ■w 1~ the seeds 
\-£9 of the water lily. 

'E pe 

} few, scarce. 

A dark and windy appearance of the 

j% ^ To kill, to die, to put to death. Teng 
E /flT-—^ pek ge jeQng, chefin hoe kek che, chin e 

J^ teng pek giJeUng hwan, ching aou phUh e, chin si, 
the prince of the Teng country attacked the Jijflng 
foreigners, and beat them before and behind, till 
they were all dead. See the ^ -jS Chd twan. 


Rice heated and in a state of fermentation. 
Soo e jS ae, put sit '^ ^ [fll |^ 
A^ '^ ^ POO'"^ jt^'nh l&^> j^ ICheep, b6 
boii/h che&h, when the rice was heated by fermentation 
and sour he would not eat it. See the _£2. gm 
Seang lun. 

•^ _ Constant and fine, permanent, good, ami- 
^5Vx^ able, and virtuous, Gno kfiw e tek 

p-ix^ 51s ^ ^ ^' ^""^ "^ *" ^^ '*'*■' ^ 

love amiable virtue. 

h— * The offspring of a pig: a young pig. 


E^JO """ 

, indolent; \a]g,i/ei, tired, fatigued, 



Clotted blood ; blood coagulated into one 

A small swelling; aboil, a pustule. Tan 
e chea t'hong, yim yeak chea k'hoe 

i dy i'he"i. che&h ySh dy k'hoe, to fillip a boil is 
painful, and to drink medicine is bitter. 





A quiver and case for holding a bow and 
arrows. Peng put kae e Si ~^ Ha ^^ , 
peng a'" Chang thaou e dif i, ^ soldier 
must never take off his quiver and bow case. 


^^ A final particle, used at the close of a 
#'^^ sentence 5 an expletive. KS soo cbe wuy e 

this is the meaning of it. 

Teaou bun to, sek soo k'ho ^ ^ ^ J^ ^ ^ 
HT A mSjf^h chae fhe^a to, mdi^S hwuC^ si yea 
Chang, in the morning having heard the right doctrine, 
in the evening we may by content to die. See the 
' h 1^ Seang iDn. 

P^ ,f^ To be satisfied, to be full, to be content; 
E ^Og^ content. Boo flng k'hek yin chok e ko 

k'hek yi^A yin tedou, chd i 6y ko, when Bo6-6ng 
conquered the Yin dynasty, he compo«ed the song 
of content. See the j^j |^ Chew g6. 

To eat to the full, to feast. 

Sore eyes: a cataract in the eye; the 
name of a medicine good for the eyes. 
Ho5 seng jfi i yit bok ^ ^ JIJl ^ 
_~ Q , hing hoe soi"S, ji pm^S cta'l bak, when the 
queen was born, she was blind of one eye. 

■^ To clothe, to pnt on clethes. L6 chc& 

•E yj^ ^P^ksitjeuk^^^^,/^^, 

^X^^^ laou l&ng ch'hing poi pek chekhbih, the 
old people would then be able to wear silks, and 
eat flesh. 

To rain, to rain upon. *E gno kong tefin, 

|>| sny kip gn6 soo ^ ^ 4!^ ffl ^ /j^ 
J9 5t[^^ iih hoe gwd dy kong ch'hdn, 
suy kip kaou gwd dy sae k'hea dy, let it rain first 
upon our public field, and then let it come npon 
our private field. See the /V\ f^ Seaou gnay. 


Profitable; advantage. 







In, at, upon ; to go towards. Also written 
"35" J fi. E 6 ch'ha6 pin, Iftm kan che 
pin, I e ch'ha£ cho, 6 pe hfing 16 •^ 

'fr ffl^ •* '"^ *■ *^ *"" '''"' '^ ^"^ ^^ ^' '"^ *'*^ 

cKhai chdy ch'haou, te hwUh Uy hing 16, come and 
let us gather the Pin vegetable, on the borders of 
the southern shore; come and let us gather the 
water plants, in the running strearaes. See ^ |I? 
Kok hong. 

^^ I, myself. T'hecn seng tek e £, hwftn tot-y 
-T* k*j««h6^^^^^ 
>! %fQ^m> ''1'^'"^ '""^ ^hiy Uy 

tek hoi gwd, hwin tiiiy e hval gwa t^a aei"h tae kS, 
Heaven has bestowed this degree of virtue upon me, 
and what can Uw4n-toey do to me. See V 
Seang I On. 

Even, equal. 

^ •^•m Plain, and even. Tae to sIm 6 -^ nf 

^ ^ :> tita to It, chin chai pdVS kap 
k'hwde, the great doctrine is very plaid 

and even. 

T8ng t 

, a kind of insect. 

^ ^1^^^ ^°*^ ^ ■% 1^ J * mother's sister. Sey « 
■^ VTw ^Jil'* ^'f^'* sister? also a con- 

^Z^^^^ cubine. 

* >l wfe *^^ ^ A^ in* *^'' "*"* of a hill, towards 
^^.^^C *''* riiing sun. 

To call aloud; also to laugh. 






To sit cross legged, to sqiiat on the ground. 
Gwao jeang 6 soS 0^j^^\^, 
gwdn jeang p'hS.h k'wim k'ha teng hadu, 

Gwan jeang sat cross legged waiting (for Confucius). 

See the ~j\ ^ Hay lua. 

I inyself; loose; also a surname. WOy 
& put sin yew j6 k^aou jit =|^ -^ /f\ 

sh woo ch'hin cheo"S bing jil, if you say that I am 
not true, I appeal to the bright sun. See the [^ J^^ 
Kok hong. 

When a field to is cultivated for one year, 
it is called "^ choo; and when it is culti- 
vated for two years, it is called 




Superabundance, superfluity, excess, that 

which is over and above. Y6w sey put 

cheuk, put kara put been, yew 6 put 

kam chin ;^- p^f ^ /^ ^ ^ '^ ^. ^ ^ 

^ If^ ^ ' """" '^• 


U kaou, u^ k"u u'" bSin ley^ 
woo th'hun W" k^d chin, having a deficiency in any- 
thing, we dare not neglect exeirtions ; having a super- 
abundance we dare not exhaust it all. See the 

Bun yew €, pit w'at yfrw, |^ ^^ |^ t§^ M, 
moot"S tooS eh'liun, pit kdttg -wbS, when he asked, if 
there was anything over, he would always ^f, there 
was. See the ^ -^ Beng chgo. 

A carriage, the bottom of a chariot, hand- 
some. E jin J^ A a wheelwright. 
"^^ "^^ K'hara & j:^ S.^ a complimentary title 
for a determiner of the sites of buildings and graves, 
caUed a ;^ Jg ;^^ ;^ ^ tEy le seen seng. 
Choo san e kc seng e, fhey jin 6 chin wuy, ^ j^ 

e siy chey ay cKhea, chiy l&ng kdiy i chin wiiy &y 
cMy, Cho6-san used the chariot in which he rode 
for helping people a cross the Chin an4 Wuy waters. 
See the ~^ ^ Hay beng. 






*^Mi^ To praise, to applaud, to give one a good 
name. Go6 che d jin yei s<ly hwuy 
i^% sQy t, j6 yew st-y 6 chi;a, k6 yew sey 

- ^^mtVkX til. in t%W^4\^ ^ 
^/r # #. ^> M W\- %^ ^> ^-" ^y ""p '^«^- 

yea, che ehvy mai"^ che chuy o id, cKhin cheo"^ woo 
sty 16, e woo sty ch'he, in my intercourse with 
people, I do not know whom I should blame and 
whom I should praise, but if I praise any, it is 
because they have been tried. Said by confucius 
in the "p* ^ ^^'S •"°- 

An ornament for a fiag^ in the Muipe of ' 

a bird. 


A precious gem. Loe ying h^o ch'hijep . 
tae keung, hwan e che giiuk, e p'hun, 

yj hS lot kok &y y'ed"S hijey Vhaou twS, keung, 
kap hwan 6 Ay g'euk b chaou, Y<;6°S-hoey of the Loe 
county stole the great bow, with the Hwftn S gem, 

and then made his escape. See the "jt ^[ Ch6 twan. 

A sedan chair is called kiien e j^ ^Mj 
keng I'hadu ch'hea, a shoulder waggon^ 

J*^|-* A stoiie resembling a gen*. 
yfeJLk A pipe, a flute. Ch6y 6ng h^^d 6, ^ 

^^ICi^ 3E 1^ nr ^^^-^ ""^ "^ *' *'** '''"s "f 

sj the Chey country was fond of the flute. 

•ij£* Great. Kwun choo yew «, ^ -^ fjj^ 
I S J the good man is truly great. 

^ _ I— A bathing vessel, a tub. Yeiik se jip 6, 
Tj-T* yeilk iveng ch'hut 6, j^ []Js ^ ^^^ 

chang sw&h cKhut i, when a person bathes he enters 
the tub, and when he has done he comes out of it. 










jCheet 6 ^ ^, a female office, establish- 
ed under the Han dynasty. 
^ ^ To leave, to hand down, to send, to present, 
'^^\ to send word. Seuk heang soo 6 Choo- 
pP sin sc.^ fp] \%t^^%^' 
seuk heil„g sai Mng Ic^heA Choo-san p'hay, Seuk-he4ng. 
ordered them to send a letter to Choo-sin. 

.^ ^jy^ I, myself: a character common in episto- 
V— ^ lary correspondence. 

Joyful, delighted. San teung h6 sey 

^|»^^ y^w, leng seing to pek biifiy, che k'ho 

I ^7 cho5 e wat, put k'ham tg cheng kwun, 

P-1 1 ^ ?Jt ^ . -^^ -t # 6 ^#- P- "^ 

g 'ife iS:- ^ ^ tt ^ ^^ """" '""" ""' 

»"a fnei"h, ne^d cheo"S cUy pa^h d™' chi Chang ka 
U hw"a hi, fi"* k'ham ChlSyh lie shng kwun, what is 
there on the hill ? upon the mountain there are many 
white plum blossoms s but I can only eiyoy them 
alone, and am not worthy to present them to your 


To remove, to transplant, to change a 

place or thing. E hong ek selik bok 


J^ pi»"a hong »"* »e«/.-, hi k'hiih hi t gak, in order 

to remove customs and change habits, there is nothing 

so good as music. See the jg |g U-y U. 

„^ » To present, to give i to hand down. B 

PJ ^ k'hwat choo sun, f § )^ ^ ^ , '^"^ 

y\YJ e iy ke"d tun. Bestowed on his posterity. 

A bathing vessel, with a handle, u»cd in 
pouring out water. 

A. kind of spirituous liquor ; made of 
rice 5 also water gruel, made of rice or 
millet; congee-, thin rice water. 


Wuy c, ^ ^ , respectful and diligent. 

The same as the foregoing. 

An ulcer, a wound •, wounded. Beng kwun 

/)^ le ch-hat 6 seang ^'$.^^MM' 
/y' ^^ beng leng kwun leung 6y kw"a U ch'hat 
mod t teang iy Idng, he ordered an officer of thir 
army to inspect the wounded. See the j ^. IS 
Cho twin. 

Yei-m 6^0, ♦''^ '«"' "f » ^""f- 
Fheng ho'k ch'hc him yei-m 6, j6 put 
^ ^E ^ pi ^ p'heng key hoi he"i mool"e cVhw"a, 
li, biy ki long ft, " when I boiled my last hen, 
and burned the bar of my door for fire wood (to 
give you a treat) do you forget the time." Said by 
the wife of "g" ^ H , pek-le-hfiy, when her hus- 
band was risen high in office, and had forgotten 
his former poverty. 

The vessels constantly employed in the 
anceslorial temple constant. E Ifln ^ 
f , the constant relations of life. 


The north-east corner of a house. 

f \ bridgf. E seang 16 jln sew leang-lcan< 

*^ ^^ Ung /iiiii Idng hoi teo"^'H6ns ch'liiyh, 
when upon the bridge an old man gave a book to 
Teong-l«:a"5. See the ^ |£ Soo ke. 




The ancient trora of the i -^character. 

2 T 




The same as fr^ 6, a female officer. 





#^fe* Boo g ^i^j ^ P'*" f""" sacrificing to 
"""X5"* Heaven, and praying for rain. 

f^^-p Wuyfi^'f'p'* diligent and earnest; the 
I !_. same as |ll'^ 6. 

The chin, the side of the mouth. Kwan 
gno to 6, choo kSw k'hoe sit ^ifjl ^j^ 

^^ ffc'/iiVir /)ee"^, choo kite chliui/ che'iih, look at the 
sides of my mouth (so fallen in) which for them- 
selves beg for something to eat. See the ^ |i'^ 
Yeah keng. 

To present, to give ; the same as 

Ipnpy' Placid and agreeable. 


A.n exclamation implying doubt, used as 
a note of interrogation. Ke soo che wuy 

^ ilC- ^ /^ tl ^> "'^ "" "^^ "^"^ ^• 

is not this the meaning of it? 

Also an intimation of doubt and uncer- 
tainty as the above. Kwun choo jin, 
"^ "^ 6, kwun choo jin yea ^ -^ \ 'M.^ 
^' Z?. A ih chit/ se kwun cho6 &y Idng i, cheta 
»i kwan chod &y Ung yea, is he a good man ? In 
deed he is a good man ! See the j^ '=& Seang lun. 

Wounded, cut, cut oflF; also smooth and 
easy 5 a foreigner. Soo 6 M ^ ^ all 
foreigners, barbarians from every quart- 
er, it tek che y6w kwun, put j6 choo hay che 


"Y^ -jh i tek Ay woo Jin kwim, li"' ch'hin ched"S 
choo hay dy bo, even the foreign barbarians have 
their princes -, how unlike to China, which is with- 
out them! See the Jl jJi^ Seang luii. 

Strange uncommon, unusual, dilTcrent. 

Goe e choo wuy e che bun, cheng yew 

^ >^- e kfiw che bun ^ ]^^ Tjl f ^ ^ ;^ 

j^. -^ {^ fi^. >Jc i:S ti^l , s-""* '«^* '^*» '^ "">» 

s"a mee"h kSh yeo^S dy moofS, cheng se yiw kap 
kiw dy mooi"S, 1 thought that you would ask about 
some strano-e thing how come you to ask merely about 


yew an 

d k6w. See the J^ rijiu Seang lun. 








To draw towards one ; also clear. 

Light, to look lightly upon, to disrespect. 

Vulg. k'hwai: easy, not difficult. Seaou 
jin hak to, chek 6 soo yea ;J> J\^ Wi 

W % ^ 1^ ^ > "^•^ ^-^ '^"«" *"* "P 
to Id, chek k'hwai sai yang, when the common peo- 
ple are acquainted with virtue, they are easily go- 
verned. See the ~p f^ Hay lun. 


E 5 


To arrive at, to reach to, toi influence. 
Ch'ham 5 ^X^, mixed; also used 
for ■f'^ e, easy and pleased ; and some- 
times put for Wl 6. 

The name of a river. 

-^ To be pleased, to be at ease, and con- 
•^S»5J tented ; also early, t. pe ^ j^^ to 

prepare, to provide. YSw 6 M 
undecided, hesitating. 

T'hae kap bo6 sg 6 taS -k. ^ ^ ^ M 
fhai kah b6 chit si ing kwd tw"a, T'hae-kSh was 
never for a moment unemployed and idle. 







Yit yfiw yite, wSy choo ho6 toe —''^-^ 

/^ PW fl'A- j^ , '^''i' &y ''*«■' cha chit &!, hw"a he, 
cho choo hoi &y hwat, toe, [ Ihe Emperors ] by this 
one jaunt, and by this one excursion became a pat- 
tern for the princes of the Kraperor. See the 

Kwun choo soo hwin, j6 E hdng the ^ ^ ^ 

^> ITD A%]yj "^j *""•«" '■*"<' '^""^ vou hicdn 16, 
chew chd chd teo"S ti e, when the good man sus- 
pects that trouble is coming, he earl, provides 
against it. See the ^ j^ Ek keng. 

>^%^Many people. Song chea e e hgy ^ 

^ |U^ ■^" itft itit '^ J^" '^^ Ay W"? ch-ey 
1 chej/ ling, those who picked the mulberry 

leaves were numerous. See the ^ gl Kok hong. 

E \ ^ _ The ancient form of ^ e, 

- -^y*!- Trouble, labour, Bok te gn6 e ^ 4n 
^AC ^], **5 ling chae gxi ay liSh, bwd, 
nobody knows my trouble. Sec the 

^ S 7/ ^^ Mi' **^ '^^ ^'" s^^ "y '*^*' *«'^' 

;J\ 'f^ Seiou gn4y. 
E "1^ [-* The same a* TO& e, pleased, satisfied. 

^h ig, Vulg. oil a. yam, a bulbous tooted vcget- 


^^A^^ able; Ihe arum aquaticum. Soo chut 
^ sit' e seuk i ^ "^ ^ ^ _, 'oo chut 

cheiih oe ktci lauu, the coromou soldiers ate yams 
and pulse. See the P^ ||^ Sod k^. 

>t*^ A flag staff, a standard; used for "k^ e. 
E lp'<f^^ K'hl-ct k'ht-et kan c, chae chiin che toe 

tw^a chit dy ki kui''a, tad te chiin dy toe yip, only 
ane single standard, at the capital citjr of Chun. 
See the ^ j^ Kok hong. 


Plcased>.at easeiexiaaded, spread out. 

I^i:^ Praise, fame, a good name; also pleased ; 
~If fc-?^ the same as ^ e. Leng bun Icng e 
^5 '^y^ ^ 'P' ^ , ho dy mend se"a, ho dy 

o 16, a good report, and a good name. 



1"^ Slowly, to lead, to drag. K'he kap e peng 
jfi choe ^ \]] ^-&;'\^^,thek 
kak chiin kdh, t'hwa Iwa peng toji chaou, 
they throw away their armour, drew their weapons 
after them, and took refuge in flight. See the J^' 
Seang beng. 

^ To study,, to labour over. E gijep 
;^^ to study in a college. Sijaou gnay 
e sam /|>^|^H^ Kiou gndy Vhak 
»"a kKity, to read the Sea6u-gn4y (the book of odes) 
three times through. 




The joining of a seam.. 


The hinder part of a garment; posterity, 
future generations. Tek sfly hoe e 1^ 
^ '(K ^ ' "* *ei»ff »dy lib kaiu adu 

M dy ke"d $uii, virtue handed down to succeeding 


Cho6 sun y!n 5 ^ |^ '^ ^, ke"d lun hot ,i, 

sons and grandsons to the latest posterity. 

V iRm^ ^''* ao\x made in order to get children 

to sleep. 

^y-^ Read je^n: a swallow. Nfi Iflm yeen 

>^V^ Im ^ Pal' "^ "" *""" ^^"'^'^ <*> 

lit kong tea te ch'hod ne6''S dy kan, the chattering 
swallows are talking between the beams of the 

house. . 


Read y£Sa : a pill, a bolus. Yl-ak yedn 
^ ji, ySh etf"*', a medicinal pill. 









Read w4n: roun^. Sip gnoe yea, gwat 
twSn wftn -f- 5; ^. jg Pil. 
chap goe mafS goSyh ee"S te6"S, in 

the night of the fifteenth, the moon is round 

and full. 

Read wftn : round, globular. Kwuy 
ke hong w^n che che yea hH j^ 
^ ^ ^ M "tfc > A.-Ji>«y ke ch'hong 
si kak ei"^ e6"S dy chi ho, the compass and rule, 
have brought rounds and squares to perfection. 
See the "T» -d? Hay beng. 

Different, strange, uncommon, unusual, 

also read e. Kwae ee"s yung lek, 

" M ■,^" poey Iwan che soo, kae hoo choo sey 

^X- jf'^ =E ^ kwai ee"^ ying bing, Whwiiy lat, 
poii/ Iwdn 4y sod, cho poS hoo choi sty u™ kong, 
strange, uncommon, ferocious and violent things, 
together with rebellions and xonfucions, Confucius 
ivould never speak of. 





Readse: a monastery, a temple. Kwiin 
se ^S -^ > kw^d ee"^, a monastery. 
Se koe yln hong t'hap, tSng he gwat 

t-hoe le«m ^ ^ # M ^ • 1 it ;^ M 

^m, ee"S laou hwlin hong Fhah, ting k'' hang gokyh 
t'hadu moot"S U, though the temple is old, the 
xlouds cap the towers; and though the hall is 
empty, the noon shines through the door blinds. — 

Readyeen: a hall. Se yeen g^ \^> 
se ee^S, a hall of learning, a college. 
Han lim yeen "^a %h R^ ^ hdn Urn 

ee^S, the Imperial College at Pekin. 

Koe kw"a yeen 5m igL ILtj koe kw''d ee^S^ an 

asylum for widows and orphans. 


Read ek : tripe. Te ek ^^ ||^ , te eSh, 
pig's tripes. 

A lac ; a hundred thousand. Siiang 'che 
J y-^ *"" choo, kS ley put ek ^ ^ ^ 

\i \y ^\ -+- JEL ^ '^ Ts s'eang &.y k'e^d sun 

e &y soe put chi chit ek, the descendants of Seang, 

are not to be reckoned by lacs. 

>'|«^ To increase, to add, to profit ; a surname. 

Ek y^2S^ ^^ ^^ ^ij ^ ' '' ^'^^' Sai" profit- 
y"^ Yin yin 6 hay ley, sey siin ek k'ho te yea 

teadu fhdn i hay l£dou &y Iky, sey siin siy ek t'hang 
chae, the Yin dynasty imitated the cereraoniea of the 
Hay dynasty, and that which they added or dimi- 
nished -can be known. See the V- =1^ Seang lun. 

Ek -^^Jl The ancient form of ^^ ek. 
Ek •^^i^-Jk A stoppage in the throat, 



The noise of laughing. 


To hold, to gra^, to seize upon. 


To rest on, to exceed ; also, or, either. 
K6w che 6, ek 6 che 6 ^ ^ ^ ^ 
j^ "^ S^ , e I'loo kiw e, yea woo Idng 

hoe e, Does he seek for it, or does any one afford 

it him.' See the _|^ ^m Seang lun. 

K'hwut ek J^ Jfij ^ to oppress. 




Trouble, difficulty 4 to be in straits. 
Kwun choo che ek ^ tin ch'hae che kan 

kwun choo &y chae liyh, ti tin kok cWhai kok dy 
teung kan, the good man ( Confucius) was brought 
into straights between the countries of Tin and 
Ch'hae. See the "|^ j^ Hiy beng. 





I - To be in straights. Ek keflng je put bin 

I / 1 ^ ,A lieung, Ji b6 hwan 16, in distress and 
poverty, without being grieved. 


To remember, to think of. K6 ek ■=? fe, 
to remember. O'ng soo-e he, yew ke ek 

iV^ ^ f 1^ ^, 1 IE li, >'o^y on, 

iy too chid ched, yho ey ki lit, past events are 
few and scattered, and yet they are as it weiCi re- 


breast ; an expression intimating uprightness and 



yvv^ A. cord, a rope. 


The same as I^^ ek, calamity 5 also a small 


A Strong pig. 

1^.1— » A yoke. Pok ek e kay gnfiw chija 

'I /C^ go6 d^, C* piece of wood) on which 
they tie on the yoke, to yoke in the ozeI^. 'See 
the commentary on the _J2_ gffi Si-ang lun. 


i:"r, 'Ki-i tu: ■ .•II.. 1 .- , 1: ,,. .: , >,,i 

Tnl^.^yeat also, and; an ausiliarj ex- 


pictive. Lok ek chae kS teung h 

7/l> ^ ^ ^ :^ , ''**«^"ff '«* y'^^ '« 
e Ay tang e"?, pleasure is also in the midst there- 
of. See the J- |^ Seang iQn. 
Put ek wat hoe ^ /j^ '|^ ^, i'^ yea ha"a hi hoi, 
is it not also pleasing ? 

A low state of the pulse ; also a disease ; 

to have a good appetite, and yet to 


continue thin, is called sit ek 


Great, accumulated. ek ek leAng saa 

§*^ ^ ^ li| J '"'■ '"■ '''"ff *""""' 
bow great is the Leftng hill ? 

To play at chess. Ek ch'hew t'hong kok 
che seen ek chei yea ^ ^ |S ^ 

kok Ay gaSu vHy kt Ay ling, Ek-ch'hew was the 
best chess-player in the whole country. Phok ek 
* to play at chets. 

hind the curtains. 

Ai WJ'^J A small curtain. Wiiy ek A^^ be- 


The same the following. 

^^J^ Sweat, peripiration. Hw&n hoe k£ jeak 

6k J//^ *''''''^'^^^^^^^^' 
^ l'^^. '•■^"ff *ong' Mu, ch'hin chio"^ chuy Ay 

laiu kv'S, bursting out, just like water was the 


^^ ^^^ The arm-pits. Ch'heen ying the p"h€, 

n/H put j« yit hot Che ek :f ^ ;^ ^ 


jf«5"g iy p'hSfy a'" Ittt teiih chit Ay hoi It Ay ek, 
a thousand sheep-skins are not so good as one dress' 
made of the fur under the arm-pits of foxes. 

% > . To hold to grasp to seice j » small build- 

|l)k jtjt^M '"8 ''7 ^^^ *'*'' "^ ""^ principal house 
^ |>V is called ^^ek t«ug, and » wall 
on the tide of a coi^rt, is called i^ J^ ek hwAn. 

The noise of Jiny thing splitting. 

The splitting of any thing with a knife. 

1 1 To split with a k^ife, to cut out^ .^qrk- 

8 n 




To describe; til draw, trf delineate, to 
gj^ ■ ■ , plant ; also to define a limit. Pa6u-be- 

]^t- sSseckpatkwa^i^^^^^ A 
S\ pa6u Iw-s6-k'lte I'haiu wa pal Icwa, Pa6u-se-se 

( or Hok-he ) was the first, who described the eight 

diagrams. Yit ek — '^^ chit with, one stroke. 

Lfiw-bfln-cheiig wuy t3ng ch'hck ck ^ll ^ |^ ^ 

^ 9^ S-> ^<'<>"-i>^n-chens kap t&ng ch'hek ek, Laou- 

bQa-cheug described plans for the Tong dynasty. 

'^ ^xv% To translate, to explain aay thing out 
£j{ ^* '>y ' "^ *"^^ language into another. T'hw4a 
yi "I"' c hay che gftn wat ek jBa ^ H^ ^ 
"=* R ^ t'hool"S hwan kap ling Ay wS. kong kib 
ek, to turn foreign expressions into Chinese is. call- 
ed ek, to translate. 

twn^ To rejoice in, to be delighted. Ke keen 
^f^ kwuft cho6, se ke wat ek BJ^ ^ ^ 

c/iod, «^ fce fcu)"fl A^, when we see a good man, we 
may perhaps be delighted. See the /l> i^R|> seaou 


^_f^ ^ To be displeased, and disgusted with. 
Ek ^fevVp Cha.^ p6 bod oi, chae ch'ho& bo6 ek 

tiou b6 Idng wd.n, te hi laou bS Idng yiim, in that 
place there will be none bating us, and in this 
place, none disgusted with us. See the ^ ^ 
Chew seung. 
> ftry To spread out, to trace. S!m ek ss. ^^^ 
Ek 35k"l,"f • to search. Soo ek ,B9 iS to think of. 
•J^ I Wat j6 put ek, chefing j6 put kae, gofi 

bwit j6 che h6 ,e4 6 e ^"^J^. ^."^'^ 

tin Ay to, Ji bS soo ek e, bin ching t'hin Ian, j& 
k'ha chiUk aou b6 bSiyh, kiy, gwd bS hwat e tae 
VI&, to appear delighted with one's doctrine, and yet 
not to investigate it \ to comply outwardly with one's 
requisitions and yet secretly not to reform t — I do 
not know what to d« with such fellows. See the 

it Ife s«*"s '^"* 

ipl ^k keng & ^ ^ yeih keng, the book 

Ek Jf 1-1 of diagrams, so called from the sixty- 

^^J four changes of the diagrams. A surname. 

To chano-e, to alter, to exchange. Koe che wuy 

ch'he chija, e k6 sey yew ek kg sey beo j^" ^ 

cJW dy chd cKhi, t'ho e iy siy woo, w^d e dy sit) bo, 
■ ' the ancients established markets, in order to take 
that which they had, and exchange it for what 
they had not. See ^ -^ Beiig choo. 

A disease of the pulse ; an epidemic. 

A kind of insect. 

A pestilence. Wun ek i^ ^, wun yeSh, 

Ek ^--Q^ an epidemic. BJn bo6 yaou ek PS fe 
/ ^y^^ ^F ^ , path sai"S b6 yaou si teun ySSh, 
among the people there were neither early deaths 
nor epidemic disorders. 



^ Jft To serve, a servant. Chliae ek gg !^ ^ 
^X^^O ch'hay yekh, a messenger. G4y ek ^ 'i^^ 
f-^^h. gdy yidh, a police runner. Ek soo J^ 
1|P to employ. 
K6 pin k'hek soo ek kae t'lieen hay ehiin keet ^^ 

>ai yeith dy Idng, chd poS te fhee^S My dy chan keet, 
his guests and servants all consisted of the most 
clever men in the Empire. See the jilfi /^ /^ 
T4b t twan. 

yl^ The same as the above ^ also to guard 


the borders oi a country. 

y^^^ A wing; to fly. E' e'k ^ ^^ wings, 
Ek V^^ ' feathers. Cb'hap ek ek hwuy put ch'hut 

J^ * ^ M ^ ^ 'f* ii{ . ^'''*^* *^ *'" 

pSey bey ch'hut, if you were to slick on wings, yon 
would not be able to fly out. 




Ch'he chin, 4k j« yea ^ ^ ^ ^0 {^ , «« «" 
A-e^d jip ch'hin cheo'^S pSey, he entered hastily, as^ 
it were flying. See the _£]. fw Seang IQd. 

>L 'h To shoot with a bow and arrows. £k 

Ek J||tr ''°* * San IJ ^ £M jp , cm cMj, 
/^^ '^ chedou kap gin, to shoot the water fowl 
and the wild geese. 

JM^ To shoot. Ek put Mk seuk "^ /fj j|^ 
Ek ^\ ^ J f A5/I chei'^S b6 botgh eMh l>Sy"h iy 

\4 chedou, in shooting he would never let 
fly at a resting bird. See the J^; ^ Seang iQn. 

Ek "^V"* Tomorrow. Ek jit ^ Q^ the follow- 
ing day, also written j^ , ek.' 


|j,, ~— M. A post in the ground, for iasteoing a 
cow to. 


X»^/W Another name for a pig. Alio.writhen 

To change, to alter; the same as 'Sm ek. 


To lead hastily along. 

The name of a bone, without a socket. 

A post house. Ek to 

[6 , j-«M lot. 

Ek .^^-A.* a post road, ik ra4 ^ BE > yeah biy 
a post horse; to go backwards and 
forwards without cessation, is called 1^ |^^ lok ek. • 

The brightness of fire. 

•,>;il '.ilT 
Ek ^\ i-^, The name of a. hird;.i 


The name of a hill, near which Cbnfucios 
was born. 

^V^"^ Read yeuk: to bathe. Se^n yeiik ^ 

^ I-V^ '*^ ''*' *° *'***'* *"'* "**'' one's-selfj K'h ong 
w ?^ choo bok yeuk jfi teftou ^1 3L <ic ^^ 
f^ tS\ , ^lioig c*0(i »iy ek je tedou ing, Confucius 
washed and bathed before he waited on ttR'king. 

A flower, a blossom; an heroic clever 
man. Eng beung .^L ^ a hero. 
Sek ch'ban ch'hew keuk che lok eng 

^^^MZ^l^^ """'"^ '-■"'^ ^**''"* 

ch'hew k'iuk &y. ISb htca,. in the evening he swal- 
lowed some of.thc falling blossoms of the autumnal 
Tek t'heen hay eng cha6 j6 kaou yeuk che ^ 

^ T ^ tJ-^M iS: W ;2l ^ '" '«"* '"^'^ 

ay dy eng chat, jt ki. si jio^ cKhi e, to obtain 
all the talented men in the Empire ia order to 
teach and bring them up. See ^, ij. Beng choo. 

Eng kee't ^ |j| , a hero, a clever 
person : the same as the foregoing. 

A complimentary designation for elegant 

A bright gem. Eng ke ^ j^ , a 
precious stone. 

■^ The name of a frnit, said by lomtt to* 
be like the plum, and by others like 
the almond. 

Eng. t'bd: a kind of peach. 




Enff <l 

The harmonious singing of birds. Hwat 
bok teng teng, iieaou bSng eng eng 

cVhd Ay se'^a tens teng chedou haou dy ^^aeng eng, 
the noise of chopping wood sounded like Teng 
teng, and the harmonious singing of the birds 
resembled the sound Eng eng. 

Eng long IE j0§, a stone resembling 
d geml' ''•'.■" 



TttPOii against, to encountei', to raise 

te m"a ng"<i, bS'Ung l<^d hnJin teSh, when a tiger 
is crouching on th^hilU no one dares t» encounter 

A weki x>r Oflwr disorder' on 'ttte neck. 

A general term for jar. Eng hoe ^ 
Ag, a jar -with' a large belly and a 
small mouth. . . ' *', 

The tassel of a cap. HeSn Jtfir^n-chiBO 
cJioe eng, t'heen cho6 che kwan jea 

■^ ^ oe kin ing choe eng^ sS.hong til/ ^Sf *«''*. ^ 
tiack cap with vermillion strings and tassels, is 
the cap of an Emperor, 




Ornairients for ttie qeck? a string of 
beads round the neck. 

ng^ A parrot, Eng boo Ilnj gan'^l^ 

^*. ^t H^ "g ! J eng boo fy kofig' uj^^ a parrot 

35C*^*-V can talk. 
I%^k|> A large beautiful bird; also called h^ng 

r^^^ ley S gl^ Ch'hek gS yea'k p'h6ng 

kan, eng so ch'hwan' le> t6 J^ j^ 

ling &y M tea te p'hed 6y kan, ch'hin cheo''S so 
&y eng cKhwui"S kabu lew dy tiy, the fishes of 
a foot long leap in the midst of the water plants, 
and the beautiful birds like shuttles dart to the 
deepest shade of the willow trees. 

The same as the above. 

Birds of courage, such as the hawk and 
falcon, a ravenous bird. 

To die, to demise; used to denote 

_^ the demise of princes and pobje's. 

^\^ Kwun eng pek kwan chong ke, e 

t'heng e t'heung chaS sam le6n ^ ^ ^ p ^ 

E. El ^ J^ ^ ¥ ^ ^ ' •^'" *^"'' *"^ "^^"^ 
pityh kw"a teSh chong hi hed ay sod, i Che"'' & 

t'hedng chat a"a ne6"S, when a prince dies, all 

the officers should bring every affair, and listen 

to the orders of the prime minister, for three 

years; (while the young prince is mourning for 

his father). 

The noise of many carriages. 

Clear, bright. 

Eng kae |fe ^ ^ ought, shonld. 



, . .^ _ ._-_ „J ^ , suitable, right 

The breast; also to come again, to 
beat; also written M eng. Tek yit 
seen, chek k'hw4n k'hwan hok eng, 

/e M sit che e ^f — ^. gij :f; ^ flg 
f§ fifl ^ "^ ^ -^j ''' ''"'' **^' ^^ *"' ''''** 

k'hw&n k'hwdn hok eng, j6 b6 u"" kei"^ e, when 
he obtained any thing good, he would iirmly 
clasp it to his breast, and not loss it. Skid of 
te lp| Gan ho6y. 




Read yung: an ulcer, a sore. Hbey 
y«ng suy t'hang, sin yang tok ra" 

t lis )#«.#, <''''■' ^"^ 

itiy t'he"a Wlidh ye"i yii)''S tok, to pierce the 
ulcer though painful, is better than feeding the 

^ Eng hafi ^ ^ a little child,^n in- 
fant; also to increase, to encounter. 



Always, constant, lengthened, lasting. 
E'ng wan ^ j^ , eternal. E'ng gin 
p'hiidy b£ng ^ ^ 1^ ^^ tng king 
p'hoiif beng, always speaking of complying with 

The Name of a wood, of which flutes 
can be made. 

The snarp-pbinted beards of grain ; any 
thing sharp-pointed ; an awl. 

The same as the prei 
I :ahit k«'iH 

.aim fc«-.i! j2| C^ 
of a i^ood. *-^i 



The name 

The name of a river ; also the axAe 
of a district. 



The name ,oC,;%.fa^l.. 

■ '•Pill 


1 -.rll -il !>n»i:- r> 

}^^ Vnlg. j^S"*! : a shadow. J6eag»flyhflng 

1*^ hing, like the shadow following the 
substance. \«f '^tU'l 

Gwat 4 hwa eng seing l&n kan H j^ ^b ©J 
-t 'il /^T ^ fft^J^* ^ Atca yt"« cMi"? lun kan, 
the raooa throws the shadow of the flowers upon 
the balustrade. ' 

The same as the above, je cboo sfing 
" V-i^ * chew, hwan hwin k€ eng ^^ "?* f^ 

ehUn, p'hoS p'hoS e &y yf'a, the two children sat 
in the boat, while their shadows floated on the 


To answer, to reply : to correspond to : 
*Eng tj^ a surname. Fng Up jB Ifiw j^;K: 

to answer like the flowing of water. 

Soo e luy seang chijflng, seng 6 yim seang eng 

liy »eo Chan, /(■"a i yim aeo yin, afiairs should 
be classed according to their sorU^ aad sounds 
sbouJd correspond to tiieir tones. 

Vulg. yin: to reply to a question by 
words. •,' < 

Tile sound of hallooing. 

Ready ling: ajar.'hae i^ ^ 
^pg ck'hai^ a kind , of .vegetable, the 
seeds of which were fitir^RnU'ltt from 

Read yiing: to in»nure -the ground. 
Yung Ic6n |^ [J ^ ing ck'hin, to ma- 
nare-^be rice fields? To ptit earth to 

Cochin-China in Jars 


the roots of plants. 




Glorious, resplendent-, flowery; luxuri- 
ant. Eng kong ^-ft^ing AitKi "f, 
bright and glorious ; a surname. 
Te k* Cng.aiwk* jiiuk ^ fi ^. ^ ^ ^, 
chae tffv ing frifin"''^, liih chiw e 49 jinfit if you 
would know what is glory, guard again<t disgrace. 

j7r//% The shining «yf a lamp or (wodit? ; also 
y#^ doubt and suspicion. 'r,.v\/\ 

8 V 




rr . ^/v^ A grave> a tomb. . Eiig., bek >^ -M,} 
"-i"*" a buBial place. 


ff^^m A stooe like a gem. Sew, 6pg ]p^ ^, 
^ a gem worn behind tbe ear., 



Vulg. yt^A-: to win, to concfuei;, to gel 
tbe advantage ; also superabundant. Se- 
gng be Wun 1^ ^ ^ ^ , sooyf'a. 
bbtychae, tbe victory or defe^ is Dotyet determined. 


A fire fly. Hoo cb'lio hwa wuy eng 
ElT^ A 'L^j fc JkS .^ TLi M'l ^ niu"dcft'Ad«*tt'i 
cho hiiey kim ch'tia"'S, decayed veget- 
ables arc converted into flre-fli^s. 

IJyf/Z. To build,.' to -erect) to pile up., Eng 




' Cy cbay ^^ ^^ yi"6. chSy, a camp. 
To roll anything up ; to suspend.. 

To name of a water. 


En"" >#■ V J * Tbe eddying of water, 

Water flowing back, the turning of a 

En"" */l^^ stream. Also written J^ fing, and 

di^lA Lfing fing j||^ ^ J tbe deep recesses of 

Eng 4^m h'"y places; also written j|j^ fing. 

■— ^ ^p XI 111 J yta\^\^a f mav tt i ivicu Hlla ^"g* 

U^ Cheng eng ® »^ , tJft- stupendous 
height of mountains. 




The loftiness of a hill. 

The great sea, tbe ocean. Eng chew y] 
jM the name of a place. 

A surname. 


Fuir, teplete. Eng Swan ^ ^ , ^"ff 
mw"d, completely full. Cheng tey e 
chi-en, sat jin 6ng yU ^^^i^ 
^V K^ W chai"S Uy icbein Chie Idng mw"d 
yea, when cojitending for territory in battle, the 
slain filHhe country. Se»the "K |^ Hay beng. 
Sayk-heeoghS ^^^H, hSdyk'himu,»A 
iHOoi"^ bai, may lucky influences replete the lintel 
of your door. 
^ ^^ "VTulg.. a{"S: a beam, a rafter. Ok Sng 

|Jli^ house. ' '-'- 

Teen & leang Sng ch« kan ^ J^ ^ 'j^ J^ 
J^ ,. le chey le no dy ch'hoo ai"S £y kan, to offer 
a sacrifice between the two beams of the house. .' 

Dung,, ordure 

Read h4ii; leisure.. Bod hin ^ 


bo ing, no leisure. Yit jit ch'heng h4n, 

chit jit ch'heng ing chit jit seen, qne da.y's clear 

leisure,, is one day's heaven. 

^J^ ^ To chaunt,. to sing. Eng se Sn( pvF ' 
'^'^l\ ch'heong se, to recite an ode. Eng je 
WiT" kwny^ ^'^^ch'hdPS,ejito0i"S' 

they chaunted odes as they returned. 

The same as the above. Eng t'bka 
n^ p£ to sigh and lament. 



To dive under water. Chew kS ch'him 
e, hong cbe chew che, chew che, chew 
M ch'he6n e, eng che y6w che 

-y ^ "^ > chew kttou e &)/ cK^him, yUng I 

■ kmat 




yung cMn, chew kaou e. &y k'hin, eng e, yiw-e,. 
coming to the deep parts' { of" tke l)i.V^,>- we raft 
it and boat it; and coming to tbeShaJlow parts, 
\re may dive and swim. tJirough them. See the 
[^ jM^ Kok hong. 

Eng l^i^ST* T'hengeng JT \^, water still and clear. 


p t f^'^ M. "^^^ "*"* "'^ * sacrifice, by which they 

^ 1^ deprecate wind and supplicate rain. 

To grind aoi) rub sharp instruments, 
in order to make them bright { Also 
to adorn. 



% Read yang : the centre. Tjeung yang 

■rf^ l|j ^^<«ng-e'^, the middle. The 

^^r ^^ five cardinal points correspond to the 

five eleipents, thus. Te,Hng yang t'hod, tong hong 

bok, sey hong Itim, 14m hong h^o pole hong suy 

•Ik "^ ijl^'''"^ ""^ '''^^' '""S **"^ cKb&,.»ae 
he^S kim. Urn he^ hiitj/ pak he"^ «Wy, the centre 
corresponds to earth, the east to wbod*, the west 
to metal, the south to. fire, and.tiie north to water. 



Read yang : the tendier shoots of- corn. 

Read E'og ;- ' shadow, shade. Jtn tag e 

■^>J ^'A^^ Uu '^S i'^ che6 ch'hci, 
OV^^ the shadows of men are scarce, (i. e.) 

the population is thin. 

Se eng ch'hani ch'hay. ttj'. ju;^ ^^. ^S j . <^*'*2"' 

i^ ch'ham eh'hai/, the shadows of the trees were 

mixed together 


Read ae: to put off. Ac yfcn ko jit 

X>'^ 55^ )^ H ' '^^ •^^^'' *»^* J*» '° Pn*^ 
off and procrastinate day by day. 

Read ae : short, Ae. tek 4^ fta iy iif, . 
a short men, a dwarf. 

Read hafi: shoes. Ch'hwan hafi ^ M> 
ch'hing ij/, to wear shoes. 

To speak, stoutfy. 

Jyka Read l£cig: to-be' able; may, .or can. 
C| ^ _ L6ng hfing gn6e chea 6 I'hcen hay, wiiy 

/^ ^, ey fri"4 chty gvi hang th l'hee"S iy, sB 
jin i, he that can practice these five things through- 
out the Empire may be esteemed virtaou», 
Ilwuy wit l«ng che, gwan hak yeen ^fe R n'§ 


\) u™ ching Jidng gwd ly, gtcan 

h'olyh 6h yeen, I do not say that I - ain> capable 
but I wish to learn. 



Read hwiiy: to be able. Hw4n k'haa 
luo g£ se, se yaoa tek hwuy h(:aou < 
1^ ban ge put k'h» hwut leak k^ /{. ^ 

^\ ^ ^' '"'"" *'*"'"'* '"'> «•<* ^V ch'hayh sae 
teSh ey hidou Ir&n ge, a'" I'hang hwut leak kS^y, 
who8ev«r would look over the hook iQn gc, must 
be able to understanding the words and meaning, 
and not pass over it sligl^tly. 


The hair dishevelled and in confusion. 


Gad hfty 

, a P'g- 






fiimp !e, ignoraut. 

The water's edge, a brinli, a shore,' a 
border. Jeak seep tae s6y, k6 bo8 
5^ ^ ch'hin ched"S kSiy two. cUy, e Ay btcMn gi»^ 
like crossing the great waters where ^eje is nei- 
ther ford nor shore. 

The side or border of anything. 






San ga6 |1| ^ ' w""" S^t, the side of 

a hill- , .'^i.n i.Ejii ^ 

To oppose, to put off. Ye8n gae JS 
te| to procrastinate. , 

^^>iii !>-}it3jiiii nti-i isiU !i>! 

Silliness ; Weft ■dfiflhf's senses. 

Stupid foolish, Bill^ji also Fritlen^ 


1 1 : nlwii IiK-iIi 

The figfttiiig df A«^. Pok kok yeW 
koe, gaS gaS, tan hoe yeuk giiet 

^ P^ Jt 1^ ^ pak kok thou kadu gaSgae chd 

k'hi maf^ hwv^^ btiiyh fti gwA iy te, on the 
northern part of the subuj'bs there are dogs light- 
ing, and quarrelling ^ every day wanting to bite 
my pigs. Said by *B^ ^ Kwan choo. 

Gag P 


The appearance of dogs wanting to bite. 

Ga8 sh^hey |ip|^, t» lift',*6 ejres,' 
and Idok angrily at one afl^tSer. 




•^ .^ To stop, to oppose, to hinder, to prevent, 

AUciC *•" *'""''• ^°° p"* '^"s ^^^ 5E ^ 

/y^ ^^, '^ *^.y ?"« '«'**' death cannot 
be prevented. 


The same as the above. Lit gae ^ eMi^ 
1 1 a hindrance, an abstraction. 

A hill, a mountain. Gnbe gak JJ. -^ j 
—Sma.^^ liie five mountains, a surname. Gak 

<-^ boo gak toe ^ ^ ^ 15*' '^""^ 
ling teo^S li™, a father and mother-in-law. 

A mountain. Chaebwa gak j6 put teung 
^ Ip m ifjj ^^, Choi hwa gak 
svo"ajibey tang, (the earth) bears up 
the large mountain without feeling the weight. 


Gak X^ 


Gak chok 

' , an eagle. 



# Music. <}ak yim ^^, the sounds 
of music. Chok gak VE^ ^ V^^J 
musics a surname, 
Choo wat, gflS choo wi«y hwin loe jegn hoc 

gkkchenglf 0^^fj]X#.;^t 

jM Tp , hot choe hong, gwd choo woiy kok. looi^S 

laS loe, jein aiu gak che"iL, Confucius said, from 
the time that I returned from the Woey country 
to the Loe country, the music was well regulated.— 
Jin jS put jJn, j6 gak h6 y^ lip ;;^ -fn, |(p ^ 
jpf l&ng ni bo jin tek, balyh hxiat e 4y gab s"a 
m^^h tae mi. If men are destitute of benevolence 
what will become of their music ! See the J^ ^ 
Seang l&B. 

The centre piece in a certain game 
of chess. 

Unwise-, uneasy. 





p|Q Lofty, high, dangerous; a recess in a 
Gam 111)5/7 nioun'ain, a cavern. K'him gSm ^j 
/*^/\. 1^ , precipitous, impending. Ch'hara 
g4m ^j(^, lofty. 

San gftm teep ch'hiiy, yin seaou goey HJ jn^ ^l 
yS: '^' ^? nn , stB^a gim leep cVhiijf te hwAn 
sedou it/ gwa, the lofty mountain* piled up in green 
elevations beyond the highest tier of clouds. 

U^_ The same as the preceding: also written 
>^ ^ g4ra, ^ gam. and ^ g^ra- 



To talk in one's sleep; to mutter and 
groan in dreams. 


~JrJ^^ Stiipid, foolish. Ong I6ng se^ou g 
Gam j^JEl tin p6ng Who e choc che J ^ ^ 

se6 Whwi gSm, Idn pafS Chang la6 chin e, Ang- 
ISng is a little stnpid and Tin-pal"? can help 
him. (Said by the founder of a dynasty reipecting 
his prime ministers). 



V^ulg. ♦«* chew: the eye. Gwin chek 
16ng w fly ch-heng pek gi" ^ ^ ^ 

ch'hai"S pdi/h iit/ bak chew, wiii"g-chek could 
make his eyes look both green and white. 
Gan k'hong sod hae p|^ ^ gQ ^fe ^ bak chew 
k'hw"i k'hang ti hai, to have eyes that look empty 
the four seas; i. c. that is, to be to proud, as 
to see nothing valuable in all the world except 



one's- self. 


I myself: also great. 

Read geen: a muller. Gan sek Hf /jj ^ 
ging chiiih, a grinding stone, a stone 
for grinding or polishing; also to 


Yfing gin 

BH , the countenance ; 
can sek M "P^ , the 

^J^^ appearance: a surname. 
Cheng g4n sek, soo kin sin e jP ^ ^ iftfr 
j2i fp ^ J che^h Idn Ay gin lek, chey se keo 
kin tin tit it/ ling. Let us adjust our own outward 
appearance, and that will induce sincere people 
to approach us. 

GSn r= 



A word, to speak, to say. Qka'gi = 
"^ J words and expressions, GSn chca 
1^ Sim che seng yea "g* ^ <(!"» ^^ ^ 
■Qj^ J king w& ti nm kw^a iy ie"a, word* are the 
expression of the feelings of the heart. 
Gin put k'ho put sin yea g- :^ Pj" :;ip; ^ .^ , 
kong kS, a'" t'hang bo i^t/ je, in conversation we 
must not neglect caution. 

An elegant scholar. Pc kfi che choo, 
pang che gan hey •^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 
"7 H- /^ ^ hwut liy e it/ ke"d, pang 
iy hi I'hak ek'kiyh ling,' that son of his. is thr 
most elegant scholar in the country. See the ^ 
Kok hong. 

.\ false thing, a counterfeit. 


'Soe gan 

proverli, &c. 




.\ wild dog foun^ id the northern 
regions, liku a fo*, but' itinafler. 

A high bank. 

A 'Wild goose: also written M Gan. 
H6ng gin d hwuy, ae btSng g6 g6 




cheah gdn lit pwuy, ae ch'hdm hy s'e"a go go, the 
' " large wild geese are flying, and make a melanclioly 
noise altogether. See the /J> ^ Seaou gnay. 
^ *^ Vulg. w"a: a brink or side of a river. 

Gan yjp Seen teng 6 gan -^ ^ J- ]^ ' '«« 

^' I seng p&yh cheo"S t£i"a, he first arrived 

at the shore. 

To condole with the prince of a neigh- 
bouring country under bereavements. 

Wuy giag ^ iftfl , the appellation of 
the azure Emperor, who is said to 
preside over the spring. See the ra 
j^ Chew ley. 



High, lofty; also bright. • G&ng hfing 
CD ^ 17 ^ S^^'S ie"«, to walk proudly. 

Cheaou gaou 

loftiness of a mountain. 

, a high hill, the 

Read hefin: clever, skilful, intelligent. 

een jin ^ A > ga&u ling, a clever 
man. Hijfin choe ^^ ^B, ga6u chaoH, 


to run swiftly. 

Soo m& hwuy tin k'him, k'him yim lie^ng leang, 

w'at, ch'hoo kan pit yew he6n jin ch'heep t'heng 

^^ ^ M A i§ i^ ' ""' ""* ''"'"•'' ''""'^ k'Mm, 
k'him 6y se"a KecMg leang, chew Icong, chiy lit/ 

woy pit woo giou Idng t'haou Vh'e^a, when Soo- 

m4-hwuy was playing on his guitar, the guitar 

sounded loud and clear; upon which he said, there 

roust be hereabouts some clever person, who is 

listening to the music. 








Abstruse and minute; the ancient form 
of BS been, manifest. 

^L^ A high bank ; the appearance of a high 

Superfluaous bones. 

A tooth, a grinder. Sfiy wuy ch'he boo 

f^ay, h6 e ch'hwin gno yOng ^ =^ 

chvy d hong nidou ch'hi 66 ch'hUy k'hi an chw"& 
e ey cWhwtA"^ gv>d dy peiih, who says that mice 
have no teeth, how is it then that they have bored 



Kok hong. 

through my wall. See the 

Giy rheang ^ J^ , a general's standard. 

Chok gay # 3^ ^ *" ^*^'*' '" ""^'"S bargains. 

A bud, a young shoot. B6ng gSy "^^ 
^ , yaofift ei"S, to shoot out buds. 

>— -^ Gay bfln ^j f^, gdy moof^, a court 

Gay yPyl* of justice, a mandarine's court. Gay 

'^ J ek :|^ ii^ , giy yedh, a police officer. 

Bad teeth; the tooth ache. 

Ch'hea gay V^ 15 , an exclamation of 
doubt and wonder; to meet. 

Gfing gSy ^ ^ , ge"d cheih, to meet, 
o 20 forth to meet. 

To meet. Pek lijang gay che '^ ^ 

M '^' '^''^"^ f^^^ '''""^ ''*'''^'' ^"''^ 
gay e, a hundred chariots went out to 

meet him. See the ^ ]^ Seaou 14m. 





To ridicule and laugh at any one. 

Ge £ 'Tl* Luxuriant, abundant. 

Ge Q& ^° *'"''^' ^* ^^ th-heaou P^ P^ ^ , 
^y^^ ge ge choked, to laugh, to titter. 

G6 jln' m A ^ the name of an office, 
something similar to our roaster of 
. the horse. 

Great, magnanimous. 

The same as the above ; also a wounded 

JLT[* To converse; discourse, talk. Sc'uk ge 
"^ rt V» 1^ PP ^ " proverb." Sit put ge, chhim 
HM P"tgan ^:^fS ^ ;?[;■§•, cAeiA 
id gi Mn, Wkwiin b6 king uS, he would neither 
couverse at meals nor talk in his sleep. Said of 
Confucius, in the _j" aia .Seang iQn. 

^^ g^ S^ ^ > flocking together, getting 
together into a herd. 

To deliberate, to judge; also to compare, 
alike. 06 che, j8 hoe S*" ^ ^ jfjl 
w "=", tim gi e, juin a5u kong, deli- 
berate and then speak. See the & llM Ye'sh keng. 
Kw&n teOrtg seang chfiy, ch'hi g6 6 kwun J^ /m 

^^'{'^^lil^^y *^"'' '*""«■ '^^"^ "^Hv *<-*, 
ch'hea ch'ht gi pi e &y jln Invun, when Kw&n tcung 

was prime minister of the Chfiy country, be equalled 

the prince in extravagance. • ■ ■ \ 

To compare, to assort; also to usurp. 

G6 jln pit 6 ke Ifin ^ A 'iZf ^^ ^ 

\W > ^ ^^ l^ngt pit teHlt chedou e iy lAn, 

in assorting men, you most arrange them according 

to their relations. 

Ge 1 3^1 ^^"^ Se ^ [WJ , 3 prison, a place of 
"-I confinement. 

An instrument uf music. 

A boat at anchor, or tied to the bank. 
Oe kang teiig teang, ge chew, t'hae hang e 

oe kang dy ting tU"S^ pat chUn ting Vkai hang e, 
the head of the station at the black river had prepared 
a boat at anchor, to wait for Hang-C-. She the jH 

Vulg. heS: an ant. Pek gC- ^ j^ ^ 
piyh hea, a white ant. Bag aei hcang 
cha6 seang che hok, kdw g£ tedng chong 
gwln chejwan f^itW^'r^ ^ZBM^ 
H^ nK 7C 4^ ^& ' *"' ''^"^ ^^ kedng chai tiing dy 
hok, kiw hea iy Hung cheUng gu-dn dy king, he who 
buries a snake will enjoy the happiness of a prime 
minister, and be who saves an ant, will be selected- 
to fill the highest literary rank. 

To fasten a boat to the shore, to bring a 
boat to shore. 

To stop, to hinder, to restrain, to oppose. 

sa, iengg6che|(|^|&g;^;c« 

'^^'^ chay iy gi chi e, who could stop them? 
Tea^ bun kon^ soo ko k'hek ge tek £ bd Kcan^ 

bUn kong tat ko k'hek gi chi tek hwan te h6 seang, 
Tai^S-bOn-bong sent Ko-k'hek to stop the progress 
of the barbarians upon the banks of the river. jSee 
the ^ ^ Cho twin. 




The Imperial gardens, from whic^i the 
people are restricted ; also a railing made 
of split bamboos, for inclosing and 

feeding fish. 

That which is right, and correct; usages, 
observances, ceremonies. Yew wuy k'ho 
wuy, y6w g6 k'ho seang >^ ^ Pj* "^ 
;fe /^ "ijr ^ ^ U.00 t£>«y hong t'hang hoe ling ke"a, 
^•00 gi Iky Chang cho yid^S, he has dignity sufficient 
to inspire terror, and manners ti^^i ^ay be set up 
for a pattern. J ''■ 

an animal celebrated 

Vulg. gong : stupid, foolish ; also used for 
Ge ft^^ the first personal pronoun, in polite 
9 ^^1^ writing. 
Koe che g6 yea fit, kirn the gS ye4 chay J^JC ^ 

lung iedod tit, tong kirn &y gie Img piyh cVhat, 
formerly stupid people were honest, but now they 



are deceitful. See the "]pl |jg Hay lOn. 

■ / 


Kcung hwan kek gt 

G6 ^lii mwwi^' "'""^ *'""" '^' ''"! '^ 

lok, to exhaust pleasure, and carry delight 

■ i ! 

to the utmost. 

Suitable, proper, ought, should-, also 
n^ '«-B written '^gS. Ch-he sd'o hkp gS, wuy 

■* '^ che g« ^ ^ ^ ja. pB /C. ^' 

,0-0 hap g^, kong ked gi, to settle af&irs according to 
that which is snitable is called righteousness. 

-Yin sa che g6 g^ B# ^^j IbI ' ^-^'*« ^'^"^"'^ 
i^ngkae, to do that which is to 

the time. 

»^ Vulg. hi, a fish a surname. Ge gno sey 

Gg m yeukyea^.l^glT^^^ill,'^^- 

the^:f ,Bengcho6. 

Sek chea yew kwAy seng g£ t teng choo san ^ :g- 

<Wng- sing with k6 hoe tai"S choo san, on a former day, 

one presented a living fish to Ta»"S-choo-san. See 

the ^ .;^ , Beng choo. 

To fish, to catch fish. GS jln, '^ J\^, 
a fisherman. E' feSn e g6, J^ -jg |^ 
ilkt k'hi fi'Mh lih A-tca thd hi, to go a 

huating and fishing. '!. ' ' 


fy,^^ A corner, an angle-, a part. K6 yit g6, 
*T' ^ __ pS ^ to allude to a part. Kong 
l*'^ t'heen che hay, che 6 hae gi, yf^ ^ 
;^ T» . M ir^ il§ P^ > '•Aflng' Cheek's Ay huy, che 
kaoii hae kak, throughout the whole Empire, even 
to the corners of the sea. See the '^ W Sio'^ se. 

B_-^ The shoulders. Tdng g€ yOng kitk'he, 
I J teSh ying ho Ay ke ft'Ae, for the should- 
ers we should use something handsome. (Speaking 
of dress). See the j^ ^ G6 ley. 

G6 6 ll|M |lj^ ^ the name of a place where 
the sun rises. 

Vulg. ge gnati to doubt, to hesitate, to 
suspect, to be in suspense. G« soo bun 

M >§» 85 > """" ^^ ^'^^ '^''^'^ '^""^ 
moofS' having doubts, think of making enquiry. 

To ban k'hwat ga, ^ ^ ^ H / ^*«^ ''**"" 
k'hwat hean gi gnai^ in hearing much, decide those 
things which are doubtful. See the J^ |^ Seang 

Kew g€, •/f ^ **>* name of a bill in 
the .J^ 1^, ho* kong, province. 

To be pleased, to rest, satisfied; 4o think 
of, to examine; a surname. Pa che4 
che bin, hwan g* jfe yea, ^ ^ "Z, 
el^^ |(P ^ , pa chid iy piyh sax"S ch'hin 
Cheops hui"a hi, the subjecU of a despot are as itj 





■were pleased and satisfied, (for a time). See the 

T ^ "^y ^^"^• 

Tdng gfi TS ^ the appellations of^ggeftouand 
^^ siin, two ancient Chinese Emperors, who flourish- 
ed about the time of noah. 

G6 pfty JW' J;P the name of a fruit. 
Read p6. 

To lodge, to dwell ; ti» entrust to. Ge s6y 
^ 6fr^ a lodging place. Bod g6 jin 

Chang hoe lAng haynh ie giod d^ ch'hod, don't let any 

one lodge in my house. 

Ley ho6 «it kok, ge ke 6 woey ^ '9| -^ ^. ^ 

K Jji^ ■^ Uy hoi tit kok, chew htij/"h k'hea li tcoB]/, 

when the Prince of Lfiy. lost bis kingdom, be dwelt 

for a time in the woey country. See the ^ Js! 

Kok hong. 

^ To laugh. Gegec'h'hciou.JI^I^^, 

ge ge ch'heiu, to titter. 


The same as m ge to lodge, to dwell. 

-k ,^a«» To speak to, to converte, to discourse 
Ge ?* Jy r» '^'^^^ *"y <"">. Chod g£ loi I'had soo 

Aoo f?iO(S king kap lot Ckai too gak kong, Confuciuj 

discoursed with the great music Master of the Lo£ 

country about music, saying &c. See V fm , 

Seang lun. 

To harness horses, and put tbem to a car- 

Qg lyt Cy rlage. Lim hoi, jeak b6w »ck che ge 

king kin, eVhin cheo"^ mod yung nw"a iSh tai 
iak cheUh biy, be as careful and fearful, as if you 
were drivin;; sis horses harnessed with a rotten rope. 
See ihc T|jj '^^ Siiang se. 

^^L^^ Righteousness, equity ; the same as ^S 

G~" '^^ is^k -.t. *^^ 

e ^ M ge? also written Ig ge. Jtn jio chea, 

**"^ ■* Cheng k£ ge, put bo« k« le ^ J\^ ^. 

jE # It. ^ 1^ ^ M'-'^'* '"* ^^ '^"s"' '^'''*""^ 

€he''d e dy ge, bo biiiyh boi e iy le, a truly benevol- 
ent, man will exactly conform to righteousness, 
without speculating for gain. 

_\ «y To deliberate with, to take counsel with, 
Ge .JI ^'\T, •" discourse with. Gi; lun ^ =^ sod 
jpl^^jfi neff!, to consult with. 
Soo che fi to, jfi t'h^ ok e ok git chei, lie cheuk e 

^r jnp iS. a| JjJ I'hak ch'hiyh Idng $im chi te to, 
jt leaou liy p'ha"i yin che6''S p'ha^t chikh Ay tdng, 
chew u"* cheiik kap e gS /fin, whea a scholar pretends 
to have his mind bent on the right way and yet is 
ashamed of bad clothing and 'jad food ; he is not fit 
to be deliberated with. See the J" |^ Seing lun. 

Righteousness, equity. Jin, ge, ley, te, 

*'" 'f- ^ iS ^ M , »»«>evolcnce 
righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and 

truth ; ( the fine cardinal virtues. ) 

Ong bA pit wat le, ek yew jin ge jd e e, ^P /of 

tai teih kong le, yed aoi jin ge le"a le a, why must 
your ffi^esty talk about gain; let us treat of 
benevolence and wghtcousness alone. Sep ^ ^- 
Beng choo. 

p- -y>*y Kong gc eH|J ^ ^ bold and ^ring, coura- 
^tt/^ gcous. 



To wait upon, to enter, tu lead, to rule, 
to rc-gulute, to eocoarage? also t» drive 
a carriage, any thing belonging to the 


Yim ge choo yew ^ {J^ |^ ^W'm ijr »< teik 

ge i( ping yiw, in drinking we should wait upou 

our friends. 

T'hong S^ < Ii«J ^ fjl ^ (^ , filing hcdn i 

lae, to regulate and manage every thing in the aniverse. 

Hwftn te ge ^ j^ ^, hwdn li (it tai eh'het.Uwin- 

te was driving the carriage. 

S X 




08 J^ 


i'o Aifert with, Ge cheftk 5^^, 
mh, to fall in with. Ge choo toe ^ 
^ii i^ to6 tSBh te loi, he met him in 

the road. 

A punishment, consisting in cutting ofif 
the nose. Boo hek ge J'" |5l| ^ ^ 
A J b6 k'U kwdh l&ng Ay p'hei"^, do 
not punish men by cutting off their noses. See the 
Seo"S se. 





Pi m 

„,0^ To open the mouth wide. J6 k'hoe 
jW- k'hae gea gei ^p P §.^ l^ P^ . 
-^^ clChin cheo"^ rh^hiiy ■Tc^Jtwun gei ged, 

like the mouth opened wide.- '■• " """^ '"'•'■ 

Go6 kong ()l^ ^i^j gedkang, a centi- 
pede. The Chinese say that it comes 
out in the spring, and disappears in 
the winter; at every joint it has feet, with a douWe 
Leard, and a pointed tailv-r7raD4, ;t is by nature 
afraid of spiders. : I'l.^!, ■ ^. 

The name at an insect. La ged ^ ^ , 

a spider. La gei »« ^ ^ f^ ^ a 

spiders web. 

Read tfte: to carry between two. Ta6 

bill i^g mn ^ ged mei"^h, to carry any 

I * thing. 

Read g^ng: to meet, to meet with. 

Song ong gfing la^, kay seen j6 keng put Ifing, 
,6y 6 j6w wan jin yi>a 3^ ^i ^ ^. ^ ^ 

ong ge"d lai, o Id ho ji keng I'm hey dy Idng, siy 
ijtw hwiii"S dy Idng, to accompany those who are 
departing, and to meet those who are arriving, 
to encourage the good, and pity the incapable, is 
the way to conciliate people at a distance. 



To open, to part asunder. Geili k'hwuy 
to spread open. 




To open out the legs. K'ha geik k'hwuy 
iS > to spread out the legs. 

That by which we frighten people. 


To oppress, to tyrannise; oppression. 
Geak 1*^ GiJak chdng ^ ^ J an oppressive 
government. Po geak ^ ^ , to 
oppress violently. 

Put kaoft jS sat, wQy che geik >f\ ^ j^ ^ 
tU y 1^ u™ kit U-Ckai kong kei geak, to 
put people to death for crime, without first 
instructing them is .called oppression. See the 
f: H Hiy lun. !>! ..«i T 

Geak 2 





A fever; a disease in which there is 
a hot and cold stage. 

A small kind of bell, with a long 

^v To hold up the head; a surname. 
yf I 1 I Geang sew {jTJ ^ ^ t"a Whi fhaou. 

It 1^ to hold up the head. GiJang k'hin 
ffn ^ 3 geoiS' Ic'httt^d, to look up. Geang bong 

Gcanj cheuk e soo hoo bo6, hoo cheuk e 

heuk ch'hey choo f I^ ^ l^ $ X #• if 
K M :^^ If. l"a k'he ChaSu k'hw^a ey 

kaou i hok sae pay boi Whw^d. IShlat, ey kaou 

6 ch'he boi ke^d, in looking upwards to have 

sufficient to serve one's parents with, and in 

looking downwards to have enough wherewith 

to feed one's wife and children. See the J^^ ^ 

Seang beng. 


K'hong geSng |t|^ ^ , the lofty 
appearance of hills and mountains. 


To rely upon, to help, to supply. 

To call. 



The name of an ancient Emperor. 
Gc&ou e put tek sun wfiy k£ yew 

gedou yin wOy hiy tit teSh tint elm ka te dy 
hwdn Id, Gcdou because he could not obtain 
Such a man as SAn, made this the subject of 
his grief. 

Cheaou geiou -^ f|| j a nation of 
., dwarfs, said to be only three feel 

^U* high. 
' Geaou llj^ ^''^''"" ^'*°" A-i ^' ^' '""' 

^'Jt ^ appearance of hills. 




Fire wood, to collect fire wood, a 
wood cutter. San 6 choc gcSou 
^M- ^ ^^ mooVS kap kwih 
ch'htdu cheSb eh'hi iy Ung, to enquire of the 

grass and wood cutters. See the A\ ^ Se&ou 

Geaou 3SE) 



To scrape. 



itfl^ '^" '"'''' **'c head high ; also to respect. 
':■■ sf Ge^m jeak soo 1^ """ *" 
/>iA. ful and thoughtful 

Gefim jeik soo "(^ 7[J ^g, , respcc- 

Sek tae ch'he"& ge6m 1^ -^ Q_ 
kwi kwdn, great and tall. 

tek two 


To examine, to verify, to fulfil, to 
accomplish; also written B^^ Ge8m. 
Haou gcera ^ ^^ , the fulfilment, 
or accomplishment of a thiug. 


K'ho bun cho geem bfiog pek pj^ B3 ^ 
^ 1^ ' *'*<' mooi^S tAy geim bing pSyh, to 
examine and scrutinize, and ascertain a thing 



Rigid, severe, strict; to give strict 
orders; a surname. Chong geSm 
^ ^, severe. 

Wuy gijgm EC ^, dignified and stern. GeSm 

kin j^ ^, rigidly careful. 

Ge«ra, g« put kam ch'h6ng ^ ^ ^ ^ f|. 

geim dy st. gwd d"" k^d ch'hfd modfS, while 

you were thus rigidly strict (iu your mourning > 

I did not dare to make enquiry. See '^ ^^^ 

Beng choo. 

Wine of great strength ; very strong 


San geSm ^ ]^^ m"a gim, the 

Geem ISTEI recess of a hill, or cavern. Song 

choo he seen seng chae tong cho& 

gefim^choa ^^^§:^±^]^^ 
^ ait §^ '^"^ '''^*" '*'"' *" *•" •"'^ '* 

taitg i geim choi ch'hiyh, in the Sdng dynasty 
the teacher Choo-he wrote a commentary on 
the four Books; in the rcccss.of a cavern. 

1 1 1 r- I, A burnisher, or polisher. Geen pod sek 

AFji* W ^ ^ > ^*"^ '"'* '^*^*'*' " ''"""^ 

^ I stone, for glazing cloth. 
Lcuk t'hae ch'bam say hoe geen seang ^^ ^^ 

^' ^ ■*? '^ -t , <^***«^'^ '^^ ^9 '"'^ ch-ham 
tay te ging chiSh ting, the green moss grows 
thick upon the polishing stone (owing to disuse). 




The teeth bare, and sticking out of 
the mouth. 

^ P ^l" To litigate, to strive i to contend at 










To grind, to break. 

Thin, meagre, shewing nothing but 
the bones. Also written iSh gedn. 
A- p'he^n gean g£ )l* ^ , meagre 
through being adicted to opium. 


To flatter, to admire, to applaud ; also 
wise, and contented. Ge6n ch'hcw 
iff ^' <''•''"" ch'hai'V kwi k'heep se, 
beautiful and ugly. 

GeSn W^t 

The name of a hiU. 

The name of aTiver. 



To examine, to exhaust ^ also to grind. 

^. ^ ^ nr.mlt with wine; to be overcome 

r£||ilJ put k'ho kaou e to, put k'hd je 

-tek j^Sg[^,:5f;-5r^J^l.^ 

Ad 4 «5, ftS t'hang je k tele, when a man is im- 
mersed in wine, and dissolute in his conduct, 


it is impossible to teach him the Jight way, or 
to make him understand virtue. 


Ke geep ^^ 35 a foundation. Soo 
geep ^S. ^^ a business, an imploy- 
ment. San geep ^ ^, a patrimony 
Tefin geep ffl ^, ch'hdn geep, a farm. Kay geep 
^? ^E ^an estate, family propertjr. 
Soo long kong seang, bin che soe geep -j^ J^ 
3^ ^ E -y pg ^, j'ftflfc cVAai^A cftSA ch'hdn 
.chb kang, seng 45, pdj/h sai^S iy si geep, learn- 
ing, agriculture, manual labeur, and trade, are 
the four common employments of the people. 

Kwun choo ch'hdng geep, sfly f hong wfly k'ho 

kvun cho6 cKhbng geep, sAy Chong eg Chang seo 
swd, the good man lays the foundation of an 
interest, the clue of which may be handed dow« 
to posterity. See the Jq ^t Seang beng^ 



To lead. 




The name of a place. 

The jeining €f a seam, in the repair- 
ing of a garment. 

To bite, to gnaw. Bo5 geet Jtwut 

•ffl" ^ "^ > """ '"'■""S" *« *«'"'» ** 
not gnaw the bones, (in eating). 

See the|||^L*ykd. 

\y>^ The son -of a concubine, the fresh 

g3r huds of a tree, trouble and calamity; 
■■JF * also luxuriant and fulL 
Tok koe sin geet cho5, k€ «h'ho sim yea gwfly 
ke le hwan ye4 ch'him ^^'^^^^ 

Hlf jin sin, aiy i iy ke"d, e iy cVho sim kw"a gwAy 
heiin, eAy li hwAn li ch'him (im, only forlorn 
Ministers and illegitimate children, maintain their 
;purpose with peril, and concern themselves about 
trouble deeply. See the "f» ^ Hay beng. 
Hwuy bo6 b^ng geet che seng yea ^^ ^ p^ 
^ -^ ^ ^ , u"" se ii5 paSuk ei"S dy sai''S-, 
there is no want of the production of buds and 

T'heen chok geet, y*w k'ho wQy, choo chok 
geet, put k^ho hw'at ^ f^ ^ ^ "Sf ^l. ^ 
'ft ^ ^ "Pf 'J^ J Cheeks chd too yea Chang 
wAy, ka ti ch6 soo, b6 t'hang K'iih, when Heaven 
sends down & calamity, it may still be borne 






up against, but when we bring the calamity 
on ourselves, there is no escape. 

The rules of archery ; a law, a rule. 

The posts of a door. Geet e loej 
kw"ajin che che ^ J^ j^ ^ ^^ 
4fl •>' mooC^ lac i,y too, gu-d, k* 
ti, ledou le, all the business within doors, I my- 
self will attend to. 

K'heuk geet 

; ^ pij/h Whak, a 

Geet M,, 

*l^ ^ substance used iu fermenting liquor. 


Seang geet 36 ^ ch'heo^S geel, 
a scorpion, also ady thing strange 
and uncommon among birds and 
beasts, is called ^ geet, 

The buds sprouting out of a tree, 
after it is cut dow^n. B£ng geet 

fhooting up. 


uneaST, haxardout. 


A water bird; also the cackling of 
geese. Oe yOng sc geet giiet chea 
ilig way chae $,^^^^^ 
& -^ ^ cAo i"a mrt"* yUng chej/ liy geel geet 
6y mefh chae, of what use it this cackling 
thing ? See the J^ ^L S'*"5 '•*'•&• 

To proclaim; great; to move ; uneasy. 

The rugged uneven appearance of bills; 
also high, lofty. 

The forehead ; the part below the hair, 
and above the eyebrows, Is calleiT 
gek. '-^ ■ • 


The same as the above. S£ng 
?5^fcl *''''"S •*"* ^oag hi, sob hong ch'he°a 
Pj=J pwang^k 15^41 jfJJ^^jg 

>^ J9. ^ ^ , **"< '""ff '"*' ^o *'*'''^'' ^S/ b'ak 
bai, ti kak k-wi kaiu pvi"i heih, in the city 
there is one with fine broad eyebrows; square, 
and also half way np the forehead. 




A seam. 

■^•^J^ ^ bird with fine feathers; also called 

^& chin choo key ^ ^ H ^ a pearl 

lT^*i<y spotted bird ; so called from its colour. 

Vulg. ki^h ! to oppose, to resist, to 

strive against, also to meet. GwSn gek 

I^Jg, stubborn. PoSygek^J^^ 

pdiy kayh, rebellious. 

Put sOn boo hoi, wit gno6 gek ^ M ^ S 

13 'FF ^ ' '''" '*" '''^ *"* '"^"S ffno* Sek, to 
be disobedient to parents is called rebellion. 




i' To vomit. 



2 T 

Short, dwarfish, iiring ch6 ^ itt 
a trough for grinding medicines. 

To meet, to go out to meet. Put 
chi-ang put ging ^ Jj ^f^ )(g , 

u'" iing 6" g'Vflu e»rt>*,-neither to 
accompany, nor to go out to meet one. 

To frccxe, to cougeal. 806 ko6 g6ng 

che"i te"S, the limbs all frozen to ice. 

Vulg. gniy: hard stiff, unbending. 8c 
kwijy soe geng, hong t'hong sin 

k-wily chat tin gniy, eh'he"d I'hong tin, good 
Writing should be meagre aWd stiff; and then it 
Will display tbc spirit ' of the charactir^ ' 






1\ go out to meet. Cli'hin geiig chck 
tek ch'hey, put ch'hin geiig chek.put 
tek ch'liey, pit ch'hin geng hoe ^ 

ig 2^ 3L, ch'hin ge"a, chew ey tit teSJt boi^ u'" 
cKhin ge"a chew hey tit ieoh boi, pit teHh ch'hin 
ge^a hoe, if oalj when we go ourselves to meet 
her, we can get a wife, and if war cannot obtain 
one without going in person to receive her»th£n 
aught we not to go in person » 





Read jea6u •• a cockle. 

^^^^ A gem; a precious stone. P6 gwik 
,^i^ $^ "JO a precious gem. Yew be 

■■ ■ '• geiik e soo 7^ ^ 3E. J^ ^, ^"^ 
ho Ay gSik tS chty Uy way. There is a beauti- 
ful! gem here. 

Suy hwa6 choo jS ch*hwan me, sek win geuk 
chek san hwuy i^ jg 3^ Rfl )j| li ^ ^ 
rp Sll ill fM , «'"^3' fc'A£"8' thoe Ji ch'hwan 
kKi^S, cheSk tiy geuk chek sw"a hwuy, when 
the water contains pearls^ the stream will be bright 
and when the stone* coaceal gems, the moun- 
tain will be resplendent. 


Hard metal ^ precious. 

place of confinement, 


^ »^» A prison, a place ol connnement, 

' 1, -^ S jP those confined therein $ cases of litiga- 

^ IV V tion. Hay geiik ~pC j^, lijh k^a k'hoit, 

to put in prison. 

Ok lok tey geuk ^, ^ iljl ^, P'ha''e ISh 

tiy geuk, the wicked go down iato helJ. 

P'heen gan k'ho e cheet geuk chea, k6 ySw yea e 

chit kob wa fhang lai p'hw"d twin giuk seUng iy 
ling e 1% yiw te^a, t'e"a, with one word to be 

able to decide cases of litigation ; it is only 
Y6w that can do this. See the "K gft Hay liin. 



Laborious^ wearied : 

the name of a 

Geiing '^Ip^ 

A kind of jointed bamboo, of which 
walking-sticks- are made. 


Great and manifest i magnajiimous, 
virtuous. Giiflng geiing gang gang, 
jfi kwuy j6 cheang ^|^| j| ^, 

^0 ^ ilD J^ i '"'" '""" kwui"^ kwuf^^ cKhin 
ched"S hwvf/ kap cheang, bright and. brilliant 
like pearls aad gems. See the /j> ^^ Sijaoii 

The name of a kilL 

T* wrangle, te strive, to coatend 
Gey sijung ^ W^^ to quarrel. Heng 
tiy gey 6 ch'he^ng, giiiy gi k€ boo 

J^ 1^ i >5^ ^ ^K 1 =fe fS ^/'^""'^ "•'" 

kay te lae bin, gwa bin hoe l&ng boi han, when 
brethren quarrel at home^ the people abroad 
will dispise them. See ^\ ^^ Seaou gnay. 




To l&ok angrily at any onev to behold 
Tith displeasure. Soo bin gey gey 

sai"S Sim hoiy tSh k'hw"a, to make the people 
lox)k at one with rage. See the Jl_^ Seang beng. 

^ To look askance, to look slantingly 
Hfc^ at anything. Gey j« se che |jl^ (j^ 

vLi mz,''^ 

look askance at it. 

To go to, to proceed towards^ to visit 
a place, to proceed far in learnings 
18 called ^ p^j ch'ho gey. 





Tae dng gey teing aa ^ ^[t || ^ .^ ^ 
tae ong k'hi kaou leing any Tae-6ng paid, a visit 
to Teang-an. 





Not to look straight . at anything. 
The same as. BG gey... 

Twan g«y ^ ^^ exact, grate, decor- 
uu».. Md g6y ^ ^^ old and 7 oung^;. 
a surname. 

Hwan kfi m6 g^J I^ iBl "j^ j© ^ f<^»au tgh looi"^ 
e a.y laou ling sei/m llin, t» send hack their aid 
men and youths. See the t* ^ ij&aog beng. 

Chun g?y ;f^ 1^ , a •''"«• «>f Worn.. '■ 

A rainbow. Jeak tae hah che bong 
f^ |b , cA'Ai« cAeu"K Itea u>''a &y 
bang hwiin k'hengy like as when a great dearth 
expects, the cloads and rainbow. 

_^ - As fawn, a juung stag. See e g6y k£w 

f^& ;^ /!^ ^ ^ > *^'' ^** •'^ '«** 

^yC* cA'A^nff 'o«^ *e"<» <iy «», with while 
clolbes, we should wear fawn furs. 

^ a^ .^' transverse beam in front of a car- 
ds |^Iy riage. Tae ke bod.g^y, seaou ke 
"I '/^J bod gwat, kfi hd i h6n^ che chac 

"/^ ife /k'U rA'Aea W g-^.y, gdy oh'hia I16 gwal, 
e ejf an cii\B"d. ki*d, a large- carriage without a 
pole, and a,(mall carringe without a. yoke — how 
can they, travel •• See the J^ |fe Seang lOn. 




Aa ignorant appearance. 

To cut grass: also< to regulate. 










4^ ' 

^J}/C^ An art,, an employment, ^w gey ^£ 

X^S^ ^E, fA'A<u> gey, a handicraft.' Leu'* 

~ ^ \ gey }?^ ?S ) the six arts. Cbae gC'y 

;;J-g.- talent. 

KSw yea gey, 6. che.dng. chehg hoe hO ytw w^_ 

& S. "i*^ ^ D^ f 1^ '^ ^ "'' "^ '"'^' ^"^ ^^^' 

le chidng ching sod, uoa t^a mei''h 8h, K6w is skilled 
ia the arts, what difficulty will he then have in' 
following up ihc business- of government. See- 
^'^^ ± H Seang lOn. i^H 

\ >-, To plant,, to sow. Hoe. chek kaou bin 
kiy sek, si g£y gnoc ^^^ J^ ^ ^ 

kH p3yh sai ^ kiy sek, ti chtng gnoi kok, Hoe-chek, 
taught the pe»(^e agric4jlture and tii« p^Qtin<; <>4v 
the five kinds-, of grain. 

■•yat'ffk ^Q ancient prince, who -wa*. famed for 
2\ lr-% his skill in archery. A surname. Giiy 
^ I seen si: a 22, ^ m 1 gly gaiu chih 

chei"^, Gey was skilled in archery. 

To hold down the head, and walk, 

^ T6 sing, t» hum. Gim se Py |* * to 
B^^ recite ode.. E* .i j« gim ^ ;^| jfjj, 
P |l^)-ivd eh'hiw jt gim, to lean against 

a tree,. and hum a song. 

Tiie same as the preceding. 

^^^ SUTI 

ill that is high and conical;, a. 

The fee» or sediment of any thing; also 
written G^ gim. 

All standing together ;; also wrilhen l(\. 
gtra; the same as W^ cheung, all. 




<jim In^*^ High, loftj. 


Gim kay J^ ^ /stone steps.;' 

Gltn IKrttll The head shaking. 

To hold firmly, to grasp. Gim chae sew 

Gim ^"E^^ ^ ^ ^ , ff''" '« ^'^''*'"' ^ srasp 
in the hand. 

Gin r*!^ '^'^ "P*^" ^^ mouth wide, and laugh. 

,»■» ,1 ■■ ,.'r.irii_ iiri.jii.; i..-. ^^ 

,,]^ Lar^ fflftS' ilH-'^ *"■'' ^J--;,- - 



Silver. Pek kirn wQy che gJn |^ ^ 
|S -y ^ ^ pii^ft' «m tdng: keo gin, 
white gold is called silver. See the 
I 3e gnay. 

A precious stone like a gem, a gem 
with a.flaw.jfl it. 

.-.MO). J. mild h<!fi ,-ri3i • 
..^ A. bank, i^^shore, a border, a limit. Ke 

"T*B> tae bo6 gin, k6 seaou bo6 liiey ^L 

bo kae, e iy siy 16 lae, it is so great as to have 
no limits around it, and so small, as to contain 
nothing within it (speaking of Doctrine). 
^ ^ The noise of much wrangling. Beng 
Gin yl ^ '^'hSSn gin gin f^ j%^^^ > *«"«' 
%J CJ A-adtt ch'heng cKhtngjHng, fierce dogs, 
making a great noise. 

_^ y% Harmonious and pleasing? placid :yid 

Qj„ rj > - I agreeable. Bin choo se ch'hek, gin gin 

I^J J^ea^^f-f^flgl^ 

4ft bin choo khea le pee"S i, h6 Mat iy yeo^S^ 
Bin-cho6 stood by the side of Confucius, as it were 
pleasing and agreeable. See the 'T> =& Hay lun. 







To laugh out loud. 

The noise of wrangling and contention. 


V/ I Gin Ifin j^ ^ , the eddying of water. 

A servant with four mouths, to speak 
falsely, to deceive. Sun boo gwAn, boc 

Saa gin. tSy g5 ^ X tl. ^W.^ 

1^, s^n ay ned"S pay gvs&nrgek, neo^ Iky u" 
laou sit, sea tl keaou go, sutf s tather was stubborn 
his mother false, and his brother proud. See the 
-ra ^ S'eo"S se. 




To enquire; to be respectful and cau- 
tious; alsd, moreover. 


Gip gip j« 'ja , a multitude of people. 



%%..'. High, hazardous, uneasy; a small hill 
<^L is called TJ^ gip, and a great one is 

y^!^^ called |lj|_ hwin. 

K'hong choe wat, € soo se yija, t'heen hay tae 
chae, gip sip ho£ ^ :f Q. ;!rt ff ^ {H. X 

~T^ >^D ^ ^ 5^ "^ ' ^''''"^ "^"^ ''""^' *' '^''^^ 

Uy si, t'hee''S ay gway heim, «"• an dy y'eo"^, 
Confucius said, at this time the Empire is in 
danger, and as it were unsettled. See the ~|> ^ 
Hay beng. 

% >_ Bold and vigorous. Git git yfing hoo, 

f^^ gno seang yew che 'f^ "j^ ^ y^, 

5^ ||i7 /& )^. chbng bing dy ying 












hoo, gwa sUSng woo e. Of boW and vigorous yeomen, 
1 still have a few. See the w\ ^^ Seo"^ sc. 

^ Difficulty of utterance. R'hoc git put 
I l*p~" lang to swat, j6 seen t^ se P P^ /f\ 

O ^1^ m .t. 1 # 1 1 > ^"'"'^i' 

git, bey s^a kong wa, ji gdou did ch'hiyh, the mouth 
stammering and not able to gpeiik, but clever at 
making books. Sec the ^ p^ So6 ki. 

A^* Water dried up; 
J § ^ fiver. 

also the name of a 

A hill standing by itself. 

Git Id K/* ^- ^ tcoubled, and wearied. 

^ 1» To arrive at, even, until, to. E' git 6 

JL^^t kim, even to the present time. 

Cha6 soe c kong, git bo4 sSng kong ^ ^ "^ 

kaau bd chi'A kong, his Ulents ace too diversified 
and his idew too widely diffused, so that no meri- 
torious underUkiag is completed. Seethe ^^ 
4^ K'hong yflng twan. 

« ^ The lower part of » thread. Also a man's 
Tw ^T i"""<^- K'hong choo' hoo, teuk li-Ang 

*ru git ^L iF X ^ ^ j^t , *'**''^ 

choo Ay pSj), mb^d kid teuk lidng git, Confucius'* 

father was called Sijuk-leJng-git. 

^ >_ To stop, to exhawt, to finish, to con- 
'^m^ dude. K'hong choo se se, choo tOng 

PC-i g« * hay. git 6 chew ijL T" It #• 

U keng, cheAng ling gi i ISh, git kaou chew, 
Confucius arranged tbi; biatocical classics, from 
the time of Tdng-g€ ( i. c. Gea6u and Siln ) down- 
wards, and concluded with the Chew dynasty. 

Ro6 git tek -^ pt ^ , *« "*«' '«^r do not slop 
the buying of rice 


To gnaw, to gnaw a bone, read gnaou. 
^ Ek choo j6 gnaou k^ kwut BL.3p 
[fj] ^ A "^ . w''itke"dje gnai c 
dy. kwut, they exchanged children and gnawed their 
bones .- Speaking of a famine. 



^|> fm Vulg. he^a: a kind of grass used in 

^^ cauterizing ; the moxa, os mugworl ;. 

.^^ ^^ a period of 50 days is called A^" 

gnae. Reaou gnae /]/* ~yF a yoiing person } also 

rest, at case ; a surname. 

Kim che yeuk oiig chea, y4w ch'Irit Ic6n rhc 
peiig, k4w sam lefin che gnae ■^ 7 'fiK "t 

t^a dy boeyh chu Sng dy Idng, ch'hin ched"^ ch'hit 
iui"S dy pat"S kiw s"a nei"^ dy gnae e, those 
in the present d«y who want to become rulers 
ace like tbosc afflicted with a seven years sick- 
ness, seeking for cauterizing grass that has been 
three year'* dried ( Intimating that without 
previous preparation they will never succeed, 
in their object. See the T^ ^ Hay bcng. 



To cut grass. Chin gnae ^ j/, 
a man of. talent. 

Tffng gnae Wij!^^, to regulate, to 

Gnae >>\J^ . . . "^ 

i« Vr^ put in order. 


>^%| To cut grais is called j(|! gnae; to 
^^Tl reap corn is called %& hoe. 

Vulg. gnai: to gnaw, to bite. 

To interchange, to- lay acrou, to- 
blend,.to compare ; one of the dia- 

Leuk gnafiu pat kwi y^ •^ f^ B> lak gnadu- 
fiyh kwi, the six interchanges and eight diagrams. 






■^t Savoury food, spiced eatables ; also 

— / -^ writteu ^gnaSu. Chadchew gnadu 
r^ 6 lecn kan, haou k'hin cheaj6 lo che 

chad chiw mci"h p'huty te ch'hdn kan, ting haou 

k'hln dy King Ji to e, to carry out wine and 
savoury food into the fields, in order to wait 

for the diligent, and reward tliem. 
GnaoU lb XrT GnaSu h4m )lj^ Ig^ the name of a hill. 




The roots of vegetables ; also written 

[■^t ^gna6u. 

The roar of a tiger, wbea about to 
bite any one^ the barking of a dog; 
the name of a country, and of a place. 

^£^Jf\u The same as ^ gnadu ; also a piece 
yPi 5v "^ '"^^^ ^'''* ^^ bones in it. 

To disturb water, to stir up the bot- 
tom, and make the water muddy. 
Gna6u che put chok jj© V* 3?> 7'^ 
keaou gna6u, yew bey Id, although you should stir 
it up, it would not be muddj. Spoken in re- 
ference to persons. 

Gnaou 1^- 




A sound. 

Gnaou t'ho ia& ij^^ a kind of peach. 

To desire, to delight in, to like, to 
prefer ; a friend ', also read lok. 
Te chea gnaou suy, jin chiia gnaou 

ai chAy, jin dy ling at sw"a, men of know- 
ledge prefer water, but men of benevolence 
prefer dry land. Intimating that the disposition 
of the one is more sedate than the other. See 

^'>"= _h 1^ ^^^"» "*"■ 


;fc? Lefin gnaou jg ^ffl the fibres of the 
water lily. Gnaou se l&n chok seen 

chii sw"^, the fibres of the water lily plant, can 
hardly be manufactured into thread. 


Gnav ^^"^ Words not widely proclaimed. 




Elegant, splendid, uncommon. Cheng 
gnay iJ^ /^> elegant and proper. 
Bfln gnay ^J^ ^|^, literary and, ac- 
complished. JS gnay jj^ ^^, an accomplished 
scholar. Gnay gan ;jg "Sj elegant discourse. 

Readkeng: hard, stiff. PutjSwput 
keug, na6 keen j6 gnay ^ ^ ;^ 

gnay, nai k'hw"& gaSu dy Vhak ch'hayh lUng, 
neither too yielding nor too stiff, shews the ac- 
complished scholar. 






Read keep : to take up any thing 

with pincers, tongs, or chopsticks 

Keep choo ^ -+-, gnUyh a, a pair 

of pincers. 

Read keep: to hold under the arxn, 
to hold right and left, to uphold. 
Chew kong keep hod sSng ong 13 

■^ ^ f-^ '^^ 5E ' ''*'"" '■""^ ^"^^'' '"'" *^"^ 

6ng, Chew-kong upheld and assisted Seng-ong. 

V %^ Read hecp : to hold under the arm, 

Gn&vh JkAle^ ** squeeze. HiJep I'hae san e t'heaou 

^^r ^. pok hae, wuy put ICng, se chin put 

leng^ea ^^ -^ g^ ^ ^ ;(t, .}f II ;f; f g 

^ tt ^ H^ "tj^j g^^.y'' I'hat i>w"a jS i'heaou 

kiiig pak hae, kong bey By, se chin che"i bey ey, 

as to grasping the great mountain under the 

arm, and jumping across the northern sea with 

it, to say that you can not do it, is truly a 

can noU ( and not a will not. ) See j£ ^i* 

Beng choo. 





Gneaou I^T^ 

The noise of a multitude. 

Gneaou h 


To move, to be agitated. T'hiien 
t5ng I5j- gnijaoiih ^ ^Jj j^ jlj^, 
i'hee"S tang tei/ gneaofth, when the 
heaven is moved, the earth is agitated. 

To creep, as a worm. 



Vulg. go6 : the cow kind. Hfing gnfiw 
•gH' -tpj Jcui"^ god, a common cow. 
S6y gnt'W Tf^ ^fc cAiJ^ g-orf, a buf- 
faloe. Gu^w toe ^ jL g-o,) /aua, the name of 
a star. Hwat peng chc kay, put heuk gn£w 

y'"s i^yj^'Z'.^^^^ 4- % '"'' ^"'^ 

Aif kay, M cKhi goo yed"^, a break-ice family 
( i. e. the family of a great officer ) sliould not 
keep oxen and sheep — A surname. 

-, . iki-^ Gn6w ch'hip Zt IkS the name of 

Gnew rt-t '' "* ' 

- I a medicinal plant. 


Vulg, gu--d: I myself. Gno put to ^B 
>f\ in J S'"' ""* chac, 1 do not know. 
Je ae k£ yilng, goo ae ke ley '^^ '•'^ 

^ ^ "lie '£ ^ la ' '^ '^** ' ^^ *"'^' ^'^ 

leSh e Ajf I6y, you pity tJic sheep, but I pity the 
ceremony. See the I" "^^ Strang lun. 




A spear, a lance. 

The loftiness of a hill ; height. 


Vulg. gol: five. Gno6 sip jg^ -f" ^ 
gci chap, fifty, a surname, also written 
5C gnoe. ; 


Go& sip yew gnoe, j6 chd ^ hak ^^ -J- ^ ^ 

/e t'AaA:, when I was fifteen years of age my mind 
was bent on learning. See the r =jm Seang lun. 

A file of five men. Hdng gnoe ^ A^, 
rank and file; a surname. Sam gnoe 


s6ng kwfln zr^^f!:^^^, *"" e<>e 
che"d kwtlu, three or five forming a company. 
See the ^ 'fdl Cho twan. 






One of the horary characters. Jit gnoe 
n CJ^ jit laSu, mid-day. 

Inimical, hostile. E' put gnoe che soo 

Gnoe ^^4^ seang 6ng ^ ^f^ f j^ ^1 f^ >t9 

TfE fhi u"", gnoi iy tea teo «r<n, he 
answered in expressions by no means hostile. 

Obstinate, opposed. Gnn6 gek iff- ^6^ 
perverse and rebellious. 

To meet with, to come against, to 
oppose. Ch'hoe gnoe |ft iAp Con- 
^^^ fused. 
Ong boo s6 ch'hut £• hwan seang gno6 "^ ^ 

b5'' [U ^1 # |0 j^ , ""«■ *"" *"■** '^ '■*■''«' 

tap 6ng hwan leo loi teSh, when Ong-ho6 wenb 
out, he just met with Orig-hwan. 

Double, together. Teing cho6 keet 

ik. gnofe j6 keng ^)[[.^^gi^ 

ifn ij;jj > teHng-ehoi keet-lek tSo tiiy 

chah ch'h&n, Tc4n;;-choe and Ki;et-iok ploughed 

the ground together. See the "p |j^ Hay iQn. 

United together, opposite, double; also 
suddenly, unexpectedly. Soe song wat 
gnoi-, chek '»'»' 1*^ ^ ^^ |E| f^ 
^- Q ■^ ^ toi iy te"^ king gnoe, chit cheSh 
king k'h'ea, in numbers, double are called Gnoe, 
and Single k'hea. 
Gnoe je#n "ffi ^^ , suddenly. 







A knot in wood; a bone without any 

Kq go ^ j()g , the appearance of a 
waiting maid. 

Ch'he go m il^l , the lofty appearance 

of a hill. G6 be san jl|^ )^ jJLj, the 

name of a hill. 
A moment, a sliorl space of time, a little 

while. Neaou sew gd sAa sfln, g6 t6 to 

kap siw tSep d koo sim stin, yew iSep i koo chaSu 
lai chaou k'he, birds and beasts are for a moment 
still, and another moment full of gambols. 
_V » To change one's speech, to talk falsely 
GO —^1/ "f foolishly. Bin che gd gSn ^ -^ 
D |W gfl' -^ , pSyh sai"S" dr/ pkyh cKh'at wa, 
the foolish stories of the people. See the /J\ ^ 

Seaou gnay. 

The same as the above : also to speak, and 

Go (tfl^ chatter; also written |^ go. Seing me 

^Xi bo6 S6 ■^ ^ i& V^ , taS k'hd k'hwun 

hSh kong wd, let us go to sleep and not prattle. 

^ ^ The silk worm, the moth into which the 

G& |XlTl> *'"' *°'^™ *'"'°" ^'^^ * flying insect. 
■^v\ Ch'ham gS ^ ^ ^ **>« silk worm 

.^g.* A large sea tortoise. Yew sin go, poey 

Go "i y^^^ boo h6ng Ia6 che san, chae hae teung 

^ lb moo sl» ff5, fc**a cfceaft g-e<J Ate^ /a^ dj( siena 'e 
fta* /eunff, there is a divine tortoise in the middle 
of the sea, who carries on his back the H6ng-la6 
hill. The Chinese fable that ]^ jj^ , 1<S wa cut 
off a leg of this tortoise to prop up one corner of 
the heavens, which was in danger of falling. 


To chaunt to hjran, to sing; also written 

Good, beautiful. Si-ing go J(^M, 'he 
name of a beautiful lady, said to be 
caught up into the moor. 

The appearance of ofifering up a gem or 

A fine kind of vegetable. 

^i^TLli Good words; also to chaunt, to sinj. 

GO ^"^*^ 

Gd se 

: , to recite verses. 



I P\3> An animal found in the waters, the skin 
of which is used for making the heads 
l^ri of drums. 

^ ^ To wander, to ramble, to stroll about for 
l/> pleasure. M4 wan g& yfiw j6 tey kan 

Vhit Chd It ji tii/ dy kan. Ma-wan strolled backwards 
and forwards between the two Emperors. A surname. 

The noise of a multitude, the sound of 
many voices, lamenting. H6ng gan e 
hwuy, ae beng gd g6 -^ jP ^ ^^ 
^ P^ 1^ 1^ ^ twa che&h gd. tit pwup, ae dy hadu 
gd gS, the wild geese are flying about, and their melan- 
choly scream saunds like the voice of a multitude. 

Ch'hong gd ^ ^, not fieaful 

G6 yew ^[ ^ to ramble for pleasure. 
Go he ^ ip- to stroll about in sport. 

irt V* The sound of sighing, and lamentation; 
G8 ^1^^ the bustle of a market. Go go ^ 
self-satisfaction and complacency. 



"^^P^^ A large tortoise ; the same as aj 




. m 

The nune of a fish, 

A fine bone, a horse not y«t brol^en in.. 

To deceive. Gd gin 2^ "^ deceiU 
Tty^l^ ful words. 

k A gooie. Th"* Ji't kS hoe sat se gd 

pa< jit e dg nii'^S Uy t'/uti chiy Uy gS, hoe e che'dhe, 
the next day. his mother killed this goose, and 
gave it him to eat.. See the J^ ^ Scang bcng.. 

J|»/^ To. boil,, to cook without oil ; to brew, 
Go ^D\^ '" ""s'''- Gd chew f^ ^ Jo distil 

J^-^^s To be bungc]', to starve. Go so6 

tjO f»*||/ ^E *^^ **' '" '"' starved to dci 

»*» \4 Pck 6 seuk ch£y ga£ i6w vfta?che 



; ch£; go £ i6w ;ftag,che hi./ 

siuk-chtu e<^ ti *^«> y^ng" '^ ^''^"1 Pkk-£ and 
Scuk-chCy, starved themserves ta death at- the foot 
of the Saw-y4ng hill. See the f* tm Ha.y iDn. 




To be groud,. to- treat contemptuously. 

To sfeepi Go pSng BK J^ ^ a bed- 
1^ chamber; Also written R/^go. Yin 

''e j6 g* 1^ JL ]fii &V ' f'" ""* J^ 
k'hwitn, he leaned over the tabk and slept. 

See the _[^ ^& Siiang beng. 

A pan for making cakc9> 

To treat proudly. Go bin „^ .^ ^ 
to treat with scorn. Go put k'h6 leang 
flW ^* "pT ^ keaou Sy am kv^a i"" 

3 ^ 


I'hang hoe e 16"^, do not aHow prouT^spositions 
to grow. See the fi^ =P Ley ke. 

'^TJ I myself. Go6 jit sam seng go6 sin 

~^y ^ B H W p- # , ^"^ '«* j" 

•^ i"a hang sing chhat gwd, dy tin, I 
examine myself every day as to three things. See 
the J2 fia Scang; lun. 



GoS W—f ^1% The name of a river. 

■■yr 0°^ '*"? |p 1^, •'»e najne of.p trciv 
> J ■» which at mid-auturan lets fall one leal 
I" by which people know that the autumn, 
season is arrived. 

Goe fflJ* — K'he go6 ^ |5 ihe name of a fish.. 

A surname y the name of a- countrt. 

Go£ kong ij(& ^ ^ed'Arang'r.a centipede 

I VC The name of a fiih ) the same as 
go6 ) also used for the following, 

A kind of flying squirrel, like, a small 
Q fox I also oaJIcd ^ ^ £ y£w. 

The name of a giant. 

To understand: Leaou goe j i^ 
- to coraprehmd. Sing goe Mi tli 

' •^ to awaken j to be in a mistake is called 
^ b«y, to find out one's error, is called ^S. goe. 





l^-^J^ Bfing goe [1^ 0^ , clear ; perception ^ 
H .y^' t **»e understanding. Goe tuy gS- ^^ , 

»~ opposite, face to face. 
_y m To awake. Goe be kSw che S^ ^ 
|y>^ ^ "^ ch'hai"S k'hwiin kttg e, wak- 
1 1^ ing and -sleeping he seeks for her. 
See the ^ M Kok bon^. 


T« deceive, to cheat. 

To be in a mistake -, to ttroir into 

(Jog w» "^I^ 'Confijsion. Kwun h6 gin che goe jea 

r£^V ^ jpj" "g" ;^ ^ ■l^i:' *'»"" o« chit>''<i 

Adni', fcaiu Afed groe, how is it that you make 
such a mistake in what you say. See the ^M 
If \M. , Teo^S jt twin. 

Yit goe, k'he yflng chae goe — |^ ^ ^ 
J9- g^^ J chit Ay goe, Wham iy ydng tit chae goe, 
having once made a mistake, how will it do to 
repeat the error. 



Read gnoe : five. Gnoe sip j^ te fheen 

chap ji chae t'h«e"S Ay bing, at fifty 
I knew the decrees of Heaven, See the JQ =jm^ 
Seang lOn. , ,| l,,„u^.„i,; ; 

^ Vulg. gTrS: wiftout, on the outside; 
Goey >C^W Reside, except. Leak hap che goey 
^^ I 5eng jIn chQn jfi put Ifin ^ ^ 

^ ^l'- 1& A- "^ Hn -^ pi^ ' '"* *"'' '^ ^' 

sing jin chAn Ji bS gl tun, whatsoever is beyond 
the six cardinal points (or on the outside of the 
viaible creation ) the philosopher meditates on, but 
does n«t discourse about. /- 

Goeygin put j'ip « k'hwAn ^|> ^ /fl X ]«^ 
[^ , gf/iS bin Ay wa^ it'" t'hatig, jip i ping keng, 
out of door talk should not be brought io doors. 




Goey seng 

cousins, and ne- 

phews, by the sister's side, a sister's 
son or daughter. 

Read gwat -. a month, the moon. Yit 
gwat —^ H , chit goiyh, one month. 
Jit gwat seng sin CI ^ W^ , 

jit goiyh, leap ch'hai^S, sun, moon, and stars. 

E' jQn gwat, teng sod sS, seng soey Ijl ^ 

J^ ^ R9 Bf ^ ^ ' ^ '"" f '«J'* '«"^ »* »« 
■che^d ne6"S^ |,y the aid «{ the intercalary month 
he fixed the four seasons, and completed the 







See the ^ jfit Ge4ou te6n. 

Numerous, many. 

To he always beating a drum) also the 
sound of a drum, v 

Ua Ch'hok gok |g 1^, fearful, alarmed, 
apprehensive. Gok jeSn j^ ^^ sud- 
denly alarmed. 

»JhAy The bud of a flower; also written ^ 
^^^p*-! gok. Ch'hun hwa hwat gok, hay keet 
^^ k^sit^^^f jr,^i^J, 

tKhun Chee"^ hwa kwat gok hay t'hee"^ keet koey 
chi, in the spring season flowers open their buds, 
and in the summer form their fruit. 

I > The naine of a bird, used as a bull's- 

Pnlr '^r^P* *^* '" * target. Sit cbao ch^ng gok* 

Wiii\) hwan k«w choo kg sin ;^ f^ j£ ^ 

/Z ^^ &^ -^ S* J "' ''''**' '^'■^"S' S'"*' '^^^ *"'*''' 
fc^te <« ta li Ay hin sin, missing the mark in the 

centre of the target, we should turn inwards, and 

blame our own persons. Seethe Fft^ TSnng yflng. 

% >TQ Keen gok ^R |^ honest word$, upright 

Gok ^— I * discourse. Ch'heen jtn che lok lok, put 

" ^ j6 yit soo che gok gok ■4-' J)i "Z/ gg 

1^. ;^ i(p - ± 2: WM> ^'^^ ^"•'^ '"^ 







dj/ ifin W, a"" pi chit dji t'hak cVhUi/h Ung &i/ tit 
wa, the mere assent of a thousand men, is qot so 
good as the plain declaration of one scholar. 

% " - The side of a hill, a precipice ; aUo 
•** *^ written A^ gok and .S gok. 

H2f Chira gok ^ ^ , stones piled »p ^|r » 
dangerous way. 

Xiis ch 


The name of a countr^, S]ioken of in 
ancient history. A surname. *» "*»'''-' 





stern, rigid, severe. Chew se gok gok je 
ehtye &y cKhiyh 
goh gok dy yeo^S, the writings of the 
Chew dynasty have an appearance 6f sevei'ity. 

The peak of a hill; the ridge of a hill. 

The point or edge of a sword. 

Gok g£ ^ '@ gok hi, am alligator, 
" Bias <»•> ' " 

a crocodile. H&n ji chok rh^y gok g£ 

bCn kong cho chiy gok hi dy bUn, HAn-bun-kong 
composed an essay announcing his sacrifice to the 
alligators: (in consequence of which sacrifice, the 
Chinese fable, that the alligator* all left the coast 
of China). See the ^' ^ K6e bfln. 

A horse with a high head. 

1 myselfi high, to mount a high place, 
in order to look to a distance. Gflng 
segndycw Cjl ^ fic ^, gwasae 
t'eSh gwd dy ping yiw, 1 have need of my frrends. 
See the ^ BT Kok hong. 





Seang cheuk g6ng _t^ K ptt , P^t/h ekeo"S k'h«r 

bang fc'*tc"d, to lift up the feet and lodk to a 


The rising of the sun; to raise, to 
elevate : bright, clear. G6ng gflng 
kwun Che tek ^ ^ ^ £ fg , 

Ung bing kwutt dy tek, bright and clear is the 

prince's virtue. 

A startled' hotse, a farious steed ; also ' 
a horse with a white belly. 

A kind of water plant, growing by the 
side of pools. 



K'hoog gong 

The name of a hill. 


uneasy, unset- 


Gong j^U^ The B»m6of aifcinl. ^^^^^ Tin 
' .i:l .n«a ,J»w qirf'J JSRL 

^^^^ Vul{.|r*"' »'up'*' '"<•''•''> *'*''T Gong 
Gong jyjpl jin V^ fi , gSm Ifn^, a stupid fellow. 

^VJ^ Sim i, k'hip km che gam yJ-a ^ ^ 

il>l^ ^ ^ ill' '^*''' '^^^"^ chly k'hip dm iy 
gong, how cx<-e««ive is K'hip-4na's stopldity ; also 
written J^ eong. '' f>ill ?)" 


Goo ■■_5 * *euk goo, a proverb, an adage. Th*' 

" r* people of 3ot S', 'ek pit^are said to 
be about three incfteS hfi^, haying Vm^, and 
becauie of their skill in talking .and joking ther 
are called the SL=en go6 kok ^ |^ ^ , *he 
eldqiient nation. This does not differ mu(h', either 
in'tou'ii'd of sense, frdm (A6' fabled accorunt of 






^r- ■% Read gnfiw: 4n oi, or coW.' -Gnfiw ySng 

Goo _t'Tk "^ ^' S"^ l/^'^*'^' covps and sheep •, 
I A surname. 

Yew fc'hijcn gnfiw jS ko Stong Kay chija /& ^ 

•4^ flrj M ^ i^ T* ^^ ■" '"''° "^"^ *'*"" ^'^ 
koh^i,l6ng hay, there was a person leading an ox 

and passing by at the foot of the hall. See the _j^ 

•^ SeSng beng. 




Read ge: • to rtieef, to njepC -with, to 
befal. Hae hoe sijang ge im? ig ^R 
M.) bo teo^S tfi, s'eo loo t'd'oh, to meet 
one another unexpectedly. 

iUi J 

■V Read gno: I, myself. Gtt6 yeuk jtn, 
soo jin Che e ^ ^j^' {-. |J| f- g 
2ffi. , fftfif ad bSiyh jin too jin kaoU i, 
when I desire benevolence, benevolence c^mes. 



NS gwa -^ 

a bouse, a mud 

An exclamation of wonder or surprise; 

a calling out loud. Boo tey hay ke 

k'hip wat, gwa, taij che ho chong che 

ch'hTm hTs g^ fj^ -7^ ^ )it p Ig y^ ^ 

i j^ ^ "?* ■* *"* '^■'' '^'' <^^'*8a k'haou king, 
gwa, Iwd chi an chw a ta6 kaoil hiSh ch'him, B06- 
tey descended from his carriage and .weeping said 
alas, my sister, how is it they have buried you 
so deep ! See the ^ ^^ Soo ki. 



Read gijey: without, on the outside? 

"V beside, and beyond. Tek chea pun 

jea, cha6 cbija bwat yiia, giiey pun 

Ibey Uwat, cheng bin se twat If© ^ ^ "tj^. ^ 

tek heng chi Icin pdn, chei^S ckai boii/ biiiy, na biiSi/h 
gwd e dy pAn, ji laS e dy bwat, chek s'eo cliai"S dy 
p&yh sai"S lai ch'heo"^, virtue is the principal thing 
and money is of less importance, now if we exclude 

■ the principal thing, and engross the less important, 
the wrangling people will begin to plunder us. 

Vjlr*. also read k'hwuy, deceitful. 

Gwae '^^tl Unskilful, not clever; dull, stupid. 

To delight in, to play, to sport, to 
Gwan Jr^Tt study, to meditate on. Gwan swa 
^ ^, Chit t'hS, to play to sport, 
; tp gambol, to ramble. 

.Gwan long kofe chSaiig che seang ^Bq ^ 09 
^g:^ I- , t'hil t'h6 hi Idng te lied koi ch'hew 
,,ehe6"S dy ting, to play with aqd dandle upon 
one's knees and hands, 
Soo wny le kd soo, l& wuy wat ke gwan -1- 

Idng wUy chae ki dy Idng s&, cha boi way ae 

ki dy Idng gwan, a scholar will die for a dear 

friend, and a woman will sport with one she 


Gwan sira soo but^ Jtj\ 3{! Mf1,gwda >im seo"S 

svo mei h, with a studious mind to meditate on. 

affairs and things. 

yV1% ^^ '^'^ study> to bend the mind to any 
^A^TS^ thing ; to dislike ; to ramble, to 




^ to study, to exercise one's- 


Gwan sip ? 

self in. 

Gw&a y6w ^^ ^m- to stroll about for pleasure. 

V^.^» Vulg. t£iji«''S"; a surname. Gwan che'k 

\ / VhA were reckoned among the seven 
wise men of the bamboo grove. 



To see, to behold. 

A ^ 








Good, fine tovety, valuable ; when 

written with a H by the side it 

T^'SJ di refers to things,, and when with a 

.^^ Great; the origin, the principal, the 
^^^^ chief; a surname. Gn&n soey tt^ 
^ ^^ Pnj a generalissimo. 
Tae chae k'heen gwftn, ban but cho se -fr ^y 

|L %' M ^ ^ ^^> *" ''""'' '''"'"^' '''^ 
t'hadu, ban mee"h Ic'hi ChaCu, how great are the 

supreme Heavens, from which all. things origi- 
nate. See the B^ i^ Yeih keng. 
Gwin lew b£ng chae, ko£ keng leftng chae 

7t 1 0)1 ^.MEM^:^.^^ '•*-''« 

na bing, Ifha ch'hiw »fln liAng, when the prin- 
cipal head (-ihe Emperor) is inlelligent, Ihe 
members (his ministers ) wilt be honest. See the 

Chong gw4n ^ jj^ ^chedng gvdn, the highest 
literary rank. ■ | 

^ To rub off the cdgjfs, till a Ihirtg 
■<pl I becomes round. Hing * ]^ ^ j 
/Li J having employed people in his 
service, upon their acting meritoriously, and 
deserving a reward, would k'hek yin gwftn ^ij 
f n TClll ''"'• ""^ oiges of the seal round be- 
fore he (ould find in his . h^rt, , to . promote 
them to office. ' 

••—"3^ Stupid, dull. Gw4n gel* j^ i^ , 
^1 CI stupid and. stubborn. Sim put cbck 
/ _i>^ tek ge che keng, wOy gwftn ;|j, 

hwal tek gi dy keng, cho gv:in, when the mind 
is not regulated by the la>«s of virtue and 
righteousness, a man becomes. stupid. See the 
^ ^ Cho twin. 

A large Gwftn gd kaou leQng 

Ik ^ ^k hI' '"''"''*■''' '"'s' ^'^- 

es and dugons. See the III 
TeQng yQng. 






An origin, a fountain, ahead. Peng 
gwftn ^5E. IS J a wide waste. Gwftn 
chwftn Kwun hwun, put sea tew yea 

i.?^ ^ ?^ ri ^ '^ ft ^ ' «'''^" """"" 

hwun huiun, bd hSi/"h jil mai"S, the fountain 
bubbles without ceasing day or might. See Ihij 

Keang pek yiiak kcw hwat teung gwftn ^b. ya 

^ /L ffe 4^ J^ ' '''^•''"S P^l^' yea'' ''"»'' *".y 
hwat teung givdn, Ki-ang-pck-yeak, . nine timt"; 
attacked the centre of China. 

The same as the above ; a fountain . 
of water. Cb^ng- kfi pun, ch'hcni; 

^ k. gwftn Jfli^jC./i^^;!,^., 
chS''i e &y kin piin, ch'heng e ijt^ girin t'hauii, 

correct the root, and purify the fountaHi. , 

^Keang gwln 3E ^ the name of a 
woman,, the mother of the sovereigns 
the chew ra dynasty. 

The name of- a city. 

A black horse with a white belly; a. 
white horse wounded. 

A kind of insoc4. 

l\ JIj^ Careful and kind ; respectful. 

Gwan ^\ IVp^ TalenLs employed io a bad'Caii«<>. 

T6 desire, to wish, to--long for, , to 

Gwan |P ^[ desire anxiously. Kam gwam U' 


Gwan bflrt choo che clio ^ P^ ~^ ^ ^ ' 

ai biii/h t'he"a hoo choi iy chi, I desire to hear 

what is your great aim. See the 3K ^^ Lun ge. 

3 » 





H6 suy ytrt yim, chSng s6y gwan h6y ^pf ;]^ 

^ ii 'If ^ ® "^^ *^""^r*'^^ '""^ '""'' 

ching aty gwan, when the waters of the river 
are full, it is just what we desire. 

!| A kind of vegetable. 

-^r^ Vnlg. g'dkyh: a moon, a month. Tit 
1^1 «oey sip je gwat, gwat sam sip jit 

^.<*rt nef^S chap je goij/k, chit goiyh «"fl chap 
jit, one year contains twelve months and every 
month thirty days. 

kedng neP'S, always troubled throughout the 

Keet gwut ^i ffiS ^ the name of a beast, 

found in the west, which eate incense, 

and has no hair. 




The name of a ^lace. 

To cut off; a punishment consisting 
in cutting off the legs. 

<fc A yoke. Tae ke bo6 g6y, seaou ke 

wTlT bod gwkt, Ue hd 6 h6ng che chae 

i^V 1<I ^ ^ ftfe ' '"" ''*'''^" *'' ^^^ *^^ '^'^'^^'^ 

bo gwat ebiiiyh an chw^a iy *«"«, ■» large caf- 
riage without a cross-bar, and a small one 
without a yoke,— how can they travel ? See 

Gwat Cj^ tl 

A military weapon. 

The flame of a hill. 

Ra,pid, swift, *asty. 






High, and levVl at the top ; also t* 
amputate the legs. 

The motion of a boat. 

P ' *• ^It ^^'^'^ gwut ^^ IjT ^ uneasy, hazardous:; 
ly ^i agitated, disturbed. 



K'hwut gwut jl/ja |B|[^, the bare appear- 
ance of a hill. 

^ To move, to agitate, to act upon. 

GwiltT^lP T'hiJen che gWut gn6, j6 put gno 

vL^ i'l-ek^^^a^py^ 

■^ t'hee"S Ay im tang gwa, eh'hin ched"^ gwd 
bey yeH, heaven acts tijiori us, so that we can- 

uot resist. 



' Sfi .N "{ W To be tr6libl*^d rtf th^ cxtrettic, Seiing 

Gwut %^ g^'"' ^^' ' ^^*'^ *^''' '^ ^^ 



A piece «f T^Ood, without branches^ 
a post, a pole. 

Hazardous, aneasy. The same as ^^j^ 

Ch'huy gwiiy jj^ IHl ^ lofty, high. A 

MTo study manners and polite appear- 

it^ A good woman, still and^quiot inter 





■V'^'i -.. 




Lofty, high. 

Ch'huy gwfly !^ 
mixed with earth. 

a rocky hill, 

^ ^ Lofty, elevated, noble. Gwfly gwfly 

Gwuy ;^ w •">«' ""y ''''^«n ^^y ^^M^^. 

vvcl ^^^MjiK, *«^^'' '"'^ '"'«• '»'* 

<«* l'hee"S k'kSh twa, how lofty and noble ( is 
Ge4oii ) '.—Heaven alone is greater ! See the Jh 
fj§ Se5ng lun. 

M^ High, dangerous, hazardous, uneasy ; 

GwAv a^t difficult; a surname. Gwfly kip 1^ 

y ^^^ ^ in difficolties, in straits. Gwfly 

jefin hoe an fn,^^.^^, ^^^ J^*" """ 'J^ 
an, after having been in danger we may enjoy 

Kii^a gwaj s5w beng ^ )g; ^ fj^, Vh^,"^ 
kei'^ gv^y heim teSh sBib »ai"S me"a, seeing a 
danger, we ought to venture our lives. 




False, hypocritical. Chok gwQy sim 

'« 'f^ j^ ^6 ^ , ^''^ P^* '*'*"'• 
Sim k-w''a teSh bwi, to practice deceit, 

troubles the mind. 

Seaou choo bo6 gwuy ''I"* -^ ^ {1§ , »*J' **"" 

b6 pSyh ch'hat, infants are no hypocrites. 

Chiiang gwOy a& $fi a book of or- 
mj\i ders; a surname, the name of a state. 
k/(^ Gofi seiik, gwfiy ^ ^ 3^ ^ consti- 
tuted the three kingdoms of the _^ ^ Sam 
kok, on whirh that celebrated novel is formed. 


O gwOy. pp[ ^ , assafoetida. 


To open the mouth wide, and blow out 
the breath. Read hay. 

The warm breath blown otit of the mouth. 

To laugh out loud. K'hoe ba h4 Q 

To laugh, the sound of laughing, 

A split, a crack, a crevice. H4 k'hck 
a crevice, a cranny . 

\^ Tofca 

Ha P]^ Kh< 



To kalibo at any one, to bawl out aloud, 
'hoe ha H Pjfe , dihiy ha, lo bawl 
with the mouth. 
H4 Je j« 6 che, hfing to che jIn hwut sSw ^ ^ 

ji hoe ling, ki''i he ij/ ling u"' sew, whenever you 
bawl and scold people in giving them any thing, even 
a passing strangers on the road side, would not 
Uke it. See the 'I* ^ Hiy beng. 

To cover any thing % to cover what is 
underneath, with anything from above : 
hence the form of the character. 

Read hadu : mourning for parents. Tae 
hadu ^5 yf''. Itci hi, to wear mourn- 
ing. Ke song wat, y£w baou hok 

^ # PI ^ # BR, *'**^ "^ **' *"<f '"'* 





hi ig yin che&^S, when people are in mourning, 
' they are said to put on mourning clathes. 


Read hSh: to bind any thing together. 

Ha ha ch'heaou 

\ to laugh heartily. 

hd ha ch'heo, 

.^Jr^^ Vulg. I'hi : great, immense, of wide 


dimensions. Sim hae fhey thae ^jj^ 
■iwBt great in mind and body. 


JC^ To laugh, 
ir^" laughing. 

, the appearance and sound of 



' «^^ To be afraid, to be alarmed. Keng 
\^ hae •^ ^ ^ !ce"a hai, to be frighten- 
f>^^ ed. Choo tae hoo keen che, kae 
sek je6n ja hae 1^ ;^^^^ ;^/^ Q ^ 

ifn ^ > ''*'"' '"^ *'"' ^''"""^ e, cho po6 pein sek 
j6 ke"a hai, ail the great oflScers, on seeing him, 
universally changed countenance, and were afraid. 
See the '^ ^ Cho twin. 

f ^ Minced meat preserved with some liquor. 

ICf Hey hae gt ^-^ ^ ^n y^„^^ o.f piddle. 
K'hong choo k'hok choo loe 6 teung 
tfing, chin soo chija j6 bun koe, wat, hae che e, 
suy bSng bok hae ^l .J- % ^- ^ ^^^ t^ }^ 

U 0jin ! ^^^""S <^hod tit k'habu choo loe le teung 
ting, chew chin soo chei ji mooi"S j/ein koe, king 
leHh e chd bdh ched^S, su^ ka l&ng lb heel bah ched"S, 
when Confucius was weeping for Cboa-loet iu the 
middle hall, he ordered the messenger to be brought 
in and enquired the circumstances of his death ; 
who said. They made mince meat of him ; upon 

which he ordered them to throw away the minc« 
meat, (prepared for his dinner) not being able 
to eat of it. 

Hae \ 


The sea. Hae wfly pek kok che flng ''IK 

k'hai"^ Ay ing, the sea is king over 
the hundred vallies. 
Hae put y^ng p'ho, e teung kok y6w seng jin hoe 

b6 k'hi p'ho ne"S, Idn seo^S teung kok k^d woo sing jin, 
the sea did not raise her waves, hence we thought 
that perhaps China had produced a sage. Said by 
a foreign nation, who came from far to seek a 
sage in China. 

Readae: an cxclamatioa of surprise and 
regret. Ae yeft ^ ^, hai yU, an 
expression of astonishment, very com- 
mon among the Chinese. 

A' hoo 5& ^ J finding that ^ ^ , hSng e 
would not listen to his advice threw the pearly 
vessel (which had been sent as a present) oin the 
ground, and drawing his sword, dashed it in pieces, 
saying. Ae, se choo put cheuk e boS PE ^^ _jC. 
^ ^ ^ P^ , *B^, chty liy gin a, ltd kaoii t'hang 
kap i soo neo"^, psliaw ! this boy is not fit to be 
consulted with. • 



To draw the breath short and quick; 
also, the breath. 


w^,X» A child. Hae j^ ^ ^ , 'h *«"«, a 

y(^^ youth, a little child. Ha6 tSy che long, 
^^^^ boo put te ae k6 ch'hin ^ k^ '^ 
f , M Pf-; ^n ^ ^ |g , hai liy iy sey ke"d 
bS u^chae seSh e dy pay boi, every infant and child 
in 'he arms, knows how to love its parents. See 
the ~|> j^ nay beng. 

United^ harmonious, paired. K'him sek 

Hag ^52;:* ha6 1,6 ^ ^ 1^ |p , k'him ,ek tm 

hai ho, harps «nd guitars ^ould be 






|-| %^ Kwul haS •§* fl^j a bone, a knuckle, 
Tr^fi^ a joint. Cheet hae c ch'hwan ;jy'[* 'R^ 

to break up the bones in order to make a fire. 
Vnlg. 4y: a shoe, a straw shoe. Yit 
song hafi — • W S^^ chit sang Ay, a 
pair of shoes. 

The same as the above, leather shoes. 

Vulg. key: a small kind of fish, used 
in pickles. 

One of the horary characters. 

Danger; the same as the following. 

To injure, to hurt; danger, loss, injury. 
Sl'ang hae {ji- '-|^j to wound. Le hae 
Tf.l] ^j dangerous, 
Hwuy tud bod ek, j6 jew bae'chc ^fe ?^ llHi 

ji ^eio »^)t Afle f, not only is it of no use, but 
still n)ore, it is injurious. See ^tf -4-- Beng choo. 

To disperse, to scatter. A surname. 
Read ka6, to loose, to solve. 

To meet suddenly. Hae hue pat k6 jfi 

hiipy Mi^k'^ SJl nfi '^ , ^"^ *"« 

b6 Ui t/eakji tSo huey, to meet acciden- 
tally and without previous agreement. 



Lazy, idle, indolent. Ilac lac 

7» /t's 

slothful, negligent. Peuk yi-a hwuy hae 

not idle day nor night. 

^■mg^ Hae chae ^ ^ ^ a wild animal, said 

*■ lo have but one horn. Ch'hoe bQii Ong 





It ^r£ , ch'ho& SjJn Sag ai t& hae p'hSSy Ay kin, 
" Ch'hoe-bfin-6ng loved to wear a cap made of the 
skin of this animal." — Called by some an execu- 
tioner's cap. 

% Manacles. Ke hae jM h^ ^ artful con- 
trivances, tricks. K'h^ hae >^ "hjlf , ' 
implements; weapons, 
Te bm k'he has che s.e /.;,1 f^ ?.J ^ZWi' 
t'eoh chae payh tai^ ke k'h^ AyjteS chey, you should 
know the number of weapons in the hands of the- 

A kind of vegetable; a sort of leek. 



■•^j^^ The face flushed with anger, and the 
ff lul voice raised, 

i^ 1*""S 'laE ^ ^^ pang hey, a crab 


MO haC ^ ^A^ m6 hey, a hairy crab 
Pong hae hwfln sin kac kap tJw |W^ 

M W ^ \^\ ^1' vh P^"^ *^* chmOV tin fhong 
te kih tew, the crab, over the whole of his body 
is defended by armour. 

IT Tn ^Ey* ^^^ ^"°** °^ shortness of breath, or 

^/^^ hard breathing; a sigh. 


A cry of pain, a sigh. 

Hah I7|d> "*'' ''*'' '"^ '"^"" ^^S.^' *^ ^ 
^KJw ch'heu, to laugh heartily. 



Vulg. hA: to tic up anything, to bind 
anything together, H5h tae ^ ;9S 
hUh IwiL, to bind on one's girdle. 

The grunting of a pig. 






Vulg. Sh: to learn, to receive instruction. 
Hiik tSns J® '^ a school. Hak & 
koe hwiln, nae y6w hek ^ jjl^ "g* 
^11 Jfj /fe" ^^ oft koi tha &}/ k(t hwith, nae woo 
sij/ Ik tedh, by studying the instructions of the 
ancient'3 we may get something. See the rg ^^ 
Seo^S te. 

Hak chek sam tae keQng che ^* 0|J ^^ "fr it 
^^, two. Bh chek a"a ley king chit yeo"S, with 
respect to the name of the great school, then all 
the three dynasties were the same. 





hak — ' '^ } chit cheSh, a measure 
ten pecks. 

Se hak M ^ , sai hak, a necessary, 
a privy. Lok hak ^t J^ , WA ftafe, 
to go to stool. 

A cockle. 


Ham ^y^ 

Ham tan "pK sR j l^e na«ne of a place. 

Stupid, foolish. 




A great valley; a wide ravine. 


Merry with wine, tipsy. Ham t'lieang 

Si ^ > '''^•"■f"' "''*' wine. Ham 
ko S sit m 1^ ^ ^ , cAetfft cA<?io 
Afloa ham, cKheo^S Icwa IS cVhoo, to be merry 
with wine, and sing songs in the house. Chew 
sit pwan ham yH 'K' a^ Su" cAei" cheih kaou 
pu/'i ham, to drink wine till a person is half 
tipsy. Also written 'TO' ham. 

^ •.^ To call out aloud, to bawl with a lond 

Ham POl voice. H4ra seng jg Ifl, pJJ ^ |(p 

' ^^ ^ , se"a, cft'Ain cheo''S i^y^ a shout 
like thunder, 
% !•% To move, to agitate. Ham t'hae san e. 

Ham Jlig?, *'^"' s^*" ""^y '"'""" '^" ^ ^ Ui ^ 

^^\^ H -^ ^ ^ H^ *«>" '«"«■ '"A"^ 

sui"a k'hwai him tang gak kay Ay kwun Bh, to move 
the great mountain would be easy, but to move 
the army of the Gak family is dificult. See the 
iistory of the yt? song dynasty. 

The noise of a multitude eating and 
drinking. To eat much, to stuff. 




The clamaur ef «ne angry; to be angry. 

The gravy of meat. Ham hae e cheen 

^ im i>l M' *"* '^''^"P *^* cfteo"? 

i lai habiL, to take the gravy of meat 
and minced meat with its liquor, in order to 
sacrifice. See the yt ^fe Tae gndy. 




Ham C\ 



To eat. Ham sit 
to eat and devour 

^ ham chedh. 

Ham lam 

l:dn nd, an olive. 

To eat without appetite. 

To call in anger. 

fligh and hazardous. 

A dropsical swelling of the lower ex- 
tremities. KiJak ham Bffi HS k^ha ham, 
a swelling of the legs. 




Ham I'l'Ll Covetous, greedy of gain. 


*'• *> To contain, to include, to inclose, to 

Ham yC»^^ '"''<' '" the mouth. Paou hSm chae 
I y '"^y'S'^^^ poou him chae lae, 
included within any thing. 

Hftm noe ■^ jfe ^ him liw k'ki, to harbour re- 

Him eng choe hwa ^ jt ^ ^ ^ cAeaA «iff 

eh'hing hwa, to eat flowers and wear blossoms ; 

applied figuratively to learning and literary pursuits. 

^ ^■% All, every one, the whole ; a surname. 

mm )gj> S^ chek ham he g ^ EE, 

y -^i « ^M Icong 16 cho poi ae kwui"^, their 

merits were altogether illustrious. See "f^ "A 

Seang se. 

^ %^ United, harmonious. H4m ho ban bin 

Ham ^Igb I^ IP ^K' '"^"' *^ '^**"'^ *«« 

J^V^ 4y pd^A sai"^, united harmony pre- 
vailing among myriads of people. See the tin 
Seo''S le. 

^ Vulg. keim : saltish, briny. Ham suy 

To include, to contain ; also armour 
•>J^* and an armourer. HJtn yOng i^i ^2, 
to include, to contain within itself. 
H4m jln wfly k'heung siiang J'" ^ ^^ ||j| f^ 
'f^ k, chd chein kih iy ling wilif ke"a seang 
tiah ling, an armourer's only fear is lest people 
should be wounded; (which induces him to make 
hiC armour strong and therefore he is better 
than an arrow maker whose only anxiety is to 
make his arrows sharp, that they may wound 
people ). See the ^ ^ Seang beng. Also writ- 
ten j^ ham. 

^ ^ a To moisten, to soak, as water when 

Ham ^/^>^^ plentifully collected together. Hak 

■ ^4^ chea tong yew yfiw h4ra eng, put k'ho 



lip teng j6 chin ^^"^^^^MU^ 
Pf f^ ^ fj]j jII ^ t'hak ig ling leBh yew yew 
him ing u"' Chang lap ling ji chin, the learner 
should follow out his subject and get his mind 
imbued with it, without jumping over the forms 
and advancing irregularly. Also writtin iS him. 




Arm«ur : the same as 


To hold anything in the mouth and 
chew it. 

An insect that devours melons, or feeds 
ofl the mulberry. 

>J^,« To hold in the mouth. H"6 k'hoe h4m 

Ham /^Hpl* ^-j- |ij , *» *'*"'" "'"■ '^ S<""* 
|'*'\^ appetite. Kwan hJim 'g' ^ , ku'"t 
him, a degree in office. 

M4 k'ha kirn, jln hftm ho6y J^ ^ :^ /\^ ^ 
^ J Hy k'ki kirn, ling him biiiy, the horses were 
deprived of their metal ornaments and the men were 
ordered to hold the wooden gag in their mouths 
( in order to proceed without noise ). See the 
~ ^ Sam kok. 

Ham Ol>Jl| '"■" ^"^ Pfi '^^ '" '""' '""heremlv ; 
(jJ^ also to be enraged. 



A bo.\, a casket; some say, a 


Ham P1k^1nTh 

he mouth not opened. 

Ham J/^^V^''^ """" "'""'' '" '^^' *"•' ""' y«' 


i Displea.sed, to be angry. H5m hwOn 

Ham *1 JP»Y IfJ 'tS , *" ''^ displeased, to be angry. 

iVii\ <-"''oo lo« wat, gwiin ke ma, c k'heng 


kfiw, e pfing yew keung, pe chc je boo ham 

kdng, pe p'hwil, j6 bo ham hwim, Choo-loe said, 
I wish to have carriage, horses clothes and light 
fur-dresses, and enjoy them in common with my 
friends, when if they are broken and torn I shall 
not be displeased. See (* -.Si Stiang lun. 



Vulg. lap, loh k'lii ; to fall in, to sink 
down, to involve, to entrap. Ham 
cheng p3 [up lulm k'hai"^, a trap, 

a pit fall. 

Ham & choey R^ b^ Hp^ to involve in crime 


The mince meat of a pie, or tart. 

Ham H 

H^^w**^^ Ham seen 
I H^ I on board of ship 

an implement used 

Bffdn ban S5 ¥§ ^ a large face. 

Stern^ dignified, severe. 

To look at, to spy, to see. T6 choo 
wat, ong soo jin han hoo choo j^h 

choo kdng, ong sad Idng lu6 k'hw"il hoo choo, T6- 
choo said, the king has sent some one to look at 
you. Sir ! See the "K j^j. Hay bengi 

The same as the above, SSng ban ^1? 
I' f'uE ' ^ man's name, 

J— Jk Few, seldom, scarce, rare ; also a rabbit 
Han ^ ^ •"=*• Choo ban gdn le =^- ^jg J^ ^j] ^ 

I hoo choo hdn til king le, Confucius 

seldom spoke of gain. 




Brave, courageous, bold, violent. Chin 
suuk kiiing han, lok e chijen toe ^S 

hong seuk k'htih kHng han, kiii't/ e seo plmh, the 
manners of the Chin country arc violent and bold, 
and they take pleasure in fighting. 

Vulg. huPa bin: to snore in sleep. 

The milky way. Han teSou yii!' PiB ^ 
the Hau dynasty. Han jin yffi A , 
a man of Han, a Chinese, in distinc- 
tion from a Tartar, who is called bwan jin ^'jS /V 
a man of Man-chow Tartary. 
H^o han !/?• vg^ j ho hiin, a good son of Han, a 
brave fellow. 
KiJng ban ^Hl "I'ji.s gniijl hitn, a sturdy fellow. 

A surnantei 

Dry, dried at the fire or in the sun. 
H4n ke kan e []^ '}t ]^^ J^, han, 
e kaok ta, expose it till it is dry. 

Vulg.. e^g^ leisure, ease, freedom from 
employment. Seiiou jin bin ke, wiiy 


s'idou jin ing k'hed, hu b'oSi/h cha ho, the worthless 
man, when dwelling at his ease, will not practice 
that which is. good. See the -J^ X% Tae hak. 
Kok kay hln hiiy ^1 ^^ mi IJ^ , a country at 





Still, quiet, retired; also to study, to 
learn, to practice. Hoe hwuy yew yew 
ban cheng cbSng ^ jjjj, /^ |^ 

H iai} Aoe hwuif woo i/iew h&n cheng cheng, the 
Empress Hwuy, ( the wife Bun-ong ) was retired 
and still, chaste and tranquil. 
K'hwut gwan ban 6 soft 15ng J^ JfTj j^ T- gS 
-^ , k^hwut gwdn hdn sip & kong tea, K'hwutgwin 
was practiced in rhetoric. 








A white sort of bird, in shape like a 
wild fowl, with a long tail. 

To hinder, to obstruct; a boundary, a 
limit. Tae tek put jS bin, seaou tek 
ch'hut jip k'ho yea ^s; 1^ ;f^ 3|j 

hv>"a, til/ tek cVhnl jip ty chb tit, with respect to the 
great points of virtue, we must not overstep the 
bou'bdaries, but in minor points we may go in 
and out at pleasure. See the "|\ ^ Hiy lun. 

Vulg. kw"d: cold, chilly, frigid. Hin 
jeet ^ ^ , kw^ijteih, cold and hot, 
^>«- a fever and ague. Seang hftn ^^ ^ 
a cold, «« lake cold. H4n kay J^ ^ ^ a cold 
family, — a polite expression, when speaking of one's 
own family. 
jPt gwit wun hfing yil hftn yit »e y ^ jj. \}[. 

. ^ S- jit gsii/h wun UfA chit &y hw''i 

chit ny juib, the sun and moon pursue their 
revolving motion, and thus produce a season of heat, 
and a season of cold. See the Sj ^ ^5) Ek 
hey sod. 

Han yea k'hek 1«6, tiy tdng ch5w ^ ^^ ^ 
^. ^ "ST ^ ' *t»"4 mafS lAng khSyh lai teSh 
l&y tdng chiw, on a cold night when a guest arrives, 
lea must be substituted for wine. 

^ Jb The low wall round the top of a wall : 
' — ■ also, the name of a country, and a 



*r* gurnamc. Hftn-bOn-kong 

a famous literary character. 


^ - _ i ^ Vulg. t<i''fl: drought, dearth, want of rain. 
^f^ J6 tac ban che bong »6 « ^P ^^ ^ 

~ I ^ "2' '^ I)^ M J '■*'*"' '**""^ '"« "■"" 
iy bang si hoi, just as a great drought expecU 

the timely rain. 

Han k^ I'hae sim 1^ ^ ^'^ , »"« kadu t'hai 
slm, Ihe drought has become excessive in the ex- 
treme. See the ^ ^[| Tae gnay. 










Vulg. lcw"a: sweat, perspiration. L^w 
ban w Sli , laou kw"a, to perspire. 
Hwuy ban s6ng e ^ -l^^ ^ ^ ^ 
ch'hut kw''i che''d hoe, the perspiration started out 
like rain. See the ^ hP So6 ke. 

■■y^ The evening, the close of the day. jit 
rl"! ■' han t'heen choo bdng si't Q ffF Jr 

» "?■ <^» '^ , •'"'' *"*" ^^ ^"^ **^ **■" 

ki tit cheih, even till the close of the day the 

Emperor forgot his food. 

^ 1^ To shield, to guard, to ward off* a blow. 
"T^!^? Also written -j^^ han, and jpf- ban. 
P Chod ley che wiiey boo heng, j6 sew 

cheuk che ban t'hot bok ^Wj'^^'^^ 

hoo u-oiy pay he"a, rh'hin ched"S ch'hiw k'ha iy 
han ChUou bak, sons and nephews should protect 
their parents and elders, as the hands and feet, 
guard the eyes and head. 

A villa(;e gate; also, a, wall. 

.\rmour for defending the arms; a 

T- gauntlet. Sfi kiiung I'hwal ban Hjfr B 
Jl^ ^ , ''*"ff *'*"■"« **""«' '''"">*"'^ 
hin, to unstring the bow, and take off the 

kr|M» The bones of the legs, Ihe shin bone 
•v^l ■• Tw4n pod tan o, sek che ban Jfe iffn 

rj I ^l<,%^%tiypoit^'>ai'a. 
chi kabu k'ha ktcul, a short cloth and a single 
dress, reaching only to the shin bone. 



A black colour of the face. 

The northern sea, the great desert of 
Tarlary. Teng llm ban hae ^ B& 
^ Vfe ' '''** ched''e pak hai, to as- 
cend to the northern sea. 

3 O 



>_ % The feathers of a bird ; to guard, to pro- 

Ha.n l94l^l tect, in which sense it is employed only 

"l^'O in books. Han lim yeen Ka %h jfe; , 

ban lim ee"?, the imperial college, or literary 

institute, in Peking. Hin yim "^n -&" , a fowl. 




Water flowing swirtly ; also dry. 



•■^y»_ Han suy jlM |^ ^ *» sleep. 

Read hong: to dry anything at the fire. 

Hong 16 M jjlw , hang 16, a furnace, 

a fire-place, a portable stove. 

G6ng hong fi sim ^^ S^u^fj^^ gwA hang le 

Iwii/, I warmed myself at the fire^ See the /N 

^ Seaou gnay. 





Read hOng : the skate. H6ng g6 
"ffi hang hi, the skate fish. 

Read hong: the name of a hill, now 
belonging to Cochinchina. 

To swell J a swelling. 



|_^ Hang-chew ^ ij»|| , the name of the 
yKfl capital district, of the province of 
|x ^ Cheet-kang. 

To submit, to surrender, to come 
over to the opposite party. Teang- 
ek-tek k'him Gijem-gfin, t'hey che 
wat, je k'heng hang hoe ? GeSmgan wat, gno 
chew yew twan t'ho6 cheang kwun, bo6 hing 
cheang kwun ^ ^ H ^ j^ ^. N: :^ 

leUh Geim-gin, Chit/ e kdng, U Whing hdng yei 
bS ? Geim-gin kdng, gwdn &y chew woa toof^ 





t'hiou cheing kwun, b6 h&ng dy cheing kwun, 
Teo^H-ek-tek seized Geera-gan, and roared at 
him, saying, will you surrender ? when Geem- 
gSn replied, in our country we have " lose-head" 
generals, but no " surrender " generals. 

' An instrument of punishment. 


Yung hang tM j^, to appear openly, 
not to lie in ambush. 



Han J 




* _ A row, a rank. Hftng leet ^ Blj, 

jf'^^* arranged in a row. H^ng gno 4^ 

I >J ^ rank and file. Hang soo x-r 

^t^ a warehouse, a store. Sip sam hing -f^ nZ 

;f-y ^ chap s^a hdng, the thirteen factories or 

foreign hongs, at Canton. 

A*\\ A fence in the water, made of stones 
"^y T *\ or bamboos, in order to catch fish. 

-i The back part of the neck ; also, 

T, Cl o""^^*'' ^^^ ^ surname. Ch'ho6 pa 

^ ong H-ang-e^l^^jg^^ 

Hang-e was the despotic king of the Ch'hoe 

country, — very famous in Chinese story. 

^ % ^ A lane, a narrow street in a city, 

'V -jt an alley. Yit tan soo, yit p'heiou 

^^ yim, chae loe hang — ^h -^ — . 

d k'hak dy lim, Iwd te loi hdng, with only a basket 
of rice, and a calabash full of drink, to dwell 
in a narrow lane. See the _£_ gM Seang lun. 

The noise of fighting, and wrangling; 
to contend. Choe e Loe hang ^IJ 
£^ ;^ j^B Chey kok kap Loi kok 
SCO p'huh, the Chey country contended with 
the Loe country. See the _J^ ^ Seang beng. 

^.^it Valiant and bold. Choo-loe hang 

I -^ Choo-loe kong kedng dy yed"S, Ghod- 













loe appeared valiant and bold. See the p pW 
Hay lun. 

A road in a villa^. 

An earthen vessel, with a, long neck, 
in which records or money may be 
inserted ; it being easy to put things 
in, but diflScuIt to get them out. 

Haou laou -J^I xfe j g'''^^'> '"rge. 

A sore throat ; the breath unsettled, 
and a palpitation of the heart. 

. % Lofly. Yew kok hat e haou leSou 

^X^^ Ital i haou lUou, the dark vallies 
became suddenly elevated to a lofty height. 

An enra£;ed tiger. Ham jfl haou hoe 

„ - il 4P )^i /!'. "'' "'^''''''- ''""" 

/ril chco"^ aeiB k'hd &y hoi, to roar out 
aloud, like an enraged tiger. See the y^ ^ 
Tae gnfty. 

The noise of a frightened pig. Haou 
'^ P^- ^' ^'""*'^ enraged. 

. fc To boajt one's-self strong and firm. 
-^y^^^ 3v paou haou 6 tiiung kok T^ yj]^ 
y W^ <;k qp. lb ra, you alone are boast- 
iug of your strength in the middle country. 
See the ^ ^ TaC- gnay. 

—I To boast, to brag. Kfi chc haou haou 
pl-J^ j56n w'at, koe che jin, koc chc jin 

~i£~y A , e dj^ aim cU ka It choo h'hwa, k6ng, 
kot cha Ay Idng, koi did iy l&ng, Uieir disposi- 
tions are only bent on boasting, saying, we are 
as good as the ancients, as good as the aucients. 
See the TC j^ Hay beng. 

Haou Xl 




Read hoe .- to roar, to bellow, to make 

a loud noise. Soo choo pek sew che 

ong, wQy seaou t'heiing hoe, chek 

wQy Cheung ch'hciou I'fll ■^ W 1^ ^ 3E- 

M 'h ffe i^. ^'1 ^ ^ ^ > '"r'^" """' 

pSyh siw dj/ dng, yin veiy t^y Chdng a haou, chek 
hoe cheing lAng cKhib, when the lion, wliich is 
the king of beasts roars on account of a small 
insect, he becomes the laughing stock of all. 

An animal found in the north, which 
is in shape like a; dog, and devours 


Filial piety ,• to be filial. Yew haou 
-& ;^ ""o habu, to posses.s filial 

Seen soo hoo bo6 wat haou ^ ^ ^ \^ ^ ^3 

gadu hok tae pSy bo& kong hadu, to serve one's 

parents well is called filial piety. 

Tcy choo j'ip chek ha6u, ch'hut chek tcy, ^^ 

f A R'J k^. [tl M '\^> "' " """ """^ 

jip ttSH woo haou, ch'hut leHh gaiu chd tii ti, 
young people at home should be filial, and abroad 
fraternal. See the ^ |^ Scang iQn. 

Alluring, engaging, pretty. 


To imitate; a pattern, au example. 

A/i\r """" ''"''' ^ ii; /"* '^""°'' " '"''^' 

j-^V^ Kwun cho6 se chek se haou ^ ^ 
M. f|l| Jl ^ the good man is a rule and a 
pattern. See the /J^' ^ Seiou gnay. Abo writ- 
ten ii\i haou. 




^^ Pleased, delighrted, pleasant, happy. E 
p^^ C sim tok bo6 haou ho6 f^ -j* /^V 
1-^^. te ^ i|^ JL le gwi dy tint kw"", 
k'ham iok tok bi k'hw"a uSh hoi, is it my mind 
alone, that is destitute of delight? See J^ 
^ Seing b5ng. 




Read hoe : to wait for, to wait upon, 

to wait, to stay. Buq haou ^^ |^ , 

to make enquiries after a person's welfare. Soo 

ho5 g kong k'heng che Ivfln f^J ^ 1^ '2^ ftP 

■y P^ soo Afloa <e kong k'heng ky mooP^, to 

wait at the gates of nobles and great men. 

:^ % A school, an academy, a college. Haou 

Haou X^ >^By \^^V^,^^^ "*"' of a military 

^y^\». office, in ancient times. 

Sect wuy si-ang se hak haou e kaou che ^ ^ 

hak haou t ka e, they then appointed the minor 
schools and larger colleges, for the instruction 
(of the people ). See ^ ^ Beng choo. 

Haou geem ^ ^ , the fulfilment 


•or accomplishment of anything. Kong 
)haou ;dl ^h the meritorious results 


of endeavors. 

Seen kS soo che sey l^an, jfi hbe k€ haou che 

se, tek^^f::^)5)r||.frnftS* 
r fill 'i^ ^"■^ **"^ '''" ^ ^^ *"" ^^ *^^ "*' •'^ 

iw^ aou k'hw"i e dy haou ge.em ay sky til lioh, 
first attend to tha .difficult part of a business, and 
afterwards look ior the results that are to be 
.obtained from it. 



To instruct, to teach. 

To imitate ^ meritori-ous result; accom- 
plishment. Tuy SCO kS kong haou 

kong haou, to meditate on the jiieritorious results 

of one's endeavour*. 

.>» A curious shell fish, found in the sea. 

Haou i^ST'^ Haou Ilea, a scoop made of the shell 
i I . *. f^ of the same. 


» i \ 

Hap «^® ''^""^^^ 

the n«ise of a multi- 


^ To unite, to join, to meet together, 
^^^^. to agree. Seang hap sH '^ ^ seo hap^ 
I—* joined together. Hap kae .^ ^^ 
suitable, agreable to what is right. 
Hap sim keet lek ^ ,y^ J^ "ij ^ to iunite all 
hearts and exhaust all energies. Ch'hey choo b6 
Jiap -f- ^^ ^,p "D ^"^ ^^"^ M hap, wife and 
<jhildren harmonious and united. See the /j\ ^ 
Seaou gnay. 

Why, iiow. Hat che yung ^^^ 
■woo s"a mle^h yung, of what use was 
it? See the Mj i^ rSdh keng. 

Vulg. hw&h : to ^eak loud and angrily. 
T5ng g6 he hat'lffl] || ^ P| , ■«^hen 
alarmed and suspicious, to bawl out 

<in vain. 


Hairy cloth, coarse clothing, sackcloth 
of hair. Kae e hat, k'hwun ke, chit 
sek, e wfly sit -^ ^ |^ fPI ^, 
^ /^. Ji^ ^ "^ , '^''° m6 poi, fhah, 
iy chit ch'heSh i cho chedh, they all of them wore 
.hairy sackcloth, and made straw shoes and mats 
in order to get a livelihood. See the _£^ ^j^ Si-ang 







The same ef a bird, like a wild fowl. 

The iron at the head of an axletree. 

1 . %_ The rumbling of a carriage. T'hSy hat 
LPjl^^ Jft 1^ to regulate ; — an office in the 
^J |-^ Song dynasty. 

B %.^ Blind of one eye; blind, not able to se**. 
^j~. Goe bun hat j6 yit luy, sin hoe S 

fhii"a cKhafS mai"^ lAng laou chit bale sai, k'ham 
woo ye"a hoe, I have heard that blind people shed 
tears from only one eye; is it true? 










To understand anything gudd«iilj/ co 
perceive, to unravel. Chd t yGng 
pf |J lek che k^w, jfi yit tin hat jefin, 
kwin fhong yeen ^-^^-p ZKf^ 

— ^ ^Jc W ?S jg cA? kaou jfiine I'at 
— PP <>■> Jg^ KH, m\f > 

4jf koo, ji chit mai chae bing j'ein kwhn Chong e, 
■when a man exert* his strength for a long time, 
he one day or another comprehends the subject, 
and thoroughly understands it. See ihe "^^ 
Tae hak. 

A prisoner suddenly making liis escape. 

Bit hat -j^ j^ J firm, sUong, robust ; 
not fearful. 

|.a| % Cunning, artful, clever. Seuk ch'he 

|i^>" i gat, Chi eh&n i chtng .fu, who is 
stupid, and irho is clever? 


X>^ *'■**<''' fS f^ , * frightened, terrified 
**• appearance. Ong wat, gofl pot jim kO 

jX hktsok^Q^:^.^,^!^ 

J ing kdng, gv:a l/By lin e 6y ke'tt hi"i, the 
king said, I cannot bear to «ee the fear and trepida- 
tion ( of the animal ). See 'he-Jj^ Seing bwig. 

ii'i ■<tr 

The appearance of wind ; to open th« . 
mouth and blow out the breath. 

Read haou: a sore throat. HatSOT sok 

^ The noise of coughing : an in&int's laugh. 

][f AT Put kim y>6ij i te hay ^.^ ^^^ 

'■^^ |l|g 0^ ^ > u" fi v>oi9 i » ha;,, 

not daring to breathe hard, snee«e, or ciouglj.' See 

the i^ ^ plj Ley Ibey chck. 

3 E 



l<<^ HAy boe 

A flaw or red spot in a gem. Kin jS 
Ick hiy ^ ^ g ]g, *< e'iuk k'hi'V 
My, the most precious gem has its 
flaws. See the "J^ ^ Cho twan. 

!^g, a toad. W&b&y boe 

*°^ @ ^ ^ ^ ' *'"'"' ****"^ '"'** 
$eo p'hSh, the toads and tadpole* fought 

.^ ,^ To ascend; distant, afar off. Teng h4y 

Jjly "* b^ § iS » **'^ ^^^^^ "*^ *" Emperor. 
J"5^^ Sim hoe ac e, h4y put wuy e j|j» ^ 

^S ^ iM ^ ti ^ ' "■"■ *"'"• *""" •*** '• 

chete humi'^, U king, when the heart lores a person, 
distance is never thought of. See the /j> ^ 
Seaou gliAy. 

HSy /^P^ The same a» the above. 
A male pig, a boar. 

A shrimp, a prawn; the cWfcr species. 

jSp» Fog.iwst. H6ng hay ^r p . -i"? "^J'- 

Hay 55 a redness in the sky. L"'' ha.v <■ •*<•« 

P>^ 1„.0 chSy hwuy ^ f||!^ UH S 

^5$ AA Wy ka^ Koe bo5 eho po<S-M 

the fairing ftiists and tUfe SoiiUry fogs were" flying 

about togethtr. 

The leaves of the ho6 filihg ^ ^^ 

plant, Oied as medicine. 

Vnlg. iy: b(?1ow, down; unJcrr unjler- 

neath ; to go doWfi, to des^d: Aho 

written. "^ Hay. VT 

■I ■ j'l .J . • *~ ' . ' *■ 

Sey oe i scing, boo c so'6 Say, st-y vi c hay, 

-''■h\i«"^^s3i^ se3,ig ^ 5|^±.#a't t: 






»i twi, tSh li-e hoi ti siy Ujf, win i Un Ay si s^;^ 
bSh hok lae si twa, that which wc drslike in our 
superior^ we must not manifest to our' inf»ri<i.r«, 
and that which we dislike in our inferiors, we 
must not serve our superiors with. See the 4r 
^ Tae hak. 
HiJung te 6 hwuy, hay seang kc yira t^ 4^ 3^ 

:^. 7^ Jh. ^ ■p[^> *""«■ "•/ fiii key tit pwuy 
kwdn kay ay s'e^a yim, the male of the wild fowl 
is flying about and its cry is sometimes loud and 
sometimes low. See the ^j ^ WSey hong. 

The summer season; also great. A sur- 
name; and W" iJiQ , hay ho6, a double 
surname. Hwa hay aS ^f ^ "the 
flowery summer," and cboo hay ^^k ^S , "cons- 
tant summer," are bolh« names for China. 

the names of the 


Hay, sgang chew Jg. 

three early dynasties. 

II5y seang leik ha 16 g ^ ^^ ^^ *^ > Uy 

t'hee^S k'hi se6"S leiik ISiik hd lein hwa &y eh&m d, 

in the summer we may admire the ponds ef the 

green water lily. 

A great house. Tae hay, hwuy yit bok 

twa ch'hoo ii se chit ke ch'hi tiy ey 
ch'hoTig, a large house is not to be made with a 
single stick of timber. 




Leisure, opportunity. H&n hay 
ing ixg, at leisure, at ease. 

To connect. Kwan hay r3 ^ ^ eon- 


The noise of langhing, the sound of 

Read heet; to stop, to rest. Heet siiy 
wK W^ ' ^^^^ Vhwim, to stop, to take 
rest ; sometimes pronounced hiy*'h. 

Urn ch'ham boS elan, kan k'hwiij put -beet it 

® ^ ^. ilal it ^ ifc , ''^''^•^ "^ '^•'■^™ 

lew iiy chin, sw"n key svaon liy ii'" hiyh, the 
grove is ashamed of not haviag grown to per- 
fection, and the torrent blushes that it cannot 
stop. Referring to persons who are ever learning, 
but never arrive at knowledge. 

^ ^1 Happiness, good luck, prosperity. Sin he 

He || |.^y_ T^j" ig ' tfie new year. He soo k© seng 

/|»pr JSl J -^ ^' *» «»» ** <"'^''^< «" 
give notice of the accomplishment of anything good. 

" E he w ^ J unsettled, uncertain. 




Delighted, pleased. 

'E he pa p.^ , an exclamation of surprise. 
He k« Sim j'<i^ VM :Mu^^ , he kaiu 
heii sTm, indeed ! Is it so esccssive ! 


He be jte p^^ to play, to sport, to gam- 
bol. K'hong choa seaou he he, scang 
_ tin choe toe ^ ^ y)? ^ g^. ;^ 
v(0. 3. 3 *'''""Sr c*ixl »iy Ay si Ckit eho, se&ng 
seing pde tin choi toe when Confucius was young he 
used ta play at spreading out sacrifices and offerings. 
See the ^ |£ So^ ke. 

_ •*^ To burn, to roast, to toast at the fire; 
He ^lr^-» a little light of the sun } also written <& 
7f?^ he. 

He ^ 


To cry out when jn pain. 

^^ Few; dispersed; to hope, to look forward 

•JcLT to. Ke he ^ ^ , scarce, a little. He 

^1 |>f put s^t ^ ^ /fi 3^ ^ , chei bo long 

p'dey, there are few that are not lost. 

Soo he hiiSn, heSn he seng, seng he fheen -^ ^§: 

Ig 1b. M ^ ^ > '*''* cVh&yh ling bang 






ej/gaou, giou Idng bang ey chd singjin, irngjiH hang 
ejf cWhin cheo"S ftiee"^, the scholar loqk* forwardP 
to become a philosopher, the philosopher looks for- 
ward to become a sage, and the sage look* forward 
to be like Heaven. , I i 


He P 

He ill, 

appearance of fear; to sob. ^ ' 


Dry, dried in the sun. 

Scarce, rare, few. * 

The places between the joints of the 
limbsi A surname. '"t^ » 

"''^•■' ^ ^ ^ T5i;T '■>'' 

Ch'huy he ^ p^^ to brcattfe; to' draw 
the breath fast, is caHed [14? ch'huy ; 
and to- do- it slowly, is called PJ^ he. 

1.-. I,... 
^ Hills standing opposite one another, in 

a dangerous position arc called 

he£m he. 



Ka he (jp[ ||j^ , a road orer the bills ; 

A great hill ; an old city j. a- market. 
Hod he j^ ^ J to go to mirkel. 


To laugh logalher. He he |^ ^ , 
the sound of sobbing When overcome 
with grief. 

Empty, vain, hollow, useless. Put sin 
jin hc6n, chck kok k'hong he ^ -f^ 

kwi ga6u iy ling, chek kok k'bang k'hang, when 
benevolent and clever men are not confided in 
the country will soon become empty and deserted 
See the "K ^ Hay beag. 



An exelamatiun of ^surfrisOA^^rct; 

also written Pp he. He'cE'hi^'hoe' 

choc ge -T' |l|^ ^ ^ J« he chhea, 

toe se choe gi,. alas! alas! it is the benevolent 

animal ( that is- shot ). See the ^ i^ Se^oo l&ra. 

He ^T""!* To be sorrowful^ to- be grieved. 






rising, sun. 


To open the eyes wide, and Itook. a* far 
as possible ; to stare. 

He T^*l* Great j. also to boast. 

p 4 

Hok he y^ ^^, ^^'^ name of an ancient 
Emperor, who is said to have flourii^hed 
about tb« lime of Noah. , ' 

Me "cog ^'{^j " s^Cf'fif'"' animal. 

uu''S' wc have nothing wherewith to supply the 
mals^ for «»crifice. See Mic J^ •g^ Si-ang bSng. 

The light of the son. 

He i PlTt Bright, large, extensive, eJevated. 





The sun coming outi and affording 
genial warmth. 

A. covetous person, desiring to tat. 

A groaning from sorrow and pain. Also 
^^^ ** S »cremeot. 




^»^ An exclamation of regret. €ho6 wat, 
He UV^ he, to6 60e che jin, h6 cheuk swin yea 

:^ 4h , Aoo choo kong, he, tot soe &y Idng M chiak 
swiit"S yea, Confucius ( speaking of the princes of 
his time ) said, alas ! men of such contracted views, 
how can they be sufficient to be reckoned on. 
See the ~FC ||^ Hay lOn. 

» To be delighted, to be pleased. Hwan 

hcWt M- fi^"a hi, to be glad. K6 
SA ^ ' ^Q ^t^ ^^ 

him himjtJen, yew he sek ^ /{?C JlA 
W^M^'^> ff>d poa him jiin wao *»"« he ay 
bin sek, they were all delighted, and pleasure beamed 
from their c«iintenances. See ^ ^ BSng thoo. 
Go6 ban che he, jS put b5 ^ ^1 ^ ^ ffij 
T|^ fl^ , fftt»a kabu Che^ e hvii^a he, jt bey k-hwnn, 
when I heard of it, I was so delighted, that I 
could not sleep. 





The name of an insect. 

To promise, to engage, to bestow, to 
assent to, to allowjof ; also, Vulg. k'hoi .- 
|J I a surname. 
Le wun noc ID. kong. Wing e le he lew kwuy g 

, k'hi le-kong, lam sum Chuyh ffideu d :^jo, hoe la&A 
ktcky, old mother Le, was very angry, with her 
husband Le-kong, for carelessly promising their 
daugliter to Laou-kwuy inmariage -,, and Laou-kwi^j 
afterwards became an Emperor. 
Chek ong h6 che hoi ^|] ^^"^^ , '*«* 
6ng It k'ham biityh yin e, would your mgjesty then 
allow and assent to it? 








^>^lrl Great words; to enlarge. 
Cl^k^ Harmonious, gentle; to afford a genial 




He he g^ ^ ^ to walk alone, to be 
without intimates. 

Vulg, hwiiy : the lungs. He hoo che g4n 

HI 1^ /^ p"^ pa* '"« &H «•«. anything 
ve»y secret ; very intimate discourse. 

Still, quiet, tranquil. 

Angry ; to be displeased with. Choo hoS 
tek ong sey he, j* been kc kong ^ 

choo hot tiy tek dug iy sey sew k'hi, ji hein e iykong 
16, the princes opposed those with whom the king 
Wan, was displeased, and then reported their deeds. 
See the ^ ^ Cho twan. 

_ To laugh. Hengteyputte, hekech'heaou 

_ ' ^ te fi" chae, hi hi, e iy ehViHd, his bre- 
thren being ignorant of it, how heartily, he laughed ! 

See the 


The Wme of a tree. 


Wijey hong. 

-^— ^ To be foolish; some say, to tast, and 

• ^ To play, to sport, to gambol. He long 

f^Xi he 1^ )^ /„ ,et plays. 

Hwan he boo ek /i )|!^ -g ^ , all-play is un- 


Kwuy bun che loSy, he j£ put t'han ^ f ^ <^ 

eheim jc bo fho k'hrcuy, within the female apartmenU, 
we can' sport without sighing. Seethe || p£ 
Ley ke. 





— .^_ To spy, to look at. Pok k'hoe he peen 

f^y\_^ A'Au)"i tan pe^^, the northern robbers 
are overlooking our borders. 

and g^ hi. 

Roaring drunk, furiously drunk, to be 
enraged when in liquor. Hd 6ng TO] 
^ ^ mad drunk « also written ffig hd 
and g^ hd. 

make a present of food. Soo gfi 
e yung he ^ 'l iS^ ^ || , .»<> 
•ang- yung hi, Ihe master of the 
ceremonies presented the food, cooked and prepared. 
See the ^ |® Chew l«y. 



To exert strength ; also firM and »trong. 

To breathe, to blow on anything, to make 
it warm. 

Read gC, fish. Po5 gC Afi ft ^ KSh W, 

•^^ ^bf '" •^*''^'* ^'h. Yi-en hwfly J^y iheen, 
iki\ g^J-keyecnf ^J^^^^ej^ 
"X iHrt » '■*^''<"' P«"'i' *"*" Chee^Jhi U6 If geen, 
the birds fly up to Heaven, aad the fishes sport 

in the deep. 

Read je, the ear. J* khung '^. "^ ^ 
he k'kang, the hole of the ear. Je bfln 

'^^l put j6 bik keia If P^ ;f; ^p g 
^ ^ A« k'hang t'hi^a a'" tat leSk bale chew k'hw"i, 
hearing with the ear, is not to good as seeing with 
the eye. 



Boots, high leathern show ; also written 
IH; hea. P'h6 tea ^ |^ ^ fhSej, hea, 
leathern boots. 


JtK|J A. spoon, or ladle. 

HaoQ hea ^ 
the shell of a fish 

XRead wa, a tile. Wa chwan 
kea ehui'V, %\\e$ and bricks. Hay 
k'hwun god pe chok wa ^ S 3Et 
SJ f^ % , '■"•" '*'"'" k'hwun go£ se chi hea, 
K'hwun-goc, of the Hay dynasty, invented tiles^.' 
'(B. C. 210O.) '^d U»H ^ g "^ 

Rett wOy w4 s't ^ ^ ;^ ^ , A-e« chd m 
cfChod, Kiiet was the first who built tiled houses. 
(B. C. 1756). 
% ^f Read gi, an ant a pismire. Ch'be to 
Hea U?^r teng yew, p6 kwuy been s6y J^ jK 

-^^ ^ ife ii ^ ^li ;IC ,-- <■*'** 

fAaou <CTi|r y'"". kaou hii k'hw''a hei^S chit/, the 

rati steal (he oil of the lamp, and the ants peep 

at the water of tfaeink'stone. 
Jfc. -'( .noiiiMlii.i' 

Read heng ; an elder brother. Heng 

^^ ^^ kc heng che cboo^ch'hey che UJ 

ft >£ ;^ -?• ^ ^ , ''" » ^J' *«"" ^J' *^""' 
402 « chi boi, he took hit elder brother's daughter 

and married her to him. See the J^. lim Seang 


■^^y^^ ^ fragrance that n»ay be perceived 

Hii^a ^3k** ***' °^* ' distant smell. S6 chek 

'■'''Pl*^ hwuy heang, hdng tek wfly heang 

«e AS"fl, ft^itff tek tek tok he"a, eoru and grain 
are not fragrant, respleodent virtue aloo« is 
fragrant. See Uie ^ ^ Sco"? sc. 

He^a ^ly^^f^ Read heang, a disease of the nose. 

Read heang, to open out, to go to 

Ht^a \y^ I * distance from, to give a wide hirth. 

Hcing k'hac jpt l3 ^ W"a k-hwuif, 

to desert, to reject. 

T'heen hay bc&ng dug, se hoe ch6o tek che sun 

s » 


218 HEANG 

t'hee^ ay &9 *«"A ing, k'hv)"a hoe choo seang 
iy teic k'nih sAn ting yU VhlDi p'tiwi pai^S, the 
people's deserting from or reverting to a standard, 
may be observed to be according to the purity 
or faultiness of the ruling inonaVch; j , JA 

Read hfing, to feaf, to be ajarmed, 
to be in trepidatiou. Keng h6ng 
^ ll^ fc^Ka *«"/!, to be affrighted, 

to tremble. .(Uii'I -^ -'^ 

H6ng k'heung bo6 6 ff. f>§ fE £ , ''^"'' ''^"^ 
bo sitiih, to be incessantly ^afr?id . 

* %M^ Read gnae: a' kind of grass or moss 

He^a "^ used in cauterizing; tinder. H^d 

vegetable production, used for tinder. 
,: .U ,P« chha6 gnaS hey^J; $^ i^ , " '^"^ 1^ 
be"a, he is gone to gather tinder. See the =|p 
^ 1^ Se ong hong.ii ;„l ^ 

*_j»-i» Read gek, the forehead. Leflng gek 
^Vljri the dragon forehead lord; a title 





,. !. 

?rfe to joke, and plaj 
tricte with any one. S^en he heak 

%_ ^j._ He heak 

.Tiailj l>^ ^tyi& h^y' P'^' "^y Seak h6y ^ 

.; .ao'./^ >F ^ ^ 'l^ . ^'*''" «^''''" '*^^'^ ^^ ""^' 
fi" r/iang- ftoe e cho chin cftj;"^, thos? who are 

fond of sport, must not let it cppe to serious 

reality. See the '^ ^ W'oly hong. 

ih a falling star. 



: fri.i .'I ■i'>ri!:l-;ii 
Xulg. p'htaig: fragi 

p'hang, kirn long tin btng, a well arranged 
government is So fragrant that it even influ- 

See the "" 



ences the gods in its favour. 
Seal's se. 

Seaou heang te^m cheuk '^ ^ 1^ j^ ^ 
heo"S teim chek, to burn incense and light 
candles ( in worship ), 

Sea hiiang ^ ^ ^ed heo»S, ""^k. Teng beng 

~T ^ teng heo"S, cloves. 

I > Heang 16 ^|J ^ heo"S li, a village, 

HeanjJ^Wll »«"»«*'■? P'^'=''- HHangtongbik j8 

^7\^|^ ch'he.^Pt^^P^,'.-". 

li b6 ch'hin cheats woo huiy, in the villages 

nothing is so much respected as age. See the 

± i Seang bSng. 

, ; Heang j in yira chew, teing chea ch'hut, soo 


^ , heo^S U &y Idng tit lint cMw, kaou keSh 
kwae ty ling eVhut, Idn ch'hSd ey cVhtit, whea 
drinking wine among villagers, upon seeing the 
old people walking with sticks, go out, then we 
^-iikksi may also depart. See the ±^^ Seang lOn. 


;raBl, scented, aro- 
matic -, vulg. hi»''S: incense. Che 
te heng heaffg, k'airi ^''^In bfing, 




Pine fat cattle ; the fat of fed beasts -, 
fat; suet. 

Vuig. he" a: a disease of the nose ; 
' foul breath. 

Haou heang ^^, materials used 
; in a sacrifice ; to offer a sacrifice. 


To sound, to resound, to echo. 
Ch'heung heang ^ ^ , eVheng 
tdn, the cannon's roar. Lfly being 
® ^ J '^y '^''' *''* thunder rolls. 
i.;A(«' Hg/,ng che boo seng, jfi 6ng che te heng 

.hod »e"a, ch'hin chedng ye^d dy ti bing hing, 
' ' the echo depends on the sound, as the shadow 
displays the substance. 







To drink wine. Yit leaou heang che 

— ' ?fl ^P /Z. ■* '^'"' ^ ntHt/"!' chae 
p ^ x;hellfi e, to drink it out in one 
moi'ning. See the j\% 5^ Seadu gnfty. 

To enjoy, to receive, to sacrifice ; 
to Heang hok ^|§, *" 
enjoy happiness. 
Soo che chno chey, pek s!n heang che ^p v' "^ 

^'^ ^^f i.> *"* * rhod chiy >od p&yh 

tin chew heang e , if you set him to^ireslde, at 

a sacrifice, all the gods will enjoy it. See 

^ ^ Beng choo. 

ul twill ; hni', 

^. ^ Vulg. W''^' towafSs, opposite; a^ 

|rtl foretime. Heiog la« jp]^* 

I >Jf hitherto; a surname. 

Soy he&ng soo chin ^ (p] ^ ^ ^ he^ tae, 

hok sai chin, to go towards the west and serve 

the Chin country. See '^e |^ ^j ^ Chcto ' 

kok ch'hek. i 




The same as the preceding. 


Formerly, aforeHme-, loroc time ago, 
just now. The same as Ip] hcing. 
Ileing ye&, god hieia t hoo cho6 


kn pi long ti gwi ke^S h»o choi, ji moofS 
ti iy too, some time ago, I waited upon Con-: 
fucius, and enquired rosprcling knowledge.' 
See the "|T ^|^ Hay iQn. 

Past time, not long ago, the pefidd; 
of youth » also, clear. ■,^|« '< 

To offer, to offier up in sacrifice ; 
to present up to a suj^rior. 

To present, to offer u^. Taxes. 

Heang kwan Wfl '3*^ heing Air"*' 

a tazgathcrer. Kd hi;4og i 

kiits My A, to be subject to duties^ ^'''' ' 

Yew tdng chod e se jeuk heang /h §■ -5- 

J^ ^ 1^ ll»I . *""" *** **"" *'*" »*^* " **•« 
Mh lai shng, there was a young lad, who 

brought millet and flesh to present it. See the 

Jl^ Seang beng. 



Pained and grieved. 

Heaou heng ^ j^ lucky, acciden- 
tal ; by mere chance. Kwun choo 
ke e e soo beng, seaou jin h£ng 
hSem, e heaou h5ng, ^ ^ J^ j^ ^ ^ 

k''hia ti i pafS i^ m:uy i ling hadu me"a, tt&6u 
jin ki'i te heim hei iy to chai t tit tiSh heaou 
king, the good roan rests contented with plain 
and easy things, waiting for his fate; but the 
worthless character Tentures into dangerous 
placet, in order to seek bis luck. See the fh ^ 
Teung yflng. 

To iavite, to incite, to call, to 
request; to detain. K£ piiey heiiou 

Wnp P'^' i^ 4^ ^ RJ^ ^ ■ 
ki^h k'ht chiw piiey ck'he"d bing giifi/h. trt 
elevate the wine cup aod toast the clear iiioun. 
Soo soe jin heaou che t loe ^ »4- A -fefr 

21 }f^ ^ '"^ '"'^^ ^'^ hSaou chih e te lor, 
he sent some people to stop him on the road 

^ ••" J: S Seang bfn^ J ;^ 

y^ HJiaou je^n pig^^ void and im- 
Meaou P'Tf * tiwri'^e, the wide expaaie, of bonnd- 
y^ less space. 




'.■<» ,ij-ii- 


To pillage, to borrow other's ideas 
and make them out own, to prac- 
tice plagiarism. 
Oi hi.;<i«''« ^i^'ii Ch'ea g it i^^^ 
, win heaou iy ling kei t kA tt woi U h»ty, 
J £ 







1 abhor plagiarists call'ing thenagelves wise. See 

YJlfT- Afraid, and recounting one's misfor- 
''1'f, tunes. 

Empty, emptiness, space. ,Gw4n heaou 
TC, ^ > ^^^ naroe of a sUr. 

Ch'he heaou ^^ ^^ a bird of prey, 

a kite or hawk. Ch'he heaou ch'he 

'*'^*^ heaou, k6 ch'h6 gno choo, bo6 

h^iiygno sit £111 fEl'^liE IX ^^. 
fe ^ -Oc ^> '''''"' **""" '^*'** heaou, kijein 
wdo fhui/h gwd dy ke"d am thang I'hedh gwd Ay 
ch'hod, oh thou ravenous bird ! thou ravenous 
bird! since you have taken my young one, 
do not destroy my dwelling. See the ^ ]^ 
Pin hong. 




Proud, arrogant. 




An unlucky bird, with four wings 
and a dog's tail ; also to cut ofiF 
1p^3f" the head, and expose it in order 
to terrify others. The same as ^ heaou. Heaou 
s£w ^ ^ ^ to expose any one's head on a 

The same as the above. Also writ- 



», A good horse ; also military and 
^.^dl courageous. Heaou '"'* ^ J^ j 
MMlyM hSaou biy, a good horse. 



The same as 


To declare aloud, to vociferate j 
also contented, (elf satisfied, well 

Jin te che ek heaou heaou, jin put te ek 

heaou heaou ^ ^iO Z ^^ % ^. A ^ 
An yfp iM. iM. if people know us, we must 
be satisfied, and if men do not know us, we 
must still be content. See the ~|^, ^ Hay beng. 






Heaou no fl^ jfljij waving in the 
wind ; pliant and lissom. 

A young wolf. 

A fabulous evil bird; an unfilial 
bird ; also to expose any one's head 
on a pole; courageous. 
Heaou sew se cheung _^ ^ /)> ^ ^ *«"<"* 
t'haiu kak, hoe chiting Idng k^hw^d, to expose 
the head on a pole, in the sight of every 

% ^ To understand; to perceive clearly, 
1.1+5 to comprehend, to know; bright, 
•^ VI. clear. Gno put heaou tek ^ ]^ 
R^ "j^ gwd bey hedou til, I cannot understand it. 
He4ou gwat cheaou ko log [|^ j^ ^^ ^^' 
bing giiiyh cheb kw&n iy ladu, the clear mouu 
illumines the high gallery. 

Beng heaou 0H [j^ ^ to understand clearly; also 
tomorrow morning, 

■•^^-*' Indecent, abandoned, wborish. 





HeSh hegh ch'hea6u p^ pjg ^ Heik 
heih cKKeb, to laugh heartily. 

A kind of spade. 


That which the mind approves of and 
delights in, to desire. 













Sweet, both in. taste and sn'.etl. 

The giain hurt by too much manure. 

^^^ A sliovel. H"6 heem i^ ^, haiy 
heem, a fire-shovel. 

(^ J» Hazardous, dangerous, impenetrable. 
i-JT?-* Heem hae [^ ^^ dangerous. Ong 
J^^^ kong seet heem, e sew ki kok 

heim hae ty muy, k chew e iy kok, the kings 
and rulers established dangerous passes, in order 
the better, to defend their country. See the 
J, ^ rm keng. 

A long nosed dog. 

He6m wun ^ ^fr ^ another name 
for the northern Tartars. 

To ruo awa]^ to drive anything away. 


[9 Read ham : to bawl. Hat bam 

Vm, '"''^^ heim, to bawl out aloud. 
Ham gn«w^i|i^ hiim go6, to 
drive cattle. 

To have doubts of| to dislike, to 
disapprove, to be disgusted with. Liy 
chea, sey i teng ch'hin soe, kwat 
j^ ±rfp W , '^S/ '"^ '^ '^y ^ '^"^ '^A ch'hin sey, 
kviat toot"S hiim gt, proper ceremonies are the 
means by which we fix the distinctions between 
near and distant relatives, and decide on what 


Heen win 





isi doubtful and disgusting. See the 
K'hi-uk ley. 

Heem TtTI Beautiful, fine. 

A carriage used by a great oSBccr ; 
a carriage box, a curtain of a carriage. 
To lift up the low roof of a house, 
in order to admit light. 

Se heen ^S wf , ^ school, a place of learning, 
a double surname. 

To lift up with the hands; to raise 

To elevate gently-, to raise up lightly. 
^fc'^^ Ne&ou been gfi yeak pi '^ §& 
1^ 1 'y ^ , chUou heen k'hi, hi tit led, the 
birds gently rise, and the fishes leap. 

^^ A kind of vegetable, that grows in 

the water.. 

To display, to manifest, to shew 
clearly. Hijin t^ ffi ^ ^ to illus- 
Heen choe eng chong || f fl ^' ^ . to set 
forth one's ancestors, and glorify one's forefathers; 
P'be he£ii chae bfln 6ng bo£, p'he sin chao boo 

^ ^£ ^{^ } '«£■» I'hang hein btng chae bUn 6ng 

iy kwuy hot, tica iy tgo tvidchae bod tng dy ehtag 
reel, how greatly illustrious were the plans of 
Bfln-Ong, and how eminently were they carried 
on by the zeal of Bo6-6ng ! Sec the fo| IS 
Sed"S ,e. 

To lament incessantly; also to pro- 

To look at anything distinctly ; to see 
clearly : to stare. 




3 B 







A small kind of cockle. LSw chin 
h^O tarn he6n ;|l] ^ ^ |^ H ^ 
ladu chin ai ch'eih hein, L6w-cbin 

■was fond of cockles, 
A spy. 


The name of a hill, in ^ ^^ , seang 
LUtl y^"?- There was in the ^ chin 
xLu dynasty, a man of the name of 
■^ jjfi' y^ng hoe, who on ascending this hill, 
and witnessing the picturesque scenery around 
him, shed tears, saying. Choo yew e tew, pi-en 

yew ch'hoo hijen san ^ ;^ ^ '^ fE W 
|l 1/ JiB Ml choo woo t'hee"S ley, peen woo chit/ 
Uy hein aw"a, as long as the universe has stood, 
this hill has been here; he therefore set up a 
tablet, which has been called, the Tuy luy paS 
i\b Ttfi i'shed tear tablet." 





The coarser parts of grain after it has 
been pounded into meal. 

fSyt Fat- a'so a" involunUry motion of 


the muscles. 

To reprove, to contend with. 

l-j'ii ■;;Uu 

To offer up, to preserft, fi isend in; 
also wise and clever men. Hiien sew 
chiw m tap seo Icaou p'hoey, to present wine 
and answer Ihe compliment, in mutual exchange 
one with another. See the /]> ^ Scaou gnay. 
Heen chey #)( ^S to offer up a sacrifice. 
Bun been put cheuk koe yea % UK 4"* Ml 
i-k J|/ ch'hSyh kwd gaSu Idng bu kaon tiy yein 
hoi, it is becpjuse.^he.bopks and elever men of 
that period were not sufficient. See the JQ 
Siiang lun. 






The peak of a hill. Sek chek chae 
hiJen, hew kang chae gwan Wm HlJ 

k'hi cheJc fe sw^a cheem, kohVahiai, chek te pai"S 
gw&n, { in our rambles) when we ascend, we 
get upon the peak of the hill, and when we 
descend again, we come into the plains. See 
the -^^ ^ Tae gnay. 

»^ ^ An iron pan, smoothly finished at the 
l^j It bottom, without the broken knob or 

/n3^H protuberance, usually found at the 

bottom of all cast metal pans. 

Ke been |;^ ^j a valuable pan, formerly sent 

as a present from one state to another. See the 
^-^ Cho twan. 

A last for stretching; $ho^ iipon ; also 
written i^ heen. 

Variegated colours, the ornamental, 
colouring of pictures, Soe 5 wQy 
been hay ^y.^|'&J>^,p2f^* 
ley i cho hUn ch'hai, the white ground is in- 
tended for laying the coilouiiing on. See the Jl 

111) s^^"s '»"• 

A rule, a patlern, a magistrate. Hiien 
tafi ^ ^ an open chair, 'inwhith 
j yV^ high oflScers are accustomed to ride. 
Bun.boQ s6 heen^ p^ -^ 'y^ , Mn ong boo 
ong se chbhwattoey Bfln-ongand Bod-Sng,t- 
terns (for after ages). Seethe j^^ 'Tae gnay. 

Heen :ife 



To deliberate on doiibtfiil judicial 

cases. ' '■-'.' 

Anger, wrath, in0t'.t<i4)e pacified. 

Black, with a tinge of red ; also deep, 
abstruse, and distant. T'hij€n j6 toy 












oejS ley wufS, the heavens are black and the 
earth is yellow. See the ^. i^ Yeih keng. 
T'hira t5 h"6 ,ee„ he«n ^A^^^^' 
fhim Ch^a to le, se ai k'liSh cA'Wm bi, in fa- 
thoming doctrines, we should prefer the deep 
and abstruse. 

The name of a river. 

Bright refulgent, brilliant. 

Kcung hefin ^ ?;^ ^ the string of 
a bow. Yew soo yew chip hefin. 


^v " • cho chip ho6, jfl sew keung /H" ^ 

;^ ^jE -Jt ^ it #]•. ffn ^ ^ '^^^ - 

Atr'a ehe^i ch'hiw gtm hein, ii eh'htti glm pin 
chi, ji sew hog Idn keung, the proper officer, in 
his right hand holding the bowstring, and the 
thimble in his left, delivers us Ihc baw. See the 
fe Gfi Icy, 

_- Ma heen ,1^, J^^ the name of an in- 
^L sect. 

v\y^ ^''"'' ••«*" Ji]7r ^k- , "*« ''^^ "f* *•? 

I ly^ or vessel t Ihc bulimTk''. 


The .eves. not constantly -f>)(^d on one 
object ; the ejes wandering. 

The string of a piusical iBslrumcnt; 
^ a stringed instrument7>f malic. Choo 
*V^— che boo seng, bfin liVfin ko^ che sen<r 

Icaou boo <se"{i, Che"a ktii"? hS(n ko 4j/t^''a, when 
Confucius arrived at the city of Bo6,.he heard 
the sound of a stringed • iDstrunven(, accompa- 
nied with lioging. See the ~F> j^ flay iQu. 



^■y * The ear of an iron pan, the handle 
\.^^^ l>y which to lift it up. 

> J^.,^ To boast of one's self, to vaunt one's own 

yr/^'l^ praises. Choo hijen |^ ^f, to brag. 

I -J Hc6n Ic put cheog, hiiSn soo put sin 

it^J^fJ-fc/filf, a bragging 









woman is never modest, and a boasting scholar 
is not to be believed. 
%PlPj>. To hang, to suspend. Hc;«n k'hw4 

y VVJ> hcCn |g ^f jg] 1^ , ch-kin chad's 
t'hadu Id leaou Ay Ung, ( it would be a deliverance) 
like loosing one hanged up by the heels with his 
head downwards. See the V" 3: Scaqg beng. 

yEm'^^ '^" connect, to draw, to lead, to sus- 
iT^TT^ pend. The same as the above. 

f'R-r% Vulg. gttdu: virtnoos and clever, in- 
; ^^S' telligent, skilful. Hc«njln^^.; 

Ji i giott fdng, a (ihilosophcr. Sing hc6u 
^p H ' "*£«■* "id "'se men. 
Hefin chae huiy yc4 >f ^ [hJ "tfe , f^""" '^^<"' 
chit) l(y hSfy, how <;l(Sver is this Hofly. Sec the 

JhJi kiart '^rfly tf?«n cha* 'fSr j^ '("ff ^ y}" , 
jtk kw'a lok 'tok gaOii ling Ay thai teaou, the 
talents of clever men alone are equal to sustain 
the %ritfKt ot Mee. See iiie^f^^Sid"S ,r. 


T" display, to manifest, to appear, to 
be prenenl. Ueeu kipi rfj ^ |(, p 
present linae. , JJJjca„eb*B.jB ;A 
at present. '' rti ij i : 

*^J-^ Hiien ch'huc M^^,-''^"S ch'hae. ;i 
kind vf vegetable, the *"hi«ranlhu> 







■ .- f 

To appear in the presence of, to watt 
upon, to have an audience. Cheflng 
chEa hi-Bn che ^ :^ ^ ;^^ tHj/ Ay 
tdng hoe e ket"^, the followers (of Confucius) 
'admitted him into the sage's presepce. See 
'"''tte±f^Sea„glOn^^ _^ 

"Heen k« je choo yeea ^ ^ H ^ ^. ^'''*""' 
e no &JI ke''d hoe e kei"S, he then brought out 
his two sons, and introduced thera to him. 

I See the 'F» = 





Hay lun. .V^ f-^ff 

Vulg. hee"S : an ink stone, used by 
the Chinese for rubbing the ink upon. 
Koe hiien bS t'hap che bek to "j^' 

s^^ i^ fc'AK'Ht d k'heSh bak chej/, an old ink stone 
with only a small hollow place \n it, collects 
uOiuch ink. 

Vulg. kwan: a district, a country, a 
department. Chin se hong peng 
t'hijen hay, hwiiy hong keen, se che 

kwun heEn ^ ^ ^ # % T- if ^t ^ 
Mx 4l\ SR ^?^ , '^'''" *'^ *""«• P^''S t'hee"^ *"i'> 
hwAy bo hong kein &y wui/, k'hi Chaou ch'hdng, 
kwAn kwan, the first Emperor of the Chin dynasty 
united the Empire under one head, and did 
away with the independant possessions; from 
which time departments and districts began to 
be formed. See the ^ |^ So6 ke. 

The sun shining out clear ; fair wea- 
ther. "E swat p'heaou p'heaou, keen 

heen wat seaou ppj § J^ (^ M. 
ng p j ,\^ , ISko sHyh p'heaou p'heaou, keb^S ju 
cKhut chew kong seaou, when the snow has fal- 
len and drifted along, on the appearance of the 
sun it melts. 


Hee^S P T? The sound of groaning ; or crying. 



•^T^y-^ An exclamation of disapprobation, 

Heeng -^ rTL 

ff^J^* and abhorrence. 

Keung hefin S S^ ^ keung hei"^, a 

Khim heen M ^, k'him hee"S, the 
string of a harp or guitar. Siin cbok 
gnoe hefin, e ko 14m hong 4^ 'ft 

k'him, t ch'heing kwa tdm hong. Sun made a 
five-slringcd harp, in order the sing of the sou- 
thern wind. See the t& '=P Ley ke. 
HcSn chong 

iig 1^1^. I^i"^ Chang, a kind of 

HppTie: r*^Sl ^ whizzing through the nose. 


Read been: an ink-stone. Che, pit, 
bek, heen, bttn p6ng sod p6 i^ ^^ 

bak, hee"S bUn pdng si p6, paper, pencils, ink, 
and ink stone, are the four precious things of 
the literary chamber. 





Low, mean ; beautiful ; also written 

ire advancing near, and blazing 
pwards . 

^^y^ Read cho6: a magnet. Chofl sek 
i2bA>> ?^ ^ > lieep chehh, a loadstone. 
K^^ Cho6 sek yin t'heet, 6 kim put leen 

t'heih, long kim b6 s£o swi, the loadstone draws 
the iron, but now they are not near together '. 
Said by il'.O sil W/ MJ^ > ^htn stparatcil from 
his brethren. 








t Jk— Jira heep &^ -Wj to form a parly, and 
Xt^§^ collect partizans by favours shewn. 
9^ V. Hd heep ^ ^ ^ undaunted, and 
disinterested. ' Jf 

HwaS heep ijJ^ ik to-hold:to in one's 
inind,.to adhere to. Heep tfi .^ f^, 
to bold under the arm,, to squeeze, 
to grasp. 

Kd hgep 900 ho6 ^ ^ ^ HIj , kairu gwjj^fc 
sd &!f chie^, having grasped' the four arrow«. 
See the -^ ^ Tae gnay. 
Put heep tijang, put hi-ep kwuy ^ Jj^ ^^ ^ 

kwiiy, not to adhere to one's superiority, nor to 
stick pertinaciously to. one's owa nobility. See 
■^ Jj- Beng choo4 


Vulg. ii/h: narrow,, contracted, not 
wide. Bo6 choo kong e hiiep jin ^ 

ttto, e cKhing&t/h ling, do not extend. yourself, in 
order to straighten others. See the ||,j ^^ 
Sed"S ,f. 
Sin ke^n k6 s6y tfi chea beep, j6 sey yijuk chca 

^^S, g'f'i k'hu!"d e »iy g'tm li iy iljfh,ji $iy 
ai biiij/h &y chhea, I perceive that, that which 
be adheres to is contracted, and that which he 
desires extravagant. 

/^▼fc^ Strong, violent. The some as T? Ick. 


Hccp li^ '^ JhP harmonious, united. 
Tdng yin beep kcung [P) || ^ 
*^^ ling cM kvi^a hifp hd keung king, 

to be bafmonious and respectful with one's 

brother officers. 



same as the above; also written 
beep and SS^ beep. 



Ffeanful, alanned ; tcv t«rrify one l>ji 

The ribs,. Cho yew leang beep yfe "jfr 
^^ > to ch'hiw cheH ch'hew na 
&g heep kwut, the two rows of ribs, 
on the right and left. 

Teflng je ko cb6, bfln kfi pe6n heep, yeu'k kwan 
1^ ^ ^ , leUng Ji koig cM kok, Ung fhi'>a 
ewto teo stei heep, chew biityh k'hw''ie dy j/eo"^, 
when Teflng-je passed through- the Chd counlry 
Ihey heard that bis ribs were connected and 
wished, to look, at his appearance. Also writ- 
ten ^ beep. 





I jk United, harmonious \ also to soak in-- 
>y/^Ate. to imbibe, to diffuse. Hiiep pe kg 
• O "n ^ ii: ^ (5i^, •«" hap e dy kiyk 
peih Ming, to be harmonious, with one's neigh- 

Hdng yin kbep heep ^ .f,^ ^, hong Uy 
ty yin keep heep le sim, to have a sense of the 
Imperial kindnesi imbued in^ the mind. 


Vulg. »o*>»: blood. Heetk'h<JJ^^, 
the animal spirits. Hw&n yew beet 
k'bd che&, bok put chua ch'hin Rt 

^ ifiL ^ ^J^ ^ # M. *"■'"" "'"" *'''^* 

k'hi: dy Idng b6 u™ chun e dy pay boi, whoever 
has blood and spirits^ will never neglect to honour 
bis parents. See the pti ^ Tijung yflng. 
Sat jIn pedn yiia, beet 16w s&>g h6 ^ A 

^ Sf jfll ijit >(^ i^ , '"A"^ '^"S mw^d yid, 
hijiyh la6u che"d kdng, the slaughtered people 
ullcd the waste, and the blood flowed like a river. 


the name of a coun- 

A dog with a short nose.. 

3 B 





To draw, to pull, to drag; also any- 
thing broken asunder. 

f Vulg. hiiyh, and hhy^h : to slop, to 
^ rest, to cease. Heet teem ^ J^, 


k'he, chlw thing e iy peng, the king gave vent 
to his anger, and immediately drew out his army. 
See the /^^ 5^ Seaou gnay. 

A surname. 







hliy"h teim, an inn, a resting plax:e, 
Yit sit seang chfin, <h'ho6 t.'hok se che che, put 

yflng seaou hijet — ' ,g^ fp^ ^. }j^Lp%^ tC^ 
db 7p ^ /p ■^ , chit Ay cKhwim l^hwuy 
sed'ig te til, chiy Uy t'h'ak cKhHyh Ay chi, fl"* 
ydng »eo Whted hky'"K as long as a breath re- 
mains, this design of studying! books should 
not be permitted for a moment to cease. Said by 
f ij ^ ^ lew Cheng sew. 

% A cave, a cavern, a den- Heet k'hong 

/oT* */X'^' ''*^^' k'hang, a hole in the 
X \< earth. 

Siiang ko6 heet ke, je yea chhe _Q "jj /\ 
^ Ffn ^ ^ » .e««g- koi dy Idng, k'heS. te heet 
k'hang, ji twd te yea, gwa, the earlier ancients 
resided in caves and dwelt in the wilderness. 

\ iX^ Water issuing out of a cavern, also 
i^^^ deflective, partial, erroneous. 
jfc »^ To measure, to ascertain the size of 
^^i'' anything. Heet ke ^ ^ ^ *" '"^'»" 

sure by a rute. 

■' ^ '■ • 

Hek hek ^ Up , lofty and illustrious; 
ilhilU ^""^ displayed. B6ng bgng chaS 
JA /4 siiang, hek hek chaS hay P^ {^ ;^ 

±. 111^ ^ T , *^"^ *^"^ '' '^"^ "'"' '"" 

hek te hay tiy, bright and clear above, and fully 
displayed below. See the ^ ^| Ta5 gnay. Also 
tt 3^ hek le4n, a doulile surname. 

Vulg. hwah : to be aUgsy, to ^be enraged 
at, to threaten, to.fcawl out. Ong 

Vulg. oe: black. Hekjin ^J\^^ oe 
Hek ' ■ I ■ ' _ Idng, a black man. Pok hong siiuk 

¥ynr% suy, hek .ek ;}(/ ;^ g ;]; ^ fe , 

pak he"S seuk ch&y, oe dy sek, the north belongs 
to the element of water, and claims black for its 

^ » To be afraid, to be alarmed. Le hoe 
Hek 'QT^ ^° ^^^ ^^^ k'heiing k5 ^ ^ ^ 

icek ke"a he^d, treading on a tiger's tail, we become 
alarmed and terrified. See the ^ f^ Ek keng. 


Hek ^ 


Or, if, either, perhaps; to deceive, to 
doubt, to hesitate. Hek chea ^ ^^ 
r/iecm cftfli, perhaps. Hekjin ^y^^ 
a certain person. 

Hek w'at, kwan tiiung k'hijera hoe ^ Q 'g* 
4<M 1^ JIL moo Idng kong, kwan t'eung k'heem a 
bo, a cerUin person said, is Kwan-teung, parsi- 
monious J See the _t: f^ Seing lun. 

Territory a tract of country. The same 
with i^ hek. 


hek 800 noe, wan cheng k^ le ^ 
ifeX ^yt, J^ ong hwah e dy sew 


A region, a border. Sey hek ch'hut 
seng jin ^ ,^B 11 A ' *" 

Hek TV1\ 

fhee''e ey ch'hut chit dy seng jin, the 
western region will produce a sage. 

.^ The same as the above; a boundary. 


Boo sey chin hek ^ ff( ^ fl^ , 
bo sey kaou kae, without bounds or 

The ancient form of j^ hek ; some 


227 H^K 




The whistling of the wind, the sound 
'C'V, of wind. 

^•^ To be deceived, to be led aitray, to 

\igXt ''c confused, to doubt. Yew hek 

i^i^ |3& ^£ to be tempted. Bgy hek 

ijfe EK to be deceived. GS hek i?S Sfe to 

doubt, to be suspicious. Hek Iwan '^S ^il to 

be confused 

Te chea put, hek j^\\^ ^^ , t^oo li sit &y 
ling bd hek, a man of knowledge is not to be 
deceived. See the _|2 fm Siiang iQn. 

A short kind of fox. 

The seam of a garment : a row of stitch- 

Hek M 

1;% To cut off the ears of prisoners taken 

Hek n(7li in war. Sfing kong sam li-fin, c wuy 


ffi^ ^ sing kong tna sei"^, I'ellh site it/ ling ktvUh 

he i, in the third year of Sfng-kong, they took, 

the prisoners and cut off their ears. 



To decapitate prisoners taken in war. 

The threshold of the door. Lip put 
teung bfln, hfing put Ic hek "Jf ^ 

mooi"S tang e^S, ke"i 1/6 iih teSh moafS teng, in 
standing he would not stop in the middle of the 
door way; and in walking, he would not tread 
on the threshold. Said of Confucius, in the h* 

Hek hijn Wr a/ a proclamation, a 

paper annoupcing anything tOi^the peo- 

pie. Han ko choc e c hek tin t'ht-cn 

hdn ko choi I'ho cheaOti mo iy hek Mn, tin teaiiu 

^m Seiing lOn. 





t'hee^S ay iy peng, Han.ko-cho6 made use of a 
proclamation with a feather in it (to denote speed) 
in order to summon all the soldiers in the Empire. 

The name of a tree. 

% % To take a general survey, to inspect, to 
^KA examine. Chong hek b6ng sit j^ ]^ 

1-^ ^ ^ , A-'Ad khim e iy m«''d ,e"a, 
kap e ay cheak sit, to examine whether a thing is 
merely nominal, or real. 

To examine the rights of a judicial case. 
'An hek ^ ^ ^ to enquire into the 
merits of a case. 
Hek chong ^ ^ , an indictment, • brief. 

To examine an affair, in order to know 
the rights of it. H6 6 hek choo ■fel" 

<•, how shall we enquire into the business. Hek si't 
Wi ^ > *" '"^''''ga'c the truth. 

*y^^ A. club, ar polei an implement used in 


/o« ' 


<jjy To obUin, to get. Hek yin 
■^ pfx <<> "Main favour. Hek chiiey 6 t'heen, 
>|.^p- l.6o ^cy to yea ^ ^^ j^ =^M. 

^jj" i|I0 ^ , h'rk chiey f fhee"S 1,6 Uy iy ki li lit, 
when one offends against IJeavcn, there is no plead- 
ing for hira. See the J; |i^ Seing Ian. 
A scolding epithet for a female^ slave ; is ]& hek. 

A conjurer, a wizard ; a witch is called 
AIA boA, and a wizard $§ hek. 

.; .( 

iKspitled by the 

.J- • M ^flJ ' Stony ground ; good so' 

' niultitnde of stones in it. 

Hek ]^)^^To:Xite, to ^^|Mir^'^«»"» man's name. 










The noise of teariog cloth. 

A city ditch; a moat rf>und the walls of a 

^6 the name of a bushy 

Pervious, thoroughly pervading ; a 
lucky meeting; success. 

Vulg. he"a: an elder brother; a su- 
perior, an elder in years. Soo hae 
che liiey, kae heng tey yija PH jm- 
^ 1^ -^ ^ 1^ ^ , s^ fta<5 tfy lae, chd po6 
se he"a te, all within the four seas are our brethren. 
Ch'hut chek soo kong k'heng, jip chek soo hoo 

Mhut chek h'ok sue kong k'heng, jip chek hok sae 
pay he^a, abroad we must be obedient to officers 
and nobles, and at home to fathers and elder 
brethren. See the Jr =&■ Seang lun.. 

^W»k^ Vulg. hSi^a: fragrant, aromatic send- 
ing forth a fragrance to a distance. 
Soowdy loe sit, wfly goS tek heng 

p''hitd. ch'hoQ, iok tok gwd &y lek p^hang, this is 
indeed a vulgar dwelling, but my viitue is 
fragrant enough. 

Read heungt the bceast. Heung 
_ ^- teung chSng, chek bo6 choo le&ou 
I^M yeen, heung teung pijt cheng chek 
bog choo mo yeen '^ l|j IE ^ij §^ ^ 

heng tang e"S che''d chek bak ang a kwm"^ ; heng 
tang e"*' u"" cAe"4 chek bak ang d dm, when a 
maa's breast is honest and upright, the pupil 



of his eye will be clear; but if be is not honest 
at heart, the pupil of his eye will be dim. See 
the "jjT ^ Hay beng. 

To be enraged, to be displeased. Kan 
& kS kwnn j€ put t'hdng, chek noe 
heng heng jeSn been 6 kfi been 

Pj i^ it ^ t"d e At/ Jin kwun, ji s" «'A«"« 
chek tew k^hi hing hing ty yeo^S hein te e Ay 
bin sek, when these people reprove their princes 
and are not listened to, then wrath is strougly 
depicted in their countenances. See the J" "S^ 
Seang beng. 








The sound of danger: to speak with 
an angry tone. 

m Pleased, delighted, elevated with joy. 
Tok y6w ch'heng ch'hew jit, l^ng 
^ ^ soo ko heng chin ^ ^^ -^ ^ 
B • Bt "^ ^ ^ ^ ' t'okwuo ch'heng ch'hew 
iy jit, gy sai ko hm chin, there is nothing better 
than a pure autumn's day, in. which we can 
carry to the utmost our elevated enjoyments. 

A swelling and pain; an inflammation. 

Form,, substance, appearance. H^ng 

■^^ t'hfiy 1^ ^^, form and substance. 

Ch'hoo w&y s6ng 6 teung hfing 6 goey 

iH^li WL^ ^■^fS^,chiysek6ng 

k'ib chin chi}"d te tang e"^, chew hing hein te gwa 
btPy this is what is called, really existing within, 
and exhibiting its form without. See the 4^ SS, 
Tae bak. 


229 ^|1NG , 


To punish, to inflict puuishmeot; an 
example, a pattern, a ru^e. Hfing 
hwat fffl §jj ^ punishment. H6ng 
leuk "JJl] ^, capital punishment. 
Kwun choo e chiiet geuk te heng ^ -^ J^ 
ifr i^^ $^ 5f'l ' *"""' ''*'"' ^ p'huPh titan geuk' 
an a cKhing Mng hwat, the good man after 
deciding bn criminal cises, in6icts punishment. 
See the ^ ^ Yekh keng. 
Heng ke 6 bo6 hfing ^l] J^ j5|^ M ^p) , hing 
hwat ling, yH lit ki bang b6 king hwal, by pu- 
nishing, we still hope to render punishment 
unnecessary. See the ^ ^ Seo"^ te. 
H6ng poe TO] ^jj ^ the board of punishments. 

Hen- >^^ 

A rule, a pattern; also, to complete. 

Hfing san ^ ^| > »he name of a 

To punish crime; also a pattern; and, 
to complete; the same as Ifil h6ng. 

A_^^ Vulg. ke'A: to walk, to go, to travel ; 
Henff y^* 1^ to practice, to dv- H6ng loc jTV 

I J ^ ' **"" '''^' '•''*"*^*'- S6j hdng 
filr jf? «i^ fce"4, actions, conduct. 

Choo loe hfing fi kofi '^^'^ \^^ > choo 

loe ke"i l^hi kap i king, Choo-loc went to inform 

him of it. See the "|\ ^^ Hay Ifln. 

Yung che chek hfing J]] ;^ ^ij ff , botgh 

yung c chek te"d, if any will employ us, then 

we go to them. See the t" gs Siiang iQn. 

Hfing y r The same as Jg hfing. 


A mould for casting metal, all moulds 
madeofcurlh, arc called fB] hfiog, 
those of wood are jcailed 2i| boi-, 

and those of metal are called 
hfing m_ ^ , an example. 

hwan. Teen 

■* A. grinding stone. To jim jeak sin 

"/| ^ M\^ io lae cVhin cheo^ sin bwii 
le eheSh, the knife is as sharp as if it had been 
'"'- he*ly set on the grind-stone. 


A pot for soup or broth. 

scales, steel- 

■• 'In 

J^^^k Kwan hfing 
Heng ^ijH'T yards, a balance; also, even. A 
1^'% J surname. 
Kw&Q hfing k'hen^.ti;u4g 


hing cVhin k'hin tang, the balances shew the 
lightness and heaviness of things. 

Hfing J|y 

Genls worn on the back. 

Hfing VPftiy A fragratjl' kind of graas. ' 

1_%^ Constant, perpetual. Hfing sira ij>i^ 

Hfing j^y j|j» ^ a constant mind. Put ht-ng kfi 

• tek, hck sin kfi sew |^ (g 1 1 4^ 

^ ^ ^ M ' ~ ""■ *^^ 'f "»•«• "t ''i' "'"• 
hfng, hek ihVi ttk 't' i^ ' iHaou liy^^^tim roan is 

dot consUnt in bi^ Virtue, he may And it suc- 
ceeded l|y di,«gricc. 

H^ng *»g 




supposed to be caught up ipto the 

Vulgi Aio''/if acro&s, athwart. Ch'heun^ 
hfing i^ 1^^ Chin hw''i, things 
laid across at right angles.. 

The cross beam of a house.- 

vioiiM ; 

S I 








AJfc Cooked meat. 


Read heung : male, the male of birds. 
Heroic, brave. The appellation of a 
military officer.. 

Read hwan : to pay, to refund, to give 
back. Hw^n chae :« ^J htngehey, 
to pay debts. Kim se put hw4n, hoe 

se pit hwan -^ ii: Pfi p', ^^ tti; i>t 5g > 

to'w si fi"" Mng, aou si feUk king, if. jou don't 
pay your debts in this life, you' must pay them 
in the next. 

The appearance of walking. 


t.aa^ The Moon increasing, and appruach- 
Ft ing the full, i.« called h6ng. JSji't 
"* che seng, j6 gwat che hSng -^P Q 
}^ ^ ^P ^ ^ '\B,ehianchSi''SjitAyk'hi, 
ch^hin ched"S gbiyh &y twa, like the rising sun, 

and the waxing moon. See the /{^ |tt Seaou 




The name of a country ; also a sur- 

To hope, to expect, gracious, favoura- 
ble> fortunate, happy. A surname. 
T'heen hay heng slm» kok k.ay heng 
Sim ^ -|^ ^ :^. g ^ ^ Ig. , fhee^S 
i.y y'id hd kok kay yea h6, the whole Empire 
TTOuld then be happy, and the country fortunate. 
Put heng tgung che yit heng yga ^X^ ■^p at 

"V ;^ ^ , a™ Ad tang eng dy cMt dy ho, 

one lucky circumstance in the midsi of misfor- 

J %- Heaou heng -jW /^ lucky, accidental 

^t <'^- by mere chance. Seaou jin h6ng 

" I heem 6 heaou heng /J> A 'fT P^ 

seaou jin ke''d heim hae dy wtty 6 






heaou heng, the ■worthless character ventures into 
danger, with the hope of accidental advantage. 
See the pfa ^ Tijung yOng. 

To accompany, to go in company 
with any one. Ko6 chea choo ho6 
ch'he boo jin, chek tdng seng je 
jin hEng che ^ f- 1^ ^ ^^ ^ ;^. |,J 

^ 1&^ yK"^^, *<"^ '^*'' ^y '^^00 hoe 

ch'hwa koojin, chek tdng sa\"S no Idng sea p'hw^a e, 
when the princes among the ancients, went to 
bring home their newly married ladies, two 
persons of the same family name accompanied them. 

To meet with an early death, is called 
3^ ^? , put heng, unlucky. 

<«JL» An almoud-tree. Heng jtn ^ T^^ 

yrj^^ ■ almonds. Yit che hdng heng ch'hut 

I-* ch'heing lag — ^ |r ^ fl^ J^ 

^ chil ke dng heng rh'htU ch'heu''S lai, a branch 
of red almond blossoms topping over the wall. 

^ -mtm P'hin heng pp A't , actions, conduct, 

Jr ' I behaviour. G^n teung sin, heng tok 

V >f keng, suy bSn bek che pang, h€ng e;^-^fT 

jfe king ima teung sin, siy ke"i lok king, suy 
jSin l&n bek dy so chae yed ey keni, when a 
man's conversation is failhful and sincere and 
his actions truly respectful, he may safely travel 
even to barbarous countries. See the T\ gJB 
Hay liin. 

*^3^^ Heng ch'ae ^5 S a kind of vegeta- 
j^' I ble, commonly used in cooking. 

To speak angrily. Heng lit ^ i§* 
to speak bluntly. 

\^f^ Read hcjen : a culinary vegetable. 
Heen ch'hae W ^ heng ch'hai, 
the amaranthus oieraceus, Z. 








Read hong : a place, a di^ric't. Yeak 
hong ^& "Tj j/fffc he"Sy a medica- 
Hoo boe chae, put wan ySw, yfiw pit yew hong 

toe te at u'" t'hang hwul''S vhil Cho no ChU Cko 
pit woo he"S> while our parents are still living, 
we should not wander far, and if we wander, 
we must always, have a settled place. See the 

Read hong : a village, a hamlet. 

Read hong : uncultivated, waste, un- 
fruitful, barren, sterile, when grain 
is unproductive, or fruit trees do not 
bear, it is called hong '& kt"?. Ke hong ^ ^^ 
ko fte"S', dearth and famine. 

The sound of displeasure t out upon 
it ! fie. 

Kwaa h6ng jlS ^^,kwan W'S'.apass, 
a barrier. 

The whistling of the wiai ; the sound, 
of wrath i a cry by which birds 
and beasts ftre called. 

Read yiJep : a leaf, the leaves of trees. 
L6 yeep ^ Ij^, laou heSh, the siri 
leaf used by the asiatics, in chew-- 

ing with Iheir iietel nut. 

Che Voi yee'p boe Jsj^ ^ ^ ^ , ke keen koit 

heSh boi tiotig, tkc branches were firm and tho 

leaves luxuriant. 

Read hcang : fragrant ; incense. HwOn 
-^ hiSang ^' ^ , tea hio^, to burn 
Yit che heang t'ho£ k£w t'heen >^ ^ ^ ^ 


■fl^ ^ > chit ke heo'^ Chaou kaiu,'^ nee^' 
one stick of incense will diffuse its fragrance ' I 
through the nine Heavens. 

..a,^ Read) heang : a country district. Heaog 
' _g^ , Aeo''S" «, a village. Five 



families constitute a 1ST lin, neigh- 
bourhood ; five neighbourhoods constitute a EB 
16, hamlet; four hamlets constitute a '^^ chok, 
clan; five alaos constitute a %k t6ng, village; 
five viliai^es constitute a JWchew, a large village; 
and five larger villages constitute a hcang ^ 
heo"S> a. district; Thus 12,500 families com. 
prise one country district See the 
Han che. 

v-^-| Je ch' 

|m itu, 


'ho6 fj^ jlj^j an Aid"? sai'^' is 


The husk of corn, chaff*. 


Vulg. ch'he: to feed, to nourish, to 
^_ bring up. Hiiuk seng ^ A^^ t'haou 

|2^ lai"?, a brute, a domestic animal. 
Y4ng hoo bo6, heuk ch'hey. cho6 ^ ^ -FH- 
■^ ^ ■?*' 3'<J<*'^ pay boi, cVke boi kS-i, to 
nourish one's |>arents, and. feed one's wife and 


To coilrcf, to hoard up. Chck hinik 
_ 1^ ^^, to accumulate. Heuk click 

\3E| jelou to ^111^^, k-heih 
leih chJn chlj/, to accumulate in great abundance. 


To nourish, to feed ; the same as 
hijuk. Put gno leng heuk, hnan e 
® ."6 way s6w J.^^ttfM.K 
W -i^ l^Mi> ''^^ '" <"*'*« ff""*. *«"*" * g""i cfto 
kite iiw, you can not support me, but, on the 
contrary you hold me for an enemy. See the 
J[^P ^ Poey hong. 











A' '>gMF,' a hoUo«i rtee]Aatille for water. 

^ The appearance of the rising sun, 

/ ^^^ k'ht loo too i fciom"S',. at th^ rising of 
the sun, it.thei) begins to shine. 

• I1■>^|!(1U T'l^jl-Jll O/ll ; fioiltllliod 
}^k ■■■ -:::! i:. -'' ■ 1 ,! ■ > .,1 

]^-«rY To urge on td eStekion, to encourage. 

: i :. v,^;!-! ;,?, !,, ., 

Fragrant breath, .an aromatic fla 


Literary, elegant. Chew, ka.* 6 jS 
tae heuk heuk hoe bfln chae, IS 

cfteto k'hw"d. 6 no t'edou fey, chin chae sAy e &y 
Mn cKhat, the Chew dynasty observed the two 
former dynasties, and thus rendered elegant the 
literature of those times. See the P. p|tf /.'i 

Seang lun. A surname. 

V i 
Xiterary, ornameiited. Hetik heuK 

^ ^ luxuriant and full. 

• "■■■ y -<j 

^,— ini^ Respectfo'h anfl" cafefnl; ' Gh'hwan 
^fe^ heuk ^^ ^, the name of an an- 
^^IfJ cient. Emperor, who flourished, B. 

C. 2400. .:..;>ini-. 




^.1 :^ 


Ens heuk 

the name of a fruit. 

Warm, internally hot. 

Unlucky, unfortunate. Heung teaou 
pft ^l» an unlucky, omen. Kit 
:heung h6 hok, ± ]^ |^ ||, ho 
bai, U hieanhokk'hh, good add. bad^Jqfiki misery 
and happiness. .^ i i-MM Vi ' ' 

Heung ok l^li -^ J *««»? p'ha^i, 
vicious in the extreme. Heung sin 
Ht' S» a murderer : also called. 
Heung sew ^ -^ a murderous hand. 
Te heung p6 ch'hiien kpe |^^^ -^ "^^ 
fi /Chi heung p'Ka^i i po vh'heng koi, to exter- 

minate the vicious in order to testify our gra- 

.i'lil/il jilt. ■.■;:: .,;.,•, 1- , I ... ■/■ 

titude to all antiquity . 
,T)l>(lii« til li \i:::: .-, ,, -r ; . 

Mill ■<•<« 




(Hp4ing,np6 ^ "yNL, ""e name of a 
Tartar race, on the north-west of 
jfy^k Vulg. heng: the breast. Heung hwac 



1^ ^ 

1^ heung. 

the bosom ; also written 

'fteung 16 jg sip pat sdw '^ ^ J^. -f* /\ ^^ 

"' neng k'ham k'hh'"^ j& chap piyh situ, " in his breast 
"" ""is included the whole twenty-eightconstellations." 
'.'■" 'Intimating an extensive acquaintance with astro- 

The same as the preceding. 

To be alarmed. Tek bong e yfew 

lut aou tit bang d sod yea ke^d, ke'^i, 
since dismissal from office, my thoughts in my 




dreams have been jtroubled. Saiiil Jiy 
Han je.. ff^^ r. •." ' . , 

To accuse; the voice of a multitude. 
T'heen hay heung hijung, be te seuk 

t'hce'"S ay heung kiung, boey ^hae che chUy a k'Mh 
teSh, the Empire is all in confusion, so that we 
do not know which is right. 




The bursting forth of water; the 
violence of a stream. 


Heunffl f^xi The noise of a multitude. 








To go, to make haste. 

The male of birds; also brave, heroic. 
Eng heflng j^ ^ ^ a hero. T'heen 
hay chc heung kok, jea T^ ~T> ^ 

ii^ M 111 > ''***"^ "* **"* *^"^ '^•'' *"''' **"* 
most valiant sUte in the Empire. 

Heung le & hwuy ^ ^ "J" ^ , tanff^J' «'A^ 

key tit pwutf, the cock of the wild fowl was flying 




Elegant, beautiful -, also, to stop, to cease. 
Hew chhcy ^ ^ ^ heel boi, to 
divorce a wife. Hew g4n yk. ^ j 
u"" lai kong, don't mention it! 
Sit ban se bod keang che hew ^F ^ JO^ ^}t 
Bg ^ /|f ^ «•/ tan, ti bS Chang >«'&h Ay ho, it 
is trulj an excellence not to be limited by myriads 
of ages. Pek kong hew ]^ X f^ , " cessation 
of all labour. 

E' t'heen ley tflng hew ^^^\^ ^^ > *"'' 
i'hee"^ ley chi jido itcHh, to last ax long as Heaven 
and Earth. 

Secret protection, an invisible influence 
n one's favour. 


Hew p 

Hoo hew ^yf\, ''"^ "■•"« "^ " '"■^•'' 
also written 4^ ^ hoo hew, the 
negative particle ^ put, is also read 
hew, in poetry as. 
Be te cbiJQng kira k'hc, tong liew j6 ch'ho6 hew 

Cheung tong kirn k'hi, IBSh kSh an niy sai"^ yei bd, 
we cannot tell whether, from our present departure, 
we shall ever be again thus, or not. 

To bother, to dun. Yit ch4y j!n hoo 
[V chc, cheuiig ch'ho6 jIn hew che — ' 



ehil Ay cMy kok Ay lAng ki e, ji cheung ch'hot kok 
Ay Idng hew e, " if only one man of Chfiy were 
to be teaching him ( the language of that country, ) 
and all the men of Ch'ho£, were to be bothering 
him (with another tongue,") then though you 
should beat the lad every day to make him speak 
the language of Ch€y, he would not be able tu 
do it. See ^[ -^ Beng choo. 

P€ hew ^ |7r a ferocious wild beast, 
like a leopard. 


Hew ifiw ' 


the name of a bird. 

^wy-^ emuluraent; happiness; harmony. 



Vulg. mc"a: rotten, decayed. H6w hok 
i;7j -Ji^ , nv^a ch'hd, rotten wood. 
Cha6 t tiw ch'him, cho6 wat, biw 
hok pnt k'bo teaou yi;4, ^ -j* ^ ^ "f 

k'htciin, hoo choo king, nKi"a ch'hd bd Chang teaou 
Whek, Chae-e was sleeping at mid-day, when Con- 
fucius said, rotten wood! that cannot be engraved 
on. See the 

Hew JSfy 

fS. LOn ek. 

Anything rotten, and falling into decay .- 
on the south of the Ch'hoe countr> 
there is a ^> K^^ ycSmjIn, nation, 
wliose parents and relations when dead are lefl, 
t6w kfi jeuk ^ ^ ^ , nir"* e Ay bih, till 
their flesh rols, «hcn it is thrown away, and tlu- 
bones arc buried. 

Fallen down. Ilin h6w jBl ^\> , lo 
raise that which is fallen down. 

To sniell anything with the nose. 





To inhale an effluvia. Sam hew j6 chok 
"^' ^- [flJ f f- *"° kwiiy hiw e ay be, 
chew Ic'he, he ( Confucius) thrice inhal- 
ed the effluvia, and then rose up to go away. 

ll .:m i' . - A. ■ ' ' ' 

See the. J =Kn Seang lun. Also vulg. eh'habu, 




Roasted rice or wheat. Hew 
ijl j^ ^ dry provisions for a journey. 

Again. Hew hwat /^ -/Tj" , k'ah wdh, 
to live again; Ihc resurrection. Ch'heng 
hew die, kiiaiig je hoe k'ho 'jj -iti^ 
^ rj^ |[]j fl^ Hj" , ch'he"d Mill e, /fei)"S; pa^^/i 
naj"», j'^en a»K I'hang, he begged that he would 
fry it again; when, after some urging he consented. 
See the l^ "£ Seaflg beng. 


Tlife'' rolling of the eyes; the eyes 

Vinegar. Hey ch'hoe 

^, vinegar, 

ffll JUj pickle. Seuk wuy ht seng ko tit, 
(IZJjJUy^ bek k'hit hey yijen, k'hit choo ke liu 

tl ^ % f^ iln 1^ ;t ^ ^*^ ^""^ " "'"' '^ 

seng ko teaou lit, woo ling k'hit cKhae, e Whe k'hit 
kap e dy ch'hoo pee"S idng, jc hoe c, who will say 
that B8-seng-ko is an honest man?— When one 
came begging for vinegar, he begged some of his 
neighbour, and gave it to him (in his own name). 
See the Q |^ Seiing lun. 

•^ •* Deep eyes, wicked eyes; also, the eyes 

JJ^y p i M I * deeply sunk in the head. E' bok hey 
HjZ, jin ]/) \-\ [I [t /\^ ^ rA(i bak chew hiy 
l&ftg, to look savagely at any one. 
Hey jeon Igng se ^: ^k ^^ ffl,*"* cVhim yea 
ey k'hw^h, to be able to see notwithstanding the 
eyes being deeply sunk the in head. 



To hold or contain any thing. One of 
the radicals. 




•_^- The name of a barbarous country, on 

^ jr\ the north-east of China. Se hd 

l:^W h6y hoe -tj^ fpj ^ ^f:^ ^ cUy ,e 

t^a me&"h h£y kdou, what dog of a barbarian is 


^^^ To expect, to wait for, to be in expec- 
'jf^^ tation of. Hfiy gno hoe, hoe laS ke 
1^ sue, % -J^J^)^^ }): #, '-"^ 
haou gwdn dy Jin kwun, jin Icwun lat chew kSh chae 
u'kh, let us wait for our prince ; when our prince 
comes, there will be a revival. See tlie ^ ^^ ^ 
Se kensj. 



A small by-path, a cross-way. San 



W^ keng Che hfiy \UUZU^ '""" 
^TJr^, king dy sty loe cross-wajs about hill 
roads. See ^ -]"- Beng: choo. 

. Vulg kw"a, to carry in the hand, to 
"T>J^£ hold in the hand ; also to separate. 
*^r^| Hgy sew tong kwuy J^ ^ |ii] ^, 
k'han ck'hiw eho poi tooi"^, to hold one another's 
hands and return. See the ^ |^ Kok hong. 
ChiJaoH bfiy & I6y \^ ]^ \/\ || , rheo U sw"d 
dy Idng e Uy soi, to collect those who are dis- 
persed, by propriety. See the ^ ^ Cho twan. 

The same as the above. Hev '^iii |^ 
W^- kw'"a nd, to carry a hand-hasket; 
Also written jfflj hSy. 

iA piece of land, fifty acres in extent. 
H6y teen |l|j: C[j ^ a large tract of 



Heep keen I'heem ch'heaou, peng 6 hay hey ^ 

jji ff^ f< '^''^] 'M 1 ^ ■ ""*" "'''^ ''■'■"■?'■*'«'«• 

seep sey j6 ch'heo, chiy Uy k'hdh ch'hdm & hiy Chee^^S 
dy ch'hdn, to see people shrug up the slioulders, 
and to come with a flattering smile, is more 
insupportable to me, than the open fields in a hot 
summer's day. See Ibe, J;^ ^ Seang beng. > 






Why ? where fore ? Also, a slave, a servant. 
A surname. Chiiu hey put wuy cheng 

soo u"» chu ching sou, why do not you (speaking 
to Confucius) undertake to manage the affairs of 
government. See the |- =^ Siiaug lun. 
Le ho seaou hfiy noe pijey koc kiiii long, ge sey 
tek se. U>6 King teung ^^ ^^' /J^ ^ -^ ^^ 

tig &j/ si chd gim a, k'ha cheUh aou ggi chit dg 
koO dy kirn lung, loi t'e'uh siy tit Ay se, chew heel 
te long teung, Le-ho, in his youlh was a servant, 
when he carried ou his back an old embroidered 
bag, and whatever niel with, that he could 
get at, be used lo Uirow them into his bag. 

A'^V An expletive, used at the end of sentences 
f\ '1 poetry. Lflni hong che liwun hCy, 

s^ k'h6 6 ka£ gofi bin che wiln hfiy f^ 

11 Z 1 'i' p] ft M S- K ±. tl ^ ' 

l&m hong Ay p'hang, I'hang lad kiw gtcan pSyh jal"? 
£y liu'dn 16, the soiilhrrn wind which is so aromatic, 
will serve to dissipate the anxiety of my people. 
Sec '^ ij^ Silo ko, Uie ode of Sun. 



line, a thread ; a genealogical line. To 
connect together. 

^fej*. To connect together, to hand down in 
HeV TjtS^ conlinuancc. II<;y liiem iD,* -^ to 
^jS think of incessantly. 
Sd hey W l^ sucessive generations; a line of 

^ To connect, to continue! to bind « also 

Hey /I .2^ '" ""^ ' '" '"''""S '"• '^"'"' ''^y ^3 

IjI^ /^ consequences, results, that which 
belongs to an aflair. 

Pwal hEy \^^^a. sacrifice offered 
with ihc view of averting calamities. 

i hey ifc W: ^ a kind of hairy crab ; 


jLj-t. Bold, firm, undaunted v also written ^ 

Hey ~>C '^ ''^y> ^"'' pronounced ge. Cheng choo 

y^.y^t wat, soo put k'ho e put bfing hay 

IT -r- u. :^ 'f- ''J* u 4> '}u nk, '^^^ 

choo king, I'hak ch'hdyh lung a'" t'hang bo hong hey, 
Cheng-cho6 said, a scholar should not l>e otherwise 
than niaiCDanimous and bold. 

Hi. ^ 

To rejoice, tt) be glad. Him he ft^ 
-g- , pleased, delighted. Ki him him 
.&. \^l , tai kay liim him j'ein woo kv^a hi ay 
bin tek, they would all appear delighted, and joy 
would beam from their countenances. See ~^ ^X. 
Beng choo. 

m Rejoiced, delighted; the name of a 

Him ^IYa d'sl'''tl! also written 'jfr him. Keang 

• J'V. gwfln ki-en k? Jiti chek, simhimje6n 

wit, yi-nk cbiien che -^. jj^ 1,^ JJ J^ j(^^ 

'IJ^ '\}f 9.^, \!l' ^'X 'ik Z. , **'"'ff ^"'^•^ *■*«''''» 

kei"^ Itti Idng dy chiSh, chew mot Atc"a Aim Jein 
)no''a hi, ai biilyh IHh », Kcang-gwAn on seeing the 
footsteps of a large sized man, was picaacd and 
delighted to her very heart, and desired to set her 
foot on it (.which doing, she conceived, and bare 
)p ^ hoe chek.) 

rt |CL Very carl; 
"'"' P/T i. about 

ly in the morning, when the sua 
to rise. 

% % The enjoyment which (he gods derive 
Him "iLi>>* ff""> «acritices; also lo desire. Him 


swan -g^ ^^: , to delight in, to enjoy. 

%^^ Ti) be pleased, to he delighted ; the 

Him S W^ same as ™ Him, Ch«:ung lin him 

H^ I Jefln, lok j6 l.flng t'heen hay i^ ^ 

hi, t'henng lok ji bey ki l'hec"S hay dy soo, to be 







all one's life delighted, and in one's joy to forget j ^ 
the whole world. See the "p ^ Hiy beng. . jjj^j 

To roast, the violence of fire ; heat. 




To be earnestly desirous of; seeing a 
loJ^ thing, new and splendid, and longing 
"' after it; ardour of mind. 

A man's name. Lew him ^ij ^i 
a man oi tlie ^ han dynasty. 

*^-*> A bear. Jin hlra J\^ "^^ ^ Mng him, 

CI \^ , a baboon 4 a surname. GS gno s6y 

^ ^ V ^ yijuk yea, h!m cheang ek gno sey yeuk 

ijl higma sii/ ai, him cheo"^ yea gwd siy ai, 
fish is what I am fond of; and bear's palm is also 
what I am fond of. See ^ ^ Beng choo. 

^ To shut the -mouth, to be mute, unwil- 
M^Kd^ ling to speak. Hira k'hoe put kam 

-j^ hew gan ^ p ;f; g^;(^ ^, hkp 

tKhiiy a'" k^d koh king, to shut the mouth, and 
not dare to speak again. 

^/^^ To do, perform ; to begin, to com- 
pP|^_ mence operations ; to suceed, to pros- 
^ ^ per. 

Hin ong S| fli , to prosper. Hin soo ^ ^ , 
to raise troops. Hin k'he P| |E , *" commence, 
to arise. 
T'hong boo e jln, hin yea put yeen, keet tew e po 

bong yeahwut yi-en V^ ^ pJt ^ R "til ||j 

1. Ifl UVX^-^ % ^^ M ', ''"-g *"» 

ltS"& Jin, chew e Ay hin pin yeen, keel tew ke"d 
^b chew e iy b6 yU hwut yeen, T'hong and Boo 
practised benevolence, thus Uieir prosperity was 
rapVd ; KiJet and T£w practised oppression, thus 
their ruin was also sudden. 


A burn or scald on the skin ; a swelling. 






JCjgM To besmear, to rub with blood ; a 
\^^£Z cause of quarrel ; a crime. Sat ch'he 
:::^P^ yewjehlnkoe^^^^iffj^U^, 

fhai ch'he yiw jS bw&h kSe, he killed Ch'he-y€w, 
and snteared the drum with his Mood. 

iv**^^ To be pleased. Bin wat .M. 'tjl^ pleas- 
yinl ed, delighted with. Seng bin j6 jew 
^ ""^ hin chin chek hwan BS ^ rjjj ^a 
WJ^ ^ B]] ~\^ sing hin wat chew k'hi Chit Che 
Wn chin chew tmi"^, we should take advantage 
■of a merry humour, to go on pleasure rambles, 
and when our merry humour is exhausted, we 
can return home. 

Head heSn: a dizziness of the head; 
to be giddy. T'hoe hiidn ^ g^, Chaiu 
kak hin, a swimming in the head. 
Hefin ch'hwan Pi )|^ , •>'" '^hQn, sea-sickness. 
Kara hefin chit, put yijuk ch'hut hong ^ ^ ^^ 
^ ^^ lH %,' '^""' hindypai^S u^ k"d ch'hut 
hong, having got a dizziness of the head. 1 do not 
dare to g^) out in the wind. 
. Read hwun : to be enraged at, to bate. 

n*fcA Hwun oe 'I»^ ^ > ''»« o^. *" a'''""'- 
I V^ Hwun seang keen che bwan e <[>^ ;jig, 

B -y nfe ^ , hin seo kee^^ habu hedh mooi"S, 
it is a pity that we got acquainted with each 
other so late 

Ong ch'him e wuy hwu« '^^^X^ '\^, 
dng ch'him t way hin, the king was greatly dis- 
pleased about it. 



* United, harmonious; obedient, compli- 

>^^^^ ant. Heng tey ke hip, h6 lok ch'he"a 

he"a le kdbu seo hap, chew hd lok cKhe"d tarn, when 
brethren are united, harmony and delight mingled 
with pleasure, prevail. 





"^^^ To collect, to Uke op. 

JL To draw in the breath, to inhale, to 
Hip V^^r^ suck in. Hip ch'heng yin che Ifiw hay 

hw^n &K la&u hdy, to suck in tb.e flowing pearls 
of the fare clouds. 

Hip W^^ 

The appearance of water flawiag rapid- 

„. ^S^^^.To talk fast. Hip hip chiioo ch'hoo 

Jh ^P Hip pit Sv ^ hip p'hee''S , to contract 
Hip ''v''^r* the skin of the nose, to snuff up the 
*^^^ V nose ;- also to- draw in the breath, to 
shrivel ap. 


To take up, to perform. Pit bit 
Wb , a inan'» name. 


Hit n,|^ To ^ook at, to observe. 



The breast booe. 

To look, alarmed, to look on with 

To stab » the cry of pain. 

^SrP! Ho sit ^ >^ , nam chikh, to be glut- 
.>&^^ tonous, to eat to cxce»s \ also, covetous. 

The sound of blowing out the breathy 
a whizzing, whistling sound. 

S %. 

To pluck up weeds; to eradicate the 
' rank grass of the fields. 

To talk loud and angrily. Be h£ng gSn 
put siin sun, h6ng choe ch'haiu nae 

ho Che ni^ -p- :;fc •§ III, ^ 
|1 1^ 75 f^ ^ ^ *^ ''^"^ ''""^ •** "'" '^-^ ^^' 

hd sBn, tBul"S choi ch'he"d seaou liy twa »«"« hwSh e, 
Be-hSog spoke without humility and submission, 
hence Wui^^-choe was vexed with shame, and 
sculded him. See the /ff Vjh ^ Hoe han se. 


Tall grassi long, rank grass. Sit je4 

. che ho "^ fff "V* tS ^ chedh yid gwa 

ll^^ dy li"^ ch'haou, (the deer) eat the 
long grass in the wilderness. Sec the f|\ ^^ 
Seaou gnay. 



To blow out the breath. Ho ho |JpT ppT^ 
the soond of laughing. 

Read h"6: good, fine, excellent. H^o 
jin fcp y^, ho Idng, a good man. Chca 
siicn kwun che beng, kiietjij kok che 

lin Ken kwun 6^ bing, ling keel hap na kok &y hd, 
lelying on the injunctions of our former prince^, 
we would connect the good understanding of both 
countries. See the ^^C ^i ^^6 twin. 

The oame of a countj^, on the north 
of China.. 

Why } what } how t wherefore i A 
surname. HO kod 'ftT i([ ifa too, 
for what reason ? When confucius cora- 
flaincd that no one knew him, one of his disciples 
asked, saying, hd wtty kd bok to cho6 ye4, 

€hei U, why is it that they do not know you ? 

See the "p f^ Hay lOn. 
I Dm ' 





^|U H6 leen :^ ^ , the water lily. Sip 

yrar j.6w ho hwa ijM ^ ^ S , "J'" '^y 

% J ivdy woo h6 lein hwa, in damp places 
we find the water lily. 




A river. Hong ho ^ ^pT wul"^ ho, 
the yellow river. Jit gwat kong t'heen 
tek, san hd chong tey ''^ Q H yQ 

d,y /?/:, siti^a A<i chbng hong lei/ h'ltea &y way, the 
sun and moon illumine the glories of Heaven, 
while hills and rivers stenglhcn the residence of 
the Emperor. 

To be enraged, to scold with anger; 
also read ho. 

A ditch round a city wall ; a moat 
' f^ ^ round a fort. E' hay k'hong bo 



^|v 1'" ^ 3^, ^"^ ^^ '^ Khans U, the 
rain descended into the empty moat. 

f ■ A hero, a man distinguished for talents 
t^^^^ and wisdom. Ho heep j^fflKj a brave 
^^r\^ man, a distinguished hero. 
Swan ho chun, kang biin hak ^ ^^ ^ '^ aT 
!St swan king ho chun, kdng kiw biin hak, to se- 
lect wise and brave men, in order to discourse 
over literature and learning. 

The down of a feather, anything very 
small ; ten atoms make one down of 
a feather. Chhay che ho le, bew e 

ch'heen le M ^ ^ S. llf £ ^^ M . '^''"'^ 
chit L'haou mi se, chew ey biw kauu chit cKheng le, 
a variation of a hair's-breadth, will lead to an error 
of a thousand le in extent. 

The name of a hill. 

The name of a river. 



|l<#^g^ Vulg. 6 : an oyster ; a shell-fish. 

^ Vulg. t^w : grain, corn, paddy. Kat h6 
"■ jiy*" ^l] -^ J kwSh Uw, to reap the corn. 
4 V sip gw'at lip ho kay -j- ^ |j^ ^ 

P ^ chap goiyh lap sew ho ktiy, in the tenth month 
we gather in the harvest. See the ^^ ISI Pin hong. 



Harmonious, soothing, agreeable ; not 
stiff, nor stubborn. A surname. Ho sun 
Tf-U )|M . obedient. Ho seang ^;p ^ 
hd(y seO"S, a priest of Buddha. 
Heep ho ban pang j^ ^;p '^^ ^jj, to unite all 
nations in harmony. 

Te teung ho, t'heen ley wOy yeen, ban but yeuk 
yeen |^ fl^ ^H ^i^^M '^ '^^ M, 
te kek teung kwi, hi, chew fhee"S tey tit leSh e &y 
w&y, ban mee''h yea til eh'he, wfcen we carry to the 
utmost the happy medium, and the principles of 
harmony, heaven and earth will keep their proper 
stations, and the myriads of things will obtain 
nourishment. See the m 1^ Teung yfing. 

The name of a beast, the roaring of a 
wild beast. 


The same as ^H ho, harmonious. 

To call out aloud, to cry, to lament. 
Siin ho k'hip 6 bun t'heen ^ ||^ 
-m_ ^^ S- ^F siin hi haou te ch'hew 
l'hee"S, Sun lamented and cried towards the autum- 
nal Heavens. 

■^M^Y^ K'heng ho ]^ ^^ to congratulate, 
-^>"_% to felicitate. A surname. Sod hong 

^^\ lafi he, ^ ^ ^ , «^ ''^"^ '"^ 
ho hi, the people from all quarters came to offer 
their congratulations. 






^^k^ To carry a, burden, to bear, (o sustain 

.^\^\ a weight. Yew bo kwuy j6 ko k'hong 

I >| s5 rhe bOn rhea /^ ^ ^ jfn ]^ 

?L y\ ^ r J ^ •" """ '^"^ '"" ''*'*^''«' ^^"S «> 

j£ kiiey k'hong si &y moof"e, there was a man car- 
rying a wicker basket, who passed by the door of 
See the '^i |j^ Hay lOn. 

The distant expanse of water. 







A white luminous appearance-, also great; 
also written A^ ho. 

A mark, a signal, a denomination, to 
call, to designate. Ho Icng §^ ^ 
an order, a signal. Joo ho f^ B/li 

je ho, a mark. 

Ong ch(:& sew beng c t'hl-en, pit tek be ho e wuy 

^ ^j oiff ^1/ lung sew bing i t'hce"^, pit kdn 
iSh hu dy ho i chb ho, when the royal one* receive 
the decree from Heaven (to found a dynasty ), 
they should select an elegant designation, in order 
to become their distinctive mark. See the ^fc ^jj|^ 
^ U Ch'hun ch'hew twan. 

White, a bright white appearance. 


To respond to any one ; to sing a second 
part in music. Ch'heing i> ho j6 
Pi T # 1^>^' cVAfo"?, It ho, 
I will sing, and you respond. 

The vernal Heavens, the appearance of 
the sky in spring; also, expansive Ho 
t'hccn ^& ^^ the wide expansive 

Calamity, affliction, misery. Ho hwan 
IlK) ,^ , trouble, sorrow. Ho hwan 

kabu Ian hin sin, calamity coming upon one's own 



The noise made when a boat advances ; 
the boatman's song. 

'^ . yg^ Expansive, wide, as the ocean; great. 

Ho 'J'jfX X magnanimous. Gno seen yang goe 

ho jefin che khc 3t ^ ^k S ilfe 

"{^ ^ ^^ , S^i S""" l/io"S ch'he gwd ay ho jein 

&y k'hi, I am skilful in nourishing up my great 

and expansive spirit. See ^ 3!. Beng chod. 

¥1- .„-, E^ To deceive and cheat one another. I'l. 
"~~*^^~^ scold. 

Ho r 

Ho c: 

Ho Pj 

Ho >Tc 

To contend, to wrangle. 

Ham ho 5j^ ^ ^ the louad of anger : 
wrathful clamour. 

To answer slowly. 

To bear a burthen ; the same as 3^ ho. 

H6 -^5nlJ "*'''"0'>'ou»! «he same as In lir. 

Y^ ^ """■''> a designation; the contracted 
Ho -/^ form of ^b ho. HcCnsescanggwQv, 

IV, V/ V^^'' "" "■"' ^- 1 ^ n. 

yX^ w fig x3e >•'''"?" *'''' "■ '^ '^^ mooi"^. 

i ho ling ban siii"S, to hang up a proclamation at 
the city gate, in order to give a signal to all ihi- 
people. See the ^ |® Chew Uy 

To talk hastily, and scoldingU. 








To pull up weeds. 

Long grass; also, ch'heng h"o 
Pek h^o, 1^ '^ , and heang h"o ^ 


, all names of medicinal herbs. 


Vulg. U : good, excellent, well. Peng 
h"6 ^ ^, pai"^ W, recovery from 
sickness; returning health. 

E-ng e way h»6 jSa ^ Jcl tl !ff tii ^ ^"^ 
Uoo k cM sea ho, to promote constant friendsh.p 
and good will. See the ^ j^ Wo5y hang. 

Vulg. fco^y: fire. K6*hn6|^jK,ft^«' 
hoijf, to help to put out fire. Jeak 


ch-hin cheo"S hoiy &u *'''^ '''"J"" '»''. •'•'e fire begin- 
ning to burn. 

A number of people together ; a com- 
pany. HOq ke ^ |£ , tiSey kby a 
partner, an associate, a messmate. 
Cho h"6 ^ ^ ^ cU hiiiy, to be together, to be 
in company. 



Vulg. ai: to love, to delight in, to 
approve of, to consider good. Jin 
chea ISng h"d jIn, ek ISng put twat 

Jlu sey'h-d i-^i^j^Kt-^'^^ 
A 6»r All ^ jin ty Idng ey ai Idng, yU hy bS 
eh'heo^S pat Idng dy >iy ai, benevolent men can 
love their fellow men, and can also refrain from 
seizing that which others love. 
Chcflng go6 s6y ^"""^^f^^^ eUn gwa 
$iy ae, to follow that which I myself approve. 
See the J^. Im Seang lun. 


p.%M Vulg. hSiy: goods, merchandize, wealth, 
property. Wd h'^o cha^ j^ ^ ^ , 
ai hoiy kap chei^S, to be fond of pro- 
perty and wealth. 

Le put wuy keen chin kwuy jin wat, kl h"6 k'h» 

® le put wHy k'hia^i ked"S chin kwity jin, chew 
kong, chiy »e ho hiiiy Chang biy. Le-put-wuy, 
seeing the noble prince of the Chin country ( in 
bonds) said, This is a good article; 1 can buy 
it : ( meaning that what money he might expend 
in assisting the prince would be amply repaid; 
he accordingly expended his whole fortune in the 
prince's behalf, and afterwards saw him rise to 
supreme power. ) Hence thi s has become a proverb. 


To decrease, to diminish; empty, vain, 
unproductive. Sd lefen che hong h^o 

ll ^ ;2, ^ H ' ^"'"^"^ "^^"^ ^n 

ho yea bak net^^ tang, we should observe whether 
the season of the year has been fruitful or unproduc- 
tive, ( when we levy the taxes ). See the _^ ^|J 
6ng chd, royal regulations. 

The finest of the grain; also fine rice. 

Pd h°d 
called yi 

pok hd. 

To call; to breathe out. Ch'heng hoc 
^ P^ to name, to applaud. To 
breathe out the breath is called p^ 

hoe, and to draw it in ^ k'hip. An exclamation. 

Oe hoe hat kwuy ^|^ P^ ^ f^ ■> »•*' ' '^''y "<'* 


Yit hoe pek Ink — ' Of- ^ ^ ^ **" "^ *^° 

c^e"(J p&yh Idng yin e, at one call, a hundred voices 



Hoe Is 

The stripes of a tiger; also one of 
the radicals. 

An exclamation of admiration. Oe hoe 
chiJCn 6ng put b6ng jjj^ ^ ]||) ^ 
>f> jMi J "* Aae cUng dy 6ng b& bey 




Jce til, behold! the example of the former- kings 
is not forgotten. See the -^ M Tae bak. 



Hoe 'nf-^St TJie name of a riye^, 

Hoe f$'1J ^o call; the same as Mi hoe. 

TT Ifli-fc* To be enrage<l:; to vociferate; a sur- 

Hoe M---'— 

^•* name. 

Hoe ^^1^-^ The name «f a fiant - 




A tiger:; the prince of \>ild beasts. Hoe 
Pe" sooch'hntfiap|^5g{ij^^|ip, 
^M ^A hoi kap av^a goi clihut i ap, the 
tigers and wild oxen broke out of Ihcir cages. 

IIo* sin A|& ^ra, all). Hoe (in ho* 

If not; no, not. Beng-chod wat, ho6, 
^ put je6n, h"d soo chi;& wfly chc yea 

'St ■y' 4^ , Bing-choi king, b&, u™ »e, ai cho toS 
&y l&ng ch'hong e, Beng-choo said, no, it's not so : 
people who like to create trouble, have invented 
the story. 




1 il— A bill -without «Dy vegetali|||n -on it, a 
V^^^% bare mountain. 

w ^ J The water's edge^ the brink of a river, 
>y— /t ■o.T lake. Sul scy suy hoe ^ ^ m 


,„T- k'hi in tar, I'hitn chUy gai, he 
traveilod tenards the west, along the waters edge. 

^|*_ An earlhern pot or pan, for holding 

^Lf wine, pickles, &c, ' 

- . Vulg. haoai to bawl out aloud, to 

^Jrl ^"^'' *" "^ aloud. Ho6 beng hoe 



IteS *«"« Awda, ^idfif yeak t'hed, the tiger roared 
aloud, «ad. jumped about; :..; .. 

Vn^ The nam© pf .(^^^^ in the Seang dy- 

I'l iv >.;■ lilt . 




%■ # " Ho^ to6 M. ^; A»^ toiiB, a bucket for 
y J*l ■ lading out water, or baling a boat. 

HoS suy y^ ^ J ' W cWy, to bale 


out water. 




Beautiful, excellent^' a title of rank, 
VJigm abont equal to eait. Choo ho£ ^k 
'~^f^ •f^. J the nobles of the Empire. Vulg. 

kauu, a surname. 

Kong ho« pek cho6 Ifim /2^ ^ f]& •?■ |^ ' *** 

degrees of titular rank. 

The Mme as (he preceding.. 



t'^of music. 


An instriraieiit 

Vulg. kaOu: a monkey, «n ape". Jin 
gan. Ch'hoS jIn b'ok hoS j£ kwan jd, 

kojbfin At^KW^M 

$e tiy t'haiu An ka$u, kv^ ^, Arm, ko jitn chin 
<kl!''i, people say,vthf»t': tb(e ipen of the Ch'hoe 
•country are a parcel of washed monkeys with cap* 
on, — and truly it b ilO.-~Said by ^ j^ ffl 
IIin-ko-cho(, in ridicule of his rival the king 
of Ch'hoe. 

j >J^l Yujg. ni a6u: thctliroat. Ch'hut lap flng 
IpMjb^ bSng, flng Che ho6 sect ^ j^jj^ ^ '^. 

1/ ^ 3E <21 1*!^ ^ » '^^ *"' ^^ ""^ ''•'' *''"*' 

ling, >e ^S u.y nd aiu ch'hiij/ cheih, they who go 
abroad bearing the royal c^omniuds, ar$ tbc 'throat 
and touguc ofthe king. .^I_,,, , ., ; ,^j 

3 It 



'.>:i;o. I — ::A wind vessel, a pot. To6 Jiofi jj^ gg , 
Ho6 • J Ij a kind of game of chance. Ch'heng 

m * ' ' ^ chew pek ho6 •jm" ]@ W ^^ *" 
'- ' ■ cfciio c7ie"4 piyft /io'4 a httndTed pots.of pure wine. 


Bladders or air-bags, used to assist in 
floating on the water. To take up 
anything out of the- water. 

Vulg-. o& : i surname^ 




Yuig. oi: a lake, a; large sheet of water^ 
Gnoe ho6 J, '^ , the five lakes. 
Yew hfing kang ho6 ^ ff ^X ^ ,. 

i/iw ke"A kattg hoi^ wandering about the rivers 

and lakes. 

San ho« J|| jM j- coral. San ho&ch6ng 
^™S Wl J|B ^ ^> »«» '•"^ ka.nool"S 
chdng stti"^, the coral grows in bushes. 

The name of a beast of the ape species. 


A wooden bow. 

; Ul')tli<i 

Hoe 1^ ^ , P"^ <*. a calabash, 
wan hwan hog jeep, ch'hae chc 
p'heng Che ll§ lit ^ f . 3^ ;^ 
•1^ ~y boi seng Ay poo ' & heSh, lat ban lai che e, 
look at the luxuriant calabash leaves; let us pluck 
them and boil them. See the /K 5tt Sfiaou gnay. 


boiy y'eOh 



Hofrteep W[ ffi^ boini/eih, a.butterfly. 
Ghong-chew bong wily hoe leap iff 13 
^ Ml ^^> Chong-chew bang ehd 
Chpng-chew. dreamed that, he was a 

Hod k'hoe f^ p ^ to depend on other's 
for one's food. Also, vulg. ko6, to 
paste; paste for sticking anylhiflg up. 

T'hdy hoS S^ Wk, a cormorant, a water 
fowl, G6 put wuy bong, j6 wuy I'hfiy 

M fl*" lie"a bang, j& kS"a t'Mj/ ho6, flshes are not 
so much afraid of nets, as of cormorants. 


HoS IS ^ ^, afox. Hog ge g, ^, 
to doubt, to suspect. Ho6 16 jew beet 
$Bl ffi >^ >r\!> *"* « voo k'hang, 
the foxes have holes. 





^^i "■' 


provisions; that which cannot ea»i- 

ff-^ ly be swallowed. 


Dried rice, prepared for a journey. 
Nae ko ho6 le^ng ^ ^ f|| ^f , 
bundle up the dried provisions. 

The headi of an arrow.; 

A.prince, a:princess or queen. Hdng hoe 
J^ J^ J an empress. Hdng t'heen hoe 
t'hoe ^ ^ & J^j imperial heaven 
and royal earth. 

T'han ch'hong b^ng, chok gwih hoe-"^^B^ 
/ft -jT^ Irt J '"'^ eh'hang me"A, chew iy chb gwin 
hoe, when a man is greatly intelligent, he may 
become a supreme ruler.. 

A character used, at the end of a sen- 
tence, as a mark of interrogation. 
Hak jS' $€ sip che, put ek wat hoe 

i^ M B# ^i t'T^ ^ M % '"^'-J' ^''"^ 

si wan sip e, S."' y'id hw"a hi hoe, to learn and 
constantly to. exercise one's self in it, — is it not 
delightful ? See the _h |^ ^^^"^ '°°- 

_ Mutual, coiuieoted V differing. Hoe seang, 
Hoe S hwan h€%\^^:^, fe kay ,eo 
m^ ' ^ hw^a hi, all mutually delighted. 

Cold, frozen, congealed. Song swat 
Hoe ^ Af ''aou hay, ch'hwan tfi p'hok hoE || 

Hoe Jp* 






Uyh haeu lifh, cVhvi'^ U p'ftSk hoe-, whsn the frost 
and snow come iowa together, the rivers- and 
ponds become frozen. ' "9""^ • 

Hoe pt 

The name of a tree. 

A door, an inner door. Bdn hoi 
& moof^ hoe, doors and entrances. 
SO; Ung ch'hBt put ytm hoe 1^ Qu 

Hi ^ ^ ^ '^*^ '■*'** ^•f <^'''*'''' *'' "" mooi"S, 
who can go out, except liy. the door ? See the 

±=jSt Seang liin. 

Hoe ^ 

Hae hoe iW jB, to meet unexpectedly. 

Va.,^ To guard, to protect. K^whoe^lj^, 

JJog *5**'^E *° guard from danger. P6 hoe ^ 
Xty^. i^ to protect. Hoe woe; chiJing-kwun 

pi il lit- ft ^ * general_of the guards. 
T'heen sta hoe wiiey ^ fill ^ '^ , t'liee"^ 'in 
pi pe, may the gods defend and protect you . 

The tail ; behind. Ho5 chiiflng M ^^ 
to folloW' after^ A. surname. 




An instrument. for catching.jQ$h; a book 

Tae hoe -fs^ yffi the name of the music 
adopted by the Emperor '& T'hong. 

A measure, a rule.- 

Oh'hek hoe F^ J^ a worm that draws 
ils«lf up, and stretches itself out again. 

Vulg. aou: behind, after, late, the last, 
to be behind. A surname. Hoc la* 
^^ ^ , """ '"*• afterwards. Tuy hoe 
^ ^>^^^ '""* behind. So6 seen te kak hoe te 




^ 3fe ^ !^ It ^>"' "^ ""^ '*"' ^* '^'^' 

kak tuy aou chae dy Itng, set those who have come 
early to the knowledge' of' a thing, to- awaken 
those who come later to the knowledge of it. 
Choo-loe cheiing j« ho5 "f* ^ |(^ jj^ ^, 
Choo-loe Vhin ji lai Wha cheah aou, Choo-loe 
followed, and came after. 

Hoe seng chea ^;& ^ ■^ tityaouiai''S dy Idng, 
y.oung people. 


'^-'^*- To cat down the com, to reap the 


An iron; a caldi'on ; an iron spoon used 
to stir up a caldron. MaCu-chl-aou 
put wuy teng hoe, j5 kail Hft ^E /K 
^ ^ |ft ifi) i^ J 3Mo«-cA«oo« u"" ke^a ««"« hoi, 
ji t"^, Ma^u-cheaou did not dread being boiled 
in the caldron, but faithfully reproved his prince. 

The same as VhL hoe, to wait. 


Vulg. kaou t thick, iiot thin, kind, liberal. 

Hoe IST ^"^ ''«*" P'h* %.^^' *"»" "" 
X ~J * P'li<>(l/t having a thick ikin to the 
face, i. c. being unable to blush. 
P'hok hoe p'hoey tey "j^ M fiji Ml}, k'huHh kaoit 
p'hSiy tiy, expansive and thick, like the earth. 
See the rfl ^ TiMing yflng-. 
Hoe yio IS \fi . kaou yiit, thick, substantial kind- 



Covitout, greedy of gaioi 

T*ng- boe'^ rSc, Ung kaou, to wait. 
SS hoc Q^ /|^, $i haSti, time. BOn 

ho<} 1^ m^, bun hadu, to wait upon, 
to enquire after. 

^^ % P6 hoe nj/ fjrfc ^ protection, favoiK 5 
Hoe TIT f^ *" pfotcct. Sew t'heen che ho& ^* 



— -A 


obtain the fevour of Heaven. See the l\% 5ffi 
Seaou gnay. 
^a^^ Read e : rain. Lok e ^% F|^^ /i>7i hoe, 
HoS h^l >■ to rain. Yin h^ng e se, p'hin but 

^, hwHn ke''d hoe ISh, pliln mee^h Uvi l:e"d, when 
the clouds travel the rain is dispersed, and all 
sorts of things are put io. motion. Seethe Sj 2^ 
Ek keng. 


V u\g. hSey hoo-: ashes; also, vuig. ffteSA 

A^ ^^ whitewash, to besmear with line. 


Che hoey hwuy chok pek hofi tijep M| ^ ^ 
Tr H IJjfl iff ' chwd Ay hoeg hotf tit pwuy cho 
pSyh dy hSky yetlh, the ashes of the burnt paper 
are flying about, like -so many white butterflies. 
Hoey to^y )||,|Ji|, tired, fagged, 
knocked up. T'hek pe ch'huy gwiiy, 
gno ma hoey tii^y P^ ^|^ "^ |^ 
J|; Ml Jl^ Pn , P^y'^ cheo"^ e kvsAn Hy wiy, 
g'uia Ay bay toe yea, by mounting up those 
high places, my horse is fagged out. See the 
|gl ^ Chew lam. 



l-J^^I Hwae hoey i^^ ^ , to be dilapidated, 


to be broken down. 

Read h^o: fire. K'h6h"6j^ ik, 
k'hi hoey, to kindle q fire. Sam 
keng ten^ h"6, gnoe keng Jsey '^ 

^ed iSh, goe kai"S t'he"a key VM, at the third 
watch my study lamp was still burning, and at 
the fifth watch I heard the cock-crow. 

Read h"6 : assembled together, as- 
sociated. HDo key ^ p+j hiiiy 
ke, an associate, a partner, a male. 
To repent, to be sorry for, to regret. 
G4n kw"4 yew, heng kw"a hiiey, 
lok chae kg teun? e "^ w! -fr' 




ku yiu), siy ke^d eheo hwan hiiiy, lok te e iy 
tang e''S, when with respect to our words, we 
have few faults, and with reaped to our actions, 
few regrets; then emolument will be found to 
centre in this. See the _|^ |^ Seang lun. 

>^ Dark, not clear, dim, dull. Hong e 
D 131. jS hoey, key beng.puti ^ p^ jf^ 

•>! W' H lS 'f* B ^ ''""^ '"'^ '''''*'" 
,cheo''S am, key t'hi bo svsah, when the wind and 

irain prevail and it is as it were dark, then the 

cocks crow without ceasing. See the ^ jsT 

Teng hong. 

\^ f ^ To teach, to instruct. . Hiiey j in put 

gw- ^'^^'^ ^ A ^ #. ^-^ «"^ *" 

" "^ seo"S yea, to teach people, without 
feeling tired. See the J^ |^ Seang lun. 
Yew, hoey je te che hoe ^ ^ T^ ^H ^ ^' 
y^w, gwd ka ti chae iy to le. Yew, I will teach 
you what is knowledge. See the same. 

,^^ To wash the face. Ch'heng hiiey 
PB te J '■'''''e''<i siy bin, to request 
( a superior) to wash his face, which 
was to ,l/e done by inferior relatives, when they 
had prepared water for their elders. 






To boil anything to rags. 

A sickness, pain; diseased. S06 gno 
Sim hoey ^^ t\Si ^ , ""e gu,i 
Ay sim kw"a paf'^, to make ray heart 
jt\/i K'^!"' •'"'^ = goods, property^ wealth. 
gl Kay h"o ^ ^ ^ kay hiiiy, goods 

^,^% and chattels. Chae h"6 ^ ^ 
cHai hoiy, to transport goods. 

H"6 chin kay sit ^M.'^^'M, *«^^ "*•'« *'«i' 
chew sit, when goods are of the right sort, the 
price will be of the proper kind. 

^y^ Pa« hoSy 11^ ^|2] ^ hesitating, un- 

decided, without advancing 




HiJey JHJ 






To turn round, to revolve, to return; 
also, depraved. T'heen chew tey 
gijey, yim ytng gnoe hiog, ho6y 
chwan U teung %^^ ^|>. [^ (f ^ 

■fT- IhI pjf ^ ^]* , ''*«*"^ '^'"^ '« % ^y s^^' 

yea yim y&ng goe hing, hwat tin tooi"^ IS e iy 
tang e"ff, the Heavens encircle the earth around, 
while the male and female principle, with the 
five elements, revolve in their centre. 
Ho6y kay [p| ^ ^ tooi"^ J/hi ch'hod, to return 
home. Also writtea [pj ho€y. 

To return ; the same a.s the above. 

Long worms Ln the stomach ; the tape 
V*I worm. 

The name of a river; to go against 
the stream ; clear water. S»i hbfiy 

cheOng che ^| J'jOl ^' ^^ , **J'* 
ludu t'kin Cf to follow up mgainst the stream. 
See the ^ |g Se keng. 

•QjCT Hofiy hC-ang ^ ^ ^ hoij^ Uso'V, a 

1 1^ I fragrant herb. 


HA seang jCp %\ ^ hSty tgo''^, a priest 

j'w|# of the ie«t of Buddha. Siiem 6ng 

soo seang, scciu Ic soo bd seang 

6ng ch'he ch'heo"^, »eem cha but- ch'he kiiAy •eu"*', 
the king of Siam feeds elephants, and the women 
of Siam feed the priesU. 

J> To meet, to assemble, to unite ; an 

^ C\|t^ assembly, a society. Bo6-6ng tae 

r\ hiicy choo ho6 6 Bcng-chki ^P ^^ 

;^ '^ ft fl^ T ^ ^ ' Bo'i-'Jnff twa hviy 
choo hoi IS Beng-cbin, Bo6-0ng convened a great 
assembly of the princes of the Empire at Beng- 
chio. See the EP "=? Soo kd. 



s x 



Theen tey hbey J^^'^, Chee^S tey hoey, 
heaven and earth society, a kind of secret ma- 
sonic club. 

V l. ' y The ancient form of the preceding 
y *# character. 

The ornamental colouring of a pic- 
ture, also written j,'m hbey. Hbey 
soo hoe soe few ^S. ^^ '^ , ''"^ 
iy sod liiy adu pUyh tey, the business of colouring 
comes after the white ground of a picture. See 

»•"= ± fro s'^2"s "^"- 

Confusion of mind, mental pertui- 
bation. Sou put tung le, chek bbey 


jfe , too Hi a*" Idng to It, chek tint ku!"a Iwan, 
whea affairs are not consistent with reason, the 
mind becomes confused. 

ispcrscd, scattered, in confusion ; 
ungry. Hbiiy Iwiii t^ SI , con- 
fused and in disorder. 


Dcai, bard of bearing. 

Blind, unable to seev th« eyes dim: 
•ore eyes. 

Watet turning round and uniting. 
To bargain fairly for a thing. 


Read hijet: bfood. L6ng heel ffi |ft^, 
I6ng hSiyh, blood and matter. Heet 
che^n tck t'hwat j&l .^ ij^ |j^ , 

hiiyh chein til I'hdou, after a bloody fight be 

got away. 









Read, hok : thoroughly dried, burnt up. 



^ > Read hok ; a stork. Hok bfing 6 kew 

-^S &k ''°' '^"^ '*^" ^ '^''^" ^^ '^^ ^ ^-^ 

P"**^ ^. ^ PH "5^ ^ ^ ''*''' *'"'" '^ ^'*'" 

ko, se"a fhS^a kabu Vhe^^, the stork screams over 
the nine marshes, and his voice is heard up to 
Heaven. See the /N 5ffi Sciiou gnay. 

-^M ■ «■» Happiness. Cog hok ^^ j|^ , ing koo 

III t** ^1/ hok k'he, everlasting happiness. Ho 

/|» \JlM hok boo put choo ke k6w che chea 

f^ fi iS>r> i e ^.ZM^ hoh^anhok 
k'lw bo u"' ie ka te kite e, misery and happiness are 
invariably the results of men's own seeking. See 


■5E -?• Beng choo 

Still, quiet, retired. 

A ditch, a channel for water, a drain 
for irrigation. Pe keung sit, je chin 
lek ho5koehok|^^^]fiJ^ 
I •Jjfi.J sit/ e iy keung ch'hoo, ji chin 
k'hwiiy tat te kaou hok, he had but small palaces 
and houses, while he exhausted his strength upon 
ditches and drains (for the purpose of irrigating 
the rice fields ). See the |^ =^ Lun ge. 


The ancient form of 

hok, happi- 

yli%y> Vulg.pafc; a broad piece of cloth. Hok 

Hok m 


kin |t)^ rjl ^ ^ scarf made 6f silk. 

The axle of a carriage. . 



Peen hok gfe ||g ^ 6,7 p6, a bat. Hong 
- , hwun to se, peen hok hwuy ^ JS< 

kaoii ee^S, bit p6 tit pwuy, in the evening time, 
arriving at the temple, we may see the bats flying 

.■.i| JU. The entrails. Hok to5 ^ B;!^ , P"'' 
Hok X\ fe? ''"^' *^^ belly. Kew kew boo hoo, kong 
l\^ hoShoksim ^ ^^ ^ ^ li 
VM j/^ ^ yling beng i.y boo hoo, se kong hoi dy pak 
Sim, bold and courageous warriors are the heart andj 
entrails of princes. See the IpJ 'Sj Chew 14n). 

X >^ Vulg. kSh: to repeat; again. Hwan 
Hok >j C| bok j^^^, over and over again. 
1^^ Teng ISng hwan hok i^ff-^^, 
kSh chae teng Ung, to enjoin again and again. 

-*^^ To repeat, double. Hok *» ^ ^ , 
a place where two ways meet. 







To turn upside down, to overturn 
to repeat; to examine. Hok to ^t 
T^\ , pak to, to turn upside down. 
Hok pae ^s^ uhf , to defeat an enemy. 

A surname. 

■■.11 li Jua 


^1^ ^ An implement for catching fish, made 
.y V I " of bamboo. 

* - A disordered state of the body. Hok 

MI >^^ Iwan t'hoe sea ^* SI pT. yp. , to 

/ ECm vomit and purge in a disorderly manner. 

%m A valley, a ravine, a pit, a gulf. Tae 

y^s)C bok che wfly but y<!a, choo yijen put 

hwan, cheak yeen put beet •/- ^X "^ 

ties hek Ay chb mei^h, choo hwan e bSy mvi^d, yeo^S 
ch'hvt e bey la, a large gulf is a sort of thing that 
cannot be filled up by pouring in» nor exhausted 
by lading out. '2 ."iii 




Hok H y* Stern, ri»id, se«tf«. 
1^ ^ 



The no)^ ta^de by an ^^-^ pig. 

Vulff. U«A; iiot, burnt, dried fp. 

^^ l->rv i I uti!- cj. new I fic gwat, suy ^e hok 

f I— I cA'A(r«^ iy giifyh, cUy k'M Chad, la, 
ill the middle tiontb of jkutuma the waters btgio 
lo be dry. 



4 t ^ To secrete, 
Hok >J §^ prostrat.- 
f-f ^ yew hol- 

tv coDceal ; lo lie down, lo 

- ■•" Kay gin bong 

V {}r hi it 

/If n It l/\ l/i I • 

tt^flW fhang bai ho/,' good words miMt i it be 

bat ho/;, tln-re vnvi an dintiu-rick- on 
t><>tJi lide« of the iT3i> 

Hdk ^^J^ that 

|X ^- havii 

'ing ^^,,«niber, .fiblcsays 
that the guju of lii- .- t tfter 

fing been a thi. [I,c 

.round, i« converted into ambn 


conlainiDg oKitlie' 

A hill overturned :' Die r 


■Wairr eddying, aixtf 60 ^"K i 


T4f jrfluro, M,:iiepe»t, to go backward* 
and forwards op thfi same road ; to 
answer, to speak. 
GSn kwqy soo hok ^ ^ jg^ ^ , king />ofj,l> 
kiiiuy, $id''S ioai'*^ k/i^, to talk of returning, and to 
think of going pad. See ikxi A\ ^t SiiSou gnay. 
Yew hok t 6ng chiii wat, goc Ick cheuk i ki pek 

lET ^ , "" ""^ '^"S '"'P ""f *^'»'«ff. ?»<» dy {^t «v 
'.vi<ri, ged khi c/<t"6 niJvh K„ "if any one were to 
tell your majt iren^th was sufficient 

to ift a hundred Kin, (or three thousand poiind>i 
[would yon believe bimj." Sec^ ^Beug-dioo. 






Vulg. MA. a (tork,aci««ew Hok scl^u 
J W* #«*"*, , fit, niade of 
stork's feathers. Abo wcitton /^ hoK 
Bfng h..k , hao yim, M^0« 1^ <^ |A ^ ;6^ 
1^- ^ ~r ^ ;^, *«''•' '•j' *»* '» eVfcftr ym, 
e ig ki'i kap e ho, the stork is screaming in the 
shade, and his younj one is aiuwerin; i^m. 

Jp^* The ancient form of ^ b^.k. .n 
1^1^ the name of ^ ^ . Hok -be. 

' £\f^ A turrtan). 

E h»k '^^ JJg ^ clothes, apparel Poi-y 

(\( •'^■'^ 11 !<.»*• •^••■.- »"nS hik 

■'< m p5..p«l kim 6 cWy ;fc flg ;f jij^ 

'«*'*#.» fi"" c«Sy #*. fi" A% •• 

T ,;. II Jt tmiu;. suiuble clothes prepared, we do 

not dare to sacriJice. See ^ J^ B5ng choo. 

V*w .oii tey cho6 hok kfi Ifl ^ A ^t TT m 

io*it*a*tiltt choo mXhdllt^tf,, 
when there is anything to do, cbil^en and nephews 




should 8ahj«et tliomsdvcs to J'le troiihlfl.' Spc the 
The wind {.spirit; inflnence j iostruction. 

■^t* .:•! !'■■ o; ,T..-' ; 

"I' _ -■ The wind {.spirit ; inflnenc 

Hong I W| "'- "s "^'uK iSk, ^ ?"* 

y^'^^Vi heat, or persoiu vicic 

. ctlstom. Beasts at 
persona viciously inclined, 
are said to be jSf boiig. Hong l^w^ ^ ■fl^ , 
renovating instruction. 
Yew hin chi't, put k'bo c hong 'i^^-^^ 

I likire- 'ii cold', ''I caflbot' go cm' wind. 




The name of a country. 

The face full and good looking ; also, 

The Dame of a sage. 

The ancient form of |^ hong. 


Hong se M '^ ^ poofV ciehew, the 
sycamore tree. Fable ssiys, that when 
the gum of the sycamore tree has becB ^ 
in the ground a thousand years, it becomes 
?M hofi pek, amber. 



Head ache, a pain in the bead ; ihh' 
.medical books «ay, Ihat when this 
pain is on the left side, it toriginates 
in phlegm and heat; and when on the right, it 
must be referred to inflammation and tii^ slate of 


the blood. 


The noise of water rushing atvng. 

Hong j 



Ian, a 

A vessel for containing anything •, one 
or the radicals. 

A part, a place j a rule, a law. V uig. 
jioo5"B"» a surname. Soo hong jj[| y^, 
s^Ae^.aUpatL. '"'SJ^'^, 

liy he^^S, a jJacc. Hong hwat ^; 
method. YiJak hong ^^j 4^0 
cinal receipt. , „. * > 

y6w p«ng choo wifl hong laf ^ J^^ ^ ^ 
~)S ^>'«'<'5p^ yew <''<'*' A"*"'"^ *'■**' '"'• having 
a friend coming from "i distance (is it not de- 
lightful?) Seethe J^ f^ Seaug lun. 
Kaoi cho6 c g£ houg |^ ^ )^ ^ ^, '-' <W 
Ae"a i jln ge ig he^S, we nust teach children 
by the rules of righteousness. 



To dislike, to iixjure. 


The name of a tree, of wbJch carriii- 
gea can b^ made. 

The name of a city op- village. Jiin 
gwat chae t<^Qng ying, seen i lek 
+jt , /on goiyh kSh tihtng ying, sein dji 
ch'kiia lek koiy po he"^, the iiitin ain y m^nlh 
falls again in the yWddle of s; lien the 

angel's charibt passes by the preciour district 

The n^me uf a sacrifice within door-. 
Also, a sacrifice repeated on the fol- 
lowing day i and a sacrifice to tjiei 

four quarter*. 


The eipanse of water 

Fragmnt herbs ; asweetsmclf. Hwun 
bong ^ 7# 3 fragrant odour. 






The peak of a hill. San hong ^J 

Hong ' ^.^ ^1^ 

Ko hong ban tijang jRj ^ ^ ^> 
kwSn iiy tv>"a Chabu che^d ban le"S, a lofty peak, 
ten thousand fathoms high. Also written 

jt^ Vulg. p'Aaig-' abee. Bit hong ^ 
)/£^ a honey bee. H6ng hong "^^ ^, 
wui"S p'hang, a wasp. Hoe t'hoc hong 
1^ gf ^ hoi I'kaSu p'hang, a hornet. 

Hong bin yew tok ^^ H ^ ^, "''"'"^ *^'' 
ttoo tok, the sting of a bee is poisonous. See the 

^ 1^ Ch6-tw5n. 

'^y^^ The same as the above. Chck j6w 
Hong^^ hongk'he ^il^^ji^' ^"•"'"^ 

J5^ ch'hin ched"S p'hang k'hi, thieves 
spring up as thick as bees. 

|L Y^ The point of a weapon, a sharp point. 
Hong ^^ T" hong J] ^^, Ihe point of a sword. 

the point and edge of a weapon. ^ -^ 

Hong-W^^^ The name of a river. 






^^w^ The name of a city, where ^ X lE 
l^J^lA Chew-bun-fliig removed to. A sur- 
J^P name. jj 'W 


J|.|4. Full, replete, great, arrived at maturity. 
V^^f A surname. E' m6 put hong bwan 
^Y^ - chea, put Ifing ko hwuy ^'^ ^ 

^ B It-. ^ H^ i^J ^ ' *'■' "' " ""^ 

nuij"d, cAew iey pwuy kaiu ktcdn, when the fea- 
thers and wings are not replete and full, it is 
impossible to fly high. 

Hongseng W Jg^, exuberant and full. Hong liifin 
W ^ lii tee's tang, a fruitful year. 

The name of an ancient man. 
written l8J bong. 



A signal fire lighted on the borders, 
to give notice of the approach of 
an enemy. Hong yeen k^ Jffl yeen 
tun, signal smoke. 


Vulg. hang: to warm at the fire, to 
toast, to roast. Hong Id ni 
hang 16, a furnace, a stove. 

^^.f-^ The name of a vegptable, the leaves 

of which are sweet, but the root 

Ch'hafe hong ch'hae hwuy, bo6 6 hay t'hey -^ 

If ^Ip. Il^ T ^. "" """^ "" """•" 

«'" /"AflDg- e iy hay I'hiy, in gathering the Hong 
and Hwuy vegetables, you must not Uke the bot- 

M'iiey hong. 

torn part. See the ^ 



A <nillopping horse ; the footsteps of 
a horsfc- J- -ij ^ #^"< ^ 

% ^ Great ; added to ; to promote to of- 

J?"!" iice. A snrnftmc. Hong wuy ^ |]Jf , 

"^ '^ to bestows rank. ' Hong sia ^ |^j 

hong p'hey, to close a letter, 

Hong keang che l^ae^ ^ ;^ ^,^ the border* 

of a territorial district. tnuJ-iid ^n-nv 


To beckon.; to strike. 

.. rj ■■ ;iil' J, 

.':.:rf a""H ^^riu%— 

Th< ( vcs dim. ^*-* 



l^ A bright colouK 

Overgrown with weeds, uncultivated, 
barren, unproductive; broad. Teen 

X I ^^ **'^ ''""S ''°'* ffl ^ % 1^' "^^ *''" 
l(w h&ui''S boi. the fields growing wild and cover- 
ed with underwood. Ke hong Mg W . yanu 
hu'ui"^, a famine. 

3 o 




Hong- ID'^^ The name of a hill. 



Hong hfing /Jt ^ agitated, undecid- 
ed. Hong hflng put I6ng k'hd yj 
1M ^ ib i ' "^ agitated as to be 

unable to proceed. Also written '|'^ hong. 

Hong lok ^ |#, emolument, pay of 



Hong /^tST office- Cheng pek kwan hong j^ ^ 

I ~|^ @ ^ *°* cAenff cfc6"d pfiyft 'ti£)''a 

<J3^ king lok, to increase the salaries of all the oflScers. 

. ^ To imitate, to learn. ilk siiang hSou 

Hong 4Wf h6ng f^^j^^ §i,y^^ ^^0 «" ''""« 
1^*^^ to learn of and imitate one another. 

The quicksilver that is manufactured 
'cinnabar. B6ng hong ^ |J^, 
great water, a wide expanse of 
^ ^ To imitate, to follow j to rely on ; to 

Hono" #»)v^ S° *" ' '''*^'""^'' *<'> 'et upon. Hong 

" /(yV e 15 j6 hSng, to win ^Jr ^J^ ^|j ^J 

4=f ^ jl^, t'hin i le ji ke"d, chey wd,n, to follow 

after gain in «11 °"'' actions is a source of 

great bickering. See the J^ |^ Seang iQn. 

.^'A^^^"— ^ f-ionp' nwui 


^ -, The quic 

4 >^\ * g""^*' 


Honsf ^ Af 

Hong- .iS^ 


To enquire, to ask, to visit. Hong 
bun =T» Bjj hong mooVS, to make 

To recite odes and music ; to hint at ; 
to ridicule. J6ng sSuk chok se, e 

jing chek cho ae i king ch'hi e, Jgng-seuk made 
poetry to ridicule him. 

To laugh out loud j also, a high mouth. 

J. Vi, Hong gin p)^ = , piyh ch'hat ua, 

Hono- ^t^V lies, deceitful words. Swat hong |^ 

P/|Li =S^ kang pilyh ch'hat, to tell a lie. 

Yulg. p'hang : to hold up in both hands, 
in order to present a thing. 




Hong hwut ^ ^ffi, undecided; to see 
a thing indistinctly. 


Hong hwut ^: ^ , the same as the 
above ; not to acertain exactly. 


The day beginning to be bright. 

ong hwut i| 


undecided, hesita- 

The threads of a net. Hong chek fcfe 
'^E^ p'hang chUyh, to spin thread. 



Hong fi 

To present, to give. Jlong sod 
to confer. 

Cold, ice. 

Hong _ 
H&ng ift 

Hong ttl*T* 


A form, a substance, appearance. 

A valuable stone, like a gem. 

Bright, luminous; broad, expansive. 
Kong hong ^ ^ ^ resplendent. 

A curtain, a screen. 

The name of a place, in the Jgl Loe 

A screen, or curtain •, also, a reading 




The same as |^ hong, to recite; also» 
to ridicule. 

Two boats sailing abreast. Two boats 
tied together. Stng hong hay kang 

kwan || jl^; "f p: M' '^'^ ""^ 
chUn, m Udng kwan, to sail in a double boat 
down to the pass on the river's side. 

^5 % ^ V u'g- P^"? •■ '** '^* S"' '** ^' loose ; 

Hon"' "J^X/ to give way to ; to allow ; to set 
,^^^y^ aside. Hong soo ^ N?: , to be dis- 
orderly. Hong sea ^ ^ , to do away with. 
Hong hoe teung Ifiw "^^V -|p- •?' J|£ , P'^"S '« 
teung la6u, to let go down the middle of. the 

H6ng long hftng hafi j^ j^ ^^ ^ ^ping ing 
fan liy hin soo, to give one's bodily powers- up 
to sloth and self-indulgence. 


Hong ^ 

To compare. To make a visit of en- 
q^uiry is calledo ^ /9 , la£ hong, 

MoreoTer. Hfl hong iS" iVt^'^'" "luch 
rather; Seng jln ek yew- k6, h6 hong 
hwin se4ng che piiiy hoe ^^ J\^ 

jtn y'ed koo koiy til, hi, hiing Itwdn $Hng it/ Idng, 
even sages bav& tbeic- eccors,. horn much more 
common people. 


To look at; also a. man's natoe. 

A charm, an incantation , a prayer. 
Siw loey Kwan cheng jit. leera hdng 

hA Ay lae, hwan i ho(y tei"^ Uk jit lai teem keng 
during the time of mourning the foreign priests- 
came every day to recite their iacantatiofis. 

To make presents for the service o9 
Hong ^*£i ^^^ ^**''» even to one's carriage and 






11^^ To present anything for the service 
of the dead. 

To give, to- present. L6 stn k'hong 
ek l)o6 hong fi^ -^ ^^'>j^ 

^K/\u ^,^^, '''"' *"* *^"" "^ ''' ^^' 
bd sing me^h, a woman bunging a basket, but 

without any present. 

A Elegant, great; a prince. H6ng tey 

1 'W ^ ^5 an Emperor Sam h6ng 
^^J^^ '^^ S. three fabulous- Emperors, 
said to have existed before the time of Noah. 
Chin-se-h6ng bwfln se k'heng J* ^ J^p ^^ 
^ -ffi- ^TL Ifrt . CMn-si-h6ng lio cKMyh, khai'V 
t'hak ch'hUyh ling, the first Emperor of the Chin 
dynasty burned the books and shut up the learned 
men in a pit (B. C. 200). AUo, ^ ^ H6ng- 
bo6, a double surname. 

A great belly, a large stomach. 

n6ng hdng Vh lS ^ agitated, in con- 

A fabulous bird. Hoag-hdng b€ng 
-(^ 1^ p3j , hung-h&ng til haiu, twa 
te htc&h liy kicdn iw"a, the (fabulous birds) 
Hong-b&ng are singing, on yonder loft; ridge. 
See the /!■» Ttt Seiou gn&y. 



^X^ Hong hflng ^ ^, hesitating, u 

I ^i tain. Bflng bflng T^ ^ , deli 

'"^ ting, 

Bofi-boe sek choo, j 6 keng k'hwa, Sey-choo hong 

hang j6 bod k.4r 1^ -ff- 1$ ^ jfjl ^ ^. ® 

•^ tfe fl iffi ^ ^ , ^•'t'^'" '*^"^ '"" i^ 

teo"^ ka ti ttcd, Sey-choi hdng hdng.ji ch'hin cheo'S 
b6 kay, the ugly Bo€-bo£ when ornamented would 
boast of her greatness; bat the handsome Sey- 




choo appeared in confusion as though belonging 
to no great family. 

A mother, according to the dialect of 
the southern ^ Ch'hoe, state. 

The cry of a littlb child. 

The name of a river. 

The sound of gems. 

A locust, an insect that devours the 
grain. T'heung hong wfly chae 

chae hae, insects and locusts are very injurious. 






A pool in which water collects. Gin 

^ gLi » tl>e milky way. 

To be deceived, to be alarmed, H6ng 
k'heuno- i0- ^^ , to be afraid. Keng 
hSno- ^ 4^ J te"a ke"*!, to tremble 

with fear. 

Seaou-kong ch'heung p6, pek seng hong jiiaou 

S S ^f ^ 1" ^4 'li S ' «'""'-'™«^ """ 

sdm pt) ge'ak, paifh siii^S ke''a he^S. Jedou IwSn, 
Seaou-kong was outrageously oppressive, till 
the people were alarmed and thrown into con- 

K'hwun hong ffi ^^ bright and 
luminous; clear. Tong bun che ying 
b^ng seng h6ng hong ^ f^ ^ 

f^ fi^ M 1^ j^ ^ '""» """"'"^ ^^ ^^"^ '^"'' 
b6ng cKhai^S kwui"S icwui^S ^ through the willow- 
tree at the eastern gate, the bright stars shine 
very clear. 

Hong- ^ 



The Jiame xjf p. bamboo very hard, 
and with short joints. 






^^g-^ Leisure; haste. Put h6ng hay sit ^ 
"\,^3 S0 nPrt ^^ J bS ing I'hang cheih, no 
leisure even to eat. 

The name of a place. Hew h6ng ho6 

W i^i i^ ' **"" "^""^ "^ ^ ^''^^' 

A boat, a vessel. Hwuy hong ^ j|g, 
a flying boat, i. e. swift. 

^ % - Vulg. wuf^! yellow, a yellow colour. 
A surname. H6ng keang Jff -^ ^ 
Kid"S keo^S, turmeric. 

Hong se4ng gwin kit ^ ^ 7C "w ^ '""'"^ 
yin, ched"^ twd ho, a yellow robe is in the highest 
degree lucky. See the ^ j^ Ek-keng. 

AmJ^ A pipe; a lute; the tongue of a flute. 
,j;^g^ Ch'huy seng koe hong \i/^ ^ ^ 

M^ f ^^ ch'hSey fhin p'hun hong, to blow 
the flute, and play upon the pipe. 

1?^^% The moat under a city wall ; a city 

Ur^r A great bell. 

The sound of bells and drums. Chiiung 
koe hong hong @ ^JcH Si , 
Cheng koe hdng hong, the bells and 
drums gave a rumbling sound. 

A boat, a vessel. P'he lim ho j6 boo 


cheo"^ lui kabu kdng, j£ bo chUn, it 
is like coming to a river, and not finding a boat. 

To fly down ; to dart down from a 

^^v^ A large king of wild goose. Hong 










A place of learning. 

H6ng Cheung ^ B^^ Kui"S ching, 
the jaundice, 

A hindrance; to injure; to impede. 
Sfly t'hae choo yung, soe pe ch'him 
hwuy, I'han wat, gno tae kak sin 

3j^ y^ ^^ ^ vjj ' '^^ ' *"^ "^"^ *^" ^^"5 

lak pat hoe Idng sai p'hwi hvcAy ping, eheie t'ho 
k'hwiLg kdng, gwd, twa kak hln sin woo hSng gai, 
the heir apparent to the state of Sfly, named 
Yung, was frequently slandered and reviled ; when 
he, sighing,^ exclaimed, I am fully aware that I 
am personally impeded. 

Bo6 hflng 'lllf: yjj } bo gae leSh, no impediment, 
no hindrance. 

'& , hdng d hi; the skate 



To ohstruct, to oppose, to forbid, to 
provide against. Tey hOng ||S Rfc 
to ohstruct. nOng pe jjy^" |^ /«<,'•«■ 
ti, fo provide against. Kwun choo 900 hw4n, 
kwun chio ICON'S katt Idn jt taS seng fio"^ ti, the 
good roan anticipates, evil, and provides against 
il. See the ^ (.W ^^ ^^„^ 
H6ng kirn p^ ^^ i„ 

'g- f^«S' to sew, to stitch ; a scam. 

To meet with, to befal, to come in 
contact with. Soo hoe kong k'heng, 
, ting hadu kong k'heng, boij^h g"ed 
eheih e dy i chi, \o wait for the princes and nobles, 
in order to meet their wishes and pleasure. See 
the ^ g ^ Chedn kok ch'hek. 



/ vft h. The name of a river. 

-v^ ^ Greati large, immense. To. enlarge. 
C r A surname. Jin 16ng hdng to A ^|^ 

>/ ^ ^A ^ ' 1^ fjf kdng ttctt e djf 15, 

people have it in their power to enlarge their way. 

See the 






^ Lun g6. 
Luxuriant herbage. Hdng hong ke bek. 

/»L Tt ^ ^ J *»« >ing e dy bdyh, 
how luxuriantly that wheat grows ! 
See the ^ j^ WoJy bong. 

Tall grass, long grass, not kept in order. 
A surname. 


Hdng song ^ =K > dishevelled' hair. 
Great, immense. Ch6ng lOn hflng ge, 

^A^ ^ t^ ^ q| . *»^» '«« *y ei '*«. 

X* • '"'^'y '"** magnanimous discourse and 




A thread, a string; the belt in which 
a cross bow is worn. 

The gate at the head of a lane. Ko 


kfi ban hflng ^ ^ |H J }^, ch'hong 
ktcdn e dy heo^S le moofS^ to raise 
higher the gate of the village. 

*" A kind of water plant ;^ grass and rushes 
growing in the water. 


Hfing" •^/TTl. '^^^ **™'' ** the above. 

\ V^ Great. Hflng s6y ji^ 4{, twa ch&y, 
HSng ^/JJ^ gfe*' ""t*'. a flood; Vulg. dng: a 




Seang seang h6ng siiy hong kit ^ ^ >Jt y^ 
n -#|Jj seang seang dy Iwa chiy loo too cKhong 
hae, when the overwhelming floods bagan first 
to cut ofF and destroy, (alluding to the great 
flood about the time of JVoah.) See the ^ ^ 
Geiou teen. 

H8ng [ 


A kind of flag. 

Vulg. dng: red. Hong bijen ^H ^, 
dng bin, a red face. A surface. 
Hong che put e wuy sijet hok i^i 
■^ >fi lyl ^ ^ HHj ^"^ cA<5e"ff bS Vekh e cho 
Dae k'hea dy yin ched"S^ he would not use red 
and vermilion colours for his private dress. Said 
of .Confucius, in the =m ^5. i,un ge. 

^ . Vulg, k''heng: a rainbow. Kwily ch'hun 

Hong' u/ t keen, beng tong hong ch6ng 

^^ pat been ^^'^j^^^^ 
gl ^ ^y ^, ch'hun boiy Wheng k'hi t'hadu hein 
tang t'haou k'heng k'ht"S u™ h'e^n, in the latter 
month of spring the rainbow appears, and in the 
iirst month of winter it retires and is not seen. 

H6ng J^ 

A half gem ; a kind of gem. T'hae 
kong leaou & wuy, tek geuk h6ng 

kong ted hi te way chUy, chew tit teSh geuk hong, 
T'hae-kong was angling in the waters of the Wuy, 
and fished up a gem. See the ^ |P So6 ke. 


ZKTh The lassels of a cap or crown, 

■^ _f- To receive from a superior ; to offer 

Hon"' "/y^ "Pi *o present, to nourish, Lin 

"l seang jg hSng p'hek jip chin ^ ^ 

fU ^^A.^, '''" '^""^ J^ ."^"S P'*ek Jip 
chin kok, Lin-spang-jij itarried -the gem .as, .a pres- 
ent into the Chiij jiflufllry. , See the ^ hP 

Sou ke. 

Hok 15 bong yang, be cheuk wuy Jiaou yea 

teSh bwd hong ydng pay boi, bS kaou swui"^ 
chb woo kaou, to labour for, and support our 
parents, is not enough to constitute filial piety. 
See the commentary of the \~ §a Seiing lun. 
Hong soo ;^ ^^ to serve. Hong kaou JjK ^S^' 
to receive instruction. 
Hong been -^ tfetj to offer up, to present. 


A fabulous bird, said to appear when 
sages spring up. A surname. Sun 
sS h5ng hdng la« gfi ^ ^^ ^ J^ 
^ 1™ sic dy si hong hong dy chedou lai ke^d 
Tiy gi, in the time of Sfln the lucky birds ap- 
peared to pay their ^compliment!) to him. 

Quicksilver, mercury ^ The same at 




A -sound or tfirumming in the ears. 

The sound of singing ; singing in a 
chorus. H5ng pheen ^ ,g^ to de- 

Hong lok '1^ jljSj emol-ument, salary^ 
also read >h6ng. Kong sun hong, hong 
^C J kong sun hong dy hong lok chin chae chey, 
Kong-sun-h6ng's emoluments were very great. 


Teiing tioo ^* j^ a yeoman, a full- 
grown man ; a husband. Tae-hoo|^V 
^ a great oBBcer. Hoo ch'iiey ' 
^ ^, ang chea, husband and wife. Pok heo 
1^ db, a se>rvant. Tam hoo iS 4^^ a carrier. 
Ma hoo ^ 4^, Hi/ ^oo^ an ostler, Hoo choo 
A. IJ- the designation of apbilososopher, gene- 
rally applied to' 'Confucius; a particle used at 
the beginning of d sentence. 








th'hoo che wuy tae teang boo jlfc !^ Ih ^ 
i TCj '^*^'*' '^ ^""^ **^ '""" ^^'"S 1*00, this is 
■what is called a truly great man. See '^ ^?' 
Beng choo. 
Teang hoo seng, j6 gwin wuy che yew sit dh 

ji tti kap e moo cWkod, when a man is grown up, 
it is desirable that lie should have a family. See 
^ ^ B5ng clioo. 

E t'hwat hok, hoo ch''hey hwan Tiok J^ B^h te 
• _ ^fe I — " I— 1 "^"^ ^^ '^^ 

7^^ 'X B ^ '■*'*^'' ''*«"« « '5.!' »o/f, «n^ poi 
hwdn bale, when the -carriage is deprived of its 
axlelree, husband and wife begin to turn their eyes 
from each other, ( i. e. when poverty comes in at 
the door, love flies out at the window. ) See the 
gs Ek keng. 

Boo hoo j^li J^^ a stone like a gemi 
also wrillen M^ hoo. 

Kay hoo j^jp 5^, -to .sit <ross legged, 
to sit large and fulL 

A kind of Ratchet. Put noe j£ Mn 
wu, e hoo wit :^^ ia i^ij ^ ^ 

ji^Pi^'^, «"■ ««* »•■"' *•>* lah, je 

pttgh sai'S ke"a Idn ty wixj/ hong, k'hih eh'hdm e 
hoo wal, -without being angry, the people yfiW 
respect our dignity more than they will dread axes 
and hatchets. 

A raft made of split bam1>oos; also, a 
drum-slick. To put hfing sPng hoo 

ta bey ke"A, lat pHyh cheo^S hoo, p'ho6 kiiij/ 
hae, our doctrines do not spread, lei us then mount 
a faft, and float over the sea. See the |- 
S(:ang lun. 

Kway hoo j6 fhoe, koe ^ |^. jfrj J;: ^ , 
cVhaou hoo, ji Choi koi, a straw drum slick and 
an earthenware drum. See the S& tP l,6y ke. 




The husk of grain.; coarse chaff. 

The husli of wlieal. 

To believe. <56 hfing Bfln Ong ban 
pang chok hoo '^ W\ w* IC ^ itjt 
^ ^ ^ gi liy herig htc'at Chan bUn 
ing ban pang At/ Idng chew sin lin, when in polite 
ceremonies and penal laws we imitate BQn-ong, 
aH nations wril believe us. 

Hoo +-3* Oo hoo ^ J^ a beautiful gem. 

'"* *■ To spread, to diffuse, to spread out. 


1 A. 

jr^ to arrange. Hoo j)oe Mr iW ^ to 
fX^ diffuse. K^ng hoo gnoc kaou ^T 1^ . 
■^f, ^ , **"? Aflo poi gnoi ICn ig kaoi, respect- 
fully to diffuse the five rules of instruction. 

"«>> ^\ a 

Sick, diseased. Gno pok hoo e 3fe 

The central part of a flower, the calyx; 
also written i^ hoo. 



'^ ^ /fH ^ , g^<> '9 Bf- i Pai'^, ^y 
servant is sick. See the jfe M Chew 

v«>s««k The caljx, or foot of a l«wcr. Tho 

Hoo i?i-r .. _ .. -^ ,^„. 

same as 


The 8k»in. P'h« hoo ^ ^ skin awl 
plc>>h ; also, elegant, and great. Hoo 
j6 g^ng che ^- ^P ^ ^1 , hoo 
p'hoiy ch'hin cheb"S ixen Hug Ay yhs, with a skiti 
as smooth as congealed ointment. See the ^ Wi 
Wiiiy hong. 

Ht)o >^>» 

Uoo l)6ng ;^ j^ ^ a net. Yew rhoe, 
wan wan, tc \& t hoo /^ ffli S^ ^ 

/^ «^ ~J~ ^ ' ""'" ^'"'^ "'"" """• 
t'hi key I& teiSng, there was a rabbit thereabouts, 




and lo ! a wild fowl was caught in the net. See 
the II ,ff Se keng. 

The same as the above; a net that turns 
on a wheel for catching birds and 
small beasts. 





A prisoner of war? one taken in battle. 
Hoo hek c£ ^(' , to take prisoner. 
Chfiy jIn lafi kwuy woey hoo ^ A 

^ ifif tw 'f? > "^^^ '"'^ ^•^ '""•'' '"^ '"^"^ '" '""'"^ 
wiiei/ kok it/ hoo, the people of the Ch6y country 

came to return the prisoners of the Wiiey country. 

A teacher; the name of an office. T'heen 
choo yew t'hae soo, t'hae hoo, t'ha^ 
p6, wfiy sara kong J^ I^ y^ -J^ 

&ii'. :A: fl- A 1^. S H ^^ *"«? % ^'So 

Chai soo, fhai hoo, I'hai p6, chd a"'a kong, the 

Emperor has a great teacher, a great instructor, 

and a great preserver, who are called the three 


Soo hoo EJU TO an instructor; a title of respect 

for a Buddhist priests 

Hoo jin 16 /f^l; Yn ^ , a kind of fruit. 

An elegant appellation for a man ; also, 
great; beginning ; all. Confucius was 
called ^1 ^k'hong hoo. 

To assist; the same as tfiffl ho«. 

To look down at, to bend downwards 
to behold those beneath us. Geang 
ch^uk 6 soo hoo bo^, hod, cheuk e 
heuk ch'hey choo >f(^ V,l )^j^ ^ ^ ^^/^ ^ 
y) ^ ^ Jp , <"« WM k'hw^h, ey kaoti h'ok sae 
fay boi, p'hak toh lai kei^S ey kaou yed"^ eh'he boi 
ke"d, on looking upwards we shall have sufficient 
where-with lo serve our parents, and on looking 

down, we shall have enough where- with to feed 

one's wife and children. See '3; 3^ Bens choo. 

inz. J " 

* Ju Like, resembling, accordant with. Ley 

Ho& '^ ^1 ga'k boo fbeen t5y che chgng ill ^ 

I Jr^ M ^ tli ^ tn ' '^^ ^"'' '^1 '^''''"'" 

ched"S I'hee"' ley dy ching, suitable ceremony and 
music are accordant to the feelings of Heaven and 
earth, (i. e. of nature). 

_ ^ -I. Hoo k'hoe IS* J^, a treasury. Chew 

Hoo Ia "I" boo ;j>j>j iKk a district, a colony. Ong 

/ J nJ hoo 4- Fjy- a palace. Kwau hoo "g 

P^ , kw^a hod, a magistrate or mandarin. 

Be yew hoo k'hoe cha£ hwuy k6 cha^ chija yea 

hoo k'hoe ay che&"S, a'" se e dy chee"" , there is 
no such thing as the money in a man's treasury, 
not heing his own nvoney. See -^ ^L Beng choo. 

To look down- wards; the same as |fl5 
Hoo '^^Q^ hoo. Also used for ^ been, to 
encourage, to exert. 




Hoo hwut |i|| PCj * '^''P "f dignity; 
hatchets and other weapons embroid- 
ered on a ruler's cap, to, inspire terror 
into his subjects.. 
> --^ A caldron without feet. E' ho6 cheng 

y^^^ ch'hwan ^X^^'^' ''*" '*'"" " 
V|/^.^ bok k'haou a chi^ to use pans and 
earthen pots in cooking. 

Cheet hod 3g pff a fortunate plant, 
spoken of in the time of ^fe geiou. 

Dried meat. Koe ch6w ch'he hoo put 

chitt), kay ch'he dy b3.h kw^a, u'" cheSh, 
wine bought in the shops, and dried meat brought 
in from the market, Confucius would not eat: 
(because be feared they might be unclean). See 

'^' tm wi ^°" s«- 




>j>A^ Ho6 k'hwuy ^ ja] a sacrificial ira- 

Hoo l-i:^ plement; a vessel for huldiog the fruils 

WTTf-, offered in sacrifice; used in the H 
chew dynasty. 

^ % To cherish, to soothe, to encourage, to 

I^QQ J ^^ljl i stroke; also read Bo». Hoo h^y seng 

^ ^ I k \ gi)6, hoe h£y keuk gno, ho6 gno, heuk 

s"o X ^ ^j-: 4iJ. # ^ ^ lie. ^ t ^ 

J|& , neS"^ pay tai"^ gwd, nei^^ Uy keuk.gwd, hod 
gtci, chhe gwi, my father begat me^ n>y mother 
sustained roe, cherished roe, and nourished me. 
See the fK 5^ Seaou gnay. 
Ho6 jo5 Ian bin iM '^ Ba & to cherish and 
soothe all the people. 

„-^C> A hatchet. Ho6 j\p »"> ^ A ;H^' 
Ho6 '^^^2^ P"" ''A^"" J'P c^'Aeio nd, the hatchet 
^r I enters the woods. 

K'hong Choo chok ch'hun ch'hew, yit joo che peea 
gefim^ 6 hoo wi. ^L ^ ff # I'C. " 4^ ^^ 
^ ^ >1^ fr f$ J *'AHn«- «Ao(i cAd ch'hHti ch'hew, 
chitji in pein t'hrk ling, k'iih geim t hod wal, when 
Confucius composed the Ch'hun-ch'bew (a history 
of his own life and tiroes) every character implying 
blame, was felt more severely than a hatchet. See 
">e ^ =1 So6 ke. 

Hoo \r A title of respect. 

Hod je 

•i- i Scholar. 

me"* t'hak eh'hiyh ling, a rotten 


The same as 



r hoo, a sacrificial iro- 






To heal, to strike; also the same as 
hod, to stroke, to soothe. 


ChSng hoo H^ U|f ^ the viscera, the 
intestines. Choo hofi choo ley, ji-ak 

<:hoo hoi iy chii Ky, cKhin eheo''S pak sim, the 
children and nephews of the princes should be like 
our lungs and viscera. See the ^ =P Soo ke. 
Vulg. ni«i''a; rotten, decayed. Hoo 

ch'ho hwk way «ng u^ f: <!: n 

^ J niB^S cKhaiu hwi cM hoiy h)m 
ch'hai"^, decayed vegetables produce fire flies. 

3 « 

pod: rich, afflnedt, abundant. 
j^- wealthy. A surname ; also written ^| 

Idt/ hod. 

Kwu, 55 hod « chew kong ^^'^'^^Z^. 
kwity te k'hih pod i chew kong, Kwuy-se was richer 
than Chew-kong. Sec the "^,|^ =:E Lan ge. 
Hod y^w t'heen hay, j« put oheak c kae yew 

fkee''S ayji bi kaiu i kdy hwin 16, he was so wealthy 
as to possess the whole Empire, and yet this was 
«ot sufficient to dissipate his sorrow. See 3f 31 
Beog chod. 

J %^ "^^ g'»«. ■»<» give over, to deliver into 
Hoo /l~^r «ny one's hands. Hod Ihok >|ij- if- 
I >| '" give in charge. Mac hoo W A-^ 
to betray. 
Jeak k'hd hod chek k£ ptrt^M, j« he«a cha« put 

yk. 7^ ' cKhin cheo''S iy hoi I'kok, chek ka U u" 
tiSk bwi, jt gain iy chat leaou bey fi"* kei'^, if 
we caa entrust any one with the charge, then wr " 
ourselves shall not be trouliled, and clever talents 
•will not be lost. Said by Confucius. 

f^ ^|> To cxa^tt to require, to diffuse. Kdng 
Ho6 L||L1 boo ^'^, taxes, revenue. Peng hod 
^V^ V ^ \\^' miniary levies. Se hod |^ 
Bpr J a diffuse, loose poem': a ditty. Pin bod jlf 
^, to receive. 
Seng chei, jin sey pin hod h t'hiien yea (kt ^* 

hod 6 t'hee^S, nature is that which men have received 
from Heaven. 

Hoo Ayt 

The same as Tn" hod, to givt over. — 




k'hi, pit te 
throw anyU. 


go and 

To lie down, to throw down, to throw 

Ho6 ^ r^ ^'"^" ^^^'■' ^''" written ^ hoo. YiJuk 

. chSang hod che, pit ko ke che J^J^ 1^ 

II"* ^ »it ft J^ l!^ » "^ *''^^'' ***' '"^'''' '^'' 
k'hi, pit tellh km ki k'hUh kwdn, if you want to 

throw anything down flat, you raust lift it up high. 

To go to, to visit. Hod he ^ j^, 

HoO '"t 1"^ *" SO to market. Hod tek seaug tod 

^ ft I^B 11' *"" '^'' ''" ^^^^' '° 
go and fight with the enemy. 

To inform; to inform of the decease 
l^^ of any one. HwSn choo ho6 tdng, beng 

eng, chek hod 6 l^o j^ ^^ i^ [t^ 
0/^ ^ gi] 5U lyi J^, hwin choo hoi lAng bins 
kabu si, chek leSh A^W kap e kong, all the princes of 
the Empire that were of the same confederacy, 
on the demise of any one, informed ona another 
of it. See the ^ ^ Cho, twan. 
■-r^ Yulg. ehing: to cover, to overspread. 
Ho6 ^^a '^'^'^"'^ "^^ '^^ *"'"' *^* '^*"' '^^ "''^^ 

t'he/'S d]l siy k-hing, ley iy siy chai, whatever 
the HeaveR overspreads, or the earth sustains. See 
the FJI ^ TSung yanff. 

To assist, to second, ta help, to abet. 
Hod je ^ij ^, an assistant. 

Hwfln hed P^ p|^ , *'«'^« *»•' *" order, 
to enjoin, to insist upon, to give, 
any one- charge. 

To hold, to sustain, to hold up, to 

assist. A surname. Hodk'he^^^^ 

to lift up. 

Gwuy jSput te, tefin j6 put hod, chek chijang 

yeen yOng pe seang d j^] j|jj i;^ |^- Ijl^ tfj] 

ji b6 U gtm, tUn to ji b6 ho6 k'hi, chek cheang 
an chw"a yang e chd se^Hg, if a man does not 
sustaia his prince, when in danger, not in his 



overthrow uphold him, of what use will be he 
as his minister. See the ^ |^ LQn g£. 

A particle, implying wonder or enquiry. 
Choo chae ch'hwan seang wat, se 
_ chea jS soo hod ^ ^_E )|| Jl Q 
5te. ^- Jjn _i|T ^^ hoo choo le ch&y ting kong,. 
e koiy k-U kaou an niy saf'S ho6, when Confucius 
was upon ( the banks of) a stream, he exclaimed, 
how incessantly, does, it flow '. 
Lun ge. 

S« the 1^ |E 


Hod yQng ^ ^ , the name of a 
plant, the marsh mallow. 




►*f- A cheque. Hod hap |^t ^, the two, 
parlsof a cheqjue put together. Hod 
s5 f^- ^ , a chiirm. Hwa hod ^ 
jXt to write chiirms. A surname. 
' ' 'jtek che hdng h*)S teung kok, ji;ak hap hod cheet 

'# t^ tf f - t P^^ tt i ' «' '*^'' 
gwdn dy Sim chi, chew iy fte"4 I hong leung kok. 

ch'hin cheats hap hou cheet, '.Ulaining my wish. 
I should he able to travel through the whole 
of China, (and find conespondeul feeliflgs,) like 
uniting the two parts of a cheque. See^,^ 
Beng chod- 

Hod sedn ^ ^^ a centaia water insect 
which never separates from its ofl- 
spring; so that if you take the one, 
you are sure to get the other ;; hence foolish people 
rub some of the bloxid of insect oa various, 
pieces of money, oae of which being kept in 
the till, and others put into cirt- uktion, the one 
is sure to bring all the others back to it. 

Yulg. pod: to float on the surface of 
the water. Hod had j6 ydw •j'^I j^ 

ifil ^k. P"" '^ ^"^ •'^ '**' '*''^ *" 
float and sport on the bosom of the deep. 

> A wild duck, a water fowl. Hod e 

^^^ chad keng Mi WXi.W ,"'' *"^ 
n L chiy cheaiu twa te keng ch^y^ ducks 





and wUd fowl upoa the Keng waters. See the 

■fi^ ^ Tae gniy. 




i^tjiy Ho6 j6w ^ ijl , aa insect, a kind 
of grasshopper. 

Ho6 6 ^ g , a. kind of medirinal 








A drum-atick i a stick for beating any- 
thing. Cho chipp^, yew chip hod 
j6 ko6, ma yit put IPng che A- 

td ch'hiw gtm pi, che'"A cKhtiv gim ho6, ji p'hih 
kot, bijf chew chadu bey hSph, holding the bridle 
in the left hand, and the drum-stick in the 
right, if we heat the drum, the hor.<e will gallop 
oflT without stopping. See the j^ ^S Cho twan. 

P^^J« To blow out the breath; to-order, 
I Vl to enjoin ; also read hoo. 

A^ great wind, a wind coming down 
friJin a. height. 'js^ 

^^^mm The name of a plant ; also called' ^ 
yt — T* H ^ , kwify bok ch'ho, de»ils eye 

The name of a river, and. of. • district. 

White clothes clesin and new. 

Hod song jjk ^ y. a. kindi of super- 
natural roullicrxy tree that grows on 
"\| the cast of the ^ ^i ^ K'bwun LfUi 
bill towards Ihe sun rising ; hence the curomoa 
exf ressiuu, that the sun rises at i4l iA Uod Song. 

1^ To help, to assist, to aid, to lecond « 
also, the cheeks. Chew kong ke'ep 
hod sfing 6ng ^ ^ J^ ^ ^ 









^ ^ chew kong hoS chin ting dng, Cbew-konf: 
sustained and assisted S6ng-6ng. See the ^ IP 
So6 ki. 

E' yew hoo jin ^J^ j^ ^ {^ , t ping j/iui hod 
choi jin tek, we should have friends that will 
assist OS in virtue. 

See the gfi 

=S. l^Qn ee. 
PD ° 

^"^ Vulg. n'eo"S pajf! a father. Hoo boe 

"Nr ^ ^ > ^"^ *"*' '"'''"' *""* mother. 

^^^^^^ Hoo boe wflj k£ chit che yew A/ 

^ 1(^ ^ ^ ;^ ^ > paj' boi tok Ae"a haou 
sai"S woo pai"^ &y hvin Id, parent's only anxiety 
is lest their children should be sick. See the 

Ira In ^'='"6 'On- 
^ ^^ Vulg. p»S: to sit on eggs,, as a bird." 

/Y'K^ Heung key ho5 choo ^ ^ (|t ^, 
1/ V. key kak pod k'e^i, a. cock is said to 
have once sat on fowl') egg*. 

Soo hoo Pfp ■ffi, a teacher, the name 
of an office. Tulg. pots a sorname. 
Hoo hiiey yu. @ a constrained com- 

Tbe same as mu hod, a woman. Li hoo 
^P* ICH ' ^ common appellalioa for 

t To carry on the back or shoulders; to 
bear, to Mistain \ to turn the back upon., 
Vulg. yang: to carry pick-a-back. 
Pan pik. ohea put hoo U6 A to loe « ^ ^ 

^ ^ ^ «? ^ 'T' 5^ ^' "" '""' "*** 

iy ling, b6 ged ke"^ mrf"* li li loi, men half grey 
would not then have to carry, burthens in the 
roads. See ^^ B£ng cho&. 

Utio choo i^ ^> *" '""• ^* ''■'^'' *'° °"*'* 

Assisting aiding. Hoo "•* ^ ,V^ , 
the name of an office, given to one 
who marries a princess. 
To rely on, to lean upon ; elegant ; 
to add, to increase. San huo £ tey 
fl) jSf;^ ^ ^, «»"« ted ti tey, the 
hills rest upon the ground. 

1 1 




Hoo jOng p^ ^ , an inferioi stale ^ef^nding 
on a superior one. v..-- is li'ii; (v-im!i "i. 

K6w jei wfly che che leein je hoo ek che 

»«^ '^ m t, ^ 1 #. itn IHt ^ :^ . ^■^"' 

j/ed Chey e k'lieiih s'eey, j6 fhSem e k'Mh chey, 
K6w gathered the taxes for him, ^nd thus in- 

creased his wealth. See the 

t^ tS. Lu 

,un ge. 


f j»i 

To asociate in sacrifking i. e. to place 
the memorial tablet of one's imme- 
diate parent with these of remote 
"ancestors, and to sacrifice to them alike ; also, 
to bury together, to put in the same grave. 

A wide grassy plain; full, luxuriant. 
Soo hoo ^ B , sue hoo, a master 
workman, one who is clever at his 






Vulg. cha hoe: a woman, a female, a 

married woman. Sit hoo -Jig, ^ , 

sim poo, a. daughter-in-law; a son's wife. 

E' sun wuy cheng che4, ch'heep hoo che to ye^ 

•'■"' ledng cho Cheng keng «e sdy & tha boe ay to le, to 
consider obedience as the point of perfection, is 
V =the' highest dttty of concubines and women. See 
■'^'^ 'Bt ^ Beng choo. 

,<<, To assist people on funeral occasions; 
to contribute jnoney towards burying 
the dead. 
K'hong'choo g5 k5w kwan jin che song, se4ng fhwat 

ch'ham e hoo che IL ^ j§ HH A^ ^ 

# E H Ji^ W ^ ' ^''""^ "'"'' '"" ''"* *'' 

kwdn sei dy ling woo se"S h&, bat Chaou biy i hod e, 
Confucius meeting with an old host of his, in 
mourning, toxjk one of the horses out of his car- 
riage, and sold it to assist him in burying his 

A small fresh water' fish. 

iiiiiig -j':! .■■"i(il id-)! r.Wu'i 

Toe hoo ^ iS, tfloa Ml a jelly-like 
preparation from pulse, very much 
eaten by the Chinese. 

Read bo6y , a match-maker ; a go-be- ( I 
tween to make up matrimonial con- 
nections. Boey jin Wi J\^> M™ l&ng, 

a mediator in marriages. 

Kim sek che h6 sek h6y, gnio tok boi5 ch'hoo 

leang bo6y ^ ^ Z {^l ^ ''^ • f^" ^ ^ 
19j ^ ^ ' '»* ""^'"^ ftioai"*" se hi mafS gwa 
tok bo chiy Uy ho hit'" ling, this evening is a lucky 
evening, but alas! I have n<il .gota good match- 
maker; ( in order to get married ). 

Read maofl.: long grass used in thatch- 
Hu*^ _^3^^ ing. Ma8u ok ^ j^, W"* ocft'Aoo, 
jn thatched cottage. 

To cut, t« .split,,,, ., 

!i! ; iii'o[ii3 nl 

Hwa >i^ A fl 

ower ; also read hw4, which see. 



A she goat with horns. 

The bone« on the sides of the legs, 
are called ^ ^ hwa cheuk. 


The naked body. 

Cho hwa 5^ 11^ , to create. Cho boo 
wfly yew, hwa yew wuy bo6, wuy cbe 

4lff -H ;^ to! fll, , '^'^''^ '^'''^"^ ""'" ^""^ ""'° ^* 
che"d bi kong ked cho hwH, to make something 
otit »f nothing and to connect something into 
iiothing, is called to -create and annihilate; also 
written ^ hwa. V.'"' V-'^ ''"' ■ . w 




Peeo bwa ^ /fl^ to change, to convert, to reform. 
Kaou hna ^(f 'fK, to iostroct, to teach; instruc- 
tion, philosophy. 
^- _1, Ji^ -A- flower, the blossoms of trees and 
HwS J^^^ plants. A surname. Hwi yew ch'heng 

'■■:■ ' „, I ii^ beang, gwat y6w yim i^ ^ "Ifl ^• 
H /H 11^ hwi. wuo cKheng p'hang f;oiyhwoo yim, 
flowers have a pure fragrance, and the moon shews 
a pleasing shade. 

J^[a^ Hwi eng ^ j|^^ flowers and blossoms 
The same as the above. 


Swan hw4 fg 

teung hw4 

to make a noise, 
to make an uproar ; the noise of 
many people talking together. 

The same a»^ hw4, a flower, flowery. 
Hw4 hay ffi ^ the flowery summer, 
another name for China ; also called, 

lb ^^ the middle flower. A surname. 


w& l£w m& 

A kind of spade. 


a very fine 

TO /2l 

Vulg. wi: to paint, to describe, to 
draw, to draw a tine, a stroke; also 
written Pj hwa. 
Iliipy hwa che «o6 hoe soi kong 
^ }^ i^- jHJj, hoey wa iy too tky uqu toi pdyk 
iy kang, the business of painting comes after 
tbe trouble of forming the ground. 
% ^ Vulp. wS: discourse, language, talk. 

Hwa ^lT ^^"^ '"*" H^ ^i^'***"^ "'"■ '" 'a"*' 

P (3 to discourse. Tflng hwa 0- jj^ , 
tfS wS, the Chinese langunge. 
Boc rhuk yit kwan sc, hijcy i j< kay hwa ^^ 

fhak chil pin ch'h.dyh, kaou hiiiy e iy ^, ch'hin 

eheo^S kong ho wa, in the evening when we peruse 
I a book, as soon as we understand its meaning, 
it is like holding an elegant conversation. 

/^« hadu, to call and bawl out alond. 

%J|J" A cage or trap for confining wild beasts. 
Hwa ^|H!t\ K'he j6 lap choo koe hwa, ham cheng 

>|j5^ che.eungllflnlJ^IJf^Mi.ll 
|St y Ub *w"a ji lap te kot wa, ham chaV^ iy 

long ^S, to drive on and entrap in some net or 

cage, or in the middle of some pit-fall. See the 

ffj f^{ Teung yflng. 

^r* t k- ^ Read hwan : to be pleased. Hwan he 


^ g, *ic''a hi, to be delighted. 
Cb'hwat seuk yim suy, chin k£ hwan 

ckiy, chtn e iy hw^a hi, even when quaffing pre- 
parations of pulse and drinking water, be ei- 
perieoccs the utmost delight. See the j}9 ^P 
L6y Ke. 

^ % an ^*"' ■''*" ' ^ ""'* '"y"*'"? between 

jFfu)**fl Jl^l ""* hands, in order to wash it clean. 

by the hand. 

Road tan: the clear day, late in the 
morning. B«ng tin ^ H^ btn A^'a 
jil, tomorrow. Btn hw^i, by and bye. 

Read htng: across, athwart, lying 
crossways, tranavcrse. Cheung hfing 

^L ^ ' ' *^" *"'"^' ■'•>w»''t, trans- 

Kt hCng gek yAw se ye&, kwun cbo6 pit choo 
hwin yei it ^^ 5^^ f) )}: t. J^ =^ ,^ 

^ !^ ill ' " ^•i' *""' **** **' «" "''* ^^^^^ 
kwun rhu6 pit ka te hwin ygi, when these cross 

and perverse things still continue the same, the 

good roan will turn in and rtflecl upon himself. 

See "^ 3^ Beng-cho6. 




Read k$ng: a stalk or stem. E kSag 
^ ^ , oe »«)"iJ, the stalk of the 
arum, a plant with a large leaf and 
f>»fA ■ edible root, growing in marshy places. 

% *,^» Read hgng i a cross-beam. Ok hgng 

llw^d ^^y*r ^ ij>(T , cA'Aod Ato"<l, the cross beam 

" I "^ of a house. 

Hw4n se h6ag seang boA he6n e S ^B i?T 

h M Sftf :fe , «A to>i''S k'hw^i. hu,"d Cheops 

— ^-» 4ttk 'lit* V^ -^ 

M teaou i!y '"a, turning round he saw that there 
were no clothes hanging upon the cross-beam 
to dry. 

Read gan; a bank, an embankment. 



Kang gan yH )^ , king hv^a., the 

^ ' \ bank of a river. T«!6n gan ffl ^, 

ch^hAn hw^S, a raised bank between the paddy 
fields, used both for retaining the water, and 
as a path way. 
^ ^ Read kn: to stop, to hoM' back, to 
Hw^S I' /i« '^y the hand on, to lean. 'An ke 
^ ,5s ^ |)J , hw^a chah, to stop, to 
prevent incursions. 
M6-sOy kn kSem lek kae j6 seang ^T j^ |'^ 

^'I ^ 1^ ]fn _t, ^'^•»"i' *«•"" f'^^"' l-^^H 
glm kayjt cheo''S, Md-suy, leaning on his sword, 

crossed the steps and ascended ( the hail ). 

Hwae W^^^rn Slanting, devious; incorrect^ 

The doise of water dashing ahuiit. 

The name of a tree, the hark of 
which is used for making t<>w-r<ipes. 

To hide, to conceal under the arm. 
i|^^{lg _Sf|f2» K£ yew hek chea, hwa£ k£ hek 

woo hwut, leSh A*Wff e iy htoul, when Ihi-re are 



any stones (in the fruit), we must hide the 
stones. See the rf^ ffi® K'heuk 16y. 

To think, to imagine, to conceive 
in the mind, to hide in the bosom, 
A surname. 


Sim hwaS 


the bosom. Hwa£ leem iN 



»^ to reflect upon. 

Kwun choo hwag tek, sea6n Jtn hwafi t'ho6 ^ 

-f ti ^^" '!> A ll ± . *"""» «*»'' '^""^ 
tek, siy &y l&ng sea^S I'hoi, the good man thinks 
on virtue, the worthless man thinks of the earth. 
See the =^ Lun ge. 

The name of a river. Ilwai'kang .^^ 
W T J one of the principal rivers ol 

The name of a tree, having a large 
black leaf, and bearing an edible 
G»4n-liSng-paou se hwa€, t'heng sijDng k6 hay 

paou chiHg hwai ch'hew, t'he''a t'eung, IS ijf Ar'Aa,, 
Gw&n-h^ng-paou planted a At*a£ tree,, and hearjd. 
law-suits, under its shade. 

Yulg. k'heep: to be destroyed, to be- 
■iXSt. corrupted, to spoil; degenerated, 
Pae hwae ||^ J^ ^ p'h&h k'heep, to_ destroy. 
Hwae heng i^ ^ r , corrupt conduct. 
K'hong-choo ko wat, t'had san kS- Uifiy hoe, 
leang bik k6 hwaS hoe ^l ^ ^^ B. # |1| 
^- P ^. ^- ;fc :tt if f-, lCf,6.g-cho6. 
ch'hed"S kwa king, I'hie tm''a e Sy pang hoe, 
tiei"' ch'hd e ey k'liSep hoe, Confucius chanting 
a ditty said, the great hill will lall, the prin- 
cipal beam will break: — (alluding to bis own 
expected decease ). 

Read hat: to bawl. Hat tai seng 

out loud. 







K'heiing hat choo ho«, e kftw kat ley f^ ^ 

^ ^ iii -^ W'j M!i ' (fAgiinff hwih choo hoi, 
iiua ,!o 6 *^ ktBdh ley, they terrified and scolded the 

princes of the Empire, ia order tu get them to 
i".i) I* swrrender part of their territory. See the |dfe 

^ ^ Cbeea kok ch!hek. 

Read k'hwuy : a step, a stride. Kwun 
cliod k'hwuy poe, jg put lidng € hadu 

^ }^ , kwua choo chit haih poi, ji fl™ bey ki tit 
woo haoit, the good man at every single step, never 
forgets the dulieit. of filial piety. 



Read k'hwa: to stride, to straddle. 

K'hwa ko k he j^ ^ -^ j *«•«* 

fciiii/ k'hi, to stride across, to step over. 

Ch'hoo hwuy sey k'hwa hae lijey, chd choo 

ho« Che ,ut yea 1^^ # f^^^M^U^ 

"^ ^ t/& ■^.' '''*» '^9 ""^ '* *** *"'^* *"* 
lae, chi choo hot iy hwat tul, this is not what 

may be called a proper plan for straddling over 

all within the four seas, and managing the princes 

of the Empire. 

V.nlg. **"<».• ttt delight in, to be 
pleased. Hwan htk ij^ -g. , »»"■ 
hi, to lie glad. 
Him be hwan ad. gak che kwan yea fj^ ^ 
^ '^ 1^ /' 'g* ^ , Wm »« *»>"« ai, $e chok 
gale ay kwan y'id, delight, pleasure, joy, and 
love, are the principles of music. See the jj^ 
^ IE I-ey gik Vi. Also written, +^ hwan. 
Hap hwan ^ ^V ^ united joy, the name of a 

The name of a horse « a gentle, well- 
tamed horse; also, to delight in. 
The people under the governrornt 
of a de<ipot, are said to he — hwan gfi j< ye4 
^ tfc , Abi"<i ht Ay ieS'V, as it were 

well pleased, for the moment. See xr -X- 



Hwan :^ 


To make a noise and bother. Hwan' 
hoe 3m [)*. , to make a clamour. 

The next in order, and quality ; a time, 
, a turn; to change ; foreign, outlandish. 
Yit hwaoj— * ^S- chit pat, once, oof 
time, for once. 

Hwanjtn & A , htan Idng,. or hwan i, mfor' 
eigner, one of another country. 

Hwan put j? I6ng ^ ^ ^p ^ , *<»'™ *«y 
ch'hin ch'io^ t^^, foreign things are not so good, 
as Chinese. 

Hwan I 




\ ..^ A cloth for wiping anything; also, a 
Ijl /fv ^ kindoffiag. When 1^ ^ Paou- 
I |Xf swan was in prison, his disciple, 
3* fj^ <^"g-»*''g> — ^^ hwan yeuk kew Swan 
J^ ijl^ ^ ;f^ 'O . mh k'ht hwan M, ai bStyh 
ktm Swan, raised a Bag (as a signal ), desiring to 
save his master. 

The sam*as;SRp hwan;a turn, atime; 
also, to. collect. 

Vulg. p'hun: the water in which rice 
is washed, and which is used for 
feeding pigs. — Vulg. p'kw''a, asar- 




p„m A flag, a standard. Hwan k 6 

a signal flag. Lip ch'heiig hwan 

if ra iM' '** **' "'* '" azure 

Great waves, billows. 

To fly, to arrive at, to reach ; also, 
to return. Chijilng ne&ou p'hiien 

'"»" J^ % Wi i^' ''"^'^"S '***'" 
III pwuy, all the birds were flying about. 





A cem'ttiry, i baria! place. Chut che 
long kok, hwan kan che chey chija 

swiih hoiy kabu tang kok, hwan kan dy chit/ ty 
Idng, he finally proceeded to the eastern suburbs, 
to where the people were sacrifising among the 

T"^?S2L ^^^^ ^ ^ ^' * beaatiful gem. 
Hwan |!^!H* Confucius said. Be chae hwan & 
*^ff| H ^ J# fH , «2i' chae *»«» i 
Ay geuk, how beautiful is the hwan i gem. 

Hwan k'hey J^ V^, the name of a 



stream, where -4^ /^ T'ha^-kong 
used to angle. 

Anything burnt in the fire; the fire 
burning anything. 

Sacrificial flesh. Hwan jeuk put che, 
put fhwat I)e6n jg hfing |1^ ^^ ^ 

u" kaou chew, u'" I'hiy bo jS ke^d, when the 
sacrificial flesh was not duly provided, Con- 
fucius departed without even taking off his 
cap of cflice. See the "Ts ^^ Hay beng. 

White rice. 

^P^ I'" make a clamour and noise ; the 

Hwan r* '^Sl same as :^ hwan. Se seuk che koe, 

j-*^ y£w boo j€, hwan hwan je£n, put te 

kC. wuy hwuy yea ^ \^ ^ '^^ ^ ^ f§^ P^ 

If ^. ^ ^P ^-L- ii # ^ ' *^ *'"* ^^ 
kaou, ch'hin cheo^S chh'ai"S mafS dy I'hdk 

ch'hSyh ling, ch'hUy chap chap king, ji u"' chae 
e cho u'" leSh, the current of this world's man- 
ners, is like a blind scholar, who babbles away 
and does not know that he is in the wrong. 

Lv-|i^ To kindle a fire ; also, the name of 

Hwan *n* 

an onice. 

To return; again ; to rebel, rebellious. 


an iNf Hwan hok Jf^ ^j again and again. 

/^^- Hwan Iwan ^ ^1 ^ to rebel, and 
create confusion. tit mian<( 

Tin-sin 8o6 jin ong keen Teang-j6, soo chea 

gnoehwan[f f§^X<'it^:^.i^ 
/^ 5. IX' ^'^""*'" *"* '^"S ^"S ''««"^ reo"?- 
ji, sae dy ling goe dy tooi"^. Tin-sin, sent some 
persons to get an interview with Teang-jc, when 
the messengers had to go and come five times. 

yfCT Dii 

H„4„ j)j^ ^ 

sobedient, refractory ; the same as 
the foregoing. 




An uneven field. 

P'ho-hwan ^ W ^ the name of a 

To eat, to eat rice. Hwan soe soo 
yim suy f^ Ift ^ |^ yf^, cheih 
ch'hoe pooVS Urn chiiy, to fat coarse 

rice, and drink water. See the ffi 

|p Lun ge. 

^ _ Vulg. toot"S : to return, to come back. 
Ixf O'ng chea put hwan p^ ^' ^ ^, 

J'^^ k'hi dy Idng b6 tooi^, those who 


went did not return. 
^^ » a^ Bright, shining. Hwin hoe kfi y^w 

Hwan ffj& buncheangj^:^ |t;^^^, 

/\/^^ hwui^S hoe e dy woo bUn cheo^, 

bow brilliant was their literature. See the 

^ Lun ge. 

Hwan JAl^ 


Great, beautiful, illustrious, 
hwan vijen gp "^ .Q. 3 
beautiful and illustrious ! 

Be chae 
% , how 

To call. Hoe hwan P^ ||^^ to call 

»^ To call. Hoe hwan \if |^^ to call 

Hwan PRff a'""*!- Ke hwan put lafi )L P^ 

^Xv. ^ ^ ^ *" *''" '"*» ^^ called him. 

but he would not come. 




To float, to flow, to overflaw. Hdng 
suy hdng I6w, hwan lam € t'heen haj 

twa chay hw"a laSu, hwin lam IS t'he^S at/, the 
great flood flowed out of its course, and over- 
wbelined Ihe Empire. 

\ ^-ttf To overflow, to inundate ; to float 
Hwttn / I ▼ about; tbe same as the preceding. 
)!j ':• f V-iA Hwan lam S teung kok ^(J ygt j^^ 
yp Irj^ , h»iln Urn le Hang kok, inundating the 
middle country. See ■3: -^ Beng-choo. 
Hwin hoe jcak put hey cbe chewSP ^ -t- 
7^ '^"^ ^ , P'*"^ P'^oi <^*'*'« Cheops b6 
pa:; iy rhAn, floaliog about like a boat that is 
not fastened. 

H»»„ ^ 


To float, to flow, to overflow ; the 
same as the preceding ; also written 
<W hwin, to flow over. Also, a 

Vulg. 10"^ : to change, to exchange, 
to barter. Hwan kwut hd s£ hwin 

kwut te tt ig i""^! when will these vulgar bones 
of mine be changed ? — (alluding to the trans- 
migration of Souls from vulgar to ethereal 

1* J^^ The sparkling of a gem. 
Hwan JTJ^ as 'J^ hwan. bright. 

The same 

To treat lightly, to it^wtomn. 

Hwan IJ'JSL D 


the happy medium. 

jspcrsrd, loose, Kattored. 


_^m 10 sun 

Hwan *!• T-» also, 

"^C^^^ Che j 

To buy ) to deal, to trade. O'ng pok 
hwin "^^^ ^t^M,, k'hi pak 
j^'^/'^ ^ »^ *^jr hiy, to go to the north, in 
order to buy horses. 

W^ _ _- To change ; to tric'k. Peen hwan ^ 
Hwan j^ t ^1 , artful changes, deceptions. 
^ Bong hwko ^t XH j dreams and 
visions of the night. 

To surround, to encircle, to environ; 
agem, a ring. Hn&n j€ kong 

6 put sin :^ [fjj xjc :t i!u 

"^ J^ , hvdn jHou kong p^hSk e, jS iey ^£"4, 
to surround and bcieige a place without master'^ 
ing it See 3r ■^ Bcng-cho6. 

m MA Intelligent, clever, cunning; advanta- 
Hwan ^ ' ^—^ geous. Yip gno, wOy gno hw4n biy 

ckok jfip, kei gvi gaSu, they bow to me, con- 
sidering me clever. See the fJ ^ Se keng. 

Artny ^ '^'"^* * '"■*'*• ^'"' i"^" ^ ^> 

Hwan ^h"|r» * golden ring. Sew hw4n ^ ^> 
^rJ^^^ (h'hiw cki, a finger-ring. Je hwfto 

. Round ; a circle; to encircle, lo 

Hw£n I'^T' 

Hw4n jcaou 


E jIn wfly ke, hwan chea teung kwujr, hong chea 

^ l|l ^ , ch'kea Jy litig chA ch'hea, rf»ff iy 
leAng kwuy, ti kak ig teung ki, the wheelwrights 
in making carls, form the circlet by a compass, 
and the squares by a rule. 


A Wall round a market. 

3 s 

The territory assigned to an Emperor, 
Hwan - r^ as his peculiar domain. Hw&d (■■ 

y^r^ ^^f*^" oniveWB.^ .^\^ 

. ;inM ■jvit. 






Vulg. tooi"^: to retire, to return. 

wan ^- ra T" Vulg.ft^ng-: to pay, to repay, besides. 

' ■■■■ 3i^^ Hwan chad ^^\^, ^^«S c/i^^"^. 

to pay de1)ts. _ 

J ' Je hwftn j6 jip, gno sim e yea ^ j^ fffl A 

^•"o-'' ^ »l> ^ tH , '* '""'"^ •'■* •'*' ^" ^^ """ ^''^"' 

Lac *'*i»"a vckh, if you return and come home, my 

mind will be easy. See the /]> 1^ Sijaou gnay. 



no3 ,11 

A cemetery, a burial place-, also read 
hwan, which see. 

Hwan e 1^ ^ , a beautiful gem. 
LSang geu'k se ch'hijet ch'ho, S hwin 
ch6w k6 hfing ^ ^ ^1 ^:;j ^ 

fVAo, £ Attiin chevD e dy Mng yeo^S, every fine 
gem needs to be cut and rubbed, but the 6 
hmin may retain its shape. 
, -•k _<» Hot, warmv to roast, to hum. Hek 

Hwan 7>^ i''^^" '"''' '^'^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^' 

/\ j-^-1 B)oo <J^ se sgff, leoo ^y »e chH, some 
of it was roasted, and some burnt See the 
'"" /jv||Sea6u gnSy. 

^ ^ Crooked, bent, coiled up. Leflng 
Hwan l^^ hwan e nfi tH llf fc/> j;g, ffi^'-ff 
»H|J^ Atr4n te^"^ «e nic"o «'*««, a dragod 
coiled up in the mad. 




To grow; to water, to irrigates lux- 
uriant vegetation. 

The name of a stream. 

Sacrificial flesh; flesh left over after 
a sacrifice. T'he.;n cho6 y6w soo 
hwan yecn, 6 kwuy Ifingseng choo 

iffi hSng Uy weo soo hop hKin'tSlh, .chiw t'hd e 
tins iiig tai"^ ^9 c*^" '"'^' ^^^'^ ^^'^ Emperor 



l!^. - V. , 



basa sacrifice and sacrificial flesh, he takes and 
presents it to the princes of the same family 
name. See the ^%j{^ Ch'hun ch'hew twin. 

The foot of an animal. Him hwftn 
Bb jjp^ J a bear's paw. 

\ ^ X Vulg. leoh bwi: to trouble. Soo hwftn 
n*trl llT- jl(^ J '»»y- I-^ey sin hw4n ta* 
J\^ chePas6ug|^/f|.j:||^^e 
ffi^ lae p'hay leSh bwi lied kauu Pa s'e^d, the 
inclosed letter, 1 will trouble you to take to 
the city of Pa(BaUvia). 

.J^ f>» A screen, a fence, a railing. Tai 
*^1^ .. hong iSiigseng, e hwan pin Chew sit, 

twa hong tdng aai^S, i did hwAn pin le Chew dy tit, 
he greatly apportioned those of the same family 
name, inordjur to reader them a fence to the house 
of Chew. See the f^ ^^ Soo ke. 

v^ f-» A fence, a railing ; the same as the 
Hwan '*/>T^^ former ; also, the whole, general, 
\| |jt^ common. Tae hwiu 4( ^k upon 
the whole. 

Hwan W.^ \^^ Water; water bubbling opj 

The hair generally ^ the haic- tied up 
in a knot. 

To rub in the hand, to wash clothes 
by the band, Numerous. 

Numerous, many. ChiiLing chea sit 
hwan|i^^^^^, tUy iyldng 
titchiy, the followers were numerous. 

A sort of vegetable; a fragrant and 
edible plant. 






Anything round. 



I ^ Sek hwftn ch'ho i^^ 1^ ^ , «*^»* 
||1Im Atr4n cA'Anuu, a kind of sub-inariue 

I / ^ vegetable, which grows upon rocks, 
said, to be like the fir-tree. 

Hwan C 

A suroaine. Hw4n-t« ^ W , *' 
nanio of a disciple of Confucius. 

J|>>LL H'w4n sek ^ ^, Atrdn cAeSA, alum ? 



..ii r 

« also called, pt-k hwfto Q ^;.> P^J** 
Airdn, white alum. 

^ ^^^ A wall. Hw4n ch"heang^g J^, Air^n 
*tQ <^*'*«''"^' a *all. Tau-kan-bJk i& 
..^^ hwai. jfi pi Che p^ ^ ;;(^ {^ Jtg 
jfi j^ ^ , Tan-kan-bok kiiiy ch'hc6''S ji ,eim 
pfe''S e, Tao-kao-bok climbed over the wall, to 
get out of his- way. Sec j^ ^ Beog-choo. 

Hwin TK2D^ '^''* liquor of rice, 



A largp sieve or basket, for collecting 


>^^/fe* The name of a river » witer overflow- 

Hwan >^^v 

jf jff\ '"g and r^iDoing over. 

I; Hw4n t«y jjj| ^, the name a bird, 
which pecks the tails of snakes. 





Ko hwAn ^^ ^n, a kind of cake or 

ySy A round gem, without any corner, 
or projecting part. 

To. string; to perforate. 


Hwan 7^ 

Sharp^; gainful, advantageous. 

Unskilled, dull, not clever; also 
written ^S hw&n. 


(ttrd ' '(Ji Jfti"''! 

Hwan -^?3^^ Alum ; the same as 

w. A BSll^fW A her<» hesiUting, and aaable \o 
Hwan IJ^l^ 

iMtf"^^^ proceed. 

^ To display ; martiaL P*ran hw&n 

Hwan "TTt^ ^ ;^, hesitating, unable to advance. 

\ ^ Chey-lw4u-k4»g ^ 10,^ , »'"0 

name of an ' aDcicot despot. A surname. 

Yfji\^ Read hwfiu! to order. Hwftn hod 

Hwan •^TF^' 

lUV fUjr , kwAn hoi, to enjoin. 



A surname. 

X Pj Hwan sifl jB |^,a8ervant, aminister. 


A person in office, a minister. Hwan 

Hwan t*? •'**" '^ '^' *■ «»""«•• "'^^^ palace. 
A tuniame. Hwiin hak soo soo, 

hw!^ l£y put chhia ^ ^ ^ ^li|) ^1^ H 
"V^ 4B cfci *ir"a <Jjr Uog- I'hak hak »ae tin »ai"*', 
ni v"' cheoiu lijf toi, chew ft"* cfc'Wn, when per- 
sons in. office ttudy and follow a teacher, if they 
do not observe politeness, there will be no in- 
. Umacy between them. See the ^g g|^ Ley k<. 
x^_ To come in. conUct with ; to oflFend ; 

Hwan vll'* to attack; to reprove. Kwun chod 
%J, \^^ twjn gg, seaou jtn hwiii hfing ^ 

•?^ 1& S ''l^ A ^H ff'l ' *""" ''*'"^ *"'^'' 
the prince oOends against the rules of righteous- 




ness, and the conimoo people cOTpe in contact 
With pum>>hinent, (the counlr; .Is-th'en in a sad 
condition.) S 

ov(t« . Hwan hwat -^n i^ , to trah^reis the lawi. 
Hwan choey ^g^ ^^ to commit sin. Kan hwan 
"T* ^P, to offend, to provoke. 
jL,kmm A law, a rule, a pattern, Boe hwan 
Hwan anO 1^ It , a """'e, a plan. Hwan wuy 
■if*^^ t'heen tey, j^ put K3 ^y J^ ^ 
% ]fn ^'» i^ J *" '"ni'a'e the revolutions of 
heaven and earth without transgressing the rule. 



'Va\g. p^hdng: asail ; to«ail. Soo hwan 
f^ lllH-j *"* P"*^"?. to set sail. T'hey 
san hwan hae ;j|^ li| til V^ ^ 
Vhuy sw^a p'hdng hai, to climb the hills with 
ladders and cross the seas with sails. 


Bo8 hwan ^Si *$j the name of a tree. 

/^«^ Vulg, pnoi^S : rice. Sit hwin ^ |J^ 
Hwan ^\\^ che'sh pooi"S, to eat r^'ce. Hwin se 
bod 6 te Iji^ ^ ^ W ^"' '^*^^* 
.^■^i.-.' pooVS kap sty i, n^ I'hnng i/ang It, in eating rice 

and millet, do not use chopsticks. 
xinwl Hfing te ^ ^ was the first who boiled rice 
out of paddy ( B. C. 2622. ) 


y V^ Hwi 

All, every one, the whole. Tin hwan 
n } whosoever, whensoever, 
in soo H S&, whatsoever. Tae 
hwan -J^ R jO" the whole. 
Hwan seang H *^ common, u«ua1, ordinary. 
Seng hwan put yit j^ fl ~X^ — , sing jin 
hvsan teing Ag ling, fi" chit i/?.d"S, sages and 
common people are bg no means the same. 

%., To be concerned, to be grieved, to be 

Hwan ^BOt anxious; evil; difficult Pulhwiojin 

^\y> cheputkefe7f:£7;;^ :f. t^ 

bn , a"" sai hwan 16 livg tj"- chae liin, tio not be 

concerned that people do not know you. 

Soe hwan Ian, hgng hoe hwan Ian ^' F|I^ Sft 

'It ^ 'S> 1^ ' '"" '^^* *"'"" '""' '^** **"'' 
Aoe Auian /uji, when we come into troulile, we 

'' should act consistently with one in trouble. 

^"'^-■'"•See the l|l H Tcung yOrg. a&fih 

■-J . ,1 ; 

>>■% To feed with corn ; to eat corn. Yfiw 
Hwan .^f"^^ choc che wat giio k'hoe ^M 

ch'hauu cK'hek ey hw"a hi gwd &g ch'hUy, just 
as vegetable and grain please one's palate. See 
j^ ^- Beng-cho6. 








The front of a carriage. 

Deceitful tricks, airy visions. He hwin 

J^ ^^7 ^*'" ''■'^*""'- Yaou hwin 
■M^ ip , artful contrivances; also 
read, hwan. 

J^— ^ Tae name of a plant. -^f^ 

A region of the west, said to be the 
native country of Buddha. Hwan 
* i 1 hwi ^ 1^^ the original language 
of Buddha. ' ? 

Hwan keung ^^ B>* royal palace. 

Money, cash. Yit hwang — — ^t 
chit hwang, one fanam. Bo5 hwang 
M j|^ , *^ hwdn^^ no money. 

A law ; a rule, a pattern ; to imitate; 
to punish according to law. Hwat 
toe -i^ J^, a law, a rule. Hong 
hwat "fc" y^, means, a plan, contrivance. 
H€ng hwat JpJ J^-, to punish. - 
Hwat ge che f.4n, I6ng bofl ohijfing ho5 J^ |H 
_J, -i- Mi juf / j^ 3L ^ ej, ckd hwat toe ij/ wa 
kham ey «"" t'hin hoe, words worthy of imiU- 
tion, how can we do otherwise than obey them? 
See Jhe |^ |^ Lun g6. - , 










The ancient form of ^P[^ hwat : a law. 
Also written, '^ hwat. T'hae ci'ae 
e pat hwat te pang kok "^ -^ 

X) A /^ vn ^5 ® ' ''*"^ '■'"'* ''*" '^** 

Mng Ay hwal toe- te pang kok, the great minister 
of state regukled the country according la eight 
rules. See the M |^ Chew ley. 

-y «^ To display, to manifest v to spring 
J^yQ>^ forth, to rise up v to send abroad. 

5p^ ""at k:he ^ l{^, to sp'"'g "P- 

Mwat heen ?& l^, to display, to manifest. 
Hwat yHiik haa hitl^ chiin kek e t'hcen ^g | j 

M #J lll^'li f* ^' *"'" "* *^'" ^''*''"" 
wcj"*, seng- ii« kwin cht kaou CAce"^,. in pro- 
ducing and. Iiringing up the various kinds (of 
grain ), — C the merit of the sages ) is cxal led, up 
to the heavens. See the r[l J^ Teung yflng. 
iy» The hair of ihe head. T"h6y hwat 

hair. Hwat twin j« sim t«ftflg "^ 

^ itij '6 ^. •"" *^*-^* "■"■ "'"^' ^""' ''*'' 

is short hut jour heart is long (meaning that 
though, the man was nearly bald through age,, 
yet his view* meite Uing and deep-)^ 

r** To be wanting,^ to be dsstitute of; 

•^^ to b« without. Hwat k'hong kO 

"^^^^ sin ^ 5^ tt J^ , to. impoverish 

his person. 

^ ^ Tto- cut ^ ta strike, to chastise i to. 

^"■n^ invade ^ also, to boast.. Hwat k'ho 

I ''^ jfi hfl, hwuy ho6 put k'bek /(J|> ioT 

|(D f^T. 01 ^ '^ ^ ' '''*^* cVM<.ficAtt."fl, 
b6 poo I'tidoit bei/ */«"&■, in cutting wood fur 
bandies, how shall we manage I without an axe 
we cannot succeed. 

Cheng chl'i, seang hwat hiy yS4 /j£ ^* J^ 
43?, ~K -Jit cAen/f Attifl/, »e Jd /tea A«ro/ «d tiy, 
the meaning of cAm^ is that of superiors 
chastising theic inferiors. See "^ .^ Beng- 

Gwan boo hwat seen 


M ' 


b6 lein gud Ay Ao, 1 wi>b not to brag of my 

See the ^fc 

'^ Lun g6. 



To meet,, to assemble. 

Hwat hwat 









\ ^.^ Vulg. iTflA,- alive, not dead. Chac 
\\ J_ hwat ^ |J[ ^ *"* T«A.^ to revive, 
' 1"^ to live again. 

WQy yew gw4a fhofr h.wat suy lafi^ ji[] in jj^ 

H^ ?£■ /JC ';Jv > <•* """ ff"^" ''*«''" ^J' «^*- 
cAiijr M-^ only from a fountain bead do living. 
waters rome. 

1^ '^ A. raft^ madb of wood or bamboos, 
"I jr for crossing Ihe water. 

CI Q Hwiil wal Bji [j^ , "Joors on each side 
rV J2. 1 of an officer's dwelling, the former^ 
» I '^^ on the left, and the latter on the 

right •, hence taken figuratively for office, or for 

the merit which entitles to office. 

'Bo6 hw^t wat kong Id M. f^ 1^^ :^] ^^^ , 
bd chd Ine^a Ajf kong U, ha.Ting no merit that 
entitles to office. 

% ' * F To punish. Chek hwat ^ W^ to 
— ^ I I reprove, to chastise. Sc&ng hwat 
tPl J chc6, dug Che tae kwAn jei^ IjJ 

toS, te 6ng dy /tro. kwAii si, rewarding and punish- 
ing people,, is a royal prerogative. 

To nsscrable; strong v the same as^^ 
|— y< hwat. 

-> Afloat made- of timber, in dittinctioD 
from ^ hwat, a bamboo float. Also, 
to cross the water ma. a raft. 

A. vessel under weigh ; a boat sailing. 






Read bong : wild, waste, overgrown 
with weeds; unfruitful, barren. 

. XlLl Teen tfiw hong bofl 03 U^ ^ 
^^ ch'hdn hwu0S p^hiih hwui"S, the fields 
and plantations were all overgrown with weeds. 
Ke boag Ijl^ ^ Are hwui^S, ajamine. 

^0^^ Read hwun: the eve"nine. . B6ng 
'Hwui^S B^ hwun M. ^ , mai"? hwifS, in 
Pf the evening. ■Hwun_ liec k'hoe 

jinchebflnhoS^^^P ^^ ^ ft /S . 
mai"S hwui^S si p'hah ling dy mo<>i''S hoe, 
iate iu the evening to go and knock at peo- 
ple's doors. 



JL^^U^ Read hong : a sna 

snake. Ochonj E 

O til 

a black snake, 
very venemous. 

?s^ Ke h(H^ IjL ^■^^ yaou hwui"S, a 
famine, hunger. 


:.Read wan : a garden. Cfi'hae w4n 
g] ch'hae 'iiwui"?, a veget- 
able garden. 
.Kwuy k'he lae h6f , teSn 'wftn cheang bo3 fS 

tooi"^,.ch-hdn hwiu"S biiii/h Ao^, come and let 
lis return home, -for our fields and gardens 
are getting wild and overgrown, 

" M _ Read h6ng : sulphur. L6w hflno- 
1^ ^ , "^''"^ AuiMPff, brimstone. 



Read hwun : a railing, a frame. Pa6u 
hwun ^g g^ pod hwul''S, a frame 
for .calabashes to grow upon. 
Read hwun: to encircle, to encom- 
pass.; to embrace; to put the arms 
round anything, in order to lift 
it up. 

Hwun pun |^ j"^ ^ hwiR^S pun, around frame 
of bamboos, made for holding grain. 


•See the J^ "'^ 



270 HWUN 

■^ _%_ Read wan: far, distant, not near. 
HwuV^S ^ C> Hoo boe chae, put wan ygw ^ 

•*Q^ # -^^ -T^ M j3l . P^» '"^ 'e 
til, u*" Vhang hwui''S fhit t'hd, when our 
parents are alive, we must not wander far. 
jjj, Seang lun. 

Vulg. pun : to divide, to share, to 
distribute, to distinguish ; a small 
Hwun peet ^ ^|J^ to distinguish. Hwun lijel 
yj' ^a^ pun ISeh, to tear asunder. Hwun k'hae 
^» Rg, pun k'kwuy, to open, to set apart. 
"Yit hwun — yj" , ^hit hwun, a part, a por- 
tion i a very small particle, 
Hwun jin e cha6 wuy. che hwuy ^^ A Vfl 

-tei hwUg, t« distribute money among people 
is called (a trifling) kindness. See the _[^ ■£■ 
Seang beng. 

'Bfln-ong sam hwun t'liiien hay yew ke je 

X 3n H :^ ^ T t =fe :^ , '^^''-^''o 

^a hwun t'hee"^ iy woo e Ay no hwun, B fin- 
ing out of three .parts of the empire had 
-two parts. 

.^, j«^_ Vulg. hwui^S : the evening, dark. 
Hwun V^^^ llon^ hwun se hwun ^ ^ [j-i 

'(mX /^^ 'too too mafS hwuCS ay s^, 

Just aliout the time of dusk. 

^^gil|_ The common form of the prece- 
Hwun ^^V<^ ding; also used for the next, JiS; 
-^P hwun, marriage, because marriages 

were celebrated in the evenins. 



wun yin J^ ^ffl, marriage, a wed- 
ding. Also written flS hwun. Yeen 
je sin hwun, je beng je tey _B. ^^ 

^ jlSI iin yd J^P ^ . '"^'^ "'^"' '^ « ^M sin 
hwun, cKhin cheb"^ he''a kap ie, to feast at your 
newly celebrated wedding, like elder and younger 





Tile mind not clear, net fully con- 
vinced, not clearly understood. 

Not to understand, to be dull ; con- 
fused. Gofr hwon put Ifing chin 6 se 

hv)un, biy chin t chiy liy to, i am dull, and can 
make no progress in this itndy. 'See ^^ -^ 

ip* A door-keeper^ a c«mnt«n porter 

Hwun rif^tj I "' ^^ deor. Hwun jin ^ J\ > 

tl J ^ -porter. 

Smoke issuing forth, to smoke any- 

HlVUn \S0 fting. K'liiJung sit hwun ch'he ^ 

^^^^v ^? EI!!' |m ^ an k'kang hu-un neaou 

cKht, to smuke mice out of their holes. See the 

Hwun InfZl ^ fragrant kind -of grass. 




% — ^^ Fire burning -with violence. Hwun 
IT U|j^ leet ycien seang i||| ^^l) ijjfsj J^ , hSig 
/ ^\%\ ^ hwun cheats ^ when Uic fire burns 
violently the smoke asccadi. 

The remnant of light, after the fun 
has gone down^ twilight. 

The e^es -dim and dark. 
To be inebriated. 

Hwun jeuk 

R« ' 

the name of a 

foreign nation on the west of China. 
'^VV\ T'had-Ong soo Hwun yeiik ~h^ ^C 
3T ilM '® Thawing hok lac Ilwun yeukAu Hkbh. 
T'hae-dng served the western foreigners. See 
^ -^ Beng-cho6. 

Hwun rj W^ 

Hwuti -f iri 

A sheep ; sheep's flesb, or fat; mutton. 

An instrument of music, made of 
earthenware. Pek se ch'huy hwun, 
feuug sS chhuy t6 j^ ^ ^ ^ 
IT y\ P/V )^ > ""^ elder persons played on 
the hwun, and the younger on the t6. See the 
/!'» ^Seaou gnaj. 


Hwun "rg 

The same as the preceding. 


-. Merit, meritorious desert Hwun lo 

HvVTin ^jfT ^^' ""*■'• Also written. Hi 

Tm^t/ hwun. Kfi khek y6w hwun "HL "^ 

/4 ! Si/> ' ^^ *"*" y*"'* "'''" *'"»g' '^» h's succeed- 

ing had some merit in iL See the |p| SS 

Seanj se. 



Strang-, pungent, and fragrant veget- 
ables, such as leeks, onions, &c. 
Put j« hwun '^^^, he did 
not eat fragrant vegetables. 

Bright. Hwun kong j[^ ^ brilliant, 

Hwun ^— ^ A fragrant seen*. 
Hwun ^^CS^ Fragrant plants. 


j"^^ A felicitous influence^ teme say, an 
infclicrtous influence. 

Confused, disordered; to ravel, to 
Y6w le 8c, j< hwun che yea 

a y0 jfii 1^ ;t ^ . '^*''"» 

chides bSii/h ch'hing te, ji hicun htcan e, like one 
who wants to manage thread, and lets it ravel 
into confusion. Sec the /p ^ ChO twin. 

Hwun ^^^^ rumple. 




i"% ' - The appearance of falling snow. 'Eswat 
II. run ^S^ hminihwun^ ;;|:]-^ '^ ^^ «A »%A 
^■J hu'un hwun, the snow fell in ftakes. 

See the fW ^± Sijaou gnaj. 



Confused, mixed tngfrther. T''heen 
hay hwun hwun ^ j> ^ '<;j , 
t'hee^S ay hwun kteun,^ the empire 

Tras all in confusion. 

The name of a fragrant wood. 

Hwun ^HC - 




To be sick; to die while an iafanl 
hefore receiving a name. Also 
written, 55 hwun. 

'XV. Hwun wun |i^ |^^, a fragrant breeze, 
I il an aromatic smell. 

A thread or skein of silk. K6 tiiaou 
^ wfly hfl, wily sc e hwun ^ ^ |;|[ 

«"« meS''h, tok lolc se e dj/ hwun, in angling what 
did he use i nothing but a skein of silk. See 
tb.€ Q j^ Sg^ou lam. 

A sickness » sick» ill. To gno koe hwun 

^ ^ m ^ > chei/ gwd k-hw"d 

pai"^, I have been witness, to many 

See the -^ H^ Tae gnay. 




Read yeen r tobacco — useful for keep- 
ng out cold » smoke. Sit yijen ^ 
/Iffl^ chlkhhwuH^ to eat (i.e. smoke) 
tobacco. H6ng j een J^X jlj^ , -^ng- Aiean, com- 
mon tobacco. Oe yeen J^ jl^^ * o^ hwun, 
black tobacco^ i. e. opium. 


Hwun ^l^ 

A light grey colour. 



Ch'heen cboo yew hwun [^ 

^ ^ ^ ' **^'' "*"'' 9^^ ^'"» *<• 
display all that is abstruse and dark. 

Hwun Vy'V^' 

* J, 

Hwun "Tp 

Tne name of a river. 

. ^"N Rice fliiiir^ any kind of powder. 

"^"S^ ^''''^" ^'^ ^jf ,H^|)t<> adorn. Hoe 
/>/ hwun ^fl ^), and B6 hwun ;^ ^, 
a kind of cosraelic, iwade of a preparation 
of bismuth and lead , used also for white lead. 
H Willi p'hek ji/j^ ^ ^ hinUn peuh, to plaster or 
whitewash a wall. 

1 ^^ Overhearing,, arbitrary, self-willed » 
riwuil ^ F^ 'he same as the following. Tong- 
I •'^^- tok cboo liwiiii yunz "rK ^ H 
tM ffl ' ^""s''"* *■* '^ hwin i/ung,. Tang-t5h 
xas, an arbitrary overbearing nian.^ 
^,^tj Hwdn ley iH E^ ^ oppressive^ over~ 
lluun ^ fO* bearing. }l"6 > uiig toe b.wu.n, e 
I y^ gwuy hoO ) oe ^ ^ |^D j^ ^ 
/G.' JJC "jH ■» "^ i"^''S' '"^ hwun, k gwijijj Ketm pa)f 
ioel; lo be fond af displaying one's bravery, 
and contending for one's own way, till we en- 
danger our parents. See thje !■» ^^ Hay beng. 



Dust or dirt; an atom, dust. 

The same as the precediBgj also^ to 
collect. Hwun chip keng soo ^V^ 
^ ^ &^\ > k'heoh cho hiiii/ IB ke"a 
se"d, to assemble at the capital. 

■^ To be enraged, to be angry with. 

Hwun ^X*" ""^" ""^ A^ ?iS ' ""»'"■' '^'""^ 

i V'' k » Je bo6 hwi'in chit & gwan iS' ^ 

^ Jjfe ^ ^H } li u'" t'hang sew k'hi gam lAngy 

you should not be angry and vexed with the 

dull and stupid.^ 

/y»y Hwun ton 'l^ f^ >^ impervious, unitt- 

Hwun /J V|« telligible, deficient in apprehension. 

Hw6„ ^ 

' Variegated, ornamented. 





HWUN 2f73 

ij- r_j4 Black, of a dark coloar. 

mud Jt^ll^ '■■"■. "■'•• ■■'l-i?> •'"■p, -'^'''''i 

■"•1 Ajf» To o¥ertarni't» tfvertbrdtf. ' Ch'hoo 

Hwun j-g** che wuy yit gin hwiin s5o jj^ || 

Iv^H — "g" j^ !^ -^j c»*y »e Aronff 

<rftt( A:od ira kwUri lican too, this is what is called 

one word's throwing an affair into disorder. See 

. the ^ !^ Tai hak. 

^k To blow out the breath; also, to issue 
Hwun ff^^^ orders. Hw(in hoo P^ ^^ , hw&n 
^^ Ao^i to enjoin, to bid, to telJ, to 
order. ' • • 

Thick and heavy, substantial and 

liberal; also, to reasoa with. 

. »/.' .Jilt 

To be enraged, to be stirrei «p, to 
rouse one's-sclf. Put hwuu put k'hey 

I ^^ i^t ^ IJC, ''"^"' ^"-^ *«"'"'. 
e li"" k'hty kabu Idn^ if any did not louse them- 
selves up, he (Confucius) would not open out 
the subject to Ihera. See the J^. ^ Scin^ Ifln. 
Hwat hwun bOng sit ^ jf| ^^ ^ ^ hwal hwun 
bet/ hi tU cheih, when he ( Confucius ) was roused 
by anything, he forgot his food. '-^ • ^..^ 

To instruct, to explain; instruction, 
explanation, meaning. Kadu hwun 
$A fM' *" *""*"• 'oslf uction. Hwiin 

•'^"'^ pill ^ ' *" '""*''' '"""*'• 

Hak « ko« hwiin nae yew hek ^ AA. 7^' ^Jll 

Tb ^^k ' ''**"* ^ ^"^ ^^" ^^ ^^ *"'"" ^""^ """' 
shy til U8h, by studying tlve instruction of the 

ancients, something may be obtained. 

- •%- To overturn, to upset, to throw down. 

Hwun /M £| Gnfiw suy chit, hwiin € tan sijang, 

L^ kewilyputso6i|:.^^./^:f 

^ -L it -^ yf; ;^ ; /foJ «jr .4™, khi pak 

hay 6 Ic ting, e ke"a fl #*, an ox though ever 

so meagre, yet if thrown down over a little pig, 

is there not reason to fear it would be the death 

of him. See the 2^ '^ Cbo, t,wi9|. j - ,• 

S V 





Mutton broth. 



The ancient form of ^jl hwiin, to 
instruct. Leet ho€ ek. hod y€w,kauu 
hwun k6 bin ^jj j^ ^, ^ ^ 
gUl :fc ^ , le'f' f^ot yea b6 an chw"i ka 
htLun e iy pityh sai^, the various princes also,, 
had no method of instructing their people. See 
the ^ |g So6 ke. 

To display, to unfold^ to spread 
abroad, as a bird opens its wings.. , 
yCT Hwun che tek che kong ^ J^ ^ 
•j^ ^ J hwunydng che tek iy kvcui"e, to display 
abroad the glory of super-excellent virtue. 
Put I6ng hwun hwuy ^ |j^ ^ ^ ' *'* ^'A"".*. . 
$it lai fHcuy, unable to spread out its wings and 
fly. See the ||p |g Se keng. 

Vulg. pitn: dung, mannre. Pek boi- 
che hwun ^ ^^^j cW4 
piyh boi Sy pun, tlie manure for a 
hundred acres of laod. See the _£^ ^ Seang 

■.,in.. ;,fiY/H 

dried by the fire : to toast 

II » ir^ft Anything 
Hwun 91 ^11 , ,. f 


A shoemaker's^ last. Ha£ huiiii S^t] 
^^ , Ay hwiin, a last for shoes. 

.\ surname. 

Hwdn ^tB_^ 

Jkf A grave. HwOn boe 4^ J£ hicun 
Hwiin T^EI to"*:. a lomb, a burial place. Ch'ho^' ' 
^ ■\ L*ng-6ng che se, H£ng san pcng, jc 
Cheuk-yOng die hwfln hwae ^ ^ "E ^ iH*. 

tt ^L| SI . ifn U ^4 Z if M' ^'""^ ^"f^- 

Sng iy ti, Hing iie"<i pang loh Whi, ji Cheuk-yUng 
iy bong k'heep, in the time of Lfing-6ng, of the 
Ch'ho£ country, the Hdng hill fell in, andH 
destroyed the grave of Ch«:uk-y&ng. 



The ornaments under vie Mck of at 

" f t! • rj I 

iij; n ' 


'■■run Jiijijui. -jilT 

The name' of a rivei 

i' vft'V 


.Ml .1 

Mdddy. Hwan'Mjr,' k)6' jeak chok 
^ ^ ft ^^^^yhwAnMy, ch'hin 
r/lgo"? 18, how thick is 'Unjust like 

The bank^' Of a ri^w, tbe .'waier's edge. 

ChflQ pg j6h*fin j^^ J'^ ^} 

didneji'&if Tiei^S, to follovi along 

the banks of the J6 rivfer. See J^ m (^ew I4mi. 

H^6 yefin K'hwun keng, geuk' sek ke hwiin 
^ ^ M SI ^^ ^^„f'S^2/*S'^K'hw^ 
sw^a, gek cheSh chd po6 seo, when the &te burst 
{fiutoa the brow of the K'hwun hil^, both gems 

' *■ Tq stitfh, a seam .,-f c<»* Wi'.-i 

'.I Wriilv 



1 . »". 

TI^Cm*^ The name of a tree. 


K 10 i 


Tree* and plants yielding much fruit. 

' Y6w hwflnkS sit 7^" W S #, 

n ..s^ -^'^ -*^ .. 

woo chey e dy kwiiy chi, it has plenty 

of fruit. See the j^ ^' Chew ISra. 

A wrinkle ; a scar, a mark of a wound, 
or of the small p,ox. - .T'iiOBg hwQn 
3a :Ja f'Ae"^ Atnitrz, ihe' scfr;<>f a 





Foolish, MUT. , ^V-rfi( 




A sheep or goat with a largb head. -, 

To have a large head. Ge chae chae 
cho, yew hwun kg s€,ff. ■© /H^ >f£ 

,eKhaiu,woo iwae dy I'hadu, there is a fish among 
the rushes having a large head. See the /J\ 5tt 
Seaou gnay. 

in ^^ 

• To burn, to. set on fire, to consume by 
Hwdn ^ITl^ii ■*'^®* Hwfiijheaog ^ :^, seo,heo"S, 
to bufa incense. 


ot. (! 


y^f HwQn t'huri ^^ wB > a kind of cake, 
or confectionery. 

A spirit. L6ng hwQn 'j^ ^ 

, the soul. 

HwQn 'T^ttf Jin y6w sara hwfln cli'hit p'hek Vl 

ay hw4n cWhit &y p'hek, people have three s^oujp' j 
! aiia seven' spirits: HwQn seng -e thiien, p'hek 

; Wng ,6 tey 1%^ ^ %. i% ^ f^ ^ . 
■ ■ i ■ kuiiin cheo"^ k^ou t'hei/'S, p'hek -ISh kadu iiyi'* 
v „../.tbe soul^heay^^ an4 th^pic^^^esceuds 
! ..ii'idi Wiithe: earths V '' '•' '"*^ "'"^■^ ^'-'"^'A "''* " 


A whole piece of timber that is not 

■ );i^ .iicii!J of li'i:, 
broken. . . , , , 

Read ylri'ri'cloiid;' thl^'ctoudsi'- 'T'heen 
FftOMW > ^lr* y!n ^ ;^ J «'Aee"^^tiitn, the clouds.^ 
.noibuT^^i.^ of heaven. tt^J^ 

ru'iilPiit ge j6 hoo ch'he"a kwuy, 6 gno' j6 hftO] i 

fi™ g-g ji poi kwUkwiiy, te. gwd cKliin. cheo^S 
111 p'hoo p'hoi Ay hwHn, wealth an4 honours! gotten 
mw ■.iby unrighteousness, are to me like the floating 

clouds. Said by CQnfuci»iS,!2|m=S Lun-ge. 

^ A muddy sfrearii ; mixed, jumbled 

W •7'' together, in confusion;" also, flowing. 
I |<|^ Hwun chap ^^^^^ mixed togetheH' ' 
Y6w but hwOn s^tig, siieh I'been tey seng 

t] ti ill j^JtK\k!t' ^o-^ '-«"* 

kwfLn che*'<l, tai seng t'hee"^ tey 101"^, there was 
a' mixed chaotii' mass, which was produced be- 
fore heaven and earth. See the tt 
To tek keng. 






,\«iiA (J«w4p ,f'»^^i hwfln hwQo, put »34 tdw yea 
>)l.« 0,^, ^M U ^ ^ 4,^> «-»d-. ,c*«>4» 
[,j^.,,/kfi)iin. A»«n ^fliJa, 60 JUf^"A j7^| otoI"^,. Ih^ foun- 
tain bubbles up, without rrTningrigM. or day. 

^ In "I 

See j^ 3- Beng choo. 



Finished ; lo; finish. 

l/\, *"''♦ to disgnuge. 

Hwun ' ^ P r 


Atcun, a name, a station^ Chit hwun 
Ijjjl^^ a duty, an office". Pun 
bwQn JK ^J*, obligation, duty. HwOn leang 
^r'm a small weight, or measure. 
Chin ka p<in hwOn ^ ;;H^ ^ /^ , to do- ooe'f' 
duty to the utmost. 

Ley tat j6 hwun leng || ^ |^ ^ ^ , % 
toi Chong tat, j6 me" A hwttn te"a leSh, when po- 
liteness is fully attended to, then people's sta- 
tions will be fixed. 

Blended together, amalgamated ; one 
mass; the whole. Seng jin che 
aim, hwCn jefin fheen li ^ Ji 

Z i6 W ^^ ^ ® > '^"^ •'■''• ^* "" '^"^ ' 

hwan jein Cke<f^ It, the mind of a sage is 
blended together with the celestial principle. 
HwOn ji-en ^ ^ > «>*if undislingni>lied uaw.l } 

-m Confused,. i» disoriter» muddy. Se 

Hwun Vl^j ^'"^'^ '""^" J* '•"' ^'^"" lift ?@ iS 

m |_Xj t?n "X^ ^ , tikan hwun lican, jt '. 
bt hwun peel, the world Is confused .without 
I ^ GiricTC^, sori-frwful, troubled. Cho6 

Hwun \^S\ put '»'"■'" P'" i ''F j® ^) '"*°'' 

iV^\ lAng bt hwan li ling k'kigh, the host 
did not trotible himself about his guest. See I 
''e 7^ jH eho twan. 

A. \\ Not, no, do not. Hwuy ley che ley 

Hwut tll'^ liwuy gii che gc, lac jln hw«it wOy 

y.,u>uS^*.(^^ W?^ •" *'**' »«f8'^9Pef ceremonies, and 
^.j.j.jT unjpsl performances, thpimagn^nimous man will 

•flo, .•"'»PW^-..,o-,,rti .».,„, / .-. , 

ii') .I-'il ,i r. JiJT/ll 

To kfta lathe left. 

Hong hwut <k, irfg ^ an uncertain ap- 
pearance, nod^cided. arfj 

Xhe mine as tiie preceding. Hung 
hwut ka jeJl bong ^, j.j^ fl: ^! J 
i^ , Aon^ Avuf ch'hin cliei"' bang,' 
indistinct, like a dream. .Vlsu, Au;tU /^j(.-f>m ^^, 
' thill,' thii' tiling. 

% %\»' To 'brtfsh; ■ Id iitist,. to wijie away 
Hwut J*! J fi dirt; also, to abolish. Chin ke l(3ang 

l7r ;"-'«>-» cut iiJL ;^ ^ ^ , 

y^ cMm ji^ ISShAim/ai o. leSh ch'liile, |)ringing, 
in 4 tabl*> oc, »,. st>tQ^ (.to opr .superiors) we 
should first wipe them. See the ^ ||^ K'hiiuL 



A napkin used for tying n| iKt hair. 

To oppose,. to resist r stullborn, rebel- 
lious. Gno« kay che ^n hwut c 

Ay <ri Avof ^rA- kxeai I, those five gentlemen's 
words are rebellious, and strange. 

*T» resist, to act contrai'y to. Bong 
hwut pek sdng, e chcQng ke che yijiik. 

i'" t'hang Klii/I' P''** »«i"*^ < ''Wn ,*«■/« (((jr ai, 
do not oppose the people, in order to follow 
out yonc oma desires. See the @ ^^ 

... , :Se keng., .,:. 1: ,.,': 

Hwut' iPt^ To b. 

A. rope. dng gftn j€ se, k£ chliut 


6ng king wi ch'hin chio^S u, e 


p \^ A rope 

Hwut 7^^ J««'w 









eho ch'hnt ch'hin cheo^S sSh, the king's words 
are like threads, his praclicihg of them like ropes. 

A rope, the rope with which a colF- 
tied. Choe chdng pit chip 

sang se"S pit teSh gim sSh a, in assisting at a 
funeral, you must lay lioJd of the rope. See 
the iS jA K'hi-uk ley. 

The string with which a seal of office 
is tied. Choo hwut -4^ a}, a red 
string; >used also for tfie following. 

A string ; a knee-cap, a. part -of the 
dress .which comes over the knee. 

^^ A knee-cap. Te be hoe hwut been 

hwut bein, t« make the knee- 
cap and crown as fine as possiMe. See the 
|3| Lun ge- 

Hoo "hwut HI 1^ ^ a cap, ad-orned 
with hatchets, and various figures. 
Hwut been W^ S^ ^ an embroide- 

■j 3uw«i 

H«rait . 

To deprecate calamities, and invoke 
Wessings ; a sacrifice for the same. 
Hwut te woo wiiey ^^ |^ ^^ ^^ 

hwut ti la tdm, to abolish all defilements. 


Hong hwut ^ W' undecided, in- 
distinct? not clearly perceived. 



Hong hwut (l-^ ;M, to miss one's 
aim, to be disconcerted. 

M ^ Suddenly, for a short time-, to ex- 
-yO^ haust, to exterminate. Se chwat, 
iVl;^> s8 hwul ^ |g ^ ^^ , it is ex. 
terminated and done. , 

Hwut jeen M ^ , suddenly. Hwut lelik ^ 
^ to despise, to disesteem. .<i 

Yit ch'hin wQy hwut, sip hwut wily se — — ^^ ^L 



^. + ^. U ^ , "^^ '^y cKUncU hwut, 
chap hwut cho se, one filament spun by the silk 
worm is a line, and ten lines make a thread. 

Hwut Ifln ^ fflji .a°y'h"'S round, 
whole, and unbroken. 

Jt^'W'^ Geuk hwut ^ 7nt > a^ngBat piece f f 
Hwut ^ f M ^ of stone, or gem, held by king's 
^,^^ and officers when they go to court. 

Hwut ^ v^g To otter, and express sne's self. 


A devifs head. 

Hwut \^^J ^ liHiitic. of Buddha. 

Hwut n 

High, lofty, f ^ 

^>^ HiJM.H 

Hwut ""Jt jT a kind «f pTg'; aJso Wrkten, ^ hwut. 




A light breeze, same say • a' pierce 
wind; also written ^f hwul. 


Hwut ^»%i'r* 

fierce wind arising. 

The wind arising ; to arise. 


The name of Buddha, . the sage ofi 
the west. HAn Bfing-tey k'hi:en jSn . 
J , ■■'I" ^"^ T'heen-teuk, kgw che, tek Hwut 

keng je sip soo chcang ^ f^ '^ ^ A. f^ 





Bdn Bing-tty sai ling chok too k'hi Th'een-teuk 
Icok ktw e, tit teSh haul keng jS chap si cheang, 
Han-B6ng-tey sent some people as messengers 
to the country of India, to look for this sage, and 
obtained 24 sections of the books of Budha. 

The common form of the preceding^. 

Hwut wut r 

a liitly appearance. 


Read hek : the stone, or seed of a 
fruit. Sit cho t'hO le, hwut le ^ 


"A A hw;.t^^;|^|:4<^^^^;j.^ 

che&h cho Cho le, a" Chang lim »dm htel e &y 
hwut, in eating dates, peaches, and plums, do 
not throw about the seeds. 

A thread, the- end of a. thread ; also^ 
to bind. 

Hwut TitOf* ■'^ '"'^'^ ***'? •"■ ^'^'• 

Hwut B^^ """' '* ^^^^^' """ "*"■" "^^ 

fiZf 1 foreign state. 

Hwiit i^ """' ''"' ^ ^^' "" "*"'^ "^ 

^7ly a cloud of dust. 


H>vny ^ 


m ■< > Vulg. pttug: to fly. P'bEen p'heen 
^yftV* chca chiiy, chac hwuy chad cho 

(>( pwuy iy ka chiiy, voS li i pmuy woo si a 
hSy"h, the fluttering doves, ,irc sometimes flying 
and sometimes resting. See the /\\ ^fff: Seadu 

The leaf of a door. 

3 T 

To snow, the appearance of falling 

Hwuy T^'^ *°°'' "^ *"** ^^ '""■y p|^ ^ :S 
'^'l* 3S "^^^ * ^* ^""'y. the snow 

falls in flakes. 

^ %% Pie hwuy ,JJq ■j|^ u;;ly, ill-favoured. 

Hwuy >Y^ ^"^ """^ •'^ *"*"y M #1ltt^>^ 
h>oks ugly. 

Hwuy ^Zl C^ Pt'agCir.t; luxuriant. 

womaA who Las had many children 




A deep red, a crimson colour. 

Horses gallopping on without stop~ 

To oppose ; not ;. not right,, wrong ;. 

an error $ to reproach, to blame. 

wuy kfi kwiiy j6 chiy. cbe, t'heim 

kw4y ji chij/ e, si I'heim me, to sacrifice to the 
ghost of a. persoa with whom we were not re- 
lated is flattery. 

Bod t'h6 k6 chok hwuy ^ |pC» j^ i'^ ^ > . 

fl*" Chang seaou Uy fin kSi^ tit li kaiu chd a"* 

le9h, do not be ashamed of acknowledging your 

errors, lest you be coofirmcd in that which is 


Hwuy scngjia che& bo6 hwat, hwuy hauu chca 


35S: ^ffl J hwuy mai"S ting fin iy ling pit hi hwat 
toe, hwuy mat"^ icoii haau dy ling pit bd pay 
hot, he who reviles the sages, must be without 
law ; and he -who ijdicules filial piety, must be 
without parents. Sec the ^ ^^ Hadu keng. 


To fly abroad -, a large wild fowl with, 
various colours. 




Kong hwuy ^ ^, bright apd bril- 

Bright, luminous, like the brightness 
of the sun. 

The brightness of fire, as bright as 

A WjL Ele<rant, beautiful ; a certain musical 

Hwuy Xf^O . \ 

\^rf^\ instrument. 







I 1^ The name of an insect ; the ancient 
method of writing ^ hwuy. 

,* To tear asunder ^ to point with the 

A sort of standard or banner. Che 
hwuy iy ^, to P"'"' *'*^ *^* 

The name of a fi^h. 

The next in rank to the Empress, 
among an Emperor's conculiines, is 
called ^P hwuy. Also the wife of 
the heir apparent. 

To brandish; to wield ; to disperse; 
to point. Hwuy to |'f[)' yTj ^ to 
brandish a sword. Che hwuy sod 
4:^ JflJ /fS ^ the name of an office. 
Yim geik cheak hwut hwuy ^ lE || ^|j |^. 
lint geuk ty chiw cheitk bShhwu^ e, when drinking 
out of a pearly cup, do not brandish it (lest you 
should break it). See tiie ^ |fi K'heuk Idy, 

An animal, like an ox, with a white 
head and one eye. 

1 Jfc No, not. Hwuy luy ^ ^ , ban- 
HR , ditti. 

To ruin, to destroy; to turn the back 
upon. Bo6hwuy tek^lE^, 
iSh v'o^y lek heng, do not turn the ] 
back on virtue. 

Hwuy yf ]^ P*^' b^'uJ tlh fP ' "S'y. deformed. 

H wuy 


A round basket. 





Hwuy pong =|e |^^ to revile, to 

Blander. SOy hwuy sfly 6 |^ ^J; 

■^ffc ^^ che chnj/ a maV^, che chuy 

a old, who will blame and who will praise? 

%^^ Thin, meager. Hw6y yim sit ^ ^ 

»-|F* /^ p5A Ay Urn cheSh, poor eating and 

drinking. See the |^ |S Lun ge. 

Elegant, literary. Yew hwuy kwun 

choo '<^^^-^, """^ '"^^^ ^^ 
kvsan choo, here is a literary accom- 
plished person. 

To stammer, to wish to speak without 

■ing able. Put hwuy put hwat 

'I'-Ip /^ ■?? * "" """ ^'""^y ^^"S< 
chew bo hwat bing hoe e, if he does not attempt 
tiO stammer out something himself, it will not 
be explained to him. See the g^ =^ Lun ge. 
j| t. To assist, to help-, the name of a fruit 
"f^^^ tree. Hwuy ke kwut cheng ^ J^L 
^^^^ JH v-S- 3 hv:<iy ch'hd &y tSh kwut kwi 
ch'heng k'hi, a table made of the hwHy wood, 

polished and clean. 

fc*,^ A red-feathered sparrow; a bird about 

^7|^ the size of a swallow, the male of 
^^ff\ which is red, and is called hwuy 
Sg —while the female is azure, and called ^ 






,a>%'%^ A destructive insect, that injures 
"^^<fcl)^ people's clothes; also, the name of 

*^ '^ an animal, in shape like an ox, 
with a white head, one eye, and a serpent's tail. 


LoS hwuy JM 
tious insect. 


an excrementi- 





E hwuy tlu M , the name of a serpent. 
Wfly hwuy wQy 6, 16 choo che seing 

tok hwiiy kap i Sty chwd, te cha boi 6y s'edng, 
but the hwAy and i snakes are prognostics of 
getting daughters. See the l\\ ^ffi Seaou gnay. 

The ancient form of the preceding ; the 
generic term for all the scaly tribe. 

To destroy, to break down ; to injure; 
^, to revile, to blame. Kay pit choo 

■I^^X.. hwuy, jfi hoe jin hw6y che ^J^ lUjs 

k'h'eep, fein aoit ling p'hSh k'hegp e, a family 
must first ruin itself, before people think of 
ruining it. 

Teung-n6 put k'hd hw6y yea jlTt jp^ ^ "pT 
iX "ui ' f^fOng-n( bey hoe li hufiy ping, Tijung- 
n6 (Confucius) is not to be reviled by you. 

f/u Fire burning fiercely ; anything burnt 
and destroyed by fire. 

^ ^^^ To kindle a fire; an officer whose busi- 

HwuV ^'fl W| "^^"^ '^ *"' ^° draw fire from the sun. 

/ *— » Soo-hw6y-se cheang fi hoo sOy ch'hi 

b6ng h^ofi jitllJi^l.^^l^f^^flX 
pn *K ^T- H , Soo-httCy-ne cheang Inrdn I'ho hoo 
suy cKhi btng hiity lejil, the Soo-hwuy-sc (officer's) 
business was to take the burning-glass and draw 
fire from the sun. See the H |^ Chew ley. 
This shews that the Chinese understood the nature 
of the burning-glass very early (about 8000 


years before Christ )} — but they also talk of a 
mirror by which they could extract water from 
the moon. 

y^^ To sigh, the sound of sighing. GSn- 

P^S^ yeen hwuy yiin t'hin wat ^ wi 

R P^ ^ "i ' Gan-yeen, fetching 

a long sigh, exclaimed, &c. 

See the || fg 

LOn ge. 




"jr^^ Hwuy pong ^ |^ , '" revile, to 
■rt— J« slander, to blame. 

To waste, to expend, to spend money. 

A adraame. S6y hwuy 6fr ^g ^ so 

hteiiy, expence. 
Kwun choo hwDy j6 put hwuy ^ '^ ,^, jflj 
^■\ W , kivun choo trod yin hwuy, Ji bo p'AuA 
hiciy, the good maa is kind without being 
extravagant. See the ^ ^^ LQn g£. 
Hwiiy yungsim '" ji[ /B t^- ^ , hwiiy yiing 
Sim chey, the cxpences are very great. 

,% llwily hwiiy ^^ Mfe ^ the name of an 

animal, in the shape of a m4n, with 

shaggy hair, has a swift pace, and 
devours people. 



Exuberant herbage, thick foliage. 

_ * -i 'I'll set aside, to abolish, I 

HwCiy |A)uL ""K»'"''y. ""' '" adopt. H» 

/7>^ >f*k« hwily che, bok k&ii 

set aside, to abolish, to render 
Iwan chev. 
km ki yea, 
y6w k< ke chi', liok kam hwiiy yea H ^ ^ 

nx H^ vL ' *""" '^**^ '^•''' *'"* ^"^ *"•''* *«'. /'<» 

ling k"ii ke yung, woo iy ki ying, bS Idng k"d hwiiy 
bS, with respect to sacrifices, whatever has been 
abolished no roan dares to re-establish, and 
whatever is established, no man dares to abolish. 
See the i^ # K'heuk liy. 




' "'*''% ".^ To conceal, to avoids the name of a 
lIwUV '"* y^ parent or prince, which should he 
^ trfc concealed or avoided, in common 

Hwily hfing: p'lt hwuy seng |^ ;^ /f^ |^ -^^ 
ei) hwky tit me"ll, bS,y hwdt/ tit sal"^, we may 
conceal the name (of our parents), but not their 
surname. See "^T ■^— Beiig choo. 

xim'ftt '^^^ noise of flyinoj, the clapping of 
Ilwuy \df^|y4y4 wings. Hong hSng 6 hwuy, hwuy 

■ ^>N "wiykeelHtf^ll.^^ 

• C ^ ' ''""ff hung tit ptoiii/, hwtiy hwtiy e iiy sit, 
the felicitous birds are flying, and clapping their 

■ wings. See the -^ 5tt Ta5 gniy. 

JkJt^ Extreme, very i the same as ^k hwQy. 
"Wfiy n^^ E peng hwuy ^ ^ ^ ^ ^. 


gwd &)) paVS Sim, my sickness is 




Hwuv }J 


Vulg. pwilt/: fat, corpulent. Paou 
y6w hwfly jeuk, kdw y6w hwfly m& 

to6 pdng 1000 pwllif bdh, bay tedou woo pwAy bay, 
in the larder there is fat meat, and fat horses 
in the stal)le. See ]£ -j- Beng choo. 

The calf of the leg. 

Hap-hwQy -^ 

the name of a 

Read choo : earthenware. Cho6 k'he 
^ ^ . ''"''^•S' *^'**' crockery-ware. 

Favour, kindness, to be obedient j to 

Hwuv •^Ci bestow. A surname. Also written 

»\2U^ fihwQy. 

Wfly hwQy che hwaS Hh S^ "/^ i^ wily yin 

hwuy &g sim hwat, only to have thoughts of 


An bin chek hwuy ^ ^ |('l ^ j "" ^3''' 
$ai^^ chek cho6 hwUy, to tranquillize the people 
is a kindness. 

The name of a tree. 

Hwuy koe m^ mfj an insect that 
exists only for a short time. HwQy 
'<V^ •<"« PU' te ch'hun ch'hew ^^^ ^^ 
"IT^ An ^tf, iijf hway koe «"* chae cWhurt ch'hew. 
the hwuy koe knows nothing about spring and 
autumn, (owing to its short existence, for if 
born in spring it dies in summer, and if produced 
in summer it dies in autumn. ) 

An infelicitous star. Hwuy seng 
^ a comet. 


A fragrant plant, which grows in low 

marshy places; if it yields but one 

^"V[^^ flower on each stulk, and is very 

fragraut, it is called Wt '^n, but if it yields 

several flowers, and is deficient in fragrance, it 

is called jS hwuy. 


\ pliant disposition, susceptible of 
Hwuv J " T "* instruction ; intelligent, wise. Td 
i\V^ hwuy ^^ ^; , wisdom. 
GwQy Boo-ley le hwuy, put Ifing k'he kfi ok 

Boo-iiy woo ti hteSy, bey U'hi I'hek l:ak e &y pha"i, 

the Emperor Boo of the Gwuy dynasty was wise, 

but he could not throw away his wickedness. 

J ^ i«Ai A besom made of bamboo. Han Ko- 

HwUV -^P^^ cho6 ti;a6u T'hae-korg yung hwOy 

Hhn Ko-chot leaSu kei^S T'hai-kong ch'hiw gnityh 
saou chtw, Ko-cho6 of the Hin dynasty waited 
on Thad-kong, (his father,) with a bamboo besom 
under his arm ; — ( ready to sweep for him, if 
necessary ). See the ^ |^ Sod kd. 





Clear, bright ; also, a small voice, a 
Hwuy M^li* ■''''"'SP^'"' HwQy pe seaou seng |@ 
~"_ '^ ^ /j\ ^j Mng hti'ut Kj/ sit/ leep 
ch'hai^S, how bright is that little sUr. See the 

%> Vulg. pittiy : to bark like a dog. 

Hwuy »*/v ^^y ''^"S '"'^ hwuy seang bfln, jg 
^ ^ tit h„6 sod keng .^ \i^ l^ ^ 

ft ^. ifn 3i,T' [SI ^*. '-■'-•y <'A^*'"i«p'tfly 

jee t''he''a, ji tat hoe s6 Icing, the crowing of 
cocks and barking of dogs may be distinctly 
heard, throughout the four quarters of the king- 
dom. See d& ^- Beng-choo. 
^^fc^ The generic term for plants and vegcta- 
Hwuy li'|> ties. San jivr kay hwDy j|| ^ 
' ^fe "ll ' *"""" *""" '"' cf^lwou, in 

the hills there are fine plants. Sec the /JN IJtt 
SiJaou gnay. Also written i^t hwQy. 

To stop; a fowl's beak ; a white horse 

Hwuy 1*^^* *'"' '' black nose. Jin che ke, s<j 

e put sit ne&ou hwOy chei, i so6 



tdng hw-an f^^ AZ^'^ ^X:^ 'k B, 

«<5j/ i a"' chedh chedou cKhuy, si leap c cho poo 
»i ting hman 16, the reason why people ever so 
hungry will not eat a fowl's beak, is because 
they are concerned lest they should be brought 
to the same untimely end. See the ffife Q ^ 
Cheen kok ch'hek. 

The cross threads in weaving; the 
woof is called M keng, and the 
warp is called j^ hwQy. Roads 
from north to south, are also called j^ keng, 
and those from east to west j^ hwDy. 

Hwuy "^ I ■ _ Angry, enraged. 

Hwuy ^,^f^ To examine various devices. 

For words beginning with i, such as in, im, ip, and it, took under the letter y, ai yimt yio, &c. 



Vulg-. leng: the nipples; milk. Je hoe 
^1 -0: J leng boi, the teats, the dugs; 
a wet nurse. 
BQn-6ng sod jc, »c wfly ch^ jin ^ ^ IJQ ^^^ J^ 
il ¥ f— J Bti/i-<)>ig- woo ii &y leng, ch'm"i hong chi 
jln, Bun-6ng had four nipples, hence be it called 
the most benevolent. 

Boe yeuk choo 6 j6-^ "^ "J* W ifb """^"j' 
cKhe haou tai^S i leng, a mother feeds her offspring 
with milk. 

3 w 


The name of a river. Also, vulg. loo or li, 
you. Kwat Ji- Han, pafi Hwafi Sod, j6 

M yi *^ ^ ' *""' *°''*"^ ^^ ^^"' '"'* ^""'' ■^''"• 

ji eh'hwa jip Kang, he cut off the J6 and Ilka rivers, 
and led on the IIwa£ and Sod, till he brought them 
to fall into the Kang. See ^? ^ Beng-chod. 
Jin l£ng ch'hiiung bod sew j£ j£ che sit, bod sey 
ong j6 put wfly gS Y^^ K^%%^M 




nS ey ch'heung mw"d bo sew jt ji Ay cheak »it, chek 
bo ta ISh k'hi ji «'" cho ge, when people fulfil the 
honest part of not receiving what is given them 
with a "you! you I " — then wherever they go they 
will practise nothing but uprightness; — hence the 
Chinese do not like to be addressed with a plain 
"yon, " when anything is given to them. See "i& -i' 


The same as the preceding. 

You; also, a parlicio 

You; also an euphonic particle; near. Soo 
e e je chgOlng soo, hong so6 hwat chttey 

ch'he"a gwd kap U chei dy Idng, hong t'hee"S dy beng 
cherig hwat woo chdey, thus I and all of you, have 
received the decree, to punish the guilty. Said by 
^ i^ Sgng-t'hong. 

Put te 16 che chijang chd yin j6 ^ ^.fl ^ ^ 
ij^ ^ ^. •^j u'" chae laou ay hiiiyh kabu, with- 
out knowing thai old age is approaching. See the 
3^ Hjfi. Lun ge. 
J. _k_5» GiJuk je ^ ^ , the great seal of the 
Je piF>| Empire, the royal signet; it was first 
•TT_^ formed by ^ -h^ ^ Chin-se-h6ng, 
and constituted a part of the regalia of China. 
,^^,„_^ Vulg, he: the ear, the organ of hearing; 
JX IXl also, a euphonic particle. Je che t seng 

te »S"a, the ear, with respect to sounds, ( performs 
its natural office ). See ^ ■^ BSng-choo. 
Je tek jln yeen j6 ho5 y;^ 'i% AM^'f ' 
li woo til leoh gaou Idng d bd, did you meet with 
any clever men there .' See the =ijm |S lqu ge. 

Near, easy. P'he je h6ng wan pitchooje 

^ lin It E ')i S 3l ' ^'''^ j^ ''^""^ 

hwui"^, fit tin km, like as when we want 

to travel far, we must begin with what is near. 
See the fh 0" Tiiung yflng. 

'^ - I ■ A temple erected to the honour of one's 
Je "x^lkUf parents. K6 ch^e kwun, chek sew g 

I m •'-» J^ ft ^ f: Ri] ^r- M^M' 

boiyh hing kwun, I'e&h tae seng chiw te kong ji, when 
about to go out with the army, it is necessary first 
to visit the parental shrine. 

To present wine; also, full, replenished. 

Gems worn dangling at the ears. 

The name of a measure, containing up- 
wards of six pecks. A surname. E' 
che je ^ ^ 1^ ^ hoe e chit iyjt, give 
her six pecks. See the ^^ ^5 LQn g^. 

J^ je ^ ^[ff J full reins, — leaving the 
bridle loose and full. 

Leuk i6 ^^ Eff , the name of a horse 
belonging to j^ 3§> jj* . ChewBok-6ng. 

Good wine. 

_% ^ ^ To cut; to devour; to quaff. Ch'hae je 

[^ >| .^ -^ "S^ -m , dried vegetables. Je m6 yim 

5^ V heet ^ SE. "IV jjij^, cheah hdm mo, lim 

hdm h'uiyh, (the early ancients) ate flesh with the 

hair on, and drank together with it the blood ; 

( this is spoken of as a sign of their uncivilized 

state ). 

To heal ; to get well, to recover from 

sickness. Han ong chit je /M j£, j^ 
^^ Hd,n ingpiiy"^ ho, the king of Han 
recovered from his sickness. 
■ »> , A crack in an earthern vessel. Sun to ho 

Je IftSt P'"' ^'^^ P"' ^'^"^ J^ ^ 1^^ ^ '^ 

iJ3; ]^ T^ '^ } S"" '^0 f"^'^J/ '^ *'' f'* 





ii/ wtty, ke k'hi bo Mint woS k*heih, when Sun burnt 
pottery at the banks of the river, there was no 
complaint of cracks in the vessels. See the QP^ ^P 
So6 ke. 

^ Idle, lazy, indolent. Sew cheuk to 'e 

^ iNK. ^ AtL fa ® ' ''■''"' ''''''"*'" ''''"^" '""""• 

y/^f%V ji^g ^j^ ^qjI i^gs lazy and indolent. 
J^. To exceed, to surpass ; also, to recover 
J^ 'pl^^^ f'°^ sickness. Je c HoCy yea seuk jfi 

cU chill) k'h&h ga6u, which is the cleverest you or 

Ho^y } See the f^ |B Lfln gd. 

Kim peng sijaou j6, ch'he ch'ho 6 teaou ^ Js^ ;j-\ 

^ ^ j^ ^ ^ ^ (Pa pai"ff tf tfA /WA a fWfc *d, 

woo Wn kin ke"d ji'p leiou, now his sickness is a little 

better, and he has hastened to the court. See ^ ^ 


% To die of cold and hunger, to be starv- 

Jf^ JW^ ed to death) also, disappointed. J6 sod 

mM/^/\^ geuk teung || ^ ^ jf»^ Jfaoii kw"d 

si te k^a k'hoo laS, io be starved to death in prison. 


^ Alike, like, if, as ; if it is thus: j£ ch'hoo 

*3^f^ ^P ll:{i, <"« n'^J' >ai"^, thus : j6 jiJak j(p 
^C" ^ , cV/i/n cHo"S, if, in that case. 
Te che chea put jfi h^d che chei, h"d chc chiia put 

j6 lok che chca ^j] ^"^ ^- :^, ^p $^;>:^. jtT 

2 ^ ^ *P ^ ^ #' '*"' ' '^ '^"' "' 
ch'hin ched"^ 3/il 'e8A e iy l&ng, yil te9h e ay ling 

bey ch'hin chea"^ t'hekng lok e dy Idng, those who 

know ( virtue ) are not to be compared with those 

who love it, and those who love it are not so 

good as those who are delighted with if. See the 

J6 put k'h6 kftw, chiiang gofi s6y h"A 5(p 'f' ^ 

^. t/£ ^ ^ . "" *** ''*"■ ''** '''"*" ^"'^ 
tty ai, if these (riches and honours) cannot be sought 

after indiscriminately,, then, lot me follow that which, 

I love. See the =^ i3^ Liin g6. 

» Even, plain, level. Yiiuk an wan hong, 

Ahxi *°"^ ''^''° '"" j^ ^'^ ^'"' ^ ^ M ^ 

hwufS pang, tsah tai seng san ji e dy kin, if- you 
wistv to tranquillize distant coantries, you most first 
render those near obedient and tranquiK. 


Numerous, abundant. 

To answer, to reply to; the sound of 
assent; a boat made of a hollow tree. 
A surname. 
L4mwuyleje ^J \^ ^ '(^ , la po yin Idng wiy. 
cha bot yin l£n;^ji, males should answer with a ' tcliy,' 
and females w.lh a' j^.' See tile, |j^ =P Ley ke. 

"f *"■ Verbose, talkatwe. 




- A. learned man, a scholar. J6 kadu i^S 

TA^*" ^ , the sect of the learned. J6 wfly 

III k kwun clu)6 jC, bofl wQy seaou jin j6 

kuiun ehod dy I'hak ch'hiiyh Idng, u'" I'haag chd sedou 
jin dy I'hak ch'hdyh lung, do you become a good 
sort of a learned man, and not a worthless sort of 
a learned man. See th* |^ =2' ^^^ ?*• 

To moisten;, to be wet with dew or rain, 
Jjfi te i^ '-^ ^ to go about anything 
ilowly, like the slow dripping of water. 

A short jacket. Put pck |6 k'hwa "^ S| " 
im fr'^ ^ u"" fl>ans ch'hung Iwdn, liy ,"a 
kap kwiin, do not make short Jackets and 

petticoats of silk. 

■ _j, ..^>_ A child, an infant. 3t cho6 k'hd kaou 

"^^ 4rfrt '^^^^' '** *'^"'' ^'" '^ *'' '"• 

wllfi^ (I sec) my lad! that you ace teachable. 
Said by an old man to ?M M TSe^ Hang, when 
he had complied with bis request to pick up his 
shoe from under a bridge, and afterwards was willing; 
to assist him in putting it on. 
•^.^^^^ Le6nje ^ yiTn , Irirklinjj down, as tears. 
Je Wvjn T'hdy lew li-£n jC JJj ^^ ^ .;jfj| , laSu 
\| " '▼ bak chat leinjt, the tears flowed trickling 





^B,_aM A connective paTticl&; and, but, also ; you. 

FjjYl "'^'^' j^ '^ *'p •^•'^ ^ .ii {!# W Z ' 

I I f J ChakjiSdngs siviun sip e, to learn, and 
-constantly to exercise one's-self in it. See the Jq 

Seang lun. 

Choo-loe IT- ^fe asked Confucius about firmness; 
when Confucius replied, do you mean the firmness 
of the north country, or the firmness of the south 
country,— ekjekeange ifCp jfj] ?| ^ ^ a se le dy 
kedng, or your own iirraness. See the m fj" Teung 




The hem of a garment. 

Strong wine. 


To boil thoroughly. Swan-keng je Fefin, 
chae hoojEhim hwan putsiiuk p| ^^ 

Swan-hong no ne£"S', chai hoo che Mm cheo^S bey seh 
in the second year of Swan-kong, the royal cook 
boiled a bear's palm, and did not boil it thoroughly. — 
See the "^ |^ Cho twin. 

.% Se j6 ^Q fl^ J a moment. TS yea chea, 

Je XjB putk^6sejel6yHif {{i:^-,:;f;Ti]" 

^ X^ ^^ jli II ^ , /5 'e dy ^0-0, vF Chang 

chit hale nMy^Ti U Whwui/, the right way must not be 

quitted for a moment. See the Tp ^" Teung yflng. 

Choo j€ ^E n3 , the name of a plant, 
which if plucked on the 9th day of the 
9th moon, and stuck in tlie hair, will 

banish all noxious influences. See the W. j^ =U 

Hong t'hoe ke. 



The part under the belly. Hwuy jg HP 
nW J fat, corpulent. 

To flatter. T'heem jfi g |^ , seep sey, 
to cringe to any one. Chek ch'ham 
t'heem been j6 che jln ch^ e B|J |& 

me, bin ching seep siy Idn dy Idng kabu, then slander- 
ing, flattering, and sycophantic persons would come 
( around the prince ). See ^ Jj- Beog cbod. 

x»^^ Vulg. siy ke"d: a child, a boy, an infant. 

Je ^tr "'^ ^'"' I"' ^^^ J^ *"" ^"^ 52, ^ 'ifi* 

X ^^ ^ $^^t\%' ''^"^ *"" ^'' '""'' *'^"'' 
«an dy hok, posterity will certainly obtain the measure 

of happiness that belongs to posterity. 

— » it Kin jg ^jm^ Jh, a beautiful gem, a precious 

jg tS/*' ^'"'>'^- "^y I'utjefim je p ;f^:jife ^, 

•'^^ H\\ *^y 'eim fcd jei/B j^ g'eu/l;, a slight flaw 
does not spoil the gem. 
^^i,^ Sick, a sickness. Hoo boe seng gno, ho6 

^n*J ■ ^JM> Vdy boi sai^S gwd, s"d soo hoe gwa 

an niy cKhdm, my parents have brought me forth, 

but why have they indicted on me such pain. 

% ^ The name of a tree; whose blossoms fall 

Je jl^jSpp like pieces of money. Tarn jd chek been 

1 n\\ put y-euk kak pj^ ^ |ij fj^ ;f, ;^^ 

*^« J ch'edh j& chek k'hwiin a'" a^ cKhai"S^ on eating 
of the ji trees a person sleeps without desiring to 
"^ J\. To step over, to transgress, to overstep, 

Je J5^(^ *° g° "^"^ J^ ^ I'O'' 5^ ^ J^, '""^-y 
t»P- i!ii ' * '^ ■'^"'^ '^*«*.y' he crossed the river Lok. 


jit gwat j8 ma6 Q ^ ^ j^ j jV' ffi^i/A W Wey, 
the dajrs and months are passing away. 


The same as the preceding. 


fl'Ckif To change, to alter. 

A boat made out of a hollow tree. 

Clothes ornamented with feathers. 



• . , , , '... . . : ■- ■ '1 
B^^^ To lead, to .draw;, also, to- spread abroad 

M|| a fame or report, 

Old rotten clothes, used as oakum, for 
caulking boats, and stopping leaks. 

Tlie name of a river. Ch'he je ^5. ™J^ 
damp and low. 

A learned man, & scholart-th« same as 



g je. ChoQ j6 

a dwarf. 

A. dwarf, a dimiff^tivle' perfion ; aUo, the 
saroe >^^|^ j'^'> a. child. 

K'hae j§, to desire in- ol>tain arijithing, to 
peep at, to spy w|th a wish to-obtaiu. 
iBo6 k'h«6 j« 6 k«w heng |lE gji |gJ 
W ^ ^ , *''* fiiaou li'hw"i bang leH'^, i kha 
heaou heng, do not peep and long, in order to ob- 
tain some lucky chance. 

Pa je 2 HjA^ the name of a song. The 
■ jSji't jftjfj to clap the bandVaiid Ibugh. 



To bore a hole through a plank for a. 
^^v j^ door way \ to perforate anything, i(\ 
I^Vw order to get through by stealth. iA 
ch'hiiang ^ ^ , „ooj»ff kiiiy ch'hSif, U> creep ' 
through a hole in the wall. 

He who is outwardly and inwardly foul is said to^ 
be — yew ch'hwin j« tke *« Jea e ^ ^ ^ >^ 
IS 1ft M' "*'*'" c*eo''ff /'AaflK nooi"^ kSt» Aixh'h'at, 
like a thief who bores lii» way through a fence 
and creeps in. See the pp =5 Luu g6. 

MA inaltrass formed of horse htir. K'hcak 

■ ^ >^ Roots entwined together; to pull up 
^n^% togelhcii with the roots. A surname. 
3%^ Pwat WaOu lefin j6 ^ ^ ^ ^ , 
;)fl^h Ar'Ai Ad'" d (d'ffft Aim /.-/n, in pulling up the 
long grass, you should pull up the roots with it. 
3 X 

low niog « , ' '*'• at 

c:\htyA ^., v.. : >>itl 

The name ot a tree. -JriwJ j>" 

~I^i:i! (It -'.•tiiljfi'niofc nwij hrtu .V^^ t«nA-> t^lk 9 i*'-A «5M 

,^^^ Vttig,. lla^ two.; 35 si'ft! ~.-4-'jijf chJxp, 

"C ^^^^^ twenty. Stp je -j- ^j cAap je, twelve. 

Je chija yit cbe tiiy ^ ^ -i-i' ^^^ 

ji se chit iy loiy^ two is the opposite of one. : 

^egofi y6w put cljeujf 11. ^ '^ 7(^ ^' *'^ ^^ 

gwi yid fl'" Aupu, two-tenth» are nut soflicient for 

me, ( haw much less oue-tenth } ) See the TT ^ 

I .Hi* liixi. ., ' 

! ci{ i.lrii ,T^,,. ;ni:.' >.i I -IIJ •.■,.. 1 ..' .' \ ,.u ■■■' \ !• ... 

Je .^|n_ assist ; to be involved in. Soo-ma-ch'h(*en 

' \ry ^ Wi ^ "'*""='« i-«-'«'«g ^ 1^ 

'for sobmiltiiig to the barbarians and tlitrcby dis- 
grattng his familji. addia^, — j6 |>ok ySw j? che 

ch^4« .it p ^ X f^ 2 i 1 . i^^-'* i*- 
. f^ ji e. 16k i^tt KiiQO, I, also, in consequence, am 

inrutved in thfc silk-worm's house, ( i. «.' tiie priwta. ) 
Ip^ The large form of _^ je, two ; also, to 
*B yr» \ '>!ive a double mind; to suspeCt. Jim 
J^\ \ hiifin Ijiit je ^ ^ ^ ^ ifn. ^ng 
.' gain l&ng it"* CA^ng' j£ <im f, . in employing clever 
men, do not treat then with a double head (i; e. 
- do not entertain suspicions of them.) 

1^ Je kek ||C mm , a sour AiU tree. Siia 
kfi go6 kay, jfi yiing kfi je kek^J^l 

fe \% M^l%^ ^' P'"S ''*^* 
kak e iy got kiy, je ch'hi e dy ji kek, to give up; 

the fine timber of the gofi-k4y, and to keep merely 

a sour dale tree. Sec ^[ -jf- Hcng-choo. 

Je'/|3\ '^° assist, and benefit ;. to stand by. 
/JhV g'"ssy. shining. 

A bait for augUng y the same aa Ss je. 






Je long TH Jg , a gem worn dangling 
before the ear. Nae hay teen k'hd chom 

teen k'hi e Ay chom je, and ttien descending the hall, 
he laid aside his hair-pin and «ar-gems. 



A. hait for anglings 

To inform, to announce, to make "known. 
Sew kaou beng je kok to jea ^ ^J 

0B fii PI jM ill ' '^"^ *^ *«»«: ''«'*''« 
je, ii kok hy to, to receive instruction well, and to 
give clear orders is 'the way -sf 4-uling a nation. 


"' m^ 


^J^ K'hwan je *M )^ , slowly, leisurely, at 
ease. CUiek goe chin t'hoey k^he put 
ch'heak ch'Heak Jeen, yew e je chae 

chek gwd chin t'hey, k'ham u™ k'hw'^ k'hw"aiy yeo"^, 

jcwd. woo ch'hun iy jeauu je chae, thus with respect 

to my entering on or retiring from oflSce, how 

^an I not be free, unrestrained, and abundantly at 

^.iPiy .^ase;?; ^ee ^& ■+■ BcngM:hoa,.. 

To inform, to annornicCi to' iftstnict. A 




surname., Seng jin seet kaou, hwiry pit 
kay je, jfi hOe heaou -yei ^ ^ ^ 

ic. # ')l^ 'M- ^m ffij f* "^'^'^'"'SJin -;' 
ka 'hvth, fl*" «ae ■taU Iteng ch'ho« k'hi: kiing, j& tak 
<mooi"S k'he hedou beng, the sages, having appointed 
nitbe methods of instruction, rdo not need to inform 
'!»ve»y family of them, and to make them kAown at 
every door. 

^«^ Short garments. Je hat ;|g |^ ^ hairy 

I ^&IPr garments. H4n chiia 15 twin je ^ 

I J£2^ ^ ^Ij -)^ |a ' ''■«'"'« ^y "^"S « yeah 

tiy s^a, when people are cold, they will be .glad 

even of a coarse short jacktft. 

Read joo: a character, a letter. Seiing 
koe be jew bun joo f^. tj" Tlv ^ 
"dr £3- s'eang koi dy Idng hbey woo Mnje, 


the early ancients had no characters — till in tjie time 
«f§ ^ HCng tey, B. C. 2822, ^ ^ Gh'hong- 
k'heet first invented them. 
Sit joo =^ Si J bal je, to know how to read. 




Read chea:: to screen, to bide, to (heater. 

The sound of answering, a reply, aa 

To answer respectfully. Ch'heang jea 

Pa flS ch'heo"^ jea, to bow witlioul 

iVJ^ kneeling down ; also written [^ jiia. 



DeceMiil, ndisordered ; also, to excite, 
to 'bring <on, to stir up, to enkindle. 
"iVV^ Ji-a noe:^^,jeo l&ng &y sew k'h^, 
to stir up one's wrath. 

H"6 jea so5 f^ ^, ^, «^ie« »»»' f"'*'* "^ "»*'''"« 


To as«jnl, to Tj( to : also read jiJii. 





A surname. 


Vulg. Tin: if, like as, suppose; a fra- 
rantherb-, obedient. Jiiak bo6 choiiy 

>43 jS chew S06 tEy ^|l§ H ]fn "^l 
^j^, ch^hin Cheops hi choey,Ji chew kdouse dy ley, 
like one who has committed no fault, and yet 
proceeds to the place of slaughter. See the _|^ "jg| 
Seang beng. 

Jek seng e jin, chek goS k"he kam y^ ^ M 
K~' Bll "^" W fflf > ''''''"' ch'ed"S seng kwa jin, 
chek gwd k'H k"d, but if you speak of being a 
sage, or benevolent, then how dare I presume to 
that; —said by Confucius. 



y/rJt* '^^"'' J**'' f^ ^ J *'"' ^"^" surface 
jak '■^^ -of bamboo. Je'' "' "^^ 

Jek lip ^^,teki4sl', 
a bamboo hat. 


Lwanjcak ^^ |^, nool"? cfce'V.weak, 
fee?I)le. J«akl<oe put k'hA <; tek ke&ng 

'che"d koi fein bet/ Hiy left ¥e&ng ling, the weak 
certainly ca.nnot oppose the ^rong. See ^T -+• 



Poe jeak yj^ 

a Icind of ree4 or 

The name -of a rivers -also reed lac, to 

.1 -^ 
A clod of earth ■; « ptot of ^ronnd -. 

the loose earth on Qie sarfare of 

the ground, tloo yin, siiing %\i ko 

Jeang L; 

jeang, hay yim Wing chwAn ^ fej J^ "^ ^1^ 
i|^ "J* ^ ^ -^ , Aoo /'»o<? kin, ling bin che'ith 
ta i.y Vhoi, hag liy Um u)ut"^ chu''i, -nirtr the 
earth ^opm, «bove eats ihe light clods, and be- 
low drinks the jellow fountaimr-(and is thus 
independent of every one. ) See '^ •3'- fieng- 





ciioo. ,y \ , , 

To disturb, to throw iato confusion. 
Jeang fi tik ^ ^ |/( , to con- 
found ttie barbarians. 

To make a noise, to baivl «Bt in. 
cessanlly with a loud voke. 

Read jefingT chap jiiiing ^ y/J^ 
chap jeiinp, intcnnixed 4ii>d in con- ' 

To sfeal, to pilfer. Gofi tong yew 
tit kcung c4iea, k* hoo je&ng yftng, 
j6 choo chin cho S. <£* /6" v^ 

iy long woo chit iy te&ou tit &y ling, e iy ne6"S 
pay t'haou ling iy yii"^, ji hadu tai''S chu kan 



■ffAi^.e,^ \b our village there was a straight for> 
ward sort of a mail, whose father having stolen 
a sheep, ( the son ) appeared agatfu^, him as a 

See the §^ ^ LQn-g^. 

Much dew, a heavy deW; to be ranch 

J "A 

J "A 



wet witji . the dew. 

Rich, fun, aliusdant, plentiful, llong 
Ie6n jeang jiiang ^ ^ 1^^^^ ^ 
hu nei"S tang jeing jeing, a fruitful 
-season, what abundance docs it yield ! 

X sacrifice offered for the purpose 
of averting calamity. 

To -distil spirituous liquors; good 
strong Irqnor or wine. Beng-st-dug- 
kwun nae to jiiingchcw, mae hwiiy 

Bing-iedng-k-wun nai chiy jeing chtw, try pwdy iy^ 
got, Beng-seAng-kwuB distilled great quantities 
of liquor and bought fat oxen, ( in order to treat 
liis numerous guests.) 

Tong j«ft-ng HI M . fhe - v<K of 
I'he nRloD. 

Viilg. iiii'*e^ to yi«?W, to'g^ve njs 
to give way to, In relinqui'-h, hi 
recede. Siting jeing ^ =|| , »:<> 
ncS"*', to give way to>arh other. Chcnn-.; sin 
Jeing loe, put sit pek po5 i^ ^ ^ {^, !^ 

^^^ ' '■*^'' •* ""<■ "«»"* '»*• *'i' «'" '••""* 
rhil pHyh p-'l, -it M yowt life long yao grve wjy 
to people ill walking, you will not lose a hun- 
dred paces in the end. 



Claws talons, nails. K(5-hoo-<^ ongclie ' 

jeaou K-y if 5c -T i ;^ :/^ 

yj-* ^ Kt-hoo-6 it ing iy jfiou gay, 
K6-hoo-« was the king'* talonS and teetK. "Sife''' 
"le /|> /^ Scaou gnay. kmi \ "^ 




)ri::,ViV r. ^«»i.o-^<iV;'Htt"i(5r!iM,"io' the 
'- --Bllf '■■'■Wils; ■Cti6ni-(;ho6"y6i«''yit ch'he 
*^/IV yeen, Wiiy' 4 k'^Sat' jgaou, keen 
k'haou toe 6ng ^ IJ^t ;;^ ^ — ' f& ^« ^ 

Sl-^ g M I: J"^.^ 3£.- ^'^'*''" """ 

cAii cheah kadu, wHt/ i Ic'heak jUmtr /A"*"*^ ft'W ' ' 

hoe ingy Cbong-cboQ had an ape, wh^Hiy his easy 

antics a^d constant scratchin^v, shewed his agility 

to the king. ^. , ... , . . ,:i 

To di&tflrfi, ta throw jnlo <;))nfusion. 





Sb^pt w^rrtiS in 'the' inteStTiies. Gno, 

(ih6' ifit'tita I8i^y' ps^i^fto* MoSy 


Kan ko jeaou jiiang ' 

military weapons turanUuously bran- 

Jeaou ZX^T^ 

dished about. ^, .„:,;,•>.•> ,-",..-'...- 

To surround, to twin&fottBd. l!ipp^n( 




_,_ jijaou ||J^> *" e"*'*'"^ *""• ''i- 
^y Q ti*ng|c. qhjeilngseng. 800 been swan 

jeaou po,k:kek ^ 1. B SJ MM^^ fe' 
ch^iing ch'hai'^S si bin sw&n jeaou paU kek; all the 

stars on every side x^ojye rofind the north star. 
V.V :-^ U 

Ta scratch, to, QJaw^ ta tear with the 



!»i Jfi^ii'xl i>iis ^.1' !•■ 1 ! > 
Wrinkled, furrowed. BSen jiJaou 

ffi ^ J **" j"^""' ^ wrinkled face. 
Hong ch'huy leuk sfty.siy jeaou been 

cfctiy, cAjiy chew woo Jeaou Ay bin, when the wind 
blows over the green waters, they get a wrinkled 


Jeaou sey 


Jeaou > 

Vulg. je6 : a short pddle^ for row- 
l"^!"' ing a boat 

Keaou jelkou ^S ^^ winnings hand- 
f/Kf^ some, agreeable. 

To sprinkle, to rinse ; also, thin. 

J,:;:r:^i&)f chit. Jin lae pe&^S t^y f Adn^, the inside 
-Mfi.J ^my !S*b«l*J»0^» «.tWfldintQ short worms. 

Jeaou g6 is -fS , 9, smalj, Kind of 

^ !. *%!l,t -jjoqfio l"un«.i ifitttiijTJ? 

Full, abundant, rich, ^ferfeRif A 

surname. Ta5 heang, put .bun pok, 

put jeaou hod ;i^^.!^P r* 

■^^m^, twa cKheH Idvg k'hSt^, a^mooi"^ 

" feast, do not enquire about ora«ies, nO* dis^ 
linguish the rich and full'. See th«i- ^ if 

To furrow» to wrinkjfif. Wuk s4.Jl, 


OT^ bQd' yew, hong jeaou beSri 4^^^ j^ 

kZn W. fto^'j^^"" ¥«. the. ^reen wafers are 

;;;;;;;n.t uoubied,,but;it iyh«.«Sf:.^^!^^^^^ 

their facei, 11 ,,,(( ^\^,^ .,■„,/(-; .frr.-tovf ilKfi'' 

To riimpl'^ up dniicthlti^, ' of' to wtin- 
l.> id'ifMHxj'jbii' 

kle it -, crape. 

'hiiJ?.i!i oT 

Vulg. jeo •• flriie. 
xll bninA 





1 1_ A union of two characters, — je chap 
■ll" ^-4-jjV«ft, signifying twenty. 

Vulg. 7wi''S-- t°' '»?«• J"*^^™ '^•'^ 

lour. Vulg. b'ak, to soil, to dirty^. 
Jg^iT woo ^ ^ , bak to sdm. t« be soiled 

KEw ji-6m woo seuk. him e wfly sin ^ ^ 

iifhottS>&uk, fa cho po6 si sin, before he was. 






befouled with filthy habits, bnt now he is altoge- 
ther renovated. See the ^ ^ Seo"? se. 

<^55r The same as the preceding. 


Weak, feeble i also, a surname ;— Con- 
fucius bad two disciples of this clan. 
Jeem-cho6 t'hoSy teftou^ ^ 5^ 
.^H , Jeim-choo fUy leiou, Ji;6m-cho6 retired 
from the audience. Also written ^ jeem. 

Jeem ^^ 

A beard. 



J e'en 

J e'en 

im i'cim ^ SE, weak, lither, pliant ; 
exuberant herbage. 

The people of •J^ "^ Hwafi-lftra 
call their mothers jeem, mother ! 

> A small sour date tree » also, to defile; 

to dye various colours. 

to trample on, 

Jew jecn 
to tread under foot. 

^.% To burn, to inflame; also, adisjunc- 
^TW^^ t'vc particle, — but, if, if it is thus, 
^^ \ \ thus : right, yes, it is so. K6 jiifin 

ffi ^ii ^ indeed ! Suy jcfin ^^ ^ , although. 

Jeak h"© che »6 je*n, chwftn che sc tat ^ 

^ ^ ii^ a ^ :^ i^ 1' '*''"■'• ^*^^:' 

hoty iy khi t'hiou ISh, chw"d ay k'hi t'hadu tat, 
like fire when it begins to burn, or water when 
it begins to flow. See ^ -^ Beng-choo. 
Jijgn chek Kwan-teOng te I6y ho5 ^k ^ij ^ 
Ydl ^p |ffl ^ , no si, chek Kain-tHUng bat Iky 
hoe, but then does Kwan-teung understand pro- 
priety ? 

3t Y 

Ke jijfin,— k'h6 kg jeSn ho5 Jlt ^ "^ Jt ^ 
.3^ J e se an niy, e k'ham se an nty, is he thus? 
how can he be thu.sf See the Im B§ Lun ge. 



To burn, to inflame. 

iifi>il)iw - 
Dog's flesh ; commonly, but impro- 
perly used for wi jefin. 

To tread under feet. 

Vulg. It, and I06 : you; also read je, , 
which see. Jee°5 wQy je6"S, gnd 
wfly gn6, suy tin t'hek k6 t«ng, i 
gnd ch'bek, je£"o y«:«n ICng bo<y gn6 chac 

gwi chd gvd, suy li peih ch'hiie wui''S loe tin' 

Chiy, Whea II gwd sin pee'V, U bSiyh an chw^d ey 

bak la tim gvd chal, you are you, and I am I, — 

and though you were a poor person with »leev«i ' 

turned up, or entirely naked, standing at ni)- side, ' 

yet how could you defile me. See 3: ^\, 


■~» ^ t ■ A parental shrine, a temple in »hicllv 
Jee^ff |||Wm| a father is worshipped. Scngth'hcng" 
'I • IV *'"°' *°* ch'heng k'b6, j'ip beaou 

tH W ' "'^ '^ ch'heng hoe piy, ,t cheai 
ch'heng hoi k'hn, kdou jip ieo chew ch'heng htii 
jei"^, when alive a parent is called father, when 
dead k'bo, and when brought into a temple to 
be worshipped, jei"S. 
^r| TaGu jec^K Q^ ^^ a preparation of 

•J^rCk The cheek bones, the bones on the 

Jeep 'ffffi 

jce"S 2p ^^ goi te„g^ cow's niiH,. 

side of the face. 











jwdh t'hee"^, hot weather. Suy 16ng 
Lr^^^ chip jeet, se put ^ chok ^|| H^ 

^ '7^ 3^ ^ &,M'''''^ ^^^^ ^^ ffTmiKiifc ^j^ 
me'i''h, ni h6 ity cWhiva, who can take hold 
of hot things without first wetting his hands ? 

To work anything up with the hands ; 
to knead (as dough); to squeeze. 

To pursue, to follow, to chase. 

V Because, then, as, ashefore. Jeng 

/TA| k&wiPl <f^ ^jing ko6, as formerly. 

S/ J Kc klu jeng chin '^ || ^/^ ||. 

kS i/eaou ling koo kabii, hunger and famine came 

as liefore. Also read jeQng which see. 

Read jeSou : a small paddle for row- 
ing or steering a boat. 

i3 ''"'^' 

je&ou: urine; also written ^H 

S ^ , Pe^-^ Seuk-cUp U boiyh k&ng e dy 
Sim chi, M baiyh jeuk e Ay hin sin, Pek-g and 
S6uk-ch6y would not lower their views, nor 
degrade their persons. See the |p |^ Lun ge. 

I ^ - ^ Grass springing up again ; also, a'straw 

J^''^^ ^ .at. ^^ 

^ , ^ Damp and hot ; moist. Lim bo6 put 
u™ Idm, a forest is always damp. 


Jeuk ^ /r^^ Ornamented with various colours. 





Read ch'heuk ; crooked, contracted, 
not stretched out. 'Vf "i \ 

To work up anything with the hands ; 
to knead (as dough); also read jek. 

To chase, to pursue, to follow after. 
^|_.^^ Choe siiang jeuk ^ ;|^ jj^ ^ chadu 
M ZI^O seo jeuk, to run after one another, 
in play. 

- To disgrace, to put to shame. LSng 
/T^? ieuk y^M to degrade. Pek-6 
"w I Seuk-chgy putkangkS che, putjeuk 

Keep-jeuk wX MK ^ the name of a 

Vulg. MA; flesh. Kwut jiiuk »^ ^^ 
lyjl^l bone and flesh, anything near and 
9^ -yg dear. Gnoe chong c ke, j6 hoe 

seng jeik ji i| £- ^ ifl) ft ^ f^ ^ ^"^ 
chong i led pe, jiin auu sai^S btih, when the 
five viscera are in good order, then the flesh 
will begin to grow. Said by fe« ^ Kwan-choo. 








\ contracted form of the preceding. 

. To cut with a knife ; a sabre wound. 

Damp and hot ; the same as ](§ jeuk. 


Many, numerous; also, the same as ^B r 



291 JEW 


^J,^ Vulg.jeinff: intermixed, in "confusion -, 
Mm dispersed •, supernumerary ; ruinous. 

^ ^^ Jeiing w4n 'jt' B ft iupernume- 
rary oflScer, one who has received his title, but 
is waiting for an appointment. 
WQy cheng chae k'hd sara je6ng i^ ]^ /fc 
■^ .^ 'j\, ^ ckd ching too chae k'hi t'hek kak 
t a dy jBAng, the practice of government con- 
sists in excluding the three ruinous measures, 
( i. e. having loo many ofScers of government^ too 
great a standing army, and too many public 
worlts. ) 

J.eUDg '1 ^1 _ Low, I vulgar, mean. 

\ A surname ; the surname of the ru- 
lers of Ihe jffl Seang dynasty. 


Because, according to, as before; 

Jednff I /^^ repeated. Also read j^ng. Jeflng 

kSw kwin jfi che hO ^ ^ ^ 

tJp "f/^ |jjt , j'edng koi ij/ tod, chi ni, if it is 

done as before, how will that do .» See the 

f^ Wi LOn g6. 

Kit suy Idy jeQng i JJg J^. ^J*f^hd Ay teaou 
chap chap leing hok, lucky omens constantly 




A race of people with three horns. 

Soldiers, troops; you; also, a foreign 
nation on the west. A surname. 
Seen j!n kaou bin ch'hit liifin, ek 
k-hoj cbek jeung ^ ^. A ^ ^ ±: % 

kaou ch'hil ne^^, yei I'hang i chek fdlng, when 
a clever roan instructs the people for seven years, 
they can then be employed as soldiers. See the 

Fine silk threads; also, fine cloth, 
woollen cloth. 


Jeimg- 14 Y 






■\'*n f-jti^ 

Grass growing luxuriantly ; in con- 
fusion ; rough ; rumpled together. 
Ho6 kflw bongjiJung JI\t^ ^ ^^ 
hoi It iy hiw bing Jedng, a fo.\-skiu dress, with 
the fur rough and in ctmfusiou. 

The noise of buildia°^ a wall; the 
Chinese in Hok-keen generally build 
their walls of mud, which is pounded 
and beaten lietwecn two boards fastened together, 
and jeung is supposed tu be Ihc sound of the 
thumping and pounding. Also, numerous. 

The name of a tree. 

The small feathers of birds, or soft hair 
of beasts ( down. Neftou sew jeflng 
•"^ $1 Tlk ^ ^^ehciou kap Un, 

iy jtdng md, birds' and beasts' down and soft 

hair. See the ^ ^ GCaou tiifin. 

Thick, solid, substantial. 

The name of an animal, like an ape, 
with shaggy hair, and of a yellow 
red colour, Ihc skin of which is 
used for making saddles^ 

Adorned with feathers. 


To tread on, to trample; also, to 
rub out the grain from the husk. 
E k'he seang jew cheen -^ i§f ;jf| 







rest of the horsemen trampled on one another. 
See the ^ |^ So6 ke. 

Hek p6 hek j6w ^ ^ fi^ ^ , """^ ''•3' '" 
pte^ ch'hek, woo dy titjiw, some were winnowing 
the grain, and some rubbing it out of the husk. 
See the -^ Jft Tae gnay. 

To bend anything with the hand s to 
curve, to warp. Jew bok wfly jiiey 

to curve a piece of wood in order to make a 
plough handle. See the Mj i^ leaA keng. 

To mix, to intermingle; mixed and in 

To bend a piece of timber by means of 
fire. The same as i^ jew. 






The trace of a wild beast's paw on 
the ground; a three cornered spear; 
a lofty spirit. Also written pj jew. 

Soft, pliable. J^'^Jeak^^S weak, 
pliant. Jew sun ^J)^^ obedient. 
Tim chefim kong k'hek, ko ben<j- 

jaw k'hek yjlC if 1 :^. ^ Bfl ^ ^ , al 

cheSm Ay l&ng t'eoh kong gnay k'hek ye"d e, ko 
b6ng dy l&ng ISSh jiw noot^S k'hek ye" d e, people 
whose minds are sunk and immersed must be 
attacked with harshness, but lofty and intelligent 
people with softness. 

The name of a river. 

Jew gg S5 -ijS , jiw hS, the cuttle-fish ; 
a fish without bones. 

The name of an insect; or, some say, a 
sort of ape. 


Obedient, pliable; easily bent; bent or 
curved with the hand. Jew ch'hoo 
ban pang ^ lH^ ^ ^ , ch'hongjiw 
sun che^d ban pang, to render obedient these my- 
riads of nations. See the "/C^ Tae gnay. 






■ui'A =5r((-) --'.? 

The countenance harmonious and smooth. 

To run. Jew jew, cho6 JS ^ ^, 
jew jew chadu, tp rao without stop- 

_ , Chanjim 

j^J jfrt^- i'hun Hn, patient, to bear patiently. 
^V^^ Kwan-teung bSng kwun soo sew, jim 
sira hae le, put k'ho wuy J'" ^ f»|» /^ ^ ^ 
H. ^. iUN 8 ® . ^ "^ 11 ^ ' ^™^ 
bey kijin kwun, hok sae kiw »&w, chdnjim dy sim hae 
Id li, a™ Vhang kong sejin, Kwan-tiJung forgot bis 
prince and served his enemies, with a cruel mind 
oulra<'in<' reason itself, and therefore cannot be 
called benevolent. 
Jim che se jS, nae chwin je k'he ^» ^ ^ 

^ /jf '1^ Hr ^H ' '*^" " '^"^ ^ *"''' ""* ^^ chwdn 
le dy Mn sin, bear it patiently but a little while,/ 

and then you will come off with a whole skin. 

4i: H 

uinility of mind; thus, in this way. 

Ripe corn ; the harvest, which comes 
but once a year. Put kip gnoe jim 

goe kwdy, it did not extend to five harvests. See 
the ;^ ^ Cho twan. 


» ^ Dressed food ; food thoroughly cooked. 
^Illii Sit jim put S't -^ |I ^ -^, ni 

f^— ■• b6 che too ho e a"' che'dh, if the food 
was not well dressed, he (Confucius) would not 
eat it. Sec the 1^ |S Lun g6. 










-^ - The lappet of a coat, the breast of a 

jfjt^r^ coat which laps over. Bd Kwaa-teung, 

||\J» goS k« pe hwat ch« jtni e ^ '^ jl|». 

gwdn dy ling clieu: pe Chaoumo, U ck'hew ping kat 
jim e, if it had not been for Kwan-teung (beating 
off the barbarians), we should have been obliged 
to twist our hair, and button the lappets of our 
coats on the left side ;— (said by Confucius in the 
WW ^3E LOn ge. The ancient Chinese used to 
allow all their hair to grow, and fastened their 
dresses in front? hut since their subjection by the . 
Tartars they have been oblige4,.to adopt the customs' 
which Confucius so much deprecated ). Also 
written ;^|£ jim. 


lissome, pliable. Jim jcem /^ 

, soft and yielding. 

Jim long ^^ ^^ , ^ tncdicif^l plant. 


••^P One of the horary characters. 
^^^^ great, full. 

i To bear, to sustain, to bear as,a burden, 

-^ I - to undertake. Jin k wOy ke jim, 
I -*• put ek teOng hoS /f^ i^i jg^ g^ ft 

^ 'K^^^ ' jVn tekhchA,ka U ii/jim l"^, u" 
ijed tans hoe, to take the task of bencvulcnrc upon 
ourselves for our burthen, would it not be heavy? 


k-wiii/ na Jim, our master's wall is several fathoms 
high: (and therefore he is not 'to be overlooked 
by little people ). See the =jH I§ Lub ge. 

A burden, a weight,' that Which is sustain- 
ed; an office. ' A surname. E't'hiien 
hay wflyk6jlmj^7^-(^^e^ 
^ lekh t'hee^S ay ehi ka U iy jim, ho took the 
whole weight of the Empire upon him as his 
burthen. ' 

TeQng jim ^ ^ , lung Jim, a heavy burthen. 
Kwuy j'm ^ ^ J tooi"*" lot Jim, he returned to 
his office. V x ■ ' 






That which i^ conceived, ' ilie foetus 
in the womb. Also wriHen -Mf jTtn. 

See the =i 

=S LQn ge. 
pp " 



ChiJung no5i4njim ^' ^ |§ '^ , cheitng ling 
Ay tew k^ki Sh ("a, the anger of the multitude is 
hard to be borne. See the ^ 'f^ Ch6 twiin. 

To be pregnant, to conceive in the 

A measure of eight fceti a fathom. Hoo 
choo che cheftng sbc jim >h^ 3. -4^ 

^^ ^ 1^ > '"" '■'"' '■'""' '^ <•*'*«■'"*■ 

A sharp weapon. Hong jim ^ ^ . 

a sharp-pointed weapon. Peng jim ke 

cheep & ^ IJ tj^ ■ P^fr '« '-■oou 

tea keou cheep, when the sw<(nis and weapons 

crossed each other (in battU)'. 'See tlie' f*' ^ 

Seing beng. " "^ . ,; 

Full, roplelc. Ote jtm »« yl'aV '^-N j|jg 
ft ^j o" f**"* 'mw''d'i( tli tii, 
how full it it oftjiiinping &«hisl^ Sec 
Tae gnay. T' 

' I '1'. '• '._ i -l;. I l\ til' II III 

To borr(v«-« to hire, to eniplov nnv one 

' ' .' \'~ ■'"" -_;iini'if ' r'i .- 
for inoiiey. Sin wfly jjn yfliig jTra 

yiing ch'he''i. I am a prr^on hired by otners. J'^uid 
'•> ^ D^ »'"5n-chhe. " ^ 

% Anything hindering the pro^-st. 6f a 

Jim tJ-lJl chairiot; a stop ob' the wheels,' which 

''T^>0 when taken away allows the 'tlh'ariut 

to proceed. 

p A threads anything that may be put 

Jim tokUM through a needle, in order to sew with. 

flySf E iiJ4ng teng li-et jim choin chhen^' 

yln ched"S ling lelh, th»yh iw^i eheem <h'tii"a lai 




j»i>* l\oat, the apparel ibeing ragged and tarn, pray 
let us take a needle and, thread, : and nieiid it. 

Sea the |j||£ Ley kd. , , ■ : ;.l ,' 

^ To iq^ak slowly g.nd cautiously, to be 

Jim — jTl guarded in conversation, Jin cbSa k6 

L p./5f gan yga Jim f^ ^ ^ •= i^ f^ ' 

Jin ds/ Idngg e 4y kong w&yH J^JP* '» yir^uoits man 
speaks with cautioR wd i;epeiivp.| iS,ep„the,i=gj, g^ 


.ii-iili iii<i 



Fm/ / '^**^^» to., look "^^ ^Tj^ "I ft '." ">I 

■ >i(l 

7 li;(fl' tf^A— . 

what? 4Mfc » l apn 



. >^^^ t» j»o lAttg^ a male Jierson. -L^ iin -J^ 

A J cha bo^l&ffg, a fciuale person. 
Jip wfty ban but cbe Ifing J\ /^ || ^^J ^ 
^ , Wng. »«. *Sn me?"/* di> '^nff, roaii is tlje soul 
of all things^ ( or tjie most intelligent of creatures. ) 
Jin che s6y 6 5 S k'bim sdw che4, fcf he ^ "^ 

e kSh yeSPS ( k^him tita dj), se bo jwa chey, that 
by which man is distinguished from the hrute& is 
very trifling. See ^ Z^ Beng-chao. 

Benevolence, ylrltte \ affection ; to love ; 
the seed of fruits.. JUv chija sim che 
tek, ae che 16 ^ik "111:^^1^1 ^ 
:^ ^ ^ 3g .[j^ jjin se rim km^a l^y tek hen^, 
ad Idng dy to Uy benevolence is the virtu6. of the , 
mii»d, and the principle of lave. Said by ^ -J. 
TSng-choo. .,,,1010 ..t 

Heng jln ^ j^ ^ alm^mds. TU jta || /^ , 
the kernel ot tke peach. 
% -t To acertain, to recognize, to ackaow- 

ledge, \o confess. Put jln X^ 

X^iSmi^ a"* jlB, to deny 


Lira soo put jv« obtn, k'he chTn teung che to. hoe 

sou nd li'" Jin chin, k'ham se chin liiung dy to hoe, 
when anything happens, not to ascertain the truth, 
how is this tfae vay to fal^l the duty of fidelity ? 

:; :!jin tek gno mtth ^ ^^ ^^ ^> J"*'' ^'' ff"'" * 
liigy, do you recognize me? 
! lin cbij^y. ^ M,j t<> fi»nfe»»,ffiip> faulls. 

,^ill (ii»i(bir!-..,-) .^ i)!ii')~i;bi» rivl sill 

JJP i.vt \i To tun, to folbw after. 

I T 't '" ■""'"A ■'' ■>■'•'' '''■'■■^ ■■" '.■iiKi. 

_jjill /l iM^B^TIiix t: „li •) -Jill',, 111 (I :tiiint 111' i-f;*'*'n!>,„-^i ^i'-irb'^rtijW'fei»''tiir«'r^^^iv^:^''s>yjip 

JijM/ .^l^... j^^^ .jjjj.^i^j.g_ yjp c^gk i,a^„_ 
ch'hut chck t5y -^ pi] ^^ ||J 

"' ,^ > •''^ '^*^* t&Sh vioa. Aa4u, ck'ftoi cW.* /gSft g-aflft 
cAa (teu te, on entering he filjal, jut^ ott^ going' 
out fraternal. See the _J^ ^m Sean^ lun. 



To. receive, to take in,. 







u.-v: natott 3(lJ M 'lyO 

The sun •, a day. Jit tniog jQ ^ 

jit t'haou, the sun. Jit gnoe R -4^ 

jfl taoii, lioon day. Jit kan Q fM 

'\ d,j(. ,i<t j'j ig , evei;y day, 

ehey jglik pu* ch'hut sara jit, ch'hut sam j'it put 

sit che e^^;^tljaH. [11=0^ 
.A. -y ^ ^ chiy dy bah u^ ch'hut s"a Ji't^ ch'hut 

*"« jit cheta fi™ chetih e, the sacrificial meat was 

not to be kept- over three days, and when it was 

kept over that time, (Confucius) would not eat 

Every day, clotji^js, cap^mon dces,s ; tht 
inner dress of females. 

A post horse. Yfiw jit ||f| 
courier's horse. ' » 





Fruib and' flowers displajing thelf blqs- 
■ i. / . 'Ill 
soms ; a note in music.^' \*-$^ 

The strings- of a bonnet hanging down. 
Kwan joSy, ^- ^6 ,. the tassel of a 

Ji,T^ To nib anyXhing to the hands; to 
y|-*xJ^ rumple anything u]j. 

Deep-and distant* clear and.intelligent, 
Joey le ^ ^ j wise ani clearer. 


The name af a. river,, w^ich. flow* t» 1 

the north. VK|*\ 



Af polluted' piece of iropd; med fur the 

handle of a> cbizcl. Jiiejr. «!titiok |^' 

^^ , a handle and'chizel,- which when 

apart are both, useless;, thus, used figuratively forJ^^ 

a useless person. , 

^ y^ At small kind of insect,, fomidaliout 

r iP'Y/fc I putrid and sour things. I^ey swan^ 

^ -^ ch'hod i>»ui''S ji jiiSff eha chip, when the 
vinegar is sour- the liUlc flies collect, aboat it. 

JSiy p^ 

A crooked' piece of wood, us«d as the 
handle of a plough. Hoo joey soo 
j6 cho5 Sotig che Teng ^ ^ f ^ 

Song kok cHe k^u Ting, bearing his plodfrh and 
ploughshare, he went from the Sdtog cMihlry to 
the Tfing country. See '5Er ^X' Bcng.-ehol^; 

The appearance of growing grass, 


Jl^ J^ Sharp-pointed \ a sharp-pointcd'weapon. 

^pY? Joey k'h6 |j> :^ , courage. Yitjin 

^JU, be6n chip joCy-;^^ lit ^, 

chit ling li bein glm joejf, a man wearing a crown 

^1 fitd iiolding s- sharp instriiment. , See the Tp 



'liio •)/Bil «'inid') •' ' 
Deep and stilltncjf mm, 

Vulg. leng : milk; alto, to>8it on eggs 
as a bird : read j6, which see. 





V.ulg.j'g^koharaoter,.! letter. - BQn joo^ 

jC,^ ^ f^ , ftiJn Ji, letters, literary' wri- 

^ ling*. Boo joo ite ^ , to'sootht'; 

aU^, to promise in nmrrjage. . l^ 

' Gh'hong.-k'heet sd lip bfln'^oo. che bflng •^ iS 

^ ilT- X ^ i^ ff^ ' a"*ojig-t'W*J k-hi l'ha,;u, 
ftp I/Ch-JB Ay yeo"S, Ch'hong-k'hcct was llic first 
who , %.%tidi |t^, /ttn^ft «f?.,, character*, ( U. C. 

Ho5 Riit ItoR jfl^ kV»l c»«>4' :$t >f* tl^ ^ 
m? -7* , P^ bin ig ^f"^'-* father not able 
to- soothe his ;child; Bee. the 'f^ ^ Sid"* le. 
Sip. lefin put joo -r* ^& .]i7\ 5? cknf hSig yea 
biey yiit Idng kiy, she is ten years of age, and 
not yet promised ia qiairiage. Soc the ^* iM 
Yeik keng. ,. -) j 

A. cow (the feorale of. the. oju 

Jan '«•'• jp^ ^, to moisten, to enrich ; 
to improve. Choo jun ^ 'jli^ > to 
mollify, to fatten, to cherish, to moisten. 
Jeak hoo jOn tek che, chek, chaE kwun € choo i 

ch'hin rAeS"* Jan tek e, chek It jln kwun kop li, 
but a-s to the enriching and improving: of these 
points, it rests entirely with the prince, and with. 
]rourtclf. See^; ^P» Beng-cho6t.;I ^ 

Pck-jun 1^ jljp^ J '•>« name of a place. 






|''Vulg./«n; intercalary. jQn gwat B3 
H , /«« goSt/h, an intercalary month. 
The Chinese have only about 360 days 
in the comnion year, consisting of twelve moons, 
hence they need an intercalary month, to make 
up the deficiency. 

^jVeak, !^ft, pl'^lde, tender ; also, young 
and handsome. 

The swne as the preceding. Wun jun 

^ soft and agreeable, gentle ; 

and harmonious.. .. ; 

.oyninsm ai uciiig)ia 
Read jeak : how. Jeak kan y£ ~f^ ; 

jusd chej/, how much. Jiiak kew S 
Ar^, JKa koi, how long. 

Read jeet". hot, fervid. Hdn jeet peng ^ 

^ ^ ' **""^ j"'^^ P"'"^' fever and 
^■^ V^ ague, Sam ch'hun che ch'hey, yim 
yang kaou ch6y, hSn k'he ke tfi, wun put rhe jeet 

Wl7f\ ^ ^ , *"" cirhun &y k'tii Chuott, ylm 
i&Hg kaou cMff, f:w''£ frhi kaiu ti, ■wun bo kaiu 
Jwkh, in the begiiioin^ of the three months of spring, 
when the male and female principles unite, then 
the cold air has just been excluded, arid the 
gentle warmth is not jet escessiveiy hot. 



Yulg. nooi'f; weak, soft, pliable. 
Ch'hey choo jwan ji-ak ^ Ii?.^»H3 
bue ke^u nooi^S che"a, my wife, and 
children are weak and feeble. 

_k ,_^ Weak, soft, — the original form of the 
Jwan ffltlO P'"e"ding. An ke jwan Ifln ik. ||, 

an easy carriage upofi soft wheels. 

Weak. Jwan le "ffS ■xt* , to send a pre-, 
sent to a daughter, three days after 
her marriage. '. ' 

j|rn Weak, soft, effeminate; young and 
%• handsome. 

Volg. hw^d: to rub atiythtlig between 

the hands; to wash by the hand. ■ 
• 'i! I ufii! '.'Ilmiiil j; , * . 

Soft silver 

■■ ::l i. i 

udl.iK'jI. ,,. 

if Il>i4n!' /. __^ f 
■_::■: i:.» {Mrnbnl,,,, fXfV^J->n\ 
KiJarigjwuY ^^' **"= root of gmger, 
when old and dry, — as distinguished 
from the ch"ho6 keang ^ ^, chei''S 
keo"', which is the young tender ginger plant. 



t^^ Read kaou-. glue. Gnew kaou i|^ ^ , 
IF^^ ^*'" *°' S'u« raide of cow's hide. G6 
'^■^ •'»''" j@, H^ yUku, fish glue. Se kaou 
lit HPj '■''"*'"' **' vegetaWp. ^.^ .j __. . 

% Read kaou •. to come in cOntacti together 
Afl -^V>^ ""^ across one another. Kaou cheen -^p 
_^^^^ pjj ka cheen, a pair of scissors. Kaou 
to ^ TJ , ka lo, shears. 

■ Kaon twan ^? 

ka too!i"S, to cut off with a 
pair of scissors. 

''"" '**'j^ ^rieai 'lift": kit pbey ± ^, ka piiey, 
Ka ■^"^ cotton, the cotton of which cloth is 
Read k'haoui'the back. K'haou chit 

chit kwat J^ -^ 

J ka cheih kuul. 




the back bone. K'baou chit hoc jW^ ^ -<^ ^ l:a 
cheiih aou, behind one's back. 

Read kang : — Kang jcaou yX ^ j «« 
cKhei, a small shell-fish. 

ead kaou : cunning, artful. Kaou cho 
A^ ^^ ''" '^^"^"■1 1 flea. 

Read kam : — kam t6ng se "t|* ^ ^j 
lea tang ch'hew, the narae of a tree. 

Read kaou : the name of a grass. Kaou 
cheen ^ 1^'; ka thing, a kind of mattrass, 
made of straw bound together, both 
soft, and warm to sleep on. 

Kaou pek ^ ^ , l:a pSi/h, the bandage which is 

tied round the Chinese women's feet, in order to 

prevent their growing large. 

J^Plf Rea<l kadu : — kaou I'ck ^ ^, I™ '''i'*- 

Ka ^jf^% * large sieve, or bamboo frame, for ex- 

^.^f^^^- posing corn or fruits to dry in the sun. 

Read k'ho : — k"h6 16 ^ :^ , ha id, a 
vessel for holding corn, in shape like 
a pig's loins, with a mouth to it, in 
ordci to shoot the corn. 

Read kea : — kea say ^ ^ ka »o.v, 
a surplice, a priest's robe, a long gown 
worn by the priest* of Buddha. 

^^ * ^ /j^ , to cut out clothes: the 
same as kaou '^ ka. 

_^- <^-t Read kaou : — as kaou long neaou 'i 
•Kfll "^Jb 1— -» 'fty p^^ ka ling chedeu, a magpie. Kaou 
^>*>V chuy 'j,| j||. ka chHt,, a dove. 


Kead kaou : — mi kaou J^ ^^, Mi) ka, 
iiii>^\k. squaliis or dog-fish. 



a fish with a large head 5 a species of 

Read kaou : — Kaou-lfw-pa p^ |1^ |J£, 
Ka-IA-pa, the Chinese name for the town 
of Batavia^ island of Java, 

Read k'hap: — k'liap suy 

e> ka chiietf, 

Xir^ 'o slumber, to dose, to go to sleep. 

Read kaou : to tie a string fast round 
|k\ anything, to strangle. Kaou so6 iif AU 
ka si, to kill by strangling. 

Read kaou : kew kaou JJC ^^ kiw kd, 
a severe pain in the stomach; a cholic. 

Read kadu : to instruct ; instruction, 
teaching. Kaou hwun ^T ^11, kk hwitn, 
to teach. 
Sin hfln kaou choo, kaou i gc hong ^ |t|^ wV 

leik kd i gc £j> htng hwat, I have heard that in 
teaching children, we should leach them by the rules 
of righteousness. See the /^ ^ Cho twin. 


Read kaou: Tcdng-kaou ^ ^ 
• ^ I ■ _ n"^-kil, the name of a place, in the 

^tl^ province of tg 5^ Hok-kifdn, in the 

'-■-■5 JJI ^^ 

county of J(^ ^1'J Cheang-chew, and in the 

district of ^ Jg I^m-cheng. Also written 

Teftng-kaou ^ ^ Tf^-kd. 



Read gnaou: to bite, to fasten 011 
anything with the teeth. Gnaou jin 
&/ l\ > '•« '''"'•' to bite people. 

Yf * % Read kam: tu ronfiue, to shut up in 
P«y ^ prison. Kam l« ^ ^ , k''a k'hoo. 
_j|* "^ a prison. Kam stw ^ ^ , k''a »tw, 
to imprison. 

Chew-kong so6 Kwin scuk kam Yin H /^ /^ 
t^ /J3 ^ ^, Chew-kong tai fCwdn-seuk k"a iUn, 
Chew-kong ordered Knan-seuk to imprison Yin. 


Sec -^r ^X- Beng choo. 

ead kam: Kam lam fojE; l^- ''■"« 
an olive. 

KAE 298 

Read kain : tp dare, to presume, to 
venture. Kara clio kam wuy §^ jp 

Jf>C ^ J ''^"" '■''" ''^"'' "''^3'' *° '''""^ *° 
do anything. 

Kam ban hoo choo che put tong sira ^T Bfl 4^ 

Jon^r sJ»i, I would presume to enquire respecting 
your stability of mind. See ^ 3- Beng-choo. 

Read had u: leaven. Haou boe 
A"a bo6, leaven. 






1^ Read k4m : to run before and stop a 
J52^ person who is attempting to escape. 

^a%^ Vulg. cho poS: all, every one, every ; and 
*j*^^ '«"§■ cAdffg-, the whole. Jrn kae wat 6 te 

PM A "^ T" ^n ' ''^"^ "''' p"^ ''^"^ 

gwd chae, every body says, I know, I know. See 

the ^ ^ Teung yung. <«?'^*r'' 

Kae g^y 6 bfing jSn Ifln Jea ^ ^ J^ [^ ^ 

is with a view of illustrating the relations of life. 

^ The whole ; together with, in company ; 

.^^KCi violence, force, united strength. Kae 

I Cj li^B soo choo, teaou sek cheQng sod 

ch'hayh Idng, chd khi mai"S hwui"S cheAng soo, 
they are altogether scholars and philosophers, who 
morning and evening attend to the business. See 
the try 5ff Seaou gnay. 

Ke kae ■^ A^ ^ singular, uncommon, 

^^^. Harmony of sounds, the harmonious 

f*ri^~ singing of birds. Hong e ch'hey 

plj ch'hey, key h6ng kae kae m^ Ml 'S 

^M' ^1 ^ll ''^ ''^ ^ '"'"^ ''"P ^"^ '^'^''"^ ch'hei/, 
key t'h6 kae kae, the wind and rain getting up 

uncomfortably, while the cocks crow harmoniously. 

See the 

Se keng. 


t tJL Gim 


Gim kae ^ ^ ^ gim kaj/, steps, by 







ich to ascend, stone steps. Gc&ou se 
maou choo t'hoc kae, put seang bfln 

Geadu dy st hH'" d cKhoo, fhoi dy gim kay, s"" Ik 
fiung b<in ch'hae, in the time of Geaou they had 
thatched cottages, and earthen steps, without study- 
ing ornament or elegance. 
"^I.^^ The flowing of water, to flow. HwaS 

?vW[^ ""y ^''^ ^"^ i^ ;K y^ f^ > ^"'"^ ^j' 

'I r^ <'>>i'J/ kae kae, the waters of the Hwa6 
flow gently by. 

_ ^ * . ^^ To prepare, to get ready ; fully prepared, 
^ 7^ united, got together. Ban but keem 
1^/^ kae i^ ^!^ 1^ ^> ban meiH cho 
po6 chtin pi, every thing fully prepared. 
This character is commonly used in conversation, 
to designate, that which is suitable or proper; as 
eiig kae ||E 1^^ ought, should, it shoiild be so; 
kae je^n =^ ^ , that which is proper and right. 

|.f> A step, a stair, a ladder, that by which 
'»^" we ascend. Hoo cho6 che put k'ho 
kip yea, y«w t'heen che put k'ho kae 
ja seng yea^ I^;^ ;j-^ ^^^11^ 

;^ /fs Pf [f^ ifn f|- ^, l>oo choo dy bey kip 
kadu, ch'hSn cheo"^ t'hee^S dy bey ch'hong Phuy ji 
cheai"^, our master's exalted qualities are unattnin- 
nable, just as heaven cannot he ascended by a 
common ladder. Said of Confucius, in the Wm ^5 
Lun ge. 

-. ^ Vulg. kay: to change, to alter, to reform. 
'^^^^ Ka6 peen E^ ^^ kay peb^S^ to alter. 
IJ/V K6 chek but tan kae ^ ^|J 6^ )j-ffi 
qT ttoo kiiiy sit chek u'" Chang why kan Idn kay, 
having a fault, do not dread difficulties in seeking 
to amend it. See the \\ gim Seang lun. 

Vulg. i'Aaoa and l''hooi''S : to loosen, to 
disperse, to scatter ; to release ; to ex- 
plain, to unfold; to divide. Kae k'hae 
fiS Ra , I'haou k'hwuy, to loosen. Kae san ^^ 





/ \ 

'^^ kai sv:"tt, to disperse. Ka6 swat ^ ,^, 
kay abiyh, to explain. Kae e ^ 'J^ , l'hooi"S "a, 
to take off one's clothes, .il ii'^ii <>•< 'i li 
K'heuog t'heen hay ka* jca t^ ^C "F 15? "t^ , 
Ue^a ne t'het"S ay ay l&ng kai »w"d, it is to be 
feared that the people of (be empire will disperse. ! 
Pa6u-teng kae gnfiw /H ~J* M ''t" ' Paiu-leng 
gaiu t'hai k'hwuy god, Padu-teng was very clever 
in dividing and cutting up an ox. 




liicn kai 


bold and strong. 




Great, immense; to help; armour; small, 
insignificant; a numeral. Cheet kae 
gf) Xp to hold to oac's seatiment» 
and opinions. -. ; 

Kae je hok if ^ %% , '" ^ '^ ^H *"* *'**• '"*'' 

great is your happiness. 

Wiiy ch'ho6 eh'hoit rhew, * kae b* s^w J|^ jJl 

i Chan li dy hai tiw, the reason of presenting this 
spring cup of wine, is to assist your mutual Ion- 
gevity. Seethe |^ ^ Se keng. 
Kafi tew chek y6w put k'ho hwan che sek ^ 

chek woo »ky biy htvan leiih Hy bin nek, a man wearing 
armour and a helmet, presents an appearance 
not to be trifled with. See the ^ ^ Klieuk 16y. 

Yit ka£ put 6 e Jin — ^ >f\ >Jl -T A . 

chh dy SCO k'hicddy mei"h e o" hoe Idng, he would 
not give a person a single thing ( more than what 
was proper;) speaking of ■yl ^p" E yin. 

To beg to request ; to take ; to give. 
Kae kliit cbC-a IE -^ ;^ , k'hit cheih 
dy ling, a beggar. 



Good, virtuous, great, large. Ka£ jtn 

wOy hwan ^ A fil ^ ' '"^ '^"^ 
ch6 li pa, good people are our fence. 

See the ^ ^^ Tae gn&y. 




A larije gem. SeKje ka^ kwuy, 6 

^h"" J6 p° if, m ^ ^. w ip 

■^I ^S , sou hoe li lied- Icwuy geiik, e 
cho le &y pi piiey, I present you with a large gem 
in order to constitute your treasure. See the "Tl^ 
^ Tae gn4y. 

, A border, a limit, a boundary. Kaou 
^M^ kae vR _^ , a border of a country. 
^ 1^ Se kae "^ J^jL , the world. 
Hek bin pot i hong keang che kae J^ ^ !^C 

Hi i^ 11 Z W ' ^" ""*'' '"'"^ "'^ ''*" '"" 
mei"h hong keang dy kaou kai, in settling the 

people we cannot do it according to any autho- 
rized limits or bordecs. 

Kae /Hl^ •'«^'" ""^ jli III:, '" ^"^ "'"''■''"■ 

JL. |U Kad^ lat !^ j'ii( , kai Iteilh, nusUrd. 
Kae ^y^iw. Ka^ ch'hac ^ :^ , k-wd ch'hai, the 
/ I mustard plant. Chho kae ^ ^ , 

ch'haau ka^, a stick or a straw, a trifle. 

Seem kae ^ ^ uuythiog small and insiguificant. 
Kai tae ^ A^ * » trifling cause, a thing of no 


^ - Small scabs or s<irts. Seng kad ^ ^^ 
Kae nA*^^ taf^ kiy, to break out in small sores,^ 


to have the itcb. 

out of order. 

ly^^ K vessel fi 




for holding eatables, only, alcMic. 



A false master. 
To warn, to be aware of, to caution. 

to guard against ; to restrict one's self, 
to restrain from. Chad kae ^^ ^Hf 
ch'hedh cKhai, to fast, and restrict one's self. 




Suy yew ok jIn, chae kae bok yijuk, chek k'ho 
,e so5 sc5ng tey ^| f ^ A. ^ 7f^ W f^. 

i'J "^ El E -h ^^ '"^ """ "''''"' '^ '^^ 

long, na cheUh ch'hai king kai chek Chang lai r.Khae 

J I seang tey, although a man he ever so ugly-, yet 

iliaving fasted and bathed hinwelf-, he can even do 

service to the highest emperor ( i. e. the supreme 

lieing. ) See ■£ .IJ. Beng-choo. 

Kae put gfi ^ ;^ ^^ ^ ^ng kai ii'" <:hliek i.y 

100, bewai-e .of unforeseen *v«nts. See the ^ |>^ 

:.'^£k keng. 

Kwun pho« yew «am kae ^ -+• ^H ^^2. Ifx, ' 

kwun chad woo s"a hang sod king kai^ the good 

man has three things wiiich he guards against, 

(i, e- beauty, quarrelling, and avarice.) 

.:. '''^"% %.- To announce, to command, to enjoin; 

J{ag ^■S«0 an injunction, a commandment. Hwat 

,i^|/|,^d kae poe leng, je tek t'h(iey, se choo 

. \ T .iiwal kd kai poe beng ting, ji tity tek (Ly l&ng 
t'hiy, se choo kong &y wuy hong^ to issue orders, 
'■"'iaind give directions, whereupoa the'enetny iastant- 
' ' fy retires, shews the dignity »f the chief. 

To tend under arrest ; to conduct to 

the presence of a superior. Kae si;a 

I I m't ^^ 3 the residence of au officer. 
T'heen hiiy che soo, peng ch'lie san lim, leng 
kam «oo sew sin, kae song seang bun ^ "TC 

^ _h M ' f Aee^S" &y fhak ch'hgyh Idng peng 
k'hei te sw"a Km, beng leng k"a soo kap siw Ay 
"fin sin, khy shng kaou se Iwa long Ch'e"a, tlie clever 
scholars of the empire are gone aside to dwell 
in hills and forests, and tliis is to order the res- 
tricting officers and great keepers to send tliem 
under arrest, into the presence of the sovereign ; 
(an order issued in the ^ Song dynasty.) 
•' ^%-*^ Vulg. k'hum, and k''heng: to cover, to 

l^ae ' —"/->* co^er over ; — vulg. k'hwa : a cover. A 
_\^>"-> surname. A conjunctive particle, — 



for, because-, an «tpletive; also written ;^ kae. 
Ke ko bo6 kae iMl ^ te ^ e dy kwdn, b6 k'hwA, 
it is so high, that it is without a covering. 
Kae ban -^ ^3 "for we have heard; — &c." 
an expression generally used at the beginning of 
literary composition. 

The same as the preceding. Also written 
;^S kae. 


To arrive at, to come noto ? also written 
^^ kae. WQy tek l^ng rh«en, hoe 
wan hwut kae /(fj: ^ ||j ^^ ^ 

jS ^ ,^ ' "^^ ''^ '^"^ ''"'" '^"ff l^ttee^, ba 
chit ay l&ng te hwia^S dy wUy «"' kaott, when our 

virtue is so great as to move the heavens, there 

is not a distant individual but what will be in- 

.duced to come to us. 



To beg. K'hit kae bo6 sey tek ■^ ^ 
M:pJ^^^, k'hit iy l&ng bi sey til 
t£oh, beggars get littie or nothing. 
Also written ■OT kae. 

Torn clothes, ragged apparel ; also, to 
lies. Ch'ho chcem t^ kae 
keSh cheem cKhbng 
p'hwa «"«, to take a needle and mend old clothes. 

% ^^t-% '^""^ clothes, rag! 
Kae ^UJHk wash dirty clothe 

mt 14^ iji v^ m 

A strong oxi a stOut strong animal. 

^ KL^ T« warn, to caution. 

i2 /^ the residence of an 

Kae sea 
officer of Goverament 

Toe kae .^ WC taiu kae, a piece of 
wood for striking off the top of a 
measure, in measuring corn; a strike; 

to strike. 






A ct>rriiption of kan, in the hay bfln 

pH , *o^ mooi"S, dialect, Yit 

kan ok ^ IS^ ^'"'' Icae'^ ch'hoi. 

a house. 


The face wrinkled or furrowed wilh 


yV % Armour, a coal of mail. K'hoey k&h 

Kah C\'\tf ^m ^P' * pan'oply of armour. Kwan 

jjt I kahsiiangm&^^lfpJ^^^eVA^ng- 

Mh cheats },iy^ Jie put on his armour, and mounted 

bis horse. 

^^ iM ^ Read keep : the place between the ribs. 

Kah Ulil Keen keep ^ 1^ frenf Wh, between 
^■^P I the shoulders. T'eung madu kwan kijep 
rfj -?« "^ M, teung ch'keo^S Chaou kih, he was 
hit by a spear, which pier«ed hira through between 

the ihoulders. 




A waistcoat, a jacket without slee\'W. 

Read ka6u : to lelJ, to order to do 
anything. Kaou k6 cho ^ ^ ^, 
Mh e chi, he ordered hira to do it. 

Read kap? one of tli« horary charac- 
ters. Kap choo ^ ^ ^ *** eW. the 
primary characters of the cycle of 

sixty years. 

K'ho kap M- ^ , k'ho k&h, the order of the li- 
terary examinations. 
2(C ^^^^^ Read keng : a watch of the night. 

S6w keng iil ^ ^ cAii» frat"*", to 
keep watch. Sam keng "^ ^B , 
s"a fcfli"ff, the third watch. Keng lelou Hi ^j 
A-oi"S' /e4<)u, a watch house. 
Sam keng chok hwan, gnoi keng k'hje hSng 

H m ^ R E ^ ^ tt. ^""'-"^^^^ 

pooi''e, goS kafS k'hi ke"A, at the third watch 
they were to cook their rice, and at the fifth 
Watch to commence their inarch. 

4 B 



Read keng : one of the horary cba« 

Read keng; to plough. Keng tefia 

Kaing 'ifcj^- Wt S > '^"""^ '*'*^"' *" P'""'** 

the fields. 
Gno kiiet Ick keng teen, kedng wfly choo chit 

P jfe gwi keii chin k'hwili/ lal h<ttPS ih'h&n, 

it'eiing chi haou aai"S 4y chU hwun <e"« te"a, 

I exhaust my strength in ploughing the fields, 

and fulfilling the duties of a son, without mind- 

ing anything else. See ^ -?- Beng-choo. 

yo g > Read keng: broth, soup. Ch'ha^ keng 

Kai^S J^S% ^ 5Sj '^^'^"^ kai"S, vegeUble soup. 

- 5 l t! * T'heaott keflg ^^ |S , fheaou kai^S, 

a soup spoon. 

Soe «oo ch'hae keng ^tt ^r ^S ^^ cKhoe 
poofS eKhai kaf^, coarse food and vegetable 


broth. See the |^ IE LOn gc, 

Read keng : a thread. Mo keng ms 
, bo *ut"ff, the red tassel or fringe 
on the top of a cap. 
He^n keng ^, ^ a kind of cloth composed 
«f a mixture of silk and flax, the warp being 
wove with silken and the woof with flaxen threads. 
Chit keng j^ jgj, chit kafV, to weave silk. 



I.c«n kai°S ^ |jJH], Vein kai^S, a flail 
for threshing out corn. 

Read king : to be choked by a bone 
sticking in the throat. 

^ . Read keng: a way, a path, i hill- 

V ^ntC >^ \»3 path. San keng che h£y kan, ka^ 

|.JL« jefin yQng che, jfi ifing loe iXl ^^ 

kai"S dy siy loe a kan, nd tu.'a jiin yOng e, jt 
chiw che"d loi, the small bye-paths among the 



mountain ways, if greatly used, will be convert- 
ed into roads. See 2l "x* Beng-cho6. 

Read keng : tlie spare between the 
beams of a house. Keng 6ng JM i^^ 
kai"S ai"^, the joices and rafters. 



The horn of a beast, a horn, a corner 
of anything, an angle. Soo kak Dy 

TO si kak, four-square. 
TSung hay lok kak ka6, tijung long bS kak ka6 

hay lok &y kak Chooi"S, Hung long hi A.y kak t'hooi"S, 
in the middle of summer the bucks shed their 
horns, and in the middle of winter the does shed 



The rafters of a house. Eng kak 
ift , ai"S kak, beams and rafters. 




^>^^ To understand, to perceive, to know, to 
ji TjTj fc be aware of, to feel, to apprehend. 
^Rli Kak goe iW" T-S. ^ to comprehend. 
T'heen che seng soo bin ySa,so6s£enkakkakhoekak 

Chee"^ &y sai^S chey l£y pSyh sails', sa6 tae seng 
kak kak goe tuy aou kak dy Idng, when heaven 
produced this people, it was ordered that those 
who were earlier awakened should awaken those who 
were later in coming to a sense of things. See 
•^ -^ BEng-choo. 

A double gem, two gems united in one. 

E' kak M^ Jj^, to besot anything, be- 
fore and behind, in hunting. P'hejS 
poe lok. Chin jin kak che, choo jeflng 

"^ , chek se ch'Idn clieo^S igah lok, I'm Chin dy Idng 
kak e, yea, Idn jeHng dy Idng & e, just like when 
we were catching the deer, you people of Chin 
beset them before, and we foreigners beset them 

behind ; ( intimating that the men of Chin had 
once been assisted by the foreig-ners, and why 
should they now atUck them.) See the '^ ^ 



Cho twUn. 

A piece of timber laid across water, 
for a bridge. 

Straw shoes. Bok kak T^C 1^ b'akkeak. 
'\^ l\m' 

wooden shoes, clogs. Le soe sek kak 

il 1^ W- M' '^ "'^''^^ fhoot^Skeak 
to leave coarse food and get rid of clogs } ( i. 
e. to better one's circumstances and get into 


Key kak 

3 cock. 

^^lu^, Readkeet: to tear asunder, to rip open, 

AfX^I to tear people asunder by horses. Choo 

^,^3^^ soo hfing kae kijet e ch'he =s[ ^ fljj 

H Wr Jr^ ni ^^'^ *^ "^ ^^"^ '"""' ''''" P"'^ '^°* 
k^h le hay ch'he, all the capital convicts were torn 

asunder in the market place. 



Vulg. lee"S: sweet, of a sweet taste, 
pleasing. A surname. Kam gwiin U* 
1B5 , to be well pleased, to be content 
with. Kam sim "||" i^ ^ to be willing. Kam ch'ho 
i^ ^, liquorice. Kam chea "CT M^^ sugar- 


Kam ^i 




An orange. Swan kam 
kam, a lemon. 

Rice water. 



Kam chek peng J^ J^ 3^ ^ kam chek 
pdi"S, a disease in children originating 
in eating too many sweet things. 

To receive, to review, to examine. Vulg. 
fc"a, to imprison, to guard. T'heea 
choo soo k€ tae hoo wQy sam kam. 





kam fi hong pck che kok ^ ^ j^ JE H^ -^ 

e Ay taehoocho s^a dy kam, k"a te hong pek Ay kok, 
the Emperor ordered his great officers to constitute 
three inspectors, in order to inspect the stales of 
the different princes. See the ^^ 4|1 Ong che. 

p^E^ 1'" i>"I(i firmly and retain obstinately; 
f^L some say, to shut the mouth. 

%^ To move, to influence^ to work upon. 
I^y^ Kara yin ^^^ jil to be moved by and 

i\^ to 

|^^\ to be grateful for favours. Kam eng 
^Xi IHfe , *o be influenced by and to respond to. 
Kam kek ^ jSfr ^ to move, to arouse. Kam tong 
i^ ^ ^ to move and work upon. Kam hwa J^ 
AV to convert. 
T'hcen toy kam, je ban but hwa scng ^ ^ 

Jil (M ^ ^^ 'fil ^. ^ ''*""^ '^* ''""'" '""^' ^^ 
ban mei"h hwi »ai^^, heaven and earth is moved, 

and then the myriads of things are metamorphosed 
and produced. 

.^^P Vulg. fc"a; to dare, to presume. K6 
Kam*Cpvr' kajn ^ ^, daring, bold. K'he kam 
^^^y^^ Jg] §5^^ how dare I ? how can I pre- 
sume? a complimentary expression. 
Kim put chfln beng ^ ^ j^ op ' *"<* ^^ 'Mn 
It iy beng ling, how dare I refuse to obey your 

Sfly kam put jeang r|^ ^ ^ ^ , che chay k"d 
fl"* neS"^, who dares refuse to yield? See the 

^j ^??. Ek keng. 




Kam ISm jj^ j^ ^ k'a n4, an olive. 

The tw<y sides ttf a ship or vessel. 

The cover of a pot or Tcssel •, also, turned 
upside down. 



Kam *rif5Cr 

A tool with i pointed end ; a vessel 
of a conical shape. 

A covering made of bamboo. 




a bamboo lid. 




To inspect, to observe, to behold. 

T'ha6 kam Jtr ^^ a eunuch officer. 

Chew kam 6 j6 tae J^ ^ j^ ~^ 
^ Chew le&ou kdm £ no teadu ley, the Chew dynasty 
could observe the two former dynasties. Sec the 
_|2 Hi Seang lun. 

^J2^3L. The name of a river rand the name o£ 
/QEI a district. 

^^1 A large basin ; also, a mirror, a looking- 
Kam ^F*^^^ glass; to reflect. BCng sira p6 kam 
tJ^JSIL Pj] ilj> 5^ ^ » tlic precious mirror 
for enlightening the mind;. — (the title of a cele- 
brated moral work. ) 

Kong kira 5 '« j^ j^ -^ ID ^ an historical 
mirror, easily known, (the title of one of the 
histories of China. ) 


Read him : the name of a. plant ; a 
flower about to bud. 

>J^^ Read him: to hold in the mouth. But 
■^^••** soo ham biifiy ^-^Z^^W,' *^'a ^"^ 


h'ed dy peng kim le, don't make the 
troops hold the woodciv gag in their mouths. 



Koc kim 


the name of a. fish. 



^^^^ To seek for, to aim at; to ofiend. A 
.^aJaa^ surname. Jiiak kan ^S^ ^^ jwi chiy, 

I how much? 

Cho6-teang hak kan lok -^^^'f'f^, 
Choo-teang I'hak cKhliyh kan ktw hong lok, Cho6- 
teang in bis studies aimed at emolument. See the 
_t fife Siiang lOn. 





K6 kam kan tae 16y, e choo ch'he lej ^ ^ 

Uy, k ka te ch'hi ley, he dares to offend against 
the great rules of propriety, and thus bring him- 
self into trouble. See the '^ ^ Cho twan. 
Put seang kan <^ *B "f" , >' 'S no matter. Kau 
ko -^ 'jr 5 blunt and sharp weapons. 
E' je ho kan ^ ^ jnT ^ , what is it to you ? 

Dry, arid. Tiinng kok yew «h'huy, 
han k6 kan e »|l ^ /^ H E|| fi. 
S]^ ^ , lekaCS Hang ■i'"S weo ch'huy 
ch'haou, kaou p'hak e chew ta, in the middle of 
ihe valley g-rows the Ch'huy vegetable, but when 
it is exposed to the sun, it becomes drj. See the 

It. 3E M. ^^' ^°S '"'"S- 

Ju-y^ Vnlg. frie"a: apole. Teuk kan ^^ ^, 

Kan .^IKIaK •'** kvB^a, a. bamboo pole, Tek tek 

I teuk kan, i tekou 6 k© ^^ ^ TT 

tea hi twa te kt chAy, be took a long bamboo 
pole, to go and angle in the river K^. See the 

^j lit ^'"^y '"'"S- 





the name of a gem. 


^ . To offend against modesty and propriety. 
•^¥■1 • Kan ylm TOp yjK lascivious, wanton. 
^X^ I Kan sin ^ ^ , an abandoned minis- 

ter. Of the usurper "^ |^ Cho-ch'ho, it was said 
that he would be,— te se che 16ng sin, Iwan se 
^ekanheOng>y^f ;^gk^|L^;^^ 
^ _, te si: Hy gudu dyjin sin, Iman se ty kan heUng, 
in peaceful times an able minister, and in troublous 
times a fraudulent scoundrel. 

l^p Lan kan i^^ 4*^ a railing, a gallery. 
^i^T* Kg kan j(||j j|.:^ , a£ kw^a, a flag-staff. 

" I Gwat 6 hwa eng seang 14n kan H 

# ^ ^. ± if ;|;f ,goiyhehwaye''d cheo^^ 
lan kan, the moon threw the shadow of the flow- 
ers up into the gallery. 


Between, amongst, whilst. Teung kan 
rfj ^ , the middle, the midst. Se 




kan -jW; fn) , in the world. 
Kwun choo l)o6 chiiung sit che kan wfly j!n ^ 

^ M- ^ # :^ f0^ ^ f- ' ^"'r" "■'"" *^ 

chedh chit l»ol"S pooi"S Ay kan w4y kkyh Jin, the 
good man does not oppose virtue for the small 
space of time requisite for a single meal. See the 

±§^ Seang lun. 

Sck kan ^ ifrF , chedh l&nkan, a stone 





Vulg. kw''a: the liver. Sim kan i\\ Bf^ 
sim kw^a, the heart, the mind. Jin 
che se ke, j6 keen kS he kan je6n 

S'Aiu"^ Ida, ch'hm chJeo"S k'hw"^ e &y h& kw^a ch'u 
yed"S^ men will be able to observe ©ne as inti- 
mately as though they scrutinized into the liver 
and lungs. See the -j^ i^ Tae hak, 

%y^ A species of the |g ^ Ian hwa, epi- 
]mcI dendrum. Soo « le hong peng kan 

po kap cha boi too too n gim kan hwa, a lady and 
gentleman just holding the kan flower. See the 
§ JE '^^"S hong. 

'Ct ^''" '^" W< ^' trouble, difficulty. 
fR Kan k'boe ^ ^ , distressing, sad. 
>|r^ K'hae k6 f bin e, ge jin che kan Iftn e 

e dy Cho k'hwuy too teoh l&ng dy kan lan, discon- 
certed he sighed, upon meeting with people in 
troable. Sec the |^^ _£ ^ Se,— 6ng hong. 

Wanton, lascivious, clandestine, false. 
Kan yira ^E y^ , fornication. Kan 
hoo ^I ^ ^ an adulterer. 
Kan jin hoo le, jin pit kan k6 ho5 le ^ h 

Ae"fl, Idng pit kan e dy boi ke^a, he who defiles 









people's wives and daughters, will have his wife 
and daughters defiled by people. 

To distinguish, to select, to choose. 
Kan ttk ^ 4S > l^iti Kh, to choose ; 

Important; contracted. Kan yaou |ffl 
-^ , the most important part of a 
subject. Kan leak iHi [JJ^ a sum- 
mary, a contraction, to contract, and ablireviate, 
to do things in a short abrupt manner. 
Kan swan fjVj %f. 3 to select, to choose. 
Kan pan V^ T.Jv , slips of bamboo, on which the 
ancients used to write before the invention of 
paper; hence books and records are called v^ 
kan ; and ^ ^ > ch'hok kan, intimates an error 
in the record. 

Kho yiia kan pT "{w, ^ , he can be admired, 
for his short abrupt method, — but — kekan,j£ heng 
kan, bofl na6 taS kan ho5 ^ |^. jfg ff f^, 
^^ T^l 'A. Wi "^^ *" be constantly abrupt and 
to do everything in a short abrupt manner, would 
not this bean excess of abruptness ? Sec the 
Sean^ lun. A surname. 

The plaiU or folds in a petticoat. 

The stalk of corn, 

Vulg. Ano''a: to chase, to pursue, to 
drive away. Also written ^^ kan. 
K'han k'han kan seaog^ ^ ^^ Y , 
Vhw^h k'hw'''i ktrf,a cheo'^i he seemed just about 
to overtake him. See the _^ ^u Sam kok. 

Ch'hin kan ^ ^ ^ ^^ •»*" "^ »'"' 
funned by the silk worm, the coc«od. 

Kan y. 

A mountain torrent 




Kan ^ 


The inferior degree of light afforded 
when the sun is just rising. 

L^ng kin ^ ^ ^ ability, strength : 
also, the stalk of corn, the stem of 
a flower, or the stump of a tree. 

gTc^ The boards and mallet, used in build- 
^Skll'^ ing mud walls. 

Vulg. {"i : to reprove, to speak blunt- 
ly and honestly ; to ridicule. Hoe 
chefing kan chck seng ^ ^- |^ ^|j 
j^ } jin kwitn I'h&n Idng t"a chew ii/ sk"u, when 
a prince listens to reproof he will become a« 
wise as a sage. See 'he ^ g& 'pjj> Sc wat beng. 

Soo hoo boe kc kan ^l X "^^ |]| 1^, *"'= 
lae pay bo6 tclih eheo t^i, in serving our parents 
we should seldom reprove them. See the 

Lun gc. 






Kan kck f^ (Jra , to separate, to divide 
people one from the other. Sod hwan 
kin key ^ J^ f^ |]-, ,at hwin 

kAn k^y, to make use of trickery for setting 

people at variance. See the ^ ^ Sam kok. 

P5ng kan jjjj] [|^j ^ pal^S fAaA hd, an allcviatioir 

of sickness ; an interval. 

, a small kind of shell 

A river, a large stream. Y&ng choo 
kang 'e •!+• yX , *""' *>f the prin- 
cipal rivers of China. A surname. 


.\ small bridge, for foot passengers. 
Sbcy sip yit gwat tofi king sfing Sf 

ch&p yil goiyh siy iy keu chew che"d, in the ele- 
venth month of the jcar, the foot bridges should 
be finished. See ^ ^ Beng choo. 

4 c 








To take stones, and put thera in a 
stream, in order to enable people to 
cross it ; stone steps across a stream. 

Fields compared together. 

Read kong: work. Kong hoo "J^ ^, 
kang hoo, work, labour. Cho kong 
-jW JQ^ cho kang, to work, to 


Pek kong ke soo, 6 seng kfi soo "^ J^ ^ 
0VJif^^^' pa^h Jeans k'hea te mm i 
che"d e &y soi, the hundred kinds of labourers 
dwell in the shop in order to complete their 
labours. See the |^ |§ Lun ge. 

^ Read kong: the male of animals. 

^^^ Kong boe ^^ "^j *«"? *»*' """'^ 
t"^ and female. 

GnSw kong i^ ^ , goo kang, a bull. 

Read kong: Go6 kdng I^ ^, 

ged kang, a centipede. 

Kang rj 





Vulg. Wng-.- to speak, to say. Kang 
hwa 1^ |g , kong wa, to converse. 
Kang lua |^ ^^^ to reason. Kang 
kew ^'^, research, to reason. 
Hkk j6 put kang s5 go« yew je^ ^ jfjj /fi 
5* JS. 3t. 'M 4-!f ) t'hak j6 b& kdng k£w se gwd 
&]/ hwdn li, to learn without research is a grief 
to me. Said by Confucius, in the J^ ^ Lun ge. 

>^_^ K6 kang J^ '^ , kohy king, to go 
n^^^ over the water. Kang peen ^ jgf ^ 
kdng kce"S, the river's side. 


The male of the ox. 

Gnew kang 
it. ij{ , god kdng, a bull. 

Kang bang ^ '^ , blunt, simple, 
plain 5 incapable of flattery. 

A deep crimson colour. 

To descend, to go down, to pat down, 
to degrade. Kiing hwan J^ j^ , 
to descend among common people, 
to come down into the world. E' kang ^ j^ , 
m hoe, to descend as rain. Kang yit kip ^ 
_. ;?jjS to degrade a step in rank. 
Han-je kan geng hwiit kwut, seang noe kang 
wfly Teaou-chcw ch'hd soo ^f ^ ^ ^ j^ 

t^d sd twa ge"d cheih hwut kwut, hoe sd Iwd sew 
k'hd, kdng cho Ted -chew ch'ht sod, Han-je remon- 
strated against the Emperor's going to meet the 
bone of Buddha, upon which the Emperor was 
enraged, and degraded him to be the governor 
of Teo-chew, ( a very remote district in the 
province of jjjg ^ Hok ke^n.) —Also written 






Water flowing out of its course. 
Kang suy h6ng 16w J^ ^ ^^ ^, 
kdng chdy hw"d ladu, the over- 
whelming waters flowing across the country. 

Read tdng: Sek t6ug;^|^ ^ chedh 
>1Ctn kung, a kind of frog or toad found 
(^ in deep vallies between high hills. 

^ Read keung: together, alike, in com- 
nrL mon. Siiang keung ^ it, seo kdng, 
^"^ associated together, and assisting 

one another. 

Keung yung Jb ^ , king yung, to use in 


^ To associate with, to blend, to mix. 

Aj> Kaou chip ^ ^ , mixed together. 

^/^. Kaou p'hoey ^ ^> to accompany, 

to associate with. '■'.'■ ' ■ 

KAOU 307 

E' pSng y6w kaou, g&a jS jew sin ^ ^ J^ 
■^ "g* rfn 'M 1= , A^ap pingi/iw haou p'hoitf, 
hing via teSh woo am tit, when associating with 
friends, we should be sincf re in our conversation. 
See the J[^ |j^ Seang lun. 








The suburbs of a city. Kaou gocy 
^ ^K , kaou gwii, beyond the sub- 


SJn ban kaou kwan che liiey y6w yew hong ch'hit 

■4- ffl ^ gwd Che"a kefS kaou kwan iy lae woo 
ch'il Ay yew hwui"S k'hrcah ch'hit chap 16, I have 
heard that within the compass of the suburbs, 
there is a park 70 le in extent. See ^ -^ 
Beng choo. 

^ The chirping of birds. Kaou kaon 

|J>k\ hong neaou P^ ^ ^ J^ ' ''''""' 
^.^^^ kaou Ay wuVS cheaou, the chirping 
yellow birds. 

Kaon-lfiw-pa ^ |1^ H^ Ka-lA-pa, the Chinese 
name for Batavia. 

^ ^^ A large kind of fish, a crocodile. 
|p>> Kaou leQng ij^* |i£ ^ leviathans and 
■•-^•^^^ dragons. 

i^? M& kaou B& m<> bdy ka, a species 
.. - ^^ of squalus, or dog-fl<h. 

Vulg, Ua: glue, lime. Lfln jin kaou 

^ pit hoe »el|;^A)lii^>|?j&fe' 
f^ cAd ch'hea Idn ay lAng teSh yOng ka 

k'hlih kaou, wheelwrights should use their glue 
very thick. 

Vulg. ka: the name of a bird. 

Kaou Icng 

ka leng, a mag- 


y^U\}i pic. Kaou chby ^1^ ^^ ka chuy, 
a dove. Kaou ch'heng yS -w, /''a cA'ftaj"^, the 
name of a bird, like a duck, with long legs, 
and a crested head. 

Kaou P- 


The cackling of fowls. Key bSng 
^ kaou kaou f| P.l ^f ^ , key m 
^% kaou kaou, the fowl's cackle with the 

sound of kaou kaou. See the MR ^ Ten^hon". 




Kaou teadu 

cakes made of 

The name of a plant; a kind of 
grass . 

Read koe: » ditch, a dyke, a channel 
for conveying the wafer for irrigation. 
Pc ktiung sit, jC chin lek hoe koe hok 

e Ay keung ch'hod,j6 chin k'hwiiy lat tS kaou hok, he 
suffered his dwelling to remain low and mean, 
while he exhausted bii strength upon the dykes 
and channels for irrigation. Said of ^ E', in 

"■" i& ^ ^°° «*• 



Read koe: a hook. T'h"(t; koe 
^3t'hffh kaou, an iron hook. Teiou 
koe ^ ^S) fii kaou, a lish book. 

Vulg. ka: artful, deceitful, cunning, 
mad, outrageous. Put keen cho6 
ch'heung, na£ keen kaou tAng ^^ 

choo ch'heung, nai k'h^"c kei"S ka Ay thy ke"d, 
I did not see Mr. Choo-cb'hiiung but I saw a 
parcel of wild children. 




Beautiful, fairv bandiome t also writ- 
ten jnF kaou. 


Vulg. ki: to tie round, to strangle ; 
also, urgent, pressing. Tit j€ bod 
16y chek ka6u H (|f) fTni f | gij 
i^ teadu tit j6 bS Uy toi, chek kaiu, to be 
blunt without politeness, is drawing the cord 
too tight. 

See the =j 

m LQn-g6. 




^ ^ Vulg, kd : a cholic. Kew kauu pcng 

ent pain in the stomach. 






Read k'hoe : the mouth. Ay k'ho^ 
^k7 toi ■> ^^ kauu, dumb, unable to 
'^^ speak. 

^^ Read kew : nine. Kew sip y{^ -r, 
~M M kauu chap, n\ne\^. Sip kew -p ■^f_^ 

^** chap kaou, nineteen. 
Kwun choo yew kew soo ^ ^ ^ jf_^ ^,3 
kwun choo it'Oo kaou Ai/ seo"S, the good n\an 
has nine subjccls of reflection. Sec the =|j[j p^ 

^ A— Read koe : a dog. Koe giiet T^i^ ^ly, 
j\Ci\ ^'"0" ''"«' the dog bites. Chey siink 
y V to6 key cho6 koe ^ f^ ^ # 
7\i 3rJ } ^^y ^'ok "3/ hong sink hoe key seo p'hah, 
hoe kaou seojcuk chaou, the customs of the Chey 
country consisted in fighting cocks and racing 
Jogs, See the ffi^ '^ - 

ci^ ChiJcn kok ch'hck. 

Read koe: dirt and filth grimed in- 
to the skin. Y6w koe -J^ ^ , 
%Jt i/in) kauu, the scrufl" of thu head, 
the grease and grime collected about the face. 
Put seen koe, j6 ch^hat, Iftn te "^^ -J^j^ jj^ |^ 

^ fM ^S' *" *^^ '''"""' -i^ '^'''''"' ''"'''«'"« scans. 
iih chae, in examining ( the lines of the coun- 
tenance ), without washing away the filth, it 
will be difficult to ascerlain daman's fortune.) 
Said by those who practise palmistry. 

Vulg. kd : to intruct, to teach. Kaou 
kwan — z® 
^ ,111 2p( tj , chil dy oh woo no it/ kit k-w"a, 
each college has two doctors, (a principal and 
an assistant.) 

I % V ulg. kit : to intruct, to t( 

^AT *'''"" lie ill , ''•« *»"^"' 
^>yV Yit hak, yew je kaou k' 




l^ To compare. Pe kauu |;J^ ^x j ^ 
compare together. 


^ %_ To compare, to liken ; the same as 
Tj^^A the preceding. Hwiin j6 put kaou 

J-^^fc. ^^ iJjj /K i^, e hwan Ian, chiw 
ho kap c kiy kaou, when any offend us, we 
should not lower ourselves to a comparison 
with thcni. See the =m z^ Lun ge. 








Poey kaou 'Mx J^ , a couple of 
P^-^ gems, flat on one side and round 
on the other, used in divination. 

A hoarding-place; to hoard, or store 
5^JC up- TeSng kaou ^^^ti^ ka, 
ICU the name of a place, in Sfjrj ^g 
Hok keen. 
•^ %_ To compare, to bring into a com- 
Lf^** parison ; to quibble about. Kwun 
■^^^\>. hoo che beng put kaou ^ ^ "^ 
1^ ^ ^'^j J'f *«»«» ne6"S pay dy beng leng 
bu key kaou, the commands of princes and pa- 
rents most not be quibbled about. See the ^^ IS 
Ch5 twan. 

Read to : te arrive at, to reach, to 

come to one. Chek cheun? but che 

o^* '<J peaou le cheng ch'hoe boo put to 

vhek chcUng mee dy lae gwd cheng ch'hoe bo 
ft™ kaou Ian, then both the externals and in- 
ternals, the fine and coarse of all things, would 
universally come to us: (i. e. we should com- 
prehend them.) See the ^^ Mt Tae hik. 

>C^yt-^ Read koe : enough, suflScient ; also 
"^X^l written ^ koe. 

^f^ Poey kadu^^^^ a couple of pie- 
^LS% cesofthe roots of bamboo, round 
_^^r^^^ on one side, and flat, an the other, 
used in divining ; these a