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There are Biographical Dictionaries which contain lives of Indian celebri- 
ties, and there are many biographies of individuals who have distinguished 
themselves in India. But the Dictionaries are large, expensive works, 
and the separate " Lives " or " Memoirs " are often lengthy or inaccessible. 
There is no single volume of moderate size, containing such information 
as is sufficient for the ordinary reader, regarding the careers and doings 
of the large number of persons connected with India, in history, by their 
exploits, services, and writings. The object of this " Dictionary of Indian 
Biography " is to supply this want. It purports to be a handy Work 
of Reference, giving the main facts of the lives of about 2,600 persons — 
English, Indian, Foreign, men or women, living or dead — who have been 
conspicuous in the history of India, or distinguished in the administra- 
tion of the country, in one or other of its branches, or have contributed 
to its welfare, service, and advancement by their studies and literary 
productions, or have gained some special notoriety. Such a work 
must be limited by considerations of time, space, and cost. It has 
been thought desirable to commence the present volume from about 
1750 A.D., a date which admits of the inclusion of Lord Clive and his 
contemporaries in Southern India, when the English power in India 
was being established. It has been found necessary to treat the lives in 
an indicative rather than in an exhaustive manner. It is impossible to 
include everybody who has been in India, and nothing has been harder 
than the attempt to fix a standard of merit to entitle its possessor to 
inclusion. No one consulted has been able to suggest a criterion of " dis- 
tinction." The titles and decorations of the various Orders of Knight- 
hood afford no certain ground. A complete and full Biographical Dic- 
tionary for India could only be undertaken, and might well be undertaken, 
by Government Agency, or under a financial guarantee of the cost of 
production. In all the difficulties of the problem, it is only possible to 
decide, for inclusion or exclusion, upon general principles, general reputa- 
tion, or notoriety : and the many persons omitted for want of space are 
likely to challenge the conclusions of the Editor. Again, in such a work, 
unintentional omissions are sure to occur, in spite of all precautions, but 
they can be supplied in future editions. In many cases, even of prominent 
names, sufficient biographical information is not available, or, at any 
rate, has not come to hand. It is equally impossible to avoid, entirely, 
mistakes of dates or facts : the sources of information consulted often 
disclose discrepancies, which personal knowledge has been 
able to determine. Accuracy has been a main object in the compilation, 
but the short lives cannot be made more accurate than the sources of 

V A* 


information permit. In the Addenda will be found a few notices which 
were accidentally omitted from the body of the work, or were obtained 
too late to be included in their proper places. 

A copious Bibliography has been appended. It contains the names 
of a number of works which may advantageously be consulted by those 
who are desirous of acquiring a greater knowledge of the individuals 
treated in the Dictionary of Indian Biography, or of the history of India, 
than can be conveyed in the brief notices in the Dictionary itself. It will 
also be useful to the general reader of Indian literature. A separate list 
of the chief Works of Reference consulted is subjoined to this Preface. 

The Indian names of places have been spelt, for the most part, accord- 
ing to the Jonesian (or Hunterian) system of transliteration adopted by 
the Government of India. But that system allows, by way of compromise, 
a number of names, which have in times past been spelt phonetically, to 
retain their popular, though irregular, forms. Opinions differ as to the 
extent to which such disregard of strict transliteration may be permitted. 
In this work, some of the familiar words have been retained, and, in all 
cases, the attempt has been made to adapt the spelling to the plain and 
simple sound of a word : no dots or accents have been used. The Indian 
names of persons have been arranged on a system by which they can be 
most easily found. In many cases, the territory with which the person is 
connected supplies the keyword. In the case of Hindus, not designated 
territorially, the family name should be first sought. In some cases (e.g. 
among the Parsis), where the family name has been dropped, the name 
which is used as a surname is put first. In the case of some Hindus, and 
of Muhammadans, who have no name common to all the members of a 
family, the arrangement is according to the first names in their alphabetical 
order. Some common names have been spelt in the different ways which 
their owners have adopted for themselves. 

The greater portion of the compilation, as well as the editing, has 
fallen on the Editor. At the same time, his acknowledgments are due 
to all who have afforded him assistance and information. He has specially 
to thank Mr. H. Wigram, of the Madras Civil Service (retired), now of 
Messrs. Swan, Sonnenschein & Co., for his co-operation and ready counsel ; 
the Editor of the AthencBum for kindly permitting the publication of 
lists of names in his Journal : the officers in charge of the India Office 
Library, for their unfailing courtesy and stores of knowledge put at his 
disposal ; and certain officers in India for their welcome help : their names 
are not mentioned, lest it should be supposed that any portion of the 
Dictionary has any official authority. 

Corrections and suggestions will be thankfully received. 

6i, Cornwall Gardens, London, S.W., 
November ist, 1905. 


Account of the Mutinies in Oudh, An, M. R. Gubbins : 1858. 

Addiscombe : its Heroes and Men of Note, Col. H. M. Vibart : 1894. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic : 1875. 

American, European and Oriental Literary Record, Trlibner's : 1865-89. 

Annual Register, The. 

Asiatic Annual Register for the years 1800-1811, The : 1801-12. 

Asiatic Quarterly Review, The : 1886-1905. 

Asiatic Society, Journals of the Royal. 

Assam, A StatisticaljAccount of, W.j.W. Hunter : 1879. 

Bengal Army, History of the Rise and Progress of the, Capt. A. Broome : 1850. 
Bengal Artillery, List of Oflicers who have served in the Regiment of the, by Maj.- 

General F. W. Stubbs : 1892. 
Memoir of the Services of the, Capt. E. Buckle : edited by J. W. Kaye : 

Bengal, A Statistical Account of, W. W. Hunter : 1875-7- 
Bengal Civil Servants, 1780-1838, Dodwell and Miles : 1839. 
Bengal Establishment, A General Register of the Honourable E. L Company's 

Civil Servants of the, from 1790 to 1842, by Ram Chandra Das and H. T. 

Prinsep : 1844. 
Bengal Obituary, The, Holmes & Co. : 1848. 

Bengal under the Lieutenant-Governors, 1854-98, C. E. Buckland : 1901. 
Biographical Treasury, A, Maunder. 
Biographic Universelle, Ancienne et Moderne : 1811-53. 
Bombay and Western India, J. Douglas: 1893. 
Bombay Civil Servants, 1798-1839, Dodwell and Miles : 1839. 
Book of Dignities, The, H. Ockerby : 1890. 
British India and its Rulers, H. S. Cunningham : 1881. 
British Indian Military Depositary, The, S. Parlby : 1822-7. 

Calcutta Review, The : 1844-1905. 

Celebrities of the Century, L. C. Saunders : 1887. 

Centenary Review of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1784-1883 : 1885. 

Chambers's Biographical Dictionary, G. D. Patrick and F. H. Groome -. 1897. 

Collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sunnuds relating to India, etc., A, C. U. 

Aitchison, continued by others : 1892. 
Comprehensive History of India, A, H. Beveridge : 1858-62. 
Conversations Lexikon, Brockhaus : 1882. 

Meyer : 1893. 

Cyclopaedia of India, E. Balfour . 1885. 

Decisive Battles of India, The, G. B. Malleson : 1883. 

Dictionary of Biography, Lippincott : 1881. 

Dictionary of General Biography, A, W. L. R. Gates : 1881. 

Dictionary of National Biography : 1 885-1903. 

Dictionary of Universal Biography, Beeton : 1869-70. 

Dictionnaire Universel des Contemporains, G. Vapereau : 1893. 

Dizionario Biograflco degli Scrittori Contemporanei, A. de Gubernatis : 1879- 


Early Annals of the English in Bengal, The, C. R. Wilson : 1895, 1900. 

Early Records of British India, J. T. Wheeler: 1878. 

East India Military Calendar, The, J. Philippart : 1823-4. 

East Indian Gazetteer, The, W. Hamilton : 1815. 

Echoes from Old Calcutta, H. E. Busteed : 1897. 

Eminent Persons, Biographies reprinted from the " Times," 1870-94 : 1892-7. 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, The. 

Encyclopaedia of Missions, The, Dwight, Tupper, and Bliss : 1904. 

Forty-one Years in India, Earl Roberts : 1898. 

Gazetteer of the Territories under the Government of the E. I. Co., A, E. Thornton : 

General Biographical Dictionary, The, A. Chalmers : 1812-7. 
Gentleman*s Magazine, The. 

Glimpses of Old Bombay and Western India, J. Douglas . 1900. 
Golden Book of India, The, R. Lethbridge -. 1893. 
Government of India, The, Sir C. P. Ilbert: 1898. 

Heroines of Ind, M. Dutt : 1897. 

Historical Sketches of the South of India, M. Wilks : 1810-7. 

History of India, H. G. Keene : 1893. 

I^oper Lethbridge : 1881-93. 

J. C. Marshman : 1867-93. 

^ James Mill, 1817 : ed. by H. H. Wilson : 1858. 

History of India from the Earliest Ages, The, J. T. Wheeler: 1867-81. 

History of India : Hindoo and Mohammedan Periods, M. Elphinstone : 1841, 1889. 

History of the British Empire in India, E. Thornton : 1841-5I: [L. J. iTrotter : 

History of the Indian Mutiny, A, G. W. Forrest : 1904. 

T. R. E. Holmes . 1891. 

G. B. Malleson : 1878-80. 

History of the Indian Navy, 1613-1863, C. R. Low : 1877. ' [ 

History of the Madras Army, W. J. Wilson: 1882-8. U 

History of the Military Transactions of the British Nation in Indostan from the 

year 1745, A, R. Orme : 1775-8. 
History of the Sepoy War, J. W. Kaye : 1864-76. 
History of the War in Afghanistan, J. W. Kaye: 1857. 
Homeward Mail, The, 1857-1905- 

Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography, The. 

Imperial Gazetteer of India, The, W. W. Hunter, 14 vols. : 1885-7. 

India and its Native Princes, L. Rousselet : 1878. 

India : its Administration and Progress, J. Strachey : 1903. 

India Lists, The. 

Indian Civil Service List, The, 1880, A. C. Tupp : 1880. 

Indian Directory : Thacker & Co. 

Indian Empire : its People, History and Products, The, W. W. Hunter : 1893. 

Indian Polity, G. T. Chesney : 1868: 1894. 

India Office Lists, The. 

India on the Eve of the British Conquest : a Historical Sketch, S. Owen : 1872. 

India's Princes, M. Griffiths : 1894. 

Kabul Insurrection of 1841-2, The, V. Eyre : 1879. 

Last Century of Universal History, 1767-1867, The, A. C. Ewald : 1868. 

List of Inscriptions on Tombs and Monuments in Bengal, C. R. Wilson : 1896. 

Lives of Indian Officers, J. W. Kaye: 1867. 


Madras Civil Servants, 1780-1839, Dodwell and Miles: 1839. 

Medical Officers of the E. I. Co.*s Service, 1764-1837, Dodwell and Miles : 1839. 

Memorials of Old Haileybury College, F. c. Danvers and others -. 1894. 

Men and Events of my Time in India, R. Temple : 1882. 

Men and Women of the Time, V. G. Plarr : 1897. 

Men of the Reign, T. H. Ward : 1885. 

Men of the Time, T. Cooper : 1875. 

Men whom India has Known, J.J. Higginbotham : 1874. 

Military History of the Madras Engineers and Pioneers, The, IT. M. Vibart : 1881-3. 

Modern History of the Indian Chiefs, Rajas, Zemindars, The, L. (ihose : 1879-81. 

Mogul Empire, The, H. G. Keene : 1866. 

Monumental Register, The, De Rozario : 1815. 

Narrative of the War in Afghanistan in 1838-9, H. Havelock -. 1840. 

New Biographical Dictionary, A, T. Cooper 1883. 

New General Biographical Dictionary, A, H. J. Rose : 1857. 

Nouveau Dictionnaire, Larousse. 

Nouvelle Biographic Generale : i860. 

Obituary Notices in the " Times." 

Officers of the Indian|Army, 1760-1837, Dodwell and Miles : 1838. 

Official Lists. 

Oriental Biographical Dictionary, An, T. W. Beale : 1881 ; edited by H. G. Keene : 

Oriental Christian Biography, W. H. Carey : 1852. 
Our Indian Empire, C. Macfadane : 1844. 

Panjab and Delhi in 1857, The, J. Cave-Browne: 1861. 

Particular Account of the European Military Adventurers of Hindustan, A, 1784- 

1803, H. Compton. 
Peerage, Baronetcy and Knightage, Burke : 1904. 
Pillars of the Empire, T. H. S. Escott : 1879. 

Rajas and Nawabs of the N.W.P. : 1877. 

Rajas of the Panjab, The, L. H. Griffin : 1873. 

Report on the Old Records of the India Office, G. M. C. Birdwood : 1891. 

Representative Indians, G. Paramaswaran Pillai : 1902. 

Representative Men of India, S. jehangir : 1889. 

Royal Military Calendar, The, J. Philippart : 1815-6. 

Rulers of India Series, The, W. W. Hunter. 

Selections from Calcutta Gazettes, W. S. Seton-Karr and H. Sandeman : 1864-9. 

Sepoy Generals, G. W. Forrest . 1901. 

Sepoy Revolt, The, J. J. McLeod Innes : 1897. 

Short Account of the Lives of the Bishops of Calcutta, A, W. C. Bromehead : 1876. 

Short History of India, A, J. T. Wheeler • 1889. 

Sketches of some Distinguished Anglo-Indians, W. F. B. Laurie : 1887-8. 

Indian Women, Mrs. E. F. Chapman : 1891. 

Story of the Nations, The : the volumes of the Series relating to India. 

The First Afghan War and its Causes, H. M. Durand : 1879. 
Twelve Indian Statesmen, G. Smith : 1898. 
Twelve Pioneer Missionaries, G. vSmith : 1900. 

Who's Who : 1904, 1905. 



= Aide de Camp. 



= Adjutant-General. 


= Assistant Adjutant-General. 



^Deputy Adjutant-General. 


= Deputy Assistant Adjutant- 



= Agent to the Governor- 



=Army Medical Depart- 



= Bachelor of Arts. 


= Bengal Civil Service. 



-Bachelor of Law, or of 




= Bombay Civil Service. 


= Companion of the Bath. 



= Companion of the Indian 



C. iiiC.= 

= Commander in Chief. 


= Crown of India. 



= Chief Justice. 


= Companion of St. Michael 
and St. George. 



= Chm:ch Missionary 



= Commanding Officer. 



= Companion of the Star of 




= Commander of the Royal 

Victorian Order. 



= Doctor of Civil Law. 


= Doctor of Divinity. 



= Deputy Inspector-General. 


= Deputy Lieutenant. 



Doctor of Laws. 


= Dictionary of National 




= Distinguished Service 




= East India Company. 


= Fellow of the Geological 




= Fellow of Institute of Chem- 




= Fellow of Institute of Jour- 




, = Fellow of the Linnaaan 




= Field Marshal 


= Fellow V of the 

Asiatic Society. 
- Fellow of the 

Colonial Institute. 
= Fellow of the 

College of Physicians. 
= Fellow of the Royal 

College of Surgeons. 
= FeUow of the Royal 

College of Veterinary 

= Fellow of the Royal 

Geographical Society. 
= Fellow of the Royal 

= Fellow of the Royal 

Society of Edinburgh. 
= Fellow of the Society of 

= Fellow of the Society of 

Antiquaries of Scotland 
= FeUow of I the Statistical 

= Fellow of the [Society of 

Science and Art. 
= Fellow of the Zoological 

= Knight Grand Cross of the 

= Knight Grand Cross of the 

Order of the Guelphs. 
= Knight Grand Comman- 
der of the Indian Empire. 
= Knight Grand Cross of 

St. Michael and St. 

= Knight Grand Commander 

of the Star of India. 
= Knight Grand 

the Royal 

, = Grand Master 

Indian Empire. 
= Grand Master of the Star 

of India. 
= His (or Her) Britannic 

= Honourable East India 

Company's Service. 

Cross of 

of the 




, = His Highness, or His 



= His (or Her) Majesty. 



= His (or Her) Royal High- 

N'.L = 




= Indian Civil Service. 



= Indian Medical Service. 


= Journal of the Asiatic 


Society of Bengal. 



= Justice of the Peace. 



= Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society. 



= Knight Bachelor or Knight 


Companion of the Bath. 



= King's Counsel. 



= Knight Commander of the 




= Knight Commander of the 

Order of the Guelphs. 



= Knight Commander of the 

Indian Empire. 



= Knight Commander of St. 
Michael and St. George. 



= Knight Commander of the 
Star of India. 



= Knight Commander] of the 


Royal Victorian Order. 



=: Knight of the Garter. 



= Knight of St. Patrick. 



= Knight of the Thistle. 



= Bachelor of Laws. 



= Doctor of Laws. 


= Licentiate in Midwifery. 



= Licentiate of the College of 




= Licentiate of the College of 





= Master of Arts. 



= Muhammadan Anglo- 



= Doctor of Medicine. 



=: Madras Infantry. 


= Member of Parliament. 

= Member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

= North Britain. 

= Native Infantry. 

= North-West Provinces. 

= Oxford University Boat 

= Privy Councillor. 

= Doctor of Philosophy. 

= Principal Medical Officer. 

= Public Works Depart- 

= Queen's Counsel. 

= Quarter-Master-General. 

= Assistant Quarter - Master- 

= Deputy- Assistant Quarter- 

= Deputy Quarter - Master- 

= quod vide = which see. 

= Royal Academy. 

= Royal Artillery. 

= Royal Asiatic Society's 

= Royal Engineer. 

= Royal Military Academy. 

= Royal MiHtary College. 

= Royal Navy. 

= Royal Naval Reserve. 

= Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge. 

= Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel. 

=Trinity College, Dublin. 

= United Provinces. 

= Victoria Cross. 

= Volunteer Decoration. 

= Young Men's Christian 

— Zeitschrif t der Deutschen 





Entered the Army, 1858 : served in 
the Abyssinian campaign, 1868, and the 
Afghan War, 1879-80, including the 
capture of Kandahar : commanded 
the Eastern District, 1899-1900 : Maj- 
General : C.B. : Lieutenant-Governor of 
Jersey, 1900-4. 

ABBOTT, AUGUSTUS (1804-1867) 

Born Jan. 7, 1804 : son of H. A. Abbott : 
brother of Sir Frederick, and Sir James A.: 
educated at Warfield, Winchester, Addis- 
combe : entered the Bengal Artillery, 
1819 : served at Bhartpur in 1825-6 : 
in 1838-9 was in the Army of the Indus, 
in the march to Kandahar, and the pur- 
suit to Girishk, at the siege of Ghazni, and 
the occupation of Kabul : was in the 
Kohistan fighting with Sale, and under 
him, on his return to Jalalabad ; com- 
manded the Artillery during the siege 
of Jalalabad and the defeat of Akbar Khan 
on April 7, 1842 : commanded the Artil- 
lery in Pollock's relieving Army, at Tezin 
on Sep. 12, 1842, and the re-occupation 
of Kabul : C. B. : Hony. A. D. C. to 
Governor - Generals : Inspr - General of 
Ordnance, 1855 : retired, 1859 : Maj- 
General, i860 : died Feb. 25, 1867. 

Brother of Sir James Abbott, and son 
of Henry Alexius Abbott, a Calcutta 
merchant : born June 13, 1805 : educated 
at Warfield and Addiscombe : entered 
Bengal Engineers, 1823 : Maj-General, 
1858 : arrived in India, 1823 : in the 
Burmese war of 1824-26: employed in the 
P. W. D. and garrison-engineer at Cal- 
cutta in 1841 : Chief Engineer in Pol- 
lock's relieving force in 1842, and at the 
re-occupation of Kabul : in the first 

Sikh war and at Sobraon in 1846 : directed 
the bridge and pontoon operations : 
C. B. : retired in 1847 : Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Addiscombe Military 
College, 1851-61 : knighted, 1854 : Mem- 
ber of Council of Mihtary Education, and 
Commissioner of National Defence : died 
Nov. 4, 1892. 


(1855- ) 

Son of General Abbott, Bengal Infantry : 
educated at St. Elizabeth College, Guern- 
sey, and R.M.A. Woolwich : entered the 
Army, 1874 : served in India, in the Afghan 
War, 1878-80 : P.W.D. Panjab ; Hazara 
expedition 1888 : Under Secretary P.W.D. 
Panjab : Chitral Relief force, 1895 : 
Superintending Engineer, P. W. D. : Lt.- 
Colonel R.E. : D.S.O. 

ABBOTT, SIR JAMES (1807-1896) 

Brother of Sir F. Abbott : born March 
12, 1807 : educated at Blackheath and 
Addiscombe : entered the Royal Artillery 
in 1823 : arrived in India, 1823 : served 
at Bhartpur, 1825-6 : in the Revenue 
Survey : with the Army of the Indus in 
1838-9, to Kandahar : in 1839, with 
D' Arcy Todd to Herat, and sent by him 
to Khiva to negotiate with the Khan for 
the release of Russian captives held by 
him : on the Khan's behalf crossed the 
Caspian, and went to St. Petersburg and 
on to England, 1840 : after some political 
employ, he was Commissioner of Hazara ' 
from 1845 to 1853, and held the country 
against the Sikhs in the second Sikh War, 
1848-9 : his name is preserved in the 
town of Abbottabad ; commanded a 
column in the Black Mountain expedi- 
tion, 1852 : C. B., 1873 : K. C. B., 1894 : 
General, 1877 : retired from the Army, 
1879 : died Oct. 6, 1896. He was also 


" a poet, antiquarian, and man of let- 
ters ; " wrote a Narrative of a Journey 
from Herat to Khiva, Moscow and St. 
Petersburg, etc., and about Alexander the 
Great in the Panjab, etc. 



Maj -General : born July 9, 1811 : 
son of Henry Alexius Abbott, merchant, 
Calcutta ; educated privately and at 
Addiscombe ; joined the Bengal Infantry 
in 1828 : appointed, in 1836, Assistant 
in the Revenue Survey under Sir H 
Lawrence (q.v.) : held Survey charges, 
1838-42 : present at Mudki, Dec. 18, 
1845, bringing the reserves from Kasauli 
and Sabathu by forced marches : also 
as A.D.C. to Lord Hardinge at Firoz- 
shahr ; dangerously wounded : Deputy 
Commissioner of Umbala, 1847 : of 
Hoshiarpur, 1849 : in charge there during 
the mutiny ; Commissioner of Lucknow, 
1858-63 ; Brevet-Major, 1846 ; Hon. 
A.D.C. to Governor-Generals, until he 
retired Sep. 1864 : after retirement was 
Agent of the Sind, Panjab, and Delhi 
railway at Lahore for years, and after- 
wards on the Home Board of Direction : 
died at Brighton, Feb. 7, 1894. 

UL MULK (1863-96) 

Son of a small hereditary chieftain in 
the Dekkan : joined the Bombay Govern- 
ment service before he was 20 : in the 
police, captured a dangerous dakait : 
made C. I. E. : joined the Hyderabad 
service : Sir Salar J ung sent him to Eng- 
land to obtain an alteration in the guaran- 
tee which the Nizam had given on his 
State railway : for effecting this, he was 
handsomely rewarded : was given a 
mining monopoly in the Nizam's state, 
from which he made a personal profit of 
nearly a quarter of a million : but, after 
the publication of the facts in 1888, he 
suffered political downfall at Hyderabad : 
and strove in vain to regain his position 
in the Nizam's service : died May, 1896. 



Son of a leading pleader in the Sadr 
Diwani Court at Calcutta : born, March, 
1828 : educated at the Calcutta Madrasa : 
entered Government service in 1846 : 

appointed a Deputy Magistrate in 1849 : 
acted sometimes as Presidency Magis- 
trate : Member of the Bengal Legislative 
Council for several years, and of the 
Calcutta Corporation: J. P. : on the 
Central Board of Examiners ; Fellow of 
the Calcutta University : on the Income 
Tax Commission for Calcutta, 1861-5 : 
founder and secretary, from 1863, of the 
Muhammadan Literary and Scientific 
Society, and several otlaer public bodies : 
Nawab, 1880 : C. I. E. 1883 : Nawab 
Bahadur, 1887 : often consulted by 
Government, as the most progressive 
and enlightened among the Muhammadans 
of Bengal, whose interests and aspirations 
he never ceased to urge : died 1893. 

ABDUL MUSSEAH, REV. ( ? -1827) 

Born at Delhi ; his original name was 
Sheikh Salih : son of a learned man, a 
teacher : became a Munshi at Lucknow 
to Englishmen : served at the Oudh 
Court, and was a trooper under the 
Mahrattas : he turned to Christianity on 
hearing preaching at Cawnpur, and was 
baptized at Calcutta by Rev. D. Brown 
{q.v.) in 181 1, receiving his name Abdul 
Musseah ; became in 1812 a catechist of 
the C.M.S., a teacher and preacher and 
writer of commentaries on Scriptxure, 
making converts : about 1820 he received 
Lutheran ordination, and undertook Mis- 
sionary work, remaining at Agra till 1825 : 
ordained by Bishop Heber as minister of 
the Established Church at Calcutta, 1825 : 
died March 4, 1827. 

ABEL, CLARKE (1780-1826) 

Physician to Lord Macartney on the 
mission to China, and, as naturalist, 
made extensive collections, which were 
lost : also physician to Lord Amherst, 
when Governor-General : died in India, 
Nov. 24, 1826. 


Son of Sir Ralph Abercromby : born 
1772 : entered the Army, 1786 : served in 
Flanders, W. Indies, and as' Military Secre- 
tary to his father in Egypt : seized in 
1803 and imprisoned by Napoleon, to 
1808 : C. in C, Bombay, 1809 : in com- 
mand of the expedition for the captiure 
?iMauritius, 1810 : C. in C, and tempo- 
rary Governor at Madras, May 21, 18 13, 
until Sep. 16, 1814 : Lt-General, 1812 : 


K.C.B., 1814 : M.P. for Clackmannan, 
1815 : G.C.B., 1816 : died Feb. 14, 1817. 


Younger brother of Sir Ralph : entered 
the Army in 1758 : served in North 
America till the peace in 1763 : and again, 
from 1776 to 1783, throughout the war 
to the capitulation of Yorktown : went 
to India 1788, and, in 1790, was Governor 
of Bombay and C. in C. there : Maj- 
General, 1790. After operations on the 
Malabar coast, he joined Lord Cornwallis 
in attacking and defeating Tippoo at 
Seringapatam in 1792 : K. B. : succeeded 
Lord Cornwallis as C. in C. in India, 
Oct. 1793, being at the same time Member 
of the Supreme Council till Feb. 1797 : 
he defeated the Rohillas at Batina in 
Rohilkund in 1794 : Lt-General in 1797 : 
M.P. for Clackmannan County in 1798 : 
Governor of Edinburgh Castle, 1801 : 
General, 1802 : died Nov. 1827. 

ROBERT (1848-1881) 

Born July 25, 1848 : son of Rev. Dr. 
James Aberigh-Mackay, Chaplain in Ben- 
gal : educated privately in Scotland, at 
Magdalen College School, Oxford, and 
St. Catherine's College, Cambridge : en- 
tered the Education Department at 
Bareli in the N. W. P., 1870 : Professor 
of English Literature at the Delhi College, 
1873 : Tutor to the Raja of Ratlam, 
Central India, and Principal of the College 
there, 1876 : Principal of the Rajkumar 
College at Indore, 1877 : Fellow, Calcutta 
University, 1880 : wrote a number of 
educational works : also Notes on Western 
Turkistan, a Hand-book of Hindustan, a 
Manual of Indian Sport, Native Chiefs 
and their States, The sovereign Princes and 
Chiefs of Central India : at one time wrote 
largely for the Pioneer, and constantly 
for other English and Indian papers, 
including letters in the Bombay Gazette 
under the nom de plume " The Political 
Orphan " : but his best work was his 
Twenty-one Days in India, being the Tour 
■of Sir Ali Baba, a series of sketches of 
Indian life and society which appeared 
in Vanity Fair in 1878-9, and were after- 
wards published together. For brilliant 
wit, his work has not been approached 
in modern days in India. His bright and 

sympathetic humour, his " suspicion of 
cynicism which is the soul of modern 
pathos," his freedom from maUce, his 
command of style and language, the keen 
edge and truth of his criticisms, his grasp 
and range, took the pubUc by storm : a 
distinguished literary career lay before 
him, when he died, Jan. 12, 1881, from 
tetanus, caused by a chill caught at lawn- 
tennis : he was also an ardent sportsman, 
and lover of birds and animals. 

Educated at City of London School : 
scholar of Balliol College, Oxford : Arnold 
Prize : entered the India Office 1893 : 
Assistant Financial Secretary, 1901: 
Financial Secretary, 1902 : contributed 
to^the Dictionary of Political Economy. 


Governor : son of Right Hon. William 
Adam : entered the Army, 1795 : in the 
Guards, 1799 : in Egypt, 1 800-1 : in 
Sicily and Spain : A.D.C. to the Prince 
Regent : Maj -General : commanded a 
Brigade at Waterloo : K. C. B. : Lord 
High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands, 
1824-6 : G.C.M.G. : P.C, 1831 : Governor 
of Madras, 1832-7 : G.C.B., 1840 : Colonel 
of the 57th and 21st regts. : General, 
1846 : died Aug. 17, 1853. 

ADAM, JOHN (1779-1826) 
Son of Right Hon. W. Adam : born 
May 4, 1779. educated at Charterhouse 
and Edinburgh University : writer in 
the E. I. Co.'s service, reached Calcutta, 
.Feb. 1796 : three years at Patna : head 
assistant in the judicial-revenue Secre- 
tariat : in May, 1802, was Head of the 
" Governor-General's office " : in 1804, 
Deputy Secretary in the Secret and Poli- 
tical Departments : in 1809, Secretary 
in the Military Department : in 1812, 
Secretary in the Secret, Foreign and 
Political Departments : Private Secretary 
in 1 817 and Political Secretary to the 
Marquis of Hastings, whom he accom- 
panied during the Mahratta-Pindari war, 
greatly influencing his policy of estab- 
lishing the British supremacy : was " the 
very able and very conservative " Mem- 
ber of the Supreme Council, 1819-25 : 
opposed the liberty of the Press as un- 
suited to India, and the financial transac- 
tions of Palmer & Co with the Nizam : 


acted as Governor General from Lord 
Hastings' departure in Jan. until Lord 
Amherst's arrival in Aug., 1823 : 
adopted a strong and active policy : a 
Regulation was passed, in April, 1823, 
to curb the public Press : under it, John 
Silk Buckingham, who had established 
the Calcutta Journal and criticised Govern- 
ment, satirically commenting upon an 
appointment made by Government, was 
deprived of his licence and deported to 
England. The Court of Directors ap- 
proved Adam's policy, and the Privy 
Council concurred. Adam was the first 
to grant public money, a lakh of rupees a 
year, in support of native education : 
devoted town duties to public works : 
increased civil judicial establishments : 
added four regiments to the Bengal 
Army : was given a renewed term as 
Member of Council : he died at sea, off 
Madagascar, June 4, 1825. His picture, 
by Chinnery, is in the Town Hall, Cal- 
cutta, and a tablet to his memory is in 
St. John's Church there, testifying to his 


Governor : son of Admiral Sir Charles 
Adam, K.C.B. : born 1823 : educated at 
Rugby and Trinity College, Cambridge : 
B.A. : called to the bar by the Inner 
Temple, 1849 : Private Secretary to Lord 
Elphinstone, Governor of Bombay, 1853- 
58 : M.P. for Clackmannan and Kinross, 
1859-80 : Lord of the Treasury, 1865-6, 
and 1868-73 • First Commissioner of 
Works in 1873, and Privy Councillor : 
' Whip ' of the Liberal party, 1874-80, 
and Governor of Madras, Dec. 20, 1880 : 
died at Ootacamund May 24, 1881 : his 
eldest son was created a Baronet in recog- 
nition of his father's public services : 
his widow was given the rank of a 
Baronet's widow and made a member of 
the Order of the Crown of India. 


NaturaUst, Army-Surgeon and Sur- 
geon-Major from 1848 to 1873 : Professor 
of Zoology at Dublin, and of Natural 
History at Cork : wrote Wanderings of 
a Naturalist in India, and The Western 
Himalayas and Cashmere : F. G. S. : 
F. R. S. : and LL.D. of Aberdeen : died 
in Aug. 1882. 



Educated at Trinity College, Dublin: 
ordained, 1863 : on the Bengal Ecclesi- 
astical Establishment, 1868-1887: chosen, 
1879, to be Chaplain to the Kabul Field 
Force : was at Charasia and other engage- 
ments, and in Lord Roberts' march from 
Kabul to Kandahar : won the Victoria 
Cross — the only clergyman who ever 
gained it — in the Chardeh valley, near 
Kabul, in Dec. 1879 : first saved a 
wounded man of the 9th Lancers, by 
dismounting and supporting him imtil 
relieved ; he then, up to his waist in water, 
and under a heavy fire from the Afghans 
within a few yards, by sheer strength 
dragged out two more men of the same 
regiment from under their horses in a 
ditch. He also saw service as Chaplain 
in Burma. On his retirement, in 1887, 
he was appointed Rector of Postwick, 
Norfolk ; died at Ashwell Rectory near 
Ockham, on Oct. 20, 1903, " Padre " 
Adams, as he was called, had immense 
influence with the British soldier, who 
adored him. He was Chaplain in Ordinary 
to H.M., 1901. 



Entered the Army 1780 : fought 
under Sir R. Abercromby {q. v.) against 
the Rohillas : was at the capture of 
Seringapatam, 1799 : commanded his 
regt. in 1809, on active service in Central 
India : C. B., 1815 : held commands in 
Kumaon, Nagpur, the Dekkan : took 
Chanda in 1818, was at Bhartpur in 1826 : 
commanded the Sirhind Division, May, 
1828 : Maj-General 1830 : Colonel of the 
1 6th Bengal, N.I. : K. C. B. : died March 9, 
1837, at Sabathu. 

ADAMS, THOMAS ( ? -1764) 

Major : an officer of the school of 
Clive : in 1763 succeeded to a command 
in Bengal : defeated Mir Kasim, Nawab 
of Bengal, performing splendid exploits 
during the campaign : he started, just 
after a British reverse, with a few English 
veterans and a handful of sepoys : de- 
feated one of the Nawab's Generals at 
Katwa : marched on Murshidabad and 
occupied it : won a briUiant victory at 
Gheria : dislodged the enemy from their 
position of great strength at the pass of 


Udwanala : took Monghyr : marched 
on Patna, and took it by assault, though 
he was so broken down by illness that he 
could scarcely retain his command. Mir 
Kasim had fled from Patna on the ap- 
proach of the English : Adams pursued 
him as far as the boundary of Oudh : 
he then handed over the command to 
Knox and died, worn out, Jan. i6, 1764. 


Born Nov. i, 18 19, son of Major J. P. 
Adye, R.A. : entered the Royal Artillery 
in Dec. 1836 : in the Crimea as Brig- 
Major to the Artillery ; Brevet-Lt- 
Colonel, 1854, and C. B. : through the 
mutiny as A.A.G. for Royal Artillery : 
with General Windham at Cawnpur and 
at the defeat of the Gwalior contingent, 
Dec. 6, 1857 : commanded the R.A. in 
Madras in 1859 : D.A.G. of Artillery in 
India, 1863 ; in the Sitana (Umbeyla) 
campaign : Director of Artillery at the 
War Office, 1870 : to the Crimea in 1872, 
to report on the British cemeteries and 
monuments : Governor of R.M.A. Wool- 
wich, 1875 : wrote largely on the ques- 
tion of the Russians in Central Asia 
and on Afghanistan, opposing a forward 
policy : Surveyor-General of Ordnance, 
1880 : Chief of the Staff to Lord Wolseley 
in the Egyptian campaign, 1882 : Gov- 
ernor of Gibraltar, 1883-1886 : K.C.B. 
in 1873 : Commander of the Legion of 
Honour, 1874 : G.C.B. in 1882, and the 
Order of the Medjidie : General, Nov. 
20, 1884 : died Aug. 26, 1900. He wrote 
on India, viz.. The Defence of Cawnpur^ 
Sitana, a Mountain Campaign, Indian 
Frontier History, and an autobiography. 

AMIR OF (1844-1901) 

Son of Afzal Khan, and grandson of 
the Amir Dost Muhammad : confirmed 
by Shir Ali, in 1863, in a government in 
Turkistan : took part in the civil war 
between his father and his uncle Shir Ali 
{q.v.) : escaped to Bokhara when his 
father was imprisoned in 1864 : collected 
a force and defeated Shir Ali at Shekhabad 
in May, 1866, and recovered Kabul for 
his father : on the latter's death, in 1867, 
became C. in C. to his uncle Muhammad 
Azim : retired to Balkh : he was defeated 
at Tinak Khan, by Yakub on behalf of 
Shir Ali, on Jan. 3, 1869, and made for 
Bokhara, receiving an allowance from 

Russia : remained for 10 years at Samar- 
kand. In 1880 he watched events from 
Balkh, and, when Yakub Khan abdicated 
and was sent to India, negotiations were 
opened with Abdur Rahman, who pro- 
ceeded to Charikar, was recognised as 
Amir of Kabul by the British Govern- 
ment in July, 1880, and finally nominated 
Amir on Aug. 10 : he subsequently 
occupied Kandahar when evacuated by 
the British forces, lost it to his uncle 
Ayub Khan {q.v.) in 1881, but personally 
recovered it from Ayub in Sep. 1881 : 
established his power throughout Afghan- 
istan, and had frontier disputes with 
Russia : visited the Viceroy, Lord Duf- 
ferin, at Rawul Pindi, March, 1885, to 
discuss Afghan affairs, and was then 
made G.C.S.I. At the time of the Penjdeh 
incident with Russia, in April, 1885, he 
showed great forbearance. He had to 
repress risings in various parts of the 
kingdom : defeated his cousin Ishak, 
Governor of Turkistan. In 1893 he 
received Sir M. Durand's mission to 
settle a number of frontier questions, 
which at times had nearly led to hostili- 
ties with the British. He ruled with a 
rod of iron. GC.B., 1895 : disappointed 
at not being allowed to have a diplomatic 
agent resident in London, for which he 
asked through his son Nasrulla, in 1895. 
During his reign he employed English 
firms and experts to work for him at 
Kabul, and greatly strengthened his 
kingdom and military power, but main- 
tained the traditional Afghan policy of 
keeping foreigners in general out of his 
country : in an autobiography he showed 
his confidence in the British alliance : he 
died Oct. 3, 1901. 

KHAN, AMIR OF (1791-1863) 

Twentieth son of Payinda Khan 
(executed 1799), who was chief of the 
Barakzais, and brother of Fateh Khan, 
the Barakzai " Mayor of the Palace " 
of Mahmud Shah, of the Abdalis, or 
Duranis. As the result of the fighting 
among the members of the Durani and 
Barakzai families from the time of Payinda 
Khan, Dost Muhammad established 
himself in 1822-3 iii Kabul, Kashmir hav- 
ing been lost to the Sikhs in 1819, Herat 
and Peshawar not being in his power. 
He defeated Shah Shuja, the Sadazai or, 
Durani, late Amir, at Kandahar in 1833 : 


but lost Peshawar to the Sikhs in 1834 : 
styled himself Amir in 1833. In 1837 
Burnes was sent on an embassy to Kabul, 
to oppose Persian designs on Herat : 
Dost Muhammad was found to be intri- 
guing with Russia, and a Russian Envoy 
appeared at Kabul : Lord Auckland's 
Government decided to depose Dost 
Muhammad and reinstate Shah Shuja 
as Amir : on the approach of the British 
force in 1839 Dost Muhammad fled to 
Bokhara, but escaped, advanced on 
Kabul, made a stand at Bajgah, but was 
defeated and fled again : after a success 
against the English at Parwandarra, he 
surrendered, Nov. 3, 1840, to the Eng- 
lish envoy and was sent down to Cal- 
cutta : at the end of the first Afghan 
war, in 1842, he returned to Kabul and 
resumed his reign : in the Panjab cam- 
paign of 1848-9, he sent assistance to the 
Sikhs : he concluded the treaty of Pesha- 
war with the Governor-General in March, 
1855, by which the independence of 
Afghanistan was recognised : and a sub- 
sidy was given to him, under an agreement 
made in Jan. 1857 : he regained Kanda- 
har in Jan. 1856 : remained quiet and 
staunch to the British during the mutiny : 
established his power throughout Afghanis- 
tan, capturing Herat, May 27, 1863 : 
died at Herat, June 9, 1863 : was a 
strong ruler, and leader of men, but cruel 
and unscrupulous. 



Fifth son of Dost Muhammad {q.v.), 
whom he accompanied in exile to India : 
succeeded him on his death, at Herat, in 
1863, being recognised by the Government 
of India : civil war ensued between him 
and his brothers. He lost his eldest son, 
Muhammad Ali, in the battle of Kajhbaz, 
in 1865, when he defeated his brother 
Muhammad Amir and took Kandahar : 
lost Kabul to his nephew, Abdur Rahman : 
imprisoned, 1864, his brother Afzal, who 
regained his freedom after the battle of 
Shekhabad in May, 1866, was proclaimed 
Amir, but died 1867. Shir Ali at one 
time had lost Kabul and Kandahar, but, 
having recovered Kabul from his brother 
Muhammad Azam, defeated Abdur Rah- 
man {q. v.), son of Afzal, on Jan. 3, 1869, 
drove him out and was recognised as 
Amir by the Government of India. Lord 
Mayo received him in darbar at Umbala 

in 1869. Shir Ali returned disappointed 
from the darbar, and showed resentment 
at the failure of his requests and his subse- 
quent treatment by the British Govern- 
ment : in 1873 he sent an envoy, Saiyad 
Nur Muhammad, to India, to make cer- 
tain proposals, which were not accepted : 
negotiations took place in 1877 between 
the envoy and Sir L. Pelly, on behalf of 
the Governor-General, Lord Lytton, but 
were fruitless. Abdullah Jan, named 
in 1873 as his heir, died in 1877. In 1878 
Shir Ali was found to have received, at 
Kabul, a Russian mission under General 
Stolietoff : he stopped Sir Neville Cham- 
berlain's mission at Ali Masjid, and the 
second Afghan war ensued. On the 
approach of the British forces. Shir Ali 
fled from Kabul and died at Mazar-i- 
Sharif, in Afghan Turkistan, on Feb. 21, 

AGA ALI SHAH ( ? -1886) 

Like his father, Aga Khan, the spiritual 
head of the Khoja community, from whom 
he received tribute in Asia and Africa : 
best known to Englishmen as a keen 
sportsman, a strong supporter of the turf : 
Member of the Bombay Legislative Coun- 
cil : succeeded by his son, Aga Sultan 
Muhammad Shah : died in 1885. 

AGA KHAN (1800-1881) 

The venerable spiritual head of the 
Khoja community, of Shia Muhamma- 
dans : descendant of the mysterious and 
dreaded " old man of the mountains " : 
claimed to be descended from Ali and 
Fatima : fled from Persia 40 years before 
his death, after an attempt to gain the 
Persian throne, at which his family aimed : 
assisted the British with his light horse 
in the Afghan war, 1842 : received 
Rs. 1,000 a month as pension : resided a 
short time in Calcutta, and then 30 years 
in Bombay, holding his court in grand 
style, and taking a leading part in turf 
and sporting matters : the keenest racing 
man in India : exercised almost absolute 
control over his subjects, " a king without 
a territory," the annual tribute from his 
followers amounting to a lakh of rupees : 
died April 12, 1881. 


(1875- ) 

Born 1875 : Aga Khan: succeeded his 


father, Aga Ali Shah, as head of Ismaili Mu- 
hammadans : has many religious followers 
in East Africa, Central Asia and India : 
attended the Coronation (1902) as guest 
of the English nation : K.C.I.E. 1898 : 
G.C.I. E. 1902 : Member of the Governor 
General's Legislative Council: has the 
Zanzibar and Prussian Orders. 


VANS (1822-1848) 

I.C.S. : son of Lt.-Colonel P. Vans 
Agnew, a Director of the E.I. Co : educated 
at Haileybury : arrived in India in 1841 : 
Assistant to the Superintendent of the 
Cis-Satlaj States, and at Sobraon in 1846 : 
after political work connected with 
Kashmir was assistant to the British 
Resident at Lahore : was sent in 1848 
with Lt. Anderson to Multan, to introduce 
both a change in the personnel of the native 
Government and new fiscal arrangements : 
they were treacherously attacked on 
April 20, 1848, wounded and subsequently 
murdered by Mulraj's retainers, with his 
knowledge : this outrage led to the second 
Sikh War of 1848-9, after which the 
Panjab was annexed. 



Son of General Agnew, of the Indian 
Staff Corps : called to the bar at Lin- 
coln's Inn, 1870 : joined the bar of the 
Calcutta High Court : edited, from 1877, 
the Indian Law Reports, Calcutta : was 
Law Lecturer, Presidency College, 1879 : 
Recorder of Rangoon, 1884— 1900, officia- 
ting in 1885-6 as a Judge of the Calcutta 
High Court : knighted, 1899 : retired 
in 1900 : edited several books on Indian 
Law: died Dec. 26, 1903. 

AHLIA BAI ( ? -1795) 

Wife of Khandi Rao Holkar, (who died 
i754),son of Malhar Rao Holkar, of Indore. 
On the latter's death, in 1765, Mali Rao, 
son of Khandi and Ahlia, succeeded to 
the throne, but died in 9 months. Then 
Ahlia assumed the government, chose 
Takaji Holkar as her minister, and ruled 
till her death in 1795. She transacted 
business daily, unveiled, in open darbar 
from 2 p.m : had great ability and charac- 
ter, was deeply rehgious, and governed 

BAHADUR (1817-1898) 
Educational reformer : born Oct. 17, 
1 81 7, at Delhi, of a noble family : his 
ancestors came into India from Central 
Asia, and held high office under the Mogul 
Emperors : he entered Government ser- 
vice in 1837 and rose to be a subordinate 
Judge in the N.W.P. In the mutiny he 
rendered faithful service to the British at 
Bijnur, saving their lives : he wrote a 
pamphlet in Urdu on the causes of the 
mutiny. He was devoted to antiquarian 
research and was a Member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society : in 1864 he formed a 
Translation Society at Ghazipur (after- 
wards moved to Alighar) and had several 
valuable English works translated into 
Urdu. He visited England in 1869, and 
left his son (afterwards Mr. Justice Mah- 
mud of the Allahabad High Court), to 
be educated at Cambridge. He wrote a 
reply to Sir W. W. Hunter's work on 
The Indian Musalmans — are they bound 
in Conscience to rebel against the Queen ? 
In 1876 he retired from Government 
service, and in 1877 commenced the Anglo- 
Oriental College at Alighar. He was a 
Member of the Legislative Council, N.W.P. 
and an Additional Member of the Governor 
General's Legislative Council, 1 878-1 882 : 
was made a K.C.S.I. in 1888 : a 
man of extreme courtesy combined with 
personal dignity : to his College he 
devoted his whole energy and means : 
died March 27, 1898 : wrote ArchcBolo- 
gical History of Delhi 1847 : F.R.A.S. 


( ? -1772) 
Son of an Afghan chief of the tribe of 
Abdal, near Herat : held a command under 
Nadir Shah : after whose death, in i747» 
he attacked the Persians, seized Kandahar, 
Kabul and Lahore : in 1748 he attacked 
the Moguls in Hindustan : returned to 
Kabul, but, in 1757, came down on Delhi 
and Agra, plundered Mathura and re- 
turned to Kandahar : about 1758, in 
response to an invitation from India, he 
advanced against the Mahrattas, then in 
great power, and defeated them at Panipat, 
Jan. 1761 : returned to Kabul : again 
invaded India in 1767 : returned to 
Afghanistan with little success, but some 
plunder : died 1772, succeeded by his 
second son, Timtu: Shah. 



? ) 

Of Bareli : a horseman under Amir 
Khan (q.v.) : went to Delhi, became a 
disciple of Shah Abdul Aziz, a famous 
devotee there : became a religious teacher 
and reformer, aiming at the restoration of 
pure Muhammadanism : went to Calcutta 
in 1821 : to Mecca, 1822 : to Bombay, 
1823 : wrote the Incitement to Religious 
War, and opened a jihad against the Sikhs 
in 1826 : was killed in battle, and the 
movement terminated. 

AINSLIE, WHITELAW (1766-1836) 

Joined the E. I. Go's medical service in 
1788, and served in Madras : in 1810 he 
was made Superintending Surgeon, and 
retired in 1815 : he wrote on cholera, 
fever, the Materia Medica of Hindostan, 
Materia Indica, and similar subjects : 
died April 29, 1836, 


Son of Lt-General Sir George Airey, 
and brother of Lord Airey : born Sep. 
6, 1812 : entered the Army in 1830 : in 

1841 he accompanied General Elphinstone 
{q.v.) to Kabul as his A. D. C. : in Dec. 
he was one of the hostages given up to 
Akbar Khan : they were released in Sep. 

1842 : was present under McCaskill {q.v.) 
at Istalif : in the Gwalior campaign in 

1843 : at Punniar : served in the Guards 
in the Crimea : C.B. : Colonel, 1859 : 
Lt-General and K.C.B. in 1877 : retired 
as General in 1881": died Jan. i, 1898. 

STON (1832-1896) 

I.C.S. : born May 20, 1832, son of 
Hugh Aitchison, of Edinburgh : educated 
at the High School and University there : 
and at the University of Halle : passed 
in the first competitive examination, 
while Haileybury was being abolished : ar- 
rived in India in 1856 : he narrowly escaped 
the massacre of Emropeans at Hissar in 
1857 : was Under Secretary in the Foreign 
Department of the Government of India, 
1859-65, and, after some executive work, 
was Foreign Secretary, 1868-78. Sharing, 
as he did, the views of Lord Lawrence on 
questions of Central Asian and Afghan 
policy, he was strongly opposed to the 
measures which led to the second Afghan 

War of 1878-80. He was Chief Com- 
missioner of British Burma from March, 
1878, to July, 1 880; Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Panjab, 1882-87 ; Member of the 
Supreme Council from April, 1887. to Nov. 
1888 : also President of the important 
Public Service Commission in 1887-88 : 
K.C.S.I. in 1881, CLE. in 1882 : also 
LL.D. of Edinburgh and honorary M.A. 
of Oxford. He compiled the first edition 
of the Treaties, Engagements and 
Sunnuds, an authoritative work of 
reference, always quoted under his name : 
wrote also The Native States of India, and 
Lord Lawrence in the Rulers of India 
series : he died at Oxford Feb. 18, 1896. 


(1851- ; 

Son of the Rev. J ames Aitken, mission- 
ary. Free Church of Scotland : passed 
the B.A. and M.A. examinations of the 
Bombay University at the head of the 
list : Latin reader in the Dekkan College, 
1880-6 : entered the Customs and Salt 
Department : writes under the name of 
E. H. A. : author of Tribes on my Frontier, 
Behind the Bungalow, The Naturalist on 
the Prowl, Five Windows of the Soul, 
Common Birds of Bombay : Chief Collector 
of Customs, Karachi. 


( ? -1887) 
Of the 13th Bengal N.I. : served in the 
Panjab campaign, 1848-9 : in the mutiny, 
at Lucknow, in the operations before 
Cawnpiur, and in the Oudh campaign, 
1858 : gained the V.C. for acts of gallantry 
during the defence of the Lucknow 
Residency : Inspr-General of Police in 
Oudh : Colonel 1876 : died Sep. 18, 1887- 


Son of James Aitken, of Falkirk, N.B., 
educated at Edinburgh Academy and 
Heidelberg : entered the Royal Artillery, 
1867, Captain in 1878 : in Afghan war, 
1878-80 : in the Mahsud Waziri expedi- 
tion, 1 881 : Major, 1884 : served in the 
Burma expedition, 1885-87 : Brevet 
Lt-Colonel : in the Chitral Relief Force, 
1895 : C.B. : Brevet Colonel, 1897 : served 
with the Malakand Field Force, and in 
the Mohmand and Buner expeditions, 
1897-8: commanded the Mountain Artil- 
lery, Rawul Pindi, Panjab, till 1899 : 


A.D.C. to his Majesty : and Colonel on 
the Staff, commanding R.A., Scottish 
District since 1899. 


Son of a Brahman of Palghat in the 
District of Malabar : educated at the 
Provincial School at Calicut and the 
Presidency College in Madras : entered 
the Government service as translator in 
the Collector's office at Calicut : trans- 
ferred in 1868 to Mysore under Ranga 
Charlu (q.v.). In 13 years he filled various 
subordinate offices until the rendition of 
the State to its ruler in 1881 : then he 
became Personal Assistant to Runga 
Charlu, whom he succeeded as Diwan in 
1883. For 17 years he laboured assidu- 
ously to promote the economic and 
industrial development of the State. He 
began with a debt of 30 lakhs and left 
with a surplus of 176 lakhs. In railway, 
irrigation, and mining works immense 
progress was made during his adminis- 
tration : his unpopularity was due to 
his showing preference in his appointments 
to " outsiders " over natives of the State : 
a high - principled and accomplished 
statesman : received a handsome bonus 
of 4 lakhs on his retirement in 1900: 
made C.S.I, in 1887, K.C.S.I. in 1893 : 
Fellow of the Madras University : died 
Sep. 13, 1901. 

SAWMY (1832-1895) 

Born Jan. 28, 1832 : of a poor but 
respectable family in the Tanjore Dis- 
trict : his father died when he was young, 
and his mother had not the means to 
educate him : began life as assistant to a 
village accountant : in 1846, Tahsildar 
Mutusawmy Naik was struck with his 
intelligence, and sent him to the Madras 
High School. He was a favourite pupil 
of E. B. Powell {q.v.) : after serving for a 
time in the Tanjore District, was appointed 
a Deputy Inspector of Schools in 1856 : 
and, later. District Munsif of Tranque- 
bar : in 1859, Deputy Collector of Tan- 
jore : in 1865, Sub- Judge of S. Canara : 
in 1868, Police Magistrate at Madras: 
passed the B.L. degree at the University, 
and became a Judge of the Small Cause 
Coiurt : in 1878, CLE. and Judge of the 
High Court, where he remained for 15 
years ; acting as Chief Justice for 3 months 

in 1893 : K.C.I.E. : was very learned in 
Hindu Law and a soimd English lawyer, 
somewhat timid in coming to a decision : 
died Jan. 25, 1895. 


A Kashmiri Brahman : born April 8, 
1840 : his father, Kedar Nath, was a 
merchant at Agra and for some time 
Diwan to the Nawab of Jaflfhar : edu- 
cated at the Agra College : in 1862 joined 
the bar. When the seat of Government 
was moved from Agra to Allahabad ,he 
migrated there : in 1869 Professor of Law 
at Agra : very successful as a pleader, 
and amassed a fortune : continued his 
studies in Persian and Arabic : became 
a member of the N.W.P. Legislative 
Council ; Fellow of the Calcutta and 
Allahabad Universities ; a prominent 
member of the National Congress in 1888, 
and afterwards became Joint General 
Secretary : a man of strong individu- 
ality : died Jan. 11, 1892. 

AKBAR KHAN ( ? -1849) 

Eldest son of Dost Mahammad (q.v.), 
the Amir of Afghanistan : distinguished 
himself against the Sikhs, and took an 
active part in the insurrection in Kabul 
in 1841 against Shah Shuja, the Amir and 
the British forces : at the conference to 
which the envoy. Sir W. H. Macnaghten, 
was invited on Dec. 23, 1S41, outside 
Kabul, he treacherously murdered Mac- 
naghten : the British hostages, including 
women and children, were given over to 
him, when the British army retreated 
from Kabul and was destroyed, in Jan., 
1842, by the Afghans and the climate : he 
treated them chivalrously : he attacked 
Sale's garrison near Jalalabad, but was 
beaten off on April 7, 1842, by a force 
under Havelock : he was again routed, in 
Aug., 1842, at Tezin by the relieving 
force under General Pollock : he died 
1849, in Kabul, after the restoration of 
Dost Muhammad. 


(1859- ) 

Educated at MUl HUl, Blackheath, 
Westminster, and Aberdeen University : 
Assistant Professor of Zoology, Aberdeen 
University, 1883-85 : joined the Indian 
Medical Service, 1885 : served in the 
Panjab Frontier Force : Surgeon Natura- 



list to the Marine Survey of India on 
board the Investigator, 1888-1892 : Super- 
intendent of the Indian Museum and 
Professor of Zoology in the Medical College, 
Calcutta, since 1893 : CLE. : author of 
A Naturalist in Indian Seas and numerous 
zoological monographs : Major. 


Entered the Bengal Artillery, 1820 : at 
capture of Bhartpur, 1825-6 : commanded 
the Artillery under Pollock in Afghanistan, 
1842 : forced the Khyber Pass, at Tezin 
and Kabul : in the Gwalior campaign, 
at Maharajpur, 1843 : in the Satlaj cam- 
paign, 1845-6, at Badiwal,Aliwal, Sobraon: 
C.B. : K.C.B., 1871 General, -872 : 
retired, 1887' 



Born Oct. 16, 1803 : son of Edward 
Alexander, of Powis : educated at Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow and the R.M.C., Sand- 
hurst : to Madras as a cadet in 1820 : 
Adjutant of the bodyguard to Sir Thomas 
Munro, and served in the Burmese war of 
1824 : left the E. I. Co.'s army in 1825, 
but saw much active service, with the 
Persian army, in the Balkans, Portugal, 
S. Africa, Canada, the Crimea, New 
Zealand : employed on Government expedi- 
tions in exploring and surveying in Central 
Africa and New Brunswick, for which he 
was knighted : took a leading part in the 
removal of 'Cleopatra's Needle' to England, 
1867-77 : made C.B. in 1873, retired as 
Lt-General, and became General in 1881 : 
died April 2, 1885 : wrote Travels from 
India to England by way of Burma, Persia, 
Turkey, etc., 1827, and other works : was 
Knight Commander of the Lion and 
Sun : F.R.S. Edinburgh : F.R.G.S. : 
F.R.A.S. : F.S.S.A. 


( r -1793 ?) 

Of Patna : " Daroga " of the Court at 
Benares, that is. President of the tribunal 
there, in the time of Warren Hastings' 
Governorship : besides a number of com- 
positions, he compiled the Gulzar-i 
Ibrahim, described as an anthological 
biography of Hindustani poets, written 
1772-1784 : he had a poetical name, 
Khatil : died 1793 or 1794. 


(1826- ) 

General : son of Sir. A. A., the historian : 
born Jan. 21, 1826 : educated at Glasgow 
and Edinburgh Universities : entered 
the Army in 1846 : served in the Crimea ; 
in the Indian mutiny he was Military 
Secretary to Sir Colin Campbell, then 
C. in C. in India ; lost his arm at the 
relief of Lucknow in Nov., 1857 : made 
C.B. : served in the Ashanti expedition 
in 1873-4 : made K.C.B. and later G.C.B. : 
Commandant of the Staff College, 1877 : 
Head of the Intelligence Department, 
1878-8 : in the Egyptian campaign of 
1882, commanded at Alexandria, and the 
Highland Brigade at Tel-el- Kebir : C in 
C. in Egypt, 1882-3 : commanded the 
Aldershot Division from 1883 : Adjutant - 
General, 1888 : retired from the Army, 
1893 : member of the Council of India, 
1 889-1 899 : wrote a number of articles in 
Blackwood'' s Magazine. 

ALIVERDI KHAN (1676P-1756) 

Nawab Nazim of Bengal, Bihar and 
Orissa : son of Mirza Muhammad, a 
Turkoman employed at Delhi : entered 
the service of Nawab Shujauddin, governor 
of Orissa (son-in-law of Nawab Murshid 
Kali J afar Khan) as a commander of 
troops : in 1726, J afar Khan died, Shu- 
jauddin succeeded him as Nawab Nazim, 
and Aliverdi Khan became General of 
the Imperial troops : in 1729 he was 
appointed Governor of Bihar by Nawab 
Shujauddin, and, later, became free from 
any dependence on the Nizam of Bengal : 
in 1739 Shujauddin died, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Sarfaraz Khan, Aliverdi 
continuing to be governor of Bihar : in 

1740 Aliverdi quarrelled with the Nawab 
Sarfaraz, defeated and killed him in battle 
and seized the Nizamat : he was known 
in Bengal as Muhabat Jang. From 

1 74 1 the Mahrattas invaded Bengal, and 
their leader, Bhashkar Pandit, was in- 
veigled by Aliverdi to a conference, and 
treacherously killed : the Mahratta raids 
spread consternation throughout Bengal, 
and, after fighting with them up to 1751, 
Aliverdi made peace by ceding Orissa 
to them and agreeing to an annual pay- 
ment of 12 lakhs of rupees. Aliverdi 
allowed the English to protect themselves 
in 1742, by digging the Mahratta ditch 
round the Company's territory to stop the 



Mahratta raids. In 1753 he adopted his 
grandson, Surajuddaula, and declared 
him his successor. On April 9, 1756, 
Aliverdi died at the age of 80, at Mur- 


General : born in France, March 8, 
1785 : served in the French Cavalry from 
1803 : in Italy : A.D.C. to Marshal 
Brune : after Waterloo, went to Persia ; 
thence through Kandahar and Kabul to 
Lahore : entered Ranjit Singh's service 
in March, 1822, and drilled Sikh cavalry 
for him on the European model : engaged 
in numerous campaigns : of high character 
and much liked and respected by Euro- 
peans : was General in the French Army, 
and Political Agent of the French Govern- 
ment at Lahore : died at Peshawar, Jan. 
23. 1839, and buried at Lahore. 

Educated at Aberdeen University : 
for years connected with Blackwood, and 
his chief adviser in the management of 
the magazine : went to India as a journal- 
st on the staff of the Indian Statesman : 
declined a civil appointment offered 
him : went to Ceylon : was special 
correspondent there in connexion with 
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales' visit to the 
East : on returning to England, wrote 
for Reviews and Magazines : wrote novels 
with success, such as The City of Sunshine, 
EarVs Court, a biography of Admiral 
Keith, and other similar works : died 
April 22, 1896. 

ALLEN, CHARLES (1808-1884) 

I.C.S. : born July 29, 1808 : son of Rev. 
David Bird Allen : educated at West- 
minster and Haileybury : went to India 
1827 : served chiefly in the N.W.P. : 
Magte. CoUr. of Moradabad, 1837 : Hamir- 
pur, 1841 : Settlement Officer in Bundel- 
kund : Judge at Agra, 1843-9 ' and at 
Fatehghar : acted as Foreign Secretary 
to the Government of India, 1852 : Finan- 
cial Secretary, 1854 : and Member of the 
Legislative Council of India, 1854 : retired, 
1857 : died, Nov. 5, 1884 : was J. P. and 
Alderman and Mayor of Tenby, and High 
Sheriff of Pembrokeshire, 1876 : wrote in 
support of Lord Dalhousie The Yellow 
Pamphlet in answer to Colonel G. B. 

Malleson's Red Pamphlet at the time of the 



Son of James Allen : founder of the 
Pioneer and Civil and Military Gazette,- the 
first daily newspapers published elsewhere 
than in the Presidency towns in India : 
promoted private enterprise : CLE., 
1879 : K.C.I.E., 1897 : died Nov. 4. 

ALMS, JAMES (1728-1791) 

Naval officer : born July 15, 1728, of 
humble origin, entered the Navy early : 
served in the East Indies : narrowly 
escaped when his ship sank in a storm in 
April, 1749, near Fort St. David : 
commanded an East Indiaman in the 
Bombay-China trade : was present at the 
capture of Gheria, the stronghold of the 
pirate Angria in 1756. After service in 
other stations, he, in 1780, commanded 
the Monmouth, 60 guns, joining Sir Edward 
Hughes in the Indian seas : was present 
in the engagements of 1782 off Sadras, 
Providien, Negapatam, Trincomalee, in 
which his ship suffered severely and his 
losses were heavy : his health gave way : 
retired in 1784, and died June 8, 1791- 

AMEER ALI, SYAD (1849- ) 

Born April 6, 1849 : son of Syad Saadat 
Ali, of Unao, Oudh, of a family originally 
from Persia : descendant of Muhammad 
through the Imam Ali-ar-Raza, of Mashad: 
educated at Hughli College : M.A. and 
B.L., Calcutta : called to the bar at the 
Inner Temple, 1873, practised in the 
High Court, Calcutta: FeUow of the 
Calcutta University, 1874 : Magistrate 
and Chief Magistrate, Calcutta, 1878-81 : 
Lecturer on Muhammadan Law, 1875-9 '- 
Member of the Bengal Legislative Council, 
1878-83 : and of the Governor General's 
Legislative Council, 1883-5 : Tagore 
Law Professor, 1884: CLE. : Puisne Judge 
of the Calcutta High Court, 1890-1904 : 
President of the Committee of the Hughli 
Imambara, 1876-1904 : founder of the 
Central National Muhammadan Associa- 
tion, and its Secretary, 1876-90 : a 
strong advocate of English education and 
of the education of Indian ladies : very 
influential among the Muhammadans in 
Bengal : wrote A Critical Examination of 



the Life and Teachings of Muhammad, 
The Spirit of Islam, The Ethics of Islam, 
A Short History of the Saracens, Personal 
Law of the Muhammadans, Students' 
Handbook of Muhammadan Law, Muham- 
madan Law : was joint author of A 
Commentary on the Indian Evidence Act, 
and of A Commentary on the Bengal Tenancy 
Act : has frequently written articles in 
The Nineteenth Century, and is engaged 
on a History of Muhammadan Civilization 
in India. 

PITT, FIRST EARL (1773-1857) 

Governor-General : born in Jan. 1773 : 
sent on an embassy to China in 1816 : 
arrived in Calcutta as Governor-General, 
Aug. I, 1823 : it devolved on him to 
allay the excitement caused by the action 
of the Government towards the Press 
and Mr. J. S. Buckingham {q.v.) In 
Feb., 1824, the Burmese having occupied 
countries near Bengal and attacked British 
territory, Amherst declared war and 
despatched an expedition, which cap- 
tured Rangoon, Martaban and Prome : 
•peace was made by the treaty of Yanda- 
boo, 1826, by which Assam and Tenasserim 
were ceded to the British. In Jan., 1826, 
the capture of Bhartpur by Lord Comber- 
mere took place, when the British Govern- 
ment restored the youthful Raja Balwant 
Singh, whom Government had recognized, 
to the throne, which had been seized by a 
cousin, Durjan Sal. Lord Amherst was 
made an Earl. He was the first Governor- 
General to spend, in 1827, the summer in 
Simla : left India March 10, 1828 : died 
March 13, 1857. 



Born at Barh, March 10, 1810 : ap- 
pointed, 1829, Assistant to the Ambassador 
of Nasiruddin Hyder, King of Oudh : in 
1838 Deputy Assistant Superintendent 
in the Presidency Special Commissioner's 
Court at Calcutta : in 1845, Government 
Pleader in the Sadr Diwani A dalat : in 
1857, Personal Assistant to the Com- 
missioner of Patna : in 1864 Khan 
Bahadur and Member of the Bengal 
Legislative Council : entered the service 
of the late ex- King of Oudh, and appointed 
a Commissioner to settle the debts of the 
late Nawab Nazim of Bengal : in 1875 

made Nawab : in 1878 the Sultan of 
Turkey made him a Companion of the 
Order of the Osmanli : died Nov., 1879. 

AMIR KHAN (1790?-after 1877) 

A wealthy banker and money-lender of 
Patna : was arrested and tried as a 
member of a Wahabi conspirary, at Patna, 
in 1 871, on various charges of attempting 
to wage war against the Queen : con- 
victed and sentenced to transportation 
for life, with forfeiture of property, and 
released on the proclamation of the Queen 
as Empress of India, Jan. i, 1877. 

AMIR KHAN ( ? -1834) 

Born in Rohilkund, of Afghan parents : 
at 20 went with followers to Malwa : 
took service under Bhopal : next under 
the Mahrattas : from 1799 to 1806 com- 
manded the army of J aswant Rao Holkar : 
next under the Raja of Jaipur : always 
committing plunder and depredations : 
attacked the Mahrattas, in Nagpur, but 
returned to his own capital, Sironj, to 
defend it against the British : he was 
essentially a Pindari : when the British 
entered Malwa in 18 17, negotiations passed 
between them and Amir Khan, which 
resulted in his abandoning the predatory 
system, dismissing his army, and being 
allowed to keep the lands he held under 
grants from Holkar : he received territory 
and a gift of money from the British : 
and, by the Treaty of Nov. 15, 18 17, was 
confirmed in his possessions. The Princi- 
pality of Tonk was thus established, and 
Amir Khan's descendants are still Nawabs 
there : he died 1834. 

AMOS, ANDREW (1791-1860) 

Lawyer : born in India, 1791 : son of 
James Amos, merchant : educated at 
Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge : 
Fellow, 1813 : called to the bar by the 
Middle Temple : had a large practice : 
Recorder of Oxford, Nottingham, and 
Banbury : a member of the Criminal Law 
Commission for some years : Professor 
of English Law at University College, 
London, 1829-37 : Legal Member (suc- 
ceeding Macaulay) of the Supreme Coun- 
cil of the Governor-General, 1838-42 : 
had much to do with the abolition of 
slavery in India, and the framing of the 
Penal Code. On return to England he 



became a County Court Judge, and 
Downing Professor of Laws at Cam- 
bridge : wrote on a number of legal and 
literaryjsubjects : died April 18, i860. 


(1869- ) 

Born Feb. 19, 1869 : son of the first 
Baron (better known as Lord Odo Rus- 
sell) educated at Eton, and New College, 
Oxford : rowed in the Oxford University 
Eight, 1889-91 : President of the O.U.B.C. 
1891 : President of the Oxford Union 
Society, 1891 : won the Pair Oars at 
Henley Regatta with Guy Nickalls, 1890- 
91 : Private Secretary to Rt. Hon. J. 
Chamberlain : Governor of Madras, from 
Dec, 1900 : Viceroy and Governor-General 
from April 30 to Dec, 1904. 



A Bengal Civilian : chief of the English 
factory at Patna in 1759 : a member of 
the Calcutta Council when Vansittart 
{q.v.) was Governor in Bengal. Amyatt 
had been superseded by dive's appoint- 
ment of Vansittart, and therefore con- 
stantly opposed all his measures : sent 
on a mission to Mir Kasim, Nawab of 
Bengal : it was unsuccessful, and war 
was imminent, but Amyatt was given 
leave to return to Calcutta : meanwhile, 
however, the disaster took place at Patna : 
Amyatt was attacked and murdered by 
Mir Kasim' s troops before he had reached 
his destination, 1763. 

ANDERSON, DAVID ( ? - ? ) 

Employed by Warren Hastings on 
important negotiations ; sent on an 
embassy to Madhava Rao Sindia, at the 
close of the first Mahratta war, to conclude 
peace, 1782 : accompanied by his brother, 
Lieut. James Anderson, as his assistant : 
he remained with Sindia as Political 
Resident until Warren Hastings left 
India, 1785, when James succeeded as 
Resident. The conciliatory attitude of 
the Mahratta Government at a critical 
period was due to the exertions of the 
brothers Anderson. David was examined 
as a witness at Hastings' trial, 1790, being 
then President of the Committee of 



LC.S. : entered the Bombay Civil 
Service in 1806 : drew up the " Bombay 
Code of 1827 ": was a Judge of the Sadf 
Court, and, in 1835, was appointed to 
the Indian Law Commission : in 1838 
he became Member of Council, Bombay : 
from April, 1841, to June, 1842, acted a§ 
Governor of Bombay, between Sir J. 
Rivett-Carnac and Sir G. Arthur : retired 
in 1844 : in 1849 was knighted and 
appointed Governor of the Mauritius, 
but after 16 months was transferred to 
Ceylon as Governor, and made K.C.B. : 
resigned in 1855 : died March 12, 1857. 



I.C.S. : eldest son of Sir George William 
Anderson, K.C.B. {q.v.) : educated at 
Haileybury : went to Bombay in the 
Civil Service, 1820 : Secretary to Govern- 
ment, Bombay, in the Secret, Political 
and Judical Departments, 1855 : Chief 
Secretary, 1861 : member of the Legislar 
tive Coimcil, Bombay : resigned, 1865 : 
Secretary in the Judicial Department at 
the India Office, 1866 : K.C.S.I., 1867 : 
died April 7, 1879. 



In the medical service of the E. I. 
Co. : served in Madras : appointed 
Assistant Sturgeon, 1765 : Surgeon, 1786 ; 
Member of the Madras Medical Board, 
1800 : a distinguished botanist : worked 
at developing the cochiiieal dye, and intro- 
ducing the cultivation of silk : wrote for 
some years on sugar-cane, the coffee* 
plant, cotton, and the apple : died Aug. 5, 

ANDERSON, JOHN (1795-1845) 

Of the E.I.Co.'s service : went out to, 
Pulo Penang, or Prince of Wales' Island, 
in 181 3, as a writer : after the usual 
succession of minor appointments he. 
became, in 1827, senior merchant. Secre- 
tary to Government, and Malay translator : 
was employed in negotiations with the 
neighboiuring potentates of Sumatra, etc : 
died Dec. 2, 1845 : wrote several works 
about the Malayan Peninsula, the British 
settlements, and the adjacent countries 
and their commerce. 



ANDERSON, REV. JOHN (1805-1855) 

Missionary: born in 1805, son of a 
Scotch farmer : educated at Edinburgh 
University : ordained in 1836 a minister 
of the Church of Scotland, and was sent 
as missionary to Madras : founded the 
Madras Christian College, which, after 
1843, was continued in connexion with 
the Scotch Free Church : the education 
there afforded was greatly appreciated, 
and with Mrs. Anderson's help the educa- 
tion of native girls of all castes and creeds 
was successfully undertaken : he died at 
Madras in 1855. 

ANDERSON, JOHN (1833-1900) 

Son of Thomas Anderson : born Oct. 4, 
1833, at Edinburgh : M.D. at Edinburgh 
University, 1862, obtaining the gold 
medal for zoology : President of the 
Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh, which 
he helped to found : Professor of Natural 
History in the Free Church College, Edin- 
burgh : in 1865 appointed Xurator, and, 
later. Superintendent of the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta, an office which he 
held till he retired in 1886. He was a 
member, as naturalist, of scientific 
expeditions to Upper Burma and Yunnan 
in 1867 : in the same direction, as far as 
the Burmese frontier, in 1875-6 : and to 
the Mergui Archipelago in 188 1-2 : wrote 
full accounts of his travels, adding largely 
to the science of marine and general 
zoology, and anatomy : also on the 
reptiles and fauna of Egypt : and con- 
tributed to the proceedings of learned 
societies : F.R.S. . in 1879 : LL.D. of 
Edinburgh, 1885 : Fellow of the Linnaean 
Society and of the Society of Antiquaries, 
and Vice-President of the Zoological 
Society of London : died Aug. 15, 1900. 

ANDERSON, THOMAS (1832-1870) 
Botanist : born Feb. 26, 1832, and took 
his M.D. degree at Edinburgh University 
in 1853 : joined the Medical Service, 
Bengal, in 1854, at Calcutta : was at 
Delhi during the mutiny : was, in i860. 
Superintendent of the Botanic Garden at 
Sibpur, opposite Calcutta, introduced 
many improvements, and laboured speci- 
ally for the cultivation of cinchona in 
India, which afterwards was effected : in 
1864 he organised the Forest Department 
in Bengal : died Oct. 26, 1870, at Edin- 
burgh : published an account of the flora 

of 'Aden, and worked at the flora of India 

ANDREW, JAMES (1774 7-1833) 

A Scotchman, educated at Aberdeen : 
had a school at Addiscombe, which the 
E. I. Co. took over for the education of 
their engineer and artillery officers : on 
its purchase in 1809 he was appointed 
Headmaster and Professor of Mathe- 
matics : retired about 1823 and died 
June 13, 1833. 



Born 1807 : son of Patrick Andrew : 
educated at Edinburgh and Oxford : was 
for a short time in India in his younger 
days : published a work on Indian Rail- 
ways, 1846 : devoted much attention to 
the promotion of railway and telegraphic 
communication between England and 
India : specially advocating the scheme 
for an Euphrates Valley Railway : sub- 
mitted to the Home Government his 
schemes for the defence of India : pub- 
lished, during 40 years, a number of works, 
letters and papers, and delivered lectures 
on the subject of Indian railways, the 
Euphrates Valley route, and the import- 
ance of the Indus and its provinces : was 
founder and Chairman of the Sind, Pan jab 
and Delhi Railway : in 1856 he arranged 
with Government for the establishment 
of telegraphic communication with India : 
lectured and wrote on the Central Asian 
question, 1872-86 : wrote to the Times on 
the A dvance of Russia : wrote India and 
her Neighbours, 1878 : advocated the con- 
struction of railway lines to the Bolan and 
the Khyber : advocated the 5 '6" gauge 
for Indian railways : Chairman in 1879 of 
a meeting to promote the construction 
of a railway from the Persian Gulf to 
Constantinople and the Mediterranean : 
was called " an apostle of railways," "the 
railway statesman," " the pioneer of 
railway enterprise " : continued to urge 
the advantage of the Euphrates Valley 
line as alternative to that of the Red Sea : 
knighted, 1882 : CLE. : Fellow of many 
scientific societies : died March 11, 1887. 


Native of Jersey : entered the Army, 
1803 : served in the Mahratta campaign. 



attached to the Light Brigade, commanded 
the Pioneer Corps, the 57th N.I., and the 
44th N.I. successively : Adjutant-General 
of General Stevenson's force in the 
Shekhawati campaign : D.A.G. : com- 
manded the Oudh Contingent as Brigadier : 
Inspecting Officer of all the Contingents : 
as a Lt-Colonel and Brigadier commanded 
Shah Shuja's army : in the retreat from 
Kabul was killed at Jagdalak on Jan. 12, 

HYACINTHE (1731-1806) 

Brother of L. P. Hyacinthe, the French 
historian : born at Paris in 1731 : being 
bent on studying Oriental languages, he 
went to India as a private soldier in I754. 
and acquired considerable knowledge of 
Sanskrit, translating a dictionary in that 
language : on the taking of Pondicherry 
by the English he returned to Europe 
and conveyed his MSS. to Paris, where 
he was appointed Oriental interpreter to 
the King's Library : was Member of the 
Academy of Inscriptions and Belles 
Lettres, and the National Institute, and one 
of the most celebrated of the literati of 
Europe : he died Jan. 17, 1805. 

ARCHIBALD (1835-77) 

Younger brother of the Earl of Lich- 
field : born 1835 : entered the Army 
1853, in the Rifle Brigade : in the Crimea : 
joined the 84th regt. : in the mutiny, was 
A.D.C. to Sir J. Hope Grant : wounded at 
the siege of Delhi : at Bulandshahr 
■deserved his V.C, and gained it as a Cap- 
tain at the capture of the Sikandarbagh 
on Sir Colin Campbell's relief of Lucknow, 
Nov. 16, 1857 : died Nov. 17, 1877. 

ANSON, HON. GEORGE (1797-1857) 

General : second son of the first Vis- 
'Count Anson : served at Waterloo in the 
Guards : was M.P. from 1818 for many 
years : in 1853, appointed to command a 
Division in India : C. in C. Madras, 1854, 
and C. in C. in India, 1856 : was at Simla 
when the mutiny broke out in May, 1857, 
and hastened down to the plains : while 
on the march from Umbala to Delhi with 
a force, he died of cholera at Karnal, 
May 27, 1857. 


Barrister and political writer : born in 
London, 1816 : educated at Wellington 
and University College, London : called 
to the bar at the Middle Temple, 1839 : 
became, in the Oxford movement, a Roman 
Catholic, and Professor of Law at the 
Roman Catholic College near Bath : 
wrote on legal and political subjects : was 
M.P. for Youghal 1847-52, when his 
excessive speaking in Parliament was 
much resented : appointed Attorney 
General at Hongkong, 1854, but was sus- 
pended by the Governor, Sir John Bowring, 
in 1858 : after a short time at Calcutta, 
he was very successful at the Bombay 
bar, and in 1865 acted for a few months 
as a Judge of the High Court : failing to 
obtain work at the English bar, he returned 
to Bombay and died there, Aug 17, 1873 : 
his violent temper stood in his way through 
life, leading him into constant quarrels 
with his profession and society 



Judge : son of Sir R. Anstruther, 
Bart : born Sep. 10, 1769 : called to the 
bar at Lincoln's Inn, and published legal 
reports : was Advocate-General, Madras, 
1803 : Recorder of Bombay, 1812 : 
knighted : died July 16, 1819. 


Chief Justice : born March 27, 1753 : 
son of Sir John Anstruther, Bart. : edu- 
cated at Glasgow : called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn, 1779 ' was M.P. for Cocker- 
mouth, 1790-96 : supported C. J. Fox, 
and was one of the managers of the 
impeachment of Warren Hastings, having 
to speak on certain of the charges : in 
1797, appointed Chief Justice of Bengal, 
made a Baronet, and retired to England, 
1806 : Privy Councillor : re-entered Par- 
liament : died in London, Jan. 26, 1811. 

APPA SAHIB ( ? -1840) 

Raja of Nagpur : when Regent, in 1816, 
he put to death his cousin, Parsoram, or 
Parsoji, Bhonsla, an idiot Raja of Nagpur, 
and succeeded the late Raja's uncle, 
Raghoji Bhonsla II (q-v.) as Raja : Baji 
Rao appointed him nominal C. in C of the 



Peshwa's army : Appa treacherously 
attacked the British under Mr. Jenkins, 
Resident of Nagpur, and was defeated 
at Sitabaldi, Nov., 26-7, 1817 : taken 
prisoner, he escaped from custody and 
sought refuge, in i8i8, at Jodhpur, where 
he is said to have died in 1840. 


(1829- ) 

Son of F. N. Appleyard, a Cursitor .of 
the High Court of Chancery : educated 
at Elizabeth College, Guernsey : entered 
the 80th regt., 1850 : served in the second 
Burmese war : present at Martaban, the 
storming of Rangoon and taking of 
Prome : exchanged to the 7th R. Fusiliers : 
in the Crimea : wounded at Alma, 1854, 
and the Redan, 1855 : present at Inker- 
man, in the trenches at Sebastopol : 
commanded a Brigade in the Afghan cam- 
paign, 1878-80 : Maj-General, and CB. 

JOHN (1822- ) 

I.C.S. : son of the Bishop of Killaloe : 
born Oct. 11, 1822 : educated at Rugby 
and Haileybury : entered the Madras 
Civil Service, 1842 : Director of Public 
Instruction, 1855 : Chief Secretary to 
Government, Madras, 1862 : Additional 
Member of the Legislative Council, 
Madras, 1862 : Member of Council, 
Madras, 1867-72 : Acting Governor of 
Madras, Feb. to May, 1872 : K.CS.I. : 
1873 : Member of the Supreme Council, 
1875-80 : CLE. : President of the 
Council, 1878 and 1879 : Vice-Chancellor 
of Madras and Calcutta Universities : 
Member of the Council of India, 1887-97 : 
author of Selections from Minutes of Maj- 
General Sir Thomas Munro, Life of Lord 
Clive, and a number of articles in the 
Dictionary of National Biography. 



Son of the Bishop of Killaloe, and 
brother of Sir A. J. Arbuthnot {q.v.) : 
born May 19, 1824 : educated at Rugby 
and the R.M.A., Woolwich : entered the 
Royal Artillery 1843 : served in the 
Crimea : became Lt-Colonel 1864 : went 
to India in 1868 : C.B., 1871 : D.A.G. 
of Artillery, 1873-7: Inspr-General of 
Artillery in India, 1877-80 : in the 

second Afghan War was employed as 
Brig-General, first in the Kandahar 
Field force and later in the Khyber : 
K.C.B. in 1881 : D.A.G. of Artillery in 
England, 1880-3 ' Inspr-General of Artil- 
lery, 1883 : and President of the Ord- 
nance Committee, 1885 : in 1886 was 
made C. in C. Bombay, and transferred 
to Madras in the same year : succeeded 
Lord Roberts in the command in Burma 
in 1887 : retired from Madras in 1891 : 
General, 1890 : G.C.B., 1894 : died 
April 14, 1899. 

ARBUTHNOT, GEORGE (1772-1843) 

Went, with his brother Robert, who 
was Chief Secretary in Ceylon, to Colombo,, 
in 1800 : thence to Madras and joined a 
Mr. Lautour in business : on the latter's 
death the firm was reconstituted, under 
the name of Arbuthnot & Co., which it 
still bears : retired from India in 1823,. 
and settled in England. 


(1848- ) 

Born Aug. 28, 1848 : educated at 
Eton : partner in the firm of Arbuthnot 
& Co., Madras : Member of the Legislative 
Council, Madras : Chairman of the 
Chamber of Commerce, Madras : Fellow 
of the Madras University : Chairman of 
the Famine Relief Fund : Knight Bache- 

HART (1 807-1874) 

I.C.S. : fifth son of Sir WiUiam Arbuth- 
not, Bart : born 1807 : educated at the 
Edinburgh High School and Haileybury : 
went to Madras, 1826 : became Agent to 
the Governor at Vizagapatam : resigned 
the service, 1846 : joined the firm of 
Arbuthnot & Co. at Madras : retired 
to England in 1838 : was one of the 
original members, "chosen by the Crown, 
of the new Council of India, from Sep. 21, 
1858, under the Statute of 185,8 : more 
than once he declined the appointment of 
Finance Minister in India : died Dec 11, 



Uncle of Muhammad Ghaus (q.v.), the 
Nawab of the Camatic, whom he succeeded, 
but only as the first Prince of Arcot, the 



title granted to him in 1867, with a pension 
and various concessions, a personal salute 
of 15 guns, etc. : died Jan. 14, 1874. 


(1882- ) 

Born 1882 : succeeded his father, 
Muhammad Munawwar Ali, 1903 : Pre- 
mier Muhammadan nobleman of the 
Carnatic and acknowledged head of the 
Muhammadan community of the Madras 
Presidency : was given the title of Khan 
Bahadur in 1897. 

PRINCE OF (1856-1903) 

Son of Muazzaz-ud-daula, and nephew 
of Intizam-ul-mulk, whom he succeeded 
as Prince of Arcot, 1889 : leader of the 
Muhammadan community in the Madras 
Presidency, and held in high esteem by it 
and the British authorities : Khan Baha- 
dur, 1876 : K.C.I. E., 1897 : died at the 
Delhi Imperial Assemblage, Jan. 4, 1903. 


(1840- ) 

Maj -General, R.E. : educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin : entered the Royal 
Engineers in April, 1859 : passed the Staff 
College : his services in Europe, on 
frontier commissions, and in Africa on 
military campaigns, have been distin- 
guished : in India he was Private Secre- 
tary to the Marquis of Lansdowne, Gover- 
nor-General and Viceroy, from Dec, 1888, 
to Jan., 1894, and also to the Earl of 
Elgin, in the same appointment, Jan. to 
April, 1894 : is C.B. (Civil 1878, Military 
1884): CLE. (1892): K.C.I.E. (1894): 
K.C.M.G. (1902): also Hon. LL.D. of 
Trinity College, Dublin. 


Statesman : K.G., K.T., P.C. : born 
April 30, 1823 : his connection with India 
began when he was Secretary of State for 
India in Mr. Gladstone's administration, 
1868-1874 : when in opposition, he wrote 
and spoke strongly against (the forward 
Afghan policy of the Conservative Govern- 
ment. In 1865 he wrote India under 
Dalhousie and Canning, and in 1899 The 

Eastern Question : he always showed great 
interest in, and knowledge of, Indian 
questions : he died April 24, 1900. 


Educated privately : entered the Indian 
Army, 1855 : served throughout the 
Indian mutiny : severely wounded, 1857 : 
retired as Captain on pension, and became 
orderly officer of the R.M.C., Addiscombe, 
until it was broken up : subsequently 
became proprietor and editor of the 
Globe newspaper, and received a Baronetcy 
in 1892. 

ARNOLD, SIR EDWIN (1832-1904) 

Poet : born June 10, 1832 : educated at 
Rochester, King's College, London, and 
University College, Oxford, (Scholar) : 
gained the Newdigate Verse Prize, 1853 : 
Principal of the Government Dekkan 
College, in Poona, 1856-1861 : Fellow 
of the Bombay University : joined the 
Daily Telegraph newspaper in London, and 
became its editor : visited and admired 
Japan, and married a Japanese lady in 
1897 : made a C.S.I. : and K.C.I.E. in 
1888 : held Orders from the rulers of Siam, 
Japan, Turkey and Persia : distinguished 
as a poet, scholar, teacher, journalist and 
man of letters : wrote The Light of Asia, 
Indian Idylls, Indian poetry, etc. : died 
March 24, 1904. 


(1864- ) 

Born April 19, 1864 : educated at the 
City of London School and Magdalen 
College, Cambridge : Professor at the 
M.A.O. College, Alighar : Professor of 
Philosophy at the Government College, 
Lahore : Dean of the Oriental Faculty, 
Pan jab University : Assistant Librarian 
at the India Office, 1904 : Professor of 
Arabic at University College, London, since 
1904 : published The Preaching of Islam, 
1896 : Al Mutazilah, 1902. 



Son of Dr. Arnold, of Rugby : born 
April 7, 1828 : educated at Rugby : stu- 
dent of Christ Church, Oxford : went to 
India in 1848, into the Native Infantry : 
was an Assistant Commissioner in the 
Panjab, and, in 1856, Director of Public 




Instruction : did good service in organising 
the Department : died at Gibraltar on 
April 9, 1859, on his way to England : 
wrote essays on social and Indian subjects, 
and Oakfield, or Fellowship in the East : 
his brother, Matthew Arnold, wrote A 
Southern Night in memory of him, and 
alluded to him in Stanzas from Carnac. 

ARNOULD, SIR JOSEPH (1814-1886) 
Judge : son of Joseph Arnould : born 
Nov. 12, 1814 : educated at Charterhouse 
and Wadham College, Oxford : Newdi- 
gate Verse Prize, 1834 : Fellow of his 
College : called to the bar by the Middle 
Temple, contributed to journalism and 
wrote legal works : in 1859 was made a 
Judge of the Bombay Supreme (afterwards 
the High) Court, and knighted : retired 
in 1869 : died Feb. 16, 1886. 



Son of John Arthur of Plymouth : 
entered the Army in 1804 : served in 
Italy, 1806, Egypt, 1807, Sicily, 1808, 
Walcheren, 1809 : D.A.A.G. : MiUtary 
Secretary to the Governor of J ersey : 
Major in a regiment in Jamaica, 1812 : 
Lieutenant-Governor of British Honduras 
and Colonel, 1814-22 : Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of Van Diemen's Land, 1824-37 : 
received the Hanoverian Order : Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Upper Canada, 1837-41 : 
made Baronet in 1841 : Governor of Bom- 
bay from June 9, 1842 to Aug. 5, 1846, 
during the difi&cult time of the latter 
portion of the first Afghan War, and of 
Lord Ellenborough's tenure of office as 
Governor-General : appointed provisional 
Governor-General : after retirement he 
was made a Privy Councillor and D.C.L., 
Oxford : Lt-General, and Colonel of the 
50th regt. : died Sep. 19, 1854. 


I.C.S.:born 1827: educated at Haileybury: 
entered the Bombay Civil Service in 1848, 
and retired in 1883 : in the mutiny, 1857, 
raised and organized a body of horse and 
foot to protect the E. frontier of Gujarat : 
was Special Commissioner to try offences 
against the State : tried and convicted 
certain chiefs : C.S.I. : Member of Council 
in Bombay, 1877-83 : acted as Governor 
of Bombay from March 13 to April 28, 


General : son of George, third Earl of 
Ashburnham, K.G. : entered the Army, 
1823 : Lt-Colonel, 1835 : commanded a 
Brigade in the Satlaj campaign, 1845-6, 
at Firozshahr and Sobraon : C.B. : A.D.C. 
to the Queen : appointed to the command 
of the forces in China, 1857 : transferred 
to a military command in India : returned 
to England, 1858 : Colonel of the 82nd 
regt., 1859 : General, 1868 : died March 3, 


SIR (1839-1898) 
Great-grandson of the second Nizam of 
Hyderabad : born 1839 : Minister of Jus- 
tice in 1869, and acted as Prime Minister 
and Regent during Sir Salar Jang's 
absence in Europe : on the latter's death, 
in 1883, he became a member of the Coun- 
cil of Regency : represented the Nizam 
at Queen Victoria's Jubilee, 1887 : was for 
7 years Prime Minister of Hyderabad, 
1887 : made K.C.I.E., 1887 : died 1898. 

I.C.S. : son of William Astell, [q.v.). 
Chairman of the Directors of the E.I. 
Co. : educated at Eton and Haileybury : 
in the mutiny was Judge of Azimghar, 
N.W.P. : was supported by two companies 
of sepoys and some cavalry of doubtful 
loyalty, when he was attacked by about 
2,000 rebels : after an engagement, in which 
his cavalry deserted, he was forced to retire 
to his entrenchments and Ghazipur : was 
later besieged at J aunpur, until relieved by 
General Lugard with a force from Luck- 
now : died July 6, 1903. 

ASTELL, WILLIAM (1774-1847) 
Son of Godfrey Thornton, Bank of 
England Director : changed his name to 
Astell, 1807 : was Director of the E.I. 
Co., 1807-46, and M.P. for Bridgewater 
1807-32, afterwards for Bedfordshire : 
Chairman of the Directors in 1810, 1824, 
1830, 1838 : much opposed to Lord Ellen- 
borough's administration of India : Colonel 
of the Royal East India Volunteers : died 
March 7, 1847. 


( ? -1890) 
I.C.S. : educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin : went out to the N.W.P., 1862 : 


Census officer in the N.W.P., 1881 : com- 
piled the Gazetteer of the N.W.P. : Ac- 
countant-General of the N.W.P., and of 
Bengal : President of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal : took a keen interest in 
intellectual piursuits : died Sep. 18, 1890. 

ATKINSON, JAMES (1780-1852) 

Born March 9, 1780 : studied medicine 
at Edinburgh and London : joined the 
Bengal Medical service, 1805 : Civil Sur- 
geon at Backerganj, to 1813 : studied 
Persian : Assay Master of the Mint, 
1813-28 : officiating Deputy Professor of 
Persian at Fort William College, 181 8, 
Superintendent of the Government Gazette, 
1 817, and of the Press from 1823 : com- 
menced the Calcutta Annual Register, 
1823 : in 1833, became Surgeon to the 
55th N.I. : in 1838-41, went to Kabul 
with the Army of the Indus, as Super- 
intending Surgeon : returned to Bengal 
in 1 841 : member of the Medical Board, 
1845 : retired, 1847 : died Aug. 7. 1852 : 
published a number of translations from 
the Persian classics, many of them in 
verse, including a portion, and an epitome, 
of the Shah Nameh : edited the Persian 
Hatim Tai : contributed publications to 
the Oriental Translation Fund : e.g. On 
the Loves of Laili and Majnun : wrote, 
1842, an illustrated narrative of the expedi- 
tion into Afghanistan : was also an artist 
of considerable merit : brought out 
lithographed Sketches in Afghanistan. 

AUBER, PETER (1770-1866) 

Entered the India House at 16 : rose to 
be Assistant Secretary, and afterwards 
Secretary to the E. I. Co., 1829-36 ; after 
50 years' service, retired in 1836, on a 
pension of £,2000 a year, thus drawing 
£60,000 as pension. His name stands as 
the author of two important works, viz., 
an Analysis of the Constitution of the E.I. 
Co. with supplement, 1826-8 : and Rise 
and Progress of British Power in India, 
1837 : but his claim to have written the 
firstnamed has been disputed : died 1866. 


General : born in New York, 1756, the 
grandson of a Scotch settler in Boston : 
saw service, first as a volunteer, from 1777 
in the Army, in N. America : went to 

India in 1783 in the 52nd regt. : became 
Adjutant : promoted to Captain in the 
75th, in 1788 : was in the campaigns of 
1 790- 1 against Tippoo, and at the first 
siege of Seringapatam under Lord Corn- 
wallis in 1792 : D.Q.M.G. at Calcutta : 
Military Secretary to Sir Robert Aber- 
cromby {q.v.) when C. in C, i795-7 • in 
his campaign against the Rohillas : re- 
turned to England in i797 : commanded 
a force from the Cape to Egypt to co- 
operate with Sir D. Baird and Sir Ralph 
Abercromby against the French : Adju- 
tant-General in Egypt : K.C.B. in 1803 : 
in 1806-7, Brig-General in S. America at 
Monte Video and Buenos Ayres : Maj- 
General in 1808 : went out to Madras as 
C. in C, May, 1810 : in 181 1 took Java 
and Batavia, and defeated the Dutch at 
Cornells and Samarang : left Madras for 
England in March, 1813 : Lt- General : 
G.C.B., 1815 : C. in C, and Privy Coun- 
cillor in Ireland, 1821 : died Aug. 11, 1822. 


OF (1784-1849) 
Governor General : second son of the 
first Lord Auckland : born Aug. 25, 1784 : 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford : called 
to the bar, 1809 : President of the Board 
of Trade and Master of the Mint, 1833 : 
First Lord of the Admiralty, 1834-35 : 
G.C.B. : appointed Governor-General of 
India, April 4, 1836. In 1836-7 he sent 
Burnes {q.v.) on a mission to Kabul : in 
distrust of the Amir, Dost Muhammad, 
who received in 1837 the Russian 
officer, Vitkievitch, at Kabul, and with a 
view to counteract Russian influence there, 
Auckland, under pressure of the English 
Government, decided to dethrone Dost 
Muhammad {q.v.) and reinstate Shah 
Shuja (q.v.) as Amir : his declaration of 
war was issued on Oct. i, 1838 : the facts 
of the first Afghan War are well known : 
Dost Muhammad fled in Aug., 1839 : Shah 
Shuja, though set up in 1839, and sup- 
ported till 1 84 1, was unpopular as a ruler : 
the British force was reduced : the sub- 
sidies were diminished : the Afghans rose 
in 1 841 : Sir A. Burnes was murdered on 
Nov. 2, 1841, and the envoy. Sir W. Mac- 
naghten on Dec. 23, : the British army was 
destroyed in its retreat from Kabul to the 
Khyber. Lord Auckland was made an 
Earl in 1839, on the capture of Kabul : he 
had left India on March 12, 1842, before 
Pollock's avenging Army had advanced 



beyond Jalalabad. Afghan affairs chiefly 
engaged Auckland's attention. In 1840 
the British Resident at Ava was expelled 
by the King of Burma and not re-estab- 
ished. Auckland was again First Lord 
of the Admiralty in 1846 : died Jan. i, 

Born Jan. 7, 1822, at Leschnitz in 
Silesia : educated at the College of Oppeln : 
studied Sanskrit and Philology at Berlin, 
and later the ancient languages of Northern 
Europe : Privat-docent at Berlin Univer- 
sity, 1850 : went to England, 1852, to 
study Sanskrit : Professor of Sanskrit and 
Philology at Edinburgh University, 1862 : 
Professor of Philology at Bonn, 1875-89 : 
now Professor of the Comparative Study 
of Languages at Bonn : Levi calls him the 
*' illustrious veteran of Indian studies " : 
he is especially noted for his catalogues of 
Sanskrit MSB. : among his works may 
be mentioned : De accentu compositorum 
Sanskriticorum, 1847 : Halayudha's Abhi- 
dhanaratnamata, 1861 : Die Hymnen des 
Rigweda, 1877 : Bluten aus Hindostan, 
1873 : Das Aitareya Brahmana, 1879 : 
his catalogues of Sanskrit MSS., at the 
Bodleian Library (1859-64), and at Cam- 
bridge (1869) : Catalogus catalogorum, a 
register of Sanskrit works and authors, 
1 89 1-3 : and Katalog der Sanskrit Hand- 
schriften der Universitdts-Bibliothek zii 
Leipzig, 1 90 1. 

Son of Rev. George Austen, and brother 
of Miss Austen : entered the Navy early : 
served against the Dutch and French, and 
on a number of stations : at the bom- 
bardment of Acre, 1840, for which he was 
made C.B. : Rear Admiral, 1846 : Naval 
C. in C. of the E. India station, 1850 : in 
the second Burmese war, died of cholera 
at Prome, Sep. 29, 1852. 



Brother of Jane Austen, the novelist : 
born April 23, i774 : educated at the 
Royal Naval Academy : entered the Navy 
in 1788 : was on the East India station, 
in the Perseverance, from 1788 to 1801, 
and again from 1807 to 1809 in the St. 
Albans, 64 guns : his services were re- 
warded by the E. I. Co : served also in the 

North Sea, Baltic and West Indies ' 
Admiral of the Fleet, 1863 : K.C.B., 1837 : 
G.C.B., i860 : died Aug. 10, 1865. 


Educated at Merchant Taylors' school, 
and St. John's College, Oxford : Senior 
Fellow : edited the Madras Times and 
afterwards the Athenceum and Daily 
News of Madras : Correspondent of the 
London Times during the siege of Paris 
and the Commune, 1870 : also in the 
Ashanti war, and at Simla, and in the S. 
States of America : a brilliant and very 
vivid writer : Dr. : died May 2, 1903. 


(1791-after 1845) 

General : a Neapolitan : born Oct. 25 
1791 : served in the Neapolitan forces, 
1807-9 : and in the Artillery under King 
Joseph Buonaparte and Murat in the 
Imperial Army : left Italy, and went, via 
Constantinople, to Persia, 1820 : after 6 
years there, joined Ranjit Singh in the 
Pan jab : made Governor of Wazirabad, 
and of Peshawar in 1834 : ruled by fear 
and severity and with success : gave great 
assistance to General Pollock and the 
Army of Retribution, 1842 : left Peshawar, 
1843, took refuge at Jalalabad and in India 
and returned to Europe : received a 
sword from the Court of Directors : a 
General in the French Army : died in a 
few years near Naples. 


Born 1795 : educated at Winchester and 
Christ Church, Oxford : Fellow of Oriel : 
called to the bar from the Middle Temple 
in 1822 : after being Puisne Judge of the 
Bombay Supreme Court, from 1830, was 
Chief Justice, 1839-42 : knighted 1830 : 
D.C.L. of Oxford, 1844 : one of the Com- 
missioners of Oxford University : died 
June, 1878. 


Born April 5, 1862 : son of Captain 
F. J. Aylmer, 97th regt. : educated 
privately and at R.M.A., Woolwich : 
entered the Royal Engineers, 1880 : 
served in India since 1883 : in the Burma 
war, 1886-87 : the Hazara expedition 



1891 : in the Hunza expedition, 189 1-2 : 
Isazai expedition, 1892 : Chitral expedi- 
tion, 1895 : at the storming of the Nilt 
Fort in 189 1-2 : he obtained his V.C., and 
Brevet Majority : Colonel R.E. 



Born Oct., 1779 : only daughter of 
Henry, fourth Baron Aylmer, and his 
wife Catherine, who was sister to Lord 
Whitworth, Ambassador to Buonaparte 
in 1803. Walter Savage Landor wrote 
verses to her at Swansea about 1796-7, 
and she lent him the book which suggested 
the subject of his poem " Gebir." She 
went to India in 1878 with her aunt {nee 
Whitworth) wife of Sir Henry Russell {q.v.). 
Puisne judge, afterwards Chief Justice of 
Bengal, and became engaged to Sir Henry's 
son, afterwards second Baronet, but died 
of cholera on March 2, 1800, at her uncle's 
house in Calcutta. Landor's elegy on 
her death was published in 1806. She was 
buried in the cemetery in South Park 
Street, Calcutta, the inscription on her 
tomb being taken from Young's Night 
Thoughts, iii. 70. 

AYRTON, ACTON SMEE (1816-1886) 
Born 1816 : son of Frederick Ayrton, 
barrister at Bombay : practised as a 
solicitor at Bombay, 1836-50, when he 
retvurned to England : Chairman of the 
Board of Directors of the Great Indian 
Peninsular Railway : called to the bar 
from the Middle Temple, 1853 : M.P. for 
the Tower Hamlets, 1857-74 : Parlia- 
mentary Secretary to the Treasury in 
Gladstone's Administration, 1868-9 : 
Privy Councillor : Furst Commissioner of 
Works, 1869-73 : Judge Advocate Gener- 
al, 1873-4 : defeated in his candidatures 
for the Tower Hamlets, 1874, and for the 
Mile End Division, 1885 : died Nov. 30, 

AYUB KHAN, (1849- ) 

Fourth son of Shir Ali, Amir of Afghanis- 
tan, brother of Yakub Khan {q.v.) : was 
long a fugitive in Persia, but was ap- 
pointed Governor of Herat by Yakub in 
1879 : he advanced thence upon Kandahar 
in July, 1880, and atMaiwand, on the 27th, 
defeated General Burrows and his force : 
besieged Kandahar : on Sep. i. he 
fought the battle of Kandahar against 
Sir F. Roberts {q.v.), who had marched 

thither from Kabul, and was routed, fleeing 
towards Herat : in July, 1 881, he defeated 
Amir Abdur Rahman's troops and cap- 
tured Kandahar, but, being defeated 
there by the Amir, fled to Persia, where he 
was made a prisoner of state : he escaped 
and tried to cross the Afghan frontier in 
1887, but was repulsed, and surrendered 
to the British Agent at Mashad : eventu- 
ally he was made over to the Government 
of India and interned in India, being kept 
at Rawul Pindi. 


(1830- ) 

Fourteenth in direct descent from Sikh 
Guru, the great reformer : Member of 
Legislative Council of the Pan jab for two 
years : K.C.I.E. 

ROBERT (1844- ) 

Born Jan. 11, 1844 : educated at 
Elstree and Harrow : entered the Indian 
Army, 1861 : served in the Bhutan Cam- 
paign, 1864-5 : Hazara, 1868 : Perak, 
1875-6 : Afghanistan, 1878-80, in the 
Commissariat Department : at the Peiwar 
Kotal, and in the engagements at Kabul : 
Chief Commissariat of&cer of Sir F. 
Roberts' force on the Kabul- Kandahar 
march in Aug. 1880, and in the battle of 
Kandahar : made C.B. : was Q.M.G. in 
India, 1900 : C.S.I. : K.C.B. in 1902 : 
Member of the Council of India in 1901. 


I.C.S. : born 1841 : son of Professor 
Baden Powell of Oxford : educated at St. 
Paul's School : in the Civil Service in the 
Panjab, 1861-89 • served in the Indian 
Forest Department : was an authority 
on Indian land tenures : for some years a 
Judge of the Chief Court of the Panjab : 
wrote Land Systems of British India, The 
Indian Village Community : helped to 
establish the Lahore University : M.A. 
Oxford, 1894 : CLE. : died Jan. 2, 1901. 


Born in April, 1815 : spent his youth at 
Malta, and 1835-36 at Bairut to learn 
Arabic : ordained in 1841 : for his know- 
ledge of the East and of Arabic was sent 
as a delegate to the Eastern Churches, 



including the Nestorians, in Kurdistan, 
1842-5 and 1850 : appointed a Chaplain 
under the Bombay Government, 1845 : 
his knowledge of Arabic was utilised at 
Aden and under Outram in the Persian 
expedition of 1856-7 : in i860 he helped 
to settle the troubles in Oman : was 
Secretary to Sir Bartle Frere's mission to 
Zanzibar, 1872 : D.C.L. in 1873 : died 
Feb. 21, 1888 : wrote The Nestorians and 
their Rituals, A History of the Imaums and 
Sayyids of Oman, 1871 : on Muhammad 
and Muhammadanism : and an English- 
Arabic Lexicon, besides other works : 
F.Z.S. : F.S.A. 

BAIGRIE, ROBERT ( ? -1877) 

Colonel : son of John Baigrie : joined 
the E. I. Co.'s Bombay Infantry, 1848 : 
served in the Panjab campaign, 1848-9 : 
at Mult an, Gujarat, the pursuit and sur- 
render of the Sikhs, the occupation of 
Peshawar : at the siege of Sebastopol, 
1855 : in the Persian war, 1856-7 : at the 
Khushab, Muhamra, Ahwaz : in Sir H. 
Rose's force in the mutiny : Bombay 
Staff Corps, 1861 : A.Q.M.G. at Mhow, 
1865 : and in Abyssinia, 1867-8 : Brevet 
Lt-Colonel : Q.M.G. of the Bombay 
Army : C.B., 1873 : died at Poona, Sep. 
25, 1877 : an accomplished artist. 


Missionary for 40 years in Travancore : 
distinguished as a linguist and botanist, 
and author of a Malayalam dic- 
tionary : died, 1871. 

BAILLIE, JOHN (1772-1833) 

Lt-Colonel : younger son of George 
Baillie, of Leys Castle, Inverness : entered 
the service of the E.I. Co. in 1791 : took 
part in the military operations of the 
Mahratta war, 1803 : but his principal 
services in India were political : as Politi- 
cal Agent, 1803-7, he succeeded, under 
great difficulties, in establishing British 
authority in Bundelkimd, and in trans- 
ferring to the Company a large and 
valuable territory : for his services, he 
was appointed Resident at Lucknow, 
1 807-1 5 » he established the celebrated 
" Guard " or " Gate," which still bears 
his name at Lucknow : after leaving 
India, he was appointed, 1823, a Director: 
of the E.I. Co. : M.P. for Hendon in 1820 : 
and in 1830 for the Burghs of Inverness, 

in which town is his portrait by Raebum : 
died in London, April 20, 1833. From 
the commencement of his career, Baillie 
was a devoted student of Oriental lan- 
guages, and was the first Professor of 
Arabic and Persian, when the College of 
Fort William was instituted in 1801 : 
published several important works, and 
made a large and choice collection of 
oriental works, at his house in Inverness, 
which was presented by his heirs to the 
University of Edinburgh. A Digest of 
Mohummudan Law, which he left unfin- 
ished, was completed and greatly enlarged 
by his son, Neil B. E. BailUe, (1799-1883), 
an Indian Jurist of some eminence : it is 
still a standard work of reference. 

BAILLIE, WILLIAM ( ? -1782) 

Entered the E.I. Co.'s service in the 
Madras N. I., 1759 : Lt-Colonel, i775 - 
served against Hyder Ali, 1767-8 : held a 
command at Pondicherry, i779» against 
the French : and in the Guntur Sircars in 
1780 : defeated, in 1780, a portion of 
Hyder All's invading army under Tippoo 
near Perambakam : was unable to join 
Sir Hector Munro's army, but, on receipt 
of small reinforcements, advanced from 
Polilore to do so : was attacked by Hyder' s 
force and overwhelmed, Sep. 10, 1780 : 
severely wounded and captiured : with 
the few survivors was kept prisoner at 
Seringapatam, generally in chains : died 
in captivity, Nov. 13, 1782. 

General : son of William Baird, of 
Newbyth : bom Dec, i757 : entered the 
Army in the 2nd foot, in 1772 : came to 
England from Gibraltar in 1776 : went 
to India in the 73rd in 1779-80 : was in 
Colonel Baillie's force which was over- 
whelmed by Hyder Ali at Perambakam, 
Sep. 10, 1780 : was imprisoned by 
Hyder Ali at Seringapatam for 3 J 
years, and released at the Treaty of Man- 
galore in 1784. His mother, knowing 
his intractable temper, remarked, on 
hearing of his imprisonment, that " she 
pitied the man who was chained to our 
Davie." He commanded a Brigade, and 
served under Lord Cornwallis at the cap- 
ture of Savandrug in 179 1, and at Seringa- 
patam in 1792 : in 1793 he took Pondi- 
cherry : commanded a Brigade at the 
Cape of Good Hope in i797» and, returning 



to India in 1798, as Maj-General, led the 
storming party at the siege of Seringapa- 
tam on May 4, 1799, after which he 
considered himself slighted at Colonel 
Arthur Wellesley (afterwards Duke of 
Wellington, (q.v.) being placed in command 
at Seringapatam : commanded the Dina- 
pur Brigade, 1800 : led an expedition to 
Egypt down the Nile in 1801, to co-operate 
with the British army, and was at the 
capture of Alexandria : led back the 
Egyptian Indian army, 1802 : in 1802 he 
commanded a Division of the Madras 
Army, but, when again placed under 
General A. Wellesley for the Mahratta 
war, resigned and returned to. England, 
being captured on the voyage by the 
French : was knighted and became Lt- 
General : in 1805-6 was sent to retake the 
Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch : served 
at Copenhagen, and in Spain, in 1808, 
losing an arm at Corunna : was made 
K.B., 1809, and a Baronet; and General 
in 1814 : G.C.B., 1815 : C. in C. in Ire- 
land, in 1820 : Governor of Fort George, 
1829 : died in Perthshure, Aug. 18, 1829. 


(1857- ) 

I.C.S. : educated at Christ's College, 
Finchley : went out to Bengal in the Civil 
Service, 1878 : Under Secretary to the 
Governor of Bengal, and to the Govern- 
ment of India, Finance Department, 
1885 : Deputy Secretary, 1892-5 : Secre- 
tary, 1902-5 : Financial Secretary to the 
Government of Bengal and Member of 
Bengal Legislative Council, 1898-1902 : 
Financial Member of the Supreme Council, 
1905 : C.S.I. , 1900. 



Son of Rev. John Durand Baker, Vicar 
of Bishop's Pawton, Devon : born March 
23. 1837 : educated at Cheltenham : 
entered the i8th Royal Irish regt., 1854 : 
served in the Crimea, 1854-6 : in the 
Indian mutiny was with the Central India 
Field Force : passed the Staff College, 
1862 : in the New Zealand war, 1863-67 : 
was Assistant Adjutant and Q.M.G. in 
Ashanti Expedition, 1873-4, and Chief of 
the Staff : C.B. : A.D.C. to the Queen : 
attached to the Russian Army during the 
Russo-Turkish war, 1877 : Military Secre- 
tary to Lord Lytton, Viceroy of India, 
1878 : in 1879, commanded a Brigade 

under Lord Roberts, through the Kuram 
to Kabul, commanded at Charasia Oct. 6, 
1879, and was engaged in many of the 
fights near Kabul : was in Lord Roberts' 
Kabul- Kandahar march, Aug., 1880, and 
the battle of Kandahar : K.C.B. 1881 : in 
the Boer War 1881 as Brig-General : 
in 1884 was Adjutant-General in India : 
in the Burmese expedition, 1886-7 ' com- 
manded a Division in Bengal, 1887-90 : 
Q.M.G. of the Army, 1890 : Lt-General, 
1891 : died at Pau, Feb. 9 1893. 



Son of Capt. Joseph Baker, R.N. : born 
Nov. 29, 1808 : educated at Ludlow and 
Addiscombe : joined the Bengal Engineers 
1826 : to India, 1828 : employed in canal 
work : led an attacking column in the 
battle of Sobraon, in the Sikh war of 1845- 
6 : rendered excellent service in the 
P.W.D., as Superintending Engineer of the 
Delhi canals, and of the Sind canals and 
forests. Director of the Ganges canal, and 
Consulting Engineer for Railways : Secre- 
tary to the Government of India in the 
P.W.D., 1854-5 •• Colonel, 1857 = in 1858 
was made Military Secretary at the India 
Office : Member of the Council of India, 
1861-1875 : K.C.B., 1870 : General, 
1877 : died at Barnwell, Somersetshire, 
Dec. 16, 1881. 

Doctor and author : son of Capt. George 
Balfour, and nephew of Joseph Hume, 
M.P. : bom Sep. 6, 1813 : educated at 
Montrose, and Edinburgh University : in 
1839 went to India in the Medical Depart- 
ment, serving in both the Bombay and 
Madras Armies : became full Surgeon in 
1852 : wrote medical papers on subjects 
relating to the health of the troops, and 
besides his profession did much useful 
work : studied Oriental languages, and 
founded the Muhammadan public library 
at Madras : established, in 1850, a Govern- 
ment Central Museum, and was Super- 
intendent for 9 years : published an 
Encyclopasdia of India, which went 
through several editions : and commenced 
the Mysore Museum, 1866 : was Political 
Agent with the Nawab of the Carnatic 
for years : as Deputy Inspr-General of 
Hospitals, 1862-1870, he served in the 
stations under the Madras command, and 



as Surgeon-General, Madras, 1871-76, 
paid much attention to female medical 
education, for which the Madras Medical 
College was thrown open : Fellow of the 
Madras University : retired in 1876, and 
died Dec. 8, 1889. 

BALFOUR, FRANCIS (before 1769- 
after 1807) 

M.D. at Edinburgh : entered the E.I. 
Co.'s medical service in Bengal, 1769 : and 
retired, 1807, to Edinburgh : was an inti- 
mate friend of Warren Hastings, dedicated 
a book to him, and corresponded with 
him from Benares : he wrote The Forms 
of Herkern, a Persian Letter-writer and con- 
tributed papers on Oriental subjects to 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, besides writ- 
ing medical works. 

BALFOUR, SIR GEORGE (1809-1894) 

Born 1809 : son of Capt. George Bal- 
four : brother of E. G. Balfour {q.v.) : 
educated at Eddiscombe : joined the 
Madras Artillery, 1825, the Royal Artil- 
lery, 1826 : served in the Malacca cam- 
paign, 1832-33 : in China with the Madras 
force, 1840-2 : and was Colonel at Shanghai 
from 1843 for some years : on the Madras 
Military Board 1849-57, and Inspr- 
General of Ordnance : C.B., 1854: on the 
Military Finance Commission of 1859-60, 
and Head of the Military Finance Depart- 
ment, 1860-62, doing valuable work in 
these appointments : in England, em- 
ployed on the Recruiting Commission, 
1866 and 1868-70 : as Assistant to the 
Controller in Chief at the War Office, 1868- 
71 : K.C.B., 1871 : M.P. Kincardineshire, 
1872-1892 : became a General in 1877 : 
died, March 12, 1894: his wife was a 
daughter of Joseph Hume, M.P. 

BALL, GEORGE (1761-1811) 

Colonel : served in Lord Lake's cam- 
paign, and described as a very meritorious 
and distinguished officer : died when 
Adjutant-General of the Bengal Army, 
Dec. 8, 1811 : buried at Calcutta. 

BALL, VALENTINE ( ? -1895) 

Doctor : in the Geological Survey of 
India for 17 years : Treasurer of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1881 : contri- 
buted papers on the Geology of the Nicobar 
Islands and of the vicinity of Port Blair : 
Professor of Geology at Dublin : F.R.S. : 

Director of the National Museum, Dublin, 
1883 : died June 15, 1895 : wrote valuable 
works on geology and jungle life in India : 
edited, in 1889, /. B. Tavernier's Travels 
in India, 1676 : C.B. 



Born Dec. 13, 1813 : educated at Kelso, 
Edinburgh New Academy and College : 
studied Oriental languages : taught them 
at the Naval and Military Academy, 
Edinburgh, 1839 : in India was Principal 
of the College at Benares, 1845-61 : be- 
came Librarian of the India Office : while 
in India studied the highest Sanskrit ethi- 
cal and philosophical literature : published 
Sanskrit works and lectures on systems of 
Indian philosophy, also papers on Hindu 
philosophy and logic : wrote a Hindustani 
grammar and selections : and a Mahratti 
grammar : LL.D. : died Feb. 16, 1864. 



Born June 20, 1830 : son of a Calcutta 
merchant : educated at Addiscombe : 
joined the Bombay Engineers in 1850 : on 
his way to England in 1854, he went to 
Constantinople, and joined the Turkish 
Army, as Lt-Colonel, at the siege of Silis- 
tria by the Russians, and in the attack on 
the Russians at Giurgevo : in the Crimean 
campaign, including the siege of Sebasto- 
pol, the operations at Eupatoria and the 
occupation of Kertch : he also commanded 
a Turkish Brigade in Omar Pasha's cam- 
paign in Mingrelia : was conspicuous for 
his cool bravery in action : C.B., 1856 : 
served as A.Q.M.G. in the Persian war of 
1856-7, and in the same capacity in the 
Indian mutiny in the Rajputana Field 
Force : was Mint-master at Bombay, 1861, 
and Chairman of the Bombay Port Trust : 
retured at end of 1878 as Lt-General : 
wrote articles for Blackwood's Magazine, 
on Indian subjects : LL.D. of Edinburgh : 
he died near the battlefield of Thermopylae 
April 2, 1880. 

DRIGBIJAI SINGH, of (1818-1882) 

Son of Raja Arjun Singh : descendant 
of a long line of chieftains of the J an war 
clan of Rajputs : succeeded his brother 
Raja Jai Narain Singh, in 1836 : spent 
his early years fighting with his neighbours, 



the Pathans of Utraula and the Chauhan 
Rajas of Tulsipur, also with the Oudh 
revenue officials : driven out of Balrampur 
by Raja Darshan Singh, who pursued him 
into Nipal territory : restored to his Raj : 
distinguished himself in the mutiny as one 
of the five loyal talukdars : received the 
fugitives from Sikraura and Gonda, 19 
persons, and several children : sheltered 
and escorted them to Gorakhpur : re- 
mained faithful, and was proscribed by the 
rebels : joined the advancing British 
forces and remained in the field till the 
restoration of order : rewarded with the 
title of Maharaja Bahadur and vast landed 
estates confiscated from rebels, with a re- 
duced land revenue assessed in perpetuity : 
in 1866, K.C.S.I. : salute of 9 guns, in 
1877 :' Member of the Governor-General's 
Legislative Council : a great patron of 
education, instituting schools on his es- 
tates before their general introduction 
elsewhere : founded one of the first 
hospitals in Oudh outside Lucknow, and 
a medical school : a noted sportsman : a 
fall from an elephant hastened his death, 
which occurred on May 27, 1882. 

Born in Bombay April 3, 1767 : son of 
Cowasji Byramji (1744-1834) merchant, 
and of a family which settled in Bombay 
from near Surat,i690, and traded with Eng- 
land, China and Burma. He was a scientific 
agriculturist, and improved agriculture in 
W. India : took a leading part in establish- 
ing the Agri-Horticultural Society of 
Bombay, 1830 : was a Vice-President : 
the Bombay Government gave him, 1829, 
some villages in Salsette, where he settled 
cultivators, and successfully managed 
the Pawai estate : instituted many 
charities for the native community : some 
for the Parsis : made wells and tombs : a 
large Tower of Silence, 1832 : a Fire 
Temple, 1845 : a school for Parsi children, 
for instruction in the Avesta : was a 
leading member of the Parsi panchayat, 
1 8 17-5 1, and an original Trustee of their 
communal funds from 1823 : was a 
prominent member of the Native Educa- 
tion Society from 1827, of the Elphinstone 
College committee from 1835 : Director 
of the Board of Education from 1841 : 
was nominated, 1834, one of the first 
12 native J.P.s : a Government Director 
of the Savings' Bank : helped to establish 

the old Bombay Bank, 1840 : Director 
of the G.I. P. Railway, 1844 : suffered 
pecuniary losses in his business, which 
curtailed his means, but not his zeal, for 
philanthropic charity : died Feb. 12, 
1851 : after a public meeting of all classes, 
the Framji Institute was erected in his 
memory, where public meetings are 
generally held, and an extensive Library 
is located. 


Burmese Statesman and General : in 
Oct., 1819, he led a successful expedition 
against the chief of Manipiu: : in 182 1 he 
attacked Assam : in 1823, the Burmese 
invaded British possessions near Chitta- 
gong, occupying the island of Shapuri on 
Sep. 24, 1823 : in March, 1824, Bandula 
marched to Arakan, attacked an English 
force at Ramu, near Chittagong, and 
defeated it: Lord Amherst declared war 
against the Burmese. On May 11, 1824, 
the British.Army took Rangoon, but were 
unable to advance. Bandula was re- 
called from Arakan and ordered to proceed 
against the English forces. As C. in C, 
he approached Rangoon and stockaded 
his 60,000 men : but was attacked and 
defeated, Dec, 1824. He retired to 
Donabew, a strongly defended position, 
which the British Army under General 
Campbell reached on April i, 1825. The 
siege of the place by the English had just 
begun when Bandula was killed by a shell 
from the British* Artillery,and the Burmese 
army fled. 

DUR (1838-1903) 
Born Jan. 19, 1838 : member of the 
Subordinate, and Provincial Executive 
Service, Bengal : Deputy Magistrate, 
1856 : Personal Assistant to the Com- 
missioner of Patna for 15 years : Member 
of the Salaries Commission, 1885 : Member 
of the Bengal Legislative Council, 1895 : 
and of the Calcutta Corporation : Deputy 
Collector of Calcutta, Superintendent of 
Excise Revenue and Collector of Stamp 
Revenue, 1889-1901 : retired, iqoi : 
CLE., 1895 : died March 26, 1903. 


Born 1813 : son of Jiban Krishna 
Banerjea, a member of a high caste 



Brahman family in Calcutta : educated 
at the Hindu College : in 1829, became a 
teacher in the Hare School, Calcutta : 
came under the influence of Derozio and 
Dr. Duff, and was converted to Christian- 
ity in 1833 : became a teacher in the 
C.M.S. School in Calcutta, and in 1837 was 
ordained a clergyman in the Church of 
England : from 1852 to 1868, was a Pro- 
fessor in Bishop's College, Calcutta : 
Fellow, 1858, of the Calcutta University : 
Doctor of Law, 1876: Examining Chaplain 
to the Bishop of Calcutta : Examiner in 
Sanskirt, Hindi, Tamil, and Uriya: 
M.R.A.S.B., also of the British Indian As- 
sociation, Calcutta Corporation, and Board 
of Examiners : was made a CLE. : was in 
his later years regarded by Government as a 
Head and Leader of the Indian Com- 
munity : wrote many books and pam- 
phlets, chief among which are Dialogues 
on. Hindu Philosophy and Aryan Witness : 
he knew eleven languages well : his name 
will pass to posterity as a great scholar and 
linguist : died May 11, 1885. 


Born near Calcutta, Jan. 26, 1844 : edu- 
cated at the Hare School, Presidency 
College and Calcutta University : B.A. 
(1863), M.A. (1864) in Mathematics, gold 
medal: B.L. (1865): Law Lecturer at 
the Berhampur College : began to practise 
in the High Court in 1872 : Doctor of 
Law in 1876 : Tagore Law Professor, 1878 : 
lectured on " Hindu Law of Marriage and 
Stridhan " : Fellow of the Calcutta Univer- 
sity, 1879 : member of the Bengal Legisla- 
tive Council, 1887 : acted as Judge of 
the High Court, 1888, confirmed in Jan. 
1889 : Vice-chancellor of the Calcutta 
University, 1890-3 : member, 1902, of 
the Indian Universities' Commission : 
retired in Jan., 1904 : knighted the same 
year : wrote A Few Thoughts on Education. 


Educated in his village and at the 
Hindu College, Calcutta : Scholar : en- 
tered Government service in the Military 
Auditor General's office : B.A. : munsif 
at Howrah and Serampur : practised as a 
High Coiurt Vakil from 1862, and became 
Senior Government Pleader : as a Bengali 
poet he had perhaps no rival in modern 
Bengal : died 1902. 


Educated at the Calcutta University : 
M.A. : B.L. : a leading pleader in the Cal- 
cutta High Court : member of the Bengal 
Legislative Council : Registrar of the Cal- 
cutta University : President Y.M.C.A., Cal- 
cutta : a Brahman convert to Christianity : 
has taken a prominent part in all social, 
religious and educational movements of 
the day. 


(1848- ) 

Second son of Diu-ga Charan Banerji, 
medical practitioner, Calcutta : born 
Nov., 1848 : educated at the Doveton 
College, Calcutta : B.A,, 1868 : passed in 
England the competitive examination for 
the Indian Civil Service, 1869 : went out 
to Bengal, 1871 : Assistant Magistrate at 
Sylhet : ceased to be a member of the 
Civil Service in March, 1874 : became a 
Professor of English Literature in the 
Metropolitan Institution, 1876 : joined 
the Free Church Institution and Duff 
College, 1881 : founded the Ripon College, 
1882 : proprietor of the weekly Bengalee 
in 1878 : imprisoned for one month in the 
civil side of the Presidency Jail, 1883, for 
contempt of court : established the Indian 
Association, 1876 : represented the Cal- 
cutta Corporation in the Bengal Legisla- 
tive Council, 1893 : President of the nth 
meeting of the Indian National Congress 
at Poona, 1895, of the i8th at Ahmadabad, 
1902 : elected a Fellow of the Calcutta 
University by the Graduates, 1904. 

Major : joined the Indian Army in 1829 : 
was employed on civil duties for a time, 
but in 1842 served in Pollock's Kabul 
force : was in the Military Secretariat : 
accompanied Lord Dalhousie to Burma, 
and was on his personal Staff : joined 
the Oudh Commission and became Com- 
missioner of Lucknow : was in the Resi- 
dency during the siege, and succeeded Sir 
Henry Lawrence as Chief Commissioner 
from the latter's death until his own on 
July 21, 1857. 


(1841- ) 

I.C.S. : born 1841 : educated at 
Queen's College, Belfast : went to 
India, 1863 : served in Lower Bengal, 



until he became Under Secretary, Finan- 
cial Department of the Government of 
India, 1872 : Accountant General, Bengal : 
Secretary to Government of Bengal, 
Revenue Department, 1882 : member of 
the Bengal Legislative Council, 1882 : 
Secretary to the Government of India, 
Financial Department, 1882 : C.S.I. , 
1887 : Member of the Royal Commission 
in England on gold and silver, 1886 : 
Financial Member of the Supreme Council 
of the Governor General, 1 888-1 893 : 
K.C.S.I., 1889 : Member of the Indian 
Currency Commission, 1898 : K.C.M.G., 
1899 : Member and Chairman of several 
important Royal Commissions and Com- 
mittees on the currency and finance of 
other countries, and on questions involving 
great financial considerations : wrote The 
Theory of Bimetallism. 


f^ ,^ ^ FALL (1847- ) 

Son of Charles Barclay, Surgeon-General 
Madras Army : born Aug. 25, 1847: 
educated at St. Andrews, in Germany, 
and at Edinburgh University : M.A., 
1867 : in the Indian Government Tele- 
graph Department, 1868-71 : editor of 
the CalcuttSi Englishman, 1872-77 : Fellow 
of the Calcutta University : left India, 
1877: F.R.S.E., 1883: J. P.: sometime 
acting Editor of the Calcutta Review, and 
of Vanity Fair : has held various local 
appointments at Edinburgh. 



Educated at the R.M.A., Woolwich : 
entered the Royal Artillery in 1834 : served 
in the Crimea : became a Colonel : in the 
Indian mutiny served under Sir Colin 
Campbell, commanding as Brigadier the 
siege Artillery at the capture of Lucknow, 
March, 1858 : commanded a Brigade in 
subsequent operations : captured Birwa : 
K.C.B. : died at Simla, July 27, 1861. 



Served in the Camatic and Bengal from 
1754 : as a Captain accompanied Clive to 
Calcutta in 1757, commanding the Artil- 
lery at Chandernagore and Plassy : 
returned to Madras, 1758 : served in 
1792 in Colonel Draper's expedition from 
Madras to the Phillippine Islands : knighted 

in 1763 : raised the 24th N.I. 1876 : Brig- 
General, 1770, and provincial C. in C, 
Bengal, in 1773 : in July, 1772, a treaty was 
signed in his presence between the Nawab 
Wazir of Oudh and the Rohillas against the 
Mahrattas : after a quarrel with Warren 
Hastings he left India : became M.P. for 
Wallingford : Baronet, 1781 : died Sep. 
i4» 1789. 

BARONET (1762-1847) 
Governor : son of William Barlow, of 
Bath : joined the Bengal Civil Service 
in 1778 : when employed, 1788-96, 
in the Revenue Secretariat, he had to 
carry out the Permanent Settlement of 
1793 in Bengal : was Chief Secretary in 
1796 : became Member of the Supreme 
Council from Oct., 1801, and Vice-President 
in Council until, on Lord Cornwallis' 
death on Oct. 5, 1805, he, as provisional 
Governor-General, acted in that capacity 
until Lord Minto's arrival on July 31, 
1807 : Baronet, 1803 : and K.C.B. : 
though he had supported Wellesley's 
policy of extending British power, he 
continued Cornwallis' policy of neutrality 
and conciliation towards the Native 
States, making concessions to Sindia and 
Holkar, and annulling protective treaties 
with Chiefs in Rajputana. In 1807 he 
went to Madras as Governor from Dec. 
24 : there he quarelled with the principal 
officers of both services : the military 
combined in a general mutiny, which 
Barlow suppressed vigorously : he was 
recalled and made over charge at Madras 
on May 21, 1813 : G.C.B., 1815 : died in 
England, Dec. 18, 1846. 


Son of the Rev. William Barnard : 
born in 1799 : was educated at Westminster 
and Sandhurst : joined the Guards in 
1814 : was at the occupation of Paris : 
served in Jamaica and Canada : in the 
Crimea : Maj -General : commanded, first 
a Brigade, and later a Division, and was 
Chief of the Staff to General Simpson : 
K.C.B., 1856 : in 1857, went to India as 
General of the Sirhind Division. Upon 
General Anson's death at Karnal, Barnard 
succeeded to the command, and, moving 
towards r Delhi, defeated the rebels at 
Badli-ka-sarai on June 8 : died of cholera 
on the ridge at Delhi, July 5, 1857. 



BARNES, SIR EDWARD (1776-1838) 

Commander-in-Chief : entered the Army 
in 1792 : Colonel, 1810 : served in the 
Peninsula, from 1812, commanding a 
Brigade, and was in several battles : Adju- 
tant - General at Waterloo : severely 
^vounded : K.C.B. : went to Ceylon, 
1819 : Governor there from 1824 to 1831 : 
put down the last outbreaks of the Kandy 
chiefs there : Lt-General, 1825 : General, 
1831, and C. in C. in India, 1831-33 : 
Colonel, 31st foot : and G.C.B. : became 
M.P. for Sudbury in 1837 : died March 19, 


(1853- ) 

I.C.S. : son of James Ralph Barnes, 
I.C.S. : born 1853 : educated at Malvern : 
joined the Civil Service, at Allahabad, 
1874 : Private Secretary to the Financial 
Member of Council, 1876 : Political 
Officer, Kandahar, 1880 : Political Agent, 
Quetta, 1883 : Under Secretary, Foreign 
Department, 1889 : Deputy Secretary, 
1890 : Revenue Commissioner, Quetta, 
1891 : Resident in Kashmir, 1894 : A.G.G. 
and Chief Commissioner, Beluchistan, 
1896 : Foreign Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India, 1900-3 : President of 
Central Committee for the Delhi Darbar, 
1902-3 : Lieutenant-Governor of Burma, 
1903-5 : Member of the Council of India, 
1905 : K.C.S.I., 1903 : K.C.V.O., 1903. 

GAEKWAR OF ( ? -1882) 

Succeeded his brother, Khandi RaO, 
in Nov., 1870, as ruler of Baroda : com- 
plaints of his misrule having reached 
Government an inquiry was held in 1873, 
and time to reform was allowed him : 
before the time elapsed an attempt was 
made in 1874 to poison the Resident, 
Colonel R. Phayre {q.v.) : in 1875, the 
Gaekwar was tried by a mixed Commission : 
the three British officers found him guilty : 
the three native members declared the 
charge not proven : he was then deposed 
for gross misgovernment, and deported 
to Madras, where he died in 1882. 


Maharaja: born March 10, 1863: 
descended from the founders of the Baroda 

dynasty : adopted on May 27, 1875, by 
Jamnabai, widow of the Gaekwar Khandi 
Rao : educated at the Maharaja's School 
at Baroda : was installed, 1875 : during 
his minority, there was a Council of 
Regency under a British officer and Raja 
Sir Tanjore Madhava Rao K.C.S.I. {q.v.) : 
on Dec. 28, i88i,hewas given the admin- 
istration of the State : made G.CS.I. in 
1887 : an enlightened ruler, and holds 
advanced views on social questions : he 
has several times visited Europe. 


(1846- ) 

Born Nov. 29, 1846 : entered the 
Army, 1864 : served in the Abyssinian 
expedition : boundary settlement officer 
in the Malwa Bhil covmtry : Assistant to 
the A.G.G. for Central India, 1870 : 
Political agent at Jodhpur, 1878-9 : in 
Baghelkund and Rewa : Resident at 
Gwalior, 1887 : in Kashmir, 1892 : A.G.G. 
for Central India, 1895 : Resident at 
Hyderabad, Feb. 24, 1900-March, 1905 : 
C.S.I. : K.C.S.I, 1903 : Member of the 
Council of India, 1905. 

NICOLAS, COMTE DE (1755-1829) 
Chasseur of the French regiment of 
Pondicherry : taken prisoner at the 
capture of Pondicherry in 1778 by Sir 
Hector Munro : at the request of the 
French Governor, B arras' regiment was 
permitted to retain its colomrs : he 
became a prisoner on parole in Madras 
and Poonamali: returning to France, 
he rose to prominence as a Director dvuring 
the Revolution : he was under orders to 
return to India, with other commissaires, 
but they never started : he became 
Commandant-General of the armies of 


(1852- ) 

Maj -General : born Jan. 28, 1852 : son 
of Maj -General Joseph Lyon Barrow, 
C.B., R.A. : joined the Army, Dec. 1781 : 
D.A.Q.M.G. : with the Indian Contingent 
in Egypt, 1882, and in the Intelligence 
Branch, Bengal, 1885-7 : Assistant Secre- 
tary to the Government of India, Military 
Department, 1887-91 : Deputy Secretary, 
1 897-1900 : Secretary, 1901-3 : D.A.G. 
Bengal, 1900 : served in the Afghan 
War, 1879, Egyptian expedition, 1882, 



Tirah campaign, 1897-8 : Chief Staff 
Officer, China expedition, 1900 : Com- 
manding First Division, Northern Army- 
Corps, 1904. 

BARROW, LOUSADA ( ? -1877) 

Joined the Madras cavalry in 1836, and 
saw constant service, being engaged in 
the S. Mahratta country in 1844-5, and 
imder Havelock in many actions in the 
mutiny : in the Alambagh under Outram : 
present at the siege and capture of Luck- 
now : Brevets of Major and Lt-Colonel : 
C.B. in 1858 : Commissioner of Lucknow, 
1864 : Maj-General, 1870 : Chief Com- 
missioner of Oudh, Jan.-April, 1871 : 
died Oct. i, 1877. - i j 


(1834- ) 

Born March 22, 1834, at Strasburg: 
son of Etienne Barth, of the Rhone an 
Rhin Canal Company : educated at the 
College Royal (now Lycee Imperial) at 
Strasburg : Professor of Rhetoric and 
Philosophy at the College at Bouxwiller, 
1857-61 : then retired from the public 
service to devote himself to Indian study : 
lived first at Strasburg, then at Geneva, 
(1871-76), and lastly removed to Paris: 
member of many learned societies : Societe 
Asiatique, 1857: Academy of Inscriptions, 
1893 : Royal Asiatic Society, 1894, etc.: Col- 
laborator in the Journal Asiatique, Revue 
Critique, etc. His chief works are: Les 
Religions de VInde, 1880 (also translated 
into English) Inscriptions Sanskrites du 
Camhodge, 1885 : VInde ; Buddhisme, Jain- 
isme, Hindouisme, 1894, etc. : has pub- 
lished a yearly bulletin of the religions of 
India in the Revue de VHistoire des Re- 
ligions, 1885, etc. 

JULES (1805-1895) 

Born Aug. 19, 1805, in Paris : studied 
Sanskrit under Eugene Burnouf : early 
entered public life : attached to the 
Ministry of Finance, 1825-38 : an editor 
of the Globe, 1825-30 : as a journalist, 
signed the protest against the July 
ordinances of Charles X. : became famous 
as a politician and ardent Republican, 
and lived through several revolutions : 
held office several times, as colleague of 
Victor Cousin in the Ministry of Public 
Instruction : in 1848, as Secretary of the 

provisional Government : from 1871, 
took an active part in public affairs, as 
member of the National Assembly : 
Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1880, etc. : 
yet he was greatest as a scholar, and 
student of Philosophy : was Professor of 
Greek and Latin Philosophy at the College 
de France, 1838-52, Member of the 
Institute, 1839 : in this year, began his 
study of Sanskrit Philosophy : adminis- 
trator of the College de France, 1849 : 
accompanied Lesseps on his journey to 
Egypt, 1855, to explore the Isthmus of 
Suez. After the death of Eugene Burnouf, 
Barthelemy took his place as a writer on 
Indian matters in the Journal des Savants : 
died Nov. 24, 1895 : best known as a 
Greek scholar : the great achievement of 
his life was his translation of Aristotle : 
also did valuable work as an Indianist i 
among his publications are Des VedaSy 
1854: Du Bouddhisme, 1855 : Le Bouddha 
et sa religion, 1866 : VInde Anglaise, 1887,. 


DIN, (1748-1806) 

Studied at Prague : joined the Car- 
melites at Rome and learned Oriental 
languages : went to the Malabar coast 
in 1774 : stayed there 14 years, and was 
appointed Vicar-general and Apostolic 
visitor : returned to Rome in 1790, to 
superintend the printing of religious works, 
for the use of Indian missionaries : studied 
Sanskrit, published a Sanskrit grammar 
in Tamil in 1790, and wrote largely of his. 
Indian travels and experiences : he died 
in 1806. 

BARWELL, RICHARD (1741-1804) 

Son of William Barwell (who was. 
Governor of Bengal in 1748) : born in Cal- 
cutta, Oct. 8, 1741, and joined as a 
" writer " in Bengal under the E.I. Co. 
in 1758 : made a Member of the Supreme 
Council under the Regulating Act of 1773, 
which made Warren Hastings Governor- 
General, and steadily supported him in 
Council against Francis, Clavering, and 
Monson : fought a duel with Clavering in 
April, 1775 : resigned his seat in Council . 
on Oct. I, 1 78 1, retiring with a large 
fortune, reported to have been irregularly 
acquired : he appears to have had two - 
houses in Calcutta, one at the present 



" Writers' Buildings," tlie other " Kidder- 
pur House " in Alipur : M.P. for St. 
Ives and Winchester, and died Sep. 2, 
1804. The story is told of him, as illustra- 
tive of the luxurious living of those days, 
that he said " bring more curricles." The 
Echoes from Old Calcutta by Dr. Busteed 
contains a picture of Barwell and some 
account of his life and character. 



Son of the architect, George Basevi : 
was educated at Rugby, Cheltenham and 
Addiscombe : went to India in the E.I. 
Co.'s Engineers, 185 1 : joined the P.W.D. 
in Bengal : was transferred in 1856 to the 
Great Trigonometrical Survey, and did 
valuable work, especially in the principal 
triangulation : he also did good service in 
reconnaissances in the Mahsud-Waziri 
expedition, i860, and in the wild tracts of 
Jaipur and Bustar on the east coast, 
1862 : Captain, R.E. : in 1864, he was 
selected specially to conduct some highly 
scientific investigations proposed by the 
Royal Society, for the determination of 
gravity at certain stations of the great 
meridional arc of triangles extending 
from Cape Comorin to the Himalayas, by 
pendulum observations, which lasted 
some years, and necessitated exposure at 
high altitudes. He crossed Kashmir and 
Ladak and travelled through the Chanch- 
enmo valley to the Chinese frontier to 
make observations at above 16,000 feet : 
he burst a blood-vessel, and died July 17, 
1871, "a martyr to his love of science," 
an officer " of sterling worth and excellent 

UNDERWOOD (1835-1887) 

Son of Colonel Agnew Champain : born 
July 22, 1835 : educated at Cheltenham, 
the Edinburgh Military Academy, and 
Addiscombe : went to India in the Bengal 
Engineers, 1854 : in the mutiny was in 
the action of Badli-ka-sarai on June 8, 

1857, and at the siege and capture of 
Delhi : was in several other engagements : 
at the capture of Lucknow in March, 

1858, by Sir Colin Campbell : at the tak- 
ing of Jagdishpur : in 1862 he went to 
Persia in connection with the Government 
telegraph system: in 1865, became Assis- 
tant to the Director of the Indo-European 
Telegraph Department, and in 1870 be- 

came himself the Director : took the 
additional name of Bateman : to complete 
and maintain the through telegraphic 
communication, he had to travel con- 
stantly to Persia, the Persian Gulf, Turkey, 
Russia and India : in 1869 he narrowly 
escaped drowning in the wreck of the 
P. and O. S.S. Carnatic : he was made 
K.C.M.G. Dec. 31, 1885 : was on the 
Councils of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety and of the Society of Telegraph 
Engineers: died Feb. i, 1887. 


Born July 16, 1862 : son of the 4th 
Marquis : educated at Eton and Balliol 
College, Oxford : Private Secretary to the 
Earl of Iddesleigh, First Lord of the 
Treasury, 1886-7 : Assistant Private 
Secretary to the Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer, Lord Goschen : M.P. for Frome, 
1886-92, and 1895-6 : succeeded his 
father in the peerage, 1896 : Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Somerset : Under Secretary 
of State for India, 1905. 


(1854- ) 

I.C.S. : son of Capt. Daniel Bayley, 
Bengal Cavalry : and grandson of W. B 
Bayley {q.v.) : educated at Harrow and 
Heidelberg : entered the Indian Civil 
Service, 1877 : Political Agent in Bikanir : 
General Superintendent for suppressing 
of Thagi and Dakaiti : Agent to the 
Governor-General, Central India : C.S.I. 
Resident at Hyderabad, 1905. 


I.C.S. : son of E. Clive Bayley : born 
Oct., 1821 : educated at Haileybury : 
went to India in 1842 : served in the 
N.W.P., and the Panjab : Under Secre- 
tary in the Foreign Department in 1849 : 
called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 
1857 : in the mutiny, was Under Secretary 
to Sir J. P. Grant when temporary Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of the " Central " Provinces : 
Magte. of Allahabad : was for a short time 
Foreign Secretary in 1861 : Home Secre- 
tary to the Government of India, 1862- 
72, and Member of the Supreme Council, 
1873-78 : K. C.S.I, in 1877 : and CLE. : 
Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University, 
1869-74, five times President of the 



Asiatic Society of Bengal, and Vice- 
President of the Royal Asiatic Society for 
3 years : died April 30, 1884 : made con- 
siderable contributions to Indian history, 
numismatics, antiquities, and archaeology 
by his papers for the Asiatic Societies and 
other writings. 


(18:{6- ) 

I.C.S. : born Aug. 26, 1836 : the young- 
est son of W. Butterworth B. (q.v.): 
educated at Eton and Haileybury : arrived 
in India, March, 1856 : held minor ap- 
pointments in Bengal : was Commissioner 
of Patna during the Bihar famine of 
1874 : C.S.I., 1875 : Secretary to the 
Government of Bengal, 1877 : Additional 
Secretary to the Government of India, 
1877 : Personal Assistant to the Viceroy 
(Lord Lytton) for famine affairs, 1877 : 
K.C.S.I., 1878 : Home Secretary, 1878 : 
Chief Commissioner of Assam, 1878-80 : 
Resident at Hyderabad, 1881-2 : C.I.E., 
1881 : Member of the Supreme Council, 
1882-7 : Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal 
from July to Dec, 1879, and from 1887-90 ; 
on leaving India he became Secretary in 
the Political Department at the India 
Office, 1890-95 : Member of the Coimcil 
of India, 1895. 



I.C.S. : son of Thomas Butterworth 
Bayley : educated at Eton and Cam- 
bridge : went to India in 1799 : served in 
1803 in the " Governor-General's Office," 
in the brilliant circle under Lord Welles- 
ley : Registrar of the Sadr Court, 1807 : 
Judge of Burdwan and other places : in 
1 8 14 Secretary in the Judicial and Revenue 
Department, and in 1819 Chief Secretary 
to the Government : temporary Member 
of{the Supreme Council from July to Dec, 
1822, and substantively from 1825 to 1830 : 
then he retired : he officiated as Governor- 
General from March to July, 1828, between 
Lord Amherst and Lord W. Bentinck : 
President of the Board of Trade, 1830 : 
Vice-President and Depy. Governor of 
Bengal : in 1833 he became a Director of 
the E. I. Co., and Chairman of the Court 
in 1840 : retired 1858 : he died May 29, 
i860. Kaye writes of his high official 
reputation, adding that " his unfailing 
kindness of heart and suavity of manner 

endeared him to all who had the privilege 
of coming within the reach of their genial 


(1866- ) 

Educated at Wellington : joined io8th 
regt., 1874 : Bombay Staff Corps, 1879 : 
Staff College, 1893 : D.A.A. and Q.M.G : 
Burma expedition, 1886-87 : Afghan war, 
1880-81 : Soudan, 1885 : Burma, 1886-87: 
South Africa, 1 899-1900 : Colonel, C.B. 

BEADON, SIR CECIL (1816-1880) 

I.C.S. : son of Richard Beadon, grandson 
of Dr. Beadon, Bishop of Bath and Wells : 
born in 1816 : educated at Eton and 
Haileybury : went out to Bengal in 1836 : 
Under Secretary to the Bengal Government 
in 1843 : Secretary to the Board of Revenue, 
1847 : Member of the Commission on the 
Indian postal system : Secretary to the 
Government of Bengal, 1852 : Home 
Secretary to the Government of India, 
1854 : Foreign Secretary, 1859 : Member 
of the Supreme Council 1860-2, and 
Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, April, 1862, 
to April, 1867. During this period the 
mission, which met with insults, was sent 
to Bhutan in 1864 : and the Orissa famine 
of 1866-7 occiured : for the latter, Beadon 
was much blamed and, on an official 
inquiry, his famine administration was 
severely censured : always sanguine, he 
had failed to estimate adequately the signs 
of distress and the local conditions : and 
he suffered from ill-health : his general 
administration showed marked ability : 
K.C.S.I. in May, 1866 : died July 18, 1880. 



A clerk in the ofifice of the Board of 
Revenue, N.W.P. : a learned scholar, who 
assisted Sir H. M. Elliot in his work on the 
Muhammadans in India : he wrote the 
Miftah-ul-Tawarikh, and an Oriental 
Biographical Dictionary : died at a great 
age, at Agra, 1875. 

BEAMES, JOHN (1837-1902) 

I.C.S : born June 21, 1837 : son of 
Rev. Thomas Beames : educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School and at Hailey- 
bury, 1856-7 : went to India, 1858 : 
served in the Panjab, 1859-61 : afterwards. 



in Lower Bengal, Commissioner of various 
Divisions and Member of the Board of 
Revenue : retired, 1893 : an Oriental 
scholar: wrote in the J.A.S.B: and in 
the Indian Antiquary : also Outlines of 
Indian Philology, 1867 : edited Sir H. 
Elliot's Supplemental Glossary of Indian 
Terms, 1869 : his chief work was A Com- 
parative Grammar of the Aryan Languages, 
iSyz-g : and a Bengali Grammar, 1891 : 
wrote in the Imperial, and Asiatic Quar- 
terly Reviews : died May 42, 1902. 


M.D. Glasgow, 1836 : entered the Army 
Medical Department, 1838 ; served in 
Ceylon, 1839-51 : in the Burmese war of 
1852 : the Crimea, Ionian Islands, Madras : 
vSurgeon-General in India and P.M.O. of 
European troops, 1863-8, and again, 
1 871-4 : was in charge of Netley Hospital 
1868-71 : Honorary Physician to the 
Queen : C.B. 1869 : died at Simla, June 
7, 1874. 


(1854- ) 

Born July II, 1854 : son of Capt. W. S. 
Beatson, of the H.E.I.C.S : educated at 
Wellington : joined the Indian Army, 
1873 : served on N.W. Frontier, 1878, 
in Afghanistan, 1878-80 : Egypt, 1882 : 
N.W. Frontier, 1897-98 : South Africa, 
1901 : Inspr-General of Imperial Service 
Troops : Colonel and C.B. 



General : son of Captain Robert Beat- 
son, R.E : entered the Bengal Army in 
1820 : served, while on furlough, with the 
British Legion in Spain, 1835-6 : at the 
capture of Jigni in Bundelkund, 1840 : 
Chirgong, 1841 : in the Sind compaign, 
1844 : served under Sir C. Napier, 1845, 
in the Bugti hills : commanded the Nizam's 
cavalry : took Rymow from the Rohillas 
in 1848 : organised the Bashi-bazouks in 
the Crimean campaign, 1854-5 : in the 
mutiny, raised two regiments of cavalry, 
named, " Beatson's Horse " : commanded 
the Allahabad Division, 1866, and the 
Umbala Division, 1869 : died Feb. 4, 1872. 


General : son of Colonel G. Becher : 

educated at Addiscombe : was in the 
Afghan war, 1839 : at Ghazni : in the 
Satlaj campaign, 1845-6 : at Mudki, 
Firozshahr, Sobraon : Brevet - Major : 
A.D.C. to the Governor-General : in the 
Panjab campaign, 1848-9 : at the siege 
and capture of Multan, and at Gujarat : 
Q.M.G. in India, 1852-63 : severely 
wounded at the siege of Delhi, 1857 : 
C.B., 1858 : Bengal Staff Corps : com- 
manded the Sirhind Division, 1865-9 • 
Maj-General, 1861 : died Oct, 5. 1887. 

BECHER, JOHN REID (1819-1884) 

General : son of Colonel John Becher, 
of the Bengal Cavalry : bom 18 19 : 
educated at Bruce Castle, Tunbridge Wells, 
and Addiscombe : went to India in the 
Bengal Engineers in 1839 : from Firozpur 
with Wild's Brigade, to relieve Ali Masjid 
in Jan. 1842, and on with General Pollock's 
advance to Kabul : in Satlaj campaign, 
at Sobraon, Feb. 10, 1846, severely 
wounded : engaged in Rajputana boundary 
settlements, 1847, and on land inquiries 
in the Panjab : Deputy Secretary to the 
Panjab Board of Administration : Deputy 
Commissioner of Hazara, 1853-9 '• C.B : 
in Sydney Cotton's expedition of 1858 
against the Sitana fanatics : Commissioner 
of the Derajat, 1862 : and of Peshawar, 
1864 : retired in 1866 : died July 9, 1884 : 
one of the distinguished group of officers 
employed in the Panjab under the Law- 
rences in the early days after its annexation 
in 1849 : " of all prominent Panjab 
officials there was certainly none more 
loved and respected than Becher." 

BECHER, RICHARD ( ? -1782) 

Related to Anne Becher, mother of 
W. M. Thackeray the novelist : went out 
to Calcutta as a writer in the E. I, Co.'s 
service, 1743 : in 1756 was Fourth in the 
Bengal Council and Chief of Dacca : when 
Calcutta was taken by Suraj-ud-daula, 
Becher with his family escaped from the 
city, with others : returning, 1757, when 
Calcutta was retaken by the English. 
In 1 76 1 Becher was dismissed from the 
Company's service for having signed Clive's 
independent letter of remonstrance to the 
Directors two years before. Six years 
later, 1767, when Clive was Governor of 
Bengal, Becher was re-appointed to the 
Bengal Council, and in 1769 was made 
Resident at Murshidabad, with local 



control of the revenue administration of 
Bengal. He deserves to be remembered 
for his heroic efforts, in the face of mis- 
representation and slander, to alleviate 
the horrors of the great famine of 1770 in 
Bengal : noted for his honesty, during 
his 13 years of service under the Company : 
took no private gifts or bribes. In 1774, 
he retired to England with a modest for- 
tune, which he soon after risked and lost 
in trying to help a friend : returned to 
India : was given a subordinate post as 
head of the Calcutta Mint, 1781 ; died 
Nov. 17, 1782, at Calcutta. 

BECK, THEODORE (1859-1899) 
Of a Quaker family : educated at a 
Quaker school, at London University, 
Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge : 
President of the Union Debating Society : 
appointed Principal of the M.A.O. College, 
Alighar, when he was only 24 : he re- 
organized the College, establishing order 
out of chaos, reformed the discipline, 
introduced improvements, adjusted the 
finances, was devoted to his work and in 
warm sympathy with the Muhammadans : 
working with Sir Syad Ahmad (q.v.) until 
his death, in 1898, and afterwards with 
the trustees of the institution : died at 
Simla, Sep. 2, 1899. 



Son of Maj -General J. Beckwith : 
foined the 71st regt. in India in 1791, then 
under Col. D. Baird {q.v.) : was at the 
siege of Seringapatam by Lord Cornwallis 
in 1792 and the taking of Pondicherry by 
Baird in 1793 : served also in Ceylon, at 
Copenhagen, at Hanover, in Denmark, the 
Peninsula, Canada : Maj-General and 
K.C.B., 1814 : Lt-General, 1830 : was 
appointed C. in C. at Bombay in 1829: died 
of fever at Mahableshwar, Jan. 19, 1831. 


(1830- ) 

Born May 11, 1830 : son of R. B. 
Beddome : educated at Charterhouse : 
joined the Madras Army : was Quarter- 
master and Interpreter of his regiment, 
42nd Infantry, 1856 : Assistant Conser- 
vator of Forests, Madras, 1857 : Head of 
the Madras Forest Department, i860 to 
1882, when he retired as Colonel : Fellow 
of the Madras University, 1880 : author 
of The Flora Sylvatica of the Madras Presi- 

dency, (400 trees). The Ferns of Southern 
India, (345 plates). Hand-book to the Ferns 
of India, besides pamphlets on new reptiles 
and land shells discovered by him in 

NARD, D.D. (1842- ) 

German : born at Miinster, Aug. 18, 
1842 : entered the Society of Jesus, Aug. 
23, 1865 : arrived in India, Nov. 6, 1879 : 
occupied various posts in colleges, etc., 
became Superior of the Jesuit Mission, 
Oct. 4, 1882 : nominated first Catholic 
Bishop of Poona, Suffragan of Bombay, 
Dec. 22, 1886, consecrated, Feb. 27, 1887, 
at Allahabad : still in occupation of the 



" The eminent founder of the Madras 
system of education " : son of a barber 
at St. Andrew's : born March 27, 1753 '• 
educated at St. Andrew's School and 
University : ordained, 1784 : M.D. : tutor 
in Virginia, 1774-9 '• went to India, 1787 : 
in 2 years he had obtained and held simul- 
taneously eight Army chaplaincies : in 
1789 he was Chaplain of St. Mary's, 
Madras, and Superintendent of the Madras 
Male Orphan Asylum, and there introduced 
a system of mutual instruction by the 
boys, who were thus alternately learners 
and teachers, one half of the class teaching 
the other half : accompanied]Genl. Braith- 
waite to capture of Pondicherry, 1793 : 
with a pension from the E.I.Co.,he returned 
to England in 1797, and laboured hard 
to spread his system at home and abroad : 
it was adopted in places : Rector of 
Swanage, 1801, Master of Sherbinrn 
Hospital, 1809 : as Superintendent, in 
18 1 1, of the National Society for promoting 
the education of the poor in the principles 
of the Established Church, he could 
advance his Madras system, but it could 
not be an entire system of education : he 
was made LL.D : also a Prebendary of 
Westminister : gave ^120,000 to found a 
College at St. Andrew's : died Jan. 27, 
1832, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey : a tablet erected to his memory. 

BELL, THOMAS EVANS (1825-1887) 

Major : born Nov. 11,1825 : son of William 
Bell : educated at Wandsworth : went 



to Madras in the E. I. Go's military service, 
1841 : joined the 2nd Madras Europeans : 
appointed Assistant Commissioner at 
Nagpur, 1855, lost his appointment, i860, 
for insubordination to the Chief Commis- 
sioner in advocating the claims of the 
dispossessed ruling family : all the measures 
recommended by Major Bell were, however, 
approved and carried out by Lord Can- 
ning, and he was appointed Deputy Com- 
missioner of Police at Madras, 1861 : 
retired 1863: devoted the remainder of 
his life to advocating measures for the 
benefit of India and its people : wrote The 
Task of To-day, 1852 : The English in 
India, 1859 : The Empire in India, 1864 : 
Remarks on the Mysore Blue Book, 1866 : 
The Mysore Reversion, 1865 : Retrospects 
and Prospects of Indian Policy, 1868 : 
The Oxus and the Indus, 1869 : 1874: The 
Great Parliamentary Bore, 1869 : Our 
Great Vassal Empire, 1870, The Bengal 
Reversion, 1872 : Last Counsels of an 
Unknown Counsellor, 1877 : Memoirs of 
General John Briggs, 1886 : died Sep. 
12, 1887. 


Son of Capt. H. W. Bellew, of the 
Bengal Army : born Aug. 30, 1834 : 
educated at St. George's Hospital, London 
M.D. : in the Crimean war : went to 
Tndia in the Bengal Medical service, 1856 : 
with Sir H. B. Lumsden's {q.v.) mission to 
Kandahar in 1857-8 : in the Umbeyla 
campaign : Civil Surgeon of Peshawar : 
interpreter at the Umbala darbar of 1869 
with the Amir Shir Ali : was on Sir R. 
Pollock's mission to Seistan, 1871, and 
Sir T. D. Forsyth's mission to Kashgar 
and Yarkand, 1873-4 : C.S.L in 1873 : 
Chief Political officer at Kabul in the second 
Afghan war : retired as Surgeon- 
General, 1886 : died July 26, 1892 : he 
had a faculty for learning Oriental lan- 
guages, and wrote about them as well as 
about medical subjects and the countries 
which he had visited and their inhabitants. 

MONTESQUIEU (1823-1874) 

Son of Capt. R. Higgins : born Aug. 
3, 1823 : educated at Lancaster, and St. 
Mary's Hall, Oxford : took his mother's 
family name in 1844 : ordained in 1848 : 
went to Calcutta in 1851 and became 

Chaplain of St. John's Church for 4 years : 
edited there the Bengal Hurkaru : re- 
turning to England in 1855, he became 
a popular preacher in London, but in 1868 
was a convert to Roman Catholicism, and 
supported himself by public readings and 
literary work : he had great success as a 
master of elocution and from his handsome 
appearance : he died June 19, 1874. 

BELLI, JOHN ( ? - ? ) 
Born in England, of a noble Italian 
family, probably of Viterbo, his mother 
being a lady of Spanish origin named 
Bivar : entered the E. I. Co's. service and 
became Private Secretary to Warren 
Hastings, about 1770-5 = he married a 
sister of Sir Charles Cockerell; his daugh- 
ters married Dr. Howley, Archbishop of 
Canterbury; E. Horsley Palmer, M.P. 
and Sir C. E. Carrington (q.v.) 

OF (1717-?1770) 
Son of Mansa Ram : and father of Chait 
Singh (q.v.) : all of the Dhuinhar caste : 
succeeded his father, 1740 : died 
Aug. 19 1770, being succeeded by Chait 
Singh : Balwant was the real founder and 
consoUdator of the Benares Raj. 


( ? -1810) 

Son of Balwant Singh, the Raja of 
Benares, who died in 1770, when Chait 
Singh became Raja : in 1775 was declared 
independent of Oudh (of which he had 
been a vassal) and made tributary to the 
English Govermnent on a fixed annual 
payment : in 1778, Warren Hastings 
demanded from him, besides the annual 
tribute, five lakhs of rupees, which were 
recovered from him with the help of 
troops. Similar demands were made from 
him in 1779 and 1780 : in the latter year, 
a contingent of men was demanded, 
according to his tenure as Raja, for the 
public service : he evaded, and did not 
furnish a single man : a fine of 50 lakhs was 
imposed,; and Warren Hastings personally 
went to Benares, to levy the fine on Chait 
Singh, who received him submissively. 
Chait Singh was made, Aug. 16, 1781, a 
prisoner in his own palace at feenares, but 
his people rose, attacked and killed the 
guards. In the confusion, Chait Singh 
escaped. Hastings withdrew to Chunar : 



Major Popham advanced in force, and 
defeated Chait Singh's forces at Benares, 
Latifpur and Bijaighar : the tribute was 
doubled, when a nephew of Chait Singh 
was made Raja. Chait Singh, with a few 
followers, took refuge in Gwalior and lived 
there until his death on March 29, 1810. 

DUR of (1822-1889) 

Born 1822: nephew and adopted son 
of Raja Udit Singh of Benares, whom 
he succeeded in 1835 : belonged to 
the Bhuinhar family, from which came 
Balwant Singh and Chait Singh : he 
rendered conspicuous service during the 
mutiny and largely assisted in maintaining 
order in the city and neighbouring country : 
made Maharaja Bahadur in 1859 : G. C.S.I, 
in 1877 : received the title of " His 
Highness " in 1889 as a personal distinc- 
tion : and a salute of 15 guns : had no son, 
and was succeeded in his immense estates 
by his nephew, the present Maharaja : 
was a great patron of literature, several 
poets resided at his court and wrote works 
under the Maharaja's name : died June 
13, 1889. 


(1855- ) 

Born Nov. 26, 1855 : succeeded as 
nephew and adopted son of Maharaja Isri 
Prasad {q.v.), on June 13, 1889 : received 
the title of His Highness as a personal dis- 
tinctionin Sep. 1889 : G.C.I.E., Jan. 1898 : 
has a salute of 13 guns. 


Born July i, 1856 : ediicated at City 
of London School, Trinity and Caius 
Colleges, Cambridge : first class. Classical 
Tripos, and first class Indian Languages 
Tripos: Fellow, Caius College, 1879-85: 
at the British Museum, in the Department 
of Oriental MSS. and printed books, 
1882-98 : Curator of Oriental Literature 
in the Cambridge University Library,i892 : 
Professor of Sanskrit at University College, 
London, 1885-1903, and at Cambridge 
since 1903 (previously Sanskrit lecturer 
there) : travelled in India and Nipal, 1884-5 
and 1898-9 : on the Council of the R. A .S., 
1901 : published A Journey of Literary 
and AfchcBological Research in Nipal and 

Northern India, 1886 : and Catalogues of 
Buddhist Sanskrit MSS at Cambridge, and 
of .Sanskrit Pali books, and MSS, in the 
British Museum, besides other works on 

BENFEY, THEODOR (1809-1881) 

Born Jan. 28, 1809 : studied from 1824 
at Gottingen : Doctor of Philosophy, 1828 : 
also studied at Munich : taught at Frank- 
fort, 1830-4 : made Privat Docent, 1834 : 
ordinary Professor of the philosophical 
faculty, 1862 : laboured at classical 
philology, Sanskrit language and litera- 
ture, and the science of language : left his 
mark on Oriental research : in the front 
rank as a Vedic scholar and Sanskrit 
grammarian : studied the early fable 
literature of India and other countries : 
edited the Sama Veda, 1848 : wrote a 
Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 1866, and 
a Grammar of the Vedic language : Fellow 
of the Society of Letters, Gottingen : 
F.R.A.S. of Great Britain, and of other 
learned societies : wrote Vedica und 
Linguistica, 1880 : Vedica und Verwandtes, 
1880 : died June 30, 1881. 

BENFIELD, PAUL ( ? -1810) 

In the E. I. Co.'s Civil Service : went to 
India in 1764 : in Madras he made money 
by trade, lending, and contracts, and had 
large money dealings with the Nawab of 
the Carnatic : one of these being un- 
favourably regarded by the Coiurt of 
Directors in 1777, he resigned the service 
and retired to England, 1779 : but, having 
demanded an inquiry and explained, he 
was reinstated and returned to Madras, 
finally retiring in 1793 : lost his fortune in 
speculations and died in want, 18 10 : M.P. 
for Cricklade in 1780. 


Born Feb. 15, 1831 : son of a Calcutta 
merchant : educated at the Education 
Society's school (now Elphinstone High 
School) in Bombay : employed in the 
Bombay branch of the Bank of Ceylon and 
subsequently in the Commercial Bank of 
India : went, in 1853, to the Mercantile 
Bank and, in 1858, became Assistant to 
Muncherji Framji Cama : was well read 
in Gujarati and English and brought out 
several Gujarati periodicals. In 1868, he 
visited Europe. He assisted Naoroji 



Furdunji {q.v.) in advocating social and 
political reforms : they were joint Honor- 
ary Secretaries to the Parsi Law Associa- 
tion from 1855, which obtained certain 
legislative measures for the Parsis : in 
1 871 he was consulted by the Governor 
of Bombay on the new Municipal Act, 
became a Member of the Bombay Cor- 
poration, and, in 1876, a Member of the 
Bombay Legislative Council ; was a 
Fellow of the Bombay University : owing 
to his exertions, the Indian Factory Act of 
1881 became law : in 1881 he was made 
CLE. and Sheriff of Bombay : in 1885, 
was a member of the Abkari Commission : 
died April 4, 1893. 

DISH (1774-18:{9) 

Governor-General : son of the 3rd Duke 
of Portland, born Sep. 14, 1774 : entered 
the Army 1791, saw service in the Nether- 
lands, in Italy, with the Austrian forces : 
Governor of Madras, from Aug., 1803, to 
Sep., 1 807, whenjon account of the mutiny of 
sepoys against their officers at Vellore, for 
which he was held responsible, the Court of 
Directors recalled him: changes affecting the 
sepoys had been introduced by the C. in C, 
with the support of the Governor. He 
was employed in Portugal and commanded 
a Brigade at Corunna : as Lt-General he 
was C. in C. in Sicily, 181 1, served in Spain, 
and led an expedition against Genoa, 1814. 
After 13 years without employment, he 
was'Governorof Bengal from July, 1828, was 
C. in C. from May, 1833, and the first 
Governor-General of India from Nov., 1834, 
to March, 1835 : it devolved on him to 
insist on economies to restore financial 
equilibrium, to reform the land revenue 
settlement in the N.W.P., to establish a 
Board of Revenue in the N.W.P. and 
reorganize the judicial courts, to devote 
funds to education through the medium 
of English, and to increase the employment 
of educated natives in higher offices. He 
also by Regulation abolished the practice 
of suttee, and suppressed the Thags. 
He took over the administration of 
Mysore. He met Ranjit Singh, ruler of 
the Panjab, on the Satlaj. In general he 
reformed the administration in a liberal 
spirit, and established the principle that, 
in the Government of India,the interests 
of the people should have the first claim. 
His memory is still cherished by the natives. 

The eloquent inscription on his statue in 
Calcutta was written by Macaulay iq.v.) 
(Legal Member of Council from Nov., 
1834.) Bentinckwas greatly regretted on 
his retirement. He became M.P. for 
Glasgow in 1837 : refused a peerage, and 
died June 17, 1839. 


Member of the Asiatic Society of Bengal : 
wrote Historical View of Hindu As- 
tronomy, 1823 : his earlier treatise, on 
the Antiquity of the Suryasiddhanta, 1799, 
threw doubts on the antiquity of Indian 
astronomy, and called forth a severe 
critique in the Edinburgh Review, to which 
Bentley replied in the Asiatic Researches : 
one of the greatest mathematicians of his 
time in India : he also wrote, on the 
Principal Eras and Dates of the Ancient 


Artist : resided for some time, prior to 
1856, in India : conspicuous for original 
and pleasing delineations of native life, 
landscape and buildings in India, evi- 
dently drawn on the spot : chiefly known 
as a draughtsman on wood of Eastern 
subjects, principally Indian and Chinese : 
exhibited at the Royal Academy up to 
1883 : illustrated Capt. M. Rafter's Our 
Indian Army, and Capper's Three Presi- 
dencies of India : nearly all his drawings 
on wood are in the periodicals and journals 
of the 'sixties, such as the Illustrated 
London News, and, to about 1876, the 
publications of the ReHgious Tract Society: 
he illustrated also The Indian Nabob of 
100 years ago, by G. E. Sargent in The 
Leisure Hour for 1858, a story of con- 
siderable merit of the British conquest 
and settlement of Bengal : he painted a 
series of dissolving views of Indian life, 
exhibited in London before 1862 : his 
signature on drawings is usually J.B. 
but occasionally J.A.B. 


OF ( ? -1816) 

Raja of Nagpur, or Berar : succeeded 
his father, Madhoji Bhonsla, as Raja in 
1788, took part in the victory of the 
Mahrattas over Nizam Ali of Hyderabad 
at Kurdla in March, 1795. After the 
treaty of Bassein (Dec. 1802), he joined 



in the Mahratta war against the British, 
and was beaten at Assaye on Sep. 23, 1803, 
and again at Argaum on Nov. 28, 1803 : 
he had then to cede Cuttack and Berar to 
the English, so that only Nagpur remained 
to him : his demand for their restoration 
was refused : he died in 1816. 

RAJA OF (1808P-1853) 

Raja of Nagpur : grandson of Raghoji 
Bhonsla II (q.v.), adopted by his widow 
and made Raja as a child of 9, after the 
flight of Appa Sahib {q.v.). When he died 
in 1853, leaving no heir or relation with 
any claim, Nagpur was incorporated into 
British territory. 

EDWARD (1815-1857) 

Born Aug. 3, 1815 : son of Thomas 
Beresford : went to India, 1834-5 : ap- 
pointed first manager of the Cawnpur 
Bank, about 1843 : transferred, 1849, to 
be the head manager of the Delhi Bank : 
massacred with his wife and five daughters, 
on May 11, 1857, at the Bank-house at 
Delhi, by the mutineers from Meerut : 
Beresford had declined the offer of escaping 
with his family, refusing to abandon his 
charge of the Bank : he and his family 
defended themselves on the roof of an out- 
house, but were overpowered : a tablet 
was placed to their memory in the Church 
at Delhi : he was a learned Oriental 
scholar, keen archaeologist and photo- 
grapher : author of The Handbook of 

LIE DE LA POER (1847-1900) 

Third son of the fourth Marquis of 
Waterford : born July 20, 1847 : edu- 
cated at Eton : entered the 9th Lancers 
in 1867 : A.D.C. to Viceroys of India, 
1875 to 1881, and Military Secretary to the 
Viceroys from 1881 to 1894. He saw 
service in the Jowaki expedition, 1877-8 ; 
in the Zulu war, 1879, where he gained 
the Victoria Cross ; in the Afghan war, 
1880, and was in Burma, 1886 : Lt- 
Colonel in 1890 : K.C.I. E., 1894. On 
Dec. 30, 1893, he was entertained at a fare- 
well dinner at the Town Hall, Calcutta, by 
180 friends : it was then said of him that 
he " had raised the office [of Military Sec- 
retary] to a science, and himself from an 

official into an institution, and acquired 
a reputation absolutely unique " : retired 
from India in 1894 : died in England, 
Dec. 28, 1900. He was invaluable as 
A.D.C. and Military Secretary to successive 
Viceroys : popular and active : a keen 
sportsman and successful rider of steeple- 
chases : and polo-player : and for years 
kept a stud of racehorses with which he 
won the Viceroy's Cup six times and the 
other principal races at race-meetings in 
India. In England, also, he had a racing 
stable, and was one of the first to have 
American horses and jockeys. 

JULIUS (1764-1844) 

King of Sweden and Norway, as Charles 
XIV : born of humble parents at Pau in 
Bearne, 1764 : he enlisted in the French 
army in 1780, and was, when a serjeant, 
taken prisoner at the siege of Cuddalore in 
1783 : became General in 1793, served in 
Napoleon's campaigns : and became, as 
Charles XIV, King of Sweden and Norway 
in 1818 : died March 8, 1844. 


I.C.S. : son of Dr. J. F. Bernard, of 
Clifton, and nephew of the first Lord 
Lawrence : born in 1837 : educated at 
Rugby, Addiscombe and Haileybury : be- 
gan his service in the Pan jab in 1858 : in 
the Central Provinces till 1871 : from 
1871 to 1875 was Secretary to the Bengal 
Government, member of the Bengal 
Legislative Council, famine Secretary dur- 
ing the Bihar famine of 1874 "• C.S.I. , 1875 : 
Secretary to Sir R. Temple on his famine 
mission to Madras and Bombay in 1877 : 
Home Secretary to the Government of 
India, 1878-80 : Chief Commissioner of 
Burma, 1880-1888 : K.C.S.I., 1886 : on 
retirement from India was appointed 
Secretary in the Revenue and Statistics 
Department, India Office : retired in 
1901. He died at Chamouni Sep. 19. 
1901. In 1893 he edited the autobio- 
graphical Memoirs of Sir George Campbell. 
iq.v.) Bernard was remarkable for his 
personal activity and indefatigable energy. 
No one has worked harder throughout an 
arduous career. An officer of the highest 
principles in public and private life, he 
gained universal esteem and affection, 
even from those who differed from his 



BERNOULLI, JEAN (1744-1807) 

Born at Basle, Nov. 4, 1744 : son of the 
elder Jean Bernoulli : belonged to a 
family celebrated as mathematicians : 
J ean the younger was a great astronomer : 
from 1763 was in this capacity a mem- 
ber of the Academy of Sciences at 
Berlin : became Director of the Mathe- 
matical Class at the Academy : wrote 
also on geographical subjects : notably 
his Description historigue et geographique 
de VInde, 1786, consisting of his French 
translation of Pere Joseph Tieffenthaler's 
Geographic de Vindoustan (originally in 
Latin), Recherches historiques et chrono- 
logiques sur VInde, by Anquetil du Perron, 
with the addition of maps by James 
Rennell : died at Berlin, July 13, 1807. 


Born Oct. i, 1847 : daughter of William 
Page Wood : educated privately in Eng- 
land, Germany and France : married 
Rev. Frank Besant, 1867, but legally 
separated from him, 1872 : joined the 
National Secular Society, 1874 '• worked 
with Charles Bradlaugh M.P. in Labour 
and Socialist movements : co-editor of 
the National Reformer, member of the 
Fabian Society, and Social Democratic 
Federation : was a member of the London 
School Board, 1887-90 : joined the 
Theosophical Society, 1880 : and became 
a devoted pupil of Madame Blavatsky : 
founded the Central Hindu College at 
Benares, 1898 : author of many books and 
pamphlets, including Karma, Four Great 
Religions, Dharma, Esoteric Christianity, 
The Religious Problem in India, etc : joint- 
editor of the Theosophical Review. 

BEST. SAMUEL (1808 ?-l85l) 

Captain, Madras Engineers : entered 
the service in 1826 : Secretary to the 
Board of Revenue in the P.W.D., 1842 : 
planned the Singapore fortifications, and 
was made Superintendent of roads in 
Madras, 1845 : under him road-making 
was very well managed under fixed rules : 
he executed many important works in the 
Madras Presidency : such as the Southern 
Trunk Road and the Goolcheroo Pass : 
and made valuable contributions to the 
Madras Literary Transactions and the 
Madras Engineering papers : died of 
jungle fever at Chitore on his return from 
the hills, Oct. 5, 1851. 


BARONET .(1787-1851) 

Son of Major M. E. Lindesay : joined 
the Madras Artillery in 1810 : was six feet 
eight in height : was in Sir John Mal- 
colm's mission to Persia in 18 10, stayed 
there some years to drill the Persian Army,, 
fighting with it against the Russians : 
returned to England in 1821 and left the 
E.I. Co.'s service : assumed the name of 
Bethune : again out to Persia in 1834, 
helped to quell a rebellion, was made a 
Baronet at the Shah's request : in 1836-9 
was again in Persia, and died at Tabriz 
in 1851. 

WATER (1801-1851) 

Son of Lt-Colonel J. Drinkwater 
Bethune : educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge : called to the bar, 1827 : was 
Counsel to the Home Office for many 
years : became Legal Member of the Su- 
preme Council of the Government of 
India in April, 1848. Besides his ordinary'- 
work in charge of legislation and as Mem- 
ber of Council, Bethune was President of 
the Council of Education : he established 
the Bethune School, which still exists, for 
the Education of native girls ; died at 
Calcutta Aug. 12, 1851. 


PAL (1837- ) 

Orientalist and social reformer : bora 
July 6, 1837 : educated at Ratnagiri and 
Elphinstone College, Bombay : M.A., 
1866 : Dakhshina Fellow there 1859, and 
later in the Dekkan College, Poona, till 
1864 : in the Bombay Education Depart- 
ment, 1864-93 : Head-master of Hydera- 
bad (Sind) and Ratnagiri High Schools^ 
1864-9 : acting Professor of Sanskrit and 
Oriental Languages in Elphinstone College^ 
Assistant Professor many years, till 1881 : 
Professor of Sanskrit at Dekkan College^ 
Poona, 1882-93 : Fellow of Bombay 
University from 1866 ; Syndic, 1873-81 ; 
Vice-Chancellor, 1893-5 : Hon. LL.D., 
1904 : Member of the Governor-General's 
Legislative Council, 1903-4, when the 
Universities Act was passed : Member of 
Bombay Legislative Council, 1904-5 t 
Fellow of Calcutta University, 1887 :. 
Member of learned Societies, e.g. R.A.S. 
London, 1874 ; R.A.S. Bombay, 1865 ; 
German Oriental Society, 1887 ; Americaa 



Oriental Society, 1887 ; Asiatic Society 
of Italy, 1887 ; of Imperial Academy of 
Science, St. Petersburg, 1888 : Foreign 
member of the French Institute, 1895 : 
also of the International Congress of 
Orientalists, London, 1874 ; and of 
Vienna, 1886, which he attended : 
CLE., 1887 : retired from service, 1893 : 
Hon. Phil. Dr. Gottingen University : 
has contributed largely to the Journals 
and Transactions of learned Societies, 
especially in Bombay, on philological and 
antiquarian subjects : also to the Indian 
Antiquary : first lecturer on the Wilson 
Lectureship, Bombay University : re- 
ported on his searches for Sanskrit MSS. 
in the Bombay Presidency : edited the 
text of the Sanskrit Malati-Madhava : 
and has written Sanskrit educational 
works : is a leader of the enlightened 
religious movement of the Prathna Samaj 
in W. India : as a social reformer has 
practically supported the re-marriage of 
widows, and in politics is a moderate 


Motiram (his early name) was born in 
the village of Maithilalpur in Cawnpur, 
about 6 miles from the residence of Nana 
Sahib (q.v.) rat 8, he learnt the elements 
of Sanskrit, and completed his study on 
Panini (grammar) at 17 : renounced the 
world, went on pilgrimage, and wandered 
in search of knowledge : studied Vedanta 
philosophy at Ujain, became a Sanyasi 
(devotee) at 27, assuming the name of 
Bhaskarananda, (the sun-enchanted). For 
mental discipline, he kept silence for 
several months, and often roamed about 
the banks of the Ganges with head un- 
covered in the sun for hours together : 
lived for several years at Hardwar absorbed 
in the study of Bhagavat Gita and the 
Upanishads : migrated to Benares and 
lived a life of great austerity, devotion, 
contemplation and study, till he died in 
July, 1899 : was a bright -looking ascetic, 
always cheerful and of intense spiritual 
energy : European savants and Princes, 
going to Benares, used to visit him : three 
marble statues have been raised in his 

DRA KRISHNA (1852- ) 
Educated at Elphinstone High School 
and Grant Medical College, Bombay: 

Chief Medical Officer in the Baroda State, 
1875-85 : President of the Bombay 
Municipal Corporation : author of several 
treatises : made a Knight Bachelor, Feb. 
7, 1900. 

VITAL (1821-187-J) 

A Sarasvat Gond Brahman, and son of 
a small farmer of Mandra, in Goa : edu- 
cated in the Native Education Society's 
School in Bombay, and became a 
teacher in the Elphinstone School : joined, 
1845, the Grant Medical College as a stu- 
dent, and graduated in 1850 : as a practi- 
tioner, achieved great popularity and 
success : made original researches in the 
use of Indian drugs, with a special view to 
discovering a cure for leprosy in its earlier 
stages, and contributed some valuable 
papers to the A nfiquary : was a member 
of the chief educational and learned 
Societies in Bombay : a Fellow of the 
University, a Justice of the Peace, the 
first native Sheriff of Bombay in 1869 and 
1 871 : was also Dr. : died of paralysis in 


A native of Mahapada in the Presidency 
of Bombay : son of a learned Brahman 
of the old type, who, too poor to maintain 
his family, migrated to Kalyan : educated 
at Poona : entered the railway service as a 
signaller, employed in the Berars and 
afterwards at Nagpur : became a clerk in 
the Magistrate's office and read law : in 
1869 became a Pleader and obtained a 
lucrative practice : devoted himself to 
social reforms, particularly female educa- 
tion, the re -marriage of widows, and 
improvement of modes of agriculture : 
through his advice the first proprietary 
cotton mill was established at Nagpiu: : 
died Jan. 4, 1896. 

BEGAM OF (1838-1901) 
Born July 3, 1838 : proclaimed ruler of 
Bhopal, Jan. 10, 1847, her mother, 
Sikandar Begam (q.v.) being Regent : 
abdicated May i, i860, in favour of her 
mother, on whose death, Oct. 30, 1868, she 
succeeded to the government of the 
State : she married, first Bakshi Bahi 
Muhammad Khan, (who died 1867), and 
had one daughter, the present Nawab 



Sultan Jehan Begam : and second in 1871, 
her Prime Minister, Nawab Maulvi Mu- 
hammad Sadik Hussein, of a noble Bokhara 
family : she was made G.C.S.I, in 1872, 
and administered her State with ability, 
benevolence, and loyalty to the Govern- 
ment of India : Member of the Order of 
the Crown of India : died June 16, 1901. 

BEGAM OF (1816-1868) 

Daughter of Nuzzur Mahomed Khan, 
the Nawab of Bhopal and the Kudsia 
Begam : born in 1816 : married, April 
18, 1835, her cousin the Nawab Jehangir 
Muhammad Khan : after his death, on 
Dec. 9, 1844, she was appointed Regent, 
in Feb. 1847, and behaved with great 
loyalty to the British Government in the 
mutiny. In 1859 she was proclaimed 
Ruler, her daughter. Shah Jehan, resigning 
her rights during the mother's life. Sikan- 
dar Begam ruled with great vigour, 
ability and loyalty to the British Govern- 
ment : she received rewards after the 
mutiny, was made K.C.S.I. in 1861 : 
G.C.S.I. in 1866 : made the pilgrimage to 
Mecca in 1863 : died Oct. 30, 1868. 

MERWANJI (1861- ) 
Son of a distinguished Parsi merchant : 
educated at the Elphinstone College and 
Bombay University : began life as a 
journalist : State agent in Bombay for 
the Bhaunagar Raja, 1873 : M.P. for 
Bethnal Green since 1895 : author of 
History of the Constitution of the East India 
Company, a Gujarati translation of //".Af.'s 
Life in the Highlands. K.C.I.E. 


BARONET (1727-1792) 
Entered the Navy, 1739 : served in the 
W. Indies, the Mediterranean, the Channel, 
again the W. Indies and Channel : 
knighted, 1773 = Baronet, May, 1778 : 
in the battle of Ushant, July, 1778 : to 
the E. Indies as Commodore, 1782-4 : at 
the action off Cuddalore, June, 1783 : 
C. in C. at the Leeward Islands : Vice- 
Admiral, 1790 : Port Admiral at Ply- 
mouth till his death, Feb. 25, 1792 : M.P. 
for Rochester. 

BICKNELL, HERMAN (1830-1876) 
Son of E. Bicknell : born April 2, 1830 : 
educated at Paris, Hanover, University 

College, St. Bartholomew's : took his 
medical degree in 1855 : gazetted Assis- 
tant Surgeon : first to Hongkong, then to 
Mianmir near Lahore in 1856 : was Staff 
Assistant Surgeon : served through the 
mutiny and travelled widely, exploring in 
Tibet and the Himalayas : in 1861, re- 
signed his commission. In 1862, as an 
English Muhammadan gentleman he 
resided in Cairo, and, undisguised, per- 
formed a pilgrimage to Mecca : he travelled 
also in Persia, to perfect his translation 
of Hafiz : visited the Kum mosque in 
Persia, 1869 : eminent as a linguist and 
traveller : died March 14, 1875. 


Colonel : born July 25, 1840 : son of 
Robert Biddulph, of Ledbury : educated 
at Westminster : entered the Bengal 
Cavalry and arrived in India, 1858 : 
served in the mutiny : joined the Indian 
Staff Corps : A.D.C. to Lord Northbrook 
when Viceroy, 1872-6 : member of the 
mission to Yarkand, 1873-4 : employed 
on a secret mission to countries beyond 
Gilgit, 1877 : acting A.G.G. Beluchistan, 
May-Nov., 1882 : Political Agent, Bhopa- 
war, 1882 : Haraoti and Tonk, 1886 : 
Resident and Commissioner, Ajmir, 1890 : 
Officiating Agent, Beluchistan, 1891 : 
acting Resident at Gwalior, 1892 : Resi- 
dent at Baroda, 1893 : reverted to mili- 
tary duty, 1895 : author of Tribes of 
the Hindu Kush, 1880 : The Nineteenth 
and their Times, 1899 : Stringer Lawrence, 

SHRAPNEL (1823-1904) 
Son of the Rev. Thomas Shrapnel 
Biddulph, of Amroth Castle, Pembroke- 
shire : born in 1823 : educated at Wool- 
wich : entered the Royal Artillery in 
1843 : Captain, 1850 : Brevet-Major, 
1854 : Maj-General, 1877 : General, 
1886 : he served throughout the Crimean 
campaign : in India he was Deputy 
Adjutant General of Artillery, 1868-73, 
and commanded the Rohilkund District 
in 1876 : in the Afghan war of 1878-80, 
he commanded the Quetta Field Force, 
and a Division of the Kandahar Field 
Force : was present at the occupation 
of Kandahar, and the engagement at 
Khushk-i-Nakhand, and, later, com- 
manded the Thal-Chotiali Field Force : 
C.B., 1873 : K.C.B. in 1879 : President 



of the Ordnance Committee, 1886-9 = 
retired in 1900 : G.C.B. : from 1879 till 
his death he held appointments about 
the Court, and was Gentleman Usher of 
the Black Rod from 1896 : died July 23, 

BIDIE, GEORGE (1830- ) 
Educated at Aberdeen Grammar School 
and University : entered the Madras 
Medical Service, 1856 : served in the 
mutiny : Professor of Botany, Madras 
Medical College : Superintendent of Luna- 
tic Asylum, 1866-70 : Secretary of head 
ofi&ce of Medical Department, 1870-3 : 
in charge of the Government Central 
Museum, 1872-85 : Siurgeon - General 
of Madras, 1886-90 : discovered a pre- 
ventive for insect pest in coffee planta- 
tions : author of several works, including 
Handbook of Practical Pharmacy, Nilgiri 
Parasitical Plants, etc. : C.I.E., 1883. 

AMBROSE (1813-1894) 

Born 1 813 at Besancon : educated 
there, and studied for two years at the 
Seminary of Foreign Missions, Paris : 
in 1837, sent by the Roman Church as 
missionary to Malacca : removed to 
Burma, and in 1856 was consecrated 
Bishop of Ramatha and Administrator 
of Pegu and Ava (soon after the annexation 
of Lower Burma) : from 1870 was Vicar- 
Apostolic of Southern Burma : his resi- 
dence for 50 years in that country was 
marked by many labours, not only that 
of organizing the Roman Catholic mission 
there, but also by his work in the promo- 
tion of native education, and the service 
he rendered to Buddhistic literature : 
he died at Rangoon, March 16, 1894 : a 
noted Pali scholar, and the great authority 
on Burmese Buddhism : his most impor- 
tant work, the Life of Gautama, first 
published in 1858, went through three 
editions : it is based entirely on native 
Burmese MSS., and is one of the standard 
works of the 19th century : wrote also a 
Memoir on the Phoongis, or Religious 
Buddhists, 1865. 



I.C.S. : educated at Canis College, 

Cambridge : Scholar : entered the Bengal 

Civil Service by competition : went to 

India, 1859 : served in Lower Bengal : 

District Judge at several places : wrote 
Leviora : being the rhymes of a successful 
competitor, 1888 : died in Melbourne while 
his book was still in the Press in Calcutta. 


Son of Sayyid Zainuddin Husain Khan 
Bahadm:, of the Bengal Provincial Ser- 
vice, a member of the well-known [family 
of Sayyids of Bilgram who emigrated to 
India from Wasit in Mesopotamia : born 
Nov. 10, 185 1 : educated at Canning 
College, Lucknow ; Patna College, Banki- 
pur, and Thomason Civil Engineering 
College, Rurki : M.A., and B.L. : in 
1876, visited Europe and England in the 
suite of Sir Salar Jang I. (q.v.) : joined 
the Royal School of Mines, passed the 
Examination for the Associateship in two 
years, and obtained the Murchison Medal 
in Geology. On return to India, in 1879, 
he entered the service of the Nizam of 
Hyderabad : became Secretary in the 
Departments of Public Works, Railways 
and Mines for nearly ten years : retired 
in 1901 to settle in England : was Exam- 
iner in Sanskrit to the University of 
Madras from 1890-2 : received the title 
of Shams-al-ulama for Arabic learning in 
1891 : Gold Medallist, Calcutta University : 
in 1902 was appointed Lecturer in Mahratti 
to the University of Cambridge : has 
published Civilization of the Arabs, trans- 
lated from the French of Dr. Gustav Le 
Bon : Manual of Medical Jurisprudence, 
Monograph on the Book of Kalila and 
Damna, Notes on the Educational Value 
of Persian as compared with Sanskrit, A 
Guide to the Cave Temples of Ellora, The 
Geology and Economic Minerals of Hydera- 
bad, etc : appointed, 1902, by the India 
Ofi&ce, to catalogue the collections of 
Arabic and Persian MSS., known as the 
Delhi MSS., a work of some magnitude. 

WELL (1803-1876) 
Son of the R. C. Birch of the Indian Civil 
Service, who was a grandson of J. Z. 
Hoi well {q.v.) : born in 1803 : entered 
the Indian Army, 1821 : held several 
Staff appointments : was Judge-Advocate 
General in Bengal, 1841 : in the Sikh 
wars of 1845-6, and 1848-9 : had a 
Brigade after Chilianwala : distinguished 
himself at Gujarat : C.B., 1849 : under 
Sir Colin Campbell on the frontier in 
1850 : Secretary to the Govt, of India in 



the Military Dept., from 1852 for several 
years, including the mutiny : K.C.B. in 
i860 : retired 1861 : Lt-General : died 
Feb. 25, 1875. 


(1838- ) 
Born, 1838 : entered the Indian Army, 
1856 : Maj-General, 1895 : General, 
1899 : served in the mutiny : in Afghan 
war, 1878-80 : at Ahmad Kheyl : Brevet 
Lt-Colonel : in Burma, 1892-3 : in the 
N.W. Frontier campaign, 1897-8 : com- 
manded the Oudh district, 1895-6 : the 
Panjab Frontier Force, 1897-8 : C.B., 
1890 : K.C.I.E., 1899. 

BIRD, JAMES ( ? - ? ) 

Belonged to the Bombay Medical 
Establishment : member of the Medical 
Board : Secretary to the Bombay Asiatic 
Society, 1844-7 : wrote on various sub- 
jects, historical and arch^ological, con- 
nected with India : author of an Analysis 
of the Mirat-i-Ahmadi, A History of the 
Province of Gujarat, translated from the 

Lt-General : entered the E. I. Co.'s 
Bengal Army in 1808 : at the capture of 
the Mauritius, 1810 : under Ochterlony 
in the Nipal war, 1816 : in Oudh in 1816- 
7 : in the Pindari war, 18 17-9 : in 
Bundelkund, 1821 : in Hariana, 1824-5 : 
against the Kols, 1832-3 : in the Satlaj 
campaign of 1845-6 : in the battles of 
Mudki, Firozshahr, Badiwal, Aliwal : 
Brevet Lt-Colonel : commanded a Brigade 
in the suppression of the Sonthal insur- 
rection in 1855-6: died April 14, 1874. 

BIRD, MARY (1789-1834) 
Born, May 29, 1789, daughter of Robert 
Bird, of Taplow : went to India, 1823, to 
her brother R.M. Bird {q.v.) at Gorakhpur : 
helped the Mission there, and learnt 
Hindustani : removed to Calcutta, 1830, 
and carried on mission and education 
work there, in the native zenanas, and by 
opening Bible classes, Sunday and Girls' 
Schools : published works translated into 
Hindustani : died of cholera on her 
birthday. May 29, 1834. 

I.C.S. : arrived in India Nov. 1808 : 
at first held subordinate judicial appoint- 

ments, but in 1829 became Commissioner 
of Revenue in the Gorakhpur Division of 
the N.W.P. : in 1832 was made Member of 
the new Board of Revenue, N.W. P., and 
from 1833-41 was in charge of the settle- 
ment of the land revenue of that Province : 
the work was most thoroughly done and 
established Bird's reputation for all time 
as a revenue officer : his report was elabor- 
ate, embracing other topics besides the 
assessment of the revenue : retired in 
1842, and gave much attention to the 
Church Missionary Society : died Aug. 
22, 1853. 


( ? -1857) 

I.C.S. : arrived in India, 1803 : Judge 
and Magistrate of Benares, 1814 : Com- 
missioner there, 1826 : Member of the 
Board of Revenue, 1829 : Provisional 
Member of Council, 1837, and Extra 
Member of the Board of Customs, Salt and 
Opium, 1837 : Member of the Supreme 
Council, 1838 : President of the Council 
of Education, 1842 : President of the 
Council, 1842, and Deputy-Governor of 
Bengal, 1840, and 1842 ; as Senior Member 
of Council officiated as Governor-General, 
June 15 to July 23, 1844 : retired, 1844 : 
died June i, 1857. 


General; born March 12, 1807 : son 
and grandson of E. I. Go's agents at 
Plymouth : entered the E. I. Co.'s Military 
service as Ensign 1825 : Capt. 1837 : Maj- 
General, 1868 : Lt-General, 1876 : Adju- 
tant and Interpreter of the 3rd Bombay 
N.I. at Bombay, and Fort-Adjutant at 
Asirghar : commissariat officer at Mhow, 
1839, other stations, and Aden, 1847 : 
Assistant Commissary General at Bombay 
and Executive Commissariat officer there 
during the Persian war, 1856-7 : rendered 
also invaluable service during the mutiny, 
organizing the bullock train between 
Bombay, Wassind and Mhow, on which 
Sir H. Rose's operations depended : con- 
sulted constantly by Lord Elphinstone, 
Governor of Bombay, and highly esteemed 
by the native community, who called him 
Birdwood Maharaja : he always accom- 
panied the Commissioner of Police, C. 
Forjett, [q.v.) in interviews with their 
leaders : was Commissary-General, Bom- 



bay Army : recommended for the C.B. 
by Lord Elphinstone, who constantly 
testified to his merits as a first-class com- 
missariat ofiicer : he became General 
in 1877 and retired after 52 years' service, 
45 actually spent in India : died July 4, 


Born at Belgaum, Dec. 8, 1832, son 
of General Christopher Birdwood, of 
the Indian Army (q.v.) : educated at 
Plymouth Grammar School, Dollar 
Academy and Edinburgh University 
(M.D.): entered Bombay Medical Service 
1854 : served in Persian war, 1856-7, and 
on return to Bombay took a prominent 
part in the life of the city, influencing, by 
his great popularity with the leaders of 
native thought, the endowments which 
were made to the newly established 
University : the construction of some of 
the public buildings : and the carrying out 
of improvements which have earned for 
the town and island the title of " Bombay 
the Beautiful." He was for a time Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy and Physiology, and 
of Materia Medica and Botany at Grant 
Medical College : also Curator of the 
Government Central Museum : Hony. 
Secy. Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society and of the Agri-Horticultural 
Society : Registrar of the University : 
one of the founders of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum and the designer of the 
Victoria gardens at Byculla : Sheriff of 
Bombay, 1846 : returning to England on 
account of ill-health, he joined the staff 
of the India Office, and was Special 
Assistant there in the Revenue and 
Statistical Department from 1878 to 1899, 
when he retired after two extensions of 
service beyond the ordinary age limit. 
He held a leading position in all the 
principal International Exhibitions from 
1857 to 1 901 : founded Primrose Day : 
author of Economic Vegetable Products 
of the Bombay Presidency, 1888 ; The 
Industrial Arts of India, 1888 ; Report on 
the Old Records of the India Office, 1891 : 
First Letter Book of the East India Company, 
1895 : of papers on The Genus Boswellia 
(Frankincense Trees) : on Incense, and 
other articles in Encyc. Brit : and of erudite 
prefaces and introductions to various well- 
known works, such as Count d' Alviella's 
Migrations des Symboles, besides many 

official reports on economic products, etc. : 
a prolific contributor to leading journals 
and reviews, including the limes, the 
Athenceum, the Quarterly Review, and the 
Journal of the Society of Arts, the latter 
containing a great number of his speeches 
and essays in connexion with the work of 
the Society. C.S.I., 1877 ; K.C.I.E., 1877 : 
LL.D. (Cambridge) 1886 : Knight of 
Grace of St. John of Jerusalem. 


(1837- ) 

I.C.S : born May 29, 1837 : son of 
General Christopher Birdwood : educated 
at Exeter, Edinburgh University, and 
Peterhouse, Cambridge : wrangler in 
1858 : Fellow : went to Bombay in the 
Civil Service, 1859 : Under Secretary to 
the Bombay Government, Judicial and 
Political Departments, 1863 : Registrar 
of the High Court, Bombay : District 
Judge ; Judicial Commissioner in Sind, 
1881 : Judge of the Bombay High Court, 
officiating, and permanently from 1885 : 
Member of Council, Bombay, 1892-7 : 
C.S.I., 1893 : edited legal works. 

BIRRELL, JAVRIL (1800-1878) 

General : born Sep. 15, 1800 : entered 
the E. I. Go's service in 1816 : in the first 
Burmese war, 1825-6 : in the Afghan war 
of 1839-40 : at Ghazni, and in the Waziri 
valley : in the Satlaj campaign of 1845-6, 
at Firozshahr and Sobraon : General, 
1876 : died Oct. 27, 1878. 

SMITH (1843- ) 

Colonel : born Nov. 13, 1843 : son of Rev. 
James Bisset,D.D. : educated at Woolwich : 
joined the Royal Engineers : to India, 
1866 : entered the Railway Branch, held 
a number of subordinate appointments 
connected with railway construction and 
management : served in the Afghan war, 
1878-80 : Manager of the Rajputana- 
Malwa Railway, 1875-84 : Agent of the 
Bombay, Baroda and Central India 
Railway, 1884-93 : C.I.E., 1888 : Secre- 
tary to the Government of India, P.W.D., 
1893-7, and Director-General of Railways : 
K.C.I.E., 1897 : Government Director 
of Indian Railway Companies at the India 
Office, 1897-01 : retired from the India 
Office, 1901 : Chairman of the S. Mahratta 
Railway Co. 




Bansidhar (his original name) was a son 
of a Kanauj Brahman of Cawnpur, born 
near Hyderabad, (in the Dekkan) : 
learnt some Persian and Urdu under a 
Maulvi : entered the Nizam's service, was 
an excellent horseman, and a great 
favourite, but, failing to obtain justice 
in a quarrel over a horse, he set fire to all 
his earthly possessions, besmeared his 
body with the ashes, and left Hyderabad, 
visited places of pilgrimage and sacred 
shrines, observed the strictest discipline 
of a monk, took to studying Sanskrit, 
and in a few years became an accomplished 
grammarian (Panini School) : spent three 
years at Hardwar in study and meditation : 
removed to Benares, and took up his abode 
at a ghat; read all the Darsans (Hindu 
philosophy) ; became a Sanyasi (devotee) ; 
assumed a new name, Bisudhwananda, 
("unalloyed peace"), and occupied the 
seat of Gaurswami at Ahlia Bai's Brah- 
mapuri, till his death in April, 1899 : of 
high stature, strong will, great piety, and 
profound learning, he commanded great 
respect among all classes : princes and 
people sought his advice : he was a great 
admirer of British rule in India. 


Educated at Merchant Taylors' school : 
called to the bar from the Inner Temple, 
1841 : Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court, 
Madras, 1858-62 : knighted : and of the 
High Court, Madras, 1862-70, when he 
retired : died Jan. 18, 1892. 


Political : joined the Madras Army in 
1782 : served against the Poligars in 1784, 
and in the defeat of Tippoo, 1892 : was 
Interpreter of Mahratti at Tanjore in 1787 
under the Resident, and was himself 
Resident, 1801-23 • remodelled the admin- 
istration there and in Pudukota : was 
sent on missions to Travancore : Maj- 
General : knighted 1838 : died Oct. 16, 


Soldier, historian : born Oct. 19, 1778 : 
entered the Madras Army, 1798 : in the My- 
sore campaign : at Malavilli : in the Niz- 
am's country : was Q.M.G. 1810 : was under 

Sir Thomas Hislop at Mahidpurin 1817 and 
in the Dekkan : Lt-Colonel and Surveyor- 
General of India : C.B. in 1818 : died at 
Calcutta, 1823 : wrote a military memoir 
of the Mahratta war of 1817-19. 

Doctor : son of a medical officer of the 
Navy ; born in 1816 : educated at Edin- 
burgh : joined the medical service in 
Madras in 1840 : Professor of Surgery, and 
Surgeon, General Hospital, Madras, 1851 : 
in 1858 Professor of Medicine, and Physi- 
cian there : in 1870 Deputy Inspector- 
General : died at Chitore Feb. 11, 1873 



M ajor : son of M ajor William Blackwood 
of the Bengal Army : born 1838 : educated 
at the Edinburgh Academy, and Addis- 
combe : joined the Bengal Artillery : 
Lieut., 1857 : in the mutiny served with 
the Rohilkund movable column : com- 
manded the Artillery in the Lushai 
expedition of 187 1-2 under General 
Bourchier {q.v.) : at Tipai Mukh and other 
actions : Brevet Major : commanded the 
Artillery under General Burrows at 
Maiwand on July 27, 1880 : fell in battle : 
his little band of men was the last which 
made any stand against Ayub Khan's 


Son of Sir John Blackwood, 5ar/. : born 
Dec. 28, 1770 : entered the Navy, 1781 : 
was employed on various stations in 
several ships : continually engaged : was 
at Trafalgar, 1805, and at the blockade 
of Toulon, 1810 : Baronet, 1814 : K.C.B. 
1819 : was C. in C. on the East Indian 
station, 1819-22 : Vice-Admiral, 1821, 
and commanded at the Nore, 1827-30 : 
died Dec. 17, 1832. 

BLAIR, JAMES (1828-1905) 

Born Jan. 27, 1828 : son of Captain 
E. M. Blair of the Bengal Cavalry : entered 
the Army in 1844 : in the mutiny of 
1857-9 : fought at Nimbhara and Ziran : 
was at the sieges of Neemuch and Kotah, 
and in the pursuit of Tantia Topi : gained 
the V.C. for gallant and daring conduct on 
two occasions.on Aug. 12, 1857 at Neemuch 
and Oct. 23, 1857, at Jeerum : Political 
Resident and Brig-General at Aden, 




1882-5 : Lt-General, 1889 : C.B., 1889 : 
General, 1894 : died Jan. 1905. 

BLAIR, SIR ROBERT ( ? - ? ) 

Joined the' E. I. Go's ist European 
Infantry in Bengal, 1773 : with General 
Goddard's force from Bengal to Bombay, 
1778-81: A.D.C. to Col. W. Blair command- 
manding in the Doab, 1786-8 : took the 
fortress of Sasni, 1802 : in the Mahratta 
war, under Lake, at Alighar, Delhi, Agra, 
1803 : commanded at Cuttack, 1808 : 
Maj -General, 1810 : commanded Fort 
William and neighbouring districts, 1812 : 
retired, 1817 : K.C.B., 1815 : Lt-General, 

BLAKISTON, JOHN (1788-1867) 

Son of Sir Mathew Blakiston, Bart. : 
bom 1788 : educated at Winchester : 
joined the Madras Engineers and the 27th 
regt. : as Major, present at Assaye, Bour- 
bon, the Mauritius, and in the Peninsula 
campaign : the sole survivor of the 
regiment massacred in the mutiny of 
Vellore, 1806 : and returned with (Sir 
R.R.) Gillespie, who came to the rescue : 
wrote Twelve Years Military Adventures, 
1829 : and Twenty Years in Retirement, 
1836 : died 1867. 

BLAND, NATHANIEL (1803-1865) 

Born Feb. 3, 1803 : son of Nathaniel 
Bland (formerly called Crumpe) who took 
his mother's name : educated at Eton, 
1818, and Christ Church, Oxford, 1821-5 : 
was a distinguished Persian scholar : sent 
contributions to the R.A.S.J., 1843-53 ' 
on Persian chess : on the Pote collection 
of Oriental MSS. in the Eton College 
Library, etc : took to gambling, had to 
sell his estate, and took his own life, Aug. 
10, 1865. 

BLANEY, THOMAS (1823-1903) 

Doctor : born in Ireland ; went to 
India, 1836, as apprentice in the subor- 
dinate medical service of the E. I. Co. at 
Bombay : studied at the Grant Medical 
College : in Government service until 
i860 : took up private practice at Bom- 
bay : made a large fortune, which he 
spent chiefly in charity: became J. P., 
Town Councillor : Member of the Munici- 
pal Corporation : was connected with 
civil administration for 30 years : twice 

President of the Municipal body : carried 
schemes for abundant water-supply from 
V ihar and Tansa lakes : twice Sheriff of 
Bombay : for many years Chairman of joint 
Government and Municipal Committee for 
education : Coroner of Bombay, 1876-93 : 
CLE. : a fine statue of him erected in 
Bombay by his fellow citizens : died there 
April I, 1903 : Member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, Bombay, and a frequent 
contributor to the columns of the Bombay 


Son of W. Blanford : born June 3, 1834 : 
educated at Brighton, Brussels, and the 
Royal School of Mines : entered the 
Geological Survey of India in 1855 : trans- 
ferred to the Education Department in 
Bengal, 1862 ; Professor at the Presidency 
College, 1872 : became Meteorological 
Reporter ,first to the Government of Bengal 
and later to the Government of India : 
Hony. Secretary of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, 1863-8 : F.G.S. 1862 : F.R.S. 1880 : 
retired in 1880 : died Jan. 23, 1893. The 
excellence of his work in geology and 
meteorology, as displayed in his official 
duties, and his contributions to scientific 
publications, is acknowledged. 



Born Oct. 7, 1832 : son of William, 
Blanford : educated at the Royal School' 
of Mines (Scholar,) and Mining Academy,. 
Freiburg : in the Geological Survey of 
India, 1855-82 : Geologist of the Abyssin- 
ian Expedition up to Magdala, 1868 : 
on the Persian Boundary Commission,. 
1872 : President of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, 1878-9 : of the Geological Society,. 
1888-90 : received its Wollaston medal, 
1883: Treasurer of the Society : Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Royal Society, 1892-3, 1901-3 : 
published works on the Geology and 
Zoology of Abyssinia and Persia ; a 
manual of Geology on India, 1879 : 
President of the Geological section of the 
British Association meeting in Canada, 1884: 
edited The Fauna of British India : was 
author of the Mammalia, 1888-91, and of 
the Birds, 1895, 1898 : CLE., 1904 : 
LL.D. Montreal, and F.R.S. , 1874: on its. 
Council and Vice-President : died June- 
23. 1905- 




Born at Ekaterinoslav : daughter of 
Colonel Peter Hahn, of a noble family of 
Mechlenburg, settled in Russia : married 
at 17 a husband of 60, but they soon 
separated : she travelled widely, in 
Europe, America and Asia, round the 
Cape to Bombay : after an unsuccessful 
attempt to enter Tibet, vid Nipal, she 
entered it in' disguise in 1855, vid Kashmir, 
was lost in the desert and brought back to 
the frontier : after numerous adventures 
and further travels in India, she was in 
the United States in 1873 and for 6 years 
in N. York, becoming a naturalized 
American : she studied spiritualism, 
and in 1875 founded, with Colonel Olcott, 
the Theosophical Society : wrote 
books and pamphlets in support of her 
theories : settled in London, 1887 : 
"brought out a magazine, Lucifer, the 
Light-bringer : wrote The Secret Doctrine, 
.the Synthesis of Science, Religion and 
Philosophy, 1888, and The Key of Philo- 
sophy, 1889 : died in London, May 8, 1891. 


(1840- ) 

I.C.S. : son of Rev. James Bliss : born 
1840 : educated at Merton, Oxford, B.A. 
joined the Madras Civil Service, 1863 : 
after holding subordinate appointments, 
was Commissioner of Salt Revenue and 
Abkari Revenue, 1878 : on special duty 
on these subjects : Fellow of the Madras 
University, 1882 : Member of the Finance 
Committee, 1886 : Member of the Board 
•of Revenue, 1887 : first Member, 1889 : 
CLE., 1889 : Member of the Governor- 
General's Legislative Council, 1890-2 : 
Member of Council, Madras, 1893-8 : 
K.C.I.E., 1897 : retired, 1898 : Member of 
the London County Council for the Hol- 
born Division, 1901. 


Linguistic scholar : born at Dresden 
Jan. 8, 1838, the son of a printer : educated 
there, at Leipzig, and Paris : entered 
the English Army in 1858 to get out to 
India, left the Army, and joined the 
P. and O. Co.'s service as interpreter : 
in i860 was made Assistant Professor of 
Urdu and Persian at the Calcutta Madrasa : 
graduated at the Calcutta University, 
1 861 : after 3 years at the Doveton 

College, removed to the Madrasa, 1865, 
and became its President until his death : 
he was philological Secretary to the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, and contributed 
many learned papers : translated 
Abul-Fazl's Ain-i-Akbari, the first volume, 
and wrote The Prosody of the Persians : 
he had a profound knowledge of Persian 
and Arabic: died July 13, 1878. 


Son of the Rev. Dr. Henry Peckwell, an 
eminent preacher : he took his mother's 
name of Blosset : educated at Oxford : 
was Recorder of Cambridge : was appointed 
Chief Justice of Bengal in 1821 : died 
Feb. I, 1823. There are a monument and 
hatchment to his memory at St. John's 
Church, Calcutta. 


Maj-General : entered the Army, 1842 : 
was in the Bengal Horse Artillery : was 
in the Satlaj campaign, 1846, at Sobraon : 
also in the Panjab campaign : in the 
mutiny, raised " Blunt's Horse," was at 
the siege of Delhi, battle of Najafghar, 
action at Agra, (Lord Clyde's) relief of 
Lucknow, where he was the hero of a very 
dashing performance with the guns at the 
Sikandarbagh, at the action of Shamsabad, 
the capture of the fort and town of Kalpi : 
Brevets of Major and Colonel : C.B : Lord 
Roberts refers to his splendid courage in 
leading his guns in the advance on Luck- 
now : his troops suffered severely at Delhi 
and Agra, " seldom, if ever, has a battery 
and its commander had a grander record 
to show " : died. Aug 15, 1900. 

BARONET (1731-1802) 
Of Cleery, Hants : born 1731 : son of 
Sir Henry Blunt, second Baronet, whom 
he succeeded in 1759 : lived in Great 
Ormonde St. till about 1767 : at Odiham, 
Hants, till about 1775 : at Blunt House, 
Croydon, to about 1780 : went out as a 
writer in the E. I. Co.'s service to India, 
20 years before his death : obtained a 
lucrative appointment in the bullock 
contract, besides a share in the Post- 
office : formed honourable and advantage- 
ous connexions : died Sep, 27, 1802, at 
Pulta, near Calcutta, leaving £100,000, 
three-fourths of it. to his eldest son. 



C. R. Blunt, fourth Baronet (born 1778 : 
M.P. for Lewes, 1832) : his portrait by- 
Barclay is in the possession of his grandson, 
the present Baronet : letters from him 
are among the Hastings papers in the 
British Museum : one of his daughters 
married vSir C. Imhoff, stepson of Warren 
Hastings : he built a mausoleum for the 
sepulture of his race-horses, which was 
still to be seen in India about 1845 : many 
pictures of his horses are preserved. 

BLYTH, EDWARD (1810-1873) 

Born Dec. 23, 1810 : was a druggist at 
Tooting, but Natural History was the 
absorbing study of his life : in 184 1 he was 
appointed Curator of the Museum of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal : retired in 1862 : 
wrote a great number of reports and papers 
on Zoology, especially on birds and 
mammals, in the Society's journals and 
in newspapers : he was said to have been 
the founder of the science of Zoology in 
India : his work was highly estimated 
by Darwin and Gould : died Dec. 27, 1873- 

BODEN, JOSEPH ( ? -1811) 

Entered the E. I. Co.'s Bombay Native 
Army in 1781 : Lt-Colonel 1806 : held 
appointments on the Staff in Bombay : 
was Member of the Military Board : re- 
tired in 1807 and died Nov. 21, 181 1. 
Though not a Sanskrit scholar, and not a 
writer, he left a large sum of money to 
found, after his daughter's death, a pro- 
fessorship of Sanskrit at Oxford. H. H. 
Wilson (q.v.) was the first professor 
appointed, in 1832. 


Entered the E. I. Co.'s military service, 
1823 : was D.A.G. at Dinapur, 1827 : 
commanded the Arakan battalion and 
police corps, 1828 : Commissioner in 
Arakan, 1837 : afterwards in Tenasserim 
and Martaban : knighted, 1853 : Maj- 
General, 1862 : died June 12, 1870. 

BOGLE, GEORGE (1746-1781) 

Son of George Bogle : born Nov. 26, 
1746 : educated at Haddington, Glasgow, 
Edinburgh University, Enfield : entered 
the E. I. Co.'s service in 1769 : was 
appointed by Warren Hastings on May 
13, 1774, to lead an embassy to the Teshu 
Lama of Tibet, for the purpose of opening 
up trade and friendly relations with that 

country : he proceeded by Tassisudon in 
Bhutan, through Phari, to Desherigpay 
(north of the Tsanpu River), saw the Teshu 
Lama, accompanied him to Teshu Lumbo, 
and returned thence to India, 1775 : in 
1779 he was appointed Collector of Rang- 
pur and established a fair, to encovurage 
trade with Bhutan and Tibet. A second 
embassy of Bogle to Tibet was contem- 
plated, but was postponed, the Teshu 
Lama going to Pekin : Bogle proposed 
meeting him at Pekin, but died at Calcutta 
on April 3, 1781 : the journal of his 
embassy has been published. 

BOHTLINGK, OTTO VON (1815-1904) 

Born May 30, 1815, at St. Petersburg : 
studied there and at Dorpat, Berlin, 
Bonn : returned to St. Petersburg, 1842. 
At first, his scholarship was directed to 
the study of Arabic and Persian, but he 
became celebrated as a worker in Sanskrit. 
In 1840, he published Grammaire Sanskrile 
(Panini's), 1843: Dissertation sur Vaccent 
Sanskrit : edition and German translation 
of Sakuntala de Kalidasa : Chrestomathie 
Sanskrite, 1877. The great work of his 
life was his Sanskrit Dictionary, 7 vols, 
brought out with the collaboration of 
Professors Roth and Weber, 1852-75 : 
died at Leipzig in 1904. 


Lt. -Colonel : was a volunteer in the 
36th regt., 1783 : acting Ensign, 1784-5 : 
a conductor of Stores : attached to Artil- 
lery, 1786-7 : Ensign in the Madras 
Army, 1788 : A.A.G., Madras Army for 5 
years : D.A.G., 1807 : when Lt. -General 
H. Macdowall, C. in C, Madras, signed an 
order, Jan. 28, 1809, censuring his Q.M.G., 
Capt. Munro, Boles, as Depy. A.G., was 
ordered by Col. Capper, the Adjt-General, 
to circulate the order to the Army. For 
circulating, under his signature, this cen- 
sure of Capt. Munro, Boles was suspended 
from the service of the E. I. Co., by the 
Government of Madras (Sir G. Barlow), 
Jan. 31, 1809 : and declined to apologize 
for his conduct. The Madras Government 
prevented his going home, sent him to 
Bengal in June, 1809, whence he went to 
England. The Court of Directors, to 
whom he appealed in 18 10, recorded in 
Feb. 1811, their opinion that Boles would 
not have been justified in refusing to obey 
General Macdowall's order. Boles' sus- 



pension was continued to Oct. 1811, when 
he was restored to the service. 


(1850- ) 

I.C.S. : son of Dr. J. Bolton : educated 
at University College School, the Royal 
College, Mauritius, and King's College, 
London : went out to Lower Bengal, 
1872 : Under Secretary to the Bengal 
Government, 1879 : Secretary to the 
Board of Revenue, 1897 : Chief Secretary 
to the Bengal Government, 1896 : Member 
of the Board, 1900 : Additional Member 
of the Governor-General's Legislative 
Council, 1900-1902 : C.S.I., 1897. 

BOLTS, WILLIAM (1740P-1808) 

Born about 1740 : was a merchant of 
Dutch extraction : being in Calcutta in 
1759, he was taken into the E. I. Co.'s 
service : engaged in private trade, like 
other civil servants : was Second in Council 
at Benares, 1764 : being censured by the 
Court of Directors for his private trading 
under the Company's authority and re- 
called, he resigned in 1766, quarrelled with 
, the Bengal authorities, was arrested in 
1768, and deported to England as an 
interloper. In his Considerations on Indian 
Affairs, 1772, he attacked the Bengal 
Government : Verelst replied, and Bolts 
published another work in 1 775 . He made 
a large fortune in India, but could not 
take it away : he spent what he had in 
England in defending the lawsuits brought 
against him by the E. I. Co. for some years. 
He entered the Austrian service, became 
a Colonel, and founded stations in India 
for an Austrian Company : these came 
to nothing : he died in Paris in 1808. 


A Brahman, of good family : educated 
at the Duff College, and baptized by the 
Rev. Dr. Duff in 1847 : held various 
missionary charges : celebrated both 
for his eloquent preaching and his philan- 
thropy : was the author of a Life of 
Christ in Bengali, and a large number of 
tracts : universally regarded as one of 
the leading ministers of the Bengali Church. 


(1844- ) 

Second son of Grees Chunder Bonnerjee, 
attorney of the High Court, Calcutta : 

born Dec. 29, 1844 : educated at the 
Oriental Seminary and Hindu School : 
in 1864, in receipt of a scholarship from 
Mr. R. J. Jijibhai of Bombay, went to 
England to study law : called to the bar 
from the Middle Temple : joined the 
Calcutta High Court Bar, 1868 : acted as 
the Standing Counsel to Government in 
1882, 1884, 1886-7 : presided over the 
First Indian National Congress at Bombay, 
1885 : Fellow of the Calcutta University : 
President of the Faculty of Law, 1880 : 
represented the Calcutta University in 
the Bengal Legislative Council, 1893 : 
retired from the Calcutta Bar, 1901, to 
practise before the Judicial Committee of 
the Privy Council in England. 

BOPP, FRANCIS (1791-1867) 
Born at Mentz, Sep. 14, 1791 = educated 
at Aschaffenburg, under Windischmann, 
the celebrated Oriental scholar : went to 
Paris, 1812, for 5 years : chiefly studied 
Sanskrit : settled in Gottingen : became 
in 1821 Extraordinary, and in 1825 
Ordinary Professor of Oriental Literatiure 
and General Philology at Berlin Univer- 
sity, till his death : a prominent Member 
of the Royal Society at Berlin : wrote his 
Analytical Comparison of the Sanskrit, 
Greek, Latin and Teutonic Languages in 
the Annals of Oriental Literature, 1820 : 
greatly encouraged and facilitated the 
study of Sanskrit : his Sanskrit Grammar 
passed through several editions, 1827-63 : 
an original foreign member of the R.A.S. 
from June 7, 1823 : his Comparative 
Grammar was translated into English, 
1845-50 : he died Oct. 23, 1867. 

BORTON, SIR ARTHUR (1814-1893) 
Son of the Rev. J. D. Borton : born 
Jan. 20, 1814 : educated at Eton : entered 
the Army, 1832, rose to be General, 1877 : 
went to India in 1835, served in the 
Afghanistan campaign of 1842 under 
General Pollock : was at Tezin, in the 
Kohistan, and at Istalif on Sep. 29 : in 
the battles of the Satlaj campaign of 
1845-6 : in the Crimea : C.B. : in Canada : 
commanded the Mysore Division of the 
Madras Army, 1870-5 : K.C.B. : Governor 
and C. in C. of Malta in 1877 : G.C.M.G., 
1880 : G.C.B., 1884 : died Sep. 7, 1893. 

Son of first Viscount Falmouth : born 
Aug. 19, 1711 : joined the Navy, 1726: 



served on a number of stations, the 
Mediterranean, the West Indies, the Home 
station, the Channel, at the Nore, at 
Cape Finisterre, 1747 : and in that year 
was appointed C. in C. of the sea and land 
forces in the E. Indies : passed the 
Mauritius without taking it from the 
French : reached Fort St. David, July, 
1748: failed, after a repulse at Ariancopang, 
which he captured later, in taking Pondi- 
cherry by both sea and land : lost ships 
in stormy weather : at the peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, took possession of Madras on 
its restoration by the French, Aug. 21, 
1749 : and returned to England : held 
more commands in N. America : a Lord 
of the Admiralty : at the siege of Louis- 
berg against the French in Europe : was 
made P.C. : died Jan 10, 1761. 


(1853- ) 

Born July 14, 1853 : educated at Ken- 
sington Grammar School and privately : 
has contributed to all the leading journals 
on questions relating to India, China, 
Egypt and Turkey since 1876 : founded, 
in conjunction with Sir Lepel Griffin, the 
Asiatic Quarterly Review in 1885, and 
edited it for some years : author of Life 
of Yakub Beg of Kashgar, England and 
Russia in Central Asia, Central Asian 
Portraits, Armies of the Native States of 
India, Central Asian Questions, Lord 
William Bentinck, Story of India, India 
in the Nineteenth Century, History of 
China, of which several editions have been 
published. Life of Gordon, Life of Sir 
Stamford Raffles, etc. 


Son of Rev. Edward Bourchier : edu- 
cated at Addiscombe : entered the Bengal 
Artillery, 1838 : in the Gwalior campaign, 
1843-4 : at Punniar : in the mutiny 
commanded a battery at Trimmu Ghat : 
at the siege and capture of Delhi : at 
Bulandshahr, Alighar, Agra, Sir Colin 
Campbell's relief of Lucknow, at Cawnpur : 
Brevet Colonel and C.B. : commanded 
the R.A. in Bhutan, 1864-6 : commanded 
the E. frontier district, 1871, and the 
Cachar column in the Lushai expedition, 
1871-2: K.C.B., 1852:] Maj-General: 
died March 15, 1898. 


(1848- ) 

I.C.S. : born at Madras, March, 1848 : 
son of J. D. Bourdillon {q.v.) : educated 
at Marlborough : Captain of the Cricket 
XI : went out to India, 1870 : Superinten- 
dent of the Census of Bengal, 1880-3 • 
acting Secretary to the Bengal Government, 
Financial Department, 1893-5 : Com- 
missioner of Patna, in the famine, 1897 : 
C.S.I. , 1898 : Chief Secretary to the 
Government of Bengal, 1900 : Member of 
the Famine Commission in India, 1901 : 
Member of the Board of Revenue, 1902 : 
for some years Member of the Bengal 
Legislative Council : acted as Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal, Nov. 1902-Nov. 
1903 : Resident in Mysore, 1903 : 
K.C.S.I., Jan. 1904 : V.D., 1896, for long 
service as a volunteer in the Calcutta 
Light Horse and Bihar Light Horse. 



I.C.S : son of the Rev. T. Bourdillon: edu- 
cated at Ramsgate and Haileybury : joined 
the Civil Service at Madras in 1828 : was 
Secretary to the Board of Revenue and 
Secretary to Government in the Revenue 
and P.W.D. : advocated irrigation and 
the improvement of communications : 
was an authority on land revenue and 
the despatch of public business : retired 
in 1861 : died May 21, 1883. 


Louis Bernard : a Frenchman : went 
to India with Admiral Suffrein : from 
Pondicherry went to Calcutta and enlisted 
in the E.I. Co.'s service : was a cook and 
pyrotechnist : employed by Begam Sam- 
ru : in 1794 by De Boigne : under Perron 
in 1800, in Sindia's service : fought against 
George Thomas {q.v.) : and was defeated 
by him at Georgeghar : later, made 
Thomas surrender at Hansi : captured 
Rohtak, 1803 : after the defeat of Colonel 
Pedron by Lake at Alighar, Bourguien 
revolted against Perron : the latter sur- 
rendered to the British, and Boiurguien, 
as General, held command of Sindia's 
troops for a fortnight, until he himself 
was defeated by Lake at the battle of 
Delhi, Sep. 11, 1803 : three days after- 
wards he surrendered to Lake : was sent 
to Calcutta : returned to France, with 
great wealth, and was heard of no more. 





(1824- ) 

I.CjS. : born July 15, 1824 : third son of 
Sir George Bowring : educated at Exeter, 
Leipzig and Haileybury, 1841-3 : went 
out to India, 1843 : Deputy Commissioner 
in the Panjab, 1849-54 : Private Secretary 
to Lord Canning, when Viceroy, April, 
1858 to 1862 : Chief Commissioner ot 
Mysore and Coorg, 1862-70 : retired, 
1870 : C.S.L, 1867 : author of Eastern 
Experiences, Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sultan, 
and contributions to the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. 

BOWSER, SIR THOMAS (1748-1833) 
Born 1748, at Kirkby Thore, West- 
morland : educated at Appleby Grammar 
School : entered the E.L Co.'s Army at 
24 : at the taking of Tanjore in 1773 *• for 
3 years engaged in the capture of forts in 
the N. Sircars : at the siege of Pondi- 
cherry, 1778 : in the Guntur Sircar cam- 
paign, 1779 : as a Lieutenant, in Sir 
Hector Munro's army in 1780, sent to help 
Col. Baillie and, with him, taken prisoner 
by Hyder Ali in the Perambakam disaster, 
Sept. 1780 : confined at Seringapatam 3 
years and 8 months : loaded with irons 
for 3 years and 4 months : liberated, 
1784 : to England for 3 years : published 
in 1788 his Memoirs of The Late War in 
Asia : served under Medows in 1792, at 
the storming of Dindigul : given by 
Cornwallis the command of a sepoy 
battalion : served under General Braith- 
waite at the siege of Pondicherry, 1798 : 
employed against the Raja of Ramnad : 
effected the reduction of Ceylon, 1796 : 
took fort Calpentein and Colombo : sent 
to reduce the French force under Perron 
at Hyderabad : at Seringapatam, May 4, 
1790 : stormed the fortress of Gooty : 
commanded from Hyderabad a mixed 
force, joining Colonel A. Wellesley, against 
Doondia Waugh : to England, 1803 : 
again to India in 1820 : commanded the 
Mysore Division : was temporarily C. in 
C. of Madras Army, 1824-6, on the death 
of Sir Alexander Campbell : retired. 
May, 1826 : was a Lt-General and K.C.B. : 
died June, 1833. 

BOYD, HUGH (1746-1794) 

Son of Alexander Macaulay : took his 

mother's name, Boyd : born in Oct. 

1746 : educated at Dublin, and graduated 

at Trinity College, 1765 : studied law, and 

contributed to journals and literature : in 
1 78 1 became Secretary to Lord Macart- 
ney, Governor of Madras : sent on a mis- 
sion to Ceylon, captured by the French and 
kept a prisoner at Bourbon for some 
months : became Master Attendant at 
Madras, and conducted the Madras 
Courier : wrote the Indian Observer 
papers, and the Hircarrah : it was said 
that he was the author of the Letters 
of Junius, a supposition which he never 
positively contradicted : his works were 
collected and published : died Oct. 15, 

(1S37- ) 

Born Sept. i, 1837 : educated at Eton 
and R.M.C., Woolwich : joined the Royal 
Artillery, 1856: in the Indian mutiny: 
served in Central India, 1857-8 : Ashanti 
war, 1873-4 : Zulu war, 1879-80 : Private 
Secretary to Lord Lytton, the Viceroy of 
India, 1880 : Military Attache at Paris, 
1 88 1-2 : commanded River Column, 
Egypt, 1884-5"': promoted Maj-General 
for distinguished service in the field : 
Director of Military Intelligence, 1886- 
91 : Military Member of the Supreme 
Council of India, 189 1-6 : Director- 
General of Ordnance at the War Office, 
1899 : K.C.B., 1894 : K.C.S.I., 1896 : 
G.C.B., 1900 : General R.A., 1901 : 

COVENTRY (1829-1904) 
Son of Henry Braddon, and brother of 
Miss Braddon the novelist: went out to 
India in 1847 to join the mercantile house 
of Bagshaw and Co., in Calcutta, but pre- 
ferred work in the Mofussil : while he was 
employed on the E.I. Railway, the Sonthal 
rebellion of 1855 broke out, in which he 
rendered such excellent service that he 
was appointed an Assistant Commissioner 
in the Sonthal Parganas : during the 
mutiny he served in the Volunteer force 
under Sir George Yule, Commissioner of 
Bhagalpur, and, after the mutiny, on 
that officer's invitation, joined the Oudh 
Commission, where he remained until 
Oudh was amalgamated with the N.W.P. 
in 1877 : resigned the Service and went 
to Tasmania, where he rose to be Premier 
and Agent-General for Tasmania in Lon- 
don : K.C.M.G., 1891 : published Life in 
India, and Thirty Years of Shikar, in 
1895 : died F'eb. 3, 1904- 




Born July 27, 1836 : son of Rev. W. M. 
K. Bradford : educated at Marlborough : 
entered the Madras Army, 1854 : Colonel 
in 1884 : served in the Persian campaign, 
1856-7 : in the Indian mutiny, in the 
N.W. Provinces, 1858-9 : commanded 
a regt. of the Central India Horse, i860 : 
entered the Political Department : General 
Superintendent for suppressing Thagi and 
Dakaiti, 1874 : attended H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales on his tour in India, 
1875-6 : Agent to the Governor-General 
for Rajputana : Secretary in the Political 
and Secret Department, India Office, 
1887 : accompanied H.R.H, Prince Ed- 
ward, '(Duke of Clarence, on his tour in 
India, 1889-90 : A.D.C. to the Queen, 
1889-93 : Chief Commissioner of Police in 
the Metropolis, 1890- 1903 : K.C.S.I., 
1885 : G.C.B. : G.C.V.O., 1902 : Extra 
Equerry to the King, 1902 : Baronet, 1902. 


Son of Thomas Bradford : born Dec. i, 
1777 : entered the Army, 1793 : served 
in Ireland, Scotland, S. America, the 
Peninsula : commanded the Portuguese 
Division at Vittoria in 1813 as Maj- 
General : K.C.B., 1814 : held commands 
in France and Scotland : was C. in C. in 
Bombay, 1825-9 '• G.C.B. , 1838 : General, 
1841 : died Nov. 28, 1853. 

BRADSHAW, JOHN (1845-1894) 

Born June 4, 1845 : son of Rev. William 
Hanna Bradshaw, A.M., Rector of Kil- 
sheery : educated at Enniskillen Royal 
School, at Portora, and Trinity College, 
Dublin : Senior Moderator in History, 
Literature, and Law, T.C.D. : appointed 
Head-master of Bishop Corrie's Grammar 
School, Madras, 1868 : and of the Pro- 
vincial School, Mangalore, 1870 : Inspector 
of Schools, 1872 : Fellow, Madras Univer- 
sity, 1S75 : he was essentially an education- 
alist : his knowledge and experience were 
exceptional : his life work was an endeav- 
our to place native education on a sound 
basis : edited many works for Middle and 
High Schools : besides An English 
Anthology, 1885, Milton and Gray for the 
Aldine Poets, Chesterfield's Letters, etc. : 
and the Life of Sir Thomas Munro, for 
the Rulers of India series : died at Madras, 
Jan. 5, 1894. 


Born 1824 : educated at the Universi- 
ties of Copenhagen, Gottingen and Bonn : 
lecturer on Botany at Bonn, 1849 : joined 
the Indian Forest Department in 1856 : 
Inspr-General of Forests, 1864 : CLE., 
1878 : retired, 1883 : Member of the 
Board of Visitors of Cooper's Hill College, 
1886 : K.C.I.E., 1887 : author of the 
Forest Flora of N.W. and Central India 
1874 : Director of the practical course of 
forestry on the Continent in connexion 
with Cooper's Hill College, 1887-96. 


(1848- ) 

Born Feb. 29, 1848 : son of Jonathan 
Haigh Branfoot, M.D. : educated at 
Epsom College, and Guy's Hospital : 
entered the I.M.S., 1872 : held various 
civil appointments connected with the 
Madras Medical College, 1872-9 : Pro- 
fessor of Midwifery there, and Superin- 
tendent Madras Government Maternity 
Hospital, 1879-98 : CLE., 1898 : P.M.O., 
Rangoon and Bangalore, 189 8- 1903 : 
retired, 1903 : President, Medical Board, 
India Office, 1904 : contributed to medical 
journals and societies. 

BRASYER, JEREMIAH (1812-1897) 
Colonel : brought up as a gardener in 
Kent : enlisted in the Bengal Artillery, 
1833 : Sergt-Major, 26th regt., Bengal 
N.I. Sept., 1839 : served in the Afghan 
war, 1842 : at the forcing of the Khyber : 
at Mamu Kheyl, Jagdalak, Haft Kotal, 
Tezin, with the Artillery : in the Sikh 
campaigns : at Mudki, Firozshahr and 
Sobraon, with the 26th N.I. : Ensign, 
1846 : interpreter to the Firozpur regt. 
of Sikhs, and commanded them, " Brasyer's 
Sikhs," in the mutiny, 1857-8 : with his 
regt. as the sole garrison, he held the 
fortress of Allahabad, the key of Upper 
India, at the most critical moment : 
through his energy and resolute attitude, 
his Sikhs remained loyal : "no man risen 
from the ranks has ever done a deed 
evincing such force of character and 
desperate resolution, and securing such 
invaluable results " : at the capture of 
Lucknow, March, 1858 : Lt-Colonel and 
CB., 1858 : retured Oct. 1861 : died 
March 15, 1897. 


A noted officer in the Indian wars dur- 
ing the latter part of the i8th century : 



as Major, 1772, he marched against the 
Poligars of Madura and Tinnevelly : Lt- 
Colonel : captured, 1779, the French 
settlement of Mahe : took an active part 
in the war with Hyder Ali : in 1780, 
Colonel, and in command of the troops in 
Tanjore : his defeat by Tippoo near Anna- 
gudi in 1782 was a serious blow to the 
Southern Army : he himself was wounded 
and taken prisoner, but released on the 
conclusion of peace in 1784 : held high 
command in the Madras Army, 1792 : 
when war broke out with the French 
Republic, Brathwaite took Pondicherry, 
1793 ' Maj -General in 1800. 


I.C.S. : born March 5, 1830 : arrived 
at Madras in 1849 : was Private Secretary 
to the Governor of Madras, Sir W. Denison, 
1861-64, accompanying him to Calcutta 
when he acted as Governor-General, 
between Lord Elgin and Sir John Law- 
rence. In 1867 Breeks was appointed 
Commissioner of the Nilgiris : in 187 1 he 
was called upon to make collections of 
objects among the aboriginal tribes for 
the Indian Museum, Calcutta : he fell ill 
and died June 7, 1872 : he wrote a valuable 
report on the tribes and sepulchral monu- 
ments of the Nilgiris, published under the 
editorship of his widow in 1873. 


Born in Bombay, Oct. 20, 1824 : son of 
Henry Briggs : travelled in S. Africa, 
1843 : in China, 1845 : settled in Bombay, 
1846, in the ofifice of Briggs & Co. : served 
in the Bombay Secretariat : went to 
Karachi : edited, 1854, the Sindian, and, 
1855, the Sind Kossid, both long since 
defunct : became, 1856, Assistant Secre- 
tary at Bombay to the G.I. P. Railway: Sec- 
retary to the Bombay Municipality, 1860- 
2 : was a merchant and agent at Bombay 
and Hingolee, 1863 : he wrote, 1849, Cities 
of Gujdrashtra, a book of travel in Guja- 
rat, containing curious information gleaned 
from travellers in India : of whose rare 
works he made an extensive collection: pub- 
lished The Pars is or Modern Zardushtians, 
1852, which has now been superseded : 
wrote an historical account of the Nizam, 
1 861, a valuable work containing special 
information. His firm failed in the share 
mania of 1865 ; he travelled in Gujarat, and 

settled in Calcutta, entering the P.W.D. 
there: in May, 1872, he went again to 
Bombay; died there July 4, 1872. 

BRIGGS, JOHN (1785-1875) 

Entered the E.I. Co.'s Madras Army in 
1 801 : served in the Mahratta wars : 
accompanied Sir J . Malcolm on his mission 
to Persia, 1810 : became Resident at 
Satara, and in 1831 was Senior Member of 
the Board of Administration of Mysore : 
resigned in 1832, and was Resident at 
Nagpur, 1832-5, when he retired : Maj- 
General, 1838. As Member of the Court 
of Proprietors of the E.I. Co., he opposed 
Lord Dalhousie's policy : he translated 
Ferishta's Muhammadan Power in India 
and the Siyar-ul-muta' akhkhirin from 
Persian into English : was F.R.S. : died 
April 27, 1875. 

BRIGHT, JOHN (1811-1889) 

Born Nov. 16, 181 1 : son of Jacob 
Bright, of Rochdale : educated there and 
at Ackworth, York, Newton : joined his 
father in managing mills, travelled, and 
entered politics : co-operated with Cobden 
against the Corn Laws : M.P. for Durham, 
1843 ; for Manchester, 1847, 1852 ; for 
Birmingham, 1857-85 : in his political 
life he paid special attention to India : in 
1848, was Chairman of the Committee, 
for which he moved, to inquire into the 
obstacles to the cultivation of cotton in 
India : helped to raise a fund for a private 
Commission of inquiry : opposed the 
renewal of the Charter of the E. I. Co. in 
1853 : spoke, 1853, strongly in favour of 
making the Government of India a Depart- 
ment of the Government, with a Minister 
of State and a Council : in the discussions 
on the transfer of the Government of 
India to the Crown, in 1858, and again in 
1879, he advocated a policy of decentra- 
lization, by the substitution of federated 
Provincial Governments for a Central 
Government : urged, in 1859, the reduc- 
tion of military expenditure in India : 
declined to be Secretary of State for India, 
1868, being unwilling, as a Quaker, to be 
mixed up with military matters : advo- 
cated developments of India by public 
works and canals, 1878-9 : spoke against 
the Afghan war of 1878-80 : D.C.L., 
1886 : died March 27, 1889 : his general 
career in Parliament, his share in English 
politics, and his eloquent speeches, need 
not be dwelt upon here. 




RUS (1823-1896) 

Born July 7, 1823 : son of Robert 
Bright, merchant, educated at Rugby and 
Winchester : joined the 19th regt. in 1843, 
and served continuously with it until, in 
1871, he obtained a Brigade command 
served in the Bulgarian campaign, 1854 
in the Crimea, present at all the battles 
in 1868 commanded the first Brigade 
Hazara Field Force, and against the 
Black Mountain tribes : commanded the 
Meerut Division, 1878-83 : in the Afghan 
war, 1879-80, commanded the Khyber 
Line Field Force : constantly mentioned 
in despatches during his caxeer : Brevet 
Lt-Colonel : Knight of the Legion of 
Honour : C.B. in 1868 : K.C.B. and the 
thanks of Parliament after the Afghan 
war : Colonel of his regt., 1886 : Lt- 
General : G.C.B., 1894 : died Nov. 15, 

BRIND, SIR JAMES (1808-1888) 
Son of Walter Brind : born July 10, 
1808 : educated at Addiscombe : joined 
the Bengal Artillery in 1827 : in 1854 he 
commanded the Artillery in Sir Sydney 
Cotton's force against the Mohmands : at 
the siege of Delhi in the mutiny he com- 
manded a battery, called after him : show- 
ed great bravery and activity : it was said 
that he never slept, and that he should be 
covered with Victoria Crosses from head 
to foot : commanded the Artillery in a 
number of engagements in 1858 : in Oudh, 
Rohilkund and the pursuit of Firozshah : 
Brevet Colonel and C.B. : was Inspr- 
General of Artillery, 1865 : K.C.B., 
1869 : commanded the Sirhind Division, 
1873-8 : General, 1877 : G.C.B., 1884 : 
died Aug. 3, 1888 : he was married five 

BRISTOW, JOHN ( ? - ? ) 

Appointed Resident of Lucknow, by 
direct order of the Court of Directors, on 
Nathaniel Middleton's recall in 1774, after 
the Rohilla war, by a majority in Council 
against Warren Hastings : Bristow was not 
friendly with Hastings : was a constant 
attendant of P. Francis' levees : he was 
superseded at Lucknow in 1781, by 
Hastings' order, replaced by Middleton, 
but re-established in 1782, when Middleton 
was recalled : Bristow assumed the 
powers of Government at Lucknow, aiming 

at the annihilation of the Nawab's authority, 
on which the Nawab complained against 
Bristow's administration: Bristow's defence 
was discussed by the parties in the Supreme 
Council : he was recalled by a decision 
of Dec. 31, 1783, Hastings being authorized 
to have separate charge of the E.L Co's 
concerns in Oudh, for which he repaired 
to Lucknow in March- Aug. 1784. 

BROADFOOT, GEORGE (1807-1845) 

Born 1807 : son of Rev. W. Broad- 
foot : entered the Madras Native Infantry 
in 1826 : in 1 84 1 was sent to Kabul 
commanding the escort with the families 
of Shah Shuja and Zaman Shah : in Oct. 
1 841 he accompanied Sir R. Sale's force 
from Kabul to Jalalabad : which he 
fortified, and became garrison engineer 
there during the siege by the Afghans : 
he animated the whole defence and pre- 
vented a surrender : was with General 
Pollock's Army in the campaign of 1842, 
and distinguished himself in the actions 
in the Khyber, at Tezin and Mamu Kheyl : 
C.B. : made Commissioner of Tenasserim 
and, later. Agent to the Governor-General 
on the N.W. frontier : he was a Major in 
the Sikh war of 1845-6 : was mortally 
wounded at Firozshahr, Dec. 21, 1845. 

Born Oct. 15, 1841 : son of Alexander 
Broadfoot : educated privately and at 
Addiscombe : joined the Royal Engineers, 
i860: Major, 1881, on retirement: 
served with the Hazara Field Force, 1868 : 
in the Irrigation Department in the 
Panjab, 1864-8 : Assistant Secretary to 
the Panjab Government, 1868-78 : has 
written The Career of Major George Broad- 
foot, C.B., 1888 : Billiards in the Bad- 
minton Library : numerous articles hi the 
principal Reviews, Magazines, the Atheri' 
cBum, the Times Encyclopozdia Britannica, 
Biographies in the D.N.B., and the R.E. 
Journal : F.R.G.S : is the Referee of the 
R. Geographical Society on Afghanistan, 
Beluchistan, India. 

BROCKHAUS, HERMAN (1806-1877) 
Born at Amsterdam, Jan. 28, 1806 : son 
of Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus, founder 
of the Leipzig publishing house : studied 
Oriental literature at Leipzig, Gottingen, 
Bonn, and frequented Oriental libraries 
at Copenhagen, Paris, London, Oxford : 



Professor Extraordinarius of Oriental 
Languages at Jena, 1839 : and Professor 
Ordinarius of Indian Lanugages and 
Literature, at Leipzig, 1848 : lectured 
chiefly on Sanskrit, which was his speciality, 
though he had studied Hebrew, Arabic, 
Persian, and lectured on Pali, Zend and 
Chinese : edited the K atha-sarit-sagara 
of Sanskrit stories, 1839-66, which first 
led to the scientific study of the origin of 
Popular Tales : also edited the Prabodha- 
Chandrodaya, a comedy, 1834-45 : the 
Zend Vendidad Sade : Hafiz and the 
Seven Wise Masters : was a founder of the 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenland- 
ischen Gesellschaft : wrote for scientific 
journals : died Jan. 5, 1877. 


Bom Dec. 14, 1856: eldest son of third 
Viscount Middleton : educated at Eton 
and Balliol College, Oxford : President of 
the Oxford Union Society : M.P. for West 
Surrey, 1880-5 ; for Guildford Division of 
Surrey, since 1885 : Financial Secretary to 
the War Office, 1886-92 : Under Secretary 
of State for War, 1895-8 : Under Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, 1 898-1900: 
Secretary of State for War, 1900-3, during 
part of the S. African War : Secretary of 
State for India since 1903 : P.C. 1897 : 
J.P. : D.L. 

BROOKE, SIR GEORGE (1793-1882) 

Born 1793 : son of Henry Brooke : 
educated at the R.M.A., Woolwich : entered 
the Royal Artillery, 1808 : saw service in 
Bundelkund, 1809-10 : in the Nipal 
war, 1 8 15-6 : and in the Mahratta war, 
1817 : present at the sieges of Hatras and 
Bhartpur ; in the battles of the Satlaj 
campaign, 1845-6 : Brigadier in the 
Panjab in 1848 : commanded Horse 
Artillery at Chilianwala and Gujarat : 
C.B., 1849 : K.C.B., 1867 : General, 1870 : 
retired, 1877 : died Dec. 31, 1882. 

BROOKE, HENRY (1725? -1786) 

Son of Rev. Henry Brooke, Rector of 
Kinawley and Kilina, Ireland : born about 
1725 : joined the E.I. Co'.s Civil Service, 
and rose to be a Member of the Madras 
Council : took, with George Stratton, a 
prominent part in the arrest and deposition 
of Lord Pigot, .the Governor of Madras, 
in 1776 : and was one of the four sentenced 

on Feb. 10, 1780, in the King's Bench to 
pay a fine of £1,000 each for their action t 
died in Dublin, March 26, 1786. 

BROOKE, SIR JAMES (1803-1868) 

Raja of Sarawak : son of Thomas 
Brooke of the India Civil Service : born 
at Benares in 1803 : educated at Norwich : 
ran away from school and entered the 
Bengal Native Infantry in 1819 : served 
in the Burmese war of 1824 : was wounded 
and sent home : resigned the E. I. Co.'s- 
service in 1830 : in 1838 he sailed in a 
private vessel to Borneo, to Sarawak : 
and became its Raja in 184 1 by invitation : 
there he passed the remainder of his- 
career, suppressing rebellion, piracy, 
cruelty, and establishing civilized govern- 
ment : retired in i860 : was made K.C.B t 
D.C.L. Oxford : died in 1868. 

BROOKE, JOHN CHEAPE (1818-1899) 

General : son of Colonel C. W. Brooke : 
joined the 63rd Bengal N.I., 1836: raised 
and disciplined the Mewar Bhils, and gained 
great influence over them and the neigh- 
bouring chiefs : during the mutiny, 
kept a large tract of country quiet : 
Political Agent at Jodhpur and Jaipur,. 
1860-70 : A.G.G. for Rajputana, 1870-3 : 
died Jan. 23, 1899. 

BROOKE, ROBERT (1746 ?-1802 ?) 

Son of Robert Brooke : entered the 
E. I. Co.'s Bengal Army in 1764 : engaged 
at the battle of Baxar and under Lord Clive 
against Kasim Ali and Shuja-ud-daula 
and against Hyder Ali of Mysore in 
1768-9 : put down a revolt in Kora, and 
was made Collector: served in the Raj- 
mahal hills against the Mahrattas, and 
in the Rohilla war : his services terminated 
in 1775 : lost his money in attempting tO' 
establish cotton manufacture in Ireland : 
Governor of St. Helena, 1787-1801 :. 
died soon after his retirement. 


Son of Rev. T. Broughton : educated 
at Eton: went to India in 1795 in the 
Bengal Army : was at the siege of Serin- 
gapatam in 1799, and mihtary Resident 
with the Mahrattas in 1802 : commanded 
the island of Java: Colonel, 1829: died 
Nov. 16, 1835 : wrote Letters from a- 
Mahratta Camp, and Selections from the 



Popular Poetry of the Hindus, 1814 : Hony. 
Secy. R.A.S. 




Son of Sir Benjamin Hobhouse, Bart. 
born June 27, 1786 : educated at Bristol, 
Westminister and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge : friend of Byron and travelled with 
him on the Continent : committed to 
Newgate from Dec. 14, 1819, to Feb. 29, 
1820, for breach of privilege of the House 
of Commons : M.P. for Westminster, 
1820 : succeeded as Baronet in 1831 : 
Secretary at War, 1832-3 : Chief Secretary 
for Ireland, 1833, resigned : M.P. for 
Nottingham, 1834 : Commissioner of 
Woods and Forests : President of the 
Board of Control, April 23, 1835, to Sep. 
4, 1841 : again from July 8, 1846, to Feb. 
3, 1852 : on his advice the appointment 
of Lord Heytesbury in 1835-6, to succeed 
Lord W. Bentinck as Governor-General 
was cancelled : he supported Lord Auck- 
land's Afghan policy : M.P. for Harwich 
in 1848 : made a peer in 1851 : K.C.B. in 
1852 : died June 3, 1869 : wrote his 
Recollections of a Long Life, and a number 
of papers on literary, classical, political 
and historical subjects. 


I.C.S. : born in India, 1798 : son of 
the Rev. David Brown {q.v.) : educated 
by his father in India : and at Haileybury : 
went to Madras in the Civil Service, 
1817 : Judge of Masulipatam ; Persian and 
Telugu Translator to Government : Post 
Master General, Madras : Member of the 
Council of Education : early made a 
special study of Telugu and became a 
great scholar : compiled a Telugu-English 
and English-Telugu Dictionary, 1845-53, 
and Grammar, 1840, and translated the 
Bible into Telugu : published Chronologi- 
cal Tables : and various works in Telugu : 
wrote on' that language and other subjects 
in the Madras Journal of Literature : 
retired, 1855 : Honorary Professor of 
Telugu in London University : on the 
Council of the R.A.S : died 1884. 

BROWN, REV. DAVID (1763-1812) 
Born in 1763 : educated at Scar- 
borough, Hull, and Magdalen College, 

Cambridge : ordained and went to Calcutta 
as a Chaplain in Bengal in 1786 : held 
several clerical charges, including the minis- 
try of the Old Church, 21 years, and 10 years 
the senior Presidency chaplaincy, and 
laboured greatly in the cause of missions 
and aid to native Christians : was held 
in great esteem by the English residents : 
founded the Auxiliary Bible Society : Pro- 
vost of the College of Fort William, Aug. 
18, 1800 : in 1 812 he embarked on a ship 
which was wrecked in the Bay of Bengal: 
was rescued, and returned to Calcutta, 
but died there directly, June 14, 1812. 


Born at'^Mahe, Nov. 10, 1792 : son of 
Murdoch Brown {q.v.) : educated in 
England and France (where he was 
detained at the ruptiure of the peace of 
Amiens) : joined the 80th foot : Lieuten- 
ant and A.D.C. : retired on half pay to 
help his father manage the Anjrakandy 
estate : J.P. : returned to Europe, 1838 : 
was an active member of the committee 
of the " British India Society," the first 
organization established to promote re- 
form in India, and afterwards of the 
" India Reform Society " : died at Telli- 
cherry, Sep. 23, 1868 : author of pamphlets 
on Indian subjects. Letters to and from the 
Government of Madras relating to the 
Disturbances in Canara in April, 1837-8: 
Free Trade and the Cotton Question with 
reference to India, being a Memorial from 
the British merchants of Cochin, 1847 •• 
Obstructions to Trade in India, 1862 : 
The Supply of Cotton from India, 1863 : 
his knowledge of native customs and 
native matters generally on his side of 
India was probably unrivalled among 
Englishmen : he was able to explain many 
things relating to the natives which others 
had not been able to understand. 



Entered the Medical Service of the 
Bengal Army, 1836 : in the first Afghan 
war : became Surgeon-General, 1870 : 
C.B., 1858 : K.C.B., 1875 : died July 27, 

BROWN, MURDOCH (1750-1828) 

Born at Edinburgh, 1750, left Scotland 
for Lisbon merely for the voyage, but 



never returned : found work at Lisbon, 
made his way through Europe : in 1775 
went out as Consul to Calicut for the 
Empress Maria Theresa of Austria : 
engaged in trade, of which Jonathan 
Duncan, Governor of Bombay, wrote, 1792, 
as the most considerable of any British 
subject on that side of India: he lost 
eleven ships. East Indiamen, of 1,000 tons 
or more in the war with France : in 1798 he 
took over from Government as a plan- 
tation " Five Tarras of Randaterra " (The 
Anjrakandy estate) in Malabar : was 
granted, in 1802, a 99 years' lease, being 
the earliest English landholder in India : 
the natives regarded him as their Raja : 
none but the lowest caste would work on 
the estate, which was wasted by war : 
he educated his tenants and Christianized 
them by native catechists and German 
missionaries, raising them in the scale of 
civilization : he spoke seven European and 
five or six Oriental languages : died at 
Tellicherry, 1828. 


vSon of William Loder Browne : born 
Dec, 1802 : was a Midshipman, R.N : 
educated at Addiscombe : joined the 
Madras Army, 1820 : in 15th and 12th 
regts. : examiner in Hindustani and 
Persian : Military Secretary to Govern- 
ment, Madras, 1857 : Adjutant -General : 
commanded at Nagpur, 1862 : commanded 
the N. Division, Madras Army, 1863 : 
retired, 1864 : wrote a Persian grammar : 
established, 1833, Sunday schools at 
Madras and the Black Town, the first in 
the Madras Presidency: died Feb. 14, 1866. 

BROWNE, JAMES ( ? - ? ) 

Major : in the E. I. Co.'s service, iemp. 
Warren Hastings : Collector of the 
Jungleterry districts, 1773 : had difficult 
work in administering the country and 
settling disturbances : sent by the Council 
on an embassy to Shah Alamat Delhi to 
negotiate with him for assistance against 
the Sikhs : Resident at Delhi, 1782 : 
recalled, when Warren Hastings left 
for England, 1785 : published, in 1787. 
his Indian Tracts, which, he says, were 
written by order of Hastings, describing 
the Jungleterry districts, and giving an 
account of the Sikhs. 

BROWNE, SIR JAMES (1839-1896) 

Born Sep. 16, 1839 : son of Robert 
Browne : educated at Cheltenham and 
Addiscombe : appointed to the Bengal 
Engineers, 1857 : served in the N.W. 
Frontier campaign against the Mahsud- 
Waziris, i860, in the Umbeyla campaign, 
1863 : Executive Engineer in the Panjab : 
in 1876 surveyed for a railway from 
Sukkur to Quetta : Political Officer at 
Quetta : in the Afghan war, 1878-9, 
Political with Sir D. Stewart's advance to 
Kandahar : C.S.I. 1879 : in Egypt, in 
1882, commanded the Royal Engineers 
of the Indian Contingent : at Tel-el- 
Kebir : C.B. 1882 : superintended the 
construction of the Indus bridge, 1875 : 
Engineer in Chief of the Sind-Peshin rail- 
way, 1883-7 : Q.M.G. in India, 1889-90 : 
Chief Commissioner of British Belu- 
chistan, March, 1892 : died there, June 
13, 1896 : K.C.S.I : General. 

BROWNE, SIR SAMUEL (1824-1901) 

Son of James Browne, M.D : born Oct. 
13, 1824 : entered the Bengal Army, 
1840 : in the Panjab campaign of 1848- 
49 : at Chilianwala and Gujarat : in the 
mutiny, with the 2nd Panjab cavalry, in 
the movable column of the Panjab : 
under Sir Colin Campbell in Oudh, lost an 
arm : gained the V.C : for his action at 
Nuria, near Philibhit, when he attacked 
the rebels, and was severely wounded in 
hand-to-hand fight : commanded the 
Guides in 1864 : accompanied H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales on his Indian tour, 1875-6 : 
K,C.S.I. : Military Member of the Supreme 
Council, Aug. 9 to Nov. 5, 1878 : com- 
manded the first Division of the Peshawar 
Field Force, in the Afghan war, 1878-9 : 
captured Ali Masjid, occupied Jalalabad : 
K.C.B : retired, 1879 : General : G.C.B., 
1901 : died March 14, 1901 : he invented 
the military sword belt, called after him. 


Son of Robert Browne : born July 3, 
1807 : entered the Army 1824 : in the 
campaign, in 1842, of the first Afghan 
war commanded his regiment as Major : 
was in the repulse of Haikalzai, at Kanda- 
har, Kabul and Istalif, and through the 
Khyber to India : C.B., 1843 : was 
Governor of St. Helena, New Zealand, 



Tasmania, Bermuda: K.C.M.G., 1869: 
died April 17, 1887. 


(1831- ) 
Born 1831 : son of Colonel George A. 
Brownlow : entered the Indian Army : 
served in the Panjab campaign, 1848 : 
Hazara, 1852-3 : Mohmand expedition, 
1854 (severely wounded) : Yusafzai expedi- 
tion, 1858 : China war, i860 : Umbeyla 
campaign, 1863 : C.B. : Hazara, 1868 : 
commanded the Southern column, Lushai 
expedition, 1871-2 : K.C.B. : A.D.C. to the 
Queen, 1869-81 : Assistant Military Secre- 
tary at Horse Guards, 1879-80 : G.C.B. 
1887 : retired. 


Born Jan. 11, 1793 : at Jorehat, Assam : 
was the first explorer of tea tracts in 
Assam, and discoverer of the indigenous 
tea plant in Assam : was appointed 
Superintendent of Tea cultivation under 
the Government of India until the tea 
industry was adopted by private enter- 
prise, as stated on a memorial tablet to 
him in the Church at Tezpur : wrote a 
report on the manufactiure of tea, and on 
the export and produce of the tea planta- 
tions in Assam, 1839 : died April 23, 

BRUCE, JOHN (1745-1826) 
Historian : educated at Edinburgh 
University, and Professor of Logic there : 
appointed Keeper of the State Paper 
Office, and Historiographer of the E. I. Co.: 
M.P. for a borough in Cornwall, 1809-14 : 
and for a short time Secretary of the 
Board of Commissioners for the affairs of 
India, i.e. the Board of Control : F.R.S : 
died April 16, 1826. He wrote on 
philosophy as well as history : his chief 
works relating to India were Historical 
View of Plans for the Government of British 
India, 1793 = Annals of the E. I. Co. from 
their establishment by the Charter of Queen 
Elizabeth, 1600, to the Union of the London 
and English E. I. Companies, 1707-8, 1810 : 
Report on the Renewal of the E. I. Co.'s 
exclusive Privileges of Trade for 20 years 
from March 1794-1811. 


Entered the Army 1842, in the Bengal 
Artillery : in the Gwalior campaign, at 

Maharajpiu: : in the Satlaj campaign, 
1845-6: at Badiwal, Aliwal, Sobraon : in 
the Panjab campaign, 1848-9 ; at Sadu- 
lapur, Chilianwala, Gujarat : in the 
mutiny at the second relief of Lucknow, 
at Cawnpur and many engagements : 
C.B. 1875 : retired as Lt-General, 1878 : 
K.C.B. : 1898 : died April 15, 1899. 

Born 1840 : son of Jonathan Bruce : 
served in the Afghan war, 1878-9 : on the 
N.W. Frontier of India : at Daulatzai, 
1884 : in the Zhob Valley expedition, 1890 : 
co-operated in the opening of the Gomal 
Pass, 1890 : British Commissioner of the 
Afghan-Waziristan Delimitation Com- 
mission, 1894 : at Wano, 1894 : in 
Waziristan, 1894-5 : a Commissioner in 
the Panjab : author of a Gazetteer of 
Dera Ghazi Khan, and a manual of 
Beluchi : a History of the Marri-Beluch 
tribe : of The Forward Policy and its 

BRUTTON, NICHOLAS (1780-1843) 
Entered the Army.1795 : went to India : 
at Seedaseer, 1799, and at the siege of 
Seringapatam, May 4, 1799 : in the 
Canara campaign ; under Lord Lake, 
1804-5 : at the siege of Bhartpur, 1805 : 
under General St. Leger on the Satlaj, 
1809 : in the Pindari campaigns of 1812 
and 1817 : in the Nipal war of 1815 : at 
the siege of Hatras : retired in 1837 from 
the nth Hussars, as Lt-Colonel : died 
March 26, 1843. 

Maj-General : appointed to E. I. Co.'s 
Army, 1798 : served in Oudh : in the 
Mahratta war : in Bundelkund : at Deeg, 
1804 : Town and Fort Major, Fort 
William, 1815 : Judge Advocate General, 
1 817, 1824 : in the Dekkan war : at 
Bhartpur, 1826 : knighted, 1829 : C.B. : 
commanded the 14th N.I., 1835 : Director 
E. I. Co., 1841 : died June 10, 1845. 

BARONET (1764^1847) 
In the E. I. Co.'s Civil Service : son of 
Harford Jones of Presteign : born Jan. 12, 
1764 : assumed the name of Brydges from 
his mother's family : Envoy to Persia, 
1 807-181 1 : Baronet in 1807 : resigned 
in 1811 : D.C.L., 1831 : Privy Councillor : 
died March 17, 1847 : wrote on Persian 
affairs and his mission. 



BRYDON, WILLIAM (1811-1873) 
Born Oct. 9, 181 1 : entered the E. I. Co.'s 
medical service in 1835 : served with Sir 
H. Fane and Lord Auckland : sent in 
1839 with a regiment to the first Afghan 
war. When the Army retreated from 
Kabul in Jan. 1842, Brydon was attached 
to the 6th regt. of Shah Shuja's Hindustani 
Infantry and, alone, of 13,000 persons, 
reached Jalalabad alive on January 13, 
1842 : he was in the garrison of Jalalabad 
under Sir R. Sale, and with General 
Pollock's army to Kabul and back in 
1842 : in the mutiny of 1857 he was, by 
a curious fate, again besieged, being in the 
Lucknow garrison, and was uninjured 
throughout the siege : C.B., 1858 : retired, 
1859, as Surgeon-Major of the Bombay 
Army : died March 20, 1873. 


I.C.S. : appointed a writer on the 
Madras Establishment, Aug. 1792 : 
Assistant under the Secretary in the 
Military, PoHtical and Scout Department, 
and French Translator, 1794 : also for 
supplying " beetle," tobacco, and " gangee" 
in 1795 : Paymaster to the Malacca 
expedition, 1796 : sub-Secretary in the 
above Department, 1799 : Secretary in 
the Public and Commercial Department, 
1801 ; in the Military Department, 1801 : 
Chief Secretary, 1803 : Private Secretary 
to Government, 1809 : went home, 1810 : 
" out of the service," 1814. 



Born March 12, 1766 : son of Alexander 
Buchanan : educated at Inverary and 
Glasgow University ; Queen's College,Cam- 
bridge, 179 1-5 : ordained, 1795 : went 
to Calcutta as a Chaplain on the Establish- 
ment, 1797 : at Barrackpur and Calcutta : 
was Professor and Vice- Provost of the 
College of Fort William, 1 799-1 807, when 
the latter appointment was abolished : he 
devoted himself to the promotion of 
Christianity and to native education : he 
made two prolonged tours in Southern and 
Western India, 1806-7, to ascertain the 
circumstances and facts of the various 
religions of the country and suggest 
measures : he returned to England in 
1808, and advocated the appointment of 
Bishops in India and the cause of missions, 
besides pubhshing translations of the 

Scriptures in Malayalam, Syriac, etc. : he 
wrote Christian Researches in Asia, 18 10 : 
Colonial Ecclesiastical Establishment, and 
papers about Christianity and Christian 
Missions in India : he was D.D. of 
Glasgow and Cambridge : died Feb. 9, 


(1836- ) 

Son of John Buchanan, of Co. Tyrone, 
Ireland : volunteered for the Crimea : 
served in the Indian mutiny in the 88th 
Connaught Rangers : author of Through 
the Himalayas and Chinese Tibet : Colonel : 



Doctor : born Feb. 15, 1762, son of 
Thomas Buchanan, doctor : took his degree 
of M.D. at Edinburgh in 1783 : after 
serving on a man-of-war, joined the E.I. 
Co.'s service in 1794 : employed on a 
mission to the Court of Ava, and on 
various botanical, zoological and statistical 
inquiries in Chittagong and Tippera, and, 
in 1 800-1, through Mysore, Canara and 
Malabar, on which he wrote a full report : 
went to Nipal in 1802 : he was Surgeon 
to Lord Wellesley, and accompanied him 
to England in 1805. The records of his 
subsequent inquiries in several Bengal 
districts and Assam were deposited at the 
India House in 1816 and not utilized for 22 
years. He was Superintendent of the 
Botanic Garden, Calcutta, 1814-5, when 
he returned to Scotland and took the 
additional name of Hamilton on succeeding 
to his mother's property : F.R.S. and 
F.R.A.S., and contributed largely to the 
literary and scientific societies to which he 
belonged : wrote on the History of Nipal, 
the Genealogy of the Hindu gods, the 
Fishes of the Ganges, etc : died June 15, 


(1838- ) 

I.C.S. : educated at Norwich and 
Oakham School, and Clare College, 
Cambridge : entered the Bengal Civil 
Service in 1862 and retired in 1897 : 
represented the Indian Government at 
the Colonial Exhibition, 1886 : Secretary 
to the Government of India, 1882-97 : 
Knight Bachelor and K.C.S.I. 




Son of Christopher Buckingham : born 
Aug. 25, 1786: was at sea from 1796: 
went to India, 1815 : in 1818, at Calcutta, 
he brought out the Calcutta Journal, 
attacked Government so vigorously that, 
in 1823, his licence was taken away by 
Mr. J. Adam {q.v.), and he was deported 
from the country : years afterwards, the 
E.I. Co. gave him a pension of £200 a 
year : went to India again when the 
restrictions on the Press had been re- 
moved : M.P. for Sheffield, 1832-7 : 
conducted the Oriental Herald and Colon- 
ial Review, 1824-9, ^^.d was connected 
with other journals, besides writing 
largely on social and political subjects : 
travelled extensively to and from India : 
wrote Arabia, 1825 : Mesopotamia and 
Adjacent Countries, 1827 : Assyria and 
Media, 1830 : travelled also in Europe and 
N. America : and gave lectures in Eng- 
land : died June 30, 1855. 

i THIRD DUKE OF (1823-1889) 

Governor : born Sep. 10, 1823, only son 
of the second Duke : educated at Eton 
and Christ Church, Oxford : M.P. for 
Buckingham, 1846-57 : Junior Lord of 
the Treasury, 1852 : as Marquis of Chandos 
was Chairman of the London and N.W. 
Railway, 1853-61 : succeeded as Duke, 
1 861 : Lord President of the Council, 
1866-7 : Secretary for the Colonies, 
1867-8 : Governor of Madras from Nov. 
1875 to Dec. 1 880 : had to deal with the 
severe famine of 1877, when immense 
numbers of the population came on relief 
works and gratuitous relief, and there was 
great mortality : built Government House 
at Ootacamund : Chairman of Commit- 
tees in the House of Lords, 1886-9 = P-C. : 
G.C.S.I. : CLE. : D.C.L. : died March 
26, 1889 : when the Dukedom became 



Son of third Earl : born May 6, 1760 : 
educated at Westminster : joined 7th 
regt., 1776 : served in the American war : 

Major : M.P. in both the English and 
Irish Parliaments : Secretary to the Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, 1789-93 : Privy 
Councillor, 1793 : was, as Lord Hobartr 
Governor of Madras from Sep. 1794 ta 
Feb. 1798 : led an expedition to Malacca 
and destroyed the Dutch settlements : 
by his independence he came into antagon- 
ism with the Governor-General, Sir John 
Shore, over the affairs of the Nawab of 
the Carnatic, when Hobart desired to 
make financial reforms : the Court of 
Directors recalled him, but supported his 
action in Tanjore affairs : Hobart co- 
operated with the Governor-General against 
Tippoo : called up to the House of Lords, 
1798 : helped to arrange the union with 
Ireland, 1799 • Secretary for War and the 
Colonies, 1 801-4 '• became Earl, 1804 : 
appointed President of the Board of 
Control, April 4, 1812 : and spoke on the 
renewal of the E.L Co.'s charter, 1813 : 
died Feb. 4, 1816. 


(1847- ) 

I.C.S. : son of Charles Thomas Buck- 
land, I.C.S. : born Sep. 19, 1847 : edu- 
cated at Laleham, Eton, and Balliol 
College, Oxford : joined the Civil Service 
in Bengal, 1870 : Private Secretary to 
Sir Richard Temple, when Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal, 1874-7, and Gover- 
nor of Bombay, 1877-8 : Revenue, and 
Chief Secretary to Government of Bengal, 
and Member of the Bengal Legislative 
Council : Senior Member of the Board of 
Revenue : retired in 1904 : CLE., 1895 : 
author of Bengal under the Lieutenant 
Governors : editor of The Dictionary of 
Indian Biography. 



I.C.S. : son of the Rev. John Buckland : 
born Feb. 27, 1824 : educated at Laleham, 
Eton, and Haileybury : gained his ap- 
pointment to the Indian Civil Service 
by competition at Eton : went to India 
in 1844 : served throughout his career in 
Bengal, making a reputation for ability 
and independence as an administrator : 
Junior Secretary to the Governor of 
Bengal : Member of the Bengal Legisla- 
tive Council, and Member of the Board of 
Revenue, Calcutta : retired in 1881 : 
died March 21, 1894. 




Born July 19, 1837, at Borstel, in Han- 
over : son of a pastor : educated at 
Hanover and Gottingen : graduated in 
Oriental languages and Archaeology, 1858 : 
studied Sanskrit at Paris, London, Oxford : 
became an eminent Orientalist : Pro- 
fessor of Oriental Languages at the Elphin- 
stone College, Bombay, 1863 : Superin- 
tendent of Sanskrit Studies, Poona, 1866 : 
Educational Inspector, N. Division, 
Bombay Presidency, 1868, 1872 : edited 
Sanskrit texts : several times deputed to 
collect Sanskrit texts : discovered over 
5,000 MSS., which the Indian Government 
distributed among British Universities and 
Collections, and Indian Societies and 
Institutions : left India, 1880 : gave 
much attention to ancient inscriptions, 
doing important work as an epigraphist : 
wrote on Indian inscriptions : brought 
out, with Sir R. West (q.v.), a digest of 
Hindu Law : wrote a Sanskrit Primer, 
editions of Sanskrit works : published a 
Glossary of the oldest Prakrit dictionary : 
collaborated in the series of Sacred Books 
of the East : translated the Laws of 
Manu : became Professor of Indian 
Philology and Archaeology at the Univer- 
sity of Vienna : edited an Encyclopeedia 
of Indo-Aryan Philology : contributed his 
Indische Paldographie, 1896 : was member 
of the Royal Asiatic and other learned 
Societies : drowned in Lake Constance, 
April 8, 1898. 

BUIST, GEORGE (1805-1860) 

Doctor : born Aug. 22, 1805 : son of 
the Rev. J. Buist : educated at St. Andrews 
and Edinburgh : became a preacher and 
lecturer, and editor of newspapers in 
Scotland from 1832 to 1839, when he be- 
came editor of the Bombay Times till 
1857 : he opposed the Government policy 
in Kabul in 1842 : from Jan. 1858 he 
brought out the Bombay Standard, which 
was amalgamated with the Bombay 
Times in i860. He was Inspector of 
Observatories in Bombay for many years, 
and wrote on scientific subjects, meteoro- 
logy* geology, antiquities, for the Bombay 
Asiatic Society's Jomrnal : he was instru- 
mental in the establishment of a number 
of observatories, and founded the Bombay 
Reformatory School of Industry : a 
Municipal Commissioner in Bombay : 

appointed, in 1859, Superintendent of the 
Government Press, Allahabad, and Curator 
of Government books : died at Calcutta, 
Oct. I, i860 : described as " India's fore- 
most man of letters," " not only famous 
as the most successful of Indian journalists, 
but as the thoughtful and enterprising 
man of science " : he devoted himself to 
scientific philanthropy. 

RAJA OF (1826-1896) 

A Rajput of the Jadon clan : his 
grandfather held a high post in Sindia's 
Army, and died at Alighar in 1801 : his 
sons resided in Agra, and held lands near 
the city : Lachhman Singh entered 
Government service in 1847 : employed as 
a translator in the Secretariat at Agra : 
rendered good service during the mutiny : 
rewarded with a Khilat, and a small parcel 
of revenue-free land in the Agra district : 
employed in the Educational Department, 
and promoted to a Deputy CoUectorship : 
wrote a Statistical Memoir of the Buland- 
shahr District, and translated various 
official works, besides the Sakimtala, in 
Hindi : in 1877, was made Raja as a 
personal distinction : after his retirement, 
resided at Bulandshahr, and died there in 
July, 1896. 


OF (1881- ) 

Born Oct. 19, 1881 : son of Raja Ban 
Bihari Kapur (q.v.) : succeeded in 1885 : 
was installed as Maharaja in Feb., 1903. 

DUR OF (1820-1879) 

Son of Maharaja Tej Chand Rai : born 
Nov. 17, 1820 : succeeded to the Burdwan 
Raj (which pays over 40 lakhs annually 
of Government Revenue), on April 16, 
1832 : made Maharaja Adhiraj Bahadur, 
Aug. 30, 1833 : on Jan. i, 1877, was 
granted a salute of 13 guns as a personal 
distinction, and the title of " His High- 
ness " : appointed to the Governor- 
General's Legislative Council in 1864 : 
during the Sonthal rebellion of 1855, and 
in the mutiny, he helped Government 
greatly with transport, and by maintaining 
communications : established a college, 
schools, hospitals and dispensaries on his 



estates ; widely supported charities, and 
gave munificent contributions on occasions 
of epidemic fever, famines and calamities : 
encouraged literature and learning : though 
not always a strict observer of Hinduism, 
he maintained his numerous religious 
endowments and temples : while he did 
not seek popularity, he was highly re- 
spected by both Europeans and his coun- 
trymen, for his independence, high 
character and public spirit : died at 
Bhagalpur, Oct. 26, 1879. 


Born Aug. 14, 1832 : educated at Dum- 
fries, Glasgow, Edinburgh : went to 
India, 1855 : engaged in educational 
work in Calcutta and Bombay : Archaeo- 
logical Surveyor and Reporter for W. India, 
1874 : and for S. India, 1881 : Director- 
General of the Archaeological Survey of 
India, 1886 : Fellow of the Bombay 
University : retired, 1889 : attended the 
Geneva Oriental Congress, 1894, as 
representative of India : edited the Indian 
Antiquary, 1872-84 : published scientific 
papers in the Philosophical Magazine, 
Archceological Survey Reports, Epigraphica 
Indica, 1889-94 : published various ar- 
chaeological works, as The Rock Temples 
of Elephanta, 1871 : Temples of Somnath, 
Junaghar and Girnar, The Rock Temf^les 
of Ajanta, The Rock Temples of India 
(with J. Fergusson), 1880 : Buddhist Art 
in India, igoi. 

BURGOYNE, JOHN (1722-1792) 

General : son of Captain John Bur- 
goyne : educated at Westminster : entered 
the Army in the 13th Light Dragoons, 
1740 : M.P. for Midhurst, 1761 : for 
Preston, 1768 : spoke, moving for a 
Select Committee, on the Government of 
India, 1772, urging the principle (after- 
wards adopted by Fox and Pitt in their 
India Bills) of Government control over 
the E. I. Co. : in the attack in Parliament 
on Lord Clive, May 3, 1773, Burgoyne, 
Chairman of the Committee, was the 
accuser, and carried condemnatory reso- 
lutions against Clive : commanded in 
America in 1774, and surrendered at 
Saratoga, Oct. 17, i777 : C. in C. in Ire- 
land, 1782 : was a manager of the im- 
peachment of Warren Hastings, 1787 : 
died June 4, 1792. 


( 1739-1780) 

General : born 1739 : entered the Army 
young: served in the 7th and other 
regts. : Lt-Colonel of 58th regt., 1764 : 
and of 14th Light Dragoons : raised, in 
1 78 1, the first regt. of European cavalry 
sent to India, called the 23rd Light Dra- 
goons, afterwards the 19th Dragoons and 
the 19th Hussars, which he took to 
Madras : Maj-General, 1783 : he and Sir 
Robert Fletcher were the champions of 
what they considered the rights and 
privileges of the King's service as against 
the authority of the E.I. Co.'s Governor 
and Council : both were recalled, but 
Burgoyne died at Madras, Sep. 23, 1785 : 
buried in the Fort Church there. 

BURKE, EDMUND (1729-1797) 

Son of Richard Burke : born Jan. 12, 
1729 : educated at Ballitore and Trinity 
College, Dublin, 1743-8 : entered at the 
Middle Temple, but not called to the 
bar : took to literature : founded the 
Annual Register, 1759 : Private Secretary 
to Lord Rockingham, Prime Minister, 

1765 : M.P. for Wendover, 1765-74 : for 
Bristol, 1774-80 : for Malton, 1781-94 : 
Paymaster of the Forces, 1782-3 : his 
connexion with India extended over 
many years : he attacked the E. I. Co., 

1766 : refused, in 1772, an offer by the 
E. I. Co.'s Directors, of an appointment to 
reform their adminstration : opposed 
Lord North's " Regulating Act," 1773 ' 
was member of the Committee on the 
affairs of the E.I. Co., 1783, wrote both 
the Ninth Report on the trade of Bengal 
and the system pursued by Warren 
Hastings, and the Eleventh Report on 
the system of presents : drafted Fox's. 
East India Bill, 1783 : attacked Hastings 
in a speech on the debts of the Nawab of 
Arcot, 1785, and again on the Rohilla 
war, 1786: impeached Hastings before 
the House of Lords, May, 1787 : led the 
impeachment at the trial of Hastings in 
Westminster Hall, Feb., 1788 : secured 
its continuation in a new ParUament, 
1790 : spoke for nine days in May-June, 
1794, in reply to Hastings' defence : 
Hastings was acquitted in April, i795 : 
Burke died July 9, i797 : no further al- 
lusion need be made here to his writings, 
speeches in Parliament and political. 



career, which are well known apart from 
his relations to India. 


Entered the Army as a Hospital Mate 
on Sep. 13, 1795, and rose, through the 
grades of Regimental Surgeon, Apothecary, 
Surgeon, etc. to be, on Oct. 5, 1825, 
Inspr-General of Hospitals of the Forces 
in the East Indies, until his death. In 
1817, he was Physician-General in the 
Mauritius, was present at the capture of 
nearly all the French and Dutch colonies 
in the West Indies and South America : 
served in Europe, including the Mediter- 
ranean and Gibraltar : and was at the 
capture of Bhartpur by Lord Combermere 
in 1826 : died at Calcutta, May 22, 1837. 


Son of William Burlton : joined the 
Bengal Artillery at Dumdum in 1821 : 
was transferred to Africa : was actively 
employed in the Burmese war of 1824 : 
devoted himself zealously to discovering 
the sources of the Brahmaputra and 
Irawadi, and solving geographical ques- 
tions : he also wrote about the Assamese : 
was murdered, with Lt. Bedingfield of 
the Artillery, by the Khasias at Nunklow, 
in Assam : died April 4, 1829. 


(1837- ) 

Maj -General : son of the Rev. Henry 
Thomas Burne : entered the Army, 1855 : 
served in the Crimea and in the Indian 
mutiny : present in 15 actions, including 
the siege and capture of Lucknow : pro- 
moted for gallantry in the field : Military 
Secretary to Lord Strathnairn, when 
C.-in-C. in India, 1861 : Private Secre- 
tary to Lord Mayo, Viceroy of India, 
1869-72 : Political A.D.C. to the Secretary 
of State for India, 1872 : Assistant Secre- 
tary, 1873, and later. Secretary, Political 
and Secret Department, India Office, 
1874 : Private Secretary to Lord Lytton, 
Viceroy of India, 1876-7: Member of 
the Council of India, 1887-97 : author of 
Clyde and Strathnairn, in the " Rulers of 
India" series; Lord Strathnairn, Imperial 
Assemblage at Delhi, etc. : CLE., 1877 : 
K.C.S.I.. 1879. 


I.C.S. : born 1840 : son of Arthur 
Burnell, of the E.I. Co.'s Marine Service : 
educated at Bedford and King's College : 
after passing the open competitive exami- 
nation, went to Madras, i860 : held minor 
appointments and, from 1870, district 
judgeships in various districts, longest at 
Tanjore, until 1880, when his health, 
always indifferent, gave way. On his 
retirement, the Madras Government re- 
corded their regret for being " prematurely 
deprived of the services of so distinguished 
a scholar " : died Oct. 12, 1882. He began 
early to collect Sanskrit MSS., and made 
an extensive collection, which he presented 
to the India Office Library : was an 
excellent Sanskrit scholar : published 
translations from Sanskrit, and catalo- 
gues : also knew some Tibetan, Arabic, 
Kawi, Japanese, Coptic and Pali : travelled 
in Arabia, Egypt, Nubia : wrote a Hand- 
book of South Indian Palceography, on The 
Portuguese in India, The Aindra School of 
Sanskrit Grammarians, 1875 : made a 
catalogue of the Tanjore Library, and, 
with Sir H. Yule, compiled the Hobson- 
Jobson, a Glossary of Anglo-Indian collo- 
quial words and phrases : besides many 
papers on law, languages, ethnography 
and inscriptions : CLE. : and Ph.D. of 
the University, Strasburg. 



Political : son of James Burnes : born 
May 16, 1805, connected with the family 
of the poet Burns : educated at Montrose 
Academy : entered the E. I. Co.'s military 
service at 16 : Interpreter at Surat in 
1823 : transferred to Cutch in 1825 : 
sent, in 1830, on a mission, with a gift of 
horses, to Ranjit Singh at Lahore, and to 
explore the country : in 1832, travelled, 
under the orders of Government, in N. 
India, Afghanistan, Bokhara and Persia : 
in England in 1833-5, was lionized as a 
traveller : received the medal of the 
Royal Geographical Society, and elected 
member of learned Societies : on return 
to India, he succeeded, by negotiation at 
Hyderabad (Sind), in warding off war with 
the Amirs, who agreed to a survey of the 
Indus : in 1836, Burnes was sent on a 
mission, nominally commercial, but really 
political, to Dost Muhammad, Amir of 



Kabul : his discovery of Russia's intrigues, 
and the arrival of a Russian agent at 
Kabul, led to his advice, that Dost Muham- 
mad, the reigning Amir, should be sup- 
ported : but this advice was not accepted, 
the Amir's requests were rejected, and, 
by the second Afghan war. Shah Shuja 
was to be reinstated. Burnes was sent to 
Sind and Beluchistan, to prepare the way 
of the British Army : he was made, later, 
Political Agent at Kabul under the Envoy 
Sir W. H. Macnaghten : Shah Shuja 
was re-made Amir : Burnes was knighted, 
made Lt-Colonel : 'and C.B. : for 2 years, 
at Kabul, he had a subordinate position : 
the Afghan mob rose, not without warning, 
on Nov. 2, 184I; and Burnes was assassi- 
nated. It came to light, in 1861, that 
some of Burnes' despatches from Kabul, 
in 1839, had been altered, so as to convey 
opinions opposite to his. The matter 
was brought before Parliament, on an 
application for an inquiry : but Lord 
Palmerston's Government resisted the 
motion, which was defeated on the ground 
of the interval of time that had passed 
since the occurrence. 

BURNES, JAMES (1801-1862) 

Elder brother of Sir Alexander Burnes, 
(q.v.) : born Feb. 12, 1801 : educated at 
Edinburgh University and London hospi- 
tals : went out to Bombay with his 
brother, 1821 : was Residency Surgeon 
at Cutch : in the expedition of 1825 against 
Sind : invited, in 1827, by the Amirs to 
Sind : from 1837, he held medical and 
other scientific appointments at Bombay, 
and was Secretary and Member of the 
Medical Board and, finally, Physician- 
General, retiring in 1849 : President of 
the Medical and Physical Society : Vice- 
President of the Bombay Asiatic Society : 
was LL.D. of Glasgow, 1834 : F.R.C.P. 
of Edinburgh : F.R.S. and a Knight of 
the Guelphic Order : wrote a Narrative 
of a Visit to Sind, and a History of Cutch : 
died Sep. 19, 1862. 

BURNEY, HENRY ( ? -1846?) 
Captain : attached to the 20th (Marine) 
N.L : on duty at Prince of Wales' Island : 
learnt Malay : acquired knowledge of the 
Archipelago and Malacca : appointed 
MiUtary Secretary of the Penang Govern- 
ment : employed to negotiate with Malay 
and Siamese Chiefs : Political Agent to 
Siamese States, 1825 : Envoy to Siam : 

obtained the release of 1,400 Burmans and 
Peguese : Deputy Commissioner of Tenas- 
serim, 1827-9 = Resident at the Court of 
Ava, 1829-38 : contributed papers to the 
J.A.S.B., about Ava: wrote a Historical 
Review of the Political Relations between 
British India and Ava : had a Dictionary 
of Pali compiled : returned to India, 
1842 : died there in 1845-6. 


Born at Valognes, Aug. 25, 1821 : cousin 
of the Orientalist, Eugene Burnouf {q.v. ) : 
studied at Paris : appointed Professor of 
Oriental studies at Nancy, 1854: in 1867, 
Director of the Ecole Fran^ aise at Athens : 
returned to France in 1875, and settled at 
Paris : as an Indian scholar, his chief 
works are : — his Sanskrit Grammar, 
brought out in collaboration with Leupol, 
1859 : a Sanskrit and French Dictionary, 
1863-5 : Essai sur le Veda, 1863 : Bha- 
gavad-Gita, translation, 1861, 1895. 

BURNOUF, EUGENE (1801-1852) 

Born at Paris, Aug. 12, 1801 : son of 
Jean Louis Burnouf, grammarian : a 
pupil of Chezy : studied at the College of 
Louis-le-Grand : scholar : gave up his 
profession, the law, and took to Oriental 
languages : gave instruction in Sanskrit, 
1824 : published in 1826, with Lassen of 
Bonn, the Essai sur le Pali : appointed 
Professor of General and Comparative 
Grammar in the Normal School at Paris, 
1829-33 : and of Indian Languages and 
Literature at the College de France, 1832 : 
a founder of the Societe Asiatique in 
Paris : published, 1833, a commentary on 
the Yacna, dealing with the language, 
literature, and history of the Parsis : 
brought out his Etudes sur la langue et les 
textes Zendes, 1840-50 : the earliest to 
study Zend MSS. at first hand, giving 
a great impulse to the study of that lan- 
guage, and assistance in the decipherment 
of the old Persian cuneiform inscriptions : 
wrote 3 vols, of his work on the text 
and translation of the Bhagavat Purana, 
1840-4 : and began an introduction to the 
History of Indian Buddhism, 1844 : trans- 
lated a Sanskrit work on Le Lotus de la 
Bonne Lot, 1852, and the Vendidad Sade, 
1829 : and wrote on the Buddhist inscrip- 
tions on pillars and rocks : left other 
Zend works and a Pali grammar and 
dictionary nearly complete : Permanent 



Secretary of the Academy of Inscriptions : 
Member of the Institute of France since 
1832 : a great European Orientalist : 
died May 28, 1852. 


Ma j -General : born in 1753 : entered 
the E. I. Co.'s Bengal Army as a volunteer 
in 1770 : Corporal, 1771 ; Serjeant, 1772 ; 
Serjeant-Major, 1775 ; Ensign, 1779 ; Maj- 
General, 1821 : was at the battle of 
Cutra, April 23, i774 : in the capture of 
Gwalior under Popham in 1780 : fought 
under Col. J ohn Gardiner at Malavilli : 
and Seringapatam, 1799 : engaged in 
Mysore, in Lord Lake's campaigns of 1803, 
and 1804-5 : commanded a Brigade in 
1 81 7 against the Pindaris, and, later, the 
British forces in Oudh, and at Cuttack : 
after 1821 he retired, and died Sep. 13, 

BURROW, REUBEN (1747-1792) 
A distinguished mathematician and 
astronomer : born Dec. 30, i747. son of a 
farmer : educated at Leeds : became a 
clerk, usher, schoolmaster, assistant astro- 
nomer and schoolmaster at Greenwich, 
arithmetical teacher at the Tower, edited 
the Royal Almanack, went to India in 1782, 
learnt Sanskrit : wrote to Warren Hastings, 
then Governor-General : appointed to 
teach mathematics to the Engineers, and 
on the Survey of Bengal : an early member 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, for whom, 
and the Asiatic Researches, he contributed 
eleven papers about the mathematics and 
astronomy of the Hindus : died at Baxar, 
June 7, 1792. 



Traveller, author and linguist : son of 
Colonel J. Netterville Burton : born 
March 19, 1821 : educated on the con- 
tinent, without system, and was at Trinity 
College, Oxford, for 5 terms from 1840 : 
to India, 1842, in the Bombay Native 
Army : made himself proficient in Oriental 
languages and studied Muhammadan life 
and customs thoroughly, at Baroda and 
in the Sind Survey : wrote on Pushto and 
Beluchi : while in England, from 1849 to 
1853, he published works on languages 
and his Indian experiences. In 1853 he 
made the pilgrimage to Mecca in disguise, 
without being detected, and wrote a full 

account of it. In 1854 he visited Somali- 
land with the leave of the Bombay Govern- 
ment : wrote Footsteps in E. Africa : in 
1855, served in the Crimean war in the 
Bashibazouks : on leave from India, led 
an expedition with Speke to discover the 
sources of the Nile, 1856-9 : gained the 
gold medal of the Royal Geographical 
Society, 1859 : left the Indian service, 
only visiting that country again in 1876, 
to Aden, Sind and Goa. The rest of his 
life was spent in the Consular service at 
Fernando Po, in Brazil, Damascus, Trieste 
(1872-90), and in extensive travels in 
North and South America, on the Gold 
Coast, and in other countries adjacent to 
his consular appointments. His literary 
work was very considerable. He wrote 
on Camoens and translated the Lusiad : 
planned a great Book of the Sword : and 
translated the Arabian Nights, with a 
fulness of text and notes which laid bare 
his minute knowledge of Oriental nature : 
his works exceeded 50 volumes. His wife 
accompanied him wherever possible in 
his appointments and travels : and wrote 
a life of him, which was corrected by 
another account : made K.C.M.G. in 1885 : 
died at Trieste, Oct. 20, 1890. 

DE (1718-1785) 

French officer : was in La Bourdonnais' 
expedition to India in 1746 : through his 
influence, Salabat Jang was made Nizam 
of Hyderabad in 175 1, on the death of 
Muzaflfar Jang : Bussy secured French 
ascendency at Hyderabad and the grant 
of the Northern Sircars : fighting for the 
Nizam, he defeated the Nawab of Savanore, 
but was, through jealousy, ordered in 1756 
to leave the Nizam's territory : soon 
regained his supremacy : refused assist- 
ance to Sturajuddaula, Nawab Nazim of 
Murshidabad in 1757 : he seized Vizagapa- 
tam and other English fortresses, and 
secured Daulatabad for Salabat Jang. In 
June, 1758, when at the zenith of his 
power, he was recalled by Lally, the new 
French Governor-General at Pondicherry : 
in the battle of Wandiwash, in which Sir 
Ejnre Coote defeated Lally, in Jan., 1760, 
Bussy was taken prisoner by the English, 
but released. After the capture of 
Pondicherry on Jan. 16, 1761, no mention 
is made of Bussy in India until 1783, whea 



he was landed with French troops, by 
Admiral Suflxein, to reinforce Cuddalore, 
then besieged by the English. On the 
declaration of peace between France and 
England, Bussy withdrew the French 
troops from the support of Tippoo. He 
is said to have gained a large fortune in 
India and to have been highly regarded 
by Dupleix. He died at Pondicherry, 
Jan. 1785. 


(1833- ) 

Brig-Surgeon : entered the Madras 
Medical service, 1856 : served in the 
Indian mutiny : at the relief of Lucknow, 
1857 : was in the Assay Department of 
the Mints at Madras, Bombay, and Cal- 
cutta, successively : confirmed as Assay- 
master, Calcutta, 1872 : acted as Mint- 
master, 1873 and 1875 : retired, June, 
1886 : C.I.E., 1887 : author of Echoes 
from Old Calcutta. 

Major : son of Rev. Stephen Butler : 
educated privately : joined the 1st Bengal 
FusiUers : in the mutiny, at the assault 
of Delhi, displayed great bravery : wound- 
ed : at the attack on Lucknow, March 9, 
1858, twice swam the River Gumti and 
gained the V.C. : in the attack on Ruiya, 
April 15, 1858 : in the N.W. frontier 
campaign, 1863 : died May 17, 1901. 


Born June 15, 1827 : son of Rev. G. 
Bythesea : educated at Grosvenor College, 
Bath : entered the Navy, 1841 : Rear- 
Admiral, 1877 : gained the V.C. in the 
Russian war, 1854-5 '■ saw service in China 
and elsewhere, in command of various 
vessels : Naval Attache at Washington, 
1865-7 : Consulting Naval Officer to the 
Government of India, 1874-80 : C.B. : 

CADELL, ALAN (1841- ) 

I.C.S. : born July 28, 1841 : son of John 
Cadell : educated at Edinburgh Academy 
and University and in Germany : entered 
the Bengal Civil Service, 1862 : was Com- 
missioner of Agra and Rohilkund : Member 
of the Board of Revenue, and Member of 
the Legislative Council, United Provinces : 
'acted as Lieutenant-Governor of the 

United Provinces, Jan. to Nov., 1895, and 
as temporary Member of the Governor- 
General's Supreme Council, Feb. to May, 
1896 : C.S.I. in 1895 i] retired in 1897. 


Born Aug. 23, 1844 : daughter of 
William Nash, merchant, London : was an 
excellent French scholar : was in India, 
1858-64 : went with her husband, Capt. 
Henry Mowbray Cadell (died 1867), to 
Peshawar : wrote a novel, Ida Craven, on 
frontier life, 1876 : and Worthy : learnt 
Hindustani, Persian and some Arabic, 
studied Omar Khayyam, and prepared 
a superior edition and translation, pub- 
lished, 1899 : wrote an article on it in 
Eraser's Magazine : was closely connected 
with the Anglo-Indian Association, 1873- 
81 : her health gave way, and she died 
June 17, 1884. 

CADELL, SIR ROBERT (1825-1897) 
General : son of H. F. Cadell : educated 
at Edinburgh Academy and Addiscombe : 
entered the Madras Artillery, 1843 : on 
the Turkish Staff in the Crimea, 1854-5 : 
served in the Indian mutiny : Inspr- 
General of Ordnance at Madras, 1876-81 : 
C.B., 1873 : General, 1883, and Colonel 
Commandant, R.A., 1885 : K.C.B., 1894 : 
died June 30, 1897. 


Colonel : born Sep. 5, 1835 : son of 
H. F. Cadell, of Cockenzie, Haddington- 
shire : educated at Edinburgh University, 
Grange, Sunderland and abroad : served 
with the 2nd European Bengal Fusiliers 
(now the Munsters), at the siege of Delhi 
and subsequent operations, and with the 
3rd Bengal Cavalry in the Oudh cam- 
paign : commanded a flying column in 
Bundelkund. After the mutiny, Cadell 
entered the Political Department and 
served in Central India and Rajputana : 
was Chief Commissioner of the Andamans 
from 1879 to 1892 : received his V.C. for 
saving life on two occasions at the Flagstaff 
Picket, Delhi, on June 12, 1857, bringing 
in wounded men under severe fire. 

CAILLAUD, JOHN (1724-1812) 

Born 1724 : joined Onslow's regt., 
afterwards the 8th King's, in 1743 : fought 
at Fontenoy and Culloden : petitioned 
the E.I. Co. for a Commission in 1752 : 




joined Stringer Lawrence at Trichinopoly 
with troops in i753 : was repulsed before 
Madura in April, 1757 : defended Trichino- 
poly : defeated the Mysoreans near 
Madura : in Nov. i759. he arrived at 
Calcutta, appointed to the chief military 
command in Bengal : took command of 
the British force co-operating with the 
Nawab of Bengal to protect Bihar against 
the Shahzada : defeated the Emperor at 
Sirsi, Feb. 22, 1760 : took a prominent 
part in deposing Mir J afar, and setting up 
Mir Kasim : Lt-Colonel in the E. Indies, 
Jan. 1760 : reverted to Madras, 1761 : 
Brig-General, 1763 : appointed C. in C, 
Madras, in succession to Lawrence, 1766 : 
took possession of the Northern Sircars 
for the E. I. Co. in 1766 : concluded a 
treaty with Nizam Ali of Hyderabad to 
pay a yearly tribute of 7 lakhs for the 
Sircars : resigned, Jan. 1767, and went 
to England : D.C.L., Oxford, 1773 : he 
died in England, at Aston Rowant, Dec. 
26, 1812. 


Born March 26, 1842, son of Nathaniel 
Caine, wine merchant : educated at 
Birkenhead Park School : entered his 
father's business : preached : was M.P. 
for Scarborough, 1880 : Civil Lord of the 
Admiralty, 1884 : M.P. for Barrow-in- 
Furness, 1886: resigned his seat, 1886: 
M.P. for E. Bradford, 1892-5, for Cam- 
borne from 1900 : Temperance and India 
were his two chief subjects : was a strong 
teetotaler, and advocate of advanced 
temperance : President of the National 
Temperance Federation, and of similar 
Associations : a severe critic of the Govern- 
ment of India, and great friend of the 
natives of India : paid much attention 
to the Indian Excise (liquor) question : 
was strongly opposed to the Opium 
trade : paid visits to India : criticized 
missionary work in India : was a Member 
of the Royal Commission on Indian 
Expenditure : died March 17, 1903 : 
wrote Picturesque India, and Young 

CAIRD, SIR JAMES (1816-1892) 

One of the greatest authorities of his 
time on all agricultural subjects : son of 
James Caird, born June, 1816 : educated 
at Edinburgh High School and University : 

farmed for 20 years : engaged in the 
Free Trade controversy : reported on 
Ireland in 1850, and for the Times on 
agricultural depression : was M.P. for 
Dartmouth and the Stirling Burghs : 
1857-65 : toured in America, and served 
on various Commissions : F.R.S., CB. 
and K.C.B. in 1882 : visited India for 
six months in 1878-9, as a Member of 
Sir R. Strachey's Indian Famine Com- 
mission : published an account of his 
experiences, first in the Nineteenth Century^ 
and afterwards in a volume, India, the 
Land and the People : was afterwards a 
Member of other Commissions on land 
questions : LL.D. of Edinburgh : on the 
Board of Agriculture in 1889, and Privy 
Councillor : died Feb. 9, 1892. 


Son of William Caldwell : born Feb. i, 
1763 : educated at Woolwich, and joined 
the Bengal Artillery in 1783 : commanded 
at Midnapur in 1792 : was at Pondicherry 
in 1793 : in 1798 led the Artillery which 
defeated the Nizam's Army : he was at 
the battle of Malavilli, and the sieges of 
Seringapatam in 1799, and Gooty: in 1800 
to Calcutta as A.D.C. to Maj -General G. 
Green. In 181 1, he commanded the 
Artillery in Sir A. Auchmuty's expedition 
to Java, being present at the Batavia and 
Cornells engagements : commanded the 
Artillery at Agra in 181 2 against Zaman 
Shah : CB. in 1817 : retired, 1821 : 
Maj-General and K.C.B. in 1839 : G.C.B. 
in 1838 : died Dec. 6, 1839. 



Son of Major Arthur Caldwell, and 
nephew of General Sir Alexander Cald- 
well [q.v.) : born Nov. 22, 1770 : joined 
the Madras Engineers of the E. I. Co. in 
1789 : became General, 1854 : was in the 
Mysore campaign of 179 1-2 under Lord 
Cornwallis against Tippoo and in all the 
fighting up to the siege of Seringapatam in 
Feb .-March, 1792 : led a party in the 
final assault on Seringapatam on May 4, 
1799. After 10 years on civil public 
works, he was, in 1810-11, Chief Engineer 
on the expedition to Mauritius : defeated 
the French by sea and took the island. 
In Madras, from 18 11, he had more engin- 
eering work, and was special Surveyor of 



fortresses : C.B. in 1815 : was Com- 
missioner for the restoration of French 
settlements on the Coromandel and Malabar 
coasts, and Chief Engineer of Madras in 
1816 : retired in 1837 and was made 
K.C.B. : and G.C.B., 1848 : died June 28, 
1863. He painted in water-colours with 
great skill. 



Missionary and linguist : born May 7, 
1814 : at first he studied art in Dublin : 
went to Glasgow University : B.A., 1837 : 
sent by the London Missionary Society to 
Madras, 1838 : ordained, 1841 : joined 
the English Church, 1841, and the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel : also in 
1841 made his residence at Idaiyangudi, 
"the shepherds' abode," in Tinnevelly, 
and entered on his 50 years' missionary 
work, during which the Christians of 
Tinnevelly increased from 6,000 to 100,000. 
He was, in 1877, consecrated Bishop of 
Tinnevelly as coadjutor to the Bishop of 
Madras : resigned his Bishopric on Jan. 31, 
and died at Kodaikanal on the Pulny 
Hills on Aug. 28, 1891. He studied 
comparative philology, and his linguistic 
attainments were great : helped to revise 
the Tamil Prayer Book and Bible, col- 
lected Sanskrit MSS : published a 
Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian 
or South Indian Family of Languages in 
1856 : wrote on the " Tinnevelly Shanars," 
the general, political and mission history 
of Tinnevelly, besides other works on 
religion : LL.D. of Glasgow, 1857, and 
D.D. of Durham, 1874. 


Son of John Call : born in 1732 : went 
to India in 1749, with Benjamin Robins, 
Chief Engineer and Captain-General of 
\rtillery : arrived at Fort William, 1750 : 
deputed to fortify St. David near Madras, 
[751 : accompanied Clive, 1752, against 
he French : Engineer-in-Chief at Fort 
>t. David, 1752-7 : Chief Engineer at 
vladras and the Coromandel Coast, 1758 : 
it the siege of Pondicherry and Vellore : 
vas in the war of 1767-8 against Hyder 
\ Vli : Member of Council, Madras, in 1768 : 
etired, 1770, to England : was High 
heriff of Cornwall, 1771 : Commissioner on 
J'rown Lands, Woods, and Forests, 1782 : 

M.P. for Callington from 1784 : Baronet 
in 1791 : F.R.S. : became blind in 1795 : 
died March i, 1801. 

CALLCOTT, MARIA, LADY (1785-1842) 

Daughter of Rear-Admiral George 
Dundas, whom she accompanied to India 
early in 1808 : she married Capt. Thomas 
Graham, R.N., 1809 : and travelled in 
India : returned to England, 1811 : 
sailed with her husband for S. America in 
1821 : he died off Cape Horn in 1822 : 
she manied, in 1827, Augustus Wall 
Callcott, R.A., who was knighted on the 
Queen's Accession, 1837 : she died Nov. 28, 
1842 : she wrote, as Maria Graham, 
lournal of a Residence in India, 1812 
Letters on India, 18 14, besides other 
works on travels, etc. : including Little 
Arthur'' s Hidory of England, 1835. 


Son of Hormusji Cama : of "a Gujarat 
Parsi family ; in commercial partnership 
with his brothers, 1828 to 1871 : the 
Cama family established the first Indian 
house of business in London, in 1855 : 
Pestonji Cama led a retired life : made a 
large trust for charitable purposes : and 
gave Rs. 164,000 for the Cama Hospital 
for Females and Children in Bombay : 
a staunch supporter of native female 
education : warmly interested in the 
cause of reform and progress in native 
movements : promoted the Victoria Gar- 
dens, and various associations for the 
advancement of natives : an early Free- 
mason : CLE., 1887 : died about Jan. 21, 

CAMAC, JACOB ( ? - ? ) 

In the 84th regt. till 1763 : Lieutenant, 
Oct., 1763 : commanded the 24th Bengal 
Infantry from 1766 for many years at 
Ramghar : served in 1779 under Popham 
against Sindia, whom he defeated at 
Durdah : Lt-Colonel, Jan., 1781 : re- 
tired, Dec. 2, 1782 : died of fever in Ire- 

Son of Lt-Colonel W. G. Cameron, 
Grenadier Guards : served in the Seaforth 
Highlanders (72nd), in the Crimea, and in 
the Indian mutiny : severely wounded at 
the storming of Kotah, where he gained 



his V.C. : commanded the King's Own 
Borderers, 1881-1883 : Chief of the 
Intelligence Department, 1883-6 : Com- 
mandant of Royal Military College, 
Sandhurst, 1886-8: General. 


Barrister : son of Charles Cameron : 
born on Feb. 11, 1795 : called to the bar 
from Lincoln's Inn, 1820 : was a Com- 
missioner on judicial affairs in Ceylon, 
and the poor-laws, in 183 1-3 : after the 
statute of 1833, he was appointed Member 
of the Law Commission and went to 
India in 1835 : co-operated in law-making 
and codification with Macaulay, the Legal 
Member : was in 1843 himself Legal 
Member of the Supreme Council till 1848 : 
and President of the Council of Education : 
retired in 1848 : went to Ceylon in 1875, 
and died there. May 8, 1880. 



Son of Captain Robert Cameron, R.N. : 
entered the E. I. Co.'s military service, 
1821 : served in the S. Mahratta country, 
1824-5 : served in Portugal, 1832-3 : 
sent to Constantinople and Persia : served 
in the Persian Army, 1836-8 : command- 
ing at Tabriz : visited Circassia : C.B. : 
Political Agent with the Nawab of Arcot, 
in Madras, 1842 : in command in the 
Nilgiri Hills, 1855 : retired, 1858 : wrote 
an account of his travels, 1845, and The 
Romance of Military Life, 1853 : died 
Feb. 12, 1882. 


( ? -1885) 

Went out to India in a merchant's 
house : acted as Editor of the Bombay 
Gazette : was a special war-correspondent 
in the Afghan war, 1878, on the Kandahar 
side : went out to the battle-field of 
Maiwand, July 27, 1880 : was similarly 
employed as correspondent in Egypt, 
Madagascar, Tonquin, the Nile expedi- 
tion, from 1880-5 : killed in the fighting 
after Abuklea on Jan. 18, 1885 : a tablet 
put up to his memory in St. Paul's 


( ?i:-i79i) 

Maj-General and K.B. : Captain in 1758, 
wounded at Quebec ; as Colonel, captured 
Savannah in 1778 : made Governor of 

Jamaica : appointed Governor of Madras, 
April 6, 1786 : and in the same year C. in 
C. During his period of rule he attempted 
a settlement of the vexed Question con- 
cerning the revenues of the Carnatic : the 
treaty of 1787 was his work. Ill-health 
caused him to resign in 1789 : he died 
i79i» and was buried in Westminster 

BARONET (1769-1843) 
Son of Captain A. Campbell : born 
March 12, 1769 : entered the Army, 1787 : 
went to Bombay, 1788, and served under 
Sir Robert Abercromby, 1790-2 : was 
at Seringapatam, 1792 : at Cochin, 1795, 
and the defeat of the Dutch in Ceylon, 
1796 : was at Seedaseer and the final 
siege of Seringapatam, 1799 : served in 
Portugal and under Sir John Moore, 1808 : 
commanded a Portuguese regt., 1810 : 
was Brig-General with the Portuguese, 
1811 : knighted, 1814 : K.C.B. 1815 : 
was Portuguese Maj-General, 18 16, in 
command at Lisbon : went to India again 
with his regiment, 1821 : commanded in 
the first Burmese war, 1824-6, and took 
Rangoon and Prome, and, marching on 
Ava, made the Treaty of Yandaboo in 
Feb., 1826 : G.C.B. : governed the ceded 
Provinces still 1829, when he returned to 
England : Baronet, 1831 : Lieutenant- 
Governor of New Brunswick, 183 1-7 : 
Lt-General, 1838 : was unable through 
ill-health to accept the appointment of 
C. in C. Bombay in 1839 : Colonel of the 
62nd regt., 1840 : died Oct. 6, 1843. 


( ? -1832) 

Major, son of William Campbell : 
entered the Bengal Artillery in 1805 : 
served under Lord Lake : was, in 1801, 
Adjutant and Quarter-master of Artillery : 
held other appointments on the General 
Staff of the Army : Deputy Secretary in 
the Military Department and in charge of 
the Cossipur Gun Factory : wrote, in the 
British Indian Military Repository, papers 
on professional subjects, including <the 
History of Sieges in Bengal :J he diedjMay 
19. 1832. 

CAMPBELL, SIR COLIN (1776-1847) 

Son of John Campbell : was born in 

1776 : from the Perth Academy he ran 

away to sea, 1792 : brought home from 



Jamaica : Midshipman on an East India- 
man, 1793 : joined the militia, 1795 ; 
the Army, 1799 : went to India in 1 801-2 : 
was under Arthur Wellesley at Ahmadna- 
gar, Assaye and Argaum : A.D.C. to Lord 
Wellesley, and returned with him to 
England, 1805 : served in Hanover, 
Denmark, in Portugal, the Peninsula : 
was at a number of engagements, and was 
A.Q.M.G : K.C.B., in 1814 : was at 
Waterloo : Maj - General, 1825 : Lt- 
Governor of Nova Scotia, 1833 : Governor 
of Ceylon, 1839-47 : died in England, 
June 13, 1847 

CAMPBELL, DONALD (1751-1804) 
Captain of a Cavalry regt. in the service 
of the Nawab of the Carnatic : at the age 
of 30 he made a journey to India and 
published an account of it, 1795: travelled 
via Venice, Trieste, Zante, Alexandria, 
Cyprus, Aleppo, Badgad, Russia and 
Bushire : by sea to Bombay and Goa : 
shipwrecked on the coast on his way to 
Madras : captured by Hyder All's soldiers 
and imprisoned at Hydernagar, in com- 
pany with one Hall, to whom he was 
chained. Hall died in prison, and his 
gaoler refused to remove the corpse for 
several days : eventually, on General 
Matthew's approach, he was released 
in order to negotiate with him on behalf 
of Hyat Singh, Hyder's General : with 
despatches for the Governments of Bom- 
bay and Madras, he proceeded by sea to 
Anjengo, travelled by land through 
Travancore, Tinnevelly, Madura, Trichi- 
nopoly, Tanjore to Negapatam, and 
Madras : with Lord Macartney's permis- 
sion, went on to Calcutta and, on behalf 
of Hyat Singh, negotiated with Warren 
Hastings : returned overland to Madras 
and Anjengo : thence by sea to Bombay : 
again visited Madras and China, and re- 
turned to England in 1785, after four 
years' absence : died June 5, 1804. 

GERALD, BARONET (1822-1882) 
Son of Maj -General Sir Guy Campbell, 
Bart. C.B.,born Oct. 25, 1822 : educated 
at Sandhurst : entered the Army in the 
6oth Rifles, 1841 : Lt-Colonel, 1870 : 
retired 1872 : served with distinction 
in the Panjab campaign of 1848-9, was 
at the siege of Multan and at Gujarat : 
in 1849 was A.D.C, to the C. in C, Sir C. 
Napier : was at the siege of Delhi in 1857 : 

Military Secretary to Lord Canning when 
Governor-General, 1857-61 : was Assistant 
Inspector of Volunteers, 1864 : died Nov. 
23, 1882. 

I.C.S. : son of Sir G. Campbell of Eden- 
wood, of the E.I. Co.'s Medical service : 
born in 1824 : educated at the Edinburgh 
New Academy, St. Andrew's, Madras 
College, and the University, Haileybury : 
went to India, 1842 : served in the N.W.P. 
and Cis-Satlaj States : and in 1849 in 
the Panjab after the annexation, which 
he had advocated in the Mofussilite 
newspaper. While on furlough he was 
called to the bar from the Inner Temple, 
1854, and wrote Modern India, 1852 : 
in 1855, he assisted J. R. Colvin in the 
government of the N.W.P., and became 
Commissioner of the Cis-Satlaj States : was 
engaged in the mutiny of i857,about Delhi, 
Agra, Cawpiu:, Lucknow : was provisional 
Civil Commissioner : accidentally cap- 
tured three guns : wrote letters on the 
mutiny to the Times,dind an official account 
of it for Lord Canning : was second 
Civil Commissioner for Oudh : appointed 
Judge of the High Court, Calcutta, 1862 : 
was head of the Commission on the Orissa 
famine of 1866-7 : Chief Commissioner 
of the Central Provinces in Nov., 1867 : 
Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal from March, 
1871, to April, 1874, when, on account of 
ill-health, he retired, having commenced 
the relief operations against the Bengal 
famine of 1873-4. His rule in Bengal 
was very energetic, being intended to 
rouse the Province from its alleged 
lethargy. He passed the District Road 
Cess Act, and gave a great impetus to 
Education, especially primary : K.CS.I. 
in 1873 : M.P. for Kirkcaldy 1875-92, 
but was not successful as a politician : 
died at Cairo, Feb. 18, 1892 : wrote 
several works : the chief being The 
Ethnology of India, The Capital of India, 
Tenure of Land in India, The Eastern 
Question, besides papers on Ethnology and 
languages and land questions : he was 
D.C.L. of Oxford, 1870. His auto- 
biography was, after his death, edited by 
Sir C. E. Bernard {q.v.) 


I.C.S. : born 1847: son of Rev. J. M. 
Campbell, D.D. : educated at Glasgow : 



D.C.L. Glasgow : went out to Bombay, 
1869 : Under Secretary to Government 
in Political, Judicial Departments, 1880 : 
acted as Commissioner of Customs, Salt, 
Opium and Abkari, 1897 : Chairman of 
the Bombay Plague Committee, 1897 : 
Commissioner, 1900 : retired, 1900 : C.I.E., 
1885 : K.C.I.E. 1897 : compiled the 
Bombay Gazetteer, 1873-84, in 26 volumes : 
wrote a history of Mandoghar, the capital 
of the Muhammadan kingdom of Malwa, 
and " Notes on the Spirit Basis of BeUef 
and Custom," in the Indian Antiquary, 
1894-1901 : died May 26, 1903. 

CAMPBELL, JOHN (1753-1784) 

Son of John Campbell, Lord Stonefield : 
born Dec. 7, i753 = entered the Army 
in 1771 : served in America : went as 
Lt-Colonel to India in 1782 : was engaged 
against Hyder Ali : was at Bednore and 
Anantapur : the British force being 
driven into Mangalore by Tippoo, Camp- 
bell was left in command and made the 
famous defence of that town from May, 
i783,to Jan.,1784, when he was compelled 
to surrender : he died, from his exertions, 
Feb. 23, 1784. 

CAMPBELL, SIR JOHN (1802-1878) 

Son of John Campbell of Lochead : born 
in 1802 : entered the E. I. Go's service, 
1820: served in Madras : in 1834 was in 
command in subduing the hill tribes in 
Orissa : in the Gumsur war, 1836-7 : was 
deputed, 1837-42, to the civil duty of 
stopping the practices of human sacrifice 
and female infanticide among the Khonds 
of Orissa : went to China, 1842 : C.B. : 
was again sent to his former duty among 
the Khonds, 1847-9 : returned to Scot- 
land, 1855 : Maj-General, 1872 : died 
April 22, 1878 : published a personal 
narrative of his 13 years' (not uninter- 
rupted) work among the Khonds, which 
led to controversy with the family of the 
officer who had, in his absence, favoured 
a different policy with that native race. 

CAMPBELL, JOHN (1817- ) 

Surgeon-major : born April 27, 1817 : 
son of Capt. Thomas Campbell R.N. : 
educated at St. George's.London, Aberdeen 
University, and King's College : entered 
the Bengal Medical Service in 1840 : 
served in the Afghan war, 1842, on the 
line of the Khyber, and with Pollock's 

force : with Sir Charles Napier in Sind : 
in the Indian mutiny was at Chinhut and 
the siege of Lucknow, for which he received 
his C.B. 

DICK (1846- ) 
Entered the Army, 1863 : served in the 
Hazara expedition, 1868 ; Dour Valley 
expedition, 1872 ; Afghanistan, 1878-9; 
Mahsud-Waziri expedition, 1881 ; China, 
1900-01, where he commanded the lines 
of communication : commands the 
Bundelkund District, India, since 1901 : 


(1864- ) 

Joined the Gordon Highlanders, 1887 : 
served in the Waziristan Field Force, 
1894-5 ; Chitral ReUef Force, 1895 ; 
Tirah expedition, 1897-8, including Dargai, 
Sampagha, and Arhanga ; South Africa, 
1899-1902, with ist Batt. Gordon High- 
landers : Brig-Major, Highland Brigade, 
and D.A.A.G., Army Head Quarters : 
D.A.Q.M.G., Head Quarters Staff : D.S.O. 

CANARAN, CHURIA (1812-1876) 
Born at Mahe, 1812 : son of a jailor 
at Tellicherry, whom he succeeded, 1829- 
32 : learnt several languages besides his 
own vernacular Malayalam, and rose, from 
his first appointment in 1832, through a 
succession of posts in the judicial and 
revenue offices, to be a Deputy Magis- 
trate-Collector in 1859, retiring as a first- 
class officer at the end of 1869, after 39 
years' service, having performed such excel- 
lent work in respect to the Moplah dis- 
turbances in Malabar, 1852-5, his coura- 
geous conduct exposing him to great 
danger, that for his "conspicuous and 
most valuable" services therein and in 
revenue matters, he was granted a pension 
equal to his full pay : died Oct. 18, 1876. 


(1845- ) 

I.C.S. : born April 15, 1845 : son of Major 
Thomas Candy : educated at Cheltenham : 
entered the Bombay Civil Service, 1865 : 
was Judicial Assistant to the PoHtical 
Agent, Kattiawar, 1872-82 : officiating 
Judicial Commissioner in Sind, 1886-7 : 
Vice-chancellor of the Bombay University, 
1 897-1902 : Judge of the Bombay High 
Court, 1889-1902 : Member of the Police 



Commission, 1902-3 : retired in 1903 : 
C.S.I, in 1903 : Knight Bachelor in 1904. 



Governor-General and first Viceroy : 
third son of George Canning the statesman': 
born Dec. 14, 1812 : educated at Putney, 
Eton, privately, and at Christ Church, 
Oxford : first class in classics and second 
class in mathematics : M.P. for Warwick 
in 1836 : succeeded to his mother's 
peerage in 1837 : Under-Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs, 1 841-6, and Chief Com- 
missioner for Woods and Forests : was a 
follower of Sir Robert Peel : Postmaster- 
General in Lord Aberdeen's and Lord 
Palmerston's Governments in 1853-5 : 
Governor-General of India, Feb. 29, 1856 : 
Viceroy from Nov. i, 1858. In his first 
year of office he had to arrange for the 
war with Persia, in which Sir James 
Outram {q.v.) had the command. The 
events of the mutiny of 1857-8 constitute 
the history of India rather than the 
biography of Canning. Its causes orginated 
before his time. He was not alone in 
failing at first to appreciate adequately 
the symptoms and the extent of the out- 
break : but, on grasping its character, he 
rose to the occasion. He detained troops 
on their way to China, and expedited the 
dispatch of reinforcements to the affected 
districts of Upper India. He showed 
calmness, courage, judgment, firmness, 
foresight, and acquired the name of 
" Clemency Canning " for his moderation 
in punishment, and his repression of 
vindictiveness. He became unpopular 
on account of this policy. He trusted his 
chief officers, Sir Henry, and Sir John, 
Lawrence, his commanders in the field, 
his immediate advisers and others : but 
preserved his own right to decide, when 
he disagreed with them. For a time he 
assumed personally the government of the 
N.W.P. By his Oudh proclamation he 
confiscated, with exceptions, the land of 
that province. This led to the controversy 
which ended in the resignation of Lord 
Ellenborough, the President of the Board 
of Control. He carried out the transfer 
on Nov. I, 1858, of the Government of 
India from the E. I. Co. to the Crown : and 
was made an Earl. In 1859-60 and 
1860-1 he made prolonged tours in Upper 
India. He had to deal with all the 
troubles resulting from the mutiny, the 

reorganization of the finances and of the 
Army required for India : the reforms in 
the Indian Councils, the development of 
education, the question of the income-tax, 
the grant of adoption sunnuds to native 
chiefs, with the famine of 1 860-1 in the 
N.W.P. The death of Lady Canning 
from fever, in Nov. 18 61, was universally 
deplored. He left India on March 18, 
1862, in bad health: died June 17, 1862, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
He had been made K.G. for his services 
in India. 

COUNTESS (1817-1861) 
Daughter of Lord Stuart de Rothesay ; 
born March 31, 1817, married, Sep. 5> i835» 
in London to the Hon. Charles John 
Canning, afterwards Earl Canning, {q.v.), 
first Viceroy of India. She was constantly 
at Court as Lady-in -Waiting in attendance 
on Queen Victoria. Her death at Calcutta, 
Nov. 18, 1 861, was deeply lamented. 
She returned to Calcutta on Nov. 8, after a 
month's visit to Darjeeling. She had 
caught jungle fever on her way down, when 
passing through the malarious country at 
the foot of the hills and in the Purnea 
district. She was buried in Barrackpur 
Park, on the banks of the Ganges. All 
accounts testify to her noble, simple and 
beautiful character, her talents and mental 
gifts, her personal appearance,her gracious- 
ness and dignity : in the trying time of 
the mutiny she rendered great help to her 
husband by her devotion, loyalty and 
self-sacrifice, by her calm and steady 
courage, her patience and self-possession, 
" no one was ever more admired and looked 
up to by every class of her Majesty's 
subjects." Lord Canning wrote this 
inscription for the monument over her 
grave : " Honoxurs and praises written on 
a tomb are at best but vain-glory : but 
that her charity, humility, meekness and 
watchful faith in her Saviour wUl, for 
that Saviour's sake, be accepted of God 
and be to her a glory everlasting, is the 
firm trust of those who knew her best and 
most dearly loved her in life, and who 
cherish the memory of her, departed." 

CANNING, GEORGE (1770-1827) 
Son of George Canning : born April 11, 
1770 : educated at Eton and Christ Church, 
Oxford : M.P. for Newport, i794 '• for 



Wendover, 1797 : Under Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs, 1796-9 : Commissioner 
of the Board of Control (commonly called 
the India Board) 1799- 1800 : Foreign 
Secretary, 1807 : fought a duel with Lord 
Castlereagh, Sep. 22, 1809 : M.P. for 
Liverpool, 1812 : President of the Board 
of Control, June 4, 1816, to Jan. 12, 1821 : 
nominated Governor - General of India 
March, 1822, but, on Lord Castlereagh's 
death. Canning resigned that appointment 
and again became Foreign Secretary, 
1822 : M.P. for Harwich, 1822 : Prime 
Minister, April, 1827, and Chancellor of 
the Exchequer : died Aug. 8, 1827 : 
father of Earl Canning {q.v.). Viceroy 
and Governor-General, 1856-62. 



Son of foiurth Earl of Essex : born Aug. 
25, 1776 : was in the Navy, 1791-1847, 
rising to be Admiral : served on various 
stations, and under Nelson at the Nile and 
Trafalgar : at the forcing of the Dar- 
danelles, 1807 : off N. America : K.C.B., 
1832 : and from 1834 to 1837 was Naval 
C. in C. in the E. Indies, in the Winchester, 
50 guns: G.C.B., 1852 : died March 4, 

CAPON, SIR DAVID (1793-1869) 
Born in Bombay, 1793 : educated in 
England: entered the E. I. Co.'s military 
service, 1809 : joined the Bombay N.I., 
1810 : in the Palampur expedition, 1813 : 
in the Konkan, 1817 : commanded troops 
at Aden, 1838 : twice attacked by large 
bodies of Arabs : commanded a Brigade 
of the Bombay Army at the siege of 
Multan, 1848-9 : in the subsequent 
pursuit of the Sikhs : K.C.B., 1862 : 
General, 1868 : died Dec. 17, 1869. 


(1836- ) 

Born 1836 : served in the Crimea 1855- 
6 : entered the Indian Telegraph Depart- 
ment, 1857, and was Director of Indian 
Telegraphs, 1883-9 : K.C.I.E. in 1887. 

CAPPER ( ? -1809) 

Colonel in the Madras Army : influential 
in the affairs of Fort St. George in the 
latter part of the i8th century : on more 
than one occasion was employed by the 
Governors in civil and ecclesiastical negotia- 

tions : as, e.g. in 1787. in the time of Sir 
Archibald Campbell, when the Council had 
to settle important matters with regard to 
the Roman Catholic population of Madras, 
and French influence had to be excluded : 
saw active service and fought " with spirit 
and gallantry " at Arikera, under Colonel 
Montresor, 1800 : distinguished himself 
under Wellesley : became Lt-Colonel 
and Adjutant-General. When Sir George 
Barlow was Governor of Madras, Capper 
became impUcated in the disputes between 
General Hay Macdowall, C. in C. of the 
Madras Army, and the Civil Authorities, 
1809 : Macdowall had resigned in Jan. 
and left for England : the responsibility 
of pubUshing his Army Order against 
Munro (which gave further offence to the 
Madras Government) rested with Colonel 
Capper, and his suspension was the result : 
he, too, started for England, but was lost 
at sea on the voyage, March, 1809. 


I.C.S. : educated at the City of London 
School : went out to Bombay, 1865 : 
Collector of Salt Revenue, 1881 : acting 
Commissioner of Inland Customs, 1881 : 
in 1885 travelled, via Ladak to Northern 
Tibet, to Lake Mungtsa, Khotan, Kuchar, 
Lake Lob, Tsaidam, Urumtsi, Yarkand, to 
Ladak : Commissioner of Customs, Salt, 
Opium and Abkari, 1891 : on special duty 
to Lisbon, in connexion with Goa Treaty 
negotiations, 1891-2 : retired 1893. 

CAREY, EUSTACE (1791-1855) 

Missionary : son of Thomas Carey, a 
non-commissioned officer : nephew of the 
Rev. Dr. W. Carey (q.v.) : born March 
22, 1791 : educated at Bristol College : 
arrived at Serampur as a missionary in 
1814 ; founded a missionary establish- 
ment at Calcutta, 1817 : left India, 1825 : 
urged the cause of missions in England : 
wrote about missions and a memoir of 
W. Carey : died July 19, 1855. 

CAREY, FELIX (1782-1822) 

Missionary : son of the Rev. Dr. W. 
Carey (q.v.) : went with his parents 
to India : assisted his father in his 
Biblical translations : besides many trans- 
lations in Bengali, he published a Burmese 
grammar, and began a Burmese dictionary 
and Pali grammar : he died at Serampur, 
Nov. 10, 1822. 



CAREY, MARY (1741-1801) 
Of Indian birth : wife of Peter Carey, 
a seafaring man : the last of the 23 sur- 
vivors of the 146 persons imprisoned in 
the Black Hole of Calcutta on June 20, 
1756 : her husband died there, or after- 
wards in the fighting at Fulta : her 
subsequent fate is uncertain, but the 
tradition of her being carried off by the 
Nawab's people is not authentic. She 
married again, her second husband being a 
military officer. She confirmed, at an 
interview on Aug. 13, 1799, Holwell's 
account of the Black Hole tragedy : she 
died March 28, 1801, at Calcutta. 


Missionary: born Aug. 17, 1761, in 
Northamptonshire : son of Edmund Carey, 
a village schoolmaster : apprenticed to a 
shoemaker at Hackleton : joined the 
congregation of Baptists in 1783, and at 
22 was publicly baptized : studied Greek, 
Latin and Hebrew under great privations ; 
had charge of a congregation at Leicester 
in 1789, and joined in forming a Baptist 
missionary society at Kettering, 1792 : 
sent out as their first missionary to Bengal 
in 1794, lost all his property in the Hughli 
and was destitute in Calcutta. After 
cultivating in the Sundarbans, he became 
Superintendent of an indigo factory in the 
Malda district for 5 years, built a church 
there, and preached in the villages. 
Being prevented by the E. L Co. from 
establishing a mission in British territory, 
he formed with others, in 1799, a mission- 
ary settlement at Serampur under the 
protection of the Danish Governor, Colonel 
Bie : there he first translated the Bible 
into Bengali and printed it, and it was 
afterwards translated into 26 languages. 
Carey also published dictionaries and 
many grammars of languages and 
other Indian works : edited the Ramayana 
and Roxburgh's Flora Medica. In 1801 
he was appointed to be a Professor of 
Sanskrit, Bengali and Mahratti at the 
new College of Fort William, and in 1805 
he founded the Bow Bazar Mission Chapel 
in Calcutta : in 1807 he was made D.D. 
by the Brown University in the United 
States. Notwithstanding official warnings 
against over-zeal his mission prospered, 
and many out-stations were established : 
he died at Serampur, June 9, 1834. 



I.C.S. : son of D. D. Carmichael Smyth : 
he resumed the family name of Carmichael : 
educated at Harrow and Haileybury, 
1849-50 : went to Madras in the Civil 
Service, 1851 : Private Secretary to Sir 
C. Trevelyan when Governor, 1859 : 
Revenue Secretary to Government, 1875 : 
Chief Secretary, 1877 : Member of 
Council, 1878-83 : died Sep. 30, 1903. 

CARNAC, JOHN (1716-1800) 

Entered the E. I. Co.'s service in 1758, as 
Captain, from H.M.'s 39th regt. : in 1760 
commanded at Patna, and in 176 1 defeated 
the Delhi Emperor near Bihar, and took 
prisoner M. Law with his men : beat off 
Shuja-ud-daula's attack on Patna, April, 

1764 : was Brig-General in 1764, and 
defeated the Mahrattas in the Doab in 

1765 : received the Emperor Shah Alam 
and the Wazir Shuja-ud-daula, and closed 
the war : M.P. for Leominster, 1767 : in 
1776-9, was Member of Council, Bombay : 
Member of the Superintending Committee 
on the expedition against Poona, 1778 : 
and was dismissed the E. I. Co.'s service 
for his share in the convention of War- 
gaum, Jan. 14, 1779 : died at Mangalore 
on a sea voyage, Nov. 9, 1800. 

WAB OF THE (1775-1819) 

Son of Amir-ul-umra : nephew of 
Umdat-ul-umra {q.v.), and grandson of 
Muhammad Ali {q.v.) : born 1775 : on 
the death of his uncle, Azim-ud-daula, 
accepted the British terms, which Ali 
Husain, the reputed son of Umdat, had 
refused, and was given the succession. 
An engagement was made with him on 
July 31, 1 801, by which he gave up the 
government of the Carnatic to the E.J. Co., 
and allowances were assigned for his 
personal expenses and for his family : 
he lived quietly, and died Aug. 3, 1819. 



THE (1824-1855) 

Succeeded as a child to his father 
Nawab Azim J ah, Nov. 12, 1825 : in- 
stituted as Nawab in 1842 by Lord 
Elphinstone, Governor of Madras : on his 
death without issue, Oct. 7, 1855, Govern- 
ment declared the title, privileges, and 



immunities of the Nawab's family to be at 
an end. 


Second son of Anwar-ud-din Khan, 
Nawab of the Carnatic : present at the 
battle of Ambiir, escaped to Trichinopoly : 
he was appointed Nawab by Nasir Ali, 
the Nizam of the Dekkan, in 1749 : 
was besieged at Trichinopoly by Chanda 
Sahib and the French, until relieved by 
the English : on his behalf Clive took 
Arcot, 1 75 1, and he was successfully 
supported as Nawab by the English, both 
against Chanda Sahib, the candidate 
assisted by the French, and against the 
rebellious PoHgars : recognized as Nawab 
by the Treaty of Paris of 1763, and 
acknowledged as independent of the 
Nizam by the Mogul Emperor in 1765 : 
entitled Walajah : he contracted large 
debts to the E. I. Company and the English 
adventurers who crowded his court and 
preyed upon him : he assigned districts 
for their payment : by Treaties of 1763. 
1781, 1785, 1787, 1792, arrangements 
were made for their liquidation, by the 
English managing the Carnatic, etc. : he 
died Oct. 16, 1795 : his intrigues with 
Tippoo were discovered after the fall of 
Seringapatam in i799» whereupon the 
English assumed the government of the 
Carnatic, making provision for the family 
of the Nawab. 

WAB OF THE (1748-1801) 

Son of Muhammad Ali (q.v.), whom he 
succeeded in Oct. i795- After the fall of 
Seringapatam in May, i799» treasonable 
correspondence between Tippoo and Um- 
dat-ul-umra and his father came to 
light : the British Government thereupon 
repudiated the existing treaty of 1792 
with the Nawab of the Carnatic, and 
resolved to assume the government of the 
Carnatic, making a provision for the 
family of the Nawab. Umdat-ul-umra 
died July 15, 1801, before the proposed 
arrangements could be concluded. 


Son of Charles Carpenter, R.N. : born 
Aug. 2, 1847 : educated at Brighton 
College : entered the Royal Navy, 18 61, 

and retired as Captain in 1895 : served 
in the Challenger scientific expedition : 
Soudan expedition 1884 : and while in 
charge of the Marine Survey of India, 
piloted the war flotilla under fire to 
Mandalay and Bhamo in 1885, for which 
he received his D.S.O. 

CARPENTER, MARY (1807-1877) 
Daughter of Dr. Lant Carpenter : born 
April 3, 1807: devoted her life to philan- 
thropy : opened schools at Bristol, for 
girls, for the reformation of juvenile 
criminals : also ragged and industrial 
schools : and worked for the passing of 
the Industrial Schools Act. Her attention 
had been attracted to India by the presence 
of Raja Rammohan Roy (q.v.) at Bristol 
in 1833, and by the visits of native gentle- 
men. She visited India in 1866-7, 1868- 
9, 1869-70, 1875-6, with a view to 
improve female education, reformatory 
schools, and the management of the jails. 
She was in communication with the 
authorities in India, and at the India 
Office, and with the leading native gentle- 
men, such as Keshab Chandra Sen (q.v.), 
with whom she founded a " National Indian 
Association" at Bristol in 1870, to bring 
Indian visitors and EngHsh inquirers 
into closer relations. Many of her sugges- 
tions for reforms and improvements were 
adopted. She paid visits to Germany and 
America. Among her publications were 
Last Days in England of the Raja Ram- 
mohan Roy, 1866 : and Six Months in 
India, 1868. She died on June 14, 1877. 


Educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge : B.A., 1813 : Senior Optime : 
Bishop of Bombay, 1837-51, when he 
resigned from ill-health : appointed Rector 
of Bath, 1854 : universally esteemed 
there : a member of the Evangelical 
section of the Establishment : died at 
Bath, Sep. 5, 1859. 

MUND (1769-1849) 

Born Oct. 22, 1769 : son of Codringtoa 
Carrington : educated at Winchester : 
called to the bar by the Middle Temple, 
1792 : Bencher, 1832 : practised as an 
advocate at the Calcutta bar, 1792-9, 
being junior Counsel to the E.I. Co. : was an 



intimate friend of Sir William Jones {q.v. ) : 
when in England, he made a code of law 
for Ceylon : was appointed Chief Justice 
there and knighted, 1801 : retired in 
1806 from ill-health. M.P. for St. Mawes, 
1826-31: was D.C.L. 1810: F.R.S., J.P. 
and F.S.A. : died Nov. 28, 1849. 

CARTIER, JOHN (1733-1802) 

Governor : arrived in India as a writer 
in E. I. Co.'s service : was a factor and 
assistant at Dacca, whence he was expelled 
in 1756 : joined other fugitives at Fulta : 
served as a volunteer under Clive in re- 
taking Bengal, and was praised by Court 
of Directors : Chief of Dacca factory, 
1761 : Second in Council at Calcutta, 
1767 : succeeded H. Verelst as Governor 
of Bengal, Dec. 26, 1769 : followed, as 
Governor, by Warren Hastings, April 13, 
1772 : eulogized by Edmund Burke for 
his government of Bengal : died in Kent, 
Jan. 25, 1802. 

Maj-General : appointed to Bengal, 
1795 : served in India 47 years and 6 
months : in Lord Lake's campaigns, at 
Alighar, 1803, Deeg, 1804 : D.Q.M.G. in 
the Nipal war, 1815 : Secretary to the 
Government of India in the Military 
Department for 20 years from June, 
1818 : Colonel, 23rd N.I., 1824 : K.C.B., 
1837 : was Member of the Supreme 
Council from June 17, 1839 : died of 
cholera at Cossipur, April 16, 1844 : his 
bust is in the Town Hall, Calcutta. 

CASSELS, ANDREW (1812-1886) 
Of an old Scotch family, resident at 
Manchester : he opened in 1843 in Bom- 
bay the firm of Peel, Cassels & Co. : 
returned to England, 1851 : Dhrector of 
the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, 
1 861 : Member of the Council of India, 
1874-84 : Vice-President, 1875, of the 
Society of Arts : a great authority on 
Indian cotton : died Aug. 2, 1886. 


(1826- ) 

Son of Robert Cassels : educated 
privately and abroad : spent some years 
in Italy, and in 1856 joined the mercantile 
firm of Peel, Cassels & Co. in Bombay : 
was a Fellow of the Bombay University : 
a Member of the Legislative Council, 
Bombay, 1863: left India in 1865 and 

devoted himself to literature : wrote 
poems, 1850 and 1856, Cotton in the Bom- 
bay Presidency, 1869 ; Supernatural Re- 
ligion, 1874-6, and 1879 : The Gospel 
according to Peter, 1894, etc. etc. 

VISCOUNT (1769-1822) 

Second Marquis of Londonderry (April, 
1821-Aug. 1822), better known as Lord 
Castlereagh : son of the first Marquis : 
born June 18, 1769 : M.P. for Tregony, 
1794-6 : for Oxford, 1796-7, and other 
places : his career lay in English and 
European politics, and his only connexion 
with India was as President of the Board 
of Control (the India Board), Sep. 9, 1802 — 
Feb. 14, 1806, in the Addington and W. 
Pitt Administrations : while holding this 
office, he supported the Governor-General, 
Lord Wellesley, whom he admired, against 
the Court of Directors : fought a duel 
with George Canning, Sep. 22, 1809 : 
Foreign Secretary, 1812-33 : died by his 
own hand, Aug. 12, 1822. 



Colonel : son of the Rev. Thomas 
Cautley : born Jan. 3, 1802 : educated 
at Charterhouse and Addiscombe : entered 
the Bengal Artillery, 1819 : was assistant 
to Colonel Robert Smith in reconstructing 
the old irrigation channel of the Doab 
Canal from 1824-30, but was at the siege 
of Bhartpur in 1826 : held charge of the 
above canal, 1831-43 : framed the project 
of the Ganges Canal, sanctioned by the 
Court of Directors in 184 1, and constructed 
between 1843 and 1854. He left India in 
1854, Lord Dalhousie ordering a salute to 
be fired in his honour : and his bust was 
placed in the Calcutta Town Hall : 
K.C.B. : from 1858-68, Member of the 
Council of India. He had a controversy 
with Sir Arthur Cotton {q.v.) on the 
engineering of the Ganges Canal, in which 
further work and improvement were found 
to be required. He explored largely in 
the Sivalik range of hills in India, and 
acquired many fossils of scientific value, 
which he presented to the British Museum : 
contributed many papers to the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal and to the Geological 
Society, chiefly on fossils : died Jan. 25, 



NAPOLEON (1841-1879) 

Lt-Colonel : son of General Adolphe 
Cavagnari : born July 4, 1841, educated 
at Christ's Hospital and Addiscombe : was 
naturalized in 1857 : entered the E. I. Co.'s 
Army, 1858 : in the Oudh campaign in 
the mutiny : joined the Staff Corps, 
1 86 1, and the Pan jab Commission as an 
Assistant Commissioner : had charge of 
the Kohat district, 1866 to 1877, and, as 
Deputy Commissioner of Peshawar, accom- 
panied several frontier expeditions, 1868- 
78 : C.S.I, in 1877 : he was a member of 
Sir N. Chamberlain's mission to Shir Ali, 
in'the autumn of 1878, when it was stopped 
at Ali Masjid by the Amir's officer. When 
Yakub Khan had become Amir, on the 
death of Shir Ali, Major Cavagnari nego- 
tiated the treaty of Gandamak with him, 
May 26, 1879: K.C.B. He was appointed 
Resident at Kabul and was residing, from 
July, 1879, at the Bala Hissar in Kabul, 
when the Afghan troops rose, attacked his 
residence, and he and his staff were all 
killed, Sep. 3, 1879. 


(1845- ) 

Colonel : son of General Cavaye : 
born 1845 : educated at Edinburgh 
Academy and Sandhurst : commanded 
the 2nd Royal Sussex regt. : Military 
Secretary to H.R.H. the Duke of Con- 
naught, when C. in C. in Bombay : has 
since held several Staff appointments : 
served in the Zulu war, 1879, and in the 
S. African war, 1900-2. 


(1835- ) 

Born May 29, 1835 : son 01 Lt-Colonel 
Edward Cave-Browne : educated at the 
College School, Taunton : clerk in the 
East India House, 1854 : rose to be 
Accountant-General in the India Office 
fromi893: retired in 1900 : C.S.I, in 1898. 


General : son of James Gordon Cave- 
nagh : educated at Addiscombe : entered 
the Army : was through the Gwalior 
campaign : lost a leg at Maharajupr, 1843 : 
in the Satlaj campaign at Badiwal : in 
charge of the Mysore Princes and ex- Amirs 
of Sind : had political charge of Sir Jang 
Bahadur and the Nipalese embassy to 

England, 1850 : was Town Major of Fort 
William, Calcutta, during the mutiny : 
frustrated the plot of the mutineers to 
seize the Fort : recommended the forma- 
tion of the Volunteer Guards : Governor 
of the Straits Settlements, 1859-67 : Lt- 
General, 1874 : K.C.S.I., 1881 : died 
July 7, 1891 : wrote Reminiscences of an 
Indian Official. 

CHALMERS, SIR JOHN M. (1756-1818) 

Son of Patrick Chalmers : joined the 
Madras Infantry in 1775 ■ made a gallant 
defence of Coimbatore, June-Nov. 1791, 
with only a small force, against Tippoo's 
troops : obliged to capitulate : taken 
prisoner to Seringapatam, his release 
effected by Cornwallis in Feb. 1792 : 
commanded the force at Travancore, 
1803-9, and the N. Division of the Madras 
Army, 1812-7 : Maj-General, 1812 : K.C.B. , 
1 8 15. After 42 years' service in Madras, 
he died on the voyage home, March 31, 


(1847- ) 

Born Feb. 7, 1847 : son of Rev. F. 
Chalmers, D.D., educated at King's 
College, London, and Trinity College, 
Oxford : served in the Indian Civil Service, 
1869-72 : held several legal appoint- 
ments as Judge of County Courts and 
Acting Chief Justice of Gibraltar : Legal 
Member of the Viceroy's Council, 1896, 
retired, 1899 : Parliamentary Counsel to 
the Treasury, 1902-3 : Permanent Under 
Secretary in the Home Department, 1903 : 
contributed Articles to the Dictionary of 
Political Economy, and the EncyclopcBdia 
Britannica : author of Digest of the Law of 
Sale, Digest of the Law of Bills of Ex- 
change : C.S.I. : C.B. 

CHALMERS, ROBERT ( ? -1878) 

Lt-Colonel : joined the Indian Army, 
1849 : in the mutiny his regt., the ist 
Oudh Irregular Infantry, mutinied : he 
narrowly escaped to Allahabad : joined 
a regt. proceeding to relieve Cawnpur : 
carried back news of the massacre at 
Cawnpur, 44 miles, to Allahabad, through 
country teeming with a hostile population : 
was in Havelock's engagements about 
Cawnpur, in the relief of Lucknow, in its 
subsequent defence, the fighting at Alam- 
bagh, and the final capture of Lucknow, 



in March, 1858 : died, which commanding 
the 14th Bengal Lancers, Aug. 11, 1878. 

TROTTER (1821-1902) 

Third son of Sir Henry O. Chamberlain, 
Bart., younger brother of Sir Neville 
Bowles Chamberlain {q.v.) ■ born May, 
1821 : entered the Army in 1837, was in 
the Afghan war of 1839-42, at the siege 
and capture of Ghazni, and in various 
actions near Kandahar : in the Panjab 
campaign in 1848-9 : at Chilianwala and 
Gujarat, in the pursuit of the Sikh Army 
and its final surrender : wounded : Brevet- 
Major : commanded the ist Irregular 
Cavalry, Skinner's Horse, over whom he 
had extraordinary influence : in the 
mutiny in 1857 distinguished himself by 
disarming, with " undaunted courage and 
coolness," the 62nd and 69th Bengal N.I., 
at Multan : engaged against the rebels, 
and was besieged in a sarai for some 
days : Lt- Colonel after the mutiny : 
C.S.I, in 1866 : General in 1880 : G.CI.E. 
in 1897 : died Dec. 13, 1902. 



Son of John Chamberlain : born July 
24, 1777 : accepted as a probationer for 
missionary work, 1798 : preached at 
Olney : studied under Dr. Ryland at the 
Academy at Bristol : sent to India by the 
Baptist Missionary Society in 1802, vid 
America : arrived at Serampur, Jan. 
1803: visited Dinajpur, 1804 : established 
himself at Katwa, May, 1804 : carried on 
a cloth business, and built a school : 
visited Berhampur : removed to Agra, 
181 1 : sent down to Calcutta by order of 
Government : appointed, 1812, tutor at 
Sardhana to David Dyce Sombre, great- 
grandson of Begam Sanuru : established 
schools and preached frequently : also at 
Hardwar, for which he was ordered to 
Calcutta, 1815 : went to Serampur, and 
up the river to Ghazipur : settled at 
Monghyr, 1816 : made missionary tours 
to Benares, Mirzapur, etc. : ordered home 
for ill-health, Sep.. 1821 : died at sea, 
Dec. 6, 1 82 1. 

BOWLES (1820-1902) 

Field Marshal : second son of Sir Henry 
Orlando Chamberlain, first Baronet : 
bom 1820 : educated for a short time at 

Woolwich : at 17 entered the Bengal Army: 
in the first Afghan war was with Nott's 
force : at the occupation of Kandahar, at 
Ghazni, Kabul and Istalif : constantly 
wounded : was in the Governor- General's 
bodyguard : in the Gwalior campaign, 
D.A.Q.M.G. : at Maharajpur : in the 
second Sikh war, at Chilianwala and 
Gujarat : complimented by the C. in C. 
for personal gallantry : Commandant of 
Panjab Military Police : Military Secre- 
tary to the Panjab Government : Com- 
mandant of the Panjab Frontier Force : 
commanded several expeditions against 
the frontier tribes : in the mutiny of 
1857 was in charge of the movable column 
of the Panjab until he became Adjutant- 
General of the Army at Delhi, and Brig- 
General : severely wounded there and dis- 
abled : C.B. and A.D.C. to Queen Victoria : 
commanded operations against the Wazi- 
ris : K.C.B. : commanded in the Umbeyla 
campaign in 1863, until severely wounded 
when personally leading an assault of a 
difficult position : Maj-General : G. C.S.I.,. 
1873 : G.C.B., 1875 : commanded the 
Madras Army, 1876-81: in 1878 
selected, by Lord Lytton, to lead a special 
mission to the Amir Shir Ali : the stopping 
of the mission at Ali Masjid was the imme- 
diate ground of the second Afghan war t 
he was personally in harmony with Lord 
Lawrence's frontier policy : Military- 
Member of Supreme Council, Nov. 1878- 
Jan. 1879 : retired, 1881 : severely 
criticised the policy of part of the Boer 
war, 1 899-1902 : Field Marshal in 1900 : 
died Feb. 17, 1902. 


(1856- ) 

Born Jan. 13, 1856 : son of Lt-Colonel' 
Charles Chamberlain, C.B. : educated 
abroad and at Brentwood School, Essex : 
joined the Army, 1873 : Central India 
Horse, 1876 : on the staff of Sir F. Roberts- 
through the Afghan war, 1878-80 : A.D.C. 
to Sir F. Roberts when C. in C, Madras^ 
1 881-5 : Persian Interpreter, 1885-90 : 
served in the Burma campaign, 1886-7 • 
re-organized the Kashmir Army, 1890-7 r 
commanded the Khyber Force, 1899 : 
Private Secretary to Lord Roberts in S. 
African war : Inspr-General Royal Irish 
Constabulary since 1900 : C.B. in 1900 : 
K.C.B., 1903 : retired as Colonel from 
the Indian Staff Corps. 



COURT (1789-1828) 

Born Aug. 31, 1789 : nephew of Sir 
Robert Chambers, (1737-1803), C.J. Ben- 
gal (1789-99): educated at Cambridge, 
Fellow of Trinity College : B.A., 1809 : 
M.A., 1814 : practised at the bar at the 
Mayor's Court, Chester, and elsewhere : 
in 1823 appointed a Puisne Judge of the 
new Supreme Court, Bombay, opened 
May 8, 1824 : knighted by Geo. Ill : the 
Supreme Court, while he was judge, passed 
severe strictures on the arbitrary pro- 
ceedings of the executive officers of the 
E. I. Co., including the magistracy and the 
police : the Civil Government defied the 
Court's authority and instructed the Com- 
pany's officers not to assist the Court's 
officials : the Court refused to register a 
stringent Regulation of the Bombay 
Government against the liberty of the Press : 
on the death of the Chief Justice, Sir E. 
West, on Aug. 13, 1828, Chambers acted 
as C.J., and continued opposing the Gov- 
ernment : Lord EUenborough, as President 
of the Board of Control, supported the 
Executive : Chambers, still in opposition, 
died Oct. 13, 1828, leaving Sir J. P. 
Grant {q.v.) alone : buried in the Cathedral, 
Bombay : he wrote, in England, on legal 


Son of Robert Chambers, of Newcastle : 
born i737> educated there and at Lincoln 
College, Oxford (Exhibitioner) : Fellow 
of University College, 1761 ; M.A., 1761; 
B.C.L., 1765 ; Vinerian Professor of Law, 
1762-77 : Principal of New Inn Hall, 
Oxford, in 1766. In 1744 he joined the 
Calcutta Supreme Court as second Judge, 
Sir Elijah Impey being Chief : knighted 
in 1778 : lived for several years in a 
garden-house, at Bhawanipur : he became 
Chief Justice in 1791 : retired in 1799 = 
declined a peerage : died in Paris, May 9, 
1803 : a monument by Nollekens is in the 
Temple Church, where he was buried. 
He was a friend of Dr. Johnson from 
1766, and of Sir Philip Francis in Calcutta. 
He was one of the Judges on the trial of 
Nuncomar for forgery, when the latter 
was convicted, and hanged on Aug. 5, 
1775. Chambers left some legal writings, 
and a collection of Sanskrit MSS. 

ARCHIBALD (1833- ) 

Maj -General : son of Henry Chamfer 
of the Madras Civil Service : born May 13, 
1833 : educated at Cheltenham : joined 
the Indian Army : Adjutant of the Calcutta 
Volunteers, 1857 : Persian Interpreter to 
Sir James Outram in first relief, defence, 
siege and capture of Lucknow : com- 
manded the Raja of Kapurthala's troops 
in the Oudh campaign, 1858 : CLE. 

CHAMIER, HENRY (1795-1867) 
I.C.S. : educated at Haileybury, 181 1- 
12 : went out to Madras, 1813 : entered 
the Secretariat, 1827 : became Chief 
Secretary, 1837-42 : Member of Council, 
Madras, Jan. 1843 - Jan. 1848 : when he 
retired : died Feb. 4, 1867. 


I.C.S. : appointed a writer, 1772 : 
Factor, 1778 : Junior Merchant, 1780 : 
absent in England for 7 years : Senior 
Merchant, 1787 : Secretary, 1790, in the 
Military, Political, and Secret Depart- 
ments, and Judge Advocate General : 
" Chief " of Vizagapatam, for 6 years : 
Chief Secretary to Madras Government, 
1801 : Provisional Member of Council, 
Madras, 1802 : confirmed as Member, 
1803 : resigned, 1805 : returned to Eng- 

Born Aug. 17, 1834: son of Henry 
Chamier of the Madras Civil Service : 
educated at Cheltenham and Addiscombe : 
entered the Madras Artillery, 1853 : trans- 
ferred to Royal Artillery, 1861 : com- 
manded mountain battery in Burma 
against the Karens, 1856 : served in the 
Indian mutiny, 1857-8, and was present 
at Cawnpur under Sir Charles Windham, 
at the siege of Lucknow under Sir Colin 
Campbell, and in the Oudh campaign : 
Brevet-Major, and C.B. : Inspr-General of 
Ordnance, Madras, 1881-6 : Lt-General, 


Second in command to (Sir Hector) 
Munro, 1764, when opposed to Shuja-ud- 
daula: in the battle of Baxar, Oct. 23, 
1764: Colonel: succeeded Sir Robert 
Barker, as C. in C. of the Bengal Army, 
June 18, 1774, to Oct. 29, 1774 = com- 



manded a Brigade in 1774, asked for by the 
Nawab Wazir of Oudh, against the Rohillas: 
defeated them near Tassunih, April 23, 
1774 : retired 1774 : resided at Bath 
many years. 

CHANDA, SAHIB ( ? -1752) 

Another name of Husain Dost Khan, 
son-in-law of Dost Ali Khan, Nawab of 
Arcot, 1732-40, and his Diwan : regarded 
as a great soldier of his time : he obtained 
possession of the Hindu kingdom of 
Trichinopoly by cajoling the Rani, 1736- 
The Mahrattas invaded the Carnatic, 
1740, besieged Chanda in Trichinopoly, 
and took him prisoner in 1741 to Satara : 
Dupleix in 1748 procured his release for a 
large ransom. On the death of Anwarud- 
din, the Nawab of the Carnatic, in 1749, 
at the battle of Ambur against Chanda 
Sahib and Muzaffar Jang (the claimant 
to succeed as Nizam), Chanda was pro- 
claimed as Nawab : the British supported 
Muhammad Ali, son of Anwaruddin, as 
their candidate for the Nawabship, while 
the French supported Chanda's aspira- 
tions. Muhammad Ali fled from Ambur 
to Trichinopoly, where he was besieged 
by Chanda : in the fighting that ensued 
Chanda surrendered to the Raja of Tan- 
jore, in May, 1752, who barbarously put 
him to death and sent his head to Muham- 
mad Ali. 


Born 1822 : educated at the Hindu 
College : in 1843 became a clerk in the 
Union Bank, Calcutta ; afterwards ap- 
prenticed to Messrs Haworth, Hardman 
& Co. : appointed, in 1845, their agent 
fortheu: Cossipur Sugar Refinery: servedfor 
30 years : began to publish his " Travels " 
serially in the Englishman's Saturday 
Journal in 1866-7: issued together in 
2 vols, in 1869, in England, with an intro- 
duction by J. T. Wheeler (q.v.) : published, 
in 1894, a life of Raja Digambar Mitra, 
C.S.I. : an auther of undoubted literary 
ability and powers of observation. 

GANESH (1855- ) 

Educated at Elphinstone College, Bom- 
bay : pleader of the Bombay High Court 
and Judge of that Court since 1901 : 
succeeded Mr. Justice Ranade as leader 
of the Indian Social reform movement. 


Born 1766 : at first a subordinate in 
the Customs Department at Hyderabad 
under his uncle, Rai Nanak Ram : in 1806 
Peshkar, and, after Mir Alam's death, 
became the real Minister of the Nizam's 
Government, though Munir-ul-mulk was 
Diwan : was highly regarded by Henry 
Russell, the Resident at Hyderabad from 
18 1 1-20. Chandu Lai ruled Hyderabad 
for about 35 years : retired Sep. 1843, 
from the Peshkarship, on a monthly 
pension of Rs. 30,000 : died April 15, 1845. 


(1840- ) 

General : born 1840 : son of Henry 
Chapman : entered the Bengal Artillery, 
1858 : served in the Abyssinian war, 1867- 
8 : accompanied Sir Douglas Forsyth as 
Secretary to Yarkand in 1873-4 : in the 
Afghan war, of 1878-80, was Chief of the 
Staff in Sir F. Roberts' march from 
Kabul to Kandahar : C.B : and Brevet Lt- 
Colonel : in Burma campaign, 1885-6 : 
Military Secretary to Sir Donald Stewart, 
when C. in C. in India : Q.M.G. in India : 
Director of Military Intelligence, 189 1-6 : 
commanded the Scottish District, .1896- 
1901 : Colonel Commanding Royal Artil- 
lery : F.R.G.S: A.D.C. to Queen Victoria, 


(1829- ) 

I.C.S. : born Nov. 21, 1829 : son of 
Jonathan Chapman : educated at Hailey- 
bury : entered the Bengal Civil Service, 
1849 : and rose to be Secretary to the 
Government of India in the Finance 
Department, 1869-81, when he retired : 

CHASTENAY, HENRY (1794-1822) 
B.C.S. : arrived in India as a writer in 
Bengal, Nov. 181 1 : served always at the 
headquarters of the Government : Private 
Secretary to the Marquess of Hastings, 
when Governor - General : died May 2, 
1822 : buried at Calcutta. 



Bengali noveUst and prose writer : son 
of Jadab Chandra Chatterji, a Deputy 



Magistrate : born June 27, 1838 : educated 
at the Midnapur School, Hughli and 
Presidency Colleges : in 1858 he was the 
first native of India to take the B.A. 
degree, Calcutta : at once appointed to be 
a Deputy Magistrate, and became a 
prominent member of the Provincial 
service, acting for a time as Assistant 
Secretary to the Bengal Government. 
His reputation was made in literature, 
as the Bengali novelist of his time : his 
novels were numerous, and are said to be 
still popular : he brought out a Uterary 
magazine, 1872, and wrote the first Ben- 
gali historical novel, under the title of 
Diirges Nandini. This was followed by 
Kapala Kandala, Mrinalini, and Bisha 
Brikka, which was translated into English 
and very favourably criticised by Pro- 
fessor Darmesteter : Debt Chandurani, 
Ananda Matha, and Krishna Kanter Will : 
wrote also on Hindu religion, Kirshna, the 
Vedas, and Hindu literature : made Rai 
Bahadur and CLE : retired from Govern- 
ment service in 189 1: died April 8, 1894. 

EYRE (1863- ) 

Born July 22, 1863 : son of A. T. Chat- 
terton : educated at Haileybury and 
Dublin University : ordained 1887 : Head 
of the Dublin University Mission to Chota- 
Nagpur, 1 891-1900 : Bishop of Nagpur, 
Central Provmces, 1903 : D.D : author of 
The Story of Fifty Years' Mission in 
Chota-Nagpur : F.R.G.S. 

Born Oct. 5, 1865, at Lyons : son of 
Emile Chavannes, engineer : educated at 
I'Ecole normale superieure : his work as a 
scholar has dealt principally with Chinese 
subjects, often in relation to India : en- 
trusted with a scientific mission to China, 
1889-93 : appointed Professor of the 
Chinese Language and Literature at the 
College de France, 1893 : Secretary of the 
Societe Asiatique, 1895 : Member of the 
Institute, 1903 : The following works by 
him treat of the travels of Chinese Budd- 
hist pilgrims in India : I-tsing, Les 
religieux eminenis, 1894 : Voyage de 
Song Yun dans VUdyana et le Gandhara, 
(a translation) in the Bulletin de VEcole 
francaise d'Extreme Orient, 1903, etc. : 
Documents sur les Toii-kine {Turks) occi- 
dentaux, 1903, treats of several questions 
relating to India. He has also writte^i 

largely in the Journal Asiatique, on the 
Chinese inscriptions of Bodh Gaya in the 
Revue de VHistoire des Religions, and in 
other periodicals. 

CHAVASSE, WILLIAM (1785-1814) 

An ofificerof the E.I. Co.'s service, who 
tried, with a companion, to explore the 
route of the 10,000 Greeks, as described 
in Xenophon's Anabasis. They were 
taken prisoners by a local chief near 
Bagdad, but released on payment of 
ransom. Chavasse died of fever there. 

CHEAPE, SIR JOHN (1792-1875) 
Son of John Cheape : born in 1792 : 
educated at Woolwich and Addiscombe : 
joined the Bengal Engineers in 1809, 
rose to be Maj-General in 1854: was under 
Lord Hastings in the Pindari war, in the 
Nerbudda Field Force, 1817 : at the siege 
of Asirghar and in the Burmese war, 
1824-6 : was Chief Engineer at the siege 
of Multan, 1848, and at Gujarat in the 
Panjab campaign : C.B. : in the second 
Burmese war of 1852-3, was second 
in command under General Godwin at 
first, and later, in 1853, commanded, and 
took Pegu : the provinces of Pegu and 
Tenasserim were annexed : K.C.B : A.D.C. 
to Queen Victoria : retired, 1857 : Colonel 
Commandant of Engineers, 1862 : G.C.B., 
1865 : General, 1866 : died March 30, 


Born May 31, 1827 : son of first Baron 
(Lord Chancellor, 1858-9) : educated at 
Eton : succeeded to title, 1879 : entered 
the Army in the Grenadier Guards, 1844 : 
served in the Crimea : Lt. -Colonel in the 
95th regt. in the mutiny, in Central India : 
Adjutant-General in the Abyssinian cam- 
paign, 1867-8 : C.B. and A.D.C. to Queen 
Victoria : Adjutant-General in India : 
commanded the forces in the Kafir war, 
1878 : succeeded his father, Oct. 1878 : 
at Isandhwala, Gingilhovo, Ulundi : 
Lieutenant of the Tower, 1884-9 • General, 
1888 : G.C.B. : G.C.V.O : died April 9, 


B.C.S. : son of George Cherry : born 1761 : 
entered the Bengal Civil Service, 1778 :. 



accompanied Lord Cornwallis as his 
Persian Secretary to Madras, where, in 
1792, peace was made with Tippoo at 
Seringapatam : Cherry's picture of Tippoo 
is at the India Office : appointed Resident 
at Benares, 1793 : there murdered by 
Wazir Ali, the reputed son of the late 
Nawab Asaf-ud-daula of Oudh, on Jan. 
14, 1799- 


Born Sep. 1837 : entered the Bengal 
Medical Service, 1859 : Deputy Surgeon- 
General, 1889 : did excellent service at 
Mian Mir and Umritsar in the cholera 
epidemic of 1861 : in the Hazara Field 
Force, 1868 : Black Mountain expedition : 
Lushai expedition, 1871-2 : Afghan war, 
1878-80 : from Ali Masjid to Gandamak, 
1878, to Kabul 1879 : in the Kabul- 
Kandahar march : in the battle of Mazra, 
near Kandahar : in the expedition against 
the Marris : Deputy Surgeon - General, 
Lahore, 1889-94 : when he retired : died 
x\pril 12, 1904. 


Son of Capt. Charles Cornwallis Chesney 
of the Bengal Artillery : born April 30, 
1830 : educated at Blundell's school, 
Tiverton, and Addiscombe : entered the 
Bengal Engineers, 1848, and became 
General in 1882 : went to India in 1850 : 
in the P.W.D. until the mutiny : in the 
Badli-ka-sarai action, June, 8, 1857 : at 
the capture of the ridge at Delhi : Brig- 
Major, R.E. at Delhi : in the assault on 
Sep. 14 : was President of the Engineering 
College at Calcutta, and head of the P.W.D. 
Account Department in i860 : President 
of the Royal Indian Civil Engineering 
College at Cooper's Hill, 1871-80, of 
which he had prepared the constitution, 
etc. : Secretary to the Government of 
India in the Military Department, 1880- 
6 : Military Member of the Supreme 
Council, July, 1886-April, 1891 : M.P. for 
Oxford, 1892 : C.S.I. 1883 : CLE. 1886 : 
C.B. 1887 : K.C.B. 1890 : died March 31, 
1895. He wrote a number of books : 
the principal were Indian Polity : The 

Pie of Dorking, a military-political 
azine article which made a great 
ation : The True Reformer, The 
mma, The Private Secretary, besides 
r articles in Magazines and Reviews. 


Son of an indigo merchant : joined his 
father in trade and amassed a large 
fortune at the time of the American war : 
founded the Madras Native Association, 
of which he was President : opposed the 
proselytizing tendencies of the missionaries 
and successfully resisted the attempt 
made to introduce the Bible as a text-book 
in Government Schools in 1843 • was 
forward in the agitation carried on in 
1853-5 regarding the grievances of the 
natives, which led to the Torture Com- 
mission : after incurring much odium as a 
seditious person, in 1861 he was made a 
C.S.I. : he next directed his attention to 
the affairs of Mysore and the Tanjore 
widows : lost most of his fortune and died 
a poor man, leaving a name for patriotism 
and self-sacrifice. 

CHIBU, LAMA ( ? -1866) 
Was sprimg from an old and respectable 
Sikhim family of Tibetan origin : dwelt 
at Tumlong near the Raja of Sikhim : 
was early a man of influence and mark, 
learnt Hindustani, a qualification which 
gave him much political importance. 
When Sir Joseph Hooker and Dr. Campbell 
were imprisoned by the Sikhim Court, he 
befriended them throughout, and as a re- 
ward obtained a very large estate of about 
75,000 acres near Darjeeling, on the 
annexation of Sikhim territory. In 1864 
he accompanied Sir Ashley Eden through 
out his mission to Bhutan and, with con- 
siderable personal danger, exerted himself 
to bring the negotiations to a successful 
issue : died in 1866. 

CHINNERY, GEORGE (1766-1852) 
Artist : exhibited in the Royal Academy, 
1790-1846 : painted in Dublin and London 
and went to China, from which country he 
visited India : he " made spirited sketches 
of scenes in India" : was at Madras, 1802-7 
or 8, and afterwards painted many pictures 
at Calcutta : was at Canton in 1830 and 
died at Macao in 1852 : references to his 
works in India occur in Indian literature : 
his name and his skill are remembered 
there to this day, 


(1863- ) 
Born 1863 : Hony. Magistrate : Presi- 
dent of the Nagpur District Council since 




1888: and of the Nagpur Municipality since 
1894 : represented the Central Provinces 
as Member of the Governor-General's 
Legislative Council, 1893-5 : leader of 
the Prabhu community : guest of the 
nation, representing the Central Provinces, 
at H.M. the King's Coronation, 1902 : 
CLE., 1895. 

CHRISTIE, JOHN (1805-1869) 

Entered the Indian Army, 1822, and 
the 3rd Light Cavalry, 1823 : at the 
capture of Bhartpur, 1826 : was selected 
by the C.,Sir Henry Fane, to raise, for 
Shah Shuja's force, the ist Irregular 
Cavalry, later known as Christie's Horse, 
which he commanded to the end of the 
first Afghan war, 1839-42 : was at the 
occupation of Kandahar and pursuit of 
the Sirdars to the Helmund under Sir 
Robert Sale : at Ghazni, and Kabul in 
1839 : accompanied Outram in pursuit of 
the Amir Dost Muhammad across the 
Hindu Kush : in the Kandahar Division 
under Sir W. Nott in 1842 : at the occupa- 
tion of Ghazni and Kabul, the taking of 
Istalif, and the final march through the 
Khyber to India: was at the battle of 
Punniar, 1843 : in the Satlaj campaign 
of 1845-6, at Mudki, Firozshahr and 
Sobraon : Brevet-Major : throughout the 
Panjab campaign, including Chilianwala 
and Gujarat, and the pursuit of the 
Sikhs and Afghans, always in command 
of his regiment : Brevet-Lt-Colonel : 
returned from England to India on the 
outbreak of the mutiny, commanded the 
Dinapur Brigade, and kept Patna per- 
fectly quiet : afterwards in command 
at Barrackpur and Berhampur : com- 
manded the 3rd Bengal Cavalry : Maj- 
General, 1861 : joined the Bengal Staff 
Corps, 1866: C.B., 1867: and A.D.C. to 
Queen Victoria : received many medals and 
the Order of the Durani for his services in 
Afghanistan : died at San Remo, May 7, 
1869 : bvuried there. 

CHRISTIE, S. T. ( ? -1876) 

Lt-General : entered the Army, 1836 : 
served with the 80th regt. in the Burmese 
war, 1852-3 : commanded the storming 
party at Martaban : at the operations at 
Rangoon : at the capture of Prome : in 
the Indian mutiny commanded a mov- 
able column : at Fatehpur : at the siege 
of Lucknow : commanded a Field Force in 

the Oudh campaign, wounded : C.B. : Lt- 
General 1876 : died Oct. 5, 1876. 

HENRY SPENCER (1849-1894) 

Son of the sixth Duke of Marlborough : 
born Feb. 13, 1849 : educated at Eton, 
and Merton College, Oxford : M.P. for 
Woodstock, 1 874-1 885 ; for South Padding- 
ton, 1885 to his death. The greater portion 
of his career in politics and the House of 
Commons had no connexion with India. 
He made a tour in that country in the 
cold weather of 1884-5, in which he 
studied its administration, and gained 
experience which was valuable to him 
when he was Secretary of State for India 
from June 24, 1885, to Feb. 5, 1886. In 
that post he made a reputation for his 
administrative capacity, his industry, 
knowledge of details, and despatch of 
business. He sanctioned the Burmese 
war of 1885-6 and the annexation of Upper 
Biurma, and concluded the Russo-Afghan 
Frontier negotiations. He also sanctioned 
Mr. Colman Macaulay's visit to Pekin, 
with a view to a subsequent mission 
to Lhasa, which was afterwards stopped. 
He was on a sea voyage round the world 
for his health, when he had to leave Madras 
and return to England, and died there, 
Jan. 24, 1894. 


Captain : Master-attendant at Cal- 
cutta: went to sea in 1808 in the E. I. Co.'s 
mercantile service : served in the expedi- 
tions against the Isle of France and J ava : 
commanded merchant-ships to and from 
Calcutta for years ; "no man in the 
country's service ever bore a higher 
character." He safely rounded Cape 
Horn, with a lascar crew, in 1822-3 - 
having served as second and first Assistant, 
he became Master-attendant, 1840-2, and 
was confirmed in 1847, but died, Sep. 20. 
He was at various times Judge Advocate 
of the Marine Committee of Enquiry : 
regarded as a tried and valuable officer 
of the Company, and much esteemed in 

EARL OF (1792-1851) 
Governor : born June 10, 1792 : son of 
the first Earl, Lord Chancellor of Ireland : 



succeeded his father in 1902 : educated 
at Christ Church, Oxford : Governor of 
Bombay, March 21, 1831, till March 17, 
1835 : Privy Councillor, 1830 : G.C.H., 
1835 : K.P., 1845 : died Aug. 18, 1851. 

CLARKE, SIR ALURED (1745 ?-1832) 

Field-Marshal: born about 1745 : entered 
the Army, 1759 ' served in Germany, 
Ireland, America : was Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of Jamaica, 1782-90 : on the way 
to India, in 1795, he co-operated with Lord 
Keith in the capture of Cape Town from 
the Dutch E. I. Co. : in India was C in C. 
in Madras, Jan., 1796 till March, 1797 : 
Member of the Supreme Council and 
provisional C. in C. Bengal from April,i797, 
and confirmed in the Chief Command in 
India in May, 1798, retaining it tiU July, 
1 80 1. He was in command of the force 
with Sir John Shore when the latter, as 
Governor-General, went to Lucknow to 
depose Wazir Ali and set up Saadat Ali as 
Nawab of Oudh in Jan. 1798. He acted as 
Governor-General from the resignation of 
Sir John Shore in March, 1798, till the 
arrival of Lord Mornington in May, 1798. 
He was K.B. in 1797 : General in 1802 : 
G.C.B., 1815 : Field-Marshal in 1830, and 
died Sep. 16, 1832. 

CLARKE, SIR ANDREW (1824-1902) 

Son of Col. Andrew Clarke : born 1824 : 
educated at King's School, Canterbury, 
and Woolwich : entered the Royal 
Engineers, 1844 : was A.D.C. to Sir W. 
Denison, Governor of Tasmania, 1849-53 • 
in the Maori war, New Zealand : on the 
Staff of Sir George Grey : Surveyor- 
General of Victoria : Minister for Public 
Lands in the Legislative Assembly at 
Melbourne : nine years Director of Works 
for the Navy : Governor and C. in C. of the 
Straits Settlements, 1873-5 : P.W.D. 
Member of the Supreme Council of the 
Governor-General, 1875-80 : Comman- 
dant of the School of Military Engineer- 
ing at Chatham, 1880-2 : Inspr-General 
of Fortifications, 1882-6 : retired in 1886 
asLt-General : K.C.M.G., 1873 : G.C.M.G., 
1885 : Col. Commandant R.E. : unsuccess- 
fully contested Chatham in 1886 and 
1893 : Agent-General to the Colony of 
Victoria for many years : died March 29, 
1902 : also C.B. and CLE. 


(1832- ) 
Born June 17, 1832 : son of Tvurner 
Poulter Clarke : educated at King's 
College, London, Trinity and Queen's 
Colleges, Cambridge : third wrangler, 
1856 : Mathematical Lecturer at Queen's 
College, 1857-65 : joined the Education 
Department in Bengal : Inspector of 
Schools, 1866-87: retired 1887: F.R.S. : 
an ardent Botanist : has written numerous 
papers on Botany, also on Anthropology, 
Geography, and Music : and Speculations 
from Political Economy, 1886. 

BARONET (1839- ) 
General : son of Sir Charles Clarke, 
second Batt. : born Dec. 13, 1839 : 
entered the Army in 1856 : served in New 
Zealand, South Africa, War Office, Ireland 
and at Aldershot : commanded the Colonial 
Forces at the Cape, 1880-2 : C. in C. in 
Madras, 1893-8 : Q.M.G., 1899-1903 : 
Governor of Malta since 1903 : G.C.B. in 

CLARKE. LONGUEVILLE ( ? -1860 ? ) 
For many years a prominent barrister 
of the Supreme Court, Calcutta : where, 
it is stated, he founded the Ice House, 
the Bar Library, and the Metcalfe Hall. 

CLARKE, TREDWAY (1764-1858) 

General : entered the E. I. Co.'s military 
service in 1780 : on arriving in Madras 
was engaged in the war against Hyder 
Ali : wounded at the storming of Chil- 
lumbram : in command of the Artillery at 
Fort St. George from 1783 : under General 
Medows and Lord Cornwallis in the fight- 
ing with Tippoo in 1790-2, including 
Bangalore, Seringapatam, Pondicherry 
and the hill-forts : from 1798, Head 
Commissary of Ordnance at Fort St. 
George : returned to England in 1811 : 
offered the command of the Artillery at 
Madras in 1820 : prevented by ill-health 
from accepting it : died in 1858. 


Son of Lt-General Sir A. K. Clark- 
Kennedy : born in 1817 : entered the 
Army in 1833 : served in China : at the 
sieges of Multan in 1848, and the battle of 
Gujarat : at the pursuit and surrender of 
the Sikhs, and defeat of the Afghans : 



with Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde) at the 
occupation of Peshawar, March 21, 1849 : 
served in the Crimea : Maj -General : died 
at Cairo on Dec. 18, 1867. 

CLAVERING, SIR JOHN (1722-1777) 

Son of Sir James Clavering : born in 
1722 : entered the Guards, was Brig- 
General in the attack on Guadaloupe in 
1759 ' Horace Walpole wrote " Clavering 
was the real hero of Guadaloupe. He 
has come home covered with more laurels 
than a boar's head " ; he was sent to 
Hesse-Cassel in 1760 : became Lt-General 
in 1770 : in 1774 went to India : C. in C. in 
India and one of the four Members of the 
Supreme Council under the Regulating Act 
of 1773 : lived at Calcutta in Mission Row : 
he, Francis, and Monson opposed Warren 
Hastings and Barwell in the Supreme 
Council. He was made K.B. on Nov. 
9, 1776 : he fought, in April, i775> a duel 
with Barwell : he supported Nuncomar 
in his charges against Warren Hastings. 
When Warren Hastings' resignation 
was tendered by his agent in England 
— but repudiated in India by Hastings — 
Clavering claimed to be Governor-General, 
but his claim was rejected by the Supreme 
Court. Clavering died Aug. 30, i777- 

CLARKE (1820-1895) 

Born 1820 : his father was Adminis- 
trator-General in the Supreme Court, 
Madras : educated at Edinburgh and St. 
Andrew's : went to Madras in the medical 
service, 1842 : Professor of Botany in the 
Madras University, 1852 : entrusted by 
the Governor of Madras, Lord Harris, to 
form a Government Forest Department : 
became Inspr-General of Forests and 
established an excellent system of con- 
servancy and management : retired, 
1869 : for many years he selected the 
candidates for the Indian Forest Service : 
died May 16, 1895 : LL.D. : F.R.S.E. 


Son of John Cleghorn : born 1841 : 
educated at Edinburgh University and 
Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh : 
M.D. St. Andrew's : entered Indian 
Medical Service, 1865 : served in the 
Bhutan campaign, 1864-5 : and rose to 
be Director-General of the I. M.S. and 
Sanitary Commissioner, 1895 : Fellow of 

the Allahabad University : retired, 1898 • 
published various medical papers : Hony. 
Surgeon to H.M. the King : C.S.I. 



I.C.S. : son of John Clerk : educated 
at Haileybury: entered the Service as 
" writer " in 1817 : after holding some 
unimportant appointments in Bengal, he 
entered the Political Department : was in 
the Secretariat, in Rajputana, at Delhi, 
Political Agent at Umbala and Ludiana : 
Envoy at Lahore, 1842 : Agent to the 
Governor-General on the North-Western 
Frontier during the first Afghan war, 
in which capacity he pushed forward rein- 
forcements with energy, and, after the 
massacre of the Army, urged a policy of 
retribution. He was Lieutenant-Governor 
of the N.W.P., June to Dec. 1843 : 
Provisional Member of the Supreme 
Council, 1844: twice Governor of Bombay, 
from 1847 to 1848 : K.C.B. : and from 
1860-2. He refused the government of 
the Cape, but served there on boundary 
and political work, 1853-4 : was Under 
Secretary and Secretary to the Board of 
Control in 1856-8, and permanent Under 
Secretary of State for India, 1858-60. 
He was a Member of the Council of India, 
1863-76 : K.C.S.I., 1861 : G.C.S.I., 1866 : 
died July 25, 1889. 


General : son of Sir George Russell 
Clerk {q.v.), the Governor of Bombay : 
born Oct. 25, 1835 : entered the Army, 
1851 : served with the Rifle Brigade in 
the Indian mutiny and N.W. Frontier 
campaign : Adjutant-General of the Mad- 
ras Army, 1880-5 '• Assistant Military 
Secretary at Headquarters,'i886-7 : D.A.G. 
to the Forces, 1887-92*: commanding Bel- 
fast District, 1892-3 : Lieutenant of the 
Tower of London, 1897-1900 : Groom in 
Waiting to Queen Victoria, and to H.M 
the King : C.B. : K.C.V.O. in 1902. 


Of the Bengal Civil Service : said to 
have been a cousin of Lord Teignmouth 
{q.v.) : was Collector and Judge of the 
Diwani Adalat (Civil Court) of the dis- 
tricts of Bhagalpur, Monghyr and Raj- 
mahal : proceeding in the Atlas Indiaman, 
to the Cape for his health, he died at sea^. 




Jan. 12 or 13, 1784 : his remains were 
brought back to Calcutta, and interred in 
the South Park Street Cemetery. Warren 
Hastings had a monument erected to him 
with a lengthy inscription : another 
monument was put up by his native subor- 
dinates and others at Bhagalpur. The 
inscription on the latter runs : " Who, 
without bloodshed or terrors of authority, 
employing only the means of conciliation, 
confidence and benevolence, attempted 
and accomplished the entire subjection of 
the lawless and savage inhabitants of the 
jungle-territory of Rajmahal, who had 
long infested the neighbouring lands by 
their predatory incursions, inspired them 
with a taste for the arts of civilized life, 
and attached them to the British Govern- 
ment by a conquest over their minds, the 
most permanent as the most rational 
mode of dominion." He has been called 
" the dulce decus of the early Civil Ser- 
vice." This was the voyage of the Atlas 
in which Mrs. Warren Hastings returned 
to England. 



Son of the 19th Baron : born 1834 : 
educated at Eton, and Christ Church, 
Oxford • M.P. 1857-66, when he suc- 
ceeded to the peerage : Under Secretary 
of State for India, 1867-8 : Charity 
Commissioner : died March 29, 1904. 

OLIVE, ROBERT, BARON (1725-1774) 

Governor of Bengal : son of Richard 
Clive : born Sep. 29, 1725 : educated at 
Lostock, Market Drayton. Merchant Tay- 
lors' and Hemel Hempstead : his youth 
marked by energy, courage, and adven- 
ture : reached Madras as a " writer " in 
the E. I. Co.'s Civil Service in 1744 : in 
the capitulation of Madras, 1746 : escaped 
to Fort St. David : obtained military 
employ in 1848 : at Boscawen's siege of 
Pondicherry : fought at Devikota, 1749, 
on behalf of the Tanjore ruler : at the 
flight at Valkonda : seized Arcot on 
Aug. 31, 1 75 1, to divert Chanda Sahib 
from besieging Muhammad Ali at Trichino- 
poly : was himself besieged with his small 
party in the fort of Arcot for 50 days by 
Chanda Sahib's superior force, which he 
beat off successfully : one of the most 
L brilliant feats in history : defeated Raja 

Sahib and the French at Caveripak, 1752 : 
destroyed the town of Dupleix Fatehabad : 
defeated French Army near Trichinopoly : 
took Covelong and Chingleput : in Eng- 
land, 1753-6 : returned to India as Lt- 
Colonel : on his way out through Bombay 
captured, on Feb. 13, 1756, Gheria, the 
stronghold of the pirate Angria : became 
Lieutenant-Governor of Fort St. David, 
June 20, 1756 : after the Black Hole 
tragedy, Clive was sent up to Bengal in 
Oct.-Dec. 1756 : took Calcutta and Hughli 
from the Nawab Suraj-ud-daula: again 
defeated him and took Chandernagore : 
through Omichund, whom he deceived by 
the fraud of two copies, one of them being 
fictitious, of the treaty, made a treaty 
with Mir J afar to desert the Nawab: 
fought the battle of Plassey, June 23, i757 ; 
routed the Nawab, who fled and was 
killed : installed Mir J afar as Nawab, and 
received large siuns from him : made 
Governor of Bengal : asserted himself 
against his colleagues in the Government : 
defeated the Dutch near Chinsiura : sent 
Colonel Forde to the N. districts of Mad- 
ras : to England again, 1760-5 : made 
Baron Clive of Plassey in 1762 : K.C.B. in 
1764 : M.P. for Shrewsbury : described 
as a " heaven-born General " : quarrelled 
with Sullivan, Chairman of the E. I. Co.'s 
Directors, and defeated him : reappointed 
Governor of Bengal and C. in C. to reform 
the abuses prevailing there in his absence : 
held office May 3, 1765, till Jan. 1767 : 
obtained from the Emperor of Delhi, Shah 
Alam, the " diwani," i.e. authority to 
administer the Civil Government and 
collect the revenue, of Bengal, Bihar and 
Orissa, Aug. 12, 1765 : restored Oudh to 
Shuja-ud-daula : reformed the adminis- 
tration, checking malpractices and giving 
adequate salaries : measures of retrench- 
ment provoked mutiny, which he promptly 
repressed : finally retired in 1767, poorer 
than in 1765 : a £70,000 legacy from Mir 
Jafar he devoted to " the Clive Fund " 
for military men : attacked in England 
by numerous enemies, his administration 
subjected to Parliamentary inquiry : 
partly condemned,but it was finally decided 
that Clive had rendered great and meritori- 
ous services to his country : worn out by 
ill-health and persecution, he took his own 
life, Nov. 22, 1774. His character much 
discussed : his bravery, ability, master- 
fulness, power of leading and governing 
are generally admitted : but his deceit of 



Omichund cannot be justified, and his 
acceptance of large presents from Mir 
J afar can only be excused by special 
considerations of contemporary custom, 
and their openness. 


Appointed to the Madras Army in 
1771 : besieged at Tellicherry in 1780 by 
Hyder All's troops : conducted boundary 
negotiations with Tippoo's Commissioners : 
was present at the sieges of Seringapatam 
in 1792 and 1799, as Deputy, and Assist- 
ant Adjutant-General : his services warm- 
ly acknowledged by the C. in C, General 
Harris : appointed Resident of Mysore in 
1799, and Resident of Poona in 1801, 
remaining there for ten years. He, there, 
as Resident, negotiated the Treaty of 
Bassein of Dec. 31, 180:?, with the Peshwa, 
Baji Rao : retired to England in 181 1 : 
created a Baronet : died April 20, 1813. 


Field-Marshal, son of Colin Macliver, a 
carpenter : took his mother's name of 
Campbell : born Oct. 20, 1792 : entered 
the Army in 1808 : served in Portugal 
under Sir Arthur Wellesley and Sir 
John Moore : was in the expedition to 
Walcheren, 1809 : served in the Penin- 
sular from 1810 to 1813, distinguishing 
himself by his gallantry : Captain, 1813 : 
was in Nova Scotia, at Gibraltar, in the 
W. Indies : Major, 1825 : Lt-Colonel, 
1832 : in the China war of 1842 : C.B. : 
to India in 1846 : Brigadier at Lahore : 
was engaged in the second Sikh war, at 
Ramnagar, Chilianwala and Gujarat : 
commanded the Peshawar Division : 
K.C.B. in 1849 : commanded the Highland 
Brigade in the Crimea at Alma, Bala- 
clava : G.C.B. in 1855 : Lt-General, 
1856 : D.C.L. of Oxford : went out at a 
day's notice in July, 1857, to be C. in C. in. 
India during the mutiny, hurried up rein- 
forcements to Cawnpur, and thence, in 
Nov. 1857, relieved Lucknow, carrying 
off the garrison, defeated the rebels at 
Cawnpur, and, in March, 1858, besieged 
and took Lucknow on the 19th : subse- 
quently he reduced the rebels of Northern 
India to submission : General, and made 
Lord Clyde of Clydesdale, in 1858 : and 
received a pension from the E.I. Co. : 

returned to England in i860 : was one of 
the first Knight Commanders of the Star 
of India in 1861 : was made Field-Marshal 
in 1862 : died on Aug. 14, 1863, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. His mili- 
tary career was one of the greatest of the 
century : his victories in India and his 
modest and exemplary character made 
him a hero to the public. 

COBB, JAMES (1756-1818) 
Appointed a clerk in the Secretary's 
office at the India House, March 28, 1771 : 
became Assistant Secretary, June 2, 1802 : 
Secretary, Jan. 7, 1814 : between 1779 
and 1809, he wrote a large number of 
pieces of various kinds for the stage : 
died 1818. 

COCKBURN, THOMAS (1763- ? ) 

Appointed a writer at Fort St. George, 
1779 : Member of the Board of Revenue 
in 1793 : in 1798 Lord Mornington 
strongly recommended him to the second 
Lord Clive, then Governor of Madras : 
in 1 801 he was induced by the Court of 
Directors not to retire : was employed in 
settling the affairs of the Nawab of Arcot, 
and gave evidence before the House of 
Commons Committee on the affairs of 
the E. I. Co., in 1812. In 1813 he pub- 
lished a brochure in the form of an 
imaginary speech to be delivered by an 
M.P. on Legislative Interference in the 
Conversion of the Indian Population to 

NET (1768-1835) 

Son of Colonel James Cockburn : born 
in a camp in 1768 : entered the Army 
when only 10 years old : in the American 
war, and a captain at 15 : in India 1790- 
1802 : in the first Mysore war, and at 
Seringapatam in 1792, where he acted as 
Engineer : Lt-General, 1821 : died March 
19. 1835. 

(1833- ) 

I.C.S. : born Sep. 19, 1833 : educated 
at Eton and Haileybury, 185 1-2 : went 
out to Lower Bengal, 1853 : officiating 
Chairman of the Calcutta Corporation and 
Commissioner of Police, 1869 and 1872 : 
Commissioner of several Divisions : Secre- 
tary to the Bengal Government, Judicial 
and Political Departments, 1877-82 : 



Member of the Board of Revenue, 1S82- 
87 : acting Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, 
Aug. II to Sep. 17, 1885 : C.S.I. : retired 



I.C.S. : son of the Hon. Philip James 
Cocks : born April 18, 18 19 : educated at 
Haileybury : went to India in 1837 : 
served in Sind under Sir C. Napier : in 
the Pan jab campaign was Political Officer 
to Lord Gough at Ramnagar, Chilianwala, 
Gujarat : after the annexation in 1849 
served in the Panjab : in the mutiny was 
Judge of Mainpuri : served in the volun- 
teers at Agra, and in the Alighar district : 
C.B., 1S60 : retired, 1863 : died Aug. 29, 


Born May 5, 1837 : son of Rev. T. S. 
Codrington, Vicar of Wroughton, Wilts : 
educated at the Royal Free Grammar 
School, Marlborough, and the London 
Hospital : M.D. : F.S.A. : in the Army 
Medical Department, June, 1859-1885 : 
served in the N. Zealand war, 1864-6 : 
retired with honorary rank of Deputy 
Surgeon-General : formerly Secretary of 
the Bombay Asiatic Society, now Hony. 
Librarian of the Royal Asiatic and 
Royal Numismatic Societies : has written 
a Manual of Musulman Numismatics and 
various papers on Oriental Numismatic 
and Archaeological subjects. 



Son of Capt. Coffin, R.N. : born 1800: 
reached India in the E. I. Co.'s Army in 
1819 : joined at Madras in 1821 : served 
in the first Burma war, 1824, and at sta- 
tions held by the Madras Army : com- 
manded, from 1855, the Hyderabad 
subsidiary force : and a Division of the 
Madras Army in 1859-64 : K.C.S.I., 
1866 : Lt-General, 1869 : died Oct i, 1872. 

Colonel : son of Admiral Sir J . Coghill, 
Bart. : born Oct. 21, 1832 : educated at 
Cheltenham : joined the Indian Army, 
1851 : served in Burma, 1853-5 : 
Adjutant of his regt. (2nd European 
Bengal Fusiliers) during the mutiny, 1857- 
8 : present at Badli-ka-sarai and siege 

of Delhi, and several subsequent actions : 
Brig-Major at Cawnpur and Barrackpur : 
Assistant A.G. at Lucknow and Cal- 
cutta : and of the Presidency Division, 
1861-1870 : exchanged to 19th Hussars, 
which he commanded in Egyptian cam- 
paign, 1882 : C.B. 

General : son of Captain J. Coghlan, 
C.B., R.N. : joined the Artillery in India, 
1820 : in the Kolapur Field Force, 1826-7 : 
Brig- Major of Artillery in Sind and 
Afghanistan in 1838-40 : at Ghazni 
Kabul, Kandahar, capture of Kelat : 
Political Resident and Commandant at 
Aden, 1854-63 : he carried out, 1856-7, 
the occupation of Perim (previously taken 
possession of in 1799) as suggested by 
Lord Elphinstone {q.v.) : commanded 
against Arabs, 1858 : stormed the fort 
of Shekh Othmar : K.C.B., 1864 : died 
Nov. 25, 1885. 

COKE, SIR JOHN (1806-1897) 
Maj -General : son of the Rev. F. Coke : 
born 1806 : entered [E.I. Co.'s Service, 
1823 : served in the loth Bengal N.I. : 
raised the ist Panjab Infantry at Pesha- 
war, 1849 : commanded it till 1858 : in 
the Indian mutiny was in 14 engagements, 
including the siege of Delhi : Sheriff of 
Herefordshire, 1879 : died Dec. 18, 1897 : 

Captain, R.N. : son of Humphrey 
Cole: born June 10, 1770: entered the 
Navy, 1780 : went to India, 1789^ under 
Commodore William Cornwallis, and 
again in 1804 in the Culloden under Sir 
Edward Pellew : C. in C. in the E. Indies : 
took Sir John Malcolm on his mission to 
Persia, via Bushire, 1808 : relieved the 
garrison of Amboyna, 1810: captured 
Neira, the principal of the Banda islands : 
thanked by the Governor-General of 
India : served on the Malabar coast, 18 11, 
and against Java : D.C.L. of Oxford : 
knighted, 1812 : K.C.B., 1815 : M.P. for 
Glamorganshire, 1817-30 : died Aug. 24, 


Son of Sir George Colebrooke, Bart., 
Chairman of the E.I. Co.'s Directors in 



1769 : born June 15, 1765 : privately 
educated: went to India in 1782-3. In 
his early years, as Assistant Collector in 
Tirhut and Purnea, he took keenly to 
sport : his first literary work was on the 
Agriculture and Commerce of Bengal, in 
which he opposed the monopoly policy of 
the E. I. Co. At first he disliked Oriental 
literature, but feeling compelled, in the 
exercise of his duties, to learn law through 
the Sanskrit language, he published a 
translation of a Digest of Hindu Law, 1791, 
in which his appointment in 1795 to 
Mirzapur, near Benares, facilitated his 
Sanskrit studies : also wrote in the 
Asiatic Researches, his first paper, in 1794, 
being " On the Duties of a Faithful Hindu 
Widow " : also, on the " Origin of Caste " : 
was sent on a mission to the Raja of 
Berar at Nagpur in 1799-1801, without 
success : appointed in 1801 to be a Judge 
of the Sadr Diwani Adalat, and foiu: years 
later became the Head of that Court : 
was also, unsalaried. Professor of Hindu 
Law and Sanskrit at the College of Fort 
William, Calcutta : was a Member of the 
Supreme Council from 1807 to 18 12, re- 
taining his seat in the Sadr Court : after 
his 5 years in Council, Colebrooke returned 
to the Court, and next became a Member 
of the Board of Revenue, till the close of 
1814 : was President of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal from 1807 to 18 14, when 
he left India. He made a voyage to the 
Cape on business in 1821-2 : after his 
return thence, he became Director of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, which he helped to 
found in 1823 : became totally blind, and 
died March 10, 1837. His literary and 
scientific labours were immense. A great 
mathematician, a zealous astronomer and 
profound Sanskrit scholar, his writings 
always commanded the highest attention : 
he has been described as facile princeps 
among Sanskrit scholars. He wrote also 
on the Vedas, on Sanskrit grammar, and 
a lexicon, on the Sect of Jains, on Indian 
Jurisprudence and Roman law, besides 
other papers on Hindu Law, philosophy 
and customs, Indian algebra, on astrono- 
my, the height of the Himalayas, botany, 
geology, comparative philology, etc., 
in contributions to the Transactions of the 
learned Societies — the Astronomical, Lin- 
naean. Geological and Asiatic — to which 
he belonged, as well as to the Royal 
Societies of London and Edinburgh : he 
was a Member of several foreign Acade- 

mies also : he gave, in 1818, his valuable 
collection of Sanskrit MSS. to the E. I. 
Co.'s Library. 

WARD, BARONET (1813-1890) 

Son of Henry Thomas Colebrooke (^.v.) : 
bom in Calcutta in 1813 : succeeded as 
Baronet in 1838 : was nearly 40 years 
M.P. for Taunton and Lanarkshire : was 
not a scholar, but was in sympathy with 
Oriental scholars and with research : was 
President of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
1864-6, 1875-7, 1881 : published the Life 
of Mountstuart Elphinstone, Essays by 
H. T. Colebrooke, The Creeds of India, a 
pamphlet : edited and published a third 
volume of Elphinstone's India : died 
Jan. II, 1890. 


Born 1824 : was originally in the Marine 
Service : became partner with Mr. Mac- 
dowell, and later sole proprietor in a firm 
at Madras, which by great industry and 
application he made a flomishing and 
profitable business : did much for the 
social and public welfare of the conunun- 
ity : joined the Volunteer movement at 
its commencement ; became its Lt-Colonel 
and commanded the Duke's Own Artillery 
Corps : was an active member of the 
Municipal Corporation : and a member of 
the Madras Legislative Council from 1879 : 
contributed largely to charitable institu- 
tions ; died at Royapuram, Madras. Dec. 
14, 1883 : one of the foremost of the 
Eurasian Community of Madras. 

D.D. (1824- ) 

Born in Ireland, April i, 1824 : edu- 
cated at Navan and Maynooth College : 
arrived in India, 1844 : held various 
appointments in Madras until he became 
Vicar Apostolic, titular Bishop of Aurelio- 
polis : and Archbishop in 1886 : Personal 
Assistant to the Pontifical Throne, 1894 : 
a FeUow of the Madras University : pul)- 
lished works on Roman Catholicism. 

HAYTER (1843- ) 

Born June 17, 1843 : son of Henry 
Collen : Maj-General : educated at Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich : entered 


the Royal Artillery, 1863 : served in the 
Abyssinian war, 1868 : Secy, to the Indian 
Army Commission, 1879 : Afghan war, 
1880 : Soudan, 1885 : Secretary to the 
Government of India, Military Depart- 
ment, 1887-96 : Military Member of 
Governor-General's Supreme Council, 1896 
-1901 : CLE., 1889 : C.B., 1897 : K.C.I.E., 
1893 : G.C.I.E., 1901. 

COLLETT, SIR HENRY (1836-1901) 

Lt-General : born 1836 : son of the 
Rev. W. Collett : educated at Tonbridge : 
entered the Bengal Army in 1855 : saw 
much service : was in the Sitana campaign 
under Sydney Cotton, 1858 : in the Oudh 
campaign in 1858-9 : in the Khasia and 
Jaintia rebellion, 1862-3 '• severely 
v/ounded at Oomkrong : in the Abyssinian 
campaign, 1868 : in the Afghan war, 
1878-80 : at Peiwar Kotal, in the Khost 
valley, the Kabul-Kandahar march and 
the battle of Kandahar : C.B. : com- 
manded a Brigade in the Bmrma expedi- 
tion, 1886-8 : commanded the E. Frontier 
district with the Chin-Lushai expedition- 
ary force, 1889-90 : commanded the 
Manipur Field Force, 1891 : K.C.B. : was 
a botanist with considerable knowledge, 
and wrote on the flora of Simla : died 
Dec. 21, 1901. 


(18 35-1881 

Maj-General : son of 'the Hon. George 
Francis CoUey.who was originally Pomeroy: 
born Nov. 1835 : educated at the R.M.C. 
Sandhurst (highly distinguished), joined 
the 2nd Queen's in 1852 : served at the 
Cape, and held a Border Magistracy there, 
1857-8 : served in China, was at the action 
of the Taku forts and the advance on 
Pekin : Brevet - Major, 1863 : entered 
the Staff College and passed with distinc- 
tion : appointed Professor there, and wrote 
articles on the Army in the Encyclopcedia 
Britannica : in the Ashanti campaign, 
1873 : went to Natal on a special mission, 
to the Transvaal, and Swaziland : was 
?*Iilitary Secretary to Lord Lytton when 
Viceroy and Governor-General of India, 
I S 76-8 : Private Secretary, 1878-80, but 
during 1879 was Chief on the Staff to 
Sir Garnet Wolseley in Zululand and the 
Transvaal, until recalled late in that year 
to India. He was C.B., 1873 : C.M.G., 
1878 : K.C.S.I., 1879. Early in 1880 

he was appointed High Commissioner for 
South Eastern Africa, and Governor and 
C. in C, Natal : in the fighting with the 
Boers which ensued, Colley was defeated 
at Laing's Nek, and was killed in the 
Boers' attack on Majuba Hill, Feb, 26, 
1881. Colley had studied deeply the 
questions of the Indian frontier and Cen- 
tral Asia, and exercised much influence on 
the military and political policy of Lord 
Lytton's administration. 

HAMMOND (1834- ) 

Son of John Collins : born 1834 : 
called to the bar from Gray's Inn, i860 : 
Q.C. and Bencher, 1877 : also a barrister 
of the Middle Temple : Recorder of Poole, 
1873-9, and of Exeter, 1879-85 : Chief 
Justice of the High Court, Madras, 1885- 
99 : knighted, 1885 : Vice-Chancellor of 
the Madras University, 1889-99. 

COLLINS, JOHN ( ? -1807) 

Colonel : joined the E. I. Co.'s Bengal 
Infantry, 1770 : Major in 1794 : appointed 
Resident at the Court of Daulat Rao 
Sindia {q.v.), 1 795-1 803, but, though he[had 
much power over him, failed to dissuade 
him from fighting against the English : 
Collins, therefore, in 1803 left Sindia, who 
was defeated at Assaye and Argaum in 
that year. Collins was also sent on a 
mission to Jaipur in 1799. After the 
Mahratta war, Collins was Resident at 
Lucknow, at the Court of the Nawab 
Wazir, and died there June 11, 1807. He 
was called " King Collins," and is de- 
scribed as " cold, imperious, and over- 
bearing," so that Metcalfe {q.v.) declined 
to remain under him. 


(1848- ) 

Son of Dr. Archibald Colquhoun, 
H.E.I.C.S.: educated at Edinburgh Univer- 
sity and abroad : entered the Indian 
Public Works Department, 1871 : ex- 
plored from Canton to Bhamo for best 
railway route between Burma and China, 
1 88 1-2 : Deputy Commissioner Upper 
Burma, 1885-9 '• Administrator in Mas- 
honaland, 1890 : retired, 1894 : travelled 
extensively in Siberia, Mongolia and 
China, etc., 1900-3 : author of Across 
Chryse, 1883 ; Amongst the Shans, 1885 ; 
The Key of the Pacific, 1895 ; Russia against 



India, 1900, etc. etc. : F.R.G.S. : Times 
Correspondent on several occasions : 
has written a number of geographical and 
political papers. 


Son of Andrew Wedderburn Colvile : 
born 1810 : educated at Eton, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge : called to the bar 
from the Inner Temple in 1835 : was 
appointed in 1845 to be Advocate-General, 
Bengal : made a Puisne Judge of the 
vSupreme Court, Calcutta, 1848 : knighted : 
Chief Justice, 1855-9, when he retired : 
was President of the Council of Education, 
and of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
1848-59 : also Vice-President of the 
Governor-General's Legislative Council : 
after his retirement, he was Privy Coun- 
cillor, and first Assessor, and, later. Mem- 
ber of the Judicial Committee : F.R.S. : 
died Dec. 6, 1880. 


Entered the Army, 1781, in 28th regt. : 
Lt-Colonel in 13th foot in 1796 : served in 
the Irish rebellion, 1798 : in Egypt, 
1 80 1-2 : commanded his regiment to 
Bermuda, 1808 : Brigadier in the Penin- 
sula, 1810-14 : commanded a Division 
at Waterloo : C. in C. at Bombay, Oct. 
9, 1819 to 1826 : Colonel of 5th Fusiliers, 
1835 : General, 1837 : G.C.B. : G.C.H. : 
died March 27, 1843. 


I.C.S. : son of John Russell Colvin {g.v) : 
born 1838 : educated at Eton and Hailey- 
bury, 1855-7 : served, chiefly in the 
N.W.P., 1858-79 : officiating Secretary 
to N.W.P. Government, 1873, 1875 = 
Comptroller-General, Egypt, 1880-2 : 
/ K.C.M.G., 1881 : Financial Adviser to 
the Khedive, 1882-3 : Financial Member 
of the Supreme Council, 1883-7 : Lieuten- 
ant Governor of the N.W.P. and Oudh, 
1887-92 : retired, 1892 : K.C.S.L, 1892 : 
CLE. : Chairman of the Burma Railways 
Co. : and of the Egyptian Delta Light 
Railways Co. : wrote [ohn Russell Colvin, 
in the " Rulers of India " series, 1895. 

HOUN (1870- ) 
Major : son of J. C. Colvin, B.C.S : 
born Aug. 26, 1870 : educated at Charter- 
house : joined the Royal Military Academy, 

Woolwich : joined the Royal Engineers, 
1888 : served in the Chitral Relief 
expedition, 1895, and in the Malakand 
Field Force, 1897, where he won the V.C, : 
in South Africa in 1901-2 : Intelligence 
Department, India : vStaff Captain for 
Mobilisation, 1903. 


Lieutenant-Governor : I.C.S. : son of 
James Colvin, Calcutta merchant : born 
in Calcutta, May 29, 1807 : educated at 
St. Andrews and at Haileybury : went 
to Bengal in 1826, to Hyderabad in 1827 : 
was Assistant and Deputy Secretary in 
the Judicial and Revenue Departments of 
the Government of India, 1831-5 : 
Secretary to the Board of Revenue, 1835 : 
Private Secretary to the Governor- 
General, Lord Auckland, 1836-42 ; and 
is said to have exercised considerable 
influence over the latter's Afghan policy. 
He was Resident in Nipal, 1845, Commis- 
sioner of Tenasserim, 1846 : Judge of the 
Sadr Court at Calcutta : Lieutenant- 
Governor of the N.W.P. from Nov. 7, 
1853. It was said that Colvin " over- 
governed " : he worked with extraordi- 
nary industry, and greatly increased the 
business of the Government : his action 
in the mutiny has been the subject of 
controversy : he issued, in May, a pro- 
clamation which was not entirely approved: 
the violence of the outbreak fell upon him 
without warning, and the forces at his 
disposal were inadequate to meet it. He 
was " worn out by the unceasing anxieties 
and labours of his charge" — so ran Lord 
Canning's notification of his death : he 
fell ill, became worse, and died in canton- 
ments on Sep. 9, 1857 : and was buried 
in the fort at Agra. Sir Auckland Colvin, 
in his life of his father, J. R. Colvin, in 
the " Rulers of Ifidia " series, has ex- 
hausted the subject. 


(1829- ) 

Born Aug. 4, 1829 : son of Rev. Robert 
Smith, D.D. of Old Macker, Aberdeen : 
educated at Grammar School and King's 
College and University, Aberdeen : M.D. 
of Aberdeen : and L.R.C.S. Edinburgh : 
entered the Madras Army, 185 1 : served 
in second Burma war, 1852-3, and in the 
Indian mutiny, 1857-9 : Principal 
medical officer with Indian Contingent 
in Egyptian campaign, 1882 : C.B., 1882 ; 




present at Tel-el- Kebir and Zagazig : 
retired in 1884 : Honorary Surgeon to the 
late Queen and to H.M. the present King : 
K.C.B. in 1903. 

FIRST VISCOUNT (1773-1865) 

Field-Marshal : son of Sir R. S. Cotton, 
fifth Baronet : M.P. : born Nov. 1773 : 
educated at Westminster, and at a private 
Military Academy in Baysvvater : entered 
the Army in 1790, in the 23rd Fusiliers ; 
served in Flanders : was Lt-Colonel of 
a Cavalry regt. at the Cape on his way 
to India, where he was engaged in 1799 
against Tippoo, being at MalvaUli and 
Seringapatam : returned to England, 
1800 : was M.P. for Newark, 1806-14 : 
as Ma j -General he commanded, first a 
Brigade in the Peninsula, from 1808, and 
later the whole cavalry Division : suc- 
ceeded as Baronet in 1809 : was at 
Talavera and Salamanca : K.C.B. in 
1812 : and at other engagements, including 
the Pyrenees campaign and Toulouse : 
was made Baron Combermere in May, 
1 814, and received a pension. He com- 
manded the allied cavalry in France in 
1 8 15-6 : was Governor of Barbados 
1817-20, and Commander-in-Chief in 
Ireland, 1822-5 : as C. in C. in India, 
1 825-1 830, he Ijesieged and took Bhartpur 
on Jan. 18, 1826, and was made Viscount 
in 1827 : Constable of the Tower, 1852 : 
Field-Marshal, 1855 : he was G.C.B. in 
1815 : G.C.H. in 1817 : D.C.L. in 1830 : 
Privy Councillor, 1843 : K.C.S.I., 1861 : 
died Feb. 21, 1865. 

DRAPER (1770-1846) 
Son of Walter Abingdon Compton : 
entered the E.I. Co.'s Army as a private 
soldier : went to India : bought himself 
out of the Army : articled himself in an 
office in Madras : returned home, and 
wrote for newspapers in London : called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1808 : 
joined the Madras bar, and became 
Advocate-General there, and at Calcutta : 
was knighted and made Chief Justice of 
the Bombay Supreme Court, April 11, 1831: 
retired in 1839, and died Jan. 14, 1846. 


Son of the Rev. Thomas Comyn : born 
Oct. 26, 1792 : educated at Merchant 

Taylors' School and St. John's College, 
Oxford : called to the bar at Lincoln's 
Inn in 1814 : appointed a Puisne Judge 
of the Calcutta Supreme Court in 1825 : 
knighted : Chief Justice of Madras from 
July I, 1835, until March 11, 1842 : D.C.L. 
Oxford : Bencher of the Middle Temple : 
died May 23, 1853. He wrote on legal 
and historical subjects. 

FIRST BARON (1827-1902) 

Governor : born June 11, 1827: son of 
fifth Earl of Mayo, brother of sixth Earl 
of Mayo (q-v.), Viceroy and Governor- 
General : educated at Enniskillen and 
Trinity College, Dublin : called to the 
bar at the Inner Temple, 1852 : M.P. for 
King's Lynn, 1868, 1874 : Under Secre- 
tary for Foreign Affairs, 1874-80 : and 
again 1885-6 : P.C, 1880 : Governor of 
Madras, Dec. 8, 1886-Dec i, 1890: 
G.C.I.E. : made a Peer, May 12, 1887 : 
died Sep. 3, 1902. 

CONOLLY, ARTHUR (1807-1842 ?) 

Son of Valentine Conolly : born July 
2, 1807 : educated at Rugby and Addis- 
combe : went to India in the same ship 
as Bishop Heber : joined the Bengal 
Cavalry, 1823 : at Bhartpur, 1826 : 
from leave in England he returned to 
India through Central Asia, via St. Peters- 
burg, Tiflis, Teheran, Astrabad: nearly 
killed by the Tmrcomans on his way to 
Khiva : from Astrabad to Mashad, Herat, 
Kandahar, Sind : wrote an account of his 
journey : was in the Political Department 
in Rajputana, 1834-8 : Captain : made 
another journey via Vienna, Constanti- 
nople, Bagdad, Teheran and Herat : joined 
Macnaghten's Staff at Kabul, 1840 : 
in Sep. he was sent as Envoy to Khiva, 
via Merv, and to Khokand, and, on the 
invitation of the Amir NasiruUa of Bok- 
hara, sent through Stoddart, went on 
there, but was treacherously imprisoned, 
in Oct. or Dec. 1841 : he and Stoddart 
were executed in captivity, probably on 
June 17, 1842. His few letters described 
their sufferings in their dungeon : his 
prayer-book, full of his writing, was 
delivered to his sister in London in 1862. 

Brother of Arthur Conoll5'^(^.i^.) : was 
Captain in the Bengal Cavalry and Com- 



mandant of Sir W. Macnaghten's escort 
at Kabul, when he was killed, fighting in 
the Kohistan under Sir R. Sale, on Sep. 
29, 1840: he had written papers for the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



I.C.S.: brother of Arthur ConoUy 
(q.v.) : educated at Rugby, went to Madras, 
1824 : served in Bellary, and for many 
years as District Officer of the Malabar 
district : he was murdered in his own 
house by Moplah fanatics on Sep. 11, 
1855 : he had been nominated to be 
provisional Member of Council, Madras. 

CONRAN, HENRY (1738-1810) 
Major : served in the American war, 
1755-6 : under Wolfe, at Quebec, in 1759 = 
returned to England and retired as Major 
about 1780 : went to India by way of Aleppo 
and the desert with a packet from the 
Court of Directors to the Bengal Govern- 
ment : appointed to the Staff of Warren 
Hastings, on whose retirement, in 1785, 
Conran remained in Calcutta and died 
there. May 15, 1810. 

SET ( ? -1837) 
Brig-General entered the E. I. Co.'s 
military service in 1793 = reached Madras, 
1795 : in the expedition to Ceylon, 1796 : 
in that to Manilla, 1797 : in several 
campaigns : in Mysore, 1799 : in the 
Ceded Districts, 1 801-2 : Mahratta war, 
1803-6 : under Sir T. Hislop, 1815 : in 
the Pindari war, 1 817-8 : Adjutant- 
General of the Madras Army, from 1809 : 
C.B., 1819 : employed on a military mission 
to Bengal, 1828-30 : appointed to com- 
mand the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force : 
died of cholera. May 14, 1837. 


OF (1862- ) 

Born Oct. 4,1862 : succeeded his father 
in 1863, the State being under official 
management diuring his minority : edu- 
taced at the Wards' Institute, Benares, 
and at Bankipur, Patna : Maharaja 
Bahadur, 1880 : installed in 1883 as a 
Ruling Chief : G.C.I.E., 1887 : Hony. 
Lt-Colonel of the 6th Bengal Cavalry : 
through the Tirah campaign on the Staff of 

General Yeatman-Briggs : present at Dargai 
and Samana : C.B., 1898 : Hony. A.D.C 
to H.M. the King : married in 1878 the 
daughter of Keshab Chandra Sen {q.v.). 
The Maharaja has visited England 
several times : he is a keen sportsman 
and has excelled in polo, tennis, and other 
games. The Maharani Sunity Devi has 
been a Member of the Imperial Order of 
the Crown of India since 1887. 

COOKE, EDWARD (1772-1799) 

Son o^ Colonel Cooke : became a 
Captain in the Royal Navy : appointed to 
the Syhille in 1795, served in her at the 
Cape, and in the East Indies : off the 
Sandheads, in the Bay of Bengal, the 
Syhille fought between 9 p.m. on Feb. 
28, 1799, and 2.30 a.m. on March i, the 
French ship Forte, a much larger and better 
armed frigate, and captured her in the 
Balasore roads, 150 of the Forte's men 
being killed and wounded. Cooke re- 
ceived very severe wounds, of which he 
died at Calcutta, May 23, i799- The 
E.I. Co. erected a monument to him in the 
South Park Street Cemetery, Calcutta. 


Born 1836 : son of Rev. John Cooke, 
Rector of Ardinan, Co. Tipperary : 
educated at Dublin University, highly 
distinguished : went to India as Engineer 
of the Bombay-Baroda line, i860 : 
erected the Bassein bridge, 1865 : Princi- 
pal of Civil Engineering College at Poona, 
1865 : acted as Director of Public Instruc- 
tion in Bombay : Director of Botanical 
Survey of Western India, and Director of 
Agriculture : Fellow of the Bombay 
University : retired in 1893, and was 
Sub-Director of the Imperial Institute : 
author of Manual of Heat, Manual of 
Geology, Flora of Bombay Presidency : 
CLE. in 1891. 


Born Sep. 15, 1845 : educated at Sir 
Jamsetji Jijibhai's Institution and the 
Elphinstone College, Bombay : head- 
master of the Fort High School, Bombay, 
for nearly 20 years : the pioneer of higher 
education by private non-missionary enter- 
prise in Western India. Sir W. W. 
Hunter, President of the Education 
Commission of 1882, stated that had there 



been others like Cooper in the chief 
centres of India, the Commission would 
never have been appointed, because his 
work had solved the problem of the Com- 
mission : the first Parsi schoolmaster to 
visit England, 1875, to study the educa- 
tional systems of the West and apply them 
to his work in India. He was a house- 
hold word among Bombay students : 
was popularly known as Manackji Master : 
his High School officially bore the highest 
reputation : he edited Pope's Homer's 
Iliad : died Aug. 4, 1904. 


Traveller: son of John J. Cooper: 
born Sep. 13, 1839 : educated at Bishop- 
wearmouth. When he was on a voyage 
to Australia for his health, the crew 
mutinied : he went to India, 1859: joined 
the firm of Arbuthnot & Co. at Madras : 
travelled to Rangoon and on to Shanghai : 
fought against the Taiping rebels : in 
1868, he tried to travel from Hankow, 
through Tibet, to India, was stopped at 
Batang and near Weisi and imprisoned, 
and, vid the Yangtsze, reached Hankow 
in Nov. 1868: in 1869, trying to reach China 
from Sadiya in Assam was stopped at Prun. 
The India Office employed him with the 
Panthay mission to London : he was then 
made Political Agent at Bhamo : returned 
home for his health : attached to the India 
Office : reappointed in 1876 to Bhamo, 
and was murdered there by one of his own 
guards, April 24, 1878. He wrote Travels 
of a Pioneer of Commerce in Pigtail and 
Petticoats, 1871 : and Mishmee Hilh, 1873. 

COOTE, SIR EYRE (1726-1783)' 

Born in 1726: fourth son of the Rev. 
Dr. Chidley Coote : entered the Army 
in 1745 : went to India in 1754 with the 
39th regt. and became Captain on June 
18, 1755. Part of this regiment was 
included in the force dispatched from 
Madras to Bengal in 1756 against the 
Nawab Surajuddaula, after his capture 
of Calcutta. Coote was present at its 
recapture, at the taking of Chander- 
nagore, and at the victory of Plassey, on 
I June 23, 1757 : Clive, it is said, acted 
on his advice among others to give im- 
mediate battle. In Jan. 1759, he was 
gazetted Lt-Colonel of the 84th regt., 
and to command the troops in Madras. 
In the war with the French, under 

Lally, he took Wandiwash, Nov. 30, 
1759, and the fort of Carangooly, relieved 
Trichinopoly, defeated the French at 
Wandiwash, Jan. 22, 1760, and took 
Arcot. He besieged Lally in Pondicherry, 
while a naval force attacked it by sea. On 
its surrender in Jan., 1761, the French 
power in India completely collapsed : 
Coote returned to England in 1762, and 
was received with honour : became a 
Colonel on April 4, 1765, and M.P. for 
Leicester. In 1769 he was reappointed 
to command the troops in Madras, but 
resigned and returned to England in 
Oct. 1770, where he was made K.B. 
Aug. 31, 1771 : Maj-General Sep. 29, 
1775 : Lt-General on Aug. 29, 1777 : and 
Commander-in-Chief in India, on April 17, 
1777. He succeeded General Clavering 
as Member of the Supreme Council at 
Calcutta on March 24, 1779. When 
Hyder Ali of Mysore declared war, invaded 
the Carnatic in 1780 and defeated Colonel 
Baillie at Perambakam, Warren Hastings 
despatched Coote to Madras, which he 
reached on Nov. 5, 1780. Early in 1781 
Coote took the field against Hyder, raised 
the siege of Wandiwash, marched on 
Cuddalore, attacked Chelambakam and 
won a decided victory at Porto Novo, July 
I, 1 78 1, besides defeating Hyder at 
Perambakam, Aug. 27, effecting the 
relief of Vellore and the capture of Chittore. 
His last encounter with Hyder was the 
indecisive skirmish at Arnee, June 2, 1782. 
Coote's failing health compelled him to 
resign the command in Madras and take 
a change to Calcutta. Only partially 
recovered, he rettu:ned to Madras early 
in 1783, but on the voyage was chased by 
the French. The anxiety and exposure 
produced a relapse, which proved fatal on 
April 28, 1783, two days after his arrival 
at Madras. His body was taken to 
England and interred at Rockburne, in 
Hampshire. A monument in Westmin- 
ster Abbey was erected to him by the East 
India Company. His military capacity 
has been highly praised, as also his patience,, 
temper, activity and energy, valour and 
coolness. His enforcement of discipline 
was tempered by kindness, which endeared 
him to his soldiers. 

STEPHEN (1845- ) 
Son of Rev. R. E. Copleston : educated, 
at Merton College, Oxford : married a. 



•daughter of the late Archbishop Trench : 
Fellow and Tutor of St. John's College, 
Oxford : was appointed Bishop of Colombo 
in 1875 : translated to Calcutta and became 
Metropolitan of India in 1902. Author 
■of Buddhism : Primitive and Present. 

Commanded the 25th N.I. in the Pan- 
jab campaign of 1848-9, at Sadulapur, 
Chilianwala and Gujarat : C.B. : in the 
mutiny was Brig-General commanding 
at Mianmir : co-operated boldly and 
•successfully with the civil authorities in 
totally disarming the native troops there 
•on parade, May 13, 1857, seizing the Fort 
at Lahore, and sending English troops 
!to secure Umritsar : K.C.B. : died at 
Naini Tal, Aug. i, 1865. 


I.C.S. : educated at Rugby and Balliol 
•College, Oxford : went out to the Panjab 
in 1856 : while at Peshawar, he translated 
the Iliad into English verse : served in 
Berar : was D.P.I, in the Panjab in 1872 : 
Commissioner of Peshawar : Resident at 
Hyderabad, 1883 : C.S.I. : retired, 1888 : 
•translated the Odyssey : died April 8, 1900. 

CORNISH, HUBERT (1757-1823) 

Son of James Cornish of Teignmouth : 
born 1757 : was Private Secretary (1793-8) 
to his brother-in-law. Sir John Shore 
(Lord Teignmouth), during the whole 
term of his Governor-Generalship (a 
younger brother, George Cornish, being 
at the same time A.D.C.) : they both re- 
turned to England with Sir J. Shore in 
1798 : Hubert settled at Exeter : a 
lawyer by profession and an accomplished 
artist and musician : died 1823. 

CORNISH, HUBERT (1776-1832) 

Son of James Cornish, M.D. : born 
1776 : a nephew of Sir John Shore (q.v.) : 
went to India in the Civil Service, 1797 : 
was stationed at Benares in 1797. when 
Cherry {q.v.) the A.G.G., and other officers 
and Europeans were murdered treacher- 
ously by the orders of Wazir Ali [q.v.) : he 
jumped upon a horse which Sir J. Shore 
had given him, and was one of the few 
civilians who escaped : became a Judge 
in Bengal : retired about 1830 to his estate 
near Totnes : died Aug. 25, 1832. 


Educated at St. George's Hospital : 
entered the Madras Army as Assistant 
Surgeon, 1854 : Secretary to the Director- 1 
General, Medical Department, 1860-70 : 
Sanitary Commissioner to Madras Govern- 
ment, 1870-80 : did good service during 
the famine of 1877 : CLE. : Surgeon- 
General in 1880 : retired, 1885 : Member 
of the Legislative Council, Madras, 1883 : 
Fellow of the Madras University, 1867 : 
wrote on medical subjects : died Oct. 
19, 1897 : F.R.C.S. 

MARQUIS (1738-1805) 

Governor-General : son of Charles, 
first Earl : born Dec. 31, 1738 : educated 
at Eton : entered the Guards, 1756 : 
studied at the Military Academy, Turin : 
served in Germany, 1758-62 : at Minden : 
M.P. for Eye : became Earl in June, 
1762 : Lord of the Bedchamber : Con- 
stable of the Tower, 1770 : Maj-General, 
1775 : served in the American war, 1776 : 
second in command in 1778 to Sir H. 
Clinton : forced to capitulate at Yorktown 
on Oct. 19, 1781, no blame attaching to 
him : in 1782, and 1785, he refused to go 
to India, but, against his will, accepted 
the Governor-Generalship in 1786 : held 
the appointment from Sep., 1786, being 
also C. in C. : and K.G. : he reformed 
both the civil and military services : in 
Dec. 1790, he took the command in Madras 
against Tippoo : captured Bangalore, 
March 21, 1791 : defeated Tippoo near 
Seringapatam : took Nandidrug, Oct. 19 : 
Savandrug, Dec. 21 : besieged Seringapa- 
tam, Feb. 1792, when Tippoo submitted, 
and signed peace, ceding territory and 
paying a large indemnity : Cornwallis 
created a Marquis, Aug., 1792- He 
then announced the permanent settlement 
of the land revenue to be paid by the 
zamindars in Bengal, 1793, acting against 
the advice of Sir J ohn Shore : he reformed 
the Law Courts : he sailed for Madras to 
attack Pondicherry, but it had surrendered 
before his arrival : he left Madras, home- 
wards, on Oct. 10, 1793- From England, 
he was sent to military service on the 
continent : was Master-General of the 
Ordnance from i795 = when military 
questions caused anxiety in Bengal, Corn- 
wallis was re-appointed Governor-General 



on Feb. i, 1797 : did not proceed to 
India : his services were required as 
Viceroy and C. in C, Ireland, to crush the 
rebellion of 1798 : defeated the French 
there under General Humbert : supported 
the Act of Union, but resigned the Vice- 
royalty in 1 801, when the King declined 
to agree to Catholic Emancipation : de- 
puted to negotiate the Peace of Amiens, 
1802. In 1805 he was re-appointed 
Governor-General and C. in C. in India, 
and assumed charge on J uly 30 : sent 
out to inaugurate a pacific regime instead 
of the expansive policy of Lord Wellesley. 
But it was too severe a tax on his age and 
health. On his way up-country, in pursuit 
of his pacific policy, he died at Ghazipur, 
Oct. 5, 1805. Statues were erected in his 
honour at Calcutta and Madras. 

Son of Charles, first Earl Cornwallis : 
entered the Navy, i755 = engaged con- 
stantly during his service, in N. America, 
the Mediterranean, W. Indies, etc., until, 
in 1789, he went out to India as naval C. in 
€. : in 1 79 1, when there was war against 
Tippoo, he insisted on searching French 
ships for contraband of war, and, when 
war against France broke out, he seized 
French ships, Chandernagore and Pondi- 
cherry: returned to England, i794» and 
!■ saw fiurther service in the Channel and 
I the W. Indies : G.C.B. : died July 5. 1819- 



Bishop : son of John Corrie : born 
April, 1777 : educated privately, at Clare 
Hall, and Trinity Hall, Cambridge (Ex- 
hibitioner) : ordained, 1802 : went to Cal- 
"Cutta as a Bengal chaplain, 1806 : appointed 
to various chaplaincies up-country, and did 
mission work also : was Senior Chaplain 
in Calcutta, 1817 : Archdeacon in 1823 : 
thrice, as Commissary, carried on the 
administration of the diocese on the 
deaths of Bishops : was the first Bishop 
•of Madras from 1835 to his death on Feb. 
5, 1837 : was LL.D. ; Bishop Corrie's 
Grammar School in Madras, and his 
•statue in the Cathedral there perpetuate 
his memory. He was a friend of Charles 
Simeon and Henry Martyn at Cambridge. 

MONTAGU (1743-1822) 

Son of Captain Alexander Cosby : born 
in 1743 : was a volunteer at the capture 
of Gheria, the fort of the pirate Angria, 
in 1756 : was in Coote's attack on Pondi- 
cherry, 1 760-1 : at the captures of Vellore 
and Madura, at Rajamundry, at the Chen- 
gama Pass, Errore, Arlier, and Vellore 
again : Adjutant-General : at the siege 
of Tanjore in 1773 : served against the 
Chitore Poligars, 1777 : commanded, in 
1778, the Nawab of Arcot's cavalry, and 
led it against Hyder Ali with success : 
made prisoner at the Cape on his way to 
England, 1782, but soon released : knight- 
ed in 1782 : Brig-General in India, 1784-6 : 
held commands at Trichinopoly and 
Tinnivelly : to England, 1786 : Lt- 
General : died Jan. 17, 1822. 


Born in Canada : daughter of Charles 
Duncan, merchant : married Everard 
Cotes, Press Correspondent with Govern- 
ment of India, Simla : was on the staff of 
Washington Post, Toronto Globe, and 
Montreal Star. Author of A Social 
Departure (Letters from Japan), An 
American Girl in London, The Simple 
Adventures of a Mem-Sahib, The Story of 
Sonny Sahib, On the other Side of the 
Latch, Those Delightful Americans, His 
Honour and a Lady, etc., etc. 



Irrigation Engineer : son of Henry 
Calverley Cotton : born May 15, 1803 : 
educated at Addiscombe : entered the 
Madras Engineers, arriving there 1821 : 
in the first Burmese war, 1825-6 : led 
storming parties : from 1828 employed 
upon irrigation works in Southern India, 
in the Cavery, Coleroon, Godavery and 
Krishna rivers, making anicuts (dams) 
on the Coleroon (1835-6), for the irriga- 
tion of the Tanjore, Trichinopoly, and 
South Arcot Districts : the anient on the 
Godavery, below *Rajamimdry, for the 
irrigation of the Godavery district, 1847- 
52 : he projected the anient on the 
Krishna, which other officers carried out. 
These works have been found invaluable 
in improving the condition of the people 
and the food supply, and averting famine, 
besides being very successful financially : 



other smaller works have followed them. 
Chief Engineer, 1852 : Commandant of 
Engineers, 1856 : he was knighted in 

1861, made K.C.S.I. in 1866 : retired in 

1862, and continued to advocate irrigation 
and canals as preferable to railway com- 
munication. He had a controversy with 
Sir Proby Cautley {q.v.) about the latter' s 
Ganges Canal. He was admittedly the 
greatest Indian authority of his age on the 
subject of irrigation : he founded, it has 
been said, a School of Indian Hydraulic 
Engineering in the officers trained under 
him : General in 1877 : died July 24, 
1899 : wrote a book on Public Works in 

COTTON, SIR GEORGE (1842-1905) 

Born in Ireland, 1842 : educated in 
England : went to Bombay in 1863, as 
Manager of East Indian Cotton Agency. 
In partnership with Mr. James Greaves 
commenced the firm of Greaves, Cotton 
& Co., Bombay, and James Greaves & 
Co., Manchester : Fellow of the Bombay 
University, Chairman of the Municipal 
Corporation, and Sheriff of Bombay in 
1897 : knighted in 1897 : died Feb. 5, 

EDWARD LYNCH (1813-1866) 

Bishop of Calcutta and Metropolitan of 
India and Ceylon : son of Captain T. 
Cotton : born Oct. 29, 18 13, his father 
dying about the same time : educated at 
Westminster, and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge : took his degree in 1836 as a Senior 
Optime in mathematics, and eighth in the 
Classical Tripos : appointed in 1837 by 
Dr. Arnold to a mastership at Rugby : 
became Fellow of Trinity : left Rugby in 
1852 to become Head Master of Marl- 
borough College, where he effected numer- 
ous improvements : consecrated Bishop 
of Calcutta on May 13, 1858 : reached 
Calcutta that year. He acquired universal 
confidence and respect besides influence 
with the Government, so that he was able 
to do much for the Church of England and 
for Anglo-Indian education. He succeed- 
ed in establishing schools at the chief hill- 
stations for the education of Anglo-Indian 
and Eurasian children, whose parents 
could not afford to send them to England. 
He maintained his position and principles 
as Bishop of the Church of England, while 

assisting missionary work and other 
Christian developments. His capacity 
as an administrator, organizer and educator 
was acknowledged. He made the long 
tours required by the size of his metropo- 
litan charge and the paucity of Bishops. 
Returning from one of them, he was 
drowned at Kushtia on the Gorai River in 
Bengal, on Oct. 6, 1866, while re-embark- 
ing on a steamer. He lost his footing on 
a badly constructed platform, fell into the 
river and disappeared. His loss was 
regarded as a public calamity, which the 
Government officially announced. 


MAN (1845- ) 

I.C.S. : son of J. J. Cotton, Madras 
Civil Service : born Sep. 13, 1845 : edu- 
cated at Magdalen College School, Brighton 
College, and King's College, London : 
entered the Bengal Civil Service, 1867 : 
held numerous appointments until he be- 
came Secretary to the Bengal Government, 
Revenue Department, 1888; Secretary in 
the Financial Department, 1889 ; Chief 
Secretary, 189 1-6; acting Home Secretary 
to the Government of India, 1896 : Chief 
Commissioner of Assam, 1 896-1902, when 
he retired: K.C.S.I., 1902 : has since sought 
to influence the public mind by his letters 
to the Times in opposition to Lord Curzon's 
policy in Tibet : author of Neiv India, or 
India in Transition, besides official publi- 


(1847- ) 
Son of J. J. Cotton, Madras Civil Ser- 
vice : born July 17, 1847 : educated at 
Magdalen College School, Brighton College, 
Winchester, and Trinity College, Oxford 
(Scholar) First Class in Moderations and 
Final Classical School : was Editor of the 
Academy : is now employed as editor in 
England of the forthcoming revised 
edition of the Imperial Gazetteer of India : 
author of India (Citizen Series), Mount- 
stuart Elphinstone (" Rulers of India " 
Series), Decennial Report on the Moral and 
Material Progress of India, 1885 : Quin- 
qennial Report on Education in India, 1898. 

COTTON, JOHN (1783-1860) 

I.C.S. : went to Madras : many years 
Collector of Tanjore : after retirement 
from India he was Director of the E.I~ 



Co., 1833-53 : Chairman of the Court, 
1843 : died i860. 

COTTON, JOSEPH (1745-1825) 

Son of Dr. Nathaniel Cotton : born 
March 7, 1745 : entered the Royal Navy 
in 1760, which he left for the E.I. Co.'s 
marine service : commanded an East 
Indiaman in two voyages : made his for- 
tune and retired : was Deputy Master of 
the Trinity House for 20 years, and 
Director of the E. I. Co. from 1795 to 1823, 
and of the E.I. Docks Company : died 
Jan. 26, 1825. 

COTTON, SIR SYDNEY (1792-1874) 
Son of Henry Calverley Cotton, and 
brother of Sir Arthur T. Cotton {q.v.) : born 
Dec. 2, 1792 : arrived in India in a regi- 
ment of Dragoons, 1810 : served in the 
Madras, Bombay, and Bengal Presiden- 
cies for many years : in the Pindari war, 
1817-8 : in Burma, 1828 : in Sind, under 
Sir C. Napier, 1842-3 : in the Carnatic 
and Mysore : on the Staff in Madras and 
Bangalore : commanded in various sta- 
tions and was A.D.C. to Lord Combermere 
and Military Secretary : commanded on 
the N.W. frontier in 1853, in the Kohat 
Pass, against the Afridis and, later, the 
Mohmands : was, in the mutiny, Brig- 
General at Peshawar and, owing to his 
foresight and decision, there was no serious 
disturbance there — " the right man for the 
place " : commanded an expedition against 
the fanatical colony of Sitana : Maj- 
General and K.C.B., 1858 : commanded 
the N.W. district in England : Lt-General, 
1866 : Governor of Chelsea Hospital, 
1872 : G.C.B., 1873 : died Feb. 20, 1874 : 
he was " a thorough soldier, an ofi&cer of 
unuadal energy and activity " : he wrote 
Nii4 Years on the N.W. Frontier, 1854-63, 
andlon The Central Asian Question. 


Son of Admiral Rowland Cotton : cousin 
of Lord Combermere : born in 1783 : 
educated at Rugby (where he led a re- 
bellion) : entered the Guards, 1798 : served 
in Hanover, 1805: Copenhagen, 1807; 
in the Peninsula, 1809-14 : went to India 
in 1821 : commanded a Brigade in the 
first Burmese war, 1825-6 : Maj -General 
and K.C.H., 1830 : commanded in 
Jamaica, 1829-34 "• commanded the Bengal 
■Division of the Army of the Indus, 1838- 

9 : K.C.B., 1838 : at Ghazni : left Kabul 
in 1839 for another command : G.C.B., 
1840 : Lt-General, 1841 : C. in C. at 
Bombay, April, 1847, to Dec. 1850 : 
General, 1854 : Colonel of the 98th foot : 
and later of the 32nd foot : died May 4, 

Son of Richard Couch : born July 11, 
1817 : educated privately : called to the 
bar from the Middle Temple, 1841 : 
Recorder of Bedford, 1858-62 : Puisne 
Judge of the High Court, Bombay, 1862- 6: 
Chief Justice, 1866-70: Chief Justice 
of Bengal, at Calcutta, 1870-5 : presided 
at the trial of the Gaekwar of Baroda, 
1875 : Member of the Judicial Committee 
of the Privy Council, 1881-1901 : Privy 
Councillor, 1875, 


Son of Edward Coughlan : born June, 
1828 : educated at Eyrecourt, Co. Gal- 
way : served as Private, Corporal, Ser- 
geant, Colour-Sergeant and Serg-Major 
in the 75th regt. for 21 years : and as Serg- 
Major in the Connaught Rangers for 21 
years : was present at the siege of Delhi 
(when he won his V.C. for several acts of 
bravery), and relief of Lucknow. 


I.C.S. : son of Colonel Sir George 
Couper, Bart., Comptroller of the House- 
hold of H.R.H. the Duchess of Kent : 
born 1824 : educated at Sandhurst and 
Haileybury : entered the Bengal Civil 
Service in- 1846 : joined the Panjab Com- 
mission in 1849 : served in the Indian 
mutiny, through the siege of Lucknow 
under Sir Henry Lawrence, and after his 
death under Brig-General Inglis and Sir 
J ames Outram : Chief Commissioner in 
Oudh, 1871-6 : Lieutenant-Governor 
of the N.W. Provinces, 1876 : retured 
1882 : C.B. : K.C.S.I. : CLE. 


General : born Sep. 26, i793 ' educated 
at the Ecole Poly technique, Paris, 1812-3 : 
entered the French Army, 181 3: saw 
active service, 181 3-5 : left the Army, 
1818 : served in Persia, and joined Ranjit 
Singh's forces, with Avitabile {q.v.) in 



1827 : improved Ranjit's Sikh Artillery 
greatly : paid much attention to archaeo- 
logy and coins : after Ranjit's death, the 
Sikh troops attacked Court, who was pro- 
tected by Ventura {q.v.) : retired from 
Lahore to France. 


Son of Franpois Courtin, Chevalier : 
Chief of the French Factory at Dacca : 
received for two months the members of 
the English Factory at Dacca, when it was 
seized by the Nawab of Dacca, after the 
capture of Calcutta by the Nawab Surajud- 
daula, 1756 : and sent them to the English 
at Fulta, 1756 : he left Dacca, with 35 
boats, on June 22, i757. and wandered 
about the districts of Rangpur, Dinajpur, 
Jalpaiguri: received an Embassy from the 
King of Tibet : fought with the Faujdar of 
Rangpur : arrived at Murshidabad, March 
10, 1758, to surrender to the English : 
allowed by Clive to go to Chandernagore 
and Pondicherry : Member of the Supreme 
Council there : in the capitulation there, 
Jan. 1 761 : went to France, and probably 
became the Conseiller au Conseil des 


Born Jan. 23, 1826 : son of Charles 
Cowell : educated at Ipswich : early 
attracted to Sir W. Jones' works : studied 
Persian : entered a merchant's office : 
went to Magdalen Hall, Oxford : first 
class, 1854 : studied from 1853, under 
H. H. Wilson (q.v.) : joined the Education 
Department and became Professor of 
History and Political Economy at the 
Presidency College, Calcutta, 1856 : also 
Principal of the Sanskrit College, in 1858 : 
left India, 1864 : was the first Professor 
of Sanskrit at Cambridge, 1867 : Fellow 
of Corpus Christi * College, Cambridge : 
LL.D. of Edinburgh : D.C.L. of Oxford. 
After he was elected Professor of Sanskrit, 
the study of Oriental languages increased 
at Cambridge : the Semitic Languages 
Tripos was established, 1878 : the Indian 
Languages Tripos, 1903 : the Oriental 
Languages Tripos, 1895 : a Board of 
Oriental studies was formed, and a Board 
of I.C.vS. studies : he taught Sanskrit, 
Indian philosophy, comparative philology, 
Persian, Pali, Zend, etc. : his publications 
were numerous. From early days, he 
wrote on Persian poetry, the Hindu 

drama, etc., in the Westminster Review, 
also in the Asiatic Journal, Journal of 
Philology, Gentleman's Magazine, J.A.S. 
Bengal, Calcutta Review : on Prakrit 
Grammar : translated and edited many 
Sanskrit works, both at Calcutta and 
Cambridge : knew also modern languages, 
including Welsh, and the classics : D.C.L., 
1896 : received the Gold Medal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1898 : died Feb. 9, 

FIRST BARON (1773-1847) 

Born Jan. 20, 1773 : youngest son of 
the first Earl of Mornington : brother of 
Marquess Wellesley [q.v.), and Duke of 
Wellington {q.v.) : served in the Army, 
before going as Secretary of legation to 
Stockholm, 1792 : Private Secretary to 
his brother. Marquess Wellesley, when 
Governor-General, 1798-1801 : a Com- 
missioner for the settlement of Mysore 
after its capture, 1799 : sent to England to 
explain the war with Tippoo in 1 799-1 800 : 
sent on a mission to Oudh, negotiated 
treaty for cession of certain districts by 
the Nawab : Lieutenant-Governor of the 
ceded districts of Oudh, 1801-3 : left 
India, 1803 : M.P. for Eye, 1807-9 : 
Secretary to the Treasury, 1808-9 = P-C., 
1809 : Secretary to Embassy to Spain, 
1809, and Ambassador, 181 1-22 : knighted 
1812 : G.C.B., 1815 : Ambassador to 
Vienna, 1823-31 : to Paris, 1841-6 : made 
Baron Cowley, 1828 : died April 27, 

Maj -General : son of the Rev. John 
Cox, Rector of Cheddington and Vicar of 
Stockland : born Sep. 24, 1819 : educated 
at King's School, Sherborne, and ^Military 
Academy, Addiscombe : entered the 
Bengal Artillery, 1838 : served in the 
Gwalior campaign, 1843-4 = Satlaj cam- 
paign, 1845-6 : present at the battles of 
Mudki, Firozshahr and Sobraon : Pan jab 
campaign, 1848-9 : present at battles of 
the Chenab, Chilianwala and Gujarat : 
throughout the Indian mutiny, 1857 : 
retired in 1872 : C.B. in 1871. 

BARONET (1856- ) 

Son of the 14th Baronet : born 1856 : 
educated at Marlborough and Trinity 



College, Cambridge : appointed Assistant 
Inspr-General of Police in Bombay, 1877 : 
author of Skort History of the Bombay 
Presidency, Tales of Ancient India. 


Major : son of Arthur Cox : born Nov. 
20, 1864 : educated at Harrow and Sand- 
hurst : joined the Army in 1884, and the 
Indian Staff Corps in 1889 : employed 
in the Political Department at Zaila, 
Somali coast, 1893 : Berbera, 1894-5 : 
H.B.M.'s Consul and Political Agent, 
Muscat, since 1899 : CLE. in 1902 : 
F.R.G.S. : F.Z.S. 


Colonel : born 185 1 : son of John Cox- 
head : educated at Merchant Taylors, 
Henley, and R.M.A., Woolwich : entered 
the Royal Artillery, 1872 : was Private 
Secretary and A.D.C. to Sir Henry Nor- 
man when Governor of Jamaica, 1883-7 : 
served at the Malakand Pass, 1895, and 
relief of Chitral : commanded the R.A. 
Indian Contingent in S. Africa till relief of 
Ladysmith : C.B. in 1900. 


Son of Henry Craig : born 1748 : entered 
the 30th regt. at 15, completed his military 
education on the Continent : served in N. 
America, 1774-81, was at Bunker's Hill 
and other actions : Adjutant-General in 
the Netherlands, 1794 : Maj -General : 
commanded a force to capture the Cape 
of Good Hope : on the arrival of Sir 
Alured Clarke's force from India the 
Dutch surrendered : Craig commanded at 
the Cape, 1795-7 : K.C.B., 1797 : com- 
manded the Division at Benares, 1797- 
1802, in a difficult time, during the mas- 
sacre there : Lt-General, 1801 : command- 
ed in Italy and Sicily, 1805-6 : Governor- 
Xjeneral of Canada, 1 807-11 : General, 
1812 : died Jan. 12, 1812. 


(1814- ) 

Born Oct. i, 1814 : son of John Hardy, 
M.P. : educated at Shrewsbury and 
Oriel College, Oxford : Hon. Fellow of 
Oriel : called to the bar at the Inner Tem- 
ple, 1840 : M.P. for Leominster, 1856-65 : 
for Oxford University, 1865-78 : made a 
Viscount, 1878 : an Earl, 1892 : Under 

Secretary for the Home Department, 
1858-9, Secretary, 1867-8 : Secretary for 
War, 1874-8 : Secretary of State for 
India, March 30, 1878, to April 28, 1880 : 
President of the Council, 1885 and 1886- 
92 : G.C.S.L : P.C. : D.C.L. : LL.D. : 
D.L. : J. P. 


Son of George Crawford : educated at 
Edinburgh : M.D. : entered the Army 
Medical Service, 1848 : in the Burmese 
war, 1852-3, at the capture of Rangoon 
and Bassein, and other actions : served in 
the Crimea : P.M.O. in the N. Mahratta 
country and the Dekkan in 1857-8 : 
Superintending Surgeon of the Sirhind 
circle : head of the A. M.D. in Ireland : 
Surgeon-General in India, in the second 
Afghan war : Director-General of the 
Army Medical Service, 1882-9 '• K.C.B., 
1885 : LL.D., Edinburgh : died Oct. 12, 

CRAWFURD, JOHN (1783-1868) 

Son of Samuel Crawfurd : born Aug. 13, 
1783 : educated at Bowmore, and in 
medicine at Edinburgh : from 1803, 
served as an Army medical officer, for 5 
years, chiefly in Upper India : transferred 
to Penang : studied the Malays : was 
with Lord Minto in the expedition to 
Java, 181 1 : employed in diplomatic 
offices there, 181 1-7 : wrote a History of 
the Indian Archipelago, 1820 : sent, in 
1 82 1, as Envoy to Siam and Cochin China : 
administered the Government of Singa- 
pore, 1823-6 : Commissioner of Pegu, 
1826 : Envoy to the Court of Ava : re- 
tired to England, 1827 : wrote narratives 
of his missions, A Grammar and Dictionary 
of the Malay Language, 1852 : A Descrip- 
tive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and 
adjacent Countries, 1856 : also, papers on 
ethnology for scientific journals : took an 
active part in Geographical and Ethnologi- 
cal Societies : was an unrivalled authority 
on the Eastern Archipelago : died May 11, 

Son of William Arthur Crealock : born 
March 31, 1831 : educated at Rugby 
entered the Army in the 90th regt., 1848 
served in the Crimea, 1854-5 : D.A.Q.M.G. 
and in China, 1857-8 : was in the Indian 



mutiny campaigns of 1858-9, on the staff 
of Sir W. R. Mansfield : present at Bareli 
and Shahjahanpur : served again in China, 
Military Secretary to the Earl of Elgin, 
i860 : at St. Petersburg and Vienna : 
and commanded a Division in Zululand, 
1879 : C.M.G. : was a Lt-Generalin 1884 : 
died May 31, 1891 : he was an excellent 
artist and made many drawings of Indian 
and Chinese warfare and scenery. 


(1841- ) 

Son of C. H. Croft : born Feb. 7, 1841 : 
educated at Mannamead School, Ply- 
mouth, and Exeter College, Oxford : 
entered the Bengal Educational Depart- 
ment, 1866 : Director of Public Instruction 
in Bengal, 1877-97 : Member of the 
Education Commission, 1882-3 • Member 
of the Bengal Legislative Council, 1887- 
92 : President of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, 1892-3 : Vice-Chancellor of the 
Calcutta University, 1894-6 : Hon. 
LL.D., 1897 : K.C.I.E., 1887. 

EARL (1841- ) 

Son of Henry Baring, M.P. : born 
Feb. 26, 1 841 : educated at Ordnance 
School, Carshalton, and R.M.A., Wool- 
wich : entered the Roj^al Artillery, 
1858 : Major in 1876 : Private Secretary 
to Lord Northbrook, Viceroy of India, 
1872-6 : Financial Member of the 
Supreme Council of the Governor-General, 
1880-3 ' has since been employed in 
Egypt, and is now Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary in the Diplomatic Service : Agent 
and Consul General in Egypt since 1883 
P.C. : G.C.B. : G.C.M.G. : K.C.S.I. 
CLE. : Baron, 1892 : Viscount, 1898 
Earl, 1901. 


Governor : son of Marc Antoine Crom- 
melin, of a Huguenot family : joined the 
E. I. Co.'s service in Bombay, 1732 : 
Governor of Bombay, 1760-7 : returned 
to England, had great losses in trade, 
returned to India, 1772, as a free mer- 
chant : was residing at Canton, 1777 : 
was British Consul at Goa, 1784 : it has 
been suggested that this was the Charles 
Cromelin {sic) who died Dec. 25, 1788, aged 
81, and was buried at the old English 
Cemetery, Kalkapur, Murshidabad. 


I.C.S. : born Aug. 6, 1848 : educated 
at the Grammar School, Tipperary, and at 
Trinity College, Dublin : arrived in India, 
1871 : served in the N.W.P. and Oudh : 
Magistrate and Collector : retired, 1896 : 
author of Rural and Agricultural Glossary, 
N.W.P. and Oudh, 1888 : an Ethno- 
graphical Handbook for the N.W.P. and 
Oudh, 1890 : The N.W.P. of India, their 
History, etc., 1897 : The Popular Religion 
and Folklore of Northern India, 1896 : and 
a Gazetteer of Jalesar : The Tribes and 
Castes of the N.W.P. and Oudh, 1896 : 
also of a revised edition of Burnell's and 
Yule's Hobson-Jobson, and numerous 
papers in the Journal of the Anthropological 
Institute and Folklore Society. 


Son of Thomas Cross : head of the 
Firm of Crosses, Winkworth & Co. : 
Under Secretary of State for India, Jan., 
1883 to June, 1885 : died March 20, 1887. 

VISCOUNT (1823- ) 

Born May 30, 1823 : son of William 
Cross : educated at Rugby and Trinity 
College, Cambridge : called to the bar at 
the Inner Temple, 1849 : M.P. for Preston, 
1857-62, and S. Lancashire, 1868-86 : 
Home Secretary, 1874-80 and 1885-6 : 
Secretary of State for India, Aug. 4, 1886, 
to Aug. 19, 1892 : Lord Privy Seal, 
1895-1900 : made a Viscount, 18S6 : 
P.C. : G.C.S.L, 1892 : D.C. L. : LL.D., 
Cambridge, 1878 : G.C.B. , 1880 : F.R.S. : 
author of legal works. 

HAWKES TODD (1836- ) 

I.C.S. : son of Rev. John Clarke Cros- 
thwaite : born Dec. 25, 1835 : educated at 
Merchant Taylors' and St. John's College, 
Oxford : entered the Bengal Civil Service, 
1857 : served chiefly m the N.W.P. : 
Chief Commissioner of British Burma, 
1883-4 '• Chief Commissioner of Central 
Provinces, 1885-6 : Chief Commissioner 
of Burma, 1887-90 : Member of the 
Governor - General's Supreme Council, 
1890-1, and in 1892 : Lieutenant-Governor 
of N.W.P. and Oudh, 1892-5 : Member 
of the Council of India, 1895-1905 : 
author of Notes on the N.W. Provinces of 
India, 1870: K.C.S.I., in 1888. 




(1841- ) 

I.C.S. : son of Rev. JohnC Crosthwaite : 
born Jan. 17, 1841 : educated at Merchant 
Taylors and Brasenose College, Oxford : 
entered the Bengal Civil Service, 1863 : 
served chiefly in the N.W.P. : was Judi- 
cial Commissioner of Burma and Central 
Provinces : Agent to the Governor- 
General in Central India and in Rajputana: 
called to the bar from the Middle Temple, 
1868 : K.C.S.I. in 1897. 

Journalist, art-critic, and diplomatist : 
son of Eyre Evans Crowe : born Oct. 20, 
1825 : artist of Illustrated London News 
in the Crimea : present at the engage- 
ments : appointed Superintendent of the 
" Sir Jamsetji Jijihbai's School of Design " 
at Bombay, 1857 : Editor, successively, 
of the Bombay Gazette and Bombay Stand- 
ard, and correspondent of the Daily News 
and Times during the mutiny : Secretary 
of the Bombay Chamber of Commerce : 
left India owing to ill-health, 1859 : 
Times' correspondent in Italian war of 
1859 : present at Solferino : appointed 
Consul- General for Saxony, i860 : entered 
diplomatic service, 1880 : Commercial 
Attache for Europe, 1 882-1 895 : joint 
author with Cavalcasella of Histories of 
Flemish and Italian Painters, Lives of 
Titian and Raphael : published a volume 
of Reminiscences : died Sep. 6, 1896. 



Traveller and student of philology : son 
of Andrew Csoma : born April 4, 1784, 
at Koros in Transylvania : educated, 
1815-8, at the College of Novo Enyed : 
Doctor of Medicine at Gottingen. To 
ascertain the origin of his countrjonen, 
the Hungarians, whose primitive seat he 
expected to discover in the heart of Cen- 
tral Asia, he left Bucharest, Jan. i, 1820 : 
travelled to Constantinople, Alexandria, 
Syria, Bagdad, Teheran, Mashad, Bokhara, 
Kabul, Lahore, Kashmir, Leh : studied 
Tibetan thoroughly in monasteries in 
Ladak, chiefly at Yangla, in Zanskar, 
1823-6 : was at Sabathu, 1824-5 = al- 
lowed Rs. 50 a month by the Government 
of India : made a third journey to Kanum 
in Kunawar, studying Tibetan at a 

Buddhist monastery till 1830 : reached 
Calcutta, April, 1831 : published a 
Tibetan grammar and dictionary, vocabu- 
lary, etc. : made Honorary Member of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1834 : 
studied Sanskrit, and was appointed 
Librarian of the Society : travelled, 
1836-7, to study Oriental languages, to 
Jalpaiguri and Titalya : at Calcutta 1837- 
42 : started for Lhasa in 1842 : reached 
Darjeeling, March 24 : died April 11 : 
and was buried there : "an indefatigable 
and unpresuming student " a scholar of 
extreme modesty : knew 17 languages, 
ancient and modern. 

CUBBON, SIR MARK (1785-1861) 
Born Sep. 8, 1785 : went to India in 
the Madras Infantry in 1800 : Captain in 
1816 : in the Commissariat Department 
in the Pindari war, 1817-8, and in 
Madras. When the people of Mysore 
rebelled, in 1831, against the oppression 
and bad government of their Hindu 
Raja, Lt-Colonel Cubbon was a member 
of the Commission of Enquiry : after 
which the Government of India assumed 
the administration of the province and 
Cubbon was made Commissioner, first 
joint, and in 1834 sole, of Mysore : and 
soon afterwards of Coorg also : this post 
he held for 27 years, governing the pro- 
vince despotically but successfully, through 
native agency, and exercising a profuse 
hospitality : Lt-General, 1852 : C.B., 
1856 : K.C.B., 1859. He never married 
or left India until he retired in 1861, after 
60 years' service in India, when he died at 
Suez, on April 23. His equestrian statue 
is in the Cubbon Park at Bangalore : when 
unveiled, it had been daubed with the 
three Brahmanical marks on the fore- 

Colonel : son of Major W. Cubitt of the 
Bengal Army: educated at Laleham : 
joined the 13th Bengal N.I., 1853 ^ 
served in the Sonthal campaign, 1855 : 
in the Dafla expedition, 1874-5 : Afghan 
war, 1878-80 : Akha expedition, 1883-4 : 
Burmese expedition, 1886-7 •• in the 
mutiny won the Victoria Cross at Chinhut 
on June 30, 1857, for saving the lives of 
three men at the risk of his own : in the 
defence of the Residency at Lucknow : 



wounded : D.S.O. for his services in 
Burma : retired 1892 : died Jan. 25, 1903. 


(1848- ) 

I.C.S. : born Nov. 20, 1848 : son of 
Alexander Cuningham : educated at 
Edinburgh Academy and privately : went 
out to Bombay, 1870 : served as Assistant 
to the Chief Commissioner of Mysore : 
Under Secretary to the Government of 
India, Foreign Department, 1885 : Secre- 
tary in the Foreign Department, 1894- 
1901 : C.S.I. , 1894 : K.C.S.I., 1897. 


I.C.S. : son of Sir Alexander Cunning- 
ham, K.C.I.E., C.S.I, {q.v.) : educated at 
Kensington Grammar School and King's 
College, London : went to the Panjab in 
1872 : Political officer in the Khyber, 
1879 : Under Secretary to the Panjab 
Government, 1884 : Commissioner and 
Superintendent of the Peshawar Division, 
1892, and from 1894 : K.C.I.E., 1901 : 



Son of Allan Cunningham : born Jan. 
23, 1814 : educated at Christ's Hospital 
and Addiscombe : obtained an Indian 
cadetship, through Sir Walter Scott : 
reached India in June, 1833 : A.D.C. to 
Lord Auckland, 1836 : Executive Engin- 
eer to the King of Oudh, 1840 : engaged 
in^suppressing the rebellion in Bundelkund : 
was at Punniar, Dec. 19, 1843 : Executive 
Engineer at Gwalior, 1844-5 : was in the 
first Sikh war, 1846, as field engineer : 
occupied Kangra and Kulu : demarcated 
boundaries : was at Chilian wal a and 
Gujarat in the second Sikh war, 1848-9 : 
Chief Engineer in Burma, 1856-8 : and in 
the N.W.P., 1858-61 : retired from the 
Army as Maj-General in 1861 : he v/as 
then made the first Archseological Sur- 
veyor to the Government of India, 1 861-5 '• 
the department was abolished in 1865, 
but revived in 1870, with Cunningham 
as Director : he held the post until he 
retired in 1885 : C.S.I. : CLE. : and 
K.C.I.E. in 1887. Apart from his official 
reports of his annual tours and his occa- 
sional contributions to the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal's journals, he wrote, inter alia. 

on Ladak, The Bhilsa Topes, The Ancient 
Geography of India, The Buddhist Period, 
Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, The 
Stupa of Bharhat, The Book of Indian 
Eras, Mahahodhi. After retirement, he 
paid much attention to numismatics, on 
which he was an eminent authority : 
parted with his coins at cost price to the 
British Museum : died Nov. 28, 1893. 


Son of Allan Cunningham, and brother 
of Sir Alexander {q.v.) : born 1820 : 
educated at Addiscombe : joined the 
Madras Army, 1838 : was distinguished as 
an engineer in the defence of Jalalabad, 
1842 : served in the Civil Commission in 
Mysore under Sir Mark Cubbon, and re- 
tired in 1 861. He edited Marlowe, 
Massinger and Ben Jonson, by which he 
is best known : also wrote for the Saturday 
Review : he died Dec. 3, 1875. 

ART (1832- ) 

Born 1832 : son of Rev. J. W. Cunning- 
ham, Vicar of Harrow : educated at 
Harrow and Trinity College, Oxford : 
called to the bar, 1859 : Advocate-General 
in Madras, 1872 : Judge of the Calcutta 
High Court, 1877-87 : Member of the 
Indian Famine Commission, 1878-9 : 
author of The Chronicles of Dustypore, 
The Heriots, The CcBruleans, Sybilla, and 
other novels : also Earl Canning (" Rulers 
of India " series). He married in 1877 a 
daughter of Lord Lawrence : K.C.I.E. in 



Educated at Edinburgh University : 
M.D. : entered the Bengal Medical Ser- 
vice, 185 1 : Secretary to the Sanitary 
Commissioner, 1866 : Professor of Hy- 
giene, Calcutta Medical College, 1866 : 
Sanitary Commissioner, Bengal, 1869 : 
Sanitary Commissioner with the Govern- 
ment of India, 1875-85, and Surgeon- 
General, 1880-5 : retired, 1885 : Member 
of the Army Sanitary Committee, 1891- 
96 : author of Cholera — what can the 
State do to Prevent it ? represented the 
Government of India at the Paris Inter- 
national Sanitary Congress, 1894 : C.S.I., 



1885 : Honorary Surgeon to the Queen, 
1888: died June 26, 1905. 



Son of Allan Cunningham and brother 
of Sir Alexander {q.v.) : born June 9, 1812 : 
educated at private schools and at Addis- 
combe, where his career was very dis- 
tinguished : Sir Walter Scott obtained a 
cadetship for him : he went to Chatham 
and to India in the Bengal Engineers in 
1834 : appointed assistant to Colonel 
Claud Wade {q.v.), the Agent on the Sikh 
frontier : fortified Firozpur, 1837 : was 
for 8 years in political employ : at the 
interview with Ranjit Singh, in the 
Khyber, at Ludiana, at Peshawar, with 
the Amir Dost Muhammad at Jammu, 
agent at Bahawalpur : Captain, etc. 
1845 : in the first Sikh war was at Badiwal, 
Aliwal, and Sobraon : was Political 
Agent at Bhopal, 1846 : published the 
History of the Sikhs. This work, though 
favourably received in general, gave 
offence to some of Cunningham's superiors, 
as he stated that in the Sikh war two of 
the Sikh generals were bought : this was 
strenuously denied by high officers : the 
result to Cunningham was the loss of his 
political appointment and relegation to 
ordinary duty, on the ground of having 
used in his History information confiden- 
tially known to him in his official capacity. 
He died at Umbala, Feb. 28, 185 1. 

Son of Charles Robert Cureton : bom 
Nov. 25, 1826 : joined the E.I. Co.'s 
Army, 1843 : eventually became General 
in 1888 : served in the first Sikh war, was 
at Aliwal, Jan. 28, 1846 : in the Panjab 
campaign, 1848-9, was A.D.C. to his 
father : and in the N.W. frontier opera- 
tions of 1849-52 and i860 : helped to 
subdue the Sonthal rebellion, 1856 : in 
the Indian mutiny he raised and com- 
manded Cvureton's regiment of Multani 
native cavalry, was present at an action 
against Sealkot rebels at Trimmu Ghat, 
and a number of actions in 1858-9, show- 
ing great personal bravery : in charge of 
Intelligence Department in Rohilkund 
and Oudh, 1858-9 : commanded the 
Oudh Division of the Bengal Army, 
1879-S4 : C.B., 1869 : K.C.B., 1891 : 
died July 11, 1891. 


Brig-General : born in 1789 : entered 
the Shropshire Militia, 1806 : disguised 
as a sailor, he fled from creditors, and 
enlisted in a dragoon regiment in 1808 : 
served in the Peninsula, was in many 
actions, Talavera, Badajos, Salamanca, 
Madrid, Vittoria, etc.: gazetted as Ensign, 
1814 : worked up to Lt-Colonel in 1846 : 
went to India in 1822 : was at the siege 
of Bhartpur, Jan. 19, 1826 : was in the 
Afghan war, 1839, under Sir J. Keane, 
at Ghazni, July 23, 1839, and the occupa- 
tion of Kabul : was at Maharajpur on 
Dec. 29, 1843 : C.B., 1844 : in the Satlaj 
campaign was under Sir Harry Smith : 
commanded the cavalry at Aliwal, and a 
Brigade of cavalry at Sobraon, gaining 
the highest praise as a cavalry commander : 
made A.D.C. to the Queen : and Adjutant- 
General to the Queen's forces in India, 
1846 : in the second Sikh war he was 
killed at Ramnagar, Nov. 22, 1848. 



Born May, 1822 : son of Brig-General 
C. R. Cureton (q.v.) : Ensign, 13th foot, 
1839 : in the i6th Lancers in the battle 
of Maharajpur, Dec. 29, 1843 : at Mudki, 
Dec. 18, 1845 : at Sobraon, Feb. 10, 1846 : 
in the Kafir war, 185 1-3 : in the Crimea 
from July, 1855: Lt-General : retired, 
1881 : died Feb. 9, 1894. 



Born 1827 : son of Raikes Currie : 
educated at Eton: entered his father's 
banking business, which, in 1864, was 
amalgamated and became Gl^m, Mills, 
Currie & Co. : in Dec. 1880, was ap- 
pointed a Member of the Council of India, 
re-appointed 1890, served till 1895 : in 
1892, represented England at the Inter- 
national monetary conference at Brussels : 
in 1893 was member of Lord Herschell's 
Committee, which decided on closing the 
Indian Mints to the free coinage of silver : 
was on other financ ial Commissions : 
initiated in 1895 the Gold Standard Defence 
Association : died Dec. 29, 1896. 



BARONET (1799-1875) 

I.C.S. : son of Mark Currie : born Feb. 3, 
1799 : educated at Charterhouse and 
Haileybury : reached India, 1820 : was 
a Judge of the Sadr Adalat (court) in the 
N.W.P., 1840 : Foreign Secretary to the 
Government of India, 1842 : with Sir 
Henry Hardinge in the first Sikh war, 
1845-6, and, after Sobraon, drew up the 
treaty with the Sikhs : made Baronet in 
Jan. 1847 : officiated as Member of the 
Supreme Council, April, 1847 to Jan. 
1848 : resigned his seat, and succeeded 
Sir Henry Lawrence as Resident at Lahore 
in 1848 : accepted the resignation of 
Mulraj, the Governor of Multan : con- 
firmed as Member of Supreme Council, 
resuming his seat, March, 1849 : retired 
in 1853 : was elected a Director of the 
E.I. Co. in 1854, Chairman, 1857 : Member 
of the Council of India from 1858 : D.C.L., 
Oxford in 1866 : died Sep. 11, 1875. 

CURWEN, HENRY (1845-1892) 

Journalist and writer : born in 1845 : 
son of Henry Curwen : educated at 
Rossall : followed a literary career in 
London until he went to India in 1876, 
as Assistant-Editor of the Times of India, 
Bombay, of which he became Editor in 
1880 and joint-proprietor in 1889 : died 
on board ship, Feb. 22, 1892, on his way 
homewards : wrote several novels, and 
translations of French poetry, and con- 
tributed articles to periodical literature : 
described his tour in the famine districts 
of 1876-7: under his editorship the Times 
of India was well conducted and favour- 
ably regarded. 


(1859- ) 

Viceroy and Governor-General : born 
Jan. II, 1859, son of Rev. fourth Baron 
Scarsdale : educated at Eton and Balliol 
College, Oxford : President of the Union 
Society, 1880 : Fellow of All Souls' College, 

1883 : gained the Arnold Essay Prize, 

1884 : Assistant Private Secretary to the 
Marquis of Salisbury, 1885 : Under Secre- 
tary of State for India, 1891-2 : for 
Foreign Affairs, 1895-8 : travelled in 
Central Asia, Persia, Afghanistan, the 
Pamirs, Siam, Indo-China, the Korea : 

M.P. for Southport Division, 1886-98 : 
published Russia in Central Asia, 1889 : 
Persia and the Persian Question, 1892 : 
Problems of the Far East, 1894 : Viceroy 
and Governor-General of India from Jan. 
6, 1899, to April, 1904 : paid much atten- 
tion to the control and defence of the 
frontiers of India, changing the policy on 
the N.W. frontier : created a Chief 
Commissionership of the Trans-Indus 
districts : enforced the blockade of Wazir- 
istan : showed distrust of Russian 
objects and Russian methods : visited the 
Persian gulf, with a view to prevention of 
any enroachment on British interest, to 
increase trade and maintain sphere of 
influence in Persia : despatched Tibet 
mission to carry out Anglo-Chinese con- 
vention of 1890 and trade regulations of 
1893, and check Russian influence in 
Tibet : the mission leading to war with 
Tibet and the treaty of Lhasa, Sep. 1904 : 
examined into every branch of the admin- 
istration, to introduce improvements : 
" it has not always been a popular policy " : 
appointed several Commissions, on the 
Universities, to reform Higher Education, 
on Irrigation, on the Police : had to deal 
with a famine in Bombay : aimed at 
improving relations with the native Chiefs, 
and the character of their rule : reformed 
the four Chiefs' colleges : founded the 
Imperial Cadet Corps : settled the ques- 
tion of the Berars : set on foot the Vic- 
toria Memorial Hall, obtaining large sub- 
scriptions from wealthy natives : held the 
Delhi Coronation Darbar of Dec. 1902- 
J an. 1903 : reduced Lower Bengal by three 
Divisions, adding them to Assam to make 
a new Lieutenant -Governorship : had large 
financial surpluses, twice reduced the Salt 
Tax, and removed the Income Tax on the 
lowest incomes : passed some important 
legislative measures, such as the Universi- 
ties Act, the Oflicial Secrets Act, the 
Indian Mines Act, the Ancient Monuments 
Preservation Act, the Co-operative Credit 
Societies' Act : G.M.S.I., G.M.I.E., P.C, 
F.R.S., J.P., D.C.L. : re-appointed Viceroy 
and Governor-General in 1904 : returned 
to India, Dec. 1904 : Lord Warden of the 
Cinque Ports, 1903-4 = in Aug., 1905, re- 
signed the Viceroyalty on a point arising 
out of an adverse decision of the Cabinet 
on a difference of opinion between the 
C. in C. (Lord Kitchener) and the rest of 
the Government of India regarding mili- 
tary affairs in India. 




I.C.S. : son of Hon. and Rev. H. C- 
Cust, brother of Earl Brownlow : born 
Feb. 24, 1821 : educated at Eton and 
Haileybury : entered the Bengal Civil 
Service, 1843, and retired in 1867 : served 
in the N.W.P. and Panjab : present at 
the battles of Mudki and Firozshahr, 
1845, and Sobraon, 1846 : called to the 
bar from Lincoln's Inn, 1855 : took part 
in the settlement of the Panjab after the 
mutiny, 1858 : Home Secretary to the 
Government of India, 1864-5 : is now 
Hon. Secretary of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, and has published many books 
on the religions and languages of the world, 
the two last being Five Essays on Religious 
Conceptions, 1897, and Life Memoir, 
1899: LL.D. of ' Edinburgh, 1885. 

D'ACHE, COMTE'(1700? or 1716?- 

Vice- Admiral : served with distinction, 
but without important command, up to 

1757. when he was made Commander of 
the French Naval forces in Indian seas : 
reached the Coromandel coast, April, 

1758, commanding the squadron which 
took Lally's expedition to India : beaten, 
off Negapatam., by the English Fleet 
under Admiral Pocock : declined to co- 
operate with Lally against Madras : 
again defeated off Tranquebar, Aug. i, 
1758 : sailed for the Isle of France : took 
for his fleet a million francs, intended for 
Pondicherry : returned after a year from 
Isle of France : defeated off Fort St. 
David, Sep. 10, i759, ^Y Pocock : went 
to Pondicherry, but abandoned it Sep. 
17, and never returned, staying at the Isle 
of France : thus, inefficient and constantly 
defeated, he lost in a few months the 
French cause in South India : the com- 
merce of the Compagnie des Indes was 
irretrievably destroyed : on his return to 
France, he received promotion in the 
Navy and honours, without restoring his 
reputation by any distinguished action : 
became an accuser of Lally : died, 1775. 

DA CUNHA, J. GERSON (1842-1900) 

Doctor : born in Arpora, Goa : claimed 
to belong to a family of Brahman converts 
to Christianity: educated at Goa, 
Bombay, and in Europe : returned to 
Bombay as a medical practitioner : a 

man of letters and antiquarian research : 
Vice-President of the R.A.S., Bombay, 
1892 : Knight of several foreign orders : 
read many valuable papers on history, 
archaeology, languages, numismatics be- 
fore the R.A.S. : also wrote largely : a 
history of Chaul and Bassein, and the 
Origin of Bombay, 1900 : on the subject 
of Buddha's Tooth : a man of great cul- 
ture and a keen numismatist : his collection 
of Indian coins, said to number 15,000, 
was considered one of the finest in the 
world, and was valued at several lakhs of 
rupees : he died July 3, 1900. 

LAWRENCE (1821- ) 
Born 1821 : son of Lt-General Sir 
George D'Aguilar, K.C.B. : educated at 
R.M.A., Woolwich : entered the Royal 
Artillery, 1838 : Military Secretary to the 
Commander of the China Forces, 1843-8 : 
served in the Crimea and in the Indian 
mutiny : General commanding Woolwich 
District, 1874-9 '■ Lt-General, 1877 : 
Col. Commandant R.H.A. : G.C.B., 1887. 



Son of Capt. Joseph D'Aguilar : born 
Jan. 1784 : joined the 86th regt. in 
India, 1799 : served in the Mahratta war 
of 1803-5 : at Bhartpur in 1806 under 
Lord Lake : to England in 1809 : in the 
Walcheren expedition : in Sicily : on a 
special mission to Constantinople : in 
Spain : in Flanders : C.B. in 1834 : com- 
manded in China, and in 1847 Canton 
submitted to him : K.C.B. in 1851 : Lt- 
General : died May 21, 1855 : wrote 
military manuals and treatises. 

An energetic pioneer of trade : for 
years he journeyed for commercial pur- 
poses between Kashmir and Yarkand : 
joined a Central Asian Trading Company : 
went with a party to Yarkand, and after- 
wards made frequent journeys to Kashgar : 
in 1883 he had a free passport from the 
Chinese to enter Chinese Turkistan : went 
as Turkish interpreter with A. D. Carey 
(q.v.) in 1885 from Kashmir round Chinese 
Turkistan and along the frontier of Tibet : 
was killed near the Karakoram, en route to 
Yarkand, by a Kakar Pathan in 1888 : 
his map specially acknowledged by the 
Geographical Society. 



D.D. (1837- ) 

Second Catholic Archbishop of Bom- 
bay : a German, born in Westphalia, 
April 20, 1837 : entered the Society of 
Jesus, April 14, 1859 : arrived in India, 
Jan. 28, 1866 : ordained priest, Dec. 25, 
1868 : held several posts of Superiorship 
at Bandora, St. Xavier's College, Bombay, 
and St. Vincent's High School, Poona : 
as Vicar-General, on the death of Arch- 
bishop Porter, administered the diocese : 
Archbishop of Bombay, Dec. 6, 1891 : 
consecrated in Bombay Cathedral, Jan. 
31, 1892 : in 1891 visited Europe, and 
again in 1895 ; built the Church of the 
Holy Name, Bombay (opened Jan. 15, 
1905), with Archiepiscopal Residence and 
Convent School attached : is proprietor 
of the Bombay Catholic Examiner (now 
called the Examiner), a weekly religious 
paper of wide circulation, nov/ in its 
fifty-fifth year : still at work in his 69th 

NINTH EARL OF (1770-1838) 

General : son of the eighth Earl : born in 
1770, entered the Army in the Dragoon 
Guards in 1789, was in several regiments : 
became Maj-General in 1805, Lt-General, 
1813 : G.C.B. : General, 1830 : served 
at Martinique, 1792 : in the Irish rebellion 
of 1798 : in Holland, Egypt, the Peninsula 
and France : created Baron Dalhousie in 
the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 
Aug. 181 5 : Lt-Governor of Nova Scotia, 
1816 : Captain-General and Governor of 
Canada, Nova Scotia, etc., 1819-28 : and 
commanded the forces from 1819 : was 
C. in C. in the East Indies, 1829-32 : 
father of the first Marquis of Dalhousie 
{q.v.) : died March 21, 1838. 

QUIS OF (1812-1860) 

Governor-General : third son of the 
ninth Earl, C. in C. in India [q-v.) : born 
April 22, 1812 : educated at Harrow and 
Christ Church, Oxford : M.P. for Hadding- 
tonshire, 1837 : succeeded his father, 
March, 1838 : Vice-President of the Board 
of Trade in Peel's administration, 1843 : 
Privy Councillor, 1843 : President of the 
Board and in the Cabinet, 1845 : declined 
a seat in the Cabinet offered him in July, 

1846, by Lord John Russell, who ap- 
pointed him Governor-General of India 
in 1847 : assumed office, Jan. 12, 1848. 
After the rebellion of Mulraj at Multan, 
the second Sikh war broke out : Dal- 
housie went up to the Panjab-Satlaj 
frontier and supervised the operations : 
annexed the Panjab in March, 1849 : was 
made a Marquis : made Sir Henry 
Lawrence President of the Board of Ad- 
ministration, and, in 1853, made Sir 
John Lawrence Chief Commissioner of 
the Panjab : his controversy with Sir 
C. J. Napier, the C. in C, regarding cer- 
tain new regulations affecting the grant 
to the Sepoys of compensation for dear- 
ness of provisions, led to the latter's 
resignation. Dalhousie's internal adminis- 
tration of the country was thorough and 
comprehensive : he introduced and laid 
down a system for the construction of 
railways ; joined the provinces by tele- 
graphs ; organized the imperial postal 
system ; created the Departments of Public 
works. Jails, Forests, Survey, and Edu- 
cation; dealt with the strength and com- 
position of the Army in India ; reorganized 
and expanded the Legislative Council ; 
created a separate Lieutenant-Governor- 
ship of Lower Bengal (to relieve the 
Governor-General of his direct personal 
charge of that Province) : he declared 
war on the King of Burma in 1852, and 
supervised it himself, visiting the country 
and annexing Pegu : made treaties with 
the Khan of Kelat and Amir of Afghanis- 
tan : the Berars were assigned for the 
payment of the Hyderabad debts. Dal- 
housie has been blamed for the annexation 
of Satara, Nagpur, Tanjore, Jhansi, 
Oudh, for reducing the title of the Nawab 
of the Carnatic to Prince of Arcot, for 
terminating the ex-Peshwa's pension 
the fact is, that where annexations were 
effected, according to the doctrine of 
lapse, i.e. on the failure of natural heirs, 
that policy was not Dalhousie's, but a 
policy which had been previously declared 
and acted upon and was, in each case, 
sanctioned by higher authority : in the 
case of Oudh, he personally was opposed 
to annexation, but his Council advocated 
it and the authorities in England ordered 
it, on account of the continued malad- 
ministration by the King, after repeated 
warnings : Dalhousie restricted the ap- 
plication of the doctrine of lapse to cases 
of Hindu dependent states. He was also 



blamed for weakening the European 
Army in India : in fact, he had protested 
against reduction of the EngUsh Army in 
India for the Crimean and Persian wars, 
and had given full attention to military 
affairs : he abolished numerous Boards 
and established responsible Departments 
in their places : his despatches were not 
attended to at the India House, and he 
was never able to defend himself and his 
administration. He suffered from ill- 
health, during the prolongation of his ap- 
pointment in India, and was too ill after 
his retirement, on Feb. 29, 1856, to defend 
his policy : and the English Governments 
failed to support him. Thus the out- 
break of the mutiny was unjustly attri- 
buted to his alleged policy in respect of 
annexation, neglect of military matters, 
and the reduced strength of the English 
Army in India. His assailants have been 
amply refuted by his later biographers, 
especially in Sir W. Lee Warner's Life of 
the Marquis of Dalhousie, 1904. The 
death, from exhaustion after sea-sickness, 
of Lady Dalhousie in 1853, in sight of 
England, affected him deeply. Always 
a very hard worker, he sought distraction 
in " work, work,"' and in his public duties. 
His final minute of Feb. 28, 1856, contains 
a summary of his administration. He was 
masterful in character and impatient of 
opposition. " In the three words, con- 
quest, consolidation and development, 
his work may be summed up " (Sir 
W. W. Hunter). He stands out as " the 
great Proconsul " of modern times. After 
retirement he held no office but that of 
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, 1852-60. 
He died Dec. 19, i860. His statue is in 
Calcutta, where the Dalhousie Institute 
was erected in his memory. 



Son of Robert Dallas : born April 6, 1758 : 
educated at Geneva : entered the E. I. Co.'s 
civil service at eighteen, was noticed by 
Warren Hastings, appointed Collector of 
Rajshahi : returned to England for ill- 
health, 1788: deputed by Calcutta resi- 
dents to present a petition against Pitt's 
East India Bill : made a Baronet in 
1798 : M.P., 1800-2, for Newport : wrote 
a poem The India Guide : a pamphlet in 
vindication of Warren Hastings, 1789 : 
a vindication of the Marquis Wellesley's 
wars in Hindustan and the Dekkan, 1806, 

besides papers on Ireland and France, 
and on Trade between India and Europe, 
in which he advocated a greater freedom 
and liberality in trade between the 
countries : died Jan. 14, 1833. 

DALLAS, SIR THOMAS ( ? -1839) 
Was a cavalry officer in the Carnatic, 
and under Colonel Arthur Wellesley, and 
at the siege of Seringapatam : distin- 
guished himself : K.C.B. : died Aug. 12, 



Son of Sir James Dalrymple, Bart. : born 
July 24, 1737 : went out to Madras in the 
E.I. Co.'s Civil service, in May, 1753 '• 
Lord Pigot, to whom he had been reco- 
mended, put him into the Secretariat and 
taught him to write : the historian Orme 
also befriended him : he became Deputy 
Secretary : in 1759-62 he made a voyage 
to the Eastern Archipelago in the interest 
of commerce : after returning to Madras 
he sailed again to the islands and reached 
Canton in 1764. He returned to England 
in 1765 to push his schemes of extending 
commerce to the East, but received no 
encouragement : failed to obtain the 
command of an expedition to observe the 
transit of Venus in 1769 : then turned his 
attention to geography and hydrography, 
and published a Chart of the Bay of 
Bengal in 1772 : appointed Member of 
Council in Madras, 1775, but in 2 years was 
recalled on an unfounded charge of mis- 
conduct : in 1779 made hydrographer 
to the E.I. Co., and in 1795 also to the 
Admiralty : dismissed from this appoint- 
ment in May, 1808: died of vexation, 
June, 19, 1808 : published a number of 
works, chiefly on voyages, charts, his- 
torical and political papers, including 
the Oriental Repertory, 179 1-4. 

DALRYMPLE, JAMES ( ? -1800) 
Commanded the 29th battalion in 
Madras, 1788 : at the storming of Gurrum- 
condah in Nov. 1791 : took Raichur for 
the Nizam from insurgents, March, 1796 : 
in the Nizam's contingent under General 
A. Wellesley, 1799 : in the assault of 
Seringapatam, May 4, 1799 : after the 
capture commanded the Hyderabad Sub- 
sidiary Force : took several forts from 
Dhoondia Waugh, the freebooter, and 



defeated him, Aug. 17, 1799, at Shikarpur, 
expelling him from Mysore : died, much 
regretted by General Wellesley, at Hydera- 
bad, Dec, 1800. 


(1816- ) 

Born June 29, 1845 : educated at High 
School, Edinburgh, Wimbledon and Sand- 
hurst : joined 44th regt., 1863, and 88th 
Connaught Rangers, 1864 : passed Staff 
College, 1873 : served at Ashanti, Ber- 
muda, D.A.A., and Q.M.G., Northern 
District : A.A.G., Colonial Forces, South 
Africa, 1878 : Brig-Major S. Africa 
Field Force, 1879 : Military Secretary to 
Lord Lytton when Viceroy of India, 1880 : 
A.Q.M.G. of India, 1883-4 : D.Q.M.G., 
India, 189 1-3 : Brig-General. India, 
1893-8 : C.B., 1893 : retired. 


Entered the Army, 1835 : in expedi- 
tions against frontier tribes of Assam, 
1839-40, and 1842 : commanded an 
expedition and captured the Mishmi chief 
who had murdered the French missionaries 
Kirk and Bourry on the Tibetan frontier : 
Commissioner of Chota Nagpur in 1858 : 
with the Field Force against the Palamau 
rebels, and in 1858-9 against the Singbhum 
insurgents : C.S.L : Maj-General, 1877 = 
died Dec. 30, 1880 : wrote The Descriptive 
Ethnology of Bengal, 1872. 

DALTON, JOHN (1725-1811) 
Son of Capt. James Dalton of the 6th 
regt. : born 1725 : appointed to Hanmer's 
Marine regt., 1741 : 2nd Lt. of Marines 
on the Preston, 1743 ' to Fort St. David, 
1745 : the French took Madras, 1746 : 
the Marine regts. being reduced at the 
peace with France, Dalton joined the 
Independent Companies under Admiral 
Boscawen {q.v.) : became a Captain in 
the E.I. Co.'s service : in the expedition 
to Devikota, 1749 '• Muhammad Ali, son 
of Anwaruddin, late Nawab of the Car- 
natic, fled on his father's death to Trichino- 
poly and applied to the English for help : 
Dalton was in the force sent to his aid : 
was in the retreat at Volkonda, June, 19, 
1751 : at Wootatoor and at Kistnavaram : 
in the fighting on behalf of Muhammad 
Ali against Chanda Sahib {q.v.) near 
Trichinopoly : Dalton made Commandant 
there, Jime, 15, 1752, to keep it for 
Muhammad Ali against the Dalwai (the 

Regent of Mysore), and Morari Rao the 
Mahratta : defended it with great skill 
and coiurage against famine, treachery, 
blockade and the French also : relieved 
by Major Stringer Lawrence, May, 6, 
1753, and again Sep. 21 : resigned the 
E.I. Co.'s service March i, i754. and re- 
turned to England : died July 11, 181 1. 


(1846- ) 

Born Aug. 10, 1846 : educated at 
Brussels and Paris : LL.D. of the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow : Hibbert Lecturer at 
Oxford, 1891 : accompanied H.M. King 
Edward VII, then H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales, on his Indian tour in 1875-6 : 
Author of Inde et Himalaye, 1877 : Cdn- 
temporary Evolution of Religious Thought 
in England, America and India, 1885 : 
Ce que VInde doit a la Grece, 1897, etc. 

Son of Lt-Colonel Francis Dermot 
Daly : born Oct. 25, 1821 : joined the 
first Bombay European regt. in 1840, 
became Adjutant, was present at the 
fighting at Multan in 1848, in the second 
Sikh war, at Gujarat on Feb. 22, 1849, 
and in the pursuit of the Sikhs : in 1849 
he raised the first Panjab Cavalry and saw 
service on the frontier, against the Afridis, 
and under Sir Colin Campbell in 1852. 
In the mutiny he commanded the Guides' 
Cavalry in their march of 580 miles in 22 
days from Mardan to Delhi : was at the 
siege of Delhi, at the capture of Lucknow 
in March, 1858, and in the Oudh campaign : 
in 1 861 he commanded the Central India 
Horse, and in 1871 was made Agent to the 
Governor-General for Central India : 
K.C.B., 1875 : CLE., 1880 : General 
in 1888 : G.C.O., 1889 : retired in 1882 : 
died July 21, 1895. 

DALY, HUGH (1860- ) 
Born i860 : son of Sir H.D. Daly {q.v.) : 
entered Gloucestershire regt. 1881 : joined 
the Indian Staff Corps : Captain, 1892 : 
served in Burmese expedition, 1886-7 = 
Superintendent of the Northern Shan 
States, 1888 : CLE. : Assistant, and, 
later, Deputy-Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India, Foreign Department : 
Major and C.S.L, 1903 : Agent to the 
Governor-General for Central India, 1905- 



THER (1831-1890) 

I.C.S. : born Oct. 7, 1831 : son of Colonel 
John Dalyell : educated at Cheltenham 
and Haileybury : went to Madras in Jan., 
1851 : became Secretary to the Board of 
Revenue in 1867, Secretary to Govern- 
ment, Revenue Department, in 1868 : 
Chief Secretary, 1870 : Member of the 
Board of Revenue, 1873 : made a special 
report on the Excise administration in 
1874 : Chief Commissioner of Mysore in 
1875-6, and additional Member of the 
Governor-General's Legislative Council, 
1873-7 : retired from India, 1877 : 
Member of the Council of India, 1877-87 : 
C.S.I. , in 1879 : K.C.I.E., 1887 : LL.D. 
of St. Andrews, 1885 : died Jan. 18, 1890. 


I.C.S, : born May 9, 1846 : educated 
at St. Paul's School, London, and Christ's 
College, Cambridge : Scholar and Ex- 
hibitioner : went out to Bengal, 1869 : 
served in Cachar, Assam, and on special 
duty to Manipur, 1876 : was Deputy 
Commissioner of the Garo Hills, 1877, and 
Political Agent in the Naga Hills, Assam, 
1878 : on his way to Khonoma, to seize 
some ammunition which the Nagas had 
stored, was killed by them, Oct. 14, 1879 : 
took keen interest in literature and 
philology : wrote on folk-lore, and the 
Manipuri language in the J.A.S.B., 
J.R.A.S., and the Indian Antiquary: 
most of the MSS. of his Manipur Dic- 
tionary were destroyed by the Nagas in the 
stockade at Kohima. 

I.C.S. : born 1828 : son of W. Dampier, 
I.C.S. : educated at Eton : entered the 
B.C.S., 1848 : Member of the Orissa famine 
Commission, 1 867: Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of Bengal : officiating Home Secre- 
tary to the Government of India, 1872 : 
Member of Bengal Legislative Council, 
1867-84 : Member of the Board of Rev- 
enue, 1877 : President of Rent Law 
Commission, 1881 : retired, 1884 : CLE. 


Son of James Dance: born June 20, 
1748, entered the E. I. Co's naval service, 
1759 '• was in command of a ship in 1787. 
As Commodore of a fleet of 16 Indiamen 

and some country ships in 1804, homeward 
bound from Canton, he fell in with a 
French squadron off Pulo Aor, near the 
S. end of the straits of Malacca, and by his 
skill and boldness deceived them and put 
them to flight on Feb. 15, saving his own 
fleet and its valuable cargo. He was 
knighted and pensioned by the E. I. Co. : 
died March 25, 1827. 


(1856- ) 

I.C.S. : born March 21, 1856 : son of 
Richard Martin Dane, M.D., C.B. : 
arrived in India, 1876 : served in the 
Panjab : Private Secretary to the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, 1S79-82 : Officiating Regis- 
trar of the Chief Court, 1886 : Settle- 
ment Officer, Gurdaspur, 1887 : Deputy 
Commissioner, Peshawar, 1892 : Chief 
Secretary to the Panjab Government, 1898: 
Resident in Kashmir, 1901 : Foreign 
Secretary to the Government of India^ 
1903 : C.S.L, 1904 : Head of the^Mission 
to Kabifl, 1904-5, to negotiate a" Treaty 
with the Amir of Afghanistan : made 
K.C.I.E. on his return. 

DANIELL, THOMAS (1749-1840) 
Painter : son of an innkeeper : born in 
1749 = was in India painting for ten years^ 
from 1784, with his nephew William (q.v.), 
and published his pictures : brought out 
their Oriental Scenery in 1808 : Royal 
Academician in 1799 : F.R.S., F.R.A.S., 
and F.S.A. : exhibited his pictures at 
the Academy and at the British Institute : 
published other collections of pictures 1 
died March 19, 1840. 



Artist, R.A : at 14 accompanied his 
uncle, Thomas Daniell (q.v.), also an artist, 
to India : in 10 years they travelled many 
thousand, miles, from Cape Comorin to 
Srinagar, and on their return published 
Oriental Scenery, in 6 volumes, completed 
in 1808. He exhibited largely at the 
Academy and the British Institute r 
published also A Picturesque Voyage to 
India, Zoography, The Panorama of 
Madras, 1832, the City of Lucknow, and 
the Oriental Annual, besides other pic- 
tures of British scenery. He was made a 
Royal Academician in 1822 : died Aug. i6>. 
1837. 1 , 




( ? - ) 
Educated at Merchant Taylors' School 
and King's College, London : joined the 
East India House as a writer, 1853 : and 
the India Office, 1858 : Registrar and 
Superintendent of Records, 1884 : deputed 
to Lisbon, 189 1-2, to examine the Portu- 
guese records relating to India, and to the 
Hague, 1893-4 : wrote extensively on 
Indian questions, including public works, 
famines, coal, statistics, agriculture, on 
Chiefs, Agents, and Governors of Bengal, 
1888 : The India Ofice Records, 1889 : 
on the Portuguese records and A History 
of the Portuguese in India, 1894. 

DANVERS, SIR JULAND (1826-1902) 
Born March 19, 1826: son of Frederick 
Dawes Danvers : educated at King's 
College, London : entered the E.I. Co.'s 
home service, 1842 : Private Secretary 
to two Chairmen of the Court, 1848-53 : 
on the transfer of India to the Crown, 
Danvers became, at the India Office, Secre- 
tary in the Railway and Telegraph Depart- 
ment, and Deputy Director of Indian 
Railways, 1858-61 : Government Director 
of Indian Railways, 1861-92 : Secretary in 
the Public Works, Railway and Telegraph 
Departments, 1880-92 : visited India, 
1875-6 : wrote the annual official reports 
on Indian railways presented to Parlia- 
ment, 1859-82 : was constantly examined 
before Parliamentary Committees on Rail- 
way and Finance questions : K.C.S.I., 
1886: retired 1892 : died Oct. 18, 1902. 


SINGH, OF (1856-1898) 
Elder son of Maharaja Maheswar Singh 
of Darbhanga : born 1856 : educated by 
an English tutor, Chester Macnaghten 
{q.v.) : occupied, as head of the Maithili 
BrahminSj a Hindu of Hindus, and the 
possessor of very large estates in Bihar, a 
very important position in Bihar and Ben- 
gal : sincerely devoted to religion : largely 
directed the management of his property 
and effected great improvements : made 
Maharaja Bahadur and K.C.I.E. : a Mem- 
ber of both the Legislative Councils of 
Bengal and the Governor-General : con- 
tributed handsomely to all objects of 
charity, medical aid, educational endow- 
ments and objects of general public 
utility : as President of the British Indian 
and other Landowners' Associations, his 

influence was chiefly felt in questions 
affecting landed property : died Dec. 17, 


(1860- ) 

Born Jan. 16, i860 : younger son of 
Maharaja Maheswar Singh : educated at 
the Queen's College, Benares, and at 
home by Chester Macnaghten (q.v.) : in 
1878 was appointed by Lord Lytton to the 
Statutory Civil Service : served as Assist- 
ant Magistrate of Darbhanga, Chapra 
and Bhagalpur : resigned in 1885 : was 
created Raja Bahadur, of Bachaur : in 
1888 was appointed a Member of the 
Bengal Legislative Council, as representa- 
tive of the landowners of Bengal and 
Bihar : succeeded to the Darbhanga Raj 
on the death of his elder brother, Maharaja 
Sir Lachmeswar Singh, on Dec. 17, 1898 : 
made Maharaja Bahadur : in 1899 and 
1904 was elected by the non-official mem- 
bers of the Bengal Legislative Council as 
their representative in the Governor- 
General's Legislative Council : President 
of several Landowners' Associations : 
Kaisar-i-Hind Gold Medal, 1900 : in 1902 
made K.C.I.E., and appointed a member 
of the Police Commission. 


Born March 28, 1849, in Alsace, of a poor 
Jewish family : son of Cerf, and brother 
of Arsene, Darmesteter : delicate, puny, 
and almost deformed : educated at the 
Lycee Condorcet, Paris : Doctor in 
Letters, 1877 : devoted himself to Oriental 
scholarship and literature : became the 
greatest authority of his time on Zoro- 
astrian literatiure : appointed x\ssistant- 
Professorof Zend at the Ecole des Hautes 
Etudes, 1877 : and in 1892, Director : 
was appointed Professor of Persian at the 
College de France, 1885, and Secretary 
of the Societe Asiatique : wrote Etudes 
Iraniennes, 1883, and on the language and 
literature of ancient Persia : travelled in 
India, to study his subjects locally : resid- 
ing there, Feb. 1886— Feb. 1887, chiefly 
at Bombay, Peshawar and Hazara : 
wrote Letters sur ITnde, 1888, The Popular 
Songs of the Afghans, with an introduction 
on their language, history and literature, 
1890 ; a complete translation, 1892-3, 
of the Zendavesta, published in the 
Sacred Books of the East : and Selected 



Essays, published 1S95 : was an Editor 
of the Revue Critique, and, later, of the 
Revue de Paris : wrote in them, and in the 
Journal des Debals, critical notices of 
books and Oriental essays : wrote on the 
mythology of the Avesta, 1875 : Ormuzd 
et Ahriman, iSyy : Essais Orientaux, 1883 : 
also on the History of the Jewish People, 
in the Nouvelle Revue : and the Prophets 
of Israel, 1892 : died at Maisons-Lafitte, 
Oct. 19, 1894. 

DUR (1849- ) 

Born July 18, 1849 : educated at 
Chittagong and the Calcutta Presidency 
College : and in that College's Engineering 
Department : in 1874 was appointed 
Head Master of the Bhutia boarding 
school at Darjeeling : began to study 
Tibetan from Lama Ugyen Gyatso, a 
teacher there : in 1878 the latter, on a 
visit to Tashi Lhumpo (Teshu Lumbo) 
in Tibet, obtained an invitation and pass- 
port for Sarat Chandra to visit Lhasa : 
in June, 1879, they started together to 
visit Lhasa with a servant : returned after 
six months from Tashi Lhumpo to Dar- 
jeeling : in Nov. 1881, they again went 
to Tashi Lhumpo, and on to Lhasa : 
wrote his Narrative of a Journey to Lhasa, 
and Narrative of a Journey round Lake 
Palti (Yamdok), and in Lhokha, Yarlung 
and Sakya : in 1884 Sarat accompanied 
Colman Macaulay (q.v.) to the Lachen 
Valley in Sikhim, and in 1885 went with 
him to Pekin: made CLE., Jan. 1886 : 
received a reward from the Royal Geo- 
graphial Society, 1887 : founded the 
Buddhist Text Book Society, 1892 : made 
Rai Bahadur, 1896 : the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society published His Travels 
in Tibet, in 1899 : completed his Tibetan- 
English Dictionary in 1902 : from Sep. 
1 88 1 served the Government of Bengal 
as Tibetan translator : retired from service 
July, 1904: engaged in compiling a Sans- 
krit-English dictionary. 

DAUD SHAH ( ? -1897) 

Of the Lahkan Kheyl, a branch of a 
tribe of the Ghilzais : at the age of 20 
he joined the Army of Amir Dost Muham- 
mad Khan and became Akbar Khan's 
orderly officer. Shir Ali made him 
captain for services rendered at the 
battle of Kajhbaz on June 6, 1865, in 

which Sirdar Muhammad Ali Khan, 
eldest son of Shir Ali, was killed. Daud 
Shah showed great bravery during a 
campaign at Khost and was raised to the 
rank of General: he defeated Abdur 
Rahman's forces in Turkistan, and settled 
the country in Shir All's name, but, having 
quarrelled with General Muhammad Alam, 
he was recalled to Kabul and imprisoned 
by Shir Ali. Soon released, he acted as 
Commander-in-Chief when Yakub Khan 
rebelled against his father Shir Ali, and 
when General Faramurz Khan, command- 
ing the Amir's forces, was killed by Aslam 
Khan, son of Amir Dost Muhammad. 
Upon Yakub's second rebellion, an army 
was sent to Herat in which Daud Shah 
was given a command, but Shir Ali, 
finding no General at Kabul, recalled him 
and entrusted him with all army affairs 
at the capital. In Jan. 1879, when Shir 
Ali fled to Turkistan, after the capture 
of Ali Masjid and the Peiwar Kotal by 
the British troops, Daud Shah was left 
at Kabul with Yakub Khan and accom- 
panied him to meet Sir S. Browne at 
Gandamak. He was Yakub's Comman- 
der-in-Chief at the time of the massacre of 
Sir Louis Cavagnari in Sep. 1879, and 
Yakub's flight to the British camp. 
During Sir F. Roberts' tenure of Sherpur, 
at Kabul, Daud Shah was arrested about 
Dec. 18, 1879, and deported to India : 
died at Rawul Pindi, Dec. 25, 1897. 

DAVIDS, T. W. RHYS (1843- ) 
LL.D., Ph.D. : born May 12, 1843 : 
son of Rev. T. W. Davids : educated at 
Brighton School and Breslau University : 
entered Ceylon Civil Service, 1866 : 
barrister, Middle Temple, 1877 : delivered 
Hibbert Lectures, 1881 : author of 
Buddhism, 1878 ; Buddhism, its History 
and Literature, 1896 : Buddhist India, 
1902, and numerous other works connected 
with Buddhist Texts, etc. : Secretary and 
Librarian, Royal Asiatic Society : Pro- 
fessor of Pali and Buddhist Literatmre, 
University College, London. 


Colonel : son of W. Davidson : edu- 
cated privately at Petersham : joined the 
6oth Rifles, 1876 : served in Afghan war, 
1878-80 : at Kandahar and Ahmad 
Kheyl : A.D.C. to Sir Donald Stewart at 
Kabul : A.D.C. to Sir John Ross in Sir F. 



Roberts' march from Kabul to Kandahar 
and the battle there: served in Marri expedi- 
tion under General Macgregor : in Boer war 
with Natal Field Force, 1881, and in 
Egyptian war, 1882 : present at Tel-el- 
Kebir : served under Sir Charles Warren 
in Bechuanaland, 18S4 : A.D.C. to H.R.H. 
The Duke of Cambridge, 1890-5 : Equerry 
in Waiting to Queen Victoria, 1896-1901, 
and to the King : C.B. in 1902 : C.V.O. 



Colonel : born May 24, 1810 : son of 
Sir David Davidson : educated privately 
and at Edinburgh : went to India as a 
military cadet, 1826 : joined the 16th 
N.I. : A.D.C. to Lord W. Bentinck in Ma- 
dras : in 1836, joined Sir R. Grant's Staff, 
when Governor of Bombay : commanded a 
regiment of the Nizam's cavalry : first 
Assistant at Hyderabad under General 
Low and General Eraser : Resident at 
Baroda for 3 years : Resident at Hydera- 
bad, 1857-62 : helped to bring Sir Salar 
Jang into office as Prime Minister : in 
the formidable attack on the Residency, 
July 17, 1857 : his life was attempted in 
the Nizam's Darbar, March 15, 1859 : 
C.B. after the mutiny : distinguished for 
his courage, composmre and resolution : 
died Aug. 2, 1862. 

DAVIDSON, JOHN (1845- ) 
Colonel : son of Alexander Davidson, 
M.D. : born 1845 : educated at Winches- 
ter : entered the Army, 1863 : joined 
the Panjab Cavalry, 1866 : A.A.G. Pan- 
jab Frontier Force, 1875 : served in 
the Jowaki-Afridi expedition, 1877-8 : 
D.A.Q.M.G., Afghan campaign, 1878-9 : 
A.Q.M.G., Waziri expedition, 1880 : 
Military Secretary, Panjab Government, 
1885-6 : Colonel on Staff, Chitral, 1896-8 : 
C.B. : Author of Notes on Bashgalt-Kafir 
Language, 1902. 


NESS (1857- ) 
Born Nov. 29, 1857 : son of Ma j -General 
Horatio Nelson Davies : educated at 
Wellington College : joined the Devon 
Regt., 1876 : served asD.A.A.G. in Burma, 
1894-7 : in the Afghan war, 1880 : the 
Wuntho expedition in Burma, 1892 : 
commanded the Kachen Hills expedition in 
Burma, 1893 : in the Tirah expedition, 
1897, and in the South African war, 1899- 

1902, including relief of Ladysmith : 
Brevet Lt-Colonel, and D.S.O. 


I.CS. : son of Sir David Davies, 
K.C.H., Physician to William IV : 
educated at Charterhouse and Haileybury, 
1 841 -3 : went to the N.W.P. in the Civil 
Service, 1844 : in the mutiny, served with 
the troops in the Benares Division : was 
besieged at Azimghar, while Magistrate : 
was in the pursuit of Kooer Singh : 
Secretary to the Panjab Government, 1859: 
Financial Commissioner in Oudh, 1864 : 
Chief Commissioner of Oudh, 1865-71 : 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab, Jan., 
1871, to April, 1877 : K.C.S.1. 1874 : CLE. 
1877 : Member of the Council of India, 
March, 1885-95 : died Aug. 23, 1902. 



Maj-General : son of Dr. S. Davies : 
educated at London University College 
School : entered the Bengal Army, 1839 : 
served on the Peshawar frontier under 
Sir Colin Campbell : appointed Assistant 
Commissioner in the Panjab : Financial 
Commissioner, 1883 : Member of the 
Governor-General's Legislative Council : 
as Commissioner of Delhi was President of 
the Executive Committee of the Imperial 
Assemblage, 1877 : C.S.I. : retired, 1887 : 
K.C.S.I. : died June 12, 1898. 


Born March -29, 1846 : son of Dr. W. A. 
Davis : educated at Queen's College, 
Belfast : entered Bengal Medical Service, 
1869, and became Surgeon-Colonel, 1897 : 
served in Mahsud-Waziri expedition, 
1881 : Miranzai expedition, 1891 : Hazara 
expedition, 1891 : as P.M.O. in Waziristan 
expedition, 1894-5 : as P.M.O. in Tirah 
expedition, 1897-8 : was present at 
Dargai : in China expedition, 1901 : 
C.B. in 1898, and D.S.O., 1895 : is Princi- 
pal Medical Officer, Panjab Frontier 

DAVIS, SAMUEL (1760-1819) 

Went to Bengal as an officer of En- 
gineers : was an excellent artist : accom- 
panied Turner's Embassy to Tibet in 
1783, but he himself did not advance 



beyond Bhutan : he was afterwards 
admitted to the E.I. Co.'s civil service : 
was District Judge and Agent to the 
Governor-General at Benares and had an 
observatory there : as a mathematician 
and astronomer, he identified astronomical 
references in Sanskrit works. When 
Wazir Ali, the deposed Nawab of Oudh, 
revolted in Jan., 1799, and murdered 
Mr. Cherry, then the Governor-General's 
Agent, he afterwards, with a crowd of 
followers, attacked Davis, who, on Jan. 
14, 1799, successfully defended himself 
and his family, standing at the top of a 
staircase, pike in hand, until rescued by 
British troopers. Davis became a Direc- 
tor of the E. I. Co., from 1810 to 1819, and 
wrote the well-known Fifth Report on the 
Permanent Settlement : F.R.S. : died 
June 16, 1819. 

DAVISON, SIR HENRY ( ? -1860) 

Was a Puisne Judge of the Supreme 
Court, Madras, Dec. 1856 : succeeded 
Sir W. Yardley as Chief Justice, Bombay, 
in April, 1858 : transferred in April-May, 
1859, to be Chief Justice, Madras, in suc- 
cession to Sir C. Rawlinson : died at 
Ootacamund, Nov. 3 or 4, i860. 


(1859- ) 

Born 1859 : son of C. G. A. Dawkins of 
the Foreign Office: educated at Cheltenham 
and Balliol College, Oxford : entered the 
India Office, 1884 : Private Secretary to 
Lord Cross, Secretary of State, 1886, and 
to Mr. Goschen, Chancellor of Exchequer, 
1889 : Under Secretary of State for 
Finance in Egypt, 1895 : Financial Mem- 
ber of the Supreme Council in India, 
1 899-1 900 : Partner in Messrs. J. S. 
Morgan & Co. : author of Appendix to 
Milner's England in Egypt : C.B. in 1901, 
and K.C.B., 1902. 

DAY, FRANCIS (1829-1889) 
Son of WilHam Day : born March 2, 
1829 : educated at Shrewsbury and St. 
George's Hospital, London : joined the 
E.I. Co.'s Medical Service at Madras, 
1852 : served in the Burmese war of 1852- 
54 : Surgeon-Major in 1872 : Deputy 
Surgeon-General in 1876, when he retired. 
An eminent naturalist : Ichthyology was 
the real work of his life : he investigated, 
for Government, the condition of Indian 

fisheries : his last appointment was as 
Inspr-General of Fisheries in India, where 
he was recognized as the chief authority 
on Indian fishes and piscicultvure. After 
his retirement, he pursued his studies in 
the same subject, gaining medals at 
several exhibitions between 1875 and 1883. 
He was made CLE. in 1885 : LL.D. of 
Edinburgh in 1889 : F.Z.S., and F.L.S. : 
was Indian Commissioner at the Fisheries 
Exhibition, 1883. Collections made by 
him are at Calcutta, Cambridge, London, 
etc. He wrote extensively on Fish and 
Fisheries, in separate works and in con- 
tributions to the Journals of learned 
Societies : v^Tote The Fishes of India, The 
Fishes of Malabar, The British and Irish 
SalmonidcB, The Fishes of the Andaman 
and Nicobar Islands, The Fishes of the 
Nilgiri Hills and Wynaad, The Fishes of 
Great Britain and Ireland : also. The Land 
of the Perumals, 1863 : Tropical Fevers, 
etc. : died July 10, 1889. 

DE, REV. LAL BEHARI (1826-1894) 

Educated at the General Assembly's 
Institution, under the Rev. Dr. Duff : at 
17 was converted to Christianity : in 
1 85 1 authorized to preach, and ordained 
in 1855 : in 1857 he gave up preaching, 
and entered the Bengal Educational 
Department : spent most of his career 
at Hughli as Professor of History and 
English Literature : he retired in his 63rd 
year : died about Oct., 1894 : he wrote 
against Vedantism and the preaching of 
Keshab Chandra Sen {q.v.), and conducted 
a Joiurnal to diffuse Christianity. His 
novel, Gobinda Samanta, a tale of peasant 
life in Bengal, and other writings, attracted 
considerable attention : wrote also Re- 
miniscences of Dr. Duff, 1879. 

THOMAS, D.D. (1796-1861) 

Bishop : born of poor parents in York- 
shire in 1796 : went up to St. Catherine's 
Hall, Cambridge, as a pensioner in 1825 : 
first class in the Law Class List, 1827-8 : 
LL.B. in 1829 : after being ordained, 
was a curate at Cambridge and came under 
the influence of the Rev. C. Simeon, who 
obtained for him a chaplaincy in the 
Bengal Establishment. Reaching Cal- 
cutta in 1829, he was appointed to the old 
Mission church, and remained in charge of 
it till 1835, when he was made Archdeacon 




of Calcutta: held the post till his 
departure to England in 1848. He was 
there offered the Bishopric of Madras, was 
consecrated, became D.D., and returned 
to Madras as Bishop in Feb., 1850. In 
the latter years of Bishop Wilson, who 
died 1858, Dealtry did much of his touring 
and visitation work in Upper India : was 
an active and liberal supporter of Missions 
and Missionaries : died March 4, 1861. 

Lt-Colonel : born April i, 1854 : son 
of Rev. Henry Deane : educated at Ips- 
wich Grammar School : entered the 
English Army, 1874, and the Indian Staff 
Corps, 1877 : served in the Afghan war, 
1879-80 : District Superintendent of 
Police, Andamans, 1880-5 : entered the 
Pan jab Commission and served as Assis- 
tant and Deputy Commissioner till 1895 : 
Chief Political Officer with Chitral Relief 
Force : Political Agent at Malakand : 
Political Resident in Kashmir, 1900-1 : 
Chief Commissioner and Agent to the 
Governor-General, N.W. Frontier Pro- 
vince, 1901 : C.S.I. , 1896. 


Colonel : born May 12, 1841 : son of 
Sir Thomas Deane : educated privately : 
joined the Indian Army, 1862, in Madras 
Cavalry : attached to 21st Hussars, 
1863-9 : Viceroy's Bodyguard, 1869 : 
Military Secretariat, Government of India, 
1877 : Staff Officer to the Controller 
General, Supply and Transport, Afghan 
war, 1879 : Director Army Remount 
Department, 1887-8 : and again 1889-98 : 
on special service in S. Africa, 1900-1 : 
Agent in England for Government of 
India Army Studs : C.B. in 1897. 


(1866- ) 

Born 1866 : son of Right Hon. Richard 
Deasy, Lord Justice of Appeal (Ireland) : 
educated at Bournemouth and Dublin : 
joined the i6th Lancers, 1888, and resigned 
his commission, 1897 : explored Western 
Tibet, 1896 : received the Founders' 
Gold Medal from the Royal Geographical 
Society for exploring and survey work in 
Central Asia for nearly three years : 
created a record In motoring, by driving 
450 miles in 21 hours : author of In Tibet 
and Chinese Turkistan, 1901. 


(1866- ) 

Of the Sovabazar Raj family (Kaisthya): 
great-grandson of Maharaja Naba Krishna 
Bahadur (of the time of Clive and Warren 
Hastings) : and son of Maharaja Komul 
Krishna Deb, landowner in the Tippera 
district : born Aug. 15, 1866 : educated 
privately : holds various honorary ap- 
pointments in Calcutta, Municipal Com- 
missioner, Member of the District Board, 
24 Parganas, Governor of the Mayo 
Hospital, etc. : made a Raja in 1895 for 
loyal services : given the silver Kaisar-i- 
Hind medal, 1902 : has founded and 
maintains a number of schools, dispen- 
saries and other charitable institutions : 
promoted philanthropic objects and sport- 
ing clubs : has written Agra Reflections 
and the Early History and Growth of Cal- 
cutta, and had a memoir written of Mahara- 
ja Naba Krishna : has initiated the Hindu 
sea-voyage movement, founded the Sova- 
bazar Benevolent Society, and encouraged 
literary institutions and journalistic enter- 

KRISHNA (1808-1874) 

Second son of Raja Raj Krishna of 
Sovabazar, and grandson of Raja Naba 
Krishna, the Diwan of Lord Clive : was 
made Raja Bahadur in 1833 : from 1867 
was the leader of Hindu Society and in 
the van of all movements on behalf of 
the native community : Fellow of the 
Calcutta University: J.P. : and Vice- 
President of the British Indian Associa- 
tion : sincerely advocated female educa- 
tion : died at Benares on April 11, 1874. 


Born Oct. 10, 1822 : son of Raja Raj 
Krishna Bahadur, and grandson of 
Maharaja Naba Krishna Bahadur, of the 
Sovabazar family : educated at the Hindu 
College : was, for a short time, in Govern- 
ment service : was a Municipal Com- 
missioner of Calcutta, and Justice of the 
Peace : Honorary Magistrate : several times 
President and Vice-President of the 
British Indian Association : Fellow of the 
Calcutta University : made Raja, 1875 : 
Member of the Governor-General's Legisla- 
tive Council : Maharaja, 1877 : and 
K.C.I.E., in 1888: Maharaja Bahadur, 



i8g2 : held a number of minor honorary 
offices : died March 20, 1903. 

BAHADUR (1784-1867) 

Born in Calcutta, March II, 1784, son of 
RajaGopi Mohan Deb, and great grandson of 
Munshi, afterwards Maharaja, Naba Krish- 
na Deb, Persian Secretary and Diwan to 
Lord Clive : received his English education 
at Cumming's Calcutta Academy : studied 
Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian : his life was 
devoted to cultivating and disseminating 
knowledge : was the first modern Hindu 
to advocate home female education, 
zealously established native schools, and 
compiled in 36 years a comprehensive 
Sanskrit dictionary, which was acknow- 
ledged by learned European Societies, and 
by Queen Victoria with a medal. In 
religion he was rigidly conservative and 
strictly orthodox, while devoted to the 
cause of education : wrote a Bengali 
reader. He was a Director of the Hindu 
College : Secretary of the School-book 
Society, established in 1818: prominently 
connected with the Government Sanskrit 
College, and the Bengal Asiatic Society : 
Honorary Magistrate and Justice of the 
Peace for Calcutta in 1855 : President of 
the British Indian Association from 1851 
until his death at Brindaban on April 19, 
1867 : Raja Bahadur on July 10, 1837, and 
K.C.S.I. in 1866 : was an active supporter 
of all public movements. 


A Savoyard: born at Chambery on 
March 8, 175 1 : entered the French Army 
at 17: left it in 5 years for the Russian 
service, and was taken prisoner at Tenedos. 
Being released, he, travelling via Alexan- 
dria, Cairo, and Suez, joined the 6th 
Madras N.I. in the E.jl. Co.'s service in 
1778, at Madras. Fancying himself neg- 
lected, he resigned, and, abandoning his 
intention of making a journey overland 
to Europe, joined Madhava Rao Sindia, 
who made great use of him to train his 
troops and loaded him with wealth. He 
left Sindia in 1789, and entered into 
trade, but rejoined Sindia in 1790 with 
greater powers, and on higher terms : 
won for him the battles of Patau, June 20, 
1790, and Merta in Sep. 1790, defeating 
mixed forces of Pathans, Rajputs, Moguls, 
etc. He became C. in C. of Sindia' s 

army, and, during Sindia's absence in the 
Dekkan, defeated Holkar at Lakhairi in 
Sep. 1793- On Sindia's death, in 1794, De 
Boigne continued to serve his successor, 
Daulat Rao Sindia. He resigned his 
command in Dec. 1795, on account of ill- 
health. He had a house at Ahghar from 
1783 until he left India in Sep. 1796. 
He lived at first near London, and then 
went to Paris. It was alleged that he 
advised and assisted Napoleon Bonaparte 
in his designs against the Enghsh in India. 
This has been completely contradicted 
by his grandson : De Boigne during his 
career in India maintained friendly rela- 
tions with the E. I. Co. In 1803, he 
settled at Buisson, at Chambery, applying 
his wealth to benevolent and patriotic 
purposes, to which he gave 3,678,000 
francs. Honours were heaped upon him : 
he was held in the greatest respect. He 
died June 21, 1830, leaving 20 millions of 


Born Dec. 12, 1858 : son of Felix 
de Brath : educated privately : joined the 
Buffs, 1876, and the Indian Staff Corps, 
1879 : served in the Afghan war, 1879-80 : 
Mahsud-Waziri expedition, 1881 : Hazara 
expedition, 1891 ; Dongola expedition, 
1896, as Brig-Major at Suakin : Brevet- 
Lt-Colonel : Colonel, 1899 : ' in the 
Military Secretariat since 1892 : Secre- 
tary Military Department, Government 
of India, since 1902 : CLE. in 1903 : 
Maj-General: C.B. 


Son of Major Henry Delafosse, C.B. : 
born 1835 : educated at Addiscombe : 
entered the Army, 1854, and became a 
Maj-General, 1887 : served in Indian 
mutiny : was at Cawnpur, as Lieutenant 
in the 53rd N.I. : and served with the 
Artillery in the siege there : on June 22, 
1 85 7, showed great bravery in extinguishing 
the flames of a burning ammunition 
wagon, which was under severe fire : and 
was one of the four men who escaped in a 
boat from the massacre of Evuropeans at the 
Sati Chaura Ghat on June 27, 1857 : in 
Havelock's relief of Lucknow, and the 
retaking of Cawnpur : in the Sikhim 
expedition, 1861 : in the Umbeyla cam- 
paign, 1863 : C.B., 1887 : retired, 1887 : 
died Feb. 10, 1905. 





A Flemish soldier of fortune, in the 
service of Martanda Varma of Travancore : 
he built the Travancore lines which were 
captured by Tippoo in 1790 : also the 
fort of Udayagiri, 38 miles S.E. of Trivan- 
drum : remembered among the natives 
as Istach (Eustache),the Valiya Kappithan, 
or great captain : died i777> buried at 



Maj -General : son of Theodore de 
Meuron, justicier : born May 6, 1738 : 
at 17 fought in a body of Swiss Marines 
for the French, against the English at 
Rochefort : in i757» on the Florissant 
nearly escaped capture by the English : 
joined the Swiss Guards, 1763 : Captain 
and Colonel, 1768 : as proprietary colonel 
raised in 1781 the Neuchatel regiment de 
Meuron, 1,020 strong, for the Dutch E.I. 
Co. : reached the Cape, Jan. 1782 : sent 
on to Ceylon to reinforce Suffrein : to 
Cuddalore, June 1783 : retmmed to 
Ceylon and the Cape, and again Ceylon, 
where he, then Colonel, left the regiment, 
of which the Commanding Officer was his 
brother Pierre Frederich {q.v.) : in 1795, 
C. D. de Meuron after prolonged negotia- 
tions ceded the regiment to England : 
the transfer was ratified at Madras, 1797 : 
de Meuron went to England, 1797, and 
was occupied in recruiting, and in the 
negotiations for completing the transfer, 
1798 : was made a British Maj -General : 
retired : died at Neuchatel April 6, 1806. 



Brother of C. D. {q.v.) : born 1746 : 
commanded the regiment de Meuron under 
the Dutch in Ceylon : when the English 
invaded Ceylon in August, 1795, several 
detachments of the regiment were defeat- 
ed : that under P. F. de Meuron held 
out : on its cession to England, in 1795, it 
embarked for Tuticorin : where de Meuron 
was made, by Lord Hobart, Military 
Governor of Ceylon, 1797-8 : commanded 
the troops there till 1799 : then command- 
ed at Vellore, and Arnee, while the regi- 
ment was in the Mysore campaign of 1799 : 
took the regiment from Vellore to Madras, 
1 80 1, and left for London : he retired. 

1807, settled at Neuchatel, died there, 
March 30, 181 3 : the regiment was dis- 
banded in 1816, after 14 years' service 
under the Dutch, 21 years' under the 


(1858- ) 

Born July 9, 1858 : son of Capt. H. L. 
Dempster : educated at Edinburgh Aca- 
demy, the Institution and University, 
and at Cooper's Hill College : jomed the 
Indian Telegraph Department, 1878 : 
served in the Afghan war, 1879-80 : 
Chin-Lushai expedition, 1889 : Chitral 
expedition, 1895 : CLE. 1896 : Super- 
intendent of the Indian Government 

DENING, LEWIS (1848- ) 

Entered the Army, 1867, and became 
Lt-Colonel, 1893 : served in Afghan 
war, 1878-9 : Burmese expedition, 1886- 
88 : Dongola expedition, 1896, and N.W. 
Frontier, 1897 : D.S.O. 1887, and C.B. 
1903 : Colonel on StalBf, commanding 2nd 
Class District in India since 1903. 



Governor, and Colonel : son of John 
Denison : born May 3, 1804 : educated 
at Sunbury, Eton, and the R.M.A., 
Woolwich : joined the R.E. in 1826 : 
made the Rideau Canal in Canada, 1827- 
31 : employed at Woolwich, Chatham, 
on inspection at Bermuda till 1847, when, 
as Captain R.E. he went to Van Diemen's 
Land as Lieutenant-Governor, and was 
knighted. From 1854 to 1861 he was 
Governor of New South Wales and titular 
Governor-General of Australia : K.C.B., 
1856 : Governor of Madras from Feb. 
1861 : held strong views on military 
questions, and did not conceal his unfa- 
vourable estimate of the character of the 
natives of India : was opposed to their 
admission into the Legislative Councils 
and to the establishment of subordinate 
Legislative Councils at all : his previous 
experience made him an authority on 
public works, roads, railways, etc. While 
Governor of Madras he was summoned'.to 
Calcutta on Lord Elgin's death and acted 
as Viceroy and Governor-General from 
Dec. 2, 1863, until Sir John Lawrence 
assumed charge on Jan. 12, 1864. Dur- 



ing this time, he arranged for the con- 
tinuation of the Umbeyla campaign 
against the Sitana stronghold of Hindu- 
stani fanatics.considering that a retirement 
from the expedition would be unwise : 
went home from Madras in March, 1866 : 
died Jan. 19, 1871 : wrote Varieties of 
Viceregal Life and essays on social and 
educational subjects. 


Served in Sonthal campaign, 1855-6 ; 
Indian mutiny, 1857-8 : Political Agent, 
Dholpur, Rajputana, 1879-85 : extra 
Groom in Waiting to Queen Victoria, 
1888, and to H.M. the King, 1901 : 
K.C.I.E., 1896. 


Born about 1785 : son of Henry Den- 
nie : joined the 22nd regt., 1802, in India : 
served in Lord Lake's campaigns, 1804-5 : 
at the taking of the Mauritius, 1810 : in 
the 13th regt. in the first Burmese war : 
Brevet- Lt-Colonel : C.B. : in the Afghan 
war, 1838-9 : commanded a Brigade : 
led the storming party at Ghazni: to 
Kabul: defeated part of Dost Muham- 
mad's army at Bameean, Sep. 18, 1840 : 
after which the Dost surrendered: went 
with Sir R. Sale's force from Kabul to 
Jalalabad, 1841 : in the siege there, Nov. 
1841-April 1842 : commanded after Sale 
was wounded : was fatally wounded in a 
sortie on April 6, 1842 : was A.D.C. to 
the Queen : his services inadequately 
recognized : wrote a Narrative of Cam- 
Paigns in Sind, Beluchistan, and Afghanis- 
tan, published 1843. 



Born at Russeignies, in Belgium, Jan. 
28, 1822 : entered the Society of Jesus, 
1842 : educated at Belgium Colleges for 
5 years : ordained : took his last vows, 
Oct. 1859 : reached Calcutta, Nov. 1859, 
with a small pioneer Jesuit mission and 
leopened St. Xavier's College, Jan. 16, 
i860 : was military chaplain at Fort 
William, 1860-4 : when he returned to 
St. Xavier's : as Superior, raised the 
number of pupils from 100 to 500 : re- 
signed the Rectorship' of St. Xavier's, 
Oct. 1871 : went to take charge of the 
Mission at Midnapur, but was transferred 

to Bombay, managing for 6 years a new 
St. Xavier's there : to Belgium : thence 
led the "Zambesi" Jesuit Mission to S. 
Africa, 1879 : crushed in an accident, 
1882 : to Belgium, 1883 : returned to 
India, Jan. 1888, to be the Rector of St. 
Joseph's Seminary at Darjeeling : erected 
the St. Joseph's College at North Point 
there, and was its Superior till his death. 
May 26, 1900. 



Son of fourteenth Earl of Derby, thrice 
Prime Minister : born Jtily, 1826 : edu- 
cated at Rugby and Trinity College, 
Cambridge : M.P. for King's Lynn, 1848 : 
travelled widely in N. and S. America : 
visited India, 185 1-2 : Under Secy, for the 
Colonies, 1852 : Secretary for the Colonies, 
1858 : was in charge of the Bill for trans- 
ferring in 1858 the Government of India 
from the E. I. Company to the Queen : 
Secretary of State for India from Sep. 2, 
1858, to June 18, 1859 : made Foreign 
Secretary : became Earl in 1869 : again 
Foreign Secretary : resigned, March, 
1878 : Colonial Secretary in Mr. Glad- 
stone's Government : presided over Royal 
Commissions : died April 21, 1893. 

CASTRIOT (1829- ) 

Born May 6, 1829 : son of Thomas De 
Renzy : educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin : entered the Bengal Medical 
Service, 1851 : present at the capture of 
Rangoon, 1852 : served in the mutiny, 
1857-8 : siege and capture of Lucknow, 
1858 : Naga campaign and capture of 
Khonoma, 1879, as P.M.O. : First Sanitary 
Commissioner of the Panjab : Surgeon-Gen- 
eral : retired, 1882 : was made a K.C.B. 
1902 : author of several Sanitary Reports. 



Eurasian poet and teacher : born in 
Calcutta, April 10, 1809 : son of Francis 
Derozio, a Calcutta merchant : educated 
at Drummond's Academy in Dharmtala : 
left school at 14 for commercial work, 
which he gave up, joining an uncle in 
indigo at Bhagalpur. At 18 he published 
a volume of poems and obtained a teacher- 
ship at the Hindu College : was very 



successful as a teacher of philosophy, but 
lost his appointment, though the charges 
against him, of propagating atheism and 
encouraging disobedience, failed : still 
continued to exercise great influence over 
his former pupils, many of whom became 
distinguished men : contributed to journa- 
lism and established a newspaper, the 
East Indian. His name is still revered in 
his community as a great teacher. He 
died of cholera, Dec. 23, 1831 : he wrote 
the Fakif of Jungheera and other poems. 

DE SALIS, RODOLPH (1811-1880) 

Lt. -General : son of Jerome, Count de 
Salis : born May, 181 1 : entered the 
Army in 1830 : Lt-Colonel, 1854 : served 
with the 8th Hussars in Turkey and the 
Crimea, in all the battles : commanded 
the regt. in the mutiny, in Rajputana 
and Central India, present at Kotah, 
Chandairi, Kotahkasarai, Gwalior, Powri, 
and several other engagements : C.B., 
1861 : Lt-General, 1877 : died March 13, 



Son of Laurence de Souza : educated 
at Downside College, Somerset : Consul 
for Portugal at Calcutta, 1870-8, Consul 
General, 1878-84 : Member for West- 
minster on the London County Council, 
1895 : very philanthropic and munificent 
in his benefactions to charities, for which 
he was knighted, 1879 : Count of the 
Roman Empire, and held other foreign 
distinctions : died April 13, 1897. 


Born Jan. 7, 1845, at Oberdreis near 
Coblenz : son of Adam Deussen, pastor :' 
educated at Schulpforta near Naumburg : 
studied at Bonn, Tiibingen and Berlin : 
Sanskrit under Lassen and Gildemeister, 
classical philology, theology : Phil. Dr. 
at Marburg, 1869 : teacher at the Gym- 
nasiums at Minden and Marburg, 1869-72, 
and tutor in Russian families at Geneva, 
Aix-la-Chapelle, and Terny in Russia, 
1872-80 : taught philosophy (the sub- 
ject to which he was chiefly devoted) and 
Sanskrit, as Privat-docent at the Univer- 
sity of Geneva : and philosophy at the 
Polytechnical School at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
1875-9. While at Geneva, his resolution 
was made to devote his life to the study 

of Indian philosophy (1873). Since his 
return from Russia, and residence in 
Berlin, from 1881 to 1889, this has been 
his main work : taught philosophy at 
Berlin University, first as Privat-docent, 
then as Professor : since 1889, Ordinary 
Professor of Philosophy at the University 
of Kiel : has travelled much in various 
parts of the world : over the greater 
part of India, 1892-3. In 1904, the 
Order of the Red Eagle, 4th Class, was 
conferred upon him. Among his chief 
works may be mentioned : Das System 
des Veddnta, 1883 : Die Sutras des Vedanta, 
1887 : On the Philosophy of the Vedanta 
in its relations to Occidental Metaphysics, 
Bombay, 1893 ; Sechzig Upanishads des 
Veda, 1897 : Geschichie der Philosophie 
(I and II on the Vedic Hymns and 
Upanishads : III-VI in preparation), 
1894, 1899 : " Outlines of Indian Philo- 
sophy," in the Indian Antiquary, 1902 : 
Erinnerungen an Indien, 1904. 



Son of an artist : born Aug. 10, 1763 : 
at the age of 20 appointed by the E. I. Co. 
draughtsman to an expedition : wrecked 
in the Antelope : went to Macao and 
Canton, and arrived in Calcutta about 
1791 : returned to England, 1795 : 
painted a picture of " Cornwallis receiving 
the two sons of Tippoo Sahib as Hostages " 
for the treaty of 17^2 : painted 30 pictures- 
of Indian subjects : also the death of 
Nelson in the Victory : exhibited 65 pic- 
tures in the Academy, 1 779-1 821 : died 
Feb. IT, 1822. 


OF (1833- ) 

Born July 23, 1833 : succeeded his 
father in the title, 1891 : educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge : M.P from 
1857 : held a number of appointments 
in the Governments since 1862 : as Mar- 
quis of Hartington was Secretary of State 
for India from April, 1880, to Dec. 1882 : 
K.G. : P.C. : D.C.L. : LL.D. 

DEY, RAJ KRISHNA ( ? -1840) 

Doctor : was the first Hindu who used 
a dissecting knife, and was regarded^ 
therefore, as the leader of a reformation 
in medical science among his countrymen : 



educated at the Hindu College, 1833-7, 
and at the Medical College, Calcutta, 
where he took his degree, 1838 : accepted 
service in the N.W.P., and placed in 
charge of the Delhi Dispensary, Aug., 
1839 : died 1840. 

DEY, RAM DULAL (1759-1825) 
Born near Dum Dum, 1759 : employed 
in a subordinate capacity in mercantile 
work, as a bill-collector, and a Sarkar of 
ships : one day, on behalf of his master, 
he bid at an auction for a lost ship, and 
bought it for Rs. 14,000 : he immediately 
was offered one lakh more for the same 
ship : his master gave one lakh to Ram 
Dulal, who, with this capital, started 
business, and acquired immense wealth : 
died in Calcutta, in 1825, leaving property 
of fabulous amount : remembered as the 
Bengali millionaire. 

DICK, GEORGE (1739-1818) 

Entered the E. I. Co.'s service in 1759 : 
was Accountant and Director of the Com- 
pany's Bank : rose to be the Governor of 
Bombay, 1792-5 : never left Bombay but 
once for a trip to Bankot : died May 9, 


Born about 1785, his father being in 
the E. I.] Co.'s medical service : entered the 
75th regt. in 1800 : served in Sicily, Egypt, 
the Peninsula, being present at several 
battles : C.B., 1814 : in Flanders : at 
Waterloo : K.C.H. in 1832 : Maj-General, 
1837 : K.C.B. in 1838 : commanded a 
Division in Madras, 1838, and acting C. in 
C. there, 1 841-2 : commanded a Division 
in Bengal, and an infantry Division in the 
first Sikh war : was killed at Sobraon, 
Feb. 10, 1846, by one of the last shots of 
the day. 

HENRY (1851-1900) 

Lt-Colonel : son of Sir William Hanmer 
Dick-Cunyngham, Bart. : entered the 
92nd Highlanders, 1872 : Lt-Colonel, 
1897, in the Gordon Highlanders : in the 
Afghan war, 1879-80, in Sir Donald 
Stewart's advance to Kandahar : in the 
Thai Chotiali force : in the Kuram Valley 
Field Force under Sir F. Roberts : at 
Ali Khel : at Charasia : in the operations 
round Kabul, 1879 : gained the V.C. for 

gallantry in an attack on Dec. 13, 1879 : 
in the Kabul- Kandahar march and sub- 
sequent battle : with his regt. in theBoer 
war: killed at Ladysmith, Jan. 6, 1900, 
while commanding the 2nd battalion. 


(1834- ) 

Colonel : born March 19, 1834 : son of 
Stephen Dickens, M.D.,D.I.G.of Hospitals, 
Bengal : educated at Blundell's, Twerton, 
Charterhouse and Addiscombe : entered 
the Madras Army, 1853 : joined the Madras 
Staff Corps: Lt-Colonel, 1879: Brevet- 
Colonel, 1883 : Colonel-Commandant, 3rd 
Madras L.I., 1884 : served in the Burmese 
expedition in command of the Toungoo 
and Ningyan (Pyinmana) column, 1885-7 : 
D.S.O., 1887 : C.B., 1891 : on the un- 
employed Supernumerary List. 

DICKINSON, JOHN (1815-1876) 
Born Dec. 28, 1815 : educated at Eton: 
son of a papermaker : entered no pro- 
fession, but took up an independent line 
as a reformer of India : wrote letters on 
the cotton and roads of Western India, 
1851 : became Honorary [Secretary of 
the " Indian Reform Society," formed 
in 1853, and was made its Chaurman on 
John Bright's resignation of that office 
in 1861 : maintained a correspondence 
with the Maharaja Holkar of Indore : 
wrote India, its Government under a 
Bureaucracy, in 1852, and Dhar not re- 
stored, in 1864, besides other pamphlets 
and papers on Indian subjects : died 
Nov. 23, 1876. 

DIGBY, WILLIAM (1849-1904) 
Son of William Digby : born May i, 
1849 : educated privately : became a 
journalist in 1868 in England : in Ceylon, 
1871-6 : Editor of Madras Times, 1877-9 : 
wrote some interesting articles on old 
Madrasis : returned to England : became 
Secretary of National Liberal Club in 
1887 : connected with the Indian National 
Congress : Editor of India, 1890-2 : 
Secretary of Famine Fund for Southern 
India, for which £800,000 were subscribed : 
contested two Parliamentary seats without 
success : author of The Famine Cam- 
paign in Southern India, 1876-8 ; Indian 
Problems for English Consideration ; India 
for the Indians ; Prosperous British India, 
1901 ; Life of Sir Arthur Cotton, etc. etc. : 



became a partner in Hutchinson & Co., 
East India Merchants, 1888 : CLE. for 
his honorary services in India in connexion 
with the Famine Relief Funds, 1877-9 '■ 
died Sep. 24, 1904. 

KRISHNA ( ? -1898) 

A member of the Bombay Educational 
Department, and a well-known contri- 
butor to the Indian A ntiquary : considered 
by archaeologists as an authority on the 
astronomical and chronological systems 
of the Hindus : the verification of the 
dates in ancient Hindu records was his 
principal subject : was the first to point 
out the right method of studying the 
question : collaborated with R. Sewell 
iq.v.) in the preparation of the Indian 
Calendar, published in 1896 : died of 
fever, 1898 : an enthusiastic and disin- 
terested worker, and a winning person- 

HORACE ( ? - ) 

Entered the Indian Army, 1882 : 
served in Burma, 1886-7 : Lushai expedi- 
tion, 1889 : Waziristan Field Force, 
1894-5 : N.W. Frontier, 1897 : in the 
Buner Field Force : Commandant 26th 
Bengal Infantry : C.B., 1903. 


(1826- ) 

General : born 1826 : entered the Army, 
1843 : served in Panjab, 1848-9 : Kohat 
Pass, 1850 : Crimea, 1856 : Indian mutiny, 
1857-9 : China, i860 : Abyssinia, 1867-8 : 
Brig-Major,Nipal Frontier : A.A.G., China: 
Military Secretary, Bombay : Military 
Secretary, Abyssinia : Military Secretary 
to Lord Napier of Magdala when C. in C, 
India : commanded the Lucknow and 
Rawul Pindi Divisions, 1884-8 : K.C.B., 
1887 : : and G.C.B., 1902 : C.S.I, and A.D.C. 
to the Queen. 


Born Aug. 14, 1850 : son of Colonel 
John Dixon : educated at Bridgeman's 
and Woolwich : joined 25th regt., 1868 : 
served in the Afghan war, 1878-80 : 
Chitral, 1895 : C.B. : Tirah, 1897-8 : S. 
Africa, 1901-2 : K.C.B. : Brig-General on 
StafiE : A.D.C. to H.M. the King, 1901. 



Doctor and Zoologist : born Sep. 4, 
1848 : son of Parke Dobson : educated at 
Enniskillen and Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he graduated with distinction : 
entered the A.M.D. in 1868 : was F.L.S. : 
F.R.S. : F-.Z.S. : conducted investigations 
and became the chief author on chiroptera 
and insectivora : studied Indian bats, 
and wrote papers about them in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
and other scientific journals : wrote a 
catalogue of chiroptera for the British 
Museum, and was in charge of the Museum 
at Netley : wrote also in the Encydopadia 
Britannica, and on zoology and anatomy : 
retired in 1888 : died Nov. 26, 1895. 


Son of the Rev. J. Dodgson : entered 
the Array, 1838 : in the Bengal Infantry : 
became General, 1888 : in the Jodhpm: 
campaign, 1839 : in the Afghan war under 
General Pollock, 1842, from the Khyber 
to Kabul : in the Satlaj campaign, 1846, 
at Badiwal and Aliwal : Brig-Major at 
Benares when the native troops mutinied, 
June, 4, 1857 : A.A.G. with Havelock's 
force, at the first relief of Lucknow and 
subsequent defence, until Sir Colin Camp- 
bell's relief : in the occupation of the 
Alambagh and at the capture of Lucknow, 
1858 : C.B. : K.C.B. 1896 : died May 26, 

WAY (1862- 

Born May 11, 1862 : son of George 
Dodson : educated at Merchant Taylors 
and Exeter College, Oxford : graduated 
in 1885 : ordained Deacon, 1885, and 
Priest, 1888 : Fellow and Tutor of St. 
Augustine's College, Canterbury, 1887-8 : 
went out in 1889 to be Principal of S.P.G. 
College, Trichinopoly, where he rebuilt the 
greater part of the College : Fellow of 
the Madras University, 1892 : retired, 
1896, from ill-health : author of several 
pamphlets on missionary work. 


Born Sep. 14, 1863 : son of Theodore 
d' Oldenburg, General in the Russian Army: 
educated at the Warsaw Gymnasium, 
and at the Faculty of Oriental Languages, 



St. Petersburg ; where he was Private 
Docent of Sanskrit from 1889, and 
afterwards Professor till 1899 : Member of 
the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1900 
Perpetual Secretary of the Academy, 1904 
Cand. Faculty Oriental Languages, 1885 
Mag. Sanskrit Literature, 1894 : since 
1898 Hon. Secy, of the Oriental 
Section of the Russian Imperial Archaeo- 
logical Society : Member of Council of 
the R.I. Geographical Society : Member 
of the Russian Committee for the Explora- 
tion of Central Asia : has written on 
Buddhism, Indian Art, Comparative 
Literature : edits the Bibliotheca Budd- 
hica for the Imperial Academy. 


Born Nov. 19, 1865 : son of C. J. S. 
Donald, Panjab Provincial Civil Service : 
educated at Bishop Cotton's School, 
Simla : joined the Panjab Police Force, 
1888 : appointed Commandant B.M. 
Police, Kohat, 1890 : served under Sir 
William Lockhart in the Miranzai expedi- 
tion, 1891 : with Colonel Haughton, 36th 
Sikhs, during the attack on Samana 
posts, and subsequently in the Tirah 
Field Force : went to the Khyber, 1898, 
and to Kohat, 1899. Author of Note on 
Adan Kheyl Afridis : CLE., 1903. 


Son of General Robert Donkin : born 
1773 : educated at Westminster : entered 
the Army in 1778 : Lieutenant, 1779 : 
Captain, 1793 : served in the West Indies, 
at Copenhagen, in Sicily and the Peninsula, 
and, as Maj -General in 181 1, went out in 
18 15 to Madras and Bengal, where he 
commanded a Division in the Mahratta 
war of 1817-8, with skill : K.C.B., 1818 : 
acted as Governor of the Cape : he became 
G.C.H., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. : was M.P. for 
Berwick and for Sandwich : was Surveyor 
of the Ordnance : General, 1838 : died 
May I, 1841 : was a student, and con- 
tributed literary papers to Journals. 

DORAN, SIR JOHN (1824-1903) 

Born Oct. i, 1824 : entered the Bengal 
Army, 1842 : served in Satlaj campaign, 
1845-6 : Hazara expedition, 1852-3 : 
Oudh campaign, 1858-9 : China war, 
i860 : Lushai expedition, 1871-2 : Jowaki- 
Afridi expedition, 1877-8 : Afghan war. 

1878-80 : C.B. in 1872, and K.C.B. in 
1898 : Lt-General, 1887 : died vSep. 29, 


I.C.S. : son of a merchant : born Sep. 15, 
1802 : educated at Henley and Hailey- 
bury : reached India in 1821, and joined 
the Financial Department, in which he 
continued throughout his career, never 
leaving Calcutta : was Secretary to the 
Bank of Bengal, 1829 : Deputy Account- 
ant -General : and reorganized the Indian 
finances : the first Financial Secretary in 
Jan. 1843 : Member of the Supreme 
Council from May 10, 1853, to May i, 
1858 : partly under Dalhousie, partly 
under Canning. Against Lord Dalhousie' s 
views, he, as President in Council, advo- 
cated the annexation of Oudh, which was 
carried out. In the mutiny, he urged the 
adoption of severe military measures, being 
one of the first to realize the character 
of the revolt. His " hospitable establish- 
ment " was remembered for many years. 
After retirement, his name was more than 
once considered for a seat in the Council 
of India, but he never obtained it : died 
Dec. 22, 1872. 

MAGNE (1834-1893) 

Lt-General : son of nth Baron Dormer : 
born 1834 : entered the 13th regt., 1853 : 
in the Crimea : in the mutiny, at the relief 
of Azimghar,in the campaignin Gorakhpur: 
A.D.C. to Sir Colin Campbell : in Oudh 
and Trans-Gogra campaign : Brevet- 
Major : went to China in i860 as A.A.G. : 
at the Taku forts and entry to Pekin : 
served on the Staff ; Colonel, 1875 : in 
Egypt in 1882, as D.A.G. : at Alexandria, 
Tel-el- Kebir, etc.: Maj -General : Nile 
expedition, 1885 : commanded the Nile 
Field Force : and the troops in Egypt, 
1887-90 : C. in C. Madras, March 6, 1891 : 
C.B., 1881 : K.C.B., 1889 : mauled by a 
tiger, and died from the wounds. May 3, 

FORD ( ? ) 

Entered the Royal Engineers, 1868 : 
served in the Afghan war, 1878-80 : 
Burmese expedition, 1885-8, when he 
was made Brevet-Major and D.S.O. : 



commanded R.E. in Jamaica, 1897-9 : 
commanded British troops in Chinese 
expedition, 1900, until arrival of Indian 
contingent : was present at action of 
Tientsin : Commissioner at Wei-hai-wei, 
1899-1901 : commanded troops at Shang- 
hai, 1902 : commanding troops Straits 
Settlements since 1903 : K.C.B. in 1900. 

ALEXANDER, D.D. (1821-1875) 

Born Feb. 22, 1821 : son of Henry 
Alexander Douglas, who was brother of the 
sixth Marquis of Queensberry : educated 
at Glasgow University and Balliol College, 
Oxford : ordained, after taking his degree, 
in 1845 : Dean of Capetown in 1845 : 
appointed Bishop of Bombay, 1868 : died 
in London, Dec. 13, 1875. 

DOUGLAS, JAMES (1826-1904) 

Born June 4, 1826 : son of William 
Douglas : educated at Sorbie Parish 
School and privately in Edinburgh : went 
to Karachi in 1864 as Agent of the Char- 
tered Bank of India, Australia and China : 
Agent in Bombay, 1865-72 : Exchange 
and bullion broker, 1 873-1901 : Sheriff 
of Bombay, 1893 and 1902 : Fellow of 
the Bombay University, 1895 : devoted 
his leisure to researches : retired in 1902 : 
was author of Bombay and Western India, 
1893 ; Glimpses of Old Bombay, 1900 : and 
wrote, in the local press, articles on the 
archseology and history of W. India : 
died Aug. 3, 1904. 



Son of Thomas Monteath : born 1787 : 
entered the E. I. Co.'s Bengal Army in 1806: 
served in the Bundelkund campaigns, 
1809-10 : in the Nipal war of 1815, the 
Pindari war of 1818, the Merwarra cam- 
paign of 1820, at the seige of Bhartpur, 
1826 : Lt-Colonel, 1834 : commanded his 
regiment in the forcing of the Khyber and 
the capture of Kabul, 1838 : C.B. : in the 
Khurd Kabul and Jagdalak actions: 
was second in command at Sale's defence 
of Jalalabad until it was reheved by 
Pollock : was in the subsequent campaign 
to Kabul : A.D.C. to Queen Victoria : left 
India about 1845 : added the name of 
Douglas to his own in 1851 : K.C.B and 
General, 1865 : died Oct., 1868. 

DOVETON, SIR JOHN (1768-1847) 

Son of Frederick Doveton : born 1768 : 
entered the Madras Cavalry in 1785 : 
served against Tippoo, both in Cornwallis' 
campaign of 1791-2 and in Harris' of 1799, 
and in the pursuit of the bandit Dhoondia 
Waugh, under Colonel Wellesley : com- 
manded the Hyderabad Contingent in 
1 8 14, which was utilized in the Pindari 
war of 1 8 17. After the battle of vSitabaldi 
in Nov., 1817, Doveton marched to Nagpur 
to assist the Resident, Jenkins, against 
Appa Sahib, the Bhonsla Raja. Appa 
surrendered, and his troops, after a fight, 
abandoned Nagpur to Doveton, who was 
made C.B. in 1818 and K.C.B. in 1819 : 
retired, 1820 : Lt-General and G.C.B. , 
1837 : died at Madras, Nov. 7, 1847. 

DOVETON, SIR JOHN (1783-1857) 

Son of Sir William Webber Doveton : 
born 1783 : to Madras in the E.I. Co.'s 
military service, 1798 : A.D.C. to the 
Marquis Wellesley, while Governor-Gene- 
ral : saw service in the campaign of i799- 
1803, against the Mahrattas, and in 1817 : 
commanded a Division in the Nizam's 
Army : commanded a Division in Madras, 
1833 : K.C.B., 1838 : General, 1854 : 
died Sep. 23, 1857. 

DOVETON, JOHN (1800 ?-1853) 

Educated as an orphan at a charity 
school in Madras : entered the Nizam of 
Hyderabad's Army in 1817 : rose to be 
Captain Commandant. On inheriting an 
uncle's fortune, he resigned his commission, 
and retired to London : died on Oct. 15, 
1853. Being an Eurasian, he bequeathed 
nearly £50,000 to be divided between the 
Parental Academy at Calcutta, which 
was thereupon called the Doveton College, 
and the Doveton College at Madras. 

DOW, ALEXANDER ( ? -1779) 

Born in Perthshire : having reached 
Bencoolen as a sailor, he became Secretary 
to the Governor : entered the E. I. Co.'s 
mihtary service in 1760 : Captain, 1764 : 
Lt-Colonel, 1769 : he published trans- 
lations from the Persian in 1768 and 
produced, at Drury Lane, Zingis, a tragedy, 
1769 ; Sethona, a tragedy, in 1774 : he 
also wrote historical works on India. 
Died at Bhaglapur, July 31, 1779. 




Son of the Right Honble. William 
Dowdeswell : born 1761 : entered the 
Army, 1780 : M.P. for Tewkesbury, 
1792 : was in the campaign of 1793, at 
Valenciennes, and at Dunkirk : Governor 
of the Bahamas, 1 797-1 802 : Private 
Secretary to Lord W. Bentinck, Governor 
of Madras, 1803 : commanded a Division 
under Lord Lake against Bhartpur, and 
later the Cawnpur Division : acted as 
C. in C. in India in 1807 : soon left India : 
Lt-General, 1810 : retired 1811 : became 
a collector of valuable prints : died Dec. 

T, 1828. J 



Son of George Dowdeswell, M.D. : in 
the E. I. Co' .8 Civil Service : became 
Secretary to the Government of India : 
and Member of the Supreme Council, Dec. 
1 8 14, to Jan. 1820 : Vice-President of the 
Council and Deputy-Governor of Bengal, 
Oct. 1817, to July 1818 : died Feb. 6, 1852. 

DOWSON, JOHN (1820-1881) 

Born 1820 : assistant to his uncle at the 
Royal Asiatic Society : tutor at Hailey- 
bury : Professor of Hindustani at Univer- 
sity College, London, and Staff College, 
Sandhurst, 1855-77 : wrote a Hindustani 
Grammar : edited Sir H. M. Elliot's His- 
tory of India as told by its own ^Historians, 
8 vols., 1867-77 : and a Classical Dictionary 
of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geo- 
graphy, History and Literature, 1879 : wrote 
also for the Encyclopcsdia Britannica, and 
the Royal Asiatic Society, on Indian In- 
scriptions and the Indian Alphabet : died 
Aug. 23, 1881. 



I.C.S. : son of Sir John Hadley D'Oyly, 
the sixth Baronet, Collector of Calcutta : 
born in India, Sep. 18, 1781 : educated in 
England : entered the E. I. Co.'s service at 
15 : Assistant Registrar of the Court of 
Appeal, Calcutta, 1798 : Collector of 
Dacca, 1808 : Opium Agent in Bihar, 
1821 : Commercial Resident at Patna, 
1831 : Senior Member of the Board of 
Customs, Salt and Opium, 1833 : retired 
1839 : died Sep. 24, 1845. He is best 
remembered for his pictures of Indian 

scenery and Indian life. He wrote The 
European in India, Antiquities of Dacca, 
Tom Raw the Griffin, and other works, 
with many illustrations. 

DRAKE, ROGER ( ? - ? ) 
A noted ofi&cial in the time of Lord Clive : 
arrived in Bengal, May 26, 1737 : Presi- 
dent of Council and Governor of Calcutta 
from Aug. 8, 1752 to 1758 : ho gave 
offence to Suraj-ud daula, the new Nawab 
of Bengal, by a letter with regard to the 
strengthening of the fortifications of 
Calcutta : the attack on the City followed : 
Drake escaped in the last boat that left 
the Fort, 1756 : his desertion of his post 
brought reproach upon him, and J . Z. 
Holwell {q.v.), who had stayed behind, 
was chosen to the command : Drake was 
dismissed from his post by the Directors, 

DRAPER, ELIZABETH (1744-1778) 

Daughter of Major Sclater : born at 
Anjengo, April 5, 1744 • educated in 
England : went to India, Dec. 1757: married 
in July, 1758, Danielj Draper, of the E.I. 
Co.'s Civil Service, Secretary to Govern- 
ment, 20 years her senior. When in 
England in 1766-7, she met Lawrence 
Sterne, the humourist, who became 
infatuated with her, addressing her as 
" Bramine " in amorous letters, and writ- 
ing the Journal to Eliza for her. She 
returned to India in 1767, and saw Sterne 
no more : lived with her husband at 
Tellicherry, Surat and Bombay, but 
unhappily, and, on Jan. 12, 1773, fled from 
his house at Mazagon, Bombay, with a 
Naval officer, repairing to her uncle's at 
Rajamundry : retxurned to England in 
1774. Sterne had died in 1768. She 
published as Letters of Y crick to Eliza, 
some of Sterne's letters to her, including 
her answers. She died Aug. 3, 1778, and 
was buried in the Cathedral cloisters ;at 
Bristol. Draper became a Member of 
Council, at ^Bombay, and died Oct. 10, 1782. 
Her name and story were recalled, 'by 
L'Abbe Raynal, who had seen her in 
India, and by James Forbes in his Oriental 
Memoirs, and some of her letters have been 

DRAPER, SIR WILLIAM (1721-1787) 

Son of Ingleby Draper : born 1721 : 
educated' at Eton and King's College, 



Cambridge : Fellow : joined the Army, 
1744 : at CuUoden : in Flanders with the 
ist Foot-Guards : in 1757 as Lt-Colonel, 
took the 79th to Madras : in the siege 
of Fort St. George, 1757-9 : too ill to take 
command of the troops at Madras in 
T759» returned to England : in 1762 
commanded, from Madras, the expedition 
against the Spaniards at Manilla : carried 
the place by assault : Lieut-Governor of 
Great Yarmouth : in 1765 Colonel of the 
i6th foot : knighted in 1766 : had a 
literary controversy with " Junius," de- 
fending the C. in C, the Marquis of Granby : 
Lt-General in 1777 : Lieutenant-Governor 
of Minorca in 1779 : in the surrender of 
Fort St. Philip in 1782 to the French and 
Spaniards : brought charges of miscon- 
duct against Lt-General the Hon. James 
Murray, the Governor, which he failed to 
substantiate, so that he was commanded 
to make an apology : he died Jan. 8, 1787. 

DREW, FREDERICK (1836-1891) 

Son of John Drew : born Aug. 11, 1836 : 
educated at the Royal School of Mines, and 
joined the Geological Survey in 1855. 
He was employed by the Maharaja of 
Kashmir, from 1862, to search for minerals 
and supervise his forest administration, 
and was Governor of Ladak : retired after 
10 years. He was a science master at 
Eton, 1879-91, and died Oct. 28, 1891. 
He wrote The Jammu and Kashmir 
Frontiers, and The Northern Barrier of 
India : F.G.S. in 1858, and Member of its 
Council, 1874-6. ^ . r -.j'l ' ' * 



I.C.S. : son of sixth Viscount Strath- 
allan : born 1813 : educated at Eton and 
Haileybury, 1830-1 : went to Bengal in 
1833 : Account ant- General, 1856 : 

Auditor-General, i860 : Financial Secre- 
tary to the Government of India, 1862 : 
Lieutenant-Governor of the N.W.P. 1863 
-8 : Member of the Council of India, 
1875-85 : K.C.I.E., 1887 : died Jan. 10. 


Son of Major James Drysdale : educated 
at the Militar}' Academy, Edinburgh : 
joined the 4th Dragoons, 1835 : served 
in the 9th Lancers, 1841-65 : in the 
Afghan war, 1859-40 : at Ghazni : in the 

Gwalior campaign, at Punniar, 1843 : in 
the Satlaj and Panjab campaigns, 1845-6 
and 1848-9 : at Sobraon, Ramnagar, 
Chilianwala, Gujarat : at the siege of 
Delhi in the mutiny : in the actions at 
Bulandshahr, Alighar, Agra : at the 
relief of Lucknow : Brevets ofj Major and 
Lt-Colonel : C.B. : Lt-General, 1881 : 
K.C.B., 1893 : died Aug. 7, 1900. 

DUBOIS, JEAN A. (1765-1848) 

Abbe : ordained at 27 in the diocese 
of Viviers, in 1792 : escaped from the 
massacres of the French Revolution, and, 
the same year, leaving France for mission 
work under the Missions Etrangeres, 
was first attached to the Pondicherry 
mission : after Seringapatam, 1799, he 
was invited to visit it, to reconvert the 
forced perverts to Islam. He was 31 
years in India, living entirely among the 
people from 17 to 18 years, chiefly in 
Mysore, where he established, at Sathalli, 
an agricultural settlement of reconverted 
Christians. His Description of the Char- 
acter, Manners and Customs of the People 
of India, and of their Institutions, Reltgious 
and Civil, was stated to be " the most 
correct, comprehensive and minute ac- 
count extant in any European language 
of the Hindus " of S. India : the Madras 
Government bought the MSS. from him 
in 1806 for 2,000 pagodas : this was 
translated in London in 18 16, and was 
for long the only published edition : 
meanwhile, in 18 15, the Abbe had revised 
and amplified his work, but this was not 
published until 1897. On returning to 
France in June, 1823, with a pension from 
the E.I. Co., he published Letters on the 
State of Christianity in India, containing 
his conviction that the conversion of the 
Hindus was impossible. He became a 
Director, and, from 1836 to 1839, Superior 
of the Missions Etrangeres at Paris, where 
he died Feb. 17, 1848. 



Missionary : son of James Duff : born 
on April 25, 1806 : educated at Moulin, 
Kirkmichael, Perth, St. Andrew's Univer- 
sity, under Dr. Chalmers : invited by the 
Committee of the General Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland on Foreign Missions 
to become their first missionary to India : 
he was ordained in 1829 and went out to 
Calcutta in 1829-30 \\ he was twice ship- 



wrecked on the voyage, near the Cape and 
off Sagar island : lost his library : at 
Calcutta he declared his policy, to afiford, 
in the English language, education in- 
separably combined with the Christian 
faith as its animating spirit : the Duff 
College was soon founded, and,proving very 
successful, attracted a very large number 
of pupils, not without troubles on account 
of conversions. He received much help 
from Sir C. Trevelyan {q.v.) and from 
the decision of Government of March 7, 
1835, in favour of the promotion of 
European science and literature through 
English rather than the Oriental lan- 
guages. During his visit home, 1834-40, 
for his health, he made speeches, collected 
money, and laboured hard in organizing 
his mission : he was D.D. of Aberdeen in 
1835. He was in India again from 1840 
to 1850, and from 1856 to 1863 : made 
extensive tours in the cause of missions : 
was opposed to the Government policy 
in the mutiny : assisted greatly in the 
establishment of the Calcutta University 
in 1857, the shape it assumed, its educa- 
tional measures and examinations. When 
away from India, he was made Moderator 
of the General Assembly of the Free 
Church in 1851 : he travelled in the 
United States in 1854, and made constant 
speeches, and was made LL.D., New 
York : he inspired the Government 
Education Despatch to India of 1854. 
On his finally leaving Calcutta, memorials 
were erected to him. He travelled in 
South Africa in 1864. In 1867 he became 
the first Professor of Evangelistic Theology 
at the Free Church College, Edinburgh. 
He was again Moderator of the General 
Assembly in 1873. He wrote on India 
and Indian Missions, and edited the 
Calcutta Review, 1845-g, writing articles 
in it, besides other publications chiefly 
connected with his mission work : died 
Feb. 12, 1878. 

QUESS OF (1826-1902) 

Son of Price, first Baron Dufferin, of 
the Irish peerage, and of Helen Selina, 
grand-daughter of Richard Brinsley Sheri- 
dan : born June 21, 1826 : educated at 
Eton and Christ Church, Oxford : Lord 
in Waiting, 1849-50 : Peer of the United 
Kingdom, 1850 : on a special mission to 

Vienna, 1855 : British Commissioner in 
Syria in i860 to inquire into the massacres 
of Christians : K.C.B. : Under Secretary 
of State for India, 1864-6 : Under Secre- 
tary for War, 1866 : Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster, 1868 : Earl, 1871 : 
Governor General of Canada, 1872-8 : 
Ambassador to St. Petersburg, 1879 : 
Ambassador to Constantinople, 1881 : 
Special Commissioner to Egypt, 1882-3, 
after Arabi's rebellion : Viceroy and 
Governor-General of India, 1884-8. He 
did much, by his personal influence, tO' 
allay the excitement and race feeling 
which had arisen from the controversy 
over the " Ilbert Bill " in the time of his 
predecessor : he met the Amir Abdur 
Rahman in darbar at Rawal Pindi, 1885 : 
Upper Burma was annexed on his advice : 
his administration was marked by firmness 
and vigour underlying his tact and suavity: 
the Countess of Dufferin's Fund for the 
medical relief of native women was estab- 
lished : made Marquis in 1888, with the 
additional title of Ava : Ambassador to 
Rome, 1888-91 : to Paris, 1891-6 : his latter 
years were clouded b^ financial troubles 
in connexion with a business enterprise 
of which he had insufficient knowledge to 
exercise control : he retained the goodwill 
of the shareholders and pubUc sympathy : 
he was K.P. : G.C.B. : G.C.S.I. : G.C.M.G. : 
G.C.I.E. : P.C. : D.C.L. : LL.D. : F.R.S. : 
President of the Geographical Society: 
Rector of Edinburgh and St. Andrew's r 
Doctor of Oriental Learning, Panjab 
University : Lord Warden of the Cinque 
Ports, 1 89 1-5 : wrote Letters from High 
Latitudes, and on Irish questions : also 
Speeches in India, 1890 : died Feb. I2^ 

CHIONESS OF ( ? - ) 

Eldest daughter of Archibald Rowan 
Hamflton of Killyleagh Castle, County 
Down : married Oct. 23, 1862, the (late) 
Marquis of Dufferin and Ava {q.v.), 
afterwards Governor-General and Viceroy 
of India : when in India, she estabUshed the 
National Association for supplying female 
medical aid to the women of India, with 
the object of bringing European medical 
science within the reach of native women 
of the higher castes, the money collected, 
being credited to "The Countess of 
Dufferin's Fund " : V.A. : C.I. : Grand 



Cross of the Turkish Order of the Lion and 
Sun : she has written Our Viceregal Life 
in India, 1890 : My Canadian Journal, 

DUNCAN, DAVID (1839- ) 
Born Nov. 5, 1839 : son of David 
Duncan : educated at Edinburgh, Aber- 
deen and Berlin Universities : Professor 
•of Logic and Moral Philosophy in Madras 
Presidency College, 1870-84 : Principal 
of Presidency College, 1884-92 : Registrar, 
University of Madras : Director of Public 
Instruction, Madras, 1892-9 : Vice-Chancel- 
lor of Madras University, 1899 : retired, 
1899 : author (with others) of Herbert 
Spencer's Descriptive Sociology : now 
•engaged in writing Biography of Herbert 

DUNCAN, JONATHAN (1756-1811) 
Governor: Indian Civilian: son of 
Alexander Duncan: born May 15, 1756 : 
arrived at Calcutta in the E.I. Co.'s service 
in 1772 : made Resident and Superinten- 
dent at Benares, 1788;: suppressed scandals 
in the administration and infanticide : 
was Governor of Bombay for the unprece- 
dented time of 16 years from Dec. 27, 
1795, to Aug. II, 1811, dying at Bombay : 
he recognized a very large number of 
small chiefs as sovereign princes, a policy 
which was not elsewhere adopted : his 
time was synchronous with the later war 
against Tippoo, the Mahratta wars, and 
Baird's expedition to Egypt, the pacifica- 
tion of Gujarat and Kattiawar, in all of 
which he played a great part. He was 
buried at Bombay, and a monument was 
erected in his honour, with the inscription 
" He'was a good man and a just," and a 
scroll bearing the words "Infanticide 
abolished in Benares and Kattiawar." 

DUNDAS, JAMES (1842-1879) 

Son of 'George Dundas, Scotch judge : 
born Sep. 12, 1842 : educated at the 
Edinburgh Academy and Addiscombe : 
went to India in the Royal Engineers, 
March, 1862 : became a Captain : gained 
his V.C. in the Bhutan expedition of 
1864-5 for personal bravery in storming, 
under very trying conditions, a block- 
house, defended by 200 desperate men : 
in the Afghan war of 1878-80, he and 
another officer were killed by an accident 
•on the occasion of the blowing up of a fort 

near Kabul on Dec. 23, 1879 : he was an 
officer of high professional merit and 

CIS (1697-1764) 
Son of a French farmer-general, Director 
of the Company of the Indies : born Jan. 
1697 : sent to sea : made several voyages 
to America and India : made First 
Councillor and MiHtary Commissioner of 
the Superior Council at Pondicherry in 
1720 : accumulated a fortune : made 
Intendant, or Superintendent, of the 
factory at Chandernagore, 1730 : develop- 
ed its coasting trade : Governor of Pondi- 
cherry, 1 74 1, and Director-General of the 
French factories in India : declared him- 
self Nawab of the Mogul Empire and 
Commander of 4,500 Horse : when war 
with England broke out, i744» he sought 
help from Anwaruddin, the Nawab .of 
the Carnatic : La Bourdonnais came to 
his aid, from the Isle of France, and took 
Madras, Sep. 21, 1746 : great jealousy 
between him and Dupleix, who refused 
to surrender Madras and defeated the 
Nawab's force at St. Thome : Dupleix 
violated the treaty with the English, by 
retaining Madras, and by his treatment of 
them : his attack on Fort St. David 
failed, 1748 : the English attack under 
Boscawen by land and sea on Pondicherry 
was unsuccessful : Madras was restored 
to the English in 1749, after the peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle. In the contests in South- 
ern India, Dupleix, striving to found 
French ascendency there, took the side 
of Muzaffar Jang and Salabat Jang suc- 
cessively against Nasir Jang for the 
Subadarship of the Dekkan,and of Chanda 
Sahib against Anwaruddin and Muham- 
mad Ali successively for the Nawabship 
of the Carnatic. By 175 1, Dupleix's 
policy was, after a struggle, for a time 
successful. Muhammad Ali, at Trichino- 
poly, applied to the English for help. 
Stringer, Lawrence and Clive, going to 
his aid, defeated the French, Dupleix 
being badly served by his generals. He 
acquired the Northern Sircars from the 
Nizam and, after Chanda's death, claimed 
to be, and was nominated, Nawab of the 
Carnatic : was made a Marquis, 1752 : 
his forces met with further reverses from 
the English : the French Ministers and 
Company of the Indies objected to his 
schemes and fighting, as being obstructive 



to trade, and ruinously expensive : they 
insisted on peace, and recalled Dupleix, 
who was superseded by Godeheu, i754' 
ruined by him and left India, Oct. 14, 
1754 : his claims, for private money ex- 
pended, disregarded and unsatisfied : his 
services ignored : he died in comparative 
poverty in France, Nov. 10, 1764 : the 
greatest Frenchman in India : the first 
to see how Europeans might rule in India 
and employ native troops : ambitious, 
prescient, full of resource, will, and 
genius : had great knowledge of native 
character : inferior in the field of action, 
and not a soldier : he failed for want of 
support from France : his statue was 
erected at Pondicherry in 1870. 

ARNOLD (1854- ) 

Born March 31, 1854 : son of Maj- 
General Sir H. M. Durand, R.E. {q.v.) : 
entered the Army, 1872 : served in 
Afghanistan, 1878-80 : was A.D.C. to 
Lord Ripon, Viceroy of India, 188 1-2 : 
British Agent at Gilgit, 1889-93 : com- 
manded troops in Hanza-Nagar expedition, 
1891 : Military Secretary to the Earl of 
Elgin, when Viceroy of India, 1894-9 ' 
author of The Making of a Frontier, 
1899 : C.B., 1892 : C.I.E., 1897. 

BARONET (1845- ) 

Born June 5, 1845 : son of Sir H. M. 
Durand, R.E. (q.v.): educated at Bath, 
Repton and Guildford : entered 96th regt., 
1865 : B.S.C., 1868: Assistant Commissioner 
Afghan Boundary, 1884-6 : Resident in 
Nipal, 1888 : retired, 1893, as Lt-Colonel : 
•created a Baronet, 1892 : C.B. 



Son of a cavalry officer : born Nov. 6, 
t8i2 : educated at Leicester and Addis- 
combe: entered the Bengal Engineers, 
1828: went to India in 1829-30, in the 
same ship as Dr. A. Duff (q.v.) : appointed 
to irrigation work in the N.W.P. : it was 
proposed to make him Secretary of the 
Board of Revenue, N.W.P., but instead 
he went, in 1838, with the Army to Kabul 
via Kandahar, and headed the party that 
blew open the Kabul gate of Ghazni, 
July 23, 1839 : returned soon to India 
from Kabiil : went out from England, 

after leave, as Private Secretary to Lord 
Ellenborough (Governor-General, 1842-4) : 
was present at Maharajpur, became 
Captain in 1843 : was Commissioner of 
Tenasserim, 1844, until removed by Sir 
Herbert Maddock, the President in Council, 
in 1846 : he obtained no redress in 
England. In the Sikh war, 1848-9, 
Durand was at Chilianwala and Gujarat : 
Brevet-Major : became Political Agent at 
Gwalior and Bhopal successively : wrote 
there largely for the Calcutta Review : 
in 1856 was Inspecting-Engineer, Presi- 
dency Circle, until Lord Canning made 
him Agent to the Governor-General for 
Central India. In the mutiny he was 
compelled, by the strength of the insurrec- 
tion of Holkar's native troops at Indore, 
to retire thence, fought several actions, 
and reconquered Western Malwa : C.B, 
and Brevet-Colonel : deputed to England 
to represent the views of the Government 
of India on the re-construction of the 
Army in India : Member of the Council 
of India, 1859-61 : Foreign Secretary to 
the Government of India, 1861-65 : 
Military Member of the Governor-General's 
Supreme Council, April 27, 1865, until he 
became Lieutenant-Governor of the Pan- 
jab, June I, 1870 : Maj -General and 
K.C.S.I. in 1867 : he was accidentally 
killed at Tonk on Jan. i, 1871, his howdah, 
on an elephant's back, being crushed 
under the arch of a gateway : Durand 
was thrown violently to the ground and 
picked up insensible : he recovered con- 
sciousness after several hours, but re- 
mained paralyzed — his spine had been 
injvured — and passed away without pain. 
No officer in India at the time had a 
greater reputation for ability, experience, 
high principles, force of character : he 
held strong views and expressed them 
strongly. The Secretary of State wrote 
of him : " The life of such a man is an 
example to the Service, and her Majesty's 
Government deeply deplore his death." 


(1850- ) 

X.C.S. : born Feb. 14, 1850 : son of 
Maj-General Sir H. M. Durand {q.v.) : 
educated at Blackheath School, and Eton 
House, Tunbridge : barrister of Lincoln's 
Inn, 1872 : entered the Bengal Civil 
Service, 1873 : Political Secretary to Sir 
F. Roberts in Kabul campaign, 1879 : 



C.S.L, 1881 : Foreign Secretary in India, 
1884-94 : conducted the mission to Amir of 
Afghanistan, 1893 : Minister at Teheran, 
1 894- 1 900 : Minister at Madrid, 1900-4 : 
Minister at Washington, 1904 : was made 
K.C.I.E., 1889; K.C.S.I. 1894; G.C.M.G., 
1900 ; P.C., 1901 : wrote The Life of Maj- 
General Sir H. M. Durand, and Helen 

DUTT, AKHOY KUMAR (1821-1886) 

Born in the Burdwan District : educated 
in his village school, and at the Oriental 
Seminary, Calcutta : contributed to the 
Bengali Prabhakar : editor of the Tattwa- 
hodhini Patrika, founded by Debendranath 
Tagore {q-v.) in connexion with the Adi 
Brahma Samaj : first headmaster of the 
Calcutta Normal School : was a pioneer 
of Bengali prose : wrote several works of 
considerable merit and erudition : his 
Religious Sects of India, in Bengali, is still 
a standard work : studied languages : 
the first to publish essays in Bengali on 
scientific subjects : has left a name as a 
thinker and author of Bengali literatiure : 
died 1886. 

DUTT, CALICA DAS (1841- ) 

Born July 3, 1841 : son of Rai Goloke 
Nath Dutt : educated at Krishnagar 
Collegiate School and Calcutta Presidency 
College : B.A., 1861 : B.L., 1861 : served 
as a Munsif, Deputy Magistrate and 
Deputy Collector, under the Bengal 
Government, and in 1869 was made 
Diwan of the Cooch Behar State, where 
he has remained ever since : in 1883 be- 
came member of the Cooch Behar State 
Council : received the title of Rai Bahadur, 
1891 : and was made C.I.E., 1900. 



Son of Raj Narayan Dutt, a pleader in 
the Sadr Court : born Jan. 25, 1824 : 
educated in the Hindu College under 
Derozio. When his father wished to 
marry him, he ran away to the Missionaries, 
and on Feb. 9, 1843, was baptized as a 
Christian : remained at Bishop's College, 
Calcutta, for four years, 1843-7, and 
then went to Madras, where he lived in 
great poverty : returning to Calcutta, 
1856, he became Interpreter in the Cal- 
cutta Police Court : enjoyed considerable 
reputation as a writer of Bengali blank 
verse, which he created and introduced 

into the language. In 1862 he went to 
England, and was called to the bar : prac- 
tised at the Calcutta bar from 1867, but 
without any marked success. In literary 
circles his memory is treasured : he 
helped to promote a national drama and 
theatre : produced some meritorious 
dramas, farces and poems : knew several 
Oriental and European languages, besides 
Greek and Latin : his improvidence and 
failings ruined a promising career : died 
in a charitable hospital, June 29, 1873. 

DUTT, RAJENDRA (1818-1889) 
Born in Calcutta, 1818 : educated at 
Drummond's School, and at the Hindu 
College : joined the Calcutta Medical 
College, to be trained in medical science : 
after leaving the College, he opened a dis- 
pensary at his own house and commenced 
allopathic treatment, helped by Dr. 
Durga Charan Banerji : in 1853, opened 
the Hindu Metropolitan College as a pro- 
test against the laxity displayed in the 
Hindu College, and began to study 
homoeopathy : in 1857, started a business 
firm, Dutt, Linzu & Co., with Europeans 
as partners, which failed in 1861 : there- 
up(xi he established a homoeopathic 
dispensary : in 1864, Dr. Berigny came 
to Calcutta, and with him began to spread 
homoeopathic treatment : in 1867 he 
converted Dr. Mahendra Lai Sarkar 
iq.v.) to homoeopathy : lost great wealth 
in business speculations : was very gener- 
ous : died June, 1889. 


(1848- ) 

I.C.S. : born Aug. 13, 1848 : son of 
Isan Chunder Dutt : educated at Hare's 
School, Presidency College, Calcutta, and 
University College, London : passed the 
Indian Civil Service Examination, 1869 : 
joined the Civil Service, 1871 : became a 
Divisional Commissioner, 1894-5 : re- 
tired in 1897 : CLE., 1892 : is a Fellow 
of the Calcutta University and Barrister 
of the Middle Temple : has been Lecturer 
on Indian History at University College, 
London : author of a series of historical 
and social novels, and a translation of the 
RigVeda and other Sanskrit religious works 
in Bengali, also of Civilisation in Ancient 
India, Lays of Ancient India, Ramayana 
and Mahabharata in English Verse, 
Economic History of British India, 1757— 
1900, 2 vols., etc. 



DUR (1825-1886) 

Born 1825 : educated at the Hindu 
College : entered the Government Treas- 
ury as a clerk : transferred to the Bengal 
Secretariat, and eventually became its 
Registrar : retired in 1873 : made Rai 
Bahadur : in 1884 he brought out in 
England his works in ten volumes, includ- 
ing a History of Bengal, Essays on Mis- 
cellaneous SuhjectSf Great Wars of India, 
Half-Hours with Nature, Realities of 
Indian Life, The Times of Yore, The Wild 
Tribes of India, as well as his verses in 
English : died in 1886. 

DUTT, TORU (1856-1877) 

Torulata Dutta, the youngest daughter 
of Govinda Chandra Dutt, a native 
Christian convert : born at Calcutta in 
1856 : she and her elder sister, Aru, were 
taken to England by their father for 
education, 1869-73 : studied French at 
Nice, and English thoroughly : attended 
lectures at Cambridge and St. Leonards : 
on their return to Calcutta, Torn Dutt 
studied Sanskrit and French, and began to 
contribute poetical compositions and essays 
to local magazines, especially to the Bengal 
Magazine. In 1874 Aru died of consump- 
tion. In 1876 Torn published a collection 
of her lyrics translated from the French, 
A Sheaf Gleaned in French Fields, showing 
considerable acquaintance with French 
and English literature, very favourably 
reviewed in the English and French Press. 
She also died of consumption on Aug. 30, 
1877 : the sisters were good musicians : 
neither of them married. Besides her 
ballads and legends of Hindustan, poems 
and translations, Toru left the MS. of a 
French novel entitled Le lournal de 
Mdlle. D'Arvers. 

DYAS, JOSEPH HENRY (1824-1868) 

Born April 7, 1824 : son of Capt. 
Joseph Dyas of the 51st K.O.L.I. : edu- 
cated at Delgany, Dungannon, Addis- 
combe : entered the Bengal Engineers : 
went to India, 1845 : just too late for 
Sobraon : with the Army to Lahore : at 
the taking of the fort of Kangra, 1846 : 
Assistant Superintendent of the W. 
Janma Canal : prepared and worked on 
the Bari Doab Canal project from 1850 : 
Director of Canals at Madhupur, 1856 : 
in the mutiny was at Trimmu Ghat, July 

16, 1857 : Capt., 1857 : in 1864, Lt- 
Colonel and Chief Engineer, N.W.P. : 
died March 4, 1868, "a sacrihce to his 
devotion to his duty and his work " in the 
Canal Department : he had a faculty for 
mechanical invention. 


(1846- ) 
Born 1846 : entered the Indian Army, 
1864, and became a Colonel in 1894 : 
Colonel on the Staff at Firozpur, 1897-8 : 
Multan, 1898 : Tochi Valley and Bannu, 
1 898-1900 : Brig-General, Allahabad, 
1900 : D.A.G. Bengal, 1900-1 : served in 
Hazara campaign, 1868 : Afghan war, 
1878-80 : Mahsud-Waziri expedition, 
1881 : Burmese war, 1886-7 ■ Waziris- 
tan expedition, 1894-5 : and Chitral 
Relief, 1895 : C.B., 1896. 

LONY (1808-1851) 
Born at Sardhana in 1808 : great- 
grandson of Walter Reinhard, called 
Sombre (Samru) for his sombre appearance: 
his father, G. A. Dyce, commanded the 
Begam Sombre's, or Samru's, troops : 
D. O. Dyce inherited a great fortune from 
the Begam on her death in 1836 : he had 
become a Roman Catholic and been made 
Chevalier of the Order of Christ. He 
reached England in 1839, and made a 
figure in society : married the daughter 
of Lord St. Vincent : M.P. for Sunbury, 
1841-2, but was unseated for bribery. 
He was treated as a lunatic and declared 
by a Commission to be of unsound mind : 
escaped from his keeper and went to 
France in 1843, where, in 1849, he wrote 
a contention against the allegations of 
his lunacy : tried to have the decision 
set aside, but died in London on July i, 
1851 : his will gave rise to much litiga- 


(1842- ) 

Born Aug. 29, 1842 : son of Sir J. E. 
Eardley-Wilmot, Bart. : educated at 
Winchester : entered the Army, i860 : 
Brevet- Lt -Colonel, 1881 : Maj -General, 
1895 : served in the Bhutan expedition, 
1864-5 (wounded) : Jowaki expedition as 
A.D.C. : Kabul war, 1878-89 : attack 
of Ali Masjid, Charasia, and taking of 
Kabul : C.B. 




BARONET (1854- ) 

Born Aug. 15, 1854 : educated at Eton 
and Trinity College, Oxford : entered the 
Army : served in Jowaki campaign, 
1877: Afghan war, 1878-80 : Egyptian 
war, 1883 : Burma war, 1886-7 : Tirah, 
1897-8 (severely wounded) : South Africa, 
1899-1900 (severely wounded) : D.S.O. 
for services in Burma. 

EARLE, WILLIAM (1833-1886) 
Son of Sir Hardman Earle, Bart., bom 
May 18, 1833 : educated at Winchester : 
entered the 49th regt., in 1851 : served 
with it through the Crimea, exchanged 
into the Grenadier Guards in 1857 : 
served at Gibraltar ; in Nova Scotia, 
as Military Secretary to the General in N. 
America : Colonel : was Military Secretary 
to Lord Northbrook when Viceroy and 
Governor-General, 1872-76 : C.S.I. , 1876 : 
in Egypt in 1882 : in 'command at Alexan- 
dria : C.B. : and in 1884-85, as Maj- 
General, commanded the Nile column 
destined for Khartoum. In an attack 
on Arabs, entrenched at Kirbekan, he was 
shot in the forehead and killed, on Feb. 
10, 1885. 

BARONET (1764-1847) 

Born in Jamaica, Sep. g, 1764 : called 
to the bar from the Inner Temple, 1786 : 
M.P. for Great Malvern : published the 
Term Reports of cases in the King's Bench 
for many years, and a work on the Criminal 
Law : Chief Justice of Bengal from 18 13 
to 1 821 : knighted on appointment : took 
a leading part in the establishment of the 
Hindu CoUege at Calcutta : made a 
Baronet in 1823 : M.P. for Winchester, 
1823-30 : member of the Judicial Com- 
mittee of the Privy Council, 1833 : member 
of Council of the Royal Asiatic Society : 
F.R.S. : bencher of the Inner Temple : 
died Jan. 8, 1847. 



Born 1 814 : son of Capt. Robert William 
Eastwick : educated at Charterhouse 
and Merton College, Oxford : Postmaster : 
joined a Bombay N.I. regt., 1836 : early 
devoted himself to Oriental languages : 
served in the Political Department in 
Kattiawar and Sind : did literary work, on 

the History of the Pars's and a Sindi 
vocabulary : about 1842 he gave up 
India, through ill-health : studied at 
Frankfort and translated Bopp's Com- 
parative Grammar : noticed by H. H. 
Wilson iq.v.), and appointed Professor of 
Hindustani at the E.I. College, Haileybury, 
1845 : F.R.S., 1851 : Assistant Political 
Secretary at the India Office, 1859 • 
called to the bar. Middle Temple, i860 : 
Secretary of Legation at Teheran to the 
Court of Persia, 1860-3 '• published The 
Journal of a Diplomatist : Commissioner 
for arranging a Venezuelan loan, 1864 and 
1867 : Private Secretary to Lord Cran- 
borne (afterwards Marquis of Salisbury) 
when Secretary of State for India, July, 
1866, to March, 1867 : C.B. : M.P. for 
Penrhyn and Falmouth, 1868-74 : M.A., 
Oxford, 1875 : translated the Gulisian, 
the Anwar-i-Suhaili, Prem Sagar, Bagh-o- 
Bahar, and other works in Oriental lan- 
guages : made several journeys to India : 
wrote a Hindustani grammar, Murray's 
Handbooks for India, accounts of his 
experiences in Sind, Persia, and Venezuela, 
and the Kaisarnama-i-Hind (an account 
of the native states, etc.), and articles in 
the Encyclopcedia Britannica • was F.S.A. : 
died July 16, 1883. 



Captain : born June 25, 1772 : educated 
at Merchant Taylors' school : went to 
sea, 1784, in the merchant^ervice : pressed 
into the Navy, 1790 : soon left it : entered 
the E.I. Co.'s marine service, 1792 : went 
to Bombay : joined the Indian Service : 
sailed everywhere in Eastern waters : 
commanded a ship in 1793 : owned and 
commanded the Endeavour, which was 
captured by a French frigate, La Forte, 
1799, and rescued by the English man-of- 
war. La Syhille, on March i, 1799 : his 
own ship lost to him : sailed to Bussora, 
Sumatra, New Holland, Sydney, Norfolk 
Island, China, Buenos Ayres, Monte 
Video, to England : several times ship- 
wrecked, and went through numerous 
adventures : finished his active career in 
1825 : lost his sight in 1832, and was 
blind for 33 years till his death on Dec. 31, 
1865 : " a skilful and fearless sailor *' : 
father of Captain W. J. E. {q.v.) and of 
E. B. E., [q.v.) : his life is recorded in A 
Master Mariner, by H. Compton, 1891. 




Captain : born 1808 : son of Capt. 
Robert William Eastwick : educated at 
Winchester : went to India in the Bombay 
Army, 1826 : served in the Kolapur and 
S. Mahratta country : in the Political 
Department : Assistant to Sir H. Pottinger 
in Sind : negotiated a treaty with the 
Amirs of Hyderabad, 1839 : secured the 
freedom of the Indus to commercial 
enterprise : in the first Afghan war : 
obtained supplies for Nott at Kandahar, 
1841 : to England, 1841, and did not 
return to India : Director of the E.I. 
Co., 1846 : Deputy Chairman, 1858 : 
Member of the Council of India, Sep. 21, 
1858: retired, 1868: died Feb. 24, 1889. 



Indian Civil Service : third son 
of the third Lord Auckland, Bishop of 
Bath and Wells, and nephew of the 
Governor-General Lord 'Auckland : bom 
on Nov. 13, 1831 : educated at Rugby, 
Winchester, and Haileybury : arrived in 
India in 1S52 : distinguished himself in 
the Sonthal insurrection, 1855 : Secretary 
to the Bengal Government from 1862-71, 
and in the Bengal Legislative Council : 
employed to make a treaty with the Raja 
of Sikhim in 1861, and as envoy to Bhutan 
in 1863-4, where he was subjected to gross 
indignities, and compelled to sign a treaty 
which the British Government repudiated 
and declared w^r on Bhutan. Eden was 
Chief Commissioner of British Burma, 
1871-7, acting, in 1875, as Member of 
the Supreme Council. He was Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal, 1877 to 1882, and 
President of the Army Commission for 
some months in 1879. In Bengal he 
exhibited such capacity, and attained 
such success • in his administration, that 
his retirement was universally deplored, 
and a statue erected in his honour in Cal- 
cutta. He was in the Council of India 
from 1882 till his death on July 8, 1887. 
He was made C.S.I, in 1874, and K.C.S.I. 
in 1878. Though last in his term at 
Haileybury, he was one of the ablest 
officers of modern times : his common 
sense and penetration were combined 
with fearlessness and force in the statement 
•of his views. 


EDEN, HON. EMILY (1797-1869) 
Daughter of the first Baron Auckland, 
sister of the second Baron, first Earl {q.v.), 
whom she accompanied to India, while 
Governor-General, from 1836 to 1842: 
born March 3, 1797: she published 
Portraits of the People and Princes of India, 
1844, and Up the Country, 1866, and two 
volumes of her Letters from India were 
published in 1872 by her niece, Eleanor 
Eden. She also wrote the novels The 
Semi-detached House, and The Semi-attached 
Couple. Her writings contain an interest- 
ing account of the social and domestic life 
of a Governor-General and his household. 
She died Aug. 5, 1869. 

EDGAR, SIR JOHN WARE (1839-1902) 
I.C.S. : born Sep. 16, 1839 : arrived 
in India, in the Indian Civil Service, 
in Feb. 1862 : did good service in Cachar 
in connexion with the raids of the Lushai 
tribes, and accompanied the Lushai 
expedition of 1871-2, as Political Officer 
to the Northern Column : as Deputy 
Commissioner of Darjeeling he paid much 
attention to Sikhim, Buddhism, and 
Tibet frontier questions : President of the 
Bengal Excise Commission, 1881-3 : 
Chief Secretary to the Government of 
Bengal, 1887-91 : Member of the 
Governor-General's Legislative Council, 
Jan., 1892 : retired in April, 1892 : C.S.I, in 
1872, and K.C.I.E. in May, 1889 : died 
at Florence on June 4, 1902 : devoted 
himself in his later years to historical 
studies, chiefly on subjects connected 
with Northern Buddhism and modern 
Latin Christianity. 

EDGE, SIR JOHN (1841- ) 

Born July 28, 1841 : son of Benjamin 
Booker Edge, of Clonbrook : educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin : joined the 
Irish bar, 1864, and the English bar, from 
the Middle Temple, 1866: Chief Justice 
of High Court, N.W.P., 1886-98 : Bencher 
of Middle Temple, 1898 : Member of the 
Council of India, 1898. 

FREDERICK (1813-1864) 

I.C.S. : son of Neil Benjamin'Edmonstone 
{q.v.) : born April, 1813 : educated at 
Hailebyury, 1829-31 : went to the N.W.P. 
in 1831 : after the Satlaj campaign of 



1845-6 was Commissioner of the Cis- 
Stalaj States : Financial Commissioner 
in the Panjab, 1853 : Foreign Secretary 
to the Government of India, 1855, and 
during the mutiny : Lieutenant-Governor 
of the N.W.P., Jan. 19, 1859, to Feb. 27, 
1863 : K.C.B., Dec, 1863 : died Sep. 24, 


I.C.S. : born Dec. 6, 1765 : son of Sir 
Archibald Edmonstone, Bart., M.P. : went 
to Calcutta in the Civil Service, 1783 : 
appointed early to the Secretariat, and 
became Persian translator to Government : 
Private Secretary to the acting Governor- 
General, Sir Alured Clarke (q.v.) in April, 
1798 : and Sir G. H. Barlow (q.v.) in Feb. 
1807 : with Lord Wellesley in Madras 
for the campaign against Tippoo : Secre- 
tary in 1 801 to the Government of India 
in the Foreign Department: Chief Secretary 
to Government, 1809 : Member of the 
Supreme Council, Oct. 30, 1812, to Jan. 17, 
1818 : became in 1820 a Director of the 
E.I. Co. : died May 4, 1841. 

JAMIN (1819-1868) 

Maj-General : son of the Rev. B. 
Edwardes : born Nov. 12, 1819 : educated 
at Richmond and King's College, London, 
where he distinguished himself in the 
debating society : obtained an Indian 
cadetship from Sir R. Jenkins {q.v.) : 
reached India in .1841 : sent to the Panjab. 
Early in his career he published " Brahmini 
Bull's Letters in India to his cousin John 
Bull in England " in the Delhi Gazette, 
criticising the military and political 
system. He was A.D.C. to Sir Hugh 
Gough at Mudki and Sobraon in 1845-6 : 
after which Sir Henry Lawrence, Resident 
at Lahore, took him as an Assistant. 
Edwardes, in 1847, pacified the district of 
Bannu, levelled 400 forts, and initiated 
civilization. On the murder of Vans 
Agnew and Anderson at Multan and the 
rebellion of Mulraj in April, 1848, Edwardes 
collected a force of tribesmen and, with 
the aid of the Nawab of Bahawalpur, and 
Colonel Van Cortlandt of the Sikh service, 
attacked Mulraj and the rebels, defeating 
them at Kineyri and Sadusain, maintain- 
ing the war for months until General 
Whish arrived and took Multan. He was 
made Brevet -Major and C.B. : received the 

thanks of Parliament and a special gold 
medal from the Court of Directors : D.C.L. 
of Oxford : after holding charge of the 
Jalandhar and Hazara districts, he was 
in 1853 made Commissioner of Peshawar. 
He proposed to Government to make a 
treaty with Dost Muhammad, the Amir 
of Afghanistan : with Lord Dalhousie's 
approval, but after some doubts on Sir 
John Lawrence's part, treaties were made 
with the Amir in March, 1855, and 1857, 
really the work of Edwardes. The Amir 
and the Afghans remained quiet dmring 
the mutiny of 1857. On its outbreak, 
Edwardes suggested the formation of a 
movable column for the Panjab : he was 
told by Lord Canning to " hold on to 
Peshawar." He zealously, at this time 
and after, advocated the adoption of a 
more Christianizing policy in the govern- 
ment of India. While on fiurlough he was 
made K.C.B. in i860 : LL.D. of Cam- 
bridge : Commissioner of Umbala, 1862-5 : 
and then left India for his health : K.C.S.I. 
in 1866 : he took much interest in mission 
work in his retirement, and wrote part 
of the life of Sir Henry Lawrence : died 
Dec. 23, 1868 : a memorial was erected 
to him in Westminster Abbey. He wrote 
also A Year on the Panjab Frontier in 
1848-9. He has been described as one of 
the most remarkable men that the 
Indian Army has ever produced. His 
bravery and brilliancy were universally 
recognized. Sir John Lawrence wrote of 
him as a " born ruler of men." 

BURG (1840- ) 

Born March 29, 1840 : son of Capt. 
George Harris Edwardes, Bengal Army : 
educated at Mount Radford School, 
Exeter : entered the Bombay Army, 1857, 
and became Colonel, 1876 : Maj-General, 
1885 : Lt-General, 1886, and General, 
1896 : served during Indian mutiny in 
pursuit of Tantia Topi, 1858 : D.A.Q.M.G. 
Abyssinian expedition, 1868 : Chief 
Director of Transport, Afghan campaign, 
1879-80 : commanded Quetta District, 
1881-4 ; N. Division, Bombay Army, 
1887-9 : K.C.B., 1898. 


(18.34- ) 
Born 1834: educated at R.M.A., Wool- 
wich : entered the Royal Engineers, 1852^ 



and became General, 1891 : served in 
Crimean war : Indian mutiny : China, 1864 : 
Suakim expedition, 1885 : Commandant 
of School of Military Engineering, 1885-8 
commanded the troops in China, 1889-90 
M.P. for Hythe, 1895-9 : C.B., 1877 
K.C.M.G., 1891. 


(1857- ) 

Born May 6, 1857 : son of R. M. Edwards, 
B.C.S.: educated at Haileybury and 
Sandhurst : entered the Army 1878, and 
became Major 1898 : served in Afghan 
war, 1878-80, Chitral Relief Force, 1895 : 
in charge of Gwalior Imperial Service 
Transport Corps : D.S.O. : Inspecting 
Officer of Imperial Service Cavalry in 
Central India, 189 1-6 : second in command 
ist regt. Central India Horse. 



Born April, 1798 : his father was a 
clergyman : educated for the medical pro- 
fession at St. Thomas' and Guy's hospitals : 
F.C.S., 1819 : entered the E. I. Co.'s medical 
service in 1823 as an oculist to deal with 
a special epidemic: oculist at the Eye 
Hospital, and first Surgeon at the Medical 
College Hospital, Calcutta : left India 
1847 : died May, 1885. 


(1848- ) 

Born 1848 : educated at Rossall : 
entered the Army, 1867, and became 
Colonel, 1895 : served in the Afghan war, 
1879-80 : Hazara expedition, 1888 : 
Miranzai expedition : severely wounded : 
Brevet- Lt -Colonel, and D.S.O. : Waziris- 
tan Field Force, 1894-5 : C.B. : Dongola 
expedition : commanded Tochi Field 
Force, 1897-8: K.C.B., 1903: commanded 
the Somaliland Force from 1903. , j ., 

I.C.S. : son of William Egerton (of the 
B.C.S., 1792-1820) : born Aug. 9, 1824 : 
educated at the Naval and Military 
Academy, Edinburgh : R.M. College, Sand- 
hurst, and Haileybury, 1840-2 : went to 
India, 1842 : served in the N.W.P. to 
1850 : Magte-Colh:. of Delhi, 1855-9, but 
was on leave during the siege in 1857 and 
could not rejoin till Oct., when he vigor- 

ously restored order in the city and district. 
Commissioner of Umritsar, 1859, and of 
Rawul Pindi, 1868 : retired, 1872 : wrote 
Journal of a Tour through Spiti, 1864 : 
died Jan. 17, 1893. 


(1827- ) 
I.C.S. : son of William Egerton : bom 
1827 : educated at Exeter College, Oxford 
and Haileybury, 1847-9 : served in India, 
1849-82 : Deputy Commissioner of Lahore 
in the mutiny : Commissioner of Nagpur, 
1869 : Financial Commissioner of the 
Panjab, 1871 : Member of the Governor- 
General's Legislative Coimcil, 1 871-4 : 
Lieutenant Governor of the Panjab, 1778- 
82 : K.C.S.I., 1879 : CLE. : J. P. : D.L. 

ELERS, GEORGE (1777-1842) 

Partly of German parentage : obtained 
a commission in the 12th regt. : arrived 
in Madras, 1797 : served against Tippoo, 
but was ill at Vellore during the siege of 
Seringapatam : accompanied Col. Welles- 
ley to Coorg and stayed with him at Ser- 
ingapatam as his guest for three months. 
His Memoirs were edited from the orginal 
MS. by Lord Monson and George Leveson- 
Gower and published in 1903. 



(Twelfth Earl of Kincardine) : bom July 
20, 181 1 : educated at Eton and Christ 
Church, Oxford : Fellow of Merton College, 
1832 : M.P. for Southampton, 1841 : suc- 
ceeded his father in 1841 : was made 
Governor of Jamaica, 1842, and, in 1846, 
Governor-General of Canada — an appoint- 
ment fraught with difficulties — which he 
retained till 1854 : for his services he was 
raised to the English peerage. In 1857 
he was sent to China as special envoy : on 
his way there, he, at Lord Canning's re- 
quest, diverted to India, troops intended 
for China, which were urgently required 
for the suppression of the Indian mutiny. 
He made the Tientsin Treaty with China, 
securing several important objects. In 
1859 he became Postmater-General in Lord 
Palmerston's Government. In i860 he 
was again sent to China to obtain the 
ratification of the Tientsin treaty, which 
had not been carried out. He destroyed 
the Summer Palace, as a pimishment for 



Chinese treachery and the murder of 
Englishmen. In Jan., 1862, he went to 
India as Viceroy, arriving at Calcutta 
in March. After spending the summer at 
Simla in 1863, he proceeded on tour in 
Upper India. He died of heart complaint, 
brought on by over-exertion, at Dharmsala 
on Nov. 20, 1863, and was there buried. 

EARL OF (1849- ) 

Born May 16, 1849 : son of eighth Earl 
iq.v.), who was Plenipotentiary to China, 
and Viceroy of India, 1862-3 '■ educated at 
Eton and Balliol College, Oxford : First 
Commissioner of Works, 1886 : Viceroy 
and Governor-General of India, 1894-9 : 
Chairman of the Royal Commission to 
investigate the conduct of the S. African 
campaign : and of the inquiry into the dis- 
putes between the Scotch Churches : K.G. : 
G.C.S.I. : G.C.I.E. : P.C. : LL.D. of St. 

ELIAS, NEY (1844-1897) 

Son of Ney Elias : born Feb. 10, 1844 : 
educated at London, Paris, Dresden : 
F.R.G.S., 1865 : went to Shanghai in a 
merchant's firm in 1866 : led an expedition 
in 1868 to examine the channels of the 
Hoang-ho river : in 1872 crossed the 
Gobi desert, nearly 5,000 miles from the 
Great Wall to Nijni Novgorod : gold 
medal of the R.G.S., 1873 : joined the 
Indian Foreign Office, 1874 : served at 
Mandalay and in Ladak : travelled over 
the Karakorum to Yarkand, 1879 : and 
Kashgar, 1885 : from Yarkand to the 
Pamirs and the Oxus, 1885 : Badakshan, 
Balkh, Chitral, N. Afghanistan : was in 
Sikhim, 1888-9 : in the Shan States, 1889 
-90 : Agent at Mashad and Consul-Gen- 
eral : retired from the service, 1896. He 
had gained a great knowledge of the 
countries of Central Asia : and wrote 
several reports on his journeys : he died 
suddenly. May 31, 1897. He declined, in 
1888, to receive the CLE. decoration. 

ELIOT, SIR JOHN (1839- ) 

Educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge (2nd Wrangler and ist Smith's 
Prizeman) : Fellow of St. John's College, 
1869-70 : Professor of Mathematics, 
Rurki Engineering College, 1869-72 : Muir 
Central College, Allahabad, 1872-4 : Pro- 

fessor of Physics, Presidency College, Cal- 
cutta : Meteorological Reporter to Govern- 
ment of Bengal, 1874-86 : Meteorological 
Reporter to Government of India, 1886- 
1904 : Director-General of Indian Obser- 
vations since 1899 : CLE., 1897 : K.C.I.E., 
1903 : retired 1904. 

ELIOTT, SIR DANIEL (1798-1872) 
I.C.S. : son of Sir WilHam Eliott : born 
March 3, 1798 : educated at the Edinburgh 
Academy and at Haileybury : went out 
to Madras in 1817 : Secretary to the 
Board of Revenue, 1827 : Member of. the 
Board, 1836 : was the Madras Member of 
the Indian Law Commission in 1838 : 
Member of Council, Madras, 1848 to 
1853 : President of various Boards in 
Madras, 1850 : Madras Member of the 
Legislative Council of India, 1854-9 • 
K.CS.I. in May 1867: died Oct. 30, 1872. 


(1867- ) 

Born Sep. 21, 1867 : son of Col. W. 
Eliott -Lockhart, R.A. : educated at Bath : 
joined ist West India regt., 1887, and 
Indian Staff Corps, 1890 : served in 
Waziristan expedition, 1894-5 : Chitral, 
1895 : N.W. frontier, 1897-8, defence of 
Malakand, operations in Bajaur, Mohmand 
and Buner : D.S.O : author of A Frontier 
Campaign : Captain in Queen's Own Corps 
of Guides. 

FIRST EARL OF (1790-1871) 

Governor-General : son of Edward, 
Baron Ellenborough, Lord Chief Justice 
of England : born Sep. 8, 1790 : educated 
at Eton and St. John's College, Cambridge : 
M.P. for St. Michael's, Cornwall, 1813 : 
was Lord Privy Seal, 1828 : President of 
the Board of Control, from 1828 to 1830, 
from Dec, 1834 to April, 1835, and for a 
third time in Sep.-Oct., 1841. He, in 1832, 
sent Alexander Burnes (q.v.) to Lahore, 
and on to Central Asia : was for a forward 
policy and for the transfer of the Govern- 
ment of India to the Crown. In Oct., 1841, 
he was nominated to be Governor-General, 
and held the appointment from Feb. 28, 
1842, to June 15, 1844. He desired a 
peace policy, but was never free of war. 
He pushed on the Chinese war and brought 
it to a conclusion successfully. He desired 


to withdraw from interference with 
Afghanistan, after rescuing the Kabul 
captives and restoring British prestige, and 
eventually sanctioned Sir W. Nott's with- 
drawal from Kandahar vtd Ghazni, Kabul 
and Peshawar. Pollock's Army of retri 
bution forced its way through the Khyber 
to Kabul, and Afghanistan was evacuated 
in '^Oct-Nov.,si842. Ellenborough's bom- 
bastic proclamation, on the recovery of the 
gates of Somnath from Ghazni, exposed 
him to ridicule. The troops retiring from 
Kabul were received at Firozpur with 
exaggerated pomp. He annexed Sind, 
by means of Sir Charles Napier's victories, 
in 1842, though the justification for this 
act has been seriously questioned. He 
interfered in the affairs of the Gwalior 
State, where the Army had rebelled and 
expelled the regent Mama Sahib : he was 
present at the battle of Maharajpur, Dec. 
28, 1843 : a fresh treaty was made with 
the State. Being disrespectful and out of 
control, he was recalled by the Court ©f 
Directors in June, 1844, against the views 
of the Cabinet : was created an Earl : 
in 1846 he was made First Lord of the 
Admiralty, and in 1858, Feb. to June, was 
again President of the Board of Control. 
In this capacity, he addressed a despatch 
to Lord Canning regarding the latter's 
Oudh proclamation, which the Cabinet 
disavowed, and EUenborough had to resign 
his office. During his Indian career, he 
preferred the military to political officers, 
and was unpopular with the civilians. 
His ability and eloquence were brilliant, 
but his other qualities detracted from his 
practical usefulness in high office. He 
died Dec. 22, 1871. 


(1848- ) 
Born June 9, 1848 : son of Malcolm 
Jamieson Elles : educated privately and 
at Woolwich : entered the Royal Artil- 
lery, 1867 : Colonel, 189 1 : Ma j -General, 
1900 : in the Lushai expedition, 1871-2 : 
D.A.Q.M.G. of the Indian contingent to 
Egypt, 1882 : A.Q.M.G. Hazara expedition, 
1888 : in the Indian Frontier expedition, 
1897 : commanded the Peshawar District, 
1895-1900 : Adjutant-General, 1900-1 : 
second in command of Sir M. Durand's 
mission to Kabul, 1893 : Military Member 
of Supreme Council, April 11, 1901-5 : 
C.B., 1893 : K.C.B., 1898 : K.C.I. E., 



Son of Malcolm J. Elles : educated at 
Sandhurst : entered the 54th regt. : served 
m the Crimea, 1854-5 •' in the mutiny, 
1857-8, at battle of Cawnpur, defeat of 
Gwalior contingent, capture of Lucknow, 
Hazara campaign : Black Mountain expe- 
dition, 1868 : Burmese war, 1886-7 : C.B. : 
A.D.C. to Queen Victoria, 1881-90: com- 
manded in the Hazara expedition, 1891 : 
K.C.B. : commanded ist class district, 
Bengal, 1 890-5 : in command of the Bengal 
Army, 1895 : Lt-General, 1895 : died at 
Naini Tal, Aug. 5, 1896. 

Lt-Colonel : entered the Army, 1829 : 
joined the 43rd N.I. : served in the first 
Afghan war : was Assistant to Sir H. C 
Rawlinson in a political capacity at Kanda- 
har : was Deputy Commissioner of Sagar : 
Judicial Commissioner at Nagpur : Chief 
Commissioner of the Central Provinces : 
Agent of the Governor-General for Rajpu- 
tana: died at Nasirabad, Oct. 11, 1865. 


(1850- ) 

Bom Jan. 28, 1850 : son of Colonel 
Edward King Elliot : entered the Army, 
1868 : and the Indian Staff Corps : became 
Colonel, 1898 : served in the Afghan war, 
1878-9 : Burmese expedition, 1886-7 '• 
D.S.O. : Dongola expeditionary force, 
1896 : C.B. : Inspr-General of Cavalry 
in India, 1898 : in South Africa, 1901-2 : 
K.C.B., 1902 : Maj-General. 


I.C.S. : son of John Elliot : born March 
I, 1808 : educated at Winchester : gained 
his appointment to the E.I. Co.'s Civil 
Service by open competition, 1826 : served 
in the N.W.P. : Secretary to the Board 
of Revenue : Foreign Secretary to the 
Government of India, 1847 : accompanied 
Lord Hardinge and Lord Dalhousie to the 
Panjab : negotiated the treaty with the 
Sikhs, 1849 : K.C.B : brought out the 
first volume of a Bibliographical Index to 
the Historians of Muhammadan India, his 
materials for The History of India, as 
told by its own Historians, were edited after 
his death by Professor JohnDowson (q.v.) 
and Sir E. C. Bayley, iq.v.) : his Memoirs 



of the History, Folklore, and Distribution of 
the Races of the N.W.P. were edited by 
Mr, J. Beames {,q.v.) : he died at the Cape 
of Good Hope on his way home, Dec. 20, 

1853. A mural tablet in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, at Calcutta, testifies to his remark- 
able abilities and attainments, his manly 
rectitude of conduct, his gentle disposition 
and noble qualities. He (like Augustus 
Cleveland) {^.i'.) was called by Sir W. W. 
Hunter the duke decus of the Bengal Civil 

ELLIOT, HUGH (1752-1830) 

Governor : son of Sir Gilbert Elliot, 
M.P. : born April 6, 1752 : educated 
privately, at Paris, and Christ Church, 
Oxford : at a military school abroad : 
served with the Russian Army against the 
Turks, 1772 : Minister at Munich, i773- 
6 : Envoy and Minister to Prussia, 1777 : at 
Copenhagen, 1782-91 : on a secret mission 
to Paris, 1791 : Minister at Dresden until 
1803 : at Naples, 1803 : recalled thence : 
Governor of the Leeward Islands, 1809-13 : 
P.C. : Governor of Madras, Sep. 16, 1814, 
to June 10, 1820 : died Dec. 10, 1830 : 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 

ELLIOT, SIR WALTER (1803-1887) 

I.C.S. : born Jan. 16, 1803 : son of 
James Elliot : educated privately : at 
Doncaster and Haileybury : went to 
Madras in 1820 : specially rewarded for 
remarkable proficiency in Tamil and 
Hindustani at 20 : served in the S. Mah- 
ratta country, until 1833 : was a keen 
sportsman and adventvurous with big game : 
in the insurrection of Kittur, 1824, when 
several officers were killed, he and another 
officer, Stevenson, were prisoners of the 
rebels for six weeks : in 1843, made an 
adventurous journey to Mocha, Red Sea 
coast of Abyssinia, Egypt and Palestine : 
Private Secretary to Lord Elphinstone, 
Governor of Madras, 1837-42 : Member 
of the Board of Revenue, but was sent in 
1845 to inquire into the maladministration 
of Guntur : appointed Commissioner of 
the whole of the Northern Sircars till Dec. 

1854, when he became a Member of Council, 
Madras, till Dec. 1859. As Senior Member 
of Council, he contributed greatly by his 
steadfast calmness, during the temporary 
absence of Lord Harris, to the preservation 
of peace and order in the Presidency : also, 
in 1858, carried on the Government during 

Lord Harris' ill-health : took much 
interest in education and supported 
Christian missions : acquired much know- 
ledge of archaeology, natural history, 
numismatics, and Indian history : wrote 
for scientific Journals on the above sub- 
jects : notably on coins and Hindu inscrip- 
tions : assisted Darwin and Owen in their 
researches : his collection of Buddhist 
marbles from Amravati is in the British 
Museum : a member of many learned 
Societies : K.C.S.I. in 1866 : F.R.S., 1877 : 
LL.D. of Edinbvirgh, 1878 : became blind, 
and died March i, 1887. 

ELLIOTT, CHARLES (1776? -1856) 
Voluntarily passed through the college 
of Fort William : judge of Fatehghar at 
30 : judge of Bareli : Court of Appeal : 
Judge of the Sadr Court at Calcutta, 1821 : 
in 1822, to Delhi as Senior Member of the 
Board, N.W.P : and A.G.G. at the Court 
of the Great Mogul : returned to England, 
1826 : published a translation of the Life 
of the Great Mogul: F.R.S. : F.R.A.S. : 
died May 4, 1856. 


(1835- ) 

I.C.S. : son of the Rev. H. V. Elliott of 
Brighton : born Dec. 1835 : educated 
at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge : 
after open competition, arrived in India 
in Nov. 1856 : served in the N.W.P., Oudh 
and Central Provinces : was Secretary 
to the N.W.P. Government, 1870-7 : 
Famine Commissioner, Mysore, 1877 : 
C.S.I. , 1878 : Secretary to the Famine 
Commission (Sir Richard Strachey's), 1878 : 
Census Commissioner, 1880 : Chief Com- 
missioner of Assam, 1881 : President of 
the Committee for the retrenchment of 
public expenditure, 1886: Member of the 
Supreme Council, 1887-90 : Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal, 1890-5. He wrote 
the Chronicles of Unao, the Reports of the 
Mysore famine, and of the Famine, and 
Finance Commissions. Since his retire- 
ment, in 1895, he has been Finance Member 
of the London School Board, and Mem- 
ber of the Educational Committee of the 
London County Council. Throughout his 
career. Sir Charles ElHott has laboured with 
great energy and ability in his various 
charges, and made a reputation as an 
expert in Settlement, Famine, Finance, 
and Education. 





Son of Capt. John Elliott, R.N. : born 
in 1792, entered the 51st regt. in 1809, 
remained in it until 1852 : served in the 
Peninsula, was at Waterloo, at Cambrai, 
in the Ionian Islands, Australia, Van 
Diemen's Land, New Zealand, Bangalore : 
in 1852, he commanded the Madras 
Brigade in the Burmese war, under Gen- 
eral Godwin : was at the capture of Ran- 
goon and the storming of the Shwe-Dagon 
pagoda in April, 1852 : in the capture of 
Donabew : C.B. and Commandant at 
Rangoon, where he detected and defeated 
a plot to kill all the English in that city : 
Maj-General in 1857 : K.C.B. in 1862 : 
G.C.B. in 1870 : General in 1871 : died 
on Feb. 27, 1874. 



I.C.S. : born Jan. 24, 1823: son of S. 
Herbert Ellis, a leading member of the 
Jewish community : educated at Univer- 
sity College School, London University, 
and Haileybury : went to Bombay in 1843 : 
served in Sind from 1851-58, acting for 
some time as Chief Commissioner during 
Sir Bartle Frere's absence : was Chief 
Secretary to the Bombay Government 
and Member of Council, Bombay, 1865- 
70 : Member of the Supreme Council of 
the Governor-General, 1869-75 : K. C.S.I, 
in Oct. 1875, and Member of the Council 
of India, 1875-85 : after his retirement he 
was an authority among his co-religionists, 
and a Member and Vice-President of the 
Royal Asiatic Society : died June 20, 1887. 


I.C.S. : Oriental linguist : joined at 
Madras in 1796 : Secretary to the Board 
of Revenue, 1802 : Collector of Madras, 
1810 : died of cholera at Ramnad, March 
JO, 1 8 19. He was an excellent Tamil and 
Sanskrit scholar : published a commentary 
and translation of The Sacred Kiirral, and 
exposed the forgery of Sanskrit MSS. at 
Pondicherry by Jesuit missionaries : he 
wrote papers on the Tamil, Telugu and 
Malayalam languages, and was an 
expert authority on " Mirasi right ": and 
on information regarding the Madras 


I.C.S. : went out to Madras in 1844 : was 
Deputy Commissioner of Nagpur and Super- 
intendent of Police in the mutiny : C.B. : 
was Chief Secretary to the Madras Govern- 
ment, 1870 : Member of Council at Madras, 
1872-7 : retired : Member of the Council 
of India in 1877 : died Oct. 9, 1877. 

BARON (1807-1860) 
Governor : and Lt-General : son of 
John, twelfth Lord Elphinstone : born 
June 23, 1807 : succeeded his father in 
1813 : entered the Royal Horse Guards 
in 1826 : was a Lord-in-waiting, 1835-7 : 
G.C.H. in 1836 : Governor of Madras 
from March 1837, to Sep. 1842, during an 
uneventful period : encouraged the prac- 
tice of resorting to the Nilgiri hills for the 
hot weather : travelled in Kashmir and 
Upper India : returned to England in 
1845 : Lord-in-waiting again : Governor 
of Bombay, Dec. 1853, to May, i860, during 
the mutiny, in which he showed his 
capacity for administration, suppressing 
all risings and annihilating a conspiracy 
in Bombay. He afforded great assistance 
to the Government of India by sparing 
troops from Bombay for the disaffected 
parts of the country : G.C.B. in 1858 : 
raised to the Peerage of the United King- 
dom, 1859 : died July 19, i860. 



Governor : I.C.S. : son of John, eleventh 
Baron Elphinstone : born Oct. 6, i779 - 
educated at the High School, Edinburgh, 
and at Kensington : went out to Bengal 
as a "writer" in the E.I. Co.'s service in 
1795 ' stationed at Benares, he had to 
ride for his life when European officers, 
including Cherry, the Agent to the Gover- 
nor-General, were massacred there in 
Jan. i799» by order of Wazir Ah, the Ex- 
Nawab of Oudh. In 1801 he was ap- 
pointed Assistant to Sir Barry Close, the 
Resident at the court of Baji Rao, the 
Peshwa at Poona : at the battles of 
Assaye and Argaum, he was on the Staff 
of Colonel Arthur Wellesley, who told 
him that he ought to have been a soldier. 
He was Resident at Nagpur from 1804 to 
1808 : was sent as Envoy to Kabul, with 
a view to establish English influence there 



against the supposed French designs on 
India : Shah Shuja received him at 
Peshawar on March 5, 1809 : the negotia- 
tions produced little result, as Shah Shuja 
was himself ejected from Afghanistan in 
1809. Elphinstone was appointed Resi- 
dent at Poona in 1811. In 1815 he 
insisted on the surrender of Trimbakji 
Danglia, the Peshwa's minister, for the 
murder of Gungadhar Sastri, the minister 
and envoy of the Gaekwar of Baroda, at 
Poona. In 18 17 Elphinstone concluded 
the treaty dated June 13, of Poona, as 
dictated to the Peshwa, who, however, 
continued to intrigue. Elphinstone was, 
for a time, superseded by Sir T. Hislop, 
the General commanding the Army col- 
lected against the Pindaris : the Peshwa 
eventually attacked the British force at 
Kirki on Nov. 5, 18 17, and was defeated : 
Elphinstone's residence at Poona, library, 
and papers were all burnt : he himself 
showed great skill and military courage : 
he annexed the Peshwa's territory, as 
ordered, and administered it, interfer- 
ing as little as possible with native usages. 
He was Governor of Bombay from Nov. 
1 8 19, to Nov. 1827 : instituted legislative 
and judicial reforms, had a code of Regula- 
tions drawn up, and advanced popular 
education. The Elphinstone College was 
founded in his honour. He travelled in 
Europe, 1827-9, and led a retired life : 
twice refused the offer of the Governor- 
Generalship of India, and declined the 
Under Secretaryship of the Board of 
Control and a special mission to Canada. 
He wrote An Account of the Kingdom of 
Caubul and its Dependencies in Persia, 
Tartary and India, 1815 : his History of 
India, 1841, for which he was called 
the Tacitus of modern historians : and 
The Rise of British Power in the East, 
edited in 1887 by Sir E. Colebrooke. He 
was not ambitious, occupied his time 
with study, and maintained his interest 
in Indian affairs, being regarded as the 
Nestor of Indian statesmanship. He was 
a Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. He combined through life a 
keenness for field sports with his love of 
books and the despatch of public business. 
Bishop Heber wrote of him, " Of Mr. 
Elphinstone everybody spoke highly " : 
no Indian civilian has gained a greater 
name as a statesman and a ruler. He 
died Nov. 20, 1859 : a statue was erected 
in St. Paul's Cathedral in his honour. 

KEITH (1782-1842) 

Maj-General : son of Hon. William 
FuUerton Elphinstone, Director of the 
E.I. Co. : entered the Army, 1804, in the 
24th foot : served with distinction in 
various parts of the world : Lt-Colonel 
of the 33rd foot in 1813, and served with 
it at Waterloo : made C.B. : A.D.C. to 
George IV. 1825 : became Maj-General, 
1837 : commanded the Benares Division, 
1839-41, when, in the first Afghan war, 
he succeeded Sir Willoughby Cotton as 
Commander in Chief at Kabul, towards 
the close of 1841, and, on the murder of 
Sir W. Macnaghten, on December 23, 
1 841, failed entirely, through old age and 
ill-health, to take measures for the safety 
of the force. During the disastrous retreat 
of the Army from Kabul, in Jan. 1842, he 
surrendered as a hostage of Akbar Khan : 
and died of dysentery at Tezin on April 
23, 1842. 


I.C.S. : Born Oct. 31, 1838 : son of 
George Elsmie : educated at Marischal 
College and University, Aberdeen, and 
Haileybury : joined the Bengal Civil 
Service, 1858 : Judge, Chief Court, Pan- 
jab, 1878-85 : Financial Commissioner, 
Panjab, 1887-93 : Member of the Governor- 
General's Legislative Council, 1888-93 : 
Vice-Chancellor, Panjab University, 1885- 
7. Author of Epitome of Kabul Corre- 
spondence, 1864 ; Notes on Peshawar Crime, 
1884; Lumsden of the Guides, 1899; Field 
Marshal Sir Donald Stewart, 1903 : C.S.I. , 

EMPSON, WILLIAM (1791-1852) 

Born in 1791 : educated at Winchester 
and Trinity College, Cambridge : B.A., 
1812 : between 1823 and 1849 wrote 
largely for the Edinburgh Review, " a 
valued contributor on political, legal, and 
literary subjects " : he edited the Review 
from 1849 to 1852. His friendship with 
Dr. Arnold, begun at Winchester, con- 
tinued through life. He was appointed 
in 1824 Professor of Polity and the Laws 
of England at the E.I. Co.'s College, 
Haileybury. His lectures, especially those 
on general jurisprudence and Indian law, 
were much appreciated by the better 
students. He was much liked by his 
pupils, over whom he had considerable 



influence. " To form the mind of those 
young men, many of whom, as magistrates 
and judges, were to affect the interests of 
thousands and millions, was to him a 
duty of a solemn, or rather of a sacred, 
kind." He died Dec. 10, 1852. 


Son of Lt-General Richard England : 
born in 1793 : educated at Winchester 
and the Royal Military College, Marlow : 
entered the Army in 1808 : served in the 
Walcheren expedition, Sicily, Canada, at 
the Cape as Brig. -General, in the Kafir 
war, 1836-7 : went to Belgaum in 1839: 
commanded a Bombay Division in 1841 : 
after a repulse at Haikalzai on March 28, 
1842, he joined General Nott at Kandahar, 
and in the defeat of Akbar Khan at the 
Kojak : in the retirement in 1842 from 
Kandahar, he commanded tho force 
through the Bolan into Sind : but his 
operations were generally wanting in 
success : K.C.B. in 1843 : commanded a 
Division in the Crimea in 1854-5, and 
was at Alma, Inkerman, the Redan, and 
distinguished himself : G.C.B., 1856 : 
General, 1863 : retired, 1877 : died Jan. 
19, 1883. 


Maj -General : entered the Army in 
1833 : in the mutiny, with a wing of the 
53rd regt., defeated 1,000 mutineers, 
chiefly of the Ramghar battalion : C.B. : 
cleared Bihar and defeated mutineers at 
Gopalganj : in a number of other actions : 
commanded the 53rd at the siege and 
capture of Lucknow : at Faizabad and 
Tulsipur : Maj-General, 1864 : died Nov. 
5, 1878. 



I.C.S. : son of William Erskine iq.v.) : 
born 1832 : arrived at Bombay, 1853 : 
Commissioner of the Northern Division, 
1877-9 ' Commissioner in Sind, 1879- 
87 : died Dec. 4, 1893. 


I. C.S. : son of William Erskine (q.v.) : 
born May 20, 1821 : educated at 
St. Andrew's and Haileybury : went to 
Bombay, 1840 : was Private Secretary, 

1843-6, to Sir G. Arthur, Governor of 
Bombay : Secretary to Government of 
Bombay in the General and Judicial 
Department, 1854 : first Director of Public 
Instruction in W. India, 1855-9 • Addi- 
tional Member of the Governor-General's 
Legislative Council, i860 : Vice-Chancellor 
of the Calcutta University : Judge of 
the Bombay High Court, 1862-3 *• Member 
of Council, Bombay, Oct. 1865, to May 
1867 : retured, 1867 : died June 5, 1893. 

ERSKINE, WILLIAM (1773-1852) 
Son of David Erskine : bom Nov. 8, 
1773 : educated at the Royal High School 
and Edinburgh University : was a lawyer's 
apprentice, 1792-9 : went to India in 
1803-4 with Sir James Mackintosh : at 
Bombay he became clerk to the Small 
Cause Court, a stipendiary magistrate. 
Secretary and Vice-President to the 
Literary Society — to which he contributed 
numerous articles on the Parsis, their 
language, religion and literature, and on 
the Buddhists, etc. : became Master in 
Equity in the Recorder's Court in 1820 : 
was a Member of Mountstuart Elphin- 
stone's Committee for framing the Bom- 
bay code of Regulations : he left India in 
1823, having lost his legal offices on a 
charge of defalcations : in 1826 he pub- 
lished his translation of Babar's autobio- 
graphical memoirs from a Persian version, 
with a full commentary, a standard work. 
He was Provost of St. Andrew's, 1836-9 : 
died at Edinburgh, May 20, 1852 : wrote 
History of India under Babar and Hum- 
ayun, edited by his son, 1854. 

ESDAILE, JAMES (1808-1859) 

Son of Rev. Dr. Esdaile : born Feb. 6, 
1808 : graduated as M.D. at Edinburgh 
in 1830 : reached Calcutta in the E.I. 
Co.'s medical service in 1831 : in charge 
of the Hughli hospital in 1838 : devoted 
himself to the study of mesmerism and 
performed some surgical operations by 
its aid as an anaesthetic with remarkable 
success : his experiments were scientifi- 
cally investigated, and he was made 
Superintendent of a small hospital for 
mesmerism in 1846, and Presidency 
Surgeon. DisUking India, he retired in 
1851 : wrote Mesmerism in India and its 
Practical Application in Surgery and 
Medicine, Natural and Mesmeric Clairvoy- 
ance and other medical works : died J an. 
10, 1859. 



ETHE, G. HERMANN (1844- ) 

Born Feb. 13, 1844 : grandson of Karl 
Laphe : educated at Greifswald and 
Leipzig Universities : came to Oxford in 
1872 to complete Catalogue of Persian, 
Turkish, Hindustani and Pashtu MSS., 
in Bodleian Library, and to compile 
Catalogue of Arabic MSS. : catalogued 
Persian MSS. in India Ofifice Library : 
Public Examiner for Honours School of 
Oriental Languages, Oxford, 1887-9, and 
since 1893 : Professor of German and 
Oriental Languages, University College, 
Aberystwyth, since 1875. 

PUGH (1840-1902) 

Son of John Evans, of Lovesgrove : 
born Jan. 13, 1840 : educated at Bradfield 
and Lincoln College, Oxford (Scholar) : 
called to the bar from Lincoln's Inn, 
1867 : joined the bar of the High Court, 
Calcutta : Member of the Governor- 
General's Legislative Council, 1877 to 
1899 : K.C.I.E. in 1892 : acting Advocate - 
General and Member of the Bengal Legis- 
lative Council, 1895 : he took a promin- 
ent part, on behalf of the public, in the 
arrangements for composing the contro- 
versy over the " Ilbert Bill " in 1883 : 
died Feb. 6, 1902. 



Son of John Evans : born May 25, 
1767 : educated at Harrow : an attorney 
from 1789 to 1794, when he was called to 
the bar from Gray's Inn : wrote on legal 
and political questions : was a stipendiary 
magistrate at Manchester, 1813 : Vice- 
Chancellor of the County Palatine of Lan- 
caster, 1815 : in 1819 he became Recorder 
of Bombay and was knighted : but died 
there Dec. 5, 1821. 

EVEREST, SIR GEORGE (1790-1866) 

Surveyor-General of India : born July 
4, 1790 : son of Tristram Everest : edu- 
cated at Great Marlow and Woolwich : 
went to India in 1806 to the Bengal 
Artillery : selected by Sir Stamford 
Raffles to survey Java, 18 13-5 : Chief 
Assistant of the Great Trigonometrical 
Survey, 1817 : succeeded Colonel Lambton 
as Superintendent of the Great Trigono- 
metrical Survey, 1823 : F.R.S., 1827 : 

studied the English ordnance survey : 
was appointed by the Court of Directors 
to be Surveyor General of India, 1830 : 
also engaged in measurements of the great 
Arc of Meridian of India, 21 degrees in 
length, from Cape Comorin to the Northern 
frontier, 1832-41 : Lt-Colonel, 1838 : 
retired in 1843 : published in 1847 an 
account of his work on the great Meri- 
dional Arc of India between two base 
lines : Member of the Council of the Royal 
and Geographical Societies : Fellow of the 
Astronomical and Royal Asiatic Societies : 
C.B. : and knighted in 1861 : died Dec. i, 
1866 : Mount Everest, 29,002 feet high, in 
the Himalayas on the borders of Nipal and 
Tibet, the highest known mountain in the 
world, was named after him. 

AUGUST (1803-1875) 

Born at Gottingen, Nov. 1803 : a 
celebrated Oriental scholar : educated at 
Gottingen University : at 20 was a Pro- 
fessor at the College of Wolfenbuttel : 
held the Chairs of Philosophy and Oriental 
languages and theology at Gottingen : 
when suspended, for political reasons, 
in 1837, he came to England, but returned 
to Gottingen : became a member of the 
German Parliament : author of many 
critical works, especially on the Hebrew 
language and Biblical history : died 1875. 



Born June 11, 1821 : son of Lt-General 
John Frederick Ewart, C.B. : educated 
at Sandhmrst : joined the 35th regt., 
1838 : exchanged to 93rd Highlanders, 
1848 : served in Crimea and Indian 
mutiny : at Alma, Balaclava, Inker- 
man and siege of Sebastopol : at relief 
of Lucknow : commanded the leading 
party of stormers at the assault of the 
Sikandarbagh : severely wounded : lost 
his left arm by a cannon-ball at Cawnpur 
in Dec. 1857 : C.B. : Lt-Colonel of 93rd 
Highlanders, 1858 : commanded 78th 
Highlanders, 1859-64 : A.D.C. to Queen 
Victoria : Maj -General, 1872 : Lt-General, 
1877 : commanded the Allahabad Divi- 
sion in India, 1877-80 : General, 1884 : 
K.C.B., 1887 : recommended for the V.C. : 
died June 18, 1904 : author of A few 
Remarks about the British Army, and The 
Story of a Soldier's Life. 




Born 1831 : son of Andrew Ewart : 
educated privately : entered the E.I. 
Co.'s medical service, 1854 : served in the 
Mewar Bheel Corps in the Indian mutiny : 
Professor of Medicine, Calcutta : retired 
as Deputy Surgeon-General, 1879. Author 
of several works relating to Indian Sanita- 
tion, Pathology and Snake Poisoning : 
Mayor of Brighton, 189 1-4 : Knight 
Bachelor, 1895. 

EWER, WALTER (1784-1863) 
I.C.S.: son of a Governor of the settlement 
at Bencoolen : privately educated : joined 
the Bengal Civil Service in 1803 : distin- 
guished at the College of Fort William : 
employed at Rajshahi, at Amboyna, 
again at Rajshahi, 1816 : Superintendent 
of Police in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, 
and the conquered and ceded Provinces 
for 10 years : Judge of the Sadr Court, 
N.W.P., until he resigned in 1839-40 : 
well versed in music and astronomy : 
read the inscriptions on the Kutb at Delhi 
in 1822 through his telescope : F.R.G.S. : 
F.R.S. : died in London, Jan. 5, 1863. 

EYRE, HENRY (1834- ) 
Born Feb. 4, 1834 : son of Rev. C. W. 
Eyre : educated at Harrow and Christ 
Church, Oxford : joined 2nd Battalion 
Rifle Brigade, 1855 : present at siege and 
fall of Sebastopol : A.D.C. to Lt-General, 
Sir W. Eyre, 1855 : served with Rifle 
Brigade through the Indian mutiny, 
1857-8 : present at taking of Lucknow, 
siege of Kalpi, etc. : commanded 4th 
Notts R.V., 1865-92 : C.B., 1897. 

EYRE, SIR VINCENT (1811-1881) 

General: son of Capt. Henry Eyre: 
born Jan. 22, 1811 : educated at Norwich 
Grammar School, and at Addiscombe : 
joined the Bengal Artillery, 1828 : was, 
in 1839, Commissary of Ordnance to the 
Kabul Field Force : took ordnance stores 
to Kabul in 1840 : after the rising in 
Nov. 1 84 1, Eyre and his family started, 
in Jan. 1842, for India, but were detained 
by Akbar Khan as hostages : he pub- 
lished a journal of his 9 months' captivity, 
which terminated on Sep. 21, 1842 : he 
returned to India with Pollock's force : 
commanded the Artillery of the Gwalior 
contingent, 1844 : was at Thayetmyo in 
Burma in 1857, but was recalled" to India : 


on his way up country in July, he heard 
at Baxar of the siege of Arrah, that is, of 
some Government officers being besieged 
there by mutineers : after severe fighting 
he effected their relief, and defeated Kooer 
Singh of Jagdishpur, all on his own 
responsibility : he was recommended for 
the Victoria Cross : was at the reUef of 
Lucknow in Sep. 1857, commanded the 
Artillery at the Alambagh : at the capture 
of Lucknow in March, 1858 : C.B. and 
Lt-Colonel : Superintendent of the Isha- 
pur Powder Factory: on the Army 
Amalgamation Commission, and Inspr- 
General of Ordnance, 1862 : retired, 
1863 : K.C.S.I., 1867 : in the Franco- 
Prussian war he organized an ambulance 
service for the sick and wounded : died 
Sep. 22, 1881 : had great qualities as an 
officer, in literature, and in private life. 

FIRST VISCOUNT (1757-1833) 

Son of Samuel Pellew : born April 19, 
1757 : educated at Truro : entered the 
Navy, 1770 : served with great gallantry 
in various parts of the world : and was 
made a Baronet in 1796 : M.P. for Barn- 
staple, 1802 : Naval C. in C. in the East 
Indies in 1804, and Rear Admiral : de- 
stroyed the Dutch ships of war, 1807 : 
enforced strict discipline, and reduced the 
amount of punishment : Vice Admiral,. 
1808, returned to England : C. in C. in 
the North Sea, 1810 : in the Mediter- 
ranean, 181 1 : at Plymouth, 1817-21 : 
made a Peer, 1814 : K.C.B. and G.C.B., 
1815 : bombarded Algiers, 1816 : died 
Jan. 23, 1833. 


Danish Missionary : native of Frank- 
fort-on-the-Maine : graduate of Halle : a 
Lutheran : arrived in India, 1740 : went 
to Madras in service of S.P.C.K., 1742 : 
assisted at the English Church when re- 
quired : when Fort St. George surrendered 
to the French, 1746, he took refuge at the 
Dutch settlement at Pulicat : and again,, 
when Count Lally and his army appeared 
in Dec. 1758 : returned, on the raising of 
the siege, to Vepery : plundered by the 
Muhammadans : ministered at Vellore, 
1772-3 : up to 1780, greatly trusted by 
Government and the people : mismanaged 
the fimds : imprisoned for debt for iS 



months, 1787-9 : relieved by Gericke 
iq.v.) in 1788, as head of the Vepery 
Mission and school : died there, 1791 '• a 
Tamil scholar : partly translated the 
New Testament into Tamil : compiled a 
Tamil Dictionary, and wrote Lyrics in 

FORBES ( ? ,- ) 

Educated at Harrow : joined the Army, 
1875 : Lt-Colonel, 1901 : served in the 
Afghan war, 1879-80 : Asst. Dist. Super- 
intendent of Police, Panjab, 1885 : Assist- 
ant Resident, Hyderabad, 1892 : Assistant 
Political Agent, Bussora, 1897 : Political 
Agent, Muscat, 1898, Kotah, 1900 : 
Political Agent, Ulwar, Rajputana, since 

FALCONER, FORBES (1805-1853) 

Born Sep. 10, 1805 : son of Gilbert 
Falconer : educated at Marischal College, 
Aberdeen : early studied Oriental lan- 
guages, Hebrew, Arabic, Persian at 
Aberdeen, at Paris for 5 years, and at 
German Universities : Professor of Oriental 
Languages at University College, London : 
translated from the Bostan, and two 
poems of J ami, and other poets : pub- 
lished a Persian Grammar : M.R.A.S., 
London and Paris : died Nov. 7, 1853. 

FALCONER, HUGH (1808-1865) 

Botanist : son of David Falconer : 
born Feb. 29, 1808 : educated at Forres 
and Aberdeen University : M.D. of 
Edinburgh in 1829 : studied geology and 
Indian fossils : joined the E.I. Co.'s 
medical service in Bengal, 1830 : suc- 
ceeded Dr. Roylein 1832 as Superintendent 
of the Botanic Gardens, Saharanpur : 
made, with other officers, important dis- 
coveries of fossils, mammals and reptiles 
in the Sivalik hills : served on the Tea 
Commission of 1834, and superintended 
the manufacture of the first Indian tea : 
he travelled in 1837-8 to Kashmir and 
Beluchistan, and in the Astor Valley dis- 
covered assafaetida : contributed many 
plants and fruit trees from Kashmir to 
Saharanpur : while in England, 1843- 
7, he wrote on geology, fossils and 
botany, his botanical collections and work 
being subsequently utilized : was engaged 
on the arrangement and exhibition of 
Indian fossils in the British Museum : he 

commenced the publication of the Fauna 
Antigua Sivalensis. From 1848 to 1855 he 
was, on Dr. Wallich's death. Superinten- 
dent of the Botanic Garden at Sibpur, 
Howrah, opposite to Calcutta : Professor 
of Botany in the Calcutta Medical College : 
and adviser of the Government of India 
on vegetable products: wrote on teak, 
cinchona, fossils, etc. : after retirement, 
he continued his studies in palaeontology, 
fossil mammals and pre-historic man: 
visited museums, served on a Royal Com- 
mission on the sanitary condition of 
India, writing papers on his own subjects : 
F.R.S. in 1845 : Vice-President of the 
Royal Society : he died Jan. 31, 1865. 
A selection of his palaeontological papers 
was published under the editorship of Dr. 


, (1803-1884) 

Son of the ninth Viscount : Lord of the 
Bedchamber to King William IV, 1830, 
and to Queen Victoria, 1839 : representa- 
tive Peer of Scotland, 183 1-2 : made a 
Peer of the United Kingdom : Lord-in- 
Waiting, 1837-9 : Governor of Nova 
Scotia, 1840-f • Captain of the Yeomen of 
the Guard, 1846-8 : Governor of Bom- 
bay, 1848-53 : G.C.H., 1831 : P.C, 
1837 : died at Montpelier, France, March 
12, 1884. 

FALLON, S. W. (1817-1880) 

Born at Calcutta, 1817 : entered the 
Bengal Education Department in his 20th 
year : was Inspector of Schools : in 1857, 
published a Hindustani-English Law and 
Commercial Dictionary : Phil. Dr. of 
Halle : published, 1875-9, his Hindustani- 
English Dictionary, illustrated from Hin- 
dustani literature and folklore : and part 
of an English-Hindustani Dictionary : 
retired, 1875 : resided at Delhi : to 
England, 1880 : died Oct. 3, 1880. 

FANE, SIR HENRY (1778-1840) 

General : born Nov. 26, 1778 : son of 
Hon. Henry Fane, and grandson of the 
eighth Earl of Westmoreland : entered 
the Dragoon Guards, 1792 : M.P. for Lyme 
Regis, then a family borough, 1796-1818 : 
Lt-Colonel, i797 : A.D.C. to George III. : 
saw much service, chiefly in cavalry com- 
mands, through the Peninsular campaign : 



K.C.B. : Lt-General, 1819 : G.C.B., 
1825 : Master-General of the Ordnance and 
M.P. for Sandwich, 1829 : General, 1837 : 
C. in C. in India, 1835-9 : objected so 
strongly to the policy of the first Afghan 
war that he resigned his appointment, but 
his resignation was not accepted : his 
health failing, he resigned again in 1839, 
and died on the voyage home, off the 
Azores, on March 24, 1840. 

FANE, WALTER (1828-1885) 

Son of Rev. Edward Fane : born 1828 : 
entered the Army, 1845 : in the Pan jab 
Irregular Cavalry, 1849-57 : in several 
N.W. frontier expeditions : in the pursuit 
and capture of Tantia Topi, 1859 : Cap- 
tain, i860 : in the Madras Staff Corps : 
Colonel, 1875 : raised a regiment of 
irregular cavalry for the China war, i860 : 
at the Peiho forts : commanded " Fane's 
Horse " at Sinho, Chinkiawhaw, and the 
capture of Pekin : C.B. : Maj-General, 
1879 : died June 16, 1885. 


(1848- ) 

I.C.S. : son of Rev. J. Fanshawe : 
educated at Repton : entered the Bengal 
Civil Service, 1871 : served in the Central 
Provinces : Postmaster General, Bombay, 
1882 : Officiating Secretary in the Finance 
and Commerce Department to the Govern- 
ment of India, 1888 : Director-General 
of the Post Office, India, 1889 : C.S.I., 
1896 : K.C.I.E., 1903. 


( ? -1771) 
Son of Muhammad Khan Bangash, 
ISTawab : collected a force of Afghans and 
defeated and slew the Deputy of the Wazir 
Safdar Jang, who had confiscated terri- 
tories belonging to his family, 1750 '• 
the Wazir called in the Mahrattas, which 
led to his ultimate ruin : reigned till his 
death in Nov. 1771. 

FARQUHAR, JOHN (1761-1826) 

Born in 175 1 of poor parents in Scot- 
land : went to Bombay in the E.I. Co.'s 
military service : incapacitated for active 
service by a wound : transferred to Bengal : 
became a free merchant and learnt 
chemistry. Lord Cornwallis employed 
Jhim to inquire into the circumstances of 

the Government gunpowder factory at 
Pulta : made Superintendent of the factory, 
and, later, sole contractor : thus acquired 
a fortune : returned to England, and be- 
came partner in the agency house, Basset, 
Farquhar & Co., and in Whitbread's 
Brewery, He was a curious mixture of 
penuriousness and largeness in expendi- 
ture at his pleasure : bought Fonthill Abbey 
in 1822 for ;f 330,000 : he was a good 
scholar, excellent in the sciences, and 
greatly admired the Brahmanical system : 
died July 6, 1826, leaving a million and a 


(1821- ) 

Son of Rev. Christian Nissen FausboU : 
born Sep. 22, 1821, in Jutland : educated 
at a Latin Grammar School, Aarhus, 1834 
-8 : and at Copenhagen University from 
1838, studying Oriental languages under 
N. L. Westergaard {q.v.) : University 
Gold Medallist, 1843 : Assistant Librarian 
at the University Library, Copenhagen, 
1861-78 : Professor of Indian Philology 
and Sanskrit at that University, 1 878-1 902 : 
Member of Royal Danish Society of Sciences, 
1876 : Bopp's Prizeman, 1888 : Hon. 
M.R.A.S. 1890 : Commander of the Order of 
Dannebrog, and possessor of the Silver Cross 
of that Order : founded the study of Pali in 
Europe, and was called the " Father of 
Pali study " : has published the Dhammap- 
adani, 1855 : the Suttanipata, 1-2, 1885- 
94 : the Jataka, 1-7, 1877-97 : an Indian 
Mythology according to the Mahabharata, 

FAWCETT, HENRY (1833-1884) 

Son of William Fawcett, J.P. : born Aug. 
26, 1833 : educated at Alderbury, Queen- 
wood, King's College, London, Peterhouse 
and Trinity Hall, Cambridge : seventh 
Wrangler and Fellow, 1856 : totally lost 
his sight by an accident out shooting, Sep. 
1858 : wrote a Manual of Political Economy, 
and frequently on political and economic 
subjects : elected Professor of Pol. Econy. 
at Cambridge, 1863 : M.P. for Brighton, 
1865 and 1868 : for Hackney, 1874 and 
1880 : adopted, as a Radical member, an 
independent line in public measures : for 
his marked interest in Indian affairs he 
was known as the " Member for India " : 
dwelling on the poverty of India, he 
strenuously advocated economy, justice 
to the Indian revenues, and the native 



interests. Thus, he opposed the charging 
of the Ball to the Sultan (1867) upon Indian 
revenues : by his persistence the Com- 
mittees on Indian finance were appointed 
1 871-4 : he spoke fully and forcibly on 
Indian budgets : was a member of the 
Committee on Indian Public Works, 1878 : 
opposed the Malta expedition, 1878, and 
the debit of any of the charge to India : 
opposed the Afghan war, 1878-80 : wrote 
on Indian Finance in the Nineteenth 
Century, 1879 : his views, though con- 
tested at the time, since generally accepted : 
his knowledge and character gained him 
great respect and influence in Indian 
affairs : as Postmaster-General, from 
1880, effected many administrative im- 
provements : P.C. : F.R.S., 1882 : D.C.L. 
Oxford, 1881: Doctor of Political Economy, 
Wurzburg, 1882 : a corresponding member 
of the Institute of France, 1884 : LL.D. 
and Lord Rector of Glasgow University, 
1883 : died at Cambridge, Nov. 6, 1884 : 
a national monument to him placed in 
Westminster Abbey. 

FAY, MRS. ( ? -1817) 

Wife of Anthony Fay, a barrister of 
Lincoln's Inn, who went to India to 
practise in the courts of Calcutta : they 
travelled via Egypt and the Red Sea : 
their ship touched at Calicut, where they 
were seized by Hyder All's officers and 
imprisoned for 15 weeks, suffering hard- 
ships and privations : they escaped and 
reached Madras in 1779-80, and proceeded 
to Calcutta. She published an account 
of her travels from England to Calcutta, 
Original Letters from India, Calcutta, 18 17, 
dying there during their publication. 


(1824- ) 

Born Dec. 6, 1824 : son of Commander 
Robert J. Fayrer, R.N. : educated at 
King's College, London and Edinburgh : 
M.D., 1859 : entered the Bengal medical 
service, 1850 : served in the first Burmese 
war, throughout the Indian mutiny, and 
defence of Lucknow, where he was Re- 
sidency Surgeon from Aug. 1853 : and 
Civil Surgeon : Professor, Medical College, 
Calcutta : Surgeon-General : Fellow of 
the Calcutta University : President of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1867 : C.S.I., 
1867 : President, Medical Board, India 
Office, 1874-95 : accompanied H.R.H. 

the Duke of Edinburgh on his Indian tour, 
1869-70, and H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 
on his Indian tour, 1875-6 : author of 
The Thanatophidia of India : of many 
medical works on Tropical Diseases : 
Life of Sir Ranald Martin, C.B., Recol- 
lections of My Life, etc. : K.C.S.I. : first 
Baronet, 1896 : Physician Extraordinary 
to H.M. the King since 1901 : F.R.C.P. : 
F.R.S. : LL.D., Edinburgh : Member of 
many foreign Medical Academies : and 
President and Member of Medical Societies 
in England. 

FEER, HENRI LEON (1830-1902) 

Born at Rouen, Nov. 22, 1830 : Pro- 
fessor of Tibetan, 1864, at the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, Paris, and at the £cole des 
Langues Orientales, 1865 : Lecturer in 
Tibetan and Mongol at the College de 
France, 1869 : Librarian of the MSS. 
Department of the National Library, 
Paris, 1872 : and, later, Conservateur- 
Ad joint : wrote in the learned French 
Reviews : knew Tibetan, Mongol, Sanskrit 
and Pali : translated from Tibetan : was 
learned in Buddhist literature : by his 
translations, made known the Buddhist 
literature of Nipal and Tibet : wrote for 
the Grande Encyclopedie and the lournal 
Asiatique : edited Pali texts : wrote 
Textes tires du Kandjour : translated from 
the Tibetan : Etudes Buddhiques, 1871-85 : 
Le Thibet, pays, peuple, et religion, 1886 : 
edited the Samyutta-Nikaya for the Pali 
Text Society : Member of the Societe 
Asiatique from 1856, of its Council, 1869 : 
died March, 10, 1902. 

FENDALL, JOHN (1762 ? -1825) 

I.C.S. : to India as a writer in 1777 
became a Puisne Judge of the Sa-ir Court 
Sep. 9, 1817 : Chief Judge, 1819 : Member 
of the Supreme Council, May 20, 1820 :: 
died Nov. 10. 1825. 



Major : served in the Crimea : to India 
as a Captain with his regt., the 93rd High- 
landers : contributed to the Englishman 
in Calcutta : joined its staff as Assistant 
Editor and Editor, on retiring from the 
Army : Major in the Calcutta Volunteer 
Corps, which he resuscitated : went to 
Simla, and founded the Civil and Military 
Gazette as a weekly paper : became its- 



Editor when it was issued as a daily paper 
at Lahore : left India and joined the 
Broad Arrow in England, becoming its 
Editor : died in 1904. 

FERGUSSON, JAMES (1808-1886) 

Son of Dr. William Fergusson : born 
Jan. 22, 1808 : educated at the Edinburgh 
High School, and privately : went to India, 
at first into business at Calcutta : and in ten 
years at his indigo factory made sufficient to 
retire upon : lost some of his money after- 
wards : travelled largely in India to study 
styles of Architecture, 1835-42 : finally 
left India in 1845 : joined the Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1840, and became a Vice- 
President : was General Manager of the 
Crystal Palace Company, 1856-8 : a 
member in 1857 of the Royal Commission 
on the defences of the United Kingdom : 
Secretary to the First Commissioner of 
Public Works in 1869, and was later de- 
signated " Inspector of Public Buildings 
and Monuments." He wrote " Pictur- 
esque Illustrations of Ancient Architecture 
in Hindostan; The Rock-cut Temples of 
India ; a number of valuable papers in the 
Transactions of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects ; An Historical Enquiry 
into the True Principles of Beauty in Art, 
on anew system of substituting earthworks 
for masonry in fortification, on the topo- 
graphy of Jerusalem; a Handbook of 
Architecture; A History of the Modern 
Styles of Architecture: A History of 
Architecture in all Countries ; History 
of Indian and Eastern Architecture, 
Tree and Serpent Worship, The Parthenon, 
etc. etc., besides other works on Architec- 
ture and connected subjects. It was said 
of him that he invested the historical study 
of Architectmre, particularly Indian 
Architecture, with a new interest. He 
received the gold medal for Architecture 
from the Institute of British Architects, 
and was often consulted on architectural 
questions. He wasD.C.L. : F.R.S : F.G.S. : 
LL.D : died Jan. 9, 1886. 

BARONET (1832- ) 
Born 1832 : son of Sir James Fergusson, 
fifth Baronet : educated at Rugby and 
University College, Oxford : succeeded as 
Baronet, 1849 : entered the Grenadier 
Guards, 1851 : Lieut, and Captain, 1854 : 
served in the Crimean war. Alma and 

Inkerman (wounded) and siege of Sebasto- 
pol : M.P. for A>Trshu:e, 1854, 1857, 1865 
retired from the Army, 1856 : Under 
Secretary of State for India, 1866-7 
Under Secretary in the Home Department 
1867-8 : Governor of S. Australia, 1868 
of New Zealand, 1873-5 : of Bombay 
1880-5 : Under Secretary of State 
Foreign Office, 1886-91 : Postmaster 
General, 189 1-2 : P.C. : G.C.S.I.: K.C.M.G. 
CLE.: LL.D. 

FIELD, SIR JOHN (1821-1899) 

General : entered the Army, 1839 : 
joined the 6th N.I. in 1840 : served in the 
Afghan and Sind campaigns, 184 1-4: on 
the Bolan, Quetta, Kandahar line, and at 
Haikalzai : in the mutiny of 1857 pro- 
tected Poona with his native regt. : at the 
capture of Dwarka : in Abyssinia 1867-8 
commanded the advance Brigade : at cap- 
ture of Magdala : C.B. : A.D.C. to Queen 
Victoria : Maj-General, 1879 : Judge Advo- 
cate-General of the Bombay Army :K.C.B., 
1887 : died April 16, 1899. 

FILOSE, JEAN BAPTISTE ( 1775-1 84t3) 

Colonel : son of Michael Filose {q.v.) : 
born at Faizabad, March, 1775 : educated 
at Calcutta : served under the Mogul 
Emperor at Delhi : adopted by a French- 
man, La Fontaine : entitled Itmaduddaula 
by the Emperor : took service under 
Daulat Rao Sindia : kept under arrest by 
Perron {q.v.) : defeated by the British 
in the Mahrattawar of 1803 : employed in 
reducing refractory chiefs in Bundelkund, 
Malwa, etc., for Sindia : again arrested 
for 18 months : constantly engaged in 
fighting with Rajputs and Bundelas for 
Sindia : his troops constantly mutinous 
for arrears of pay : again under arrest for 
7 years, restored in 1824, deprived of his 
command in 1843 : ordered by Tara Bai 
to take command of the Army at Chanda 
against the English : defeated : trans- 
ferred his offices to his grandson, Peter : 
died May 2, 1864 : his grandson. Sir 
Michael Filose, employed as architect, etc., 
at Gwalior. 

Colonel : a Neapolitan adventurer : 
in the French Army at Madras : reached 
Calcutta about 1770 : served the Nawab 




of Oudh, the Rana of Gohud, and com- 
manded a regt. under Madhava Rao 
Sindia (q.v.) i in 1707. Nana Farnavis, 
when on a visit to Daulat Rao Sindia, was 
taken prisoner : whether by Filose's 
treachery or not, has been disputed : he 
decamped to Bombay, set out for Europe, 
and died. 

TUS (1812-1884) 

Born in London in 1812 : son of 
Dr. Thomas Firminger, who prepared 
candidates for Haileybury : educated at 
Pembroke College, Cambridge : took his 
degree, 1837 : appointed Chaplain of the 
E.I. Co., 1846 : served at Sagar, at Firoz- 
pur, during the second Sikh war : toured in 
India from 1854, made many drawings : 
had two pictures in the Royal Academy : 
Chaplain at Howrah, 1857 : and at 
Chinsura, 1859 : published his Manual 
of Gardening for India, 1863 : in the 
Bhutan expedition, 1864-5 = retired, 1868 : 
died Jan. 18, 1884. 

FIROZ SHAH ( ? - ? ) 

Son of Mirza Nazim (who was grandson 
of Shah Alam) and of Abadi Begam, 
cousin of Akbar Shah, King of Delhi : 
educated by Mirza Illahibaksh, who 
married his mother : went to Mecca with 
her in 1855 : returned to Bombay after 
the mutiny broke out : became leader of 
the rebels at Mandiswar : driven from there 
by Colonel (Sir H. M.) Durand in Nov. 
1857 : went to Rohilkund with his force : 
beaten thence by Sir Colin Campbell : 
entered Oudh : tried to join Tantia Topi in 
Central India : defeated by General (Lord) 
Napier at Ranod, Dec. 17, 1858 : fled, 
and joined Tantia Topi : the rebels were 
broken up and dispersed : Firoz Shah hid 
in the Sironj jungles : he escaped in dis- 
guise as a pilgrim to Karbela and lived 
there many years : was one of the leading 
and irreconcilable insurgents in the mutiny. 



Native of Broach, born 1758 : son of 
Mulla Kawoos, a priest of the Parsis of 
Bombay : when 10 years old, accom- 
panied his father on a journey to Per- 
sia ; they carried with them letters 
from the Indian Zoroastrians for the 
solving of religious questions : on their 

return, after an absence of twelve years, 
they settled at Bombay : Firuz Mulla, 
himself a Parsi priest, of the Kadmi sect 
from 1794, and great student of Oriental 
language, was induced by Jonathan Dun- 
can iq.v.) to write the Persian poem George 
Nama, a history of India from its dis- 
covery by the Portuguese and of the 
English in India to 1819 : this was an epic 
poem, called after George III., and dedi- 
cated to Queen Victoria : he was a great 
collector of Persian and Arabic MSS. : 
pubUshed in 1818, the Desatir, a very 
ancient religious Persian work: assisted 
the foundation of the Bombay Samachar 
in 1822, and wrote largely in it : led a 
retired and ascetic life, devoted to his 
studies : much sought by scholars, English 
and Asiatic, and held in the highest re- 
spect ; he wrote also on the advantages of 
vaccination : on his death, on Oct. 8, 1830, 
his collection was left as a gift in the charge 
of the Elders of the Kadmi Zoroastrians : 
it now forms the Mulla Firuz Library in 
Bombay : the Madrasa bearing his name 
was founded in 1854, for the instruction of 
Zoroastrians in their sacred lore. 

FISHER, THOMAS a772-1836) 

Son of Thomas Fisher : entered the 
E. India House, 1786, as a clerk : searcher 
of records there, 1816-34 • died July 20, 
1836 : had considerable talent for drawing, 
and was a distinguished antiquary : made 
drawings of monumental remains, anti- 
quities and collections : was F.S.A. of 
Perth and London : for nearly 50 years 
contributed to the Gentleman's Magazine, 
writing for it long biographical memoirs 
of eminent men who had distinguished 
themselves in India : also wrote for the 
Asiatic Journal, the Congregational Maga- 
zine •• worked in the cause of anti-slavery, 
and was a Director of the London Mission- 
ary Society, in which his knowledge of the 
East was valuable : died 1836. 



Born Dec. 9, 1799: son of William IV 
and Mrs. Jordan : entered the Army, 
1814 : given the rank of a son of a Mar- 
quess, 1831 : G.C.H., 1831 : Military 
Governor of Portsmouth, 1840 : Lt- 
General, 1851 : Colonel of 36th regt., 
1851 : C. in C, Bombay, Nov. 1852 : died 
Oct. 30, 1854. 



OSWALD (1840- ) ^%M 

Born June 6, 1840 : son of General 
J ames Fitzgerald : educated at Edinburgh 
Academy : joined the Indian Army, 1857 : 
served in the mutiny : Adjutant of Central 
India Horse, i860 : Adjutant 3rd Cavalry 
Hyderabad Contingent, 1862 : commanded 
3rd H.C. Cavalry in Afghan campaign, 
1880 : Political A.D.C. to Secretary of 
State for India, 1882 : commanded his 
regiment in the Burma campaign, 1886-8 : 
C.B., 1887. 


(1833- ) 

Son of Francis Fitzgerald, Galway : 
educated at S. Mary's College, Galway, and 
in France : began life as a clerk in the War 
Office, 1856, and became Assistant Comp- 
troller-General of India, 1869 : Account- 
ant-General of Madras, 1871; Burma,i873 : 
served under the Egyptian Government, 
1877-84 : Accountant-General of the 
Navy, xS8s : K.C.M.G., 1885. 


Born 1841 : son of Right Hon. Sir 
William R. S. Vesey Fitzgerald, Governor 
of Bombay : educated at Harrow and 
Oriel College, Oxford : Political A.D.C. 
to the Secretary of State for India, 1874 : 
K.C.I.E., 1887: C.S.I., 1887. 


Governor ; son of William, second 
Baron Fitzgerald and Vesey : born 1818 : 
educated at Oriel College, Oxford : 
Newdigate Prize, 1835 : B.A., 1837 : 
called to the bar, from Lincoln's Inn, 1839 : 
M. P. for Horsham, 1852-65 : Under Secre- 
tary for Foreign Affairs, 1858-9 : was 
Governor of Bombay from March 6, 1867, 
to May 6, 1872 : Privy Councillor, 1866 : 
K.C.S.I. in 1867 : G.C.S.I. in 1868 : again 
M.P. for Horsham, 1874-5 : Chief 
Charity Commissioner, 1875 : D.C.L. of 
Oxford : died June 28, 1885. 

VESEY, LORD (1783-1843) 

Born 1783 : son of Rt. Hon. James 
Fitzgerald : educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford : M.P. for Ennis, 1898 and 1831 : 

for Clare County, 181 8 : for boroughs in 
Cornwall, 1829-30 : Lord of the Treasury, 
and Privy Councillor in Ireland and 
England : EnvoyExtraordinary to Sweden, 
1820-3 : President of the Board of Trade, 
1828 : acceded to his mother's Irish 
Peerage, 1832 : made an English Peer, 
1835 : President of the Board of Control, 
1 841-3 : F.S.A. and President of the Royal 
Asiatic Society : died May 11, 1843. 


(1837- ) 

I.C.S. : born 1837 : educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin : entered the Indian Civil 
Service : called to the bar from the Inner 
Temple : acted as Judge of the Pan jab 
Chief Court, 1876-7 : was Secretary to 
the Government of India in the Legislative 
Department, 1877-85 : Secretary in the 
Home Department, 1885: acting Chief Com- 
missioner of the Central Provinces. 1885- 
87 : Acting Resident in Mysore : Chief 
Commissioner oft Assam: Resident at 
Hyderabad : Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Panjab, 1892-7 : Member of the Council 
of India since 1897 : K.C.S.I., 1890. 


I.C.S. : educated at Merchant Taylors 
and University College, London : went 
out to Bombay, 1867 : epigraphist to 
the Government of India, 1883 : 
Commissioner in Bombay, Central and 
Southern Divisions, and Commissioner 
of Customs : CLE., 1884 : retired, 1897 : 
Hon. Ph.D. of Gottingen, 1892 : author 
of Gupta Inscriptions : Dynasties of the 
Kanarese Districts : and numerous contri- 
butions to the Indian Antiquary, the 
Archceological Reports of W. India, the 
Epigraphia Indica : joint proprietor and 
Editor of the Indian Antiquary, 1885-91. 


Born 1727 : commanded two vessels 
of the E.I. Co. : after good service and 
retirement, he became Director of the 
E.I. Co. for 18 years, and Chairman of the 
Court in 1782 and 1783 : M.P. for Cum- 
berland, 1768-1806 : Baronet, 1782 : in 
Fox's India Bill, which was not carried, 
he was nominated one of the 7 Commis- 
sioners for the affairs of Asia : stated his 
opinion in Parliament that it would have 
been better for England and Europe if the 



East Indies had never been discovered ; 
but that India, having once been acquired, 
must never be given up : died March 25, 


When a Lieutenant in the Madras Army, 
he was summarily dismissed for wTiting 
an insolent letter to Government, but 
apologized and was reinstated at Coote's 
intercession : served in the war, 1 760-1 : 
sent to reconnoitre the French settlements 
at Bourbon and in the Mauritius : in the 
Manilla expedition, 1762 : transferred to 
Bengal as Major, 1763 : Brigadier, 1766 : 
fomented and encouraged the mutiny of 
oflacers against the withdrawal of extra 
hatta, 1766 : cashiered : restored : to 
Madras as Colonel, i77i : C. in C. Madras, 
1772 : being obstructive, was sent to com- 
mand at Trichinopoly, i773 '• pleaded 
privilege as M.P. and claimed to return to 
England, which was allowed : returned to 
Madras as C. in C. i775 = was arrested by 
Lord Pigot's order, Aug. 23, 1776, for caus- 
ing mutiny among the troops : implicated 
in the arrest of Lord Pigot, Aug. 25, 1776 : 
died on his way to Mauritius, Dec. 1776. 



Son of Capt. John Floyd : born Feb. 
22, 1748 : entered the Army as Cornet in 
Elliot's Light Dragoons in 1760 : was riding 
master in 1763 to his regt.,the 15th Hussars: 
went to India in 178 1-2, as Lt-Colonel of 
the 19th Light Dragoons : greatly distin- 
guished-himself as a cavalry commander on 
the Coromandel coast in Cornwallis' cam- 
paign of i7Q 1-2, especially at Sattimanga- 
lum, 1790, and afterwards against Tippoo : 
was at Bangalore, and Arikera, in 1791 : 
at Seringapatam, 1792 : at the capture of 
Bangalore, 1793 : Maj-General, 1794 : in 
the second war with Tippoo, commanded 
the cavalry under General Harris : was 
at Malavilli, and commanded the covering 
Army during the siege of Seringapatam, 
1799 : returned to England in 1800 : held 
command in Ireland : General, 1812 : 
Governor of Gravesend and Tilbury : 
Baronet, 1816 : died Jan, 10. 1818. 

FORBES, ARCHIBALD (1838-1900) 

The famous war correspondent : son of 
the Rev. Lewis^William Forbes : born 

1838 : educated at Aberdeen and Edin- 
burgh : enlisted in the Royal Dragoons, 
1857 : left the Army in 1867 : wrote on 
military life in the public Press : after 
conducting a weekly journal, 1867-71, 
made his reputation as a war correspondent 
for the Daily News, in the Franco- Prussian 
war, 1870-1 : the Russo-Turkish war 
of 1877 : the Zulu war, 1879-80 : and 
other wars : in India as a special corre- 
spondent in the Bengal-Bihar famine of 
1874, where — as Sir R. Temple wrote, "he 
pourtrayed with graphic force and absolute 
fidelity, for the information of the English 
public, the mortal peril to which the people 
were exposed, and from which they could 
be rescued only by the utmost exertions 
of the Government " : — during the visit 
of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales to India, 
1875-6, during the Afghan War, 1878-9, 
and went to Mandalay, to have 
interviews with King Theebaw. He 
visited the United States and Australia 
as a lecturer and correspondent. Besides 
his works on wars in other countries, and 
on other distinguished soldiers, he wrote 
The Aff^han Wars of 1839 and 1879 ; Have- 
lock, and Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde 
{" Men of Action " series), and on certain 
distinguished officers in The Soldiers I 
have Known : died March 30, 1900. 

FORBES, ARTHUR (1843- ) 

I.C.S. : son of Rev. E. Forbes, D.D. : 
educated at Sedburgh and St. John's 
College,Cambridge : steered the Cambridge 
Eight against Oxford in 1866 and 1867 : 
went to Bengal in the Indian Civil Service, 
1867 : Deputy Commissioner in Assam, 
1875 : Officiating Commissioner of Excise, 
Bengal, 1890 : Commissioner of Dacca, 
1891 : Patna, 1892-6 : Chota Nagpur, 
1896-1902 : C.S.I., 1895. 



Son of the Rev. George Forbes : born 
in 1774 : educated at Aberdeen University 
(afterwards Lord Rector) : went out to 
India and was for many years head of the 
firm of Forbes & Co., of Bombay : on 
returning to England he became M.P. for 
Beverley, 1812-18, and represented 
Malmesbury, 1818-32 : when he left India 
the natives gave him a service of plate : 
and, 27 years after he had left Bombay, 
his statue by Sir F. Chantrey was placed 



in the Bombay Town Hall : he had a high 
reputation in the commerical world, and 
had done much to develop the country, 
and raise the status of the natives : he 
steadily demanded justice for India in 
Parliament and the Court of Proprietors 
of the E.I. Co. : became Forbes of Newe : 
made Baronet in 1823 : died Nov. 20, 1849. 

FORBES, DAVID (1777 P-1849) 

Son of a Scottish minister, joined 
the 78th Highlanders, 1790: served 
in the Netherlands, at Quiberon and 
Belle Isle : went to India in 1796 : 
escorted Sir John Shore to Lucknow 
in 1798 to depose Wazir Ali {q.v.) : 
in the Mahratta campaign of 1803 : at 
Ahmadnagar, etc. : in the Java expedition 
of 1811-13 under Sir S. Auchmuty, led the 
assaults at Waltevreede and Cornells : 
was at Probolingo (in Java) in 1813 : 
Lt-Colonel, 1814 : returned home in 1817, 
the only officer of forty-two who had gone 
out : C.B., 1838 : Maj-General, 1846 : 
died March 29, 1849. 

FORBES, DUNCAN (1798-1868) 

Born April 28, 1798, of poor parents : 
became a village schoolmaster : went to 
Perth Grammar School, 181 8 : M.A. of St. 
Andrew's in 1823, and LL.D. in 1847: taught 
in Calcutta, at the Calcutta Academy, 
1823-6 : became assistant teacher of 
Hindustani in London, 1826 : Professor 
of Oriental languages at King's College, 
London, taking pupils, 1837-61 : made a 
•catalogue of the Persian MSS. at the 
British Museum, 1849-55 = wrote a History 
■of Chess, including its invention in India : 
also a number of works, grammars, 
dictionaries, manuals in Oriental languages, 
Arabic, Persian, Hindustani, Bengali : so 
that his name, though he made no claim 
to profound scholarship, is well known to 
students : Member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society : died Aug. 17, 1868. 

FORBES, SIR JOHN (1817- ) 

Of Inverarnan, Aberdeenshire : born 
June 10, 1817 : entered 3rd Bombay 
Light Cavalry (now 33rd Queen's Own 
Light Cavalry), 1835 : became Colonel, 
1864 : General, 1886 : served in the field 
Force in Sind : at the siege of the Kojak : 
in ^Afghanistan, 1 841-2, including the 
advance on Kandahar, Ghazni and Kabul, 
action at Guine, under Genl. Nott : in the 

Field Force in Sind in 1843 : at the battle 
of Hyderabad : in the Persian 'expedi- 
tionary force, 1856-7, at the assault and 
capture of the fort of Reshire : of the 
surrender of Bushire : at Barazjan and 
in action of Khushab (severely wounded) : 
Brevet-Major : C.B. : with the Central 
Indian Field Force from capture of Jhansi 
and siege of Ratghar to the fall of Kalpi : 
Brevet-Colonel : present at the battle of 
Solferino with the staff of the King of 
Italy : commanded a Division of the Bom- 
bay Army, 1876-81 : K.C.B., 1881 : 
appointed Hon. Col. 33rd Queen's Own 
Light Cavalry, 1904 : G.C.B. 



I.C.S. : born March 29, 1820 : son of 
Gordon Forbes, B.C.S. : educated at 
Cheam and Haileybury, 1836-8 : went 
to Madras, 1838 : was Collector of Ganjam, 
1858-67. and did good work in the famine 
relief operations, 1866-7 : Member of the 
Board of Revenue, Madras, and Additional 
Member of the Governor-General's Legis- 
lative Council : retired, 1874 : died April 
26, 1893 : wrote Wild Life in Canara, 
a work on Natural History and Sport : 
helped to found a charity in Madras for 
the relief of destitute Europeans in India. 

FORBES, JAMES (1749-1819) 

I.C.S. : born in 1749 : went out to 
Bombay in 1765 : was Private Secretary 
to Col. Keating in 1775 and Chaplain of the 
force in the expedition to assist Raghoba : 
held minor charges in India, but made a 
competency and left India in 1784* with 
150 volumes of materials, including draw- 
ings, of Indian subjects : after the rupture 
of the Peace of Amiens he was detained in 
France till 1804, when he returned to 
England : published his Oriental Memoirs, 
in four volumes, 181 3-5 • F.R.S. and 
F.S.A : Montalembert, the historian, was 
his grandson : died Aug. i, 18 19. 



Born March 12, 1851, in Switerzland : 
son of a Protestant pastor: educated at 
home and New Orleans : studied medicine, 
graduated. Doctor : Assistant Surgeon at 
a hospital : turned to languages : travelled 
among American Indian tribes : to Europe, 
1875, to Leipzig : studied Sanskrit, Pali, 



Tibetan, Chinese, Arabic : appointed, 
T879,*Professor of Pali at the Government 
High School, Rangoon : investigated the 
sacred and vernacular literature of Burma : 
catalogued Pali MSS., and wrote on Bur- 
mese la^v : edited the Tripitaka, or Budd- 
hist Canon : besides his educational work, 
studied other Burmese vernaculars, Shan, 
Karen, etc. : wrote on Indo-Chinese lan- 
guages and Burmese dialects : employed on 
archaeological investigations and decipher- 
ment of ancient inscriptions : made an 
archaeological survey of Arakan : surveyed 
the temple ruins of Pagan, 1888 : collected 
a quantity of MSS., etc. : did good work as 
antiquarian and philologist in Burma : 
died April 26, 1890. 

FORD, ARTHUR (1834- 

Bom Aug. 15, 1834 : son of Arthiu: 
Ford : educated at Grosvenor College, 
Bath, and St. John's College, Cambridge : 
entered R.A., 1855 : Lt-Colonel, 1881 : 
Colonel : retired, 1883 : served in the 
Indian mutiny, 1857-8 : relief, siege and 
capture of Lucknow : wounded : Assistant 
Director of Artillery studies at Woolwich, 
1870-3 : Inspector of Explosives, Home 
Office, 1873-99 : C.B., 1895. 

FORD, WILLIAM (1821-1905) 

I.C.S. : born Nov. 29, 1821 : son of 
Sir Francis Ford, Bart. : educated at 
Haileybury : entered the Bengal Civil 
Service, 1843 : served in the Indian 
mutiny, in the Gurgaon district : saved a 
number of Christian fugitives : present 
at the siege of Delhi; saw service with 
General Showers : Commissioner of Mul- 
tan, 1862 : Agent at Bahawalpur, 1866, 
where he suppressed a mutiny : C.S.I., 
1866 : author of several novels, of which 
the latest is Prince Baber and his Wives : 
wrote also A Viceroy of India (Lord 
Lawrence) ; died June 18, 1905. 

FORDE, ARTHUR W. (P-1883-5 ?) 

Was engaged on the construction of 
Irish railways: went to India, 1855, as 
Chief Engineer of the B.B. and C.I. 
Railways : advocated the light railway 
system for purely agricultural districts, 
with tramways and feeder lines : wrote 
a pamphlet ^^ 10,000 miles against 5,000,'^ 
and lectured in Bombay on " Railway 
Extension in India, with special reference 
to the export of wheat " : practised as 

Consulting Engineer in Bombay and 
other parts of India : was for 7 years 
Consulting Engineer to the Bombay 
Municipality : constructed the first wet- 
dock, the Sassoon dock at Colaba, Bombay : 
engaged on the water-supply and drainage 
of Bombay : M.I.C.E. : retired, after 
about 30 years in India, soon after 1880 : 
died about 1883-5. 

FORDE, FRANCIS ( ? -1770) 

Colonel : son of Matthew Forde : 
Captain in the 39th regt., 1746 : Major, 
1755 : was repulsed in an attack on 
Nellore, May, 1757 : joined the E.I. Co.'s 
Army in Bengal, 1758, as second to Clive : 
sent by Clive in Oct. 1758, with 500 
Europeans and 2,000 sepoys to Vizagapa- 
tam, to create a diversion against the 
French in the Northern Sircars : defeated 
the Marquis de Conflans (who had replaced 
Bussy) at Condore, Dec. 1758 : took 
Rajamundry and Masulipatam in April, 
1759 : thus gaining the N. Sircars and 
expelling the French : defeated the Dutch 
at Chinsura : went to England with 
Clive, who was his friend : and, on his 
recommendation,was one of the Commission 
of three (with Vansittart and Seraf ton) sent 
from England in 1769 to overhaul the 
Bengal administration : after touching 
at the Cape in Dec. 1769, their vessel was 
lost at sea. 

FORDYCE, SIR JOHN ( ? -1877) 

Lt-General : entered the Bengal Artil- 
lery in 1822 : was in the first Burmese 
war, at the capture of Arakan : in the 
Satlaj campaign of 1845-6 : at Firozshahr 
and Sobraon : in the advance on Lahore : 
in the Panjab campaign of 1848-9, at 
Chilianwala and Gujarat, in the pursuit of 
the Sikhs, and of the Afghans to the 
Khyber : commanded the Artillery in the 
Yusafzai country in 1849 and at the forcing 
of the Kohat Pass in 1850 by Sir C. 
Napier : Colonel Commandant, 1873 : 
K.C.B., 1877. 

FORJETT, CHARLES ( ? -1890) 

Deputy, and, later, the Commissioner 
of Police, Bombay, from 1855, and 
President of the Board, or Chief Municipal 
Commissioner of Bombay : his energetic 
action, in Sep. 1857, stopped a contem- 
plated sepoy outbreak and saved Bom- 
bay : his high character, knowledge of 



the natives and fitness for his position 
generally admitted : much trusted by 
Lord Elphinstone, the Governor of Bom- 
bay : was presented with purses on 
retirement, and received an extra pension : 
regarded himself as slighted, being unde- 
corated : died Jan. 27, 1890 : wrote Our 
Real Danger in India, 1877. 


Maj -General : born Nov. 1824 : edu- 
cated as an p:ngineer : joined the Indian 
Army, 1843 : in the S. Mahratta Company, 
1845-6 : in the Madras Army, 1847 : in 
the second Burmese war, 1852 : after the 
annexation, was head of the P.W.D. 
there : travelled widely, 1858-9 : on 
special public works, inquiries and con- 
struction of prisons in the Andamans : 
Superintending Engineer in Bengal, 
N.W.P., Rajputana, 1861-71 : Secretary 
and Chief Engineer, Oudh, 1872-7 : 
retired : wrote largely in periodicals on 
religions, archaeology, philology : wrote 
the Rivers of Life, or the Faiths of Mankind 
in all Lands, 1883 ; Short Studies in the 
Science of Comparative Religions, embracing 
all the Religions of Asia : a student of 
exploration, thought, and research in 
Oriental subjects : well versed in Indian 
religions and folklore of the East : died 
March 29, 1904. 


(1846- ) 

Born Jan. 8, 1846 : son of Capt. George 
Forrest, V.C. : educated privately and at 
St. John's College, Cambridge : appointed 
to Bombay Educational Department, 
1872 : Census Commissioner at Bombay, 
1882 : on special duty in connexion with 
Bombay Records, 1884-8 : Professor of 
English History, Elphinstone College, 
1887 : Director of Bombay Records, 1888 : 
Assistant Secretary to the Government of 
India : Director of Government of India 
Records, 1894-1900 : C.I.E., 1899 : wrote 
articles on "The Deforestation of India" 
in the Bombay Gazette : author of 
various Selections from State Papers : 
The Administration of Warren Hastings, 
The Administration of Lord Lansdowne, 
Sepoy Generals, Cities of India, History 
of the Indian Mutiny, etc. : F.R.G.S. 

FORREST, THOMAS (1729 ?-1802 ?) 
Midshipman, R.N., in 1745 : in the E.I. 
Co.'s service after 1748 : commanded a 

ship from 1762 : made fifteen voyages 
from India to the East, and four from 
England to India : he formed a settlement 
in 1770 at Balambangan, and in 1774-6 
explored in New Guinea, the Sulu Archi- 
pelago, the Moluccas, etc., and wrote an 
account of his voyages : employed by 
Warren Hastings to obtain news of the 
French fleet which had escaped the 
English ships; he found it atAchin, and 
the information was very valuable. 
He made a voyage " from Bengal to 
Quedah " in 1783, and a voyage " from 
Calcutta to the Mergui Archipelago," 
1790, discovering the Forrest Strait : 
besides other papers, he wrote a Treatise 
on the Monsoons in East India, 1782 : 
died about 1802. 

FORSTER, GEORGE ( ? -1792) 

In the E.I. Co.'s Civil Service, in 1782 : 
he travelled from India through Kashmir, 
Afghanistan, Herat, Persia, by the Caspian 
Sea to Russia : wrote A Journey from 
Bengal to England, through the Northern 
Part of India, Kashmir, Afghanistan, and 
Persia, and into Russia by the Caspian 
Sea, 1798 : also Sketches of the Mythology 
and Customs of the Hindus : in 1792, he 
died at Nagpur, on an embassy to the 

FORSTER, HENRY (1793-1862) 

Son of Henry Pitts Forster {q.v.), of 
the E.I. Co.'s Civil Service : entered the 
Mahratta Army, but joined " Skinner's 
Horse" in 1816: was second in com- 
mand in 1822 : was in the Pindari cam- 
paign, and at Mahidpur : about 1834 he 
raised the Shekhawati Brigade and won 
several engagements against insurgents 
in Rajputana : was in the Satlaj campaign 
of 1845-6 with his Brigade : made C.B. and 
Colonel in the Queen's Army in 1854. 
In the mutiny his Shekhawati battalion 
was deputed to reduce the rebel 34th 
N.I., in Chota Nagpur : died in Calcutta, 
Oct. 9, 1862. 

FORSTER, HENRY PITTS ( 1766 ?-1816) 

In the E.I. Co.'s Bengal Civil Service, 
joined in 1783 : Registrar of the Sadr 
DiwaniA dalat of the Twenty-four Parganas, 
1794 : pubUshed the first English-Bengali 
vocabulary in 1799-1802, and, largely 
through his efforts, Bengali became the 
official as well as the literary language of 



Bengal : studied Sanskrit, and laboriously 
translated a native grammar : became 
master of the Calcutta Mint : died in 
India, Sep. lo, 1815, 

FORSYTH, JAMES (1838-1871) 

Born in 1838 : took his M.A. degree : 
went to India as acting Conservator of 
Forests : served in the Central Provinces 
as Deputy Commissioner of Nimar : 
joined the Staff Corps : was a keen 
sportsman : wrote The Sporting Rifle and 
its Projectiles, 1863 : made a long tour in 
the Central Provinces, 1862-4, and wrote 
The Highlands of Central India : Notes 
on their Forests and Wild Tribes, Natural 
History and Sports, which appeared in 
1871, after his death on May i, 1871. 

FORSYTH, SIR JOHN (1799-1883) 
Principal Inspr-General in H.M.S. 
Indian Medical Department, Bengal : 
Honorary Physician to Queen Victoria : 
died Jan. 14, 1883 : C.B., 1862 : K.C.S.I., 


Born 1769 in Dumfriesshire : educated 
at Glasgow, and at the Divinity Hall, 
under the Rev. Professor G. Lawson, of 
the New Burgher Associate Synod : be- 
came a tutor at an academy, Islington, and 
a candidate for missionary work : arrived 
in Bengal, Dec. 1798, as the first missionary 
sent out by the London Missionary 
Society : allowed to preach in Dr. Dun- 
widdie's lecture-room in CossitoUa, Cal- 
cutta : also at the General Hospital and 
the Fort : held charge of the Settlement 
Church at Chinsura, and managed a 
large school there, 1805 : he and Dr. 
Carey opened the Lai Bazar Chapel, Jan. 

I, 1809 : died at Chandernagore, Feb. 

II, 1816. 



I.C.S. : son of Thomas Forsyth, mer- 
chant : born Oct. 7, 1827 : educated at 
Sherborne, Rugby and Haileybury : ar- 
rived at Calcutta, 1848 : went to the 
Panjab, after the annexation of 1849 : 
at the outbreak of the mutiny was Deputy 
Commissioner of Umballa : reported on 
the disaffection, and controlled the Sikh 
States : was a Special Commissioner for 

punishing the rebels, after the fall of 
Delhi: Secretary to the Chief Commis- 
sioner of Oudh : C.B. : went to Leh in 
1867 to promote trade with Turkistan : 
established the Palampmr fair : sent to 
Russia on diplomatic mission : obtained 
from the Russian Government an acknow- 
ledgment that certain disputed terri- 
tories belonged to the Amir of Afghanistan : 
went in 1870 to Yarkand : in 1872, lost 
his appointment as Commissioner of 
Umbala for supporting his subordinate's 
measures in putting down the Kooka 
outbreak at Malair Kotla : led a mission 
to Kashgar, 1873-4 : K.C.S.I. in 1874 : 
Additional Member of the Governor- 
General's Legislative Council, 1874 : En- 
voy to Burma in 1875 : obtained an 
agreement to the independence of the 
Karenni states : retired in 1877 : died 
Dec. 17, 1886. 

FORTESCUE, THOMAS (1784-1872) 

I.C.S. : born 1784 : son of Gerald 
Fortescue, Secretary to his cousin Henry 
Wellesley (1773-1847 : Baron Cowley, 
1828), youngest brother of the Marquess 
Wellesley, who was Lieutenant-Governor 
of the ceded Province of Oudh from Nov. 
1 801 to 1803, when he quitted India : 
Fortescue was Commissioner at Delhi, 
1803 : died Sep. 7, 1872. 

FORTESCUE, ROBERT (1813-1880) 

Born Sep. 16, 1813 : educated at the 
Edrom Parish School : became a Super- 
intendent in the Royal Horticultural 
Society's garden at Chiswick : visited 
China, Java, Manilla, 1842-6, as collector : 
to China again in 1848, to collect tea 
plants and seeds for the E.I. Co. : in 
1 85 1 introduced many of them into the 
N.W.P. : wrote a Report on the Tea 
Plantations in the N.W.P., and Two 
Visits to the Tea Countries of China, and 
the British Plantations in the Himalayas, 
1853 : also visited Formosa, and wrote 
other accounts of his travels in the Far 
East : died April 13, 1880. 



Son of Edward Foster : entered the 
Army, 1836 : served with the i6th 
Lancers in the Afghan war, 1841-2, under 
Sir J. Keane : at Ghazni : at Maharajpur, 
1843 : and in the Satlaj campaign, 1846 : 


at Badiwal, Aliwal and Sobraon : Captain, 
1847 : General, 1885 : Member of the 
Council of India, 1878-88 : C.B., 1877 : 
Colonel of the 21st Hussars, 1872-6, and 
of the i6th Lancers, 1886 : K.C.B., 1893 : 
died Feb. 11, 1896. 

Born Nov. 19, 1863 : son of William 
Foster : educated at Cooper's Grammar 
School and London University : joined 
the India Office, 1882 : edited India 
Office List, 1891-5 : Assistant to the 
Registrar and Superintendent of Records, 
1 901 : Hon. Secretary to the Hakluyt 
Society, 1 893-1 902 : has edited several 
old records, including The Embassy of 
Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of the Great 
Mogul, 1615-19, and, with Sir G. Bird- 
wood, The First Letter-hook of the East 
India Company, 1600-19. 

FOULIS, SIR EDWARD (1768-1843) 
Arrived in India, 1789 : in the 3rd 
Cavalry in Mysore under Cornwallis, 
1791-2 : at sieges of Bangalore, Savandrug, 
Seringapatam, Pondicherry : in the My- 
sore war under General Harris, 1788-91, 
at Malavilli and Seringapatam : under 
Col. A. Wellesley, against Dhoondia 
Waugh, saw much active service : Re- 
mount agent for Madras cavalry, 1807 : 
commanded Light Cavalry, 1815 : in 
Pindari war, 1817 : commanded at Arcot, 
1819 : held various cavalry commands : 
Maj-General, 1837 : K.C.B. : died April 
12, 1843. 


(1830- ) 

Born May 16, 1830 : educated at 
Woodhouse Grove School, and St. Saviour's 
Grammar School : Mayor of Wolver- 
hampton, 1863 : M.P. for Wolverhampton 
since 1880 : Under Secretary, Home 
Department, 1884-5 = Financial Secretary 
to the Treasury, 1886 : President of the 
Local Government Board, 1892-4 : Secre- 
tary of State for India, March 10, 1894, 
to July 5, 1895 : G.C.S.I., 1895 : P.C. : 

FOX, CHARLES JAMES (1749-1806) 

Third son of Henry Fox, Lord Holland : 
born Jan. 24, 1749 : educated at Wands- 
worth, Eton and Hertford College, Oxford, 
1764-6 : M.P. for Midhurst, 1768 : for 

Westminster, 1780: held office in the 
Government, 1770-2: 1772-4: attacked 
Lord Clive in Parliament, 1773 ; Foreign 
Secretary, 1782-3, 1806 : Fox introduced 
into Parliament, Nov. 18, 1783, his Bills, 
prepared with Burke's aid, for the better 
Government of India : by the first Bill, 
he proposed to establish a Board of 7 
Commissioners to hold office for 4 years 
and have absolute control over the 
patronage and Government of India : 
with a Board of 8 Assistant Councillors 
to administer the commercial affairs of 
the E.I. Co. : by the second Bill, restric- 
tions were imposed upon the free action 
of the Governor-General. The first Bill 
passed the House of Commons, but was 
rejected by the House of Lor'ds, by the 
King's influence, Dec. 17, 1783 : the 
second Bill made no progress. When his 
party attacked Warren Hastings, 1786, 
Fox spoke for the Rohilla charge, and 
June 13, brought forward the Benares 
charge, which he carried : spoke in 
favour of the charge relating to the Begams 
of Oudh, 1787 : took a leading part in 
settling the articles of impeachment of 
Hastings : was a manager of the trial : 
again led the Benares charge in the trial, 
1788 : spoke against the abatement of the 
impeachment by the dissolution of Par- 
liament, 1789 : died Sep. 13, 1806. 

FOX, HENRY WATSON (1817-1848) 
Missionary : son of George Townshend 
Fox : born 1817 : educated at Rugby and 
Wadham College, Oxford : ordained, 
1840 : to Madras in 1841 as a missionary 
of the Church Missionary Society : worked 
at Masulipatam : visited the Nilgiris, 
Travancore, Tinnivelly : became Assistant 
Secretary to the Society : died at Durham, 
Oct. 14, 1848 : wrote Chapters on Mis- 
sions in South India. 

FRANCIS, SIR PHILIP (1740-1818) 

Son of the Rev. PhiUp Francis : born 
Oct. 22, 1740 : educated at Dublin and 
St. Paul's School : became a junior clerk 
in the Secretary of State's office : Secre- 
tary to General E. Bligh and at the capture 
of Cherbourg in 1758 : Secretary to Lord 
KinnouU's Embassy at Lisbon, 1760 : 
amanuensis to Pitt, 176 1-2 : clerk at the 
War Office, 1762 : resigned in March, 
1772, for some unexplained reason. 
Dmring those years, " Junius' letters " 



appeared, which for many grounds have 
been attributed to Francis. Their iden- 
tity, first suggested by Taylor in 1813, 
1816, may be considered to have been 
established. After the passing of the 
Regulating Act of 1773 for India, Francis 
was appointed a member of the new 
Supreme Council in India. He and his 
colleagues, Clavering and Monson, arrived 
at Calcutta on Oct. 19, 1774 = these three 
opposed Warren Hastings, the Governor- 
General, and Harwell iq.v.), the remaining 
Member of the Supreme Council : being 
a majority, they had great power. 
Francis took the side of Nuncomar {q.v.), 
after the latter had accused Hastings of 
corruption. Nuncomar was hanged for 
forgery on Aug. 5, 1775. The death of 
Monson, on Sep. 25, i77f» gave Hastings 
the casting vote. Barwell left India in 
March, 1780 : Francis resumed his opposi- 
tion to Hastings, who wrote a minute 
accusing Francis of faithlessness and 
breach of trust and honour. Francis 
challenged him, and a duel took place on 
Aug. 17, 1780, in which Francis was 
badly wounded. He left India in Dec. 
1780. In 1778 Francis was defendant 
in a crim. con. charge brought against 
him by G. F. Grand of the Indian Civil 
Service. Francis was sentenced by Impey 
to pay 50,000 rupees damages. He 
retired with a large fortune, but was very 
coldly received in England, except at 
Court. He became M.P. for Yarmouth, 
1784 : assisted Burke in preparing the 
charges against Hastings, but was not 
accepted as a manager of the impeach- 
ment. M.P. for Bletchingley, 1790; for 
Appleby, 1802 : K.C.B. in Oct. 1806 : 
made an elaborate speech on India in 
April, 1805 : he hoped to be Governor- 
General of India, but failed to obtain it 
from Fox, with whom he quarrelled : he 
died Dec. 22, 1818. It is said that he 
made many anonymous contributions to 
the Press : his capacity, industry, coxurage, 
and certain good principles in his character 
have to be set against his malignity, 
vindictiveness, and unscrupulous conduct : 
his life and career have been minutely 

FRANCKLIN, WILLIAM (1763-18.39) 

Son of Thomas Francklin : born 1763 : 
educated at Westminster and Trinity 
College, Cambridge : entered the E.I. 

Co.'s Bengal N.I., 1783 : Lt-Colonel, 

1814 : regulating oiBcer, Bhagalpur, 

1815 : retired in India, 1825 : travelled 
in Persia in 1786 : published his journal : 
wrote The History of the Reign of Shah- 
Aulam, the present Emperor of Hindustan, 
1798 : Inquiry concerning the Site of the 
Ancient Palibothra, 1815-22 : besides 
translations, literary papers, contributions 
to Asiatic Researches, etc. : Member of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and Member 
of Council and Librarian of the Royal 
Asiatic Society: died in India, April 12, 


(1844- ) 

Educated at University College, London, 
and Paris : entered the Indian Medical 
Service, 1869 : Civil Surgeon, Simla, 
1881-6 : Inspr-General of Hospitals, 
N.W.P., 1899 : and Panjab, 1900-1 : 
Director-General, Indian Medical Service : 
CLE., 1898 : K.C.I. E., 1903. 

FRANKS, SIR JOHN (1770-1852) 

Son of Thomas Franks : born in 1770 : 
took his degree at Trinity College, Dublin : 
called to the Irish bar, 1792 : appointed 
in 1825 a Judge of the Supreme Court, 
Calcutta, and knighted : retired for his 
health in 1834 : died Jan. 11, 1852. 



Son of William Franks : born 1808 : 
entered the loth regt. in 1825 : Lt- 
Colonel, 1845 : to India in 1842 : in the 
first Sikh war, 1845-6 : was at Sobraon, 
wounded : C.B, : in the Panjab campaign 
of 1848-9, was at the siege of Multan, 
Surajkund, and at Gujarat : Colonel, 

1854 : commanded the Jalandhar Brigade, 

1855 : in the mutiny, as Brig-General, 
marched across the frontier of Oudh, and 
joined with Jang Bahadur of Nipal : 
defeated the rebels, Banda Husain, at 
Chanda, and Mehndi Husain Nazim at 
Hamirpur in Feb. 1858, but failed to take 
Daurara fort : joined Sir Colin Campbell 
at the capture of Lucknow, March, 1858 : 
Maj-General and K.C.B. , 1858 : returned 
to England : died Feb. 5, 1862. 

FRASER, ALEXANDER (1824-1898) 
General : son of James Eraser : edu- 
cated at Addiscombe : entered the Indian 



Engineers, 1843 : in the Satlaj cam- 
paign, 1845-6 : and the Panjab campaign, 
1848-9 : in the Burmese war, 1852-3 : 
employed on the construction of light- 
houses on the coast of Burma : Chief 
Engineer in the N.W.P., 1873-9 • Member 
of the Supreme Council, March-June, 
1880: C.B. : died June 11, 1898. 

SON LEITH (1848- ) 

I.C.S. : born Nov. 14, 1848 : son of 
Rev. A. G. Fraser, D.D. : educated at 
Edinburgh Academy and University : 
entered the Indian Civil Service, 1871 : 
served in the Central Provinces : Officiat- 
ing Secretary to the Government of India, 
Home Department, 1898-9 : Chief Com- 
missioner of Central Provinces, 1899 : 
President of the Indian Police Commis- 
sion, 1902-3 : Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal since Nov. 1903 : C.S.I. , 1897 : 
K.C.S.I., 1903. 



Son of Lt -Colonel Sir James John 
Fraser, Bart. : joined the nth Hussars : 
served with the 7th Hussars at the siege 
and capture of Delhi, 1857 : Brevet- 
Major : gained the V.C. on Dec. 31, 1858, 
for rescuing, while under sharp fire, an 
officer and some men from drowning in 
the river Rapti : in the Abyssinian 
expedition, 1867-8 : at capture of Mag- 
dala : C.B. : A.D.C. to the C. in C. 1873- 
80 : Inspr-General of Cavalry, 1879-84 : 
Maj-General : K.C.B. : M.P. for N. 
Lambeth, 1885-92 : died June 7, 1895. 

FRASER, HUGH ( ? -1858) 
Of the Bengal Engineers : Chief En- 
gineer at Agra when the mutiny of 1857 
broke out : C.B. : Colonel : made Chief 
Commissioner for Agra and its dependen- 
cies, Sep. 30, 1857, to Feb. 9, 1858 : acted 
with energy : died at Mussoorie, Aug. 12, 

FRASER, JAMES (1713-1754) 

Born 1713 : son of Alexander Fraser of 
Reelick : went to India, to Surat : re- 
sided there, 1730-40 : learnt Sanskrit 
and Zend : returning to England for 
about two years, he wrote a history of 
Nadir Shah, the King of Persia, who 
invaded India : Fraser returned to India 

as a factor in the E.I. Co.'s service : rose 
to be a Member of Council at Surat, 
where he stayed six years : he brought to 
England some 200 Sanskrit and Zend 
MSS., the first " collection " brought 
to Europe, which are now in the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford : he had formed plans 
of working in Zend and Sanskrit, but 
died early, Jan. 21, 1754. 

Born June 11, 1783 : son of Edward 
Satchell Fraser : with his brother William 
iq.v.), and an escort, explored the Hima- 
layas in 1 815, to the sources of the Jamna 
and Ganges : in 1821, he accompanied 
Dr. Jukes to Persia, to Mashad, Kurdistan 
and Tabriz : in 1833-4, on a diplomatic 
mission to Persia, he rode from Semlin to 
Constantinople, and from Stamboul to 
Teheran : attended on the Persian Princes 
on their visit to England, 1835-6 : wrote 
narratives of his travels in Persia and 
connected countries, and some works of 
fiction : also the Military Memoir of Lt- 
Colonel lames Skinner: C.B., 1851 : was 
also an amateur artist : died Jan. 1856. 

FRASER, JAMES STUART (178.3-1869) 

Son of Colonel Charles Fraser : born 
July I, 1783 : educated at Ham and 
Glasgow University : joined the Madras 
N.I., 1800 : escorted the Mysore Princes 
to Bengal, 1807 : A.D.C. to Sir G. Barlow, 
when Governor of Madras : Private 
Secretary, 1810 : Deputy Commissary in 
the Madras expedition to Mamritius, 
1810 : Military Secretary to the Governor 
of Madras, 1813 : Commandant at 
Pondicherry, 1816 : Commissioner for 
the restitution of French and Dutch 
possessions, 1816-7, having great know- 
ledge of the French language : Secretary 
to Government in the Military Department, 
1834 : in several actions in Coorg : Resi- 
dent in Mysore, and Chief Commissioner 
of Coorg : Resident at Travancore and 
Cochin, 1836 : Resident at Hyderabad 
from Sep. 1838, to Dec. 1852 : resigned 
his appointment because of strained 
relations with Lord Dalhousie : Lt- 
General, 185 1 : General, 1862 : died 
Aug. 22, 1869. 

FRASER, WILLIAM (1784-1836) 
I.C.S. : son of Edward Satchell Fraser, 
brother of James Baillie Fraser {q.v.) : 



went to Bengal in 1799 : Secretary to Sir 
D. Ochterlony at Delhi, 1805 : Secretary 
to Mountstuart Elphinstone (?.u.) on his 
mission to Kabul : Political Agent to 
General Martindell's Army, 1815 : travelled 
with his brother to the Himalayas : settled 
Garhwal, 1819 : Member of the Board of 
Revenue, N.W.P., 1826: Resident at 
Delhi, 1830-5 : shot dead, on March 22, 
1835, while riding at Delhi, by Kareem 
Khan, at the instigation of Shams-ud-din, 
Nawab of Firozpur : both of them were 


Born 1821 : entered the Bengal Army 
1841, and became General, 1877 : served 
in the Afghan campaign, 1842, (severely 
wounded, Khyber Pass), A.D.C. to Lord 
Gough, Satlaj campaign, 1845-6 : at the 
battles of Mudki, Firozshahr, Sobraon : 
in the Panjab campaign, 1848-9, at 
Chilian wala and Gujarat : Indian mutiny, 
1857 : at the relief of Lucknow : severely 
wounded Bhutan campaign, 1864-5 : C.B., 
1857 : K.C.B., 1867. 


(1854- ) 

l.CS. : born 1854 : educated at Rath- 
mines school, Kingstown school and 
Trinity College, Dublin : entered the Ma- 
dras Civil Service, 1877, but retired, 1886; 
invalided in consequence of fever con- 
tracted in the Rumpa rebellion. Lecturer, 
University Extension, on Indian Architec- 
ture : Principal Librarian and Secretary 
of London Institution : Lecturer in Tamil 
and Telegu, University College. Author 
of British India ("Story of the Nations" 
series), A Literary History of India, 1898. 

VALPY (1825-1891) 

Bishop : son of the Rev. Peter French : 
born Jan. i, 1825 : educated at Reading 
and Burton Grammar schools, Rugby, 
and University College, Oxford : Fellow, 
there, 1848 : ordained, 1848 : Principal of 
St. John's College, Agra, 1850 : founded 
Reynell Taylor's Derajat mission, 1861 : 
Vicar of Cheltenham, 1865-9 = founded 
the divinity school at Lahore, 1869 : first 
Bishop of Lahore, Dec. 1877 : D.D. of 
Oxford : resigned in 1887 : died at Muscat, 
as a missionary there. May 14, 1891 : was 

a good linguist, and distinguished 'as an 

EDWARD, BARONET (1815-1884) 

Governor : I.C.S. : sixth son of Edward 
Frere, and nephew of John Hookham 
Frere : born March 29, 1815, educated at 
Bath and Haileybury : went to India in 
1834, by the overland route, making his 
way with difficulty via Cairo, Kosseir, 
Jeddah, Mocha, and a pilgrim vessel to 
Bombay : Assistant Revenue Commis- 
sioner for some years to H. E. Goldsmid 
{q.v.) in investigating land assessments : 
Private Secretary to Sir G. Arthur, Gover- 
nor of Bombay, 1842 : Resident at Satara, 
1846 : on the annexation of Satara in 
1848-9 (to which he was opposed), Frere 
was appointed Commissioner : Chief 
Commissioner in Sind, 1850-9 : greatly 
advanced the Province in every way, 
conciliated the Amirs, improved Karachi 
harbour, developed institutions, controlled 
the frontier and the tribes : in the mutiny 
he nearly denuded Sind of troops to help 
the Panjab and South Mahratta country : 
repressed attempts at mutiny, and kept 
Sind quiet and loyal : his great services 
were highly valued in England and India : 
K.C.B. in 1859 : Member of the Governor- 
General's Supreme Council from Dec. 1859, 
to April, 1862 : helped greatly in the 
restoration of financial equilibrium and in 
the establishment of Legislative Councils : 
Governor of Bombay from April, 1862, to 
March, 1867 : advanced education, built 
colleges, pushed on railways, established 
the Bombay municipality, demolished the 
old ramparts of the town, initiated female 
education. Over-trading, speculation, and 
the restoration of peace in America 
(causing a fall in cotton) brought on a 
commercial crisis, in which the Bank of 
Bombay was involved : Frere' s policy 
during this period was the subject of 
unfavourable criticism. He was Member 
of the Council of India, 1867-77 = G.C.S.I. : 
D.C.L. : President of the Geographical and 
Asiatic Societies : sent to Zanzibar, in 
1872, to negotiate a treaty for the sup- 
pression of the slave-trade : P.C : LL.D. : 
accompanied H.R.H. the Prince of Wales^- 
in his Indian tour, 1875-6 : Baronet and 
G.C.B. : appointed, in 1887, Governor 
of the Cape and High Commissioner in 
S. Africa : brought a war with the Kafirs 
to conclusion, 1878 : became engaged in 



the Zulu war, 1879 : and in troubles 
regarding the Transvaal with the Boers : 
the English Government recalled Frere in 
1880 for his conduct in relation to the 
Zulu war and alleged disregard of orders : 
he defended himself on his retturn to 
England : he advocated a forward policy 
with regard to Afghanistan : died May 
29, 1884 : buried in St. Paul's Cathedral : 
his statue erected on the Thames Embank- 
ment : he was an eminent public servant, 
combining strong character under a kindly 
and courteous demeanour : and was 
earnest in his religious views. He wrote 
a number of papers on the questions of the 
day, connected with India : also a memoir 
of his uncle above-named. 



I.C.S. : born June 6, 1811 : third son 
of Edward Frere : and brother of Sir 
H. B .E. Frere {q.v.) : educated at Swansea 
and Haileybury : went to Bombay, 1830 : 
Judge of Dharwar, and of the Sadr Court : 
Member of Council, Bombay, 1860-5 : 
retired : travelled round the world : 
Commissioner to inquire into the health 
of the coolies in Demerara, 1870 ; in 
Mauritius, 1872 : C.M.G., 1875 : died 
March 23, 1880. 


Educated at Erasmus Smith's College, 
Gal way ; Royal University of Ireland, 
Steeven's Hospital, Dublin, and Paris : 
entered the Indian medical service, 1875 : 
held civil and military appointments : 
Medical officer to the Lieutenant-Governor, 
N.W.P : and subsequently to H.H. the 
Nawab of Rampur, who gave him, on 
recovery from an illness, a very large fee 
for his services : practises since retire- 
ment in London : Surgeon to St. Peter's 
Hospital for Stone. 

RICHARDS (1845- ) 
I.C.S. : son of F. W. Fryer : entered 
the Bengal Civil Service, 1864 : called to 
the bar from the Middle Temple, 1880 : 
Cojumissioner, Central Division, Upper 
Burma, 1886 : Financial Commissioner, 
Burma, 1888 : Acting Chief Commissioner 
of Burma, 1892-4 : Officiating Financial 
Commissioner, Panjab : Additional Mem- 
ber of the Governor-General's Legislative 

Council, 1894-5 : Lieutenant-Governor of 
Burma, 1897-1903 : K.C.S.I., 1895. 

Colonel : son of William Fullerton : 
born 1754 : educated at Edinbiurgh 
University : raised a Scotch regt. and 
gazetted Commandant of the 98th in 
1780 : went to India : engaged near 
Madras, in the second Mysore war with 
Hyder Ali, 1780-2 : at the suppression 
of the KoUars of Madras, and capture of 
Dindigul : commanded the troops south 
of the Coleroon, 1783 : took Dharapuram, 
Palghat and Coimbatore : showed military 
ability : returned to England on the 
peace : wrote his View 0/ Englii,h Interests 
in India, xySy : F.R.S. of London and 
Edinburgh : raised the 23rd Dragoons : 
M.P., 1787-1803 : appointed first Com- 
missioner for Trinidad : tried his colleague,. 
Col. Thomas Picton, for torturing a. 
Spanish girl : died Feb. 13, 1808. 


(1854 - ) 

I.C.S. : son of Rev. J. Fuller : educated" 
at Marlborough : entered the Indian 
Civil Service, 1875 : Commissioner of 
Settlements C.P., 1885 : Secretary to 
Govt, of India, Revenue and Agriculture 
Department, igoi-2 : Chief Commissioner 
of Assam, from April, 1902 : CLE., 1892 : 
C.S.I. , 1902 : Lieutenant-Governor of East- 
ern Bengal and Assam, 1905. 

FURDUNJI, NAOROJI (1817-1885) 

Born in March, 18 17, at Broach : edu- 
cated at the Native Education Society's 
school at Bombay, where he afterwards 
became a teacher : Assistant Professor of 
the Elphinstone Institution and leader 
of the " Young Bombay " Party : was 
chiefly instrumental in estabUshing the 
first girls' school, native library, literary 
society, debating club, poHtical associa- 
tion, body for improving the condition of 
women, institution for religious and 
social reforms, law association and the 
first educational periodicals. In 1836, 
he was appointed Native Secretary 
and Translator to Sir Alexander Biurnes 
{q.v.) at Kabul, but returned to Bombay 
before the Afghan war broke out. In 
1845 he was appointed Interpreter of the 
High Court of Bombay, and retired in 
1864, devoting the rest of his hfe to im- 



proving the condition of the people. He 
laboured to obtain the passing of the 
Parsi Matrimonial and Succession Act. 
He visited England on three occasions, 
lectured before the East India Association, 
and gained the high opinion of many 
prominent Englishmen : an influential 
member of the Municipality of Bombay: 
CLE. in 1884 : died Sep. 22, 1885. 

Colonel : born Aug. 21, 1834 : son of 
William Henry Furse : educated privately 
and abroad : joined 42nd Highlanders, 
1855 : served in the Crimea and the Indian 
mutiny : present at siege of Lucknow ; on 
special service : to Ashanti, 1873-4 '- A.D.C. 
to C. in C. Bombay, 1874-8 : A.A.G., 
Soudan expedition, 1884-5 : C.B., 1887 : 
author of several works on military trans- 
sport and adtninistration. 



General : joined the Army, 1834 : at the 
capture of Karachi : Captain in the 40th 
regt. in the Afghan war, 1 841-2, under 
Nott at Kandahar and Kabul, and in the 
return to India : in the Crimea : in the 
naiutiny, commanded a battalion at Cawn- 
pur : at the capture of Lucknow : died 
Nov. 10, 1895 : K.C.B. 

FYLER, LAWRENCE (1809-1873) 

Maj-General : served in the i6th Lancers 
in the first Afghan war : was at Maharaj- 
pur, 1843 : in the Satlaj campaign of 
1845-6 : at Badiwal and Aliwal (severely 
wounded) : with the 3rd Lancers in the 
Panjab campaign, 1848-9 : in the Crimea 
with the 12th Lancers: retired i860 : C.B., 
1869 : died Sep. 21, 1873. 

FYTCHE, ALBERT (1820-1892) 

Born 1820 : son of John Fytche : edu- 
cated at Rugby and Addiscombe : joined 
the Bengal Army, 1839 : served in Arakan 
against the Wallengs, 1841 : entered the 
Arakan Commission, 1845 : in the Panjab 
campaign, 1848-9 : at Chilianwala and 
Gvurajat : severely wounded : Deputy 
Commissioner of Bassein, 1853 : constantly 
engaged against the Burmese : Commis- 
sioner of Tenasserim, 1857 : Chief Com- 
missioner of British Burma, March, 1867- 
March, 1871 : negotiated a Treaty with 
the King of Burma : Maj-General, 1868 : 

C.S.I : died June 17, 1892: wrote Burma 
Past and Present, 1878. 


(1837- ) 

Born 1837 : son of Rev. John Galbraith 
of Tuam : entered the 85th regt., 1855 : 
Lt-Colonel, 1879 : Colonel, 1883 : Maj- 
General, 1893 : served in Afghan war as 
A.A.G., 1878-80 : Hazara expedition, 
1888 : A.A.G. and Q.M.G. Ireland, 1882-6 : 
commanded 2nd class District India, 
1886-90 : Adjutant-General in India, 
1890-5 : commanded Quetta District, 
1895-9 : retired, 1899 : K.C.B. , 1897. 



Maj-General: son of James Galloway: 
joined the 14th Bengal N.I. in iSoo : 
served in several regiments : Colonel of 
the 58th N.I. in 1836 : was in the defence 
of Delhi and at the siege of Bhartpur : 
member of the Military Board : C.B., 
1838: K.C.B., 1848: Chairman of the 
Court of Directors of the E. I. Co., 1849 : 
died April 6, 1850 : wrote several works on 
India, among them on Muhammadan Law : 
Observations on the Law and Constitution 
of India, 1825 ; Notes on the Siege of Delhi 
in 1804, etc. ; on Sieges in India and on the 
Government of India, 1832. 


(1852- ) 

Born April 14, 1852 : son of Henry 
Gallwey : educated at Stonyhurst and 
Royal University, Ireland : entered the 
Army Medical Department, 1874 : and 
became Colonel, 1898 : served in the 
Afghan war, 1878-80 : the Egyptian 
expedition, 1882 ; Kassassin and Tel-el- 
Kebir, the Soudan expedition, 1884-5 ; 
Dongola expedition, 1896 : C.B. : Nile ex- 
pedition, 1897-8 : P.M.O., South Africa, 
1899-1901 : K.C.M.G. : P.M.O., India, since 



Son of Samuel Gambler, nephew of 
Baron Gambler: born in 1794 : educated 
at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge : 
Fellow : called to the bar at Lincoln's 
Inn, 1822 : a municipal corporation Com- 



raissioner, 1833 : Recorder of Prince of 
Wales^ Island, and knighted 1834 : Puisne 
Judge of the Madras Supreme Court, 1836 : 
Chief Justice, 1842 : retired in 1849 : died 
;May 31, 1879. 


Born July 2, 1847, son of Harpur 
Gamble, M.D. : educated at Royal Naval 
School, New Cross ; Magdalen College, 
Oxford ; and at Nancy, France : entered 
the Indian Forest Department, 1871, and 
rose to be Conservator of Forests, N.W.P., 
and Oudh, and Director of Imperial Forest 
School, Dehra Dun : author of A Manual 
of Indian Timbers, 1881 ; The Bamboos of 
British India, 1885 : C.I.E., 1899 : F.R.S. : 


DORE (1794-1878) 

French Oriental scholar : born Jan. 25, 
1794 : studied Oriental languages under 
Baron Silvestre de Sacy : published a work 
on Oriental literature, 1822, in which year 
he was Secretary of the Societe Asiatique, 
then established : the first Professor of 
Hindustani at the special school of Oriental 
languages, 1828 : he wrote a History of 
Hindi and Hindustani Literature, and 
Hindustani Authors and their Works, the 
Rudiments of Hindustani and Hindi, 
Allegories, Poetic Recitations and Popular 
Songs of Arabic, Persian, Hindustani and 
Turkish : edited Sir W. Jones' Persian 
Grammar in 1845, and translated El- 
Attar's Language of Birds : wrote a num- 
"ber of annual progress reports on the whole 
'field of Indian literature : on the Muham- 
madan religion, on Islam d'apres le Coran, 
1874: on the Rhetoric and Prosody of the 
Muslim Nations, and on the religious 
Poetry of the Persians : in 1854-5 he 
translated the poet Wall, and The A dven- 
iures of Kamrup : contributed largely to 
the Journals of the Societe Asiatique : was 
a member of the Royal Asiatic Society 
and of the French Institute from 1838 : 
received the Cross of the Legion of Honour, 
1837 : died at Paris, Sep. 3, 1878. 


TON (1785-1877) 

Adventurer : Colonel : born 1785, in 
N. America, son of a Doctor, a Scotch 
emigrant : educated for 9 years at St. 
Xavier, Mexico : was 5 years in Ireland : 

left America, 1812 : travelled to Lisbon, 
Madrid, Cairo, Trebizond, Astrakhan, 
Astrabad, Herat (1819), to near Khiva, 
Astrakhan, across the Caspian and Aral 
Seas, near Uratube, Kunduz, Anderab, to 
Afghanistan : took service under Habi- 
bulla Khan, nephew of the Amir Dost 
Muhammad (q.v.), engaged in the fights 
tween them : after HabibuUa's flight in 
1826, Gardner wandered, through Kafir- 
istan, Badakshan, Shighnan, among 
the Kirghiz, to Yarkand, Leh, Srinagar, 
Gilgit, Chitral, Kabul, Kandahar (1830), 
Girishk (imprisioned for 9 months), to 
Kabul, to Dost Muhammad, to Bajour, 
Peshawar, Lahore (1832), where he joined 
Ranjit Singh's service, as Colonel of 
Artillery : engaged in campaigns, in 
Bannu, against the Afghans (1835), etc. : 
commanded the Jammu artillery : after 
Ranjit Singh's death (1839), Gardner 
shared in the fighting about the succession 
and was at Lahore when the first Sikh war 
against the British was declared : but 
was given no active part in either Sikh war : 
was exiled from Lahore : entered Golab 
Singh's service in Jammu-Kashmir (1846), 
and remained there till he died at Jammu, 
Jan. 22, 1877 : buried at Sealkot : in his 
old age was visited by high officers. 

GARDNER, WILLIAM (1821-1897) 

Quartermaster-Sergeant : entered the 
42nd Royal Highlanders, 1841, served 
through the Crimea, and through the 
mutiny : present at the siege of Delhi, 
the capture of Lucknow and the action at 
Bareli, where he gained the V.C. for saving 
the life of Colonel Cameron when attacked 
by three Ghazis at once, of whom he killed 
two : retired 1862, and became a drill 
instructor of Volunteers : died Oct. 1897, 



Son of Major Valentine Gardner, and 
nephew of the first Lord Gardner : entered 
the British Army in the 89th foot in 1783. 
and, passing through several regiments, 
was Captain in the 30th foot in 1794, 
which he left, to join, in 1798, Maharaja 
J aswant Rao Holkar of Indore, raising and 
commanding a Brigade of Infantry for 
him. He married a Princess of Cambay. 
Holkar accusing Gardner of treachery, the 
latter would have killed the Maharaja, but 
was prevented. He then entered the 



service of Amrit Rao at Poona. Leaving 
such adventurous employment, he joined 
Lord Lake in 1804, and raised and com- 
manded a regiment of irregular horse 
under him and Sir David Ochterlony in 
Nipal and Rajputana : local Lt-Colonel, 
1819 : his regiment, " Gardner's Horse," 
became the 2nd Bengal Cavalry. He 
settled at Khasganj, N.W.P. : died July 29, 



Son of William Garnett : born June i, 
1829 : educated at Addiscombe : went to 
India in the Bengal Engineers, 1848 : in 
the siege of Multan in 1848 : held the 
Chenab fords at Gujarat, 1849 :j was in 
the pursuit of the Sikhs : served in Kohat 
in 1850 : reconstructed the fort there, and 
made " Fort Garnett *' and other defensive 
positions and roads on the Afghan frontier : 
engaged in frontier expeditions, and kept 
the frontier quiet in the mutiny : in the 
P.W.D. Secretariat : died in 1861 in 
Calcutta : Colonel. 

GARSTIN, JOHN (1756-1820) 

Maj -General : born 1756 : educated for 
the Army : given a commission, by 
George III, in the Engineers : the first of 
his family to go out to India : rose to be 
Maj -General of his Corps : Surveyor- 
General of Bengal, and Chief Engineer : 
chiefly employed in the construction of 
civil works, especially the large " Golah " 
at Bankipur, intended as a granary in case 
of famine : was also the architect of 
Government House, Calcutta : " Garstin's 
Place " in that city still preserves his 
name : translated Paul Frisi's Rivers and 
Torrents from the Italian, 1818 : the work 
is dedicated to Warren Hastings, his 
friend and patron : died Feb. 16, 1820 : 
and was buried at Calcutta. 

GARTH, SIR RICHARD (1820-1903) 

Son of the Rev. Richard Garth : born 
March 11, 1820 : educated at Eton and 
Christ Church, Oxford : he was Captain 
of the Oxford cricket eleven in 1840 and 
1 841: called to the bar, at Lincoln's Inn, in 
1847 : was Q.C. and a Bencher in 1866 : 
was Conservative M.P. for Guildford, 
1866-8 : and Chief Justice of Bengal from 
1875 to 1886 : knighted in 1875 : made a 
Privy Councillor, 1889 : after his retire- 

ment retained his interest in Indian 
questions : wrote A few Plain Truths about 
India : died March 23, 1903. 

GARVOCK, SIR JOHN ( ? 1878) 

General : entered the Army, 1835 : 
Brig-Major in Sir Harry Smith's Division 
in the Satlaj campaign, 1845-6 : at all the 
battles : on his Staff in the Boer war, 1848, 
and Kafir war, 1850-2 : Q.M.G. in Ceylon : 
Brigadier at Dover : commanded the 
Peshawar Division : succeeded Sir N. 
Chamberlain in command in the Umbeyla 
campaign, 1863 : K.C.B. : commanded the 
N. district in England, 1866-71 : the S. 
district, 1877-8 : G.C.B., 1875 : died Nov. 
10, 1878. 


Born June 3, 1843 : entered the Indian 
Army, 1863, and became Colonel, 1893 : 
Brig-General, N.W. Frontier, 1898 : served 
in Aybssinian expedition, 1868 : Bizoti 
expedition, 1869 : Jowaki-Afridi expedi- 
tion, 1877-8 : Afghan war, 1878-80 : 
Kandahar : Brevet-Major : Zhob Valley, 
1884 : Hazara, 1891 : C.B., 1891 : Isaza, 
1892 : Waziristan, 1894-5 : Tirah expedi- 
tion, commanding 2nd Brigade, 1897-8 : 
K.C.B. , 1898: Officiating Q.M.G. India, 
1898 : commanding 2nd class District, 
1 898-1901 : commanded British Forces 
in China, 1900 : Maj-General : G.C.I. E., 

GATACRE, JOHN (1841- ) 

Son of Edward Lloyd Gatacre : born 
1841 : educated privately : joined the 
Bombay Army, 1857, and Bombay Staff 
Corps, 1866 : commanded his regt., 1884- 
91 : Brig-General at Nagpur, 1891-6 : 
Maj-General, 1897 : served in the Indian 
mutiny at Khandesh, 1858 : China war, 
i860 : Afghan war, 1879-80 : Burmese 
expedition, 1886-8 : C.B. 1887. 


(1843- ) 

Born 1843 : entered the Army, 1862 : 
Staff College, 1874 : served in the Hazara 
expedition as D.A.G. and D. Q.M.G., 1888 : 
D.S.O. : Burma, 1889 : Chitral, 1895 : 
C.B. : Soudan, 1898 : K.C.B. : President 
of the Plague Committee, Bombay, 1897 : 
commanded 3rd Division in S. Africa, 
1 899-1900 : Maj-General commanding 
the loth Division, 4th Army Corps, at 
Colchester till 1904. 





Born Aug. 21, 1805 : entered the service 
of the Bhaunagar State in 1822 : was 
employed in various political and revenue 
duties : became Assistant Diwan in 1839, 
and Diwan in 1846 : introducing many 
judicial, and revenue reforms, and asserted 
the State's rights against its neighbours : 
developed its port, commerce, roads, etc. : 
appointed Joint Administrator of the State 
during a minority : C.S.I, in 1877 : retired 
from the service of the State in 1879 : in 
1886, became a Sanyasi, i.e. ascetic, 
renouncing the world : known as Swami 
Satchidanund Saras vati : died Dec. i, 

GAWLER, JOHN COX ( ? -1882) 

Colonel : served with the 73rd regt. in 
the Kafir war, 1850-3 : in the engage- 
ments : district adjutant of Natal at the 
end of the war : in the Indian mutiny, 
towards the end : in 1 860-1 commanded 
as Brigadier a considerable Field Force 
against the Raja of Sikhim : took the Raja's 
residence, and forced him to accept the 
treaty dictated to him : penetrated to the 
Tibet frontier : Keeper of H.M.'s regalia 
at the Tower of London : died July 31, 

GEARY, GRATTAN ( ? -1900) 

Editor of the Times of India : and 
subsequently acquired the Bombay Gazette : 
took a prominent part in Bombay muni- 
cipal affairs and was at one time Chairman 
of the Corporation : wrote Through 
Asiatic Turkey : a Narrative of a lourney 
from Bombay to the Bosphorus, 1878 : 
an able writer, and indefatigable worker^; 
exerted no little influence on public events 
in India : died Sep. 1900. 



Son of Rev. PhiHp Ge'i : educated al 
Trinity College, Cambridge : Scholar : 
Bell University Scholar : Fellow of Christ's 
College, 1843 : ordained, 1843 : lecturer 
and tutor : Cambridge Preacher at Chapel 
Royal, Whitehall : Domestic Chaplain to 
Bishop of London (Dr. Tait) : Bishop of 
Madras, 1861-9^ when he retired : died 
at Coonoor, March 25, 1902 : D.D. 



Born at Bagnols, June 25, 1726: of 
noble family : in 1752 went out to India 
as officer in an Infantry regt. : served 
with distinction under Dupleix, Law of 
Lauriston, Lally, etc. After the collapse 
of the French power in India and the 
surrender of Pondicherry to the English, 
in 1761, Gentil served for a time under 
Mir Kasim, Nawab of Bengal, then under 
Shuja-ud-daula, Nawab of Oudh, who 
loaded him with honours : was most 
generous in helping less fortunate fellow 
countrymen, and enrolled a body of them 
to serve under the Nawab : after the 
defeat of the Nawab at Baxar, Gentil 
helped to negotiate peace between him 
and the English : after Shuja-ud-daula's 
death in i775. Gentil was compelled by 
the English to leave, and in 1778 returned 
to France : appointed Colonel of Infantry : 
was already Chevalier of St. Louis, 1771 : 
died in poverty, having lost his pension 
at the Revolution, at Bagnols, Feb. 15, 
1799 • author of Memoires sur Vlndoustan, 
Histoire des Radjahs de VHindoustan^ 
etc. : his collection of Persian MSS. is in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 

GERARD, ALEXANDER (1792-1839) 

Son of Gilbert Gerard, D.D. and 
brother of James Gilbert {q.v.) and 
Patrick [q.v.) : born Feb. 17, 1792 : 
joined the Bengal N.I. in 1808 : employed 
in siurvey work in 1812-7 and after, and 
1825-7 : ascended great heights in the 
Himalayas and penetrated into Tibet : 
in 1 82 1, he ascended the Charang Pass, 
over 17,000 ft. ; the Keeobrang Pass, over 
18,000 ft. , and Mount Tahigung, over 
22,000 ft. ; travelled from Sabathu to 
Shipki in Chinese Tartary, and from 
Shipki to Chinese Tibet, and wrote an 
account of his attempt to penetrate to 
the lake Mansarowar : he retired early 
from ill-health, in 1836 : died Dec. 15, 


Son of Gilbert Gerard, D.D. : bom 
1795 : entered the E.I. Co.'s Bengal 
medical service in 1814 : accompanied 
his brother Alexander in his Himalayan 
travels: in 1831 went with (Sir Alexander) 

1 62 


Burnes {q.v.) to Bokhara, though in bad 
health : detained by illness at Mashad 
and Herat, and died, worn out, at Sabathu, 
March 31, 1835. His scientific accuracy 
was valuable in connexion with the 
geographical information acquired by the 



General : born 1843 : son of Colonel 
Archibald Gerard : educated at Stony- 
hurst : entered the R.A., 1864, and 
Bengal vStaff Corps, 1870 : Central India 
Horse, 1870-95 : served in Abyssinia, 
1868 : Brig-Major in the Afghan war, 
1878-80 : in the advance to Kabul: in the 
Kabul- Kandahar march and battle of 
Kandahar : Brevets Major and Lt- 
Colonel : in the campaign in Egypt, 
1882, as D.A.A. and Q.M.G. : at Tel-el- 
Kebir : C.B. : on Secret Service in Persia, 
1881-2, and 1885 : Military Attache, St. 
Petersburg, 1892-3 : Commissioner for 
Delimitation of Pamir Boundary, 1895 ; 
General commanding Hyderabad Con- 
tingent, 1896-9 : commanding Oudh 
District, 1899 : C.S.I., 1896 : K.C.S.I., 
1897 : K.C.B., 1902 : attached to the 
Russian Forces in Manchuria, 1904-5 : 
died of pneumonia at Irkutsk, July, 1905 : 
wrote Leaves from the Diaries of a Soldier 
and Sportsman during Twenty Years' Service 
in India, Afghanistan, Egypt, and Other 
Countries, 1865-85. 

GERARD, PATRICK (1794-1848) 

Son of Gilbert Gerard, D.D., and 
brother of Alexander and James Gilbert : 
born June 11, 1794 : entered the Bengal 
N.I., in 1812 : Captain, 1828 : invalided, 
1832 : died Oct. 4, 1848 : recorded obser- 
vations on the climate of Sabathu and 
Kotghar, and wrote on meteorology, and 
the Himalayas and their mineral pro- 
ducts, in scientific journals. 

HELM (1742-1803) 

A devoted Danish missionary and 
evangelist : native of Colberg in Pomer- 
ania : graduate of Halle : reached 
Tranquebar, 1767 : to Cuddalore, 1767, 
joining the S.P.C.K. and Hutteman 
there : assisted at Trichinopoly : during 
the attack by Mysoreans and French on 

Cuddalore, he interceded, to prevent 
destruction of British life and property : 
on its capture, in 1782, he removed to 
Negapatam till he took charge of the 
Vepery Mission, 1788, whence he visited 
other stations : appointed Dutch trans- 
lator, 1792 : Naval Chaplain of H.M.S. 
Victorious and of the Naval Hospital at 
Vepery, 1 796-1 803 : Chaplain and Secre- 
tary of the Female Orphan Asylum, 
Madras, 1788-1803 : fortunate in his 
speculations with the Mission balances, 
and died rich, leaving a considerable sum 
to the Vepery Mission : in personal 
character stood high with the Govern- 
ment : died on a visit to Vellore, 1803. 


(1838- ) 
Son of Rai Bahadur Durga Persad 
Ghose, Deputy Collector : born Feb. 26, 
1838 : educated at the Hindu and Presi- 
dency Colleges : passed the Pleadership 
examination, 1859 : was Government 
Pleader at Burdwan, 1860-2 : practised as 
pleader in the Sadr Court, 1862, and as 
Vakil of the High Court from 1862, attain- 
ing a prominent position : Member of the 
Bengal Legislative Council, 1883-5 : Fel- 
low of the Calcutta University, 1885 : 
President of the Board of Examiners for 
Pleaders, 1892 : Puisne Judge of the 
Calcutta High Court, from Jan. 12, 1885 : 
Fellow of the Calcutta University and 
President of the Faculty of Law : has 
established charitable institutions in his 
native village : is President of the Bengal 
Kayastha Sabha. 



Born 1829 : educated at the Oriental 
Seminary : established a weekly paper. 
The Bengal Recorder, in 1849 : in 1850 
entered the Military Pay Examiners' 
office, of which he ultimately became the 
Registrar, drawing a salary of Rs. 350 a 
month. The B ngal Recorder was con- 
verted into the Hindu Patriot in 1853, 
and Haris Chandra Mukerji became its 
principal editor, but Grish Chandra con- 
tinued his crnnexion with the paper as 
a contributjr. In 1859, he and his 
brother were introduced into the Dalhousie 
Institute fo ; their literary attainments : 
in 1861, fhe Bengalee newspaper was 
started, and Grish Chandra accepted the 



editorship in addition to his own official 
duties : in 1868 he published a Life of 
Ram Dulal Dey (^.u.) the Bengali million- 
aire : died suddenly in Sep. 1869. 

GHOSE, KARA CHANDRA (1808-1868) 

Educated at the Hindu College under 
David Hare {q.v.), and Derozio {q.v.):w3iS 
appointed a Munsif in 1832 and rose high 
in the native judicial service. In 1852 he 
was made junior Magistrate of Calcutta, 
and in 1854 a Judge of the Small Cause 
Court : held the post till his death in 
1868. His bust, in marble, was placed in 
the main entrance of the Court. 

GHOSE, KASI PRASAD (1809-1873) 

Born Aug. 1809 : admitted as a free 
scholar in the Hindu College, Oct. 1821 : 
in Dec. 1828, reviewed MilVs History of 
British India at the request of Prof. H. H. 
Wilson for the Government Gazette and 
the Asiatic lournal : in 1829 left the 
Hindu College : in 1831, published his first 
volume, Shairand other Poems : in 1834 pub- 
lished, anonymously, his Memoir of Native 
Indian Dynasties, which had previously 
appeared in D. L. Richardson's Literary 
Gazette ; in 1840, Richardson included 
some of his poetical compositions in his 
Selections from the British Poets : in 
Nov. 1846, he established the weekly 
journal, The Hindu Intelligencer, which 
he discontinued in 1857 on the passing of 
" The Gagging Act " by Lord Canning : in 
1838, the Dharma Sabha was founded : 
he opposed all social reforms : was a 
Justice of the Peace of the City of Calcutta, 
and Honorary Presidency Magistrate : 
died Nov. 11, 1873. 

GHOSE, MAN MOHAN (1844-1896) 

Lawyer : born March, 1844 : a member 
of an old Kayastha family in Bikrampur, 
in the district of Dacca : son of Ram 
Lochan Ghose, a Subordinate Judge and 
friend of Raja Rammohan Roy, with 
whose views he sympathized : educated 
at the Krishnagar Collegiate School and 
the Presidency College, Calcutta. In 
1 861, he founded the Indian Mirror, then 
issued fortnightly : in 1862, he went to 
England and stood for the Indian Civil 
Service Examination in 1864 and 1865, 
but without success : in 1866, he was 
called to the bar, and in 1867 joined the 
Calcutta High Court as the first Indian 
barrister : delivered a series of lectures 

against the open competitive examinations 
for the Indian Civil Service. In 1885, he 
was sent to England as delegate from 
Bengal, to speak on Indian questions : 
visited England again in 1887, 1890, 1895, 
sometimes with his family. As a barrister, 
he was engaged in several notable cases, 
and achieved great success. He became, 
in 1873, Secretary of the Bethune College, 
and, as a member of the National Con- 
gress, was a strong advocate for the 
separation of judicial and executive 
functions of District Officers : Fellow of 
the Calcutta University : died Oct. 17, 

GHOSE, RAM GOPAL (1815-1868) 
Son of a petty shopkeeper : born Oct. 
1815 : educated at the Hindu College in 
Calcutta. He early entered on a mercan- 
tile career, and after gaining experience, 
first as banian and later as partner in a 
European firm, he, with his acquired 
capital, opened a firm under the name of 
R. G. Ghose & Co., with a branch at 
Akyab. He was a very active member 
of the Bengal Chamber of Commerce. 
In 1849 he was offered the post of Second 
Judge of the Calcutta Small Cause Court, 
but declined it. He was one of the earliest 
" politicians " in Bengal, taking part in 
all political movements,'and was connected 
with several literary and self -improvement 
associations. He brought out one or 
two newspapers, and attempted to rouse 
the sympathy of the British public with 
Indian grievances : was a recognized 
leader of the Native community, as a 
reformer, a patriot, an eloquent speaker, 
and in force of character, and did much 
to advance native society : through his 
exertions a statue was erected to David 
Hare : took a leading part in defence of 
what were termed " The Black Acts " in 
1849 : took great interest in education, 
and was one of the first to send his daugh- 
ter to the Bethune School : was a Fellow 
of the University, and of various Societies : 
Hony. Magistrate and J. P. for Calcutta : 
appointed by Government a member of 
several committees : on the Council of 
Education, 1848-55: Member of the 
Bengal Legislative Council, 1862-4 : died 
Jan. 25, 1868. 


SIR ( ? -1881) 
An Alizai Pathan : son of Ashik Mu- 
hammad Khan, ruler of the Tonk sub- 

1 64 


division of Dera Ismail Khan under 
Ranjit Singh : offered his services to 
Government : distinguished himself by 
capturing Fort Laki when held by Sikh 
rebels in 1848, and frustrated the advance 
of the rebel garrison of Bannu to Multan : 
aided Reynell Taylor {q.v.) at Bannu, 
1 85 1-7 : in 1857-8 as native commandant 
took to Lahore the Multan' horse, 2,000 
strong, which he had raised : under 
Colonel Cureton, C.B., led them in 15 
general actions : for five years after the 
mutiny, 1859-64, was Envoy at Kabul 
and accompanied the Afghan army to 
Herat : Nawab, 1863 : C.S.I., 1868 : 
commanded the Bahawalpur Army, 1868 : 
on the Staff of H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales, 1875-6 : was sent in advance to 
the Amir of Kabul in 1878 : was a trusted 
and honoured counsellor during the 
campaigns of 1878-80 at Kandahar and 
Kabul : was made hereditary Nawab 
and K.C.S.I. and given jagirs : was 
officially declared to be " a gallant soldier, 
an able counsellor and a chivalrous 
gentleman " : died 1881. 

TABA, SYAD ( ? - ? ) 

Muhammadan nobleman : his maternal 
ancestors were Syads : Zainul-abidin 
was his maternal grandfather : related, 
as a cousin, to Aliverdi of Bihar : son of 
Hidayat Ali Khan, a Deputy Governor 
of Bihar : born at Shahjahanabad : Mir 
Munshi, or Secretary, of the Mogul Em- 
peror : resided at the Court of the Nawab 
of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa : representa- 
tive of Mir Kasim [q.v.) at Calcutta, until 
removed : served under the British : 
befriended by General Goddard, Resident 
at Chunarghar : entered, with permission, 
the Nawab of Oudh's service for a time : 
left it : wrote the Siyar-almuta' akhkhirin, 
a " Review of Modern Times," i.e. " The 
Manners of the Moderns, the Chronicle of 
the Decay of the Mogul Empire and 
Muhammadan Domination of India, during 
the reigns of the seven last emperors of 
Hindustan, written in Persian, showing 
the progress of the English in Bengal up 
to 1780 A.D. " : translated by M. Raymond 
{q.v.), a French Creole, who assumed the 
name of Haji Mustapha : published in 
1789 : dedicated to Warren Hastings : it 
was lost at sea on the way to England : a 
subsequent edition of about one-sixth of 
the work was issued by General J. Briggs 

of the Madras Army : the Satr, or Siyar- 
ul- mutakherin (its usual name) has been 
highly regarded by great authorities. 


(1827- ) 
Born Jan. 9, 1827: son of Colin Gib, 
R.N. : educated privately : joined Madras 
Army, 1843 : served in Khandesh, 1844, 
and Indian mutiny, 1857-9 : commanded 
the 25th regt. M.I. in expeditionary 
force to Malta, 1878 : commanded a 
Brigade in Afghan war, 1879-80, and 
troops in action of Mazina : C.B. : held 
various civil and military appointments 
in India, including the command of the 
ist class District of Sikandarabad : 
General : K.C.B., 1897. 

GIBBS, JAMES (1825-1886) 

I.C.S. : born 1825 : son of Right Hon. 
Michael Gibbs, Lord Mayor, 1845 : edu- 
cated at Merchant Taylors' and Hailey- 
bury, 1844-6 : called to the bar at the 
Inner Temple, 1864 : went to Bombay 
in the Civil Service, 1846 : Judicial 
Assistant to the Commissioner in Sind : 
Special Commissioner for Income Tax, 
i860 : President of the Income Tax 
Commission : Judge of Poona, 1864 : 
Puisne Judge of the High Court, Bombay : 
President of the Asiatic Society, Bombay : 
Member of Council, Bombay, April, 1874, 
to April, 1879 : Member of the Supreme 
Council, May, 1880, to May, 1885 : Vice- 
Chancellor of the Bombay University, 
1870-9 : died Oct. 30, 1886 : C.S.I. : 

GIBBS, SIR SAMUEL ( ? -1815) 

Joined the 102nd foot in 1783 : served 
in Canada,at Gibraltar, the Mediterranean, 
at Ostend, in the W. Indies, 1799 : com- 
manded the 59th at the Cape, 1805-6 : 
and in the Travancore war, 1808-9 : 
was in the expedition of 181 1 under Sir S. 
Auchmuty to Java : distinguished him- 
self : at Fort Cornells, and led the final 
attack on the Dutch General Janssens : 
then left India : in Holland, in 18 12 : in 
the United States, in the attack on New 
Orleans : severely wounded, and died 
Jan. 9, 1815 : K.C.B. : Maj-General. 

GIBSON, ALEXANDER (1800-1867) 
Born Oct. 24, 1800 : M.D. of Edinburgh : 
went to India in the E.I. Co.'s medical 



service in 1825 : served in the Indian 
navy : vaccinator for the Dekkan and 
Khandesh, 1836 : studied botany and 
agriculture : Superintendent of the Dapuri 
botanic garden near Poona, 1838-67 : 
aimed at introducing new trees and plants 
and drugs : Conservator of Forests, 
Bombay, 1847-60 : F.L.S., 1853 : wrote 
on Bombay Forests and Flora : died Jan. 
16, 1867. 


OF ( ? -1889) 

During the Sonthal rebellion, 1855, he 
rendered valuable service to the Govern- 
ment, for which he received rewards : 
during the Sepoy mutiny he helped the 
Government greatly in the protection of 
Bihar, and was made " Maharaja Baha- 
dur," and K.C.S.I. : a jagir was granted 
to him in 1864 : during the Bengal famine 
of 1874 he gave great assistance, and the 
title of " Maharaja " was extended to his 
son : in 1877, at the Delhi Imperial 
Assemblage, this title was made hereditary 
in his family : he died in 1889 : grand- 
father of Maharaja Sir Ravaneshwar 
Singh iq.v.). 

DUR, OF (1860- : 

Member of Bengal Legislative Council, 
1893-5, and 1895-7 and 1901 : title of 
Maharaja made hereditary, 1877 : K.C.I.E. 

BARONET (1785-1853) 

Son of Rev. Edmund Gilbert : born 
1785 : joined the 15th Bengal N.I, in 
1 801 : present at the actions at Alighar, 
Delhi, Agra, Laswari in 1803, at Deeg 
and Lake's unsuccessful attacks on 
Bhartpur : Commandant of the Calcutta 
native militia, 1815 : Superintendent of 
the Mysore Princes, 1816, and on Lord 
Hastings' Staff: A.G.G. on the S.W. 
frontier, 1822 : Colonel of the ist Euro- 
pean Fusiliers, 1832 : Maj -General, 1841 : 
Lt-General, 185 1 : commanded a Division 
in the first Sikh war at Mudki, Firozshahr, 
and Sobraon : K.C.B., 1846 : and in the 
Panjab campaign : at Chilianwala and 
Gujarat : after the last-named battle he 
commanded in the pursuit of the Sikhs, 

who surrendered to him at Hoormuck 
and Rawul Pindi, the Afghans flying to 
the Khyber : G.C.B. : Baronet in 1851 : 
Military Member of the Supreme Council, 
Dec. 1852, to Feb. 1853 : he was a famous 
sportsman, and paid much attention to 
horse-racing : died May 12, 1853. 



Born in 1759 : educated at Heriot's 
Hospital, Edinburgh : to Calcutta in the 
E.I. Co.'s medical service, 1794 : was 
the first to reduce to a system the lan- 
guage, then unsettled, called Hindustani : 
published a dictionary and grammar in 
it, and popularized its study : he was 
also well versed in Sanskrit and Persian : 
the Marquis Wellesley made him Principal 
of the College of Fort William at Calcutta 
in 1800 : he supervised the preparation 
of works in Hindu and Urdu by native 
scholars, and himself wTote chiefly on 
those languages : left India in 1804 : 
LL.D. of Edinburgh : acted as Oriental 
Professor at Haileybury, Feb. to May, 
1806 : retired in 1809 : taught privately 
in Oriental languages, 181 6-8 : Professor 
of Hindustani at the Oriental Institution, 
1818-26: his method of obtaining re- 
muneration for his teaching, by the sale 
of his works, was irregular, and he turned 
to abusing his employers. After giving 
up his Professorship, he still taught Hin- 
dustani for a time : died in Paris, Jan. 9, 
1841 : a scholarship in his name was 
founded in Calcutta. 


TAV (1812-1890) 

Born July 20, 1812, at Klein Siemen in 
Mecklenburg: studied theology and 
Oriental languages at Gottingen and 
Boon : Sanskrit under Schlegel and Las- 
sen : Privat-docent at Bonn, 1839, for 
Oriental languages and literature : Extra- 
ordinary Professor at Bonn, 1844 : Pro- 
fessor, in 1845, of theology and Oriental 
literature at the University of Marburg ; 
also Librarian there for ten years: Professor 
of Oriental languages and literature at 
Bonn, 1859, retaining this post till his 
death, on March 11, 1890. A contro- 
versialist as well as a scholar : of wide and 
varied interests and learning : thorough 
and conscientious in all his work : a great 
teacher and noted librarian : yet has left 

1 66 


no great monument of his industry behind 
him. Among his works on Indian sub- 
jects are : Die falsche Sanskrit-philologie, 
1840 ; Bihliothecac Sanskritae specimen, 
1847 ; a new edition of Lassen's Antho- 
logia Sanskritica, 1865 ; one of the founders 
of the Deutsche Morgenlandische Gesell- 

GILL, ROBERT ( ? -1876) 

Major : antiquary, artist and sports- 
man : entered the Indian Army in 1842 : 
his regimental service was apparently 
uneventful : he is remembered for his work, 
as follows. In 1844, the Court of Direc- 
tors of the E.I. Co. ordered that copies 
should be made of the frescoes in the 
Buddhist excavations at Ajanta : Gill 
was appointed about 1844-6 to the work, 
and spent the remainder of his life, about 
thirty years, at Ajanta, doing it : living 
in the sarai in which Colonel (Sir) Arthur 
Wellesley (q.v.) had quarters after Assaye. 
With great labour. Gill, working in feverish 
jungle, and in dark recesses (haunted by 
wild animals), copied in full size and oils 
the principal frescoes, about thirty in 
number, and sent them to England, about 
1855. Of these paintings, twenty-five, 
exhibited at the Crystal Palace, were burnt 
in 1866 : five at the India office escaped : 
some of those burnt had been copied by 
George Scharf to illustrate the works of 
Mrs. Manning. The Ajanta frescoes were 
again copied, under Government orders, 
in 1872-85 by Mr. John Griffiths, Princi- 
pal of the Bombay School of Art : and the 
results were published, 1896. Other 
drawings by Gill, i.e., of ground plans of 
the caves, and architectural details, are 
still preserved : he was also an expert 
photographer, as shown in his two books, 
viz. The Rock-cut Temples of India, illus- 
trated by his 74 photographs, 1864 : and 
One Hundred Stereoscopic Illustrations of 
Architecture and Natural History in W. 
India, 1864, both books with descriptions 
by J. Fergusson {q.v.). Gill, as a sportsman, 
killed above 150 tigers, mostly on foot, 
his name being well known for his prowess 
for nearly half a century : he died while 
being conveyed, very ill, from Ajanta to 
Bhosawal, where he was buried. 



Of an old Scottish family : born Jan. 21, 
1766 : educated at Kensington and near 

Newmarket : joined the 3rd Irish Horse 
in 1783 : was acquitted on a verdict of 
" justifiable homicide," after shooting a 
man in a duel: went to Jamaica, 1792: 
recovered from yellow fever : to St. 
Domingo : fired on while swimming with 
a flag of truce : Adjutant-General at St. 
Domingo, 1796 : personally killed six out 
of eight men attacking him : received a 
sword of honoiu: from the Jamaica House 
of Assembly : tried by court martial at 
Colchester, 1804 : honourably acquitted : 
stationed at Arcot in Madras : from there, 
14 miles off, rescued the survivors of the 
69th foot from the mutineers at Vellore, 
July 10, 1806 : commanded the cavalry 
against Ranjit Singh in 1809 : command- 
ant at Bangalore : commanded the 
Mysore Division : was Brig-General in 
181 1 : commanded the advance of Sir S. 
Auchmuty's expedition to Java : led the 
attack at Cornells : left in command at 
Java : deposed the Sultan of Palimbang 
in Sumatra : defeated Javanese chiefs 
at Yodhyakarta : Maj-General, 1812 : 
left Java : commanded at Meerut : and a 
Division in the Nipal war : killed, leading 
an attack on Fort Kalanga, near Deyra 
Doon, Oct. 31, 1814 : but named as 
K.C.B. on Jan. i, 1815 : a monument to 
him by Chantrey in St. Paul's Cathedral. 
His military actions were all distinguished 
by his reckless courage : he was also a 
keen sportsman. 

Son of John Thomas Giraud : born 
April 14, 1817 : took his M.D. degree at 
Edinburgh University, 1840 : entered the 
E.I. Co.'s Bombay Medical Service, 1842 : 
Professor of Chemistry and Botany, and 
afterwards Principal of the Grant Medical 
College, Bombay : Principal of Sir 
Jamsetji Jijibhai's Hospital : Chemical 
Analyst to the Bombay Government : 
Deputy Inspr-General of the Army Medi- 
cal Service : Fellow of the Bombay 
University : Surgeon on the Staff of 
several Governors of Bombay : stated to 
have been the first to introduce the study 
of chemistry and botany into W. India : 
wrote papers on chemical and botanical 
subjects, including toxicology, for scienti- 
fic journals : retired, 1867 : died Jan. 12, 
GLADWIN, FRANCIS ( ? -1813?) 
Was in the Bengal Army : encouraged 
by Warren Hastings in his studies in 



Oriental literature : translated a portion 
of Abul Fazl's Ain-i-Akbari, 1783-6 : 
member of the Asiatic Society of Ben- 
gal : published a History of Hindustan, 
1788 : a number of translations of 
Persian writers, including the Gulistan : 
a Persian-Hindustani-English dictionary, 
1809 : was first Professor of Persian at 
the College of Fort William, 1801 : Col- 
lector of Customs at Patna, 1802 : Com- 
missary resident at Patna, 1808 : he died 
about 1813. 



Born April 20, 1796: son of Bishop 
George Gleig : educated at Glasgow and 
Balliol College, Oxford : entered the 
Army, 1812 : served in the Peninsula and 
America : took his degree, 1819 : or- 
dained, 1820 : Chaplain of Chelsea 
Hospital, 1834 : Chaplain-General of the 
Forces, 1844-75 : died July 9, 1888 : 
wrote largely for Reviews and Magazines : 
also, among other works. The Life of Sir 
Thomas Munro, The History of India, 
Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan, Lives of 
" Lord Clive," and " Warren Hastings.'^ 



Son of Charles Grant (q.v.) : born Oct. 
26, 1778, at Kidderpur, Bengal : came to 
England, 1790 : educated at Magdalen 
College, Cambridge : Fellow : won Claud- 
ius Buchanan's {q.v.) University Prize 
poem on "The Restoration of Learning in 
the East " : called to the bar at Lincoln's 
Inn, Jan. 30, 1807 : M.P. from 18 11-35 
for Inverness and the county : Lord of 
the Treasury, 1813 : Chief Secretary for 
Ireland, 1819-23 : and Privy Councillor : 
Vice-President of the Board of Trade, 
1823-7 : President of the Board, and 
Treasurer of the Navy, 1827-8 : President 
of the Board of Control from Nov. 22, 
1830, to Dec. 15, 1834. It devolved on 
him to carry the Bill, in 1833, for the 
renewal of the E.I. Co.'s charter : the 
Company retained its political status, but 
its property was vested in the Crown : 
the Bishopric in India was increased. He 
was Secretary for the Colonies, 1835-9 : 
.made a peer in 1835 : abolished West 
Indian Slavery : his policy in Canada 
was attacked on all sides, and he resigned 
in 1839, receiving a pension and the office 

of Commissioner of the Land-Tax : died 
April 23, 1866, and the title became 
extinct. ; 

EUGENE (1846- ) 

Born Aug. 10, 1846, at Brussels : son 
of Count Louis Goblet d'Alviella, member 
of the Belgian House of Representatives : 
educated at Brussels and Paris : took 
the degrees of D.Polit.Science, D.LL. and 
D.Phil., at Brussels : called to the bar : 
became a member of the Provincial 
Council of Brabant, 1872 : managed, 
1874-92, the Revue de Belgique : in 1875, 
accompanied H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 
to India, as special correspondent of the 
Independence Beige : afterwards visited 
Sikhim and the Buddhist monasteries on 
the Tibet frontier : sat in the Belgian 
House of Representatives, 1878-84 : 
member of the Senate, 1892 : Secretary 
of the Senate since 1900 : appointed 
Professor of the History of Religions in 
1884, and still occupies this post : Hibbert 
Lecturer at Oxford and London, 1891 : 
1896-8, Rector of the University of 
Brussels : 1897, elected President of the 
Royal Academy of Belgium : Senator of 
Belgium, 1894 : Secretary of the Senate 
since 1900 : author of works dealing 
with both the ancient civilization and the 
modern development of India under 
British rule : Inde et Himalaya ; Souvenirs 
de Voyage, \^77, 1880 ; UHistoire re- 
ligieuse chez les Anglais, les Americains, et 
les Hindous, 1884 ; La Migration des 
Symboles, 1891 ; Ce que VInde doit a la 
Grece, 1897 : and numerous articles on 
the people and religions of India in the 
Revue de Belgique, Revue des Deux Mondes, 
etc. : M.R.A.S. : LL.D. of the University 
of Glasgow, 1901. 

GODDARD, THOMAS (1740P-1783) 
Grandson of Thomas Goddard, Canon 
of Windsor : at Madras with his regiment 
under Coote, 1 75 9-61 : at the capture of 
Pondicherry, Jan. 16, 1761 : in the 84th 
regt. in the Bengal campaign, 1763 - 
joined the Bengal Army : raised " God- 
dard's battalion " of sepoys at Murshida- 
bad in 1764 : served in quelling the 
mutiny at Patna, 1766 : at capture of 
Burrareah, near Chapra, 1770 : and 
against the Mahrattas in Rohilkund, 1772 : 
in command at Berhampur, 1774 '• and 
of the contingent at Lucknow, 1776 : com- 



manded, in succession to Colonel Leslie, 
the Bengal contingent which marched 
across India to aid the Bombay Army 
against the Mahrattas, 1778-81 : took 
Mhow : Ahmadabad on Feb. 15, 1780 : 
defeated Sindia : captured Bassein, Dec. 
II, 1780: threatened Poona : Goddard 
was compelled to retreat : treaty with 
Sindia, Oct. 1781 : Brig-General : ap- 
pointed C. in C. of the Bombay Army : 
retired for ill-health : died at sea, off the 
Land's End, July 7, 1783. 

GODEHEU, M. ( ? - ? ) 

Member of Council at Chandernagore 
and befriended by Dupleix while the 
latter was the Intendant there, before 
1741 : Director of the Company of the 
Indies in France : sent out by the French 
Ministry as Commissary of the French 
King, and Governor-General of the French 
Settlements, to supersede Dupleix, con- 
clude peace with the English, and examine 
Dupleix's accounts : reached Pondicherry, 
Aug. I, 1754 : ruined Dupleix by rejecting 
his claims for sums advanced from his 
private means, and by his reports : in 
negotiating with Saunders, the English 
Governor at Madras, Godeheu reversed 
Dupleix's policy, and gave up nearly all 
the points at issue, thus diminishing the 
French position in India : left Pondi- 
cherry for France in Feb. 1755. 


(1847- ) 

Born June 11, 1847, son of J. R. God- 
ley : educated at Rugby and Balliol 
College, Oxford : Hertford, Ireland and 
Eldon Law Scholar : Fellow of Hertford 
College, 1874 : Private Secretary to Mr. 
Gladstone when Prime Minister, 1872- 
4 and 1880-2 : Commissioner of Inland 
Revenue, 1882-3 : Under Secretary of 
State for India since 1883 : K.C.B., 1893. 



Joined the 9th foot in 1799 ' served in 
Hanover in 1805 : in the Peninsula, 
1808 : Brevet-Major and C.B. : went to 
India as Lt-Colonel of the 41st, 1822 : 
throughout the first Burmese war, 1824-6, 
including capture of Rangoon and occupa- 
tion of Martaban : Ma j -General, 1846 : 
commanded a Division in Bengal, 1850 : 
and held the Command-in-Chief of the 

Force in the second Burmese war, 1852-3 : 
captured Rangoon, April, 1852, Bassein 
in May, Pegu in June : commanded the 
Sirhind Division : died at Simla, Oct. 26, 
1853, from the effects of the Burmese 
campaigns : made K.C.B., but died 
before the notification reached him. 

SHAM (1834- ) 
Born July 6, 1834 : son of Robert A. C. 
Godwin-Austen, a distinguished geolo- 
gist : educated at Sandhurst : entered 
the Army, 1851 : went to India, 1852 : 
served in the second Burmese war and 
Panjab : entered the Trigonometrical 
Survey of India, 1857 : surveyed large 
tracts in the Himalayas : on special 
duty with Bhutan Field Force, 1864 : 
President of Section E (Geography) of 
British Association, 1883 : author of On 
the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of 
British India, 1882-99 '• contributed to 
several scientific Journals on geology, 
ethnology and natural history : Lt- 
Colonel : retired, 1877. 

BISHOP (1833-1901) 

Born 1833, in Belgium : of a family of 
wealth and influence : had a distinguished 
career in Europe : was Count of the 
Roman Empire, and a Domestic Chaplain 
to the Pope, before he went to Calcutta in 
1878, to be, at first, Bishop : like the 
other Vicariates and Prefects Apostolic in 
India, he was subject to the Archbishop 
at Goa : from 1886, under the concordat 
between the Portuguese authorities at 
Goa and the Vatican, he became Arch- 
bishop under the constitution issued by 
the Pope, which converted the 16 Vicariates 
into regular dioceses and appointed him 
Archbishop by special proclamation. 
He was thus, for 15 years, head of the 
Roman Catholic Church in India, under 
the direction of the Congregation of the 
Propaganda at Rome : he devoted his 
energies and his wealth to the interests 
of the See, especially in the development 
of churches, convents and schools : died 
at Calcutta, July 4, 1901 : described as 
a most distinguished prelate and true, 
devoted friend to India. 

GOLDNEY, PHILIP (1802-1857) 

Son of Thomas Goldney : born Nov. 
21, 1802 : educated privately : entered 



the E.I. Co.'s Bengal Army, 1821 : served 
in Sind, from 1844 : became Collector- 
Magistrate there : in the expedition to 
the Trucki hills : had great influence 
over the Beluchis : increased the area of 
canal cultivation : commanded a Brigade 
sent to annex Oudh : in charge of the 
Faizabad Division, when the mutiny of 
1857 broke out : fortified the town : 
compelled to leave in boats : killed at 
Begamji, on the Gogra, 30 miles from 
Faizabad, about Jime 9, 1857. 


(1847- ) 

Born Oct. 10, 1847 : son of Colonel 
Philip Goldney, Bengal Array : educated 
privately : joined the English Army, and 
subsequently the Bengal StaEE Corps : 
served in Sikhim expedition, 1888 : ex- 
pedition to Dongola, 1896 : N.W. Frontier 
of India, 1897, relief of Chakdara : Moh- 
mand expedition, 1897-8 : C.B. : Colonel. 


(1818- ) 

Maj-General : son of Lionel P. Gold- 
smid : educated at Paris and King's 
College, London : entered the Madras 
Army, 1839 : served in China war, 1840-1 : 
in Eastern Crimea with Turkish troops, 
1855-6 : on special missions and political 
employment under Bombay Government, 
1862-4 : Director of Government Indo- 
European Telegraph, 1865-70 : Colonel, 
1870 : Boundary Commissioner to settle 
Perso-Kelat frontier, and arbitrator in 
the Perso-Afghan Boundary settlement, 
Seistan, 1870-2 : Maj-General, 1875 : 
British Commissioner on International 
Commission for Indian immigrants in 
Reunion, 1877-80 : British Controller of 
Daira vSanieh, Egypt, 1880-3 '- author of 
Telegraph and Travel, 1874 ; James 
Oittram, a Biography, 1880, and contri- 
butor to Encyclopaedia Britannica : C.B., 
1866 : K.C.S.I., 1871 : F.R.G.S. 



Of the Bombay Civil Service : born 
May 9, 1812 : son of Edward Goldsmid : 
educated privately and at Haileybury : 
went to the Bombay Presidency, 1832 : 
became assistant to the Revenue Com- 
missioner, Mr. Williamson, in 1835 : 
devised the Revenue Survey and assess- 

ment system of Western India, and 
applied it, 1835-45 : Private Secretary to 
Sir G. R. Clerk, Governor of Bombay, 
1847-8 : Secretary in the Revenue Depart- 
ment in 1848, and Chief Secretary, 1854. 
He was the founder of a school of revenue 
officers who gave effect to the ryotwari 
system of direct tenure of the cultivators 
from the Government as landlord : the 
system generally adopted in W. India : 
Goldsmid died at Cairo, Jan. 3, 1855. 



Born Jan. 18, 1821, at Konigsberg : 
educated at the University, Konigsberg, 
1836, and at Bonn, studying Sanskrit 
under Schlegel and Lassen, devoting him- 
self chiefly to philosophy and Oriental 
languages : stayed in Paris and Berlin, but 
finally lived in England, 1850, when he was 
appointed Professor of Sanskrit, Univer- 
sity College, London : held this post till 
his death : an authority on Sanskrit 
philology : he wrote on Panini, his Place 
in Sanskrit Literature, 1861 ; an unfinished 
Dictionary, Sanskrit and English ; an 
edition de luxe of the Mahabhashya, an 
Indian Commentary on Panini's Grammar, 
published in 1874 by the Indian Govern- 
ment after Goldstiicker's death. He also 
wrote for the English public, in various 
Encyclopaedias, popular articles on Indian 
philosophy and mythology, published 
after his death as Literary Remains, 1879 '• 
founded the Society for the Publication of 
Sanskrit Texts in London, 1866 : Member 
of the Royal Asiatic Society and of its 
Council : President of the Philological 
Society, before which he read papers, but 
would not publish them : respected as an 
authority on ancient Hindu literature 
and law, and consulted on the Hindu Law 
of Inheritance by the Government of 
India : referred to also by scholars and 
statesmen, in Europe and India. His last 
work was On the Deficiencies in the Present 
Administration of Hindu Law : he died 
March 6, 1872. 


(1856- ) 
Born Sep. 15, 1856 : son of Rev. Canon 
Golightly : educated at Eton and Sand- 
hurst : joined the Army, 1875 : became 
Captain, 1886 : served at Kandahar and 
Ghazni, 1878, and in march from Kandahar 



to Kabul and battle of Ahmad Kheyl : 
marched with Sir F. Roberts from Kabul 
to Kandahar : with King's Royal Rifles 
in Boer campaign, 1880 : Adjutant, 
1 88 1-5 : commanded Mounted Infantry 
in Burma Field Force, 1886-7 : D.S.O : 
A.A.G., Meerut, 1889 : commanded ist 
Battalion Imperial Yeomanry in S. 
Africa, 1 900-1 : promoted Colonel in 
Reserve of Officers. 



Field-Marshal : born Nov. 10, 1784 : 
son of Lt-Colonel William Gomm : Ensign 
and Lieutenant in the 9th regt. in 1794 : 
studied at Woolwich until 1799 : served 
in Holland, 1799 : at Ferrol, 1800 : 
Hanover, 1805 : in the Copenhagen 
expedition, 1807 : at Corunna : on the 
Walcheren expedition, 1809 : in the 
Peninsula, i8ro : in many of the engage- 
ments : Lt-Colonel : K.C.B. : in the 
Coldstream Guards : at Waterloo, Q.M.G. 
to Picton's Division : Maj-General, 1837 : 
commanded the troops in, and Lieutenant- 
Governor of, Jamaica, 1839-42 : Governor 
and C. in C. of the Mauritius, 1842-9 : 
Lt-General, 1846 : disappointed of the 
Commandership in Chief in India in 1849, 
after being told of his appointment, but, 
on the resignation of Sir Charles Napier 
(who had been separately appointed), 
became C. in C. in India from Dec. 6, 1850 
to 1855 : General in 1854 : G.C.B. in 1859 : 
Field-Marshal, 1868 : Constable of the 
Tower of London, 1872 : D.C.L. and LL.D. : 
died March 15, 1875. 


(1865- ) 

Born Oct. 24, 1865 : educated at the 
Rajkumar College, Rajkot, and Edin- 
burgh University : Hon. LL.D. Edin., 
1887 : M.B. and G.M. Edin. 1895 : D.C.L., 
Oxford, 1892 : M.D. Edin., 1895 : F.R.C.P. 
Edin., 1895 : Fellow of the Bombay 
University : F.R.S.E., 1900 : K.C.I.E., 
1887 : G.C.I.E., 1897 : author of A 
Short History of Aryan Medical Science, 
Journal of a Visit to England. 

TUS ( ? - ) 
Entered Royal Bombay Engineers, 
1855 : became Lt-General, 1892 : served 
in the Indian mutiny, 1857-8 : V.C : 
Kattiawar Field Force, 1859 : Abyssinian 

expedition : Brevet-Major : un-employed 
supernumerary, 1896. 


( ? -1901) 

Began his career as a pleader at Delhi : 
called to the bar in 1887 : practised at the 
Lahore Chief Court, obtained a leading 
position at the bar : Fellow of the Pan jab 
University in 1888 : leading member of the 
Senate : Rai Bahadur in 1896 : member 
of the Pan jab Legislative Council, in 
1898, 1900, 1902 : died at Delhi, Aug. 11, 


(1833- ) 

Born July 8, 1833 : educated at Edin- 
burgh Academy and Addiscombe : joined 
the Madras Artillery, 1852 : served in the 
Horse Artillery in the Indian mutiny : 
present at the relief of Lucknow, battle of 
Cawnpur, etc. : Lt-Colonel, 1875 : com- 
manded R.A. in Sir F. Roberts' advance 
on Kabul : at Charasia and Kabul : C.B. 
commanded a Brigade in Madras, 1884-6 
Maj-General in command in Lower Bmrma 
commanded Burma District, 1889-91, 
when he retired : K.C.B. 1899. 



Maj-General, R.E. : son of General 
H.W. Gordon of the Royal Artillery : born 
Jan. 18, 1833 : educated at Taunton and 
the R.M.A., Woolwich : entered the Army 
in 1852 : served in the Crimea, China, 
Egypt. His connexion with India was 
curious and brief : in May, 1880, he, being 
then a Colonel, went to India as Private 
Secretary to Lord Ripon, who was going 
out as Viceroy of India. They arrived in 
Bombay on June i : on the 3rd Gordon 
resigned his appointment, explaining that 
the duties were distasteful, that he saw 
he could not hope to do anything really 
to the purpose in the face of vested interests, 
and that his views were diametrically 
opposed to those of the official classes. 
Some years later, he recommended the 
strengthening of the British naval force on 
the Indian station, and that our main 
communication with India should be by 
the Cape route. His services in Africa 
and elsewhere, and his death at Khartoum, 
on Jan. 26, 1885, are matters of national 



I.C.S. : son of Evelyn Meadows Gordon : 
born 1835 : educated at Haileybury, 
1852-4 : joined the Civil Service in Lower 
Bengal, 1854 : Private Secretary, Jan. 23, 
1866, to Lord Lawrence, when Viceroy and 
Governor-General : Judicial Commissioner 
of Mysore, 1873 : Chief Commissioner of 
Mysore, 1878, Resident, 1881 : retired, 
1883 : C.S.L, 1866 : K.C.S.L, 188I : died 
June 27, 1889. 

BARONET (1779-1835) 
Born in India, April 6, 1779 •• son of Sir 
John James Gordon : entered the 22nd 
Light Dragoons, 1813 : Captain 13th 
Light Dragoons, 1821 : entered the 
Nizam's service, 1822 : commanded the 
force at capture of Fort Mohun : and the 
Elichpur Horse (5th Nizam's Cavalry), 
1822 : the 4th Nizam's Cavalry, 1826 : 
raised Gordon's Horse (since 30th Lancers): 
died at Madras, July 23, 1835, when the 
Baronetcy became extinct. 

FREDERICK ( ? - ) 
Entered the Army, 1869 : became 
Lt-Colonel, 1899 : served in the Mahsud- 
Waziri expedition and Egyptian war, 
1882 : N.W. Frontier in command of 6th 
Bengal Cavalry : with the Kuran movable 
column : Tirah expedition, 1897-8 : CLE., 


(1832- ) 

Born Jan. 12, 1832 : son of Captain 
William Gordon : entered the Army, 
1849, and became General, 1894 : joined 
the Indian Staff Corps, 1861 : served in 
the Indian mutiny, 1857-8 : Jowaki- 
Afridi expedition, 1877-8 : Afghan war, 
1878-9 : in command of the 29th Pan jab 
N.I., at Peiwac Kotal, etc. : in the Mahsud- 
Waziri expedition, 1881 : Burmese ex- 
pedition, 1886-7 : Assistant Military 
Secretary at the War Office, 1890-7 : 
C.B., 1879 : K.C.B., 1898 : Member of the 
Council of India since 1897. 

GORDON, PETER ( ? - ? ) 

Merchant, missionary, traveller : his 
father was domiciled in Calcutta as an 
owner and commander of the Wellesley 


merchantman, and Commodore of the 
expedition to Egypt : Peter was captured 
by the French in 1809, but escaped : 
entered, 18 10, into the country service in 
India : served the E.I. Co. occasionally 
to 1824 : obtained valuable contracts 
from the E.I. Co. : published, 18 16, a book 
about his adventures : made two voyages 
from Calcutta to Okhotsk in a schooner 
of 65 tons, 18 17-8 : travelled across 
Russia to Persia, 1820 : arrested in 1827 by 
orders of the Assistant Collector of Madura : 
imprisoned two months : wrote various 
works about his career, e.g. on his imprison- 
ment and escape, 1816 : on his tour through 
Persia, 1820 : on India, on the E.I. Co. : 
Christian Researches in Southern India, 
1834 : and about China. 


(1832- ) 

Born Jan. 12, 1832 : son of Captain 
William Gordon : educated at Edinburgh 
Military Academy : entered the 4th regt., 
1849 : the Indian Stalf Corps, 1861 : and 
became General, 1894 : served in India, 
N.W. Frontier campaign, 1851 : Indian 
mutiny, 1857-9 : to Kashgar, as second 
in command of the Mission, with Sir T. 
Douglas Forsyth, 1873 : C.S.L, 1874 : 
in the Afghan war, 1879-80 : D.A.G. 
Bengal, 1879-83 : Military Attache in 
Persia, 1889-93': K.C.I.E., 1893: K.C.B., 


Born Feb. 10, 1824 : son of Adam 
Gordon of Cairnfiield : educated at Addis- 
combe : joined the Bengal Army, 1842 : 
served at siege of Multan as Field Engineer, 
1848-9 : at battle of Gujarat, in command 
of a Company of Pioneers : in the Indian 
mutiny as Brig-Major and D.A.Q.M.G. : 
District Inspector of Musketry, 1860-2 : 
Chief Inspector of Musketry, 1862-8 : 
Brig-General, 1878 : commanded three 
Districts : Maj -General, 1882 : retired, 
1883 : CLE., 1878. 


(1866- ) 

Born May 4, 1866 : son of W. E. Gordon, 
M.D. : educated at Edinburgh University : 
joined the Gordon Highlanders, 1888 : 
served in Chitral Relief expedition, 1895 : 
Tirah expedition, 1897-8 : adjutant of ist 
Battalion Gordon Highlanders throughout 



the S. African campaign : dangerously 
wounded at Magersfontein : V.C. 


(1849- ). 

Colonel : born at Paramatta, N.S.W.» 
Feb. 24, 1849 : son of Rev. W. F. Gore: 
educated at Lancing and Woolwich : 
joined the Royal Engineers, 1870 : served 
in India, since 1872 : joined the 
Survey Department : in the Afghan war, 
1879-80 : present at Ahmad Kheyl : 
Afghan Boundary Commission, 1884-6 : 
Brevet-Major : Smrveyor-General of India, 
1899-1904 : C.S.I. : retired. 


His original name was Nilkanta Sastri : 
born near Jhansi, Feb. 8, 1825 : of a 
Mahratta Brahman family of hereditary 
Prime Ministers of the Peshwas : educated 
at Benares in Sanskrit lore : baptized 
March 14, 1848, at Jaunpur: accompanied 
Dulip Singh {q.v.) to England as his 
Sanskrit tutor : attended theological 
lectures at the Islington College of the 
Church Missionary Society : returned to 
India, 1855 : entered Bishop's College, 
Calcutta : ordained, 1870 : wrote on 
religious subjects : wrote also the Rational 
Refutation of the Hindu Philosophical 
Systems : joined the mission of the 
Scottish Episcopal Church to Chanda, in 
the Central Provinces : and the Cowley 
Fathers at Bombay, Poona and Indore : 
died Oct. 29, 1895 : helped to revise the 
Hindi and Mahratti Prayer Book : had 
influence with the Brahmans, Muham- 
madans and Parsis, and with Pandita 

GASPARO (1808-1891) 

Born 1808 : Professor of Sanskrit at 
Turin : made the first translation, into a 
European language, of the Ramayatia, 
published at Paris, 1843-56 : Librarian of 
the University of Turin : the " father of 
Sanskrit philology " of his time : " Sena- 
tore di Regno " for his literary merits : 
appointed member of the French Academy : 
died May, 1891. 

ELDON (1835- ) 

Born 1835 : son of Edward Chaddock 
Gorst (who took the name of Lowndes 

in 1853) : educated at Preston Grammar 
School and St. J ohn's College, Cambridge : 
Fellow : 3rd Wrangler, 1857 : called to 
the bar from the Inner Temple, 1865 : 
Solicitor General, 1885-6 : Undersecretary 
of State for India, 1886-91 : Financial 
Secretary to the Treasury, 189 1-2 : Vice- 
President of the Council of Education, 
1895-1902 : M.P. for Cambridge and Chat- 
ham between 1866 and 1892 : since then 
M.P. for Cambridge University : LL.D. : 
F.R.S. : K.C. : author of The Maori 

STANLEY (1832- ) 

Born Jan. 28, 1832 : entered the 5th 
Bengal European Cavalry, 1848 : General, 
1894 : served in the Panjab campaign, 
1848-9 : Indian mutiny, 1857-8 : Bhutan 
war, 1864-5 '• Afghan war, 1878-80, in com- 
mand of a Brigade, through the Khyber, 
to Kabul : K.C.B. 1881 : commanded 
Hyderabad Contingent, 1881 : and a 
Division of the Bengal Army, 1886-90 : 
author of The Sikhs and the Sikhs War : 
gained the V.C. for gallantry on four occa- 
sions in the mutiny : in the first of them, at 
Kharkowda, near Rohtak, on Aug. 15, 
1857, saved his brother, who was wounded : 
killed two of the enemy : G.C.B., 1895. 



Field-Marshal : born Nov. 3, 1779 : 
fourth son of George Gough : entered the 
Militia, 1793, the Army in 1794 : Adjutant 
of the 119th at fifteen : with the 78th in 
1895 at the capture of the Cape : served in 
the W. Indies until 1803 : in the Peninsula 
force, 1809, at Talavera, Barossa, Tarifa, 
Vittoria, Nivelle, twice severely wounded : 
knighted, 1815 : Maj-General, 1830 : 
K.C.B. , 1831 : commanded the Mysore 
Division of the Madras Army, 1857 : sent 
to command at Canton, 1841 : captured 
the forts, penetrated 170 miles up the 
Yang-tze-kiang, won several actions, con- 
cluded the treaty of Nankin, 1842 : G.C.B. 
and Baronet : returned to Madras as 
C. in C. and became C. in C. in India, 
1843 : defeated Sindia's troops at Maharaj- 
pur, Dec. 28, 1843 : took the command in 
person in the first Sikh war, 1845-6, and 
won the battles of Mudki, Dec. 18, 1845 ; 
Firozshahr, Dec. 21, and Sobraon, Feb. 10, 
1846, Lord Hardinge, the Governor- 



General, serving under his command : 
made Baron Gough, of Ching-keangfoo 
in China, Maharajpur and the Satlaj in the 
East Indies : commanded again in the 
second Sikh war, 1848-9, and won the 
battles of Ramnagar, Nov, 22, 1846 ; 
Chilianwala, Jan. 13, 1849. The result of 
Chilianwala was regarded as being so 
indecisive that Sir Charles Napier was sent 
out to supersede Gough, but, before his 
arrival. Gough had won Gujarat, Feb. 21, 
1849, the Sikhs being thoroughly defeated. 
He retired in May, 1849 ; was made Viscount 
Gough of Gujarat and Limerick : received 
thanks of Parliament and a pension, and 
freedom of the City of London : General in 
1854 : sent in 1856 to Sebastopol to invest 
Pelissier and others with the Order of the 
Bath : K.P. in 1857 : P.C. in 1859 : 
K.C.S.T. in 1861 : Field Marshal in 1862 : 
he died March 2, 1869. He is said to have 
commanded in more general actions than 
any British officer in the century, the Duke 
of Wellington excepted. He was very 
popular with the soldiers. 


Born Nov. 14, 1833 : son of George 
Gough : educated privately : entered the 
Bengal Army, 1853 : in Hodson's Horse, 
served throughout the Indian mutiny : 
at siege of Delhi, relief and capture of 
Lucknow : V.C. on Nov. 12, 1857, on the 
advance to the relief of Lucknow : was 
in Abyssinia : C.B. : Afghan campaign, 
several times wounded : in command of 
the Cavalry Brigade on the Kabul- Kanda- 
har march : General : Keeper of Crown 
Jewels, 1898-1904 : Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Channel Islands, 1904 : G.C.B., 1896 : 
author of Old Memories, 1897. 


Born Feb. 4, 1848 : son of General Sir 
J. B. Gough : educated at Royal Naval 
School, Gosport, and Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge : served in R.N. 1862-5: entered 
loth Hussars, 1868 : became Colonel, 
1888, and Maj-General, 1900 : A.D.C. to 
C. in C, India, 1876-81 : served in Afghan 
war, 1878-9 : Egyptian campaign, 1884 : 
Bechuanaland expedition, 1884-5 : com- 
manded 1 8th Hussars, 1889-93 : Assistant 
A.G. for Cavalry, 1893-8 : C.M.G., 1886 : 
C.B., 1899 : Lieutenant-Governor of Jersey, 


General : son of Very Rev. Thomas 
Bunbury Gough, and nephew of Lord 
Gough : born 1804 : entered the Army 
through the R.M. College, 1820 : Captain 
in the 3rd Light Dragoons : went to India 
with his uncle : on his Staff through all his 
battles in China, Gwalior, the Satlaj and 
Panjab compaigns : commanded the 
cavalry Brigade at Mudki and Firozshahr: 
severely wounded at Sobraon : Colonel : 
A.D.C. to Queen Victoria : C.B. : Q.M.G. of 
the Queen's Troops in India: Colonel of 
the Royal Scots Greys, 1864 : K.C.B. 1867 : 
G.C.B., 1876 : died Sep. 22, 1891. 

GOUR, HARI SINGH (1868- ) 
A Rajput : born Nov. 26, 1868, at 
Sagar, C.P. • educated at the High School 
there, at the Jabalpur College, at Hislop 
College, Nagpur : to England, 1889 : 
graduated at Cambridge in Moral Sciences 
and Law, 1892 : called to the bar at the 
Inner Temple, 1892 ; returning to India, 
he first entered the Central Provinces 
Commission : resigned it for the bar : 
Secretary of the District Council at Raipur,. 
1 897-1905 : wrote on the Law of Transfer : 
M.A. : LL.D. Dublin : D.C.L : a social 
reformer and political speaker. 

GOVER, CHARLES E. ( ? -1872) 

Son of Thomas Gover : appointed 
Principal and Secretary of the Madras 
Military Orphan Male Asylum at Egmore 
in 1864 : member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1868-72 : also of the Society of 
Arts : and Fellow of the Anthropological 
Society : wrote on Indian Weights and 
Measures, on Indian folk-lore, and a 
collection of Essays, The Folk-songs of 
Southern India, 1872 : died at Madras,. 
Sept. 20, 1872. 

GOWER, SIR ERASMUS (1742-1814) 

Son of Abel Gower : entered the Navy in 
1755 : served on various stations in N.. 
America, Jamaica, etc. : in 1781 com- 
manded the Medea frigate in the E. Indies : 
captured the Vryheid, a Dutch ship, at 
Cuddalore in 1783 : and retook the Chaser 
with despatches : present in engagement 
between Suffrein and Sir E.Hughes [q.v.) 
off Cuddalore : in i792-4» with Lord. 
Macartney and his embassy to China: 



commanded the Triumph and the Neptune : 
Admiral in 1809 : died June 21, 18 14. 

GRAHAM, JOHN (1805-1839) 

Botanist : went to India in 1826 ; 
appointed by Sir John Malcolm, then 
Governor of Bombay, to be Deputy Post- 
master-General of the Bombay Presidency : 
also Superintendent of the Bombay 
Botanic Garden : to which he added many 
plants, both exotic and indigenous : was 
printing a catalogue of Bombay plants 
when he died, May 28, 1839. 


Entered the Bengal Artillery, 1858 : 
became Maj -General, 1891 : served in the 
Hazara expedition : Afghan war, 1878-80 : 
Brevet-Lt-Colonel : Burma expedition : 
in Command of the Sikhim expedition, 
1888-9 : C.B. : Manipur, 1891. 



Born at Tranquebar, Nov. 21, 1762 : 
daughter of a Dane, M. Peter John Worlee, 
Chevalier de Saint Louis, Capitaine du 
Port, of Chandernagore : married July 10, 
i777» George Francois Grand, of the Indian 
Civil Service (formerly in the E.I. Co.'s 
military service), then Secretary to the 
Salt Committee and Head Assistant and 
Examiner in the Secretary's office. In 
Feb. 1779, Grand brought an action against 
(Sir) Philip Francis, then Member of the 
Supreme Council, for criminal conversation 
on Dec. 8, 1778, with the wife of the 
plaintiff, and after trial before Impey, C.J., 
and Chambers and Hyde, J J., obtained, 
on March 6, i779» a judgment in his 
favour, and 50,000 sicca rupees as damages: 
and later a divorce from Mrs. Grand : 
she lived at Hughli under Francis' 
protection in 1779, and went to Europe 
in 1780-1. She resided partly in France, 
where she also obtained a divorce, and 
partly in England, and about 1797 came 
under the notice of Talleyrand, the 
liaison leading to their marriage on Sep. 
10, 1802, which was forced on by the 
influence of Napoleon to allow the Foreign 
Ambassadresses to visit her. They lived 
at Neuilly, but were separated about 1815. 
After a sojourn in England, she returned 
to France, and lived at Auteuil : she died 
Dec. 10, 1835, and was buried at Mont 



Native of Lausanne : educated there : 
in early life sent to England : obtained, 
in 1766, a cadetship in Bengal : Lieutenant, 
1768 : Captain in 1773 : after furlough in 
Europe, he was nominated to a writership 
in 1776 : soon became Secretary to the 
Salt Committee at Calcutta. On July 10, 
1777, he married C. N. J. Worlee {q.v.), and, 
1779* obtained 50,000 sicca rupees damages 
in an action at Calcutta against (Sir) 
Philip Francis, for crim. con. with his wife : 
divorced her later : she went to Europe, 
eventually marrying Talleyrand and 
figuring as Princesse de Benevento : 
Grand, in 1782, was Collector of Tirhut 
and Hajipur, and promoted the indigo 
manufacture in Bihar to his own advantage. 
In 1788 he was appointed Judge and 
Magistrate at Patna, warned to give up 
his indigo concerns, and finally removed 
from the service. He returned to Europe, 
and in France, by the influence of his 
former wife with Talleyrand, obtained the 
post of Privy Councillor of the Govern- 
ment of the Cape of Good Hope, from the 
Batavian Republic in 1802 : later, became 
Inspector of H.M.'s woods and lands there 
under the British : married again, and 
died at the Cape in 1821. 



Son of Sir Robert Innes Grant, seventh 
Baronet : born Sep. 13, 1826 : educated 
at Harrow and Balliol College, Oxford : 
Scholar : played twice in the Harrow 
Cricket Eleven against Eton and Win- 
chester : Fellow of Oriel, 1849 : became pri- 
vate tutor : succeeded as Baronet in 1856 : 
published the Ethics of Aristotle in 1857 : 
went to Madras in 1859, as Inspector of 
Schools : became Professor of History, 
at the Elphinstone Institution, Madras, 
in i860, and Principal in 1862 : in 1863 
he became Vice-Chancellor of the Bombay 
University, till 1868 : in 1865, Director 
of Public Instruction in the Bombay 
Presidency : Member of the Legislative 
Council, Bombay, in 1868 : made his mark 
on education in India : became Principal 
of the Edinburgh University in 1868 : 
D.C.L. and LL.D. of Cambridge, Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow : F.R.S. of Edinburgh : 
wrote on Aristotle and Xenophon and 



The Story of the University of Edinburgh : 
on female education, endowed schools, and 
articles in Reviews, etc. : died suddenly 
Nov. 30, 1884. 

GRANT, CHARLES (1746-1823) 

Born April 16, 174C, the date of the 
battle of Culloden, at which his father, 
Alexander, was severely wounded : edu- 
cated at Elgin : apprenticed at Cromarty, 
1758, and a clerk in London, 1763-67 : 
went to India in 1767 : attended to the 
private trade of Richard Becher, the 
Resident at Murshidabad : worked hard 
in the terrible Bengal famine of 1770 : 
suffered from fever : returned to Scotland, 
1 771-2 : and went out again as a " writer " 
to Bengal, in 1772-3 : became a " factor," 
and then Secretary to the Board of Trade 
at Calcutta : in 178 1 commercial resident 
at Malda, in charge of the silk filature : 
the post was very lucrative : Grant had 
his accounts examined by Cornwallis, who 
expressed a wish that all the Company's 
servants were equally scrupulous : in 
1787 he was made Fourth Member of the 
Board of Trade, with the superintendence 
of all the Company's trade in Bengal. 
He supported mission work in Bengal. 
When the mission church (J. Z. Kier- 
nander's) in Calcutta was attached by 
the Sheriff, Grant paid down 10,000 
rupees to save it, and assigned it to the 
Church Missionary Society. He retired 
in 1790. He wrote, in 1792, his Observa- 
tions on the State of Society among the 
Asiatic Subjects of Great Britain, advocating 
the cause of missions and education : it 
was printed for Parliament in 181 3 : he 
wrote the despatch from England on the 
Permanent Settlement of 1793 : he 
became M.P. for Inverness in 1802, and 
for the county from 1804-18 : he was 
Chairman of the Court of Directors in 
1805, 1809, and 1815, and in Parliament 
took a leading part in all discussions on 
the E.I. Co.'s affairs, such as the renewal 
of the Charter in 1813, the China trade, 
missions, the Press, etc. : he opposed the 
Marquess Wellesley's warlike policy, and 
supported in 1808 the motion for his 
impeachment. In the new Charter he 
obtained an annual grant for education in 
India, the appointment of Bishops in 
India, and greater freedom for missionary 
work. He promoted the establishment 
of the E.I. Co.'s College at Hertford 
•Castle in 1806, moved to Haileybury in 

1809. He was a prominent member of 
the Clapham sect and of the reUgious 
Societies, and had much influence in the 
selection of missionary chaplains for 
India. He was Chairman of the Com- 
missioners for the issue of Exchequer 
Bills, and served on the Commission for 
the building of churches. He retired 
from Parliament in 1818, and died on 
Oct. 31, 1823 : the E.I. Co. placed a 
memorial of him in St. George's Church, 
Bloomsbury. No one, at the time of 
Charles Grant, laboured harder to raise 
the moral condition of India, its inhabi- 
tants and officials, or had greater influence 
in the settlement of Indian affairs than 
he had, as Director of the E.I. Co. and as 
M.P. : he had remarkable moral courage, 
a masterful hand, a determined will, and 
a hot temper under control. 

GRANT, SIR CHARLES (1836-1903) 

Son of Sir Robert Grant (q.v.) : born in 
1836 : educated at Harrow, Trinity 
College, Cambridge, Haileybury : went 
to India, 1858 : served in the N.W.P. 
and Central Provinces : Secretary to the 
Chief Commissioner, 1861 : Commissioner, 
1870 : compiled the Central Provinces 
Gazetteer: acted as Judicial Commissioner 
and ■ as Chief Commissioner in 1879 : 
Member of the Governor-General's Legis- 
lative Council, 1879-80 : Acting Home 
Secretary, 1880 : Foreign Secretary to the 
Government of India, 1881-85 : when 
he retired : K.C.S.I., 1885 : died April 
12, 1903. 


( ? - ) 
Son of Lt-General D. G. S. Grant : 
educated privately and at Sandhurst : 
joined the Army, 1882, and the Madras 
Staff Corps, 1884 : A.D.C. to Lt-General 
Dormer, C. in C. in Madras, 1891 : Offi- 
ciating A.A.G., Madras District, 1897 : 
served in the Burma expedition, 1886-7 : 
in Manipiu:, where he proceeded to assist- 
ance of Chief Commissioner's defeated 
escort': stormed and held Thobal, till re- 
lieved, March 31-April 9, 1891 : severely 
wounded : Captain and Brevet-Major 
and V.C. : second in command 32nd 
Burma Infantry Frontier Force. 


Born July 23, 1845 : son of Field 
Marshal Sir Patrick Grant : educated at 



Eton and Sandhurst : served with the 
Seaforth Highlanders, 1863-95 ■ in the 
Madras famine, 1877-8 : Brig-Major 
during Afghan war, 1879-80, and in 
Mahsud-Waziri expedition, 1881 : served 
in Black Mountain expedition, 1891 : 
A.A.G., Panjab command, 1895-7 : com- 
manded Regimental Districts in Scot- 
land : retired : C.B., 1900. 


In the service of the E.I. Co. : was 
stationed in Bengal, 1784-9 : selected by 
the Government to superintend the native 
management of the revenues : found him- 
self obliged to expose the abuses con- 
nected with the whole system of native 
agency : appointed Chief Sarishtadar, or 
general superintendent of native revenue 
accounts under the Board of Revenue, 
1786 : his tract, — An Inquiry into the 
Nature of Zemindary Tenures in the 
Landed Property of Bengal, 1791 — gives 
the best account of the native revenue 


The African traveller : born April 11, 
1827 : son of James Grant : educated at 
Nairn and Aberdeen schools and at the 
Marischal College, Aberdeen : joined the 
8th Bengal N.I. in 1846 : was present at 
Multan and Gujarat : Adjutant : was 
with the 78th Highlanders at the relief of 
Lucknow : accompanied J. H. Speke on 
his African expedition, 1 861-4, including 
the discovery of the source of the Nile : 
received the Gold Medal of the Geographi- 
cal Society, 1864 : C.B., 1866 : in the 
Intelligence Department in the Abyssinian 
expedition : C.S.I. : retired as Lt-Colonel, 
1868 : died Feb. 11, 1892 : wrote A Walk 
across Africa, 1864 : and in scientific 
Journals about his travels. 

GRANT, SIR JAMES HOPE (1808-1875) 

Son of Francis Grant : born July 22, 
1808 : educated at Edinburgh and 
Hofwyl, Switzerland : remained in the 
9th Lancers from Colonel in 1826 to Maj- 
General in 1858 : Brig-Major to Lord 
Saltoim in the first Chinese war, 1840-2 : 
C.B. : in the first Sikh war, 1845-6, includ- 
ing Sobraon : in the Panjab campaign of 
1848-9, at Ramnagar, Chilianwala and 
Gujarat : Brevet-Lt-Colonel : was at 
Umbala when the mutiny broke out : 

Brigadier of the cavalry : at Badli-ka- 
sarai : at the siege of Delhi : the relief of 
Lucknow : Cawnpur : commanded mov- 
able columns and the trans-Gogra force : 
K.C.B., 1858 : commanded in the second 
Chinese war, 1 860-1 : captured the Taku 
forts and Pekin : G.C.B. : C. in C. at 
Madras, Dec. i86i-May, 1865 : Q.M.G. 
of the Army, 1865-70 : in command at 
Aldershot, 1870, where he initiated the 
autumn manoeuvres, and introduced 
many improvements : he was strong in 
his religious views : died March 7, 1875. 


Born Aug. 12, 1788 : son of Robert 
Grant : was in the E.I. Co.'s Civil Service, 
1805-49 : devoted himself to astronomy, 
the microscope and other scientific pur- 
suits : he made a granite observatory on 
the Elchies estates, and there had the 
" Trophy Telescope " : he was F.R.A.S., 
1864 : died Sep. 17, 1865. 

GRANT, SIR JOHN PETER (1774-1848) 

Son of William Grant, M.D. of London 
and Rothiemurchus : born Sep. 21, 1774 : 
succeeded his uncle in the Rothiemurchus 
estate in 1790 : educated at Cambridge : 
read law at Edinburgh : called to the bar 
from Lincoln's Inn, 1802 : M.P. for 
Great Grimsby and Tavistock : went to 
Bombay in 1827 as a Puisne Judge of the 
Supreme Court there : knighted : when 
the Bombay Government interfered to 
prevent the execution of decrees of the 
Court, a rupture took place, and Grant 
closed the Court in April, 1829 : Lord 
Ellenborough, at the Board of Control, 
appointed a new Chief Justice, Sir J. 
Dewar, and a new Judge, writing that 
Grant " will be like a wild elephant led 
between two tame ones." Grant re- 
signed his appointment, left Bombay in 
Sep. 1830, and went over to Calcutta : 
practised there at the bar, and became a 
Puisne Judge, 1833-48, of the Calcutta 
Supreme Court. He died May 17, 1848, 
on his voyage homewards : he wrote on 
legal subjects. 

GRANT, SIR JOHN PETER (1807-1893) 

I.C.S. : son of Sir John Peter Grant 
{q.v.) : born Nov. 23, 1807 : educated at 
Eton, Edinburgh University, Haileybury : 
went to India in 1828 : served for four 
years in the N.W.P. : Secretary in 1832 
to the Board of Revenue, Calcutta : 


served in the Government of India Secre- 
tariat : was Superintendent of the Botanic 
Garden : Secretary to Lord Macaulay's 
Indian Law Commission, Private Secre- 
tary to the Governor-General : Commis- 
sioner for payment of the Maharaja of 
Mysore's debts : inquired into the pro- 
ceedings for the suppression of meriah, or 
human sacrifices, in Ganjam : from 1848 
to 1852 he was Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of Bengal under the Governor- 
General and, in his absence, under the 
Deputy Governor : was Secretary to the 
Government of India in the Home and 
Foreign Departments, 1852-4 : Member of 
the Governor- General's Supreme Council, 
1854-9 : and, for a portion of that time, 
Lieutenant-Governor of the " Central " 
Provinces during the mutiny : Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Bengal, 1859-62. As 
Member of Council he advocated annex- 
ation of Oudh, which was carried, instead 
of Lord Daihousie's less thorough scheme : 
he passed an Act to legalize the marriage 
of Hindu widows. As Lieutenant- 
Governor, he had to deal with the 
indigo disturbances — incurring unpopu- 
larity with the planters in his determina- 
tion to do justice to the cultivators — and 
with troubles from tribes on the frontier. 
In both these capacities he showed great 
ability, in writing, in speech, and in 
action : greatly trusted by Lords Dalhousie 
and Canning : K.C.B. in 1862. After the 
rebellion in Jamaica, in 1865, he was 
Governor of that island, 1866-73 '• the 
whole administration was reformed by 
him, the finances re-organized, and sound 
political and fiscal principles applied by 
the light of his previous experience : died 
Jan. 6, 1893. 

GRANT, MALCOLM (1762-1831) 

Joined the E.I. Co.'s Bombay Army in 
T777 : served against the Mahrattas, i779» 
and with Goddard's {q.v.) force at Bassein, 
in 1 780-1 : in Malabar, until 1788, and 
again from 1792 to 1798 : commanded 
against the Mahrattas, was in the capture 
of Mysore, under General James Stuart 
at Mangalore, in Canara, and Jamalghar : 
in the chief command in Malabar and 
Canara, 1804 : captured Savandrug : 
returned to England, 1807 : Maj -General, 
1813 : Lt-General, 1815 : died Sep. 28, 


GRANT, SIR PATRICK (1804-1895) 
Field Marshal : son of Major John 
Grant, 97th foot : born Sep. 11, 1804 : 
Ensign, 1820: joined the nth Bengal 
N.I. in Jan. 1821 : rose to be General, 
1870 : Field Marshal, June, 1883 : Goldstick 
in Waiting to Queen Victoria, 1885 : raised 
the Hariana Light Infantry,i836: organized 
the N.W. Frontier Force in 1841 : Deputy- 
Adjutant-General, 1843 : in the Gwalior 
campaign at Maharajpur : in the first Sikh 
war was at Mudki,acting there as Adjutant- 
General ; at Firozshahr, and Sobraon : C.B.: 
Adjutant-General of the Bengal Army, 
1846 : at Chilianwala and Gujarat : Brevet- 
Colonel and A.D.C. to Queen Victoria: 
served against the N.W. frontier tribes : 
C. in C. of the Madras Army, 1856 : K.C.B. : 
C. in C. in India, temporarily, in the 
mutiny, between General Anson {q.v.) 
and Lord Clyde {q.v.) : retired in 1861 : 
G.C.B. : C. in C. at Malta, 1867-72 : 
G.C.M.G., 1868 : Governor of the Chelsea 
Hospital, 1874-95 : died March 28, 1895. 

GRANT, SIR ROBERT (1779-1838) 

Governor : second son of Charles Grant 
{q.v.) : born in Bengal in 1779 : went to 
England, 1790 : educated at Magdalen 
College, Cambridge, Craven Scholar, 1799 » 
third wrangler. Chancellor's Medallist 
and Fellow : called to the bar at Lincoln's 
Inn, 1807 : M.P. for various constituencies 
from 18 18 to 1834 : advocated Jewish 
emancipation from civil disabiUties : Judge 
Advocate General, 1832 : Governor of 
Bombay from March 17, 1835 : knighted 
in 1834 : and G.C.H. : died of apoplexy 
at Dapuri, July 9, 1838 : wrote Sketch of the 
History of the E.I. Co., from its First Foun- 
dation to 1773 : a View of the System 
and Merits of the East India College, 
Haileyhury, and a volume of sacred poems, 
which was edited by his brother. Lord 
Glenelg. The Grant Medical College at 
Bombay was erected as a memorial to 



Son of Archibald Keir, I.C.S. : bom 
in 1772 : joined the 15 th King's Light 
Dragoons, 1792 : served in Flanders, 
1794 : saved the German Emperor, 
Francis II, at Villiers-en-Couche : served 
in Germany : and in Italy with the Rus- 
sian and Austrian armies, in several 




battles : Adjutant-General of the King's 
troops in Bengal, 1806 : commanded the 
advance on the Satlaj, 1810 : against 
Amir Khan, the Pathan freebooter, in 
1814 : C. in C. in Java, 1815 : com- 
manded part of the Army of the Dekkan 
against the Pindaris, 1817 : also against 
Sawantwari and Cutch, 1819 : defeated 
the piratical Arabs in the Persian Gulf in 
1819-20, and arranged for the complete 
suppression of piracy : assumed the 
name of Keir Grant, instead of Grant 
Keir : K.C.B., 1822 : Lt-General, 1825 : 
G.C.H., 1835 : General, 1841 : died May 7, 



Son of John Grant and Margaret Duff : 
born July 8, 1789 : educated at Marischal 
College, Aberdeen : joined the E.I. Co.'s 
military service at Bombay in 1805 : was 
at the storming of Maliah, 1808 : became 
Adjutant and Interpreter of his regiment : 
was Assistant to Mountstuart Elphinstone, 
then Resident of Poona, who had a high 
opinion of him : as Captain, he served 
against the Peshwa, Baji Rao, when the 
latter was dethroned in 1818, and was 
then made Resident of Satara, administer- 
ing the State in the Raja's name till 
1822, and making treaties with the Satara 
jagirdars. After five years he retired to 
Scotland and brought out the History of 
the Mahrattas in 1826. He took the 
additional names of Duff and Cunningham 
on succeeding to landed estates : died 
Sep. 23, 1858. Sur M. E. Grant-Duff 
{q.v.), formerly Governor of Madras, is his 


Born Feb. 21, 1829 : son of James 
Cunningham Grant-Duff (q.v.) : educated 
at Edinburgh University, The Grange, 
Bishop Wearmouth, and Balliol College, 
Oxford : barrister of the Inner Temple : 
M.P. forthe Elgin Burghs, 1857-81 : Under 
Secretary of State for India, 1868-74 : 
and for the Colonies, 18 80-1 : Privy 
Councillor, 1880 : Governor of Madras, 
1 88 1-6 : advanced education and science : 
constructed the Marina at Madras : Presi- 
dent of the Royal Geographical Society, 
1889-93 : President of the Royal Historical 
Society, 1892-9 : Author of Studies 
in European Politics, "Elgin Speeches, 

Notes of an Indian Journey, Memoir of 
Sir H. S. Maine, Note<; from a Diary, etc., 
etc. : C.I.E., 1881 : G.C.S.I., 1886 : F.R.S. : 


(1845- ) 

Born Feb. 2, 1845 : son of Henry 
Graves : educated at Kingstown school 
and Woolwich : joined R.A., 1866, and 
Indian Staff Corps, 1871 : Brevet-Colonel, 
1897 : served in Afghan war, 1879-80 : 
commanded Garhwal Rifles, 1893-8 : 
served with Malakand Field Force, 1897, 
and in the N.W. Frontier campaign, 1897- 
8 : C.B. 



Son of Edward Greathed : born 1812 : 
educated at Westminster : entered the 
Army, 1832 : in the mutiny was with the 
8th regt. at the siege of Delhi and led the 
regt. to the assault : after its fall, was 
placed in command of the column to 
open up the country between the Jamna 
and the Ganges : in the fighting at 
Bulandshahr, Alighar and Agra : com- 
manded a Brigade at Sir Colin Campbell's 
relief of Lucknow : at the engagement 
before Cawnpur on Dec. 6, 1857 : at 
Khudaganj and the occupation of Fateh- 
ghar : Colonel and C.B. : D.C.L., 1859 : 
K.C.B., 1865 : commanded E. district in 
England, 1872-7 : Brevet-General, 1880 : 
died Nov. 19, 1881. 

FORCE HARRIS (1826-1878) 

Son of Edward Greathed : born Dec. 21, 
1826 : educated at Addiscombe : joined 
the Bengal Sappers and Miners at Meerut 
in 1846 : was in the siege and capture, 
Jan. 2, 1849, of Multan : present at 
Gujarat : Consulting Engineer for Rail- 
ways at'Allahabad, 1855-7 : in the mutiny, 
he twice conveyed despatches from Agra 
to Meerut through the mutineers : was at 
the siege of Delhi, directing the left 
attack : severely wounded : was at 
several engagements as Engineer of the 
Doab Field Force : directed as Engineer 
at the attack on Lucknow and its capture : 
C.B. : and Brevet-Major : was A.D.C. to 
Sir R. Napier in China : at the capture of 
Pekin : Brevet-Lt-Colonel : Assistant Mih- 
tary Secretary to the Horse Guards, 1861- 
5: Head of the Irrigation Department, 



N.W.P., 1867-75 : made the Agra and 
Lower Ganges canals : retired from India, 
1876 : died Dec. 29, 1878 : Maj-General. 


(1831- ) 

Bom Nov. 9, 1 83 1 : son of Capt. George 
Greaves, 6oth Rifles : educated at Sand- 
hurst : joined the 70th regt. : served in 
the Indian mutiny : New Zealand war, 
1860-6 : Ashanti campaign, 1874 : Sou- 
dan, 1885 : Chief Secretary and Com- 
missioner, Cyprus, 1878 : Adjutant-General 
in India, 1879 : commanded a Division in 
India, 1886 : C. in C, Bombay, 1890 : 
resigned. 1893 : became General, 1896, 
and retired : K.C.M.G., 1881 : K.C.B., 
1885 : G.C.B. 

GREEN, SIR EDWARD (1810-1891) 

Son of James Green : educated at 
Addiscombe : entered the Indian Army, 
1827 : in the Afghan war, 1841-2 : saw 
active service at Hyderabad, Sind, with 
the 22nd regt., in defence of the Residency 
and at the battle of Hyderabad : also as 
A.A.G. against the Cutchi Hill Tribes, 
1844-5 : at the capture of Multan, at 
Gujarat, and pursuit and surrender of the 
Sikhs : Adjutant-General, Bombay, 1856- 
60 : commanded a Division, 1862-5 : 
died May 9, 1891 : General : K.C.B. 




General : son of the Rev. G. W. G. 
Green : educated at Bridgnorth : entered 
the Indian Army in 1841 : served in Sind 
and in the Panjab campaign of 1848-9 : 
at Gujarat : commanded the 2nd Panjab 
N.I., through the mutiny : wounded at 
the siege of Delhi : at Sir Colin Campbell's 
relief of Lucknow, Nov. 1857 : C.B., 
1858 : Lt-General, 1877 : died Nov. 27, 
1891 : K.C.B., 1877. 

RHODES (1823- ) 

Born May 31, 1823 : son of Vice- 
Admiral Sir Andrew P. Green, K.C.B. : 
educated at King's College, and Brussels : 
entered the Indian Army, 1841, and 
joined the Sind Irregular Horse, 1846 : 
served throughout the second Panjab 
\ war, 1848-9 : present at siege of Multan 
and battle of Gujarat : employed on 
special diity during the Crimean war, as 

Colonel in the Turkish Army : present at 
Balaclava and Inkerman and siege of 
Sebastopol : severely wounded : Adjt- 
General of Turkish Bashi-Bazouks in Asia 
Minor and Bulgaria : A.A.G., Persian 
war, 1856-7 : Indian mutiny, 1857-8 : 
Political Agent in Beluchistan, 1859 : 
Officiating Chief Commissioner of Sind : 
Political Superintendent of N.W. Frontier 
of Sind, 1866-8 : retired, 1874 : K.C.S.I., 
1866 : C.B. : author of Papers on Defence 
of N.W. Frontier of India. 


(1854- ) 

I.C.S. : born Oct. 14, 1854 : son of Rev. 
George Samuel Greer, Rector of BuUhal- 
bert, CO. Down, Ireland : educated at 
Kingstown school, co. Dublin : Member 
of the Irish International Football Team : 
went to Bengal, 1877 : employed in 
Assam : Deputy Commissioner of Sibsa- 
gar, and Sylhet : Assistant Secretary to 
the Chief Commissioner, 1884 : Magte- 
CoUector of Tippera : Deputy Commis- 
sioner, Darjeeling, 1893-9 : Inspr-General 
of Police, Bengal, 1 899-1 900 : Chairman 
of the Calcutta Corporation since igoo : 
C.S.I. , 1904. 



Son of R. W. Grey : born 1785 : edu- 
cated at University College, Oxford : 
Fellow of Oriel College : called to the bar, 
1811 : Commissioner in Bankruptcy, 
1817 : Judge of the Supreme Court, 
Madras, 1820 : knighted : Chief Justice, 
Bengal, 1 825-32 : Commissioner to Canada, 
1835-6 : G.C.H. : M.P. for Tynemouth, 
1838-41 : Governor of Barbados, 1841-6 : 
Governor of Jamaica, 1847-53 : died 
June I, 1865. 

GREY, SIR JOHN (1780P-1856) 
Son of Charles Grey, and great-nephew 
of the first Earl Grey : joined the 75th 
foot in 1798 : served in the war against 
Tippoo : at Malavilli and Seringapatam : 
was in the Peninsula, at Ciudad Rodrigo : 
commanded a Division in Bengal, 1840- 
5 : commanded against 12,000 Mahrattas 
at Punniar and defeated them, Dec. 29, 
1843 : K.C.B. : commanded a Division 
in the Satlaj campaign, 1845-6 : C. in C. and 
Member of Council, Bombay, 1850-2 : 
Lt-General, 1851 : died Feb. 19, 1856. 




(1840- . ) 

Born July i, 1840: son of L. J. H. 
Grey : educated at Cheltenham : joined 
the Bengal Army, 1857 : served with 
Pan jab Frontier Force on the N.W. 
Frontier, 1857-62 : Bhutan campaign, 
1865-6, as Political Officer : Commissioner 
of Hissar Division, 1882 : retired, 1894 : 
re-employed as Superintendent of the 
Bahawalpur State, 1899-1902 : C.S.I., 

GREY, SIR WILLIAM (1818-1878) 

Born 1818 : son of Edward Grey, Bishop 
of Hereford, and grandson of first Earl 
Grey : was at Christ Church, Oxford, but 
left it to enter the War Office : educated 
at Haileybury : went to India in 1840 : 
Private Secretary to Sir Herbert Maddock, 
Deputy Governor of Bengal, 1845-7 : 
served in the Bengal Secretariat, and in 
the Secretariat of the Government of 
India, in the Home and Foreign Depart- 
ments : Secretary to the Bank of Bengal, 
1 85 1-4 : Secretary to the Government of 
Bengal, 1854-7: Director General of the Post 
Office : Secretary to the Home Depart- 
ment, 1859 : Member of the Governor- 
General's Supreme Council, from April, 
1862, to April, 1867 : had considerable 
difference of opinion with Sir John 
Lawrence, the Governor-General. When 
discussions arose after the Orissa famine, 
he opposed the proposed abolition of the 
Bengal Legislative Council, and, instead 
of any reduction in the status of the 
Bengal Government, advocated its assimil- 
ation to the Governments of Madras and 
Bombay. He held strong opinions about 
taxation, and his views did not agree 
with those of Lord Mayo : K. C.S.I, in 
1871 : retired on March i, 1871 : Governor 
of Jamaica, 1874-7 : died May 15, 1878. 


(1851- ) 

I.C.S. : born Jan. 7, 1851 : son of 
George Abraham Grierson, LL.D., Queen's 
Printer for Ireland : educated at St. 
Bee's School, Shrewsbury ; Trinity College, 
Dublin (Exhibitioner) : went out to Ben- 
gal, 1873 : Inspector of Schools, Bihar, 
1880 : Additional Commissioner of Patna, 
and Opium Agent, Bihar, 1896 : in charge 
of the Linguistic Survey with the Govern- 
ment of India, 1898-1902 : retired, 1902 : 

CLE., 1894 : Ph.D. (Halle) 1894 : D. 
Litt. of Trin. Coll., Dublin, 1902 : Member 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, the Folklore, and 
other Societies. His principal writings 
are Introduction to the Maithili Lan- 
guage, A Handbook to the Kaithi Character, 
Seven Grammars of the Bihar i Dialects, 
Bihar Peasant Life, The Modern Vernacular 
Literature of Hindustan, Notes on Tulsi 
Das, The Satsaiya of Bihar i. Essays on 
Kashmiri Grammar, The Linguistic Survey 
of India, The Languages of India : the 
Chapters on Vernacular Languages and 
Vernacular Literatures in the forthcoming 
edition of the Imperial Gazetteer. 


(1847- ) 

Born Dec. 11, 1847 : son of G. L. 
Griesbach of Zobelsberg : educated at 
Vienna University : Member of ten 
Scientific Societies : joined the Royal 
Fusiliers, 1874 : and Geological Survey 
of India, 1878 : on special service during 
the Afghan war : present at Maiwand, 
July 27, 1880 : siege and battle of Kanda- 
har, 1880 : Afghan Boundary Commission, 
1884-6 : CLE. : on special duty with 
H.H. the Amir, in Afghanistan, 1888-9 : 
Miranzai expedition, 1890-1 : Burma, 
1892 : S. Africa, 1896-7 : Director of the 
Geological Survey of India : retired. 

BARONET (1800-1877) 
Son of Sir George Griffies- Williams, 
Bart. : born in 1800 : entered the Indian 
Army, 1819 : served in the first Burmese 
war, 1824-6 : at the siege and storming 
of Punnullah and capture of Munnohur, 
1844-5 : in the second Burmese war, 
1852 : became Baronet in 1870 : died 
May 23, 1877. 


(1840- ) 

I.C.S. : born 1840 : joined the Civil 
Service in the Panjab, i860 : Chief Secre- 
tary to the Panjab Government, 1870 : 
Chief Political Officer in Afghanistan, 1880 : 
negotiated with Abdur Rahman {q.v.), 
who became Amir of Afghanistan : Resi- 
dent at Indore : Agent to the Governor- 
General for Central India, 1881-8 : retired, 
1889 : Chairman of East India Associa- 
tion : author of The Panjab Chiefs, 1865 ; 
The Law of Inheritance in Chiefships, 



1869; The Rajas of thePanjab, 1870; The 
Great Republic, 1884 ; Famous Monu- 
ments of Central India, 1888 ; Ranjit 
Singh, 1894 : founded the Asiatic Quarterly 
Review in conjunction with D. Boulger : 
K.C.S.I., 1881. 

HOTCHKIN (1826- ) 
Born May 25, 1826 : son of Rev. R. C. 
Griffith : educated at Warminster, Up- 
pingham and Queen's College, Oxford : 
University Boden Sanskrit Scholar : As- 
sistant Master, Marlborough, 1849-53 '• 
Professor of Enghsh Literature, Benares 
College, 1854-62 : Principal of Benares 
College, 1863-78 : Director of Public 
Instruction, N.W.P., and Oudh, 1878-85 : 
retired, 1885 : author of Specimens of 
Old Indian Poetry, 1852 ; The Birth of the 
War -God, 1853 ; Idylls from the Sanskrit, 
1866 ; Scenes from the Ramayan, 1868 ; 
The Ramayan of Valmiki, 1870-5 ; The 
Hymns of the Rig-veda, 1889-92 ; The 
Hymns of the Atharva-veda, 1895-6; The 
Texts of the White Yajur-veda, 1899 : 
founder and editor of the Pandit, a San- 
skrit journal, for eight years : CLE., 

GRIFFITH, WILLIAM (1810-1845) 
Son of Thomas Griffith : born March 4, 
1810 : studied medicine : educated at 
the University of London : went to 
Madras in 1832, in the E.I. Co.'s medical 
service : botanical member of an expedi- 
tion to Assam, 1835, in connexion with 
the search for, and discovery of, the tea 
plant : explored between Sadiya and 
Ava : and from Assam to Ava and Ran- 
goon : attached in 1837 to Pemberton's 
embassy to Bhutan : in 1839, accom- 
panied the Army of the Indus to Kabul, 
and went beyond the Hindu Kush to 
Khorasan : on medical duties to Malacca 
in 1 841-2 : made enormous and valuable 
collections of dried plants on his journeys : 
they were distributed from Kew after 
his death : he also made researches in 
Natural History and valuable collections : 
acting Superintendent of the Botanic 
Garden, near Calcutta, and Professor of 
Botany at the Medical College, Calcutta : 
again to Malacca in 1844, and died there, 
Feb. 9, 1845 : his valuable notes and 
collected papers were published in nine 
volumes after his death, at the expense 

of the E.I. Co. : the editorial work is said 
to have been badly done: he had the 
greatest reputation for his " achievements 
as ' one of the most brilliant of Indian 
botanists ' " : he published papers in 
scientific Journals. 

1760— after 1783) 

A writer in the E.I. Co's service, son of 
Francis Grose : went out to Bombay in 1750: 
in 1757 he published A Voyage to the East 
Indies, of which there were subsequent 
editions and a French translation. He 
was a Member of the Society of Arts. 

GROTE, ARTHUR (1814-1886) 
I.C.S. : son of George Grote,and brother of 
the historian, George Grote : born Nov. 
29, 1814 : educated at Haileybury : went 
to Bengal in 1833 : rose to be Commis- 
sioner and Member of the Board of Revenue, 
Calcutta, 1 861-8 : was President of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1859-62 and 
in 1865 : left India, 1868 : a prominent 
member and a Vice-President of the Royal 
Asiatic Society : wrote papers on Botany 
and Natural History : F.L.S. and F.Z.S : 
died Dec. 4, 1886. 



Born 1795 : educated at Lymington 
and Fulham : learnt chemistry, dentistry 
and surgery : resided at Plymouth and 
became a founder of the sect of Plymouth 
brethren : devoted himself to missionary 
work from 1829 : went overland to 
Bagdad and taught Christianity there : 
from Bagdad to Bombay in 1833 : stayed 
in India till 1852, visiting England twice 
during that time. In India he visited the 
missionary stations, chiefly on the west 
coast and in the Madras Presidency : 
practised dentistry for a year in Madras : 
laboured steadily for years in his work of 
evangelization : his preaching was very 
successful : died at Bristol, May 20, 1853. 
He wrote journals of his journey to Bagdad 
and of his residence there. 



I.C.S. : son of Robert Growse : born 
1837 : educated at Oriel College, and 
Queen's College, Oxford (Scholar) : went 
to India to the N.W.P. in i860 : served 

I 82 


in Mathura and Bulandshahr : built a 
Catholic Church at Mathura : wrote 
Mathura, a District Memoir, 1880 : and an 
English translation of the Ramayana 
of Tulsi Das, 1883 (said to occupy the 
place almost of a Bible among the people 
of the N.W. Provinces) : also Bulandshahr, 
1884 : he ardently defended the purity 
of the vernacular Hindi, as opposed to the 
official Hindustani : Member of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal : a learned 
Oriental scholar and archaeologist: C.I.E., 
1879 : retired 1890 : died May 19, 1893. 

Born at Munich, July 31, 1856 : son of 
Karl Grlinwedel, an artist : educated at 
the Max-Gymnasium at Munich, and later 
(1876-82) studied Archaeology, classical 
Philology, Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, at the 
Munich University : Dr. : chiefly known as 
a Tibetan scholar, and leading authority in 
the history of Indian (especially Buddhist) 
art : has been, since 1882, Assistant 
Director of the Royal Museums at Berlin, 
and is Director of the Asiatic Section of 
the Berlin Ethnographical Museum 
(1904) : Corresponding Member of the 
Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences at 
Munich (1900), and ; of the Oriental 
Division of the Archaeological Society at 
St. Petersburg (1901) : his chief works 
are : Buddhistische Kunst in Indien, 
1893, etc., translated into English in 1901 : 
his Lepcha-English Dictionary, compiled 
from General Mainwaring's MSS., 1898 : 
Mythologie des Buddhismus in Tibet 
und der Mongolei, 1900. His Report on 
his archaeological laboiurs in Idikutsari 
(Turfan), 1905, is the result of his travels 
(1902-3) in Chinese Turkistan (Turfan) in 
the company of Dr. Huth. 


I.C.S. : educated at Haileybury, 1829- 
30 : went out to India in 1830 : served in 
the N.W. P. and in Oudh on its annexation 
in 1856, when he was made its Financial 
Commissioner. In the mutiny, he took 
a leading part in the operations at Luck- 
now : had charge of the Intelligence De- 
partment : advocated various measures, 
some of which were adopted, and some, 
such as the disarmament of the native 
troops, were not accepted by Sir H. 
Lawrence : served throughout the siege 
of Lucknow : " retrenched and completed 

the post which bore his name, and was 
eminent among those who fought hard and 
laboured unceasingly." After the relief, 
he was with Sir Colin Campbell at Cawnpur: 
ill-health then compelled him to go to 
England. He was Judge of the Agra 
Chief Court, 1858-63 : died May 6,;;i863 : 
wrote The Mutinies in Oudh. 


Born April 7» 1840, at Turin : descended 
from ancient family of Provence : studied 
first at Turin : in 1862, sent by the 
Italian Government to continue his 
philological studies in Berlin under Weber 
and Bopp : appointed, 1863, Professor 
of Sanskrit and Comparative Literature 
at the Institut des Etudes Superieures in 
Florence : in 1881, King Himibert con- 
firmed to him the title of Count, borne 
formerly by his ancestors : visited India 
in 1885 and 1886, and on his return 
founded an Indian Museum, and an 
Italian Asiatic Society at Florence : 
appointed, 1890, to his present position. 
Professor of Sanskrit and Italian Litera- 
ture at the University of Rome : has 
travelled much, and is a prolific and 
many-sided writer, poet, dramatist, author 
of many works on Italian literature, and a 
Sanskritist : has written on the mythology 
of the Vedas : Le fonti vediche delV epopea, 
1867, etc. : other works are : — Piccola 
enciclopedia Indiana, 1867 ; Letter attir a 
Indiana, 1883 : Storia dei viaggiatori 
italiani nelle Indie, 1875 ; II Dio Indra 
nel Rigveda : Primi Venti Inni del Rigveda 
(translated with notes) : Drammi indiani, 
in verse : Zoological Mythology, etc. : 
elected an honorary member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, and of its branch in Bom- 
bay, besides belonging to other learned 
Societies : delegate of the Italian Govern- 
ment at International Congresses of 



Lt- General : son of Sir J. Guise, Bart. : 
born 1826 : entered the Army, 1845 : 
served in the Crimea with the 90th Light 
Infantry : in the mutiny at siege and 
capture of Lucknow : led the attack on the 
Sikandrabagh : V.C. for gallantry in 
action on Nov. 16 and 17, 1857, at Luck- 
now : C.B. : died Feb. 5, 1895. 



GUNDERT, REV. HERMAN (1814-1893) 

Born at Stuttgart, 1814 : worked in the 
Basel Evangelical Mission in Malabar and 
Canara, 1839-63 : at Tellicherry : In- 
spector of Government Schools in Malabar 
and Canara, i860 : a learned scholar : 
wrote Malayalam grammar and other 
books, including a dictionary and Bible 
translations : retured, 1865 : Editorial 
Secretary and Principal of the Calver 
Verlagsverein : died 1893. 

GUY, SIR PHILIP M. N. (1804-1878) 

Son of Melmoth Guy : educated pri- 
vately and at the Military College, Brussels : 
entered the Army, 1824 : was in the 5th 
regt. for 37 years, commanding it for 10 : 
in the mutiny, commanded the Dinapur 
district in 1857 : in several engagements : 
commanded an Infantry Brigade under 
Sir Hope Grant : and at the Alambagh 
during and after the second relief of 
Lucknow, and at its capture : C.B. : held 
commands at Colchester, China and Jersey : 
K.C.B., 1873 : General, 1877 : died March 
10, 1878. 

MAHARAJA OF (1780-1827) 

Succeeded his great uncle and adoptive 
father Madhava (Madhoji) Sindia {q.v.), in 
1794: he organized a formidable army under 
French officers, plundered Poona,seized Ah- 
madnagar : declined an alliance with the 
British against an Afghan invasion : was 
defeated at Poona in 1802 by Jaswant Rao 
Holkar. In 1803 he was allied with the 
Raja of Berar to defeat the objects of the 
Treaty of Bassein : they were routed by 
General Arthur Wellesley at Assaye on 
Sep. 23, 1803, and at Argaum on Nov. 
28, 1803 : he was forced to sign the Treaty 
of Sirji Anjenguam, Dec. 30, 1803, and cede 
territory : Lord Lake also defeated his 
forces at Alighar on Aug. 29, 1803, at Delhi 
and Agra, and at Laswari on Nov. i : 
he submitted in 1805 : Lord Comwallis in 
1805 restored Gohadand Gwalior to him. 
Daulat Rao continued to give trouble by 
the support he gave to the Pindaris and 
their depredations, and was compelled by 
Lord Hastings to make another treaty in 
1817 : as he failed in his engagements, 
the fort of Asirghar was taken from him : 
he died March 21, 1827. 

MAHARAJA OF (1835-1886) 
His real name was Bagirat Rao : was 
adopted by his predecessor's (Jankoji) 
widow, Tara Bai : grave distiirbances 
broke out regarding the regency : the 
Regent, Mama Sahib, the Maharaja's 
father-in-law, was driven out. Lord 
Ellenborough sent an army to Gwalior, 
to whom the usvurper, Dada Khasgeewala, 
surrendered. The State Army was 
defeated at Maharajpur and Punniar on 
Dec. 29, 1843, and a treaty made at 
Gwalior in Jan. 1844, when Jiaji was 
placed on the throne. He paid great 
attention to military affairs and the im- 
provement of his army. During the 
mutiny, the Maharaja remained loyal to 
the British, though the contingent force 
at Gwalior rebelled : from Tantia Topi 
and the Rani of Jhansi, he fled to Agra, 
but was re-established by Sir Hugh Rose 
at Gwalior : he was handsomely rewarded 
for his loyalty in the mutiny. Another 
treaty was made with him in 1864. The 
Fort at Gwalior was restored to him in 
1885 and the British cantonment at Morar 
abandoned. He sat in 1875 as a member 
of the Court to try the then Gaekwar of 
Baroda for attempting to poison Colonel 
R. Phayre. He entertained H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales in 1876. He was a 
G.C.S.I : and a General : died June 20, 1886. 



Son of Ranoji Sindia, who, originally a 
sUpper bearer of the Peshwa, rose to be an 
of&cer of rank : Madhava was illegitimate, 
the fourth of his five sons. He and his 
brother Dattaji were present in the war 
of 1 75 1 against the French and at the 
battle of Panipat, where the Peshwa was 
completely defeated by the Afghans under 
Shuja, 1760-1 : after this battle, which 
vktually overthrew the Mahratta design 
to conquer the whole of India, Madhava 
became ruler of Ujain, in succession to his 
father. In the following years, he was 
an ally of the Poona Regent Raghunath, 
or Raghoba, fighting against the Jats of 
Bhartpur and against the Rohillas, annex- 
ing the fort of Gwalior and generally con- 
soHdating his power. Intrigues at the Courts 
of the Peshwa and of the Emperor of Delhi 

1 84 


against the British ended in the treaty of 
Salbai between the Peshwa and the British 
in 1782, and led Warren Hastings to 
appreciate his talents so greatly that he left 
him virtually a free hand in the administra- 
tion of Central India and Hindustan. He 
now came tobe recognized as anindependent 
Prince, though nominally the vassal of the 
Peshwa and the Delhi Emperor : with the 
aid of De Boigne, who entered his service 
about this time, he soon made himself 
feared by his neighbours, but in his 
attempt to attack the Raja of Jaipur was 
repulsed by a conspiracy of Rajput chiefs 
and Ismail Beg, who defeated him. In 
the revolt of Ghulam Kadir against the 
Emperor of Delhi, in 1788, Sindia took no 
part, but, after Delhi was retaken, he 
espoused the cause of the blind Emperor. 
One of his first acts was to re-engage De 
Boigne as Commander of his forces. He 
defeated Ismail Beg and the Rajputs in 
i790» and entered the town of Ajmir. In 
1 79 1 he formed the famous alliance with 
Lord Cornwallis against Tippoo, which 
ended in the latter's defeatat Seringapatam. 
In 1794 he proceeded to Poona to invest 
the young Peshwa with the Vice-regency 
of the Empire, and received from him the 
title of Deputy Vice-Regent. In his 
absence, his territories were attacked by 
Ismail Beg and Holkar, who were both 
defeated by De Boigne. Madhava Rao 
died suddenly at Poona on Feb. 12, 1794, 
and it is not improbable that he was the 
victim of foul play on the part of Nana 
Farnavis, who was jealous of his influence. 
He early recognized the military power 
of the British, and did not oppose them 
for long. In his schemes of self-aggrandize- 
ment, he worked as the subordinate of 
the Peshwa and the Delhi Emperor. 


(1876- ) 

Born Oct. 20, 1876 : succeded to the 
Raj, July 3, 1886 : Hon. Colonel British 
Army, 1898 : went to China as Orderly 
Officer to General Sir A. Gaselee, 1901, and 
provided the expedition with a hospital 
ship at his own expense : G.C.S.I., 1895 : 
went to England for the Coronation of 
H.M. King Edward VII in 1902 : Hon. 
LL.D., Cambridge : Hon. and Extra 
A.D.C. to the King. 


(1849- ) 

Born Jan. 30, 1849 : son of F. Gwatkin : 
educated at Rugby and Trinity College, 
Cambridge : M.A. : entered the Array, 
1872, and Indian Staff Corps, 1875 : served 
in Afghanistan, Egypt, Soudan, Lushai 
Hills, Chin-Lushai Hills, Manipur, Chitral 
and Tirah : Brevet -Major and Brevet- 
Lt-Colonel: D.A.A.G., Assam: Military 
Secretary to C. in C. in India : A.A.G., 
Peshawar District : Colonel on the Staff, 
commanding Sialkot : C.B., 1902. 

HADLEY, GEORGE ( ? -1798) 

Joined the E.I. Co.'s Bengal Army, 
1763 : retired, 1771 : wrote and published 
grammatical treatises on Hindustani in 
1772 and 1796, and Persian, 1776, with 
vocabularies : died Sep. 10, 1798. 


(1851- ) 

Son of Patrick Douglas Hadow : 
educated at Cheltenham : entered the 
Army, 1870, and the Bengal Staff Corps, 
1876 : became Brevet-Colonel, 1892 : 
served during the Afghan war, 1878-80 : 
present at Ahmad Kheyl and Urzoo : in the 
march from Kabul to Kandahar, and 
battle of Kandahar : Soudan expedition, 
1885, present at Tofrek andTamai : second 
Miranzai expedition, 1891 : Chitral relief, 
1895: D.S.O. : Tirah expedition, 1897: 
present at Dargai : severely wounded at 
Khangarbur : commanded 15th Sikhs : 

WOLFF (1860- ) 

Born March 15, i860 : son of Aaron 
Haffkine, Odessa : educated at Berdiansk 
College (S. Russia) and Odessa University : 
engaged in research work at Zoological 
Museum, Odessa, 1883-8 : Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Physiology, Geneva, 1888-9 : 
assistant to Pasteur in Paris, 1889-93 '• 
on bacteriological duty in India since 
1893 : Director-in-Chief, Government 
Plague Research Laboratory, Bombay : 
CLE. : author of works of general Micro- 
biology, Cholera, Plague, etc. 


A famous Rohilla chief : born about 
1710 in Afghanistan : uncle of Ali Muham- 



mad, chief of the Rohillas, who had settled 
on the N.W. frontier of Oudh : joined his 
people in 1739 and received large grants 
of land from his nephew : on the death of 
Ali Muhammad, he was made " Hafiz " or 
" guardian " of his sons : but betrayed 
the trust and made himself virtual ruler 
of the country : entered into alliance with 
the Nawab of Oudh, Shuja-ud-daula, 
against the Mahrattas, engaging to pay him 
40 lakhs in return for his aid. Sir Robert 
Barker, the English general, attested the 
treaty. The Mahrattas were driven out, 
but Rahmat Khan failed to fulfil his part 
of the engagement. The destruction 
of the Rohillas was the result : they were 
defeated at Miranpiir Katra by the united 
forces of the Nawab and the English : 
Hafiz Rahmat Khan was killed in the 
battle (1774) : a man of education, and of 
literary attainments : a strong ruler, and 
on the whole a beneficent one, both to- 
wards the Rohillas and as regards his 
Hindu subjects. 


(1819- ) 

Field Marshal : son of Gregory Haines, 
C.B. : entered the Army, 1839 : Military 
Secretary to Sir Hugh Gough, C. in C, 
India, 1845-9 : served in the Satlaj 
campaign, 1845-6 : present at Mudki 
and Firozshahr : in the Panjab campaign 
of 1848-9, at Ramnagar, the Chenab, 
Chilianwala, Gujarat : Crimea, 1854-5 : 
C. in C. Madras, 1 871-5 : C. in C. India, 
1876-81, during the Afghan war, 1879- 
80 : thanked by Parliament : K.C.B., 
1871 : General and G.C.B., 1877 : G.C.S.I. 

THORPE (1862- ) 
Born Nov. 17, 1862 : son of D. Rutherford 
Haldane, M.D. : educated at Wimbledon 
school, Edinburgh Academy, and at the 
Staff College : joined the Gordon High- 
landers, 1882 : served in Waziristan 
expedition, 1894-5 : Chitral, 1895 : Tirah 
expedition, 1897-8 : A.D.C. to Sir W. 
Lockhart : present at Dargai : D.S.O. : 
South Africa, 1899-1900 : taken prisoner 
and escaped from Pretoria : author of 
How we Escaped from Pretoria. 


I.C.S. : born May 25, 1751 ' son of 
.William Halhed, Director of the Bank of 

England : educated at Harrow, and Christ 
Church, Oxford : went to Bengal in 
the E.I. Co.'s service : published A 
Code of Gentoo Laws on Ordinations of 
the Pandits, from a Persian Translation, 
1776 : and in 1778 a Bengali grammar, 
printed at Hughli, at the first printing- 
press in India : in its preface, he drew 
attention to the similarity between San- 
skrit and European languages : returned 
to England, 1785 : M.P. for Lymington, 
1790-5 : took the part of the lunatic 
prophet Richard Brothers, an act which 
was fatal to his career : in 1809 he was 
appointed to a post in the East India 
House : he imitated Martial's epigrams 
and translated Aristaenetus : he wrote 
A Narrative of the Events in Bombay and 
Bengal relative to the Mahratta Empire, 
1779 ■ his Oriental MSS. were purchased 
by the British Museum : died Feb. 18, 

VISCOUNT (1800-1885) 

Born Dec. 20, 1800 : son of Sir Francis 
Lindley Wood, second Baronet : educated 
at Eton and Oriel College, Oxford : double 
first, 1821 : was M.P. for Grimsby and 
Wareham, and for Halifax, 1832-65 
joint Secretary to the Treasury, 1832 
Secretary to the Admiralty, 1835-9 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1846-52 
P.C. : and succeeded to the Baronetcy 
in 1846 : was President of the Board of 
Control, Dec. 1852, to Feb. 1855, and 
passed the India Charter Act of 1853 : 
First Lord of the Admiralty, 1855-8 : 
G.C.B., 1856 : Secretary of State for India, 
1859-66 : dturing this time he passed 
several important measures for the 
reorganization of the Indian Army, the 
constitution of the Indian Legislative 
Councils, and the establishment of the 
High Courts, and by the end of this period 
the equilibrium of Indian finance had been 
practically restored : M.P. for Ripon, 
1865 : created Viscount Halifax, 1866 : 
Lord Privy Seal, 1870-4 : made his 
reputation by his excellent discharge of 
his duties, his business qualities and 
judicious administration : died Aug. 
8, 1885. 

HALL, FITZ-EDWARD (1825-1901) 

Born at Troy in New York State : 
graduated at Harvard University, 1846 : 

1 86 


Doctor : went to India, 1850 : was 
Anglo-Sanskrit Professor at Benares, 
1851 : the first American to publish a 
text in Sanslcrit : in the mutiny was 
Inspector of Schools in the Education 
Department in Central India : was 
beleaguered for 6 months in Sagar Fort : at 
Benares, in 1859, published a Contribution 
towards an Index of the Philosophy of the 
Indian Philosophical Systems, and essays 
in the I.A.S. Bengal, and other Oriental 
studies : in 1862 was Professor of Sanskrit 
and Indian Jurisprudence at King's 
College, London : Librarian at the India 
Office : retired, 1869 : worked on Dr. 
Murray's Oxford English Dictionary : wrote 
Modern' English in 1870 : died Feb. 11, 

HALL, HENRY (1789-1875) 

General : son of the Ven. Archdeacon 
Hall : born 1789 : entered the Bengal 
Army, 1805 : was D.A.Q.M.G. under 
Ochterlony in the Pindari war, 18 17- 8 : 
performed the duties of the Guide and 
Intelligence Department : appointed, in 
1822, to civilize the turbulent race of 
Mhairs : raised a Mhair corps (which 
remained faithful in 1857, helped to save 
Ajmir and Eiuropean lives). Through 
Hall's exertions, female infanticide, slavery, 
sale of women, murder and universal 
plunder, are said to have completely 
ceased: C.B. in 1838: died in Aug., 


■ Son of T. P. L. Hallett, LL.D : educated 
at Kensington school and Charterhouse : 
qualified for Engineer on L. and N.W. 
Railway : employed in construction work, 
1860-8 : entered Indian P.W.D., 1868, 
and served in Burma : retired in 1880 : 
proposed connexion of Indian, Burmese 
and Chinese railways, and surveyed the 
country, 188 1-5 : author of A Thousand 
Miles on an Elephant ; Development of our 
Eastern Markets ; Indian Taxation, Ancient 
and Modern ; India and her Neighbours ; 
Indian Factory Legislation ; Extension of 
Railways, etc. 



I.C.S. : born Dec. 26, 1806 : son of 
Thomas Halliday of Ewell : educated at 
St. Paul's school, Rugby, and Haileybury : 
went out to Bengal in June, 1825 : was 

Secretary to the Sadr Board of Revenue 
in 1836 : Secretary to the Government 
of Bengal, 1838 : Officiating Secretary to 
the Government of India in 1842 : Secre- 
tary to the Home Department of the 
Government of India, 1849. While on 
furlough, in 1852-3, he was on 16 occasions 
examined before the Committees of the 
Lords and Commons on Indian subjects 
in connexion with the renewal of the E.I. 
Company's Charter : Member of the 
Governor-General's Supreme Council, Dec. 
1853, to April, 1854 : the first Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal, from May i, 1854, to 
May I, 1859. His term of office as 
Lieutenant-Governor was eventful : the 
Sonthal insurrection required the move- 
ment of troops and strong measures for 
its suppression : the Indian mutiny did 
not eventually assume such proportions 
in Lower Bengal as in Upper India, but the 
earliest indications appeared at Barrackpur 
and Berhampur : outbursts occurred in 
other parts of the Lower Provinces, and, 
during the whole two years, Halliday's 
vigilance and administrative capacity were 
severely tried and never failed. He was 
held in high estimation by Lord Dalhousie, 
and had great influence with Lord Canning, 
who said of him, after the mutiny, that 
for many months he had been the " right 
hand of the Government." Halliday 
recorded a Minute on " The Mutinies as 
they affected the Lower Provinces under 
the Government of Bengal." He had 
also to deal with the new conditions 
attending the creation of Bengal into a 
separate Lieutenant-Governorship, and 
arising from the great Education despatch 
of 1854 from England, important Rent 
and Revenue legislation, and the intro- 
duction of Railways. He received the 
thanks of Parliament for his mutiny ser- 
vices: was made K.C.B. in i860: and was 
Member of the Council of India from 1868 
to 1886 : he died Oct. 22, 1901. Of lofty 
stature and splendid physique, Halliday 
appeared to be the embodiment of great 
power, an impression which was strength- 
ened by whatever he said, or wrote. 


Captain : in the military service of the 
E.I. Co. : M.A.S.B. : the date of his return 
to England is not recorded : prosecuted 
his study of Sanskrit at the British Museum 
and in Paris : when the war with France 
broke out again after the peace of Amiens, 



he was detained in Paris as a hostage : 
taught Sanskrit to French savants : made 
a Catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS. in the 
National Library at Paris, which was pub- 
lished by Langles {q.v.) : was Professor of 
Sanskrit at Haileybury, May, 1806-18 : 
F.R.S.,i8o8 : published the Hitopadesa in 
Sanskrit, 181 1 : a treatise on the terms of 
Sanskrit grammar, 1815 : a key to the 
Chronology of the Hindus, 1820 : wrote 
articles on Ancient Indian Geography, 
and contributed to the Edinburgh Review : 
died Dec. 30, 1824. 

HAMILTON, CHARLES (1753 P-1792) 

Born about 1753 : son of Charles 
Hamilton, merchant : went to India in the 
E.I. Co.'s military service in 1776 : was one 
of the first members of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal : served in the expedition 
against the Rohillas, and wrote an account 
of them in 1787 : translated the Hedaya, 
or guide to Muhammadan Law, from Per- 
sian, 1791. He died March 14, 1792, in 
England, before he could take up the post 
of Resident in Oudh, to which he had been 


(1854- ) 

Son of William James Hamilton : bom 
Feb. 17, 1854 : joined the Army, 1873 : 
served in the Afghan war, 1878-80 : 
Burma war, 1886-7 : Hazara expedition, 
1891 : Tochi valley, 1896 : Malakand 
Field Force, 1897 : D.A.A.G. : Tirah 
expedition, 1897-8 : Africa, 1899-1900 : 
Brig-Gensral : commanding 2nd class 
District in India, since 1902 : C.B., 1902. 


(1845- ) 

Born Dec. 17, 1845 : son of ist Duke of 
Abercorn : educated at Harrow : M.P. 
for Middlesex County, 1868-85 : M.P. 
for'Ealing Division, 1885 : Under Secretary 
of State for India, 1874-8 : Vice-President 
of Council, 1878-80 : First Lord of the 
Admiralty, 1885-92 : P.C. : Chairman of 
London School Board, 1894-5 : Secretary 
of State for India, 1 895-1903 : resigned. 

MONTEITH (1S53- ) 

Son of Colonel Christian Monteith 
Hamilton, born Jan. 16, 1853 : educated 
at Cheam and Wellington : entered the 

Army, 1873 : served in the Afghan war, 
1878-80 : Boer war, 1881 : at Majuba 
Hill : Nile expedition, 1884-5 : Burma 
expedition, 1886-7 : Brevet-Lt-Colonel, 
1891 : Chitral relief, 1895 : C.B. : Tirah 
campaign, 1897-8 : South Africa, 1899- 
1901 : Chief of the Staff to Lord Kitchener, 
1901-2 : K.C.B. : D.S.O. : Quarter- 
Master-General of the Army, 1903 : 
attached to the Japanese Army, 1904-5. 



Son of James Hamilton : born Aug. 
4»i755 : joined the Bengal Native Infantry 
of the E.I. Co. in 1773 = present in the 
attacks on Cooch Behar, and at the cap- 
ture of Gwalior, in the operations against 
the Mahrattas in 1778 : served also in the 
King's troops against Tippoo, in the 
campaign of 1790-1 : left India and was 
afterwards at San Domingo, at the Cape, 
in the Peninsula in 1809-13 : Lt-General, 
1814 : Baronet, 1815 : K.C.B. and K.C.H. : 
died Dec. 24, 1835. 

COLLIE, BARONET (1802-1887) 

Son of Sir Frederick Hamilton, fifth 
Baronet : born April 7, 1802 : educated 
at Haileybury : went to India in 1819 : 
served in the N.W.P. : Commissioner of 
Agra : Secretary to the N.W.P. Govern- 
ment in 1843 : Resident at Indore, with 
Holkar, from 1844 : succeeded as Baronet, 
in 1853 : was made Agent to the Governor- 
General for Central India in 1854 : 
returned from leave in England in the 
mutiny of 1857 : and rejoined at Indore : 
was ordered to prepare a plan for the 
pacification of Central India, which was 
accepted : he, as Political Officer, accom- 
panied Sir Hugh Rose in his Central Indian 
campaign in 1858 : was at the capture of 
Jhansi and defeat of Tantia Topi : at the 
restoration of Gwalior to Sindia : K.C.B., 
and the thanks of Parliament for his 
mutiny services : provisional Member of 
the Supreme Council, 1859 : retired in 
1859, from ill-health : died May 30, 1887. 


(1843- ) 

Born 1843 : son of Major T. G. Ham- 
mond : educated at Sherborne and 
Addiscombe : entered the Indian Staff 
Corps, 1861 : Colonel, 1890 : served in 


the Jowaki-Afridi expedition, 1877-8 : 
in the Gmdes in the Afghan war, 1878-80 : 
gained the V.C. on the Asmai Heights, 
near Kabul, Dec. 14, 1879 : Hazara 
expedition, 1888 : D.S.O., Hazara ex- 
pedition, 1891 : C.B. : Brevet-Colonel, 
Isazai expedition, 1892 : Chitral relief, 

1895 : Tirah expedition, 1897-8 : com- 
manded a Brigade : A.D.C. to Queen 

BARONET (1860- ) 

Born Jan. 14, i860 : educated at Char- 
terhouse and Exeter College, Oxford : 
author of various scientific works, including 
The Moths of Itidia, published by the 
India Office, 1892-6. 


(1832- ) 

Born 1832 : educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin : entered the Army Medical 
Department, 1853 : served in China, 
India, and America : in the Afghan 
campaign, as P.M.O. of a Division, 1878- 
9 : in Sir F. Roberts' march from Kabul 
to Kandahar, Aug. 1880 : Egypt, 1882 : 
Surgeon-General, Madras Presidency, 
1888-92 K.C.B., 1892. 


(1840- ) 

Born 1840 : son of Capt. E. R. Hand- 
cock : educated privately : entered the 
Bengal Army, 1858 : and the Indian 
Staff Corps, 1866 : became Maj-General, 

1896 : served in the Bhutan expedition, 
1865-6 : Afghan war, 1878-80, as A.A.G. : 
present at Ahmad Kheyl : Brevet-Lt- 
Colonel : A.A.G., Bengal, 1880-5 = C.B., 
1893 : Lt-General. 


(1865- ) 

Born Feb. 4, 1865 : son of Rev. D. B. 
Hankin : educated at Merchant Taylors', 
University College, London, St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, and St. John's College, 
Cambridge : Scholar and Fellow : studied 
under Koch and Pasteur : Chemical 
Examiner and Bacteriologist, Agra, and 
Oudh, since 1892 : author of several 
papers on medical subjects, including 
Anthrax, Cholera, etc. : Fellow of Allaha- 
bad University. 

HANNAY ( ? - ? ) 
Major : in the service of the E.I. Co. 
in the time of Warren Hastings : with 
permission, he left the Company's service 
for a time, and entered that of the Nawab 
of Oudh, 1778 : managed the district of 
Gorakhpur : disturbances in it were said 
to be owing to his oppression and mis- 
conduct. The Nawab dismissed him in 
1781, and later would not hear of his 
return : he took part in the war against 
the Rohillas in 1774, and was afterwards 
examined with reference to alleged cruel- 
ties practised on that people. 


Maj-General : entered the Army, 1838 : 
in the 22nd regt. at the defence of the 
residency at Hyderabad (Sind) on Feb. 15, 
1843 : and at Miani on Feb. 17 : danger- 
ously wounded : Persian interpreter to 
Sir C. Napier in the Afridi expedition, and 
the forcing of the Kohat Pass, 1850 : in 
the Crimea, at all the battles, 1854-5 : 
C.B. : Maj-General in 1868 : died Feb. 
26, 1875. 



Born Jan. 7, 1805 : son of William 
Harding : educated at Westminster and 
Worcester College, Oxford : ordained in 
1827 : rector at Blackfriars, and Secretary 
of the Church Pastoral Aid Society : 
Bishop of Bombay, 1S51-68 : D.D. in 
1851 : his views were of a pronounced 
Evangelical type: died 18, 1874. 

EDWARD (1828-1892) 

Second son of Henry, first Viscount 
Hardinge {q.v.) : educated at Eton : 
joined the 41st foot in 1844 : to India as 
A.D.C. to his father, when Governor- 
General (1S44-8) : was in the first vSikh 
war of 1845-6, at the battles of Mudki, 
Firozshahr and Sobraon : exchanged to 
the Coldstream Guards in 1849 : in the 
Q.M.G.'s Department in the Crimea, 1854- 
5, at all the battles : Brevet-Major and 
C.B., 1857 : Equerry to the Prince Consort 
and afterwards to Queen Victoria : Maj- 
General, 1871 : commanded a Division 
in Bengal, 1873-8 : C. in C. of the Bombay 
Army, 1881-5 : General, 1883: K.C.B. 
and CLE. in 1886 : Governor of Gib- 
raltar, 1S86-90 : died July, 1892, from 
the effects of a carriage accident. 



SECOND VISCOUNT (1822-1894) 
Eldest son of the first Viscount Har- 
dinge (q.v.), the Governor-General : born 
Sep. 12, 1822 : educated at Eton and 
Christ Church, Oxford : was Private 
Secretary to his father the whole time the 
latter was Governor-General, 1844-8 : 
M.P. for Downpatrick, 185 1-6 : suc- 
ceeded to the Peerage, 1856 : Under 
Secretary for War, 1858-9 : a good 
amateur artist : a volume. Recollections 
of India, published from his drawings : 
he wrote a life of his father for the 
" Rulers of India " series : he died 
July 28, 1894. 

COUNT, OF LAHORE (1785-1856) 

Governor-General : Field Marshal : born 
March 30, 1785 : son of Rev. Henry 
Hardinge : entered the Army in 1799 : 
went through the Royal Military College 
at High Wycombe, 1806-7 : through the 
Peninsular war, first as D.A.Q.M.G., 
afterwards with the Portuguese Army : 
present in a number of battles, several 
times wounded : K.C.B. in 1815 : lost an 
arm at Quatre Bras : Commissioner with 
the Prussians in France, 1818 : D.C.L. of 
Oxford : M.P. 1820-44, for Durham, 
Newport and Launceston : Secretary at 
War, 1818-30 : and 1841-4 : Irish 
Secretary in 1830 , and 1834-5 : Lt- 
General in 1841 : G.C.B. in 1844 : was 
Governor-General of India from July, 
1844, to Jan. 1848 : the first to go out 
overland. The Panjab being in a state 
of anarchy since Ranjit Singh's death in 
1839, and the Sikh khalsa army dominant, 
Hardinge strengthened the Sa'tlaj frontier 
with troops : when the Sikhs crossed the 
Satlaj, they were defeated at Mudki and 
Firozshahr in Dec. 1845, and in Feb. 
1846, at Sobraon, Hardinge serving as 
second in command under Sir Hugh 
Gough, the C. in C. On peace being made, 
on terms dictated to the Sikhs, Hardinge 
received a Peerage, and pensions from 
Parliament and the E.I. Co. Kashmir 
was annexed and made over to the Raja 
of Jammu for a large sum : a British 
Resident (Sir H. Lawrence), at Lahore, 
was appointed. On retiring from India 
he claimed to have left it in complete 
peace. Hardinge also left his mark on 
the internal administration of India : he 

established schools: prohibited Sunday 
work m Government offices : promoted rail- 
ways and irrigation : determined important 
military questions, both in the native and 
the European armies. His equestrian 
statue was subsequently erected in Cal- 
cutta. He was made Master-General of 
the Ordnance in 1852, and was C. in C. of 
the Forces, 1852-6 : Field Marshal in 
1855 : died Sep. 24, 1856. 


EARL OF (1867-1904) 
Born March 14, 1867 : son of the fifth 
Earl : educated at Eton : in the Diplo- 
matic service, 1886-91 : worked eight 
years as member of a firm of stockbrokers :. 
part proprietor of the Saturday Review : 
Under Secretary of State for India, 1900- 
2 : for War, 1902-3 : and again for 
India, 1903-4 : died suddenly Nov. 29, 


( ? -1868) 
Missionary : in 1825, appointed to the 
Wesleyan Mission in Ceylon : from 1835. 
methodically studied the authentic sources. 
of Buddhism : published Eastern Mona- 
chism, 1850, and Manual of Buddhism,.. 
1852, on the condition of the Buddhist 
priesthood in Ceylon, the Buddhist 
system and legendary history of Gautama 
Buddha in the South : General Super- 
intendent of the S. Ceylon mission, 1863- 
6 : wrote on the Sacred Books of the 
Buddhists, compared with History and 
Modern Science : Honorary Member of 
the Royal Asiatic Society : died April 16, 

HARE, DAVID (1775-1842) 

An enthusiastic promoter of the English 
education of Indians : born in Scotland 
in 1775 : brought up as a watchmaker : 
went out to Calcutta in 1800 : in a few 
years acquired a competence, and before 
1816 made over his business to a relative 
named Grey : in 1814 proposed to his 
friend. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the estab- 
lishment of an English school at Calcutta : 
with the help of Sir Edward East and 
Bengali friends, opened the Hindu College 
on Jan. 20, 1817 : locating it on a piece 
of his land on the N. side of College 
Square : in Sep. 1818, founded the Calcutta. 



School Book Society for printing and 
publishing English and Bengali books : 
worked hard for the repeal of the Regula- 
tions against the Press : to secure trial 
by jury in civil cases in the Supreme 
Court : to prevent emigration of Indian 
labourers to Mauritius and Bourbon : in 
1838 was appointed by Government a 
Judge of the Calcutta Court of Requests, in 
recognition of his services for the cause of 
native education : died June i, 1842, of 
cholera : his full-sized marble statue was 
erected by public subscription, between 
Presidency College and the Hare School : 
the anniversary of his death is still ob- 
served by the Bengalis with great venera- 
tion, and a memorial tablet has been 
placed by the Government of India at his 

HARIDAS, NANABHAI (1832-1889) 
Born Sep. 5, 1832, at Surat : a Gujarati 
Hindu : educated at the Bombay Elphin- 
stone College : Assistant Translator in 
the Supreme Court, Bombay, 1832-63 : 
LL.D. at the Madras University, 1863 : 
Vakil of the Bombay Sadr Court, 1861, 
and of the High Court, 1862 : acted as 
Judge of the Bombay High Court several 
times after 1873, and was confirmed in 
the appointment : died June, 1889. 



Son of Henry Hawes Harington, of 
Madras : born 1808 : entered the E.I. Co.'s 
Bengal Army in 1824 : served with the 
37th Bengal N.I. : present at Bhartpur, 
1826 : transferred by regular nomination 
to the Civil Service, about 1828 : returned 
to England, and passed the required 
tests : served in the N.W.P. : rose to be 
Judge of the Sadr Court at Agra, 1852 : 
shut up in the Fort at Agra in the mutiny : 
became the Member, representing the 
N.W.P., of the Governor- General's Legis- 
lative Council, 1858-62 : was twice a 
temporary Member of the Supreme 
Council, confirmed in 1862 : retired in 
March, 1865 : declined the Lieutenant- 
Governorship of the N.W.P. on the retire- 
ment of Sir G. F. Edmonstone {q.v.) : 
K.C.S.L in 1866 : died Oct. 7» 1871- 



Joined the E.I. Co.'s service at Calcutta 
in 1780 : held subordinate appointments 

in Bengal until he became Fourth Member 
of the Board of Revenue, 1799 : Puisne 
Judge of the Sadr Diwani and Nizamat 
Adalat, 1801 : Chief Judge, 181 1 : Senior 
Member of the Board of Revenue for the 
Western Provinces, and Agent to the 
Governor-General at Delhi, 1823 : Member 
of the Supreme Council and President of 
the Board of Trade, 1822-3 ' and again, 
1825-7 : he was also Professor of the 
Laws and Regulations at the College of 
Fort William, and President of the Council 
of the College : edited The Persian and 
Arabic Works of Sadi, and published an 
Analysis of the Laws and Regulations, 
etc., 1805-17 : retired, 1828 : died in 
London, April 9, 1828. 

HARISH CHANDRA (1859-1885) 
The son of Gopal Chandra Sahu, of 
Benares (a prolific author, died 1859, 
aged 27) : educated at Queen's College, 
Benares, and early commenced to write : 
became the most celebrated of the native 
poets of modern times, and did more 
for the popularisation of vernacular 
literature than almost any Indian of the 
last century : wrote and excelled in 
many styles : his best known work is the 
Sundari Tilak, an anthology of poems 
from the works of 69 authors. Another, 
Prasiddh Mahatma ka Jiban Charitra, 
was a series of lives of great men, European 
and Indian. Another very popular work 
is the Kabi Bachan Sudha, a collection of 
poems dealing with the rainy season. 
His works numbered over a hundred, and 
include several plays. He also conducted 
for many years an excellent vernacular 
magazine, called the Harishchandrika. 
In 1880 he received the title of Bharatendu, 
or Moon of India, by the unanimous 
consent of all the editors of vernacular 
papers in the country : was certainly the 
best critic Northern India has yet pro- 
duced : died, universally regretted, in 

HARLAN, JOSIAH ( ? - ? ) 

Adventurer : of Philadelphia : son of 
a Quaker : studied for medical profession : 
went to India : sent by Lord Amherst as 
Assistant Surgeon with the Army to 
Burma : left it and tried to conquer part 
of the Panjab : captured by Ran jit 
Singh (q.v.), who employed him : twice 
envov to Dost Muhammad, and secret 


agent of Shah Shuja : and agent of the 
former : made Governor of Jasrata, Nur- 
piir and Gujarat till 1835 : sent on a 
mission to Dost Muhammad : won over 
Sultan Muhammad Khan, the Afghan 
Governor of Peshawar, and gained it for 
Ranjit : entered Dost Muhammad's ser- 
vice : sent on expedition against Kunduz : 
deputed by Dost- Muhammad in 1839 to 
negotiate with Sir A. Burnes {q.v.) : 
returned to India and America, and was 
heard of no more. 



Son of John Harness, M.D. : born 1804 : 
entered the Royal Engineers, 1827 : 
Colonel, 1862 : in the mutiny as Lt- 
Colonel R.E. : in the operations at Cawn- 
pur, against the Gwalior contingent : at 
the siege and capture of I-ucknow : in 
Rohilkund : in Oudh : C.B. : K.C.B., 
1873 : Colonel Commandant R.E. and 
Colonel in the Army : retired as Maj- 
General, 1877 : died Feb. 10, 1883. 

HARPER ( ? - ? ) 

Captain : in the E.I. Co.'s service 
prominent in the Oudh charges against 
Hastings : Resident at the Court of 
the Nawab of Oudh : sent by Sir Robert 
Barker to negotiate with the Rohillas in 
1772 : recalled from the Nawab's Court, 

SORE (1746-1829) 

Son of the Rev. George Harris : born 
March 18, 1746 : educated at the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich : Cadet in 
the Royal Artillery, 1759 : was with the 
5th Foot in America : engaged at Bun- 
ker's Hill in 1775, severely wounded : 
served in the W. Indies : went out to 
India with General Sir William Medows 
iq.v.), as A.D.C. and Private Secretary, 
while the latter was Governor and C. in C. 
at Bombay (1788-90), and at Madras 
(1790-2) : in the campaigns of 1790-1, 
against Tippoo, and in the attack on 
Seringapatam, 1792 : saved £40,000 for 
Medows : commanded at Fort William, 
Calcutta, in 1794 : Maj-General : com- 
nianded at Madras, 1796-1800, with a 
spat in Council, and acting Governor from 
Feb. to Aug. 1798 : in 1799 commanded 
^0,000 men against Tippoo : routed him 


at MalaviUi on March 27, and took Seringa- 
patam on May 4, 1799 : Mysore was 
annexed : retired to England, 1800 : Lt- 
General, 1801 : General, 1812 : made a 
Peer, 1815 : G.C.B., 1820 : Governor of 
Dumbarton Castle : died May 19, 1829. 

THIRD BARON (1810-1872) 
Governor: son of General William 
George, the second Baron, and grandson 
of the first Baron Harris {q.v.) : born 
Aug. 14, 1810 : educated at Eton, private- 
ly, at Merton and Christ Church, Oxford : 
B.A., 1832 : D.C.L., 1863 : Governor of 
Trinidad, 1846 : Governor of Madras 
from April, 1754, to March, 1859 : during 
the mutiny he allowed Madras to be 
denuded of troops for service in Upper 
India : the rebellion did not extend to 
Madras : in a minute on the newspapers 
he made some disparaging rewarks on the 
want of loyalty and principle on the part 
of the British Press throughout the 
country : he was made K.C.S.I. in 1861 : 
G. C.S.I, in 1866 : and Chamberlain to 
H.R.H. the (then) Princess of Wales on 
her marriage in 1863 : he died Nov. 23, 

Born Feb. 3, 185 1 : educated at Eton 
and Christ Church, Oxford : Captain of 
the Eton Cricket Eleven, 1870 : three years 
in the Oxford Eleven : Under Secretary for 
India, 1885-6 : Under Secretary for War, 
1888-9 : Governor of Bombay, 1890-5 : 
served in S. Africa, 1901 : a well-known 
cricketer, for England and Kent : G.C.S.I. : 
G.C.I.E. : D.L. 

WALLIS (1807-1848) 

Major : son of James Harris : born in 
1807 : educated at a military college : 
joined the E.I. Co.'s Bombay Engineers 
in 1823 : on leave to the Cape, 1835-7, 
made an expedition to shoot big game in 
the interior of South Africa : field en- 
gineer to the Army in Sind, 1838 : Super- 
intending Engineer in 1841 : negotiated 
a commercial treaty with Shoa in Abys- 
sinia : knighted, 1844 : again Superintend- 
ing Engineer in Bombay : died of fever, 
Oct. 9, 1848 : published accounts of the 
game animals of S. Africa : and scientific 
papers on zoology and certain trees. 



SECOND BARON (1782-1845) 

Son of the first Baron {q.v.) : born 
Jan. 19, 1782 : educated at Chelsea : 
joined the Army in 1795 : and the 74th 
Highlanders in Madras, 1797 : served in 
his father's Army against Tippoo, i799 • 
in the storming party at Seringapatam : 
conveyed home the standards taken there 
to the King : at the battle of Copen- 
hagen : in Canada : was a volunteer in 
Sir D. Baird's re-capture of the Cape, 
1805 : served in N. Germany and in the 
Netherlands, 1813-4 : wounded at Water- 
loo, 1815 : held commands in Ireland 
and England : succeeded as Peer, 1829 : 
Lt-General, 1S37 : C.B. : K.C.H. : died 
May 30, 1845. 



I.C.S. : son of Rev. James Harwood 
Harrison : educated at Westminster and 
Christ Church, Oxford : went to Bengal 
in the Civil Service, i860 : Junior Secre- 
tary to Government of Bengal, 1867 : 
Secretary to Board of Revenue, 1878 : 
Commissioner of Police and Chairman of 
the Corporation of Calcutta, 1 88 1-90: 
knighted : Member of the Bengal Legisla- 
tive Council : Member of the Board of 
Revenue, 1890 : died of cholera, at Chitta- 
gong. May 5, 1892. 



Born 1752 : entered the Army, 1775 : 
fought in the American war, 1775-8 : in 
the West Indies, 1778-9 : went to India : 
in the naval actions with Admiral Suffrein : 
was on Sir Edward Hughes's ship off 
Madras : was at the taking of Bangalore, 
1791, and of the hill forts : at Malavilli 
and at the siege of Seringapatam : com- 
manded in Canara, 1799 : Maj-General, 
1805 : Lt-General, 181 1 : commanded in 
Ireland : M.P. for Donegal, 1812-31 : 
died June 14, 1832. 

HARTLEY, JAMES (1745-1799) 

Born 1745 : entered the E.I, Co.'s 
military service at Bombay in 1764 : in 
the expeditions against the pirates on the 
Malabar coast, 1765 : A.D.C. to the 
Governor of Bombay, 1770 : in 1778 he 
was in the Army sent by the Bombay 
Government to the Konkan, which re- 

treated before the Mahrattas in 1779 • 
by his skilful conduct of the rearguard, he 
saved the force from utter defeat. He 
was opposed to the Convention of War- 
gaum, Jan. 14, 1779 : captured Ahmada- 
bad, Feb. 15, 1780 : was further engaged 
against the Mahrattas, 20,000 of whom 
he defeated at Doogaur, Dec. 9, 1780 : his 
promotion to Lt-Colonel was disallowed by 
the Court of Directors, but granted by the 
King in England : Q.M.G. of the Bombay 
Army, 1788 : in Dec. 1790, he defeated 
Tippoo's general, Husain Ali, at Calicut : 
co-operated against Seringapatam in 179 1 : 
captured the French settlement of Mah6 in 
1793 : Maj-General in 1796 : made 
Supervisor of Malabar : second in com- 
mand of the Bombay Army under General 
Stuart against Tippoo in 1799 : fought at 
Seedaseer on March 5, 1799 : at the 
storming of Seringapatam, May 4 : died 
at Cannanore, Oct. 4, 1799. 

ANASTASIUS (1803-1866) 

Born Feb. 25, 1803, in the Canton of 
Lucerne : studied at Soleure, and entered 
the Capuchin Order, Sep. 1822 : ordained 
Priest, 1826: became master of novices at 
Fribourg : at Rome, 184 1-3, as Professor 
of Controversy : sent to Agra, 1843, and, 
after six months, appointed Chaplain at 
Gwalior : Bishop of Derbe : in 1846 
appointed Vicar Apostolic of Patna, and 
Bishop at Agra, also in 1846 : Vicar 
Apostolic of Bombay from 1849 : founded 
the Catholic Examiner : made Assistant 
Prelate to the Pontifical Throne and 
Count of the Roman Empire, also Pro- 
curator-General of the Capuchin Mission : 
again went to Patna as Vicar Apostolic, 
i860 : laboured in the interests of his 
charge : published an Urdu version of 
the New Testament : secured the exemp- 
tion of Catholic natives from the Bill for 
the marriage of native Christians : sur- 
vived an attack of cholera in June, 1865, 
but succumbed to another attack, April 
24, 1866. 



I.C.S. : son of Sir John Harvey, K.C.B. : 
educated at Haileybiury, 1825-7 : joined 
the Civil Service in the N.W.P., 1827 : 
Commissioner of Agra in the mutiny : 
with the Bhartpur troops tried to keep 



open the communications with Delhi, 
May to July, in the Mathura and Gurgaon 
districts, until the Contingent m,utinied : 
retired, 1863 : K.C.S.I. : died Nov. 4, 

HARVEY, ROBERT (1842-1901) 

Maj -General : son of Alexander Har- 
vey : educated at Aberdeen and Glasgow 
Universities : M.D. Aberdeen and LL.D. : 
entered the Bengal Medical Service, 1865 : 
Surg-Major, 1877 : in the Bhutan expedi- 
tion, 1864-6 : in Lushai expedition, 
1871-2 : Professor of Midwifery at the 
Medical College Hospital, Calcutta, 1880 : 
officiating Principal, 1882 : P.M.O. in 
both Miranzai expeditions : in the Hazara 
Field Force, 1891 : Isazai expedition, 
1872 : Inspr-General of Civil Hospitals, 
Bengal, 1894 : P.M.O. to the Panjab 
forces, 1895 : Director-General, I. M.S., 
1898 : Fellow of the Calcutta University : 
President of the first Indian Medical Con- 
gress : wrote constantly in medical Jour- 
nals : C.B. : D.S.O. : died Dec. i, 1901. 



Governor-General : born Dec. 9, 1754 = 
eldest son of first Earl of Moira : educated 
at Harrow and University College, Oxford : 
entered the Army, 1771, and the 5th 
foot, 1773 : to America : engaged at 
Bunker's Hill, 1775 : and in other battles 
till 1781 : Lt-Colonel, and Adjutant- 
General in America, 1778 : captured by 
the French on his voyage to England, 1781: 
made Baron Rawdon, 1783 : opposed Fox's 
India Bill, 1783 : took the additional name 
of Hastings, 1790 : succeeded as Earl of 
Moira, 1793 : commanded reinforcements 
in Flanders : Lt-General, 1798 : C. in C. 
in Scotland : General in 1803 : Master of 
the Ordnance, 1806 : Constable of the 
Tower of London : K.G., 1812 : Governor- 
General of India, and C. in C, Oct. 4, 
1813, to Jan. 9, 1823 : war against Nipal, 
1814-6 : created Marquis of Hastings for 
his success : took command in the Pindari 
war of 1 8 17-8 : made subsidiary treaties 
against them : deposed the Peshwa, and 
defeated the Mahrattas : thus making 
the British power supreme over all India : 
G.C.B. and G.C.H. : acquired Singapore 
and entered into communications with 
Slam : granted £60,000 by the E. I. Co. : 

allowed the banking house of W. Palmer 
& Co., at Hyderabad, to lend 60 lakhs 
to the Nizam, an act which the Court of 
Directors disallowed : Hastings resigned 
in 1821 : but was not relieved until 1823 : 
Governor and C. in C. of Malta, 1824 : 
the Court of Proprietors of the E. I. Co. 
agreed to an amendment adverse to his 
action in the case of Palmer & Co. : died 
off Naples, on Nov. 28, 1826 : his statue 
by Chantrey was erected in Calcutta by 
the British residents there. He wrote, 
1824, a summary of his Indian adminis- 
tration, which is remembered for its 
length, for his victorious wars, and exten- 
sion of British territory, as well as for his 
personal ability, both in his civil and 
military capacities. 

HASTINGS, WARREN (1732-1818) 

Governor-General : born Dec. 6, 1732 : 
son of Pynaston Hastings : educated at 
Newington Butts and Westminster : 
first King's Scholar, 1747 : went to Cal- 
cutta in civil employ of the E. I. Co. 1750 : 
to Kasimbazar in 1753 : Member of 
Council there : imprisoned at Murshidabad, 
1756, joined the British refugees from 
Calcutta at Falta : Resident at Murshi- 
dabad, 1757-60, corresponding with Clive, 
the Governor of Calcutta : had difficulties 
with Raja Nuncomar {q.v.) : Member of 
Council in Calcutta, 1761 : sent to Patna to 
negotiate about inland trade : was struck 
in Council by a colleague : to England, 
1764-9 : sent to Madras as second in 
Council there, i769,the Baron and Baroness 
von Imhoff being fellow-passengers on his 
ship : Governor of Bengal from April 13, 
1772 : the whole revenue and judicial 
administration was revised, and the con- 
duct of superior native officials investi- 
gated : Hastings sent troops, according 
to an existing treaty, to assist the Nawab 
of Oudh against the Rohillas, who were 
defeated : by the Regulating Act of i773» 
Hastings was appointed Governor-General, 
with four colleagues : the new regime took 
effect from Oct. 20, i774 ' Francis, Claver- 
ing, Monson opposed him, Barwell siding 
with him : Nuncomar accused Hastings 
of corruption, Hastings charged Nuncomar 
and others with conspiracy : Nuncomar 
was himself arrested on a charge of forgery, 
tried, convicted and hanged on Aug. 5, i775- 
Hastings sent George Boyle i,q.v.) on a 
mission to the Teshu Lama of Tibet : and, 




later, Samuel Turner (q.v.) to Tashilhunpo 
in Tibet : originated the acquisition of 
revenue by farming out the opium trade. 
Hastings' conditional resignation of his 
office, accepted by the Court of Direectors, 
but annulled by the Supreme Court : by 
the deaths of Monson and Clavering, he 
obtained predominance in Council : he 
married the divorcee. Baroness Imhoff, 
in Aug. 1877 : he frustrated the operations 
of the Mahrattas and of Hyder Ali : on 
Aug. 17, 1780, he fought a duel with 
Francis {q-v.) and wounded him. By a 
force under Sir Eyre Coote, he drove 
Hyder Ali out of the Carnatic and made 
the treaty of Salbai on May 17, 1782, 
with Sindia for the Mahrattas : 
his demand on Chait Singh, Raja of 
Benares, for a war contribution, being 
resisted, he went to Benares to levy it ; 
had to flee to Chunar, but eventually 
succeeded, and deposed Chait Singh : the 
Court of Proprietors approved his action : 
large sums of money were recovered by 
the Nawab of Oudh from " the Oudh 
Begams " to meet Hastings' demands, and 
he has been much blamed for his share in 
the occurrence. He established the Cal- 
cutta Madrasa and assisted in the found- 
ation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal : 
he embarked for England Feb. i, 1785 : 
wrote his Review of the State of Bengal at 
sea. His impeachment, for maladmin- 
istration, began in Feb, 1788, Burke and 
others being the managers, with the 
assistance of Sir P. Francis : Hastings was 
acquitted on all the charges in April, 1795, 
after a trial lasting 145 days : the trial 
cost him £70,000: the E. I. Co. gave him a 
grant of money. He received no honours. 
When he attended the House of Commons, 
in 1 813, the whole House rose and did him 
honoiu:. He was made Privy Councillor 
and D.C.L. of Oxford. He repurchased 
the family estate of Daylesford. He died 
Aug. 22, 1818. His great public services 
are admitted : his character and the 
means he employed have been keenly 
criticised, and will probably be always 
discussed, but later writings have done 
much to rem.ove the unfavourable im- 
pression which Mill and Macaulay created 
against him. His motto, " Mens aequa 
in arduis," represents the tranquil forti- 
tude with which he met the difficulties 
of his troubled career. His statue is in 

HATHAWAY, CHARLES (1817-1903} 

Doctor : born 1817 : educated at King 
Edward's School at Sherborne : studied 
for his profession at St. Thomas's and 
Guy's hospitals : entered the E. I. Co.'s 
medical service in 1843 : m the Satlaj 
campaign, 1 84 5-6 : Civil Surgeon at Lahore : 
was, in 1852, appointed Inspr-General of 
Prisons in the Panjab, in which he effected 
many reforms, largely reducing the 
mortality : was made Sanitary Com- 
missioner in 1862 : and appointed Private 
Secretary to Sir John Lawrence, then 
Governor-General of India, from 1864- 
6, when he retired : died Aug. 29, 1903. 

HAUG, MARTIN H. (1827-1876) 

Born Jan. 30, 1827, at Ostdorf in 
WUrtemburg : son of a peasant : early 
showed an aptitude for languages : 
studied Oriental languages, at Stuttgart 
and Tiibingen, where he graduated 
Phil.D. m 185 1, and at Gottingen : was 
admitted " Privat-docent," 1854, at Bonn : 
studied at Zend under Lassen, for 6 years, 
under great privations : became tempor- 
arily Secretary to Baron Bunsen in Heidel- 
berg. In 1859 he was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Sanskrit at Poona : stayed in 
India till 1866 : acquired great knowledge 
of Brahminisim, and of the ancient Zoro- 
astrian religion : collected in Gujarat, 
1863-4, ancient MSS. Zend-Pahlavi and 
Vedic documents, which the State Library 
at Munich bought after his death : returned 
to Europe on account of ill-health : 
appointed Professor of Sanskrit and Com- 
parative Philology at the University of 
Munich, retaining this post till his death : 
published Die fiinf Gathas, 1858, i860 ; 
Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings 
and Religion of the Parsees, 1862-78 ; 
an edition, with translation, of the Aitareya 
Brahmana, 1863, and a Zend-Pahlavi 
glossary, 1868. His Pahlavi - Pazand 
glossary, brought out in conjunction 
with a Parsi scholar, 1870, the Book of 
Arda Viraf, and other lesser works, mark 
a distinct epoch in the study of Pahlavi : 
translated part of the Vendidad and 
published other works on the Zendavesta : 
besides treatises on Brahma and the Brah- 
mans, and on the nature and value of the 
Vedic accent in Sanskrit : died at Ragatz, 
June 3, 1876. 





Son of Dr. John Haughton : born 1788 : 
went to India in the E. I. Co.'s Bengal 
Army in 1808 : attained great proficiency 
in Oriental languages by study at Baraset 
and at the College of Fort William : in 
1 81 5 he returned to England from ill- 
health : was appointed Assistant Oriental 
Professor at Haileybury, and became 
Professor of Sanskrit and Bengah, 1819- 
27 : published Bengali works, and in 1825 
an edition of the Sanskrit text of Manu : 
M.A. at Oxford : F.R.S. : was one of the 
originators of the Royal Asiatic Society 
and its Honorary Secretary, 183 1-2 
Member of foreign Asiatic Societies 
made in 1833 a Knight of the Guelphic 
Order : in 1833 he brought out a 
Bengali and Sanskrit dictionary, explained 
in English. He latterly occupied himself 
with science and metaphysics : wrote, 
1833, an Inquiry into the Nature of Cholera 
and the Means of Cure : died of cholera at 
St. Cloud on Aug. 28, 1849. 


Born Nov, 25, 1817 : son of Richard 
Haughton, nephew of Sir G. C. Haughton 
(q.v.) : educated at Shrewsbury : volun- 
teered for the sea, 1830 : was a Midship- 
man, 1832-5, then invalided : entered 
the E. I. Co.'s Bengal Native Infantry in 
1837 : in the Afghan war of 1839-42 was 
Adjutant of the 4th Gurkhas in Shah 
Shuja's force : made a gallant defence, in 
command, of Charikar, a town 40 m. from 
Kabul, Nov. 5-14, 1841, when besieged 
by 20,000 Afghans : severely wounded, 
lost a hand : reached Kabul on Nov. 16 : 
in captivity in Afghanistan, Jan. to Sep. 
1842 : served in native infantry at Moul- 
raain, the Andamans, in Assam, in the 
Khasia-Jaintia expedition, 1862-3, in the 
Bhutan expedition, 1864-5 = in the Garo 
expedition, 1872-3 : Commissioner of 
Cooch-Behar and Manager of the State, 
1865-73 : C.S.I., 1866 : left India, 1873 : 
Lt-General, 1882 : died Sep. 17, 1887 : 
wrote an account of the occurrences at 


(1844- ) 

Born 1844: son of Lt-Colonel W. Have- 
lock, K.H. : nephew of Sir H. Havelock 

iq.v.) : entered the Army, 1862, and retired 
as Captain in 1877 : held various Colonial 
appointments, including those of Governor 
of the West African Settlements, Governor 
of Trinidad, Governor of Natal : became 
Governor of Cejdon, 1890-5 : Governor of 
Madras, 1895-1900 : described as " a 
most vigilant and patriotic champion of 
Madras interests " : Governor of Tasmania, 
1901-4 : G.C.M.G., 1895 : G.C.I.E., 1896 : 
G.C.S.I., 1901. 

HAVELOCK, SIR HENRY (1795-1857) 
Maj-General : born April 5, 1795 : 
educated at Swanscombe and the Charter- 
house : entered at the Middle Temple for 
the bar, but in 181 5 went into the Army, 
studied military works diligently : to 
Calcutta in Jan. 1823, with the 13th 
Light Infantry : in 1824 he was nominated 
D.A.A.G. of the Burma expedition, and, 
with an interval of sick leave, served until 
the conclusion of the war : in 1827 he was 
made Adjutant of the Depot at Chinsura : 
in 1828 published his Campaigns tn Ava, 
and in 1829 married a daughter of Dr. 
Marshman, the Serampur Missionary, and 
joined the Baptist community. He was 
deeply religious all his life. Captain in 
1838. In that year he was appointed to 
the Staff of Sir Willoughby Cotton in the 
Kabul expedition through Kandahar and 
Ghazni. After the capture of Kabul, he 
returned to Serampur to complete a 
narrative of the expedition. It attracted 
no attention. In 1841 he returned to 
Kabul as Persian Interpreter to General 
Elphinstone (^.i'.),then in command. In 
Oct. 1841, he joined Sir R. Sale's brigade 
returning to Jalalabad, was in the " illu- 
trious garrision " during its seige and at 
the defeat of Akbar Khan in April, 1842 : 
at Maharajpur in 1843, and in the Satlaj 
campaign of 1845-6 under Sir Hugh 
Gough : in 1854, Quarter-Master-General, 
and, in 1855, Adjutant-General. He 
commanded a Division in the Persian war 
of 1856-7, and was present at Muhamra. 
On his way from Bombay to Calcutta he 
was wrecked off Ceylon. From Calcutta 
in June, 1857, he hurried to Allahabad, and 
in command of the movable column 
fought several actions, occupying Cawn- 
pur after defeating the Nana Sahib on 
July 16, 1857 : fought more engagements, 
and after three failures relieved Lucknow in 
Sep. 1857, Sir James Outram accompany- 
ing his force. Compelled to remain 



inactive in Lucknow until Sir Colin Camp- 
bell arrived in Nov. : he fell ill and died at 
the Dilkusha on Nov. 24, 1857, before his 
Baronetcy and pension reached him. 
They were both granted to his son, and an 
annuity to his widow. His statue is in 
Trafalgar Square. 

HAVELOCK, WILLIAM (1793-1848) 

Eldest son of William Havelock, and 
brother of Sir Henry Havelock (q.v.) : 
born Jan. 23, 1793 : educated at Charter- 
house, and privately : joined the 43rd 
regt. in 18 10 : served with it in the Penin- 
sula, as A.D.C. to Count Alten, and at 
Waterloo : showed gallantry in action at 
the second combat of Vera in Oct. 1813 : 
called by the Spaniards ' the fair boy ' : 
went to India with the 4th Dragoons : 
A.D.C. to Sir C. Colville, when C. in C. at 
Bombay : Military Secretary to Lord 
Elphinstone, when Governor of Madras : 
commanded the 14th Light Dragoons, 
imder Lord Gough : in the second Sikh 
war : killed in a charge at Ramnagar on 
Nov. 22, 1848. 


Eldest son of Sir H. Havelock (q.v.) : 
born at Chinsura, Aug. 6, 1830 : educated 
at St. John's Wood, London : joined the 
39th regt. in 1846 : went out to India, 
1848 : suffered from sunstroke and felt it 
all his life : in the Persian war, 1857 : 
at Muhamra : was A.D.C. to his father when 
commanding the relief column at Cawnpur: 
in several actions: won the V.C. at Cawnpur: 
July 16, 1857, leading the 64th regt. 
against severe fire : D.A.A.G. to the force 
from Cawnpur to the relief of Lucknow, 
Sep. 1857 : recommended by Outram for 
the V.C. : wounded : received a Baronetcy 
in Jan. 1858, for the services of his father 
(died Nov. 24, 1857) : D.A.A.G. to Brig- 
General Franks {q.v.), at the siege of 
Lucknow : further engaged against the 
rebels, and in the Oudh campaign : Brevet- 
Major and Lt-Colonel : in the Maori war 
1863-4 : C.B., 1866 : A.Q.M.G. in Canada, 
1867-9 : M.P. for Sunderland, 1874-81, 
and for a Division of Durham county, 
1885-92, and in 1895 : added the name 
of Allan to his own, 1880 : Lt-General, 
1881 : K.C.B., 1897 : went to India to see 
the frontier fighting and troops in Afghanis- 
tan in 1897 : shot by the Khyberis near 

Ali Masjid, Dec. 30, 1897 : he wrote on 
military subjects. 



Colonel : son of Sir Peter de Havilland, 
Kt. : born April 10, 1775 : entered the 
Madras Engineers, 1793 : at the siege of 
Pondicherry, i793 : the capture of Ceylon, 
1795-6: served against Tippoo, 1799, and, 
under Baird in Egypt, 1801 : there sur- 
veyed Lake Mareotis, and the Cairo-Suez 
desert for water : captured by the French 
when returning to India, 1803 : Superin- 
tending Engineer at Seringapatam, 1804 : 
Chief Engineer and Architect for Madras, 
1814-25 : built the Madras Cathedral 
and Presbyterian Church : also, by 1822, 
the sea-wall : carried out other important 
works: after retirement, in 1825, became, 
until 1855, a Jurat of the Royal Court of 
Guernsey : died Feb. 23, 1866. 

HAY, REV. JOHN, D.D. (1812-1891) 

Born April 23, 1812 : son of Patrick 
Hay of near Aberdeen : educated at 
Aberdeen University : M.A., 1833 : in 
1839 joined the Madras Mission of the 
L.M.S. : and the staff of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society about 1883 : D.D. 
of an American University about 1881 : 
Fellow, Madras University, 1888-9 : made 
benefactions to the native community, 
Vizagapatam : wrote religious works and 
articles in missionary periodicals : for 
about 20 years took a leading part in the 
revision of the Telugu translation of the 

HAYES, SIR JOHN (1767-1831) 

Commodore, Indian Navy : constantly 
engaged in active service as Midshipman 
and Lieutenant in the Indian and Eastern 
seas from 1782 : attached to the land 
forces in the war against Tippoo, 1 790-1 : 
commanded two vessels on a voyage of 
discovery in the Eastern Archipelago and 
to Australia : in 1797 on a mission to the 
Hakim of Somniana : fought an action 
with pirates at the Gulf of Cutch, severely 
wounded : in 1800 took Vengorla from 
pirates : performed more varied service at 
the Moluccas, at Ternate, in the Celebes, 
at Sumatra became, 1807, Deputy, and, 
1809, Master Attendant at Calcutta : in 
the expedition to Java in 1811 as Com- 
modore : commanded the armed flotilla 



in the first Burmese war : died at the 
Cocos Island, July 3, 1831. 


( ? -1904) 

F.R.C.V.S : served in the R.A., Bengal 
Staff Corps and the Buffs : author of many 
books on Horses and Horsemanship, 
including Indian Racing Reminiscences, 
Veterinary Notes for Horse-owners, 1884; 
Practical Horsemanship, 1891 ; A Guide to 
Training and Horse Management in India, 
1896 ; Illustrated Horse-breaking, 1896 ; 
Riding and Hunting, 1901 ; Horses on 
Board Ship, 1902 : died Aug. 1904. 



Son of John Haythorne : born 181 8 : 
educated at Sandhurst : entered the Army 
1837 : served in the 98th in China, 184T- 
3 : A.D.C. to Sir Colin Campbell in the 
Panjab campaign, 1848-9, at all the 
battles : at the forcing of the Kohat Pass 
by Sir C. Napier, 1850: in the.Mohmand 
expedition, 1851 : in the Crimea : Chief 
of the Staff in China, 1859-60 : Adjutant- 
General in Bengal, 1860-5 = K.C.B., 1873 : 
General, 1879 : died Oct. 18, 1888. 

HAYWARD, GEORGE W. ( ? -1870) 

Traveller : envoy of the Geographical 
Society : went to Yasin in 1869, when the 
Yasin chief, Mir Wall, enlisted his support 
against the Maharaja of Kashmir : went 
again to Yasin, on his way to the Pamir 
steppe : Mir Wall had him killed, perhaps 
through anger, fear, or cupidity, the 
Governor of Chitral, Amin-ul-Mulk, being 
implicated, in July, 1870. 


Major : son of Captain Harry Thomas 
Hearsey by a J at lady: born Dec. 1782 
or 1783 : was sent to England for his 
education : entered Sindia's service under 
Perron, and afterwards served under 
George Thomas {q.v.), the adventurer, 
being with him when he surrendered 
Georgeghar to Bourguien, Sindia's general. 
In 1804 he joined Lord' Lake and fought 
at Deeg. He explored the sources of the 
Jamna and Ganges and visited Chinese 
Tartary to the Mansarowar Lake. In 
1 8 15 he fought against the Gurkhas, was 
taken prisoner by the Nipalese, and 

released at the treaty of Segowlie. He 
helped to quell an insurrection at Bareli 
in 1 816, and was at the siege of Bhartpur : 
died at his house at Kareli, near Budaon, 
Aug. 5, 1840. 


Lt-General : son of Lt-Colonel Andrew 
Wilson Hearsey : born at Midnapur, 1793 : 
Cornet in the 6th Bengal Cavalry : served 
in Bundelkund, Rewa and the Pindari 
war : distinguished himself at Sitabaldi, 
Nagpur, and battles in the Mahratta war : 
at Bhartpur, Deeg, Chilianwala and 
Gujarat : suppressed mutiny in a native 
regiment at Wazirabad, 1849 : C.B : in 1857 
was in command of the Division at Bar- 
rackpur, when the native troops showed 
disaffection, which he reported to Govern- 
ment : showed personal bravery on the 
occasion of the outbreak of Mangal Pandi, 
March 29, 1857 : disbanded the 19th N.I. : 
and gained credit for his conduct through- 
out the mutiny : K.C.B : commanded 
the 6th Bengal Light Cavalry, and, later, 
the 2ist Hussars : died at Boulogne, 
Oct. 23, 1865. 

LUCAS (1808-1897) 
Educated at Trinity and Sidney Sussex 
College, Cambridge : B.A., 1830 : 2nd 
Wrangler, Smith's Prizeman and Fellow : 
Professor of Mathematics at Haileybury, 
1838-58 : Canon of Norwich, i860 : 
died March 5, 1897. 


() 78:5-1826) 

Bishop of Calcutta : born April 21, 
1783 : son of Rev. Reginald Heber : 
educated at Whitchurch and privately : 
at Brasenose College, Oxford : wrote the 
Carmen Saeculare, 1800 : gained the 
English verse prize for his " Palestine " 
in 1803 : and the English Essay Prize in 
1805 : Fellow of All Souls' College in 1805. 
After a tour of nearly two years in Europe, 
he was ordained, 1807 : held the living of 
Hodnet from that year : Prebendary of 
St. Asaph, 1812 : was appointed Bishop 
of Calcutta, 1822, which he accepted 
with much hesitation : completed Bishop's 
College, Calcutta : travelled continually, 
performing his episcopal duties, through 
the whole of India, and in Cevlon, as shown 


by his lourney through India, from Calcutta 
to Bombay, with Notes upon Ceylon, and a 
Journey to Madras and the Southern 
Provinces : he died in a swimming-bath 
at Trichinopoly on April 3, 1826, from the 
bursting of a blood-vessel. His hymns, 
57 in all, were published in the Christian 
Observer from 1811 : his poetical works 
in 1 812 : his Bampton Lectures, Life of 
Jeremy Taylor, and volumes of sermons 
were also published. A kneeling statue 
of Heber is in St. Paul's Cathedral, Cal- 
cutta : other monuments were erected to 
his memory in India. 


Notable as a great local administrator in 
India in the latter part of the i8th century : 
specially connected with the district of 
Jessore, in Bengal : was appointed Judge 
and Magistrate of Jessore in 1781, with 
Mr. Richard Roche as his assistant. 
A man of great ability, who made the 
real good of the natives of his district his 
chief aim, not, like most others, consider- 
ing only the commercial interests of the 
Company : carried out many reforms in 
Jessore : remodelled the police force : 
defended the people against the oppres- 
sion of subordinate officers : the first 
to develop the Sundarbans, and to 
originate the plan for reclaiming them by 
granting plots of land to persons under- 
taking to bring them under cultivation. 
About 1782 or 1783 he established three 
" ganjes " in places where clearings had 
been made in the jungle : one was named 
after him — Henckellganj : made Collector 
of Jessore in 1786 : helped to bring about 
the " Permanent Settlement " of Bengal 
by the information he was able to give to 
Cornwallis when making inquiry into 
the land revenue of the Presidency : 
when the Settlement was made, 1789, 
Henckell had left Jessore to become Collec- 
tor, Judge, and Magistrate of Rajshahi : 
was succeeded by Richard Roche : the 
rule of these two men covers the period 
1781-93, when Lord Cornwallis' reforms 
were completed. 

HENDERSON, JOHN (1780-1867) 

Born 1780 : son of Robert Henderson : 
was a drysalter in Glasgow and an East 
India merchant in London. For many 
years he spent about ;;r3o,ooo annually 
on religious and charitable purposes : 

one of his principal aims was the promotion 
of mission work in India : he died May i, 


(1840- ) 

Maj-General : born Aug. 19, 1840 : 
son of General R. Henderson, R.E. : 
educated privately : joined Madras 
Cavalry, 1857 : Under Secretary to the 
Foreign Department of the Government 
of India, 1872 : on special duty in Kashmir, 
1874 : Superintendent of operations for 
suppression of Thagi and Dakaiti, 1878 : 
Resident in Mysore, 1892 : left India, 
1S95 : C.S.I. , 1876, for his services in 
attendance on H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales on his visit to India, 1875-6. 


(1847 - ) 

Educated privately and at St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital : joined the Indian 
Medical Service : was employed for 27 
years under the Foreign Department in 
India, as Residency Surgeon in the Jaipur 
States : Inspr-General of Hospitals, Ben- 
gal, 1 898-1903 : retired, 1903 : Chairman 
Executive Committee, Jaipur Exhi- 
bition, 1883 : CLE., 1891. Author of 
several works on Indian Art, Rulers of 
India and Chiefs of Rajputana, 1897 ; 
Medico-Topographical Histories of Jaipur 
and Rajputana, etc. 

HENLEY, SAMUEL (1740-1815) 
A clergyman and professor in America 
before the Independence : came to Eng- 
land : was a teacher at Harrow School, 
then a curate : Rector of Rendlesham 
in Suffolk : in 1805 was made the first 
Principal of the East India College at 
Hertford, and at Hertford Heath, and 
D.D. : resigned his appointment, Jan. 1815 : 
wrote poems : paid much attention to 
literary matters : was author of theological, ; 
classical and archaeological treatises : I 
F.S.A. : died Dec. 29, 181 5. ' 

SON (1837-1905) 

Born April 22, 1837 : son of Maj- 
General John Hennessy, Bengal Army : 
entered the 34th Bengal N.l. 1854: served 
with 93rd Highlanders in the Indian 
mutiny : present at Maharajganj, Alam- 
bagh and [the relief of Lucknow by Sir 



C. Campbell : with 75th regt. under Outram 
at the Alambagh : joined the Bengal Staff 
Corps, 1861 : served with the 15th Sikhs, 
1867-90 : in the Afghan war, 187S-80 : 
in the march from Kandahar to Kabul and 
battles of Ahmad Kheyl and Urzoo : in 
the march from Kabul to Kandahar and 
battle of Kandahar : commanded 15th 
Sikhs at Suakin, 1885 : in several engage- 
ments : C.B., 1885: left India, 1890: 
Ma j -General, 1894 : on unemployed 
supernumerary list, 1891 : K.C.B., 1903 : 
Colonel of 15 th Sikhs, May, 1904 : died 
July 26, 1905. 



(1850- ) 

I.C.S. : born July 26, 1850: entered 
the Indian Civil Service in Lower Bengal 
in 1873 : Private Secretary to the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Bengal, the Hon. Sir A. 
Eden {q.v.): Inspr-General of Police,Bengal, 
1891-1900 : C.S.I. , 1898 : resigned, 1901 : 
Assistant Commissioner of the MetropoH- 
tan Police, Loudon, 190 1-3 : Commissioner 
thereof, since 1903 : adapted the system 
of taking the finger and thumb impressions 
of criminals for the purpose of establish- 
ing their identity and proving previous 

HENRY, GEORGE (1846- ) 
Born Aug. 23, 1846 : educated at Wool- 
wich : entered the R.E., 1868 : and 
became Maj -General, 1901 : served in the 
Afghan war, 1878-80 : Burmese expedition, 
1885 : Chin-Lushai expedition, 1889-90 : 
commanding R.E. : Brevet-Lt-Colonel : 
Q.M.G. India : C.B., 1903. 

HERBERT, WILLIAM (1718-1795) 

Born Nov. 29, 1718 : educated at 
Hitchin : in 1748 went out to India as a 
purser's clerk : made a long journey in 
the country there : drew plans of settle- 
ments for the E. I. Co : published, in 1758, 
A New Directory for the East Indies, 
dedicated to the E. I. Co, styling himself 
hydrographer. From being a chart - 
engraver, he became a dealer in books, and 
brought out Typographical Antiquities : 
died March 18, i795- 

HERKLOTS, G.A. ( ? -after 

Surgeon on the Madras Establishment : 
the Qanoon-e-Islam, or the customs of the 

Muhamraadans of India, comprising a full 
and exact account of the various rites and 
ceremonies, from the moment of birth till 
the hour of death, by Jaffur Shurreef, 
(a Native of the Dekkan), was composed 
under the direction of Herklots and 
translated by him : published in 1832 : 
a second edition issued at Madras, 1863. 


Born May 14, 1863 : son of A. W. T. 
Hertz : educated at St. Xavier's College, 
Calcutta : passed the Higher Standard 
in Burmese, Shan and Kachin languages : 
took active part in the operations round 
Mandalay, 1886-7, and Shan States, 
1887-90, and in operations in Kachin 
Hills, 1 890-1900 : author of A Practical 
Hand-book of the Kachin Language : 
CLE., 1900. 

HESSING, JOHN (I740-I803) 

Colonel : born in Holland, 1740 : went 
to India, 1764 : after employment at other 
Native Courts, entered the service of De 
Boigne (q.v.), and was engaged in his 
battles, but left him after a quarrel : 
accompanied Madhava Sindia {q-v.) to 
Poona, 1792 : was made Commandant of 
the Agra Fort, 1800, where (Lord) Metcalfe 
iq.v.) met him : a brave and intrepid 
officer : died July 21, 1803 : his mausoleum 
is at Agra. 



Born June 11, 1750: son of Major 
Schuckbmrgh Hewett : educated at Wim- 
borne and the R.M.A., Woolwich : entered 
the 70th regt., 1762 : served in the W. 
Indies ten years, and in N. America, at 
Charleston, again in the W. Indies : Adju- 
tant-General in Ireland to i799 - head of 
the Recruiting Department : Inspr-General 
of the Army of Reserve : was C. in C. in 
India, Oct. 1807, to Dec. 1811 : had to 
deal with the case of the Madras officers 
and the expeditions to Mauritius and 
Java: commanded in Ireland, 181 3-16 : 
Baronet, 1818 : G.C.B. : General : 40 
years Colonel of the 6ist regt. : died 
March 21, 1840. 


(1854- ) 

I.C.S. : born Aug. 25, 1854 : son of 
Rev. John Hewett : educated at Win- 



Chester and Balliol College, Oxford : 
entered the Bengal Civil Service, 1877 : 
served in N.W.P. and Oudh, 1877-86, 
then in the Government Secretariat : 
acted as Private Secretary to the Viceroy, 
1888, 1890, and was Secretary to the 
Government of India, Home Department, 
1 894-1 902 : Chief Commissioner of the 
Central Provinces, 1902 : C.I.E., 1891 : 
C.S.I. , 1899 : acting Member of the 
Supreme Council, 1904 : Member of it for 
Commerce, 1905. 

WRIGHTE (1834-1888) 
Born Aug. 12, 1834 : son of Dr. W. 
Hewett : entered the Navy, 1847 : saw 
service in the Burmese war, 1851 : in the 
Crimea, where he won his V.C, and was 
promoted to be Lieutenant : in China, 
and on the W. coast of Africa, during the 
Ashanti war, 1873-4 = K.C.B. : Naval 
C. in C. in the E. Indies, 1882 : com- 
manded the naval forces engaged in the 
Egyptian war, 1882 : at Suakin, 1884 : 
sent on a mission to Abyssinia : K.C.S.I. : 
Vice-Admiral, 1884 : commanded the 
Channel Fleet, 1886-8 : died May 13, 

HEXT, SIR JOHN (1842- ) 
Born Oct. 14, 1842 : son of Rev. J. H. 
Hext : entered the R.N., 1857 : served 
in Ashanti war, 1878 ; Egyptian war, 
1882 : and Burma : Capt., 1882 : Director 
of Royal Indian Marine, 1883-98 : C.I.E., 
1889 : K.C.I.E., 1897 : Rear-Admiral, 

HICKEY, THOMAS (1740P-1822) 
Portrait-painter : exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, 1772-92 : went out to India, 
and said to have written The History of 
Painting and Sculpture from the Earliest 
Accounts, published at Calcutta, 1788 : 
went also to China, with Lord Macartney's 
embassy, 1792-4 : painted historical 
pictures at Seringapatam, 1799 '• between 
1800 and 1822 at Madras and Calcutta, 
where many of his pictures are in Govern- 
ment House : given a pension by the 
Madras Government. 


(1858- ) 

Born Sep. 6, 1858 : son of James 
Hickson : educated at Highgate : joined 

the R.E., 1879 : served in the Afghan 
war, 1879-80 : relief of Kandahar : Suakin 
campaign, 1885 : Gordon relief expedi- 
tion : Burma campaign, 1885-7 : capture 
of Mandalay : D.S.O., 1887 : com- 
manded R.E. at Shorncliffe : Lt-Colonel. 


( ? - ? ) 
Engaged in trade : experienced very 
heavy losses by sea, 1775-6, for which he 
was delivered to his creditors and sent to 
jail at Calcutta, Oct. 1776 : on coming 
out he established Hicky's Bengal Ga- 
zette, 1780 : at first dull and vulgar, it 
became full of personalities and scurrilous 
attacks, often directed at Warren Hastings 
and Sir E. Impey : it never attacked 
Sir P. Francis : its circulation through 
the General Post Office was stopped in 
Nov. 1780 : in June, 1781, Hicky was 
arrested and imprisoned under Impey's 
order at the suit of Hastings and fined : 
the paper continued, and Hicky was again 
fined : and in 1782, after his imprisonment 
for 19 months, the types were seized and 
the paper ceased : he is described as " a 
worthless man, but as the pioneer of the 
Indian Press " in Busteed's Echoes from 
Old Calcutta. 


( ? -1882) 

Attached at first to Rattray's Sikhs 
(45th N.I.) : was at the sieges of Multan, 
1848-9, and at Ramnagar and Gujarat : 
in 1856, in Rattray's Police Battalion : in 
the mutiny at Dinapur assisted the civil 
authorities to arrest rebels : gained the 
first class of the Order of British India, 
made Sirdar Bahadur : at several engage- 
ments defeated the Shahabad rebels in 
1858 : gained the first class Order of 
Merit : in the Sikhim expedition, 1861 : 
and helped with Rattray's police force to 
suppress disturbances at Sambalpur : 
with the police in 1862, helped to put down 
the rebellion in the Khasia and Jaintia 
hills : assistant to the Political Officer in 
the Bhutan expedition : Commandant of 
the Cooch Behar troops : in charge of 
the Coolie Corps in the Lushai expedition, 
1871-2 : Khan Bahadur : A.D.C. to the 
C. in C. : CLE. : died at Dinapur, July 3, 
1882 : Lt-Colonel : an officer of great 
soldierly qualities and capacity. 




Born Dec. i8, 1847 : son of Samuel 
Higham : entered the Indian P.W.D., 
1867 : served in the Irrigation Depart- 
ment : Chief Engineer and Secretary to 
Government, Pan jab Irrigation branch, 
1894 : Inspr-General of Irrigation, India, 
1896 : Secretary to Government of India, 
P.W.D., 1897 : retired, 1902 : C.I.E., 
1896: K.C.I.E., 1902. 

HILL, HEADON (1857- ) 

(Nom de plume of F. Grainger) : son of 
Rev. J. Grainger : educated at Eton : 
after serving in the Army a few years in 
India and Egypt, he became a Journalist 
in London : began to write fiction, 1890 : 
author of Zamba the Detective, 1 894 ; The 
Raja's Second Wife, 1894 ; Diversions of 
Kala Persad, 1895, and many other 

HILL, MARY (1790-1847) 

Born March 9, 1790 : went to Calcutta 
with her husband, the Rev. Micaiah Hill, 
of the London Missionary Society's Mission, 
1821-32 : removed to Berhampur, 1824, 
doing mission work there for 25 years, till 
1847 : the oldest female missionary in the 
country at the time of her death : on a 
visit to England she originated the Wal- 
thamstow Institution for the Education 
of Missionaries' daughters : died Sep. 7, 

HILL, SIR WILLIAM (1805-1886) 

Son of the Hon. Daniel Hill, of Antigua : 
born 1805 : joined the Madras Army, 
1821 : served in the first Burma expedi- 
tion, 1824-5 : at Rangoon, Kemendine, 
Donabew, etc. : and in the second Burmese 
war, 1852-3, at Pegu : was offered the 
command of the Gwalior Contingent : 
became Brig-General of the Hyderabad 
contingent, 1856 : commanded the Ni- 
zam's contingent in the mutiny : engaged 
against Tantia Topi : Maj-General, 1861 : 
retired, 1861 : K.C.S.I., 1867 : died Aug. 
20, 1886. 

HILL, WILLIAM (1846-1903) 

Entered the Indian Army in 1866 : in 
the Lushai expedition of 1 871-2 : in the 
Afghan war, with the 2nd Gurkhas : was 
at Ali Masjid and Charasia : in the march 
from Kabul to Kandahar, and at the 
battle of Kandahar : in the Manipur 

expedition, 1891 : commanded the Kuram 
movable column in the Tirah campaign, 
1897-8 : was appointed Inspr-General of 
Volunteers in India, August, 1901 : Maj- 
General : he laboured with zeal and en- 
thusiasm to improve the utility of the 
Volunteer force : died in London, Sep. 7, 

HILLS, SIR JOHN (1834-1902) 

Maj-General: son of James Hills of 
Nischindipur, Bengal : born 1834 : edu- 
cated at Edinburgh Academy and Univer- 
sity : entered the Bombay Engineers, 
1854 : in the Persian war, 185 6-7 : at the 
capture of Muhamra, in Abyssinia, 1867-8 : 
in Afghan war, 1879-80 : at the defence 
of Kandahar : C.B. : in the Burma war 
commanded R.E. at headquarters : re- 
tired, 1890 : K.C.B., 1900 : died June 18, 
1902 : F.R.S., Edinburgh. 


(1833- ) 

Born Aug. 20, 1833 : son of James Hills, 
indigo planter, of Nischindipur, in Bengal : 
educated at Edinburgh Academy and Mili- 
tary College, and Addiscombe : entered 
Bengal Artillery, 1853 : served throughout 
the Indian mutiny : siege and storming of 
Delhi : gained the V.C. on July 9 : at 
capture of Lucknow : dangerously wound- 
ed : Brevet-Major : A.D.C. to Lord 
Canning, 1859-62 : Assistant- Resident, 
Nipal, 1862-3 : served in the Abyssinian 
campaign, 1867-8, at the capture of Mag- 
dala: Brevet-Lt-Colonel: Lushai campaign, 
1 871-2 : C.B. : A.A.G. Kandahar Field 
Force, 1878-80 : accompanied Sir F. 
Roberts to Kabul in 1879 : battle of 
Charasia : Military Governor of Kabul : 
commanded a Division N. Afghanistan 
Field Force, 1880 : K.C.B., 1881 : took 
the additional name of Johnes, 1883 : 
G.C.B., 1893 : General. 

BARONET (1748-1825) 

Born 1748 : son of William Hippisley : 
educated at Hertford College, Oxford : 
called to the bar from the Inner Temple, 
1771 : D.C.L., 1776 : employed by the 
British Government in Italy : the Direc- 
tors of the E.I. Co., on the recommendation 
of Lord North, appointed him paymaster 
of Tanjore in 1786, but he retvurned home 
in 1789, and did not revisit India : was 



M.P. for Sudbury for 23 years, and en- 
gaged in various matters of politics and 
public affairs : Baronet in 1796 : died 
May 3, 1825. 

; HIRST, REV. WILLIAM (? - 1769?) 

Son of William Hirst, D.D. : educated 
at Peterhouse, Cambridge : F.R.S., i755 : 
was appointed a Navy chaplain : present 
at the sieges of Pondicherry and Vellore : 
in June, 1761, observed the transit of 
Venus at Madras : was Chaplain at Cal- 
cutta, 1762-4 : observed an earthquake 
and two eclipses : reported on transit of 
Venus of June, 1769 : went out to India, 
1769, as Chaplain to Vansittart and other 
Commissioners of the E.I. Co. : all 
drowned at sea after passing the Cape 
outwards in Dec. 1769. 

HIRST, W. A. (1870- 

Born 1870 : son of Alfred Hirst : edu- 
cated at Clifton and Worcester College, 
Oxford : joined the Indian Educational 
Department, 1894 : Professor of History, 
Lahore College, 1895-6 : First Professor, 
Meerut College, 1896-1902 : Principal of 
Gujarat College, Ahmedabad, 1902 : 
author of Survey of Ethics, 1902. 

HISLOP, STEPHEN (1817 1863) 

Born Sep. 8, 1817 : son of Stephen 
Hislop, a mason : educated at Duns, 
Edinburgh University, Glasgow, and in 
divinity under Chalmers at Edinburgh : 
joined the Free Church of Scotland, 1843 : 
went out to India in 1844 as a missionary 
of the Free Church to Bombay : stationed 
at Sitabaldi, near Nagpur, in the Central 
Provinces : and opened a school at 
Nagpur : through a warning from a 
native friend, he was able to save the 
lives of the Europeans there in the mutiny 
of 1857. He was drowned in trying to 
cross a swollen river, while on tour with 
the Chief Commissioner, Sir R. Temple, 
Sep. 4, 1863 : he had much ability, not 
only for his own work, but also in lan- 
guages, philology, antiquarian research, 
geology, natural history, botany, zoology, 
entomology, and conchology. Sir R. 
Temple edited his Papers relatingJ^o the 
Aboriginal Tribes of the Central Provinces, 
— the Gonds, and others. 



Born July 5, 1764 : son of Lt-Colonel 
William Hislop, R.A. : educated at the 
R.M.A., Woolwich : entered the 39th 
regt. in 1778 : in the siege of Gibraltar, 
1779-83 : served in Corsica : commanded 
his regt. in the W. Indies, 1796 : com- 
manded the captiured Dutch colonies for 
six years : Lt-Governor of Trinidad, 
1 803-1 1 : at the capture of Guadeloupe, 
1810 : appointed C. in C, Bombay, 1812 : 
but was captured by an American ship 
and returned home : C. in C. at Madras, 
1814-20 : Baronet : K.C.B., 1814 : com- 
manded the Army of the Dekkan in the 
Mahratta war, 18 17-8 : defeated the 
Mahrattas under Holkar at Mahidpur, 
Dec. 21, 18 17 : was blamed for his severity 
in executing the Mahratta Governor of 
the fort at Talner : the booty acquired 
by the Dekkan Army was, after litigation, 
shared by the Army of Upper India : 
G.C.B., 1818 : died May 3, 1843. 



Governor : son of the Hon. and Rev. 
Augustus Edward Hobart, sixth Earl of 
Buckinghamshire : born Dec. 8, 1818 : 
educated at Cheam, Surrey ; Trinity 
College, Oxford (Scholar) : was a clerk in 
the Board of Trade, 1840-61 : went to 
Brazil as Secretary to a diplomatic mis- 
sion : Private Secretary to the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies, and at the Home 
Office : sent to investigate the condition 
of the Turkish finances, and became 
Director-General of the Ottoman Bank : 
was Governor of Madras from May, 1872, 
until his death from typhoid at Madras on 
April 27, 1873. He promoted education, 
and the demand for a harbour and better 
drainage : he wrote on political ques- 
tions : a collection of his Essays and 
Miscellaneous Writings was brought out 
by his widow. 



Born Nov. 10, 1819 : son of Right Hon. 
Henry Hobhouse : educated at Eton and 
Balliol College, Oxford : ist class Classics, 
1840 : called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 
1845 : Q.C., 1862 : Charity Commis- 
sioner, 1866 : Endowed Schools Com- 
missioner, 1869 : Legal Member of the 



Supreme Council in India, 1872-7 : 
K.C.S.I., 1877 : Member of Judicial Com- 
mittee of Privy Council, 1881-1901 : 
Member of the London School Board, 
1882-4 '• Alderman of the London County 
Council, 18-89-92 : made a Peer, 1885 : 
CLE. : died Dec. 6, 1904 : some of his 
addresses have been printed under the 
title of The Dead Hand. 



Born Nov. 9, 1792 : went to Hailey- 
bury, Jan. 1812 : to Bombay, May, 1813 : 
dismissed from his judgeship, Sep. 1821 : 
tried in Bombay, 1823, and acquitted : 
finally dismissed with a pension of £150 
a year, 1824 : disappeared from view, and 
died Aug. 22, i860 : wrote Pandurang 
Hari (to which Sir Bartle Frere wrote an 
introduction) : also the Tales of a Zenana, 
published in 1827, with a new edition, 
1874, with an introductory Preface by 
Lord Stanley of Alderley : described as 
a " writer of genius." 

HODGES, WILLIAM (1744-1797) 

Born in 1744 : son of a smith : learnt to 
draw : exhibited at the Society of Artists : 
became a draughtsman on Captain Cook's 
second expedition, 1772-5 : exhibited at 
the Royal Academy : went to India, 
1778-84, under the patronage of Warren 
Hastings : in 1785 he published in London, 
A Comparative View of the Ancient Monu- 
ments in India : and in 1793 his Travels 
in India during the years 1780-83, illus- 
trated from his own pictures : he had 
become R.A. in 1789 : paid a visit to St. 
Petersburg in 1790 : retired from his 
profession of painting before 1795 : 21 of 
his pictures, the property of A. Cleveland 
{q.v.), sold in Calcutta in 1794 : he died 
March 6, i797- 



I.C.S. : born Feb. i, 1800 : son of 
Brian Hodgson, a banker : educated at 
Macclesfield, Richmond, andHaileybiury : 
went to India, i8i8 : after passing^through 
the College of Fort William, Calcutta, he 
was Assistant Commissioner in Kumaon 
for 2 years, 1818-20 : Assistant Resident 
at Katmandu, in Nipal, 1820-9, acting 
Resident, 1829-31, Resident, 1833-44. 

He kept Nipal quiet during the first Afghan 
war, but Lord Ellenborough hastily re- 
moved him from Nipal, whereupon he 
resigned the service. While in Nipal, 
Hodgson studied its literature, religion 
and language, discovering the literature 
of Northern Buddhism, collecting original 
MSS., Tibetan and Sanskrit, which he 
distributed to libraries : gathering together 
encyclopaedic information on Nipal : he 
also worked at ethnology, zoology, geo- 
graphy. He returned to India in 1844-5 
and lived at Darjeeling, to continue his 
researches in ethnology, and his collec- 
tions : also advocated some useful practi- 
cal measures, such as the enlistment of 
Gurkhas, hill stations for Europeans, nor- 
mal colleges : finally left India in 1858 : 
became F.R.S. in 1877 : D.C.L. in 1889 : 
an honorary member of many learned 
Societies : received many honours by his 
literary attainments : universally praised 
by competent judges : died in London, 
May 23, 1894. He wrote a number of 
works and papers : among them Illustra- 
tions of the Literature and Religion of the 
Buddhists, Essays on the Languages, 
Literature, and Religion of Nipal and 
Tibet, etc. : A borigines of India : Miscellane- 
ous Essays relating to Indian Subjects : 
described by Burnouf {q.v.) as the founder 
of the true study of Buddhism. 



Son of John Hodgson : born May, 
1805 : educated at the R.M.A., Wool- 
wich : emtered the Bengal N.I. in 1822 : 
in the first Sikh war, 1845-6, was at 
Sobraon : raised the first Sikh regt. 
enrolled in the British service : com- 
manded it in the second Sikh war, 1848-9 : 
took Ukrot : organized the Panjab 
Irregular Force : commanded the Derajat 
frontier, and in operations against the hill 
tribes : held the command at Peshawar 
after Sir Colin Campbell : Maj -General, 
1861 : died in 1870. 

RAIKES (1821-1858) 

Son of the Rev. George Hodson : born 
March 19, 1821 : educated at Rugby and 
Trinity College, Cambridge : B.A., 1844 : 
entered the E. 1. Co.'s service, 1845 : was, 
in the second Grenadiers, present at the 
battles of Mudki, Firozshahr, Sobraon : 
Adjutant of the Guides in 1847 : Assistant 



Commissioner in the Pan jab after its 
annexation in 1849 : commanded the 
Guides Corps, 1852 : was removed from 
his appointment on charges of dishonesty, 
etc., from which he was exonerated on 
second inquiry : in the mutiny he was 
given a commission to raise the irregular 
cavalry named " Hodson's Horse " : was 
at the siege of Delhi : after its capture, he 
seized the King of Delhi at Humayun's 
tomb : and, on Sep. 22, arrested the princes, 
whom he shot when their rescue by the 
native mob appeared imminent : was further 
engaged near Cawnpur : was killed at 
the siege and capture of Lucknow, March 
12,1858. His character and actions have 
been the subject of controversy. The 
testimony to his brilliant qualities of 
bravery, energy, coolness, is universal. 
Lord Napier of Magdala, who, as a con- 
temporary and present, must have known 
all the circumstances, was always fully 
convinced of his honour and integrity. 

FREDERIC (1841- ) 

Born Oct. 19, 1841 : son of Rev. T. C. 
Hoernle, C.M.S. : educated at Stuttgart 
and Universities of Basel and Tubingen : 
joined the C.M.S., 1865 : Professor in Jay 
Narain's College, Benares, 1870 : Principal 
of the Cathedral Mission College, Calcutta, 
1877 : joined the Indian Educational 
Service, 1881 : Principal of the Calcutta 
Madrasa, 1881-99 : C.I.E., 1897 : author 
of Comparative Grammar of the N. Indian 
Languages : editor of Chanda's Prakrit 
Grammar, Report on the British Collection 
of Central Asian Antiquities, and numerous 
contributions to the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, the Indian Antiquary. 
etc. : editor of the Bower manuscript : 
studied archaeology, epigraphy, and paleo- 


(1836- ) 

Born June 18, 1836 : son of Colonel 
Charles Robert Hogg : educated at 
Leamington College and Wimbledon : 
Joined the Bombay Army, 1854 : became 
Maj-General, 1890 : Lt-General, 1893 : 
served in the Persian campaign, 1857 : the 
Indian mutiny, 1858-9 : China war, i860: 
Abyssinian war, 1867-8 : Brevet-Major : 
Afghan war, 1878-9 : Brevet-Colonel 
Q.M.G. of the Bombay Army, 1880-5 = 
Political Resident at Aden, and had 

command of a 2nd Class District, 1885-90 : 
C.B., 1886. 


(1836- ) 

I.C.S. : born 1836 : son of Sir James 
Weir Hogg, Bart. : educated at Eton and 
Haileybury : entered the Indian Civil 
Service, 1857, and retired, 1889 : Post- 
master-General, Panjab, 1863 ; Bombay, 
1867 ; Bengal, 1868 : Director-General of 
the Post Office of India, 1880 : C.S.I. , 
1888 : K.C.I.E., 1888. 



Son of William Hogg : born Sep. 7, 
1790 : educated at Belfast and Trinity 
College, Dublin (Scholar) : entered at 
Gray's Inn, London : said to have been 
called to the Irish bar : practised at the 
Calcutta bar, 1814-22 : Registrar of the 
Supreme Court, Calcutta, 1822-33, when 
he left India with a large fortune : M.P. 
for Beverley, 1835-47 ; for Honiton, 1847- 
57 : Director of the E. I. Co., 1839 : 
Chairman in 1846 and 1852, representing, 
practically, the E. I. Co., in Parliament : 
made a Baronet, 1846 : refused the 
Governorship of Bombay in 1853 : nomi- 
nated, by the E.I. Co., one of the original 
members of the Council of India in Sep. 
1858 : retired in 1872 : Privy Councillor : 
died May 27, 1876. 


(1833- ) 

I.C.S. : born at Calcutta, 1833 : son of 
Sir James Weir Hogg, Bart. : educated at 
Eton : entered the Indian Civil Service, 
1853 : served in Political Department, 
N.W.P., and in the Panjab during the 
mutiny : attached to General John Nichol- 
son's flying column : transferred to Oudh, 
and then to Bengal : Commissioner of 
Police and Chairman of the Calcutta 
Municipality, 1863-77 : knighted in 1875 
on the occasion of the visit of H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales to Calcutta. 


(1849- ) 

I.C.S. : born June 11, 1849 : educated 
at Cheltenham and University College, 
Oxford : entered the Indian Civil Service, 
1872 : Secretary to Government of India 
in the Department of Revenue and 



Agriculture, 1898-1901 : C.S.I. , 1898 : 
Secretary at the India Office in the Depart- 
ment of Revenue, Statistics and Com- 
merce, 1 90 1. 


(1822- ) 

General : son of Rev. Thomas Holdich : 
educated privately : entered the Army, 
1841 : served in Satlaj campaign, 1845-6 : 
at the battles of Mudki, Firozshahr, Aliwal 
and Sobraon : Boer war, 1848, Bronplatz : 
Kafir war, 1852 : Burmese war, 1853 ' at 
Donabew : Indian mutiny, 1857-8 : com- 
manded Cork and Dublin districts, 1871- 
6 : K.C.B., 1875 : retired. 

FORD (1843- ) 

Born Feb. 13, 1843 : son of Rev. 
Thomas Peach Holdich : educated at 
Godolphin Grammai: School and Wool- 
wich : joined the Royal Engineers, 1862, 
and became Brevet-Colonel, 1891 : served 
in the Bhutan expedition, 1865 : Abys- 
sinian war, 1867 : Afghan war, 1878-80 : 
and Tirah expedition, 1897-8 : on special 
duty with the Afghan Boundary Com- 
mission, 1884-6 : Superintendent of Fron- 
tier Surveys, India, 1892-8 : Pamir 
Commission, 1895 : Perso-Beluch Com- 
mission, 1896 : Argentine-Chili Boundary, 
1902-3 : C.B. and CLE., 1894 : K.C.I. E., 
1897 : K.C.M.G., 1902 : Gold Medallist, 
Royal Geographical Society, 1887 : author 
of The Indian Borderland, 1901, and 
various papers on military surveying and 
geographical subjects. 


(1836- ) 

Born 1836 : son of Col. J. Holland : 
educated at Cheltenham and St. John's 
College, Oxford : entered the Army, 1852 : 
served in the Crimea : A.Q.M.G. in Sir 
Henry Havelock's force in the Persian 
campaign and in the Indian mutiny and 
China, 1857-60 : D.Q.M.G. in Abyssinian 
campaign, 1867-8 : C.B. and Brevet- 
Major and Lt-Colonel. 

HOLLOW AY, WILLIAM (1828-1893) 
I.C.S. : son of William Holloway : 
born 1828 : educated at Haileybury, 
1846-7 : one of the most distinguished 
pupils of Empson {q.v.): went to Madras in 
1848 : took great interest in Education ; 

in 1853 wrote a masterly pamphlet, No/^s 
on Madras ludicial Admimstraiion : was 
Secretary to the Commission of Inquiry 
into the system of judicature in the Madras 
Presidency : Judge of Tellicherry, 1861 : 
in 1863 made a High Court Judge, Mad- 
ras : retired, 1877: died Aug. 11, 1893: 
translated the first volume of Savigny's 
System of Modern Roman Law : C.S.I., 

HOLMES, SIR GEORGE (1764-1816) 

Ensign in the Bombay European Regt., 
1780 : transferred to the loth N.I. : in 
the Mahratta war, 1780-1 : besieged at 
Tellicherry, 1781-2, by Hyder All's 
troops : at the capture of Cannanore, 
1783 : in the Mysore war, 1791-2, and in 
Malabar : at Seringapatam, 1799 : com- 
manded at the reduction of forts in 
Canara, and the relief of Montana : in 
Egypt under Baird, 1 801-2 : at the siege 
of Baroda, 1802 : in the Mahratta war, 
1803-5 : commanded a subsidiary force 
in Gujarat some years to 181 5 : retired as 
Maj-General : K.C.B., 1815 : for nearly 
36 years a regimental officer : died Oct. 
29, 1816. 

HOLMES, JOHN (1808-1878) 
Maj-General : entered the Army in 
1825 : in the Kolapur campaign, 1827 : 
in Upper Sind and Afghanistan, 1842 : 
with England's force in the return from 
Kandahar, actions in the Pishin Valley, 
Kojak pass, and retreat to the Indus : 
volunteered for service in the Crimea : in 
the mutiny, in the Central India cam- 
paign, capture of Awa, assault of Kotah, 
and pursuit of Tantia Topi : C.B. : Maj- 
General, 1862 : died Nov. 19, 1878. 



Governor : son of Zcphaniah Holwell, 
timber nlerchant : born Sep. 17. 1711 = 
educated at Richmond, and Iselmond, 
near Rotterdam : studied surgery at 
Guy's Hospital : to Calcutta in 1732 as 
surgeon's mate on an Indiaman : em- 
ployed as surgeon in the Company's 
ships to the Patna factory : at the Dacca 
factory : at Calcutta. 1736-48 : alder- 
man : principal surgeon : twice Mayor : 
perpetual zamindar of the 24 Parganas in 
175 1 : Seventh in the Council : when the 
fort at Calcutta was attacked by the 
Nawab Suraj-ud-daula on June 18, 1756. 



and the Governor Drake and others re- 
treated down the river on 19th, Holwell 
was called on to take charge of the defence. 
He was one of the 23 survivors of the 146 
persons in the Black Hole on the night of 
June 20-1 : was sent to Murshidabad and 
kept in irons there : set at liberty, July 
17 : joined the ships at Fulta : went to 
England in Feb. i757 '• returned to Bengal : 
in the Council : succeeded Clive as tem- 
porary Governor of Bengal from Jan. 28, 
1760, until Vansittart assumed office on 
July 27, 1760. In 1761 he and others 
were dismissed by the Court of Directors 
for signing a despatch remonstrating 
against Vansittart's appointment, but he 
had retired in Sep. 1760 : in retirement, 
he wrote on historical, philosophical and 
social science subjects : also his Narrative 
of the Black Hole, Interesting Historical 
Events relative to the Province of Bengal 
and the Empire of Hindustan, 1765-71 ; 
Indian Tracts, 1758, 1774, and other 
works, showing his knowledge of the 
religion and customs of the Hindus. He 
erected, at the N.E. corner of Dalhousie 
Square, Calcutta, a monument to those 
who died in the Black Hole : this monu- 
ment was removed in 1819 : re-erected 
in 1902 : Holwell died at Pinner, Nov. 5, 


(1823— ) 

Born 1823 : entered the Army Medical 
Department, 1848, and retired, 1886 : 
served in the Crimea, 1854-5 : Indian 
mutiny, 1857-8 : gained the V.C. on Sep. 
26, 1857, at the first relief of Lucknow : 
China, i860 : New Zealand, 1863-5 : 
Ashanti, 1873-4 : P.M.O. : Cyprus, 1878- 
9 : P.M.O. : Surgeon- General to the 
Forces in India, 1881-5 : K.C.B., 1874. 

a breaching battery : ordered to blow in 
the Kashmir gate on Sep. 14, 1857 : escaped 
being wounded : gained the V.C. : blew 
in the gate of the Palace : was field 
engineer to Greathed's column : was at 
Bulandshahr : killed by accident at the 
blowing up of the Malaghar fort, Oct. i, 


(1839- ) 

Born Oct. 22, 1839 : son of Maj-General 
Richard Home, Bengal Army : educated 
at Kensington Grammar School and 
Addiscombe : joined the Bengal Engin- 
eers, 1858, and landed in India, i860 : in 
the Irrigation Branch of P.W.D., 1861- 
94 : Inspr-General of Irrigation and 
Deputy Secretary, P.W.D., India, 1890-4 : 
C.S.I., 1892: Colonel, -^.m-^-m M 

HOME, ROBERT (1764P-1834) 

Artist : son of Robert Boyne Home : 
from 1770 exhibited portraits at the Royal 
Academy and at Dublin : went to Madras 
in 1790 : with Lord Cornwallis' Army 
before Seringapatam, 179 1-2 : went to 
Calcutta, 1792 : at Lucknow he was chief 
painter to the King of Oudh for some 
years, and made a large fortune : he 
returned to Calcutta in 1797 and died 
there about 1834 : was Secretary to the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1802, and 
painted for it. Indian pictures by Home 
were exhibited at the Academy : he 
published Select Views in Mysore, the 
Country of Tippoo Sultan, and A Descrip- 
tion of Seringapatam, the Capital of Tippoo 
Sultan, illustrated : he painted in India 
pictures of Marquis Wellesley and Colonel 
Arthur Wellesley, Bishop Heber and Dr. 



Son of Maj-General Richard Home, 
Bengal Army : born 1828 : educated at 
Elizabeth College, Guernsey, at Wimble- 
don and Addiscombe, 1845-6: after the 
course at Chatham, went to Bengal, 1848 : 
at the siege of Multan, and at Gujarat : 
employed on the Ganges Canal construc- 
tion, and at Madhupur in charge of a 
division of the Bari Doab Canal : com- 
manded several companies of Muzbi 
Sikhs at the siege of Delhi : had charge of 



Son of a military officer : born about 
1800 : entered the Army, 1821 : nearly 
20 years a subaltern, 17 years Adjutant of 
his regt. : as Brevet-Major commanded 
the 4th Bombay N.I. at 27 years' service : 
served in Mahi Kanta against the Bhils, 
1823 : with the Field Force in 1824 in the 
Meena Hills, and against various predatory 
tribes : with the Bombay column in the 
Panjab campaign, 1848-9 : at the capture 
of Multan : Brevet-Lt-Colonel : Briga- 



dier in the Persian war, 1856-7 : com- 
manded the advance Division at the 
capture of Reshire and surrender of 
Bushire : at Khushab : C.B. : com- 
manded at the island of Karrak for some 
months : commanded the Nasirabad 
Brigade in the mutiny, in the pursuit of 
Tantia Topi and other chief rebels : Maj- 
General, 1861 : Resident at Aden, 1862- 
3 : General of the Sind Division from 
1863 : K.C.B. : left India, 1866, after 
about 45 years' continuous service there : 
died about 1869. 


(1817- ) 

Born June 30, 1817 : son of Sir William 
Jackson Hooker : educated at High 
School and University of Glasgow : joined 
R.N. Medical Department : served as 
Surgeon and Naturalist in H.M.S. Erebus 
in Antarctic expedition under Sir James 
Ross, 1839-43 : brought out a series of 
volumes on the botany of the Antarctic 
regions : visited the Himalayas on the 
North of Sikhim, and was badly treated, 
being kept a prisoner, by the Sikhim 
authorities : also visited the Khasia hills 
as naturalist, 1847-51 : made botanical 
collections of great value : visited Syria 
and Palestine, i860 : Morocco, 1871 : the 
Rocky Mountains, 1877 : served as 
Assistant Director and Director of Kew 
Gardens, 1855-85 : C.B., 1869 : K.C.S.I., 
1877 : G.C.S.I., 1897 : author of Hima- 
layan lournals. The Rhododendrons of the 
Sikhim Himalaya, The Flora of British 
India, and many other scientific works. 

HOOLE, ELIJAH (1798-1872) 

Son of Holland Hoole, a shoemaker : 
born 1798 : educated at Manchester : 
went to India as a Wesleyan Methodist 
missionary, 1820 : made a Member of the 
Committee for revising the Tamil version 
of the Bible : published a number of Tamil 
translations, including portions of the 
Bible : left India, 1828 : became Superin- 
tendent of Schools in Ireland, and a 
general Secretary of the Wesleyan Mis- 
sionary Society : wrote A Personal Narra- 
tive of a Mission to the South of India, 
1820-8, and missionary works : and con- 
tributed to literary journals : died June 
17, 1872- 


(1831- ) 

I.C.S: born 1831: son of James Hope, 
M.D. : educated at Rugby and Haileybury : 
entered the Bombay Civil Service, 1853 = 
Educational Inspector, 1855-8 : called to 
the bar from Lincoln's Inn, 1866 : Member 
of the Governor-General's Legislative 
Council, 1875-80 : Provisional Member of 
Council, Bombay, 1880 : Secretary to 
the Government of India in the Finance 
and Commerce Department, 1881-2 : 
Officiating Finance Minister, 1882 : Mem- 
ber of the Supreme Council, in charge of 
Public Works, 1882-7 : author of Church 
and State in India, 1892, and various 
educational and architectural works • 
CLE., 1882 : K.C.S.L, 1886. 



Born Jan. 12, 1819 : son of Sir John 
Hope, Bart: enteredthe Army, 1835 : with 
71st Highlanders in the Crimea : Lt- 
Colonel, 1857 : served in Central India, 
1858 : C.B., 1859 : Colonel, 1862 : com- 
manded the 71st regt. in the frontier 
operations under Sir N. Chamberlain, 
1863 : Maj-General, 1868 : commanded 
at Stirling, 1873 : retired as General, 
1881 : K.C.B. : succeeded his brother as 
Baronet, 1892 : died Sep. 5, 1898. 


(1857- ) 

Born Sep. 8, 1857 : son of Lewis S. 
Hopkins, M.D. : educated at Columbia 
University, New York : at Leipzig and 
Berlin Universities, 1878-81 : engaged in 
tuition in Columbia, 188 1-5 : Professor 
of Sanskrit, first at Bryn Mawr College, 
1885-95 : and later at Yale, 1895, in 
succession to Professor Whitney (q.v.) : 
A.B., 1878 : A.M. and Ph.D. of Leipzig, 
1881 : LL.D., Columbia, 1902 : Member 
of the German Oriental Society : Secretary 
of the American Oriental Society since 
1897 : has written The Four Castes, 1881 : 
Manu, in Triibner's Oriental Series, 
1884 : Religions of India, 1895 : The 
Great Epic of India, 1900 : India, Old and 
New, 1901 : engaged in University teach- 
ing since 188 1 : spent a year in India, 



HOPKINSON, HENRY (1820-1899) 

Son of B. Hopkinson : entered the 
Indian Army, 1837 : Political Officer in 
1847-8 in the expedition against the 
Koladyne hill tribes : in the Pan jab cam- 
paign, 1848-9, at Chilianwala and Gujarat : 
in the Burmese war, 1852-3, at the capture 
of Martaban : Commissioner in British 
Burma : in Bhutan expedition, 1864-6 : 
at capture of Dewangiri : Commissioner 
of Assam and A.G.G. on the N.E. frontier : 
C.S.I. , 1874 : General in 1889 : died Dec. 
22, 1899. 

HORSBURGH, JAMES (1762-1836) 

Captain : born Sep. 23, 1762, of humble 
parents : went to sea at 16 : went to Cal- 
cutta after 1780 : served as mate in ships 
trading thence from 1784 : wrecked, 
through error in a chart : while engaged 
on voyages to China, and from Bombay, 
he collected information and studied 
navigation : made several charts of 
Eastern waters : in command of a ship, 
1798, made voyages between England, 
India and China, and kept barometrical 
observations : published more charts and 
his Directions for Sailing to and from the 
East Indies, etc., 1 809-11, a work noted 
for its accuracy and utility, still the basis 
of the East India Directory : F.R.S. in 
1806: hydrographer to the E.I. Co. in 
1810 : his works were regarded as invalu- 
able safeguards to life and property in 
the Eastern regions : contributed scientific 
writings to Magazines : died May 14, 


Son of General George Horsford : born 
1818 : educated at the R.M.C., Sand- 
hurst : joined the Rifle Brigade, 1833, 
and rose to be General, 1877 : served in 
the Kafir wars, 1847-8, 1852-3 : in the 
Crimea, in all the battles : C.B. : to India 
in the mutiny : commanded the 3rd 
Battalion at Cawnpur, and the advance 
to Lucknow, a Brigade at the siege 
of Lucknow, in the operations in 
Oudh, and on the Nipal frontier, 1858 : 
held staff appointments in England and 
at Malta : commanded the S.E. District, 
1872 : Military Secretary at the Horse 
Guards, 1874-80 : represented Great 
Britain at the Brussels Conference on the 

usages of war, 1874 : K.C.B., i860 : 
G.C.B., 1875 : died Sep. 13, 1885. 

HORSFORD, SIR JOHN (1761-1817) 

Born May 13, 175 1 : son of John 
Horsford : educated at Merchant Taylors' 
and St. John's College, Oxford : Fellow, 
1768-71 : enlisted under the name of 
" John' Rover " in the E. I. Co.'s Artillery, 
1772 : his identity was discovered in 1778, 
and he received a Commission as Lieutenant 
Fireworker : rose to be Maj-General, 181 1 : 
served in the Bengal Artillery under Corn- 
wallis in the Mysore war, 1 790-1, at 
Bangalore, Arikera and Seringapatam : 
commanded the Artillery under Lord 
Lake, 1803-5, at Alighar, Delhi, Agra, 
Deeg, Bhartpur : at the siege of Ko- 
manur, 1807 : commanded the Bengal 
Artillery, 1808-17: and at the siege of 
Hatras, 1817 : K.C.B., 1817 : died at 
Cawnpur, April 20, 1817, a few days after 
his return from Hatras : never had a day's 
leave in his 45 years' service. 


Entered the Indian Army at an early 
age : to Bengal in 1795 : served for 25 
years, taking part in all Lord Lake's 
actions, including 12 battles and 9 sieges : 
General, 1854 : was 10 years Governor of 
the Military College, Addiscombe : on 
retirement, received a present of plate 
worth £500 from the E. I. Co. : General 
and K.C.B. : died April 5, 1862. 


Son of A. Howard : educated privately : 
served with Rattray's Sikhs in the Indian 
mutiny, and in various posts in the Civil 
and Military Police, Bengal : thanked by 
Government for arresting and obtaining 
conviction of the chief of the Wahabi 
sect, 1858 : Assistant Commissioner of 
Police, London, 1890-1902 : C.B., 1894 : 
K.C.B. , 1902. 

HOWARD, JOHN ELIOT (1807-1883) 

Son of Luke Howard : born Dec. 11, 
1807 : connected, all his life, with his 
father's chemical manufactory : and with 
cinchona and quinine in every aspect : in 
1869 he published The Quinology of the 
East Indian Plantations, which was 
officially acknowledged : F.R.S. in 1874 : 
died Nov. 22, 1883. 






Born Aug. 12, 1762 : son of the Right 
Rev. John Cradock, Archbishop of Dublin : 
entered the Cavalry : 1777, Lt-Colonel of 
the 13th regt., 1789 : served in the W. 
Indies, 1790 and 1793-5 : Ma j -General, 
1798 : was Q.M.G. in Ireland under Lord 
Cornwallis during the rebellion of 1798 : 
was M.P. in the Irish Parliament, 1785- 
1900: on the Staff of Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby in the Mediterranean and Egypt : 
Knight of the Bath, 1803 : C. in C. at 
Madras, 1804-7, and Lt-General : during 
his tenure of office the mutiny at Vellore 
occurred, 1806 : which he attributed to 
efforts to restore the Muhammadan cause, 
while it was also ascribed to orders issued 
about uniform : recalled in 1807 : com- 
manded the forces in Portugal, 1808 : 
Governor of Gibraltar, 1809 : C. in C. at 
the Cape, 1811-14 = General, 1812 : made 
Lord Howden in the Irish Peerage, 1819 : 
changed his name to Caradoc, 1820 : 
made an English Peer, 1831 : died July 6, 


(1841- ) 

I.C.S. : born Feb. 3, 1841 : son of John 
Warren Howell : educated at Christ's 
Hospital and Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford : Fellow of the Universities of 
Calcutta and Allahabad : LL.D., Edin- 
burgh : entered the Indian Civil Service, 
1862, and retired in 1896, as Judicial 
Commissioner of Oudh : author of Gram- 
mar of the Classical Arabic Languages : 
CLE., 1886. 

HOWLETT, SIR ARTHUR (1819-1904) 

General : entered the Indian Army in 
1838 : joined the 27th Madjras N.I. in 
1839 : saw much service in the Indian 
mutiny at Cawnpur, Lucknow, Tulsipur, 
Bansi, in Bundelkund, in the Sagar Field 
Division : Madras Staff Corps, 1861 : 
C.B., 1873 : Maj-General, 1881 : General, 
1889 : K.C.B., 1896 : died at Upper 
Norwood, July 31, 1904. 


I.C.S. : educated at Haileybury, 1843- 
44 : went out to Madras, 1845 : became 
Secretary to Government, Madras, in the 
Revenue Department, 1870 : and Chief 


Secretary, 1875 : Member of Council, 
temporary, in 1873, and from June, 1877, 
to June, 1882 : acted as Governor of 
Madras, May 24, to Nov. 5, 1881 : died 
Oct. 25, 1894. 

HUDSON, SIR JOHN (1833-1893) 
Born June 30, 1833 : son of Captain 
John Hudson, R.N. : educated at the 
Royal Naval School, New Cross : entered 
the 64th regt. in 1853 : Adjutant in the 
Persian war, 1856-7 : present in all the 
engagements : in the mutiny was Adjutant 
with his regt. in Havelock's force, and in his 
actions from Fatehpur, July 12, to Bithur, 
Aug. 16 : in the advance to Lucknow, the 
defence of Cawnpur, the defeat of the 
Gwalior contingent : and in subsequent 
engagements : in the Abyssinian cam- 
paign, 1867-8 : commanded the 28th 
Panjab N.I. in the Afghan war of 1878- 
80 : was in Sir F. Roberts' advance on 
Kabul, 1879 : in the operations round 
Kabul, defended the Lataband post : com- 
manded in the Khyber in 1881 : C.B. : 
commanded the Indian Contingent in the 
Soudan, 1885 : K.C.B. : Maj-General, 
1887 : commanded a Division, 1888-92 : 
Lt-General : C. in C, Bombay in 1893 ■ 
died at Poona, June 9, 1893, instantane- 
ously, from a fall from his horse. 


(1843- ) 

An indigo planter in Bihar : com- 
manded the Bihar Light Horse : Member 
of the Indian Public Service Commission, 
1886-7: K.C.I.E., 1893. 


(1844- ) 

Born 1844 : son of W. S. P. Hughes : 
educated at Cheltenham and Addiscombe : 
entered the Bombay Army, 1861, and be- 
came Colonel, 1889 : served against Fudhli 
Arabs, 1865-6 : in the Afghan war, 1878- 
80 : present at Ahmad Kheyl, Brevet- 
Major : Burmese war, 1886-7 : Com- 
missary-General of Bombay, Madras and 
Bengal Armies in succession, 1890-5 : 
C.B., 1897. 

HUGHES, SIR EDWARD (1720P-1794) 

Born about 1720 : entered the Navy, 
1734-5 ; was at Porto Bello, 1739 : Car- 
tagena, 1741 : Toulon, 1743-4 '■ America 
and the W. Indies : Captain, 1747-8 : at 
Louisberg, 1758 : Quebec, 1759 = Naval 




C. in C. in the E. Indies, 1773-7 = Rear 
Admiral and K.C.B., 1778 : again held 
the command in the E. Indies, 1779-83 '• 
destroyed Hyder All's ships at Mangalore, 
1780 : helped to take Negapatam, 1781 : 
took Trincomalee, Jan. 1782 : between 
that month and June, 1783, Hughes was 
engaged five times between Madras and 
Trincomalee with the French fleet under 
Admiral M. de Suffrein, without any 
decisive results : Hughes returned to 
England and had no further command : 
Admiral of the Blue in i793 = made a 
large fortune in India : died Feb. 17, i794- 



Maj -General : born 1830 : educated 
near Exeter : entered the Royal Artillery, 
1849 : in frontier warfare under Sir 
Colin Campbell, 1852 : against the Boz- 
dars, 1857 : in the Mahsud-Waziri expedi- 
tion, i860 : commanded a mountain 
battery in the N.W. frontier expedition, 
1863, at the storming of Laloo and capture 
of Umbeyla : Brevet-Major : in the 
Black Mountain expedition under Wilde, 
1868 : Lt-Colonel, 1875 : Maj-General, 

1885 : for foiu: years A.A.G. at head- 
quarters in England : D.A.G. for R.A. in 
India, 1882 : Director-General of Ord- 
nance in India, 1884 : Military Member 
of the Supreme Council, Jan. to May, 

1886 : died May 24, 1886, at Simla : 



Born May 5, 1822 : son of Lt. Robert 
Hughes : entered the Army, 1841 : 
served in the Crimea: Colonel in 1878 : in 
the Afghan war, 1878-80 : commanded 
a Brigade of the Kandahar column : in 
the Ghazni Field Force, under Sir Donald 
Stewart in the Kandahar to Kabul march : 
at Shabjui, Ahmad Kheyl, and Urzoo, 
near Ghazni : C.B. : commanded the 
Presidency District, Calcutta, 1880-3 : 
retired in 1883, as Maj-General : K.C.B., 
1894 : died April 19, 1904. 



Born April 2, 1822 : son of Rev. Henry 

Arkwright Hughes : entered the Bengal 

Army, 1842 : in the Satlaj and Pan jab 

campaigns and in the battles, 1845-6 and 

1848-9 : in the Peshawar frontier ex- 
peditions, 1 85 1-2 : commanded the ist 
Pan jab Cavalry on the Yusufzai frontier, 
1852, and through the mutiny, 1857-8 : 
at Multan, in Rohilkund, Oudh campaign, 
in the Trans-Gogra column, etc. : died 
April 4, 1897 : C.B., 1869 : General, 
1884: K.C.B., 1891. 


Born March 29, 1857, at Dresden : 
studied classical and Oriental philology, 
especially Sanskrit, at Bonn and Leip- 
zig : Ph.D. : Privat-docent for Oriental 
studies at the University of Vienna : 
was introduced by G. Biihler to the 
study of Indian (epigraphy : travelled 
for six months in N. India and Kashmir, 
1884-5, and collected valuable MSS. 
and inscriptions : appointed, 1887, Epi- 
graphist of the Archaeological Survey for 
the Presidency of Madras : and examiner 
in Sanskrit at Madras University. In 
1903, resigned his post as Epigraphist, 
and has since been Professor of Sanskrit 
at the University of Halle : is Secretary 
to the Deutsche Morgenlandische Gesell- 
schaft : Corresponding Member of the 
Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences, of 
the Royal Society of Science at Gottingen, 
etc. : has written : Prolegomena zu 
Vasantaraja Sakuna, 1879 : an edition of 
Baudhajanas' Lawbook, 1884 : South- 
Indian Inscriptions (Tamil and Sanskrit) : 
Reports on Sanskrit MSS. in South India, 
1893, etc. : many of his treatises on Indian 
epigraphy have appeared in the Indian 

MACKENZIE (1753 P-1783) 

Son of Major William Mackenzie : born 
about 1753 : entered the ist Dragoon 
Guards in 1771 : took his mother's name 
of Humberston : Captain, 1778 : at the 
repulse of a French attack on Jersey, 
1779 : commanded the looth regt. in 1781 
under General Medows at the Cape, and 
sailed for Madras : landed at Calicut in 
Feb. 1782, captured forts of Hyder Ali, 
and made a treaty with Travancore : 
retreated before Tippoo, but repulsed 
him at Paniane in Nov. 1782 : commanded 
the 78th : joined the Army under General 
Matthews in Malabar : went to Bombay 
to complain against the General : on his 
way back, his ship was captured by the 




Mahratta fleet, and he died of his wounds 
at Gheria, April 30, 1783. 


I.C.S. : born 1829 : son of Joseph Hume, 
M.P. iq.v.) : educated at Haileybury : 
entered the Bengal Civil Service, 1849 : 
served in the N.W.P. : Commissioner of 
Inland Customs : Secretary to Government 
of India in the Revenue and Agriculture 
Department : Member of Board of 
Revenue, N.W.P., 1879 = in the mutiny 
was Magistrate of Etawah, N.W.P. : 
rendered good service against the mutin- 
eers, with whom he was several times 
engaged : C.B., i860 : retired in 1882 : 
took a prominent part in organizing and 
supporting the National Congress, and in 
criticizing the actions of the Government 
of India, for years : author of several 
works on ornithology. 

HUME, JOSEPH (1777-1855) 

The Radical politician : born Jan. 22, 
1777: son of a shipmaster: educated at 
Montrose : studied medicine at Aberdeen, 
Edinburgh, London : M.C.S., Edinburgh, 
1796 : in 1797 entered the marine medical 
service of the E. I. Co. : in 1799 joined 
the land service : studied the native lan- 
guages : employed in political work, as 
army surgeon, as interpreter, postmaster 
and paymaster in the Mahratta war under 
Lord Lake : left India in 1807 and the 
service, with £40,000 : was M.P. for 
various constituencies, 1812-55 = attended 
to Indian affairs, but failed in his efforts 
to become a Director of the E. I. Co. : 
advocated freedom of trade with India : 
became a leader of the Radical party for 
30 years : his parliamentary career forms 
part of English politics : Vice-President, 
Society of Arts : F.R.S. : and Fellow of 
the Royal Asiatic Society : died Feb. 20, 

HUME, SIR ROBERT (1828- ) 

Born 1828 : entered the Army, 1847, 
and became Lt-General, 1883 : served in 
the Crimea, 1854-5 : twice severely 
wounded : Bhutan expedition, 1865 : 
commanded Sagar District, 1874-7 : Alla- 
habad Division, 1879-80 : S. Afghanistan 
Field Force, 1 880-1 : Quetta Division, 
1 881 : and Lahore Division, 1881-4 : 
K.C.B., 1887 : G.C.B., 1902. 

HUNTER, ROBERT (1823-1897) 
Born Sep. 3, 1823 : son of John M. 
Hunter : educated at Aberdeen Univer- 
sity : was licensed as Precentor of the 
Free Church of Scotland : in 1846 joined 
Stephen Hislop {q.v.) at the Free Church 
mission at Nagpur : performed educa- 
tional and missionary work for nine 
years : returned home in 1855 : made 
discoveries in geology : devoted himself 
to literary and evangelistic work : edited 
Lloyd's Encyclopcsdic Dictionary, 1889 : 
LL.D. : Fellow of learned Societies : 
published a History of India, 1863 : and 
History of the Missions of the Free Church 
of Scotland in India and Africa, 1873 '• 
died Feb. 25, 1897. 

HUNTER, WILLIAM (1756-1812) 
Born 1755 : educated at the Marischal 
College, and the University, Aberdeen : 
went to India, 1781, in the E. I. Co.'s 
medical service : in 1782, driven to Burma 
by a storm, he wrote an Account of 
Pegu, 1785 : Surgeon at the Agra Resi- 
dency : on the Resident's expedition 
from Agra to Ujain, 1792-3 : Surgeon to 
the marines, 1 794-1 806 : Secretary to 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1 1 years, 
between 1798 and 181 1 : examiner in 
Persian and Hindustani at the College of 
Fort William : Secretary of the College : 
M.D. : Superintendent Surgeon of Java, 
181 1-2 : contributed scientific articles to 
Asiatic Researches : published a Hin- 
dustani-English Dictionary, 1808 : and a 
Collection of Proverbs in Persian and 
Hindustani : revised the Hindustani New 
Testament : wrote on medical subjects : 
died in Java, Dec. 1812. 



Educated at King's College, London, 
and Aberdeen University : entered the 
Bombay Medical Department, 1850 : was 
in the second Burmese war : and in the 
mutiny : Principal and Professor of 
Medicine of the Grant Medical College, 
Bombay : Surgeon-General : Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the Bombay University : M.P. 
for Central Hackney, 1885-92 : K.C.M.G. : 
died March 14, 1902. 



I.C.S. : born July 15, 1840 : son of 
Andrew Galloway Hunter : educated at 



Glasgow Academy and University : stud- 
ied at Paris and Bonn : went out to 
Lower Bengal in 1862 : published the 
Annals of Rural Bengal, 1868 ; A Com- 
parative Dictionary of the Non- Aryan 
Languages of India and High Asia, 1868 ; 
Orissa, 1872 : was chosen by Lord Mayo 
to organize a statistical survey of the 
Indian Empire, in 1869 : made Director- 
General of Statistics in 1871 : wrote the 
Life of Lord Mayo, 1875 : published The 
Statistical Account of Bengal, 20 volumes, 
1875-7 •• and, in all, 128 volumes of local 
Gazetteers : from which he prepared The 
Imperial Gazetteer of India, 9 volumes, in 
1881 ; 14 in 1885-7 : wrote a Brief History 
of the Indian Peoples, 1883 : his article on 
" India " was re-issued in 1895 as The 
Indian Empire, its Peoples, History and 
Products : for 6 years Additional Member 
of the Governor-General's Legislative 
Council, 1 88 1-7 : President of the Educa- 
tion Commission, 1882-3 '• Member of the 
Indian Finance Commission, 1886 : Vice- 
Chancellor of the Calcutta University, 
1886 : retired in 1887 : settled near 
Oxford : wrote weekly articles in The 
Times on Indian affairs : brought out a 
number of biographies in the " Rulers of 
India " series : himself writing those of 
Lords Dalhousie and Mayo : wrote also 
Bombay, 1885-90, the Life of Brian H. 
Hodgson iq.v.) : an introduction to Bengal 
MS. Records, 1894 ; The Old Missionary ; 
The Thackerays in India : he had projected 
a comprehensive work on the History of 
India, but reduced it to a work on the 
growth of British dominion : the first 
volume was published in 1899, the second 
after his death : CLE., 1878 : C.S.I. , 
1884 : K.C.S.L, 1887 : LL.D. of Glasgow 
and Cambridge : M.A. of Oxford, by 
decree of Convocation : Vice-President 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, and member 
of learned Societies : he adopted the 
■system of transliteration of vernacular 
names and words called after him : 
through his writings, and his picturesque 
style, India has been made better known 
to England : died Feb. 7, 1900. 


(1838- ) 

Born Jan. 28, 1838 : son of William 
Hutchins : educated at Merchant Taylors' 
and Haileybury : entered the Madras 
Civil Service, 1857 : called to the bar from 
the Inner Temple, 1875 : held several 

judicial appointments, and was Judge of 
the High Court, Madras, 1883-6 : Member 
of Council, Madras, 1886-8 : Member of 
the Supreme Council, 1888-93 ' Judicial 
Secretary, at the India OfiSice, 1893 : 
Member of the Council of India, 1898 : 
C.S.I., 1888 : K.C.S.L, 1891. 


(1847- ) 

Born Sep. 13, 1847 : son of T. Cayley 
Hutchinson, M.D. : joined the Indian 
Army : served in the Sikhim campaign, 
1887-8 : rehef of Chitral, 1895 : Tirah 
campaign, 1897-8 : commanded troops 
in Chitral after the British occupation : 
Director of Military Education in India, 
1896-1901 : Assistant Military Secretary 
for Indian affairs, 1902 : author of 
Military Sketching made Easy, Field 
Fortifications, The Story of Waterloo, The 
Story of 18 12, The Story of Corunna, The 
Campaign in Tirah : C.S.L, 1902. 



Born 1794 : son of William Huthwaite, 
a draper, Alderman and Mayor : educated 
at the R.M.A., Woolwich : joined the 
E. I. Co.'s Bengal Artillery, 1810 : became 
Lt-General, 1868 : was in the Nipal war, 
1815-16 : in Oudh, 1817 : in the Mah- 
ratta war, 1 817-18 : in Cachar in 1824, to 
repel the Burmese invasion : at the 
capture of Bhartpur, 1825-6 : Brig- 
Major of Artillery, 1834 : held various 
important artillery commands : in the 
first Sikh war of 1845-6, at Firozshahr 
and Sobraon : C.B. : in the Panjab 
campaign, 1848-9 : at the Chenab, Chilian- 
wala, and Gujarat, the surrender of the 
Sikhs, and pursuit of the Afghans to the 
Khyber : commanded a Brigade at 
Ludiana, and at Meerut : retired, 1854 : 
in i860 transferred to the Royal Artillery : 
K.C.B. in 1869 : died at Naini Tal, 
April 4, 1873. 

HUTT, SIR GEORGE (1809-1889) 

Son of Richard Hutt : born 1809 : 
entered the Artillery in Bombay, 1826 : 
served in Sind and Afghanistan, 1839-44 : 
at Miani and Hyderabad : C.B. : com- 
manded the Artillery in the Persian war, 
1857 : did good service in Sind in the 
mutiny, anticipated and stopped a rising 
of rebels at Karachi : retired, 1858 : be- 



came Registrar and Secretary to the 
Commissioners of Chelsea Hospital, 1865- 
87 : K.C.B., 1886 : died Oct. 27, 1889. 

HUTTON, JAMES (1818-1893) 

Entered the E. I. Co.'s military service : 
left the Army after a few years : edited 
newspapers in India — the Delhi Gazetteer, 
the Bengal Harkaru, the Englishman, the 
Madras Times : returned to England : 
became joint, and, later, sole editor of 
the Leader newspaper : wrote The Aryan 
and the Cossack, A Hundred Years Ago, 
and other works : as a journalist and 
author he advocated the strengthening 
of the defences on the N.W. frontier : 
died March, 1893. 

HUYSHE, ALFRED (1811-1880) 

General : educated at Addiscombe : 
joined the Bengal Artillery in 1827 : served 
in the Gwalior campaign of 1843 : in the 
Panjab campaign of 1848-9 : commanded 
a battery at Sadulapur, Chilianwala and 
Gujarat : Brevet-Major : after the annexa- 
tion of the Panjab, was in several expedi- 
tions on the Peshawar frontier : Inspr- 
General of Artillery in Bengal for some 
years : retired as General in 1877 : C.B. : 
died March 3, 1880. 

HYDE, JOHN (I737P-1796) 

Called to the bar from Lincoln's Inn : 
appointed a Puisne Judge of the Supreme 
Court, Calcutta, on its establishment, 
1774 : was one of the magistrates who, 
on May 6, 1775, committed Nuncomar 
iq.v.) to trial for forgery : was one of the 
Judges who tried Nuncomar. After more 
than 21 years' uninterrupted service as 
Judge, he died July 8, 1796, and was 
buried in Calcutta : a Government notifi- 
cation and lengthy epitaph testified to his 
virtues and the esteem in which he was 

UL-MULK OF (1866- ) 

Born Aug. 18, 1866 : succeeded his 
father in 1869, when a Regency was 
established : he was invested with full 
power by Lord Ripon, when Viceroy and 
Governor-General, and assumed charge 
of his Government, Feb. 5, 1884 : has 
more than once offered to the Government 
of India the services of his troops, and in 
1887 offered a present of 60 lakhs for 

frontier defence : he is the Premier Prince 
of the Indian Empire : G.C.S.I., 1884 : 
G.C.B., 1903. 


OF ( ? -1803) 

Son of Kamaruddin, the first Nizam-ul- 
Mulk : dethroned and imprisoned his 
brother, the Nizam Salabat Jang, 1761, 
and became Nizam : devastated the Car- 
natic, 1765, but was driven back : the 
Madras Government made a treaty at 
Hyderabad, Nov. 12, 1766, through Brig- 
General Caillaud with Nizam Ali for 
mutual assistance, and the grant of 
territory for a subsidiary force. Nizam 
Ali treacherously deserted the English, 
and with Hyder Ali invaded the Carnatic, 
but, by another treaty of Feb. 26, 1768, 
renounced Hyder and regained the English 
alliance on certain terms : in 1788 he 
made over the Guntur Sircar to the 
English on certain payments : in the war 
with Tippoo, Nizam Ali made a treaty of 
offensive and defensive alliance with 
Cornwallis, 1790, and gained territory at 
the end of the war, 1792 : the Mahrattas 
revived a claim against the Nizam for 
arrears of chout, and war resulted in the 
defeat of the Nizam and his army at 
Kurdla in March, 1795 : he had to cede 
territory and pay three crores of rupees : 
his eldest son, Ali J ah, rebelled, but was 
capttured by the Nizam's French troops : 
another treaty of Sep. i, 1798, was made 
between the British and the Nizam : 
Nazim Ali agreed to disband his French 
battalions : in the second war with 
Tippoo, 1799, the Nizam's army co- 
operated with the British troops, and the 
Nizam received territories by the partition 
treaty of Mysore : these territories were 
ceded to the British for the payment of 
the British subsidiary force at Hyderabad : 
Nizam Ali died, 1803. 

HYDER ALI (1717 or 1722-1782) 
Son of Fatah Muhammad, a military 
commander, and jagirdar of Budikota in 
Mysore : born in 1717 or 1722 : first 
known as Naik : employed by the Mysore 
Raja as a volunteer in the siege of Devan- 
halli in 1749 '• next against Arcot, and in 
the subsequent struggle for the Nizamat : 
by 1755 he was military governor of 
Dindigul, then a Mysore stronghold : by 
1759 he commanded the Mysore Raja's 
Army, and received the title of Fatah 



Bahadur. He gradually obtained the 
control of/affairs and assumed the sove- 
reign power, deposing the Hindu Raja, 
Chikka Krishnaraj Wodiar, captured 
Bednore and conquered Malabar in 1766. 
Allied with the Nizam, he invaded the 
Carnatic in 1767, and, on the Nizam's 
retirement, prosecuted the war alone : 
in 1769 he was within five miles of Madras, 
when the Madras Governor concluded an 
offensive and defensive treaty with him, 
and the Bombay Government made 
another treaty with him in i77o. He 
was more than once reduced to great 
straits by the Mahrattas, who several 
times invaded the Mysore dominions, but 
the English declined to assist him. When 
the French and English declared war in 
1778, and the English took Mahe, Hyder, 
who had become the most formidable 
power in the Peninsula, received the 
missionary, Schwartz, as an envoy from 
the Governor of Madras, but, negotiations 
failing, invaded the Madras territory in 

1780, defeated Colonel Baillie at Peram- 
bakam, took Arcot and other places : 
he was defeated at Porto Novo on July i, 

1781, by Sir Eyre Coote, who relieved 
Vellore, and met him in the indecisive 
action at Ami on June 2, 1782 : he died 
near Chitore, Dec. 7, 1782. Hyder was 
a born soldier, a first-rate horseman, 
heedless of danger, full of energy and re- 
source, severe, cruel, cold, indifferent to 
religion, shrewd in business — though 
quite uneducated — with a retentive 
memory : he inspired great terror : with 
better support from the French, he might 
have driven the English out of Southern 

JELF (1847- ) 
I.C.S. : born Aug. 30, 1847 : son of Rev. 
Denzil John Holt Ibbetson : educated 
at St. Peter's College, Adelaide, South 
Australia, and St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge : entered the Indian Civil Service, 
1870 : posted to the Panjab : after 
serving in various posts, including Super- 
intendent of Census, Director of Public 
Instruction and Financial Commissioner, 
Was appointed Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India in the Revenue and Agricul- 
ture Department : Chief Commissioner 
of the Central Provinces : Member of the 
Supreme Coimcil since 1902 : author of 

Handbook of Panjab Ethnography, Gazetteer 
of the Panjab, etc., etc. : K. C.S.I. , 1903 : 
Officiating Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Panjab 1905. 

MAHARAJA OF (1845- ) 
Son of Maharaja Takhtsinghji, of the 
Ahmadnagar branch of the Idar family 
(Maharaja of Jodhpur, 1841-73) = born 
at Jodhpur, 1845 : brought up, 1866-78, 
under his brother-in-law, H.H. the 
Maharaja Ramsinghji of Jaipur : Prime 
Minister of Jodhpur, 1878-95 : on the 
death of his elder brother H.H. the 
Maharaja J aswantsingh ji of Jodhpur, he 
was appointed Regent and continued so 
until, in 1898, the present Chief of Jodhpur 
was installed : was early in 1902 selected 
by right and merit to succeed to the 
vacant gadi of Idar : installed Feb. 12, 
1902 : appointed, in 1878, Member of the 
Indian Government's Mission to Kabul : 
made C.S.I : in 1885, K.C.S.I : in 1887, 
attended Queen Victoria's Jubilee : A.D.C. 
to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales (now H.M. 
the King-Emperor Edward VII) : Hon. 
Lt-Colonel in the British Army : helped, in 
1889, to found the Imperial Service 
Troops : formed the Jodhpur Lancers : in 
1897, attended Queen Victoria's Diamond 
Jubilee : made G. C.S.I : decorated by 
Her Majesty in person : LL.D. of Cam- 
bridge : in 1897-8, joined the Mohmand 
expedition, with an escort of the Jodhpur 
Lancers for General Elles, and the Tirah 
campaign as A.D.C. to Gen. Sir W. Lock- 
hart : wounded in the latter campaign : 
C.B. and Colonel : joined the China 
expedition in 1900-01 with the Jodhpur 
Lancers : in 1902 attended the Coronation 
of H.M. the King-Emperor : commanded 
the Indian Imperial Service Force con- 
tingent : K.C.B. for China service : 
Maj -General and A.D.C. to H.M. : Hon. 
Commandant of the Indian Imperial 
Cadet Corps. 


Born Oct. 27, 181 8 : son of Henry 
Stafford Northcote : educated at Brighton, 
Eton, Balliol College, Oxford : Scholar : 
called to the bar in 1847 from the Inner 
Temple : was Private Secretary to Mr. 
Gladstone : Legal Secretary to the Board 
of Trade : succeeded as Baronet in 1851 : 



was Commissioner to inquire into the civil 
establishments of the Crown, 1853-4 : 
became M.P. for Dudley, 1855 ; for Stam- 
ford, 1858-66 ; for N. Devon, 1866-85, 
whei;i he was made a Peer. From 1855 
his life was devoted to English politics on 
the Conservative side. He was connected 
with India, as Secretary of State, from 
March 9, 1867, to Dec. 10, 1868 : he had 
to deal with the questions of the Abys- 
sinian expedition, the Orissa famine, 
Afghanistan, Mysore and financial de- 
centralization : in later years, 1878-9, 
he spoke in favour of the later portion of 
the second Afghan war: died Jan. 11, 

KHAN, NAWAB (1808-1887) 

Grandson of Nawab Saadat Ali Khan 
of Oudh : born March 15, 1808 : went to 
England, 1838, to claim the throne of Oudh. 
Failing to obtain any satisfaction of his 
claim, he retired to Bagdad, to pass his 
life in sanctity. He was much liked and 
respected by the English in England, 
Constantinople and Bagdad : was made 
G.C.S.I.ini882 : died at Bagdad, Dec. 21, 

GRINE (1841- ) 

Born June 12,1841: son of Rev. Peregrine 
Arthur Ilbert : educated at Marlborough 
and Balliol College, Oxford : Scholar : 
Hertford, Ireland, Craven and Eldon 
Scholar : called to the bar from Lincoln's 
Inn, 1869 : Legal Member of the Supreme 
Council, 1882-6 : in that capacity had 
charge, on behalf of the Government of 
India, of the " Ilbert Bill," which raised 
so much opposition : Vice -Chancellor of 
Calcutta University, 1885-6 : Parlia- 
mentary Assistant Counsel and Counsel 
to the Treasury, 1886-1901 : Clerk to the 
House of Commons, 1901 : author of The 
Government of India, 1898; Legislative 
Methods and Forms, 1901, etc : CLE., 1882 : 
C.S.I. 1885 : K.C.S.I. 1895. 

IMADUDDIN, REV. D.D. (1830P-1900) 

Son of Maulvi Sirazuddin, a Muham- 
madan theologian : descended from the 
Persian royal house and the Muhammadan 
Saint Kutb Jamal : born about 1830, at 
Panipat, near which town his family had 
large estates : educated at Agra Govern- 
ment College : became a Sufi or Muham- 

madan mystic : travelled about, all over 
India, preaching Islam : was present 
on behalf of Islam against Christianity 
in the " Agra Controversy " : subsequently 
became a teacher in the Government 
Normal School, Lahore : baptized at 
Umritsar, April 29, 1866 : ordained Deacon, 
1868; Priest, 1872, by the Bishop of Cal- 
cutta : made D.D. by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, 1884 : invited to attend the 
"World's Parliament on Religions" in 
Chicago, to which he sent a paper : wrote a 
number of Hindustani books, the principal 
being a Life of Christ, Lectures on Christ- 
ian evidence, commentaries in Urdu on 
St. Matthew's Gospel and the Acts of 
the Apostles : died at Umritsar, Aug. 28, 

IMPEY, SIR ELIJAH (1732-1809) 
Son of Elijah Impey, merchant : born 
June 13, 1732 : educated at Westminster 
(with Warren Hastings) : King's Scholar : 
and at Trinity College, Cambridge: Scholar : 
Fellow : called to the bar from Lincoln's 
Inn, 1756 : in 1772, counsel for the E. I. 
Co. before the House of Commons : under 
the Regulating Act of i773 was appointed 
the first Chief Justice of the new Supreme 
Court at Calcutta, i.e. Chief Justice of 
Bengal : knighted : to India in i774 = 
presided in 1775 at the trial of Nuncomar 
iq.v.) for forgery, and, after the jury's 
verdict of guilty, passed sentence of 
death : and Nuncomer was hanged, Aug. 5 : 
Impey's conduct on the trial has been 
impugned as having been actuated in behalf 
of Warren Hastings : there is no proof of 
coUusion, and Impey has been pronounced 
by high authority to have behaved with 
absolute fairness : in 1777, he decided in 
favour of Hastings on the question of his 
alleged resignation of the Governor-General- 
ship : he sentenced (Sir) P. Francis {q.v.) to 
pay Rs. 50,000 damages in the Grand case : 
he was in 1780 made President of the 
new Sadr Diwani Adalat: there is no 
proof that he received extra salary for the 
office: at the instigation of Francis, 
through Biirke in England, he was recalled 
in 1783, to answer six charges of illegality, 
which Sir Gilbert Elliot, afterwards Lord 
Minto iq.v.), brought forward in 1787 = 
Impey defended himself at the bar of the 
House of Commons and the impeachment 
was abandoned : M.P. for New Romney, 
1790-6 : died Oct. i, 1809. Owing to 
Burke (prompted by Francis) and to 



Mill's history (followed by Thornton and 
Macaulay,) Impey was long regarded as 
" one of the ogres of Indian history, a 
traditional monster of iniquity." His 
Life, by his son, E. B. Impey, 1846, did 
something to rehabilitate his name, and, 
later, high authorities have done more : 
the fact that the virulent attempts to 
impeach him failed is most significant. 



Colonel : born 1830 : son of Edward 
Impey, B.C.S., and grandson of Sir Elijah 
Impey : educated privately and at Wad- 
ham College, Oxford : joined the 5th 
Bengal N.I., 1851 : A.A.G.G. Rajputana, 
1856 : served through the mutiny : at the 
siege of Kotah, 1858 : PoHtical Agent 
at Ulwar, 1858 : Military Secretary to 
the Viceroy, Lord Lawrence, 1863-4 : 
Political Agent, Jodhpur, Oodeypur, and 
Gwalior : Resident in Nipal : retired, 
1878 : CLE., 1879 : died Nov. 1904. 

MAHARAJA OF (1775P-1811) 

An illegitimate son of Maharaja Tukaji 
Rao : on the murder of his half-brother, 
Kashi Rao, he asserted himself, raised 
a large army and fought with Sindia, 
defeating both him and the Peshwa, Baji 
Rao, in 1802 at Poona, which he took: 
he declined to join the other Mahratta 
chiefs against the British, but took his 
own line, as a freebooter, in Rajputana, 
and, after compelling Colonel Monson to 
make a disastrous retreat in July, 1804, 
was defeated by Lord Lake in 1804-5, and 
compelled to make peace and surrender 
territory. He became insane in 1806, 
and his wife, Tulsi Bai, became regent. 
He died Oct. 20, 18 11. 

MARAHAJA OF ( ? -1766) 

The first and greatest Prince of the 
Holkar family : came to notice first as an 
officer in the service of the Peshwa, Baji 
Rao, about 1724 : was an early Mahratta 
adventurer in Northern India, and ob- 
tained the Indore district in jagir about 
1733 : was most active after Baji Rao's 
death in 1740, until his own death. May 
19, 1766. 

MAHARAJA OF (1805-1833) 

Son of Jaswant Rac Holkar {q.v.) : 
succeeded as an infant : adopted by 
Jaswant's widow, Tulsi Bai, who became 
regent : the Army became predominant 
in the State, and in 18 17 took up arms 
against the British : Tulsi Bai, on being 
suspected of British proclivities, was 
murdered : the army was routed by 
Malcolm at Mahidpur, Dec. 21, 1817 : 
terms were made, Malhar Rao being 
treated as an independent prince : he 
died in 1833. 

MAHARAJA OF ( ? -1797) 

Was made Commander in Chief of 
Holkar's force in 1767 byAhliaBai(^.t;.), 
the daughter-in-law of the late Maharaja 
Malhar Rao Holkar I, and served her 
with devoted fidelity till her death in 
1795. He was defeated by De Boigne 
[q.v.), Sindia's general, 1794, and ruled 
from 1795 until he died Aug. I5,|i797- 

II, MAHARAJA OF (1832-1886) 

Was nominated successor by the Regent 
mother of the late Maharaja and recognized 
in 1843 by the British Government : 
invested with authority, 1852 : the 
thoroughness of his loyalty during the 
mutiny of 1857 was doubted, but, after 
the defeat of his army, which attacked 
the British Residency at Indore, his 
prudent and circumspect behaviour was 
held to entitle him to confidence : and he 
was made a G.C.S.I. in 1861. He developed 
the resources of his State, which he admin- 
istered with skill and attention to business : 
giving much time to military and police 
matters : he received the Prince of Wales 
with great ceremony when H.R.H. visited 
India in 1875-6 : was made a General in 
1877 : he died June 17, 1886. 

WILMOT (1814-1862) 

Born Nov. 15, 1814 : son of the Very 
Rev. John Inglis, D.D., Bishop of Nova 
Scotia : joined the 32nd regt. in 1833, in 
Canada, 1837 : in the second Sikh war 
of 1848-9 was at the sieges and capture 
of Multan, at Cheniote and Gujarat : at 
Lucknow in the mutiny, was second in 
command at Chinhut, June 30. 1857 : 



and, on Sir Henry Lawrence being mortally 
wounded on July 2, succeeded to the 
command of the garrison until the relief 
by Sir Henry Havelock on Sep. 25 : was 
Maj-General and K.C.B. " for his endur- 
ing fortitude and persevering gallantry 
in the defence of the Residency of Lucknow 
for 87 days against an overwhelming force 
of the enemy " : in the subsequent action 
against Tantia Topi in Dec. 1857 : com- 
manded the troops in the Ionian Islands, 
i860 : died at Hombiurg, Sep. 27, 1862. 



Daughter of the first Lord Chelmsford : 
married to Sir John E. W. Inglis, K.C.B. 
{q.v.), who defended the Residency at 
Lucknow in the mutiny : in recognition 
of his services she received a pension. She 
herself went through the siege of 87 days 
and published The Siege of Lucknow, 
a Diary, 1892 : she was shipwrecked off 
Ceylon on her way home : died on Feb. 
3, 1904. 


(1830— ) 

Lt- General : born Feb. 5, 1830 : son 
of Siurgeon James Innes, H.E.I.C.S. : 
educated at Edinburgh University and 
Addiscombe : joined Bengal Engineers, 
1848 : P.W.D. 1851 : served through the 
mutiny : in the defence of Lucknow 
Residency, 1857 : at siege of Lucknow, 
1858, and actions of Chanda, Amirpur and 
Sultanpur : severely wounded : gained 
the V.C. for gallantry in capturing, and 
holding singlehanded, a gun which was 
being trained on an advancing column : 
Brevet-Major : Panjab Irrigation works : 
Accountant-General, P.W.D. India, 1870- 
80 : Inspr-General of Military Works, 
India : retired as General, 1886 : author 
of Lucknow and Oudh in the Mutiny, The 
Sepoy Revolt, 1897 ; Sir Henry Lawrence 
(Rulers of India series), 1898 ; Life of Sir 
lames Browne, K.C.S.I., R.E. 


(1820- ) 

Born 1820 : educated at University 
College, London : entered the Army 
Medical Department, 1842, and became 
Surgeon General, 1872 : served in the 
Crimea, 1855 : Indian mutiny, 1857 : 
Oudh, 1858-9 : British Sanitary Com- 

missioner during Franco- Prussian war, 
1870-1 : P.M.O., India, 1876-80 : K.C.B., 
1887 : F.R.S., 1887. 

I.C.S. : born July 5, 1840 : son of 
William Irvine : educated privately and 
at King's College, London : went out to the 
N.W.P., India, 1864 : rose to be Magis- 
trate-Collector : retired, 1888 : wrote the 
Rent Digest (1868) on agricultural tenures 
and rent law procedure : has also written 
articles on the Bangash Nawabs of Far- 
rukhabad, 1878 : since 1888, has had in 
preparation a History of the Moguls in the 
1 8th century (portions published in the 
J.A.S.B.) : has written on " India in the 
1 8th Century" in the Indian Antiquary, 
the Asiatic Quarterly Review, and the 
Indian Magazine : also the chapters on 
Muhammadan India (1000-1750. a.d.) 
in the new edition of the Imperial Gazetteer : 
is engaged ,for the Government of India, 
on a translation, with notes, etc., of the 
Memoirs of Niccolo Manucci, Venetian 
(1656 to 1717 A.D.), 4 vols, in the Indian 
Text series : since 1896, Member of the 
Council of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

IVES, EDWARD ( ? - ? ) 

Surgeon on Admiral Watson's ship, 
the Kent, which was sent out to the relief 
of the British Settlements in India against 
Dupleix, 1754 : wrote an account of the 
voyage from England to India, and of the 
subsequent naval and military operations, 
1755-7- In this book, published in 
1773, he describes the people of India, 
their customs, etc., and the vegetation of 
the country : calls himself " Surgeon of 
His Majesty's Hospital in the East Indies." 

ITISAM-UD-DIN ( ? - ? ) 

Native of Nadia district, Bengal : son 
of Shekh Tajuddin : in the service of Mir 
J afar, Nawab of Bengal : on the accession 
of Mir Kasim attached himself to Major 
Yorke, whom he accompanied on a cam- 
paign against Asad Zaman Khan, Raja 
of Birbhum : fought for the English 
against Mir Kasim : employed by the 
English in negotiations with the Mahratta 
Government : entered the service of 
General Carnac, 1765-6 : soon changed to 
that of Shah Alam : about 1765-7 accom- 
panied Capt. Swinton to Europe as munshi, 
on a mission to deliver Shah Alam's letter 



to King George III : he was the first 
educated native of Bengal to visit England 
and describe his journey : returned after 
nearly three years' absence to India : wrote 
the Shigurf-nama, or " wonder-book," 
about 1784, describing his travels : a 
popular work in India : he was careful 
and painstaking in his observations. 

DIWAN BAHADUR ( ? -1903) 

Inspr-General of Registration, Madras : 
one of the ablest Hindu officials in the 
Presidency : wrote Forty Years of Pro- 
gress in Madras, 1893, as a reply to asser- 
tions that British rule had impoverished 
the country : Diwan of Baroda, 1896-9, 
when he rejoined his appointment imder 
the Madras Government : represented 
Madras on the Police Commission : an 
authority on revenue matters and economic 
questions in S. India : died Dec. 11, 1903. 

JACK, ALEXANDER (1805-1857) 

Son of the Rev. William Jack : born 
Oct. 10, 1805 : educated at King's College, 
Aberdeen : joined the 30th Bengal N.I., 
1824 : in the Satlaj campaign was at 
Aliwal, and was Brigadier of the force sent 
against Kangra : commanded his battalion 
at Chilianwala and Gujarat : C.B. : Colonel, 
1854 : Brig-General at Cawnpur, in 1857, 
under Sir Hugh Wheeler : when the 
entrenchment was evacuated, by arrange- 
ment with the Nana Sahib, Jack was, 
with many others, shot in the boats at the 
ghat : died June 27, 1857. 

WILLIAMS (1862- ) 

Born Feb. 9, 1862, in New York City 
U.S.A. : son of David S. Jackson, mer- 
chant : educated at New York : studied 
at Columbia University, N.Y., and at 
Halle in Germany : L.H.D. : Ph.D. : 
and LL.D. : Professor of Indo-Iranian 
languages at Columbia University : 
his special field of research as a scholar 
is the sarced literature of the Zoroas- 
trian religion : visited India and 
Ceylon in 1901 : travelled in Persia and 
Central Asia in 1903 for purposes of 
archaeological research, especially of 
Zoroastrianism : collated part of the 
Persian inscription of King Darius on the 
Behistun rock : Director of the American 

Oriental Society : Hon. Member of the 
Society for making Researches into 
Zoroastrian Religion, Bombay, (1899) : 
twice delegated by the U.S. Government 
to International Congresses of Orientalists : 
his chief works are A Hymn of Zoroaster, 
1888 ; Avesta Grammar in Comparison 
with Sanskrit, 1892 ; Avesta Reader, 1893 ; 
Zoroaster, 1898 ; Die iranische Religion, 
1900 ; Persia, Past and Present ; Trans- 
Caspian and Turkistan, 1905 ; besides 
articles contributed to Journals and 

MITCHELL ( ? - ? ) 

Barrister-at-law : Temporary Member 
of the Supreme Council from Sep. 19, 
1851 : Puisne Judge of the Supreme 
Court, Calcutta, 1855-62 : and of the 
High Court, Calcutta, 1862-63 : officiated 
as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
1859 : also was Member of the Governor- 
General's Legislative Council : retired, 
April, 1863. 



I.C.S. : son of Lt-Colonel Henry George 
Jackson, R.A. : educated at Royal School, 
Enniskillen and Trinity College, Dublin, 
and Haileybury : went to Bengal in the 
Civil Service, 1843 : employed under the 
Government in the Straits Settlements, 
1847-50 : Judge of Rajshahi : Judge of 
the Sadr Court, 1862 : and Puisne Judge 
of the High Coiurt, 1862-80 : officiated 
as Chief Justice, 1878 : Fellow of the 
Calcutta University : C.I.E., 1878 : 
knighted : died April 9, 1890 : F.R.G.S : 



Son of John Jacob : born April 24, 1805 : 
educated at Elizabeth College, Guersey, 
and in France privately : joined the 2nd 
Bombay N.I. in 1821 : on the Staff at 
Addiscombe, 183 1-4 : was in political 
charge in Kattiawar, 1839-43 : at the 
assault on Munsantosh in the S. Mahratta 
country : Political Agent in Sawantwari, 
1845-51 : in Cutch, 1851 : commanded 
the native light battalion in the Persian 
war, 1856-7 : in the mutiny was sent to 
Kolapur, and disarmed the mutinous 
27th Bombay N.I. : and behaved with 



great vigour : appointed special Political 
Commissioner of the South Mahratta 
country, 1858, and to Goa : C.B., 1859 : 
retired as Maj-General, 1861 : K.C.S.I., 
1869 : he transcribed the Asoka inscrip- 
tions at Girnar, Kattiawar, and wrote 
many papers on the history, etc., of 
Western India : published in 1871, 
Western India before and during the Mutiny : 
died Jan. 27, 1881. 

JACOB, JOHN (1812-1858) 

Son of the Rev. Stephen Long Jacob : 
born Jan. 11, 1812 : cousin of Sir George 
Le Grand Jacob iq.v.) : educated at 
Addiscombe : entered the E. I. Co.'s 
Bombay Artillery, 1828 : in the first 
Afghan war, 1838, was in Sind with Sir 
John Keane's Army of the Indus, and in 
1839 commanded Artillery in the Cutchi 
expedition : in 1841 was chosen by Outram 
iq.v.), for command of the Sind Irregular 
Horse, and political charge of E. Cutchi : 
led his regt. at Miani, Feb. 17, 1843, Shah- 
dadpur, Oomercote, with great gallantry : 
Political Superintendent of Upper Sind, 
1847 : C.B., 1850 : constantly engaged 
with the hill tribes : Jacobabad called 
after him, in 185 1 : negotiated a treaty, 
in 1854, with the Khan of Kelat : officiat- 
ing Commissioner in Sind, 1856 : Colonel 
and A.D.C. to Queen Victoria, 1857 : com- 
manded the cavalry in the Persian war, 
1857 : was left as Brig-General, in com- 
mand of the whole force towards the end : 
raised " Jacob's Rifles," two regiments of 
infantry, armed according to his own 
inventions : died of brain fever on Dec. 
5, 1858 : besides his great soldierly 
qualities, and able views on military 
matters, he was an advanced and active 
administrator, full of energy and ideas, 
imprinting his name and character strongly 
on Sind, its ofi&cers and inhabitants : he 
wrote largely on Sind and military ques- 
tions, and in defence of Outram. 


(1841- ) 

Born Jan. 14, 1841 : son of Col. W. 
Jacob, Bombay Artillery : educated at 
Cheam and Addiscombe : entered the 
Bombay Artillery, 1858, and Indian Staff 
Corps, 1862 : Colonel, 1888 : served in 
P.W.D., Rajputana, and in Aden with 
Field Force against Arabs, 1865-6 : 
services lent to the Jaipur State, 1867 : 

Chief Engineer, Jaipur State : C.I.E., 
1890 : K.C.I.E., 1902 : author of laipur 
Portfolios of Architectural Details, laipur 
Enamels (with Surgeon-Colonel Hendley) : 
M.R.I.B.A : A.I.C.E. 



Son of the Rev. Stephen Long Jacob, 
and brother of John Jacob {q.v.) : born 
Nov. 19, 1813 : educated at Addiscombe 
and Chatham : joined the Bombay 
Engineers, 1831 : established a private 
observatory at Poona, 1842 : left the 
service as Captain in 1845, to devote 
himself to science : was Director of the 
Madras Observatory, 1848-59 : and for 
three years at Poona Observatory, of 
which he procured the establishment : 
he was F.R.A.S., 1849 : made a number 
of scientific astronomical observations, 
and wrote papers on meteorology and 
astronomy : died at Poona, Aug. 16, 1862. 

Born Feb. 11, 1850, at Cologne : son of 
a merchant : educated at Cologne, Berlin 
and Bonn : visited India, 1873-4 : Pro- 
fessor of Sanskrit at the Universities of 
Munster, 1876; Kiel, 1885; Bonn, 1889 : 
has written the following works : — 
Kalpasutra, 1879 ; Ayaranga Sutta, 1882 ; 
Jaina Sutras, " Sacred Books of the East," 
Vols, xxii, xlv ; Ausgewdhlte Erzdh- 
lungen in Maharastri ; Das Ramayana : 
Mahabharata (statement of contents) ; 
The Computation of Hindu Dates ; Dhvanya- 
loka (translation) ; and the following (in 
the Press), UpamitibhavaprapandraKatha ; 
Samaraichcha Kaha, and Samaraditya 
Samksepa : contributed to the Zeitschrift 
der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesell- 
schaft, Indian Antiquary, etc. 

A distinguished French botanist : born 
at Paris, 'Aug. 8, 1801 : son of a writer 
on psychological speculations : touared in 
Hayti and the United States, and, having 
early evinced a strong attachment to 
natmral history, was, on his return, ap- 
pointed to a post in the Royal Museum 
of Natural History at Paris. By Baron 
Cuvier's influence he was selected for a 
scientific mission for 7 years to the East, 
as its travelling naturalist, to investigate 
the Natural History of India in all its 



branches, and collect materials for the 
museum : went to London, 1828 : reached 
Pondicherry in April, 1829 : then to 
Calcutta : through Upper India to Simla 
in 1830 : Ladak : the frontiers of Ladak 
and Chinese Tartary : Kashmir : down to 
Poona : saw Ranjit Singh, Shah Shuja, the 
Begam Samru, travelling for 3 J years ; 
encountered difficulties and privations 
in his arduous labours, the fruits of which 
have greatly enriched the science of Natural 
History : fell ill at Tanna, in Salsette : 
died at Bombay, Dec. 7, 1832, after a 
month's agony. His collections were 
transmitted to Paris,described by Decaisne, 
and the result published in 6 quarto 
volumes. His letters, written in India to 
his family, give a most vivid account of 
the botany of the N.W. Himalayas and 
particularly of the social condition of 
India in those days. His remains were 
exhumed from the Sonapur cemetery at 
Bombay on Feb. 26, 1881, and taken to 
France in the Laclocheterie man-of-war : 
a wreath on his coffin bore the legend 
" Voici le fleur que Victor Jacquemont a 
introduisit dans Bombay de la Cachemire, 
et qui porte son nom Jacquemontia." 


(1861- ) 

Born 1 861 : head of the Kuchhwaha 
clan of Rajputs : succeeded to the Raj, 
1880 : organized a Transport Corps, 1890 : 
a wise and capable administrator of his 
State and takes an interest in affairs of the 
British Empire : a liberal contributor to 
the Famine Fund for India, Transvaal 
War Fund, King Edward Hospital Fund : 
guest of the nation at the Coronation of 
H.M. King Edward VII, 1902 : G.C.S.I. : 
G.C.I.E. : G.C.V.O. 

SIR RAM SING, OF (1833-1880) 

A Rajput of the solar line, claiming 
descent from Rama : son of the Maharaja 
Jai Sing, on whose death he succeeded, in 
1835 : during his minority a Council of 
Regency of five nobles, under the superin- 
tendence of the Political Agent, adminis- 
tered the State : Ram Sing did good 
service during the mutiny, placing his 
whole force at the disposal of the British 
Government : received a grant of the 
pargana of Kot-Kassim : also showed 

liberality in the Rajputana famine of 
1868 : G.C.S.I., 1866 : Member of the 
Governor-General's Legislative Council, 
1869-75 : Member of the mixed Com- 
mission which tried Malhar Rao, the 
Gaekwar of Baroda, in 1875 : made 
enlightened efforts to promote the welfare 
of his subjects, supporting schools and 
medical charities : died Sep. 18, 1880. 

MURCHISON (1846- ) 

I.C.S. : born 1846 : son of William 
Edward James : educated at Durham 
school : entered the Bombay Civil Service, 
1865 : retired in 1900 : Postmaster- 
General, Bombay, 1875, and Bengal, 1880 : 
Director-General of the Post Office of 
India, 1886 : Commissioner in Sind, 
1891-1900 : C.S.I., 1898 : K.C.I.E., 1901 : 
author of The Long White Mountain ; or 
Travels in Manchuria, 1889. 



Bishop of Calcutta : son of Dr. Thomas 
James, Headmaster of Rugby : born Jan. 
23, 1786 : educated at Rugby, Charter- 
house, Christ Church, Oxford : Student and 
Tutor : made a long tour through Europe : 
studied painting in Italy : ordained, and, 
Vicar in Bedfordshire, 1816 : was made 
Bishop of Calcutta in 1827 : D.D. : 
reached Calcutta in Jan. 1828: was taken 
ill in June, and died, Aug. 22, 1828, on a 
voyage to China for his health. 


Born 1871 : son of Lt-Colonel L.H.S. 
James, R.A : educated at Cranleigh : 
Renter's Special Correspondent, in the 
Chitral campaign, 1894-5 ; Mohmand, 
Malakand and Tirah campaigns, 1897-8 ; 
Soudan, 1898 : Times Special Correspon- 
dent in S. Africa, 1899-1901 : author of 
With the Chitral Relief Force, 1895 ; Indian 
Frontier War, 1897-8. 



Born of poor parents in 1721, and went 
early to sea : to the E. Indies, 1747 : 
entered the naval service of the E. I. Co., 
and distinguished himself against the 
pirate Angria : made Commander of the 
Co.'s marine force, 175 1 : captured 
Savandrug, the pirates' stronghold, 1753 : 
and Gheria, on Feb. 13, 1756, with Admiral 



Watson and Colonel Clive : took to Bengal 
the news of the French declaration of war, 
and helped Clive, enabling him to take 
Chandernagore, March, 1757 : returned 
to England in 1759, enriched with prize 
money : joined the Board of Directors 
of the E. I. Co. : Deputy-Chairman in 1778 
and 1781 . Chairman in 1779: Baronet, 
1778 : was also M.P. for West Looe, and 
for 15 years Deputy-Master of the Trinity 
House : died Dec. 16, 1783 : his widow 
erected a tower on Shooter's Hill to his 



Of the Bombay Infantry, which he 
entered, 1820 : Lt-General, 1871 : entered 
the Bombay Audit Department, and, in 
1848, became Deputy Military Auditor- 
General, and Military Auditor-General at 
Bombay, 1853 : in 1859, was President 
of the Military Finance Commission at 
Calcutta: retired, i860: Auditor at the 
India Office, 1861-71, and Parliamentary 
Auditor of Indian accounts : K.C.S.I. : 
died Oct. 24, 1871. 

JAMESON, WILLIAM (1815-1882) 

Born 1815 : educated at Edinburgh 
High School and University : went into the 
Bengal medical service : Curator of the 
museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal : 
Superintendent in 1842 of the Saharanpur 
garden : he vigorously promoted the culti- 
vation of tea in India, obtained plants 
and distributed them, thus originating 
the commencement of the present tea- 
planting industry : retired in 1875 : died 
March 18, 1882. 


Prime Minister of Nipal : nephew of 
Mataber Sing, who was a high functionary 
in Bengal : he acquiesced in the murder 
of his uncle at the instigation of the 
Queen-Regent in 1834, and was made by 
her C. in C. in the Nipalese Army. When 
the new Prime Minister was murdered by 
his enemies, Jang Bahadur seized and put 
the ringleaders to death, and made himself 
Prime Minister, 1846 : he then turned 
out the Queen and the imbecile King, 
raised the heir-apparent to the throne, 
and thus established himself without a 
rival. Having waded to power through 

bloodshed and cruelty, Jang Bahadur 
developed into an enlightened ruler : it 
was his pohcy to keep on good terms 
with the English : he visited England, 
arriving in May, 1850, was the "lion of 
the London season": was knighted and 
made G.C.B. : he brought a force of 
Gurkhas to our aid, rendering valuable 
assistance in Oudh, in the mutiny of 
1857 : G.C.S.I., 1873 : died at Purthur- 
ghatta on Feb. 25, 1877. 


I.C.S. : born 1844 : son of William 
Jardine : educated at Christ's College, 
Cambridge : Chancellor's Gold Medal for 
English verse : entered the Bombay Civil 
Service, 1864 : Political Officer in Kattia- 
war, 1871 : Secretary for the trial of the 
Gaekwar of Baroda, 1875 : Judicial Com- 
missioner of Burma, 1878 : Chief Secretary 
to Bombay Government, 1885 : Fellow 
of Bombay University, 1872, and Vice- 
Chancellor, 1895 : President of the 
Asiatic Society, Bombay : Judge of 
Bombay High Coiurt, 1885 : acted as 
Chief Justice, 1895 : retired, 1897. 

TAYLOR (1836-1891) 

r Lt-Colonel : in the Bengal Staff corps : 
gained the V.C. in the mutiny, for daring 
bravery at the village of Baroun Oct. 14, 
1858, when with four men he charged, 
under heavy fire, up a narrow street, to a 
building occupied by about seventy 
sepoys : Deputy Conservator of Forests 
in the Central Provinces : died at Sagar 
on April 11, 1891. 


(1839- ) 

Colonel : born June 17, 1839 : son of 
Thomas Jarrett : educated at Prior 
Park, Bath : joined the Indian Army, 
1856 : served in the mutiny, 1857-8 ; in 
the Mahsud-Waziri expedition, i860 ; the 
second Yusufzai expedition, as A.D.C. to 
Sir Neville Chamberlain : Secretary and 
Member, Board of Examiners, Fort 
WilHam, Calcutta, and Assistant Secretary 
in the Legislative department of the 
Government of India, 1870-94 : CLE., 
1895 : author of History of the Caliphs,. 
Institutes of the Emperor Akbar, etc. 



Moravian missionary : born at Herrn- 
hut, May 17, 1817 : trained at the Mor- 
avian College at Niesky, in Silesia, 1842- 
56 : superintended the mission at Kyelang, 
in Lahoul, in the W. Himalayas, 1856-68 : 
translated the New Testament into Tibetan 
and collected materials for a Tibetan 
Dictionary : wrote a Tibetan grammar 
and other works : greatly assisted by 
Dr. A. C. Burnell {q.v.), brought out his 
Tibetan-German dictionary, 1873, and a 
revised edition of it for the India Office, 
which greatly advanced the knowledge 
of Tibetan : died Sep. 29, 1883. 

JEE, JOSEPH (1821-1899) 
Deputy Surgeon-General : son of Chris- 
topher Preston Jee : educated at London 
and Edinburgh Universities, and Paris : 
Assistant Surgeon in the ist Dragoons, 
1842 : in the Persian war, 1857 : with 
Havelock in the mutiny : gained his V.C. 
at the final capture of Lucknow : was in 
the Rohilkund campaign : C.B. : died 
March 17, 1899. 

JEFFREYS, JULIUS (1801-1877) 

Son of the Rev. R. Jeffreys : born 
1801 : studied medicine at Edinburgh 
and London : entered the E. I. Co.'s 
medical establishment in 1822 : and, 
after meteorological observations, recom- 
mended that hill stations should be formed 
as health resorts, and suggested Simla as 
one, there being then only a single house 
there : he had an inventive turn of mind, 
proposed various chemical manufactures, 
invented a respirator, and obtained 
patents for a number of inventions con- 
nected with ships : F.R.S. and other 
learned Societies : died May 13, 1877. 


(1832- ) 

Born 1832 : son of Rev. David Jen- 
kins : educated at Marlborough : entered 
the Bengal Army, 1851 : Colonel, 1879 : 
and retired in 1885 : served in the mutiny 
of 1857, at the siege of Delhi : Umbeyla 
expedition, 1863 : Afghan war, 1878-80 : 
K.C.B., 1897. 


(1858- ) 
Born Dec. 22, 1858 : son of Richard 
David Jenkins : called to the bar, 1883 : 

Puisne Judge of the Calcutta High Court, 
1896-9 : Chief Justice of the Bombay 
High Court since 1899 : K.C.LE., 1903. 

I.C.S. : son of Richard Jenkins : born 
Feb. 18, 1785 : went out to Bombay in 
the E. I. Co.'s service in 1800 : was an 
Assistant in the office of the Governor- 
General, and, in 1804-5, Assistant Political 
at Poona and Assistant Resident at Sindia's 
Court : and acting Resident : officiating 
Resident at Nagpur in 1807, and per- 
manently there from 1810 to 1827 : he 
proposed to the Governor-General the 
suppression of the Pindaris : in 1817, the 
troops of Appa Sahib, the Raja of Berar, 
attacked the British Residency troops at 
Sitabaldi, Nov. 26-7 : Appa was de- 
throned, 181 8, and, during the minority 
of his successor, Jenkins governed Nag- 
pur : retired in 1828 : was M.P. for 
Shrewsbury, 1 830-1 and 1837-41 : D.C.L. 
Oxford, 1834 : G.C.B. in 1838 : Chairman 
of the E. I. Co.'s Directors, 1839 : died 
Dec. 30, 1853. 


(1841- ) 

Born 1841 : entered Bengal Cavalry, 
1859, and became Maj-General, 1895, and 
Lt-General, 1900 : served on the N.W. 
Frontier, 1863-4 : Egyptian war, 1882 
(Brevet-Colonel), and Hazara campaign, 
1888 : C.B., 1896. 



Born 1811 : son of Archibald Jerdon : 
joined the medical service in Madras, 
1835 : retired, 1864, and died June 12, 
1872 : he is best known as a zoologist, by 
his Illustrations of Indian Ornithology, 
1844 ; Birds of India, 1862-4 ; Mammals of 
India, 1867, which are standard works of 
reference to this day. 

AMIRAUX (1802-1872) 

Son of James Jeremie, merchant : 
born April 12, 1802 : educated at Elizabeth 
College, Guernsey ; Blundell's School, 
Tiverton ; Trinity College, Cambridge : 
distinguished himself : Fellow : ordained, 
1830 : Professor of Classical and General 
Literature at the E. I. Co.'s College at 
Haileybury, 1830-50 : Christian Advocate 
in the University, Cambridge, 1833-50 



Dean at Haileybury, 1838 : Regius Pro- 
fessor of Divinity at Cambridge, 1850-70 : 
Dean of Lincoln, 1864-72 : D.D. in 
1850 : D.C.L. in 1862 : as Dean he pre- 
sided over the discipline of the College : 
though much liked, his sensitive and 
nervous temperament rendered him unsuc- 
cessful as a disciplinarian : he was excel- 
lent as a classical lecturer and preacher : 
of fastidious and refined taste. It was 
written of him that his " laboiur at Hailey- 
bury contributed in no slight measmre to 
the formation of that high and firm tone 
of character in the East Indian Civil 
Service, which was signally displayed 
when the mutiny of 1857 broke out " : 
died June 11, 1872. 


Educated at Sandhurst : entered the 
86th regt., 1848 : in the mutiny, at 
Kalpi, part of his head was torn away : 
at the captures of Chandairi and Jhansi, 
and action of Koonch : gained the V.C. 
for gallantry at Jhansi, April 3, 1858, for 
saving a wounded officer under heavy 
fire, and for bravery on various occasions : 
in the Hazara expedition, 1868 : on the 
Staff, 1876-84 : retired as Maj-General, 
1885 : died Feb. 25, 1901. 

JIJIBHAI, BYRAMJI (1821-1890) 

Son of Jijibhai Dadabhai : born June 
16, 1821 : educated privately : at 17 
became a member of Jijibhai Dadabhai, 
Sons & Co. : later became a broker to 
several firms : established the Royal 
Spinning and Weaving Company : Member 
of the Board of Direction of several joint- 
stock Companies : established, in 1870, a 
Fire Insurance Company : kept aloof 
from the speculation mania of 1864 : 
Additional Member of the Bombay Legis- 
lative Council, 1868 - 72 : founded a 
Charity Fund, endowed Medical Schools 
at Poona, Ahmadabad and Thana, called 
by his name : promoted the Madrasa at 
Nowsari : founded a Parsi girls' school : 
contributed funds for the amelioration 
of the Parsis in Persia : C.S.I, in 1875 : 
died Sep. 1890. 



Born July 15, 1783, of poor but respect- 
.able parents, at Nowsari in Baroda, the 

birthplace of the Parsi religion in India : 
lived with his father-in-law in Bombay. 
Realizing that large profits in trade could 
only be made by deahngs with foreign 
countries, he visited China at the age of 
16. He was twice taken prisoner by the 
French, but released. In 1807, after three 
voyages to China, he set up business in 
Bombay, and in twenty years amassed a 
large fortune. He gave away his wealth 
liberally, founding hospitals, schools, 
refuges, and in other works of benevo- 
lence. In 1842 he was knighted. In 
1855 he was presented with the freedom 
of the City of London. In 1856 a statue 
was erected to him in the Town Hall of 
Bombay. It was owing principally to his 
munificence that the Causeway connecting 
Bombay with Salsette was erected. In 
1858 he was made a Baronet, the highest 
honour ever conferred on a native of 
India : he died April 14, 1859. 


(1829- ) 
Born May 2, 1829 : son of Sir H. A. 
Johnson, Bart. : educated at Winchester : 
entered the Bengal Army, 1846, and be- 
came General, 1892 : Indian Staff Corps : 
served in the second Burmese war, 1853, 
and Indian mutiny, 1857-8 : in the 
Jaunpur Field Force, at the capture of 
Lucknow, and with the Oudh Field 
Force : for many years in the Military 
Secretariat of the Government of India : 
Military Secretary at the India Office, 
1877-89 : C.B., 1881 : K.C.B., 1889. 


(1827- ) 

Born Dec. 20, 1827 : General : son of 
Sir Henry Allen Johnson, Bart. : edu- 
cated at Addiscombe : joined the Indian 
Army, 1844 : served in the Satlaj campaign, 
1846 : at Sobraon : in the Indian mutiny, 
1857-58 : at the siege of Lucknow : in 
the Hazara campaign as Q.M.G., 1868 : 
Brevet-Colonel and C.B. : Q.M.G. of the 
Army in India during the Afghan war, 
1878-80 : K.C.B., 1881 : G.C.B., 1900. 

RALPH, D.D. ( ? - ) 

Son of William Ponsonby Johnson : 
educated at Rugby and Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford : ordained 185 1 : Minor 
Canon of Chester, 1861-6 : Rector of 



Northenden, 1866-76 : Archdeacon of 
Chester, 1871-6 : D.D., Oxford and 
Durham : Bishop of Calcutta and 
Metropolitan in India, 1876-98 : dur- 
ing this time the Episcopate in India 
was extended from four to ten sees : he 
had a great capacity for administration, 
and devoted his attention largely to the 
organization of the Church in India, 
establishing Provincial Episcopal Synods, 
Diocesan Conferences and Councils, etc. 



Son of Sir Henry Allen Johnson, Bart. : 
born July 4, 1825 : educated at Addis- 
combe : went to India in the Bengal 
Artillery in 1842 : rose to be Lt-General, 
and General, 1877 : Colonel Commandant, 
R.A., 1890 : was in the Satlaj campaign, 
in the Artillery, at Firozshahr and Sobraon : 
in the Pan jab campaign at Ramnagar, 
Chihanwala, and Gujarat, and in the 
pursuit of the Sikhs and Afghans : Brevet- 
Major : was A.D.C. to the C. in C. in 
1855, and A.A.G. of Artillery in Oudh : 
in the mutiny was with Archdale Wilson 
at the actions on the Hindun and at Badli- 
ka-Sarai, and at the siege and assault of 
Delhi : at the siege and capture of Luck- 
now : Brevet-Lt-Colonel : C.B. : Assist- 
ant Military Secretary for Indian affairs 
at the. Horse Guards,' 1865 : Q.M.G., in 
India, 1873 : Member of the Council of 
India, 1874 : K.C.B., 1875 : Military 
Member of the Supreme Council in India, 
1877-80 : C.I.E., 1878 : Director-General 
of Military Education at the War Office, 
1884-6 : G.C.B., 1887 : died June 18, 

JOHNSON, FRANCES (1725-1812) 

Born April 10, 1725 : daughter of Ed- 
ward Crook, Governor of Fort St. David : 
married, (ist) in 1738, Parry Purple 
Templer (d. 1743) '• (2nd) James Altham, 
B.C.S. who died of smallpox, 12 days 
after the marriage : (3rd) William Watts, 
Senior Member of Council, and appointed 
Governor of Calcutta : when he was Chief 
of Murshidabad, in 1756, they were both 
placed in custody, but protected by the 
Nawab's mother, who sent Mrs. Watts to 
Chandernagore and afterwards procured 
Watts' release. Their eldest daughter, 
Amelia, married (1769) Charles Jenkinson, 
first Earl of Liverpool, father of the Prime 

Minister, the second Earl. Watts died in 
England. Mrs. Watts returned to Bengal, 
1769, and married (4th) June i, 1774, the 
Rev. William Johnson, a Chaplain of the 
Presidency of Fort William : he finally 
left India in Feb. 1788. She remained in 
Calcutta till her death, Feb. 3, 1812 : "the 
oldest British resident in Bengal, univer- 
sally beloved, respected and revered." 
The Governor-General and high officials 
attended her funeral. The Duke of 
Welhngton talked ol having known her. 
She " abounded in anecdote," " had a 
strong understanding " : was known as 
"the old Begam," dispensing a dignified 
hospitality, her mansion being one of the 
most popular rendezvous. 

JOHNSON, FRANCIS (1795-1876) 

Born 1795 : learnt Arabic and San- 
skrit at Rome : Assistant Oriental Pro- 
fessor at Haileybury, 1824, and Professor 
from 1823, teaching Sanskrit, Bengali and 
Telugu : brought out the third edition 
of Richardson's Persian-Arabic dictionary, 
1829, and a new edition, greatly revised 
and enlarged, in his own name, in 1852 : 
which he continued to revise : was 
strongest in Arabic : edited the Gulistan 
in 1863 : in Sanskrit he published the 
Hitopadesa, selections from the Mahabhara- 
ta, and the Meghaduta, and assisted H. H. 
Wilson (g.v.) in completing his Sanskrit 
grammar : resigned his Professorship in 
1855 : died at Hertford, Jan. 29, 1876. 

JOHNSTONE, CHARLES (1719 ?-1800 ?) 

Born in Limerick county about 1719 : 
educated at Dublin University : called to 
the bar : took to literature : wrote 
1760-5, a novel, Chrysal : or, the Adven- 
tures of a Guinea, which made a sensation : 
werit to India in 1782, shipwrecked on the 
way : at Calcutta acquired a fortune : 
became joint proprietor of a newspaper in 
Bengal, and contributed regularly to the 
periodical press under the nom de plume of 
Oneiropolos : wrote other novels : died 
in 1800 in Calcutta, though the place of 
his death has been disputed. 

Born Feb. 9, 1841 : son of Dr. James 
Johnstone, F.R.C.P. : educated at the 
Birmingham Grammar School and Gos- 
port : entered the Bengal Army, 1858 : 
Maj-General,i8Q4: in the Trans-Gogra force 



in the mutiny, 1858-9 : in the Bhutan 
campaign, 1864-6 : in charge of elephant 
Kheddas in Orissa, 1868-74 : Political 
Agent at Keonjhur during the rebellion, 
and in charge of the State for 3 years : 
Political Agent at Manipur, 1877 : at the 
head of the Manipur Army relieved 
Kohima, 1878, where 545 British subjects 
were besieged by 6,000 Nagas : at assault 
and capture of Khonoma : Commissioner 
in 1 88 1 for settling disputes on Bmrmese 
frontier : made a great march in 1886 
from Manipur and saved lives of Euro- 
peans employed in Upper Burma : 
K.C.S.I., in 1887 : wrote at length to the 
newspapers in 1891, after the outbreak 
and troubles at Manipur : died from a 
fall from his horse on June 13, 1895, after 
his retirement : was a claimant to the 
dormant Marquessate of Annandale. 



Entered the Navy in 1803 : was at 
Trafalgar and variously employed : on 
half-pay in 1815 : went to Calcutta in 
1817 : obtained a ship and made voyages 
to England : was nominated to certain 
appointments which he never took up : 
his proposals, in 1823, for establishing 
steam communication with India via the 
Mediterranean and Red Sea, not accepted : 
took the Enterprise, a private steam- 
vessel, from England round the Cape to 
India, 1825 : his scheme for establishing 
steam navigation on the Ganges, in iron 
vessels, accepted : controller of the Co.'s 
steamers, 1833-50 : died on his voyage 
home to retire. May 5, 1851. 

DOUGLAS (1855- ) 

Born Aug. 30, 1855 : son of Maj-General 
Henry Campbell Johnstone : educated at 
Edinbiurgh Academy and University : 
appointed to Panjab Education Depart- 
ment, 1877 : transferred to Foreign 
Department, Government of India, on 
appointment as Headmaster, Mayo Col- 
lege, Ajmir : Principal of the Daly College, 
Indore, 1885 : Tutor of Maharaja Sindia, 
1890 : Inspr-General of Education in 
Gwalior State, 1894 : Fellow of Allahabad 

JOLLY, JULIUS E. (1849- ) 

Born Dec. 28, 1849, at Heidelberg : son 
of Philipp von Jolly, Professor of physics 

at the University of Munich : studied at 
Munich, Berlin and Leipzig : his principal 
subjects were Comparative Philology, 
Oriental Languages and Jurisprudence : 
Ph.D. : became Privat-docent at the 
University of Wiirzburg, Bavaria, 1872 ; 
Professor Extraordinary, 1877 ; Professor 
Ordinary (Sanskrit and Comparative 
Philology), 1886 : has visited England 
frequently, to study Sanskrit MSS. in 
London : to India, 1882-3 : was Tagore 
Law Professor at the University, Calcutta : 
had made the ancient legal literature of 
India his special study, and is recognized 
as the leading authority on native Indian 
law : his chief works as a Sanskritist 
are : The Institutes of Narada (translated 
from the Sanskrit), 1876 ; The Institutes 
of Vishnu (in the " Sacred Books of the 
East "), 1880 ; Vishnusmriti, 1881 ; His- 
tory of the Hindu Law, 1885 (Tagore Law 
Lectures) ; Naradasmriti, 1885-6 ; Manu- 
tikasaingraha, 1885-90 ; Manava DharmU' 
Sastra, 1887 ; Minor Law-Books, 1889 ; 
Recht und Sitte (in BUhler's Encyclopaedia 
of Indo-Aryan Research), 1896 ; Medicin 
(ibid), 1901 : has written numerous 
articles on Indian Philology in English 
and German periodicals, besides other 
philological works : assisted Sir R. West 
in the preparation of a new edition of 
West and Biihler's Digest of the Hindu 
Law, still to be published : belongs to 
several learned Societies : is Corresponding 
Member of the R. Bavarian Academy of 
Science, 1886, and of the R. Society of 
Science at Gottingen, 1904 : Honorary 
Member of the R. Asiatic Society, 1904, 



General : son of the Rev. Inigo Jones : 
bom 1808 : entered the Army in 1825 : 
commanded the 6th Dragoon Guards in 
the Crimea : in the mutiny commanded a 
column in action, and a Brigade of cavalry 
at Bareli : C.B. : also under Sir Colin 
Campbell at Dunderkera, and in the 
Trans-Gogra campaign, including several 
actions and the pursuit of the rebels to 
the Rapti : became a General in i877 : 
died Oct. 7, 1880. 

JONES, JOHN ( ? - ? ) 

Captain : when the Bhutanese in 1772 
invaded and took possession of a large 




portion of Cooch Behar, and carried off 
the Raja, the Cooch Behar family solicited 
the aid of the Government of India, 
which was accorded : Captain J ones was 
despatched with four companies of sepoys 
and two guns to drive back the Bhutanese. 
He not only drove them back, but followed 
them into Bhutan and carried the three 
forts of Dalimkote (April, i773)» Chicha- 
cottah and Passakha, pressing the Bhutan- 
ese so hard that they were compelled to 
invoke the aid of the Tibetan General at 
Lhasa : Jones soon after fell a sacrifice 
to the unwholesome climate of Cooch 

JONES, SIR JOHN (1811-1878) 
Born iBii : entered the 5th foot regt. 
in 1828, but exchanged into the 60th 
Rifles : Lt-Colonel, 1854 : at Meerut in 
the mutiny of 1857 : commanded his 
battalion at the Hindun, Badli-ka-sarai, 
and the siege of Delhi : led the left attack : 
Brigadier of the Rurki Field Force, in 
the Rohilkund campaign, and at Bareli : 
his success gained for him the name of 
" Avenger " : in the subsequent campaign 
in Oudh : C.B. : Brevet-Lt-Colonel : 
K.C.B. : Maj-General, 1868 : Lt-General, 
1877 : died Feb. 21, 1878. 

JONES, JOHN FELIX ( ? -1878) 
Captain in the Indian Navy : made 
charts of the Red Sea : in the survey of 
Ceylon and Mesopotamia : from 1843 was 
on the survey of the Tigris and Euphrates : 
discovered the ancient Opis in 1850 : 
mapped and wrote on Nineveh and sur- 
rounding country and Bagdad, 1852-3 : 
Political Agent at Bagdad, 1854 : in the 
Persian Gulf, 1855 : served in the Persian 
war and the mutiny : then retired : made 
a map of Western Asia : F.R.G.S. : 
died Sep. 3, 1878. 

JONES, REV. RICHARD (1790-1855) 
Born 1790 : son of a solicitor at Tun- 
bridge Wells : educated at Caius College, 
Cambridge : ordained, 1819 : performed 
ministerial duties for some years in Kent 
and Sussex : appointed, in 1833, Professor 
of Political Economy and History at 
King's College, London, and in 1835 at 
Haileybury : co-operated in forming the 
scheme of comparison for the commuta- 
tion of tithes, and became Tithes Com- 

missioner, and later a Charity Com- 
missioner : published Jones on Rent : 
died at Haileybury, Jan. 26, 1855. 

JONES, SIR WILLIAM (1746-1794) 

Youngest son of William Jones the 
mathematician : born Sep. 28, 1746 : 
educated at Harrow, for more than ten 
years : Scholar of University College, 
Oxford, 1764 : there began his studies in 
Oriental and other languages : became 
tutor to young Lord Althorp : Fellow of 
his College, 1766 : M.A. in 1773 : trans- 
lated a life of Nadir Shah from Persian 
into French, 1770 : wrote a Persian 
grammar, 1771 : translations of Poemsr 
and six books of commentaries on Asiatic 
Poetry : F.R.S. in 1772, and Member of 
the Literary Club, 1773 : called to the 
bar from the Middle Temple in 1774 * was 
a Commissioner of bankrupts, 1776 : 
published an Essay on the Law of Bail- 
ments, 1881 : unsuccessful candidate for 
the Arabic Professorship at Oxford : 
published a translation of the Arabic 
Moallakat : appointed a Judge of the 
Supreme Court at Calcutta, 1783 : knight- 
ed : founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
in 1784 and was its President till his 
death : contributed 29 papers to the first 
four volumes of the Asiatic Researches, 
translated the ordinances of the Hind : 
lawgiver, Manu : the Sakuntala of Kalidasu 
the Gitagohinda of Jagadeva, the Hitopa- 
desa of Pilpai, and some works on Muham- 
madan law : he was the first English 
scholar to know Sanskrit : he studied 
every department of Oriental learning 
and literature, and advanced them all : 
he aimed at making Eastern learning 
known to the West. He was intimate 
with Warren Hastings and his successors, 
and had their support. His judicial work 
was also well performed : he commenced 
a digest of Hindu and Muhammadan law : 
but is best known by the results of his 
literary labours. He overtaxed his strength, 
and died, April 27, 1794. A monument 
was erected to him in St. Paul's Cathedral. 
His scholarship was of world-wide renown, 
" and his memory is dearly cherished by 
all Oriental scholars." 

JONES, SIR WILLIAM (1808-1890) 

Born t8o8 : son of William Jones : 
educated at Sandhurst : entered the 60th 


regt. in 1825 : and became a General in 
1877 : was with his regt. in the Panjab 
campaign of 1848-9 : at the Chenab, 
Sadulapur, Chihanwala, Gujarat and the 
pursuit to the Khyber : C.B. : commanded 
a Brigade at the siege of Delhi, and led a 
storming party on Sep. 24, 1857 : was in 
charge, after Nicholson's death, during 
the street fighting : K. C.B. , 1869 : G.C.B., 
1886 : died April 8, 1890. 


(1834- ) 

I.C.S. : son of Rev. W. Jones : educated 
at •^University College, London : called 
tolthe bar from the Inner Temple : entered 
the Bengal Civil Service, 1856 : Resident 
at Hyderabad, 1882-3 = Chief Commis- 
sioner of Central Provinces, 1883-4 : 
retired, 1885 : C.S.I., 1883. 


(1841- ) 

Born 1841 : son of Canon Jones : 
educated at Sandhurst : passed Staff 
College, 1871 : served in the Indian 
mutiny, 1857-8, actions of Chanda, 
Amirpur and Sultanpur, final siege and 
capture of Lucknow : Afghan war, 1878- 
80, as Brig-Major of ist Division of Pesha- 
war Field Force : capture of Ali Masjid : 
Brig-Major in the Zaimusht expedition : 
Brevet-Lt-Colonel : A.A.G., Western Dis- 
trict, 1887-92 : Maj-General, 1899 : 
General Officer commanding troops Straits 
Settlements : C.B. 

JOSHI, ANANDIBAI (1865-1887) 

Born March, 1865 : daughter of Gan- 
patrao Amritaswar Joshi of Kalyan : 
given the name "Jamuna": learnt 
Sanskrit : married, 1874, to Gopal Vinayek 
Joshi, in the Postal Department : took 
to the study of medicine : left her husband 
in Calcutta and went in 1883 to England 
and America, to Mrs. Carpenter in N. 
Jersey : instructed at the Women's Medical 
College in Philadelphia : gained a scholar- 
ship : took her degree as Doctor of Medicine 
there, 1886 : appointed Resident Physician 
to the female ward of the Albert Edward 
Hospital, Kolapur : her health failed, and 
she died of consumption at Poona, Feb. 
27, 1887 : her body was burnt, and the 
ashes sent to America to be buried there. 


Born March i, 1844 : son of H. St. John 
Joyner : educated privately : entered 
the Bombay P.W.D. 1868 : emploved 
in Irrigation Works in Belgaum, Dharwar 
and S. Mahratta country : Superintending 
Engineer of Sind, 1891 : Superintending 
Engineer South, and Central, Division, 
Bombay, 1893 and 1896 : CLE., 1898, for 
Famine Relief Work, 1896-8 : author of 
Reports on Indian Irrigation and Indian 



Missionary : born at Maiden, Massa- 
chusetts, Aug. 9, 1788 : son of a Congre- 
gational minister : educated at the Brown 
University and Andover Theological 
Seminary : attracted, by reading a sermon 
of Dr. Claudius Buchanan {q.v.), to mission- 
ary work in India : sent by the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions to India, 1812 : ordered by the 
Bengal Government to leave Calcutta, 
went vid Mauritius to Madras and Rangoon 
in July, 1813 : preached to the Burmese : 
went up to Ava, estabhshed schools : 
taken prisoner on outbreak of first Bur- 
mese war : imprisoned at Oungpenla for 
19 months, cruelly treated, released on the 
conclusion of peace in 1826 : published 
a Burmese-English dictionary in 1826 : 
and a Burmese grammar : translated the 
Bible into Burmese, 1835, revised, 1840 : 
went to Amherst and Moulmain : visited 
America in 1845, enthusiastically received : 
returned to Moulmain : unable to complete 
his larger Burmese dictionary : died at 
sea on April 12, 1850, on a voyage to the 
Isle of Bourbon for his health : thrice 
married : the first Mrs. Judson wrote 
A History of the Burman Mission : Colonel 
Sir H. M. Durand wrote an article on 
Judson as " The Apostle of Burma," in 
vol. xiv, number 28, of the Calcutta Review. 



Missionary : born Dec. 22, 1789, 
at Bradford, Massachusetts : daughter 
of John and Rebecca Hasseltine : educated 
at Bradford : joined the Congregational 
Church there, 1806, and taught a school 
in several places : married Adoniram 



Judson {q.v.) Feb. 5. 1812 : went with him 
and other Missionaries to work, arriving at 
Calcutta, June, 1812 : resided at Seram- 
pur with Dr. W. Carey {q.v.) : sum- 
moned by the Government to Calcutta, and 
peremptorily ordered to leave India : 
they went to the Isle of France, thence to 
Rangoon, July, 1813 : Mrs. Judson went 
to England and the United States, 1822 ; 
at Washington, her advice was taken by 
the Baptists respecting the Burmese 
Mission : she published her History of the 
Burmese Mission : returned to Rangoon, 
1823, and joined her husband at Ava : 
where he and other Missionaries were taken 
prisoners : in the first Burmese war she 
underwent terrible sufferings, " but by her 
eloquent and forcible appeals" procured 
their release : still she persevered with the 
Mission to the Burmese : she died of 
violent fever, Oct. 24, 1826. 



Born Aug. 21, 1842, at Bombay: 
descended from a Surat family : son of 
Naoroji Kabraji : educated in the Jamsetji 
Jijibhai school : took to Journalism, 
1858 : became editor of the Par si Mitra : 
joined the Rast Goftar, as sub-editor, 
and editor, 1863-1902 : making the 
paper an instrument for social reform in 
the whole native community : was Fellow 
of the Bombay University, 1882 : Secre- 
tary of the Guzarati Society for the Diffus- 
ion of Knowledge, 1880, lecturing for it : 
Secretary of the Sir Dinshaw Petit Gym- 
nastic Institution, 1867-75 : supported 
female education, founding girls' schools : 
an active member of the Bombay Municipal 
Corporation, 1 882-1904 : a warm champion 
of British rule in India, and a moderate 
critic : to England in 1900, and was made 
a member of the British Institute of 
Journalists : on the fiftieth anniversary 
of his paper, Nov, 1901, was specially 
congratulated on his editorship : retired 
from it 1902 : died April, 1904 : raised the 
tone of the vernacular Press in W. India : 
also wrote a number of novels dealing 
mostly with Parsi social life. 


( ? -1842) 

Son of Mahmud Shah, grandson of 
Timur Shah, and great-grandson of Ahmad 
Shah Abdali, ruler of Afghanistan: he seized 

Fateh Khan, the Barakzai wazir of Afghan- 
istan, blinded him and then killed him : 
he succeeded his father, when murdered 
in 1829, as ruler of Herat. He was cruel 
and dissipated, and would have given up 
Herat to the Persians : but his wazir and 
the presence of Eldred Pottinger during 
the siege of Herat, from Nov. 1837, to Sep. 
1838, prevented him. A treaty, dated 
Aug. 13, 1839, was negotiated on behalf of 
the Governor-General by Major E. D'Arcy 
Todd, envoy to Herat, with Kamran 
Shah, who opened treacherous correspond- 
ence with Persia : Todd's subsequent 
action was disapproved by Lord Auck- 
land. Kamran was strangled in 1842 by 
his minister Yar Mahomed Khan Alakozai. 

Born Nov.11,1853 : adopted asason by 
the third brother of Maharaja Mahtab 
Chand Bahadur (g.f.)of Burdwan on Aug. 
31, 1856 : appointed Vice-President of the 
Burdwan Raj Council, 1879 = Member of the 
Bengal Legislative Council, Jan. 1885 : 
in the same year joint Manager of the 
Burdwan Raj : and sole Manager in 1891 : 
given the title of Raja as a personal dis- 
tinction, Jan. 1893 : C.S.I. , Jan. 1903 : 
again Member of the Bengal Legislative 
Council, Jan. 1905 : the late Maharaja 
Aftab Chand Bahadur married his sister, 
and she adopted Raja Ban Bihari's son, 
Bijoy, the present Maharaja Bahadur. 

NAM SINGH, OF (1851- ) 

Born Nov. 15, 1851 : son of Raja Sir 
Randhir Singh Bahadur of Kapurthala, 
G. C.S.I : educated at Kapurthala : man- 
aged the Kapurthala estates for 18 5^ears : 
Hon. Life Secretary of the B.I. Association 
of Talukdars of Oudh : Fellow of the 
Pan jab University : Member of the 
Panjab Legislative Council, 1900-2 : 
K.C.I.E., 1899 : and Member of the 
Governor-General's Legislative Council : 
resigned all claims to the succession to 
the State by becoming a Christian : guest 
of the nation at the Coronation, 1902. 

SINGH, BAHADUR, OF (1872- ) 

Succeeded his father. Raja Kharak 
Singh, Sep. 5, 1877 : K.C.S.I. in 1897 :: 
has visited England. 



SINGH, OP (1831-1870) 

Born March, 1831 : succeeded his 
father, Nihal Singh, Sep. 13, 1852. In 
the mutiny he volunteered his assistance, 
first at Jalandhar, and, later, marched 
to Oudh at the head of a mixed force : 
he was engaged there for 10 months, was 
in several actions against the rebels near 
Cawnpur and Lucknow, showing great 
bravery. In 1864 he was made K. C.S.I, 
was rewarded with estates confiscated 
from rebels, and received the right of 
adoption. He died near Aden on April 
2» 1870, on a visit to Europe : his body 
was taken back to India. 



Born May 8, 1829, educated at the 
Elphinstone Institution : edited the lam- 
i-Jamshid, Gujarati newspaper, for 5 years 
and became manager of the Bombay 
Times under Dr. Buist : was made Censor 
of the Native Press at Bombay during the 
mutiny : wrote The Company's Raj con- 
trasted with its Predecessors : went to 
England 1858-9, wrote there The Par sis : 
their History, Manners, Customs, and 
Religion : republished, 1884 : in 1859 
was Assessor to the Bombay Municipality : 
Income Tax Assessor for 4 years : Presi- 
dency Magistrate in Bombay : Licence 
Tax Ofiicer and Income Tax Collector in 
1869 : again Presidency Magistrate : 
Sheriff of Bombay, 1872 : a Chief Presi- 
dency Magistrate, 1874: J.P. : in 1875 
Chairman of the Bombay Corporation : 
C.S.I., 1877 : in the Bombay Legislative 
Council : acted as Collector of Bombay : 
Fellow of the Bombay University : 
resigned the service, 1887 : died March 
17. 1902. 

KARAMAT ALI, SYAD (1796-1876) 
Born at Jaunpur, N.W.P : of a family 
descended from the Prophet : left home 
at 18, in quest of knowledge, spent 2 
years at Lucknow, 10 in Persia : travelled 
widely in Persia and Turkistan : accom- 
panied A. ConoUy on his journey to India 
through Afghanistan and saved his life 
in that country : chiefly on Conolly's 
recommendation, was appointed repre- 
sentative of the Indian Government at the 

Court of Dost Muhammad Khan (the 
Sirdar, afterwards Amir) at Kabul : went 
up there via Ludiana : maintained friend- 
ship with C. M. Wade {q.v.), the A.G.G. 
at Ludiana : much esteemed at Dost 
Muhammad's Court : reported to the 
Indian Government the intrigues of the 
Russians and French at Kabul, and advised 
a definite understanding with the Sirdar, 
who was then anxious to unite himself to 
England. Karamat Ali was recalled from 
Kabul in 1835 : and in 1837, appointed 
Superintendent (mutawali) of the Hughli 
Imambara : where he remained till his 
death in 1876 : had great influence with 
the Muhammadans : much respected by 
the highest European officers. His pre- 
dictions of the conduct of Russia toward 
Persia, the Khanates and Afghanistan, 
have proved remarkably accurate. A 
longer account of his career has been given 
in Syad Ameer All's article on *• England 
and (Russia in Afghanistan" in the 
Nineteenth Century for May, 1905. 


(1869- ) 
Born at Bombay, May 16, 1869 : 
educated at St. Xavier's School and College : 
B.A., 1888 : Senior Fellow : Asst. Professor 
of English and History, 1891 : Examiner 
to the Bombay University in History, 
Geography, Logic, Moral Philosophy, 
Political Economy : helped to found, 
1896, the Collegiate Institution : became 
its Principal and Professor of English 
Literature : his action in obtaining the 
recognition of private colleges led partly 
to the Universities Act of 1904 : Fellow 
of the Royal Historical Society, 1898 : 
M.R.A.S. Bombay, 1888 : M.R.A.S. Great 
Britain 1900 : Member of the American 
Oriental Society, 1897 •• has contributed 
papers to many Journals of Societies, also 
to the Anglo-Indian and English news- 
papers on Indian subjects : discovered and 
published Carlyle's Lectures on European 
Literature, with notes ; author of works on 
Indian History and Politics, Sivaji, 
Akbar, Essays on English History, India 
under Victoria, on the Native Press, 
translated the Parsi Sacred Book, the 
Dinkard : served on Committees of the 
Parsi community to consider questions of 
Religious Education, of Social Ameliora- 
tion, of admitting proselytes, and other 
subjects on which he has written largely. 




SINGH OF ( ? -1857) 
A horseman in a cavalry troop of Ranjit 
Singh iq.v.) : obtained an independent 
command, and for good service received 
from Ranjit the principality of Jammu : 
resided there and extended his authority 
into Ladak : was elected minister of the 
Sikh Khalsa: after Sobraon used his 
influence in favour of friendly relations 
with the British, who sold Kashmir to 
him, after the treaty of Lahore, 1846, and 
made a separate treaty with him : he 
maintained very amicable relations with 
the British Government, and had just 
arranged to furnish a strong auxiliary 
force for ;the suppression of the mutiny 
in the N.W.P., when he died of fever, Aug. 
2, 1857. 



BAHADUR (1850- ) 

Son of Maharaja Ranbir Singh {q.v.), 

and grandson of Maharaja Golab Singh 

iq.v.) : born, 1850 : succeeded his father, 

Sep.' 12, 1885, as Maharaja of Kashmir 

and Jammu : G.C.S.I., 1892 : Maj- 

General in the Army and Honry. Colonel, 

37th Dogras. 

SINGH, OF (1832?-1885) 

Succeeded his father, the Maharaja 
Golab Singh, in 1857 and supplied a con- 
tingent of troops to co-operate with the 
British forces against Delhi : was given 
an adoption sanad in 1862 : K.C.S.I., 
1861 : G.C.S.I., 1866 : made a Commer- 
cial Treaty with the Viceroy and Governor- 
General for the purpose of developing 
trade with Eastern Turkistan, in May, 
1870 : he reduced all transit duties 
through his territories : his maladministra- 
tion, especially in connexion with the 
famine in his country in 1879, attracted 
the attention of the Government of India : 
died, Sep. 12, 1885. 


( ? -1883) 

A clerk in one of the civil offices in Luck- 
now, who, volunteering in disguise, " on 
the night of Nov. 9, 1857," as is recorded 
in the memorial to him in the church at 
Lucknow, " with the devotion of an ancient 
Roman hero, taking his life in his hand. 

went forth from the beleaguered Residency, 
and passing through a city thronged with 
merciless enemies, triumphantly guided 
Sir Colin Campbell on his way to the 
relief of the garrison " : he conveyed in- 
formation from Sir J. Outram, of the 
greatest value to Sir Colin Campbell : 
he wrote How I Won the Victoria Cross, 
which he was awarded for his bravery : 
he was given an appointment in the Oudh 
Commission and rose to be Deputy Com- 
missioner : he died about 1883. 

KAY, REV. WILLIAM (1820-1886) 

Son of Thomas Kay : born April 8, 
1820 : educated at Giggleswick and 
Lincoln College, Oxford : Scholar, Fel- 
low and Tutor : Pusey and Ellerton 
Hebrew Scholar : ordained 1843 : B.D., 
1849: D.D., 1855: Principal of Bishop's 
College, Calcutta, 1849-65, where he 
exerted much influence : received a 
College living at Great Leigh's. Essex : 
Hon. Canon of St. Albans: was one of the 
revisers of the Old Testament in 1870, 
and devoted his life to his parish and to 
critical and learned works on the Scrip- 
tures : he died Jan. 16, 1886. 



Born 1814 : son of Charles Kaye, 
solicitor to the Bank of .'England : educated 
at Eton and Addiscombe : went out to 
India in the Bengal Artillery, 1832-3 : 
retired from the Army, 1841, to adopt a 
literary career : established the Calcutta 
Review in 1844 ; edited the first 5 numbers, 
and wrote 47 articles in the first 50 num- 
bers : returned to England, 1845 : in 
1856 entered the Home Civil Service of 
the E. I. Co. : and in 1858 succeeded J. S. 
Mill as Secretary in the Political and 
Secret Department at the India Office : 
K.C.S.I., 1871 : retired, 1874 : was F.R.S. : 
died July 24, 1876. He wrote his History 
of the War in Afghanistan, 1851 ; the 
A dministration of the East India Company, 

1853 ; the Life and Correspondence of Lord 
Metcalfe, 1854 ; of Henry St. George Tucker, 

1854 ; also of Sir John Malcolm, 1856 ; 
Christianity in India, 1859 ; The History 
of the Sepoy War in India, 1857-8, 1864- 
76 : Lives of Indian Officers, 1867 : besides 
editing Buckle's Memoirs of the Services 
of the Bengal Artillery, 1852 ; Tucker's 
Memorials of Indian Government, 1853, 



and Taylor's People of India, 1868 : also 
contributed largely to periodical literature, 
such as " Writings of an Optimist " etc. 



Born Feb. 6, 1781 : second son of Sir 
John Keane, Bart. : in the 44th regt. in 
1799 : A.D.C. to Lord Cavan in Egypt : 
commanded the 13th regt. at the capture 
of Martinique, 1809 : was in the Peninsula 
in several engagements frotn 1813 : Maj- 
General, 1814 : K.C.B., 1815 : in the 
landing and attack of New Orleans, 1814- 
5 : commanded the troops in Jamaica, 
1823-30 : C. in C. at Bombay from July 
2, 1834, to Feb, 14, 1840 : in 1838 com- 
manded the Bombay Division of the 
Army of the Indus under Sir H. Fane 
iq.v.) : ordered to Sind : given the com- 
mand of both the Bengal and Bombay 
columns advancing into Afghanistan via 
Quetta and Kandahar : tookGhazni, July 
23> 1839 : occupied Kabul, Aug. 7, 1839 : 
in Oct. 1839, the Army of the Indus being 
dispersed, Keane returned to England 
via Lahore : G.C.B. : made Baron Keane 
of Ghazni in Dec. 1839 : died Aug. 26, 


Born April 28, 1857 : Lt- Colonel : son of 
Hall William Keary : educated at Marl- 
borough : joined the Indian Staff Corps, 
1876 : served in Afghan war, 1879-80 : 
Burmese campaign, 1885-6 : commanded 
a Military Police Battalion in Burma, 
1887-92 : Northern Chin Hills, 1892- 
::, China, 1901 : Lt-Colonel, 1903 : D.S.O., 



General : born June 17, 1825 : son of 
Right Hon. Richard Keatinge, Judge 
of the Court of Probate, Ireland : educated 
privately : entered the Bombay Artillery, 
1842 : Maj-Geheral, 1884 : General, 1894 : 
Assistant Superintendent, Nimar, 1847 : 
served through the Indian mutiny : dis- 
armed the Asirghar garrison : Political 
Officer with the Mhow force and the ist 
Brigade, Central India Field Force : 
at the siege of Dhar, and battle of Mand- 
iswar : with the Bombay Artillery at the 
siege of Chandairi : gained the V.C, March 
17, 1858 : he voluntarily led the column 

through the breach, under heavy cross 
fire, and led into the fort : twice severely 
wounded : success mainly due to him : 
commanded irregular troops in Satpura 
hills, 1858-9, against insurgents : joined 
Brig. Parke's Brigade in the pursuit of 
Tantia Topi : Political Agent in Malwa, 
1857 : in Nimar, i860 : at Gwalior, 1862- 
3 : and Kattiawar, 1863-7 : took the 
field against rebel Wagheers in Kattiawar, 
1865-6 : Governor-General's Agent in 
Rajputana, 1867-70 : acting Chief Com- 
missioner, Central Provinces, 1870-2 : 
the first Chief Commissioner of Assam, 
1874-8 : C.S.L, 1866 : died May 25* 1904- 

KEEN, SIR F. J. (1843-1902) 
Colonel : joined the 35th Bengal N.I., 
1854 : in the mutiny, at the siege and 
capture of Delhi, rehef of Lucknow ; showed 
great gallantry at the storming of the 
Sikandrabagh, at the battle of Cawnpur, 
capture of Lucknow : at Bareli and other 
actions : retired, 1892 : K.C.B., 1900 : 
died June 25, 1902. 



I.C.S. : son of Thomas Keene : born Sep. 
30, 1781 : educated privately : went out to 
the Indian Army, 1798 : was in the siege of 
Seringapatam, May 4, i799 '• transferred 
to Madras Civil Service, by influence of 
his uncle. Lord Harris {q.v.) : passed 
through the College of Fort William, 
Calcutta : served in Madras, but resigned 
his appointment in 181 1 : graduated at 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 
1815 : resigned the Indian Civil Service 
and was ordained in 1817 : became Pro- 
fessor of Arabic and Persian at Haileybury 
in 1824, and Registrar : resigned his Pro- 
fessorship in 1834 : edited some Persian 
works : died Jan. 29, 1864. 

I.C.S. : Son of Rev. Professor Keene : 
educated at Rugby, Oxford, and Hailey- 
bury : entered the Indian Civil Service, 
1847 : served in N.W. Provinces and retired 
in 1882 : Fellow of Calcutta University : 
CLE. 1882 : author of Fall of the Mogul 
Empire, 1876; Madhava Rao Sindia, 1892 ; 
History of India, 1898 ; ^ Servant oflohn 
Company : edited Oriental Biographical 
Dictionary contributed articles to Diction- 
ary of Natwnal Biography. 




(1847- ) 

Born 1847 : entered the Army, 1867, 
and became Lt-Colonel, 1897 : served in 
the Afghan war, 1878-9: Mahsud- Waziri 
expedition, 1 88 1 : Hazara expedition, 1888 : 
D.S.O.. 1889 : N.W. Frontier, 1897-8 : 
C.B., 1898. 


NEVILLE_( 1866-1887) 

Born July 5, 1856, third son of the Earl 
of Kintore : educated at Cheam, Harrow, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge : studied 
Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic : gained the 
Tyxwhitt University Hebrew Scholarship 
and a first-class in the Semitic Languages 
tripos : came under the influence of 
General C. G. Gordon {q.v.) R.E. in 1880- 
1 : studied Arabic at Assiout on the 
Nile, 1 88 1-2 : was University Examiner 
in 1883-4 : determined to go to Aden as 
Missionary to the Arabs : went out for 
6 months to Aden experimentally, 1885-6 : 
was formally appointed on May 26, 1886, 
by the General Assembly of the Free 
Church of Scotland to found and carry 
on a Mission to the Arab Muhammadans : 
he was appointed Lord Almoner's Pro- 
fessor of Arabic at Cambridge in 1886 : 
went to Aden again, Dec. 1886 : lived in 
a temporary abode at Sheikh Othman, nine 
miles inland from Aden, to learn Somali : 
he soon suffered from fever and yielded to 
successive attacks, dying on May 11, 1887. 
The Keith-Falconer Mission has since 
continued there. He translated the 
Syriac version of the Fables of Bidpai 
1885. He was also a great cyclist : 
and performed a number of feats, breaking 
previous records of time and distance : 
he was President of the London Bicycle 
Club, 1877-86. 



Educated at the Parental Academy, 
now the Doveton College, Calcutta : 
entered the service of the Indian Govern- 
ment, 1841: was Inspr-General of Accounts, 
1866-70 : Military Accountant-General, 
1871-77 : Financial Commissioner and 
Member of Council, Cyprus, 1878-83 : 
Assistant Paymaster-General in the Court 
of Chancery, 1884: K.C.M.G. 1879: 
C.S.I. : died June 10, 1886. 

KELLOGG, SAMUEL H. (1839-1899) 

Born in Westhampton, N.Y., Sep. 6, 
1839 : graduated from Princeton Seminary, 
1864 : to India as a Missionary, 1864, 
sent by the American Presbyterian Board : 
became Instructor in the Theological 
Training School at Allahabad, 1872 : a 
corresponding member of the American 
Oriental Society : returned home, 1876 : 
D.D. at Princeton, 1877 •• Pastor of a 
Presbyterian Church at Pittsbmrg, 1877, 
and at Toronto, 1886-92 : lectured, 1879, 
on Comparative Rehgion in the Western 
Theological Seminary : returned to India, 
1892, on behalf of the North India and 
British and Foreign Bible Societies, to 
join a committee for translating the Old 
Testament into Hindi : died May 3, 1899 : 
wrote : — Grammar of the Hindi Language, 
1876 ; The Light of Asia, and The Light 
of the World, 1885. 


Born 1843 : entered the Army, 1863, 
and became Colonel, 1895 : served in 
Hazara expedition, 1891 : Miranzai ex- 
pedition, 1 891: Chitral expedition, 1895 : 
Brevet -Colonel and C.B. 



Entered the Army, 1834 : son of Colonel 
Kelly : served in the Crimea : taken 
prisoner when wounded : in the mutiny 
commanded the 34th regt. in the actions at 
Cawnpur, capture of Lucknow and relief 
of Azimghar : commanded a column in 
Oudh in 1858-g, and a Field Force in 
1859, and on the Nipal frontier : C.B., 
1858 : K.C.B., i860 : retired, 1864 : Maj- 
General, 1868 : General, 1880 : died July 
2, 1897. 


(1820- ) 

Born Nov. 18, 1820 : son of T. Kemball 
Political Officer : educated at Addiscombe 
joined the Bombay Artillery, 1837 
served in the first Afghan war, 1838-9 
at Ghazni and Kabul : Assistant Resident 
at Bushire, 1842 : Political Resident, 
Persian Gulf, 1852 : Consul-General, 
Bagdad, and Political Agent, Turkish 
Arabia, 1855-73 : in the Persian war, 
1857, at Ahwaz and Muhamra : C.B. : 
and Brevet-Major : on the Turko-Persian 


Boundary Commission, 1873 '• Military 
Attache with the Turkish Army in the 
Russo-Turkish war, 1876-77 : K.C.S.I., 
1866 : K.C.B., 1878 : General, 1880. 


Born Oct. 1859 : son of Maj-General 
J. S. Kemball : educated at Harrow : 
joined R.A., 1878 : and became Lt- 
Colonel, 1901 : served in Afghan war, 
1879-80 : Chitral Relief Force, 1895 : 
Brevet-Major : N.W. Frontier, 1897-8 : 
West Africa, 1901 : commanded Kano- 
Sakoto expedition, 1903 : C.B.: D.S.O., 
1902 : Brig-General, West African Field 



Political : son of William Kennaway : 
born March 6, 1858 : educated at Exeter 
Grammar School : entered the E. I. Co.'s 
military service in 1772 : wrecked at the 
mouth of the Ganges : in 178 1 he was 
Persian Secretary to Col. T. D. Pearse, 
commanding the force sent from