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I I 

Frank Murray, 

Murray. I 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 




Explained and Illustrated from the rich and 
interesting Folklore of the Valley. 


Rkv. J ^INTON\kNO WLES, F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S., Ac, 

(a M. s.) 


A wise man will endeavour "to understand a proverb 
and the interpretation.*' — Prov. I. w. 5, 6. 


Education Society's Press. 


LONDON :— Trubnkr & Co. 

[All rights reserved.'] 

t « Cf € . • C ',« 





That moment when an author dots the last period to his 
manuscript, and then rises up from the study-chair to shake 
its many and bulky pages together is almost as exciting an 
occasion as when he takes a quire or so of foolscap and sits 
down to write the 6rst Uoe of it. Many and mingled feelings 
pervade his mind, and hope and fear vie with one another 
and alternately overcome one another, until at length the 
author finds some slight relief for his feelings and a kind of 
excuse for his book, by writing a preface, in which he states 
briefly the nature and character of the work, and begs the 
pardon of the reader for his presomption in undertaking it. 

A winter in Kashmir must be experienced to be realised. 
The air is most inyigorating, and the quiet is sublime. Even 
an ordinarily busy missionary enjoys much leisure through 
such a season in this beautiful country. 

I have now spent two long quiet winters here, and this 
'* Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs and Sayings" is the 
result of many hours of labour, study, and anxiety, during 
these leisurable months. As a missionary, on arriving in the 
Valley, I at once devoted my attention to the study of the 
language ; and believing that Proverbs taught " the real 
people's speech," discovered "the genius, wit and spirit of a 
nation," and embodied its ** current and practical philosophy,'* 


I quickly began to make a collection of them.* This hook, 

I believe, contains nearly all the Proverbs and Proverbial 

sayings now extant among the Kashmiri people. They have 

been gathered from various sources. Sometimes the great 

and learned Pandit instinctively uttered a proverb in my 

hearing; sometimes I got the barber to tell me a thing 

or two, as he polled my head ; and sometimes the poor coolie 

said something worth knowing, as carrying my load he 

tramped along before me. A few learned Muhammadan 

and Hindu friends also, have very materially helped me in 

this collection and its arrangement ; and here I again heartily 

acknowledge their kind and ready service. 

Actum est. It is done ; and now the manuscript has to 

be sent to the publishers, and notices have to be posted to the 

different papers and journals interested to advertise the work 

as *' in the press." "What will the little world say, into whose 

hands it may chance to arrive ? How will the philologist, the 

ethnologist, the antiquarian, the student of folklore, and the 

general reader regard this which has cost some considerable 

time and study. Dear reader, in order that your criticism 

may not be so hard as it might, perhaps, otherwise be, please 

permit me to remind you that Kashmir proper is but a small 

country, a little vale surrounded by snow-capped mountain 

ranges, about eighty-four miles long from north-west to 

south-east, and from twenty to twenty-five miles in width, 

with an area of about 1,850 square miles ; that the Kashmiri 

* " The genius, wit and spirit of a nation are discovered in its 
proverbs. " — Bacon. 

" Proverbs embody the current and practical philosophy of an age 
or nation."— Fleming. 

" Proverbs teach the real people's speech, and open up the hitherto 
sealed book of the native mind." — John Beames. 


language is virtually minus a Dictionary and Grammar, and 
that besides one or two very unimportant works* written in 
the Persian character, all true Kashmiri books are printed in a 
kind of mongrel- Devanagari character called Shiirada, which 
only a very small proportion of the population can properly 
read ; that the Kashmiri language itself is very difficult, and 
is spoken differently by different persons — the Hindiis and 
Muhammadans, especially, speaking distinct dialects; that 
information from books of travel, &c., like Vigne's, Hugers, 
Knight's, Drew's, Bellew's and others, is very crude, scanty, 
and contradictory, concerning the manners and customs of the 
Kashmiri ; and that this individual is not naturally so com- 
municative as mi[^ht be expected from his cheery look and 
humorous disposition. 

Horace says somewhere " Nonum prematur in annum ; " 
and perhaps it would have been better to have kept by me 
what I have written, for nine years before publishing it. But 
other work demands much of my leisure time, — the prepara- 
tion of a Kashmiri Dictionary, of which these proverbs, and 
the words that contain them, form but a stepping-stone, and 
the translations of the ** Psalms of David** and ** Proverbs of 
Solomon,'* which have been deferred only because of the non- 
appearance as yet of the revised edition of the Old Testament, 
However, I trust the reader will accept my various excuses 
and forgive any error, whether in the romanizing, or the style, 
or the information, as the case may be. 

The Proverbs and Sayings have all been translated as liter- 
ally as possible ; and with a fairly-trained ear I have honestly 
tried hard to render correctly in the Roman character what 

* A short interesting account of the origin of this character is 
given in Dr. Klmslie's Kashmiri Vocabulary, p. 149. 


I heard ; but the different dialects made this very confasing 
work ; and there were some sounds which could not possibly 
be written like Roroan-Urdd, except with the following addi- 
tional vowels : — 

An o as the German o, but short. 

An o as the German o, but long and drawling. 
These two vowels, I believe, exist in Hungarian. 

An u as the German u. 

An M as the German m, but long and drawling. 

In addition to these there is a sound which is something 
like a very short i, to which I have given the name of Miydli 
zer ; it is frequently the sign of the instrumental case as ktcriy 
a dog, huni by a dog, &c. This sound, I believe, is to be 
found in Russian, and is in that language written as j. In 
the Roman character this sound will be represented by the 
simple letter «, and in order that this i may always appear, I 
have always written the final Ae {hd,e mukhtaji). With the 
exception of this i or hhiydli zer^ 1 have, however, avoided 
introducing any diacritical points. The following is the 
Roman- Kashmiri alphabet with the powers of the letters : — 

A a pronounced 

as a in woman. 

P d pronounced as d in barf — 

A i 

a in art. 

the point of the 

Ai ai 

ai in aisle. 

tongue is struck 

An au 

au in our. 

back on the palate. 

B b 

b in hwt. 



„ e in there. 


ch in church 



„ e in pet. 

D d 


d in </ew, the 
of the tongue 



„ / in /ind, the 
English / is only 

is pressed on the 

sounded, and then 

upper fore-teeth. 

very badly, in the 



middle or at the 
end of a word. If 
it occurs at the 
commeacement of 
a word it is most 
distinctly and inva- 
riably turned into 

6 g pronounced as ^ in ^. 
The Arabic letter hgain gK, 

with its peculiar guttural sound 

is seldom heard in pure Kaah- 


H h pronounced as h in ^use. 

I i is a kind of half 

t. I hear that 
there is something 
analogous to this 
to be found in Rus- 
sian and is written 
as ;'. 

I ( pronounced as t in police. 

J j ,, j injust. 

K k M A in feec^le* 

Kh kh „ ch in the Scotch 
and Irish \ocht or 
the final ch of the 
German schacA and 

L 1 pronounced as 2 in lane. 

M m pronounced as m in man. 
N n „ n in noon 

N n „ n in the 

French words saws, bon. 
O o pronounced as o in no. 
P P „ p in^aint, 

Ph ph „ similar to 

ph in ^Alegm. 
The Kashmirfs 
turn the Persian 
«J/? into phe, 
e.g., phaklr and 
phatah for fakir 
and fatb, except 
perhaps when 
this letter, or 
rather sound, 
comes in the mid- 
dle, and at the 
end of a word. 

R r pronounced as r in ran. 
A Scotchman's r is perhaps not 
met with in pure Kashmiri. 

The euphonic r is very com- 
mon, e.g., bonth and brohth« 
by or and bror, &c. The Mu- 
hammadans generally omit the 
r in these and similar words. 
S s pronounced as s in sin. 
Sh sh „ th in Mine. 



T t pronounced as t in <ake. 

Ts ts pror 


ed as ts in ge^*. 

the point of the 

U u 


in top. 

tongue is press- 

U d 


w in rwle. 

ed on the upper 

V 1 


both having 


a power be- 

T t „ ^injfuh,the 

tween the 

point of the 

English V 

tongue is press- 

and w. 

ed back on the 

Y y 


y in year. 


Z z 


z in zeal. 

Note. — Bh, chh, gh, kh, ph, th, th and tsh are respec- 
tively the aspirates of ch, g, k, p, t and t, and ts, and are pro- 
nounced as one letter. 

With regard to the '* point" of the different proverbs and 
sayings, I have been through them all, as here written, with 
a little council of learned Muhamraadan and Hindu Kashmiri 
friends, and not allowed one to pass, until I got their full and 
undivided sanction to my explanation of it. The notes and 
facetiae, &c., are such as cropped-up in the course of writing, 
and have been jotted down in the hope that they will be 
interesting to some readers. 

And lastly, but by no means of the last importance, I trust 
that if any reader is pleased with this book, and thinks fit, he 
will kindly recommend it to others, as the whole profits of 
the work are to be devoted to the sorely-strained funds of the 
*' Medical Mssion Hospital," Kashmir. 


Kashmir, February 1th, 1885. 


Ab tih ioth bab iih toth. 

I love myself and I love my father. 

The reply of a very covetous man to a friend, when that friend 
said that he would give him only one oat of the two thingi which 
be coveted. 

A grasping disposition. 

Abah tali shrdk, 
A knife in the water. 

A traitor in the camp. 

Ab is the word generally nsed by Uobammedani ia the valley. 
The Hind6s invariably say pint or poni. 

Abas andar krand. 

A hig basket in the water. 

A man, who ex officio is a person of some position and influence, 
is like a krand in tho water. So long as he retains his employment, 
he retains his authority, but as soon as he is dismissed, he loses 
that authority and hononr. The basket as long as it floats in the 
stream is filled with water, but inunodiately yon take it out of the 
stream it is emptied. 

Achh kdnijdn tah wat kdni nak. 

Better that the eye be blind than that the way be blind. 
He that goes a*borrowing goes a-sorrowing. 

Achh waUhah tah ffdshah raUhah. 
May your eyes be opened but see nothing. 
A Kashmiri curse. 

Achhin ungujeh thukanih. 
To strike the eyes with the fingen. 
To tease, to bother. 


/.■.;;/i,v:0 •:;..;, ^' ' 

Achhuv andarah riyih surmah kadit. 

He'll take the fvery) antimony out of your eyes (and you'll 

not know it). 

A sharp fellow, Beware ! . . . 

Surmah is black sulphuret of antimony, used for pencilling the eyes. 

jidal tah wadal zandnah chhai pashich zadal Uhai. 
A contrary woman is like bad grass on the roof. 

Grass not fitted for thatching does not set well, but lets the rain 
through the roof. Cf. Prov. xxvii. 15. 

Adi dadi yeUhih tah adi dadi reUhih. 

Half (the people) are burnt with wishing and half are burnt 

with scandal. 

The struggle for popularity and place. 

Adi Ldr tah adi Dor. v 
Half at Lar and half at Dar. 

A man of large and scattered property ; but who cannot get at it 
or obtain anything from it. 

Adin khash tah adin ash. 

To half (the people) wretchedness and to half happiness, 

Admi bastan andar chhtih sir. ~'--J . (■ ^^ ft Z^ "^ 
A secret is (concealed) under the skin of man.(;u^/^^^ \^^A^ 
Man is a make-up of mystery. 

Adui umr tah badui baUi. 
Half-life and great misfortune (be to you). 
A Kashmiri curse. 

Adyav kheyih chinih adyav khhjih idki. 

Half (the people) ate from the large dishes and half from the 

small dishes. 

A badly-arranged dinner. 

Affah bod paharas nnukar bod icaharas. 

The master is great in three hours, the servant is great in 

a year. 

Some people earn as much in three hours as others do in twelve 

Agah Icardn nethar tah varzun nah m/indn. 
The master gets married, but the servant does not agree to it, 
A contrary servant. 

Agar Khdn tjuyov ffagar to'iji^ talih no mijis kum-t/jt. 
Agar Khin entered into a rat's hole, and there he did not 

get, even, a bran-cake. 

In ertremis. 

Once Agar Kli&u wm rodacod to such distress that he was glad to 
take shelter in a little broken-down hut and sleep there. 

Agar Khunitn hustti luslu tih lustu; lust a nah tah khiUlu. 
Should Agar Kh in's elephant live, it lives ; and if it does 

not live, then never mind. 

Some people arc so little respected, that it does not mnch matter 
whether they live or die. 

Agar Khfiti was one of the old Pathdn governors of Kashmir. In 
his time attiiirs arrived at a crisis. The army had robolled, and the 
treasury was <?mpty. To support his family and servants he 
parted with his jewels and other treasures, and yet all through this 
time of the direst distress he wa!< keeping a favourite elephant. 
When he could no longer feed the pot beast, he let it go to wander 
whither it pleased. 

Agar ijer hxrihjald yiyih^ agarjahi karih tjir yigih. 

If he delays he will come quickly, bat if he h.istcns he will 

come slowly. 

More Iiaste, worse speed. 

Ahalamari ratah-khari. 

The quarrelsome people of .\halamar. 

AhaUimar is one of the chief divisions ot trH* nry of Srfnagar. In 
olden days it was the regular thing on evory Frilay for tins young 
people of one division to ohallonge in fight tho young ]H'Ople of 
another division. A certain place and hour would be arranged, and 
the youths armed with sticks and slings, drc, would assemble on 
their respective sides. At a signal from their leaders they would 
join combat, and generally there were several broken limbs and 
sometimes deaths, resulting from these fights. His Utghncss the 
late Maharajah GaI4b Singh put an end to these disgraceful 

The youngsters of Ahalamar were very pugnacious, and especially 
so respecting the people of Snth, a noighbjuring division. Perhaps 
this was because they generally " got a.n good as they gave " At any 
rate these two divisions had many fights with one another. The 
Ahalamar youth would march in a crowd shouting : — 
Snthen zachih tah kuthcn ndr 
Ahalamariav yand ik Uir. 
** Bagged clothes to the people of Suth, and may their bundles 
catch fire. 
The people of Ahalamar gave chase to them." 


Then the crowd from Suth would meet them shouting : — 
Ahalamari ratah-khari ; 
Lejan chhik nah hatah phali ; 
Chandan chhik nah hdrah nali. 
** The quarrelsome jJeople of Ahalamar 
They have not a rice-grain in their pots. 
They have not a cowrie in their pockets." 
One is reminded of the English custom of *' beating the bounds " 
on Holy Thursday, when the parish school children, accompanied by 
the clergyman and parish oflBcers, used to walk through their parish 
from end to end. The boys had willow wands with which they 
struck the lines of boundary, (and sometimes the boys of the 
adjoining parish). 

'' AihakUahkatih&kr' 

"Az khdnai Mumah Tdkr 

" Nah tsah nm nah Uah p&k, 

" Birav hinshin bdld-i-tok.^* 

*' O cabbage, whence came ye ?" 

*• From the house of Mumah Tak." 

" You are neither salted nor cooked. 

" Heugh ! go and sit on the window." 

Hdk sometimes called HSk-wak, or (as in Persian) Sag, a cabbage 
OP any edible vegetable. 

Whenever the hak is badly cooked the above lines are sure to be 

liumah Tdk was a great greengrocer in Srinagar city. 

Aib panun mushok. 

A man loves his own fault. 

" Oh, wad some power the giftie gie us 
To see oursels as others see us. " 

Aibo jpeyiyo gaibuch balai, mandachhih patah chhai khijulat. 
O sin, let Heaven's misfortune fall upon you— to you is shame 

upon shame. 

" Be Bure your sin will find you out." 

Ak ai tah untham kyah ? Timah ai tah khyawaham kyah ? 
If you have come, what have you brought ? If I come, what 

will you give me to eat ? 

A mercenary individual. 

Ak bdnah, beyih pdnah^ beyih talab&nahy beyih koriadilh 

r,a*t^f ^'" ■■'■■ "^■t'; 

First (they seized) my dish, then myself, then (I had) to pay ^)^ 
the witnesses, and then (they abused me, calling me) the 
eater of ray daughter's hire, and the keeper of a brothel. 
A poor prisoner in tho hands of the policeman. 

Ak bard,e KhufiH tah hh/ih hastis khd^it. g . //, .. 

A man begs and then gets up on an elephant, ^*J 

" To mo Wit an elephant " is an expression for beooxnisg proud or 

Jk budih tah methih, by/ik hudih tah teihih. 

One man U old and sweet, another old and bitter.) / / ... 

Ak chhiwyov ma»ah bynk hAkah rasah. 

One man is intoxicated with the juice of thegrapc, another 

with the juice of vegetables. 

Pride dwells in every one, bo ho rich or poor. 

" Kashmir is tho only part of India whore wino is made from the 
jnico of the grape, a fact to bo attribatod rather to it« aoeBcent 
quality than to any loaroity of tho fruit." 

Ak ffavjani y^r, by/tic gav nuni y&r. 

One is a thorough friend, another is a " loafer." 

7V<ini yar, a bread friend. 
P«r»«an~rar't.j(iH o ydr-i-ncin. 

Ak gub neriht ak Ichor huehih, petjih gdsah, wafui nah kehh. 
One sheep in a meadow, one kharwar (of grain) in thehouse» 

and the bulrush (these three) do not last. 

The shoop and tho khanv&r are bat " as a drop in the ocean," Boon 
■wallowed up, and tho bulrush quickly rots. or Khancdr, is a dry measure, containing lbs. 192. The 
literal meaning of the word is an ass-load. Khar is tho Kushmirf 
word for an ass (liko tho Persian). 

Ak hhojas suet batah khyun, beya sinis kun athah nyun ? 
When a person is dining with a great man, will he stretch 

out his hand towards the dish (to help himself) 1 

Give him a yard, and he'll take an ell. 

Ak kot tah beyih kutis garawani. 

First there's the gallows, then there's the trouble of making 

the gallows. 

A difficult and losing game. 

Ak lewon graitas byuk Ihvon gratloioidi sunzih chinih. 
One licks the mill-stone, the other licks the millers dish. 

As fast as one earns, the other spends. r 

Ak nyuv Yaman tah hyok khyav braman. iG. - ' 

Death took one and the other was seduced from his own 

country to another country in hope of gain. 

A man of large family, but not one child left to him, all scattered. 

Yama is the Hindu god and judge of the dead. 

Ak n'lfiz tah beyih gumah rufiz. 
A Shi'a and also a village Shi'a. 

There are Shi'as and Shi'as. 

The village Shi'as are much more superstitions and bigoted than 
the city Shi'as. Altogether there are about six thousand Shi'as in the 
valley. They are found chiefly at Zadibal, a few miles to the north 
of Srinagar, and at Hasandbad near to the city lake, where their prin- 
cipal mosque is. 

Great bitterness of feeling exists between the Sunfs and the Shi'as, 
the rival sects of Muhammedanism, which occasionally manifests 
itself in open fights ending in loss of life and great destruction of 
property. In 1874 the Maharajah's troops were obliged to be called 
out to quell the rioters. During the Pathan rule in the valley the 
Shi'as were forbidden to celebrate the Muharram. About the time 
when the country vvas annexed to the Durrdni empire (1753-1819 a.d.), 
the Shi'as determined to enact this sacred feast ; and acordingly 
compelled a Suni boy to eat salt ; then tantalized him with water ; 
and just as he was about to drink it they shot him to death with 
arrows, so, that he might perish like Husain, who was killed by Yazid 
near Eufa, in the desert, of thirst. When 'Abdu'lM Kbdn, who had 
just conquered this country, heard of this, he was much enraged and 
immediately gave the order for the collecting of all the Shi'as in 
Srinagar, that their noses might be pierced, and one line of string 
run through the whole of them, and that, thus fastened together, 
they might be conducted through the principal thoroughfares of 
the city. Nothing daunted, however, they very soon again tried to 
celebrate their sacred festival, and notably in the time of the Sikh 
governor Bama Singh ( 1830 a.d.) There was a great Suni living in 
Kashmir in the fifteenth century, whose name was Muqaddam Sahib, 
He had a large number of followers, amongst whom was Shams-ud-din, 
a Persian Shi'a, who managed to conceal his religious views and to 
ingratiate himself into his master's favour, though all the time he 
was really proselytising. He thus made many converts to the Shi'a 
faith, and in consequence is much respected by the Shi'as, for these 
people have a j)rinciple of religious compromise called takia, 
whereby the Shi'a thinks that he is perfectly justified in lying and 
deceiving to save himself from religious persecution. It appears 
that during the year or so of Bama Singh's governorship in Kashmir, 

the Shfas when celebrating the Muharram purposely spat ia tka 
direction of the MuqiMldam Sahib's tomb, and this so enraged the 
Sunis that they foil ufK)ii thorn then and there and slew fifteen of 
them, besides doing much damage to their property. Since then 1 
Persian traders have kept at a distance from Kashmir. 

Ak tah ak gav hah. 
One and one are eleven. 

Two heads are better than one. 

Ak woTn'n wayivi byuk pilanuwnn chhus petj. 

One weaves the mat and another holds out to him the reed. 

The mat-maker could work much better alone. Hence the above 
is quoted when uunecesaary help is received. 

Ak wukur heyih trdkur. 

First, you are unfortunate ; secondly, you are proud. 
Pride without reason. 

Ak zulih bachhih tal hihit toh, tah hijuk zulih tumul. 

One will sit by tho tire-place and buru chaff, while another 

will burn rice. 

Economy and extravagance. 

Ak saw'tnah chhai dnulatthy<ik zattat. 

One woman is wealth to you, another is ruination. 

Ak zow'nah chhai hat lanjih bunt, bjfuk chhai bar tal hmi 

One woman is (like) a hundred-branch plane-tree to you, 

another is like a bitch at the door. 

The 6an< or chiniir {VI atanus Or ientalis) of Kashmiris one of the 
finest and most shado-giviug trees. It was intnxluced by the Mn- 
hamraadans from iho West, and under tho fostering attention of 
royalty this splendid tree with its palmate loaves and spreading 
bi-anches, has reached Uie greatest ago and attention in Kashmir. 

Akhu ffamut yirah tah w'lrih mangdn tang. 

A man is contused and asks for pears from the willow tree. 

Akha khut hastis bigi'kh'i khaslan dusih. 

One man rode upouan elephant, another mounted the wall. 

Uigh and low ; rich and poor. 

Panjdbi. — Uik yinne, te diyd ghoreghinne. 

AkhA lasin susas mar as. 

Let one man live for the sake of a thousand houses. 

Go<l spare tho public b«>nofactor. 


Akhi latik khasih nah gvris, beyih lalih pakih nah piyudah. 
At one time he will ride on a horse, at another time he will 

go on foot. 

Diruit cedificat miitat quadrdta rotundis» 

Akhi waktah prdnah'Ttuj tah heyih waktah pranah-dyal. 

At one time the onion-plant, and at another time the onion- 
Good and bad times. 

Ahi sund dazih ub tah heyih sund dazih nah til. 

One man can burn water, where another cannot even burn 


A matter of luck. 
AH sund dyurah chandah beyih sund hata. 
One man's pocketful of money (is no more than) another 

man's word. 

Ahi tsat sum tah sas gav hulih. 

One man cut the bridge, and a thousand people fell into the 

Ptmishment visited upon many because of the iniquity of one. 

This is a saying derived from a true story (so a native friend says). 
A very long time ago a large crowd of people were travelling toge- 
ther; — perhaps they were going on a visit to some popular shrine. 
In the midst of the crowd there was a very wicked man who did not 
seem to be able to think, or say, or do, anything except that which 
was evil. On seeing a swift and deep stream in front, this wicked 
man ran on ahead and crossed the ordinary plank bridge built over 
it ; and no sooner had he himself crossed over, than with his big 
hatchet he hacked and hewed away at the supporting beam of the 
bridge, until it broke into two pieces and the whole structure fell 
down, and was soon carried away by the angry waters. Now what 
were the people to do ? — go they must to this place, concerning 
which they had been making preparations many-a-long-day before. 
At length two or three of the bolder spirits among them determined to 
wade the stream ; and the others encouraged by their example resolved 
to venture also. They all started together, but, alas ! when they 
reached the middle of the water the swiftness and depth proving 
too much for them they all lost heart, gave themselves to be carried 
away by the waters, and were drowned. 

AM tsond dunyd tah beyih ahi imdn ; dunyd tah imdn chhih 

nah donawai athih yiwdn. 
One man sought the world and another sought for faith ; the 

world and faith both do not come into the same hand. 

'* Ye cannot serve God and mammon. " 


uihis ehhiik daz&n ddr tah byak ekhus tovshanawun athah. 
One man's beard is on fire, and another man warms his 

hands by it. 

To be glad at another's misfortune. 

P&njibi. — Kini ki ghar jale, koi tape. 

Akia gom zah ; ffHthar gdm ihethar ; knwas gdyam kukil. 
One became two ; friends became enemies ; the crow became 
a dove. 

An old man's answer to a friend, who had sent to enquire how he 
was. The meaning is that a staff was now "part and parcel " of him ; 
that his teeth had deterted him ; and that hia raven-black hair had 
tnrned grey 

Aklah chhuni gara Mm tah garu mynni, 

Aklnh, the carpenter's wife, sometimes yours, and sometimes 


A stupid, g&rmloas, onfaithfal woman. 

Akut abur tah J\Ug san; leunui phuiah tah drug tan. 

A single cloud, and it is as the month of January ; a single 

fast, and it is as though a famine. 

Au jour le jonr. 

Al Kashmir murdah-pasand. 

The Kashmiri people are fond of the dead. 

To •' never speak evil of the dead " is a prominent good feature in 
the Kashmiri's character. 

Alagadih buddn tah malagndih wotalan ; Witha hukhan; 
hhiar grasan ; filiht hd tnuliht ds% wundur rt'.j. 

The great man will sink; the base man will rise; the river 
will dry up ; the sewer will roar (by reason of the much 
water); then, O Father, will be the monkey rule {i.e., a 
time of utter irreligion and great oppression). 
A saying of Shekh NOr-nd-din, who wasa very famous Muhammedan 

aaint in Kashmir about six hundred years ag^. His shrine is at Tsrir, 

a village about fifteen miles from Srinagar; and every October there 

is a great mel& there in his honour. 

Wetha is the Jholum river in its course through Kashmir. Hind 6 

priests call it Yetasta. 

Alah kulis tulah kul, 
A mulberry tree from a pumpkin plant 
A mountain from a mole>hilI. 



Alak ruwuni w&ngan Icaduni. 

To sow pumpkins, and reap egg-plants. 

To begin a thing and not finish it. 

Wdngun is known in Hindustan by the name of brinj41 ( solO' 
nurn melongena), the egg-plant. The Kashmiris dry it, and eat it 
during the winter. 

Alan chhuh phal tah nindan chhuh donih. 

There is fruit to the plough, and rice for the raking. 

Thrift brings its own reward. 

j/ilbailas nah chhas akl tah nah maut. 
Neither understanding nor death to a fat man. 

" Fat paunches have lean pates. " — Shaks. 

All ('ngun samMle ; fakir auye damule. 

O All, prepare your garden ; the fakir has come to dance. 

Quoted as a warning to prepare for any person's coming. 

^'FaTiir has come to dance" Fakirs stamp upon the ground, 
gesticulate, and in other ways annoy people, if their demands for 
largesse are not quickly complied with. 

Ali dits'jv talih gyav zuwav kurus lyav tah lyav. 

All oiled her head with ghi, and the lice licked and licked 

it all up. 

Money in the hands of a worthless person. 

Alih drds tah talih logum tsel. 

In the moment of birth my head was squeezed. 

Man commences his troublous career as soon as he is bom. 

Alikmini dandah hatoar ; ale nah atsan garah, tah hy&k nah 

neran barah. 
One-eyed 'All's yoke of oxen, — one will not enter the house^ 

and the other will not come out of it. 

A poor man with a refractory family. 

Most people in the valley will remember one-eyed 'A15 and hia two 
troublesome bullocks. 

Alond U/mdun 

Seeking to get at a thing which is hanging out of reach. 

Clavam Hercule extorqu^re. 

Amal gav gulih mat. 

Employment is like dirt upon the wrist. 

Employment is uncertain ; like dirt upon the wrist, it quioklf 
comes and goes. 


Am^inalas khiydnat. 

To embezzle a deposit (is a tremeDdous sin). 
The height of dishonour. 

Amanuk tot, 
Aman's pony, 

A bad, lazy fellow who requires a lot of uiifing before he will do 

Aman is a small Kashmiri village. A man once porohased a pony 
from this place, and was setting forth on his way home, when the 
beast suddenly stopped, and nearly threw the rider over his head. 
Any little ditch or such like place caused the pony to thus stop. 
Eventually the purchaser got off the animal, and adced a passer-by 
to mount it. The other man being a good horseman was not afraid 
to hit the pony ; and so for the rest of the journey, and ever after- 
words, the pony went splendidly. 

Amas suet har gayih khumas 9uet garah karun. 
To Quarrel with the common people is like keeping house 
mth a stupid, untaught person (which is misery). 

Ami phukah chhuh dazdn Uong tah ami phukak chhuh 

gatjMn pati. 
With this blow of the breath the lamp is lit, and with this 

blow it is extinguished. 

" Out of the same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing." 

Am{ y&rahalan ehhih kntiy^ih naii pkuiar^vamati 1 
How many water-pots this ghat has broken ! 
A source of much evil. 

Amin gogalan til tan phenin. 
Like mixing oil with raw turnips. 

Treasured wrath. 

The oil will not settle, but runs all over and about the turnips. 
In this way anger spreads over the breast of an unforgiving man. 

Amin natun mdl. 

A desire for raw flesh (is it ?) 

Cited to a man who is impatient for his food, &0t 

Amis dudas suet dabadab. 
To wrestle with uncooked milk. 
To strive with the weak. 

Amis panas darah dar. 
To pull raw thread. 
To fight, or bully, a weak fellow. 


An mana, karfana; rachhun chhui bod gunah. 

Bring a maund, and spend it. It is a great sin to store. 

Jogis sometimes quote these words, 

An Wetky dis dam, adah budin garni gam. 

Bring the Jhelum, drink it, and then let the whole Tillage be 


An unprincipled man who has no care for others, as long as he 
can accomplish his own selfish ends. 

Anawune, zenawune, 

Ranih hinde madano. 

ThakamutCy losamute, 

Mdjih hinde gubaro. 

At the time of earning and bringing, 

A wife's friend you are ; 

But when you're tired and weary, 

A mother's son you are. 

Anchdr-nut aim khut tah beyis hut. 

A pickle-pot, — one man's (pickle) turned out splendidly, 

another man's (pickle) went bad. 

The same concern, &c-, may turn out well for one, but adrerte for 
another man, 

Andah kanih manzbdg. 

Being outside or on the edge, to sit in the midst. 

The monkey, who would fain use the cat's paw to pull th© 
chestnuts out of the fire. 

Andarah daznn panah tah nebarah dazdn lok. 
Inside he himself bums, and outside the people burn. 

The genteel poor man. Poverty and cold are burning him within, 
whilst outside, owing to his wearing nice clean clothes, the people 
burn with envy, supposing that he has money. 

Andarah gom wirih hund dudur tah nebarah rodum tserik 

hund rang. 
"Within me is the rottenness of the willow, but without 

continues the colour of the apricot. 

Andarah tshunihas thukah tah nebarah dupun " Gumah 

Inside somebody spat upon him. Outside he said, ** It is 


Salvd dignitate. 


Andarit andariy wot Tsandari gom. 
Secretly, secretly, he reached the village of Tsandar. 
" In truth, he is in great distress." 

Andarim dddi no tnashinam marit 
N^barim shudi kyah barah wuini buk ? 
I shall never forget the pains of my heart, even after death. 
Shall I wish then for outside happiness ? 
Refusing to be comforted. 

Andarim nah tutj iah nebaritn nahpafj. 
No strength within, and no respect without. 
Anetis at yiyih ladanah tah mantis wdtis. 
If the cover be filled then it holds one pound and a half. 
Think before yon leap. 

Anhaharin arm&n tah haharimuti pashemdn. 

The bachelor wishes (to get married) , the married man 

regrets (that he got married). 

Marry in haste, and repent at loisore. 

Ani chhur lam tal tah h'lhsih dyuthus nah. 

A blind man sat down behind a pile of stones, and thought 

that nobody had seen him. 

The osti-ioh hides his head in the sand, Ac. 

Ani 9un2 kulai Khud&yas hawulah. 

A blind man's wife is in God*8 keeping. 

Anigatih guli alawuni. 
To show affection in the darkness. 
Kind to the unthankful. 

Anim sui, toavum auU lajum sui, panasui, 

I brought the nettle, I sowed the nettle, and then the nettle 

stung me. 


In olden times there was a famous fakir in Kashmir, who punished 
himself in the following way. He uprooted a nettle, and fixing 
soma mud upon the palm of his hand, planted the nettle therein. 
All the day and all the night for several years he held out his hand 
with the palm uppermost, and the nettle in it. The plant grew and 
was strong and by reason of this, thousands of Hindis used to visit 
the fakir, and give him alms. 

The fakir had a disciple, who eventually became very jealous of 
the honour which his master received ; and one day in a fit of anger, 
he hit the n«ttle, earth and all, oat of his master's hand. The fakir 


then spoke the above saying concerning both the nettle and hxa 
disciple, whom he had brought up and nourished from his infancy. 

The sting-nettle is a plant sacred to Shiva, who is said to have 
first planted it. Hindiis pluck the leaves, and throw them over the 
god's favourite symbol, the lingam. 

Anin manz kdni sundar. 

An one-eyed woman is beautiful among blind women. 

Anis hdwun sari wat he-aklas nah Itahh, 
All men show the blind man the way ; nobody can show 
the man without understanding. 

Anis musht Mwuni, nah chheh gunahi nnh sawuh. 

To show the thumb to a blind man is neither a sin nor a virtue. 

Advice is lost on some people. 

" To show the thumb" is a vulgar act amongst children and stupid 
people in Kashmir. 

Anis rat tah doh hehui. 

Night and day are the same to the blind man. 

Anit natsandwuni ! 
(Enough) to make a cover dance ! 
A great trouble or surprise. 

Anhdr tah mal, nakar tah Tcasam. 
Confess and property, refuse and oath. 

One man charges another man with a debt. The other man 
denies. Then the matter is carried into court, where the judge and 
people sometimes cite the above proverb, which means " Confess and 
pay, or refuse and swear to it." 

Ant an tah hdwanai. 

Bring it to me and I'll show it to you. 

An angry retort when a man expresses surprise that his friend has 
not seen, or heard of, a certain person or thing. 

Aporih sanduk ; yapdrih sanduk ; duhuli khawas yad banduk. 
On that side a bo.^ ; on this side a box ; and a gun to the 
stomach of him, who breaks the fast (of Ramazan). 

Apdrih thrum gudih han, yaparih hurmas ras, sal kurum 

Mdkkah Madinas. 
From the other bank of the river I brought a small fish, 

and here I made soup, and then invited all Mecca and 



Ap6rimav mun ddnih yaparimin gayih athan halk, 

A man on that side pressed the grain, but to a man on thii 

side a gall became. 

One does the scath, another has the harm. 

Apih hund gyav, 

A foolish woman's ghi. 

A foppish person. 

A']g^h is a term applied only to a woman, whose one care is dress, 

Kashmiri people, both wealthy and others, mb their hair with 
fresh ghi. Scented oil is never used. 

Apuzis god kyah T 

A lie has no beginning. 

Art di auri tah ur gav nak kanh. 

All people came (t>., were born) in good health, but not ont 
became (i.e., continued) healthy. 

Arimi kadih nah miij tah phakiran dAra$ kisht. 
The gardener had not dug out the radish, when the fakir held 
the alms-bowls in front of him. 

Aris p/mas drakah. 
A leech to a healthy body. 
Soifering for others. 

Aian ai tah lasah kit ah pAlhi T 
If I laugh not how can 1 live ? 
R\d9 si sapia. 

Asat gaUhih phulai dauniy adah gayih phulai teuchhuni. 
One's mouth must blossom before he goes to see the flower-' 


The different pleasore^gardens around the Dal Lake are constantly 
and largely visited by the natives, and especially, when the plum* 
trees and roses and lilacs arc in full bloom. They take their diimer 
with them, and spend the greater part of the day on the excursion. 

The expression ** ane's mouth must blossom" refers to eating and 

The natives have also got a proverb in Persian with the same 
meaning. — Ah i Dal dtash numdyad chuh na hdshad tabbdkh. 

Asas kuUh Uuiyo dh'i woddh drdiyo. 

When food had entered your mouth, blessing came forth 


The gueet flatters and blesaea his host. 


Asas mazah tdh yad dazah-dazah. 
A taste in the mouth and a burning in the stomach. 
Just enough to wbet the appetite. 

Asawai tah gindawai koryav^ khyun chyun chhuh yih. 

Let us laugh and play girls. This (thumb) is eating and 


Some people are very mild in speech and witty in manner, but they 
are not very liberal in their dinner arrangements, or in the matter 
of largesse. 

' This thumb" refers to the vulgar Kashmiri custom of holding up 
the thumb as an answer in the negative, when asked if there is 
anything in the house." 

Ashnav gav 'pasTimv. 

An acquaintance (or kinsman) is like a dung and refuse boat, 

(z.e., a nuisance). 

" Save me from my friends." 

Ashraf gav sui yas ashrafih asan. 

The man with the gold is the gentleman. 

Another version of this proverb cited by those, who are of another 
way of thinking, is : — 

Ashrdf gav sui yas ashrafi asih» 
He, who is gentle, is a gentleman. 

Asmdnah pyav tah zaimnih logus dab. 

He fell from heaven to earth and is wounded. 

High towers fall to the ground with greater crash. 

Asmdnah waUh balai tah khana i gharib kujdst ? 
Misfortune descends from heaven, and where is the poor man's 


From hand to mouth. 

Atun chhuh hechhimiwan nah usun chhuh mandachhdwun. 
To be (wealthy) teaches, not to be (wealthy) makes ashamed. 

Asun chhuh hharas khasun. 

It is a shame to laugh (immoderately). 

'' And the laugh that spoke the vacant mind." — Goldsmith. 
Kharaf khasun, lit, to mount an ass, which, according to the 
natives, is infra dig. 


Atti Muhammad Khunin gndik beguri. 

Impress for the work of Ata Muhammad Khan's (fort). 

The present fort of Uari Parbat was built by ktk Muhammad 
Khan about sixty years ago. On Fridays, until the work was com- 
pleted, every citizen, whether rich or poor, young or old, was forced to 
take up one stone to the top of the hill. 


Ath gai sheth gai, 

Yiin pi'.htsh pet/i got. 

Eight gone, sixty gone. 

These five besides gone (what are they ?). 

What is a little more trouble to a man already overwhelmed with itP 
Persian — Abe ki at aar guztuht ehi yak nexa o chi haxdr neua. 

Alh shubih eu kut lubih ? 

Will the ftoul desire this beautiful thing T No. 

" It is naught, it is naught, saith the buyer. " — Prov. xx. 14. 

Ath'ichan puntshan ungajan andar kit lukut ; mnhr ckhik 

meUn kisi. 
The little finger is the smallest of the five fingers of the hand ; 

and yet the signet-ring is worn upon the little finger. 

Vhe humble shall be exalted. 

Athah chhuk balih tah katkah ehhuk halih nah. 
A wound in the hand is well, but to be wounded by (unkind) 
words is not well. 

Athah ehhui tah mi^trut tjul. 

As soon as the hands were washed friendship ran away. 

After a native tlttmer an ewer of water is brought round, in which 
the gvests wash their hands. 

Athah ditam brokthah yitam. 

Give me your hand and come in front of me. 

To lend a hand. 

Athan waryan puck nad shtthan waryan puk sr^h. 

For eight years the river ran, and for sixty years (after the 

waters had disappeared) the ground remained damp. 

Men die but their deeds live. 

Panj&bi — Admi nahin rahindd, par ddmi d< alrdhjdndi hai. 

At hi bimat khyun tah at hi bunas chharun. 
To eat out of a vessel and then defile it. 

To receive a man's hospitality and then slander him. 


Afyuv bulah-haf- 

An iniBge made from flour. 

A weak man. 

Bulah-hat are the little images, horses, &c., which children play with. 
A sugar toy. 

And Jvht'ki and phuki. 
Half dust, half blowing. 
A fool and his money are soon parted. 

Audur talh mudur. 
Wet and sweet. 

Spoken concerning bazar food. 

Ant gaUhih nerun yd talimih Uakajih yd peihimih. 

The flour must come out either by the lower or by the upper 


By hook or by crook. 

Av ai tall yeruv, gav ai tah gdsuv. 

If it has come then it is like wool, but if it has gone then it 

is as grass. 

Av tah jiv chhus haruhar. 
Coming and going are alike to him. 

A happy-go-lucky individual. 

*' Awah, " layih p/'hts'h tah ** Nah " layih lachh. 
'* Yes" is worth Rs. 50 and '* No" is worth a lakh. 

No of some people is more esteemed than the Yes of others. — 
" Oraculo Manual," Balthasar Gracian. 

Ayas wate tah gay as tih wate j 

Shnanz suthe losiim doh ; 

Wuchhum chandas tah hur nah athe. 

Ndivah to? as kyah dimah huh ? 

I came by a way (i.e., I was born) and I also went by a way 

(i.e., I died). 
When I was in the middle of the way (ie., when my spirit 

was between the two worlds) the day failed. 
I looked in my pocket, but not a cowrie came to hand. 
What shall I give for crossing the ferry ? 

A saying of Lai D6d, who was a very holy Hindu woman. 

The Kashmiri Hindu belief is that during the sixth month after 
death the spirit of the deceased has to cross the waters of the 
Vaitaraiii; but it is impossible to get to the other side of the river 


except by special means, as the waters arc so deep and stormy and the 
op[)osiii^ powers, preta, yamadat, matsya, and kumia arc so strong. 
Acconlingly about this time the bereaved rehitions call the family 
Braliman, who repeats to them the portions appointed to bo road on 
this occasion. Among other things the departed spirit is reprosonted 
as standing on the brink of the river and crying " Where is my father ? 
Where is my mother ? Where are my relations and my frieuds ? Is 
there no one to help me over this river. ?" This is sometimes recited 
with much feeling, and great are the lamentations of the bereaved, 
who now with sobs and tears present a little boat and paddle, 
made of gold, or silver, or copper, according to their position, to tho 
Brail man ; and in the boat they place ghk milk, butter, and rice. Tho 
boat is for the conveyance of the spirit across Vaitarahi, and tho 
provisions are for the appeasement of the contrary powers preta, 
matsya, and others, who will try to turn back tho boat, but who on 
having these, ghi and rice, Ac, thrown to them, will at once depart 
tliuir own way. 

The HindAs believe that if this ceremony is performed in a right 
manner, a boat will bo at once present upon tho waters, close to that 
portion of the bank of the river, wliere the spirit is waiting and 
praying for it, and that tho spirit getting into it will be s^ifi^ly 
convoyed to the opposite side. The gift-boat, however, is taken 
home by the BHkhroan, and generally tamed into money as soon as 

At the moment of death amongst other things a pais& is placed 
within the mouth of the corpse, wherewith to pay tho ferry. 

The belief hero expressed ia common in one shape or another to 
all nations and peoples, bat e«pectally to all Indo-Kuroiiean 
nations. In Grecian mythology it was the rirer Styx, Acheron, or 
Cocytus ; and Charon rowed tho shades across in his little boat. 
A small piece of money, too, was placed in the mouth of the dt-ad, 
to pay the fare to the Stygian ferryman. In Scan<linavia biMlios 
were buried in ships and boats under the belief that tlic dea<l crossed 
the waters in them. Coleman, p. 319, mentions that among the 
Garrows of Bengal also, " tho dead are kept for four days ; burnt 
on a pile of wood in a dingy or small boat, placed on the top of a 
pile," Ac. In the old French romance of Lancelot du Lac the demoi- 
selle d' Escalot orders that after death, her body richly dressed 
should be placed in a ship, and that the ship should be let go to find 
its own way before the \vind and waves. In Grimm's Deutsche 
Mythologie, 3te Ausgabe, 701, a story is told concerning some monks 
crossing the Rhine at Spires. In former times the Rhine, the 
political boundary of Germany, was also regarded as the boundary 
between the upper and lower world ; and " to go to the Rhine" 
and "to die" were mutually efjuivalent expressions: — *' A drowsy 
boatman is ronsed np one stormy night by a monk, who put some 
money into his hand, and asked to bc> ferried over the river. At 
first six monks get into the boat, but no sooner is it started than u 
great company press in, to the great iucouvenieiice of the boatman. 


With xnnch diflBcnlty the river is crossed ; and the passengers having 
disembarked, the boat is immediately carried back by a strong wind 
to the place whence it started. More passengers are waiting there, 
and they, too, embark directly the boat touches the bank ; and as 
they enter the foremost of the strange company puts the fare into 
the ferryman's hands with his icy-cold fingers. Some readers may 
not know that the Germans in olden times thoroughly believed that 
our own little island was the island of souls, and that to this day 
remnants of this belief are still to be found among them." For 
more particulars concerning traditions about the dead, their world, 
and the way to it, &c., cf . Kelly's most interesting book on " Curiosi- 
ties of Indo-European Traditions," Ch. IV. 

Ayih wonis gayih h'ndris- 

She came to the baniya's but arrived at the baker's. 

To miss the mark. 

This saying has its origin in a story well-known in Kashmir. Lai 
Ded, whose name has been mentioned before, used to peregrinate in 
an almost nude condition, and was constantly saying that " He only 
was a man, who feared God, and there were very few such men 

One day Shdh Hamadan, after whom the famous mosque in 
Srinagar is called, met her, and she at once ran away. This was a 
strange thing for Lai DM, to do ; but it was soon explained. *' I have 
seen a man," she said, to the astonished baniyi, into whose shop 
she had fled for refuge. The baniyi. however, turned her out. 
Then Lai Dcd rushed to the baker's house and jumped into the oven, 
which at that time was fully heated for baking the bread. When the 
baker saw this he fell down in a swoon thinking that, for certain, the 
king would hear of this and punish him. However, there was no 
need of fear, as Lai Ded presently appeared from the mouth of the 
oven clad in clothes of gold, and hastened after Shah Hamadan. Cf . 
Note 743, Part XX of " Panjab Notes and Queries.'^ 

The Kashmiri Muhammedan will tell as many and long stories 
concerning this Shah Hamadan, or Saiyid 'Ali as the Kashmiri Pandit 
will tell about Lai Ded — how that when Timur Lung slew all the 
saiyids in his country, he accxised that monarch of impiety and 
said that he would not stay in his country, but by virtue of his 
holiness would transport himself through the air to Kashmir ; and 
how that he alighted in the very spot, where now the famous mosque 
stands in the midst of Srinagar, and within a few days after his 
arrival here converted so many Hindus to Islam that two-and-a-half 
JCharwars of Yonis or Brahmanical threads were delivered up to 

Sh5h Hamad^n's mosque is one of the most beautiful as well as 
one of the most famous in the Valley. Over and beside the entrance 
and upon the wall of the first of the five divisions of the building axe 
these three Persian inscriptions ; — 


At dil (igarat matlah i faiz e diZ jahan cut. 
Rav bar dar i shahansfiah i Shdh e Hamaddn att. 
Makrun i ijdhat ast ti dare aust du'd rd. 
*Arsh ast dar ash halki azii,* 'arsh nishdn ast. 

• • • • 

Har faiz ki dar sdfyikay e hnr-dH jahdn ast. 
l)ar pairaine hnzrat i Shdh e Hamaddn, ast. 
Shdh e Hamaddn ahki Shahanshuh e jahdn ast 
Ai Khdk bardh d{da ki dar raib o gumdn ast. 

^ • • • • 

In Hamaddn Hamaddni dihad. 
Ma'rifat e sirr i nihdni dihad. 
Ya*ne agar b^ishidat in tirru ; 
Az dar i Shiih e Hanuiddni hi jo, 

Az gov beguh wuini tculah paguh. 

To-day is not the time. Now (is not the time). Come 


Ad Gracas Kalendat, 

Az nah tah, adah har. 
Not to day, — when then ? 
To-morrow is no day. 



Bubah Adamas zui zdh gabar, aki rat uwareni beyih ratlcabr. 
Father Adam had two sous. One was burnt and the other 

was buried (i.e., one became a Hindu and the other became 

a Muhammedan). 

Bobah, budatham iah hhidmatak hartam. 
O father, become old and serve me. 

The old parents are very often the slaves of the family. 

Bubah matyov tah ded tih mateyih. 

The father has became mad and the mother also has become 

A kingdom or city in a wretched plight. 

During a certain king's reign the gods determined that the people 
should become mad from drinking the ordinary water. Now the 
king's wazir being versed in astrology discovered this matter and at 
once told the kiug of it privately. "0, king," said he, " after one 
month all your subjects will lose their reason from drinking the 
water of the country." " What shall we do ?" said the king, " that 
we two, at all events, may be saved." " Procure water at once," 
replied the wazir, "and store it up in skins." The king did so, and 
the result was that at the time appointed, when all the people were 
raving mad, he and the wazir were perfectly sane. It happened, 
however, that the whole country being quite beyond governing, the 
people were murdering one another and doing the most strange 
acts. At length some determined to slay the king and his wazir, 
and so in order to save themselves these two also drank of the 
diseased water and became mad. Then it was that the father and 
mother wei*e mad, and the above saying was fii'st spoken. 

Persian — Ab-i-diwdnarji. 

Babah nethar zih hamin s''>at. 
O father, let me be married thi moment. 

Bnbam Rishin kati. 

Babam Rishi's child (i.e., disciple). 

A stupid fellow. 

This good saint's followera were most ignorant and stupid people. 
People gave alms to them only for the sake of their saint and leader, 

Biiham Rishi died about the year 1474 a. d. His shrine, and a 
convent attached to it, lie on the road from Baramula to Gulmarg, 
and are amongst the richest, as well as the most frequented, places of 
pilgrimage in the vaUey. 


The Bifihfs must not be confoanded with the Rishis, a sect of 
Muhammedan peasants, nor with the seven Rishis (also Rikhis), or 
ancient llindft sagos, Vashishta and others. They are Muhammodans, 
and did not many or cat meat, or show themselves to men as Rishis; 
but nsed to wander about the jungles, and by the highways, and livo 
on whatsoever they might tind. Now, however, customs have 
changed with the times, and the true Muhammedan tells you with 
sorrowful countenance, that there is not one real Rishi in the country, 
and has not been since Akbar's days, when largo land and hoQso 
property wore given to these people, and they became spoiled and 
got worse and worse, until now they are so degenerated as to some- 
times marry and oat flesh and amass money, and do other things 
equally, and even more, contrary to the spirit and pattern of their 
predecessors in olden days. Abii'l Fazl in his book remarks that in 
Akbar's time " the most respectable people of Kashmir were the 
Rishis, who though they did not suffer themselves to be fettered with 
trailitions, were doubtless worshippers of God. They did not revile 
any sect, or ask anything of any one. Xhey planted the roads with 
fniit trees to furnish the traveller with refreshment," Ac The 
Aliihammodans believe that it was in response to these holy Eishia' 
intt^rccssions :hat Akbar was thrice defeated by the Chak klogg, 
when he attempted to take the country. According to their account, 
also, a fakir called Khwaja Uwys was the founder of this sect ; and 
ho lived during Muhammed's life time at Kurun, a little village 
of Yemen in Arabia; and that the Prophet would never march 
to this place because a savour of holiness went up tbenoo on aoooont 
of this holy fakir's residing there with his mother. 

There were about two thonsnnd Rishis in Kashmir during Akbar'* 
time. Now-a>days there are perhape five thousand, but they are not 
revered by the more educated and respectable Muhammedans in 
the valley. Cf. Col. Yule's "Travels ©f Marco Polo," VoL I., p. 179. 

Bachhih f'aih animah h'.Uah machhih Urunaa ! 

If there should be a little rice-water on the edge of the fire- 
place how many flies will congregate to it ! 
Vbi mel, ihi apM. 

Bnchih dod chhuh lachih dod. 

A child's pain is a hundred thousand pains. 

Badas sir buwun chhuh b^bih andar saruf raehhun. 
A wicked man may as well place a snake in his bosom as tell 
out his secrets ; (he dare not do it). 

Badit chhai badui nazar. 

High looks to a great man (but not to a maimikin). 


Badis Jchor tal marun ji'm tah lukis nah shmdas pefh. 

It is better to die under the foot of a great man, than upon 

the shoulder of a man of small degree. 

Better to be an earl's slave than to go partner with a small shop- 

Bugih bog tah nonih tok. 

(After receiving his) share in the distribution of the dinner 
(he asked for) a dish for his grandmother. 

A greedy, unsatisfied, fellow. 

BahloU jandahi tah kashkul, 

Bahlol, a ragged habit, and an alms-bowl, 

A very poor man. 

Bahlol was a genuine fakir. According to my informant, he was a 
brother of Ali Mardan Khm. governor of Kashmir under Sh^h Jahan, 
about 1650 a.d., but he did not care for the pomp and show of 
palace life, and so laid aside the court dress for the jandah and 

This voluntary fakir life of one so high in learning and position 
was not pleasing to the governor, or to his ministers and attendants ; 
and various devices were resorted to for getting Bahlol to accept 
some distinguished office in the service of the State. At last they 
succeeded, and Bahlol was appointed Deputy-Inspector. All 
things went happily for a while, until one day it happened that in 
the course of his office Bahlol had to ascertain whether the bankers', 
baniyas', and others' weights were correct or not ; and while fulfilling 
this duty he discovered so much distress and fraud and trickery, &c., 
that he determined to know no more of it, went back quickly to 
his house, and doffed the grand dress of a Deputy-Inspector for 
the jandah kashkul and the fakir life again. 

" Bajih mashidih hindyav thamavt yut Mlhavpiith wUiwah?^* 

** Pananih sezarah." 

" How did the pillars of the great mosque get here V* 

" By their own straightness." 

The way to accomplish a difficult work. 

The roof of the cloister surrounding the open square in the centre 
of the great mosque in Srinagar is supported by wooden pillars, each 
formed of a single deodar tree about thirty feet high, and resting 
upon a plain stone base. There are three rows upon the north, 
south and west sides, but only two on the east side. 

Bajih mashidih tjali/a kunj nerit ? 

" Will the corner of the great mosque tumble out ?" 

The whole country or concern is not going to ruin, simply becanao 
" So and-So" has died. There are plenty as good and clever as he to 
prosecute the work. 


BaliJitai bnd chhih khidmatg^r. 
Understanding is butler to success. 

liolak korih wulanai. 
Dishonour to a beloved daughter 
A torriblo wrong. 

Baldi dur tah khair kahui. 

May misfortune be far from you and prosperity nigh. 
A Kaahmiri blessing. 

Bali wuehkithai zuli w&kkah dt'tdi dithmak kundalui. 

O woman, you have plaited your hair very nicely, but I see 

you always a kundal. 

Fine olothoa do not make the lady. 

Kundal is the inner earthenware part of a k&ngar, the Kashmir 
portable fire-place. The outer part is generally of. very pretty 
basket-work, which conceals the knndal's faults. 

Bi'inah hatas dizih fhttnah hat tah usah hatas kyah dizih ? 
A hundred covers for a hundred vessels, but what shall be 
given (to stop) a hundred mouths. 

Banas andar nar tah danaa andar har. 

Arm in the pot (for serving out food) and wood under the 

oven (for cooking it). 

Panjabi.— ifii» tan tuhddd gkio hich ramha hai. 

Band bandas mmnffih, Agah hedur tah namkar shungih. 

For one acquaintance, or relation, to ask from another, is like 

a master awake, whilst his servant sleeps (i.r, the one is 

as much a matter of shame as the other). 

Band kus ? Zih chandah. 

Who is (your) friend ? (Your) pocket. 

Bdngis chheh hang dapun. 

It is the work of the bangih to cry the bdng. 

Another version is :— 

Bangis ehhud bung dapuni matih kih nah neh anini ? 

Is the bangih to call the bang, or to bring the people (to 

prayer) ? 

Every man to his own work. 

Banq IB the Muhammedau call to prayers. 


Bf'tparich kut chhai sudarah kdiiz pov hisky yut tsunakas tyut 

A tradesman's shop is like an earthenware vessel, as much 

as is put into it, so much is got out of it. 

Tradesmen are frequently bankers, also, in Kashmir. 

Bar dit aohh tovranih. 

To shut the door and put on a terrifying look. 
A coward. 

Bar dit hhar natsan. 

The ass shuts the door and dances. 

A man very spirited and full of words in his own house, but out- 
side he does nothing. 

This is also a Kashmiri riddle, of which the answer is, a mill-stone. 

Bastah tshunit ndl Jckahardyih mandachkun. 
To wear sheep's skin and be ashamed of its rustling. 
Don't be ashamed of your real position. 

Bastih s6n daher. 

Three sers with the skin. (The swindler had weighed the 

skin in as well). 

A swindle. 

Batah badyos chdnih tah garah zunai nah wath. 
I am the better because of your dinner, but I do not know 
the way to your house. 

Hopes unfulfilled. 

In hope of receiving something from you I have contracted a debt 
here and there, but now I perceive that I hoped in vain ; so hence- 
forth I shall not know the way to your house (i.e., will not see you). 

** Batah, batah, " tah piyadah patah. 

Having no food and a peon after you (because of some debt) . 

Great distress. 

Batah dag chhai K/irtikin surah dag. 

Earning one's living is (as hard to bear) as the pain of hoar- 
frost in the month of October. 
Natives suffer terribly in their feet from walking out early on a 

frosty October morning. 

Batah gajih ruhun. 

As garlic upon the hearth of a Pandit (so your presence is to 


Hindus of the valley will not toach garlic (or onions). These are 
eaten only by the Mohaminodans- Hindus say that their ancestora 
would not eat them because of their aphrodisiac effects, which they 
did not wish to experience, as they had devoted themselves to 

Batak gardan. 

To behead another with hospitality. 
To heap coals of fire on an enemy's head. 

Baiah gav grattah. 
The Hindu is a mill. 
Muhammedans quote this jestingly of their Hind<i noighboors. 

Balah lUis chhih piithah hanik wuchi'm. 

Men look into the rice-pot from the top part (to judge 

whether the food is cooked properly or not). 

Men are judged by their speech. 

Batah lukharik kir tah prt'mah htjih ihnik. 

A head from the portion of rice, and a knife from the onion 


There was a very holy man, who prayed unto God for justice. 
He had too high an opinion of himself to ask for grace also. " Only 
give me my deserts," he said, *' and I shall faro all right." 

This good man once dined with a friend, and according to custom 
placed the remainder of his dinner within his t84dar, or wrap. 
On the way home it happened that the rice and vegetables were 
changed into a human h^id and a knife, both of which were saturat- 
ed with blood, that dropped upon the road as be walked along. A 
policeman noticed this, and at once enquired what was in the 
taiSdar. The holy man without any hesitation opened out his wrap, 
and, lo ! there was a human head and a knife. 

Of course the poor man was immo<lintoly marched off to the 
prison-house. On the next day the court was assembled and the 
prisoner brought forth. The excitement was intense. 

The case was tried, and the whole evidence was against the man . 
The judge considered much and long, but at last, finding no way by 
which he conld possibly acqnit the prisoner, ho was about to pro- 
nounce the sentence of death upon him, when there came from 
heaven the sound of a voice saying, " The man is not guilty, let him 
go free.'* 

Ever afterwards this good man asked for grace also, when ha 

Batah miski/iy nah dunya tah nah din. 

The poor Hindu has neither the world nor religion. 

The Muhammedans quote this saying. 


Baiah mod shenkih. 

The Pandit died from hesitation. 

Once upon a time a Pandit and a Muhammedan were travelling 
together. In the middle of the way ran a swift stream which they 
had to wade. The Muhammedan crossed at once without the slight- 
est hesitation ; but the Pandit cried out : " Stop, stop, let me first 
look at my Nechi-puter to see whether it is an auspicious time for 
me to cross or not" He consulted the kalendar and discovered that 
it was not a good time. However, as he had to travel a long distance, 
and the day was already far spent, he dared to step into the waters ; 
and commenced to wade. But when he had reached the middle of 
the stream his heart failed him, and his legs began to tremble, so that 
he fell J was carried away, and dashed about by the fierce waters, and 

JBatak nah tah hatus chhit nah tah atlas. 

No food in the house, yet he wishes for sugar ; not even a 

ragged cloth to his back, yet he wishes for satin. 

A poor man with great desires. 

Baiah pdmh tal chheh aihah hhar gaib. 

Beneath half-a-pound of rice a khar (lbs. 192)^ of sin is 


Eiches cover a multitude of sins. 

Baias baiah koweh baiah. 

One Pandit with another Pandit is like a mountain-crow. 

If one crow caws the whole flock caws. If one Pandit is in diffi- 
culty, all the Pandits take up the case, &c. ^ 

Baias bod doh tah 'phuJcah ; 

Musalmmas bod doh tah shrukah ; 

Bufizas bod doh tah bc'ikah. 

On his big day the Hindii fasts ; 

On his big day the Muhammedan feasts ; 

On his big day the Shi'a weeps. 

Baias tsed Musalmanas yad^ tah r^fizas hud. 
To the Hindu endurance, to the Musalmdn (i.e., the Suni) 
stomach, and to the Shi'a weeping. 

An allusion to the Hindu's much fasting, to the S6ni's eating 
capacity, and to the profound lamentation of the Shi'a during the 
days of the Muharram, when he commemorates the death of 'Ali, 
Hasan and Husain. 


Batav andarak toth liyahy zih tahar ? 
Jlowarih andarah toth hyah^ zih hahar ? 
Among dishes which is the favourite ? Tahar. 
In the wife's house who is the favourite ? Brother-in-law. 
Tahar— dk kind of boiled rice coloured with turmeric 

BAUan izd tah putalen puzfi. 

For the family distress, but for the idols aii offering. 
Charity begins at home. 

** B'iyih myt'inih kalandarai ; 

Yih nerih tih nerih khilah andarai." 

** My brother monk, what will come, will come from the 

harvest " (ie.j will be the result of houest toil). 

The gods give everything for labour. 

Bnzigaras chh^h hnzigaraa. 
A deceiver deceives himself. 

Be-akl nah hank tah garah patah leak hah, 

" Not one ignorant man ? " — Why there are eleven in every 

house (t.^., the world is full of such people). 

Oe monde est plein de font, 

BHih andarph&nsi tah athat kH tathth. 

The noose (of the executioner s rope) under the arm, and the 

rosary in the hand. 

Bi/ndiMtdni. — Hdth men tcuhiht aur ba^hoZ men phdnH, 

Bechdn tah guris khasit ! 
Begging and riding upon a horse ! 
A proud beggar. 

Beehanas banah h'lmuni. 

The beggar's pot (in which he collected food) is broken. 

The last straw gone. 

Be-haydhas sharm dur. 

To the shameless shame is distant. 

Be-h'r chhuh bemur. 

The unemployed, or idle man, is sick. 

Be-kdr chhuh icaktli har darbdr. 

An unemployed man visits every darbar. 


Be-Tcaras chhih trah Mr, 

To the idle man there are three works (viz., sleeping, quar- 
relling, and eating ). 

Bemah haharav chhuh sah mormut. 

Two brothers-in-law killed a lion (between them). 

Union is strength. 

The tale is, that a sister's husband and a wife's brother, who are 
naturally the greatest enemies to one another, were walking along 
together one day, when a lion chanced to cross their path. They did 
not run away, but each stood his ground firmly, and backed-up the 
other, and the result was that by their united efforts the lion was 

Be-mdlas ailah. 

Cardamoms for the man, who is not hungry. 

*' Bem&ro ds kyut chhui .'"' " Nah Uuk tali nah mudur** 
'* O, sick person, how is your mouth ?" ** Neither bitter nor 

sweet. " 

The answer is equivalent to our English reply, "0, thank you, I'm 

Be-murawat mdhnyuv chhui zan ; phaMri ha-iamah rahzan. 
An unmanly fellow is a woman, and a courteous fakir is a 

Be-suhmb chhuh dapfm " Meh suhmb nah kanh. '* 
The unequal man says "I have not an equal"; (but the 
really great man thinks himself less than the least). 

Beyih sund amunat chhui Tchurawanuk nurah iungul hyuh. 
Another's belongings in your charge is like a live coal from 
the blacksmith's shop. 

Beyih sund dod chhui be-mune ; 

Yas dkhis banih tai sui zdne. 

Another's pain is without meaning. 

Only he, who suffers it, knows what it is like. 

" It is impossible for any man to form a right judgment of his 
neighbour's suffering." — Addison. 

Bichis parutsuk, " Wandas Jcunah chhuJc nebar nerm ? 
Vupanak, *' Betah hdlih ley ah kurum hdsil ? Haradu lanat 


Somebody said to the scorpion, *' Why do you not come out 
in the winter ?" He replied, " What did I get in the sprmg- 
time ? " Both times alike are a curse to me. 
Either miserable oneself or making others miserable 
The scorpion lives antler the ground during the winter and spends 

a miserable time of it, according to the natives; and when he does 

come forth from his temporary grave, it is only to give trouble to 


A translation from the Gulist&n : — Qaj-dum rd guftand ki " Ohird ba 

aamistdn ?" " Biram na midyi guft ; ha tdpistdnam chi hunnat ast ?" 

Bihl^h phhai riheh tr&wun. 

Sitting down in one's chair at home and throwing out a flame. 
Every cook crows loudest on his own dunghill. 

Bihehwani tjarih. 
A sitting sparrow. 

On probation. 

The sparrow must keep a good look-oat, or some boy with a 
caterpault, or perhaps a oat, will notioe it and kill it. 

Bihit whi poni toly&T 

Will the grocer sit and weigh water? 

Nothing better to do ? 

Bikh manff/in tah put rang/tn. 
Asking for aUns and dyeing his coat. 
A helpless man's wish. 

Bir Balan purut* Akbarat, ** Jangah wizih Jcyah til&h ? " 
Dupanas ** Yih brohfhah peyih.'* 

Bir Bat asked Akbar, " What weapons they should fight 
with, when the time for fighting arrived?" He replied, 
*• Whatever you find at hand." 

Bir Balanih korih purutj Akbar ptidshdhan, " Kyah 
mahnyuv chhwi parasan?** Dupanas^ ** Dund chhud dud 
diwnn ?" 

Akbar, the king, asked B(r BaUs daughter, ** Can a man 
give birth to a child ? " She replied, ** Can an ox give 
milk ? " 

A Roland for an Oliver. 

Bir Bal was Akbar's great minister. The Muhammedan ministers 
bated him and tried to get rid of him. Bir Bal was often punished 
on account of what they said. One day a Muhammedan minister 
said to Akbar : " Will your Majesty please get some bullock's milk 
from Bir Bal." Akbar promised that he would give the order, and 


on the following morning there was the paper signed and sealed by 
the king, spread out before Bir Bal, ordering him to procure some 
bullock's milk within fifteen days, or else die. Bir Bal was over- 
whelmed with fear and astonishment. The minister's daughter seeing 
her father in this wretched state at once devised a scheme. She 
went ofE straight to the butcher's shop, and there soaked her tsadar, 
or wrap, in some blood lying about, and then went and washed it in 
the part of the river opposite the king's palace. Akbar noticing 
this, enquired the reason of the blood. She replied : *' No, I have 
not murdered any one ; but yesterday Bir Bal was delivered of a 
child in the house." Akbar said : " Can a man bear a child" ? The 
girl answered : " Can a bullock give milk ?" 

Bir Bal was exalted to still greater honor and power on accoont of 
this shrewdness of his daughter. 

Readers will probably be disgusted at the ridiculousness of this 
story, but at Basle so late as the fifteenth century great excitement 
was caused by the announcement that a cock had laid an egg. I 
may be pardoned, perhaps, for qaoting the following from " Cham- 
bers's Book of Days" : — 

" At Basle, in 1474, a cock was tried for having laid an egg. For 
the prosecution it was proved that cocks' eggs were of inestimable 
value for mixing in certain magical preparations ; that a sorcerer 
would rather possess a cock's egg than be master of the philosopher's 
stone ; and that in Pagan lands Satan employed witches to hatch 
such eggs, from which proceeded animals most injurious to all of 
the Christian faith and race. The advocate for the defence admitted 
the facts of the case, but asked what evil animals had been proved 
against his client, what injury to man or beast had it effected ? 
Besides, the laying of the egg was an involuntary act, and as such, 
not punishable by law. If the crime of sorcery were imputed, the 
cock was innocent ; for there was no instance on record of Satan 
having made a compact with the brute creation. In reply, the 
Public Prosecutor alleged that, though the devil did not make com- 
pact with brutes, he sometimes entered into them ; and though the 
swine possessed by devils, as mentioned in Scripture, were involun- 
tary agents, yet they nevertheless were punished by being caused 
to run down a steep place into the sea, and so perished in the 
waters. The pleadings in this case, even as recorded by Hammer- 
lein, are voluminous ; we only give the meagre outlines of the prin- 
cipal pleas ; suffice it to say, the cock was condemned to death, not 
as a cock, but as a sorcerer or devil in the form of a cock, and was 
with its egg burned at the stake, with all the due form and solem- 
nity of a judicial punishment." 

Bir Balun kat, 

Bir Bal's ram. 

One day in reply to some ministers who were slandering Bir Bal, 
Akbar said : '* Never mind, if Bir Bal is a Hindu, he is a wise and 


clftver man, and worthy of the confirlenoe. which I ha^o in him 
Shall I prove to you his wisdom jituI shrewdness ? Cull all the 
ministers. " Aklmr then fjnve to each minister a ram. and onlered 
them to feed each his ram for the space of two months, and to take 
care that at the ond of that period, they should not be henvier t)r 
lijfbter than thoy were then at that raomeut. Ue also caused the 
name of each mluister and the weight of bis ram to be written 

Bfr Bal took his ram and fed it in the nsnal way, hut constantly 
kept a dog iwar it. Tke coaseiiuenco was that the poor ram from 
very fear did not become any fatter or thinner, but was altojfether 
in ittdtu uno at the erul of the allotted time. Some of the other 
ministers ti^nve their rams grass in the morning', and not at night ; 
and gome fed their rams one day nnd not the next day ; an<l in variona 
other way.-* thoy tried to keep them in Ihe same condition ; but at the 
end of the two month**, when all the ministers and their rams were 
again assembled before Akbar, only Bfr Bal's ram was found to bo the 
right weight. " Did I not tell yon," said the king, "that ho was wiser 
and better than you all ? " 

*' liir Bal's ram." These words are quoted, when any person coun- 
teracts whatever good he may have done, by performing some evil 
work, e.g., a Kashmfrf would cite these words against n man who 
WTW especially liberal to a servant one day, and legged him severely 
in a fit of temper on the following day. 

JRlfhis gi'isah diy'.r. 

Money for cutting grass to an idle man. 

Wages to a servant, who has very little work. 
Bod ai I'sik audui totih ckhuh bodui. 
If a great mnn becomes half (i.e., comes down in the world) 

still he is great. 

Jfort^Hit n^n miUat ginus. 
Bod badih jt't/ir kadih ; aup badih tah tup kidih. 
If a man of good family becomes great, he will give pensions 

in land (to the people) ; but if an ignoble man becomes 

great, he will take out the very hairs of their heads. 
Bod k'Wtat kurhak ? zik modyav, 
*' Who made you a great man V* " Death " {i.e., Relations 

died and left you their position and money). 

Persian. — Kas na Duinad darsard monk gardad kat-Khudd. 
Bod mynnd gaUhik kkyun tah bad kath gaUhih nah 

Tou must eat a big mouthful, but you mustu*t do much 

work. (Oh, no!) 

Spokeu sarcastically to a lazy dependant. 


Boi ffav h^ni binih gayih ihani. 

Brother is (hard like) a stone, and sister is (soft as) butter. 

Bor chhuh jahannanmk jjor. 

A burden is one of hell's storeys. 

This saying is rather against the idea that the coolie thinks his 
load a trifle. 

Bozit zur tnh dishit un. 

Be as the deaf man hearing and the blind man seeing. 

A little paternal advice to a child — " Be as if yon had heard and 
seen nothing." 

Brogas dapyiiky " Tuhth chhii haj. *' Dupanak, " Nah tah 

kyah chhum syud .'*" 
They said to the heron, " Your bill is crooked." He replied, 

" Am I not all crooked ?" 

Bhojpuri. — " HahsuA lie tun terh Tcdhe ?" " Ato apnd gauh se." 

Bruri hindi gyav hhenah chhum nah lagan tyut, yut hruri 

hindi lui gilahwanah. 
I am not so angry at the cat eating the ghi, as I am at her 

shaking her tail. 

" 'Twas not the loss that I minded so much as the man's rudeness 
and impenitence." 

Persian. — Zi roghan khurdan e gurhana ndlam, zi dum jumbidanash 
dshufia hdlam. 

Brr'ri hund hal hyuh, athih nah yiwun huiisih. 
Like the secundine of a cat, no one can get it. 

A man here, there, and everywhere — no finding him. 

Hindus think that whoever succeeds in obtaining the after-birth of 
a cat will become exceedingly rich and prosperous. Only three or four 
persons in the whole city have been known to get it, and they all are 
very wealthy. As soon as this precious treasure is obtained it is put 
into a jar we)l covered over and kept in the house. Blessed are the 
people in whose dwelling it is placed. 

Bruri znn. 
The cat's moon. 

'' Such excitement, as that I could not sleep or do anything." 
Natives say that cats are fond of the 'moon, and get more and more 
excited as she increases. They remain out all the night and disturb 
the whole neighbourhood with their shrieks and depredations. 

1 he London Review says : — The Egyptians worshipped the cat as 
a symbol of the moon, not only because it is more active after 
sunset, but from the dilation and contraction of its orb, symbolical 
of the waxing and waning of the night -goddess. 


Brnris nah ^* bishtah, *' tah hunts nak " durah ;'' tyut chhuh 

nek ! 
He has not even a " bislitah" for the cat, nor a " durah" for 

the dog — so good is he ! 

Ho wouM not hurt a worm. 

Bishtah is a sound for driving away cata, 

Durah is a sound for driving away dogs. 

BrurUai pakah ychan saran rozakan nak pachhin. 

U the cat grew wings, the water-fowl could not Uve in the 


A cunning tyrannical fellow chooked from doing much harm by 
siokness or |M)verty, Ac. 

Persian. — Gurba e mis\in agar par ddshtef tukhm i gunjitfhk az 
jahdn bard:Ukte. 

Brimjih ckhhittik Walur puzun ! 

Sweeping away the waters of the Walur Lake with the 
branches of the Briniij ! 

Vrendt'c la lnnc avec U» dents. 

Bror mi'irun. 
To beat the cat. 

Pour cncournjer les autres. 

Tirimti. — Dhi nidrun putoh le tarag. 

A fiittiur on the occasion of his son's marriage gave him a little 
BiHJciul mlvice. " You aro going to bo married, my son ; and you will 
wish that your wife should bo quiet and submissive to you in all 
matters. Follow the advice, which I now give you. Procure a cat, 
and one night after your marriage so arrange that the animal shall 
be in the sleeping room at the time, when you and your wife retire 
to rest. You will go to the room as usual, and on entering it you 
will ])rotend to bo very much surprisotl and annoyed that the cat, 
should be found there, and you will draw your sword at once and 
slay it. Your wife, of course, will be terribly frightened, and from 
the sight of the slain cat, and a hint from you that she will fare 
likewise if she is not very careful over hcniclf, you may de|)ond 
upon it that she will bo the proper, dutiful wife that she should be." 

Bror wuchhit ffatshih " bishtah " khasun. 
"When he sees a cat, he must cry " bishtah." 

"Why don't you sjiy this before the iniiu's face? What is tho 
good of threatening him, when he is absent ?" 

Buchih phuharih tah nindurih pathur. 

Burnt bread for the hungry and the bare ground for sleep. 

Appetite is the beat sauce and tiredness the best bed. 


Buchis huni moz haltil. 

It is lawful for a hungry man to eat the flesh of a dog. 

Neccssitas nun habet li'jem. 

Budah ashah mohari mushah. 
An old man's love is worth a guinea a pinch. 
JHushak, a pinch (of snuS or tobacco, &c.) 

Budah h'wah jiigah jityah. 
Dancing an old crow (on the hand). 

Fussing about anything unworthy. 

Budnn tah lohulm hunz khidmal ff'ffhih nah Jiaruni. 

Do not enter the service of the old or the young (because 

the old will soon die, and the young do not remember). 
Budun tah toadun ; budun tah mashun ; budun tah nashun. 
To become old and to cry ; to become old and forget ; to 

become old and decay. 

" Yet is their strength labour and sorrow." — Ps. xc. 10. 

Buhogunns chhih bah fjuan. 

The Buhogun has twelve attributes. 

Buhogun or Bhog"n is a small brazen vessel, vrith a wide moath. 
In it the tea is made, rice is cooked, ghi is prepared, &c. 

Bvjih buthis kanahwt'jih. 
Earrings upon the face of an old woman. 
•* An old lady with a hat on !" 

Bujih (jabih chheh lifsan hanzan bastayi nun surun. 
The old ewe takes salt out of the skin of a weak sheep. 

It is the custom to carry salt, ftour, &c., about in skins. Salt is 
constantly given to animals. 

Bujih gniyih isii tas ov hit. 

An old woman tumbled down, and she got excused. 

A person full of excuses. 

Bujih labyax' Icujih tal fjimt ; ad ah gayih phut hit. 
An old woman found an apple under the tree, and after- 
wards she (always) went (to that tree) with a basket 
(live once, and they always expect ; and vei-y often expect more. 

Bujih vijuk bar tami nyuv mashidih hand. 

An old w^oman's door was taken away ; so she went and 

took the door of the mosque. 

It is a habit of the Kashmiii tradesman to make up for his losses 
by plundering other customei'S. 


Bitjih tah brdrik tjiuweyih har tah wanakin hdpatan 

tj'yih Idr. 
An old woman and a cat fought with one another, and fear 

came upon the bears of the wood, 

Punisbment visiteU u\khi the wrong persons. 

Tliere was a poor oM helpless woman, who used to beg for her 
food by day and cook it at night, linlf of this food sho would eat 
in the morning and the other half in the evening. After a while a 
cat got to know of this arrangement ond came and nte the meal 
for her. This old woman whs very gtxxl and patient, and so sho 
continued for many days without saying err doing anything to the 
thief. But one night sho could not endure the cat's impudence, and 
BO laid hold of it. Sho argued with herself as to whether sho should 
kill it or not. " If I slay it." she said, " it will be a sin ; but if I 
retain it alive, it will be to my heavy lose." Accordingly she deter- 
mined to only punish it. She procured some cotton -wool and some 
oil, and soaking the one in the other tied it on to the cat's tail, and 
then set it on fire. Away rushed the cat across the yard — up the 
side of the window — and uixm the n>of, where its flaming tail ignited 
the thatch, and sot the whole houMe on fire. The Hames 8pr«ad to 
the other houses, until after a short time the whole village was in 
one mighty blaze. The news R)>ri>ad far and wide, and the governor of 
the city sent the soldiers ; but they only increased the damage by 
shouting and in other ways exciting the |>oople, so that they ran about* 
wihlly. n«)t knowing what they were doing; and many received very 
seriinis burns. 

The governor, who now had reached the village, seeing these poor 
snfferers, at the advice of the doi'tor, oniororl the soldiers to march 
at once for the jungle and kill as many bears as they could, and 
bring their fat to him ; for the doctor had said, that if for tho 
space of two days bear's grease were applied to tho bums, they 
would perfectly heal. Tho soldiers were rather afraid to veniuru 
their lives in this work, and not a few of thom ran away, when thoy 
saw the boiirs. The score or vo who kept their ground were slain ; 
and ono poor fellow, whilst dnng, spoke tho above words, which 
liave long since pa^^sed into a proverb. 

Eventually many beai-s were slain. Hence tho boars an well as 
tho |>oor soldiers were killed, and all because of the quarrel between 
the old woman and the cat. 

Bulchik kaldl tah hi'r han'm. 
Buiuilc lawful, but cowrie prohibited. 
Straining at a gnat, but swallowing a camel. 

Bnlih'ri gayih w'sur-i-lchi'.na. 

The fire-place is the ulcer of the house {i.e., cats up the 
expenses, and souietimcs burns the whole place down). 


BuTchdri, a fire-place in shape like our English stove, built of dried 
mud, and used only by the few wealthier classes for warming the 
house, but never for cooking purposes. Wood only is burnt in the 

Bumasinui zdnih satuti sunz dig. 

The worm will know the pecking of the lapwing. 

Bun lam wuchhit Uun him nazar. 

(Apparently) looking below, but (really) seeing in every 
A slirewd, careful master. 

Buth wuchhit bog tah Ualdj wuchhit ts/hgij. 

The face sees the dinner and the backside sees the tsangij. 

Suu>}i' cuique tribuito. 

Tsdhgij is a round piece of matting for squatting upon. 

Buzi busi gudah ItUewun osm('inas suet. 
He cooks his fish by the sun and eats. 

A man so full of himself, that he listens to nobody. 

Buzun bror kdmuni, kahan garan kuni thov, buzun bror 

A cat for roasting is obtained with difficulty; only one frying- 
pan for eleven houses; a cat for roasting is obtained with 
Hard times. 

These words are said to have been first spoken in the time of 
'Azim Khan, one of the old Path.'in conquerors, whose reign of terror 
and oppression will long be remembered in the valley. The Hindus 
are especially bitter against his raeinorv, as he used to fine them so 
much a head, and so much extra for the tiki, the I'eligious mark, 
which they wear on their foreheads. 



Chiu ham yn y'ii± lekin tatj. 

It does not mutter whether the tea is less or more, but it 

nriust he hot. 

Two kinds of tea, aiul two ways of preparing it, aro mot with in 
the valley. Thcro is the Surati chiU, something liko our Engliuh 
tea, which is imported from the Panji'ib and Latl^k ; and the Sabz 
chiU, the cek>brated bnck toa, which n>aches Kashmir vid Iiad6k. The 
first way of pre(>anition is called tho Mughal method, Mugul eluU, 
Hero is the receipt : — For every tola or rupee's weight of tea in the 
pot put five cups of cold water, boil for half-an-hour, then add 
more cold water together with sugar and condiments, and allow to 
boil fbr another half-an-hour. Then add milk, stir well, and serve 
roun<l hot to tho guests ad libHum. Tho second moduit pn-parandi 
is called Shiri chdi, of which this is the rccifie: — Place the required 
quantity in tho tea-{M>t together with a little soda and cold water 
and boil for half-an-hour. Then add milk, salt, and butter, nnd 
allow to boil for another half-an-hour, when it is ready for drink- 
ing. The salt used in the infusion of tea is called phul. It is found 
in the Nubra valley in Ladak, and contains the oarbonato aud sulphate 
of so<la, and a little of the chloride of sodium. 

Chakih-khor ehhuk min's-dtW, 

An old servant is au heir (t.f ., you must make some provision 
for his old age). 

Chi'.ni bari'mdah ham ehhai nah th. 
Your doorstep is not straight. 

Something wrong with the wife. 

There were two friends, one of whom was wise and the other 
foolish. Upon a certain day, as they were strolling along the same 
path together, the wise man remarked to his less acute companion 
that his '* doorstep was not straight." The stupid friend replied in a 
soMiowhat aggrieved tone, *' Why, my doorstep is as straight as youis. 
I paid five rupees for it. Yours is a common stone. Why do yon 
boast over me that ' your doorstep is not straight ?' " The wise man 
noticing that his friend was a little disconcerted offered to waive the 
argument, until they both should ascertain for themselves tho truth 
of his statement. After some few days tho wise friend took the other 
friend to his dwelling ; and no sooner ha<l he arrived there then with 
a voice of authority he ordered his wife to. bring down a melon from 
the upper storey of the house, and to get some milk as well. Thia 
done he further commanded her to throw some ashes into the milk. 
The good wife without any questioning either by speech or look at 


once obeyed. The sage then said to his friend, " I wonder if your 
wife will do what my wife has done, as readily and uuquestioningly ?" 
The foolish friend answered, " Come and see." 

The two friends then went together to the house of the foolish 
man, who on arrival, like the other man, ordered his wife to go to 
the top of the dwelling and bring do^v^l a melon and to bring some 
milk also ; and to sprinkle some ashes over the milk. But he issued 
his order in a doubting, trembling manner, as was also manifest in 
his countenance. He evidently had not been arcuPtomed to rule in 
his home ; his wife had rather waved the sceptre of authority. 
Consequently at this time, as on many other occasions, which 
were well-known to the dwellers, in the neighbourhood, 
sbe most decidedly refused. " Why, I can not ; I will not, " 
she said. " Go and bring it down," roared the husband. At last 
the woman was frightened into obedience But there were further 
remonstrations before the milk appeared. " I do not know why 
you are giving me all this trouble," she cried, " why don't yoti 
go yourself ?" The foolish man now tried entreaties, and at length 
all the things were brought. Some more time was wasted before 
the woman, weeping very bitterly, threw the ashes into the milk, 
her only consolation being the thought that her husband had 
become mad. 

The trial being now concluded the two friends put on their shoes 
and walked out of the house. When they got outside, the wise f liend 
said to the other, " Was I not correct when I told you that your 
doorstep was not straight ?" 

Chanis daMnas guUb, 

May roses be to your mouth. 

A nice reply to any nice remark made by another. 

Ch'.nis k('has chhuh neh pi'>h dimih h'-jat. 
There is no need to cook your cabbage. 

" Now, don't talk nonsense. 1 am certain you can not, and will 
not, do what you say ?" 

Chdyih tah Uyih gatshih augun usun. 

A flame is necessary for cooking (both) tea and Indian corn. 

Tea here stands for the great man and Indian corn for the man of 
small degree. Flame here mesms money, which all classes need 
according to their rank. 

The Kashmiris say " Turuni chdi tah Idi chheh nah khenas Idik, '* 
i.e.y Tea and roasted Indian com are not worth eating cold. 

Chhalanah mat chhud atsdn hih nah nerdn ? 
Does dirt come or go by washing 1 

Does knowledge come from studying or not, &c. ? 


Chhi'-nah leij. 

The carpenter's wooden nail. 

A carj)enter was once in very straitened circumstances and obliged 
to sell his little hoase. After he had disposed of it. and althoujjrh 
the buyer was living in it, the carpenter went every evening when 
his work was over, and hanged his wrap npon a wooden peg, which 
was fixed over the front door. He did this for ten days, when the 
owner of the house remonstrated, saying that the house was his. 

The carpenter replied : '* Yes, the house is yours, but not this 
wooden uail." Accordingly the owner had to settle the matter by 
giving a few more rupees to the man. 

Carpenters are constantly omitting a nail here or some other work 
there, in order that they may be recalled, and be able to make a two 
or three days more job of it. When the master detects some fault 
in the work and sends again for the carpenter, he invariably says to 
the man, *' Look hero ; what is this? ' Chh&nali k{j,' you rascal. '* 

C/ihdnfih thiik chhnk nah hattih rozdn. 
The sound of the carpenter does not remain secret. 
Truth will out. 

Chhdnah thukas chhul rat tailor. 

Soup is ready at the sound of the carpenter. 

Honoured men get well treated whereror tbej go. 

A good carpenter is much flattered and pamperad by the people 
in whose employ he is working— of ooarae with a special 

Chh'inaa tah huzitfaraa tah thahsawtiras chhai audui nmr. 
A carpenter, tumbler, and horse-breaker (these three) only 
live out half their days. 

Ckhunat yUih piioun pt',neu pM ylkiHk kanik i'gun woafak- 

fy'ikah nal. 
When the carpenter has to do anything for himself, he uses 

a cabbage-stalk instead of a large beam (i e., he docs work 

at the smallest expense possible). 

Chhuc ifit batik tak di'v yit katkak. 

When it boils dinner is ready, and when opportunity offeri 

speak and act. 

A word or work in season. 

Chkeli ckkeli zun zi'lun. 

He washes the wood before he bums it (because it may be 


A particularly scrupulous conscience. 


42 . 

Chheni mut chheh waz&n. 
Empty vessels sound. 

Hindustani. — Adhjal g<igari chhalkat jde. 

Chhetin pdtsin mdran gatai Gwush Shodah patai Idrun chhus. 
Gwash Shodah runs after the man who walks (in a pompous 

fashion) throwing his clothes from side to side. 

Tt is related that a certain man borrowed five rupees from Gwash 
and went and bought clothes with the money. No sooner were the 
clothes made, and the man was walking with great display in the 
bazai', then Gwash came running after him asking him to pay his 

Shodah is a lazy, smoking, drunken fellow. 

Cho7i muhgah trak son sun ah. 

Your twelve pounds of mung is only one of my meals. (My 

expenses — my family, are so great). 

Your gift was but as a drop in the ocean. 

Muhg is a vetch or kind of kidney bean. 

ChuiJcaras chmTcar tah pintshunik nauhar. 
Servant to a man of humble situation and servant to a small- 
eyed man. 

Amongst other cases quoted, when one servant passes on to 
another and lower servant the master's order to him. The lower 
servants in an establishment are " fagged out of heir lives" some- 



Dab chkwi hah ? 

Is falUng-down a father ? 

Why should I trouble about that fellow ? 

Dah lug tah rabih pelh, dil lug tah hilih pl^th ! 
Tumbled into the mud, the lieart set upon water-weeds I 
A man *' smitten" by an ugly, ill-shaped woman. 

Dachk ax hhezih tah dpaimi'm^ haehh ax Tehl^sih tah zgur. 

It' a man will eat grapes, then let him eat dpaiman kind ; and if 

he will eat grass then let hhn eat zyur. 

Apaiman. — There arc at least six varieties of grape growing iu 
Kashmir, among which ilpaimdn ia said to be the best. 

Zyur is a kind of caraway-soed. 

Dachh leamawu Ichhfi zih paradhf, mih h/t dup panani^v, 
AVho ate your grapes? Strangers. O! I thought your 

relations (would nave had some of them^. 

He that neglects his own is worse than an infldel. 

Bachkun atkah ekhuh ehhaltin khawarist tah khowur athah 

chhuh ehhaltin tlachhinis. 
The right band washes the lefl, and the left band washes the 


"If the plowman did not plow, 
The poet ooald not write.** 

Dah buU kahi zt'U. 

Ten wives but eleven dispositions. 

" As many tastes as heads and as different." — '* Ontoulo Manual.'* 
Balthasar Graoian. 

Dah chandas ; dah wandas ; dah ihundaa. 
Ten in the pocket ; ten in the heart ; ten in the pillow. 
No finding out what the man's opinions really are. 

Dah gaz hyur lyah tah dah gaz bun kyah ? 

What is the difference whether it is ten yards up or ten yar(Ts 

down ? 

A regular ninny-noddy. 

Once upon a time a man fell into a well. As luck would have it 
ther« was another man passing by that very moment with some rope 


in his hand. Of course he threw one end of the rope to the man, 
who had fallen into the well, and told him to fasten it round his 
loins, which the man did ; and so was pulled up and saved. 

On another occasion this man, who had saved the other from 
drowning, was passing by a high tree, when somebody shouied to 
him from the topmost branches, that he was fixed up there and could 
not possibly descend ; whereupon, having the same coil of rope hang- 
ing upon his arm, he said, " Don't fear, wait a moment. Here — 
catch hold of the rope," and he threw one end of the rope up to the 
man. The man caught it, and no sooner had he done so, than he 
was jerked most violently from the branch and pulled to the ground, 
dozens of yards below. Of coiu'se he died instantaneously ; and when 
the passers-by gathered round the corpse and enquired whether the 
man, who had done this deed, was mad or a murderer, he replied : 
" I have pulled a man up out of a well and now I have pulled a man 
down from a tree. What is the difference whether it is ten yards 
up or ten yards down as long as you save the man." 

Dah thurungi dit tah pathlcunui. 
Ten dancings-round and yet behind. 

Vain struggling against misfortune. 

There is a children's game in Kashmir called Tsihul. One boy holds 
a piece of rope in his hand, and the other end of the rope is fastened 
by a stake into the ground. The other boys go around him and beat 
him, when they can, with sticks. Should this boy touch one of the 
other boys without letting go the rope, that other boy has to catch 
hold of the rope and take his chance. And so the play continues. 

Dahan dah manuH gaUhnn nah tah hiinis manui poshih nah. 
Ten manuts are not required for ten men, but one manut is 

not sufficient for a single man. 

One or two more in a big family does not make any difference in 
the expenses. 

Manut is a weight equal to three pounds. 

Dahan thawon sai tah alcu nah t_sunan wai. 

He g;ives promise to ten, but does not give food to one. 

Dahi wahori Dashahhr. 
Dashahar after ten years. 

Long enough about it. 

Dnshahdr or Dasahrd or Das.hord, is the tenth of Jaith shukl pakeh, 
which is the anniversary of Ganga's birthday. On this day, also, 
Rama marched against Ravana, for which reason it is, also, called 
Vijai Dasami. 

H. H. the Maharajah of • Kashmir, like other Hindu rajahs, cele- 
brates this day with gi-eat pomp and rejoicing- Three immense 
cardboard figures stuffed with gunpowder are made to represent 


Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Migunad, and these arc placed at the 
proper time in the centre of a large open space without the city. 
To represent Rima, Sita and Lakshman, three little boys are splen- 
didly dressed and carried in a beautiful palanquin to the same 
place. Crowds of people gather there, and Uis Highness sends all 
the troops with the guns, Ac. It is a most exciting occasion. Excite- 
ment is at the fullest pitch, when at a given signal one of the 
little boys, who ia supposed to be R&ma, steps forth from the pa- 
lanquin, attended by the two other little boys, and fires a small 
arrow at the big figure representing Ravana, while the other boys 
discharge their arrows against the other two figures. Of course 
at this moment the three monsters, Ravana, Knmbhakama, and 
Mfgunid explode with a tremendous noise ; and then the guns rattle 
and the cannon roar, and the people shout until they are hoarse, and 
eventually retire. Cf. the Bamayana for an account of B4ma and 
his adventures. 

Dai ai diyik tah barah nyusai ; Dai nai diyih tah hruhah 

s'-snh Uatit hj/ah ? 
If God intends to give, He will give at the door ; but if God 
will not give, then what is the good of going a thousand 
kos (i.e , about 2,000 English miles) for it. 
Four men. ambitious to become rich, determined to leave Kashmir 
for some other country, where they could obtain greater wealth 
than it was possible for them to amass in " the Happy Valley." 
They arranged a certain day and started altogether, taking with them 
four thousand rupees for the purpose of trading. Each of the 
little company had an equal share in this sum of money, and thoy 
all set forth full of hope that they would prosper and bccomo 
exceedingly rich. 

On the way it came to pass that God, according to His mighty 
power and wisdom, cau»od a full-grown golden tree to spring up 
suddenly, and to bring forth at once rich clusters of gold. Seeing 
this magnitteent tree, the four travellers were so surprised that they 
hardly knew what to say or to do. However, they soon changed 
their minds about travelling into a foreign country, and ro80lve<l to 
return back to their homes, carrving with them the tree of gold. 
They were reminded of their own Kashmiri proverb, " Dai ai diyih 
tahbarah nydsai; Dai nai diuih tah krukah sdsah tjatit kyah ?" which 
being interpreted is, " If God intends to give. He will give at tho 
door ; but if God will not give, then what is the good of going two 
thousand miles for it ?" and therefore they said to one another "we 
have happed upon this golden tree and must take it home with us 
and be glad for ever." 

In this proposition they all agreed ; but how could they so arrange 
it ? The tree was high and large ; it must be felled and cut up into 
bundles, which they oould carry. Acconlingly it was determined 
that two of the party should go to tbe nearest village and procure 


axes and saws, while the other two would remain to ^ard ther 
precious treasure. 

Presently the two selected started for the tools. The other two, 
who were left to watch the tree, then began to take counsel together 
as to how they might kill their partners. " We will mix poison with 
their bread," said one, " and then when they eat thereof they will 
die, and we each shall have a double share of the treasure." And 
they did so. 

However, the other two, who were going for the tools, had also 
plotted together by the way as to how they might get rid of the two 
partners left behind by the tree. " We will slay them with one stroke 
of the axe," said one, "and thus shall we each have a double share 
in the treasure." 

In the course of a few hours they returned from the village with 
the saws and axes ; and immediately, on arriving at the tree, they 
slew both of their partners ; each slew one with a single blow from 
the axe. They then commenced to hew down the tree, and this 
done they soon cut up the branches and fastened them into bundles 
for carrying away ; and then thoroughly wearied with excitement 
and their great exertions they laid down to eat and to sleep. Alas ! 
they ate of the poisoned bread, and slept a sleep, the fatal sleep, 
from which they never woke again. 

A short time afterwards some other travellers passing by that 
way found the four corpses, lying stretched out stiff and cold 
beneath the golden tree. Cf. " The Orientalist," Vol. I., Pts. 
II. and VII., pp. 47, 165, where incidents in the Arabic account 
of the Virgin M&ry and Jesus, and in the Vedabbba Jataka of the 
Buddhist Tripitakas, are described, which bear a striking resem- 
blance to this story. 

Daman ba.^tih dito dil, daman as yitah damn Jchdr. 

Shistaras sun gatshi husil ; wuni chhai sul tah tsundun ydr. 

Sudaras no lahi suhil, nah iat sum tah nah tat tur. 

Par kar paidah parwoz tul ; ivuni chhai sul tah fsdndun ydr. 

Gdfilo heh tah Jcadam tul hushydr roz truv piyddil. 

Trdwdk nai tah cJihuh jnhil \ wuni chhai sul tah fsondun yur. 

Give the heart to the bellows, like as the blacksmith gives 

breath to the bellows, 
And your iron will become gold. Now it is early morning, 

seek out your friend (z.e., God). 
The sea has not a shore, neither is there a bridge over it, nor 

any other means of crossing. 
Make to yourself wings and fly. Now it is early morning, 

seek oat your friend.- 
O negligent man, pnt on power, be on the alert, take carf, 

and leave oflF wickedness. 


If you will not then you are a fool. Now while it is early 

morning seek out your friend. 

A few lines from Lai Dt-d constantly quoted by the Kashmiri. 

Piyddil—the work of a chaprdssi, a bad lot, as he generaly makes 
his money by oppression, lying, and cheating. 

Vamas suet chhui namaskvr, J}'^^^^ "^t^^ '*'^* '^^ 

** Good day '* to the rich or honourable man. ^ ^' - •.-.<^ ^ ixi 

Dambih ai zen kore tah daurih at bowan hachai. 

If from the womb a daughter should be born, and if from the 

fields but an indifferent harvest should be gathered (still he 

is happy. For a little is better than nothing). 

Daml dithum nad pakawunit dami dithum sum nak tah tdr, 

J)ami dithum that yhollawun{^ dami dyuthum gul nah tah 

khdr. ' 
Dami dithum p^ntjhan Paudawan kant m&j dami ^ithum 

kraji vioa. 
One moment I saw a little stream flowing, another moment 

I saw neither a bridge, nor any other means of crossing. 
At one time I saw a bush blooming, at another time Isaw 

neither a flower nor a thorn. 
At one moment I saw the mother of the five Panda vas, at 

another moment I saw a potter's wife's aunt. 

" Nothing in this world can last." 

Quotations from Lai DM's sayings, the whole of which will 
probably soon be in print. 

The history of the Pdi'idavas, and how their mether was reduced 
by misfortune to profess herself a potter's wife's aunt, are fully 
explained in the Mahiibhirata. 

Dtin diwon tah prut harun. 

The generous person gives and the miser is sorrowful. 

Ditm dushman chhui nnddn metharah sandih khutah jdn, 
A wise enemy is better than an unwise friend. 

Persian. — Dushman i ddnd ki pay e jdn hmcad bihtar az an dost hi 
11 ft Jdn buicad. 

The story is, that there was a prince, who had two ministers, one ^ 
a friend and the other an enemy. The friend happened to bo most. * 
weak and stupid, while the enemy was a very cute and wise fellow. 
One day his friend thought within himself " I will kill the prince 
and become a great king." Accordingly he ordered some men to 
dig a ditch and to cover over the top of it with grass. They did so. 
Then the stupid nuni»<ter one day asked the king to go for a walk 


wifch Wm ; and passing by the way of the ditch he pnshed him into 
it, and ordered the attendants to cover him over with earth. But 
the other minister was at hand, and the king saw him. and cried unto 
him, " O minister, let me not die. The country will be ruined." 
The wise minister knowing that such would be the case, revoked the 
order of the other minister, and had the king pulled out. On the 
following day the stupid friend was executed, and the wise enemy 
was promoted to very great honour. (This story is evidently taken 
from the Makbzan i Asrar, a Persian work). 

Dunah-miran harij'inah-onir barbud. 

The big fire-place destroyed the great man. 

There was a Pandit of the name of Nand RArn. and belonging to the 
Tikli sect. He was indebted to the Pathcin, Az4d Khdn's goverment 
to the extent of five lakhs of rupees. The goverment wanted this 
money, but Nand Edm could not pay it, and so soldiers were stationed 
around his house, and the order was given for his eyes to be taken 
out. When the man arrived to execute this cruel order, Nand Rdm 
begged that he would wait, and said, " There is money under the 
big fire-place. Now Nand Rdm's custom had been to feed two hundred 
people every day — the poor, the sick jind the distressed, who 
thronged his house. 

The soldiers according to directions well searched beneath the 
fire-plaee, but found nothing. They told the matter to Azad Khan, 
who sent for Nand Ram and enquired what he meant. He answered 
" My big fire-place has ruined me. In it has been absorbed all my 
wealth." Azad Khan then repeated the order for his eyes to be 
taken out. (Azad Khan, 1783, a.d., is the tyrant of whom it was 
said that he killed men as though they were birds.) 

Banah sumbrun chhui hani der surun ; danah sumbrun chhui 

ruzah sund mul ; 
Danah du darmas ti chhui larun Sahib gurun din Mho rut. 
Gathering money is like gathering a heap of stones, gathering 

money is as the king's property ; {i.e., is appropriated by 

the state after death). 
Giving money in alms, you keep it. Remember God day 

and night. 
- " There is that scattereth and yet increaseth ; and there is that 
withholdeth more than is meet, but it tendeth to poverty." — Prov. 
xi. 24. 

Dandah hhokhur haminum gaje ; dand truvit lubar paje. 

O toothless man (your mouth is like) a hammam's fire-place ; 

go and put your teeth at the bottom of a cow-dung basket. 

Hindu adults sometimes, but nearly always the children, when a 
tooth has been extracted, place it at the bottom of a basket of 


cow-rlung, or else throw it into a rat-holo, sayinp, " Qajan Id ga<jaro 
chim dand meh tah myon dand tfeh, which lueaus : — 

" Rat, O brother Kat, yon take my tooth and give me yours." 
Muhammedans keep their teeth in a little box, which is buried 
with thom when they die. 

*' Dnndn phunkiin kiho, zih ckhuk zih mailha chhum,^ 
*• Chhor kiho zih chhuU zih darhn chhxuny 
**0 bull, why are you bellowiug?" " I am proud" 
"0 bull, why have you diarrhwa ?*' *' 1 am afraid." 
A coward. 

Dondas chhii'i hing gobAn? 

Are the horns too heavy for the bullock ? (No). 

No matter how largo the family tho father would not willingly 
part with one of his children. 

Dundas hiv tah watjhis getL 

A good haudful of grass for the bullock, but six liandfuls for 
the calf. 


Di'mdan hhejik patuj^ panuni kh^gan mandttj. 

The ox who ate the matting ate hia rump (t>., he got 

whacked for it). 

Conseqaonoe of ovil deeds. 

Dandun mugov tah dupuk ** Amn chhuh" 
A man with projecting incisors was about to die, aud the 
people said *' lie is laughing." 

Ddndih suat wagan dohalih. 
Ddndih rust Wigiin rtUalih. 
The owner of an ox ploughs in the day. 
The man who hasn't an ox ploughs at night (i.e., he plans 
things in his bed, but forgets them with the morning light). 

Dangi suh. 
A tiger in the stable. 
A tyrant in his house. 

Dapaha8 ai />ba8 gaUhun gatjthih Jchushhas. 
Dapahas ai khushkas gatjhun gatjhih abas. 
If I tell him to go to the water he will go to the land. 
If I tell him to go to the land he will go to the water. 

A good-naturod follow, but who invariably misuudeiDtaudB any- 
thing and ciucutea it accordingly. 


Dapayai hur, hih nahpari rdhat-i-jon ckhahamai Mngri. 
O kangri, what shall 1 call thee, a celestial virgin or a fairy ! 
You are the balm of my life. 

Persian. — Ai Mngri, ai hdngri, qurhdni tu h'&r o pari, harchand 
wasfat mikunam Icaz wasaf azdn hdld tari. Tu az pari ndzuli tari o 
az harg i gul ra^nd tari. Haqqd ajd'ih dil tari. 

Dur yelih dudareh yur gaUhih panas, miUiwis hanas mitsik 

When the body (lit. wood) becomes old (lit. dry and rotten) 

the spirit (lit. friend) goes his own way. The place of this 

earthen pot is under the earth. 

Daram Ddsini hotri, 
Daram Das's chamber. 

A small room. 

Daram Dds was a very celebrated character among Kashmiri 
Jogis. He lived in Srinagar near to the entrance of the Lake, and 
died in 1877 A. d. He built several small houses, the biggest of which 
was sufficient for only two persons, 

Darbdr garih ai til melih tah halam gaUMh durun. 
If from the master's house some oil be given, then one must 
hold up the skirt, wherein to take it. 

Although the present may be a mean present, and of as much 
benefit to the recipient as oil in a cloth, which all runs out and is 
spoilt, yet it is' the duty of the servant to take it humbly- and readily. 
Kashmiri beggars receive alms in this way. 

Dard chheh gard. 

Love is as dust {i.e.y must show itself), 

Daryawik malkh ganzrani. 

To count the waves of the river. 

An impossible task. 

Persian. — Mauj i daryd shv/inardmu 

'All Mard^n Khdn (cir. 1650 a. d) was a governor under the 
Emperor of Kashmir Shcih Jahan. He had two especial servants, one 
a Muhammedan and the other a Hindu. The Muhammedan worked 
all the day, but the Pandit, who worked only for one hour, received 
more salary than the Muhammedan. The latter petitioned the 
king, that he would at least give him an equal salary. The king 
promised that he would do so if the Muhammedan would go and 
count the waves of the river and tell him how many they were. The 
Muhammedan went away at once, but soon found that he could not 
oblige the king. On his return, when the king asked him how many 
waves there were, he replied, " I have forgotten." Then the king 
ordered the Pandit to go and count the waves. The Pandit con- 


sentml on tho condition that the king would allow him two thousand 
rniwes and one hundred soldiers for this purpose. Tho king gave 
him what he asked for, and a%vay went tho Pandit to his task. At 
every turn or passage of tho river he placed four soldiers and a toll 
house, and ordered them to take four rupees from each boat which 
went up or down. The excuse to tho boatmen, when they demurred, 
was that they had hindered the Pandit in counting the waves of 
the river, and therefore they were thus fined. In this way he 
obtained a Idkh of rupees, and then went to the king. In reply 
to the king's question how many waves there were, the Pandit 
threw down the bags of rupees at tho ruler's feet, saying " One 14kb, 
your Majesty." 

This Pandit was promoted to a very high post, whilst tho Moham- 
medan was debased. 

The natives say that *Ali Mard^ Kh&n introdnoed ciistom*hoiiBe0 
into Kashmir at this Pandit's advice. 

Dashtam, dushtam chhuh nah hakar ; durctm^ diram chhuh 

liVhat I had, what I had, is not wanted; but what I have, 

what I have, is necessary. 

Quoted to the man who is constantly speaking of his groat rela- 
tions, or previous wealthier state. 

Ddsfur chhih gandtm izzatah kMtirah wushnerah hhUirah 

Men bind on their turbans for honoor's sake, not for 


VasUrak badalah chhas kalas p^th ras. 
In place of a turban rope is on his head. 
A disreputable person. 

Dasturan chhuh nah mul, darb>'ran chhuh. 
No worth is attached to turbans, but to professions. 
Not what a man seomsi bat what he is. 

Dastaras dab tah nulaa trit chhtth mulis tah m^jih pifth 

maranih wizih p'n. 
To dash one's turban upon the ground, and to tear one's cloak 

into two pieces at the time of a father's or mother's death is 


This is principally a Hindu custom. They remain thns with 
uncovered head and torn cloak for ton day 6 after their parent's 
death ; and if they are rich they then give the turbau and cloak 
away, but if they are poor they keep them. 


Daulat jama haruni chkai eallat. Hdr hun s6r nah hunsik 

Amassing riches is destruction. A piebald dog is not faithful 

to any one- 

The Kashmiri calls many things hdr h-An, but especially these 
three, viz., the world, health, and money. 

A certain wealthy merchant, famed for his goodness and alms- 
giving, died, and his immense wealth was distributed among all his 
sons, except the eldest, who did not get a cowrie of it. There 
was great lamentation in the city, and especially among the poor 
and sick people when they heard of this good man's death. What 
were they to do ? To whom should they go now ? " Perhaps," said 
some, '* the sons will continue their deceased father's liberality, that 
their name may live and be great in the land." So crowds of the 
poor and distressed wended their way to the sons' houses. The 
sons, however, who had come into their father's property were not 
good men, but selfish and hard-hearted ; and so when they saw the 
crowds of beggars entering their compound, they at once gave orders 
that they should be turned out and told not to come again, but to go 
to the eldest son's quarters, as he was more interested in their cases 
than they were. Therefore they went to the house of the eldest son, 
who, following the example of his father, did what he could for the 
relief of their necessities. 

Now it happened that one day some holy men visited this eldest 
son and asked for alms. They came at a bad time, when he had 
only two loaves within the vessel. However, he told them to wait, 
while ho took these two loaves and sold them in the b^ar. The few 
paisas, which he received for them, he gave to the holy men. When 
he gave the money to them, they knowing that it was the price of 
the two loaves, enquired why he, the son of such a wealthy and good 
man, was in such reduced circumstances. He told them that his 
brothers had appropriated all the money, and that he did not care 
sufficiently for it to go to law concerning his portion. The holy 
men were very pleased, and much desired to compensate this un- 
earthly-minded son. Accordingly they told him to prepare one of 
the rooms in his house and sleep in it ; and it would come to pass that 
one night a woman, Daulat by name, would enter his house ; and 
when he heard the sound of her footsteps ascending the stairs he 
was to open the door of his room, let her come m, and then chain 
the door ; and on her asking to be let out again, he was to say to her : 
" Daulat jama haruni chhai zallat. Hdr hun sdr nah Tcdhsih hanz" 
which means, '' I have not got any money. I think it a sin to 
amass wealth ; and so you will not be faithful to me." " But," 
continued the holy men, "she will promise never to go away; 
and then you can open the door." Saying this, they blessed him 
and left. 

According to the instructions of his saintly visitors, the eldest son 
thoroughly cleaned one of his rooms and arranged it as if for a 


wedtlinji^-cliaTnbor, atnl at nii^'lit laid down in it to rest. Tic had not 
Ix^eii asleep for more than two honre, when ho was awakened by a 
creaking on the stairs. It was the woman coming up. So he opened 
the door to let her enter. No sooner had he opened the door then a 
little flame came floating along in the air until it settled upon his 
forehead, but ho did not feol the heat of the flame, nor did it 
leave any mark behind. In a minute or two ho returned to the 
room, but not seeing the woman who talked with him (for she had 
been turned into the little flame) ho laid down again upon his bed 
and slept. 

On rising in the morning ho heard that the king hail ordered his 
troops to march to a distant country against another king who had 
unlawfully seized some certain lands and villages ; and the king 
paid the soldiers their wages beforehand in gold mohurs. The 
soldiers, however, did not like this arrangement, they were afraid 
that they would lose them either through thieves, or in some other 
manner ; and so they returned them to the king with the request 
that ho would send them to the late rich merchant's sons and got 
them exchanged for paper money, which they might cash at the 
merchants in the country whither they were going. The king 
complioil with their request and sent the gold mohnrs to the lato 
merchant's sons, but they replied that they were not able to fulfll 
the king's wishes, as they had no transactions with the merchants 
of that country ; and, moreover, they were not known by thorn, and 
■o their letters would not bo respected. 

In the midst of this difficulty the oldest son of the late merchant 
came to the king, and said that he would arrange for the payment of 
the troops if his Majesty would trust him. The king said, *' Yes, 
you are a gootl man ; I will send you the money." 

Whon the eldest son got tho money ho put it into a big earthen 
vessel, and in the midst of the gold ho put a letter for one of tho 
merchants of that country whither the soldiers were going, asking 
him please to distribute the money amongst them according to tho 
orders of the king. He then closed up the mouth of tho vessel with 
a piece of ordinary oil-skin, and gave it to one of the soldiers, tolling 
him to give it to a certain merchant on arrival at the journey's end ; ■ 
•' I should bo so thankful," he said, "if you would please take this 
jar of pickles. My friend will bo so glad to get them." The soldier 
readily promised to take the greatest care of the jar, indeed many 
offered to take it, so grateful were tliey one and all for this man's 
convenient arrangement concerning the money. On arriving in that 
country tho pot was handed over to the merchant named, who at 
once opene<l it and read the letter. The next day the gold mohnrs 
wore paid to tho troops, who were astonished at tho shrewdness of 
the late merchant's eldest son. Bcadily they each one set a]>art 
some of tho money as a present for their benefactor, while tho king 
made him his private secretary and banker. Eventually he became 
as wealthy aiul as great as his lato father ; and in the time of Lis 
greatness he did not forget the sick and the poor. 


Dayih sund pmvur, yemi yetih tiwur. 

Wheresoever, whosoever has taken possession, that is the 

place of the Deity. 

A man's house and lands are sacred j no person can take them 
from him. 

I)a,i the Deity, destiny (Sanskrit) . 

Dawudnras Jcorak zoyih; muddaud'Was huguni ayih. 

An only daughter was born to the plaintiff ; she came in 

marriage to the defendant. 

Quoted when an unlikely event happens. 

Dazah-wunih narah gajih ai dizen durit tatih tih yijih nah 

put phirit. 
If he is cast into the burning fire-place, he will not return 

thence (before fulfilling his work). 

A goodi sharp servant. 

Dazanas dod. 

There is pain from a burn. 
To lose anything is not pleasant. 

Dazihniatskik wulinjih zulahbuk. 
Clawing the burnt liver. 
Unguis in ulcere. 

Dedi hawah difsthas nodf'nas ? 

Tawah khutah diziham wozah-ganas. 

Aniham dagah dagah hhhnahah pnnas ; 

jDidagani dimahah manz maidonas. 

O mother, why did you marry me to a foolish man ? 

Better that you had given me to a prostitute's cook. 

He would have brought me scraps of dinner in his wrap and 

I would have eaten them ; 
And I would have lolled the whole day upon the grass. 

T)edi talai char as dazun. 

At the king's porch charas burns. 

Cheeky without shame, and before his master ! 

Charas is the exudation of the flowers of hemp collected with the 
dew and prepared for use as an intoxicating drug. 

Deg chheh teg. » 

The pot is a sword (i.e., makes ravage with one's income). 


Dehh ku bi'nkti rmmh chahkm pet khtUi. 
The Delhi swell has got a jolly face, but his stomach is 

A Delhi Pandit determined to pay Kashmfr a visit. When ho 
rca<-he(l Vcm6g he engaged a man as cook, with whom ho hod tho 
following conversation : — 
Pandit.—" Cook." 
Cook.^" Yes." 

Pandit.—" Bring aboat threo-qnarten of a pound of floor from 
the market, and make tliirty-throo loaves. Ton gnests will 
bo present at dinner this evening. So that there will then 
bo two loaves for each guest, and something for each to take 
home with him, if he shoald wish to do so." 
Cook.—" I do not understand you." 
Pandit. — " Never mind. Do as I tell you. Tho first day, when 

wo entertain strangers, we do so." 
Tlie cook brought a vessel full of a water and placed it in front of 
tho Pandit. 

Pandit.—" Wliero is tho food P" 

Cook. — '* It is the custom in this country not to give any food to 

the stranger on the first day — only a vessel-full of water." 
Pandit. — " No ! I am sure you must bo miMtaken. 
Cook. — " I also think that it cannot be the custom in your country 
to feed ten men with tliree-qnarters of a pound of llour." 
(Tho in a rage. Etit, Cook.) 

V^minen Icong. 
Saffron with sheep*B paunch. 
Not worth the candlo. 

8a£frou is used as a condiment, and is eaton only with the bost 

Dewas tah drathdyihas dizih til tak tahar, ddmi sanziA bad- 

nazarih nah hehh. 
Oil and rice can be given to (appease the anger oQ tho ghosts 

and demons, but nothing can save us from the evil-eye of 


Cf. '' MSh chham," ^c 

J)%giimih diwai Nadifftttnih penjih iewai. 

The great mela is at Digam, but the washing of the mound is 

at Nadigam. 

Dig^m is a village near to Shupiyon. There is a great mold there 
in tho month of July ; and people, whose little children have died , 
during the year, go to tho place and offer clothes and food in tho 
names of their deceased children. 


On the same clay there are festivals also at Mangdm and Trigam, 
which are a great distance from one another, and both of them very 
far from Digam. It is written that **He who visits each of these 
places in one day, shall ascend to eternal bliss." One man did so, 
riding upon a swift horse, and afterwards man, horse, and every- 
thing went up into the clouds out of sight. Another man by the 
name of Krishna Saraf also succeeded in visiting these three 
villages in one day; but for some reason or other ho was not 
taken up. 

Digih puhtshuv tah dugih Mr. 

A small paisci for a peck and a cowrie for a blow. 

The over-liberal person. 

T)ih thap tah nih dastur. 
Seize him and take his pagri. 
A respectable vagrant, who lives by " sponging" on others. 

J)ik n& tah manati dab Tchet ? 

You will not give ? (of course you will) ; but it will be after 
much wrangling and quarrelling. 

Threatening " distress for rent." 

Manaii dah, lit., a strike of a stone, but here it means going to law, 
or giving a man a good thrashing. 

Dik nd tah paizar khet ? 

You will give I know, but you will eat your shoes (first). 

"Putting on the screw " to get a debt. 

" Eating shoes " is an expression for being beaten with a shoe. 

Dil ba dil gav uhiah ; yut wuehham, tyut louchhai. 

Your heart and mine are like a looking-glass ; as you see me, 

so I shall appear to you. 

Be friendly and I will be friendly, and vice versa. 

Vilah nah tah hilah di di. 

Not willingly but with a little shoving and pushing. 

"Dilas phulai gatshih asuni, gulich phulai ley ah yiyih bahdr ? 
There must be blossoming of the heart, and then the flower- 
blossom will not be needed. Cf. " Asas gatsiy' $-c. 

Bilikis bugas dur har gdsil. 
Adah dewah phuli yemhurzal bag 
Marit manganai uinrih hanz hosil. 
Maut chhui patah patah tahsil-dur. 


Keep away dirt from the garden of your heart* 
Theu perhaps the Narcissus garden will blossom. 
After death you will be asked for the results of your life. 
Death is after you hke a tahsildar, 
A saying of Lai Dtd's. 

Diluk khur-khurah mehy Malih, Mstam, manaike kotar mare, 

Narih iosam iukah hnnzai larih ladtm. 

Yelih pdnah inyunuv kadit ninanai panane gate. 

Pat ah pat ah neri Iukah susa narih u/awan. 

Trt'ivit yininai manz maidunas s^wit dachhane tare. 

Make far from me proudaess of heart, O Father, — from the 

pigeon-hole of my heart. 
My arm is wearied from making people's houses {i.e., from 

helping others, giving alms, &c). 
When, O my body, you are turned out from your house. 
Afterwards, afterwards, a thousand people will come waving 

their hands. 
They will come and set you in a field, laying yon to sleep on 

your right side. 

A verso of Lai DM's constantly quoted in part, or in toto^ in time 
of troublo. 

Hindtis bam the bodies laying them upon the right tide, with 
their head towards the south, because the gods and goo<l spirits 
live in that diiection, and Yama, the angel of doutb. also roaides there. 

Dinawulid diyih ; dinal kyah diyih ? 

The generous person will give (whether he can spare or not) ; 
the prostitute (although '* flush with coin*') will not give. 

DiM ^noM tah Sh^di Ganai nah. 

All the people except Shadi Ganai (her husband) will live 

with her. 

A faithless wife, or a frait tree, of which others pluck the fruit, 
while the real owuer gets nothiDg. 

tihddi Qanai was a butcher's wife, and a very wicked woman. 

Ditut no, zih zangah phufrit ? 

Has it not been given to me ? Yes, but after breaking my legs. 
Once upon a time there was a man who was carried away by the 
thought that God was " The Giver," and that somehow or other Ho 
would give food to those who sat all day in the house meditating 
upon Him. This man silt in his house for three days without food. 
Ho became so thin that ho could scarcely walk. He then went up 
to the roof of his house and sat there, thinking that, probably, God 


meant him to live upon air. In a short time he became faint 
and senseless, and rolled off the roof on to the ground, and broke 
his legs. 

The people heard of this and brought him sherbet and cooked 
meat. The man soon revived, and said the above words, which 
have passed into a proverb. 

Cited when a man has obtained his living or any position with 
great difficulty. 

Dizih berih yetih pherih. 

Dizd ytirih yetih gaUhih tdrih ? 

One should plant the tree at the edge of the field, where it 

will spring up. 
Shall it be planted in the place where the fir-tree grows, 

where it would be checked and die ? 

To lend money without interest. 

Dohi sund garah nanih iz doh> 

The washerman's house will be known on the great feast-day. 

The washerman's family wear the clothes which are sent to them 
to be washed ; but on the day of the feast everybody takes all their 
clothes, and so the poor washerman and his family are left almost 
naked. (This is not true of every washerman). 

Persian. — Khdna i gdzur ba, roz i 'id ma'lum shawad. 

Dobi sund hun, nah garuJc tahnah gdthuk. 

The washerman's dog is not of the house or of the ghat. 

Expectations unfulfilled. 

The washerman's dog fares very badly as a rule. He is always 
following his master to and fro from the house to the ghdt in hope 
of getting, some scraps, but it is very seldom that anything is 
thrown to the poor animal. 

Hindustani. — Dhobi M kuttd na ghar fed Tia ghdt kd. 

JDod gdtid. 

A philosopher and a half. 
A wiseacre. 

JDod nah tah dag nai kawah yiyam ushye ? 

I have neither pain nor smart, why should I cry ? 

Let every man bear his own burden. 

Dog dit tih burav ; dog hat tih barav. 

Strike a man and he complains (before the magistrate), and 

strike him a hundred times and he complains (and no 

greater punishment ensues to the striker). 

A variant of this both in words and meaning is :— 


Dog dit tih Urav ; dog het iih hdrav. 

Whether he strikes another, or whether he himself is struck, 
it's all the same— he grumbles. 

Doh chhuh diw&n Uhoh ; doh chhuh hhySwun goh. 
(One) day gives rest, (another) day causes to eat manure. 
It is not always sunshine. 

Voholih hhotit'n tak rAtalih mandachMn. 
Fearing by day and being ashamed at night. 
An altogether wretched and bad character. 

Don botjan hum har gayih toahr&tn hund rdd. 

Strife between husband and wife is like the monsoon rains. 

Although Kashmir is out of the tropics it is visited by periodical 
rains, which finish about the last week in July. 

Don kulai batch w/iwah. 
The wife of two persons, because of food. 
•' The bitter cry." Anything for bread. 

Don salnh tran wAhwelA, 

Agreement with two people, lamentation with three. 

Two are company, three are not. 

A Pir once sent hit horse to a oertain village, that it might 
graze upon the beautiful grass there. He po^icnlarly told the 
servant to lead the animal and not to ride it. When the 
servant had gone some distance the Pir sent another servant to 
look after the first servant, and, especially, to see that he was 
not rilling it. He went and found the man leading the horse, 
but being both of them tired, and the horse also tired, they 
rested awhile, and then set forth again, both of them riding the 

The Fir was still suspicious about the horse, thinking that the 
two servants would perhaps agree together, and both of them 
mount him at the same time. So he sent a third servant to look 
after them. The third servant came and found them both astride 
the horse. " I will tell the Fir," he said, *' I will explain the whole 
matter to him." " Don't, don't," they replied, '* but yon come also 
and ride, and we shall have a jolly time." The man consented. They 
all rode the horse at one time, and arrived at their destination. 
But the next morning the animal died, and gfeat was the distress of 
the three servants ! ! 

Don ungajan chhuh nerun tia. 
One snaps with two fingers (not with one). 
It takes two to make a quarrel. 


poni kulis hojih-waf. 

A pestle to the walnut-tree. 

A sharp fellow in their midst, of whom they are afraid. 

Vosti khutah chheh rusti jcm. 
Truth is better than friendship. 

Dostas seztnani tah dushmanas wukarmani, 

A straight open countenance to your friend ; a downcast look 

to your enemy. 

Most frequently cited by the mother, when her son wishes her 
" good-bye " before going to his day's work. 

Doyih athah cheh tsar wazun. 
Clapping is with both hands. 

It takes two to make a quarrel. 
Hindustani. — Elc hath se tali nahih lajti. 

Drag Ualih tah dag tjalih nah. 

The famine will disappear, but the stains will not disappear. 

During one of the terrible famines that have now and again visited 
Kashmir, a brother was nearly dead from want of food, when he sud- 
denly remembered a long-forgotten sister, and determined to go to 
her and see whether she could help him. On his arrival his sister 
happened to be making bread ; but she was too sharp for him. She 
had seen his coming, and guessing the reason of his long-deferred 
visit, took up the burning hot bread and hid it under her arm. Her 
bosom was very much scorched by this, and she retained the marks 
of the bum up to the time of her death. 

Kashmir has suffered very much in morals from famines. Driven 
to extremities the people seem to have lost all sense of self-respect. 
A little knowledge of the people and their language quickly con- 
vinces one too forcibly of the truth of the above words. 

Drag as zi chhai goya hik Mogas narak j)hah. 
Employment in time of famine is like the warmth of a fire in 
the month of January. 

Dralah hunar chhai hyakhui. 

An agent's profession is another matter. 

There's nothing that he is not up to. 

Merchants keep such men by them. At the time of bargaining 
they come in as if unawares and try to make a bargain for the 
sahib, or intending buyer, out of pure good-heartedness. The Dr4l 
gets a commission on the sale. He is a good-for-nothing, unprincipled 
fellow. There are two or three kind of Drdl 16k. Those who lend 
out money at interest, those who hire out their daughters for evil, 
and the merchants' agents. 


Droti not ah. 

Like a sickle to cut meat with. 
A stupid workman. 

Du-zang khas^m tju-zangis. 

A two-legged mounting a four-legged. 

A man of inferior rank promoted, and " lording it " over otbera. 

Dud a 8 kandi tjurani. 
Picking thorns or bones out of the milk. 
An ovorscrupnlons firihman. 

J)m/ chhui daz&n. 

The end of (your) garment is burning (with enry). 

Extreme envy and jealousy. 

Vum-duviah tah Jumah Bat. 
Jumah Bat and his drum. 

A very poor man. 

Juinah Bat was a town.crier for some time. He was a roan of 
good family, and had seen better days. — Vid« " (TocbH driv" ^c 

pumaias runz. 

(Like) a marble against a dumaU 

A dvice to a fool. 

These dumcUa are very big conical stones (li^gims). and according 
to the Pandits as old as the Pindavas. They are supposed to be 
the petrified bodies of wicked man, whom some good people in olden 
times cursed, becaose they were troabled by them, and so they 
became stones. 

Golist&n of Sa'df. — Tarhiyat nd ahl rd chun girdgdn bar gutnhad 

Dumb tah Uap hunsih mah dap, 

*' Stomach and bowels. Don't tell anyone." 

When a father forbears to beat his child, and another person 
blames him for his leniency, he thus replies. 

*' Dumbo, Jajir '* '* Taiydr, 5«6o.'* 
" O dumb, Hukka." " Ready, Sahib " 
A sharp, willing servant. 

Dumbah shurinax TehuTcarbdti hdw^n. 

Showing a thing (mask, &c.,) to frighten the Dumb*s children. 

*• Don't suppose that you're frightening me." 

The Dumhs are a plucky lot of fellows. They carry the letters at 
night through the jungle and over desolate hill and plain. 


i)unyii chhuh nah dki danjih rozan, puhUh doh sdkh tahpahUh 

doh dokh. 
The world does not continue in the same state ; but there are 

five days of happiness and five days of sorrow. 

Dunyu tah dyur. 

The world and wealth (go together). 

Duragi hanz Duragi lur ; yits m',j tits hiir. 
Durag's stick (according to her height) ; and as mother, so 

Durikt dunk chhuh manats methun ; nakhah, nakhah chhuh 

hand iethan. 
From a distance black pepper is sweet ; near at hand sugar is 


Distance lends enchantment to the view. Familiarity breeds 

Dushmanahsandih lagih nah hanih Uanjih ; dostah sandih lagih 

jposhih Uanjih. 
The slap of the hand from an enemy will not hurt, but the 

angry touch, even with a flower, from a friend, will wound- 

A king sentenced a man to death by stoning. The order was that 
every man in the city should throw a stone at the prisoner. A friend 
of the man heard of the stern order, and said within himself, " What 
shall I do ? How can I throw a stone upon my friend ? I must 
not, and can not, hurt my dear and kind friend." Accordingly he 
plucked a flower, and determined to throw that when the time came, 
and to throw it so skilfully that the people would think that he had 
thrown a stone. He went to the place of execution and flung the 
flower at his friend, who then spoke the above proverb. 

Dyarahwol cJihuh nah hod ; batahwol chhuh hod 

Not the rich man, but the man who gives dinners, is great. 

Dyutmut 'khairut hyutnam phirit, shukrani majih tsul iup 

nirit ! 
What was given to me was taken away again, Shukr's mother 

lost a hair or two (that is all) ! 



Gabar chhiu lubar sih gai guris nishih tah ani ? 

Are children like manure, which people go and buy from the 

milkman ? 

Children are not so easily obtained, that they can be so easily 

Gabik hutkih rumak-hun. 
A sheep in appearance, but a wolf at heart. 
A wolf in sheep's clothing. 

Gabih tih touUh laf. 
A sheep also can lift his tail. 
The smallest worm will turn being trodden npon. 

G/id chh^h daryuvas andar trethih bupal marin. 
The fish dies from thirst in the river. 
Every opportunity, yet ho did not succeed. 

Gud yUih chhek kh^iotin handrert tah adah chheh lagdn buth* 
When the fish feels the icy-cold it leaps upon the bank. 
Affliction is a hard, but a good, teacher. 

Gddak tasbih tah thukah tah&rat. 

(To carry) rosary (in one's hand) for loaves (and fishes) is as 

if to (perform) tah&rat (with one's) spittle. 

Tahdrat is the Muhammedan's ablations before prayers. 

Gddah tolil piWaang. 

Seeing whether the scales were correct, after the fish had 

been weighed. 

Without premeditation. 

Gadav hechhih wufah tah hunzuv h^chhih zul. 

The fishes learnt to jump and the boatmen learnt to use the 


An asylum for the maniac — a prison for the blackguard — a net 
for the fish. 

Gagar-mirani gang. 
The hole of Sir Rat. 

" He has well feathered his nest for somn time." 

The rat is always laying up stores. A Pandit dug out the hole of 
a rat the other day and found pieces of cloth, iron, little piles of rice, 
apples, &c., enough for several months' provisions. 


Gagarik hanz hhetsarih lej. 
The mouse's khetsarih lej. 

Khefsarih lej is a saacepan in which spiced rice is cooked. Thd 
mouse is very fond of this rice, and as it does not remain very long 
when the mice are by, so money does not continue long in the hands 
of a man in debt. 

Gagur chhuh hardn hraris mat. 
The rat nonplasses the cat. 

Cited when anyone or anything small has escaped the oppression 
of a greater, and also caused him a little trouble. 

Gagur tsdv haMrih banih. Het hyah tsuv zih Ichet druv ? 
A rat entered a stock of wood. What did he take with him 

going in, and what did he eat coming out ? Nothing. 

In stdtu quo. 

Gagur wetsih nah pananih wi'j, patah het mdj ! 

The rat himself cannot get into his nest properly, and yet 

he takes his mother after him ! 

Hardly enough for one, and yet two or three people are to share 
in it ! 

Gajih 8ur kudum, pajih sur lodum tah trowuM gayim trek 

Ltilah wuzanowum, dudahan cho wum tah sowum^ gayim sheh 

I took out the ashes from the fire-place, I put them into a 

basket ,and;then threw them away. I have done three works. 
I woke up the baby and gave him a little milk, and then I 

put him to sleep again. I have done six works. 

As busy as a hen with one chicken. 

Gam chhuh Jchdm ; shahr chhuh mnnindi hahar. 
The village is kachcha {i.e.y not the place to get anything) ; 
the city is like a river (there everything goes on swimmingly). 

Gamas garah Tcaryd wad ? 

Shall one house give answer to the whole village ? 
" What can I say ? You are all against me." 

Gumuk suh tah shahruk him chhuh bardbar. 
A village tiger and a city dog are equal. 

A stupid man from the city is eqaal to the great man of the 


Gani Indim tah yindar Jcatan. 

When the prostitute becomes old she spins the wheel. 

G&hih kawah zanih ptiz sund shihur f 

How can the kite know the prey of the hawk ? 

Guhth kyah zanih bachah dod tah hdhth hyah z&nih putrah 

Does the kite know anything of the pain of his prey ? Does 

the barren woman consider the child's pain ? 

Cited by tho beggar as he tarns away onhclped from the rich man's 

Gunth nah kunih tah gahtah aul ? 
No kite anywhere, but the kite's nest ready. 
Building a stable before the horse is parchased. 

Gahz Uul gdmah tah gaiia phakah nishih mukale. 

The tanner has run away trom the village and the people are 

relieved of the tanner s smell. 

Bid of tho offending party. 

Gar gundah. 

The fat man of the house. 
A lazy master of a hoose. 

Gar manz Gangd. 
Ganges in the house. 
Hiudustduf.— .4hZ i hismat itpns ghar haithe hi daulat pdenge 
Ydr ghar djdegd to dhnndhne kyun jdenge. 

Gxah Ninak to Angad. 

Gar na h'thad hehih andar wirah phuhj jdn i tUrin mibar6yad 

khwf'ih ma khwuh. 
If there is not the warmth of fire in one's bosom, the precious 

life will certainly come out. 

" Warmth of fire in one's bosom" refers to the k&ngar. 

Gar peth ztimuthur bar pith hun. 

A son-in-law who lives always in his father-in-law's house, ifl 

like a dog at the door. 

Hindus are so very fond of their children, male or female, that 
they cannot bear the idea of a separation, and so the sons-in-law are 
invited to come and dwell under the same roof. Nearly every 
wealthy family has its quantum of sons-in-law, who generally spend 
their time in eating, drinking, smoking and sleeping at tho expense 
of their fathers-in-law. In this way they contract the most demo- 


ralizing habits, and are a scorn and reproach to all right-minded 
people. Such are called Gar Zamuthur. In Bengal they are called 
Ghar Jam6'i. — Vide " Hindus as they are," p. 73, f. n. 

Garah gav Uakah-ndv, dakah dalmh pakanav. 

The house is like a manure-boat, (only) by constant shoving 

and pushing (does) it makes progress. 

Tsakah-ndv is a large barge generally stuffed full of vegetable 
manure gathered from the Dal lake. These boats are so loaded that 
only an inch or so appears above water ; consequently a little stop- 
page might cause it to sink. They are towed and pushed along to 
their destination, and are at once unloaded on their arrival. 

Garah hur anih tah hanih, gardh rov mimmunih. 
A bUnd woman and a one-eyed woman tried to keep house 
together, but they disagreed and brought the place to ruin. 

Disagreement means ruination. 

Garah wandai garah sosu garah nerahah nah zah, 
O home, I offer you a thousand houses, and I will never go out 
from you. 

No place like home. 

Garazmand chhuh dewdnah. 

A selfish man is mad (so grasping is he, and so incessant in 
his solicitations). 

Gari nun til. 

Salt and oil in the house. 

Cited against a man, who makes money on purchases for his 
father, but does not take up any special work for himself. 

Gari gojih. 

(Like) the kernel of a water-chestnut (singh^rah). 

A Kashmiri curse, meaning " May your eyes start out of your 
head through trouble and sorrow." Also when a person is not sharp 
at finding any thing, another person will sometimes say, " You, gari 
gojih, can't you see it?" 

Gari warih dagan. 
Pounding spices in the house. 

A coward. 

^' Pounding spices in the house" here means living indoors and 
afraid to stir out. 

Garibas tjuge tsur tah mandinen turn kurhas jashnah. 
A thief entered the house of a poor man, and they feasted 
themselves until mid-day. 


It 18 of no use for a poor man to complain. The police only vet 
him more, until ho is obliged to bribe thom to keep quiet. 

Again these words are often quoted when more than the invited 
people are present at the wedding-feast. Hearing the sound of 
music passers-by go in, are lost in the company, and eat, drink, 
and steal to their hearts' content till mid>day. 

Garth chhukahy hik nah yazmanah handih ? 

Are you in your own house, or in your disciple's house? 

Brdhmans and other holy men do not eat much in their own 
houses, but save the money. When they visit their disciples' houses, 
they eat their fill. 

Oited to a child who is going beyond boonds at the dinner. 

Garih diyin tah znmin mah aUin, 

Better to give something from the house than to become 

surety for anyone. 

" He that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it.*' — Prov. zi. 15. 

Garih gafah tah maahidih tjohg. 

Darkness in the home, but a light in tho mosque. 

Miserable and miserly at home, bnt pleasant enough and liberal 
abroad. A frequent answer to the Mullahs, when they become im- 
portunate in their demands for contributions towards the support of 
the mosqaes. 

Garih manz ehhuh garyul ; dam ganiniat asl. 
The bell-striker at the hour ; breath is as spoil. 

A man, Azftn KhAn by name, becuTno mad fn)m nmch reading, and 
went about the city shouting these wor<ls. He was of very gr)od 
family, but turned a fakir. All his money, excepting a small porti<m 
which was given to his wife and children, was distributed amongst 
the poor. The wife marrieil again, and the cliildron were taught a 
trade, and are now earning a respectable livelihood. 

Garih nah bazin tah naubal wazin ! 
No oil in the house and the band plays f 

A man who is obliged to stint his stomach in order to cover hia 
back or feeil his horse, or pay his extra servants. A hard struggle 
to keep up appearances. 

Garih tih hoJe parih iih h/ik mt-haklcah zuah gari dn'Tc. 
Vegetables in my own house and vegetables in another's house. 
O life, you should not have come forth from your house. 

Vegetables here means trouble. Cited when one has trouble in 
the house and goes to another i)er8on'8 house and there gets more 


Garth yelih Ualih, fai Shah sapanih rdzi ; adah hd mdlih 

chhui Tazi Bat Jcun. 
"When a man escapes from the house, and the king is happy, 

then, O Father, is Tazi Bat's arrow. 

After adversity comes prosperity. 

A man overtaken by misfortune ran away from his house. To 
support himself he hunted with his bow and arrow. The king of the 
country had promised that the man who could shoot an arrow 
through his ring at a given distance should receive a robe of honour 
and other rewards. The ring was hanged up in a certain place and 
a man always stationed by it to see fair play and report to the king. 
The poor man was shooting birds one day near to the place where 
this ring was suspended, when by the will of God the arrow was 
whirled by the wind straight through the ring. The man in charge 
immediately sent word to the Court, and the poor hunter was 
rewarded, and able henceforth to lay down his bow and arrow and 
live in ease. 

Gutah hun tah shutah him tah puji hurt, yim treh hunt chhih 

The landing-place dog, the river-bed dog, and the butcher's 

dog, these three dogs are alike (a wretched lot). 

GaUh Prunts tatih chhai zulah. 
Go to Punch and there get ague. 

I wish you were at Jericho. 

Punch is about five marches from Srinagar in a north-west direc- 
tion. It is a compact town and has a good bazar. E^ja Moti Singh 
resides there, and holds a considerable tract of country in fief under 
his cousin, the present Mahdrajah of Kashmir and Jammim. 

Gdv diyih nah tah wutsh cheyih nali. 

The cow will not give (milk) and the calf will not drink it. 

Step-mother and step-children, who generally hate one another. 

Also cited concerning an old servant and his master. Both have 
got to dislike one another, but each does not like to give the other 
*' notice to leave." 

Gdwih chhuh wonamut haiih Tdni ditam tah latih hini dimai. 
The cow said, *' Give to niie by the throat {i.e., feed me) and 

1 will give to you by the tail" {i.e., I will supply you with 

milk, ghi, and butter). 

Feed a servant or an animal well and they will servo you well. 

Ger chhui dmut. 

You have got very earnest (about this work). 


There was a lazy woman, who never cared to spin or to do any 
work. Her hnsband spoke to her about her laziness. She replied, 
•* Ah ! let me alone now. The time is coming, when I shall be so 
fond of work, that I shall get through any quantity in no time." 

One day they were going to Tnlamula, and as they were starting, 
the wife said to her husband, " I should like to do some work. Got 
mo a spinning wheel." The husband said the aboYo words, but he 
could not at that time obtain a wheel. 

Qhoahah tah gyav Ichyom hrurih, 
I would sing but the cat has eaten my gh(. 
Circumstances are so that a person ia afraid to epeak or to act for 

UindustAnf. — Kahun, md mar jde ; 

Na kahun, hip HIU khSt, 

Gil tih cM^h dunye Mhchhun, 
Gil also wauts some rice. 


Oil is a Muhammedan woman's name. 

G(yv mar bozan sAri tah dundah m^r nah boz/tn Icanh, 

Strike a cow and everyone will exclaim, (** what a shame io 

strike the cow which supplies you with milk!"); but 

strike an ox and nobody will say a word. 

The cow hero represents the groat man and the ox the poor man. 

Gov ztiv wuUh aui mSh ffutjh. 

The cow bore a calf, which I should have (and will have). 
Where there's a will there's a way. 

Grist sund hakhur hyuh. 
Like a farmer's young untrained ox. 
A useless fellow. 

Grtistu agar auliy/t hushad Uilc-i-huriy/i nest. 

If the ploughman becomes a ** lord," yet he ia not then even 

fit to lit upon the matting. 

A Persian proverb with only the first word altered. Persians say 
Dihkdn agar, Sfc, 

Grustu zih hustu. 

The husbandman is like an elephant (i.e,, a strong, big 
clumsy fellow), 


Gudah druv Jum Bat dum dumah het ; patah druyas Roskan 

benih poshih mulah het. 
First came out Jum Bat, bringing a drum ; afterwards came 

out Roshan, his sister, bearing a garland of flowers. 

From horses to asses. 

Jum Bat was formerly a well-to-do oflSicer in H. H. the Maharajah's 
Court. He became very poor and was obliged to do the mean work 
of a town-crier. His sister, too, equally humbled herself by going 
about the city selling garlands of flowers. 

Gudah lorih-han tah patah horih-han. 

First (he asks for) your walking-stick and then (he wants) 
your pet daughter. 

Hindustani. — JJngli pakarte pahunchd paharnd. Boti deke bakrd 

Gudanich Jculai chhai Mi tai zii ; 

Ihiyim hulai chhai ff art h garih drii ; 

Treyim Icidai UaUn sumah tah kadal ; 

Tsurimih badal lagih nah hanh, 

A first wife is as jasmine and income ; 

The second wife swears hourly by your name ; 

The third wife cuts bridges, great and small ; 

The fourth wife — there is no one like her for all manner of 

wickedness ; she is a hopeless character. 

** Swears hourly by your name" means she makes great profes- 
sion of love for you. Kashmiris frequently swear by the person or 
thing they most love. 

" Cuts bridges" is said of mischievous and extravagant wives, who 
altogether hinder their husbands from crossing over to the other 
Bide, where prosperity and peace are to be had. The reader will 
please remember that Kashmir is a valley full of rivers and streams. 

Gudanich Jculai chhai rani matsui ; 

Duyim Jculai chhai totih Jcehtshah ; 

Treyim Jcidai chhai iolih maJcaUui ; 

The first wife goes mad over her husband ; 

The second wife — there's something good in her ; 

The third wife is as an axe to the head. « 

GudanuJc soda gaUhih nah rowarun. 

One must not lose the first offer (lit., trade). 

Kashmiri traders, like those of some European countries, are very 
superstitious about refusing the offer of the day's first customer. 
They will frequently rather lose than allow him to • depart without 
purchasing something. 


Guh grailah-hal. 
Manure by the mill-house. 
Cited against a man who after promotion is reduced to his former 


Guh zfinik tah bilchik. 

The dung will know and the spade (but I am Dot the person 

to have to do with, or to know anything about, such a 

mean affair as that). 

GuhaH ffupan nun kh^wmy garih gupan mm l^w^m. 
Jungle cattle eat salt while the home cattle lick the wall. 
Charity should begin at home. 

Gur bailih son^ di'mah kh^yih ckon. 

Our horse will grow big and will eat your grain. 

Cited when a wife's relations keep her ratiier a long time; also 
when a friend borrowM a horse or anything, and is not particular 
as to when he returns it. 

Gur rhhuh nah hhl^wun p^tj ; yltlih ohhas buchih lagAn., tilth 

chhuh kh^iffhu mitj. 
The horse does not eat the bulrush, but at the time of hunger 

he will eat earth. 

Gur dapiyi'i^ kih my on dud chhuh ijtok f 
Will the milkman say that his milk is sour ? 
Uiudustdnl. — A-pni cfuichh ko khattd koi nahin hahtd. 

Gur garth tah nakh'.sas mul pariijun. 

Leaving the horse in the house and goiug to ask the nakhfa 

its price. 

Wishing to sell the goods without first showing them. 

ValthAs is the officer appointed over the sale of all horses in the 
valley. No person can soli a horse without first arranging the price 
with this officer and paying him one ^iii in the rupee. 

Gur jun Sum jon, yi'd jun, ch''t jnnt hndam nai. 

The horse is a good one ; the hoofs are strong, the mane is 

nice, the whole appearance is beautiful ; but the step is 


A man with one glaring fault. 

Gur kawah zunih kur haharit ? 

How will the milkman know how to marry his daughter? 

{i.e., outside his own class of people). 

" Like blood, like gootls, and like agesi 
Make the happiest mamages." 


Gur Icyahpahiheh sird chhuh palcan. 

The horse does not walk, but the secret walks. 

People generaly take a man for what he seems to be, and not for 
what he is. It is not the real man they see walking but his dis- 
guise, his secret. 

" For man is practised in disguise, 
He cheats the most discerning eyes." 

Gay's Fables. 
Gur zanunaJi., tah shamsher,, yim irenawai chliih he-wafd, 
A horse, a wife, and a sword, these three are unfaithful. 
Persian. — Asp o zam o shamsher wafddar na hdshad, 

Guras guv ball toshun bat as guv "khet roshdn. 

The cow-herd's cow, whether she gets a good meal or not, is 

a comfort to him ; but the Pandit's cow eats and is angry. 

What is the good of keeping a beast for mere show ? 

Guri chhuh dupamut ^^ Khasawunis hharaty wasawunis 

The horse said " I will help you to mount the ascent, but 

you lead me down the hill." 

Guri garih chhud wuUh rdwnn ? 

Does any harm happen to the calf in the milkman's house ? 
A servant of a good master ; a son of a good and clever father. 

Guri garih wafshi hur buhih wahari dun. 

The calf lowed after twelve years in the milkman's house. 

A little child sometimes speaks after a long silence. After many 
years of barrenness sometimes a woman gives birth to a child. 

Guri wokawah chhud widjh mardn? 
Does the calf die by reason of the milkman's curse ? 
A child's reply to a parent's hard threats and words. 

Gurih hhasit tih bethchod tah gurih wasit tih bethchod. 
Whether on horseback or on foot he is a scamp. 

Do what you will somebody will speak evil of you. You cannot 
please everyone. 

The Kashmiris have a story similar to our school-book story of 
the '*01d man and his donkey." 

A very wicked Kashmiri owned a pony. One day he was riding 
upon the animal, while his daughter was walking on in front. The 
passers-by on seeing this cried out, " What a shame ! What a lazy, 
cruel man !" The man felt a little asTiamed of his thoughtlessness, 
and calling his daughter took her up with him on the pony. Thus 


they proceeded for some distance, when other people met them and 
exclaimed, " Rather a big load for a small pony"; whereupon the 
man and his daughter both got off and led the pony along by a 
string for the rest of the journey. 

Gurih sawuri tah khurackih atah-gat. 
To the mare riding, to the foal trouble. 

Going to work a man calls after his mate to come along as well. 
The latter replies as above, " What is the good ? I should only be 
like the foal running after its mother." 

AtaK-gat oorreiponds to the HindustiLnl &ni*j&nd. Here it means 
trouble, becaoae people run about hither and thither in time of 

Atah-gat is also the name of that money which the Hindu father 
places in the hand of his married daughter when she goes on a visit 
to her husband's family. The " going and coming'* pay. 

Gurin Ugilc me tah khar gai padar ddrit. 

The horses got shod, and the donkeys put out their hoofs 

(for shoeing). 

Seek not what is beyond your position. 

Gurin nah posMn, Ih phalin chob. 

He can't manage the horses, and so he beats their manure. 

Too weak to trouble the " big guns," and therefore he oppreases 
the poor. 

Gurmut pitnsah tah runmut myund. 

Money made up (into gold, silver, and copper ornaments) is 
like a cooked mouthful (i.e., they are ready for sale in case 
of need, and until then they are useful ornaments). 

Gurtas m^l tah Uud h^t pat ah kani. 

Wishing to drink the butter-milk, but hiding the vessel 

behind him. 

To eat little when dining out, and to refuse more, yet all the while 
longing to eat a big dinner. 

Gyav Ich^wun tah gardanih kun athah Vigun. 
Eating ghi and then feeling his neck (to see if he was getting 
fat, the fool, — as if results would happen so quickly as that) ! 



Hd niulih. Ha miiji ! 
O father, O mother ! 

Among other occasions used on the following : — A man wants a 
loan, and the person whom he asks for this loan, replies : " I wonld 
lend it you willingly, but ' Ha, inalih, Hd mdji,' when shall I get 
it again ! 

Sabbah shah foni telih nah tah wuni. 

O Habbah Shah, tumour wuU, then, not now, was the time 
(for removmg it) ! 

Opportunity passed. 

Hahhah Shdh had a big ugly tumour on his forehead which might 
easily have been removed at one time, but he allowed the opportunity 
to go by. 

Hachivis guris zachuv zin. 

Tas ku8 Tchasih ? Mahi-Din. 

A saddle of rags for a wooden horse. Who will mount him ? 


Let a fool have to d.o with foolish things. 

Mahidin was a great student. Eeport says that he was well-up in 
all languages and religions ; at all events, he became mad and his 
name a proverb. His son now wanders about the city in a mad 
condition, and everybody does him honour. 

Hf'ijih Bdbah maGhumah, Idienah Uariyii ? 

O Haji Baba, give me some dinner ? Is it any trouble for 

you to eat 1 

This is replied sometimes, when any person wants a special favour 
from another person ; or when a servant applies for increased wages, 

Machdmah is a company dish consisting of rice, vegetables, raisins, 
colouring matter, and sugar. 

JSuhah tsuras galih chapdt. 

A cabbage to a thief is as a slap on the cheek. 

Little punishment for a small theft. 

Sahmas tah hdJcimas nishih rachhtain Khuduyo. 
O God, deliver me from the doctor and the ruler. 

Both Muhammedans and Hindus are frequently heard praying 
this prayer as they squat by the ghdt in the morning, washing them- 

Hal^k nah pathih lah inum ! 

I've not got my rights, and yet he gives me a reward ! 

When Kashmiri people give a little more than they intended, or 
think right, for any article, they are apt to tell the shopkeeper that 
the overplus is largesse. The seller would then reply as above. 

Hal gatsAuni ehheh pU gaUhuni. 

To form habits is to make pain (e.g.y a habit of drinking, 
smoking, gambling, and extravagant dining, &c.) 

Halulas hudb tah harumas az/ib' 

A reward for things legal and punishment for things illegal. 

Bdlav galan nd tah dunes ddh karit ? 

The locusts will certainly decrease, but (meanwhile) they arc 

destroying the rice. 

Man dies but his influence remains. 

Small numbers of loousts visit Kashmir almost every year. Some- 
times a great army of them invades the valley and does terrible 
injury to the crops. 

Muhammedans eat the locust. They dry them in the sun, then 
grind them into powder, and afterwards make cakes of them. They 
are regarded as a groat delicacy. 

Bustdn of Si'dL— iS^a dar Icoh »ahti na dar bd^ thakh ; 

Malakh hUttdn khurd o mardum inalakh. 

Hal^n bunan wukari ih^n ; hihht hiki tamahhim. 
Dented covers for dented saucepans ; and like men for Uke 

Ham^fuim Tcarih ruzah tah tawis garib ; 

Bukhtiri karih garib tah tuwis ruzah, 

A wealthy man can build a bath-room and a poor man can 

make it hot ; 
A poor man can build a fire-place and a rich man can burn it. 
The whole world is one great family, each member of which, be he 
ever so lowly, is indispensable for the help and comfort of the other. 

Hamsuyah wandit/av, garo. 

O house, I will make an offering to you of my neighbour. 

To try and pass one's misfortune on to the head of another. 

In time of sickness and trouble people are accustomed to make 
offerings uiito the house. Sometimes a ram is slain, and the priests 
are assembled and fed, and special worship is paid to the gods. 
Instead of offering anj-thing at his own expense the man in the 
proverb wished to offer something belonging to his neighbour. 


Hand truk manA ranihy Jcackal truh karih nah hehh. 
A person with a little tact will cook a maund (i.e., will do 
something), but a dull, ignorant person will do nothing. 

Sangah nah t ah rang ah nah zangah zichh hashye, 
Dod nah tah dag nah. Kawah yiyem aushye 1 
I am independent of you, O long-legged mother-in-law. 
There is no pain or agony to me. Why should I weep ? 
No love is lost between mothers-in-law and their children-in-law. 

Sdhth gayih haras gahi dit. 

The barren woman fastened her door and went. 

No heir to look after the property. 

Huntih zuydv gubar shituli pajih darydv us. 
A barren woman bore a son, and the small-pox swallowed 
him up. 

A man who suiBfers mnch pain rather than give up a work, but 
after all dies in the midst of carrying it out. 

Ednzas gubeyih lulih, ditshan ddrit Tculih, 

It became a weight upon the boatman's bosom, and so he threw 

it into the river. 

Cited when a man of some family maan*ies his son to a daughter of 
lower birth, or does anything else equally ignoble, because he cannot 
aflford to do the right thing. 

'H.dnzas yelih chhuh darydvas andar wdv yiwdn, puth namah 

chhuh brohth namah hardn tah brohth namah chhuh puth 

namah kardn. 
When a storm arises on the river the boatman rushes from 

the fore-part to the hinder-part of the boat, and from the 

hinder-part to the fore-part. 

A man in trouble knows not what to do. 


Scarcity (lit., an outcry is raised). 

While these words are being written there is Hapi hdyun in tho 
city of Srinagar concerning rice. For some reason or other rice ia 
scarce and dear. 

Mdpat ashud hyuh gamut suh chiz ndydb. 

Like the bear's ashud that thing has become scarce. 

It is said that when the bear gets this grass, he devours it most 
greedily, and becomes uucouscioas for six moaths afterwards. 


Hupat y&raz. 

A bear*s friendship. 

A stupid friend. 

A bear formed friendship with a man who was passing throngh 
his jangle. For some time he brought his friend large quantities of 
honey. One day the man fell asleep after eating the honey. While 
asleep a bee attracted by the sweetness alighted upon his mouth. 
The friendly bear seeing this thought that he woald save the man 
from the pain of a sting, and so he went and fetched a great piece of 
rock and aimed it with all his might at the place where the bee was* 
The stone frightened away the bee, but killed the man! Cf. "Folk- 
tales from the Upper Punj&b," by the Rev. C. Swynnerton, Jovvmai 
Afiatic Society, Bengal, Vol. LII., Fart 1 , 1888 ; also the story of the 
calf who got its head into the pot in " Notes on some Sinhalese 
Proverbs and stories in the Atita-V4kya-Dipaniya," by A. M. 
Senibiiyaka ; also the story given in " Dasent's Norwegian Folklore," 
where a goody is discovered by a friend beating her husband's head 
with a mallet in order to make a hole for the head in a shirt, which 
had been previously thrown over it ; also the Makasa Jataka, where 
a son broke his father's bald head to kill a mosquito, which had 
settled upon it. 

Hdpatas at aut /tsiheh tah suh "kariheh mi tjuehih ? 
If the bear bad flour would he not make bread ? 

Cited against a poor man with extravagant ideas. 

The bear may be sometimes seen smacking his paws together M 
natives do when they are making ohapitis. 

"Ear hart har kar, har wizih sur kar. 

Fight by all means, but at the time of fighting bo careful. 

flir/r hhiw&n gua tah h'lr muri m^iri. 

The starling eats dung and then shakes his head in a pleased 

sort of way. 

A shameless man. rangah musibat chhui ak diwunagi. 
Every kind of misfortune is a madness. 

IltWah Uur. 
A cowrie thief. 

A mean fellow, a stint. 

Hartitnuk mtil har&machih watih ; nah hheyih pdnas tah nah 

neyih athih. 
Ill-gotten wealth goes in the way of wickedness ; the getter 

neither eats it himself, nor takes it with him. 

Persian. — Mdl i hardm bud bajd e hardm rafU 


Sardah gurus metrat, sontah gurus shetras. 

Autumn butter-milk for the friend, and spring butter-milk for 

the enemy. 

The autumn grass is much better than the spring grass ; conse- 
qnently the milk is better in the autumn. 

Earafm gawoh tah mendis shariJ:. 

A witness against (my) words but a sharer in (myj mouthful. 
The man who is always " loafing" about like the mahalladdr or 
spies, appointed over every village and district in Kashmir. 

Hitrih ai wuhih Icunun usih tah Mr m'd asih tah herizis Jcyah ? 
If an elephant is to be sold for a cowrie, and there is not a 

cowrie, what can be done ? 
Kothing can be done without money. 

Harih am hozarah kanit tjeh chhui syud hozanah yiwdn. 
You think him a righteous man, but he would sell you for a 

cowrie in the market. 

Barih gov nav hyah ? 

What is the name to a Har ? Har, of course. 

*' What's a table ? A table, you stupid !" 

Max is a black and white cow. People give a special name to 
every cow except this one. 

Harih, harih samih hoh. 

Gradually from chippings a mountain is made. 
Many a little makes a muckle. 

Harih nahjai ; mbad phdlis shed ! 

No place for a cowrie, but place for sweetmeats ! 

" The doctor orders this and that, but how can I afford it ?'* 

Harih soda tah hozaras hhalbali. 

He has only a cowrie to spend, but he rushes about and 
makes a stir all oyer the bazar. 

Harih tah totas wanun, 

(May as well) speak to a starling (or a parrot). 
An inattentive person. 

Han fang tah zulahnai ; muhuri tsoht tah zulit. 

If the pear cost only a cowrie it should not be peeled ; but if 

the apple cost a muhur it should be peeled. 

Natives of Kashmir, from H. H. the Maharajah down to the hum- 
blest subject, seldom ever skin a pear, but always skin an apple. 
Apple-skin, they say, is not easily digested. 


Harkat har tah barkat hart. 
Be up and doing and God will bless you. 
Persian. — Himmat i marddn madad i Khudd. 

Haramuhhuk Gostini, 
The jogi of Haramukh. 

Haramukh is a mountain 16,905 foet high, to the north of Kaahmfr. 

A person with a bad memory. 

There was a Jogi who tried to meant Haramukh. Every day for 
twelve years he climbed to a certain height, and every night for tho 
same space of time he descended as far as he had ascended. How 
it came to pass he conld not tell. Perhaps he was a sonnambnlist. 
At any rate every morning he found himself reposing quietly in the 
very spot, whence he had started on the previous morning. 

One day, the last day of these twelve years, a shepherd was seen 
by this Jogi coming down from the mountain. The Jogf asked him 
whether he had reached the snmmit and what he had seen there. 
The shepherd replied that he bad reached the top of the mountain, 
and had seen a sweeper with his wife, and they were milking a 
bitch with a human head, and they had asked him to drink that 
milk, which he had refused to do, because he thought that it- 
was unholy ; and then they threw some tfkd upon his face, which, 
perhaps, was there now The Jogi knew that that the supposed 
sweeper and his wife were none other than the god and goddess 
Shiva and Parvati, and so he went close up to the shephei^'s face 
and licked off the tiki. He was then caught up into the clouds 
much to the astonishment of the poor shepheid. 

The reason the shepherd was able to climb the mountain and the 
Jogi unable, was, that the shepherd went up heedlessly and totally 
ignorant of the great deities who resided on the summit. ("An 
ignorant man fears nothing.") 

A boy with a dull memory works hard all the evening, and the 
next morning, when he comes to appear before the schoolmaster, he 
finds that he knows nothing, and is like the Jogi, as he was, and 
where he was, before. 

HuTueh gugaj tah Ldrueh gunas chhih barubar. 
A June turnip and a Lir serpent are equal. 

A native would not eat a turnip in the month of June on any 

Ounas (or o/*o) is a short, thick, round-headed serpent, whose bite 
is generally fatal. Some say it has a black back and yellow belly ; 
others that it is ash colour. It is met with principally in the 
district of Ldr. The native method of treating snake bites is amas> 
ing. " When a person is stung on the arm or leg, a ligature is 
applied between the heart and the wound, which is besmeared with 
foam. The patient has 'arak and conserve of roses given him to eat, 
while music is played to cheer him up." 

Ldr is a parganah of the Kamria district. 


Haiah Matin wasamat. 
Hasah the madman s wealth, 
A spendthrift's money. 

Hash tih had tah nosh tih bad lej duz tah walih Jcus ? 
The mother-in-law is great, the daughter-in-law is also great ; 
the pot is burnt, who will take it off the fire ? 

Somebody must do the work. 

Ma^h gayih tah noshih kur drum. 

Grandmother (on husband's side) died and the daughter-in- 
law got peace. 
These old dames have great authority over the entire household.— 

Vide " Hindus as they are," Chap I., pp. 3, 4. 

nasti dareyi nah wavah tah hujih had Jcapas, 

The elephants couldn't stand because of the wind, but the 

old woman went out and gathered the cotton from the plant. 

A poor, insignificant man can often accomplish what kings and 
others in authority have utterly failed to do. 

Hasti yad gasah gyad, 
A handful of grass for an elephant's stomach. 
A mere drop in a bucket. 

Hastis yad phat tah hangih delih wuth ! 

The elephant's stomach burst open and they mended it with 

hemp-skin ! 

Imperfect repairs. 

Hatah dedi ruhana man dui, tah hheni sum nah ok Tcuj ! 
•* O, mother, two and half maunds of onions will be given to 

you ; " and she has not got a plant to eat ! 

Promise of help, but no means of fulfilling it. 

Hatah JMwah puhtshu meh tih hetah manz. 

Hie, sir, here's a puntshii. Take me into your company. 

A man who forces himself upon people who do not particularly 
care for him. 

PuntshU is the twentieth part of an dn5, a small coin, not in use 
now, but to be obtained in the bdzdr. 

Hatah mur haldm. 
The doctor killed a hundred men. 
A doctor of some experience. 


Hatih gav zih mafih gov, 

A promise is a charge to keep. 

Workmen who have promised to do some work, and on that 
promise have received some rupees in advance, often repeat those 
words as they walk away from the person's house. 

Ilatis khash tah hangani mithi. 
Kisses for the chin and an axe for the throat. 
A traitor. 

Huziras bog naztras chob, 

A share of the dmner to each of those present, but a beating 
for the cook. 

Sic V08 non I'obis, 

Heh yahUk, dih panUh haMar. 

To take five or give five — all the same to him. 

Poco curanie. 

Ilrllah karo, ILtjOy pallaht chhui dur. 

Be encouraged, O pilgrim, though your destination is far oif. 
Encouraging a man in a difficult work. 

Uemdyat dtin tah hi'unmi mahp^yin hdhtih. 

Patronize and be patronized, but do not tell any one, lest 

there should be harm (to the person patronized). 

Keep your own counsel. 

W^xi hemi. 

Like an insect to the pod (so is sin to a man). 
Sin brings its own punishment with it. 

Henah as tah meh nah ruh. 

Involved in difficulty, or taken prisoner, but for no fault of 


The guiltless punished for the guilty. 

neng us nah tah wafjhanti chhch ! 

She has not got horns yet, she is only a calf! 

Cited concerning a woman who bears her first child late in life. 
A beardless man. An elderly person without a grey hair. 

Herat uyih toanduni hah nah tah nah kniih. 

"When Herat came eleven days of winter, or nothing, re- 
Heral (Shiva-rdtri) is a IIind6 festival held on the fourteenth 

of tho dark fortnight iu the month Phaguu (Feb. — March). 


Berih wuUhas anigatihy but chhulum haritih natih yet garaa 

yii waiih. 
I came down stairs in the dark and washed my face in a 

waterpot filled with water. This must be done in this 


If you go to Rome you must do as Uome does. 

Hisub horih tah baMiskish hharwurih. 

To take account of every cowrie, but to give away money by 

the maund (80 lbs). 

Careful but generous. 
Honav raUhui id. 
A festival vrithout dogs. 

Pleasui-e without difficulty. 
Hond maran kih nah hat, Lalih nalawat Ualih n<ih zah. 
Whether they killed a big sheep or a small one, it was all 

the same, Lai always had the nalawat in her plate. 

Hardly treated. 

Lai Dcd was very badly treated by her mother-in-law. One of 
the ways in which this woman delighted to tease her was by sending 
a stone called nalawat in her dinner. Cf. " Panjab Notes and Queries,'* 
No 20. Note 743. 

Honih chon butk nah.iah cMnis hhuwandah sund iih nu ? 
You have not a face like a bitch ? Then your husband has 

(i.e.., all the lot of you are bad). 
Honi/i kkoyihjets sm, buni Jcheyih panah sun. 
He will eat a bitch, fur and all ; and he will eat a chinar 

tree with the leaves. 

Qucerenda pecunia primum, virtus post nummos, 
Honin netun tah monin tach/in. 
Fleecing dogs and scratching walls. 

Ploughing the seashore. 
Hor h'v- 
A black and white crow. 

A marked man. 

Hud gav hunui myund. 

Just a morsel without vegetables left. 

Natives are accustomed to eat their dinner in the following 
manner. First they tako a mouthful of rice, and then a little vege- 
table, and so on regularly, until the meal is over. Should there 
happen to be a little rice left, but no vegetable, &g., left to eat with 
it, that little rice is not eaten. 



ITud is dry and poor food ; without vogotablcs, Ac. 
Cited conceminj? one who is oxporioncing a littlo trouble in his 
old age. All the previous time ho has been very proajKiroua. 

Jlfthm-i-hf'Jcim o hakim chhuh tnarg-i-mafijut. 
The ruler's and the doctor's orders are (like) sudden death 
(i.e.^ they both must be obeyed quickly). 

JInl gandit batich naUun, 

Tightening her girdle the duck dances. 

Cited against a woman, who wishing to quarrel, goes and unites in 
a *• row" going on close by. Kashinfri women have terrible tongues 
and most shrill voices. At the time of quarrolliug they aoroocb, 
shout, and dance to any extent. 

TJul gandit har karnn. 
To tighten one's girdle and fight. 
He moans business. 

ITh/ hyah karih sT'dis ? 

What shall a crooked man do to a straight man ? 
The strength of a good character. 

Tlnn asin tah kiths mah unn. 

May you be a dog, but not a younger son. 

Younger sons are generally the father's butt, the mother's scorn, 
and the brother's fag. 

Persian.— Sa<; hdah khCkrd ma hcish. 

Hun hus netih tah feur Jeus mangit neyih ? 
"Who will fleece a dog and who will take and marry a girl ? 
A good marriage is nut such au easy matter. 

Hun nak tah kutjurui, 
Npt a dog but a pup only. 

A childish-looking or childish-mannered person. 

IJnni huni har har an tah shnlah sinzih iungih wizih kuni. 
Dogs fight among themselves, but at the time of the jackal's 

cry they are united. 

Enemies are united against one common foe. 

Hitni lui ai thawizen kandilas andar, tatih tih nerih hdni 

If a dog's tail be set in a kaudil, there even it will remain a 

dog's tail. 

Place do«s uut alter race. 


Kandil (Kandil, Arabic,) is the painted wooden or silver box about 
1| ft. long and | ft. in circumference in which the heron's feathers 
are fixed, and from which they depend. As many as three hundred 
feathers are sometimes worn, and as much as one rupee has been 
^ven for a feather. Rich people keep them hanging from the ceil- 
ings of their rooms from fear of the cat. Poor people can only 
afford to hire them for weddings, &c. ? There are three or four 
heronries in Kashmir. 

Huni mhas wutal wazah. 

The sweeper is the cook for dog*s flesh. 

A wicked, dirty man for bad, dirty deeds. 

The Wdtul has been called the gipsy of Kashmir, and indeed these 
people have all the manner and appearance of gipsies. They live 
separate from others, and by reason of their indiscriminate use of 
food are despised by all others, both Muhammedans and Hindus. It 
is a moot point whether the gipsies are not the descendants of Kash- 
miris, who were obhged to leave the valley at one time and another 
on account of persecutions and famines. 

Huni neyih bastah hhalari. 

The dog took away the piece of leather (while the men were 

quarrelling over it). 

The dog represents the lawyer. 

Euni sund hyuh sahur, achh piir, haUi dur^ huthis nur. 
May you have patience like a dog, and may your eye keep 

undimmed. Let misfortune remain at a distance from you, 

and let cheerfulness be always upon your face. 

A Kashmiri's blessing. 

One may often see both Hindfi and Muhammedan women spread- 
ing forth their hands in a supplicating manner and offering this 
prayer as they squat by the river-side in the early morning. 

Muni wordn tah Juurawunah paMn. 
The dogs bark but the caravan goes on. 
A dog may as well bark at the moon. 

Suni'Wuslikah yur nah wawan tur bow/in. 
Tares spring up where we do not sow them. 

H'dni-wushliah literally is dog-barley. 

Hunik mashidih hund jinn. 
The ogre of the deserted mosque. 
A wretched, selfish fellow. 


Hnnis athih aut mdndanhcun. 
To knead flour by a dog's paw. 

Ne 8utor ultra crepidam. 

Shfrin o Khusrau. — Ki az bUtina najjdH na dyad. 

Hunis chob dinah nerih gas^n yot. 

You only get manure from hitting a dog. 

What is tho good of a policoman boating a poor man P He will 
not got a bribe. 

II mis mukhtaht'tr, 
A string of pearls to a dog. 
Casting pearls before swine. 

Buniipyav '' Subirah " nAv, suif M m&lihj t&nih yas wuthit 

The name "Patient" has been given to the dog, but he 
knows, O father, whom he has come to bite. 
A generally good man, who now and again breaks oat into a fit of 

passion, &o. 

Hurih hen wurik ley ah tah dunasl 

What ! will he throw a handful of grass into the fire-place ? 

Like a handful of grass in a iiruplaco is a little money in a big 
conoom — soon swallowed up. 

Hurdus tah burdus! 
A beating and smiting I 
Such a hullabaloo ! 

Ilusih wun tah musih I'yih pahh. 

A woman said something and she believed it. 


Jlyut Icami tah dyut Icami, 
Who took and who gave ? (God). 

" Tho Lord gave and tho Lord hath taken away."— Job i. 21. 

I. J. 

JaMmuh tamok. 

Tobacco from Jaham (i.e., splendid tobacco). 
Jahdm tobacco is said to be the finest in the valley. 

Jahim chhuh ashkun mazhar. 
The world is a theatre of love. 

Jammt gayih harumat. 

A company of men is as good as a miracle (i.e., difficult 

matters are easily accomplished by their mutual and united 


Jm hus chhuh ? Tanun pan, 
"Who is good 1 I myself. 
Suunh cuique pulcrum. 

Jonah, ditah dastur punah roz tah wudah nun. 

Beloved, give me your turban and you remain bareheaded. 

Cited when a man asks for something which is indispensable to 

Jandanui chheh zuwak asm. 

Lice is in the beggar's ragged cloak. 

A quick reply given to the importunate mendicant. 

Lice here stands for money. Hence " You've got as much money 
as there are lice and dirt sticking to your garment." 

Jandas puri, yath Jcarizih wandas rohat. 
Blessed be the ragged garment, which keeps me warm during 
the winter. 

The poor man's retort when twitted concerning the antiquity of 
his garment. 

Jangas manz chhai thil tih tah guli tih. 
You get purse and bullet, too, from fighting ; (therefore think 
over the matter before you enter the lists against an adver- 

A man had an ass which he used for carrying loads by day, and 
was leaving out in the field at night to pick up what grass the poor 
animal could find there. The ass rebelled against such treatment, 
and one night ran away to the king's stable, and was there fed most 
liberally along with the royal horses. He became very fat and 
strong and was very happy ; but, alas ! a war commenced, and when 
the enemy had arrived near to the king's capital, all the royal 


horaos, and tho solitary ass, wore ttimod out and sent forward to the 
fight. There tlio ass saw ono horso after another shot down, and be- 
cominf? afraid ho escaped back apiin to his former master. '' Hero 
is t)ic guli as well as the tliil," said ho, as he galloped back. " Bettor 
to have little and sure." 

•' Jat pat " tih Khuda rat. 

** Quickly" you must lay hold upon God. 

There is but a stop between you an<l death, or somo torriblo mi&- 
fortnno, or somo groat event. Yon must act at onoo. Then throw 
yourself upon God to prosper you. 

Nee Detts interttitf nisi dignus vindice nodtu. 

Jnyih chhuko zih shuyih chhuko. 
You are safe in your own place. 

Landed and house pro{)erty are sure invostmonts. 

Jawunia nah rozgur ; lukutit mdj marani ; tah budis Mani 
marani. Yim tr^inawai k dhah chhtih sakht musibat, 

A young mau without work ; a mother dying and leaving a 
baby ; the wife of on old man dying. These three are 
terrible misfortunes. 

'Id guh wasit sun hyak ranav ? Watih harav maslahat Icatih 

karav dun ? 
Vifidaras bihit giUahpanun htiwai, thutih j>an khurai ajih 

dusih tun. 
Vaharih piU'djh gaz j)at pdwah n^iwai; hdwai garah karun 

k''ho gav, 
Sutih width gov pdktjh aah tih nov chuwai ; umrih thtiwai 

gursah tamann/i 
Kaiih peih watihpeth bunah phutarutoi ; huwai garah karun 

keho gav. 
Stint t khct chU pingah thoh Mwai ; huwai garah karun keho 

Lej pashpf'wai mt'j mashrdwai ; hnwai garah karun keho gav. 
Going to 'Id gah what shall we cook? Let us take counsel on 

the road, where we shall make the fire-place. 
Sitting at my wheel I will show you my wisdom. I . will 

stretch the bad cotton to half the height of the wall. 
I will get a five-yard than for you out of six pounds of wool ; 

I'll show you the manner of my house. 
I will never get the milk at early morning from five cows j 

but I will keep you all your life waiting for milk. 


At a word upon the road I will break the pot ; I'll show 

you the manner of my house. 
I will eat and drink with my friends, but keep the millet-seed 

and straw for you. I'll show you the manner of my house. 
I will give you the strainings of the pot ; and you will forget 

your mother. I'll show you the manner of my house. 

A lazy, ill-tempered woman. 

The author of these words is unknown, but everybody knows them 
and quotes them, in whole or in pait, and sometimes in song, against 
that woman, through whose bad temper, indiscretion, or extrava,- 
gance, the husband has been brought to ruin. 

'Id gdh, 'Id., Arab., (the place of sacrifice), is a beautiful park-like 
plain lying just outside the right of Srinagar. At its northern end 
there is a fine old wooden mosque overshadowed by some lofty 
ohinar trees. The mosque is called the 'Ali Masjid, and was built 
in the time of Sultdn Husain Badshah by Khwdja Hasti, Sonar, about 
1471 A. D, No Muhammedan observes the fast of the Eamazan 
with greater strictness than the Kashmiri. 

TMn is a piece of cloth. A five-yard thdn would be an extremely 
small one ; and six pounds of wool, if properly spun, &c., should 
make a full thdn of ten yards or more. 

Illat galih tah udai galih nah. 

The ill may go, but the habit will stick. 

Ilm he-amal goya hik an sindis atlias mashal. 
Knowledge unused is like a torch in the hand of a blind man. 
Persian — ^Ilm % he 'amal zamhur i he-'asal. 

Ilmas gatshih amal usuni. 

Knowledge should be brought into use. 

Insun cJihuh poshik Ichulah uwel tah hanik Ichutah dur, 
Man is more fragile than a flower, and yet harder than a 


A man's own pain or trouble affects him, but not he tears and 
pain of another. 

Insanak sund kimat clihui satowuh-shat rupayih. 
The price of a man is Rs. 2,700. 

Two men get angry with one another and fight. The above saying 
is generally quoted by the man who is getting the worst of the 
scrimmage, and wishes to end it. 

Two reasons have been told me why this sum especially has been 
set as the price of a man. One reason is, that in the days of the 
Mughals Kupees 2,700 was the fine imposed upon every murderer in 
lieu of Lis life. Another reaaon is, that Akbar, like other equally 


great and envied monarch^, was accustomed to sleep in secret places. 
Sometimes he would disguise himself as a faqfr, or as a shopkeoiier 
and sleep by the roadside or in a shop. One night ho wandered a 
little farther than nsoal and found himself in a foreign and uncul* 
tivated country. Strange to say, his favorite minister, Blr Bal, had also 
strayed to the same place. They met, and while they were engaged 
in conversation, an one-eyed man came up to them, and said to the 
king, " You have taken out my eye, which I think to bo worth the 
sum of Rupees 1,200. Give mo this money, or restore to me my 
other eye." Akbar was nonplussed by the man's sudden appearance 
and audacious request ; but B{r Bal was equal to the occasion, and 
replied, '* Yes, it is quite true. Wo have your eye ; and if you will 
come to-morrow morning, we will return it to you." The man 
agreed and left. Bfr Bal immediately sent off to the butchers for 
some sheep's eyes. After some time they arrived, and he had them 
put each one separately into a little wooden box by itself. In the 
morning the man came again ; and when ho arrived he was informed 
that the king had several eyes by him, and that it was impossible 
to tell which particular one belonged to this man. Would ho kindly 
allow his other eye to be taken out, so that it might bo weighed 
and measured ; in that way they would bo able to tell which of 
the number of eyes lielongi'd to him. 

The man was bliii(le<l for life, and henceforth pave no more trouble 
to the king. (So much did the p<tor man value his sight, that he 
estimated each eye at Kupees 1,200, and the whole rest of the body 
at Rapoea 800 only.) 

InsdtKU gaUhih uauni khoe. 
Poahaa gaUhih usuni hot. 
Politeness is required in man. 
Scent is requireu in a flower. 

" As charity covers a multitude of sins before God, so doet 
politeness before men."— Greville. 

Insunas tah instmas chht'h titj tafiwai, 

YiU khudoyas tah bandas chheh. 

Between man and man tliere is as great diffei-ence as there is 

between God and a slave. 

There are no two persons alike. 

Jumah Mashidih handin nimuz athah. 

The Juma Masjid people have given up praying. 

While people from the country come in crowds to the great 
mosque of the city, the people living close to the mosque sit in 
their shops all through the Friday hoping for trade ; and they are 
not disappointed. 

Nimdt alhahf lit., prayers from the hand — oat of hand — gone- 



Izzat chkuh pananis dsas andar. 
Honour is inside your mouth. 
Take heed to your words. 

Izzatich hur tah be-izzatich kJuir chheh bardbar. 
A cowrie obtained honourably and a kharwar obtained dis- 
honourably are equal in value. 



Kahuh ret sanz bnih. 

Like an eleven month's man. 

A man who Htiiits himself now, that he may be rich hereafter. 

A man hearing t'»at^ »"'<'« was cheap and K^, bonght as mnch as 
he thought won Id be sufliciont for the next year, ami stored it away 
in his house. Kashmi'ris are constantly storing something or other, 
so that their houses generally resemble a small gtnlown. Well, it 
hap|)oned, that this man had not coiToctly reckoned, and that there 
was only enough for eleven months in store. What was he to do ? 
II o had sjient all his money, and to borrow ho was ashamed. 
Accordingly ho determined to fast for one month, and stupid man 
like ho was, ho thought that it would be much bettor to have the 
fast now instead of having to look forward to it all through the 
(>lovon months, lie had not faith in God to supply his wants here- 
after. The consequence was that the man and wife and all the family 
died just before the fast was over, and left eleven months' rice iu 
the house ! 

Kahan garan hunt tdv ; himmat rdv tah wanav has ? 

Only one frying-pan for eleven houses ; courage gone ; and to 

whom shall we spe<ik \ 

Time of great distress. 

Kahan gdv ruvmutj. 

Eleven men have lost h cow between them. 

A great loss, but many to share it. 

Kahan gayih kuni waniy tini guyih rani amni. 

Eleven men came to the same unfortunate state ; they each 

went and fetched a wife for themselves. 

Cited when several male members in a household are nnfortonate. 

Kahan kah watah. 

Eleven roads to eleven men. 

Tot homines, tot sententUh. 

Kahan hunui fthaitnn. 
One wicked fellow for eleven men. 
Uindustuni.— £i; machhli sdre UiUih ko fjanda karti hai. 

Kahan imli puturan hunui srunah-jyat. 
One loin cloth to eleven fathers and sous. 
Climax of distress. 


Kahan ihawim sui dkis nah Uhan^m wui. 

He promises eleven people but does not throw food to one. 

Great promises but little deeds. 

Kajih hanzah Tcorih sat, 

Kaj and her seven daughters. 

There was a poor deaf woman who had seven daughters, whom 
shesupported with the greatest difficulty. At last God seeing her 
struggle gave her seven handfuls of food secretly every day. After 
a time the mother thought that if she left one daughter to go her 
own way, she might save one handful of food, or, at all evens, have 
a little more to give to the others. But God only gave her six 
handfuls then. After a while she sent another daughter away and 
then another, but still God continued giving one handful less for 
each girl dismissed, until at last not one daughter and not a scrap 
of food were left to the woman. 

Kukun huput. 
Father's bear. 

Nothing really to be afraid of. 

Kashmiri parents are accustomed to frighten their children into 
good behaviour by saying " There is a bear coming. Quiet, quiet," 

Kal ai harak tah Jcaji maraJv ; Jsal nai Jcarak tah marah 

nah zah. 
If you worry, it will bring you to the grave ,- but if you do 

not worry, you will never die. 

' Tis not from work, but from worry, that half the people die. 

Kalam-zan, shamsher-zan, Jcuste-zan chhih be-ahlas nish 

A quill-driver, swordsman, and brothel-keeper, are (each one) 

no more than an ignorant man. 

Kalas peth gdri phutarit Icheni. 

Breaking a water-nut upon one's head and eating it. 

Earning with difficulty. 

There was a very godly Hindu, a Eishi, liv^ing in Kashmir. Upon 
a certain day one of his disciples came crying unto him and saying, 
that his mother had died. The Eishi enquired the age of the woman, 
and finding that she was very old, he told the man not to weep ; 
because it was time that his mother should die- The disciple, 
however, did not agree with this, and begged the Eishi to allow her 
to live a few years more. The Rishi told him to crush some water- 


nuts {Traha hUpinosa) npon his mother's head ; nnd it shonld come 
to pasR that she won Id revive, and live as many years aa there 
were broken water-nuts. 

Now the bereaved son did not like the idea of breaking hard nnts 
n\H)n his deceased mother'8 head ; still it was the ortier of the Rishi, 
and so he did so. Eleven nnts were broken and for eleven yeara 
longer the mother lived. 

Kali 8(tnz bol'bdsh zdnih kali sund mol mdj. 

Only a dumb man's parents understand a dumb person's 


A little child's prattle is comprehensible only to the parents ; and 
a man's speech is understood by his coontrymou only. 

Knlas tih raz^ nalas tih raz- 
A rope for the head and a rope for the legs. 
A strict watch over any body or anything. 

Kaldyih binni t hulas kardn trek aini. 

A tin fingor-ring turns an egg into three dishes of meat and 


A groat show, bat little under it. 

Kalis viundis Khuddi rdzi, 

God is pleased with the dumb, simple man. 

*' Kali nun zih nunui ?'* '* Kali^ syun zih syunui V* 

••O dumb man. salted?" "Yes, salted." *'0 dumb man, 

unsalted?" "Yes, unsalted." 

A story of a nervoas young Engliahman comes just now to mind, 
which exactly illustrates this saying. He was breakfasting out; 
and at the breakfast-table the hostess remarked, ** I'm afraid your 

roll is not nice, Mr ." " Oh, yes, thank you," he replietl, " it is 

splendid." In a little while eggs were place<l upon the table, and 

Mr. took one, which tumeti out to be bad. The host, who was 

sitting close by Mr. , noticed this, and begged him to let the 

servant take it away and give him another; whereupon Mr. said 

" Oh ! please don't, I like bad eggs." 

Kam gaUhih hhijun tah gam gaijhih nak hhyun. 
Better to eat a little than to eat grief. 

" Any price rather than you shonld be angry," says the shop* 
keeper to the customer. 

Knmadewan chhus athak dolamut. 

Kamadev has smoothed that man's face with his hands. 

Cited on seeing any beautiful man or woman. 

Kamadev is the HindCi Cupid or Eros, the god of Love, thought to 
be one of the most pleasing creations of Hindu fiction. 


Kamas chhuh hamul iah Uaris chhuh zaioul. 
Perfection is to the less and destruction to the more. 

A man somewhat spare in speech, expenses, &c., will become 
great ; but a man extravagant in words and expenses, &c., will come 
to ruin. 

Kaminas hhidmat chheh zaimnas chob. 

To serve a mean man is like beating the earth (i.e., it is a 
profitless work). 

Kanah-dol chhui Botani soddhas bardbav' 

A man who turns away his ear (from scandal, &c.) , is like 

the Botan or Ladak trade (i.e.^ receives great profit). 

A brisk trade is carried on between Kashmir and Laddk. I have 
heard that about lbs. 128,000 of kil-phamb (pashm) or shawl-wool 
are imported annually into the valley by the butahwani or Ladak 
merchants. For the preparation, &c., of this wool, of. Drew's Book 
on Kashmir and Jammu. 

Kanah Icapas kaduni. 

To bring cotton from the ear. 

Impossible. Some people attempt to do things in an impossible 

Cited also against that servant who hears everything pro or con 
about his master, and then goes and retails his information to his 

Kanas chhas nah hatah laddn. 

I do not load my ear with food (i.e.^ I am not such a fool 

as to try to put the food into my ear instead of into my 

mouth. I know what I'm about). 

Kashmiris say that a drunkard, who was very much under the 
influence of drink at the time, tried to feed himself by stufl&ng 
rice into his ears ; hence the saying. 

Kandas tah mujih hunid sad. 
The same taste to sugar-candy and a radish. 
Good or evil, noble or mean, all the same to him. 

Kahh nah Icom Kidahgom. 
(Going to) Kulagom without work. 

A man going an errand calls a friend, whom he meets on the way, 
to come along with him. If that friend does not wish to accompany 
him, he will probably reply as above. 

The workmen of Kulagom are said to be the cleverest in the 


Kani Ingiyd m'lr zih zanls yiyih dr ? 

Will the stone burn, that the acquaintance should have 

mercy ? 

" Save mo from my friends." 

Kani tah nunah phul gav darydvas, Kanih dup " Buhgitjisy 

Nunun duptts ** Vusui gul sui gid.** 
A stone and a piece of salt fell into the river. The stone 

said " I melted. " The salt said ** That which melted, 


Wo should never complain as long as there are others worse off 
t hun ourselves. 

h'dnih aehh surmak tah lanjih zangih paiy.mah. 
Antimony for the blind eye and trousers for the lame leg. 
• Mmlanic Rachol will rectify it." 

Kdnih achh wuzih kyah nindarih / 
What will rouse the blind eye from sleep I 
What cannot be ciuxhI niust l>c endure<l. 

h'dniht JialtK tah athas hi-t. 
'• O, one-eyed man, work." '* It is at hand." 
A ono-oycd man is always ready for misc-liief. 
Panjdbi. — A'tiTici, terha^ UuljioUi. 

(Also) A'aii(», kachfix ' hnrh — jardand : zeh tinon kamzdt ! 
Jahlag has ttj/n«i chaU\ to ko4 na ptichbe hat. 

Kanih garah barun jtin tah todnguj garah nah. 
Better to fill your house with stones than to have a stranger 
in it. 

Kunih gurih hah mirah-khur. 
Eleven grooms for a one-eyed marc. 

A very strict watch over a verj' wicke<l person. 

Citotl also sometimes when there are a large number of people 
appointed to a small work, which one man couhl easily perform. 

" One-eyed " is an expression generally introduced to show the 
wicked disposition of the pei-son or bciist. Vide supra. 

Kt'nih korih karyok ran tah shangun kynf gos hut hdmuni. 
The one-eyed girl was married ; but she had not a room for 

sleeping in. 

An imperfect arrangement. 


Kaiiih nakhah hani tah meh nakhak nah hank. 

One stone lies close to another, but there is nobody near to me. 

Sikandar-ndma. — Birahna man o gurha rd postin. 

Kanih patali chhdhpun. 
Sling after the stone. 

To send another messenger to get news of the first, &c- 

Kdnis chhuu buthis peth " Kdnid " dapun ? 

Is it wise to say '' O one-eyed man " in his presence ? 

Kanjar huttak. 

The brothel-keeper's dog. 

Quoted against the person who bears much humbug and pain at 
the hands of another, because he eventually hopes to get some profit 
out of him. 

There was once a dog, who day -by-day visited a certain house of 
illrfame in the city. Every time the dog went, the harlots used to 
beat it, but nothing discouraged the dog went again and again. 
One day his brother dogs got to hear of this, and enquired why he 
thus went time after time to a place, where he generally got beaten. 
" I do not go there for what I get to eat," replied the dog, " but 
because sometimes, when the chief harlot is angry with the other 
harlots, she says, turning to me, * This dog shall be your husband. 
That is the reason of my enduring all this abuse." 

Kanjar kivttah. — Kanjar is Hindustdni ; the Kashmiri ordinary 
word is gan. Kuttah of com-se has been Kashmirised from the 
Hindustani kutt^. 

Kdr-i'Khudd zdnih Khuda, 
God knows his own work. 

Kar gai harit tah phishal gav zet. 

The work is all over, and an unlucky child is born. 

The deed is done. No alternative now. 

Several times are mentioned in the Nechih-puter as unlucky 
moments for a child to be bom in. One time, Mul, is especially un- 
propitious. A child born at that time is sometimes separated from 
its parents, that it may not bring harm upon their house ; at all 
events, it is an object of much care and expense to its father and 
mother, until its fate, perhaps, changes. 

Karim nanahwor. 
Barefooted Karim. 

Give a dog a bad name and you may as well hang him. 

Karim one day was seen walking without shoes on. The people 
called him " Barefooted Karim," and although always afterwards 
he wore nice shoes, yet the people continued calling him so up to the 
time of his death. 


kashtrih hahai garah. 

Only eleven houses in Kashmir. 

Dark days. 

The reader may have noticed the frequent occurrence of the 

miniber eleven, and especially in the last few psKcs. *' Like an 

lovon months' man"; "Only one frying-pan for eleven houses" ; 

Eleven men have lost a cow between them" ; *' Eleven men arrived 
at the same unfortunate state" ; *' One wicked follow for eleven 
men" ; ** One loin-cloth for eleven fathers and sons" ; " Eleven 
grooms for a one-eyed mare" ; and " Only eleven houses in Kash- 
mir,"*Ac., Ac. As far as one can ascertain from the limited means 
of information at hand, this numlier is ejuite peculiar to the country. 
Captain Temple, in his most valuable and interesting " Survey of 
the Incidents in Mo<lern Indian Folktales" (one of the ap|»endico8 of 
" Wide-awake Stories"). does not mention this number. The numbers 
I, 2, 3, 4, 5. H, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 18, 24, and larger numbers are 
<luotc<l as occurring in several tales, but never the number eleven. 
This is somewhat remarkable, and the only reasons suggested for the 
frequency of this number in " Uappy Valley" folklore are the fol- 
lowing Htorics : — Nearly 800 years ago a fatiir named Bulbul 8hAh 
came vux Tibet to Kashmir. When he had been here a little 
while he succeeded in turning Rontan Shih, the son of Kaki, then 
king of the Valley, from Hinduism to the faith of IsUm, and 
then Kentan Shdh killed all the Uindfis except eleven families. 

A vai-iant of this story, leading to the same result, is that Zainn'l- 
.-Umdin had a mo«t bot>headed son called Sultdu U&ji, or SultAn 
liyder. One day as this Toiith was goiog down the river Jhelum, 
when the boat reached 'AM Kadal (the fifth bridge), ho shot an 
rrow at a water-)X)t, which a little Panditdni girl was carrying on 
• »r head on the bank close by. The pot was broken to pieces, but 
(he water was not spilt owing to its having been instantly tume<l 
into ice, which remained perfectly still upon the girl's head. The 
little Panditini went home crying to her father, a Rishi, who waa 

> much enraged with the young prince's conduct, that then and 
iliero he cursed him, saying, "May his hand be paralysed." It 
happened according to the Kishi's word. From that moment the 
l>rinee was unable to move hift right hand. 

When Zainu'ldbadin heard what had come to pass he was much 
grieved, and at once went to his son's house to enquire further of the 
matter. Said the prince, " I fired an arrow and broke a little 
I'anditdnf 8 water-pot, and soon afterwards I felt that my right arm 
was utterly powerless." The king then summoned his ministers 
and bade them enquire where the little girl's parents lived, and 
when after some time they had discovered the abode, he himself 
went to bog the Kishi's pardon, and to beseech him to invoke the 
'jTods that they might restore the hand of the prince. The Rishi 
heard the king's request and prayed, and then turning to Zainu'l- 
dbadin said, " The prayer will be answered, if you will take ouei 


bi my daughter's grass shoes and bum it, and then rub the ashes 
thereof over the prince's hand." The king thanked the Sishi for his 
kindness, went away with a glad heart, and did as he had been 
directed ; and no sooner was the prince's hand rubbed with the ashes 
of the burnt shoe, then its former use and strength returned. There 
was great joy in the court that day. 

When the king ^aw this, he perceived that these Hindus were a 
very holy people ; for none but the good and righteous could thus 
afflict and recover again by their curses and prayers. Accordingly, 
he at once began to think of a plan for rendering them unholy. 
Persian teachers were introduced into the valley, and the Hindus 
were ordered to learn that language ; and they were also commanded 
to eat yesterday's foOd and pickles under penalty of the king's great 
displeasm-e. A band of officers called Tsrali were appointed to see 
that this latter ord^r was carried out. Tsrdl is the ancient name 
for the functionary called Mahalladdr, for which see note to " Khauf 
kahund chhui, Sfc. ; cf. also note to " Ifoi gov tsrol," ^c. 

At length through threatenings and b^ribes all but eleven families 
complied with the king's order. (Another story says that all but 
eleven families refused to obey, and so were killed or obliged to flee 
the country.) In consequence of this the Hindfts became unholy ; 
therefore their prayers and curses were of no avail, and they remain 
so to this day, eating yesterday's food and studying Persian. 

However, the gods could not lightly pass over this matter, and 
therefore a Jogi went to the king and predicted that he would soon 
be ill, which prediction was fulfilled. 

On a certain day the king became very sick and the next day he 
was worse, and so he continued until all hope of his recovery had 
quite gone. While in this state the Jogi with his disciple was 
walking about outside the palacej and telling every one that he 
could divine ; and that by virtue of his art he was quite cei-tain that 
there was no other remedy for the king but the following : — 

" The Jogi must take out his own soul from his body and place it 
within the lifeless body of the king." Presently Zainu'ldbadin 
died, and the Jogi with his attendant was admitted within the 
palace and conducted to the corpse. In a minute or two the Jogi 
and his disciple were left alone in the death chamber. Turning to 
the latter the Jogi said " I am about to take out my spirit, and put 
it within this corpse. Take care of my body after death, and put 
it in some secret place." It was so done ; and when the king's 
wazirs and servants came into the room afterwards they beheld 
Zainu'Mbadin sitting up in his bed well and strong. Great were 
the rejoicings of the people and great the gratitude of the king, 
who lived for many, many, years after this. 

These accounts are most perplexing. Eentan Shah, the son of 
Kaki, has perhaps been mistaken for Ratan Sh^h, the successor of 
Raja Ven or Vend of Ventipiir, concerning whom the people say that 
a famous faqir named Bulbul Shdh flew over from Baghddd in a 
night and converted him ajid all his stibjects to the Muhammedan 


faith on the following morning. But again this Rentan may have 
been Runjun, son of the king of Tibet, who invaded Kashmir in the 
time of Sana Deva, 1315 A. d., assumed the mle of the country, 
and became a Muhammedan under the name of Shams-ad-din (the 
san of the faith). 

A story just crops up, in which RAji Ven is called Ratan ShAh ! 

Then in the second story Zainu'ldbadin has certainly been credit* 
ed with the evil deeds of his father, Sikandar Batshikan, of whom 
it is related, that he did put to death all Hindus who refused to 
embrace Isl&m. (Cf. latter part of story attached to " ifoitanufc 
hatah," Ac ) Zainu'ldbadin is generally repreiented as a good and 
merciful king. " Tawdrikb-i Birbal" says : " B,e wa^ gopd and kind to 
every one, whether Musalm&n or Hind(i, and he brought back again 
to the Valley the Brdhnians, who had been compelled to leave it 
during the oppressive reign of Sikandar." 

A few notes frum a Persian work by the late Dlwdn Kirpd Kikin^ 
and entitle<l " Gulz^-i-Koshmirt" are still more confusing. Runjun, 
son of the king of Tibet, is now Sult&n Rattanjeo, an imbecile 
prince of Tibet, who as a mere child wai bronght into this country 
and so know nothing of his father's religion, and was therefore 
easily converted to Isl&m by Bulbnl Shih. 8u|tdn Shams*nd-din 
was the third ruler of Kashmir after Snltdn Rattanjeo. It waA 
during Sikandar's suooassor's, Soltia 'Ali Shdh'i, reign (U18— 1424 
A.D.) that those Hind&s who refused to embrace IslAm were obliged 
to leave the country, and while on their way out of the country 
many of them were seised and burnt alive. 

Whatever the truth may be, it will be teen that the Kashmiri 
llind6s, especially, have reason to remember the number eleven. 
(Cf. also Drew, " Jamnju and Kaahmir," p. 69.) 
Kathih khutjh watth pakawani. 
A bribe for a word and bakhshish for just going (to call a 

friend, &c.) 

A man keen upon bribes and gifts. 

Kathih 8H''t chhuh wAlt'm huhthi dud. 

By a word to cause milk to flow from the breasts of a barren 


The power of a word in season. 

JCathih suet wasih weh tah kathih 9uH wank sreh, 
A word stirs up anger or love. 

Katiht Bfi, dk ? Kuty Ba, gatjhak ? Kyah chhui nuv ? 
Sirinih us. Sirahom gatjhah. Saa chhum hastih. Salih 

chhum m'v, 
Whence have you come, Brother? Whither are you going, 

^rqther ? \Vhat is your name ? 


1 have come from Sirin. I shall go to Sirahom. T have some 

pulse in my wallet. My name is Salih. 

A take-off upon the conventionalities of the day. Notice play upon 
the letter cr sin. 

KdHur dapnn bdtsan guts nah dnnah dyu n. 

Kon dapdn son guU nah kanh tih yun. 

Khosah dapi'-n gosah guU nah h'hsih gaUhun. 

The brown-haired man (or woman) says, " Why should I give 

food to my family ?" 
The one-eyed person says, "We do not want to see any 

The khosah says, ** Why should any person be angry ?" 

Kashmiris say an ordinary brown-haired person is invariably 
stingry and selfish; a one-eyed person is generally disrespected, cf. 
" Kixnih Jiald," &c. ; and the khosah is a man with the little 
goat-like beard who has got a name for affability, — cf. " Khosah 

Kdwah, hdwah, kdioah, hat. 

A crow, (another) crow, (a third) crow, a hundred crows. 

A lie increases as it goes. 

Cf . " The Three Black Crows —Byron. 

K''ioah yanihiool. 

A crow's wedding company. 

A bad wedding arrangement ; everything npside down. 
These words are the first line of a little verse sung, or rather 
shrieked forth, by littla children, who gather together in different 
parts of the city at evening time to play, and watch the crows 
come home to roost. I have seen thousands upon thousands 
of crows, a procession, at least, half-a-mile in length, returning 
past my house ; and a tremendous noise they make during the 
five minutes or so they are passing. This is the song the little 
children shout : — 

Kii^oah yanihwol. 
Murddan mol. 
Diham nai ras han. 
Kadai mulah aul. 
Of which the translation is : — 

O company of crows. 

Keen after your own interest. 
If you don't give me. a little wine. 
I will pull out your nest by the roots. 
The crow, on account of its bold and gelfish chai'^t^r, is called in 
Kashmir " The father of Matlab. 


K''wtn gojih tjhar. 

A big basket of kernels for crows (soon gone). 
Citetl to a man who gobbles up his food quickly. 

Kawan hichhi'v hthJctt »und pahm. Pananui pahin mittut, 
A crow learnt to walk like a cuckoo; and forgot his own 


Si k&ndar-n&msk—Kuld^e tage kahak rd goith kard. 
Tage khiceshtan rd fardmoah kard, 

Kdwan nith nitih^han, 

A small piece of meat in a crow's claws. 

A bad debt. 

Kd'ci kur hdv zih fjheHwoni trdv. 

The crow has cawed ; throw away the tshetiwon (i.^., the 

water in which II indies wash their hnnds after a meal) ; 

and be off to your work. 

One of the divisions of the city of Srinaf^^ is lo far removed from 
the Sher Garl (or Sher Gadf J whore all the state apartments and 
govf>rnmont offices are sitaate<I, that the government servants, who 
reside there have to rise and oat their breakfasts early, so as to arrive 
at their posts in the Sher GaH at the right time. 

K''wuJ yutun kiiih hilih kheyam, tutun mashinam nah sitam 

As long' as the burner of the dead will not poke me (i.^., to 
arrange my body so that it may burn c|uickly and proper- 
ly), so long shall I not forget your tyranny. 

Ff'tynr nnr tnh parud yiW, yim donowai chkli nah tonf'dur. 
A pine-wood fire and a strange-countryman friend, these two 
are not lasting. 

Ki'zi» tah idiitjhas myului kyah ? 

What has the kazi to do with an eunuch ? 

The jadgo is not for the good but for the evil. 

There are many eunuchs in the valley and they are all Muham> 
medans. Nearly all of them live in T^shawAn, Srinagar ; and arc 
employed in marriages to make amusement, or at funerals to join 
in the lamentations. 

Kf'kkih chhuh dun knnin peth, trek man ranun tah sheh man 

Krhkih's fire-place is in the top storey ; she cooks three 

maunds and boasts six maunds. 

A lying braggart. 


Kehh mah "idh "ditcerfi tuh Icdnr tali nit am. 

Doa't give me anything but let me have your ear. 

A patronising look from those in authority is worth a large sum . 

Kehhahlachi'k chhuh pewun^ ddyih garih yud. 

A Hzard remembers a matter one hour afterwards. 

Natives believe that this aniinal treasures up enmity against % 
man and bites him afterwards, when he can do so safely. 

Kehtsah chon tah hehUah myon, sui gav wisah-pon. 
A httle for you and a little for me, this is friendship. 
A friend is one not merely in word, but also in deed. 

Kentsan ditlham guUlah yetsui ; 

Kentsan zontham nah dinas wur ; 

Kentsan Uhunitham noli brahma-hatmi. 

Bayawonah chunih gafs namaskdr. 

To some you gave many poppies (i.e., sons) ; 

And some you haltered (with a daughter) for murdering a 

Brihman (in some former existence). 
O Bhagawant, (the Deity, the Most High,) I adore your 


KenUan dyuttham aurai ulav, hentsav racheyih mUah W^eth, 
Kentsan achh lajih mas chet talav, hmh gai wunan phUan 

Some Thou (O God) called from Thy heaven » some held the 

Jhelum in their bosom. 
Some have drunk wine and lift their eyes upwards ; some 

have gone and closed their shops. 

Whom God will, God blesses. 

Kentsan dyuttham yut Mho tut, henf_san yut nah tah tut 

hyah ? 
God has given to some (blessing) here and there {i. e., in 

both worlds), and He has given to some nothing either 

here or there. 

Kentmn rani chhai shihij bum, nerav nebar shuhul harav. 
Kentsan rani chhai bar pet h hunt, nerav nebar tah zang 

Kentsan rani chhai adal tah wadal ; hentjan rani chhai 

zadal tshai. 


Some have wives like a shady chiiiar, let ns go under it and 

cool ourselves. 
Some have wives like the bitch at the door, let us go and get 

our legs bitten. 
Some have wives always in confusion, and some have wives 

like bad thatch upon the roof. 

Lai Dt'd's sayinjfs. 

Ketah haUi tah b/tzarjosh. 
False coin and bazar noise. 

The consequence of proing into the hixSar, It is better to have 
things made at hunio. Thon one may be sore of no deception. 

Khairah nah hog tah sharah. 

No share in the good, but in the evil. 

A roal friend. 

Khairas tujil iah nyi'yaB tutiL 
Quick to do good, but slow to quarrel. 

Good advice. 

KhainiJc gom tasalli chunih sharah nishih rachnam KhuflU. 
I have got the comfort of having done good ; God will bless 
me from your wickedness. 

Khaish'i-zan p'fh hani^ hhaUh-i-mard tar-gardon. 
A woman^s relations are honoured, but a man's relatious are 

Khi'im tama huchhimaijih holih. 

An avaricious man goes to a dried-up stream (t. f., gets no 


Avarice is always poor, but poor by his own fault. 

Khfitn tama tah apazyor. 
An avaricious man is a liar. 

Khan badn hhon hadi'ty manzhug chhes hum tjuf add ! 

A big tray, a big tray, and in the middle of it half a loaf of 



Khanabalah Khndani Tor. 

From Khanbal to Khadan YAr (i.e.y as far as one can go in 

a boat in Kashmir). 

Dan to Beersheba. Land's End to John O' Groat's. 


Kkunamilen nah hoj iah parzanan mimuz. 
No breakfast for the sod, but a luncheon for the meaner 

Khandawuv hor. 

A shawl-weaver's load, (i.e., a little light load). 

■^'Shawl- weavers are in general a sickly class. If tliey get five 
traks instead of six traks of paddy, the proper measure now-a-daya 
for one rupee, they will not notice they have short weight ; on the 
contrary, they wiU think that they have seven traks. (A trak is 4f 

Khandawdv herrutyaU 
Defending a shawl-weaver. 

Eajd Kak, who died about eighteen years ago, was over the shawl 
trade in Kashmir. If any person in those days took upon himself 
to order or harm a shawl-weaver, he was immediately summoned 
before KAjdK^k and severely punished. Consequently these weakly^ 
ill-paid people then enjoyed such immunity from petty tyranny, as 
they do not experience now. 

My servant (I am sorry to say) is constantly striking and cona- 
manding others '* as good as himself." He thinks that being the 
servant of the s^ihib he is infinitely superior to ordinary folk, 
and has a licence to do so. Frequently he receives the above reply, 
" Who are you, a shawl-weaver, to do such an act ?" 

Khar bud tsalinai tah ved bud laginai 

May bad knowledge (lit. an ass's understanding) flee from 

you and good knowledge (lit. that derived from a study 

of the Vedas) stick to you. 

A Kashmiri Pandit's prayer before teaching his child, or before 
sending him to the Brahman to be ta,ught. 

Khar khenai Jihar-hMv, 

(Called an) ass-eater before he has eaten the ass. 

Undeserved blame ; a false charge. 

" Khar Icir/.yih. Ashnoi kyah .^" 

" Worked like an ass. What is friendship ?" 

Work is work, whether done for a relation or friend, or not ; and 
the labourer is worthy of his hire. Don't be afraid to ask for the 

Khar putis guri put lonahwani. 

Asking a colt as a gift after buying a young ass. 

It is the custom in Kashmir to give " a trifle in " with the pur- 
chase. This i?- called dast6ri. 


Kharas gor yi'j 

A big sugar- biscuit for the donkey. 

Instmctioii is wasted apon the stupid man. 

Kharas kharJcharah. 
A comb for the donkey. 
Honour given to one not worthy of it. ^ 

Kharas hhasit tah huth path kun harit. 
Mounting the ass with his face towards the tail. 
A brazen-faced fellow. 

The whole saying is — 

Kharas hhasit tah buth path kun harit ; 
Knlahchan mattjanak kharahan phirit ! 
He mounted the ass with his face towards the tail ; 
And at night he asked the ass from them ! 

During the role of the PalhAns, debtors wore sometimes ponished 
by beiug maclu to sit apon an ass in this way and driven through 
the kizdr. A certain Pandit was onoo thos treated, and was sach 
I shameless man as to ask the government for the an, when his 
: iile was over. 

Kharis roj ddyanui garin. 

A wicked man's reign is of one hour's daration. 

KhatL dii tah ehh''h daptm^ zih fUiem chhih bar wathi. 
Giving a bill of divorcement, and the woman saying, ** The 

door is open to me** 

Some hope of re-iustalment. 

Khavfkahund chhui ? zih pananis mahalladurah sund. 
Whom do you fear ? My Mahalladiir. 

A mdhallaCLxr is an officer in cliargo of a division of the city. His 
principle duty seems to be to spy over the people in his district. 
He is always fee'd by the people, and generally hated by them, 
which is no very great matter for surprise. 

Kh^y kht'y gomut gh'is mautich chhas nnh khahar, 
£ating, eating, he has become lustful, and there is no care of 
death to him. 

Khfh gi'tvi gdsah dharmakih pdsah. 

O cow, eat some grass for the sake of dharma. 

Come let us bo friends again. 

Dharma is a Sanskrit word, and means the duties of the masses 
of the Hindu people. Sometimes these are called Abhi-dharma. 


■Should the family cow be sick, the owner will often stroke her 
neck and face, 'saying the above words. Great is the love of all 
Hindis, and especially of the Kashmiri Hindfi, for the cow. It is 
gratitude that prompts this affection, and has lead the Hindus to 
regard the cow as sacred — gratitude to the beast for sustaining them 
during their wandering southwards over barren mountain sand through 
treeless deserts. If it had not been for the cow's milk then, pro- 
bably hundreds upon hundreds of them would have perished ; and 
BO in gratitude to the cow, which furnished them with sustenance 
and carried their burdens, the Hindus magnified her into a god, 
and worship and honour her accordingly, 

Khemas hhdr iah horas nah Mr, 
I will eat his kharwar and not pay Jiim a cowrie. 
A bad debtor. 

Khenah hhewun tah mdshihwit. 
Eating dinner, but as if he did not want it. 
A very nice, prim, proud fellow. 

Khenah hhewdn tah wenah tsdri Udri. 

Eating his dinner, as though he were picking the wenah plant, 

Wenah is a plant like mint in shape of leaf and flavour. It is a 
favourite of Shiva's, in whose worship it is much used. 

Khenah khush hid tah humih dilgir. 

Happy enough at your dinner, but sorrowful when at work. 

" If any would not work neither should he eat." — II. Thess. iii. 10. 

Khenah manzah wukus. 
Separate from eating. 

A quarrel in the house j father and son will not eat together. 

Khenah myuth tah horanah tyuth. 
Sweet to the taste but bitter to pay for. 

Fly the pleasure that bites to-morrow. 

Khetah, mallah, Tcehtshdh. 'A'uzu di'llah. 
Ditah, mallah, hehtshah. Na'uzu bi^llah, 

O mullah, eat something. (Ans.) Let me fly to God. 
O mullah, give something. (Ans.) God defend us. 

Kheomut pdnsah wdpas dyun chhuh dandas bardbar. 

To give back a paisa that has been eaten, is equal to losing 


An " eaten paisa" means a spent pais^. 

Persian. — Zar dadan hardhar jdn dddan. 


Kheti nii'ilik suett. 

The field must be always under the eye of the master {i.e., 

needs constant looking after.) 

Mind your shop and yoor shop will mind you. 

Khewm pdnas tah theh'in jahAnoi, 

He eats to himself, and then makes a boast (of his grand 

dinner) to the world. 

A selfish braggart. 

Kheyilieh Tnrnlia horiheh nah mAlif. 

lie would eat a Tsrol's money, but would not pay (even) 

his father. 

A man who will make money any way, but will not pay any onoi 
even, his own father. 

For T»rol, cf. note " Kakhiri \aha% garah" 

Khidmat harizih nah Batah gunas hali wakari dapU ner 

Never serve a vile Pandit, for after a hundred years (servicel 

he will tell you to go away. 

Khizmat chheh asamat. 
Service is groatness. 

Khojah byuth w»n tah degUav sdn. 

The Khojah sat in his shop among the pots. 

Carpenter with tools, but no work, Ac. 

Shopkee{)ers make a groat display of pots, although aomeiimes 
there is nothing in them. A very poor Khojah is here supposed, all 
of whoso pots are empty. 

Kh ojah chhuh Jchushi haran hih nechuv ehhum gAtul ; nechuv 
chhus pdmah diio'in kih molui ohhum be-dkl. 

The Khojah is happy in the thought that his son is wise ; the 
son is reproaching his father for his foolishness. 
GulistcLn, chap. VI. — Khicdja $hddi kundh ki farzandam *dqil cut o 

pisar ta'na zandn ki padaram fartut ast, 

Khojah chhuh pathui tah fdv wot broiith, 
rhe Khojah is behind, but news of him has come on before. 
News beforehand. 

Khojah Hfiji Bundiyas suet mujih Hjioat, 

i'o go shares in a radish with Khojah U^ji Bandi. 

Little people cannot afford to speculate, though there may b« 
every chance of making a lot of money quickly. 


Khojah Hdji Bdndi was a great man in Srinagar. One day he 
saw his son playing with the greengrocer's son, and noticing that 
the other boy had a nice shawl on, he went off straight to the 
greengrocer and said, " Look here. I see that your business is 
thriving, and so would like to do something in ' your hue' for 
myself. Will you go partners with me ? Will you give me rupees 
1,000, and allow me to spend the money in radishes ? I also will 
give rupees 1,000. and we will share the profits half and half 
alike. — You know how these vegetables pay for growing." The 
greengrocer agreed and paid the money. Radishes were purchased 
to the extent of rupees 2,000 and planted. When the month of 
February came round, the two partners determined to take up their 
radishes, but, alas ! they were every one a failure. The poor 
greengrocer was ruined, whilst the wealthy Khojah simply lost a 
little money. 

Khojah Momuni fhul, hah heni tah hah hanani. 

Khojah Mom's egg ; buy at the rate of eleven and sell at the 

rate of twelve. 

A non-paying concern, 

Khojah Mom once brought up eleven melons with him from 
Bdramula direction, to sell in Srinagar. On reaching the custom- 
house he was obliged to g^ve twelve melons as a tax for his eleven 
melons. He gave the eleven melons and then went and sold his 
blanket to purchase another melon to give the toll-taker. Things 
were, carried on in a very loose way in Kashmir in those days. 
Khojah Mom then went and sat down by a cemetery and would not 
allow the people to bury their dead without first giving him some 
money. In the course of a few days the king's son died and a 
great company, including the king, went to bury him. When the 
crowd reached the burial-ground, the Khojah went forward and said, 
" I cannot allow you to bury the body." The king enquired, " Who 
are you to speak thus ? " The Khojah answered, " I am the queen's 
brother-in-law," " Buh chhus Rani hund hahar." When the king 
heard that, he begged the Khojah to permit the burial of the body, 
and gave him a large present in money. On the king's return to 
his palace he told his wife about the relation whom he had met 
in the cemetery, and she replied, ' ' king, how stupid you are ! 
Did you not know that men only have hahars — not women ?" 

A wealthy man, the Khojah now began trading again, and used to 
buy eggs at the rate of eleven and sell them at the rate of twelve. 
Cf. " story of the villager who, going to sell his eight brinjala in a 
village where there were nine headmen, returns minus vegetables 
and basket, because he had to conciliate the headmen with a brinjal 
apiece, and the ninth with the basket," given in " Notes on some 
Sinhalese Proverbs and Stories in the Atita-V^kya-Dipaniya," by 
A. M, Sendndyaka. 

Hahar is Kashmiri for the Hindustdni sdld. 


Khojah, nun til Tcaht ? 

Khojah, what's your salt and oil ? 

Cited by people'when asked to do something beyond their power. 

A Kh(jjah through change in the prices of things lost all that he 
possossed. For some time, however, until his case was thoronghly 
known, the people came as usual to enquire the prices of his goods. 
The poor old man would sit at the back of his shop and cry, 
' Humph ! What's your salt and oil ?" 

*' KhiOJah s/t ghwah han niyihawahy ** Asi trov pi'nai.** 
**0 K^oj"^* you were tumed out of your little village." 
"(Oh, no,) I left it of my own accord." 

Salvd dignitate. 

Khnjah tih inod tah Uds tih baUyih. 
TJie Khojah died and got relief from his cough. 
Death puts an end to all troubles. 

Khojah, Uah tih yik nah^ tah bnh tih samakhai nah zah, 
O Khojah, you will not come to me, and I shall never see you 


I^montatton over a oorpae. 

Khojah wagavi h*'yih mukimi'nah, tah Khojah wagavi kanih 

tah mukivit'nah. 
U the Khojah buys a mat, it is a fee, and if the Khojah sells 

a mat, it is a fee. 

Khojahs are very sharp in striking a bargain. 

Khojah^ wufhti tjhun tah sudah kamih. 
O Khojah, take a leap. What's the good ' 
Look before you leap. 

** Khojahy wulash.^* "jSuA tultinponah pathrah.** 
O Khojah, (give me) the remains of your dinner. (Another 
man replies. What is the good of asking him ?) lie him- 
self even picks up (a piece, if it falls upon) the ground. 
A stingy person. 

Khokhar Mirun bror. 
Khokhar Mir's cat. 

Too lazy to do it himself. 

It is said concerning this cat that it would scratch the ground 
immediately on seeing a mouse, as if to inform its master that 
there was a mouse about, if he liked to try and catch it. 


Khoran nah huhsh tah Pushi nuv. 

No shoes for her feet, and yet her name is Push. 

Kuhsh — a kind of shoe having high iron heels, and the uppers 
lessening towardsthe heels, worn only by the very respectable class. 

Push is a grand name. 

Khoran nah Tchrdv tah Padmuni nov. 

Not a patten even for her foot, yet called Padmdn. 

Padmdn is a Hindu female name of great honour. The Pad- 
mani or Padmini (Sanskrit) are the most excellent of the four 
grades into which womankind is divided by the Hind6s. Abu'l 
Fazl thus describes her :^" Padmini, an incomparable beauty, 
with a good disposition ; she is tall and well proportioned, has a 
melodious tone of voice, talks little, her breath resembles arose, she 
is chaste and obedient to her husband," &c. The name Pdmpur 
(chief town of the "Wihu parganah, Kashmir,) is supposed to be 
derived from padma, a lotus, and pur, city, hence, " the city of the 
lotus " or " the place of beauty," from the beauty of its inhabitants ; 
which must have very much degenerated of late years. 

Khosah hhen. 
Khosah's dinner. 

When a lot of men are hired for one work, so that the work may 
be quickly accompHshed, people say " Khosah khen " style. 

A certain king made a great feast for all his subjects, and com- 
manded them all to appear on a certain day, except the one-eyed 
people and those who had not beards (i.e., big beards, the Khosah folk). 
Everybody obeyed, and each had placed before him a great tray of 
food of about six sers in weight. The order was that each man was 
to finish his trayful on pain of punishment. This was a difficult 
matter. A Khosah, however, who had made up for his deficiency 
by an addition of a little goat's hair, was equal to the occasion. 
He suggested that they should all gather in small companies around 
the trays and eat their contents one after another. In this way 
the royal order was fulfilled. 

A variant of this story is as follows •• — 

A great man had married his daughter, and as is customary oi> 
such an occasion, he made an immense feast. He invited one 
hundred people, but ordered that only men who had beards should 
attend. However, a Khosah, sticking goat's hair upon his chin and 
face, determined to go. 

Now the bride's father, being very anxious that his wish should be 
carried out, himself stood at the entrance door and tried the 
beards of the guests as they passed in. The Khosah feared the 
examination ; so when the time came for him to have his beard 
pulled, he begged that that appendage might be left alone, as nearly 
one hundred people had passed in and were found to be thorough 
bearded men. The host, supposing him to be some great man 


— perhaps the father of the bridegroom — allowed him to go bj 
Tvithout a trial. 

'^rwent J large dishes of food were provided for the gaests, and as 
a good dinner such as this, was not to be obtained every day, the 
Khosah suggested that they should finish the dishee; and the only 
way to finish them, was for them all to stick at one dish until they 
had got through it, and then go on to the next, and so forth, until 
the whole twenty dishes were completed. The plan succeeded. 

The Hev. A. W. Burman, in a most interesting article contribute*! 
to the "Church Missionary Intelligencer" for October, 1883, and 
' iititled "Notes on the Sioux Indians," thus writes :— > 

" During their sacred feasts a curious law is enforced. Each 
perscm is compelled to eat whatever may be net before him, no matter 
h ow great a portion he may receive, or eUe pay eome one of the eom- 
pa/ny to do $o for him. Not a scrap of food m^mt remain uneaten 
tehen the company brenks up. As no invitation to such a meeting 
can be refused, and there may be occasionally, two or throe in a 
night, at each of which a bountiful help will be served, this most 
prove a somewliat formidable rule." 

lyhotan lontj pulan tah hohshih badai ehhes ati, 

Khotan had arrived to grass shoes, but a little shoe was in 

her walk and manner. 

A person considerably reduced pecuniarily, but who still con* 
tinues the same high manner and extravagant way of living. 

Khudd chhuh fhulas zu diwdn. 
(led makes the egg to Kve. 
Have faith in God. 

Khitddi ehhuh diwan ijhali yd bafi^ nah tah zttniinih tali. 
Ciod gives without our knowing or working, or else from out 

of the ground. 
Khudt'iyih sund pdwur, yami y^tih dwur, 
God dwells, where he has taken possession. 
Khuduyih sunz hhar tah m'twidah 9undj)hath. 
God's scab, and the barber's rubbing. 

To trouble 'a man, whom God has terribly afflicted. 

Kashmiris suffer very much from a disease called scald-head 

Khuntis peth Mvnf. 

Misfortune after misfortune. 

Khur ai 6sih bilTcuU suf totih asanas hat phepharah. 

If a scabby head be perfectly clean, still there remains a 

hundred pimples upon it. 

A great man who bears traces of liis previous mean estate. 


Khuri tih zogun tah wdlah-wdshih tih, 

A fishing-net, a lying-in-wait, and a net spread for the 

Per fas et nefas, 

Khru, Shar, tah Manddk Pal ; manzhog chhus Ludawis nar. 
Khrii, Shar, and Mandak Pal ; in the middle of them Ludu 

is burnt by fire. 

Shekh Nur-ud-din cursed the village of Lndu, because the inhabi- 
tants were once rather uncivil to him. In consequence of his curse* 
every year some houses in this village are destroyed by fire. 

The natives, both Muhammedans and Hindfis, are terribly afraid 
of the curses of their saints and religious leaders. Only a few- 
months since I witnessed the burning-down of a house at Pdmp6r, 
which had been cursed the previous evening by a Jogi, because the 
owner would not give him some wood for a fiire. The Jogi was 
present at the time, and from his manner and a few hints which I 
picked up on the occasion, I am almost convinced that the Jogi was 
the incendiary. 

Khyun dyunjpuUiv tah athah chhalun grumit. 

Giving pulav to eat and cow's urine to wash the hands in. 

To nullify the good done by abuse of word or look. 

Khyun gaUhih teuthui yuih heyis hhush yiyih. 

Dinner must be eaten in a manner pleasing to the other. 

Kibras chhuh nash. 
Destruction to pride. 

Pride goes before destmction. 

Kijih peth hdjuvaf ; welinjih pefh wvkhvl. 

A pestle upon a peg, and a mortar upon a clothes-line (will not 

hold, but will tumble). 

A man appointed to a work for which he is in every way unfit- 
ted. A weak man thrust into temptation. Prendre la lune avec les 

" Kisar Uridyl dalis dul deny 

" The barley stained the hem of the garment. Clean it." 

Shiva Kak was a Pandit of very high family and great learning. 
In course of time he was appointed overseer of the village of 
Wutrus in the Kotahdr district. His duty was to collect H. H. 
the Mah^djah's share of the grain in that village. Once when the 
harvest was over and the grain all gathered in he invited the 


villagers to como to him to tho granary, whore he would give 
t horn each one his share of tho produceof tho season. When the distri- 
bution was over, and while he was returning to his house, someboily 
noticed tliat his clothes had been stained by tho dirty grain and 
tiild him to shake it off (" A'isar Idridyi dalin dul den"). On this 
remark the thought struck tho Pandit, what an unprofitable business 
this was, and thence his mind took flight into loftier regions. 
'* Behold," said he, as though to liimself. " Behold, O heart, the state 
of affairs. Here am I, who all this day have been giving away, 
returning, as I came, empty-handed, nay, worse than empty-handed, 
for my garments have become stained. Listen, O heart, thus will it ho 
with you. When you die you cannot take any thing with you. Kmpty- 
handed you arrived and empty. hantled you will return ; moreover, 
you will repent your birth, because in this life there is naught bub 
sorrow and pain." Therewith he tore his clothes from off his back, 
and went to live in tho jungle near his village, there to give 
liimself up entirely to a religious life. Attracted by his devotions tho 
riKldess Umd (PdJn'ati) appeared unto him in a dream, and said how 
pleased she was with him, an<I promised that he should know more 

ltd more of things divine ; and aa a guarantee for these words 
ihree springs arose in that place, by the which if any p<Tson in 
sickness or trouble offered the Bacrifioo of iloma (a kind of burnt- 
offering, the casting of gh(. Sec, into the sacred fire aa an offering to 
the gods), he, or she, would be immediately rid of these things. 

On awaking from his sleep, Shiva Kik saw tho throe springs, and 
while engaged in worship close by them, behold ! several apsards 
(lK>autiful female dancers from the Court of Indra), came and sang 
to him and played some heavenly music. 

It was some time after this that a famine arose in the country; 
and great wjeis tho distress of tho people. There was no rain ; and 
harvest-timo came, but there was no grain to gather in. ThouMands 
upon thousands of tho p<x)rer classes perished, and tho corpses of 
horses and cows and sheep and goiits wore to be soon stretched out 
in every direction. The ruler of the country was very much grieved, 
and thought of several plans for tho relief of the people, but what 
could he do against tho great monster *' Famine !" One night, 
however, he sent for his minister, and asked him with much 
expectation what ho would advise, and whether there was not a 
religious mendicant, to whom they could apply. " Yes," replied tho 
minister, " there is one called Shiva Kik, who resides in the jungle, 
a gootl and holy man, and in favour with the gotls." On hearing 
this tho ruler went to Shiva Kak and worshipjHjd before hinu 
" Wherefore came ye hither?" said the faqir. " For this reason," 
answered tho ruler, " that my country is dying from lack of rain. 
O pray ye that i*ain may descend and water the ground." Where- 
upon the faqir bade hira to make a bumt-offeriug (Homa) unto the 
j;o<ls. and proniised him that then it would rain. Tho ruler did so, 

ind the rains came and replenished tho parched lands, so that they 
yielded food again, and the people lived. 


There are other tales couceniing this man — one es]5ccially good, 
wherein the king is said to have sent to seize this Shiva Kdk, 
because he was so very holy, and got his prayers answered so 
quickly; but as soon as the king's messengers drew near, lions and 
bears came forth from the hills to devour them, &c., &c. 

Koh hofwal tah ynr subador. 

Mountain the police-officer, and pine-tree the district-officer. 
No government. Everybody does as he likes. 

Eolih h'jiwat 'kliasih nah hiikh. 

The pestle will not come forth dry from the river. 

A poor fellow, who has a case in the Court. 

Eolih hhutak hoi tarani. 
One river is colder than the other. 
Out of the frying-pan into the fire. 

Kolih Uliunun chhuh fUdn tah hJwrun mvsJikil. 

It is easy to throw anything into the river, but difficult to take 

it out again. 

Easier to fight than to conciliate ; easier to give than to take. 

Kom gayih hum, '* durah" hurus zih gmjih. 

Work has become a dog, and " durah'* has frightened it 


A workman afraid to undertake a certain work. 

Durah is a word spoken sharply to frighten dogs away. 

Karen hande toUe goren grumit hmani gav. 

The daughters' stars were so unlucky that the milkmen got 

only a little, even, of the cow's urine. 

A daughter, born under an unlucky star, so hard to get married. 

Hindus have a custom of washing their daughters' hair with milk 
and cow's urine two days before the marriage. 

Korih hund hatah gav dorih hund ges. 

The daughter's dinner is as dirt in the streets. 

It is thought most despicable to depend upon one's daughter's 
husband for a living. 

Korih lekh gayih torih dab. 

To have one's daughter abused is hke receiving a blow from 
an adze. 

Kri'dasui chhuh hhund bdnah amn. 
To the potter a broken vessel. 

The washerman with a dirty shirt on j the cobbler, &c. 


Krum ehhid p^im zih tfah yiyih ? 

Is kriim a reproach that one should become angry, \vhen 

another calls him by it. 

Krdm, a nicknamo. A name which hag been added to tho 
original name by reason of the man's special calling, or because of 

)mo peculiar circomstanco which has occuiTed to him. For 
instance: — There was a very respectable citizen of Srftiagar, by 
name J^far Hir, who had a beautiful pear tree growing in his 
court-yard. One day during a heavy wind this tree fell down, and 
in its fall wounded Jifur Mir's grandfather, who unfortunately 
happened to be sitting under it at tho time. Henceforth tang, 
which is tho Kashnifri for a pear, was added to his ordinary nanio 
by the common folk ; and even to the present day tho third genera* 
tion arc thus named. 

Totd R^m, who now has tho supervision of H. H. tho MahiWijah'B 
mules, is never culled Toti Bam, but Totd Khachchar. 

liuni W^tul is thus invariably called, because he happens to bo the 
clerk of accounts to tho wdtul or sweeper class. 

Snhnz Chhdn, i.e., Sahaz tho carpenter is so oallod from the reason 
tliat one of his predecessors for a short time helped a oarpenter in 
his biKjk- keeping. 

Darim K^ndur is tho name of tho Pandit, who accompanies tho 
baker's coolie on his rounds with tho bread-basket every morning. 
Kdndur is tho Kashmfri for baker. 

Tdlib Kalah is a well-known character in Srfnagar. Kalah moans 
a head, and this wonl was added to tho family name by the 
' ommon folk, when Tdlib's father, who was a Nai|<|4sh, or painter, 
iiinibh'ii from otf the ladder, u|K)n which he was standing and 
(Uconit Jul: tli nnif of tho Shilimdr Uigh pleasure- house, and very 
Bt'v.nly hiui^iil his head. 

llaji Muhamm;ul SAdiq came to this country from Bombay six 
ytars aL,'i>, or more. Uo brought a parrot with him; that was 
sutUciout. From tho moment that this was known everybody called 
him Toti HAji. 

Nearly every person I liavo met with has a krdm, with which 
tho majority are not at all pleased. I can only account for the 
extreme frequency of these nicknames from the fact, that there are 
so many people of one and tho same name, and a difference some- 
times must be made. 

Kranjilih, kranjUih^ poni s'run. 
To take up water in a basket. 
To draw water in a sieve. 

Krayih hhutah chhuh inadf. 
Justice is better than worship. 


Kruhun batah tah chhut Bum tah wazul Musalm6n. 
A black Pandit, a white Dum, and a red Musulmiin (are 
wicked, deceitful, characters). 

Kruhun uhur gar l^are ; chhut ubur dare nah zah, 

Susniur mar hare ; wad hare nah zah. 

The black cloud will only thunder, the white cloud will never 

stop raining. 
The malicious man will fight, but without giving an answer 

(z, e., he will not smite openly, not just at once, he will 

not retaliate at the time, but will wait until he gets a quiet 


Persian. — Az dbr i safed hilars o az ddam i narm. 
Az dbr-i-siydh matars o az ddam i garm. 

Kub-hul Tius ? Mufih liund tulah hul. 

"Which is the crooked tree ? Mut's mulberry-tree. 

Who is the fag ? The badly-paid, hard-worked Junior servant. 
Gopdl Mut had a garden, in which was a stumpy and crooked mul- 
berry tree. AH the boys and girls of the neighbourhood were wont 
to come and annoy Gopal very much by climbing his tree. It 
would sometimes be filled with children, singing and shouting, and 
making a great noise. In short this tree was a source of nuisance 
to Gopdl and everybody around. The regular reply to the ques- 
tion, " Where shall we play to-day ?" was at " Gopal Mu^'s mulberry- 
tree." Every little boy or girl could climb it, it was so small ; and 
nearly every child in the neighbourhood did. 

The above saying is frequently cited by the under-servant in any 
establishment, who is constantly imposed upon by the other servants. 
They are so small in years and inferior in position, that everybody 
feels a perfect right to send them there, or command them here, or 
to tell them to do this, that, or the other thing. 

Kubis lat daicdh. 

A kick is as medicine to the crooked old man. 

'Tis false mercy to try and patch up an old, decrepid man. 

Kucheh-hdnz Tcanz hyuh. 

Like a kucheh — boatman's mortar. 

A fat man. 

Kucheh-hdnz, a class of boatmen who pound rice at so much the 
kharwar for the great folk in the city. They keep boats to carry 
about the rice in. 


** Kudaris mshih doh kethah hudut /*** '* Vn dvpnam tih tii 

" How do you manage to spend your days with this pas- 
sionate man?" *' Whatever he says to me I do.** 
AiiytUiiig for peace and quietness. 

Kukaran mulch tah chhakuti. 
To scatter pearls for the fowls. 

Casting pearls before Hwiiw. 

Kukaras kunui zany. 

But one leg to the fowl. 

A certain master-in-trado Rave a fowl to one of his apprentices 

t ) kill for him. The yomig fellow killed it and cooked it ; but being 
\:<;eedingly hun^jry he was tempted to break off one of its legs and 
t it. When the fowl was placed before the master, he cn(|uired 
'o reason of there being only one leg. The apprentice replied 
I. it the bird mast have been bom so. The master became yerj 
igry and went about the room botiting the joung man and sayingi 
VVhere is the leg ? ^Vliere is the log ?" 

One day, when there was a great storm and the wind blew fierce 
ltd cold, a cock belonging to the master was observed to be stand- 
i^ on one leg only. The apprentice was delighted to see this, and 
■nt at once and called his master: "Sir, sir, there's anr)ther fowl 
t yours ^vith only one leg." The master went outside, picked up a 
ttlo stone, threw it at the cock, and cried •* hish-h-h-h," and tho 
>ck at once put down tho other leg. " There, you fool," said ho to 
iitj apprentice. "Ah," replied the young man, **you didn't throw 

t stone at that other fowl." 
The Kashmfri Pandit who told me this tale docs not know a word 

of English and extremely little Hindustani. I particularly asked 

hint where ho had heard it. He said tlmt he didn't know, but that 

ho had hoard it when he was a little boy, about thirty years ago. 

KuknT dapdn '* Meh kyah rdh ! 
liatak thulan di/uttuvi phdK^* 
The hen says what a wrong I have dgne! 
I have given heat to ducks* eggs. 
An ungrateful protege. 

Kuker kariheh nd mdn tali put en kyah karih ? 
Of course the hen would have self-respect (if she could); but 
what would the chickens do ? 

A good and respectable man overwhelmed with a large family, 
or rather degraded by it, i.e., he has to seek some inferior situation 
r tho boys, because he cannot afford to teach them a profession, 
c, or else he has to steal, ami lio, and take bribes. 


Kiiher tackhan tah putt hechhnn. 
The hen scratches and the chickens learn. 
As the old cock crows the young ones learn. 

Kukp.rih hinzih latih chhih nah puti marun. 
Chickens do not die from the hen's kick. 
Spare the rod and spoil the child. 

Kukerih hinde batak thulo Uah kawah zdnah " titi ti T^ 

O duck's egg, hatched by a fowl, when will you know 

" titi ti ?" 

Don't interfere in matters unknown to you. 

lUti ti is the call to fowls at feeding-time. 

Kuhur ai Mieyi hhdrj totih sajpadih nah hhar. 

If a fowl eats a kharwar, it does not appear (in the bird be- 
coming bigger). 
If a man of low birth becomes rich, he does not become great. 

Kuhur ai thawizenmuktah deras manz taiili tih Iwyih tacliliun. 
If the fowl should deposit a pearl in a heap, there even will 

it be scratching. 

The man who, for his purse, or his stomach, will do any meanness. 

Kukur ffatsihah bah trak 1 
Could a fowl become 12 traks in weight ? 
Can such a man ever become great ? No. 

Kukur yak kas half du kas. 

A fowl is enough for one man, but for two it is nothing. 

Kulah peihai zulm dafd. 

From the very beginning oppression is overcome. 

God is the beginning of the world ; the king is the beginning of 
the kingdom ; the husband is the beginning of the house — if any- 
thing goes wrong, these and nobody else can right it. 

Kulis khasit gudah rah. 

To climb a tree and spread mud over the trunk. 

To promote a man and afterwards dogi-ade liim. 

It is a favourite amusement among the villagers to climb a tree 
and then get the trunk plastered with mud. This causes them to 
como down with a run, and not unfrequently they are hurt by the 
sadden shock. 


Kuni hat chheh nah gajih tih dazdn. 
A single stick upon the hearth does not burn. 
A mail is no good alone. 

Kunih gabih mufhi lej. 

\ vessel of muth for the one ewe. 

A spoilt only child. 

Muth is a species of legominoos plant. 

Kunih gabih shdl. 
The jackal (attacks) a single ewe. 
Au only child will die. 

Kunni Idt phentane ; akui phash tah rentmie ! 

Just enough to go round once and yet he fastens it like a grand 

pagri ; only just one stroke (in the water would clean it), 

but he wants soap-nut for it ! 

A poor man with great ideas and oxponsive withea. 

Kunui tang pup jdn^ phut hharit Jchdm nai ; garah andarich 
sun jdn, gdinah andarich zdm nai ; wuparah suns lek jdn, 
piturih sum pdminai. 

A single ri}>e pear is bettor than a whole basketful of unripe 
pears ; a second wife in the house is better than a z^un iu 
the vill/ige ; a stranger's abuse is b«ttcr than a cousin's 
ZAm is a daaghtoi^s hasband's sister. 

Knr hadanas tah ijer papanai ehhuh nah kinh tih lagdn. 

In a girl's growing and in an apricot's ripening there is no 


Kashmfrfs say that girls grow foster than boys. Tho growth of 
the latter is hindered very much by anxieties, &c. 

Kur chheh dsanas chhenrdwdn tah nah dsanas manda- 

A daughter lessens the wealth of the rich man, and is a cause 

of shame to the poor man (i.e., it costs a lot of money to 

get her married into a suitable family). 

Khr chheh Jshur. 

\ daughter is as a heel (i.e., a great hindrance). 


Kur dizih nah Ishibare. 

Tatih hur buchhih mare^ 

Siriyihhhases nawih gare. 

Do not give your daughter to a man from Ishibari ; 

Because there she will die from hunger. 

There the sun rises after nine garis. 

Gari is a space of time equal to our twenty-four minutes. The 
mountains hide the sun from the village until a late hour. 

There is a very famous spring in Ishibar, called Gupta Gangd, 
after Guptanat^ari, a rikhi, a very holy Hindu. He was so holy 
that he frequently visited Gangd, and Gangd was so pleased with 
the trouble which he underwent to see her frequently, that she one 
day said to him, " You sniffer much to see me ; now I will go and visit 
your village." Guptanatsari asked when she would come and where 
he should meet her. She- replied, " Tln'owyour cup into me and get 
to your house. Wherever you see this cup again I shall be there." 
The man threw his cup into the water and went his way. On 
reaching his village the following day he saw his cup floating about 
in a little spring, wherein he at once bathed. 

There is a great festival in honour of this spring every April. 
H. H. the Mahardjah has just issued an order for six temples 
to be built in Ishibari for the priests, &c., in connection with this 

^ur gayih lorih rus jjiyddah. 

A daughter is like a runner without his stick. 

These piyadahs or chobddrs give their orders showing their sticks, 
and then the demands, &c., are paid. The chobdar is of little 
authority without his stick. 

KuVy htr^ hardn pananih garih tah ihul trdtcdn Ivikah 

handili garih. 
Crying "kur kur" in your own house, but laying eggs in 

the house of another. 

Kit/r kur is the chuckling of a hen. 

Kuri, difpnak gori gdman^ tdri hkanjik losai hanjili Udpdn. 
O girl, I gave you to singhara villages, but your jaws are 

tired with chewing the shells. 

Apparently a good marriage, but it turned out to be a most unfor- 
tunate one. 

Singhdrd villages. — Villages wherein those people live who gather 
this water-chestnut. The Singhara is found in the lakes of Kashmir. 
It ripens in the month of October, when it is gathered by the people 


in enormous qnantiiios. (Cf. "The Abode of Snow," p. 377 ) 
These people are called gAri-hdnz. The nats are sometimes fried 
with batter, and oaten with Bait and popper; but generally they are 
crushed into a flour or meal, of which cakes are made. These cakfM 
are eaten with f^i and salt, &c. To the girf-hAnz these water-oheit- 
nuts serve as a substitute for rioe. 

Kuti Jcuhur, 
The room fowl. 
An eavcs-dropper. 

KuUamut km hpuh rud darydvas manz hud pdndh Jehut bufk 

tah hariH luk. 
Like a wet dog if he remained in the middle of the river ho 

got drowned ; and if he climbed the bank he wetted the 


A man who is doing no good for himself or for others. 

Kutjuri hhyos huddk huni sandih hasah. 

The pup bit the man at the old dog's incitation. 

A great, respectable, man never boats a refractory sorvantj bat 
ilways gets another servant to do it for him. 
Ha8, an exclamation for stirring up a dog to fight. 

*« Kutui gaijhah, giliye V* " Berih, berth, hhudh:' 
" Kihai harinih, giliye ?'* *• Thulan dinih phCth,'* 
*' Kdtiydh chhii, giliye r "JCa/t kih nah bah." 
*♦ MMh ditai, giliye ?" " Putrah mdz haiih.** 
" Kihai goh, giliye r* " Khudui luduk nih.** 
"Where are you going, O water-fowl?*' 

** Along the path to the field." 
** What are you going for, O water-fowl ?" 

" (Going for) — to sit on my eggs.** 
" Uow many are they, O water-fowl V* 

** Eleven, or twelve (they may be).'* 
" Give one to me, O water-fowl/* 

** By my son's life, I have none." 
** Wliat's become of them, water-fowl?" 

** God has destroyed them." 

A woman bereft of her children — any person at all miserable— is 
often heard chanting these lines in a most melancholy tone. 


Kyali gav Harih Tsandar Rdeanih rane ! 

JLutush thawunpeih hane ; 

Topih mudus bozagune, 

Sofiah funk chhih hewdn zdldhwune. 

"What has happened to Hari Chandar, the Eijd's wife ! 

She has placed Lutdsh (her son) upon a stone ; 

And he has died from the hite of a snake. 

And the ** kawij liik " are taking golden paisds for the hum- 


Chanted in a most melancholy tone by the Hindus in time of great 

Most Brdhmans can tell folio upon folios of stories concern- 
ing this Harischandra, who was once ruler over the whole world ; 
and then by way of alms parted with his wife and child and king- 
dom. It was after his separation from his wife, that the poor 
woman, now obliged to go into the jungle and cut her own wood, 
once laid her child upon a big stone, while she clomb a tree to cut 
off some of its branches, that a snake came forth from the grass 
and bit the boy, so that he died. Shevya was the wife's name, and 
the child's name was Lutash or Eohitdswa. Great was the grief of 
the woman, who somehow got back to her first husband Harischan- 
dra and told him what had occurred. Harischandra became over- 
whelmed with sorrow, and caring no longer to live, he at once went 
and sold himself for '* sonah tunk, t. e., the golden paisas wherewith 
to pay the " kdwij luk (or burners of tho dead) to bum his son's 


Lahah Icolanih hanadarih. 

The tassel on the roof of Labah Kol's house. 

This man built a house bo high, that a man on the roof of it could 
not hoar any one in the court below, lot that man shout as loudly 
as he was able. It is a KashmiH custom to affix wooden tasspls to 
each comer of the roof by way of ornamentation. 

Cited when a man does not hear or accept 

Ldl shindsui sdnih Idlach hadr, 

A ruby-dealer will know the worth of a ruby. 

A bon chat, bon rat. 

Ldlan mulah mul. 

Price upon price (i.e., a great price) for rubies (but not for 

this article) . 

It is to the interoBt of the bnyer to depredate the goods in qnes- 


Ldhtsli huddn tah pulaltarx phtrdn. 

The eunuch gets old and weaves grass shoes. 

Hard times for the old people who have not boon able to save for 
thoir old age. 

Grass shoes, or rather Handalw, are worn by the poorer clanea in 

LdhUhah garth sutuk. 

Sutuk in the house of an eunuch. 

An extreme improbability. 

The sixth day after a Biudii child's birth birch- wood is burnt in 
the house, and a lighted piece of it is passed around the head of the 
child and of all the persons present. This is the work of the mid- 
wife, and the custom is called sutuk in Kashmiri. After this puri- 
ficatory act the motlier is allowed to leave the room for a short time, 
Ac. Cf. Sanskrit word " sdtak." 

Laiitshas mdl halih tah ndl. 

An eunuch's property consists in his (jewelled) throat and 

(embroidered) garment. 

These eunuchs, who are all Muhammedans, are hired to sing at 
weddings or weep at funerals. They get a lot of money sometimes, 
but generally spend it all in jewels and embroidery work- They 


are very particnlar about the work around the " ndl,'* literairy, the 
border of the garment, called the ' ' knrtah," round the neck and 
down the breast. Most extravagant work is lavished upon this part 
of their apparel. 

Ld-ph gaUinam mdph I 
God forgive my boasting ! 

Often cited by the Kashmiri, when he has promised to do any 
work. He is afraid lest God should become angry at his pride and 
check him. 

Lctr hJiewdn pdnas tah ddkar trdwdn beyis- 

He himself eats the cucumber, and belches in the face of the 

other man. 

An extremely selfish man. 

Jjar lorit tah hut. 

To pull down a house for a room. 

Cited when a thing costs more than it is worth. 

Ldri hini Ldhur. 

To go to Ldhor by way of Ldr. 

A roundabout way, on journey, or in work, 

Ldr is on the Ladak road. 
' There is a tale in Kashmir about a man who was once asked 
where his nose was. He did not reply by at once putting his finger 
on that organ and saying *' Here it is ;" but he pulled up the right 
sleeve of his long cloak, and passing his right hand around his head, 
eventually and with great difficutly, touched his nose with it. 

Laren bats tah bafsan batah. 

A family is needed for the house and food is needed for the 
- An empty, desolate house, or a poverty-stricken familyj or a man 
without knowledge, &c. 

Zatah liwan* 

(Like a) spade for the feet to kick (and shove). 

A butt for the master's anger, &c. 

Laiih luanih laUhul. 
A besom instead of a tail. 
Turning good into bad. 

Jjatiye wethranih matiye di. 

O woman, you have come in a poor wretched state. 

Natives are great swells when they visit their relatives. This is 
quoted when any person docs not aiteud to this cufitom. 


lAv hud gayih s/tv. 

A young intellect is rich. 

Lav — a boy between the ago of twelve ycare,— free from caro, 
and able to deyoto hinuielf entirely to study. 

Lazan mazdkh pazan. 

Unworthy people deserve to ho played jokes upon. 

Lej tah fehur chheh hunt ; manzbdg zdldn prtjih tul pdn, 
A Icj and ttkur are the same {i.e.y both are made from earth, 

both are employed in tho same work, both are heated in the 

same furnace, &c.), and the grass bums itself in the midst. 

Be oarofol not to separate friends, lest in so doing thoa destroy 

L^j and T^JIcur are two earthenware vowoli used in oookiiig ; one 
is a little bigger than tho other. 

L'j tih Uur^ gag tih tjur. 
The pot a thief, the fireplace, also, a thief. 
All of them thieves together. 

Lejih milawan. 
A sharer in the pot. 
Close friendship. 

Lt'Jeh chheh nah rek exh dalU Idrih. 

Abuse is not bird>lime that it will stain the hem of the 

Lclispharufi ehhuh phaJc. 

To steal a pot is like a smell (certain to be detected). 

Lochih hanih bud han, 
A great matter from a little matter. 
An angry word sometimes causes murder. 

Log nah tah jog dv put phirit. 

Couldn't do the work — the lazy stupid fellow ; and so he 


A man begins a work and is not able to finish it. 

LokachAr chhnh b^bih ndr. 
Childhood is without care. 

Behih ndr, lit., fire in the bosom. Eashmfris whilst squatting on 
the ground in the winter time place their kdngars under their long 
cloak next their skin. Give a Kashmiri a kdngar and ho is perfectly 
happy. UoQCO the words '* bcbih n^' come to mean without care. 


Lokachdr chhui andahhdr. 

Childhood is darkness (i.e., the time for sowing wild oats), 

LdkacJidr chhui mdkahj&r. 
Childhood is freedom. 

Lokah hund Jcatit nethanun p&n ; 
Loikah handih rachhit neputrah pan. 
Spinning for others, and one's own back bare ; 
Nourishing other people's children, and oneself childless. 

Lokah hundih Widndarah methar dradani. 

To make one's friends happy at the people's wedding feast. 

De aUeno corio liberdlis. » 

Lokah hunzi mdje putrah dag peyiyai. 

O, mother of the people, the pains of travail will come upon 


Cited to a lazy fellow, who eats the bread of another's labours. 

Lokah sunz har chheh lokas diwai. 

The wrangling of the people is the people's pleasure. 

Not a few quarrels in Kashmir are excited purely and simply for 
the sake of a tamdshd. 

Lokan kiU wdnti gdv, meh kits shdnti g^fo. 

For the people a cow with milk, but for me a cow that doe& 

not give milk. 

" Everybody seems prosperous and happy except me." 

Lonchih lamun. 

To pull the garment. 

Asking a man to " pay up.'' 

Shopkeepers, and. especially, hawkers, frequently lay hold of a 
man's " phgran "until he pays for the goods just purchased. A mis- 
sion servant brought me a *' tsd,dar " or wrap the other day, saying that 
he had seized it as the owner had not paid for a book bought from 
our city book-shop. 

Lorih kutanis dastdr gandun. 
To bind a turban on the top of a small stick. 
To give work to a man who is unfitted for it. 


Lorih minii put. 

Measuring pattii with a stict. 

A suspicious arrongomeHt, becaase a properly marked yard mea- 
Buro is tho proper thing. 

Pattu is a course woollen doth manufactured in Kashmir. The 
cloth is washed like blankets are waahed in Scotland, by trampling 
thorn under foet* 

Lorih piihi aantf pilwun. 

To extend a snake towards a man by means of a stick. 
Any mean false trick played by a friend. 

Lotiimanah $und fhap. 
The seal of Lotilman. 

A man careless of his aoconnts. 

Lotdman was a Kashmiri banker of great fame and reepeotability, 
but most careless concerning his books. He would pnt his seal to 
any ))aper presented to him . The consequence was that he suddenly 
found himself bankrupt, and ended his days most sorrowfully 

Luh nai dtih tah bud halih gaUhih paidah ? 
If there were no Cyoung) people, whence would the old peo- 
ple be bom ? 

" Toung and old, this and t'other, 
Cannot do without each other." 

Lusamatis Idyun, 
To beat a tired man. 
A sick man ordered to work, or a tired man asked to go a fresh 


Luias tah huaas bdjbat. 

A partnership with plunder and uproar. 



MacJih Jcf/ah z&nih pdmpuri gat ? 

Will the fly understand the revolutions of the moth (around 

the light) ? 

A place for every man and every man in his place. 

Madav BUawani shoht han. 
Madav Bilav's little piece of ginger. 

A sprat to catch a mackerel. 

Mddav Bilav was accustomed to sqnat down beside any man he 
might see cooking his food ; and to give the man a little piece of 
ginger, expecting a good share of the meal in retnm. 

Mag aum drdg wuthui, Kdngri, 

Phdgun auwi zdgun tsoi, Kdngri. 

Tsithar auwi muthar piyoi, Kdngri, 

Wahek auwi ralieh Tcati, Kdngri. 

Zet auwi bret gayak, Kungri. 

Mdr auwi Idr laji, Kdngri. 

Shrdwun auwi ydwun surui, Kangri, 

Bddarpet auwi wddar peyi, Kdngri, 

Ashid auwi hdsid suzmait Kdngri. 

Kdrtik auvn ndrah-fih lazmai, Kdngri, 

Manjhor auwi konjih lajai, Kdngri, 

Poh auwi toh ludmai, Kdngri. 

January came and there was a famine for you, O Kdngrf.' 

February came and a plot was laid against you, O Kangn. 

March came and you were put to a mean use, O Kangri.. 

April came and where will you abide now, O Kdngri. 

May came and you were thought a senseless thing, O Kdngri. 

June came and you were pursued, O Kangri. 

July came and your youth was numbered, O Kdngri. 

August came and sickness fell to you, O Kangri. 

September came and I sent a messenger for you, Kdngri. 

October came and I placed a bit of fire in you, O Kdngri. 

November came and you were a matter of anxiety, O Kangri. 

December came and I burnt, even chaff in you, O Kangri. 


Tho Kdngri or Kdngar, as it is generally called, is the KashmfH 
portable fire-place. It generally consists of two parts, tho inner 
earthouwaro vessel called kumlal (somewhat like tho oharooal-bumor 
of Italy), whortnn the fire is placed, and its encasement of wicker 
work, sometimes very pretty, being tastefully ornamented with 
rings and brilliantly coloured ; a little wootlen or silver spoon 
(tsdian) tied to the handle (kdnjih) completes this oriental brazier, 
which may bo purchased in any Kashmiri bdzdr for the sum of ono 
dnA and upwards according to tho make and size. Should tho 
kdngar consist merely of an earthenware vessel a little ornamented, 
it is then called a manan. These arc principally used, I believe, in 
the Leh and LatUk direction. 

The l)c8t kAngara are said to be made in Zainager, a big village in 
the Kamrdz di.strict. IsUmAb&d, Shihib&d and Sop&r are also 
noted for good kangars, which arc very ofton called aftgr the places 
where they are made, e. g., IftUbnAUUli Kingar or Tsriri Kingar, Ac 
An onlinary peasant's kingar, Tory rudely made, is called Grfsti 
K&ngar, from gmst, which in Kashmiri means a husbandman, while 
a finely-worked, highly coloured kdngar osed by the wealthier class 
is called Khojah kingar from the Persian Kh ajah, which means a 
master, a gentleman, or man of some distinction. 

K&ngars aro also to bo met with in tho bAs&rs of those cities and 
villages, whither oppression and famine have driven the Kashmiri. 
I liave heard of them at Badrawih. Kashtawir, RAm-Nagar, Disanli, 
Niirp&r, Kdngrd, Amritsar, LndidnA and other places ; but the kAngars 
manufactured outside " the Happy Valley** always seem to bo of a 
very inferior pattern and quality, and to be used by a very limited 
class iudood outside the Kashmiri emigrants. 

The Kashmiri is very fond of his kingar, and wherovor ho goes 
A henever you soo him, whether asleep or awake, at work or at pUiy, 
. ittingdown or walking, he lias this little fire-place held in one hand 
underneath his loose, long, night gown-like garment called pheran, 
and in immediate contact with his stomach and thighs. As will 
i >o expected this very close familiarity generally proves very dan- 
porous ; a person is trip|)cd up by a stone in tho way and tumbles 
upon his red-hot k&ngar fire, or a child rolls in her sleep and upsets 
the tire-place, and bums herself, the b<3d<ling, house, and everytliing. 
There are really very few of the wealthier, middle, or lower classes 
who some time or another have not been more or less burnt from 
accidents with the kdngar. 

However, the kdngar continues more popular than ever, and not a 
few songs and sayings in its honour are extant in the valley. There 
is no doubt that this portable brazier keeps off many a disease front 
the poor Kashmiri, when so terribly exposed as he is sometimes to 
tho bitter winds, freezing rains, and biting hail ; — for King Winter 
now and again makes Kashmir tho centre of his dominions and 
rules supremo there. 



A story is told of a native doctor, who once visited the valley to 
see what his skill could do for the poor people there during the 
severe winter season. On reaching Bdramula, the place where visi- 
tors change the horse, kahar and coolie for the boats, on their way 
into Kashmir, he noticed a boatman with only a loin-cloth on, squat- 
ting in his boat in the cold wind, and eating some cold food. The 
doctor thought that the man was mad and would certainly soon die. 
But the boatman had a kangar between his knees, and when the 
doctor on a closer observation saw this, he at once determined to 
return whence he came, saying, " The Kashmiri people have got 
their own antidote for their winter cold. There is no necessity for 
me to go there." 

It has been suggested that the Kashmiris learnt the use of the 
kdngar from the Italians in the retinue of the Mughal Emperors, 
who often visited the valley, but no reliable particulars have as yet 
been ascertained. I have enquired from high and low, rich and poor, 
but no one can tell me anything, fact or fiction, as to who originated, 
and whence originated, this popular and necessary article. (Other 
particulars, concerning the derivation of the word Kdngar and Kdngri, 
&c., &c., may be found in my article published in the August num- 
ber of the Indian Antiquary.) 

Magi slun kunun. 

Selling snow in the month of January. 

An unseasonable work. 

Makdrinih mdjih pat ah hanih pitur boi. 
Behind the bride is her cousin (on father's side). 

Take care. There's an enemy present. 

It is a wedding custom among Pandits, when the bride is taken to 
the house of the bridegroom, to place her in a lower room, while the 
bridegroom is in the upper room of the house. After a little time 
the sacred fire is kindled in the upper room before the bridegroom, 
and appointed portions from the holy books are repeated. Mean- 
while the bride is brought to the upper room by her mother's brother. 
Arrived in the room he sits behind her and is her " best man," as it 
were ; he sees that she is thoroughly concealed, gives to her the 
appointed meats and drinks at the stated times, and leads her around 
the sacred fire. 

Great friendship exists between this uncle and the bride, but 
intense enmity between her and her father's brothers' sons. These 
two are constantly quarrelling concerning property and position, &o. 

Makdrinih nah gukush taJi mgi phirih mukush. 

At the time of the wedding the bride had not a straw, but ten 

days afterwards, when she returned to her husband's house 

her face was covered with jewellery. 


MuJcush is a preparation of gold and silver leaves, Ac, which aro 
plastered over the bride's face (ton days after the wedding, when sho 
returns to her husband's house) making it look much like a model in 
tarnished silver. This is a MohammediEm custom. 

Mahdrinih nah wdnkahpan tah voiffi phirih Idnkaran. 

At the time of marriage the bride had not even her hair 

plaited, but ten days afterwards, when she returns to her 

husband^s house, she wears a lankaran. 

Ldnkaran (Persian, UcUyat ; Sanskrit, illanilcara,) a jewel or woman's 
metallic ornament. 

Ton days after the wedding the bride rotoms to her husband's 
house splendidly dressed, richly jewelled, and with abondanoe of 
furniture and provisions, &o, 

Mai tih ati tah mai-hhdnah tih ati. 
Wine is here and wine-shop is also here. 
Bvery thing at hand. 

Mdj hardn " huri^ hurt** ; Icur hartin ** renih^ renth** 
The mother cries, '* daughter, daughter" ; the daughter cries, 
^* husband, husband." 

Mdj harin ** thurihy shurih " ; thur mah karin " mdj^ mAj," 
Let the mother say ** child, child " ; but let not the child say 

'* mother, mother." 

An orphan. 

Miij tah hur, tjtahar tah iur, 

A mother and daughter are like the handle and stick of a 
spinning-wheel, (necessary to one another ;— and work to- 

*' Mdjt fjah thawum hdngar phukit, buh yimai wustas doh 

** O mother, blow the kangar and set it for me ; and I will 

come after my work with the teacher.*' 

" Light the kangar for me, I will bo back again presently," refer- 
ring to the short time one is able to work during the dark winter 
months. Workmen come, just lay a few bricks, Ac., and go again. 

Wutstah, a teacher, hero means a master blacksmith, or bricklayer^ 
or carpenter. 


*' Mdj wuhawan clihum nali harih." " Watih pefh beh tdJi ddh 

zani wuhawanai.'^ 
*' Mother, nobody curses me." Sit by the way-side (my son), 

and ten men will curse thee." 

They who live in public must expect to " rough it." 

Mdji hadeyih thdji tih hadeyih. 

When the mother becomes great, the pot, also, becomes great. 

The expenses of a family. 

Mojih Icar dandah-tuj tah sliwi Tchyav grtsah Jchur. 

The mother used a tooth-pick only, but the child ate a bundle 

of grass. 
A mother's utter unselfishness. 

Mdjih hliutah hurui bad. 

The daughter is bigger than her mother. 

Case greater than the original quarrel. Wages above the work. 

Mdjih lekf benih lek, Jcorih lek ; tah holayih nah lek. 

Abuse my mother, my sister, my daughter ; but do not abuse 

my wife. 

A Pathan saying. Pathans are especially particular concerning 
their wives. 

Mdjih nah lacha'kah tah sitdras ffildph. 
The mother hasn't a lachakah, but the guitar has its wrapper. 

Cited against the man who has hardly means sufficient to keep 
body and soul together, and yet buys books and other dispensable 

Lachakah is the piece of woollen cloth that hangs down on the 
neck from the back of the head of a Muhammedan woman. 

Majnunas parutshuh zih kheldfat kahanz chheh, Dupnaky 

*^ Lailih hinz.'^ 
It was asked of Majnun " Whom do you like V He replied, 

" Lain." 

Anybody or anything a man is especially fond of, is called that 
man's "Laili." 

Laili iiajnun — a famous Persian love story translated into Kash- 
miri by a poet called Muhammad Gami. 

Mdkir tah hdldr garin tah pharinj lejih nah bazin tshurui 

wih ! 
A garrulous, sharp, unconscientious and malicious woman, 

no oil in the pot, — only pride ! 

A woman who flatters herself that she is as good as her rich 


Malckah melih magar ndkhah melih nah. 
Mecca shall be found but not your neighbour. 
Neighbours are constantly going to law about ground, fto. 

Mulfitnah yd aulddfitnah. 

Either trouble about one's money or trouble about one's 


If a man has money then he has not children ; and If he has chil- 
dren then he has not money, because the children have swallowed 
it all up ; in either case, however, man has trouble in this world. 

Mdl matt tah hdl matt sandih khutah chhui nangah matt 

A naked man has less care than a man of wealth or a man 

of position. 

Much coin, much care } little goods, little care. 

Mdl'i-^nu/t tah dil-i-be-rahtn. 

Property by gift and a heart withont mercy. 

Mdl wuchhit zagdt. 

Seeing (your) property give alms. 

Give according to your ability. 

Zagdt (Arabic, Zakdtj) a portion of a Mohammedan's property 
given in charity according to the roles laid down in the Qnrin, of. 
" Hughes' Notes pn Mnhammedanism,** pp. 125-126. 

The Kashmiris have a story ooncenung one Tiskahman Dar, an officer 
of the Kashmir government. He was one day eating poUv when 
a jester was present to whom he gave a little portion. The jester 
disgusted with the meagre meal, and in order to make those 
present laugh, stuck a grain of rice upon a needle, and laying it out- 
side his platter said, *' H6ni mit" ». e., the dog's portion. On noticing 
t his done in such a ludicrous fashion all the people laughed, includ- 
ing Laks hm an Dar also. ** Why are you soch a fool ?" they asked i 
whereupon the jester replied, " According to TAkshman Dar'p gift 
I have given {Mdl vyuchhit Mogdt). 

Hunt mit, lit., the dog's handful. Hind6s before touching their 
food take out two or three handfuls, as the case may be, and lay it on 
one side for the dogs to eat. The real idea of the custom, however, 
is an offering to Yishnii. 

Mdlas chhuh mol. 
Price according to property. 
Good article, good pricu. 


Mdli Wetsdr-ndgah tah Bahwano, yas nah peyih ddnas 
pewino tas hyah ehhuh pdnas rewano ! 

fathers Vetsar-nag and Bawan, what a sight ! He who cannot 
afford to have a fire in his house, yet adorns himself for 
the festival. 

Hindus address their sacred places as fathers, because throngh 
them they think they obtain all blessings. Vetsdr-ndg is a sacred 
spring about three miles from Srinagar towards the north on the 
Gangabal road. 

Bawan also is a sacred spring — the most sacred in the whole valley. 
Near to the village called after this spring are the famous ruins of 
Mdrtand or Mattan 

Great religious fairs are held at both of these places at certain 
seasons of the year, and it is the custom of the Hindii people to 
appear at them dressed in their best and gayest clothes. 

Mdlis rdj tah muhtdj, hdyis rdj muhtdj ; ranis rdj tah sker 

If my father has the rule then I want something, and* if my 
brother rules I shall be in need ; but if my husband rules 
then (I have got my heart's desire), I wear the crown. 

Mallah dyuthum amalah hardn, hdkas dapdn hachh ; 
Gdmuch hh&wdn aldi baldi, musdjira* dapdn mashidik chhvi 

1 saw a mullah performing his duty, and calling a cabbage 

Eating the sacrifice of the village, and saying to the traveller, 

" There is a hyaena in the mosque." 

A selfish, hypocritical muUah. 

Aldi baldi is the sacrifice offered to ward off, or abate, any pes- 
tilence, &c., in a place. 

Mallah (Mullah) is a Muhammedan well-instructed in the Qurein, 
and generally a teacher or schoolmaster. 

Mallah goi palah peti poni dalit. 

O muUaJi, (my words to you are like) water which trickles 

down off the rock. 

In at one ear and oat at the other. 

Mallah har gayih palah har. 

A mullah's fight is like a fight with stones (so bitter and 
unrelenting is it) . 


Mallas tuh chk^h mashdih tdm. 

A mullah's " beat " is to the mosque. 

" Matlab" carries us hither and thither. 

Mdm thawih izzat tah gam tih thawih izzat. 

If an uncle honours (a man) the village wiU also honour 


A smile from thoee in aathority is worth much. 

Mdmah-hiharah marano ddr nah tah bar no, 

O Mamah-hihur you are worthy of death, there is neither 

shutter nor door. 

Yon exaggerated, — you deceived mo. 

M&mah-hihur is the husband or wife's mother's brother. 

A young woman was asked by hor afllanoed husband's mother^ 
brother to come and see her fntore homo, which he described as 
very grand and beautiful. When the girl arrived at the place sho 
found a very humble abode without oven a shutter or a door. 

Mdn yd mah mdn buh chhuaai zorah nivzmdn. 
Whether you consent or not, I will be your guest. 

Mananih yiyih nah panatii tah hahaddnaa reh, 

A manan dues not get sufficient for itself, how (then can it 

obtain,) flame for the hahadiin ? 

Manan is a kdngrf without the wicker work. 

Haliaddn is a big cone-shaped fire-placo with holes in tho topt 
through which they stir-up and blow the fire, ^. 

Mandaclihahan Idhtjh tim khewdn natji, nafjn. 

The eunuchs ought to be ashamed of themselves, yet they 

dance and eat. 

A shameless person. 

Mandachhanas tannah-nannah. 
Rejoicing in his shame. 

Tannah-nannah, supposed to represent the sound of the Kashmiri 
cithara. " Tom, torn, torn, tannah midir ; tannan, tannan tannah 
nannah," the instramcnt is supposed to say. 

Mangawun ai tahwizen iangah'Wani andar tatih tih kariA 

If a beggar be placed in the midst of a grove of pear trees, 
there, even, he will beg, 

" Uabits arc soon assumed ; but when wc strive 
To strip them 'tis being tlayod alivo." 


A Kashmiri friend tells me a story of a b^gar, whose son became 
a great man. However, his father still continued to beg. At last 
one day his son pnt the old man into a room and locked the door. 
At the regular times the servant carried food to him ; but it was too 
much for the old man, who had been accustomed for so many years 
to stint himself, so he only ate a Httle of the dinner, and tied up the 
remainder in his clothes, crying " Yi Khudd," " Thank God," as 
he had been accustomed to do on receipt of alms, 

Ma7igun tah mdjii pakun tah parism. 

Asking, even, from one's mother, and walking, even, one step, 
are hard. 

Mangun tah marun. 

To ask (a favour) is to die (i.e, you put yourself under an 
obligation — you lose your independence). 

Mantinih lejih pdnzu. 

Six pounds weight of anything to a three pound pot. 

A man in adequate to circumstances. 

Manut tah phambah dyoiig tah hdyuk bardbar, 

A three pounds weight and a ball of cotton and the scales are 


A sharp fellow without any principle, who will, and can, say or 
do anything to accomplish his object. 

Manz atmn chhuh hanz atmn. 

To go between (i.e.y to act as a surety) is to put your head 

into a mortar. 

A certain man borrowed some money, and persuaded a friend to 
become surety for him. The mean man as soon as he had obtained 
the money spent it and ran away from the country. The poor 
surety was punished by having to keep a mortar upon his head for 
a certain time. " Manz atsun, chhuh kanz atsun," cried he, as the 
people going by laughed and jested at him. 

Manz gdm jeshnah husih run garih. 

Dancing and feasting in the village, whilst Husih Run (who 

has paid the expenses of the tamasha) is indoors. 

Cited when the very person who ought to be present, is not 

Manz gani manzamis ; Icalah sarddras ; lat gunahgdras tah 

The middle portion (of the fish) for the middle-class man ; 

the head for the host ; and the tail for the sinner and the 



Mdhz thav tulil dud math athan. Sheikh chhuh hdJtim, 
Knlhan chheh hdtj. 

Rub milk over the hands and take off the colour. The 
Shekh is ruler. There is fear of accusation from one*8 words. 


Shekh frndm^d-din hated the Hindiis. One day, a day fixed for 
the celebration of a very ^rand Hindii wedding, he sent an order 
that no wedding was to take place. , The people heart-sore and 
weary said the above words. This Irailm-nd-dtn also forbad the 
Hind6s to wear the tik^ 

Mdhz is the Lawnonia inermis^ the Indian HinnA, with which the 
people stain the nails of their hands and feet. 

Mdr pethtti gilkdr ; dr kh^ni chhii tjuJci ndr ; Wr hheni 

chhii shajdr ; zdras gindun khabarddr ; hw tent ehhai 

tabarddr ; nechuv zun chhui syud dastdr. 
One should build upon the bank of MAr ; eating &t is bitter 

like fire ; eating cucumbers is cooling ; beware of gambling ; 

the birth of a girl is like a wood-cutter to you ; but the 

birth of a son is as a straight turban. 

Miir is a canal which flows through tht» northern portion of Srinagar. 
It rosonibles the old canals in Venice. It is croM8e<i by several ancient 
Btune bridges and is fringed in many places with troos and festooned 
with vines. 

Ar, Alu-i'Bolchdra,'l*runu» domMtica. 

Kur tint chhai tabarddr — Like as the woodcntt4sr " brings down** 
the trees and cuts them up, so a daughter is a continual strain upon 
the father's purse. 

Syud dastdr is an ezpresnon signifying prosperity. 

Marahah tah garih chhum nah hank. 

I would die, but there is nobody in the house with me. 

'• Whosover is delighted with solitude is either a wild beast or a 
god. — Bacon. 

Mdrdkan gafjhan d^uni dydrah der tah ydrah der tah batah 

For quarrelling, a heap of money, plenty of friends, and abun* 
dance of food are required. 

Money — to bribe and pay court fees, Ac. 
Friends — to swear falsely and back you up. 
Food — to nourish and strengthen in those troublons times. 


Maranas nah mohal tah mast kdsanas nah fursat tah hdrih 

nah zi. 
No time for dying and no leisure for shaving (he is so busy), 

and yet he has not one cowrie's income. 

Lots of work and small pay. 

Mdras mdrih^ tdras tdrih, ydras Ithyduoih tsuht tah tang. 
He will smite the man, who has to be smitten, will help the 

man who has to cross the river, and will feed the friend 

with apples and pears. 

A man au fait at most things. 

This is also a Kashmiri riddle, of which the answer is a stick. 

Maras Uohg zdlun goyd kih saras pamposh phulun. 

To light a lamp in the house is like the flowering of the 

lotus on the lake. 

A son is the lamp of the family. 

Hindu saying. — Kul ko dipah putr hai ; mukh ko dipak pan ; 
Ghar ko dipak istri ; dJiar ko dipak pran. 

Maratsah wdngan hhdr ai hheyik tds Tcadih nah tyut chhuh 

sun tah sahgin ! 
If he eats one kharwar of red pepper he will not smack his 

lips ; so deep and philosophical is he ! 

An unexcitable disposition j semper idem. 

Maraz galih wedah-wdn ddat Jcatih galih ? 

The disease will go by the doctor's shop, but the habit will 

never go. 

Habit is second nature. 

Mardz-o-Kamrdz ; shahr chhuh Yamrdz. 
Mardz and Kamraz ; the city is Yamraz. 

Yamrdz is the city, where everything finds its way. 

" O, everything in London." 

These are the three great divisions of the valley. Mar4z is the 
whole S. E. end. Kamraz is the N. and W. end and the water-shed 
of the Jhelum as far as its junction with the Krishna Gangd. 
Yamrdz is the city of Srinagar, &c. 

Maspyav mas bdnih, yes pyav sui zdnih. 
Wine has fallen into the wine- vessel ; that vessel knows (its 
strength, smell, &c.) into which it has fallen. 

Experience is the best teacher. 


Mm wunchih pefh nindar. 
Sleep upon a wine-cask. 

A man of property. In the lap of luxury. 

Mat phuiarit bobut ! 
Breaking a mat for a bobus. 

Spoiling a good thing in order to make an inferior article. Hat 
is a large earthenware vessel. Bobus is a small earthenware vesael 
aboat the size of a slop basin. 

The saying originated many years ago in this way. One day a 
child was playing fireworks with bobuses. He got some gunpowder 
and put a little into each bobus, and then ignited them. At one 
time ho conld not find a bobus, and so ho broke up a mat and made 
something like bobuses out of the shreds. His father was very much 
shocked and said, " What breaking up a mat for a bobus !" 

Mat anas nuithk. 
Practising madness. 
An unseasonable or impoflsiblo study. 

Mdta$ tak kahri chhuh hisdb. 

There is an account between the corpse and the grave. 

Mattn hund dup chhui baldyan thup, 

A madman's speech is a check to misfortune. 

A madman's word, and a good man's word, are thought to bo of 
equal value, beoavae mad men are supposed by the common folk to 
bo very good. Though they sin, the people say they do nut sin ; fur 
they kBow not sin, but are like the bMsts of the field. 

Matis chhch batani vnr. 

A madman is only anxious about his dinner. 

Matlab ohhuh tjatdn put-lab. 
Matlab cuts the back wall of the house. 
Any thing to accomplish his purpose. 

Mattanuh batah tak Paiiamtk Dumb, 
The Mattan JPandit and the Pattan Dumb. 

There was a Dumb from the village of Pattan, who had to take a 
letter of the K&rd&r's to the city. (KArd4r is the Hindb overseer of 
a village, a government official, whose business it is to see thafc 
H. H. the Mahdrajah gets his proper share of the grain.) The letter 
was delivered to the man at evening time, and he rose early the next 
morning to go to the city. It was so dark when he got up that he 
conld not see what he was about, and so he put on the first garment 
that came to hand, thinking it to be his own. By the time the day 


dawned he had proceeded far on his jouraey, and the more sorrow 
for him that he had walked so fast and had so many miles to re- 
turn, for he found that he had clothed himself with his brother's 
wife's long cloak instead of his own. He determined to run back as 
quickly as possible, because, said he, *' I have sinned in that I have 
done this thing, and I must rectify it by all means within my 
power." Sohe went back to his house, quickly, changed his cloak, and 
started oflf the second time, and when he reached Srlnagar, he car- 
ried the letter to its destination, and then went to S5d, Lai DSd's 
teacher, and told him what sin he had unwittingly been guilty of ; 
and asked him what he must do to atone for it. Sed ordered him 
to visit a certain Brahman who resided at Mattan, and explain mat- 
ters to him. 

Now this Brdhman was a very bad character, and was at that 
time living with his brother's wife. When he heard what the Dumb 
had related to him, he fell into a paroxysm of grief, and kept on 
saying, " What a sinner I am ! Here is this poor fellow in such a 
terrible state simply because he once put on his sister-in-laVs cloak, 
whilst I, who am living day after day with my sister-in-law, do not 
have the slightest qualms of conscience." The Brdhman asked the 
Damb wherefore he had come to him, and who had sent him. The 
i)amb replied that Sed had told him to come. Then they both, the 
Brdhman and the Damb, visited Sed and asked his counsel. The 
Dumb was quickly dismissed with the order to perform some very 
small penance. The Brahman was detained alone with Sed for 
many hours. Sed told him that the only atonement he could make 
for his enormous crime was to offer himself as a burnt-offering to 
the god. The Brdhman accepted the advice, ordered the pile of 
wood to be prepared, and was burnt. 

It is written that if any man gives himself up to be burnt upon 
the pyre he shall ask anything that his heart may wish for at the 
time of burning, and it shall be granted him. Accordingly this 
Brahman was enquired of as to what he liked. He answered, " I 
want you to give me some milk and some flesh." When S6d heard 
his reply, he became exceedingly sorrowful, and said to the people 
who crowded around the burning man : " O people, this man will be- 
come a Muhammedan king, who will destroy all our idols and cast 
all our shrines down to the ground." This prophecy was fulfilled. 

Sikandar, surnamed Butshikan, or Image breaker, was the sixth 
Muhammedan king of Kashmir and reigned in 1396 a.d. He 
destroyed all the Hindu temples and broke their idols into pieces ; and 
when there remained not another temple for this monster to destroy, 
he determined to go to Amarauclth and break np the sacred emblem of 
Shiva, which is there in a cave. On arriving at Ganesha Bal on the 
way, he struck a blow at Ganesha (the son of Shiva by a daughter of 
Himalaya). There is a fragment of a rock here, which lies in the 
torrent of the Ledur, and has been worn by the angry waters into 
what the imaginative mind of the Hindu discovers to bear a striking 


likeness to the head of an elephant, the representation of Ganesha ; 
( — a trunk and a pair of eyes have been painted on by a native 
artist), and broke his knee. Blood flowed forth in snoh abondance 
from tho wound that the whole stream was colotired by it. Seeing 
this Sikatidar became very much frightened and left off his sacrile- 
gions works, and returned home. 

Mattan, a celebrated spring of water in the village of Mattan or 
Bawan, near to which are the magnificent roina of the temple of 
M (bland or the sun. 

Pattern is a little village in the Bingil pargana. 

Matyav aneyih nosM, 9uh tih mateyih. 

The mad men brought a daughter-iu-Iaw, and she also became 


Evil commonications cormpt good mcurals. 

Mdydrdmuni nosh. 
Mnyuram's daughter-in-law. 

A contrary person. 

Afai/cinim'* daughter waa celebrated for hor contrariness. She 
always did tho opposite to what she was told. Tell hor to bring 
water, and she would bring earth, Ac. One day a friend advised 
hor fathor-in-Iaw to ordor tho girl to do tho very opposite of what 
ho wanted. Accordingly tho man ono morning askeil her to jnmp 
ittto the fire. She wont and drowned herself in the river, and there 
was an end of her ; and tho father-in-law lived happily ever after- 

Meh chham gdmui£ grafias tal phusi. 
My hat is under the mill-stone. 

A work to be done — no alternative. 

Phu«\ is the cap of a Taoh or Yech, the clMsical Takahas. Some 
say that this cap is made from the skin of some animal— perhaps, the 
jackal ; whilo others declare that it is perfectly white — and that is 
all one can know aboat it. This cap possesses wonderful powers. 
It is a mist-cap (nebolkappe) by which the wearer becomes invisible 
(of. Schwartz' '' Der Ursprnng der Mythologie darg^legt an grie- 
chischer and dentsoher sage, " p. 247) ; and tho person, who should 
be so hieky as to obtain one, can compel the rightful owner to do 
his bidding — to bring gold vrithont stint, to furnish the rarest 
dolicacies, and to removo the gpreatest difficulties. 

The Yoch or Yech, however, remains the humble servant of the 
possessor of his hat only so long as that precious article is kept safely 
either under a mill-stone, or under a vessel containing sadurkdnz 
(». e., rice water kept in a ghard for several months until quite sour, 
and then cooked with salt and spices ; and drunk, especially, during 
the hot season). From underneath these two things a Yach cannot 
remove his cap, though he could carry great rocks and with a brush 


of his hand clear away great streams, that his master might pass 
over without danger. 

This cap has come into the possession of several people, who 
apparently have not failed to profit by it. These fortunate folk, if 
they are Hindus, have become distinguished into a separate com- 
munity, and bear the title of Yach, as Kawal Yach, Gana or Granesha 
Yach, Sokha Yach, Dam6dar Yach, &c. 

Much might be written, if needed here, concerning the ancient and 
modem idea of the Yach, his origin and general character, and 
many stories might be told concerning the seizing of this man or 
creature, whatever he may be. It is my idea to get these published 
in a separate book or pamphlet. Captain Temple has a few interest- 
ing notes on the Yach in the "Indian Antiquary," Vol. XI., Pt. 
cxxxvi. p. 260. 

Mehar-i-ardhi chhuh hahr-i Khudd. 
A farmer's love is like God's anger. 

Persian. — Ydr i dih td kdr i dih. 

Mehnatas chheh mazuri. 
Wages for labour. 

Metras gahar zdi^ dushmanas zangih di. 

Sons are born to a friend, and they go to their (father's) 

enemy and bless him. 

General reply of an enemy to a friend, who wishes to be reconciled. 

" Metro shethar mvdui" ** Metras tih chhuh marun,** 

" O friend, your enemy is dead." Ans. — ** The friend also will 


Death is every man's debt. 

Mewagarif munjigarit beyih bdghwdn. 
Tim treshawai chhih Kaum-i-Marwdn. 

The fruiterer, confectioner and gardener, these three area 
Qaum-i-Marwdn.(2'.e., a dirtily clothed, wandering sort of a class. 

Kaum-i-marwdn. — Marwdn was the ninth caliph of the house of 
Abbas. Some Kashmiris say " hal-i-hairdn" instead of these words. 

Miri rairi phatj. 
From horses to asses. 

If The above is not the translation but only the meaning of the 
saying. Miri miri phats is a favourite game in Kashmir both 
amongst children and adults. Two holes are made in the ground, one 
about half-a-foot deep and half-a-foot in circumference called mir, 
and another close beside it, about two inches deep and two inches 
round, called phats. The players two, three, or six, as the case may 


be, raijgo thomsolves in order at aboat a distance of two yards from 
those holes, and one after another try to fling a walnut into the big 
hole. If the first player succeeds ho is called mir, until some other 
player, also, gets in, when this other player is called mir, and so on 
until the Uist mir player. If however a player fails to get his walnut 
in, he is called phats, When all have tried, the last m(r, who is tho 
greatest man, collects all the walnuts from the other players, and 
holding them in both his hands together over the miri hole he lets 
them fall. As many as fall into the miri hole is his; but those, which 
chance to fall outside are gathered by the second mir and droppetl 
by him in the same manner. ShotUd it happen that after all tho 
mir players have tried, there are still one or two walnuts left, which 
have not fallen into the mirl hole, then the phats player, if there is 
one, takes them, and holding them in tho same fashion, but above 
the plmts hole, tries his luck. And so the game oontinuea 

Mirzah Razdhun gddah drah. 
Mirza Razi's necklace of fish. 

A shameless man. 

This man was a government debtor, and not being able to pay hia 
debt, he was ordered by the king to parade the streets, wearing 
a necklace of fish. Ue did so, and after he had gone the round and 
reached his home, ho took off the neoklaoe, cooked the fish, anil 
ute them. 

Miskin Shdhun dstdn, brangdh ihud tah tharafd nah kihh, 
Miskln yh;ih's ziiirat has a lofty tower, but there is no 

honour attached to it. 

A wealthy, but an ignorant, low-birth man. A weU*dreaMd fool. 

Zidrat is a place to which a pilgrimage is made. 

Miskln Shah's zfdrat is a beautiful building in tho Sorah-feng 
division of the Khiuyir district of Sriuagar. 

Mitj ai tulak tun gatjhunai. 
If you pick up earth may it become gold to you. 
A Kashmiri's blessing. 

Hit jmnd tah zit umr' 

A pleasant sneeze and long Ufe (to you). 

A Kashmiri blessing. 

By a pleasant sneeze is meant a single easy sneeze, that does nofc 
give pain to the throat, or to the nose, or eyes. If such a sneeze 
happens when about any of the seven special works mentioned below, 
and quoted from the Sanskrit work VdrcUiiya, then it is a really good 
omen; some say that, good fortune will meet you, and othera that 
|)oopIe must be s{ieaking well of you (as foolish people in Kngluud 
do when their ears bum in a peculiar manner). The VdrAlnya says — 
(i.) sneezing is a good omen if it comes at the time of taking medicine, 


Remember this for yon will not need to take another dose ; (ii.) sneez- 
ing is a good omen if it comes at the time of setting out upon a horse ; 
(iii.) sneezing is a good omen if it comes at the time of argument. 
To him who sneezes, or hears another person sneeze, it means 
success ; (iv.) sneezing is a good omen at the time of retiring to 
rest ; (v.) sneezing is a good omen at the time of eating ; (vi.) sneez- 
ing is a good omen at the time of reading ; (vii.) sneezing is a good 
omen at the time of seed-sowing. Great shall the harvest be. 

Except on these seven occasions it would be very unwise for a 
Hindu to do any other work, if he himself should sneeze, or hear 
anybody else do so. 

However, above and beyond these, at all times, even on the seven 
occasions quoted above, the sneeze of («) an unmarried girl ; (b) of 
a widow ; (c) of a barren wife ; (d) of a shoemaker's wife ; (e) and of 
a woman sick from cholera, is an extremely bad omen. Let not a 
Hindu commence any work, when he hears such, but sit down and 
reconsider what he is about to do or say.' Cf . '* Punjdb Notes and 
Queries," Vol. I., notes 776, 949. 

Mitj ai tulazih badih banih. 

If you will get earth, then get it from a big mound. 
If you must work then get the service of a great man. 

Mol ai krdji Tcarih suh tih gayih mdji. 
If the father marries a potter-woman she is the mother. 
A second wife. 

Mol gat) tsrol tak mdj gayih aul. 
Father is a tsrol and mother is a nest. 

Tsrol is a Muhammedan sect, who have the choice of three em- 
ployments. They can become jailors, or bootmakers, or beggars. 
If they select the latter they visit everybody's house, and generally 
get something. Muhammedans outside their sect do not eat with 
them. They are said to be most unkind to their children. There 
are about two hundred families of the Tsrol sect in Kashmir. Cf . 
note to *' Kashirih hahai garah" for their origin. 

Mol gutshum worah, moj gatshum sale, kkemahas trals iah 

kom karakas nah ah, tas lagiheh hhunt, suh dapiham 

nngajih Jcarun muthur, buh Idyahas rnah. 
O father, I want another father : O mother, I want my own 

mother. (In the old days) I used to eat (with them) about 

twelve pounds of food at one time, and did not even once 

O may he be wounded, and say to me pour water over my 

toe ; and then I will slay him with an axe. 

A step-pai-ent. 



Mol moj gav hizij akU rdzi tah akis bdzi. 

Parents are like judges, they are satisfied with one child and 

displeased with anothcr> 

Kiizi (QazO was a Mnhammedan jndge in all cases of law, 
whether religious, moral, civil, or criminaL The ofBoe ifl now virtually 
extinct under the British Government. 

Mol pdnur, nechuv Murdd Beg, 

Father — a water-carrier, and son — Murdd Beg. 

An upstart. 

3furdd Beg was the head of the ohobdirs in Gnl&b Singh's time. 
These people carried a staff, and besides the ordinary work of a 
chaprdsi, they ezeonted the state punishments, such as serving a sum- 
mons, flogging, &o. 

Panjibi. — B^ip im tmCre HiaH pi&lur 9ol-an<i(U. 

Mondih nishih rani mdngai. 
Asking a husband from a widow. 
Drawing blood from a stone. 

Mohgah mat hhel chet tah hakkav. 

To eat a big pot of moiig ; to drink ; and then to run away. 

An ungratefnl servant. Untimely death of a cow or horse. 

Mong. — PhoMolu* Max or Radiatu* ; a vetoh at kind of kidney 

Kakkav is a species of partridge, bat here it means to fly or nm 
away ; to disappear. 

Mordah tndlas chhuh Ichord-u-hord. 

A dead man's estate is eaten and taken away (t. e., the de- 
ceased's descendants quarrel over it and eventually carry 
the matter into court). 

Mordah tih chhuh pdhsas /is ddrdn. 

The dead even opens his mouth to get the paisiis. 

The exoee^ng love of money. 

Hindfis place some paisis within the month of the corpse just 
after death. Cf. Note to " Aycu wate," Ac. 

Mordag chhuh marit martahah hurdn. 
After death the man receives greater honour. 

Demortuis nil nisi honum. 

Mordas chhih waddn bihit, batas chhih wadon wudanih. 
People weep for the dead sitting down, but they weep for the 

bread standing up. 

Loss of bread is greater than the loss of one's friends. 


*'Morun ai tah mdrunlcyahf" "Rat chon ai tak wot dini 

hyah r 
" It you squeeze me why do you kill me?" ** If you have 

drunk the blood, why do you leap ?" 

A dialogue between a flea and a man. 

To worry a man before giving the final punisliment. 

Mudamatis sharhat chhuhas marham pyos. 

Sherbet at the time of death is as ointment upon a wound. 

Opportune help is sometimes spoken of "as sherljet to a dying 

Mudas lorih hatah tah trukis hum hatah. 

A hundred stripes for a fool, but a word to a sharp man. 

Persian. — Agar dUi yak islidra has ast. 

Mudis Wihad sud kyah ? 

What is the good of giving sugar to the dead 1 
Panjabi. — JUe na puchhe, mue dhar dhar p4te. 

Mudur dain Uuhih nah tah, t^uk dain mudarih ndh. 
A sweet pomegranate will not become bitter, and a bitter 
pomegranate will not become sweet. 

A man is according to his disposition. 

Mugul dishil gat^hih Phursi Jchasuni. 

On seeing a Mughal one should speak Persian. 

One should be au fait in all society. 

Mujih pethah muliweni. 
From the radish radish leaves. 

" Can the fig-tree bear berries or a vine figs ?" 

Mulan drot tah patran sag. 

A sickle for the roots, but watering the leaves. 

Quoted when a son is treated better than the father. 

Muli Mt hulih tjhanun. 

After buying a thing to throw it into the river. 

Expenditure without profit. 

Mulk-i begunas andar chhuh mahnyuv sag-i-diwana. 
A man in a foreign country is like a mad dog. 

Munanen hunen shaposh tah meh nah halaposh tih. 

M Una's dogs have got a big quilt, but I have not even 

a skull-cap. 

Not a shirt to his back. 


Munih, munih Phuti Jcunih nai kehh. 

•Pounding pounding, O Phati, but nothing anywhere. 

Working like a horso and spending like an aaa — nothing for the 
vainy day. 

Munis nah liwun hmxa nah nast chhuh thawnn. 
He will not let the whitewash remain on the wall or the nose 
upon the dog (so cantankerous is he). 

Mur/idif hdl. Guntih nid thuL Wdd kar. Bdd peyiyi. 
O Munidi, hiil. The kite has taken the egg. Give an answer. 

Let syphilis attack you. 

A Kashmfrf earso. 

" The kite has taken the egg,** means " Death has taken yoor 

liul is the Boond made for driving away kites. 

Musah Khdnun kastur. 
Musa Khun's nightingale. 

An obstinate fellow. 

This was a oolebratod hinl, which wonld nng when its master did 
not wish it to sing, and vice versd. 

Musalffiun marih drd^i. Batah marik Mdgi. 

Musalman will perish from atarvation, the Pandit will perish 

from cold. 

It is imperative upon the roliinons Pandit to batho in the month 
of January, and not a few die from so doing. Tho ordinary Mn.siil- 
mdn is not accustomed to fast, and so in famine timo is not ablo to 
bear the liniitiHl living so well as tho Pandit can. 

Mdg corresiKinds to our month of January. 

Mut Uul put-ddrih knlai ket atah hdrih. 

The madman escaped by the back window taking his wife 

upon his hack. 

A man who forsakes his fatherland, Ac. 

Afydnih kdm pisho tah wugrah dulyoy iah mtnah iulyo. 
My drop of vinegar, pot of unstrained rice, and pinch of salt. 

That is best which is ticcording to one's lot and temperament. 

Kdnz is rice-water kept till sour, and then used with fish, Ac, as 

¥Uh, lit., a flea, but here means little, an atom, a drop, &c. 

Wugrah is unstrained rice. Tho poorer classes do not strain their 
rice, as the doing so would considerably lessen the quantity. 

pul is a large earthenware vessel, big enough to iMtthe in. 


My on dsit chon gav^ mangun hyut tah ashud gav. 

It was mine and became yours, and when I began to ask for 

it, it was (as if) collyrium to me {i. e., something to be 

much desired). 

To give away a thing and very much want it back 

My on hdjimat panun wachh. 

(Would that you would take) my pestle (and beat) your owik 

breast with it. 

A Kashmiri cnrse. 

Myuth gdmas tah hrufh pananis punas. 

Sweet to the Tillage, but rouojh to one's ownself. 

Charity begins at home» A gentleman should show hiiHself such, 
in bis own house. 


NMdn at t&nih zih ndddn chhuty adah chhuh nah ndddn. 
If the ignoraDt man knows that he is ignorant, then he is not 

Ndddncu nasihat karuni goyu kih paneen nun dyun. 
Giving advice to a stupid man is like giving salt to a squirrel. 
(Cut bono ?) 

Nadaren mdl iah datnhuk hit. 
Wish of nadur, but pretence of dumb. 

'• A little, very little more, if you please "j and all tho time he 
wants a platcfol. 

Nadur is a vegetable growing in the cily lake, (the stalk of the 
Lotug-NUwnhium). It is eaten by all natives during the winter, 
because of its beating qualities, but it is especially eaten by Hindus 
on tho anniversary of a relative's death, when neither fish, nor fiush, 
nor turnips, Ac, are allowed for food, and on other groat days also. 

Dumb is thin, small nadur. 

Node ndm aamjhog ohhui insdmah sung zindagi, 

A meld by the river (all alive with excitement one minute and 

quiet the next) is like a man's life. 

" What is your life ? It is even a vapour.** 

Nadharani not. 
Nadhar*8 fright. 

Any special fear. 

^ad^ar is a cormorant (?) 

Nd-fahm gav sui, yas nd-Jahmaa suet kom gaUhih. 

lie is an unintelligent man, whose business is with an unin- 
telligent man. 
A man is known by the company whiqh he keeps. 

Nafas chhuh san ddwdn Iah ijurah karandwdn. 
Lust causes a man to break into a house and rob. 
A glutton will steal. 


Nafas-parwaras nishih yiyih nah hunar parwari ; be-hunarcts 

nishih yiyih nah sarwan. 
From a sensualist will not come a fondness for art ; and from 

an unskilful man will not come leadership. 

Nafsui my on chhui husiuiy ami hasti munganam garih garih 

bal ; 
Lachhih inanzah sdseh manzah akhdh lustm nah tah hetinam 

sari tal. 
My soul is like that of an elephant and that elephant asked 

me every hour for food ; 
Out of a lakh and out of a thousand but one is saved ; if it 

hadn't been so, the elephant had crushed all under his 


One's craving lusts. 

A saying of Lai Ded's. 

T^dgah gddah^ wuchhanih haldl tah khenih hardm. 

The fish in the (sacred) spring is lawful to look at, but unlaw- 
ful to eat. 
Touch not ; taste not ; handle not. 

Nagrah nirit Pdndrenthan, 

Going out from the city and living at Pdndrenthan. 

A merchant's country-house. 

Pdndrenthan is a pretty little village about three miles from Srf- 

Nah chhas wutsani tah nah dasani, bihit chha^ labih, kanih 

hand kheni. 
There is no scorching or burning to him ; he just sits aside 

and eats a little. 

" What does he care ? He has not had to pay for it." 

Nah gatshem mdhchh tah nah gaUhem top. 
I do not want honey, nor do 1 want the sting. 
" Every thing that fair doth show, 
When proof is made proves not so." 

Nah hhair tah nah harlaat. 
Neither well-wishes nor blessing. 

A man who earns much money, but spends it in such a way a» 
that nobody is especially benefited by it — not even his famUy. 


Nah tran manz nah tntwdhan mant. 
Neither in three nor in thirteen. 
A partnership by no means. 

Nalah Ruzun palav. 
Nala Raj4's piece of cloth. 

Tlio climax of distress. 

Nala E4ji began his reign well. He was just and holy, and 
ovorybody respected him. Bat it ohanood that one day, while he 
was oat eating the air, ho saw two or three men gambling, and 
noticing that thoy each one seemed to be most excited over the 
game, he thought that it mast bo a very interesting moans of amase* 
mont and determined to learn it. Accordingly, when he got back 
to his palace ho called his wife and began to gamble with her. 
Uo grow more and more interested in gambling, ahtil at last under 
one or aiiothor form it was his hourly amusement. He was wonfe to 
lay vory high stakes — sometimes a palace, sometimes an army, and 
Bomotimes a lAkh of rupees. Rijis and other great men came from 
distant countries to play with hiim } and as he was more often an< 
Buccossful than sucoossfal, he soon lost all his coantry and his 
fortune, and escaiwd into a foreign land. He was wandering with 
his wifo iu a janglo in the strange land one day, when nothing 
remained to thorn both but one large wrap, which they cut into two 
pioces and made two wraps of. The SijA told the Bini, Damy&itf 
by name, to walk about the jungle in one direction and see what sho 
could obtain ; and he would go in another direction. A peasant who 
happonetl to bo in the jungle met the Rinl and gave her three dried 
fish. Sho took them to her husband with great delights and he told 
hor to go and wash them in the river. As she was washing thom 
behold ! amrit, the water of life, came forth from her thumb and 
touching the fish made them alive again, and they escaped in the river. 
She went and told her husband, who did not believe her, but 
thought that she had eaten the fish. The poor woman was very 
much hurt at hor husband's want of confidence in her, and was in 
much fear lest ho should forsake her — leave her alono in that desolate 
jungle. So sho arranged the bedding (which consisted only of the 
divide<l wrap) in such a way as that the BdjA could not possibly 
arise from his bed in the night without disturbing her. He was 
enveloped in one side of the wrap, upon the other side of which she 
was lying. Tho Rija however defeated her plans by cutting his 
piece of tho wrap ; aud ran away. On the road a snake bit him and 
his whole countenance tamed quite black and was so changed that 
nobody would have recognised in him the Nala Rdj4. However he 
survived and wont and took service in another Riljd's establishment. 

Tho Eaiii finding in the morning that her husband had abandoned 
her, resolved to go onto her father's house. Her parents wore 
terribly shocked and grieved to find their dauf»hter in such a state. 
They comforted hor, arrayed hor again in fitting garments, and 


pTomised her, that if her husband did not appear by a certain date 
they would arrange for another marriage. News was sent to all the 
Rajas to appear at a certain date, because one of them would be 
chosen as the future husband of the beautiful girl. 

Among the many other Rajds which were present on the appointed 
day was the Raja in whose service the N"ala Ri,jd was employed. 
Nala R^j5 also went with him ; and when he had opportunity on the 
way, he related to his master all that had happened to him, — his 
gambling propensities, his ruination, his life in the jungle and his 
abandonment of his wife there. When the Rdja heard this he was 
dumbfounded with astonishment, and fell at his feet, " My brother," 
said he, " why did you not tell me all this before ? " And he gave unto 
him his own mantle and sword, and appointed imto him a full number 
of servants. Thus they reached the Rani's parent's palace. The 
other Raja introduced Nala Raja and recounted all that he had heard. 

Great was the rejoicing in the palace that day and many days 
afterwards ; — for the lost husband and son had been found. How 
glad was Nala R^ja ! How happy was R^ni Damyenti ! Gifts were 
lavished upon them ; they again lived in a grand house ; had servants 
and horses, and every luxury ; and were happy ever afterwards. 

This story was told me by an ignorant Pandit, and varies from 
the original story, for which vide Mahabhdrata, Parab. III. 

Nalam, halam^ yd halam. 
Denial, the pen, or begging. 

The way the Pandits make a living. 

Muhammedans cite this concerning their Pandit brethren. The 
say that they lie, they write reports, petitions, &c., or they beg. 

N(ili gom tah ndl wulnam. 

He annoyed me and leaped upon me like a serpent. 

A troublesome, worrying person. i 

Ndli nah zat tah mdli ndv. 

Not a rag over the body and her name Mdli. 

Mdli, a female name, from mdl, meaning wealth, property. 
Panjabi. — Akhan te anhdn te ndon Nain Suhh. 

Nam ai wuthih tah mdzas dag. 
Mdz ai wuthih tah nomas dug. 
If the nail rise there is pain to the flesh. 
If the flesh rise there is pain to the nail. 
Love me, love my dog. 

Naman mils haman hits ? 
"Why is there dirt in the nails ? 

" You've got no family. Why do you go scraping in the dirt for 
money ? To what purpose are you soiling your hands ?" 


Nameddnam chhux rdhat^i-jdnam. 
Ignorance is the peace of life. 

Know not anything about anyone, or anything, and you shall 
preserve yonr peace. 

Namrudun hyuh dam diwdn. 
He boasts like Nimrod. 

King Nimrod waa a great oppreasor, and became so prond and 
independent aa to say there was no God ; and if there was, he dared 
him to do his worst. At last there came a voice from heaven bid- 
ding him to repent ; but Nimrod thought scorn concerning it. Then 
God sent a moR(]nito which entered Nimrod's nose and penetrated 
to the brain, causing him constant agony. Every time the pain 
came, the king used to send for his servant to bent him a hundred 
blows upon the left temple with a shoe. Eventually he was so worn 
by the pain that he died. 

Nanawor palcnn jdn kuhsh nnh tang. 

Better to go barefooted than to wear shoes too narrow. 

Nandapuri hdnzimn Idwah lug dydran. 

Kahan rupeyan hanihai dembah-hdkah ndv. 

Sarmak sde ishdhddn Jumkah grdyih tndrdn< 

Buzitav dydran kyah hhuehar Udr, 

Tehki rupt'yih neran kalam chhih ddran. 

Toahdn garah zan rash het dL 

Saudd ninth leizih afsos Idrdn, ' 

Buzitav dydran kyah khuchar Udv 

Pdruas nun gatjhdn thai an tdran. 

Khuddyih wdn n Uhuntnh fendi khdv. 

Nun dit adhan tdraUih Idran. 

Buzitav dydran kyah khuchar ijdv. 

The money of the boatwomen of NandaptSr became rusted. 

They sold one boat-load of vegetables ior eleven nSpfs. 

They seek for collyrium to wash their eyes with, and shake 

their earrings (with pride). 
Hear what alloy entered into their money. 
When they go out to change a rupi they hold out their 

skirts for the paisas ; 
V nd on returning to their houses they rejoice as if they had 

brought a kingdom. 
The buyer gets vexed at the time of buying. 
Hear what alloy has entered in their nSpJs. 

♦ » * m " 



One paisa's worth of salt is only sufficient for three eggs. 

O God paralyse the fingers of the baniyas. 

When they give the salt they take half of it back in their 

Hear what alloy has entered into their rdpis. 

Gafdrd, a poet living in Kawadira, composed the above for the 
benefit of the vegetable-boat women and the baniyis ; and sometimes 
ihe whole, sometimes portions of it are constantly quoted. 

tangos nindar prangoi petk, sdvis nindar pdvis peth. 
The poor man sleeps upon a bed (without a care), but the 
rich man sleeps upon the stairs (for fear of thieves). 

JVani, bungriwdni kai auwif achh mydnih dishit pachh mud 
wdni. Kan mydni dishit wan tjul wdni, Ndni bungri- 
wdni hai amvi. 

O grandmother, the bangle-man came, and after seeing my 
eyes he died in fifteen days. When he saw my ears, too, 
he ran away into the jungle. O grandmother, the bangle- 
man came. 
Little children sing these words sitting upon the door-step. 

They are also cited when any man is filled with envy against 

another. He sees that man's prosperity, runs away in a rage, and 

dies from grief. 

Nani nani hardn gayik mdlunui gilawdn torah dyih ehhitih 

nurid hardm tas Tckoran puluhurui. 
She went in grand style to her father's house, and returned 

thence shaking the cuffs of her garment though she had 

not a grass shoe to her feet. 

A sttipid, trifling woman. 

Nanis dub hyah chhalih ? 
Phdkahladas hyah zalik ? 

What shall the washerman wash for the naked man ? 
What shall the fasting-man \romit ? 
Breeks from a Highlandman. 

Nani^ tar tsdyih tah drdyih ; 

Khanis tar walanah dyih. 

Coldness to the naked man, — as it comes, so it goes 

But coldness sticks to the rich well-dressed maD. 


Nanis wurun chhuh sudur purun. 

To " set up *' a naked man with clothes is like trying to fill 

the ocean. 

Reply to a poor debtor, or great spendthrift, to whom Rs. 100 
would be a mere tn6e. 

Nanis umrun hero meane to " set a man np " in a basinesa, to 
stock his shop, and marry his daughter, ^. 

Nar zinih tah nadur ainih hadal. 

Reed in the place of firewood, and the stalk of the lotaa 

instead of meat. 

A Btupid arrangement. 

Nadur is the stalk of the Lotns {Nilumhium), which grows abun- 
dantly in the Kashmir lakes, and is eaten lar)?ely by the inhabitants 
of the valley. liindus cut up the stalk into small pieces, cook it 
with oil and spices, and eat it along with fish, &c. 

Ndrah drdv tun hyuh. 

Like gold come forth from the fire. 

The better fur his sickness, trials, Ac. 

Ndrah wizih kyttr kkanun ! 
T)\^%m% a well at the time of fire ! 

Panjdbi. — ^Ag Uijidn khufi khataund ! 

Naras ndbad tah tularik mdhchh^ tah halam haiit rdnthas 

Sugar-candy from a reed ; and honey from the bee ; and grapes 

from a very crooked vine. 

God brings good oat of bad. 

Nait tjafhai tah babarih tuhhd. 

Cutting your nose is like catting the top of a babar (it onlj 

grows the stronger). 

Citetl to a shameless person. 

Bahar (Persian, Rihdn), the sweet basil. 

A'dtah gansarit tah ras minit. 
Counting the pieces of flesh and measuring the soup. 
No chance for a thief under sach a man as that. 

Nattch dimai nah treshy hafytih wandai rat. 

I will not give you water from the water-pot to quench yoor 

thirst therewith, but I will give you my throat's blood. 

Great words bat little deeds. 


Nat^ahnJi tah dngun chlmm Uut. 
WanahTiah tali wan chhum durih. 
I would dance, but the yard is small. 
I wouM speak, but the jungle is distant. 
Fear on account of circtimstancea. 

Natsdn tih pdnai tah wdydn tih pdnai. 

He himself dances to his own playing. 

A fool who laughs at his own remarks. 

Nawih Jiandi ginddn pumbarih dashan ; pardnih handi 

pagJidn pasha n tal. 
The children of the new wife are playing; with the fringe of 

their father's shawl, while the children of the old wife are 

crying under the roof. 

Nayih andar pai. 

A fence on the plateau. (Cui usui ?) 
An unnecessary work and expense. 

Noz harizih habas tah tndjih mdz wetjes nah Ichalih ; 

N(iZ harizd kdkas tah kdkanih chapdt Idyas galih ? 

We should ask our parents for anything we may want ; 

because their body" will not contain them, they will be so 

happy to give ; 
We should not ask our elder brother, or his wife, for anything, 

as they may give us a slap upon the cheek. 

Nebarah nundban tah andarah Uhufjah kon. 

Outside he is beautifully and splendidly dressed, but inside he 

is an empty walnut. 


Hebarimis mahynivis gatshih dsun tidi tah padur tah ydl 
tah chdly ddr tah hW. 

To the man with employment the turban (must be right), 
the feet (proper), the hair (behind the ear), the character 
(good), the beard (trimmed), and the neck (clean), {% e^ 
he must mind his P's and Q's, or else he will be turned out 
of his employment). 

Nechivi hand wdnganas sumb, yad chhas dnganas sumb, 

A boy about the size of an egg-plant has a stomach about the 

size of a courtyard. 

Wangun is the Solanum melongena, called Brinjal in the plains. 


Nekan chhuh Khuddi khush. 
God is pleased with good people. 

Nekan tar tah badan phtdun. 

The good are troubled and the bad blossom. 

"The ungodly, who prosper in the world; they increase in riches. 
Verily, I have cleansed my heart in vain." — Psalm Ixxiii. 12, 13. 

Neko, nek kar tah bad labih pdnai. 

O, good man, do good ; the wicked will receive his deserts. 

Nekndm ehhuh gatjhdn yeUkdli tah badndm chhuh gaUhdn 

A good name comes after a while, but a bad name is soou 

Nekndm chheh bekh daulat. 
A good name is the root of wealth. 

Nemdz chh'jhfarz tah lut ehhuh lean. 
Prayer is a duty and plunder is a debt. 

A I'athan saying. 
Nt'indzi sunz unguj. 
The finger of the prayer. 

" Because sentence against an evO work is not ozoonted speedily , 
therefore the heart of the sons of men is folly set in them to do 
evil."— Eccl. Tiii. 11. 

.V Pathan of high family while saying his prayers in the Jnma 
Masjid iiore was very much annoyed by another man poking him 
frum behind. He gave him one riipi to desist. The man left off 
aniioyiiii< this worshipper, bnt was encouraged by the present to 
prosocuto his wickedness upon some other worshipper. The othur 
man, however, was not of such a quiet disposition as the Pathim, 
for ho at once rose up, drew his sword and struck off tho troabler't 
head with one stroke. 

Nigatas mujub diyih taa Khuddi, 

God will give a man according to his wish. 

" Delight thyself also in tho Lord ; and he shall give theo tho 
dcaires of thine heart." — Ps. zxxvii. 4. 

Noth gayih reti zan ds yeti. 

The daughter-in-law went for a month (to her father's house) 

and it was as if she had not been away at all (time passed 

so quickly because they were so much happier during her 

absence) . 

Dauphter-in-law8 are a continual stumbling-block to the other 
inhabitants of the house. 


Nosh layiJi nah hdr tah Tchor pefh mdritos hund ! 

A daughter-in-law is not worth a cowrie ; and kill a ram for her 

over the feet ! 

Daughter-in-laws are altogether despised until they are grown 
up — they may develop into ugly and uncouth women, or they may 
die, or their aflBanced husband may die, &c. 

A certain daughter-in-law was sick and likely to die, and therefore 
her mother-in-law was advised to sacrifice a sheep for her. The 
woman replied in the words of the above saying, the plain meaning 
of which is " Let her die. What does it matter ? My son is not bound 
to her." 

*' Over the feet " refers to the custom of slaying the animal near to 
the closed feet of the person for whom it is sacrificed. 

Nosh luJcas, kur lukas, nd-hakk lukas mengah dag. 
Daughter-in-law to some, a daughter to others, but as far as 
the unconnected man is concerned she is only a headache. 

At a native marriage there is much feasting, music and dancing. 
A general hubbub prevails. The parents and relatives of course 
enjoy themselves ; but the other guests and friendf, especially those 
who have come out of pui-e friendship to help and congratulate, have 
a hard time of it ; to them the wedding is as one continued headache. 

NosM, lajoi •' mdlinih mali7iih" malin chdni hai, dit, 

Adah lajoi ^^dthih dthih " bastai phatit bit. 

O daughter-in-law you are always boasting of " my father's 

house." Look here, we have seen your father's house. 
You said, too, that you would receive some flour (from your 

father's house) ; but the skins must have burst (and the 

men who are bringing it) must be sitting down (on the way). 

Kashmiris carry their flour, rice, and other grain, tied up in a 
sheep's or goat's skin. 

Noshih dup hashih hun " Wastaibun." Phirit dupnas " Zan 

chhaham sun .'" 
The daughter-in-law said to her mother-in-law *'Come down." 
(The mother-in-law) answered, " As if you were my rival with 

my husband !" 

Nov golih gdv pydyih-hal kheyd kih nah wutsh trutvih ? 
The cow is about to be delivered of her first calf ; we do not 

know whether she will die, or give birth to a calf. 

General reply to the too -inquisitive dispositions which beset a 
house at the time of a woman in travail. 
• Hal khyun, to eat tlie after-birth, i.e., to die. 


Nov natsai tah pardni diwai. 
New dancing and an old fair. 

When any man is seized on some charge, the kotwM comes, sip^hffl 
come, and a crowd gathers as if to an old-established fair; and the 
people almost dance with excitement. 

Nov nut kyuh. 

Like a new water-pot. 

A man fresh and strong, "spick and span." 

Nun ndbad tah til phalilah tah zm tjandun tah hatah muJch^ 

Salt as rare as sugar, oil as scarce as ointment, wood as if 
sandal, and dinner (*. e.y food) like eating pearls (so expen- 
Uard times. 

Nun nizen nah hazzitah'todn tah huehh nizen nah wdzah-wdn. 
Take not the naked man to the cloth-shop, or the hungry 

man to the cook-shop. 

Another version is : — 
Buchh gaUhih nah nyun wdzah-wdn tah nun ffatjhih nah nyun 

The hungry man must not be taken to the cook-shop, and 

the naked man must not be taken to the washerman's 


Nufiy til zyuty athah myon myut. 

More salt and oil, and my hand is Bweet. 

Give me the money, and 1 will transact the basiness ; giro me the 
tools, and I will do the work. 

N^nan mun. 

Wool is obtained by giving salt (to the sheep). 
Money is not wasted on some people and things. 

Nunih nunih hund fjinih-dshndv. 

A supposed grandmother's charcoal-relations or acquaintances. 

A cousin of the fifth or sixth remove. 

Charcoal-acquaintances. People from the villages often pay a visit 
to the city during the winter season bringing with them charcoal for 
sale. They sell their loafi, put up for a night in some person's housej 
and are off again the following morning. 

Nurah achhhi Uurah toll. 
A heavy look about the bright eyes. 


Nurah buthis chhuh gaUhdn surah buth yatimas. 
The bright face becomes ash-colour, when the child is left an 

God protect the fatherless. 

Nurah mydnih tur Ualdn. 

(At the look of) my bright face fever runs away. 

Always carry a pleasing countenance. 

Nut tah hammdm. 

Just a water-pot and a bath. 

Hardly a stick in the honse. 

Nyuh chhuh dsdn truh* 
A lean man is clever. 


Padig tal tungul. 

Fire under the sole of the foot. 

" All ! when jou get a red hot coal under yoor foot, 700 will 
know what fire is." 

PdfUhdh aihdis dewdn-khdnas. 

Tit o cherdg dazdn chhu$. 

Sari ffatjhdn pdnas^ pdnat ; 

Kunui Zand rozdn ehhus. 

In the palace of the monarch. 

Oil and lamps are burning (burning). 

All are to their own place going ; 

Only one (man) is remaining. 

This is metaphorical language. The monarch is God, the palace 
is tho world, and the people are the inhabitants thereof; the oil 
and lamps are tho son and moon, which are constantly coming and 
going : tho people are also temporary — gradually they dio off, until 
at last only one, and that God, will bo left. 

This is also a Kashmiri riddle, of which the answer is the Sun 
and Moon. 

Pddahdhaa pdsbdnt. 

To the king the work of a watchman is difficult. 

A man who has come down in the world, and is not cqua( to his 
redaoed oiroomstances. 

Pahar gav^ wahar gav ; doh gav^ koh gav ; 
Pachh gaVy wachh gav ; ret gav, kh't gav ; 
A watch (i.e., a space of three hours) gone is as if a year had 

passed ; 
One day gone is as if a mountain had become ; 
Fifteen days passed by is as if (the debt) had been forgotten ; ' 
And a month elapsed (without payment) is as if the money 

had been eaten (i.^., irretrievably lost). 

Pakanah pdz ; gandanah gosdni ; khhiah bulbul. 

Like a hawk in his walk, a jogi in clothing, and a bulbul ia 


Some people want servants manufactured to order. 


Pakharporik hakhar. 
The oxen of Pakharpur. 

Like a tantony pig. 

Saiyid Muhammad 'Ali, a very holy man, came all the way froia 
Baghdad to Kashmir to be Shekh Nur-ud-udin's disciple. He took 
up his abode in PakbarpQr, about fifteen miles from the city of Sri- 
nagar. He was one of the Shekh's favourite followers. After a 
time he became so enraptured with the country that he begged to 
be permitted to remain there altogether. Nur-ud-din consented to 
this, and to save him expense and trouble, he miraculously brought 
all his house, ground and family, from Baghd&d to Kashmir in a 
moment of time. There was no doubt about this in olden times ; 
because there was the man's wife and children standing before him ; 
and there is no hesitation in believing this in the present day, for 
you can examine for yourself the different style of building of the 
house, the different nature of the soil, the different trees and plants, 

This Saiyid Muhammad 'Al!, in consequence of this especial 
favour, became a very celebrated character. He was accustomed to 
speak and to act strangely, but all the people accounted him holier 
on account of these eccentricities. One of his orders was, that if 
any man was in trouble and wished to be relieved of it, he must set 
free an ox These oxen thus set free were to wander whither they 
liked, and do whatsover they wished, and nobody dared to lift up a 
stick against them, or to complain. In olden days several of these 
oxen wandered about, and were a great nuisance ; but now they have 
been reclaimed and put to the plough. Saiyid Muhammad 'All was 
buried in Pakharpur, and many visit his grave during the year. 

Pdkhui chhuh pdk. 

Only the Pure One is pure {i. e., GoA). 

Panah sdn hheyih buni tahjifs son kheyih hunt. 

He will eat the chindr tree — leaves and all, and he will eat the 

dog with the skin. 

A regular cannibal, not satisfied with enough. 

Panah tali dihj tah dehjih tali pan. 

Below the thread the ball or knot, and below the knot the 


A man, who sees that he is, but will not confess that he is, in the 

Panane hachih chheh hah/ih trachih. 

One's own harvest (no matter how small) is as twelve traks. 

The produce of one's own labour is sweet. 

Trak is a grain measure containing nine and a half English 


Pananev chhuk nah paigamhar mdnmut. 
A prophet is not accepted by his own people. 

" A prophet is not without honour save in his own country and 
house." — Matt. xiii. 57, 

Panani hiker nai bad dsih tah lukah hundih garik ky6eiA 

truvih ihul ? 
If your hen is not a bad one, then why does she go and lay 

her eggs in other people's houses ? 

Ungrateful offspring. 

Panani nam chhik pananih thar hashan. 
Scratching one's back with one's own nails. 

Batiafying yourself with your own money, own honso, Ao; 

Bustin of oa'di — Bajuz ndkhun o juz $arangxuht-irnan, 
Na ^hdrad ka$e darjahdn pusht-i-inan. 

Pannni p^im diwi'm hhjis. 
Giving yonr reproach to another. 

Some kashmirfs say pin instead of p4m, and then it ifl r— 
Giving yourself to another. 

Making out everyone as bad as yourself* 

Pananih athah rdwarun tah beyih sund raUhrun chhuh 

To lose anything by one's own hand, and to receive anything 

ot the hand of another, is equal. 

To receive a benefit is to soli one's liberty. 

Pananih bachhih ax animah atih ktUjah maehhih goUhan 

paidah ! 
If there should be any rice-water upon your fire-place, bow 

many flies will be bom there ! 

Money attracts friends. 

Pananih bananah tah lukah handih wananah. 
Because I am, what I am, people say this of me. 

Pananih garuk h'^k-w'ik chhni beyih sandis puldwas baMar. 
Vegetables from my own garden are equal to puldv from 

another man's (house). 

Puldv is a dish of meat and rico cooked together with spices. 

Pananih thajih ai batah 6sih kctyuh m&jih gabar gaUhan 

paidah ! 
If there is any food in the pot how many mothers and 

children will be born ! 


Pananui pon chhuh panis phdtawdn. 

Breaking the log with the log's own wooden wedge. 

Another version is :~- 
Ponui pMtawdn chhuh zinis. 
A (little) wedge (from the tree) splits the wood. 

Set a thief to catch a thief. 

A big tree in the jungle was ordered to be cut down, and ab-eady 
four men had gone to the blacksmith's shop to purchase an axe for 
the work. One man, who admired the tree, heard these men speak- 
ing together and forming their plans ; and went at once and told the 
tree. The tree replied, "Thanks, friend, for the information, 
but do not be afraid. Four men and an axe will not do much 
damage to me." The next day the man came again and said, *' More 
news, O tree ! To-morrow these men are coming to destroy you." 
The tree again tried to assure the man that four little men and a 
pound or so of iron could not do any material damage to a big tree 
like he was. The man 'went, but returned again the next day saying, 
" O tree, be not elated by false hopes. These men have laid a clever 
aud certain plan for your destruction. Listen, One man will first 
climb you ; and cut off one of your thin top-branches. Out of this 
branch he will make a handle for the axe, and a wedge. Then he 
will prepare a hole in your trunk and insert the wedge, upon which 
they will strike and strike until your great wide trunk is completely 
severed." "Alas! alas!" said the tree, "by this means they will 
bring me down ; I am certain to die." 

Pananui zdgdn kulphas tah tdris ; 

Pananui kustdm san het drAv, 

One's own relation lies in wait for lock and bolt ; 

It is a relation who goes out with the stolen goods. 

Pdnas khetan magar donas pevtan. 
Let him eat, but let him keep his fire. 

Selfish fellow, we do not want anything from him ! 

Pdnas nishih paiisah chhui gul tai mul, 
Bey is nishih pahs ah chhvi hil tai hech. 
Your own money is flowers and wine, but another's money is 
but weed — nothing. 

Pdndah-Chhuh nashan sulch tah Iforin dukh. 

O Pdnda-chhuk, let there be peace to your daughters-in-law, 

but trouble to your daughters. 

Shekh Kur-ud-din's curse upon this village, which is about three 
m.iles from Srinagar in the Isldmdbid direction. 


Pdnih rust ddnih khaiiyd zih ndnih rust shur kha»%h. 

"Will the rice rise without water, that the child should grow 

without a grandmother 1 

A grandmother's influer.oe in a hoase is very often greater in every 
way than that of the mother of the family. 

Pdhsah ai thawizen murdas peth 8uh tih gaUhih thud wuthit. 
If a paisd be placed upon a dead man he will rise up. 

Money will bring people back from the dead. 

Hind 68 place a pais& inaide the month of the corpse, wherewith it 
may be able to pay the ferry, Ac, of. note " Ayas wate,'* Ac. 

Pdhsah gav pdrud tnh mihrdz, yat peth thawizen tat tjatih. 
Money is as quicksilver and scissors, lay it upon what you 
will, it will cut it (t.^., do its work). 

Pf'hs'ih nishih chhuh pdhsah phafdn. 
Paisds burst out of paisas. 
Money makes mouoy. 

Panun ai imrih shihilia tr^unh; parud at mdrih tah murithui 

If my own (relations or friends) umite me, he will leave me in 

a shady place (i.e., he will bury me) ; but if a stranger 

smites me he will kill me and go. 

A friend '■ a friend for aye that. 

Panun ai marih, totih kunih jdyih tdrih. 

If my own smite me, yet in some place he will help me. 

Ad supra. 

Panun kh^w/ln pnnzu tah heyih sund kardn datwtimu. 

Eating a good dinner in his own hou^e, yet interfering in the 
matters of other people (i.f., disputing for them, scandal- 
ising them, &c.) 
Mind your own dinner and mind yonr own basines*. 

Panun muhim chhuh huwi.n punai wat. 
Each misfortune will show its own way. 

Panun paizdr babah sum pombar. 
One*s own shoe and father's shawl. 

Hardly earned, dearly loved. 

A boy purchased a pair of shoes with his own earnings, and one 
day as he was walking along in these new shoes they became very 
dusty. The boy was mnch grieved and sat down by the way side 
and cleaned them with hia beaatifol paahmina ihawl, which his 
father had given him. 


Panun wadandioih parud asandwik. 

He made his friends to weep, but his enemies to laugh, 

Panzih hund ptA. 

A monkey's young one i.e., (a chip of the old block). 

A variant of this with quite a different meaning is : — 

Panzih hund put, yusui toth chhus asm ; tas chheh zorah 

wachhas tal rafan, sui chhuh mard,n. 
The young of a monkey, who is dear to her ; she presses it 

hard against her breast, so that the young one dies. 

A favourite child or servant, is often spoilt by an exaggerated 
affection and regard. 

Natives say that monkeys love their young ones so much, that in the 
excitement of their affection they sometimes press them so hard 
against their breasts, that they get stifled and die. 

Panzis dapyd punz zih mandul chhut wazul. 
Will a monkey tell a monkey that his buttocks are red ? 
The crock calling the kettle black. 

Pardn pardn par gayih Jihali, Vhar gayih kitdbah buri het. 
He reads and reads until his strength is gone, and he has 

become like a donkey carrying a load of books. 

" Much learning doth make thee mad." — Acts xxvi. 24. 

Paraspurik wdzah pdnai randn tah punai pananin athan 

thokah trdwdn ! 
The cook from Paraspur cooks the food himself, and he him- 
self spits into his own hands (as if disgusted with it) ! 
Disgusted with one's own work. 

Many cooks reside in Parasp6r, a village in the Ldr tehsil. It 
is a custom with the majority of cooks to first sit down and eat their 
own dinner (by way of tasting perhaps ?) before servin g up the 
different dishes to the guests. Should they not like the food, they 
will spit into the palms of their hands and in other ways express 
their sorrow. Many show their grief under different circumstances 
in this vulgar manner. 

Parini tsar. 
Porous like a sieve. 

More holy than righteous. 

ParmmUanah rust kur chhai burzah rust lar. 
A daughter without parraaiitsan is like a house without pro- 
per roofing. 


Parmdhfjun. At time of marriage Hindds give to their danghters 
a long piece of cloth called iiSj, to wear upon the crown of their 
heads, and thence extend to the small of the back. Some for certain 
reasons delay giving this till some years after ; bat this delay means 
increased trouble and expense. 

Burzah is the liher of a species of birch, used in roofing houses, 
and alap as paper for rolling up goods in. Native writing-paper, too, 
is made from it. 

Pashah p^thah shin irdwun. 

To throw snow off from the roof (generally done quickly and 
carelessly ; hence any work done hastily and carelessly.) 

Pashminaaui chheh narmi. 
Only pasbmiua has softness. 

Only good people are gentle. 

Patthmina is a fine kind of woollen cloth manufactured in Kaahmfa:. 
The finest goat's wool employed in its manufacture is brought from 
lurfiiu, in the Ydrkand territory. This is called Turfdni phamb; all 
oilier qualities are called KiuhmirC phamb ; though these as well aa 
the former are found only ou the animals who live on tho wind-swept 
steppes of Central Asia. 

*' Patah" ffti/tam whi. 

O friend, I said *' Afterwards.*' 

Opportunity mis-spent. 

Wis a female friend, a flirt. 

Patim gar chh^h bukuri Jar, 

The last hour is a hard time (i.e., the last hour of a woman's 
travail, or of life, or of any work, &c.) 

Pi'iz panjaras andar hand. 
A hawk shut up in a cage. 
A clever man without work. 

Phoguni mujen swudui kyah f 

What taste have radishes in the month of February ? 

What profit from an old wife or servant ? 

People gather tho radishes in the autumn, and bury them under 
the ground for use in the winter. By the month of February they 
begin to rot and are unfit for food. 

Phaktr fjayov /mgan tah honih watjkov dod. 

A faqir came into the court -yard, and the dog was pained. 

An old servant displeased with a new servant, to whom oat of 
charity the master has given a little work. 


Phal hului chhuh namit. 
The fruit-tree is bending. 

The more knowledge there is in a man, the humbler he becomes. 

Persian — Nihad shdkh i pur mewa sar bar zamin. 

Phalis hyul tah helis hh/ir dryanai Khudii. 

May God bless your every seed to a sheaf, and your every sheaf 

to a kharwjir. 

A Kashmiri blessing. 

Pharih han Jchewun had tah myou han kardn lut. 

A small dried fish ate a big fish, and (the cat) gave a gentle 


A man with a big appetite, but little voice. 

Pharih ham buzuyih muj lukav dupus *' Gddai chhuh buzdn" 
A fisherman, roasted his mother, and the people said vt^ithin 

themselves. " He is roasting fish.'* 

One-half the world does not know what a struggle the other half 
endures to live. 

" Roasting one's mother" here means selling her jewels and clothes 
for food. Cf. note " Tas nah watsh nar," Sfc. 

Pharih-hdnz chhuh guri hhasm ? 
Is the fisherman riding a horse ? 

Every thing will not be as we wish. 

There are many kind of boatmen in Kashmir named according to 
their boats, or their special work. The Pharih-hanz are those who 
catch the little fish to be found in the Wular lake dui-ing the 
winter season, and cook and dry them for sale in the bcizdr. Cf . note 
" Yasnah watsh nar," 8fc. 

Pharih Uuras chhuh ddrih kund lor. 

A bone stuck in the beard of the man who stole a dried fish. 

A thief carries marks of detection along with him. 
One day a great robbery was committed in the house of a certain 
person of the city, and report of the matter reached the ears of the 
ruler. The ruler was very much enraged, when he heard the 
account of such a dastard robbery. It appears that the robbers had 
first dined with their host and then robbed his house. Amongst 
other dishes provided for the dinner was a dish of broiled fish. 

The ruler declared that he would have the man discovered and 
punished. He sent for the deputy-inspector of police, and ordered 
him to show the thief or die. The deputy-inspector trembled when 
he heard this command, but he did not despair. He was a bold and 
clever man. " Give me one hundred soldiers," he said, " and I 
will find the man." 


The roqnoBt wna pn^nted. 

One day the •lepaty-inajxjctor gave* great feasit, and invited all 

iho people cf the city to come and make morry. A very largo 

'owd was assembled. At a given moment he ordered the soldiers 

< silence the people and to seize the man, who should rub his board 
aftor he. tho deputy-in8|jector, had spoken to the company. There 
was perfect silence when the host, standing in a convenient 
position, that he might be seen by all, aboutcd with a loud voice, 
** There is a bono in tho beard of that man who stole the fish. " 
The thief happened to bo pn^sent, and hearing those wonls, as if by 
instinct put up his hand to his board and rubbed it. The movomont 
was at once noticed by tho appointed watchers, and tho man was nt 
iico seized and taken before the deputy-inspector. Tho man's guilt 

IS proved l>oyond all dispute, and he was very severely punished. 
Krishna, the deputy-inspector, was promoted to much honour. 

Pkatah Matin batah. 
Mad Fatab'j" dinners. 
This man was a groat spendthrift. Quoted at an extravagant 

*1 inner, ic. 

Phati Bat tah yaktanai, 
Phati Bat and alone. 
'• Mo and myself <mly." 

Phati Pharhung. 
A caricatured Englishman. 
A stupid Kashmiri. 

Kashmiris at their private feasts are fond of painting piotnros of 

iuglish people on long slifM of paper and pasting these upon a long 

I hin basket. Sometimes they put on English clothes and mimic 

I lio Sahib's incorrect pronunciation of Hindustani, words and curt 

siil&m, ko. 

Phcla» H^yih dyal. 

The skin will eat the pimple. 

An avaricious man. 

PhiramatMk puUah prhii kalat pt^th chhas zuwah adamani. 
A slut may have a clean chadar over her head, but her head 

is full of dirt. 

Piitx.—K long piece of cotton cloth thrown over the head and 
1 ! lowed to hang down tho back. It is the ordinary veil worn by tho 
Koshuiiri females. 

I' hint pheran. 
Turning the garment. 
T.'llintr -i he : appearing different to what you really are. 


Thul phut tah daw& kyah. 
The joint is broken, what claim is there 1 
The dead wife's neglected mother. 

Pilis nah tah Uuki gas. 

He couldn't reach the fruit, and therefore he said it was bitter. 
The fox and the grapes. 

Pir nah hod, yakin bod. 

The plr is not great, faith is great. 

One day Akbar asked Birbal, which was the greater, the pir or 
faith. Birbal replied " Faith is the greater." The emperor said, 
" You are wrong. The pir is the greater of the two." Birbal waa 

On leaving the emperor, Birbal went and buried an ass's head in 
a certain place, and ordered that a mosque should be built over it. 

Some years after this event, Akbar wag exceedingly troubled by 
his enemies, and took counsel with his wazir as to what he should 
do. Birbal advised him to go and pray for forty days in a certain 
mosque, and promised, that if he would there offer up prayers with a 
pure heart, God would certainly hear him and give him the victory 
over his enemies. The emperor obeyed and vanquished his enemies. 

One afteruoon, when Birbal was alone with Akbar, he refen*ed to 
their conversation some years ago, and asked the emperor whether 
he remembered it. The emperor replied " Yes"; and that he was of 
the same opinion still. Then Birbal asked Akbar to accompany 
him to the mosque, where he had spent forty days in prayer, and see 
for himself what there was under its foundations. The building waa 
razed to the ground, the foundations were dug up, and there, to the 
great astonishment of the one and the great amusement of the other, 
was discovered the skeleton of the ass's head. Akbar remarked : 
•* You were right, Birbal. Faith is greater than the pir," 

Akbar supposed that the mosque had been erected over the bones of 
some Muhammedan saint, and with faith in this he prayed. Cf. 
" Tale of Holy Donkeys," " Leisure Hour," January, 1875. 

PtV, ustdd. 

To call a saint a teacher (is a great insult). 

Pirah khutah chhuh be-pirui jan. 

A man who follows no saint (i.e., who does not make any 
profession of religion) is better off than the man who has 
a saint, (but does not attend to his teaching). 

" Pirah, loantam masalla,** dupanas " Aki gom tasalla.'* 
** O pir, tell me an illustration." He said to him, " From 
once saying there is comfort to me." 


A pfr visiied a certain village, and was asked bj the people there 
to jpve them a religioug word. He said to them " Do not steal " ; 
whereupon thoy smote him so that he ran awaj. A long time after 
he again went to this village, and again the villagers asked him to 
Bay something. Ho replied *' No, no ; I am quite happy from having 
spoken once." 

Once is enough of this person or that thing. 

Ptrav truWyov ddnd^ mih kyah rdvyov sih htth wanahaA 

The pirs killed an ox, what have I lost that I should tell 


No bosiuoss of mine. 

Pish kari gundh loagawis rhoh^ wuchtav lukav iaindshd ! 
The Hea sinned, but the matting got the beating. Behold, O 
people, the sight ! 

Pitari not dsan iak huni tih wuran n& ? 

If there were no cousins, would not the dogs bark ? Yes. 

The best of men have their onomies. 

Cousins are constantly grumbling and fighting over the family 
property ; so constant and bitter are these qoarrels, that the wurd 
pitar, a cousin, has oomo to mean an enemy. 

Pilar ai lUzen kalah kin dunas zangav auH phufarumh 

rupeijih bdnah. 
If a cousin be cast head-first into the fire, he will break a 

rupee's worth of pots with his legs (kicking about). 

No love is lost Iwtween cousins. 

Pitur ai dizen p^ni tatih tih ijatih yhii. 

If a cousin is asked to brush the warp with peni, (even then 

he will harm you), he will cut the warp. 

Pen. — Natives rub the warp with a hand-brush soaked in rice 
water, to make the warj* stronger. 

Piyih nah ahrap&n tah umin gogalan ds ddrdn. 

Cannot digest rice-water, yet he opens his mouth for uncooked 


A conceited, ignorant fool. 

Poh dwai Uhoh tjhoh dewdn. Mag chhum viol tah karem kyah? 
Pht'njani pherahnam sheyih-trah phdh. Tsithar hahar kare 

kyah ? 
\yahik khasav bathore icatjh dup waUhare, 


The month of December has come making gladness, 
January is my father — what will he do to me? In February 
thirty-six times heat will return to me. What will my 
brother-in law March do ? Said the male calf to the 
female calf, "We will climb the hill in the month of 
April V 

December in " tlie Happy Valley" is a splendid month, if there is 
no snow. Jannary. is called a father, because it is such a hard, strict 
month. In February the weather begins to get warmer. March 
is called a brother-in-law, because with its cold winda and rains it is 
constantly bothering the people. April is a nice month for the 
cattle, as the snow begins to melt off from the hills and the green 
grass appears. Towards the end of this month the gupan-g6r, or 
cow -herd, collects large herds of cattle belonging to other people, and 
drives them away to the mountains to graze. 

Pohali nyU. 

The shepherd's sign. 

At the time of the crops people hand over their cattle to 
shepherds, who take them away in large numbers to the mountains 
for pasturage. Each beast has the special mark of its owner, (cf . note 
to Pohol chhuh, &c.), and should it happen that a wild beast devoar 
it, the skin is, if possible, obtained and handed back to the owner 
as a proof that the animal has been slain. Cited when a man loses 
by lending a friend any thing, or by depositing anything in his care. 
Nothing but the remnants of the deposit are handed back with great 

Pohol chhuh dapdn lokan, *' Ak khev sahan bydJc khev 

The shepherd says to the people (who gave him these sheep 

to tend upon the mountain), '* One was devoured by a 

lion, and the other by a jackal." 

At the time of the crops people hand over cattle to a shepherd, 
who takes them far away to pasture upon the mountains. Sometimes 
a thousand or more animals are in the charge of one family, and 
each one of these are specially marked with a cut on the leg, or a slit 
in the ear or tail, &c., so that they may at once be recognised by 
their different owners. The city people say that these hirelings 
generally happen to have two sons, the one called " Lion" and the 
other called " Jackal, " who have very large appetites, and eat the 
sheep ; so that when the shepherd says that a lion and a jackal ate 
them, he is not altogether (according to the popular native idea) 
telling a lie. 


Poshah-matin aish. 

The [)lea8ure of a flower-fancier. 

An easy timo of it. 

Many natives visit the difforont gardens around Srfnagar, 
CBf>ociaIIy on Fridays, and with late or guitar play, sing, and 
loll away the livelong day. 

Ponfuikan chhuh vmnamut " Tdh kartam ahiih karat.^' 

The garnnents said, *' Take care of me and I will make you 

a king." 

Td/i kartam is literally " Fold mo up." 

Prhidn jahdnas tah wunCn pdnns. 

He finds fault with the world and forgets that he himself is 
in the wrong. 

Preyuguch buni nah tknddn nah lokun nah baddn. 

The chindr of Prey^g neither becomes taller, nor shorter, nor 


A puor sickly child, who does not grow or boootno fat. 

This chin&r tree is in the middlo uf a little island just big onoagh 
to pitch your tont uu, in the midst of the Jhelam river by the village 
of Shadipur. Iho Hindus have consecrated the place, and a UrAhninn 
is to be seen twice every day paddling himself along in a little 
boat to the spot, to worship and to make his ofFeringa 

Pujis purutjhuk adijih konak pachai ax dupnak, **PanuH dm 

nah kanh.** 
The people asked the butcher why his bones were not sold 

to-day. He replied, because none of my relations have been 

to me (to buy meat). 

PmA- ai dsih tah tokui jan. 

If it is cooked, then a little even is good (i.^., worth having). 
If ho is clever, &o., then loam something from him; a httle good, 
oven, is not to bo despised. 

Punz ai ptyih shethih gazak iotih chhuh punzui. 
If a monkey fall sixty yards below, still he is a monkey. 
Change of position does not chaugo the man. 

Purmut ehhuh yurmui, 

A well-read man is like a nicely cut stone. 

Pwhuk tih nai Uutuk tih nd ? 

If you have not got the victory, why do you not escape ? 
If you cannot stand your ground, thon give it up. 


Fut chhukah thani. 

Butter from the last turn (or last beat) of the stick. 

A man fishing all day catches his first and only fisli just as he is 
going away. A man, who has been struggling to find out, or do 
something all day, discovers, or does it just as he is about to give it 
up in despair. 

Put mandit ; tut khasit ; zandnah prasit ; hut parit ; henda- 

wend t^atit ; tah insan phufit. 
Pattu must be pressed in the washing-tub ; a pony must be 

ridden on ; a woman must be in travail ; a son (must 

know the hardships of) learning ; a water-melon must be 

cut (before its sale) ; and a man must be broken {i.e., 


All things must be more or less tried by the rod of affliction, and 
are generally the better for having passed under it. 

Hendav:end fsatit. — The purchaser makes the baniyd cut the 
water-melon before he pays for it, as it may not be red and ripe. 
One cannot tell what it is from the outside. 

Put J soputy tah hoput 

A son like his father; a 'son greater than his father ; and a 
son less than his father. 

The Kashmiiis say that there are three kinds of sons. 

Put put chheh pddshnhas gaibat. 
Slander behind the king. 
Abuse always follows the high and great. 

Putrah buchhih hun liochhih. 

Hungering after a son she folds a dog to her bosom. 

Putrah diidih muri im'mgai. 

She holds out her skirt begging for a son. 

It is quite a commonplace event for a barren woman to go to a 
person with a large family and beg for a son. 

" Putrah, Jihar tjul." *' Babah, panah ratun tah khasit is.** 
*' O son, the ass has run away." O father, catch him and 

ride him back. 

A variant is : — 
Babah. Khar t_sul, hhar tsul. 
Gobrah. Khas walah, hhas walah. 
Father. " The ass has got away; the ass has got away." 
Son. " Go and ride him back; go and ride him back.'* 

A rude, disobedient child. 


Puz tvanun chhuh achh haduni. 

A man may as well take out his eyes as tell the truth. 

Puz wananah pan zan naian ; apuz loananah lagan ras. 
Tell the truth and you'll tremble like a leaf ; tell a he, and 
you '11 get relief and pleasure. 

Pyav nah pyav ; zih Yaman khyav. 
In the act of falling the angel of death ate him. 
A quick death. 

Yarna or Yam. — " To great King Tama homage pay, 
Who was tho first of men that c1io<l, 
That oroesod tho mighty gulf and spied 
For mortals out tho hoavenwanl way." 

Muir. O. S. T., v. 327. 
Pydwal z'w. 
An inventive tongue. 
Au imaginative, lying tongue. 



Rdckhis dohah iah Unras garah. 

All day the watchman has to watch, but just twenty minutes 

is enough for the thief to steal. 

Cf. Sir Kenneth's brief absence from the Mount of St. George, 
during which the standard of England was stolen. — " The Talisman.'* 
Ch. xiii. 

Gar is really twenty-four minutes. A collection of terms used in 
Kashmir for indicating the different spaces and divisions of time 
may be interesting to some readers : — 











a second, {lit., just a flip of the finger) . 
= 12 or 13 brunz. 
= 60 tsyuhs. 
= 7| gars. 
= 4 pahars. 

=: 8 pahars (i.e., our full day of 24 hours). 
= 7 full days. 

our lunar month), 
our year of 12 lunar 

Ad rdt (or nisf shab) 
Patim pahar 
Kukar bang 
Gazal (Muhammedans) 

2 haftahs. 
2 pachhs {i. e 
24 pachhs (i.e. 

= Midnight. 

= 3 o'clock A. M. 

= Cockcrowing. 

Brahma Muhurta(Educated > = Just before daybreak. 

Hindfis) ) 

Nyuk, njruk, gdsh (Unedu- \ 

cated Kashmiris.) f ^ Daybreak. 

Sunat (Muhammedans) ( ^ 

Prabhdt (Educated Hindus) ) 
Subh = Sunrise. 

Ad koj = about 2^ hrs. after sunrise 

Koj = about 4.J hrs. after sunrise 

Khandawav Koj = about 11 o'clock A. m. 

Dd pahar 
Mandeni (especially Hin- ^ ^ Midday 

dus). Sanskrit. Madhyan- 


Peshin (Pcshi in the Panj4b) = about 2 o'clock P. M. 
Seh pahar = about 3 o'clock p. m. 

Nimuz (Muhammedans) | _ ^^^^^ 3,30^ ^,^^^^ p 

Mimuz (Hindus) 

M. (At this 
time during the long days the 
schoolmaster shuts his school for 
half-an-hour or so, that his pui)ils 


may have time to go and eat a 
little food. If yon asked a lad 
on coming from the school at 
snch a time where ho was going, 
he would invariably reply. To 
Mimuz or Nimuz, i.e., to hia 
afternoon meal.) 
Digar (Digar in the Panjib) = about 4 o'clock p. m. (Tliis ia 

aometimes distinguished as bod 
digar and lukut digar, referring 
respectively to a little time 
before and after the period.) 
Ad digar = Sunset. 

Sham = Evening. 

Khuphtan = Night. Bedtime, about 0-30 

o'clock p. M. 
Sometimes the Sanskrit word veli is added thus : — 
" Ad rdtuk vola" " Kuknr bingih handih vel4" ; but this is more 
a Panjdbi than a Kashmiri form of expression. — Vide Note 714, Vol I., 
" Panjdb Notes and Queries" ; also Note 1011, Vol. II. 

Rangari wdnuk hhum akis khut tah beyis hut. 
The dyer's vessel was a success to one and a failure to 

The dyers have great earthen pots in which they prepare many 
gallons of dye at a time — sometimes they prepare as much as will last 
for six months. When the dye is ready for standing a cover ia 
placed upon it and it is left perfectly still for twenty days. During 
these days should the weather be too hot or too cold the colour will 
nut properly settle, and so much of the half-year'a work will be 

Rangari wursah. 

A dyer's story (therefore not to be believed), 

Ranijur. Dyers in the valley are generally Muhammedans. They 
have an ancient custom of agreeing beforehand amongst themselves 
that if the dye doea not mix properly with the water, and after a 
time give forth a bad smell, (because it must corrupt before it is fit 
for use) they will go out and tell as many, and as great, lies as they 
can, until the dye-water does begin to stink. Some of the lying 
stories which they invent are very clever and interesting, and are 
believed in by not a few of the over-credulous people of Srinagar. I 
speak experimentally, having myself been the subject of one of these 
dyer's stories. 

Ras laginam tah das Ualinam. 

May I get ease and be free from laziness. 

A Kashmiri prayer frequently ejaculated at the commencement of 
any work. 


Rasak rust halah gav thasah rust chhan. 

Rice without soup is like a carpenter without sound. 

Rdsti bagair gatshih surisui hadd rachhun. 
Besides (having) righteousness we must put a limit upon 
everything, {i. e., have moderation). 

Rat myuni kdngar tah wuchh myini tuk ! 
Take my kangar and see my paces ! 
A man with a proud walk. 

Rat wandai tah puj-wdnuk. 

I will offer to you the blood of the butcher's shop. 

Kind at the expense of another. 

Rdt wuttm Gangahbal tah pagah nah yurahbal. 

At night he arrives (in his thoughts and plans) at Gangdbal, 

but on the morrow he does not even get to the landing 


Always planning and never doing. 

Gangahal is a stream tributary to the Sindh river ; a holy lake 
near the top of Mount Haramuk. 

Rdtas waninas Lail ; pagah dupnas " Suh ley ah wdtiheh 

Majnunas "? 
In the night the story of Lail was told to him, and on the 

morrow he said, "What relation will she be to Majnun?'* 

A dullard. 

Lail or Lail6. is the name of a lady frequently alluded to in the 
East. The loves of Laila and Majnun are celebrated in a fine Persian 
poem by Nizami. 

Rdtuk wddah sor nai rud ** Wulai gdsah grakaney 
Last night's promise was not kept, ** Come, O grass-cutter." 
Promises are like pie-crust, made to be broken. 

Rawah zat thawah katih ? 

A ragged rawah, where shall I spread it ? 

A poor braggart. 

Rawah is a covering made from the fur of some animal, generally 
black, and imported from the Panjdb. 

Raz daz tah wuthini chlies aii. 

The rope is burnt (coal-black), but the twist is there (plain 

enough) . 

A man deposed or injured, but still harbouring bad thoughts. 


Razi gas tah sotn mi'tr. 

A yard of rope and a stick — strike. 

Strict and swift justioo. 

Thoro is a talo concerning Avantivarman, eUtas Wainadat alia9 
RAjd Vcn, ono of the ancient kings of Kashmir, in which a piece of 
rope and a small stick are represented as falfilling the duties of 
detective, police-officer, chaprdsf, Ac If any man or boast or birtl 
had done wrong, the stick and the rc^)0 would at onco hasten to thorny 
the stick would beat the offender, and the rope would bind him and 
bring him, her, or it, before the king for justioo. Cf. *' Indian Fairy 
Tales," the story of " The Riji's Son and the Princess LabAm/' 
p. 156. " Hero the BdjA's son found four faqlrs, whose teacher and 
master had died, and had loft four things, — a bod, wliich carried,, 
whoever sat on it, whithersoever he wished to go ; a bag, that gave 
its owner as much water as ho wanted, no matter how far ho might 
bo from a tank ; and a stick and a rope, to which its owner had only 
to say, if any one came to make war on him, ' Stick, beat oa many 
men and soldiers as aro here,' and the stick would boat them and 
the ropo would tie them up." Cf. also " Folk-tales of Bengal," th& 
story of '• the boy whom seven mothers suckled," p. 131. " The boy 
took down the cage from the ceiling, as well as the club and rope. 
Having well secured the bird, he addressed the club and ro))e- 
thus : — " O, stout club ! O, strong ropo ! Take me at onco to the 
other side." In the twinkling of an eye the boy was put on that 
side of the ooean. Similar quotations also might bo mado fn>m 
*' Wide-awake Stories," p. 294, •* Old Deccan Days," pp. 174-175, 
•• Fairy Tales from Brentano," pp. 146-154. Cf. also Wolf, Beitrago 
zor Doutschen Mythologie, 1., p. IS. ** A lad sets out on a journey, 
having in his possession three wonderful things, — a buok-goat that 
spits gold, a hen that lays golden eggs, and a table that covors 
itself, without anybody's help, with the choicest food. A rascally 
innkeeper steals these treasures from the lad, and puts worthless 
trash in their place; but a stick that jumps out of a bag in wfiich 
it is usually concealed, goes to work of its own accord upon tho 
innkeeper's back, and with such effect that the lad gets his own 
again. The stick then returns of itself to its owner's hand." 

Mr. Walter K. Kelly, in his most interesting book, "Curiosities 
of Indo-European Tradition and Folk-lore," oommonting upon this 
last quotation, writes : — *' The tablo in this story is the all-nourish- 
ing cloud. The buck-goat is another emblem of tho clouds, 
and the gold it spits is the golden light of tho sun that streams 
through the fleecy coverings of the sky. Tho hen's golden ogj^ is 
the sun itself. Tho demon of darkness has stolen these things ;. 
tho cloud gives no rain, but hangs dusky in tbo sky, veiling the 
light of tho sun. Then the lightning spear of the ancient 8torm« 
god Odin leaps out from thu bag that concealed it, tho robber falls, 
the rain patters down, tho sun shines onco more." " This sponr of 
Odin," tho learuod writer goes on to say, " is an equivalent of the 


afivattha rod of the Atharva-veda incantation, and both are "wish- 
rods" especially adapted for bringing victory to their possessor. 
They have also another comic counterpart in a sort of wish-rod, 
which serves for administering a drubbing at a distance. With 
such a hazel implement, cut and prepared wish the proper for- 
malities, one has only to lay an old garment on a molehill or on 
a threshold, name the person intended, and whack away. That 
person will feel every blow as sorely as though he were actually 
under the stick, and if the old garment is beaten into holes so 
will it be with the skin of the absent sufEerer." " Popular tradition 
is tough !'* 

Reh razih. 
A flame to a rope. 
A red flag to a bull. 

Retakdlik guUhum poUh tdh wandas guUhum lockh. 

In summer I need a cotton pheran and in winter I need a 

woollen pheran. 

Everything in season. 

Pheran is the chief garment of the Kashmiri, both male and female, 
and in shape not unlike a big nightgown with sleeves " a mile long." 
Sometimes the colour of these garments is red and other times blue. 
When made from wool they are called lochli, and when made from 
cotton, potsh. " Probably" the pheran comes from the word 
pairfihan, the Persian for " garment." 

Beyih chhuh shabnamai tufdn. 
The dew is like a flood to the ant. 
Panjabi. — KiH nun tuthd darid- 

Risk gayov pardesh dewah neriam Rishih n6v tatih kuthioa 
tamih niskih. Nd-hahhahy Rishe, gari drak. 

A Rishi went to another country, to try and get his name 
famous there as a Rishi, but he got less celebrated than 
before (in his own country). O Rishi, you left your home 
without a cause. 
An emigre. 
Risk (Rishi and Rikhi) is a Hindu sage or saint. 

Rognn o zdfardn az Tampur. S/ig as Letapur brinj az 
Nipur ; Barrah az Nandapur. Pufiu o viuhi az Sopur , 
Mo iig az Krulap ur, Arad az Kh dmp ur. Shir az Shddip ur. 
Angur az Repur. 

Pampur (the place) for ghi and saffron. Letapdr for vege- 
tables. Nipur for rice. Nandapur for lamb. Sopdr for 


pattu and fish. Krdlapur for di\. KhampiSr for flour. 
Shkdipur for milk. And grapes from Repur. 

Ropeyih katas knngar hand. 
A kaugar as a pledge for Rs. 100. 
A kdugar is worth a moro trifle. 

Rovmut gur chhuh skethah mohur. 
A lost horse is valued at GO sovereigns. 

Ruchkmakho luchk tak Uutmakho kachh. 

I trained you (at very great expense), a Ukh of rupees ; but 

I turned you off at a trifle. 

Losing a good servant on aocoont of some trifle. 

Rud petkui chhtk rab wutMn, 
Mud comes from a fall of rain. 
Pnnishment follows sin. 

Budd peyihe, kapad bowihe, 
Wurah iru'ijih karihah, korah potjah. 
If it rains and cotton grows, 

I will make for my stepmother a ** bran new " ph^ran. 
A conditional promise, as " When my ship comes home." 
A certain man was in debt and went to a friend for the loan of 
some money wherewith to pay it. He urged his request in the 
following words : — " O, my friend, please lend mo the money. For 
God's saJce help me to satisfy this impatient creditor. Deliver ma 
from this great trouble. After a little while I shall be able to repay 
yon with interest. The spring has come and the grass will grow 
over my land, and the people will send their flocks and herds to 
graze thereon, and then the wool of the sheep will catch itself in the 
brambles and thorn bushes, and I will go and collect the wool, and 
will spin it ; and when it is ready I will give it to the weaver, and 
he will make a blanket out of it, which I will sell, and buy a mare 
with the price thereof ; and when the mare has foaled, I will sell the 
foal for moro than one hundred rupees — if a man offers me only one 
hundred rupees I will not accept it ; and then I shall be able, and 
shall bo glad, to pay you.'* The friend laughed aloud on the con- 
clusion of this harangue. " Why do you laugh ?" said the debtor, 
" do you not think that it will bo as I say ?" 

Riihan pir chhih Jchush-hdl, 

The plrs are glad when people die (or over the dead). 

Cited when any one speaks evil of the dead, or takes pleasure in 
another's miafortune. There arc two ways of understanding the 


Baying with respect to the p{rs,— either that they really are pleased 
because of the largesse and feast which generally accompany a 
funeral, or that they pray for the dead as though they loved them. 
The one way of interpreting it is as general as the other. 

Rut manivzen nah zah kdnih gatshanas Mt pdnai harih dhi 

Do not pander to a sulky angry person ; and in a little while 

his sides will become weary, and he will come and beg for 


Rutnun tas, 
Ratun's dal. 

A stupid, extravagant servant. 

Gagar Wol, a collector, had a very stupid servant called Katun. 
One day when the master was visiting a certain village with his 
servant he told the chief farmer of the village to be so kind as to 
give some ddl, a kind of pulse, to his servant for his dinner. The far- 
mer, anxious like all other people, to ingratiate himself in the favour 
of the collector, gave the servant one kharw^r, or 192 pounds, of ddl. 

Eatun went and cooked the whole of this, — a mightly feast, some 
thirty or more big earthen pots full of steaming ddl ! 

As soon as Gagar Wol returned to his quarters he was terribly 
surprised to find that his servant had been so stupid as to cook the 
whole kharwar of dal. 

RynOy ryno ! hhdtir eJihm, benih chhai r&ntas rani chhai hii, 
O husband, husband ! Your idea is that a sister is a giant- 
ess and a wife is as jasmine. 



Sahur chliui sunnh sund fur. 
Patience is as a dish of gold. 

Tur is tho dish out of which tho PanditAnfa oat; a big roand deep 
brazen dish. 

Snfah khutah 8&f kyah ? Bekah. 

Zuyulih khutah zdyulhyah? Baldi, 

What is cleaner than the clean ? The forehead. 

What is finer than the fine ? Misfortune. 

The qnestions were Akbor's and the answers BIr Bal's. Undonbt- 
e<lly there is reference in the first question and answer to tho 
Hindu notion that every child's destiny is inscribed upon the fore- 
lioad at the time of its birth. Some say that Brahma writes this 
inscription, the Kashmiri Pandit says that Vishnu (or Han) does, 
Cf. note to " Yath niiraA hutihtui, *' 

Whatever is written upon the forehead " by the finger of destiny " 
is clean — clear — fixed ; and misfortune is a hard (fine) narrow way. 

Safar ckhuh kdfir. 
The way is like an infidel. 
A hard, unpleasant journey. 

Sahcd cMtas peth jahal. 
Angry over a little matter, 

Sohib chhuh bakhshanhur, 
God is a giver. 

Sahib chhuh kanih ialikit kemis tah krulas rezik wdtandwdn. 
God provides food for the worm and insect under the stone. 


Solomon was once sitting by tho riverside when he saw an ant 
creeping along by the edge of the water with a grain of rice in its 
mouth. While the little creature was toiling along a crocodile camo 
forth from the river and swallowed tho ant, grain and all, and then 
took a dive into the water. In an hour's time the crocodile re- 
appeared and vomited the ant ; and the king noticed that there wad 
not a grain of rice in the insect's mouth. '♦ I wonder what the rea- 
son of this is, " said he aloud to himself. The ant heard these worda 
and replied, " God has planted a stone in this river, and in a hole 
iu that stone lives a little blind worm. So God ordered me to get 


a grain of rice every day and take it to that worm ; and gave me for 
a help this crocodile to carry me down to the hole of that worm, as 
I could not reach there by my own means. 

Sdhibzddah-i-zamun hulcah laten lam6n. 
The son of the Lord of the Age is pulHng up vegetables. 
A great man busying himself in little matters. 

Sahhai diyih bur hur tali bakhail diyih yak bur. 
The generous man will give many times, but the miser will 
give once only. 

Samandaras inanz yirah gaUJiit Jcufs mulan thapah karuni* 
Floating in the sea to catch at the roots of the kuts plant. 

Catching at a straw. 

Kuts. Lidigofera heterantha. The twigs are used in making 

By the sea is here meant the Wular Lake, the largest lake in 
Kashmir. The natives say that Kashydpa, the drainer of the valley, 
brought a specimen of everything here, that could be found on the 
face of the earth : yea, he brought the sea also. The holy Shastras, 
too, declare that everything is to be met with in Kashmir, lions and 
all manner of beasts, all manner of birds and fruits and flowers, &c., 
&e., and that men must believe this though they may never see, or 
hear of, them ! 

The Wular Lake is almost oval in shape, and is at its greatest 12 
miles long from north to south, 10 miles wide from east to west, and 
16 feet deep ; (the average depth is just 12 feet). The boatmen 
always approach this magnificent piece of water with fear and trem- 
bling, and once started, hasten over it as though it were a grave ready 
every laoment to swallow them up. They have many tales, ancient 
and modem, true and fictitious, which they will tell with great 
enthusiasm if the visitor desires. 

Sandijih dkvan zuli tah hendawend tsalan nirit. 

Taking up some mustard-seed in the hand, and a water-melon 


A great loss to a careful man. 

Sang-i-P haras. 

The Philosopher's stone. 

The daughter of one of the principal citizens of Srmagar went to 
the river to drink. Instead of drinking with her hands, as is the 
custom, she bent down her face iiito the water and drank like a 
dog. While she was drinking a young snake, almost invisible, 
entered her mouth. (The people say that snakes lay eggs and that in 
each egg there are thousands of pieces of the finest cotton-like mat- 


.r, which ercntnally developo into snakes.) For many years this 
girl nourished this snake in hor stomach. She had no pain, she did 
not even feel any tiling that ought not to be inside. In course of 
time she was married ; and a sorry marriage for the husband it 
turned out to be : — for while they were both sleeping in their bod, 
at the dead of night, a snake came out from the mouth of the wife 
and bit her husband, so that he died in dreadful pain soon after- 

The poor woman's grief in the morning, when she discovered the 
cold corpse of her beloved husband, was beyond all description; she 
tore her hair and clothes, she beat her breasts, and shrieked aloud. 
I'he people came and encjuired what was the matter, and when they 
heard, they all charged her with having poisoned the man. This 
report was carried all over the city, even to the great Mnghal gover- 
nor, 'All Manl'in Khdn. When ho heard of it. he sent for the girl, 
and kept her with him. He enquired of her the truth of the matter, 
and the girl replied in tears that she did not know anything con- 
roming it, and that she was asleep at the time. The governor told 
her to go to her room, and when she had closed her eyes in sleep, he 
went and sat by her to watch. Ho waited and waited until at last 
ho saw a snake appear from her month, and put out its fangs with a 
most menacing look. *Ali Mard&n KhAn went away as quickly as 
possible and informed his attendants what he had sct>n, and ordered 
them to tell this girl to make .some broad on the morrow. The big 
oven was to bo heated, and when the girl had finished making the 
loaf, and was putting it into the oven somebody standing by was to 
ike her up and fling her headlong into the oven. This was done, 

id when they opened the oven some hoars afterwards to see wliat 
I Hid become of the girl, they found only a stone about half-a-ponnd 
iti weight, which was carno<l to the governor and kept very care- 
fully by him. It appeared that this was the famous alchemist's 
stone, and that by its means 'AH Mard&n Khun was able to trans- 
mute copper and brass and all other metals into gold. His person, 
his servants, his horses, his rooms glittered with gold. ('All Marddn 
Khan was the most magnificent of the Mu|(bal governors. The 
expenses of each of his trips into Kashmir are said to have exceeded 
a l&kh of rupis.) 

When 'AH Mardan Khdn was about to die he called his four sons 
unto him, and giving the precious stone to the eldest of them, he told 
him to throw it into the river (Indus). 

The eldest son refused to obey this strange order; so it was handed 
to the second, and then to the third, but all most resolutely refused 
to throw away so precious a stone ; at length the fourth and young- 
est son threw it with all his might into the water opposite Atak 
(Attock) ; and where the stone pitched a great blazing flame arose 
from the midst of the river, as of ignited gold. 

'AH Mard/in KhAn onlered the stone to be thrown into the river 
because ho feared lest it should imss into the bunds of another, antl 
they becomo as wealthv as he. 


The Kashmtrfs say that the stone is there in the river to the 
present day. Kanjit Singh tried hard to obtain it. He had the 
water stopped a hundred yards above and below the place where 
the stone had pitched, the place was drained, and a most rigid 
search made, but nothing was discovered. (This is only one . out of 
many stories extant in the valley concerning the origin of the 
Philosopher's stone. — Capt. Temple has a variant of the above story 
with some excellent notes concerning the Lamid in ' the Indian 
Antiquary, " Vol XI., Part cxxxv., pp. 230.) 

Sangal-rlipuch padmdn. 
Sangal- Dip's beautiful woman. 

Humph ! you might be a grand woman ! 

It is related that one day Shiva and P^rvati were sitting together, 
when the latter rose up suddenly and ran away. Shiva followed her aa 
fast as he could, but was not able to catch her. At last thoroughly 
exhausted he lay clown in a certain place, Sangal-Dfp by name, and 
went to sleep ; and it happened that there in that place a madan-pit 
became. Shiva woke up in a great rage, and tm-ning to the pit he 
said, " If you should ever see a beautiful woman like a lotus you 
must follow her ." He then departed. 

The inhabitants of Sangal-Dfp are constantly going to other coun- 
tries, and seizing their beautiful women, are taking them to their 
own country, where they teach them to ride the most beautiful and 
swift horses. When they are able to ride well, these beautiful 
women are taken close to the pit and obliged to say, '• Kfimadeva, 
O Kdmadeva. I am Padmun" (i.e., a beautiful woman and like a 
lotus. Cf. note " Khoran nah Jchrdv.") On hearing this Kfimadeva 
comes forth and runs after her with all the swiftness with 
which he can run; and should it happen that he overtakes her, she 
will immediately be killed. After killing the woman Kdmadeva 
returns to the pit, and it generally happens that madan (procreating 
principle) escapes from him into the pits, which precede his own 
special abode, and which have been dug for this purpose. 

Dip. (Sanskrit. — Dvipa) Hindu philosophers say that the terrestrial 
globe contains seven dips or islands, encompassed by seven seas, the 
whole land and water measuring 7,957,752 yojanas. The Sangal Dip 
(Simhald) is in the north direction. (Cf. Dvipa. Monier Williams, Diet.) 
Kdmadeva is generally regarded as the god of sexual love, like Eros 
of the Greeks and Cupid of the Latins. He is worshipped at the 
time of marriage ; and happiness in the married state, and offspring 
are sought from him. (Cf. Kennedy, " Hindu Myth," &c.) 

Sant gai tim, yim mutrah suet trdmas bani.wan svn. 

They are faqirs, who by means of water transmute copper 

into gold. 

Not every man is a monk who wears a cowl. 

In the Chinsir Bagh, Srinagar, there is a temple in memory of a 
deceased faqir, who was able to perform this wonder. He, also, taught 


a Pandit, who is now a very old man living in Siinagar, too old to do 
anything — even to make gold ! 

Muthar = Sanskrit mutra, and Persian pesh-dh. 

Santoshih hiydHh buwih unanduk phal, 

A harvest of peace is produced from a seed of contentment. 

This proverb is credited to a holy and clever Pandit called Nand 
Rim, who lived at 6&wan, a sacred Hind6 village in Kashmir. This 
man wrote many rather clever verses in praise of Krishna, lie 
eeems to have been terribly dunned by the oBicials of Biwan, if one 
may judge from the following lines :— 

Nand Him aus zaminddr, 

Hurit diydr tas aUraB nah Idr 

Wiingujwdrich tjajis ntih gdngal. 

Santoshih hii/dlih hoioih dnanduk phal, 

Nand R&m was a husbandman. 

And he paid his debts ; but thero was always somebody after him 
(for money.) 

He never knew what it was to live freely in his own house, bat 
was continually obliged to lodge in the house of another. 

(Never mind), from the seed of contentment a harvest of poaoe will 
be reaped. 

The piece of poetry from which the above proverb is taken is the 
following : — 

Dharmah h&mikdyih wavizih harmuk phal. 

Santoshih hiydlih botcih dnanduk phal. 

J}f>yih prdnah ddndah-jiiri den tah rdt wdi ; 

Kumbake kurah Morah timanui Idi ; 

Hilah kar bihit yut nah rozih ak ril. 

Santoshih biydlih bowih dnanduk phal. 

Lolachih yatahpurih datah phutrdv, 

Wairuk srSh yut nah rotis tal. 

Santoshih biydlih bowih dnanduk phal. 

Ton shonld sow the seeds of destiny in the soil of Dharma (i.e., 
virtue, religion, duty, law, moral and religious truth according 
to the Yedas and the law). 

From the seed of contentment a harvest of peace will be reaped. 

Plough with the two oxen of the two breaths day and night, 

Strike them hard with the whip of extreme meditation ; 

Endeavour so that not a spot of ground will remain unploughed. 

From the seed of contentment a harvest of peace is reaped. 

Break the clods with the staff of love, 

That the damp of envy may not remain beneath : 

From the seed of contentment a harvest of peace is reaped. 

Sar eheyih sarddr, tawah patah bdlah-ydr, tawah patah tub- 

First the master of the feast will drink, after that the dear 

friend, and then the officer of rank. 


Affection goes before rank. 

Cooks on tasting the dishes previous to sending them to the 
master are accustomed to quote these words. 

Sard diinthum, sard dunthum, sarav khutah bud tel phul 

wdtis nah and. 
I saw a tank, I saw a tank, — it was larger thfln other tanks, 

but it would not contain a half of the sesame flower. {Sesa- 

Tnum orieniale.) 

A big, fat man, but no brains. 

This is also a riddle, and the answer is, a nipple, an udder. 

Sara/ah sunzah sat zewah. 
A snake has seven tongues. 

A man who speaks whichever way fancy or company -wind blows. 

Hindustani. — Samp ke sat zuhdn. 

Some devtds or gods ascended to heaven to get some amrit (water 
of life), and when they descended to earth again they put it into an 
earthenware vessel, which they placed on the top of a tree. The 
Kakshasas, huge giants, or rather ogres, wished to possess them- 
selves of this amrit. So one took upon himself the form of a crow, 
and flew, and perched upon the top of that tree and jerked off that 
eai'thenware vessel. On seeing this Vdsak Nag (Vasnki or Basak 
Nag), a king of the snakes, with all his host came and drank up the 
amrit, and while they were drinking it, the rakshasa from the top of 
the tree cursed them. " Have I not taken all this trouble to obtain 
this water of life, and now you have consumed it. Henceforth let 
there be to you seven tongues." 

Saras sarposh. 

A basket-cover for a pond. 

Much need but little cash. 

Sari jpetJii saildb. 
One's head even deluged. 
Head and ears in trouble. 

Sarrdf ganzardn diydr tah atrdf rdwardn doTi. 
The banker counts the money and the spendthrift wastes the 

Saruf chhuh palcan hul hult wdj tal wdlii syud. 

The snake goes crookedly, yet it arrives straight within its 


A man who is of a different disposition out-of-doors and among 
strangers to what he is in his own house. 


Sas chhuh nah zdh iikhaa khaadn. 
Ddl never rises to the spit. 

A low man will never bo promoted. 

Saa (or dUil), a kind of kidney bean {Phaseolus Max or Radiatus), 

Sas vnyut bafaSj mufk wyut hatas, nindar mii drAlUl katas. 
Ddl is sweet to the Pan<lit, muth is sweet to the sheep, and 

sleep is sweet to the son of misfortune. 

Viil is the raspalum frumentaceum. 

Muth is a species of legaminoas plant. 

Sdsas sun jtifdras bhSganih til chirdgaa ! 

A thousand rupis worth of gold in the pitdr, and a mite*s 

worth of oil in the lamp ! 

A man with little money, but who uses it to a good purpose is of 
more worth to the world than the wealthy but miserly man ; also 
the man with little knowle<Ige, who uses it, is of more profit to the 
world, than the extraordinarily clover man, who reserves liis know- 
ledge for himself. 

Sat butlii chhis chandas andar. 
Seven faces are in his pocket. 

Mr. Smooth-Tongue ; every thing to every man. 

Satuii sanz hedar yat. 

The hoopoo's big basketful of mushrooms. 

Slow but sure. Many a mickle makes a mnckle. 

Yat is a big long basket which the Kashmiri coolio fastens on his 
baok, and trots away as happily as possible over lull and dale with 
a maund or so of goods in it. The story is that a hoopoo onoe 
'uthored as many mushrooms as would fill a yat, and as ho would 
!iavo to gather them singly, the amassing of such a large number 
must have cost him much time and labour. Hence the saying. 

It is also said that this hoopoo when he reached home after his 
labours one day asked his wife to cook some of the mushrooms. Of 
course the mushrooms were considerably diminished in size and 
weight from the cooking, but the hoopoo suspected that liis wife had 
either eaten, or concealed, some of them ; and so in the heat of pas- 
sion he then and there killed her and threw the corpse out of the nest. 

Seh leas be-pir andar mulk.i- Kashmir. 

Wali Had o Ilari Bahadur o Sukha Pir. 

Three persons are without religion in the comitry of Kashmir — 

Wali Had, Hari Bahadur, and Sukhd Pi'r. 

These three persons are now living in Kashmfr, and are a great 

t rouble to the quieter class of people. Wali Had is a Mnhammodan, 

he other two are Pandits. Had means hard, resolute, and this 

name has been added to Wali, because if this man is refused any 


thing he will sit by the honse for days and make great lamentation, 
nntil he obtains hia request. The title of Bahddur was given to 
Eari under amusing circumstances (according to the people's story). 
They say that His late Highness the Mahdr^jah GuMb Singh was 
once yery ill, and the Brdhmans being consulted, they advised that a 
man should be found who would leap a few times upon the king's 
stomach and make him well. Great search was made, but nobody 
was found to come forward and do this strange act. At last Hari 
presented himself and jumped several times upon His Highness, 
who was immediately relieved of his pain. The title of Bahadur 
was accordingly given to the fak{r by the common folk, and a large 
present of money by the Mah^rdjah. SuTchd Fir is a very big, stout 
and powerful man, and blessed with a monstrous appetite. Strange 
stories ai-e told of the enormous quantity of food which this man 
now and then disposes of. Sometimes those who can afford it invdte 
this man to their houses, and have him fed before them as a kind of 

Sekih shdfhas hii no wavizeh ; wafas dizih nah tsumrivi rtnzi ; 

gydnichkathkas mudas toanizeh — zan rdvarut kum-ydjen til. 
Sow not jasmine upon the sand ; fire not a leathern marble 

against the rock ; speak not words of divine wisdom to a 

fool — because, if you do, it will be like wasting oil over 

bran- cakes. 

Another version is : — 

Sekih sMihas phal no wavizeh ; rdvarizih nah kum-ydjen til ; 
Mudas ganydnach kath no wanizeh, kharas gor dinah rdwi 

Sow not seeds on the river-bed (or the sand) ; waste not oil 

over bran-cakes ; 
Tell not matters of religion to the ignorant ; and if you give 

sugar to an ass, you will lose the day (i, e., you will lose 

your labour). 

Sekih til tah wethranih snban. 

Oil to the sand and soap to the wethran. 

Labour lost. 

Wethran is a sack made of grass and generally used by the poor 
Kashmiri cultivator. 

Setsanih pdwih afjun hasti baranih nerun. 

Entering by the eye of a needle and coming out by the 

elephant*s stable-door. 

" Humble enough at first, but now so proud !" 

A " risen " man. 


Sezth ungajih chhuh nah gyav khasdn. 
Ghi is not to be taken up with a straight finger. 
Blows bring sense. 

Shdhash buiah malihah ! 
Weil-done, simple fellow ! 

Praise a stapid person and jaa can g^t anythinfir from him. 

Butah lit. Lnd^ki, who in former times snfTered much in bargain- 
ing with the Kashmiri on accoout of hi& igiiorauco of the language 
and dulness of intellect. 

**Shddi moj ! warud kyuthr* ** Beehanah khutah teihah 

** O mother Shddi ! how do you like your second husband ?" 
** It is much better than begging,** 

Onco marry for love, twice marry for money. 

Shdh byuth JFushkarih^ yas yih khush karih *nh tih karih. 
The king settled in Wushkur, and whatsoever a man pleased 

that he did. 

The king must roaido in the midst of his people. 

When the cat is away the raico do play. 

Wushkur is a village in the Kamrds. 

Shaiti'nah sundi kan sari. 
Satan's deaf ears, 

KuKhmlris are very fond of sounding rrH>ir own prnifcs. Before, 
however, giving utterance to a wonl they sometimes pniy that Satan's 
oars may be closed, in order that he may not hear thom, and, becom- 
ing offended, corse them. 

Shakar ai chhui miU gaUhanai : 

Mitj ai chhai shakar gaUhanai. 

It' it is sugar then may it become earth to you ; 

If it is earth then may it become sugar to you. 

Cited against the man who lies just to escape giving, or on some 
other trifling account. 

Hiud6st^nl — Allah kare shakar howe. 
Allah kare mitti hotce. 

A fakir was wandering by the riverside one afternoon, when ho 
saw a barge approaching. He enquired, as he was wont to do. what 
was in the barge. The man replied " Only earth." The fakir sus- 
pecting that the man had lied unto him, prayed that God would 
grant this man's answer to be correct. God heard the prayer, and 
the whole cargo of sugar was changed into earth. Soon after thia 
another barge came along. '' What cargo have you P " said the 


fakir. " Earth," answered the man. This reply wag true, and the 
fakir prayed again that if it were true, that God would turn it all 
into sugar. This prayer also was granted. (Cf. " Indian Fairy Tales," 
pp. 96, 97, 272, 273.) 

Shakar mekruz. 

Scissors of sugar (but none the less sharp and cutting for all 

Shdl gav hulik zih diam gav 'kidili. 

A jackal got into the river, and it was as though the whole 

world had got in. 

Panjiibi. — Ap moe jag parlo. 

Shdl gub tah hdkah-tsar bardbar. 

A jackal, ewe, and string of vegetables are equal. 


This saying dates back to the days of Noshirwiln, a king of Persia 
in whose reign Muhammed was born (a. d. 578). Noshirw^n is the 
Persian for just, and the king called by this name is said to have 
been so just that perfect peace reigned in the land both among men 
and beasts. Noshirwan kept a jackal, a ewe, and a string of 
vegetables in one and the same place; but the jackal did not harm 
the ewe, and the ewe did not touch the vegetables ; — to such an 
extent did peace reign ! 

The jackal, ewe, and string of vegetables may also be taken figura- 
tively as representing different grades of people, every one of whom 
the just king esteemed equally worthy of attention and protection. 

Shdl Ualit bafhen chob. 

The jackal escapes and the man smites the ground. 

Crying over spilt milk. 

Shdlah sunz tung. 

The howling of a jackal. 

Lupus pilum mutat, non mentem. 

A jackal in the course of its nightly peregrinations visited the 
house of a certain dyer and tumbled into the blue dye-pot, and its 
fur became as blue as blue can be. In this ridiculous state it went 
away, but was afraid to return to its companions. Eventually it 
took up its abode on the top of a very high rock. In the course of 
time the news spread that a new beast was to be fonnd in a certain 
place every night at such a time. The bear, the tiger, the lion, all 
were informed of this new animal, and a big coiincil was held in 
which it was decided to invite the stranger and to make him their 
king and head. The blue jackal came and was duly crowned by the 
lion ; but at evening-time when all the other jackals began as usual 
to scream and to howl, this blue jackal, also, instinctively screamed 
and howled. Now the mystery was discovered. This kiug was only 


a painted jackal ! When the lion and bear and tiger heard this 
they went at once and^ killed the blue jackal. (This story slightly 
changed is in the Panca-tantra.) 

Shdlih tdrak hdwuni. 

To show stars to a (sharp) woman, (in order to try and frighten 


She knows well enough what you are up to, you will have to try 
some other plan. 

Shdlin hyol chhuh hihvi. 
Shol seed is like shol. 

Like father like son. 

Shol is millet-seed {Pennisetum itcHieum), 

Shdmah gat ah tah rot or of ah. 

The evening darkness is the vigil of the night*8 festival. 

Quoted when any one pushes on work into the late hours of 
t he night in order that little or none may be left to be done on the 

Shdmah (mtur tah mandini hehwdl. 
Sharp (enough) at evening, but lazy and sleepy at noon. 
Quoted against vrives and unemployed sons, kc. 

ShanuUui ial chheh gatah. 

There is a darkness under the candle. 

A good king, but bad ministers ; a good master, but bad servants. 

Hindi. — Chirdgh ke tale andherd. 

ShardTcuU hanz deg chheh khemuU honev. 
The dogs ate up the partnership saucepan. 

Two partners quarrel and go to law, and lose everything. 
Persian. — Du morg Jang kunand /a'idti-i-tirgar, 

SJtarahas tharmm hyah ! • 

What, is there shame in " The Law!" 

Right as the Bible. 

Shayih dstan tah lukanui toshtan. 
Live thou and do good to others. 

This is a line from one of the verses composed by the clever wife 
of the celebrated Munshi Bahwani D4s, who lived in the time of 
Akbar. He was a Kashmiri, a great poet, and some of his works 
remain in the Pei-sian language ; but there is no trace of his house 
or family. 


For some reason Bahwini Das separated from his first wife an(J 
married another. This second wife became very devoted to him, 
and one day in a fit of jealousy she composed the following lines : — 

Tanahdai vesie sunah chham asdn. 

Tanah ydri travanam karni hath. 

Sheydh dstan tah lukanui toshtan. 

Totih chham dilasui sat. 

Chhamah Iddan akih latih yiyih nd ! 

Wandahsui hatikui rat. 

When my husband does not speak to me ; 

Then, O friend, the other wife laughs at me. 

let him live and do good to others ! 
And there will be comfort to my mind. 
If he would but come to me once. 

1 would offer unto him the sacrifice of my throat's blood f 
Wes is a woman's female friend. (Hindustani — saheli.) 

Sun, a rival wife. (Polygamy is not very common among Kasb' 
miri Hindus). 

Shek tah treh tah nav tah hah. 
Six and three and nine and eleven. 

" Black crows have been thrown up, Three, Two and One ; 
And Jiere I find all comes at last to none " ! 

" The Three Black Crows."— Byrom. 

Shekhah hahi Jci'lah sahih, paffdh nahin. 
The Shekh's custom is *'Yes" to-day, and "No'' to- 
A fickle person. 

Shekh Tmdm-ud-din was the last of the ten Sikh governors, whc 
tyrannised over the valley for about twenty-seven years (1819 to 
1846 A. D.) Report represents him to have been a very fickle 
monarch, and tells the following anecdote concerning him : — 

One day the Shekh appointed a Pandit to some office and soon 
after his appointment the Pandit appeared in the palace-yard riding 
upon a horse with his face towards the beast's tail. The Shekh 
happened to be there with his retinue, and seeing this ludicrous 
character laughed loudly. Great was his surprise to find that the 
man was the very Pandit, to whom he had just given an appoint- 
ment. "Why are you making such a fool of yourself?" said he. 
" I am riding thus," replied the Pandit, "in order that I may see 
quickly who is to be appointed in my place ! " 

Afterwards Shekh Imam-ud-din did not change his servants so 

Shekhah royih Shaitdn^ 
A Shekh in appearance, but a devil in truth. 
Appearances are not always to be trusted. 


ShenJcaruni mdkuz, nah phaldn tah nah galdn, 
Shenkar's axe, neither wears away, nor melts. 

Cited concerning a hale and hearty, old wicked person. 

Shenkar (Sanskrit, Shan-kara) was a very famous HindO fakir oT 
the grand style. — His dresa was of pashmina, (a very fine silky cloth), 
and he always rode upon a handsome horse. He lived at Ghhatsah- 
Bal, where there*i8 a small temple erected to his memory. He died 
aboat two years ago, at the age of sixty. 

Shenkar used every day to climb the Takbt-i-SulaimAn (a big hill 
ovorlooking Srinagar), to perform his devotions in the ancient 
t tmple there. Another name for this hill is Shenkaritsari, an ancient 
Hind(i philosopher, after whom this Shenkar was called. (Cf. 
6ankardcarya. Monier William's Dicty.) 

Shenkar's popularity waa chiefly derived from hii celebrated 
< harmed axe. It was so, that whenever he heard that any one wa« 

i trouble or sickness, he would visit them, and after saying a few 
words, would wave the axe above and aroimd the distressed person's 
liead and body, and should he be indisposed, or the weather be 
inclement, he used to send the axe with especial directions how to 
manage it. Beport says that large numbers were thus healed and 
comforted. The axe was a very strong and handsome one. 

Shonkar's family are still living in Srinagar, and are very much 
respected. Kim Chand seems to be the principal member of this 
family now alive. He is a very clever manahf, and in receipt of about 
Ks 200 per n%en$em. Every year, on the anniversary of Shenkar's 
<luath, his two hundred special followers, all of whom belong to the 
<lar class, visit B<b[i Chand and make special presents to him in 
recognition of their intense respect for his father and their saint. 

Sheth gov zih hrefh gav. 
Sixty years become, stupid become. 
Once a man, twice a child. 

Shethah wuhur hiv tah shitah iruhur Jcdwah-put. 

Sixty years a crow and eight years a young crow (,, in 

the matter of wisdom and experience). 

Foolish father, wise son. 

The Kashmiris tell a story of an old female crow, who was once 
giving advice to her young onee. She warned them especially to 
l>eware of man. Ho did not care for their forwardness, nor was he 
charmed by their " caw-caw "; but on the contrary, he would certain- 
ly kill them, if he had the chance. " Now, listen ," said the old 
crow. " When you see a man bending his body down to the ground, 
and putting forth a hand, take heed; because the man is about to 
pick up a stone wherewith to strike and maim you." "Very well, 
very well," said the young crows, and there was a general *' caw-caw'* 
of approval. But one of the young ones, who was sharper than 
the rest, did not quite agree. '' Suppose," enquired he, '* that the man 


has already a stone under Ms arm, what shall we do in that case ?" 
Cf. •' Folktales from the Upper Panjdb." Eev. C. Swynnerton, J. 
B. A. S.J 1884. 

Sheyav pirav hhuiah chhuli be-pirui jdn. 
Better to follow no saint than (to try) to follow six saints. 
A man cannot serve many masters. 

SJieyih manih ndh slidhdsJi, wupasas nah laz. 

No praise if one cooks six maunds of food, and no shame if 

there is nothing cooked 

A too lenient, indifferent, father or master. If the child, or the 
servant does well, he has no praise for him ; and if the child or the 
servant neglects or spoils his work, he has not a word of blame for 

Shikasfah, ndv Shad f 
Broken-hearted yet called Gladness ! 

Shin dishit yih gagur karih ti chhvh rupeyih disliit hardn. 
What the rat will do when it sees the snow, that you are 

doing when you see rupis. 

The Kashmiri says that rats can tell from the quantity and cha- 
racter of the snow upon the mountains whether the winter will be 
a very severe one or not. Should it augur badly, then each rat will 
gather for himself as much as six sers of rice-grain. 

Shi nah peto ! bayih yito ! 

Fall, O snow ! Come, O brother ! 

Yearning for the absent one's return. 

A bird called Shinah-pipin was going away much to the sorrow of 
his brother- Shinah-pipin, who asked him with tears in his eyes, 
when he intended to come back again. " When the snow falls I shall 
be here again," he replied. Time passed, the snow fell heavily, but 
no Shinah-pipin came back. 

Shinah shart. 

A snow concern (or arrangement). 

No practical jokes, please. This is not Shfnah shart (or " April 
fool's day.") 

The Kashmiris are very glad to see the snow ; and they have a 
custom which allows them to play jokes upon one another with 
impunity on that day, when the snow first falls. Sometimes they 
will take a piece of the new snow and wrapping it up in paper givff 
it to a friend as if tobacco, or snuff, &c. 


Should this friend take and open it, then he is veiy mnoh laughed 
at, and has to pay a forfeit. Amongst the educated it is customary 
to write the following Persian couplet upon paper, and give it to 
their friend as if it were an important letter or parw4n% Ac. 
Barfi nau aftdd sad mubdrak hdd^ 
An chi shart ant ziid hdyad ddd ? 

The new snow has fallen, a hundred congratulations to you. 
"What is the agreement — ( but a trifle ! ) — so you must pay up 
Should the friend read only one word of this, he ia caught and has 
to pay a trifling forfeit. 

A Pandit has just remarked that the animals, too, are rejoiced 
to 8i>o the snow, but especially the dogs. On being asked " Why ?'* 
li(' said, *' Because all tlio dotjs look upon the snow falling as their 
iimtomal undo coming from Hoayen to visit them," On farther 
cniiuii-y :ix t(j where ho hoard this, ho replied that. " All childron 
in Kusliniir woro so taught, lie did not know anv reason for thus 

Shir-i-mfitlar chhui. 
A mother's milk to you. 
A proper arintngomont, &c. 

Shtrahpurih pirah yenlwol dv. 

The wedcling-compnny of samts from Shirapur has come. 

The arrival of any great man. 

Shirapur is a little village about two miles from Isl&mib&d, and 
abounds in Muhammodan saints, who marry their daughters in grand 
style. HorscM and music, and sometimes as many as a hundred 
singers, attend the wedding-company. 

Shislarah sueti ehhuh shistar phaldn. 
Iron is cut by iron. 

Set a thiof to catch a thief. 

Persian. — Ki dhan ba dhan towdh Icard ntirm, 

Shtytu shiyn tah Miyas Miyd. 

Shias with Shias and Miyiis with Miyds. 

Caste with caste ; like with like. 

Shiyd — Mi'jd, (Shfa and Miy^) the one is a Muhammedan and the 
other a Hindu sect. 

Shodah tanz halali hir, yutdn dazvik, 
Tutdn karuh nah pdnahwdni hat. 
Until the head of the Shodah is burnt, 
They will not speak to one another. 

Five friends chanced to meet, and all having leisure they decided 
to go to the bazar and purchase a hir, and have a groat feast in the 


house of one of the party, each of whom subscribed four dnSs. The 
hir was bought, but while they were returning to the house it was 
remembered that there was not any butter. On this one of the five 
proposed, by way of having some fun, that the first of them, who 
should break the silence by speaking, should go for the butter. 
Now it was no light matter to have to retrace one's steps back ta 
the butter-shop, as the way was long and the day was very hot. So 
they all five kept strict silence. Pots were cleaned, the fire was 
prepared and the hir laid thereon ; now and then somebody cough- 
ed and another groaned, and one even was so filled with a sense 
of the ridiculous as to laugh aloud, but never a tongue uttered a 
word, although the fire was fast going out, and the hir was getting 
burnt, owing to there being no fat or butter wherewith to grease the 

Thus matters proceeded until at last a policeman passed by, and 
attracted by the smell of cooking, he looked in at the window and 
saw these five men perfectly silent and sitting around a burnt hir. 
Not knowing the arrangement he supposed that either these people 
were mad, or else they must be thieves ; and so he enquired how 
they came there ? and how did they obtain the hir ? Not a word 
was uttered in reply. " Why are you squatting around the burnt 
hir in that stupid fashion ?" shouted the polir-eman. Still no reply. 
Then the policeman full of rage that these wretched men should have 
thus mocked at his authority took them all off straight to the Police 
Inspector's office. On arrival the Inspector asked them the reason 
of their strange behaviour, but he also got no reply. This rather 
tried the patience and temper of this man of authority, who was 
generally feared and flattered and bribed. He ordered one of the 
five Shodahs to be immediately flogged. The poor Shodah bore it 
bravely and never a sound he uttered ; but when the lashes fell thick 
and fast, and whipped the already whipped and wounded places, so 
that the blood appeared, he could endure no longer, and so shouted, 
" Oh, oh, why do you beat me ? Enough, enough. Oh, is it not 
enough that the hir has been spoilt ? " His four associates now 
cried out, " Go to the bazar and fetch the butter. Go." 

The Police Inspector was still more surprised and atmoyed when he 
heard of this further contempt of the court, and ordered a thorough 
investigation of the whole matter. Everything was now, of course^ 
fully and clearly explained, and great was the amusement of every 
body, not excepting the Police Inspector. Cf. *' Story of the Twenty- 
five Idiots" in " The Orientalist," Yol. I., p. 136. 

Hir is the head of any animal used for food. 

Sliolvh tail punalisund. 

Happiness and more (children) to you. 

A Kashmiri blessing. 

When the piece of flaming birch- wood is being passed around the 
head of the child and company present, the midwife repeats the 


above words. Cf. cnstom " sutuk" in note to " LdnhTmh garth sutuk.** 
There ia a division of opinion regarding the meaning of these words, 
oven among the highest class of Brdhmans. The balance of favour 
seems to be for the above rendering, deriving Sholch from the Persian 
and pu/nahsund from the Sanskrit to": " again," and sund from ^pH", 
" may these be." 

Slirdkih tah mdzas clihud wddl 
What answer will the meat give to the knife ? 
The tyrant will not receive any reply. 

Shukrt zdt-i'-jydAaht nah dyam yad nah luffum phdkah. 
Thanks, O holy one, neither was my stomach filled, nor had 

I to fast. 

'* Give me neither poverty nor richee ; feed me with food con- 
venient for me."— Prov. zxz. 8. 

Shun ff it bdng dapuni. 

To cry the bj'ing when asleep. 

A lazy, dilatorj', fellow. 

Bdng is the Mnhammodan call to prayers. 

Shupi h'nih icachhas sari ndl. 

A golden nAl over a fan-like bony breast. 

A gaudily-clressed ngly person. 

Shup is a flat basket used for winnowing grain. 

Ndl is the border of the garment called the knrtah, round the 
neck and down the breast. 

Shur gav bror ; wulah wulah kurus tah yiyih, 
A child is a cat, tell it to come and it will come. 
A child cries and runs for food. 

Shur nyuv pdzan tah shisfar Tchyav gagaran. 
The hawk took the child and the rat ate the iron. 

Tit for tat. 

Persian.— ir» mosh dhan Tthorad Ttodak harad Idz. 

A man about to start on a journey entrusted several maonds of 
iron to the care of a merchant-friend. After several years he return- 
ed and sent to this friend for the iron. The merchant, in whoso 
charge it was, being a rogue had sold the iron ; and now sent to say 
how sorry he was that the iron had been eaten by rats. This reply 
somewhat astonished the other merchant, he could not understand 
how the iron could possibly have been broken and masticated by rats. 
However, he did not argue the matter in words, bat went straight 


off to the place where the lying-merchant's child was playing, and 
decoyed the little fellow away to a very secret place. The merchant 
on discovering the loss of his child, became almost frantic with grief. 
He went tearing his hair and shi-ieking everywhere, " My child, where 
is my child ?" The other merchant seeing him in such distress 
enquired what was the matter, and was told that the little boy has 
either strayed or been stolen. " Alas," said he, " I observed a great 
hawk hovering over the head of your boy. The bird must have 
flown away with him." *' You mock me in my sorrow," said the 
bereaved merchant. " How could a hawk carry off my boy ?" " As 
easily as rats could devour iron," said the other merchant. 

The result was the exchange of the lost boy for the lost iron. 

This proverb and story is evidently translated from a Persian 
work, " Chihil qissa," {i. e., Forty stories,) but it is very well 
known among the common folk of Kashmir. 

Shuri cliliur hutJiis. — Sliur mdronah kih nah Jcuth Uaion ? 
The infant wetted the lap. What shall be done ? Shall the 

infant be killed ? or shall the knee be cut off. ? 

Parents in doubt as to whether they shall, or shall not, help a 
profligate son out of his difficulties. 

ShusTias tihpushi. 

Not enough even for a lung. 

A small income. 

Sikah nilu idh hdndah begdri. 

Like a Sikh obliging one to buy what they have to sell, and 
compelling the musician to play without hire. 


A Muhammedan saying. The Muhammedana tell dreadful tales 
of the oppression which they suffered during the rule of the Sikhs 
in Kashmir. 

Silvh till bajd tah Tcahdh till bajd. 

If the spit is right then the meat is right. 

Sikandar-Nama. — Miydn-ji chindh hun harde sawdh. 

Ki ham sikh har jd huwad ham Icahdh. 

Shias tdmat sJiinas gdi, ; sudd Tcyah zdniov toe Jcariov. 

We got breast deep in the snow ; whatever inducement vras 

there to get married on such a day as this (lit., what taste 

did you feel that you made a feast). 

A very clever Hindu Persian scholar was once invited to a wed- 
ding feast in a certain village during winter-time. It happened 
that much snow fell just about the time of the wedding, and those 
guests who lived at a distance experienced much difficulty in attend- 


injjf. On arrival this Hindfi was heard thus to remonstrate with the 
parents of the wedding-party. 

Notice the play upon the names of the four Persian letters sin, 
shin, 8&t1, and toe. 

Sina, (Persian) breast. 

8Mn, (Kashmiri) snow. 

Sudd, (Kashmiri) taste, flavour, &o. 

Toe, (Persian) feast, festival, &o. 

Sir gav tirdan ; ad sir gov guzrdn ; pdv ekheh pdwdn. 
One ser is enough ; half a ser a man can live upon ; but a 
quarter of a ser prostrates a man. 

Sir ah 8dn pi rah mahdrdzah dv. 

The wedding- company of saints came along secretly. 

A groat man travelling in a humble way. The very respectable 
people have their marriage processions at night. Only the poor and 
uuoducatod classes have large demonstration-processions by day. 

Sini muhimah Muhal tah rani muhivnah khandahwdv. 

If there is not a plate of meat and rice there is a mallow, and 

if a husband is wanting, one can get a shawl-weaver. 

Anything is better than nothing. 

Shawl. weavers (Mnhammedami) are to be found in abundance all 
over the valley. They are a sickly, immoral, ill-paid race. 

Siryas hyuh nah prokash kune ; 
Gangih hyuh nah tirt kahh ; 
Bhyis hyuh nah bundav kune ; 
Ranih hyuh nah sukh kahh ; 

Aohhin hyuh nah prahdsh kune ; 
Kuthen hyuh nah tirt kahh ; 
Chandas hyuh nah bdndav kun 
Khanih hyuh nah sukh kahh ; 

Mayas hyuh nah prakdsh kune 
lAtyih hyuh nah tirt kaiih ; 
Dayas hyuh nah bnndav kune ; 
Bayas hyuh nah sukh kaiih ; 


Sed Bayii was one day sitting down with his famous female 
disciple, Lai Ded, when the following questions crop- 
ped-up : — 

"Which was the greatest of all hghts ?" " Which was the 
most famous of all pilgrimages ?'* '* Which was the best of 
all relations ?" " Which was the best of all manner of 
ease V* Lai was the first to reply : — 

" There is no light like that of the sun ; 
*' There is no pilgrimage like Gang^ ; 
" There is no relation like a brother ; 
*' There is no ease like that of a wife." 
But Sed did not quite agree. *' No," said he — 
" There is no light like that of the eyes ; 
*' There is no pilgrimage like that of the knees ; 
*' There is no relation like one's pocket ; 
" There is no ease like that of the mendicant's cloak." 
Then Lai Ded, determining not to be outwitted by her 
master, again replied : — 

*' There is no light like that of the knowledge of God ; 

" There is no pilgrimage like that of an ardent love ; 

" There is no relation to be compared with the Deity ; 

" There is no ease like that got from the fear of God." 

I have seen something like a part of the above lines in Eev. C. 

Swynnerton's "Adventures of Kaja Rasalu," but not having the 

book at hand I cannot say in what connection they occur there. 

Gangd or Gangahal is one of the great Hindu places of pilgrimage. 
Hither go all those Pandits, who have had relations die during the 
year, carrying some small bones, which they had picked from the 
ashes at the time of the burning of the dead bodies. These bones are 
thrown into the sacred waters of Gangabal with money and sweet- 
meats. The pilgrimage takes place about the 8th day of the Hindu 
month Badarpet (August 20th dr.) Cf. " Vigne's Travels in Kash- 
mir," Ac, Vol. II., pp. 151, 152. 

So zan bozih ishdrah sueti. 

Ko zan bozih damdlih sueti, 

A hint and a good man hears. 

Threatening and fuss before a bad man hears. 

Gulistan. — Anchi ddnd Tiunad Jcunad ndddn. 
Lek ha'd az Jcahul i ruswa^i. 

Sonawdri sdban. 

The soap of Sonawar (e.e., the washing of the people of 


Something wrong in the arrangement. 

Sonawdr is a little village close to the Takht-i-Snlaim&n, Srfnagar. 
The inhabitants have got a name for wearing cither a clean pagri 
and dirty garment, or else a clean garment and dirty pagrL 

Soht chhuh tjhali tah harud chhuh bait. 

Spring is a matter of inclination, but the Autumn is whether 

he will or not. 

H. H. the Mahirdjah gives a certain amount of seed to each 
zamfnddr about seetl-time, the sowing of this seed depends very 
much upon the will of the zamCnddr. But when the seed has been 
sown, the harvest ripens and the crops are ready to bo gathered, then, 
nolens volen», the zamlnd&r must oat it and give the usual State 


An invitation from a SoptSr man. 

Nearly all the Sop6r people are most inhoflpitable. Ananta>n&g 
{i.e., laikvaihid) and P4mp6r folk have got ai name in the valley for 

Sorah rag melih tah wordh rag melih nah. 
There may be a yein of affection in a pig, but not in a step- 

About fourteen years ago Hindds were permitted to koop swine. 
Since then the city has been entirely cleared of them by tho order 
of the present Mah&rAjah. His Highness' late father, tho Muh&r^jah 
Gul&b Singh, is said to have introduood swine into the valley. 

Sorah sanzih tcudih morah sund tdj. 
A peacock's crest upon a pig's crown. 
A place for every man and every man in his place» 

Sarm chhuh dur tah marun chhuh nazdtk. 
All things are far-ofT, but death is nigh. 
In the midst of life we are in death. 

Sorui chhuh wm/i, hath chheh mufl. 

All things are at a price, but conversation is gratis. 

Srandah srandah tsuw^m har ; yutdn nah ok chhuh marun, 

tuton chhih nah path rozun. 
A buffalo quarrels with another buffalo ; until one of them 

dies the fight is not over. 

When Greek meets Greek then comes the tug of war. 


Srug, sift, tah pandhdnr. 
Cheap, nice, and broad. 

Hot, sweet, and strong. 

Srugui chhuh drug tah drugui ohhuh srug. 
Cheap is dear and dear is cheap. 

It is better to pay a little more and have a really good arfciole than 
to buy an extraordinarily cheap (?) article, and presently discover 
that it is not worth having. 

Subhuoh ckilam chhai til chardgas; 

Subhuck chilam ohhai bugas Mi ; 

Subhuch chilam chhai ndrah phah Mdgas ,« 

Subhuch chilam chhai dragas. zii. 

The morning pipe is hke oil to the lamp ; 

The morning pipe is as jessamine in the garden ; 

The morning pipe is as the heat of a fire in January ; 

The morning pipe is as employment in the time of famine. 

Chilam is that part of the hukkah which hc^ds the tobacco and the 

Subhuk balah ai nuhurah jyyos doh neris pandi; 
Pheran ai ndkdrah gos wahr'i np.ris pandi ; 
Zandnah ai nuMrah peyas umr neris pundi. 
If the breakfast is bad then all the day will go wrong ; 
If the dress is bad then all the year will go wrong ; 
If the wife is bad then all the life-time will go wrong. 

Suchhuh gariuol tah mnh-i-ramazdnik nemuzi. 
A householder (only) in time of abundance, and prayers only 
during the month of Ramazan. 

An unreliable character. 

Ramazdn is the name of the ninth Mnhammedan month, during 
which every orthodox follower of that religion abstains from eating, 
drinking, &C., between the morning dawn and the appearance of 
the stars at night. On the 27th day of this month the Quran began 
to descend from heaven, and every prayer offered up on that night 
(called lailatu'-l-qadr) will he answered. Also prayers offered up 
on the 19th, 21 st and 23rd days of Bamazan are thought to avail 

Suddmun hum bus. 
Sudam's handful of chaff. 

A rupi to a poor man is as much as one thoasand rdpis to a 
rich man. 


8uddm was a great friend of Krishna. He at one time was in 
such groat distress, that only a handful of chaff was left to him, 
which he purposed to eat and then die. However he thought the 
I'ottor of this and wont to the RAjd instead with the handful of 
. Imff . R6j& Krishna was so touched with the man's poverty and 
simplicity, that he himself ate the chaff and gave the Brdhman 
Suddm whatsoever his heart wished for. 

Suh tih dohd Nasaro. 

i'hat day also passed, O Nasar. 
Come good, come evil, there is an end. 

A. quotation from a list of conversation between Shekh Nfir-nd-dfn 
and his favourite disciple Nasar. Gonvorsation between these two 
uainta often took the form of poetry aooording as they were inspired. 
Hero is the piece of poetry : — 

Maiddn wdwas tjakuj nani ; guh tih dohd Natoro. 

Tun tougarah tah sSni pnni ; suh tih dohd Naacuro, 

Nishi rani tah tourani khani ; auh tih dohd Naaaro, 

Wurah batah tah gd4ah gani ; suh tih dohd Nasaro, 

When the back was bare upon the bleak plains ; that day also 
passed, O Nasar. 

When we had wet rioe and dry r^^tablos only to eat ; that day 
too, has gone, O Nasar. 

When the wife was near one and warm clothing ooverod the bod ; 
that day, too, went by, O Nasar. 

When boiled rioe and sliced fish were provided for ns ; tliat day 
also passed, O Nasar. 

Thoro is something similar to this in Persian, bat who is the 
author of it, or where it ih to bo found, is not known :<— 
Ifunam ki kabdh mehhorad : 

War hdda % ndh mekhorad ; 

Daryozah ha kashkol % gaddi nan rdt 
Tar kardah ha db mekhorad j 

The wealthy man eats roasted flesh : 
Passing away. 
Should ho drink pure wine ; 

Passing away. 
The beggar eats the alms-bread, 
After having soaked it in water ; 

Passing away. 
These lines were probably known in the days of Akbar, for when 
that monarch asked his favourite minister Bir-Bal to do something 
for him, which would be a source of happiness to him in time of ad- 
versity as well in the time of prosperity, Bir-Bal replied by sending 


to the emperor a few days afterwards a beantifnl ringstotie upon 
which he had caused to be engraved in Persian character the word 
" Meguzrad" ; he also sent a nice letter with it adrising the king to 
look upon the ring whenever he was tempted to be over-elated by 
prosperity, or over-depressed by misfortune. 

Another Persian saying from another unknown source is frequent- 
ly quoted by the Persian- speaking Kashmiri : — 

Shah e samur guzashto ; 

Shab e tanur guzasht. 

That night, when we had fur to cover us, has gone ; 

That night, when we had the fixe to warm us, has gone. 

Sukhas des. 

A stick to peace (or striking his peace). 

A man, who really has nothing to complain of — ^he has health and^ 
wealth and friends, but he says that he is never well, not rich, and 
that every body is against him. 

Sumis sum niiimat tah he-sum hiydmat. 

Like with like is bles&ing, but unUke is confusion^ 

Birds of a feather flock together ; 
Birds of a different feather tear one another. 
Sh{rin-o-Khusrau. — Kunad ham-jins hd ham-jins parwdz 
Kab'Atar hd hahutar hdz hd hdz. 

Sun ckkuk punai hahwachik j>etk malum sapurtdn hhuf chhud 

yd hhur. 
Gold is known upon the stone, whether it is alloyed or pure.. 

A man is known by his work and walk and conversation. 
Kahwat is a touchstone. (Persian. — Mihakk-i-zarrln.) 
GvLHat^n.—MihakJc ddnad zar chist. 
CrCbdd ddnad mumsik hist 

Sunah sunz shrdk, nah ivdr thawanas tah nah wnr trdivanasi^ 
A golden knife is neither fit to keep, nor to throw away. 

Sunas gayam sartal kanas chhas nah batah ladun. 

To me gold has become as brass. I do not load my ear with 

food {i. e., and I am not such a fool as not to know it). Cf. 

"Kanas chhas" ^c. 

My position is altered and I know it. 

Sunas mul Tcanas tal. 

The worth of the gold is in the ear. 

Possession is everything. 


Sundari Uah pari mat trdv hukai ; t9^h hdli ion ohikah 

O pretty woman, don't step so haughtily, you will lose your 

youthful pride in time. 

A silly, conceited, young woman. 

This is evidently a line from one of the Kashmiri songs, bat it 
cannot be traced as yet. 

Sunur nai simah tjur harih tah hats ffatjhes. 

If the goldsmith did not steal the gold he would get kdts 

(i. <•., a subtle disease, hectic fever). 

The suspicion with which the goldsmith is looked npon is not 
peculiar to the people of Kashmir. 

Cf . Kalila o Damna ; the story of the Brdhman Thephasavdmi in 
Herr Adolf Bastian's German collection of Siamese tales ; '* The 
Orientalist," Ceylon, VoL I., p. 180 ; the Rev. C. Swynnerton'a 
appendix of folk-tales of the Panj&b to his book on RAjd Ras&l^ ; and 
the Tamil story told in p. 184, Vol. I. of ** The Orientialist," Bat 
in " The Book of Were-wolres," by S, Baring-Gould, it is stated on 
the authority of a gentleman who resided in Abyssinia for ten years, 
and published an account of his experiences afterwards, "that in 
Abyssinia the gold and silversmiths are highly regarded, bat the 
iron-workers are looked upon with contempt as an inferior grade 
of beings. Their kinsmen even ascribe to them the power of trans- 
forming themselves into hynnas, or other savage beasts. All 
convulsions and hysterical disorders are attributed to the efFeot of 
their evil eye. " 

Sur vialit tjurah jamdat. 

Rubbing ashes over his hody (like a saint) and yet helong- 
ing to a company of thieves. 

Surah banih wuth nah Mv, 

The crow did not rise from the dust-heap (although stones 

were thrown at it). 

A man taken into court, but bribes were paid and so the matter 
was kept secret. 

Surah phalih balai dur. 
From a speck of dust misfortune flies. 
A word, and the thing is done. 

Suranai ffatjhih w&yini, gait gatshanas nah Ichasuni. 

The lute should he played, but the checks need not be hlown 


When a man does a good work there is no necessity to send some- 
one with a trumpet to advertise it. 


Sutt dug ah bah traJc. 

Slowly, slowly, twelve traks (i.e.y 114 pounds) will be 


Borne was not built in a day. 

** Sutsal kami rani ? " ** Ami chdnih pranih." 
** Mithut chheh gamuts'' " Mydnih hhalani sueti" 
" Who cooked the mallow ? " " That old woman of yours." 
" Ah ! it is very nice." *• Yes — I stirred it." 
Anxious to avoid the blame, but to get the praise. 

Sutsalih manzah gushtdbah nerun. 

Soup comes forth from the mallow. 
" Despise not the day of small things." 
Qushtdbah is a rich soup composed of mince-meat, &c. 

Sufjan dapdn panahdiiwih ^^ Sdri chhih gumuti ahi ndwih.** 
The needle says to the piece of thread " We are all in the 

same boat " (7.e., where you go I go, for we are fastened 


AH the people appear to know this saying, but no one could tell me 
its origin. It is very strange to meet with such a peculiar expres- 
sion in this country, and to find that it has the same meaning which 
it has in England, viz., Both treated alike ; both placed in the same 
conditions. The reference in England is, as is well-known, to the 
boat launched when a ship is a-wreck. 

Suwun tah gewun tagih prat kansih, magar suwun chhuh 

suwunui tah gewuriy chhuh gewanuL 
Everybody can sew and sing, but let him sing who can sing 

(properly), and him sew who can sew (nicely). 

Suyih suet mandul chhalun. 
To wash the back with a nettle. 
The harm of keeping bad company. 

Syud sadah chhuh shdhzddah. 
A plain, simple man is a prince. 


Tubah Tusal nah mandaehhdn nah chhuh mdndackhanah 

Tabah Tdsal is not ashamed nor does he put any one to shame. 

A shameloss person. 

Tdbah Tdsal was i. Pandit, who, contsary to all role and cnstom, 
hired himself out for weddings and other entertainments. He was a 
good singer and jester, and used to accompany his songs with a-clap- 
ping of hands. He struck them together in such a peculiar way that 
it is said the sound could be heard one mile off (?) Uo would visit 
all sects and sexes, and would sit by the hour in all society, never 
feeling any qualms of conscience, or noticing any wickedness in others. 

T&bah waa surnamed T4sal from the word tus, whioh means 
clapping of hands. 

Tal tali taUv khandn ptidshdh gar as lut har^n. 

Apparently digging a very deep well ; but, really, robbing the 

king's house. 

A traitor. 

A GosAj'n once visited a king and said that he had a matter for 
him. " Would his Majesty listen to it, and give his servant one 
hundred rupls for it ?" The king consented ; and this proverb 
was told him, which ho was to repeat aloud every night throe times 
in succession before going to sleep. Now it happened that this 
king, like most other kings, had his enemies — and enemies, too, in 
his own household. One of his ministers hated him intensely, and 
was ready to do and bear anything, so that he might bring about 
the king'8 death. Amongst other plans ho had a subterranean pas- 
sage made from his house to the king's, and one night, when the 
work was almost completed and but a foot more remained to be 
dug, he himself went along this passage, which communicated 
directly with the king's bed-chamber, with the intention, if possible, 
of removing the little earth that remained, and getting close enough 
to murder the king in his bed. On such a dreadful errand, and in 
such a dark dangerous place, we cannot imagine this wicked minister's 
feelings when he heard the king with a loud and distinct voice say, 
three times in succession, the words which the Go86,in had taught 
him. " I am discovered, " said he, and hastened back. 

This saying has also been turned into a riddle, of which the 
answer is a rat. 


Talah, dadi talah pati pefak daz tdl ; Tu Bi'r Sdhibo rudci ivctl. 
Below the sole of the foot is burnt, above the crown of the 

head is burnt ; O Great God, let it rain. 

A favourite prayer for rain. 

Yd Bdr Sdhiho.— Great God. {Bar, participle of hdridan.) 

Talah, talah palah bah shel. 
Down, down, twelve hundred rocks down. 
A Stoic — hard, deep, and mysterious. 

TcUnwas dah lurih tah jangah wizeh nah ah tih. 

(Usually) ten sticks in the roof, but not even one there ^ in 

time of fighting. 

Abundance of servants, rupis, &c., but not one at hand when 
especially wanted. 

Tamil' chhuh h'r-i-amir. 
Building is the work of nobles. 

The wealthy build houses and poor men buy them. 

Tanuras nohhah Imndal. 

A little earthen pot beside the oven. 

A little man in the company of the great. 

Kundal is the inner earthenware part of the kangri. 

Tas chhuh nah gdtid wazir. 

He has not got a wise minister (i.e., a good wife to advise and 

help him). 

A certain king was one day sitting with his wife in the verandah 
of the palace, when -a poor miserable -looking and almost nude pea- 
sant passed by, carrying a big load of wood for sale in the city. 
" My dear," said the king to his wife, " how sad it is to see a man in 
that wretched condition, and in this cold weather too. What a sor- 
rowful existence he must eke out from the pittance which he receives 
from his wood every day ! " *• He has not got a wise minister," re- 
plied the queen. The king did not understand this remark ; he 
thought that, perhaps, it was meant as a sort of side-hint for himself ; 
hence it would have been a reflection upon his own chosen ministers, 
and so upon the arrangement of his country. He brooded over these 
words, until he became in a furious rage, and going to his wife 
ordered her to prepare to leave the palace at once and be that poor 
wood-seller's servant. The queen obeyed, though with a sorrowful 
heart. However, she did not despair, but determined that through 
her wise counsel and management this poor man should prosper and 
become great, and then she had a conviction that by some means or 
other she would again be united to the king her husband, and that 
both would derive pcofit from, and be happier for, this temporaiy 


On arrivinpf at the wood-seller's hut she made her sal&ms, and 
explained the reason of her visit. " I have come to serve you," she 
said, " but let me sometimes advise you, and you will be the better 
for my counsel." The wood-cutter was so surprised at the humble 
demeanour of the queen, that ho fell upon his knees and stammered 
out something to this effect : '* That although the king had given her 
to him to be his servant, yet he felt himself to be her slave, and 
that whatever she commanded, that he would try to perform." 

The days pa8se<l pleasantly enough ; now and again, not suddenly 
but as if quite naturally, little changes were made in the house; 
this room was regularly cleaned and things began to be arranged in 
their right placet; and one day when the wood-seller's wife was 
sitting idle, she advised her in a kindly manner to spin ; another 
time she prevailed upon the man to eat his dinner in the city instead 
of coming homo to eat it, because oftentimes, when by evening he 
had not Hold all his load of wooti, he had been tempted to take little 
or nothing for it, in order that he might bo rid of his load and get 
home to his longed-for dinner ; and again on another occasion she 
was able to say something abouc saving a quarter of his earnings. 
In these and other different ways the presence of the queen-servant 
worked quite a revolution in the house. The man became rich and 
was much respected, and the woman his wife was his true 

Many years had elapsed since the queen had been separated from 
the king, yet she had not forgotten him or decreased in affection for 
liim. She was always planning, in order to bring about her return 
to her husband. One day she heard that he, attended by several 
of the courtiers, would go to shoot in a certain jungle, so she went 
and told the wood-cutter her master (now a man of property), to 
take a small vessel of water and some broad with him, and follow 
the king's company into the jungle, and when the chase was over, 
at which time the king would very likely be hot and thirsty, he wan 
to gofor^vnrd humbly and present his bread and little vessel of water 
for the king's acceptance. No doubt the king would receive of the 
offering, and would make some present in return. Should he ask 
what he would have, he was to say — *' I have wealth in abundance. 
I do not wish for any more money. I only desire that the king will 
grant me an interview in the palace." The man agreed to cany 
out the queen's wishes. He went to the jungle and finding oppor- 
tunity he respectfully presented the little water and bread, which 
he then happened to have, to the hungry and thirsty king. The 
king gladly received the gift, and asked what he could do for the 
man. "Ask what you will, " he said, "and I will grant it you." 
The man answered, "I want not anything from your Majesty, but 
that you will grant me a few private interviews within the palace." 
The king was surprised at this strange request, but nevertheless 
promised that it should be so. 

Great was the rejoicing when the queen heard of this, the begin- 
ning of her triumph, as she thought. 


Frequently did this man visit the king privately, and the king 
appeared to welcome his visits. When the nobles and conrtiers saw 
this they wore very jealous, and afraid lest this " risen " wood-cutter 
should impeach them ; and so they got to know this man more 
intimately and began to give him handsome gifts by way of a bribe 
to check his tongue concerning themselves. 

The wood-cutter had now become the king's great companion, and 
having amassed still more wealth, the queen thought that it would 
not be inconsistent, if he made a great feast and invited the king 
and many of the nobles to grace it by their presence. The king 
readily accepted the invitation. The dinner was served on a most 
magnificent scale, and everybody seemed pleased. Before the 
company retired the queen went np unperceived to the king, and 
told him that his host was the poor wood-cutter of former years, 
and that she was his " wise minister." 

A reconciliation was then and there effected between the king 
and his wife. They retired to the palace together, and ever after- 
wards lived together most happily, 

Tasbih chdni chham gunnsd hisho, murid dishii leardn hham, 
Shek chinihhheyitham hisham hisJio^ tsuh ai pir tah rahzan 

Your rosary is like a poisonous snake to me ; when you see a 

disciple you twirl it. 
You ate six full dishes of rice, O if you are a saint, who is a 

robber ? 

Shekh Nur-ud-din, a very famous saint in Kashmir, during the end 
of the eighth century was accustomed to wander about teaching and 
preaching as he went. At night he would frequently sleep in a 
mosque. One evening he arrived at the mosque of another very 
holy man, concerning whom it was said that the angels often came 
to converse with him during the hours of darkness. This report 
obtained credence everywhere, and to such an extent in the village 
itself that the people subscribed together and brought him every day 
six full dishes of food to feed the angels with. The truth, however, 
was that he himself ate the food. 

Xow when this saint saw that Nur-ud-dfai intended to lodge there 
that night, he was afraid that something of his wicked ways would 
be discovered ; and so Xur-ud-din was advised to depart because of 
a great monster which sometimes came and troubled the place. 
Nur-ud-din, however, declined to go, saying " that he was not afraid 
if God watched over him." The evening wore away until at last 
Nur-ud-din laid down to sleep. The other pir was by, and when he 
thought that his unwelcome visitor was fast asleep he began to take 
out the six dishes of food, which had been brought to him that day, 
and to eat them. He ate them all, and then lay down as if one 


At early morning he arose, took out his rosary, and began to 
mumble. But Nur-ud-din liatl seen all that ha<l transpired during 
the night, and telling the man so, said also to him the words of this 
saying and left. 

Talisni katns wasik muflah. 

The skill will come off from the warm sheep. 

Now is the time. 

Batchers flay the sheep qnickly afte» killing it ; becanso if the 
flesh were left to get oold, the sldn would not then come off without 
great difficulty. 

Tavit wovmui. 
Like roasted-corn sown. 
Good words and deeds are wasted upon some people. 

Tiiz-IJat*s arrow. 

A wind-fall. 

Once upon a time a king p1ace<1 a ring upon a wall and sent forth 
:i proclamation that whosoever could 8h(M)t an arrow from a certain 
ilintance, straight through the ring, should receive two thousand 

I pis as a reward. The best and bravest archers in the kingdom 

iod, but none succeeded. At length a man called XAz-Bat, a poor 
:iiorant fellow, was one afternoon passing by that way and firing 

is arrows in all directions in a mo«t reckless fashion, he came to 
the place where the ring was hanjfing, and more from a playful 
feeling than from any thought of accomplishing the ditficult feat, 
he let go an arrow, which to his great astonishment passed clean 
through the ring. 

Tiz-Bat was at once taken to the king, who praised him and gave 
him the promised reward. Cf. " Oarih yilih" Sec. 

Bat is commonly mot with both in Hindd and Mnhammedan 
names. (T4z-Bat in the saying was a Mnhammedan) Very pro- 
bably it is derived from Batah, which means a Hindfi. Whenever a 
Mnhammedan has this name it would seem to prove that his 
ancestors where Hindus, who were converted per vim to the faith of 
Muhammed during the supremacy of the Mughals in *' the Happy 

Telak andrai chhuh til nert'n. 

From the sesame-plant oil is expressed. 

Fruit according to the tree, and wages from labour, Ac. 


Telih hd-mdlih dsan hri/dmatih herayi yelih tjuhti papan tseran 

When apples ripea the same time as apricots ripen, then, O 
father, will come the day of resurrection {i.e., the resurrec- 
tion will happen at a most unlikely time, when men look not 
for it). 

Telih tosh, yeJih nosh garah u'dtL 

"When your daughter-in-law reaches home then he glad (and 

not before, as you may rejoice to no purpose). 

Don't count your chickens before they're hatclied. 

Telilcih, Zai IDdrah beyih yihlah doh tdrah. 

O Zai Dara of former times, come again and stay a few days. 

Mourning over the weaknesses of old age. 

Zdi Vara was a very strong man, who lived to a very great 
age. He used to say in his declining years, " Zai Dira of former 
times," &c. 

Tare nah situr tah merd nah Icatah-wam. 

You have not got your cotton and I have not the price of my 

spinning; (we are quits). 

Quoted to those who are lax in paying for the making up of any 
article, e. g., a man gives some cloth to a tailor to make up into a 
coat, and promises that he will pay him eight au^s for making. In 
a day or two the man goes and asks the tailor for his coat, but 
declines to pay the promised money just then. As a general rule 
the tailor, who has been forced to do so from a past bitter experience, 
replies, "Xo, no, you don't get your cloth, and I don't get the price 
of my labour ; we are quits." 

Teshal gaikhai peshemdn, mydniv achhiv deshemdn. 
O proud woman, you will regret it, my eyes see it. 

Cited when from pride any gift or work is refused. 

Pe^^henidn (for Pashemdn) is always thus pronounced by the 
female, and very uneducated male, population of Kashmir. 

Tetis Idras zan Uuianas Icalah. 

He was beheaded like the bitter end of a cucumber. 

A speedy punishment. 

The Pathin rulers were famed for their quick justice (very often 
injustice). Xo sooner was the order given "Behead the man." or 
**Take out his eyes," or '* Cut ofE his nose," than the executioner 
left and did the cruel deed. 

Tham kale tah ham nah hale. 
The pillar may move but I shall not move. 
A fixed, determinate character. 


Thnrih posh chhih nah warih gafjhan. 
All the buds upon a bush do not blossom. 
Every child in a family d«K)S not thrive. 

Thuhak n^chuv muJcaddam, 

A stammering sputtering son as the headman of an office or 

of a village. 

A man not titted for liis position. 

Thnah fforih gayih dud hnnit. 

The milkmaids have sold their milk and gone. 

After n(>on it is almrist impossible to got milk in Kashmir, as it 
is gonemlly all sold by that time. 

Persian. — An kada bishkast o (in »dM na mdnd, 

Tifjhui tjitwai har yul matlnai Ichar ; tah luh wuchhanai 

I will have such a row with you, that it will be as if the asses 

had gone mad ; and the people will come out to see the 


If I do quarrel with you, I will (inarrol. 

Tot marit tah hot iaiydr. 

The dear one dies and the gallows are ready. 

Bettor to die. for the world is as a gallows set np, constantly 
troubling and d(>8troying. 

Viifno and others of his day speak of having seen bodies 
' >\. ;!..:i lt" from the bridfres, &c., as they passe<l up the river 
th 1. ^1 inngar. Now-a-days, however, capital punishment is no* 
}Hn uuLU .1 in the valley as it would be contrary to the Hindu law. 
(It is very seldom that one hoars of a murder in Kashmir.) 

Trah sih sah; Uataji zih pataji ; ahefh zih breth. 
A man of thirty years of age is like a lion ; a man forty years 
old is like a turn, worn, mat ; and a man sixty years of 
age is a fool. 
Shir in o Khusrau: — 

Nitshdte *umr bdshad td ha si siil 

Chihil dmnd faro rezad par o bdl 

Pas az panjdh na hdahad tandwusti 

Basar kundi pazirad pU siisfi 

Chu shast dnuid nishast dmad ba dewdr 

Chu haftdd dmad aftdd dlat az kir 

Ba hajfhtdd o nawad chun dar raddi 

Basd sakhti ki az giti kashidi 

Waz anjd 'jar 6.x sad manvil rnsdni 

Bmcad mar<je ba siirat zindagdni. 


Balthasar Gracian, in his " Oraculo Manual," has a similar saying : 
" Reason makes its appearance after seven years, and every seven 
years the disposition alters. At twenty years of age one is a pea- 
cock ; at thirty years of age, a lion ; at forty years of age, a camel ; 
at fifty years of age, a snake ; at sixty years of age, a dog; at seventy 
years of age, an ape ; and at eighty years of age, nothing. " 

" Three things make a prodigy, and are the highest gift of Heaven's 
liberality — a fruitful intellect, a profound judgment, and a pleasant 
and elevated taste. At twenty years of age the will rules ; at thirty 
years of age the intellect rules ; and at forty years of age the judg- 
ment rules." 

Tralms wuhhu I j) drsang . 

A mortar as an equipoise for one trak (4fsers). 

An incorrect weight. 

Trdmahwen bdnan chhuh Uuh dmut. 

The copper vessels have got their bottoms burnt. 

Only the wealthier classes use copper vessels ; hence the mean- 
ing is, that trouble visits the great also sometime?. 

Tran chizan chheh nah yets hdl tun Tcdimi rozdn, Him be-bahsy 

vk'I be-tiji'rat, iah nmlh be-siyi'.sai. 
Three things have no long continuance ; knowledge without 

argument (exercise) ; wealth without commerce ; and a 

country without law and management 

Cf. Gulist^ri Ch. viii. — Se chiz ast ki hild se chiz neme mdnad, 'Urn 
he hahs, mdl he tijdrat viulk he siydsat. 

TrdwamnU Ihuk ningalani. 
To swallow one's spittle. 

Taking back a divorced wife, or dismissed servant. 

Treh hat noh bnliai puhUhi. 
Three paisas not twelve mites. 

Six, not half-a-dozen. 

Three pais^s are equal to twelve mites, but there was once a very 
stupid fellow who would not see this. Hence the above saying is 
sometimes quoted on receiving any stupid answer. 

Trukis hatha mudds lorih hatd. 

To the sharp a single word ; to the dull a hundred stripes. 

Trushis gardfvshis. 

A spirited person angry for an hour. 


Tsak dap ^* beni,*' buh dapak *' buyih-*' panani khth chheh 

pananih jdyih. 
You say "sister,'* I will say "brother.'* Each one's matter 

is in its own place. 

Wo are both guilty. The only thing for us both to do, is not to 
go and poach ono on the other, bat to smother oar foolings and 
keep qaiot abont it. 

Tfiah tah buh lak Lutah hdk. 
You and 1 and Mr. Plunder. 

A secret between two people j lot both of them take caro not to 
inform against each other ! 

K^k is a term implying intense respect for the person thus 
addressed, and is common both to the Muhamniodans and Hindus. 
A son will thus address his father ''llatah, sah, Kdk." The younger 
moinbers of the family >vill thus address thoir eldest brother, 
" W/ilah, sah, Anand Kdk." And any very respected person outsido 
the family may thus sometimes be addressed, " Boziv, sah, Nardyan 
Kdk." Notice that only the father is called simply K6k. 

Kdk is also the name of a Hindfi soot in Kashmir. 

Tsalanas lak. 

Running instead of fleeing. 
Trying to overcome a diflBcnlty in a *• half-and-half " sort of way. 

Tfalawun^n bohth tah IdrawunH path. 
In front of the runners-away, but the last of the pursuers. 
A coward. 

T^am tah nam ivuthit ruhhsat. 

Alter wearing one's skin and nails away in hard work to be 

dismissed (without pay)! 

A tyrannical master. 

Tsar chheh aki phnlih bdpat hairdn. 
A sparrow is m distress about one grain. 
A poor man's need, just a mite will relieve. 

T^arcn zuwan tuphui hyah ? 

Tsaris gamas gamid kyah ? 

What is a httle more irritation to a woman whose head is full 

of lice 1 
What is grief to a person already overwhelmed with it ? 
This proverb is sometimes also thus interpreted : — 
When there are many lico where is the sting ? 
When there is much grief where is the grief ? (e. jr., A famine, 
a war, or any other general calamity.) 
Sikandar-NAma. — Ki vuirge ba ambuh rd jashan hhund. 


Tsarih chhuh handi-tharih pethui rdhat. 
There is rest for the sparrow upon the thorn-bush. 
Each man finds rest in his own proper state and station. 

Tsarih hund wunthui Jtyah chhuh ? 
What is inside the paunch of a sparrow ? 

No help from a helpless man, and no mercy from a merciless 

Tsarih Tiashanah chhuh rat yiwun. 
Blood comes from much scratching. 

From much teasing, a quarrel ; from much work, exhaustion ; from 
much reading, madness, &c. 

Tsaris gat as chhuh tsur hhur. 

The wiser the man, the greater the blame (if he errs). 

Tsatit hendaivand Uahit soda. 

Cutting a water-melon, and tasting the things (before 


Advice on going to the b^ar. 

TsachamaUih ungajih nunah phei. 
A pinch of salt to a cut finger. 
A sharp word, a mean trick. 

Tsei hishih gabih chhid nt/ur Jchasan ! 

What a ewe like you climbing up to the meadow ! 

An expression of contempt for another person's powers. 

Tsentah Dewahnih wadiwih. 
Tsentah Dev's congratulations. 

Tsentah Dev was a very poor man with a very large family. 
Children were born so quickly that it seemed as if the people were 
always coming to congratulate him on the introduction of another 
member into his already numerous family. He got very angry and 
unhappy about affairs ; but still his family so increased that now his 
numerous household and constant congratulations have passed into 
a proverb. 

Tshalas tal chhui hust tih hand. 

The elephant also is caught in the trap. 

A great many things that are left undone as being impossible 
might easily be accomplished if people would only think a Httlc. 




Txhenimutj yeni hish. 
Like broken warp. 
A weak, useless fellow. 

Txhofui chhuh mut. 

A little is good {i.e., a little dinner, pride, money &c.) 

T^huche Uhuche hdnine, zyufhut waharum hdk ; 
Vufhui ausum karamah Ion tithui pyem gruk, 
I spread out my fine vegetables under the roof; 
And as was my lot so the buyer fell to me. 
A bad day's basinoss. 

Txhun ^taijumak khas larih peth, tjhun huhsh tah har thas, 

Put on trowsers, climb the house, put on the kilhsh and tap 

on the ground as you go. 

A boasting fop. 

K^hsh is a kind of shoe worn by women in Kashmir, having high 
iron hools, and the uppers lessening towards the heels. 

T^kitpih chhtii lyut ph/ndak yut sinis pdkah auet. 
As much profit from silence as there is profit to the dinner 
from cooking. 

Tshupah chkai wupah-kdr. 
Silence is profitable. 

Tshupah chheh rupah sunz. 
Silence is silvern. 

Tftkupul gupun gudiimi khdv ; 
Ddndai ednih, yas pihun ij'iv. 
The silent heifer eats the tether ; 
That ox will know who has to bear the yoke. 
Experience teaches. 

Tshur at hah chhuh nah atjon dsas tih. 

An empty hand does not even enter the mouth. 

Bo liberal and generous wherever you go, and into whosoever's 
house you enter ; if there is nothing in your hand you do not think 
of putting it to your mouth as though to oat, &c. 

Tshurui phar tah gontshan war. 

Empty boasting and twirling of moustaches. 

You may take his price from the worth of his clothes. 

Three Kashmiris on account of their i)ovorty went to Delhi, to see 
what they could do for themselves there. They do not, iowever, 


seem to have bettered themselves very much, for after some years 
when they had paid all their bills, and the expenses of a return 
journey to their own country, they found that they all three 
together were only worth one gold ring, a gold tooth, and a gold- 
worked turban tail. 

One day in the course of their perambulations they stopped out- 
side a butcher's shop in the village of Drugjan with the intention 
of buying something. The man with the ring pointed with his 
jewelled finger to a piece of goat's flesh, and asked the price, *' Yeta 
bakha ketci kdwe ?" " What is the price of this goat's flesh ?" The 
man with the gold tooth, lifting his upper lip in speaking, said, 
" Das tdkke, das takke." Two anas, two anas. The man with the 
grand turban, shaking his head, said, " Pdwe, pdwe " i. e., " You'll 
get it, you'll get it." All this time the butcher was silent ; but now 
seeing that th^y had finished, he quoted the above proverb, " Empty 
boasting and twirling the moustaches." 

The language of these three men is supposed to be bad Panjabi. 

Tshui ai Jchemah kami lubah ? 

If I eat the remnants of the dinner, with what desire shall I 

eat it ? 

Supposing I do this thing, what profit will it be to me ? 

Tsithur ai dushih waharas poshihy wahrdt ai dushih tah 

paharas poshili nah. 
Should it rain in March- April, then there will be quite 

enough for a year, but if during August it rains, then it 

will not be enough for a watch {ie., a space of three hours). 
Tsrtirah Breswur, 
Tsrar Thursday. 

Any great gathering is so called. 

Tsrdr is a village about one march from Srinagar. It is the 
burial-place of Shekh Nfir-ud-din, and hundreds flock there on 
Thursday afternoons, so as to be present at the Friday's prayers 
and sermon. 

Tsuchih'warih andarah neryd anz ? 
Will a goose come out from the bread ? 

Not enough for you and me and everybody else. 

Tsunih machih huluf tah Tcunih maehih banah hut. 

A lock for the charcoal-pot and a store-room for the pot. 

Unnecessary carefulness. 

Tsuht chhuh tsuhtis wuchhit rang ratan. 
An apple gets colour from seeing an apple. 

Iron sharpeneth iron ; so a man sliarpeneth the countenance of his 
friend. — Prov. xxvii. 17. 


Tsur chhuh he-nur. 

Thieves are without light (i, e., they love darkness because 

their deeds are evil, they are without understanding in their 

heart, or light of expression in their eyes). 

Tsur chheh phaJc. 

Theft is like a bad smell (certain to be detected). 

Tsur gayih nangah hangah-tahmangah. 
The theft became known by chance (i. e., somehow or other 
it was made manifest). 

Tsur gov zik kkur gav. 
Too much is despised. 

Tsur mah Jcar tah tsrtiHa mah khots. 
DoiiH steal and don't fear the mahalladdr. 

" Balers aro not a terror to good works." 

Tsrol is tho ancient name of mahalladiLr, the watchman or spy 
appointed over every village in the valley. 

'Vsur tjwatizuh hhurd u raft o man shudam ambdrdur. 
Fifty-four thieves ate and went, and I became the man in 


A man is appointed over a work rather '* against tho grain," and 
loses by it. 

A saying of Shiva K&k's concoming whom a story is given. Cf. 
" A war Idriiiyi,'* ^c. 

Tsur ah kapras dunguv gan. 

A walking-stick is the yard-measure for stolen cloth (i.e., 
a thief cannot expect to get the full price for his stolen 
goods ; sometimes he loses a part of it ; sometimes he has 
to bribe to keep the matter quiet ; and generally he has to 
dispose of the things quickly from danger of discovery, 
taking whatever receivers may offer him). 

'^urah kukur, 
A stolen cock. 
A forbidden work. 

Tsuran niyih zandnah, thagan khyav mukhtahdr. 

Thieves took away the wife, and sharpers ate the necklace. 

Thag, a class of thieves and sharpers who prowl about the city 
by day and by night, and are especially on the qxd vive on Fridays, 
tho day when crowds of country people come into Srinagar for 
trading, and worship in the different mosques. 


Tsuras nai mnr iisih, san Vethah puih shrapes. 

If the thief is not sharp, how will he digest his theft. 

Tsuras phut khor tah piras mdroh murid. 

The thief broke his foot and the pir's disciple was killed (for 


The innocent punished and the guilty acquitted. 

Once upon a time when unjust rule, tyranny, and all manner of 
wickedness reigned in the valley, a thief clambered up the high wall 
of a house with the intention of stealing whatever he could lay his 
hands upon. Now it chanced that the wall, being old, and perhaps 
loosened a little, also, by heavy and continuous rain, had become very 
weak, and so tumbled down breaking the thief's foot in its fall. The 
thief was very much annoyed at this interruption of his purpose, and 
at once limped along to the house of the Deputy- Inspector of 
Police., and took out a summons against the owner of the tumbled- 
down wall. The man accordingly appeared in court and pleaded his 
entire ignorance of the fragile nature of the wall, saying, that he 
had not built it, and that the bricklayer should be summoned. Ac- 
cordingly the bricklayer was brought into the court and ordered to 
show reason why he had built the wall in such a way as that it had 
fallen down with a very slight knock. He, too, pleaded "Not 
guilty," saying that there were many coolies there at the time, and 
that they prepared and gave him the plastering. If any one, surely 
these coolies ought to be summoned. Accordingly the coolies, who 
had prepared the mud for plastering, were sent for ; and duly pre- 
sented themselves at court. They also said that they had not done 
any wrong, but that perhaps the fault lay with the water-carrier, 
who might have poured too much water over the earth, so that the 
plastering became thin. Undoubtedly the water-carrier was the 
man to be punished. And so the water-carrier was summoned. Poor 
man ! The downcast, hopeless, expression of his countenance as he 
entered the court betokened his case. " Why did you pour such a 
profusion of water, " said the Deputy-Inspector, " as that the mud 
for the plastering of the wall was thin and feeble?" "I acknow- 
ledge my fault," said the water-carrier, " and am very sorry. The 
reason of it all was, that when I was pouring the water out of the 
skin upon the earth, it happened that a pretty woman passed by an'd 
I took a look at her, and was so enraptured with the sight, that I 
forgot for the moment what I was doing. I do trust that you will 
have mercy upon me and forgive me, because it was not my fault, 
that that beautiful woman just then went by." The beautiful 
woman was then sought out and brought into the court, — and truly 
she was very beautiful, but her good looks failed to impress the 
hard hearted Deputy-Inspector, who charged her with passing by 
that way at the time of the erection of the wall, and finding that 
she had nothing to say in defence, ordered her to be hanged with 
the greatest possible speed. Dumbfounded with fear aud 


astonishmont the woman suffered herself to be led along to the 
place of execution without saying a word. Thither the Deputy- 
Inspector and many others (for the matter was quickly blazed 
abroad over the city) were already assembled. On seeing the man 
who had issued the dread and unjust order for her death tho 
woman begged to be allowed to ask one favour before the deed was 
don^ " lHX)k," said she, *' at that large heavy beam (the gallows), 
and look at me so thin and feebl& The two are not compatible. 
Better that you seek for one fatter and stronger than I am ; and lot 
me go free." The Deputy-Inspector touched with the humour of 
the request, and not really caring so long as somebody was executed 
by way of a tamdshd, granted it. Search was at once made for a 
strong, corpulent, person. 

In those days there was a very famous plr in Kashmir, who used 
to reside in the jungle with no other companion than a faithful, 
loving, disciple. Now this disciple frequently had occasion to visit 
the city for the purpose of purchasing little articles, which he him- 
self and his master required. One day this disciple returned to 
his jtmgle-home with the alarming news that there was hebuj in 
the dty, ve., bad government had commenced, and that every one 
and everything were in a state of rampant confusion. On hearing 
this tho pir advised his disciple not to go again to the city until 
order and rule were re-established there; otherwise he would cer- 
tainly get into trouble. The disciple, however, made light of this 
counsel ; and on the very next opportunity went to the city. Sorry 
time for him ! Ho found the place and neighbourhood in tho 
greatest state of anarchy, and had not proceeded far along the noisy, 
crowdedt bizdr, when he, being a fine, strong, stout, young fellow, 
was accosted by the Deputy-Inspector's messengers and informed 
of his fate. A short time after this he was a corpse ; a victim to his 
own rash curiosity. 

Very, very sad was the p{r when he heard of his disciple's death. 
■ A thief broke his foot and my faithful follower got killed for it," 
:.o cried. " Henceforth alone and friendless I shall have to wander 
in the woods and desert places." First, however, he determined to 
go to tho Deputy-Inspector and avenge his disciple's unjust death. 
Immediately on reaching the city he commenced to distribute alms 
and pretended to bo most happy. On the way he met the Deputy- 
Inspector and told him who he was. The Deputy-Inspector was 
astonished to find him so glad and joyful, and asked the reason of 
it. *• My disciple," replied the pir, •' has reached heaven more 
quickly through this cruel execution ; why should I not be happy and 
glad ?" Hearing this the miserable Deputy -Inspector said within 
himself, " I, also, will be executed, that I, too, may arrive at bliss 
(luickly. This certainly is the better way." And so he executed 
himself, and there was an end of the matter. 


Tsuras (ah tsrdlis hdjwat. 

A partnership between the thief and the watchman. 

" Can two walk together except they be agreed." — Amos iii. 3. 
Tsrol. For their origin, vide note " Kashirih kahai garah." 

Tsut gayih holih tah ruh-i-padar. 

The bread has tumbled into the river and **for the father's 


A man does not give anything to God willingly, but if he loses 
any money, &c. ; he professes not to mind — " May God bless it to 
my deceased father, " says he. 

Tsutal shahras trek pal pav. 

In the sodomitish city three pals to a pav. 

A badly-managed city. 

Pdv, a weight of half -a -pound, in which are five pals. 

Tsyap laj tah tiraSy poniah gayih tah gristis. 

The sheep got a wound and the farmer got a piece of wool. 

To harm another person by stealing that which is of the greatest 
importance to him, but of not the slightest use to the thief. 

Tuhas dug dim tah puni 7nandun» 
To pound chaff and churn water. 

To plough the seashore. 

The Kashmiri has a very ingenious way of making butter. When 
the milk is ready for churning, it is placed into a big vessel, in the 
cover of which there is a hole. In this hole a stick is placed. The 
part of the stick which is inside the vessel is thick, and the part 
outside the cover is thin ; to this thin part a piece of string is 
attached, and the ends of it the man or the woman holds in their 
hands, and putting one foot upon the cover to steady it, twirls about 
the stick with the string, first pulling one end and then the other 
until the butter is prepared. 

I believe a slightly different custom prevails in India. 

Tul Jcheni honin suet. 
To eat mulberries with dogs. 
To degrade oneself. 

Tul palav wuth tsalav. 
Gird up the clothes, rise, and away. 
A wandering life. 


Tumalah siris yctih shihmas andar hatuh sharpi kat wcpi mi ? 

When the ser of rice is digested iu the stomach does the mat- 
ter remain ? 
Scaudul at tho dinnor is blazod abroad as soon as the moal is over. 

Turah ba kadr-i-^Um. 

Tlie length of the tail of a man's turban according to his 


A very wise and learned man called Shokh Clmlll visited Kashmir, 
greatly desiring to know to what extent tho people hod been* 
odDcatod, and whether they were a clever and thriving class. Tho 
KashmfHs got wind of this visit and gathered a council to consider 
how they might entrap this inquisitive foreigner in his speech. 
Tho result of their deliberations was, that they sent a most 
Uneducated man named Malah l)upiy6z to meet tho learned Shokh 
at Udramula, a town at the north-west end of tho valley. 

Malah Dupiydz went in very grand style; he was boautifnlly 
attired and looked of a most serious and meditative disposition, 
whilst to complete the deception, a man walked behind him with a 
plate upon which was rolled in a coil the end of his turban. 

The Shokh was much surprised at meeting so loamed a Kashmfri 
as this man appeared to be. In the course of conversation he 
asked him why he wore such a long tail to his turban. The 
Kashmiri replied, as he had parrot-like learnt, *' Turah ba kadr-i-'ilm" 
Then the following dialc^^e in Persiuu and another ouknown tongue 
passed between them : — 

BwodUuShekh. KabkehM? 

Sutodl-i-Malah. Mahk chUt f 

Jaiodh-i-Shekh. Kabk dar kohtdr sang-retah mekhcrad. 

Jaimib i'Malah. Mabk dar mohsdr monQrezah memorad. 

Question, Shckh. What is the meaning of " kabk f" 

Question, Malah. What is the meaning of *' mabk ?" 

Answer, Shekh. " Kabk " is the name of an animal which eats 

gravel upon tho hillside. 

Answer, Malah. (Cannot be translated, as it is a language made 
up for the occasion, in order to non-plus the Shekh.) 

Mabk also was a word coined for the moment and moans nothing. 
In this way Malah Dupiydz thoroughly frightened away the Shekh, 
so that he did not venture any further into the country. 

Kashmiris are very fond of carrying on these conversations in 
imaginary tongues. No outertainmout is complete without them. 




Vnglas peih hungalali. 
A bungalow upon an inch of ground, 
A good bargain j a cheap concern. 

Tin d/ind rovjarih susas dundas wat. 

One blind ox will lead a thousand oxen astray. 

One fool makes many. 

GulistSn, Ch. II. — lHa rrehini hi gdwe dar *alafzdir 
Biydldyad hama gdwdn i dih rd. 

Un ley ah zanih prun bat ah ? 

Will a blind man know white rice ? 

A fool knows nothing. 

There are fotirteen varieties of rice grown in the vallejr^ 

XJn hhutsih nah anigatihj 

Kani phatih nah vedrih zah, 

Hunis adij rotih nah hatih, 

Nihi Icarit rdwih nah zah. 

A blind man will not fear the darkness ; 

A stone will never be broken by the ice ; 

A bone will not stick in a dog's throat ; 

A good deed will never be lost. 

i/r mah gaUh tah yuri wulah. 
Don't go there but come here. 

Do not interfere in a quarrel or aaxj wickedneBS*^ 



IVahuhas Kalimak nah dar hunih tak nah dewdr. 

The Kalima in time of plague is neither a door anywhere 

nor a wall (i.e., is no protection ; you should have repeated 

it before). 

Pray betimes. 

Knlimah is the Mahammodan confession of faitlu La, ilAha Ula 

'llih, ica Mukammad Iia$<ilu'lUih. Thero ia no Doity bat God, and 

Muhammad is the Apostle of Grod. 

Wdguvi dandarih pethui go9 pviyth ehhamh. 

Tlie edge of the mat became as a precipice to hira. 

A man who becomes a bad character from a very little mflttor; or 
who dies from a vury little sickness ; or who is in despair bocause of 
a very little discooragoment. 

JVahnthor kdlak gupan tak pagah tor. 

O Wahathor, last night a cow, and to-morrow a pig, 

A ficklo disposition. 

Wahathor^ a village in the Yfch pargana. 

Shekli Nur-ud-dSn once cnr8o<l this village, boi^ase ono day ho 
went there ex])ccting to bo hospitably treated as in former times, 
and the people wonld not at all entertain him. 

Wdjih siiH athah p^tk ihawun. 

To put the jewelled hand upon another*8 shoulder. 

Wortls from the wealthy man fail to comfort the poor man. Why 
does he not back them np with a present of money ? 

JVaktas nah witsda mochhih tah wahtas nah wetsdn huehhih, 
^Sometimes it is contained within the hand and at other times 

it cannot be held within the bosom. 

Tho fickle world. 

Persian — Ki ciyin e jahdn gdhe chenin gdhe ehSndn hdshad, 

Jfakhth h'r gav taJchtuk pudahdh. 

Work done at the proper time is like a king's throne. 

Wanah toolit wethi, wahras rachhit, w'ianih wizih, dah. 
After having tended a tree for a year to cut it down and take 

it to the river ; and at the time of taking it down to throw 

it with force upon the ground. 

After showing » man much kindness, and considerably helping 
him, to tarn the back upon him. 


Wanah wulit Wcthih tfhunizih Sirun loazum dlzih nah zah ; 

mandini gar hhcnih gaUhzih Mungah-Hum aulas gaUh- 

z\h nah zah. 
Better to bring it from the jungle and throw it into the river 

than to lend anything to the people of Sirun, (for they 

never pay back); and better to eat the flesh of the sacrifice 

than to accept the invitation of the people of Mungah-Hum, 

(for they are very bad hosts). 

Sirun is a village in the Dachhanpor pargana. Vessels of stones 
are hewn there. Sometimes this place is called Siram Khira Hum. 

Mungah Hum, a village in the Chhirat pargana. 

Wanunui aut tah ramm nah hehh. 
For a long time saying only, but not cooking anything. 
Actions speak louder than words. 

Wananwulih Ueh nai chhai ahl tah bozanwidih tseh iik 

chhai nd? 
O talker, if you have not got understanding, you have, O 

hearer, haven't you ? 

Never listen to idle tales and scandal. 

Wandas chhuh jandan pMh. 

In the winter-time there is warmth from an old patched-up 


Sikandar Ndma — Maiyafkan Icawal garchi 'dr dyidat, ki hangdmi 
sarmd ba kdr dyidat. 

" Wungujo gar ah ho dudid.** " Wagevi hnn pilaiiywny 
** O Wanguj, here the house is on fire." " Give me my little 
piece of matting." 

Every man for himself, and especially in time of trouble. 
Bustdn, Ch. 1—Shehe dud i khalk dtashe bar farokM 
Shenidam ki Bagjiddd j,inie bisokht. 
Yeke shukr guft andar dh khdk o dud. 
Ki dukdn i vidrd gazande nabud. 

Wdni chheh hawdni. 

The sound is as a goddess (= to our ''Amen"), 

Wt'^ni chav shaM tah suh gav sharmandah ; 
Tilaiodni chav kohz tah tas lug mad, 

A shopkeeper took a little wine and was ashamed of himself ; 
The oil-expresser drank some rice-water, and he became 
intoxicated with pride. 


A refrpectable man 1*8 nshamed of a very small fanlt, while the 
man of low dojceo is ma<le proud by a very small matter. 

Wuni, shopkcopor, one who sells siifjar, rice, oil, «feo. He thinks 
himself immeasurably above the tilawoni in position, and would not 
iiitoriiiurry with his people on any account. 

JVdui^ wani Itani pati. 

Speaking, speaking behind the ear. 

Forget fulness. Inattention. 
JVani, wani tjandun. 
Jungles upon jungles of sandalwood. 

A life of supremo ease ; iwace and plenty everywhere. 

TVflntiun. Natives say thavt there is a jungle of a kind of sandal- 
wood in WaraA Divi in the Kutah&r pargana. Large quantities are 
imported from the Panjdb. 

IVanicht'.n ydren Khuduyah tundaag. 

The water of God for the pines of the wood. 

God will provide. 

The pine is very common on the Himdlayas. The moat wide- 
spread species is the Vinus longifolia, 

Jrdnia chhih grdh wtdi. 

The customer is known to the shopkeeper, 

IVdntia dunia hhezih luiih tah ijhotjia hyah khTizih ? 

A man can get something out of a wont walnut, but what 

can he eat from a tshots. 

As good as nothing. 

There are four kinds of walnnts : — (i) Wont, a walnut with a hard 
shell, from which the kernel is sopanited with great difficulty, (ii) 
liurazul, a walnut with a thin shell, and the kernel is easily separated, 
(iii) Khnkhur or 'Ffhotjah-kony which is without a kernel, (iv) Tsu- 
shdkal, TrShshdkcU or Suskokul is a walnnt having eight divisions, and 
very rare. Whenever one is obtained it is readily purchased by the 
Hindus, who never eat it, but keep it as a dainty morsel for the 

Wi'tnyo degalia nai chhui tah zevih tih chhui nd ? 

O shopkeeper, if you have nothing in your pots, you have 

a tongue, haven't you? 

If one's dinner is meagre, his speech need not bo so. 
Warah'inxdxh Tulah-mid. 
From Baramula to Tulamul (about twenty -four miles 


A gootl walk or ride. 

Warah-mul is the correct name for the town commonly called 
B&ramula, whore visitors change horses and coolies for the boats on 


their way into " the Happy Valley." The lower class Kashmiris, and 
perhaps residents of Panjabi extraction, have changed the w (wav) 
into b (be), as also in the case of other words, e.g., TFernag is changed 
by them into Bemkg, Achhiioal into Achhibal, and TFijbidrd into 
Bijbihdr^, &c. 

MvZ or Mulah is a common ending to Kashmiri names of places. 
Besides Warah-mul and Tulah-mul, there are Drugahmul, Kuchihmul 
and others. Mul means root, foundation, creation, &c., Hence the 
creation of Warah or Wardh, the root of the mulberry tree, and so 
on. Warah-mul, the creation of Warah or Warah or Waraha, the hog 
or third incarnation of Vishnu. So called, because in ancient times 
the place is said to have been terribly troubled by a Rakshasa called 
Hiran&k, who had fortified himself against all attacks of man or beast 
by asking the deity to protect him against these. He had, however, 
forgotten to include the name of the boar amongst the others which 
he had enumerated as wishing to be protected against ; and so when 
the people of Warah-mul cried unto their gods in great distress their 
petition was heard, and Vishnu, assuming the form of a boar, came 
down and slew the Bakshasa. Cf. Sanskrit HiranydTcsha, Monier 
Williams' Dicty. 

Tulah-mul, the root of the mulberry-tree. It is supposed to have 
been a lake at first, and having connection with the great Anchar 
Lake, about four miles distant from Srinagar. Three hundred and 
sixty N4gs (or snake gods) are said to have resided there, and in 
their midst the goddess Kdgni^ ; but no one ever saw them, except 
a Pandit, Krishna Kar by name. He was one of the goddess' de- 
votees, and he worshipped her so regularly and earnestly that the 
goddess deigned to manifest herself to him. She appeared unto hira 
in a dream, and told him to go to the Anchar Lake, because there she 
would show herself to him. The Pandit enquired how he should find 
her Ndg, whereupon she told him to go there in a boat, and on his 
arrival she would under the form of a serpent lead him to the place. 
All happened as the goddess had said. The Pandit was guided to a 
spot where a mulberry tree had grown ; and the place was quite dry. 
There and then Krishna Kdr worshipped Rdgnid, and afterwards left 
and told all the people of the wondrous vision and gracious words 
which he had seen and heard. Cf . Sanskrit Bdjni, Monier Williams' 

Warak mulik wav. 
The wind of Bararaula. 

Jdnbaz Sdhib, a Muhammedan religious mendicant, lived at 
Baramula in olden days, when the place was noted for its great 
heat. At one time for a whole week the sun shone upon the town 
with such increasing vigour that the people were being struck down 
with fever in large numbers. Then it was that Janbaz prayed, and 
the air was at once changed, and a good wind sprung up, which has 
continued to blow around Baramula ever since. Janbdz Sahib's 
tomb is to be seen in the town, and is much venerated and visited. 


Wnrhnjih mnndnre par nai usie, 

Noshi nai dsie hash tah zuin^ 

Mukaddainas patah nai phukaddam usiCy 

Gumas tiilihe shf'mas Um. 

If there were not an ftxo for the crooked log, 

If there were not a mother-in-law and sister-in-law for the 

If there were not a phukaddam after the mukaddam. 
Then he (or she or it) would trouble the village until the 


No rule — no peace, and no coxmtry. 

Mukaddam, the headman of a village, called lambarddr in the 

Vhukaddam^ an officer under the authority of tho mukaddam. 

Wari chhuh treh hat tah aheth doh. 
A year is 3G0 days. 
Lay by for the morrow. 

Wdrini nishih shur thawun "khatit. 
To hide the child from the midwife. 

Perfectly useless to try to keep tho BOorot> 

Worn : — Dixi ie pet nahik ehkuptd. 

Wdrini prasun hechhimwun. 

Teaching the midwife how to deliver a child. 

Teaching one's grandmother how to suok eggs. 

Teaching a shopkeeper his tables, &c 

Wast chhih dubi sandih tiikah talah a/if gaUh'tn. 

The clothes become clean beneath the washerman's stick. 

" There is a great want in thoeo peoplo who have not suffered.'' 

Wat ah welai tah jorah juddi. 
May you miss the way and be separated from one another. 

A Kashmiri curse. 

Wdtal Batwurah. 

A sweeper's Saturday (t.^., no time — I shall never get it). 

There are several classes of watul or mihtar log. Some who mako 
wimiowing fans and are called shupi-wdtnl, somo who do regular 
mihtar's work and arc generally called duwanwol : and others who 
mako boots and shfxjs and are called simply wdtul. Like people of 
other crafts the bootmaker invariably wants something in advance, 
and promises tho boots on tho following Saturday, which promise is 
renewed for two or three Saturdays, uutil the order is fulfilled, 
llonce tho proverb. 


Wf'tal Bi'aswdrah. 
The sweepers' Thursday. 

Vide supra. 

Wutalan iir. 

The sweeper's sheep. 

Money or property in the hands of a man of low degree. 

Watan hund mdz latan tak latan liund fndz watan. 

The flesh of the road to the sole of the foot and the flesh of 

the soles of the feet to the road. 

A man who earns his living with great difficulty. 

Some work so hard, and walk so far, that the skin comes off from 
their hands and feet, and the dust of the ground cornea in its Btead> 
and cannot be washed off again. 

Watih wati chhuh db pah an. 

The water flows its straight regular course. 

No humbug about that man or that arrangement. 

Wafshen vjahrahvmd. 

A birthday to calves ! (there is no need to commemorate 
their natal day). 
Cited when an unworthy man has been honoured, &c. 

Wafskis gyad tah dundas lov ; 

Insi'if rov tah wanav has? 

Kahan gar an Imni tov, 

Hemmat ruv tah wanav has ? 

Six wisps of grass to the calf and only one to the ox ; 

Justice lost and to whom shall we speak ? 

Only one frying-pan between eleven houses. 

Courage gone and to whom shall we speak ? 

The reign of injustice. 

Cf. note to " Kashirih kahai garah.'* 

Wav, bdy wav, zih Ion, hd, Ion. 

Sow, brother sow, that you may reap, brother, reap, 

Wdv kas zih yes patah dv ? 

Who has such trouble that he should lag behind ? 

Wdv wuchhit gatshih m'lv trdwuni. 

Look at the wind before you loose the boat. 

Consider before you act . 


Wi'was ni'wah sail. 

To take out the boat when a strong wind is blowing. 
An ansuitable time for aiiy work. 

Welinjik peth icukhul, 

A mortar upon the clothes-line. 

I mpossiblo. 

Natives tie lines of string right across their rooms and hang 
clothes, vegetables, &o., apon it. 

JVeshumitntn surug. 
Wt'shamitar's heaven. 

To (iio on tho completion of any great object. 

Wethamitar was a rikhis. or arch-saint, among the Hindus. Ho 
mado a hoavon fur himself, and when ho had Gnished it and had 
just sot foot on the doorstop to enter therein, ho died. 

Wnth poshih nah at hah chhalanas- 

The river-water will not be enough for washing his hands. 

A wasteful, extravagant, man. 

WSth is the Jhelam river in its course through Kashmir. 

TFeth fjhenid zih panun tjhenih ? 

Will the dividing of the river be as if any of your own 

relations were going to be hurt ? 

Your own is your own, another's is another's. 

fVt'.thi kati chhdk grazan zih ugarah ? 

O Wcth, whence are you roaring? From the spring. 

The spring of a woman's happinosd is tier husband's love, tho 
spring of a man's prosperity is a friend's help, the spring of a nation's 
distress is tho ruler's mismanagement. 

W^thih nt'ibad pkul. 

Some sugar-candy for the river. 

A little gift lost in the vastness of the receiver's need. 

TFetjur-Nf'gai marutjah n'-bad. 

(Eating) the sugar and pepper at Wetsnr-Nag. 

To break one's journey for rest and food, or to eat at home tho 
food which was prepared for the journey. 

Gangabal is a stream tributary to the Sindh river. Hither go those 
Pandits bearing the ashes of dead relations who died during the 
previous year, which they throw into the sacred stream with great 
reverence. Cf. note " Siryas hyuh na/j," .^c. When going tothis place, 
while ascending the Barut mountain they sometimes fall sick either 


from the effects of the rarified atmosphere, or else from overtired- 
ness ; and so the pilgrims are advised to take some sugar and pepper 
with them and eat these as medicines, if they should feel ill. 
These sngar and pepper are not on any account to be eaten at 
Wetsar-Nag. On one occasion a little boy about six years old, not 
having been well instructed in the manners of the pilgrimage, began 
to eat some of his sugar-candy at Wetsar Nag, a march or so too 

IVoni hudih tah pavm/mah thurih. 

The shopkeeper will grow old and throw ahout the scales. 

A useless, old servant. 

Woni cJikui poni Jcisarih tali. 

Hurih hastis hewdn muli. 

The shopkeeper is like water below rice-chaff. 

He buys an elephant for a cowrie ; — (sharp, cunning fellow !) 

Woni gav sut yus pum's bozih hisob. 

He is a shopkeeper, who understands (even) the worth (of a 
drop) of water, (so that he does not waste a trifle of any- 

Woni gav sui yus machh Uahih. 

A shopkeeper is he who will hck up a fly (i.e., will not waste 

a scrap). 

A shopkeeper married his daughter in very grand style. During 
the ceremony he placed some very valuable pearls upon her veil. 
Everywhere his name became distinguished because of this splendid 

Some days after the wedding was concluded two merchants came 
to him bringing some honey for sale. He bought it, and while he 
was storing it away in his shop he noticed a fly in one of the pots, 
which he extricated, licked the honey off from it, and then threw 
away. His daughter chanced to see him do this dirty trick and 
despised him for it. " Father," said she, " how could you be so 
vulgar after having spent so much money over my wedding and 
appeared so grand ! " The girl was so upset by this act of her 
father's that she got ill, and only became well again ,vhen it was 
proved to her that this extreme care, which her father manifested, 
had alone enabled him to spend such an enormous sum of money 
over the wedding. 

Wuchhit un tah bdzit zur. 
Seeing, yet blind, and hearing, yet deaf. 
See all and hear all, but say nothing. 


Wuchhlo "kyahpyav husnas iv&v ; runtasih hinih Sh^ih Mul n^iv. 
Look, what a misfortune has happened to beauty ; people 

have given the ugly woman the name of Shah Mai. 

8hdh Mdl is the uamo of a great and beautiful woman. 

Wudah-Puruk be^garaz. 

The independent, lazy people of Wudapur. 

Wudapilr is a village in the Utar pargana. The people areas they 
are proverbially represented. No person, if thoy can help it, wiU 
take a servant from the village. 

Wufawane rafanih. 
Catching (birds or) things as they fly. 
" Credulous f ools ."— Shaks. 

** fTuhld khasun kuthu zih wasun?** " Har-du Idnat." 
" O camel, how do you going up and coming down hills V* 
'*0h, both are a curse.'* 

There is a touch of the curse about everything down here. 

Wunth budyov tak mutkar harun heehhun nah. 

The camel has become aged and has not learned how to help 


Old age is second childhood. 
Persian. — Bhutwr jAr shud shdshidan na amolcht, 

Wuhtah natjun tah khar dhang chhch mashhur. 

A camel's dancing and an ass's braying are well-known. 

A work out of time and oat of place. 

A camel and an ass were gracing in the same meadow together, when 
suddenly the ass brayed very loud. * Be quiet," said the camel, *' you 
will disturb the whole neighbourhood and the people will come out, 
and catch as and bind ns, and we shall henceforth have to carry 
burdens. Be not so foolish, I pray you." But the ass did not desist; 
on the contrary he brayed the louder, and the consequence was that 
some men hearing the noise came forth and caught both the animals. 
The camel was filled with rage, but kept his counsel, determining to 
revenge himself upon the ass at the earliest opportunity. 

One day both the camel and the ass were walking together carry- 
ing loads, when they arrired at a bridge, upon which the camel began 
to dance with all his power. 

*' Steady, steady," cried the ass, " you will break the bridge and 
we both shall bo precipitated into the deep river." But the camel did 
not hear ; on the contrary he seemed to dance more clumsily and with 
greater vigour, until presently the beams of the bridge snapped into 
two pieces and they both fell into the water and were killed. Cf. 
Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, Vol. LII., Part 1, p. 90, the Rev. C. 
Swyunerton's tale of " The Four Associates." 


TFunuh tnm thuktam suzaharih sun chhum ; 

Ajih hurih hanahuKij druyi no. 

Wunuk tdm thuktam mdlin kronui ; 

Az nai dkn fshutsah-konui droi. 

Up to this day you boast about the gold in your purse ; 

But never so much as an earring of half-a-cowrie's worth 

has appeared. 
Up to this day you boast about your father's house and people ; 
But to the present day not an empty walnut even has come 

out of it. 

Empty boasting. 

Wupar mahalluk gav kukar Uur. 

A man from another district is a thiever of fowls. 

Srinagar is divided into several mahallas. People of one mahalla 
dislike very mucli to have anything to do with the people of another 
mahalla. The people of the one will not receive the people of the 
other ; the children of the one will beat and abuse the children from 
the other ; and the very dogs also will not recognise one another in a 
friendly way. It is a constant occurrence to lose fowls, &c., as a 
natural consequence of this estrangement. 

Wupasladas chhuh hurt pat ai. 
A dog following after a fasting man. 
One trouble after another. 

Wurah-gahar chhih sorah khyuL 

Wurah-molis torih dab zangih. 

Wurah-mdlis khorah rut. 

Step-sons are like a herd of swine. 

A stroke with the chisel upon the feet of the step-father, 

A chain for the feet of the step-father. 

Wurun wuchhit gaUhih khor waharun. 

A man should stretch out his feet after looking at the bed- 
Marathi. — Hdtrun pdhun pdya pasardve. 

'* Wushini benit yuharin wulah,^^ '* turuni beni uharin gafsh.'* 
" O warm (i.e., rich) sister, come here. O cold sister, go there.'* 

Cupboard love. 

In Kashmir a wealthy man is called a warm man, ak garm 
mdhynuv j a rich tomb (place of pilgrimage,) is called alt garm zidrat. 


Wufshneras hhal khish ; turneras mal mish. 

To a warm (j.e., a wealthy) man, his heart's desire; but to a 

cold man {i.e.y poverty), filth aud repulsion. 

Khal khish, lit., elaughter of boasts. 

Mish is a general word said with a drawl for urging cattle 
along, Ac. 

*'fFuth nush hut khasr *' Ayas kyah karanih ?" 

*'Ilise, O daughter-in-law, aud get up to your room." 

" What else have I come for?" 

One's duty. 

People are married very early in the country of Kashmfr, if their 
parents can afford it. The custom of Hindis at the first marriage 
is to make the bride and bridegroom sleep together in the husband's 
house for one day only. After which they are separated until the 
bride attains the age of puberty. Among Muhammedans the couple 
sleep together for a whole week, and then are separated. In the 
saying above the bride is supposed to have reached her mother-in-law'a 
dwelling, and immediately on arrival she is told to go to her room . 
•' For this very purpose I have come," says the girl. 

*' Wuth nikah kdm kar." ** Nikah chhus tah hekah nah." 
'• Wuth nikah batah kheh.** Vul imjon katih chhuh ?'* 
*' Get up, youngster, and work.'* ** I am weak and cannot." 
** Get up, youngster, and eat something." "Where is my 
big pot?" 

Wuthiv kothev bihiv kothev kheyiv ihikt'r mdz. 

Wuihiv nai bihiv nai tah kheyiv panun nUz. 

Get up knees and sit down knees and eat the flesh of the 

prey ; 
If you wont get up and sit down then eat your own flesh. 

Work is health and life. 

Tf^utih wulah, madano. 

Come, O friend, and be tempted j (not I, I know better). 

Wutini baliiyih tut. ^ 
Another gets his punishment. 
The wrong man. 

U'^uvur matyd tih wunah Uur karih bcyih ? 

Is the weaver so mad that he will again steal wool ? 

A bnmt child dreads the fire. 

PanjabS. — A^ di\ jalid titdne te dardd hat. 


Wuvuri sundi tJydran dah sets, 
A weaver's wealth is ten anas, 

A stupid man with a little money who wishes to be thought a ^eat 

There was a poor wretched weaver who had only ten anas, which 
he hid in the dust under his feet. He put five ^nas under one foot 
and five ^u5s under the other foot, and while he was weaving he 
used to work his feet up and down (as if at a treadmill) and say 
" Is phallih pdnch, us phallih pdnch," which translated is " Five in 
this place and five in that place." News of this got wind, and one 
day the poor weaver lost all his ten ^nas. He then continued to say, 
*' Is phallih toh, us phallih toh" of which the interpretation is, " On 
this side chaff and on that side chaff." — It appears that the thief 
had put some chaff in the place of the money stolen. 

Wuzalih h'lnih tsup hadun. 
To bite oa the red side (of an apple, &c.) 
A gaint share in the partnership. 

" Wuzamui, naU naU tai ai panziai.^' 
** O monkey, dance upon loan." 

A debtor's reply to a hard creditor. 

Some of the natives earn their living by training monkeys to 
dance and do other tricks. They take them about, as they do in 
England, to the people's houses, and some of the people give them 
money, while others promise to give on the morrow. 

" Wuzamj/o kutu guk ?'* " Sorer rdwaramh." 
*♦ O debt, whither gone ?" *' To increase the debt." 
Keep out of the clutches of the money-lender. 


Yn pur nah tah dur. 

Either altogether, or else be at a distance. 
The whole hog or none. 

Yd iai haj nah tah laj " Huri " wanane. 

At first she was dumb, but afterwards she began to saj 


Time will make mention. 

Hurt is a sound for driving away cows. 

Yi'i tjalun nah tah tjt'lun. 
Either flee or else suffer. 

Yd turav nah tah burav. 
Either suffer or else go. {Vide mpra.) 
** Go, you rascal, or I will smite you." 

Yad chhani tdh chhit nani. 

The stomach empty but the dress displayed to view. 
Stinting the stomach to support tho back. 

Yad chhuh nah wuehhun hahh tah tanih ehhuh wuchlUm parat 

No one sees the stomach but everybody sees the body. 
JLn argument for dress. 

Yad dag chheh bod dag. 

The stomach pain is a great pain. 

" In the sweat of thy face shalt thou oat broad.** 

Yad Uhana tah gontnan diioAn tdv. 
An empty stomach, yet twirling his moustache. 
The would-be gentleman. 

Yadal chhui be-imdn, 

A fat man has no religion. 

" Jeshurun waxed fat and kicked." 

Yojih ai phuchhih tah kuchih chhes ati. 
If the biscuit is broken, the pieces are here. 

Here are the items of the account, we will add up the total again. 


Talc tan tah du leas. 
One body and two persons. 
A married couple. 

Yahar chhdnuni kukar pachih-baran. 
Yakar, the carpenter's fowl-house. 

An unfinished work. 

Fowl -houses, garden-walls, &c., in Kashmir are frequently made 
of a loose rough kind of wooden railing called pachah-haran. 

Yakar, a carpenter, is said to have built a fowl-house for some 
person, which tumbled down directly one of the fowls flew upon it. 

TaJcur murit aihan phak. 

Lay hold of (lit., kill) the yakur plant and your hand will 


You cannot touch pitch without being defiled. 

Yamah, yitam tah nitam. 

O angel of death, come and take me. 

Quoted in a most piteous tone when any person begs to be let off 
anj difficult or unpleasant work. 

Yapf'rih hid bahar tah aparih hid lahar. 

On this side of the hill (he promised to give me) a goat, but 

(when he had reached) the other side (by my help, he 

gave me) the stick, i.e.y he beat me. 

Yar hyah layih zih tsarih bachih. 

What is the worth of a friend that you will not give him the 

young sparrow. 

A request refused. 

Yur gai hatah-mar. 
Friends are rice-stores. 

" Make to yourselves friends." 

A king had three sons, to each of whom when they were grown 
up he gave a lakh of rfipis to profit with as they each thought right. 
One of them tried trade and became exceedingly rich, another went 
and founded many caravanserais for pilgrims and travellers; and 
the third travelled everywhere lavishing gifts upon the people and 
entertaining them in large numbers, and in grand style. In course 
of time they all met together again and recounted their several 
experiences. When the king had heard these he praised the first two 
sons ; but was angry with, and despised, the youngest. 


The king's country was in a state of great confusion ; an enemy 
with a very strong force behind him had appeared against it. What 
was the king to do ? He was weak and friendless. He called his 
wise ministers, but they could not help him out of his diflBculties. 
At length he sought the advice of his sons. The first son advised 
yielding in the most honourable way possible ; the second son said 
that he could not help his father ; but the third — who had been sent 
for, it was true, but without any expectation of real help or wise 
counsel from him — he saidi " king, my father, command me to go 
Against this enemy and I will overcome him." The king consented. 
''Go and do better with your men when you get them, than you did 
with your money when you had it." The youngest son went forth 
with a glad and hopeful heart calling together his friends on the way. 
The people remembered his generosity and amiability and answered 
readily to his call, until at last ho had with him a very large force of 
most enthusiastic followers, by whose help he thoroughly routed the 
enemy, so that they returted no more to trouble the laud. 

The king had a different opinion of his youngest son after this. 
Instead of despising him he esteemed him the most worthy of all 
his sons, and appointed him to the greatest honour. 

Ydr z/ignn tjkalas tamt'ki chilim chat tah Ualaa. 

The friend lies in wait to deceive ; after smoking the pipe he 

will run away. 

A heartless servant or friend, &o. 

Turas moj mut/ih (ah luhah saat'iht ynr mud tah Icunih nah hahh. 
If a friend's mother dies a thousand people remain (because 

the friend is alive), but if the friend is dead, then there is 

nobody left. 

•' All the wealth of the world could not buy you a friend, nor pay 
you for the loss of one." 

Yaa gov hund dud tah gurus Ichezih tasund petjhur tih gatjhih 

One must take the cow*8 kick as well as her milk and butter. 

We cannot afford to quarrel with a good servant or good horse, Ac. 
Fas korih nethar soh kur lubaran ! 
A daughter about to be married gathering dung ! 

A person who is everywhere and doing everything except in th« 
right place and doing the right thing. 
Tas lug **harah karah" suh karih ; 
Yaa lug ** marah marah " suh marih. 
He who says " I will do, 1 will do,'* he will do ; 
He who cries '* I shall die, I shall die," he will die. 

Where there's a will there's a way. 


Yas mahnyvis heyih sund had yiyih tas gatjhih panun 

He who wishes evil to another man, will suffer his own loss. 

Harm hatch, harm catch. 

Yas nak waUh nar tas gayi garasui andar phar. 
He whose arm is not raised (in labour), to him a dried fish 
has become in the house. 

Industry begets wealth. 

Phar. — Durmg the winter months the fishermen go out with their 
boats in companies of ten or twelve after these little fish, which they 
catch in a cast-net. Half-a-dozen boats will spread themselves 
across the river sideways and beat the water with their paddles, to 
frighten the fish into the half-a-dozen nets, which have been thrown 
for them by the other boats a little way ahead. In this way some- 
times a mile of the river is scoured in an evening, and maunds upon 
maunds of fish are frequently caught by one company. When it 
begins to get dark the fishermen fasten their boats to the bank and 
collect all their fish together into one place. Then they spread a 
layer of leaves or grass, and over this a layer of fish and a sprinkling 
of salt, then another layer of leaves or grass and so on, until a great 
mound is raised. Everything ready they now light big fires on all 
four sides of this mound to dry the fish, and sit by and watch, until 
the fires go out. On the following morning the fish are taken out 
and strung upon sticks ready for sale. Only the poorer classes 
purchase them, as they are not very savoury or wholesome. 

Yas ivandas hammdm tah retakkdiih gdv, sui hd-viAlih 

dunyahas uv. 
That man has come into the world, O father, who has got a 

warm bath for the winter and a cow for the summer. 

Blessed is the man who has everything in its season. 

A saying of Shekh Nur-ud-din. 

Yas wat rawih tas hawan dah ; 
Yas kaih rowih tas howih nah hanh. 
Him, who loses his way ten men will direct ; 
But he who loses a word, — who will direct him ? 
" Each sacred accent bears eternal weight, 
And each irrevocable word is fate." — Pope. 

Yas waUh nar tami hheyih luhah hanz lar. 

He who raised his arm (i.e., in labour) ate the house of the 


Industry begets wealth. 


Tm yu8 ffafshih snh tas gaUhih mnkari dtt. 

Let that man who wants anything give a golcUmohur (as a 

bri be) for it. 

Money commands even the gods. 

Tat hatoah-saras uyai Icahti ! 

Kahk nai dyulhum kansih sueli. 

How many people came to this lake-like world I 

Bat I have not seen anyone (going away) with anyone (i.e., 

we die separately and alone). 

This world is called lake, or sea like, beoanso it is so diflRcult to 
cross over it with safety^ Fufe note *• Samandaras manz,'* Ac. 

Tat nam atjih, tat ahistar kyah Ugun, 

Where a finger-nail will enter (will do it), there is no necessity 

for iron. 

When ono can accomplish the matter easily, what is the good of 
creating a noise. When it can be done very economically, what 
profit is there in spending much money over it, &c. 

Tath gainas nah gatjhun ^sih, iamih gdmuh nuwui hyun Ityah 

chhuh f 
Is it necessary to ask the man of that Tillage whether you 

have to go, or not ? 

Useless speech. 

TaiK nurah butisul ntai di nxaruye, 

J)ur nai latiye rozih samsur, 

JVuohhtai Pdndawan hund dih duruye ; 

Tim krdlah garanui chhapane tjui! 

Timanui kyah aus lyukhmut Hariye, 

Dur nai latiye rozih »am»tr. 

Don't hide your light face in your sleeve, dear. 

The world will not always remain. 

See how firm were the bodies of the Pandus ; 

Yet they had to hide themselves in a potter's house ! 

According as Hari had written in their lot. 

My dear, the world will not always remain. 

" Nothing in this world can last." 

The above is the poetry of a very holy fakfr woman (neither Mn- 
hammcdan nor Hindu) named Habbah Khotan, who used to live 
•t a village called P^dachhuk, where there is a wooden mosque, 


which she erected from the savings of her spinning-wheel earnings. 
The people say that she was accustomed to cross the river upon a 
lion, which beast God gave her as a special present. 

Pdndus. Yudhishthira, and four other princes, sons of Pandn, a 
sovereign of ancient Delhi. For a full account of these demigods 
and of their great enemies the Kurus, cf. any classical Dictionary 
of India. Here I will only explain the above lines. Yudhishthira, 
the eldest son, was installed as heir-apparent, and soon became 
renowned for his "justice, calm passionless composure; chivalrous 
honour and cold heroism." The people wished Yudhishthira to be 
crowned king at once, but the Kurus tried hard to prevent it. First 
of all the Pdndus and their mother were sent to a house built of 
combustible materials, with the intention of burning the whole family 
ia it. The Pdndus, however, were informed of this, trick and escaped 
to a potter's house in another city, &c., &c. 

Hari or Hari is a name of Yishnu. Kashmiri Hindis believe that 
he inscribes upon the foreheads of human beings their several desti- 
nies. The following is a quotation from the Eitopadesa (with 
Johnson's translation) : — 

" Since even the moon sporting in the sky, destroying sin, possess- 
ing ten hundred beams, marching in the midst of the stars ; from 
the influence of destiny is swallowed by the dragon : — who then is 
able to avoid what is written on his forehead by the finger of destiny." 
CL " 8dfah khutah," ^c 

Tath tilawdn zachih, yih phyur tih. 

Let this drop also fall upon. the oilman's dirty clothes, (what 

difference will it make ?) 

A little more trouble to a man already overwhelmed with it. 
Some oilmen have been known to wear the same long smocklike gar- 
ment for the space of three years without once having it washed or 
changed all that time. The quantity of grease which collects within 
a few months, even, is almost incredible. 

Tath tuinbis tih hugddai. 

This piece of wool also for dried fish. 

"On the verge of bankruptcy — what can matter a shilling or so 

Persian. — in laTcad ham ha gor i Hdtam i Tax. 


Yatjan gaffaWij/an rtulnahy ijaren kathan sud nah 
There is not rain from much thundering, and there is not 
profit from much speaking. 

** Tatsarih, raneyih hhetjarih metak.** " Wulo Mntarah.^^ 
** Boh dai lugut wdlah-bari.^' Tseh dai mutmi ** tah ati kheh,** 
*' O zealous woman, you have cooked a handful of curry." 

** Come, O cock sparrow." 
" I am fastened, O woman, in a net." " It is left over for 

you ; eat it there." 

Telanjel tah mawusan khalat. 

A prison for the royal and obedient, and a robe of honour 

for the rebellious. 

Khalat (Khil'at in Arabic) is generally a robe of honour with which 
princes confer dignity on subjects, and visitors of distinction. Some- 
times a sword or a dagger, or a rare jewel, or some other valuable, is 
given together with a turban and shawl. 

Telih ausum lukachAr tclih ausum nah mukajnr. 
When I was a child then I had not any leisure. 
Time hangs heavily upon an old man. 

Telih dai danvuzah wut gatjhun, telih ohhuh nah h'hsih hund 

When the flood-gates of the lake open, then they do not 

listen to any one. 

The word of the ruler — no alternative. 

Pal dartodtah, lit., the door of the lake. The Dal is a lai^e lake 
close to the city of Srfnagar. When the river is low the gates, 
called "Dal dancdzah," remain open ; but when the river rises to a 
certain height, they close of themselves, thus preventing inundation 
of the land around the lake. 

Telih diwdn Khudd telih Icatas nun zan ; 

Telih niwdn Khudd telih Icatas mun zan. 

When God gives then it is as salt for the sheep ; 

When God takes then it is as wool from the sheep. 

(». e., when God gives, he gives to profit — the gift is as salt, which 
preserves and fattens the beast ; and when God takes, he takes but 
His own — what He himself has given, i. e., as wool from the sheep, 
which fattened from the salt, which God gave it). 


Telik piran ?iisnb mangan^ huiah piran nat aUih zangan. 
When the pirs' accounts will be taken, counterfeit pirs will 


A wicked steward, a dishonest servant. 

Gulistdn of Sd'di, Chap. I. — Bar hi Ithyanat warzad dastash dar 
hisdh bilarzad. 

Telik sun telik nah lean, yelik lean telik nah sun. 

When there is gold (for the earring), then there is not an ear ; 

and when there is the ear, then there is not the gold. 

A wife and expense, or no wife and save j a son and expense, &c. 

Telik tsak asak padshdh telik dsak huh wazir. 
When you become king then I will be minister. 
" I'll be up with you." 

Telik yih skubik telik iik Icar. 
When it is proper then do it. 
A time for everything. 

Yemi daulat jama T^ar.yaniyas Uiir yardiois zaminik iaU nak 
hkvon pdnas nah nyun athik nah ditun beyis. 

He who gathered together riches, either a thief will take 
them from him, or they will be lost under the ground ; the 
gatherer neither partakes of them himself, nor does he 
take them with him, nor does he give them to another. 

Temi difj noskik sui dapdn " Garak bigaryov." 

He who commits incest with his daughter-in-law says : *' The 

house has become bad." 

Every bad man suspects every other person of being bad likewise. 

Temi ditj wani las sui wani, yemi tjat wani tas sui want. 
He who plants a grove of trees, may God do so to him ; and 

he who cuts the grove may God do bo to him. 

•'Whose end shall be according to their works." 

Temi kerik TxhaUos tami kerih ai wasakak, yemi iapah ai 

lasahak tah lejik wasahah nak zak, 
I came up by this ladder and if I get down again by it and 

am free of this misfortune I will never steal from the pot 


Poor people's children are constantly pilfering from the pot. 
One day a little child was seen in the very act, and was caught at the 


top of tho ladder, which generally runs np outside a Kashmiri hnt, 
and by which she sought to escape, perhaps, over the roof. While 
her mother was boating lier on tho top round of tho ladder, she 
shrieked out these words, which have passed into a proverb, and are 
now constantly cited by other and bigger children, when they are 
discovered doing anything forbidden. 

Temi hov tami nyov ; yemi Tchut tami rut 

lie who made the thing manifest caused it to be taken away, 

and he who concealed the matter, held it. 

Keep your own coonsel. 

Yhni hyut suh hut. 

He who took grief (into his heart) rotted away. 

Yhni hhani gang tas gayih tali andar panuni zang. 
He who dug a pit for others has got his own legs into it. 
Persian. — Chdh kan r^ ehdh dar peak kardah i khesh dyad 

Yemi Jcur or suh gav Jchwar. 

He who does shame comes to shame. 

Yrmi hur gungul tami Icur hruv. 
Luhah hanzih Idganaiyih peth mo bar chi'v. 
Ho who began the harvest reaped the end of it. 
Do not be covetous over other people's fields. 

Yemi Tcur lawah hat suh tih tutu{ ; 

Yhni zol lawah hat suh tih tutui. 

He who made a hundred bundles of grass, to him so much ; 

He who burnt a hundred bundles of grass, to him so much. 

A master who does not praise the good servant and reprove tho 
bad, but serves all the servants alike. 

People gather the long lank water grass which grows by the river- 
side in the Autumn, tie it up into bundles, and sell them during tho 
Winter at the rate of sixty bandies for an 4n4. 

Yemi liikah hanzan michan tah tuJeran peth nazar ihav auh 

gav hairon. 
He who keeps his eyes upon the pieces of rice and bread of 

other people is in a wretched state. 

A loaliug, wandering, fellow. 


Temi Sdhihan us ditus suh diyas mi hhos tih Ithyun Icyut ? 
Whom God has given a mouth, to him will not He, the same 
God, give a httle pot for his dinner ? 

Bustan of Sa'dl^Fafee tifal danddn hardwurda hud, 
Pidar sar ha fikrash faro hurdah hud. 

Mulchor gam hard e mun ai he "khirad-^ 
Har dnkas hi danddn dihad nan dihad. 

Temi shuli chhih wuchhmati yiti Icahtycih rudl 
This jackal has seen plenty of rain like this ! 
An old experienced man. 

Yhni wuchh naris tah dalis suh gav hhwor ; 
Yemi tshun aJds khoras pulahur^ beyis paizar. 

Suh chhuh barkhurddr. 
He who paid attention to the sleeve and border (of his gar- 
ment) was ruined ; 
He who wore a grass shoe on one foot and a leather shoe on 
the other, he was prosperous. 

The man who wishes to succeed must not mind a little dirt some- 

Yemis ** NannawuriK^ nov druv tas tsalih nah zah. 

If a man has got nicknamed ''Bare-footed,'* the name will 

never leave him. 

In olden times there lived in Kashmir a, very great man named 
Khwajah Karim Dm. He once visited the 'Id gih in time of snow. 
On arriving at the common he noticed the nice level ground and 
said to his attendant '* Take off my shoes. I "wish to run on the 
grass for a few minutes with naked feet." His servant obeyed, and 
Karim Dm ran about for a long time to his heart's content. 

From that hour the people called him Karim Nannawor. Of 
course he was very angry at this, and tried every means in his power 
to check it ; but all to no purpose. To the very hour of his death, 
and since, whenever his name has been mentioned, people ha*^e 
spoken of him as Karim Ndnnawor (i.e., bare-footed Karim). 

Yemuhui dor tah tamukui pun. 
"Whence the timber, thence the wedge. 
Set a thief to catch a thief. 

Yenan wenah tah wanan hi ; suh hami chhawai hapali. 
Wenah upon the river-bank and jasmine in the wood ; anc 
who plucked the jasmine ? The bear. 

Good things in the hands of the bad. 

Winah is a non-edible plant with a smell like mint. 


Teni nah leunih, wonun nah kunih tah l-aU gats yerav ? 
Warp not to be found anywhere, woof (also) not (to be found) 
anywhere, and how many yards shall we sort ? 
An order but not all the requisites for fulfilling it. 

YUi behi Nogi Arzun tati behu Bugi Parzun ? 

Will B% Parzun (a poor, ignorant, fellow) sit in the same 

place with N^g Arzun (the great)? 

People should know their rank. 

Yeti pahali8 khyul tnti sahan guph. 

Where the shepherd's flock there the leopard's lair. 

Where riohee there thief, whore glass there stone, where a man 
of high position there envious, covetous persons. 

Y^tih ai dsih mengun su?i iih heyih Uengun. 

If there were a little boy here he also would be amused. 

Cited to a forward, impertinent, little fellow. 

Mengun, lit., sheep and goats' ordure, which being small, a little 
boy has been likened to it and called after it. 

TUih ib tatih dp. 

Where there is water, there is a god. 

Hindu8t4n(. — Ja/iiin a6 truVin dp. 

Rivers and springs as sources of fertility and purification, were at 
an early date invested with a sacred character by the Hindus, who 
are thoroughly in their glory, living in this land of Kashmir, a laud 
of riTers and fountains and lakes, kc. The Mnhammedans are 
constantly twitting their Hiud6 neighbours concerning the number 
of their water-gods. 

THih kon tatih nah hi'jat wyon. 

Where there is a one-eyed man there is no necessity for my 


The natives declare that the Devil said thia. 

HindnstdnC — Kiin<\ terhd had-fiald. 

Persian. — Yak ehctshm gul, dvjar na hillcMll. 

PanjAbt — Kind kdchrd hoch-gardand : yeh Hnoh kamzdt ! 
Jahlag has apnd ehale, to ko{ tuk puchhe hat. 

T^tih nah balaioir tati^i wugarah tir ? 

Where that great man is not able, there will that poor, weak 

fellow be able, to do anything ? 

Wugarah tir, lit., a h&ndful of cooked-rice, but here means a poor, 
weak man. 


Yetih Raja Bhoj tatih Gangd Tili. 
Where Raja Bhoj there Ganga Till. 

Money is oftentimes the only patent of nobility besides lofty 
pretensions. Raja Bhoj was the celebrated sovereign of Ujjain, the 
great patron of learned men, and to whose era the nine gems or 
poets are often ascribed ; the " Singhdsan battisi " describes his 
virtues. But Gangd Till was an oil-merchant whose only claim to sit 
in the great Rdja's presence was his great wealth and a little kind- 
ness once shown by him to Raja Bhoj's predecessor, RajaVikramSditya. 

Yetih top tatih shuhul. 
Where sunshine there shade. 

" There is compensation in this world even." 

Yets gov zih mefj gav. 

More than enough is as dirt (no use to a man). 

Yet^an zanunan poni Tidmuni, tah Uarcn mardan batah 

Many women, Httle water ; and many men, little rice. 

It is the custom both among the Muhammedans and the Hindus 
for the women to fetch the water from the river. If there should be 
more then one woman in the household, there will probably be 
frequent quarrelling as to who shall perform this duty, and sometimes 
both having refused to go for the water, the members of the household 
will " run short " of this necessary commodity. On the other hand, 
if there should happen to be more than one husband or man in the 
house, there will probably be constant wrangling amongst them as 
to who shall pay the baniya's bill. 

" Yi bandah yaUh'<n ti no sor. Ha wulo ly'-la-ydro lo.^' 
"What the servant wishes cannot be had. Come, O my 

young friend." 

Man proposes but God disposes. 

Yi wuth haiih ti Jdiut matih. 

What has gone down the throat has ascended as a charge to 

A promise is a charge to keep. 

Yih chhuh bich yut rachhihan, tut diyih iuph. 

This is a scorpion, as many as cherish it, so many will it sting. 

An ungrateful, malicious person. 

Yih chhuh hhush-Jchowiir tah ulaiah. Dapahas^ *' Daryovas 

gatsh,'' tah gatshih henaras. 
He is a left-handed, contrary fellow. Say to him, " Go to the 

river," and he will go to the drain. 


Yih chhvh huni — wushkah tah miinshi guh hyuh, nah lagan 

lewanas tah nah zulanas. 
He is like dog-barley and buifalo-dung, which are of no use 

for plastering or burning. 

A worthless fellow. 

Yih gdmas tih vidmunis wuUhis, 

What (happens) to the village also (happens) to the uncle's 
Famine, &o., bad for all ; every one sofiFers more or less. 

Yih gav lihhit tih gov hukhit. 

What is written is dried up (no smudging it out). 

*• What is vyritten." One's fate. 

** Drud up." An allusion to the native cnstom of smudging ont an 
error. A Pandit has been sitting by me for the last eighteen month-, 
writing for an hoar or so nearly every day. He always used to rub 
his forefinger over any mistake ho had inade ; and it was with the 
greatest ditiioulty that I got him to use a penknife. Of course, if 
the writing had dried there was no daubing the error out, it either 
remained, or else another sheet of paper was used. 

Yih hakimas dizih tih konah dizih b^tn&ras ? 

Why cannot that be given to the ordinary sick person, 

which is given to the doctor ? 

Native doctors are sometimes very strict over their patients con- 
corning their diet. A youth is now squatting on the floor by my 
side, who has just recovered from a long and sharp attack of fever. 
*' For a whole fortnight," he says, " the doctor wonld not allow me to 
have any thing but rice water and a little hand {Cichorium intybus). 
But these doctors are not always so particular as to their own diet 
when they themselves are ill." 

Yih hdnzani pumih peth wuehhih tih wuchhih tuweni tjarnih 

Whatever the boat- woman sees in the open that the sdweni 

sees through a crack or little hole. 

Sdweni is a parda-nishin woman, ». e., one who remains behind the 
curtain and is not seen of men. 

Yih kokanih tih buyiiiih tih. 

What is the eldest sou's that also is the youngest sou's. 
Show no favouritism in the family. 


Yih hhezih hukris tih hhezik nah pyuwali gov. 

"What a man eats from rudeness and gruffness that he would 

not eat from a cow with young. 

Muhammedans do not drink the mOk of a recently-delivered cow 
until the fourth day after the birth. Hindus wait till the eleventh 
day, when the Brahman comes and the owner of the cow worships 
and makes presents. If the calf should be bom on a Friday, then 
both Muhammedans and HindQs have special arrangements according 
to their different religions. 

Yih mallah wanih tih gatshih Jcarun ; 
Tih mallah karih tih gatshih nah harun. 
"What the Mulla says you must do ; 
"What the Mulla does you must not do. 

" Do what I say bat not as I do," says the parson. 

Tih nah bdnas Idrih tih Idrid pdnas? 
"What will not stick to the pot, will not stick to the body. 
Thin rice or weak soup, &c. 

Tih pron guyun karih tih karih nah nov gdsah ? 
What old manure-grass can do that new grass can not do. 
Wisdom and experience are on the side of age. 

" Tih rasas suet wasih tih gav haldl " piran aki chhuk 

«« What came out with the soup is lawful, " a pfr said. 


A certain stranger's goat wandered inside the door of a pfr's house. 
When the pfr saw it he said to his wife : " Look here, there's that 
goat trespassed into our place again. What shall I do ? Bring the 
* Book of the Law* and I will see what is right to be done," After 
Bome little searching he discovered that it was necessary to stand 
at his door and cry for three times, '• Who has lost a goat ? " 

Accordingly the plr went to the door and cried with a very little 
voice. " Has any one lost any thing ?" This he did three times, 
and then went back into his house and told his wife to kill the goat 
at once, as he had shouted three times. He also told her to cook the 
meat in a separate vessel and separate place, in order that the ordi- 
nary cooking vessels and places might not be, perchance, defiled. 

When the meat was cooked and ready for serving-up, he ordered his 
wife to tip the pot a little and let out some of the cooked soup, but to 
be very careful lest her hand should touch it ; for, said he, " there is 
no sin in drinking the broth, but we must not eat, or even touch, the 
flesh." However, while the woman was tilting the pot, her hand sliook 
and some meat escaped with the broth. " Never mind, never mind," 
said the pir, with ill-disguised pleasure, " what has come out with the 
soup is also legal." 


Yih tkahruch sntoeni Ichej/ik tih hheijih gnmuch gdv. 
The rich city woman and the village cow fare the same. 

The rustio fills his stomach bat the city-man feeds his back. 
Siiweni is a pardUi-nisliin woman, as all the wives of the wealthier 
classes are in Kashmir. 

Yih tjt^ih ohhux wundas tih chhuh mih chandaa. 
What is in your heart is in my pocket. 
*' I have your secret. Beware !" 

Yih zewih zewih karizih tih konah karizth tangi zangi ? 
What you can do with your tongue you can do with your legs 
(can't you? then do not be afraid, but go and do it). 

Yihundui rat yimanui mat. 

Rub their blood upon their bodies. 

A man gives a present ; but it costs the reoeiver as much as he 

Yim gai xukhas dus dint. 

These things are disturbers of peace. 

Riches and honor to an unthankful, unsatisfied man. 

Yimah hd-mdlih chhai wuzmalah tah iratai gatahHr tah 
gaff ro yih path kun. 

father, there are lightnings and thick thunderbolts ; and 
mists and thunder are behiud. 

No end of trouble ahead. 

Yiman gabar tinian nah bataht yiman batah timan nah gabar. 
Ko food to those who have children, no children to those 
who have food. 

Yimawui m&ri imdm tah timawui kur samah. 
They who killed the imam lament his death. 

To do a man an injury and afterwards be sorry for it. 

Samah — a song of lamentation. An allusion to the mooming of 
the Shi'as for the two sons of 'Alf, Hasan and Hosain. 

Imdm is a Mohammedan priest. 

Yindar chhas katdn ; tsandar dishit batah tok ; nindar 
chham nah yiwun ; sindar gayam punas. 

1 spin the wheel and when the moon shines forth I eat my 

dinner ; sleep does not come to me, and my flesh is dried 
up within me. 


A favourite song in time of trouble. 

Munshi Bawdni Dds excommunicated his first wife a ruensd et 
tkoro on account of some fault of hers. She used to sit at her wheel 
every day in an adjoining house singing this song, and one day her 
husband on hearing it sent for her and took her into his house again. 

Yirawani nuv ; chirawani dali. 
A boat afloat (before the wind) ; a wrung garment. 
A Kashmiri curse *' May you be like," &c. 

Yilui Udngi titui gash. 

As many lamps so much light. 

The more, the merrier. 

Tsong — is a little earthen lamp called dipA in Hindustan. 

Yiwawani daulat pewavjthi shin ; 
Tsalawani daulat^ galawunshin. 
Wealth comes like the falling snow (i. e., slowly). 
Wealth goes like the melting snow (i. e , quickly). 
Persian. — Kurdza, kuraza hiydyad nulihust 

Kuhdyad azo chuhki gardad durust. 

Yizinanhdi ddrih hini wuchhtai, 
Punah chhek buchh tai has hyah dik ? 
O mother of the wedding-party, look out of the window. 
You yourself appear hungry, to whom will you give ? 
A meagre, w^eddiog-feast, or dinner. 

Yujns shup dakhah. 

Like trying to keep back the water-floods with a fan. 

Large expenses and small income. 

Shup is a small fan used for cleaning grain. 

Yuri kun reh turi kun iehar. 
Where the flame there the pot. 

Money commands everything. 

This is only the last line of a verse of poetry concerning the rich 
man : — 

Asanwdlis cJiheh dsanach teh; 

Watih peth myulus kentfhdh kheh ; 

Tsdngij tshuninaf; yatiti teh ; 

Yilri kun tekar turi kun reh. 

A wealthy man has the pride of wealth ; 

If any one meets him on the way it is eat something (0 friend). 

Then the mat is spread and he is asked to '• sit down." 

Where the pot is there the flame will be also. 


YiiS alch'h kh^yih fah cheyih tah hahsih diyiht suh chhuhjdn 

tasandihy khutahy yus anih tah jamd harih. 
He who cats and drinks and gives to another is better than 

he who brings and puts together. 

Yus dandav nuhih gav aiih gav bandav nishih. 
What went from the teeth went also from the body. 
The value of good teeth. 

Yua gav Lda suh zah nah dv. 

Av at tas nah zah wdv. 

He who went to Lhassa (Tibet) never returned. 

If he did come back then he was a rich man for ever. 

Yu8 gelih parat, tas gatjhth garaa. 

He who slanders a stranger, will be slandered in his own 

Yu9 khnyih harah han iah tarah han, tas chhui suet suet 

zarah han ; 
Yua kheyih ht'<kah han tah wugarah han suh chhui dugarah 

han hyuh. 
He who eats cre«m and spices and other rich things, will 

always have sickness. 
He who eats unstrained rice and vegetables is like a Dugra. 

Pugra — '* A mixed race, (descended from a R/ijpOt father and 
low.oaste mother) of reputation in the Panjab. The reigning family 
of Kashmir is of this tribe Its members speak of themselves as 
R&jpOtB. The Dugra are land-holders and cultivators." — *' Bherring's 
Hindu Tribes and Castes. " 

Yus mazah phalis sui mazah gurnas. 

What flavour there is to the grape there will be to the whole 


A sample. 

Yua nah donas peicih suh honah rewih p6naa ? 

He who cannot (aflFord even) to light a fire, why will he not 

adorn himself? 

" He has got all he is worth upon his back." 

Yus nah gabah phatih suh dapid ^*Babah.'* 

Will that boy say "Father" who did not burst the womb 

(j.c, who was not born to me) ? 

An adopted child. 


Tus pherih suh hrerih. 

Tus ajih suh gajih. 

He who turns (from his promise let him fall) into a well. 

He who (fulfils only) half his promise (let him fall) into a 


Striking hands with his creditor the debtor will quote these words. 

Tus phul suh phul gunchai. 

What bloomed, bloomed when it was in the bud. 

The child is father of the man. 

Tus yas zdnih sui tas rrn'nih. 
He will obey him whom he knows. 
*• One of themselves " would have more influence. 

Tus yuth harih suh tyuth surih, 

Tus yuth wavih suh tyuth lonih. 
As he does, so will he receive ; 
As he sows, so will he reap. 

Hindustani — Jaisi doge waisd pdoge. 

Yusuf Juah! wutjh rat. 

O, Yusuf Ju ! take hold of the calf. 

A dependent character. 

A sharp fellow would fix the calf under one arm and railk the 
cow, but Yusuf wanted another man to hold it. Cows in India 
always have their calves by them when they are being milked, 

Yusuf Ju is a Muhammedan Hindustani name. Yusuf is from the 
Arabic for Joseph, and Jii is by way of respect and means lord ! 
master ! sir ! 

Tusid hheyih ser sui sapunih ser. 

He who eats a ser {i.e., lbs. 2 English) will be satisfied. 

Ser is the Kashmiri and Hindustani word for a weight=2 lbs 
English ; it is also the Persian word for satisfied. 

Tusui ruchhum tasi nish rachhlam Khuddyo. 
O God, preserve me from him whom I cherished. 
An ungrateful protege, offspring, &c. 

Yu8ui ruchhum yiman athariy sui yuvdn tietharah hathan. 
He whom I brought up with these hands is coming to me 

with words of marriage. 

Money and position frequently shake hand». 


Tut ffuris yiyih ratanak wag iyut pahihbarubar . 

The horse will go according as he is held by the bridle. 

Yut kur tami mih tyut karas buh tih. 
As he did to me so will I do to him. 

Lem tcdionis, 

Yut loirih tak dik tyul chhtis ynwun. 

As much as you cut the willow so much will it grow strong. 

Yut wustud titi tjdf dsan. 

As (is) the teacher so will the scholars be. 

Yut/minah hakim ak zah m/ir karih tut/m sapanih nah hakim. 
Until the physician has killed one or two he is not a physician. 

Tut/tn nah ranj tulih tutun labih nah ganj. 

Until a man takes trouble ho does not get treasure. 

Persian.— Tii ranj na kashi ganj na ydU. 

No pains, no gains. 

Yutm puz pazih tutdn Alam dazih. 
Until the truth appears the world will burn (with anger). 
Lot thorn Gght it oat. 

Yulun tjhut pilan karih tutdn tyuih yad barih. 

While the short man is reaching up to a place, the tall man 

fills his stomach. 

To which the short man repliod : — 

Yutun zyuthjui t^h&ndih tutdn tshut nindar karih. 
AVhilc the tall man is seeking for u place wherein to repose, 
the short man sleeps. 

Yutui zuwah tyutui tuwah- 
As I earn so will I sow. 
Dress aooording to position. 




Zahcin chheh shamsher. 
Tfie tongne is a sword. 
Tongue is a sharp sword." — Psalm Ivii. 4» 

Zachan packah phvir. 

To turn and mend old clothes. 

Making an old coat look new. 

Zagun tati zuwitn, Uhundun tah melun. 
Expect and live, seek and find. 

Zah tkazah tah gudah dazah. 

Two persons high (-minded) and the fishes burnt. 

Somebody in the house must bend, or the work will not be done; 

Zainah Kadaldh peikak thuk gccyik ho ! 
The spittle has gone from Zaina Kadal ! 

A man came from India to see Kashmir and enquire about the 
inhabitants. In the course of his rambhngs he went and stood on 
the fourth bridge and spat into the river ; and then looked at the 
spot where his spittle had fallen, and said, " Where has it gone ? 
Where has it gone ? " The passers-by asked the meaning of this. 
He did not reply, but continued saying, " Where has it gone ? " More 
people crowded around, until at last a vast assembly had gathered, 
and there was great danger lest the bridge should break. Then ho 
told them that his spittle had gone, and the crowd scattered ; and 
the man from India went back to his own countrymen and told 
them what stupid people those Kashmiris were. 

Zaina Kadal, the fourth of the seven bridges spanning that pari 
of the river Jhelum, which flows through Srinagar, and forming the 
principal means of inter-communication between the two sides of 
the city, is the principal thoroughfare in Srinagar. It is said that 
whatever news there may be it will certainly be known some time 
or other during the day on Zaina Kadal. There is a story illustra- 
tive of this : — 

Azdd Khan (1763 a. d.) was a most tyrannical ruler. Even in 
his own palace he was a very hard master. One of his wives was 
about to be delivered of a child ; just before her confinement he went 
to her lying-in room and said, " If it is a boy that be born, I will give 
you many presents ; but if it should be a girl, I will slay botk you 


and the child." A girl was bom, and as soon as the king hoard of 
it ho slew his wife and threw the infant into the iire-placo. 
Uneasy as to what report might bo spread concerning this dastard 
act, ho sent his servant to Zaina Kadal to see whether thp people 
had got whid of it, and if possible the report was to be traced and 
the originators soi^^ed. The servant went and in a little wliile four 
or five persons were seized, and the report traced back to one man. 
This man was carried before the king, who asked him how ho had 
obtained the news. The man replied, *'l saw in a dream Shiii 
llamadAn (cf. note to * Atjas toate,' Ac), or one like unto him, 
coming to me and saying Chat anch wa« the case ^n the king's house. 
Accordingly I told the people, whom I met, of my strange vision, and 
on Zaina Kadal therp yrna quite a little company of strangers to 
whom I related my strange oKporieRce." " True," said the king, 
*' Zaina Kadal's news is correct concerning the ruler alsa" Then 
f;oing at once to the bridge he had all the houses, which Zain(i'l- 
ibadSn had erected on either «ide of it, destroyed, lest they should 
prove dangerous treasuries of scandal. 

Even now authorities are afraid of the bridge, and the police have 
epocial orders to prevent any gatherii\g8 there (?) 

Z.dlih Surinam tah Jcdnih adrinam. 

It ^oes off from ray fingers, but rolls on in to the ball. 

The father loses but the son gains ; it remains in the family. Sung 
by the women dozens of tinioa in succession very often, as they sit 
at the spinning-wheel. 

Zdm at dsih gdm tatih p'lhnh tufiih pdin. 

If the sister-in-law should be in a village, tbence even she 

will send reproaches. 

Pew enemies go so far as that they out-distance their enmity. 

Ziim is the wife's husband's sister. She is generally a great 
etambling-block to the wife's happiness. 

Zdmatur ai hangas mans racAhzcn totih mandahchhdwtjs 

rang at mam. 
If a son-in-law be brought up in the best way, and with the 

greatest attention possible, still he will put you to shame 

in tlve assembly (t. e., he will not respect or love you). 

tla,nijas wanz, lit. in, the centre of the head or turban, the pla<;& 
of security and honour. 

Zdmatur gav pdmatur. 

A son-in-law is a giver of reproach and curses. 

^amn chhai duti (iusi nun. 
Laud is like beaten gold. 



Zan chhehjdhdn. 
Acquaintance is the world. 

Zan nah tah pachhdn nah^ tah " Kh'dah ji saUmP* 

Nor known, nor recognised, and " Good morning, uncle." 

Said of a stranger claiming friendship or relationship. 

Marwari, — Jan na pahchdn, " Khdld hari saldm /" 

Z<ina{ nah haum nah Jcrom nah mm. 
I will not know your sect or class or name. 
Refusal to inter-marry, 

Zandnah chkeh prasanih wizih taubah hardnt prasit chheh 

beyih watdn tutui. 
A woman in the hour of travail repents, but when she is 

deUvered of the child she again arrives at the same state 

(of lying, &c.) 

Zandnah gayi hhoran hund imlahor a7c trov tah bydTc tshun. 
A wife is like the grass shoe on one's feet — one is left and 

another is put on (i.e., a wife easily got rid of, if she 

should prove disagreeable). 

Zananih aJcis paruUhuk retsar chhuyih. Dupanah *' Kenh nah. 

Shuris dm kutf* 
It was asked of a woman " Are you well?" She rephed, 
'*No, not at all. The child can just walk." 

A mother's anxieties are increased by her child being able to toddle 
about and get into mischief. 

Zandnih hund asun chhui mardas manzimyor. 

A woman's laugh is a go-between herself and the man, 

Mo.nzimyor. Match-makers, called Ohatucks or GhatHs down in 
Bengal. As a rule these people are utterly without principle, vide 
" Hindus as they are, " by Bose, Ch, v. 

Zandnih hund ydwun gandun iah ehhdwun ; Wethih hund 
yowun wubaldwun ; wirih hund y/.wun tak ddwun; wardak 
8und yuioun dan. 

A woman's beauty is her dress and jewels ; the river derives 
beauty from its waves ; the willow gets beauty from lop- 
ping ; and a man's beauty is his wealth. 
Weth, the river Jhelum in its course through Kashmir. Ilindfi 

priests call it Vedastd. 


TTir, tlio white willow. If a bicj troo, tho top bmnchns aro lop])e(l 
every year ; if a amall troo then it is lopped after three years. 
During the winter the leaves of this troo are stored up as fodder 
for oxen and sheep and goftts. 

Zangah rudi un tah zewih r/idi nyuv. 
The runner brought it, but the gabbler took it away. 
Tho talker often gets the praise duo to the worker. 

Zangih yiwdn tjund tah nar ddr^iriy narih yiwdn isund tah 

zang durdn. 
If the hand gets hurt wc put out a leg, and if the leg 

gets hurt we put forth a hand. 

An alternative is generally at hand in time of trouble. 

Z'lnit tah mi'mit karun. 

He knew (his work), attended to it, and did it. , 

A good, honest workman. 


Znri buz bahih wahari zih Badshnh mud. 

The deaf man heard twelve years afterwards that Bad shah was 


A man with no news. 

Ba^shdhi groat king, a name given to Zainn'l-^badfn, tho eighth 
and greatest of tho Muhammedan rulers of Kashmir. 

Zari sum auranii. 
The sound of a flute to a deaf man. 
An incomprehensible tale or remark. 

Zdris wunuky *« Mcj^ hd, mui.'* Bupanak^ '* Yapdri an- 

Some person said to the gambler, ** Oh ! your mother has 
died." He replied, " Bring her by this way." 
The gambler was so engrossed in tho game that he could not 

leave it, even to bury his mother's body. 

Zat jilawih wazah guris tah mehmdnah shuris Rahmdnah 

A piece of ragged cloth as a bridle is dignity to a horse, and 

Rahmana is a namfe for a poor boy. 

The would-be gentleman. 

Mehmdn, first meaning is a guest, hence the poor orphan, who 
is always somcbtxly's guest, has corao to be so called, and thus tho 
word frequently means any poor person. 


Rahman is one of the o^P-T'test naTties that can be given to a 
Muharamedan. It means compassionate, and is the first in the list of 
the ninety-nine names of God. 

Zenun gaUhih hharah sandi path tah lihyun gaUhih narah 

sandi path. 
One must work like an ass, but eat his dinner like a man. 

Zethen naren mod. 

Honour is given to long sleeves. 

'' And ye have respect to him that weareth the gay clothing." 
One day SheHh Nur-ud-din went to a wedding feast with nothing 
bnt his ragged faqir dress on, and the consequence was that the people 
would not receive him. He returned quickly to his abode, and 
changed his ragged garment for some new and costly clothes, and 
went again to the feast. This time he was received with great 
honour. He first quoted the above proverb at the dinner. 

Zev chhem hardn luhk lukh ; luk Ghhim UTiandn thuk thuk. 
My tongues does talk, talk ; the people do spit, spit upon me, 

A man of many words is despised. 

Zewui chkek mnrdn tali zewui chheh tdrdn. 
The tongue kills and the tongue saves. 

Zii chheh Mi. 

Pay for work done is like jasmine. 
Sweet are the fruits of labour. 

Zindah nah sur nah sds tah marit atld^. 
Alive — neither dust nor ashes, hut dead — satin. 

Undutif ul oflEspring. 

Hindustani. — Jite na puchhe mue dhar dhar pite. 

Zorah, zorah nashih au, tah wdrah, war ah nashih koh. 
From "zorah zorah" life wears out, but from" wdrah warah" 

the mountain wears away. 

Zorah zorah, "Go on, work man, " said to a man working in a 
casual, listless fashion. 

Wdrah, wdrah. '* Carefully, not so fast, " said to a man working in 
a quick, reckless way. 

Zu gav Udngi reh^ tilah han gaUhias usuni- 
Life is like the flame of a lamp ; it needs a little oil now and 


Zii iir tah jakun vr. 

The spirit healthy and the world healthy. 
Health is everything. 

Zui Zbwih tah ryuhz Idyih tah ad ah pawih shikur. 

Zui will be born and will shoot and will receive his prey. 

Building castles in the air. 

Zulih gayt zih kulih gayi, 

lie became drowsy and it fell into the river. 

Carolosnoss is ruination. 

A faqir was sitting by the firo-placo cooking his dinner as the 
boat was being towed along. Owing to the great heat he became 
very drowsy, and so bending his head, ho began to sleep. Suddenly 
the boat struck the bank and the plate of rice and n\eat tumbled off 
the fire into the river. 

Zuwal boguni sachal dot; yih kusah mydni 6gah'bdiT 
Lousey mistress, ragged nurse ; which is my mistress ? 

General reply of a female servant, when blamed by her mistreas 
because of her dirty appearance. 

Zuwalih hiind gafjhih khyun tah zewalih hund nah. 
It is better to eat with a dirty-headed woman than with a 
garrulous woman. 






■'^'^ 2Q rm 



APR 8a 19 4 





MAY 2 2 1987 


■, 1 1 195 

L ty^UfQ. ptSQ . 


FFR 2 1998 

ntLao LD 


JUN 8 Ido/ 

LD 21-100m-7,'39(402s)