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Thoroughly Revised, and Augmented by an Appendix 
of 700 Additional IVords and Phrases 




Containing upwards of 9,000 English, French, German, Italian,, 

Latin and Greek words and -phrases used in the art and 

science of music, carefully defined, and with the accent 

of the foreign words marked; preceded by rules for 

the pronunciation of Italian, German and French. 




An English-Italian Vocabulary for Composers 


Dr. TH. baker 


Copyright, 1895, bv G. Schirmer, 



PREFACE. /g^ ^ 

It is the aim of this Dictionary of Musical Terms to furnish an accurate and 
concise explanation of any technical word or phrase which the student is apt to 
meet with. The English vocabulary will be found practically exhaustive. Want 
of space forbade making the foreign vocabulary equally so ; but the editor has 
endeavored to preserve a proper balance by giving any term, appearing in either 
German, French, or Italian, in each of those languages, thus maintaining a con- 
sistent polyglot character so far as necessary limitations permitted. 

The scope of the work, which is rather a dictionary than a lexicon, rendered 
the editor's task more that of a compiler than of an original investigator. Most of 
the material here presented has been gleaned from numerous standard works of 
reference, such as those of Grove (Dictionary'), Riemann (Musik-Lexikon), Gevaert 
(Instrumentation), Weitzmann (History of Pianoforte-Playing), Stainer and Barrett, 
Ambros (Geschichte der Musik), Paul (Handlexikon), Soullier (Dictionnaire), 
Helmholtz (Tonempfindungen), Niecks, The Century Dictionarj', many English, 
German, French, and Italian periodicals and musical journals, etc., etc. Literal 
quotations are duly credited to their sources ; condensations and adaptations, how- 
ever, are, for obvious reasons, not so credited, and must, therefore, be included 
under this general acknowledgment. The information so gathered has been care- 
fully sifted, and supplemented by the personal researches of over ten years. 

Due credit should be given to Dr. William Mason for suggesting the Supple- 
ment, containing an "English-Italian Vocabulary for Composers", to which Dr. 
Mason also contributed valued additions. 


Vowels : 

General rule : The vowels are very 
open, and never to be pronounced 
as impure vowels or diphthongs ; 
they are long in accented syllables 
which they terminate, — short in 
unaccented syllables, or in accented 
ones ending with a consonant. 
a like ah or ah (never a) ; e.g. a7nare 

[pron. ah-mah'-rc'h]. 
e " ay in bay (without the vanish i)\ 

e in bed ; a in bare (before r). 
i " ee'vo. beet; / in bit ; i before a 

vowel, like;!' (consonant). 
O " aw, or oh (without the vanish 

u)\ 6 m. (''pinion. 
u " £ii? in boot ; «< in bull. 

Consonants : - ^ -i^ 

General rule : Even the hard con- 
sonants are somewhat softer than 
in English ; the soft consonants 
are very delicate. 
b, d, f, 1, m, n, p, qu, s, t, v, as in 

C like i, before a, o, u, or another 

consonant except c, as below. 
C " ch in. chair before e or i ; cc 

like i-ch before e or i. 
g " ^ hard before a, o, u, or another 
" consonant ; except before / (pro- 
nounce gl like l-y [consonant], 
e.g. sugli, [pron. sool'-ye]), and 
n (pronounce gn like n in canon 
g " 3 in azure (or a very soft j) be- 
fore e or i. 
h is mute. 
j like y in you. 

r, pronounce with a roll (tip of tongue 
against hard palate). 
Where a doubled consonant oc- 
curs, the first syllable is dwelt 
upon ; e.g. in eeco [pronounce 
ek'-ko, not ek'-o]. — Accented 
syllables take a less explosive stress 

* These "hints" are offered as an aid for 
tyros, and not in the least as an exhaustive set of 

than in English, being prolonged 
and dwelt upon rather than forci- 
bly marked. 

sc like sh, before e and i. 

z " ds (very soft ts). 

Vowels : 

The simple vowels as in Italian J 
y like German i or it. 

Modified vowels : 

a. like a in bare, but broader ; e in bed. 

6 has no English equivalent ; long o 
can be pronounced by forming 
the lips to say oh, and then 
saying a (as in bay) with the 
lips in the first position ; short 
o, by saying e (as in bed) mstead 
of a. [N.B. — Long o is the 
French eu (in Jen)]. 

ii has no English equivalent ; pro- 
nounce long ii by forming th( 
lips to say oo (as in boot), and 
then saying ee (beet) with the 
lips in the first position ; short 
ii, by saying / (as in bit) instead 
of ee. [N.B. — Long ii is the 
French iiJ\ 

Diphthongs : 

ai and ei like long I in bite. 
ae like a, 

au " ow in brow. 

eu and au like oi (more exactly ah^ii, 
closely drawn together). 

Consonants : 

f, h, k, I, m, n, p, t, as in English. 

b and d, beginning a word or syllable, 
as in English ; ending a word 
or syllable, like / and / respec- 

C like k before a, o, and u; like ts 
before e, i, and a. 

g usually hard, but like z in azure in 
words from the French and 
Italian in which g is so sounded ; 
—ang, eng, ing, ong and U7ig 
terminate, at the end of a word, 
with a /--sound (e.g. Be'-bimg^). 



j like ^y (consonant). 

qu " kv. 

r either with a roil, or a harsh breath- 

8 beginning a word or syllable, and 
before a vowel, like z (soft) ; 
ending a word or syllable, like 
sharp s ; before / and /, begin- 
ning a word, usually like s/i 
(e.g. stutnm, pron. shtum \ii as 
in bull]) ; otherwise as in Eng- 

V like/. 

W " z/ (but softer, between v and 7^'). 

X " /6j (also when beginning a word). 

z " is. 

Compound consonants : 

ch is a sibillant without an English 
equivalent ; when beginning a 
syllable, or after e, i, a, d, it, ai, 
ei, ae, en, and au, it is so/^ (set 
the tongue as if to pronounce d, 
and breathe an /t through it ; e.g. 
Strich, pron. shtrld-h) ; after 
a, o, u, and au, it Is hard (a 
guttural h). 
chs like X. 
sch " sh. 

sp and st, see s, above. 
th like t. 

Accented syllables have a forcible 
stress, as in English. In com- 
pound words there is always a 
secondary accent("), sometimes a 
tertiary one('"), depending on the 
number of separate words enter- 
ing into the composition of the 
compound word ; e.g. Z-vi'schen- 
akts"'musik" , Bo' genham" tnerkla- 
vier'". The principal accent is 
regularly marked (') in this work. 

Vowels : 

a as in Italian, but shorter, often ap- 
proaching English a. 

a like ah. 

e " « in but ; ^-final is almost silent 
in polysyllabic words. 

6 " ay'wi bay. 

h " e\n there. 

e ' ' German a, and always long. 

i or i like ee in beet ; short i as in 

o as in Italian. 
u like the German n. 

Diphthongs : 

ai like ai in fair; but before ^final, or 
//, is pronounced as a diphthong 
{a/ij/c', drawn closely together). 

ai and ei like e. 

eu, eu and oeu like German o. 

oi like oh-dh' (drawn closely together). 

ou and ou like oo in boot. 

eau like 6 long, without the vanish w. 
Modified by a following n, vi, nd, nt or 
;/// at the end of a syllable, the 
vowels and diphthongs are nasal 
(exception, — verbal ending of 
3rd pers. plural). 

Consonants as in English, with the 
following exceptions : 

C like s in song before .?, /, i, /, and /. 

ch " sh. 

g " 3 in azure before e, /, ^, c, and i. 

gn as in Italian. 

h is mute ; the treatment of initial h 
cannot be explained here. 

j like z in azure. 

II after i is usually sounded like Eng- 
lish y (consonant), and frequent- 
ly prolongs the i (ec) ; e.g. 
travailler [trlih-vih-yay'], tran- 
quille [trihngkee'y]. 

n nasal, see above ; otherwise as in 
English. [The nasal effect is 
accurately obtained by sounding 
n (or 711) together zvith (instead 
of after) the preceding vowel ; 
but the sound of e is changed 
to ah, i to d (in bat), and u 
to eu.^^ 

m, nasal in certain situations. 

r with a roll. 

s-final is silent. 

t-final is silent. 

er, et, es, est, ez, as final syllables, 
are pronounced like /. 

Accentuation. The strong English 
stress on some one syllable of a 
polysyllabic word is wanting in 
French ; the general rule is slightly 
to accent the last syllable. 






A. I. (Ger. A; Fr. and It. !a.) The 
sixth tone in the typical diatonic scale 
of C-major. The tone a' (see Pitch, 
absolute) is that sounded by the oboe or 
other fixed-tone instr. (pfte., organ) to 
give the pitch for the other instr. s of 
the orchestra or military band. — 2. In 
mus. theory, capital A often designates 
the .-i-major triad, small a the ^-minor 
triad. — 3. In scores, the capitals, or 
doubled letters (A a— Z z), are often set 
at the head of main divisions or at any 
critical point to facilitate repetition at 
rehearsal. — 4. As an Italian (or French) 
preposition, a (or a) signifies to, at, for, 
by, in, etc. — 5. A j$, a (7 , a tj, see Sharp, 
Flat, Natural.— t. At the head of 
Gregorian antiphones, etc., A means 
that the first mode is to be employed. — 
7. In this Dictionary, an -a appended 
to an Italian word signifies, that in the 
feminine form a is substituted for the 
masculine termination 0. 

Ab (Ger.) Off (organ-music). 

Ab'acus harmon'icus (Lat.) i. A dia- 
gram of the notes, with their names. — 
2. The structure and disposition of the 
digitals and pedals of a mus. instr. 

Abandon (Fr.) Unrestrained abandon- 
ment to natural emotion ; avec a., same 
as con abbandono. 

■ Accelerando 

A. See A. 

Abb. Abbassamento 


Accel". ; 

Ace. I 

Accom. > Accompaniment 

Accomp. J 

Accrcs. Accrascendo 

Adg". or Ad". J^.dagio 

Ad lib. Ad libitum 

Aevia Alleluia 

Affett. Affettuoso 

Affrett. Affrettando 

Ag°. or Agit". Agitato 

All". Allegro 

• Allegretto 
■ All'ottava 




AirSva j' 

Al seg. Al segno 

Alz. Alzamento 

And"". Andantino 

And". Andante 

Anim°. Animato 

Arc. Col Tarco, or Arcato 

Ard. Ardito 

Arp". Arpeggio 

At. I 

A tern. V A tempo 

A temp. ) 

Abbandonatamen'te ) (It.) In an im» 
Abbando'no, con \ passioned style, 
as if carried away by emotion ; — subordi- 
nation of rhythm and tempo tc expres- 

Abbassamen'to (It., abbr. abb.) " Low- 
ering " ; indicates in pfte. -playing that 
one hand is to play below the other ; 
opp. to alzamen'io...A. di ma' no, sink- 
ing of the hand in beating time ; A. di 
vo'ce, diminution (in volume) of the 

Abbattimen'to (It.) Falling of the 

hand in beating time ; the down-beat. 
Abbellimen'to) (It.) Embellishment, 
Abbellitu'ra \ ornament, grace; 
from abbelli're, to embellish. 

Ab'betont (Ger.) With Jinal accent. 

Abbreviation. (Ger. Abbreviatur' , Ab'- 
kiirzuiig; Fr. abr^viation; It. abbrevia- 
tu'ra.) [In this Dictionary, any key- 
word recurring in the article which it 
heads will be represented by its initial 
letter or letters ; for instance, Abbassa- 
mento above by A. Also, various other 
abbreviations are used, such as abbr. 
for abbreviation, instr. for instrument, 
mus. for musical, pfte. for pianoforte, 
opp. for opposed, etc. J 
I. The commonest abbreviations of 

musical technical terms are the following : 
Aug. By augmentation 

B. See B. 

B. C. Basso continuo 

B. G. Basso generale, or Bassua 

Bl. Blasinstrumente 
Br. Bratschen 
Brill. Brillante 

C. See C. 

C. a. CoU'arco 

Cad. Cadenza 

Cah. Cahier 

Cal. Calando 


Calm. Calmato 
Cant. Canto 
Cantab. Cantabile 
C. b. Contrabasso 
C. B. Col basso 
Cb. Contrabasse 
C. D. Colla destra 
'Cello. Violoncello 
Cemb. Cembalo 
Ch. Choir-organ 
Chal. Chalumeau 
C. 1". Canto prime 
C. L. Col legno 
Clar. Clarinet 
Clar°. Clarino 
Clar"". Clarinetto 
Col c. Col canto 


Con espr. Con espressione 

Cont. Contano 

Cor. Cornet or Corno 

Co. So. Come sopra 

C. P. Colla parte 

Cres. j r, J 

/; \ Crescendo 

Cresc. ) 

C. S. Colla sinistra 

C. S., or Co. So. Come sopra 

C'°. Concerto 

C. voc. Colla voce 

D. See D. 

Dal S. Dal segno 

D. C. Da capo 

Dec. Decani 

Decresc. Decrescendo 

Delic. Delicatamente 

Dest. Destra 

Diap. Diapason(s) 

Dim. By diminution, or 

Div. Divisi 
Dol._ Dolce 
Dolcis. Dolcissimo 
Dopp. Ped. Doppio pedale 
D. S. Dal segno 

Energ. Energicamente 
Espr., or Espress. Espressivo 
Exp., or Expr. Orgue expres- 
sif (<5) 

F. See F. 
y, or for. Forte 

Fag. Fagotto 

Falset. Falsetto 
//> °' /// Fortissimo 

Fl. Flauto 

Flag. Flageolet 

F. O. { -c- 11 

F. Org. ( ^"" "'■8''" 
yp Forte piano 

Fz., or Forz. Forzando 

G. See G. 

Ged. Gedampft 
G. O. I Great organ 
G. Org. f Grand-orgue 
Grand. Grandioso 
Graz. Grazioso 
Gt. Great organ 

Hanptw. Hauptwerk 
Haut. Hautboy 
H. C. Haute-contre 
Hlzbl., or Hzbl. Holzblaser 

Hptw., or H. W. Hauptwerk 
Hr., or Hrn. Horner 

Intro. Introduction 
Inv. Inversion 

K. F. Kleine FlOte 

L. See L. 

Leg. Legato 

Legg. Leggero, Leggiero 

L. H. Left hand, linke Hand 

Lo. Loco 

Luo. Luogo 

Lusing. Lusingando 

M. See M. 

Maest". Maestoso 

Magg. Maggiore 

Man. Manual 

Man. 1+2. Couple Ch. to Gt. 

Mane. Mancando 

Marc. Marcato 

M. D. Mano destra, or main 

Men. Meno 
Mez. Mezzo 
«;/" Mezzo forte 
wr/z Mezzo forzando 
M. G. Main gauche 
M . M. Maelzel's metronome 
Mod., or Modt". Moderato 
Mor. Morendo 
>«/ Mezzo piano 
M.S. Manuscript, or Mano 

Mus. B., or Mus. Bac. Musicae 

Mus. D., or Mus. Doc. Musicae 

M. V. Mezza voce 

Ob. Oboe 

Obbl. Obbligato 

Oberst. Oberstimme 

Oberw., or Obw. Oberwerk 

Oh. Ped. Ohne Pedal 

O. M. Obermanual 

Op. Opus 

Opp. Oppure 

Org. Organ 

Ott., Ova., or 8va Ottava 

O. W. Oberwerk 

P. See P. 
Ped. Pedal 
Perd. Perdendosi 
/y" piu forte 
p p 1 
pr ' > Pianoforte 

Piang. Piangendo 
Pianiss. Pianissimo 
Pizz. Pizzicato 

pmo., //, ///, //// Pianis- 
Prin. Principal 

Raddol. Raddolcendo 

Rail. Rallentando 

Recit. Recitative 

r/", r^z, rinf. Rinforzando 

R. H. Right hand, or rechte 

Rip. Ripleno 
Ritard. Ritardando 
Kit., Riten. Ritenuto 

S. .SeeS. 

Salic. Saliclonal 

Scherz. Scherzando 

Seg. Segue 

Sem. or Semp. Sempre 

sf, s/z, s/f Sforzando 

Sim. Simile 

Sin. Sinistra 

Sinf. Sinfonia 

S. int. Senza interruzione 

Smorz. Smorzando 

Sos., Sost. Sostenuto 

Sp. Spitze 

S. P. Senza pedale 

Spir. Spirituoso 

S. S., or S. Sord. Senza sordini 

S. T. Senza tempo 

Stacc. Staccato. 

St. D., or St. Diap. Stopped 

Stent. Stentando 
Str. Streichinstrumente 
String. Stringendo 
Sw. Swell-organ 
Sym. Symphony 

T. See T. 

T. C. Tre corde 

Temp. Tempo 

Tempo I. Tempo prime 

Ten. Tenuto 

Timb. Timbales 

Timp. J ximpani 

T. P. Tempo primo 

Tr. Trillo, Trumpet 

Tratt. Trattenuto 

Trem. Tremolando, Tremulant 

Tromb. Trombe, Tromboni 

Tromp. Trompete 

T. S. Tasto solo 

U. C. Una corda 
Unis. Unisono 

V. See V. 

Va. Viola 

Var. Variation 

Vc, Velio., VUo. Violoncello 

Viol., VI.. Vno. Violino 

Viv. Vivace 

V. S. Volti subito 

Vv., Vni. Violini 

Abbreviations by 

1. or I. Prima volta 

2. or II. Seconda volta 

(7) (5) etc. See Harmonium- 

Man. I. (2.) Great (Choir-)or- 



4tette. Quartette 
Stette. Quintette 

Also compare a.n. Nuiiterals. 
For single figures over groups 
of notes, compare (2) Couplet, 
(3) Triplet, (4) Quadruplet, 
(%.) Quintuplet, (6) Sextuplet, 
(7) Septuple!, (8) Octuplet, (9) 
Nonuplet, (10) Decuplet, etc. 


2. Abbreviations in manuscript or printed music by means of conventional signs. 

6 4 8 lo 

etc. (compare Eesi). 

(A) Of rests: 

(B) Of notes: 

(a) Of single notes. 

5fH 1 


g^i . 1 

ij 7 r^ 

^Written out : 

^ — ^ — 



ex ^ 

r-6 1 








H 1 


m m 

—0—m—m — •- 



-* — 

-1 — 



-T — 


(b) Of doubled notes (see Tremolo). [Note to (b). When the abbreviation 
consists of two consecutive notes, the sum of the notes in the solution is equal 
to only one of them, unless specially marked.] 


(c) Of figures and phrases. 



(Also compare Arpeggio, Bis, Repeat, Segue, Simile, Ter, Tremolo.^ 

A B C, musika'lisches (Ger., "musi- 
cal A b c. ") See Alphabetical notation. 
...A-b-c-Jieren, to use, in singing- exer- 
cises, the letter-names of the notes. 

A'bendglocke (Ger.) Evening bell, cur- 
few. — A'bendlieJ, evening song. 

ATjenteuerlich (Ger., "Adventurous.") 
Strange, singular, uncouth ; an epithet 
sometimes applied to music having no 

settled or recognized form, especially 
to that of the neo-German school. 
Ab'fallen (Ger.) To deteriorate ; said 
of any part of the compass of an instr. 
or voice showing a falling-off, in quality 
or volume of tone, as compared with 
other parts. 

Ab'gebrochene Kadenz' (Ger.) See 



Ab'geleitet (Ger.) Derived, derivative. 

Ab'gesang (Ger.) See Strophe. 

Ab'gestossen(Ger.) Detached, staccato. 

Ab'gleiten (Ger.) To slip or slide any 
finger, on the keyboard, from a black 
digital to the next white one. 

Ab'hub, abub. Hebrew wind-instr. re- 
sembling the cornet. 

Ab ini'tio (Lat ) Same as Da capo. 

Ab'kiirzung (Ger.) Abbreviation. 

Ab'leiten (Ger.) To derive from. 

Ab'losen (Ger.) To change fingers qui- 
etly on a digital of the pfte. or organ. 

Ab'nehmen, Ab'nehmung (Ger.) Dimi- 

Abreg^s (Fr.) Trackers. 

Ab'reichen (Ger.) In violin-playing, to 
take a tone by extending the little fin- 
ger (see Extension), or by drawing back 
the forefinger. 

Ab'reissung (Ger.) See Ahrnptio. 

Abrup'tio (Lat. " a breaking-ofl.") The 
sudden stopping of a melody before 
reaching the actual close, it being con- 
tinued after a pause. 

Ab'satz (Ger.) i. A thematically or 
rhythmically well-defined di\'ision of a 
piece or movement. — 2. A melodic 

Ab'schwellen (Ger.) Decrescendo. 

Ab'setzen (Ger., "to lift from".) To 
strike two digitals in succession with the 

same finger, to lift ; e.g. 


Absolute Music. In contradistinction 
to " program-music," which is supposed 
or intended to express (depict, portray) 
something tangible, absolute music 
subsists in and for itself, without being 
in any way derived from concrete con- 
ditions or objects. Program-music 
seeks its inspiration in poetr}', in art, 
in living realities ; absolute music is 
itself the inspiration, awakening emo- 
tion through emotion without the in- 
terposition of or definite interpretation 
by the intellect, infecting and influenc- 
ing the soul (l\xtc\.\y.. .Absolute Pitch, 
see Pitch. 

Ab'stammen (Ger.) To be derived from. 

Ab'stand (Ger.) See Tonabstand. 

Ab'stimmen (Ger.) i. To tune. — 2. To 
lower the pitch (of '\n%Xx.s). . .Ab'stim- 
mend, Ab'stimmig, discordant, dissonant. _ 

Ab'stossen (Ger.) To play staccato, to 
detach. . .Ab'stosszeichen, staccato-mark. 

Abstrak'ten (Ger.) Trackers. 

Ab'stufung (Ger., "graduation.") The 
shading of a passage or piece, either 
emotionally or dynamically. 

Abun'dans (Lat.) Superfluous. 

Ab'wechseln (Ger.) To alternate ; mit 
ab'ivechsehiden Matma'len, with alter- 
nating manuals. 

Ab'weichung (Ger.) A variant ; a differ- 
ent reading or notation ; specifically, 
the measure or measures marked secunda 
z'olta in a repeat. 

Ab'ziehen (Ger.) i. See Abgkiten. — 2. 
To unstring (in the sense of taking off 
worn-out strings) a violin, harp, etc. 

Ab'zug (Ger.) i. See Abgleiten.—2. The 
lifting of the fingers in playing wind- 
instr.s, or of the bow from the strings. 

Acathis'tus (Gk.) In the Gk. Church, a 
long canon or hymn in praise of the 
Virgin, sung by all standing. 

Accarezze'vole ) (It.) Caressful- 

Accarezzevolmen'te f ly, caressingly, 

Acceleran'do (It.) "Accelerating," 
gradually growing {a.steT. . .Acce/era'to, 
accelerated, livelier. 

Accent. (Ger. Accent', Beto'nung ; Fr. 
accent; It. accen'to.) i. The natural 
stress or emphasis regularly recurring 
on certain tones in each measure, called 
the grammatical, metrical, or regular 
accent ; e.g. that on the first beat in 
every species of time 




{primary accent), and on the third beat 
in triple or compound duple time 



I r^ 



{sub-accent). — 2. The monotony of the 
regular accent is varied by the rhyth- 
mical accent, which brings out mor» 
prominently the broader musical divi- 
sions of a composition by special em 
phasis at the entrance or culminating 
points of motives, themes, phrases, 
passages, sections, etc.; the rhythmical 
a. is nearly synonymous with the 
pathetic ox poetic a., as an aid in inter- 
preting the meaning and making plain 
the construction of a work. — 3. An ir- 


regular stress laid upon any tone or 
beat at the composer's pleasure, is the 
rhetorical or usthciic a. , indicated either 
by a special sign (s/:,/z, >, A), or 
by an interruption of the natural 
rhythmical flow (syncopation), whereby 
the nalural a. is thrown back to an 
otherwise less accented or non-accented 
beat. —4. See Accent us. — 5. An obso- 
lete harpsichord-grace resembling the 
appoggiatura ; 

A or or 

written : /L — 

played : 

Accen'tor. The leading singer in a choir 

or vocal performance. 
Accentuie'ren (Ger.) To accent. . .^c- 

centuie/ter Dttrch'gaiig, a passing-note 

or -chord on a strong beat. 

Accen'tus (Lat.) In the R. C. Church, 
that part of the service which is chanted 
or intoned at the altar by the officiating 
priest and his assistants ; opp. to Coii- 
centus, the part taken by the choir, 

Accen'tus ecclesias'tici (Lat.) The 
musical inflections observed in intoning 
the gospels, epistles, etc., correspond- 
ing to a certain extent with the punctua- 
tion. There are 7 accents : (i) accent us 
immuta'hilis, the voice neither rising 
nor falling ; (2) a. tiie'dius, falling a 
third ; (3) a. gra'vis, falling a fourth ; 
(4) a. acu'tns, first falling a third, then 
rising to the reciting-note ; (5) a. mode- 
ra'tiis, first rising a second, then fall- 
ing to the reciting-note ; (6) a. inter- 
rogati'vus, at a question, first falling a 
second, then rising to the reciting-note ; 
(7) a. fina'lis, falling at the end of a 
sentence by a fourth, by a diatonic pas- 
sage through the intervening tones. 

Accessis'ten (Ger.) Unpaid choir- 
singers, supernumeraries. 

Accessory note. In a trill, the higher 

Acciacca'to,-a (It.) Vehemently. 

Acciaccatur' (Ger.) In organ-playing, 
the doubling by the left hand of the \ 
chord on the dominant, its resolution 
to the dominant chord being effected 
by the right hand alone. 

Acciaccatu'ra (It.) i. (Ger. Zusam'- 
menschlag ; Vr. pine/ /touffe.) A grace 
on keyboard instr.s, the semitone below 

a melody-note or chord-note being 
struck with the latter, but instantly 
released : 


2. Same as short appoggiatura. — 3 (in 
Ger. usage). Same as Acciaccatur. 

Accident (Fr.) Accidental. 

Accidental. (Ger. zu'fdlliges Verse'- 
tzungszeichen ; Fr. accident, or signe 
accidentel ; It. acciden'te.) A chro- 
matic sign not found in the signature, 
set before a note in the midst of a com- 
position. (See Chromatic Signs.) 

Accolade (Fr.) Brace. 

Accompaniment (Ger. Beglci'tung ; Fr, 
aceoiupagneiitent ; It. accoinpagna- 
men'to.) The accessory part or parts 
attending the voices or instr.s bearing 
the principal part or parts in a musical 
composition. Its intention may be to 
enhance the general effect, or to steady 
the soloists either as regards rhythm or 
pitch. Either one or more instr.s, or a 
vocal chorus, may carry outanrtcr. — An 
ace. is ad li'biium when the piece can 
be performed without it, and obbliga'to 
when of vital importance to the latter. 
— Ace. of t/'ie scale, the harmonies as- 
signed to the successive tones of the 
ascending or descending diatonic scale. 
— Additional accompaniments, parts 
added to a composition by some other 
than its original author. 

Accompanist. (Ger. Beglei'ter; Fr. 
accompagiiatcur m., -trice f. ; It. ac- 
compagnato're m., -tri'ce f.) One who 
executes an accomp. 

Accompany. (Ger. beglei'ten ; Fr. ac- 
compagner ; It. accovipagna're.) To , 
perform an accompaniment. 

Accoppia'to (It. , ' ' coupled.") Tied. . . 
Accoppiamen'to, pedale di, see Pedal, 

Accord (Fr ) l. A chord. — A. a Vonvert, 
chord produced by sweeping only open 
strings. . .,4. fondamental, ox naturel, 
fundamental chord. ..,4. par fait (or 
triade harmonique), common chord, 
triad... yi. plaqu/, a solid chord (not 
arpeggio'd). . .^. renversd, inverted 
chord. — 2. Tune (i.e. the state of being 
in tune). . .^tre d' accord, to be in tune. 
— 3. Accords (pi., poetical). Strains, 
harmonies.— 4. Accordatura. 


Accordable (Fr.) Tunable, that may be 

Accordamen'to (It.) Accordance ; con- 

Accord'ance. An English equivalent 
io\ Accordatura ; used in Grove, vol. 
IV, p. 187/', i.9-10, and foot-note. 

Accordan'do (It.) Accordant, in tune, 
tuned together ; applied also to comic 
scenes in which the tuning of an instr. 
or instr. s is imitated by the orchestra. 

Accordant (Fr.) Consonant. 

Accorda're (It.) To tune, tune to- 

Accordato'io (It.) Tuning-key, tuning- 

Accordatu'ra (It.; see Accordance.) 
The series of tones according to which 
a stringed instr. is tuned ; thus^'--(/'-rt'- 
e^ is the a. of the violin. 

Accorder (Fr.) To tune. . . S^accordcr, 
to tune together, get the pitch (as an 

Accordeur (Fr.) i. Tuner. — 2. The 
monochord. — 3. A small instr. contain- 
ing 1 2 steel tuning-forks set on a sound- 
board and yielding the X2 tones of the 
equally tempered scale. 

Accor'dion. (Ger. Accot-'deon, Akkor'- 
dion, Zieh' harmoiiika ; Fr. accordcon; 
It. acan-'dcon.) A free-reed instr. in- 
vented by Damian, of Vienna, in 1829. 
The elongated body serves as a bellows, 
which can be drawn out or pushed to- 
gether at will ; the bellows is closed at 
either end by a keyboard, that for the 
right hand having a diatonic (or incom- 
plete chromatic) scale, while that for 
the left has 2 or more keys for harmonic 
bass tones. There are two sets of 
reeds, one sounding when the bellows 
is opening, by suction, the other when 
it is closing. (Compare Concertina.) 

Accor'do (It.) I. A chord. ..^. con'- 
sono {dis'sotio), a consonant (dissonant) 
chord. — 2. An instr. formerly used in 
Italy, resembling the bass viol, having 
from 12 to 15 strings, and played with 
a bow in such a way that several strings 
were caused to vibrate at once ; em- 
ployed where powerful harmonies were 
required. (Also called the modern lyre, 
and Barbary lyre.) 

Accordoir (Fr.) Tuning-hammer, tun- 
ing-key ; (org.) tuning-cone or -horn. 

Accoupler (Fr.) To couple. . . Tirant a 

a. , coupler. . .Accouplez, ' ' couple, " 

(i.e. " draw coupler "). 
Accrescen'do (It.) Same as Crescendo. 
Accrescimen'to (It.) Augmentation (of 

a fugal theme)... Pun' to d'accr.,Ao\. 

of prolongation (^'.). 
Accresciu'to (It.) Augmented. 

Aceta'bulum. Latin name for an an- 
cient Gk. instr., of percussion. The 
acctahula were earthen or metallic ves- 
sels struck with sticks, like a carillon, 
or clashed together, like cymbals. 

Acht (Ger.) Eight . . . Acht'fussig, 8-foot 
. . .Acht'stimmig, in or for 8 parts, 

Ach'tel, Ach'telnote (Ger.) An eighth- 
note. . .Ach'telpause, eighth-rest. 

Ac'ocotl. A wind-instr. of the Mexican 

aborigines, consisting of a thin tube 8 
or 10 feet long made of the dried stalk 
of the plant acocoll, and played by in- 
haling the air through it. (Also called 
Acoustic color. The timbre (character 
or quality) of a mus. tone. 

Acoustics. (Ger. Aku'stik ; Fr. acous- 
tiquc ; It. acu'stica.) The science of 
the properties and relations of sounds. 
§1. Musical acoustics, the science 
of mus. tones, distinguishes between 
tones and noises. A tone of sustained 
and equal pitch is generated by regular 
and constant vibrations of the air, these 
being generated by similar vibrations 
in the tone-producing body ; whereas a 
noise is caused by irregular and fluctu- 
ating vibrations. Briefly, " the sen- 
sation caused by a tone is produced by 
rapid periodic movements ; that caused 
by a noise, by imperiodic movements " 
(IIelmholtz). But a sonorousor tone- 
producing body vibrates not only as a 
whole, but in its various fractional parts 
as well. Take a pfte. -string, for in- 
stance ; when struck by the hammer it 
vibrates, not simply as a whole in its 
entire length, but each half, each i, i, ^ 
etc., of the string vibrates by itself, as 
it were (comp. A^ode), and produces a 
tone of a pitch corresponding to its own 
length ; the T-string thus produces, be- 
sides the fundamental tone or generator, 
C, its octave r (^ of string), its twelfth^ 
•J), fifteenth c^ {^), seventeenth e^ {\), 
nineteenth^' (I), etc. The points of rest 
in the string (or other tone-producing 
body) where such vibrating portions 


meet, are called nodes, or nodal points ; 
the tones produced by the vibrating di- 
visions are called harmonics, or over- 
tones ; and the entire series, including 
the generator, are called partial tones. 

being considered parts of the composite 
tone (clang) named after the generator. 
The series of partial tones may be 
given in notes as follows, numbered 
consecutively from C upward • 

1^= ^^ 

zr 5 6 





1 -tSh ^ 

C: I 

12 13 14 15 16 

Ill (= major triad). 

(Notes marked * are only approximately correct.) 

The intensity of the harmonics ordin- 
arily decreases rapidly as their pitch 
becomes higher. 

§2. The harmonics are important in 
many ways. (a) Their presence in 
varying degrees of intensity produces 
the timbre peculiar to the several instr.s; 
thus the tone of the stopped diapason 
(organ), in which they are weak, is soft 
and "hollow"; the tone of an old 
violin, in which the lower harmonics are 
well-developed and evenly balanced, is 
mellow, round, and sonorous: that of the 
trumpet, in which the high dissonant 
harmonics also make themselves felt, 
is ringing, "metallic," and brilliant. 
(Compare Scale.). — {!>) On bowed 
instr.s they yield an additional and 
highly characteristic register (see Har- 
monic 2). — ((■) On wind-instr.s, from 
which they are obtained by varying the 
intensity and direction of the air-cur- 
rent, they are indispensable for extend- 
ing and completing the natural scale ; 
thus the bugle and French horn, which 
yield but one fundamental tone (without 
keys or valves), depend entirely on the 
harmonics for the production of their 
scale ; the flute depends upon overblow- 
ing, which produces the harmonics of 
Its tube, for its upper register; etc., 
etc. — ((/) Musical theory owes highly 
important discoveries to the investiga- 
tion of the harmonics, of which discov- 
eriefi practical music in turn reaps the 
benefit (improved construction of many 
instr.s). (Comp. Scale.) 
§3. By sounding two tones together, 
various phenomena are produced, {a) 2 
tones of nearly the same pitch produce 
beats. E. g. if the one makes 442 vibra- 
tions per second and the other 440, the 

difference, 2, represents the number of 
beats per second, a beat being the pul- 
sation or throb caused by the coinci- 
dence of, and consequent momentary 
increase of the intensity in, the sound- 
waves of the two tones ; this coinci- 
dence recurring regularly at every 221st 
vibration of the first tone and 220th 
vibration of the second. — {b) As soon 
as the number of beats per second 
amounts to about 32, the ear no longer 
distinguishes them as separate throbs, 
and they unite to form a very low tone 
(32 v. = C2), called a combinational, 
summational, or restdtant tone ; in fact, 
the various combinations of interfering 
vibrations produce, in their different 
combination, a series of harmonics, the 
lowest and chief among which is always 
the generator of the series to which the 
two original tones belong. Thus, accord- 
ing to 'fartini, the interval ^-c-' produces 
the following series of resultant tones : 

I ---S- 


4 1) ( 



■ — (r) In the series of partials given in 
§1, those belonging to the major scale 
of the generator C are written as half- 
notes ; the consonance of the major 
triad is derivable from and based upon 
the principal partial tones. In like 
manner, the consonance of the minor 
triad is derived from a reverse series of 
hnver partials, the existence of which 
is proved by the phenomena of sympa- 
thetic vibration and of the resultant 
tones. In this series of lower partials 

ap (minor triad ; c = phonic root [see Phone^. 


the numerals also represent the relative 
length of the strings necessary to yield 
the several tones ; while in the series of 
higher partials (overtones) the string- 
lengths are represented by the simple 
fractions formed by the numerals. — ((/) 
From the relative number and import- 
ance intensity) of the first 6 partials in 
either series, it follows, that the only 
consonant chords are the major and 
minor triads, and that the only conso- 
nant intervals are such as are derived 
from these chords or their inversions ; 
the addition of any further tone, either 
found in or foreign to the series of par- 
tials, produces a dissonance. 

Act. (Ger. Akt, Atif'ziig ; Fr. acte ; 
It. at' to.) One of the principal divi- 
sions of a dramatical performance. 
Acte de cadence (Fr.) A progression 
in one of the parts, particularly the 
bass, which forces the others to join 
either in forming a cadence, or in avoid- 
ing one apparently imminent. 
Actin'ophone. An apparatus for the 

production of sound by actinic rays. 
Action. (Ger. Mccha'nik ; Fr. nu'ca- 
nique ; It. mecca'nica.) In keyboard 
instr.s, the mechanism directly actuated 
by the player's finger, or set in motion 
by the organ-pedals. — In the harp, the 
action (pedals) does not directly produce 
the sound, but effects a change of key 
by shortening the strings, whereby chro- 
matic alterations of a semitone or a 
whole tone result. (See Pianoforte, 
Act-tune. Music performed between 

the acts of a drama ; an entr'acte. 
Acu'ta (Lat., "sharp, shrill.") In the 
organ, a mixture-stop having 3 to 5 
ranks of from if to i foot, usually in- 
cluding a Third ; its compass is higher 
than that of the ordinary Mixture. 
Acu'tae cla'ves(Lat.; also acuta loca, 
cuutcB voces.) Literally, acute keys 
(pitch, voices) ; the tones from a to g^ 
inclusive ; so termed by Guido d'Arezzo. 
Acute. (Ger. scharf, hoch ; Fr. aign ; 
It, acu'to.) High in pitch, sharp, shrill ; 
said of tones ; opp. to grave. 
Acutez'za (It.) Acuteness ; sharpness 

(of pitch). 
Acu'tus (Lat.) See Accentus eccL, 4. 
Adagiet'to (It.) i. A movement slightly 
faster than adagio. — 2. A short Adagio. 
Ada'gio (It., " slow, leisurely.") A slow 

movement (comp. Tempo-marks). . .A, 
assa'i, A. mol'to, very slow...^. turn 
tan' to, nonmolto, not too slow. . .Adagio 
adagio, very slow. . .Superlative adagis' 
si mo. 

Adaptation. Same as Arrangement. 

Ada'sio (It.) Same as Adagio. 

Added sixth. See Sixth. 

Addita'to (It.) Provided with a finger- 
ing, fingered. 

Addition. Obsolete term for the dot 

Additional accompaniments. Sec Ac' 

compa7iiment . . .Ad- 
ditional keys, those 
above f^ 


Addolora'to (It.) Plaintive ; in a style 
expressive of grief. 

Adi'aphon. See Ga'belklavier. 

Adi'aphonon. A keyboard instr. in- 
vented by Schuster of Vienna in 1820. 

Adira'to (It.) Angry, wrathful. 

Ad'junct. Closely related, as one keyot 
scale to another. . .A. tiote, an auxiliary 
note, unaccented, and unessential to 
the harmony. 

Ad'juvant. The cantor's assistant, as- 
sistant teacher. 

A'dler (Ger.) An obsolete organ-stop. 

Ad li'bitum (Lat., "at pleasure," "at 
will.") A direction signifying (i) that the 
performer is free in choice of expression 
or tempo ; (2) that any vocal or instru- 
mental part so marked is not absolutely 
essential to a complete performance of 
a piece . . . Cadcn'za ad lib. thus means, 
that a given cadenza may be performed 
or not, or another substituted, at the 
executant's discretion. 

Ad lon'gam (Lat., " with the long.") A 
term applied to certain ancient church- 
music written entirely in equal notes, 
generally the longest in use. 

Adornamen'to (It.) A grace. 

Adquis'ta or adsum'ta (vox) (I>at., 
"the added tone.") The lowest tone 
of the scale, the Proslambanom'enos. 
.^'erophon. See Harmonium. 
.^olharmon'ica. See Seraphine. 
iEolian attachment. An attachment 
to a pfte. for directing a current of air 
against the strings, reinforcing their vi- 
bration and thus prolonging and sus- 
taining the tones ... ^/^<'//(7« harp at 
lyre. (Ger. A'olsharfe, Wind'-, Wef- 



ter- or Gci'sterharfe ; Fr. harpe /oli- 
enne, harpe d' Eole ; It. ar'pad'E'olo.) 
A stringed instr. sounded by the wind. 
It consists of a narrow, oblong wooden 
resonance-box, across tlie low bridges 
at either end of which are stretched gut 
Strings in any desired number and of 
different thickness and tension, but all 
producing the same fundamental tone. 
When adjusted in an appropriate aper- 
ture, like a window through which the 
air passes freely, the latter causes the 
strings to vibrate and to produce, if the 
tension be properly adjusted (rather 
slack than otherwise), full chords com- 
posed of tiie harmonics of the funda- 
mental tone common to all the strings ; 
and rising, according to the force of the 
wind, from pure, dreamy, deliciously 
vague harmonies to a plaintive wail or 
a thrilling forte ... ^-Eo Han modt\ see 
Greek viicsic . . .ALolian piano, see 

Molina. I. A small instr. consisting of a 
graduated series of free reeds set in a 
metal plate and blown by the mouth ; 
invented by the Messrs. Wheatstone in 
1829. As the first practical attempt to 
use free reeds in this way, it may be re- 
garded as the precursor of the accordion 
and melodion. The Germans, how- 
ever, claim the invention for Eschen- 
bach, of Hamburg, about 1 800. — 2. An 
organ -stop constructed on the same 
principle as the above, without (or with 
very short) pipe-bodies, and of very 
soft tone. 

iEoIo'dicon. A keyboard instr. em- 
bodying the principle of the ^-Eolina, 
and the direct precursor of the harmo- 
nium. (Also yEolodion, Klaviioli'uc, 
etc.)... A further modification was the 
yEolomclo' dicon, invented by Prof. 
Hoffmann of Warsaw about 1825, in 
which short brass tubes were added to 
the reeds. 

.^olopan'talon. An ^olomelodicon 
combined with a pfte., constructed 
about 1830 by Dlugosz of Warsaw. 

Aequal' (Ger.) Formerly, an independ- 
ent 8-foot organ-stop {Aeqtial's/im/ne) ; 
still used as prefix to names of organ- 
stops, indicating that they belong to 
the standard 8-foot registers; as Acqual'- 
prinzipal, etc. 

^quiso'nus (Lat. ; Ger. dqidson'.) Uni- 
son (of either primes or octaves). 

^quiva'gans(Lat.) Denotes simultan- 

eous syncopation, or "deviation from 
the natural order " of the measure, in 
all the parts. 

AEVIA. A frequent abbr. of Alleluia 
in MS. music of the middle ages. 

Affa'bile (It.) Sweetly and gracefully, 

Afifanna'to (It.) Uneasily, distressfully. 

Affannosamen'te (It.) Anxiously, rest- 
lessly . . .Affanno'so, an.\ious, restless. 

Affet'to (It.) Emotion, passion, tender- 
ness. ..Coit a., ox affeltnosaincn'te, affet- 
ttio'so, with emotion or feeling, very 
expressively. (Compare Innig.) 

Affezio'ne, coa (It.) In a style express- 
ive of tender emotion. 

Affilar' (or filarO il tuo'no (It.) In the 
Italian school of singing, to produce 3 
long-sustained and uniform tone ; near- 
ly the same as metier la voce, messa di 
voce, except that with these a crescendo 
or decrescendo is usually to be combined. 

Affinity (Fr.) Affinity, relationship. 

Afflit'to (It.) Melancholy, sad...^j^»- 
sio'iie, con, sorrowfully, mournfully. 

Affrettan'do (It.) Hurrying {stringendd) 
. . .Affrctto'so, hurried (//'« mosso). 

After-beat. (From Ger. N'ach'scJdag; 
Fr. note de compUment, terminaison.) 
An ending added to a trill, comprising 2 
notes, the lower auxiliary and the main 
note ; compare Trill. 

After-note. I. Occasional for unac- 
cented appoggiaiiira. — 2. The unac- 
cented note of a pair. 

After-striking. (Ger. Nach'schlagen^ 
The reverse of anticipation by the 
bass ; e.g. 


(Compare Anticipation^ 

Agen'de (Ger., from Tat. agen'da.) Bre- 
viary, more especially of the Ger. Re- 
formed Church, containing in regular 
order the formularies, prayers, respons- 
es, collects, etc., employed in religious 

Age'vole (It.) Easy, light. .. Agevolez'^ 
za, con, easily, lightly. 

Aggiustatamen'te (It.) Strictly in tirac 


Aggraver la fugue (Fr.) To aug- 
ment the theme of a fugue. 

Agiatamen'te (It.) Easily, indolently. 

Agilita' (It.) ) Agility, sprightliness, vi- 

Agilit€ (Fr.) j vacity ; con a., in a 
light and lively style. 

Agilmen'te (It.) Nimbly, lightly, vi- 

Agitamea'to (It.) Agitation.. .^^;7a- 
iamen'ie, conagitazio'ne, e.xcitedly, agi- 
tatedly. . .Agita'to, agitated ; a. conpas- 
sio'ne, passionately agitated. . .^^zVa- 
zio'ne, agitation. 

Ag'nus De'i (Lat., "Lamb of God.") 
Closing movement of the mus. Mass. 

Ago'ge (Gk.) The order, with refer- 
ence to pitch, in which the tones of a 
melody succeed each other. . .A. rhyth'- 
tnica, their succession with reference to 
accent and rhythm ; tempo. 

Ago'gik (Ger.) Theory of the tempo 
rubato. . . Ago'gisch, relating to such de- 
viations from the tempo.. .Ago'gischer 
Accent' (Riemann), a sign(A)over a 
note indicating the slight prolongation 
of its value required, in certain rhythms, 
to mark the culminating point of the 

Agraffe'. In thepfte., a small metallic 
support of the string, between bridge 
and pin, serving to check vibration m 
that part. 

Agr^mens (Fr., pi.) Harpsichclfd- 

Aigu, aigue (Fr.) Acute ; also used 
substantively, e. g. passer de I'aigu au 

Air. (Ger. Melodie\ JFei'se, Sing'^veise ; 
Fr. air, me'lodie ; It, a'ria.) I. A 
rhythmical melodious series of single 
tones in a metrical (symmetrical) group- 
ing easily recognizable by the ear ; a 
tune or melody. — 2. The highest part 
in a harmonized composition. . .Nation- 
al air, a melody become thoroughly 
popular through long usage and pecu- 
liar fitness, recognized as a national 
emblem, and performed at public festi- 
vals, etc. 

Air (Fr.) Air, melody, tune ; also song, 
as Airs a boire, drinking-songs. . .Also, 
instrumental melody, as air de violon, 
de fiUte ; air de ballet, de danse, etc. . . 
Also, aria ; air d^tach^, any single aria 
taken from an opera. 

Als (Ger.) A%—A 'isis, A x . 

Ajout6,-e (Fr.) Added. (See Zigne, Six- 
te.).. .Ajoutez, "add" (organ-mus.) } 
abbr. ajout. 

Ajuster (Fr.) See Accorder. 

Akkord' (Ger.) i. Kf:Vox6....Akkor<^. 
passage, arpeggio. . . A kkord'zithe ', the 
autoharp. — 2. A set of severa' instr.s 
of one family, but different In size, 
as made from the 15th to the 1 8th 
century (comp. Engl, chest or consort 
of viols). (Also Stimtn'werk) 

Akkor'dieren (Ger.) i. To tune an 
instr.,with reference to the harmony of 
its principal chords. — 2. To get the 
pitch (said of the orchestra). 

Akroama'tisch (Ger.) Pleasing to the 
ear ; said of music depending more up- 
on outward effect than on depth. 

Akt (Ger.) Act. 

Aku'stik (Ger.) Acoustics ; aku'stisch, 

Al (It.) To the, up to the, at the, in 
the, etc. 

Alargando (It.) Properly allargando. 

Alber'tischer Bass (Ger.) Albert! 
bass. (See Bass.) 

Alcu'no (It.) Some, certain. 

Alexandre organ. See American or. 

Al'iquot (Lat.) Forming an exact mea^ 
sure of something ; a factor, or even 
dWisor. . .A'liquotjlugel (Ger.) A 
grand piano, invented by Julius Bluth- 
ner of Leipzig, the tone of which is 
reinforced and enriched by an addition- 
al sympathetic string stretched over, 
and tuned in the higher octave to, each 
unison. These added strings are not 
struck by the hammers, and are called 
A'liquotsaileti. ..A'liqttotthcorie, theory 
of overtones produced by the vibration 
of strings or of wind-instr.s. Such 
overtones or harmonics are called A'li' 

Air, al'la (It.) To the, at the, in the ; 
in the style of. 

Allabre've (Ger.) See ^ //« <^/rzr, under 
Breve. . .Allabre'vetakt, alia breve time. 

Allargan'do (It.) S3im& a.s La rgando. 

Allegramen'te (It.) Nimbly, lightly, 

Allegretti'no (It.) A short Allegretto ; 
aLso, a movement slower than alle- 

Allegret'to (It., abbr. a//-**.) Dimin. 


of allegro ; moderately fast, lively ; 

faster than andante, slower than allegro. 
Allegrez'za (It.) Liveliness, vivacity. 
Allegris'simo (It.) Superl. of allegro ; 

extremely rapid, as quick as possible ; 

■=zpresto assai. 

Alle'gro (It., abbr. all'.) Lively, brisk, 
rapid. Used substantively to designate 
any rapid movement slower than pre- 
sto. ...-i. assa'i, a. di inol'to, very fast 
(usually faster than the foregoing move- 
ment). ../f. di bravu'ra, a technically 
difficult piece or passage to be executed 
swiftly and boldly. . .A. gin's to, a move- 
ment the rapidity of which is conformed 
to the subject.. . .i4. risolu'lo, rapidly and 
energetically; etc., etc. 

Allein' (Ger.) Alone. 

Allelu'ia (Hebr.) Lit. "Praise ye the 
Lord," an exclamation closing various 
Psalms, or introduced in their midst. 
Taken, by the early Christian Church, 
from the ancient Hebrew ritual, it de- 
veloped into the long jubilations (see 
Jubilatid) of the early middle ages (on 
the vowels AEVIA), to the melodies of 
which were set, after the adoption of 
the cantus planus, special words. (Also, 

Allemande (Fr.; It. aller?!an'da.) i. 
A Ger. dance in 3-4 time, like the 
Liindler. — 2. A lively Ger. dance in 
2-4 time. — 3. A movement in the 
Suite, either the first or immediately 
following the prelude, in 4-4 time and 
moderate tempo (andantind), commenc- 
ing with a short note in the anftakt. — 
4. A figure in dancing. 

Allentamen'to (It.) Same as Rallen- 
tando. (Also allcntan'do, allenta'to.) 

Arie Sai'ten (Ger.) Same as Tutte 

AH'gemeiner Bass (Ger.) Thorough- 
bass. (Now General'bass.) 

AlImah'Hch (Ger.) Gradually, by de- 
grees. (Also allrndh' lig, allmd'lig.) 

Allonger I'archet (Fr.) To prolong 
(the stroke of) the bow. 

Allo'ra (It.) Then. 

Almain', Almand', Alraayne'. Same 
as Allematide. 

Al'penhorn, Alp'horn (Ger.) The 
alp-horn, an instr. made of strips or 
staves of wood firmly bound together 
to form a conical tube from 3 to 8 feet 
long, the bell slightly curved upward, 
and with a cupped mouthpiece of hard 

wood. The scale of the tube is nar- 
row, and the tones produced are its 
natural harmonics. The alpine herds- 
men use this horn to play the Kanz des 
vaches and other simple melodies. 
Alphabetical notation. Any method 
of writing music which uses the letters 
of the alphabet. — The earliest known 
method was the ancient Greek, which 
employed two parallel series of letters, 
one for vocal and the other for instru- 
mental music, the letters being various- 
ly inverted, accented, or mutilated to 
indicate the several octaves and chro- 
matic tones. This method was retained, 
at least by theorists, down to the 10th 
century (see N'eumes), when the begin- 
nings of a new method appeared, em- 
ploying the first 7 letters of the Latin 
alphabet A B C D E F G for the 
major diatonic scale now represented 
hy C D E F G A B, and repeating 
the same series for the higher octaves. 
These Latin letters were at first used 
for instrumental notation (psaltery or 
rotta, later the organ). Their significa- 
tion was soon altered, however, to con- 
form to that of the earlier Greek sys- 
tem {minor), the series then agreeing 
with our present one ; the Greek i* 
{Gamma, G) was added as the lowest 
tone, and the octaves above f were 
written ABCDEFG abcdefg aabbccdd 

eeffgg etc. (or ^ J J ^ etc.) ; though 

sometimes, instead of small letters, the 
capitals ran on {HIKLMNOP), in 
which latter system A was equivalent 
to our modern C, as at first. Arbitrary 
innovations led to great confusion in 
the alphabetical notation, which was in 
reality rendered superfluous, as a me- 
thod of writing music, by Guido d'Arez- 
zo's invention or systematization (about 
1026) of line-notation (see A'otation). 
When letters were used, without staff- 
lines, instead of neumes, they were 
often written above the words in this 
wise : 


/ /DD C /D / F 

r / / r f I 

Qui to I - lis pec - ca - ta 

i.e., in notes : 



Qui tol 

lis pec - ca 



ascending or descending as the voice 
was to rise or fall. — Our present theo- 
retical division of the octave is first 
found fully developed in the works of 
Praetorius (1619) ; side by side with 
which the old method of writing music 
{A-G, a-g etc.) still occurred, until the 
various systems of tablature were given 
up (comp. Tablature). — Letters are no 
longer used in practical mus. notation, 
except by Tonic Sol-fa, in which, how- 
ever, they represent no fixed pitch, as 
formerly, but are mere abbreviations of 
the movable solmisation-syllables. In 
modern theory, letters are variously em- 
ployed (comp. Fitch, absolute). 

Alt (Ger.) Alto (voice or part). ..In 
compound words, the alto instr. of any 
family, as Alt'geige, Ali'hom, Alf- 
klarinettc, A It' oboe, Alt'viole, etc. — 
(Engl.) Hence, the same employment 
in English usage [alt-clarinet, alt- 
horn]... Notes "in alt" are those of 
the next octave (^ — f^) above f^ 
- ; notes in the octave above 

I /^ ; ~r this are said to be " in altis- 

Altera're (It.) To alter, change. 

Altera'tio (Lat.) See Notation, §3. 

Alteration, i. Same as A Iter alio. — 2 
Chromatic alteration of the pitch of a 

Altera'to (It.), Alt6r6 (Fr.) Chromatic- 
ally altered. 

Alterez'za (It.) Pride, loftiness. — O'w 
a., in a lofty and dignified style. 

Alternamen'te (It.) Alternatively... 
Alternan'do, alternating. 

Alternati'vo (It.) See Trio 2. 

Alt-horn. (Fr. saxhorn alto; Ger. Alt'- 
horn.) One of the Saxhorns. 

Altieramen'te (It.) In a lofty and ma- 
jestic style. 

Alti natura'li (Lat.) Natural (male) 
altos, or counter-tenors. (See Alto.) 

Altis'simo (It.) Highest. (See Alt.) 

Alti'sta (It.) An alto or contralto 

Alt'klausel (Ger.) The leading of the 
alto part in a perfect close. 

Alto. I. (Fr. haute -contr e ; Ger. Alt, 
Alf stimme ; It. al'to.) The deeper of 
the two main divisions of women's or 
boys' voices, the contralto ; (in Germany 
a distinction is sometimes made be- 
tween Alt and Kon'traalt, the latter 

term being reserved for the lower alto 
voice). Ordinary compass from g to c^ 

f i which, in voices of unusual 
i,^^i*n range, may be extended 


down to d and up to 
f^, oT even higher. — 2. A high head- 
voice in men (It. al'ti natura'li) for- 
merly cultivated for the performance 
of church-music (in England for secu- 
lar music as well, e. g. glees), but now 
generally superseded by the female alto 
or high tenor. — 3. (Ger. B^a'tsche, Alf- 
viole; Fr. alto, qtiinte, basse de violon; 
It. al'to, vio'la.) The tenor violin, or 

Al't0,-a (It.) ll\g\\. ..Otta'va alia, an 
octavehigher. ..Alta vio'la, tenorviolin. 
. .Alio bas'so, an obsolete variety of 
dulcimer, consisting of a square wooden 
box set on legs and strung with gut. It 
was generally employed to accompany 
simple melodies played by the performer 
on a flageolet held in his right hand, the 
left striking the strings. 

Alto-clef. See Clef. 

Alt'posaune (Ger.) Alto trombone. 

Al'tro.-a (It.) Oihftv. ..Alt r a vol'ia, 
" encore ! " 

Alt'schliissel (Ger.) Alto-clef. 

Alt'viole (Ger.) Viola. 

Alzaraen'to (It.) A raising or lifting 
(opp. to Abbassameftto). Abbrev. Ah. 

Ama'bile (It.) Sweet, tender. 

Amare'vole (It.) Bitterly, mournfully. 
(Sometimes written mistakenly lor A?no- 
re'vole, Xoy'xvl'^'^.). . .Amarcz'za, bitter- 
ness, sadness ; con a. , grievingly. 

Amateur (Fr.) A " lover" of art, who, 
while possessing an understanding for 
and a certain knowledge of it, does not 
pursue it as a profession. 

Am'bitus (Lat.) Compass. 

Ambrosian chant. The style of church- 
music introduced by St. Ambrose (d, 
397) from the Eastern Church, and 
established by him in the cathedral at 
Milan, towards the end of the 4th cen- 
tury. It was based on the 4 authentic 

d e f g a b c^ d^ 
e f g a b c^ d'^ £^ 
g a b c^ d^ e^ P g^ 
and was thus essentially diatonic, al- 
though embellished with occasional 
chromatic graces ; it was probably 
rhythmical, in contrast to the later de- 



velopment of Plain Chant. Nothing 
positive is known about these melodies, 
except that St. Ambrose introduced the 
antiphonal songs and hallelujahs of the 
Eastern Church, and himself composed 
numerous hymns. (Comp. Gregor'^^n 

Ambrosian hymn {hyn'nus Ambrosia' - 
mis). The " Te deum laudamus,"of 
which St. Ambrose is the reputed 

Ame (I'"r.) Soundpost. 

American organ. See Reed-organ. 

Amo're (It.) Love. ..C^« a., with de- 
votion, fondly, devotedly ; tenderly. . . 
A more' vole, amorevolnien' te, lovingly, 
fondly, etc. . . Amorosamen' te, amorous- 
ly, lovingly, fondly. . .Amoro'so, amor- 
ous, loving. 

A'morschali, A'morsklang (Ger.) A 
French horn with valves, invented by 
Kolbel, of St. Petersburg (1760); its 
tone was lacking in purity, and the 
valve-mechanism did not quite do away 
with "stopping." 

Am'phibrach. A metrical foot of 3 
syllables (-^ — w) ; opp. to amphim'ucer. 
Also aniphibra'chys. 

Am'phichord. See Lira barberina. 

Amphim'acer. A metrical foot of 3 
syllables ( — ^ — ); o^^.Ko am' pliibrach. 
[Also amphimacrus^ 

Ampho'ter ((Jer.) Amphoteric ; said of 
a series of tones "common to two" 
registers of the same voice. 

Amplitude of vibration. See Vibration. 

Amts'pfeiffer (Ger.) See Stadtpfeiffcr. 

Amusement (Fr.) See Divertisseinent. 

An (Ger.) On ; add (i.e. draw). 

Anacru'sis (Gk. ; Ger. A nakru'sis [A nf- 
iakt] ; Fr. anacrouse.) An up-beat 
beginning a verse, containing I or 2 
unaccented syllables ; hence transferred 
to musical rhythms, for which, in Eng- 
lish usage, the term auftakt is often 
met with. 

Analytical programs are an English 
invention ; analyses of the mus. form 
of compositions on the concert-pro- 
gram, with quotations from the music, 
date from 1845 (Ella, matine'es of Mus. 
Union). The most ambitious attempts 
of this kind are probably H. v. Wolzo- 
gen's '' Fiihrer" (Guides) "through" 
Wagner's mus. dramas. 

An'apest. A metrical foot of 3 syllables, 

the first 2 short, the last long (-- ^ —^); 
the reverse of the Dactyl. 

Anche (Fr.) Reed (of any instr.). . .,4. 
lib re, free reed... yt'M d' anche, reed- 

An'che (It.) Also, too, likewise ; even. 

An'cia(It.) Reed. 

Anco'ra (It.) Again, also, yet, still, 
even. . .Ancor' piii mos'so, still faster. 

An'dacht (Ger.) Devotion. . .An'dachlig, 
or mit Andacht, devotionally (It. de- 
vo'to, con devozio'ne). 

Andamen'to (It.) i. Movement, rate of 
speed. — 2. A passage, especially an 
episode in a fugue. — 3. Specifically, an 
extended fugal theme, usually consist- 
ing of two distinct and contrasting 
members. (See Soggetto.) 

Andan'te (It., lit, "going, moving.") 
A tempo-mark indicating, in modern 
usage, a moderately slow movement, 
between Adagio and Allegretto ; often 
modified by qualifying words, as A. 
maesio'so, A. soste7tu' to, a stately and 
tranquil movement; A. con moto, A. 
un poco allegretto, a comparatively ani- 
mated movement; A. canta'lnle, a 
smoothly flowing and melodious move- 
ment ; etc. — In earlier usage often em- 
ployed in its more literal sense, as A. 
allegro, "moving rapidly;" vie' no 
andante ("less moving "), slower. 

Andantemen'te (It.) Flowingly, unin- 

Andanti'no (It.) Dimin. of Andante ; 
strictly, slower than andante, but often 
used in the reverse sense. 

Anda're (It.) To move on. . .A. dirit'to, 
go straight on ; a. in tempo, keep to the 

An'derungsabsatz (Ger.) Half-cadence, 
ending on the dominant triad. 

Anem'ochord. (Fr. an/mocorde.) A 
keyboard windinstr. with strings, in- 
vented by J. J. Schnell, of Paris, in 
1789, as an attempt to imitate the tone 
of the .Eolian harp by means of small 
bellows forcing a current of air against 
the strings : a pneumatic harpsichord. 
— The piano ^olienne of Henri Hers 
(1S51) was a similar instr. — (Also 

Ane'sis (Gk.) The passage from a high 
tone to one lower in pitch; also, the tun- 
ing of strings to a lower pitch. — Opp. 
to epit'asis. [Stainer AND BARRETT.] 


Vom A., 



An'fang (Ger.) Beg^inning 
same as Da capo. 

An'geben (Ger.) To sound, to strike. . . 
Den Ton a., to give the pitch (as for an 

Angelic hymn. The hymn sung by the 
angels upon the announcement of 
Christ's birth ; sung in both the East- 
ern and Western Churches, extended in 
the latter to the " Gloria in excelsis ; " 
also in the Anglican and Episcopal 
Churches, as a song of thanksgiving 
after communion. 

Ange'Hca (Lat., " angelic") See Vox a. 

Angelique'. (Fr. angdique^ A kev- 
board instr. having 17 strings tuned in 
chromatic order ; inv. early in the i"th 
century. — Also, a kind of guitar. 

Angelophone. An earlier name for the 
harmonium or parlor-organ. 

An'gemessen (Ger.) Suitable, appro- 

Anglaise (Fr.) The English country- 
dance {contreJanse), of lively character, 
sometimes in 2-4, at others in 3-4 or 
3-8 time. It closely resembles the 
Ecossaise, and most probably took its 
origin from the older form of the 
French Rigaudon. [Grove.] 

Angosciosamen'te ) (It.) Expressive of 

Angoscio'so ) anguish, agony. 

AngstTich (Ger.) Fearfully (It. tirni da- 
men' te, wrongly tramiJametite). 

An'hang (Ger.) Appendix ; coda, co- 
\ A'nima (It.) i. Spirit; con a., with 

spirit, animation. — 2. Soundpost. 
(v'Animan'do (It.) With growing anima- 
tion ; livelier. . .y^/////'/a'A', in an ani- 
mated, spirited style. 

Animocor'de (It.) See Anemochord. 

Animo'so (It.) Animated, spirited. . . 
A nimosis'simo, animosissi>?iamett'te, 
with the utmost animation, spirit, bold- 

An'mut(h) (Ger.) Grace, sweetness, 
charm, sviA-viiy.. .An' nut t{h)ig, grace- 
fully, etc. 

Anom'aly. The slight deviation from 
the exact pitch caused by tempering 
intervals on fixed-tone instr. s ; -hence, 
an anomalous chord is one containing 
an interval rendered, by tempering, ex- 
tremely sharp or flat. 

Anonser (Fr.) To perform in a hesitat- 

ing, stumbling manner ; to read music 

An'satz (Ger.) i. Lip, embouchure (in 
playing wind-instr.s). — 2. The method 
of attacking a vocal phrase. 

An'schlag (Ger.) I. Touch (on a key- 
board instr.)— 2. A kind of double ap- 
poggiatura : 

written : played : 


An'schwellen (Ger.) To increase in 
loudness, swell. 

Ansiosamen'te (It.) In a style expres- 
sive of anxiety or hesitation. 

An'sprache (Ger.) The "speaking" 
of an organ-pipe, wind-instr. , string, 
etc. . .An'sprechen, to speak. 

An'stimmen (Ger.) To intone, strike 

Answer. (Lat. co'mes ; Ger. Gefahr'te, 
Ant'ivort ; Fr. r/ponse, r^plique ; It. 
ripo'sta, conseguen'te.) In a fugue, 
the taking-up of the subject, proposed 
by the first part, by the second part, at 
a different pitch, (See Antecedent.) 

Antece'dent, (Ger, Filh'rer; Fr. theme ; 
It. aniecedeti'te, propo'sta, gtii'da.) 
The theme or subject of a fugue or 
canon, as proposed by the first part. — 
Also, any theme or motive proposed for 
imitation, or imitated later, 

Antelu'dium (Lat.) Prelude, introduc- 

Anthem. A piece of sacred music usual- 
ly founded on biblical words, with or 
without instrumental accomp., and of 
various forms : — (i) Anthetns for double 
choir, the choirs frequently answering 
each other. . .(2) Fullantheyns, consist- 
ing wholly of chorus, accompanied or not 
. . .(3) Full anthems with verses, certain 
parts of which are sung by solo voices, 
although beginning and close are cho- 
ruses ( Tutti), and the chorus predomi- 
nates throughout. . .(4) Verse anthems, 
in which the verses (soli, duets, trios, 
quartets) predominate over the cho- 
ruses. . .(5) Solo anthems, in which a 
solo part predominates, though the 
chorus always concludes them... (6) 
Instrumental anthems, those accom- 
panied by instr.s other than the organ ; 
— formerly so called. — The anthem, an 
integral part of the Anglican church- 
service, is essentially an English pro- 



duct, a motet developed on the lines of 
vocal variety and instrumental accomp., 
approximating to the Ger. KaiitaU, 
Antholo'gium ( The book or col- 
lection of the hymns, etc., of the East- 
ern Church. 

Antibac'chius {Antibacchy). A metrical 
foot of 3 syllables, 2 long and I short, 
with the ictus on the first (— ^ — w). 

Anticipation, (Ger, A ntizipation', Vor- 
aus'7iahine ; Fr. anticipation ; It. 
a7tticipazio'iie.) The advancing of one 
or more of the parts constituting a 
harmony before the rest, which part 
or parts would, if all the parts pro- 
gressed simultaneously, enter later : 

Anti'co (It.) Antique, ancient, . .A It an- 
tico, in the ancient style, 

Antienne (Fr.) Antiphon, 

An'tiphon, or An'tiphone, (Gk. anti'- 
phona, aiiti'plionon ; Ger. Antiphottie' ; 
Fr. antienne ; It. anti'fona.) Origin- 
ally, a responsive system of singing by 
two choirs (or a divided choir), one of 
the earliest features in the Catholic ser- 
vice of song ; hence applied to respon- 
sive or alternate singing, chanting, or 
intonation in general, as practised in 
the Greek, Roman, Anglican, and 
Lutheran churches. . .Also, "a short 
sentence, generally from Holy Scrip- 
ture, sung before and after the Psalms 
for the day, or the Canticles, selected 
for its appropriateness to the church 
season in which it is sung " [Stainer 
AND Barrett], 

Antiph'onal, i, A book or collection 
of antiphons or anthems. — 2. (adj.) In 
the style of an antiphon, responsive, 

Antiph'onary, ( antiplwna'rium ; 
Ger. Antiphonar' ; Fr. antiphonaire ; 
It. anti/ona'rio.) Properly, a collec- 
tion of antiphons, but extended to in- 
clude the responsories, etc., sung at 
ecclesiastical celebrations. — The origi- 
nal collections embraced all the anti- 

phonal songs both in the mass and the 
offices of the Latin Church ; but now, 
by long-established custom, a separate 
book called the (jradual contains the 
liturgical antiphons (those proper to the 
mass) ; whereas the responsories of the 
office, formerly relegated to the Re- 
sponsorial, now form the Antiphonary, 
together with the antiphons proper (i.e. 
the antiphons associated with tht 
psalms of the office). (Also Aniiph'- 
onal, Antiph'oner.) 

Antiph'onel. The planchette-mechan- 
ism devised by Alexandre Debain, of 
Paris, when attached to a pfte., organ, 
or harmonium ; hence Antiplnmel-Iiar- 
maniuni, Orgiw-aniiphonel, etc. 

Anti'phonon (Gk.) Antiphon, anthem. 

Antiph'ony. Responsive singing by 
two choirs (or divided choir) of alternate 
verses of a psalm or anthem ; opp. to 
responsorial singing, and also to homo- 
phony (see Homophonic l). 

An'tispast. A metrical foot of four 
syllables, the first and last being short 
and the two in the middle long 

Antis'trophe. See Strophe. 
Ant'wort (Ger.) Answer. 
An'wachsend (Ger.) Same as c7-escendo. 
Aoli'ne, etc. (Ger.) See Molina. 
A'olsharfe (Ger.) yEolian harp, 

A'olsklavier (Ger.) "/Eolian pfte. ;" a 
keyboard instr. invented about 1825 by 
Schortmann of Buttelstedt, resembling 
the Physharmonica, but having, as 
tone-producing bodies, wooden wands 
instead of steel bars. 

Aper'to (It., "open.") " Take the loud 
pedal" (in pfte. -music). — Clear, dis- 
tinct ; broad, ample ; Allegro aperto, 
an allegro with broad, clear phrasing. 

Aper'tus (Lat.) Open ; said of organ- 

Ap'felregal (Ger.) An obsolete reed- 
stop in the organ, the narrow pipes of 
which were furnished at the top with 
hollow perforated globes or buttons 
(hence also called Knopf'regal). 

Aplomb (Fr.) Coolness, self-possession, 

Apoggiatura, Apogiatura. Occasion- 
al spellings of Appoggiatiira (Fr, ap- 

Apollo. (Fr. Apollon.) A large lute 


(or theorbo) having 20 single strings, 
invented in 1678 by Prompt of Paris. 

Apollo-Lyra. See Psalmmclodicon. 

Apollonicon. An instr. finished in 1817 
by Fliglit and Robson of London. It 
was a combined organ and orchestrion, 
containing about 1900 pipes in 45 
stops, with 5 manuals played on by 
different performers, and kettledrums 
operated by a special mechanism, so 
that a full orchestral effect was obtain- 
able ; it was likewise provided with 
various barrels actuated by machinery, 
for the automatic performance of sever- 
al extended compositions. It was taken 
to pieces in 1840. 

Apollonion. An instr. consisting of a 
pfte. with double keyboard, combined 
with an organ flue-work containing 
pipes of 2, 4, and 8-foot pitch, together 
with an automatic player the size of a 
boy ; inv. by J. H. Voller of Angers- 
bach early in the 19th century. 

Apos'trophe ('). Often employed as a 

Apo'tome (Gk.) In the Pythagorean 
system, the chromatic semitone — 2048: 
2187 ; the limma, or diatonic semitone, 
therefore being 243:256 (|4| X |tIt 
= f = the greater whole tone). This 
chromatic semitone (obtained by sub- 
tracting 2 whole tones 8:9 from a per- 
fect fourth 3:4) was therefore a wider 
interval than the diatonic ; whereas our 
diatonic semitone is wider than the 

Appassiona'to,-a (It.) Impassioned, 
with passion. . . Appassionamen' to, pas- 
sion, ardor, deep emotion. . ..-^//ajj/c- 
nalarnen'te, passionately, ardently. 

Appel (Fr.), Appell' (Ger.) Assembly ; 
signal to troops to fall in. 

Appena'to (It.) Distressed ; in a style 
expressive of distress or suffering. 

Applica'tio (It.) Fingering. 

Applikatur' (Ger.) Fingering (usually 

Appoggian'do (It., "leaning on, sup- 
ported.") Said of a tone (note) gliding 
over to the next without a break, as in 
appoggiaturas and the portamento. 
(Also Appoggia'lo.) 

Appoggiatu'ra (It.; Fr. appogiaiure ; 
Ger. Vor'schlag, Nach'schlag.') i. The 
accented appoggiatura (Ger. VorscJdag) 
is a grace-note preceding its main note 
(melody-note), and taking the accent 

and part of the time-value of the latter, 
(a) The lo)ig appoggiatui'a, now obso- 
lete, often occurs in earlier music ; it 
was, in point of fact, a suspension 
written as a small note in order to evade, 
as it were, the rule against the entrance 
of unprepared dissonances. The dura- 
tion of the small note properly corre- 
sponds to its time-value if written as a 
large note ; e. g. 
written : 

-I r^ 1-* i-f^ 

though cases may occur in which the 
appoggiatura takes more than its ap- 
parent value : 



performed : 

or (ace. to Turk): 

(b) The short appoggiatura is properly 
written as a small eighth-note or l6th- 
note with a slanting stroke through the 
hook ; the general rule for its execution 
is, to perform it very swiftly, giving it 
the accent of its principal note, and a 
portion of the latter's time-value differ- 
ing according to the speed of the move- 
ment somewhat as follows : 
written : 

Adagio. Andante. Allegro. Presto. 
R 3 \ -i J! 3 

(c) The double appoggiatura contains 2 
or more small grace-notes (commonly 
written as i6th-notes) before a principal 
note ; it is performed rapidly, its dura- 
tion subtracted from the time-value of 
the principal note, with the accent on 
the first small note (compare Anschlag, 
Slide). — 2. The unaccented appoggia- 
tura (Ger. A'ac/isc/ilagYis a rapid single 
or double gra.ce-note /ol/owing a princi« 
pal note, from the time-value of whici 



its duration must be subtracted, and 
with which it is connected by a slur : 
written : 

Appresta're (It.) To set up and finish 
an instr. 

Appretie'ren (Ger.) Same as Appre- 
siare.. .Appretiir' , the proper adjust- 
ment of the parts of an instr. 

Aquivo'ken (Ger., pi.) Meistersinger 
melodies bearing like names. 

Arabesque. (Ger. Arabes'ke.) i. An 
occasional title for pfte. -pieces re- 
sembling a rondo in form. — 2. Arabes- 
ken (Ger. pi.) Ornamental passages 
accompanying or varying a theme. 

Arbi'trio (It.) Free will, absolute power; 
a suo a., at pleasure (equiv. to apiacerc). 

Arca'to (It.) Bowed, played with the bow. 

Archeggia're (It.) To play with the bow. 

Archet (Fr.) Bow. 

Ar'chi-[ar'ke](Lat.), and Ar'ci-[ar'-tche] 
(It.) (Engl. Arch-, Ger. Erz-) A 
prefix signifying "chief, preeminent," 
formerly applied to names of instr. s in 
the sense of " largest " (of the family 
in question), and to official titles in the 
sense of "head." — E. g., Archchanter 
(Fr. archichantre), precentor ; Arch- 
lute (It. arciliu'to, Fr. archiluth, Ger. 
Erz'laute), a variety of the bass lute ; 
Arcicetn'balo (It.; Fr. archicembalo, 
Ger. Archicym'bal), a keyboard stringed 
instr. inv. by Niccolo Vincentino (i6th 
century), with 6 keyboards, and keys 
and strings for all the tones of the three 
ancient Greek modes (diatonic, chro- 
matic, and enharmonic); Arcivio'la di 
lira (It.), same as JJrone. 

Ar'chi (It., pi. of Arco.) Bows; gli 
archi, "the bows," i. e. bow-instr.s in 
the orchestra ; Engl, equivalent, "the 

^Ar'co (It ) Bow ; a piin'ta d'arco, or 
colla punta dell'arco, with the point of 
the bow ; coll' arco, with the bow, i. e. 
resume the bow after a pizzicato pas- 
sage. . .Arco in git*, down-bow ; a. in 
tu, up-bow. 
Arden'te (It.) Ardent, fiery, passionate. 

Arditez'za, con (It.) Boldly, spirited- 
ly. . .Ardi'io, bold, spirited. 

Aretin'ian syllables. (Ger. areti'nische 
Sil'bcn.) The syllables ut, re, mi, fa, 
sol, la, first used as solmisation-sylla- 
bles by Guido d'Arezzo. 

A'ria (It.; Ger. A'rie.) Primarily, an 
air, or rhythmic melody. — As a technical 
term, an aria is an extended lyrical 
vocal solo in various forms, with in- 
strumental accompaniment. With the 
rise of homophonic music in the opera 
and oratorio, the aria developed, from 
a mere plain-song melody with basso 
coiitinuo, into the aria gran'de (the 
grand or da-capo aria in 3 divisions 
preceded by an instrumental ritornello 
containing the principal melody ; divi- 
sion I being an elaborate development 
of a theme with frequent repetitions of 
the words ; II, a more tranquil and 
richly harmonized section ; followed by 
III, the repetition da capo of I, with 
still more florid ornamentation); the 
aria di bravu'ra, (similar to the fore- 
going, but overloaded with difficult 
passages and coloraturas for showing 
off the singer's skill); the aria da chie'- 
sa (church-aria, differing from the sa- 
cred song chiefly in its greater breadth, 
and in being accompanied by full or- 
chestra); and the aria da concer'io 
(concert-aria, differing from the others, 
which are portions of operas, oratorios 
etc., in being an independent composi- 
tion intended for the concert-hall). — 
The modern aria is freer in form than 
the aria grande of the i8th century, 
the ritornello often being omitted, 
greater variety given to the da capo, 
and the thematic construction made to 
follow the sense of the words, so that it 
sometimes assumes the form of a rondo, 
or consists of 2 slow divisions separated 
by an allegro movement. . .^fr /a par- 
Ian' te (also ario'so), a vocal style com- 
bining the melody of an aria with the 
distinct enunciation of a recitative, the 
vowels being " thrown forward." 
— .Smaller arias, nearly in song-form 
and with slighter accompaniments, are 
called ariettas or cavatinas. 

Ariet'ta (It.) A small aria. (See Aria.) 

Ariette (Fr.) Same as aria grande, the 
original signification being completely 

Ario'so (It.) In vocal music, a style in- 
termediate between aria and recitative 
(see Aria parlante); also, a short melo- 




dious strain interrupting or terminating 
a recitative. — Also signifies an effective 
dramatic style suitable for the aria 
graiide. — In instrumental music, same 
as canlabilc'. 

Armer la clef (Fr.) See Clef. 

Arm'geige ((ler.) Viola da braccio. 

Armoni'a (It.) W^xmony . .Ai-monia 
niilita'rc, military band. 

Armo'nica (It.) i. Harmonic. — 2. Har- 

Armonie (Fr ) Probably same as Viellc. 

Armoniosamen'te (It.) Harmoniously; 
armonio'so, harmonious. 

Armure (Fr.) i Mechanism, action. — 2- 

Ar'pa (It.) Harp. ..^. dop'pia, see 

Arpanet'ta, Arpanel'la (It.) A small 
harp. (See Spitzharfe.) 

Arpege (Fr.) Arpeggio. . . Arpl-i^enient^ 
pfciying arpeggio, breaking a chord. . . 
Arpeger, to arpeggio. 

Arpeggian'do (It.) Playing arpeggio, 
in harp-style, or in broken chords ; 
from arpeggia'rg, to play on the harp. . . 
Arpeggia'to, (a) arpeggiated, arpeg- 
gio'd ; (b) as a noun, same as Arpeggio. 

Arpeggiatu'ra (It.) A series of arpeg- 

Arpeg'gio (It,, pi. arpeg'gi, Engl. pi. 
arpeg'gios.') [Lit." harping."] Playing 
the tones of a chord in rapid and even 
succession ; playing broken chords. 
Hence, a chord so played, or broken ; 
a broken or spread chord, or chord - 
passage. The modern sign for the a 

^ calls for 

1:1^— J§rz the follow- 
Itnj— 'p — ing e.xecu- bSs i^J j ^^^ j^jlg rj 

i. e. the first arpeggio-note falls on the 
accent; this is the rule for the accent, 
tho' there are occasional exceptions. 

■2 ) 

N.B. — Pfte.-ar- 
peggios are writ- 
ten in 2 ways : 
(i) indicates that 
the arpeggio is 
simultaneous in 
both hands ; (2), 
that all the notes are to be played in 
succession from lowest to highest. — In 
earlier music (Bach, Handel) the same 
sign calls for a more or less free spread- 
ing of the chords, generally according 
to a preceding pattern-chord in which 

the a. is written out in full. Obsolete 
or unusual signs are as follows : 

a. b. c. d. e. f. 

\ —J .^-1 --I 

/2a t^ \f-^ pg t"g1 VTSj 

a, b, c, d are equivalent to the modern 
sign \ f, f., g call for a reversed (de- 
scending) arpeggio ; h means either an 
ascending arpeggio, or a combined a, 
and acciaccatura ; i and k signify a 
spreading in eighth-notes ; the appog- 
giaturas at / and m delay the perform- 
ance of the notes to which they are 
attached by the time required for play- 
ing a long or short appogg. respectively. 
Arpeggio'ne. An instr. like a small 
'cello, with fretted fingerboard and 6 
„ — ; inv. 

tuned \~^-—-^ ^^ ^y ^ 

Stauffer, of Vienna. 

Arpicor'do (It.) Harpsichord. 

Arpo'ne (It.) An instr. played like the 
harp, but having the strings adjusted 
horizontally instead of vertically; inv. 
by Barbieri of Palermo, towards the end 
of the 18th century. 

Arrangement. (Ger. and Fr. ditto; It. 
riduzio'ne). The adaptation of a com- 
position for performance on an instr., 
or by any vocal or instrumental com- 
bination, for which it was not originally 
intended; hence, the composition as so 
adapted or arranged. 

Arranger (Fr.), Arrangie'ren (Cer.) To 
arrange. (See Arraugemeiit.) 

Ar'sis (Gk.) Up-beat. 

Art (Ger.) Sort, kind ; manner, style. 

Articola're (It. ; Fr. articuler ; Ger. 
arlikiilie'ren.) To articulate, utter ^\s- 
\\x\Q.\.\y. ..Articola' to, articulated. . .Ar- 
ticolazio'ne, articulation. 

Ar'tig(lich) (Ger.) Neatly, prettily, 

As (Ger.) A{7. — As'as, or As'es, jWy'r). 

Aspira're (It.) To aspirate. Also, in 
singing, to quaver a vowel by audibly 
interpolating successive /I's. Also, to 
take breath. 

Aspiration ( Fr.) An obsolete grace 
(comp. Grace). 



Asprez'za (It.) Harshness, roughness; 
f) Assa'i (It.) Very ; used to intensify a 
tempo-mark, as allegro assai, very 
rapid ; it has less intensifying force 
than inolto. 

Assembly. A signal by drum or bugle 
for soldiers to rally and fall in. 

Assez (Fr.) Enough ; rather. 

Assolu'to (It.) Absolute, positive ; prima 
ttomo assoliito, a male singer for lead- 
ing roles. 

As'sonance. (Ger. Jssonanz'; Fr. as- 
sonance; It. asso7ian'za.) Agreement 
or resemblance in sound. 

A'them (Ger.) Br^dith... .A' iheinlos, 

Attac'ca (It.) Attack or begin what fol- 
lows without pausing, or with a very 
short pause ; a. sii'biio (or attaca' ie 
subiio), attack immediately. 

Attacca're (It.), Attaquer (Fr.) To 
attack, or begin, at once. 

Attac'co (It.), Attaque (Fr.) A mo- 
tive in fugal imitation ; formerly, a very 
short fugue-theme. 

Attache du cordier (Fr.) Loop. 

Attack. The act or style of beginning 
a phrase, passage, or piece ; said both 
of vocalists or instrumentalists, either 
in solo or ensemble. 

Attendant keys of a given key are its 
relative major or minor, together with 
the keys of the dominant and subdomi- 
nant and their relative major or minor 
keys. (Comp. Phone, §4.) 

At'to (It.) Act of a drama, 

Atto're, (Attri'ce) (It.) Actor (act- 

Au (Fr.) To the, in the, etc. 

Aubade (Fr.) i. Morning-music, gen- 
erally addressed to some particular per- 
son ; opp. to Serenade; — specifically, a 
morning-concert by a military band.— 2. 
Occasional title for short instrumental 
pieces in lyric style. — 3. A calli- 
thumpian concert (ironical). 

Audace (Fr.) Audacious, bold. 

Auf'fassung (Ger.) Reading or con- 
ception (of a work). 

Auf'fiihrung (Ger.) Performance. 

Auf'geregt (Ger.) Agitated(ly), e.xcit- 

Auf'geweckt (Ger.) Lively, animat- 
ed(ly), brisk(ly). 

Auf'halten (Ger.) To suspend. . .^?</''- 
halittng, suspension (usually Vot'hali). 

Auf'losen (Ger.) To resolve. . .^w/'- 
liisung, resolution ; also, the breaking 
of a chord ; also, the solution of an 
enigmatical canon.. .Auflosungszeu 
chen, the natural (Q). 

Auf satz (Ger.) Tube (of a reed-pipe in 
the organ). 

Auf'schlag (Ger.) Up-beat. . .yiw/'- 
schlagende Ziing'e, beating reed. 

Auf schnitt (Ger.) Mouth (of an organ- 

Auf'strich (Ger.) Up-bow. 

Auf takt (Ger.) Up-beat, anacrusis ; a 
fractional measure beginning a move- 
ment, piece, or theme (in this sense 
often used by English writers without 
capital [^ciiiftakt\). 

Auftritt (Ger.) Scene. 

Aufzug (Ger., lit. " raising [of the cur- 
tain]".) An act of a drama. • 

Augmentation. (Ger. Vergrd' sserung, 
Verlang'erung.') I. Doubling or in- 
creasing the time-value of the notes of 
a theme or motive in imitative counter- 
point. — 2. See Notation, §3. — Aug- 
mented intervals, see Interval. 

Augmenter (Fr.) To increase (in loud- 
ness) ; en augmenta nt^=cx&scendo. 

Aule'tes (Gk.) Flute-player. . .^«/)7j, 

Aumentan'do (It.) Crescendo... Au- 
menta'io, augmented. 

Aus'arbeitung (Ger.) Working-out, 

Aus'druck (Ger.) Expression. . .^w/- 
drucksvoll, expressively. 

Aus'fiihrung (Ger.) E.xecution, perform, 
ance ; exposition. 

Aus'halten (Ger.) To sustain; sustain ! 
. .Atts'haltung, sustaining... .<4 ^/^a/- 
tiingszeichen, see Fermate. 

Aus'losung (Ger.) Hopper, grasshopper, 

Au'ssere Stim'men (Ger.) Outer parts. 

Au'sserst (Ger.) Extreme(ly). 

Aus'stattung (Ger.) Mounting (of an 
opera, etc.) 

Aus'weichung (Ger.) Modulation, 

Authentic. (Ger. authen' tisch ; Fr. 
authentique ; It. auten'tico.) Within 
the compass of an octave above the 
Wcynote. . .^«. cadence, mode, see Ca- 



dence. Mode. . .An. melody, one whose 
range extends through or nearly through 
the octave-scale above its tonic or final ; 
opp. to pla;^al. . .All. part of the scale, 
that lying between a given keynote and 
its higher dominant, the part between 
the keynote and lower dominant being 
called plagal. 

Auto-harp, (Ger. Akkord'zil/ier.) A 
zither without fingerboard or accom- 
paniment-strings, all the strings being 
plucked or swept by the plectrum and 
stopped by a series of from 4 to 8 com- 
pound dampers (called "manuals" or 
" pedals "), each of which when pressed 
down damps all the strings except those 
forming one particular chord ; the plec- 
trum, rasping across all the strings, 
sounds this cord as an arpeggio ; the 
melody is brought out by special stress 
on the highest (or any other) tone of the 

Au'tophon. A form of barrel-organ, 
the tunes played being determined by 

fierforations in a sheet of mill-board 
heavy pasteboard] cut to correspond 
with the desired notes. (Knight.) 

Auxiliary note. (Ger. Hilfs'note.) A 
note not essential to the harmony or 
melody ; particularly, a grace-note or 
added note a second above or below a 
given T\\<t\o<\y-vi.oX^. . .Auxiliary scales, 
those of attendant keys. 

A've Mari'a (Lat.) " Ilail, Mary!"; 
the salutation of the angel Gabriel at 
the annunciation ; followed by the 
words of Elizabeth to Mary (Luke I, 
42), it has been a favorite subject of 
sacred composition since the 7th cen- 
tury ; concluded by a hymn of praise 
or prayer to the Virgin. 

A've ma'ris stel'la (Lat., "hail, star 
of ocean ! ") Hymn of the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

Avec (Fr.) With. 

Avici'nium (Lat.) An organ-stop imi- 
tating the warbling of birds. 

Avoided cadence. See Cadence. 

Azio'ne sa'cra (It., "sacred drama" ; 
equiv. to tlie Spanish "auto sacra- 
mentale ".) An oratorio or passion. 


B. (Ger. /// Fr. and It. «.) The 7th 
tone and degree in the typical diatonic 
scale of C-major. . .B cancella'tuin, the 
sharp (jj), formed originally by crossing 

or cancelling the sign \t for B rotun'- 
duin. . .B quadra' ium, Bfl. . .B \% also 
an abbr. for Bass or Basso {c. B.=col 
Basso ; B. C.= basso continuo). 

Baboracka, Baborak. Bohemian danc- 
es with changing rhythms. 

Bac'chius (Bacc/ty). A metrical foot 
containing i short and 2 long syllables, 
with the ictus on the first long one 

Baccioco'lo (It.) A Tuscan instr. of 
the guitar family. 

Bachelor of Music. (Lat. baccalau'reus 
tnu'sicic.) The lower of the 2 musical 
degrees, Doctor of Music being the 

Back. (Ger. Boden; Fr. dos; It. sckietia.) 
The lower side of the body of a violin, 
etc. ; opp. to Belly. 

Back-block. Same as Wrest-block. 

Backfall, i. An obsolete melodic or- 
nament in lute or harpischord-music ; 

written ; 

:; played : 

(Also comp. Grace) — 2. A double 
lever in the organ -action, working be- 
tween a sticker and a pull-down. 

Backturn. See Turn. 

Badinage (Fr.) Good-humored raillery, 

Bagana. The Abyssinian lyre, having 
10 strings tuned to 5 tones and their 

Bagatelle (Fr.) A trifle. 

Bagpipe(s). (Ger. Du'delsack, Sack'- 
pfeife; Yx.cornemuse ; \\.. cornamu' sa.") 
A very ancient wind-instr. of Eastern 
origin, known to the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, in great vogue throughout Europe 
during the middle ages, and still popu- 
lar in many countries, especially Great 
Britain. It consists of a leathern bag, 
filled with wind either from the mouth 
or from a small bellows worked by the 
player's arm, and of pipes inserted in 
and receiving wind from the bag. The 
commonest form has 4 pipes ; 3 drones 
(single-reed pipes tuned to a funda- 
mental tone, its fifth and its octave, and 
sounding on continuously), and I vicl- 
ody-pipe, the chanter (a sort of shawm 
or double-reed pipe with from 6 to 8 
finger-holes ; compass approximately : 


Praetorius enumerates several sizes 
used in the 17th century ; the "Grosser 
Bock" (drone in contra- Cr or great C), 
" Schapc7-pfcif" (drones in b\) and _/"'), 
" JIumvielcIien" (drones f^-c^), and 

Baguette (Fr.) Drumstick ; fiddlestick. 

Baisser (Fr.) To lower(as a tone by a b). 

Bajadere. See Bayadere. 

Balala'ika (also Balaleika, Balale'iga). 
A rude stringed instr. of the guitar 
family, having 2, 3, or 4 strings tuned 
in minor. It is of Russo-Tartar origin, 
and now most often met with among 
the Gypsies. 

Balancement (Fr.) See Behung. 

Balance-rail. A strip of wood running 
transversely beneath the middle of the 
piano-keys, which are balanced upon 
it.. .Balatice swell-pedal, see Pedal. 

Balg (Ger.) ^&\\o\\'%. . .Bal'gentreter 
(" bellows-treader "), calcant, a man 
employed to tread or stand on the old- 
fashioned German organ-bellows to fill 
them with wind . . . Balg' klavis, see 
Clavis. . . Balg''iuerk, bellows. 

Barken (Ger.) I. Bass-bar.— 2. The 
thick line connecting the stems of 
grouped hooked notes, substituted for 
the hooks. 

Ballabi'le (It.) A composition intended 
for a dance -accomp. ; any piece of dance- 

Ballad. (Ger. and Fr. Balla'de ; It. 
talla'ta.) Originally, a song intended 
for a dance-accomp. ; hence, the air of 
such a song. In modern usage, it is a 
simple narrative poem, a mixture of the 
epic and lyric, generally meant to be 
sung. — .\s a purely musical term, it 
was originally applied to a short, simple 
vocal melody, set to one or more stan- 
zas, and with a slight instrumental 
accomp. — In an extended application, it 
includes instrumental melodies of a 
similar character ; also compositions for 
single instr. s, for orchestra, etc., sup- 
posed to embody the idea of a narrative. 

Balla'denmassig(Ger.) In ballad-style. 

Ballad-opera. An opera chiefly com- 
posed of ballads and folk-songs (e. g. 
Gay's "Beggar's Opera"). 

Balla'ta(lt.) A ^allad....4 ballata, in 

Balleri'na (It.) A female ballet-dancer. 
(^ Bal'let. (Ger. Balled'; Fr. ballet: It.. 

hal'lo, ballefto.) I. A spectacular dance, 
often one introduced in an opera or 
other stage-piece. — 2. An independent 
pantomimic representation, accompan- 
ied by music and dances setting forth 
the thread of the story. — 3. A compo- 
sition of a light character, but somewhat 
in the madrigal style, frequently with a 
"fa la" burden which could be both 
sung and danced to ; these pieces were 
commonly called " Fa las " [Grove]. — 
4. The corps of ballet-dancers {corps de 

Ballet'to (It.) I. Ballet.— 2. Title em- 
ployed by Bach for an Allegretto in 
common time. 

Bal'lo (It.) A dance; a hsW&K. . . . Balli 
ingle' si, English dances ; balli ungar/si, 
Hungarian dances. . .Daballo, in dance- 
style, light and spirited. 

Ballon'chio (It.) See Faspy. (Origin- 
ally, a round dance of the Italian 

Ballonza're (It.) To dance wildly and 
recklessly, regardless of rule. 

Band. i. An orchestra. — 2 (most com- 
monly). A company of musicians play- 
ing martial music (brass-band, military 
band). — 3. A company of musicians, or 
section of the orchestra, playing instr. s 
belonging to the same family or class 
(brass-band, string-band, wood-baud, 
wind-band). . .The 24 fiddlers of 
Charles II. were called "the king's 
private band." 

Band (Ger.) A volume. 

Ban'da (It.) The brass wind-instr.s, 
and the instr.s of percussion, in the 
Italian opera-orchestra. — Also, an or- 
chestra appearing on the stage. 

Bandalore, Bandelore. See Bandore. 

Bar'de(Ger. ; usually Mtisik'- or Musi- 
ka>i'tcuba)ide.) A company of strolling 
musicians. — (Fr.) In earlier usage, the 
24 violins at the royal court (" lagrande 
bande "). 

Band-master. The conductor of a mili- 
tary hand. . .Ba/tdsf/ian, a member of 
such a band. 

Bando'la (Span. ; also Baftdolon , Bandora, 
Bdnditni.) Instr.s of the lute family, 
with a greater or smaller number of 
steel or gut strings, and played with a. 
plectrum ; like the Pandora, Pandura, 
Pandurina, Mandora, A/andola, Man- 
doer, Jifandura. Mandiirchen, all es- 
sentially identical with the Mandolin 



still in vogue (see Mandolin and Lute). 
[RiEMANN.] (Also comp. Cither.) 

Bando'nion. A kind of Concertina with 
square ends (keyboards), inv. by C. F. 
Uhlig of Chemnitz, about 1830, and 
since then much improved and enlarged. 
It takes its name from Heinrich Band 
of Crefeld, a dealer in the instr. — Comp. 
art. Harmonicuni. 

Bandore. See Bandola and Cither. 

Bandur'ria (Span.) A variety of guitar 
having wire strings instead of gut. 

Banger. The banjo. (" The Negroe- 
Banger " [Adair].) 

Bania, Banja (African.) Parent instr. 
of the Banjo. (?) 

Banjo. A variety of guitar ; its body is 
formed by a circular hoop, over the 
upper side of which is stretched parch- 
ment or skin ; it has a long neck with 
or without frets, and from 5 to 9 strings, 
the melody-string, which is the shortest 
and played with the thumb of the right 
hand, lying outside of and next to the 
lowest bass string. The other strings 
are plucked or struck with the right 
hand, and all are stopped with the left. 
It is variously tuned, the 5-stringed 
banjo often as follows : 


Ban'kelsanger (Ger. ; ' ' bench-singers, " 
from their mounting on benches, the 
better to gain a hearing.) Strolling 
singers of a low class, who frequent 
fairs and other places of public resort, 
and recount, partly singing and partly 
speaking, romantic tales taken from 
history or adventure, stirring events of 
the day, etc., usually explanatory of a 
picture which they display. 

Bar. (Ger. Takfstrich ; Yx. barre ; It. 
li'nea, bar'ra, sbar'ra.) i. A vertical 
line dividing measures on the staff, and 
indicating that the strong beat falls on 
the note immediately following. — 2. 
Hence, the popular name for ' 'measure". 
. . . Bar-line, a barbarism evoked by the 
familiar use of bar for measure. 

Bar (Ger.) Compare Strophe 3. 

Bar'baro (It.) Equiv. to Feroce. 

Bar'biton, Bar'bitos. An ancient 
Greek variety of the lyre. 

Barcarole'. (Ger. ditto ; Fr. barcarolle ; 
It. barcaro'la, barcaruo'la, "boatman's 
song.") I. A gondoliera (song of the 

Venetian gondoliers). — 2. A vocal or 
instrumental solo, or concerted piece, in 
imitation of the Venetian boat-songs, 
and in 6-8 time (though Chopin's for 
pfte. is in 12-8 time). 

Bard. A poet and singer among the 
ancient Celtic nations ; one who com- 
posed and sang, generally to the harp, 
verses celebrating heroic achievements. 
. .In earlier Scotch usage, a vagabond 

Bardiet', Bardit' (Ger.) [A word coined 
by Klopstock, who derived it from the 
" barditus" (for baritus, a battle-song) 
of Tacitus, whence the erroneous as- 
sumption that the ancient Germans had 
bards.] A bardic song. 

Bardo'ne. i (It.) A barytone 2. — 3 
(Ger.) Occasional spelling for Bourdon 
(organ-stop); also Barduen. 

Bare fifth. See Naked. 

Ba'rem (Ger.) Obs. name for the very 
soft-toned organ-stop StiU'gedackt or 

Bargaret, Barginet. Same as Bergeret. 

Baribas'so (It.) A low barj-tone voice, 
a bass-bar)'tone. 

Bariolage (Fr.) A medley.— A caden- 
za, or series of cadenzas, whose appear- 
ance forms a design upon the music- 
paper, a "waistcoat pattern," as it is 
called by performers. [Stainer and 

Bariteno're (It.) A low tenor voice, a 
tenor-barytone (second tenor) 

Ba'riton (Ger.), Bariton (Fr.), Bari'- 
tono(It.) Barytone. [An attempt has 
been made to confine the spelling bari- 
totte to instruments, and barytone to the 
voice ; the idea is not yet generally 

Baroc'co (It.;Ger. /^(Z;v<-/^'/Fr. baroque.) 
Eccentric, odd, strange, whimsical. 

Barox'yton (Gk., "the deep and high- 
toned.") A brass wind-in- 
str. of broad, .scale, inv. , /p 



in 1853 by Cerveny of 
Koniggratz; compass from 
contra-T? to a"^ : gwa 

Bar'pfeife (Ger., also Bar' pipe, Barpyp; 
Dutch Baar'pyp.) A reed-stop in old 
organs, with pipes nearly closed by 
caps of a peculiar shape, and emitting 
a humming, "growling" tone. 

Barquarde (Fr.) Obs. for Barcarolle. 

Bar'ra (It.) A bar (not measure). 


Barre (Fr.) A bar (not measure); also 
barre de mestire. — Certain abbrevia- 
tions are also termed barns.— A\so, the 
low bridge of some stringed instr.s. . . 
B. d'harmonie, bass-bar.. .B. de rc'pc'ti- 
iion, a dotted double-bar, indicating a 

Barr^ (Fr.) In lute- or guitar-playing, 
the stopping of several or all the strings 
by laying the left-hand forefinger across 
them, the ne.\t fret then acting as a ca- 
potasto or temporary nut to raise their 
\)\tch. . .Grand barr^, a stop of more 
than 3 strings. . .C-barr^, see Tranche. 

Barrel-organ. (Ger. Drehorgel, Leier- 
kasten; Fr. orgue a cylindre {not^), 
orgue de Barbaric ; It. organet'to.) An 
instr. (often portable) consisting of a 
case containing pipes, a bellows, and a 
cylinder (the barrel) turned by a crank 
and studded with pins or pegs ; when 
the cylinder revolves, the pins open 
valves communicating with the bellows, 
which is worked by the same motion, 
and wind is thus admitted to the pipes. 
It generally plays a melody with an 
harmonic accomp. Larger forms (see 
Orchestrion) are used in dance-halls, 
restaurants, or even in churches. — In 
another variety, hammers striking wire 
strings (as in the pfte.) are similarly 
actuated by the revolving cylinder (//- 
ano-oigan, handle-piano). 

Bart (Ger.) Ear (of organ-pipe). Also 

Barytone, l. {Gqt. Ba'ryton, Ba'riton ; 
Fr. baryton; It. bari'tono.) The male 
voice intermediate between bass and 
tenor, and in quality partaking more or 
less of the characteristics of both ; thus 
the Germans distinguish between a Bass' - 
bariton and a Tenor'bariton, and the 
French had (in earlier usage) basse-tail- 
le, seconde iaille, and tenor 
concordant. — Its mean ^_ 
compass is from G to /' : ^" i 

— Hence, a singer having a barytone 
voice.— 2. A bow-instr. (It. vio' la di 
bardo'ne or bordone) resembling the 
viola da gamba, in great favor during 
the 1 8th century, but now obsolete ; it 
had 6 or 7 gut strings, stopped by the 
left hand, above the fingerboard, and a 
widely varj'ing number of brass or steel 
strings (from 9 to 24) below it, which 
acted as sympathetic strings, though 
sometimes plucked with the left thumb. 
The upper strings were tuned B E A 
d / b e\ It dates from the 17th century. 

^ {.m-) 



— 3. The euphonium. — 4. Prefixed to 
instr.-names, barytone denotes the pitch 
of an instr. intermediate between bass 
and tenor (or alto); e. g. barytone 
clarinet. . . Barytone-clef., the (obsolete) 
/-clef on the 3rd line. 

Ba'rytonhorn (Ger.) The euphonium.. . 
Ba'rytonsckliissel, barytone-clef. . . Ba'' 
tytonstiinnie, barytone voice or part. 

Bas-dessus (Fr.) Mezzo-soprano. 

Base. Old spelling of Bass. 

Bas'kische Trom'mel (Ger.) Tambour- 

Bass. (Ger. Bass ; Fr. basse ; It. bas'. 
so.) I. The lowest tone in a chord, or 
lowest part in a composition. — 2. The 
lowest male voice ; ordinary compass 
from F io t' (or d^): 

\ extreme 
from C 
to e^ : 

— 3. A prefix indicating the lowest in 
various families of instr.s, as bass trom- 
bone. — 4. (Ger.) {a) Abbr. for Kontra- 
bass (double-bass). .. ((5) In earlier 
usage, a bow-instr. intermediate in size 
between the 'cello and double-bass, 
having from 5 to 6 strings.. .(<:) As a 
suffi.xtothe name of an organ-pipe, bass 
denotes that it belongs on the pedal ; 
e. g. Gemshornbass. — Albertibass, a 
bass in brok- -rrr. m m — — • 0^ 

en chords like 
the following: 
. . . Continued or figured bass, bass 
notes provided with figures indicat- 
ing the chords to be performed above 
the notes (Basso continuo). ..Bunda- 
fnentalbass,seeBundamental.. . Ground 
bass, a continually repeated bass phrase 
of 4 or 8 measures (basso ostinato)... 
Murky bass, see Murky. . . Supposed 
bass, a bass tone other than the root of 
a chord... Thorough-bass, see that word. 

Bass-bar. (Ger. Bal' ken ; Fr. barre d 'har^ 
nionie, 7-essort.) In violins and the like, 
a long narrow strip of wood glued to the 
inner surface of the belly parallel with 
and just beneath the G-string, put in to 
strengthen the belly and equalize the 
vibration. [The violin-maker Held, of 
Beuel, Gennany, gi\es the bass-bar a 
slight diagonal inclination, in accord- 
ance with a suggestion by Ole Bull.] 

Bass-clef. F-clti on the 4th line. (See 

Basse (Fr.) Bass. — (.\lso applied to the 



thick lower strings of an instr., as les 
basses dun piano).. .B. chatitante, the 
high "singing" (i. e. flexible) bass 
voice ; a barytone. . . B. chiffn'e^ fig- 
ured bass. ..-5. continue, basso con- 
tinuo. . . B. contrainte, basso ostinato. . . 
B. -centre, a deep bass voice. . . B. de 
cornet, old term for the serpent, as the 
natural bass for the cornet family... 
B. de cremone {cremorne, cromorne), the 
bassoon, or its precursor.. .B. de flilte 
traversiere, b. cT haulbois, same as pre- 
ceding. . . B. d' harmonic , the ophi- 
cleide. . .B. de viole, see Barytone 2. . . 
B. de violon, b. double, double-bass... 
B. figure'e, figurate bass. . . B. fonda- 
mentale, {a) root of a cord, {b) a gener- 
ator (see Fundamental bass).. .B. guer- 
ricre, a species of bass clarinet. . . Basse- 
argue, an instr. inv. by Sautermuiter of 
Lyons, in \%\2...B. r^citante, see B. 
chantante...Basse-taille, barytone voice. 
Bas'set-horn. (Ger. Bassclfhom ; Fr. 
cor de basset ; It. cor'no di basset' to.) 
An alto or tenor clarinet in F, no 
longer in use ; ^.t^ It has a 

compass from 
F to c^ : 

reed, and 

a wooden tube bent at the mouthpiece 
and bell. Timbre mellow, though of a 
sombre quality, like the bass clarinet, 
especially in the lower register. 

Bassett' (Ger., also Basset'l, Bass'l.) 
I. Old term for the 'cello. — 2. As a 
prefix to the names of other instr.s, 
same as Tenor. — 3. A 4-foot flute- 
stop on the organ-pedal. 

Basset'to (It.) i. A small bass viol 
with three strings (obs.)— 2. When 
the bass rests, the lowest harmonic 
part.— 3. Tenor violin (rarely). — 4. 
An 8 or 16-foot reed-stop in the organ. 

Bass'flote (Ger. "bass flute.") See 

Bass'geige (Ger.) Familiar term for the 
'cello; ^ro'sse Bassgeige, the double-bass. 

Bass'horn (Ger.) See Appendix. 

Bass'klausel (Ger.) The cadence-like 
leading of the bass at a close, from 
dominant to tonic. 

Bass'lade (Ger.) See Windlade. 

Bas'so (It.) I. Bass, either as the 
fundamental harmonic part, a bass 
voice, or a bass singer.— 2. A bass 
instr., more especially the double-bass. 
—B. buffo, see Buffo. . . B. cantan'te, 
(.a) a vocal bass ; (b) corap. Basse chan- \ 

tante (opp. to basso prof on' do).. .B. con- 
certan'te, the principal bass, as an ac- 
comp. to soli and recitatives. . . B. con- 
ti'nuo (or continua'to), a continuous 
bass provided with figures indicating 
the chords to be played above it ; also, 
thorough-bass. . . B. figura'to, (a) basso 
continuo ; {b) a^ figurate bass part... 
B. fondamenta'le, fundamental bass... 
B. numera'to, figured bass. . . B. obbli- 
ga'to, an indispensable bass part or 
accomp. ...5. ostina'to, ground bass... 
B.profoti'do, a deep, heavy bass. ...5. 
ripie'no, see Ripieno. 

Basson (Fr.) Bassoon . . .B. quinte, a 
tenor bassoon a fifth higher in pitch 
than the ordinary one ; compass : 

which i 


Bassoon'. (Ger. Fagott' ; Fr. basson ; 
It. fagot' to.) A wood- wind instr. of the 
oboe family, serving as bass for the 
wood-wind. The tube is doubled upon 
itself, forming 2 parallel air-chambers ; 
the long, curving mouth-piece is of 
metal, with a double reed ; compass 
from Bx'y to c'^, on 
newer instr.s to e'-^, It^ 

and e.xtended by vir- 

tuosi to e" or eveny^'*: 
The unwieldy length of the parent- 
instr., the bombardo, led in 1539 to the 
idea of bending the tube back upon 
itself, and from the faggot-like appear- 
ance of the new instr. its Italian name 
is derived. The tone is far softer and 
mellower than that of the bombardo, 
and its expression is entirely under the 
player's control. 

Bass'pommer (Ger.) See Bomhart. 

Bass'posaune (Ger.) A bass trombone. 

(See Trombone.) 
Bass'schliissel (Ger.) Bass-clef. 
Bass'stimme (Ger.) Bass voice. 
Bass'tuba (Ger.) See Tuba. 
Bass viol. See Viol. 
Ba'thyphon (Gk.; "the deep-toned.") 

A wood-wind instr. inv. in 1829 by 

Wieprecht (or Skorra ?) of . . ... \m - 

Berlin, having a clarinet ^- ^^-^ 

mouthpiece, and a compass 

from contra-Z> to small b^ : 

used for a short time in military bands. 
Ba'ton. I. {Yr. baton de tnesure ; Ger. 

Taktstock, Taktstab, Takfierstock, etcj 





It. bacchct'ta [di diretto're].) The staff 

or wand with which the conductor of a 

musical performance beats the time. — 

2. A rest of 2 measures. 

Baton (Fr.) A thick vertical stroke 

traversing i or more spaces of the staff, 

and indicating, according to the number 

so traversed, a rest for an equal number 

of measures : ... 

replaced m 3 

— zzrz — I ■ [ modern us fF^ 

^^ I — age by signs UZHL 

like : — 

(see Measure-rest ,\y[\AQ.x Rest). . .Bdion 

de mesure^ a Baton X. . .B. de rej>rise, a 


Battante (Fr.) Beating. 

Battement (Fr.) i. An obsolete grace, 
consisting of a short trill preceding the 
principal tone and beginning on the 
au.xiliarya semitone below it. It had no 
sign, being always written out in small 
notes : played : 

*— 2. A Beat 4. 
Bat'tere (It.) Down-beat. 
Batterie(Fr.) i. A general term for brok- 
en-chord figures on stringed instr.s; e.g. 

distinguished from the arpeggio (ace. 
to RousiE,-\u) by being played staccato 
instead of legato. — 2. Striking instead 
of plucking the strings of a guitar. — 3. 
A roll on a side-drum. — 4. The percus- 
sion-group in the orchestra. 
Battery. An effect in harpsichord -music; 

written : 

played : 

Battiraen'to (It.) Battement. 
Battu'ta(It.) I. A beat.— 2. A measure 
or bar {battuta taken in the narrower 
sense of "down-beat"; sz^ Rit'mo di 
due batttite). — 3. In medieval counter- 
point, the forbidden progression from 
a tenth on the up-beat to an octave on the 
down-beat, between 2 outer parts ; e. g. 
A battttta, " in time," 
is a direction for the 
parts accompanying a 
vocal melody to keep 
strict time (opp. to 
CO I la parte), conveying 
a hint to the singer 
that his delivery should not be too free. 

Bau (Ger.) Structure, construction. 

Bau'erlein (Ger.) Baiiemjlote. 

Bau'ernflote,-pfeife (Ger.; " rusri* 
flute " ; Lat. ti'hia rures'tris.) A pedal- 
register not uncommon in old organs, 
consisting of stopped pipes of I or 
2-foot pitch. 

Baxoncil'Io (Span.) i. An organ-stop 
like the open diapason. — 2. A small 

Bayadere', Bayadeer'. East-Indian 

Ba'yla, Ba'yle (Span.) A dance ; bayle 
has the more comprehensive significa- 

bb (Ger.) Double-flat (see Doppel-b). 

B cancella'tum, B du'rum. See B. 

Bear'beiten (Ger.) To revise, work 
over, adapt, arrange, rearrange, touch 
up. . .Bear'beititng, an adaptation or re- 
vision, a working-over. 

Bearing-notes, Bearings. The tones 
first carefully tuned by the tuner of a 
pfte. or organ, serving to regulate its 
entire compass by. 

Beat. I. (Ger.; Takt'schlag, Takt'teil; 
Fr. battement de niesure, temps ; It. bat- 
tu'ta.) The motion of the hand or foot 
in marking time (the equal divisions of 
the measure). — 2. A division of a mea- 
sure so marked. — 3. In atrill, a pulsation 
embracing 2 consecutive tones. — 4. In 
acoustics, see Acoustics, §3. — 5. An old 
grace, consisting of a short trill before 
the principal note ; 

written : played : 



Beating. Same as Beat 4. 

Bebisa'tion. Compare Solmisation. 

Be'bung (Ger.; Fr. balaticcment ; 
tre'moio.) I. A rapid pulsation or 
tremulous effect, either vocal or instru- 
mental, given to a sustained tone for 
tlie sake of e.xpression. — 2. Specifically, 
an effect obtained on the clavichord by 
holding down a key after striking it, 
and balancing the finger upon it in 
such a way as to produce a prolonged, 
tremulous tone. (On modern piano- 
fortes having the Erard action, a sus- 
tained tone can be produced in a some- 
what similar manner.) 

Bee (Fr., "beak.") A mouthpiece (of a 
flageolet, clarinet). 



B^carre (Fr.) The natural (Q). 

Bec'co (It.) Same as Bee. . .Becco po- 
lac'co, a large species of bagpipe. 

Bech'er (Ger., " beaker, cup.") i. The 
bell (of various wind-instr.s ; also 
Sehall'triehter). — 2. The tube (of a reed- 
pipe in the organ; also Aufsatz, 

Beck'en (Ger.) Cymbals. 

Bedeckt' (Ger.) Stopped, as strings ; 
opp. to leer, open. 

Bedon (Fr.) Old name for drum ... i?^- 
don de Bisraye, a tambourine. 

Bee moll. (Obs.. from Lat. B tno/Ie,soi\. 
B.) Be mol, Bemol. 

Beffroi (Fr.) Gong (tam-tam). . .Also, 
an alarm-bell, a tocsin. 

Befil'zen (Ger.) To felt (put felt on 
pfte. -hammers). . .Be/il'ziotg, felting. 

Begei'sterung (Ger.) Enthusiasm, spirit. 

Beglei'ten (Ger.) To accompany. . . 
Begleii'stimmen, Beglei'tung, accompa- 
niment ; accompanying parts subordi- 
nate to a principal melody. 

Bei'sser (Ger.) A mordent. 

Bei'tone (Ger.) Harmonic overtones or 
undertones.. . Also, au.xiliary tones. 

Bekie'len (Ger.) To furnish with quills, 
as the jacks 01 ? harpsichord. 

Beklemmt' (Ger., properly beklom'men.) 
Anxious, oppressed [Beethoven]. 

Bele'bend (Ger.) Ravvivando. 

Bele'dern (Ger.) To cover with leather. 
. . .Bele'derung, formerly, the leather, 
now, the felt, used in covering pfte.- 
hammers. . . Also, the strips of leather 
covering the treble hammers. 

Belegt' (Ger.) Hoarse, not clear ; veiled 
(of the voice). 

Bell. r. (Ger. Clock' e ; Yx. cloche ; It. 
campa'na.) A hollow metallic instr. of 
percussion, set in vibration by a swing- 
ing clapper hung within, or by hammers 
actuated from without. — 2. (Ger., 
Sehall'triehter; Fr. pavilion; It. pavi- 
glio'ne.) The flaring end of various 

Bell-diapason. An organ-stop, usually 
of 8-foot pitch, with open bell-mouthed 

Bellez'za (It.) Beauty, grace. 

Bell-gamba. An organ-stop having 
conical pipes surmounted by a bell ; 
also called cone-gamba. 

Bell-harp. An old variety of harp with 
8 or more steel strings and enclosed in 
a wooden box, which the player swung 
to and fro like a bell while twanging the 
strings with the thumbs of both hands 
inserted through holes in the cover. 

Bellicosamen'te (It.) In a bellicose, 
martial, warlike siylt.. .Bellieoso, mar- 
tial, warlike. 

Bell-met'ronome. A metronome with a 
bell-attachment which can be set so as 
to strike with every second, third, 
fourth, or sixth beat of the pendulum. 

Bello'nion. An instr. consisting of 24 
trumpets and 2 drums played by a me- 
chanism ; inv. in 1812 at Dresden. 

Bell open diapason. Same as Bell-dia- 


Bellows. {G&T.Balg; Fr. souffle t ; It. 
soffiet'to.) The mechanical contrivance 
for gathering and propelling the wind 
supplying the pipes or reeds of the 
organ, harmonium, concertina, bagpipe, 
and the like. See Organ. 

Bell-piano. See Glockenspiel {2). 

Belly. I. (Ger. Deck'e ; Fr. table ; It. 
ta'vola, pan'cia.) The face (upper side) 
of the resonance-box of the violin etc. 
• — 2. (Ger. Resonatiz'boden ; Fr. reson- 
nance, table d' hartnonie ; It. ta'vola 
armo'nica.) Soundboard of the pfte. 

Bemol. B-flat. 

Bemol (Fr.), Bemol'Ie (It.) The flat 
Q)).. .Bc/noliser {bemollizza' re), to flat 
(set a flat before a note). 

Ben, Be'ne (It.) Well; as ben mareato, 
well marked ; a bene plaeito, at pleasure, 
ad libitum; ben ritmato, see Bien rythm/; 
ben lenicto, well sustained or held. 

Benedic'tus. See Mass. 

Bequa'dro (It.) The natural (^. 

Berceuse (Fr.) A cradle-song, lullaby / 
hence, a piece of instrumental music 
imitating the effect of a lullaby. 

Ber'gamask. (Fr. bergamasque; It. 
bergama'sca.) A clownish dance in de- 
risive imitation of the rustics of Ber- 
gamasca in Northern Italy. (Also ber- 
gomask, burgomask.) 

Bergeret'. A pastoral or rustic song or 
dance. (Also bargaret, bargeret.) 

Bergk'reyen, Berg'reihen (Ger.) 
"Dance-tunes from the mountains;" 
the title of various collections of dance- 



Bes (Ger.) B double-flat ; generally 

called bb. 
Besai'ten (Ger.) To string, put strings 

Bestiramt' (Ger. ) With decision , energy. 
Beto'nen (Ger.) To accent, emphasize. 

..Betonf , accented... Beio'nung, accent, 

stress, emphasis. 
Bet'tlerleier (Ger.) Hurdy-gurdy. . . 

Bcftleropcr, Beggar's Opera. 
Bewe'gen (Ger.) To move, stir, agitate. 

. .Beivegt, moved ; con moto. . .Bc'oe'- 

giing, movement, agitation (comp. Mo- 

tioiC)...Bezve'gnngsart, see Alovcment i, 

2, 3- 
Bezif'fern (Ger.) To figure (as a bass). 

...Bezi/'fert, figured. . .Beztf'/friing, 

Bezug' (Ger.) All the strings of, or a 

set of strings for, any stringed instr. 
Bian'ca (It., " white.") A half-note. . . 
Voce bianca, see Voce. 

Bibi (Fr.) A pianette. 

Bibrev'is (Lat.) See Pyn-hic. 

Bi'chord. i. Having 2 strings. — 2. The 
technical term for an instr. having a 
pair of strings, tuned in unison, for 
each tone (as the mandolin, lute, and 
certain pftes). 

Bici'nium (Lat.) A 2-part composition, 
especially a vocal one. 

Bi'fara (also bif'faj-a, bi'fm, piffara, 
piffero). An organ -stop, the pipes of 
which are either double-mouthed or 
paired ; the two members of each pair 
being tuned at slightly different pitches, 
the interference of the sound-waves 
produces a gentle tremolo. (Also Ce- 
lestina., Unda maris, etc.) 

Bifari'a. Title of a Presto in 3-mea- 
sure rhythm, in an Invention or Suite 
ascribed to J. S. Bach. 

Biju'ga(Lat.) The " 2-necked " cither. 

Bimol'le (It.) Same as Bemolle. 

Bi'na. See Vina. 

Bi'nary. Dual ; two-part. ..Binary form, 
a form of movement founded on 2 prin- 
cipal themes (comp. Sonata), or divided 
into 2 distinct or contrasted sections.. . 
Binary measure, that of common time, 
the first of every 2 members taking the 
accent ; i. e. the regular and equal alter- 
nation of the down-beat and up-beat. 

Bind. I. Properly, a tie (a curved line 
connecting 2 notes of like pitch, or 

enharmonically changed ; 
written by Sterndale Ben- 
nett in bracket-form : ^ 

and by — ^— > to distinguish it 

1597 thus 

^ from the Slur). 
The brace 

binding together the several staves of a 

Bin'debogen (Ger.) A slur, or a tie. 

Bin'den (Ger.) To bind, tie ; to con- 
nect, play or sing smoothly and con- 
nectedly (legato). . . Gebtm'den, bound, 
tied ; legato. . . Gebun'dener Stil, strict 
style of composition, in which disso- 
nances are prepared (tied over)... Also 
see Gebuiiden. 

Bin'dung (Ger.) A ligature, bind, tie, 
or slur ; hence, a suspension or synco- 
pation ; also, the legato. . .Bin' dungs- 
zeichen, a sign used to express any of 
the above. 

Biqua'dro (It.) Same as Bequadro. 

Birn, Bir'ne (Ger.) Socket. 

Bis (Lat., "twice".) i. Signifies that a 
measure, passage, or section is to be re- 
peated ; often written over or under a 
slur embracing the music to be repeated. 
— 2. Used by the French as an excla- 
mation of applause (" ajpain !"), like 
the French word " encore " in English 
usage. (See Bissare.) — 3. The second 
part, or a continuation, of a scene on 
the stage ; e. g., iG**''; 16'" and lei""*" 
then mean the third and fourth parts, 
respectively, of such a scene. 

Bis'chero (It.) Peg (tuning-peg) of a 
violin, lute, etc. 

Biscro'ma (It.), Biscrome (Fr.) A 

Bisdiapa'son. The interval of a fif- 
teenth, or double-octave. 

Biso'gna (It.) " Is necessary," "must"; 
as si bisogna da capo al segno, must be 
repeated from the beginning to the sign. 

Bisqua'dro (It.) Same as Bequadro. 

Bissa're (It.), Bisser (Fr.) To encore. 

Bissex (Lat., " twice six" ; Ger. Zwolf- 
saiier.) A kind of guitar having 12 
strings, of which the 6 highest ones 
could be stopped on a fretted finger- 
board ; compass 35 octaves ; invented 

Bis unca (Lat., "twice hooked.") A 

Bit. A short additional piece of tube 
used to lengthen a crook in the cornet ii 



pistons, etc., for slightly modifying the 

Bizzarramen'te (It.) Bizarrely, whim- 
sically, fantastically. . .jS/ssarrj'rt, a 
freak, whim, fancy, extravagance... 
Bizzar'ro,-a^ bizarre, fantastic, etc. 

Blanche (Fr., "white".) A half-note. 

Bla'ser (Ger., "blower.") A player on 
any wind-instr. 

Blas'instrument (or Bla'seinsirumeni) 
(Ger.) Wind-instrument. . .Bla'sebalg, 

Blatt (Ger.) Reed (of a wind-instr.; also 
Rohr'hlatt).. .Dop'pelblatt, double reed. 

Blech'instrument (Ger.) Brass instru- 
ment, metal wind-instr. 

Blind (Ger.) " Blind". . .Blinde Pfeife, 
dummy pipe (or ga.n)... Blinder Doppel- 
triller, a simulated pH [*j 
or imperfect double ii*|~^~^ |~*^~ etc. 
trill ; e. g. -^ * m 

Bloch'flote, Block'fiote (Ger.) i. A 
small kind ol Jiute a bee, in vogue in 
the i6th century. — 2. An organ-stop 
having pyramid-shaped fiue-pipes of 2, 
4, 8, or i6-foot pitch, and sometimes 

Block. In violins, etc., the blocks are 
small pieces of wood within the body, 
glued vertically to the ribs between 
belly and back to strengthen the instr. 

Blower. (Ger. Bal'gentreter, Kalkani' ; 
Fr. souffieitr; It. iiraman'iici.) A 
person working the bellows of an organ. 

B molle. See B. 

Boat-song. i. A song intended to be 
sung in a boat, especially in time with 
the oars. — 2 A vocal or instrumental 
composition imitative of l. {Barcarole, 

Bob. A term in change-ringing applied 
to the various sets of changes which 
may be rung on 6 bells (bob minor), 8 
bells (bob major), lo bells (bob royal), 
or 12 bells (bob ma.ximus). 

Bobisa'tion. A collective term for the 
various methods proposed, during the 
l6th and 17th centuries, for naming the 
tones of the scale by syllables. (See 

Bocal (Fr.) Mouthpiece of the horn, 
trombone, serpent, etc. — Also, the crook 
of the bassoon. 

Boc'ca (It.) '^loviXh... .Con boccachiu'sa, 
with closed mouth (comp. Brumm- 
stimmen).. .Bocca riden'te, "smiling 

mouth," the position necessary for the 
production of beautiful tones. 

Bocchi'no (It.) Mouthpiece of a wind- 

Bocedisa'tion. See Solmisation. 

Bock (Ger.; a\so pol'niscker Bock, Gross- 
Bock.) The bagpipe. 

Bocks'triller (Ger., " goat's-trill " ; Fr. 
chevrotenient ; It. tril'lo capri'no.) A 
trill like a goat's bleat ; the repeated 
interruption of one tone instead of the 
alternation of two. 

Bo'den (Ger.) Back (of violin, etc.) 

Body. I. (Ger. Cor' pus, Schall' hasten; 
Fr. coffre, corps ; It. cor'po.) The re- 
sonance-box of a stringed instr. — 2. 
That part of a wind-instr. remaining 
after removing the mouthpiece, crooks, 
and bell. — 3. The tube of an organ- 
pipe above its mouth. — 4. A tone is 
said to have "body" when it is full 
and sonorous ; the resonance of a tone 
is also called the body. 

Boehm Flute. See Flute. 

Bo'gen (Ger.) i. A bow. — 2, A slur 
or tie {Hal' tehogen, Lega' tobogen, Bin'- 
debogen) . . . Bo'genfliigel, piano-violia 
.. .Bo'genfiihrting, see Bowing I... 
Bo' gens trie h, stroke of the bow. 

BoiS (Fr.) Wood. . .Les bois (pi.), wood- 

Boite (Fr.) Box ; swell-box {boite cTex- 
pressio>i). . . Ouvrez la boite, or botte ou- 
verie, open swell ; fermez la boite, close 

Bole'ro (Span.) I. A Spanish national 
dance in 3-4 time and lively tempo (al- 
legretto), in which the dancer accom- 
panies his steps with castanets ; also 
called Cachucha. The c a stanet-rh ythm 

runs as _N | -|- 
follows ; 

with the melo- 
dy-rhythm : 
— 2. A composition in the style of a 

Bom'Tiard. (Ger. Bom' hart, Bom'mert, 
Poni'mer; Yx.bombarde; It. bombar'do.) 
A wind-instr. of the oboe family, with a 
wooden tube and double reed ; proper- 
ly, the bass instr. of the shawms, though 
sometimes made as a smaller instr. 
The unwieldy length of the larger 
sizes led to the invention of the bas. 



soon, which is a bombard with the tube 
doubled upon itself, and thus shortened 
by half. The bombardo' ne or conlra- 
bo>nbard (("icr. Bass'bomhart) was the 
deepest, followed by the bass bo'iibard 
{Bomhart), the tenor or basset-bombard 
{^Bas sett' bom hart), and the alto or bom- 
bar' do pic' colo. 

Bombarde (Fr.) i. Bombard. — 2. Po- 
saune 2. 

Bombar'don. i. A large instr. of the 
trumpet family, used as a bass in mili- 
tary music, and belonging, in its mod- 
ern forms, to the sa.xhorn group ; the 
usual sizes are in B*), F, C, and contra- 
B[) ; but the bombardon 
proper, old model, is in F, 
having 3 valves and a com- 
pass from contra-/' to d^ : Sva 
It is non-transposing. — 2. The bass of 
the sa.xhorn s. — 3. A deep-toned reed- 
stop in the organ. 

Bora'bo (It.) A figure in repeated notes. 

Bom'byx (Gk.) An ancient Greek wind- 
instr., presumably with a reed. 

Bon (Fr.) Good...^()« temps de la 
mesure, strong beat. 

Bonang. A Javanese instr. consisting 
of gongs mounted on a frame. 

Bones. A set of 4 pieces of bone, wood, 
or ivory, held pairwise between the 
fingers, and used to mark time as a rat- 
tling accompaniment to a dance, song, 
or instrumental performance. 

Book. I. (Ger. Heft : Fr. cahier; It. 
li'bro.) A part of a series of songs, ex- 
ercises, etc., under a separate paper 
cover. — 2. The words (libretto) of an 
opera, oratorio, etc. 

Boot. The foot of a reed-pipe (organ). 

Bordun' (Ger.) Bourdon. (The 2 free 
strings on either side of the fingerboard 
of the hurdy-gurdy, that kept up a con- 
tinual humming, were called Borditne; 
borduntis occurs as the name of the 
bass strings stretched beside the finger- 
board of the ancient viella.) 

Bouche (Fr.) Mouth; a bouche fermJe, 
with closed mouth (comp. Brttmm- 

Bouch6(e) (Fr.) Muted (of wind-instr.s) ; 
stopped (of organ-pipes). 

Bouffe (Fr.) Same as Buffo.. .Opera 
bouffe, comic opera. 

Bourdon. (Fr.) i. A drone bass. — 2. 
An organ-stop of 16 or 32-foot pitch. 

having stopped wooden pipes, some- 
times with metallic tops ; tone usually 
hollow or " fluty," i.e. deficient in har- 
monics. The French also have open 
bourdons of 8 and 4-foot pitch {bour- 
dons de huit, de qiiatre onverts). — 3. 
In French usage, the lowest string of 
the 'cello and double-bass ; — also, a 
great bell, as the bourdon of Notre- 
Dame. . .Faux-bourdon, see Fabiirden. 

Bourr^e (Fr.) i. A dance of either 
French or Spanish origin, from Au- 
vergne or Biscaya, in rapid tempo, con- 
sisting of 2 parts of 8 measures each 
and in 4-4 or 2-4 time. — 2. A move- 
ment in the earlier Suites, in alia breve 

Boutade (Fr.) i. A short ballet per- 
formed, as it were, impromptu. — 2. 
An instrumental impromptu or fantasia. 
— 3. An old French spectacular dance. 

Bow. (Ger. Bo' gen; Fr. archet; It. ar'co^ 
An implement originally curved out- 
ward, though now slightly inward, 
consisting of an elastic wooden rod 
(the slick), and of from 175 to 250 horse- 
hairs [Grove] (the hair) attached to the 
bent point or head, and drawn into 
proper tension by the sliding nut, which 
is actuated by the screw, (Schuster & 
Otto, JNIarkneukirchen, have recently 
[1893] manufactured bows with Jine 
gut threads in lieu of hairs.) After 
rubbing the hair with rosin, the bow is 
drawn across the strings (of the violin, 
bow-zither, etc.), setting them in vibra- 
tion ; the vibration is communicated to 
the resonance-box, which latter reinfor- 
ces the weak tone of the strings. . .Boiu- 
arm ox -hand, the right arm or hand.. . 
Bo7u-guitar (It. chitar'ra coll' arco), 
a species of violin with a guitar-shaped 
body. . . Bo'M-clavier ,Boiv-harpsichord, 
see Piano-violiti. . .Bow-instrument, 
one played with the aid of a bow, as 
the violin or ho-^'-iSxYv^x.. .Bow-zither, 
see Zither. 

Bow {verb.) I. To execute with a bow. 
— 2. To mark (a passage or piece) 
with signs indicating the bowing. 

Bowing. I. (Ger. Bo'genfiihrung.) 
The art of handling the bow ; the style 
or method of a player, — "his bowing 
as shown in his management of the 
bow." — 2. (Ger. Strich'art^ The 
method of, and signs for, executing any 
given passage; "the bowing of the 

Boyau (Fr.) Gut ; hence, gut string. 



Bozzetto (It.) Sketch. 
B quadra'tum, B qua'drum. SeeB. 
Braban^onne. The Belgian national 

Brac'cio (It.) The arm. .. J'io^a da 

braccio, see Viola. 
Brace. I. (Ger. Klam'mer ; Fr. ac- 
colade ; It. grap'pa.) A bracket con- 
necting the heads of 2 or more staves. 
— 2. One of the leathern slides on the 
cords of a side-drum. 
Branle, Bransle (Fr.) A brangle or 
brawl ; an old French dance in 4-4 
time, in which several persons joined 
hands and took the lead in turn. Branle 
was the generic name of all dances in 
which, like the Cotillon or Grossvater, 
one or two dancers led the rest, who 
imitated all the evolutions of their 
leaders. (Also B?-anlle.) 
Brass-band. See Band 2 ; distinguished 
from full military band by omission of 
reed-instr.s. . .Brass-wind, collective 
term for the players on metal wind- 
instr.s in an orchestra. 
Bra'tsche (Ger.) The tenor violin (comp. 

Bra'vo (It., masc. adj., pi. bravi ; fern. 
brava, pi. brave.) Used as an inter- 
jection, signifying "well done!" and 
the like ; superlative bravissimo,-a, etc. 
Bravour' (Ger.) See Bravura. .. Bra- 
vour'arie, aria di hravxira... .Bravo nr'- 
sttick, a vocal or instrumental piece of 
a brilliant and florid character. 
Bravoure (Fr.) See Bravura. . . VaLre de 
bravoure, an instrumental waltz of a 
brilliant, showy character. 
Bravu'ra (It.) Boldness, spirit, dash, 
brilliancy. .. .(4 'r/a di bravtira, 3i vocal 
solo consisting of difficult runs and pas- 
sages, designed to show off the singer's 
voice or skill. . . Con bravura ^ with 
boldness, etc. 
Brawl. See Branle. 
Break. i. The point at which one 
register of a voice or instr. passes 
over into another ; in the voice, the 
junction of the head- and 
chest-registers ; in the 
clarinet, between the notes : 
.. .Breaking of voice, see Mutation. 
— 2. A false or imperfect tone produced 
by incorrect lipping of a horn or trum- 
pet ; or by some difficulty with the reed 
of the clarinet (the "goose"); or, in 
singing, by some defect in the vocal 


organs. — 3. In an organ-stop, when 
playing up the scale, the sudden return 
(caused by an incomplete number of 
pipes) to the lower octave ; also, in com- 
pound stops, any point in their scale 
where the relative pitch of the pipes is 

Breakdown. A negro dance (U. S.) of 
a noisy, lively character. 

Breathing-mark. A sign set above a 
vocal part to show that the singer may 
(or must) take breath at that place ; 
written variously (', *, v^, V, //). 

Breit (Ger.) Broad, stately, slow. 

Brett'geige (Ger.; also Sack'geige, Spitz' - 
violgeige, Stock'geige, Ta'schengeige.) 
A kit. 

Breve, i. (Lat. and Ger. Brev'is ; Fr. 
brl've ; It. bre've.) A note equivalent 
to 2 whole notes or semibreves; the long- 
est employed in modern ^^ ,^^| , , ' 

music. Itis written thus : 

— 2. In medieval music, a note having -J 
or \ the time-value of the tonga (corop. 
Mensurable music). . .Alia breve (It.), 
{a) originally, a time of 4 minims (= I 
breve) to the measure ; time-signature 
C|D. ^^ter CP ; this is 2-r or great 
alia breve time, (b) Now, 4-4 time 
with 2 beats instead of 4 to the measure, 
and in quicker tempo ; time-signature 
(|> ; also called alia cappella; — opp. to 
Tempo 07-dinario I. 

Brev'is (Lat.) A breve. 
Bridge. (Ger. Steg ; Fr. chevalet ; It. 
ponticel'lo.) I. In bow-instr.s, a thin, 
arching piece of wood set upright on the 
belly to raise and stretch the strings 
above the resonance-box, and to com- 
municate to it their vibrations, which 
the bridge also cuts off from the rear 
ends of the strings. — 2. In the pfte. 
and other stringed instr.s, a strip or rail 
of wood or metal over which the strings 
are stretched. 
Brief. Obsolete for Breve. 
Brillant,-e (Fr.), Brillan'te (It.) Bril- 

liant, showy, sparkling. 
BrilTenbasse(Ger.) "Spectacle-basses," 
familiar term for the abbreviated nota- 
tion of alternating 


eighth-notes or i6th- 
notes, e. g. 

Brin'disi (It.) Drinking-song, some- 
times in style oi Jodler. 

Bri^ (It.) Vivacity, spirit, fire...C<7rt 



brio, or brio' so, with fire and vivacity, 

Bris€,-e (Fr.) Brol<en (as chords)... 
Cadc-iice brisJc, a grace consisting of a 
short trill beginning on the higher au.x- 
iliary note : 

Broderies (l>"r., pi.) Ornaments, embel- 

Broken cadence. See Cadence. . . Brok- 
en chords, chords the tones of which 
are sounded in succession instead of 
together (see A rpeggio). . . Broken music, 
music for the harp, guitar, and other 
instr.s on which the chords are generally 
arpeggio'd or broken. . . Broken octaves, 
series of octaves in which the higher 
tones alternate with the lower, thus : 


B rotun'dum. See B. 

Brumm'eisen(Ger.) Ajew's-harp (usu- 
ally Maul' trommel). 

Brum'mer (Ger.) Drone. 

Brumm'stimmen (Ger.) "Humming 
voices " ; production of tone without 
words, through the nose, with closed 
mouth {a boc'ca chiu'sa) ; a not infre- 
quent effect in male quartets, especially 
as an accomp. to a solo part. 

Brumm'ton (Ger.) Drone. 

Bruscamen'te (It.) "Brusquely" or 
forcibly accented. 

Brust (Ger.) Breast; chtsX... .Brust'- 
stimme, chest-voice. . .Brust' ton, chest- 
tone. . .Brust'werk, (usually) the pipes 
of the swell-organ or choir-organ as set 
up together in the middle of the instr. 

Bu'ca (It.) Sound-hole of lute, mando- 
lin, etc. 

Bucci'na (Lat.) Either a curved trumpet, 
originally the horn of an o.x ; or a 
straight trumpet {tuba), the prototype 
of the trombone or posaune. 

Bucco'lico,-a (It.), Bucolique (Fr.) 
Bucolic, pastoral, rustic. 

Biich'se (Ger.) Boot (of a small reed- 
pipe in the organ) ; also Hose. 

Buch'stabentonschrift (Ger.) Alpha- 
betical notation. 

Buffa're (It.) To play the wag or buf- 
foon, to jest, trifle. 

Buffet (Fr.) Organ-case, or case of any 

partial organ . . . Buffet d'orgues, a small 
organ complete, its case and all within. 

Buffo, -a (It.) Comic, humorous ; hence 
Buffo, Buffo-singer, the comic actor in 
an opera ; a comic singer.. .Aria buffa, 
comic air or aria. . . Opera biiffa, comic 
opera. . . Buffone, comic opera-singer. 

Buffone'sco,-a (It.) Droll, ludicrous.. . 
B uffone seamen' te , drolly, etc. 

Bugle, Bugle-horn. (Ger.) Bugelhorn, 
Flii'gelhorit ; Fr. bugle; It. trom'ba.) 
I. A wind-instr. of brass or copper, 
with cupped mouthpiece, used for in- 
fantry calls and signals, having 7 har- 
monic tones : 


and made in various pitches {B\), C, 
Bq). — 2. The key-bugle {A'ent bugle, 
/Regent's bugle) (Ger. Biigelhorn mit 
Klappen; Fr. bugle h cles) ; it has 6 
keys and ^ ^ ; inv. by Halli- 
day in 1815. — 
3. Valve-bugle 
(see Saxhorn). 

a compass 
of over 2 
octaves : 


Biih'nenweihfestspiel (Ger.) "Stage- 
consecrating festival play ; " the epithet 
bestowed by Wagner on Parsifal, his 
last musical drama. 

Bund ((]er.) A space between frets, on 
a fretted fingerboard. [Buttd is used 
as effectively synonymous v>'\th. fret ; e. 
g.. Bund I. means ist fret, the string 
being stopped on the fret by pressure 
in the space just behind it.].. .Btindfrei 
(" unfretted," i. e. not spaced off by 2 
or more frets or tangents), a term desig- 
nating a clavichord in which each key 
had its own string ; opp. to gebunden. 

Buonaccor'do (It.) A small spinet with 
narrow keys, for children. 

Buo'no,-a[boo-o'no] (It.) Q,ooA...Buo7ia 
nota, an accented note (one on a strong 
beat) ; btion gusto, good taste. . . Buo- 
namen'te, well, accurately. 

Burden, i. A refrain or chorus recur- 
ring after each stanza of a song. — 2. 
The drone of the bagpipe. — 3. The 
bass part. 

Bur'la (It.) A joke, ]&st.. .Burlatt'do, 
joking, jesting, rom'pmg.. .Burle' sea, 
a burlesque. . . Burle' sco,-a, burlesque, 
farcical, comic. . . B urlescamen' te , in bur- 
lesque style. 

Burlesque. (It. bur le' sea.) A dramatic 



extravaganza, or farcical travesty of 
some serious drama or subject, with 
more or less music. 

Burlet'ta (It.) A comical operetta or 
musical farce. 

Busain {Busaun, Buzain). A reed-stop 
in the organ, generally of 1 6-foot tone, 
and on the pedal. 

Button. I. A small round disk of leath- 
er screwed on the tapped wire of a 
tracker to keep it in place. — 2. A key 
of the accordion, etc. — 3. The round 
knob at the base of the violin, etc. 

Bux'eatib'ia, Bux'us(Lat.) An ancient 
oox-wood flute with 3 finger-holes, re- 
sembling the Phrygian flute. 

C. I. (Ger. C; Fr. ut ; It. do.) The 
first tone, ist degree, or key-note of the 
typical diatonic scale of C-major. (Com- 
pare Alphabetical notation, and Sol- 
misation.). . . — a - on the pfte.- 

Middle-C, the ^ keyboard; Ten- 

note c^ ?• ^ -G>- or C is small c. 

— 2. Abbr. for Capo (D. C. = da capo); 
Cantus, Canto (c. f. = cantus firmus or 
canto fermo); Col (c. B.=col basso, c. 
8va = coU'ottava); C.-B. (Cb.) = con- 

Cabalet'ta (It.) A song in rondo-form, 
with variations, often having a triplet 
accomp. imitating the hoofbeats of a 
cantering horse. 

Cabinet d'orgue (Fr.) Organ-case. 

Cabinet organ. See Reed-07-gan. 

Cabinet pianoforte. An old style of 
upright pfte.; a grand pfte. set on end. 

Cabis'cola (Lat.) Precentor of a choir. 

Cac'cia (It.) The chase ; a hunt.. .Alia 
£., in the hunting style (i. e. accompan- 
ied by horns). 

Cachee (Fr.) Hidden, concealed, cov- 
ered ; said of fifths and octaves. 

Cachu'cha (Sp.) A dance similar to the 

Cacoph'ony. (Fr. cacophonic; It. caco- 
foni'a.) Discord ; harsh or discordant 

Cadence. (Ger. Kadenz' ; Fr. cadence; 
It. caden'za.) I. See Cadenza. — 2. The 
measure or pulsation of a rhythmical 
movement. — 3. {a) In general, the 
closing strains of a melody or harmon- 
ic movement, {b) Specifically, an har- 
monic formula (i. e. succession of chords) 
leading to a momentary or complete 
musical repose ; the close or ending of 
a phrase, section, or movement. . . Amen 
c, popular term for plagal c, to which 
the word amen is often sung. . .Authen- 
tic c, see Perfect c. .Avoided, Broken, 
Deceptive, or False c, see Ititerrupted 
c. . Complete c, a perfect c. . .Hal /-ca- 
dence (half-close), or Imperfect c, the 
chord of the tonic followed by that 
of the Aoxmx\^x\\... .Interrupted c, an 
unexpected progression avoiding some 
regular ca-dence.. .Irregtilar c, an in- 
terrupted c. .Medial c, in ancient 
church-music, one in which the mediant 
was peculiarly prominent. . .Alixed c, 
that formed by the succession of the 
subdominant, dominant, and tonic 
chords, it thus being a " mi.xture" of 
the authentic and plagal cadences. . . 
Perfect c, the dominant triad or chord 
of the 7th followed by the tonic chord ; 
the authentic cadence of the ecclesias- 
tical modes. . . Plagal c, that formed by 
the chord of the subdominant followed 
by the tonic chord ;opp. to authentic c. . 
Surprise c, an interrupted c. . .Radical 
c, a close, either partial or complete, 
formed with two fundamental chords.. . 
Whole c, a perfect c. — A few examples 
are given below : 











Cadence (Fr.) i. A cadence 2 and 3. — 
2. A trill (as c. brillante, c. perlile). — C. 
hris/e, see Bris^e. . . C. /vite'e, avoided 
cadence. . . C. imparfaite (or stir la domi- 
nante), half-cadence. . . C. interroinpue. 

interrupted cadence. . . C. irr/guH^ty 
half-cadence. . . C. parfaite (or sur la 
toiiique), perfect cadence. .. C. plagale, 
plagal cadence... C pleine, (a) a trill 
preceded by the higher auxiliary as 9 



long appoggiatura ; (/') the progression 
from a dissonant chord to a consonant 
one. . . C. 7-onipite, broken cadence. 

Cadent. An obsolete grace (see Grace). 

Cadenz (Ger.) See Kadenz. 

Caden'za. i. A brilliant passage in a 
vocal solo, usually at its conclusion, 
having the effect of an extemporiza- 
tion, but commonly prepared before- 
hand. As an interpolation on the 
singer's part, such c. s are no longer in 
vogue. — 2. An elaborate and florid pas- 
sage or fantasia introduced in, and in- 
terrupting, the closing cadence of the 
first or last movement of a concerto ; 
the orchestral accomp. generally pauses 
after a hold on the * chord of the tonic, 
leaving the field clear for the perform- 
ance, by the solo instr., of the cadenza. 
This is either a more or less original 
effort of the soloist, or a supplementary 
passage written out by the composer 
himself or some other musician. Such 
cadenzas are for the most part built up 
of themes or reminiscences from the 
work to which they are appended, and 
are always calculated to display the 
soloist's proficiency in the most brilliant 

Caden'za (It.) A cadence.. . C. fin'ta or 
d'ingan'no, a deceptive cadence. . . C. 
fio7-itu'ra, an ornamented cadence. 

Cssura. See Cesttra. 

Caisse (Fr.) A drum...C plate, the 
shallower side-drum. . . C. roiilante, 
drum with wooden cylinder, that of the 
ordinary fd/j-j-^ being of copper.. . Grosse 
c, bass drum (also Gros-tambonr). 

Calamel'lus. See Calaiiius. 

Ca'lamus (Lat.) A reed-flute or reed- 
pipe (chalumeau ; shawm). . . C.pastora'- 
lis, or tibia'lis, a very ancient wood- 
wind instr., a reed with 3 or 4 finger- 

Calan'do (It.) Decreasing. An expres- 
sion-mark denoting a decrease in loud- 
ness, usually coupled with a slackening 
of the tempo. 

Calandro'ne (It.) A small variety of 
chalumeau or clarinet, a favorite among 
the Italian peasantry. 

Calascio'ne (It.) A variety of lute or 
guitar with fretted fingerboard, and 2 
gut strings, tuned a fifth apart and 
twanged with » plectrum ; found in 
lower Italy. 

Cala'ta (It.) A lively Italian dance in 
2-4 time. 

Calcan'do (It.) Hastening the tempo. 

Calichon (Fr.) Calascione. 

Calisonci'no (It.) Calascione. 

Call. A signal given by the fife, bugle 
or drum, calling soldiers to some spe- 
cial duty. 

Calli'ope (also Kalli'ope). A steam- 
organ ; a species of pipe-organ having 
a harsh tone produced by steam under 
pressure instead of wind. 

Callithum'pian concert. (Ger. Katz'- 
enmusik ; Fr. charivari ; It. chias'so, 
scampaiia'ta.) A boisterous serenade 
given to some person who has become 
an object of popular hostility or ridi- 
cule ; characterized by the blowing of 
horns, beating on tin pans, derisive 
cries, groans, hoots, cat-calls, etc. 

Cal'ma (It.) Calm, tranquillity. .. Gr/- 
man'do, calm, growing quieter. .. Cd/- 
ma'io, calmed, tranquilized. 

Calo're (It.) Warmth, passion ; con c, 
with warmth, clc.Caloro'so, warmly, 

Cambia're (It.) To alter, change... 
Nota camhia'ta, changing-note. 

Ca'mera (It.) Chamber, room. . .Mu'sica 
die, chamber-music ... 5^«(7;'a di c, 
chamber-sonata.. .Alia c, inthestyleof 

Camminan'do (It.) "Walking," mov- 
ing, flowing. (See Andante.) 

Campa'na(It.) A bell ; in eccles. usage, 
a church-bell.. .Campanel'lo^-a, a small 
bell.. .Campanelli' no. a very small bell. 
. . Catnpani' sta , a bell-ringer. 

Campanet'ta (It.) See Glockenspiel. 

Campanology. Theory of the con- 
struction and use of bells. 

Canarder (Fr.) To produce a *' couac " 
on the clarinet or oboe. 

Canarie (C(f7«r7r/irj', Canary ; It. Cana'rio). 
A lively dance of French or English 
origin, the melody being in 6-8 or 4-4 
time and having 2 phrases. 

Cancel. Sec A^atural i. 

Cancrizans (Lat.) Retrogressive. (It 

cancrizza/nen'te, cancrizzan'ie.) 
Can'na (It.) A reed or pipe.. .Canm 

d'a'nima, flue-pipes ; canne a lin'gua, 

Canon. (Ger. Ka'non ; Fr. canon ; It. 

ca'none.) I- The strictest form of 



mus. imitation, in which two or more 
parts take up in succession exactly the 
same subject. — The part taking the 
lead is called the antecedent, and the 
following part the consequent. Canons 
are now usually written out in full, but 
during the high tide of medieval counter- 
point it was customary to write only the 
antecedent, and to mark the successive 
entrances of the other parts by signs or 
merely by mysterious superscriptions 
{enigmatical canons)', the superscription 
was then called the canon (i. e. rule, di- 
rection), while the composition was 
called the fu'ga or consegnen'za. — Ac- 
cording to the interval from the ante- 
cedent at which the consequent enters, 
the canon is called a C. in tmison (the 
consequent taking the very same notes 
as the antecedent, but of course enter- 
ing later) ; C. at the octave (the conse- 
quent entering an octave above or be- 
low) ; C. at the Jifth, fourth, etc. The 
c. could also be varied, like the fugue, 
by the diminution or augmentation of 
the theme, by inversion or retrogression, 
etc. (Comp. Fugue.) When the parts 
entered at the time-interval of a minim 
one after the other, the canon was 
called a fuga ad minimam. — 2. Ancient 
Greek name for the Monochord. 

Ca'none (.It.) A canon.. .C. aper'to, an 
" open " canon, i. e. one written out in 
full. . . C. cancrizzan'te, canon by retro- 
gression. . . C. chin' so, a ' ' close " canon, 
in which only the leading partis written 
out in full ; an enigmatical canon.. . C. 
enigma'tico, enigmatical canon (see 
Cano?}). . . C. infmi' to or perpe'tuo, an 
infinite canon •, one which, without a 
specially added close, can be sung on 
for ever. . . C. sciol'to, a canon in free 

Canonical hours. The 7 canonical 
hours of the R. C. Church are the 
established times for daily prayer ; 
called matins (incl. nocturns 2lVi.A lauds), 
prime, terce, sext, nones, vespers, aiid 
complin. Those from prime to nones 
are named after the hours of the day, 
prime (the first hour) being at or about 
6 A. M., terce (the third) at g, sext (the 
sixth) at noon, and nones (the ninth) at 
3 P.M. 

Cano'nici. See Harmonici. 

Canonic imitation, strict imitation of 
one part by another (see Canon). 

Canta'bile (It.; In a singing or \--:.:A 
style. Where a passage is so marked, 

the leading melody should stand out 
well from the accomp., and the general 
effect should be free and flowing. 

Cantamen'to (It.) Same as Cantilena, 

Cantan'do (It.) See Cantabile. 

Cantan'te (It.) A singer ; also, singing, 


Canta're (It.) To sing.. . C. a a'7'ia, to 
sing with more or less improvisation.. . 
C. a orec'chio, to sing by ear. . . C. di 
nianie'ra or maniera'ta, to sing in a 
florid or ornamental style. 

Canta'ta (It.) Originally, a vocal piece, 
as opp. to an instrumental one, or 
sonata. But ca?itata has come, like 
sonata, to mean a definite form of com- 
position, with the difference, that all 
earlier forms once called cantate must 
still be taken into account in defining 
the word cantata, whereas no one 
would now think of calling a short and 
simple prelude a sonata. — In modern 
usage, a cantata is a more or less ex- 
tended vocal work with instrumental 
accomp., consisting of chorus and solos, 
recitative, duets, etc.; distinguished 
from the oratorio and opera by the ex- 
clusion of scenic effects and the epic 
and dramatic element ; though the lat- 
ter can, of course, not be entirely ex- 
cluded, as even the purest lyrical 
emotion may often be intensified to 
dramatic pathos. —In the sacred cantata 
this form of composition finds its finest 
and most unequivocal expression. 

Cantatii'la, Cantati'na (It.) A short 
cantata. (Fr. cantatilic.) 

Cantato're (It.) A male singer ; Canta- 
iri'ce, a female singer. 

Cantato'rium (Lat.) A music-book, 
book of song ; a service-book of the R. 
C. Church containing the music of the 
Antiphonary and Gradual. 

Canterellan'do (It.) Singing softly ; 
trilling, warbling ; from canterella're, to 
hum, etc. 

Can'ticle (Lat. can'ticum ; Ger. Lob'ge- 
sang ; Fr. cantiqtie ; It. can'fico.) I. 
One of the non-metrical hymns of 
praise and jubilation in the Bible. — 2. 
A sacred chant based on or similar to 
I. — The Fvangelical ca.r\X\c\ts{Cantica 
majora) of both the Catholic and An- 
glican church are taken from the Gos- 
pels, and embrace the Magnificat 
(" Magnificat anima mea"), the Bene- 
dictus (" Benedictus dominus deus !•• 



rael "), and the Nunc dimittis (" Nunc 
dimittis servum tuum"). — The 7 Cantica 
minora are taken from various parts of 
the Old Testament. 

Can'tico (It.) See Canlicum. 

Can'ticum (Lat.) i. In the ancient 
Roman drama, any passage sung by 
the actors. — 2. A canticle. — Can'tica 
gra'duttm, the GTa.dua.\. . . Canticum Can- 
tico'rum, Solomon's Song. 

Cantile'na (It., "a little song"; Ger. 
Ciintih-ne ; Fr. cantilhte.) I. In me- 
dieval music, a solfeggio ; also, a can- 
iits firmus as used in church-music. — 

2. Formerly, the higher or solo part of 
a madrigal ; also, a small cantata or 
short vocal solo. — In modern usage, 
a ballad or light popular song ; also, in 
instrumental music, a flowing melodious 
phrase of a vocal character ; often used 
to define a smooth and voice-like ren- 
dering of slow melodic passages. 

Cantilenac'cia (It.) A vile song. 

Cantilena're(It.) To sing in a low voice. 

Cantilla'tio (Lat.) See Intonation i. 

Canti'no (It.) Sam.e as Chanterelle. 

Can'tio (Lat.) A song, an air. 

Cantique (Fr.) A canticle ; also, a 
choral, or hymn-tune. 

Can'to (It.) I. The soprano ; the high- 
est vocal or instrumental part. . . Col c. 
same as colla parte. — 2. See Cantino. — 

3. A melody, song, chant. — C. a cap- 
pella, same as Cappella, a.. . C. Ambro- 
sia' no, Ambrosian chant. ..C. armo'nico, 
a part-song. . . C. croma'tico, a melody 
in chromatic style. . . C. fer'mo, see 
Cantus firmus. . . C. figura'to, figurate 
melody. . . C. Gregoria'no, Gregorian 
chant. . . C. pla'no, plain chant. . . C. 
pri'mo, first soprano. . . C. recitati'vo, 
recitative or declamatory singing. . . C. 
ripie'no, see Ripieno. . . C. secon'do, sec- 
ond soprano. 

Can'tor i. (Lat.) A singer, a precentor. 

. . C. chora'lis, chorus-master. — 2. (Ger.) 

See A'antor {on p. 238). 
Canto're (It.) A singer ; a chorister. 
Danto'ris (Lat., " of the cantor.") Term 

designating the side of a cathedral choir 

on which the precentor (cantor) sits, i. 

e., on the left or north side of a person 

facing the altar ; opp. to the deca'ni 

("of the dean") side. 
Can'tus (Lat.) A song, a melody. . . C. 

corona' ttis, see C. fractus. . . C. du'rus. 

see Dur. . . C. ecclesiastictis, (a) church- 
music in general ; (1^) plain song ; {c) 
the musical rendering of a liturgy, opp. 
to merely reading it . . . C. figura'lis, 
mensurable music. . . C. figtira'tus, a 
melody with a florid or figurate contra- 
puntal accomp. . . C. /ir'mus, a fixed or 
given melody ; (a) plain song ; (i) in 
modern counterpoint, a given melody, 
usually in imitation of a, to which other 
parts are to be set according to rule.. . 
C. frac'tus, a broken melody; a term 
applied to a tune which proceeded 
either by perfect or imperfect conso- 
nances. When accomp. by a faux bour- 
don, it was called Cantus corona'tus. 
[Stainer and Barrett.].. .C. Grego- 
ria'nus, Gregorian chant. . . C. mensura- 
bilis, see N'otation, §3. ..€. tnol'lis, see 
Moll. . . C. natura'lis, see Mutation. . . 
C. pla'nus, plain song. 

Canun'. See Kanun. 

Canzo'ne (It., also Canzo'na.) Origi- 
nally, a folk-song (Fr. chanson) ; later, 
a secular part-song in popular style, 
hence the Canzo'ni JVapolita'ni, Sici- 
lia'ni, etc. ; many such songs closely re- 
semble the madrigal. The name was 
sometimes applied to instrumental 
pieces in madrigal style. — Canzonac'cia, 
a vulgar song. . . Canzonci'na, Canzonet- 
ta, a little song, a canzonet. . . Canzonie'- 
re, a collection of lyric poems or songs. 

Canzonet(te). A little air or song ; a 
short part-song ; a madrigal. 

Capel'le (Ger.) See A'. 

Ca'po (It.) The head, beginning.. .Da 
capo, from the beginning. . . Capolavoro, 
master-work. . . Capo-orchestra, conduc- 

Capodastre (Fr.) See Capotasio. 

Capota'sto (It.; also capo di tasto, 
" head of the fingerboard.") I. The nut 
of stringed instr.s having a fingerboard. 
— 2. A piece of wood or ivory which can 
be fastened across a fretted fingerboard, 
like that of the guitar, to raise the pitch 
of all the strings at once. — Sometimes 
written, in Engl, usage, Capo d'astro. 

Cappel'la (It., "chapel.") i. A choir. 
— 2. An orchestra. (Incorrectly writ- 
ten f(7/('//(j'.). . .A cappella, vocal chorus 
without instrumental accomp.. .Alia c, 
((?) same as a cappella; (b) see Alla- 
breve. . .Da c, in church-style, i. e. is 
a solemn and devotional manner. 

Capricciet'to (It.) A little capriccio. 



Capric'cio (It.) Title frequently given 
to instrumental pieces of free, uncon- 
ventional form, and distinguished by 
originality in harmony and rhythm. 
(Compare Scherzo. ). . .A capriccio, at 
pleasure, ad X\h\K.ViKn. ..Capricciosatnen' ie , 
capriciously, fantastically... 6<7/;7V«yjc, 
capricious, fantastic ; a capriccio. 

Caprice (Fr.) Capriccio. 

Carat'tere (It.) Character, dignity ; 
style, quality. 

Caressant (Fr.) \ 

Carezzan'do (It.) [ ^Y^' j"^'^'' '°°'''" 

Carezze'vole (It.) ) 

Carica'to (It.) Overloaded as to graces, 
chromatics, peculiarities of instrumen- 
tation, or other means of mus. expres- 

Carillon (Fr.) I. A set of bells differing 
from those of a chime in being fixed, 
and in their greater number ; played 
either by hand (on a keyboard) or 
machinery (on the principle of the 
cylinder in the barrel-organ). — 2. A 
bell-piano, with pfte. -keyboard, and 
bells instead of strings. — 3. A melody 
to be played on l. — 4. An instrumental 
piece imitating the peculiar character 
of carillon-music. — 5. The "clashing" 
(ringing all at once) of several large 
bells. — 6. See Glockenspiel. — 7. A mix- 
ture-stop yielding the 3rd, 5th, and 8th 
partials of the fundamental represented 
by the digital pressed (<:' — g'^-e^-c^). 

Carillonneur (Fr.) A performer on the 

Carita' (It.) Lit. "charity." Same as 

Carmagnole (Fr.) A dance and song 
in great vogue during the Reign of 
Terror ; it dates from the taking (1792) 
of Carmagnola, a town in Piedmont, 
though the connection between the town 
and the air is not clearly established. 

Carol. I. A circle-dance (obs.) — 2. A 
joyous song or ballad, particularly one 
celebrating Christmas. 

Caro'la (It.) A circle-dance similar to 
the carmagnole. 

Carrie (Fr.) A breve. 

Cartelle (Fr.) A large leaf (for writing) 
of prepared ass's-skin, on which the 
lines of the staff are traced to jot down 
notes while composing, the notes being 
afterwards erased with a sponge. All 
cartellfs come from Rome or Naples. 

Ca'rynx (Gk.) An ancient Greek trumpet. 
Cas'sa (It.) A bass drum. (Also cassa 

gran'de.). . .C. arinonica, body (of 

violin, etc.) 
Cassation' (Ger.) See K. 

Castanets. (It. castagnet'te; Fr. casta- 
gnettes; Ger. Kastagnetten; from Span. 
castanetas.) A pair of small concave 
pieces of hard wood or ivory, each hav- 
ing a projection on one side, by means 
of which they are fastened together 
with a cord long enough also to pass 
over the performer's thumb, or thumb 
and forefinger. Generally used (espe- 
cially in Spain) by dancers as a dance- 
accomp. They yield no mus. tone, 
but merely a hollow click or rattle. 

Castra'to (It.) A eunuch (adult male 
singer with soprano or alto voice). 

Catalectic. Lacking part of the last 
foot ; e. g. the second of the following 
lines is catalectic : 

Lives of great men all remind us 
We can make our lives sublime. 

Catch. Originally, an unaccomp. round 
for 3 or more voices, written as a con- 
tinuous melody, and not in score ; the 
" catch "was for each succeeding singer 
to take up or catch his part at the right 
time. Later, a new element was intro- 
duced, and words were selected in such 
sequence that it was possible, either by 
mispronunciation or by inter\veaving 
the words and phrases apportioned to 
the different voices, to produce the 
most ludicrous and comical effects. 

Cate'na di tril'li (It.) A chain of trills. 

Catgut. Popular term for Gu(strings{(\.\.) 

Catlings. Lute-strings of the smallest size. 

Catti'vo (It., "bad.") Caltivo tempo, 
the weak beat. 

Cau'da (Lat., "tail.") The stem of a 

Cavallet'to (It., "little horse.") i. A 
bridge (usually po)iticello). — 2. The 
break in the voice. 

Cavalquet (Fr.) A piece played by a 
cavalry trumpeter-corps when approach- 
ing or marching through a town. 

Cava'ta (It.) i. Production of tone. — ■ 
2. Cavatina. 

Cavati'na (It.) i. A short song of any 
description. — 2. A vocal air, shorter 
and simpler than the aria, and in one 
division, without Da capo. — 3. Title 



gfiven by Beethoven to the 2nd move- 
ment of his i5|7 Quartet. 

C barr6 (Fr.) The "barred C" ((^), 
indicating alia breve time. 

C-Clef. See C/e/. 

Cebell. A theme for variation on the 
lute or violin, in 4-4 time and 4-measure 
phrases, characterized by the alternation 
of very high and low notes in the suc- 
cessive strains. (Obs.) 

C^ciiium (Fr.) A free-reed keyboard 
instr. inv. by Quantin de Crousard, ex- 
hibited at Paris in 1867. It has the 
shape and nearly the size of the 'cello, 
and is held in the same way. The keys 
are pressed by the left hand, while the 
right operates the bellows by means of 
a handle like a bow. Compass about 5 
octaves ; tone sweet and sonorous. 

C^dez (Fr.) Go slower ; 7-allentate. 

C^lamustel (Fr.) A kind of reed-organ 
having fundamental stops similar to 
those of the harmonium, and various 
additional effects, such as bells, harp, 
echo, thunder, dove- and cuckoo-notes, 

CeTere (It.) Rapid, %\V\l\... .Cekrita', 
celerity, rapidity ; con cekrita, with 
celerity, etc. 

C61este (Fr., "celestial, divine ".) /c« 
c, pcJale c, organ-stops producing a 
sweet, veiled tone ; Fcdale c. is also a 
pedal-mechanism on the pfte. for ob- 
taining a sweet, veiled tone.. . I'oix c, 
the organ-stop vox angelica, 

'CeIlo,-i. Abbr. of Violoncello,-!. 

Cembal d'amour (Fr.) A species of 
clavichord, twice as long as the ordi- 
nary instr.s, the strings of which were 
struck in the middle by the tangents, 
the vibration of both sections q/ the 
string thus yielding a double volume 
of tone ; inv. by G. Silbermann, ist 
half of 1 8th century. 

Cembalist, (It. cembali'sta.) A player 
on the cembalo (either harpsichord or 

Cem'balo (It.) i. Originally, a dul- 
cimer ; a general name for various 
instr.s having several wire strings struck 
by hammers. — 2. A harpsichord. — 3. A 
pianoforte.. .A cembalo, for harpsichord 
(or pfte.).. . Tuito il cembalo, see Tiitte 
corde.. .Cembalo onuicor'do, a keyboard 
stringed mstr. inv. by Nigetti about 
1650 ; also called Proteus. 

Cembanel'Ia, Cennamel'la (It.) A 

pipe or flute. 

Cen'to (It.), Centon (Fr.) i. The anti- 
phonary of Pope Gregory the Great. — 2. 
(Also cento' ne, "a patchwork".) A 
medley of extracts from the works of one 
composer, worked up into an opera or 
similar composition. {Pasticcio.) Hence 
the verb centoniza'7-e (Fr. centoniser), 
meaning " to put together." 

Cercar' la no'ta (It.) To seek the note ; 
i. e. to sing in the same breath the tone 
belonging to the next syllable like a 
light grace-note, before its proper time 
of entrance, in portamento style ; e.g. 
written : sung : 



Cervalet', Cervelat'. Species of clari- 
net with bassoon-like tone (obs.) 

Ces (Ger.) C\).. .Ces'cs, C^b- 

Cesu'ra, Caesu'ra. A term in prosody 
sometimes usetl in music to designate 
the dividing line between two melodic 
and rhythmic phrases within a period ; 
called masculine ox feminine according 
as it occurs after a strong or a jvectk 

Ce'tera or Ce'tra (It.) A cither... C 
tede'sca,^' German cither," a lo-stringed 
instr. of the lute class. 

Chaconne', Chacone'. (It.ciacco'na; 
Span, chaco'na ; Fr. chaconne.) I. 
Originally, a Spanish or Moorish (pos- 
sibly Italian) dance or sarabande. — 2. 
An instrumental composition consisting 
of a series of variations, above a ground 
bass not over 8 measures in length, in 
3-4 time and slow tempo. (See Passa- 

Chair-organ. Variant of Choir-organ. 

Chalameau. Variant of Chalumeau. 

Chalil. Ancient Hebrew instr., either \ 
flute (flageolet) or reed-pipe. 

Chalumeau (Fr. ; Engl, chalameau; 
Ger. Chaliimau, Chalamaus ; It. scicu 
lumb, salmb.') I. See Shawm, Clari- 
net. — 2. The "chalumeau" register 
is the lowest register of the clarinet 
and basset-horn ; as a direction in 
clarinet-playing, chalumeau signifies 
"play an octave lower." — 3. (In 
French usage.) The chanter of the bag- 
pipe ; also, occasional for Pan's-pipe. 

Chamber-music. Vor-al or instrumental 



music suitable for performance in a 
room or small hall ; opp. to concert- 
music, church-music, operatic music, 
etc. ; ordinarily applied to quartets and 
similar concerted pieces for solo instr.s. 

Chamber-organ, A cabinet organ. 

Change. I. In harmony, see Modula- 
tion. — 2. In the voice, see Mutation. 
— 3. Any melodic phrase or figure 
executed on a chime of bells. 

Changer de jeu (Fr.) To change the 
stops of an organ, etc. 

Change-ringing. The art and practice 
of ringing a peal of bells in varying and 
systematic order. 

Changing-chord. A chord containing 
a number of tones (" changing-notes") 
dissonant to the bass, and entering on 
the strong beat. . . ChaHghig-note. (Ger. 
Wech' selnote, Diirch' gangston^ durch'- 
gehende Note ; Fr. note d'appogiattire ; 
It. fiota cambia'ta.) A dissonant note 
(tone) entering on the strong beat and 
generally progressing by a step to a 
consonance within the same chord ; 
sometimes by a skip to a chord-note or 
note belonging to another chord. — A 
passing-note differs from a changing- 
note by entering on a weak beat. 

(> Chanson (Fr.) A song ; originally, a 
ballad-like song ; now rather a vocal 
solo (Z/(\/) with pfte.-accomp.. . C/z(7«- 
sonnette, a short chanson. {Canzonet.) 

Chansonnier (Fr.) i. A composer of 
songs. — 2. A book or collection of 

Chant. I. A Gregorian melody repeated 
with the several verses of a prose 
text, a number of syllables being in- 
toned on each reciting-note ; its 5 
divisions are : (i) the intonation; (2) 
the first dominant, or reciting-note ; (3) 
the mediation ; (4) the second domi- 
nant or reciting-note ; (5) the cadence. 
— 2. A melody similar in style to the 
above, and non-rhythmical ; a tone ; 
called cant us firm us in contrapuntal 
composition. — 3. The so-called An- 
glican chanty that employed in chanting 
the canticles and Psalms ; it consists of 
7 measures, harmonized, the lime-value 
of the single note constituting the first 
and fourth measures being expanded or 
contracted to fit the words, whereas the 
others are sung in strict time. It has 2 
divisions of 3 and 4 measures respect- 
ively, each commencing on a reciting- 
note and ending with a cadence : the first 

cadence is called the niediation, and the 
arrangement of the words to the music 
is ca.Ued pointing. Any short piece of 
like character is also called a chant. .. 
Double chant, one twice as long as the 
usual chant, having 14 measures, 4 
reciting-notes, and 4 cadences.. . Change- 
able chant, one that can be sung either 
in major or rmViOX. . .Free chant, one 
having but 2 chords to each half-verse, 
for the declamatory singing of the can- 
ticles, etc. 

Chant (Fr.) Song; singing; melody, 
tune ; voice (i. e. vocal part in contra- 
distinction to the accomp.).. . C/^. com^' 
pose', plain song. . . Ch. d'e'glise (or 
gregorien), Gregorian chant. ..C/^. en 
ison, or ch. /gal, a chant sung on only 
2 tones, thus having but one interval.. . 
Ch. figure', figurate counterpoint. .. C^. 
royal, modQ (ton) in which the prayer 
for the sovereign is chanted. . . Ch. sur 
le livre, an extemporized counterpoint 
sung by one body of singers to the 
plain-song melody (a cantus firmus) 
sung by the others. 

Chanter. The melody-pipe of the bag- 

Chanter (Fr.) To sing. ..O. a livre 
oitvert, to sing at sight. 

Chanterelle (Fr.) The highest string 
of an instr. belonging to the violin or 
lute family, especially the E-string of 
the violin ; the soprano string. 

Chanteur (Fr.) A male singer. .. C/zrt«- 
tcuse, a female singer. 

Chantonner (Fr.) Same as Canterellare. 

Chantre (Fr.) Leader of a choir... 
Grand r/;., precentor, c^k'oXox.. . Second 
ch., choir-singer, chorister, choir-boy. 

Chapeau (Fr.) A tie ■^ (usually liai» 
son).. .Ch. chinois, a crescent. 

Chapel. A company of musicians at- 
tached to the establishment of any dis* 
tinguished personage. (See Kapelle.) 

Character, individual, of the several 
keys. — Theoretically, each major or 
minor key is precisely like every other 
major or minor key, tlie intervals in all 
being precisely similar. Practically, 
there subsist recognized differences, 
due (i) to the system of equal tempera- 
ment as applied to instruments with 
keyboard or frets, and (2) to a more or 
less perceptible tendency towards " forc- 
ing up " the sharp keys (thus lending 
them a brighter and intenser character), 
and towards "letting down " or relax. 



ing the flat keys (rendering them darker 
or, as it \s-ere, lending them a minor 
character). Theoreticians seem dis- 
posed to deny in toto the possibility of 
characteristic diflerences ; while many 
highly cultivated practical musicians 
(not to speak of jesthetic enthusiasts of 
all stripes) are equally positive that 
such differences exist. 

Characteristic piece. A character- 
piece ; one depicting a definite mood, 
impression, scene, or event. . . Character- 
istic tone, (i) the leading-tone ; (2) that 
tone in any key which specially distin- 
guishes it from nearly related keys, as 
F'j, in the key of (7, distinguishing it 
from (T-major. 

Characters. See Signs. 

Charak'terstimme (Ger.) Solo-stop (or- 
gan)., . Charak'tcr stuck, a characteristic 

Charivari (Fr.) A callithumpian con- 

Chasse, a la (Fr.) Alia caccia. 

Chef d'attaque (Fr.) The leader of an 
orchestra, or of any division of a chorus. 
. . Chef iforchestre, conductor of an 
orchestra. . . Ch. du chant, ste Repetiior. 

Chelys (Gk., "tortoise.") i. The lyre 
of Mercury, fabled to have been a tor- 
toise-shell with strings stretched over 
its hollow. — 2. Name for both the 
bass viol and division viol in the l6th 
and 17th centuries. 

Cheng. The Chinese mouth-organ, the 
wind-chest of which is formed by a 
gourd into which the air is blown 
through a curving tube, and bears on 
its upper side from 12 to 24 free-reed 
pipes. Its introduction into Europe 
led to the invention of the accordion 
and harmonium. 

Chest of viols. A set of viols, i. e. 2 
trebles, 2 tenors, and 2 basses, which 
formed the nucleus of the 17th century 
orchestra. (Also Consort of viols.) 

Chest-register. The lower register of 
the male or female voice, the tones of 
which produce sympathetic vibration in 
the chest. . . Chest-tone, chest-voice, a 
vocal tone possessing the quality of the 
chest-register ; opp. to Head-register, 

Chevalet (Fr.) Bridge. 

Cheville (Fr.) Vtg.. .Cheviller, peg- 

Chevrotement (Fr.) ?,ef^Bockstriller., . 
Chcvroter, to execute a che^'rotetnent, 

Chiari'na (It.) A clarion. 

Chia'ro,-a (It.) Clear, pure. . . O/aro- 
men'te, clearly, limpidly, distinctly. . . 
Chiarez'za, clearness, etc. 

Chia've (It.) i. A clef. — 2. Key of an 
instr. — 3. Tuning-key. 

Chiavet'te, or Chiavi trasporta'ti 
(It.," transposed clefs.") A system of 
transposing clefs, freely used in the 
i6th century. As it was then a rule, 
but seldom infringed, that no vocal part 
should overstep the limits of the 5-line 
staff, and the modern system of chro- 
matic transposition being undeveloped, 
composers often employed, in the nota- 
tion of the various parts, clefs differing 
from those customarily used for the 
several voices, these unusual clefs indi- 
cating to the practised singers a trans- 
position of their respective parts to a 
higher or lower pitch : 

I. High chiavette. 
Discant. Alto. Tenor. Bass. 


2. Ordinary clefs. 




3. Low chiavette. 


^ ^=p; 


The high chiavette had the effect of 
transposing the parts (and consequently . 
the entire composition) into a key a 
major or minor third higher, i. e. their 
effect was equivalent to writing j_/7(?/j- 
or 4 sharps in a signature headed by 
the ordinary clef ; the lozu chiavette had 
a precisely opposite effect, as if j 
sharps or 4 flats had been written after 
the ordinary clef. — Though not recog- 
nized as such, this system was tanta- 
mount to a pretty free use of the trans- 
posing scales. 

Chi'ca. An old Spanish dance, modifi- 
cations of which are the Fandango, 
Chaconne, Cachucha, Bolero, and pos- 
sibly the English Jig. 

Chie'sa (It.) Church. . . Concer'to da ch., 
a sacred concert. . . Sonata da ch., a 
sacred sonata. ../?« chiesa, for the 
church, in church-style. 



Chiffre (Fr.) A figure, as in thorough- 

Chifonie (Fr.) Old name of the hurdy- 

Chikara. A Hindu violin having 4 or 5 
horsehair strings. 

Chime, i. A set of from 5 to 12 bells 
tuned to the tones of the scale, and em- 
ployed in playing the chimes by swing- 
ing either the bells themselves, or clap- 
pers hung within them. — 2. A set of 
bells and strikers (hammers) in a mus- 
ical box, organ, etc. (See Caril/on.) 

Chiming-machine. A revolving drum 
with pins so set as to pull the ropes of 
a chime of bells and ring the chime 

Chirog-ym'nast. An apparatus for 
exercising the hands of players on the 
pfte. or organ, consisting of a set of 
rings attached by springs to a cross-bar. 

Chi'roplast, (Ger. Hand'leiter, i. e. 
hand-guide.) An apparatus inv. by 
Logier about 1814, consisting of 2 
smooth wooden rails attached in front 
of and parallel with the pfte. -keyboard, 
and a pair of open gloves, the whole 
serving to hold both hands in the proper 
position for playing, by hindering the 
wrist from sinking and obliging the 
fingers to strike vertically. Simplified 
later by Kalkbrenner. — Termed by 
Liszt " ass's guide " {guide-dne) for the 
French "hand-guide" {gtiide-viain). 

Chitar'ra(It.) A guitar.— The Italian 
guitar, like the English cither, was 
strung with wire instead of gut strings. 
. . Ck. colfarco, a bow-guitar. . . Chitar- 
ri'na, a small Neapolitan guitar. . . Chi- 
tarro'ne, "great guitar;" a kind of 
theorbo differing from the arciliuto in 
having a longer neck, a wider space be- 
tween the 2 sets of pegs, and a smaller 
body. It had 20 wire strings, 12 being 
over the fingerboard. (See Lute.) 

Chiu'so,-a (It.) Closed ; hidden. . . Ca'- 
none chitiso, see Canone. . . Con bocca 
ckiusa, with closed mouth (comp. 
Brummstim men). 

ChcEur (Fr. [ch like k.]) Choir, chorus. 
. .A grand cha'ur, for full chorus. 

Choice-note. An alternative note written 
above or below another in a vocal part, 
which the singer may take in preference 
if he choose. 

Choir. (Ger. Chor; Fr. chxur; It. co'ro?) 
I. A company of singers, especially in 

a church ; hence, the part of the church 
which they occupy. — 2. A choral soci- 
ety. —3. (In the Anglican Church.) A 
body of officials whose function is the 
performance of the daily choral service, 
sitting divided on the decani and cati- 
toris sides of the chancel. — 4. A sub- 
division of a chorus, e. g. the 1st and 
2nd choirs (coro primo e secondo) in 8- 
part music. — 5. Same as ^««(/ 3. 

Choir-organ. (See Organ.). . .Choir- 
pitch, (see Chorion). 

Chor (Ger.) i. Chorus ; choir. — 2. On 
the pfte., a unison (the 2 or 3 strings 
belonging to one tone). — 3. On the 
organ, those pipes belonging to a mix- 
ture which are sounded by one key. — 4. 
A combination of instr.s of the same 
family, but different pitch, e. g. Troin- 

Chora'gus, Chore'gus(Gk.) The lead- 
er or superintendent of the ancient 
dramatic chorus. Hence, in Oxford 
(England), the title of a functionary 
who has charge of the mus. services in 

Cho'ral {adj.) Relating or pertaining to 
a chorus or vocal concerted music. . . 
Choral notes, see Note. . .Choral service, 
a church-service consisting chiefly of 
music by the choir. 

Cho'ral {noun.) 1. (Ger. Choral'; Fr. 
ca>itique, plain-chant; It. can'tico, can- 
zo'ne sa'cra.) A hymn-tune of the 
early German Protestant Church ; also, 
a hymn-tune similar in style to the 
above. (Sometimes spelled Chorale.) 
— 2. (In the R. C. Church.) Any part 
of the service sung by the choir. 

Chora'leon. See yEolomelodicon. 

Chora'liter (Lat.) 1 In the style of a 

Choral'massig(Ger.) ) choral. 

Choral'note (Ger.) A choral note. 

Chor'buch (Ger.) See Part-boo/: 2. 

Chord. I.(Ger. Akkord' ; Fr. accord; It. 
acco?-'do.) In a general sense, the har- 
mony of 2 or more tones of different 
pitch produced simultaneously. — As a 
technical term, a combination of from 
3 to 5 different tones, formed by erect- 
ing, upon a fundamental tone or root, 
an ascending series of diatonic thirds. 
A 3-tone chord is called a triad, a 4- 
tone chord a chord of the yth, and a 
5-tone chord a chord of the qth. The 
term chord is often applied specifically 
to the triads, as major chord, minor 



chord, fundamental chord, etc. — A View 
of the fundamental diatonic chords fol- 
lows, with the ordinary figuring in 
thorough-bass and theory : 

I II" III' IV V VI vii" 
Chords of the Seventh in Major. 


C'. I, 11: nil IV7 V7 VI7 VII^ 
Chords of the Seventh in Minor. 
7^ 7 ;n '1 ,'(1 7 

c: I7 II? IIi; IV7 V7 VI7VI1? 
Chords of the Ninth : 

When the root of a chord is the lowest 
tone, the chord is- said to be in the 
fundamental pflsitio7i; when some other 
tone is the lowest, the chord is inverted. 
Each triad has 2 inversions, and each 
chord of the 7th has 3. The inversions 
are limited neither to the given number 
of tones, nor to any particular order of 
the intervals above the bass ; e. g. a 
chord of the sixth may be written 



6 6 6 6 6 6 6 etc. 


<& —f — f- 

-W ' M^ 


that is, it remains a chord of the sixth 
so long as the third of the triad remains 
the loioest tone, above which the (octave 
of the) root forms the interval of a 

sixth. The Arabic numerals over 

the bass form what is called thorough- 
bass figuring ; each figure marks the 
interval of some tone above the bass (or 
lowest tone), the order of the figures 
depending, not upon the order of the 
notes, but upon the width of the inter- 
vals, the widest interval always being 
written at the top. The simple figures 
invariably call for the diatonic intervals 
as established by the key-signature. O 
calls for tasto solo (see Tasto) ; 2 or | 
or 4, for the chord of the second (in full, 
chord of the second, fourth and sixth) ; 
3 or I or 6, ((?) for the simple triad, (l>) 
3 alone over the first bass note signifies 
that the soprano takes the third of the 
root ; i or 4 calls for the chord of the 
third and fourth (and sixth) ; 5, for the 
fifth in the soprano; \, for the simple 
triad ; 6, for the chord of the sixth ; 4, 
for the chord of the fourth and sixth ; 

\, or B , for that of the fifth and sixth ; 

7 (b), for the chord of the seventh ; 8, 
for the octave in the soprano, s, for the 
simple triad ; 9, (7 or «, according as 
the fifth or seventh is dropped), for the 
chord of the ninth. ^^ y } \ were for- 
merly used to show that the tenth and 
octave, eleventh and ninth, etc. of the 
bass note were to be taken instead of 
the third and prime, fourth and second, 
etc. Where there is a choice, the 
simpler figuring is preferable, unless 
some interval is chromatically altered. 
A if, t>, Q, y. , ox \)\) alone over a bass 
note signifies that the third\n the chord 
is correspondingly altered chromatic- 
ally. A crossed figure {^, ^, ^ etc.) 
indicates that the interval is sharped. 
A dash (-) after a figure prolongs the 
tone into the next chord. — The Roman 
numerals under the bass form no part 
of the thorough-bass figuring ; they in- 
dicate on what degree of the scale the 
given chord (i. e. the root of the chord) 
has its seat, the key or scale itself being 
marked by a capital letter for major and 
a small letter for minor. A large 
numeral indicates a triad with major 
third ; a small numeral, a triad with 
minor third ; with an accent (III'), the 
augmented fifth ; with a cipher (vii"), 
the diminished fifth ; with a 7 (V7), the 
chord of the seventh. [This is the 
system generally accepted ; its prime 
defect (clumsiness in following chro- 



matic alterations, and consequent in- 
ability to cope with the exigencies of free 
tonality) is felt by all theorists ; Ja- 
dassohn solves the problem empirically 
by stretching his highly elas- 
tic theory of altered chords to 
the utmost ; — e. g. he writes «^ C : IV 
(=y"^-(7r>-c as the major triad on the 
4th degree of C-major !) — Riemaim, on 
the other hand, has devised an entirely 
new system, explained under art. 
Pkone.^ (Alsocomp. Thorough-bass.) 
Altered chord, a chord chromatically 
changed, but not effecting a modula- 
tion ; the commonest altered chords 
are the triads on the ist, 2nd, 4th and 
5th degrees in major and on the 4th 
and 6th degrees in minor (with al- 
tered fifth) ; on the 2nd degree in 
major and 6th in minor (with altered 
root) ; the chords of the 7th on the same 
degrees, excepting the 6th in minor 
(with altered fifth), and on the 7th de- 
gree in major and 2nd in minor (with 
altered root). . .Anomalous ch., see Ano- 
maly.. .Augmented ch., one having ma- 
jor third and augm. fifth. . .Broken ch., 
an arpeggio. . . Chromatic ch., one chro- 
matically altered. . . Cotnmon ch., a triad 
peculiar to any given scsX^.. .Deriva- 
tive ch., one derived by inversion from 
another. . .Diatonic ch., a common 
chord. . .Diminished ch., one having 
both 5th and 7th diminished. .. /)(»;«/- 
nant ch., ((7)the dom. triad, (b) thedom. 
ch. of the 7th. . . Doubtful or Equivocal 
ch., a dissonant chord of uncertain reso- 
lution, like that of the dimin. 7th, 
which belongs to various keys, and may 
resolve to any one of th&m. . .Fttnda- 
mental chord, (a) one in the funda- 
mental position, i. e. with the root low- 
est ; (b) the tonic triad ; (c) one of the 
3 principal triads of a key (tonic, domi- 
nant, and subdominant) ; (</) a common 
chord.. .Imperfect or incomplete ch., a 
chord, one of whose tones is omitted. 
. .Inverted ch., see Inversion. . .lead- 
ing ch., the dominant ch. of the 7th. 
. .Major, minor ch., see Major, Alinor. 
. .Related or relative ch., see Relation. 
. . Seventh-chord, ch. of the 7th. . . Solid 
eh., one whose tones are produced 
simultaneously ; opp. to broken. . . Tran- 
sient ch., one used in modulating from 
one key to another, and foreign to both. 
— 2. A string. 
Chor'da(Lat.) i. A string. — 2. Atone 
or chord.. . Ch. characteri' stica, a chord 
of the "th containing a leading-note. . . 

ChordcB essentia'les, the key-note with 
its third and fifth, the tonic triad. 

Chordaulo'dion, or Chordomelo'dion. 
A kind of automatic barrel-organ hav- 
ing pipes and strings combined ; inv. 
by Kaufmann of Dresden, in 181 2. 

Chordom'eter. A string-gauge. 

Cho'ree, Chore'us. A metrical foot 
identical with the trochee. 

Cho'riamb, Choriam'bus. A metrical 
foot having 2 short syllables between 2 
long ones, the ictus being on either of 
the latter(— ^---^ — , or — ■w^-^). 

Chor'ister. i. A singer in a choir. — 2. 
A precentor. 

Chor'ton (Ger.) " Choir-pitch," i. e. the 
pitch at which church-choirs formerly 
sang in Germany, as set by tne organs. 
(See Pitch, absolute.) 

Cho'rus. (Ger. Chor; Fr. cha-ur; It. 
co'ro.) I. A company of singers. — 2. 
In an opera, oratorio, etc., the main 
body of singers, as distinguished from 
the soloists and orchestra. — 3. A refrain. 
— 4. A composition, or any part of one, 
oftenest in 4 parts, intended to be sung 
in chorus ; a double chorus has 8 parts. 
— 5. The compound stops of an organ. 
— 6 (obs.) The bagpipe ; the drone of 
the bagpipe, or the free sympathetic 
strings of the crowd. 

Chorus-master. The leading singer in 
a chorus. 

Chri'ste ele'ison (Gk.) Part of the 
Kyrie in the Mass (see Mass). 

Chro'ma (Gk., "color".) i. In Greek 
music, a chromatic modification of the 
tetrachord. — 2. A sign altering the 
pitch of a note by a semitone (jj or [7) ; 
also, a chromatic semitone. — 3. An 
eighth-note or quaver ( j ); ch. simplex, 
(a) an eighth-note, (b) a Jf or (7 ; c/i. 
duplex, (a) a i6th-note ( J^), (b) a x of 
[f\). — 4. A semitone. 

Chromat'ic. (Ger. chroma'tisch, Fr. 
chromatique; It. croma'tico.) Relating 
to tones foreign to a given key or chord ; 
opp. to diatottic. . . Chr. alteration, rais- 
ing or lowering the pitch of a note by 
means of a chromatic sign ; of a chord, 
or melody, the introduction into it of 
one or more tones foreign to the ruling 
diatonic key, but not effecting a modu- 
lation (then sometimes called a chro- 
matic chord or melody). . . Chr. harmony, 
a succession of chromatically altered 
chords. . . Chr, instrument, one produc- 



ing the tones of the chr. scale. . . Chr. in- 
terval, an interval chromatically aug- 
mented or diminished. . . Chr. scale, see 
Scale. . . Chr. semitone, an interval 
formed by altering a note of the natural 
scale by a sharp or flat, or by further 
altering such a sharped or flatted inter- 
val by a X or b!?- (See Seinitone.). . . 
Chromatic signs, the characters used in 
mus. notation for raising or lowering the 
pitch of (a) natural notes, (/') notes 
already raised or lowered (comp. Table, 
art. Interval). Those now in use are 
the Sharp (j$), Flat (p), Natural (tl), 
Double-sharp ( x ), Double-flat ((7^)) ; 
the Great Flat ([?) is obsolete ; the 
combined sign tW (or tib) signifies that 
a note previously sharped (or flatted) is 
first restored to its natural pitch on the 
staff and then sharped (or flatted) ; the 
Double-natural {titt) ^^ superfluous and 
incorrect. — The chromatic signs at the 
head of the staff are called the key-sig- 
nature (see Key i) ; such as occur 
irregularly in the course of a composi- 
tion are called accidentals. An acci- 
dental, as a general rule, affects its 
note only during the measure in which 
it is written, unless the note be tied into 
the ne.\t measure or measures: 






higher or lower octaves of the note are 
not affected, and must therefore like- 
wise take an accidental. 

Chromatic {noun.) A chromatically al- 
tered note. 

Chronom'eter. Occasional for Met'ro- 

Chronom^tre (Fr.) A species of mono- 
chord, made to sound by means of a 
keyboard like that of the pfte., to teach 
the tuning of the latter; inv. in 1827 
by Raller, pfte. -maker in Paris. 

Chrot'ta. See Crowd. 

Church-modes. See Mode. 

Chute (Fr.) A grace-note or appoggia- 
tura cither above or below the melody- 
note ; 
written : 

■■\ ^<r ir= 

played : 

^ Eg 

— Also, a slide 
descending by a 
third : 

Ciacco'na (It.) Chaconne. 

Cico'gna (It., lit. " stork.") The mouth- 
piece of a wind-instr. 

Cicu'ta (Lat.) A sort of flute, or Pan's- 

Cifra'to (It.) Figured. 

Cim'bal. See Cymbal. 

Cim'balo (It.) i. A cymbal. — 2. A 
harpsichord. — 3. A tambourine. 

Cim'balon. Same as Zimbalon. 

Cim'bel (Ger.) See Cyjnbal 2. . . Cim'bel- 
stern, see Zimbelstern. 

Cinel'Ii (It., pi.) Cymbals. 

Cink (Ger.), Cinq (Fr.) See Zink 2. 

Cin'que (It.) A fifth part in concerted 
music. . .A cinque, for or in 5 parts. 

Cinque-pace. An old (presumably 
French) dance, with a 5-step movement. 

Cipher. A tone is said to " cipher" on 
the organ when, owing to some de- 
rangement in the action, it persists in 

Circle-(orcircular)canon. See Canon, . . 
Circle of fifths, see Temperament. 

Cir'colo mez'zo (It.) A turn. (Now 

Cir'culus (Lat., "circle".) A time-sig- 
nature in medieval music. (See Nota, 
lion, §3.) 

Cis (Ger.) CJJ. — Cis'is, C x . 

Cistel'la (Lat., "little box.") A dulci- 

Cistole, Cistre, Citole. See Zither. 

Cistrum. See Sistrum. 

Ci'thara (Lat.; It. ci'tara.) An ancient 
instr. of the lyre family, from which 
many medieval and several modern 
instr. s (guitar, zither) derive their 
names and, in part at least, their con- 
struction. See Cither .. .C. biju'ga, a 
two-necked cither. 

Cith'er (also cithern, cittern ; Fr. cistre, 
sistre; It. ce'tera, ce'tra). An instr. 
strung with v;ire and played with a 
plectrum ; a variety of lute or guitar, 
in vogue during the i6th and 17th cen- 
turies. (See Zither.) 

Citole. A small dulcimer. 

Civetteri'a (It.) Coquetry. . . Con c., in 
a coquettish, trifling style. 

Clairon (Fr.) i. A clarion (either the 
instr. or the organ-stop) ... C/. chro- 
matique, a species of valve-tmmpet 
made in 6 different pitches, (as a con- 



trabass, bass, barytone, tenor, alto, and 
soprano.) — 2. Clarinetto register of the 
clarinet. — 3. Bugler (for infantry). 

Clang. See Klaug. 

Clang-color, Clang-tint, Timbre, 
"tone-color;" the quality of a tone, 
dependent on the number and intensity 
of its harmonics. 

Claquebois (Fr.) Xylophone. 

Clarabella. An organ-stop having open 
wooden pipes of 8-foot pitch and soft, 
mellow tone. 

Claribel-flute. A 4-foot Clarabella. 

Clarichord. An instr. of the late middle 
ages, apparently a variety of harp, 
though thought by some to have been 
identical with the clavichord. 

Clarin (Fr.) See Clarion. 

Clarinet'. I. (Ger. Klarinet'te; Fr. 
clarinette ; It. clarinet' to. ^ The parent 
instr. of the clarinet family was the 
chalumeau, a primitive wind-instr. hav- 
ing a cylindrical tube with 9 finger- 

holes, and a beating reed ; its entire 

was composed of the prime tones pro- 
duced by successively opening the 
holes. — The modern clarinet differs 
from the chalumeau chiefly in its abili- 
ty to reproduce the prime tones of its 
scale (or rather their third partials) a 
tivelfth higher; this result is due to the 
addition of a small hole, covered by an 
extra key, at the nodal point dividing 
the air-column into 3 equal portions, — 
an improvement attributed to Joh. Chr. 
Denner of Nuremberg about 1 700. The 
higher scale or register thus obtained 
was termed, by reason of its bright and 
piercing quality, clarinetto (whence the 
name of the modern instr.); the origin- 
al lower scale retained the name of the 
old chalumeau. — The soprano clarinet 
in Cis the typical instr. of the family ; 
compass 3 octaves and a sixth (with 
chromatic intermediate tones): 

It has a cylindrical wooden tube pierced 
by i3 holes, 13 of which are closed by 
keys, yielding a chromatic series of 19 
prime tones (e to /''b); it is composed 
of 5 pieces or joints, namely, the 
mouthpiece with the reed, the socket 
(Ger. Bir?ie), the ^'right-hand" and 
^'left-hand" joints of the tube proper, 
and the bell; its higher registers are 
simply the third, and fifth or ninth, 
partials of the prime tones (from b^^ to 
f^, and/^ to c*.) The quality of the 
tone differs greatly in the four registers, 
the "chalumeau" and "clarinetto" 
being comparable to the female con- 
tralto and soprano respectively, while 
the medium is weak and veiled, and the 
highest shrill and piercing. Several 
sizes are made : (i) The large soprano 
cl. in C, B[), and A, and (2) the small 
soprano clarinets in D^ E, /'"and .4\), 
these last being mostly used in military 
music, in which their posuion is similar 
to that held by the violins in the or- 
chestra. There are also alto (or bary- 
tone) clarinets in F and E^, and bass 
clarinets m C, B^, or A (octave below 

the soprano instr. s of the symphony- 
orchestra). The cl. is a transposing 
instr., and its music is written in the C- 
clef. The fingering is very complicated 
and the reed difticult to manage, a 
slight error of judgment sufficing to pro- 
duce the fatal " couac." — 2. See Clar~ 
ionct 2. 

Clarinet-stop. See Krumm'hom. 

Clarinet'to (It.) See Clarinet. 

Clari'no (It.) i. Clarion i and 2. — 2. 
A name loosely applied to the trumpet 
and bugle. — 3. Used for tromba, in 
some old scores. 

Clarion. I. A small, shrill-toned trum- 
pet. — 2. In the organ, a 4-foot reed- 
stop of a shrill, piercing tone. 

Clarionet, i. A clarinet. — 2. In the 
organ, an 8-foot reed-stop of soft tone. 
. . Clarionet-Jliite, a flue-stop with per- 
forated cover. 

Classic. In a restricted sense, a com- 
position is called classic when it be- 
longs to an acknowledged style in art, 
and is by an acknowledged master of 



that style. — In a broader sense, any 
composition may be termed classic 
which, in its kind, might be taken as a 
model for imitation, and in which the 
form is in perfect harmony with the 
spirit or subject-matter. — Classic is 
also often used as a distinctive epithet 
for the works of the earlier masters, 
including Beethoven, and their imita- 
tors, in contrast to those of the roman- 
tic school ; c/assic forms being the 
aria, rondo, sonata, symphony, etc. 

Clau'sula (Lat.) A cadence. 

Clavecin (Fr.) A harpsichord. .. C/. 
acotistiqiie, a French invention of the 
l8th century, imitating several stringed 
and wind-instruments. 

Claviatur'(Ger.) Keyboard {Klaviatur). 

Clavicem'balo (It.) Harpsichord. 

Clavichord. (Ger. Kla'vichord, Klavier' ; 
Fr. clavicordc ; It. clavicor'do.) One 
of the precursors of the pfte. (see Fi- 
anoforfc), differing in action from the 
latter in having, instead of hammers, 
upright metal wedges called tangents 
on the rear end of the digitals; on de- 
pressing a digital the tangent struck 
the wire and remained pressed against 
it till the finger was lifted, causing only 
one section of the string to vibrate. 
(Compare Gebunden.) 

CIavicithe'rium(-cythe'rium.) An ob- 
solete instr., supposed to have been a 
kind of harpsichord, but with the 
strings stretched in a vertical frame in- 
stead of horizontally. 

Clavicor (Fr.) A kind oi cor h pistons. 

Clavicylin'der (Ger.) A keyboard instr. 
inv. by Chladni about 1800, containing a 
glass cylinder caused to revolve by a 
treadle, and steel wands or bars instead 

of strings, which were pressed against 
the revolving cyiinder on touching the 
digitals, and thus made to sound ; com- 
pass i\l4. octaves. 

Clavier' [-veer']. (Ger. Klavier'.) i. A 
keyboard {Kla7natia-). — 2. (Ger.) Gen- 
eric name for all keyboard instr. s except 
organs ; especially (formerly) for the 
clavichord, and (at present) for the 
pianoforte. See Klavier. 

Clavier (Fr.) i. A keyboard. . ./"cj-j-/- 
dcr son cl., to know one's keyboard. . . 
CI. de r/cit, R/cit expressif, swell-man- 
ual (organ). — 2. The range or scale of 
notes comprised on the grand staff 
without leger-lines. 

Claviglissan'do. A keyboard instr. 
consisting of a combination of mechan- 
isms for producing various harmonium 
effects, and also the portamento of the 
violin ; inv. by Le Jeune. 

Cla'vis (Lat.) i. A key (digital), clef, or 
note. — 2. Bellows-handle. 

Cl^, Clef (Fr.) I. Clef; armer la 
clef, to furnish the clef with the key- 
signatures. — 2. Key (of a wind-instr.) 

Clef. (Ger. SchUis'sel: Fr. ^//, clef; It. 
ckia've.) A character set at the head 
of the staff to fix the pitch or position 
of one note, and thus of the rest. The 
3 now in use are the /"-clef, C-clef, and 
6'-clef ,■ the /"-clef and C-clef are also 
called the Bnss-c\&i and Trehle-oXfti re- 
spectively, because they fix the position 
of the bass and treble notes. The C- 
clef is variously called the Tenor-, Alto-, 
and Soprano-cX^i, according as it is set 
on ihe 4th, 3d, or 1st line of the staff ; 
wherever placed, it marks the position 
of Middle-6'(Tenor-C.) A view of the 
clefs used at present is appended. 




Tenor-clef (recen). 


The /"-clef on the 3rd line {Barytone- 
clef), the C-clef on the 2nd {Mezzo- 
Sop rano-c\ei), the C-clef on the ist line 
{French z'iolin-c\ei), or on the 3rd line, 
are no longer used (the C-clef on the 
2nd line occa- .- ^ Q is sometimes 
sionally). The |g5 S= used in vocal 
double G-clef : «Jt7 music as a ten- 
or-clef, signifying that the part lies an 
octave lower than written. — Our modern 
forms of the clefs are corruptions of 

the letters/, c, and^, formerly plainly 

Cliquette (Fr.) The bones. 

Close (noun; Ger. Schluss). See Ca- 
dence 3. 

Close harmony or position. See Har- 
mony. . . Close play, a style of lute- 
playing in which the fingers were Kept 
on the strings as much as possible. 

Co'da (It., '* tail.") Specincaliy, a pas- 



sage finishing a movement, and begin- 
ning where the repetition of the first 
subject ends. Originally, it was a few 
chords (or a short passage) intended 
as a winding-up ; it became of growing 
importance in the canon, sonata, rondo, 
etc., and is frequently developed into an 
almost independent concluding division. 
— Also, the stem or tail of a note 
{caudd).. .Codelta, a short coda. (See 

Coelestina (or -o). A name bestowed 
in theiSth century on several modifica- 
tions of keyboard stringed instr.s, in 
which alterations of the tone could be 
produced by mechanisms under the 
player's control. 

Coffre (Fr.) Case (of a pfte.) ; body (of 
a violin). 

Co'gli stromenti (It.) With the instru- 

Coi, col, coir, col'Ia, col'le, col'lo (It.) 
With the. 

Colascio'ne (It.) See Calascione. 

Collet de violon (Fr.) Neck of a violin. 

Collinet (Fr.) A flageolet ; named after 
a celebrated player. 

Col'ophony. (Ger. Kolophon' ; Fr. 
colophane ; It. colofo'nia ; from Lat. 
colopho'nium!) Resin or rosin. 

Color. I. Timbre (tone-color). — 2. The 
characteristic rhythms, harmonies, and 
melodies of a composition. — 3. (Lat.) 
See Notation, §3. 

Colora'to (It.) Florid, figurate. 

Coloratu'ra (It.) Colorature, i. e. vocal 
runs, passages, trills, etc., enhancing 
the brilliancy of a composition and dis- 
playing the vocalist's skill. — Also ap- 
plied to similar instrumental music. 

Coloris (Fr.; Ger. C{I\')olorit' \_Far'bett- 
gebitng\). The tonal "color-scheme," 
vocal or instrumental, of a composition, 
movement, or scene ; i.e. the modifica- 
tions in vocal or instrumental timbre, 
or in the instrumentation, employed for 
obtaining special effects. 

Col'po (It., "blow".) Di colpo, at a 
blow, suddenly, at once. 

Combination pedal. See Pedal. . . Com- 
bination tones (combinational tones), 
see Acoustics. 

Combined mode. See Dur Moll- 

Co'me (It.) As, like.. .C. /r/wa, as at 

first, as before. . . C. sopra, as above.. . 
C. sta, as it stands, as written. 

Co'mes (Lat.) Answer (in a fugue); 
consequent (in a canon). 

Comma, i. A comma (,) is often used 
as a breathing-mark. — 2. (a) Didymic 
or syntonic c. : The difference between 
the greater and lesser whole tone, or 
80:81 ; (/') Pythagorean c, or c. maxi- 
ma : The difference between the octave 
of a given tone and a tone 6 whole 
tones higher than the given tone, or 

Com'modo (It. ; also co'modo.) Easy, 
leisurely, at a convenient pace ; as al- 
legro commodo.. . Commodavien'te, easily, 
quietly, leisurely.. .Conimodet'to, rather 
easy or leisurely. 

Common chord. A major or minor 
triad. . . Common Jiallelujah metre, or 
Common long metre, a 6-line stanza 
formed of a common-metre stanza with 
half a long-metre stanza added ; thus, 
8 6 8 6 8 8... Common measure, see C. 
time. . . Common f/ietre, a form of iambic 
stanza, of 4 lines containing alternately 
8and6syllables; thus, 8 6 86.. .Double 
common metre, a. stanza formed of 2 
common-metre stanzas. . . Common par- 
ticular ?netre, a 6-line stanza, the 3rd 
and 6th lines having 6 syllables, and 
the others 8 each ; thus, 8 8 6 8 8 6... 
Common time, a measure containing 2 
(or 4) half-notes or 4 quarter-notes, 
with 2 or 4 beats respectively ; duple 
or quadruple time. (Ordinarily, com- 
mon time is understood to mean 4 
quarter-notes [and as many beats] to a 

Compass. (Ger. Um'fang ; Fr. diapa- 
son ; It. estensio'ne.) The range of a 
voice or instr., i. e. the scale of all the 
tones it can produce, from the lowest 
to the highest. 

Compiace'vole (It.) Pleasing, delightful. 

Com'plement. An interval which, added 
to any given interval not wider than 
an octave, completes the octave ; thus 
a fourth is the c. of a fifth, a minor 
si.Kth of a major third, etc. Also com- 
plementary interval. 

Comple'tory. (Lat. completo'rium.) i. 
An anthem supplementary to an anti- 
phon in the lauds and vespers of the 
Ambrosian rite. — 2. See Complin. 

Com'plin(e). The last of the 7 canon- 
ical hours. 



Componi'sta (It.) Composer. 

Composition pedal. In the orjjan, a 
pedal which draws out or pushes in 
several stops at once. (Comp. combina- 
tion pedal.) 

Composizio'ne (It.) Composition... 
C. di taToli'no, table-music. 

Compound interval. See Intfrval. . . 
C. tneasure, rhythm, time, see Time.. . 
C. stop, an organ-stop having more than 
one rank of pipes. 

Con (It.) With. 

Concave pedals. See Radiating. 

Concen'to (It.) i. Concord, harmony. 
— 2. The simultaneous sounding of all 
the tones of a chord ; opp. to arpeggio. 

Concen'tus (Lat.) i. Concord, har- 
mony. — 2. Part-music. — 3. See Ae- 

Con'cert. i. A set of instr.sof the same 
family but different in size (see Chest, 

Consort) 2. A concerto. — 3. ((ler. Kon- 

zert' ; Fr. concert ; It. concer'to.) A 
public mus. performance. . .Z>?//(-A con- 
cert, the singing of an entire company 
in which each person sings whatever he 
pleases ; or the persons present sing in 
alternation any verse that comes into 
their heads, the refrain by the whole 
company being a regular repetition of 
some popular verse. . . Concert spirittiel 
(Fr.), sacred concert. 

Concertan'te (It.) Concordant, har- 
monious. — Hence : i. A concert-piece. 
— 2. A composition for two or more 
solo voices or instr.s with accomp. by 
organ or orchestra, in which each solo 
part is in turn brought into prominence. 
— 3. A composition for 2 or more 
solo instr.s without orchestra. . . Concer- 
tante parts, parts for solo instr.s in 
orchestral music. . . Concertante style, a 
style of composition admitting of a 
brilliant display of skill on the soloist's 
part. . . Concerto' to, concerted. 

Concerted music. Music written in 
parts for several instr.s or voices, as 
trios, quartets, etc. 

Concert-grand. See Pianoforte. 

Concerti'na. The improved accordion 
inv. by Wheatstone in 1829. The key- 
boards are hexagonal ; the compass of 

the treble c. 
is 4 octaves : 

Imgall --» / -^ 
matic \ m Tj 
; it is 7f~l^ 


tion instr., 
produci ng 
the same tone 
on drawing 

out and on pushing in the bellows. 
Tenor, fiass, and douhle-hass concertinas 
are also made. A great variety of music 
can be played, and the literature is quite 
extensive ; the instr. is likewise capable 
of great expression, and the tone is sus- 
ceptible of considerable modification. 

Concerti'no (It.) i. A small concert. 
— 2. Equiv. to concertan'te, i. e. lead- 
ing, principal ; as violino concertino, 
principal violin ; — here opp. to ripie'no. 

Concerti'sta (It.) Concert-player, solo 
performer, virtuoso. 

Concert-master. See Konzert'meister. 

Concer'to. (Ger. Konzert'.) An ex- 
tended composition for a solo instr., 
commonly with orchestral accomp., in 
sonata-form modified to suit the char- 
acter of the solo instr. (e. g. the cadenza); 
pfte. -concertos in which the pfte.-part 
is comparatively inconspicuous are jocu- 
larly called "symphonies with pfte.- 
accomp." — The earlier concertos were 
in concertante style, 2 or more instr.s or 
voices bearing leading parts ; Viadana's 
cancer' ti ecclesia' stici, or da chie'sa, 
were simply motets with organ-accomp.; 
Torelli was the first (1686) to write 
concerti da ca'mera (for 2 violins and 

Concert-pitch. See Fitch. 

Concert'stuck (Ger.) A concert-piece ; 
a concerto. 

Concita'to (It.) Moved, excited, agi- 

Concord, i. Harmony ; opp. to dis- 
cord. — 2. See Consonance. 

Concor'dant. I. Consonant —2. (Fr.) 
A barytone voice. 

Conductor. (Ger. Kapell'meister, Diri- 
gent' ; Fr. chef d'orchestre ; It. capo 
d'orchestra, inae'stro di cappel'la.) The 
director of an orchestra or chorus. 

Conduc'tus (Lat.) A form of polypho- 
nous composition (12th century) in which 
the tenor to the contrapuntal variations 
was not borrowed from plain song (as 
in the or'gamim and discan'tus), but, 
like the counterpoint, was original 
with the composer. . . C. du'plex, 3-part 
counterpoint ; C. sim'plex, 2-part coun- 

Conduit (Fr.) i. Conductus. — 2. A 
wind-trunk (organ). 

Cone-gamba. Bell-gamba. 
Conjunct'. (Fr. conjoint ; It. congiun'- 
to.) A degree of the scale immediately 



succeeding another is called a conjunct 
degree ; opp. to disjunct. 

Consecutive intervals. Intervals of 
the same kind following each other in 
immediate succession ; " consecutives " 
are progressions of parallel fifths or 
octaves, forbidden in strict harmony. 
See Parallel. 

Conseguen'te (It.) Consequent. .. G'«- 
segtien'za, a canon. 

Consequent. (It. conseguen'te^ See 

Conservatory. (Ger. Konservato'rium ; 
Yx. conservatoire; It. conservato'rio.) 
A public institution for providing prac- 
tical and theoretical instruction in 

Consolan'te (It.) Consoling, soothing. 

Con'sonance. (Ger. Konsonanz' ; Fr. 
consonance; It. consonan'za!) A com- 
bination of 2 or more tones, harmonious 
and pleasing in itself, and requiring 
no further progression to make it satis- 
factory ; opp. to dissonance. (Comp. 
Acoustics, J$3.). . .Imperfect consonances, 
the major and minor thirds and sixths. 
..Perfect consonances, the octave, 
fifth, and fourth. 

Consonant chord. One containing no 
dissonant interval.. .C. interval, a con- 

Con'sort. i. See Chest (of viols). — 2. 
A band, or company of musicians. 

Con'tano (It., "they count.") Direc- 
tion in scores, that parts so marked are 
to pause. 

Continua'to (It.) Continued (see Basso 
continuo) ; held, sustained. 

Continued bass. See Bass. 

Conti'nuo. A Basso continuo. 

Contra (Lat., It.) Compounded with 
names of instr.s, it signifies an octave 
below ; e. g. contr abbas' so, a double- 
bass. . . Contra-octave, see Pitch. 

Contrabass. (It. contrabbas'so.) i. A 
double-bass. — 2. The lowest bass 
instr. in a family of instr.s. . . Contra- 
bassist, & player on the double-bass. 

Contraddan'za (It.) Contra-dance or 
country -dance. 

Contraffagot'to (It.) i. A double-bas- 
soon. — 2. A reed-stop in the organ 
imitative of i. 
/<' Contral'to (It.) The lowest female 


voice, having a com- 
pass from about f 
to e'', the extremes 
beings—/: (*-)"^ 

(Also Alto.) — Male voices were e.xclu 
sively employed in the old church- 
music, the tenor being called altus; 
hence the term ''''contralto" , i.e. op- 
posed to or contrasted with the altus. 

Contrappunti'sta (It.) A contrapuntist. 

Contrappun'to (It.) Counterpoint. . . C. 
alia men te, see Chant surle livre. . . C. 
alia zop'pa, "limping", i. e. syncopa- 
ted, counterpoint. . . C. dop'pio, double 
or invertible counterpoint. . . C. synco- 
pa'to, syncopated counterpoint. .. C 
so'pra (sot'to) il sogget' to, counterpoint 
above (below) the theme. 

Contrapunc'tus (Lat.) Counterpoint.. . 
C. ad viden'dum, counterpoint written 
out ; opp. to contrappun'to alia men' te, 
improvised counterpoint. . . C. cequa'lis, 
equal counterpoint.. .C. diminu'tus or 
flor'idus, florid or figurate counter- 
point. . . C. inaqua'lis, unequal coun- 

Contrapun'tal. Pertaining to the art 
or practice of counterpoint. 

Contrapun'tist. One versed in the 
practice and theory of counterpoint. 

Contr'ar'co (It.) "Against the bow," 
up-bow for down bow. ox vice versa. 

Contrary motion. See Motion. 

Contrasogget'to (It.) Countersubject. 

Contra-tenor. Countertenor. 

Contrattem'po (It.) i. A tone enter- 
ing on a weak beat and ending on a 
strong beat ; a syncopation. — 2. A 
sustained melody, as contrasted with its 
figurate accomp. 

Contravioli'no,-violo'ne (It.) A double- 

Contre- (Fr.) Contra-, counter-. .. C^w- 
tre-basse, double-bass.. .Contredanse, a 
French dance deriving its name from 
the position of the dancers opposite to 
or facing each other. Originally there 
were but 2 dancers ; there are now 8, 
and the dance is known in English as 
the Quadrille. — Also, dance-music for 
a quadrille. . . Contre-t'clisses, linings. . . 
Contre-partte, a mus. part opp. to or 
contrasted with another, as bass and 
soprano ; said especially of either of 
the parts in a duet.. . Contrepoint, coun- 
terpoint ; contrepointiste, contrapuntist. 



. . Contre-sujet, countersubject. . . Con- 

tre-tenips, see Contra/tempo. 
Conver'sio (Lat.) Inversion. 
Coper'to (It.) "Covered," muffled ; as 

tim'pani copa-'ti^ muffled kettledrums. 

Co'pula (Lat.) i. (also Fr.) A coupler 
(organ). — 2. A name for certain flue- 
stops ; {a) the 8-foot open diapason ; 
(p) the 8-foot Hohl'Jldte or A'op'pel- 

Cor (Fr.) A horn. . . Cor-alt, cor-basse, 
see Corno alto (basso). . . C. anglais, see 
Oboe. . . C. lie basset, basset-horn.. . C. 
de chasse, a hunting-horn ; in particu- 
lar, the large horn, whose tube is bent 
to form a circle of about l^ turns. . . 6". 
de signal, a signal-horn or bugle. . . C. 
de vaches, a cow-horn, used by herds- 
men. . . C. omnitonique, a. chromatic 
valve-horn inv. by Sax. 

Cora'le (It.) A choral. 

Coran'to (It.) i. A courante. — 2. A 

Cor'da (It.) A string. .. Sopra tma c, 
direction to play a passage on one 
string. . . Wna Corda, direction to use 
the soft pedal of the pfte. . .Due corde, 
(a) release soft pedal ; or, when the 
soft pedal shifts the keyboard, "play 
with the pedal pressed halfway down" 
[Riemann] ; {b) in violin-playing, a 
direction to double a note by playing it 
simultaneously on 2 strings. . . Tutte 
{le) corde (all the strings), release the 
soft pedal. 

Cordatu'ra (It.) Same as Accordatu'ra. 

Corde (Fr.) A string. . . C i jour, or a 
vide, an open string. . . C. fausse, a 
string out of tune. . . C. sourde, a mute 
string. . . Sur xtne corde, Sopra una 

Cordier (Fr.) Tailpiece. 

Cordomfetre (Fr.) String-gauge. 

Corife'o (It.) See Corypheus. 

Cori'sta. (It.) i. Chorister, either 
male or female. — 2. Tuning-fork ; 

Cormorne (Fr.) See Cro7norne. 

Cornamu'sa (It.), Cornemuse (Fr.) A 
bagpipe in which the wind is supplied 
by the lungs (see Musette). 
( Cor'net. [See Cornet <i pistons, in fol- 
^ lowing art. ] i. (Ger. Zin'ie.) An ob- 
solete wind-instr. much used during the 
15th and l6th centuries, with a narrow 
cupped mouthpiece of ivory or wood. 

and a wooden tube furnished with 
fingerholes. — There were two classes, 
the straight cornet (in 3 varieties, cor- 
netto dirit'to, c. tnuto, com.pass a — a^ ; 
and cornetti'no, compass ^' — g'^), and 
the bent cornet (cor net to cu/vo, com- 
pass a — a'^ ; and c. tor' to [or corno, cor^ 
non], compass d — d'^). The cornoM 
{cornetto basso) was the prototype of the 
Serpent. — 2. A reed-stop in the organ, 
imitating the blaring tone of C. 1 (see 4), 
and of varying dimensions : 8-foot 
pitch, (or 2' or 4'), also called Cornet- 
iino ; 16-foot pitch (Grand cornet).. . 
Bass cornet, a large deep-toned brass 
instr. (obs.) — 3. (Kornett\) A com- 
pound organ-stop of from 3 to 5 ranks 
and 8-foot or 4-foot pitch, differing 
from the Mixture in producing the Third 
among the harmonics. . .Echo cornet, a 
soft-toned cornet-stop enclosed in a 
wooden box. . .Mounted cornet, a cornet 
stop mounted on a separate soundboard 
to render its tone more prominent. — 4. 
A reed-stop of 2 or 4-foot pitch, on tha 
Cornet h. bouquin (Fr.) See Comet i. 
..Cornet h pistons (Fr. ; Ger. Ventif- 
kornett), a brass instr. of the trumpet 
family, having a conical tube and 
cupped mouthpiece ; improved from 
the old post-horn by the addition 
of 3 valves ; tone apt 
and " brassy" ; medium , 
compass 2 octaves and 3 
tones. It is a transposing 
instr. noted in the 6'-clef : 

to be loud 




this being for tha 
cornet in B^, the 
one most in use. 
In rapidity and 

lightness of execution, the cornet almost 
vies with the flute and clarinet ; a certain 
lack of refinement in its tone alone pre- 
vents its entrance into the symphony- 
orchestra. . . Cornet d'echo or de r/cit^ 

Cornet-stop. See Cornet 2, 3, 4. 

Cornet'to (It., dimin. cornetti'no.) i. A 
small horn. — 2. A cornet i. 

Cor'no (It.) A horn. . . C. alto, high horn 
in B; C. basso, low horn in B [Stainer 
AND Barrett]. — C. alto (basso) also 
signify, respectively, one of the two 
horn-players, in the orchestral group of 
four, who take the highest (lowest) 
horn-parts. . . C. di bassetto, basset-horn. 
. . C. da caccia, hunting-horn. . . C. itf 
gle'se, English horn. 



Cornon (Fr.) i. A cornet. — 2. A brass 
wind-instr. of broad scale, inv. in 1844. 

Corno'pean, i. Cornet a pistons. — 2. 
An organ-stop on the swell-manual. 

Co'ro (It.) Chorus ; choir.. . Cfavori'to, 
a selected chorus, as opp. to the full 
chorus. . . C. spczza'to, a divided chorus 
(sung by several choirs in different 
parts of the church). . .A cori batlen'ti^ 
for divided chorus, one half imitating, in 
parallel or reverse progression, what 
the other half sings. 

Coro'na (It.) A hold (o). 

Cor'onach (Gaelic.) A funeral lament ; 
a dirge. 

Corps (Fr.) Body (of a tone). . . C. cT har- 
inoitie, a fundamental chord. . .C. de 
musiqtte, a wind-band. . . C. de reckangt', 
a crook. . . C. de voix, the range and 
volume of a voice, taken collectively. 

Correcto'rium (Lat.) Tuning-cone. 

Corren'te (It.) Courante. 

Coryphae'us (Lat.) (Engl, coryphe'us ; 
Ger. Koryphd'e ; Fr. coryphe'e ; It. co- 
rife' o.') In the ancient Greek drama, 
the leader of the chorus ; hence, in 
modern usage, the leader of an opera- 
chorus or other company of singers. 

Cotil'lion, (Fr. cotillon.') A French 
dance, the same as the german, to 

Cottage organ. The ordinary portable 
parlor organ {xQ.&A-ox'ga.-n).. .Cottage 
piano. I. A small style of upright pfte. 
— 2. A small grand pfte. in upright 
form, inv. by Wilhelm Kress of Menna 
in 1891. 

Couac (Fr.) The "goose." 

Couched harp. A spinet. 

Coul6 (Fr.) I. Legato. — 2. {AXsoDash.) 

A harpsichord-grace ; 

written : played : 

Coulisse (Fr.) Slide (of trombone or 

Count. An accent, beat, or puisc of a 

measure. . . Counting, the marking of 

the successive beats of the measure by 

counting aloud. 

Counter. Any vocal part set to con- 
trast with the principal part or melody ; 
specifically, the counter-tenor (high 
tenor, or alto), sometimes sung in the 

higher octave as a high soprano. . . Bass 
counter, a second bass part, either 
vocal or instrumental.. . Counter-exposi- 
tion, re-entrance of the subject or sub- 
jects of a fugue, either directly follow- 
ing the exposition, or after the first epi- 
sodes . . . Counter-subject, a f ugal theme 
following the subject in the same part, 
as a contrapuntal accomp. to the an- 
swer ; often used independently as an 
episodal theme.. . Counter-tenor, a high 
tenor or alto voice ; hence, the part sung 

by such a voice, or the ■#- 

singer. It is the highest [ rr!!" \/ --' , 

adult male voice; compass: II HI » 

being nearly the same as that of the 
coxi\.x3Xx.o ... Counter - tefior clef, the 
C-clef on the 3rd line ; used for the 
counter-tenor or alto voice, the viola, etc. 
Counterpoint. (Ger. Kon'trapunkt ; 
Fr. cojitrepoint ; It. contrappun'to.) 
[From the Latin " punctus contra punc- 
tum " (point against point), i. e. note 
against note.] i. In a wider sense, 
the art of polyphonic composition ; opp. 
to hoinophony. The canon and fugue 
are the most highly developed contra- 
puntal forms. — 2. In a restricted sense, 
the art of adding one or more melodies 
to a given melody {cantus firrnus) 
according to certain rules ; hence, one 
of, or all, the parts so added. — The 
Theory of Counterpoint generally rec- 
ognizes 5 species, which, in practical 
instruction, are variously combined : (i) 
Note against note, whole notes in the 
counterpoint against whole notes in the 
c. f. {cantus fr/Hus) ; (2) 2 against i, 
half-notes in the counterpoint against 
whole notes in the c. f. ; (3) 4 against 
I, quarter-notes in the counterpoint 
against whole notes in c. f.; (4) with 
syncopation, syncopated half-notes in 
counterpoint against whole notes in the 
c. f.; (5) florid, figurate, or figured, 
the counterpoint written in irregular 
rhythms. . .Z><'/</'/^ c, that in which 2 
parts are so written as to be capable of 
mutual inversion by an interval (octave, 
tenth, etc.) determined beforehand... 
Quadruple c, that written in 4 mutually 
exchangeable or invertible parts. . . Sin- 
gle c, that in which the parts are not in- 
tended to be mutually invertible... 
Strict c, that in which the entrance ot 
(most) unprepared dissonances is for- 
bidden. [The correctness of this defi- 
nition largely depends upon what is 
meant by " preparation". The disso- 
nant intervals included in the chord of 



the dimin. 7th — dimin. 7th and 5th, 
augm. 2nd and 4th — and also the dom- 
inant 7th, are now allowed to enter 
freely even in "strict" counterpoint; 
and preparation is often effected l>y a 
tone in a different part and octave from 
the one in which the following disso- 
nance enters.]. . . Triple c, counterpoint 
in 3 mutually invertible parts. . . Tioo- 
part, Tkree-pa?-t, Four-pan cotmter- 
point, that in which 2, 3, or 4 parts are 

Country-dance. A dance in which the 
partners form two opposing lines, 
which advance and retreat, the couples 
also dancing down the lines and re- 
turning to their places. The time 
varies, some tunes being in 2-4, others 
in 3-4 time ; the essential thing is, for 
the strains to be in phrases of 4 or 8 
measures, to accompany the several 

Coup d'archet (Fr.) A stroke of the 
bow. . . Coup de {/a) glotte, see Kchl- 
schlag. . . Coup de langue, a thrust or 
stroke of the tongue, tonguing ; double 
coup de langue, double-tonguing. 

Couper le sujet (Fr.) To cut or cur- 
tail the subject. 
... -iCoupIer. (Ger. Koppel; Fr. copula; It. 
unione.) See Organ. 

Couplet. I. Two successive lines form- 
ing a pair, generally rhymed. — 2. In 
triple times, 2 equal notes occupying 
the time of 3 such notes in the regular 
rhythm ; 
thus : 

Cou'rant {A'oo'-']. (Fr. courante; It. 
corren'te.) An old French dance in 
3-2 time ; hence, the instrumental 
piece called courante, forming a part of 
the Suite, in which it follows the Alle- 
mande. Though the time-signature 
calls for 3-2 time, measures in 6-4 time 
often occur, especially at the close ; the 
tempo is moderately rapid, and dotted 
rhythms abound. — The Italian corrente 
is quite different from the above, its 
chief feature being swift passages of 
equal notes, whence the name corrente 
("running"). The tempo is rapid; 
time 3-8 or 3-4. 

Couronne (Fr.) A hold (^). 
C^ourse. A group or set of strings tuned 
in unison. 

Covered. See Octave — Covered strings. 
Strings of silk, wire, c: gu*^, covered by 


a machine with spiral turns of fine sil- 
ver or copper wire, the process being 
termed " string-spinning." 

Crackle. In lute-playing, to play the 
chords brokenly {en batterie) instead of 

Cracovienne (Fr.) A Polish dance for 
a large company ; hence, the music or 
an imitation of the music employed, 
which is in duple time with frequent 
syncopations (rhythm 

Also A'rakowiak, cracoviak. 

Cre'do. The third main division of the 

Crem'balum (Lat.) Jew's-harp. 

Cremo'na. i. A name ordinarily ap- 
plied to any old Italian violin made by 
the Amatis, Stradivarius, or Guarneri- 
us, at Cremona. — 2. See A'ruvimhom. 

Crescen'do (It.) Swelling, increasing 
in loudness. . . Cr. -pedal, see Pedal. 

Crescen'dozug (Ger.) i. Crescendo- 
pedal. — 2. A kind of organ-swell with 
shutters, a contrivance inv. by Abbe 

Crescent; also Chinese crescent, or 
pavilion. (Ger. Halb'mond; Fr. 
chapcau chinois; It. cappel'lo c/iine'se.) 
An instr. of Turkish origin used in 
military music, consisting of several 
crescent-shaped brass plates hung 
around a staff and surmounted by a cap 
or pavilion ; around the plates little 
bells are hung, which are jingled in 
time with the music. 

Cre'ticus (Lat.) A metrical foot con- 
sisting of a short syllable between 2 
long ones ( — ^.- — ). 

Cri'brum (Lat.) Soundboard (organ). 

Croche (Fr.) An eighth-note. . . Croches 
liees, ei ghth-n otes having the hooks 
joined ij'j'^). 

Crochet (Fr.) The stroke of abbrevia- , 
tion across the / ^\ 
stems of notes \f^ )' 

Croche'ta(Lat.) A crotchet, or quarter- 
note (J). 

Croisement (Fr.) Crossing (of parts). 
Cro'ma (It.) An eighth-note. 
Croma'tico (It.) Chromatic. 
Cromor'na. {Fr.cromorfze.) SceA'rumm- 

Crook. I. (Ger. Bo'gen, Stivim'bogen: 



Fr. corps de rechange, ton; It. pczzo di 
reserva.) A supplementary tube, which 
can be rapidly fitted to the main tube 
(or body) of a horn or trumpet, for the 
purpose of lowering the pitch. Each 
crook is named after the fundamental 
tone to which it lowers the pitch of the 
tube ; e. g. the Z>-crook of an instr. in 
E^. — 2. The S-shaped tube forming 
the mouthpiece of a bassoon, and con- 
taining the reed. — 3. In the old harp- 
action, a crotchet engaging a string 
and raising its pitch by a semitone. 

Croque-note (Fr.) A player of facile 
execution, but little taste and judgment. 

Cross-relation. See False relation. 

Cro'talum (Lat.) A kind of clapper 
used by the ancient Greeks to mark the 
time of a dance. 

Crotchet. I. A quarter-note ; cr. -rest, 
a quarter-rest. — 2. See Crook 3. 

Crowd ; also Croud, Crouth. (Welsh 
cnvth; Lat. ckrot'ta.) An ancient 
bow-instr., apparently of Welsh or 
Irish origin, and regarded as the oldest 
European instr. of the class ; still found 
early in the igth century among the 
peasantry of Wales, Ireland and Brit- 
any. Its body was square, and termin- 
ated, instead of by a neck, by 2 parallel 
arms connected at the end by a cross- 
bar, the centre of which supported the 
end of the narrow fingerboard ; it had 
originally 3, in modern times 6, strings, 
4 lying over the unfretted fingerboard 
and 2 beside it. The strings passed 
over a bridge, which rested on the 
belly between 2 sound-holes ; the ac- 
cordatura [Grove] was as follows : 



^ I I ' 

beside over fingerboard, 

Crucifixus (Lat.) Part of the Credo. 

Crush-note. An acciaccatura. 

Crwth. See Crowd. 

C-Schlussel (Ger.) C-clef. 

Cue. A phrase, from a vocal or instru- 
mental part, occurring near the end of a 
long pause in another part, and inserted 
in small notes in the latter to serve as a 
guide in timing its re-entrance. 

Cuivre (Fr., " copper.") Brass; les 
cuivres (pi.), the brass-wind. . . Faire 
cuivrer, to obtain a metallic, ringing 

tone by half-stopping the bell of the 
French horn with the right hand. 

Cum sancto spi'ritu (Lat.) Part of the 

Cu'po (It.) Dark, deep, obscure ; re- 

Curran'to. See Conrant. 

Cushion-dance. A Scotch and English 
round dance, in triple time, and per- 
formed in single file ; each dancer in 
turn drops a cushion before one of the 
opposite sex, at a regularly recurring 
strain of the music, whereupon the two 
kneel and kiss each other, after which 
the dance proceeds as before. 

Cus'tos (Lat.) A direct. 

Cuvette (Fr.) Pedestal (of a harp). 

Cyclical forms. (Ger. cyclische For- 
men.) Forms of composition embrac- 
ing a cycle or series of movements, 
such as the old suite or partita, or the 
sonata, symphony, and concerto. 

Cylin'der (Ger.) Valve (in horns, etc.; 
usually Ventil). 

Cymbale (Fr.) i. Cymbal. — 2. A steel 
rod bent to a triangle, and bearing a 
number of rings, which are struck by 
a steel wand, the cymbale itself being 
dangled on a cord. 

Cymbals, i. (Ger. Beck' en; Fr. cym- 
bales ; \t. piat'ti, cinel'li.) A pair of 
concave plates of brass or bronze, varying 
in size from finger-cymbals something 
over an inch in diameter to the large 
orchestral cymbals, which have broad, 
flat rims, and holes toward the middle 
for the insertion of the straps by which 
they are held ; used in orchestral music 
to mark time strongly, or to produce 
peculiar — often weird and thrilling — 
effects. One of the cymbals is often 
attached on top of the bass drum, so 
that one player can manipulate both 
drum and cymbals. — 2. In the organ, 
a mixture-stop of very high pitch. — 
3. See Cymbale 2. 

Cym'balum (Lat.) i. Cymbal. — 2. A 
small drum of the medieval monks ; 
several such drums were tuned to form 
a scale of an octave, and played like a 


Cym'bel. See Cymbal. 


Czakan (Bohemian.) A flute of cane or 


Czardas (Hung.; pron. tckar'dash.) A 
national Hungarian dance, distiiv 



guished by its passionate character and 
changing tempo. 

Czimbal (Hung.) A dulcimer. 

Czimken (Pol.) A dance similar to the 
country-dance. [Staixer AND BAR- 


D. I. (Ger. D; Fr. rd ; It. ;v.) The 
2nd tone and degree in the typical dia- 
tonic scale of C-major. (Comp. Alpha- 
betical notation, and Sol/nisation.) — 2. 
Abbr. of Da (D. C.=da capo), and Dal 
(D. S. = dal segno). 

Da (It) By, for, from, oi...Da ca'po, 
(a) from the beginning ; (fi) as an ex- 
clamation, " encore ! ".. .1). C. al fi'ne, 
(repeat) from the beginning to the end 
(i. e. to the word Fine, or to a hold ^^). 
. .D.C. al se'gno, (repeat) from the be- 
ginning to the sign (#, 0, O). . .D.C. 
al segno, poi (se'gue) la coda, (repeat) 
from the beginning to the sign, then 
(follows) the coda.. .D. C. dal segno, re- 
peat from the sign. . .D.C. sen'za re'- 
plica (or senza ripetizio'ne), play through 
from the beginning without noticing the 
repeats.. .Da eseguir'si, to be executed. 
..Da tirar'si ("for drawing out"), 
means "with slide"; as tromha da 
tij-arsi, slide-trumpet. 

D'accord (Fr.) In tune. 

Dach (Ger., "roof.") The belly of a 
violin (usually Decke). . . Dach'schweller, 
see Crescendozug 2. 

Dac'tyl(e). (Lat. dac'tylus, a finger.) 
A metrical foot of 3 syllables arranged 
like the finger-joints, one long and two 
short, with the ictus on the first 

Dactyl'ion. An apparatus inv. by Henri 
Herz in 1835, consisting of 10 rings 
hanging over the keyboard and at- 
tached to steel springs ; used by pianists 
for finger-gymnastics. 

Daddy-mammy. A familiar name for 
the roll on the side-drum. 

Da'gli, dai, dal, dall', dal'Ia, dal'le, 
dal'lo (It.) To the, by the, for the, 
from the, etc. 

Dal se'gno (It.) See Segno. 

Damenisa'tion. (See Solmisation) 
Graun's system of sol-faing with the 
syllables da, me, «/, po, tii, la, be, 
which are not (like do, re, mi, etc.) at- 
tached to special scale-degrees, but sim- 

ply repeated over and over in the above 
order, whatever may be the notes sung. 
Damper, i. (Ger. Ddm'pfer ; Fr. ^touf- 
foir ; It. sordi'no.) A mechanical de- 
vice for checking the vibration of a 
pfte. -string (see Pianoforte). . . Damper- 
pedal, the right or loud pedal of the 
pfte. — 2. The mute of a brass instr., 
e. g. a horn. 

Dam'pfer (Ger.) A damper or mute. . . 
Ddm'pfitng ("damping"), the damp- 
ing-mechanism of the pfte. 

Dance. (Ger. Tanz ; Fr. danse ; It. 
dan'za.) A succession of rhythmical 
steps, skips, or leaps, accompanied by 
varying movements of the body, and 
generally timed by music (in primitive 
nations, simply by beating on a drum 
or the like). 

Darm'saite (Ger.) Gut string. 

Dash. I. A staccato-mark (J or f). — 2. 
In thorough-bass, a stroke through a 
figure, indicating the raising of the in- 
terval by a semitone (2 y, etc.) — 3. Same 
as CouU 2. 

Dasian'-Notie'rung (Ger.) Hucbald's 
system of noting a scale of 18 tones by 
twisting and turning the letter F into 
14 different positions and shapes, with 
4 additional signs. 

Dau'men (Ger.) Thumb.. .Dau'menauf- 
satz, thumb-positions (in 'cello-playing). 

Dead-march. A funeral march. 

De'bile, De'bole (It.) Feeble, weak. 

D6but(Fr.) A first appearance. . .Dcbu- 
iant{e), a male (female) performer or 
singer appearing for the first time. 

Dec'achord. (Fr. decacorde.) i. A 10- 
stringed instr., an ancient species of 
harp or lyre. — 2. An obsolete French 
instr. of the guitar kind, having 10 

Dec'ad(e). See Duodene. 

Deca'ni. Comp. Cantoris. 

De'cem (Ger.) See Decima 2. 

D^chant (Fr.) Discant. 

Decid6 (Fr.) See Deciso. 

De'cima(Lat. and It.) i. The interval 
of a tenth. — 2. An organ-stop pitched 
a tenth higher than the 8-foot stops ; 
also called Tenth, or Double tierce. 

De'cime. See Dezime. 

Decimo'le (Ger.) See Decuplet. 

Deci'so (It.) Decided, energetic, with 



Deck'e (Ger.) Belly (of the violin, etc.) ; 
belly or soundboard (of the pfte.) 

Declaraan'do (It.) "Declaiming"; in 
declamatory style. 

Declamation. In vocal music, the cor- 
rect enunciation of the words, especially 
in recitative and dramatic music. (Comp. 

Decompose (Fr.) Unconnected. 

D^compter (Fr.) To sing with a porta- 

D6couplez (Fr.) In organ-music, " un- 
couple," "coupler off." 

Decrescen'do (It) Growing softer; 
diminishing in force Sign zr==- 

Dec'uplet. A group of lo equal notes 
executed in the time proper to 8 notes 
of like value, or to 4 notes of the next 
highest value ; marked by a slur over 
or under which a figure 10 is set. (Also 
Decimole, Dezimole.) 

Deduc'tio (Lat.) i. The ascending 
series of syllables or tones in the hexa- 
chords of Guido d'Arezzo. — 2. Ace. to 
later theoreticians, the resolution of a 
dissonance to a consonance. 

Defective. Same as Diminished. 

Deficien'do (It.) Dying away. 

De'gli (It.) Of the ; than the. 

Degree. (Ger. Stu'fe, Ton' sUife ; Fr. 
degre ; It. g>-a'do.) I. One of the 8 
consecutive tones in a major or minor 
diatonic scale. Degrees are counted 
from below upward, the key-note being 
the first degree. — 2. A line or space of 
the staff." 3. A step. (The prevailing 
confusion of the terms degree and slep 
might be obviated by applying degree 
only to the tones, and s/ep only to pro- 
gression between conjunct tones, of the 
scale ; the expressions whole step, half- 
step, andstep and a half, are quite super- 
fluous.) ... 5r<2/t'-(/t'^AVi', a degree of a 
scale.. . Staff-degree, a degree on the staff. 

Deh'nen (Ger.) To expand, extend ; to 
^volomg. . .Deh'nnng, expansion, ex- 
tension, prolongation ; Dch'nungs- 
strich, in vocal music, a line of contin- 
uation after a syllable, indicating that it 
is to be sung to all notes over the line ; 
dots are sometimes used instead . . . 
Gedehnt' , extended, prolonged ; hence, 
slow, stately. 

Dei (It.) Of the ; than the. 
Deklamation' (Ger.) Musico-poetical 
scansion. — " In vocal composition, the 
transformation of the poetic rhythm 

(metre) into a musical one ; a song is 
badly deklamiert' when an unaccented 
syllable receives a strong musical 
accent or a long note ; or when an 
accented syllable, or a word rendered 
prominent by the sense, receives a sub- 
ordinate position in the melody on a 
weak beat or in short notes." [Riemann.] 

Del, deir, delTa, del'le, del'lo (It.) Of 
the ; than the. 

Delassement (Fr.) A piece or perform- 
ance of a light and trifling character. 

Deliberamen'te (It.) Deliberately... 
Delibera'to, deliberate. 

Delicatamen'te, con delicatez'za (It.) 
Delicately. . ./W/V(?'/(', delicate; in a 
delicate, refined style. 

D61i6 (Fr.) N'on legato ; leggero. 

Deli'rio (It.) Frenzy ; con </. , with fren- 
zied passion. 

Delivery. Style (method and manner of 
singing) ; restrictedly, the enunciation 
of a singer. 

D6manch6, D€manchement (Fr.) "Off 
the neck " ; the thumb-positions in 
'cello-playing. . . De/nancher, to quit the 
neck of the 'cello. 

Demande (Fr.) "Question," i. e. the 
subject of a fugue. (Usually sujet.) 

Demi (Fr., "half".) Demi-bdton, 2- 
measure rest. . .Demi-cadence, haXi-ca.- . .Deini-croche, a l6th-note... 
A demi-jeu (a direction found mostly in 
reed-organ or harmonium-music), with 
half the power of theinstr., mezzo forte. 
. .De>ni-mes7(re, half-measure. . .Demi- 
pause, half-rest. . Demi-quart de soupir, 
a 32nd-xQsX.. . .Demi-soitpir, an eigh- 
teenth rest. . . Demi-temps, a half-beat . . . 
Demi-ton, a semitone. 

Demiquaver. A \b\}L\-no\.t.. . .Demi se- 
miquaver, a i^XiA-woi^. . .Demi tone, 
rare for Semitone. 

Demoiselle (Fr.) Tracker. 

Dependent chord, harmony, triad. 
One which is dissonant, requiring reso- 
lution to a consonant one ; opp. to In- 

Depress. Tolower(asby af? or hh)... De- 
pression, chromatic lowering of a tone. 

Derivative, i. SiSimQas derivative chord, 
i. e. the inversion of a fundamental 
chord. — 2. The root of a chord. 

D6rivd(e) (Fr., "derived, derivative".) 
Accord d(^rive', inverted chord (also 
simply derive, an inversion) . . . Mesure 



d/riv/e, any measure indicated by 2 
figures (2-4, 3-8, etc.) as being derived 
from, i. e. a fractional part of, a whole 

Des (Ger.) Db . . .Des'es, Df^b- 

Des'cant. See Discant. 

Descend. To pass from a higher to a 
lower pitch. . .Descent, descending pro- 

Deside'rio (It.) Desire, longing. . . Com 
</. , in a style expressive of longing, 

D6smvolture, avec (Fr.) See Disin- 


Dessin (Fr.) The design, plan, or struc- 
ture of a composition. 

Dessus (Fr.) i. Soprano or treble, i. e. 
the highest vocr.1 part. — 2. Earlier 
name for the violin {dessus de viole). 

De'sto (It.) Sprightly. 

De'stra (It.) Right. . .J/<z';/o destra,\ 
right hand (also destra tnauo, coUa de- 
strii) ; a direction in pfte.-plapng, sig- 
nifying that the passage is to be played 
with the right hand. (Abbr. ;;/. d., or 
d. m.) 

D^tach^ (Fr.) In violin-playing, de- 
tached, i. e. playing successive notes 
with alternate down-bow and up-bow, 
but not staccato ... 6'rr7«i/ de'tacht', a 
whole (stroke of the) bow to each note. 

Determina'to(It.) Determined, resolute. 

Detonation' (Ger.), D6tonnation (Fr.) 
False intonation, singing out of tune. . . 
Detonieren {dt'tonner), to sing false ; 
especially, to flat (gradually lower the 
pitch) in a cappella singing. 

Det'to (It.) Aforesaid ; the same. 

Deutsch (Ger.) German ... Z't'^'/j-c/^c' 
Fiote, the orchestral flute . . . Den' tscher 
Bass, an obsolete kind of double-bass, 
having from 5 to 6 gut strings. . .Deu- 
tsche 7\ihulaiitr' , see Tablature. . . 
Deutsche Tiin'ze, German dances, i. e. 
the old-fashioned slow waltzes. 

Deux (Fr.) Two.... 4 deux mains, for 
2 hdiTids. . .Deux-ijuatre, 2-4 (see Me- 
sure). . .Deux-temps, or Valse a deux 
temps, a quick waltz, with 6 steps to 
every 2 of the ordinary waltz {trois 

Deuxifeme position (Fr.) Half-shift. 

Development. (Ger. Durch'fiihrung.) 
The working-out or evolution of a 
theme by presenting it in varied melo- 
dic, harmonic, or rhythmic treatment ; 

ordinarily applied to formal composi- 
tions like the fugue or sonata. (See 
Devo'to (It.) In a devotional style {con 
dcvozio' ?ie). 

Dex'tra (Lat.) Right . . .Manns d. , right 
hand. . .Manu d., with the right hand. 

De'zem (Ger.) See Decima. 

De'zime (Ger.) The interval of a tenth. 

Di (It.) Of. from, to, etc. 

Diagram'ma (Gk.) A diagram, i. The 
Greek written scale of 15 notes, divided 
into the various tetrachords. — 2. In 
old music, the staff and the scale writ- 
ten on it ; also, a score or partition. 

Dia'logo (It.), Dialogue (Fr.) A duet 
for 2 solo voices or divided chorus ; or 
a similar instrumental piece. 

Diapa'son (Gk.) An octave (in ancient 
Greek and in medieval nm^xz) ... Dia- 
pason diapente, or diapason con dia- 
pente, an octave plus a fifth, a twelfth. 
. .Diap. diatessaron {diap. con diates- 
saron), an octave plus a major fourth, a 
major eleventh. . .Z'/a/. ditone, an oc- 
tave plus a major third, a major tenth. 
. -Diap. semi-ditone, an ocia.\i^ plus a 
minor third, a minor tenth. 

Diapa'son (Engl.) i. An octave. — 2. 
Either of the 2 principal foundation- 
stops of the organ, the open diapason 
and the stopped diapason, both com- 
monly of 8-foot pitch; if there are 2 op. 
diap.s on a manual, one is sometimes of 
16' pitch ; pedal-diapasons are generally 
16' stops. — The opoi d. has metal pipes 
open at the top, and usually of large 
scale, though the scale differs when 2 
or more diapasons are on one manual ; 
the tone is bright, full, and sonorous. 
. . The stopped d. has wooden pipes of 
large scale, closed at the top by wooden 
plugs, and yielding a powerful fluty, 
and somewhat hollow, tone. — 3. Com- 
pass of a voice or instr.; chiefly poetical. 

Diapason (Fr.) i. Compass of a voice 
or instr. — 2. A rule or scale, ace. to 
which makers of various instr.s regu- 
late the size of the latter, and that of 
their parts. — 3. An organ-stop (dia- 
pason). — 4. A tuning-fork or pitch-pipe. 
— 5. Absolute Y>\\.c\i. . .Diapason nor- 
mal, the standard pitch or -A 1 - 
scale adopted in 1859 by the ^ — » — 
French Academy, in which t?' vf 
has 870 single or 435 double vibrations 
per second of time (so-called " inter- 
national pitch "). 



Diapen'te (Gk. and Lat.) The interval 
of a fifth. . .D. cum ditono, a major 7th. 
. .D. ctiin semiditono, minor 7th. . .D. 
cum semitonio, minor 6th . . .D. cum 
tono, a major 6th. 

Diapenter (Fr.), Diapentisa're (It.) 
To progress by skips of a fifth. 

Diaph'ony. {Gk. diaphoni'a.) I. A dis- 
sonance. — 2. See Organum. 

Diaschis'ma (Gk.) The difference be- 
tween the second tierce below the 4th 
quint in the descending circle of fifths, 
and the 3rd octave below the given tone 
{c:d\)\) :: 2025: 2048). 

Diaste'ma (Gk.) An interval. 

Diates'saron (Gk.) The interval of a 

Diaton'ic. i. See Grcgk music, §2. — 
2. (In modern usage.) By, through, 
with, within, or embracing the tones of 
the standard major or minor scale... 
Diatonic instr., one yielding only the 
tones of that scale of which its funda- 
mental tone is the key-note. . .Diatonic 
interval, one formed by 2 tones of the 
same standard scale. . .Diatonic har- 
mony or melody, that employing the 
tones of but one scale. . .Diatonic mod- 
ulation, see Modulation. . .Diatonic 
progression, stepwise progression within 
one scale. . .Diatonic scale, see Scale. 

Diau'los (Gk.) A double aulos, the 
tubes meeting in an acute angle, and 
connected by and blown through a com- 
mon mouthpiece. 

Diazeuc'tic (Gk.) Disjoined (see Greek 
music, §1). . .Diazeu'xis, the separation 
of 2 neighboring tetrachords by the in- 
terval of a tone ; also, the tone itself. 

Di'brach, Di'brachys. A metrical foot 
consisting of 2 short syllables ("-' ^) ; a 

Di'chord. i. An ancient species of 
harp or lute having 2 strings. — 2. Any 
instr. having 2 strings to each note. 

Dicho'ree, Dichore'us. A double cho- 
ree or trochee ; a metrical foot consist- 
ing of 2 long and 2 short syllables in al- 
ternation ( — «- — -^). 

Dict^e musicale (Fr. , "musical dicta- 
tion".) A modern method of training 
the faculty of musical apprehension, in 
which the teacher plays or sings short 
phrases which the pupils take down on 

Diecet'to (It.) A piece for 10 instr.s. 

Diesa're (It.) To sharp. . .Z>iV'j-:/, a 

Di^ser (Fr.) To sharp.. .Dihe, a sharp. 

Dies irae (Lat., "day of wrath".) The 
sequence of the Missa pro defunctis ; 
it now forms the 2nd division of the 

Di'esis (Gk.) I. The Pythagorean 
semitone (later Limma), which is the 
difference between a fourth and 2 
greater whole tones, = 256:243. — 2. In 
modern theory, the difference between 
an octave and 3 major thirds, the mod- 
ern enharmonic diesis (128:125). 

Diezeug'menor (Gk.) Disjoined (see 
Greek music, §l). 

Difference-tone. See Acoustics. 

Differen'tia (Lat.) The differen'tice 
tono' rum in the medieval Gregorian 
chants were the different forms of the 
cadences or tropes to the .Seculo'rum 
a' men, according to the tone to which 
transition was to be effected. (.\lso 

Diffi'cile (It.), Diffici'le (Fr.) Difficult. 

Dig'ital. A key on the keyboard of the 
pfte., organ, etc.; opp. to pedal {Jin- 
ger-kay opp. io foot-key). 

Digito'rium. A small portable appara- 
tus for exercising the fingers, resem- 
bling a diminutive piano in shape, and 
having 5 keys set on strong springs ; 
sometimes called Dumb piano. 

Di gra'do (It.) (Progression) by de- 
grees, step-wise. 

Diiamb', Diiam'bus. A double iam- 
bus ; a metrical foot consisting of 2 
short and 2 long syllables in alternation 

Dilettart'. {It.dilettan'te) An amateur. 

Diligen'za (It.) Diligence, care. 

Dilu'dium (Lat.) An interlude, espe- 
cially that between the separate lines of 

Diluen'do (It.) Decreasing in loudness, 
dying away. 

Dim'eter. i. Consisting of 2 measures ; 
divisible into 2 feet. — 2. A verse or 
period consisting of two feet. 

Diminished. (Ger. verklei'nert; Fr. di- 
minue(e) ; It. diminu'to.) Dim. inter- 
val, a perfect or minor interval con- 
tracted by a chromatic semitone. . .Dim. 
chord, a chord, the highest and lowest 
tones of which form a dimin. interval. 
. .Dim. subject or theme, one repeate«> 



or imitated in diminution. . .Dim. triad, 
a root with minor third and dimin. fifth. 

Diminuen'do (It) Diminishing in loud- 
ness. . .Dim. pedal^ see Pidal. 

Diminuer (Fv.) To diminish (in loud- 
ness)... >£« diininuant beaiicoup,r^tX\- 
minuendo molto. 

Diminution. (Ger. Verklei'nerung ; Fr. 
diminution ; It. diminuzio'ne.) i. The 
repetition or imitation of a theme in 
notes of sm.-dler time-value (^, ^, or 
^ that of the original). — 2. See A'ota- 
tion, §2. 

Dioxia ((jk.) Less common term for 

Dip. The vertical fall of a digital or pedal 
when depressed to the full extent ; also 
key- fall. 

Dipho'nium (Lat.) A composition for 
2 voices. 

Diphtho'nia. A vocal anomaly produced 
by inflammatory nodules seated on the 
vocal cords, which on closure of the 
latter divide the glottis into an anterior 
and a posterior half, so that 2 tones are 
sounded on singing, instead of one. 

Diplas'ic. 'Yvio-io\A....D. footov rhythm, 
that in which the thesis has twice the 
length of the arsis. 

Dip'ody. A group of 2 similar metrical 
feet, or double foot, especially when 
constituting a single measure. 

Direct, i. (Ger. and Lat. Cus'tos ; 
Fr. guidon ; It. gni'da, ?no'stra.) The 
sign /w or %/ set at the end of a staff to 
show the position of the first note on 
the next staff. (N. B. The Germans 
often use it as a mere mark of continu- 
ation equivalent to "etc.", without 
reference to the pitch of any note.) — 2 
See Alotion and Turn. 

Directeur (Fr.) Conductor, director 

Dirge. A funeral hymn, or similar 

Dirigent' (Ger.) Conductor, director. 

Diriger (Fr.), Dirigie'ren (Ger.) To 
direct, conduct. 

Dirit'to,-a (It.) Direct, straight. . .yi //a 
dirit'ta, in direct motion. 

Dis (Ger.) T>^. . .Disis, D x . 

Dis'cant. i. (Lat. discan'tus ; Ger. 
Diskant' ; Fr. dr'chant.) The first at- 
tempts at polyphony with contrary mo- 
tion in the parts, beginning in the 12th 
century ; opp. to the organum, in 

which parallel motion was the rule. 
— 2. (Fr. dessus.) Treble or soprano 
voice ; the highest part in part-music. 
Discord, i. A dissonance. — 2. Caco- 

Discre'to (It.) Discreet ; comparatively 
s\xhdn&i^...Discrfzio'ne, discretion; con 
discrezicnt', with discretion or due re- 
serve ; with judicious subordination to 
a leading part or parts. 

Disdiapa'son (Gk., Lat.) In medieval 
music, the interval of a double octave. 

Dis'dis (Ger.) Dx (usually Z>?jz'j). 

Disinvol'to (It.) Free, easy, graceful. 
. . Con disinvoltu'ra, with ease, grace ; 

Dis'is (Ger.) Dx. [flowingly. 

Disjunct'. (Fr. disJoint,-e.) See Motion, 
Tf trac ho rd {disjoined). 

Diskant' (Ger.) i. Discant. treble. — 
Diskant' geige, the violin (the treble 
instr. of its class) . . . Diskantist' , treble 
singer. . .Diskant^ register, Diskant"' 
stimme, in the organ, a half-stop (also 
Hal'bestimme). . .Diskant' schlussel^ so- 

Dispar'te, in (It.) Aside. 

Dispera'to (It.) Desperate, hopeless. . . 
Dispcrazio'ne, con, in a style expres- 
sive of desperation or despair. 

Dispersed. See Harmony. 

Dispon'dee, Disponde'us. A double 
spondee ; a compound metrical foot 
containing 2 spondees. 

Disposition' (Ger.) The D. of an organ 
is properly the preliminary estimate of 
its cost, fixing the varieties of stops, 
number of manuals, etc. ; but also 
signifies a concise description of the 
working parts of a finished organ, 
especially an enumeration of the stops, 
couplers, combination-stops, etc. 

Disposition (Fr.) Gift, talent, genius. 

Dis'sonance. (Ger. Dissonanz'; Fr. 
dissonance; It. dissonan'za.) i. In 
theory, the simultaneous sounding of 
tones so remotely related that their 
combination produces beats. — 2. In 
practice, a combination of 2 or more 
tones requiring resolution ; opp. to 
Consonance. . .Dissonant, consisting of 
tones forming a dissonance 2 ; opp. to 
consonant. . .Dissonant interval, 2 tones 
forming a dissonance. The dissonant 
intervals are the seconds and their in- 
versions, the sevenths, also all dimin- 
ished and augmented intervals... Z>i>« 



sonant chord, a chord containing one 
or more diss, intervals. 

Dissona're (It.) To be dissonant, to 
form a dissonance. 

Distance. Interval. [Seldom used.] 

Distan'za (It.) An interval ; distance... 
In distanza, at a distance, marking 
music to be performed as if far away. 

Dis'tich. A group of 2 lines or verses ; 
usually called couplet in modern rhym- 
ing versification. 

Distinc'tio(Lat.) i. In Gregorian music, 
the pauses or breaks dividing vocal 
melodies into convenient phrases. — 2. 
.See Differentia. 

Distin'to (It.) Distinct, clear... Z*/- 
stintamen'te, distinctly. 

Distona're (It.) To sing or play out of 
tune ; also stonare. 

Dit'al. A key which, on pressure with 
the finger or thumb, raises the pitch of 
a guitar-string or lute-string by a semi- 
tone ; opp. to pedal. . .Dital harp, a 
chromatic lute shaped like a guitar, 
having from 12 to i3 strings, each con- 
trolled by a dital to raise its pitch by a 
semitone; inv. by Light in 1798, and 
later improved by him. ((Jomp. Klavier- 

Diteggiatu'ra (It.) Fingering. 

Dith'yramb, Dithyram'bus. A form 
of Greek lyric composition, originally 
a hymn in praise of Dionysus ; later 
greatly modified. Its leading char- 
acteristics were a lofty enthusiasm, 
frequently degenerating into bacchantic 
wildness (whence the adj. dithyram'bic), 
and the irregular form of its strophes, 
no two of which were identical. 

Di'to (It.) Finger. 

Ditone. (Lat. di' tonus; Fr. diton.) A 
Pythagorean major third of 2 greater 
whole tones (81:64); wider by a 
comma than a true major third (5 : 4). 

Ditro'chee, Ditrochae'us. A compound 
metrical foot consisting of 2 trochees 
(-^^ — — ) ; also Dichoree. 

Ditty. .\ short, simple song. 
Divertimen'to (It.) 1 j, a short poem 
Divertissement (Fr.) \ set to music, 
and interspersed with songs and dances, 
for some special occasion. — 2. Light and 
easy pieces of instrumental music, such 
as variations, potpourris, etc. — 3. An 
instrumental composition in 6 or 7 
movements, similar to a serenade or 

cassation. — 4. An entr'acte in an opera, 
or between compositions of consider- 
able length, in the form of a short 
ballet or other entertainment. — 5. Epi- 
sode in a fugue ; development of a 
principal theme. 

Divide. To play divisions. 

Divi'si (It.) Divided. A direction in 
scores signifying that 2 parts appearing 
on one and the same staff are not to be 
played as double-stops, but by the 
division into two bodies of the instr.s 
playing from that staff. The return to 
the unison is marked by the direction 
a due, (or by iciiis., or a 2). 

Division. A " dividing-up " of a mel- 
odic series of tones, vocal or instru- 
mental, into a rapid coloratura pas- 
sage ; if for voice, the passage was to 
be sung in one breath. (Obsolete.). .. 
To run a division, to e.xecute such a 
■passagQ. . .Division-viol, the Viola da 

Division-mark, A slur connecting a 
group of notes, and provided with a 
figure indicating their number, show- 
ing that their rhythm differs from the 
ruling rhythm of the piece ; as for a 
quintuplet, triplet, etc. 

Divo'to, Divotamen'te. See Devoto. 

Dixi^me (Fr.) The interval of a tenth. 

Do. The Italian name for C; supposed 
to have been introduced by Bononcini 
in 1673. It is now also generally 
adopted in France instead of the 
Aretinian Ut. 

Do. In solmisation, the usual syllable- 
name for the 1st degree of the scale. — • 
In the y?.rt'(/-Z>c7 method of instruction, 
Do is the name for all notes bearing the 
letter-name C, whether key-notes or 
not. — In the movable-Do method. Do 
is always the key-note, whatever key is 
.sung in or modulation reached. — In the 
Tonic Sol-fa system, spelled Doh. 

Doch'mius. A metrical foot consisting 
of 5 syllables (^ ^ ^ — ). 

Doctor of Music. See Bachelor. 

Dodecachor'don (Gk.) i. See Bissex. 
— 2. A treatise by Glareanus (1547) on 
the theory of the 12 keys or modes. 

Dode'cupla di cro'me (It.) 12-8 time; 
di semicrome, 12-16 time. 

Dodec'uplet. A group of 12 equal notes 
to be performed in the time of 8 in the 
regular rhythm. 

Doh. See Do. 



Do'i (It.) Same as Due. 

Doigt (Fr.) Finger ... Z'w^//, fingered. 
. . Doigt J, or doigtt-r, fingering ; doig- 
ti's Jourchus, cross-fingerings. 

Dorcan. See Dukia'iia. 

C)Dorce(It.) I. Sweet, soft, suave ; dol- 
cenicn' te, sweetly, softly. — 2. A sweet- 
toned organ-stop. 

Dolcez'za (It.) Sweetness, softness ; 

coil J., softly, gently. 
Dolcian' (Cer.), Dolcia'na, Dolcia'no 

(It.) I. A epecies of bassoon in vogue 
during the l6th and 17th centuries.— 2. 
In the organ, a reed-stop of 8 or 16- 
foot pitch ; 3. fagotto. 

Dolcia'to (It.) See Raddolciato. 

Dolcis'simo (It.) Very sweetly, softly. 
. . Also, a very soft-toned S-foot flute- 
stop in the organ. 

Dolen'do, Dolen'te (It.) Do'eful, plaint- 
ive, sad. . .Dolcntemen'tc, dolefully, etc. 

Dolo're (It.) Pain, grief ; con dolorc\ in 
a style expressive of pain or grief ; 
pathetically (also dolorosamcn' te, dolo- 
ro' so). 

Dolz'flote (Ger.; Fr. flute douce ; It. 
fla'uto dol'ce.) i. An obsolete trans- 
verse flute, having a half-plug within 
the embouchure. — 2. In the organ, an 
open flute-stop of rather narrow scale 
and 8-foot pitch. 

Dom'chor (Ger.) Cathedral-choir. 

Dom'inant. i. (Ger., Fr., and It. 
Doffiinan'te.) The fifth tone in the 
major or minor scale . . .D. chord, (n) 
the dominant triad ; (/^ the dom. chord 
of the 7th. . .D. section, of a movement, 
a section written in the key of the domi- 
nant, lying between and contrasting 
with two others in the key of the tonic. 
. .D. triad, that having the dominant as 
root. — 2. The reciting-tone in the Gre- 
gorian modes. 

Dona nobis pacem. See A/ass. 

Doodlesack. See Ger. Dudelsack. 

Do'po (It.) After. 

Dop'pel- (Ger.) T)ovih\&. . .Dof pel- B, 
Dop'pelbe, the double-flat. . .Z'c/'/'^/- 
blatt, double reed. . .Dop'pelchor, double 
chorus. . . Dop'pelfagott, double-bassoon. 
..Dop'pelflote (Duiflote), (It. fla'uto 
dop'pio), an organ-register of 8- foot 
stopped pipes, each pipe having 2 
mouths, 2 windways, etc., one on either 
side (behind and in front) like the Bi- 

fara, but at exactly the same height, so 
that the tone does not beat, but is 
merely reinforced . . . Dop'pelfliigel, see 
ris-a-2'is...Dop'pelfuge, a double fugue 
or canon . . . Dop'pelgeige, viola d'amore. 
. . Dop'pelgriff, double-stop (on the vio- 
lin), paired notes (on keyboard-instr.s ; 
e. g. thirds, sixths, and octaves). . . 
Dop'peloktave, double octave ... Z><?/'- 
pclpHnkt,Ao\x\Ae. dot {^..). . .Dop'pel- 
quintpoiunier, a large variety of 'hova- 
havd. . .Dop'pelschlag, a tnrn . . . Dop' - 
pelzunge, double-tonguing. 

Dop'pio (It.) Double.../?, movimen'to, 
twice as fast...Z>. vo'te, d. valo're, 
twice as slow (absolute time-value of 
notes is doubled). . .i^./tv/rt'/t? (in organ- 
playing), the pedal-part in octaves. . . 
Doppio signifies, with names of instr.s, 
larger in size and consequently deeper 
in tone. 

Do'rian or Dor'ic mode. See Mode. 

Dot. (Ger. Funl-t; Yr. point; It. pun'- 
to.) I. A dot set after a note prolongs 

its time-value by half {i:i- = =/*); a 

second dot or third dot prolongs the 
time-value of the dot immediately pre- 
ceding it by half (^J.. . ^ J J ^ • ). 

(The dot after a.note upon a line is pre- 
ferably written above the line when the 
next note is higher, below the line when 
it is lo'ver : 



The dot of prolongation was formerly 
often set in the next measure, quite 
away from the note ; a. g. 
X X 

which we now write : 




— 2. A dot set over or under a note in- 
dicates that it is to be executed staccato: 
(J T) ; a slur connecting several such 
dots calls for the mezzo-staccato. (Some- 
times, especially in earlier authors, the 
staccato-dot calls rather for a sforzando 
than a stac'-ato ) — 3. In old music, sev- 
eral dots set above a note indicate that 
it is to be subdivided into so many short 

notes ( p ~ TTTT ) J i^o'^ us^'i °^*^'' ^ 
tremolo-sign in violin-music to mark 



the exact subdivision of the large note 


= E 


). — 4. Two 

_ or four dots 

set in the spaces of the staff, before or 
after a double-bar, form a lii-peat. 
Double. I. A variation. — 2. A repetition 
of words in a song. — 3. In organ-play- 
ing, a 16-foot stop (as accompanying or 
doubling the 8-foot stops in the lower 
octave). — 4. In the opera, etc., a sub- 
stitute singer. — 5. (Also Grandsii-e.) In 
change-ringing, changes on 5 bells. — 6. 
As an adjective with names of mus. 
instr.s, double signifies "producing a 
tone an octave lower " ; e. g. doiible- 
bassoo7i, double-bourdon, etc. — 7. The 
verb double signifies, to add (to any 
tone or tones of a melody or harmony) 
the higher or lower octave. 

Double (Fr.) i (pi. doubles). .See 
Variation. — 2. The alternativo in a 
minuet, when merely a variation of 
the principal theme and retaining the 
harmonic basis of the latter. — 3. As an 
adjective, double ; as dottble-barre, 
double-bar ; d. coup de langue^ double- 
tonguing ; double-croche, a i6th-note ; 
etc. . .Double - corde, double-stop. . . 
Double-inai)i , an octave-coupler (organ). 
. .Double-octave, double octave, ./^t'//- 
ble-touche, a mechanism in the keyboard 
of harmoniums, etc., for adjusting the 
key-fall at 2 different levels, with corre- 
sponding differences in the degree of 
loudness of tone produced ... 79^;/^/t'- 
triple, 3-2 time. 

Double (Fr.) A turn. 

Double-bar. (Ger. Dop'peltaktstrich, 
Schluss' striche; Fr. double-barre; It. 
dop'pio bar'ra.) i. The two thick 
vertical strokes drawn across the staff 
to mark the end of a division, (repeat), 
movement, or entire piece. — 2. Two 
thin vertical lines 
(bars) dividing one 
section of a move- 
ment from the next 

Double-bass. (Ger. A'on'trabass; Fr. 
contre-basse; violonar; It. contrabbas'- 
so!) The largest and deepest-toned 
instr. of the violin family (with the e.\- 
ception of the rare conlrabbasso doppio 
and the Octobass), with either 3 strings 
{Gi-D-A being the Italian, yii-Z)- 6' the 
English accordatura), or 4 strings 
(tuned Ey-Ax-D-G). Compas_s: 



(the German tuning). 

Double-stop. (Ger. Dop'pelgriff; Fr. 
double-corde; It. dop'pia ferrna'ta.) In 
violin-playing, to stop 2 strings to- 
gether, thus obtaining 2-part harmony. 

Double-tongue. (Ger. Dop' pelzunge ; 
Fr. double coup de langue.) In play- 
ing the flute, and certain brass instr.s, 
applying the tongue in rapid alterna- 
tion to the upper front teeth and the 
hard palate, to obtain a clear-cut and 
brilliant staccato. (Also Double-tong- 

Double-trouble. A step peculiar to the 

Doublette (Fr.) A 2-foot organ-stop, 
octave of the principal. 

Doublophone. A combined Euphoni- 
um and Valve-trombone, with one com- 
mon mouthpiece ; a valve operated by 
the left thumb throws the current of 
air from the mouthpiece into the tube 
of either instr. at will. Inv. by Fon- 
taine Besson of Paris in 1891. 

Doublure (Fr.) See Double 4 (Engl.) 

Doucement. (Fr.) Gently, softly... 
Doux, douce, soft, gentle, sweet. 

Douzi^me (Fr.) The interval of a 

Down-beat. i. The downward stroke 
of the hand in beating time, which 
marks the primary or first accent in 
each measure. — 2. Hence, the accent 
itself (thesis, strong beat). 

Down-bow. (Ger. Ilerunterstrich; Fr. 
tircz; It. arco in giic.) In violin-play- 
ing, the downward stroke of the bow 
from nut to point ; on the 'cello and 
double-bass, the stroke from nut to 
point ; usual sign f"]. 

Doxology (Gk.) A psalm or hymn of 
praise to God ; especially the Greater 
Z>.(Gloria in excelsis Deo), and the 
Lesser D.{Ci\or\a. Patri, etc.) 

Drag. I. A rallentando. — 2. A A^- 
sccnding portamento in lute-playing. 

Draht'saite (Ger.) Wire string. 
Dramatic music, i. Same as Program- 

viusic. — 2. Music accompanying and 

illustrating an actual drama on the 

Dram'ma (It.) Drama. — D. li'rico, a 

lyric drama.../?, viusica'le, a music- 



drama, opera.../?, per inu'sica, a 
musical drama, opera. . .Dranunatica- 
men'ie, dramatically. . .Dramma'tico, 

Drang'end (tJer.) Pressing, hastening, 

Draw-stop. In the organ, one of the 
projecting knobs within easy reach of 
the organist, which, when drawn out, 
shift the corresponding slides so as to 
admit wind to the grooves communicat- 
ing with a set of pipes or a combination 
of stops, or else effect a coupling. — 
Draw-stpp action, the entire mechan- 
ism controlled and set in operation by 
the draw-stops. 

Dreh'er (Ger.) An obsolete variety of 
waltz resembling the LdtuUer, of Bo- 
hemian or Austrian origin, in 3-8 or 
3-4 time. 

Dreh'orgel (Ger.) A barrel-organ. 

Drei (Ger.) Three. . .Drei'cho}-ig, {a) 
for 3 choirs ; {h) trichord (said of a 
pfte.). . .Drei'gestrichen, 3-lined, thrice- 
accented. . .Z^^vz'/'/;?;/^'', a triad... 
Drci'sliinmig, three-part, in 3 parts, 
for 3 voices. 

Drit'ta (It.) See Dirt Ua. 

Driving-note. Syncopated note. (Ob- 

Droit(e) (Fr.) Right. . .J/ai/i droite, 
right hand (abbr. m. d.) 

Drone. (Ger. Stim'mer, Bordim' ; Fr. 
bourdon; It. bordo'nc.) In the bag- 
pipe, one of the continuously sounding 
pipes of constant pitch. (Also see 
Drone-bass}). . .Drone-bass, a bass on 
the tonic, or tonic and dominant, which 
is persistent throughout a movement 
or piece, as in the Jl/usette 2. . .Drone- 
pipe, same as Drone. 

Driick'balg (Ger.) Concussion-bellows. 

Druck'er ((Jer.) A specially brilliant 
(sometimes a forced) effect ; einen 
Drucker auf'setzen, to bring out such 
an effect. 

Drii'cker (Ger.) See Steelier. 

Druck'werk (Ger.) An organ-action 
operating by the pressure of stickers on 
the remoter parts of the mechanism. 
(See Zug-.i'erk.) 

Drum. An instr. of percussion, consist- 
ing of a hollow body of wood or metal, 
over one or both ends of which a mem- 
brane (the head) is stretched tightly by 
means of a hoop, to which is attached an 

endless cord tightened by leathern 
braces, or by a system of rods and 
screws. The two chief classes of drums 
are the rJiythinical (those employed to 
vary and emphasize the rhythm), and 
the musical (those capable of produc- 
ing a mus. tone distinct in pitch). The 
commonest forms of the first class in 
modern use are : (i) The side-drum 
(Ger. Tronrmcl; I'r. tambour; It. iam- 
buro); it has a c)'lindrical body of 
wood or metal, and 2 heads, is slung 
across the left thigh, and only the up- 
per head is beaten with the 2 drumsticks; 
when gut strings {snares) are stretched 
across the lower head, the instr. is 
called a snare-drum. (2) The bass 
drum (Ger. grosse Trommel; Fr. grossc 
caisse; It. gran cassa, gran ta/nburo), 
similar in form to I, but much larger, 
and beaten on one or both heads with 
a stick having a soft round knob at the 
end. (3) See Tambourine. . .The so\e 
representative of the second class is the 
Kettledrum (which see). 

Duc'tus (Lat.) A series of tones in 
stepwise progression ; as d. rec'tus, 
ascending ; d. rever'tens, descending ; 
d. circiimcur'rens, first ascending and 
then descending. 

Du'delsack (Ger ) Bagpipe. 

Du'e (It.) Two. . .A due, signifies (i) 
for two ; as a due voci, for 2 parts or 
voices ; (2) both together (see Divisi). 
..Due corde, "two strings"; see 
Cor da . . . Due volte, twice . . . / due pe- 
dali, both (pfte.-) pedals at once. 

D'jet'. (Ger. Duett'; Fr. duo; It. duet'. 
to.) I. A composition for 2 voices or 
instr.s. — 2. A composition for 2 per- 
formers on one instr., as the pfte. — 3. 
A composition for the organ, in 2 
parts, each to be played on a separate 

Duetti'no (It., dimin. of duetto.) A 
short and simple duet. 

Dulcian' (Ger.) See Dolcian. 

Dulcian'a. i. An organ -stop having 
metal pipes of narrow scale and yield- 
ing a somewhat sharp, thin tone. — 2. A 
reed-stop of delicate tone. — 3. ^ small 

Dul'cimer. (Ger. Hack'brett; Fr. tym- 
panon ; It. cem'balo.) A very ancient 
stringed instr., greatly varying in con- 
struction and form ; typical character- 
istic, the wire strings stretched over a 
soundboard or resonance-box and struck 




with mallets or hammers. In the modern 
forms the string-tension is regulated by 
wrest-pins, and the mallet-heads have 
one soft and one hard face, which pro- 
duce different effects .^ (^) 
of tone. Compass 2 
to 3 octaves, g- to g'^: 
The dulcimer was the _ 
precursor, and is often called the proto- 
type, of the pianoforte. See Panlalon. 

Dumb piano. An instr. like a small 
piano in form, having a keyboard of 
narrow compass, but neither hammers 
nor strings ; intended for silent finger- 
practice, i. e. merely for increasing the 
mechanical dexterity of the fingers 
(Comp. Digilorium, SiXid Virgil J'rac- 
tice-Clavier). . .Dumb spinet, see Mani- 

Dummy pipes. Pipes which do not 
speak, displayed in the front of an 

Dump. An obsolete dance in slow tempo 
and common time. 

Du'o (It. and Fr.) A duet. (In English 
usage, duo is sometimes distinguished 
from duet by applying the former term 
to a 2-part composition for 2 voices or 
instr.s of different kinds, and the latter 
to such a composition for 2 voices or 
instr.s of the same kind.) 

Duode'cima (It.) i. The interval of a 
twelfth. — 2. A Twelfth (organ-stop), 

Duodecimo'le (Ger.) Dodecuplet. 

Du'odene. A 12-tone group composed of 
4 trines, applied to the solution and 
correction of problems in temperament 
and harmony. A dnode'nal is the sym- 
bol of the root-tone of a duodene. The 
term (as also Trine, Decad, Ilcptad, 
Heptadecad, etc.) is the invention of A. 
J. Ellis, a full e.Kplanation of whose 
system of acoustics will be found in his 
original Appendices to the Second Ing- 
lish Edition of Helmholtz's work "On 
the Sensations of Tone, (1885, trans- 
lated by Ellis himself I. 

Duodra'ma. (It. duodram'^na.) A kind of 
melodrama, or spoken dialogue accom- 
panied by the orchestra. 

Duo'i (It.) Same as Due, 

Duo'le (Ger.) Couplet 2. 

Duo'lo (It.) Grief, sadness, melancholy. 

Du'pla {proportid). See Xotation, §3. 

Duple. Double.../), rhythm, rhytlim 
of 2 beats to a measure. 

Dur (Ger.) Major. 

Dur,-e (Fr.) Harsh, unpleasing in tone. 

Duramen'te (It.) Sternly, harshly. 

Durch'fiihrung (Ger.) In a general sense, 
the mus. construction or working-out of 
a movement ; specifically, the develop- 
ment of a theme, as in the fugue or 
sonata. (See Development, Form.) 

Durch'gang (Ger. ; Lat. tran' situs.) The 
" passage " or progression of one prin- 
cipal tone to another through a tone or 
tones foreign to the harmony or key. . . 
Durch'gangston, passing-tone, chang- 
ing-tone ; re'gelmiissiger D.ton, one 
falling on a weak beat ; un'regelmas- 
siger Durchgangston, one falling on a 
strong beat, also called a sch-.i-e'rer 
Durehgang, " heavy passing - tone," 
though properly an anticipation or free 

Durch'gehend (Ger.) i. Passing, as 
Durch'gehender Akkord', passing- 
chord. — 2. Transitional, as durehge- 
hende Aus'^oeiehungen, the transitional 
or continuous modulations necessary in 
passing to a key harmonically remote. 
— 3. Complete ; as durch'gehende 
Stim'men, complete (organ-) stops. 

Durch'komponieren (Ger.) In song- 
writing, to set each strophe to differ- 
ent music, thus following the changing 
mood more closely than in the ballad or 
folk-song, where melody and harmony 
are generally the same for each verse. 
..Durchkomponiert, " through-com- 
posed," progressively composed. 

Durch'schlagende Zung'e (Ger.) Free 

Durch'stechen (Ger.) Running (of 
wind in an organ). Also said of a pipe 
which, when facing another, causes th«j 
latter to speak by the wind issuing from 
its mouth. — Durch'stecJur, tones pro- 
duced by the above defects. 

Duree (Fr.) Duration, time-value (of a 

Durez'za (It.) Sternness, harshness. 

Dur Moll'-Tonart (Ger., "major-minor 
mode".) The "combined" mode de- 
rived theoretically from the resolution 
of the dominant chord in minor to the 
tonic in major (mode with major third 
and minor si.xth); expressed by the 
Flauptmann formula 


Du'ro,-a (It.) Stern, harsh. 
1 Du'rus,-a,-um (Lat., "l>ard".) Equi- 



valent to major in the phrases canttis 
durus, hexachor'dum durum; i. e. a 
chant (vocal music) and hexachord with 
major third ; opp. to yl/c/AV . — B durum, 
B natural. 

Dii'ster (Ger.) Gloomy, mournful. 

Dutch concert. See Concert. 

Dux (, "leader, guide".) Subject 
or theme of a fugue. 

Dynam'ics. The theory of mus. dyna- 
mics is tlie scientific explanation of the 
varying and contrasting degrees of in- 
tensity or loudness in mus. tones. 


E. (Ger. E; Fr. and It. mi.) The 3d 
tone or degree in the typical diatonic 
scale of C-major. (Compare Alphabet- 
ical Notation., and Solmisation.) 

E (It.) And ; (before a vowel, ed). 

Bar. I. (Ger. Ohr, Geho?-'; Fr. oreille; 
It. orec'chio.) A mus. ear is one im- 
pressionable to mus. tones, thus afford- 
ing to its possessor, after more or less 
practice, the capability of accurately 
reproducing them, and of appreciating 
and correctly analyzing compositions 
performed by others. — 2. One of the 
2 projecting plates of metal on either 
side of the mouth of an organ-pipe. 

Ebollimen'to, Ebollizio'ne (It.) Ebul- 
lition ; a sudden and passionate ex- 
pression of feeling. 

Ecart (Fr.) A wide stretch on the pfte. 

Ec'bole (Gk.) The raising or sharping 
of a tone ; opp. to Ec' lysis. 

Ecceden'te (It.) Augmented (of inter- 

Ecclesiastical modes. See Modes. 

Ec'co (It.) Echo. 

Echappement (Fr.) The hopper or es- 
capement in a double-action pfte. 

Echelette (Fr.) Xylophone. 

Echelle (Fr.) Scale. 

Echo. I. A subdued repetition of a 
strain or phrase. — 2. An echo-stop. — 
3. A ha-vpsichord-s^-op. . .Ecko-organ, 
a separate set of pipes, either enclosed 
in a box within the organ, or placed at a 
distance from the latter, to produce the 
effect of an echo ; it has separate stops, 
and often a special mannzX. . .Echo- 
stop, one producing an echo-like effect, 
either by itself or in an echo-organ. 

Eclisses (Fr.) Ribs (of a violin). . 

Contre-ifclisses, linings. 
Eclogue. See Eglogue. 

Ec'lysis (Gk.) The flatting or depression 
of a tone ; opp. to Ec'bole. 

E'co (It.) Echo. 

Ecossaise (Fr.) Originally, a Scotch 
round dance in 3-2 or 3-4 time ; now, a 
lively contredanse in 2-4 time. (Com- 
pare Schottische.) 

Ecu (Fr.) Shield (on face of lute, man- 
dolin, etc.) 

Ed (It.) And. 

E'del (Ger.) Noble ; refined, chaste. 

Effekt' (Ger.) lL?i&ct. . .Effekt'piano, 
the effect of the forte-piano {fp). 

Effet (Fr.), Effet'to (It.) Effect, im- 

Effort (Fr.) In singing, a rough and 
guttural attack. 

Egalit6 (Fr.) Evenness, smoothness. 

Eglogue (Fr.) A pastoral, or idyl, 
though in somewhat more animated 
style than the latter. 

Egua'le (It.) Equal; even, smooth... 
Egtialmeti'te, evenly, smoothly. 

Eidomu'sikon. See Melograph. 

Ei'gentlich (Ger.) Proper, actual, trua, 
real . . . Ei'gentliche Euge, a strict fugue. 
. .Ei'gentliche JCadenz', perfect ca- 
dence. . .Ei'gentlicher Drei' klang, com- 
mon chord. 

Ei'genton (Ger.) Natural tone (of a 
windinstr.) ; tone proper to, or pro- 
duced by, a sonorous body or hollow 

Eighteenth. An interval of 2 octaves 
and a fourth. 

Eighth. I. An octave. — 2. An eighth- 
note. . .Eighth-note, a note representing 
one-eighth of the time-value of a whole 
note ; a quaver (> J )• ■ .Eighth-rest, a 
rest equal in time-value to an eighth- 

Ei'Ien (Ger.) To hasten, accelerate, go 
faster. . .Ei'lend, hastening ; acceleran- 
do, stringendo. . .Ei'lig, hasty, in a hur- 
ried style; rapid, swift. 

Ein, Eins (Ger.) One. . .Ein'chorig, (a) 
having one string to each note ; (^) for 
single (or undivided) chorus (choir). . . 
Ein'fach, simple, plain. . .Ein' gang, in- 
troduction. . .Ein'gestrichen, one-lined. 
. .Ein'greifen, (a) to touch or sound 
(strings) ; {b) in pfte. -playing, to inter- 



lace the fingers. . .Ein'klaiig, unison. . . 
Ein'lage, a short piece introduced (<•/;/'- 
gelegt) between 2 compositions or in the 
midst of a long one. . .Ein' lei lung, in- 
troduction . . . Ein'mal, once . . . Ein'- 
saiter, monochord. . .Ein'satz, entrance 
(of a vocal or instrumental part) ; attack. 
Ein'satzstiiik, a crook (usually Bogcu). 
Ein'satzzeichen, in a canon, the presa. 
. . Ein'schnitt, a pause at the end of a 
melodic phrase or section . . . Kin'scizcn, 
to enter (as a part) ; to attack ; to strike 
or fall in ; ein'setzender Hornisl', a 
horn-player who sets the mouthpiece 
rather within than against his lips ; a 
lipping sometimes necessitated by thick 
lips. . . Ein'singen, (a) to sing to sleep ; 
(^) to practise singing until confidence 
is attained. . .Ein'spielen, (a) to play on 
a new instr. till it works smoothly ; (/') to 
practise a part or piece until confidence 
'\%2X\.z\\\&dL. . .Ein'stimmcu, to tune (in 
concert with other instr.s). . .Ein'stim- 
mig, for one part or voice. . .Ein'tritt, 
entrance ; beginning. 

E'is (Ger.) EJ|. . .E'isis, E x . 
Ei'senvioline (Ger.) See N'agelgeige. 
Eklo'g(u)e. Ger. spelling of Eglogue. 

Ela. Name of the highest ^Z^ ^ 
note in the Aretinian scale : ^ 

Electric Organ. See Organ. . .Electric 

Pianoforte (Ger. elektropho'nisches Kla- 

vier')^ inv. in 1891 by Dr. Eisenmann 

of Berlin. Over each unison of strings 

an electro-magnet is fixed ; on closing 

the circuit (by depressing a digital) each 

magnet attracts its strings, and (the 

magnetic action being duly controlled 

and limited by a set of microphones) 

causes their continuous vibration. — 

Tone (of the improved instr.) full, sweet, 

capable of the most various dynamic 



written : 

played : 

Elevation (Fr.) i. Up-beat or weak 
beat (also /c'z//) ; opp. to /"/c?///.— 2. 
Same as Elevatio 2 and 3. 

Eleva'to (It.) Elevated, lofty, sublime. 
. .Elevazio'ne, see Elevation. 

Embellir (Fr.) To embellish, orna- 
Embellishment. See Grace. 

shading ; timbre like that of the string- 
orchestra ; the ordinary hammer-action 
may be employed alone, or in combina- 
tion with the above. A peculiar (sus- 
taining) pedal-mechanism permits a 
given tone, a full chord, or any har- 
mony, to sound on as long as desired, 
even after lifting the fingers. Numer- 
ous combined effects of tone are pos- 
El^gamment (Fr.) Elegantly. 

Elegan'te (It.) Elegant, graceful... 
Elegantemen'te, elegantly, etc. 

Elegie'zither (Ger.) See Zither, 
El'egy. (Fr. ^Ugie ; It. elegi'a?^^ A 
composition of a mournful cast, either 
vocal or instrumental ; a dirge. . .Ele'- 
giac, a pentameter, i. e. a verse com- 
posed of 2 dactylic penthemims or 
written in elegiac metre. . . Elegiac verse, 
that in which elegiac poems or verses 
are written, consisting of elegiac dis- 
tiches ; an elegiac distich being one in 
which the first line is a dactylic hexa- 
meter, and the second a pentameter, 
thus : 


Element (Fr.) The entire range of 
tones embraced in the mus. scale... 
Element ?nelriqiie, a measure-note. 

Eleva'tio (Lat.) i. Up-beat ; unac- 
cented count. — 2. The rising of a mel- 
ody over the ambitus of the mode. — 3. 
A mus. composition accompanying the 
elevation of the Host. 

Elevation. See Elevatio. . .Also, the 
name of 2 obsolete graces, the elevation 

and shaked elevation : 

Shaked Elevation. 

Embouchure (Fr.) i. The mouthpiece 
of a wind-instr., or the oval orifice of 
a flute. — 2. See Lip. 

Empater les sons (Fr.) To produce a 
very smooth and suave legato. . .Ex/- 
cution {r'oix) e/npdte'c, an instrumental 
(vocal) style lacking in neatness and 



Empfin'dung(rier.) Feeling, emotion.. . 
Empfiu' dungsvoll, full of feeling ; feel- 
ingly, with emotion. 

Empha'se (Ger. and Fr.) Emphasis, 

Emport6,-e (Fr.) Carried away by feel- 
ing or passion. 

Empress6,-e (Fr.) Urgent, eager ; in 

Enarmo'nico (It.) Enharmonic. 

En badinant (Fr.) See Scherzando. 

Enclavure du manche (Fr.) Space cut 
in belly (of violin) for insertion of neck. 

Encore (Fr.) "Again!" (in English 
usage; the French use the word "bis" 
when recalling an actor or performer). 
— Also used for rt'ca/l {noun and verb), 
and for the piece or performance re- 

End-man. In the "negro minstrels", 
a man who sits at the end of the semi- 
circle formed by the company on com- 
mencing the performance. There are 
2 or 4 such end-men, who provide a 
good part of the fun apart from the 
songs, and likewise perform on the 
"bones " and the tambourine. 

Energi'a (It.), Energie(Fr.) Energy'. . . 
Energicaiiwn'te (It.), or con enei-gia, 
with energ)' and decision, energetically. 

Ener'gico (It.), Ener'gisch (Ger.) En- 
ergetic, vigorous ; indicates that the 
passage so marked is to be vigorously 
accented and distinctly phrased. 

Enfant de chceur (Fr.) A choir-boy. 

Enfa'si, con (It.) With emphasis, em- 
phatically. . .Enfa'/ico, emphatic. 

Eng (Ger.) Narrow. c\ost.. . .Eng'e 
Harmonie' {Lage), close harmony. 

Eng'elstimme (Ger.) Vox angelica. 

EngTiihrung (Ger.) The stretto in a 

Eng'lisch (Ger.) English. . ..£'«^//j-f/^ 
Horn, cor ^^vi-gX-sA?,. . .Eng'lische Me- 
cha'nik, English action (pfte.). . .Eng'- 
lischer Tanz, anglaise , . Euglisch Vio- 
lef , (<?) an obsolete bow-instr. re- 
sembling the viola d'ainore, with 14 
sympathetic strings stretched below 
the fingerboard ; (/') a former tuning 
of the violin {e-a-e^-a^). 

Enharmon'ic. (Ger. enharmo'nisch ; 
Fr. cnharmonique ; It. enarino'nico.) 
In Cireek music, the enh. genus was 
distinguished by a tetrachord, the first 
2 steps in which were (approximately) 

quarter-tones, and the third step a 
major third. — In modern music, enhar- 
monic tones are tones derived from dif- 
ferent degrees, but practically identical 
in pitch, as c^ and d\) on the pfte. or 
organ. . .Enltarmonic change, a change 
effected in the harmonic relations of a 
tone or chord by treating it as identical 
in pitch with another 1 
tone or chord of dif- 
ferent notation ; thus: 
where the enharm. change of /-i? to a^ 
brings about a different resolution of 
the diminished seventh-chord by chang- 
ing its tonality: 
(i) (/-minor. (2) (5-minor. 

. .Enharmonic chords, chords (like I 
and 2 above) alike in pitch but unlike 
in notation and derivation . . . Enharm. 
di'esis, see Diesis . . .E?ihari/t. interval, 
one derived from an enharm. change. . . 
Enharm. nioditlalion, an enharm. 
change of chords, as above. . .Enharm. 
organ, pianoforte, scale, one in which 
the identity of the enharmonic tones is 
denied, and an attempt made to realize 
practically the minute differences in 
pitch between such tones, e. g. by add- 
ing an extra digital for d'^ as distinct 
from (■;; ; etc. 

Ensemble (Fr.) Concert, in the sense 
of " agreement of 2 or more in a de- 
sign or plan". — i. The unity of a 
composition ; the harmonious agree- 
ment of parts which forms a well-bal- 
anced whole. — 2. The harmonious co- 
operation of the various factors in a 
performance ; of the actors, singers, 
musicians, or instruments, taken in 
groups or together. . .Morceaux d' en- 
semble, concerted music. 

En serrant (I"r.) Stringendo. 

Entr'acte(Fr., " interval between acts".) 
A light instrumental composition or 
short ballet, intended or adapted for 
performance between acts. 

Entra'ta (It.) See Entree, and Inii-ada. 

Entree (1 r.) i. See Intrada; also, 
specifically, the orchestral prelude to a 
ballet, following the overture. — 2. En- 
trance (of a part or actor). — 3. A division 
of a ballet corresponding to a " scene " 
in a dramatic performance ; also, the 
dance music accompanying it. — 4. An 
old dance resembling the Polonaise in 
character, usually in 4-4 time ; often 



occurs as first movement in the Sere- 

Entry. An act of an opera, burletta, etc. 

Entschlos'sen (Ger.) Resolute(lyj, de- 
termined, in a determined manner. 

Entwurf (Ger.) Sketch, plan, design. 

Eo'lian, See ^olian. 

Ep'icede. (Lat. epicc'dium ; Fr. epi- 
cede ; It. epice'Jio.) A funeral song, 

Epigo'nion (Gk.) The ancient Greek 
lyre with 40 strings, named after its re- 
puted inventor Epigonos. 

Epinette (Fr.) Spinet. 

Epini'cion (Gk.) i. A triumphal song 
in celebration of a victory. — 2. In the 
(ireek Church, the triumphal hymn, the 

Epio'dion (Gk.) A funeral song. 

Episode. (Ger. Z-visch'ensatz; Fr. epi- 
sode; \t. diver time- n' to.) An intermedi- 
ate or incidental section ; a digression 
from and interpolation between the 
repetitions or developments of the prin- 
cipal theme or themes of a composition ; 
specifically, in the fugue, a passage of 
the above character ordinarily formed of 
motives taken from the subject or coun- 

Epistle side (of the altar). That on the 
priest's left, when he is facing the con- 
gregation ; the south side ; opp. to the 
gospel or north side. 

Epis'trophe (Gk.) In a cyclic composi- 
tion, a refrain. 

Epit'asis (Gk.) The raising of the voice, 
or the strings of an instr., from a lower 
to a higher pitch. (See Aiii-sis.) 

Epithala'mium (Lat.), Epithala'mion 
(Gk.) A nuptial song or poem. 

Epito'nion (Gk.) A tuning-wrench ; a 

Ep'itrite. Same as Hippius. 

Ep'ode (Gk., "after-song".) i. A re- 
frain. — 2. The concluding stanza of an 
ode, following the strophe and anti- 

Eptacorde (Fr.), Eptacor'do (It.) i. 
Heptachord. — 2. .\ scale of 7 notes. — 
3. The interval of a seventh. 

Equa'bile(It.) Equable, even, uniform, 
similar. . .Equabilinoi' tc, equably, etc. 

Equal counterpoint, temperament. 
See the nouns .Equal voices, voices 
of the same class, i. e. either women's 

for boys') voices (contralto and soprano), 
or men's voices (tenor, bass) ; opp. to 
"unequal voices," a term equivalent to 

mixed chorus. 

E'quisonance, In medieval music, the 
unison (of primes or octaves). 

Equisonnance (Fr.) The unison (of 
octaves, double octaves, etc.) 

Equi'sono (It.) In unison or octaves. 

Equiv'ocal or doubtful chord. .See 

Ergriffen (Ger.) Affected, stirred, mov- 
ed. . ..£V;^;vy"'y'tM/id7V, emotion, agita- 

Erha'ben (Ger.) Lofty, e.xalted, sub- 
lime. . .Erha'i/enheit, sublimity, etc. 

Erhoh'ung(Ger.) Raising (the pitch of); 
sharping. . . Erhoh'uiigszeichen, sign of 
raising, as the j, or a [J after a {7. 

Ermat'tet (Ger.) Exhausted, wearied. 

Ernie'drigung (Ger.) Lowering (the 
pitch of); ?iz.\.'i\x\<g. . .Ernie' d rigu}7^^s- 
zeichtti, sign of lowering, as the \), or 
the t] after a Jf. 

Ernst (Cler.) P'.arnest, serious, grave. 
(Also adverb.) 

Ero'ico,-a (It.) Heroic ; strong and 

Erot'ic. (It. ero'lico.) r. Amatory. — 2. 
An amatory poem, a love-song. 

Er'ster,-e,-es (Ger.) Y\r?,t. . .Ei'ste 
Stim'iiie, the highest part or voice. 

Erwei'tern (Ger.) To extend, expand. 
Erioei' terte Ilarmonie' , seeLage, weite. 
. . Er-ivei'terier Satz, a movement in 
which there is a full exposition of the 
subject by development, repetition, etc. 
. .Erwei' lerii)}g (of a fugal theme), the 
widening of any of its intervals. 

Erzah'ler (Ger.) The Evangelist or 
A'arralor in a Passion-play. 

Erz'laute (Ger.) Archlute. 

Es (Ger.) ¥})... Es'es, E^b- 

Esacor'do (It.) i. Ilexachord. — 2. The 
interval of a sixth. 

Esat'to (It.) Exact, true. 

Esecuzio'ne (It.) Execution. 

Eserci'zio (It.) Exercise ; practice. 

E space (Fr.) Space (in staff). 

Espiran'do (It.) Expiring, d^ingaway. 

Espressio'ne, con (It.) With expres- 
sion, expressively. . ..£"j;^;t'j'j'/'z'c7, ex- 



Essential harmony. See Harmony.. . 
Ess. note's, chord-notes. .. jS'j'J'. yth, {a) 
the leading-note ; {b) the dominant 
chord of the 7th. 

Estensio'ne (It.) Compass. . .Esteso,-a 
(pi. estesi,-c), e.xtended. 

Kstinguen'do (It.) E.xtinguishing, dy- 
ing away. 

Estin'to (It.) Barely audible ; the ex- 
treme o{ pianissimo. 

Estravagan'za (It.) Extravaganza. 

Btalon (Fr.) Scale 3. 

Etendue (Fr.) Compass. 

Etoff6(e) (Fr.) Having " body". . . Voix 
/lofft'e, a full, sonorous voice. 

Etouff6,-e (Fr.) Stifled, damped, muf- 
fled. . .£/ouffoir, damper (pfte.) 

Ettacor'do (It.) See Eptacordo. 

Etude (Fr.) A study ; especially, one 
affording practice in some particular 
technical difficulty. . .Etude de concert, 
an etude designed for public perform- 
ance ; a species of characteristic piece. 

Et'was (Ger.) Rather, somewhat. 

Euharmon'ic. Producing harmonies 
perfectly pure ; opp. to tempered. . . 
Euharmonic organ, one having a suf- 
ficient number of keys to produce all 
the fundamental and the chief deriva- 
tive tones. 


Eupho'ne. i. (Also Euphon.) See 
Euphonium. — 2. In the organ, a 16- 
foot free-reed stop, with a soft sweet 
tone like that of the clarinet. 

Eupho'nia (It.) Euphony. 

Eupho'niad. A kind of orchestrion. 

Eupho'nium. i. An instr. inv. by 
Chladni in 1790, consisting of gradu- 
ated glass tubes set in vibration with 
the moistened fingers, and connected 
with steel rods. (Also Eupho7i.) — 2. 
The bass Saxhorn. 

Euter'pe. One of the nine Muses, the 
inventress of the double flute, and pa- 
troness of flute-players and of primitive 
and simple melody. 

Evacua'tio (Lat.) In mensurable nota- 
tion, writing only the outlines of solid 
notes, thus reducing their value by one- 

Evakuant' (Ger.) The exhaust-valve 
or exhaust-pallet in the organ ; (Engl. 
also evacuant). 

Evening-song, Even-song. In the 

Anglican Church, a form of worship 
appointed to be said or sung at eve- 
ning ; known as Vespers in the R. C. 

Ever'sio, Evolu'tio (Lat.) The inver- 
sion of the parts in double counter- 

Evira'to (It.) See Castrate. 

Evolution (Fr.) See Renversement. 

EVOVAE. The vowels of ^ecuXoxum. 
ava.e\-\, the last two words in the Gloria 
Patri. — In Gregorian music, the trope 
closing the Lesser Doxology; in a wider 
sense, any trope. 

Exercise. (Ger. U'bung, O'bungsstUck; 
Fr. exercice; It. eserci'zio.) A short 
technical study, often consisting of but 
one repeated measure, for training the 
fingers (or vocal organs) to overcome 
some special difficulty ; also, a short 
study in composition, consisting of an 
outline (e. g. a figured bass, or a cantus 
firmus') to be filled out harmonically or 
contrapuntally by the student. 

Exhaust-pallet or -valve. A valve 
opened by a draw-stop, to let off the 
wind in the bellows after playing ; an 

Exposition, i. (Ger. ei-'ste Diirch'ftih- 
rung.) See Fugue. — 2. (Ger.,[-//f«'].) 

Expression (Fr.) i. Expression. — 2. 
The vibrato effect on bow-instr.s. 

Expression. (Ger. Aus'druck; Fr. ex- 
pression; It. espressio'ne.") The clear 
and effective presentation of the emo' 
tional and intellectual content of a 
work ; its proper reading and interpre- 
tation, rendering and txtculion ... Ex- 
pression-mark, a written direction 
(either a sign, word, or phrase) for the 
performance of a Y>'\^ct. . .Expression- 
stop, ill the harmonium, a stop which 
closes the escape-valve of the bellows, 
so that the wind-pressure, and conse- 
quently the intensity of the tone, is 
partly under the control of the pedals. 

Expressive organ. (Ger. Expressiv'- 
orgel; Fr. orgue expressif.) The har- 

Extem'pore. Without previous prepar- 
ation ; on the spur of the moment ; ofl- 

Extem'porize. (Ger. extemporie'ren!) 
To improvise . . . Ex temporizing-ma- 
chine, an apparatus for mechanicallj 



recording improvisations on the pfte. 
or organ by means of a meclianism 
placed in communication with the key- 
board. See i^Iclograph. 

Extended compass, harmony, inter- 
val. See the nouns. 

Extension (Fr.) i. On the pfte., a 
stretch ; on the violin, the extension of 
the little finger or forefinger of the left 
hand. — 2. Same as Etoidue. 

Extension-pedal. See Pedal. 

I. 2. 

Extraneous chromatic signs. Those 

not proper to the key. . .Extraneous 
modulation, one to a remote key. 

Extravagan'za. A composition of an 
extravagant, whimsical, or fantastic 
character ; a burlesque. 

Extreme, i. Of intervals, augmented. 
The chord of the extret?ie sixth has a 
major third and sharp sixth, and oc- 
curs on the 6th degree in minor in 3 
principal forms : 

or with progression to major (-£]?). — 
The first form is called the Italian 
sixth; the second, the French sixth; 
and the third, the German sixth. — 2 
(pi.) In part-music, the outer parts. — 
3. Extreme key, a remote key. 


F. (Ger. F; Fr. and It. /<?.) The fourth 
tone and degree in the typical diatonic 
scale of C-major. (Comp. Alphabeti- 
cal flotation, Solmisation.) — /^= forte; 
ff or fff {seldom ffff), fortissimo. 

Fa. I. The fourth of the Aretinian 
syllables. — 2. Name of the tone E in 
Italy, France, etc. , .Ea feint (Fr.), fa 
fic'tum (Lat.), former term for any 
flatted note.../vz mi, in solmisation, 
the descending step of a semitone; 
originally that from E to E, thereafter 
from B'q to a, Ep to E, etc. 

Fabliau (Fr.) A versified tale or ro- 
mance of the trouvh-es, in vogue chief- 
ly during the 1 2th and 13th centuries. 
. .Eablier (Proven9al), a Trouvere. 

Fa'burden. (Fr. fa^tx bourdon; It. 
fal'so bordo'ne.) I. In medieval music, 
the primitive harmonization of a c. f. 
by adding the third and the sixth above, 
and progressing in parallel motion 
throughout, only the first and last 
chords having key-note, fifth, and oc- 
tave. — 2. Later, the setting of a simple 
(note against note) counterpoint to the 
c. f., strict parallel motion being given 
up to some extent ; dissonances were 
avoided, various embellishments added, 
and the whole counterpoint frequently 

improvised. — 3. A drone-bass, a bur- 
den. — 4. The intonation of the Psalms, 

Face (Fr.) Thepositionof a chord, either 
as a fundamental chord or inversion ; 
e. g. a triad has 3 faces. 

-fach (Ger. , "-fold ".) When compounded 
with a numeral, equivalent to ranks, i.e. 
in a mixture-stop ; Z7i'ei'fach^=v!\\.h. 2 
ranks, drei'fach^w'xih. 3 ranks, etc. 

Fach'erformiges Pedal' (Ger.) A 
"fan-shaped" or radiating pedal-key- 

Faci'le (Fr.), Fa'cile (It.) Facile, easy, 
'fin&nt. . .Eaci lenient (It. facilmen'te), 
easily, fluently. . . Eacilit/ (\t. facilita'), 
ease, easiness, facility, fluency ;_/b«V/- 
te{e) also signifies tnade easy, as an easy 
arrangement of a difficult piece or 

Fack'eltanz (Ger.," torch-dance".) A 
torch-light procession arranged at some 
German courts at the marriage of a 
member of the reigning family ; the 
music is a polonaise in march-time, for 
military band, and in minuet-form. 

Facture (Fr. ; Ger. Eaklitr' ; It. fattu'- 
ra.) I. The plan, build, structure, 
construction of a composition. — 2. (Fr. 
and It.) Scale (of organ-pipes). 

-fa'dig (Ger.) Equivalent to threads (of 
violin-strings), as ^fddig, having 4 

Fad'ing. An Irish dance ; also, the 
burden of a song. 

Fagott' (Ger.) '^2iS,%oovi . . . Eagott' zug 
(or simply Eagott), a reed-stop in the 

Fagot'to (It.) Bassoon. . .Eagotti'no, a 



" small bassoon " pitched a fifth higher 
than the ordinary one (Ger. Quuii'- 
fagotl, J'eiior'j'agolt). .. Fagotti' sta, a 
bassoonist, bassoon-player. . . Fagotto' ne^ 

Fah. Yox fa, in Tonic Sol-fa. 

Faible (Fr.) Weak . . . Tk-w/j- faihlc, 
weak beat. 

Faktur' (Ger.) See Facture. 

Fa-la. See Ballet 3....VIS0, in Italy, a 
kind of arietta ending with a burden of 

Fall. I. Same as Fly. — 2. A cadence 
or close. — -3. A lowering of the voice. 

Fall (Ger.) See Ton' fall. 

Falling rhythm. A descending rhythm. 

Fal'sa (Lat. and It.; Ger. falsch.) False, 
\MTong. . .Mu'sica falsa, see Ficta... 
Quill' la falsa (Ger. fal'sche Quin'te), 
diminished fifth. 

False. (Ger. filsch ; Fr. faux, fausse ; 
It. falso,-a.) Wrong ; not true to 
pitch, out of iuxiQ. . .False cadence, 
chord, fifth, harmony, see the nouns.. . 
False relation, also inharmonic rel., 
cross-rel.. an harmonic discrepancy 
arising from the chromatic contradiction 
of a tone in one part by another part. 
In equal counterpoint it is apt to occur 
at a modulation, and consists in sound- 
ing, either simultaneously or success- 
ively, a tone and its chromatically al- 
tered octave. The former case 'is 
generally confined to passing-notes in 
figuration, and then has no ill effect ; 
the latter case occurs when a'chromatic- 
ally changed tone, which might have 
been reached in one part by the step of 
a chromatic semitone, enters in another 
octave in another part ; the effect is 
harshest in passing from a major chord 

toaparal- J. , , 

lei minor I -^ - -^ ^ *^ ' ^ I a? 
chord, orl ^ — j ^ 
vice versa: *J I 

Falset'to (It. ; Ger. Falsett' ; Fr.' voix 
defausset, fausset.) The highest of the 3 
vocal registers (chest-voice, head-voice, 
falsetto), so named from its forced or 
unnatural character ; often reckoned to 
the head-register. . . False t' list, a falset- 
to singer. 

Fal'so.-a (It.) Yal?,^. . .Falso boi-done, 
(a) see Fabttrden ; {b) the reciting-note. 

Fancy. A short piece of an impromptu 
character ; a fantasy. 

Fandango. (Span.) A lively Spanish 



dance in triple time, for 2 dancers of 
different se.x, who accompany it with 
castanets, or sometimes (in the case 
of the man) with a tambourine The 
dance alternates with vocal couplets, 
both dance and song having a guitar- 
accomp.; the following is the Castanet- 

rhythm: / J=f; | ^^^ J> 

Fanfa'ra (It.), Fanfare (Fr.) i. A 
brass-band.— 2. A fanfare. 

Fan'fare. A flourish of trumpets or 
trumpet-call, either in the orchestra, 
on a hunt, or at warlike gatherings. 

Fantasi'a (It.; Ger. Fantasie' , Phan- 
tasie' ; Fr. Jantaisie.) I. An impro- 
visation or impromptu. — 2. In the 1 7th 
and 1 8th centuries, an instrumental 
composition in free imitation, as con- 
trasting with one in strict imitation. — 
3. Later, a composition free in form 
and more or less fantastic in character. 
—4. A term loosely applied to pot- 
pourris and paraphrases. . ./■Vvi' yb//- 
tasia, that part of the first movement of 
a symphony or sonata which follows the 
double-bar (repeat of first part) and 
precedes the reintroduction of the prin- 
cipal theme ; it consists chiefly of a free 
development of motives taken from the 
first part. 

Fantasie'ren (Ger.) ?^te Fhantasieren. 
. . Fantasie' stiick, see Phantasiesiiick. 

Fanta'stico (it.), Fantastique (Fr.), 
Fantas'tisch (Ger.) Fantastic, giving 
free rein to the fancy. 

Fan'tasy. See J'aniasia. 

Farandoia, Farando'le. A circle- 
dance of southern 1- ranee and the ad- 
joining Italian provinces, in 6-S time 
and very rapid tempo. 

Farce, i. {It. fir'sa.) A one-act opera 
or operetta of ultra-comical or burlesque 
character. — 2. {It.farsia.) A canticle 
in the \-ernacular intermingled wit.i 
Latin, formerly sung at the principal 
festivals of the R. C. Ghurch, and later 
finding ludicrous imitation in the farsa 
or farce. 

Fa'scia (It.) i. A tie.-— 2 {-pi., fascie). 

Fastosamen'te (It.) Pompously, in 
a stately siyle. . .Fas to' so, pompous, 

Fatigue-call. A signal to soldieVs, call- 
ing them to fatigue-duty. 

Fattu'ra (It.) See Fafture. 

Fausse (Fr., masc. /(7«-r.) False.../: 



quinte, diinin. fifth. . ./^. relation, false 
Fausset (F"r.) vSee Falsetto. 

Faux (Fr.) False. . .Faux -ho union, see 

F-clef. (Ger. Fschliissel ; Fr. ch-f de 
fa ; It. chiave di basso.) See Clef. 

Fe'derklavier (Ger.) Spinet. 

Feeder. In the organ, see Orgayt, (i) 

Fei'erlich (Ger.) Festive ; solemn, 

grave, serious. (Also adverb^ 

Fei'Ien (fier.) To file, polish, refine, 
put the finishing touches to. 

Fein (Ger.) Fine, delicate, refined. 

Feint,-e (Fr.) See Ficta. 

Feld'fl6te,-pfeife (Ger.) i. SecBaztem- 
flote. — 2. A fife. — 3. See Schweizer- 
fiote 2. 

Feld'stiick (Ger.) A cavalry-call or 

Female or feminine rhyme. A rhyme 
ending with an unaccented syllable, as 
fate'ful — ungrate'ful. 

Fermamen'te (It.) Firmly, with de- 

Ferma're il tuono. See Mcssa di voce. 

Ferma'ta (It.), Ferma'te (Ger.) i. A 
pause, stop, or interruption, as that be- 
fore the cadenza of a concerto. — 2. A 
hold (^). — 3. A stop (on the violin). 

Fermez'za, con (It.) In a firm, de- 
cided, energetic style {deciso). 

Fer'mo (It.) Firm, decided ; fi.\ed, un- 
changed (as canto feniio). 

Fer'ne (Ger.) Distance. . . Wie a us der 
Feme, as if from a distance. 

Fern'fiote (Ger.) A covered 8' organ- 
stop of very soft tone. 

Fern'werk (Ger.) Echo-organ. 

Fero'ce (It.) Wild, fierce, vehement... 
Ferocita' , wildness, vehemence. .. C"t?« 
ferocita, wildly, vehemently. 

Fer'tig (Ger.) Ready; done, finished ; 
prompt, skilful, 6.e\lQT0\i?,...Fer'tigkeit, 
readiness, skill, dexterity ; technical 

Ferven'te (It.) Fervent, ardent, pas- 

Fes (Ger.) FI7 . . .Fes'es, F^b- 
Fast (Ger.) I. A festival. . . Musik'fest, 
mus. festival.— 2. Firm, steady, (Also 

Festivamen'te (It.) In a gay, festive 
manner. . ./>j-//t7V<?', festivity, mirth: 
con f., in a gay and festive style. . .Fes- 
ti'vo {Gqt. fesl'lich), festive, festal (also 

Feu'er (Ger.) Fire, ardor, passion... 
Feu'erig, fiery ; with fire, ardently, pas- 

F-hoIes. (Ger. F' -locker ; Fr. les F.) 
The 2 /"-shaped soundholes cut in the 
belly of the violin, etc. 

Fiac'co (It.) Languishing. 

Fia'sco (It.) P'ailure. 

Fia'to (It.) Breath, breeze, wind... 
Struinen'to daf, wind-instr. 

Fic'ta,-um (Lat., " feigned".) Fa f.c'- 
tum, see Fa. . .Mu'sicafcta, see Mu- 
sica, in Appendix. 

Fiddle. (Ger. Fi'del, Fie'del.) See Vio- 
lin. . .Fiddle-how, fiddlestick, see Bow. 

Fi'des ( I. The string of a mus. 
instr. — -2. A lute, lyre, cithara. 

Fi'dicen (Lat. ; iem. fidici)ui.) A player 
on a stringed instr. 

Fidic'ula (Lat.) Dimin, of Fides. 

Fidu'cia (It.) Confidence, boldness. 

Fie'del (Ger.) TidtMe. . .Strok'fedel, 

Fier, Fiere (Fr.) Proud, haughty. 

Fie'ro,-a (It.) Wild, fierce ; bold, vig- 
orous. . .Fieramen'te, wildly, boldly. . . 
Fierez'za, fierceness, boldness, vigor. 

Fife. (Ger. Quer'pfeife ; Fr. ffre ; It. 
piffe'o.) I. An octave 
cross-flute with 6 holes and 
without keys (thus differ- 
ing from the Ficeolo) ; 

compass about — > %) 

used chiefly as a march-accomp. with 
the drum. — 2. An organ-stop of 2-foot 
pitch ; a piccolo-stop. 

Fifteenth. I. (Ger. Quint' dezi me; Tr. 
quinzieme ; It. iptindice'sima.) A 
double octave.— 2. An organ-stop of 2- 
foot pitch. 

Fifth. (Ger. Quin'te ; Fr. quinte ; It. 
quin'ia.) An interval of 5 diatonic de- 
grees (see Intey-<al) ; also, the 5th de- 
gree in the diatonic scale, the dominant. 
..The typical or standard interval of 
this name is ihe perfect (or major) fifth, 
equal to the interval between the key- 
note and the fifth tone of 1,^: -=? - 

diatonic scale ; e. g. 1 ^^ — '^-— 
{c-g), the vibrational ratio being r:j^::2:3. 
. .Diminished (imperfect , defective. 



minor, or false) fifth, an interval nar- 
rower by a semitone than a perfect fifth. 
. .Augmented {pi iipt'r feet, superfiiioiis, 
or extreme) fifth, one wider by a chro- 
matic semitone than a perfect fifth. . . 
Consecutive {or parallel) fifths , see Con- 
secutive. . . Covered (concealcdox hidden) 
fifths, see Octave. . . Circle of fifths, 
see Temperament. 

Fifthy. Having the second harmonic 
(fifth above the octave of the generator) 
specially prominent. 

Figur' (Ger.) See Figure 2. 

Figu'ra mu'ta (Lat. and It.) A rest. 

Figu'ra obli'qua (Lat.) The "oblique 
figure" of Plain chant and mensurable 
music was a simple ligature formed by 
uniting 2 notes ; {a) in Plain chant, it 
was written in 2 ways : 

I. 2. 

~^ s |-f ^ >— s""g ^ 

{b) in mensurable notation thus ; 

al 1 
i^l~ cases the 
ends of the figure marked the seats of 
the 2 notes. In the midst of a ligature 
it possessed no special signiiicance ; but 
at the termination it denoted the imper- 
fection of the final note. 

Flg'ural. See Figtiraie. . .Figural'ge- 
sangiGcr.), cantus figuralis. ..Figural'- 
musik, unequal or figurate counterpoint. 

Figurate. (Ger. figuriert' ; Fr. figure; 
It. figura'to.) Having, or consisting 
of, figurations. (Also Figurative.) 

Figuration, i. In counterpoint, the 
introduction of comparatively rapid fig- 
ures or phrases, containing passing and 
changing-notes, into the counterpoint. 
— 2. The variation of a theme by accom- 
panying it with florid runs and pas- 
sages, or by substituting for its own 
melody-notes more or less florid varia- 
tions. — 3. The writing-out of a figured 

Figure. I. (Ger. Figur'; Yx. figure. 
It. figur a!) A distinct group of notes, 
a motive. — 2. (Ger. Ziffcr; Fr. chiffre; 
It. ci'fra.) A numeral, as used in 

Figured. 1. (Ger. bezif'fert; Yx. chif- 
fre{e); It. cifra'to.) Provided with fig- 
ures, as a bass (see Thorough-bass). — 
2. Figurate. 

Fil (Fr.) Thread (of a violin-string). 

Filar' il tuo'no, la voce (It.) In the 
Italian method of singing, to produce 
an even, sustained tone, without cre- 
scendo or diminuendo. (Also afiFilar' 
il tuono; Fr. filer un son, la voix.) 

Fil'pen (Ger.) See Fistulieren. 

Fi'lum (Lat.) Stem (of a note). 

Fin (Fr.) End, close. 

Final. In Gregorian music, that tone 
(in any mode) on which the melody 
must end (equiv. to key-note or tonic); 
in the authentic modes it was the low- 
est tone ; in the plagal modes, the 4tb 
tone from below. Irregular final tones 
were called confinals . . . Final close, 
closing cadence. 

Fina'le (It.) i. A final. — 2. The con- 
cluding movement of a sonata, sym- 
phony, etc. , or the closing number of 
an act in an opera. An operatic finale 
is generally an ensemble for soloists 
and chorus, and intended to have a 
highly dramatic or otherwise striking 

Fina'lis (Lat.) See Acccntus. 

Fi'ne (It.) End, close ; indicates either 
the end of a repeated section (after the 
da capo or dal segno), or the end of a 
piece in several divisions. 

Fing'er (Ger.) Finger. . .Fing^erbildner, 
("finger-developer"), see Dactylion. 
An apparatus of this name was also in- 
vented by Seeber, and consists of a 
separate attachment for each finger, 
whereby the bad habit of bending the 
last joint inwards is corrected. . .Fing'- 
erfcrtigkeit, " finger-de.xterity", agility 
and readiness of the fingers. . .Fing'er- 
L'iter, see Chiroplast. . .Fing' ersatz, 
Fing'ersetzung, fingering; eng'er F., 
close fingering ; gedehn'ter F., spread 
fingering, stretches. . .Fing'erwechscl, 
change of fingers. 

Fingerboard, i. (Ger. Griff'hretl; Fr. 
touche, inauche: It. tastie'ra.) In the 
violin, guitar, etc., the thin, narrow 
strip of wood glued upon the neck, 
above which the strings are stretched, 
and on which they are stopped with the 
fingers of the left hand. — 2. See Key- 

Finger-cymbals. Very small cymbals, 
held in pairs on the thumb and fore- 
finger of both \iz.x\.i\%. . .Finger-hole 
(Ger. Ton'loch), in the flute, clarinet, 
etc., a hole in the tube, to be closed by 



a finger or by a lever operated by a 
finger, thus changing the pitch. 
Fingering. (Ger. Fing'ersatz, Appli- 
katitr' ; Fr. doigter; It. ditteggiatii'ra.) 
I. The method of applying the fingers 
to the keys, holes, strings, etc., of mus. 
instr.s. — 2. The marks guiding the 
performer in placing his fingers. . . Eng- 
lish {or American f) fingering (for the 
pfte.), that in which notes taken by the 
thumb are marked x (or +) with I 2 

3 4 for the fingers ; German (or conti- 
nental) fingering, that in which the 
thumb is marked i, and the fingers 2 3 

4 5. (An earlier German system re- 
sembled the English, merely using a o 
instead of the x for the thumb.) 

Fini're il tuono. See Messa di voce. 

Fini'to (It.) Finished. 

Fi'no (It.) Till, up to, as far as. 

Fin'to,-a (It.) Feigned. . . Caden'za fin- 
ta, deceptive ca.dQnce.. .J'a fin to, see 
/•'a feint. 

Fiochet'to (It.) Somewhat hoarse ; 
faint, y€\\&d.-.Fiochez'za, hoarseness. 
. .Fio'co,-a, hoarse, faint, veiled. 

Fioreggia're (It.) To figurate. 

Fioret'to (It.) Any melodic embellish- 

Fiori'to (It.) Florid, embellished. . . 
Fiorittc'ra, an embellishment, an orna- 
mental turn, flourish, or phrase intro- 
duced into a melody (commonly used 
in pi., fioriture). 

First. I. Of voices or instr.s of the 
same class, the highest ; e. g. first so- 
prano, first violin. — 2. In the staff, the 
lowest ; as first line, first space. — 3. 
IhG first string of an instr. is the high- 
est. — 4. As the name of an interval, 
the prime or unison. 

Fis (Ger.) F^. . .Fis'it, F x . 

Fis'telstimme (Ger.) Falsetto. (Also 

Fis'tula (Lat.) Pipe. 

Fistulie'ren (Ger.) i. To sing falsetto. 
— 2. Of an organ-pipe, to overblow in 
such wise as to sound (unintentionally) 
some harmonic tone instead of the 

Fixed Do. The fixed-Do system of 
solmisation is that in which the tone C, 
and all its chromatic derivatives (CJ, 
t'x , and C\), C^-y) are called Do, D 
and its derivatives AV, etc. , in whatever 
key or harmony they may appear ; the 

syllables are then termed fixed syllables. 
, .Fixed- tone instr., (or instr. of fixed 
intonation), one (like the pfte. or or- 
gan) the pitch of whose tones cannot 
be modified at the player's pleasure 
like, for e.xample, the tones of the 
Flag. I. Ahook(^^). — 2. Abbr. for 
fiageolet (-tones). 

Flageolet, i. (Ger. Flageolett' ; Fr. 
flageolet; It. fiagiolet'ta.) A modern- 
ized y/zJ/t" a bee, a small wind-instr. of 
the whistle family. There are 2 species 
still in use, the English and the French ; 
the latter is the more complicated, hav- 
ing 4 holes above and 2 below, various 
au.xiliary keys, g.,^ It is not 

and a compass b^ used in the 

of 2 octavesp ^ \f^ — orchestra. .. 

and 3 semi- K^ ) ^ D u b I e 

tones, J,!-' to^'7 : •-' fiageolet, &n 

instr. inv. by Bainbridge about 1800, 
consisting of 2 flageolets of different 
size placed side by side and having a 
common mouthpiece ; simple duets 
could be played on it, but it is no longer 
in use. . . Flageolet-tones, see Harmonic 
2. — 2. A small flute-stop in the organ, 
of I or 2-foot pitch. 

Flageolett' (Ger.) i. Flageolet. — 2. 
General term for the harmonics (Flageo- 
let'tone) produced on the violin, etc. 

Flaschinef (Ger.) Obs. spelling of 


Flat. (Ger. Be; Fr. be'mol ; It. bemol'le.) 
The character f? , which lowers the pitch 
of a note before which it is set by a semi- 
tone, and, when set in the signature, 
has a like effect on notes occurring on 
its line or space (and every octave of 
such line or space) unless cancelled. — 
Some earlier composers used the 'rf in- 
stead of a ; whenever a note was to be 
lowered by a semitone. — The double 
fiat pi7 lowers a note by 2 chromatic 
semitones ; for it the great fiat j? was 
sometimes written. . . Flat fifth, a dimin- 
ished fifth.. .Flat tioting, a method of 
tuning the lute (also called French fiat 
tuning, by reason of the comparative 
lowness of the earlier French pitch). 

Flatter la corde (Fr.) " To caress the 
string," i. e. to play (on bow-instr.s) 
with graceful and tender expression. 

Flautan'do, Flauta'to (It.) A direc- 
tion in music for the violin, etc. , to play 
near the fingerboard, and thus to pro- 



ducea somewhat flute-like tone. . .Also, 
occasional for flageolet. 

Fla'uto (It.) Flute ../"/. a becco, flute 
i bee . . y-7. pic'io/o, see Piccolo. . . Fl. 
traver'so, cross or transverse flute. . . 
Flaiito also frequently occurs as a name 
for organ-stops, e. g. flauto ama'bile, 
flauto dol'ce, cic. . .Flattti'tio, a small 
flute.. .Flauti'sta, a flute-player, flutist. 
. .Flauto' lie, a large or bass flute. 

Fle'bile (It.) Tearful ; plaintive, mourn- 

Flessi'bile (It) Fle.\ible. 

Flick'oper ((ler ) See Pasticcio. 

Fling. A spirited Scotch dance, resem- 
bling the Reel, and in quadruple time. 

F'-16cher (Ger.) y-hules. 

Florid, Embellished with figures, runs, 
passages, etc. 

Flo'te (Cler.) V\\i\.e. .. Flo' ten bass, h&ss 
flute. . . Flii' tcnstivtme, a flute-stop (or- 
gan).. . Flo'teiiwerk, a small organ hav- 
ing only flue-pipes (opp. to Schnarr- 
werk, Zungenwerk, Kohriverk, and 

Fliich'tig (Ger.) Lightly, nimbly, airily ; 
fugitively, hastily, superficially. (Also 

Flue-pipe. (Ger. Labial' pfeife ; Fr. 
tuyau a bouche ; It. can'na d' a'niina.) 
See PiJ'e ; also Stop 2. 

Flii'gel (Ger., "wing".) i. Formerly, 
a wing-shaped clavier (clavichord) ; 
now, a grand ■^{\.Q....Flu'gelharfe, see 
Spitzharfe.. .Flii'gelhorn, bugle, key- 
bugle. — 2. See Bart. 

Flute. (Ger. Flo'te; Yr. fliite ; It. 
Jla'ttto.) I. The orchestral flute (also 
called German flute, cross flute, and D- 
flitte, from its origin, the position in 
which it is held, and its — former— low- 
est tone respectively), in its present 
form as improved by Boehm, has a 
wooden tube of cylindrical bore, pro- 
vided with 14 ventages closed by keys, 
and caused to sound by a current of air 
projected from the player's mouth 
against the feather-edge of an oval 
orifice near the upper end of the 
tube ; the air-column within the tube 
is set in vibration in the same way 
as that within a g,,^^ 

flue-pipe in the or- ^ (!•:) 

gan. Compassfrompzj fi A I - 

<-' to (•• (rare ex-F (^ 1 | / 

tremes h and c'^'i,) : tJ (»■) ■*■ 

the first octave is obtained by moderate 


in C 

in £>[> 
in ii^ 

wind-pressure, the second and third by 
augmenting and forcing it, thus causing 
the tone to change (by overblowing) to 
the higher octave. It is a non-trans- 
posing instr., and its music is therefore 
written at the pitch at which it is to be 
played. Together with the octave-flute 
or piccolo it forms an incomplete family, 
made in 6 sizes : 

Piccolo -< in D)^ 
{ in E'y 

the typical member of which is the C- 
flute. Its powerful and mellow tone 
(more reedy than that of the old flute), 
and extraordinary flexibility and agility, 
render it the leader of the wood-wind. 
— '\^\\& piccolos in Dty and E^ are chiefly 
used in military music. — In the 15th and 
i6th centuries complete families of flutes 
were constructed, embracing bass, alto, 
and treble instr.s. — 2. Direct Flute, 
the flageolet and fliite H bee, having a 
moutJipiece at the eitd. 

Flute (Fr.) Flute. ../"/. h bee, a direct 
flute. ../•/. allemande, a German flute. 
. .Fl. a pavilion, an 8-foot organ-stop. 
. .Fl. d' amour, (a) a flute in B\)\ (b) a 
soft-toned organ -stop. . ./'Z. d'Angle- 
terre, flageolet. . . /'/. douce, flauto dolce. 
. .F'.. du Poitou, bagpipe (cornemuse). 
..Fl. hannonique, fl. octaviante, see 
Harmonic stop. . .Fl. traversiere, trans- 
verse flute. 

Flute-'work. In the organ, the flute- 
liwrk includes all flue-stops not belong- 
ing to the pri>icipal--ivork and gedact- 
work, as well as various modifications 
of these two groups. 

Fly. The hinged board or flap used as 
a cover for the keyboard of the pfte. 
and organ. 

Fo'co (It.) See Fuoco. 

Fogliet'to (It.) In orchestral music, the 
part for the leader ; it contains cues for, 
or the obbligato passages of, the other 
instr.s, and can therefore be used by the 
conductor in lieu of a score. 

Foire des enfants (Fr.) See Toy Sym- 

Fois (Fr.) Time ; premih-e fois, first 
time ; seconde fois, second time. 

Foli'a (Span. ; It.folli'a; usually in the 
plural, as Fr. " J'olies d'Espagne" ) A 
Spanish dance for one person, in slow 
tempo and 3-4 time. 

Folk-song. (Ger. Volkslicd) A song 
of the people, tinged by the musical 



peculiarities of the nation, and generally 
of a simple, unaffected character, and 
in ballad-form. — Also, a song imitative 
of the above. 

Fondamental,-e (Fr.), Fondamenta'le 
(It.) Fundamental. . . Son foudanienlal, 
generator. — Basse fondamentale, see 

Fondamen'to (It.) Fundament, funda- 
mental part. 

Fonds d'orgue (Fr.) The foundation- 
stops of the organ. 

Foot. I. (Ger. Fuss; Yx. pied ; It. 
pie'de.) In prosody, a group of syl- 
lables, one of which is rendered special- 
ly prominent by an ictus (accent) ; it 
corresponds to the meastire in music. 
— 2. (Gtr. Stiefel.) That part of an or- 
gan-pipe below the mouth. — 3. (Obs.) A 
drone-bass; a refrain or burden. — 4. The 
unit hi measure in designating the pitch 
of organ-stops, and (by extension) that 
of other instr.s, and of the several oc- 
taves of the musical scale ; thus an 8- 
foot (8') stop is one whose longest 
pipe pro- p ^y). — and is about 8 feet 
duces the P ^ — in length, i. e. a 

tone C : :S" stop whose pipes 

produce tones corresponding in pitch to 
the l<eys depressed ; a 4-foot (4') stop is 
an octave-stop ; a 16-foot (16') stop 
yields tones an octave below those 
indicated by the keys p a;^ 
touched. The 8 foot octave F^^ 
embraces the 7 tones from C '^- 

upwards (comp. Pitch, %\ ); the flute 
is an 8-foot instr. (because the pitch 
of its tones is the same as that indi- 

cated by the notes), while the piccolo 
is a 4-foot (or octave) instr. — The 
derivation of the term is as follows : The 
velocity of sound-waves is estimated 
at 1056 feet per second ; by dividing this 
velocity by the vibration-number of the 
given tone, we obtain the length of 
one sound-wave of that tone ; for in- 
stance, the tone Ci having 33 vibrations 
per second, 1056-5-33 = 32 feet, the 
length of one sound-wave, and likewise 
the length of an open flue-pipe capable 
of producing the tone C2 (CCC). 

Foot-key. Pedal-key (of an organ). 

Foreign chords or tones are such as 
do not belong to a given key. 

Forla'na (It.), Forlane (Fr.) A lively 
Italian dance in 6-8 or 6-4 time. 

Form. Form in music is that element, 
or combination of elements, which, by 
securing a proper ba/aiue between con- 
trasting parts, produces y?;//j/; of effect, 
or Unity. What are called the musical 
forms depend, in varying degree, for 
their distinctive features, (i) on rhyth- 
mical and metrical grouping ; (2) on the- 
matic construction ; (3) on melodic and 
harmonic contrast ; (4) on contrasting 
tempi ; and (5) on contrasting moods. 
Points I and 2 cover the ground of (I) 
mechanical syuiinetiy ; the contrasts of 
melody, harmony, tempo, and mood 
postulate a more highly developed sense 
for (II) (esthetic symmetry. 

I. (i.) The element of metrical 
grouping is eminently characteristic of 
ordinary dance-airs and simple songs ; 
the following example exhibits its sim- 
plest form : 






= :& 





Analysis of this Sentence {compound 
period, here a period of 16 measures), 
which contains a musical thought com- 
plete in itself, shows it to be composed 
of 2 simple 8-measure Periods, each 
period being formed by 2 Phrases, each 

of which embraces 2 Sectionsiovmtd, in 
turn, of 2 Measures each. [The term 
motive for measure is to be rejected as 
misleading and unnecessarily confusing, 
except in the qualified shape of measure- 
motive^ The punctuation of such a 



musical sentence presents a striking 
analogy to that of the graminatical 
sentence from which its terminologyis in 
part borrowed : Phrase i = subject and 
predicate \_comma\ Phrase 2 =: limiting 
clause [^seinicoloii]. Phrase 3, further 
modification [comwa], Phrase 4, second 
limiting clause and conclusion of sen- 
tence [j>en'o(/}. The exact symmetrical 
balance here observable, of 2 + 2, 4+4, 
and 8 + 8, though of very common oc- 
currence, is not the general rule, and 
would engender wearisome monotony 
(especially in extended compositions) if 
regularly adhered to ; the variety of 
changes caused by triple time, com- 
pound measures, the opposition of un- 
equal phrases, the expansion or con- 
traction of periods, etc., etc., is prac- 
tically limitless. But in all the musical 
forms in which metrical symmetry is 
observed, the simple period is, in one 
shape or another, the fonn-elcinent or 
gerni-ctll, so to speak, on which their 
construction is founded. 

I. (2.) A theme or melody simply 
repeated, (formula A -h A, or |: A :|), 
presents no distinctive departure from 
the simplest form ; repeated in alterna- 
tion with another |: A + B :| it ex- 

I. Exposition : 

ist Episode : 
II. First Development: " " 5th 

2d Episode : " " zd 

III. Second Develnpment : " " ist 

Stretto : Theme brought out on the 4th 
— Coda. 

hibits the peculiar feature of the song 
with refrain ; once repeated, after any 
digression (interlude, or second theme), 
it produces the so-called Song-form 
{Liedform, A-fB+A), or that' of the 
Minuet with Alternativo. With 2 dis- 
tinct themes alternating as follows : 
(|: A + B :| -t- B [A] -t- A + B [in 
the original key of A]), it has the 
Sonata-form, or Fir st-)novement Form; 
while the Rondo-form has the following 
alternations : ( A + B -f- B [A] -f A + B 
[B2 in same key as A ; development- 
section in the middle]); or : (A -I- B 4- A 
[in same key as B] + B [same key 
as A] + A). It must be added, how- 
ever, that the Song-form, Sonata-form, 
and Rondo-form, as carried out in 
practice, present frequent deviations 
from the above formulas. — A theme re- 
peated or imitated while still progress- 
ing, produces the form of the Canon, 
Catch, or Round ; one or more themes 
repeated in conjunction or alternation 
with an accompanying or contrasting 
counterpoint, according to a more or 
less regular formula, the Fngue. The 
following is a fairly exhaustive formula 
for the construction of a simple 2 part 
fugue : 

Theme on 1st deg. (tonic) Answer on 5th (dominant) 

" " 6th " (in augment.) " " 3d (in diminut.) 

II. (i.) Theelementof harmonic con- 
trast is derived in part from contrasting 
themes, in part from the deliberate 
choice of keys directly or remotely re- 
lated to that of the leading theme ; in 
part, also, from the harmonies accom- 
panying or varying the theme or themes. 
Dependence on the harmonic variation 
of repetitions of a single theme, to- 
gether with the lighi and shade of vary- 
ing tempi, is an important principle of 
the Theme with Variations. 

II. (2.) In cj'clic compositions (the 
Cyclical Forms'), contrasting tempi (S = 
slow, F = fast) in the successive 
movements are a prominent feature. 
The old Suite originally had the for- 
mula (S -+- F -+- S + F) ; later a fifth 
movement, either slow or fast, was in- 
serted after (seldom before) the 2nd slow 
one. The Sonata and Symphony are 
essentially alike in plan ; either (F -t- 
S -|- F), or more commonly (F + S 4- F 
+ F), or (S -f F +■ S + F) or (F + F 

(inverted) " " 7th (inverted) 

" (with modulation to the subdominant) 

H- S -f- F) ; or, in 5 movements, (F -f S 
-f F -j- S + F) ; etc. ; a slow closing 
7iio7iement rarely occurs. 

II. (3.) The foregoing formal schemes 
are a product of the slow evolution of 
centuries. First, the primitive dance- 
song develops into lyric and epic song — 
love-ditties, ballads, — and into instru- 
mental dance-tunes differently named 
according to their character or origin ; 
while a parallel progress is seeii in the 
rise of church-music from the severe 
Gregorian Chant to the stupendous 
contrapuntal works of the late middle 
ages and the chaste style of Palestrina. 
Instrumental art-music now borrows 
and develops its forms from the vocal 
style ; the forms of imitative music (can- 
on and fugue) gradually near perfection, 
finally attained by J. S. Bach ; through 
the adoption by artists of the rhythmic 
melody and monodic style of the hitherto 
despised natural music (folk-music), 
and the recognition of its harmonic 



basis, the two currents of art-music and 
folk-music are slowly merged in one 
broad stream ; the popular dance-tunes 
are transformed into art-forms, and 
combined in the Suite ; the rondo- 
form and the first-movement (sonata-) 
form are evolved step by step, and their 
combination produces the Sonata and 
Symphony; which latter, discarding the 
scheme of 4 formal movements, and 
aspiring to the uninterrupted flow and 
sweep of an epico-lyrical drama without 
words, becomes the Symphonic Poem. 
[Compare also Passion, Oratorio, Op- 
era, Overture^ 

Forma're il tuono. See Messa di voce. 

Fort (Ger.) Off; as Flote fort (organ- 

Fort (Fr.) i. Forte. — 2. Skilful, emi- 
ntKCr:TTempsfort, strong beat. . .Four- 
nitur/^ J tuyaiix forte , a mixture-stop of 
3 ranks. 

Fortbien. A keyboard stringed instr. 
inv. by Friederici in 175S, having a 
softer tone and lighter touch than the 
fortepiano then in vogue. 

For'te (It.) I {adjective). Loud, strong 
(abbr. /) ; piii forte {pf), louder ; po- 
co forte (also //), rather loud ; forte 
piano ifp), accent strongly, diminish- 
ing instantly to piano ; forteinen'te, 
loudly, forcibly ; forte possi' bile, as loud 
as possible. — 2 {noun), {a) A passage 
to be executed loudly or forcibly ; (/') 
in the harmonium, a slide within the 
chest containing one or more sets of 
reeds, opened by a stop or knee-lever to 
produce a forte effect ; sometimes di- 
vided, one section affecting the treble 
side and the other the bass side. 

Fortepia'no (It.) Same as Pianoforte. 

Fortis'simo (It., superl. oi forte.) Very 
loud, or extremely loud or forcible 
(abbr. ff, or fffior the extreme) ; also 
forte possi' bile {ffff). 

Fort'riicken (Ger., noun.) The ad- 
vance of the hand on a keyboard or fin- 
gerboard, as caused by the repetition of 
a figure with the same fingering but at 
a different pitch. 

Fort'schreiten (Ger.) To progress. . . 
Fort'schreitung, progression ; Fort'- 
schreitung einer Dissonanz' , resolution. 
?For'za (It.) Force, vigor ; con f., for- 
cibly, etc. 

Forzan'do (It., "forcing, straining".) 
With force, energy ; indicates that a 
note or chord is to be strongly accent- 

ed ; abbr. /z.. .Also Forza'to, Sfor- 
zan'do {sfz). 

Forzar'la vo'ce(It.) To force the voice. 

Foundation-stops. See Stop. 

Fourchette tonique (Fr.) Tuning-fork. 

Fourniture (Fr. ) A mixture-stop. 

Four-part. (Ger. vier' stimmig ; Fr. h. 
qtiatrevoix ; \t. a tjtiat'lro vo'ci.) Set 
for, or performed by, 4 parts in har- 

Fourth. (Ger. Quar'te ; Fr. quarte ; It. 
quar'ta.) I. The fourth degree in the dia- 
tonic scale ; the subdominant. — 2. An 
interval embracing 4 degrees (see Jn- 
tervac). The typical or standard fourth 
xsihe perfect (or inajor) fourth, equal 
to the interval between the key-note and 

the 4th tone of its vibrational 

the diatonic " @.' ^=^ ratio being 
scale, as c-f : c -.f •.■.2:^.. . 

Dimifiisked {imperfect, defective, mi- 
nor, or false) fourth, an interval nar- 
rower by a chromatic semitone than a 
perfect (ourih. . .Augmented {pluper- 
fect, superfluous, or ex tre>m)f our th,onQ 
wider by a chromatic semitone than a 
perfect fourth. 

Frangaise (Fr.) A dance in triple time, 
resembling the country-dance. 

Francamen'te (It.) Freely, with free- 
dom (of deliver}'), boldly ; frankly, in- 

Franchez'za (It.), Franchise (Fr.) 
Freedom, confidence, boldness. . . Con 
fr., see Francamente. 

Franz'ton (Ger.) " French pitch " ; it is 
lower than the ordinary Kammerton. 

Frapp6 (Fr., "beaten".) The down- 
beat ; opp. to LevL 

Fra'se (It.) Phrase ; frase larga = 

largamente. . .Fraseggia're, to phrase. 

Fred'do,-a (It.) Qo\A. . .Freddamen'te, 

Fredon (Fr.) An obsolete term for a 
roulade, trill, or tremolo ; also, a sign 
calling for a florid extension of a single 
written note. . .Fredonnement, trilling, 
warbHng ; hvLmmmg. . .Fredonner, to 
trill, warble ; to hum, sing to oneself. 
Free chant. A form of recitative music 
for the Psalms and Canticles, in which 
a phrase, consisting of 2 chords only, is 
applied to each hemistich of the words. 
[Stainerand Barrett.]. .Free fugue, 
see Fugue. . .Free part, an independent 
part added to a canon or fugue to com- 
plete or enrich the harmony . . . Free 



reed, see Reed. . . Free style (of compo- 
sition), that in which the rules of strict 
counterpoint are relaxed. 

Fregiatu'ra (It.) A grace, an ornament. 

Frei (Oer.) Yt&q.. .Fiei'heit, a license 
or liberty. 

French Horn, Sixth, Violin-clef. See 
the nouns. 

Fret. (Ger. [equiv.] Bund ; Fr. touche ; 
It. ia'sto.) One of the narrow ridges of 
wood, metal, or ivory crossing the fin- 
gerboard of the mandolin, guitar, zither, 
etc., against which the strings are 
pressed by the fingers to shorten their 
vibrating length and thus raise the tone. 

Fretel, Fret^le (Fr.) A sylvan pipe ; 
the Pan's-pipe with 7 reeds. Some- 
times called sifflet des chaudroiiiiiers. 
(Also fretetel,freteau,fretia2i, frestel.) 

Fret'ta, con (It.) With haste, celerity ; 

Fricassee (Fr.) i. A sort of popular 
dance interspersed with pantomime, in 
vogue in the iSth century in the (ke'd- 
ties des boulevards at Paris. — 2. A kind 
of part-song of the i6th century, each 
part having different words. 

Fries (Ger.) Purfling. 

Frisch (Ger.) Brisk, lively, vigorous 
(also adi'erl'). 

Froh'Iich (Ger.) Glad, joyous, gay, 
(also adz^erb). 

Front'pfeife (Ger.) See Prospekt. 

Frosch (Ger.) Nut (of a bow). 

Frot'tola (It., " comic ditty ".) A pop- 
ular ballad or song intermediate between 
the villanella and the madrigal ; in 
great vogue during tha i6th century. 

F'-Schlussel (Ger.) F-clef. 

Fu'ga (Lat. and It.) A fugue.. .F. ad 
oeta'vam \_quiii' tai)i\ (Lat.), fugue at 
the octave [fifth]... /^. aqua' lis nio'tus 
(Lat.), fugue in similar motion, the 
answer ascending and descending like 
the subject. . ./'. al contra' rio \iever'so, 
7-ove'scio] (It.), see F. contraria. . .F. 
authen'tica (Lat.), fugue with a subject 
ascending above the key-note. . . F. ca- 
no'nica \tota'Hs'\ (Lat.), a canon.../'. 
compo'sita (Lat.), a fugue whose subject 
progresses by conjunct degrees.../^. 
contra'ria (Lat.), a fugue having the 
answer in contrary motion to the sub- 
ject.../', del tuo'no (It.), tonal fugue. 
..F. dop'pia (It.), double fugue. ../\ 
homopho'iui (Lat.), fugue with answer 

at the unison.../', impro'pria (Lat.), 
see F. irregula'ris. . .F. ineequa'lis 
(Lat), see /". contraria. . .F. inco7npo'- 
siia (Lat.), a fugue whose subject pro- 
gresses by disjunct degrees.../", in 
conseguen'za (It. ), a canon . . . F, in con- 
tra'rio lew'pore{Lat.), see F. per ar'sin 
et the' sin . . . Fuga in no' mine, a ' ' fugue 
in name," i. e. a nominal or free fugue. 
../'. inver'sa (Lat.), a fugue worked 
throughout in double reversible coun- 
terpoint, so that the inversions of the 
parts may appear in contrary motion. 
. ./". irregula'ris (hat.), a fugue irregu- 
lar in form. . . F. li'bera (Lat. and It.), 
a fugue with free episodes. . .F. liga'ta 
(Lat. and It), a fugue without free 
episodes, strictly developed from its 
subject andcountersubject. . .F. mix'ta 
(Lat.), a fugue varied in development 
by employing different contrapuntal de- 
vices (augmentation, diminution, inver- 
sion, etc.). . ./'. ohbliga'ia (It.), see F. 
ligata. . .F. parti a' lis (Lat.), a fugue 
proper, in contradistinction to a canon. 
. .F.per auginentatio' nein \iliinitiutio'- 
fte/nl (Lat.), a fugue in v.hich the answer 
is in augmentation [diminution] either 
throughout, or as a rule. . . F. per the' sin 
et ar'sin (Lat.), a fugue whose subject 
begins on the strong beat, and the 
answer on the weak beat, thus shifting 
the accents throughout. ../'. /t'r imi- 
tatio'nem interrup' tain (Lat.), a fugue 
in which the answer is interrupted by 
breaks or rests . . F. per mo' turn con- 
ira'riuiii (Lat.), see F. contraria. ..F. 
perio'dica (Lat.), see F. partialis . . .F. 
perpe'tua (Lat.), a canon. . .F.plaga'lis 
(Lat.), a fugue with subject descending 
below the key-note. . . F. pro'pria (Lat.), 
see /". regularis . ../'. rea'le (It.), a real 
fugue. ..F. rec'ta (Lat.), see F. cequalis 
mollis. . .F. redi'ta or reddita (It.), a 
fugue at the middle or end of which 
all or some of the parts progress in 
canon . . . F. regula'ris (Lat.), a fugue 
in regular form.. .F. retrogra'da (Lat.), 
a fugue having the answer in retrograde 
progression ; or /". retrogra'da per tno'- 
tum contra' riuni, when the answer is in 
retrograde progression and contrary 
motion. . .F. ricerca'ta (It.), a fugue in 
whose working-out the rarer and more 
elaborate contrapuntal devices are 
" sought out " for display ; a long and 
elaborate master-fugue.../', sciol'ta 
(It.), or solu'ta (Lat.), see F. li'bera. . . 
F. iota'lis (Lat.), a canon. 
Fuga'ra. (Ger. Foga'ra, Foga'ra.) .\n 



organ -stop having metal flue-pipes gen- 
erally of small scale and 8 or 4-foot 
pitch ; tone of a sharp, " stringy " 

Fuga'to (It., "in fugue stj'le ".) A pas- 
sage or movement consisting of fugal 
imitations, but not worked out as a 
regular fugue. 

Fu'ge (Ger.) Fugue. 

Fuggi're la caden'za (It.) To avoid 
the cadence (by interrupting it). 

Fughet'ta (It., dimin. of Fuga.) A short 
fugue, usually only a fugue-exposition. 

Fugue, (Ger. Fu'ge ; Fr. fugue ; It. 
fu'ga.) The most highly developed 
form of contrapuntal imitation, based 
on the principle of the equality of the 
parts, a theme proposed by one part 
being taken up successively by all par- 
ticipating parts, thus bringing each in 
turn into special prominence. The 
word fugue is presumably derived from 
the Latin fugn, a flight, which aptly 
characterizes the chasing and changing 
of the subject through the several parts. 
The elements essential to every fugue 
are(i) Subject, {2) Ansiver, (3) Coujite)-- 
subject, (4) Stretto; to these are common- 
ly added (5) Episode, (6) Organ-point, 
(7) C«/rty the(8) CWt/Arismerelyafortu- 
itous appendage to the actual subject, 
bridging over the interval sometimes 
left between the true end of the latter 
and the entrance of the Ans-cce?: — The 
subject is usually short and suggestive ; 
after its proposition by the part taking 
the lead, it is taken up by the part next 
following as the answer, and at a differ- 
ent interval (usually a fifth higher or a 
fourth lower than the original one), 
being then accompanied by a contrast- 

ing counterpoint, the counter subject, in 
the first part ; if there are 3 parts, the 
3rd resumes the subject at the octave of 
its original pitch, followed (if there are 
4 parts) by the answer in the 4th. This 
first enunciation of the subject by all 
the parts in turn, with contrapuntal 
accomp. in the rest, is called the Expo- 
sitiott ; this is commonly succeeded by 
an Episode, which is generally construct- 
ed (for the preservation of unity of 
effect) of motives from the subject and 
countersubject, with modulation into re- 
lated keys ; then comes the Fi/st De- 
velopment, or Repercztssion, in which 
subject and answer are taken up by the 
several parts in a different order, fol- 
lowed by a second and variously modi- 
fied episode. Further developments 
and episodes follow at the composer's 
pleasure, varied by the contrapuntal de- 
vices enumerated above, and generally 
in freer form, the subject and answer 
appearing in new keys and at a differ- 
ent interval. The fugue may be con- 
cluded by a Stretto or Final Develop- 
tiient, in which the subject and answer 
overlap each other in consequence of 
following in closer succession ; the 
stretto is frequently above an organ- 
point ; or the organ-point is used to 
support the freer contrapuntal combina- 
tions of the coda, a general finale or 
winding-up ; or stretto and coda are 
identical ; etc., etc. — The modern fugue 
has 2 principal varieties: (i) T\\e. Real 
Fugue, in which the original form of 
the subject is preserved in the answer 
(i. e. the latter is an exact transposition 
of the former) ; and (2) the Tonal 
Fugue, in which the subject is modified 
in the answer in order to return to the 
original key ; e. g. 


Answer (Tonal). 


Further varieties are the Double Fugue 
(with 2 subjects, the exposition of the 
1st being followed by that of the 2nd, 
and finally by the combination of both) ; 
— the Triple Fugue (with 3 subjects) ; 
etc. ; a fugue with 2 or more subjects is 
sometimes called a Manifold Fugue. — 
A fugue in which the countersubject is 
retained and developed together with 
the subject throughout, is also called a 
double fugue. The most elaborate 
lugal form is the I'uga ricercata (comp. 

Fuga). — Fugues may be written for 
voices or instr.s, or for solo instr.s 
(pfte., organ). (Compare Form I, 2.) 

Fugued, Fuguing. See Fuga'to. Writ- 
ten in either strict or free fugal style. 

Fiih'rer (Ger.) " Leader, dux", subject 
(of a fugue.). .Fii/i'rung, leading. 

Full anthem. See Anthem. . . Full band, 
a military band, or an orchestra, having 
all the customary instr.s. . .Full cadence, 
close, see the noMns... Full Choir (di- 



rection in organ-playing), draw all stops 
of the choir-organ . . . Full chord, one 
represented by all its tones ; also (in 
concerted music), one in which all the 
parts unite. . . Full Gnat (in organ-play- 
ing), draw all stops of great organ.. . 
Full orchestra, see Full band.. .Frill 
organ, with all stops and couplers 
drawn. .. Full score, see Score.. .Full 
stop (in lute-playing), a full chord fol- 
lowed by a pause ; also, a chord in 
which all available fingers are occupied 
in stopping the strings . . . Full Swell 
(organ), draw all stops of swell-organ. 
. .Full to fifteenth (in organ-playing), 
draw all stops but mixtures and reeds. 

Fiiirpfeife (Ger.) A dummy pipe. .. 
Fiiirquitite, a very sharp-toned organ- 
stop of 5^-foot pitch, to be drawn only 
with a strong combination of founda- 
tion-stops. . . Full'stelle, a passage put 
in to " fill out" ; padding. . .Fiill'stiinnte, 
(a) a part reinforcing a principal part at 
the octave or unison ; (d) a mutation- 
stop a third or a fifth above the normal 
pitch ; {(■) pi., in polyphonic composi- 
tion, accessory parts not treated melodi- 
cally like the principal parts, but brought 
in occasionally to complete the harmony 
or mark the rhythm. 

Fundamental, i. The root of a chord. 
— 2. A generator (in this sense also 
fundamental bass, note and tone). . . 
Fund, chord, triad, see Chord, Triad. 
. .Ftind. position, any arrangement of 
the tones of a chord in which the root 
remains the lowest. 

Fundamental'bass (Ger.) Fundamen- 
tal bass. . .F'undamental'ton, root ; key- 
note, tonic {Grund'ton, To'nika). 

Funebre (Fr.), Fu'nebre, Funera'le 
(It.) Funereal, mournful. 

Funf'fach (Ger.) See -fach.. .Fiinf- 
stinimig, 5-part ; for 5 parts or voices. 
. . Fiinf'stufige Ton leiter , pentatonic 

Fuo'co [foo-6'-co] (It.) Fire, spirit ; con 
f., or fuoco'so, with fire, fiery, spirited. 

Fu'ria (It.) Fury, passion; con f., 
wildly, passionately. 

Furiant, Furie. A rapid Bohemian 
dance with alternating rhythms and 
changing accentuation. 

Furibon'do (It.) Furious, frenzied. 

Furio'so,-a (It.) Furious, passionate ; 
furiosanien' te, passionately ; furiosis'- 
sinio, with extreme passion. 

Furla'na (It.) See Forlana. 

Furniture-stop. A mixture-stop. 

Furo're (It.) A rage, mania, passionate 
fondness (for anything).. .Also, fury, 
passion, vehemence ; con f., passion- 

Fu'sa(Lat.), Fuse(Fr.) An eighth note, 
or quaver. 

Fus^e (Fr.) An ornament consisting of 
a rapid ascending or descending dia/- 
tonic series of notes ; a slide. 

Fusel (Ger.) Same as F'usa. 

FuselTa (Lat.) 32nd-note. . .Fusel'lala, 

Fuss (Ger.) Foot ; -/ww/^, the adjective- 
ending corresponding to -foot, as S'fiis- 
sig {acht'fussig), 8-foot. . .Fuss' klavier, 
pedals (of an organ). . .Fuss' ton, equiv- 
alent to "-foot pitch", e. g. an organ- 
pipe of 4-foot pitch is said to be of 4- 

Fiit'terung (Ger.) Linings (of a violin). 


G. The fifth tone and degree in the 
typical diatonic scale of C-major. . . G. 
abbr. {or gauche {m.g. = main gauche) ; 
G. O. (or simply G), grand-orgue. 

Ga'belklavier (Ger.) A keyboard instr. 
inv. in 1882 by Fischer and Fritzsch of 
Leipzig, in which steel tuning-forks are 
substituted for strings. The some- 
what dull timbre, due to the lack of 
harmonics, has been brightened by 
adding, for each key, a second fork 
tuned an octave higher than the first. . . 
Ga'belton, "fork-tone," i.e. the tone a^ 
pitched for tuning. . . Ga'belgriffe (pi.), 
cross-fingerings. — See Stimmgabel. 

Gagliar'da (It.), Gagliar'de (Ger.) A 

Gai (Fr.) Gay, lively, brisk. . . Gaiement, 
ox gaitne7tt, gaily, briskly. 

Gaillarde (Fr.) A galliard. 

Gajamen'te (It.) Gaily, lively.. . Ga'jo,-a, 


Ga'la (It.) In the phrase rf'/^a/rt, gaily, 

Galamment (Fr.), Galantemen'te (It.) 
Gallantly, gracefully, prettily. 

Galant' (Ger.) Free ; e. g. galan'te 
Fu'ge, free fugue ; galan'ter Stil, ga- 
lan'te Schreib'art, free style, the homo- 
phonous style of composition for the 
clavichord or harpsichord, in vogue in 



the l8th century ; opp. \.o gebun'dener 
Stil, strict style, in which a certain 
number of contrapuntal parts was ad- 
hered to throughout. 

Galant,-e (Fr.), Galan'te (It.) Gallant, 
graceful, pretty. 

Gal'liard. (Gar. Gagliar'de ; Fr. gail- 
larde ; \t. gagliar'da.) An old French 
dance for 2 dancers (also called Honia- 
ne'sca), of a gay and spirited character, 
though not rapid, and in 3-4 time ; like 
the Pavan, it had 3 reprises of 4, 8, or 
12 measures. It was the precursor of 
the Minuet. 

Gal'op. (Fr. galop, galopade ; Ger. 
Galopp'.) A very lively and spirited 
round dance in 2-4 time ; supposed to 
have been derived from the old German 
Hop'scr or Rutsch'cr (names descrip- 
tive of the step). Introduced into 
France early in the 19th century. 

Galoub6, Galoubet (Fr.) A kind of 
small fife, the shrillest of all wind-in- 
str.s, with 3 holes and a compass of 17 
notes ; found only in Provence. 

GamHia. i. See Viola da gamba. — 2. 
An organ-stop similar in tone to the 
viola da gamba. 

Gam'be (Ger.) Viola da gamba. . . Gam'- 
benstimnie, a gamba-stop. . . Gajn'hen- 
iverk, piano-violin. 

Gam'bist. A player on the viola da 

Gam'ma. The Greek G (P). In medie- 
val music from the loth century on- 
ward, the lowest tone of the mus. sys- 
tem then obtaining was called P ; the 
letter was ■ together with the F- 

also used ^ clef. Hence, its use 

as a clef ~^ to name the entire 
scale (see Gatnme and Gamut). . . Gam- 
ma ttt, ^^, • ^i_ 1 J ^ e 

in the old system of 

; solmisation. 

Gamme (Fr.) A scale (see Gamma).. . 
G. diatonique {chromatique), diatonic 
(chromatic) scale. 

Gam'ut {irom gamma ut). 1. See Gafn- 
ma. — 2. A scale.— 3. The staff. — 4. In 
old English church-music, the key of G. 

Gang (Ger.) Passage. (Plural Gauge.) 

Ganz (Ger.) i. Whole. .. 6^rt;/s^ Note 
{gan'ze Taktfnote), whole note (c)... 
Ganz' instrument, a metal wind-instr., 
the lowest natural tone of whose tube 
can be made to speak ; opp. to Ha lb' in- 
strument. . . Ganz'schluss, whole ca- 

dence. . . Gan/ton, or gan'zer Ton, 
whole tone. — 2. Very. 

Gar'bo (It.) Grace, elegance. 

Gas'senhauer (Ger.) In the i6th cen- 
tury, a designation for popular songs or 
ioVs.-^on^%{Gas' senhawerliji) ; the word 
now signifies a trite and threadbare 
tune, and at the same time something 
vulgar and unworthy of art. [Riemann. J 

Gathering-note. In chanting, an irreg- 
ular y(?;-wa/a on the last syllable of the 
recitation, to enable the body of the 
singers to catch up and begin the ca- 
dence together. 

Gauche (Fr.) Left; ;«az« ^. (abbr. m. 
g.), left hand. 

Gaudio'so (It.) Joyous, jubilant. 

Gau'menton (Ger.) A guttural tone. 

Gavot'. (Fr. gavotte ; It. gavot'ta.) An 
old French dance-form in strongly 
marked duple time_((Ji alia breve), be- 
ginning with an auftakt, of a lively 
though dignified character, and resem- 
bling the Minuet. (See Suite.) The 
Gavot has latterly been revived as an 
instrumental piece. 

Gaz'el. A piece with a short and oft-re- 
curring theme or refrain. 

G-clef. (Ger. G'-Schliissel ; Fr. clef de 
sol ; It. chiave di soprano.) The sign 

f determining the position of the 
note g^ on the staff. (See Clef.) 

Gebla'se (Ger.) Bellows (of an organ ; 
usually Balg). 

Gebroch'en (Ger.) 

Gebun'den (Ger.) 

tied ; as gebun'dcne Dissonanz' , pre 
pared dissonance ; gebun'denes Spiel, 
legato playing ; gebun'dener Stil, strict 
style. — 3. Having 2 or more digitals to 
one string (said of clavichords) ; opp. 
to un'gebunden or bund'frei (i. e. 
"fretted" or "fret-free" [Grove]). 
(Comp. Bundfrei.) 

Gedackf (Ger.) Stopped (of organ- 
pipes) ; opp. to offen. (Also gedact, 

Gedampft' (Ger.) Damped ; muffled ; 

Gedeckt' (Ger., "covered".) See Ge- 

Gedehnt' (Ger.) See Dehnen. 

Gedicht' (Ger.) Poem. 

Gefahr'te (Ger.) Answer (in fugal com- 

I. Tied. — 2. Legato, 



Gefal'len (Ger.) Pleasure ; nach C, a 

Gefal'lig (Ger.) Pleasing, attractive, 

Gefuhl' (Ger.) Feeling, emotion., .il/// 
6"., with feeling, expression (also ge- 


Ge'gen (Ger.) Against, contrary to. . . 
Ge' gcnhc'wcgting , contrary motion. . . 
Ge'genfuge, a fugue in which the an- 
swer is an inversion of the subject. . . 
Ge'genharmonie, counter-subject (in a 
iugne.).. .Ge'getisatz, (a) contrast; (/') 
contrasting movement or effect. . . Gf'- 
genstimine, contrapuntal part ; counter- 

Gegit'tertes B (Ger.) B cancellatum. 

Gehal'ten (Ger.) Held, sustained. 

Geh'end (Ger.) Andante. 

Gei'ge (Ger.) WoWn.. .Gei'geiiclavicvm- 
bel, Gei'gi'nklavier, bow-piano. . . Gei'- 
genharz, rosin . . . Gei' geninstritment , 
bow-instr. . . Gei'genpriticipal, violin- 
diapason (organ-stop). . . GeVgcwwcrk, 
piano-violin. . . Geigetizettel, the maker's 
"label" or "inscription" on a violin 

Geist (Ger.) Spirit, soul ; mind, intel- 
lect ; genius ; essence. 
Gei'sterharfe (Ger.) ^olian harp. 

Geist'lich (Ger.) Sacred ; opp. to iveW- 
lich, secular. 

Gelas'sen (Ger.) Calm, composed, 
placid ; easy. (Also adverb.) 

Gelau'fig (Ger.) Fluent, voluble ; easy, 
ia.m\\\a.r.. .Gelciu'Jigkc-it, fluency, celer- 
ity, velocity ; ease, familiarity. 

Gemach'lich (Ger.) Comfortable, easy, 
commodious, convenient ; slow, gentle. 
(Also adverb. ) Recht gemachlick, com- 

Gema'ssigt (Ger.) Moderate. (See 

Gemisch'te Stim'men (Ger.) i. Mixed 
voices. — 2. In the organ, the mixtures, 
or mixture-stops. 

Gems'horn (Ger., "chamois-horn.") In 
the organ, a metal flue-stop having ta- 
pering pipes of 8, 4, or 2-foot pitch on 
the manuals and of i6-foot pitch on the 
pedal, with mellow, horn-like timbre. 
. . Gems' /ior>iqninte, a 5>^-foot stop of 
the above type. 

Gemiit'(h) (Ger.) Soul, heart, spirit ; 
mind ; disposition, temperament, na- 

Ge'nera. Plural of Genus. 

General'bass (Ger.) Thorough-bass; 
General' basssehri ft, thorough-bass no- 
tation.. .General pause, a pause for all 
instr.s or parts in the midst of a com- 
position, particularly when so intro- 
duced as to produce a striking effect. 
A hold ^ over the rest for such a 
pause renders its duration indetermin- 
ate ; i. e. robs it of rhythmic value, as 
if the beats or counts were suspended 
for the time being. . . General' probe, full 

Generator. (Fr. \son'\ g<fn/rateur.) i. 
A root, or fundamental tone. — 2. A 
tone which produces a series of har- 

Ge'nere (It.) A mode or key ; a genus. 
Genero'so,-a (It.) Generous, free, ample. 
Genial' (Ger.) Relating to or exhibiting 

genius ; talented, gifted, ingenious, 

clever ; spirited. 

Genie (Fr.), Genie' (Ger.) Genius. 

Genouillifere (Fr.) Knee-lever ; formerly 
used in (ierman grand pftes. as a sub- 
stitute for the earlier draw-stops, before 
the general introduction of pedals. 

Genre (Fr.) Genus, as g. diatonique, 
chromatique, enharinonique. — A 1 s o , 


Gentil,-le (Fr.) Genti'le (It.) Grace- 
ful, delicate, pretty. — Gentilinent (gen- 
tilmen'te), gracefully, etc. . . Gentilez'za, 
r(>«(It.),with dignity, refinement, grace. 
Ge'nus (Lat.) i. In ancient music, a 
system of arranging the notes of a tetra- 
chord ; for diatonic, chrom., enharni. 
genus, see Greek Music, §2. — 2. A 
mode or octave-scale. 
Gera'de Bewe'gung (Ger.) Similar 
or parallel motion. . . Gera'de Takt'art 
{gerader Takt), duple or quadruple time. 
German flute, the cross-flute. . . German 

sixth, see Extreme. 
Ges (Ger.) Gr,., .Ges'es, Gbb- 
Gesang' (Ger.) Singing, song ; a song, 
vocal composition ; melody, air. . . Ge- 
sang'buch, a song-book, hymn-book. . . 
Gesangs' kunst, the art of singing, vocal 
art. . .Gesang'{s)mdssig, melodious; 
adapted for singing, for the voice. . . 
Gesang' verein, singing society, choral 

Geschlecht' (Ger.) Genus ; mode. 
Geschleift' (Ger.) Slurred ; legato. 



. Geschmack'- 


Geschmack' (Ger.) Taste, 
■voll^ tasteful(ly). 

Geschwanzt' (Ger., "tailed".) 
a hook or hooks ( [^ jj). 

Geschvvind' (Ger.) Swift, rapid, quick. 
(Also adverb.) 

Ges'es (Ger.) See Gcs. 

Gesicht' (Ger.) Front (of organ). . . Ge- 
sichts'pfeifen, front pipes. 

Gespon'nen (Ger. "spun".) Gesponnene 
Saile, " covered " string. . . Gesponnener 
Ton, "son file" (see Filar), an even, 
sustained tone (voice or violin). 

Gestei'gert(Ger.) Intensified; rinforzato. 

Gestrich'en (Ger.) i. Having hooks. 
— 2. In compound words, equivalent to 
-lined, -accented, as ein'gestrichene Ok- 
ta've, one-lined (once-accented) octave. 
-3. Crossed, p p or 5^^ — 4. Cut 

:(as a scene in 
"an opera). 

with a stroke or; 
line across, as 

Get(h)eilt' (Ger.) Divided, separated.. . 
Geteil'te Violi'nen, violini divisi. . . Ct'- 
teil'te Sti/n'men, partial stops (organ). 

Get.ra'gen (Ger.) Sostenuto. See Trat^en. 

Geworfener Strich (Ger.) " Thrown 
stroke " ; in violin-technics, a form of 
the saltato. 

Ghaz'al, Ghaz'el (Arabic.) See Gazel. 

Ghiribiz'zo (It.) Whim, fancy, caprice. 
. . Ghiribizzo'so, whimsical, etc. 

Gi'ga (It.) See Gigtie. 

Gigeli'ra (It.) Xylophone. 

Gigue (Fr.) I. Early name for the old 
form of viol, which nearly resembled that 
of a ham {gigue) ; hence German Geige. — 
2. Ordinary title in the Suite for the Jig. 

Gioche'vole (It.) Playfully, merrily. 

Giocon'do,-a (It.) Jocund, gay, playful. 
. . Giocondamen'te, joyously, merrily. 

Gioco'so,-a (It.) Playful, sportive, ban- 
tering; humorous. . . Giocosa>nen'ie,Y)\a.y- 
fully, etc. 

Gio'ja (It.) Joy, delight, pleasure... 

Giojan'te, joyfully, mirthfully. .. C/('- 
jo'so,-a, joyful, mirthful. . . Giojosamen'- 

te, joyfully, etc. 
Giovia'le (It.) Jovial, cheerful. 
Giraffe. An old-style upright grand pfte. 
Gi'ro (It.) A turn. 
Gis (Ger.) GJf. . . C///j, Gx. 
Giubili'o (It., also giu'hilo, giubilazio'- 

ne.) Joy, rejoicing, jubilation. .. C/w- 

bilo'so,-a, jubilant. 

Giuocan'te (It.) Playful, bantering. 
. . Giiioche'vole, playfully, etc. 

Giu'sto,-a (It.) Appropriate, strict, 
moderate (as tempo gins to), exact, pre- 
cise, correct. . .Al/egro gitisto {all." 
7nod^_o), moderately fast. . . Giustamen'te, 
correctly, exactly. . . Giustez' za^con ,\i'\\.h 

Glas'harmonika (Ger.) P/arnumica i. 

Glee. A secular composition for 3 or 
more unaccompanied solo voices, of 
later origin and less contrapuntal inge- 
nuity than the Madrigal, and peculiar 
to England. It is of modern character 
both with regard to tonality knd to its 
employment of harmonic masses and 
the perfect cadence. The name glee is 
not properly descriptive of its nature, 
as serious glees are written as weJ as 
merry ones. 

Gleich (Ger.) Equal. . . Glei'cher Kon'- 
trapunkt, equal counterpoint.. . Glei'che 
Stimmen, equal \o\c&s. .. Gleich' schive- 
bende Temperatur' , equal temperament. 

Gli (It.) The (masc. pi.). 

Glicibarifo'na (It.) A wind-instr. inv. 
in Italy about 1827 by Catterini ; a 
small 4-octave expressive organ. 

Glide. The smooth connection of 2 tones 
by slurring. 

Glissan'do (also glissa'to, glissican'do, 
glissica' to ; spurious It. forms imitated 
from the Fr. glisser.) i. On bowed 
instr.s, {a) calls for a flowing, unac- 
cented, execution of a passage ; {b) 
same as Portamento. — -2. On the pfte., 
a rapid scale-effect obtained by sliding 
the thumb, or thumb and one finger, 
over the white keys, producing either 
the simple scale, or thirds, sixths, etc. 
(easier and more effective on the Janko 

Glisse (Fr.) r. GUssando 2. — 2. A di- 
rection indicating that a passage is to 
be executed smoothly and flowingly. 

Glock'e (Ger. ; dimin. Glock'chen.) Bell. 
. . Glockenist' , same as Carillonneiir. . . 
Clock' enspiel, {a) a carillon ; {b) an 
instr. consisting of bells or (more re- 
cently) of steel bars, tuned diatonically 
and struck with a small hammer ; oc- 
casionally used in the orchestra ; {c) an 
organ-stop which causes a set of small 
bells to be sounded by the manual. 

Glo'ria. See Doxology, Mass. 

Gnac'care (It.) Same as Castagnette. 
.Goathorn. See Gemshom. 



Gon'dellied (Ger.) Gondoliera. 

Gondolie'ra (It.) See Barcarole. 

Gong. ( 7'(7;«-/«w in Fr. and Ger. use.) 
An instr. of percussion in the form of 
a large round slightly concave plate or 
basin of metal (alloy of 4 parts copper to 
I part tin), with a raised rim. It is struck 
with a stick having a padded leather 
head, and is used in the orchestrate in- 
tensify melodramatic effects. 

Goose. (Fr. couac.) A harsh break in 
the tone of the clarinet, oboe, or bas- 
soon, caused by a defective reed or im- 
proper manipulation. 

Gorgheggia're (It.) To execute florid 
vocal music ; also see Fredotiner. . . 
Gorgheggiatnen' to, art of singing florid 
passages, etc. . . Gorgheg'gio, a florid 

Gospel side. See Epistle side. 

Gout (Fr.) Taste. 

Grace. (Ger. Verzie'rung ; Fr. ortie- 
ment, agr^ment ; It. abbe Hi men' to, Jio- 

rct'to.) A vocal or instrumental orna- 
ment or embellishment not essential to 
the melody or harmony of a composi- 
tion. (The long appoggiatura is an ex- 
ception ; it was formerly written as a 
small note — grace-note— because care- 
ful composers could thus nominally 
evade the rule prohibiting the entrance 
of unprepared dissonances.). ..Crar^- 
i!olt\ a note of embellishment, usually 
distinguished by its smaller comparative 

The gmces for harpsichord, clavichord, 
pianoforte and voice, enumerated below in 
alphabetical order, are given according to the 
following authorities : — J. H. d'Anglebert, i68g 
(d'A.) ; J. S. Bach, 1720 (B.) ; C. Ph. E. Bach, 
1787 (Em. B.) ; Dr. John Blow, i7oo(Bl.) ; Dr. 
I'homas Busby, 1786 (I'.u.); Francois Couperin, 
1713 (C.) ; J. W. Callcott, 1817 (Ca.) ; Etienne 
Loulitf, 1696 (L.) ; N. de S. Lambert, 1697 (La.); 
F. \V. Marpurg, 1762 (M.) ; P. J. Milchnieyer, 
1797 (Mi,); J. S. Petri, 1782 (P.); Fr. Pollini, 
1711 (Po.) ; J. P. Rameau, 1737 (R.) ; Christ- 
opher Simpson, 1659(8.); G. F. Wolf, 1783-89 
(W.) ; and J. G. Walther, 1732 (Wa.). 

In every case, the special article in the body 
of the book should also be consulted, the pri- 
mary intention of this article being to give a 
list oy signs for ready reference. 







Arpegement en descen- 
en montant. dant. 

Arpegement simple. 
(La.) I 

1 , (R-) L s j I I 




c^ \ 

Double Backfall. Shaked Backfall. 

(Wa.) (Bu.) ^v X 

Back Turn. 







^ ♦>» 



Shaked Beat. 
(-W*. (d'A.) 

(/wv (d'A.) 

Beisser. Brechung. 

^ (B.) 

(d'A.) (d'A.) 

■ I 


Chute et Pince. Chute. 

_^ (d'A.) 

Tierce coulee. Coule. 

Doppel- Geschnellter Doppelschlag. Prallender 
schlag. Doppelschlag. 

^ (d'A.) 

Umgekehrter Doppelvorschlag. Double. 



(S.) + 

(s.) ^ 



«— si- 


D. sur une tierce. 









JMartellement M. double 


M. triple, 




Springender Nachschlag. 



^ (C.) 

-t ^ 

Nachschlag Nachschlag. 


4^ (M.) or 

W. (C.) 

"• 'lj I I i l —i I 


^^ (C.) 


(C.) B 


Pince simple. 

■ ^ 

Pince double. 

Pince continu. 

Pince diese. 


Pinces b^jnolises. 


-v- l I i i I 1 I 



^ 1 h>a^ — i •■ 



f^ ; -I . -1 >. 

Pince Pince Plain-beat, 
double, etouffe. 

Pince et Port de voix. 

-I fi 

Pince lie. 


Port de voix. 

(Lo.) or or 


(C.) ^y. 

(C.) > 

-t ' u^ ' ^T — ' — ^ --1 ""^^g- 

Port de V. simple. Port de voix double. 


f'-^^^^^-^^'^ III : r r u r II p~r i ^ ^. f^ 

4— 1 1 U 
Single Relish' 

Port de voix. 





Double Relish. 


[Coule.] [Slide.] 
(S.) . ^__ _(Bu^ 

(d'A.) (d'A.) (M.) 

Passing bhake. 



tr^ (C.) 

Suspen- Trem- Tremblem. appuye. Tremblement. 
sion. blement. 

Tremblem. contuiu 


Doppeltriller mit Nachschlag. 
jg g (Bl.) \5 (Bl.) 

— E 

IMit Yor- und Nachschlag. Trill without 

Gracieux, Gracieuse (Fr.) (Graceful. 

Gra'cile (It.) Graceful and delicate ; 
thin, slender {vo'ce gracile). 

Grad (Ger.) Degree. 

Gradation. An ascending or descend- 
ing series of diatonic chords. 

Grade'vole(It.) Pleasing, agreeable. . . 
Gradevolmen' te^ pleasingly. 

Gra'do (It.) Degree, step. . . Gr. ascen- 
den' te, ascending step... 6^r. descenden'te, 
descending step. . .Digrado, by a step, 
stepwise ; opp. to disallo, by a skip. 

Gradual, (hat. gradua'/c'.) i. An anti- 
phon following the epistle ; so called 
because sung on the step(gradus) of the 
ambo or pulpit. — 2. A cantatiu-iuin 
(book of chants) containing the grad- 
uals, introits, and other antiphons of 
the R. C. Mass. 

Graduellement (Fr.) Gradually. 

Grammatical accent. See Accent. 

Gran cas'sa (It.) See Cassa. . .Gran 
gii'sto, epithet applied to an eccentric or 
highly effective composition. 

Grand. Technical term for Grand Piano- 
forte (see Pianoforte^ . . .Grand action, 
an action such as is used in grand pftes. 
. . Grand barr^, see Barre. 

Grand (Fr.) Large, great. . . Gr. barr^, 
see Barrd. . . Gr. bourdon, double-bour- 
don. • . Gr. chceur, full-organ. . . Gr.jcu, 

Trill with 

{a) full organ ; (/') an harmonium-stop 
which brings into action the full power 
of the instr. ..yi grand orchesire, for 
full orchestra. . . Grand-orgiie, {a) full 
organ ; (/') great organ; (c) pipe-organ. 

Grandeur (Fr.) Width (of intervals). 

Grandez'za (It.) Grandeur, majesty, 

Grandio'so (It.) Grand, pompous, ma- 

Grandisonan'te (It.) Loud or long- 
sounding, re-echoing ; sonorous. 

Granulato (It., "granulated.") Non 

Grap'pa (It.) Brace. 

Grasseyement (Fr.) A guttural and 

vicious pronunciation of the ;- and / in 

swgmg. . .Grasseyer, to pronounce as 

Gratio'so (It.) Same as Grazioso. 
Gra've (Fr. and It.) i. Grave or low in 

pitch. — 2. Heavy, slow, ponderous in 

movement (see Tempo-iiuirks). — 3. 

Grave or serious in expression. 
Gravement (Fr.), Gravemen'te (It.) 

Slowly, heavily, ponderously; seriously, 
Gravicem'balo (It.) A harpsichord. 

(Also Gravecembalo.) 
Grav'is (Lat.) Heavy, ponderous ; see 

Accentus eccl. 
Gra'zia (It.) Grace, elegance; con gr.. 



gracefully, etc. . . Grazio'so,-a, graceful, 
elegant. . .Graziosamen'te, gracefully. 

Grazios' (Ger.) Graceful(ly). 

Great octave. See Pitch, absolute. . . 
Great organ, see Organ. 

Greater. Major. 

Grec (Fr.) Greek. . .A chorus a la grec 
is one introduced at an act-close, in 
imitation of the ancient Greek tragedy. 

Greek music. Without attempting to 
explain the theoretical and mathemat- 
ical subtleties of the system, a brief 
statement of some leading features will 
be given below. 

§1. The Modes, or Octave-scales. 
The typical Greek scale was precisely 

I. Dorian. 

^—d ^—c^-^b—a—g—f^e d ^—c^^b—a—g—f-^e- 

4. Hypodorian or i'Eolian. 

7. Hyperdorian or Mixolydian, 

(The signs — and —' 

5. Hypophrygian or Ionian 

the reverse of our modern ascending 
major scale, being conceived as a de- 
scending minor scale. Harmony in the 
modern sense was unknown ; the aim 
of Greek theory in treating of harmonic 
intervals was, therefore, to establish the 
melodic succession of the tones, and 
the Greeks conceived the scale as con- 
stituted of a series of tetrachords{<\-iont 
groups with the compass of a perfect 

The primitive Greek modes were sim- 
ple octave-scales ; the three most ancient 
forms were (i) the Dorian, (2) the 
Phrygian, and (3) the Lydian, to each 
of which were later added 2 attendant 
modes, making 9 in all : 

3. Lydian. 
^b—a —g—f-^e—d—c 

6. Hypolydian. 


_^i_/- 1 ^e^-d^-c^^b -a-g 
8. Hyperphrygian or Locrian. 

f, • V ' > 

a^-g^-P^e^- d^-c^^b-a g^-/^^e^-d ^-c^^b-a-g 
indicate the step of a whole tone and semitone respectively.) 

p^e'-d ^-c^^b-a-g-f 
9. Hyperlydian. 

The prefix hypo signifies " a fifth be- 
low "; hyper, " a fifth above". (Compare 
Mode.) The character and name of 
each mode depended {a) upon the form 
of the tetrachord, and (/') upon the 
position of the diazeuctic tone. While 
each of the 3 primitive modes is com- 
posed of 2 tetrachords of like name and 
form, which are ^//-r/VuV/di/ (separated) by 
the diazeuctic tone (marked f ; from dia- 
zeuxis,3. separation), each of its 2 attend- 

Major Mode. 


ant modes is composed of 2 similar con~ 
joined tetrachords, united by one com- 
mon tone, and preceded or followed by 
the diazeuxis. The character of the te- 
trachord depends on the position of the 
semitone ; e. g. in the Dorian tetra- 
chord, found in the Dorian and attend- 
ant modes, the semitone occurs between 
the third and fourth tones. This Do- 
rian mode is an exact inversion of the 
modern major mode : 

Dorian Mode. 

§2. The Perfect System is based on 
the Dorian tetrachord ; it comprises the 

following two octaves, in which the Do- 
rian mode occupies the central portion: 

Dorian Mode. 



This system is formed by adding, at 
either extreme of the Dorian scale, a 
conjoined tetrachord, and completing 
the 2-octave system by the addition of 
A (hence called Proslamhanomenos, 
"the acquired tone") in the lower 
octave, thus forming a complete a- 
minor descending scale. The 2 central 
tetrachords were therefore disjoined ; 
but, for modulations to the lower quint 

(which to the Greeks was the most 
natural transition, just as that to the 
key of the higher quint is to us), they 
used the semitone above the highest 
tone of the middle tetrachord, and con- 
sequently distinguished a special " con- 
joined tetrachord " (tetrachordon synem- 
menon) J^-e^-^^a, in opposition to the 
"disjoined tetrachord" {tetr. diezeug- 
7}ienon) d^—c^^b-a. 

Full Names of all Degrees in the Perfect System. 

Nete hyperboleon 
Paranete hyperb. 
Trite hyperboleon 
Nete diezeugmenon 

(highest of the disjoined) 
Paranete diezeugmenon 

(next-highest of the disjoined) 

Trite diezeugmenon 

(third of the disjoined) 
(the [tone] next the middle) 

(highest of the high) 
(next-highest of the high) 
(third of the high) 

d' d' 

b b-> 

(middle tone) 

Lichanos meson 

Parhypate ' ' 

Hypate " 

Lichanos hypaton 

Parhypate " 

Hypate " 

The theorists attributed special impor- 
tance to the middle tone Mese, as the 
tonic of the perfect system. This sys- 
tem also forms the foundation of me- 
dieval mus. theory ; even the compass 
given above was not overstepped till the 
introduction of the F (gamma). Gre- 
gorian music keeps within these limits, 
and the notation in Latin letters retains 
this same diatonic scale even to the 
chromatic alteration of Paramese to 
Trite syne??imenon. This perfect sys- 
tem {systema teleion) was also styled the 
systema metabolon, the " mutable (i. e. 
modulatory) system," with reference to 
the modulation to the subdominant 
made possible by employing the con- 
joined tetrachord ; without this tetra- 
chord it was called the systema ameta- 
bolon (immutable). [This diatonic (Xvi\- 
sion of the tetrachord into 2 whole tones 
and a semitone (as a — ;"■ — •/— f), of which 
the Dorian tetrachord is the normal 
type, was the distinctive feature of the 
diatonic genus (j^t';;«^= melodic arrange- 
ment of the tones within the tetrachord); 
the earlier enharmonic genus was 
formed by omitting the paranete or the 
lichanos (as a f-^e), and the later 

Nete synemmenon 
(highest of the conjoined) 
Paranete synemmenon 
(next highest of the conjoined) 
Trite synemmenon 

(third of tlie conjoined) 

(forefinger-tone of the middle) 

(next-lowest of the middle) 

e (lowest of the middle) 

d (forefinger-tone of the low) 

C (next-lowest of the low) 

B (lowest of the low) 

A (acquired tone) [in no tetrachord] 

enharmonic genus by dividing the 
trite or the parhypate into 2 tones 
(as a e'iff^e); while the chro- 
matic genus, also omitting the dia- 
tonic second degree, was expressed 
by sharping either trite or parhypate 
(as a—^f'i,^f^e)\ etc.] 

§3. Transposing Scales. While 
the perfect system remained the standard 
in theory, the progress of Grecian musical 
art widened its application in practice 
until all flat and sharp semitones were 
employed, and its range likewise ex- 
tended. The chromatic alterations were 
expressed in the Greek alphabetical 
notation by different letters and differ- 
ent positions of the same letter, which 
were equivalent in effect to our JJand \). 
E. g., on substituting in the octave-scale 
d^ — (/ the conjoined for the disjoined 
tetrachord (i. e. dry for b), this octave- 
scale is no longer the Phrj'gian, but 
becomes the Hypodorian, for the dis- 
tinction between the modes depends on 
the position of the semitonic step ; 
moreover, as the Hypodorian octave- 
scale is to be considered as that extend- 
ing from the Dorian mese to proslam- 
hanomenos, this octave-scale </' — d 



with b^ belongs to a transposed Dorian 
mode, having not A, but d, iox pros- 
lainbanomenos. CJreek music was not 
tied, like the Gregorian, to the diatonic 
scale A — <;' without chromatics, but em- 
ployed transpositions of the perfect 
2-octave system parallel to our 12 or 
more sharp and flat keys ; finally, these 
transpositions numbered 15 in all, those 
first in vogue bearing the same names 
as the first 7 octave-scales. In the 
Greek method of alphabetical notation, 
the natural scale (without chromatics) 
was the Hypolydian : 

J^ ^ e^ — d"^ —c^ -^ b — a—g— f 
consequently, the 2-octave system --/ — rt' 
without chromatics is called the Hypo- 
lydian (bein^j the naliual scale among 
the transposing scales, as is C-major 
among the sharp and flat keys), and the 
transposing scales are named according 
to the mode represented by the various 
chromatic alterations of the octave-scale 
y — f. r"or instance, 

being a Lydian octave, the 2-octave 
system (or transposing scale) d — d'- 
with one flat is called the Lydian trans- 
posing scale. It follows, that the octave 
y '— / belongs 
without -^^ or p to the system A — «' 

with I J7 to the system d — d- 

( Lydian) 

" 2t, ' G-g^ 

" 3 [> " " " c — c- 

( Phrygian) 

*' 4[7 ' F-f 

" 5 b " " " bo—b''^ 

- 6 b " \' '; ^-e'\> 

(Mixolydian, or Ilyperdorian) 
On the other hand, all the sharp scales 
(of later origin) show new names ; the 
octave y':;^ — -y'+t belongs 
withi;* to the system e — c-'- (Hyperiastian) 
(high Mixolydian) 
I. 2- " " " ^_^i(lastian) 

(high Dorian) 
" y^ '• " " yiS— /'it(ilypoiastian) 
(high Hypodorian) 
" 4^ " " " ri+— ^-it_(.-Eolian) 

(high Phrygian) 

" SS" " " C;;*— ^':J(Hypoasolian) 

(high Hypophrygian) 

' 6+f " " " </^— ^'S(Hyperdorian) 
(high Lydian) 

The system d% — ^'iJ, with 6 sharps, is 
enharmonically identical with i\) — e'^\) 
with 6 flats; both are named Hyper- 
dorian ; here closes the circle of fifths. 
— The names of the sharp scales re- 
cmerge as those of church-modes (the 
number of which was increased to 12 
in the l6th century) ; namely, the 
Ionian (= lastian), and Hypoionian, 
/Eolian, and Hypoxolian. 

Gregorian chant. The forms of mus. 
worship as revised and established by 
Pope (jregory I. (the Great, d. 604) for 
the R. C. Church, and known collect- 
ively under the name of Plain Chant. 
There was probably no essential differ- 
ence between the Gregorian and Am- 
brosian styles ; St. Gregory's chief 
work was the careful revision of the 
ritual music employed at his time, the 
rejection of redundances and abuses, 
and the final establishment of the ma- 
terial thus sifted and arranged as the 
norm for all Western Churches. He was 
also presumably the arranger, if not the 
originator, of the 4 Plagal modes par- 
allel to the 4 Authentic modes of St. 
Ambrose. (See Mode.) 

Grei'fen (Ger.) To stop (on the violin); 
to take or play (on other instr.s); to 
finger ; to stretch {er kann eine De'- 
zinie greifen, he can stretch a tenth). 

Griff (Ger.) Stop (on violin); touch, 
stroke, stretch {wfiicr Griff); finger- 
ing . . . Griff' brctt, fingerboard . . . Griff'. 
saitc\ a string stopped by the fingers ; 
a melody-string. 

Grob (Ger., "coarse.") Used as a suf- 
fix, it means ' ' of broad scale" (said of 
organ-pipes, as Grobgcdackt). 

Groove. (Ger. Kanzel'lc.) One of the 
separate divisions of the windchest of 
an organ, serving to conduct the wind 
to the pipes. 

Groppet'to (It.) See Gruppetlo. 

Grop'po (It.) See Griippo. 

Gross (Ger.) Great, large, grand ; ma- 
jor {as gro'sse Terz, major Third)... 
Gro'sse Okta've, great octave. 

Grosse-caisse (Fr.) See Caisse. 

Gros'so (It.) Large, great ; full, heavy. 

Gros-tambour (!'>.) Bass drum. 

Grotte'sco (It.) Grotesque, comic, hu- 

Ground bass. See Bass. 

Group. I. A short series of rapid notes ; 
specifically, such a series sung to one 



syllable ; a division or run. — 2. A sec- 
tion of the orchestra, or of an orches- 
tral score, embracing instr.s of one 
class, e. g. the strings. 

Groupe (Fr.) I. Group ; specifically, a 
group of notes with their hooks slurred 
together ; a turn. — 2. A unison 2. 

Grund (Ger.) Ground, foundation, funda- 
ment. . .Grtind'akkord, a chord in the 
fundamental position . . . Grtind'bass, 
fundamental bass. . . Grund'lage, fun- 
damental position (of a chord)... 
Gruitd' stiinnie, {li) see G7'nndbass; (/') 
a bass part ; {c) foundation-stop (organ). 
. . Grund' ion, (a) root ; (i^) key-note . 
. . Grund' tonart, ruling or principal key 
in a composition. 

Gruppet'to (It.) Formerly, a trill or 
relish ; in modern music, a turn. — Also, 
a collective term applied loosely to vari- 
ous "groups" of grace-notes, such as: 






Grup'po (It.) Group ; also, a turn. — 
Formerly, a grace similar to the trill. 
(See Trillo.) 

G'-Schlussel (Ger.) (7-clef. 

Guara'cha (Span.) A lively Spanish 
dance, one part of which is in 3-4 or 
3-8 time and the other in 2-4 time ; 
usually accompanied on the guitar by 
the dancer himself. 

Gue. An instr. of the violin kind, hav- 
ing only 2 strings (of horsehair), and 
played like a 'cello ; formerly used in 
Shetland. [Century Dict.] 

Guerrie'ro (It.) Martial, warlil-.e. 

Gui'da (It.) I. Subject (of a fugue); 
antecedent (in a canon or other imita- 
tion). — 2. A direct. — 3. See Presa.—^. 
In solfeggio, a tone or tones through 
which the voice glides from one inter- 
val-tone to the other. 

Guide. I. Guida i and 2. — 2. (Fr.) 
Gtiida I and 4. . . Guide-main, " hand- 
guide," chiroplast. 

Guidon (Fr.) A direct. 

Guido'nian hand. The Guidonian Hand 
was a diagram, for memorizing the sol- 
misation-syllables of the 20-tone dia- 
tonic scale (r to tv), in the shape of an 
outstretched left hand with the sylla- 
bles written in regular order on the suc- 
cessive finger-tips and joints. The sylla- 
bles were called the Aretiniatt or Gtii- 
donian syllables, (See Solmisation.) 

Guimbard. (Fr. guimbarde.) A jew's- 

Guitar', (Span, guitar'ra; Ger. Gui- 
tar' re; Fr. guitare; It. chitar'ra^ An 
instr. of the lute family. The modern 
(" Spanish") guitar has six strings, the 
3 highest of gut, the 3 lowest of silk 
covered with fine silver wire, tuned E- 
A-d-s-b-e^: -P- 





{ox E-B-e-g'^-b-e'^); but guitar-music is 
written an octave higher, in the 6'-clef. 
The pitch of all 6 strings can be raised 
a semitone by using the capotasto. 
Compass — - n ^ (with the 

3 octaves ^" l > -(? ^ ^ harmonics, 
and a fourth: -d- ^j an octave 

more). The long fingerboard is fur- 
nished with frets on which the strings 
are stopped with the left hand, while the 
right plucks the strings with the finger- 
tips (the thumb taking the 3 lowest, the 
forefinger g, the middle finger b, and 
the ring-finger high ^), or strikes them 
with the back of the fingers ; the 
thumb also sweeps the strings with the 
arpeggio-effect called the rasgado. — 
The body of the guitar has a broad 
waist, no corners, and a flat face and 
back. It is used as a solo instr., and 
in accompanying songs. 

Guitare d'amour(Fr.), Guitar-violon- 
cello. See Arpeggione. 

Guiterne (Fr.) Former name for the 

Gu'sto (It.) Taste. . .Di buong., in good 
taste, tasteful. . . Gusto'so, with taste. . . 
Gran gusto, see Gran. 

Gut. Gut strings (in the singular Ger. 
Dartn'saite; Fr. corde a or de or en 
boyau; It. jninu'gia), popularly known 
as catgut, are ordinarily manufactured 
from the entrails of sheep, those of 
young lambs yielding the evenest and 
finest strings because they do not have 
to be split. The best are the genuine 
Roman strings. 

Gut (Ger.) Good. . .Gti'ter Takt'teil, 
strong beat. 


H (Ger.) The note B . . .In scores, H '\i 
an abbr. for Horn; in organ-music, for 
Heel ; in music for keyboard instr.s, 
ior Hand{r. h., I. //.) 

Hack'brett (Ger.) Dulcimer. 



Halb (Ger.) Half ; also, " smaller "... 
Hal'be Applikatur', half-shift. . .Halh'- 
bass, a double-bass of smaller size than 
wsnaX. . .Ha/l>'cello, a small 'cello... 
Halb'gedcckte Slim'me, see Stiinme 3. 
. .Haiy instrument, see Ganzinstru- 
Ttient. . .Halb' kadenz, half-cadence. . . 
Halb'mond, crtsctn^.. . .Hal' be jVote, 
haU-note. . .Ha I' be Or' gel, an organ 
lacking, even on the pedal, a stop lower 
than 8-foot pitch . . . Hal' be Pait'se, half- 
rest. . .Halb'prinzipal, an organ-stop of 
4-foot pitch (disused) . . . Halb'sc/iluss, 
half-close. . .Hal' be Stim'ine, a half- 
stop or partial sio^.. .Hal' be Takt'note, 
hali -note. . .Ha lb' ton, hal'ber Ton, 
semitone. . .Halb'violine, three-quarter 
•vnolin (for children) . . . Halb'violou 
[Paul], see Halbbass, Deiitscher Bass. 
. .Halb'ioerk, see Halbe Orgel. 

Half-cadence, -note, -rest, -shift, 
-step, -stop, -tone, see the nouns. 

Hallelujah. See Alleluia. 

Hals (Ger.) i. Neck (of the violin, etc.) 
— 2. Throat (of a singer). — 3. Stem (of 
a note). 

Halt (Ger.) A hold (^) ; usually Fcr- 

Hammer, i. (Ger. Ham'mer; Fr. mar- 
tean; It. martel'lo.) That part of the 
pfte. -action which strikes the strings 
and evokes the tone.— 2. A mallet, 
used in playing the dulcimer. . .Havi'- 
merclavier, -klavier (Ger.), early name 
for the pianoforte (opp. to Fedcr- 

Hanac'ca. A Moravian dance in 3-4 
time, resembling the Polonaise in the 
shifting of the accent, but in more 
rapid tempo. (Ger. Hana'kisch.) — Alia 
k., in the style of this dance. 

Hand, harmonic. See Guidonian Hand. 

Hand'bassl (Ger.) An obsolete bow- 
instr. , intermediate in size between the 
viola and 'cello ; employed as a bass- 
instr. . . Hand'bihhier, Hand'leitcr, a 
chiroplast . . . Hand'stiicke, short and 
easy exercises or practice-pieces. . . 
Hand' trommel, tambourine. 

Hand-harmonica. Accordion. 

Handle-piano. A mechanical pfte. on 
the principle of the barrel-organ ; the 
studs on the barrel catch levers con- 
nected with the hammers, causing the 
latter to strike the strings, a spring 
forcing the hammer to recoil instantly. 
The older instr.s have few or no damp- 

ers ; more recent ones show an im- 
provement in this regard. 

Hand-note. Stopped tone (on the horn). 

Hand-organ. A portable barrel-organ. 

Hard. (Of tones, touch, execution.) 
Coarse, rough, harsh ; cold, unsympa- 
thetic, lacking expression or feeling. 

Hardiment (Fr.) Boldly, vigorously, 
dashingly. — Also, Avec hardiesse. 

Har'fe (Ger.) Harp . . . Har'fenbass, Al- 
bertinian bass. . .Harfenett' , see Spitz- 
harfe. . . Har' feninstrumente , stringed 
instr.s whose strings are plucked either 
with the fingers or a plectrum. . .Har'- 
fenlautc, dital harp. 

Harmoni'a (Gk. and Lat.) Harmony. 

Harmon'ic. i {adjective) (Ger. kar- 
mo'nisch; Fr. hartnontque ; It. armo'- 
nico.) Pertaining to chords (either 
consonant or dissonant), and to the 
theory and practice of harmony ; opp. 
to melodic. . .H. curve, the curved fig- 
ure described by a vibrating string. . . 
H. figuration, broken chords.../;^. 
flute, see H. stop ...//. hand, see Gui- 
donian Hand. . .H. mark, in music for 
the violin, etc., a sign (°) over a note, 
calling for an harmonic tone. . .H. note, 
see H. tone . . .H. reed, see H. stop . . . 
H. scale, see Harmonic 2. . .//. stop, an 
organ-stop having pipes double the 
ordinary length, and pierced midway, 
so that a 16-foot pipe yields an 8-foot 
tone. Various solo stops are thus con- 
structed : An harmonic flute is a flute- 
stop, an harmonic reed a reed-stop, 
made on this principle. . .H. tone, also 
flageolet-tone, see Harmonic 2 {b). . . 
H. triad, a major triad. 

Harmonic. 2 {noun), {a) (Ger. O'ber- 
ton; Fr. son harmonique; It. suono 
armonico) One of the series of tones 
sounding with, but higher in pitch 
and less intense than, its generator 
(see Acoustics). — {b) (Ger. Flageolet'- 
ion, Harmo' nikaton; Fr. son harmoni- 
que; It. suono armonico) A tone 
obtained, on any stringed instr. which 
is stopped (violin, guitar, zither, etc.), 
and also on the harp, by lightly 
touching with the finger-tip a nodal 
point of a string ; the string, when set 
in vibration, can then not vibrate as a 
whole, but only in independent sections, 
each section corresponding in length 
to the division of the string cut off by 
the finger, and each producing one and 
the same tone — the harmonic. Thus, 



by lightly touching the C-string of a 
violin at its midpoint, it is divided into 
2 vibrating sections, each producing the 
octave of _j^, i. e., ^^ ; by touching it one- 
third of the distance from nut to bridge, 
it is divided into 3 vibrating sections, 
each producing the fifth above the 
octave of g, i. e., d^ ; etc. Such har- 
monics, obtained from open strings, 
are called natttral; when the string is 
previously shortened by stopping, and 
the harmonics then obtained by lightly 
touching this shortened section, they are 
called arUficial. The following table 
shows the harmonics obtained on a 
6tring : By lightly touching 
the octave, we get the octave ; 

" fifth, " " " twelfth ; 

" fourth, " " " fifteenth ; 

" third (maj.) " " its own 15th ; 

" third (min.) " " " " 17th. 
The harmonics are distinguished by 
their soft, sweet, ethereal character, 
and the "fluty" quality of their tone 
(hence the epithets _//ii'«/<7/(', flageolet). 
They are called for by the sign ° (the 
^^ hannonic mark") over the notes to 
be touched {not stopped). 
Harmon'ica. (Comp. Qtx.Harmo'uika) 
X. The instr. developed by Benjamin 
Franklin from the musical glasses, and 
named by him Armoii'ica. It consisted 
mI a graduated series of glass bells or 
basins forming a diatonic scale (lowest 
♦one to the left), and fastened in a row 
apon a spindle, which was made to re- 
volve by a treadle ; the ends of the 
spindle were supported by the end- 
pieces of a trough containing water to 
moisten the revolving glasses, whose 
edges were touched by the fingers in 
playing. Melodies could be performed, 
and accompanied harmonically by chords 
as wide as the fingers could stretch. — 
2. See Moutli-haiinonica. 

Harmonicel'lo. A bow-instr. resembling 
the 'cello, with 5 gut and 10 wire strings ; 
inv. by Joh. Karl Bischofif of Nurem- 
berg in the 2nd half of the i8th century. 

Harmonichord. See Piano-violin. 

Harmo'nici. Aristoxenos and his fol- 
lowers, who deduced the rules of har- 
mony from musical practice ; opp. to 
Ci2«^«/c/ (Pythagoras and his disciples), 
who derived their rules from the math- 
ematical determination of the intervals. 

Harmon'icon. i. A mouth-harmonica. 
2. — An orchestrion. — 3. A keyed har- 

monica combined with a flue-stop or 
stops ; inv. by W. C. Miiller. 

Harmoni-cor (Fr.) See Harmoniphon 2. 

Harmonicorde (Fr.) Harmonichord. 

Harmo'nicum. An improved form of 
Bandonion, inv. by Brendel and Klos- 
ser of .Mittweida (Saxony) in 1893. It 
is, essentially, an accordion-body fixed 
in an harmonium-case ; the keyboard is 
made like either that ot the harmonium 
or bandonion ; the wind-supply is con- 
trolled by treadles. 

Harmonie' (Ger.) i. Harmony ; chord. 
— 2. Music for the wind-instr.s (brass 
and wood); also Ifarin^nie'i/iiisik. — -3. 
The wind-instr.s (brabs and wood) col- 
lectively. — Harnioiiie'eigen, harmonic, 
chordal ; (tones; proper to a harmony ; 
opp. to hariHoiiie' frenid . . . Hariitonie'- 
lehre, theory of harmony. . .Hannonie'- 
t ram pete, an instr. between a horn and 
trumpet, which permitted of the suc- 
cessful use of muted tones ; inv. early 
in the 19th century [Riema.nw]. 

Harmonieux,-ieuse (Fr.) Harmonious. 

Harmo'nika (Ger.) Accordion ; con- 
certina ; — see also Holz' harnionika, 
Mund' harnionika, Zieli' harntonika, 

Harrao'niker (Ger., pi.) Harmonici. 

Harmon'iphon. I. A keyboard wind- 
instr. inv. by Panis of Paris in 1837, 
having a set of reed-pipes in imitation 
of oboe-tubes ; hence the Ger. name 
Klavieroboe. — 2. The hari>ioni-cor, inv. 
by Jaulin of Paris, similar to the above, 
but with clarinet-tubes ; the wind is 
supplied through a mouthpiece. 

Harmo'nisch (Ger.) Harmonic. 

Harmo'nium. Comp. Reed-organ. — In 
harmonium-music, numerals enclosed 
in circles are used in lieu of the stop- 
names in full, and signify; 

Stops on bass 
side (sign below 
bass staff.) 
Q Cor anglais 
(2) Bourdon 
Q) Clarion 
(4) Bassoon 


measuring the 
tones (intervals) 

Stops on Treble 
side (sign above or 
below treble staff.) 
O Flute 
Q) Piccolo 

An appliance for 
harmonic relations of 
See Monochord. 

Har'mony. (Ger. and Fr. Harmoni/; 
It. arnwni'a.) In general, a combina- 
tion of tones or chords producing mu- 
sic. — Specifically, a chord, either con- 
sonant or dissonant, though usually 



applied to the former kind, especially 
to the triad. — Applied to an entire com- 
position, the chordal (harmonic) struc- 
ture, in contradistinction to the melody 
and rhythm ; hence, 2-part, j-part har- 
mony, according to the number oi 
parts present. .. 67;r(V«(z//V h., that in 
which many chromatic tones and mod- 
ulations are introduced ; opp. to dia- 
tonic k. . .Close h. (in 4-part writing), 
that in which the 3 highest parts lie 
within the compass of an octave ; opp. 
to open h. . . Covtpound k., that in which 
2 or more of the tones essential to a 
chord are doubled ; opp. to simple h . . 
.Dispersed, extended h., see Open h. . . 
Essential h., (a) the fundamental triads 
of a key ; (/') the harmonic skeleton of a 
composition, left after pruning off all 
figuration and ornaments. . .Figured h., 
that in which the simple chords are va- 
ried or broken up by foreign and pass- 
ing tones, anticipations, suspensions, 
and other devices ; opp. to plain h. . . 
Open h. (in 4-part writing), that in 
which the 3 highest parts spread be- 
yond the compass of an octave . . . Pure 
h., music performed with pure intona- 
tion (motet, string-quartet ;) opp. to 
tempered h. . .Spread h., open h... 
Strict h., composition according to 
strict rules for the preparation and reso- 
lution of dissonances. . . Tempered h., 
music performed with tempered intona- 
tion (pfte., organ); see Temperament. 
Harp. (Ger. Har'fe; Fr. harpe; It. 
ar'pa.') A stringed instr. of ancient 
origin and wide dissemination, played 
by plucking the strings with the fingers 
and thumbs of both hands. — The mod- 
ern orchestral harp (Erard's double- 
action harp) has a nearly 3-cornered 
wooden frame, the apex or foot of 
which is formed by an upright pillar 
meeting the hollow back (the upper side 
of which bears the soundboard) in the 
pedestal; the upper, divergent ends of 
pillar and back are united by the curv- 
ing neck. The gut strings, stretched 
vertically between soundboard and 
neck, and tuned by -wrestpins inserted 
in the latter, are 46 (or 47) in number, 
and variously colored to render them 
readily distinguish- 
able ; the 8 lowest 
strings are covered 
with fine wire. Com- 
pass, si.K and one- 
half octaves, from 

Zva ,1 > 



this is the fundamental diatonic scale ; 
the intermediate chromatic tones are ob- 
tained by the use of 7 pedals adjusted in 
the pedestal, each pedal acting on all the 
strings of the same letter-name in such 
a way that, when pressed to its yfrj/ posi- 
tion, the pitch of every string affected is 
raised a semitone, and, when the pedal 
is pressed down to its second position, a 
semitone higher. Thus, by depressing 
all 7 pedals once, the scale would be 
raised from C\} to C; by depressing 
them twice, to CJ {D^); by suitable 
combinations, any desired key may be 
obtained. The depressed pedals are 
held in position by notches. As on the 
Janko keyboard, the fingering of the 
scale is the same for every key. Natur- 
al harmonics are obtainable ; the first 
harmonic (the octave of the tone of the 
open string) is that almost exclusively 
employed. Music for the harp is 
written on 2 staves as for the pfte. — In 
the old single-action harp each pedal 
can change the pitch of 
its note by only oie semi- 
tone ; scale, Eij ; com- 
pass, 5 octaves and a 
sixth, from F\ to d^: 
A Double Harp has 2 rows of strings 
tuned dissimilarly; a Triple Harp ha.s 
3 such rows. . .ALolian h., see Aiolian. 
. . Couched h., the spinet. . .Dital harp, 
see Dital. ..Double-actionpedal-harp, see 
Harp. . . IVelsh h. , a kind of triple harp. 

Harpeg'gio, Harpeggie'ren. See Ar- 
peggio, Arpeggiate. 

Harpicor'do. Same as Arpicordo. 

Harp-lute. See Dital harp. 

Harpo-lyre (Fr.) A kind of improved 
guitar, with 21 strings and 3 necks ; 
inv. 1829 by Salomon of Besanjon. 

Harp-pedal. See Pedal. 

Harp'sichord. (Ger. Kiel'fliigel; Fr. 
clavecin; It. arpicor'do, clavicem'balo.) 
A keyboard stringed instr. in which the 
strings were twanged by quills or bits 
of hard leather (see Pianoforte). — 'Vis- 
a-vis harpsichord, one with a keyboard 
at either end or side, for 2 performers. 

Harp-way tuning. Favorite early Eng- 
lish tunings {scordature) of the viola da 
gamba ; termed harp-way tunings be- 
cause admitting of a ready execution of 
arpeggios : 

Sharp : 





are found in German 

other variants 
Hart (Ger.) Hard ; major (usually dto^^ ; 
abrupt, unprepared (of a progression 
or modulation). . .//a;-/ vermin' dertcr 
Drei'klang, triad with major third and 
diminished fifth, as B-di^-f. 

Haupt (Ger., "head".) Chief, -^^xncx- 
^a.\...I/aupf accent, primary accent. 
..Ilaiipfakkord, fundamental triad. 
.. Haupt' gesang, leading melody 
{Haupt' melodie).. .Haupt' kadenz, full 
cadence. . .Haupt' manual, great-organ 
manual (abbr. Man. I.).. .Haupt' note, 
[a) principal note ; (/') chord-note ; (r) 
accented note; {d) melody-note... 
Haupt' prinzipal, 8-foot diapason (on 
manual), i6-foot (on pedal). . .Haupf- 
probe, see Generalprobe .. .Haupt' satz, 
principal ih^mQ. . .HaupfscJiluss, full 
cadence . . . Haupt' septime, dominant 
yth. . . Haupt' stinime, principal part. . . 
Haupt' thema, first or principal theme. 
..Haupt' ton, {a) root (of a chord; in 
recent theory, the //t/i of the minor 
triad) ; {b) key-note ; (c) see Haupt- 
note... Haupt' tonart, the principal or 
ruling key in a composition. . . Haupt' - 
werk (abbr. //. IV.), great organ. 
Hausse (Fr.) Nut (of a bow). . .Hausser, 

to raise (the pitch). 
Haut,-e (Fr.) High, acute. ..//(? /'/«'- 
contre, high tenor. . .Haut-dessus, high 
soprano. . .Haute-taille, high tenor. 
Hautbois (Fr.) Oboe...//. d\imour, 

see Oboe. 
Hautboist' (Ger.) A player in a military 

Haut'boy. Oboe. 

Head. I. Point (of bow).— 2. In the 
violin, lute, etc., the part above the 
neck, comprising peg-bo.x: and scroll. — 
3. In the drum, the membrane stretched 
over one or both ends. — 4. In a note, 
the oval (formerly square or diamond- 
shaped) part which determines its place 
on the sl^.^. ..Head-tones, Head-voice, 
the vocal tones of the head-register; 
opp. to chest-tones, etc. 
Heel. (Ger. Stdckchen [des Raises] ; 
Fr. talon [de la manche].) In the violin , 
etc., the wooden elbow or brace by 
which the neck is firmly fastened to the 
Heer'pauke (Ger.) An old and very 

large form of kettledrum. 
Heftig (Ger.) Vehement, impetuous, 


passionate (also adverb) 
vehemence, passion. 

Heim'lich (Ger.) Secret, mysterious; 
furtive, stealthy, clandestine. (Also 

Hei'ter (Ger.) Serene, cheerful, glad. 
(Also adverb.) 

Hel'dentenor (Ger.) See Tenor i. 

Hel'icon. (Ger. Helikon.) i. An an- 
cient instr. for illustrating the theory of 
the mus. intervals, consisting of 9 
strings stretched across a square reso- 
nance-box. — 2. A brass wind-instr. of 
recent invention, used chiefly in mili- 
tary music as a bass ; its tube is bent to 
form a circle, and it is carried over the 
shoulder. It is constructed in various 
pitches {F, E->, C, B')), and of broad 
scale, so that its lowest natural tone 
speaks (2 octaves 

below the notes 
on the bass-staff 15™ 
Helper. An octave-pipe set beside and 
sounding with another of 8-foot pitch, 
for the sake of brilliancy. 
Hemidemisemiqua'ver. A 64th-note, 

..H.-rest, a 64th-rest. 
Hemidiapen'te. In Gk. music, a dimin- 
ished fifth. 
Hemidi'tone. In Gk. music, a minor 

Hemio'la, Hemio'lia(Gk.) i. In ancient 
music, quintuple rhythm (5-4, 5-3 time). 
—2. The interval of a fifth (2 : 3).— 3- 
A triplet (3 .2). — 4. In mensurable no- 
tation, see Notation, §3, Color. 
Hem'iphrase. A half-phrase. 
Hem'itone. In Greek music, the inter- 
val of a half-tone (256: 243). the mod- 
ern (diatonic) semitone being 16: 15. 
Hep'tachord. In Greek music, a dia- 
tonic series of 7 tones, with one semi- 
tone-step between the 3rd and 4th.— 
2. The interval of a major 7tb.— 3- A. 
7-stringed instr. —4. The 7-tone scale. 
Hep'tad, Heptadec'ad. See Duodene 
Herab'strich (Ger.) Down-bow. 
Herauf'strich(Ger.) See Hinaufstrich. 
Heroic. (Ger, hero'isch; Fr. kJroique; 
It. ero'ico,-a.) Grand, imposing, noble, 
bold, daring (in conception, or con- 
struction). . .The " Heroic Symphony 
(Sinfoni'a ero'ica) by Beethoven is the 
Third, Op. 55 in Eq.. -Heroic verse, 
{a) in classical poetr>', the hexameter ; 
<!?) in Engl. , Ger., It. poetry, the iambic 



of lo syllables ; (<) in Fr. poetry, the 

Her'strich (Cer., "hither-stroke".) 
Down-bow (on the 'cello and double- 

Herun'terstrich (Ger.) Down-bow (on 
the violin, etc.) 

Her'zig (Gen, "hearty," "heartily".) 
Same as Innig, but perhaps imj>lies 
greater naivete. 

Hes (Ger., " //fc>.") Unusual for (Ger.) 

^[ = (Eng:.)Bt>]...^./.., Bb7. 
Heu'len (Ger.) Ciphering, 

Hex'achord, i. In Greek music, (</) a 
diatonic series of 6 tones ; {b) the inter- 
val of a major sixth. — 2. See Soli/ii- 

Hexam'eter. The usual hexameter-line 
has 6 feet, the first 4 being dactyls or 
spondees, the 5th a dactyl or spondee, 
and the 6th a spondee or trochee, thus : 

Hidden. See Octave. 

Hift'horn (Ger.) A kind of wooden 

hunting-horn producing 2 or 3 tones ; 

there were 3 varieties, the Zin'ke (high), 

Halli' riidenhorn (medium), and Rii'doi- 

horn (low pitch). 

Hilfs- (Ger.) Auxiliary. . ./////"//////V, 
leger-line. . .ZT/Z/J-';/^'/.', auxiliary note. 
. .Hilfs' st'uiiine, mutation-stop. — (Of- 
ten Jliilfs-.) 

Hinauf'strich (Ger.) Up-bow (on the 
violin, etc.) 

Hin'strich(Ger., " thither-stroke".) Up- 
bow (on the 'cello, and double-bass). 

Hin'tersatz (Ger.) In old German or- 
gans, a mixture-stop placed behind the 
diapason, which it reinforced. 

Hip'pius. I. A metrical foot of 4 syl- 
lables, 3 long and i short ; called ist, 
2nd, 3rd or 4th hippius according as 
the short syllable occupies the ist, 2nd, 
3rd or 4th place. —2. Same as Molossits. 

His (Ger.) ^%. . .His'is,^-x . 

Histor'icus (Lat.) Narrator (oratorio). 

Hobo'e (Ger.) See Oboe. 

Hoch (Ger.) High, a.cnX.e. . .Hoch'amt, 
high MsiSS. . . //oc/i'zeitsmarsek, wed- 

Hock'et. An early form of contrapuntal 
vocal composition in 2 or 3 parts, char- 
acterized by the frequent and sudden 
interruption, in rapid alternation, of the 
vocal parts, producing a spasmodic, 

" hiccupy " effect; chiefly in vogue 
during the 12th and 13th centuries. 
(Also spelled hoquet, hocquet, Aoquetus, 
ochctus, etc.) 

Hoh'e (Ger.) High pitch, acuteness ; 
high register (e. g. '''' Obo' enhdhe'\\i\^- 
est notes of the oboe). 

Hohrflote (Ger. ; Fr. flilte crense; the 
smaller sizes are also called Hohlpfei- 
feit.) In the organ, an open flue-stop 
of broad scale, usually with eared pipes, 
having a dark, mellow timbre, some- 
what hollow (whence the name), gener- 
ally of 8 or 4-foot pitch, seldom of 16' 
or 2 . As a mutation-stop in the fifth 
it is called the Ilokl'quinte. 

Hold. {Ger. Fer ma' te; Yx. point d^ arret, 
coiironne; It. ferma'ia, coro'na.) The 
sign ^ over, or vi/ under, a note or 
rest, indicating the indefinite prolonga- 
tion of its time-value, at the performer's 
discretion, in accordance with the 
rhythm of the composition. . .In orches- 
tral scores often called (Ger.) Gejieral'- 
faiise, {\t.) pa'tisa genera'le. — (In Eng- 
land, usually called a Patise.)—V\a.cedi 
over a bar or double-bar, the hold in- 
dicates a slight pause or breathing-spell 
before attacking what follows ; opp. in 
this sense to Attacca. 

Holding-note. A note sustained in one 
part while the others are in motion. 
[Staixer a.nd Barrett.] 

Holz'blaser (Ger., sing, and pi.) Play- 
er(s) on wood wind-instr.s. (Abbr. 
Ilzbl.'). . . Ilo/z'bla sins triune 12 te, wood 
wind-instr.s; technically, the "wood- 
wind ". 

Hol'zernes Gelach'ter KGer.) Xylo- 

Holz'harmonika ) phone. 

Homophone (Fr.) The enharmonic of 
a given tone, as (/of rx , a'p of r^, etc. 

Homophonic,-ous. (Tit., alike in sound 
or pitch.) I. In earlier music, unison- 
ous, in unison ; opp. to antiphonic. — 2. 
In modern music, a style in which one 
vielody or part, supported to a greater 
or less extent by chords or chordal 
combinations, (i. e. an accompanied 
melody), predominates, is called homo- 
phonic ; opp. to polyphonic . . .HomO' 
phony, homophonic music; opp. to an- 
tiphony and polyphony. (See Monody^ 

Hook. (Ger. Fah'ne, Fahn'chen ; Fr. 
crochet ; It. co'da nncina'ta.) A stroke 
attached to the stems of eighth-notes, 
i6th-notes, etc. (J** * ). Also Flag, 



Hoquetus. Hocket. 

Ho'rae cano'nicae (Lat.) The canonical 

Horn, (Ger. Horn ; Fr. cor; It. cor'jio.) 
One of a group of brass wind-instr.s 
distinguished by the following charac- 
teristics : Cupped mouthpiece of coni- 
cal shape ; conical tube, narrow and 
long, variously bent upon itself (the 
smallest horn generally used, in high 
Bp, has a tube nearly g feet long ; that 
an octave lower in pitch, nearly i8 feet), 
wide and flaring bell ; the tone is rich 
and mellow, sonorous and penetrating ; 
the compass lies between the 2nd and 
1 6th tones of the harmonic scale. The 
older naturalox French I/or)i, yielding 
only the natural tones supplemented by 

"stopped tones", has a fairly com- 
plete chromatic scale of 2 octaves and a 
fifth, from the 3rd partial (lowered by 
stopping) up to the i6th partial; there 
are 16 crooks in all, Ig 

giving a total possible I __-. 

compass of 3 % octaves: bw 
but only 8 or 10 are in general use in 
the symphony-orchestra ; the following 
tones at either end of this scale are 
difficult : 

u; there 


^ -4- 



Actual p' tch : 

Thus the highest " safe " tones on the 
horns in common use would be (accord- 
ing to Gevaert): 

Horn in 

Notation : 



F G Ab A Bb (C) 

Partial tone 16 16 15 14 
The stopped tones have a peculiarly 
sombre quality, and are often utilized 
for special effects ; they can be pro- 
duced on the valve-horn in exactly the 
Bt) C D Eb E 

13 13 12 10 10 10 10 

same manner as on the natural horn 
(also comp. Trumpet). This modern 
Valve-horn is usually constructed in 
the following sizes [RiemannJ: 

F G Ab A Bb C 


) , ^ _, n ^ ^ b ^=(=g) 


the given pitch-note being in each case 
the 2nd partial tone (octave of the gen- 
erator), and repre- Wf. - the horn be- 
sented in each . ing a trans- 
case by the note: '^ posing in- 
str. ; when the C-cIef is employed, the 
notes are written an octave higher than 
when noted in the /-clef, consequently 



Horn-band. A band of trumpeters... 
Russian horn-band^ a band of perform- 
ers on hunting-horns, each of which 
produces but one tone, the number of 
players and instr.s being equal to that 
of the scale-tones required by any given 
piece ; e. g. 37 for the chromatic scale 
of 3 octaves. 

Horner (Ger.) Plural of Horn, equiv. to 
corni. (Abbr. Hr,') 


Horning. A mock serenade with tinhorns 
and other discordant instr.s, performed 
either in humorous congratulation, as of 
a newly married couple, or as a mani- 
festation of public disapproval, as of 
some obnoxious person. (Local U. S.) 
[Century Dict.] — A callithumpian 

Horn'musik (Ger.) .See Harmoniemusik, 

Hornpipe, i. An obsolete English 
mus. instr. — 2. An old English dance 
in lively tempo, the earlier ones in 3-2 
time with frequent syncopations, and 
the later in 4-4 time ; very popular 
during the iSth century. 

Horn'quinten (Ger., "horn-fifths".) The 
covered fifths produced by the natural 
tones of n I 1 J_ 

Horn'sordin (Ger.) Mute for a horn. 



Hosan'na; Hosian'na (Hebr.) Lit. 
"save, I pray"; an interjection used as 
a prayer for deliverance or as an accla- 
mation. — In the Mass, a part of the 

Hue'huetl (Aztec.) (Also huehuitl, vevtl, 
ilapanhttehuetl.) Drum of the abori- 
gines in Mexico and Central America, 
consisting of a section of a log hollowed 
out, carved on the outside, from 3 to 4 
feet in height, as thick as a man's body, 
and set upon a tripod. The upper end 
was furnished with a head of leather or 
parchment which could be tightened or 
relaxed, thus raising or lowering the 
tone. It was struck with the fingers, 
and considerable skill was required to 
play it. From the indistinct accounts 
of the old Spanish writers it appears to 
have yielded, in conjunction with the 
Teponaztli, a rude harmonic bass accom- 

Huit-pieds (Fr.) Same as Halbe Orgel. 

Hulfs- (Ger.) See Hilfs-. 

Hum'mel, Hiim'melchen (Ger.) i. A 
drone. — 2. An obsolete organ-stop, by 
drawing which 2 reed-pipes were caused 
to sound continuously until it was 
pushed in. — 3. The Balalaika, which 
has a sympathetic string. — 4. The 
" drones " of the hurdy-gurdy. 

Humoresque. (Ger. Humores'ke.) A 
composition of humorous or fantastic 
style. See Caprice. 

Hurdy-gurdy. (Ger. Dreh'leier, Bau'- 
ernleier; Fr. vielle ; It. li'7-a tedf'sca.) 
A stringed instr. with a body shaped like 
that of a lute or guitar, and from 4 to 6 
strings, only 2 of which are melody- 
strings, the others being merely drones 
tuned a fifth apart. The melody-strings 
(compass ^ J^ are stopped by 

about 2 &^ — y ) means of keys 

octaves : •-' -*- controlled by 

the left hand ; the right hand turns 
a crank at the tail-end of the instr., 
which causes a rosined wheel impinging 
on all the strings to revolve, thus pro- 
ducing the harsh and strident tone. 
This wheel and the key-mechanism are 
contained in an oblong box correspond- 
ing to the neck of the lute, etc., but set 
directly on the belly, only the peg-box 
and head projecting beyond. The 
melody-strings pass through this box, 
and are attached to a tailpiece ; the 
drones lie outside. The music pro- 
duced is of the rudest description. 

The hurdy-gurdy was in great vogue 
from the loth to the 12th century. 

Hur'tig (Ger. ) Quick, brisk, svfMt; presto. 

Hydrau'licon. An hydraulic organ. 

Hydraulic organ. (Ger. IVas'serorgel; 
Gk. hydraii' los ; Lat. or'gnuum hydrau'- 
Hcum.) A small kind of organ, inv. by 
Ktesibios of Alexandria (180 B. C.), in 
which the wind-pressure was regulated 
by water. 

Hymn. (Ger. and Fr. Hytnne; It. in'no) 
A religious or sacred song ; usually, a 
metrical poem to be sung by a congre- 
gation... In foreign usage, a national 
song of lofty character, such as the 

Hy'per (Gk.) Over, above ; often occurs 
in compounds, as hyperdiapa'son, the 
octave above ; hyperdiapen'te, the fifth 
above, etc. . .In the Greek transposing 
scales (see Greek music) hyper signified 
a fourth higher. (Lat. equivalent super.) 

Hypercatalectic. In dipodic versifica- 
tion, a line having a redundant half- 
foot (either thesis or arsis) is thus 
termed ; hypercatalexis being such state 
of redundancy. 

Hy'po (Gk.) Under, below ; frequent 
in compounds, as hypodiapa'son, the 
octave below, hypodiapen'te, the fifth 
below, hypodit' onos , the third below. . . 
In the Greek transposing scales (see 
Greek music) and the church-modes 
(see Mode), hypo signified a fourth 
below ; in the ancient Greek modes, a 
fifth below. (Lat. equivalent sub.) 


I (It., masc. pi.) The. 

lam'bus. A metrical foot of 2 syllables, 
one short and one long, with the ictus 
on the long (-' -^). 

las'tian. Same as Ionian. 

Ic'tus. Accent or stress, either rhythmi- 
cal or metrical. 

Idea. A musical idea is a figure, motive, 
phrase or strain, with or without har- 
monic concomitants ; also, a fully de- 
veloped theme or subject. 

Id^e fixe (Fr.) Berlioz's term for an 
oft-recurring and characteristic idea or 
theme ; a sort of leading-motive. 

I'dyl. (Ger. and Fr. Idyl'le; It. idil'lio.) 
A composition of a pastoral or tenderly 
romantic character. 



II (It., masc. sing.) The. 

Imboccatu'ra (It.) i. Mouthpiece (of 
a wind-instr.) — 2. Li/> 2. 

Imbro'glio (It.) " Embroilment, con- 
fusion". A passage in which the rhythm 
of the different parts is sharply con- 
trasted and perplexing in effect. 

Iraitan'do (It.) Imitating. 

Imitation. (Lat. imita'tio; Fr. imitation; 
It. imi/azio'tie; Ger. N'ach'ahmung.) 
The repetition of a motive, phrase or 
theme proposed by one part (the ante- 
cedent) in another part (the consequent), 
with or without modification.../, at 
the fifth, octave, etc., that in which the 
consequent follows the antecedent at 
the interval of a fifth, octave, etc. . ./. by 
augmentation, that in which the time- 
value of each note of the antecedent is 
increased according to a certain ratio in 
the consequent (J = J, or J = J. etc). 
../. by diminution, that in which the 
time-value of each note in the ante- 
cedent is decreased according to a cer- 
tain ratio in the consequent (J = J 
etc.).../. by inversion, that in which 
each ascending interval of the ante- 
cedent is answered by a like descend- 
ing interval in the consequent, and 
descending intervals by ascending ones. 
..Canonic i., strict imitation (see Ca- 
non)... Free i., that in which certain 
modifications of the antecedent are per- 
mitted in the consequent (e. g. augmen- 
tation, diminution, reversed imitation, 
as explained above ; or when certain 
intervals are answered by others, the 
time-value of certain notes altered, etc.); 
opposed to Strict imitation, in which 
the consequent answers the antecedent 
note for note and interval for interval . 
..Retrograde i., that in which the 
theme is repeated backwards {recte e 
retro); see Cancrizans. 

Ini'mer (Ger.) Always ; continuously ; 
immer starker werdend, continually 
growing louder ; immer langsamer , 
slower and slower ; immer langsam, 
slowly throughout. 

Immuta'bilis (Lat.) One of the fl^r(-;;/MJ- 

Impazien'te (It.) Impatient, restless, 
vehement. . .Impazientemen' te, impa- 
tiently, etc. 

Imperfect cadence, consonance, in- 
terval, measure. Seethe nouns... 
Imp. time, see Notation, §3. 

Imperfection, i. See Notation, §3. — 
2. In a ligature, the presence of a breve 
as final note, indicated by using the 
figura obliqua ( fa ). 

Imperio'so,-a (It.) Imperious, haughty, 

Im'peto (It) Impetuosity ... C(?« i., or 
impetiiosamen'te, impetuously. . .Impe- 
tuosita', impetuosity ... /w/c/^ci'j-o, -a, 

Implied discord. An interval which, 
though not itself dissonant, is contained 
within a dissonant chord ; e. g. a ma- 
jor third in [J^;z3I^ — .. .Implied in- 
the chord : 1^— ^^ ierval (in tho- 
rough-bass), an interval not indicated 
by a figure, but understood, 2 
e. g. the sixth and foiirih ^-'^—^t— 
in a chord of the second : L ^" 

Imponen'te (It.) Imposing, impressive. 

Impresa'rio (It.) The agent or mana- 
ger of a traveling opera or concert-com- 
pany. — Occasionally, an instructor of 
singers in opera or concert. 

Impromp'tu. i. An improvisation. — 
2. A composition of loose and extem- 
poraneous form and slight develop- 
ment ; a fantasia. 

Imprope'ria (Lat., "reproaches".) In 
the Roman ritual, a series of antiphons 
and responses forming part of the 
solemn service substituted, on the 
morning of Good Friday, for the usual 
daily Mass. 

Impropri'etas (Lat.) A term applied 
to a ligature when its first note is not a 
breve, but a long; indicated, when the 
second note ascends, by a descending 
tail to the right or left of the first ; 
when the second note descends, by the 
absence of the tail. Opp. to Proprietas. 

Improvisation. Extemporaneous music- 
al performance. 

Improviser (Fr.) To improvise. . ./w- 
provisateur {-trice), a male (female) im- 

Improvisier'maschine (Ger.) A melo- 

Improwisa're (It.) To improvise... 
Im'provvisamen'te, extemporaneously. 
. .Improvvisa'ta, an improvisation, im- 
promptu . . . Improvvisato're {-tri'ce), a 
male (female) improviser. . ..4lTimprov- 
vi'sta, extempore. 

In'betont (Ger.) With mediate accent 
(See Abbetont.) 



Incalzan'do (It.) "Pursuing hotly." 

See Slringt'udo. 
Incarna'tus. Part of the Credo. See 

Inch of Wind. See JVeight 
Inchoa'tio (Lat.) The introductory tones 

or intonation of a plain-song chant. 

Incomplete stop. A partial stop (or- 

Incrociamen'to (It.) Crossing. 

Indeci'so (It.) Undecided. 

Independent chord, harmony, triad. 
One which is consonant (i. e. contains 
no dissonance), and is therefore not 
obliged to change to another by pro- 
gression or resolution ; opp. to Depe)id- 

Index. Same as Direct. 

Indifferen'te (It.) Indifferent, careless. 
. .Indifferentemen' te, or con indiffc- 
ren'za, indifferently, etc. 

Inferna'Ie (It.) Infernal, hellish. 

Infinite canon. (It. ca'none injini'to.) 
See Caiii'iir. 

Inflati'lia (Lat.) Inflatile or wind-in- 

Infrabass' (Ger.) Subbass. 

Ingan'no (It.) Deceit. . . Caden'za d'in- 
gaiiiio, deceptive cadence. 

Ingres'sa. Name of the Introit in the 
Ambrosian rite. 

In'halt (Ger.) Contents , idea, concep- 
tion ; subject-matter. 

Inharmonic relation. See False rela- 
tion . 

Inner parts. Parts lying between the 
highest and lowest. ..///;/ tv- pedal, a 
pedal-point in such part or parts. 

In'nig (Ger.) Heartfelt, sincere ; fer- 
vent, intense ; with deep, true feeling ; 
equivalent to It. affettuo'so, con ciffel'- 
to; in'tiino, ijitimis' simo . . .Mit in'- 
nigem Aus'druck, with heartfelt ex- 
pression . . . In'nigkeit, deep emotion or 
feeling, fervency, intensity. . ./«'«4'- 
lick, same as Innig. 

fn'no (It.) Hymn. 

Innocen'te (It.) Natural, unaffected. . . 
Innocenteinen'te, naturally, artlessly. . . 
Innocen'za, naturalness, artlessness, etc. 

In no'mine (, "in the name".) i. 

A kind of motet or antiphon. — 2. See 

Fuga in nomine. 
Tnquie'to (It.) Unrestful, restless. _ 

Insensi'bile (It.) Imperceptible. . ./«- 

sensibilmen' te, insensibly. 

Insisten'do (It.) Insistently, urgently, 
with strong stress. (Also con insistent 

In'standig (Ger.^ Urgent, pressing. 
(Also adverb.') 

Instan'te (It.) Urgent, pressing...//?- 

stanteinen'te, urgently, etc. 
instrument. (Ger. and Yx. Instrument' ; 
It. instruinen' to, istruinen' to, stronien'- 
to, strii/noi'to.) A list of the principal 
modern instruments is given opposite, 
according to Gevaert's classification ; 
the asterisk (*) indicates that the instr. is 
little used in the orchestra ; the brack, 
ets ([ ]), that it is obsolete, ornearlyso 

^strument (Fr ) I. a archet, bow-in, 
strument. . .1. a cordes, stringed instru- 
ment. . .1. h percussion, percussive in- 
strument. . ./. a vent, wind-instrument. 

Instrumentation. (Ger. Insirumentie'- 
rung; Fr. instrumentation; It. istru- 
mentazio'jie.) The theory and practice 
of composing, arranging, or adapting 
music for a body of instruments of dif- 
ferent kinds, especially for orchestra. 
(See Orchestra, Orchestration.) — In- 
strnmentieriing (Ger.) is a term also oc- 
casionally applied to pfte. -music to de- 
note dynamic shading and variety of 
touch ; sometimes with reference to all, 
at others to single, parts. 

Intavola're (It.) i. To write out or 
copy in tablature or score. — 2. To set 
to music. ..Intavolatu'ra, («) tablature ; 
{l>) notation ; (c) figured bass. 
In'teger va'lor nota'rum ( "In- 
tegral value of the notes", i. e. their 
absolute duration at an average tempo, 
a question of high importance before 
the invention of tempo-marks and the 
metronome. Michael Prsetorius saya 
( 1621)), that about 80 tempora (=breves, 
the tempus, or unit of measure, then 
being the breve ^ ) should fill 7>^ 
minutes, thus: 

80 !^ =7i minutes 
105 1^ =1 min. = iOj M.M.; hence 
O ~2\\ M.M.; ^ =42f M.M.; and 
|=85iM.M. (J=85JM.M.) 


Intenziona'to (It.) With stress, em- 

Interlude. I. An intermezzo. — 2. An 



C--i' stringed Instruments. 

I. with 4 strings 

j Violin, Viola, 

r " 

Violoncello, Double-bass 
ra) by a bow -{ ^_ ^^.j^j^ ^^^^ ^^^^ , *Vu,\a. d'amore 

A. Strings, rubbed i j 4 strings "( [Viols, various] 

(.b) by a wheel turned by a crank Hurdy-gnrd}\ Piano-violin 

( \k .K fi J I. without fingerb. Harp 

B. Strings, plucked - ''' ''^ tne lingers -j ^ ^^,;jj^ fingerboard *Guitar, *Mandolin, *Zither, [Lute] 

' b) by a keyboard-mechanism [Harpsichord] 

C. Strings, percuss- j a) directly by the player *Zimbalon (or Tympanon), xylophone 

ed t b) by a keyboard-niechanisni 

A. With 

mouth- j a) lateral 

' b) whistle-like 


II. 'Wind-Instruments. 

Flutes, Piccolos, Fife 

B. With reed 

C. With mouth- 

fa) cylindrical tube + beating reed 
b) conical tube -\- beating reed 

^c) conical tube + double reed 

'a) natural 

b) chromatic 

1. with slide 

2. with holes (keys) 

with valves (pis- 

[Flutes a bee], *Flageolet 

^[Chalumeau], clarinets, *alt-cla- 
rinet (basset-horn), bass-cl. 
Saxophones, *octavin 

fOboe,*hautbois d"amour, alt-oboe or 
cor anglais 
Bassoon, quint-bassoon, double-bas- 
{Horn, natural 
Trumpet, natural 
*Bugle, military 
Trombones, slide-trumpet 
[Cornetto, Serpent] 

or key-trumpet 

I [Cornetto, S( 
-\ *Key-bugle, 
I *Ophicleide 

D. Polyphonic 

( a) without keyboard 
j b) with keyboard \ 

Valve -trumpet 

Valve-trombone, (*alto, tenor, *bass) 
Cornet a pistons 

Valve-bugles or saxhorns ; Tubas or 
I. saxhorns 

1. with tubes 

2. without tubes 


Haimonium, *Vocalion 

III. Instruments of Percussion. 

A. With a mem- ( a) with tones of determinate pitch 

brane \ b) with tones of indeterm.. pitch 

i a) with tones of determinate pitch 

B. Autophonic 

b) with tones of indeterm. pitch 


Bass drum, side-drum, etc. 
Bells, carillons. Glockenspiel 
J Triangle, cymbals, tam-tam, 
1 tanets, etc. 

instrumental strain or passage connect- 
ing the lines or stanzas of a hymn, etc. 
— 3. An instrumental piece played 
between certain portions of the church 
service (Lat. inierlu'diimi). 

Intermfede (Fr.) i. Interlude \.—i. An 
operetta in one act. 

Interme'dio (It., dimin. intermedict'to.) 
Interlude 2. 

Intermez'zo (It.) Intermezzi were or'irr. 
inally short mus. entr'actes in the Italian 
tragedies, of a very simple description, 
and quite independent of each other ; 
towards the end of the l6th century 
they assumed larger proportions ; finally 
they were treated as separate parts of 
a whole mus. drama, of a less serious 
cast than the principal work which they 
were intended to embellish, their acts 
alternating with those of the latter. — 

Having reached this stage, they merely 
had to be detached from the larger work 
to form a self-existent operet/a or opera 
hiiffa. — Instrumental music sometimes 
takes the place of the old intermezzi in 
modern dramas (e. g. that to the " Mid- 
summer-night's Dream," by Mendels- 
sohn)... The term interjnezzo is also 
technically applied to many short move- 
ments connecting the main divisions of 
a symphony or other extended work ; 
sometimes to entire long movements, 
or even to independent compositions.. . 
Interm'ez'zi in the Suite are such dances 
(movements) as do not form one of its 
regular constituent parts, but are occa- 
sionally introduced for variety's sake, 
and usually between Sarabande and 

Interrogati'vus. One of the accentus eccl. 



Interrot'to (It.) Interrupted. . ./«/<•;- 
ruzio'ne, interruption. 

Interval. {l^'dX.. interval' lutn ; Ger. In- 
ti'rviil!' ; Fr. intervalle ; It. interval' h.) 
The difference in pitch between 2 tones. 
— For naming the various intervals 
there are 2 systems in vogue ; both are 
founded upon and derived from the 
names of the intervals formed, in the 
diatonic major scale, between the key- 
note and the successive ascending de- 
grees ; in both the ist degree is called 
a Prime' (or First), the 2nd a Second, 
the 3rd a Third (or Tierce), 4th a 
Fourth (or Quart), 5th a Fifth (or 
Quint), 6th a Sixth (or Sext), 7th a 
Seventh (or ^c//), and the 8th an Octave 
(or Eighth). In the typical scale of C- 
major the standard intervals are as 
follows, counting upward from the key- 
note, C : 


(i) The older system, that in general 
use, will be explained first ; premising, 
that intervals are always considered as 
measured upwards from the lower tone 
to the higher, unless expressly accom- 
panied with the epithet below or lower. 
Table III includes the standard inter- 
vals and their direct derivatives between 



Table III shows {A) that each major 
or /('/-yVt/ interval, when widened by a 
semitone, becomes augmented ; that 
each major interval, narrowed by a 
semitone, becomes 7>iinor; and that 
each t?iinor or perfect interval, narrowed 
by a semitone, becomes diminished ; 

(B) that by inverting the intervals : 


a Perfect interval becomes perfect 

a Major " " minor 

a Minor " " major 

an Augmented " " diminished 

a Diminished " " augmented ; 

(C) the regular order of the standard 
intervals according to their pitch (com- 
pare Vibration), both in Just Intona- 
tion and Equal Temperament, inter- 
vals bracketted together being Enhar- 

monic ; {D) the division of the Octave 
in Equal Temperament. 

(2) In the newer system, all the 
standard interv'als are called major; 
any major interval widened by a semi- 
tone becomes augmented, if narrowed 
by a semitone, it is minor ; and any 
minor interval narrowed by a semitone 
becomes diminished ; 


Inter- Ma- Aug- 
vals. jor. mented. ' 
Second...C— D C— Djt C-Dt> C-Dt>t) or C«— Db 

Minor. Diminished. 


— E 




— (1 




— B 


— C 





— B(i!> 





The latter system is simpler and more 
consistent than the old, and might be 
advantageously substituted for it if all 
leading musicians Ln England and 
America would agree to adopt it ; other- 
wise, its occasional use can serve only 
to increase the confusion unhappily pre- 
vailing in English musical terminology. 
In this Dictionary the older system is 
adhered to throughout. An interval is : 
— Augmented, when wider by achroma- 
tic semitone than major or perfect. . . 
Chromatic, when occurring between a 
key-tone and a tone foreign to the key. 
. . Compound, when wider than an oc- 
tave ; thus a Ninth is an Octave plus a 
Second, a Tenth is an Octave plus a 
Third, etc. . .Consonant, when not re- 
quiring resolution (comp. Consonance). 
. .Diatonic, when occurring between 2 
tones belonging to the same key (ex- 
ceptions, the augm. 2nd and 5th of 
the harmonic minor scale). . .Dimin- 
ished, when a chromatic semitone nar- 
rower than minor or perf ect . . . Z>/.f j-^- 
nant, when requiring resolution (comp. 
Dissona)ice). . .Enharmonic, when both 
its tones, though having different letter- 
names, are represented by one and the 
same tone on an instr. of fixed intona- 
tion. . .Extreme, see Augmented. . . 
Flat, see Diminished. . .Harmonic, 
when both tones are sounded together. . . 
Imperfect, see Diminished. . .Inverted, 
when the higher tone is lowered, or the 
lower tone raised, by an octave (see 
Table I). . .Major ; according to Table 
I, the major intervals of the major 
scale are the Second, Third, Sixth, and 
Seventh ; ace. to Table II, all its inter- 
vals are ma.]OT .. .Melodic, when the 2 
tones are sounded in succession . . . 



Inverted Inter- 

Perfect Octave" 

Dimin. Octave" 

(25 : 48) 

Major Seventh 
(8 ■• 15) 

Minor Seventh 

(9: 16) 
Dimin. Seventh 

(75 : 128) 
Major Sixth 


Minor Sixth 

Augm. Fifth 
(16 : 25) 

Dimin. Sixth 
(675 : 1024) 

Perfect Fifth 


Dimin. Fifth 

(25 : 36) 

Augm. Fourth 
(18 : 25) 

Perfect Fourth 

Dimin. Fourtli 
(25 : 32) 

Major Third 

Minor Third 

Dimin. Third 
(225 : 256) 

Major Second 

Minor Second 
(15 : 16) 

Augm. Prime 
(128: 135) 

Perfect Prime 


WW? ""• 




Perfect Prime 

Augm. Prime 



Minor .Second 

(Step of Lead- 

Major Secondf 

Augm. Second 
Minor Third 
Major Third 
Dimin. Fourtli 
Augm. Tliird 
Perfect Fourth 
Augm. Fourth 
Dimin. Fifth 
Perfect Fifth 
Augm. Fifth 
Minor Sixth 
Major Sixth 
Augm. Si.xth 
■ Minor Seventh 
Major Seventh 
•4— Dimin. Octave 
"Perfect Octave 

Vibrational Ratio in 

Just In- 

I : I 

128 : 135 

15 : 16 


64: 75 


4: 5 

25 : 32 
512 : 675 

3 : 4 

18 : 25 

25 : 36 

2: 3 

16 : 25 

3: 5 

128 : 225 

9 : 16 






Division of 

Octave in 

Equal Tem- 












I. 00000 

* The greater chromatic Second ; the lesser (e. g. d-J'$,) is 24 : 25. 
f The greater whole tone ; the lesser (e. g. d-e) is 9 " 10. 



Minor, when a chromatic semitone nar- 
rower than major or perfect. . .Perfect: 
the Prime, Fourth, Fifth, and Octave. 
. .Redundant, see. Augmented. . Sharp, 
see AuiTjnented. ■ .SiiJip/e, when not 
wider fhan the Octscvt. .. Superfluous, 
see Augmented. 

In'timo, Intimis'simo (It.) Compare 
In nig. 

Intona're (It.) To intone. 

Intonation, i. The production of tone, 
either instrumental or vocal, especially 
the latter ; when applied to the pitch of 
the tone produced, it is said to be cor- 
rect, pure, just, true, etc., in opposition 
to incorrect, impure, false. — 2. The 
method of chanting employed in Plain 
Song. ^3. The opening notes leading 
up to the reciting-tone of a chant... 
Fixed intonation, see Fixed. 

In'tonator. See Monochord i. 

Intonatu'ra, Intonazio'ne (It.) Intona- 
tion ; pitch. 

Intonie'ren (Ger.) To intone ; also, to 
voice (as organ-pipes) ; voicing. 

Intra 'da. (It. intra' ta, entra'ta ; Ger. 
Intra'de ; Fr. entrt'e.) i. An instru- 
mental prelude or overture, especially 
the pompous introduction to the earlier 
dramas and operas ; hence applied to 
opening movements of various descrip 
tions. —2. See Fnirde. 

Intre'pido,-a (It.) V,o\A. . .Intrepida- 
meii'tc, boldly. . .Iiitrepidez'za, boldness. 

Introduction. A phrase or division pre- 
liminary to and preparatory of a com- 
position or movement ; may vary in 
length from a short strain up to an e.\- 
tended and independent movement. 
(It. introdtizio'ne.) 

Intro'it. (I, at. intro'itus, "entrance"; 
It. intro'ito.) An antiphon sung while 
the priest is approaching the altar to 
celebrate the Mass ; formerly an entire 
psalm, but abbreviated later. — In the 
modern Anglican Church, an anthem or 

Invention. A short piece in free con- 
trapuntal style, developing one motive 
in an impromptu fashion. (Comp. 
Bach's 30 Inventions.) 

Inversion, i. (Ger. Um'kchrung ; Fr. 
renversement; It. ri7iersamen'to, rivol'- 
to.) The transposition of the notes form- 
ing an interval or a fundamental chord : 
— {A) A simple interval is inverted by 
setting its lower note an octave higher. 

or its higher note an octave lower (see 
Intei-val); compound intervals must first 
be reduced to simple ones, and then in- 
verted : — (/)) A chord is inverted when 
its lowest note is not the root ; thus any 
triad has 2 inversions, e.g.: 
a be 

isi inv. ind inv. 
a is the fundamental position; b, 1st in- 
version, or chord of the si.xth ; c, 2nd 
inversion, or chord of the fourth and 
si.xth ; — a chord of the seventh has 3 
inversions, e. g. : 



1st inv. iiidinv. -^rdinv. 
a, fund, position ; b, ist inversion, or 
chord of the fifth and si.xth ; e, 2nd in- 
'emersion, or chord of the third and fourth; 
d, jrdinversion, or chord of the second. 
• — 2. In double counterpoint, the trans- 
position of 2 parts, the higher being set 
below the lower, or vice versa; this trans- 
position may be by an octave or some 
other interval, and is technically termed 
" inversion in the octave", "in the fifth", 
" in the tenth ", etc. — 3. The repetition 
of a tlieme in contrary motion, ascend- 
ing intervals being answered by de- 
scending ones, and vice versa ; also 
called imitation in contrary motion, or 
imitation by inversion. — 4. An organ- 
point is termed inverted when in some 
other part than the lowest. 

Invi'tatory. ( invitato'7-ium) In 
the R. C. Church, the variable antiphon 
to the Venite, at matins ; — in the Greek 
Church, the triple "O come, let us 
worship ", preceding the psalm at each 
of the canonical hours ; — in the Angli- 
can Church, the versicle " Praise ye the 
Lord " with the response " the Lord's 
name be praised ", at matins. 

Ionian. See Mode. 

I'ra (It.) Wrath, passion ; con ira, 
wrathfully, passionately. ..Ira' to, wrath- 
ful, passionate. 

Irlandais,-e (Fr ) Hibernian, Irish. 

Iro'nico,-a(It.) Ironical. . .Ironieamen'- 
te, ironically. 

Irregular cadence. See Cadence. 

Irresolu'to (It.) Irresolute, undecided, 

Isorrhyth'mic. (Ger. isorrhytk'miseh.) 



In prosody, an isorr. foot is one divisi- 
ble into 2 parts containing an equal 
number of rhythmic units, i. e. one 
having thesis and arsis of equal length ; 
as the dactyl ( — i^^ ■^), anapest (-^ ^^i 
— ), and spondee ( — ; — ). 

Istes'so tempo, 1' (It.) " The same 
tempo" (or time) ; signifies (i) that the 
tempo of either the measure or measure- 
note remains as before, after a change 
of time-signature ; or (2) that a move- 
ment previously interrupted is to be re- 
sumed. (Also Lo sksso ictjif'o.) 

Istrumen'to (It.) Instrument. . ./?/;«- 
mend a piz'zico (Ger. Kneif'instrii- 
menie), stringed instr.s plucked with 
fingers or ^\e:Cir\im.. . .Istrumentazio'- 
ne, instrumentation. 

Italian sixth. See Extreme. 

Italien,-ne (Fr.) Italian ; a ritalienne, 
in the Italian style. 

rte, mis'sa est. See 3Iass. 


Jack. I. In the harpsichord and clavi- 
chord, an upright slip of wood on the 
rear end of the key-lever, carrj'ing (in 
the former) a bit of crow-quill set at a 
right angle so as to pluck or twang the 
string, or (in the latter) a metallic tan- 
gent. — 2. In the pfte., the escapement- 
lever, usually called ihe /io/>pcr ov g?-ass- 

Jagd'horn (Ger.) Hunting-horn.. .Jagd'- 
stiick, hunting-piece. 

Ja'gerchor (Ger.) Hunters' chorus ; 

Jale'o (Span.) A Spanish national dance 
for one performer, in 3-8 time and 
moderate tempo. 

Jalousie'schweller (Ger.) The " Vene- 
tian-bhnd " swell. See Siaell. 

Jan'izary music. (Ger. Janitscha'rcn- 
mtisik, music for triangle, cymbals, and 
bass drum.) According to Grove, the 
Janizary band " contained I large and 
3 small oboes, and i piccolo flute, all of 
very shrill character ; i large and 2 
small kettledrums, one big and 3 small 
long drums, 3 cymbals, and 2 triangles". 

Janko keyboard. See Keyboard. 

Jeu (Fr.) I. Style of playing. — 2 {^X.jeux). 
A stop of an organ, harmonium, harp- 
sichord, etc. . .Jeu h botic/ie, flue-slop. 
. .Jeu Ct'leste, see C/leste. . .Jeu d'anehe, 
reed-stop .. .y>i^ d'ange, vox angelica. 

. .Jeu de Jliltes, flute-stop. . .Jeu de mu- 
tation, (a) mutation-stop ; (b) mixture- 
stop. . .Jeu de timbres. Glockenspiel. . . 
Jeu de violes, consort of viols. . .Jeu de 
voix kumaine, vox humana. . . G^;'fl;«^ 
jeu, plein jeu, full organ ; full power. 
. .Demi jeu, half power. 

Jew's-harp. (Ger. Maultroftimel; Fr. 
trompe, giiimbarde ; It. trout' ba^ A 
small instr. with a rigid iron frame, 
within which is adjusted a thin, vibra- 
tile metallic tongue ; the frame is held 
between the teeth, and the metallic 
tongue, being plucked with the finger, 
produces tones reinforced in loudness 
and determined in pitch by the cavity 
(air-space) of the mouth. — P'ormerly also 
jews-trump, trump, tromp. 

Jig. (Fr. and Ger. Gigue; It. gi'ga.) A 
species of country-dance, though with 
all conceivable modifications of step 
and gesture, usually in triple or com- 
pound time, and in rapid tempo. — In 
the Suite, the Gigue is generally the 
last movement. 

Jingles. The disks of metal attached at 
intervals to the hoop of the tambourine. 

Jocula'tor (Lat.) Seejongieitr. 

Jo'deln (verb), Jo'dler (noun) (Ger.) A 
favorite style of singing among the in- 
habitants of the Alps, characterized by 
a frequent and unprepared alternation 
of falsetto tones with those of the chest- 
register. A Jodler is a song or refrain 
sung as above. 

Jongleur (Fr.) A wandering minstrel in 
medieval France, and also in England 
under the Norman kings ; later, a jug- 
gler or mountebank. 

Jo'ta (.Span.) A national dance of north- 
ern Spain, danced by couples, in triple 
time and rapid movement, somewhat 
resembling a waltz, though with innu- 
merable extempore and fantastic varia- 
tions of step, and accompanied by the 
castanets and mandolin, with vocal in- 

Jouer (Fr.) To play (any instrument) ; 
used with de, du, de /'. 

Jour (Fr. , " day.") A corde a jour is an 
open string. 

Ju'ba. A dance of the negroes in the 
Southern States, forming an essential 
feature of the breakdown. 

Ju'bal. (Ger.) An organ-stop of either 
2 or 4-foot pitch. 

Ju'belhorn (Ger.) See Klappenhorn. 



Jubila'te. In the Anglican liturgy, the 
looth psalm, following the second les- 
son in the morning service ; named 
from the first word of the psalm in the 

Jubila'tio (Lat.) In the R. C. musical 
service, the melodic cadence or coda on 
the last syllable of "alleluia"; also 

Ju'bilus (T-at.) I. Same &s Julnlatio. — 
2. An extended melodic phrase or orna- 
ment sung to one vowel. 

Ju'la (Ger.) An obsolete 55-foot organ- 

Jump. I. See Dump. — 2. A leap. 

Jung'fernregal or Jung' fernstinime 
(Ger.) Vox angelica. (Lat. also vox 

Jupiter Symphony. Mozart's 49th (and 
last) symphony, in T-major. 

Juste (Fr.) Just, true, accurate (said of 
intonation). . .Jusiesse, purity (of tone) ; 
correctness, accuracy (of ear or voice). 


Kadenz' (Ger.) Cadence; close; ca- 
denza. . .Ah'gebrochene K., interrupted 
ca.AQncQ. . .Au/'gi'Iialtene K., the fer- 
mata (usually on the \ chord) before 
a cadenza . . . Plagal' kadenz, plagal cz.- 
d&nc&. .. Trug' kadenz, deceptive ca- 
dence. . . Un'vollkommene {voll'kom- 
viene) A'., imperfect (perfect) cadence. 
— Also frequently Schluss (close), 
which see. 

Kalama'ika. A Hungarian national 
dance in 2-4 time and rapid tempo, of 
an animated and passionate character. 

Kalkant' (Ger.) A " bellows-treader" 
of the older German organs. . .Kalkan'- 
tenglockc, bell-signal for the blower. 

Kam.'mer (Ger., imitating It. camera.) 
A private room or small hall . . . Kam'- 
nurkantate, chamber-cantata. . .Ka»i'- 
merkomponist, court-composer (for a 
prince's private band). . .Kajn'merkon- 
zcrt, (rt) chamber-concert, (/') chamber- 
concerto. . . Kam' mermusik, chamber- 
music. . . Kam'mermusiker, court-musi- 
cian. . . Kam' mey Sanger , court-singer. 
. . Kam'merstil, the style of chamber- 
music. .. A'rw'wfvA;;/, normal or stan- 
dard orchestral pitch (now rt'=435); 
see Chorion.. . Kam'jtierviriuos, court- 

Ka'non (Ger.) Canon. 

Kanta'te (Ger.) Cantata. 

Kanun'. A sort of Turkish dulcimer 
or zither with gut strings, played with 
plectra adjusted like thimbles on the 

Kanzel'le (Ger.) Groove (in windchest.) 

Kanzo'ne (Ger.) Canzone. 

Kapel'le (Ger.) i. Especially in the i8th 
century, a company of musicians, either 
instrumentalists or vocalists, or both, 
maintained as part of the establishment 
of a court or nobleman, or of some 
church dignitary. — 2. In modern usage, 
an orchQStrai. . ./iapell'kfiabe, choir- 
boy. . .Kapell'meister, (a) conductor of 
an orchestra ; (d) Choir-master. (Some- 
times literally translated chapel-master.) 
. . KapeW meistermusik, " band-master 
music", i. e. music filled with reminis- 
cences from works familiar to the con- 
ductor-composer, and hence the reverse 
of original. 

Kapodas'ter (Ger.) Capotasto. 

Kassation' (Ger.) Cassazione. 

Kastagnet'ten (Ger., pi.) Castanets. 

Katalek'tisch (Ger.) Catalectic. 

Ka'tzenmusik (Ger., "cat-music".) A 
callithumpian concert, mock serenade. 

Kavati'ne (Ger.) Cavatina. 

Kazoo'. A musical (?) toy, consisting of 
a pasteboard tube furnished with a gut 
string, which vibrates when the per- 
former sings into the tube. 

Keck (Ger.) Bold, confident ; pert. 
(Also adverb.). . .Keck' heit, boldness, 

Keh'le (Ger.) 1\ixoz.1. . .Kehl'fertig- 
keit, vocal sk\\\. . .Kehl'kopf, larynx. 
. . Kehfschlag (Fr. coup de glotte), sud- 
den, firm attack of a vocal tone, the vo- 
cal cords closing and adjusting them- 
selves simultaneously with the emissioa 
of air. 

Kehrab', Kehraus' (Ger.) Familiar 
term for the concluding dance at a 
party or Dall. 

Ken'ner (Ger.) A connoisseur, expert. 

Kent bugle. (Ger. Kenthom.) Key- 

Kerau'lophon. In the organ, an 8-foot 
partial flue-stop, having metal pipes 
of small scale, each surmounted by an 
adjustable ring, and with a hole bored 
near the top ; the tone is soft and 



^at^- | . 1 n g a s 
the head 

reedy. Inv. by Gray and Davidson of 

Keren. A Hebrew trumpet. 

Kes'sel (Ger.) Cup (in mouthpiece of 
brass msiv.s). . .Kes'selpauke, kettle- 
drum (usually simply Pauke). 

Ket'tentriller (Ger.) Chain of trills. 

Kettledrum. (Ger. Pau'ke; Fr. tint- 
bale; It. tim'pano.) The only orches- 
tral drum tuned to accord with other 
instruments. It consists of a hollow- 
brass or copper hemisphere (the kftlle) 
resting on a tripod, with a head of vel- 
lum stretched by means of an iron ring 
and tightened by a set of screws or a 
system of cords z.n6. braces. It is gener- 
ally played in pairs, the larger drum 
yielding any tone from /' to c, and the 

smaller ^^_ 1— ^ — 1 ^-i accord- 

f r o m 
B\) to/: 

is relaxed or tightened. The timpani 
were formerly noted as transposing in- 
str.s (i.e. in f, with the added direction 
" Timpani in i5"r>, inZ^'p," etc.), but now 
the notes desired are generally written. 
As used at first, they took only the tonic 
and dominant of the movement, chiefly 
as a rhythmical reinforcement ; now 
they take very various intervals, and 
are employed to obtain musical and 
dramatic effects. They are struck with 
2 sticks having elastic handles and soft 
knobs of felt, sponge, and the like. 

Key (l). (Ger. Ton'art; Fr. mode, ton; 
It. mo' do, to' no.) The series of tones 
forming any given major ©r minor 
scale, considered with special reference 
to their harmonic relations, particularly 
the relation of the other tones to the 
tonic, or key-note ; the term "scale" 
indicates simply their melodic succes- 
sion. (Comp. Tona/ity.) Each key is 
named after its key-note, as C-major, 
B-minor. See General View, page 108. 
The following keys : 

( C-sharpmaj.[=Z>-fIat maj.] 
( yi-sharpmin.[=i9-flatmin.] 

j C-flat maj.r=j9-major] 

{ ^-flat min.[=C7- sharp min.] 

are comparatively little used, being en- 
harmonically equivalent to the simpler 
keys added in brackets. . Attendant 
keys, see Attendant .. .Chromatic key, 
one having sharps or flats in the signa- 
ture ; opp. to natural k^y .. .Extreme 

key, a remote key . . . Major key, one 
having a major third and major sixth. 
. . Minor key, one having a minor third 
and sixXh. . .A'atural key, one with 
neither sharps nor flats in the signature. 
..Parallel key, {a) a minor key with 
the same key-note as the given major 
key, or vice versa ; (/') same as — Pela- 
tive key, see Relative. . .Remote key, an 
indirectly related key (comp. Phone, §4). 

Key (2). (Ger. Tas'te ; Fr. louche ; It. 
ta'sto.) I. A digital or finger-lever in 
a pfte., organ, etc. — 2. A pedal or foot- 
key in the organ and pedal-piano. 

Key (3). (Ger. Klap'pe ; Fr. cU, clef; 
It. ckia've.) In various wind-instr.s, a 
mechanical contrivance for ooening or 
closing a hole in the side of the tube, 
thus shortening or lengthening the vi- 
brating air-column and consequently 
raising or lowering the pitch of the tone 
produced. The key here replaces the 
finger-tip ; it is attached to a lever 
worked by the finger or thumb, and 
differs in principle from the valve in 
lying flat outside the tube. 

Key (4). A tuning-key. 

Key (5). A clef. (Obsolete.) 

Key-action. In the pfte. or organ, the 
entire mechanism connected with and 
set in action by the keys, including the 

.^ latter themselves. 

Keyboard. (Ger. Klaviatitr' ; Fr. cla- 
vier ; It. tastatii'ra, tastie'rai) The 
keys or digitals of the pfte., organ, etc., 
taken collectively. The modern stand- 
ard keyboard is the product of an evo- 
lution extending over 1,000 years. — Its 
only successful rival at present is the 
Janko keyboard, inv. by Paul Ton 
Jankoof Totis, Hungary, in 1882, which 
presents to the eye the appearance of 
six different rows of keys arranged step- 
wise, one above the other. But the 
corresponding keys in the ist, 3rd, and 
5th rows are all fixed on one key-lever ; 
thus, if C be struck in the ist (lowest) 
row, the corresponding keys in the 3rd 
and 5th rows are depressed ; further, 
the 2nd, 4th, and 6th rows are similarlj" 
connected ; so that any given tone can 
be struck in three different places, ad- 
mitting of the choice of the key most 
convenient to the position of the hand 
at any given instant. The 6 rows are 
therefore arranged in 3 pairs ; in the 
lower row of any pair the succession of 



f'^ ture. 


Knglish. German. 


C dnr 
A moU 

Ut majeur 
La mineur 


Do maggiore 
La minore 



G dur 
E n.uU 

A-major A dur 

F-sharp minor Fis moU 

( E-major E dur 

( C-sharp miner Cis luoll 

— ( B-major H dur 

t^ "l G-sharp minor Gis moll 

-Sz ( F-sharp major Fis dur 
It^ ( D-sharp minor Dis moll 


J D-fiat major 
( B-llat minor 

Ges dur 
Es moll 

Des dur 
B moll 

( A-flat major As dur 
^ F-minor F moll 

j E-flat major Es dur 
{ C-niinor C moll 

j B-flat major B dur 
j G-minor G moll 


Sol majeur 
Mi mineur 

D dur Re majeur 

H moll Si mineur 

La majeur 

Fa diese mineur 

Mi majeur 

Ut diese mineur 

Si majeur 

Sol diese mineur 

Fa diese majeur 
Re diese mineur 

Sol maggiore 
Mi minore 

Re maggiore 
Si minore 

La maggiore 
Fa diesis minore 

Ml maggiore 
Do diesis minore 

Fa diesis maggiore 
Re diesis minore 


Sol bemol majeur Sol bemolle maggiore 
Mi bemol mineur Mi bemolle minore 

Re bemol majeur Re bemolle maggiore 
Si bemol mineur Si bemolle minore 

La bemol majeur La bemolle maggiore 
Fa mineur Fa minore 

Mi bemol majeur Mi bemolle maggiore 
Ut mineur Do minore 

Si bemol majeur Si bemolle maggiore 
Sol mineur Sul minore 

Fa majeur 
Re mineur 

Fa maggiore 
Re minore 


keys \% C D E [white] F% G% A% I 
[black] c [white], etc.; in the upper I 

upper row of keys (in pair) 
lower " " " " " C 

Consequently, a chromatic scale is 
played by the simple alternation be- 
tween the successive keys of any 2 ad- 
joining rows ; the fingering of all the 
major scales is uniform, and all minor 
scales are also fingered alike. The 
width of an octave on the ordinary key- 
board is just that of a tenth on this ; so 
that large hands can stretch a thirteenth, 
or even a fourteenth (^'-^'^p). 
Key-bugle. See Bugle. 

row : Ci D% [black] F GA B [white] 
c% [black], etc.: 

C# D# F G A B cij 
D E FjJ Gij Ail c. 

Key-chord. The tonic triad. 

Keyed violin. A piano-violin. 

Key-fall. See Dip. 

Key-harp. (Fr. clavi-harpe.) An instr. 
resembling a pfte. in form, and with a 
similar keyboard, but having a set of 
tuning-forks in lieu of strings, Inv. in 
1819 by Dietz and Second. (Comp. 
Kla ~i 'iahi r-IIa rfe^ 

Key-note, The tonic. 




Keyship. Tonality. 

Key-signature. See Signature. 

Key-stop. A key (digital) attached to 
the fingerboard of a violin so as to re- 
place the fingers in stopping the strings; 
the instr. is then called a key-stop (or 
keyed-stop) violin. (Comp. Klavier- 

Key-tone. Same as key-note. 

Key-trumpet. A trumpet provided with 

Kicks (Ger.) The "goose". 

Kin. An ancient Chinese instr., consist- 
ing of a soundboard with 2 bridges, 
over which silk strings varying in num- 
ber from 5 to 25 are stretched ; they are 
plucked with the fingers. 

Kin'derscenen (Ger.) Scenes of Child- 
hood (Schumann). . .Kin'derstiicke, 
pieces for children. 

Kind'Jich (Ger.) Childlike ; with fresh, 
naive effect. 

King. An ancient Chinese instr., con- 
sisting of a graduated series of 16 sonor- 
ous stones (or plates of metal), sus- 
pended by cords and struck with a 

Kir'chenmusik (Ger.) Church-music. 
. .Ki/chento)i (^\.-idne), a church- 
mode. . .A'/r'^/i^wj-///, (a) the style of 
harmonic progression peculiar to the 
medieval church-modes ; {b) the style 
of sacred music. 

Kis'sar. The 5-stringed Abyssinian lyre. 

Kit. (Ger. Ta' schengeige ; Fr. pochette; 
It. sordi'no.) The small old-fashioned 
violin used by dancing-masters, with 
the accordatura e^-g^-d^, and about 16 
inches in length over all. 

Ki'thara (Gk.) A harp-like instr. of the 
ancient Greeks ; ancestor (in name) of 
the guitar, cithern, zither, etc. 

Klang (Ger.) i. A sound. — 2. A com- 
posite musical tone (a fundamental tone 
with its harmonics) ; rendered t>y Tyn- 
dall "clang". — 3. See Phone, §i-.- 
Klang'boden, soundboard (usually Kc- 
sonanz'boden. . . Klang'farbe, " clang- 
tint ", "tone-color", quality of tone. 
. .Klang'folge, a progression of chords, 
viewed from the standpoint of their 
tonality. . . Klang'figtiren, Chladni's 
figures i see Nodal lines. . .Klang'ge- 
schlecht, raodt. . .Klang'schh'issel, see 
Phone, %(i. . .Klang'stufe, degree; in- 
terval. . .Klang'vertretting, see Phone, 

p3. . .Klang'-oer-wandsehaft, chord-re- 

Klap'pe(Ger.) Key 3. . .Klap'penhorn, 

Klarinet'te (Ger.) Clarinet. 

Klau'sel (Ger.) Clausula, cadence... 
Bass' klaiisel, the dominant-tonic skip 
of the bass at the close. 

Klavaoli'ne (Ger.) See ^olodicon. 

Klavi- (Ger.) See Clavi-. 

Klaviatur' (Ger.) Keyboard. . .A'Azct- 
atur-IIarfe (or Klavier-IIarfe), a 
piano-harp, i. e. a harp with piano-key- 
board, inv. 1893 by Ignaz Lutz of 
Vienna ; the strings are plucked or 
twanged by plectra (in lieu of hammers) 
actuated by the digitals ; the effect 
closely resembles that of the double- 
action harp, the tone being even fuller. 
. .KlaT-iatnr-Zilher, piano-zither, i. e. 
a small pfte. in grand shape, the single 
strings of which are twanged by playing 
on the keyboard ; inv. 1893 by Ignaz 
Lutz of Vienna. 

Klavier' (Ger.) i. A keyboard. — 2. A 
keyboard stringed instr. ; specifically, in 
the iSth century, a clavichord ; now, a 
pfte. of any V\\\6.. , .Klazner'aitszug, 
pfte. -arrangement. . .Klavier - Harmo- 
nium, a combined pfte. and harmonium ; 
that inv. 1893 by P'ranz Woroniecki of 
Przemysl, Galicia, is shaped like a 
small grand piano, the harmonium- 
mechanism being attached below and 
behind the body and controlled by from 
5 to 10 draw-stops. . .Klavier' hoboe, 
harmoniphon. . Klavier' mcissig, suitable 
for the pfte., in pfte. -style. . . Klavier' - 
satz, (music in) pfte. -style, pfte. -music, 
pfte. -writing. .Klavier' spiel, ^i\.Q.--^\sY- 
\Xi^. . .Klavier-Violoncello, the inven- 
tion, in 1893, of Prof, de Vlaminck of 
Brussels. To a 'cello, fixed on a hor- 
izontal frame about the height of the 
knee, a keyboard is attached in such a 
manner, above the strings, that by ma- 
nipulating it the player's left hand can 
effect all stops and double-stops. With 
the bow, all the effects on the 'cello as 
ordinarily played are obtainable ; while 
purity of intonation is attained with 
mathematical accuracy by the aid of the 
tangents actuated by the keys ; even the 
vibrato effect can be brought out. — 
Klavier- Viola, a viola to which a key- 
mechanism similar to the foregoing is 
applied ; when played, it is set on alow 
table or stand. 


Klein (Ger.) Small; minor. . .A7t7«'- 

gedackt, flute (organ-stop). 
Kling'ende Stim'men (Ger.) Speaking 

or sounding stops (of an organ) ; opp. to 

slum' me Regis' ter. 

Knee-stop. A knee-lever under the 
manual of the recd-orgaii ; there are 3 
kinds, used (<?) to control the supply of 
wind ; (b) to open and shut the swell- 
bo.\ ; (r) to draw all the stops. 

Kneif'instrument (Ger.) An instr. hav- 
ing strings plucked by the fingers or a 

Knie'geige (Ger.) Viola da gamba. . . 
Knie'guitarre, guitare d'amour. . . . 
Knie'zttg, knee-stop. 

Knopf'regal (Ger.) See Apfelregal. 

Kno'te (Ger.) '^od^. . .Kno'tenpunht, 
nodal point. 

Kollektiv'zug (Ger.) Composition- 

Kol'lern (Ger.) See Sgallinacciare. 

Kolophon'. See Colophony. 

Kombinations'pedal (Ger.) Combina- 
tion-pedal. . .Koinlnnations' Ion, combi- 

Komponie'ren (Ger.) To compose... 
Koiitponicrt', composed.. .A'oinponisl' , 

K on'trabass (f jcr.) Double-bass. . . K'on'- 
trafagott, double-bassoon. . .Kon'tra- 
oktave, contra-octave. . .Ko7t'irapnnkt, 
counierpoint. ..A'ou'irasudjei'i, counter- 

K onzert' (Ger.) Concert ; concerto. 
(Also Concert.) . . . Konzert'inciste>\ 
leader, first y\oX\x\.. . .Konzert'oper, a 
light opera for concert performance 
without stage-accessories. . .Konzert'- 
sli'ick, {a) a short concerto in one move- 
ment and free form ; (/') any short solo 
piece for public performance. 

Kopf'stimme (Ger.) Head-voice. 

Kop'pel (Ger.) Coupler. . .Koppcl ah, 
coupler off. . .K. an, draw coupler. 

Kornetf (Ger.) Comet. 

Kosa'kisch (Ger.) A national dance of 
the Cossacks, the melody of which con- 
sists of 2 8-measure repeats in 2-4 time. 

Ko'to, The Japanese zither-harp, with 
13 silk strings stretched over an arching 
oblong soundboard, each having a sep- 
arate movable bridge, by adjusting 
which the string can be tuned. Com- 
pass about t octaves. The player uses 

both hands ; the chromatic tones are 

produced by pressing the strings behind 

the bridges. 
Kraft (Ger.) Force, vigor, energy... 

Kidf'tig, forceful, vigorous. (Also 

adverb. ) 
Kra'gen (Ger.) Peg-box (of a lute). 
Krakowiak. See O-acovienne. 
Krau'sel (Ger.) Mordent. 
Krebs'gangig (Ger.) Cancrizans, retro- 

^ . .A'rel's'kanoft, canon cancri- 
Krei'schend (Ger.) Harsh, strident j 

screeching, screaming. 
Kreuz (Ger., "across".) A sharp (J{). 

. .A'reiiz'sai/ig, overstrung. . . Kreuz' - 

toiiart, a sharp key. 
Krie'gerisch (Ger.) Martial, warlike. 
Kriegs'lied (Ger.) War-song. 
Kro'me (Ger.) Chroma. 

Krumm'bogen (Ger.) Crook. . .Krumm'- 
horn, i^Kromphorn, Krumhorn, hence 
Fr. cromorne and It. cor mo me ; It. 
also cornamu' to tor'to, or, for short, 
slor'io.) I. An obsolete wood-wind instr. 
of the Bombard class, blown by means of 
a double reed within a cupped mouth- 
piece, and differing from the bombards 
by the semi-circular turn of the lower 
part of the tube and by its remarkably 
narrow compass (a ninth). In the l6th 
century it was made in 3 or 4 different 
sizes, treble, alto, (tenor), and bass, and 
had 6 ventages on the straight part of 
the tube. The tone had a melancholy 
timbre, which was imitated — 2. in the 
organ-stop of the same name (also 
cormortie, cremona, phocinx), formerly 
in vogue for small-sized organs and for 
the echo-work of larger ones (of 8 and 
4-foot pitch, on the pedal also of 16- 
foot pitch as Krumm' hornbass) ; a 
reed-stop, the tubes of which were fre- 
quently half-covered, or conical below 
and cylindrical above. [Riem.\nn.] 

Krus'tische Instrumen'te (Ger.) See 

Sell lag' in strum e7i te . 

Kuh'horn (Ger.) The alp-horn ... A'm//- 
reigen, Kuh'reihen, Ranz des vaches. 

Kunst (Ger.) Art; science. . .A'tt«jr'- 
fiigtie, fuga ricercata...AVir'Mj/'/i?r, artist. 
. .A'unsf lied, an ar/-song, opp. to folk- 
song {Volkslied). . .Kunst'p/eifer, see 

Kurz (Ger.) Short ; crisp(ly). . .Kur^zer 
Mor'dent, short mordent . . . Kur'ze Ok- 



ta've, short octave. .. A'//;-3 tmd be- 
stiftimt', short and decided. . .Kur'zcr 
Vor'schlag, short appoggiatura. 

Ky'rie (Gk.," Lord ".) The first word, 
and hence the opening division, in the 


L. Abbr. for left (or Ger. links) in the 

direction /. h. (left hand). 
La. I. The 6th Aretinian syllable. — 2. 

(Fr., It., etc.) The note ^.—3. The 

(Fr., fern. sing.)...Z<? bJmol, etc., see 

Key J, Table. 
Labecedisa'tion. See Bcbisation. 
Labial'pfeife (Ger.) A labial (lipped) 

pipe; a flue-pipe ... Zczi^Az/'j^/wwc", a 


Labisa'tion. Same as Bebisalion. 

La'bium (Lat.) Lip (of an organ-pipe). 
(Plural, in Ger. use, La'bienJ) 

Lacrimo'sa (Lat.) First word in the 
8th strophe of the Requiem ; hence, 
name of a movement or division of the 
grand musical requiem, usually of a 
tender and plaintive character. 
^3La'ge (Ger.) Position (of a chord); 
position, shift (in violin-playing). . .I.a'- 
genwechsel, change of position, shifting. 
. . E7tge {weite) Lage, close (open) har- 

Lagriman'do(It.) Complainingly, plain- 
tively. . .Za^.'-^Vw^'j-t?, "tearful", plain- 
tive, in the style of a lament. 

Lah, For La, in the Tonic Sol-fa system. 

Lamenta'bile (lamentan'do, lamen- 
te'vole, lamento'so) (It.) In a sad, 
melancholy, or plaintive style. 
/—l-and'ler (Ger.) A slow waltz of South 
^ Germany and Austria (whence the Fr. 
name Tyrolienne), in 3-4 or 3-8 time, 
and the rhythm 

Lang'sam (Ger.) Slow, slowly... Z«;?_o-'- 
samer, slower. 

Language. In a flue-pipe of an organ, 
an inner partition between foot and 
body ; see Pipe 1, a. 

Languen'do, Languen'te (It.) Lan- 
guishing, plaintive. 

Langfuette (Fr.) i. The tongue of a harp- 
sichord-jack, on which the quill was 
fixed.— 3. Tongue of a reed in the 
harmonium or reed-organ. — 3. Pallet 

(in the organ). — 4. Key (on wind- 

Languid. Same as Language. 

Languidamen'te (It.) Languishingly, 
languidly. . .Z(2/;V«;V/(9, languid, lan- 

Lantum. A large kind of hurdy-gurdy, 
having a rotatory bellows which supplies 
wind to metallic reeds, and played by 
pressing buttons adjusted in front. 

Lapid'eon. An instr. consisting of a 
series of flint-stones graduated to the 
tones of the scale, hung in a frame, and 
played with hammers ; inv. by Baudry. 

Largamen'te (It.) Largely, broadly ; in 
a manner characterized by breadth of 
style without change of time. [Grove.] 

Largan'do (It.) "Growing broader", 
i.e. slower and more marked ; generally 
a crescendo is implied. 

Large. See Notation, §3. 
Large, Largement (Fr.) Largamente 
(Ger. breit); sostenuto {Gev. getragen). 

Larghet'to (It.) Dimin. of Z^;;^^/ calls 
for a somewhat quicker movement, 
nearly equivalent to Andantiiio. 

Lar'go (It.; superl. larg/iis'simo.) Large, 
broad ; the slowest tempo-mark, calling 
for a slow and stately movement with 
ample breadth of style. . .L. assa'i, with 
due breadth and slowness . . . Z. di molto, 
or molto largo, an intensification of 
Largo. . .Poco largo, "with some 
breadth"; can occur even during an 

Larigot (Fr.) Originally, a kind of 
shepherd's pipe, or flageolet ; hence, an 
organ-stop of \]A, foot pitch, one of 
the shrillest registers. 

Lau'da (Lat.) A laud (hymn or song of 
praise). . .Lau'des, lauds ; together with 
matins, the first of the 7 canonical 
hours, taking its name from the i4Sth, 
149th, and 150th Psalms then sung. 

Lauf (Ger.) i. .See Ldiifer. — 2. Peg- 
bo.K (usually IVir'belkasten), 

Lau'fer (Ger.) A run. 

Lau'nig (Ger.) i. With light, gay humor. 
— 2. With facile, characteristic expres- 

Laut (Ger.) i. Loud. — 2. A sound. 

Lau'te (Ger.) A lute . . . Lau'tengeige, a 
viol. . . Laic' teninstrutnente , see Kneif' 
instrwnente . . .Lautenist' , lute-player. 
. . .Lau'tenmacker, see Luthier. 



Lavol'ta (It.) An old Italian dance in 
triple time, resembling the waltz. 

Lay. A melody or tune. 
O Le (Fr. and It.) The. 

Lead. i. The giving-out or proposition 
of a theme by one part. — 2. A cue 
(comp. Fresa). 

Leader, i. Conductor, director. — 2. 
In the orchestra, the first violin ; in a 
band, the first cornet ; in a mixed 
chorus, the first soprano. — (In small 
orchestras the leader [ist violin] is still, 
as was the rule in earlier times, also 
the conductor.) 

Leading, i {ncmi). In a composition, 
the melodic progression of any part or 
parts. — 2 {adjective). Principal, chief; 
ginding, directing. . . Leadiug-choj-d, the 
dominant chord, as leading into that of 
the Xomc. .. Leading melody., principal 
melody or theme. . . Leadiiig-motive, see 
Leitmotiv. . .Leading-note, -(one (Ger. 
Leit'ton; Fr. tiote sensible ; It. no' ta 
sensi'hile), the 7th degree of the major 
and harmonic minor scales ; so called 
because of its tendency, in certain 
melodic and chordal progressions, to 
the tonic. 

Leaning-note. Appoggiatura. 

Leap. I. In piano-playing, a spring 
from one note or chord to another, in 
which the hand is lifted clear of the 
keyboard. — 2. See Skip. 

Leben'dig, Leb'haft ((ler.) Lively, 
animated. (Also adverb). . .Leb'haftig.^ 
keit, animation ; Mit L. tind dtircJiaus' 
f/iit Empfindiing nnd Ausdrttck, with 
animation, and with feeling and ex- 
pression throughout. 

Ledger-line. See Leger-Une. 

Legan'do. (It.) See Legato. 

Lega'to (It. ; superl. legatis'simo) 
^•- "Bound"; a direction to perform the 
passage so marked in a smooth and 
connected manner, with no break be- 
tween the tones ; also indicated by the 
legato-inark, a curving line drawn over 
or under notes to be so executed... 
I^ga'tobogen (Ger.), legato-mark, slur. 

Legatu'ra (It ) A tie ; a syncopation.. . 
■ '~L. di^'OceyS&Q Ligature 2. 

Le'gend. (Ger. I.egen'de ; Fr. L'gende.) 
A composition based . on a poem of 
lyrico-epic character, the poem serving 
either as text or program. . . Legen' den- 
ton, im (Ger.), in the style of a romance 
or legend. 

L6ger, l^g^re (Fr.) Light, nimble.. 
LJgerement, lightly, nimbly. 

Leg'er-line. (Ger. Ililfs'linie; Fr. ligne 
ajoiitee; It. >'i'go aggiiin'io or Jinto.) 
One of the short auxiliary lines used for 
writing notes which lie above or below 
the staff. Leger-lines are counted away 
from the staff, either up or down... 
Legtr-space, a space bounded on either 
side or both sides by a leger-line. 

Leggerez'za (It.) Lightness, swiftness. 
. .Leggerinen'te, lightly, swiftly. . .Leg- 
ge'ro, same as Lcggiero. 

Leggiadramen'te. (It.) Neatly, ele- 
gantlv, gracefully. . .Z('f^_f^/a'(/rt', neat, 
graceful, elegant ; in '£ lif7?5'^Ild cheer- 
ful style. 

Leggieramen'te, Leggiermen'te (It.) 

Lightly, swiftly. . .Leggie're, light, etc. 
. .Leggierez'za, lightness, swiftness... 
Leggie'yo, a direction indicating, in 
piano-technic, that the passage is to be 
performed with as great lightness as is 
consistent with the degree of loudness 
required ; generally in swift piano pas- 
sages with little rhythmical emphasis. 
It differs from Legato in calling for a 
mere down-stroke of the fingers without 
pressure, and with a quick, springy re- 
coil. . . L. con vioto, lightly and swiftly. 

Le'gno, col (It.) "\Yith the stick" ; in 
violin-playing, a direction to let the 
stick of the bow fall on the strings. 

Leicht(Ger.) i. Light, brisk. — 2. Easy, 
facile. . .Leicht bewegt, (a) leggiero con 
moto ; (b) with slight agitation. 

Lei'dejischaftjXier.) Passion, fervency, 
veHemence. . .J/// Z., or lei' dense haft- 
lich, passionately, vehemently. 

Lei'er (Ger.) Lyre; L. hasten, hand-organ. 

Lei'se (Ger.) Low, soft, piano. 

Lei'ter (Ger., "ladder".) Scale {Ton'- 
leiter). . . Lei'tereigen, proper or belong- 
ing to the scale. . .Lei'terfremd, foreign 
to the scale. 

Leit'motiv[-teef"] (Ger.) Leading-mo- 
tive ; a term brought into special prom- 
inence by Wagner's musical dramas, 
and applied to any striking mus. motive 
(theme, phrase) characteristic of or 
accompanving one of the persons of the 
drama or some particular idea, emotion, 
or situation in the latter ; the motive 
recurring reminiscently at suitable stages 
of the action ... Also used of similar 
motives in recent operas, oratorios, and 



Leit'ton (Ger.) Leading-tone. 

Lenez'za, con (It.) In a gentle, quiet 

Le'no (It.) Faint, feeble. 

Lent,-e (Fr.) Slow. . .Lentement, slowly. 
. . Lenteur, slowness. 

Len'to (It.) Slow ; a tempo-mark inter- 
mediate between Andante and Largo 
(comp. art. Tempo-mark). Also used 
as a qualifying term, as Adagio non 
lento. . .Lentamen'te, slowly. . .Leutan'- 
do, growing slower, retarding ; a direc- 
tion to perform a passage with increas- 
ing slowness {ritardando, rallentando). 
. .Lefitez'za, con, slowly, deliberately. 

Lesser. Minor; as the lesser third... 
Lesser appoggiatura ,s\\ort2i^'pogg\2itVLra.. 
..Lesser whole tone, see Intervals, 
Table III, foot-note. 

Lesson. (Fr. lecon.) In the 17th and 
1 8th centuries, the name of the several 
pieces for the harpsichord, etc., which, 
when combined, formed a Suite. 

Le'sto (It.) Lively, brisk. 

Letter-name. A letter used to desig- 
nate a tone, note, key, or staff-degree. 
See Alphabetical notation. 

Lev6 (Fr.) Up-beat. 

Ley'er (Ger.) Earlier spelling of Leier. 

Liaison (Fr.) I. A tie. — 2 {liaison 
d'harmonie). A syncopation. — 3. See 
Ligature 2. 

Libel'lion. An automatic music-box, 
distinguished by the feature that the 
notes are represented by perforations in 
sheets of tough cardboard, which (as 
ihty pass through the box) can be made 
continuous, so that compositions of any 
desired length may be performed. 

Liberamen'te (It.), Librement (Fr.) 

Libret'tist. A writer of libretti. . .Z?- 
brefto (It., pi.-/. ; Fr. ditto, or livret ; 
Ger. Text). A "booklet"; specifically, 
one containing the words of an opera, 
oratorio, etc. ; also such words or text, 
whether in book-form or not ; a book. 

License. (Ger. Frei'heit ; Fr. licence ; 
It. licen'za.) An intentional deviation 
from established custom or rule. . . Con 
alcu'no licenza (It.), with a certain 

Lice'o (It.) Academy (of music). 

Lich'anos (Gk.) See Lyre i. 

Li6 (Fr.) Tied ; legato. 

Lieb'lich (Ger.) Lovely, sweet, charm- 
ing ; often with names of organ-stops. 

Lied (Ger.) Song. — A preeminently Ger- 
man song-form is that of the durch'- 
koniponiertes Lied, which differs from 
the ballad {Stro'phenlied) in not repeat- 
ing the same melody for each stanza, 
but following closely the sense of the 
words by changing melody, harmony, 
♦and rhythm. . .A'^^wi/'/zdv/, Volks'lied, 
Volks' t{h)iimliches Lied, see those 
words.. .Lie'dercyclus, a cycle (set) of 
songs. . .Lie' derkra7iz, (a) a choral so- 
ciety ; (6), also Lie'derkreis, a set or 
series of songs.. .Lie'derspicl, see Vau- 
deville.. .Lie'dertafel, a singing-society 
of men, of a social character. .. ZjV^/'- 
f or 1)1, see Form. 

Liga'to (It.) Legato. 

Lig'ature. (Ger. Ligatur' ; Fr. ligature; 
It. legatu'ra.) I. In mensurable music, 
a connected group of notes to be sung 
to one syllable. Ligatures were de- 
rived from the compound neumes ; their 
simplest form is the Figura obliqua 
(q. v.) (Comp. Proprieias, Imptvprietas, 
Perfection, Imperfection.) — 2. In mod- 
ern music, a group or series of notes to 
be executed in one breath, to one syl- 
lable, or as a legato phrase. — 3. A tie ; 
hence, a syncopation. 

Ligne (Fr.) A line.. .Ligne ajout^e {pas- 
tiche, or supple me ntaire), a leger-line. 

Li'mite (It.) Limit. 

Lim'ma. See Apotome. 

Li'nea (It.) A line. 

Lin'gua. (It.) Reed (of organ-pipe). 

Lingual'pfeife (Ger.) Reed-pipe (usu- 
ally Zitng'eiipfeife). 

Li'nie (Ger.) h.\\xvQ. . .Li'niensystem, 
the staff. 

Linings. (Ger. Fiit'terung; Fr. contre- 
/clisses.) In the violin, etc., the strips 
of pine-wood glued inside the body to 
the ribs, to stiffen the fixed structure. 

Lin'ke Hand (Ger.) Left hand. 

Lip. I. (Ger. Lip'pe or [Lat.] La'bium, 
pi. La'bien ; Fr. biseaii [upper lip].) 
The lips of a flue-pipe are the flat 
surfaces above and below the mouth, 
called the upper and lower lip. See 
Pipe 2, a. — 2. (Ger. An'salz ; Fr. em- 
bouchure ; It. imboccatu'ra.) The art 
or faculty of so adjusting the lips to the 
mouthpiece of a wind-instr. as to pro- 
duce artistic effects of tone ; also lipping 



Lip'penpfeife (Ger.) Flue-pipe (usually 

Li'ra (It.) Lyre (see Lyre). — AVhile the 
ancient lyre was a harp-like instr., the 
lira of the l6th-i8th century was a 
species of viol, a bow-instr. with a 
varying number of strings, and made in 
3 principal sizes... Z. barberi'na, a 
small lyre inv. by Doni of Florence in 
the 17th century. . .L. da brac'cio, 
"arm-lyre", a bow-instr. first mentioned 
in the gth century, and appearing in 
the 15th as an instr. resembling the 
viol in form of head and in stringing, 
though in other points (and finally in 
the adoption of 4 strings) like the vio- 
lin (see art. Violin, foot-note).. .L. da 
gatn'ba, knee-lyre.. .L. tede'sca, hurdy- 

Li'rico,-a (It.) Lyric, lyrical. 

Liro'ne (It.) The great bass lyre (also 
Accor'do, Archivio'la di lira), with as 
many as 24 strings. 

Li'scio (It.) Smooth, flowing. 

L^tes_'sp._ See Istesso. 
- titany.' (Gk. Utanei'a ; Lat. and It. li- 
iani'a; Fr. (pi.) litanies; Ger. Litanei'.) 
A song of supplication; "a solemn 
form of prayer, sung, by priests and 
choir, in alternate invocations and re- 
sponses, and found in most Office- 
books, both of the Eastern and West- 
ern Church " [Grove]. Litanies were 
originally employed in processional 
supplications for averting pestilence 
and other dangers, and later adopted 
by the Church as portions of the reg- 
ular service at certain seasons. 

Lit'terae significati'vae (Lat.) Single 
letters, or abbreviations, of doubt- 
ful significance, employed in medie- 
val neumatic notation. (Ger. Roma'- 

Liu'to (It.) A lute. 

Livre (Fr.) Book...^ livre oiivert,2X 

Livret (Fr.) Libretto. 
pLo (It.) The. 

Lob'gesang (Ger.) Song or hymn of 

Loch in der Stimme (Ger.) "Hole 
in the voice " ; said of that part of a 
register in which certain tones cannot 
be made to "speak" on account of a 
morbid state of the vocal organ. 

Lo'co (It.) Place ; signifies, following 

8va, "perform the notes as written". 
Also al loco. 

Lo'crian. (Ger. lo'krisck.) See Mode. 

Long. (}^3X. longa.) Ste A''ola(ion,%2'< 
also for Long-rest. 

Lonta'no (It.) Distant ... Z>fl /., or in 
lonla/mn'za, from a distance, far away. 

Loop. I. A vibrating portion of a 
body, bounded by 2 nodes. See A'ode. 
— 2. The cord fastening tailpiece to 
button (violin, etc.) 

Lo'sung, fort'schreitende (Ger.) Reso- 
lution (usually Auf'losung). 

Loud pedal. Damper-pedal. 

Loure (Fr.) i. An ancient Fr. bagpipe 
inflated by the mouth ; hence — 2. A 
dance named from the instr., on which 
it was formerly played, in 6-4 or 3-4 
time and slow tempo, the down-beat 
strongly marked. 

Lour6 (Fr.) Slurred, legato, non staccato. 
Lo'W. I. (Ger. lei'se ; Fr. douce; It. 
-' pia'no.) Soft, not loud. — 2. (Ger. tief ; 

Fr. bas,-se ; It. basso, -a.) Grave in 

pitch, not acute. 
Lugu'bre (Fr. and It.) Mournful. 
Lullaby. Cradle-song, berceuse. 

Lun'ga (It.) Long. Written over or 
under a hold, it signifies that the latter 
is to be considerably prolonged. . .Lun- 
ga pa'usa, a long pause or rest. — Lun- 
ghe (pi. of lunga), drawn out, pro- 
longed ; "note" (notes) being implied. 

Luo'go (It.) Same as Loco. 

Lur (Danish, from Old Norse hcdr, a 
hollowed piece of wood.) i. A unique 
pre-historic wind-instr. of bronze (alloy 
of copper 88.90^, tin 10.61;*, nickel 
and iron 0.49'?), numerous well-pre- 
served specimens of which have been 
found, but only in Denmark, southern 
Sweden, and Mecklenburg. The long, 
slender, exactly conical tube, varying 
in length from 5 ft. to 7 ft. 9^ in., 
forms a sweeping, graceful curve (for- 
ward from the player's lips, upward 
and backward over his left shoulder, 
and forward again over his head), and 
terminates with a broad circular flat 
plate (about loin, in diam.) in lieu of 
a flaring bell. This plate is ornamented 
with bosses in front, and on the rear 
with several small bronze tassels, de- 
pending loosely. The Lur has a cupped 
mouthpiece, shallower and more nearly 
V-shaped than that of the trombone. 



The tone is powerful and mellow. — 2. 
The modern Litr, of Norway and Swe- 
den, is usually made of birch bark, and 
is allied to the Swiss alp-horn. 
Lusingan'do, Lusingan'te (It.) Coax- 
ing, caressing; also lusinghe'vole. . . 
Lusinghevolmcn'te, coaxingly, etc... 
Ltcsinghie're, or -0, coaxing, flattering, 
Lus'tig (Ger.) Merry, gay (also adverb). 
Lute, {Cjtr.Laii'te ; Fr. hith ; It. liu'to.) 
A stringed instr., now obsolete, of very 
ancient origin ; it was brought to Eu- 
rope by the Moors, who called \\.Al' tid 
or Al OW. ..The body has no ribs, 
the back being, like that of the mando- 
lin, in the vaulted shape of half a pear. 
The strings, attached to a bridge fixed 
on the face of the instr., and passing 
over or beside the fretted fingerboard, 
were plucked by the fingers, and varied 
in number from 6 up to 13, the highest 
or melody-string {treble, canto) being 
single, and the others in pairs of uni- 
sons. Bass strings off X\v& fingerboard, 
each yielding but one tone, were gener- 
ally attached to a second neck ; they 
were in later times covered with silver 
wire, the other strings being of gut. 
These bass strings were introduced in 
the i6th century, and led to divers modi- 
fications in the build of the instr. ; the 
various forms of large double-necked 
lutes then evolved (theorbo, archiliuto, 
chitarrone) being general favorites, and 
holding, from the 15th to the 17th cen- 
tury, the place in the orchestra now oc- 
cupied by the bass violins. Music for 
the lute was written in tablature, there 
being 3 systems (French, Italian, and 
German)... A lute-player is variously 
called a lutenist, lutanist, lutinist, and 
I litis t. 
Luth (Fr.) l^Mic... Lutherie, the trade 
of, and also the instr.s made by, a 
bithier. ..Ltithier, formerly, a lute- 
maker ; now, a maker of any instr. of 
the lute or violin class. 
Luttuo'so (It.) Mournful, plaintive. . . 

Liittuosamen'te, mournfully, etc. 
Lyd'ian. (Ger. ly'disch.) See Mode. 
Lyre. i. (Gk. and Lat. ly'ra; It. li'ra; Fr. 
lyre; Ger. Lei'er.) A stringed instr. of 
the ancient Greeks, of Egyptian or 
Asiatic origin. The frame consisted of 
a soundboard or resonance-box, from 
which rose 2 curving arms joined above 
by a cross-bar ; the strings, from 3 to 

10 in number, were stretched from this 
cross-bar to or over a bridge set upon 
the soundboard, and were plucked with 
a plectrum. The names of the strings 
(whence were derived the names of most 
of the tones in the Greek modes) on the 
8-stringed lyre were as follows : 

Hyp' ate, "uppermost" (as the lyre was 
held) ; the longest and deepest-toned. 
Parhyp'ate, " next to hypate^\ 
Lich'anos, "forefinger-string '. 
Me'se, " middle string", 
/'arawir'i^, " next to Mese". 
Tri'te, "third string" (from the lower 

Parane'te, next to the last • 
]\fe'te, " last," or " lowermost (the high- 
est in pitch). 

The KitJiara may be considered as a 
large form of the lyre, the Chelys as a 
treble lyre.— The lyre differed from the 
harp in having fewer strings, and from 
the guitar, lute, etc., in having no fin- 
gerboard ; its compass and accordatura 
varied greatly. It was chiefly used to 
accompany songs and recitations.— 2. 
An instr. used in military bands, con- 
sisting of loosely suspended steel bars 
tuned to the tones of the scale and 
struck with a hammer.— 3. See Rebec. 
Lyric, lyrical. Pertaining to or proper 
for the lyre, or for accompaniment on 
(by) the lyre ; hence, adapted for singing 
or for expression in song. — The term is 
applied to music and songs (or poerns) 
expressing subjective emotion or special 
moods, in contradistinction to epic (nar- 
rative), and draf?iatic (scenic, accom- 
panied by action) ... ZjrzV drama, the 
opera. . .Lyric opera, one in which the 
expression of subjective feeling, and the 
lyric form of poetry, predominate... 
Lyric stage, the operatic stage. 


M. Abbr. of It. 7na7io, and Fr. main, 
(hand) ; in organ-music, of manual 
(usually Man.), and Lat. manua' liter ; 
and of metronome (usually M. M.) and 
7nezzo. . .n represents the note me (mi) 
in Tonic Sol-fa notation. 

Ma (It.) But ; as in the phrase vivace, 
ma non troppo, lively, but not too much 

Machete. A small Portuguese guitar (oc- 
tave-guitar), having 4 strings tuned : 

or sometimes d'^ instead of e^. 



Machine-head. (Ger. Mecha'tiik.) A 
rack-and-pinion adjustment substituted 
for the ordinary tuning-pegs of the 
double-bass, the guitar, and of the mel- 
ody-strings of the zither. 

Ma'dre, al'la (It.) " To the Mother " ; 
a superscription of hymns to the Virgin. 

Mad'rigal. (Ger. and Fr. Madrigal' ; 
It. madriga'le, madria'U\ mandria' le.) 
Originally, a short lyrical poem of an 
amorous, pastoral, or descriptive char- 
acter. — Hence, a poem of this kind set 
to music, which is polyphonic, with in- 
cessant contrapuntal variations, and 
based (in the stricter style) on a cantus 
firmiis ; it is without instrumental ac- 
companiment, and differs from the 
Motet in being of a secular cast. This 
style of composition appears to have 
had its rise in the Low Countries to- 
wards the middle of the 15th century, 
spreading thence to other European 
States, and cultivated with peculiar suc- 
cess in Italy and England well into the 
i8th century ; in England the Madrigal 
Society still flourishes. Madrigals are 
written in from 3 to 8 or more parts, 
and are best sung by a chorus, which 
feature forms one of the chief distinc- 
tions between the M . and the Glee (for 
solo voices). 

Maesto'so (It.) Majestic, dignified... 
MaeslcY {coii),Maesta'dc' {con), Maest/- 
vole, Maestcvolmoi'te, Maestosanicn'te, 
with majesty or dignity, majestically. 

Maestra'le (It.) Occasional term for 
the stretto of a fugue, when in canon- 

Maestri'a (It.) Mastership, skill, virtu- 

Mae'stro (It.) A master. . .M. al ccin'- 
balo, term formerly applied to the con- 
ductor of an orchestra, who sat at the 
harpsichord instead of wielding the 
baton. . .J/, deiput'ii, "master of the 
boys", i. e., the choir-master of St. 
Peter's at Rome...i5/. delco'ro, choir- 
master. . .y3/. di canlo, singing-master. 
. .M. di cappel'la, {17) choir-master ; (/') 
conductor; (c) KapcU'meisier (conduc- 
tor of chorus and orchestra). 

Mag'adis (Gk.) An ancient Greek instr. 
with 20 strings tuned in octaves two by 
two ; hence the term mag'adize, to sing 
in parallel octaves, as boys and men. 

Ma'gas (Gk.) Bridge (of a cithara or 
lyre) ; fret (of a lute). 

Magazin'balg (Ger.) Reservoir-bellows 

Maggiola'ta (It.) A May Song. 

Maggio're (It.) Major. 

Mag'got. A "fancie", or piece of an 
impromptu and whimsical character. 

Magni'ficat. Name of, and first word in, 
the " Magnificat anima mea dominum " 
(my soul doth magnify the Lord), the 
hymn or song of the Virgin Mary (Luke 
I, 46-55), sung in the daily service of 
the Church. 

Main (Fr.) Hand . . .M. droite {gauche), 
right (left) hand... J/, harmonique, 
harmonic hand. 

Maitre (Fr.) Master. . .y]/. de chapelle. 
Kapellmeister, conductor. . .Al. de viu- 
siijue, (a) conductor ; {l/) music-master, 

Maitrise (Fr.) In France, prior to 1789, 
a music-school attached to a cathedral, 
for the education of young musicians, 
who were called en/ants de chcciir. Some 
few were reestablished, and still exist. 

Majesta'tisch (Ger.) Majestical(Iy). 

Major. {Ger. dur ; Yr. majeur ; \t. mag- 
gio're.) Lit. " greater", and thus opp. to 
minor, " lesser." (Comp. Phone, Inter- 
val.). . .Major cadence, one closing on a 
major triad . . . M. chord or triad, one 
having a major third and perfect fifth. 
..M. interval, key, mode, scale, tonal- 
ity, see the nouns. . .AI. 7vhole tone, the 
greater \^\\o\c tone 8:9 (as c-d)\ opp. 
to the lesser (or minor) whole tone 9:10 
(as d-e). 

Malinconi'a (It.) Melancholy. .. C(^« 
V!., with melancholy expression, deject- 
edly {txIso malinconicamen'te) . . .Malin- 
co'nico {-nio'so, -tio'so), melancholy, 
dejected. — Also Melanconi'a, etc. 

Mancan'do (It.) Decreasing in loud- 
ness, dying away, decrescendo ; usually, 
a combination of decrescendo and ral- 
lentando is intended (v. Tempo-mark). 

Manche (Fr.) Neck. 

Mando'la (It.) A large variety of Man- 

Man'doHn(e). (It. mandoli'no.) An instr. 
of the lute family, the body shaped like 
that of a lute, though smaller, having 
wire strings tuned pairwise, played with 
a plectrum, and stopped on a fretted 
fingerboard. There are 2 chief varie. 
ties, (l) the Neapolitan {mandolino 
fiapolita'no), which has 4 pairs of strings 
tuned^'^-(/'-a'-(f^ like those of the violin ; 



and (2) the Milanese {inand. lombar'do), 
which has 5 or (j pairs, 
tuned g~c^-a^-iP-c^ ^^"^ r-t 
g-b-e^-a^-d'^-e'). Com-g 
pass about 3 octaves : 

Mandolina'ta (It.) A piece for mando- 
lin, or played with mandolin-efTect. 

Mando'ra, Mando're. Same 2&Matidola. 

Ma'nico (It.) Neck (of a lute, violin, etc.1 

Man'ichord. (Lat. »ia)tic/ior'dii/in.) A 
term variously applied to different forms 
of obsolete keyboard stringed instr s. 

Manier' (Ger.) An agrenient (harpsi- 
chord- or clavichord-grace). 

Manie'ra (It.) Style, manner, method. 
. . Con dcke in., in a suave, delicate 

Manifold fugue. See Fugue. 

Man'nerchor (Ger.) A male chorus ; 
also, a composition for such a chorus. 
, . JM iiii' nergesangverei II , men's choral 
socltty.. .Mdnnerstimtiien, men's voices. 

Ma'no (It.) Hand. . .M. de'stra {sini'- 
sira), right (left) hand. 

Man'ual. i. A digital. — 2. (Ger. Ma- 
nual' ; Fr. clavier ; It. 7namta'le?) An 
organ-keyboard ; opp. to pedal. (Com- 
pare Organ.). . .Manual-key, a digital. 
. . 3/anual' koppel {Ger.), a coupler con- 
necting 2 manuals. 

Manu'brium (Lat.) Knob of a draw- 
stop ; Ger. pi. Manu'brien, whence 
Manu'brienkoppel, draw-stop coupler. 

Marcan'do (It., " marking".) ^ ys\\.\\ dis- 

Marca'to (It., "marked".) [tinctness 
and emphasis. . .yl/(?;'<:(7//j-'j/;«o, with 
very marked emphasis. 

March. (Ger. Marsch ; Fr. marche : 
It. mar'cia) A composition of strongly 
marked rhythm, suitable for timing the 
steps of a body of persons proceeding 
at a walking pace, and thus bearing a 
processional character akin to that of 
the Polonaise, Entree, etc. The march- 
form of the earlier operas and clavier- 
pieces also resembles that of the old 
dances, consisting of 2 reprises of 8, 
(12), or 16 measures. The modern 
march-form is further developed ; it is 
in 4-4 time, with reprises of 4, 8, or 16 
measures, and is followed by a Trio 
(usually in the dominant or subdom- 
inant key and of a more melodious 
character), after which the march is 
repeated, often with amplifications. — 
The ordinary Parade March (Ger. 

Para'demarsch ; Fr. Pas ordinaire) has 
about 75 steps to the minute ; the Quick- 
step (Ger. Geschwind'inarsch ; Fr. Pas 
redouble'), about 108 ; while for a Charge 
(Ger. Sturm' mar sell; Fr. Pas de charge) 
some 1 20 steps per minute are reckoned. 
. .Besides these military marches of a 
bright and martial character. Funeral 
or Dead Marches are composed, slower 
in movement and more solemn in effect, 
and sometimessymphonically developed. 

Marche (Fr.) i. A march. — 2. Pro- 
gression . . . Marcher, to progress. 

Mar'cia (It.) A march ; alia m., in 

Mark. (Oftenequiv. to jz^w.) Cadence- 
viark, the vertical line separating the 
words of a chant, dividing those sung 
to the reciting-note from those in the 
cudQ-ncG. . .Harmonic mark, see Har- 
monic 2, b .. .Metronomic mark, see 
Metronome. . .Mark of expression, see 
Expression-mark. . . Tempo-mark, see 
that word. 

Markiert' (Ger.), Marqu6 (Fr.) Marked, 
accented ; marcato. 

Marseillaise. The French revolution- 
ary hymn, the poem of which was 
written and set to music during the 
night of April 24, 1792, by Rouget de 
Lisle, Captain of Engineers, at Strass- 
burg ; first named by its author " Chant 
de guerre de I'armee du Rhin"; but, 
soon after its introduction in Paris by 
the soldiers of Marseilles, it became 
universally known as " La M.", or 
" Hymne des Marseillais ". 

Marteau^FrJ i. Hammer (of pfte.- 

— atTTonJ^^2rTuning-hammer. 

MarteM(Fr.), Martella'to (It.) " Ham- 
mered"; a direction in music for bow- 
instr.s, indicating that the notes so 
marked are to be played with a sharp 
and decided stroke (usual sign ,•) ; — in 
piano-music, that the keys are to be 
struck with a heavy, inelastic plunge of 
the finger, or (in octave-playing) with 
the arm-staccato. . .Martellato notes 
are generally mezzo staccato, and often 
take the sign > or sfz. 

Martellement (Fr.) i. In harp-playing, 
calls for the crush-note (acciaccatu'ra) 
or redoubled stroke. — 2. Comp. Graces. 

Marzia'le (It.) Martial, warlike. 

Maschera'ta (It.) Masquerade. 

Maschi'nen (Cler., pi.) See Pistons. . . 
Maschi'nenpauken, kettledrums pro- 



vided with a mechanism for the rapid 
adjustment of the pitch. 

Mask, Masque. (Ger. Mas'kenspicl ; 
Fr. masijiie.) The mus. dramas called 
masques, so popular during the i6th 
and 17th centuries, were spectacular 
plays on an imposing scale and with 
most elaborate appointments, the sub- 
ject being generally of an allegorical 
or mythological nature, and the music 
both vocal and instrumental. — The 
masque was the precursor of the opera, 
but was distinguished from it by the 
lack of monody. 

Mass. (Lat. j?tis'sa; It. nies'sa; Fr. 
and Ger. iMes'se.) " Mass" is derived 
from missa, in the phrase " Ite, missa 
est [ecclesia] " (Depart, the congrega- 
tion is dismissed), addressed, in the 
R. C. Church, to persons in the congre- 
gation not permitted to take part in the 
communion service, the IVIass itself 
taking place during the consecration of 
the elements. — The divisions of the 
musical mass are (i) the Kyrie ; (2) 
the Gloria (inch the Gratias agimus, 
Qui tollis, Quoniam, Cum Sancto Spiri- 
tu) ; (3) the Credo (inch the Et incar- 
natus, Crucifixus, Et resurrexit) ; (4) 
the Sanctus and Benedictus (with the 
Hosanna) ; (5) the Agnus Dei (incl. the 
Dona nobis). It has passed through 
very various phases, from the simple 
unison chant of Plain Song to the most 
elaborate productions of late medieval 
counterpoint, with a transition there- 
after to the severity of the Palestrina 
epoch, to the vocal masses in 8, 16, or 
even 32 parts, and finally to the grand 
mass v/ith full chorus and orchestra 
{missa sokm'nis). . .High mass, one 
celebrated on church festivals, accom- 
panied with music and incense. . .Loiu 
mass, one without music. . . Missa brev'- 
is, short mass of Protestant churches, 
incl. only the Kyrie and Gloria. 

Ma'ssig (Ger.) Moderate(ly). 

Mas'sima (It.) i. The maxim. — 2. A 
whole note. — 3 {adj.) Augmented (of 

Master-chord. The dominant chord. . . 
Master-fugUi', f uga ricercata. . . Master- 
note, \&2^d\ng-no\.&. . .Mastersinger, see 
Meis ter singer. 

Masure, Masurek, Masurka. See 

Matelotte (Fr.) An old sailors' dance 
resembling the hornpipe, in duple time. 

Mat'ins. The music sung at morning 
prayer, the first of the canonical hours. 

Maul'trommel (Ger.) Jew's-harp... 
Maul' iro)ninelklavier, the melodicon. 

Max'im. i^^X. max'ima.) "^tt Notation, 
§3, Large. 

Mazur'ka. A Polish national dance in 
triple time and moderate tempo, with a 
variable accent on the third beat. 

Me. For mi (Tonic Sol-fa). 

Mean. Former name for an inner part 
(as the tenor or alto), or an inner string 
(of a viol) . . . Mean clef, the C-clef , as 
used for noting the inner parts. 

Mean-tone system. See Temperament. 

Measurable music. Mensurable music. 

Measure, i. (Ger. Takt; Fr. mesure; 
It. niisu'ra.) A metrical unit, simple or 
compound, of fixed length (time-value) 
and regular accentuation, forming the 
smallest metrical subdivision of a piece 
or movement ; visibly presented by the 
group of notes or rests contained be- 
tween two bars, and familiarly called 
a "bar". (Comp. Tir)ie.) — 2. Occa- 
sional for tempo. — 3. A dance having a 
stately and measured movement. — 
Measure-note, a note indicated by the 
time-signature as an even divisor of 
a measure ; 4 thus indicates that each 
measure has 3 quarter-notes, and a 
measure-note is then a quarter-note... 
Measure-rest, see Rest. 

M^canisme (Fr.) Technic or technique ; 
mechanical skill. (It. mecea?iismo.) 

Mecha'nik (Ger.) i. A mechanism or 
mechanical apparatus, such as {a) the 
pfte. -action ; (/') the machine-head of a 
guitar, zither, etc. — 2. In pfte. -playing, 
{a) technique ; {l>) specifically, the mere 
mechanical action of the fingers and 
hand, as the lift and down-stroke of 
finger or wrist, the passing-under of 
the thumb, etc. ; often carelessly trans- 
lated by mechanism. 

Mechanism. See Meehanik 2 b. 

Mede'simo (It.) The same. 

Me'dial. Proper to the Mediant. 

Me'diant. i. (Ger. and It. Median' te ; 
Fr. mediante.) The third degree of a 
scale. — 2. In medieval music, one of 
the 3 pivotal tones of a mode, situated 
as nearly as possible midway between 
the Final and Dominant, and ranking 
next in importance to the latter. 

Me'dius. See Accentus ecclesiastici. 



Mehr (Ger.) \lor&. . .Mehr'chdrii::, for 
several (4-part) choruses. . .Alehr'fach, 
manifold ; mehr'faches Intervall' ,com- 
pound interval ; aiehr'facher K'a'non, 
a canon having more than 2 themes ; 
mehr' father Kon' trapunkt, counter- 
point written in more than 2 invertible 
parts ; mchr'fache Stiin'me (organ), a 
compound sXo^. . .Mehr'sti>7imig, in 
several parts ; polyphonic. . . Mchr'stim- 
migkcit diirch Bre'chmig, apparent 
polyphony obtained (especially on the 
pfle.) by employing broken chords. 

Mei'ster (Ger.) Vi^.'sXt.x. . .Mei'sterftige, 
fuga nc^xc-ei\.2i. . .Mei'stersingcr (or 
-Sanger), in Germany, the successors of 
the Min'ncsdnger (Troubadours), but, 
unlike the latter, chiefly artisans, who 
formed guilds in various cities for the 
cultivation and propagation of their art, 
the stringent rules for which were con- 
tained in the Tabtdatur' . Their poems 
were founded for the greater part on 
biblical subjects ; the musical treatment 
was apt to be dry and prosaical. — They 
originated about the 14th century in 
Mainz, reached their zenith in the 15th 
and 1 6th centuries (notably under Hans 
Sachs of Nuremberg), and thereafter 

Melancoli'a (It.), Melancholie (Fr.) 
See Malincolia. 

Melange (Fr.) A medley, pot-pourri. 

Melis'ma (Gk.) i. A melodic ornament, 
fioritura, grace ; colorature. — 2. A Ca- 
denza \ . . .Melismat'ic, ornamented, 
embellished ; said of vocal or instru- 
mental music abounding in ornaments ; 
also, specifically, melismatic song, that 
in which more than one tone is sung to 
a syllable ; opp. to syllabic song. 

Melo'deon. The original American 
organs were called melodeons or melo- 
diums. (See Reed-organ.) 

Melo'dia. (Organ.) A variety of stopped 
diapason nearly resembling the Clara- 

Melod'ic. Pertaining to the progression 
of single tones ; hence, vocal, as a melod- 
ic interval. 

Melo'dica. A small variety of pipe- 
organ inv. in 1770 by Joh. Andr. Stein 
of Augsburg, having a tone like the 
Jliite a bee, and a compass of but 3^ 
octaves. It was used ordinarily to play 
the melody to a harpsichord- or pfte.- 
accompaniment ; hence the name. An 

excellent crescendo and decrescendo 
were obtainable by varying the finger- 
pressure on the keys. 

Melo'dico (It.) Equiv. to Caniando. 

Melo'dicon, A keyboard instr. inv. by 
Peter Rieffelsen of Copenhagen, in 
1800, in which the tones were produced 
by tuning-forks. 

Melo'dik (Ger.) Science or theory of 

Melo'diograph. See Melograph. 

Melo'dion. A keyboard instr. inv. by 
y. C. Dietz, of Emmerich, in which the 
tones were produced by vertical steel 
bars chromatically graduated ; these 
bars being pressed by the digitals 
against a rotating cylinder. Forte was 
obtained by a quicker, piano by a slow- 
er, rotation. Compass, 5^-6 octaves. 

Melo'dium. i. Melodeon. — 2. (Ger.) 
Alexandre organ. 

Merodrama. i. Originally, a musical 
drama. — 2. In modern usage, {a) stage- 
declamation with a mus. accomp. ; {h) a 
form of the drama in which the music 
plays a very subordinate part, and the 
plot is more or less romantic and sen- 

decayed gradually, the last society be-r^, ^'^'-luuai. 
coming extinct in 1839 (Ulm). V^el'ody. (Ger. Melodic ; Fr. m^lodie ; 

.., . ^ T\/r'i 1, I- /p \ It. melodi'a.) I. The rational progres- 

sion of single tones ; contrasted with 
Harmony, the rational combination of 
several tones. — 2. The leading part in 
a movement, usually the soprano. — 3. 
An air or tune. 

Mel'ograph. Name of various mechan- 
ical devices for recording the music 
played on a pfte. One of the latest and 
most successful is the electric m. or 
Phonautograph (inv. by Fenby, in Eng- 
land), in which the pressure on the 
digitals closes an electric circuit, effect- 
ing a record on paper as in the Morse 
system of telegraphy. A cardboard 
stencil forming an exact copy of the 
record can be made to reproduce the 
music when placed in the Melotrope, a 
mechanical attachment to a pfte. by 
means of which the digitals are depress- 
ed as if by the player's fingers. 

Merophone. A variety of Concertina. 

Melopian'o. A pfte. inv. by Caldera 
of Turin, in 1870, in which the tone is 
sustained by rapidly repeated blows of 
small hammers attached to a bar pass- 
ing over and at right angles to the 
Strings, the bar being kept in vibration 


by means of a treadle worked by the 
player. Crescendo and decrescendo effects 
are producible at will, and the tone is of 
delightful quality. 

Meroplaste, A simplified method for 
learning the rudiments of music, inv. 
by Pierre CJalin about iSi8. Instead of 
teaching the notr;s, clefs, etc., at first, 
he took merely the 5 lines of the staff, 
singing familiar airs to the syllables do, 
re, »ii , etc., at the same time showing 
with a pointer the position on the staff 
of the notes sung. F'or teaching rhyth- 
mical relations he used a double metro- 
nome marking both measures and beats. 

Me'los (Gk.) "Song". The name be- 
stowed by Wagner on the style of reci- 
tative exemplified in his later mus. 
dramas. (See Kecitative.) 

Mel'otrope. See art. Melograph. 

Meme (Fr.) The same..../ la tneme, 
I'istesso tempo. 

Men. Abbr. of I\Ieno. 

M6nestrel (Fr.) Minstrel (q. v.) 

M6netrier,-tri^re (Fr.) Originally, a 
player on any instrument, especially for 
dancing ; now, a vagabond fiddler at 
fairs and in low places of entertain- 
ment, or a village musician. 

Me'no (It., abbr. ;«^«.) Less, not so. — 
When Meno occurs alone as a tempo- 
mark, niosso is implied ... J/t"//^ mosso, 
" less moved," i. e., slower. 

Mensur' (Cer.) i. Jl/eytsit'ra, i. e. the 
time of a movement (mensurable music). 
— 2. Scale (of organ-pipes). — 3. In 
other instr.s, the various measurements 
requisite for their true intonation (as 
length of tube, distance between finger- 
holes, thickness of strings, etc.) 

Mensural'gesang.-musik (Ger.) Men- 
surable music. (See Notation, §3.) 

Men'te (It.) Mind, memory; alia m., 
improvised, extempore. 
\ Menuet (Fr.), Menuett' (Ger.) Minuet. 

Me'rula (Lat., "blackbird, ousel".) 
Same as / 'o'gelgesang. 

Mescolan'za (It.) A medley. 

Mes'otonic. Mean-tone. 

Mes'sa (It.), Mes'se (Ger. and Fr.) 

Mes'sa di vo'ce (It.) The attack of a 
sustained vocal \ox\& pianissimo, with a 
swell to fortissimo, and slow decrease 
to pianissimo again ; thus : 

The attack and increase was formerly 

caWtd for ma' re il tuono ; the sustaining 
of they/ tone, ferma're il tuono ; and 
the decrease and close, Jini're il tuono. 

Messan'za (It.) A quodlibet. 

Me'sto (It.) Pensive, melancholy... 
Afestamen'te, plaintively, grievingly. 
(Also con ?nesti'zia.) 

Mesure (Fr.) Measure ; a measure ; & 
la m., in time (i. e. a tempo, a battu'ta). 
..Alesitre', measured. — (See Time.) 

Metal'lo (It., "metal".) A ringing, 
"metallic" quality of voice. 

MetalTophone. A pfte. in which 
graduated steel bars take the place of 
strings. — 2. An instr. like the xylo- 
phone, but with bars of metal instead 
of wood. 

Meter, Metre. i. Metre in music is 
the symmetrical grouping of musical 
rhythms ; a disposition of musical mem- 
bers akin to the arrangement of the 
poetic strophe. It differs from Form 
in having to do merely with the rhyth- 
mical groupings within compositions ; 
from Rhythm, in treating of the sym- 
metrical arrangement of the smaller 
tone-groups, the articulation of which 
produces the rhythm or time. These 
definitions are, however, not universally 
binding, metre and rhythm being used 
sometimes as interchangeable terms, 
and sometimes with significations ex- 
actly the reverse of those just given. 
In metre the smallest metrical element 
(unit of measure) is the Measure ; the 
combination of 2 measures (either sim.ple 
or compound) produces the Section; of 
2 sections, the Phrase ; of 2 phrases, 
the Period (of 8 measures), which may 
be extended to 12 or 16 measures ; be- 
yond the period of 16 measures the 
metrical divisions seldom go, i. e. they 
are not followed by the ear as metrical, 
but as thematic divisions (see Form). — 
2. The metre of English hymns is 
classified, according to the feet used, as 
iambic, trochaic, or dactylic ; in the 
syllabic schemes below, the figures in- 
dicate the number of syllables in each 
line. Variants are not infrequent in 
modern hymnology. 

A. lamliic metres: Common metre (C. M.), 
8 6 8 6; Long metre (L. M.), 8888; Short 
metre (S. M.), 6 6 8 6 ; these have regularly 4 
lines to each stanza; when doubled to 8 lines 
they .Tre called Common metre double (C. M. 
D.), Long metre doulile (L. M. D.), and Short 
metre double (S. M. D.). They may also have 
6 lines in each stanza, and are then named 


Common particular metre (C. P. M.)i 8 8 6 8 8 
6; Long particular metre (L. P. M.), or Long 
metre 6 lines, 8 8 8 3 8 8; and Short particular 
metre (S. P. M.), 6 6 8 6 6 8. Besides the 
above, there are Sevens and Sixes 7676; Tens 
10 10 10 10 ; Hallelujah metre 6 6 6 6 8 8 (or 6 
6664444); etc. 

B. Trochaic metres : Sixes 6 6 6 6; Sixes and 
Fives, 6565; Sevens 7777; Eights and 
Sevens 8787; etc. 

C. Dactylic metres: Elevens 11 n n 11; 
Elevens and Tens 11 10 11 10 ; etc. 

These are most of the metres in general use 
(comp. Common). 

— 3. In ancient prosody, the science 
of Metiics treated of the quantity 
(length) of the syllables ; whereas in 
modern English poetry all accented 
syllables are treated as long, the un- 
accented as short. The metrical unit is 
a mora (time) or syllable ; syllables com- 
bine to form feet; feet to cola, verses 
(i. e. , lines), or periods ; periods to 
strophes ; strophes to pericppes ; and 
pericopes (or lines, or periods) to poems. 
..Syllables are either short (--^), long 
( — ), or common (~) ; the long being 
equivalent to 2 short, and the common 
either long or short according to posi- 
tion. A Foot is a combination of 2 or 
more syllables. 

Methode (Fr.), Me'todo (It.) Method. 

Metro'metro (It.), Metrometre (Fr.) 
A metronome. 

Met'ronome. (Fr. metronome; Ger. 
Metronom' ; It. metro' notno.) A double 
pendulum, weighted below, actuated by 
clockwork, and provided with a gradu- 
ated scale on which a slider can be 
moved up and down, the slider deter- 
mining by its height how many beats 
the pendulum shall make per minute ; 
often with a bell-attachment {Bell- 
metronome). With the slider set at 60 
the pendulum makes one beat per sec- 
ond. . .Aletronome-mark {metronom' ic 
mark), a mark set at the head of a com- 
position for exactly indicating its tempo ; 
e.g., M.M.J =60 means, that the 
time-value of one quarter-note is equal 
to one pendulum-beat with the slider 
set at 60 ; M. M. standing for " Mael- 
zel's Metronome " after its reputed in- 
ventor, Maelzel of Vienna (18 16). — The 
J\I. is much used by beginners and 
students, for learning to play strictly in 
time, and for timing their practice. 

Me'tro (It.), Me'trum (Lat.) Metre. 

Met'te (Ger.) Matins (in the R. C. 

Mettez (Fr.) Draw, add (organ-music). 

Mez'zo,-a (It.) Half...^ mezza a'ria, 
se& Ariaparlante . . .Mezzo for'te{mf), 
half-loud . . . Mezzo lega'to, in pfte - 
technics, a variety of touch resembling 
legi^ie'ro in being a down-stroke with- 
out pressure, but differing from it in 
requiring that greater attention be paid 
to a forcible stroke than to a rapid, 
springy return of the ^ng&v. . .Mezza 
ma'nica, half-shift. . . Mezza orche'stra, 
with half the •~,X.x\x\'g-\)^\\A. .. Mezzo pia' no 
{mp), half-soft, less loud than fnezzo 
forte .. .Mezzo sopra'no, the female 
voice intermediate between soprano and 
alto, partaking of the timbre of both, 
and usually of small compass {a — f'^, or 
a — /^), but verj' full-toned in the 
medium register. . .Mezzo teno're, same 
SiS Barytone ; only the mezzo tenore \s 
in quality rather a low tenor than a high 
bass. . .Mezza vo'ce, with half the power 
of the voice ; nearly equivalent to mez- 
zo forte, in singing or playing. 

Mi. I. The third of the Aretinian syl- 
lables. — 2. Name of the note E in 
France, Italy, etc... J// contra fa est 
dia bolus in miisica, " mi against fa [i. e. 
the tritone] is the devil in music ", a 
theorem of medieval musicians express- 
ive of their abhorrence of the melodic 
step, and even of the harmonic relation, 
of the tritone (the mi = £ii of the 
" hard " hexachord and the fa = /^ of 
the " natural" hexachord). 

Middle-C, The one-lined c' on the first 

leger-line below the 


treble staff or abovep^ 

the bass staff 

. . . Middle part or voice, same as inner 


Militairement(Fr.), Militarmen'te (It.) 
In military style. Also (It.) Alia mili- 

Militar'musik (Ger.) i. Military music. 
— 2. A military band. 

Military music. The military band 
differs from the orchestra in being a 
wind-band (composed solely of wind- 
instruments), and in admitting the 
cornet, bugle, saxophones, and other 
instr.s whose timbre is considered not 
to blend well with those of the sym- 
phony-orchestra. Another peculiar 
feature is the large reinforcement of the 
clarinets, which take the place and 
parts of the violins and violas in the 
orchestra. Military bands may contain 
anywhere from 40 to 90 performers ; 


that of the 22nd Regt., New York, has 
66, namely : 

2 piccolos I contraffagotto 

2 flutes I E|> cornetto 

2 oboes 2 ist Bi> cornets 
I A[> piccolo clarinet 2 2nd " " 

3 E^ clarinets 2 trumpets 
8 ist B[> clarinets 2 flijgelhorns 

4 2nd " " 4 French horns 
4 3rd " " 2 Et> alto horns 
I alto " 2 lji> tenor horns 
I bass " 2 euphoniums 
I sopr. saxophone 3 trombones 
I alto " 5 bombardons 
I tenor " 3 drums 

1 bass " I pair cymbals 

2 bassoons 

In France, in accordance with the 
official order promulgated Nov. 17, 
1892, the regular infantry bands com- 
prise the following instruments : 

2 flutes 3 trombones 

2 small clarinets 2 alto saxhorns 

8 large " 3 alto saxotrombas 

2 oboes 5 bass saxhorns 

I sopr. saxophone i contrabass saxh. 

I alto " I " tuba 

I baryt. " i shallow drum 

1 tenor " i b.ass drum 

2 cornets i pair cymbals 
2 trumpets 

or 40 in all (14 wood-wind, 23 brass, 3 
percussives). — The principal innova- 
tions on the former standard (estab- 
lished by imperial decree of March 26, 
i860) are (i) disuse of wooden flutes, 
for which metal flutes are substituted ; 
(2) suppression of 4 saxophones, and 
substitution of 4 more clarinets ; (3) 
suppression of 2 barytone saxhorns, for 
which 2 bass saxhorns are substituted. 

Mimodrama. (Fr. 77ii»iodrame!) A pan- 
tomimic dramatic performance, often 
accomp. by music. 

Minacce'vole (It.) In a menacing or 
threatening manner. (Also luinaccevol- 
mcn' tt\ minaccian'do, Diinaccio' so, miti- 
acciosainen' te.) 

Mineur (Fr.) Minor. 

Min'im. (Lat. ini'nima ; It. ini'ni>na or 
bian'ca ; Fr. miiiime or blanche ; Ger. 
hal'be iVo'cc.) i. A half-note. — 2. See 
Notation, §3.. .Minim-rest, a half-rest. 

Min'nesinger,-sanger (Ger., sing, and 
pi.) One of the German troubadours, 
or lyric poets and singers of the 1 2th 
and 13th centuries, who were exclusively 
of noble lineage ; distinguished from 
their Southern contemporaries by their 
chaster conception of love {Min'ne, 
Frail' endienst). They accompanied 
their songs {Min'negesang, written 
chiefly in the Swabian dialect) on the 

viol or arpanetta, and their rivalry cul- 
minated in grand poetical contests, such 
as the one immortalized by Wagner in 
" Tannhauser." Their art originated 
in Austria, spreading thence to the 
Rhine, Thuringia, and Saxony ; in the 
hands of their successors, the Mei'ster- 
singer, it degenerated past recognition. 

'"^i'nor. (Ger. klein, tnoll ; Fr. viineur ; 
It. 7)ii)io're.) Lesser ; smaller (comp. 
Interval, Major, Phone). . .Minor tone, 
the lesser whole tone 10:9. 

Minstrel. The minstrels of the middle 
ages were professional musicians who 
sang or declaimed poems, often of their 
own composition, to a simple instru- 
mental accomp. They were followers 
of the nobility in court and camp. The 
French me'nestrelsoi the 8th century and 
later were the musical attendants of the 
trouveres and troubadours, having to 
execute practically the musical concep- 
tions of their noble masters. Thus they 
occupied from the outset a subordinate 
position ; their art slowly degenerated 
in England, whither they were trans- 
planted at the Norman Conquest, until 
they were classed by statute (1597) with 
"rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy beg- 
gars"; in France their guilds were 
maintained down to the Revolution. In 
England they coalesced with the Anglo- 
Saxon "gleemen". Their favorite 
instr. was the rebec. . . Negro Minstrels, 
singers and actors portraying (originally) 
scenes from Southern plantation-life. 
The chief performers of the troupe are 
the middle-man or interlocutor and the 
two end-men (so called from their re- 
spective positions in the semi-circle of 
performers on the stage); the former 
leads the talk and gives the cues, while 
the latter preside over the tambourine 
and " bones", and crack the jokes. 

Minuet'. (It. minuet' to; Fr. menuet; Ger. 
Menuett'.) One of the earlier French 
dance-forms, supposed to have orig- 
inated in Poitou ; it dates as an art- 
product from about Lully's period (end 
of 17th century), and, as such, prop- 
erly consists of 2 minuets, or a double 
minuet with contrasted sections of 16 
measures each, the second forming the 
Trio, after which the first is repeated. 
It is in triple time, and has a slow, 
stately movement, eschewing all orna- 
mentation. It frequently occurs in the 
Suite, Sonata, and Symphony ; Beetho- 
ven was the first to introduce in its 



stead, in the 2 latter, the livelier and 
freer Scherzo ; in the Suite it figures, 
by way of contrast, between the Sara- 
bandeand Gigue. 

Miracle, Miracle-play. See Mystery. 

Miscel'la (Lat.) A mixture-stop. 

Mise de voix (Fr.) Messa di voce. 

Misere're (Lat.) The first word of the 
Psalm LI (in the Vulgate, L), which 
begins: "Miserere mei, Uomine" 
(Pity me, O Lord) ; hence, the name of 
this Psalm, or of a musical setting of it, 
sung in the Catholic Churches as part 
of the burial service, at the Communion 
of the Sick, and the like. During 
Holy Week it is performed with pecu- 
liar solemnity in the Sistine Chapel at 

Mis'sa (Lat.) The Mass...y)/, brev'is, 
short mass...iJ/. canta'ta, chanted 
mass. . defunc' tis,s&eEfcpiiem. 
. .M. soleni'nis, ox solen'tiis, high mass. 

Mis'sal. (Lat. missa'le.) The R. C. 

Mass-book, containing the liturgical 

forms necessary for the celebration of 

mass the year round. 
Miss'klang (Ger.) Discord, cacophony. 
Misterio'so (It.) Mysterious ... J/Zj/f- 

riosamen' le, mysteriously. 
Mistichan'za (It.) A quodlibet. 
Misu'ra (It.) A measure. . .^//j'M/'fj'/c, 

measured, in e.xact time. 
Mit (Ger.) With. 
Mit'klang (Ger.) Resonance. . .yJ///'- 

klingende Tone, overtones. 
Mit'telkadenz (Ger.) Semi-cadence. 

. .Miftelstimme, an inner part or voice. 
Mixed cadence. See Cadence. . .Mixed 


Mode I (Do'rian). 

: m -r f- 

canon, one in which the successive parts 
enter at different intervals ... yT/zj:^;/ 
chorus, quartet, voices, vocal music 
combining male and female voices. 

Mixolyd'ian. See Mode. 

Mixture. (Ger. Mixtur'; Fr. fourni- 
ture; It. ripie'no, acco?-'do.) A com- 
pound auxiliary flue-stop with from 3 to 
6 ranks of pipes sounding as many har- 
monics of any tone represented by a 
given digital. These harmonics are 
generally octaves and fifths of the fun- 
damental tone ; sometimes a third, or 
even a seventh, is added ; they are higher 
in comparative pitch for low tones than 
for high ones, (see Break 3) ; e. g. for 
the tone C the 3-rank mixture would 
usually contain c^-g^-c- ; and for <:', c'^- 
g^-c^ (not c^-g^-c% In some old German 
organs mixtures are found having from 
8 up to 24(!) ranks, there being, of 
course, several pipes to each harmonic. 
— Mixtures are used to reinforce and 
" brighten " the upper parlials of the 
heavier foundation-stops. 

Mo'bile (It.) With a facile movement, 
readily responsive to emotion or impulse. 

Mode. I. For Greek modes, see Greek 
7misic. — 2. {l^&t. mo'dits.) The medie- 
val church-modes were octave-scales, 
like the Greek modes, and also borrowed 
their names (see below) from the latter ; 
but they, and the fundamental diatonic 
scale ^-a, were conceived as ascettding 
scales, a distinct departure from ancient 
theory. They were called church-modes 
because each chant in the Gregorian 
antiphony was kept strictly within the 
compass of some one of these octave- 
scales, without chromatic change save 
that from Bq to B, or vice-versa. 


Mode II (Hypodo'rian). 




Mode III (Phryg'ian). 

Mode IV (Hypophryg'ian). 



Mode V (Lyd'ian). 

-m — r- 

I I 

I I 

Mode VII (Mixolyd'ian). 

.-. -^ -.t 

• r f - r r- t- 

a r 

Mode VI (Hypolyd'ian). 

Mode VIII (Hypomixolyd'ian). 




Mode IX (^o'lian). 

Mode X (Hyposeo'lian). 



I I 


Mode XI (Lo'crian). 

Mode XII (Hypolo'crian). 



1 \- 

Mode XIII [or XI] (lo'nian). 



Mode XIV [or XII] (Hypoio'nian). 


In the authentic modes the Final 
(what we should call the key-nctc) is the 
lowest tone ; in the plagal modes, a 
fourth above the lowest ; it is marked 
by a whole note in the Table. Each 
plagal is derived from a parallel authen- 
tic ; St. Ambrose is supposed to have 
established the first 4 authentic modes, 
to which St. Gregory added the corre- 
sponding plagals ; these 8 were exclu- 
sively employed in serious composition 
down to the i6th century, despite the 
lack of any scale similar to the (C-) 

Greek Names. 



major and (A-) minor scales of modern 
music ; then, however, the last 4 modes 
were added. The Locrian {B-b) and 
Hypolocrian {f-f) were rejected as 
useless, neither fulfilling the law that 
each authentic mode should be divisible 
into a perfect fifth plus a perfect fourth, 
and each plagal mode into a fourth plus 
a fifth. — Both the names, and the pre- 
fix hypo-, are used in a sense different 
from that of the original Greek modes, 
the medieval theorists having misinter- 
preted the Greek nomenclature. 

Final Medieval Names. 


g a b c' d' e' f g' Mixolydian (Mode VII, 4th authentic) 

f g a b c' d' eW Lydian (Mode V, 3rd authentic) 

e f g a b c' d' e' Phrygian (Mode III, 2nd authentic) 

■ II I 

d e f g a b c' d' Dorian (Mode I, ist authentic) 

I 11 I 

d e £ g a b c* d'T [Hypomixolydian (Mode VIII, 4th plagal)] 


cdef gabc' Hypolydian (Mode VI, 3rd plagal) 

Bcdefgab Hypophrygian (Mode IV, 2nd plagal) 

Hypodorian (or iEolian) ABcdefga Hypodorian (Mode II, ist plagal) 

The gradual development of monodic, 
harmonic, and chromatic music, the 
evolution of the leading-note, the ac- 
ceptance of the third as a consonance, 
and the recognition of the predominance 
of the tonic triad, with the modern 
system of transposing tempered scales 
in the major and minor modes thence 
resulting, led to the gradual disuse of 
the church-modes. 

Mode hell^nique (Fr.; also troisilme 

mode). The inverted major scale, be- 
ginning on the 3rd degree : 

e' — d' — c'-^b — a — g — f— -e. 
so termed byBlainville (1711-69), this 
being the ancient Dorian mode (see 
Gi-eek music). 

Modera'to (It. ; superl. moderatis'simo.') 
I {noun). Moderate ; i. e. at a moderate 
rate of speed, or tempo. — 2 (adverb). 
(Also moderatamen'te). Moderately ; 
as allegro moderate, moderately fast. 



Moder'no,-a (It.) Modern ; alia moder- 
na, in modern style. 

Modification. Same as Temperament. 

Mo'do (It.) Mode ; style. 

Mod'ulate. (Ger. moduUe'ren; Fr. mo- 
duler; It. modula're.) To pass from one 
key or mode into another ; to effect a 
change of tonality . . . Modulation. (Ger. 
and Fr. iModitlation' ; Fr. also transi- 
tion; It. 7nodulazio'ne.) Passage from 
one key to another ; change of tonality. 
— A modulation may be either yf //a/ or 
transient ; it is final when the new 
tonic is permanently adhered to, or still 
another follows ; transient {transitory, 
passing), when the original tonic is 
speedily reaffirmed by a cadence. . . 
Chrot?tatic modulation , one effected by 
the use of chromatic intervals ; diatonie 
m., one effected by the aid of diatonic 
intervals ; enharmonic m., one effected 
through employing enharmonic changes 
to alter the significance of tones or 

Mod'ulator. See Tonic Sol-fa. 

Mo'dus (Lat.) Mode. 

Moll (Ger.) W\nor. . .Moll'akkord, mi- 
nor chord. . .Moll' dreiklang, minor 
ir\a.d....Moll'to7iart, minor key... 
Moll'tonleiter, minor scale ; etc., etc. 

Mol'le (Lat., " soft".) A term probably 
first used in the loth century to desig- 
nate the B rotun'dum {B molle,—^), in 
opposition to the B quadra' turn {B du'- 
rum, tl, the modern Bt]). Later it was 
applied tothehexachordy" — d, in which 
/^ was substituted for ^Q ; and, finally, 
to the minor key and triad (with fiat 

Mollemen'te (It.) Softly, gently. 

Mol'lis (Lat.) See Molle. 

Moloss(e). (Lat. molossus.) A metrical 
foot of 3 long syllables ( ). 

Morto,-a (It.) Much, very ; as viol to 
adagio, very slowly ; molto allegro, very 
fast. . .Di molto, exceedingly, extremely. 

Momen'tulum (Lat.) A i6th-rest. 

Momen'tum (Lat.) An 8th-rest. 

Mon'ochord. (Fr. monocorde; It. ?nono- 
cor'do.) I. A very ancient instr. for 
the precise mathematical determination 
of the intervals, consisting of a single 
string stretched over a soundboard and 
provided with a bridge sliding on a 
graduated scale, by means of which 
any desired division of the string could 

be isolated, and intervals of true pitch 
obtained. — An instr. of the same name, 
but furnished with several strings for 
the purpose of obtaining harmonic 
efTects, was the precursor of the clavi- 
chord. — 2. The tromba marina. — 3. A 
clavichord. — 4. (Ger., recent. ) A kind of 
bow-zither, having one string stretched 
over a fretted fingerboard attached 
lengthwise to the top of an oblong re- 

Mon'ody. (Ger. and Fr. Monodie'; It. 
tjionodi'a.) A style of composition 
{monod'ic or monophon'ic) in which one 
part, the melody, predominates over the 
rest, they serving as a support or ac- 
comp. to it. It took its rise in Italy 
about 1600, in the form of a vocal solo 
with instrumental accomp. , the latter 
being at first a mere figured bass exe- 
cuted on the harpsichord, theorbo, etc. 
Its novelty lay, not in its newness, but 
in its employment and recognition by 
artists. It developed into the opera, 
cantata, and oratorio on the one hand, 
and, on the other, into all those forms 
of instrumental music in which the ele- 
ment of accompanied melody is found, 
as the suite, symphony, etc. (Also 
Hoviophony, Monophony. ) 

Monoph'onous. Capable of producing 
but one tone at a time ; opp. to poly- 
phonous. . . Monoph'ony, see Monody. 

Mon'otone. i. A single unaccompanied 
and unvaried tone. — 2. Recitation (in- 
toning, chanting) in such a tone. 

Monter (Fr.) i. To ascend; inontant,s,%- 
cending. — 2. To raise the pitch of. — 3. 
To put strings on an instr.; also, to 
put an instr. together, to set it up. 

Montre (Fr.) In the organ, the dia- 
pason ; so called because "shown" or 
set up in the organ-front, away from 
the soundboard. 

Moralities. (Ger. Moralitd'ten; Fr. 
niorali/e's.) A later form of the miracle- 
plays or mysteries. 

Morceau (Fr.) A piece, composition ; 
moreeau de genre, characteristic piece. 

Mordant (Fr.) Comp. Graces. 

Mordent. (Ger. Mor'dent, Bei'sser; 
Fr. pince'; It. tnorden' te.) A grace con- 
sisting of the single rapid 
alternation of a principal 
note with an auxiliary a j 
minor second below, thus: < 

^ . t 



3_^^^^^ >_3_^^^^ T h e 


</^«/ has a double or triple alternation, e.g. 
7 I* ' played 

— In the Imrr/ii/ Mordent, the prin- 
cipal note alternates with the hight-r 
auxiliary; its siijn lacks the cross-stroke, 
written : 

Moren'do (It.) Dying away, growing 
fainter and fainter (v. Ti'tnpo-niarks). 

Mormoran'do (It.) Murmuring, mur- 
murous, in a very gentle, subdued tone. 
Also tnormo7-e'volt\ niormoro' so. 

Morris-dance. (Also morrice-Jance, 
Moresque, Aforisco, etc.) A sort of 
costume-dance, apparently of Moorish 
origin, in 4-4 time and of a boisterous 
character ; now obsolete. — Also, a kind 
of country-dance still performed in 
Yorkshire, England. 

Mos'so (It., "moved".) Equivalent to 
"rapid" in the phrases meiio mosso, less 
rapid, piu viosso, more rapid, and poco 
mosso, somewhat rapid (e. g. Allegretto 
poco mosso, a rather lively allegretto, 
nearly allegro). 

Mo'stra (It.) A direct. 

Motet'. ((]er. Motet' te; Fr. viotet; It. 
tnottet'to.) A sacred vocal composition 
in contrapuntal style, without instru- 
mental accomp. In former times the a 
cappella style was not always strictly 
adhered to. The motet resembles the 
anthem in having a biblical prose te.xt. 
but differs from it in being polyphonic ; 
compositions in anthem-style are, how- 
ever, sometimes called motets. — The 
Latin mote'tiis is a term of various and 
sometimes obscure signification. 

Motif (Fr.) A motive. 

Motion. I. The progression or lead- 
ing of a single part or melody ; it is 
conjunct wlien progressing by steps, 
disjunct when progressing by skips. — 
2. The progression of one part con- 
sidered in relation to that of another ; 

contrary or opposite motion is that in 
which one part ascends while the other 
descends ; parallel* motion, that in 
which both parts ascend or descend by 
the same interval ; ohlique motion, that 
in which one part is held while the 
other ascends or descends ; similar* 
motion, that in which both parts ascend 
or descend together by dissimilar inter- 
vals ; tiiixed motion, that in which 2 or 
more of the above varieties occur at 
once between several parts. 

* N.B. — The above fine distinctinn between 
/ara/Ut and simitar motion is very often not 
observed, the term parailel motion being used 
indiscriminately for both. 

Mo'tive [sometimes pron. mo-teev'\ 
(Ger. Motiv' ; Fr. ynotif ; It. moti'vo.) 
I. A short phrase or figure (rhythmic, 
melodic, or harmonic) used in develop- 
ment or imitation. — 2. A theme or sub- 
ject (see Leading-motive). — 3. Some- 
times used for Measure, as the rudi- 
mentary element of the Period. — Mea- 
sure-motive, one whose accent coincides 
with the measure-accent. 

Mo'to (It.) I. Motion. . .Af. contra'rio, 
contrary motion... J/, ini'sto, mixed 
motion. . .M. obbli'quo, oblique mo- 
tion. . .AF.perpe'tito, perpetual motion. 
. .M. ret' to, similar motion. — 2. Move- 
ment, tempo. . . Con moto, with an ani- 
mated and energetic movement. . .Moto 
preeeden'ie, at the former tempo. 

Motteggian'do (It.) Bantering, face- 

Mottet'to (It.) Motet. 

Mo'tus (Lat.) Motion. . .AI. contra' rius, 
contrary motion. . .A[.obli'quus,ohX\Q^& 
motion. . .M. rcc'tus, similar motion. 

Mouth. The opening on the front side 
of an organ-pipe. . ..1/i:J//M-/i(7'v;/(>«/V<i, 
a set of graduated metal reeds mounted 
in a narrow frame, blown by the 
mouth, and producing different tones 
on expiration and inspiration. . .Afoiitk- 
organ, see \'M\s-\)\^^c.%. . .Alouthpiece 
(tier. Mund' stuck; Fr. emhouehure; 
It. imboccatu'ra), that part of a wind- 
instr. which a player places upon or be- 
tween his lips. 

Mouvement (Fr.) Movement, tempo. 
. .Mouvemente. A piece is said to be 
bie>t mouvemente when its rhythmical 
structure is elegant and symmetrical. 

Movement, i. (Ger. Bewe'gung; Fr. 
mouvement; ll.moviinen'to, mo'to, tern'- 
po.) Tempo, rate of speed.— 2. (Ger. 



Satz; Fr. par tie; It. tempo.) A prin- 
cipal and usually separate division or 
section of a composition, containing- 
themes and a development peculiar to 

Muances (Fr.) See Mutation 2. 

Mund (Ger.) Mouth ... J/'«;/(/7/r7rwr'- 
7iika, mouth-harmonica. . .Mund' loch, 
mouth (of an organ-pipe; usually Auf- 
schnitl). . .Mund' stuck, mouthpiece. 

Mune'ira (Span.) A Galician dance of 
moderate tempo and in 2-4 time, with 
an auftakt of a quarter-note, and the 
strong beat marked by the castanet- 

Mun'ter (Ger.) Lively, animated, gay. 
(.\Iso adverb^ 

Murky. A murky-hass is one progress- 
ing in broken octaves ; a harpsichord- 
piece with such a bass was called a 

Muse, The mouthpiece or wind-pipe of 
the bagpipe. 

Musette (Fr.) i. A small and primitive 
kind of oboe. — 2. A variety of bag- 
pipe in which the wind is supplied by a 
bellows. — 3. A short piece of music 
imitating in style that played on this 
kind of bagpipe, i. e. of a soft and gen- 
tle character and with a drone-bass ; 
hence, the dance-tunes of the same 
style and name. — 4. A reed-stop in 
the organ. 

Mu'sica (Lat. and It.) Music. . .M. da 
ca'mera, chamber-music. . .Al.da chie'- 
sa, church-music. . .A/, da tea'tro, the- 
atre (theatrical) music. . .M. di gat'ti, 
charivari (see Katzenmusik). 

Musical box, Music-box. The so- 
called Sruiss music-box consists of a 
metallic cylinder or barrel studded with 
small pins or pegs, and caused to re- 
volve by clockwork. In revolving, the 
pins catch and twang a comb-like row 
of steel teeth arranged in a graduated 
scale, each tooth producing a tone of 
very accurate pitch. In the larger instr.s 
the barrel may be shifted so as to play 
several tunes, or is made exchangeable 
for others. — For the newer music-boxes, 
compare Symphonion, Libellion. 

Musician. (Ger. Mu'siker; Fr. musi- 
cien; It. mu'sico, mustci'sta.) One 
who practises music in any of its 
branches as a profession. 

Music-pen. i. A soft-nibbed, broad- 
pointed pen for writing notes, etc. — 2. 

A 5-pointed pen for drawing the 5 lines 
of the staff on paper. 

Music-recorder. See Afclograph. Pho- 
nograpli , Pho nan tog rap h . 

Music-wire. Steel wire for the strings 
of mus. instr.s. 

Musik' [-zeek'] (Ger.) Music. . .J/usik'- 
bande, see Bandc .. .Musik' diktat, see 
Die tee musicalc .. .Musik' direktor. a 
con^^xc\.ox .. .Musik' f est. mus. festival. 
. .Musik' tneisier, conductor of a mili- 
tary band. 

MusikaTien (Ger.) Music (i. e. musical 
compositions). [.V trade term.] 

Masikant' (Ger.) A vagabond or bung- 
ling musician. 

Mu'siker, Mu'sikus((',er.) A musician. 

Musiquette (Fr.) Little pieceof music ; 
or (collectively) light music. 

Mu'ta (It.) " Change ! "' A direction in 
orchestral scores indicating a change of 
crook or instr., or in the tuning of an 
instr., necessitated by a change of key. 

Mutation, i. (Ger. Mutie'rung; Fr. 
mue; It. mutazio'nr.) The change of 
the male voice at puberty. — 2. (Ger. 
Mutation' ; Fr. pi. mutations, muances; 
It. mutazio'iie.) In medieval solmisa- 
tion, the change or passage from one 
hexachord to another, with the conse- 
quent change of syllable (comp. SoIj/u- 
sation). — 3. In violin-playing, "shift- 

Mutation-stop. In the organ , any stop, 
except a mixture, whose pipes produce 
tones neither in unison norin octaves with 
the foundation- (S-foot) stops; i. e., all 
tierce and quint-stops, and their octaves. 

Mute. I. (Ger. Ddtn'pfer; Fr. sour- 
dine; It. sordi'no.) The mute for the 
violin, etc., is a piece of brass or other 
heavy material, having cleft projections 
which permit of its firm adjustment on 
the bridge without touching the strings ; 
its weight deadens the resonance of the 
sound-box. (Recently made in the 
form of a spring clip.) The direction 
for putting on the mutes is "con sor- 
dini "; for taking them off, " senza 
sordini ". — 2. A pear-shaped, leather- 
covered pad introduced into the bell of 
the horn or trumpet to modify the lone. 
Other forms of this mute are (for the 
horn) a pasteboard cone with a hole at 
the apex, and (for the trumpet) a cylin- 
drical tube of wood pierced with holes. 

Mu't(h)ig (Ger.) Spirited, bold. (Also 



Mutie'rung (Ger.) Mutation I. 

Mysteries. (Ger, Mystc'rien; Fr. mys- 
i^res.) Medieval scenic representations 
of biblical events, arranged originally 
by the monks, and generally accom- 
panied by vocal, often by instrumental, 
music. The Passion-plays (still sur- 
viving at Oberammergau in Bavaria) 
are as old as the 7th or 8th century ; the 
Moralities, a peculiar form of the 
Mysteries, in which abstract concep- 
tions were personified, originated about 
the 13th century. The Mysteries were 
the precursors of the Oratorio, 


Nacaire (Fr.) A former kind of kettle- 

Nac'cara, Nac'chera (It.) i. SeeyVa- 
caire. — 2. (Also Gnac'carej pi.) Cas- 

Nach (Ger.) After; according to... 
N^ach'ahinung, imitation. . .Nach Belie' - 
ben, ad libitum . . . iVach'druck, empha- 
sis ; nach' dyiicklich{px 7nit Nachdr lick), 
with emphasis, emphatically. . ,^'kja^/t'^ 
lassend, slackening (in tempo) . . .Nach'- 
Idssig, careless, negligent (also adverb). 
. .Nach'ruf, a farewell, leave-taking. 
. ,A'(7f/i'j<7 ^2, after-phrase, second phrase 
or theme, contrasting with Vor'dersatz. 
Nach'schlag, (a) the unaccented appog- 
giatura ', (^) " after-beat " of a trill (also 
Nach'schleife) . . . N'ach' spiel, a. post- 
lude. . .Nach' tatiz^^€"Sailarello 2. . . 
Nach und nach' , step by step, gradu- 

Nacht (Ger.) "i^'x^t. . .Nacht'hom, 
Nacht'schall, a flue-stop in the organ, 
having covered pipes of 2, 4, or 8-foot 
pitch, and resembling in tone the 
Quintaton or the Hohl'Jiiite. . .A'acht'- 
hornbass, the same Stop on the pedal. 
. . Nacht' stiick, a nocturne. 

Nsenia. See Nenia. 

Na'gelgeige,-harmonika (Ger.) Nail- 

Naif, Naive (Fr.), Naiv' (Ger.) Naive ; 
unaffected, ingenuous, artless. . .Naive- 
ment, naively. .. A'txizv//, artlessness, 
simplicity, etc. 

Nailfiddle. (Ger. Na'gelgeige.) An instr. 
consisting of a soundboard in which are 
inserted from 16 to 20 steel or brass 
pins of graduated length, sounded by 
means of a bow well smeared with 

rosin ; the tone is like that of the har- 
monica. Inv. by Johann Wilde of St. 
Petersburg, toward the middle of the 
1 8th century. 

Naked fifth (fourth). A fifth (fourth) 
without an added third. (Also dare.) 

Narran'te (It.) In narrative-style ; calls 
for a very distinct declamatory enun- 
ciation of the words sung. 

Narrator. The personage who, in the 
earlier passion-plays and oratorios, 
sings the narrative portions of the text. 

Nasard (Fr. ; Span, nasar'do; Ger. 
N'asat'.) In the organ, the mutation- 
stop commonly known as the Twelfth 
(2|-foot pitch). The Gros-nasard 
(Gross' nasat), is a quint-stop either on 
pedal ( I o§ -ft.) or manual (5j-ft.) ; the 
Petit nasard (Larigot), is a double- 
octave quint-stop (i^-ft.) (Also na- 
sarde, nassart, nasillard, nazad.) 

Nason flute. An organ-stop having 
stopped pipes of mild, suave tone. 

Natur'- (Ger.) Natural. . .A'a/«r'//(7r«, 
a ^Fia/i;/'/z(3r« (without valves). . .Natur'- 
skala, natural scale. . .Natur'tone (or 
natiir'liche Tone), natural harmonic 
tones, as of the horn, ^ic. . .Natur'- 
trompete, a trumpet without valves. 

Natural, i. (Ger. Auf iSsungszeichen; 
Fr. bAarre; It. beqtia'dro^ The sign Q 
(see Chromatic Signs). — 2. A white 
digital on the keyboard . . . Natural har- 
7nonics, those produced on an open 
string ; opp. to artificial, which are 
produced on a stopped string. . .N'atu- 
ral hexachord, that beginning on C. . . 
Natural horn, the French horn without 
valves. . .Natural ititerval, one found 
between any 2 tones of a diatonic major 
scale. . .Natural key, see Nat. scale. . . 
Natural pitch, that of any wind-instr. 
when not o\&x\)\o^-a.. . .Natural scale, 
C-major, having neither sharps nor flats. 
. .Natural tone, a tone producible, on a 
windinstr. with cupped mouthpiece, by 
simply modifying the adjustment of the 
lips and the force of the air-current, 
without using mechanical devices for 
changing the length of the tube (such 
as keys, valves, or the slide). Such 
natural tones always belong to the series 
of higher partials (comp. Acoustics). 
These are the only tones which an instr. 
having a tube of invariable length (like 
the natural [French] horn) can yield ; 
they are produced by the division of 
the vibrating air-column defined by 
their tube into aliquot (equal) parts of 



constantly decreasing length. A tube 
of wide bore in proportion to its length 
will yield most readily the low and me- 
dium tones of the series, including the 
fundamental ; a tube comparatively nar- 
row, the medium and higher tones, 
omitting the fundamental. Any metal 
instr. yielding the fundamental tone (e. 
g. the Tuba) is called a complete instr. 
(Ger. Ganz' instrument) ; one incapable 
of yielding it (e. g. the Trumpet), an 
incomplete instr. (Ger. Halb'instru- 
vient). With a minimum air-pressure, 
and the lips most relaxed, the funda- 
mental tone of the tube is sounded. 

Natura'le (It.) Natural, unaffected... 
Naturalmen'te^ naturally, etc. 

Natura'lis (Lat.) Natural . . . Can'tus 
naturalis, and hexachor'dum natura'le^ 
music, and the hexachord, embracing the 
tones c d e f g a, 

Naturalisf (Ger.) A natural or self- 
taught singer ; one not trained accord- 
ing to any vocal ' ' method " or " school ". 
. .Naturalis' tisch^ amateurish. 

Naturel,-le (Fr.) Natural. 

Neapolitan sixth. A chord of the sixth 

Ne'ben- (Ger.) By-, accessoiy.. .Ne'ben- 
dominante, dominant of the dominant, 
e. g. D in the key of C. . . Ne'bendrei- 
klang, secondary WxsiA. . .Ne'benge- 
danke, accessory theme or idea . . . Ne'- 
benklang, accessory tone (either es- 
sential, as harmonics, or unessential). 
. .Ne'bennote, auxiliary note. . .A^e'ben- 
sepiimenakkorde, secondary chords of 
the 7th (all except the dominant)... 
Ne'benstivitne, accompanying or ripicno 
^2S\.. . .Ne'beuTverk (on 2-manual or- 
gan), choir-organ. 

Neck. (Ger. Hals; Fr. viaitclie; It. 
ma'nico.) The elongated projection 
from the body of an instr. of the viol or 
lute family, bearing the fingerboard on 
its upper side, and ending with the head 
or scroll. 

Negligen'te (It.) Negligent, careless. 
. .Negligentemen'te, negligently. 

Ne'gli, nei, nel, nell', nel'la, nel'le, 

nel'lo (It.) In the. 
Ne'nia. A funeral song or lament ; a 

Neo-German school. The disciples of 

Schumann and Liszt ; the romantic 
school of composition, and the "pro- 

Ne'te. See Lyre. 

Nettamen'te (It.) Neatly, cleanly; 
clearly, distinctly. . .Net' to, neat, clean, 

Neu'deutsche Schu'le. See Neo-Ger. 

Neu'ma, Neume. I. In Gregorian mu- 
sic, a melisma. — 2. In medieval mus. 
notation, one of the characters used to 
represent tones, inflections, and graces. 
They were of different and fluctuating 
form and signification, at first with a 
curious outward resemblance to modem 
short-hand, later changing to coarse 
and heavy strokes and flourishes. The 
earlier neumes (Sth to 13th century) 
can hardly be successfully deciphered, 
even with the aid of the letters {littera 
significativcr) sometimes added, or of 
the lines (inception of staff-notation) 
employed, from the loth century on- 
ward, to fix the pitch ; for they were 
less an attempt at exact notation in the 
modern sense, than an aid to memory, 
a system of mnemonic signs. They are 
important as being the first attempt to 
exhibit the relative pitch of notes by 
their relative height on the page ; they 
gradually passed over into the notce 
quadrate and ligatures of Plain Song. 

Neuvi^me (Fr.) The interval of a ninth. 

Nicht (Ger.) Not. 

Ni'colo (It.) A large kind of bombardon 

(17th century) ; precursor of the bas- 

Nie'der- (Ger.) Dov/n.. . .N'ie'derschlag, 
down-beat. . . A^ie'ders trick, down-ho-'M. 
. .Nie'dertakt, down-beat. 

Nineteenth, i. The interval of 2 octaves 
and a fifth. — 2. See Latigot (organ- 

Ninth. (Ger. N'o'ne; Fr. neuvihne; It. 
no'na.) An interval wider by a semi- 
tone or a whole tone than a perfect 
octave ; a compound second; but dis- 
tinguished in theory from the second by 
the fact that it enters into the formation 
of a chord in the series of ascending 
thirds. . .Chord of the ninth, a chord 
practically recognized under 2 principal 
forms : (i) the major, and (2) the minor 
chord of the ninth, each a chord of the 
dominant seventh with added ninth: 



The former, 

based on par- 

ȣ; tials 2-3-(4)-5- 
— (6)-7-9,is acou- 
stically the more 
y^—i^ '~ euphonic, 
'-"^^^2^ though the lat- 

ter has been of- 

f : V tener used in 
practical music. Their inversions are 
figured according to the ordinary rule. 
(Comp. Chord.') 

No'bile (It ) Noble ; refined, chaste. . . 
Nobilmen'te, nobly. . .Con nobilith'y 
with nobility, grandeur. 

Noch (Ger.) Still, yet. 

Nocturne (Fr. ; Ger. Noktur'ne, Nachf- 
stiick; It. nottur'ttp.) A word intro- 
duced by Field as a title for piano-pieces 
of a dreamily romantic or sentimental 
character, but lacking a distinctive 

Noc'turns. Services of the Church held 
during the night, each portion of the 
Psalm set aside for this purpose being 
termed a Nocturn. 

Nodal figures. The figures correspond- 
ing to the nodal lines of a vibrating 
plate of wood, glass, etc.; rendered 
visible by strewing fine dry sand on the 
plate, this sand being tossed by the 
vibrating portions of the plate to the 
nodal line's, which are points of perfect 
or comparative rest ; the symmetrical 
figures thus formed are also called 
Chlad)ii s Jigtires, having been discov- 
ered by him. . .N. point, see A^ode. 

Node. (Ger. Kno'lenpunki; Fr. nxud; 
It. no' do.) A point or line in a vibrating 
body (such as a string, soundboard, 
trumpet, bell), which remains at rest 
during the vibrations of the other parts 
of the body. Opp. to Loop i. 

No'dus (Lat., "knot".) An enigmatical 

canon. I 

Noel (Fr.) A sort of carol sung in the 
South of France, chiefly on the day be- 
fore Christmas, or Christmas eve. 

Nceud (Fr.) I. A turn (usually group/). 
— 2. A node. 

Noire (Fr.) A quarter-note. 

Nome, Nomos (Gk.) A canon (rule) 
for mus. composition ; hence, a song 
composed according to the rule. 

Non (It.) Not. 

No'na (It.), No'ne (Ger.) The interval 
of a ninth. 

Nones. The fifth of the canonical hours. 

Nonet'. (Ger. Konett' ; It. nonet'to.) A 

composition for g voices or instr.s. 
Non'nengeige (Ger.) Nun's-fiddle, 

tromba marina. 

Nono'le (Ger.) Nonuplet. 

Non'uplet. A group of 9 notes of equal 
time-value, executed in the time proper 
to 6 or 8 of the same kind belonging to 
the regular rhythm. 

Normal'ton (Ger.) Standard pitch... 
Normal' tonarten (pi.), normal keys. . . 
NormaV tonleitern, normal scales. 

No'ta (Lat. and It.) A note.. .N. buo'na, 
an accented note. . . A'', canibia' ta (cam- 
Uta), {a) a changing-note ; {h) an irreg- 
ular resolution of a dissonance by a 
skip. . .N. carathri'stica, leading-note. 
. .N. catti'va, an unaccented note... 
Nota contra notam (Fat.), note against 
note, equal counterpoint.. .N. d'abbelli- 
men'to, a grace-note. . . A^. da passa'gio, 
a passing-note. . . A^. falsa, a changing- 
note. . .N. principa'le, a principal 
(essential) note. . .N. quadra' ta {quadri- 
quar'ta), a Gregorian or plain-song 
note . . . N. roma'na, a neume . . . N. sen- 
si'bile, the leading-note. 

Notation. Musical notation is the art of 
representing musical tones by means of 
written characters. Letters, numerals, 
and signs of different kinds, have been 
used. The signs now almost univer- 
sally employed are called notes, and are 
written on a staff of 5 lines ; hence, this 
system of writing music is termed Staff- 
notation. (Comp. also Alphabetical 
notation, A'eumes, A'unurals.) 

§1. The lines and spaces of the staff 
indicate the pitch of the notes. The 
lines which Hucbald first u.sed (about 
A.D. 900), served the same end by 
representing strings ; in the spaces be- 
tween, the syllables of the words sung 
were written, the relative pitch of the suc- 
cessive tones being (sometimes) marked 
by the letters / {—-tontts, whole tone), 
and s {=^seniitoniii>n, semitone). — This 
system was also used later for noting the 
primitive part-music called or'ganuni or 
discant; increasing the number of lines 
as far up or down as necessary, and 
setting the syllables for the several parts 
vertically one above the other. — An ex- 
ample of one-part notation ace. to 
Hucbald now follows : 



li/ \ 



Isra \ / in quo \ 






vere / 

Solution in choral notes : 



Ec - ce ve - re Is ■ 


Nearly contemporaneously with Hue- 
bald's invention, an innovation appeared 
in neumatic notation ; a red horizontal 
line was drawn across the page, and all 
neuraes written on this line 


were of the same pitch, this 
pitch being fixed by a letter /: 
set before the line. A second line, 
but yellow, was soon added for r' 
above the y-line (or below, for plagal 
melodies) ; the two greatly facilitated 
the reading of written music. An- 
other improvement, m a different dir- 
ection, is shown by an orderly system 
of lines marked in regular succession 
by Greek letters set before them, the 
tones being represented by points or 
dots on the lines. To Guido d'Arezzo 
is generally ascribed the systematization 
and introduction (about 1026) of the 
4-line staff, in which both lines and 
spaces were at length utilized ; he re- 
tained the red and yellow lines, added a 
third (black) line between them for a, 
and a fourth (black) line either above or 
below these three, according to the 
range of the melody written, for e^ or d; 
he did not use notes, but either letters 
or neumes. 

%2. A staff being thus established, 
and affording a firm basis for exactly 
fixing the pitch of written music, the 
neumes hitherto in ordinary use gradu- 
ally lost their hieroglyphical appearance 
and became transformed into the Choral 
Notes of Plain Chant, the regular square 
form of which d) gave rise to the 
name tiota qttadraia or quadriquarta, 
other shapes occurring only occasionally 
in certain figures ^ ^^ or ^^ ^ . 

The 4-Iine staff is still retained in Plain 
Chant ; other staves, having from 6 to 
15 or more lines, were arbitrarily em- 

Perfect Imperf. Perf. 
L.irge- Large- Long- 
rest, rest rest. 

Imperf. Breve- Semibr, 
Long- re>t rest 

rest. (Pausa) (Semipai 

li - ta, in quo do - lus non est. 

ployed down to the 15th centur)-, when 
the 5-line staff for all vocal music ex- 
cept Plain Chant, and the 6-line staff ior 
organ-music, were universally adopted ; 
the present 5-line staff superseded the 
latter after the invention of music-print- 
ing. — All this time the form of the clefs 
was likewise changing, the original / 
and c becoming : 

(/) . (0 ^ 

etc.; the g also assumed a great variety 
of fantastic shapes before the modern 
forms were finally settled. 

§3. Mensurable notation, differ- 
ing from that of Plain Chant by express- 
ing a determinate (relative) time-value 
of the tones in its notes, which were 
invented for the exact indication of 
rhythmic relations, appeared near the 
beginning of the I2th century. The 
notes in use for some 200 years, and 
imitated from Plain Chant, were the 
Large (^|) or duplex longa or maxima; 

the Long (*,) or longa; the Breve (g) ; 
and the Semibreve (^ or pr) ; to which 
were then added the Minim (1) and 
Semi minim (1). Early in the 15 th 
century the first five were supplanted 
by the open notes (large P^ , long f^ i 
breve fci . semibreve O or A, minim I n 

the smaller notes which had been gradu- 
ally added being written in 2 forms : 
Semiminima [J] I or 1. 

Croma or Fusa [^ ] -^ or X. 

Semicroma or Semifusa [^Nj ^ or X. 

Below are the corresponding rests : 

.- Miiiiin-rest Semiminim- Croma- Semicr.- 

(Suspiriiim) rest rest rest 

1.) (Semisuspirium'). 



— The single notes were often joined in 
groups (comp. art. Ligature). — The 
angular notes of measured music were 
not finally supplanted by modern round 
notes, in music-printing, till about 1 700, 
though in MS. music they had been 
freely employed since the i6th century. 

For determining the relative time- 
value of the notes, various and often 
conflicting rules were made for the 
Modus (mode), Tempus (time-value of 
the breve), Prola' tio (prolation), Color, 
Position, etc. ; a brief explanation of 
the 16th-century rules follows, premis- 
ing, that the terms perfect and imper- 
fect refer to the measure or time, triple 
time being regarded (out of reverence 
for the " Blessed Trinity") as perfect, 
while duple time was held to be imper- 

Modus (mode) governed the subdi- 
vision of the Large into Longs, and of 
the Long into Breves : in the 
Modus major perfectus, i p^ = 3 t^ 

" " imperfec, I pi = 2 t^ 

" minor perfectus, I t^ =3 ^ 
" " imperfec, I t^ =2 t:S{ 

Tempus (time) governed the subdi- 
vision of the Breve into Semibreves ; in 
Tempus perfectum (sign the circle 

O). I N = 3 o 

Tempus imperfec. (sign the semic. 

C), I 1=^ = 20 

Prolatio (prolation) governed the 
subdivision of the Semibreve ; in 
Prolatio major i <^ = 3 1 

" minor i <^ = 2 yl 
the former marked by a dot in the time- 
signature (® or (• ), the latter simply 
by the absence of a dot.* 

The usual tnode-signatures were ver- 
tical strokes (long-rests) at the head of 
the staff ; e. g. , with the signs for tem- 
pus and prolatio : 

Modus maj. perf. 
-TN — ■ J Modus min. perf. 
32 — 1 Tempus perfectum 

Prolatio major 

• The system previously in vogue referred to 
the relative time-value of the notes in general ; 
thus, according to de Vitry (13th century) : 

I. prolatio : ■ = 3 ^, and 1^ = 3^ 


= 3 ^, " I 4 = 3 X 

f Modus maj. imperf. 
) Modus min. perf. 

! Tempus imperfec. 
Prolatio major 
Modus maj. perf. 
Modus min. imperf. 
Tempus perfectum 
Prolatio minor 
Modus maj. imperf. 
Modus min. imperf. 
Tempus imperfectum 
Prolatio minor 
N.B. — The time-signatures were often written 
smaller, between the second and third, or third 
and fourth, lines, etc. — The mode-signatures 
were also drawn from the fourth line down to 
the lowest ; as a rule, they were omitted alto- 
gether, leaving the reader to ascertain the 
mode from conventional peculiarities in the 
notation called sig'na impli'cita or intrin'- 
sera (implied signs), in contradistinction to the 
signa indicia' lia (indicatory signs) ; as, in the 
greater mode per/ecty a group of 3 black larges 
(see Color, below), or, in the lesser mode per- 
/ect, a group of 2 black longs, or a breve-rests 
at the beginning of a modal unit. 

Position (i. e. the order in which 
the notes stood) was very important. 
A long followed by a long, or a breve 
by a breve, was always perfect (tripar- 
tite) by position; whereas a long pre- 
ceded or followed by a breve, or a 
breve preceded or followed by a semi- 
breve, was always imperfect (bipartite) 
by position. After the minim was in- 
vented, the semibreve also became 
similarly influenced by its position ; the 
minim and lesser notes were always 

Color was the general designation 
for notes differing in color from those 
ordinarily used ; the red note {no' tula 
ru'bra) of the 14th century generally 
marked a change from perfect to im- 
perfect time, or vice versa ; the white 
note {notula alba) was at first used like 
the red, but soon obtained the fixed 
and definite signification of imperfec- 
tion in opposition to the ordinary black 
note (of the 14th century); finally, the 
black note {notula nigra) of the i6th 
and 17th centuries, when the ivhite 
notes were universally adopted, in its 
turn indicated imperfection ; thus, from 
the 15th century onward, groups of 2 
or more black notes had the proportio 
hemiolia to the surrounding white notei, 
i. e. their time-value stood to that of 
the latter in the ratio of 2 to 3, — hence 
their name Ilemiola or Hemiolia{<\. v.) 

Augmentation and Diminution. 
Terms used loosely to express any in- 
crease or decrease in the time -value of 
the notes ; but signifying, specifically, 
{augmentatio) a retarding of the tempo, 
generally doubling the integer valor \ 



and (diminutio) an acceleration of the 
tempo, generally reducing the integer 
valor by one-half. — The diminutio was 
first expressed by a vertical line through 
thetempus-signature ((|) (J (|) (|), or 
by inverting the semicircle TO \, also 
by adding to the /tv«/«j-signature, in 
the midst of a composition, numerals 
or fractions (3, 2, f, \, t,); 2 or f then 
signified that 2 tactics (semibreves <>) 
were equal to I <>of the preceding tem- 
po ; etc., etc. — Aiiginentatio was gen- 
erally employed to reverse a preceding 
diminutio; the sign for which was sim- 
ply annulled by the usual sign for the 
integer valor (Q. C) Of" ^y the in- 
version of the fraction (^, 8, etc.) These 
fractions, however, were properly 
termed signs of Proportion. 

Proportion. The theory of Pro- 
portio, from the 15th century onward, 
treats of the different time-signatures 
and tempo-marks applied to several 
parts progressing simultaneously ; for 
instance, in a 4-part composition the 
integer valor might be marked for the 
discant in temptis perfectum Q.^^dfor 
the bass in tempus imperfectuni (3, the 
alto might be in tempus imperfectum 
diminutum (t , while the tenor had di- 
minutio intripla Q 3 ; further, changes 
might be made in any or all parts in 
the course of the piece, and were indi- 
cated by fractions (the signs of propor- 
tion; compare Augmentation^ above). 

Alteration ((z//<'ra^j(7) was the doub- 
ling of the time-value of the second of 2 

equal notes, and occurred either when 
the next largest kind of note was per- 
fect, and the 2 (smaller) notes stood 
between two such large ones, or when 
the 2 notes were separated from a 
following note of equal or smaller 
value by a punctum divisionis; e.g. 
HOO H '" tempus perfectum. (Q) 
would be expressed thus in modem 
notation { <s> • \ <s> c | o • )• 

The Punc'tum or Punc'tus (point, 
dot) had various uses ; {a) Punctum 
augmentatio'nis, equivalent to our dot 
of prolongation ; (/') Punctum altera- 
tio'nis, which, placed before the first 
of 2 short notes lying between 2 long 
ones, doubled the value of the second 
short note and restored the perfection 
of the 2 long ones ; (<r) Punctum per- 
fectio'nis, used in prolation, and also 
to restore the perfection of a note made 
imperfect by position; and (d) Punc- 
tum divisio'nis or imperfectio'nis, 
written between 2 short notes lying be- 
tween 2 long ones, indicated the imper- 
fection of both the latter. 

None of these rules or signs were in- 
variably followed or employed ; the 
above remarks will serve, however, to 
give a correct general idea of the in- 
tricacies of Mensurable Notation. (Also 
see Figura obliqua.) 

■ Note. (Ger. and Fr. No'te; It. no'ta.) 
One of the signs used to express the re- 
lative time-value of mus. tones. (Comp. 
N'otation.) The notes employed in 
modern notation are the following : 





j Breve, or 
1 Double note 
j Semibreve, or 
i Whole note 
j Minim, or 


Crotchet, or 

( Quaver, or 
j Eighth-note 

J Semiquaver, or 
( Demisemiquaver, or 
J Thirty -second-note 

( Hemidemisemiquaver, 
1 or Sixty-fourth-note. 


( Ganznote, or 
) ganze Taktnote 
J Halbnote, or 
( halbe Note 
j Viertel, or 
j Viertelnote 
j Achtel, or 
( Achtelnote 
J Sechzehntel, or 
j Sechzehntelnote 
j Zweiunddreissig- 
I stel(note) 

j Vierundsechzig- 
( stel(note) 

Breve, or Carree 

J Seml-br&ve, or 
j Ronde 








^ Minima, or 
j Semiminima, or 
I Nera 




Black note, one having a solid head (J); 
opp. to white note (J). Also, a black 
digital or kty- ■ -Changing note, see 
Changing-note. . .Character-notes , notes 
varying in shape from those in common 
use, employed to present characteristic 
qualities of the tones other than their 

time-values.. . Choral-note ,s^^ Notation, 
%^\ and 2. . .Crowned note, one with a 
hold (2) over it. . .Double note, a breve 
(= 2(S>). . .Driving-note, a syncopated 
note. . .Essential note, a chord-note, of 
vs\&\o&^-XioX&. . .Grace-note, see Grcue. 
. .Harmonic /w/^, a chord-note . . .Hold' 



in^-Mote, a tone sustained in one part 
while the other parts move. . .Leading 
note, Alaster-note, see Leading-twte . . . 
Open note, a white note. . .Fassitig note, 
see Passing-note. . .Reciting-note, see 
Reciting. . . White note, see Black 7iote. 
^Note (Fr.) A note...7V^. accidentt'e, an 
accidental . . . N. d'agn'ment, or de goiit, 
grace-note ... A^. sensible, leading-note. 
. .Notes surabottdantes {j^\.), groups like 
triplets, quintuplets, etc., etc. — The 
French names for the 7 notes of the 
scale are (i) tit, r/, mi, fa, sol, la, si; 
and (2) toniijue, sus-toniqiie, vi/diante, 
sous-dominante, dcminante, sus-domi- 
nante, sensible. 

Noten (Ger. pi.) i. Notes. — 2. Music 
(i. e. compositions, pieces). 

No'tenfresser (Ger.) Same as Croqne- 

No'tograph. .See Melograph. 

Nottur'no (It.) Nocturne ; dimin. Xot- 
tiirni' no. 

Nourri (Fr., "nourished".) Un son 
nourri, a full or well-sustained tone. 

Novellette. A name probably first be- 
stowed by Schumann (Op. 21) on a style 
of instrumental composition free in form, 
bold in harmonic structure, romantic in 
character, and specially characterized by 
a variety of contrasting themes and by 
considerable length. (Sometimes A'dr't-/- 

Novemo'le (Ger.) A nonuplet. 

Nowel. {¥r. Noel.) A Christmas carol, 
especially one in polyphonic style. 

Nuance (Fr.) A shadingor inflection in 
vocal delivery or instrumental rendering, 
affecting either timbre, tempo, or dyna- 
mic effect, to a greater or less degree. 

Null. A naught or cipher. (See O.) — 
In thorough-bass, a cipher calls for 
iasto solo. 

Number, i. A principal division or move- 
ment of an extended composition, like 
an opera or oratorio ; or any smaller 
and more or less complete portion of a 
large work, as a song, aria, interlude, 
etc.; or, finally, any single piece on a 
program. — 2. Equivalent to Opus-ntini- 

Numerals. For the employment of 
Arabic numerals, comp. Abbreviatiotts 
2, Fingering, I/armoniuvi-yniisic, Or- 
gan, Phone §6, Pitch §2, Tablature, 
Thorough-bass. — As abbreviations, 2- 
tirne, j-time, are equivalent to duple 

time, triple time ; 4tte, ^tte, to quartet, 
quintet. . .(It.) 3-, 4«. 5', 6», 7», con- 
tractions of Terza, Quarta, Quinta, 
Sesta, and Settima respectively; ^or <?"», 
"all'ottava"; /j""*, "allaquindecima." 
. .(Fr.) 3p,4p, 8p, i6p,equiv. to 2-foot, 
4-foot, etc. . . Roman numerals are used, 
in mus. theory, to mark fundamental 
chords, thus showing at a glance from 
what triad any given inversion is de- 
rived (comp. Chord, and Phone, §§5, 6). 
Nu'merus ( 1. Number.— 2. 

Nunc dimit'tis. The first 2 words in 
the Canticle of Simeon (Luke II, 29-32) 
" Nuncdimittisservum tuum, Domine, 

in pace" (Now, O Lord, lettest 

thou thy servant depart in peace) ; a 
text frequently used by composers, and 
forming portions of special services in 
the Catholic and Anglican Churches. 

Nun's-fiddle. Tromba marina. 

Nuo'vo,-a (It. [noo-o'vo].) New...Z'« 
niiovo, anew, again. 

r^^ut. I. (Ger. Sat'tel; Fr. sillet ; It. 
capota'sto.) The ridge over which the 
strings pass at the end of the finger- 
board next the head of a violin, lute, 
etc.— 2. (Ger. Frosch; Fr. talon.) The 
movable projection at the lower end of 
the violin-bow, to which the hair is at- 
tached, and by which it is tightened or 
slackened. — 3. The hnver nut on the 
violin, etc., is the ridge between the 
tailpiece and tailpin (or button). 


O. A circle (Q) was the medieval sign 
for tempus perfectum (see jVotation, 
§3); enclosing figure ( 0), see Harmoni- 
um-miisic . . .A small circle signifies, in 
modern notation, ((/) an open string ; 
{b) the harmonic mark ; (c) the dimin- 
ished fifth ; id) in thorough-bass, ta- 
sto solo; {c) in old German clavier-mu- 
sic, marks notes to be played with the 

O (It.) Or. (Also od.) 

Obbliga'to (It.) Required, indispensa- 
ble. An obbl. part is a concerted (and 
therefore essential) instrumental part; 
the term is specially applied to an in- 
strumental part accompanying and vy- 
ing with a vocal solo, very numerous 
examples of which may be found in the 
music of the l8th century. 

Obbli'quo (It.) Oblique. 



O'ber (Ger.) Over, above, higher. . . 0'- 
berdominan'te, the dominant (opp. to 
Un' terdominante , the subdominant). . . 
O'berlabiuin, upper lip (organ-pipe). . . 
O'hermanttal, upper manual. .. C'/'ir- 
stimine, highest part. . . O'l'ertaste, black 
key. . .O'bertone, overtones, harmonics; 
pho'nischer Obertou, the 15th partial. . 
. C/berwerk (in Germany), cAf/r-organ 
(when organ has 2 manuals); sivell-or- 
gan (when organ has 3) ; j-c'/t^-manual 
(when organ has 4 manuals). (Abbr. 
Obw., or O. W.) 

Obligat',-o (Ger.), ObHg6-(Fr.) Ob- 

Oblique motion. See Motion. . . Oblique. 
pfte., an upright pfte. with strings run- 
ning diagonally instead of vertically. 

Obli'quus (Lat.) Oblique ... /"/^"Kr^ 
obliqiia, see Figura.. .Motus obliquics, 
oblique motion. 

O'boe. (Ger. Obo'e; Fr. hmtthois; It. 
oboe' .) I. An orchestral instr. with 
conical wooden tube, having from 9 to 
14 keys, and a double reed held by the 
player directly between his lips, he thus 
completely controlling the expression. 
Compass Zva though either ex- 

2 octaves i-^ ■■ i^— - treme is difficult 
plus a | ( ^ 'V/^ ' and hazardous. 
seventh : tT ^i^f The scale above 

■-A — — — - is formed by octaves of the 
1 ^— ^* ~~" fundamental tones, as in the 
i7 ' flute, the fingering of which is 

also similar to that of the oboe. The tone 
is very reedy and penetrating, though 
mild, and equally suited for scenes of 
pastoral gaiety or of lonely melancholy. 
— The oboe family is incomplete, only 
2 instr. s, the ordinary treble oboe (for- 
merly oboi pic'colo) and the alt-oboe 
{cor'no ingle'se) being now used, the 
former as a non-transposing instr. 
written in the 6^-clef, the latter as a 
transposing instr. The bass for the 
oboe is furnished by the bassoon. The 
oboe d'amo're (Fr. hautbois d'a/nottr)is 
at present played only in the historical 
concerts of the Brussels Conservatory ; 
its pitch is a minor third below the 
treble oboe, and it differs from the ob- 
solete obo^ ba/so (Fr. grand hauthois) 
in having a spherical bell with a narrow 
aperture, whereby the tone is sensibly 
subdued. — The parent instr. of the 
oboe was the shaivm. (See Appendix.) 

Oboi'sta (It.) Oboist. 

Ocari'na. A small wind-instr., an im- 
provement of the toy 2-tone cuckoo- 

pipe. It has an elongated bird-shaped 
terra-cotta body 5 or more inches long, 
provided with a varying number of hn- 
ger-holes, and with a mouthpiece like a 
whistle projecting from the side. The 
tone is mellow and fluty. The better 
kinds are provided with a tuning-slide. 
Occhia'li (It.) Same as firillenbdsse. — 
Also, recent name for the white notes 
(=> and J). 

Ochet'to (It.), Oche'tus (Lat.) See 


Octachord, i. An 8-stringed instr. — 2. 
A series of 8 consecutive diatonic tones. 

Octave. I. (Ger. Okta've; Fr. octave; 

V It. ot/a'zui.) I. A series of eight con- 
secutive diatonic tones. — 2. The inter- 
val (1:2) between the 1st and 8th tones 
of such a series. (Comp. Interval.) — 3. 
The 8th tone of such a series, consid- 
ered in its relation to the 1st ; or vice 
versa. The Sth is called the higher oc- 
tave of the 1st, the 1st the lower octave 
of the 8th. — 4. One of a number of 
arbitrary divisions of the entire range 
of tones employed in practice, made for 
the sake of convenience in referring to 
and establishing the absolute pitch of 
each tone. (Comp. Piti/i.) — 5. In the 
organ, a stop whose pipes sound tones 
an octave higher than those represented 
by the digitals touched ; like the Prin- 
cipal. . .Ai the octave, see Ottava, all'. 
. . Broken octaves, see Broken . . . Con- 
cealed, covered, or hidden octaves, paral- 
lel octaves suggested by the progression 
of 2 parts in similar motion to the in- 
terval of an octave . . . Rule of the octave, 
a system of harmonizing the diatonic 
scale taken as a bass ; much employed 
in tuition before the laws governing 
harmonic progression had been formu- 
lated. . . Short ^r/r?<7(;', in organ-building, 
the lowest octave of the keyboard, 
when abbreviated by the omission of 
all digitals but those needed for the 
bass of the simpler harmonies, the digi- 
tals remaining being set side by side as 
if forming the regular series ; this was 
done to save expense and space . . . Oc- 
tave-coupler, see Coupler .. .Octave- 
flute, (fi) the piccolo ; (b) an organ- 
stop of 4-foot pitch. . . Octave-scale, see 
Mode. . .Octave-stop, same as Octave 5. 

Octavia'na. See Ottavino. (Also oc- 
tavin, octavtna, octavino.) 

Octavin' [-veen]. i. See Ottavino. — 2. 
A wind-instr. iuv. in 1803 by Oscat 



Adler of Markneukirchen, Saxony. It 
has a single reed, and a wooden tube 
of conical bore ; the keys are so arr. 
that the fingering is similar to that of 
the clarinet, oboe, etc. The tone is 
quite powerful ; the timbre between 
oboe and horn. Made in 2 sizes, ^ 
and C ; compass 3 octaves, c^ — c^. 

Octavo attachment. See Octavc-pcdal, 
under Fidal. 

Octet'. (Ger. Oktetf ; Fr. octette; It. 
ottet'to.) A composition for 8 voices 
or instr.s. 

Octo-basse (Fr.) The octo-bass, an 
immense 3-stringed double-bass 4 me- 
tres in height, provided with a mechan- 
ism of digitals and pedals for stopping 
the strings ; it is a third lower in pitch 
than the ordinary double-bass {C\-Gi-C), 
and its tone is smooth and powerful. 
Inv. by J. B. Vuillaume in 1851. 

Octochord. See Octachord. 

Octo'le (Ger.) Octuplet. 

Oc'tuor. Same as Octet. 

Oc'tuplet. A group of 8 equal notes 
having the same time-value as 6 notes 
of the same kind in the regular rhj-thm. 

Ode. A lyric poem intended for singing, 
and expressive of lofty and fervent 
emotion; it has no set characteristic me- 
trical form. — Also, the musical setting 
of such a poem. 

Ode'on. (Gk. odei'on / 'La.t. odc'uw.) A 
public building in which musical con- 
tests were held. 

O'der (Ger.) Or, or else. 

Ode-symphonie (Fr.) A choral sym- 
phony, symphony with chorus. 

CEuvre(Fr.) Work, composition. 

Off. In organ-music, a direction to push in 
a stop or coupler; as S7i'. to Gt. off.. . Off 
the pitch, false in pitch or intonation. 

Offen (Ger.) I. Open (of organ-pipes). 
— 2. Parallel (fifths, octaves). 

Offenbar (Ger.) Open, manifest. . . Of- 
fenbare Okta'ven, Qui n ten, open or 
parallel octaves, fifths. 

Offertory. (Lat. and Ger. Offerto'niun; 
Fr. offer toire; It. offer to' rio.) In the 
R. C. Mass, the verses or anthem fol- 
lowing the Credo and sung by the choir 
while the priest is placing the unconse- 
crated elements on the altar, during 
which the offerings of the congrega- 
tion are collected. The daily offertory 
of the Gregorian antiphonary is now 

usually supplemented by a motet on the 
same or different verses ; such offerto- 
ries are also composed with instrumental 

Oficle'ide (It.) Ophicleide. 

Oh'ne (Ger.) Without. 

Oh'renquinten (Ger., "ear-fifths".) 
Covered fifths, the ill effect of which 
the ear detects (or is supposed to de- 
tect) ; sometimes used to designate 
mere theoretical finicalities. 

Okta've (Ger.) OciaxQ. . .Oklaz'ie'rcfi, 
to produce, when overblown, the higher 
octave of the lowest natural tone of the 
tube {\v\nd-mstr.ii). . .Oktiiv'c hen, Ok- 
tav' flote, piccolo. . . Okta'vengatttingcn, 
octave -scales. . . Okta'venverdop'pelun- 
gcn, Oktav' folgei7 ,-paralle' len, parallel 
or consecutive octaves . . . Oktcif'- VVald- 
horn, a new species of Waldhorn, inv. 
by Eichborn and lleidrich of Breslau, 
of particularly full tone in the high and 
low parts of its range. 

Oktavin'. See Octavin 2. 

O'lio. A medley, or mus. miscellany. 

Olivettes (Fr.) Dances after the olive- 

Om'bra (It.) A shade, shading, nuance. 

Om'nes, Om'nia (Lat.) All. See Tutti. 

Om'nitonic. (Fr. omnitonique.) Having 
or producing all tones ; chromatic ; as 
cor o/Hfiitoniijue, chromatic (valve-) horn. 

Once-accented. See Fitch. 

Ondeggiamen'to (It.) Undulation... 
Ondeggian' te, undulating, wavy. 

Ondulation (Fr.) Undulation. . . Ondul/, 
undulated, wavy. 

One-lined. See Pitch. 

Ongare'se (It.) Hungarian. 

Onzifeme (Fr.) The interval of an eler- 


Open diapason, harmony, note, order, 
pedal, pipe, etc.; see the nouns. 

Op'era. (It. O'pera \^se'ria, biif'fa, etc.], 
dram' ma per mu'sica; Fr. opera; Ger. 
O'per, Musik' drama.) Modern opera, 
a form of dramatic representation in 
which vocal and instrumental music 
forms an essential and predominant ele- 
ment, took its rise towards the close of 
the l6th century in the striving of Ital- 
ian (Florentine) composers and aesthe- 
ticians to emancipate vocal music from 
the fetters of contrapuntal form. Their 
efforts led to the adoption of Monody 



{q. V.) as an art-style, and its application 
to dramatic purposes. The first opera 
g^ven was probably " Dafne " (music 
by Peri and Caccini, book by Rinuccini) 
in 1594, which was lauded to the skies 
as a successful return to the musical 
declamation of the ancient Greek trag- 
edy. The dry stilo rappresentativo of 
the earliest operas was improved upon 
by Monteverde (i 568-1643), who em- 
ployed vocal and orchestral resources 
with a freedom undreamed of up to his 
time, justly earning him the title of 
" father of the art of instrumentation ". 
His orchestra for the opera "Orfeo" 
(1608) is given below : 

2 Gravicembani, 2 Contrabass! di Viola, 10 
Viole da Braccio, i Arpa doppia, 2 Violiiii pic- 
coli alia francese, 2 Chitarroni, 2 Organi di 
legno, 3 Bassidagamba, 4 Tromboni, i Regale, 

2 Cornetti, i Flautina alia 22da, i Clarino, con 

3 Trombe sorde. 

With Alessandro Scarlatti (1659- 
1725) begins the era of modern Italian 
opera ; the sensuous charm of melody 
asserts itself more and more strongly ; 
the singer becomes master of the situ- 
ation, and operas are written to his 
order. This tendency, early transplant- 
ed with Italian opera to France and 
Germany, was combatted by leading 
composers of those countries ; Lully 
(1633-1687) and Gluck (1714-1787) 
were reformers of the musical drama in 
ridding vocal dramatic music of super- 
fluous melismas and coloraturas, making 
it follow throughout the course and 
sense of the action. — The gratid or 
heroic opera, with its full choruses and 
finales, its arias and recitatives, and all 
varieties of ensemble (duets, trios, 
quartets, etc.) is a growth due to the 
grafting of Italian opera upon the 
French musical stock, and is the style 
especially affected by modern French 
composers ; the formal plan of Italian 
opera was likewise adopted by the great 
German composers, but with an infusion 
of artistic potency and sincerity which 
raise their productions far above the 
earlier level (Mozart, Beethoven), and 
a tinge of German romanticism which 
lends them a truly national color (Weber, 
Marschner). In comedy-opera the Ital- 
ians were also pioneers (Pergolesi, 
Cimarosa) ; then follow the French 
(Gretry), and lastly the Germans (Mo- 
zart), all in the 18th century. Recent 
Italian operas show a distinct reaction 
against the old type, and bear witness 
to the strong influence of Germany (par- 

ticularly of Wagner). France continues 
in the footsteps of her national compos- 
ers (Gretry, 5lehul, Boieldieu, Adam, 
Ilerold, Halevy, Auber, Meyerbeer, 
Gounod). — To the purification, or rather 
annihilation, of the quasi-dramatic form 
of the grand opera, Richard Wagner 
(1813-1883) devoted all the powers of 
his marvelous genius. The guiding 
principle in his " Musikdramen" (musi- 
cal dramas) is the harmonious coopera- 
tion of the dramatic, poetic, scenic, and 
musical elements ; thus, the action of the 
drama must never be checked or veiled 
by purely musical episodes, however 
charming in themselves ; the music must 
illustrate the (emotional) course and ef- 
fects of the action, and nothing else. 
Hence the discontinuance of cut-and- 
dried movements and leveling of tradi- 
tional forms, the rarity of full cadences 
and harmonic sequences, the richly 
modulated flow of inspired vielos, the 
absence of " vain repetitions" of words 
and phrases, the uninterrupted dramatic 
interpretation by the orchestra of scenes 
and moods. — Both the grand opera and 
the Wagnerian drama find zealous ad- 
vocates and imitp.tors ; these, together 
with operettes of most various com- 
plexion, are the typical forms of musico- 
dramatic composition at present. The 
comedy-opera varies the form of grand 
opera by the interpolation of spoken 
dialogue . . . Op^ra bouffe [formerly /5^«/- 
foit\ (Fr. ), light comic opera ... C/^ra 
buffa (It.), Italian opera of a light and 
humorous cast, — comic opera in which 
the dialogue is carried on in reeiiativo 
secco, instead of being spoken . . . Op/ra 
covtique (Fr.), comedy-opera ... 0/irra 
jm^z (It.), serious (grand, heroic, tragic) 
opera ; opp. to opera buffa. 

Operet'ta (It.; Ger. and Fr. Operet'te.) 
A "little opera ", with reference either 
to duration or style of composition. 
The text is in a comic, mock-pathetic, 
parodistic, or anything but serious vein; 
the music light and lively, in many 
cases interrupted by dialogue. The 
English Ballad-operas and the German 
Singspiele are varieties of the operetta. 
Modern masters of this style are Offen- 
bach, Lecocq, Strauss. Sullivan, etc. 

Oph'icleide. (It. Offcle'ide.) The bass 
instr. of the key-bugle family (brass in- 
struments with keys), now little used; it 
was made in various sizes and of differ- 
ent pitch ; (l) as bass ophicleide in C, 



B\), and A\), compass 3 octaves and 

a s e m 1- 

tone, chro- 
asce n d- 
ing' from: 
same, \^z. 
b u t 1^ 
on ' 


(2) as alt- 
in F and 
E^, com- 
pass tlie 
:=z upward , (3) as 
J — contrabass ophi- 
^' clfiUe in F and 

'^ E[), compass only 
octaves, pitched an octave lower 
than the alt-ophicleide. Only the bass 
ophicleide was for a time in compara- 
tively general use. (Riemann.) Now 
superseded in the orchestra by the bass 
tuba in Ev). 

Opposite motion. Contrary motion. 
Oppu're (It.) Or, or else; abbr. (7//. See 

O'pus (Lat.) A work ; abbr. Op. or op. 

Orato'rio. (Fr. and It. ditto ; Lat. and 
Ger. Oratfl'i ittm.) An extended com- 
position of dramatic type, for vocal soli 
and chorus with orchestral accomp., 
usually having a text based on Script- 
ure. It is distinguished from Opera 
mainly by the absence of scenic decora- 
tion and of stage-play by the perform- 
ers, the action being contained /w/Z/iiVc' 
in the words. The oratorio takes its 
name from the oratory in which the 
monk Neri (d. 1595) held discourses, 
illustrated by sacred songs, on biblical 
history ; similar productions of a mys- 
tical character, and a growing prepon- 
derance of tlie musical element, led up 
to the first known oratorio employing 
the recitative (E. del Cavaiiere's " Ani- 
ma e Corpo", 1600), which is also a 
distinctive feature of the opera. At 
this period oratorios were given with 
scenery and dramatic action {azio'ne 
sacra); the adoption by Carissimi (d. 
l674)of the epical part of the A^arrator, 
rendered both superfluous. The modern 
oratorio, with full orchestra, recitatives, 
lyrical soli, and the grand clioruses (in 
their solemn and majestic breadth the 
fundamental characteristic of oratorio- 
style), is a product of the early i8th 
century (Haydn, Handel). (Comp. .I/vj- 
tcries. Passion, Opera.) — Rubinstein's 
" geistliche Opern " (sacred operas, 
Paradise Lost, 'Power of Babel, Aloses, 
Ckristus) are also called oratorios, al- 
though adapted for stage-performance, 
for which reason they are playfully 
termed " Operatorios." 

Or'chestra. (Ger. Orches'ter; Fr. orches- 

tre.) I. A place reserved {a) in the 
ancient Greek theatre, for the chorus, 
between audience and stage ; {b) in 
ancient Rome, for seats for distin- 
guished personages, in the same place ; 
(c) in the modern theatre, for the band 
of instrumentalists, placed in front of 
the stage, and either just below the level 
of the lowest seats in the auditorium, 
or (as in the Wagner theatre at I5ayreuth) 
sunk still lower, and provided with a 
half-roof concealing the musicians from 
the audience. Hence — 2. {a) A com- 
pany of musicians performing on the 
instr.s commonly used in the theatre or 
concert-hall in opera, in oratorio, etc., 
or in symphony-concerts ; (b) the instr.s 
so played on, taken collectively ; as 
IVagiur's orchestra, a svmphonv-orches- 
tra. — The orchestral instr.s (compare 
Instruments) are classified in 4 main 
groups: (i) The strings or string- 
band (violin, viola, violoncello, double- 
bass); (2) K\\Qwood-wind (flute, piccolo, 
English horn, oboe, bassoon, double- 
bassoon, clarinet, basset-horn); (3) the 
brass-wind (French horn, trumpet, 
trombone, saxhorns, bass tuba, cornet, 
[ophicleide]); (4) XhQ percussives (kettle- 
drums, bass drum, snare-drum, cymbals, 
triangle, bells, gong, and likewise the 
harp and pfte., though the latter is not 
generally reckoned as an orchestral 
instr.) — The full orchestra, in which all 
the above groups are represented, may 
be either z. grand orchestra {symphony- 
orchestra) or small orchestra; the for- 
mer should contain 3 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 
clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets, 4 
horns, 3 trombones, and a pair of ket- 
tledrums, to balance which there should 
be, in the "string-quartet", about 14 
1st violins, 14 2nd violins, g violas, 9 
violoncelli, and 6 double-basses (orches- 
tra of the Gezvandhaus, Leipzig); this 
basic grand orchestra may be enlarged 
ad libitum fas for the modern opera) by 
doubling the principal instr.s or by add- 
ing others. On the other hand, by leav- 
ing out the trombones, 2 of the horns, 
and even the kettledrums and clarinets, 
we get the small orchestra. — Groups 2 
and 3 constitute what is called the 
" wind-band ". 

Orches'tral flute. An organ-stop closely 
imitating the flute in timbre. 

Or'chestrate. (Ger. orchestrie'ren; Fr. 
orchestrer; It. orchesirare.) To write 
or arrange music for orchestra. .. (Pr. 



ihestra'tion, the art of writing music 
for performance by an orchestra ; the 
science of combining, in an effective 
manner, the instr.s constituting the 
orchestra. [The best treatises on the 
instr.s and on orchestration are by Ge- 
vaert, BerHoz, and Riemann.] 

Orchestre. (Fr.) Orchestra. . .J ^^aW 
orchestre, for full orchestra. 

Orchestri'na di ca'mera. One of va- 
rious small keyboard free-reed instr.s, 
each constructed with the compass and 
timbre of some orchestral instrument 
which it was intended to replace, such 
as the clarinet, oboe, or bassoon ; inv. 
by W. E. Evans, about i860. 

Orchestri'no. A kind of piano-violin 
imitating in tone the violin, viola d'a- 
more, and 'cello ; inv. by Pouleau of 
Paris in 1 808. 

Orches'trion. The modern 0. is a large 
stationary barrel-organ (^. v.), generally 
with a self-acting mechanism, and imi- 
tating, by means of a variety of stops, 
various orchestral instr.s. — The oj-ch. 
of Abb6 Vogler (inv. towards the end 
of the 18th century) was a " simplified " 
organ, in which the complicated key- 
action and registers were abolished, the 
pipes standing directly behind the keys 
governing them, while the mixtures and 
numerous other adjuncts were done 
away with ; it also had a Venetian 
swell, and for the 16-foot stops he sub- 
stituted a combination of an 8-foot stop 
and a fifth (5>^-ft.) — an idea still of 

Ordina'rio. (It.) Common, ordinary. . . 
Tempo o., common (4-4) time. 

Or'gan. (Lat. or'ganum; Ger. Or'gel; 
Fr. orgiie; It. o/gano.) The largest 
and most powerful among musical 
instr.s, and of great antitiuity, trust- 
worthy accounts reaching back to the 2nd 
century B. C. Up to the loth century 
A. D. the organ appears to have been 
a very primitive instr. , with a diatonic 
compass of 2 octaves at most; the pipes 
were all flue-pipes, constructed in much 
the same manner as at present; reed- 
pipes were not introduced until the 15th 
century. But as early as 980 we hear 
of an organ at Winchester, England, 
which had 400 pipes and 2 manuals. 
each with a compass of 20 keys, and 
with 10 pipes to each key. The keys 
of the early organs were so broad, and 
the whole action so clumsy, that in 

playing the plain-song melo<lies the 
clenched iists, or even the elbows, were 
used to depress them. Improvement 
has been steady, and chiefly due to Ger- 
man, English, and French organ-build- 
ers. — The pipe-organ (see also Reed- 
organ) is a keyboard wind-instr. con- 
sisting of few or many sets of pipes 
controlled by one or more keyboards. 
It has 3 distinct mechanisms : (1) The 
wind-supply, incl. bellows, windtrunk, 
windchest, etc.; (2) the pipes, called 
collectively the /z)!i;'-7w;-/Jv (3) the key- 
boards, pedals, and stops, called collect- 
ively the action, and under the player's 
direct control. — (i) The wind (com- 
pressed air) is obtained from a weighted 
storage-hello-vs filled by feeders; from 
the storage-bellows the wind is driven, 
by pressure of the weights on the stor- 
age-bellows, through a hollow wooden 
canal, the ivindtriink, into the wind- 
chest, a wooden wind-reservoir beneath 
the soundboard on which the pipes are 
set; the wind passes up through the 
soundboard by way of ^vwrrx separated 
by bars, and leading d .ectly to the 
pipes; the grooves are closed below by 
pallets (air-tight valves) opened by de- 
pressing the keys, and above by sliders 
opened by pulling out the draw-stops. 
— (2) The pipes are divided into 2 
principal groups, Jlue-pipes and reed- 
pipes (which see; also comp. Stop). 
They are held in position over the 
soundboard by the upper-board, into 
which the wcj't.f of the pipes are inserted, 
and ih& pipe-rack, a board pierced with 
holes to admit the feci of the pipes and 
to support the latter. Each set of pipes 
(a stop or register) is ranged in one or 
more rows above a slider, which is a 
long, narrow strip of wood with holes 
corresponding in size and relative posi- 
tion to those in the feet of the pipes, 
and pushed back and forth by a draw- 
stop; when the latter is on (out, or 
drawn) the slider-holes come exactly 
under the pipe-feet, so that wind can 
pass from the grooves into the pipes; 
when the draw-stop is off {\. e. in) the 
slider-holes are out of position, and the 
pipes cannot speak. — (3) The action : 
{a) The draw-stop action is that acting 
upon the sliders by means of a system 
of levers; combination-pedals (see Pe- 
dal) are compound draw-stops. . .(^) 
The keyboard-action acts upon the pal- 
lets closing the grooves; when a key is 
depressed, its rear end rises, forcingup 



an upright wooden wand called a sticker, 
which raises the front end of a horizon- 
tal lever called a backfall, whose rear 
end in turn goes down, and pulls with 
it a tracker, a thin, vertical strip of 
wood bearing on its upper end ihepitll- 
down ox pallet-'wire, a wire attached to 
z. pallet (valve) closing the lower side of 
a groove; this pull-down thus pullsdown 
the pallet and admits the compressed 
air to the groove from the windchest; if 
a draw-stop is on, so that the wind can 
enter a pipe, the pipe will speak which 
corresponds to the key depressed. This 
is a common variety of key-action; 
squares and roller-boards are also often 
interposed between the stickers and 
trackers; more recent inventions are 
the///£';/OTii'//Vandthe electric actions, in 
which the depression of a key simply 
forms a connection setting the com- 
pressed air or electric current at work. 
. .(r) Couplers are mechanical stops 
acting to connect 2 manuals, or pedal 
with manual, so that when one is 
played on, the other is combined with it. 
A 4-manual organ often has as many as 
8, namely, 4 manual-couplers (Ch.toGt., 


Sw. to Gt., Solo to Gt., Sw. to Ch.), 
and \ pedal-couplers (Gt. to Fed., Ch. 
to Fed. , Sw. to Fed. , Solo to Fed. ) The 
organ-keyboards are usually called man- 
uals; there may be from i to 5 (see list 
below) with or without pedal-keyboard. 
Usual compass of manuals, 4 octaves 
and a fifth, with 56 keys (sometimes 5 
full octaves), from C to ^^ : 

Compass of 

pedal, up to, 

-^2 octaves j 


with3okeys: "* 
This notation, however, expresses only 
a part of the full compass, 
the lowest pedal-pipes 
yielding Ci (2 octaves below 
and the highest manual-pipes (piccolo i- 
foot)producing_^* (3 octaves higher than 
~ the total compass of the 

P_N organ thus being 9 octaves 
E'*' and a fifth (Cj to g^ ).— The 
" stops belonging to each 
manual are set on a separate sound- 
board or set of soundboards, and con- 
stitute a partial organ. — The nimes 
of the manuals follow : 





Gt. org. manual Hriupt'werk (Mnn. 1.) Gmnd-orgue d' clavier) Principale. 

Choir manual Un'terwerk (M:ia. II.) Po=.itif (2^ clavier) Organo di coro. 

Swell manual Scliwell'werk (Man. III.) Clav. de recit (3'= clavier) Organo d'espressione. 

Solo manual So'loHavier (Man. IV.) Clav. des bonibardes (4" clav.) Organo d'assolo. 

Echo manual E'chokl:ivier (Man. V.) Clav. d'ccho (5' cl.ivier) Organo d'eco. 

Organet'to (It.) A bird-organ ; a bar- 
Organier (Fr.) Organ-builder. 

Organi'sta (It.) Organist. 

Organis'trum (Lat.) Hurdy-gurdy. 

Or'gano (It.) Organ {(/.v.). . . 0. pie' no, 
full orga.x\. . .0. porta' bile, a portable 

Organochor'dium. A combined pfte. 
and pipe-organ {Fr. piano organis/); the 
idea originated with Abb6 Vogler. 

Organ-point. (Ger. Or'gelpunkt ; Fr. 
point d'orgue ; It. pun' to d'or'gano.) A 
tone sustained in one part to harmonies 
executed by the others. It is ordinarily 
a bass note (usually the tonic or dom- 
inant, or even both combined), and is 
also called a pedal-point, or pedal; but 
a tone so sustained in a higher part is 
more properly termed a holding-note, or 
simply a sustained tone, and the organ- 
point is then sometimes termed inverted. 
— Pastoral organ-point, tonic and dom- 
inant sustained together in the bass. 

Or'ganum (Lat.) i. An instrument ; 
later, an organ. — 2. The earliest at- 
tempts at harmonic or polyphonic 
music, in which the parts progressed in 
parallel fifths and fourths. The excru- 
ciating effect of this diaphony on the 
modern ear has led investigators to 
make the most of any historical evi- 
dence going to show that these pro- 
gressions were not simultaneous, but of 
an antiphonal character ; it appears to 
be established, however, that they were 
really the connecting link between the 
earlier chanting in octaves, and the later 
contrapuntal forms slowly developed 
out of the oblique and contrary motion 
in certain forms of the organum, due to 
the occasional introduction of harmonic 
seconds and thirds. — Though the orga- 
nu/n was, properly, thepa.n added deloTo 
the cantus Jirntus, the term is generally 
applied to all the first rude attempts at 
harmonic composition, whether in 3 
parts {diaphonid), 3 parts {tripkonia, the 
added third part being called tripluin. 



whence our treble), or 4 parts {tetr apho- 
nia). The examples are quoted from 

Ambros, and are of the time of Hue- 
bald (A.D. 840-930): 

Tu pa - tris sem - pi 

Or'gel (Ger.) Oxz'a^w. . .Or'gelgehciuse, 
organ-case. . . Or'gelmctall, organ-metal. 
. . Or'gt'lpunkt, organ-point. . . Or' gel- 
register, organ-stop. .. 6>/-'_r^d77w//', ci- 
phering (also Ileu'leii). 

Orgue (Fr.) Organ... a de Barbarie, 
ox a cyli>idre, barrel-organ. . .0. expres- 
sif, (a), an harmonium ; (fi) swell-or- 
gan. . .0. a pereussion, a form of reed- 
organ constructed by de Provins and 
Alexandre, Paris. 

Orguinette. A mechanical wind-instr. 
having i or more sets of reeds, and an 
e.\haust-bello\vs ; by turning a crank 
the bellows is operated, and a perforated 
strip of paper attached to 2 rollers is 
made to pass over the reeds, the perfo- 
rations admitting wind to the reeds and 
thus producing music. 

Ornament. (It. ornamen'lo; Fr. orne- 
ment; Ger. Verzie' rting.) A grace, em- 
bellishment. . . Ornamental note, an ac- 
cessory note. 

Ornatamen'te, Orna'to (It.) Embel- 
lished, ornamented. 

Orpha'rion. See Orpheo'reon. 

Orph^on. i. In France, a singing-society 
composed of men . . . Orpk/oniste, a mem- 
ber of such a society. — 2. A piano- 

Orpheo'reon, or -ron. A variety of cith- 
er, having- a flat back, and ribs with more 
than one incurvation on either side. 

Or'pheusharmonika (Ger.) Same as 
P anharmoni kon. 

Oscillation. (Ger. Oszillaiion'.) Vi- 
bration, or beating. 

Osservan'za, con (It.) With care, and 
attention (to the signs). . .Osse?-ja' to, 
carefully observed ; sti'le osservato, 
strict style. 

Ossi'a (It.) Or; or else; indicates an 
alternative or facilitated reading (or 
fingering) of a passage. (Also oppure, 

Ostina'to (It.) OhsimdXQ. . .Basso o., a 

■ ter - nus es fi - li - us. 

ground bass ; hence the use of ostinato 
substantively, as a technical term for 
the incessant repetition of a theme with 
a varying contrapuntal accomp. 

Otez {dtez) (Fr.) Off (in organ-mus.) 

Otta'va (It.) Octave . . .All 'ottava (usu- 
ally abbr. to Sva or S or (5'''''i'"~"), "at 
the octave", an octave higher. — Also 
signifies, in scores, that one instr. is to 
accompany another in the higher octave. 
. .CoH'ottava, "with the octave,"!, e. 
in octaves ... C. alta, the higher oc- 
tave... C. bassa{Sva bassa), the lower 
octave, an octave below. . . O. rima, an 
Italian strophe of 8 lines, each in the 
heroic metre of 11 syllables, the first 6 
rhyming alternately and the last 2 form- 
ing a couplet. 

Ottavi'na (It.) i. An octave-spinet. — 
2. A harpsichord-stop controlling a set 
of strings tuned an octave higher than 
the rest. 

Ottavi'no (It.) The piccolo {Jla'uto 


Ottemo'le. An octuplet. 

Ottet'to (It.) An octet. 

Otto'ne (It.) Brass. 

Ou (Fr.) Or. (See Ossia^f 

Ouie (Fr.) Sound-hole. 

Ouvert,-e (Fr.) Oi^^Vl. . .Accord h Vou. 
vert, a chord produced on open strings 
of stringed instr.s. . .A livre onvcrt, at 

Ouverture (Fr.), Ouvertii're (tier.) 

OverbloTv', With wind-instr.s, to force 
the wind through the tube in such a 
way as to cause any of the harmonics to 
sound. Metal instr.s (horn, trumpet) 
are in most cases overblown ; wooden 
instr.s (flute, clarinet) are overblown in 
the higher octaves. 

O'ver-chord. See Phone, %\. 

Overspun'. (Ger. Uberspon'nen.) Used 



for covered (strings), the correct tech- 
nical term. 

Overstring'. To arransje the strings of 
a pfte. in 2 sets, so that one set lies 
over and diagonally crossing the other ; 
a pfte. sostrung is called an tn'c 7- strung 
pfte. (Ger. kreitz'saitig), in contradis- 
tinction to vertical. 

O'vertone. See Acoustics. 

O'verture. (Ger. Ouvertii're; Fr. ouvcr- 
ture ; \l. OTertu'ra, sin/oni'a.) Amus. 
preludeor introduction. The first Ital- 
ian opera-overtures were simple vocal 
(sung) prologues, or instrumental pre- 
ludes in vocal (madrigal-) style ; with 
Scarlatti the overture or sinfouia as- 
sumed a purely instrumental character, 
and was written in three divisions (I 
allegro, II slow. III vivace, presto); 
hence Xh^overtureinsotiata-fonn, with 
2 or 3 contrasting themes following a 
short and slow introductory passage, 
and repeated after a more or less ex- 
tended development-section, but differ- 
ing from the true sonata-form in lack- 
ing the characteristic reprise before the 
development. This overture in sonata- 
form is the parent both of the modern 
Symphony and of the Concert-overture 
(a term derived from the custom of per- 
forming real opera-overtures as separate 
concert-pieces), in which latter the 
above form is usually adhered to. — Op- 
era-overtures not in this form are either 
potpourris of leading mus. numbers 
taken from the body of the work, or 
preludes {symphonic poems) treating and 
blending themes occurring in the mu- 
sical drama in the form of an independ- 
ent composition, with the intention of 
preparing the hearers for the coming 
action ; such preludes have neither a 
regular key-plan, nor any conventional 
formal method of construction. 

OVvero (It.) Or. (See Ossia:) 


P. Abbr. of Pedal (P. or Fed.) ; piano 
(p) ; //, or ppp, pianissimo; P. ¥., pi- 
anoforte; pf, {a) pi u forte (louder), (<^) 
poco forte (rather loud) ; fp, fortepiano 
(i. e. loud, instantly diminishing to 
soft) ; mp, mezzo-piano (half-soft) ; of 
Pointe {¥r., = toe); and, in Fr. organ- 
music, P stands for Positif (choir- 

Padiglio'ne (It.) Bell (of horn, etc.) 

Padova'na (It.) Same as Pavane. (Also 
Padovane^ Paditana, Paduane, etc.) 

Pae'an (Gk.) A hymn to Apollo ; a 
hymn of invocation or thanksgiving to 
Apollo or other help-giving god. 

Pse'on (Gk.) A metrical foot of 4 syl- 
lables, I long and 3 short. It has 4 
forms according to tlie place occupied 
by the long syllable ; namely, first 
p,ron ( — ^^ -—^ ^-'), second (— ' — • •~-' ^~--), 
t/iird (^^ ^-^ — ^), and fourth pceon 

Paired notes. A proposed equivalent, in 
pfle.-technic, for the term double-stops 
on the violin, and for the Ger. Dop'pel- 
griffe; i.e. 2 parallel series of notes 
played with one hand, as thirds, si.xths, 
and octaves. 

Palala'ika. See Balalaika. 

Pal'co (It.) A stage ; a box (theatre). 

Palestri'nastil (Ger. , "Palestrina- 
style ".) Fquiv. to a cappella style (It. 
alia Palestrina). 

Palettes (Fr., pi.) The white keys of 
the keyboard ; opp. to feintcs, the black 

Palimbac'chius. See Atitibacchius and 
Pace hi us. 

Pan'dean Pipes. (Also Pan's-pipes, 
.Syrinx.) A simple wind-instr., known 
in slightly varying forms from earliest 
antiquity ; it consists of a set of gradu- 
ated reeds or tubes arranged in a row 
and blown by the mouth. The Grecian 
instr. usually had 7 tubes. 

Pando'ra, Pandu'ra, etc. See Pandola. 

Pan'fiote (Ger.) Pandean pipes. (.\lso 

Panharmon'icon, A variety of self- 
acting orchestrion, inv. by J. N. Miilzel 
of Vienna in 1800. 

Panmelo'dion. A kojboard instr., the 
tone of which was produced by the 
friction of wheels on metal bars ; inv 
by Fr. Leppich, in 18 to. 

Panorgtie (Fr.) A miniature reed-organ 
attached beneath and played by the 
keyboard of a pfte.; the combined instr. 
is named a paiuvgue-piano, Inv. by 
J. Jaulin of Paris. 

Pantareon, Pan'talon. An improved 
dulcimer, inv. in 1690 by, and named 
after, Pantaleon I lebenstreit; a precursor 
of the pfte. It was 4 times as large as 
the ordinary dulcimer, and oblong in 
shape; had 2 soundboards, as of 2 



instr.s standing close together ; was 
strung on one side with steel and brass 
wires, and on the other with gut ; the 
2 wooden mallets in the player's hands 
were sometimes used with the softer 
face, sometimes with the harder. 

Pantalon (Fr.) The first figure or move- 
ment in the old quadrille. 

Pan'talonzug (Ger.) " Pantalon-stop"; 
a harpsichord-stop which neutralized 
the action of the damping mechanism, 
and thus produced the confused effect 
peculiar to the I'antalon. 

Par'allel, See Interval, Key, Jifotion. 
. . Parallel' bewegung (Ger.), parallel 
(and also similar) motion. . .ParalWlen 
(Ger., pi.), (rt) sliders (in the organ); 
(^) consQC\\\.\ves. .. Par a lie I' to7ia rt (Ger.), 
a relative (major or minor) key. 

Par'aphrase. A transcription or re- 
arrangement, of a vocal or instrumental 
composition, for some other instr. or 
instr.s, with more or less extended and 
brilliant variations. 

Parfait (Fr.) Perfect (of intervals) ; com- 
plete (of cadences); true, pure (of inton- 
ation); strong, accented (of beats). 

Parhyp'ate. See Lyre i. 



Par'te (It.) I. Vart. . .Colla f arte, a 
direction to accompanists to follow 
yieldingly and discreetly the solo part 
or voice. — 2. A movement. 

Partial stop. Sqq Stop.. .Partial tone, 
see Acoustics. . .Partial turn, see 
Turn I. 

Participating-tone. See Accessory. 

Particular metre. See Metre. 

Partiraea'to (It.) A figured bass... 
Partimenti (pi.), exercises, generally 
written on a figured bass, for training 
students to read and accompany from 
such a bass. 

Parti'ta (It.), Partie' (Ger.) i. See 
Suite. — 2. A set of variations. 

Partiti'no (It.) A supplementary score, 
appended to the body of the score when 
there are too many parts for all to be 
written on one page. 

Partition (Fr.), Partitur' (Ger.), Par- 

Parlan'do, Parlan'te (It.) " Speaking"; 
a style of singing resembling recitative 
in clear enunciation, the vowel-sounds 
being markedly " thrown forward." 

Part. (Ger. Part, Stim'me; Fr. partie, 
voix; It. par'te, vo'ce.) In concerted 
music, the series of tones written 
for and executed by a voice or instr. , 
either as a solo or together with other 
voices or instr.s of the same kind ; a 
melody so performed. 

Part-book. i. (Ger. St i mm' buck.) A 
written or printed part for a single 
performer, like those in vogue during 
the 15th and i6th centuries.— 2. (Ger. 
Chor'buch.) A book of that period, 
containing 4 vocal parts (sometimes 
with added instrumental accomp.), not, 
as at present, in score, but each on a 
separate staff side by side with the 
others (can'tus latera'lis), and on oppo- 
site pages ; the fragments of the several 
parts so corresponding, of course, that 
the leaf could be turned for all at the 
same time. Some were so printed, that 
singers on opposite sides of the table 
could read from the same open book. 
The diagrams give a notion of this 
peculiar arrangement : 




titu'ra (Lat. and It.) A partition, 
score. . . Parti tura cancella' ta, a system 
of staves scored (hence Engl. Score) by 
the vertical lines of the bars drawn from 
top to bottom. 

Part-music. Concerted or harmonized 
music; a term properly applied to vocal 
music of this description. (See Part- 

Part-singing. The singing of part- 
music; as generally understood, with- 
out instrumental accomp. 

Part-song. A composition for at least 
3 voices in harmony, without accomp. 
[and for equal or mixed voices]. — The 
first requisite of the music is well-defined 
rhythm, and the second unyielding 
homophony. . .Tunefulness in the upper 
part or melody is desirable, and the 
attention should not be withdrawn by 
elaborate devices of an imitative or con- 
trapuntal nature in the harmonic sub- 



structure. . .The part-song being essen- 
tially a melody with choral harmony, 
the upper part is in one sense the most 
important . . . The words may be either 
amatory, heroic, patriotic, didactic, or 
even quasi-sacred in character. . .The 
part-song. . .is one of three forms of 
secular unaccompanied choral music, 
the others being the madrigal, and the 
glee... Like the madrigal and unlike 
the glee, the number of voices to each 
part may be multiplied within reason- 
able limits. [Grove.] 

Part -writing. The art and practice of 

Pas (Fr., iiotoi.) A step ; also, a solo 
dance in a ballet. . ./"(Jj (U deux, a 
dance performed by 2 dancers. . .Pas 
redouble, quickstep. . .Fas sail, a solo 
dance. . .{Adver/>.) Not; as J'as trap 
lent, not too slow. 

Paspy. See Passepied. 

Passaca'glia, or -glio (It.; Fr. passa- 
caille; Ger. Gas'senkaitei:) An old 
Italian dance in triple time and stately 
movement, written on a ground bass of 
4 measures, whose theme sometimes 
appears in a higher part. It was always 
in minor, and is hardly distinguishable, 
as an instrumental piece, from the 

Passacaille (Fr.) Passacaglia. 

Passage. I. A portion or section of 
a piece, usually short. — 2. A rapid 
repeated figure, either ascending or 
descending. A jra/f-passage is usually 
called a run. . .N'oies de passage (Fr.), 

Passag'gio (It.) Passage i. — 2. A mod- 
ulation. — 3. A flourish or bravura em- 
bellishment, either vocal or instru- 

Passamez'zo (It.) An old Italian dance 
in duple time, and similar to the Pavane 
except in having a more rapid move- 

Passant (Fr.) Slide (of bow). 

Passepied (Fr.) A paspy, an old French 
dance in 3-8 or 6-8 time, generally 
beginning with an eighth-note on the 
weak beat, and having 3 or 4 reprises 
in an even number of measures, the 
third reprise being short, and sportive 
or toying; like the minuet in movement, 
but quicker. 

^■' Passing-notes.-tones. Notes or tones 
'' foreign to the chords which they accom- 

pany, and passing by steps from one 
chord to another. They differ from 
suspensions in not being prepared, and 
in entering (usually) on an unaccented 

Passion, Passion-music. A musical 
setting of a te.\t descriptive of Christ's 
sufferings and death (passion). Its be- 
ginnings are traceable back to the 4th 
century ; the oldest music e.xtant is a 
solemn plain-song melody of uncertain 
date {can'ius passio'nis). In a quasi- 
dramatic form the passion is of later 
origin ; and possibly directly derived 
from the ancient custom of chanting 
the scriptural text of the passion, dur- 
ing passion-week, to Gregorian melo- 
dies. It is certain, that from early 
in the 13th century (i) the words spoken 
by Christ, (2) the connecting narrative, 
and (3) the exclamations of the apostles, 
the populace, the high priest, etc., were 
recited by 3 different singers (imperson- 
ating Christ, the Evangelist, the Dis- 
ciples, etc.) The evolution of the Pas- 
sion as an art-form is, after the i6th 
century, nearly parallel with that of the 
Oratorio (which see) ; from its resem- 
blance to the latter it is sometimes styled 
" passion-oratorio". It differs from it, 
however, by a distinct infusion of an 
element of pious contemplation, and 
subjective emotion, expressed in hymns 
of praise and choral songs, devotional 
arias and choruses. The crowning work 
of this kind is Bach's " Mattha'uspas- 
sion " (Passion according to St. Mat- 
thew). — The full dramatic form of the 
Passion, with stage-setting and dramatic 
action, still survives in the German 
Passion-plays at Oberammergau. 

Passionatamen'te (It.) Passionately, 
in an impassioned style. . .Passio?ia'to,' 
a, passionate, impassioned. ..Passio'ne, 
passion, fervent emotion; con p., same 
as appassionato. 

Passionn6 (Fr.) Passionato. 

Pastic'cio (It.), Pastiche (Fr.) Amus. 
medley or olio consisting of extracts 
(songs, arias, recitatives) from different 
works, pieced together and provided 
with new words so as to form a " new " 
composition, as an opera (Ger. Flick- 
oper), etc. 

Pastoral. (It. and Fr. pastora'le.) i. 
A scenic cantata representing pastoral 
or idyllic life ; a pastoral opera. — 2. An 
instrumental composition imitating in 
style and instrumentation rural and 



idyllic scenes. — Pastoral organ-point, 
see Organ-point. 

Pastori'ta. See A'achtlwrn. 

Pastourelle(Fr.) i. A bucolic song, as 
sung by the troubadours. — 2. A figure 
in the quadrille. 

Pateticamen'te (It.), Path6tiquement 
(Fr.) Pathetically... /"a/Z/^Vc? (It.), 
pathitique (Fr.), pathetic. 

Patimen'to (It.) Suffering, grief ; con 
espressio'ne di p., with mournful or 
plaintive expression. 

Patouille (Fr.) Same as Claqttebois. 

Patte (Fr., "paw".) i. A music-pen 
2. — 2. A special key on the clarinet. 

Pau'ke(Ger.) Kettledrum. . .Maschinen- 
pauke, see Masckinen. 

Pa'usa (It.) A rest ; a pause. 

Pause. I. A rest. — 2. A hold (^). — 3. 
(Fr.) A whole rest, semibreve-rest. 

)Pav'an,-e. A stately dance of Italian 
or Spanish origin, in slow tempo and 
alla-breve time. [Probably of Italian 
origin, the It. pava' na (abbr. of pado- 
va'na) referring to a peasant-dance of 
the province of Padua.] 

Paventa'to (It.) Afraid, fearful. 

Pavilion (Fr.) Bell (of a wind-instr.). 
. .P. chinois, a crescent. . .Flute a p., 
an organ-stop, the pipes of which have 
a flaring top. . .Pavilion en Pair, " turn 
the bell upwards " ; a direction to horr*- 

Peal. I. See Change 2- — 2. A chime of 
bells ; a carillon. 

Pearly. (Ger. per'lend; Fr. perl,!?) In 
piano-technic, a style of touch produc- 
ing a clear, round, and smooth effect of 
tone, especially in scale-passages (" like 
a string of pearls "). 

Pedal. (Ger. Pedal'; Fr. pAiale; It. 
peda'te.) I . A foot-key ; opp. to digi- 
tal (see Organ and Pedal-piano). — 2. A 
foot-lever ; as the swell-pedal of the 
organ, the loud and soft pedals of the 
pfte., or the pedals of the harp. — 3. A 
treadle, as those used for blowing the 
reed-organ, etc. — 4. A stop-knob or 
lever controlled by the foot, as a com- 
bination-pedal in the organ. — 5. Con- 
traction of Pedal-point. — Pedal-action, 
the entire mechanism directly connected 
with a pedal or set of pedals . . . Pedal- 
check, a bar under the organ-pedals 
which can be so adjusted (often by a 
gtop-knob) as to prevent them from 

being depressed. . .Pedal-cot^pler, se« 
Coupler . . . Pedal-keyboard, the organ- 
pedals (see Organ). . .Pedal-note, see 
Pedal-tone . . .Pedal-organ, the set of 
stops (partial organ) controlled by the 
pedal-keyboard in p\z.Y\x\^. . .Pedal-pi- 
ano, a pfte. provided with a pedalier. . . 
Pedal-pipe, -souttdboard, -stop, one be- 
longing to the pedal-organ . . . Pedal- 
point, see Organ-point. . .Pedal-tone, a 
sustained or continuously repeated tone. 
. . Combination-pedal, a metal foot-lever 
placed above the pedal-keyboard of an 
organ, and giving the player control 
over a certain combination of stops. 
It is single-acting when it only draws 
out new stops in addition to those al- 
ready drawn, or pushes in some of the 
latter ; £vnd double-acting, when it al- 
ways produces the same combination, 
whatever stops were or were not pre- 
viously drawn. Comb. -pedals are of 3 
kinds: (i) The forte pedal, drawing 
all the stops of its keyboard ; (2) the 
mezzo pedal, drawing the chief 8-foot 
and 4-foot stops of its keyboard ; and 
(3) i\\Q piano pedal, pushing in all but a 
few of the softest stops . . . Composition- 
pedal, a combination-pedal . . . Coupler- 
pedal, see Pedal-coupler. . . Crescendo- 
pedal, a pedal mechanism drawing all 
the stops successively up to "full or- 
gan". (Also, occasional for swell- 
pedal.) . . . Damper-pedal, the right pfte.- 
pedal, on depressing which the dampers 
are raised from the s\.r\ngs. . .Ditnin- 
uendo-pedal, the reverse of crescendo- 
pedal, retiring successively the stops 
drawn by the latter. . .Extension-pedal, 
see Loud pedal. . .Harp-pedal, same as 
soft pedal . . . Loud or open pedal, the 
damper-pedal on the phe.. . .Octave- 
pedal (A. B. Chase Co.'s, for pfte.), 
acts, when depressed, in such a way 
that when a key is struck, the higher oc- 
tave of the tone is also sounded. (Usu- 
ally Octavo attachment.). . .Prolonga- 
tion-pedal, see Sustaining-pedal. . .Pe- 
versible pedal, a pedal-coupler. . . Sfor- 
zando-pedal, a pedal in the organ which 
brings out the full power of the instr. 
for the production of a sudden and for- 
cible accent. . . Soft pedal, the left pedal 
of the pfte . . . Sustaining-pedal, a piano- 
pedal acting to hold up any dampers al- 
ready raised by the damper-pedal, by 
this means prolonging the tone of all 
strings affected . . . Swell-pedal, a foot- 
lever in the organ, by depressing which 
the shutters of the swell-box can be 



opened ; tliey close when the pedal 
is released. — Balance s-.i'cll-pedal^ the 
modern form of organ swell-pedal : — a 
lever in the shape ofan iron plate made 
to fit the shoe-sole, and placed above 
the centre of the pedal board. Depres- 
sion of the toe-end of the plate opens 
the swell-shutters ; depression of the 
heel-end closes them. Called balance 
s.-p. because it remains at rest (bal- 
anced) wherever the foot leaves it. 

P6dale (Fr.) i. A pedal-key, the pedal- 
keyboard being clavier des pedales. — 2. 
Pedal (of the pfte.); petite pe'dale, soft 
pedal, "una corda". — 3. A pedal- 

Peda'le dop'pio (It.) Same as Doppio 

Pedal'fliigel (Ger.) A grand piano pro- 
vided with a pedal ier. 

Ped'alier. (Fr. p/dalier.) A set of 
pedals, either (i) so adjusted as to play 
the low octaves of the pfte. after the 
manner of organ-pedals, or (2) provided 
with separate strings and action, to be 
placed underneath the pfte. and played 
with, but not affecting the action of, the 
latter. (.Sometimes Pedalion.) 

Pedalie'ra (It.) A pedal-keyboard. 

Pedal'klaviatur (Ger.) A pedal-key- 
board ; either a pedalier, or for the 

Peg. I. (Ger. JVir'bel; Fr. cheville; It. 
bi'schero.) In the violin, etc., one of 
the movable wooden pins set in the 
head, and used to tighten or slacken the 
tension of the strings. . ./'^'^-i^t'jr, the 
hollow part of a violin-head in which 
the pegs are inserted. — 2. A tuning-pin. 

Pennant. Same as Hook. 

Pensieroso (It.) Pensive, contempla- 
tive, thoughtful. 

Pentachord, i. A 5-stringed instr. — 2. 

A diatonic series of 5 tones. 
Pentam'eter. A form of dactylic verse, 

differing from the hexameter by the 

ellipsis of the second half of the 3rd 

and 6th feet : 

Pentatone. An interval embracing 5 
whole tones ; an augmented sixth . . . 
Pentaton'ic, having, or consisting of, 5 
tones ; pentatonic scale, see Scale. 

Per (It.) For, by, from, in, through. . . 
Per Por'gano, for the organ. . .Per il 
Jlauto solo, for solo flute. 

Percussion. I. The striking or sound- 
ing of a dissonance, contradistinguished 
from its preparation and resolution. — 2. 
The act of percussing, or striking one 
body against another. The instruments 
of percussion are the various drums, 
the tambourine, cymbals, bells, triangle, 
etc., and the dulcimer and pianoforte. 
. .Percussion-stop, a reed-organ stop 
used to strike the reed a smart blow 
simultaneously with sounding it, thus 
rendering its vibration prompter and 

Percussive. An instr. of percussion. 

Perden'do, Perden'dosi (It.) Dying 
' away ; morendo or diminuendo, to- 
gether (in modern music) with a slight 

Perdu'na. Bourdon (organ-stop). 

Perfect. (Ger. rein; Fr. par/ait; It. 
perfet'to.) See Interval. 

Perfection. I. See Notation, % 3. — 2. 
In ligatures, the presence of a longa as 
final note {ul'tinia), which occurred 
when a higher penultimate note was 
not joined with the final as a figura 
obliqua ( |& ), or when, after a lower 
penultimate note, the final took a de- 
scending tail to the right (since the 15th 
century; from the 12th to the 14th 
this tail signified a plica, and to secure 
the perfection of the final note it was 
written vertically over the penultimate). 
(See Figura obliqua, ex. in black notes ; 
also N'oiation, §3.) 

P6rigourdine (Fr.) An old Flemish 
dance in 6-8 time. 

Period. See Form. 

Perl6 (Fr.), Per'lend (Ger.) Pearly. 

Perpe'tuo (It.) Perpetual ; infinite. 

Pes (Lat., " foot ".) An harmonic ac- 
comp. or ground bass to a round, the 
round itself being called rota. 

Pesan'te (It.) Heavy, ponderous ; calls 
for a firm and vigorous execution of the 
passages so marked. 

Petite (Fr.) SmaXX. . .Petite fliUe, the 
piccolo. . .Petite mesure a deux temps, 
2-4 time . . . Petites notes, grace-notes. . . 
Petite pedale, soft pedal. 

Pet'to (It.) The chest. . .Di petto, from 
the chest, i. e. in a natural voice, not 
falsetto. . . Voce di petto, chest-voice. 

Peu a peu (Fr.) Little by little, grad- 
ually. . . Un peu, a little. 



Pez'zo (It.) I. A ^\ece. . .Pezzi conct-r- 
tan'ti, concerted pieces. — 2. A number 
(of an opera, etc.) 

Pfei'fe (Ger.) A pipe ; specifically, an 
organ-pipe. The technical name of the 
I -foot stops is -p/eift\ as Bau'ernpfeife. 

Phantasie' (<ier.) Fancy, imagination. 
. .Phantasie' stuck, a fantasia ; in mod- 
ern music, a short piece of a romantic 
and intensely subjective cast, without 
distinctive formal structure. . ./'/iiz«- 
tasie'ren, to \m^xo\\se. . .Phantasier'- 
maschine, any kind of meiograph. 

Philom^le. See Bow-zither, under 

Phonau'tograph. An electric music- 
recorder for keyboard instr.s, inv. by 
Fenby, in which a stud attached under 
each key makes an electric connection 
when the key is depressed, and thus 
marks, on paper, lines corresponding in 
length to the duration of the notes. . . 
Another, inv. by the Abbe Moigno, re- 
cords the tones (sounded or sung) by 
the aid of a pencil fitted to a sort of 
drum, the membrane of which vibrates 
to the tones. 

Phone. §1. It forms no part of a com- 
piler's work to introduce new words on 
his personal responsibility ; but the 
terms "tone", "clang", and "sound" 
being already appropriated, a distinctive 
and exact equivalent had to be em- 
ployed in rendering the German 
" Klang" as used in modern musical 
theory. The Greek word ^(ji't/, in the 
English form phone, appeared to be 
a fairly acceptable neologism. — A. phone, 
then, will be understood as signifying 
not only a tone with its overtones and 
undertones ( fyndall's "clang"), but 
specifically the major triad (generator 
and higher partials [2] 3 [4] and 5) or 
over-phone, and the minor triad {gener- 
ator and /o7aer partials [2] 3 [4] and 5) 
or tinder-phone. [N.B. Over-phone 
and under-phone are also called over- 
chord and under-chord respectively. — 
In the subjoined statement of the 
modern theory of chords, Riemann is 

§2. There can be no doubt, that the 
oonsonance of the major triad (major 
consonance) is referable to the series of 
higher partials (see Acoustics), i. e. that 
a major triad, however the tones maybe 
set or inverted, is to be conceived as a 
consonance in which certain higher 

partials of the root are reinforced by 
actual tones. E. g. , 

Moreover, the generator accompanying 
each phone represented above, is always 
present as a resultant tone. But the 
series of partials not only completes 
itself do7vmvards to the generator by 
means of the resultant tones, but con- 
tinues itself upiuards by the aid of the 
upper partials of the primary overtones. 
Those overtones, above the 8th, which 
are represented by composite numbers 
(9=3 X 3, 15 = 3 X 5, etc.), are conceived 
as overtones of overtones {secondary 
overtones); i. e. as integral constituents 
of the primaries (the 9th overtone as 
the 3rd of the 3rd primary, the 15th as 
the 5th of the 3rd primary, etc.), and, 
sounded as notes of an actual chord, 
appear as dissonances ; that primary 
overtone, whose overtones they are, has 
the character of a generator, 2 over- 
phones thus being simultaneously rep- 
resented. Only the ratio of the octave 
(2:1) is never dissonant. Striking out 
from the series of overtones the doub- 
lings in the octave, there remain, to 
represent the major consonance of the 
over-phone, only (i) the generator, (2) 
the twelfth, and (3) the. fifteenth; hence, 
the primitive form of the major triad is 
not, properly „ but in ■«'5 

speaking, the 
triad in close 

harmony: '^ mony: 

— The consonance of the minor triad is 
not derivable from the series of higher 
partials, but is referable to a series of 
lower partials (undertones) diametrically 
opposed to the former (comp. Acous- 
tics). The lower partials i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6, 8, 10, 12, 16, etc., in fact all tones 
of the lower series corresponding to 
lower octaves of the 1st, 3rd, and 5th 
lower partials, are constitu- ■ -^ I 
ents of the minor triad below |^ ~tyy— r , 
c, of the C under-phone: Z) I 
in just the same sense as the same num- 
bers in the higher series are constituents 

of the n J its dissonances also 

Cover- 1 i^ p — : ; have a parallel ex- 

phone ; 




§ 3. Phonic representation 
{/Clan^'vfr/ retting) is the peculiar sig- 
nificance attiicliing to any tone or inter- 
val, according as it is conceived as be- 
longing to a particular phone. For 
instance, the tone C has a very different 
meaning, in the logic of progression, 
when conceived as tierce in the A^- 
major chord, from that as tierce in the 
y4-minor chord ; in the former case, it 
is most closely related to Di and the Z^'^- 
raajor chord ; in the latter, to B, and 
the chords of j?-major and j5"-minor. 
Every tone may form an integral part 
of 6 different phones ; for instance, the 
tone C in the C over-phone (C-major 
chord) as major root, in the F over- 
phone as major quint (over-quint), in 
the Ay over-phone as major tierce 
(over-tierce), in the C under-phone {F- 
rainor chord) as minor root, in the G 
under-phone (C"-minor chord) as minor 
quint (under-quint), and finally in the 
£ under-phone (.4 -minor chord) as mi- 
nor tierce (under-tierce) : 

Major chords 
(read up). 

Minor chords 
(read doicii). 

Whenever the tone C enters into any 
other chord as a dissonant tone, or is 
substituted for some chord-tone as a 
suspended or altered tone, it is never- 
theless always to be conceived as be- 
longing to one of the above 6 phones, 
i. e. to the one most nearly related in 
any given case. 

§ 4. The relation of tones is a 
modern conception, based on the affini- 
ty of tones belonging to the same 
phone. Tones belonging to the same 
fhone are directly related ; to f , for in- 
stance, are directly related^,/', e, (tH, a, 
and ej ; for c : g belongs to the chord of 
C-major or C-minor, c : e to the chord 
of C-major or /f -minor, c : a'r) to the 
chord of A^-ma']or or /-minor, c : a to 
the chord of /"-major or ^ -minor, and 
c : ^ to the chord of ^t^-major or C- 
minor. Directly related tones are con- 
sonant ; all other, or indirectly related, 
tones are dissonant. The mutual ref- 
lation of the former is more easily un- 
derstood than that of the latter. Di- 
rectly related phones are (r) those simi- 
lar ones (both either major or minor) in 
which the phonic root of the one is di- 
rectly related to the phonic root of the 

other [phonic root = generator, i. e. the 
fundamental tone in a major triad, or 
the (jitiiit in a minor triad] ; (2) those 
dissimilar ones (one major and the 
other minor) of which the one is the 
under-phone of some chord-tone of the 
other; namely, for the major chord, 
the under-phones {minor phones) of its 
phonic root, quint, and tierce ; for the 
minor chord, the over-phones {major 
phones) of its phonic root, quint, and 
tierce ; to which must be added the 
under-phones of the respective leading- 
tones. Thus, the following chords are 
directly related to the ("-major chord: — 
6^-major, /"-major, ^-major, .^[i-major, 
/^[7-major, /"-minor, C-minor, ^-minor, 
and /'-minor ; whereas, to the ^-minor 
chord, are directly related the chords 
of : — Z>-minor, /^-minor, /"-minor, Cjf- 
minor, C-minor, /";f-minor, /'-major, 
^ -major, C-major, and /"-major. — The 
relation of the tones depending on that 
of the the tonics (tonic phones), it fol- 
lows, that any key is directly related to 
C-major (or ^-minor), whose tonic is 
one of the phones (chords) given above 
as directly related to the chord of C-major 
(or .4 -minor). 

g 5. Phonic progression {Klang'- 
folge) is the progression between two 
chords with reference to their signifi- 
cance as phones. The ordinary method 
of marking the phones (major and mi- 
nor triads) b) the Roman numerals I, 
II, III, I'V^, etc. (com p. Chord) is 
inadequate from the standpoint of free 
tonality; e.g. thispassage: 


is hardl'y intelligible with such a figur- 
ing ; although it in no way signifies a 
modulation into another key, one must 
perforce consider the ,47-chord as in 
y-minor, and the Z>-chord as in C-ma- 
jor. For such progressions, a figuring 
with reference to a scale is simply im- 
possible ; they are referable to free to- 
nality, an idea but recently recognized, 
whose scope extends far beyond the 
bounds of diatonic harmony. Tonality 



knows neither diatonic nor foreign 
chords, but only a tonic phone and ref- 
erable (related) phones. In the above 
example, the C-major triad is through- 
out the tonic phone, to which the others 
are referable ; the Ap-ma]or chord is 
its under-tierce phone, the /J-minor 
chord is its second over-quint phone, 
and the C-major chord its over-quint 
phone. The first progression (C-major 
to^[7-major) reaches over to the under- 
tone side ; the second (.'/[^ -major to 
G^-major) springs across to the overtone 
side ; the other two lead back to the 
tonic phone. If we term a progression 
between 2 similar phones a stride 
(Sckritt), and one between 2 dissimilar 
phones a chanj^e ( IVechsel), we can dis- 
tinguish 4 species of phonic progression 
in which the mutual relation of the 
roots is a quint-relation. It is of wide- 
ly different significance for the tonality, 
whether a stride from the tonic goes to 
overtone side or to the undertone side ; 
starting from a major chord the latter, 
and from a minor chord the former, 
signifies a contradiction of, or opposi- 
tion to, the phonic principle ; strides or 
changes to contraphones (i.e. phones 
belonging to the opposite side) will be 
indicated by the prefix r^;/ //-<?. Thus(i) 
the progression from C-major to C-major, 
or J4 -minor to Z>-minor (= j? under- 
phone to A under-phone) is a simple 
quint-stride ; (2) C-major to F-major, or 
^-minor to j5"-minor {E under-phone to 
B under-phone) is a contraquint-stride ; 
c-''g, or °e-a (see § 6), is a simple quint- 
change ; c-^f or "e-b, is a contraquint- 
change. In all species of phonic pro- 
gression the simple changes are, like 
that above, easily intelligible ; whereas 
the contra-changes are much more diffi- 
cult to understand. — The tierce-pro- 
gressions are, for example, the simple 
tierce-stride c-e, or °(?-°<r ; contratierce- 
stride, c-a\}, or "e-'^g'^,; simple tierce- 
change, c-^e, or °e-c ; contratierce- 
change, e-''a\). Any direct progression 
to a remoter phone makes the want of 
an (omitted) connecting link sensibly 
felt ; it will be easy to modulate to such 
an intermediate phone, i. e. to transfer 
to it the significance of a tonic phone. 

§ 6. Phonic figuring {Klan/- 
schlussel) [according to RiemannJ. (i) 
No scale-degrees are marked or taken 
note of ; small letters are used to mark 
the root-tones of the phones, with an ° 
prefixed for an under-phone ; thus c —- 

C-major triad, "c = /'-minor triad. — (2) 
To these letters are affixed numerals, 
marking intervals added to the phones ; 
not, however, counting from the bass 
note, but from the phonic root ; Arabic 
numerals [read up !] for over-phones 
(major triads), Roman numerals [read 
down !j forunder-phones (minor triads). 
Thus I (I) = phonic root ; 2 (II) = ma- 
jor second ; 3 (III) = major tierce ; 
4 (lY) = perfect quart ; 5 (V) = per- 
fect quint ; 6 (VI) = major sext ; 7 
(VII) = major sept. — (3) The sign < 
after a numeral denotes the raising of 
the interval by a semitone ; > denotes 
its lowering by a semitone. Examples : 

f fvii bj?" g''^ b"* 
or d^i fj|vii> 

Pho'nikon. A metal wind-instr. with a 
globe-shaped bell ; inv. by B. F. Czer- 
veny of Koniggratz in 1848. 

Phonom'eter. (Fr. phonometre) An 
instr. for recording the number of vi- 
brations made by a sonorous body in a 
given length of time. 

Phor'minx (Gk.) An ancient stringed 
instr. resembling the cithara or the lyra. 

Phrase, i. See Form. — 2. Any short 
figure or passage complete in itself and 
unbroken in continuity. . . Phrase-mark, 
in mus. notation, a curved line con- 
necting the notes of & phrase 2. 

Phrasing. (Ger. Phrasie'rung, from 
//ir«j-/V';vw, to phrase.) i. The bring- 
ing-out into proper relief of the phrases 
(whether motives, figures, subjects, or 
passages), both as regards their individ- 
ual melodic and rhythmic characteri- 
zation and their relative importance. — 2. 
The signs of notation devised to further 
the above end. 

Phryg'ian. See Mode. 

Physharmon'ica. i. A small reed- 
organ inv. in 1818 by Anton Hackel of 
Vienna, and designed for attachment 
beneath a piano-keyboard to sustain 
the tones of melodies. It was the pre- 
cursor of the harmonium. — 2. (Ger.) A 
free-reed stop on the organ. 



Piace're, a (It.) "At pleasure"; a 
direction equivalent to ad lihitum, sig- 
nifying that the expression of the pas- 
sage so marked is left to the performer's 
discretion.— Also marks the introduc- 
tion of a cadenza. (Sometimes afiaci- 

Piace'vole (It.) Pleasant, agreeable ; 

calls for a smooth, suave rendering, 

free from forcible or passionate accents. 

. .Piacevolnten'te, smoothly, suavely. 
Piacimen'to (It.) Equiv. to Piacere. 
Pianette. A lovir form of upright piano. 
Piangen'do (It., "weeping, tearful.") 

Wailing, plaintive. (Also fiange'z'o/e, 

Piani'no (It., dimin. oi fiano.) An up- 
right pianoforte. 

Piani'sta (It.) i. A pianist.— 2. A 
mechanical pianoforte. 

Pia'no(It.) Soft, softly {sign p). . .Pi- 
ano pedal, the soft or left pedal of the 
phe. . .Pia/!/s'si//!o (superl. oi piauo), 
very soft (sign // or ///)• 

Piano. (Abbr. of Pianoforte). . .Bou- 
doir p., a short style of grand pfte. . . 
Cabinet p., an old form of upright pfte. 
. . Cottage p., see Cottage. . .Dumb p., a 
pfte. -keyboard without action or strings, 
used for silent mechanical practice'. 
(See Virgil Practiee-Clavier.) . . .Elec- 
tric p., one whose strings are set in vi- 
bration by electro-magnets instead of 
hammers. . .G'ra «(//., see Pianoforte. 
. . .Pedal-piano, see Pedal. . .Piccolo p., 
a small upright piano introduced by 
Womum of London in lS2g. . .Semi- 
grand p., same as Boudoir ... Square, 
Upright p., see Pianoforte. 

Piano (Fr.) A pianoforte. ..P.h arc he t, 
piano-violin. . .P. a claviers renversh, 
a grand pfte. having 2 keyboards, one 
above the other, the ascending scale of 
the upper one running from right to 
left. . .P. a queue, grand pfte.; a. queue 
/court/e, boudoir grand pfte.../*, a 
secretaire, cabinet pfte.../*. carr^, 
square pfte.../'. droit {oblique, a pi- 
las tres, vertical), upright pfte. . ./'. 
Mien, see Aneinochord. . .P. harmoni- 
corde, a combined pfte. and harmonium, 
inv. by Debain. . .P. vu'canique, a me- 
chanical piano . . .P. muet, dumb pfte. . . 
P. organist, a pfte. withphysharmonica- 

jPian'oforte. (Ger. Klavier' [in Ger. 
Fianofor'te usually means "square 

piano"] ; Yr. piano [more rarely piano- 
f>rte'orfort/./>iano, very seldom fort/] ; 
It. pia'no, pianofor'te.) A keyboard 
stringed instr. of percussion, the tones 
being produced by hammers striking 
the strings.— The principal parts are (i) 
the Frame, (2) the Soundboard, (3) the 
Strings, (4) the Action, and (5) the 
Pedals. — x\.ccording to the shape of the 
case, pftes. are classed as Grand (harp- 
shaped ; Ger. Flii'gel; Fr. piano a 
queue; It. pia'no a co'da), with horizon- 
tal strings and built in several sizes, as 
Concert Grand, Pai'lor Grand, Boudoir; 
— Square (oblong ; Ger. Pianofo'rte, 
or ia'felformiges Klavier' ; Fr. piano 
carre'; It. pianofor'te a tavoli'no) with 
horizontal strings ; — and UPRiGHT(buf- 
fet-shaped ; Ger. and It. Piani'no; Fr. 
piano droit) with vertical or slanting 

(i) The Frame is now generally of 
iron cast in one piece (Broadwood's 
pftes. form the most notable exception 
to this rule), and braced with cross-bars 
and trusses to resist the string-tension, 
which varies from about 12 up to nearly 
20 tons. — (2) Below the frame is the 
Soundboard, ne:SiV the front end of which 
is a bridge oi hard wood over which the 
strings are stretched. — (3) The Strings 
are attached at one end by hitchpins to 
the stringplate, and at the other to 
wrestpins {tuning-pins) set in the wrest- 
plank; they are of steel wire, the bass 
strings of a steel core covered (coiled) 
with copper wire ; 8 or 10 of the lowest 
bass tones have one string, about ij^ 
octaves above have 2 strings, and the 
remaining 5 octaves 3 strings, to each 
tone ; such pairs or triplets of strings 
to one tone are called unisons. — (4) 
The Action consists essentially of the 
key {digital, finger-lever) ; the hopper 
on the rear end of the key, raising the 
hammer when the key is depressed, and 
allowing the instant escape of the lat- 
ter after propelling the hammer, which 
can therefore immediately rebound into 
position after striking the string ; the 
hammer, hinged at the butt, with a slim 
round shank, upon which is fixed the 
head (the hammer proper) made of felt 
and sometimes covered with leather. — 
(5) The Pedals are 2 (sometimes 3) in 
number : {a) Damper-pedal, {b) Piano 
pedal, {c) Sustaining-pedal (comp. art. 

The idea of the key-mechanism was 
derived indirectly, through the mono- 



chord, spinet, harpsichord, and clavi- 
chord, from that of the organ ; the idea 
of a hammer-action (which constitutes 
the essential difference between the 
Pianoforte and its precursors) was, per- 
haps, derived from the dulcimer in its 
perfected form the Faittalon. The 
hammer-action was first practically de- 
veloped by Bartolommeo Cristofori of 
Padua in 1711, whose action is the 
same, in essentials, as that now manu- 
factured by Broadwood (English action). 

Pian'ograph. A form of music-recorder. 

Piano-harp. See Klaviaturharfe. 

Piano-organ. Same as Handle-piano. 

Piano-violin. (Ger. Bo'genJlUgel, Gei'- 
genwerk; Fr. piano a archet, piano- 
quatuor.) The English name covers 
the results of a long series of experi- 
ments, and of improvements of the 
hurdy-gurdy, the prototype of the class. 
— In the Gcigcn-vcrk inv. by Ileiden of 
Nuremberg (about 160 j) the keys, when 
touched, pressed their corresponding 
wire strings against small rosined 
wheels made to revolve by a treadle ; 
the tone was similar to that of a bow- 
instr. — The Gamlicnwcrk was made by 
Risch of llmenau (about 1750), and 
improved by the substitution of gut 
strings for wires. — Hohlfeld's Bogcn- 
fliigel (1754) had gut strings, beneath 
which was a bovv furnished with horse- 
hair ; on pressing the keys, the strings 
were drawn by little hooks against the 
bow, whose slow or rapid movement 
was controlled by a pedal-stop. — C. A. 
von Meyer, of Knownow, provided a 
separate horsehair bow for each string 
(1794). — The clavecin harmoniqtie of 
Hi'ibner (Moscow, about 1800) accu- 
rately reproduced the sound of a string- 
quartet. — Pouleau's orcheslrine was a 
further improvement of the clavecin 
harmoniqtie. — H. C. Baudin of Paris 
invented an instr. called the piano- 
quatuor, patented in England in 1865 
under the name oi piano-violin. It has 
for each tone one wire string, at or 
near a nodal point of which is attached 
a piece of stiff catgut projecting about 
an inch. Above these gut ties, a rosin- 
ed roller is caused to revolve rapidly by 
a treadle ; on touching the keys, these 
ties are carried up against the roller, 
the tones thus produced having the 
timbre of tones from gut strings. The 
instr. is capable of rapid execution and 

Piat'ti (It., pi.) Cymbals. 

Pi'broch. A set of variations for the 
bagpipe on a theme called the urlar, 
generally 3 or 4 in number, and increas- 
ing in dilticulty and speed up to the 
closing quick movement (the crean- 
luidh). This is the highest and most 
difficult form of bagpipe-music. 

Piccanteri'a, con (It.) With piquant 
sprightly expression. 

Picchetta'to, Picchietta'to (It.) De- 
tached. See Pique. 

Picco pipe. A small pipe with a flageo- 
let-mouthpiece, and 3 ventages, 2 above 
and I below ; named after tlie Italian 
peasant I'icco, whose extraordinary 
virtuosity on his instr. introduced it to 
the general public (London. 1856), and 
who obtained from it a compass of 3 

Pic'colo. {It. Jla'uto pic'colo; Yr. petiti 
Jlnte; Ger. Oktav'flote, J'ick'eljlote.) 
The octave-flute. See Flute. 

Pic'colo (It.) Small. . .Used as a noun, 
equiv. to (i) FLiuto piccolo., and (2) 
Piano piccolo, a small style of upright 

Pick {verb). To pluck or twang (as the 
strings of a guitar, mandolin, etc.) ; 
{noun), a plectrum. 

Piece. I. A composition. — 2. An in- 
strument, taken as a member of an 
orchestra or band (usually in pi.) 

Pi^ce (Fr.) A piece (ordinarily of in- 
strumental mnsic). .. Suite de pieces, 
a set of pieces. 

Pie'no (It.) I. P'ull. — 2. Mixture-stop. 

Pieto'so (It., "pitiful, moving".) Calls 
for a sympathetic and expressive deliv- 
ery ; nearly same as espressivo. 

Piffera'ro (It.) A player on the piffero. 

Pif'fero (It., dimin. pifferi'no.) i. A 
fife ; also, the name of a primitive kind 
of oboe or shawm. — 2. An organ-stop 
(see Bifara). 

Pikie'ren (Ger.) Same as piquer. See 

Pinc6 (Fr , "pinched".) i. Plucked 01 
twanged, as the strings of the harp, 
zither, etc. — 2. Pizzicato (in violin- 
playing). — 3 {tioun). A mordent ; sign 
* or ^ . . . Pince etouffe, acciaccatura ; 
pinc^renvers^, inverted mordent. 

Pipe. I. A primitive wind-instr., a rude 
flageolet or oboe. — 2. An organ-pipe. 
(Ger. Ot'gelp/eife ; Fr. tuyau d'orgue; 



It. can'na d'or'gano.) {a) Fu'E-I'IPES 
are those in which the tone is produced 
by the vibration of a column of air 
within a tube or " body ", the vibration 
being set up by an air-current forced 
through a narrow aperture and imping- 
ing on a sharp edge. A flue-pipe may 
be of metal or wood ; the part resting 
on the pipe-rack is theyl'c/, which is di- 
vided from the boiiy by an aperture in 
front called iheviotith, having an upper 
and a lower lip, and ears on either 
side ; within the mouth a projecting 
shelf or ledge called the I' (when 
thick) or language' (when thin) deflects 
the wind rushing through the foot, 
forming below a channel called the 
throat, and above (between language 
and lower lip) a narrow passage called the 
windway; the wind passing out of the 
latter impinges on the sharp edge of the 
leaf (bevelled portion of the upper lip), 
settingthe air-column within the body in 
vibration and thus producing a tone. 
The body of an open metal pipe is pro- 
vided at the top with flaps called tuners, 
that of a wooden pipe with small mov- 
able wooden boards, by adjusting which 
the pipes can be tuned — ("voiced"). 
— Flue-pipes are open or covered (stop- 
ped, plugged) ; an open pipe produces a 
tone proportioned in pitch to the length 
of the body, hence the terms 8-foot tone, 
l6-foot tone, etc. (Compare JIarmonic 
stop.) K stopped pipe yields atone an 
octave lower than an open pipe of like 
length. — -{b) Reed-pipes are those in 
which the tone is produced by a reed ; 
the tone may be modified in quality, 
but not in pitch, by the shape and size 
of the body or tube. A reed-pipe has 
a boot (corresponding to the foot of a 
flue-pipe), within which is the block, a 
circular plate of metal with 2 apertures, 
one holding the titning-zoire and the 
other the reed. A reed consists of 2 
parts, a metal tube (called the shallot) 
of conical form, widest below, with a 

lengthwise opening along one side cov- 
ered by the tongtie (the vibrating reed 
proper), an elastic strip of metal made 
fast at the top, but free below to vi- 
brate ; across its upper portion passes 
the bent end of the tuning-ivire, which 
can be raised or lowered so as to allow 
a longer or shorter part of the tongue 
to vibrate, and thus alter the pitch. 
The tube is fixed above the block, and 
may be of metal or wood, and in very 
various forms. 

Pipe-metal. The metal of which the 
metallic flue-pipes in the organ are 
made ; generally an alloy of tin and 
lead, the tone improving as the propor- 
tion of tia increases. Pure tin, lead, 
or zinc, or all 3 in varying proportions, 
have also been used. 

Pipe-organ. See Organ. 

Pique (Fr.) Peg or standard of a 'cello. 

Pique (Fr.) In violin-playing, the mezzo- 
staccato called for by a slur with stac- 
cato dots, notes so marked to be played 
in one ho'W {picckietta'to). . .Piqtier, to 
execute picchiettato. 

Pirolino (It.) Button (on viohn, etc.) 

Piston. See Valve. 

Piston-Solo (Ger.) Solo for the cornet 

a pistons. 

Pitch. (Ger. Ton' ho he; Fr. hauteur du 
ion; It. diapason.) The position of a 
tone in the musical scale. — Pitch is rel- 
ative, or absolute. The relative pitch 
of a tone is its position (higher or lower) 
as compared with some other tone. (See 
Interval.) Its absolute pitch is its fixed 
position in the entire range of musical 

§ I. For ordinary purposes the mus. 
scale is divided, to indicate absolute 
pitch, into a fixed series of octaves, 
which are named and lettered, in Eng- 
lish usage, as follows : 


Double contra-octave (32- 
foot octave, organ) 

Contra-octave (16-foot 

First octave 

(Great octave) 

(8-foot oct.) 

Ca Dj Eg Fa Gj A, B^ I C, D, E, F, G, A, B, | C D E F G A B 


-23— ■«>- 

- ■=> < =■ ) 

• ' Zoa 



Second octave 

(Small octave) 

(4-foot Oct.) 

Third octave 

(One-lined oct.) 

(2-foot oct.) 

d' el fl gi 

il b> 

Fourth octave 
(2-lined oct.) 
(.i-foot oct.) 


fa gS 


t. ^^- 

p-.-— --^ 

"S-i' ^- ^ ... 

^) — ^^=— ^-^ 

Note. — The double contra-octave is often written CCC, DDD, etc., and the contra-octave 
CC, DD, etc.; also, instead of small figures, accents or lines are employed to mark the letters, as 

C D,/ or C D for C3 Dj etc.;— c' d', or c d, for c' d» etc. ;— c" d", or c d, for c* d* etc. ;— hence 

the terms £)«i?-//«f(/ octave, iiuo-lined octave, and once-accented octave, twice-accented octa.vs, etc. 

one tierce to e; in the former case E, 
as the third of C, is a quint-tone, whereas 
in the latter case it is a tierce-tone, the 

§ 2. For scientific purposes, and to 
ascertain the relative pitch of the tones 
of the scale, the above system is modi- 
fied, C being retained as the starting- 
point or standard tone, while the dis- 
tinction between lower and higher 
octaves is disregarded, and lines (in 
this case not marking different octaves) 
are drawn above or below the letters to 
distinguish between Quint-tones (i. e. 
tones whose relative pitch is determined 
by reaching them through ascending or 
descending, from the standard tone C, 
by skips of successive perfect fifths), 
and Tierce-tonesi^. e. tones determined 
by reaching them through skips of major 
thirds). For instance, the tone e may 
be reached either as the fourth quint 
above C (C-G-D-A-E), or by ascending 

difference in pitch being noted by a line 
under the tierce-tone E, signifymg that 
it is lower than the quint-tone E by a 
syntonic comma (80 : 81). This syn- 
tonic comma represents the ratio be- 
tween the Pythagorean tierce of C (=E, 
the fourth quint), and the major tierce 
of C (=E) of just intonation (E : E : ; 
80 : 81); for every tierce-skip taken up- 
ward, a line is added below the letter, 
and for every tierce-skip downward, a 
line is added above the letter ; showing 
by how many commas the tierce-tone 
obtained is lower or higher than the 
corresponding quint-tone. 

laDle (.alt 

er KII 




= > 

'3 > 

4th tierce 



a X 




3d tierce above. 








2d tierce a 










xst tierce above. 



























ist ti 

3rce below 








2d tie 

rce bel 








3d ti< 

:rce below. 

trj* '^o- cro. o"? 



In this Table each skip horizontally is 
a quint-skip, and each skip vertically is 
a tierce-skip ; the major triads are 

grouped thus, -r -r and the minor 

c g 

triads thus "r- 


In just intonation the major scale would 
be represented thus : 

C D E F G A Be 

and its parallel minor scale thus : 


3 3. The absolute pitch of a tone is 
determined by the number of vibrations 
it makes per second, and is stated 
as a vibration-niiinher. The standard 
French pitch, universally adopted in 
France in 1859, gives the tone «' 435 
(double) vibrations per second, ^^ hav- 
ing 522. Formerly there was no recog- 
nized standard, the pitch varying in 
different instr.s (organs) and locaHties 
by as much as a fourth. The incon- 
veniences resulting led to the establish- 
ment, early in the 17th century, of a 
mean pitch ((z' averaging about 420 vi- 
brations), which held its own for some 
200 years ; this has been called the 
classical pitch, it having obtained 
throughout the era of classical compo- 
sition. After this, the growing tendency 
to force the pitch upwards led to nu- 
merous deliberations by scientists and 
musicians ; the German congress at 
Stuttgart adopted the pitch rt' = 440 ; 
but the French pitch mentioned above 
is, in point of fact, the only real stand- 
ard, and, since its formal adoption by 
the \'ienna Congress in Nov., 1887, is 
frequently termed the international 
pitch. It is called low pitch, as opposed 
to the hi ^h pitch {concert-pitch) in vogue 
till lately in concerts and operatic per- 
formances. The so-called////^j'('/|///V(z/ 
standard of pitch is obtained by taking, 
for Middle-C, the nearest power of 2, 
giving 256 vibrations for f', and nearly 
427 for a' ; it has frequently served as 
a basis in theoretical calculations. 
Pitch-pipe. A small metal or wooden 
reed-pipe produciHg, when blown, one 
or more tones of fixed pitch, according 
to which an instr. may be tuned, or the 
correct pitch ascertained for the per- 
formance of a piece of music. 

O Piii (It.) More. — When Piii stands alone 
9S a tempo-mark, mosso is implied. 

Pi'va (It.) I. A bagpipe. — 2. A piece 
imitative of bagpipe-music. 

Pizzica'to (It., "pinched".) Plucked 
with the finger ; a direction, in music 
for bow-instr.s, to play the notes so 
marked by plucking the strings. The 
succeeding direction coU'arcoi^K'Cn the 
bow) indicates the resumption of the 
bow for playing. (Abbr. pizz.) 

Placidamen'te (It.) Tranquilly, smooth- 
ly ; Irom pla'cido, placid, tranquil. 

Pla'cito (It.) Pleasure. . . A be'ne placito, 
at (the performer's) pleasure ; means 
that t*ie tempo may be altered, graces 
or cadenzas added, or that certain 
specified instr.s may be used or not, as 
fancy may dictate. 

Plagal cadence, mode, see Cadence, 
Modc.Plagal melody, one whose range 
extends about a fourth below and a 
fifth above its tonic or final. — Plagal is 
opp. to Atithentic in all senses. 

Plain chant, Plain song. (Lat. can'- 
ttis pla'nus, cantus chora'lis.) The 
unisonous vocal music of the Christian 
Church, probably dating from the first 
centuries of the Christian era, the style 
being still obligatory in the R. C. ritual. 
Handed down at the beginning by oral 
tradition, it was first regulated by St. 
Ambrose (see Ambrosian chant), and 
later revised by St. Gregor}' {Gregorian 
chant). The comparatively modern 
name cantus planus distinguished this 
style from that of the strictly rhythmical 
cantus mensura'hilis, which originated 
early in the 12th century, after which 
period plain chant began to be sung in 
notes of equal length ; in its earlier 
form, however, the tone-values of plain 
chant were determined by rules very 
similar to those for poetical metre. 
Just as a poem consists of lines, the 
lines of feet, and the feet of 2 or more 
syllables, a melody was divided into so- 
called distinctions consisting of a more 
or less extended group of ncumes 
(notes), a distinction being in turn 
divided into single neumes (single notes), 
each neume, finally, representing one 
or more tones. Thus a metrical line 
corresponded to a musical distinction, 
a metrical foot to a musical neume, and 
a syllable to a (Comp. Notation^ 

Plainte (Fr.) A lament. 

Plaisanterie (Fr.) A divertissement lor 
harpsichord or clavichord. 



Planchette. I. A board studded with 
pins or pegs, an essential part of the 
mechanism of Xhe piano mecanique. — 2. 
See Pianista 2. 

Plantation. In the organ, the dispo- 
sition or arrangement on the soundboard 
of the pipes composing a stop. 

PlaquS (Fr.) Struclv at once ; as tm 
accord plaijii/, a "solid " chord ; opp. 
to arpe'gt', arpeggio'd, broken. 

Plec'trum (Lat.; Gk. plectron.) A small 
piece of ivory, tortoise-shell, or metal, 
held between the forefinger and thumb, 
or fitting to the latter by a ring, and 
used in playing certain instr.s to pluck 
or twang the strings (mandolin, zither ; 
the zither-plectrum is called the "ring"). 

Plein-jeu(Fr.) i. A stop or combination 
of stops bringing out the full power of 
the organ, harmonium, etc. — 2. Same 
as Fourniture. 

Pli'ca (Lat.) One of the neumes. 

Plus (Fr.) More. 

Pneu'ma (Gk. "breath".) The long 
coloratura or vocalise on the last syllable 
of the Alleluia (early Christian Church), 
so called because taxing the singers' 
lungs ; a jubilation. 

Pneumatic action. See Organ . . . P^tcii- 
matic organ, the ordinary pipe-organ, 
as contradistinguished from the early 
hydraulic organ. 

Pochette (Fr.) A kit. 
^Po'co (It.; superJ. pockis'simo; dimin. 
pochettl'no, pocket' to; abbr. /(?'.) A 
\\\X\&. . .Poco a poco, little by Jittle, 
gradually. . .Poco allegro, tather'~fast ; 
poco largo, rather slow. 

Poggia'to (It.) Leaned or dwelt upon. 

Po'i (It.) Then, thereafter. 

Point. I. See Notation, § 3. — 2. A dot. 
— 3. A staccato-mark. — 4. The attack 
by, or entrance of, an instrumental or 
vocal part bringing in a prominent 
motive or theme. — 5. Head (of a bow). 

Point (Fr.) A dot {point d' augmentation). 
. .Point d' arret, de repos, a hold (o). 
..Point final, final ^dMSt. .. Point 
d'orgue, (a) a hold ; {l>) an organ-point ; 
(c) a solo cadenza or flourish . . . Points 
d/tac/i/s, staccato-dots. . . Point sier tete, 
dot above (or below) the head of a note. 

Pointe (Fr.) i. Point or head (of a bow). 
— 2. Toe (in organ playing ; abbr. // 
— t p = talon pointe ; Engl, h t ^=^ heel 
toe, — but comp.^re Signs [o vj). 

Points (Fr.) Dotted. 

Pointer (Fr.) i. To dot.— 2. To ex- 
ecute staccato. 

Poitrine (Fr.) Chest; voix de p., z\\t.s\.- 

Polac'ca (It.) Polonaise. . .^//rt /, in 
the style of a polonaise. 

Polichinelle (Fr.) A grotesque clog- 
dance ; also, the tune to which it is 

Polka. (Bohemian pulka.) A lively 
round dance in 2-4 time, originating 
about 1830 as a peasant-dance in Bo- 
hemia. . . Polka-mazur ka, a form of 
mazurka accommodated to the steps of 
the polka. 

Polonaise (Fr. ; Ger. Polotid'se; It. po- 
lac'ca.) A dance of Polish origin, in 3- 
4 time and moderate tempo, formerly in 
animated processional form, but in the 
modern ball-room merely a slow open- 
ing promenade, supplanting the old 
Entree. The rhythm is characterized 
by the commencement on the strong beat 

with a sharp accent • SJT T T T 

and by the close on the last beat 

Polska. A Swedish dance in triple time, 
somewhat like the Scotch reel, and 
generally in minor. 

Polychord. (" Having many chords 
[strings]".) An instr. in the shape of 
a bass viol, with movable fingerboard 
and 10 gut strings ; played either with 
a bow or by plucking with the fingers. 
Inv. by Fr. Hillmer of Berlin, first half 
of 19th century. It never became pop- 

Polymor'phous. Having, or capable of 
assuming, many forms.../", counter- 
point, a style of contrapuntal compo- 
sition admitting of a manifold variation 
of the theme (as in the fugue by inver- 
sion, augmentation, diminution, etc.) 

Polyphon'ic. i. Consisting of 2 or 
more independently treated parts ; — 
contrapuntal ; — concerted ; opp. to ho- 
mophonic and Jiarinonic. — 2. Capable 
of producing 2 or more tones simulta- 
neously, as the pianoforte, harp, or or- 
gan ; opp. to vionophonous, and equiv- 
alent Xo polyphonous, 

Pol'yphony. In mus. composition, the 
combination in harmonious progression 
of 2 or more independent parts (as opp. 



to Homophony) ; the independent treat- 
ment of the parts (as opp. lo Harmony) ; 
— counterpoint in the widest sense ; — 
concerted music. (Also pron. polyph'- 

Pom'mer (Ger.) See Bomhani. 

Pompe (Fr.) A tuning-slide (in the trom- 
bone, horn, and various other instr.s). 

Pompo'so (It.) Pompous, majestic, A\'g- 
rxi'ae.d. . . PomposaiHc-n' te, in a broad 
and dignified style. 

Ponctuatioa(Fr.) Phrasing. . .Ponctuer, 
to phrase. 

Pondero'so (It.) Ponderous, heavy, 
very strongly marked. 

Ponticel'lo (It.) i. The bridge of bow- 
'" instr.s. .,.Sul p., near the bridge ; a di- 
rection to play near the bridge, the 
tones resulting having a more or less 
strident and metallic sound ; abbr. j'. 
font. ; opp. to stil tasto. — 2. The break 
in the voice. 

Pont-neuf (Fr.) Generic title for popular 
street-songs in Paris. 

Portamen'to (It.; equiv. to poriar' la 
voce, to carry the voice ; see Port de 
voix.) A smooth gliding from one 
tone to another ; an effect attained in 
great perfection on bow-instr.s, the 
melody-strings of the zither, and with 
the human voice. It differs from the Ic- 
^dtonnt only in its more deliberate e.xccu- 
tion, but also in the actual (though very 
rapid and slurring) sounding or passing- 
through the intermediate tones, with- 
out a noticeable break, - f' 
or a pause on any tone. I 
It may be written thus : ' 

Portan'do (It., "carrying"".) Usually 
in the phrase /. h voce, carrying the 
voice, i. e. portamento. 

Portata (It.) Staff. 

Portatif(Fr.), Portativ' (Ger.) Porta- 
tive organ, i. e. a small organ conven- 
ient of transportation ; opp. to positif. 

Port de voix (Fr.) i. Portamento. — 2. 
See Accent, Chute. 

Port^e (Fr.) The staff. 

Porter la voix (Fr.) See Portamento. 

Portunal flute. An open wooden flue- 
stop in the organ, with pipes wider at 
top than at the mouth. 

Portu'nen (Ger.) Bourdon (org.) 

Posa'to (It.) Sedate, dignified. 

Ppsau'ne (Ger.) i. Trombone. — 2. A 

reed-stop in the organ, having metal 
pipes of broad scale and 8-foot pitch 
(manuals) or i6-foot pitch (pedal) ; the 
32-foot stop is called the contra-posaune. 

Poschet'te. Ger. form of Pochette. 

Pos^ment (Fr.) Posato. 

Poser la voix (Fr.) To attack a vocal 
tone with clearness and precision. 

Positif (Fr.), Positiv' (Ger.) A "posi- 
tive " or stationary organ ; opp. to por- 
tatif. — Also, the French term for choir- 
organ ; and (in German) a small partial 
organ in front of the main instr. was 
often called Riickpositlv, because usual- 
ly behind the organist. 

Position, I. (Ger. La'ge; Fr. position; 
It. posizio'ne.) The place of the left 
hand on the fingerboard of the violin, 
etc. In the ist pos., the forefinger stops 
the tone or semitone above the open 
string ; by shifting up (see Shift) so 
that the ist finger takes the place pre- 
viously occupied by the 2nd, the 2nd 
pos. is reached ; and so on for each 
succeeding position. There are 11 
positions in all, but only 7 are commonly 
employed. — The half-position is the 
same as the ist pos., e.xcept that in it 
the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th fingers occupy 
the places taken, in the 1st pos., by the 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd fingers. — 2. The 
arrangement of notes in a chord with 
reference to the lowest part ; in the ist, 
or fundamental, position the lowest 
part takes the root ; in the 2nd position 
it takes the third, etc. — 3. Close and 
open position, see Harmony. 

Possi'bile (It.) Possible ; pianissimo 
possibile, as soft as possible : // piit 
presto possibile, as rapid as possible. 

Post-horn. The straight horn used by 
postmen. See Appendix. 

Post'lude. (Lat. postlu' dium ; Ger. 
Nachspiel; Fr. cloture.) A concluding 
voluntary on the organ, closing a 

Pot-pourri (Fr.) A musical medley, all 
kinds of tunes or parts of tunes being 
juxtaposed in an arbitrary manner, often 
with very flimsy connecting-links. 

Poule (Fr.) The 3rd movement or fig- 
ure in the quadrille. 

Pousse (Fr., "pushed".) Up-bow. 

Prach'tig (Ger., "splendid".) Grand, 
majestic, dignified. (Also adverb^ 

Praecen'tor (Lat.) Precentoft 



Prairtriller (Ger.) An inverted mor- 
dent. (Also Pral'kr:) 

Praludie'ren (Ger.) To prelude. 

Prazis' (Ger.) Precise, e.\act. 

Pream'buium (Lat.) A prelude, intro- 

Precen'tor. In the Anglican Church, 
a director and manager of the choir and 
of the musical services in general, rank- 
ing after the Dean, and sitting on the 
side of the choir opposite to the latter, 
whence the terms cantoris (i. e. the pre- 
centor's) and decani (the Dean's) side. 

Precipitan'do, Precipitatamen'te (It.) 
Precipitately ; calls for a rapid and bold 
execution of the figure or passage so 
marked ; prccipita'to (also prccipito' so), 
(Fr. precipite), precipitate. 

Precisio'ne, con (It.) \Vith precision. 
..Prcii'so, precise, exact. 

Preghie'ra (It.) A prayer ; a modern 
title for certain melodious salon-pieces 
of a more or less devotional character. 

Prel'ude. (Lat. prcrlu'diam; li.prelu'- 
dio; Fr. prelude; Ger. Vor' spiel) A 
piece of music introductory or prepara- 
tory to another and more extended 
movement or composition, or to a dra- 
matic performance, church-service, etc. 
The prelude has no distinctive form or 
independent character, being adapted 
to what is to follow it. (Comp. Oz'cr- 
ture.) — The short piano-pieces by Cho- 
pin, entitled "Preludes", are anoma- 
lous, not having been intended for in- 
troductory pieces. — An organ-prelude 
to the church-service is commonly called 
a voluntary. 

Premier (Fr., iem. premiere.) First... 
P rentier dessus, first soprano ... /"^v- 
niiere fpis, first time. . .A premiere vue, 
at first sxght. . .Premiere {noun), the 
first production of a dramatic work. 

Preparation. (Ger. Vor'berciiung; Fr. 
preparation; It. preparazio'ne.) The 
/. of a dissonance consists in the pres- 
ence, in the preceding chord and same 
part, of the tone forming the dissonance. 
(Comp. Percussion, Counterpoint, and 
Prepare, i. See Preparation. — 2. To 
introduce by a grace-note or figure ; e. 
g. a prepared trill is one prefaced by a 
turn or other grace. 

Pre'sa (It.) A sign marking the succes- 
sive entrance of the parts of a canon, 
having various forms (\S'; -S- -j- ^ etc.) 

Pressan'te (It.) Accelerando, strin- 

Pressez (Fr.) Accelerando, stringendo ; 
pressez tin pen, poco stringendo. 

Pressure-note. A note marked thus 
P, indicating a sudden pressure or cre- 
scendo following the attack. 

Prestant (Fr.) An open flue-stop in Fr. 
and Ger. organs, generally of 4-foot 
pitch ; equiv. to Engl. Principal. 

Prestez'za, con (It.) With rapidity (of 
movement or execution). 

Prestissimamen'te, Prestis'simo (It.) 
Very rapidly, as fast as possible. 

Pres'to (It.) I. Fast, rapid ; indicates 
a degree of speed above allegro and he.- 
\o\\ prestissimo. . .P. assa'i, very rapid. 
■ — 2. A rapid movement, most frequently 
concluding a composition. 

Prick. In earlier terminology, the dot 
or mark forming the head of a note ; 
to prick meaning, to write music. 
Ilence, prick-song, (a) written music, 
opp. to extemporized ; (/') the counter- 
point to a cantus Jinnus, the point 
against point. 

Primary accent. The down-beat or 
thesis ; the accent beginning the mea- 
sure, directly following the bar. . .Pri- 
mary triad, one of the 3 fundamental 
triads of a key (those on the ist, 5th, 
and 4th degrees). 

Prime. I. The first note of a scale. — 2. 
See Interval. . .Prime tone, same as 
generator. — 3. The 2nd of the canon- 
ical hours. 

Prim'geiger (Ger.) Leader (ist violin). 

Pri'mo,-a (It.) Y'w'il. . .Prima buf'fa, 

■ the leading female singer in comic 
opera ..Prima don'na (" first lady "), 
the leading soprano singer in the opera. 
. .Prima vi'sta, at first sight. . .Prima 
vol'ta, the first time ^abbr. Ima volta, 
or simply I, or i.); indicates that the 
measure or measures under its bracket 
are to be played the first time, before 
the repeat ; whereas, on repeating, those 
marked sccun'da volta (abbr. I Ida volta. 
or simply II, or 2.) are to be performed 
instead. — Tempo primo, at the first or 
former rate of speed . . . Primo uo'mo, 
the first male soprano {castra'to), or 
first tenor. (Obsolete in both senses.) 
Pri'mo (It., noun.) A first or leading 

part, as in a duet. 
Prira'zither (Ger.) Treble zither. 



Principal, i. In the organ, a flue-stop of 
open metal pipes, of 4-foot pitch on the 
manual, and 8-foot pitch on the pedal. 
(In Ger., Prinzipal' is the open dia- 
pason.) — 2. Theme of a fugue (obso- 

Principal chords. The basic chords of 
a key, i. e. the triads on the tonic, 
dominant, and subdominant, with the 
dom. chord of the 7th. (Also called 
fioidaincntal, primary^ etc.) 

Principa'le (Tt.) i. Diapason (organ- 
stop). — 2. Principal, chief ; also, prin- 
cipal or leading part. — 3. .Sometimes 
found, in old scores, for troiiiba (trum- 

Princ"pal-work. See Stop {noun) 2. 

Princi'pio (It.) Beginning, first time. 
[In Beethoven, Op. 27, No. 2, 1st 
movem.: "piu marcato del principio," 
more marked than the first time.] 

Prise du sujet (Fr.) Entrance of the 

Pro'be (Ger.) Rehearsal. . . General' probe, 
full rehearsal. 

Proceed. (Fr. procJder.) To progress. 

Pro'gram. (Ger. Prograimn' ; Yx. pro- 
gramme ; It. program' via.) A list of 
compositions to be performed at a con- 
cert.. . Program-miisic{i}cr.Prog}-amm'- 
musik), a term of modern invention, 
applied to a class of instrumental com- 
positions intended to represent distinct 
phases of emotion, or actual scenes or 
events ; sometimes made synonymous 
with " descriptive music". The "pro- 
gram " of such a composition may be 
merely its title ; or occasional interpo- 
lated remarks ; or a concise summary 
of its poetic subject-matter, appended 
as a description for the better compre- 
hension of the music. 

Progress'. (Ger. forfschreiten; Fr. 
proceJer, marcher.) To advance or 
move on ; in melody, from one tone to 
another; in harmony, from one chord 
to zxiO'On.&x .. .Progression (Ger. Fort'- 
schreitung ; Fr. progres, inarche; It. 
progressio' ne), the advance from one 
tone to another, or from one chord to 
another ; the former is melodic, the 
latter harmonic, progression. 

Progressive stop. .\ compound organ- 
stop in which the number of ranks in- 
creases as the pitch rises. 

Prolation. {haX. prola'fio.) See A''ota- 
ti<^*h §3- 

Prolongement (Fr.) i. A mechanical 
attachment in the reed-organ for hold- 
ing down single keys after the fingers 
are raised. — 2. Sustaining-pedal. 

Promptement (Fr.), Prontamen'te 
(It.) Promptly, swiftly. 

Pron'tOj-a (It.) Prompt, speedy. 

Pronunzia'to(It.) Pronounced, marked; 

Ihiipi-., well, clearly enunciated. 
Proportion. (Lat. propor'tio!) See 

A'otation § 3, and Nachtanz. 

Propo'sta (It.) Theme of a fugue. 

Propri'etas (Lat.) A term applied to a 
ligature when the first note was a breve. 
It was indicated, when the 2nd note 
was the lower, by a descending tail on 
the left (seldom on the right) of the 
first note ; when the 2nd was the higher, 
by the absence of the tail. Oppo'sita 
proprietas occurred when the first 2 
notes of the ligature were semibreves, 
— indicated by an ascending tail to the 
left of the first note. . . Si' ne proprietas, 
same as Impropri'etas. 

Prose. (Lat. pro'sa) See Sequence. 

Proslambanom'enos (Gk.) See Greek 
music, p. 8g. 

Prosody. (Lat. and It. prosodi'a; Fr. 
and Ger. Prosodie'.) Metrics, or the 
science of metre ; specifically, the 
science of the quantity of syllables, and 
of accentuation, as affecting versifica- 

Prospekt' (Ger.) The front of an organ. 
. .Prospekt'pfeifcn, front or display- 
pipes ; also Fronipfeifen. 

Pro'va (It.) Rehearsal. 

Psalm-melodicon. A wood-wind instr. 
with 8 finger-holes and 25 keys, having 
a compass of 4 octaves, and so con- 
structed that from 4 to 6 tones could be 
produced at once. Inv. by ^Veinrich of 
Ileiligenstadt in 1828 ; improved by 
Leo Schmidt in 1832, by whom it was 
called the Apollo-Lyra. 

Psal'tery. (Lat. psalte'rium; It. salte'- 
rio; Yx.psalterion; G&r. Psal'ter.) An 
instr. of very ancient origin, and in 
use down to the 17th century, known to 
the Hebrews as the kinnor, to the 
Germans as the Rotta; a kind of harp- 
zither, with a varying number of strings 
plucked by the fingers or with a plec- 
trum. The strings were stretched over 
a soundboard, as in the dulcimer. 

Psaume (Fr.) A psalm. 



Psautier (Fr.) Psalter. 

Pul'satile instruments. Instr.s of per- 
cussion {ha.t. fi</saii/ia). 

Pulse. A beat or accent. 

Punc'tus, or Punc'tum (Lat.) i. A dot. 
— 2. A note. . .Functus conlrapunctitm^ 

Punkt (Ger.) A dot. . .Pimktiert', dot- 

Pun'ta (It.) Point (of the bow). 

Pun'to (It.) Y)o\.. ..Pitnta'to, dotted; 

Pupitre (Fr.) Music-desk. 

Purf'ling. The ornamental border on 
the bellies and backs of violins, etc. 

Put'ti (It., pi.) Boys, choir-boys. 

Pyramidon. An organ-stop having 
short covered pyramidal pipes more 
than 4 times as wide at top as at mouth, 
and of l6' or 32' tone. 

Pyr'rhic, Pyrrhich'ius. A metrical 
foot consisting of 2 short svllables 

Pythian metre, verse. The dactylic 

(or spondaic) hexameter ( 1 

I- -I- -I- -I--). 


Quadrat' (Ger.) A natural (t!).— (Engl.) 
In medieval music, a breve (Lat. 
quadra' turn). 

Quadrici'nium (Lat.) A composition in 
4 parts. 

Quadrille. (It. quadri'gUa^ A square 
dance consisting of 5^ (or 6) figures 
named le Pantalon, I' Et^, la Pciik, la 
Pastourelle, {la Trenise), and la Finale. 
The time alternates between 3-8 (6-8) 
and 2-4. 

Quadruple counterpoint. See Counter- 
point. . . Q. croche (Fr.), a 64th-note. . . 
Q. rhythm or time, that characterized 
by 4 beats to the measure. 

Quad'ruplet. A group of 4 equal notes 
to be executed in the time of 3 or 6 of 
the same kind in the re- 1 1 1 1 
gular rhythm; written* •4* *' 

Quality of tone. (Ger. Ton'farbe; Fr. 
timbre; It. iimbro.) That characteris- 
tic peculiarity of any vocal or instru- 
mental tone which distinguishes it from 
the tone of any other class of voices or 

Quantity. In metrics, prosodic length, 

i. e. the time-value of a syllable. — In 
P^nglish versification this is apt to be 
disregarded, accented and unaccented 
syllables taking the place of long and 
short ones. 

Quart. The interval of a fourth. 

Quart (Fr.) Quarter...^, de soupir, a. 

Quar'ta (Lat. and It.) The interval of 
a fourth. . . Q. modi {toni), the subdom- 

Quar'te (Ger. and Fr.) The interval of 
a fourth... (2- du ton (F^) the sub- 

Quar'tenfolgen (-parallelen) (Ger.) 
Consecutive or parallel fourths. 

Quarter-note. (Ger. Vier'telnote, Vier'- 
tel; Fr. noire; It. ne'ra.) A crotchet 
(J). (Sometimes abbrev. to Quarter.) 
— Quarter-rest, a rest equivalent in 
time-value to a quarter-note (X, ^ or 
^ ). (Also called quarter-note rest, and 

Quartet'. (Ger. Quartett' ; Fr. quatuor; 
It. quartet'to.) I. A concerted instru- 
mental composition for 4 performers, in 
symphonic form. — 2. A comp. or move- 
ment, either vocal or instrumental, in 4 
parts. — 3. The 4 performers themselves. 

Quart'fagott (Ger.) See Bassoon... 
Quart' Jlote, se^eFlote. . . Quart'geige. see 
Violin. . .Qtiartsext'akkord, chord of 
the fourth and sixth (| chord). 

Quarto d'aspetto (It.) A i6th-rest. 

Quarto'le (Ger.) A quadruplet. 

Qua'si (Lat. and It.) As if, as it were ; 
like ; nearly, approaching. E. g., An- 
dante quasi allegretto, andante approach- 
ing allegretto. 

Qua'ter. See Bis 3. 

Quatorzifeme (Fr.) The interval of a 

Quatre (Fr.) Four...W quatre mains, 
for 4 hands. 

Quat'rible. In medieval music, a coun- 
terpoint progressing in parallel fourths 
to the cantus Jirvius; a qiiinible pro- 
gressed in parallel fifths. 

Quatrici'nium (Lat.) A composition in 
4 parts. 

Quattricro'ma (It.) A 64th-note. 

Quat'tro (It.) Four. . .A quattro mani, 
for 4 hands. 

Quatuor (Fr.) A quartet, vocal or instru- 



Quaver. An eighth-note. 

Quer'flote (Ger.) Orchestral flute... 
Qiwr'pfi-ifr, a fiie. . .Quc-t'stan<l, false 
or inharmonic relation. Quer's/rich, 
the thick stroke substituted for the 
hooks of hooked notes when grouped. 

Queue (Fr., "tail".) i. Stem of a note. 
— 2. Tailpiece. .. /"/(?«(? a queue, sec 
Piano (Fr.) 

Quickstep. See March. 

Quie'to (It.) Calm, quiet ; opp. to a^^i- 

Quinde'cima (It.) A fifteenth (either 
the interval or the organ-stop). .. ^ //<? 
q. (abbr. ij'""), two octaves higher (or 

Quinde'zime (Ger.) The interval of a 

Quin'ible. See Quatrihle. 

Quin'quegrade. Same as Petitatonic. 

Quint. I. The interval of a fifth. — 2. 
A 5j-foot organ-stop, sounding a fifth 
higher than the normal 8-foot pitch. — 
3. The j^'-string of tlie violin. — 4. See 
Violin. . . Quint-stride, the (iz) harmonic 
or (/') melodic progression of a fifth : 
{a) (/') 




Quin'ta (Lat. and It.) The interval of a 
fifth. . . Q. de'cima, the int. of a fifteenth. 
..Quinta fal'sa ("false fifth"), the 
prohibited melodic interval between /«/ 
in the hexachoi-dum durum and fa in 
the hex. naturale : the modern dimin- 
ished fifth. . . Q. fno'di (to'ni), the dom- 
inant (comp. Qui lit u s). . .Alia quinta, 
at or in the fifth. 

Quint'absatz (Ger.) A half-close, in 
the midst of a piece, on the dominant ; 
same as ITalhkadenz. 

Quintaton' (Ger.) In the organ, a cov- 
ered flue-stop of 8, 16, or 32-foot pitch. 

Quinte (Fr.) See i and 2 below... 
Quintes cach/es, covered fifths. 

Quin'te (Ger.) i. The inter\'al of a fifth. 
— 2. See Quint 2. — 3. The ^-string of 
the violin (Fr. chanterelle). . .Quin'iefi- 
folgcn, -parallen, consecutive fifths. . . 
Quitt'tenrein, an epithet applied to 
strings of bow-instr.s, signifying that 
they produce "true fifths" to the neigh- 
boring strings throughout their length. 
. , Quin' tenzirkel, circle of fifths. 

Quin'terne. See Lute. A species of 
lute or guitar extremely popular in Italy 
some 200 years ago, with a body resem- 
bling a violin and from 3 to 5 pairs of 
gut strings, to which were sometimes 
added 2 wire -covered single strings. 

Quintet'. (Ger. Quintett' ; Fr. qniniuor; 
It. quintet' to^ I. A concerted instr'l 
comp. for 5 performers, in symphonic 
form. — 2. A comp., movement, or num- 
ber, vocal or instr'l, in 5 parts. 

Quintie'ren (Ger.) To overblow by a 
twelfth, like the clarinet and other instr.s 
with single reed. 

Quintoier (Fr.) i. To quinible (also 
quintoyer). — 2. See Quintieren. 

Quinto'le (Ger.) Quintuplet. 

Quinton (Fr.) i. The 5-stringed treble 
viol, or (ace. to Rousse.\u) the tenor 
viol. — 2. See Saxhorn. 

Quint'stimme (Ger.) A quint (organ- 
stop). .. (?«/«^'/(>V?t', quint-tones (see 
Pitch, § 2). 

Quintuor (Fr.) A quintet. 
Quintuple rhythm, time. That char- 
acterized by 5 beats to the measure. 

Quin'tuplet. A group of 5 equal notes 
to be executed in the ti me of 4 of the 
same kind in the regu- J J J J J 
lar rhythm ; written : 5 

Quintus (Lat.) "The fifth" part, in 
compositions of the i6th century writ- 
ten in 5 or more parts ; it might be set 
for any one of the usual 4 classes of 
voices, and even wander from one to 
the other, whence the name quintus 
vas^ans, "wandering fifth "...Also 
Quinta {tox). 

QuintvioTe (Ger.) i. See Quinton 1. — • 
2. In the organ, a mutation-stop (see 


Quinzi^me (Fr.) The interval of a fifth. 

Quire. Obsolete for Choir. . . Quirisier, 
ditto for Chorister. 

Quod'libet (Lat., "what you please"; 
also Qtiot'lihet, " as many as you 
please"; It. mcssan'za, mistichan'za, 
a mixture.) A humorous combination 
of various airs, performed either si- 
multaneously or one after the other; the 
latter mode differing from the pot-pourri 
in lacking the connecting interludes ; 
a favorite device in the i6th and 17th 
centuries, and occasionally employed 
even now. 




R. Abbr. for right (Ger. rechie); r.h.— 
right hand (rechfe Hand); for ripieno; 
^ stands in Catholic church-music for 
Responsoriiim ; R( "r, for Kesp. Graduale; 
R, in Fr. organ-music, stands for 
clavier de r/cit (swell-manual). 

Rab'bia, con (It.) With passion, frenzy; 

Rackett' (Ger.; also J^ankei.) i. An 
obs. wood-wind instr. of the bombard 
class, with the tube bent many times 
and, in consequence, a very weak lone; 
improved byChr. Denner, who reduced 
the number'of bends and made it more 
like the bassoon, whence the later 
name Rackett {Fagott', Stock' fagoit). 
— 2. An organ-stop with a tone re- 
sembling the above. 

Racier (Fr.) To scrape, saw, rach-ur, 
a bungling fiddler. 

Raddolcen'do, Raddolcen'te (It.) 
Growing calmer and gentler. . .Raddol- 
cia'to, gentler, calmer. 

Raddoppiamen'to (It.) i. Doubling 
chord-notes. — 2. Manifolding copies of 
parts. — Raddoppia'to, doubled. 

Ra'del (Ger.) See Rundgesang. 
Radiating pedals. A pedal-keyboard 
in which the pedals are set in fan-shaped 
arrangement, spreading out to the rear 
from in front, and concave (i, e. some- 
what higher at the sides). 
Radical bass. A fundamental bass. . . 

Radical cadence, see Cadence. 
Rad'leier (Ger.) Hurdy-gurdy. 
Ra'dlmaschine (Ger.) Piston-mechan- 
■ Rallentamen'to (It.) A slackening in 
tempo. . .Rallentan'do, gradually slack- 
ening the tempo, growing slower and 
slower ; equiv. to ritardando. (Abbr. 
rail.) — Also rallenta' to. . .Rallenta're, 
to grow slower ; senza rallentare, with- 
out slackening the pace. 
Rang (Fr.) Rank. 

Rank. A row of organ-pipes. A mix- 
ture-stop is said to have 2, 3, or more 
ranks according to the number of pipes 
sounded by each digital. 
Rant. An old dance ; a name given to 
the tunes of various country-dances, 
and also to reels (e. g. the Cameronian 
Ranz des vaches (Fr.; Ger. Kuk'- 

reigen, ICuk'reiken.) One of the airs, 
or variations on an original air, sung, 
or played on the Alpine horn, in the 
Swiss Alps as a call '..o the cattle. It 
is characterized by oft-repeated figures, 
rising and falling broken chords, and 
(when sung) by the frequent employ- 
ment of the Jodler. 

Rapidamen'te (It.) Rapidly ... i'Pa/i- 
dita\ con, with rapidity ... A'a'/Zdf't?, 

Rapsodie (Fr.) I. Rhapsody (see 
Rhapsodic). — 2. A composition of 
bizarre and desultory form, lacking 
unity and consistency. 

Rasch (Ger.) Fast, rapid, swift... 
N'och raschcr, still faster... 5^; rasch 
ivie m'd'glich, as fast as possible. 

Rasga'do (Span., "a rasping"). In 
guitar-playing, the sweeping the strings 
with the thumb ; hence, the arpeggio 
effect so obtained. 

Ras'tral, Ras'trum. (Ger. Rastral'.) 

1. Music-pen 2. — 2. A 5-pointed claw 
or graver used by music-engravers for 
scoring the lines of the staff in the 
zinc plates. 

Rat'selkanon (Ger.) Enigmatical canon. 
Rattenen'do, rattenu'to (It.) See 

Rauh (Ger.) I. Harsh(ly), rough(ly).— 

2. noarse(ly). 

Rau'scher (Ger.) A rapidly repeated 
note, as on the pianoforte. 

Rausch'quinte (Ger.) In the organ, a 
mixture-stop of 2 ranks, combining 
pipes of Sj and 4-foot pitch, or of 2\ 
and 2-foot pitch, w-ithout a break 
(Also Rausch'Jidte, -pfeife, -quarte 

Ravvivan'do (il tempo) (It.) Acceler- 
ating the tempo. 

Ray. For Re, in the Tonic Sol-fa sys- 

Re. Second of the Aretinian syllables, 
and name of the note R> in Italy, etc. — 
In French, Re'. 

Re'bec(k). The primitive violin of me- 
dieval Europe, known in Italy as the 
ribe'ba or ribe'ca, and in Spain as the 
rabc, 7-abel. The body was shaped like 
a half-pear ; it had 3 gut strings, which 
yielded a powerful, strident tone. 

Rechange (Fr., "exchange"). The corps 
or tons de rechange are the crooks of 
the horn, etc. 



Recht (Ger.) 

Right ; rechte Hand, right 

R6cit (Fr.) i. A vocal or instrumental 
solo part. — 2. The leading part in a 
piece of concerted music. — Clavier de 
r^cit, swell-manual. 

Recital, In the usual acceptation of the 
term, a concert at which either {a) all 
the pieces are executed by one perform- 
er [as di pftc.-recital\ or (/') all pieces 
performed are by one composer. 

Recitan'do (It.) In declamatory style. 

R6citant,-e (Fr.) One who sings or 
plays a solo. 

Recitati've(teev')- '^'^■Radtati'vo; Fr. ri- 
citatif; Ger. Recitativ' . A style of de- 
clamatory singing, dating from 1600 
(the earliest operas), and springing 
from the efforts to emancipate dramatic 
song from the contrapuntal forms then 
in vogue. The first recitatives had a 
very simple accompaniment, a mere fig- 
ured bass {recitativo sec'co) ; this broad- 
ened into the recitativo accompagna'to 
(or obblif^a'/o, stromenta'to ; Fr. equiv. 
ohlig/, accoinpagnd), in which the instru- 
mental parts were invested with more 
life, variety, and musical importance. — 
Unless marked 7-<;citativo a tempo, the 
recitative may be performed ad libitum. 
The connecting-link between the rec. 
of the opera and oratorio and the A'j-ia 
is found in the Ario' so. — IFagner's rec. 
differs from the earlier forms in the per- 
fectly natural musical inflection of the 
vocal part (the ancient cadences, etc. , 
being abolished), and the richly instru- 
mented and marvelously pregnant ac- 
companiment (comp. Melos). 

Reciter (Fr.) To sing or play a rdcit. 

Reciting-note. That tone, in any Gre- 
gorian mode, on which the greater por- 
tion of every verse in a psalm or can- 
ticle is continuously recited ; i. e. the 
dominant of the mode. 

Recorder. An obsolete species of flageo- 
let, having 7 finger-holes on the upper 
side and one below, with an extra hole 
near the mouthpiece covered with a thin 
membrane (goldbeaters'-skin), and pro- 
bably influencing the quaU-^ — — - 

ity of the tone. Compass (fh ~J - "" 

u ^ „ .. r jr\ Isazzia — ward, 

about 2 octaves, from / ' : iT 

Recte et retro (Lat., "forwards and 
backwards"). Direction for performing 
a canon cancrizans. 

Rectus (Lat.) See Motus. 

Reddi'ta, Redi'ta (It.) A repeat. 
Redoubled interval. A compound in- 

Red'owa. A dance derived from 
Bohemia, and, like the Mazurka, though 
less strongly accented, in 3-4 time and 
lively tempo. In Bohemia there are 2 
varieties, the Rejdovak in 3-4 or 3-8 
time, and the Rejdovacka in 2-4 time. 

R^duire (Fr.), Reduzie'ren (Ger.) To 
reduce the volume of a composition by 
rearranging it for a smaller number of 
instr.s, while preserving its form as far 
as possible. 

Redundant. Same as Atigmenied (of 
chords and intervals). 

Reed. (Ger. Roh'hlatt, Zung'e ; Fr. 
anche ; It. an'cia, lin'gua.) A thin 
strip of cane, wood, or metal, so ad- 
justed before an aperture as nearly to 
close it, fixed at one end, and set by an 
air-current in vibration, which it com- 
municates either to an enclosed column 
of air (organ-pipe, oboe, etc.), or direct- 
ly to the free atmosphere, thus produc- 
ing a musical tone. There are 2 classes 
of reeds, (i) Free Reeds, which vibrate 
within the aperture without striking the 
edges ; and (2) Beating (or striking, 
or percussion) Reeds, which strike on 
the edges ; in either class, the elasticity 
of the reed causes its return-stroke after 
it is borne down by the air-current. — 
Double Reed, two beating reeds which 
strike against each other (oboe, bas- 
soon). (Also comp. Fijie 2, b. Reed- 
organ, Regal.) 

Reed-instrument. One whose tone is 
produced by the vibration of a reed in 
the mouthpiece ; the orchestral instr.s 
of the oboe and clarinet groups. 

Reed-organ, The precursor of the reed- 
organs now in use was the Regal, which 
contained beating reeds similar to those 
in the reed-pipes of church-organs. The 
present reed-organs have free reeds ; 
there are 2 principal classes : (i) The 
Har moni u m ,\\\Q bellows of which forces 
compressed wind outwards through the 
reeds ; and (2) the American organ, in 
which an exhaust or suction-bellows 
draws the air in through them. Until th« 
invention of the Vocation, a variety of 
reed-organ having compression-bellows 
like those of the harmonium, the tone of 
the second class was generally superior 
to that of the first. — The wind-supply is 
ordinarily obtained by the aid of a pair of 



treadles operated by the performer. 
There maybe one or many sets of reeds 
or vibrators, each controlled by a stop 
and slider-mechanism. The timbre of 
the various orchestral instr.s is now 
very successfully imitated. — Common 
mechanical devices are the fercussion- 
siop, expression-stop (harmonium), knee- 
swtll (Amer. org.), tremidani, double- 
touche, and prolongement. — The first 
reed-organ was invented by Grenie in 
1810, and named by him orgiie expressif 
on account of the crescendo and decre- 
jcV7Z(/t; obtainable on it ; other inventors 
constructed the ceoline, ceolodikon, phys- 
harmoniea, etc.; the Harmonium, the 
first instr. of the class having several 
stops, was patented in Paris by A. De- 
bain in 1843. 
Reed-pipe, Reed-stop. See Pipe 2, b. 
Reed-work. See Slop {noun) 2. 
Reel. A lively dance, probably of Celtic 
origin, still in vogue in Scotland and 
Ireland, and usually in 4-4 (sometimes 
in 6-4) time,with reprises of 8 measures; 
danced by 2 couples. 
Refrain'. A burden. 
Re'gal. (Ger. Regal'.) I. An obsolete 
kind of portable organ with one or two 
sets of reed-pipes (beating reeds), a 
keyboard for the right hand, and a bel- 
lows worked by the left. According to 
the number of pipes sounded by each 
digital, it was called a single or double 
regal. The old English name was 
regall, or a pair of regalls. (See Har- 
monium.) A Bibelregal (Ger.) was one 
folding up like a large bible ; a bible- 
organ.— 2. (Ger.) An obsolete suffix 
distinguishing reed-stops; e.g. Hat'- 
fenregal, Gei'gcnregal. — 3. An old 
species of xylophone. 
Re'gel (Ger.) A rule. 
Re'gens cho'ri (Lat.) Choir-master. 
Regier'werk (Ger.) In the organ, the 
mechanism of the keys and draw-stops, 
taken collectively. 
Reg'ister. \. {Qtx. Regis' ter.) A set of 
pipes or reeds controlled by one draw- 
stop ; in this sense synonymous with 
stop (organ-stop). — 2. A board with 
perforations for guiding and steadying 
the trackers of an organ-action. — 3. A 
portion of the range and compass of 
the voice, and of certain instr.s ; (a) 
see Voice ; {b) comp. Chalumeau. 
Regis'ter (Ger.) Register i and 3. — 
Regis' terknopf, stop-knob . . . Regis'ter- 

stange, stop-lever. . . Regis' terzug, draw- 
stop mechanism . . . Stum' me Register 
(pi.), mechanical stops ; tonende Regis- 
ter (pi.), speaking stops. 
Registre (Fr.) i. A stop-knob.— 2. 

Register 3. 
Registration, i. The art of effectively 
employing and combining the various 
stops of the organ. — 2. The combina- 
tion or combinations of stops employed 
for any given composition. 
Registrie'ren (Ger.) To registrate or 
register (see Registration). — Regis trie' - 
rung, registration. 
Regie (Fr.) Rule. 
Rein (Ger.) Perfect (of intervals) ; just, 

true, correct (of pitch or intonation). 
Rein'greifen (Ger.) Accurate stopping 
(violin) ; accurate playing (in general). 
Rei'tertrompete (Ger.) Clarion, clarina, 
clarino. (Medieval trumpet, with 
straight tube about 30 inches long.) 
Rela'tio non harmo'nica (Lat.) In- 
harmonic relation. 
Relation. (Ger. Verwand'schaft; Fr. 
relation; It. relazio'ne.) The degree 
of affinity between keys, chords, and 
tones. The simplest explanation of re- 
lationship is that promulgated by the 
neo-harmonists (comp. Phone, §4). — 
Also Relationship, Tone-relationship 
(Ger. Ton' verwandschaft). 
Relative key. (Ger. Parallel' tonart; 
Fr. 7node relatif; It. tono relati'vo.) A 
minor key is relative to that major key, 
the tonic of which lies a minor third 
above its own ; a major key is relative 
to that minor key, the tonic of which 
lies a minor third below its own. (N. 
B. Relative is sometimes used for re- 
lated, in qualifying keys and chords.) 
Religiosamen'te, Religio'so (It.) In 
a style expressive of religious or devo- 
tional feeling. 
Relish. One of the ' ' shaked graces ' ' of 
the old harpsichord-music ; in 2 forms, 
namely, the Single Relish : 

^ ^ played ; 



Remote key. An unrelated key. (See 

Remo'tus (Lat.) Remote, far apart ; as 
harmunia 7-einota, open harmony. 

Remplissage (Fr., "filling"). The 
parties de r. are the inner parts. — The 
word r. is also used as a term of re- 
proach for superfluous or cumbrous 
parts in the works of novices — "pad- 
ding " ; also, for non-concerted parts. 

Rendering. Artistic interpretation or 
reproduction. (Preferable to the term 
" rendition ".) 

Rentr6e (Fr.) Reentrance of a part or 
theme after a rest or pause. 

Renverser (Fr.) To invert ; renverst^; 
inverted ; renversement, inversion. 

Renvoi (Fr.) The sign (e. g. •.^.) direct- 
ing the performer to return to and re- 
peat from a similar sign. 

Repeat. (Ger. Wiederho'lttngszeichcn; 
Fr. bAton de reprise; It. re' plica.) The 


the first signifying that the division be- 
tween the dotted double-bars is to be 
repeated ; the second and third, that 
the preceding and also the following 
division is to be repeated ; the dots 
always being on the same side of the 
bar as the division to be repeated. — 
Comp. Da Capo, and Dal Segno. 

Repeating action. See Repetition 2. 

Repercussion. (Lat. repercus'sio.) i. 
The repetition of a tone or chord. — 2. 
The regular reentrance, in a fugue, of 
the subject and answer after the epi- 
sodes immediately following the expo- 
sition. — 3. In Gregorian music, the 
dominant of the mode, as being the 
tone most reiterated. 

Repetie'ren (Ger.) i. To break (see 
Break 3) . . . Ei?te repetie'rende Stint' me, 
a mixture-stop with a break. — 2. To re- 

Repetition, i. The very rapid reiter- 
ation of a tone or chord, producing 
almost the effect of a sustained sound. 
— 2. Repeating action, one in which 
the rebound of the hammer admits of 
the instant restriking of the key and 
repetition of the tone (pfte.) 

R6p6tition (Fr.) Repetition ; rehearsal. 

Repetition' (Ger.) Repetition i and 2 ; 
also, a Break 3 . . . Repetitions' mechani k , 
repeating action (pfte.) 

Repeti'tor (Ger.) The trainer or con- 
ductor of an opera-chorus. (Fr. chef du 
chant. ) 

Repetizio'ne (It.) Repetition. 

Re'plica (It.) A x^^^dX. . .Replica' to, 
(a) repeated ; (i) doubled. 

Rep'licate. A tone one or more octaves 
above or below a given tone. 

Replik' (Ger.) A complementary inter- 

R^plique (Fr.) i. A replicate (unused). 
— 2. Answer (usually reponse). — 3. A 
complementary interval. — 4. A cue. 

Reply. Answer. 

R^pons (Fr.) A response. 

Reponse (Fr.) An answer. 

Report. Same as Answer. 

Repos (Fr.) The end of a phrase, 
marked by a full cadence. 

Reprise (Fr.) i. A repeat. — 2. The re- 
vival of a work. — 3. Break 3. — 4. The 
repetition of the first theme, in a short 
movement, after an episode. — 5. Same 
as Kentrc'e. 

Re'quiem. The first word in the Mass 
for the Dead, which begins with the 
antiphon Requiem (uternam dona eis, 
dotnine; hence, the title of the musical 
setting of that Mass. Its divisions are 
as follows : (i) Requiem, Kyrie ; (2) 
Dies irae, Requiem ; (3) Domine Jesu 
Christe ; (4) Sanctus, Benedictus ; (5) 
Agnus Dei, Lux aeterna. 

Resin. See Rosin. 

Resolution. (Ger. Anflosung; Fr. 
7\'solutio?i; It. risoltizio'ne.) The pro- 
gression of a dissonance, whether a 
simple interval or a chord, to a conso- 

Resoluzio'ne, con (It.) See Risoluto. 

Res'onance-box. A hollow resonant 
body, like that of a violin or zither. 

Resonanz'boden (Ger.) Soundboard or 
\)€i\y...Resonanz' hasten, resonance-box. 
. . Rcsonanz' saite, sympathetic string. 

Respi'ro (It.) A i6th-rest. 

Respond. See Responsory 3. 

Response. (Lat. respon'stcm.) i. The 
musical reply, by the choir or congre- 
gation, to what is said or sung by the 
priest or officiant, either in the Anglican 
or R. C, Church. — 2. See Responsory. 
— 3. Same as Atisiuer. 

Respon'sory. (Lat. response' rium^ i. 
That psalm, or part of one, sung be- 



tween the missal lessons. — 2. The Grad- 
ual. — 3. A Respond ; i. e. a part of a 
psalm (formerly an entire psalm) sung 
between the lessons at the canonical 
Ressort (Fr.) Ba^s-bar. 

I. 2. \ 3. 

Time-value :l r^ 

Rest. (Ger. Pau'sc; Fr. silence; It. 
pa'tisa.) (i) A pause or interval of 
silence between two tones ; hence (2) 
a sign indicating such a pause. — The 
rests equivalent in time-value to the 
several notes are as follows : 






Quart de soupir. 
Zweiunddreissigstelp. Demi-quart de s. 
Vierundsechzigstelp. Seizieme de s. 


1. Whole rest. Taktpause. [Pause, 

2. Half-rest. Halbe (or Zweitel-) 

3. Quarter-rest. Viertelpause. 

4. Eighth-rest. Achtelpause. 

5. i6th-rest. Sechzehntelpause 

6. 32nd-rest. 

7. 64th-rest. 


Pausa della semibreve. 

semiminlma {or Quarto). 
croma {or Mezzo-quarto), 
semicroma {or Respire), 

. . .Breve- - j — '- equal in time-value 

rest, a rest rz^^^ to I breve ( JS!^ ), or 
2 semibreves or whole notes (-^~>p)- 

. .Large-rest, Long-rest, see N^otation, 
§3, P- \'h^. . .Measure-rest, a pause 
throughout a measure. The whole rest 
is often used as a measure-rest, regard- 
less of the measure-value expressed in 
the time-signature ; the 2-measure rest 
is then writ- j , '- the 3-measure 
ten thus : ' rest thus: 

M — _ - the 4-measure ■ etc. 
—' But, 

rest thus: 
for rests longer than one measure, any- 
one of the following conventional signs 
is usually employed, with a numeral above 
to show the number of measures rested: 

38 46 


Restric'tio (Lat.) Stretto (of a fugue). 

Resultant tones. See Acoustics, §3. 

Retard. To susv>end. . .Jietarded fro- 
gression, same as Retardation 2. 

Retardation. A holding-back, decreas- 
ing in speed. — 2. A suspension resolving 
upward ; opp. to Anticipation. 

Retraite (Fr.) The tattoo. 

Retrograde. (Lat. retrogra' dus ; It. 
retrogra' do). See Imitation. 

Ret'to (It.) Direct, straight. See Moto. 

(I) El 

Reveille (Engl, and Ger.; from Fr. r/- 

veil.) A military signal for rising. 
Reverie. An instrumental comp. of a 

dreamy cast, without characteristic form. 
Reversion. See Imitation, retrograde. 

. .Reverse motion, same as Contrary 


Rhapsodie (Fr.) In ancient Greece, 
rhapsodies were fragments from the 
great epics sung by the rhapsodes to 
the cithara. In modern music, the 
rhapsodie is generally an instrumental 
fantasia on folk-songs or motives taken 
from primitive national music ; an ex- 
ception is Brahms' Op. 53. (^.Wso Rhap- 

Rhythm. (Ger. Rhyth'mus; Fr. rythme; 
It. rit'mol) I. The measured move- 
ment of similar tone-groups ; i. e. , the 
effect produced by the systematic group- 
ing of tones with reference to regularity 
both in their accentuation and in their 
succession as equal or unequal in time- 
value. — A Rhythm is, therefore, a tone- 
group serving as a pattern for succeed- 
ing groups identical with it as regards 
the accentuation and duration of the 
tones. The rhythm, being thus a thing 
apart from tonal melody or harmony, 
is reducible to a formula of notes with- 
out pitch, merely representing an orderly 
series of pulsations ; take, for instance, 
the castanet-rhythm of 3 Spanish na- 
tional dances : 




(2) Fandango: 

(3) Bolero: 

The vertical bars divide the 7neasnrcs; 
the slurs connect notes forming one 
rhythmic group or rhythm. The differ- 
ence between a measure and a rhythm 
is apparent ; the former is the sum of 
the time-values of notes (or rests) be- 
tween 2 bars, whatever be their arrange- 
ment ; the latter jnay be contained (i) 
within a measure, but at (2) embraces 
2 measures, and at (3) begins before the 
bar. — Time, on the other hand, is the 
division of each measure into equal 
fractional parts of a whole note, corre- 
sponding (at least in the simple times) 
to the same number of regular beats to 
a measure ; with vi'hich regular beats 
the pulsations of the rhythm are by no 
means required to coincide. — It must 
be added, however, that the above defi- 
nitions are not universally accepted, 
and that great confusion prevails in this 
department of English mus. termi- 
nology, as in others ; they are given 
simply as valid for this Dictionary. — 2. 
Rhythm, in a wide sense, is the accent- 
uation marking and defining broader 
mus. divisions in the flow and sweep of 
a composition by special emphasis at the 
entrance or culminating points of mo- 
tives, themes, phrases, passages, sections, 
etc. (Comp. Accent 2.) 

Ribs. (Ger. Zar'gen ; Fr. t'clisses ; It. 
fa'scie.) The curved sides of the violin 
and similar instr.s, connecting belly 
and back. 

Ribattu'ta (It.) A device for begin- 
ning a trill. (Comp. Trill.) 

Ribe'ba, Ribe'ca (It.) Rebec. 

Ricerca're, Ricerca'ta(It.) i. Original- 
ly vocal, and later also instrumental, 
compositions of the l6th and 17th cen- 
turies, in fugal form more or less high- 
ly developed, usually built up as a sort 
of fantasia on original motives. — 2. See 

Riddle-canon. See Canon, enigmatical. 

Ridot'to (It.) I. Reduced (see iv'/(/«//-t). 
- — 2, A reduction. 

Rigadoon'. (Fr. rigaudon.) An ani- 
mated, often grotesque dance of French 

■* — r— •^^53» -0 — r-m m-mm-»-» — ^-m^H^-m * — | — 

origin, generally in 4-4 time (sometimes 
2-2, rarely 6-4) with an auftakt of a 
quarter-note ; it consists of 3 or 4 reprises, 
the third falling in as if by chance at a 
lower pitch and frequently without a 
regular close, to enhance the contrast 
with the succeeding division. 

Ri'go (It.) The staff. (Also banda, 
portata, sistema, tirata, or verto.) 

Rigo're (It.) Rigor, strictness ... Ct^w 
r., al r. di tempo, in strict time. (Also 

Rilascian'do, Rilascian'te (It.) Ral- 

Rimetten'do (It.) "Resuming" the 
former tempo (after accel. or rail.). 

Rinforza're (It.) To reinforce (by ad- 
ditional stress); to emphasize. . .A' /«- 
forzamento, reinforcement ; rinfor- 
zan'do or rinforza'to, with special 
emphasis ; indicates a sudden increase 
in loudness, either for a tone or chord, 
or throughout a phrase or short passage 
(abbr. rinf., rfz., rf.); rinfor'zo, re- 
inforcement ; per riitforzo, by way of 

Ripercussio'ne (It.) Repercussion. 

Ripetizio'ne (It.) Repetition. 

Ripie'nist. {It.ripieni'sta.) A musician 
playing a ripieno part. 

Ripieno (It. ; lit. " full, filling up ; sup- 
plementary.") I. A ripieno part in in- 
strumental music is one reinforcing the 
leading orchestral parts by doubling 
them or by filling in the harmony, and 
is thus opposed to solo, cancer tante, and 
obbligato ; such parts are termed 
ripie'ni (noun). — 2. In scores, ripieno'is 
a direction calling for the entrance of the 
full string-band (or, in military music, 
the clarinets, oboes, etc.), being equiva- 
lent to Tutti. (Also V. Appenui.x.) 

Ripien'stimmen (Ger.) Ripieni. 

Ripiglia're (It.) To resume; ripi- 
glian'do, resuming. 

Ripren'dere (It.) To resume ; ripren- 
den'do, resuming. 

Ripre'sa (It.) A reprise or repeat ; also, 
the sign S^. 



Rise. Same as Plain-beat. 

Risenti'to (It.) Energetic, vigorous ; 

Risoluzio'ne (It.) i. Energy, decision. 
— 2. -A. resolution. . . A' /j'f/«'/fc', energetic, 
decided, strongly marked. . .AVW;//(Z- 
tncn'/e, w ith energy, decision. 

Risonan'za, Risuonan'za (It.) Reso- 

Rispo'sta (It.) Answer (in a fugue) ; con- 
sequent (in a canon). 

Riss in der Stimme (Ger., "crack in 
the voice".) A break (when the pas- 
sage from one register to another cannot 
be smoothly effected). 

Ristret'to (It.) A stretto. 

Risveglia'to (It.) Lively, animated. 

Ritardan'do (It.) Growing slower and 
slower (abbr. ritard., rit.) — Also ritar- 
da'to. . .Ritat'do, retardation. 

Ritenen'do, Ritenen'te (It.) Same as 

Ritenu'to (It.) Properly, held back, in 
slower tempo ; but often used incor- 
rectly for rallentando. — Abbr. riten., 
rit. (See Tempo-marks.^ 

Rit'mo (It.) Rhythm. . .R. di due (tre) 
battu'te [= 2-measure (3-measure) 
rhythm], a phrase indicating that not 
one measure, but 2 (3) measures, are to 
be considered as forming a great mea- 
sure or metrical unit. [An identifica- 
tion of rhythm with metre ; comp. 
Rhythm 2.] 

Ritornel'lo (It.) i. In accompanied 
vocal works, such as songs, arias, ora- 
torios, or operas, an instrumental pre- 
lude, interlude, or postlude (refrain) ; 
or, a tiitti in a concert-piece. — Also 
ritornelle (Fr. ritournelle). — 2. A re- 
peat. — 3. The burden of a song. 

River'so (It.) i. Reversed. — 2. Retro- 
grade. (Comp. Rovescio.) 

Rivolgimen'to (It.) Transposition of 
the parts in invertible counterpoint. 

Rivol'to (It.) Inversion. . .Rivolta'to, 

Robu'sto (It.) Firm and bold ... y?o3?<- 
stainen'te, firmly and boldly. 

Rock-harmonicon. An instr. consist- 
ing of a series of rock-crystals, gradu- 
ated to the tones of the scale, and play- 
ed with hammers. 
Roger de Coverly. See Sir Roger. 
Rohr, Rohr'blatt (Ger.) i. Reed ; the 

latter is applied specifically to the reeds 
of the oboe and bassoon {dop'peltes 
Rohrblatt), and of the clarinet (ein'- 
f aches Rohrblatt). Zung'e is the usual 
term for Reed. . . Rohr'Jlote (Fr. fliUe h 
cherninee ; Engl. reed-Jlttte), a half- 
covered flue-stop in the organ, with a 
hole or chimney in the cover, and of 8, 
16, or 4-foot pitch ; the tone is brighter 
than when the pipes are wholly cover- 
ed ; the lower half of the rank, how- 
ever, is wholly covered. Of 2 or i-foot 
pitch, it is usually called Rohr' schelle. 
The Dop'pelrohrjidte is one with double 
mouth, the Roh/ qiiinte a reed-flute of 
27^-foot pitch. The English clarionet- 
Jhite vcsemhltsthe Rohrqtiinte . . .Rohr- 
werk, reed-work. — 2. Tube (of awind- 
instr.) [only Rohr\. 

Roll. I. (Ger. Wir'bel ;Yx.rouleme7it ; 
It. rollo.) A tremolo or trill on the 
drum, produced {a) on the kettledrum 
by rapid alternate single strokes ; {b) on 
the side-drum, by striking alternately 2 
strokes with the left hand and 2 with 
the right. fj- or ...^.^ or or J^ 
The sign ^^ 

^■- \ '\j..^-m 

in nota 

tion is : 5p" 

. . Lotig roll, the prolonged and reiterated 
drum-signal to troops, either for the 
attack, or the rally. — 2. la organ-play- 
ing, a rapid arpeggio. — 3. On the tam- 
bourine, the rapid and reiterated hither- 
and thither-stroke with the knuckles. 

RolTe (Ger.) A succession of rapid un- 
dulatory (ascending and descending) 
runs or passages consisting of repeti- 
tions of the same figure. 

RolTo (It.) Roll I. 

Roller. I. The cylinder or barrel of a 
music-box, or of a carillon. — 2. A 
roller-board ; a wooden bar resting on 
gudgeons and provided with 2 arms, 
one pulled by a tracker from a key, 
which makes the other draw a tracker 
opening a valve (organ). . .Roller-board 
action, the mechanism belonging to the 
roller-boards of an organ. 

Romance. (It. roman'za; Ger. Ro- 
man' ze.) Originally, a ballad, or popu- 
lar tale in verse, in the Romance dia- 
lect ; the name, being later transferred 
to stories of love and knightly adven- 
ture, which were often set to music, 
has been employed in modern times as 
the title of epico-lyrical songs, and, by 
further transference, of short instru- 



mental pieces of a sentimental or ro- 
mantic cast, and without definite form 
(see Ballade). — The French romance is 
a simple love-ditty expressive of tender 
melancholy ; Koniaiices sans Paroles 
are " Songs without Words." 

Romane'sca (It.) The Italian form of 
the Cialliard, so called because coming 
from Rome. 

Romantic. The opposite of classic 
^which denotes an accepted and com- 
prehended type, in wliich form and 
spirit blend to form an harmonious 
whole). Romantic was an epithet orig- 
inally derived from Romance poems of 
the early middle ages, and applied to 
very various products of a lively, 
gloomy, or heated imagination down to 
the German revival of Romantic litera- 
ture during the i8th century. All late 
romantic poems having something of 
exalted mysticism, visionary enthusi- 
asm, or strong subjective and senti- 
mental emotion of an uncommon type, 
the term romantic was naturally trans- 
ferred to composers and their works 
that depart from the beaten track, and 
aim at expressing emotion in a style 
and with means differing from those 
employed by their predecessors. Thus, 
old forms are broadened, new forms 
and types created, and also many ec- 
centric and ill-conceived productions 
brought to light. Hence it comes, too, 
that the Romanticists of to-day are the 
Classicists of to-morrow; that Haydn 
and Mozart, — Beethoven, — Weber, 
Chopin, and Schumann, — Berlioz, 
Liszt, and Wagner, — are all in turn 
decried, listened to, tolerated, admired, 
worshipped, — and imitated. And the 
imitators of original genius are simply 
post-classicists, who, in full accord with 
the form and mode of expression em- 
ployed by their models, seek to elabo- 
rate and finish both in a manner suited 
to their own needs. It might be said, 
that any great original composer re- 
mains a romanticist until he is thorough- 
ly understood. Berlioz, Liszt, Wagner 
and their following are generally class- 
ed as the neo-romantic school. 

Roma'nusbuchstaben (Ger.) The lit- 
ler.e signiJicativcE. 

Ronde (Fr.) A whole note. 

Ron'do. (It. rondo' [dimin. rondincl'lo, 
rondinet'to, rondi'no, rondolet' to\ ; Fr. 
rondeau^ A form of instrumental com- 
position, the characteristic feature of 

which, a return of the leading theme, is 

derivable from the construction of the 

old French poetical form of the ron- 

dcait. \\ hile in the earlier rondos the 

digressions from the 1st theme were of 

an irregular and desultory character, the 

episodes of the modern form assume 

the shape of well-defined contrasting 

themes, somewhat in the following order: 

I-II (dominant)-I-III-I-II (tonic)-Co. 

da. (See Form.) 

Root. The lowest note of a chord in the 

r . ..I —^ — - — here ^' is the 


position; e.g. 

— root of the triad 

Rosa'lia (It.) A melodic form consist- 
ing of the repetition of a phrase or 
figure several times, each time trans- 
posed one degree higher, or simply (as 
more loosely interpreted) on various de- 
grees. (Ger. Rosa' lie ; also Schu'ster- 
Jieck, and Vet'ter Mi'chel.) 

Rose. (Ger. Ro'se; Fr. rosette; It. ro'sa^ 
The ornamental pattern bordering the 
sound-hole in the belly of the guitar, 
mandolin, etc. ; often used not merely 
as an ornament, but as a trade-mark. 

Rosin. (Ger. Kolopkon' ;Yx. colophane ; 
It. colofo'nia.') The residue of turpen- 
tine, after distillation to obtain the oil 
of turpentine. That used for violin- 
bows is the refined article. 

Ro'ta. I. A round, rondeau, or piece of 
similar construction. — 2. (Also Rote, 
Rotta, Rotte.) See Crowd. 

Roton'do (It.) Round, full (of a tone). 

Roulade (Fr.) A grace consisting of a 
run or arpeggio from one principal tone 
to another ; a vocal or instrumental 

Roulement (Fr.) Roll. 

Round. I. A species of vocal rhythmical 
canon at the unison, differing from the 
regular canon in having no coda, thus 
being infinite ; a favorite style of com- 
position in England, from early times 
(the celebrated round " Sumer is i-cum- 
en in" is supposed to date from the 
middle of the 13th century) down to the 
present day. It differs from the catch 
(with which it was formerly identical) 
in eschewing the comical effects of the 
latter. — The round proper sometimes 
has an harmonic support or accom- 
paniment called the pes. — 2. A circle- 
dance, or round dance. 

Roundel. A dance in which the partici< 
pants form a circle or ring. 



Roundelay. A lay or song containinpf 
some continued reiteration or refrain. — 
Also, a roundel. 

(It.) I. Reversion, 
retrotrrade motion. — 


contrary motion 
2. Inversion. 

Rove'scio {It., " 

reverse, wrong side".) 
Al r. signifies : {a) Imitation by con- 
trary motion ; {b) a movement so con- 
structed that it may be performed back- 
wards (cancrizans). 
ORuba'to (It., "robbed'".) Used in the 
phrase ift/ipo rubato as a direction, in 
passages calling for the display of in- 
tense or passionate feeling, that the 
performer should modify the strict 
rhythmical flow of the movement by 
dwelling on, and thus (often almost in- 
sensibly) prolonging, prominent mel- 
ody-notes or chords, this in turn re- 
quiring an equivalent acceleration of 
less prominent tones, which are thus 
robbed of a slight portion of their time- 

Rub^be (Fr.) Rebec. 

Ruck'fall (Ger.) A backfall. 

Riick'gang (Ger.) Return (i. e. a tran- 
sition from one theme to the repetition 
of a preceding theme). 

Riick'positiv (Ger.) See Positiv. 

Ruck'ung (Ger., " a shifting".) I. Syn- 
copation. — 2. Enharmonic change {en- 
harinoiiische Riic/curig). 

Riick'weiser (Ger.) The sign ..S^.. 

Ruh'ezeichen (Ger.) See Pause (Ger.) 

Ruh'ig (Ger.) Quiet, calm, tranquil, 
(.Vlso Cifvei-b.) 

Riih'rung (Ger.) Emotion. 

Rule of the octave. See Octave. 

RuUan'te (It.) Rolling ; tambti'ro rid- 
lante, a side-drum. 

Run. I {noun). A rapid scale-passage ; 
in vocal music, usually applied to such 
a passage sung to one syllable. — 2 
{verb). The wind in the windchest (or- 
gan) is said to run when it leaks into a 
groove ; this running causes a more or 
less distinct sounding of the pipes on 
that groove, and is a serious defect. 

Rund'gesang (Ger.) A solo song, with 
refrain for chorus. 

Russ'pfeife (Ger. ; Dutch 7\u!spi/'e.) 
See Rauschqjiinie. 

• Ru'stico (It.) Rustic, pastoral, 

Rutsch'er (Ger.) Old Ger. name for 
the Galop. 

Ru'vido (It.) \<.o\X'^. . .Ruvidanien'te, 
roughly, coarsely. 

Rythme (Fr.) Rhythm. 

Rythm6 (Fr.) In rhythm, measured ; 
bicn r. (It. ben ritmato), with due 
rhythmic emphasis; or(of a composition) 
well-balanced and effective in rhythmical 


S. Abbr. of Segno, in the phrases al 
Segno, dal Segno ; Senza, in the phrases 
senza Pedale, senza Sordini ; of Sini- 
stra; Soh; Sordini ; and of Subito, in 
the phrase volti subito. 

Sabot (Fr.) i. In the double-action 
harp, one of the movable disks, each 
provided with 2 projecting studs, which 
make a partial revolution on depressing 
a pedal, the studs engaging and thus 
shortening the string. — 2. An inferior 

Saccade (Fr.) In violin-playing, a firm 
stroke of the bow by which 2 or more 
strings are so pressed down as to sound 

Sackbut. I. Earlier form of the trom- 
bone. — 2. In the Bible (author, vers.), 
the translation of sabbeka, which is 
supposed to have been a harp-like instr. 
(Also Sacbut.) 

Sack'pfeife (Ger.) Bagpipe. 

Sacque-boute (Fr.) See Saquebute. 

Sacred music. (Ger. Kir'chenmusik; 
Fr. viusique d'/glise; It. mu'sica reli- 
gio'sa.) Church-music, or music for 
devotional purposes ; opp. to secular 

Sa'crist. A person retained in a cathe- 
dral, whose office it is to copy out the 
music for the use of the choir, and take 
care of the books. [Bushy.] 

Sagbut. Same as Sackbut. 

Sai'te (Ger.) A string. . . Sai' tenchor , a 
unison of strings (group of 2 or 3 tuned 
in unison). . . Sai'tenfessel, usually Sai'- 
ienhalter, tailpiece. . . Sai'tenharmonika, 
a keyboard stringed instr. inv. by J. H. 
Stein in 17S8, with diminuendo attach- 
ment. . . Sai'teninstruniente, stringed 
instr.s. . . Sai' tenorgel{'" strmg-OTgdiXi "), 
a keyboard stringed instr. inv. by Carl 
Gi'imbel of KrofTdorf, near Giessen, 
Prussia, in 1890. The sustained tone 
(organ-tone) is obtained by adding to 



each unison a fourth string, which is 
set in continuous vibration by the rapid 
blows of an harmonium-reed furnished 
with a leathern head ; the action of 
these reeds (whose vibration-numbers 
coincide witli those of the correspond- 
ing unisons struck bythe ordinary ham- 
mers) is controlled by wind, supplied 
by bellows tilled by a pair of treadles 
worked by the player. — By means of 
various stops and combinations, the S. 
can be played (i) as a pfte. ; (2) as an 
organ ; (3) with pfte. -tone and organ- 
tone combined ; (4) the bass side as 
an organ, and the treble side as a 
pfte., or vice versa ; (5) with crescendo 
and decresccndo effects, and all imagin- 
able gradations of tone-power. — -The 
combined timbre partakes of the quali- 
ties of the string-band, organ, and pfte. 
— Built in 2 styles, upright and grand. 

Sal'icet, Sali'cional. An organ-stop 
having open flue-pipes of metal, gener- 
ally of S-foot pitch, sometimes of 4, 2, 
and (on the pedal) 16-foot pitch, with a 
mellow, reedy tone like the Dulciana. 
(Also Salcional.) 

Salmi (Fr.) Quodlibet. 

Sal'mo (It.) Psalm. 

Salon'fliigel (Ger.) Parlor grand (pfte.) 
. . Salon stuck, a piece of salon-(j^2iX- 
lor-) music. 

Saltarel'la, Saltarel'lo (It.) i. A jack. 
— 2. In many dance-tunes of the l6th 
century, the second part (Ger. Hop'pel- 
ianz, Nach'lanz; Lat. propo'/ tio ; Fr. 
tourdion), which was in triple time, the 
first being in duple time ; the skipping 
step was marked in the rhythm: 


etc. — 3. A Roman (or Venetian [?]) 
dance in 3-4 or 6-8 time. — 4. In sal- 
tar ello, a term formerly applied to a 
canto fermo accompanied by a counter- 
point in sextuplets. 

Salta'to (It.) In violin-technic, a variety 
of the " springing bow ". 

SaIteret'to(It.) The rhythmical figure 

Salte'rio, Salte'ro (It.) i. Psaltery.— 
2. Dulcimer {saltcrio ted/scd). 

Sal'tO (It.) A skip, leap...Z?i salto, 
(progressing) by skips or leaps. 

Salva're (It.) To resolve ^salvar' una 

Salvation (Fr.) Resolution (of a dis- 

Sal've Regi'na (Lat., " Ilail ! Queen [of 
heaven] ' .) One of the antiphons to 
the "Blessed Virgin Mary", sung, in 
the R.C. service, after lauds or complin 
from Trinity Sunday to Advent. 

Sambu'ca. One of the most ambiguous 
instrument-names of the middle ages, 
usually employed in the sense of the 
Greek cafipvuf/ (Lat. sambuca) for a 
kind of small psaltery {Spitz' harfe), 
but also occurring (as if derived from 
the Lat. sambu'cus, alder) for a species 
of pipe ; and finally, as a corruption of 
symphonia {samponia, zainpogna) for 
the bagpipe and hurdy-gurdy {samlmca 
rota'ta), and, instead of sacqueboute, 
for instr.s of the trombone class. Sam- 
liut, Sambiut, are German forms of 
sambuca in the sense of a psaltery. 
[RiEMANN.] — Also Sambuke. 

Sampo'nia. See Sambuca, and Zani- 
pogna. (Also cf. Appendix.) 

Sampo'gna (It.) A rustic reed, or 

Sanctus (Lat.) A division of the Mass. 

Sanft (Ger.) Soft, low. . . Sanft'gcdackt, 

— a-fitte-stop in the organ, having stopped 
pipes of soft intonation. 

Sanglot (Fr., "sob".) An obsolete 
agrement, consisting of an accent or 
chute sung to an interjection : 

-^=^>-, — 



Sans (Fr.) Without. 

Saquebute (Fr.) Sackbut. 

Sar'aband. (Ger. and Fr. Saraban'de; 
It. saraban'da.) A stately dance of 
Spanish or Oriental origin, for a single 
dancer, though later changed (in Eng- 
land) to a sort of country-dance. The 
instrumental saraband has, as a rule, 2 
S-measure reprises, in slow tempo and 
triple time, generally beginning on the 
down-beat, with a stress on or prolonga- 
tion of the second beat (j* r 5 |r f)> 
and often highly embellished. Its 
place in the Suite, as the slowest move- 
ment, is before the Gigue. 

Sarrusophone. A brass wind-instr., 
inv. (1863) by and named after the 
band-master Sarrus of Paris, with a 
double reed like the oboe and bassoon; 
herein differing from the singk-reed 

S ATTE L— SB AL2:o. 


Saxophone, from which its key-mechan- 
ism is in great part borrowed. Like 
the saxophone, it is made in 6 principal 
sizes, with the addition of a rare 
sopranino in ^J7 and a contrabass in 
£p. Its tone partakes in quality of 
that of the nearly-related obo^ dacaccia, 
double-bassoon, and bombarl. — Little 
used outside of France. 

Sat'tel (Ger.) 'iint. . . Sattel ma'chen, 
in 'cello-playing, firm pressure of the 
thumb on a string, in the higher posi- 
tions, for obtaining harmonics, the 
thumb acting as a temporary nut. . . 
Sat'tellage, half-position (in violin play- 

Satz (Ger.) i. A themeor subject. — 2. A 
phrase, i. e. half a period of 8 measures, 
the 1st half being the Vor'dersatz, the 
2nd the Nach'satz (sometimes trans- 
lated "fore-phrase" and "after- 
phrase "). — 3. A chief division of a 
movement. — 4. A Movement 2. — 5. 
The science of harmony and counter- 
point ; art or style of composition ; 
cg.rei'ner Satz, slnci style (of writ- 
ing). — 6. A passage or separate portion 
of a composition. 

Saut (Fr.) Skip. . . Sauter, to overblow. 
. . Sautereau, a jack. 

Sauver (Fr.) To resolve (a dissonance). 
I. in E\y, 2. in Bj. 3. in Ei). 

Saxhorn. A brass wind-instr, inv. in 
1842 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian. It is 
essentially an improved key-bugle or 
ophicleide, having from 3 to 5 valves 
instead of keys. Saxhorns are con- 
structed in 7 different sizes, forming a 
complete series alike in timbre and 
method of playing, and named accord- 
ing to their fundamental tone or their 
relative pitch and compass. They are 
not fitted for the use of crooks. Though 
extensively employed in military music, 
only two, the Euphonium and Contra- 
bass-tuba, have achieved a place in the 
orchestra. — The nomenclature of the 
saxhorn family being sadly confused, a 
list with the various appellations is an- 
nexed : 

1. Sopranino saxh. (petit saxh., petit bugle it 

pistons, Piccolo in Es. 

2. Soprano saxh. (contralto saxh., bugle- 

t^nor, Fliigelhorn in B). 

3. Alto saxh (Althorn in Es), 

4. Tenor saxh. (baryton en «' t>, Tenorhorn 

in B, Bassflugelhorn). 

5. Bass saxh. (tiiba-basse en jj'[>, Basstiiba, 

Euphonium, Baryton, Tenorbass in B). 

6. Low bass saxh. (bombardon en >fti>y). 

7. Contrabass saxh. (bombardon en j/j) 

grave, Kontrabasstuba). 

Saxhorns I to 4 are classed as bugles a 
pistons; while 5 to 7 are classed as 
tubas or bombardons. — Their extreme 
compass is : 

4. in B-y. 

S- in i5^). 

6. in E-). 7. in B-y. 

For the orchestra there are also made a 
bass in C, a contrabass in C\ , and a 
low bass in F^^ ; and all members of the 
family are also constructed a semitone 
lower in pitch than shown above. 

Saxophone. An instr. of a type inv. 
about 1840 by Adolphe Sax of Dinant- 
sur-Meuse, Belgium. It is a wind-in- 
str. of metal, having a conical tube 
with recurved bell, and clarinet-mouth- 
piece with single reed, the key-mechan- 
ism and fingering also being similar to 
those of the clarinet. It is an " omni- 
tonic" (chromatic) instr., with a mel- 
low and penetrating tone of veiled 
quality partaking of that of the clari- 
net, cor anglais, and violoncello, but 
very sonorous, and of remarkable 
homogeneity in all registers and sizes ; 
6 principal sizes are made, at intervals 
of a fourth and fifth apart, each size 

in turn comprising 2 individuals a 
whole tone apart : 

1. Sopranino saxophone in .^(and .£|>). 

2. Soprano " " C( " By\ 

3. Contralto " " /"( " £(>). 

4. Tenor " " C( •' B^). 

5. Baryton " '•'■ F\. " E")). 

6. Bass " •' C( " Bo\ 

The notation for this transposing instr, 
is alike l with interme- 

f o r all ^ / Xn. diate chromat- 

sizes; 9F^ / ^ i c tones. 

the com- SD V-'- ' Chiefly used 

pass is: *^ "•" in military 


Saxotrom'ba. A valve instr. of the 
trumpet family, inv. by Ad. Sax, inter- 
mediate in quality of tone and scale of 
tube between the Horn and Saxhorn ; 
constructed, like the latter, in 7 sizes. 

Sbal'zo (It.) A skip or leap. . . Sbalza'- 
to, dashingly, impetuously. 



Sbar'ra (It.) Bar ; s/>. tfo/>'/ia, double 

Scagnel'lo (It.) Bridge. 

Scale. I. (Ger. Ton'leiter ; Fr. Schelle, 
gaiiime; It. sca'la.) For the ancient 
scales compare J\Iode, Greek music ^ 
Octave-scale. — A modern scale is sim- 
ply the series of tones, taken in direct 
succession, which form (a) any major 
or minor key (diatonic scale), or {h) the 
chromatic scale of successive semitonic 
steps. (Comp. A''j)'.). .Fentaion'ic scale, 
a " 5-tone" scale found in primitive 
melodies of certain peoples (Scotch, 
Chinese), in which the step of a semi- 
tone is avoided by omitting the 4th and 
7th degrees in major and the 2nd and 
6th in minor. It can be played on the 
piano by touching 5 successive black 
keys, beginning on F^ for major, and 
on E^ for minor. The ancient Greek 
chromatic scale also had five tones. — 

2. The series of tones producible on 
various wind-instr.s is also called a 
scale, whether the series is diatonic or 
not ; the term is also used for the com- 
pass or range of a voice or instr. — Hai-- 
vionic scale, the series of higher partial 
tones (see Acoustics). — 3. (Ger. Meii- 
siir' ; Fr. /laloii.) In the tubes of 
wind-instr s, especially organ-pipes, the 
ratio between the width of bore and 
the length ; this varies in organ-pipes 
from about I : 10 to I : 24, a broad 
scale yielding a mellow, sonorous tone, 
and a narrow scale yielding a sharp 
and thrilling, or a thin, stringy tone. 

Scannet'to, Scannel'lo (It.) Same as 

Sceman'do (It.) See DitninuenJo. 

Sce'na (It.) i. In the opera, a scene 
(Fr. scene, Ger. Auftritt), i. e. a divi- 
sion marked by the entrance or e.xit of 
one or more performers. — 2. An ac- 
companied solo of a dramatic charac- 
ter, consisting of arioso and recitative 
passages, and frequently terminating 
with an aria, then being termed scena 
ed a'ria. — 3. A stage. 

Scena'rio(It.) I. The plot of a dramat- 
ic work.— 2. A skeleton libretto of 
such a work, sketching the course of 
the plot, and giving entrances and exits 
of leading personages, serving as a 
guide to stage-managers, actors, etc. — 

3. A play-bill. — 4 (pi.) Scena'rii, scenes, 
side-scenes, decorations. 

Scena'rium. An opera-libretto contain- 

ing the full dialogue, and directions for 
the actors, etc. 
'^ Scene. I. A division of a dra.matic per- 
formance marked by a change of sce- 
nery. — 2 (the preferable usage). Same 
as Sec I! a I. 

Schablo'ne (Ger.) A stencil, pattern ; 
hence, Schablo' nenmtisik , schahlo' nen- 
hafte Musik' , uninspired composition 
written to fit a cut-and-dried form, or 
in mere imitation of any style; "stereo- 
typed" music. 

Scha'ferlied (Ger.) Shepherd's song, 
pastoral d\i\.y . . . Sc/idferpfeife, shep- 
herd's pipe, %\ia.vfn\. . . Sckd'fertanz, 
shepherd's dance. 

Schalk'haft (Ger.) Roguish, sportive, 
wanton. (Also adverb.) 

Schail (Ger.) Sound, resonance, resound- 
ing, ringing. . . Schail' bee her. Bell 2. . . 
Schail' becken, cymbals. . . Schail' loch, 
(a) y-hole; (b) sound-hole. .. 5^/^(7 //'- 
stab, triangle. . . Schail' stiick, -trickier. 
Bell 2. 

Schalmei', Schalmey' (Ger.) Shawm; 

Schanzu'ne (Ger.) Corruption of Chan- 

Scharf (Ger.) Sharp. See Acuta. 

Schau'rig (Ger.) In a style expressive 
of (or calculated to inspire) mortal 
dread ; weirdly. 

Schel'lenbaum (Ger.) Crescent. 

Scherzan'do (It.) In a playful, sport- 
ive, toying manner. Also sc/unan'te, 
scherze'vole, scherzo' so. 

Scherz'haft (Ger.) Sportive ; jocose, 
burlesque. (Also adverb.) 

Scher'zo (It., dimin. scherzi'no.) A joke, 
jest. — I. An instrumental solo piece of 
a light, piquant, humorous character; 
hence applied to very various composi- 
tions in which an animated movement 
and sharp and sudden contrasts are 
leading features. — 2. A movement in a 
sonata, concerted composition, or sym- 
phony, usually in triple, sometimes in 
duple, time, introduced chiefly by way 
of contrast with slower movements, 
consequently of a bright, vivacious, 
often humorous character, with strong- 
ly marked rhythm, and sharp and un- 
expected contrasts in rhythm and har- 
mony, requiring delicate phrasing and 
shading. Its forerunner in the sym- 
phony was the Minuet of Haydn ; 
Beethoven named this movement, which 



had entirely lost its original slow and 
stately character, Scherzo, nothing of 
the Minuet being left but the (much 
extended) form. The Beethoven Scher- 
zo is usually the 3rd movement; but 
under different conditions the scherzo 
may with equal propriety take the second 
Schiet'to, Schiettamen'te (It.) Plain, 
simple, unembellished (also adverb). 

Schis'ma (Gk.) The difference between 
the third tierce of the 8th quint (see 
Temperament) and the octave of the 
given tone (/;j$ : c = 32805:32768); one- 
eleventh of a syntonic comma. 

Schlag (Ger.) A beat, pulse ; blow, 
stroke . . . Schlag'feder, a plectrum . . . 
Schlag' instrument, instr. of percussion. 
, .Schlag'manieren (pi.), the various 
strokes in drum-playing. .. 5(7^/(7^^'''- 
zither, the ordinary zither played with 
plectrum and fingers; opp. to Streich'- 
zither (bow-zither). 

Schla'gel (Ger.) Drumstick ; mallet, 
small hammer. 

Schlecht (Ger., " bad ")• Weak ; as 
schlech'ter Takt'teil, weak beat. 

Schleif'bogen (Ger.) Slur. . . Schlci'fen, 
to slur. . . Schlei'fer, (a) a slide ; (b) a 
slow German waltz, Landler. . . Schleif- 
zeichen, slur. 

Schlep'pen (Ger.) To drag, retard... 
ScJdcp'peiid, dragging. 

Schluss (Ger.) Conclusion, end; close, 
cadence . . . Schluss' fall, a cadence . . . 
Schluss' kadenz, final or closing ca- 
dence. . . Schluss' note, final note. . . 
Schhiss' satz, concluding movement. 
Finale. . . Schluss' striclie, double-bar. . . 
Schluss' zeichen, {a) the double-bar ; (b) 
the hold /T\. 

Schliis'sel (Ger., "key"). 

Schliis'seljiedel, nail-fiddle. 

. . Schliis' sel-G, the note g^ 

on the treble-clef line: 
Schmei'chelnd (Ger.) Flattering ; in a 

coaxing, caressful style. 
Schmerz (Ger.) Pain ; grief, sorrow. 

. . Schmerz' haft, schmerz' lick, painful, 

sorrowful, plaintive. (Also adverb.) 
Schna'bel (Ger., "beak" ; Fr. bee). A 

mouthpiece like that of the clarinet or 

flageolet. . . Schnabeljlote, flute a bee. 
Schnarr'werk (Ger.) The reed-work of 

an organ, era single reed-stop. — Also, 

a Regal. 


Schneck'e (Ger., "snail"). Scroll. 
Schnell (Ger.) Fast, quick, rapid. 
(Also adverb.). . . Schncl'ler, {a) faster; 
as nach und nach schneller, gradually 
faster ; — (/') an inverted mordent. 
Schot'tische. (Ger. Schot' iisch,''^cotQk\.., 
Scottish "). A round dance in 2-4 
time, a variety of the Polka ; the Ecos- 
saise is a country-dance. 
Schrag (Ger.) Oblique. 
Schreib'art (Gc-.) Style. 
Schrei'end (Ger.) Strident ; screaming, 

screeching, squeaking. 
Schrei'erpfeife (Ger.) See Schryari 2. 

Schryari. i. An obs. wind-instr. de- 
scribed by Prcetorius in the "Syntag- 
ma". — 2. The sharpest mixture-stop, 
usually in 3 ranks and tuned in octaves, 
beginning 3 octaves above the key 

Schub (Ger.) Slide (of bow). 

Schuh (Ger.) Bridge (of a tromba ma- 
rina). . . Schuh'platlltanz, a kind of clog- 
dance in the Austrian and Bavarian 

Schul'tergeige (Ger.) Viola da spalla; 
opp. to Kniegeige. 

Schu'sterfleck (Ger.) Rosalia. 

Schv^ach (Ger.) i. Weak, as schivach'er 
Taktteil, weak beat. — 2. Soft, faint, low; 
schzoiich'er, fainter, softer. 

Schwar'mer (Ger.) A Rauscher. 

Schv^e'bung (Ger.) i. In mus. acous- 
tics, a Beat .\. — 2. Same as Tre/nulant. 

Schwe'gel (Ger.) i. Any wind-instr. — 
2. A pipe, especially a flue-pipe in the 
organ, the Schwe'gelpfeife being an 
open stop of 8 or 4-foot pitch, the 
pipes slightly tapering at the top. 

Schwei'gezeichen (Ger.) A rest. 

Schweins'kopf (Ger., " pig's-head"). 
Obsolete term for FlUgel. 

Schwei'zerflote (Ger.) i. Fife. — 2. In 
the organ, an 8-foot metal flue-stop of 
penetrating tone ; the same of 4-foot 
pitch is called Sch-uei'zerpfeife; of 16- 
foot pitch, on the pedal, Schicei'zer- 
Jlotenbass. . . Schwei'zerpfeiff, earliest 
name of the German flute. 

Schwel'len (Ger.) See Anschwellen. 

Schwrel'ler (Ger.) Swell (of the organ). 

Schweirton (Ger.) Messa di voce. 

Schwell'werk (Ger.) Swell-organ. 

Schwer (Ger.) i. Heavy, ponderous 



(see Pesante). — 2. Difficult. . . Schiudr'- 
miitig^ melancholy, sad. 

Schwie'gel (Ger.) See Sch7vegel. 

Schwin'dend (Ger.) Dying away, 

Schwing'ung (Ger.) Vibration. 

Sch'wung'voU (Ger.) With sweep and 

Scialumo' (It.) Chalumeau. 

Scintillan'te (It. and Fr.) Brilliant, 

Scioltamen'te (It.) Freely, fluently. 
xivcc^Xy . . . Scioltcz'za, freedom, fluency- 
. .Sciol'to,-a^ free, fluent, SL'gxXo.; fuga 
sciolta, free fugue, opp. to fuga, obbli- 

Seorda'to (It.) i. Discordant, out of 
tune. — 2. Tuned in a manner deviat- 
ing from the ordinary one. . .Scoxdatit^ 
ra, an alteration of the ordinary accor- 
^'daliira of a stringed instr. for the at- 
tainment of special effects ; e. g. Paga- 
nini's tun- < [' - — r^'^: in which the 
i n g of ^ — a^^i^L zM^ 6^-string was 
the violin: t/ ^- FS raised a min- 
or and a major third respectively ; such 
an alteration is sometimes called solo 

Score. (Ger. Partitur' ; Yx. partition; 
It. partita' ra, partizio'iie.) A system- 
atic arrangement of the vocal or instru- 
mental parts of a composition one above 
the other, tones sounded together being 
in the same vertical line, to facilitate 
xca.d\ng. . .Close or compressed score, 
see Short score. . .Full or orchestral 
score, one in which each vocal and in- 
strumental part has a separate staff as- 
signed to it (see Orchestra). . .Fiauo- 
forte-score, one having the vocal parts 
written out in full, generally on separ- 
ate staves, the pfte.-accomp. being ar- 
ranged or compressed (from the full in- 
strumental score) on 2 staves below the 
rest. . .Organ-score, arr. \\Vq p/le.-score, 
except that a third staff for pedal-bass 
is often added below the others... 
Short score, {a) any abridged arrange- 
ment or skeleton transcript ; {h) 4-part 
vocal score on 2 staves. . . Supplement- 
ary score, see Partitino. . . Vocal score, 
(a) score of an a cappella composition ; 
(jb) same a.s p/te. -score. 

Scoring. Same as Instrumentation, or 

Scorren'do (It.) Flowing, gliding. (Also 

Scotch snap or catch. The rhythmic 

mo- p- frequently recurring in many 
tive dm' ' Scotch airs (the reverse of 
the com- r~5\ 
mon motive J . J'' 

Scozze'se (It.) Scotch ; alia s., in the 
Scotch style. 

Scroll. (Ger. Schnecke; Fr. volute; It. 
voluta.) The terminal curve of the 
head in the violin, etc. 

Sde'gno (It.) Scorn, disdain ; wrath, 
indignation. . . Sdegnosamen' ie, scorn- 
fully, etc. . .Sdegno'so, scornful, etc. 

Sdrucciolan'do (It.) ^Wding. . .Sdruc- 
ciola're, to slide, by pressing down the 
pfte.-keys in a rapid sweep with the 

Se (It.) If . . . 5i? biso'gna, if necessary ; 
se pia'ce, if you please. (Comp. .St.) 

Sea-trumpet. Tromba marina. 

Sec (Fr.), Sec'co (It.) Dry ; simple, 
unembellished (see Recitative). 

Sechs (Ger.) Six. . . Sechsach' teltakt, 6-8 
Uxm. . .Scchs'er, sechs' taktiger Satz, a 
passage, period, or theme comprising 6 
measures. . . Sechsvier' teltakt, 6-4 time. 

Sech'(s)zehn (Ger.) Sixteen ... 5i'r/4''- 
zehntel {note), itih-nQiQ. . . Sech'zehn- 
telpause, i6th-rest. 

Second. I {noun). (Ger. Sckun'de! 
Fr. scconde; It. secon'da.) The inter- 
val between 2 conjunct degrees (see 
Interval). — 2. The alto part or voice. 
— 3. {adj.) (Ger. zzueit-er,-e,-es; Fr. 
second, -e; It. secondo,-a.) {a) Perform- 
ing a part lower in pitch than first ; as 
second bass, second violins; {b) lower in 
pitch, as second string; {c) higher, as 
second line of staff. 

Secondaire (Fr.) A temps secondaire is 
a weak beat. 

Secondary chords. Subordinate chords. 

Seconde dessus (Fr.) Second soprano. 

Secon'do,-a (It.) Second {adj.); as 
seconda don'na, the female singer tak- 
ing the leading parts after the prima 
donna; violi'ni secondi, second violins. 
. . {N'oun.) Secondo, a second part or 
performer in a duet. 

Section. In the wider sense, a short 
division (l or more periods) of a com- 
position, having distinct rhythmic and 
harmonic boundaries ; specifically, half 
a phrase (see Form). 

Secular music. Music other than that 



intended for worship and devotional 

Secun'de (Ger.) See Sekunde. 

Sede'cima (Lat. and It.) i. The inter- 
val of a sixteenth. — 2. Obs. name oi 
the fifteenth (organ-stop). 

See'le (Ger., "soul"). Soundpost. 

Se'gno (It.) A sign. . .Al segno, to the 
sign ; Dal segno, from the sign, — di- 
rections to the performer to turn back 
and repeat from the place marked by 
the sign (.Jj-., 0, ■^, §, etc.) to the 
word Fine, or /r> In place of the 
to a double- izlt. words, the sign 
bar with hold: — tz alone is some- 
times set. 
(JBe'gue (It.) Follows ; as segue I'aria, 
" the aria follows . . . Seguen'do, stgueti' te, 
following. — Also, same as Simile. 

Seguen'za (It.) Sequence. 

Seguidil'Ia (Span.) A Spanish dance in 
triple time, some varieties having a slow 
and stately movement, while others are 
lively ; usually in minor, accompanied 
by guitar and voice, and at times by the 

Sehn'sucht (Ger.) Longing, yearning. 
. .Sehn'suchtig, in a style expressive of 
intense yearning. 

Sehr (Ger.) Very. 

Se'i (It.) Six. 

Sei'tenbe'wegung (Ger.) Oblique mo- 
tion. . . Sei'tensatz, a second or second- 
ary theme, as in the sonata and rondo. 

Sekun'de (Ger.) A second. 

Semibiscro'ma (It.) A 32nd-note. 

Sem'ibreve. (Lat. semilirev'is.) A whole 

Semicro'ma (It.) A i6th-note. 

Sem'icrome. A semicroma ; but former- 
ly sometimes used for quaver. 

Semicrotch'et. A quaver. 

Sem'idemisemiqua'ver. A 64th-note. 

Semidiapa'son. Diminished octave. . . 
Semidiapen'ie, diminished fifth. .. .Sc-- 
midiates'saron, diminished fourth. 

Semidi'tas (Lat.) The diminution caused 
by a vertical stroke through the time- 

Semi-di'tone. (Lat. semidi' tonus.) The 
minor ihxrd. . .Sefniditonus cum dia- 
fente, minor 7th. 

Semifu'sa (Lat.) Semiquaver. 

Semi-grand. A small grand piano. 

Semiminim. (Lat. and It. semimi'nima) 
A crotchet, or quaver. 

Semipau'sa (Lat.) A semibreve-rest. 

Semiqua'ver. A i6th-note. 

Semisuspi'rium (Lat.) A crotchet-rest. 

Semitone. (Ger. Halb'ton; Fr. detni- 
ion; It. semiiuo'no.) The narrowest 
interval employed in modern music. 
(See Interval.) 

Semi-tonique (Fr.) Same as chromatiqtu. 

Semito'nium (Lat.) A semitone ... 5. 
Jictu?n, a chromatic semitone. .. 6". 
modi, the leading-note. .. 6'. natura'le, 
a diatonic semitone. 

Sem'plice (It.) Simple, plain, unaffected. 
. . SempHcemen' te, simply, etc. . . Sem- 
plicita' , con, in a simple, unaffected 

Sem'pre (It.) Always, continually ; 

Sensi'bile(It., " sensitive"). — Notasen- 
" sibile, leading-note. 

Sensibilita', con (It.) See Espressivo. 

Sensible (Fr.) The leading-note ; also 
note se7isihle. (In English the leading- 
note is sometimes called " sensible 

Sentence. See Period, Form. 
Sentimen'to, con (It.) With feeling, 

Senti'to (It., "felt"). With feeling, 
expression, special stress. 

Sen'za (It.) "Without. (Abbr. S.)...S. 
passio'ne, with avoidance of all marked 
accents and passionate expression. . .S. 
piat'ti, "drum alone" (where one per- 
former plays the cymbals and bass 
drum) . . . S. sordi'ni, see Sordino. . . .S". 
iem'po, not in strict tempo, ad libitum. 
. . S. di slentare, without retarding. 
\Senza is often followed by a bare in- 
finitive, which is then to be translated 
as a participial substantive ; e. g. senza 
rallentare, without retarding.] 

Separation, r. An obs. term for a 
passing-note between 2 tones forming a 
tierce. — 2. In the organ, a mechanical 
device for preventing the great-organ 
action from sounding its stops ; used 
when the action is pneumatic and 
coupled to other manuals of heavier 

Sept-chord. Chord of the 7th. 

Septde'zime (Ger.) A seventeenth. 

Septet'. (Ger. Septett' ; Fr. septuor; It 



settimi'uo) A concerted composition 

for 7 voices or instr.s. 
Septi^me (Fr.), Sep'time (Gar.) The 

interval of a 'jX\\...Sip'tiinc>iakkord 

(Ger.), chord of the 7th. 
Septimo'le, Septo'le (Ger.) Septuplet. 
Septuor (Fr.) Septet. 
Sep'tuplet. A group of 7 equal notes 

to be performed in the time of 4 or 6 

of the same kind in the regular 

rhythm; a m m ''m m m m 

written: I ' I ' I I ' ' 

Se'quence. (Lat. sequen'tia; It. segtien'- 
sa; Ger. SrqtiL-nz'.) i. The repetition, 
oftener than twice in succession, of a 
melodic motive, the repetitions ascending 
or descending byuniform intervals. The 
hannonic sequence is merely the group- 
ing of chords necessitated by the reiter- 
ation of the melodic figure. K diatonic 
or tonal sequence employs only tones 
proper to the key ; a chromatic or modu- 
latory sequence is one in which acciden- 
tals are used more or less freely ; a se- 
quence progressing by a whole tone or 
semitone is called a Rosalia. (Also 
Progression.) — 2. In the R. C. Church, 
a kind of hymn ; such were founded on 
the melodies of the sequentiiS (the 
jubilations of the Alleluia following the 
epistle, words being in time set to the 
melodies instead of the original syllables 
a-e-u-i-a), whence the name. They 
originated in the gth century, and mul- 
tiplied to such an extent that Pius V. in 
1563 expunged all but 5 (Victimx* 
paschali ; Veni Sancte Spiritus ; Lauda 
Sion ; Stabat Mater ; Dies iroe). (Also 
Prose [Lat./rtij-d].) 

Seraphi'na, Ser'aphine. A precursor 
of the harmonium, inv. by John Green 
in 1833 ; owing to its harsh tone, it 
was speedily superseded by the latter. 

Serenade'. (Ger. Stdnd'chen; Fr. j/;-/- 
nade; It. serena'ta.) I. An "evening 
song ;" specifically, such a song sung 
by a lover before his lady's window. — 
2. An instrumental composition imi- 
tating the above in style. — From these 
was evolved the 

Serena'ta (Fr. and It. ditto ; Ger. Sere- 
na'de.) I. A species of dramatic can- 
tata greatly in vogue during the 1 8th 
century. — 2. An instrumental compo- 
sition, midway between the Suite and 
Symphony, but freer in form than either, 
consisting of 5, 6, or more movements 
for very various combinations of instr.s, 


and in chamber-music style. The earlier 
serenatas were invariably concerted 
pieces ; they were also called Cassations 
and Divertinienti. 

Sere'no (It.) Serene, calm, tranquil. 

Serinette (Fr.) A bird-organ (small 
barrel-organ used in training song- 

Se'rio,-a (It.) Serious ... C'/^ra j^r/a, 
grand or tragic opera ; opp. to Opera 
bujfa . . Tenore serio, dramatic tenor. 

Serio'so (It.) In a serious, grave, im- 
pressive style. 

Serpent. (It. serpen' te^j A nearly obs. 
wood-wind instr., still used in some 
French churches, but seldom met with 
in the orchestra ; inv. by Canon Guil- 
laume of Auxerre in 1590. It belongs 
to the Zinke {Cometto) family ; the 
modern forms have a recurvate bell, 
and a cupped mouthpiece set in a brass 
crook forming a right angle with the 
first bend of the serpentine tube. The 
tube is of wood, covered with leather, 
about 8 feet long, and Spot. 

providedwith 6 finger- _; ■ ,1?^ 

holes and a varying ^'i 
number of addition- _^ 

al keys. Compass : "•"^ 

the serpent being a transposing instr., 
in Biy, the notes are written a degree 
higher. The tone is variously described 
by French authorities as "harsh and 
savage", and as a "cold, horrid howl- 
ing". It is replaced, in the modern 
orchestra, by the bass tuba (or ophi- 
cleide). — The Serpentcleide resembles 
the ophicleide, but retains the wooden 
tube. — The Contra-serpent produces 16- 
foot E"^. — Some old organs have reed- 
stops named serpent. 

Service. In the Anglican Liturgy, a 
complete series of mus. settings of the 
canticles, etc., the free composition of 
which is sanctioned by usage. Ver- 
sicles, responses, chants, and anthems, 
are e.xicluded. The full list for morning 
and evening prayer, and communion, 
includes the Venite exultemus, Te 
Deura, Benedicite, Benedictus (domi- 
nus), Jubilate, Kyrie, Credo (Nicene 
Creed), Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Benedic- 
tus (qui venit), Gloria, Magnificat, 
Cantate domino, Nunc dimittis, and 
Deus misereatur ; all composed for 
chorus and soli , with or without accomp 
by organ or orchestra. 

Sesquial'tera (Lat., "one-half more".) 



I. A perfect fifth, its ratio to the prime 
being i : i j = 2 : 3. — 2. In mensurable 
music, the proportion marked by the 
signature ^, indicating that the time- 
value of 3 minims is then equivalent to 
that of 2 before. — 3. A mixture-stop in 
the organ ; the name is properly appli- 
cable to a mutation-stop a fifth above the 
fundamental tone or some given octave 
of the latter, but is ordinarily used to 
designate a compound stop producing 
the 3rd, 4th, and 5th partial tones, or 
their octaves ; it has from 2 to 5 ranks. 

Sesquino'na. The lesser whole tone, 
its ratio being 9 : 10. 

Sesquiocta'va. The greater whole tone, 
its ratio being 8 : 9. 

Sesquiquar'ta. The major third, its 
ratio being 4:5. 

Sesquiquin'ta. The minor third, its 
ratio being 5 : 6. 

Sesquiter'tia. The perfect fourth, its 
ratio being 3 : 4. 

Ses'quitone. A minor third, i. e. il 

Sestet'. (It. sestet'to.) A sextet. 

Sesti'na (It.) A sextuplet. 

Se'sto,-a (It.) Sixth ... .St' J- /a {iionn). 
interval of a sixth. 

Ses'tole, Ses'tolet. A sextuplet. 

Settimi'no (It.) A septet. 

Set'timo,-a (It.) Seventh ... ^c/'/Zwrt 
{nou/i), interval of a 7th. 

Setz'art (Ger.) Style of composition. . . 
Setz' kunst, art of composition . . . Setz'- 
stiick, crook. 

Seul,-e (Fr.) Alone, solo. 

Seventeenth, i. Interval of 2 octaves 
plus a tierce. — 2. Same as Tierce (organ- 

Seventh. (Ger. Sep'time; Fr. septievie; 
It. set'tima.) See Interval. . . Seventh- 
chord, a chord of the 7th, composed of 
a root with its third, fifth, and seventh. 

Severamen'te (It.) Strictly, with rigid 
observance of tempo and expression- 

Sext. I. The interval of a sixth. — 2. 
The office of the fourth canonical hour. 
— 3. A compound organ-stop of 2 ranks 
(a twelfth and a seventeenth) a sixth 

Sex'ta (Lat.) Sixth . . . {Noun.) The in- 
terval of a sixth ; also, a sixth part (see 

Sex'te (Ger.) A sixth. 

Sextet'. (It. sestet' to: Fr. sextnor; Ger. 
Sextett' .) A concerted composition for 
6 voices or instr.s ; or for 6 obbligato 
voices with instrumental accomp. 

Sex'tole, Sex'tolet. A sextuplet. 

Sex'tuplet. A group of 6 equal notes 
to be performed in the time of 4 of the 
same kind in the regular rhythm. In 
the true sextuplet the 1st, 3rd, and 5th 
notes are accented ; the false sextuplet 
is simply a double triplet. 

Sex'tus (Lat.) A sixth part (see Sexto), 

Sfoga'to (It., "exhaled"). In vocal 
music, a direction to render the passage 
so marked in a light and airy manner. 
. . Soprano sfogato, a high soprano ; 
compass from c^ to c^ (/^) . 

Sforzan'do (It., "forcing, pressing"). 
A direction commonly applied to a 
single tone or chord, indicating that it 
is to be performed with special stress, 
or marked and sudden em- r 

phasis. Ahhr, s/z., s/.; sign '', A, ^ 
(Also Sforza'to.) 

Sfuggi'ta (It.) Avoided, eluded ; as 
cadenza sfuggita. 

Sgallinaccia're (It.) To sing with a 
harsh, uneven, quavering voice. (From 
gallinae'cio, a turkey-cock.) 

Shade. "Shading of pipes", the plac- 
ing of anything so near the top of an 
organ-pipe as to affect the vibrating 
column of air which it contains. 
[Stainer axd Barrett.] 

Shake. Same as Trill. . . Shaked graces 
(obs.), the shaked Beat, Backfall, Ca- 
dent, and Elevation, and the Double 

Shalm. A shawm. 

Sharp {noun). (Ger. Kreuz; Fr. dilse; 
It. die'sis.) The sign Jf, which, set 
before a note or on a degree of the staff, 
raises its pitch by a chromatic semitone 
. .Double-sharp, the sign x (formerly 
also ^, jj<, etc.), raising the pitch of 
its note by 2 chromatic semitones (=1 
tone on tempered instr.s). 

Sharp {adj.) I. (Of tones or instr's.) 
Too high or acute in pitch. — 2. (Of in- 
tervals.) Major or augmented. — 3. (Of 
keys.) Having a sharp or sharps in the 
signature. — 4. (Of organ-stops.) Shrill. 
— 5. (Of digitals; pi.) The black keys; 
also any white key a semitone above 



Shawm. (Ger. Schalmei'.) An obs. 
double-reed wind-instr. , the precursor 
of the oboe, the prime difference be- 
tween them being that the reed of the 
shawm was set in a cupped or globular 
mouthpiece, whereas the oboe-reed is 
held directly betwixt the lips. — The 
chanter of the bagpipe is probably the 
sole surviving form of the ancient 
shawm. (Also Shalm) [N. B. The 
Fr. chalnmeaii had a single reed.] 

Shift. A change in the position of the 
left hand, in playing the violin, etc., 
from the first position, in which the 
forefinger stops its string a semitone or 
tone higher than the pitch of the open 
string, according to the scale ; the 2nd 
position is called the half-shift, the 
3rd the whole shift, and the 4th the 
double shift. When out of the ist po- 
sition the player is said to be " on the 
shift", and shifting up or down, as the 
case may be. (See Position.) 

Shutter. In the organ, one of the blinds 
forming the front of the swell-box. 

Si. I. (It.) One, it; often written in 
directions, as si leva il soj'dino, take off 
the mute ; si le'vano i sordini, take off 
the mutes ; si pia'ce, si lihet (Lat.), at 
pleasure ; si repli'ca, repeat (= Da 
Capo); si segue, proceed ; si tace, be 
silent ; si volta, turn over. [Beethoven 
writes {^E^ Quartet, op. 74): "Si ha 
s'immaginar'la battuta di %" , meaning: 
" Imagine the time to be ^."] — 2. The 
7th of the solmisation-syllables ; hence, 
name of the note B in France and 
Italy... 5"? contra fa, see Mi. (Com- 
pare Key, and Solmisation.) 

Sicilia'na (It.), Sicilienne (Fr.) Dance 
of the Sicilian peasants ; a kind of pas- 
torale in moderately slow tempo and 
6-8 or 12-8 time, frequently in minor, 
and common (especially in the iSth 
century) as an andante movement in 
sonatas or vocal music. (Not Sicilia'- 
no). . .Alia si ci liana, in the style of the 

Side-drum. See D?-nm. ■ 

Sieb (Ger.) Soundboard of the organ 
(Lat. cribrum). 

Sifflet (Fr.) Whistle. Pan, Pan- 
dean 'p'x'pQS. . .Siflet-diapason, pitch- 

Sif'flot (Ger.) In the organ, an open 
metal flue-stop of broad scale and i or 
2-foot pitch. — Also Suf'fidt, Suh'fldt, 

Sight-reader. A musician capable of 
correctly performing a piece of music 
at sight. 

Signs. (Compare Abbreviation, Nota- 
tion, Segno.) [Italicized terms indicate 
that the signs are no longer in use.] 

» Dot. Staccato. Sforzato. 

T Forte tenuto. 

.'TTT^ Bebung. Mezzo staccato. 

""^"' (See Dot 3.) 

(under notes to be sung to 

°\ one syllable ; in Tonic 

Sol-fa, a line under the 


^ Hold. 

(• (Notation, §3.) 

>f (Abbreviation.) 

•'S'- ;^: Presa. 

•%• -jS: 4 ? Segno. 

• • • .*. Double relish. 

^^' # 


z Repeat. 

or -\- 






Repeats (2 and 4 times). 
Repetition of words. 
Thumb (pfte.-music). 

fall, CouU, 

Double Backfall. 

Tenuto. Pesante. 

Mezzo legato. 

Bind. Slur. Tie. 

Accent. Coul/. Port de 


Tasto solo. 

Double Appoggiaiura. 



Plain beat. 

Accent. Nachschlag. Por- 
tamento. Schleifer. 


Port de voix. 

Backfall {Double Back, 


Acciaccatura. Arpeggio, 



/ (//) 

y // HI 


A V > 


A V 

w \w 

n u 


Single {Double) Relish. 
E (Abbreviations.) 



Staccatissimo. Martellato. 

Forte piano (fp). 



Up-bow. Breathing-mark. 
Martellement. Port de 
voix. Aspiration. 

Down-bow (violoncello- 

Heel and toe (organ-mu- 
sic; better as given be- 

Martellement double and 




Arpeggio. Aceiaccatnra. 
— In modern pfte. -mu- 
sic, signifies that 2 
notes so connected are 
to be played (<?) with 
the same hand, {b) with 
one finger. — In vocal 
music, signifies voci 


Organ-music, pedal; notes 
so connected are to be 
played with alternate 
toe and heel of same 



Trill. All'ottava. (A 
mark of continuation.) 

Balancement. Tr emble- 



from one staff to another, 
shows ((2) in pfte. -mu- 
sic that notes so con- 



nected are to be played 
with the same hand ; 
(/') that a part is trans- 
ferred from one staff to 


In'.erted Mordent. Ca- 


IT \f^ -Avv etc. Trill. 

"^ ('^ 2 2) Turn {Back-turn). 

# Take damper-pedal (ob- 

# -^ + Release damper-pedal. 
Q Sign of the dimin. triad 

(e. g. VII"). 
O or O Harmonic mark. Open 
O Tasto solo (Thorough-b.). 

Q Triple time (see Nota- 

tion, §3). 
(J) Thur.-.b-positions (violon- 

cello playing), 
o A Heel and toe (organ-mu- 

(or ^^ V ) sic). Over notes for 
right foot, under notes 
for left foot. 
A — V Change toes on organ- 
A A Slide same toe to next 

O A o 

I J 2, 3, 4, etc. (See Numerals.) 
0, @, etc. (See Harmonium-music.) 
^, ^, ^, etc. (See Chord, Thorough- 
I Wr, IK' (See Chord.) 
2' 4' 8' 16' (See Foot.) 
a' b" c'"] 
a' b^ c^ 

_ = E Vetc. (See Pitch, §1.) 
a b c 
A. B, Cj 

r Gamma. 

Iss A jlp (See Tambourine.) 

M. M. J = 60 (See Metronome.) 



In organ-music, signifies " change 
hands on chord ". 

In pfte. -music, signifies " hold chord 
with pedal ". 

Signal'horn (Ger.) A bugle. 

Signature. The signs set at the head of 
the staff at the beginning of a piece or 
movement, indicating the key and 
measure in which it is written. The 
chromatic sign or signs are termed the 
key-signature; the figures or signs in- 
dicating the measure, the time-signa- 
ture, or rhythmical signature. 

Signatu'ren (Her., pi.) The figures and 
signs smployed in thorough-bass nota- 

Signe (Fr.) Sign. 

Sig'nura (Lat.) Sign. . .Signa impli'cita, 
indicia'liti, intrin'seca, see Notation, 
§3, Modus, 

Siguidil'la (Span.) See Seguidilla. 

Sil'bendehnung (Ger.) Slurring a sylla- 
ble, i. e. singing it to more than one 

Silence (Fr.), Silen'zio (It.) A rest. 
(Comp. Pause, Sottpir.) 

Sillet (Fr.) Nut ; specifically, petit sil- 
let, nut at upper end of neck ; grand 
sillet, nut at tailpiece. 

Similar motion. See Motion. 

Si'mile (It., " similarly, in like ma.nner.") 
A direction to perform the following 
passage or passages in the same style as 
a preceding similar passage ; used to save 
the trouble of repeating phrase-marks 
and other signs. . . The simile-mark is 
^f {see Abbreviation). \^Simile,hQ- 
■ '' - ing an adverb, is indeclinable, 

and has no plural form simili; the Lat. 
term is similiter.^ 

Simple. (Of tones and intervals.) Not 
compound. — (Of counterpoint, imita- 
tion, rhythm etc.) Not compound or 
complex, undeveloped, not varied. 

Sin' (It.) Abbr. of Sino. 

Sinfoni'a (It.) r. A symphony. — 2. An 
overture (to the earlier Italian operas). 

Sinfonie' (Ger.) Symphony (usually 

Sing'akademie (Ger.) A choral sing- 

Sing'bar (Ger.) Singable ; cantabile . . . 

Sehr singhar vor'zicfragen, perform in 

a very singing style. 
Sing'end (Ger.) Singing, melodious, 


Sing'etanz (Ger.) Dance accomp. with 

Sing'fuge (Ger.) Vocal fugue. 
Singhiozzan'do(It.) Sobbingly, catch. 

ing the breath. 

Sing'manieren (Ger., pi.) Vocal graces. 
Sing'schule (Ger.) Singing-school. 

Sing'spiel (Ger.) The German national 
form of the opera, established during 
the 2nd half of the i8th century by J. 
A. Ililler, whose guiding rule was to 
give simple, folk-songlike melodies to 
singers representing plain characters, 
whereas to " gentlefolk" he gave arias; 
the instrumental accomp. is also kept 
subordinate to the vocal parts. — The 
term is also used for any light opera or 
operetta with spoken interludes ; like- 
wise, by extension, for more preten- 
tious operas and mus. dramas. 

Sing'stimme (Ger.) The singing-voice, 
the voice. 

Sini'stra (It.) Left ; mano s., left hand; 
colla s., with the left hand. 

Sink-a-pace. See Cinque-pace. 

Si'no (It.) To, up to, as far as, till ; sino 
(or sin) al fine, to the end. 

Si'ren. (Ger. Sire'ne; Fr. sirhte.) An 
acoustical apparatus for determining the 
vibration-number of a given tone. 

Sir Roger de Coverley. An ancient 
English dance-tune in 9-4 time, still in 
vogue as a country-dance. 

Siste'ma (It.) Staff. 

Sis'trum (Lat.) An ancient mus. instr. 
of Egypt and the East : a sort of rattle, 



consisting of loose metal rods set in an 
oval frame, and shaken by a handle. 

Sitole. See Cilole. 

Sitz (Ger.) Seat ; situation, place. 

Sixi^me, Sixte (Fr.) Sixth ; sixte 
ajout^e, added sixth. 

Sixteenth-note. (Ger. Sech'zehntel 
\-note\; Fr. dotibh-croche; It. semicro'- 
ma.) A semiquaver (^). Sometimes 
abbr. to Sixteenth. . . ibth-rest, a semi- 
quaver-rest (^). Comp. Note, Rest. 

Sixth. (Ger. Sex'te; Fr. sixte; It. 
se' sta^ See Interval. . . Chord of the 
sixth, first inversion of a triad. . . Chord 
of the added sixth (Fr. accord de la 
sixte ajoiite'e), the sub- 
dominant triad with 
sixth added, e. g. : 
. . . Chord of the extreme sixth, see Ex- 

Sixtine (Fr.) Sextuplet. 

Sixty-fourth-note. (Ger. Vierund- 
sech'zigstel [-note^; Fr. quadruple 
croche; It. quattricro'ma.) A hemi- 

demisemiquaver (g); sometimes abbr. 

to Sixty-fourth. . .d^th-rest, f a j. 

Skip. (Ger. Sprung/ Fr. saut; It. sal'- 


to.) Melodic progression by an inter- 
val wider than a second ; disjunct (or 
discrete) progression. 
Skiz'ze (Ger.) Sketch ; a short charac- 
teristic piece, or bit of salon-music, 
without fixed form. 
Slan'cio, con (It.) With vehemence, 
impetuously. (Sometimes written islan- 
cio, for the sake of euphony.) 
Slargan'do, Slargan'dosi (It.) Grow- 
ing slower ; comp. Largando. 
Slentan'do (It.) See Slargando. 
Slide. I. A movable U-shaped tube in 
the trombone (sometimes in the trumpet 
and French horn), which is pushed in 
and out to alter the pitch of the tones 
while playing. It is a more perfect 
device than the valve, because it changes 
only, the length of the vibrating air- 
column, not the direction and form of 
the wind-current ; and also because per- 
fect purity of pitch is obtainable [comp., 
however, art. Trumpet, last sentence]; 
but it is technically more difficult of 
manipulation. — 2. In the organ, a 
slider. — 3. A grace (Ger. Schlei'fer; 
Fr. coule), either {a) a diatonic series 
of 2 or more tones rapidly ascending or 
descending, the notation of which varies 
greatly : 


or {b) a portamento. 

Slide-horn. See Slide-trumpet. 

Slider. See Organ, (i). 

Slide-trombone, -trumpet. One played 
by the use of a slide instead of keys or 

Sliding relish. An old harpsichord- 
grace written : played : 

Slissa'to (It.) Slurred 

Slur. I. (Ger. Lega'tohogen; Fr. liaison; 
It. legatu'ra.) A sweeping curve drawn 
over or under 2 or more notes, signify- 
ing that they are to be executed legato. 
— 2. In vocal music, the slur unites 2 
or more notes to be sung to the same 
syllable and in one breath ; the notes 

so sung are also called a slur . . . Slurred 
melody, one in which 2 or more tones 
are sung to one syllable ; opp. to sylla- 
bic melody. 
Small octave. See Pitch . . . Small or. 

chestra, see Orchestra. 
Smanian'te, Smanio'so (It.) In an 

impetuous, passionate style. 
Sminuen'do, Sminui'to (It.) Dimin- 
ishing and decreasing (in speed and 
Smoren'do (It.) Dying away. 
Smorfio'so (It.) With affected expression. 
Smorzan'do (It.) "Fading away"; 

equiv. to Morendo. 
Snap. See Scotch snap. 
Snare-drum. See Side-drum, under 


Soa've (It.) Suave, sweet, soft. . . Soazw- 
men'te, suavely, etc. 

Socket. In a clarinet, the short, rounded 
joint connecting the mouthpiece with 
the " top-joint". 

Sogget'to (It.) Subject, theme. — This 
term is properly applied to a homogene- 
ous theme of moderate length, a longer 
one being called an anJanicnlo, and a 
short, motive-like theme an attacco 
(though this last term is practically ob- 

Sognan'do (It.) Dreaming, in a dreamy 

Soh. For sol, in the Tonic Sol-fa sys- 

Sol. I. The fifth of the Aretinian sylla- 
bles. — 2. Name of the note 6" in France, 
Italy, etc. 

Solem'nis (Lat.) Solemn. 

Solen'ne (It.) Solemn ; splendid, pom- 
pous. . . Solennemen'te, solemnly, etc . . . 
Solennita' , solemnity, pomp. 

Solfa' (It.) I. Scale, gamut. — 2. Music 
in general ; hat' fere la solfa, to beat 
time. — 3. A conductor's baton. 

Sol-fa (Engl.) I (verb). To sing sol- 
feggi; specifically, to sing to the sol- 
misation-syllables. — 2 {noun). Solmisa- 
tion, and the syllables employed in it ; 
a solfeggio on those syllables. — Tonic 
Sol-fa, see Tonic. 

Solfeggia're (It.) To sol-fa. 

Solfeg'gio (It., pi. solfeg'gi; Fr. solfcge.) 
A vocal exercise, either on one vowel, 
or the syllables of solmisation, or to 

Solid chord. One the tones of which 

are performed simultaneously ; opp. to 
brokeji. {''Flat chord" is preferable.) 

So'lito (It.) Accustomed, habitual... 
A I soli to, as usual, in the customary 

Solmisation. A method of teaching the 
scales and intervals by syllables, the in- 
vention of which is ascribed to Guido 
d'Arezzo (b. 990 ?). It is based, in 
opposition to the Greek theory of tetra- 
chords, on the hexachord or 6-tone 
scale ; the first six tones of the natural 
major scale, c d e f g a, were named 
itt, re, mi, fa, sol, la, (the initial syl- 
lables of the successive phrases of a 
hymn to St. John beginning Ut queant 
laxis, these syllables happening to fall 
on these 6 tones), forming the natural 
hexachord {hcxacho)-'diim natttra'le) 
with the semitonic step at mi-fa; the 
syllables were further applied to 2 
other hexachords, the hard hexachord 
{hex. du'runi) g a b c d e (so called be- 
cause constructed with the hard B =: 
j^Q or B durum), and the soft hexa- 
chord {hex. mol'le) f g a b\) c d (with 
the soft B = 'S>\) ov B mollc); in each, 
the step mi-fa was in the same relative 
position. The entire mus. scale, ex- 
tended beyond that of Greek theory by 
adding I tone below (Gamma F = 6^), 
and 4 above, embraced 7 hexachords, 
the higher ones being mere reduplica- 
tions of the original 3. In the follow- 
ing View, the solmisation-names of the 
notes will be found by reading up from 
(and including) the letter-name ; thus 
low G was called Gamma-ut, its octave 
G sol re ut, and its double-octave like- 
wise G sol re ut; B, however, was 
called only B fa ox B mi, according as 
it occurred in the soft or hard hexa- 

View of the Guidonian Hexachords. 

Modern letter-name 



. H 



with B 








VI. Hex. moUe (wit 
V. Hex. naturale ut 












IV. Hex. durum (with B mi) 
III. Hex. molle (with B fa) ut 








I. Hex. naturale ut 1 re 




lurum ut 

re Imi 




ime G 

A I B 



















A t] 


















When a melody overstepped the com- 
pass of one hexachord, a transition, 
termed a tnutation, was made from one 

set of syllables to another ; the change 
of syllables was preferably effected be- 
tween the natural and soft, or natural 



and hard, hexachords (a direct transi- 
tion from hard to soft, or vice versa, 
being less smooth because of the clash- 
ing significance of Br) and -fi't]), and 
usually after fa {so/ — re) in ascending 
and after ini {re — hi) in descending. 
These mutations exhibit a dawning of 
the modern idea of modulation, the 
final victory of which, in establishing 
the major and minor modes and freely 
transposable scales, disposed of the 
system of hexachords. — IJuring the 
supremacy of the medieval modes, this 
system sufficed for the composer's 
needs ; but after the recognition of the 
leading-note, and the general adoption 
of a corresponding 7th syllable si early 
in the 17th century, the modern 7-tone 
scale, or heptachord, gradually super- 
seded the hexachord in theory and 
practice. Many proposed changes in 
the syllable-names met with merely 
local and transient favor; among them, 
those of Waelrant of Antwerp in 1550 
(bo, ce, di, ga, lo, ma, ni), called Bo- 
cedisation or Bohisatioit), Pedro d' U- 
renna in 1620 (ni for si), Hitzler of 
Stuttgart in 1628 (la, be, ce, de, me, 
fe, ge, called Behisation), Graun in 
1750 (da, me, ni, po, tu, la, be, 
called Damenisation). In Italy, and 
afterwards in all Europe excepting 
France, the syllable do (presumably 
first used in 1673, by Bononcini) has 
ousted the original 2{t (comp. Do). In 
both France and Italy the syllables 
have, in eveiyday usage, quite sup- 
planted the letter-names of the notes, 
which are employed in Germany, Hol- 
land, England, and the United States. 
So'lo (It., "alone".) Properly, a piece 
or passage for a single voice or instr. ; 
by extension, any non-concerted piece 
or passage in which a single voice or 
instr. predominates. As an orchestral 
direction, Solo (or simply I) marks a 
passage where one instr. (ist violin, ist 
flute, etc.) takes a leading part. — In a 
2-hand arr. of a pfte. -concerto. Solo 
marks the entrances of the solo pfte. 
— Violino solo signifies, according to 
circumstances, either "violin alone", 
or " 1st violin " (accompanied). — Solo 
organ, see Organ. . . Solo pitch, a scor- 
datura temporarily employed by a solo 
player for obtaining unusual effects. . . 
Solo quartet, {a) a quartet consisting of 
4 singers (4 "solo voices"); (/') a com- 
position or passage in 4 parts for 4 
singers ; (c) a non-concerted composi- 

tion for 4 instr.s, one of which has a 
leading part. . . Solo stop, see Stop. 
So'losanger (Ger.) A solo singer.. 
So'lospielcr, a solo "^Xdc^^x . . . So' lostinu 
vie, a solo part or voice. 

Sombrer (Fr.) In vocal music, to give 
to the tones, for dramatic effect, a 
sombre, veiled, yet intense expression. 

Som'ma (It.) Utmost, highest, extreme; 

Som'merophone. An instr. of the 
bombardon or saxhorn class, inv. by 
Sommer of ^Yeimar in 1843; also called 
Euphonion, Euphonic Horn. 

Sommier (Fr.) Windchest. 

Son (Fr.) Sound ; tone. . . Son harrnoni- 
que, an harmonic ; son plein, a round, 
full tone. 

Sona'bile (It.) Resonant, sounding. 

Sonan'te (It.) Sounding, resounding ; 
sonorous, resonant. 

SoLa're (It.) To sound ; to play (on an 
instr.). . . Sonar e alia nien'te, to impro- 

Sona'ta (It.; Fr. and Ger. Sona'te.) The 
original Italian word, suona'ta, meant 
any instrumental "sound-piece" in 
contradistinction to a canta' ta (vocal 
composition). The old sonata da 
camera and sonata da chiesa were such 
instrumental pieces, for secular and 
sacred use respectively. — The modern 
Sonata (comp. Form) is an instrument- 
al composition in 3 or 4 extended move- 
ments contrasted in theme, tempo, and 
mood. .. Sonata-f or ??i, see Eorm... 
Double sonata, a duo for 2 solo instr.s, 
in sonata-form. 

Sonatil'la (It.) A short, easy sonata. 

Sonati'na (It.), Sonati'ne (Fr. and 
Ger.) A short sonata in 2 or 3 (seldom 
4) movements, the first having the 
characteristic first-movement form, 
though the development-section is 
either very short, or quite omitted. 

Sonato're (It.) A player on any instr. 

Sone'vole (It.) Same as Sonabile. 

Song. I. (Ger. Gesang; Fr. chant; It. 
can'to.) Vocal musical expression or 
utterance. — 2. (Ger. Lied; Fr. chanson; 
It. canzo'ne.) A short lyrical or narra- 
tive poem with a musical setting char- 
acterized by a structure in simple 
periods. Songs may be divided, ac- 
cording as they are classed as spon- 
taneous popular productions or the re- 

1 84 


suit of artistic inspiration, in 2 broad 
groups, /o/^-soHifs and ari-songs, though 
the former were doubtless originally 
conceived by specially gifted singers of 
earlier times, and the latter are fre- 
quently written with studied simplicity 
{volks'thiimlich). Further, art-songs 
are either strophic (i.e. each strophe 
sung to the same tune, with a deviation 
at most in the final one), or composed- 
through (see Durch' komponiereii). — 
The so-called song-form (Ger. Lied'- 
forf/t), either vocal or instrumental, has 
3 sections and 2 themes, the second 
contrasting theme occupying the 2nd 
section. (See Form.) 

Sonnante (Fr.) Same as Stahlspiel, or 
Lyre 2. — The steel bars arc sometimes 
replaced by fixed bells. 

Sonner le tambour (Fr., " to beat the 
drum " ; also rouler.) Said of the G- 
string on a 'cello when a jarring sound 
is given out on playing certain notes. 

Sonnerie (Fr.) i. Same as Carillon 
(peal or chime of bells). — 2. A military 
call or signal. 

So'no (It.) Sound ; tone. • 

Sonom'eter. An apparatus for acoustic 

experiments with strings, consisting of 

a sounding-board provided with bridges 

over which 2 strings may be stretched. 

Sonoramen'te (It ) Sonorously, reso- 
nantly, resoundingly. 

Sono'ro (It.) With a sonorous, ringing 
tone. . .Sonora men' le, sonorously, res- 
onantly, resoundingly. . . Sonoriid' , eon, 
sonorously, ringingly. . .Sono're, sono- 
rous, resonant (pi.; le note implied). 

Sonor'ophone. A variety of bombardon. 

So'nus (Lat.) Sound ; tone. 

So'pra (It.) On, upon ; above, over, 
higher. . . Sopradominan' te, dominant. 
. . Soprato' niea .smperionlc. . . Sopra una 
corda, on one string. . .Co'me sopra, as 
above. . .AV//(Z parte di sopra, in the 
higher (or highest) part. 

Sopran' (Ger.) . .Sopra n'- 
sc Mussel, treble-clef. . . Sopran' stimme, 
soprano voice or part. 

Sopra'na corda (It.) The chanterelle. 
(St. and B.) 

Soprani'sta (It.) A soprano singer ; 
specifically, a male soprano {castra'lo). 

Sopra'no (It.; Ger. Sopran' ;¥r.dessus.) 
The highest class or division of the 
human voice. — The female soprano, or 

ireuie, uas au 

treble, has a normal compass from c^ to a' 
all tones of which, ex- 
cept t.'^e extremes, are 
_ common to both the 

chest-register and head-register ; solo 
voices often reach above c'', and pheno- 
menal ones up to g^ or even e*. There 
are also boy-soprani, and male soprani 
(of these latter 2 classes, the falsetti 
[alti natura'li, tenor i'ni], and castra'- 
ti). — Soprano dramma'tico, a female 
soprano of dramatic pov;eT ... Soprano 
leggie'ro, a light soprano. . .i)/e'J2(7- 
soprano, see Jllezzo. . . Soprano nature' - 
le, natural soprano, a male singer 
having an unusually developed falsetto 
of soprano quality. . . Soprano sfoga'to, 
see Sfogato . . . Soprano-elef, Xhc C-clef 
on the first WnQ. .. Soprano string, the 

Sordamen'te (It.) With a veiled, muf- 
fled tone. 

Sordelli'na (It.) An Italian variety of 
the musette (bagpipe), provided with 4 
pipes which could be opened and closed 
at will. 

Sordi'no (It., pi. sordini/ Ger. pi. Sordi'- 
7! en.) I. A mute ; con sordini, with 
the mutes ; senza sordini, without the 
mutes; si U'lhino i sordini, take off the 
mutes. — 2. Damper(of thepfte.); senza 
sordini, with damper-pedal ; so used by 
Beethoven, who employed con sordini 
to express the release (raising) of the 
damper-pedal, instead of "5^ . — 3. A kit. 

Sor'do,-a (It.) Muted ; as clarinetto 
sordo, tromba sorda. 

Sordo'no (It.; Ger. Sordun'; Fr. sor- 
done.) I. An obs. wood-wind instr. re- 
sembling the bombard, with a double 
reed and 12 ventages, constructed like a 
bassoon, and in 5 different sizes. — 2. 
An obs. reed-stop in the organ, with a 
perforated foot and a chimney, of 4, 8, 
or 16-foot pitch and muffled tone. 

Sordun' (Ger.) See Sordono. — Also, a 
mute for the trumpet, in the shape of a 
perforated disk of wood. 

Sorg'faltig (Ger.) Careful, cautious. 
(Also adverb.) 

Sorti'ta (It.) I. A closing voluntary. 
— 2. The first number sung by any of 
the leading characters in an opera. 

Sospiran'do (It., "sighing, sobbing".) 
A vocal effect produced by interposing 
a rest between two tones in such a way 
as to interrupt a word of 2 or more 



syllables, the singer catching his breath 
as if deeply moved. 

Sospire'vole, Sospiro'so (It.) Sighing 
deeply ; plaintive, mournful. 

Sostenen'do, Sostenen'te (It.) See 
Sostcnu' io, 

>Sostenu'to (It., abbr. sost.; superl. so- 
steiiHti/ simo.) "Sustained, prolonged"; 
sometimes implying a tenuto, at others 
a uniform rate of decreased speed ; e.g. 
andiiiite sostenuto. . .Pin sostcniiio, 
equiv. to ttteno »iosso.—':^i2Lr\d\ng alone, 
as a tempo-mark, it is nearly equiv. to 

Sostinente pianoforte. A pfte. in which 
some device is employed for "sustain- 
ing" or prolonging the tones, such as 
the numerous piano-violins, the lyri- 
chord, celestina, claviol, etc. 

Sot'to (It.) Below, under. . . Sottovoce, 
in an undertone, asido.. . . Sottodomi- 
7ian'ti\ subdominant. 

Soubasse (Fr.) Subbass. 

Soubrette (Fr.) In comedy and comic 
opera, a maid-servant or lady's-maid, 
of an intriguing and coquettish charac- 
ter ; applied, by extension, to various 
light roles of this or a similar type. 

Soufflet (Fr.) The bellows (of an organ, 
harmonium, etc.)...So!ifflt-r, to blow. 
. . Sonfflcrie, the bellows with all ad- 
juncts. . . Soiifflctir, (a) organ-blower ; 
((^) prompter (fem. soiiffleuse). 

Sound. See Acoustics. 

Soundboard, i. (Ger. Resonan:fboden; 
Fr. table d' haj-monie; It. ta'vola armo'- 
nica^ The thin plate of wood placed 
below or behind the strings of various 
instr.s, to reinforce and prolong their 
tones by reflecting them from its broader 
surface by means of molecular vibration. 
The s. of the pfte. is sometimes, that 
of the violin generally, called the belly. 
— 2. (Ger. Pfeifenstock; Fr. pied dii 
tamis d" orotic; It. casso'ite.) In the 
organ, the cover of the windchest, in 
which the feet of the pipes are inserted. 

Sound-body, Sound-box. .Same as 
Resonance-box ... So!ind-f)07v, the thick 
rim of a bell, against which the clapper 
strikes . . . Sound-hole, a hole cut in the 
belly of a stringed instr. to enhance the 
r&?>ona.nce. . .Sati?tdpost. ((jer. See'le, 
Stitnm' stock; Fr. dme; It. a'nima.) In 
the violin, etc., the small cylindrical 
wooden prop set inside the body, be- 
tween belly and back, just behind (near- 

ly beneath) the treble foot of the bridge. 
Its function is not only to brace the 
belly against the strong string-tension, 
but also to transmit the vibration of the 
strings from belly to back, thus render- 
ing the whole body of the instr. reso- 

Soupape (Fr.) Valve. 

Soupir (Fr.) A quarter-rest. . .Z>c'w/- 
soupir, an eighth-rest. . .///«7/^;«^ «/^ 
soupir (or denii-quart de soupir), 
2,2nA-x^sX.. . .Quart de soupir, a l6th- 
rest . . . Seizieme de soupir, a 64th-rest. 

Sourdeline (Fr.) Same as Sordellina. 

Sourdine (Fr.) i. A mute. — 2. A stop 
ill tTie haritronium, which partially in- 
tercepts the wind-supply, so that full 
chords can be played softly. — 3. Same 
a.s f^e'dale celeste (of the pfte.) — 4. For- 
merly, a spinet (or lute) of veiled, muf- 
fled tone. 

Sous (Fr.) \]nder,he\o\\'. . .Sous-chan- 
tre, suhcantor. . . Sous-domiftante, sub- 
dominant. . .Sous-w/diante, submedi- 
a.nt. . . .S'ous-tonique, subtonic, leading- 

Space. (Ger. Z'coisch' enraum ; Fr. es- 
pace; It. spa'zio.) In the staff, the in- 
terval between 2 lines or leger-lines. 
(See Leger-space.) 

Spal'la (It.) Shoulder. . . Vio'la da spal- 
la, see Viola. 

Spa'nischer Rei'ter (Ger.) See Durch- 
s tec her . . . Spanisches Kreuz, sign ( x ) 
of the double-sharp. 

Spar'ta, Sparti'ta, Sparti'to (It.), 
Spar'te (Ger.) A partitura. 

Sparti're (It.) To write out in score. — 
The Ger. form spartie'ren signifies, to 
copy out old scores into modern nota- 

Spassapensie'ro (It.) A jew's-harp. 

Spass'haft (Ger.) Scherzando. 

Spa'tium (Lat.), Spa'zio (It.) A space. 

Sperr'ventil (Ger.) See Ventil 2. 

Spezza'to (It.) Divided. 

Spiana'to,-a (It., "leveled".) Smooth, 
even, tranquil ; nearly equiv. to senza 

Spicca'to(It., " separated".) See Spring- 
ifig bo TV. 

Spiel (Ger.) Playing ; style (of playing). 
. . Spiel' art, (<?) style or method of play- 
ing ; (''') touch (of a keyboard instr.). 
. . Spiel'bar, handy to play (on vio- 



lin); playable (as a passage or piece). 
. . Spie'ien, to play ; Spie ler, player. . . 
Spiel' Ictiie, {a) wandering fiddlers, etc., 
of the middle ages ; (/') the drummers 
and fifers of a military band ; opn. to 
Hautbois'icn. . . Spiel' /naniereii, instru- 
mental graces. . . Spiel' opfr, light opera, 
comic ojiera . . . Spiel' tenor , light tenor, 
as for comic opera or operetta. 

Spi'na (Lat.) Quill (of a spinet). 

Spin'et. (It. spinet'/a; Fr. tpinetle; 
Ger. Spinett'.) An obs. keyboard instr. 
like a harpischord, but smaller. Also 
called Virginal {pair of Virginals), 
and Couched Harp. 

Spi'rito, con (It.) With spirit. Also 
spiritosamen'te, spirito'so, with anima- 
tion and energy. 

Spit'ze (Ger.) i. Point (of the bow). 
Often abbr. Sp. — 2. Toe (in organ- 

Spitz'flbte (Ger.) In the organ, an open 
flue-stop of organ-metal, tin, or wood, 
of 8, 4, 2, and i-foot pitch ; tone some- 
what thin, but pure and reedy. The 
pipes are conical, whence the name. 
(Also Spill'fldte, Spin'deljldte; Lat. 
ti'bia cus'pida.) 

Spitz'harfe (Ger ; It. arpanet'la) A 
small triangular harp (psaltery) to be 
set on a table ; it had an upright sound- 
board with strings on both sides of it, 
the bass strings on one side and the 
treble strings on the other. Also called 
Harfenett' , Flii'gelharfe, Zwit'scher- 
harfe. [RiEMANN.] 

Spitz'quint (Ger.) The quint of the 

Spon'dee. A metrical foot consisting of 
2 long syllables ( ). 

Spread harmony. See Harmony. 

Springing bow. In violin-playing, a 
style of bowing in which the bow is al- 
lowed to drop on the string, its elasti- 
city then causing it to rebound and quit 
the string between each two tones. 
There are 2 varieties : (i) the Spicca'to, 
indicated by dots over the notes, and 
played near the middle of the bow with 
a loose wrist, for rapid passages in 
equal notes : — (2) the Salta'to, with a 
longer fall and higher rebound, gener- 
ally employed when several equal notes 
are to be taken in one bow. 

Sprung (Ger.) A skip, a leap ; sprung- 
iveise, by skips or leaps. 

Square pianoforte. See Pianoforte. 

Squillan'te (It., from squil'la, a little 
bell.) Ringing, tinkling. 

Sta'bat Ma'ter. See Sequence. 

Sta'bile (It.) Steady, firm. 

Stacca're (It.) To make staccato. 

Stacca'to (It.; superl. staccatis'simo; 
abbr. stacc.) " Detached, separated"; 
noting a style in which the tones played 
or sung are more or less abruptly dis- 
connected. The ordinary staccato is 
marked by round dots over or under 
the notes ; a sharper staccato, by wedge- 
shaped dashes (the marteU of violin- 
playing); the mezzo-staccato, in which 
the tones are nearly run together, has a 
slur over the staccato-dots. — Staccato- 
mark, a dot or wedge-shaped stroke. 

Stadt'musikanten, -pfeifer, -zinke- 
nisten (Ger. , pi.) Salaried town-musi- 
cians, belonging to a privileged guild 
which originated in the 15th (?) century, 
and under obligations to furnish music 
for civic ceremonies ; their leader had 
the title of Sladt'musiktts, {JsX's,o Amts'- 
pfeifer, Kunst' pfeifer.) 

Staff, Stave. (Ger. Li'nietisystem, Sys- 
tem'; Yr. portee; It. ri'go.) The 5 (in 
Gregorian music 4) parallel horizontal 
lines used in musical notation. . . Grand 
or Great staff, one of 11 lines, middle- 
C occupying the si.Kth . . . Staff-notation, 
the staff and the system of musical 
signs connected with it ; Alp /la- 
bel ical notation (q. v.). Compare Nota- 

Stagio'ne (It.) Season. 

Stahrharmonika (Ger.) An instr. con- 
sisting of small steel bars caused to 
sound by diminutive bows ; inv. by 
Nobe in 1796. . . Stahlf spiel, see Lyre 2. 

Stamentienpfeife (Ger.) See Schwegel. 

Stamm'akkord (Ger.) Any chord of a 
key, in its fundamental position ; also 
sometimes denotes any fundamental or 
inverted chord belonging to the given 
key, i. e. any chord not altered or sus- 
pended. . . Stamm'ton, natural tone. . . 
Stamm'tonleiter, the typical diatonic 
scale of C-major. 

Stampi'ta (It.) A song with instrumen- 
tal accomp. 

Stand'chen (Ger.) A serenade. 

Stanghet'ta(It.) Bar, 

Stan'za (It. ; Fr. stance; Ger. Stan'ze.^ 
A group of more than 2 lines, arranged 
according to a regular plan as regards 



cither metrical length, or rhyme, or 
both, and forming, in connection with 
similar groups, a poem, or a part of one. 

Staple. In the oboe, etc., tsie metallic 
tube which carries the double-reed, and 
conveys the vibr. of the latter to the 
body of the instr. 

Stark (Ger.) Loud, forcible, vigorous ; 
forte. {S\%o adverb.). . Star ker ,\owil<tx , 
stronger; piu forte. 

Stave. See Staff. 

Steam-organ. The Calliope. 

Stec'ca (It.) A vicious vocal effect, — 
the choked or interrupted tone caused 
by pressing the root of the tongue too 
far back into the pharynx. 

Stech'er (Ger.) A sticker. 

Stag (Ger.) Bridge. 

Stem. (Ger. Hals; Fr. qtiene; It. gam'- 
bo.) The vertical line attached to a 
note-head (J *, etc.) — Also Tail. 

Stentan'do (It.) Dragging and heavy, 
ritenu'to e pesan'te. — Also Stenta'to. 

Step, (Ger. Sc/iritt.) A melodic pro- 
gression of a second (either major, 
minor, or augm.) — Also, often used as 
synonymous with degree ; and, further, 
as equiv. to whole tone and semitone, 
in the phrases lohole step and half-step. 
. . Chromatic step, the progression of a 
chromatic stcond. . .Diatonic step, a 
progression between conjunct degrees 
of the diatonic scale. 

Ster'bend (Ger., "dying"). Morendo. 

Ste'so (It.) Extended, prolonged ; steso 
moto, a slow movement. 

Stes'so (It.) The same. 

Sthen'ochire. An apparatus designed 
for increasing the strength and dexterity 
of the hands and fingers of players on 
keyboard instr. s. 

Sticca'do, Sticca'to (It.) Xylophone. 

Sticker. See Organ. 

Stie'fel (Ger.) Boot (of a reed-pipe). 

Stiel (Ger.) Stem ; neck (of violin.) 

Stil (Ger.), Sti'le or Sti'lo (It.) Style. 

Still'gedackt(Ger.)Asoft-toned stopped 

Bti'Io (It.) Style... 6". osserva'to, strict 
style, especially of pure vocal music. . . 
S. rappresentati'vo, dramatic monodic 
song with instrumental accomp. in 
chords ; a style originating toward the 
close of the i6th century. 

Stim'me (Ger.) I. Voice. — 2. Part, 
mitder Stimme, colla parte. — 3. Organ- 
stop (generally in compounds). — 4. 
Soundpost. . . .S"//ww'(7;«(7/3, the attack 
of a vocal tone. . . Stimm' bander, vocal 
cords. . . Sti)n>n'bildiing, training or de- 
velopment of the voice. . . Stinun'hruch, 
breaking of the voice, mutation . . . 
Stimvi' bitch, part-book. . . Slim' men, to 
tune ; to voice (an organ) . . . Stim'/ner, 
(a) tuner; (b) drone (of bagpipe)... 
Stiinm'flote, pitch-pipe. . . Stiiiim' fiih- 
rer, leader in a chovMs. .. Sti mm' fit It- 
rung, leading of the parts. .. 5//ww'- 
gabel, tuning-fork. . . Stun m' hammer, 
tuning - hammer. . . Stimni'holz, -holz- 
chen, soundpost. . . Stimm' horn ,\xiv\vi<g- 
cone. . . Stimm' keil, tuning - wedge. . . 
Stinun'kriicke, tuning-wire . . . Stimm'- 
mittel, vocal powers, capacity. . . Stimm' - 
pfeife, pitch-pipe. .. .SV/ww'riVct', glot- 
tis. .. Stimm' stock, soundpost (violin); 
wrest-plank (pfte.) . . . Stimm' um fang, 
compass of the \o\cq. . . Stim'mting, 
(a) tuning ; accordatura ; (/') pitch ; 
Stimmitng halten, to keep in tune; (c) a. 
mood, frame of mind ; Stini'mungsbild, 
a "mood-picture", short characteristic 
piece. . . Stimm' werkzcuge , vocal organs. 

Stinguen'do (It.) Dying away. 

Stiracchia'to, Stira'to (It.) Dragging, 
retarding the tempo. 

Stock (Ger.) Bundle of 30 strings. 

Stock'chen des Hal'ses (Ger.) "Heel" 
of violin, etc. 

Stock'fagott (Ger.) Same as Rackett. 
. . Stock' fate, same as Czakan. 

Stol'Ien (Ger.) See Strophe. 

Stonan'te (It.) Dissonant. 

Stone-harmonicon. See Lapideon. 

Stop (;/ !'«;/). I. (fj&x. Regis' terzitg; Yr. 
registre; It. regi'stro.) That part of 
the organ-mechanism controlling the 
admission of wind to the grooves be- 
neath the pipes. — 2. (Ger. Regis' ter; 
Fr. jeu d'orgiie{s); It. regi'stro.) A set 
or row of organ-pipes of like character, 
arranged in graduated succession. 
These are called speaking or sounding 
stops; they are classed as Flue-work 
(having flue-pipes), and Reed-work, 
(having reed-pipes) ; the flue-work has 
3 sub-classes, namely {a) Principal- 
work, having cylindrical flue-pipes of 
diapason-quality, i. e. the characteristic 
organ-tone ; (/') Gedackt-work, having 
covered (stopped or plugged) pipes ; 
and ((•) Flute-work, including all flue- 


stops having flue-pipes of a scale too 
broad or too narrow to produce the 
diapason-tone, together with such stop- 
ped pipes as have chimneys, and all 3- 
or 4-sided wooden pipes. .. Ow/Zr^/ 
stop, one having at least one pipe for 
each key of the keyboard to which it 
belongs. . . Compound stop, see Mixture- 
stop. . .DiviJt'J stop, one in which the 
lower half of its register is controlled by 
a different stop-knob from the upper, 
and generally bears a different name. . . 
Flue-stop, one composed of flue-pipes. 
. .Foundation-stop , one of normal 8-foot 
■piich. . .Half -stop, incomplete or im- 
perfect stop, one producing (approxi- 
mately) half the tones called for by the 
full scale of its manual . . . Mechanical 
stop, one not having a set of pipes, but 
governing some mechanical device ; 
such are the couplers, tremulant, bell- 
signal, and the WkQ. . .Mixture-stop, 
one with 2 or more ranks of pipes, thus 
producing more than one tone for each 
key (as the Mixture, Carillon, Cornet, 
Cymbal) . . . Mutation-stop, one produc- 
ing tones a major 3rd or perfect 5th 
(or a higher octave of either) above 
the 8' stops (as the Tierce, Twelfth, 
Quint'). . .Partial stop, see Half -stop. 
. .Pedal- stop, a stop on the pedal... 
Reed-stop, one composed of reed-pipes. 
. . Solo-stop, any organ-stop adapted for 
the production of characteristic melodic 
effects, whether on the solo organ or 
not. . . Sounding or speaking stop, a stop 
proper, having pipes and producing 
musical tones. — 3. On a violin, etc., 
pressure of a finger on a string, to vary 
its pitch ; a douhle-stop is when 2 or 
more strings are so pressed and sound- 
ed simultaneously ; — on wind-instr.s 
with finger-holes, the closing of a hole 
by the finger or a key, to alter the 
pitch ; — on wind-instr.s of the trumpet 
family, the partial closing of the bell by 
inserting the hand, thus raising the pitch 
and modifying the quality of the tone. 

Stop {verb). To vary the pitch of instr.s 
as described under Stop 3 above . . . 
Stopped notes, notes obtained by stop- 
ping ; opp. to open . . . Stopped pipes, 
organ-pipes closed (plugged or covered) 
at the top ; opp. to open. 

Stop'fen (Ger.) To stop (bell of horn 
with the hand) . . . Stopf'tone, stopped 
tones, " hand-notes " (horn). 

Stop-knob. The projecting handle of a 
Stop I. 

Stoss'zeichen (Ger.) Staccato-mark. 
Straccicalan'do (It.) Babbling, prat- 

Strain. In general, a song, tune, air, 
melody ; also, some well-defined pas- 
sage in or part of apiece. — Technically, 
a period, sentence, or short division of 
a composition ; a motive or theme. 

Strascican'do (It.) Dragging, drawl- 
ing. (Also strascinan' do; strascituindo 
I'arco, drawing the bow so as to bind 
the tones.) 

Strathspey. An animated Scotch dance, 
somewhat slower than the reel, and like 
it in 4-4 time, but progressing in dot- 
ted eighth-notes alternating with i6ths, 
the latter frequently preceding the for- 
mer, then producing the peculiar jerky 
rhythm of the Scotch snap. 

Stravagan'te (It.) Extravagant, eccen- 
tric, fantastical. 

Stravagan'za (It.) An extravaganza. 

Straw-fiddle. See Strohfiedel. 

Strei'chen (Ger.) i. To bow (draw the 
bow across). — 2. To cut (as a scene in 
an opera) . . . Strei'chend (Ger. ; lit. 
" drawing [as a bow]"), the quality of 
tone called in English stringy (opp. 
to j-eedy, fluty, e\.c.). . . Streichende 
Regis' ter, in the organ, stops with string- 
tone . . . Streicii'instrumente, bow-instr.s. 
. . Strcich'orchester, string-orchestra, 
' ' the strings "... Streich' quartett, -trio, 
string-quartet, -trio. . . Streich' zither, 

Streng (Ger.) Strict, severe. (Also 

Stre'pito (It.) Noise. . . Strepitosamen'- 
te, strepito'so, in a noisy, boisterous, 
impetuous style. 

Stretch. On a keyboard or fingerboard, 
a wide interval whose tones are to be 
taken simultaneously by the fingers of 
one hand. 

Stret'ta, commonly_.Stret^o (It.; Fr. 
strette; Ger. Eng' fiihrtmg^ " Nar- 
row, drawn together", i. A division 
of a fugue (usually a final development, 
for the sake of effect) in which subject 
and answer follow each other in such 
close succession as to overlap ... .S". 
maestra'le, one constructed in strict 
canon... ^//rt stretta, in, or after the 
manner of, a stretto. . .Andante stretto, 
same as andante agitato. — 2. A con- 
cluding passage taken, to enhance the 
effect, in faster tempo. 



Strette (Fr.) _._Stretto. ■ . S. inagistrale, 
same as Sb-etio marstrale. 

I. Stroke ; Strich'art, 
A line, dash, or stroke. 

Strich (Ger.) 
Bowing 2. — 2. 
— 3. A " cut' 

Striden'te (It. ; 
pfte. -playing, 

" noisy," " harsh".) In 
equiv. to martellato 
(comp. Beethoven, op. 76, Var. VI). 

String. (Ger. Sai'te; Fr. corde; It. cor'- 
da.) The materials chiefly used for 
manufacturing musical strings are gut 
(entrails of lambs and sheep), cast 
j/ci'/ (drawn out for piano-strings, etc.), 
silver (mostly for covering or winding 
spirally around a core — steel wire or 
silk cord — to make the string thicker 
and heavier in proportion to its length, 
and consequently deeper-toned), and 
silk (as a core in covered strings, es- 
pecially for the guitar and zither). Cop- 
per and brass are also employed. . . The 
Strings, technical term for the string- 
group in the orchestra. . .First string, 
the highest of a set . . . Open string, one 
not stopped or shortened . . . Silver 
string, one covered with silver wire . . . 
Soprano string, the chanterelle. 

Stringed instruments. (Ger. Sai'ten- 
instrttmente; Fr. instrutnents a cordes ; 
It. stroinen'ti da cor'da.) All musical 
instr.s whose tones are produced by 
strings, whether struck, plucked, or 
bowed. See Instruments. 

Stringen'do (It.) Hastening, accelerat- 
ing the movement, usually suddenly 
and rapidly, with a crescendo. 

String-gauge. A gauge for measuring 
the thickness of strings. 

String-organ. A keyboard instr., pro- 
vided with a series of free reeds con- 
nected by rods with ordinary piano- 
strings of corresponding pitch, which 
are sympathetically affected by the vi- 
brations of the reeds. The tone is pure 
and sweet, the instr. combining in a de- 
gree the qualities of the harmonium 
and pfte. — Also compare art. Sai tenor- 

String-quartet. A quartet for ist and 
2nd violin, viola, and 'cello ; hence, 
the instr.s themselves, or the players 
on them ; and, by e.\tension, the string- 
group in the orchestra (see String-quin- 

String-quintet, i. A quintet for 2 vio- 
lins, 2 violas, and 'cello ; or for 2 vio- 
lins, I viola, and 2 'celli ; or for 2 vio- 
lins, viola, 'cello, and double-bass. 

These are the most usual combinations, 
which may be variously extended to 
form string-sextets, septets, etc. — 2. 
The string-group in the orchestra, when 
considered as composed of (i) ist and 
(2) 2nd violins, (3) violas, (4) 'cellos, 
and (5) double-basses ; called string- 
qtiartet when considered as composed 
of (i) violins, (2) violas, (3) 'cellos, and 
(4) double-basses. 

Stringy. Having the quality of tone 
(" string-tone") peculiar to bow-instr.s. 

Striscian'do (It.) Gliding, smooth, 

Stro'fa (It.) Strophe. 

Stroh'bass (Ger.) The deep, husky 
tone of the lower chest-register (male 
voice) produced by forcing the breath 
between the vocal chords when the 
latter, though brought near together, 
are in a state of relaxation . . . Stroh'Jie- 
del, the xylophone. 

Stroke. The sweep (fall and rise) of a 
digital or pedal. 

Strombetta're (It.) To sound a trum- 
pet . . . Stromhettie're, trumpeter. 

Stromenta'to (It.) Instrumented. 

Stromen'to (It.) Instrument. . .5. da 
area, bow-instr. . . S. da cor da, stringed 
instrument ... -S. da fia'to (di vento), 
wind-instr. . . S. da ta'sto, keyboard in- 
str . . .S. di le'gno, wooden instr . . . S. 
di metal'lo, metal instr. 

Stro'phe. (Gk., " a turning round".) i. 
In the Greek drama, the song of the 
chorus when turning from right to left, 
the antis'trophe being what was sung 
when turning from left to right, the 
ep'ode then following. — 2. A recurrent 
group of lines in a poem, arranged ac- 
cording to a fixed metrical system or 
plan ; equivalent to stanza in modern 
poetrj'. — 3. The former of two such 
groups, the latter then being called the 
antistropke (see above) . . . The Strophe, 
Antistrophe, and Epode of the Greek 
tragic chorus and Pindar's odes, closely 
correspond to the 2 Stollen and the 
Al'gesangoiihc German Mei ster singer ; 
the Bar being the group formed by the 
2 Stollen and the Abgesang. 

Stiick (Ger.) A piece ; a number (as 
on a program). 

Study. (Ger. St u' die [pi. Stu'dien'\, or 
Etii'de [pi. Etii'den^; Fr. ^tude; It. 
stu'dio.) See Etude. 

Stu'fe (Ger.) A degree. . .Stuyenweise 



Fort'schreitung, diatonic or conjunct 
(" stepwise") progression. 

Stumm (Cier.) Dumb . . . Stum' nies Kla- 
vier\ dumb piano. . . Stum' me Pfei'fc, 
dummy Y'I'^q . . . Stum' nies Regis' ter, 
mechanical stop. 

Stiir'misch (Cer., "stormy".) Impetu- 
ous, passionate. (Also adverb^ 

Stiir'ze (Ger.) Bell (of wind-instr.s). . . 
Stilr'ze in die Hoh'c, "turn tlie bell 
upwards !" 

Stuttgart pitch. That proposed by 
ScheiblM- at the j) — to make 

Stuttgart Congress ^ c i~zL 400 vi- 
in 1834, the a} \) b rations 

per second at a temperature of 6g° 
Fahrenheit. (Comp. Fitch, Absolute?) 

Stutz'fliigel (Ger.) Boudoir grand, 

" baby" grand (pfte.) 
Su (It.) On, upon ; by, near.. .Arco in 

su, up-bow. 

Suabe flute. A sweet-toned organ-stop. 

Sua've (It.) See Soave. . .Suavita' , con, 
suavely, sweetly. 

Sub (Lat.) Under. 

Subbass', Subbour'don. An organ- 
stop of 16 or 32-foot pitch, generally 
on the pedal and stopped. 

Subcantor. A deputy cantor or precen- 
tor, supplying the place of his chief in 
the latter's absence. Also Succentor. 

Subdiapen'te. In medieval music, the 
fifth below a given tone. 

Subdom'inant. The under-dominant, 
i. e. the tone below the dominant in a 
diatonic scale ; the 4th degree. 

Subitamen'te, Su'bito (It.) Suddenly, 
quickly. . . Vi^fi sidnto (abbr. V. S.), 
turn over quickly. . .p subito (after/), 
an abrupt [change to] piano, without 

Subject. (Ger. Subjckt' ; Fr. sujet; It. 
sogget'to.) A melodic phrase or motive 
on which a composition or movement is 
founded ; a theme ; opp. to anszver. 
(Also antecedent, dux, guida, proposta, 
etc.) — Compare Soggetto. 

Subme'diant. The third scale-tone below 
the tonic ; the 6th degree. 

Suboc'tave. The octave below a given 
tone. — Suboctave-cpupler, an organ- 
coupler bringing into action keys an 
octave below those struck, either on the 
same manual or another. 

Subordinate chords. Chords not fun- 

damental or principle ; the triads on the 
2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th degrees, and all 
chords of the seventh but the dominant 

Subprincipal. A subbass (pedal-) stop 
of 32-foot pitch, of the open diapason 


Subsemifu'sa (Lat.) A32nd-note(medie- 


Subsemitone. The subtonic, or lead- 
ing-tone (Lat. subsemito'niuin modi). 

Substitution. In contrapuntal progres- 
sion, the resolution (or preparation) of 
a dissonance by substituting, for the 
proper tone of resolution (preparation), 
its higher or lower octave in some other 

Substitution (Fr.) Change of fingers. 

Subtonic. The leading-note. 

Succentor (Lat.) A subcantor; also, 
the singer of a lower or bass part. 

Succession, i. Progression. — 2. Se- 

Sufflote (Ger.) See Sifflote. 

Suffoca'to (It., " suffocated".) Damped, 

Su'gli, Su'i (It.) On the (comp. Sul). 

Suite (Fr.) A cyclical instrumental com- 
position consisting of a set or series 
of pieces iu various idealized dance- 
forms. It originated, presumably, in 
the practice of the town-bands, during 
the later middle ages, of stringing to- 
gether a succession of dance-tunes, dif- 
fering in character and form but alike 
in key. These are the characteristic 
features of the old Suite, which was 
taken up in the 17th century by com- 
posers as a form of clavier-composition 
under the name of Fartie or Partita. 
The extension of the primitive forms, 
naturally resulting from instrumental 
treatment at the hands of Italian and 
German musicians, was cut short by 
Couperin (1668-1733), who in many 
respects served Bach as a model ; the 
Kammersuiten of the latter mark the 
culmination of the old suite-form. — The 
earlier artistic Suites have 4 principal 
movements or divisions : The Alle- 
mande, Courante, Saraband, and Gigue; 
other forms introduced at will {inter- 
fuezzi) are the Bourree, Branle, Ga^ 
votte. Minuet, Musette, Passepied, 
Loure, Pavane, etc. ; such an intermez- 
zo was usually brought in between the 
Saraband and Gigue, rarely before tb» 



former. — The modern orchest?-al Suite' 
can hardly be called a revival of the old 
form, as the separate movements are 
not necessarily or generally in dance- 
form, nor do they keep to one key ; it 
more nearly resembles the Divertimen- 
to^ both in character and form. 

Suivez (Fr., " follow".) Same as Colla 
parte. — Also, "continue," " go on" (i. 
e., in like manner); simile. 

Sujet (Fr.) Subject. 

^— Sul, suir, sul'la, sul'le (It.) On the, 

-' near the (all contractions of sk, on, 

with the definite article). . . Sulla corda 
Za, on the A-sXx'wi.^. . .Sulla tastie'ra, 
near or by the fingerboard. .. 5«//^m- 
ticel'lo, near the bridge {see Ponticelld). 

Summational tone, 'i^^ Acoustics, §3, b. 

Suona're (It.) Same as Sonare. . . Suon- 
a'ta, see Sonata ... Suo' no , sound, 
tone ; suoni armo'nici, harmonics, 

Super (Lat.) Above, over. 

Superdominant. The 6th degree of any 
major or minor scale. 

Superfluous. (Fr. sttperjlu.) See Aug- 

Supe'rius (Lat.) Formerly, the highest 

Superoctave. i. An organ-stop pitched 
2 octaves higher than the diapasons 
(i. e. of 2-foot pitch). — 2. An organ- 
coupler bringing into action keys an oc- 
tave above those struck, either on the 
same manual or another. — 3. The octave 
above a given tone. 

Supertonic. The 2nd degree of a dia- 
tonic scale. 

Suppliche'vole, Supplichevolmen'te 
(It.) In a style expressive of supplica- 
tion, entreaty, pleading. 

Support. An accompaniment, or sub- 
ordinate part. 

Supposed bass. See Bass. 

Sur (Fr.) On, upon, over....S'«r une 
corde, see Sopra una corda. 

Surabondant (Fr.) See Note (Fr.) 

Suraigu, -e (Fr.) Superacute. 

Surdeli'na (It.) See Soiirdeline. 

Surprise cadence. See Cadence. 

Sus-dominante (Fr.) Superdominant. 

Suspended cadence. See Cadence. 

Suspension. (Ger. Vor'halt; Fr. sus- 
pension; It, sospensio'ne.) A disso- 

nance caused by suspending (holding 
back) a tone or some tones of a chord 
while the other tones progress ; the 
dissonance of a seventh or second, 
occurring immediately before a chord 
which would have entered entire were 
it not for the suspension ; e. g. 








— Double (triple) suspension, one in 
which 2 (3) tones are suspended. — The 
suspended tone itself is also termed a 

Suspi'rium (Lat.) A quarter-rest ; in 
mensurable notation, a minim-rest. 

Siiss (Ger.) Sweet(ly). 

Sustain, To hold during the full time- 
value (of notes) ; specifically, to per- 
form in sostenuto or legato style . . . Sus- 
tainednote, see Organ-point. — Sustain- 
ing-pedal, see Pedal. 

Sus-tonique (Fr.) Supertonic. (Also 

Susurran'do, Susurran'te (It.) In a 
whispering, murmurous tone. 

Sveglia'to (It.) Lively, animated, 

Svel'to (It.) Light, nimble. 

Swell, I. In the organ, a contrivance 
for producing a crescendo and diminu- 
endo. By enclosing a partial organ 
(swell-organ) in a box, the front of 
which could be opened or shut at will, 
this end was attained. In the modern 
(so-called ]^eiutian) swell the front of 
the swell-box is composed of movable 
parallel shutters (swell-blinds) ; when 
these shutters are horizontal, they are 
usually opened by a lever (swell-pedal) 
worked by the organist's right foot, and 
close automatically when the lever is 
released (but comp. Balance stvell- 
pedal); when vertical, they are closed 
by a spring. — Formerly other devices 
were employed, notably the nag's-head 
s-ioell, a single broad shutter in front of 
an echo-organ, to be raised or lowered. 
— On the harpsichord a swell was ob- 
tained by a movable cover. — 2. A cre- 
scendo ( -=xr:), or crescendo and di- 
minuendo { ~=:=:iz zz=^=~ )... Swell- 
keyboard, the manual controlling the 



swell-organ, generally the one next 
above the great-organ manual. . . Swell- 
organ (Ger. [compare Oberwcrk\ ; Fr. 
clavier de re'cit; It. organo d'espres- 
sione), see Swell r, and Organ. (In 
organ-music abbr. Sio., or S~well.) 

Syl'be (Ger.) Syllable. 

Syllabic melody. One each tone of 
which is sung to a separate syllable 
(Ger. silla'bischer Gesang; Fr. chant 
syllahiijiie) ; opp. to Slurred vielody. 

Syllable-name. A syllable taken as the 
name of a note or tone, as Do for C; 
opp. to Letter-name. 

Sympathetic string. A string (e. g. 
the octave-strings stretched over the 
unisons in Bliithner's "aliquot grands") 
adjusted so as to be affected by the vi- 
brations of other strings or resonant 
bodies, and not by being itself struck, 
plucked, or bowea. 

Symphone'ta (Lat.) Polyphony, poly- 
phonic writing. 

Symphoni'a(Gk. andLat.) i. In Greek 
music, a consonance. — 2. (Medieval.) 
A name formerly applied to various 
different instr.s, as the hurdy-gurdy and 
virginal. — 3. A symphony. 

Symphon'ic. (Ger. syrnpho'nisck; Fr. 
symphonjqtce; It. sinfo'fiico.) Relating 
or pertaining to a symphony. .. 6)'/«- 
phonlc poem (Ger. sympho'nische Dich'- 
tung; Fr. poeme syinphonique), an or- 
chestral composition allied, both in 
its length and in the power and variety 
of its instrumentation, to the sym- 
phony ; but radically differing from 
the latter by discarding the orthodo.x 
form (division into the regular move- 
ments), and in being directly based on 
and receiving its inspiration from a 
program {\.\\q poem; i. e. , it is conceived 
as an instrumental poem, depicting 
events, scenes, or moods like a word- 
poem). This "fairest flower" of pro- 
gram-music can necessarily have no 
tixed form, but its continuous flow is 
moulded into a sort of unity by the 
repetition of the same theme variously 
modified and transformed. 

Symphonie (Fr.) i. Symphony. — 2. 
Harmony, euphony. — 3. An instrumen- 
tal accomp. — 4. The string-group in 
the orchestra. — 5. Orchestra. 

Syraphonie-Ode (Ger.) A symphonic 
composition combining chorus and or- 
chestra (Fr. ode-symphonie). 

Sympho'niker (Ger.) A composer for 
full (symphony- or opera-) orchestra. 

Sympho'nion. r. A pfte. combined 
with an organ flute-stop, inv. in 1839 
by Fr. Kaufmann of Dresden. — 2. A 
music-box, consisting essentially of a 
graduated comb-like series of steel 
teeth, and a thin flat metallic disk 
caused to rotate by clockwork, and in 
which the notes are punched in such a 
manner that short tongues of metal 
project from the lower side of the disk ; 
in rotating over the steel teeth, these 
tongues engage a series of small wheels 
furnished with projecting studs, which 
twang the teeth in the same way as the 
studs on the cylinder of the ordinary 
Swiss music-box. The instr.s are made 
in all sizes, and as the note-disks are 
interchangeable, the repertory is limited 
only by their number (now several 

Symphoniste (Fr.) i. A composer. — 2 
A symphony-writer. — 3. A member o^ 
a symphony-orchestra. 

Sym'phony. (Ger. Symphonie' , Sin- 
fonie'; It. sinfoni'a; Fr. symphonic^ 
from the Gk. symphoni'a, "consa. 
nance", i. e. consonant interval.) i. 
A form of instrumental composition de- 
veloped from the Overture {q. v.), the 
3 divisions of which latter were separ- 
ated towards the middle of the i8th 
century, by composers writing purely 
orchestral pieces, into 3 distinct move- 
ments ; the 4th (the Minuet) being in- 
troduced by Haydn, who thus consum- 
mated the modern 4-movement form. 
This form is identical with that of the 
Sonata (comp. Form). For the Minuet, 
Beethoven substituted the Scherzo, 
which since then has been the typical 
form of the 3rd movement. Haydn 
also transferred the " first-movement " 
form of the sonata to the symphony, 
and utilized the individual timbres of 
the various instr.s for contrasts in or- 
chestration ; the perfection of instru- 
mental individualization is the work of 
Mozart and Beethoven, and the latter 
enlarged the symphony-orchestra to its 
modern status (comp. Orchestra). The 
usual plan of the symphony is now I 
{Allegro [in first-movement form, often 
with a slow introductory division]) ; II 
{Adagio); III {Scherzo); IV {Allegro 
or Presto). — Its latest development is 
the Symphonic Poem. — 2. Same as 
Ritornello I. — 3. A medieval name for 
several instr.s, as the Hurdy-gurdy, 
Bagpipe, etc. 



Syn'copate. To efface or shift the accent 
of a tone or chord falling on a naturally 
strong beat, by tying it over from the 
preceding weak beat ; a tone or chord 
so robbed of its accent is termed synco- 

Syncopa'tion. (Ger. Syji'kopc; Fr. syn- 
cope; It. sin'cope.) The tying of a 
weak beat to the following strong beat, 
effacing the accent naturally falling on 
the latter and in most cases shifting it 
to the (naturally unaccented) weak beat. 
Syncopation may take place in one, 
several, or all parts ; in the first two 
cases as an anticipation, a suspension, 
or a resolution of either (as a resolution 
the accent is weakest, or quite elided, 
particularly when concluding a phrase) ; 
in the third case, or in anticipation, the 
accent is apt to have a sforzando char- 

Synem'menon. See Greek music. 

Syn'kope (Ger.) Syncopation ... 6V«- 
kopie'ren, to syncopate. 

Synonyme (Fr.) Same as Homophone, 
which latter term is more correct. 

Synton'ic comma. See Comma. 

Syntonolyd'ian. Same as Hypolydian 
(see Mode). 

Syringe (Fr.) Syrin.x. 

Syr'inx. S&e: Pandean pipes. 

System, i. A number of staves braced 
together for writing out a full score . . . 
2. (Ger.) See Linicnsystcm. 

Syste'ma l. (Gk.) In Greek music, 
a comparatively wide interval filled out 
by intermediate tones ; e. g. a tetra- 
chord. — 2. (Lat.) The staff. — 3. The 
series of tones constituting a hexa- 

Systfeme (Fr.) i. The whole range of 
musical tones. — 2. The compass of any 
given instr. 

Syzygi'a (Lat.) A chord ; specifically, 
a triad... .S". compo'sita, triad with 
doubled tone... 6". perfec'ta, triad... 
S. propiti' qua , chord in close harmony. 
..S. remo'ta, chord in open harmony. 
. . S. sim'plex, the simple triad without 
doubled tones. 


T. An abbr. of Talon, Tasto {i. s. = 
tasto solo), Tempo (at. = a. tempo), 
Tendre, Tenor, Toe (in organ-music), 
Tri('l. C. = tre corde), and Tiitti. 

Tabal'lo (It.) See Timpano. 

Tab'lature. i. (Ger. Tabulator'.) The 
rules and regulations for the poetry and 
song of the Weistersinger. — 2. (Ger. 
Tabiilatur' ; Fr. tablatiire; It. intavola- 
iu'ra.) An obsolete system of musical 
notation employed chiefly for the lute, 
viol, and organ, and most in vogue 
from the 15th century till early in the 
l8th. — The organ-tablatnre (also called 
German t.) used for keyboard instr.s 
was a system of alphabetical notation 
based on the division of the mus. scale 
into the octaves C — // (= B), c — h 
(=: b), etc.; the melody (highest part) 
was often noted on a staff, the accom- 
panying chords being expressed by ver- 
tical rows of letters. In the liite-tabla- 
titres (excepting the German) the tones 
were represented by letters {French or 
English t.) or numerals (earlier Italian 
t.) indicating the frets at which the 
strings were to be stopped, and were 
written on the lines or in the spaces of 
a kind of staff, said lines or spaces 
showing the number of strings on the 
instrument. The pitch of the tones 
represented by the letters or figures 
would therefore vary with the size of 
the lute, and was not a staff-notation in 
the modern sense. — Three leading fea- 
tures were common to nearly all systems 
of tablature : (i) The vertical disposi- 
tion of the characters representing one 
chord ; (2) the use of bars to divide the 
measures ; (3) a system of signs for 
marking the time-value of the tones 
called for by letters or figures (or of 
the corresponding rests), these signs 
being written either above or belov/ the 
latter, and signifying: 

Note- Rest- 
Signs. Signs. 

1 I 


Erevis ( M ) 
Semibrevis ( 1^ ) 

1^ _t Minima (J) 

P K Semiminima (J) 

Semifusa (^^) 

The hooks of consecutive equ al notes 
were often run together thus S3SSS 



or I I | ~. Arbitrary variations from 
these general rules were, however, of 
frequent occurrence. — A new develop- 
ment of tablature is the Tonic Sol-fa 
system of notation. 

Table (Fr.) Soundboard ; belly. (Also 
ta/>k d' harmonic^. , . Table de dessous, 

Table-music. See Tafelmusik. 

Tabor. A small drum, like a tambour- 
ine without jingles ; formerly much 
used by pipers, who beat the tabor with 
the right hand as an accompaniment to 
a flageolet or pipe manipulated by the 
left . . . Tabor et, Tabret, a small tabor. 

Tab'ulature. See Tablature. 

Ta'cent (Lat.) " Are silent". See Tacet. 

Ta'cet (Lat.\ Ta'ce or Ta'ci (It.) " Is 
silent"; signifies that an instrumental 
or vocal part so marked is omitted dur- 
ing the movement or number in ques- 

Tac'tus (Lat.) A beat. — In medieval 
music its time-value was styled /actus 
major when it marked a breve to a 
measure, and tactus minor when a semi- 

Ta'felklavier (Ger.) A square pfte. — 
Also ta' felformiges Klavier' . . . Ta'fel- 
musik, "table-music"; {a) music per- 
formed during repasts; {b) music so 
printed that several performers, sitting 
around a square table, could read their 
several parts from the same book. See 

Tail. Same as Stem. . . Tailpiece. (Ger. 
Sai'tenhalter ; Fr. cordier, queue. ^ 
In the violin, etc., the piece of wood 
(usually ebony) to which the strings are 
attached behind the bridge. 

Taille (Fr.) Tenor voice (novvusedonly 
for church-music ; otherwise tJnor). 
Also, the tenor violin. . . Taille de bas- 
son, same as Oboe da caccia. 

Takt (Ger.) i. A beat. — 2. A measure. 
— 3. 'Y'xm.Q.. . .Takt' accent, measure- 
accent, primary accent. . . Takt' art, 
time, measure, rhythm. . . Takt'erstick- 
ung, syncopation. . . Takt'fach, a space. 
. . Takt' f est, steady in time . . . Takt'- 
glied, measure-note. .. Za/f'/'/^rtZ/c;/, to 
keep time ; keeping time. . . Tak'tieren, 
to beat time... Tak' tier stab, a. baton. 
. . Takt' miissig, in time. . . Takt'messer, 
metronome. . . Takt' note, whole note. 
. . Taktf pause, measure-rest . . . Takf- 
ichlazen, to beat time. . . Takt' stock, a 

baton. . . Takt' st rich, a bar. . . Takf 
tcil, beat, count ; guter Taktteil, strong 
beat ; schlec liter 'Taktteil, weak beat. 
. . Takfvorzeichnung, Takt' zeic hen, 
time-signature. . . Ein Takt wievorker' 
zwei ("one measure like two before"), 
same as Doppio riiovimento . . . I in Takt., 
a tempo. 

Talon (Fr., "heel"), i. Nulr (of the 
bow.) — 2. In pedal-playing, heel ; 
abbr. t (compare Fointe 2). — Talon de 
la manche (in the violin, etc.), heel (end 
of neck joining the body). 

Tambour (Fr.) i. A drum. — 2. A 
drummer (also Ger.) — Tambour chro- 
matique, see Timbalarion. . . T. de 
basque, tambourine. . . T. roulante, the 
long drum. 

Tambou'ra, Tambu'ra. An Oriental 
instr. of the lute kind, having a round 
body, fretted fingerboard, and 3 or 4 

Tambourin (Fr.) i. A sort of tabor. 
— 2. A French peasants' dance, in 2-4. 
time and lively tempo, often accomp. 
by the tambourin and galoubet (tabor 
and pipe). 

Tambourine'. (Ger. Tamburin' ; Fr. 
tambour de basque; It. tamburi'no^ 
A small drum played by striking it with 
the right hand, consisting of a shallow 
circular hoop of wood or metal with 
one head of parchment ; in apertures 
made around the hoop are fastened sev- 
eral pairs of loose metallic plates, 
called jingles from the noise they pro- 
duce. Used principally in Spam and 
southern France as an accomp. to danc- 
ing ; occasionally employed in the (op- 
eratic) orchestra. In tambourine-mu- 
sic, notes with wavy stems J T < call 
for the roll; notes with short vertical 
strokes over them p • • for the 

Tamburel'lo (It.) Tabor. 

Tamburi'no (It.) i. A drummer. — 2. 

Tambu'ro (It.) Side-drum . . . Tambu- 
ro'ne, the big drum, bass drum (also 
Cassa grande). 

Tamis (Fr.) Pipe-rack (organ). 

Tam-tam. i. A gong. — 2. A Hindu 
drum of elongated form. (Also Tom- 

Tan'delnd (Ger.) In a toying, banter- 
ing style. 



Tangent. (Ger. Tangen'te.) In the 
clavichord, a brass wedge fixed in the 
jack on the rear end of a key ; on de- 
pressing the key, the tangent struck and 
rubbed across the string, and remained 
bearing on it until the finger was lifted, 
thus both producing the tone and fixing 
its pkch. . . 7ai!gen'/c'/ry^/igc'l ((Jer.), a 
clavichord shaped like a grand piano. 
Tanti'no (It.) A little ; very little. 
Tan'to. (It.) As much, so much ; too 
(much); allegro 71011 tanto, not too fast 
(here equiv. to troppo); a tanto possl'- 
bilc, as much as possible. 
Tanz (Ger.) A dsLWCt. . .Tanz'tieder, 
dance-songs ; Tanz'stiicke, dance-tunes 
(instrumental); the former were the 
original form of dance-music ( Taiiz'- 
timsik), the latter being at first mere im- 
itations of them. (Comp. Form II, 3.) 
Tarantel'la (It.), Tarentelle (Fr.) A 
dance of southern Italy, in 6-8 time, 
the rate of speed gradually increasing, 
and the mode alternating irregularly 
between major and minor. — In modern 
music, an instrumental piece in 3-8 or 
6-8 time, very rapid tempo {presto), and 
bold and brilliant style. 
Tardamen'te (It.) Slowly, lingeringly. 
. . Tardan'do, Tarda' to, see Ritardan- 
do. .. Tar' do, slow, lingering. 
Tartini's tone. A differential tone 

(comp. Acoustics). 
Tasch'engeige (Ger.) A kit. 
Tasseau(Fr.; Ger. Herz.) The "mould " 
on which ribs and blocks of a violin are 
set up. 
Tastatur' (Ger.), Tastatu'ra (It.) 

Keyboard, fingerboard. 
Tas'te (Ger.) Key (digital or pedal). . . 
Tas' tenstabche7i,'he\.. (The usual term, 
Bund, means literally the space between 
two frets.) 
Tastie'ra (It.) Keyboard; fingerboard. 
..Sulla t., near the fingerboard (di- 
rection in violin-p'aying). 
Ta'sto (It.) I. Key (digital).— 2. 
Fret. — 3. Touch. — 4. Fingerboard ; 
stil iasto, same as sitlla tastier a. . . 
Tasto solo (abbr. t. s.),"' one key alone" ; 
a direction in thorough-bass, signifying 
that the bass part is to be played, either 
as written or in octaves, without choids 
(sign 0, or ^-'). 
Tattoo'. Military drum-signal or bugle- 
call for retiring at night. 
Te. For si, in the Tonic Sol-fa system. 
T6CFr.) Ciiiox utdiese). 

Tech'nic, Technique'. (Ger. Tech'nik^ 
All that relates to the purely mechani- 
cal part of vocal or instrumental per- 
formance. — In some German works 
treating on pfte. -technique, a distinc- 
tion is made between Mecha'nik (the 
merely mechanical drill of fingers and 
wrist, apart from its application in play- 
ing), and Technik (the acquired skill 
and dexterity in actual performance). 

Tech'nicon, A finger-gymnasium, or 
apparatus for training and strengthen- 
ing the hands and fingers of players on 
keyboard instr.s ; inv. in 1889 by J. 
Brotherhood of Montreal, Canada. 

Techniphone. Earlier name of the (im- 
proved) Virgil Practice-Clavier (q. v.) 

Tede'sco,-a (It.) German. . .Alia te- 
desca, in the German style ; " the term 
' tedesca ', says Bulow, has reference to 
waltz-rhythm, and invites changes of 
time". [Quoted from Grove.]. ..Z/ra 
tedesca, hurdy-gurdy. 

Te deum. See Ambrosian Hymn. 

Teil (Ger.) A ^2S^. . .Teil'tone, partial 

Telephone-harp. An instr. so connect- 
ed with a telephone as to render music 
performed at a distance audible to an 

Telltale. See Appendix. 

Te'ma (It.) Theme. 

Temperament. (Ger. Temperatur' ; 
Fr. temperament ; It. icmperamen'to.) 
A compromise between the acoustic 
purity of theoretically exact intervals, 
and the harmonic discrepancies arising 
from their practical employment. — E. 
g. , taking the tone C as a starting-point, 
and ascending by quint-strides through 
a series of 12 perfect fifths (C..j9JJ), 
we reach a tone {B%) which, on instr.s 
of fixed intonation (like the pfte.), is 
identical in pitch with the sixth octave 
of 6'(c^), but which, as an acousvic in- 
terval, is by '*/7 3 higher than c^. _ A 
similar result is obtained by descending 
through 12 fifths to T^'^, which proves 
to be lower by ^^/js than the corre- 
sponding lower octave of C. Now, by 
setting C = i>'S = />)f < ^^d equally dis- 
tributingthe deviation ^^/^s among the 
12 quint-tones in either series, i. e. by 
tempering each fifth, the deviation for 
each becomes practically unnoticeable 
on keyboard instr.s ; such equal distri- 
bution is called equal temperament. — 
Another example ; The tone A\), as 



the major tierce below C, has the ratio 
4:5; the tone 6^5, as tierce of the 
tierce of C, has 25 ; 32 ; that is, Cjf is 
by fit = I ^ II lo^er than Aq.-U 
it be attempted, as formerly, to take 
note of and employ in practice even 
only the most noticeable of the differ- 
ent shades of intonation (e. g. by build- 
ing keyboards with separate keys for 
fJJ and t/p, d^ and e\), etc., etc.), the 
tones in each octave of our keyboard 
instr.s would evidently have to be 
greatly increased in number beyond the 
ordinary chromatic scale of 12 degrees. 
However, a perfect fifth {^ / 2) differs 
from a tempered one by only about %%\ 
[Helmholtz], an interval close to the 
extreme limit of perceptible differences 
in pitch, and the use of such an inter- 
val instead of a perfect fifth can in very 
few cases be regarded as objectionable. 
In the system of equal temperament 
the series of fifths, instead of going on 
indefinitely, returns to the starting- 
point C, thus forming a circle, as it 
were ; this progression from end to 
end of the series is called the Circle of 
Fifths : 









Unequal temperament is a system in 
which the excess in the series of fifths 
is not equally apportioned, some inter- 
vals being purer, and others less pure, 
than in equal temperament. In the 
mean-tone system, once extensively em- 
ployed, the major thirds were tuned 
true, and divided into two equal tones 
forming a mean between the greater 
anid lesser whole tone, hence the term 
mean-tone ; each fifth was ^ comma 
too flat, making the 12th in the series 
about 2 commas out of tune, this 
error being usually laid upon the fifth 
the system also had 4 thirds 
which were too sharp by near- 
- ly the same interval. The 

discordant effect produced by chords 
containing any of these anomalous in- 
tervals was called the " wolf ". 

Tempestosamen'te (It.) Impetuously, 
passionately ; tcinfesto'so, impetuous, 

Tempete (Fr., "tempest".) A lively 
dance of modern (Parisian) origin, in 
2-4 time, and danced like a quadrille, 
with some modifications of the steps. 
|Tem'po (It.; Ger. Zcit'mass.) i. Rate 
of speed, Movement i. (Compare 
Tempo-marks.) — 2. Time, measure ; 
beat. . .A tempo, or tempo primo, return 
to the original tempo. . . Tempo alia 
bre've, see Breve; alia semibre've, see 
T. ordina'rio. . . Tempo bina'rio, duple 
time. . . Tempo com'modo, at a conven- 
ient pace. . . Tempo de'bole, weak beat. 
. . Tempo di Ballo, Bole'ro, Minuet' to, 
etc., see Ballo, etc. . . Tempo di primo 
par'te, in the tempo of the first part. . . 
Tempo fo/te, strong beat . . . Tempo 
giu'sto, see Gins to. . . Tempo maggio're, 
same as t. alia breve. . . Tempo mino're, 
T. ordina'rio, (a) 4-4 time of 4 beats 
to the measure ; opp. to t. alia breve; 
(b) same as t. primo . . . Tempo perdu' to, 
irregular, unsteady tempo. .. 7>w/<? 
primo, primie'ro, see A tempo, above. 
. . Tempo reggia'to, same as Co lla parte. 
. . Tempo ruba' to, see Rubato. . . Tempo 
tetna'rio, triple time. . .Uistes'so tempo, 
or Lo stesso tempo, the same tempo ; 
indicates, at a change of rhythm, that 
the pace remains the same. (Comp. 
Istesso . ) . . Scnza tempo, same as a 
place' re. 

Tempo-mark. (Ger. Tem'pobezeichnung) 
A word or phrase indicating the pace 
or speed of a movement, and thus 
establishing the absolute time-value of 
the notes. — Generally accepted tempo- 
marks were hardly known before the 
beginning of the 17th century, and 
were used sparingly until the i8th. — 
There are 3 classes : (i) indicating a 
steady rate of speed ; (2) indicating 
acceleration ; (3) indicating a slackening 
of the pace. — They do not in them- 
selves indicate a fixed and positive rate 
of speed, but only the general character 
of the movement ; consequently, for 
the sake of precision, a metronome- 
mark is often added to the tempo-mark ; 
e. g. "Adagio, M. M. J= 56," sig- 
nifies a tranquil movement in which a 
quarter-note has the time-value of one 
beat of the metronome set at 56. Fur- 



thermore, various qualifying words are 
added (comp. the several Key-words). 

(Indicating a steady rate of speed.) 

Larghis'simo, molto largo " 
Lar'go (broad, stately) 


Gra've (heavy, dragging) [- 
Len'to (slow) 

Ada'gio (slow tranquil) 


Andanti'no 1 

Andan'te (moving, going along) I 

[Modera'to] | 

Allegret'to I 


Greup I. 


of terms is 


Group IL 

Allegro (brisk, lively) [con }■ signification 

mo'to, viva'ce] [agita'to, 
Pre'sto (rapid) [con fuo'co, 

of terms is 

(Indicating acceleration.) 
Acceleran'do (gradually accelerating) 
Affreu?n'Moi^'"4<^!"'y accelerating, usually 
Incalzan'do f "'"'^ ^ crescendo.) 
Dop'pio movimen'to (twice as fast) 
Pill mos'so I (a steady rate of speed, faster 
Velo'ce f than preceding movement) 

(Indicating a slackening in speed.) 








Me'no mos'so 







(gradually growing slower) 

(a sudden drop to a slower rate 
of speed) 

(growing slower and softer) 

Temporiser (Fr.) To play an accomp. 
colla parte. 

Temps (Fr.) Beat...?", faible {secon- 
daire), weak beat ; t. fort {sensible), 
strong beat. 

Tempus (Lat., "time".) In medieval 
music, the tempus was simply tiie time- 
value of the breve (except in case of 
Alteration). The tempus perfectum 
(sign O )> ^'^s the original kind, in 
which the breve was equal to 3 semi- 
breves ; in the tempus imperfectum 
(sign Q ) later introduced, the breve 
had the value of 2 semibreves. (Comp. 
Notation, %■],.).. Tempus bina'rium 
(tenia' rium), duple (triple) time. 

Ten'ebrse (Lat. pi. , " gloom, darkness ".) 

In the R. C. Church, the lamentations 
(matins and lauds) sung especially on 
Good Friday in the Sistine Chapel, 
while the candles burning at the altar 
are extinguished one by one. 

Te'nero,-a (It.) Soft, tender, delicate. 
. . Teiicramen'te, or con tenerez'za, 
tenderly, delicately; nearly equiv. todol- 
ce, but with somewhat more of passion. 

Teneur (Fr.) The catito f-rmo in a 
choral or hymn-tune. 

Ten'or. (Ger. Tenor' ; Fr. tenor or 
taille; It. teno're.) i. The high nat- 
ural male voice. The Germans dis- 
tinguish 2 classes of tenors, the I/el'- 
dentenor idram^Xxc tenor), and ly'rischer 
Tenor (lyric tenor) ; 
the compass of the 
former is from c to /''p 
the voice full and powerful throughout, 
with a barytone timbre ; the range of 
the latter is ttv - \ ) ... the 

about from 
d to e'^ (.--'5) 
tones usually rather weak, the high tones 
brilliant, and the timbre generally bright 
and pleasing. The Italian terms near- 
ly corresponding to the above are (i) 
teno're robu'sto, tenore di for'za, and 
(2) tenore di gra'zia, t. leggie'ro; but 
they are very variously and arbitrarily 
employed. — 2. The part taken by a 
tenor voice ; hence, by transference, a 
prefix to names of instr.s taking parts 
of similar compass, as tenor trombone; 
specifically, the tenor violin (viola). — 3. 
Tenor (from Lat. tenere, to hold), 
originally "a holding, holding fast", 
was applied to the melody (as the un- 
changing part) of the Gregorian chants 
sung by men, and hence to the high 
male voice. — 4. In medieval music, 
tenor also signified (^) a hold ; {b') 
ambitus (of a mode) ; (r) the initial 
tone of the EVOVAE. — Tenor-C, small 
c. . . Tenor-clef, see Clef. . . Tenor vio- 
lin, the viola. 

Teno're (It.) Tenor \...T. buffo, z. 
tenor who sings comic roles. . . T. con- 
tralti'no, a light tenor voice resembling 
the contralto in timbre. . . T. di for'za, 
di gra'zia, leggie'ro, robu'sto, see Tenor 
I. — T. di fnezzo carat' tere, a tenor 
voice of barytone timbre (see Helden- 
tenor, under Tenor l). 

Tenori'no (It.) A falsetto tenor voice 
or singer ; specifically, a castrato. 

Tenorist' (Ger.; Fr. tenoriste; It 
tenori'sta.) Tenor-singer. 



Tenoroon', The oboe da caccia. 

Tenor'schlussel, -zeichen (Ger.) Ten- 

Tenth. (Ger. De'zhne; Fr. dixihtie; It. 
(i/iima.) I. An interval of an octave 
plus 2 degrees. — 2. Same as Deciiita 2. 

Tenu, -e (Fr.) Held, sustained. 

Tenue (Fr.) A sustained tone, or organ- 

Tenu'to (It., " held ".) A direction sig- 
nifying {a) generally, that a tone so 
marked is to be sustained for its full 
time-value ; and {J') occasionally, h'gaio. 
..Forte icmito {ften.), foi'le through- 
out. . . Tenuto-iiiark, a short stroke over 
a note, with signification as at {a). — 
Tc-nit/e [/e note implied], [the notes] 
sustained or held. 

Tepidamen'te (It.) In an even, unim- 
passioned style. 

Teponaz'tli (Aztec.) A species of drum 
still used by the aborigines of Central 
America and Mexico. It consists of a 
section of a log (left round in the ruder 
specimens, but carefully squared in the 
more artistic ones) in a horizontal posi- 
tion, from 2 to 5 feet long, hollowed 
out on the under side so as to leave the 
ends 3 or 4 inches thick and the top 
part (belly) a few lines through ; in the 
belly 2 parallel incisions are made 
lengthwise, and connected by a shorter 
one crosswise, the 3 assuming the shape 
of the letter m . The 2 tongues left 
between, when struck by the sticks, 
yield 2 different tones, at an interval — 
in various instr.s — of a third, fourth, 
fifth, si.xth, or octave apart. It serves 
to mark the rhythm, and as an imper- 
fect bass, in the aboriginal music. It 
is played with 2 sticks, the heads of 
which are covered with wool or an 
elastic gum. 

Ter (Lat.) Thrice ; indicates that a pas- 
sage, or (in songs) a verse or part of 
one, is to be repeated twice. (Also comp. 
Bis.). . . Ter unca, the 3-hooked semi- 

Terce. i. See Tierce 4. — 2. The 3rd 
of the canonical hours. 

Tercet (Fr.) A triplet ; — in poetry, a 
group of 3 rhyming lines. 

Ter'nary. (Fr. tematre; It. ierna'rio) 
Composed of, or progressing by, threes. 
. . Ternary form. Rondo-form. . . Ter- 
nary measure, simple triple time. 

Terpo'dion. A six-octave keyboard 

instr., similar to Chladni's clavicylinder, 
with wood substituted for glass as the 
tone-producing medium ; inv. by J. D. 
Buschmann of Berlin in 1816. 

Ter'tia (Lat.) A third or tierce. . . Ter- 
tia modi, 3rd degree of a scale. 

Tertian'. (Ger. Tertian zwei'fach.) 
An organ-stop consisting of a tierce 
and larigot combined. 

Terz (Ger.), Ter'za (It.) The interval 
of a third. . . Terza ma'no (It., " third 
liand "), an octave-coupler. . . Terzade'- 
ciina (It.), Tcrzde'zitne (Ger.), the in- 
terval of a \)i\\x\.&fa.'Ca.. . .Terzdezinio' le 
(Ger.), a tredecuplet. . . Terzett' (Ger.), 
Terzet'to (It.), properly, a vocal (sel- 
dom an instrumental) trio; now gener- 
ally called Trio. . . Terz'JliUe (Ger.), a 
small transverse flute pitched a third 
above the ordinary flute . . . Terzi'na 
(It.), a triplet. . . Terzo stio'no-(\X.?), a 
differential tone. . . Terzquartsext' ak- 
kord (Ger.), chord of the third, fourth, 

and si.\th 4 . . . Terzatcintsexi'akkord 

3 ^ 

(Ger.), chord of the (third), fifth and 

sixth ,5,. . . Terz' tone (Gtv., pi.), tierce- 
1.3) *• ' r /' 


Tessitu'ra (It., "web, framework"). 
The region covered by the main body 
of the tones of a given part, infrequent 
high or low tones not included. The 
nearest English equivalent is to say 
that the part " lies " high or low. 

Te'sto (It.) I. .See Soggetto. — 2. Same 
as Libretto. 

Tete (Fr.) Head (of a note); scroll. 

Tet'rachord. i. A 4-stringed instr. — 
2. The interval of a perfect fourth. — 3. 
The scale-series of 4 tones contained in 
a perfect fourth (comp. Greek ntusic). 
. . Tetrachor'dal, relating to or consist- 
ing of tetrachords. . . Tetrachordal sys- 
tfin, the original form of the Tonic Sol- 
fa system. 

Tetrachor'don (Gk.) i. A tetrachord. 
— 2. A variety of the piano-violin. 

Tet'rad. A name suggested, but not to 
any extent adopted, for chord of the 
seventh; — analogous to Triad. 

Tetradiapa'son. The interval of 4 
octaves. (Also quadruple diapason, 
octave, or eighth.) 

Tet'raphone. See Tetratone. 

Tetrapho'nia. See Organum. 

Tet'raphony. (Medieval.) Diaphony 
for 4 parts. 



Tet'ratone. An interval embracing 3 
whole tones ; an augm. fourth. 

Text. The words of vocal music. 

Theil (Cxer.) See Teil. 

Thematic composition. A style based 
on the contrapuntal treatment or de- 
velopment of one or more themes. 
rTheme. (Ger. The'ma, Fr. thhne; It. 
t/ma ) Same as Subject. — Specifically. 
a theme is an extended and rounded-off 
subject with accompapiment, in period- 
form, proposed as>^»-^r.oundwork for 
elaborate variations {tenia con varia- 

Theor'bo. (Ger. Theor'be; Fr. theorbe. 
It. tior'ba, tuor'ba.) One of the various 
double-necked bass lutes so popular in 
the 17th centur)', the bass strings (ac- 
companiment-strings, diapasons) of 
which were not stopped on the finger- 
board, but were stretched beside it to a 
separate peg-box, which latter, in the 
theorbo, lay next to the other, though 
somewhat higher up in the head. In 
its day it was an important member of 
the orchestra. (Comp. Lute.) 

The'sis (Gk.) The down-beat, strong 

Third. (Ger. Terz; Fr. tierce; It. 
ter'za.) See Interval. — The third in a 
diatonic scale is also called the mediant. 

Thirteenth. An interval embracing an 
octave and a sixth ; a compound sixth. 

Thirty-second-note. (Comp. Note^ 
A note having half the time-value of a 
i6th-note ; a demisemiquaver. . .j".3«(/- 
rest, a rest (^) corresponding in value 
to the above. 

Thorough-bass. (Ger. General'bass; 
Fr. basse chifree; It. basso conti'nuo.) 
A species of nius. shorthand in which 
chords are indicated by figures written 
over a running bass (briefly explained 
under Chord). It originated in Italy 
{basso continuo, or, for short, contintio) 
toward the close of the i6th century, 
and for 200 years was the common 
method of notation for accompaniments 
by the organ or cembalo. It is now 
principally employed in mus. theory, in 
teaching the science of chords. 

Three-lined octave. See Pit^ h, abso 

Three-quarter fiddle. See Violino 

piccolo, under Violino. 

Three-time, 3-time. Triple time. 

A song of lamentation ; a 
See Pitch, 



Thrice-accented octave. 


Thumb-position. One of the high po- 
sitions in 'cello playing, in which the 
thumb quits the neck of the instr. 

Thumb-string. Melody-string of the 

Tib'ia (Lat.) The direct flute ; also, the 
name of various organ-stops ... 7". utri- 
cula'ris, the bagpipe. .. /'//'iV^w (pi. 
tibi'cines), a flute-player. 

Tie. (Ger. Bin'dcbogen; Fr. liaison; 
It. fa'scia.) A curved line joining 2 
notes of like pitch which are to be 
sounded as one note equal to their 
united time- value. .. ?"/>(/ notes, (a) 
notes joined by a tie ; {h) notes (like 
eighth - notes, i6th- notes, etc.) the 
hooks of which are run togeth er in one 
or more thick strokes, e. g. J J J J. 

TjsX^G©!'.) Deep, low, grave. 

Tier. Same as Rank (organ). 

Tierce, i. Same as Third. — 2. The 
fourth harmonic of a given tone. — 3. In 
the organ, a mutation-stop pitched 2| 
octaves above the diapason ; now used, 
if at all, as a component of a mixture- 
stop. — 4. One of the canonical hours. 
. . Tierce-tones, see Pitch, §2. 

Tierce (Fr.) Tierce i and \ 
Picardie, a major third in the closing 
chord of a minor movement. . . T. cou- 
lee (slurred third), a grace written^ (^« 

descendant); see 



Tige (Fr.) Stick (of bow) ; also baguette. 

Timbalarion (Fr.) A set of 3 drums of 
different sizes, each furnished with a 
pedal, on which diatonic and chromatic 
scales, and some chords, can be played. 
Also Tambour chromatique. 

Timbale (Fr.), Timbal'lo (It.) Kettle- 

Timbre (Fr.; It. tim'bro.) I. Quality of 
tone. — 2. A fixed bell without a clap- 
per, struck from outside by a hammer. 
. .Jeux de timbres. Glockenspiel {b). — 
3. Snare (of a drum). 

Timbrel. A tambourine. 

Time. i. Same as Tempo. — 2. (Ger. 
Takt, Takfart; Fr. mesure; It. 



iem'fo.) The division of the measure 
into equal fractional parts of a whole 
note (<=>), forming a standard for the 
accentuation or regular rhythmic flow 
of the movement. The sign for time 
is called the time-signature, and is 
usually in the form of a fraction set 
immediately after the clef at the begin- 
ning of the movement, the numerator 
indicating the number of notes of a 
given kind in each measure, while the 
denominator shows the kind of notes 
taken as the unit of measure ; e. g. \ 
(three-four time) means 3 quarter-notes 
to a measure, | J J J ]; is (t^elve-six- 
teen time) means 12 sixt eenth-no tes to a 
measure, | J^^^ JHTt^ I' ^^C- 
Among the numerous systems of no- 
menclature the ordinary English meth- 
od is still that most in use, and is em- 
ployed throughout this Dictionary ; 
some others are appended for the 
purpose of comparison. — There are 
2 classes of time, Duple and Triple. 

In Duple time the nutnber of beats to 
the measure is divisible by 2 ; in Triple 
time, by 3. There are also 2 sub- 
classes, Compound Duple time, and 
Compound Triple time. In compound 
duple time the number of beats to each 
measure is still divisible by 2, but each 
beat contains, instead of an ordinary 
note divisible by 2, a dotted note (or its 
equivalent in other notes or rests) divis- 
ible by 3 ; hence the term cotnpound, 
each simple beat being represented by 
a dotted or compound note divisible by 
3, instead of a simple note divisible by 
2. In compound triple time not only 
the number of beats in each measure is 
divisible by 3, but also each beat, as 
above. (See Table on p. 201.) 

Another English classification is the 
following ; it contains the times ordi- 
narily employed, to which should be 
added siniple octttple time I, and com- 
pound octuple ti7ne (ig), both with eight 
beats to the measure : 

(From Troutbeck & Dale's Music Primer.) 








: J J 
3 > > 

^ J J J 
\ J J J 

i .^ •^ J^ 

e»jj J J J 

C-: J J J J 

'^^ :- i- i- 

\ > > 
16 # . . 

\ J.J.J. 

S 0.0.0. 

\ > > > 

16 « . . . 

■'J. J. J. J. 

" 1 1 1 1 

s . . . . 
-I > > > > 

A proposition made in the above 
work, to indicate the compotind times 
by the same signatures as those of the 

simple times, merely adding a dot to 
the denominator to show the tripartite 

division : 




' 1 1 
- 1 1 

1. / /. 


3 1 i 1 
4. • . • . . 

I / J-. .^ 

:. J. J. J. J. 

5- .^ ;«. J. .f. 


Triple Time. 


e (or Common 












•i — 


If- if 














00 J^ 














OJ to OJ OJ 




5! 2; :^ 


^ H 


H H 



crt w 






■nTj Ti 



p #' 




5' 5" 5' 


3- 3- 


« ^ 




X X 

J> re 
















f» 3- 
rt " 












li <» 



X- " 




t^ s; s: 

a n n 


U d 

3 5 





n ft 






:?. ^. 




c C c 








3 3 3 
(? " *^ 

3- 1" ^" 
S £- " 






I i 

I I 


(» 3 rt 


-n * S 

~H 3" 
P S 3 

' 1 



1 1 

3- F 
(t " 











5. ft 
p, 5 











-- ' 










•JI^X Jsp^-iaO 

Mesures k trois temps. 1 

Mesures a 

deux ou quatre temps. 



s g .s 


2 g § 




Division b 




^ i o 


p' p> 





w en 







VI 3-0 




c c 






5, ^ ^ 



1 i- 

P c 



2..W g 
p :q- 






i- 1 











3 S 

ii a, 

C ft 
P c 
:; X 




















;^ :^ 2: 


^ ^c\ 

"55 d 




ft ft 






c c 




S ^ S 
1 1. 3. 

X .a 

1 1 3 ! 

P ft* N (T 

0' 0' 

< ^ 

3 £-. 
C n 

c 2. 

S 3 









i'. ^ 


























re = " 

% - 

3 I 

3 ^ 


£-. ■£-• 



2 p ? 







5:^ g 

3 i 

















el s 






•ucdsip iduia 



•IJEd ldu]3J_ 



is deserving of notice as an ingenious 
way of marking the number and posi- 
tion of the beats ; the measure. note 
being found in each case by multiplyin; 
the denominator by 2. 

Still another, and highly ingenious, 
system, by Mr. Frederick Niecks, is 
given below ; for the terms duple and 
triple he substitutes binary and ternary, 
referring, not to the number of beats, 
but to the grouping of the measure- 
notes in twos and threes. 

Simple- Times. 
Simple Binary Time fill 
lernary 2 4 s la 

Compound Times. 
Duple Binary Time \ \ \ 

" Ternary " % \ % A 
Triple 4 8 16 

Quadruple " " V V le 
Finally, a system has been suggested 
in which the word rhythm is substi- 
tuted for time; duple and triple retained 
for the simple forms of the measure ; 
while the complex forms are called 
quadruple rhythm, sextuple rhythm, 
octuple rhythm, etc. — However, the de- 
sideratum of any new system, i. e. the 
plain expression of the number of 
beats to the measure as well as of the 
number of notes of a given kind, is not 
yet attained ; and well-meant half-re- 
forms serve only to make confusion 
worse confounded. . .2-time, j-ti me, a.h- 
breviations of duple and triple time 
Tiinidamen'te (It.) See Angstlich. 

Timidez'za, con (It.) In a style ex- 
pressive of timidity or hesitation. 

Timoro'so (It.) Timorous, fearful... 
Timorosamen'te, timorously, etc. 

Tim'pano (It., pi. iim'pani.) Kettle- 
drum. .. 7'//«/^i«/ coper' ti, muffled 

Tintinna'bulum (Lat.), Tintinna'bolo 

(It.) A small bell.— Also, an ancient 
rattle, formed of little bells or small 
disks of metal. 

Tintinnamen'to, Tintinni'o (It.) A 
tinkling or jingling. 

Tin'to, con (It.) With shading ; espres- 


Tior'ba (It.) 

Tirade (Fr.) An extended slide ; a rapid 
run connecting two melody-notes. 

Tirant (Fr.) I. Stop-knob. .. 7". <i a<:- 
coupler, coupler. — 2. Button. — 3. Cord 
of a drum. 

Tirar'si, da (It., "to be drawn out".) 
Equiv. to the prefix "slide-" in the 
phrase tromba da tirarsi (slide-trumpet) 
and the like. 

Tirasse (Fr.) In small organs, a pedal- 
keyboard having no pipes of its own, 
acting only on the lower keys of the 
manual ; also, a pedal-coupler. 

Tira'ta (It.) See Tirade. 

Tira'to (It.) Down-bow {area in giii). 

Ti'ra tut'to (It.) A combination-pedal 
or draw-stop bringing on the full power 
of an organ. (Fr. grand jeu.) 
Tir6 (Fr., " drawn.") Down-bow. Also 

tirez, " draw." 
Tischliarfe (Ger., "table-harp".) A 

variety of autoharp. 
Tocca'ta (It., from focca're, to touch.) 
An early species of composition for 
keyboard instr.s, originating in Italy 
toward the close of the i6th century. 
In style it is free and bold, approach- 
ing the (old) fantasia ; it has no dis- 
tinctive form, but consists of runs and 
passages alternating with fugued or 
contrapuntal work, built up in the more 
elaborate specimens on a figure or 
theme, generally in equal notes, with a 
flowing style and lively, rapid move- 
ment. — Toccati'na, Toccatel la, diminu- 
tives of Toccata. 
Tocca'to (It.) In trumpet-music, a 
fourth (bass) trumpet-part added as a 
substitute for the kettledrums. 
To'(d)tenmarsch (Ger.) Dead-march. 
Ton (Ger.) Atone; pitch ; key, mode, 
octave-scale. . .Z>t'« Ton angeben, to 
give the pitch ; den Ton halten, to keep 
the pitch. . . Ton'abstand, interval. . . 
Ton'art, Key I ; Ton' artenverwand- 
schaft, key-relationship . . . Ton'bestim- 
mting, the (mathematical) dstermination 
of tones . . . Ton'bildung, {a) production 
of tone ; (/') vocal culture. . . Ton'dichier, 
composer ; Ton'dichtung, composition. 
. . Ton' fall, see Ton'schluss. . . Ton'. 
farbe, "tone-color", timbre, quality. 
. . Ton'folge, series or succession of 
of tones. . . Ton'fuhrung, melodic lead- 



ing or progression . . . Ton' fuss, (a) a 
rhythm ; {b) a measure . . . Ton'gebttng, 
production of tone ; intonation. . . Ton'- 
geschlecht, mode; " the distinguishing 
of a chord or key (tonality) as major or 
minor" [Riemann]. . . Ton' hdhc. pitch. 
. . Ton' kunde, science of music. . . Ton'- 
kunst, art of music, musical art ; music. 
. . Ton'kunstler, musician. . . Ton'lage, 
pitch ; register . . . Ton'leitcr, a scale ; 
funfsliifige Tonleiter, pentatonic scale. 
. . Ton' loch, a ventage. . . Ton' male re i , 
" tone-painting", imitative music, pro- 
gram-music . . . Ton'messer, monochord ; 
sonometer; s\ren. . .To)i'messu>ig, see 
Ton' bestimmiing . . . Ton' rein (of violin- 
strings), true to pitch, true fifths. . . 
Ton'satz, composing ; composition . . . 
Ton'schhiss, cadence... Ton'setzer, com- 
poser. . . Ton'sctzkunst, art of composi- 
tion . . . Ton'sprache, the language of 
tones (i. e. music) . . . Ton'stiick, piece 
of music, composition. .. Ton's t life, 
degree (of a scale). . . Ton' system, sys- 
tem or theory of musical tones. . . Ton'- 
umfang, compass. . . Ton'tinterschied, 
interval. .. Ton' vertvandsc haft, relation 
or affinity of tones. . . Ton'verziehitng, 
tempo rubato. . . Ton'werkzetig, a mu- 
sical instr., either natural (voice) or 2>xX\- 
ficial. . . Ton'zekhen, a note or other 
sign representing a tone. 

Ton (Fr.) I. Tone ; pitch ; donner le 
ion, to give the pitch. — 2. Mode. — 
3. Scale, key. — 4. A crook {ton de re- 
change). — 5. (Formerly) a tuning-fork. 
. . Ton bouch^, stopped tone (horn) . . . 
Ton d'/glise, church-mode. . . Ton de 
rechange, zxooV. ..Ton entier, whole 
tone. . . Ton feint, see Fictuvi. . . Ton 
majeur (jnineur), a major (minor) key. 
. . Ton ouvert, open or natural tone (on 
a wind-instr.). . . 7"(:w relatif, related 
\ity...Ton ght^rateur, one of the 7 
natural tones. 

Tonal. Pertaining to tones, or to a tone, 
mode, or 'key ... Tonal fugue, see 
Fugue ... 7"!?;;^/ imitation, imitation 
not overstepping the limits of the key 
of a composition ; non-modulating imi- 

Tonal'Ity. (Ger. Tonalitdt' ; Fr. tonal- 
ity.') The term T"!?;/*?///)', as contrasted 
with Key, is distinguished by its broader 
significance and wider scope. Kev de- 
notes simply the inode (of a piece) and 
the pitch of that mode ; strictly, it re- 
fers solely to the harmonies constructed 
from the tones of its own diatonic scale. 

On quitting these harmonies, even by 
touching an "altered chord", it tres- 
passes on the domain of tonality ; for — 
here is the dividing line — key embraces 
the diatonic harmonies referable to one 
tonic chord as the point whence they 
depart and whither they return, whereas 
tonality, taking this same tonic chord 
as a starting-point, includes any and 
every harmony related to it, so long as 
no actual change of tonic is brought 
about by a modulation. Tonality nii^t 
therefore be briefly defined as the 
chords grouped around and attracted by 
one central tonic chord, and thus 
appears as founded upon the relations 
of chords independent (in a measure) 
of key. (Comp. Phone, g 4.) 

Tone. (Ger. Ton; Fr. son, ton; It. 
tuo'no, suo'no) See Acoustics. . . Tone- 
color, quality of tone. 

Tongue. i (noun). Same as Reed; 
but, in the so-called reed of an organ- 
pipe, the tongue is the vibratile slip of 
metal producing the tone. — 2 (j'crb). 
To employ the tongue in producing, 
modifying, or interrupting the tone of 
certain wind-instr.s. . . 7'ii;;^««;/^, the 
production of effects of tone, on wind- 
instr.s, by the aid of the tongue. Si^igle- 
tonguing, the effect obtained by the re- 
peated tongue-thrust to the nearly in- 
audible consonant lord; Double-tongu- 
ing, that obtained by the repetition of 
/ k; Triple-tonguing, hy t k t; etc. 
With reed-instr.s, single-tonguing only 
is applicable. 

Ton'ic. (Ger. To'nika; Fr. tonique; It. 
to'nica.) i. The key-note of a scale. — 
2. In the new system of harmony, the 
tonic chord (in C-major the major triad 
on C; in C-minor the minor triad on C) 
is designated as the tonic. (Comp. 
Phone.). . Tonic chord, one having the 
key-note as root . . . Tonic pedal, organ- 
point on the key-note. . . Tonic section, 
a section or sentence in the key in 
which a composition began, with a 
cadence to the tonic of that key... 
Tonic Sol-fa, a method of teaching 
vocal music, inv. by Miss Sarah Ann 
Glover of Norwich, England, about 
1S12, and perfected by the Rev. John 
Curwen, who became acquainted with 
the method in 1841. — Its formal basis 
is the "movable-Do" system ; the 7 
usual solmisation-syllables are employ- 
ed, but Englished as follows 

doh ray me fah soh lah te *, 



each is represented in notation by its 
initial letter (d r m etc.), to which a verti- 
cal dash is added above or below when a 
higher or lower octave is entered ; thus 
S| d d' in a soprano 
part would be equiva- 
lent, in C-major, to 
For teaching the tones and modulation, 
these tone-names are arranged in a 
musical chart called a Modulator : 







~ 1 




— s 







— f 

— m 




- r 








— d 






ma re 

-=. RAY 


— DOH 

- fi 



— nil 




- n 





— u 

This arrangement shows the exact 
position of each tone in its relation to 
the key-tone ; in fact, the fundamental 
principle of the method is key-relation- 
ship, and that the character of every 

tone is decided by the relation which it 
holds to its tonic, the name Tonic Sol- 
fa signifying " solfaing according to 
the tonic principle". The system of 
tonic sol-fa insists upon the mental 
effect of each tone in relation to the 
tonic, i. e. the pupils are taught to 
recognize the tones of the scale by 
observing the mental impressions 
peculiar to each. — The parallel columns 
of the Modulator show the relation of 
key to key, and may be extended 
through all the sharp and flat keys, the 
former lying to the right, the latter to 
the left of the central column. Sharped 
tones take the sharp vowel e, flat tones 
the broad vowel a (ah). In modulating, 
so-called bridge-tones are added in the 
notation in the form of small letters in- 
dicating the relation of the modulating 
tone to the key just left, the large letter 
showing the relation of the tone to the 
new tonic ; thus 'd means, that soh of 
the old key is doh of the new, as in 
modulating from C-major to C-major. 
For a mere chromatic passing-note, 
however, or a transient modulation, the 
chromatic syllables are employed In 
the printed notation, equal spaces rep- 
resent equal times, and fractions of 
time are shown by fractions of space ; 
the beats ("pulses") are represented 
by regular intervals of space. A thick 
bar marks the primary accent (strong 
pulse) ; the weak pulse is preceded by 
a colon ; a shorter bar marks the sec- 
ondary accent ; a dot midway in a pulse- 
space marks a half-pulse ; and quarter- 
pulses are marked by commas. The 
continuation of a tone is indicated by a 
dash, while a rest (silence) is left simply 
as a blank space. — In lieu of protracted 
explanations, the hymn ''America" is 
here appended in the Tonic Sol-fa 
notation : 


Key A. 


d : d : 



; - .d : r 

m : 



S| : s, : 

God save 




gra - 

: - .fe, : s, 

cious Queen, 

d : 





m : d : 



: - .r r 




d, : m, : 
(My coun 

• try. 


:- -ll ■■ t, 

of thee, 

d : 




Arr. by Harry Benson. 



:- .r 

: d 



: d 

- ble 




: m 


'■ '• 


- ber 

- ty. j 












: S 






: d : 



: - .t| 

: d 








: m : 



: — .r 

: d 


: m, : 




: d 











f.m : r.d 






- grims' pride, I From 

r^ : t|.j|^ 

ev' - ry 

m :- .f 
d.l| : Si.f, 


d : -.r 
S|.f| : mi.r. 


side , 

l.s,f: n 








d ; — 

d : — : — 

Queen ! 

S| d| : 

dom ring !) 

Despite Strenuous opposition, the Tonic 
Sol-fa method continues to spread ; and 
it deserves to, having triumphantly 
proved its thorough excellence both in 
principle and practice. 

To'nisch (Ger.) Tonic, i. e, pertaining 
to the tonic. 

To'no (It.) Tone ; key. 

To'nos (Gk.), To'nus (Lat.) i. Atone 
(whole tone, major second). — 2. A 

Toquet (Fr.) Toccato. 

Tostamen'te (It.) Rapidly and boldly. 

To'sto (It.) The phrase piii iosto is 
used by Beethoven in the sense of 
"rather", "quasi"; as Allegro molto, 
pill iosto presto, "very fast, jtearly 

Touch. (Ger. An'schlag; Fr. toucher; 
It. ta'sto.) The method and manner of 
applying the fingers to the digitals of 
keyboard instr.s. 

Touche (Fr.) i. A key (digital). — 2 A 
fret. — 3. A fingerboard, either with or 
without frets. 

Toucher (Fr.) i {verb). To play, as 

toucher le piano. {Jouer is the univer- 
sally applicable and more modern term.) 
— 2 {noun). Touch, manner of ma- 

Touchette (Fr.) Fret. 

Toujours (Fr.) Same as Sanpre. 

Tourmente,-e (Fr.) Overdone ; as by 
an overplus of eccentricity, ornamenta- 
tion, unusual or disconnected harmo- 
nies, oddities of instrumentation, and 
the like. 

Tourniquet (Fr.) Plug or cap. 

Toy Symphony. (Ger. Kin'dersinfonie; 
Fr. Foire dcs En f ants.) The original 
toy symphony was written by Haydn in 
1788, with parts for 6 toy instr.s (a 
cuckoo-pipe, playing c and ,;'■, a quail- 
call in f, a trumpet and drum in 6", a 
whistle, and a triangle), with 2 violins 
and a double-bass. Key, f-major. — It 
has been variously imitated. 

Trackers. (Ger. Abstrak'ten; Fr. 
abrdgh.) See Organ. 

Tract. (Lat. tractus.) An anthem on 
verses usually taken from the Psalms, 
substituted, from Septuagesima to 



Easter eve, for the Gradual, or for the 
Alleluia foUowinjj the Gradual, in the 
R. C. and some other services. 

Tradot'to (It.) Arranged ; transposed. 

Tra'gen der Stimme (Ger.) Port de 

Train6 (Fr.) Slurred. . . Trainee, same 
as Schlcifer {b). 

Trait (Fr.) i. Tract. — 2. Passage ; vocal 
or instrumental run... 7". de chant, 
melodic phrase... 7^. if hm-7)wnit\ a 
chord-passage. — 3. An old form of the 
trill-sign ('^'vv) ; aXso plique. 

Traktur' (Ger.) In the organ, the in- 
terior key-action, especially the trackers. 

Tranch6,-e (Fr.) Cut, crossed... C- 
iranche (obsolete ; now C-lnirrJ), the 


Tranquillamen'te (It.) Tranquilly, in 
a quiet style; also con tranqidllita' . . . 
Tranquil' lo, tranquil ; often (with 
Beethoven) equiv. to modcrato. 

Transcription. i. The arrangement 
or adaptation of a composition for some 
voice or instr. other than that for which 
it was originally intended. — 2. (Fr.) 
Transcription tiniformc, the uniform 
notation of transposing instr.s, peculiar 
to the French military bands, attained 
by noting them all in the C-clef, i. e. 
an octave higher than the ordinary 

Transient. Passing, not principal ; in- 
termediate ; as a transient modulation. 

— Transient chord, in modulation, an 
intermediate chord foreign both to the 
key left and that reached. . . Transient 
modulation, a temporary modulation 
soon followed by a return to the key 

Transition. (Lat. transi'tio; Fr. tran- 
sition.') I. Modulation ; specifically, 
a transient one. — 2. In Tonic Sol-fa, 
a modulation without change of mode. 

Tran'situs (Lat.) " A passing-through". 

— Tr. regula'ris, progression by pass- 
ing-notes ; tr. irregula'ris, progression 
by changing-notes. 

Transpose. (Ger. transponie'ren; Fr. 
transposer ; It. variay' il iuo'no.) To 
perform or write out a composition in a 
different "kfty ... 'J'ransposed mode, one 
of the medieval modes transposed (by a 
Bi) in the signature) a fourth above or 
fifth below its regular pitch. An added 

T!^ raised the new pitch by a fourth, 
i. e. lowered the original pitch by a tone. 

Transposing Instruments, i. Those 

the natural scale of which is always 
written in 6^-major, regardless of the 
actual pitch. — 2. Instruments (chiefly 
with keyboards, as the pfte., harpsi- 
chord, etc.) having some device by 
which the action or strings can be 
shifted so that higher or lower tones are 
produced than when they are in the 
normal position . . . Transposing scales, 
see Greek music. 

Transpositeur (Fr.) i. A transposer. — 
2. A mechanism attached to the valve- 
horn as a substitute for the numerous 
crooks generally used ; inv. by Gau- 
trot. — 3. The transposing keyboard of 
ihepiano transpositeur^ inv. by Auguste 
Wolff of Paris in 1873. 

Transposition. Se.&Transpose. . . Trans- 
positions' skalcn (Ger.), transposing 

Transverse flute. See Flute. 

Trascinan'do (It.) Same as Strasci- 


Trasporta'to (It.) Transposed. . . Chia'- 

vi trasportati, see Chiavette. 

Trattenu'to (It.) Held back, retarding 
the tempo. (Abbr. tratt.) 

Trau'ermarsch (Ger.) Funeral march. 

Trau'rig (Ger.) Sad, melancholy. 

Travailler (Fr.) "To work". An in- 
strumental part is said to travailler 
when it leads while the others act as an 
accompaniment or fiWing. . .Musique 
fravailltfe, music abounding in passages 
and bristling with difficulties. 

Travel. To carry ; said of sound. 

Travers'flote (Ger.) i. Flauto traver- 
se. — 2. A 4'" organ-stop resembling the 
orchestral flute in timbre. 

Traversiere (Fr.), Traver'so (It.) 

Transverse. — Traversa {iov Jlauto Ira- 

verso) occurs in scores. 
Tre (It.) Three. . .A tre, for 3 voices or 

instr.s; a tre voci, for 3 parts ... TVi? 

corde, see Una cor da. 
Treb'le. See Soprano. . . Treble-clef, G- 

Trede'zime (Ger.) A thirteenth. 
Trei'bend (Ger.) Urging, hastening; 

accelerando, stringendo. 

Treizi^rae (Fr.) A thirteenth. 




rreman'do, Tremolan'do (It.) With 
a tremolo-effect. 

Tremblant (Fr.) Tremulant. 

Tremblement (Fr.) Trill; tremolo... 
Trembler, to execute a trill or tremolo. 

e'molo (It., " a quivering, flutter- 
ing ;" comp. Vibrato.) i. In singing, 
a tremulous fluctuation of tone, effective 
in highly dramatic situations, though 
frequently a mere mannerism or vocal 
defect. — 2, On stringed instr.s, an effect 

produced by the extremely -^ : 

rapid alternation of down- „.^ 

bow and up-bo\v, marked 5^ 
— 3. On the pfte., the rapid alternation 

of the tones of ^jS ^,_ 
a chord, e. g. 
written : 


played: Ef3:g5 8 ~ ^g I3 

(2 examples from Gade, Op. 51): 

I. Written 

played : 

(This last is simply a trill without after- 
beat.) [N. B. The pfte.-tremolo is not al- 
ways written as an exact abbrevia- ^^ 
tion (comp. Abbreviation 2); e. g., c* ^ 

may S^ gnn^ r;"^ "^^ 
signif y J*J*J*, '^J»^'*,*J^ 
instead 1— i— 1^ |_S3, in case the 
of J*s'm^J* tempo is 
slow enough to admit of the former 
reading.] — 4. A fluttering effect pro- 
duced by the tremolo-stop or tremu- 
lant. — 5. A tremulant. 

Tremolo'so (It.) With a tremulous, 
fluttering effect. 

Tremulant. A mechanical device in the 
organ for producing a tremolo. It con- 
sists of a valve or arm of thin metal 
which, when set in action by a draw- 
stop, partially checks the inflow of 
wind, by which latter it is forced to os- 
cillate rapidly, the consequent alternate 
checking and admission of the wind to 
the pipes causing a tremulous tone. — 
Organ-pipes producing a similar tone 
without the tremulant are those of the 
Piffaro, Unda maris, etc. 

Tremulie'reti (Ger.) To execute a trill 
or tremolo; also sometimes used (as a 
noun) for vibrato. 

Trenchmore. An old English country- 
dance, in lively tempo and triple or 
compound duple time. 

Trenise (Fr.) A figure in the quad- 

Trepo'dion. See Terpodion. 

Tr^S (Fr.) Very ; molto. 

Triad. (Ger. Drei'klang ; Fr. and It 
tria'de.) A "three-tone" chord com- 
posed of a given tone (root) with its 
third and fifth in ascending diatonic 
order. . .Harmonic triad, a major triad. 

Triangle. (Ger. Triang'el; Fr. triangle; 
It. trian'golo.) An orchestral instr. 
of percussion, consisting of a steel rod 
bent into triangular shape, one corner 
being left slightly open ; it is struck with 
a metal wand. The rhythm alone be- 
ing noted, the triangle-part is usually 
written on a single line, headed by the 
//w^'-signature only. 

Tri'as (Lat.) A triad. 

Tri'brach. A metrical foot of 3 short 
syllables, having the ictus on either the 
first or second, thus: ( C -^ ^ or -^ - ^ ~J ). 

Tri'chord. A 3-stringed instr.— Tri- 
chord pfte., one having 3 strings (uni- 
sons) to each tone throughout the greater 
part of its compass. 

Trich'ter (Ger.) Tube (of a reed-pipe); 
bell (of a horn or trumpet). Often 
Sc hall' trickier. 

Trici'nium (Lat.) An a cappella compo- 
sition for 3 voices. 

Tridiapa'son. A triple octave. 

Trill. (Ger. Tril'ler ,- Fr. trille ; It 
tril'lo.) (Also Shake.) [Sign (t ot 
tr ■'^'^ ; obs. t., +, ■*^»^, or (^.v • .-vvv, 

/wv etc.] A grace occupying the en- 
tire time-value of the principal note. 



being the rapid and even alternation of 
the latter with a higher auxiliary (the 
maj. or min. second above) ; except 
when the time for its execution is so 
brief as to reduce it to a mere turn, or 
an inverted mordent. — In modern mu- 

(a) tr 

(b) tr 

sic, the trill generally begins on the 
principal note {a), and ends with an 
after-beat (/'), which should be written 
out ; if to be begun on the auxiliary, an 
appoggiatura should be set before the 
principal note {c). 

(cL tr 



A dotted quarter-note would call 

for one more group of 4 i6th-notes ; a 

J, for 2 such additional groups ; etc. 

These are the typical forms of the long 
trill ; they differ in different kinds of 
time ; e. g. 

or when preceded by an ascending appoggiatura : 











^ ^ffrrr^Hfg%^>>p^g^^^r^7^r7^g^ 

the tempo also exercises a controlling 

influence, the ^ ^ 9 ^ i rjj~ » per- 
following trill: ^ 4 ^^' formed: 


passmg over 

(Presto). The last is one form of the 
sAari trill, which might, in turn, be- 
come a long trill in fresto, when the 

time-value of the principal note per« 
mits of such extension, e.g. 

tr pa 5 

No. 6, written thus 

(All", commodo) 

would be — 'JS-* 
executed : 

The after-beat may be modified chro- 
matically, as at No. 3, or thus : 



It is often in place when not written 
out (comp. Ex. b under chain of trills); 
its introduction is then either a matter 
of taste, or depends on what follows, 

M tr 

it being usually required where the trill 
is followed by an accented note ; though 
the next three examples require no 
after-beat : 




Successive trills, even though alike in 1 reason of the notes immediately pre- 
notation, may differ in execution by I ceding them : 



A trill on several tones in direct sue- 1 it may be performed with or without an 
cession is called a chain of trills ; I after-beat : 

tr^^^^^ ___^^ (a) 



f r r r r^^ ^ ^ -T-A 

Hi— (^wha^ L—il— h— N» i 

(beginning common to both) 


»-f— »— F^^ 

, r - P • ^ • ^— • ^ »- 



though in case any step is merely a chromatic alteration of a principal note, 
the after-beat is best omitted : 



the following requires short trills like 
inverted mordents : 

-The only rule now universally appli- 

cable to the execution of the trill is one 
equally applicable'to all other graces ; 
namely, that it must exactly fill out the 
time allotted to it, neither accelerating 
nor retarding the rhythm. — A peculiar 
mode of commencing the trill, called 
the rihattiiia, and still sometimes em- 
ployed by vocalists, flutists, and violon- 
cellists on account of the smoothness 
attainable thereby, has the following 
forms : 

— In the 17th and iSth centuxies, and 
early in the 19th, a common practice was 
to begin the trill on the auxiliary, and 
end on the principal note. — For varieties 
of the trill indicated by the signs 
l/vw .wsi \r^> /vw, etc., compare Graces, 
M 07' dent. Signs ... Double zxiA Triple 
Trills, in alternate thirds, sixths, etc., 
for both hands, frequently occur in 
modern pfte. -music. 

Tril'lerkette (Ger.) Chain of trills. 

Tril'Io (It.) Trill. (N. B. The trillo de- 
scribed in Caccini's Singing Method 
(1601) " consists of the rapid repetition 
of a single note... We. also mentions 
another grace which he calls the Gruppo, 
which closely resembles the modern 
shake : 


Trillo capri'710, see Bocks- 

Trine. A 3-tone group, or triad, com- 
posed of any given tone (the roof) with 
its major thirds above and below (as 
A';)-C-E). CompsiTe Duodene. 

■ Trink'lied (Ger.) Drinking-song. 

(j>Tri'o (It.) I. A composition for 3 
voices or parts, (a) The Instrumental 
Trio, usually in sonata-form, is most 
commonly either a Pianoforte Trio 
(pfte., violin, 'cello), or a String Trio 
(violin, viola, 'cello ; or 2 violins and 
'cello). Compositions for 3 concerted 
instruments, accompanied by a fourth 
playing a basso continuo, were formerly 
also styled trios. . .An Organ Trio is a 
3-part organ-piece for 2 manuals and 
pedal, the registration of the manuals 
being strongly contrasted. — (b) The 
Vocal Trio is usually in song-form or 
aria-form. — 2. In minuets, marches, 
scherzi, etc., the trio or alternativo is a 

division set between the first theme and 
its repetition, and contrasting with it by 
a more tranquil movement and cantU' 
bile style ; called "trio" because writ- 
ten in 3 parts, in contrast to the ordi- 
nary 2-part style of the principal subject. 

Trio'le (Ger.), Triolet (Fr.) Triplet. 

Triomphale (Fr.), TrionfaTe (It.) 

Triomphant (Fr.), Trionfan'te (It.) 

Trip'elfuge(Ger.) Triple fugue. . . Trip'- 
elkonzert, triple concerto (for 3 solo 
instr.s with orchestral accomp.) . . . Trip'- 
eltakt, triple Xirae. . . Tt'ip'elzunge, tri- 

Tripho'nia. See Organum. 

Tri'pla (It.) i. A triplet.— 2. Triple 

time. . . Tripla di mi'niina, 3-2 time. 
Triple counterpoint, fugue, time. See 

the nouns. 
Triple-croche (Fr.) A 32nd-note. 


Trip'let. (Ger. Trio'le; Fr. triolet; It. 
tri'pla.) A group of 3 equal notes to 
be performed in the time of 2 of like 
value in the regular rhythm ; written 

Trip'lum (Lat.) In medieval music, a 
third part added to the original Altus 
and Bassus of the organum, and gener- 
ally the highest of the 3 ; hence, Engl. 
Tri'pola (It.) Same as tripla. 
Trisemito'nium (Lat.) Minor third. 
Tristez'za (It.) Sadness, melancholy ; 

from trl'sto,-a, sad, afflicted. 
Tri'te (Gk.) The third tone from above 
in the conjoined, disjoined, and extreme 
tetrachords. See Greek music. 
Tri'tone. (Lat. and Ger. Tri' tonus; 
Fr. triton; It. tri'tono.) The interval 
of 3 whole tones, 
or an augment- 
ed fourth ; as 
Tritt (Ger.) Treadle or pedal . . . Trilt'- 

harfe, pedal-harp. 
Tri'tus (Lat.) The third authentic 

church-mode {Lydian). 
Tro'chee. (Lat. trochcs'us) A metri- 
cal foot of 2 syllables, long and short, 
with the ictus on the first (-^ --)• 
Trois (Fr.) IhrtQ... Mesure a trois- 
deux, 3-2 time ; a trois-huit, 3-8 time ; 
h frois-quaire, 3-4 time. 
Troll. A round or catch. 
Trom'ba (It.) A trumpet. . . Tr. croma'- 
tica, chromatic trumpet, valve-trumpet. 
Tromba mari' na {Sea-trumpet, 
Marine trumpet, Nmi s-fiddle; Ger. 
Non'nengeii^e, Trum'scheit), a very 
ancient single-stringed bow-instr., hav- 
ing for a body a long thin wooden shell 
made of several staves, a flat belly, 
short neck, and i thick gut string gen- 
erally tuned to C (sometimes one or 
more additional strings as drones). One 
foot of the bridge rests loosely on the 
belly, the harsh vibration thus induced 
rendering the tones very powerful, so 
that the instr, was formerly used in the 
English navy for signalling. The nat- 
ural harmonics have a far more pleasing 
quaHty of tone, which accounts for the 
comparative popularity of the instr., 
in Germany, from the 14th to the i6th 
century, in German churches and con- 
vents (whence the name " A^(?««<'«^^'^^" , 

nun's-fiddle). It occasionally had an 
additional octave-string, and some speci- 
mens were provided witli sympathetic 
strings within the body. . . Tr. sorda, 
muted trumpet. . . Tr. spezza'ta, earlier 
name for the tromba bassa (bass trum- 
Trombet'ta(It.) i. {\\so trombettalo re, 
trombettte're, trombetti'no.) A trum- 
peter. — 2. A small trumpet (dimin. 
Trombone', i. (It. and Fr. trombone; 
Ger. Fosau'ne.) An orchestral wind- 
instr. of metal, belonging to the trumpet 
family, with the distinctive feature of 
the slide-mechanism (see Slide), in 
which shape it dates probably from_ the 
15th century. It is constructed in 4 
sizes (alto, tenor, bass, and the more 
recently added contrabass); the tenor 
trombone is the one in most general use. 
Gevaert suggests that the tromba da 
tirarsi of Bach's scores was possibly a 
soprano tr., the place of which was usu- 
ally supplied by the cor)ietto.—\\._ is a 
non-transposing instr., and is written 
in the C-clef (alto or tenor) for the alto 
and tenor instr.s, and in the /'-clef for 
the bass and contrabass. _ In playing, 
there are 7 positions, obtained on suc- 
cessive descending semitonic degrees 
by gradually drawing out the slide, the 
istpos. being when the slide is pushed 
completely in, i. e. when the tube is 
shortest ; in each position the tones 
which can be regularly made to speak 
are the partials 2 to 8. Utilizing all 7 
positions, the tenor trombone in Bp has 
a chromatic y^ this is 

compass of m- |H K~= ^^^ ^^^' 

2i octaves, ^^^^f^^^ ular or- 

iromE\.ob'\) ^if^ 
compass, above which are the 4 ditticult 
tones /^', c\ c"i. and d"-; while below 
separated by a tritone from the rest of 
the scale, are the so-called pedal-tones 
— The orchestral 
=^" compass of the 
73 H; .H; rj: alto trombone is 
"»" * ^•- TP^ A—e'^\)\ that of 
the bass trombone 5i— /'.— The valve- 
trombone possesses greater agility than 
the slide-trombone, but is apt to be 
inferior to it in purity of tone. (Comp. 
art. Trumpet, last sentence.)— 2. In 
the organ, a powerful reed-stop (same 
as Posaune). 
Trom'mel (Ger.) A drum . . . Trom'mel- 
bass, the rapid reiteration of a bass tone 


(a term of disparagement). . . Trom'mel- 
kldppcl or -stocke, drumsticks. . . Gro'sse 
Tr., bass drnm. . . Militar'trom/nel, 
military drum, side-drum. . .y^^^/Z'/ww- 
mel, tenor drum.. .. IVit'beltrommel, 

Trompe (Fr.) A hunting-horn ; former- 
ly, a trumpet. . . Tr. de Beam, or tr. a 
laquais, jew's-harp. 

Trompe'te (Ger.) Trumpet. . . Trompe' - 
tetii^eige, tromba marina. . . Tro/upe'- 
tenregister ,-we7-k ,-zug , trumpet-stop. . . 
Trompe' ter, trumpeter. 

Trompette (Fr.) i. Trumpet. . . Tr. a 
coulisse, slide-trumpet. . . Tr. harmo- 
nieuse, trombone . . . Tr. d'harmonie, or- 
chestral trumpet. . . Tr. marine, tromba 
marina. — 2. Trumpeter ; bugler (for 

Trope. (Lat. iro'pus, pi. tro'pi; Ger. pi, 
Tro'pen.) One of the numerous formu- 
las, in the Gregorian chant, for the close 
of the lesser doxology following the in- 
troit. Originally, there was but one 
for each mode ; the different formulas 
are now termed differentia;. 

Trop'po (It.) Too, too much ; allegro, 
'"' ma non troppo, rapid, but not over- 

Troubadour (Fr. ; Span, trovador'; It. 
irovato' re; comp. Troiivere.) One of 
a class of poet-musicians originating in 
Provence, and flourishing in southern 
France, northern Spain, and Italy from 
the nth century till toward the close of 
the 13th. The chief theme of their 
lyrical effusions was love (comp. Meis- 
tersinger). Their art, at first cultivated 
by princes and knights, gradually de- 
cayed, passing into the hands of their 
former attendants, the Alhiestrels. 

Troupe (Fr.) A band or company of 

Trouvfere, Trouveur (Fr.) One of a 
class of medieval bards in northern 
France, especially I'icardy, conttnipo- 
rary with the troubadours and often 
confounded with them, though their 
poems were chiefly of an epic character 
and in strong contrast to the elegant 
lyric verse of the. latter. We owe to 
the trou7'eres, besides their graiid epics 
and X\\Q fabliaux, chansons de geste, etc., 
the origination of the prose tales of 
chivalry (the famous Round Table 

Triib(e) (Ger.) Gloomy, dismal; sad, 

Trug'fortschreitung (Ger.) Progres- 
sion of a dissonant chord to a dissonance 
instead of its resolution to a conso- 
nance. .. Z'rM§^j'<r/i/2<jj', deceptivfj ca- 

Trump. I (obs.) Trumpet. — 2. Jew's- 

Trumpet. I. (Ger. Trompe'te; Fr. trom- 
pette; It. trom'ba.) An orchestral metal 
wind-instr. having a tube of somewhat 
narrow scale, and a cupped mouthpiece ; 
the convolutions of the tube are straight- 
er than in the horn, and the bell is 
much smaller ; length of tube, for the 
typical pitch in D, is about 7 ft. 3^ in. 
By the aid of crooks the pitch of the 
prime tone in the natural trumpet may 
be modified to any degree of the 12- 
tone chromatic scale (.4, B^, B, C, JJ^, 
D, E\), E, F, F-i, G, A\, ; and also to 
high A and B^^. The natural trumpet 
has the following scale 


which, by combining the tones obtained 
by using the various crooks, gives the 
following complete compass : 

little used 

Good in all nuances 


-m- bp- 



only in forte 

The tone is brilliant, penetrating, and 
of great carrying power ; the stopped 
tones, however, are so disagreeable as 
to be practically useless. The trumpet 
is a transposing instr., and its music is 
written in the C-clef. — The chromatic 
or valve-trumpet is provided with 3 

valves (comp. Valve). [N. B. With 
regard to the assumed inferiority in 
tone of the valve-trumpet and valve- 
horn, as compared with the natural 
instr. s, no less an authority than Ge- 
vaert writes: "The chromatic horns 
and trumpets, when well constructed, 



possess all the qualities of timbre 
proper to the natural instr.s. in addition 
to their own resources".] — 2. In the 
organ, an 8-foot reed-stop of powerful 

Trum'scheit (Ger.) Tromba marina. 

Tu'ba. I. The straight trumpet of the 
Romans. — 2. A name applied to the 3 
lowest members of the sa.xhorn family. 
— The original tubas inv. by Wieprecht 
of Berlin in 1835, are of broad scale 
and have 4 valves, giving a complete 
chromatic scale of about 4 octaves. 
The bass tuba in Bg, and contrabass 
iuba \nBi\}, the ordinary orchestral 
sizes in Germany ; these, and also some 
others, are in general use in military 
bands. . . Tuba curva, a species of nat- 
ural trumpet of very limited compass, 
taught in the Paris conservatory at close 
of 1 8th century. — 3. In the organ, a 
reed-stop {tuba mira'bilis) on a heavy 
pressure of wind, of very powerful and 
thrilling tone. 

Tu'bicen (Lat.) A blower of the trump- 
et or tuba. 

Tucket. A flourish of trumpets. 

Tumultuo'so (It.) Vehement, impetu- 
ous ; agitated. 

Tun. Drum of the aborigines of Yuca- 

Tune. An air, melody ; a term chiefly 
applied to short pieces or familiar melo- 
dies of simple metrical construction. 

Tuner, i. (Ger. Stim'mer; Fr. accor- 
deur; It. accordaio're.) One who tunes 
instr.s as a profession. — 2. Same as 
Tuning-cone. — 3. The adjustable flap 
or incision at the top of an organ-pipe, 
by setting which the pitch is regulated. 

Tuning, i. The act or process of 
bringing an instr. into tune. — 2. The 
accordance or accordatura of a stringed 
instr. . . Tuning-cone, a hollow cone of 

metal, used in tuning metal flue-pipes 
in the organ. Their tops are "coned 
out " by inserting the point of the cone, 
this increasing the flare and raising the 
pitch; and "coned in" by pushing 
the inverted cone down over their tops, 
decreasing the flare and lowering the 
pitch. . . Tuning-crook, a crook . . . Tun- 
ing-fork, a 2-pronged instr. of metal, 
yielding one fixed tone (usually a' ; 
Tonic Sol-fa, c'-), and employed to give 
the pitch for tuning an instr., begin- 
ning a vocal performance, etc. . . Tun- 
ing-hammer, a hand-wrench used in 
tuning pftes. . . Tuning-horn, a tuning- 
cone. . . Tuning-key, a tuning-hammer. 
. . Tuning-slide, a sliding U-shaped 
section of the tube in certain brass 
instr.s, used to adjust their pitch to 
that of other instr.s. .. Tuning- wire, 
comp. Tij>e 2, b. 

Tuo'no (It.) A tone ; a mode. 

Tur'ba (Lat., "crowd, throng"). In 
medieval passions, the chorus repre- 
senting the Jewish populace, or the 
heathen, and taking part in the action 
of the play. 

Tur'C0,-a (It.) Turkish. . .^//a turca, 
in Turkish style, with a boisterous 
and somewhat monotonous harmonic 

Turkish music. See Janizary music. 

Turn. (Ger. Dop'pelschlag; Fr. groupe; 
It. grupptt'to.) Sign fivs; obs. cz^, g , g 
{back turns). A melodic grace consist- 
ing, in what may be termed the typical 
form (the direct turn), of 4 notes, a 
principal note (twice struck) with its 
higher and lozver auxiliary (the maj. or 
min. second above and below, each 
struck once). The sign is set either 
after, or over, the note modified ; a 
chromatic sign over or under the turn- 
sign alters the higher or lower auxiliary 

I. Turn-sign after the note. 




or [easier] 



Except in extremely rapid move- 1 before the turn, for one-half or ^ of its 
ments, the principal note is dwelt on, I time-value : 






adagio vxolto 



and the turn is executed in equal I usually loses a larger proportion of its 
notes. But a dotted principal note I value : 

and in a slow movement the second 
member of the dotted rhythm (e. g. the (/ 
in the last example) is frequently rob- 
bed of half its value, which is added to 
the repercussed principal note ; this 
form is occasionally called a partial 
turn. Mozart some- ^ 
times carelessly 
wrote the turn thus : "- 

to be played : 


II. Turn-sign over the note. — In 

slow tempi, or where the principal note 
requires special stress, the turn may be- 
gin on the principal note, as in : 



this last ornament was called the j/?;2/^<:'i/ 1 Commonly, however, this turn begins 
turn (Ger. prallemier Doppelschlag). I immediately on the higher auxiliary : 

III. The Back Turn (sign the in- 1 onthelower auxiliary, and the principal 
verted or vertical turn-sign 02 2) begins I note is generally dwelt on after the turn : 

IV. The sign for the Double Turn 
(jv) '^^"s fo'' 3- turn in 2 parts at once. 

Tusch (Ger.) A thrice-repeated flourish 
of trumpets accomp. by the roll of the 
drums, or a flourish by the wind-instr.s 
in the orchestra, in token of applause 

^_ or welcome. 

T\lt'to,-a (It.) All, whole; con tiitta 
la for'za, with full power or strength. 
, . Tutti (pi.), in scores, indicates the 
entrance of the whole body of instru- 
mentalists or vocalists after a solo 
(comp. Solo). . . Tutto arco, whole bow. 

Tuyau (Fr.) A pipe ; a tube (as of the 
trumpet). . . T.a ancht\ reed-pipe. . . T. 
h boiicht\ flue-pipe . . . T. d'orgtw, organ- 

Twelfth. I. The interval of an octave 
plus a fifth ; a compound fifth. — 2. A 
mutation-stop in the organ, pitched a 
twelfth higher than the diapasons. 


Twenty-second. A triple octave. 
Twice-accented (a", b", etc.) 

Pitch, absolute. 
Two. — Tuio-time, 2-tiine, duple time. . . 

Two-lined octave, also a, b, etc.; see 
Pitch, absolute. 

Tympan. i. A timbrel or drum. — 2. 
An obsolete Irish instr., probably a 
kind of crowd. 

Tym'pano (It.) See Timpano. 

Tympanon (Fr., from Gk.) i. Dulci- 
mer. — 2. Same as tympanum. 

Tym'panum (Lat.) An ancient drum, 
sometimes having one head like a tam- 
bourine, sometimes two, closed and 
rounded below like a kettledrum, and 
beaten with a stick or the hand. 

Ty'pophone. A keyboard instr., the 
tones of which are produced by steel 
wands and a hammer-action similar to 



that of the pfte. Compass 4 octaves 
(chromatic) from c^ to <r' inckisive. 
Tone sweet and sustained, resembling 
that of the harmonic flute. 
Tyrolienne (Fr.) A Tyrolese dance or 
dance-song, a peculiar feature of the 
latter being the Jodlcr, especially as a 
refrain. — Hence, a modern round dance 
in 3-4 time and easy movement. 


D'ben (Ger.) To practise. 

U'ber(Ger.) Over, above. .. U'bcrhlasen, 
to overblow ; overblowing. . . O'lu'r- 
gang, a transition, modulation . . . O'lh-r- 
gefiihrte Stimmen, divided stops (or- 
gan). . . U'bergreifen, (a) to cross the 
hands in pfte. -playing ; (3) same as DJ- 
vianchJ; iibergreifendes System, in 
Hauptmann's theory of harmony, a key- 
system (i. e. a chain of 3 fundamental 
triads) formed by adding to the given 
key-system a new link or triad on the 
dominant or subdominant side ; e. g. 
adding to d/ F-a-C-e-G-b-DJf the triad 
D-f^-A, and thus forming the new 
key-system a/ C-e- G-b-D-f^-A/c. . U'ber- 
leitung, transitional passage . . . tj'ber- 
massig, augmented (of intervals) . . . 
U'berschlagen (a) to cross hands (on a 
keyboard instr.); (b) to overblow (of 
organ-pipes and wind-instr.s); (c) see 
Umschlagen . . . O'bersetzen, to pass 
over (as a finger over the thumb on the 
keyboard, or one foot over the other on 
the ^^disXs). . .O'bersteigc'n, to rise 
above ; said of a vocal part which tem- 
porarily ascends above one naturally 

U'bung (Ger.) E.xercise ; practice. 

Ugua'le (It.) Equal, like, even. . . Ugua- 
lita\ equality, conformity. . . Ugual- 
mcn'te, equally, alike, evenly. 

Uma'no,-a (It.) Human. . . Voceumana, 
{a) vo.x humana ; (/') cor anglais. 

Um'fang (Ger.) Compass. 

Um'kehrung (Ger.) Inversion. 

Urao're (It.) Humor. 

Um'schlagen (Ger.) i. Of the voice, to 
break ; umschlaoi'nde Stimme, voice 
alternating between chest-tones and 
falsetto. — 2. Of wind-instr.s, to over- 
blow ; also compare Goose. 

Um'stimmung (Ger.) i. A change of 
pitch or key in wind-instr.s or the ket- 
tledrums, called for in scores by the 

word Muta. — 2. A scordatura of 
stringed instr.s. 

^Un, une (Fr.) A, or an. . . Un feu plus 
lent, a little slower. 

■ Un, u'no, u'na (It.) A, or An... Una 
corda, with the soft pedal (pfte.) ; Tre 
corde then signifies that the soft pedal 
is to be released. 

Unaccented octave. The small octave 

(see Pitch, % i). 

Unacknowledged note. An unessen- 
tial or passing-note. 

Un'ca (Lat.) Hooked ; hence, an eighth- 
note \Y); bis unca (twice hooked), a 
si.xteenth-note( fc). 

Uncoupled. (Ger. Koppel ab.) In or- 
gan-music, a direction to push in a 
coupler previously drawn. (Usually 
"off" ; as Gt. to Fed. off.) 

Un'da ma'ris (Lat., "wave of the sea".) 
In the organ, an 8-foot flue-stop pitched 
a trifle lower than the surrounding 
foundation-stops, the interference of its 
tone with theirs producing beats and a 
wavy, undulatory effect of tone. 

Unde'cima (Lat. and It.) The interval 
of an eleventh. 

Undec'uplet. A group of 11 equal 
notes to be performed in the time of 8 
(or 6) of like value in the regular 

Under-chord. See Phone, §1 . . . Under. 
song, burden, reir3.m. .. Undertones 
(from Ger. Un'tertbne), the lower par- 
tials. (See Acoustics.) 

Unde'zime (Ger.) The interval of an 


Undezimo'le (Ger.) An undecuplet. 

Undulazio'ne (It.) On bow-instr.s, the 

vibrato effect. 

Un'eigentliche Fu'ge (Ger.) Fuga 


Un'endlich (Ger.) Infinite. 

Unequal temperament. See Tempera- 
ment. . . Unequal voices, voices different 
in compass and quality ; mixed voices. 

Unessential note. One forming no 
essential part of the harmony or melody, 
as passing-notes, changing-notes, many 
graces, etc. 

Ung'arisch (Ger.) Hungarian. 

Un'gebunden (Ger.) See Gebunden. 

Un'geduldig (Ger.) Impatient. 

Un'gerader Takt (Ger.) Triple time. 



Un'gestrichene Okta've (Ger.) Un- 
accented octave (the " non-lined," or 
small, octave). 

Un'gestiim (Ger.) Impetuous(ly). 

Un'gleich (Ger.) Unequal. . . Un'gleich- 
schwehende Te/npenitur', unequal tem- 

Un'harmonisch (Ger.) Inharmonic. 

Unichord. (Lat. unichor'dum^ l. Mono- 
chord. — 2. Tromba marina. 

Unio'ne (It.) Coupler. 

Unison. (Lat. iiniso' mis ; Ger. Unison' ; 
Fr. unissoti; It. uni'sono.) Properly, 
a tone of the same pitch as a given 
tone ; by extension, a higher or lower 
octave of a given tone; as all' unisono 
(It.), a Vuuisson (Fr.), in unison, at 
the unison, progressing in unison (in 
this latter sense often found in scores, 
as where a double-bass part is written 
out and the 'cello has merely the direc- 
tion col basso all' unisono \_c. B. all' iini- 
sono\, i. e., the same part an octave 
higher). — Also, in the pianoforte, a 
group of 2 or 3 strings struck by one 
hammer and yielding one tone ; one 
such string is called a unison-siring. — 
Finally, sometimes equiv. to Prime. 

Unitamen'te (It.) Unitedly, together 
with. . . Uni'to,-a, united, joined. 

U'no (It.) See Un. 

Un'rein (Ger.) Impure, false, out of 

Un'ruhig(Ger.) Restless(ly), unquiet(Iy). 

Un'schuldig (Ger.) Innocent(ly). 

Un'ter (Ger.) Under, below, sub- 

Un'terbass, subbass. . . Unterhroch'en, 
interrupted. . . Un'terdominante, sub- 
dominant. . . Un'terleitton, dominant 
seventh... Un' termedianle, submediant. 
. . Un'tersatz, subbass . . . Uti' tersetzen, 
to pass under (see Uhersetzcn) . . . Un'- 
terstimme, lowest part; bass part... 
Un'tertaste, a key (digital) belonging 
to the lower or white row ; a white key. 
. . Uyi'tertone (pi.), Un' tertonreihe, the 
series of lower harmonics of a given 
tone ; the undertones; opp. to Ober- 

Un'vollkommen (Ger.) Imperfect. 
Uo'mo (It.) Man. (See Frimo.) 
Up-beat. (Ger. Auftakt; Fr. lev^: It. 
leva'ia.) I. The raising of the hand in 
beating time ; opp. to down-beat. — 2. 
An unaccented part of a measure. 

Up-bow. (Ger. Hitiauf'strich; Fr. 
pousse; It. 07x0 in su^ In playing bow- 
instr.s, the stroke of the bow in the 
direction from point to nut ; sign V or 
A, which is called the tip-bow mark. 

Upright piano. See Pianoforte. 

Ut. I. The first of the Aretinian syllables 
(see Solmisatioti). — 2. Name in France 
of the note C . . In the French system 
of marking the absolute pitch, the sev- 
eral octaves are marked as follows : 

French system 

begins on 

English system 

Octave J 

— ♦ »/_j 






octave4 octavej 

Thus Middle- C is marked f' in the 
English system, and utz in the French. 
Ut (Lat.) As, just as, like ; zit supra, 
as above. 


V. An abbrev. for Vide (v. s. = vide 
sequens), Violino, Volti (V. S. = volti 
subito). Voce (m. v. = raezza voce.) — 
V<=, orV"."», Violoncello ;\^^, Viola; 'P' 
or'Y, Versicle ; Vv., violini. 

Va (It.) Go on, continue ... Fa cre- 
scendo, go on increasing (the power). 

Vacillan'do (It.) Vacillating ; noting a 
passage to be performed in a wavering, 
hesitating style. 

Va'gans (Lat.) See Quintus. 

Va'gO (It.) Vague, dreamy. 

Va'lor (Lat.). Valo're 
i. e. time-value. (Ger. 

Valeur (Fr.), 
(It.) Value 

Valse (Fr.) Waltz; valse chant^e,'wa.\tz- 
song ; valse de salon, a salon-piece in 
waltz-time for pfte. 

Value. (See Valeur^ The value (or, 
better, the /?wt'-value) of a note or rest, 
is its length or duration as compared 
{a) with other notes in the same move- 
ment, or ip) with the standard whole 
note or any fractional note. 

Valve. I. (Ger. Ventif ; Yr. piston; It. 
val'vola, pisto'7ie.) In certain brass 
wind-instr.s, a device for diverting the 
air-current from the main tube to an 
additional side-tube, thus lengthening 
the air-column and lowering the pitch 
of the instrument's entire scale. By 
the aid of valves, natural instr.s are 



altered to chromatic instr.s commanding 
a chromatic scale throughout their com- 
pass. (Compare Horn, Trtimpet ; also 
Key 3.) — The valves are operated by 
the fingers of the right hand ; their 
usual number is 3, No. i lowering the 
pitch by (approximately) I tone, No. 2 
by a semitone, and No. 3 by xYi tones. 
Two systems are in ordinary use ; the 
Piston-valve, and the Rotary Valve. — 
{a) The Piston-valve is a cylindrical 
plunger working in an air-tight cylinder, 
terminating in a short rod surmounted 
by a button, and pierced crosswise by 
2 round holes ; the enclosing cylinder 
is similarly pierced, on either side, one 
perforation communicating with the 
main tube, the other with the side-tube. 
When the piston is not depressed, one 
of its holes is opposite to those in the 
cylinder which communicate with the 
main tube, so that the open (natural) 
tone of the tube can be sounded ; on 
depressing the piston with the finger, 
communication with the main tube is 
cut off, but opened with the side-tube, 
so that the lower tone sounds. On re- 
leasing the piston, a spiral spring 
causes its return to the original position. 
— The Rotary Valve is "a four-way 
stop-cock turning in a cylindrical case 
in the plane of the instrument, 2 of its 
4 ways forming part of the main chan- 
nel, the other 2, on its rotating through 
a quadrant of the circle, admitting the 
air to the ^ide-tube ". Its manipulation 
is lighter than that of the piston, but it 
is more liable to derangement. — 2. In 
the organ, the principal valves are the 
suction-valves or suckers admitting 
wind to the bellows and preventing its 
escape ; the -waste-pallet^ relieving the 
bellows of an over-supply of wind ; and 
the key-valves or pallets. 

Variamen'te (It.) Variously, different- 

Varian'te (It. and Fr.) A variant ; an- 
other (optional) reading. See Ossia. 

Variation. (Ger. and Fr. Variation'; 
It. variazio'ne.) One of a set or series 
of transformations of a theme by means 
of harmonic, rhythmic, and melodic 
changes and embellishments. In the 
Doubles, or earlier form, the variations 
left the melody, key, and rhythm of the 
theme intact, merely embellishing it 
with new and growingly elaborate fig- 
uration ; whereas the modern tema con 
variazioni (beginning with Haydn and 

Mozart, and fully developed by Beet 
hoven) may employ the strongest con- 
trasts of rli^-thm, harmony, and tonality, 
the sole limitation being that a memory 
— so to speak — of the theme shall in 
one way or another be kept alive 
Varia'to (It.), Vari^ (Fr.) Varied. . . 
Air varid, thhne varid, same as tema 
con variazoni. 

Varsovienne (Fr.; It. Varsovia'na) A 
dance in moderate tempo and 3-4 time, 
with rt«/j!'(2/'/'of a quarter-note, the down- 
beat of every second measure being 
strongly marked ; presumably invented 
in France about 1S53, as a variant of 
the Polish polka, mazurka, andredowa. 

Vaudeville (Fr.) Originally, a popular 
convivial or satirical street-song, or song 
sung about town ; by the introduction 
of such verses into light plays and 
operas the way was paved for the mod- 
ern vaudeville, a light comedy, often a 
parody, in which dialogue and panto- 
mime alternate with witty and satirical 
couplets generally set to well-known 
popular airs, 

Veemen'te (It.) Vehement, passionate. 
. . Veemen'za, con, with vehemence, 

Veil. In singing, an obscuration of tone, 
either natural or superinduced by out- 
ward causes, detracting from clear and 
bell-like vocalization. A veiled voice is 
called in It. vo'ce vela'ta, in Fr. voix 
sombrJe or voilee. 

Vela'to (It.) Veiled (see Veil). 

Velluta'to (It.) Velvety. 

Velo'ce (It.) Rapid, swift ; usually ap- 
plied to a passage to be performed more 
swiftly than those before and after, thus 
being the opposite of r/7^««fo. . . Veloce- 
7nen'te, rapidly. . . Velocissimamen' te, 
velocis'simo, with extreme swiftness, 
presto. . . Velocity', velocity. 

Ventage. (Ger. Ton'loch.) In wind- 
instr.s having finger-holes or keys, any 
hole to be stopped by a finger or key. 

Ven'til. I. Valve. — 2. In the organ, 
a cut-off or shutter within the wind- 
trunk, for shutting the wind off from, or 
admitting it to, certain stops or partial 
organs ; often controlled by a draw- 
stop or Y>cd-A. . . Ventil'korn (Ger.), 
valve-horn ; VentiV kornctl, cornet k 



Venu'sto (It.) Graceful, elegant. 

Vepres (Fr.) Vespers. 

Veran'derungen (Ger.) Variations. 

Verbin'dung (Ger.) Binding, tying, 
connection ; combination . . . Verbin'- 
dungszeichen, tie. 

Verdeckt' (Ger.) Covered, concealed. 

Verdop'pelt (Ger.) Doubled. . . Vcrdop'- 
peliing, doubling. 

Vereng'ung (Ger.) i. See Verkiir'- 
zung. — 2. Harmonic compression of a 
theme by substituting in the imitation a 
narrower interval for a wider one. 

Vergniigt' (Ger.) Cheerful, cheery. 

Vergro'sserung (Ger.) Augmentation 
(of a theme). 

Verhal'len (Ger.) To die away. . . Ver- 
hal'lend, dying away. 

Verkeh'rung (Ger) Inversion (of the 
intervals of a theme); i. e. imitation by 
inversion, or by contrary motion. 

Verklei'nerung (Ger.) Diminution. 

Verkiir'zung (Ger.) Diminution i. 

Verlang'erungszeichen (Ger.) Dot of 

Verlo'schend (Ger.) Dying away. 

Vermin'dert (Ger.) Diminished (of in- 

Vermit'telungssatz (Ger.) Episode. 

Verrillon (Fr.) An Harmonica 2. 

Verschie'bung (Ger.) Shifting pedal, 
soft pedal; mit Versch., unacorda; ohne 
Versch., tre corde. 

Verschwin'dend (Ger.) Vanishing ; dy- 
ing away. 

Verse. A portion of a service or anthem 
sung by solo voices ; opp. to chorus. 
. . Verse-anthem, see Anthem. . . Verse- 
service, a choral service for solo voices. 

Verset . (It. verset'to; Fr. verset) I. 
Same as Versicle. — 2. A short prelude 
or interlude for the organ. 

Verset'zen (Ger.) To transpose. . . Vcr- 
set'zttng, transposition ; Verset'zungs- 
zeichen, a chromatic sign. 
Versicle. In liturgies, a short verse gen- 
erally forming, together with its re- 
sponse, but one sentence ; e. g. 
Vers. O Lord, save Thy people, 
Resp. And bless Thine inheritance. 

Ver'so (It.) I. A verse or stanza. — 2. 

An air or tune. 
Verstimmt' (Ger.) Out of tune ; out of 

humor, depressed. 

Ver'te (Lat.) Turn over. (See VolH.) 

Vertical. Lying in one plane (said of 
pfte.-strings) ; opp. to overstrung. 

Verve (Fr.) Spirit, animation, vigor, 

Verwandt' (Ger.) Related ; verwan'dU 
Tonarten, related keys. . . Verwandi'- 
schaft, relation(ship). 

Verwech'selung, die enharmo'nische 
(Ger.) The enharmonic change. 

Verwei'lend (Ger.) Delaying ; ritenuto. 

Verziert' (Ger.) Ornamented ... Fifr- 
zid'rung, ornament, grace. 

Verzo'gerung (Ger.) Retardation. 

Verzwei'flungsvoll (Ger.) Despair- 
ing(ly); with desperation. 

Vespers. (It. ve'spcro; Fr. vepres; Ger. 
Vesper.) "Even-song." The 6th of 
the canonical hours. 

Vezzo'so (It.) Graceful; elegant... 
Vezzosamen'te, gracefully, etc. 

Vibran'te (It.) With a vibrating, agi- 
tated effect of tone. 

Vibration. (It. vihrazio' ne ; Fr. vibra- 
tion ; Ger. Schwing'ung.) The rapid 
oscillation of any tone-producing body, 
as a string, an air-column, the vocal 
cords, eic... Amplitude 0/ vibration, the 
widest departure of a tone-producing 
body, towards either side, from a point 
of rest . . .A mplitude of a single vibra- 
tion, properly, the departure of the tone- 
producing body from the middle point 
towards one side only ; but frequently 
made to comprehend the entire width 
of the excursion from side to side... 
Double vibration, the excursion of a 
tone-producing body (as a string) from 
one side to the other and back again.. . 
Vibration-number, a figure represent- 
ing the number of vibrations (usually 
estimated by double vibrations) made 
by a tone. 

Vibra'to (It.) i. On bow-instr.s, the 
wavering effect of tone obtained by the 
rapid oscillation of a finger on the 
string which it is stopping.— 2. In sing- 
ing, a tremulous effect, differing from 
the tremolo in not fluctuating from the 
pitch, partaking of the nature of a 
thrill, or series of very rapid partial in- 
terruptions of the tone. [Not to be 
confounded with Tremolo in either 
sense.] The ill-managed vibrato de- 
generates to a trillo caprino {q. v.) 

I Vibrator. A free reed. 



Vicen'da (It.) Change. .. l'ii('fi,//v(>/c-, 
changeably, vacillatingly. 

Vi'de (Lat.), Vi'di (It.) See...Vi-de, in 
scores, a sign that a "cut" has been 
made, directing the performers to skip 
from Vi- over to de. 

Vide (Fr., "empty".) Open (said of 
strings) . . . Corde a vide, open string ; 
opp. to corde h jotter, a string to be 

Viel (Ger.) Much, grcaX. . .Mil vie'lem 
Nach'druck, with strong emphasis... 
Viel'chorig, for several choirs or (di- 
vided) choruses. . . Viel' fac her Kon'- 
iraptinkt, polymorphous counterpoint. 
. . Viel' stimmig, polyphonic. 

ViMe (Fr.) A modernized spelling of 

Vielle (Fr.) Hurdy-gurdy. (Also viel' la.) 

Vier (Ger.) Four... Vierach'teltakt, 4-S 
time... Viei'doppelter Kon'trapunkt, 
quadruple counterpoint. . . Vier'fach, 
st&fach. .. Vier'fiissig, 4-foot.. . Vier'- 
ges trie hen, see Ge stricken 2. . . Vier'- 
hdndig, for 4 hands . . . Vier'klang, 
chord of the "Jth. . . Vier'tel (-note), 
quarter-note . . . Vier' telpa use, quarter- 
rest. . . Viervier'teltakt, 4-4 time. . . 
Vierzwei'teltakt, 4-2 time. 

Vif, 7«., Vive, /i7«. (Fr.) Brisk, lively. 

Vigorosamen'te (It.) With vigor, ener- 
gy. . . Vigoro'so, vigorous, energetic. 

Vihue'la. Primitive form of the Spanish 

Villanci'co (.Span.) A sacred vocal com- 
position resembling the English anthem, 
sung in Spain at the principal festivals 
of the Church. 

Villanel'la (It.) An Italian folk-song 
of the 16th century, differing from the 

Viola alta. 

Viola tenore. 

artistic madrigal by simple harmoniza- 
tion and the more rustic, humorous, 
* and sometimes loose character of the 

Villarec'cio (It.) Rustic, rural. 

Vi'na. An ancient stringed instr. of the 
Hindus. The body is a section of 
bamboo, over which are stretched 
lengthwise 4 strings, tuned in the 
order dominant, leading-tone, tonic, 
snbdominant; the 18 movable frets can 
be adjusted to coincide with any one 
of the Hindu scales. There are also 3 
sympathetic strings. Two gourds, fixed 
at either end of the bamboo, act as 

Vina'ta (It.; d\m\n. vinet'ta.) A vintage 
song, or drinking-song. 

Vi'ol. (It. vio'la ; Ger. and Fr. Vio'le.) 
Name of a very ancient type of bow- 
instr., now obsolete ; the prototype of 
the violin tribe (but comp. Lira), from 
which it differed by having a fretted 
fingerboard , a variable number of strings 
(from 5 to 8 or more, though the usual 
number for all sizes was six), and in 
the shape of the body. Both belly 
(usually) and back (always) were flat, 
the ribs high, the bouts nearly semi- 
circular, the sound-holes like half-cir- 
cles, and the upper half of the body 
narrow and pointed. The bridge being 
but slightly arched, and having to sup- 
port so many strings, those in the mid- 
dle could scarcely be touched separately 
with the bow ; this circumstance, how- 
ever, together with the number and 
peculiar tuning of the strings, greatly 
facilitated chord-playing, in which the 
violin is comparatively at a disadvan- 
tage. The tuning was as follows : 

Viola bassa. 

(Bass viol.) 

SWa hasga. 
(Contrabass viol.) 

i.e. in fourths vi\\.h. one //?«>-</ midway.— - 
The viols formerly held, in conjunction 
with the lutes, the position in the or- 
chestra now occupied by the violin, etc., 
and were not fairly ousted by the latter 
till the beginning of the 18th century. 
The Bass Viol {i.e. in viol-shape, but 
with fewer strings) is, indeed, still 
found in England, though superseded 
elsewhere by the double-bass of violin- 
type. The violin first supplanted the 

treble viol; gradually the larger violin- 
types were invented, with the above- 
mentioned result. During the transi- 
tion, the frets were gradually discarded. 
Vio'la (It.) I. The tenor violin. — 2. A 
viol... V. alia, {a) treble viol; hence 
{b) tenor violin (obsolete name) . . .V. 
hastat'da, an enlarged viola da gam'ba, 
originally with 6 or 7 stopped strings, 
to which were added later an equal 
number of sympathetic strings stretched 



beneath bridge and fingerboard. .. F. 
da brac'cio, " arm-viol" (iience Ger. 
Bra'tscke), a viol held on the arm 
while playing ; opp. to v. da gamba. . . 
V. d.i gamba, " leg-viol," a large viol 
held, like the 'cello, between the knees ; 
the bass instr. of the viol family. . . /'. 
d'amo're{¥r. viole d amour), a tenor viol 
similar to the v. bastarda in stringing 
and construction, but of course sma'Uer. 
..V. da spalla, " shoulder- viol," a 
somewhat enlarged v. da braccio. . .V. 
di bardo'ne, see Barytone 2 . . . V^. pom- 
posa {violoncel'lo pic' cold), a large kind 
of violin inv. by J. S. Bach, midway in 
size between a tenor violin and 'cello, 
with 5 strings tuned C-G-d-a-e^ . . . Con- 
trabbas'so di -via' la, see Viol. 

Vio'le (Ger.) Viol. 

Viole (Fr.) Formerly, a viol ; now, a 



Viole d' amour, see Viola d a- 

Violentamen'te (It.) Violently, impet- 
uously. . . Violen'to, violent. 

Violet. The viola d\imore. (Sometimes 
English Violet. ) 

Violette (Fr.) Small viola. 

Violet'ta (It.) Small v\o\. . .Violetta 
marina, a bow-instr. inv. by Pietro 
Castrucci, soli for which were written 
by Handel in Orlando and Sosarme. 

Violin'. (Ger. Violi'ne; Fr. violon; It. 
violi'no.) A 4-stringed bow-instr. of 
comparatively modern type (an im- 
proved viol*), and the leading orchestral 
instr.; constructed in 4 principal sizes 
(the so-called string-quartet of the or- 
chestra), with the following accordature: 





(written : ) 

A description of the treble violin, the 
typical instr. of the family, will suffice 
for all its members. — The resonance- 
box, or body, is formed by a vaulted 
belly (bearing the bridge) and back, 
joined by narrow sides called ribs; the 
waist is the narrow middle portion be- 
tween the incurving bouts, at the corners 
of which, and also at other points with- 
in the body, are glued triangular pieces 
of wood called blocks, to strengthen the 
frame. Also inside, just beneath the 
treble foot of the bridge, is set a round 
wooden prop, the soundpost, placed 
there to resist the tension of the strings 
and to communicate their vibration di- 
rectly to the back ; the bass-bar further 
strengthens the belly. The curved 
apertures cut in either side of the belly 
are the /-holes, or sound-holes. At the 
bass of the body is the button, to which 
the wooden tailpiece is attached by a 
loop of gut ; from the tailpiece the 
strings are stretched across the bridge' 
and over the fingerboard (which lies 
partly upon the neck and partly over 
the belly) to the nut, and thence each 
to a separate p:g in the peg-box or head, 
which ends in the scroll. — The word 
violin is from the It. violino, a diminu- 
tive of viola, meaning literally " small 
viol ". Violin-music is written in the 
6^-cIef {violin-clef). The strings are 
numbered 1234 from highest to low- 

est, because the highest string is that 
next the bow-hand. (Compare also 
Bow, Bowing, Position, Shift.)... 
Violi)i-clef, the C-clef . . . Violin-diapa- 
son, a diapason-stop of narrow scale 
and stringy tone. 
Violi'na. A metal flue-stop in the organ, 
generally of 4-foot pitch, of small scale 
and stringy timbre. 

Violinette. i. A kit. — 2. Same as 

violino piccolo. 

Violi'no (It.) Violin.../^'', di fer'ro, 
nail-fiddle. . . K/zV^ri?/!;?, a violin smaller 
and tuned a fourth higher than the 
ordinary violin . . . V. pompo'so, a violin 

with an 
string (c^ 

. . V. prima {se- 
condo), first (sec- 
ond) violin. 

violier.) Viola- 

Violin'schliissel (Ger.) 

Violiste (Fr.; formerly 

Violon (Fr.) I. Violin. — 2. The violin- 
diapason (organ-stop). 

Violonar (Fr.) Recent name for the 

Violonaro (Fr.) Same as Octo-basse. 

Violoncel'lo (It.; Ger. Violoncell' ; Fr. 
violoncelle.) A 4-stringed bow-instr. of 

*A. Hadjecki, in his essay on "The Italian 
Lira da braccio," contends very plausibly that 
the violin was derived, not from the viol, but 
from the lira da braccio. 



violin-type (see Violin), dating in its 
present form from the latter half of the 
i6th century. The word is a diminu- 
tive of violone, the It. augmentative of 
vioia, thus meaning literally a "little 
big viol ". The 'cello, as it is familiarly 
called, required more than a century to 
become popular, taking at first very 
subordinate parts, whence its desig- 
nation, in many scores of the 17th 
century, as Basso or Bass. It slowly 
conquered the esteem of artists, and 
supplanted the viola da ga////>a, like 
which it is held, for playing, between 
the knees, while firmly supported on 
the floor by its pointed pc'g or standard. 
Violoncello-music is written in 3 clefs 

^v -H-^ f -d- — • for convenience of no- 

^rrinfrEffi^i tation, and now invari- 
^ ably according to the 
actual pitch ; but the classic masters, 
who also frequently used the 6'-clef 
in chamber -compositions, wrote the 
notes in this clef an octave higher than 
they actually sounded. . . Violoncello pic' - 
colo, see Viola pomposa. 

Violo'ne (It., "great viol".) i. See 
Viol. — 2. In the organ, a stop on the 
pedal, of 16-foot pitch and violoncello- 
like timbre. 

Violoniste (Fr.) Violinist. 

Vir'ga. Same as Virgula. 

Virgil Practice-Clavier. A toneless 
keyboard instr. for mechanical pfte.- 
practice, inv. by A. K. Virgil, of New 
York, in 1SS3 (see Tcchniplioiie). It 
differs essentially from the old dumb 
piano in 2 features: (i) The depres- 
sion, and also the release, of a digital 
produces a mild click like that of a tele- 
graph-key ; this furnishes a means for 
accurately timing the practice, for 
acquiring promptness of down-stroke 
and up-stroke, and for determining the 
different styles of touch (e. g. for the 
strict legato the click on depressing 
one digital exactly coincides with the 
release-click of the one preceding) ; (2) 
it affords, by a simple mechanical ad- 
justment, 6 gradations in the weight of 
the touch, from 2 to 20 ounces — i. e. 
from the very lightest pfte. -touch up to 
5 times that of the average pfte. -action, 
or more than the heaviest organ-touch. 

Vir'ginal. A small kind of harpsichord : 
often written in the plural form as "a 
pair of virginals", signifying merely a 
single instr. (Comp. Pianoforte.) 

Vir'gula. One of the Neumes. 

Virtues' (Ger. ; fern. Virtuo'sin.) i. A 
virtuoso. (Fr. virtuose.) — 2. Virtuose ; 
i. e., possessing or exhibiting the quali- 
ties of a finished artist ; also virtuo'- 
senhaft. . . Virtuositiit' , virtuosity. 

Virtuo'so,-a (It.; pi. virtnosi,-e.) A 
finished instrumentalist or vocalist. 

Vis-a-vis (Fr.) A harpsichord or pfte 
having 2 opposed keyboards, for 2 
Vi'sta (It.) Sight ; a (prima) vista, at 

(first) sight. 
Vi'stamente (It.) Briskly, animatedly. 

. . Vi'sto, lively animated. 
Vite(Fr.) Quick(ly). 
Viva'ce(It.) A tempo-mark which, used 
alone, calls for a movement equalling 
or exceeding allegro in rapidity ; when 
used as a qualifying term, it denotes a 
spirited, bright, even-toned style... 
Vivacenicn'te, con vivacez'za, viva- 
men' te, con vivacita', are terms nearly 
synonymous with vivace. . . Vivacis'- 
simo, with extreme vivacity, //-«/(7. . . 
Vivacet'to, less lively than vivace, about 
Vive. See Vif. 

Viven'te (It.) Lively, brisk, animated. 
Vi'vido, vi'vo (It.) Lively, spirited. 

( Vivace.) 
Vocal. Pertaining to the voice ; specifi- 
cally, proper for the singing-voice . . . 
Vocal cords, the 2 opposed muscles 
or ligaments set within the larynx, 
whose vibration, caused by the expul- 
sion of air from the lungs, produces 
vocal tones. . . Vocal glottis (Lat. riina 
vocalis), the aperture between the v. 
cords when they are approximated for 
the production of tones. . . Vocal music, 
music written for or executed by the 
voice, as a solo or with accompaniment 
. . . Vocal registers, see Voice. . . Vocal 
score, see Score. 
Voca'lion. See Reed-organ. 
Vocalisation (Fr.) The art of singing 
prolonged and sustained tones on 
vowels only . . . Vocaliser, to sing ac- 
cording to the rules of vocal art, using 
only the vowels a and e. . . Vocalises ^ 
vocal exercises or etudes, generally sung 
to the vowels, but also, in advanced 
etudes, to words. 
Vocalizza're, Vocaliz'zi (It.) Same 
as Vocaliser, Vocalises, 



Vo'ce (It., pi. voci^ Voice ; part. . . V. 
ange'lica, vox angelica. . . V. bian'ca 
("white voice"), term applied to the 
voices of women and children, and to 
the tones of certain instr.s of similar 
quality. . . V. di ca'mem, a voice of 
comparatively slight volume... K. di 
go' la, throaty or guttural voice. .. V. di 
pefto, chest-voice... V. di ripie'no^ a 
ripicno part (see Ripieno) ... V. di te'sta, 
head-voice. . . V. grani'ta, a powerful, 
round voice. . . V. pastn'sa, a full, soft, 
flexible voice . . . V. principn'!t\ leading 
part... V. spicca'ta, a voice characterized 
by clear enunciation . . .A due {tre) voci, 
for 2 (3) parts, voices ; in 2 (3) parts. . . 
CoUa voce, see Col canto. . .Alessa di 
voce, see Messa...Mezza voce, sottovoce, 
see Mezza, Sot to. 

Vo'ces (Lat.) Plural of Vox. 

Vo'gelfl6te,-pfeife (Ger.) A bird-call, 
like that played on by Papageno in 
The Magic Flute . . . Vo'gelgesang, a 
merula, or set of small pipes standing 
in water, the passage of the wind 
through the latter producing a "war- 
bling" tone. (Also J'ogelsang.') 

Voice. (Lat. vox; It. vo'ce; Fr, voix; 
Ger. Slim' me, specifically Siftg'stimme.) 
For the several classes of the human 
voice comp. Soprano, JMczzo-scprano, 
Contralto, Tenor, Barytone, Bass. — 
The word voice is often made synony- 
mous with " part", in imitation of for- 
eign usage ; the practice cannot be 
recommended. . .Vocal registers. 
There is hardly any subject on which 
opinions are more irreconcilably op- 
posed, than this ; but if we accept E. 
Behnke's definition (in his treatise : 
" Mechanism of the Human Voice") of 
the term register — "a series of tones 
which are produced by the same mecli- 
anism"— we arrive at his conclusion ; 
namely, that there are 3 principal vocal 
registers in the female voice, and 2 in 
the male, the chief " break" occurring 

in both at -A -— — — (This is the 

the tone m— ^-o':^ ~' transition from 
y or/'J \j " chest" -voice 

to falsetto in tenor voices.) The second 
principal break in the 
female voice occurs 
an octave higher at 
In bass and bary- 
tone voices, the chief 
break o c c u r s at 
also, there is a break at this point. 
(Comp. the above-mentioned treatise.^ 

Voice-part. i. A vocal part [Grove, 
II, p. 526/', 1.17; and IV, p. 493, 
1.15 ; E. Prout, " Harmony", p. 58, 
1.7.] — 2. A part. [An awkward and 
equivocal neologism.] 

Voicing. Tuning, or regulating the 
pitch and tone of, an organ-pipe. 

Voil6e (Fr.) Veiled. 

Voix (Fr.) Voice ; part. . . V. ange'lique, 
vox angelica.../'^, ct'lcste, an organ- 
stop with 2 ranks, of the vnda maris 
type. . . V. de poitriue, chest-voice. .. K. 
de tete, head-voice... V. humaine, vox 
humana. . .A deux (trois) voix, for 2 
(3) voices ; in 2 (3) parts. 

Vokal' (Ger.) \ocal. . . ro/cal'musik, 
vocal music, with or without accomp. . . 
Vokal' stil, a cappella style ; vocal style. 

Volan'te (It., "flying".) Light, swift 

Vola'ta (It.; Ger. Vola'te; Fr. Volatine.) 
A short vocal run, or trill ; a run, or 
division ; a light and rapid series of 
notes. . .Dimin. volati'na. 

Volks'lied (Ger.) Folk-song. . . Volks'. 
t{h)iimlich (Ger.), in a style character- 
istic of or imitating that of the (Ger- 
man) folk-song, or popular music in 
general ; opp. to Kunstlied. A volks'- 
thiimliches Lied is a product of art in the 
style of the folk-song. .. Volks' ton, im, in 
the style — having the general character 
— of a folk-song. (It. i)i mo'dopopola're.) 
. . . Volks' weise, same as Volks lied. 

Voll (Ger.) ¥v\\. . . Vol'les Orckes'ter, 
full orchestra ; vol'les VVerk, full or- 
gan ; mit vol'lem Cho're, with full 
chorus... Vollgriffig {''yfi'wh. full hands"), 
in full chords or harmonies. .. Voll'kcvi- 
iiien, perfect(ly). . . ]^oll' stimmig, {a) in 
full harmonies ; (/') for many parts, poly- 
phonous. [ Voll frequently occurs as a 
suffix with the sense of the Engl, -ful; 
s- "&■■> gt'dan'kenvoll, thoughtful(ly), 
stiin'niungsvoll, full of (characteristic) 
expression ; etc.] 

Vol'ta (It.) A turn or \\mt. . .Prima 
vol fa (or Ima volta, Ima, /a., y.), first 
time; secundavolta{oT I/da volta, eic), 
second time ; tina volta, once ; due 
volte, twice. 

Volteggian'do (It.) Crossing hands 
(on a keyboard); from volteggia're. 

Vol'ti (It.) "Turn ov&x X' . . . Volti 
su'bito [V. S.], " turn over instantly". 

Volubilmen'te (It.) Fluently. 

Vol'untary. An organ-solo before, dur 
ing, or after divine service; also oi 



casionally applief'i to an anthem or 
other choral picf'e opening the service. 

Volu'ta (It.), Volute (Fr.) Scroll. 

Vom (uer.) From the. . . Vo/n An'/ang, 
= da capo; vom Blal'te ("from the 
page"), at sight. 

Voraus'nahme (Ger.) Anticipation. 

Vor'bereitung (Ger.) Preparation. 

Vor'dersatz (Ger.) First subject or 
theme ; fore-phrase [Prout]. 

Vor'geiger (Ger.) Leader, ist violin. 

Vor'halt (Ger.) Suspension . . . Vor'kalts- 
losung, resolution of a suspension. 

Vor'her (Ger.) Before, previous(ly). 

Vor'ig (Ger.) Preceding, previous ; as 
zwr'iges Zeit'mass, = tempo primo. 

Vor'sanger (Ger.) Precentor. 
__Vor^schlag (Ger.) Collective name for 
the various Torms of the accented ap- 
poggiatura ; opp. to .Yach'scklug, or 
unaccented appoggiatura. . .Lang'er 
{ku/zer) Vo/schlag, long (short) ap- 

Vor'setzzeichen (Ger.) Chromatic sign. 

Vor'spiel (Ger.) Prelude, introduction ; 

Vor'trag (Ger.) Rendering, interpreta- 
tion, performance, style, delivery, exe- 
cution. . . Vor'tragshezeichnung, Vor'- 
tragszeichen, expression-mark ; tempo, 

Vor'zeichnung (Ger.) Signature. 

Vox (Lat., pi. z'cVt'.f/ see below). Voice. 
. . Vox ange'lica (angelic voice), a 4- 
foot organ-stop corresponding to the 8- 
foot vox huina' na. . . Vox antece'dens 
[con'sequens), the antecedent (conse- 
quent). . . Vox hunia'na (human voice), 
an 8-foot reed-stop in the organ, the 
tone of which has a [fancied] resem- 
blance to the human voice ; a solo stop, 
usually drawn with the tremulant. — 
Also occurs, especially in Italy, as a 
flue-stop, and occasionally in 2 ranks, 
one of reed-pipes, the other of flue- 
pipes... Fbx virginea, same as Vox 
angelica. . . Vo'ces cBqua'les, equal voices. 
. . Vo'ces Areti'nis, the Aretinian syl- 
lables. . .Vo'ces bel'gica, the Belgian 
solmisation-syllables bo ce di ga lo ma 
ni ho. 

Vue (Fr.) .Sight; a premilrevue^'^x'vcrvdi 

Vulga'ris (Lat.) In the organ, a flute- 
stop, tibia being implied. 

Vuo'to,-a (It.) Open , as corda vuoia, 
open string. 


W (as a double V, in Fr. usage). Marks 
violin-parts copied from a score. 

Waits. [Also Waytcs, Wayghtes, etc.] 
Originally, a class of street-watchmen 
in England, who gave notice of their 
approach by sounding horns or other 
instr.s. The name then appears to have 
been transferred to town-musicians, 
and still later to various irregular bands 
of indifferent music-makers, in which 
latter application it is not yet obsolete. 
— Whether the instr. chiefly affected by 
these musicians (a species of shawm or 
oboe) derived its name from them, or 
vice versa, is a moot point. 

Wald'flote (Ger., "forest flute"; Lat. 
tib'ia silves'iris.) In the organ, an 
open metal flute-stop of broad scale 
and usually of 2 or 4-foot pitch, having 
a suave, full, resonant lone. 

Wald'horn (Ger.) The French horn 
without valves. {Also Jagd' horn, Na- 
tur' horn.) 

Waltz. (Ger. Wal'zer; Fr. valse; It. 
vaher.) A round dance in 3-4 time, 
and in tempo varying from slow to 
moderately fast, — from the primitive 
Ldndler and ordinary German waltz up 
to the sprightlier trois-temps (ordinary 
waltz) and deux-temps (rapid waltz). 
The steps of these waltzes vary thus : 

Slow German 

3 » 

1 I 


Ordinary Waltz \ r. 

(trois temps, ( 4 5 

Wiener Walzer) ) ^ 


Quick waltz \ \ \ 

(deux-temps, > ^ P T 

Zweitritt) ) *' ' 
The origki of the waltz is variously 
ascribed to Bohemia, Germany {Ldnd- 
ler), and France {volte). . . Waltz is also 
the title of numerous effective instru- 
mental pieces in triple time, but not 
meant for dance-music. . . Waltz-song, 
a song in waltz-rhythm. 

Wal'ze (Ger., " roller "). An undulating 
figure (see Rolle). 

Wan'kend(Ger.) Wavering, hesitating. 

Warbler. On the bagpipe, a term ap- 
plied to various forms of melodic em- 
bellishment (graces). 



War'me (Ger.) Warmth ; mit gro'sser 
Wdrme, with great warmth. 

Was'serorgel (Ger.) Hydraulic organ. 

Waste-pallet. See Vahe. 

Water-organ, Hydraulic organ. 

Wayghtes. See JVaits. 

Weakaccent, beat, pulse. ?,&& Accent. 

Wech'selgesang (Ger.) Antiphonal 
(responsive) singing or song. . . IVech'- 
selnott', changing-note. 

Weh'mut(h) (Ger.) Sadness, melan- 
choly. . . Weh'7)iut{Ji)ig, sad, mournful, 
melancholy. {Mso adverb.) 

Weich (Ger.) i. Soft, tender ; mellow, 
suave (also adverb'). — 2. Minor. 

Weight of wind. The tension of the 
compressed air supplied by the organ- 
bellows to any stop or group of stops ; 
the mean pressure raises a column of 
water in a U-tube to the height of 
about 3 inches, hence the technical ex- 
pression "an inch" or "two inches" 
of wind ; a stop is said to be " voiced 
on a 3, 6, or lo-inch pressure," etc. 

Wei'nend (Ger.) Weeping. 

Wei'sse Note (Ger.) A "white," or 
open, note. 

Weit (Ger.) Broad ; open (of harmonies). 

Wel'le (Ger.) Roller (organ) ... «^^//- 
atnr\ system of rollers. . . IVel'lenbrett, 

Well-tempered. In equal, and conse- 
quently satisfactory, temperament ; as 
J. S. Bach's Well-tempered Clavichord 
(Ger. Wohl'tempn-irtes Clavier'). 

We'nig (Ger.) Little ; ein klein wenig 
lattg'samer, a very little slower. 

Werk (Ger.) In the organ, (a) the set 
of stops controlled by one keyboard ; 
(b) a stop or register. 

Wert(h) (Ger.) Value, time-value. 

We'sentlich (Ger.) Essential. . . JVe'- 
sentliche Dissonanz' , a dissonant chord- 
tone, in contradistinction to a disso- 
nance produced by a passing or chang- 

Wet'terharfe (Ger.) yEoIian harp. 

Whistle. The smallest and most prim- 
itive type of instr. with a flageolet or 
flue-pipe mouthpiece. Comp. Ficco- 

White keys. The continuous lower row 
of digitals on a keyboard ; formerly 
they were black, the now black keys 

then generally being \i\\\X.Q. . .White 
note, one having an open (not solid) 
head (^ J). 

Whole note. See A'ote. . . Whole shift, 
see Shift . . . Whole step, {a) a step of a 
whole tone ; {b) a whole tone . . . Whole 
tone (Ger. Ganz'ton ; Fr. ton plei}i ; 
It. tcno intero), see Footnote, p. 103. 

Wie (Ger.) As. . . Wie o'bcn, as above ; 
vjie vor' her, as before, as at first ; wie 
aus der Fer'ne, as from a distance. 

Wie'der (Ger.) Again . . . Wie'dergabe, 
performance, production, rendering, in- 
terpretation, reading. . . Wiederher' stel- 
htngszcichen, see Aiif losungszeichen. 
. . Wiederho'lung, repetition ; W.s- 
zeichen, repeat. 

Wiegenlied (Ger.) Cradle-song, lulla- 
by ; berceuse. 

Wind-band. i. A company of per- 
formers on wind-instr.s. — 2. The wind- 
instr.s in the orchestra ; also, the per- 
formers on, or parts written for, the 
same. . . Windchest, see Organ. . . Wind- 
gauge, an apparatus for measuring the 
wind-pressure in the windchest of an 
organ. It consists of a twice-bent glass 
tube, having water in the U-shaped 
end, the other end being fixed in a 
socket ; on setting the socket in a hole 
in the soundboard, and letting the wind 
on, the water rises in the outer arm of 
the U-shaped tube, indicating the wind- 
pressure by the height in inches to 
which it is forced. (Comp. Weight.) 
. . . Wind-instruments (Ger. Blas'in- 
struuie7ite; Fr. instruments & vejtt ; It. 
stromeii'ti da fa' to), instruments, the 
tones of which are produced by wind 
(i. e. compressed air), the vibrations 
excited in the latter being transmitted 
to an air-column enclosed in a tube (e. g. 
an organ-pipe, or any orchestral instru- 
ment blown by the mouth), or directly 
to the open air (e. g. free reeds without 
tubes). The vibrations of the wind are 
excited {a) by its impinging on a sharp 
edge (flageolet, flute, organ-pipe), {b) by 
the interposition of a vibratile reed (cla- 
rinet, oboe, reed-pipe), or (r) by the 
vibration of the player's lips (horn, 
trumpet, trombone). (Comp. art. /«- 
struments.). . . Windtrunk, see Organ. 

Windharfe (Ger.) ^olian harp. . . Wind', 
hasten, windchest. .. Wind' lade, sound- 
board (organ) . . . Wind' wage, wind- 

Wir''bel (Ger.) i. Peg; Wir'belkasim, 



peg-box. — 2. Roll (on a drum). — 3. 
Same as Schldgcl, the more usual term. 

Wohl'temperirt (Ger.) See Wcll-icm- 

Wolf. I. A discord induced in certain 
keys, on keyboard instr.s (especially 
the organ), by inequality of tempera- 
ment, such as was inherent in the so- 
called "meantone" system. (Not sy- 
nonymous with the Ger. Or'gehvolf.) — 
2. In bovv-instr.s, the wolf is the im- 
perfect or jarring vibration of some 
particular tone or tones, and is pre- 
sumably due to some defect in the 
build or adjustment of the instrument. 

Wolf (Ger.) Wolf; specifically, the 12th 
fifth in the circle of fifths, being the 
one which causes the main difficulty. 

Wood-'wind. The orchestral wood-in- 
str.s collectively ; or the performers on 

Working-out. Same as Development. 

Wrest. A tuning-hammer. 

Wrestblock, Wrestplank. See Piano- 

Wuch'tig (Ger.) Weighty, weightily, 
^ ponderous(ly), with strong emphasis, 

Wiir'de (Ger.) Dignity ; mit IF., or wtir'- 
devoll, dignified. 

Wii'thend (Ger.) Furious, frantic ; fn- 


Xanor'phica. (Ger. Xdtior'phika) A 
variety of the piano-violin, and the 
most complicated of all, there being a 
separate bow for each string ; inv. by 
K. L. Rollig of Vienna in 1797. 

Xylharmon'ica. (Ger. Xylharmo'nikon). 
A keyboard instr. inv. by Utho of San- 
gerhausen in 1810, and resembling 
Chladni's Euphonium, but with wooden 
wands instead of glass rods ; an im- 
proved Xylosistron. 

Xyl'ophone. (Lat. lig'neum psalte'ri- 
um; Ger. Stroh'fiedel, Holz'harino- 
nika, Hoh'- und Stroh' instrument, 
hol'zerms Gellich'ter; Fr. claqnebois, 
^chelette,patouille, xylor^anon; It.gige- 
li'ra, sticca'do.) A very ancient and 
widely disseminated instr. (Europe, 
Africa, America), consisting of a diaton- 
ically graduated series of flat wooden 
bars adjusted horizontally upon 2 cords 
(which are sometimes made of twisted 

straw), and played on with 2 mallets ; 
a wooden dulcimer, capable of pleasing 
effects in the hands of a skilful player. 
Usual compass 2 octaves, or a little 
Xylosis'tron. The parent instrument 
of the .xylharmonikon ; inv. by Utho in 

Yang Kin (Chinese.) A Chinese instr. 

resembling the dulcimer, with brass 

Yodel, Yodler. English spellings of 

J ode In , jodler. 


Za. Former syllable-name for B^, in 

Zahlen (Ger.) To count ; 2a7//<f, count... 
Ziihlzeit, a count. 

Zale'o. See/aleo. 

Zampo'gna (It.) i. Bagpipe. —2. 

Zapatea'do (Span.) A Spanish dance, 
in which the dancers mark the rhythm 
by stamping. 

Zap'fenstreich (Ger.) The tattoo.— The 
gro'sser Zapfenstreich is an imposing 
mus. finale of a military review, com- 
mencing with a grand crescendo roll on 
the drums of the combined regimental 
bands. — The Z. was originally a blow 
{Streich) struck on the bung {Zapfen) 
of the cask of beer or wine, signifying 
that drinking in camp must cease for 
the night ; hence, a musical signal to 
drive the bung into the bung-hole, to 
attain that end. 

Zaraban'da (Span.) Saraband. 

Zar'gen (Ger., pi.) Ribs. 

Zart (Ger,)._Tender, soft, delicate ; slen- 
der. . .Mit zar^ten Stim'men, with soft- 
toned stops. . .Zart'fidte. in the organ, 
a 4-foot flute-stop of very delicate in- 
tonation, the pipes having, instead of 
the block, a windway reaching up from 
the foot, and directed against the upper 

Zart'Hch (Ger.) Tender(ly), caressing(ly). 

Zarzue'la (Span.) A two-act drama with 
incidental music, resembling a vaude- 
ville ; so called because first performed 
in the royal castle of Zarzuela, in the 
17th century. 



Zeffiro'so (It.) Zephyr-like. 

Zei'chen (Ger.) A sign. 

Zeit (Ger.) Time. Also, same as Takt- 
teil. . . Zeit' mas s ^ tempo ; itn ersten (or 
vor'igen) Zei/»iass, = tempo primo. . . 
Zeifmesser, metronome. . .Zeit'zvcrti^h), 

Zelosamen'te (It.) Zealously, enthu- 
siastically. . .Zt'lo'so, zealous, enthusias- 
tic, ardent ; marking passages to be 
performed with energy and fire. Also 
con ze' lo. 

Zerstreut' (Ger.) Dispersed, open. 

Zieh'harmonika (Ger.) Accordion. 

Ziem'lich (Ger.) Somewhat, rather. 

Zier'lich (Ger.) Neat, delicate ; grace- 
ful, elegant. (Also adverb.) 

Zif'fer(Ger.) Y'\^\x.rQ...Bezif' fert, figured; 
Bezi/'feriing, figuring. 

Zigeu'nerartig (Ger.) Gypsy-like . . . 
Zigen'nennnsik, Gypsy music. 

Zim'balon. An improved dulcimer much 
employed in Hungarian music, provided 
with dampers, y^ P r o - 

and having a r^. Zx~^ — longa- 

chromatic scale ^"=zn^z^) tion of 

of 4 octaves : -^ \j a tone 

is obtained by its rapid reiteration, 
marked p. 

Zim'belstern (Ger.) A sort of toy-stop 
in some old organs, consisting of a 
star hung with little bells, placed con- 
spicuously in front of the organ, and 
caused to sound by a current of air 
controlled by a draw-stop. 

Zingare'sca (It.) A Gypsy song or dance; 
specifically, a song sung by maskers 
during the Carnival. 

Zingare'sco,-a (It.) Pertaining to Gyp- 
sies, Gypsy-like. . .Z/w^rtr/j^, alla^ in 
G>'psy style. . .Zi'ngaro, -a, a Gypsy; 
a//a zi'ftgara, in Gypsy style. 

Zin'ke (Ger.; It. cornet' to). (Also Zink, 
Zinken.) See Cor net to. 

Zir'kel (Ger.) Circle. . .Zir'ke I kanon, 
infinite canon. 

Zi'ther (Ger., pron. tsit'ter ; Engl, pro- 
nun, zith'er.) [The Ger. Zither \s a very 
different instr. from the old Engl, cither 
or cittern; to prevent confusion, it 
would be well to adopt the Ger. spelling 
for the modern instr.] — \.{Schlag' zither, 
i. e. plucked zither.) The zither, as 
developed from the primitive peasant- 
instr. of the German Alps, has 32 or 
more strings stretched over a shallow 
wooden resonance-box, which is pro- 
vided with a soundhole, and bears a 
bridge near the right end and a fretted 
fingerboard on the side ne.xt the player. 
Above the fingerboard are 5 melody- 
strings stopped by the left hand, tuned 
■ I ^ Y M |— the 2 ^'s be- 
'^ l~^"=tz *_; ing steel, the D 
brass, the G 
steel silver-covered, and the C brass 
copper-covered. These 5 are plucked 
with a metal or tortoise-shell ring worn 
on the right thumb and having a pro- 
jecting spur. The accompaniment- 
strings, tuned in fourths as follows : 

- 1 \ iwzz. 

^^i^^B^ ^gfe^gg^ ^ 

are plucked by the fore-, middle, and 
ring-fingers of the right hand, the lit- 
tle finger resting behind the bridge to 
steady the hand. They are of gut, or 
covered silk, variously colored to guide 
the player's eye and fingers. The 3 
ordinary sizes of zither are the Treble 
Zither {^P rim' zither), Concert-Zither, 
and Elegie' -Zither (also called Alt- ox 
Liederzither, and tuned a fourth be- 
low the Prim- and Concertzither). — 
2. {Streich' zither, i. e. Borv-zither.) 
The earlier bow-zithers were heart- 
shaped ; of the newer ones, the Viola- 
Zither has the form of a viola, 
while the Philoniele has a more pointed 
body and shallower bouts ; they are 
varieties of the viol, with short neck. 

fretted fingerboard, and 4 strings in 
violin-tuning, the E and A of steel, 
the D of brass, and the G of silk silver- 
covered ; but the bow-zither is held 
quite differently from the viol, its head 
being furnished with a little foot which 
rests on the edge of the table before the 
player, who holds the body in his lap. 

Zit'ternd (Ger.) Trembling, tremulous. 
Zo'gernd (Ger.) Hesitating, lingering, 

Zolfa' (It.) Sol-fa. 

Zop'po,-a (It.) "Halting, limping". — 
Alia zoppa, syncopated ; as the rhythm 

4 J J J I J J J ■' ^'s° applied to 
Magyar music with the rhythm ; 




i'iJ:\J:J'i\.f.J>J'J:\J'J' J'J 

Zoulou (Fr., "Zulu".) A style of pia- 

Zu'fallig (Ger.) Accidental(ly) . . . Z«'- 
fdlligt's Verse f zungszeic hen , accidental. 

Zuf'folo (It.) A small flageolet, such as 
is employed in training singing-birds. 
(Also Zu'folo.) 

Zug (Ger.) I. Same as Regis' terzug. — 2 
A pedal (pfte.)— 3. A slide (of a trom- 
bone, etc.). . . Zug'trompete, slide-trump- 
et .. . Zug'werk^ tracker-action (in the 

Zu'kunftsmusik (Ger.) Music of the 
future ; a term first used (according to 
R. Wagner) about 1S50, by Dr. L. Fr. 
Chr. Bischoff, in a satire on Wagner's 
essay upon " The Art -work of the 
Future" [Das Kunstwerk der Zu- 
kunft]. The word has been adopted, 
by enthusiastic disciples of the neo- 
German cult, as an epithet of distinc- 
tion, with the meaning " music ivith a 
future " — a definition whose correctness 
can hardly be successfully disputed. 

Zu'nehmend (Ger.) Increasing, e>-e- 

Zun^e (Ger., "tongue"). Reed... 
Zung'enpfeife, reed-pipe . . . Zuug'en- 
siimme, reed-stop... Zung'emverk, '' the 
reeds," reed-stops of the organ, con- 
sidered collectively. . .Aiif'schlagende 
Zunge, beating reed ; durch'schlagende 
Zunge, free reed. . .Dop'pelzunge, etc., 
see Tonguing. 

Zuriick'halten (Ger.) To retard . . . Z«- 
riick'haltend, ritardando . . . Zuriiek'- 
haltung, retardation . . . Zuruck'sehlag, 
same as Ribattii'ta. 

Zusatn'men (Ger.) Together, simultane- 
ous(ly); bei'de Cho're zusammen, both 

choruses (choirs) together .. .Zusam'- 
ntenklang. a sounding together, simul- 
taneous sounding of 2 or more tones ; 
a "solid" chord. .. Zusam' me ngesefzt, 
combined, compound ; zi(sam'menge- 
setzte Takt'art, compound time... 
Zusam'menschlag, acciaccatura . . . Zu- 
satn' men spiel, playing together ; en- 
semble-playing. . . Ziisnm'menstreichen, 
to slur (either by means of the sign 
called a slur, or by joining the hooks of 
hooked notes); Zusam' menstreichung, 

ZTvei (Ger.) 'YviO. . .Zwei'chorig., for 2 
choruses (or divided chorus). . .Z-vei'- 
fach, {a) double, as counterpoint ; (3) 
in 2 ranks, as organ-stops ; (r) com- 
pound, as intervals ... ZK'^f'_/«j-.«>, 
2-foot. . .Z'cei'gesang, a duet. . .Zwei'~ 
gestrichen, see Gestri'cken. . .Zwei'- 
halbe Takt, 2-2 time . . . Zivei'hdndig, 
for 2 hands. . .Zzuei'sfimmig, for 2 
voices ; in or for 2 parts . . . Zzvei'tel 
{-note), a ha.\{-r\oX.e. . .Z7uei'tri it, see 
IValtz. . . Zweiunddrei' ssigstel {-note), a 
32nd-note. . . Zwei-ner' teltakt, 2-4 time. 
. .Zwei'zdhliger Takt, duple time... 
Z'veizwei' teltakt, 2-2 time. 

Zwerch'flote, Zwerch'pfeiff (Ger.) 
The cross-flute, or German flute, 

Zwisch^en (Ger.) Between, intermedi- 
ate. . .Zzc'/jfr/z'c'wa/^^, an entr'acte; 
Zwisck'enaktsmusik, act-tune(s). . . 
Zwisch'enkai-monie, see Z'visck'ensatz, 
. . ZzL'isch' enraum, space. . . Zwisch' en- 
satz, episode. . .Zivisch'enspiel, inter- 
lude, intermezzo. 

Zwit'scherharfe (Ger.) See Spitz'harfe. 

Z wolf (Ger.) Twelve . . . Zwolfach'teU 
takt, 12-8 Xivae. . .Zwol/' sailer, see 





(An asterisk ♦ refers to an earlier article in body of Dictionary.) 

Abbandonan'dosi (It.) Yielding wholly 

to emotion ; with a burst of passion. 
Abbandona-re (It.) To leave, to quit ; 
sen'za abhatidona're la cor'Ja, without 
quitting the string. 
♦Abbreviations. Add to former list : 
c.f. Canto fermo ; cantus firmus. 
Div. Divisi, divise. 
incalz. Incalzando. 
Mov'°. Movimento. 
ovv. Ovvero. 
po' poco. 
A'bendunterhaltung (Ger.) Pupils' con- 
cert (in a music-school ; given for en- 
semble-practice or quasi public per- 
formance). (Also Ubtuigsabcnd.) 
Ab'langen [eines Tones] (Ger.) Taking 
[a tone] by extension (in violin-tech- 
Ab'schleifer (Ger.) Staccato-dash ( t t ). 
Accenta'te (It.; plural form oiaccenta'ta, 
" le note" being implied.) i. Ac- 
cented, marked.— 2 (imperative, pi.). 
Accent ! Emphasize ! 
Accentua're (It.) To accent . . . Acccntti- 
an'do, accenting. . .^(r-rcw/wa'/dJ.-fl!, ac- 
Accessit (Fr.) Honorable mention. 
Accord'zither (Ger.) See Zitherharfc. 
/Eo'lian. A reed-organ of the American 
type, the air being drawn through the 
reeds. It has a keyboard, and may be 
played like an ordinary organ ; but its 
distinguishing feature is a mechanical 
arrangement for executing music with- 
out using the keyboard. Motive-power 
and wind are supplied by two pedals 
(treadles) worked by the feet ; the time- 
value of the notes is controlled by per- 
forations in a gradually unrolling sheet 
of paper, the music-roll ; the tempo is 
regulated by a stop called the Motor ; 
and the expression is regulated {a) by 
the pedal-movement, (/') by two knee- 
swelis, and (c) by the registration. In 
the largest instr.s there are ten speaking 
stops, and a Tremolo, The yEolian 

is remarkable, not merely for extreme 
technical precision, but for the great 
variety and artistic finish of musical ef- 
fects, both tempo and expression being 
wholly at the player's command. — The 
''Aeolian " and the keyboard (which has 
4 independent stops) may also be played 
together, the keyboard being used to 
play an accompaniment to the yEolian. 
The instr., which is the product of long 
evolution, became known under its pres- 
ent name about the year 1883, in New 
York. Its repertory includes all classes 
of music, and at present (1900) com- 
prises about 20,000 numbers. It has a 
scale of 53 semitones (the keyboard has 
6 octaves) ; and all its music-rolls also 
fit the Pianola {q.v). 
Affretta're (It.) To hasten, to accelerate. 

. , Setiza affrettarc, without hastening. 
A fior' di lab'bra (It.; Fr. au bout des 
l}vres ; Ger. gehaucht.) Very lightly 
and softly sung or spoken. 
Aggiun'to,-a (It.) Added, interpolated. 
. . .Arie aggiunte (pi.), airs interpolated 
in an opera, etc., to which they did not 
originally belong. 
Air coup6 (Fr.) An air of set form. 
Album-leaf. (Ger. Albumblatt; Fr. Feuil- 
let d' album; It. Pagina d' album.) 
Title of a short and (usually) simple 
vocal or instr.l piece. 
Alexandrine verse. " An iambic hex- 
apody, or series of six iambic feet. — 
French Alexandrines are written in 
couplets, alternately acalectic with mas- 
culine rimes and hypercatalectic with 
feminine rimes. . .The cesura occurs at 
the end of the third foot. The second 
line of the following extract is an ex- 
ample : 

' A needless Alexandrine ends the song, 
That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow 
length along.'— (Pope.)" 

[The Century Dict.] 
Allarga'te (It. ; imperative.) Slower and 

Amu'sia. Loss of the musical faculty. 

[British Medical Journal, Dec. 22, 




Anco'ra pia'no (It.) Still [sing or play] 
softly ; equiv. to sempre piano. 

Andan'do (It.) Same as Andante. 

An'denken (Ger.) Recollection, souvenir. 

*A'nima (It.) 3. Core (of a covered 

A par'te (It.) Aside ; e.g., sottovoce a 

*Aper''to,-a (It.) Open (of organ-pipes). 

Appe'na (It.) Hardly, very little ; ap. 

pena animando, a very little faster ; ap- 

pena meno, a trifle slower. 

Appoggiamen'to (It.) Chin-rest. 

Appuyer (Fr.) To sustain. 

A quat'tro par'ti (sole) (It.) For four 
(solo) parts. 

Arched viall. [Bow-viol?] Pepys' Diary 
(Oct. 5, 1664) describes this instr. as 
" being tuned with lute strings and 
played on with keys like an organ ; a 
piece of parchment is always kept mov- 
ing, and the strings, which by the keys 
are always pressed down upon it, are 
grated in imitation of a bow, by the 
parchment ; and so it is intended to re- 
semble several vialls played on with one 
bow, but so basely and so harshly that 
it will never do. But after 3 hours' stay 
it could not be fixed in tune, and so 
thay were fain to go to some other 
musique of instruments." 

Arcichitar'ra (It.) A modern Chitar. 

Ardo're, con (It.) With ardor, warmth. 

*A'ria (It.) Aria d'entra'ta, the first air 
allotted to a leading singer (in opera) 
on entering the stage. . .Aria di sorti'- 
ta, an air, at the conclusion of which 
the singer makes his e.xit. [The Sor- 
tita is, however, also the name for the 
first number sung by any of the leading 
characters in an opera].. .Arie aggiun'- 
te, see Aggiunto. . .Aria also signifies 
wind (in the organ, etc.). 

*Ariet'ta alia venezia'na (It.) Little 
air in " V'enetian " style; i.e., a bar- 

Arietti'na (It.) A brief or trifling ari- 

Armag'gio (di corde) (It.) Set of strings. 
(Also Montatura.) 

Ascenden'te (It.) Ascending. 

Aspirant' (Ger.) A young musician in 
an orchestra, on half-pay, "aspiring" 
to full membership. 

A'spro,-a (It.) Harsh, rough. 

Assie'rae (It.) Same as Etisemble.., 
Pezzo d'assieme, a concerted piece. 

As<-.uc'cio (It.) Music-roll, music-case. 

Auda'cia, con (It.) With boldness. 

Auf'hebungszeichen (Ger.) The " can- 
cel " or natural (1;). 

Auflegestimmen (Ger.) The separate 
parts of an orch.l composition, to be 
" laid on " the music-desks. 

Auf'loser (Ger.) The "cancel" ornatu- 

ral (S). 

Auf'schwingend (Ger.) Soaring(ly), im- 

petuous(ly) ; con impeto. 

Auf'schwung (Ger.) Lofty flight, soar- 
ing impetuosity ; mit A., in a lofty, im- 
petuous, impassioned style. 

Aus'gefuhrter Choral' (Ger.) A " worked 
out " choral ; a choral with free counter, 
point ; or, with contrapuntal working- 
out ; or, contrapuntally worked out (de- 

Aus'stattungsstuck (Ger.) Spectacle, 
spectacular play or opera. 

Autoar'pa Wagner (It.; " Wagner Au- 
toharp.") An improved autoharp (AJi. 
kordzilher) inv. 1896 by E. Glasel of 
Markneukirchen, the mechanism of 
which permits playing in any of the 
ordinary keys. 

Autre (Fr.) Other; another, different. 
Avec ame (Fr.) Same as con anima. 
Avec le chant (Fr.) Same as col canto. 
A volenti (Fr.) Same as a piacere. 


Babillage (Fr.) Babbling, chatter. 

Badinerie (Fr.) Same as Badinage. 

Bagatel'la (It.) Bagatelle. 

Baglio'ra (It.) Flash of light ; title for 
a swift, light and piquant composition. 

BalancelTa ( It. ; Fr. balancellc) A piece 
of music imitating the easy rocking of a 

Baldamen'te (It.) Boldly. 

*Ballabi'le (It.) 2. Ballet-music. 

Ballatel'la (It.) A short ballad. 

Bassanel'lo (It.) i. An obsolete wood- 
wind instr. allied to the bassoon, with 
double-reed in a conical mouthpiece 
carried by an S-shaped crook. — 2. A 
4-foot or S-foot reed-stop in old organs. 

*Bass'horn (Ger.) A wood-wind instr. 



inv. byFrichot in 1804, and already ob- 
solete, allied to the Serpent, but with 
a brass bell, and a cupped mouthpiece 
on an S-crook. Compass 4 octaves {C 
to c^). 

Bassist' (Ger.) Bass singer. 

*Bas'so (It.) 3. An 8-foot pedal-stop 
on the organ. 

Basso'ne (a lingua) (It.) A 16-foot 
reed-stop on the swell-organ. 

*Bassoon (compass). The Ai below j5i^) 
is occasionally used (Raff). 

Bavardage (Fr.) Chatter, tittle-tattle. 

Bel canto (It.) The art of beautiful 
song, as exemplified by the finest Italian 
singers of the iSth and 19th centuries, 
and their pupils or imitators. The term 
is used especially in contradistinction to 
the "declamatory" style of dramatic 
vocalism brought into such prominence 
by Wagner. 

Bien chant6 (Fr.) Same as /fio/to can- 

Biril'lo (It.) Peg. 

Block (verb). A hammer in the piano- 
forte-action " blocks " when it remains 
against the string after impact, instead 
of recoiling, thus " blocking" (deaden- 
ing) the tone. 

Bluette (Fr. ; "spark," "flying spark- 
let.") I. A light, playful comedietta. — 
2. Hence, a light, sparkling piano- 
piece of no fixed form. 

Botto'ne (da cordie'ra) (It.) Button 
(on the violin). 

Bouts [pi.]. The incurvations on either 
side of instr.s of the violin-type, form- 
ing the " waist." 

^Bridge. A violin-bridge with 4 feet has 
been inv. (1894) by Edwin Bonn, of 
Brading, Isle of Wight ; one foot under 
each string. 

Bris^, le (P>.) In violin-technic, short, 
detached strokes of the bow. 

Budel'lo (It.) Gut. (Also minugia.) 

Bu'co (It.; pi. bu'chi.) Finger-hole (of 
a mus. instr.). 

Biih'ne (Ger.) Stage. ..Bu/i'nt'umusii'", 
{a) dramatic music ; (i) music played on 
the stage. 

Bun'te Rei'he (Ger.) The phrase means, 
literally, the alternation, in a company 
seated at table, of a lady with a gen- 
tleman ; hence, as a mus. title, a series 
of contrasted cnaracteristic pieces. 


C. In recent Italian music " I C." and 
"3 C." are abbreviations of " una cor- 
da " and " tre corde" respectively. 

Cade're (It.) To fall. — Cadenza (ca- 
dence) means literally a " falling back " 
to the tonic from the dominant ; Beet- 
hoven uses the word jocularly, in the 
phrase ''Cadenza ma senza cadere" 
(heading his Cadenza No. i to the ist 
movem. of the G-major Pfte. -Concerto), 
which may be translated : " Fall back, 
but don't fall down." 

Cahier (Fr.) Book. 

Camor'ra (It.) Paid claqueurs in Italian 

Campagnuo'lo,-a (It.) Pastoral, idyl- 
lie ; rustic. 

Campes'tre (It.) Pastoral, rural, idyllic ; 
as danza canipestre. 

Cano'nico,-a (It.) In canon-form. 

Canticchian'do (It.; Fr. en fredonnant.) 
Trilling, warbling ; humming. 

*Canti'no (It.) E-sinng. (In mercan- 
tile Italian the strings of the violin are 
named cantino^ seconda, terza and 

*Canto, written in a score over the blank 
part for any instr., means that the latter 
is to play in unison with the vocal (or 
melody-bearing) part. — Written over an 
instr.l part, it signifies that at that point 
the vocal melody reenters after a 
ritoiirnelle or interlude. 

Capo-ban'da (militare) (It.) Band- 

Capoco'mico,-a (It.) See Striese. 

*Capo d 'astro. [An English corruption 
of capotasto,~\ In the pianoforte, the 
"capo d'astro bar" is a transverse 
metallic bar placed above the strings 
near the wrestplank. Its name is 
derived from the fact that it bears down 
on the strings of the three highest 
octaves (more or less), and is supposed 
to add to the brilliancy and carrying- 
power of their tone. It is, however, 
not removable, like a real capotasto, but 

Capo-mu'sica (It.) Conductor ; band- 

Capo-orches'tra (It.) Conductor of an 

Capophone. A set of musical glasses 
inv. by M. F. Coelho, on which he 
produced remarkable eflects. 



Caratteris'tico,-a (It.) Characteristic. 
...Pezzo caratteristico, characteristic 

Cas'sa (It.) Body (of violin, etc.). 

*Catch. (It. cac'ce, from cac'cia, a 
chase.) The term occurs as early as 
the 14th century, in a composition by 
Fr. Landino. \Cf. Amuros, " Ge- 
schichte der Musik," vol. iii, p. 470.] 

Causerie (Fr.) Chat, conversation. 

Cavi'glia (It.) Peg. 

Cello'ne. A bow-instr. intended to 
replace the 'cello (in conjunction with 
the Violot/a [f/. z^.]) in the string-quar- 
tet. In dimensions it resembles the 
'cello, but the accordatura is a fourth 
lower, namely, d-D-A-e. Tone like 
that of the 'cello (though stronger), 
being far more prompt in speaking, 
flexible and mellow than that of the 

Cer'to,-a (It.) Certain ; co7i una ccrta 
esprfssio}ie parlantc [Beethoven], with 
a certain declamatory expression. 

Ce'tra ad accor'di (It.) Autoharp. 

Champetre (Fr.) Same as Campestre. 

Charme, avec (Fr.) With charm, grace- 
fully (It. vezzosamente). 

Chin-rest. " An oval plate of ebony, 
slightly hollowed on its upper surface 
to receive the curve of the jaw, fastened 
to the edge of the violin to the left of 
the tailpiece, and extending over, but 
not touching, the belly." [Krehbiel.] 

Chitarra'ta (It.) Piano-piece imitative 
of the guitar. 

Chord of Nature. The series of har- 
monics sounding with a generator. (See 

Chord-bar. One of the bars crossing 
the strings of the autoharp ; being 
pressed down, it allows only the strings 
of one special chord to vibrate. (Ger. 

Clavi-harpe (Fr.) A harp played by a 
pianoforte-keyboard ; inv. by Uietz of 
Brussels in 1887, and used with good 
effect in the orch. of the Monnaie 
Theatre there in 1888. 

s^Clef. The follow- 
ing is a form of Jenori Imi 
tenor-clef now 
(1896) used in 
Italy. [From the 
Milan " Gazzetta . 

Musicale ", Dec. T Cnori 2a' 
17, 1896.] 

Colori'to (It.) Same as Colorit. 

*Corpo (It.) Stroke ; e. g., colpo di 
campducl'lo, stroke of a bell. 

*Co'me pri'ma (It.) Standing alone, as 
a tempo-mark, it means that the pre- 
vious tempo is to be resumed (after a 
digression) ; also written tomando come 
prima. . .Ritentito come pri?}ia, held 
back (retarded) as before. 

Co'me re'tro (It.) As before. 

Composed-through. A frequent trans- 
lation of the German term dtirchkompo- 
tiiert (see Diirchko!)iponiere>i), the cor- 
rect English equivalent for which is 
"progressively composed," as con- 
trasted with " strophic composition" 
(see Song 2). 

Comprima'rio,-a (It.) In theatrical par- 
lance, a part (role) of importance, 
though not one of the leading parts 
(prime assolute). 

Concentran'do (It.) " Concentrating"; 
an expression-mark in vocal music, 
calling for a dark, veiled, intense effect 
of tone. 

*Concerti'sta (It.) 2. Concert-giver. 

Confet'ti (It.) Sugarplums. 

Confinal. Compare Final. 

Conical mouthpiece. See Cupped. 

*Contrab(b)as'so(It.) Sub-bass (organ- 

Corde fil^e (Fr.) Covered string. 

Cordie'ra (It.) Tailpiece. 

Cordo'metro (It.) String-gauge. 

Cordonophon. A keyboard-instr. imitat- 
ing the tones of bells; inv. Paris, 1890. 
The tone is produced by hammers strik- 
ing on a graduated 2-octave series of 
hollow bronze cylinders. 

Cori'sta (It.) Chorus-singer. .. C. capo- 
fila, a chorus-leader ; especially one to 
whom a minor solo part is entrusted 
(see Pertichino^. 

Cornement (Fr.) Running (of wind ip 
an organ). 

*Cornet a pistons. Even in the sym. 
phony-orchestra the cornet is not infre- 
quently used ; but its employment as a 
substitute for the valve-trumpet is to be 
condemned, these instr.s being too dis- 
similar in tone. 

Cornet'ta (It.) Cornet a pistons. . . Cor- 
net ti'7ui, a small cornet. 

Cor'to,-a (It.) Short. *'La cadenza sia 



carta " [Beethoven], the cadenza should 

be short. 
*CouI6 (Fr.) 3. A slur. 
Counting. When a part "rests" for 

several measures, precision of reen- 

trance is facilitated by counting 

(e. g., for 



thus : 123, 223, 323, 423, 523. 

Coupure (Fr.) A "cut". 

Cravat'tentenor" (Ger.) A tenor who 
sings as if his necktie were too tight. 

Cupped mouthpiece. The shallower 
form of mouthpiece for brass wind- 
instr.s (Ger. kes'sclforiniges Muiid'- 
stuck), in contradistinction to ' ' conical 
mouthpiece," the deeper form (Ger. 
trick' ter/drmiges Mund' stuck). 


Decimaquin'ta (It.) i. Interval of a 
fifteenth. — 2. The Fifteenth (organ- 

Declama'to,-a (It.) Declaimed ; in de- 
clamatory style. 

Deliran'te (It.) Raving ; frenziedly. 

*Demi-jeu (Fr.) In violin-technic, the 
persistent employment of short strokes 
of the bow. 

Dichiarazio'ne (It.) Declaration (title 
of a composition). 

Discenden'te (It.) Descending. 

Discretez'za, con (It.) With discretion ; 
discreetly, cautiously. 

Dispa'ri (It.) Unequal (voices) ; triple 

Divagazio'ne (It.) A ramble, excursion ; 
rambling, strolling. 

Divette (Fr. ; diminutive of Jiva.) Lead- 
ing lady in operetta. 

Divi'se. This (the fetn. pi.) form is 
properly applied to instr.s of the femi- 
nine gender (in Italian), such as trotnba ; 
also to vocal parts {voci divise) ; it may 
likewise be expressed by numerals, e. g. 

Dodinette, Dodino, Dodo (Fr.) Lul- 

Do'rico (It.) Doric, Dorian. 

Dugazon (Fr. ; CJer. erste Liebhaberitt.) 
French designation for the leading so- 
prano in comedy-opera, operetta, etc. ; 

named after Louise-Rosalie Dugazon, a 

celebrated singer (1753-1821). 
Dum'ka (Polish.) A sort of romance, 

vocal or instr.l, of a melancholy cast ; 

a lament or elegy. 
*Du'o. A composition in 2 •^■SiXX.?, for one 

instrument ; e. g., a violin-duo, in 

contradistinction to a violin-duet for 

two violins. 
Duologie' (Ger.) Duology (a series of 

two stage-plays, operas, or oratorios). 

^chancrures (Fr. pi.) Bouts. 

Eck'satz (Ger.) "Corner movement"; 
i. e., the opening or closing movement 
in a cyclical composition. 

Eclat (Fr.) Same as Brio. 

Eguaglian'za (It.) Smoothness, even- 
ness ; con molta eguaglianza, very 
smoothly, evenly. 

*Ein'lage (Ger.) E.xtra number ; inci- 
dental number. (See Arie aggitcnte.) 

Elan (Fr.) Impetuosity, vehemence... 
Avec elan, same as Con slancio. 

£largissez (Fr.) Same as Allargate. 

Enchainez (Fr.) "Go on directly"; 
same as Attaccate. 

En 61argissant (Fr.) Same as allar- 
gando, or pin larga?nente (Ger. breiter 

En enlevant (Fr.) Raising, lifting; 
detaching (notes). 

Enigmatical Canon. See Canon. 
Enim'ma (It.; pi. eniimne.) Enigma; 
hence, enigmatical canon. 

En mesure (Fr.) "In measure," i. e., 
a tempo, or a battuta. 

Enr^gisseur Rivoire. A phonauto- 
graph for attachment to a pianoforte ; 
inv. by Rivoire in 1895. 

Ensem'blestiick (Ger.) A concerted 
piece {¥t. piece [or morceau^ iV ensenible). 

Entusias'mo, con (It.) With enthusi- 

Erin'nerungsmotiv" (Ger.) A mus. 
motive attached to and recalling a past 
scene, emotion, personage, etc. ; in so 
far, a Leitmotiv. 

Eroico'mico,-a (It.) Mock-heroic. 

Erzah'lung (Ger.) Story, tale, narra- 

Esclama'to,-a (It.) Exclaimed; decla- 
mato con fona. 



Esem'pio (It.) Example. 

Espansio'ne, con (It.) With exalted or 
intense feeling. 

Espansi'vo (It.) Same as con espati- 

*Espressio'ne (It.) Expression-stop. 

Esquisse (Fr.) Sketch. 

Estre'mo,-a (It.) Extreme. . .Estrema- 
men' te, extremely. 

Etichet'ta (It.) Maker's " label" on a 

:iEtoffer(Fr.) To stuff, fill out ; to "pad." 

Exaltation, avec (Fr.) Same as con 

Exhibition. A scholarship at an Eng- 
lish university or music-school, inde- 
pendent of the foundation ; as the 
Potter Exhibition at the Royal Acad. 
of Music, London. 

*Expression-marks. The mark p sf 
over an arpeggio signifies " heginp/ano 
with a swift crescendo, the highest note 


Fah'ne (Ger.) A " flag" or hook ( |s). 

Fallboard. Same as F/j'. 

*Fantasi'a, con (It.) With fancy ; 
spiritedly, vividly. 

Fantasi'na (It.) Short fantasia. 

Fantasticheri'a (It.) A light, fantastic 

Fascia're (It.) To cover, to wind 
(strings) . . . Corde fascia' tc, covered 

F6erie (Fr.) Fairy-opera, fairy-play. 

Fervo're, con (It.) With fervor, warmth. 

Feuille (Fr.) A leaf ; fcuillcs volanies, 
flying leaves. 

Feuillet (Fr.) A leaf, leaflet. ..FeuiUct 
d'alhutn, album-leaf. 

Fia'ba (It.) Fable, fairy-tale. 

*Fia'to (It.) Wind ; slrumen'to a Jiato 
(or da Jiato), wind-instr. 

Fi'la (It. ; pi. Jile.) Rank (of organ- 
pipes) ; e.g., " Pieno, j file X V, 
XIX, XXII" signifies " Mixture, 3 
ranks (Fifteenth, Nineteenth, and triple 

*Filer un son (Fr.) Also means to sus- 
tain a tone 7cilh a gradual crescendo 
and decrescetido. 

Fi'Io di voce (It.) The very softest and 
lightest vocal tone. 

Fingered octaves. In pfte.-technic, 
octaves played with the 1-5 and i-4 
fingers alternately. 

*Fingering. Alternative fingerings may 
be written thus : 

4 5 

T 3" 2 

or thus 

4 3 2 

A change of fingers, temporarily de- 
layed, may be indicated thus : 
5 4 


=g 1- 3 

!• -m 

I \r 

A trill on the pfte. is sometimes fingered 
thus : f , or f , or |, etc. 

Firing. The ringing of all the bells 
belonging to a chime at once, in contra- 
distinction to chiming. 

Fisarmo'nica (It.) Physharmonica. 

Fixing the voice. Conscious artistic 
control, in singing, of the act of expira- 

Flessibilita' (It.) Flexibility. 

Flies'send (Ger.) Flowing(ly), smooth- 
(ly) ; scorrendo. 

Flute-stop. Any flue-stop on the organ 
(except stops of diapason-tone) made 
of metal or wood, closed or open, and 
of any pitch from i|-foot (Terzflote) 
to 16-foot (Flautone), may be called a 
" flute " of some kind, either on account 
of its tone, or after the builder's taste 
or fancy. Descriptions of the ordinary 
styles will be found under their respect- 
ive names. (Also see Flute-work, under 
Stop 2.) 

Flutet (Fr.) Same as Galoubet. 

Fo'glio (It.; pi. foglt:) A leaf. ...^. 
d' album, album-leaf .. ./^?'^// volan'ti^ 
flying leaves. 

Folatrerie (Fr.) Whim, caprice, bizarre 

For'te genera'le (It.) The full-organ 
combination - stop . . . Forte Vappoggia- 
turn, accent the appoggiatura strongly. 

*Fort'schreitung einer Dissonanz' 
(Ger.) Is not necessarily the resolution 



of the dissonance, as one dissonance 
may progress to another ; A uflosung 
is the exact German equivalent of 

Fortt6nor (Fr.) Dramatic tenor. 

Fouett6 (Fr. ; '* whipped.") See Whip- 
ping bow. 

Frammen'to (It.) Fragment. 

Fra se (It.) Aside. 

Frau'enchor (Ger.) i. A female chorus. 
— 2. A composition for such a chorus. 
. .Frau'enstimiiien, women's voices. 

Freddez'za, con (It.) With coldness; 
coolly, indifferently. 

Fremen'te (It.) Furiously. 

Frettolo'so (It.) UnmQd. . .Frettolosa- 
tnen'te, hurriedly. 

Fri'gio (It.) Phrygian. 

Frog. The German word Frosch means 
both "frog" (the animal) and "nut" 
(of a violin-bow) ; translators of Ger- 
man mus. works into English, often 
mistakenly use the word "frog" in- 
stead of the proper technical term 
" nut." 

Fuo'ri di s^ (It.) Absently ; dream- 
ingly, as if dreaming. 

Furberi'a del can'to (It.) The vocal 
effect of the bocca chiusa (humming). 

Fiir sich (Ger.) Aside. 


Garba'to (It.) With simple grace, ele- 

Gefeil'ter Strich (Ger.) Detached bow- 
ing (violin-technic). 

Gehaucht' (Ger.) Very softly and lightly 
sung or played. 

Gemen'do (It.) Moaning. 

Gemes'sen (Ger.) Measured(ly), moder- 
ateOy) \ misurato. 

Gepei'tschte Strich'art (Ger.) Whip- 
ping bow. 

Geris'sen (Ger.) Thrown off (in pfte.- 
technic) by a rapid, deft lift of the 
wrist ; as ein gerissener Akkord. 

Gesang'reich (Ger.) Very singingly ; 
caniando, cantabile. 

Gezo'gen (Ger.) "Drawn out"; larga- 
mente, sostenuto. 

Gio'co, con (It.) Playfully. 

Giovialita', con (It.) With joviality, 

du g.. 

Gix'er (Ger.) Same as Kicks. 
Glottis. See Vocal glottis. 
Gosier (Fr.) Throat ... /jMw^ 

isthmus of the throat. 
*Graces. In "La Poule " (a piece for 

harpsichord, by Rameau), the following 

grace occurs ■ 


Played 1 


In the " Rappel des oiseaux : " 
Written: >"" - - ^'- 

Played : 

The former is d'Alembert's Chute et 
Finc^, or J. S. Bach's Accent und Mor- 
dant (Bach gives a different sign) ; the 
latter is Fr. Couperin's Finc^ simple, 
but with a different sign. 

Gradatamen'te (It.) By degrees, grad- 

Grandetnent (Fr.) With grandeur ; with 
breadth, dignity and force. (It. con 

Grand'or'gano (It.) Great organ. 

Gravita', con (It.) With gravity, dig- 
nity ; ponderously. 

*Gruppet'to ascenden'te (It.) Back 
turn ...G. dlscenden'te, ordinary turn. 


Habane'ra (Sp.) A species of contra- 
dance comprising two 8-measure peri- 
ods in 6-S time. It is a typical Cuban 
dance; hence called the " contradanza 
criolla " (Creole contradance). 

Hack'e (Ger.) Heel. (Abbreviated, in 
organ-technic, H.) 

Harmony, false. i. The inharmonic 
relation. — 2. Discord produced by im- 
perfect preparation or resolution. — 3. 
Discord produced by wrong notes or 

Havanaise (Fr.) A Habanera. 

Hin'ter der Sze'ne (or Sce'ne) (Ger.) 
Behind the scenes. 

Hoch'format (Ger.) The ordinary shape 
of music-paper, higher than it is broad 
(See Querformat.) 



Holding. The burden of a song. (Ob- 
Huitifeme de soupir (Fr.) A 32nd-rest. 


II pill (It.) The most. 

Im (Ger.; contraction of /« (/<;«.) In the. 
. . .Im Tempo, in the (regular) tempo ; a 

Inci'S0,-a (It.) Incisive, sharp ; sharply 
emphasized ; inci'se \le noU], [the notes] 
sharply marked. 

Ingenuamen'te (It.) Ingenuously, nat- 

Ingranag'gio (It.) Gear, gearing ; ma- 

Insceni'rung, Inszenie'rung(Ger.) See 
Jl/ise en scene. 

Intar'sio, Intar'zio (It.) Purfling. 

Interligne (Fr.) Space (between lines of 

Intermez'zi sinfo'nici (It.) Incidental 
music (interludes) for orchestra. 

Ipo- (It.) Hypo- ; e.g., ipofri'gio, Hy- 
pophrygian ; ipoli'dico, Hypolydian. 

Islan'cio (It.) See Slancio. 
Isthme (Fr.) Isthmus. 
Istrunientato're(It.) Instrumenter ; or- 
chestrater ; composer for orchestra. 


Jingling Johnny. Formerly a popular 
name, in London, for the Turkish cres- 

Jonction (Fr.) Blending (of the vocal 
registers) ; also F union des registres. 

Juste (Fr.) Perfect (said of intervals). 


Kan'tor (Ger.) Cantor; the director and 
trainer of a choir or chorus in a church 
or school. 

Ker'nig (Ger.) With firmness, decision ; 
con fermez'za, deciso. 

Kes'selfbrmiges Mund'stiick (Ger.) 
Cupped mouthpiece. 

Klavier'abend (Ger.) Piano-recital in 
the evening. Also Clavierabcnd. 

Klavier'harfe (Ger.) Same as K'la->/u 
atttr' harfe. 

Kna'benchor (Ger.) Boy-chorus, boy- 
choir ; also, a composition for such a 
chorus or choir. . .Kna' benstimmen, 
boys' voices. 

Kokett' (Ger.) Coquettish(ly). 


Lamen'to (It.) Lamentation, dirge, el- 


Lam'penfieber (Ger.) Stage-fright. 

Languo're, con (It.) With languor, lan- 

Larghez'za, con (It.) Same as Largo, 

Leer (Ger.) i. Empty, hollow (of a tone). 
— 2. Open (of a string). 

Legan'do (It; "binding.") i. Equiva- 
lent to Legato. — 2. An expression-mark, 
in vocal or instr.I music, calling for the 
smooth execution of two or more con- 
secutive tones by a single " stroke of 
the glottis " (vocal), in one bow (violin, 
etc.), by a single stroke of the tongue 
(wind-instr.s), or legatissimo (on organ 
or pfte.). 

Lega'te (It.; pi. form of hga'ta, the 
words "le note" being implied.) Slurred ; 
played (or sung) evenly and smoothly. 

*Legatu'ra (It.) 2. A slur. 

Leggen'da (It.) Legend. 

Leggeris'sime (It.; pi. of Icggerissima, 
" le note" being implied.) [Play or 
sing the notes] very lightly. 

Leg'gio (It.) Music-stand. 

Le'gni (It.; pi. oi/e'gno, wood.) Wood- 

Les £f (Fr.) The /-holes. 

Lice'o (It.) Lyceum ; Conservatory. 

Lie'derabend (Ger.; "song-evening.") 
A song-recital (by one singer). 

Lie'derdichter (Ger.) A writer of songs 
(poems) to be set to music. 

Lie'derspiel (Ger.) i. Ballad -opera, 
vaudeville. — 2. A concert-piece for vo- 
cal soli, chorus, and pfte. -accompani- 
ment, with dramatic and local color; 
invented by Schumann in his " Spa- 
nisches Liederspiel," op. 74. 

Liuta'io (It.) Same as Luthier. 

Liuti'sta (It.) Lute-player. 

Lontanis'simo (It.) Very far away; 
equivalent to piano possibile. 



Lun'ga e diminuen'do [morendo] (It.) 
Long sustained and diminishing in force. 
(Here " nota " is implied.) 


Macchinet'ta (It.) Machine-head. 

Madrile'aa (Sp.) A dance of Madrid. 

*Mandolina'ta (It.) 2. Title for a man- 
dolin-piece of a quiet character, such 
as a serenade or nocturne. 

Mandoloncel'lo, Mandolo'ne (It.) 
Large styles of the mandolin. — " Man- 
dolina, Mandola, Mandoloncello and 
Mandolone do not differ one from the 
other in form, but only in size." [G.\z- 


Manua'liter (Lat.) On the manual(s) 
alone (organ-music). 

Marca'te (It.; pi. of marca'ta!) A direc- 
tion signifying: "The notes are to be 
marked"; the words 'We note" being 

Mar''kig(Ger.) " Marrowy " ; with strong 
emphasis ; sturdy, strong, vigorous. 
(Also adverb.) 

Mediation. See Chant 3. 

Melo'logo (It.; pi. melo'loghi.) Melo- 
drama ; a spoken dramatic scene accom- 
panied or illustrated by music. 

Mes'sa da re'quiera (It.) Requiem mass. 

Mes'sa in sce'na (It.) Same as Mise en 

*Mesur6 (Fr.) Equivalent to moderato ; 
e.g., A Negro mestirL 

Metro'mano-piano (It.) A finger-exer- 
ciser for pianists, inv. by Luigi Pizza- 
miglio in 1897, and commended by a 
special committee of the Milan Conser- 
vatorio. It has a short keyboard, and 
various springs and other accessories. 

*Me2'zo(It.; adjective^) Occurring alone, 
it refers to the dynamic sign next pre- 
ceding (either/ or J>). . .Mezzo respiro, 
half-breath (i.e., a [rapid] partial inspi- 

Mez'zo (It. ; nowi) Middle ; nel mezzo 
del arco, in the middle of the bow. 

Milieu (Fr.) Middle. 

Minu'gia (It.) Gut. {Also Bude Ho.) 

Mise en sc^ne (Fr.; It. missa in scena y 
Ger. Inszenieritng.) Setting of a play 
on the stage ; stage-setting, mounting. 
Moderatamen'te (It.) With moderation 
(either of tempo or emotion) ; also con 

Morto sot'tovoce (It.) Very softly in- 

Mon'do picci'no (It.) " Little Folks," 
"Little People"; title equiv. to the 
German " Kinderszenen," " Kinder- 

Montatu'ra (di corde) (It.) Set of 

Mor'bido (It.) Soft, tender ; morbidis- 
simo, very soft. . . Con morbidezza, with 
tenderness, softly. 

*Morden'te. G. Nava, in his "Ele- 
ments of Vocalization," calls an un- 
accented double -appoggiatura (e.g., 

a niordente. 

*Mos'so (It.) Occurring alone as a 
tempo-mark, Mosso is equiv. to Con 
moto. [Verdi: "Aida," pf. -score, p. 

Mu'sica fic'ta (Lat.; "feigned music") 
Mediaeval name for scales transposed by 
the use of the B or j? ; such scales being 
considered irregular (" feigned ") in con- 
trast with the regular ones. 

Musical Dictation. See Dict^e musi- 

Mu'sico (It.) An artificial male soprano 5 
a castrato or evirato. 

Musique de scfene (Fr.) Incidental 

Musurgia (Gk.) The art of correctly 
employing the musical consonances and 


Nach'gebend, Nach'giebig (Ger.) 
Yielding(ly), slower and slower, rallen- 
tando. . .Nach'giebiger, more yielding- 
ly,/?'// sostenuto. 

Na'ker. Ancient name of the kettle- 

Naset'to (It.) Point (of bow). Also 

Naufra'gio (It. ; "shipwreck.") Modem 
equivalent of Fiasco. 

Negligen''za, con (It.) With negligence, 

Ni'colo. An ancient style of bombard, 
the alto of the oboe. 

Nien'te (It.) Nothing. (The phrase 
quasi niente signifies "inaudible, as it 
were," i.e., barely audible.) 

Nin'na-nan'naKj J LuHaby. 

Ninnerel'la \^ ' 



*Notation. In the following example 
[Rubinstein, op. 3, No. 4J for pfte., the 
two notes with convergent stems, ^i^\) 
and^t], are to be played simultaneously : 

3 ^ 
1 2 1 

Notturni'no (It., dimin. of Noliurno.) 
A short nocturne. 

'^Numerals. The Roman numerals I., 
II., III., IV., in violin-playing, indicate 
the string to be played on, the E-string 
being I. — I*, 2", 3", and 4* {{or prima, 
seconda, terza and quarta corda, re- 
spectively), are also written. — A single 
8 under a bass note signifies that the 
note should be doubled in the lower 
octave. — / C. and j" C., in modern Italian 
piano-music, stand for Una corda and 
Tre fc;-;/^ respectively. — Also cf. Divise 
and Fingering, in Appendix. 

Nymphale (Fr.) A French portable 
organ of the i6th century. 


*Oboe (compass). I. The usual orches- 
tral compass is only to /^ . . . Oboe da 
cac'cia (It.), the tenoroou oboe (corno 
inglese) . . . t'/wt' liinga, same as oboe 
d'amore. — 2. In the organ, an 8-foot 
reed-stop, with conical pipes surmounted 
by a bell and cap . . . Orchestral oboe, a 
stop accurately imitating the orch.l 

Obo'er (Ger.) Oboist. 

Officle'ide (It.) Alternative spelling of 

*0p6rette [with /] is the correct spelling 
of the French word. 

Operi'sta (It.) Opera-composer. 

Order. The arrangement of chord-tones 
above a given bass, "open" and 
" close order" being equiv. to " open " 
and " close harmony ". 

Orecchian'te (It.) One judging of 
music " by ear " ; one lacking theoretical 
and practical training in the art. 

Orfeo'nico (It.) Pertaining to the 

*Organet'to a manu'brio (It.) Hand- 
organ. (.Mso O. di Barbaria.) 
Organ-metal. Same as Pipe-metal. 
Or'gano espressi'vo (It.) Swell-organ. 
Otto'ni (It. ; pi. of otto'ne, brass.) Brass- 

ppppj). Young Italy occasionally in- 
dulges in five 2>'s to indicate a barely 
audible musical murmur. 

Pa'gina d'album (It.) Album-leaf. 

Parabrac'cio (It.) Arm-rest. 

Parallel intervals are formed by the 
progression of two parts in the same 
direction and at exactly the same inter- 

Pa'ri (It.) Equal (of voices ; " voci 
pari"); duple (of times ; " tempi pari"). 

*Parlan'te(It. ; "speaking.") In pfte.- 
technic, this direction calls for a clear, 
crisp non legato. 

Parla'to (It.) Spoken. 

Parolier (Fr.) Same as Liederdichter. 

Partie (Fr.) "Pa-rt. . .Parties s/par/es, 
separate parts. . .Partition et parties, 
score and parts. 

Partitionnette (Fr.) A little (or slight) 

Pas'so (It.) X. Step ; e. g., Valzer a 
due passi. — 2. Measure ; time ; passo 
ordina'rio, common time ; passo doppio 
composto, compound duple time. 

Pau'ken (Ger.) To thump ; thumping, 
pounding, banging (rough piano-play- 

Pau'ra (It.) Fear, dismiLy. . .Pauro' so, 
fearful, timid. 

Pedal' dopYelt (Ger.) " The pedal-part 
in octaves ' (organ-technic ; It. pedale 
doppio). . .Pedal ein'fach, a direction 
following t!ie foregoing, and signifying 
that the pedal-part is no longer to be 
doubled . . . Pedal' koppel, pedal-coupler. 

Peda'le o'gni battu'ta (It.) "Take 
pedal with each measure." 

Pedalet'to (It.) A mechanical stop on 
the organ ; e. g., /. di accoppiamen'to, 
coupler ; /. di combin^zio'ne, combina- 

Pedali'no (It.) Same as Pedaletto. 

Pedal-sign. A sign for the loud pedal, 
(«) (h-) 

written | -— _i, has been introduced 

by Arthur Foote of Boston ; a showing 
the precise point at which the pedal 
should be depressed, and b where it 
should be raised. 

Pei'tschend (Ger.) See Whipping bow. 

Pel (It.) Contraction of per il, "for 
the" ; e. g., pel mandolino, for the 



Pen'na (It.) Pick, plectrum. 

Pensie'ro (It.) Thousrht . . . Pensiero 
del{la) — , Souvenir of — , Recollections 

Penso'so (It.) Pensive, thoughtful. 

Perce (Fr.) Bore (of wood-wind instr.s). 

Per interval'li giu'sti (It.) By exact 
intervals (in a canon ; i. e., the iheme 
is repeated inter\'al for interval, strictly). 

Pertichi'no (It.) The singer of an ex- 
tremely subordinate operatic part ; a 
part often taken by the chorus-leader. — 
In German such a singer has been 
jocularly termed a So'locho/'sdnger, 
" solo chorus-singer ". (See Corisla.) 

Petac'cha (It.) Plectrum. 

Pezzet'to (It.) Little piece. 

Pez'zi stacca'ti (It.) Airs d/lack^s. 

Phras6 (Fr.; noun.) Phrasing. 

PianoTa, A mechanical piano-player, 
invented by E. S. Votey of New York, 
in the year 1897. It is furnished with 
4 stops. Piano, Forte, Tempo and 
Accent, by whose skilful manipulation 
the most artistic effects may be pro- 
duced at will. The motive-power is 
supplied by two pedals (treadles) worked 
by the feet ; these pedals actuate {a) a 
revolving music-roll of perforated paper, 
whose perforations control the time- 
value of the notes ; and (/') the pneu- 
matic action, consisting of 65 felt- 
covered levers, or automatic fingers, 
which command a compass of five 
octaves and four semitones (from A\ to 
^), and act with all the delicacy and 
precision of a trained pianist's digits, 
besides being able to play any 4-hand 
pieces. The apparatus is not attached 
to the pianoforte, but set in front of it 
in such a position that the 65 automatic 
fingers engage the proper keys. — The 
repertory, comprising at present (igoo) 
about 20,000 numbers, embraces all 
grades of popular, romantic, and classic 
pianoforte - music and arrangements. 
\Cf. .^olian.) 

Pib-corn (Welsh.) A hornpipe. 

Piffera'ta (It.) Air for the fife, or in 
imitation (as on the pfte.). 

Placidez'za, con (It.) With placidity ; 
tranquilly, calmly. 

Plain-beat. An obsolete English harp- 
sichord-grace ; 

Written: Played: 


Plein (Fr.) Full ; h plein son, with full 
tone {sonoramenic). 

Pleftro (It.) Plectrum, pick. 

Pluperfect. Augmented (of intervals). 

Po'co me'no (It.) When this phrase 
occurs alone as a tempo-mark, mosso is 
implied ; i. q., poco meno mosso, a little 
less fast [slower]. . .Poco piii, standing 
alone, also implies viosso ("a little 
faster ")... /"(V^ piu lento delta /»"» 
volta, somewhat slower than the first 

Poemet'to (It.; "little poem.") A 
slight musico-dramatic work. 

Pointing. See Chant 3. 

Pol'ca (It.) Polka. 

Polchet'ta (Polketta?) (It.) Little 

Polifo'nico,-a (It.) Polyphonic. 

Pol'nisch (Ger.; "Polish.") Polacca(a3 
the title of a piece). 

Polone'se (It.) Polonaise. {^Polacca.) 

Pom'pa, con (It.) With pomp, pom- 
pously, loftily. 

Porta-mu'sica (It.) Music-roll, port- 

Porta'te la vo'ce (It.) " Carry the 
voice"; a direction to more than one 
singer to sing portamento. 

Post-horn. A horn without valves or 
keys, capable of producing the natural 
harmonics of its fundamental tone ; 
used on post-coaches. 

Premier dessus (Fr.) Soprano. 

Pressan'do (It.) Same as Pressante. 

Prestissimamen'te (It.) With extreme 
rapidity (equiv. to Prestissimo). 

Pre'sto parlan'te (It.) " Speaking rap- 
idly (volubly)"; a direction in recita- 
tives, etc. 

Principali'no (It. ; " small diapason.") 
An 8-foot stop on the swell-organ. 

Prinzipal'stimme (Ger.) Leading part ; 
solo part. 

Profa''no,-a (It.) Secular ; as oratorio 
profano, musica profana. 

Programmist. i. A musician who writes 
music to fit a " program " , which latter 
may be either expressed or implied. — 2. 
A theorist or critic who favors compos- 
ing according to program. 

Progressive composition of a song is 
the English equivalent for Durchkom- 
ponieren {q. z/.). 



Prolongement (Fr.) Sustaining-pedal. 
Pronunzia'to,-a (It.) Pronounced, em- 

Protagoni'sta (It.), Protagoniste (Fr.) 
Singer of the leading role in an opera. 

*Pro'va (It.) Rehearsal. . .P. in costu'- 
me, dress-rehearsal. . .P. genera' le, full 

Pult (Ger.) 'D^%\i...Erstes (/.) Pult, 
and Zweites {II.) Pult, in a score, in- 
dicate, respectively, Division i and 2 of 
a group of orch.l instr.s playing a'/wVz. 

Pult'virtuos (Ger. ; Fr. virtuose de pu- 
pitre.) A " virtuoso of the desk " (i. e. , 
conductor's desk) ; a conductor of 
celebrity, like Hans Richter, von Bulow, 
Weingartner, etal., who either travels 
with his own orchestra, or conducts 
different orchestras at various places. 

Pun'to corona'to (It.) Hold {^. 


Qua'dro (It.) Picture, tableau. 

Quer'format (Ger.) Oblong (shape of 
music-paper, broader than long). 

Quitter (Fr.) To quit, leave ; sans quit- 
ter la corde, without quitting the string. 


Raccoglimen'to (It.) Collectedness of 

mind, composure. 

Raccol'ta (It.) Collection. 

Raccon'to (It.) Tale, story. 

Rallenta'te (It., imperative.) Go slower. 

Recessional. A hymn sung in church 
during the departure of the choir and 
clergy after a service. 

Redite (Fr.) Repetition. 

Reduce (It. ridur're.) Same as J?/dui re. 
. . Reduction (Ger. Reduktion' ; Fr. r/- 
dttction ; It. riduzio'ne), a reduced com- 
position (see R/duire). 

Reif'tanz (Ger.) Same as Schdfflertanz. 

Reminiscen'ze (It. pi.) Recollections. 

R6soluraent (Fr.) Same as Risoluta- 

Restez (Fr. ; " stay there ! ") In music 
for bow-instr.s this direction means : 
(i) " Play on the same string", or (2) 
" Remain in the same position (shift)". 

•Rests. A pause of 
sereral measures is 
often written thus : 


Retenu (Fr.) Same as Ritenuto. 
Retrosce'na (It.) Behind the scenes. 

Revue (Fr.) A review in musico-dra- 
matic form, and generally humorous, of 
the striking events in a season or year 
just closing. 

*Ribattu'to,-a (It.) Restruck, repeated ; 

tiote ribattute, repeated notes. 
Ric'cio (It.) Scroll. 

Ricochet (Fr.) In violin-technic, a var- 
iety of staccato differing from the sau- 
tilU {saltato) in not employing the wrist 
(in the saltato, up-stroke, a separate 
wrist-movement is made for each de- 
tached tone). 

Rifiormen'to (It.) Same as Adoma- 

Rimembran'za (It. ; pi. rimembran'ze.) 
Recollection, souvenir, memory. 

Ripieni'no (It.) A 4-foot stop on the 

swell -organ. 
*Ripie'no (It.) A combination-stop in 

the organ drawing all registers of any 

given manual. 
Ripi'glio (It.) Repetition, reprise. 

Ripo'so (It.) Kt^osG. . .Riposa' to, re- 
poseful, restiul. . .Riposatamen'te, re* 

Ripren'dere (It.) To resume ; stringendo 
per riprendere il I" tempo, hastening, 
in order to regain the former tempo. 

Risolutezza, con (It.) With resolution, 

Rispet'to (It.) Love-ditty. 

Rit. is given on p. 2 as an abbreviation 
of Ritenuto, and is often so used, though 
more frequently for Ritardando. — In 
view of the difference in meaning 
between Ritenuto and Ritardando, it is 
advisable always to write Ritenuto out 
in full, when that nuance is desired. 

Ritardan'za (It.) Retardation. 

Ritardazio'ne (It.) Retardation, drag- 

Rit'mico (It.) Rhythmical ... i??V'w?Vc?, 
written after a recitative, is also equiva- 
lent to " a tempo " or misurato. 

Rit'ter-Bra'tsche (Ger.) A large style 
of viola, the Viola alta, inv. by 
Hermann Ritter of Wurzburg ; a per- 
former on it is sometimes called a 
" Ritter-Bratschist'." 

Rivi'sta (It.) Same as Revue. 
Rola'ta (It.) A roulade. 



Roman'za sen'za paro'le (It.) Song 

without words. 
Romanze'ro (It.) A suite or cycle of 

romantic pieces for pfte. 

Sag^gio (It.) Examination. . (Concerto 
di saggio, pupils' concert given for 
practice in ensemble, or quasi public, 
performance ; equivalent to the German 
Ubuyigsabend or Abendunterhaltuug). 

*Sampo'gna (It.) A variety of the Italian 
bagpipe, having (in a specimen examined 
in the United States) 2 drones, and 2 
melody-pipes fingered by the right and 
left hands respectively ; on it was played 
the accompaniment to a shrill reed-pipe 
which the performers called a corna- 
musa. The bag is inflated by the breath 
and squeezed by the right arm. 

Sans (Fr.) Without. 

Sauting (Fr.) Saltato. 

Sauvement (Fr.) Resolution (of a dis- 

Saxofo'nia (It.) Saxophone. 

*Scale. 4 (of a piano). Compass ; i.e., 
the range of tones represented by the 

Schafflertanz (Ger.) Festival procession 
and dance, probably of great antiquity, 
of the Coopers' Guild at Munich ; held 
everj' 7 years. 

Schie'ber (Ger.) Same as Schub. 

Schiettez'za, con (It.) Simply ; neatly, 

Schla'ger (Ger.) A "hit"; brilliantly 
successful piece or play. 

Schmach'tend (Ger.) Languishing(ly), 

Scintil'la (It.; pi. scintil'le) A spark. 

Scivolan'do (It.) Same as Glissando, in 

Scoop. Vocal tones are said to be 
"scooped" when taken, instead of by 
firm and just attack, by a rough por- 
tamento from a lower tone. 

Secondaa'do (It.) Supporting, follow- 
ing ; secondando la voce (or il emtio), 
yieldingly following the principal part 
(with the accompaniment). 

Second dessus (Fr.) Mezzo-soprano. 

Semitririo (It.) Inverted mordent. 

Sentimenta'Ie (It.) Feelingly. 

Sen'za misu'ra (It.) "Without meas- 

ure ; i.e., not in strict time; equiva- 
lent to the tempo-mark a piacere, and 
opposed to viisuraio . . . Senza suono, 
" without tone " ; i.e., spoken. 
Sept'akkord (Ger.) Seventh-chord. (Also 
Sep' timenakkord.) 

Serenatel'la (It.) Little serenade. 

Serenita', con (It.) With serenity, se- 
renely, tranquilly. 

Serieta', con (It.) Seriously. 

Settimi'no (It.) A piece for 7 perform- 

Severita', con ; Seve'ro (It.) In a se- 
vere (stern, austere) manner. 

Sfuma'to (It.; pi. sfuma'te \le note im- 
plied].) Very lightly, like a vanishing 
smoke-wreath.. . Sfiimatti'ra, " Smoke- 
wreath " (title of a light, airy composi- 
tion). .. ..^ 

*Signs. ^ 3 Instead of the mis- 
leading short slur, with figure, for doub- 
lets, triplets, etc., modem French music 
sometimes has a dotted slur (as shown 
above), which is an improvement. 

another sign for . 
the triplet ( = 

This sign, at the end of a staff, 
shows that the measure is unfin- 
ished, so that no bar is required, 
.(bis) The re- 

ten at a single bar. 

ryj- — peat-s 1 gn 
is s o m e - 
times writ- 

Thesign ( is used 

like r 

to connect 

notes to be played 
by one hand. 

//—//— This sign 

^ is used : (i) 

As a breath- 
ing-mark ; (2) to mark a very brief 
pause, together with the interruption 
caused by taking breath. 
'^ Another sign for the Back Turn. 

' ' Sig- 

nines mezzo staccato 
e pesante (marcatd) ; 



n A In organ-pieces, signs for pedal- 
ling are sometimes written thus : 
For right foot, heel H , toe A 
" left " " U "V 

y|« In piano-playing a note to be 
" taken by the right hand is some- 
times marked thus : J ; for the left 
hand: |p. 

(Also c/.y in Appendix, the articles Notation, 
Numerals^ Time and Turn.) 

*SiIen'zio (It.) 2. A pause, silence ; as 
lutigo siUnzio. 

Simplement (Fr.) Simply, semplice ; 
tres simplement, semplicissimamente. 

*Sinfoni'a (It.) This term is still used 
in Italy to designate an opera-overture ; 
e.g., la sinfonia del Tannhduser. 

Sinfoni'sta (It.) A writer of sympho- 
nies, or for symphony-orchestra. 

Sing'amt (Ger. ) See Sitigmesse . . . Sing'- 
en, to sing, warhle. . . Sing'gedickt, a 
poem for mus. setting. . . Sing'kiinst^ art 
of singing. ..Sing" lehrer, singing-teach- 
er, . . Sing' lei ter, gamut, vocal scale. . . 
Sing^ marc hen, vocal ballad ... ^/'«^'- 
meister, singing - master . . . Sing'messe, 
a - cappella mass . . . Sing'saite, treble 
string, chanterelle . . . Sing'stunde, sing- 
ing-lesson, vocal instruction. .. .S'/w;''. 
iihiing, singing-e.xercise. . . Sing'vcrcin, 

Singhioz'zo (It.) Sob. 

Slancian'te, Slancia'to (It.) " Thrown 
off" lightly and deftly, or forcibly and 

Slarga'to (It.) Slower, fiii sostenuto. 

*SHde. 4. On a violin-bow, that part of 
the nut which slides along the stick. 

Solmizza're (It.) Same as Solfeggtare. 

Sopranist'(in) (Ger.) Soprano singer. 

Sorri'so (It.) A smile. 

*Sorti'ta (It.) See Aria in Appendix. 

Soutenu (Fr.) Same as Sostenuto. 

Specification. (Ger. Disposition^ An 
enumeration of the various stops com- 
posing any given organ, giving number, 
kind, and arrangement. 

Spianar' la vo'ce (It.) To render the 
voice even ; to blend the registers. 

*Spicca'tO (It.) In violin-technic, a va- 
riety of staccato differing from the sal- 
tato in employing the wrist - stroke 
throughout, for each detached note. 

Spie'gelkanon (Ger.) A canon to be 
performed backwards ; i.e., as it appears 
when held before a mirror (" Spiegel "). 

Spigliatez'za (It.) Agility, dexterity, 
hx'x'S^Vx^tis. . .Spigliatez'ze (pi.), short, 
lively pieces or studies requiring dex- 

Stanchez'za (It.) Weariness ; con s(.. 
wearily, very dragging. 

Stan'co,-a (It.) Weary. 

*Stentan'do (It.) Means literally, " de- 
laying, retarding, dragging " the tempo. 
. . . Stenta'to, delayed, retarded, dragged. 

Stiria'na (It.) See Styrienne. 

Stornel'lo (It.) A form of song in which 
each 8-line stanza rhymes thus : 1-3 2-4 

5-6 7-8. 

Strambot'to (It.) Folk-song ; rustic 
love-ditty. (Also Strambot'tolo) 

Strappa're (It.; "to pluck off.") In 
piano-technic, to throw off a note or 
chord by a rapid, light turn of the 
wrist. ..Lo strappare, the throwing-off. 
. . . Strappato, thrown off i^-'&x.gerissen'). 

Strascina're la vo'ce (It.) To sing a 
portamento with an exaggerated drag- 
ging or drawling. 

Strei'cher (Ger.) Player(s) on any bow- 

Stret'ta (It.) A closing passage (coda) 

in swifter tempo than the movement 


Strich'-Staccato (Ger.) A staccato in- 
dicated by wedge-shaped dashes ( ' ' ). 

Strict style (of composition). See Coun- 
terpoint, strict. 

Strie'se (Ger.; It. capoco'mico.) The 
leading comic actor or singer in a com- 
pany, either gentleman or (It. capoco'- 
mica) lady. 

Strimpella'ta (It.) Strumming, scrap- 

Strin'gere (It.) To hasten ; senza striri' 
gere, without hastening. 

Strophic composition. See Song 2. 

Styrienne (Fr. ; It. Stiriana.) An air in 
slow movement and 2-4 time, often in 
minor, with Jodler after each verse ; 
for vocal or instr.l solo. 

Super'bo,-a (It.) Superb ; proud, lofty. 
. . . Superhamen'te, proudly, loftily. 

Svilup'po (It.) Development. 

Sviz'zera, alia (It.) In Swiss style- 




Table du fond (Fr.) Back (of violin). 

Ta'glio(It.) A "cut." 

Tallo'ne (It.) Nut (of bow). 

Tarantelli'na (It.) Little tarantella. 

Telltale. A small weight moving verti- 
cally in a groove, and so connected with 
the bellows of an organ that, by rising 
and falling, it shows the organist or 
"blower" the amount of wind in the 

Terzetti'no (It.) A short terzet. 

Tetralogie' (Ger.) Tetralogy; a series 
of 4 stage-works or oratorios. 

Three-Step. (Ger. Dreitritt ; It. Vaker 
a ire passi ; Fr. trois-temps.) The or- 
dinary (Vienna) waltz. (See Waltz.) 

Timballo'ne (It.) A 16-foot pedal-stop 
in the organ. 

Timbrel (Hebr.) A tambourine or tabor. 

*Time. In French notation n 
the large 3 is still some- to— ^:^r 
times employed instead of |. X) 

Ti'mido (It.) Timid, timorous. . . Timo'- 
re, con, with timidity ; timorously, fear- 
fully, anxiously. 

Tonan'te (It.) Thundering, thunderous. 

Ton'figuren (Ger., pi. ) " Tone-figures " ; 
i e., "nodal figures" (^.z'.). 

Toni'metro (It.) Tuning-fork (/. a per- 
cussione); pitch-pipe (/. a Jiato). 

*Ton'satz (Ger.) 2. Arrangement (e.g., 
of the vocal or instr.l accomp. to an 
ancient melody). 

Tornan'do (It.) Returning ; /. al priijio 
tempo (or t. come pritna), returning to 
(resuming) the original tempo. 

Traduzio'ne (It.) Arrangement. 
Trascrizio'ne (It.) Transcription. 
Traspor'to, con (It.) With transport, 

Treff'iibung (Ger.) A singing exercise 

on the " attack," as regards either pitch, 

or time of entrance (in duets, canons, 

Treman'te (It.) Trembling; i.e., with 

a tremolo effect. 
Trial (Fr.) Buffo (or comic) tenor. 
Trich'terformiges Mund'stiick (Ger.) 

Conical mouthpiece. 

Trilogie' (Ger.) Trilogy ; a series of 

3 stage-works or oratorios. 
Trisser (Fr.) To demand a number for 

the third time ; to " encore" for a sec- 
ond time. 
Trito'nikon (Ger.) A modern form of 
double-bassoon, made of metal. 

Trom'ba rea'le (It.; "royal trumpet.") 
An 8-foot trumpet-stop in the organ. 

Trompe des Alpes (Fr. ; \t. from ba de lie 
Alpi.) ' ' The hollowed trunk or branch 
of a tree, from which the old moun- 
taineers draw strange tones." [Rein- 
troduced lately into Switzerland by Prof. 
Ileim of Zurich.] 

Tron'co,-a (It.) Cut off short ; stopped 
abruptly. . . Siioni tronchi, tones cut off 

*Tuba. The bass tuba in E\^ is exten- 
sively employed in the modern orchestra. 

*Turn. Example of turn-sign over a 
dotted note ; from Beethoven, op. 14, 
No. I, showing the dot as he himself 
wrote it : 

T .t-^J^ 

"Written : 

^^ ^ 

Played : 

Tut'ta for'za (It.) Abbreviation of " con 
tutta la forza," with full force. 

Two-step (Ger. Zweitritt ; It. Valzer a 
due passi ; Fr. deux-temps.) The rapid 
waltz. (See Waltz.) 


O'bungsabend (Ger.) See Abendunier- 

haltung, in Appendix. 

U'bungsstiick (Ger.) See Vortragsstiick, 

in Appendix. 
Um'gekehrt (Ger.) Reversed ; utnge- 

kekrter Doppelschlag, back turn. 

Um'schmeissen (Ger. theatrical slang.) 
To break down in a role, so as to neces- 
sitate a general stoppage and the recom- 
mencement of the passage. 

*Un'gebunden (Ger.) Unconstrained ; 



mit ungebundenetn Humor, with uncon- 
strained humor, burlando. 

Union des registres (Fr.) Blending of 
the (vocal) registers. 

Uni'ti (It., pi.) "United"; this direc- 
tion in a score, after divisi, signifies 
that the instr.s or voices again perform 
their part in unison. 

Unvocal. i. Not suitable for singing. — 
2. Not vibrating with tone ; umwcal air 
is breath escaping with a more or less 
audible sigh or hiss, due to unskilful 
management of the vocal apparatus. 


Val'zer (It.) Waltz. 

Veris'mo (It.) Naturalism, .. Veris'tisch 

(Ger.), pertaining to or affected by 

naturalism ; naturalistic. 

Verstar'ken (Ger.) To reinforce. 

*Vibra'to,-a (It.; pi. vibrate [/^ m^/c im- 
plied].) Strongly accented, and dimin- 
ishing in intensity (<=J ; vocal or instr.l). 
. . . Vibrazio' ne di voce, the attack of a 
tone forte or sf, and diminishing while 
holding it. 

Vi'de se'quens (Lat.) " See the follow- 

Vielle a roue (Fr.) Hurdy-gurdy. 

Vigo're, con (It.) With vigor. 

Vio'la al'ta. A large viola, inv. by Her- 
mann Ritter of Wismar, Germany, and 
described in his pamphlet, " Die Ge- 
schichte der Viola alta und die Grund- 
satze ihres Baues " (1877). It has a 
fuller and freer tone than the ordinary 
viola, and has been quite extensively 
introduced into German orchestras. 

Vio'la di bordo'ne. The barytone 

Violina'ta (It.) i. A piece for violin. — 
2. A piece for another instr. , imitating 
the violin-style. 

Violinzo'li (It.) An 8-foot stop on the 

Violi'sta (It.) Viola-player. 

Violoncelli'sta (It.) 'Cellist. 

Violot'ta. A bow-instr. of violin-type, 
inv. 1895 by Dr. Alfred Stelzner, Dres- 
den, and intended to fill the hiatus in the 
string-quartet between viola and 'cello. 
It is played like the viola, and has the 
same dimensions ; but its accordatura 
is G-d'U-e^, a fourth lower than the viola. 

Tone full in lowest register, mellow and 
tender in the medium, and the .iS^-string 
well-adapted for sustained melody. Suc- 
cessful concerts have been given with 
the Violotta and 'Cellone (q.v.) in Dres- 
den. — Dr. S. claims to have solved the 
problem of obtaining the most equable 
and powerful resonance from instr.s of 
the violin-type. 

Virtuose de pupitre (Fr.) See Pultvir. 

Vitesse (Fr.) Rapidity, swiftness. 

Vivement (Fr.) Same as Vivace. 

*Vocal cords. "The free median bor- 
ders of 2 folds of mucous membrane 
within the larynx, bounding the ante- 
rior two-thirds of the glottis on either 
side. Each is formed by the free me- 
dian edge of an elastic (inferior thyro- 
arytenoid) ligament running from the 
angle of the thyroid cartilage to the 
vocal process of the arj'tenoid, and cov- 
ered with thin and closely adherent 
mucous membrane." — [CenturyDict.] 

*Vo'gelgesang (Ger.) 2. A stop in an 
organ ("bird-stop "). 

Voile du palais (Fr.) Veil of the palate. 

Vor'setzungszeichen (Ger.) Chromatic 

Vor'tragsstiick (Ger.) A piece for per- 
formance before an audience (in con- 
tradistinction to ilbungsstiick, a prac- 
tice-piece) ; a concert-piece ; a show- 

Vor'warts (Ger.) Forward(s) ; etwas v. 
gehend, somewhat iasttT,J>oco piit mosso. 

*Vuo'to,-a (It.) 2. Empty ; scena vuota, 
the stage [remains] empty. 


Whipping bow. (Fr. foueii/; Ger. ge- 
peitschte Strichart.) A form of violin- 
technic in which the bow is made to 
fall with a certain vehemence on the 
strings. Chiefly employed when it is 
desired to mark sharply single tones in 
rapid tempo ; e.g.. 

Not infrequent in modem orchestral 
music ; but avoided by the classic com- 
posers on account of its rough, harsh 



Zaramel'la (It.) Rustic pipe, with 
double-reed held between the player's 
lips, 7 finger-holes, and bell-mouth ; 
plays melodies to the accompaniment 
of the Neapolitan sampogna {q.v.; Ap- 

Ziem'lich bewegt' und frei im Vor'- 

trag (Ger.) Quite animated and free 
in delivery (style). 

Zi'therharfe (Ger.) A species of auto- 
harp in which dampers actuated by 
digitals are used to damp the strings. 
Miiller's Accordzither (inv. 1894?) is 
an example. 

Zit'tera (It.) Zither. 

English-Italian Vocabulary 





Above. Sopra. . .Above the right hand, 

sopra la mano destra. 
Accelerated. Accelerate ; accelerating, 

accelerando; stringendo ; pressante. . . 

Accelerating the tempo, ravvivando il 

tempo. [See EnUven.'\ 
Accented. Marcato; enfatico, conenfasi. 

Accompaniments. Accompagnamenti. 
. .Accompaniment very soft throughout, 
sempre pp. gli accompagnamenti. 
Affected(ly). Smorfioso ; affettato (con 

Affectionate(ly). Affettuoso (rffettuo- 

samente). [See Tender.'\ 
Afraid. Paventato. [See Fearful?^ 
Again. Ancora, ancor. 
Agility. Agilita ; velocita. 
Agitated(ly). Agitato (con agitazione) ; 
tumultuoso (tumultuosamente) ; vi- 
Agreeable. Gradevole ; piacevole. [See 

Air. [See Melody?^ 
All together. Tutti. 
Also. Anche. 

Alternatively. Alternamente. 
Always. ^^xi\-^x&. . .Always swift and 
soft, sempre con agevolezza e sotto- 
And. E, ed (before a vowel). 
Angry. Adirato ; angrily, con ira. 
Animated(ly). Animato (con anima) ; 
allegro (allegramente) ; vivace (viva- 
cemente) ; vivido, vivo (vivamente ) ; 
vivente ; visto (vistamente); con mote ; 
svegliato ; risvegliato. . . With growing 
animation, animandosi. 
An octave higher. All'ottava 

{Sva , or <? ,ox8va 


An octave lower. All'ottava bassa [_8va 

Anxious(ly). Ansioso (ansiosamente) , 

affanoso (affanosamente) ; timoroso 

(timorosamente ; con timore). 
Ardent(ly). Ardente (con ardore) ; fer- 

vente (con fervore). 
Artless(ly). Innocente (innocentemente); 

semplice (semplicemente) ; naturale 

As. Come. 

As above. Come sopra. 
As before. Come avanti ; come prima 
As far as. Fino, or fin'; sino, or sin*. 
Aside. In disparte. 
As if. Quasi. 
As usual. Al solito. 
As written. Come sta ; loco (after 

Si,a ; or simply terminate 

dotted line with a down-stroke). 
At a distance. In distanza ; in lon- 

tananza ; da lontano. 
At pleasure. A piacere ; ad libitum ; a 
bene placito ; senza tempo ; a suo 
At sight. A prima vista. 
Attack. Attacca, attaccate (//.) ; at- 

tack instantly, attacca(te) subito. 
At the former tempo. A tempo, or 
Tempo I ; moto precedente. 


Babbling. Straccicalando. 

Back to the sign. Dal segno (•%•)• 

. . Back to the beginning, da capo. 
Backwards. Al rovescio. 
Begin (to). Attaccare. . .Begin I attacca, 

attaccate. . . To begin again, ripigliare. 
Beginning. Principio ; capo. 
Below. Sotto ; beloxu the left hand, sotto 

la mano sinistra. 



Bitter(Iy). Amarevole (con amarezza). 
Bizarre(ly). Bizzarro (bizzarramente, 

con bizzarreria). 
Boisterous(ly). Strepitoso (strepitosa- 

mente, constrepito) ; brioso (con brio); 

tempestoso (tempestosamente). 
Bold(ly). Ardito (con arditezza) ; fiero 

(fieramente ; con bravura ; francamente; 

con fierezza); intrepido (intrepidamente, 

con intrepidezza ; tostamente). 
Bound. Legato. 

Brilliantly. Brillante ; scintUlante. 
Brisk(ly). Vivo (vivamente) ; visto 

(vistamente) ; allegro (allegramente) ; 

lesto ; vivace. 
Broad(ly). Largo (largamente, con 

larghezza) ; (frase larga) ; very broad{ly), 

larghissimo(molto largamente) ;^;^ro7w«^ 

broader, largando, allargando... 

Broader, piu largamente. 
Brusquely. Bruscamente. 
Burlesque(ly). Burlesco (burlescamente). 
But. Ma. 
By. Da ; by leaps or skips, di salto. 


Calm(Iy). Tranquillo (tranquillamente, 

con tranquillita) ; placido, (placida- 

mente) ; (\mQ\.o. . .Grozuiug calmer, 

calmando ; calando ; raddolcendo, 

Caprice. Capriccio ; capricious, capric- 

cioso, vicendevole ; capriciously, a 

capriccio, vicendevolmente. 
Carefully. Con diligenza ; con osser- 

vanza ; con precisione. 
Careless(ly). Negligente (negligente- 

Caressing(ly). Carrezzando, carrez- 

zevole (carezzevolmente); accarrezzevole 

Certain (adj.). Alcuno,-a. 
Change I Muta. 
Chant. [See Melody?^ 
Charming(ly). Vezzoso (vezzosamente). 
Chaste. Nobile. 
Clear(ly). Chiaro (chiaramente) ; netto 

Coaxing(ly). Lusingando, lusinghevole 

Cold(ly). Freddo (f reddamente , con 


Comic(ally). Buffo, -a ; buffonesco (buf- 

Complaining. Lamentando, lamente- 

vole ; lagrimando, lagrimoso. 
Connectly. Legato. 
Consoling(ly). Consolante. 
Continually. Sempre. 
Continue. Va. 
Contra-dance. Contraddanza. 
Coquettishly. Con civetteria. 
Country-dance. Contraddanza. 
Cradle-song. Ninna-nanna ; ninnerella. 


Dark. Cupo. 

Dashing. Sbalzato ; precipitate. 

Decided(ly). Deciso ; fermo (con fer- 

mezza) ; energico (con energia). 
Declamatory. Declamando ; narrante ; 

Decreasing (in force). Decrescendo ; 

diminuendo ; raddolcendo ; diluendo. 
Decreasing {in speed). Rallentando ; 

ritardando ; ritenente ; tardando ; 

lentando ; sientando ; strascinando ; 

rilasciando ; rilasciante. 
Decreasing {in force ajid speed). Cal- 
ando ; deficiendo ; mancando ; mo- 

rendo ; sminuendo ; smorzando. 
Deliberate(ly). Deliberato (delibera- 

Delicate(ly). Delicato (delicatamente, 

con delicatezza) ; tenero (teneramente, 

con tenerezza). 
Desperate(ly). Disperato (con dispera- 

Detached. Staccato, distaccato ; pic- 

chettato ; very detached, staccatissimo. 
Determined. Determinato ; risoluto. 

Devotional(ly). Devoto (devotamente, 

con devozione) ; religioso (religiosa- 

Dignified. Posato ; grave. 
Discreet(ly). Discreto (con discrezione). 
Disdain. [See Scorn.'\ 
Distant. Lontano ; at a distance, da 

lontano, in lontananza, in distanza. 
Distinct(ly). Chiaro (chiaramente) ; ben 

marcato ; distinto (distintamente). 
Distressed. Appenato. 
Divided. Divisi. 



Ooleful(ly). Dolendo.dolente (con dolore, 

Dragging. Stentando ; strascinando ; 
strascicando ; stirato. 

Drawling. Strascicando. 

Dreaming, Sognando. 

Dreamy. Yago. . .Drc-avii/y, quasi so- 

Drinking-song. Brindisi. 

Droll. Buffonesco. 

Dry. Secco. 

Dwelt upon. Tenuto, sostenuto. 

Dying away. Morendo ; smorzando ; 
mancando ; perdendosi ; diluendo; 
espirando ; estinguendo, stiuguendo. 


Easy. Agevole ; commodo ; disinvolto ; 

facile ; mobile. . .Easily, con agevolezza, 

agevoimente ; agiatamente ; commoda- 

mente ; facilmente ; con disinvoltura. Ecco . . . Like an echo, quasi ecco. 
Elegant(ly). Garbato (congarbo). [See 

Emphatic(ally). Enfatico (con enfasi) ; 

marcato ; sforzato. 
End. Fine. . . To the end, sin' i^or fin') 

al fine. 
Energetic(ally). Energico (energica- 

mente, con energia) ; risentito ; riso- 

luto (risolutamente, con risoluzione). 
Enlivening (tempo). Ravvivando il 

tempo ; animandosi, animando. 
Enthaisiastic(ally). Zeloso (con zelo ; 

con entusiasmo). 
Entreating(ly). Supplichevole (sup- 

Equal(ly). Eguale (egualmente) ; equa- 

bile (equabilmente). 
Even(ly). Eguale (egualmente) ; uguale 

(ugualmente) ; tepido (tepidamente) ; 

Exact. Esatto. . . JF///^ exactness^ con 

esatezza. [See Precise.~\ 
Expiring. Espirando. [See Dying 


Expressive(ly). Espressivo (con 

espressione); sentito, risentito; pietoso; 

sentimentale ,• (con sentimento ; con 

Extempore. All'improvvista ; alia 

mente . . . Extemporaneously, improv- 


Extinct. Estinto. 

Extravagant (ly). Stravagante (stra 

Extreme. Sommo,-a. 
Extremely. Molto, di molto ; -issimo. 


Fading away. [See Dying away.] 

Faint. Fiacco ; debile ; estinto. 

Fantastic. Fantastico. 

Fast, Allegro ; vivace ; vivo ; presto. 
. . l^ery fast, allegro molto, allegro 
assai, allegro vivo ; vivacissimo ; pre- 
stissimo. . Rather fast, allegretto, al- 
legro moderato . . . Not too fast, non 
troppo allegro. . . Twice as fast, doppio 
movimento ; not so fast, meno mosso. 

Faster. Piu mosso ; piu allegro ; piu 
presto; vqIocs.. . .Easter and faster, 
sempre accelerando ; pressando, pres- 

Fearful(ly). Paventato ; timido (timi- 
damente) ; timoroso (timorosamente ; 
con timore). 

Feeble. Debile, debole. 

Feelingly. [See Expressively.'] 

Fervent(ly). Fervente (con fervore) ; 
ardente (con ardore). 

Festive(ly). Festivo (festivamente). 

Fierce(ly). Feroce (con ferocita) ; fiero 
(fieramente) ; barbaro. 

Fiery. Fuocoso ; con fuoco ; ardente. 

Firm(ly). Fermo (fermamente, con fer- 

First part. Primo {in a duet) ; first 
time, prima volta ( |i. |). 

Flattering(ly). Lusingando, lusin- 
ghevole (lusinghevolmente). 

Flowing(ly). Scorrendo, scorrevole ; 
disinvolto (con disinvoltura) ; sciolto 
(scioltamente) ; andante (andantemente). 

Fluently. Volubilmente. [See Elowing.] 

Flying. Volante. 

Following. Seguente, seguendo. 

Fond(ly). Amorevole (amorevolmente, 
con amore) ; amoroso (amorosamente). 

For. Per. . .For voices alone, a cappella. 

Forcibly. Con forza ; bruscamente ; 
con tutta forza. 

Forcing. Forzando, sforzando. 

Free(ly). Disinvolto (con disinvoltura; 
francamente, con franchezza ; libera- 
mente); generoso; sciolto (scioltamente). 



Frenzy. Delirio ; yr,?«siVt/(/)'),delirante 

(con delirio ; con rabbia). 
From. Da . . . From the beginning. Da 

csi^o. . .From the sign, Dal segno; 

from the sign to the sign, Dal segno al 

Full. Pieno,-a. 
Funereal. P'unebre. 
Furious(ly). Fuiioso (furiosamente ; 

con rabbia) ; ^cith cxtrone fury or 

passion^ furiosissimamente. 


Gay. Gajo ; giojoso. . . Gaily, gajamente, 

Gliding. Glissando ; portamento, por- 
tando ; scorrendo ; strisciando. 

Gondola-song. Gondoliera. 

Go on 1 Va. 

Graceful(ly). Grazioso (graziosamente, 
con grazia ; con garbo) ; disinvolto 
(con disinvoltura) ; galante (galante- 
mente) ; elegante (elegantemente) ; vez- 
zoso (vezzosamente) ; venusto. . . Grace- 
fully and siveelly, affabile, amabile. 

Gradually. A poco a poco ; gradata- 

Grand(ly). Grandioso ; nobiie (nobil- 
mente, con nobilita). 

Grave(ly). Grave (gravemente, con 

Grotesque(ly). Grottesco ; burlesco (bur- 

Grov^ing, \StG Decreasing and Increas- 


Half. Mezzo, -a. . .Half -Ion J, mezzo ior\.Q; 

half-soft, mezzo piano, mezza voce. 
Hammered. Martellato. 
Harsh(ly). Aspro (con asprezza); duro 

(duramente) ; stridente. 
Harshness. Asprezza ; durezza. 
Hastening. Accelerando ; stringendo ; 

aflrettando ; calcando. 
Haughty. Yxero. . .Haughtily, fiera- 

Heartfelt. Intimo, intimissimo ; affet- 

tuoso, con affetto. 
Heavy. Ponderoso ; pesante ; grave... 

Heavily, pesantemente, gravemente. 
Held back. Ritenuto ; trattenuto ; 

meno mosso. 

Held down. Tenuto. 

Heroic. Eroico,-a. 

Hesitating(ly). Irresoluto ; timido (ti- 

midamente) ; vacillando. 
High. Alto, -a.. . .Highest, il piu alto, 

altissimo. . ./« the higher octave, ottitvn 

alta (Sva ). 

Hoarse(ly). I'ioco (con fiochezza). 
Holding back {tempo). Riteneute; 

Humoi"OUSly. Con umore. 
Hurried(ly). Affrettoso (con fretta) ; 

frettoloso (frettolosamente). 
Hurrying. Aflrettando ; stringendo 


If. Se. 

Imitating. Imitando ; quasi. 

Impassioned. Appassionato, appassio- 

natamente; con abbandono, abbando- 

natamente ; caloroso. 
Impatient(ly). Impatiente (impatiente- 

Imperceptible. Insensibile ; impercep- 

tibly, insensibilmente. 
Imperious(ly). Imperioso (imperiosa- 

Impetuous(ly). Impetuoso (con impeto, 

impetuosamente, con impetuosita) ; 

s b a 1 z a t o ; tempestoso (tempestosa- 

Imposing. Imponente. 
In a festive manner. Con festivita. 
In a gentle, quiet manner. Con lenezza, 
In a svyeet manner. Con dolce maniera. 
Increasing (/« speed). Accelerando ; 

stringendo ; aflrettando ; incalzando ; 

ravvivando il tempo; doppio movimento. 
Increasing {in force). Crescendo ; ac- 

crescendo ; rinforzando. 
Increasing {in force and speed). Strin- 
gendo ; aflrettando ; incalzando. 
In declamatory style. Declamando, 

recitando ; narrante ; parlando. 
In devotional style. Devoto, con de- 

Indifferent(ly). Indifferente (indifTe- 

rentemente ; con indififerenza) ; tepido 

Infernal. Infernale. 
In haste. Con fretta. 
In military style. Militarmente. 



In modern style. Alia moderna. 
In octaves. Doppio pedale {organ- 
pedal) ; coll'ottava {loll'S ). 

Insinuating. [See Flatlering.'] 

Intense(ly). Intense (intensamente, con 

In the same manner. Simile. 

In the same time. L'istesso tempo ; 

moto precedente. 
In the style of a. Alia. 
In time. A tempo ; Tempo I ; misurato 

{after a recitative). 
Ironical(ly). Ironico (ironicamente). 
Irresolute(ly). Irresolute (con irreso- 



Jesting(Iy). Scherzando ; giocoso (gio- 

Jovially. Con giovialita. 

Joyous(ly). Giojoso (giojosamente) ; 

Jubilant(ly). Giubiloso (con giubilio, 

con giubilazione). 
Judicious(ly). Discrete (con discrezione). 


Lamenting. Lamentando, lamentabile, 

lamentoso ; piangendo. 
Languid(ly). Languid© (con languore, 


Languishing(ly). Languendo (langui- 

Left hand. Mano sinistra. 

Leisurely. Adagietto ; moderate . . . 

Rather leism-eiy, commodette. 
Less. Meno. 
Light(ly). Leggere or Leggiero (leg- 

geramente, con leggerezza ; agilmente) ; 

sfegato ; svelte. 

Lingering(ly). Tardo, tardande (tarda- 

Little by little. A poco a poco. 

Lively. Vivace, vivacemente ; vivo, viva- 
mente ; allegro, allegramente ; viste, 
vistamente ; cen allegrezza ; svegliato '; 
lesto ; deste. 

Lofty. Nobile ; fasteso ; pemposo ; 
elevate ... Zt////)', cen nebilita ; ceri 

Longingly. Con desiderio. 

Loud. Forte ; con forza ; very loud, 
fortissimo ; extremely loud, con tutta 
forza, forte pessibile (fff) ; half-loud, 
mezzo forte ; loud, suddenly decreasing 
to soft, forte piano (fp). 

Louder. Piu forte ; crescendo ; rinfer- 

Love. Amore. 

Loving(ly). Amorevole, amoroso (con 

amore, amorosamente) ; amabile. 
Lullaby. Ninnerella, ninna-nanna. 
Lyric. Lirico. 


Majestic(ally). Maestoso, maestevole 

(maestesamente, cenmaesta) ; pemposo 

(con pompa) ; fastose (fastesamente). 
Manner. Maniera ; in a quiet tnanner, 

con dolce maniera. [See /«.] 
Marked. Marcato ; con forza ; rinfor- 

zato, rinforzando ; enfatice ; sforzato 

sferzande {sfz). 
May song. Maggiolata. 
Measured. Misurato. 
Medley. Mescolanza ; olio ; pasticcio. 
Melancholy. Malinconico ; with mel 

ancholy, malinconicamente, cen malin- 


Melody. La meledia. II canto. La 
parte. . .Mark (or accent) and " catfy" 
the fnelody, Marcato e portando la 
meledia (il canto) ; ben e precisarr»ente 
portando la meledia ; la melodi i (il 
canto) ben portando ed espressivo 

Menacing(ly). Minaccevole (mia'V:ce- 

Mildly. Dolce ; (delcemente, cof dol- 
cezza) ; piacevele ; affabile. 

Moderate(ly) {speed). Mederato (Qede- 
ratamente) ; nen troppo allegro. 

More. Pill ; tnore slozvly, piu lent^', piii 

Most. II pivi. 

Mournful(ly). Mesto (mestamtnte) ; 
addolorato ; amarevele (a m a r e v e 1- 
mente) ; flebile ; funebre ; lugubre ; 
(conespressione di patimente) ; dolente. 

Mouth. ]5occa ; with closed rnouth, con 
bocca chiusa. 

Moved. Concitate. [See Agilated.l 
Movement. Movimento. 
Much. Melte. 

Muffled. Ceperto ; suffocate ; serdo 
(serdamente); cen sordini. 



Murmuring. Mormorando ; susurrando. 
Muted. Con sordino (//. con sordini). 
Mystertous(ly). Misterioso (misteriosa- 
mente) ; cupo. 


Natural(Iy). Naturale (naturalmente). 

[See Simple.] 
Nearly. Quasi. 
Neat(l7). Netto (nettamente) ; leg- 

giadro (leggiadramente). 
Negligent(ly). Negligente (negligente- 

mente, con negligenza). 
Night-piece. Notturno. 
Nimble. Agile ; svelto ; sciolto... 

Nimbly, agilmente, con agilita ; sciolta- 

mente ; allegramente. 
Nobly. Nobilmente, con nobiliti. 
Noisy. [See Boisterous^ 
Not. Non. . . A^is/Ji", meno ; not so fast, 

meno mosso, meno allegro ; not too, 

non troppo ; non tanto. 


Obliged (necessary). Obbligato. 

Obscure. Cupo ; misterioso. 

Of. Di. 

On. Su ; sopra {above). 

Or. O, od {before a vowel); or else, 

ossia ; oppure ; ovvero. 
Other. Altro,-a. 


Passionate(ly). Passionato (passionata- 
mente) ; appassionato (appassionata- 
mente) ; (con passione) ; ardente (con 
ardore) ; fervente (con fervore) ; furioso 
(con furore) ; caloroso (con calore). 

Pastora'. Pastorale ; rustico ; campestre. 

Pathetic(ally). Patetico (patetica- 
mente) ; doloroso (dolorosamente, con 

Pensive. Pensieroso. 

Phrase (to). Fraseggiare ... Well 
phrased, ben fraseggiando. 

Piece. Pezzo. 

Piquantly. Con piccanteria. 

Placid(ly). Placido (placidamente). [See 

Plaintive(ly). Lamentando ; dolendo, 
dolente, doloroso (con dolore, dolorosa- 
mente); addolorato; tlebile ; piangendo. 
[See Mournful.] 

Playful(ly). Giuochevole, giuocante ; 

(con giuoco) ; giocoso (giocosamente) ; 

scherzoso, scherzando. 
Pleading(ly). Supplicando, suppliche- 

vole (supplichevolmente). 

Pleasing(Iy). Piacevole (piacevolmente), 
compiacevole ; gradevole (gradevol- 

Pompous(ly). Pomposo (con pompa) ; 
fastoso (fastosamente). 

Ponderous. Ponderoso ; pesante. 

Possible. Possibile ; as fast as pos- 
sible, presto possibile ; as loud as pos- 
sible, forte possibile ; con tutta forza. 

Prattling. Straccicalando. 

Prayer. Preghiera. 

Precipitate(ly). Precipitate, precipi- 
toso, precipitando (precipitatamente). 

Precise(ly). Preciso (con precisione). 

Pressing {tempo). Stringendo, pressante ; 
{expression) insistendo. 

Prompt(ly). Pronto (prontamente, con 

Pronounced. Pronunziato. 

Proud(ly). Fiero (fieramente) ; altiero 
(altieramente, con alterezza). 

Psalm. Salmo. 


Quiet(ly). Quieto ; tranquillo (tranquilla- 
mente ; con lenezza). [See Tranquil.] 


Rapid(ly). Rapido (rapidamente, con 
rapidita) ; celere ; veloce (velocemente, 
con velocita, velocissimamente) ; mosso 
{in phrases like meno mosso, piu mosso, 
etc.) ; tosto (tostamente). [quanto. 

Rather. Ouasi ; piuttosto ; poco ; al- 

Refined. Nobile (nobilmente). 

Religious(ly). Religioso (religiosa- 
mente) ; devote (devotamente). 

Reposeful(ly). Riposato (riposata- 

Resonant(ly). Sonoro ; sonante (con 
risonanza ; sonoramente, con sonorita). 

Restless. Inquieto. 

Resume (to). Ripigliare ; riprendere. 

Reverie. Meditazione. 

Rhythmized. Ben ritmato. 

Right hand. Mano destra. 

Ringing(ly). Sonoro (sonoramente, con 



Romping. Burlando. 

Rough(ly). Aspro (con asprezza) ; ru- 
vido (ruvidamente) ; (bruscamente). 

Rustic. Rustico ; campestre ; pastorale. 

Sad(ly). Tristo (tristamente, con tri- 

stezza) ; mesto(mestamente, con mesti- 

zia) ; languendo, languente ; dolente. 
Same (the). Medesimo ; detto ; stesso. 
Scorn. Sdegno ; scorn/ul{h'), sdegnoso 

Second part. Secondo {in a duet). 
Second time. Seconda volta. (| 2. |.) 

Serious(ly). Serioso (con serieta). 
Sighing. Sospirando, sospirevole, so- 

Similarly. Simile. 
Simple. Semplice ; schietto ; naturale. 

. . Simply, semplicemente, con sem- 

plicita ; schiettamente, con schiettezza ; 

Singing. Cantando ; melodico. . ./« a 

singing style, cantabile. 
Sketch. Bozzetto. 
Sliding. Sdrucciolando. 
Slow(ly). Adagio ; lento (lentamente, 

con lentezza) ; very slow, lento molto, 

adagissimo ; grave ; largo ; 7-athcr 

slow, andante, andantino, adagietto, 

Slower. Meno mosso ; piu adagio ; piu 

lento. [See Decreasingl\. . . Slozoer and 

slower, a poco a poco rallentando (or 

Slurring. Legato ; portamento, por- 

tando ; slissando. 
Smooth(ly). Legato ; eguale (egual- 

mente) ; piacevole (piacevolmente) ; 

slissato ; soave (soavemente) ; stri- 

Sobbing, Singhiozzando. 
Soft(ly). Piano ; dolce (dolcemente ; 

mollemente) ; very soft, pianissimo ; 

dolcissimo ; estinto. 
Softer. Meno forte. [See Decreasing?^ 
Solemn(ly). Solenne (solennemente, 

con solennita). 
Somewhat. Poco ; quasi. 
Song. [See Melody^ 
Sonorous(ly). Sonoro (sonoramente. con 


Sorrowful(Iy). Afflitto (con afflizione) ; 

mesto (mestamente) ; doloroso (doloro- 

Sparkling. Brillante ; scintillante. 
Spirited(ly). Spiritoso (spiritosamente, 

con spirito) ; brioso (con brio). 
Sportive. [See Playful^ 
Sprightly. Desto. 
Springing. Saltando. 
Stern(ly). Duro (duramente). 
Sternness. Durezza. 
Stifled. Suffocato ; con voce suffocata- 
Still. Ancora ; still faster, ancor piiJ 

mosso ; still slower, ancor piu lento, 

ancor piu moderato. 
Strict(ly). Giusto (giustamente, con 

giustezza) ; severo (severamente). . . 

Strictly in time, a {or al) rigore di tempo; 

tempo rigoroso ; misurato ; aggiusta- 

tamente ; andare a tempo ; a battuta. 

(Ben misurato. Ben ritmato). 
Strident. Stridente. 
Style. Stilo ; modo. . .In the style of a., 

alia ; in modo. 
Suave(ly). Soave (soavemente, con 

soavita) ; dolce (dolcemente, con dol- 

cezza, con dolce maniera). 
Sublime. Elevato ; nobile. 
Suddenly. Subito, subitamente; di colpo. 
Supplicating(ly). Supplicando, sup- 

plichevole (supplichevolmente). 
Sustainedly. Sostenuto, sostenendo, 

Sweet(ly). Dolce (dolcemente) ; affabile, 

amabile. [See Siiave.^ . . . Very sweetly, 

Swelling. Crescendo. 
Swift. [See Rapid^^ 
Sympathetic(ally). Pietoso (con pieta). 


Tasteful(ly). Gustoso (con gusto). 

Tearful(ly). Lagrimoso, lagrimando ; 
piangendo ; flebile ; (con pianto). 

Tempestuous(ly). Tempestoso (tem- 

Tender(ly). Tenero (teneramente, con 
tenerezza) ; dolce (dolcemente, con 
dolcezza) ; affettuoso (affettuosamente, 
con affezione) ; amabile ; amorevole, 
amoroso ; lirico. 
i Than. De. 



Then. Allora ; poi. 
Thoughtful. Fensieroso. 
Threatening(ly). Minacciando, minac- 

cioso, minaccevole (minaccevolmente). 
Timid(ly). Timido (timidamente, con 

Timorous. Timoroso (timorosamente, 

con timore). 
Tinkling. Squillante. 

To. A, ad {before a vowel). . .To the 
sign, al segno. 

Together. Unisono ; tutti. 

Too. Anche {also) ; troppo ; not too 

fast, non troppo allegro ; not too sloiv, 

non troppo lento. 
Tranquil(ly). Tranquillo (tranquilla- 

mente, con tranquillita) ; placido(placi- 

damente, con placidezza) ; spianato. 

[See Qtiietly.'\ 
Trembling(ly). Tremolo ; tremolando, 

tremoloso (tremolosamente). 
Triumphant(ly). Trionfante (trionfal- 

Tune. [See Melody.'] 
Turn over quickly. Volti subito. 
Twice as fast. Doppio movimento. 


Under. Sotto ; under the right hand, 

sotto la mano destra. 
Undulating. Ondeggiante ; tremando, 

Uneasy. Affannato, affannoso; unea&ily, 

Unimpassioned. Tepido. 
Unrestful. Inquieto. 
Until. Fino (fin') ; sino (sin'). 
Upon. Su ; sopra. 
Up to. [See Until.] 
Urgent(ly). Insistendo (con insistenza); 

instante (instantemente). 


Vague. Vago. 

Vehement(ly). Veemente (con vee- 
menza) ; acciaccato ; sforzando ; feroce 
(con ferocita ; con islancio); smaniante. 

Very. Molto ; assai ; ben(e). . . Fi-rj' 
slow, molto lento ; very moderate, molto 
moderato; very fast, molto allegro, alle- 
gro assai ; presto, prestissimo, prestissi- 

mamente ; very inarked, ben marcato, 
marcatissimo ; very soft, pianissimo, 
dolcissimo ; {vocal) a fior di labbra . 
very loud, fortissimo. 

Vibrant, Vibrating. Vibrante. 
Vigorous(ly). Vigoroso (vigorosamente, 

con vigore). 
Violent(ly). Violento, violente (violente- 

mente). [See Impetuous.] 
Vivacious. [See Animated^ 
Voice. Voce, canto, parte ; 7vith thi 

voice, colla voce, coUa parte, col canto. 


Wailing, Lamentando ; piangendo. 
Warlike, (juerriero ; bellicoso ; in war' 

like style, bellicoso, bellicosamente. 
Warmly. Con calore, caloroso. 
Wavering. Tremolando ; vacillando. 
Weak. Debile, debole. 
Well. Bene, ben. . . Well marked, bem 

marcato, or ben pronunziato ; well 

rhythmed, ben ritmato ; well sustained, 

ben tenuto, or ben sostenuto. . . IVell 

phrased, ben fraseggiando. 
Whim. Ghiribizzo ; capriccio ; fantasia. 
Whimsical. Ghiribizzoso. 
Whispering. Susurrando, susurrante. 
Wild(ly). Feroce (ferocemente) ; fiero 

With affectation. Smorfioso. 
With affection (pathos). Con affetto. 
With anger. Con ira, irato. 
With anguish. Angoscioso, angoscio* 

With ardor. Con affetto ; con ardore. 
With boldness. Con fiducia. 
With breadth. Largo, largamente. 
With confidence. Con fiducia. 
With constantly increasing warmth, 

Sempre incalzando. 
With decision. Deciso. 
With deliberation. Con lentezza ; 

With desperation. Con disperazione 
With discretion. Con discrezione, 

With distinctness. Distintamente, di- 

stinto ; con chiarezza ; marcato, mar* 

With ease. Con agevolezza. 



With emotion. Con affetto ; con 

With energy. Con energia. 
With expression. Con espressione, 

expressivo; sensibile, senlito. 
With facility. Con agevolezza. 
With feeling. Sensibile, sentito. 
With fervor. Con calore. 
With firmness. Con fermezza. 
With frenzy. Con delirio, con rabbia. 
With grace. Con grazia, con eleganza, 

grazioso, elegantemente. 
With grandeur. Con grandezza, grandi- 
With grief. Con duolo, con dolore. 
With growing animation. Animando, 

animandosi ; ravvivando. 
With impetuosity. Con impeto. 
With intensity. Con intensita. 
With lightness. Con Jeggerezza, leg- 

germente ; con disinvoltura. 
With longing. Con desiderio. 
With mandolin-effect. Mandolinata. 
With much passion. Con molta pas- 

With nobility. Con nobilita. 
With promptness. Con prontezza. 
With rapidity. Con prestezza. 
With resolution. Con risoluzione. 
With resonance. Con sonorita. 
With sadness. Con tristezza. 
With spirit. Con spirito ; con anima ; 

con brio. 
With sweetness. Con soavita. 
With tears. Piangendo ; lagrimando. 
With the bow. CoU'arco ; arcato. 
With the fingers. Pizzicato {7'iolin). 
With the left hand. Colla mano sinistra 

(usually simply »i. s.), or colla sinistra 
{c. s.) 

With the loud pedal. Pad. ; tre corde 
{after una corda) ; with pedal through- 
out, sempre pedale. 

With the octave. Coll'ottava 

{coirs ). 

With the right hand. Colla mano 

destra (usually simply m. d.), or colla 

dtstra {c. d.) 
With the soft pedal. Una corda. 
With the stick. Col legno. 
With the voice. Colla voce ; colla 

parte ; col canto. 
With warmth. Con calorosita ; con 

With wrath. Con ira ; irato. 
Without. Senza. 
Without accelerating. Senza ac- 

Without altering. Senza alterare. 
Without growing slower. Senza ral- 

Without interruption. Senza inter- 

Without repeating. Senza ripetizione 
Without retarding. Senza ritardare; 

senza di slentare. 
Without stopping. Senza fermarsi. 
Without taking breath. Senza re- 

Without the mutes. Senza sordini. 
Wrathful(ly). Adirato (con ira). 


Zealous(ly). Zeloso (zelosamente, con 

Zephyr-like. Zeffiroso. 

For reaair^g 

r.«n rootn 0''^>'- 





ML 108 B17 1895 

I II II III II III I III I lii lilii III I II iillllllli 
L 006 947 212 4 



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AA 000 523 153 5