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It was 

iiis who 


I music 
. of the 




it plan, 
ts own, 
y at all 

from the reputation of that work. Messrs. Emerson & Matthews are thorough 

men, and understand tlie public taste as well as any. 
Give their worli a careful examination. 

Clarke's Dollar Instructor for Reed Organs. 

Doubtless a large, complete, thorough "method" is best, for all who have time to 
devote to practice. But a multitude of persons who have access to Reed Organs, would 
like a little knowledge, enough to be able to play easy music, and to accompany songs; 
and have no leisure for anything more. 

For such learners the Dollar Method is prepared. It contains a very entertaining 
and easy course, illustrated by a, large number of taking melodies for practice, which 
practice thus becomes a pleasure and recreation. 

Winner's Nev School for Melodeon, Price 75 cents. 

A Melodeox is simply a small Reed Orgax, and, of course, this School is for tho 
Instrument, whatever you please to call it. Winner's School is smaller, cheaper, and 
still easier than "Tho Dollar Instructor," and contains a very pleasing coUectioix of 
popular airs. 

Recreations for Cabinet Organ, Melodeon, Xc. Price $1.50. 

These are true Organ pieces, selected with exquisite taste, and will please all lovers 
o* raliued music. Not difficult. 


Valuable Music Books for Schools, 


Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston, C. H. Ditson & Co., New York. 

Either Book mailed, post-paid, for Ketail Price. 


By L. O. Emerson and W. S. Tilden. 
In Three liooks. 

These Music Headers are well fitted for 
use in connection with the new and im- 
proved methods of teaching music by note 
in schools. 

The theoretic part has peen prepared by 
IVIr. W. S. TiLDEN, who has had valuable 
experience as Music Teacher in the schools 
of Boston and vicinity. 

In Book I, which is for Primary Schools, 
we have a three years' course of study very 
plainly laid out, with abundant direc- 
tions to teachers, and a large number of 
sweet songs for the little ones to sing by 
rote and by note. Price 35 cents. 

In Book II, the course above indicated 
is continued, and becomes a little more 
theoretic. The book is fitted for the use of 
the younger scholars in Grammar Schools. 
Price 50 cents. 

In Book III, part singing is introduced, 
and the ear is trained to harmonic singing. 
For higher classes in Grammar Schools. 
Price 50 cents. 


By L. O. Emerson and W. S. Tilden. 
For High Schools. Price $1.00. 

Until recently, it could not be said that 
there was really any music book especially 
adapted for High Schools. There were, to 
be sure, excellent collections of music 
which could, after a fashion, be used in 
teaching. Still the instructor in Music had 
no proper text-book until the appearance 
of the " Hour of Singing." Its adapted- 
ness to its place and work was so apparent, 
that it was at once, without question, 
adopted in a large number of High Schools 
and Seminaries ; and has also, to a certain 
extent, been used by the higher classes of 
Grammar Schools. 


By L. O. Emerson and W. S. Tilden. 
Price $1.00. $9.00 per dozen. 

The "High School Choir" is similar, in 
general design, to the very popular "Hour 
of Singing," which has been almost univer- 
sally used in High Schools. The presejit 
work is in no way inferior to its prede- 
cessor, is entirely fresh and new, and is re- 
ceived with decided favor. 


For Female Voices. By W. S. Tilden. 
Price $1.00. 

The music is all of a high order, is not 
very difiicult, and excellently selected and 
arranged for High Schools, Seminaries, 
Academies, &c. 


Collections of Sch ool Songs. 


By L. O. Emerson. Price 50 cents. 

'J'iie book contains a well written Ele- 
mentary Course, with abundance of agree-, 
able exercises and tunes for practice ; and 
also a large and varied collection of Songs, 
Rounds, &c., with thirty pieces of Sacred 
Music for opening and closing school. 

By L. O. Emerson. Price 50 cents. 
Has an excellent reputation among 
School Song Books. 


By L. O. Emerson. Price 50 cents. 

The success of this fine book has been a 
surprise, moi'e than a quarter of a million 
copies having been sold. To tliat number 
of persons, therefore, its face is as that of 
a familiar friend. 


By W. O. & H. S. Perkins. Price 50 eta. 
A very appropriate name for a favorite 
collection of School Songs. 


By W. O. Perkins. Price 50 cents. 

Well chosen and good songs ; more tha» 
two hundred of them , and the nsual ele- 
mentary course, with attractive exercises. 

Cantatas for School Exhibitions. 

Musical progress, both among young and 
old people, depends so much upon musical 
enthusiasm, tliat there seems to be almost 
a necessity for introducing Concerts and 
Exhibitions into the music-teaching course 
of schools. To give brilliancy and success 
to these affairs, nothing can be better than 
such Cantatas as are mentioned below : 
The Flower Queen. C. F. Root. $0 75 
The Cnlpi'it Fay. J. L. Ensign. 1 00 

The Twin Sisters. H. G. Saroni. 50 
Fairy Bridal. Hewitt. 50 

The Pic Kic. J. R. Thomas. 1 00 

Festival of the Rose. J. C. Johnson. 30 
Flower Festival on the Banks of 

the Rhine. J. C. Johnson. 45 

Spring Holiday. C. C. Converse. 75 

Quarrel Among the FloAvers. 

Shoeller. 35 
Juvenile Oratorios. Containing 
" The Festival of the Rose," " The 
Indian Summer," and " The 
Children of Jerusalem." Three 
Cantatas. By J. C. Johnson. 60 




Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston, C. H. DItson it Co., New York, 

EI3^ Either Book sent, post-paid, for the Ketail Price. .^^^ 

:ichardson's New Method $3 75 

hild's (The) First Music-Book 75 

Vinnei's New School for the Piano- 
forte 75 

iVinner's Perfect Guide for the Piano- 
forte 75 

?laidy's Technical Studies. Cl'h, $2 00 ; 

boards 1 50 

Burrowes's Piano Primer. Cloth,45cts ; 

boards 30 

Clarke's Catechism 38 

Five Thousand Musical Terms 75 

Opera Bouffe. Boards 3 00 

The Tuner's Guide GO 

Modern School for Organ. Zundel 4 00 

Rink's Organ School. Complete 6 00 

Organist's Portfolio. 2 vols. Each,bds 2 50 
250 Voluntaries and Interludes. Zundel 2 00 
Clarke's New Method for Heed Organs 2 50 

Carhart's Melodeon Instructor 1 50 

Root's School for the Cabinet Organ . . 2 50 

Recreations for the Cabinet Organ 1 50 

Zundel's Melodeon Instructor 2 50 

Carcassi's Method for Guitar, $3 00; 

Abridged 2 00 

Haydens New Method for Guitar 3 00 

Winner's New School for the Guitar. . 75 
Campagnoli'sViolinlMethod. Complete 6 00 

Listenuin's Modern Violin Method 3 00 

Modern School for Violin. Fessenden 2 50 

Winner's New School for Violin 75 

Berbiguier's iMethod for Flute 3 00 

Winner's New School for Flute 75 

Winner's Dance Music for Flute and 

Piano 75 

Party Dances, Woha and Piano. Win- 
ner 75 

Flute and Piano Duets. Winner 75 

'"'^ioliii and Piano Duets, Winner 75 

uu Beautiful ISIelodies for Violin 75 

00 Operatic Airs for Flute 75 

ioniberg's Violoncello. Complete 3 00 

>>iedham's Instructor for Double Bass 3 00 

V^rbuckle's Cornet Instructor 3 00 

Vinner's New Schools for Accordeon, 

Clarionet, Flageolet, and Fife. Each 75 
Vinner's Perfect Guide for German 

Concerthia 75 

>uckley's Banjo Guide 75 

)ulcimer Instructor 50 

Vnny Drum and Fife Book 75 

>raper's Fife Melodies 60 

Jassini's Art of Singing. Complete, 

$4 00. Abridged 3 00 

•anseron's A B C. Abridged 1 00 

Itandard Singing Scliool. Southard. . 3 00 

Amphion. Part-songs, for MaleVoices $5 00 
Arion. Part-songs, for Male Voices. . 4 00 
Chorus Wreath. Sacred and Secular.. 1 50 

Greeting. L. O. Emerson 1 50 

N. Y. Glee and Cho. Book. Bradbury 2 00 
Young Mens' Singing Book. Root and 

Mason 1 50 

Carmina Collegensia. (College Songs) 2 25 
100 Comic, 100 Irish, and 100 Scotch 

Songs. Each 60 

American Tune-Book 1 50 

Choral Tribute. L. O. Emerson 1 50 

Greatorex Collection. Cloth. $175; bds 1 50 

Harp of Judah. L. O. Emerson 1 50 

Jubilee. Wm. B. Bradbury 1 50 

Key Note. Bradbury 1 50 

Modem Harp. White & Gould 1 50 

New Carmina Sacr.a. Lowell Mason . 150 
Temple Choir. Bradbury, Seward, 

Mason 1 50 

Sabbath Guest. Emerson & Morey.. . 1 60 

Mason & Hoadley's New System 3 00 

Leader. Church Music Book, Palmer 

& Emerson 1 38 

Song Monarch. For Singing Schools. 

Palmer & Emerson 75 

Thomas's Quartetts. J. R. Thomas . . 2 50 
Perkins's Anthem Book. W. O. Per- 
kins 1 50 

River of Life. For Sabbath Schools. 

Perkins & Bentley 35 

Clarke's Dollar Instructor lor Seed 

Organs 1 00 

Esther. Cantata. Dramatized by 

Seagur 50 

Belshazzar. Cantata. J. A. Butter- 

tield 1 25 

Jubilate. Church Music Book. L. O. 

Emerson 1 50 

Trial by Jury. Comic Cantata, Sul- 
livan 1 00 

Emerson's Method for Reed Organs.. . 2 50 
Hour of Singing. For High Schools. 

Emerson & Tilden 1 00 

Choice Trios, For High Schools, W. 

S. Tilden 1 00 

American School Music Readers. Em- 
erson & Tilden. Book 1, 35 cts; 

Book 2, 50 cts ; Book 3 60 

Cheerful Voices. Collection of School 

Songs. L.O.Emerson 50 

Shining River. Sab. Schools. Perkins 35 
Living Waters. Praise Meetings. 

Hodges 30 

Nat. Hymn & Tune Book 40 

High School Choir. Emerson & Tilden 1 00 

1 (fV\r<r^ 








FKOM 1640 TO 1876. 





Copyright, 187G, by Oijvkk Ditsox & Co. 


In preparing this Dictionary of Musical Information, my desire has been 
to make it meet the popular demand for a book of reference concerning musical 
persons and subjects not mentioned in any other published work, and to furnish 
it at a price sufficiently small to place it in the hands of all persons in any way 
interested in musical affairs. To do this, it was necessary to abbreviate every arti- 
cle as much as possible, in order to crowd the largest amount of information into 
the smallest practicable space. I have done this in the belief that five lines read 
with interest is better than fifty lines read with indifference, and worth more to 
the careful reader than five hundred lines to the careless. 

The labor of condensing articles, of sifting a great mass of material, and saving 
the very best of all, is a task requiring much patience and perseverance ; and, 
when faithfully performed, the zealous worker is astonished to find his accumu- 
lation of rubbish, on the one side, so very large, and the amount of refined mate- 
rial so very small on the other ; but, when he reflects that his stock of pure gold 
is worth infinitely more than the great mass of rejected matter from which he 
has selected it, he is the better satisfied, and is richly rewarded for his exertions. 

The reader will find that I have compressed each one of the many thousand 
articles presented in this Dictionary into as few lines as would clearly express the 
important facts. My object has been not alone to spread the glory and enhance 
the fame of those who have attained to places of high honor in the world of 
musical art to-day, but to equally call attention to those who are destined to 
occupy these places in the future. The already honored do not need notice as do 
their struggling successors ; but I have collected my notices in the interests of all. 

I have omitted many names : some, because I have failed to receive solicited 
information in regard to them; a very considerable number because they are 
mentioned in the first volume of my "Complete Encyclopaedia of Music," or in 
the Appendix to that work, this year added, to which reference can be made. 
This Dictionary has been compiled from still later material, and is the only con- 
densed biographical musical Avork that has appeared in this country. It contains 
the names of many thousand persons and things connected with the art of music; 
and a large proportion of the information has been written expressly for this pub- 
lication, and is such as has never appeared in any other form. The lives of some 
of the eminent musicians of our time are made familiar in individual sketches 
and autobiographies, as well as in encyclopaedias and other works ; but there ia 



not in existence any otlier small, cheap, popular modern dictionary of general 
musical information, nor is there any work that preoccupies this field. 

In addition to the information contained in the regular alphabet of pages, and 
under the many different heads, this Dictionary furnishes a Vocabulary of Musi- 
cal Terms, in which it will be seen that I have made the attempt of giving the 
pronunciation of words, as well as the definitions ; and this novel feature will 
supply a want often felt, and give the work an extent of usefulness which no pre- 
vious publication of the kind possesses. I have pronounced a large number of 
the commonly used terms ; and for definitions not given, I refer the reader to my 
Encyclopaedia. Another new feature presented in this work is A List of the Pop- 
ular Modern Musical Works iniblished in the United States : giving the familiar 
title of each publication, with the name of the author or compiler, when known, 
and the year in which many of the older works appeared ; omitting minor works, 
and periodicals. This list will be found particularly valuable for reference in 
regard to titles of books and the names of authors in America. It is impossible 
for me to know whether my list is complete, or whether in all cases I have given 
the full titles ; but I have given the names of all important works that have 
come to my notice, including publications from 1640 to 1875, the number being 
several thousand. 

It would be something marvellous in the annals of book-making, if this Dic- 
tionary was free from errors. Every possible effort has been made to avoid them ; 
but, in gathering information from so many different sources and contradictory 
authorities as I have been compelled to examine, it would be a matter of sur- 
prise, if all the statements should be perfect. The numerous fountains from 
which I have drawn ray knowledge were not, perhaps, all pure ; they could not 
reasonably be expected to be so ; but I have depended upon those which are 
considered the best, and the least exposed to suspicion. I have spared neither 
time, labor, nor expense, in tr\ing to obtain simple dates of the times and places 
of the birth and death of persons deceased, as well as the birthplaces and the 
dates which concern the living who are mentioned in this work; and this has 
proved a slow and very difficult undertaking. For various reasons, it is next to 
an impossibility to procure needed information of this character ; and, for many 
of the dates which I have obtained, I found it necessary to wait for months, 
and, in some instances, years. There are persons who will not disclose their 
ages while living ; and, for dates concerning persons deceased, I have many times 
applied to persons interested, and to friends or relatives, without success. Many 
of the omissions of dates which may be wanting have occurred in consequence. 
I regret this the more, because such records, in brief notices, are next in impor- 
tance to the names of persons, and to what may be said concerning them. I 
have, in many instances, recorded the age of individuals, and thus the time of 
birth is disclosed. 

I take this opportunity to acknowledge my obligations to a large number of 
musical friends in this country and Europe for valuable information and extended 
notices of musicians, as well as for the aid they have given me in making this 
work what its title indicates, — a "Dictionary of Musical Information." 

John W. Moore. 

Ma>'CHEstee, N.H., January, 1876. 


A. This letter has heen used as a 
tone name since 340 B.C. ; it has been 
known as La, the sixth in the ascend- 
ing scale of C, since Guido Aretina 
(1022) invented his mode of notation. 

Aakon", of Cologne, born in Scot- 
land ; introduced the Gregorian night 
chant into Germany; died 1052. 

Aakon, son of Amram, was a lead- 
ing Jewish singer; died 1451 B.C., aged 

Abbey, A. J., author of several col- 
lections of music in New York since 

Abbot, Asahel, author of "TAe Wal- 
denses''^ and other works, New York, 
1850 to 1870. 

Abbott, Majrie, oratorio singer ; Em- 
ma A. Abbott, opera singer at St. 
Petersburg, 1873 ; natives of New York. 

Abbreviated Chords are some- 
times marked "tremolo," and are re- 
iterated rapidly. 

Abbreviations in music: invented 
or first used by Handel, to save time 
and space in writing. 

Abecedarian Hymns are arranged 
like the Hebrew acrostic poetry : verses 

Abeille, J. C. L., bom at Bayreuth 
Feb. 20, 1751; organist and composer; 
successor of Zumsteeg ; died 1832, aged 

Abel, C. F., born at Coethen, 1724; 
a famous composer and performer ; died 
in London, Jan. 22, 1787. 

Abel, Louisa [Louisa Scheibel], 
born at Stuttgard, 1837; married G. 
Abel, organist, Paris ; gave concerts in 
this country, 1858. 

Abell, Edith, appeared in opera 
at Geneva, 1871. 

Abercorn, Earl of, wrote a " Trea- 

tise on Harmony f^^ enlarged by Dr. Pe- 
pusch, 1731. 

Aberdeen Cantus. The earliest 
singing book in Scotland ; by T. David- 
son, 1602, 4to., 50 leaves. 

Abert, born at Gastorf, Bohemia, 
1832 ; famous opera composer at Stutt- 

Aborigines. — The primitive inhab- 
itants were very fond of music, and 
readily learned to sing ; their music and 
instruments, though rude and simple, 
were peculiar. 

Absurdity of Foreign Words. 
Henry Laws, an English composer, to 
show the absurdity of using foreign 
words, set an index of the popular Ital- 
ian sonr/s to music ; it sold largely as a 
rare Italian song. 

Abt, Franz, born Dec. 21, 1819, at 
Eilenburg, in the Prussian province 
of Saxony. His father was a musician, 
and clergyman of the Lutheran Church. 
Franz studied music at Leipsic, and 
became known as a song-writer in 1838. 
In September, 1841, he married, and was 
leader of the orchestra at the Zurich 
theatre ; became a teacher in 1842, but 
was little known until his song, " When 
the Swallows Homeward Jly,^^ carried his 
name to all parts of the civilized world. 
In 1865 was concert-master at Bruns- 
wick, and conducted the great festival 
at Dresden. He came to this country 
1872, and was present at the Peace Ju- 
bilee, Boston, where he directed the 
performance of some of his own mu- 
sic, arriving in New York May 2, where 
a testimonial concert was given for his 
benefit, at Steinway Hall, May 18. He 
was received at Philadelphia, Penn., by 
the German societies, with torch- light 
procession and cannonade. May 15, 1872. 

'^ . j/iA> . 2./ , / ir; y . ,/V>r>TiLn-^ , /i . 9 

^7 ' ^ 


Abuse of Minstrelsy. In the 
reign of Edward II., a law was passed 
to restrain the minstrels, as vagrants, 
from entering the houses of the wealthy, 
exacting meat, drink, clothes, or other 

Abyssinian Music. This race were 
advanced in music, and used six mu- 
sical instruments, — the sistrum, lyre, 
tabor, flute, kettle-drum, and trumpet. 

Abyssinian Trumpet, made of a 
reed iive feet and a half long. 

Abyssinian Flute is played like 
our clarinet. 

Abyssinian Lyre has from five to 
seven strings. 

Abyssinian Sistrum, made of metal 
plates, oval form. 

Abyssinian Tabor and Drum, used 
for warlike purposes. 

Academies of Music are ancient in- 
stitutions, and have existed since 1324; 
numerous in Europe, but more in Italy 
than any other country. 

Academy, Musical. The earliest 
known, 1324 ; known at Yincenza, 1500 ; 
at Paris, 1669; in England, 1710; in 
America, 1833. 

Accentor. Originally the vocal or 
instrumental performer who took the 
leading part. 

Accompanied Madrigals were 
those written for voices and instru- 
ments; and these were the immediate 
precursors of the opera. 

Accomplished Singer. Written 
by Cotton Mather, Boston, Mass., 1721, 
to allay the excitement in regard to the 
lawful use of music in church. 

Accordeon, a well-known musical 
instrument now manufactured in this 
country as well as in France and Ger- 

Actions for Piano. Mechanism 
attached to the keys, causing the ham- 
mers to strike the strings. 

AcTis, Abbe, wrote '"' Observations on 
the Ear and the Echo;' 1788. 

Actors. Musical actors are singers 
who represent human nature by action, 
speech, and musical intonation. 

Acts of Worship. Invocation, 
prayer, praise, and singing ; singing 
may be accompanied by instruments of 

Adam, Adolph Charles, born at 
Paris, 1803; entered the conservatory, 
1817; composed several operas; went 
to London 1832, but soon returned to 
Paris, where he died, May 2, 1856, aged 

53. His remains were followed to the 
grave by three thousand persons ; and 
at his death he left some music and his 
memoirs for publication. He was a very 
active composer; and among his operas 
are ^^ Richard Coeur de Lion}' ''Xe Pos- 
tilion de Lo7ijumeau;' ^^ La Chalet;^ 
and many other popular operas. 

Adams, Chas. R., tenor singer; born 
in Boston, Mass ; sang in opera at Ber- 
lin, and in several European theatres. 

Adams, F. W., violinist, born 1787; 
made at Montpelier, Vt., from the old- 
est obtainable woods, 140 ^^ Ancient Cre- 
monas Revived;'' died 1859. 

Adams, Miss Jane, born in Craw- 
ford sdyke, West of Scotland, wrote 
" There is nae Luck about the House,'* 
and published it 1734. She died in the 
town hospital of Glasgow, April 3, 1765. 

Adams, O. S., Lyons, N.Y. ; author 
of ^^ Amadeus," an opera, 1874. 

Adams, Samuel, born Sept. 22, 1722 ; 
died Oct. 8, 1808, when governor of 
Massachusetts, sang with Billings, and 
assisted him in preparing his music- 

Adams, Sarah, author of the hymn 
"Nearer, my God, to Thee," 1848. 

Adams, Zabdiel, born in Braintree, 
Mass., Nov. 5, 1739; published a tract 
on music, 1771 ; preached 37 years, and 
died March 1, 1801, aged 62. 

Adrien, a monk of Canterbury, was 
the first who taught the Romish music 
for the service of the Church in Eng- 
land, 1703. 

^OLUs' Harp. An ancient instru- 
ment, much like the ^olian harp ; 
introduced from the East into England 
during 1700. 

African Music. Though the peo- 
ple are barbarous in some parts of the 
country, they are musical, and use sev- 
eral instruments with skill ; and M. Bow- 
dich heard in the interior the Alleluia of 
Handel performed with harp accompani- 

Afzelius, the venerable collector of 
Swedish folk-songs, died at Eukoping, 

Agathon, a Greek singer, lived 400 
B.C. ; his style of singing was prover- 
bially excellent. 

Agraffe. The name given to a 
method of stringing instruments, where 
the wire passes through the agraffe, then 
over a bridge to the pin, dividing the se- 
vere tension. 

Agricola, John, of Erfurt, pub- 


lished many motets, also canticles for 
the principal festival, 1601. 

Ahner, Henky, born 1823 in Sax- 
ony; trumpeter, who came to America 
1848 ; died at Chicago Feb. 3, 1858. 

Ahrend, Thomas, born at Magde- 
burg, 1829; celebrated after coming to 
America, South and West, as a teacher, 
and settled in Baltimore, Md. 

AiBi.iNGEB, Joseph K., born in Ger- 
many, 1765, composer and conductor at 
Munich ; died May, 1867. 

AiCHSPALT, Peter, celebrated as a 
y street singer; became archbishop of 
Mentz ; died June, 1380^-^^ 

Aiken, Jesse B.J^hiladelphia, in- 
vented three new-shaped patent notes, 
^ 184)^, and has published music-books 
frdm 1847 to 1875. 

Aiken, John, born at Kibworth; fa- 
mous for his ^^ Essays on Song Writing; " 
died Dec. 7, 1822. 

Aiken, John D., Spartansburg, 
Penn., invented, 1850, a monster viol, 
consisting of fifty smaller ones, strung 
like the violin, and played with keys 
like the piano-forte. 

Ainsworth, Henry, born in Eng- 
land; known generally by his " Version 
of the Psalms,^' set to music at Amster- 
dam, 1550: this collection was brought 
to this country by the Puritans, and 
used until the printing of the Bay 
Psalm-Book; died at Amsterdam, 1622. 

AiRD, James, Glasgow, author of 
much instrumental music in Scotland, 
1770 to 1784. 

Akers, Paul,, invented and perfected 
a mechanism for recording improvised 
music for the piano-forte, 1858. 

Albani, Emma [Emma La Jeunesse], 
born at Plattsburg, N.Y., 1850. Her fa- 
ther, Joseph La Jeunesse, was a French 
music-teacher of Montreal, Can., where 
he married the daughter of a wealthy 
Scotchman, and afterwards settled in 
Plattsburg. Emma was the oldest of 
six children, and was trained in early 
life in the study of music by her father, 
and displayed remarkable talents for the 
divine art from the most tender years. _ 
Removing to Albany, where Emma was" 
engaged to sing, her progress attracted 
attention, and she was sent to Europe. 
She made her first appearance in opera 
at Messina, Sicily, under the assumed 
name of Emma Albani, with success; 
she then had engagements at Malta, 
Florence, and at the principal opera- 
houses of Italy ; later she sang in Lon- 

don and St. Petersburg, and has since 
ranked with the first artists in Europe. 
She returned to America, October, 1874. 

Albani, Matthias, a renowned vio- 
lin maker of the Tyrol, 1654. 

Albee, Amos, teacher and composer, 
Medfield, Mass., author of " 27te Nor- 
folk Collection,'' 1795. 

Albert, Henry, born at Lodestein, 
1604 ; a learned composer ; his music is 
still used in Prussia; died 1668. 

Albert, Prince, born Aug. 26, 1819 ; 
married Feb. 10, 1840 ; composer of songs 
and church music ; died Dec. 14, 1861. 

Albertazzi [Miss Howson], born in 
London 1812; famous as a singer from 
1837 ; died 1847 ; her father was a music- 
master in London. 

Alberti, a violinist engaged by Fran- 
cis I. of France, 1530. 

Alberti, a guitarist at Paris, 1796. 

Alberti, Dominico, a Venetian ; as- 
tonished Farinelli in Spain by his talent 
in singing ; he set some operas to music, 
and composed thirty-six sonatas; died 
at Rome. 

Albertus, Magnus, author of two 
treatises on music ; died 1280. 

Albigenses. The people of Albi 
were the second to introduce metrical 
psalmody, 1210. 

Albion and Alb anus, by Dryden; 
first performed in London, 1685. 

Albinoni, Thomas, composed 33 ope- 
ras for Venice; a violinist, 1694 to 1730. 

Alboni, Marietta, born at Cesena, 
1826; achieved her musical reputation 
at an early age at Milan ; travelled 
through Europe, and came to the Unit- 
ed States, June, 1852 ; after her brilliant 
career in the large cities of America, she 
returned to Europe May 28, 1853. 

Albrecht, of the German ia Musical 
Society, owned in 1857 the best musi- 
cal library in America, 665 volumes, at 

Albrecht, J. L., director of the mu- 
sic in the principal church of Mulhau- 
sen, died about the year 1773; published 
many didactic works on music. 

Albrechtsberger, John George, 
born at Klosterneuburg, Feb. 3, 1736; 
was in 1772 member of the Academy, 
Vienna, and became a most learned con- 
trapuntist; composed much, and wrote 
many works concerning harmony and 
composition; died March 7, 1809, aged 

Alcman, of Sparta, invented choral 
dances, and excluded hexameters from 



verses to be sung to the lyre ; afterwards 
called lyric poetry. 

Alcock, John, doctor of music, was 
born in London, April 11, 1715; he com- 
posed songs, church music, glees, an- 
thems, instrumental music, chants, &c., 
and obtained the prize at the Catch 
Club ; died at Lichfield, 1806, aged 91. 

Aldovandkini. This Italian musi- 
cian composed seven operas for Bologna 
and Venice, between the years 1696 and 

Aldrich, Henry, an English com- 
poser ; born 1647 ; died 1710 ; his library 
is at Oxford College. 

Alessandro, Romano, a singer in 
the Pope's chapel, 1560; a performer 
on the viol; composed motets accom- 
panied by many instruments; also in- 
vented canzonets for four and five 

Alexander, a native of Asia Minor, 
was the founder of a sect of persons 
who thought it a religious duty to keep 
awake day and night to sing music, be- 
lieving that constant singing would fit 
them for heaven ; died 430. 

Alexander, of Russia, established 
nineteen theatres for the performance 
of opera, 1858. 

Alexandre, M., claimed, in Paris, 
1853, the invention of a new musical in- 
strument called the " Orgue (V Alexan- 
dre,^^ with three finger-boards, and the 
power of combining the effects of a full 
orchestra; exhibited at Bologna, 1856. 
See Debain. 

Alfieri, a musician and poet: the 
scenes of his ^^Timoleon^^ are very fine; 
composed when listening to soft music, 
or immediately after having heard it. 

Alford, Rev. Henry, born in Lon- 
(k-^fdon, 1810; published ^^ Psalms and 
^ ' Hymns;' 1844. 

Algemeine Musikalische Zei- 
TUNG, commenced at Leipsic, Germa- 
ny, 1798. 

Alix, of Aix, in Provence, about 
1650, constructed an automaton figure 
having the shape of a human skeleton, 
which, by means of concealed mechan-, 
ism, had the appearance of playing on 
the guitar. After its exhibition, a ru- 
mor arose that Alix was a sorceror, and 
in league with the Devil ; he was arrest- 
ed, tried on the capital charge of magic, 
or witchcraft, condemned, and burned 
alive, together with his wonderful au- 
tomaton, 1664. 

Allan, Madame Caradori, bom 


at Milan, 1800; went to England, and 
under the name of Caradori made her 
debut at the King's Theatre, Jan. 12, 
1822; became known there and at the 
concerts of the Philharmonic Society, 
and as the composer of some pleasing 
romances ; married Mr. Allan, secretary 
of the theatre, 1823 ; sang in opera with 
Formes; sang in Vienna and other 
places with success ; came to New York, 
September, 1837; appeared at the Park 
Theatre, and was pronounced a finished 
vocalist and fine actress ; in 1840, made 
a concert tour through the United 
States; returned to New York; went 
again to England; sang at Naples and 
elsewhere; retired from the stage, and 
died 1865, aged 65. See Caradorl 

Alleghanians, a New England con- 
cert company formed in 1848 ;"have con- 
tinued to give concerts in this and other 
countries with success to this time. 

Allegranti, M., one of the most 
famous singers of her time, 1771 ; sang 
in Italy, Germany, England, and other 
countries, in oratorio and opera. 

Allegri, Giovanni Battista, or- 
ganist and composer of motets, Venice, 

Allegri, Gregorio, born at Rome, 
1590 ; became one of the most excellent 
composers of his age; his '^Miserere" 
is still sung ; died Feb. 18, 1652. 

Allen, Chester G., born in West- 
ford, Otsego Co., N.Y., Feb. 15, 1838; 
teacher, composer, and editor of ^^ New- 
York Musical Gazette.' ' 

Alley, Joseph, known as a manu- 
facturer of Enharmonic organs^ New- 
buryport, Mass. ; the instrument was 
invented, 1848, by Alley & Poole, and 
is the first successful attempt to solve 
the problem of perfect intonation. 

Allison, Richard, of London, was 
one of the composers who adapted the 
Psalms to music, 1594; published a col- 
lection of music, 1606. 

Alphabet of the musical scale ; the 
seven first letters of the alphabet were 
used in music by Gregory, and applied 
by Guido. The Greeks used their alpha- 
bet of 1620 characters in music. 

Alpine Horn, made of the bark of a 
cherry-tree, and like a speaking-trum- 
pet used to convey sounds to a great 
distance ; peculiar to Alpine hunters. 

Alpine Melodies. The songs of 
the Tyrol have a wildness peculiar to 
mountain music, and are unl.'ke the 
music of any other people. 

{/WVt *>^<Ut| LO '' ?^^ (TkJT/. 


Alpius, born at Alexandria, Egypt, 
360 ; wrote an account of the manner in 
which the ancients composed their mu- 
sic; the characters used numbered 1620. 

Altist, the person who sings or plays 
the alto primo part. 

Alto Flute, used in some bands to 
play the tenor part. 

Alto Viola, a small tenor viol upon 
which the alto is played. 

Amadio, Car., published some Ital- 
ian dramas 1669. 

Amanu, Weinlich, directress of the 
famous European Ladies' Orchestra, 
forty performers ; first appeared in Ber- 
lin i873. 

Amati. Four persons of this name, 
celebrated makers of violins, lived at 
Cremona, — Andrew, and two sons, Je- 
rome and Antony ; also Nicholas, a son 
of Antony. Of these, Andrew and Je- 
rome became celebrated, 1650. 

Amati, Andrew, made the celebrat- 
ed twenty-four instruments for King 
Charles IX., consisting of six violins, 
six seconds, six tenors, and six violon- 
cellos; and these made the factory fa- 
mous. He was assisted in his work by 
Nicholas, the head of the family. 

Amati, Jerome, eldest son of An- 
drew, became a famous violin-maker; 
his instruments differ in some respects 
from those of his father and grandfa- 

Amati, Antony, brother of Jerome, 
followed the same business, and made 
similar instruments. 

Amati, Nicholas, the younger, son 
of Antony, made some very choice vio- 
lins. These four are generally the per- 
sons spoken of as makers of Amati vio- 
lins. One other person of the name is 
sometimes mentioned. 

Amati, Hieronimo, who had a son 
named Nicolo, are of the same family; 
and both made violins after 1662. 

Ambros, a. W., born in Manth, Bo- 
hemia, 1816 ; pianist and composer ; 
known in this country by his published 

Ambrose, St., introduced what is 
called the ^^ Cantus Ambrosianus^^ into 
his church at Milan, about the end of 
the fourth century ; said by St. Augus- 
tine to have brought this manner of 
singing from Greece. St. Ambrose only 
used the four authentic modes : the four 
plagal were afterwards added by St. 
. Gregory. 

Ambrosian Chants. These came 

from the East, 374, and were such as 
were used by the primitive Christian 

Amedei, an Italian, composed, joint- 
ly with Orlandi, the opera of "^r.sace." 

Amicis, Anna De. An Italian singer, 
born at Naples, 1740; married a secre- 
tary of the king ; held the first rank in 
opera, and retired in 1771. 

Amodio, a., born at Naples, 1831; 
known in Europe and in this country 
as an opera singer; died near Havana, 
June, 1861. His brother Frederico is 
also famous as a singer. 

Amoyt, Pere, author of " The Music 
of the C-hinese,'' mentions most of their 
musical instruments. 

Amphion, a Theban, and the eldest 
of the Grecian musicians, married in 
Lydia, where he learned music, and 
brought the art to Greece. 

Anacreon, born at Teos in Ionia; 
lived 500 years before Jesus Christ; is 
said by Athenaeus to have invented the 
instrument called Barbiton ; died by be- 
ing choked with a grape-stone. 

Ancient Chants exist, written as 
early as 900; but the notation resem- 
bles only figures, similar to short-hand 
characters, and cannot now be read cor- 

Ancient Concert, established in 
London, 1774; in Dublin, 1834. 

Ancient Instruments. A sackbut^ 
one of the instruments often mentioned 
in the sacred writings, was found at 
Pompeii, in the ashes of Mount Vesu- 
vius, from which has been fashioned 
the modern trombone. 

Ancient Time-beating was by the 
foot, which was lifted up and beat down 
to mark the time; the foot was fur- 
nished with wooden or iron shoes ; later 
oyster-shells and bones were used to 
mark the time. 

Ancient Tragedy was accompanied 
by instruments of music to regulate the 
tones of the voice. 

Ancilia, shields upon which the an- 
cients beat the time to their music, as 
the moderns beat the drum. 

Anderson, John, of Edinburgh, 
composer of songs and dance-music, 
1790; living in 1839. Thomas, of Kelso, 
a Border piper. The song '■'John An- 
derson^^ was written 1578, and is in 
Queen Elizabeth's virginal-book. 

Andre, John, born at Offenbach in 
1741. His first work was an opera called 
*' TJie Porter y'' which was played at 



Frankfort. **Erwin and Elmira^^ fol- 
lowed, and later, at Berlin, composed 
many operas, sonatas for the pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello, and other mu- 
sic ; died 1799. He established the most 
famous music warehouse in Europe. 

Andke, John Antony, born at Of- 
fenbach, 1775; pianist and violinist; 
became known as a composer 1793, 
when he made a musical tour in the 
Rhine cities ; composed much music, 
and published a *' General Treatise on 
Music,^' six volumes. 

Androides, an automaton in the 
form of a human being, so contrived 
that it will perform upon musical in- 
struments by means of machinery. 

Anerio, F., born at Rome, 1560; a 
voluminous composer; died 1630. 

Anfossi, p., born 1736; a composer 
of operas at Rome, where he died 1795. 

Angelic Hymn. So called because 
it begins with the song of the angels at 
Bethlehem ; it has been sung in the 
Eastern churches since 139, and in 
England for 1,500 years. 

Anglo-Saxon Instruments. Harp, 
viols, trumpets, horns, organs, pipes, 
bells, and others. 

Angri, Elena, born on the island of 
Corfu. May 14, 1824; sang in London, 
1849, 1850; came to this country 1856, 
and gave concerts with Thalberg. 

Anschutz, Carl, born in Germany ; 
came to the United States 1857 ; an ac- 
complished musician; died in Boston, 
Jan. 23, 1870. 

Apollonicon, built in London, Eng., 
1849, intended to produce the effect of 
several united bands. 

Appleton,Thomas, of Boston, Mass. , 
was with W. M. Goodrich, organ-build- 
er, 1807, and afterwards with Babcock 
and two brothers named Hayt; com- 
menced the business, and continued to 
make organs and piano-fortes until 1820, 
when he began to build on his own ac- 

Aptommas, M., born in South Wales, 
1829 ; settled in New York as a teacher ; 
is celebrated as a harpist. 

Arab Instruments. Those in use 
on the Nile are, the drum, open at one 
end, carried utider the arm, and beat 
with both hands; a reed-pipe; and 
pipes which resemble the sound of the 

Arabian Music is mostly in the 
minor mode, rude and barbarous ; they 
use various instruments. In 1873 a 

hymn and tune book was prepared in 
Arabic ; the book is now used in the 
mission churches, and is the first music 
written to be read backward; it was 
prepared by Dr. Lewis, of the Syrian 

Arbuthnot, Dr. John, wrote several 
anthems, printed in 1712; he wrote also 
several burlesque poems ; died 1735. 

Arch-Lute. A theorbo or large lute ; 
formerly of great repute as a solo instru- 
ment ; still used in Italy. 

Arditi, Luigi, born at Crescentino, 
Piedmont, 1822 ; a composer and violin- 
ist ; travelled through Europe, and came 
to this country, September, 1846; made 
a tour of the States, and returned to 
Europe, 1856. 

Apollino, invented by A. Plimpton, 
Medway, Mass., 1820; it combined the 
organ, orchestra, band, harp, imitation 
of birds, drums, cymbals, and musical 

Appy, Henri, born at the Hague, 
1828; violinist; gave concerts in Ger- 
many, France, and in this country 1851. 

Arcadians. A people who made mu- 
sic a branch of their education, and con- 
sidered it infamous to be ignorant of the 

Arians. a sect known to have used 
metrical psalmody previous to 1210. 

Arion. a lyric poet and musician of 
Methymna, in the island of Lesbos, who 
flourished about six hundred years be- 
fore the Christian era ; he invented the 
dithyrambic measure, and composed 
many hymns. 

Ariosti, Attilio, born about 1660, 
at Bologna ; early known in Gennany ; 
arrived in England 1716, where he intro- 
duced the viola d^ amour, a new instru- 
ment, and composed several operas ; gave 
Handel lessons on the harpsichord at 

Armonica. The name given to an 
instrument constructed by Benjamin 
Franklin, afterward known as musical 

Armstrong, Jennie, born in Wis- 
casset, Me. ; became famous as a singer 
in Italy, 1873, under the name of Avi- 

Armstrong, Richard, retained the 
full power of his voice at the age of 
sixty, and performed his own accom- 
paniments on the piano-forte, in Lon- 
don, after that time. 

Arne, Dr. Thomas Augustine, was 
born March 12, 1710, in London; be- 



came early celebrated as a composer, 
and established his reputation by set- 
ting Milton's " Comus^' to music — light, 
airy, and original; he composed many 
songs, and nearly all his attempts were 
successful ; died March 5, 1778, aged 68. 

Arne, Michael, son of Dr. Arne, at 
the age of eleven years could perform 
music at sight; he composed several 
operas, and ranked high among English 

Arnold, J., author of an English col- 
lection of psalmody, 1773, which was 
used in this country. 

Arnold, Dr. Samuel, an English 
musician and composer; born in Lon- 
don, Aug. 10, 1739; composed for the 
theatre, the church, and also oratorio 
music; succeeded Dr. Nares as organ- 
ist ; died at Westminster, Oct. 22, 1802. 

Arnold, Samuel, Jr., a composer of 
musical dramas and operas, London, 
Eng., 1794 to 1824; died Aug. 16, 1852. 

Arpa, a harp. Arpa doppia, dou- 
ble harp. 

Artot, Joseph, a celebrated violin- 
ist; born at Brussels, Feb. 4, 1815; 
visited this country, and gave concerts, 
1844 ; died at Paris, July 20, 1845. 

Asaph, a musician of the tribe of 
Levi, in the age of David. Twelve 
Psalms bear his name, but it is not 
generally thought he composed them. 

Ascher, Joseph, born 1830 ; pro- 
duced many piano-forte compositions; 
was pianist to the French Empress, and 
decorated by the queen of Spain ; died 
of brain disease, June, 1869, aged 39. 

Ashe, Andrew, born at Lisburne, 
Ireland, 1759 ; famous as a pianist ; 
director of the Bath concerts, and a 
composer ; his wife was an oratorio 
singer, and his daughters excellent per- 
formers on the piano-forte and harp. 

Ashley. Four brothers, — the Gen- 
eral, a violinist, died near London, 
1818; John James, composer and au- 
thor, for seven years director of ora- 
torios in London ; Charles, violoncel- 
list and one of the original members of 
the Philharmonic Society; Richard, 
the principal tenor at the York musical 
festival, 182.3. 

Ashley, John, of Bath, Eng., bas- 
soonist and vocalist for nearly half a 
century ; a composer of many songs and 
other music. 

AsHWELL, T., a church composer in 
the time of Henry VIII. Many of his 
works are still presei-ved at Oxford, Eng. 

AspuLL, George, born 1820 ; remark- 
able as pianist and singer from the age 
of five years ; died Aug. 20, 1832. 

Assyrian Music. Assyria, from re- 
cent investigations, was the parent of 
musical science ; from this country the 
Hebrews, Egyptians, and other Eastern 
nations, derived their knowledge of mu- 
sic, vocal and instrumental. 

AsTORGA, Baron E. D'., a Sicilian 
composer; went to Eng., where he wrote 
several much esteemed cantatas, &c. 

Atabal. The name of the Syrian, 
Arabic, and Moorish tambourine: it is 
like the Spanish kettledrum. 

Atterbury, L., the celebrated Eng- 
lish glee composer, born 1740 ; died 1800, 
aged 60. Francis, born 1062, was a 
noted musical writer ; died 1731. 

Attwood, Thomas, born 1767 ; organ- 
ist and composer; wrote many operas 
and other works ; died March 24, 1838. 

Auber, Daniel Francois Esprit, 
born at Caen, Jan. 29, 178^; one of the % — 
most prolific of the French composers ; 
received many marks of regal and im- 
perial favor ; became famous as an opera 
composer; died MayAl871, aged 87. His J ">- 
melodies are known all over the civil- 
ized world. 

Aubert, violinist and composer at 
Paris, died 1758; his son was first viol- 
inist at the opera until 1771, when he 
retired with a pension. P. F. Olivier 
Aubert, born at Amiens 1763, wrote 
some musical works, and published 
many instrumental compositions; was 
a violoncellist. 

AuGiER, Emile, a French composer 
of operas ; born at Valence Drome, Sept. 
17, 1820. 

Augustine, St., born in Africa ; 
wrote six books on music, wliich were 
printed at Lyons, 1586, eleven hundred 
and forty-six years after his death, 
which took place A.D. 440. 

AuLD, Alexander, Columbus, O., 
composer and compiler of four collec- 
tions of music from 1847 to 1875. 

Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, em- 
ployed a musician of Gotha to copy for 
him many musical instrumental works 
in score. The collection was finished 
1663, and consisted of music by the 
Bach family and others; it was in the 
University at Helmstadt, 1856; and the 
works dated back to 1650, being fifty 
years older than any then known as 
coming from the Bach family. When 
Sebastian Bach, late in life, collected 



the musical posthumous works of his 
ancestors, he was not able to find a 
piece composed previous to 1693. 

Austin, Adam, born at Edinburgh, 
Nov. 28, 1726 ; a celebrated song-writer ; 
died 1774. 

Austin, St., established a school for 
instruction in ecclesiastical music at 
Canterbury, Eng., in the ninth century. 

Automaton Carillon. A two-oc- 
tave chime of bells, invented 1868 by E. 
Scherr, of Philadelphia, Penn. ; it can 
perform any music within its compass. 

Automaton Vocalist. A German 
artist constructed a speaking machine, 
which talks and sings with distinctness ; 
it is a life-like figure ; the machinery is 
operated by keys like those of a piano- 
forte ; the inventor is M. Faber. 

Automaton Clarinet Player. 
This figure plays upon the clarinet and 
cornet, — thirty- two tones on the clari- 
net, and sixteen on the cornet ; invent- 
ed by Mr. Van Oeckelen, an organ- 
builder in Holland. 

Automaton Lady Minstrel and 
Bird, constructed by Obed M. Cole- 
man, of Barnstable, Mass., while living 
at New Bedford ; this figure performed 
on the accordeon as the bird sang. 

AuTOPHON. An instrument con- 
structed by Charles Dawson, of Lon- 
don, 1849 ; can perform any music sup- 
plied to it; constructed on the principle 
of a barrel-organ. 

AvENA. The third kind of musical 
instrument used by the ancients; it 
succeeded the instruments formed of 
horns of animals; it was a straw or 

AvisoN, Charles, organist and au- 
thor ; born 1710 ; died 1770. 

Ayrton, Edmund, born 1734 at Rip- 
ton, Eng. ; organist and composer ; wrote 
much music while master at the royal 
chapel ; died 1808. 

Ayton, Sir Robert (sometimes writ- 
ten Aytoun), born in Fifeshire, Scot- 
land, 1570; aproHfic composer of songs; 
died in London, March, 1638, aged 68. 


B. De Nevers, a French musician, 
first applied the tone name si to this 

Babbi C, violinist and composer, 
1780 ; Gregorio was a tenor opera 
singer, Lisbon, 1775. 

Babbini M. tenor siuger in opera, 
London, 1785. 

Babcock Samuel, one of the early 
teachers and composers of sacred music 
in this country, was of Watertown, 
Mass., and his compositions hold their 
place in the collections of common 
psalmody to this time; he published, 
1795, " The Middlesex Harmony.^' 

Bacchanalian Songs, were first 
sung at the Greek mysteries and festi- 
vals of Bacchus ; they are now sung in 
Germany, France, England, and other 
countries. The Roman Senate abol- 
ished such songs 186 years B.C. 

Bacchus, the conqueror, left music, 
dancing, and poetry at Thrace; wrote 
the first musical catechism ; established 
a music school, and exempted from 
military duty all skilful musicians. 
There was a god of song by this name. 

Bach Veit, the founder of the Bach 
family was a native of Presburg, in Hun- 
gary, and was noted for his skill upon 

the guitar. There are many individuals 
of this name, whose lives spread over a 
period of two or more centuries ; a brief 
notice of the most famous would occupy 
an extended space. 

Bach, John Sebastian, born March 
21, 1685, at Eisenach, was a very great 
musician; wrote an enormous list of 
works, in every form of sacred music, 
orchestral compositions, chamber music, 
&c. ; died at Leipsic, July 30, 1750, in 
the sixty-sixth year of his age. 

Bach, Carl Philipp Emmanuel, 
born at Weimar, March 14, 1714 ; music- 
director at Hamburg, a prolific com- 
poser, great in all departments ; as a 
writer of songs, odes, psalms, &c., he 
surpassed all his cotemporaries ; died at 
Hamburg, of consumption, Sept. 14, 

Bach, John Christian, born in 
Leipsic, 1735 ; organist and composer at 
Milan, Italy; appeared in London, Eng., 
1739, as a virtuoso on keyed instruments ; 
became a composer of operas, and died 
Jan. 1782. 

Bach, Heinrich, born at Wechmar, 
1615 ; became famous as an organist and 
musician ; was settled at Arnstadt, 1643, 
and died 1692. 



Bach, Hans, eldest son of Veit, 
city musician at Wechmar; died 1626. 
Bach, ^gidius, born 1645 ; organist at 
Erfurt; died 1717. 

Bache, Sarah, daughter of Benja- 
min Franklin; born at Philadelphia, 
September, 1744; a famous harpist; in 
1777, when the enemy approached the 
city, she took refuge in the country ; she 
wrote her father "that the rapacious 
crew had stolen and carried off his 
harps, bells, viol da gamba, &c. ; but 
the Armonica is safe." 

Bachmann, F. W., violinist and com- 
poser, Berlin, 1824. 

Backers, A., a German, and early 
maker of piano-fortes; there is one in 
London bearing the inscription, Amer- 
icus Backers, factor and inventor, 1776. 

Bacon, L. W., New Haven, Conn., 
author of a collection of church music 
and a book for social worship, 1854. 

Bacon, Lord, wrote upon "Dan- 
cing to Song, Acting in Song," and 
** Choirs;" also directions to singers. 

Bader a., a tenor singer, associated 
with Spontini's Opera; died at Berlin, 
Ger., May 14, 1870, aged 81. 

Badger, Thomas, Jun., commenced 
in Boston, April, 1820, the first musical 
paper in this country, " The Euterpeiad,'^ 
edited by John R. Parker. 

B ADiALi, an opera singer of renown ; 
died at Bologna, 1865, aged 66. His 
brother Frederico, also a popular 
opera singer, died in New York, August, 

Bagioli a., born at Bologna, 1794; 
came to this country with the Mon- 
tresser opera company, 1832; the first 
Italian troupe that came here ; he settled 
and died in New York, Feb. 11, 1870, 
aged 76. 

Bagpipe, an instrument which has 
long been a favorite with the natives of 
Scotland; it has been much used in 
other countries; even the Greeks and 
Romans were acquainted with it. Bag- 
pipers flourished from 1700 to 1800 in 

Baif, J. A. De, established an acad- 
emy of music and wrote several musical 
works ; died at Paris, 1591. 

Baildon, a celebrated English glee 
composer, from 1760 to 1780. 

Bailey, Thomas (sometimes printed 
Bayley), Newburyport, Ma: s.,publislied, 
1755, ''A Complete Melody in Three 
Parts,'^ which had a great sale; was 
afterwards connected with the produc- 

tion of several other books of music; 
was a composer of psalmody; published 
^^ Universal Harmony, ^^ 1774; and was 
at one time connected in business with 
Daniel Bailey. 

Bailey, Daniel, Newburyport, 
Mass., a composer and publisher of 
music; produced his ''New and Com- 
plete Introduction to the Grounds and 
Rules of Music,'' in Two Parts, 1764; 
published " The Essex Harmony, or Mu- 
sical Miscellany,'' 1785; in this work he 
was assisted by his son, and mentions 
himself as " author of 'Select Harmony,' 
a book of anthems in quarto, and a set 
of tunes to bind in psalm-books." 

Baillie, Grisell, born Dec. 2.5, 
1665 ; author of a book of original songs 
with music; died in London, Dec. 6, 
1746. Alexander, author of "Insti- 
tutions of Music," " Airs for the Flute,'* 
and a " Treatise on Harmony," 1735. 

Baillot, p., violinist, born near 
Paris, 1771; published much music; 
died 1842. 

Baini, a. G., born at Rome, 1775 ; a 
famous musical historian, singer, and 
director; died 1844. 

Baker, J. C, born at Salisbury, N.H., 
August, 1822, well known as of the 
family of vocalists in concerts ; Clara 
L., wife of George E., famous vocalist, 
died at Waukegan, 111., Aug. 11, 1858. 

Baker, John, a London organist, 
came to Boston, 1850; built an organ 
there, and moved to Cleveland, O. 
Baker, G. J., of the Society of British 
Musicians ; died 1851. 'Thomas^ came 
to New York with Jullien's^^^r^iestra, 
1850. T. M., of Chariestown, Mass., 
in 1822 issued " MusiQOt' Cabinet." 

Baker, TnoMAsf an English vio- 
linist; author of " Modern Instructions 
for Piano-forte;" came to New York, 
1850; composer and conductor; a rela- 
tion of George IV. 

Baker, B. F., born at Wenham, ^ 
Mass., July 10, 1811 ; held many conven- ^ 
tions; was six years Vice-President of -^ 
the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston ; 
a teacher in the public schools ; princi- 
pal of the Boston Music School ; a com- 
poser of much music, and editor of 
a large number of church music, school 
instruction, glee, and other music books. ^ 

Balfe, M. W., born in Dublin, May t-^ 
15, 1808; became principal violinist in .^ 
the Drury Lane orchestra, London, ^ 
1823; in 1825 went on the stage as an '^ 
opera singer ; married a prima donna, '^ 



Lina Rezer, and became a composer of 
operas, of which his *^ Bohemian GirV 
was the most successful. He sang in 
New York, 18o4; in 1857, published 
*' A New Singing Method;^'' died in 
Hertfordshire, Eng., Oct. 21, 1870, in 
his sixty-third year. He had made two 
visits to this country, and was intend- 
ing to come here again in 1871. 

Balfe, Victoria, born in Paris, 
Sept. 1, 1837; opera singer in London 
and St. Petersburg; married Sir John 
Cramton ; died at Madrid, Jan. 22, 1865. 

Ballad, originally signified a dance, 
accompanied by a chant, and was panto- 
mimic ; also a history in verse, sung to 
the harp or viol. 

Ballad Music. England is the 
great manufactory and mart of this 
kind of music, and the terai is now 
applied to all sorts of modern songs. 
The word implies a brief, simple tale or 

Ballalaika. a Sclavonian instru- 
ment of two strings, common among 
the Russians, Tartars, Egyptians, and 
Arabians ; it is of the guitar kind, and 
very ancient. 

Ballet, introduced in the time of 
Isabel of Arragon, but first became 
fashionable in the time of Catherine de 
Medici. Ballet dancers first appeared 
on the stage 1661. 

Baltzar, Thomas, born at Lubec, 
1638 ; died 1663 ; was master of the band 
of "four and twenty fiddlers, all in a 
row," time of Charles II. 

Bamerino, Francisco, an Italian, 
claimed as the first composer who set 
an opera to music ; it was called the 
^^ Conversion of St. Paul," and was per- 
formed at Rome, 1460. 

Bancroft, Silas A., of Boston, 
Mass., a teacher and composer, pub- 
lished several collections of church 
music and a "Social Glee Book" with 
William Mason, 1848, in which some of 
his compositions appear. 

Banfi, G., an Italian lute-player, 
taken prisoner by pirates, and sold as a 
slave; the Bey of Tunis was so en- 
chanted with his playing that he pur- 
cliased him and gave him liberty; he 
then took service with the king of Spain, 
composed much music, and died 1670. 

Banister, John, was the first Eng- 
lish violinist of note; succeeded Balt- 
zar as band-master to King Charles ; he 
was the first to establish lucrative con- 
certs in London; died Oct. 3, 1679. 

His son, John, was a violinist, and one 
of King William's band; also a com- 
poser; died 1725. 

Banjo. A rude imitation of the 
guitar united with tambourine, having 
five strings. The name is the corrupted 
and softened form of the bandore, a 
Greek instrument. 

Banti, B. G., born at Georgi. 1759; 
a famous singer in England, France, 
Italy, and Germany; died at Bologna, 
1806, leaving her larynx to the academy. 

Barbers anciently were musicians 
also, and instruments were kept in all 
well-ordered shops. 

Barclay, John, born at Muthill, 
Scotland, 1734; author of many fine 
songs ; died at Edinburgh, July 29, 1798. 

Bargiel, Waldemar, born at Ber- 
lin, 1827; teacher and composer; pub- 
lished a large number of works for the 

Barilli, Luigi, born at Modena, 
1767 ; known from his connection with 
opera from 1805 to his death. May 26, 

Barilli F., a celebrated composer at 
Rome; died in Madrid; his widow mar- 
ried S. Patti, and was the mother of 
Adelina and Carlotta Patti. The moth- 
er was a celebrated singer and actress ; 
she died 1849. 

Barilli, A., son of Francisco, came 
to this country 1846. Clotilda, his sis- 
ter, came with him, and married in New 
York ; died in the West Indies. Antonio 
returned to Rome, his native city, 1874. 
Ettore, Nicola, and Alfredo, born 
in Florence, came to New York, 1855. 
The family were all more or less cele- 
brated as musicians. 

Barker, Nathan, violinist, com- 
poser, and director ; known as manager 
of the Barker Family concerts. 

Barlow, Joel, "born at Reading, 
Conn., 1755; published his version of 
Psalms 1785; died Dec. 22, 1812, near 
Cracow on his way to Paris. 

Barmann, H., clarinetist at the 
court chapel in Munich for more than 
forty years; died June 11, 1847, aged 

Barnard, Anne, born Dec. 8, 1750 ; 
author of "Old Bobin Gray," 1771; 
died May 8, 1824. 

Barnard, John, born in Boston, 

Nov. 6, 1681 ; in 1752 made a version of 

I psalms with the music ; settled at Mar- 

blehead ; introduced new music there ; 

' died Jan. 24, 1770, aged eighty-nine. 

^ QuYv/U, (y-A^J^.iyd^ 

'^.y)^, j. ^^yio.c-^c^:, 



Barnes, L. B., a member of the 
Handel and Haydn Society, Boston, for 
twenty years; secretary fifteen years; 
and president four years; compiler of 
** The Congregational Harp,'''' and '* The 
Chapel;^'' also a composer of songs. 
Resigned his office 1875. 

Barnet, James G., a distinguished 
musician and composer, received the 
degree of Doctor of Music from Yale 
college, 1869, while a teacher in Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Barnett, John, born at Bedford, 
Eng., 1802; an opera singer and com- 
poser of popular music. 

Barrel Organ, a contrivance to 
produce music by the turning of a 
barrel or cylinder, as in a music-box or 

Barth, Herr, a noted singer in the 
Imperial chapel, is particularly cele- 
brated as having saved to posterity 
Beethoven's song, '''■Adelaide.''^ He 
chanced to call on the great composer 
at the moment the song was thrown to 
the fire ; catching it, before it burned, 
Barth sang it. Beethoven listened at- 
tentively, and then observed, "My dear 
Barth, we will not burn it." 

Bartholomew, the librettist of Men- 
delsohn's oratorios, also prepared the 
books of ^^ Eli,'' and ^^ Naaman," for 
Costa, and the words of the " Ode to the 
Sultan ;" died August 18, 1867. 

Bartleman, J., the celebrated bass 
singer, was born in Westminster, Sept. 
19, 1769; sang at Freemason's Hall, 
Ancient Concerts, and Hanover Square 
rooms; died April 15, 1820. 

Barton, Sarah W., an American 
vocalist, appeared in opera at Warsaw, 

Baryton, an instrument of the vio- 
lin tribe, midway in size and compass 
between the viola and violoncello. 

Bass, Thorough. The first treatises 
on Thorough Bass were written early 
in the seventeenth century, but it was 
not until the publication of later works 
by Rameau and others that the system 
acquired its modern significance. 

Bass Clarinet, an instrument an 
octave below the clarinet in B\f, in the 
same form, but much larger. 

Basset Horn, like a large sized haut- 
boy in shape, and formerly used instead 
of the clarinet. 

Bassetto, a tenor viol, or small bass 
viol, — violoncello. 
y Bassini, Carlo, bom at Cuneo, 

Italy, 1815; commenced his career as 
solo violinist in Europe; visited South 
America, 1837; came to the United 
States 1838, and in 1839 conducted 
opera in New York ; finally settled there, 
and published " The Art of Singing,'* 
and some other musical works; died 
Nov. 25, 1870, aged fifty-five. 

Bass Oboe, an instrument like the 
bassoon, invented in Ferrara, Italy, 1539. 

Bassoon, a bass instrument used in 
orchestras and called fagot, or fagotto ; 
it is blown with a reed, through a brass 

Bass Horn, an instrument formerly 
much used in bands; there is also a 
French horn called bass horn ; the two 
are entirely different. 

Bass Violin, an instrument formerly 
used, and having a distinct part written, 
for it. 

Bass Yiol, properly violoncello ; one 
of small size has been called basa 

Bastians, celebrated as the organist 
at Haarlem, Holland, and a composer. 

Baton. First used in London, super- 
seding the foot or fiddle bow, 1826, at 
Covent Garden, by Weber. 

Battishill, Jonathan, born in 
London, 1738; composer of operas, sa- 
cred music and glees; married Miss 
Davies, vocalist, who died 1775 ; Battis- 
hill after this composed many songs ^ 
died at Islington, Dec. 9, 1801. 

Battista, Yincenzo, a well-known 
composer of operas for the Naples thea- 
tres, died 1873. 

Baumgartner, August, organist 
and composer, died at Munich, Sept. 27, 

Baxter, Lydia, born in Petersburg, 
Rensselaer County, N.Y., Sept. 2, 1809; 
author of many songs and Sunday-school 
hymns, some of which have had a wide 
circulation; wrote the song " The Gates 
Ajar," which has been sung in Amer- 
ica, England, and Scotland ; died in New 
York City, June 23, 1874. 

Baxter, invented the method of 
lengthening a common metre hymn, by 
introducing words in German text or 
black letter, which could be sung, or 
omitted; and Cotton Mather arranged 
some psalms on this plan, to be sung as 
common, or long metre. 

Bayadeers, of India; these singing 
and dancing girls use the guitar and 
tom-toms as accompaniments to the 
voice, and wear anlde-bells and foot- 



chains, which they jingle in concert 
with the music. 

Bayly, Thomas Haynes, born near 
Bath, Eng., 1797; was a most successful 
song-writer; published *^ Bayly's Melo- 
dies ; " his songs are very popular to this 
day; died of jaundice, 1889. 

Bay Psalm Book, a work compiled 
by several of the Puritan clergymen of 
the country, was the first book printed 
in the American colonies; it was pub- 
lished at Cambridge, Mass., 1640; was 
re-printed in London, Eng., 1737, and 
in Scotland, 1738. It was printed by 
Stephen Daye, from a clear, new type, 
imported for that work, and was also 
known by the name "iVeio England 
Version;'^ in 1647 some ^^ SpiritvAil 
Songs'^ were added to the American 
work; the music used for singing was 
mostly written upon leaves bound in 
with the psalms, and was mostly copied 
from Ravenscroft's Collection; tunes 
from Ainsworth and other English com- 
posers were also used. 

Bazoche Clerks, a company of mu- 
sicians organized in the time of Philip 
the Fair ; their orchestra, 1442, consisted 
of drums, trumpets, hautboys, and bas- 

Becker, Prof. C. F., a distinguished 
organist of the Leipzig Conservatory; 
born 1814; in 1856 presented his library 
of thirty-six hundred works on music 
to the city on condition that it be called 
the ^^ Becker Library.'' 

Beeche, Von, of Vienna, composed 
much vocal and instrumental music be- 
tween 1780 and 1802 ; died 1803. 

Beecher, Joseph, of New York, 
invented a new species of piano-forte, 
1856 ; the movement is around a hollow 
cylinder, and it has two key-boards. 

Beethoven, Louis Van, the greatest 
composer of the time in which he lived; 
excelled in every species of composition ; 
born in Bonn, on the Rhine, Dec. 17, 
1770 ; the deafness which withdrew him 
from the world made him awkward and 
retiring; he lived in his own art, and 
the body of this prince of musicians 
was accompanied to its rest by its own 
creations ; he died March 26, 1827, aged 
fifty-six. A bronze statue of the great 
man was inaugurated in Boston Music 
Hall, March 1, 1856; his monument is 
at Bonn, and was repaired in 1853. 

Belcher, Samuel (or Supply), of 
Farraington, Me., published, 1794, " The 
Harmony of Maine ; " an origiQal com- 

position of psalm and hymn tunes ; was 
a teacher of music. This man, or one 
of his name, published at Hallowell, 
Me., where he then resided, 1830, " Har- 
mony of Music." 

Belknap, Jeremy, born in Boston, 
Mass., June 4, 1744, issued in 1795 a 
" Collection of Psalms and Hymns," sev- 
eral of them being written by himself; 
died of paralysis, in Boston. June 20, 

Bell, Rev. Dr., bom in England, 
1563; composer for the organ and vir- 
ginal ; also for the voice ; died 1622. 

Bell Harmonicon, an adaptation 
of musical bells to the piano-forte in 
such a manner as to be played with it. 

Bellak, James, born at Prague, 
1814 ; came to this country and settled 
in Philadelphia, Pa., as dealer in mu- 
sical wares. 

Bellini Vincent, a dramatic com- 
poser, born Nov. 3, 1802, at Catania, 
Sicily ; early went to Naples and became 
known as a composer; his first opera 
was performed 1824; in 1828, "ia Stra- 
niera" attracted the attention of all 
Italy; in 1833, he founded his fortune 
and his fame with ^^ Norma" ''^ La 
Sonnambula," and '■^ Puritani ;" died 
Sept. 23, 1835, aged thirty-three. 

Bellows Organs, superseded hy- 
draulic instruments, 514. 

Bells have played an important part 
in civilization ; they were known to the 
Hebrews, and have been used in every 
country and by all people more or less. 
Musical bells are used in Europe and in 
this country. Change ringing of bells 
is ascribed to one Anable, who invented 
the art and died in 1755. Bells are 
ranked by musicians among the most 
musical instruments of percussion ; and 
the carillons, or music-bells, are played 
by means of keys, like those of the 

Bendel, Franz, born in Hungary 
1835; settled in Berlin as a pianist, 
where he married, and became court 
musician; came to this country, and 
played at the Peace Jubilee, 1872. 

Benedict, Jules, born at Stuttgard, 
Germany, of an Israelite family, Dec. 
24, 1804; in the spring of 1825 he 
was maestro di capella at Naples (mar- 
ried a Neapolitan lady, 1835, and went 
to England, where he first stamped his 
reputation) ; became director at Drury 
Lane, London, and produced several 
operas, in 1838; came to the United 

l/l"^ (U-^^r^^ , t , A^ vu . / H h 



States, 1850, with Jenny Lind (as con- 
ductor of her concerts) ; on returning to 
England he formed a vocal association, 
conducted opera, and was found worthy 
of knighthood, which honor was at the 
same time conferred upon W. S. Ben- 

Benjamin, Jonathan, of Northamp- 
ton, Mass., published, 1799, a collection 
of music entitled " Harmonia, CcBlestis,^' 
with most of the tunes figured for the 
harpsichord and organ, both which in- 
struments were then beginning to at- 
tract attention in this country. 

Benkekt, G. F., born in German- 
town, Pa., April 11, 1831; became early 
known as a composer ; was made famous 
in Germany by the production of his 
grand mass, conducted by Lindpainter. 

Bennet, John, born 1555 ; one of the 
best English madrigalists (seems to have 
had a melody more phrased and chan- 
tante than most of his contemporaries). 
Besides his madrigals for four voices, 
published in 1599, he contributed largely 
to the compositions inserted in a work 
published by Thomas Ravenscroft, in 

Bennett, WTs.'^^^n at Sheffield, 
England, April 13, 1816; went to Ger- 
many ; returned to London in 1839, and 
obtained the highest reputation as a com- 
poser, pianist, and teacher; married 
Miss Wood, pianist, who died 1866, 
leaving three children; the honor of 
knighthood was bestowed on him and 
Jules Benedict at the same time; was 
made " Doctor of Music ' ' June 30, 1856. 
Died in London, Feb. 1, 1875; buried in 
Westminster Abbey. 

Berens, M., a native of Hamburg, 
residing at Stockholm since 1845 ; com- 
poser of much piano-forte music; in 
1860 conductor of the theatre, where he 
produced three operas. 
^ Berge, William, came to this coun- 
■ try from Germany, 1846; organist and 
composer. New York; ranks as one of 
the most gifted performers. 

Berger, Louis, a celebrated pianist 
and pupil of Clementi, born at Berlin in 
1777. He published a valuable work, 
--eiititled '■^ Bouze Etudes pour le Piano- 

^ Beegmann; Garl, a well known Ger- 
/man conductor of luiisic and opera in 
/ New York, and a comp^S^Wv^of merit; 

came to Boston, 

ductor of the Germania Musical Society. 
Berkeley, George, born at Thom- 

astown, Ireland, 1684 ; came to America 
1729 ; presented an organ to the town of 
Berkley, Mass., 1733; but the select- 
men, considering it " an instrument of 
tlie devil for the entrapping of the souls 
of men," declined the gift, and it was 
later conferred on Trinity Church, New- 
port, R. I. 

Berlioz, Hector, born at Cote St. 
Andre, France, December 11, 1803; was 
a remarkable musician, and filled a largo 
space in the world's regard; went to 
Paris when a boy ; began his career as 
a chorus singer (soon marked out his 
own course, and followed it without re- 
gard to the opinion of others); was a 
composer of many musical works, and 
became distinguished as a literary writer 
and musical critic; died at Paris, March 
9, 1869. His wife was Miss Smithson, 
an English actress of great beauty, who 
died 1854. 

Bernhard, of Germany, invented 
pedals for the organ, 1470. 

Bertheaume, born at Paris, 1756; 
the violinist of his day; practised much 
alone, in the garret of his aunt's house 
his only companion being a huge spidei, 
which always let itself down from the 
roof upon the instrument to enjoy the 
music; this spider came as usual one 
day when the aunt was present, who, 
being alarmed, brushed the insect to the 
floor and killed it. The young man, 
horrified at the loss of his friend, sank 
to the floor in a fainting fit. Died 1802. 

Bertini, Henry, born in London, 
October 28, 1798; chiefly known in this 
country for his celebrated " Method for 
the Piano-forte,'^ and for some excellent 
exercises for students, formerly much a^ ,^^ 
used. ^'i<^ 

Berton, p. M., born in France; re- 
markable for musical talent from the 
age of four years; composer, organist, 
director, and opera singer from 1744 to 
1780 in Paris ; died 1780. His son. Hen- 
rich, born in Paris 1767, composed thirty 
operas, several oratorios, and much other 

Best, W. T., pianist, organist, and 
teacher; known as the author of a 
''Modern SchooV for the organ, and by 
some compositions. 

Bethune, Thomas Green (Blind 
Tom), born near Columbus, Geo., May 

25, 1849; was blind from birth; from 
1848^ 63-ceft=a infancy had the power of imitating 

sounds ; before he could talk could imi- 
e any muste Jie heard ; became f ami- 




liar with the piano-forte at the age of 
five years ; composed his " Bain Storm " 
after hearing, as he said, "what the 
rain, wind, and thunder said to liim;" 
was a slave, and purchased by Perry H. 
Oliver, 1850, who brought him before 
the public as a pianist, 1858; has per- 
formed in the principal cities of Amer- 
ica, and has gone to Europe, where he 
has attracted attention. 

Bevin", Elway, an eminent English 
musician, flourished in the reigns of 
Queen Elizabeth and James I., pub- 
lished a " Brief e and Short Instruction 
of the Art of Musicke,^' to teach how to 
make discant of all proportions that are 
in use, etc., 1631. 

Bexfield, Dr. W. R., an accom- 
plished composer and organist; author 
of the oratorio, ^'Israel Bestored,^^ a 
v^olume of church anthems, several glees, 
and other compositions; died Nov. 28, 
1853, at his residence, Monmouth Road, 
Bay water, Eng., aged 28. 

Beyer, a Gei-man, invented the c/lass- 
chord at Paris, 1785 ; a new instrument 
like the piano-forte, with glass instead 
of strings. Anthony, musician and 
composer, died at St. Stephen, N. B., 
May 15, 1857, aged 76. 

Beyer, Fred, a well known com- 
poser and arranger of music, author of 
a celebrated " Method for Piano ; " died 
in Germany, April, 1863. 

Beza, Theodore, born atYezelai, in 
the Nivernois, 1519; revised "" MaroVs 
Psalms,''' 1545, and made additions to 
them; also "admirably fitted them to 
the violin and other musical instru- 
ments;" died Oct. 13, 1605. 

Bigot, Madame Marie, a German 
pianist, born at Colmar, March 3, 1786 ; 
was the first to introduce Beethoven's 
music into France ; political causes com- 
pelled her husband to reside in Paris, 
where she opened a school for instruc- 
tion in music, aided by Cherubini and 
Auber; died Sept. 16, 1820. 

Billings, William, born in Boston, 
Mass., Oct. 7, 1746; was the author 
of six books of church music, nearly all 
original : he composed much fugue mu- 
sic after the then English style, and ex- 
ceeded his models; his books were very 
popular ; he kept a music store in Bos- 
ton, was a zealous patriot, and the 
words to which he set many tunes com- 
bined religion and patriotism, and were 
sung in the tent by the soldiers as well 
as in the church, and were powerful in 

exciting the spirit of liberty; died in 
Boston, Sept. 26, 1800. 

BiLLiNGTON, Elizabeth, born in 
England, 1770; celebrated singer and 
pianist; several eminent composers 
wrote for her, and her fame was great 
in all Europe; died at St. Artien, near 
Venice, 1817. Thomas, her husband, a 
musician and composer, died at Naples, 

Bird, Joseph, Watertown, Mass., 
published, in 1849, " Gleanings from the 
History of Music,'' from the earliest 
ages to the commencement of the eigh- 
teenth century. He was unable to pre- 
pare all that he designed to publish in 
season to present his work at the time 
it was promised, and gave notice that 
he would resume his work and prepare 
a second volume. This he did not do, 
howevei-, for want of encouragement 
from publishers ; but he published some 
other musical works of value, and one 
singing book. 

Bird, William, organist of Lincoln 
Cathedral, born 1543, composed a vast 
quantity of vocal music between 1575 
and 1611 ; died 1623, aged 80. His organ 
and virginal compositions are innumer- 
able ; nearly seventy of his compositions 
were in Queen Elizabeth's virginal book. 

Birmingham Musical Festival, 
established as a public charity, to found 
a hospital, September, 1768 ; none but 
English vocalists were engaged as prin- 
cipals; orchestra 70, chorus 40. The 
Triennial Festival was organized 1778; 
its second meeting was held in 1784 ; and 
since that time it has been held trienni- 
ally, except in 1793, when the theatre, 
in which the Festival was always held, 
was destroyed by fire. 

BiscACCiANTi (Eliza Ostinelli), born 
in Boston, 1825, became celebrated as an 
opera singer; now resides in Rome, 
where she has one son living, who is a 
subaltern officer of volunteers in Italy, 
stationed near Rome. The immense 
sums of money she had earned, the 
jewels and ornaments given her, and 
even the golden crown bestowed upon 
her, perhaps prevented her return to 
her native city. 

Bishop, Anna, wife of Sir Henry R. 
Bishop, born in London, was educated 
at the Royal Academy of Music, in Lon- 
don. Her first appearance in public 
was at a concert given by Bochsa, July 
5, 1839; made a tour through Europe 
between 1839 and 1843; gave in that 


time 260 concerts ; from 1843 to 1846 re- 
mained in Italy; went to England 1847, 
and tlience, 1855, to Australia; in 1858, 
af t«r visiting North and Soutli America, 
she returned to England ; in 1859 came 
again to the United States and visited 
Canada, remaining until 1805; in 1868 
was in California ; from thence she vis- 
ited China, Egypt, etc., and has since 
been in California, Australia, and Eng- 
land. Her visit and reception in the 
large cities of the United States will be 
remembered by the thousands who 
heard and admired her. 

Bishop, Henry Rowley, born in 
London, 1782 ; in 1806 commenced the 
course of composition which distin- 
guished him; in 1809 produced the 
music for an opera; in 1810 became 
composer and director of the music at 
Covent Garden, where he remained until 
1823, producing many operas and much 
music ; he composed more than seventy 
theatrical pieces, and a long catalogue 
of popular music of all kinds ; was pro- 
fessor of harmony and composition at 
the Royal Academy; in 1839 Bachelor 
of Music and conductor of the concerts 
of anelent music; earned more money 
than any English composer, and died 
poor ; no Englishman has composed so 
much music, and few better; was pro- 
fessor at the Universities of Edinburgh 
and Oxford, and was knighted by the 
Queen, 1842. In 1836 he married the 
well known Madame Anna Bishop, and 
they separated on account of her deter- 

^ mination to sing in public; a son and 
ft daughter came of this marriage. Died 

^ May 1, 1855. 
. BissELL, T., born in England ; known 

r^ as a music-teacher, organist, and com- 

:^ poser, Boston, Mass., published one or 
two collections of church music. 

"^ Black Letter Psalms were those 

of Cotton Mather, in blank verse, fitted 
unto the tunes commonly used ; so that 
while each psalm looks exactly like 
prose, and may be read as such, it is in 
fact modulated so that it may be sung 
as li/ric verse ; the measure was length- 
ened by words in black letter ; the cho- 
rister had only to say '■'■ siwj with the 
black letter,'^ or, " sing without it," and 
the choir could get along very well, using 
common or long metre. 

Blacklock, Thomas, born at An- 
nan, 1721 ; celebrated as a song-writer ; 
died at Edinburgh, July, 1791. 
Blake, Geo. E., born 1775; was, at 

the time of his death, the olde.^t music 
publisher in America; commenced the 
business in Philadelphia, 1802, and for 
many years engraved with his own 
hands all the plates of the music he 
published ; died Feb. 24, 1871, aged 96. 

Blake, Timothy, of Barnstead, 
N.H., fife and drum major for the five 
vears' war of 1812, died Dec. 30, 1872, 
aged 82. 

Blaze, F. H. J. C, born at Cavillon, 
December 1, 1784; celebrated as a critic 
and musical writer; adapted many Ital- 
ian and German operas to the French 
stage ; died 1853. 

Blewitt, John, composer of panto- 
mime music and popular comic songs ; 
wrote for Di'ury Lane and for Vauxhall 
Gardens, also for the English glee clubs : 
was the composer of upwards of two 
thousand original pieces of music, and 
a pianist; died in London, September, 
1853, aged 73. 

Blind Tom. (See Thomas Greeit 
Bethune. ) 

Blow, John, doctor of music, born 
1648, at North Collingham, England; 
was, in 1685, musician to James IL, and 
master of the choristers of St. Paul's 
Church; was a composer of anthems, 
church music, songs and other music 
(his compositions and his scholars who 
arrived at eminence have rendered his 
name venerable among the musicians 
of England) ; died in London, Oct. 1, 

Blumenthal, J., born at Hamburg, 
1829; settled in London, where he be- 
came famous for orchestral compositions 
and other works. 

Board of Music Trade. In 1856, 
the music business of the United States 
had become of such magnitude and im- 
portance that parties engaged in the 
music publishing department found it 
necessary to form a Board of Music 
Trade, and to adopt a uniform plan of 
transacting business. The Board seeks 
first to protect the interests of dealers 
and teachers. 

BocHSA, R. N. Charles, born at 
Montmedi, France, 1789; a celebrated 
harpist and composer (among his com- 
positions are several operas ; went to 
England 1817, where he published much 
harp music ; in 1822 was director of the 
oratorios, and a life governor of the 
Royal Academy of Music) ; came to the 
LTnited States with Madame Anna 
Bishop ; visited Mexico, South America, 


California, and Australia ; he died at 
Sydney, Jan. 7, 1857, aged 68. 

BoEHM, Theobald," inventor of the 
"Boelim flute," so called, the most 
celebrated of German flutists ; was born 
in Bavaria in 1802, and belonged to the 
band of the king at Munich ; composed 
all forms of music for the flute, some 
with orchestral accompaniment. 

Bohemia. The music-loving Bohe- 
mians, in 1810, formed an association 
for the promotion of music, established 
a conservatory, which H. D. Weber di- 
rected 25 years, and introduced music in 
the lunatic asylum as a means of cure. 

BoiELDiEU, F. A., the world-renown- 
ed musician, born at Rouen, Dec. 15, 
1775 ; excelled as a pianist and compo- 
ser; died at Jarcy, near Paris, Oct. 9, 
1834. His second wife, a brilliant opera 
singer, died in Paris, January, 1854. 

BoNAwiTZ, J. H., born at Durkheim, 
Dec. 4, 1839 ; known as the composer of 
several operas ; came to this country 
1872; his '^ Bride of Messina '' has been 
performed in Philadelphia. 

Bond, Capel, of Coventry, England, 
leader of the Birmingham Festival, 
1768 ; organist ; died 1790. 

Bond, H. F., invented a machine for 
ruling paper and recording music as per- 
formed upon the piano-forte, 1840. 

BoNDiNi, a native of Bologna, pro- 
duced Italian opera at Dresden, 1776 ; 
Mozart wrote '^Don Juan " for him ; died 
1796. His daughter, Marie Anna, 
born at Dresden, Oct. 18, 1780, pianist 
and vocalist, married L. Barilli, and 
died 1813. Terese, his other daughter, 
was court singer at Dresden, 1782. 

Bonnie Doon. Robert Burns says, 
" There is an air, 'The Caledonian IlunV s 
Belif/ht,' to which I wrote a song, ' Ye 
Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Boon,'' &c. ; " 
letter dated November, 1794, It has 
been stated that one Mr. Clark composed 
the air, and that it could be played only 
on the black keys. 

Book of Psalms in metre, plain and 
easy for the tunes ; by William Barton, 
London, 1644. 

Books. One of the earliest books 
printed, known to have musical nota- 
tion, was bv Gafor of Lodi; printed 
1487. (See Psalmody.) 

Boot, F., of Boston, Mass., composed 
some quartets for stringed instruments, 
and other compositions of merit, at 
Florence, Italy, 1853; also composer of 
-jiany songs. 

BoRGHi, Adelaide, one of the most 

accomplished singers on the lyric stage, 
was indebted to Rossini for her musical 
education ; became permanently located 
at Milan. 

Borneo Island Music. In their 
scale the semitones fall between the 2d 
and 3d, and 4th and 5th ; they use an 
instrument made of three reed pipes, 
and capable of producing harmony. 

BoRTNiANSKY, cliapel master to the 
emperor, in Russia, from 1782 to 1826, 
employed contra-bass voices in his 
choral masses, to sing an octave below 
the other basses; was a composer; 
died 1826. 

Bosio, Angiolina, an artist whose 
triumphs were brilliant, born at Turin, 
Aug. 20, 1829; visited this country 1850, 
and was one of the most accomplished 
singers who had appeared here ; died at 
St. Petersburg, April 12, 1859. 

Bottesini, born at Crema, Lombardy, 
1823; known as a performer on the 
double bass, and as an orchestral con- 
ductor; has produced an opera, '' Ali 
Baba," in London, 1873; his visit to 
this country in 1853, with M. Jullien, 
and subsequent visit with Madame Son- 
tag to Mexico, will be remembered. 

Boucher, Alex., born in Paris, 1778; 
known as a violinist at the concerts of 
Catalan! ; director of music to Charles 
IV. of Spain, and well-known in Russia, 
Germany, and Poland ; died in Paris, 
January, 1862. 

Bourgeois, L., one of the first to set 
French psalms to music after Marot ; 
published 83 psalms at Paris, 1561. 
France soon became flooded with psalm- 
ody as America has since been. 

BowDiCH, M., wrote an account of 
African music and instruments. In 
which he describes the mandoline of five 
strings, and a harp of eight strings, upon 
which he heard a portion of Handel's 
Hallelujah Chorus performed. 

Bow-Harpsichord, invented by Gar- 
brecht, of Konigsberg ; it was performed 
upon by means of a bow under the 

Bow Instruments in use have most- 
ly four strings, which are made to vi- 
brate by passing a bow over them, pro- 
ducing tones from forte to piano ; the 
strings are shortened by placing the 
fingers upon them and pressing them 
upon the finger-board, thus producing 
all required sounds possible with the 
compass of the strings. 



BowKER, Dextee, a member of the 
Handel and Haydn Society since 1846 ; 
died in Boston, 1873. 

BoYCE, Dr. William, ranks at the 
head of the English Cathedral composers 
of the last century. He was born in 
1710. At the age of 24 he was elected 
organist at St. Michael's Church in Lon- 
don, and organist and composer of the 
King's Chapel. He died Feb. 17, 1779. 
. Bradbury, William B., born in 
.^ York, Me.^816, early became a teacher 
of music ; in 1847 went to Leipsic and 
studied there; returned in 1849, and 
devoted his attention to teaching, com- 
posing, and to the publication of church 
music books, glee books, Sunday-school 
books, and other musical works, to the 
number of more than thirty volumes; 
in 1849 commenced manufacturing 
piano-fortes, and died at Moiitclair, N. 
J., Jan. ^, 1868, aged 52. 

Brady, Nicholas, born at Bandon, 
Ireland, Oct. 28, 1659; celebrated in 
connection with Nahum Tate as a ver- 
sifier of the psalms, 1092 ; wrote an ode 
for the feast of St. Cecilia, performed in 
London, Nov. 22, 1852; died in Rich- 
mond, near London, May 20, 1726. 

Braham, John, born of Jewish pa- 
rents in London {Abraham), 1774; cele- 
brated as a concert, opera, and oratorio 
singer and composer; held during life 
the first rank among English stage sing- 
ers; came to the United States 1840, 
and, though then advanced in years, his 
power, compass of voice, and majesty of 
execution were astonishing; sang in 
opera, in oratorio, and in the concert 
room in Boston ; his success as a vocal- 
ist was without precedent, and he was 
also renowned as a composer ; he wrote 
many songs and operas ; died in London, 
Feb. 17, 1855, aged 81. 

Braham, A., son of John, born in 
London, 1821, became known as a tenor 
singer at Edinburgh, and came to this 
country with Catharine Hayes. 

Brainard, Silas, born at Lempster, 
N. H., Feb. 14, 1814; an excellent flute 
player; in 1834 went to Cleveland, 
Ohio, and in 1836 founded the house of 
S. Brainard & Sons ; he was author of a 
*^ Violin Instructor'^ and some other 
musical works; died April 8, 1871, aged 

Brattle, Thomas, Esq., of Boston, 
Mass., in 1713 procured an organ from 
Europe, which he presented to the 
Queen's Chapel: but so great were the 

public prejudices then existing in Bos- 
ton that this organ remained seven 
months in the porch of the church before 
it was unpacked. 

Brazilian Music. Yocal and in- 
strumental music are cultivated, and 
some composers are known. The Em- 
peror has a fine band, and pianists and 
guitarists among this people excel ; the 
national songs are of Portuguese origin. 

Bridgman, Charles, foV eighty-one 
years organist at Hertford, Eng., a term 
unexampled in the annals of the musi- 
cal world; three generations of the 
inhabitants of that town were indebted 
to him for the cultivation of their musi- 
cal talents and tastes; died October, 
1873, aged 95. 

Brignoli, a celebrated tenor singer, 
came to this country in 1855, and sang 
with success in New York and else- 

Bristow, George F., a talented pian- 
ist, violinist and composer, born in 
Brooklyn, New York^l825; his first ^^• 
symphony was performed by the Phil- 
harmonic Society ;. he composed some ^^ , ^a 
music for Jullien^ orchestra; ^^ Eip 
Van Winkle,^' for the Pyne and Harri- 
son troupe; an oratorio, '^Praise of 
God,''' 1860, and other music, performed 
in New York ; has written and published 
many orchestral works since 1870. 

Britton, Thomas, born 1654; from 
1678 to 1714 he entertained the intelli- 
gent world of London at his musical 
weekly soirees, always gratuitously; 
died Sept. 15, 1714. 

Broadwood, . James, a celebrated 
piano-forte maker in London. His in- 
struments were considered as excelling 
in workmanship and tone. 

Broadwood, John, in 1773 entered 
into partnership with the son of Shudi, 
whose sister he had married in 1769. 
This firm was afterwards known as John 
Broadwood & Sons, and later as James 

Bromfield, Edward, Jun., born in 
Boston, Mass., 1723; at the age of 22 he 
built the first church organ made in this 
country; it "was accurate, had two 
rows of keys, and many hundred pipes ; 
it exceeded in workmanship any that 
had ever come herefrom Europe;" died 
in Boston, Aug. 18, 1746, aged 23. 

Bronson. Oliver, (also written Brun- 
soN and Brown jon), was a teacher of 
music in various parts of New England ; 
a composer of some excellent music, 


A dictio:n'ary of musical information 

and publisher of " Select Tunes and An- 
thems,^^ 1783; also, ^'- Select Harmony. ^^ 

Brough, W. F., born in Ireland, 1787 ; 
famous bass singer; came to this coun- 
try with Mrs. Wood, 1847, and was in- 
strumental in bringing many operatic 
celebrities here ; died at Liverpool, Eng- 
land, 1857. 

Brown, Bartholomew, born in Ster- 
ling, Mass., Sept. 8, 1772; with K 
Mitchell, compiled the old ^''Bridge- 
water Collection ; " died in Boston, April 
14, 1854, aged 82. 

Brunner, Charles T.,born at Chem- 
nitz, Saxony, Dec. 12, 1792, was cele- 
brated as a musician, composer, and 

Buck, DuDLEY,an eminent composer, 
teacher, and conductor; became known 
by his compositions, and as an organist ; 
removed to Boston, where he has pro- 
duced many valuable works ; was born 
in Hartford, Connecticut, educated in 
Germany, and ranks high as an organist 
and composer. 


born in Boston, Mass., May 26, 1784; 
published a collection of hymns in 1808, 
in which those of Watts and others 
were mutilated without notice; died 
June 9, 1810, aged 26. 

BuELOw (or'BuLow), Hans Guido, 
Von, born in Dresden, Saxony, Jan. 8, 
1830; made several musical tours in 
Europe ; became professor of the piano- 
forte department at the Berlin Conserv- 
atory, 1854 ; married a daughter of Liszt, 
and was appointed court pianist; was 
divorced 18(59, and went to Florence, 
w^here he received decorations and high 

Bugle. The old instrument was lim- 
ited to a few tones, but by the addition 
of keys its capabilities are equal to many 
other wind instruments. The notes 
upon the bugle were anciently called 
mots, and are distinguished, not by mu- 
sical characters, but by written words, 
in the old treatises on hunting. 

Bugle with Pistons. This has a 
lower compass ; it is much better than 
the keyed bugle, and produces a good 
effect in playing certain melodies of 
slow movement. 

Bull, Dr. John, a celebrated musi- 
cian ; born in Somersetshire, Eng., 1563 ; 
was professor at Gresham Ccjllege ; after- 
wards settled at Lubec ; wrote more than 
two hundred vocal and instrumental 
compositions ; died at Antwerp, 1628. 

Bull, Ole Bornemann, the cele- 
brated violinist, born in Bergen, Nor- 
way, 1810; well known in all musical 
countries ; the excitement he created in 
this country, 1844, has been kept fresh 
in the memory of our people by his oc- 
casional appearance since; has resided 
much in this country, and is esteemed 
not only as a great violinist, but as a 
man and citizen. 

BuRDETT, Riley, vocalist and vio- 
linist; born in Putney, Vt., 1819; at 
present known by his reed organs. 

Burgmueller, Norbert, born at 
Dusseldorf, Ger., Feb. 8, 1810; was so 
highly esteemed as a musician, that, 
when he died. May 7, 1836, Mendelssohn 
wrote a funeral march for the occasion. 


Magdeburg, 1804; became celebrated as 
a musician ; went to Hamburg and com- 
posed much music. 

BuRNEY, Dr. C, born at Shrewsbury, 
1726 ; author of a history of music and 
other works ; died 1814, aged 88. 

BuRRowEs, John Freckleton, pu- 
pil of William Horsley, Mus. Bac. Ox- 
on. ; born in London on the 23d of April, 
1787 ; first became known to the public 
by the production of an overture and 
several vocal pieces, with full orchestral 
accompaniments, at the Hanover Square 
concerts, and subsequently by an over- 
ture at the '' Philharmonic," of which 
society he was one of the original asso- 

Busby, Thomas, doctor of music, was 
born in Westminster in 1755 ; his first 
essay in composition was an oratorio, 
called '■'The Prophecy,''^ performed with 
some applause at the Haymarket Thea- 
tre in 1799; the other principal works 
of Dr. Busby consist of a collection of 
sacred music entitled, " TJie Divine Hctr- 
monist.^' Dr. Busby has also published 
a small musical dictionary and a gram- 
mar of music; a ^'General History of 
3Iusic,^' being an abridgment of those 
of Burney and Hawkins ; and in 1814, a 
'^Musical Biof/rajjhy, or Memoirs of the 
Lives and Writings of the most eminent 
Musical Composers and Writers who have 
flourished in the different Countries of 
Eurox)e during the last three Centuries.^' 

Butterfield, J. A., born in Hert- 
fordshire, Eng., May 18, 1837; became 
known as a vocalist and violinist; came 
to this country, and settled at Indian 
apolis, Ind., where he became a teacher, 
composer, and publisher ; he has written 



vocal and instrumental music, and one 
or two popular cantatas. 

BuxTEHUDE, famous as an organist 
from 1035 to 1707 ; was a teacher in the 
Bach family. Died at Lubeck. 

BuxTEHUDE, D., celebrated organist, 
at Lubeck, from 1(390 to 1710; Bach vis- 
ited him to hear him play, and to study 
his method. 


C, the letter to which Guido applied 
the tone-name ut, now called do ; the 
first of the scale in C. 

Cadecasa, the original Zerlina in 
^^ Don Giovanni," and for seventy years 
a celebrated singer ; died at Milan, No- 
vember, 1869. 

Caffarellt, Gaetano Majorano, 
a celebrated Italian singer, born in 
1708; went to England in the year 173S; 
amassed much money by his jirofession, 
and purchased the duchy of Santo Do- 
rato, in the kingdom of Naples ; died in 
1783, aged 80. 

Calamus, Pastoralis, a simple reed ; 
one of the first known musical instru- 
ments of antiquity. 

Calkin, G., inventor of an "Indica- 
tor," placed over the key-board, telling 
the names of the notes ; those on the 
lines red, those on the spaces black. 

Callcott, John Wall, born at Ken- 
sington, England, 1766; was self-edu- 
cated, and became an organist 1783; 
took his doctor's degree, 1800; wrote his 
^^ Musical Grammar," 1805; wrote a mu- 
sical dictionary and a work on musical 
biography, and numerous compositions, 
besides anthems, services, odes, &c. ; 
died May 15, 1821, aged 55. 

Calliope, an invention by which 
steam-whistles are made to perform the 
office of organ-pipes; introduced by I. 
C. Stoddard of Worcester, Mass. ; it was 
improved upon by A. L. Denay of New 
Orleans, 1857; and a ^^ Steam Organ" 
was invented by James Burkett, of Eng- 
land, 1835. 

Calvin, John, born at Noyon, in 
Picardy, July 10, 1509. Until recently, 
no one has had the hardihood to dispute 
the statement made by Hullah in his 
History, and repeated in almost every 
recent lecture on sacred music, that 
" Calvin, unlike Luther, seems never to 
have recognized music as a means of 
religious expression; scarcely, even, to 
have appreciated it as an aid to devo- 
tion ; and the music of his followers has 
suffered accordingly." But the Euing 

Lecturer of the Anderson! an University 
has recently written a letter to an Eng- 
lish musical journal, in which he claims 
that Calvin labored harder even than 
Luther himself to introduce church 
music not only into France, but also 
into England. In 1538-40, Calvin, Miles 
Coverdale, and the Wedderburns met 
in exile in Saxony, and sat at the feet 
of Luther. The German singing of 
praise surprised and delighted them all ; 
and Calvin immediately set to work to 
do for his own people what Luther had 
done for the German-speaking people. 
He first put into French metre the 25th 
and 46th Psalms, and got them set to 
music at Strasbourg ; tliese he took to 
his congregation on his return to Ge- 
neva. They became so popular that he 
then engaged Clement Marot to render 
all the Psalms into French verse ; but 
the poet died after having completed 
fifty-one. Calvin then applied to Beza, 
who finished the woi-k. Luther had 
only rendered sixteen into German 
verse. Luther also set his Psalms to 
popular German ballad-tunes ; but Cal- 
vin employed Guilleaume Franc, of 
Strasbourg, to compose music which he 
considered more appropriate for the 
words. The first English Psalter was 
printed at Geneva in 1556, and bears on 
the title-page Calvin's name and his 
express sanction. Died May 27, 1564. 

Cambert, an organist and composer ; 
born at Paris, 1628 ; the first French mu- 
sician that set an opera to music, 1659 ; 
afterwards wrote several operas, but 
was rivalled by LuUi ; died in London, 

Cameron, D., the celebrated piper of 
Edinburgh, from 1838 to 1868. Died at 
Inverness, March, 1868. 

Campagnoli, B, violinist; bom in 
Italy, Sept. 10, 1751 ; died 1827. 

Campanini, Italic, born in Parma 
1846; made his d^but in Russia, where 
he remained three years ; went to Milan, 
and achieved most signal success on the 
continent as a tenor singer ; appeared at 



Drury Lane, London, 1872; came to 
America 1873. 

Campbell, S. C, born in Hartford, 
Conn., 1830, barytone of the Parepa 
opera troupe; died at Chicago, Nov. 
28, 1874. He had gained fame at home 
and abroad. 

Campenhout, Van, a Belgian musi- 
cian, Avho composed the music to the 
*' Brahanconne,^' or national hymn ; was 
promoted to the office of chapel-master, 
and presented with a gold snuff-box by 
the king. The words were written by 
Jenneval, a French actor, who died 

Campoeese, a famous singer in 
France and England, 1817 to 1823. 

Campea, a,, born at Aix, in Pro- 
vence, 1660; a composer for .30 years; 
died at Versailles, July 29, 1744. 

Cannabich, C, violinist, was in 1778 
one of the best solo players in Ger- 

CajS^non were used as a musical ad- 
junct in Dresden, 1645; at St. Peters- 
burg, 1778 ; at Boston, by Burditt, 1858 ; 
by Gilmore, 1872. 

Cantus Ambrosianus, introduced 
at Milan in the 4th century. 

Canzonets, for four and five voices, 
were first introduced, 1560, by Alessan- 
dro Romano ; also the use of many in- 
struments as accompaniments. 

Capua, Rinaldo di, born at Naples, 
1703; was the first who introduced in- 
strumental symphonies in Italy; it has 
been claimed that he was the inventor 
of accompanied recitative, because he 
used it. 

Caradoei. See Allan, Madame. 
She married Mr. Allan, August, 1823. 

Caeafa, Michel, born at Naples, 
Nov. 17, 1785; wrote in his youth, for 
amateurs, an opera called "IZ Fantas- 
ma,'^ and composed, about 1802, two 
cantatas, " II Natale di Giove,^' and 
^^ Achille e Deidamla ;^' in 1814 pro- 
duced his first opera, called " II Vascelle 
V Occidente,^^ at the theatre Del Fonde; 
and many successful works afterwards 
to 1833; his " Semircwiis'^ and "■ Masa- 
niello^^ are among the best operas. A 
short time before the death of this old 
composer, his wife died ; and July 27, 
1872, one of the most prolific writers of 
the century died also. 

Carey, G. S., son of Henry, born in 
England 1743; travelled forty years, 
singing his own compositions; died 
July 4, 1807. 

Carey, H., musician; born 1663; 
composer of " Sally in our Alley,'' and 
many other songs and cantatas ; died at 
Cold Bath Fields, England, 1743. 

Carhart, Jeremiah, widely and ex- 
tensively known as an instrument mak- 
er in this country, as early as 1836; 
while studying the construction of the 
accordeon, discovered that the tones 
were much better when the wind was 
drawn through the reeds than when it 
was expelled through them, and applied 
this knowledge in constructing the me- 
lodeon; took out a patent for his im- 
provements, 1846; died August, 1868. 

Carillons, a small instrument fur- 
nished with bells; also a number of 
bells so arranged as to give forth musi- 
cal sounds, and upon which music can 
be played by hammers striking the dif- 
ferent bells. The name has been given 
to the tunes played, as well as to the set 
of bells. 

Carlbeeg, Gotthold, born in Ber- 
lin, 1838 ; came to New York, 1859, and 
Avas engaged as a writer for the " Staats 
Zeitung ; " in 1865 was conductor of 
concerts in Berlin; in 1869 wrote two 
works on the culture of the voice, at 
Vienna ; became director of opera in Tri- 
este ; in 1870 conducted at Warsaw and 
St. Petersburg ; in 1871 returned to New 
York, with the concert company of 
Prince Galitzin. 

Carols. The custom of singing car- 
ols at Christmas dates from the time of 
Gilbert, 1521, or from the time when 
the common people ceased to under- 
stand Latin. Telesphorus, who died 
A. D. 138, ordered that an Angelic 
Hymn be sung in church the night 
before Christmas. 

Caereno, Teresa, born in Caraccas, 
Venezuela, Dec. 22, 1853, of Spanish 
parents; sang with correctness at the 
age of two years; at five, commenced 
playing the piano-forte; made her ap- 
pearance at Music Hall, Boston, Mass., 
Dec. 22, 1862, aged nine years, having 
previously played, a piece for four hands, 
with her teacher, in New York; she 
improvised with great facility, and her 
compositions are of remarkable beauty. 

Caeeoy, Eustache i)u, was born at 
Beauvais, and was chapel-master under 
Henry III. and Henry IV. ; he contrib- 
uted powerfully to the conversion of the 
latter, and, during the king's objurga- 
tion at the church of St. Dennis, caused 
a magnificent Te Deum to be executed. 



Gary, Annie Louise, born at Wayne, 
Me., 1842; could sing before she could 
talk plainly; went to Boston, 1859, 
and sang there and in other cities until 
1866, wiien she went to Europe ; sang at 
Milan, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Ham- 
burg, Brussels, and other German cities, 
and later in Paris, everywhere with 
success ; returning to this country with 
Mile. Nilsson, she appeared in New 
York, Sept. 19, 1871, sharing the honors 
of the fair Swede, whose soaring soprano 
was well supported by Miss Cary's rich 

Castellan, born at Lyons, France, 
1823; appeared in opera at the age of 
sixteen; was in Mexico, 1842; came to 
this country, 1843; sang in London, 
1846, and returned here in 1855; since 
which she has remained in London and 
Paris. Meyerbeer wrote the part of 
Bertha, in " The Prophet,^'' for her. 

Castil, G., composer and author; 
born at Montefiascon, 1721 ; resided at 
the court of Joseph II. ; wrote several 
operas, the hero of one being Cicero, 
who sings a comic parody of his cele- 
brated speech " Quosque tandem,^^ &c. ; 
died in Paris, Feb. 7, 1808. 

Castello, Daeio, a composer of in- 
strumentaJt music, published at Venice, 
in the years 1627 and 1629. 

Catalani, Angelica, born at Sini- 
gaglia, near Rome, 1783 ; appeared as a 
singer at Venice when fifteen years old ; 
married Mons. Valebreque; sang in 
Spain, where the price of tickets to her 
concert was six ounces of gold; next 
sang in Paris ; and then remained in 
England until 1815, when she returned 
to Paris at a fabulous salary ; from this 
point she visited all parts of Europe, 
meeting with prodigious success ; for 
twenty-two years she held a high rank 
among musicians, and, having amassed 
a fortune, she founded a free music- 
school for girls at Florence, on condi- 
tion that they should add Catalani to 
their names ; in 1849 went to Paris, and 
died in Paris July 12, 1849, aged m, 
leaving $1,600,000 to her three chil- 

Catel, C. S., a French musician, 
born 1773; famous for his ^^ Treatise on 
Harmony ;^' died at Paris, 1830. 

Cecilia, Saint, a Roman lady of liigh 
descent, doomed to suffer martyrdom; 
the chosen patroness of musicians ; from 
her skill in singing is especially regarded 
as the patroness of sacred music. 

Celtic Music. Like birds, the Celts 
delighted in tuneful melodies ; they did 
not practise part-singing, and used the 
Greek scales. 

Cervalet. a small bassoon, blown 
through a reed like that of the haut- 

CiiA. A Chinese instrument having 
the chromatic scale. 

Channel, Maky, one of the singers 
that welcomed George Washington to 
Boston; died there June, 1855, aged 90; 
was born in England. 

CiiAPPELL, William, Esq., author of 
a collection of '"'■Ancient EwiUsh Melo- 
die/^,'' and other works, London. Eng. 

Characters, to indicate expression 
in singing, were introduced in this 
country 1812. 

Charity Music. The first instance 
of the introduction of music in aid of 
charity was in 1709, for the benefit of the 
sons of the clergy in England. 

Charles L, a famous performer upon 
stringed instruments. Charles IX., a 
violinist and vocalist; he had a viol of 
such capacity as to contain several sing- 
ers who sang inside while he played bass 
and sang tenor. Charles the Bold was, 
like his father and grandfather, a musi- 
cian and composer. Charles V. was a 
musician and critic ; his choir consisted 
of 15 good singers. 

Chauncey, Nathaniel, of Durham, 
Conn., published, 1727, an ''''Essay on 
singing the Songs of the Lord ; " after 
preaching in that place for fifty years, 
died there at an advanced age. 

Cheney, Moses E., born Dec. 10, 
1812 ; known as a teacher for many 
years; was one of the " Cheney Family,^' 
who all acquired reputation as singers 
and musicians ; was a composer and le- 
gislator; had a method of his own, and 
repudiated that of the books; was the 
founder of musical conventions in Ver- 
mont, and a lecturer on music. 

Cheney, Simeon P., musician and 
teacher; went to reside at Dorset, Vt. ; 
well known as a musician in New Eng- 
land: there were also in the family, 
Joseph Y., Elizabeth E., and Nathaniel, 
all good singers. 

Cherub INI, Maria L. Z. Salvator, 
born at Florence Sept. 8, 1760; was a 
composer at the age of thirteen years ; 
wrote constantly for the theatre and the 
church ; went to London 1784, and set- 
tled in Paris 1788; wote many operas 
for France and England; in 1822, be- 



came director of the Conservatoire; was 
invested with the Grand Cross of the 
LeG;ion of Honor, and died full of honors 
March 15, 1842. 

CiiE\^"s System substitutes numer- 
als for the letters ; the same as that of 
Rousseau and by Souhaitty, but aban- 
doned as useless. 

CiiiCKERiNG, JoxAs, bom at New 
Ipswich, N.H., April, 1797; spent much 
of his leisure in learning to sing, and to 
play such instruments as were in use; 
was very ingenious, and was employed 
to tune the first piano he ever saw, and 
succeeded; went to Boston, 1818, and 
was employed by Mr. Osborn, piano- 
forte manufacturer ; played the clarinet 
and bass-drum, and sang in church; 
became a maker of piano-fortes, and 
founded the well-known house of Chick- 
eri ng & Sons ; and was the friend and 
assistant of musical artists in Boston 
and elsewhere; in 1852 his establish- 
ment was destroyed by fire, but was 
soon rebuilt. He was a leading man in 
all musical improvements, and held 
offices in the societies of the city ; died 
at Boston, Dec. 9, 1853, leaving four chil- 
dren ; the sons continue the business. 

Chimes, a collection of bells struck 
with hammers. AVTien sevei-al bells are 
placed in the same tower, and are care- 
fully tuned to each other, they are called 
a peal of bells. At Antwerp, Holland, 
the chime of bells on the great cathedral 
are played upon, then; being a different 
tune for every hour of the day ; and they 
play the entire music of an opera, giv- 
ing a short strain at the quarter-hour, 
and a longer one at the half-hour. So 
the people hear music all day and all 

Chixese Flute, made of bamboo, and 
bound with silk to prevent its cracking. 

Chinese Music. It is claimed by tins 
people that music has been a study 
among them for 2,200 years, and that 
the empire is full of tunes : but their 
system is so elaborate that other nations 
cannot understand their notation. 

Chiroplast, guide for the hand in 
piano-forte playing. 

Chladni, Ernst Floeens Fried- 
rich, born at AVittenburg, 1756 ; wrote 
a ^'Treatise on Acoustics ;^' invented 
the euphon, 1789, which consists of glass 
cylinders to be rubbed longitudinally 
with the fingers moistened, somewhat 
like the harmonica; the clair-cylindre, 
1800, contains a fingerboard and a cylin- 

der of glass, turned by means of a pedal 
and a wheel ; died 1827. 

Choir Organ is the smaller or softer- 
toned organ. 

Choir Singing was practised in the 
Jewish Temple, where alsh originated 
the antiphonal chant. In England 24 
persons formed a choir, 1194. 

Choir of David consisted of 4,000 
singers under 280 leaders, with instru- 
mental accompaniments. 

Chopin, Frederic, born in Warsaw, 
March 1, 1810; became a very celebrated 
composer and pianist; his piano-forte 
compositions are various and numerous ; 
many of them are notturnos, ballads, 
impromptus, scherzos, polonaises, ma- 
zurkas, waltzes, and boleros; has also 
written concertos and sonatas ; after a 
long and painful sickness, he died Oct. 

Chorley, Henry Fothebgill, was 
born in 1808, and when young went to 
reside in London, having studied music 
previously; he became connected with 
" The Athenoium,''^ and for thirty-five 
years conducted the musical department 
of that paper. Among his many pub- 
lished works, his '^ Modern German Mu- 
sic,'^ ^"Modern Operas,'' and " Thirty 
Years' Musical Recollections," are well 
known. He wrote many librettos and 
songs (which latter show a certain cul- 
ture and refinement remarkable; died 
of heart disease, Februa^'y, 1872, aged 64. 

Christ Church Chime, Boston ; a 
present from John Rowe, of England, 
1744; it consists of eight bells, is over a 
century old, and perfect. Many tunes 
are performed upon this chime. 

Christ Church Chime, Philadel- 
phia, welcomed George Washington; 
rang the royal birthdays ; rang when 
independence was proclaimed; pealed 
joyfully when the Constitution was 
adopted ; and has heralded more than 
100 Christmas festivals. 

Chromatic Musical Hand. Guido 
distinguished the sounds by the joints of 
the fingers ; five fingers representing the 
staff of five lines with the four inter- 
mediate spaces ; sharps are represented 
at the root of the fingers, and flats at the 
tips of the fingers. 

Chromatic Tuning-fork, an instru- 
ment consisting of two forks so marked, 
and adjusted with a movable slide, as to 
produce all the tones of the chromatic 

Chute, Lionel, a music-master, came 

' ' ' ' / ' T • 





to this country, 1630. Thomas, born 
1690, taught music in Salem, Mass. 
Andrew, born Sept. 15, 1789, was a 
composer and teaclier in Nova Scotia, 
20 years; died in Canada West, Feb. 17, 
1862. William E. , born in Nova Scotia, 
18o2 ; a teaclier and composer, also col- 
lector of ancient books on music; has 
taught in New England, West, and 
South, and in Canada, where he now 

CiMAROSA, DoMiNico, born at Naples, 
1754 ; became early celebrated as a dra- 
matic composer, and wrote many operas 
between 1779 and 1792; was originally 
a baker, and had hardly finished his 
apprenticeship when he began to com- 
pose operas; died at Venice, Jan. 11, 

Circassian Music. Having no writ- 
ten language, this people have treasured 
up their history in music: their songs 
recount the traditions of antiquity, 
which are thus handed down, by sing- 
ing, from one generation to another. 

CiTHARA, an ancient instrument, like 
the lyre, with three strings, which were 
in time increased to twenty-four. 

CiTHARA HisPANicA. Spanish guitar. 

Clangor Tubarum, a Roman mili- 
tary trumpet : a sample of it was found 
at Pompeii. 

Clarinet, a wind instrument of the 
reed kind, the scale of which includes 
every semitone; invented by J. C. 
Denner, Leipsic, 1695. 

Clarion, a bugle-horn formerly used 
in cavalry music and in some orchestras ; 
a Moorish octave trumpet. 

Clarke, W^illiam H., author of a 
'^ New Method for Beed Organs,'''' is an 
organist and a church-organ builder at 
Indianapolis, Ind., 1874. 

Clarscu, or Clar-seach, one of the 
several Irish harps. 

Clavecin, Clavichord, Clavier, 
all names for an old keyed, stringed in- 
strument, superseded by the piano- 

Clavicord, a name for the clavi- 
chord, a keyed instrument like the 

Clementi & Co., manufacturers of 
wind instruments, London. Their in- 
struments were considered as the best 
in their day. Their flutes were very 
popular in the day of Nicholson, after 
whose plan, and under whose immediate 
direction, they made great numbers. 
- Clementi, Muzio, a celebrated pia- 

nist and composer; born at Rome, 1752; 
early acquired a great reputation in all 
Europe ; resided mostly in London, but 
some in Paris ; composed nuich ; became 
wealthy, retired, and died at Worcester, 
Eng., March 10, 1832, aged 83. 

CoLsoN, Pauline, for several years 
the reigning and admired prima donna 
of the French Italian opera in New 
York, New Orleans, and Boston, where 
she came in 1858 with the Strakosch 

Comer, Thomas, born at Bath, Eng- 
land, 1790; went upon the stage 1818, 
and in 1821 appeared at the Covent 
Garden Theatre, where he played until 
1827, when he came to this country, and 
made his appearance at the Bowery in 
New York ; two years later he came to 
Boston as musical director at the Tre- 
niont Theatre, where he prepared the 
operas in which Mr. and Mrs. Wood ap- 
peared ; was afterwards mvisical director 
at the Boston Theatre; many popular 
airs of his composition are still fresh in 
memory; was well known in Boston as 
" Honest Tom Comer; " was a member 
of the best orchestras and musical soci- 
eties; composed much music, and re- 
mained in Boston thirty-five years ; died 
July 28, 1862, aged 72. 

Concert in Action. On the 13th 
day of July, 1645, a concert in action 
was given at Dresden, and all the artists 
of Germany, Switzerland, ihe Vaud, 
Poland, and Italy, were invited to unite 
with their pupils in the great festival ; 
many thousands assembled, and a bat- 
tery of artillery assisted. A double fugue, 
representing the Assyrians flying before 
the victorious Israelites, closed the per- 

Concert of Ancient Music, estab- 
lished in London, England, 1776, under 
the direction of a body of noblemen. 

Concert-giving originated in the 
reign of Charles II. The first were in 
ale-houses, then in taverns, and even- 
tually in public rooms and halls for the 
purpose of making money from entrance- 
fees. Italian singers were employed as 
early as 1676. 

Concone, M., well known in the 
musical world as a teacher of vocal 
music, and by liis writings; chapel- 
master of the king of Italy; died at 
Turin, July, 1861. 

Conservatory of Paris, founded 
by Sarette, 1795. 

Contra-Basso, the double bass ; an 

-v? ^ y-^ Y^* 



instrument in the form of the violon- 

Contra Bassoon, very large, but in 
the form of the faqotto; one is used in 
the Grand Opera, Paris. 

Contra-Fagotto, an octave below 
the fagotto, or small bassoon ; made in 
the same form. 

I Conventions, called musical, ori- 
' ginated in New Hampshire, with the 
Central Musical Society; the first one 
was held at Concord, N.H., September, 
1829 ; it was conducted by Henry Eaton 
Moore. Moses E. Cheney claims to have 
held the first in Vermont. 

Cooke, Dr. Benjamin, a celebrated 
English musician, born 1734, and in 1780 
was organist and master of tbe boys of 
Westminster Abbey. Dr. Cooke com- 
posed many beautiful vocal pieces ; died 

CoRELLi, A., born at Bologna, 1653: 
founder of the Roman school of violin- 
ists ; composed much for his instrument ; 
died at Rome, Jan. 18, 1713. 

Corn de Chasse, the French horn, 

CoRNELLi, Adelaide, vocalist, 
widow of the celebrated tenor Rubini, 
died on the 36th of January, 1874, at 
Milan; left all of her large fortune to 
tbe town of Romano, in Lombardy, the 
birthplace of her husband, to be em- 
ployed in founding, 1st, an orphan asy- 
lum for boys, with a school-farm ; 2d, a 
college of eight classes ; 3d, a home for 
musical artists. 

CoRNETTiNO, a Small cornet or octave 

CoRNO, OR CoRNi. French horn or 

CoRNO Ingles'^. English horn, a 
reed instrument like the hautboy. 



CoRRi, D., born at Rome, Oct. 4, 1746 ; 
famous composer; died at Hampstead, 
England, May 22, 1825 ; his wife was a 
celebrated vocalist. Natale, born at 
Rome, 1765; famous teacher; died at 
Weisbaden, June 24, 1822. Montague, 
burn at Edinburgh, 1785; celebrated 
composer of theatre aad military music. 
Hayden, composer and organist ; died 
In Dublin, Feb. 18, 1860, aged 75. Dus- 
sek, an opera singer ; died at Brompton, 
England, 1870. 

Costa, Michele, born at La Cerra, 
near Naples, 1810; but a resident of Lon- 
don, England, since 1830, when he be- 
came conductor of the orchestra at her 

Majesty's Theatre, and director of the 
Philharmonic Society; wrote ^'■Bon Car- 
los,'''' '^ Meiek-Adel,'' ^^ Eli,'' and other 
works, and became very popular and 
wealthy ; was director of Covent Garden 
Opera, 1847 ; since 1849, director of the 
Birmingham Festivals. 

Counterpoint was first applied as 
the name of polyphonic music, by De- 
muris. Previously it was the custom for 
musicians to improvise parts to accom- 
pany the melody ; and this practice be- 
came so offensive in church music that 
it was abolished by a papal decree. 

CovERDALE, MiLES, born in York- 
shire, England, 1487 ; was the first to pre- 
pare Psalms in verse for the purpose of 
being sung; his "GoosUy Psalmes and 
S})irltuall Sonr/es " were published in 
London, England, 1538; in tbis edition 
the first verse of each psalm is accom- 
panied by musical notes ; died 1568. 

Cramer, John Baptist, son of Wil- 
liam ; boi'n in Germany, but went to 
England when young ; became a pianist, 
and travelled on the continent, and gave 
concerts in the capital towns ; became 
known as a composer, 1791, and pub- 
lished some works at Paris; became 
celebrated as a teacher as well as com- 
poser ; was unrivalled as a pianist ; his 
works are very numerous and cele- 
brated ; died in London, April 16, 1858, 
aged 87. 

Cremonas, violins made at Cremona, 
in Italy. 

Croft, William, born at Nether 
Eatington, Warwickshire, 1677 ; became 
early known as an organist and com- 
poser; in 1711, published his '^ JDivine 
Harmony ;" in 1715 was made doctor of 
music in the university at Oxford ; pub- 
lished much choral music ; died Aug. 27, 
1727, aged 50. 

Crotch, Dr. William, born at Nor- 
wich, England, July 5, 1775; was an 
extraordinary musical genius ; at the 
age of twenty-two was a professor at 
Oxford where he received the degree of 
doctor of music ; published much music, 
and was a profound theorist ; published, 
among many valuable works, several 
treatises on harmony and comiDosition; 
died at Taunton, England, Dec. 29, 1847, 
aged 72. 

Crouch, F. Nicholls, a popular Eng- 
lish composer; author of the song 
^'■Kathleen Mavourneen;" born in Eng- 
land, July 31, 1808; was engaged as vio- 
loncellist in the King's Theatre, Lon- 



don, in 1817; lie came to America about 
1848, and was engaged in the same 
capacity in one of the Italian opera 
troupes about the year 1848; he has 
since been established as a successful 
teacher in Portland, Me., where he was 
at the head of several musical societies, 
and active in the getting-up of classical 
performances, such as oratorios, madri- 
gals, and chamber music; afterwards 
removed to Washington, D.C., and 
thence to Virginia. 

OuxNiNGHAM, Allaw, musician, 
born at Blackwood, Scotland, 1784 ; au- 
thor of "Relics of Nithsdale and Gallo- 
way Song;" died Oct. 20, 1842. Wil- 
liam F.," born at Kettering, England, 
Oct. 25, 1803 ; came to America, 1841 ; 
composer and director; died at Phila- 
delphia, Jan. 14, 1871. Peter, son of 
Allan, composer in London, 1847. 

CuEwiN, John, of London, England, 
known by his Tonic Sol Fa system, in 
which Do stands for the key-note of all 

Cutler, Henry Stephen, Mus. 

Doc, born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 7, 

1825; edited ''Trinity Psalter,'' 1863; 

J published " Trinity Anthems,'' original 

music, 186G; organist at Boston, and 
later of Trinity Church, New York ; now 
at St. Ann's, Brooklyn, and on Satur- 
days at the Temple Emanuel Synagogue, 
New York. 

Cutler, William Henry, Mus. Bac. 
Oxon., born in London, 1792 ; celebrated 
as a singer, organist, and teacher of 
music; composed much music for the 
church ; purchased the right to use 
Logier's system ; opened a school, and 
taught with great success. 

Cymbals were originally bells, and 
were struck from the outside. 

Cyrus, after the conquest of Babylon, 
established a number of Magi to sing in 
honor of the gods. 

Czerny, Carl, a highly gifted au- 
thor and composer; born at Vienna, 
Feb. 21, 1791 ; became celebrated as a 
piano-forte performer and teacher, 1805 ; 
continued to teach for more than thirty 
years ; produced a great number of 
compositions ; published many practical 
works ; wrote many exercises, and was 
author of a treatise on the composition 
of all kinds of music, both vocal and 
instrumental ; died at Vienna, July 15, 
1857, aged GG. 



D is the second note in the scale of C, 
called Ee. 

Dab ABIE, M., of the Grand Opera, 
Paris; sang in the original caste of 
many works ; died 1853, aged 55. 

Dagomirsky, a., composer of op- 
eras ; born at St. Petersburg ; died 1869. 

Daifaori, S., an operatic singer, 
known favorably in London some years ; 
died there, Apri'l, 1870. 

Dalayrac, N., born at Muret, in 
Languedoc, June 13, 1753; composed 
several operas, one of which was per- 
formed at a festival in honor of Benjamin 
Franklin ; died at Paris, Nov. 27, 1809. 

Damon, William, set the whole book 
of psalms to music, 1579; one of the 
earliest collections of music in four 

Damoreau, Laure Cinthie Mon- 
talant, born in Paris, 1801 ; was a 
famous opera singer ; visited this coun- 
try 1844; died in Paris, March, 1863. 

Danby, J., English glee composer; 
born 1758 ; died while a concert was per- 
forming for his benefit. 



Dance, Wm., born 1755, was one of 
the founders of the Philharmonic So- 
ciety, London; composer and director; 
taught music for forty-eight years. 

Dancing was practised by the early 
Christians in religious services ; psalm- 
tunes were danced in the time of 
Charles IX. 

Danican, P. A., established the "Con- j ^^ 
cert Spirituel" lit Faris, 1725; the per- v ^ 
formers were from the Royal Acad- %^ > 
emy. ^"^ '^ 

Danican, F. a., born at Dreux, Sept. { 
7, 1727; chapel-master of Louis XV., 
and composer; died in Loudon, Aug. 
30, 1795. 

Dannreuther, E., bom in Stras- ^^ 
bourg, 1844 ; came to this country 1853 ; 4 
famous as a pianist. A ^ 

D'Aponte, L., born at Anoda (some^ (2! 
say Creda), 1748; writer of librettos for ^ 
Mozart; came to this country 1803; as- N' 



^ , 

/Cw .JM^ lvr~ 2>^?>a.vw. 

^. -4-t^ 

/ ^^ 

sisted in bringing the Garcia vyi^v^xc.^ 
troupe to New York, 1825 ; died August, > / 
1838, aged 90. f 6 

Dareis, a bass singer, at Marseilles, >^ 




continued to sing until J 02 years of age, 

Dakius, M., a tenor singer at the fu- 
neral of Louis XV. ; died at Rouen, Feb- 
ruary, 1838, aged 103. 

Darley, W. H. W., born in New 
York, Sept. 9, 1801 ; director, composer, 
and organist; editor of cliurch music 
books; died July 31, 1872; was organist 
fifty years. 

Darley, F. T. S., composer and di- 
rector; born in Philadelphia, where his 
works have been performed. 

Darling, Geo. S., of Watertown, 
N.Y., invented, 1872, a new system of 
notation; the principle being to repre- 
sent iu the staff the key-board ; the 
spaces indicate the white keys, and the 
lines the black ones. 

Dauney, W. B., at Aberdeen, 1800; 
author of ^^ Ancient Scottish Melodies,'^ 
1838 ; died July 28, 1843. 

Davenant (or D' Avenant), of Eng- 
land, wrote twenty-five o%)eras, the first 
produced after the Restoration, 1050; 
died in London, 1088. 

David, Felicien, born at Cadenet. 
France, March 8, 1810; chiefly known 
by his great composition, ** The Desert,''^ 

David, Ferdinand, was born in 
Hamburg, Jan. 19, 1810, and ranked 
among the first of German violinists ; 
was also a teacher and composer. At 
the age of thirteen he was studying 
under Spohr's guidance, and in 1825 
became known as a performer. He 
played the first violin at the theatre in 
Berlin, Dorpat, and Leipsic; was the 
leader of the Gewandhaus band ; helped 
Mendelssohn to found the Leipsic Con- 
servatory, 18-13, and worked there many 
years as a professor, sending forth many 
violinists who became celebrated, com- 
posing many effective pieces and works 
— a " Violin School,^^ and one comic op- 
era, *' Hans Wacht,'' 1852. He suffered 
sickness for some time, and unexpect- 
edly died, July 19, 1873, at Kloster, a 
small village in Switzerland, where he 
was staying for the benefit of his health. 

David, M., established opera in New 
Orleans before it was known in any 
other place in the United States. 

Davies, Miss, born 1740; famous 
prima donna, and performer on the har- 
monica of Dr. Franklin ; died 1772, Ce- 
cilia, her sister, born 1757, an opera 
singer, second only to Billington ; died 

Dawson, C, of London, author of 
several works on music, 1844; con- 
structed the " Autophon,^' 1849, capable 
of performing mechanically any number 
of musical compositions. 

Debain, a., born 1809; in 1840 in- 
vented the mechanical pianist, and 
other wonderful mechanism; obtained 
damages of M. Alexandre for using his 

De Beonis, Giuseppe, born at Lu- 
go, 1795 ; in 1813, sang in opera at Mo- 
dena ; became a favorite in Italy, France, 
and England ; came to this country, and 
was successful here; died in New York, 
August, 1849, aged .54. 

De Begnis, Madame, formerly Mile. 
Ronzi, was a celebrated singer, and 
after her marriage sang with De Begnis, 
everywhere with success ; died in Italy 
July, 1853, aged 53. 

De Beriot, M. Charles August, 
born at Louvain, Belgium, Feb. 20, 
1802; at the age of nineteen went to 
Paris, and soon became known there and 
in London as a violinist; travelled with 
Malibran in Italy, and married her, 
March, 1830; after her death he settled 
at Brussels, where, in 1842, he was ap- 
pointed professor at the conservatory; 
became partially paralyzed and wholly 
blind, but to the last his violin was his 
constant companion ; was comparatively 
little known to the present generation, 
though one of the most talented violin- 
ists of the world ; died April, 1870, aged 

Decani side, in the cathedral, is the 
left, where the dean is always seated; 
the opposite is the Cantoris. 

Deems, J. M., born in Virginia, Jan. 
9, 1818; composer of an opera and an 
oratorio. New York. 

Degenhard, C. G., musician and 
composer, Buffalo, N.Y. ; died, 1870. 

Dehn, Siegfried Wilhelm, born at 
Altona, in Holstein, Feb. 25, 1800; be- 
came conservator of the musical division 
of the Royal Library of Berlin, March 
24, 1842; travelled to collect books, &c. ; 
played the violoncello many years at 
Leipsic and at Berlin; was director of 
the '*Do/7i C7<or," and had great knowl- 
edge of musical works ; later was royal 
librarian, and editor of many valuable 
publications; died April, 1858, aged 58, 
leaving a wife, one son, and one daugh- 

Delgardo, one of the most popular 
violinists in Paris, 1808, was formerly 



a Louisiana slave ; he escaped into Mex- 
ico, became leader of an orchestra there, 
and later appeared in Paris. 

Delille, O., a famous opera-singer; 
born in Paris, 1830; after singing in 
France, England, Italy, and other coun- 
tries, came to America, November, 1851. 

Dellamaiua, Domenico, born at 
Marseilles of an Italian family, com- 
posed a grand opera at eighteen years 
of age, which was represented in that 
city; went to Italy, where he composed 
six comic operas and some other works, 
all given within the space of two years, 
and attesting the fecundity and superi- 
ority of his talent. He died suddenly, 
m his oGth year, at Paris, 1800. 

Delpiiat, M., celebrated as the pro- 
jector of the first '"'•monstre concerf^ in 
France, 1791, as a part of the funeral 
honors paid to the officers who were 
killed at Nancy, when the overture to 
" i)e»iopAon," by Vogel, was executed 
by twelve hundred wind instruments ; 
was the oldest instrumental musician in 
France at the time of his death, which 
took place at Lyons, 1855, when he was 
99 years and 300 days old. A medal, in 
the shape of a flute, was decreed to him 
by the city of Nancy, which, on his 
death-bed, the old musician begged to 
have placed in his coflin. 

Dempster, Wm. R., who achieved 
a world-wide reputation as a ballad 
singer and composer, visited this coun- 
try 1840; published, 1842, a collection 
of his songs and ballads; gave concerts 
in all the principal cities and towns; 
died at his residence in London, March 
7, 1871. 

Demunck, E., bom in Belgium; fa- 
mous violoncellist ; received the Haben- 
eck medal at Paris, 1870. 

De Mukis, John, claimed as a native 
by Italy, France, and England; was a 
musical writer 1404; was the first to 
adopt the word "counterpoint," the 
first to use the minim, or half-note, 
and used the different marks of time. 
The invention of the time-table is given 
to him ; but it was made in France, at 
Liege, 1083. 

Denev, a. L., of New Orleans, 1857, 
made an improved " Calliope,^' the 
steam pressure being reduced from 150 
to 50 pounds ; it has a keyboard similar 
to a piano-forte, and the performer can 
play any desired composition upon it; 
the sounds are thus made more agree- 
able ; died in London, March, 18G4. 

Destkuction of Music and Ob- 

GANS. Nearly all the music-books and 
organs in England were destroyed by 
Cromwell's army, during the grand re- 
bellion. The cathedral service was abol- 
ished 1043; music- books burned, 1G46. 

Dettingen Te Deum, writtcii by 
Handel to celebrate a victory of the 
British over the French, 1743. George 
II. commanded the army in person ; and 
it was this English king who set the 
example of standing up dvn-ing the per- 
formance of the Hallelujah Chorvis, a 
custom yet observed in England. 

Devil's Sonata, one of Tartini's 
best compositions ; written in 1713, after 
dreaming that he heard it performed by 
his majesty. 

DiACELLi, Anton, a well-known mu- 
sician, and publisher of music ; was born 
at Matsee, 1781 ; his name is much as- 
sociated with that of Beethoven ; he 
composed the so-called Diabelli Waltz, 
which served Beethoven for a theme for 
thirty-three variations, which, together, 
form one of the most original, imagina- 
tive, and masterly of his piano-forte 
works. Diabelli composed much instru- 
mental music at Vienna, in all forms. 
He is known in this coimtry, amongst 
amateurs, on account of the many piano- 
forte pieces he has published, and for 
his studies for four hands. He died at 
Vienna, April, 1858, aged 77. 

Diapason, heard when all the stops 
of an organ and all the registers are 
open, is" what ancient writers mean 
when tliey use the word ; it is also the 
octave ; and modern instrument-makers 
use the word as the name of certain stops. 

Diatonic Pitch-pipe. A wooden 
box regulated by a slide, and also a 
small brass pipe, which, when blown 
into, will produce the separate tones, 
D, F, A, and C, as desired. 

Diatonic Flute. An improved in- 
strument invented by A. Siccuma, of 
London, 1830 ; the tones being fingered 
by keys, and thus equalized and made 

DiBDiN, C, bom at Southampton, Eng- 
land, March 15, 174:3; wrote twelve hun- 
dred songs for liis own concerts ; died at 
Camden, near London, July 25, 1814. 
Thomas, born in London, 1771 ; wrote 
more than a thousand songs, and com- 
piled those of his father for publication; 
died Sept. IG, 1841. Henry E., organ- 
ist and composer, Edinburgh ; compiled 
six hundred specimens of clixircli mu- 


sic from the English, Scotch, and Gen- 
eva psalters, for four voices. 

DiCKOXS, a celebrated English singer, 
born 1778; when six years old could 
play Handel's overtures; sang in opera 
in England, Scotland, and Ireland ; died 

DiCTioxARiUM MusiCA, by John 
Hoyle, musician, London, 1770; 112 

DiDiEE, Mlle. Nantier, born at St. 
Denis, in the Isle of Bourbon, 1832 ; was 
early a pupil of Duprez at the Consei'- 
vatoire, Paris; made her debut at the 
Academic; studied in Italy; appeared 
at Turin ; returned to France with an 
Italian company, and sang in the prin- 
cipal cities; visited London, ani sang 
there with Grisi. In 1855 was engaged 
as contralto at the New York Academy 
of Music ; but, failing in this country to 
receive the encouragement expected, 
returned to Europe ; and died at Madrid, 
in the fall of 1867, after a long and pain- 
ful illness. 

Dies Ir^, said to have been com- 
posed by Francis, 1250; it is claimed 
was by Thomas di Celano, who died 
1253; upon this composition Mozart 
founded his " Eequiemy 

DiRUTA, GEROJfiMO, born at Perugia, 
1580; organist atChioggia in a Venetian 
state; published, 1615, the first known 
instruction-book for the harpsichord ; 
it contains a summary of the knowledge 
possessed by the artists of that period. 

DiSTix, M., for several years princi- 
pal trumpet-player in the private band 
of George IV. ; after the invention of 
saxhorns, by A. Sax, improved some of 
these instruments, and, having taught 
his four sons to play, travelled through 
Europe, giving concerts as the Distin 
Family; they came twice to this coun- 
try, the last time, 1846, with increased 
fame; since which they have been in 

Doctor of Music, a degree created 
at Oxford, England, and conferred on 
Hamboys, 1451. 

DoDwoRTH, Thomas and Allan, 
father and son, New York, well known 
as the managers of Dodworth's Band, 
organized 1825 ; later, led by Harvey B. 
Dodworth; all composers and perform- 

DoEHLER, T., born at Naples, April 
20, 1814 ; famous pianist and composer ; 
died Feb. 21, 1853. 

Donizetti, Gaetano, born at Ber- 

gamo, Sept. 27, 1799; early became a 
composer, and has been greatly ad- 
mired for his operatic and other works ; 
was a professor at the Naples Academy ; 
became insane, and died at Bergamo, 
April 8, 1848. 

Donizetti, Giuseppe, brother of the 
composer; was director of the military 
music of the sultan, and died in Con- 
stantinople, February, 1856. 

D'Ortigue, M. Joseph, born at Ca- 
vaillon, 1802; composer, writer, critic, ^ 
and editor of a journal of religious mu- 
sic from 1858 to 1860; died in Paris, J 
January, 1867. -1 

Dorus-Gras, Emilie, a French smger j 
born in Valenci3nnes, 1813; made her --^ 
dehid at Brussels, 1830 ; went to Paris, ^ 
where she was the leading prima donna 
for twenty years; marrie'd M. Gras, an ^ 
eminent violinist, 1833, and retired from J 
the stage. T 

Douglass, Victor, composer of t 
French operas ; born 1784 ; was author j- 
of several musical works, and instructor^ 
of some of the first artists of France; __^ 
died at Paris, February, 1864, aged 80. ~* 

DowLAND, J., born 1562; the rarest T 
musician and composer of liis time ; died J 
1615; was lutanist to the king of Den- ) 
mark. r 

Down, down, derby down, in the < 
original is ^' Dun, dun, dearagan dun,'' a 
and means, " To the hill, to the oaks, to ^ 
the hill ; " a call to worship. x. 

Draghi, a., composer; born at Fer- 
rara, 1642; wrote eighty-three operas;- 
died 1707. 

Draghi, G. B., born in Italy; a fa- 
vorite court musician to Charles II. and 
to James ; composer of operas ; music- 
teacher to Queen Anne. 

Dragonetti, Domenico, a celebrated 
performer on the double bass ; born in 
Venice, 1771 ; became famous in his own 
country; went to London, where he re- 
mained without a rival during life ; died 
April 16, 1846. 

Dragonetti, Pietro, a performer on 
the double bass ; excelled in accompany- 
ing bands ; was an excellent performer 
on a guitar with steel strings. 

Drama and Music. A sacred drama 
was performed at Padua, 1243 ; the Pas- 
sion of Christ, at Friale, 1298; Myster- 
ies in Germany, 1322; in England, 1378; 
in France, 1379 ; tlie first play performed 
in Boston, 1750, but a law was passed 
forbidding this "device of Satan to se- 
cure immortal souls;" though, in 1792, 

v/^w t^ Alr%-C^ 

^, ')w. 

>7^,'Ov>v>^, Cu^^ 



an exhibition-room was opened, in which 
dancing and singing were permitted. 

Dkayton, Henri, born in Pliiladel- 
phia, Peun., 1822; went to Paris at an 
early age, and was soon engaged as 6a.s'8o 
of the Italian opera at Antwerp ; be- 
came well known in England, where he 
made his reputation ; in 1859, having 
written some plays and operas, he mar- 
ried, and returned to this country, and 
gave here entertainments known as 
"parlor operas;" in 1869 he was with 
the Richings Opera Company, in New 
York, where he died of paralysis, July 
30, 1872. 

Drayton, Michael, horn at Ather- 
ston, England, 1568 ; wrote a description 
of England in thirty songs ; died, 1631. 

Dreyschock, Raimond, the well- 
known violinist; born in Zack, 1818; 
died in Leipsic, 1869. Alexander, his 
brother, a musician and composer, died 

Drouet, Louis, born in Holland; 
flutist in London ; chapel-master to the 
Duke of Saxe-Coburg, 1840 to 1855; 
author of " Part ant pour la Syrie,^^ 
commonly ascribed to Queen Hortense ; 
died at I3erne, Switzerland, October, 
1873, aged 81. 

Drum. The great drum built for the 
Peace Jubilee, 1872, was twelve feet in 
diameter, thirty-six in circumference, 
and weighed about six hundred pounds ;' 
it was too large for use, but a curiosity, 
and was built in Farmington, Me., by 
Woodman & Williams. The first drums 
heard in France were used at the en- 
trance of Edward III. into Calais. First 
used in opera by Gluck ; used by Spon- 
tini, 1808 ; later by Rossini. 

DuBUisoN, a celebrated French com- 
poser in the reign of Louis XIV. ; died 

DuiFFOPRUGEAR, G., a Tyrolcse ; the 
earliest violin-maker at Bologna, 1510. 

Dulcimer, originally a pipe of reed; 
then two pipes connected by a leather 
sack or skin; now a triangular instru- 
ment, consisting of a chest with fifty 
wires over a bridge fixed at each end; 
the strings are struck with iron rods. 

DuLON, F. L., flutist and musician to 
the Emperor of Russia, 1796. 

DuNi, E., born at Matera, Naples; fa- 
mous composer at Rome and in Paris ; 
died 1775, aged 66. 

DuNSTAN, St., composed music in 
four parts, 940, though singing in parts 
was little known until some years after ; 

said to have invented counterpoint; 
maker of the ^olian harp, and maker 
of several organs for English churches. 

DuPREZ, G., one of the greatest tenor 
singers; born at Paris, 1805. Caro- 
line, his daughter, born at Florence, 
1832, is a celebrated vocalist in Paris. 

Dupuis, T. S., celebrated organist; 
born in England, 1733; died 1796. 

DuRAND, GuiLLAUME, bom at Puy- 
misson, 1230; was made a doctor of 
music at Paris ; became a professor at 
Bologna ; wrote the first book published 
upon m<^tallic types, Feb. 6, 1496. 

DuRANT, W. F., a well-known bass 
singer; born at Fitchburg, Mass., 1820; 
died at St. Louis, Mo., March 8, 1860. 

Durante, F., the pupil and subse- 
quent rival of Scarlatti, was born at 
Grumo, 1693 ; died at Naples, 1755. He 
was not distinguished as a dramatic 
composer. His talent was exercised 
chiefly in church and chamber music, 
and he was more skilful as a contrapun- 
tist than as a melodist. 

DussEK, Adalbert, a distinguished 
performer upon the viola d^ amour, at 
Prague ; was a virtuoso upon that instru- 
ment, 1745; became a priest; died 1768. 

Dussek, F. B., born at Czaslau, 
March 13, 1766; became organist at 
Laibach, Germany ; has composed many- 
concertos, sonatas, and solos. 

Dussek, John Louis, teacher and 
music-seller, London; was born at 
Czaslau, Bohemia, Feb. 9, 1761 ; died at 
St. German-en-Laye, near Paris, March 
20, 1812; was the composer of much 
piano-forte, harp, violin, and other 

Dussek, Wenzel, born in Bohemia, 
1750 ; became celebrated as an organist 
and bass singer; died in Moravia (where 
he became school rector), 1801. 

DuvERNOY, J. B., pianist and com- 
poser, Paris, France; M. C. of the op- 
era comique ; died 1872. 

D WIGHT, John S., a graduate at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 1832; a translator and 
publisher of German poetry, and well- 
known musical writer and critic; editor 
of " Dwiglit'.s Journal of Music, ^' and of 
many musical publications ; his life has 
been devoted, in a quiet way, to fostering 
and encouraging the highest forms of art. 

DwiGHT, Rev. Josiah, in 1725 pastor 
of the church in Woodstock, Mass. ; 
wrote "^n Essaij^^ in favor of regular 
singing, published in Boston. 

Dyer, Oliver, a composer of music, 

£,,Jlih^ <f^t^/^,2),,^. }^ /A /y^^Jyi^ <^^. i'^^--^- ^- <'( 



and publisher of some musical works; 
was in 1852, with R. S. Willis, con- 
nected with the ^^ Musical Times,'^ New 
Dyek, Samuel, of Baltimore, Md., 

published, 1820, a valuable collection of 
" Sacred Music,''^ containing 244 pieces ; 
was a good musician and composer; 
'■'■ BT/er^s Anthems'''' were celebrated and 
much used in the United States. 


E. In all respects exactly the same 
in itself, major or minor. 

Eagee, John, born at Norwich, Eng- 
land, 1782; famous patron of Logier's 
system, and composer. 

Eames, J., the arranger of the great 
"Westminster Abbey festival; died in 
London, Dec. 10, 1851, aged 68. 

Ear. Sounds must succeed each 
other at an interval of a second and one- 
ninth in order to be distinguished or 
heard clearly. 

Earl of Westmoreland, composer 
and patron of music, London ; died 
October, 1859. 

Earliest mention of music, Gen- 
esis iv. 21; Earliest organ, that of 
Jubal ; Earliest English song, 1250, 
"Summer is a-comingin;" Earliest 
Psalms in America, "The Bay Psalm- 
Book." Earliest attempt to render the 
Psalms into English verse, for the pur- 
pose of singing, 1538; musical notes 
were appended to these psalms in 1539. 

Early Fathers approved themselves 
to God by celebrating his praises with 
psalms, hymns, and other solemnities. 

Eastcott, Lucy, of Springfield, 
Mass., sung at Florence, Naples, and in 
London, 1857. 

Eastern Music, though to us a com- 
bination of discordant sounds, is to the 
less refined but more acute ears of the 
natives pleasing and melodious. There 
are many proofs that music came from 
the East ; and in some parts of Asia they 
use very curious instruments. 

Eaton, E. K., born in Candia, N.H., 
Aug. 1, 1814; musician and composer; 
author of several works, such as orches- 
tral and other instruction books. 

Eben, Henrietta, born in Germany, 
3837; famous vocalist; came to this 
country with Jullien ; died April, 1859. 

EccARD, a German composer, born 
at Muhlhausen ; chapel-master at Berlin, 
1608; sometimes credited as author of 
Luther's Judgment Hymn ; he probably 
harmonized it, but it was composed 
before his time. 

EccHEiA, harmonious vases, used by 
the Greeks and Romans ; tuned fourths, 
fifths, and eighths. 

EccLES, J., born 1669, composer of the 
music for Congreve's odes,&c. ; died 1735. 

EccLEs, Solomon, an English violin- 
ist and composer; turned Quaker, and 
destroyed his instruments and music; 
died 1673. 

Ecclesiastical Modes, or the old 
Church tones, were borrowed from the 
Greek secular music ; the twelve church 
tones are something like our diatonic 

Echoes. Repeated echoes happen 
when two obstacles are placed opposite 
to one another ; as parallel walls, for ex- 
ample, which reflect the sound succes- 

Edward IV. incorporated a band of 
minstrels : his musical establishment 
was the origin of the Chapel Royal and 
of the Queen's band; his musicians 
were educated as singers, and performers 
upon instruments, at the best schools 
and colleges. 

Edward VI. established metrical 
psalmody in his reign, in the same 
manner as it was sung in the parochial 
churches, under the direction of Stern- 
hold and Hopkins ; constantly employed 
seventy-three musicians at his court, 
and was himself a performer on the 
lute ; he also had forty-one gentlemen 
of the chapel, and had music before 
dinner and after dinner. 

Edson, author of "ienox," wrote 
many excellent church tunes; was a 
teacher and composer of Massachusetts, 
and assisted in compiling some of the 
early collections of music. 

Effect. To produce a good effect 
should be the study of every composer 
and performer; to do this requires 
genius, science, and judgment. 

Effendi, Hafis, composed a patri- 
otic war- song in 1853, to stimulate the 
enthusiasm of the Ottomans against the 
Russians ; it became very popular, and 
has become a national hymn. 



Egyptian Flute, simply a cow's 
horn with four or more finger-holes. 

Egyptian Harp, mentioned in the 
boo.t of Genesis, with the timbrel, cis- 
triim, tabor or tabret: many instru- 
ments were known in Egypt. 

Egyptian Music. The Egyptians 
first brought music to a degree of per- 
fection; it was much cultivated, and 
many instruments of music were in- 
vented in that country; from Egypt 
music spread far and wide over the 

EiCHBEEG, J., born at Dusseldorf, 
1826 ; violinist and conductor ; came to 
New York, 1857, and to Boston, 1858 ; 
has composed five operas, all produced 
hi Boston. 

Eisteddfod is a national congress of 
Cambrian bards, minstrels, historians, 
and artisans, which has annually as- 
sembled at the ancient royal castle of 
Carnarvon, the birthplace of Edward 
II., the first Prince of Wales. The eis- 
teddfod was revived in 1819, being held 
in the month of August, and annually 
conducted by as many as three cele- 
brated bards. In 1802 an essay on the 
history of the literature of Wales from 
the earliest periods to that time, with 
critical and comparative remarks on the 
poetry of the different periods, and 
short biographies of the chief bards, was 
read, and a prize awarded the author. 
There were fifteen thousand persons 
present on the occasion. 

Electric Music has been produced 
from five piano-fortes by the use of the 
electric battery, in Pesth ; and an elec- 
tric organ was erected in London, 18G8, 
for producing echoes, &c. 

Electric Piano, an instrument in- 
vented by Thomas Davenport of Salis- 
bury, Vt., 1851; its strings are vibrated 
by means of electro-magnetism. 

Elevation of Pitch. It is notori- 
ous that the constantly increasing eleva- 
tion of the diapason has created incon- 
veniences from which composers, 
artists of every class, and manufactur- 
ers of instruments, suffer alike; the 
diapason has been raised, since 1780, 
at least one entire tone. Opera music 
was originally even lower in pitch than 
sacred music ; at the request of eminent 
French composers and musicians, in 
1859, it was decreed by the Government 
that the pitch should, in tbat country, 
be lowered and made uniform. 

Eleven Bells, a chime in Cincin- 

nati, O., cast by Hanks, 1850; weight 
inclusive, 18,000 pounds. 

Eliot, Sir Gilbert, born in Scot- 
land, was the first to introduce tho 
German flute in his country, 1725, 
having learned it in France; died 1777. 

Eliot, John, born at Nasing in 
Essex, England, 1604; came to New 
England, 1631, and assisted in translat- 
ing the Psalms into English metre; 
also made the Psalms into Indian verse, 
and taught the Indians to sing; the 
singing was congregational, and they 
all sang one part ; some of the Indians 
under Eliot became good singers. He 
resided in Roxbury, Mass., 57 years; 
died 1690, aged Sil 

Elizabeth, QuEEN,was a singer, and 
performer on the lute ; and it has been 
supposed that she was also a performer 
on the violin ; all the children of Henry 
VIII. were well instructed in music. 
Elizabeth and James I. sustained the 
cathedral music until the reign of 

Ellerton, John Lodge, born in 
the county of Chester, England, 1807; 
became known in 1828 as a musician, 
and received at Oxford the degree 
^^ Magister Artiiim;'' produced twelve 
operas, an oratorio, six masses, and, 
besides hymns, anthems, and motets, 
about three hundred songs ; he also 
composed much instrumental music of 
various kinds ; his orchestral works 
were often performed in London. 

Elvey, George J., born at Canter- 
bui^y, England, 1816; took his degree as 
doctor of music, 1831 ; became organist 
at Windsor, 1835; has composed a great 
amount of church music, chants, and 
anthems, and much secular music. 

Elouis, J., a composer of songs, with 
accompaniments for the harp or piano- 
forte, which may be performed with the 
voice or without it; to this volume was 
added several airs with variations by 
the same author; a second volume is 
dated 1807. 

Emerson, Luther Orlando, born 
at Parsonsfield, Me., Aug. 3, 1820 ; 
became a teacher and composer when 
young, and published a collection of 
church music, 1853; since which time 
he has been constantly employed as 
conductor of conventions, and as a com- 
piler of books, and as a composer; has 
been very successful as a composer and 
teacher. His books of church music and 
for schools are many, and he has pub- 


lished both vocal and instrumental 
music largely. 

Emidea, a negro, born in Guinea; 
sold as a slave ; went with his master to 
Lisbon, learned the violin, and became 
a member of the orchestra; afterwards 
impressed, and made to play on board 
ship for seven years, when he was 
released at Falmouth, England, and 
became celebrated as a composer. 

Emphasis is distinguished from ac- 
cent. Accent, for instance, on the piano- 
forte, requires pressure as the note is 
struck, and after: emphasis requires 
force at the very time of striking the 

Engelke, formerly associated with 
Jullien in Europe, came to this country 
1861, and gave concerts in Philadelphia ; 
became known as a musician, and pro- 
duced there the best orchestral scores 
of Jullien. 

English, Benson A., born at Macon, 
Ga., February, 1849; at the age of 
two years could beat any tune upon the 
drum, whistling at the same time the 
air; was for several years exhibited as 
a wonder. 

English Music, if we look for any 
of a distinctive character, is to be found 
in the glees and madrigals, which are 
the finest the world possesses. 

English Opera. The earliest per- 
formance was in 1636, under the man- 
agement of Davenant; it was solely 
musical, because the action of plays 
was prohibited. In 1793 an English- 
man brought the English opera to 
America, and his company performed 
in Philadelphia and in Washington; in 
1818 the Phillips company came over; 
in 1820 Davis established an opera 
company in New Orleans; in 1821 Mrs. 
Holman brought a company to New 
York; in 1832 came the Woods, and 
Dunn and Hudson company; the Se- 
guins came in 1838; then the Pyne and 
Hari-ison troupe, Madame Bishop, and 
the Richings opera troupe. Since then 
many other companies liave been 
formed, and it is now certain that the 
American people can produce and 
sustain opera. 

English Organists at Westminster 
Abbey : John Howe, 1549 ; John Taylor, 
1562 ;"Robert White, 1570; Henry Leeve, 
1575; Edmund Hooper, 1588; John 
Parsons, 1621; Orlando Gibbons, 1623; 
Thomas Day, 1625; Richard Portman, 
1633; Christopher Gibbons, 1660; Al- 

bertus Bryne, 1666; John Blow, 1669; 
Henry Purcell, 1680; John Blow, 1695; 
William Croft, 1708; John Robinson, 
1727; Benjamin Cooke, 1762; Samuel 
Arnold, 1794 ; Robert Cooke, 1803 ; 
George E. Williams, 1815 ; Thomas 
Greatorex, 1819; James Turle, 1831. 

Engraved Plates, for printing, 
were used by Feniguerra of Florence, 
1488 ; the use of them for music print- 
ing is mentioned 1503, and later. 

Enharmonic Organ, aii instrument 
built by Effingham Wilson of England, 
1856; he also published " The Theory 
and Practice of Just Intonation,''^ as 
illustrated on his new organ. See Eu- 


Enharmonic Scale, a name bor- 
rowed from the Greek authors, so called 
from its supposed perfection ; it has 
been applied to an organ invented by 
Joseph Alley, of Newburyport, Mass. ; 
this scale divides the intervals of an 
octave into fifty-three parts. 

Enjalbert, M. Michael, a cele- 
brated organist of Paris ; died 1872, aged 
92 ; he was organist at the coronation of 
Napoleon I., at Notre Dame. 

EouD, an Arabian guitar, producing 
intervals not known in our system of 

Epigonium, an instrument of anti- 
quity, having forty strings. 

Eppstein, Julius, born at Agram, 
Austria, 1834; went to Vienna, 1850; 
and in 1858 l3ecame celebrated as a 
pianist, playing at Josef Helmesberger's 
concerts ; since, a professor at the Vien- 
na Conservatory, and member of the 
Cathedral Union and Mozarteum. 

Erard, Jean Baptiste, brother of 
Sebastian, became associated in the 
manufacturing business with him, and 
under this firm their establishment be- 
came the first in all Europe ; they re- 
ceived a patent from Louis XVI. He 
died 1826. 

Erard, Sebastian, founder of the 
piano-forte and harp manufactories at 
Paris and London, which still bear the 
name ; was born at Strasbourg. April 5, 
1752; had wonderful inventive powers, 
and made many new instruments ; was 
the inventor of the double-action harp ; 
died Aug. 5, 1831. 

Erard, Pierre, nephew of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Paris, 1796; went 
to London, when quite young, to direct 
the manufacture of Sebastian Erard' s 
harps ; after the death of his uncle he 

/ - 



became his heir, and took charge of the 
manufactory in Paris, where, in 1834, 
he exhibited several new models of 
piaros; has since lived alternately at 
London and Paris, directing the two 
great establishments which he has in- 
herited ; died Aug. 3, 1855. 

Ebben, Petep., a well known organ- 
ist and organ-builder of New York, died 
May, 18G1, aged 91. He played for many 
years the organ at Trinity Church. 

Ekk, Adam Ludwig, cathedral organ- 
ist and music-teacher at Wetzlar; in 
1812 removed to Worms, and settled at 
a small village called Dreieichenhain, 
near Darmstadt; was a superior organist, 
and gave organ concerts with success 
in many of the Catholic cities of the 
Rhine ; died in 1820. 

Erk, Ludwig, born at Wetzlar, Jan. 
6, 1807 ; studied with Rinck, and in 1826 
was appointed music-teacher in a semi- 
nary at Meurs ; whence, in 1835, he was 
called to Berlin, and appointed to the 
same office in the Royal Seminary. In 
1836 he had charge of the Dusseldorf 
festival, w^liere from 400 to 800 teachers 
would assemble for instruction. He is 
celebrated for having gathered together 
a large number of German popular 
songs, which he arranged and pub- 

Ernst, Heineich Wilhelm, born 
1814, and at an early age exhibited ex- 
traordinary talent; studied at Vienna, 
made a professional tour, and travelled 
without fixing his quarters anywhere. 
His most brilliant career began in 1840. 
He married Mile. Siona Levy, a French 
lady, and became known as one of the 
most brilliant violin virtuosos of his 
time. He seemed an inspired artist; but 
his health failed him, his violin became 
dumb, and this severed the nerve of his 
life. He died at Nice, Oct. 8, 1865. 

Eenest II., Augustus Charles John 
Leopold Alexander Edward, Duke of 
Saxe-Coburg Gotlia, Avas born June 21, 
1818, ascended the throne in 1844, and 
gave much attention to music; he com- 
posed four operas, ^^ Zaire,'''' represented 
1840, at Berlin; " Tony,^^ represented at 
Dresden; ^^ Casilda,^^ played in all the 
German theatres and at London; and 
'■'■Santa Chiara,^^ 1855. He was a brother 
of Prince Albert, the husband of Queen 
Victoria; and married the Princess 
Alexandrina Louisa Amelia Fredcrica, 
daughter of the Grand Duke of Baden. 

EssEB, Heineich, born at Mannheim, 

1818; was kapellmeister at the Court 
Opera Theatre, Vienna, 1847, where ho 
was president of the Ilaydn Verein, 
1869, when he removed to Salzburg; 
was a thorough musician and excellent 
director; wrote songs, operas, psalms, 
symphonies, and chamber-music: died 
at Salzburg, June 3, 1871, aged 53. 

Esquimaux Music. Their tunes are 
few and extremely monotonous ; they 
uncover the head when singing, and 
close the eyes as in prayer; they sing in 
good time, have accurate ears, good 
voices, and are delighted when they 
hear instruments. 

EssiPOFF, Annette, pianist, a native 
of Russia; took the prize, 1860, at the 
St. Petersburg conservatory, for exe- 
cution and sight-reading; has appeared 
at Vienna, London, and other places, 
1874, and plays from memory; is the 
second wife of M. Leschetizky, also a 
famed pianist. 

Est, or Este, Thomas, known for his 
"Whole Book of Psalms," publi-shed 
1594. It has this note : " Euery Psalme 
or dittie in this booke hath his tune or 
note in 4 parts; composed by 10 Sundry 
Authors, whose names are set to those 
tunes which they have made; beeing 
men of perfect knowledge in the Science 
of Musicke." These men were I. Dou- 
land, E. Blaucks, E. Hooper, I. Farmer, 
R. Alison, G. Kirby, W. Cobbold, G. 
Farnaby, M. Cavendishe, and E. John- 
son. The tunes are printed in the style 
of the time, with bars at the end of each 
line, arranged for cantus, tenor, altus, 
and bassus ; the tenor being the melody. 
His son Michael was the author of 
several musical worlds. 

Euclid, flourished 277 B.C.; his 
"Introduction to Hannonics^' is much 

EuHARMONic Organ, invented by 
Joseph Alley and H. W. Poole, at New- 
buryport, Mass., 1848; for which is 
claimed perfect intonation: it gives all 
the tones of the ancient enharmonic 
scale, dividing the octave into fifty-three 
parts; it is tuned according to the 
mathematical ratio of vibrations, and 
furnishes the precise intervals of every 

JEuiNG, William, of Glasgow, Scot- 
land, born 1788, established glee and 
madrigal singing in that city; owned a 
musical library of 5,000 volumes, of 
which about 3,000 were musical works 
of reference, such as histories, biogra- 



phies, treatises, dictionaries, and gram- 
mars ; he founded a lectureship of mu- 
sical science at Glasgo^y, in the Ander- 
sonian University ; died May, 1874, aged 

EmLENSTEiN, Kael, an eminent per- 
former on the Jews-harp ; born at Heil- 
bronn, Wurtemberg, 1802 ; at the age of 
six years constructed a violin, but, being 
refused the liberty of performing on any 
instrument, for four years practised the 
Jews-harp, which he could conceal; 

finally tuned a series of harps so that 
he could play in any key, and in 1825 
attracted large crowds to his concerts 
in London and elsewhere. 

Expression pleases the ear, enforces 
the sentiments of the language, strikes 
the imagination, affects the mind, and 
commands the passions. 

EYKE2T, M. Van, composer of an ora- 
torio called "iitci/er," died 1861;, at 
Elberfeld, where he had long bee.:i or- 
ganist, aged 45. 


F, the fourth in the scale of C, named 
by Guido, Fa. 

Fa, la, la, anciently much used as 
a chorus to old English ballads, is writ- 
ten in Welsh, "/a/, Za," fed meaning a 
circle or sum, and la a day, and both 
words expressing the completion of a 
day; chanted at sunset. 

Fabbri, Agnes, born in Vienna. Her 
maiden name was Agnes Schmidt ; came 
to New York 1860, and sang in opera 
and at concerts ; died in San Francisco, 
Cal., June 19, 1873. 

Fabbri, Kichard Mulder, profes- 
sor at the Conservatory of Music, and 
member of the Philharmonic Society, 
Paris ; removed to Geneva, and became, 
1873, director of the conservatory there. 

Faber, born at Freiburg; invented 
the speaking-machine and other won- 
derful automatons. 

Fairfax, Robert, an English com- 
poser, 1500 ; left a curious and valuable 
manuscript, which has been preserved, 
consisting of very ancient English songs, 
not to be found elsewhere. It is in the 
British Museum. 

Fairlamb, J. Remington, author of 
several Te Deums and much other 
church music ; was for some years U. S. 
consul at Zurich, where he produced an 
opera, *' The Interrupted 3Iarriaf/e,^' 
first conceived in Switzerland ; received 
a gold medal from the king of Wurtem- 

Falk, Louis, born in Germany ; came 
to Chicago, 111., 1889, and has fame as 
an organist and composer. 

Fal, lero, lero, loo, was " Fal, 
lear, luadh dh,'" in Welsh, and hailed 
the rising sun above the sea. 

Falsetto, or Head-note. The Tyr- 
olese produce this tone in perfection. 

The violinist divides a string by a pecu- 
liar touch to produce the harmonic ; the 
falsetto singer shortens his vocal cords 
so as to pass instantly from one to his 

Families and Troupes, travelling 
and giving concerts in the United States. 
The number is large ; in New England 
alone there are over fifty ; and there are 
over thirty companies of minstrels in 
addition, comprising from four to five 
hundred white men, who black their 
faces and sing every evening except 
Sunday. It is estimated, that, with the 
bands and orchestras that travel with 
them, there are now over two thousand 
persons employed in giving concerts 
from town to town ; add to these the 
travelling instrumental performers, 
street musicians, and hand-organ wan- 
derers, and there is quite au army of 
music-makers on the road. 

Farinelli, called also Carlo Bros- 
ciii, whose voice and abilities surpassed 
the limits of all anterior vocal excel- 
lence, was born at Naples Jan. 24, 
1705 ; resided twenty years at the court 
of Spain ; visited several countries, and 
was everywhere greeted with favor ; set- 
tled at Bologna, 1701: died there, July 
15, 1782, aged 77. 

Farmer, Henry, known as a com- 
poser by his mass in B-flat. 

Farrini, 1700, mounted the harpsi- 
chord with catgut strings, instead of 
wire, in order to produce a more mel- 
low and sweet quality of tone. He was 
a manufacturer, and to this instrument 
gave the name Clmictlierium. 

Faure, considered the most perfect 
singer in Europe, 1858, remained at the 
oi33ra in Paris. 

Fa V ART, born 1710 ; a prolific writer 


(.j\,j-^^f wrvv/nh. ;^—i^oi^c^ . (,. /uuy J^jr •/lr\,o 


of operas and ariettas ; was employed 
to v/rite and sing songs in the French 
army; died 1792. His best works were 
pnbiished 1S09. 

Fayles, or PiiYLAS, born in Ger- 
many; became leader, composer, and 
arranger of music at the old John- 
street Theatre, New York ; and in 1789 
wrote for his orchestra, the ^^Presi- 
dent's March.^' This tune was used 
by Fox in 1798, and afterwards known 
as " Hall Columbia.^ ^ 

Felsted, Samuel, organist of St. 
Andrew's, Jamaica; in 1775 composed 
^^Jonah,'^ an oratorio, disposed for a 
voice and harpsichord; it was printed 
in London, and performed in Boston, 
Mass., 1789, in presence of George Wash- 

FeltpvE, Count Alphonse de, com- 
poser of popular music; in 1850 pro- 
duced two comic operas, both of them 
successful; died 1854, just after com- 
pleting his third opera. 

Feltre, Duke Edgaed de, a com- 
poser and a patron of the arts, who died 
a few months after his brother above 
named, bequeathed his gallery of pic- 
tures to the town of Nantes ; and his 
own, as well as his brother's musical 
productions, go to the library of the 
Paris Conservatory of Music. 

Fenton, Lavinia, born in London, 
1708; made her debut, 1726; the "i'ej- 
gars'' Opera^^ established her reputation 
as a singer; quit the stage, and married 
Charles, the third Dul^e of Bolton, 1731, 
and died 1740, aged 32. 

Feiieaei, an Italian composer of 
operas ; became suddenly famous by his 
"Pipe^^," a comic opera, which, in 
1858, made its way all over Italy. 

Feeraei, Carolina, in 1857, at the 
age of eighteen, completed the words 
and music of an opera, which was, in 
the same year, produced at La Scala. 

Feeeaei, Caelo, a celebrated violon- 
cellist and composer for his instrument; 
published six solos for the violoncello at 

Feeeaei, Dominico, brother to the 
preceding, was a violin pupil of Tartini, 
and published at London and Paris 
some violin music, which was much 
esteemed ; died on a passage from Paris 
to London, in 1780. 

Feeeaei, Giacomo Gotifeedo, born 
in the Italian Tyrol, 1759; became a 
singer, player upon instruments, and a 
celebrated composer ; went through It- 

aly, France, and England, writing for 
the church and theatre, and finally set- 
tled at Edinburgh as a composer and 

Feeeaei, Madame Yictoiee, was 
born in 1785. From the age of seven 
years she studied music, and acquired 
such proficiency on the piano, that at 
nine years old she was introduced to 
Haydn, and performed before him. 

Feeeoni, Pieteo, wrote a Valuable 
work on the construction and use of the 
organ, 1807. ^ 

Fesca, Friedeich Eenst, concert 
master, violin virtuoso, and composer in 
all styles ; born, in Magdeburg, Feb. 15, 
1789; wrote much for' the theatre and 
the church; visited Ems, 1825, for his 
health, and died there, INlay 24, 182G. 

Festa, Luigi, a celebrated Italian 
violinist, and composer for his instru- 
ment ; resided at Naples about the year 

Fescennine Veeses. Nuptial songs 
of Rome, afterwards epithalamiuni. 

Festival. There was a musical fes- 
tival at Dresden, July 9, 1615, 576 in- 
struments, 919 choristers ; one in Eng- 
land, 1701 ; one in Vienna, Nov. 7, 
1887, 1,100 performers ; one in Boston, 
Mass., 1857, 690 singers, 78 instruments; 
since which the Peace Jubilee has been 
the largest. 

Fetis, FEANgois Joseph, a learned 
musician theorist, critic, and journalist, 
also known as a composer; born at 
Mons, in Belgium, March 25, 1784; 
wrote many very valuable musical 
works ; continued to compose music, to 
write books and treatises, and to give 
lectures upon music, during his life; 
died at Brussels, March 26, 1871, aged 

FiLOMENO, JosEFiNA, violinist ; bom 
in Valparaiso, Chili, S.A., September, 
1853 ; gave concerts in South American 
cities and in France at the age of six 
years ; came to the United States, 1800, 
and has given concerts in all the princi- 
pal cities. She has a reputation, also, 
as pianist. 

FiEST Italian Opera in Paris, 1577; 
first French, 1646; first specimens of 
music prhiting from wooden blocks, 
14S7; from engraved plates, 1488; musi- 
cal types were made 1500; first music 
type in this country, 1786; first organ 
used in Boston, 1713; first organ built 
in Boston, 1745 ; first singing school in 
Boston, 1720; first opera company, 3825; 



Xiyvu^footA^ , 6> 


ifSS, /O O-i/Wvv^A-v/iVil 

^^Yv-T- ^ u>uTk^ 

i *w^ 

" Zf-fe^ 


first Italian opera, 1832; first music 
store ill Boston, 1791. 

Fischer, Joseph, basso at the Eoyal 
opera from 1810 to 1818 ; went to Italy ; 
became manager at Palermo ; returned 
to Manheim, where he had made his 
reputation, 1810, and sang there at the 
age of 60 ; died, Oct. 1862, aged 82. 

FiscHEE, Z.,born at Vv^urzburg, 1730; 
made instruments that were considered 
preferable to the Italian violins ; died 

FiscHOFF, Joseph, born 1804; ap- 
pointed professor in the Conservatorium 
at Vienna, and became famous as an 
instructor and collector of music; left 
many manuscripts and scores ; had the 
largest musical library (private) in 
Europe, containing more than 6.000 
numbers ; died at Vienna, August, 1857, 
aged 53. 

Fish, W., born at Norwich, England, 
1775 ; celebrated as a composer for the 
theatre and as a practical musician. 

Flagg, Josiah, celebrated as a com- 
poser, performer, and concert manager, 
in Boston, Mass. ; published a collection 
of music, 116 tunes, 1764; was the 
founder and leader of a hand of music 
in the town, Oct. 18, 1773, and gave sev- 
eral concerts in Faneuil Hall, at one of 
which there were over fifty performers. 

Flemish Music was anciently only 
a tissue of chords, destitute of ideas ; 
they made their music as they made 
their pictures, — a great deal of labor, a 
great deal of patience, and nothing 
more; yet the Netherlands during two 
centuries produced a succession of great 
musicians, whose labors and discoveries 
contributed much to the art from 1500 
to 1700. 

Flexomi:n^us, invented in Philadel- 
phia, Penn., 1873, is a revival of the digi- 
torium, or mute piano-forte, intended 
to aid the fingers in becoming flexible. 

Flotow, FrviEDEicii VON, born in 
Mecklenburg, Germany, 1812; went to 
Paris Avlien young, and became a popu- 
lar composer of German operas ; '' Ales- 
sandro Stradella^^ first gave him celeb- 
rity; followed by ^^ Martha,^' which 
gave him a position and a lasting repu- 
tation; it was introduced in this coun- 
try by Madame Bishop, and the over- 
tures to these two Avorks are much 
played in this country. 

FoPvKEL, J. N., born 1749; his works 
are the highest authority among musi- 
cians ; he wrote from 1774 to 1800. 

FoPvMES, Theodore, a tenor singer, 
celebrated for his excellent voice, and 
for ability to sing English, German, 
French, and Italian words with fluency ; 
became insane at Dusseldorf, 1873. 

FopMES, Carl Jean, a German 
vocalist; born at Muhlheim, on the 
Rhine, Aug. 7, 1818; made his debut at 
Cologne, 1842 ; in 1844, became basso at 
the opera in Vienna ; sang in London, 
1849, in opera and oratorio; came to 
this country, and sang in New York, 
Dec. 2, 1857. 

Forrest, Amos, of Hallowell, Me., 
invented tlie mechanism which enables 
the organist to face the congregation 
with the key-board, stops, &c., before 
him, 1849. r^K^A^^ 

Foster, S. C.,^born July 4, 1826, at 
Pittsburg, Penn. ; the finder of many 
melodies which have borne his name all 
over the world ; died Jan. 18, 1864. 

Four and Taventy Fiddlers all 
IN A Row. The common opinion of 
this band was, that it consisted of four 
and twenty treble violin;^, because it 
was thus ridiculously alluded to by De 
Urfey, in one of his songs ; but it was 
composed of bass, tenor, contra-tenor, 
and treble instruments ; though all 
were included under the general denom- 
ination of violins. A band of this kind 
was established by Louis XVI., and 
was at the time the most famous of 
any in Europe. Charles IL also had a 
band of this kind, John Bannister, 

FouRNiER THE YouNGER, bom in 
Paris, 1712; improved the art of print- 
ing music with movable types, wrote 
an important essay on the art of music- 
printing ; died at JParis, Oct. 8, 1768. 

Fowler, J. A., born at Lebanon, 
Conn., 1822; known as the author of 
much vocal and instrumental music. 

Fra Diavolo was Michael Pozzo, a 
Neapolitan robber, and leader of the 
band who favored the Bourbons of 
Naples ; in his last battle he threw open 
the prisons, and was joined by the lazza- 
roni, but was taken prisoner, and was 
hanged. Many romantic tales are told 
of his chivalry. The opei'a is identified 
with the history of early -mysteries, and 
is exhilarating, peculiar, and enlivening. 

Franck, Johann Wolfgang was not 
an artist by profession, but a jiractising 
physician in Hamburg. Between the 
years 1679 and 1086, he brought four- 
teen operfts upon the stage in the- afore- 



mentioned city ; is said then to have re- 
paired to Spain, where, at tlie court of 
Charles II. as favorite of the king, lie lost 
his life through the intrigues of those 
envying his position. 

Franco, a monk of Cologne, was the 
first who composed secular airs, called 
roundelays, in the eleventh century. 

Franklin, Mrs., a celebrated orato- 
rio singer; made the tour of the United 
States Avitli Braham, the English tenor; 
died in Washington, 1873, aged 70. 

Franklin, Benjamin, born in Bos- 
ton, Jan. 17, 1708 ; inventor of the har- 
monica, and a musical critic ; died 1790. 

Franz, Robert, born at Halle, June 
28, 1815; known mostly by his songs; 
director of the Sing-Akademie and the 

Frazer, the vocalist who came to 
this country with the Seguins, many 
years ago, died in Philadelphia, June, 

Frederick the Great was a musi- 
cian and composer ; dedicated four hours 
a day to music ; composed 100 flute solos, 
and Quaiitz composed for him 300 con- 

French Music. The French are the 
only people who have sustained a na- 
tional opera ; Paris has been for the last 
century the centre of the operatic 
world. There are great names among 
her composers ; though most of them 
have written for the comic opera, yet in 
grand opera they have excelled. They 
were distinguished as harpsichord play- 
ers earlier than either the Italians or 
Germans, and have done much for both 
vocal and instrumental music. In 
France there were minstrel kings as 
early as the thirteenth century. 

Frery, Desiree, celebrated at the 
age of sixteen as a violinist, was en- 
gaged at the conservatory, Paris, 1852. 

Freyburg Organ. This famous 
instrument, at Freyburg, Switzerland, 
has 7,300 pipes, some of them 35 foot; 
and 64 stops ; said to be very powerful 
and effective. 

Fribourg Organ, in the cathedral 
St. Nicholas, Switzerland, was built 
by Mooser, 1834; it has 4 manuals, 2 
pedals, 68 registers, and 4,165 pipes. 

Froberger, J. Jacob, born at Halle, 
Saxony, 1631 ; celebrated in Europe as 
an organist, and for his works published 
from 1695 to 1714, after his death. 

Frost, Eben H.. was born at Grotoii, 
Mass., Dec. 7, 1825; his father was a 

music-teacher, and quite noted among 
musicians of his day. Eben early re- 
ceived musical instruction, and for 
several years was a teacher, choir-leader, 
and director in Boston ; married Frances 
Hurd, pianist and organist, born in 
East I3oston, October, 1826. For several 
years before his death, Mr. Frost was 
known as a compiler of psalmody, and 
as a conductor of musical conventions. 
Died at Fitchburg, Mass., Sept. 7, 1866. 

Fry, William Henry, born in 
Philadelphia, Penn., August, 1815; be- 
came known as a composer, 1854; in 
1849, went to Paris ; on his return settled 
in New York, where he wrote concert 
overtures, violin quartets, the opera 
'''Leonora'^ performed in Philadelphia, 
a " Stabat Mater,'' and other composi- 
tions; in 1853, he delivered a course of 
lectures on music, employing Italian 
vocalists, a chorus of 100 voices, an 
orchestra, and a military band, to illus- 
trate his topics; losing much money; 
died at Santa Cruz, Dec. 21, 1864. 

Fugue Music originated in England, 
and was introduced in this country 
about the time that choirs were general- 
ly formed, 1770; it was written by Claude 
Goudimel, 1565. Billings was the first 
to introduce fugue psalmody into iVmer- 
ican choirs. He said, "There is more 
variety in one piece of fuguing music, 
than in twenty pieces of plain song." 

FuMAGALLi, Adolphe, bom in Italy, 
1829; began to attract attention as a 
pianist at Paris, 1853, when Berlioz 
spoke of him as " excelling upon his 
instrument. " He possessed fine taste, 
had the power of rapid execution, and 
promised to become one of the marvels 
of his time. He settled in Paris, but 
died at Florence, May, 1856, while on a 
musical tour in his native country, in 
the midst of his artistic triumphs, aged 
27 years. 

Funeral Bells. It was an ancient 
custom in Brittany, to send boys round 
from door to door, with small bells, to 
announce when a death had occurred, 
and to give notice of the day and the 
hour at which the funeral was to take 
place. The boys were attired in blade 
cloaks, and attended the funeral proces- 
sion, tinkling their bells as they passed 
along, and asking the prayers of Chris- 
tians for the soul of the deceased. 

Funk, Joseph, author of several 
music-books, and composer of psalmody, 
well known in the South and West, died 



at Singer's Glen, Va., Dec. 24, 1863, 
aged 86. 

FuRSTENAU, Caspar, flutist, born at 
Munster, 1772; died 1819. Anton B., 
master of the flute, son of Caspar, born 
1792. MoRiTZ, son of Anton, born at 
Dresden, 1824, famous as a flutist in all 

Fux, J. J. , a celebrated contrapuntist, 
born at Styria, 1660; his compositions 
were numerous. Charles VI. defrayed 
the expense of some of his works, and 
had him carried on a litter from Vienna 
to Prague, in 1723, to superintend an 
opera ; died 1750. 


G, the name of the fifth note of the 
scale of C. The lowest tone of Guido's 
scale, which commenced on G. 

Gablee, M., born at Spalt, in Fran- 
conia; known by his treatise on the 
tone of instruments ; died at Wemb- 
dingen, 18G5. 

Gacrieli, a., organist; composed 
much from 1572 to 1590. Cathabina, 
born at Rome, 1730; in 1775 considered 
the best female singer in the world. 
Feancesa, of Ferrara, second only to 
Mara in 1786. 

Gade, IST. W., composer; born in Co- 
penhagen, Denmark, Oct. 22, 1817; his 
productions have greatly occupied atten- 
tion in Germany since 1840. 

Gaelic Jacobite Songs have come 
down to our time ; but they are now a 
sealed book to their countrymen ; they 
are uniformly plaintive and melancholy. 

Gaeetxee, Cael, violinist ; came to 
Phi-ladelphia, Penn., 1858; was the first 
to introduce parlor concerts, on the plan 
of the European Court. 

Gafor, or Gafueius, F., born at 
Lodi, 1451; author of several books on 
music, which were standard works in 
all Europe ; died 1520. 

Gaillaed, J. E., born at Zell, 1687; 
famous composer; died 1749. 

Gaixsboeough, TnoMAs, born at 
Sudbury, 1727; known in England as 
the purchaser of every instrument that 
he heard well played. 

Galen, Pieeee, of Bordeaux, 
France ; taught music by the Meloplast 
method, using a board with ruled lines, 
without notes; upon the lines was a 
clef; pointing to a line or space, the 
pupils took tiie sound, as if an actual 
note was seen there. 

Galitzin, Geoege IST., an eminent 
Russian composer, who visited New 
York Math his orchestra, to perform 
Russian music, 1871, and gave a series 

of concerts there; died at St. Peters- 
burg, Oct. 2, 1872. 

Gallenbeeg, Hugo, celebrated as a 
musician; long a resident of Vienna; 
died, January, 1867. Beethoven dedi- 
cated his "■Moonlight Sonata^' to his 
mother, tlien Giulietta Guicciardi. 

Gallenbeeg, father of the above, 
was a composer of ballet music, and for 
many years manager of the San Carlos 
Theatre, Naples. 

Galleey Seats, known in this coun- 
try as singers' seats, 1779. 

Galli, F., a famous singer, born at 
Rome, 1807; went to Paris, 1821, and 
received from ten to thirty thousand 
dollars a year, yet died poor, 1853. 

Gamble, John, chapel-master and 
composer to Charles II., after H. Lawes ; 
author of several musical works, 1655 to 

Gamut Boaed, an invention of H. T. 
Merrill, of Galena, 111., to facilitate the 
learning to read piano-forte music, 1839. 

Gaebett, Richaed, of Boston, Mass., 
1839, published Thomson's hymn of 
" The Seasons,^' to which he composed 
the music and orchestral parts ; it was 
performed by the Boston Musical Insti- 

Garcia, J. R., a well-known musi- 
cian ; born at Dunkirk, France, but re- 
sided in England ; came to Boston, 1830, 
where he held a leading position as a 
musician for many years. He was a 
man of rare attainments and pleasing 
traits of character; died at the High- 
lands, Tuesday, April 9, 1872, leaving 
one son and five daughters, all well- 
known singers or musicians. Amelia, 
a native of the West Indies ; born 1848 ; 
became known as a singer in New York; 
died at New Orleans, 1871. 

Garcia, Manuel, celebrated tenor 
singer and teachei-; born at Seville, 
Spain, Jan. 21, 1775 ; came to America, 

Xj-jd , UO (iryi. ^ ^i 





1824, with an opera troupe; died at 
Paris, Jufae 2, 1832. Manuel, jiin., 
born in MaVlrid, 1805 ; a professor at the 
conservatory, Paris. Pauline V., born 
in Paris, Jtily 18, 1821 ; accompanied 
her sister, Madame Malibran, to tlii» 
country ; a f a^nous singer ; died at Tu- 
rin, May, 187 

GaPvDinee, \ William, of Leicester, 
England, borntlTG^^ well known as the 
author of " Gardlner\s Music of Na- 
i^}>^ iurc,'\^' Music and Friends,''^ ^'Sights 
in Tcahj,^^ and other musical works; 
died, Nov. 16, 1853, aged eighty-seven. 

Gaspeeini, an esteemed musical 
critic, scholar, poet, and musician ; died 
at Paris, May, 1868. His writings were 
perused with eagerness by amateurs of 

Gassiee, Pepita, a gifted artist, who 
sang in opera, 1858, at New York ; first 
made her appearance in London as El- 
vira, in "£rn«?ii,'' 1845; was a singer 
and actress ; died in Madrid, November, 

Gassiee, Signoe, known as a superb 
barytone in opera ; died, 1872. 

Gastoni, Abbe, invented, at Milan, 
1786, what he called the ''Giaiifs 
Ilarp,''^ consisting of seven strong iron 
wires, stretched from the top of a tower 
sixty feet high, to another building, 
tuned to the notes of the gamiit ; its 
music, in a storm, was heard several 

Gathy, August, author of a valua- 
ble "■Musical Lexicon,'''' a well-known 
German musical critic in Paris, who 
wrote much for the French and German 
papers; died in Paris, April, 1858. 

Gaztambide, an eminent composer 
of comic operas; born at Navarre, 1822; 
was a performer on the double bass at 
the theatre when twelve years old ; be- 
came leader of the orchestra, and then 
manager ; wrote much, and some of his 
operas reached their hundredth per- 
formance ; died at Madrid, 1868, aged 

Gazzaniga, Marietta, was born at 
Yoghera, in Lombardy, Juiie 8, 1826; 
made her debut at La Scala, Milan ; in 

1844 sang at Florence and Leghorn ; in 

1845 and"l846, at all the Italian theatres ; 
in 1857, came to this country, appearing 
at Philadelphia, Boston, and New York; 
went to Havana, and sang there to 
crowded houses. 

Gazzaniga, born at Cremona, 1743; 
a voluminous composer; wrote a ^^ Don 

Juan, " performed in London, when 
D'Aponte Avas poet there; died 1817. 

Gebiiard, F. a., violinist; born at 
Moscow, 1779 ; performed there more 
than tbirty years ; died 1859. 

Geer, Joseph, born in Gosport, Eng., 
Aug. 30, 1768; went early to reside in 
London ; came to New York, 1820, and 
was of the orchestra at Park Theatre ; 
removed to Boston, 1824; was celebrated 
as a performer on the doulilo bass ; his 
solo, " The Harmonious BlacksmtUi,^^ 
was performed often by request; he 
played at the different theatres, and at 
orchestral concerts for more than twen- 
ty years, and was well known as " Old 
Geer " by all theatre-goers ; was crushed 
by a loaded team while crossing Milk 
street, Sept. 10, 1853, and died the same 
evening, aged eighty-five. 

Gelinek, G., a performer on the 
double bass at the Grand Opera at Paris, 
and composer of a collection of waltzes, 
&c., for the harp, published about the 
year 1798. 

Gelinek, Hermann Anton, called 
Cervetti, was born in Bohemia in 
1709; was a celebrated violinist, and 
spent much of his life in France and 
Italy; died at Milan in 1779. 

Gelinek, Abbe Joseph, a good 
pianist, and admired composer for his 
instrument, was born in Bohemia in 
1760 ; published much piano-forte music, 
especially airs with variations. 

Gellert, M., a celebrated poet and 
musician; wrote some for Mozart ; born 
at Hainichen, Saxony, 1715; died at 
Leipsic, 1769. 

Geminiani, Francesco, violinist; 
born at Lucca, 1666 ; went to London, 
published a number of valuable works 
upon music, some operas, canzonets, 
and concertos ; died in Dublin, Sept. 17, 
1762, aged ninety-six. 

Geneeali, a famous composer of 
comic operas; born at Rome, Oct. 4, 
1783 ; died at Navarre, 1832. 

Gensen Horn, made from the horn 
of a chamois, or wild goat ; its tone was 
like the hautboy. 

Gentleman and Ladies' Musical 
Companion. Daniel Bayley, Newbury- 
port, Mais. ; "collected, corrected, and 
made plain" by John Stickney, 1774. 

Gentleman's Harp. The king, the 
king's musicians, and all gentlemen 
owned and played the harp in Wales; a 
gentleman's harp could not be seized for 
debt, because the want of it would have 



reduced him from bis ranli to that of a 

George II. set the example, never 
since departed from by English au- 
diences, of standing up during the per- 
formance of the '^Hallelujah Chorus.''^ 
He was a man of deep musical sympa- 

j George III., of England, was a lover 

! and patron of music, member of a quin- 

tet club, and performer upon the violon- 

1 cello; composed some fine songs, and 

jwas a supporter of the concert of an- 

yCient music, of oratorio, and a performer 

iOn the harpsichord. 

j George IV., of England, sustained 

'the best private band of music in Eu- 

'rope, consisting of forty-two members, 

all first-rate artists. It was directed by 

Christian Kramer, a composer of great 


George V., king of Hanover, born in 
Berlin, May 27, 1S19, was a composer 
and writer on music. Many of his com- 
positions were for piano-forte and for the 

Gerbert, Martin, author of a his- 
tory of church music and other works ; 
born in Austria, 1720 ; died 1793. 

Germast CniME Bells, an instru- 
ment resembling the lyre in form, hav- 
ing, in the place of strings, steel bars 
tuned to various tones, which are struck 
with a hammer. 

German-Flemish Festival, insti- 
tuted in London, 1846. 

German Music. The Germans, un- 
til recently, have been more of a specu- 
lative than a practical people ; and in 
their effcrts to thoroughly grasp the 
principles that underlie the" dramatic 
art, and embody them in their works, 
they have generally failed to realize 
their aims. It cannot be said that Ger- 
man composers, as a class, have shown 
as much productivity in the opera as in 
other branches of music, notwitbstand- 
ing that the greatest representatives of 
the musical drama have been Germans. 
It may be truly afiirmed that the one 
opera of Beethoven is worth more to the 
life of music than a score of operas by 
Donizetti or Auber ; and that the serious, 
thougbtful efforts of Gluck have been 
more fruitful of good results to the art 
than the prolific routine of Italian ope- 
ratic composers. Yet it remains a cu- 
rious fact, that no German master has 
founded a dramatic school in his own 
country that might be compared with 

the Neapolitan school, or the French 
comic opera. Both Gluck and Mozart 
had more numerous followers among 
the French and Italians than at home. 
Mozart was undoubtedly influenced by 
Gluck, and Beethoven by Mozart : yet 
neither followed in the others footsteps 
so closely as to be identified as depend- 
ent. Beethoven's "Fidelio" marks a 
return of the opera in Germany from its 
universal height, accomplished by Mo- 
zart, to a national German character. 
Those who came directly after Beetho- 
ven in time did not follow this truly 
national and modern direction, but 
chose, instead, a more narrow and in- 
significant course, which led to the so- 
called "romantic opera." 

Germania Musical Society came 
to Boston, Mass., in 1848, with Carl 
Bergmann as conductor, and William 
Schultze as leader. This band was con- 
sidered the best that had yet visited 
that city ; and they stimulated and fixed 
that love of music in its highest form 
v.hich had just been implanted in the 
hearts of the people. 

Gernsheim, Frederic, born in Par- 
is, at the age of ten years was known 
as a remarkable pianist; but chiefly cel- 
ebrated for his skill at improvisation, 
playing full harmony. 

Gernsheim, Fritz, a rising Prussian 
composer; has already acquired reputa- 
tion as a writer for orchestra. 

Gervinus, one of the brightest liter- 
ary ornaments of Germany, and a fine 
musician ; wrote many valuable musical 
works ; died November, 1871. 

Gervold, a singer and teacher; in 
787 established a music school in the 
monastery of St. Waudrille, after the 
manner of St. Gregory. 

Gestewitz, F. C., composer and di- 
rector ; born in Germany, 1753 ; died at 
Dresden, 1805. 

Gestours. Itinerant minstrels, who 
interlarded their songs with jokes and 
funny sayings. 

Gesualdo, C, an extremely learned, 
ingenious, and popular composer of 
Venosa, kingdom of Naples, 1595 to 

Gevaert, Vitus, of Paris, France, 
invented, 1872, an appliance, by the aid 
of which an organist touching but one 
key will produce a full chord ; it is called 
the "Harmonista."' 

Gevaert, M., a young Belgian artist, 
self-taught in music and harmony, com- 



menced writing in tlie sand upon the 
ground, thus forming a musical lan- 
guage which he could understand; fi- 
nally studied books, became a composer 
in 1852, and in 1844 one of his operas 
was performed in Paris; has written 
other successful works; has since be- 
come director of the Brussels Conserva- 

Gewandhaus Concerts, established 
in Leipsic, 1743 ; has maintained one of 
the best orchestras in the world. 

Gheuses, the name of the party 
which, in 1566, demolished the organs 
and destroyed the music-books at Ant- 
werp and elsewhere. 

GiAPvDiNi, Felice, violinist and com- 
poser, born at Turin, 1716; went to 
Rome, Naples, and England, where he 
was orchestral leader ; composed for the 
theatres, and taught music; died at 
Moscow, Dec. 17, 1796, aged 80. 

GiBBOXS, Orlando, one of the most 
celebrated EngUsh musicians ; born at 
Cambridge, 1583, died 1628. Edward, 
organist and composer, Bristol, 1592, 
and Royal Chapel, 1604. Ellis, com- 
poser, London, 1600. William, Nov. 
19, 1567, was one of the "wc<?/^e.s'" of 
Cambridge, with the fee of forty shil- 
lings ; was the father of Orlando. 
Christopher, organist and chorister 
to Charles 11. , died 1676. 

Gibson, C. C, violinist, borninllen- 
niker, N, H. ; composer of songs and 
orchestral music. 

Gilbert, Davies, author of " An- 
cient Christmas Carols,^'' with the tunes, 
1522 ; famous in England. 

Giles, Nathaniel, born near Wor- 
cester, England ; organist to Charles I. ; 
died 1633. 

Gilles, Jean, vocalist and composer ; 
born at Tarascon, in Provence, 1669; 
died 1730. 

Gilliers, Jean Claude, born in 
Paris, 1667; violinist and composer; 
was the creator of that national French 
form of the musical drama, the comic 
opera ; died in Paris, 1737, aged 70. 

Gillot, J., a collector of ancient 
violins ; born in Sheffield, England, Oct. 
11, 1790; died at Birmingham, 1873. 

Oilman, John W., Exeter, N. H. ; 
was one of the pioneer engravers of 
music, 1764, when the diamond-shaped 
notes were used. 

GiLMORE, Joseph, a colored man, 
born in Lancaster, Penn, ; once a ser- 
vant of General Washington, and a 

ZY./<^f. A^^^ /W^-7 4 

pensioner ; became celebrated as a mu- 
sician; died September, 1858. 

Gilmore, Patrick S., bom near 
Dublin, Ireland, 1829; came to Canada 
with an English band ; found his way 
to Salem, Mass., and became leader of 
a brass band there ; went to Boston at 
the age of twenty years, and became 
known as a leader of bands in that city, 
and in 1859 organized Gilmore's Band, 
went to New Orleans, and in 1864 organ- 
ized a grand festival there, using voices, 
instruments, and caimon; was tlie great 
mover in the Peace Jubilees of Boston, 
1869 and 1872, after which he settled 
in New York ; his compositions are 
numerous and popular. 

GiLSON, C, born at Durham; com 
poser at Edinburgh, 1756 to 1759. 

Giovio, Gi AM., wrote a work concern- 
ing organs, 1803. 

GiRAC, E., came to this country from 
the Paris Conservatoire, and was a 
teacher in a Western college; in 1853, 
editor of the New York Musical World; 
author of an ^'Appendix and Notes " to 
the American edition of Marx's Musical 
Composition ; a choir-master, musician, 
critic, and composer; died in Paris, 
Dec. 25, 1869 ; was one of the faculty of 
Notre Dame. 

Girad, H., composer to the king of 
Saxony; born 1846; came to this coun- 
try with his band, fifty-six men, all 
using metal instruments, 1872. 

GiRARD, M. Narcisse, the successor 
of Habeneck at the Grand Opera, 
Paris, and director at the Societe de 
Concerts; died at his post while con- 
ducting- the " Iluguenots,^^ Feb. 2, 

Gitteth, an instrument of the harp 

GiUGLiNi, Antonio, a celebrated 
Italian tenor singer at the Scala, in 
Milan ; became chamber-singer at Vien- 
na, 1860. 

Glaeser, Franz, born 1792; chapel- 
master at Vienna; in 1831 conducted 
music in Berlin, and in 1849 was con- 
ductor at Copenhagen; composed " The 
Ea^ile' s Eyry " ( " Des Adler' s Ilorst " ) . 

Glagol, a wind instrument for mili- 
tary bands, invented by H. Rott, of 
Prague, 1861. 

Glasses. Musical glasses are of dif- 
ferent forms, tuned by filling more or 
less with water. 

Glatz, Franz, became known as a 
German tenor-singer 1874, and was se- 



lected by Wagner as a solo-singer at Bay- 

Glee. The glee was introduced into 
England after the catch, and was de- 
rived from the ancient madrigal ; it was 
perfected by Webbe. 

Gleemen, a name apphed to persons 
before tlie Norman conquest, af terwp.rds 
known as minstrels; tliey were not only 
singers, but jugglers and merry-makers. 

Glinka, Michael von, born near 
Smolensk, 1804; in 1830 went to Italy, 
nnd in Milan published some canzonets 
for piano and stringed instruments, and 
a variety of instrumental music ; in 
1835 returned to St. Petersburg, and 
composed there several operas which 
made him famous ; lie then travelled in 
Spain until 1852, when the emperor of 
Russia bestowed on him the manage- 
ment of the opera and the chapel, and 
h<j composed sacred music ; died in 
Berlin, Feb. 15, 1857, aged 53. 

Glockenspiel, a box in which little 
bells are hung; invented in Germany, 
and used by Mozart in the *' Magic 

Gloria in Excelsis. This was 
called "The Morning Hymn" by the 
early Chrijtians, and may be found in 
the original Alexandrine manuscript in 
the British Museum ; it dates back to 
the middle of the fifth century. There 
is a copy in the city library of Zurich, 
written on purple-stained vellum, in 
uncial letters of silver, with the chief 
words and arabesques in gold, and prob- 
ably belongs to the seventh century. 
Both these copies agree, word for word, 
and letter for letter, except that the last 
mentioned is defaced and illegible in 
spots, and the writing and vellum both 
stop at the middle of its line 17, or line 
37 of the Alexandrine copy — the rest 
of the MS. being gone. 

Glover, Catheri^te M., widely 
known among musicians ; wife of (). W., 
the musical composer; died in London, 
Nov. 5, 1872. 

Glover, Charles W., born in Ire- 
land ; a well-known composer of songs 
and duets; died in London, 1863. 

Glover, Howard, composer of Eng- 
lish operas and songs, 18(35; was musi- 
cal critic for the London Morning Post ; 
wrote many musical essays of value; 
came to this country 1873; in 1874 
brough out his "Taw, O'Shanter^' at 
Boston, Mass. 

Glover, Miss, taught music to mul- 

titudes in England, simply by represent- 
ing seven letters upon a horizontal line, 
which letters stood for representations 
of sound ; when semitones occurred 
they were marked recZ, and the octaves 
were also marked. 

Glover, Stephen, born in Ireland, 
Dec. 7, 1814 ; celebrated as a song-writer ; 
early went to reside in London ; much 
of his music has been republished in 
this country. 

Gluck, Christopher, born at Wei- 
denwangen, July 2, 1714; was by nature 
gifted with great musical talents; be- 
came a skilful performer on instru- 
ments, and early celebrated as a com- 
poser ; was the regenerator of the modern 
musical opera ; an opera of his, written 
when he was seventy years old, was the 
crowning triumph of his system of 
writing ; after a long life of usefulness, 
he died Nov. 25, 1787. 

Gnugab, a name formerly applied to 
the organ. 

GoBATi, a composer of operas, born 
1850, was unable to procure the means 
of bringing out his first opera; his 
father, however, believing the work had 
merit, sold his farm to enable the son 
to produce "/C?o/i" at Bologna, 1873; 
and thus made the fortune of his son 
and himself. 

God Save the King, the English 
national anthem, is of French origin, 
and had been used for centuries as a 
vintage hymn in the South of France ; 
it has been traced back to 1682 in Scot- 
land, and to 1676 in England. 

GoDDARD, Arabella, daughter of 
Thomas Goddard, of London, England, 
was born at St. Sevan, near Brittany, 
Jan. 12, 1836; appeared as pianist at the 
age of eight years, and in 1854 made a 
concert tour through England and Ger- 
many; she married W. J, Davison, mu- 
sical critic of the '^London Times,'' and 
since 1856 has been called ^^ Queen of 
the Piano-forte ; " she came to this coun- 
try, and played at the Peace Jubilee, 
Boston, 1872; returning to London, she 
retired from the stage, 1873, with the 
intention of travelling round the world, 

Godfbey, Daniel, jun., son of the 
celebrated band-master, has composed 
'• Queen Mab " for the Haymarket Thea- 
tre, London, produced there 1874. 

Godfrey, DANiEL,enjoys a high repu- 
tation as a composer and band-master 
in England; came to this country, 1872, 
as leader of the English Grenadier 



Guards' band, and attended the Boston 
Peace Jubilee. There are three bands 
attached to the Household Brigade in 
London, under the lead of three broth- 
ers, — the Coldstream, the Scots Fusi- 
\eei', and the Grenadier Guards ; the 
latter has fifty-eiglit members, and is of 
ancient origin. 

GoLDBECK, Robert, born at Pots- 
dam, Prussia, 1831; after becoming 
known as a pianist went to Paris, Hun- 
gary, and England, giving concerts with 
^ success ; came to this country as a 
teacher; was for some time employed 
by Dr. Tourjee at his conservatory ; be- 
came known as a composer in New 
York by his orchestral and other works, 

GoLDONi, celebrated as a dramatic 
writer; born at Venice, 1707; wrote 
some musical tragedies and comic 
operas; died 1793, aged 86. 

GoLDSCHMiDT, Otto, bom in Ham- 
burg, and enjoyed reputation as a musi- 
cian in Germany before coming to this 
country as accompanist for Jenny Lind, 
whom he afterwards married; was an 
officer of the Royal Academy of Music, 
London, and known as a composer of 

Goldsmith, Oliver, born in Ire- 
land, Nov. 10, 1728; was fond of music, 
practised it, and during his Continental 
tour performed on the flute to pay for 
a meal and lodging; died in London, 
April 4, 1774. 

GoLLMiCK, Adolph, bom at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, 1824; famous as a 
musician and composer ; settled in Lon- 
don, England. 

GoLLMiCK, H. C, born at Dessau, 
1797; a celebrated writer on musical 
subjects; died at Frankfort, January, 
1867, aged 70. 

GoMEESAL, Mrs., born in England, 
Aug. 30, 1844; a daughter of William 
Ribben, composer; was the first repre- 
sentative of the Grand Duchess at 
Philadelphia; came to Boston, Mass., 
■with her husband, William Gomersal, 
the comedian, and sang in opera at the 
Boston Theatre ; died at Sheffield, Eng- 
land, May 9, 1871 ; was well known as 
an actress and vocalist. 

GooDALE, E., published, 1817, at 
Hallowell, Me., "The Ilallowell Col- 
lection of Sacred Ilusic,'^ 216 pages; 
strongly recommended by the Handel 
Society of Maine. 

Goodrich, A. J., born at Chilo, O., 

May 8, 1847; known in California as a 
pianist and composer; later editor of a 
musical paper in New York ; author of 
a work on liarmony and other subjects ; 
composer of over eighty vocal and in- 
strumental pieces. 

Goodrich, Ebenezer, learned the 
business of bviilding organs of his bro- 
ther William, in Boston, and then 
commenced manufacturing on his own 

Goodrich, William M., born in 
Templeton, Mass., 1777; went to Bos- 
ton 1799, and commenced business as 
an organ-builder; was a self-taught me- 
chanic and musician; became exten- 
sively known by his organs, and died 

Goose, Mother, was born and re- 
sided in Boston, Mass. ; her daughter 
married Thomas Fleet, a Boston printer ; 
he, in her name, published, in 1719, 
" Songs for the Nursery : or. Mother 
Goose's Melodies for Children;" price, 
two coppers. Fleet was publisher of 
the " Weekly Behearml,^' and, later, of 
the ^^ Bo.'^ton Evening Post.'' 

GORDiGiANi, one of the excellent 
composers of Italy; died at Florence, 
April, 1800. 

GoRiA, Alex., born 1823, became 
early celebrated as a pianist and com- 
poser. His Nocturne and Etude in E-flat 
produced for the publishers thirty l^hou- 
sand francs ; his other works found 
large sales, but he died in poverty, at 
Paris, June, 1860. 

Gore, Neil, a distinguished Scotch 
violinist and composer, died March 1, 

Goshen (Ind.) Philhaemoxic So- 
ciety, organized Sept. 16, 1853. 

Gospel Harmonist. Thomas Whit- 
temore, Boston, 1841. 

GossEC, Francis Joseph, born at 
Vergnies, in Hainaut, 1733; was self- 
educated ; went to Paris, became leader 
of a band, and began to compose operas ; 
was professor of harmony at the con- 
servatory; continued there as a com- 
poser to "the age of 78, when he was re- 
warded with a pension. 

GoTTSCiiALK, Clara, a singer and 
pianist, 1873, gave piano-forte concerts 
in London, Paris, and New York, per- 
forming the compositions of her brother, 
the late L. M. Got-tschalk. 

GoTTSCiiALK, Lotus MoREAU, a Crc- I . 
ole, born in New Orleansy.1829. Went ^'^ 
to Paris and gave concerts, 1845; in 


1853, he returned to tlie United States, 
and became celebrated as a composer 
and pianist. After giving concerts in 
all the principal cities lie made a tour 
Ihrough South America, and settled at 
Brazil : died at Ti jucka, Dec. 18, 1869 ; 
left several unpublished works and three 
operas ; was a man of genius and bril- 
liant pianist. 

Gould, John, of Wilton, Me., one of 
the pioneer teachers of music in that 
State, learned and taught the Pesta- 
lozzian system in his old age. 

Gould, Nathaniel D., born in 
Chelmsford, Mass., 1789, published, 1832, 
*^ National Church Harmony ;^^ in 1840, 
''Sacred Minstrel;'' in 1853, ''Church 
Music in America,'' and several other 
works. Was many years a well-known 
teacher and composer. His name was 
Duren, and was changed to secure the 
estate of an uncle, in 1806. 

Gounod, Charles Felix, born at 
Paris, June 17, 1818; gained prizes, 1837 
and 1839, for composition ; wrote sacred 
music until 1849, when he commenced 
the labor of opera writing. "■Faust," 
produced in 1859, made him famous 
everywhere. In 1852 he was director 
of the Orpheon singing of Paris ; mar- 
ried the daughter of Zimmermann, 1847, 
and was decorated with the Legion of 
Honor, Aug. 15, 1857. 

Gourd Piano-forte, invented by an 
Indian boy of Virgin Bay; consists of 
gourds from three inches long, and in- 
creasing in length. Over the mouth 
of these are thin, flat pieces of wood, 
which, when struck by a drumstick, 
give forth tones from the hollow gourds 

GouvY, Theodore, a French com- 
poser of symphonies, &c., for orchestra, 
one of which was performed in Boston, 
January, 1856. 

Gow, Donald, brother of Neil, was 
a celebrated performer on the violon- 
cello, always played with his brother, 
and added much to his fame. 

GoAV, Nathaniel, son of the pre- 
ceding; born at Inver, May 28, 1766; 
was the composer of much music, and 
the author of several collections con- 
taining music by the Gows; died Jan. 
17, 1831. 

Gow, Neil, born in Strathband, 
Perthshire, March 22, 1727; celebrated 
as a violinist, and composer of Scottish 
music. Died at Inver, near Dunkeld, 
March 1, 1807. 

Gow, William, John, and Andrew, 
all sons of Neil, gave early indications 
of musical talent. John and Andrew 
settled in London, were composers and 
music-sellers, published there music for 
the violin and piano-forte. William 
published in connection with his father. 
William and Andrew became eminent 
violinists. John became the leader of 
the Caledonian Society band and or- 

Graven, a German amateur com- 
poser of music, excellent pianist, and 
composer for his instrument. He died 
young in 1770. 

Graham, George Farquhar, pub- 
lished "■ An Essay on Musical Composi- 
tion,'' Edinburgh, 1838; assisted in re- 
ducing the music of the Skene Manu- 
script to common notation ; and wrote 
articles on music in the Ency. Brit., 

Graham, George F., professor of 
music, Toronto, Canada West, was the 
founder of *' The Canadian Musical 

Grahl, Andr. T., a German mu- 
sician, born about the year 1745, pub- 
lished some vocal and instrumental 
music at Leipsic. 

Gram, Hans, organist at Brattle- 
street Church, Boston, Mass., published 
a small collection of music in 1793, and 
"Sacred Lines for Thanksgiving Day." 
In 1795 he assisted in preparing " The 
3Iassachusetts Compiler." Was a good 
musician and composer. 

Grandfond, Eugene, was bom at 
Compiegne, 1786; composed many col- 
lections of romances, some of which 
have been published, two concertos for 
the violin, and the music of a comic 
opera in two acts, performed at the 
Theatre Feydeau. 

Grandi, Alessandro, a celebrated 
Italian church composer, was a Sicilian 
by birth. He was chapel-master at Ber- 
gamo. His compositions bear date from 
the year 1619 to 1640. 

Grandini, Signor, an operatic com- 
poser at Modena ; died 1872. 

Grandval, a French musician. He 
published a work at Paris, in the year 
1732, entitled "■ Essai le bon GoUt en 
Musique." He likewise composed some 

Grange, Anna de la, bom in 
France, 1813; appeared in opera, 1830; 
went from Paris to Milan, 1837, where 
a rival artist attempted to poison her; 

//7vw //Vu-H.^ yr^A^, 0. ^'^'-y 



appeared at Venice and other Italian 
cities ; and in 1848 married Baron 
Stankovich, and appeared at Vienna in 
German opera; in 1853, sang in Paris; 
and came to this conntry in 1856, re- 
maining nntil July, 1857, visiting many 
cities South and West, when she gave 
her farewell concert in New York, and 
received a beautiful crown from the 
hands of Col. Fuller of " The New York 
Mirror.^ ^ 

Geangee, Feedeeick, sen., a musi- 
cian of note in Boston, Mass., previous 
to 1820. 

Geant, Donald, a composer for the 
piano-forte, violin, and violoncello; his 
music was published in Elgin, Edin- 
burgh, and Aberdeen. 

Geassa, Luigi, of Philadelphia, 
Penn., May 19, 1856, brought out his 
opera ''Anne of Austria;" is a pianist 
and composer. 

Geasset, M., chef-d^ orcJiestre at the 
Italian opera of Paris during Madame 
Catalani's management, was born 1769; 
was one of the professors of the violin 
at the Paris Conservatory. 

Geassini, Giuseppa, a celebrated 
contralto singer at Venice, 1797; went 
to Paris, was immensely popular, and 
received a present of twenty thousand 
livres from Napoleon, the emperor; 
sang at Florence, 1823; died at Milan, 

Geau, an operatic manager and di- 
rector, did much to establish opera in 
New York. 

Geaupnee, Gottlieb, musician, 
teacher, and publisher, went from Ger- 
many to England 1791, and came to 
Boston, Mass., 1798; was in the busi- 
ness of music-printing twenty-seven 
years ; was one of the founders of the 
Handel and Haydn Society, 1815; and 
played the double bass in the orchestra 
for many years. i}^'^ 

Geeatoeex, Heney W., organist, 
and composer of music, Hartford, 
Conn. ; born at Boston-on-Trent, 1816 ; 
was author of several books of church 
music, one of which was " The Great or ex 
Collection ;" died at Charleston, S.C., 
4858; St^, /ir-T) ? 

Geeatoeex, Thomas, born at Der- 
byshire, Oct. 5, 1758; went to London, 
and became organist at the Ancient 
Concert; was celebrated as a singer, 
teacher, conductor, and composer ; pub- 
lished a collection of psalm tunes and 
much other music ; died July 17, 1831. 

Geeek Music had a powerful influ- 
ence on the passions and feelings ; but 
we cannot form an estimate of it from 
the fragments which survive. It is sup- 
posed to have been rich in beautiful ca- 
dences, and an art cultivated for ages 
could not have remained in a barbarous 
state among a people so ingenious and 

Geeenfield, Elizabeth T., bom 
at Richmond, Va., 1824; a slave, daugh- 
ter of Hope Butler: in 1849 became 
known in the concert-room; visited 
London 1853, and her voice then ranged 
through a compass of three octaves and 
a fourth ; returned to the United States, 
1854; gave concerts in Boston, and has 
since sung with success in most of the 

Geegg, James, a composer of dance 
music, and teacher, continued in his 
profession until, by old age, he could 
scarcely see his pupils, or hear the tones 
of his own violin ; died November, 1817. 

Geegoeian Chant, a chant in- 
vented by St. Gregory ; it is confined to 
pure and simple melody, either sung by 
a simple voice, or by several voices in 
strict unison. Any addition to it of 
harmony, either in the instrument or 
voice, is an innovation which entirely 
alters and perverts its original structure, 
and deprives it of all individuality. 

Geegoeian Night Chant. This 
was introduced from Italy into Ger- 
many by Aaron, an abbot of St. Martin, 
at Cologne, 1052. 

Geegoey, St., called Grer/onj the 
Great, born at Rome, 550 ; established a 
singing school at Rome, which existed 
three "hundred years after his death; 
wrote a book of anthems, and made 
many improvements in the manner of 
singing ; died 604. 

Geegoey, William, a gentleman of 
the Chapel Royal in the reign of Charles 
IL, was a composer of several anthems. 

Gbkinee, Johann M., a good vio- 
linist, was born at Constance in 1724; 
filled the office of chapel-master in sev- 
eral German courts, up to the year 

Geeiner, Johann Tiieodoe, pub- 
lished in 1774, at Amsterdam, two 
works, comprising symphonies, eacli 
containing six different pieces and six 

Greinee, John, born in Philadel- 
phia, Penn., 1810; went to Ohio, and 
became editor of " The State Journal;'^ 



was the king minstrel of Harrison log- 
cabin songs; travelled from State to 
State with campaign speakers, and be- 
tween the speeches sang his songs ; was 
afterwards Indian agent, and governor 
of New Mexico. 

Grenet, a French dramatic com- 
poser, produced, in 1737, the opera, 
" Le Triomphe cle VHarmonie ; " and in 
1759, ^^ Apollon Berrjer d'Admete.^' 

Grenet, Claude de, born at Cha- 
teaudun, in Beauce, in 1771, was an 
oflScer in the French army; composed 
several concertos and sonatas ; likewise 
some romances, published at Paris. 

Grenie, M., of France, 1810, intro- 
duced the free in the place of beating 
reeds, the former being adapted to the 
organ from instruments of the accordeon 

Grenier, a musician at Paris, pub- 
lished there, about the year 1786, some 
airs for the violin and violoncello. 

Grenier, Gabriel, a harpist, and 
composer for his instrument, at Paris 
since the year 1792 ; has published some 

Grenser, or Grenzer, Johann 
Friedrich, professor of the hautboy to 
the King of Sweden about the year 
1783, was born at Dresden ; in 1779, he 
published at Berlin six trios for the 
flute, and other instrumental music. 

Gresham, Sir Thomas, was a musi- 
cian, remembered by a musical com- 
memoration to his honor, July 12, 1832. 

Gresnick, Anton, born at Liege in 
1753 ; composed the music for the opera 
of "■ Bemetriiis,''^ and obtained the situa- 
tion of chamber-musician to the Prince 
of Wales ; he published much dramatic 
music at Paris ; died 1800, aged 47. 

Gretry, Andre Ernest Modeste, 
iDorn at Liege, Feb. 11, 1741; became 
early noted as a singer, composer, and 
performer upon instruments; went to 
Rome, where he wrote for the church ; 
visited Geneva, where he wrote an op- 
era; but established his fame in Paris 
by over sixty comic operas and other 
music ; died at Montmorency, 1813. His 
three daughters were singers and com- 

Greuillon, Charles Yictoire, a 
noted singer at the Vaudeville and also 
in the cafes chantants of Paris; be- 
came very wealthy; but dissipated his 
means in fast living, and died in great 
poverty at Plombieres, in the South of 
France, Jan. 2, 1869. 

Grider, Rufus a., connected with 
the church and ancient choir at Bethle- 
hem, Penn., for thirty years, as the lead- 
ing tenor and performer on the flute in 
the orchestra. The bishops of the Mora- 
vians are musicians, and the ministers 
often play in the orchestra. 

Grisar, Albert, born at Antwerp, 
Dec. 26, 1808 ; went to Paris 1830, and 
in 1833 became known there as a com- 
poser ; in 1836 wrote for the comic opera 
several successful works ; died in Paris, 

Grisart, Charles, has become 
known by his comic opera, " Memnon,^^ 
which was performed at the Folies- 

Grisi, Julia, the greatest Italian 
dramatic singer since Malibran, born at 
Milan, July 28, 1811; visited this coun- 
try with Mario, 1854 ; died in Berlin, Nov. 
29, 1869. Judith, her sister, born 1812, 
was also a famous singer ; died 1840, in 

Grobe, Charles, born at Saxe 
Weimar, Germany, 1817; came to this 
country 1839, and in 1841 was a pro- 
fessor of music in the college at Wil- 
mington, Del. ; in 1842 began to publish 
his productions, which have given him 
great reputation; his compositions are 
very many and mostly popular. 

Gros, H. Guido, known in Europe 
and in this country as an orchestral 
leader, was drowned Feb. 21, 1873, in 
the West Indies. 

Grosh, Peter L. and George, 
brothers, of Petersburg, Penn., invented 
a musical instrument called the "£"w- 
phoniad;^^ it has thirty-six keys, with 
their semitones, and is played like the 
organ or piano-forte; it combines the 
tones of a variety of instruments. 

GuADAGNi, Gaetano, born at Lodi, 
1725; went to England 1748; sang in 
Handel's oratorios; went to Lisbon, 
where he excited great admiration ; re- 
turned to London, and remained con- 
nected with the opera until 1771; died 
at Padua, very wealthy, 1797. 

GuARNERius, Andrea, born at Cre- 
mona, 16.30 ; celebrated maker of violins 
from 1650 to 1695. Pietro, born at 
Cremona, 1670; son of Andrea, and a 
violin-maker. Giuseppe, born at the 
same place, was a nephew of Pietro, and 
was the most celebrated maker of violins 
of that name. Joseph manufactured 
from 1690 to 1730. His instruments 



He was the oldest son of Andrea Pierre, 
second son of Andrea, made violins and 
basses from 1725 to 1740. Joseph An- 
TOiNE, son of Jean-Baptiste Guar- 
nerins, was born at Cremona, June 8, 
1683. His father was the brother of 
Andrea Guarnerius. This violin-maker 
worked in Cremona from 1725 to 1745 ; 
and, from the fact that he signed his 
instruments, I.H.S., he was commonly 
called Giuseppe del Jesu. Joseph An- 
toine lived a very irregular life, and 
died in prison, 1745. While in prison 
the jailer's daughter procured him 
wood, and tools to work it ; and he there 
made instruments which the girl sold 
to procure luxuries for Joseph. 

GuERRABELLA, knowu in this coun- 
try as Miss Ward, married Count Guer- 
bel, a Russian, at Rome; was deserted, 
and consequently commenced a success- 
ful career as a singer; sang in Italy and 
in Russia, and returning sang in Bos- 
ton, 1862 ; has since appeared in England 
and Ireland as an actress. 

Guest, George, born in London, 
1771 ; became celebrated as a singer and 
organist ; was the author of a variety of 
musical works and music for a full mil- 
itary band, also a composer of glees, 
duets, and songs. Ralph, born at 
Basely, 1742, was an organist and com- 
poser; died in London. 

GuicHARD, Louis Joseph,' born at 
Versailles in 1752, was appointed cham- 
ber-musician to the King of France in 
1776. In 1784 he became professor at 
the Royal School of Singing, and in 1792 
singing master at the Academy of 

GuiDi, SiGNOR, an Italian tenor- 
singer, known in Boston, Springfield, 
New Haven, and Chicago, as a vocalist 
and teacher, settled in Cincinnati, O., 

GuiDO. See Aretinus. 

GuiDoisriAisr Hand. The figure of a 
hand with the musical syllables marked 
on the joints and the fingers and in the 
spaces between. 

GuiGNON, jEAisr Pierre, born at 
Turin in 1702 ; was a celebrated violin- 
ist; gave gratuitous lessons to many 
young violinists, who requested them 
of him, Guignon's compositions con- 
sist of some sonatas, duets, trios, and 
concertos for his instrument; died at 
Versailles in 1774. 

GuiLLAUME, Edme, of Auxcrre, 
France, invented in 1590 the serpent, 

an instrument much used in military 

GuiLLEMAiN, Gabriel, born at Paris 
in 1705, was celebrated as a violinist; 
composed some sonatas for the violin 
and harpsichord. Guillemain lost his 
senses late in life, and in 1770 destroyed 
himself, inflicting on his person no less 
than fourteen wounds. 

GuiLLON, a French musician, pub- 
lished, about the year 1780, at Lyons, 
some quartets for the violin, also some 
instrumental music at Paris. 

GuiLLOU. First flutist at the grand 
opera at Paris, and professor at the con- 
servatoire; died in Paris, 1853. 

GuiLMETTE, C. A., born in Paris, 
France, the seventh son of a seventh son ; 
came to America, 1843, with a French 
opera company; in 1846, was with 
an opera company in South America; 
returned to New York, and sang in some 
other cities ; a composer, and writer 
upon musical subjects, and teacher of 
vocal music. 

Guitar, a well-known instrument of 
six strings, now made in this country. 

GuMPENHUBER,an amateur performer 
at the Pantalon, was engaged for three 
years at St. Petersburg, "in 1755, as 
chamber-musician, where his capriccios 
and concertos were much admired. He 
quitted that country in 1757. 

Gung'l, Joseph, born at Zsambek, 
Hungary; a renowned composer and 
performer of dance-music ; came to this 
country with a small orchestra, and 
gave concerts through the United States, 
1847-8; in 1849 was employed at St. 
Petersburg ; his compositions have been 
much admired. 

GuNisr, John, author of ''Forty Scotch 
Airs,^^ for violin, flute, and violoncello; 
also a work on fingering the violoncello ; 
the art of playing the flute ; and a work 
on the harp, bringing its history down 
to 1734. 

GuNTER, E. W., born in Bremen, 
1817 ; came to this country, and settled 
at Louisville, Ky. ; had for many years 
been a prominent musician ; founder of 
the Mozart and Musical Fund societies 
of that city; constantly engaged in 
music; died June 13, 1866, having been 
thrown from a carriage, breaking his 

GuNTHER, organist at Neustadt, was 
named, in 1789, to the church of St. 
Croix, at Dresden. 

Gunther, Friedrich, a bass-singer 



at the theatres of Weimar and Gotha, 
between the years 1770 and 1780. 

GuTHEBiST, Theodore, musician, 
and dealer in musical merchandise, 
Brooklyn, N.Y., committed suicide, 
April 15, 1867. 

GuTHMANN, FetedPvICH, secoud vio- 
linist at the Italian Theatre at Paris, 
published there, in 1786, six duets for 
the violin. He also published a method 
for the guitar, and other works, in Ger- 

Guy D'Arezzo. See Gthdo. 

Guy, J., a composer of songs, catches, 
and glees, 1799. 

GuziKOW, a Polish Jew, 1867 ; became 
celebrated as a performer upon the flute ; 
invented and exhibited a rustic instru- 
ment, consisting of four round sticks of 
wood, bound together with straw, across 

which were numerous pieces of other 
wood, which, placed upon a table and 
struck with two ebony sticks, produced 
excellent music. 

Gyles, Thomas, was commissioned 
by Queen Elizabeth to take children, 
such as he considered apt and fitted to 
become eminent, from any place in 
England and Wales, and to educate and 
train them for singers in the church. 

Gybowetz, Adalbert, was born in 
Bohemia in 176.5; became an excellent 
pianist and violinist. In 1785 he went 
to Naples, from thence to England, and 
returned in 1793 to Vienna, where he 
remained, enjoying the place of imperial 
chapel-master; composed very numer- 
ous instrumental works, also some 
romances and other vocal pieces; died 
in Vienna, 1850, aged 85. 


H is used by the Germans for B-natu- 
ral ; the 7th in the diatonic, and 12th in 
the chromatic scale. 

Habeneck, F. a., an infant musical 
prodigy, born at Meziers, Jan. 23, 1781 ; 
distinguislied in Paris as a violinist and 
composer; died Feb. 8, 1849. Joseph, 
born 1785, and Corentix, born 1787, 
his brothers, were also celebrated as 

Habington, Henry, the first gradu- 
ate with the title of Bachelor of Music, 
Cambridge, Eng. ; a celebrated composer 
and performer, 1463. 

Hackbrett, an instrument now 
known as the dulcimer. 

Haden, J. C, precentor of West- 
minster Abbey, and an excellent musi- 
cian ; died November, 1869. 

Haempeln, in 1795 one of the great- 
est violinists in Germany. 

Hagex, Theodore, born in Ham- 
burg, April 15, 1823; was a writer for 
German papers, 1841 ; musical editor at 
Hamburg, 1846; wrote "'Musical Nov- 
els," 1848; went to London, Eng., and 
from there wrote for the " Sif/nale," 
Leipsic ; came to New York, 1854 ; was 
editor of the "iVeiw York Musical Re- 
view and Gazette;'^ married an English 
lady, 1857; in 1865, enlarged his paper, 
and made it a weekly; died in New 
York, Dec. 27, 1871, aged 48. 

Hagen,Von der, under the auspices 
of the King of Prussia, collected and 

published, 1838, the songs of more than 
a hundred and sixty bards of Germany. 

Hague, Dr. Charles, born at Tad- 
caster, Yorkshire, 1769; was a cele- 
brated violinist; in 1799 was made 
bachelor of music, a professor and doc- 
tor of music ; composed freely, and per- 
formed on various instruments; died 
June 18, 1821. 

Hahx, Charles, celebrated for his 
musical talents, but more famous for 
having built a theatre upon his farm in 
North Germany, where he expended a 
fortune in employing the best available 
talent for the amusement of himself and 
friends ; died at Altona, Germany, June, 
1857, aged 84. 

Hahn, Herr, composer and pianist; 
an intimate friend of Beethoven, died 

Hail Columbia, a song by Joseph 
Hopkinson, Philadelphia, 1798. It was 
written to the music of the ^'■President's 
March,'' which was composed by one 
Phylas or Fayles, a German leader of 
orchestra in New York, 1789. The song 
was first sung by Mr. Fox, in Philadel- 
phia, 1798. 

Halevy, J. F., one of the best dra- 
matic composers of the French school ; 
born at Paris, May 27, 1799 ; known by 
his operas ; died at Nice, March, 1862. 

Hall, Foley, an Englishman, weal- 
thy in his own right; led a heedless life, 
lost his property, and became a composer 



of songs, one of which, ^' Ever of Thee,'^ 
has been sung and admired in Europe 
and in this country; in an unguarded 
moment forged the name of his pub- 
lisher; went to Newgate, and died there 
before his trial came on. 

Hall, G. F., studied in Europe sev- 
eral years ; on his return, 1807, possessed 
a barytone voice of noblest quality, ex- 
cellently schooled. 

Hall, Joseph, for the purpose of 
encouraging the practice of music in 
Concord, N.H., donated five hundred 
dollars to the Concord Musical Society, 
1801, as a fund for its support ; the soci- 
ety was formed June 15, 1799. 

Hall, Maximilian, teacher of piano- 
forte, Boston, Mass., published, 18o9, 
the ^^ American Preceptor,^ ^ containing 
also select melodies and duets. 

Hall, Gen. William, born in the 
village of Sparta, now Tarrytown, N.Y., 
May 13, 1796 ; was early apprenticed to 
the musical instrument manufacturing 
business in Albany : went to New York 
City, 1812; commenced business under 
the firm-name of Firth & Hall, 1821; 
was president of the Sacred Music So- 
ciety, a member of the Institute, and 
senior member of the firm of William 
Hall & Son, music publishers; died 
May 3, 1874, aged 78. 

Halle, Adam de la, a troubadour 
of the 13th century; born at Arras; 
died at Naples, 1286; composed songs, 
wrote dramas, and was one of the found- 
ers of the French drama. 

Halle, Charles, born at Hagen, 
near Barmen, Germany, 1820; went to 
London, Eng., and in 1848 became cele- 
brated as a pianist ; is now, 1874, one of 
the most thoroughly accomplished mas- 
ters of that instrument. 

Halle, Joh. Sam., published a work 
upon the organ, 1779. 

Hallelujah; or, ^^ Britain^ s Second 
Bemembrancer,^^ composed by George 
Wither, in the interval between the war 
with Charles I. with the Scotch Cov- 
enanters, and that of the Parliamentari- 
ans against the king. His direction was, 
*' Sing this to the Ten Commandments." 

Halm, Anton, an eminent teacher 
and excellent pianist, died in Vienna, 
May 6, 1873, aged 84. 

Hamel, M., first tried the experiment 
of producing music by electricity from 
five piano-fortes, at Pesth. He played 
upon one, and connected the other four 
in such a manner that the keys of all 

moved in exact unison. He is a Hun- 

Hamilton, Edward, born in Worces- 
ter, Mass., Jan. 6, 1812; became known 
as a bass-singer, teacher, and composer; 
published, 1850, *' Sow/s of Sacred 
Praise;'^ later, the " -S'anciu.s," and 
^^ Voice of Praise ;" died at Worcester, 
Jan. 3, 1870. 

Hamilton, J. A., an English writer 
on music; author of a ^'Treatise on Ilar- 
mony,^^ ^^ Instructions for Piano-forte,''* 
and other valuable musical works pub- 
lished in London since 1830. 

Hamilton, John, was a music-seller 
in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was much 
employed as a teacher of music. He 
was the author of many favorite Scots 
songs, some of which were of consider- 
able merit. He died Sept. 23, 1814, in 
the 53d year of his age. 

Hammer Harpsichords were made 
in France, by Marius, 1716. 

Hammermeister, H., a celebrated 
barytone in Germany, came to New York, 
1849 ; died January, 1860. 

Hampsen, D., harpist and bard of 
Macgilligan; died Jan. 8, 1808, aged 110. 

Handel, properly Haendel, 
George Frederic, born at Hnlle, in 
the duchy of Magdeburg, and circle of 
Lower Saxony, Feb. 24, 1084; an illus- 
trious master in music; his composi- 
tions, particularly his oratorios, have 
been everywhere performed with unri- 
valled glory ; went to London, 1710 ; has 
always been the first and most continual 
object of English admiration; his works 
are numerous, and date to 1751 ; was 
blind after this date ; died April 13, 1759, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Handel and Haydn Society, 
Boston, Mass. ; organized March 30, 
1815; a constitution was adopted in 
April, and the society was incorporated 
February, 1816. Tlie first public per- 
formance took place at the Stone Chapel, 
Dec. 25, 1815. 

Hand-Guide, an instrument invented 
by Kalkbrenner to insure a good position 
at the piano-forte; a similar invention, 
by W. O. Brewster, Buffalo, N.Y., 1873. 

Hand-Organs are made upon the 
same principle as the chime-barrel, the 
hammers being lifted by metallic pins 
stuck into a barrel made to revolve by 
turning a crank by hand. 

Harmonica. A musical instrument 
constructed with glasses ; there is also a 
small mouth-harmonica. 



Harmonic Hand, Guide's diagram, 
showing the five lines of the staff by tlie 
fingers, and representing spaces between 
the fingers. 

Harmonichoed, invented by Kauf- 
mann, 1839. 

Harmonic Minstrelsy, Walter 
Janes, Dedham, Mass., 1807; 104 pages. 

Harmonic Trumpet, like the trum- 
pet in form and tone, but longer, and is 
sometimes called sackbut. 

Harmonista, an invention by the aid 
of which an organist touching one key 
"will produce a full chord. 

Harmonium, an instrument resem- 
bling an upright piano-forte, the strings 
of which are made to sound by the 
action of a cylinder. 

Harmonometer, an instrument 
formed for measuring sounds. 

Harp, an instrument that stands 
foremost among all those which have 
touched the ear and heart of mankind ; 
it Avas used by the people of Israel, by 
David, by Miriam, by the Northern 
skald, by the Romans; and in all north- 
ern Europe the harp was the historian, 
eulogist, priest, and seer. Kings of old 
were harpers ; in all nations the harp has 
had a home and welcome. The Hebrew, 
the Scandinavian, the Cimbrian, and the 
Celt have held it sacred; saints, pil- 
grims, and heroes have been solaced by 
it, and the angels of God strike celestial 
melodies from its strings. The merit 
of originally introducing the harp into 
Scotland is ascribed to Ireland; it was 
used by persons of rank, and was a 
favorite with the people ; a harp is repre- 
sented on coin used twenty-four years 
before Christ. 

Harpsichord, a stringed instrument 
like the piano-forte; called also clavi- 

Hartung, Heer, condemned to 
death for poisoning in London, 1853; 
petitioned to have his execution post- 
poned until he finished an opera he had 
commenced writing. 

Harve, M. Lucome du, the inventor 
of the Baryton, having four strings tuned 
octaves to the strings of the violin. 

Harvey, William B., of Philadel- 
phia, Penn., a composer and performer 
upon various instruments, author of the 
*' Siren of Paris,'' and of the popular song 
" No One to Love ; " died March, 1861. 

Haslam, John, a famous comic 
singer of Salford, Eng., for 25 years; 
died May, 1873. 

Haslinger, C, born in Vienna,1816; 
has always resided there, and been dis- 
tinguished as a composer, director, and 
teacher of music ; also a music publisher; 
died Dec. 20, 1868. 

Hasse, Giovanni Adelfo, called in 
Italy II Sassone, chapel-master to the 
King of Poland ; later at Venice became 
celebrated as a composer and singer; 
went to England, wrote some operas 
there ; returned toYenice, and continued 
to compose until 1780 ; died there, 1783, 
aged 84. 

Hasse, Faustina Bordoni, wife of 
the preceding, was born at Venice, 1700 ; 
celebrated for her method of singing; 
made her debut, 1716; visited England, 
Dresden, Vienna, and other places, but 
returned to Venice in 1775 ; died there, 
1783, aged 90. 

Hastings, Thomas, born in Wash- 
ington, Litchfield Co., Conn., Oct. 15, 
1784 ; commenced teaching music, 1807 ; 
in 1816, compiled ^' Miisica Sacra,"" and 
the ^'Springfield Collection ;" in 1822, 
published "^ Dissertation on Musical 
Taste;'' removed to New York, 1832; 
published the ^''Manhattan Collection,'^ 
1837; in 1836, the ''Musical Magazine;'^ 
in 1840, the ''Sacred Lyre;" in 1844, 
with W. B. Bradbury and others, a 
number of singing-books; he composed 
much good music, and was constantly 
emjDloyed until a few days before his 
death upon musical works ; died May 15, 
1872, aged 88. 

Hatton, David, born at Thornton, 
North Britain, 1769 ; had great musical 
talent, and invented the Fiutorum, some- 
thing in the shape of the Irish bagpipe, 
upon which he played exceedingly well ; 
was a very eccentric man, and exhibited 
his coffin years before his death; died 
Nov. 22, 1847, aged 78. 

Hatton, John L., came to this coun- 
try as pianist, and conductor of the 
Bateman concerts, with Parepa and Carl 
Rosa, 1867; well known as a composer 
and author of very many jDopular songs, 
among which may be mentioned the 
"Jolly little Fat Man." 

Hatzfeld, Countess of, a celebrat- 
ed singer in Italian operas at Vienna, 
1793, at one of the private theatres. 

Hauck, Minnie, born in New York, 
early became noted as a vocalist; made 
her debut at the Academy of Music after 
having sung some time in church and at 
concerts; and since has became cele- 
brated as an opera-singer in Europe. 

/cw./^fr^^^"'^ " 


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lyy-y^" Ay /^--^' 




Haucke, Gustave, an eminent vio- 
linist of Minnesota; came to this coun- 
try with Henrietta Sontap:, with whom he 
remained until her death in Mexico, 1854, 
when he settled W(!st: died July, 1873. 
fy Hauptmann, Mohitz, born in Dres- 
7- - den, Oct. 13, 1794^; made several musical 
tours ; became celebrated as a contra- 
puntist and harmonist; wrote many 
songs, and much church-music; settled 
as a teacher at Leipsic, where he died, 
Jan. 3, 1838, aged 74. 

Hausmann, Geo., son of Valentine, 
organist and musician, wrote much 
music from 1510 to 1550. 

Hautboy, called oboe, and haiit hois, 
an instrument much used in orchestras. 
Havergal, W. H., of Worcester, 
England; a composer of note, and a 
writer of some valuable essays upon 
church music; publisher of " Old 
Church Psalmody ;'^ collected and ar- 
ranged much old music, also Eavens- 
croft's Psalms; was the author of the 
history of the Old Hundreth psalm 
tune, 1852; died April 19, 1870. 

Havings, GEEnAiiDUs, wrote a work 
concerning the construction of the 
organ, 1727. 

Haavaiian Music has, within a few 
years, been so cultivated that choirs of 
natives, male and female, sing in a 
peculiarly sweet tone of voice. 

Hawes, William, born in London, 
1785; violinist at Covent Garden 
Theatre, and a teacher of music; 
became lutanist to his Majesty, and 
vicar-choral at Westminster Abbey; 
composed a large number of songs and 
other music. 

Hawker, Essex, author of " The 
Wedding,'' an opera, and other musical 
works, London, 1729. 

Hawkins, John Sidney, author of 
an " Inquiry into the Nature and Prin- 
ciples of Thorou'/h Bass,'' London, 1817. 
Hawkins, Micaii, born Jan. 1, 1777, 
was the author of an American opera, 
entitled " The Saw-Mill ; or, A Yankee 
Trick." It was comic, in two acts, per- 
formed at the Chatham Garden, New 
York; died July 29, 1825; also the 
negro song " Back Side Albany ; or. The 
Battle ofPlattsburu," popular after 1814. 
Hawkins, Sir John, born March l;j, 
1719; was a great lover of music and 
collector of music-books ; wrote a valu- 
able " History of Music," in five quarto 
volumes; died May 14, 1789, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Hawley, Horace H., born at Ley- 
den, N.Y., April 10, 1817; a composer 
of sacred music and songs ; a popular 
teacher and choir-master. 

Hayden, Amos Sutton, of Ohio, 
compiled and published at Cincinnati, 
1848, the " Sacred Melodeon," 394 pages, 
patent notes; in 1860, he published 
" The Ilymnist," and in 1870, a ^'Chris- 
tian Tune-Book;" these last in round 

Hayden, George, was organist of 
the church of St. Mary Magdalen, Ber- 
mondsey. He composed and published, 
about the year 1723, three cantatas. 
There is also extant of Hayden' s com- 
positions a pretty song, in two parts, 
''As I saw fair Clora walk alone" which 
is well known to the proficients in vocal 

Haydn, Francis Joseph, born 
March 31, 1732, at Rohrau, Austria; 
went to England, 1791, having previ- 
ously obtained a living by teaching and 
composing; published some works in 
London, and was made doctor of music; 
wrote his sublime work, " The Crea- 
tion," in Germany, became famous, 
and died May 31, 1810, full of years and 
covered with glory. Michael, brother 
of Joseph, born at Rohrau, Sept. 16, 
1737; famous composer; died in Salz- 
burg, Aug. 18, 1808. 

Hayes, Catherine, born at Lim- 
erick, Ireland, 1819; became famous as 
a singer in Europe ; came to this coun- 
try, and sang in New York, Sept. 1851; 
made a tour of the United States and 
Canada, and then was successful in 
California and South America; married 
lier business agent, in London, Sept. 

1857, who was a Connecticut man and 
a vocalist; he died at Biarritz, July 3, 

1858. Catherine died at Sydenham, 
England, Aug. 12, 1861. 

Hayes, Dr. W., organist and com- 
poser; born 1707; died 1779. Dr. 
Philip, of London, born 1739; a com- 
poser and director; died March 19, 

Haymarket Opera House, Lon- 
don, England, destroyed by fire, 1789; 
new one opened, 1791 ; burned Decem- 
ber, 1807. 

Hays, Will Shakspeare, born at 
Louisville, Ivy., July 19, 1837; learned 
several instruments when a boy ; com- 
menced writing songs in 18.56; became 
connected with the " Louisville Bemr^ 
crat : " married and settled in that cil) 



1865 ; generally composes his songs and 
tlie music at the same time. 

Haytee, a. U., born in Gillingham, 
England, Dec. 16, 1790; came to New 
York, 1835; went to Boston, 1839, as 
organist of the Handel and Haydn 
Society; was a superior organist and 
composer; while connected with the 
Handel and Haydn Society, he brought 
out many new oratorios, and cleared 
that association from debt ; died July 
23. 1873, aged nearly 74 years. His 
father was an organist in England; 
and his son George F. Hayter, his suc- 
cessor in Boston, possessed much musi- 
cal talent. 

Heath, Lyman, born in Bow, N.H., 
Aug. 24, 1806 ; author of a number of 
popular songs, one of which is the 
"^ Gram of Boncqmrte ;^' has been a 
teacher of singing since he was nine- 
teen years of age, and is well known as 
a concert-singer through the States; 
died at Nashua, June 30, 1870, aged 64. 

Heather, William Edward, born 
1784; went to London, became a singer, 
performer, and composer; formed an 
orchestra at Devonshire, in the West of 
England, but finally settled in London. 

Hebrew Music, vocal and instru- 
mental, was much cultivated, was used 
in their religious services, and, from the 
great number engaged in it, was effective. 

Hector, John K., a well-known and 
popular vocalist, born 1824; travelled 
as one of the famous Rainer Family for 
several years ; died Nov. 6, 1854, aged 39. 

Hedge, Leonard, of Warwick, 
Mass., 1772, was one of the first to 
preach the doctrine that reading the 
Psalms, line by line, as they were sung, 
was a violation of the rules of music, and 
must be given up. Hedge, Lemuel, 
of Windsor, Vt., the first organ-builder 
in that State. 

Heeringen, Von, born in GeiTaany, 
came to New York, March, 1850, and 
patented a new system of musical nota- 
tion ; also published a number of works 
en that system: but, failing in his at- 
tempts to introduce his notation, com- 
mitted suicide in Washington, D.C., 
Dec. 24, 1855. 

Heiil, Louis, pianist, and member 
of the Germania Musical Society, was 
also a violinist, long a resident of Bos- 
ton, Mass. ; removed to Detroit, Mich., 
where he failed of success ; went to 
New Orleans, La., and died there, 
April, 1857. 

Heine, Miss Antonina, of New 
York, became known in this country by 
her operatic tour with Brignoli, and 
afterwards in Italy; returned to New 
York, 1873. 

Heine, Joseph, born in England, 
1843; blind from birth; has become 
celebrated as a violinist, and has given 
concerts in this country since 1873, 
accompanied by his wife, a pianist. 

Heinefetter, Clara, celebrated for 
her fine vocal abilities, known as 
Madame Stoiekel, gained much fame 
in Austria as a singer; died Feb. 23, 

Heinefetter, Kathinka, became 
famous as a singer at Paris, France, 
1840 ; was an opera-singer at Brussels, 
1842 ; was the cause of a duel between 
two of her Parisian lovers, which ended 
fatally for one of them; retired from 
the stage; settled at Freiburg, Baden, 
and died there, Dec. 20, 1858. 

Heinefetter, Sabine, a famous 
German singer, born at Mentz, 1805; 
became celebrated as an operatic per- 
former in the ijrincipal cities of Europe. 

Heinrich, a. p., a Bohemian, born 
in Schoenlinden, March 11, 1781 ; came 
early to this country, and was generally 
known as " Father Heinrich," the 
veteran Kentucky composer. 

Heller, Stephen, one of the most 
graceful and original of the modern 
piano-forte composers, was born at 
Pesth, in Hungary, on the 15th of May, 
1815 ; in 1827, gave concerts in Vienna ; 
composed much for the piano, 1833 ; in 
1838, went to Paris, where he composed 
over eighty works for the piano-forte. 

Hellmesberger, George, professor 
in the conservatoire of Vienna ; director 
in the court opera, and leader of a 
famous quartet, was, in 18G1, decorated 
with the golden cross of merit; died 
September, 1873. 

Hellmind, Julius, of Berlin, the 
inventor and manufacturer of the 
pedal piano-forte, having two separate 
actions, being a foot and hand piano, 
suitable for organ practice ; the instru- 
ments are now made in Boston, Mass. 

Hellmuth, Frederic, musician to 
the Elector of Mentz, was born in 1744. 
Three sonatas for the harpsichord, with 
accompaniments for violin and violon- 
cello, of Ills composition, were pub- 
lished, 1774. 

Hellmuth, Carl, younger brother 
of the preceding, was a musician at 



Mentz, and husband to Joseph a Ilell- 
muth, a celebrated singer in Germany. 

Helmoee, TiioMAs,"of London, Eng., 
translated into English "^1 Treatise on 
Choir and CJwrus S/w/ing," 1854, from 
the French of F. J. Fetis ; was secretary 
in musical matters to the Cambridge 
Camden Society. 

Helmsmlteller, Fkedeeick B., 
agent of the Germania Society, and 
afterwards band-master and composer 
in New York; died there, 1SG5. 

Helwig, L., a meritorious composer; 
died at Berlin, Nov. 28, 1858. 

Hembekger, F., a German pianist 
and good composer, resident in France. 
He published, at Lyons and Paris, sev- 
eral operas of instrumental and vocal 
music, between the years 1787 and 1790. 

Hendel, Georg. At Giebichen- 
stein, in the church books, was found 
the following entry, made April 23, 
168o, by Georg Taust, the pastor. 
" Georg Hendel, at the age of sixty- 
two, married Dolly Taust, April 23, 
1683;" and Feb. 24, 1684, was born 
George Frederick Handel, the com- 

HENDRiCKSOisr, George, of Mountain 
"Valley, Ya., compiled and pubhshed, 
1840, the ^^Union Harmony,^' 200 pages, 
harmonized for three voices ; many of 
the tunes are fugue and minor. He was 
the inventor of three new patent notes, 
different from those of Aiken. 

Hensler, Elise, born in Springfield, 
Mass., 1833; went to Paris, 1852; re- 
ceived the second prize at the Conserva- 
toire Imperial ; returned in 1855 ; ap- 
peared in New York and some of the 
Southern cities, and afterwards in Italy. 

Henzel, Fred., born at Dannstadt, 
1833; an excellent musician; came to 
this country, and has been since a 
teacher at St. Louis, Mo. ; is also a com- 

Herbert, George, born near Mont- 
gomery, Wales, April 3, 1593 ; composer 
of many hymns and anthems, Avliich he 
set and sung to his lute and viol; was 
accustomed to play his part at music 
meetings ; just before his death, he called 
for his instrument, and sang one of his 
own compositions ; died April 30, 1632, 
aged thirty-nine. 

Hering, Ciiristopii Elisa, came to 
this country from Saxe Gotha, 1854, and 
settled in New York as a teacher of the 
piano-forte and organ; in 1859, he in- 
vented an improvement upon Franklin's 

miisical glasses, consisting of a series of 
bells of glass, strung one within another 
upon a pivot, made to revolve by a 
pedal ; the music is produced by friction 
of the hand upon the glass, intensified 
by the pressure of the fingers wet with 

Hermann, Nikolaus, musician in 
the time of Luther, and cantor in Joa- 
chimsthal ; celebrated for a collection of 
songs entitled '''■ Hymns for all Sundays 
and Feast-days in the Year, set to Mu- 
sic,^' 1560. On his tombstone is this 
inscription: "Nikolaus Hermann, a 
good musician, who has made many 
good chorals and German songs, fell 
asleep in the Lord, A.D. 1561, on the 
third day of May." 

Hermes, the Egyptian, or Mercury, 
surnamed Trismegistus, or Thrice Illus- 
trious, and supposed by Sir Isaac New- 
ton to have been secretary of Osiris, is 
celebrated as the inventor of the lyre. 
It is said, that, walking along the banks 
of the Nile, he struck his foot against a 
tortoise-shell, which emitted a sonorous 
sound. The idea of a lyre occurred to 
his imagination ; and he constructed one 
in the form of a tortoise, and strung it 
with the sinews of dead animals. 

Herold, L. J. F., pianist and com- 
poser ; born at Paris, 1791 ; famous for 
his operas; died at Thermes, Jan. 18, 

Herz, Henri, pianist ; born at Vien- 
na, 1806; invented the dactylon, an in- 
strument to form the hand for piano- 
forte playing. 

Hess, JoACinM, wrote, 1774, a work 
concerning the organ, of great value. 

Hesse, a celebrated German organist; 
wrote much for his instrument ; died at 
Breslau, 1863, aged fifty-nine. 

Hesse, Adolpii, born 1820; was or- 
ganist at St. Bernhardin; in 1832 intro- 
duced grand evening performances in 
the church, opening with a cantata and 
strong orchestra; these concerts were 
repeated for several years. 

Hesse, Joiiann Georg Christian, 
a celebrated performer on the bassoon, 
was born in Germany in 1760. He re- 
sided for some time in England. 

Hesse, Joiiann Henrich, author of 
" Kurze Anweisinm zum General Basse,'' 
published in Germany in 1776. He was 
previously known as the author of some 
sacred songs. 

Hetsch, Ludavig, composer and di- 
rector at Mannheim, died 1872. 



Hetsch, Louis, born at Stuttgard, 
1806; a brother of the above, and 
equally celebrated at Mannheim, where 
he resided many years. 

Heubeeer, Ciiaeles F., Boston, 
Mass., in 1854 published " Polyhymnia,''^ 
consisting of music all original ; also a 
new singing method ; was a teacher and 
composer ; in connection with Mr. Pera- 
beau, published a collection of glees, en- 
titled " The Eiiphoniay 

Heudier, Antoixe Feanqois, born 
at Paris in 1782, published some violin 
music, and composed the music of sev- 
eral melodramas. 

Heugel, Johaxn, author of several 
pieces published in Salblinger's " Con- 
centus 4, 5, 6, et 8 voces,^' Augsburg, 
1.545. He was chapel-master to the Mar- 
quis and Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. 

Heuschkee, Johaxn Petee, a 
chamber-musician to the Duke of Hild- 
burghausen, was born in 177o. He was 
a celebrated performer, both on the 
hautboy and on the organ, and has pub- 
lished some instrumental music. 

Hewlns, James M., Boston, Mass., 
published, 1858, ''Hints concerning 
Church Music, the Liturr/y, and Kindred 
Sid)Jects,^^ a book full of truth and full 
of prejudices. 

Heavitt, D. C, is by birth a Scotch- 
man, and went to London about the 
year 1819. He has written a work en- 
titled " New Principles and Theory of 
Musical Harmony." 

Hewitt, Joiix Hill, musician, and 
composer of the oratorio " JepJithah's 
Daughter ;'^ wrote, among other popu- 
lar music, *' The MinstreVs Beturn from 
the TFar;" was born July 11, 1800, and 
resided, 1874, in Baltimore, Md. 

Hews, Geoege, born 1806 ; composer 
of sacred and secular music; was per- 
manently connected with the musical 
profession in Boston, Mass. ; was a 
musical artist, a manufacturer of piano- 
fortes, an organist; and for many years 
from 1830 an active member, and Vice- 
president from 1854 to 1858, of the Han- 
del and Haydn Society; died July 6, 
1873, aged 67. 

HiLLER, F. A., composer and violin- 
ist; born at Leipsic, 1768. Adam, of 
Leipsic, distinguished musician, 1766. 
Jon ANN A., musician and author; born 
at Leipsic, 1728; died 1804. Ferdi- 
nand, composer ; born at Frankf ort-on- 
the-Maln, Oct. 24, 1812; famous, also, 
as a couductc r from 1852 to 1872. 

HiMMEL, Feederic Heney, bcm at 

Treuenbrietzen, Nov. 20, 1765, was 
chapel-master to the King (f Prussia; 
famous as a pianist and con poser ; vis- 
ited all the courts of Europe, and there 
wrote an immense number of composi- 
tions ; settled at Berlin, and died there, 

HiMMEE, Xavier, a wonderful vio- 
loncellist, Mecklenburg, 1812. 

Hinckley, Isabella, born in Al- 
bany, N.Y., 1840; in 1857, went to 
Florence, where she appeared in con- 
certs and in opera; after singing in the 
Italian cities, at Amsterdam, at Utrecht, 
at Rotterdam, Paris, and other places, 
she was engaged for the New York 
opera ; returning to her native country, 
she married the opera-singer Susina, ap- 
peared in New York, and died there, 
after the birth of a child, July 5, 1862, 
aged 22. 

Hindustan Music. The Hindu di- 
vides the scale into twenty-two parts, 
making a marked difference between 
their intervals and those of our scale ; 
yet some of their melodies are pleasing, 
and have been used in this country. 

HiSTOEY OF Music. Blainville,1756; 
Hawkins, 1770 ; Burney, 1776 ; Choron, 
1810; Busby, 1814; Orloff, 1822; Ho- 
garth, 1838; Hood, 1846; Dingley, 1850; 
Moore, 1852; Oulibichoff, 1858; Staf- 
ford, 1861 ; Tubbs, 1865 ; Ritter, 1872. 

Hodges, Daniel F., born at Belfast, 
Me., Feb. 17. 1834; teacher in Wesleyan. 
Seminary, and composer of some songs 
and church music ; has published two 
or three collections of church music. 

Hodges, De. Edw^aed, born in Bris- 
tol, Eng., 1796; became distinguished 
as an organist and composer there ; was 
made Doctor of Music at Cambridge, 
1827 ; came to New York, 1838 ; planned 
the swell organ of Bristol, Eng., and 
Trinity Church, New Yoi-k, where he 
was organist; wrote much music, and 
published one collection; returned to 
England, 1862; died at Bristol, Eng., 
Nov. 1, 1867, aged 72. 

Hodges, Faustina H., a daughter of 
Dr. Edward Hodges, born in New York ; 
an accomplished musician and com- 
poser; since his death, has published 
many of his excellent compositions. 

Hodges, Jubal, son of Edward 
Hodges of Bristol, Eng., came to this 
country with his father; was gifted in 
an extraordinary way in miisic ; excelled 
as an organist, and had an instinctive 


knowledge of the laws of harmony ; was 
generally known in the State of New 
York and Pennsylvania; in June, 1803, 
he returned to England with his father, 
and died in London, Dec. 15, 1870, aged 

Hodges, Dr. William M., of Bos- 
ton, Mass., acquired great popularity 
abroad as a musician ; died at Milan, 
Italy, April 11, 1872. 

HoDSON, Geokge, an English com- 
poser and singer; died July, 1869; his 
father was also a composer. 

Hoffman, Riciiakd, boi-n in Boston, 
Mass., 1828; pianist and composer; set- 
tled in New York. 

Hoffman, Sophia, of England, born 
1788; when nine months old showed 
great love for music; before reaching 
the age of two years could play several 
tunes correctly: attracted much notice 
from the scientific and the curious ; her 
father was a musician. 

HoFMEiSTER, Adolpiie, oiic of the 
most learned musical bibliographers in 
Germany ; an authority on musical mat- 
ters ; died at Leipsic, 1872. 

HoGABTii, George, well known in 
connection with the London newspaper 
press, and as the author of ^^ Memoirs 
of the Opera," '^Musical Biography and 
Criticism," and a " History of Music ; " 
died in London, Feb. 12, 1870. aged 86 ; 
was not only a composer and singer, but 
a performer upon instruments; was 
selected, 1836, by the Madrigal Society 
to sing in Tall is' s song of forty parts, 
the only performance of that song with- 
in the memory of any living musician. 

HoHNSTOCK, Adelaide, born in 
Brunswick, Germany ; with her brother 
Karl travelled in Europe, giving con- 
certs with much success ; they were in- 
duced to come to this country; settled 
in Philadelphia, Penn., where Adelaide 
was esteemed as a pianist and teacher; 
died of consumption, January, 1856. 

HoHNSTOCK, Karl, came to this coun- 
try from Brunswick, Germany, with his 
sister Adelaide ; gave concerts in Boston 
and other cities, and went to reside in 
Philadelphia, Penn. ; a violinist and 

Holden, Oliver, a resident of 
Charlestown, Mass., published '^ The 
American Harmony " 1793; the " Union 
Harmony " and in 1795, associated with 
Hans Gr; an and Samuel Holyoke, seve- 
ral other music-books; he composed 
many good psalm-tunes, some of which 

are popular at this day; died 1881. In 
1797, Mr. Holden was engaged by Isaiah 
Thomas of Worcester, Mass., to edit 
and compile the " Worcester Collec- 
tion:" he edited three editions of that 

Holder, Joseph William, bachelor 
of music at Oxford, born in London, 
1765; was an honorary member of the 
Royal Academy of Music and of other 
societies ; his works are numerous, both 
vocal and for the piano-forte ; he also 
wrote much music for the church. 

Holman, Madame, pianist; well 
known as connected with the " Holman 
Opera Troupe" a company of boys and 
girls possessing both vocal and histri- 
onic talent, who gave concerts in the 
States, 1863. 

Holmes, Edward, musician, and 
writer upon the subject of music ; pub- 
lished '•'■ Ramblin'js among the Musi- 
cians in Germany" the ^^ Life of 
Mozart" " Cultivation of Domestic 
Music;" was a contributor to the 
^^ Atlas," to '-''Frasefs Magazine," and 
other publications; married a grand- 
daughter of Samuel Webbe, the glee 
composer; died in London, England, 
Aug. 28, 1869. 

Holmes, John; of Martha's Vine- 
yard, 1848, made an improvement in 
violins by the combination of steel 
wires, brought to great tension, and 
fitted to the'interior of the instrument. 
C. E. Clark of Dansville, N.Y., some 
fourteen years previous, applied the 
same improvement to violoncellos; the 
strings or wires were so constructed as 
to be tuned by a turn-key. 

HoLossY, Cornelia, born in Hun- 
gary; gained great reputation as an 
opera-singer at St. Petersburg and in 
Italy, 1852. 

HoLROYD, Israel, composed much 
music, and wrote an historical account 
of music, an introduction to music, an 
alphabetical dictionary of terms, and 
some other woi-ks published in London, 
England, 1753. 

Holt, Benjamin, for many years a 
teacher of music in Boston, Mass., and 
president of the Handel and Haydn So- 
ciety, whose compositions are in many 
of the American singing-books; re- 
moved to Lancaster, Mass., 1853, and 
died there, March 9, 1861, aged 87; was 
the oldest American composer known, 
and had been a musician all his life. 

HoLYOKE, Samuel, born at Boxford, 



Mass., 1771; published more voccal and 
instrumental music than any American 
of his time ; his instrumental music Avas 
immensely popular; taught music all 
his life, and was a good composer ; died 
at East Concord, KH., 1816. 

HoLZ, Carl, a member of the Schup- 

panzigh Quartet, during Beethoven's 

management, and who attended to the 

money matters of the great composer; 

died in Vienna, Nov. 9,1858, aged 60. 

1 HoMEK, Levi P., of Boston, Mass., 

1 composer and organist, was in 1855 ap- 

'pointed musical instructor to the Uni- 

iversity of Cambridge, the first appoint- 

(ment of the kind in that institution; 

klied March, 1862. 

» Hood, George, of Philadelphia, 
Penn., in 1846 published ""A History of 
Music in New England,''^ a small but 
very valuable work; also the " Southern 
Church Melodist,''^ 192 pages. 

Hood, Thomas, author of "TAe Song 
of a Shii't,^' had no ear for music, or capa- 
city for voice modulation ; he sang one 
solitary song, beginning "Up jumiDcd the 
Mackerel," &c. 

Hook, James, was born at Norwich, 
in the year 1746. His early attachment 
to the art, by which he rendered him- 
self so popular in England, was not 
more remarkable than the immense 
number of his musical productions. 
These, which amount to more than a 
hundred and forty complete works, con- 
sist chiefly of musical entertainments 
for the theatres, concertos, sonatas, and 
duets for the piano-forte, and an excellent 
instruction-book for that instrument. 

Hook, Theodore Edward, born in 
London, England, Sept. 22, 1788; com- 
posed a comic opera, 1805, words and 
music by himself; had the rare gift of 
improvisation, and was a performer upon 
the piano-forte; died at Fulham, Aug. 
24, 1841, aged 53. 

Hooker, Edward W., born at 
Goshen, Conn., Nov. 24, 1794; pub 
lished several important tracts u 
music, among which his " PleaXfor 
Sacred Music " will outlive its ajmior. 

Hooper, Edmund, organist/5t West- 
minster Abbey, and gentleinf^n of the 
Chapel Royal (where he >mso acted as 
organist), was one of tjre composers of 
the psalms, in four jiarts, published in 
1594, and some of the anthems in Bar- 
nard's collection;^ died in 1621. 

Hopkins, Charles J., organist. New 
York ; was instrumental in founding the 

'^American Musical Association,^^ 1856; 
which, wanting support, was disbanded 

Hopkins, E. J., of London, England; 
organist, and author of an elaborate 
work on the construction of the organ, 

Hopkins, John Henry, born in 
Dublin, Ireland, Jan. 30, 1792; came to 
the United States. 1800 ; became bishop 
of the diocese of Vermont, and presid- 
ing bishop of the P.E. Church in the 
United States ; of his musical composi- 
tions, the best known are " Tioelve Can- 

Hopkins, Jerome, musician, com- 
poser, and editor of the ''■Philharmonic 
Journal,'''' New York; born at Burling- 
ton, Vt., April 4, 1836; became an organ- 
ist at the age of twelve years ; has written 
piano-forte pieces, songs, organ-concert 
fugues, church music, and orchestral 
and choral works; is well known for 
the establishment of '' Orphean Free 
Schools^' for tlie poor, and as a pianist. ; 

Hopkins, ^■tlie person engaged with .\^ 
Sternhold iiifll^troducing metrical psalm- V^ 
ody. V, 

HoPKiNSON, Joseph, born at Phila- 
delphia, Penn., Nov. 12, 1770; celebrated 
as the author of "Hail Columbia,'^ writ- 
ten 1798 ; died June 15, 1842. 

HoRMANN, J., a musician at Vienna, 
published there some music for the 
piano-forte in the year 180O; died at 
Copenhagen, 1870. 

Horn, C. F., a native of Germany; 
famous teacher in London from 1782 to 
1811 ; also a composer. Charles E., 
son of C. F., born in London, 1786 ; com- 
poser and vocalist. Henry, harpist, 
born in Paris, 1789. Johann C, a 
famous writer on music. Charles E., 
an English vocalist and composer, born 
1793; came to this country, and died in 
Boston, Oct. 21, 1849. 
^ HoRSLEY, Charles Edward, son of 
William, the distinguished English glee- 
writer; came to New York, and was 
made director of the Church Music As- 
sociation, 1872; his ^'Comus" was per- 
formed for the first time in New York, 
April, 1874. 

HoRSLEY, William, born in London, 
1774; was made organist of the orphan 
asylum, 1802; became celebrated as a 
composer, and wrote a great amount of 
vocal and instrumental music; died in 
London, June, 1858. 

HoTTEMAN, SiEUR, of France, was 



.f ^ Xa-uj^v^v, Irv I -Cvnv^HrK, i-'^ ' 

, ll/T) , Jh-Jiy^c- ry/i'CT' 



the inventor of the tlieorho, an instru- 
ment with two necks and eight strings ; 
the long neck sustains the "four lowest 

Hottentot Music, as well as their 
instruments, seems rude and harbarous ; 
it is generally connected with dancing. 
Tlieir instruments are, a triangular board 
having strings; a hollow portion of a 
tree, one end covered with skin; and an 
instrument played with a bow. 

Hough, Geokge, publisher of the 
*' Concord Observer," was a choir leader 
and singer at Concord, N.H., for many 
years; published, 1808, ^^ Modern Har- 
mony.'''' The music was written upon a 
new plan : for characters, A represented 
a whole note ; A, a half note ; a, a quarter 
note; the Italic capital A, the eighth 
note ; and a, the sixteenth. He used the 
wooden box intch-pipe in his choir. 

HousER, William, of Spiere's Turn- 
out, Ga., published at Philadelphia, 
Penn,, 1848, " TAe Hesperian Harp,'' 
576 pages, using the j)<^t€nt notes of 
Smith and Little ; a composer and music- 
teacher of much reputation South. This 
is one of the largest books of church 
music published, and contains much of 
the popular music sung at the South. 

HowAiiD, Frank (Delos Gardner 
Spalding, his real name), born at 
Athens, Penn., 1833; a self-taught per- 
former upon several instruments ; after 
wandering in the world twenty years, 
settled in Chicago, 111., in 1853, and 
became known as a song-composer; 
wrote more than one hundred songs that 
were popular. 

Howell, Thomas, born at Bristol, 
England, 1783; was a celebrated flutist, 
and teacher of music; invented the 
Musical Game for teaching the degrees 
in the treble and bass clefs. 

HowsoN, Frank, an English singer, 
who was a member of the concert com- 
pany of Catherine Hayes and Anna 
Bishop, at Australia, 1842; died at San 
Francisco, Cal., March, 1870, aged 52. 

HowsoN, Frank, Sen., father of the 
above, barytone of the well-known Hoav- 
son Family of operatic singers, who 
originated English opera in Australia; 
died at Omaha", Neb., 1869. 

HucBALD was a monk at St. Ar- 
mand, in Flanders, who lived at the 
end of the ninth and the beginning of 
the tenth centuries. His ^' MusicaEn- 
chiriadio " is composed of nineteen 
chapters, most of which are specially 

devoted to hannony. He was the first 
author of the middle ages who treated 
of harmony with the necessary practical 
details. The ancient alphabets liad 
been succeeded by a notation in points, 
signs upon the absolute value of which 
the learned are not agreed. These signs 
had at first but the appearance of apos- 
trophes or accents; but, becoming too 
complicated, aliorizontal line was intro- 
duced, — the first element of the staff, — 
giving something of geometrical regu- 
larity to the quantitative signs, which 
still were in the main arbitrary in form. 
The art of reading the point notation 
has been lost, and tradition gives no 
method of learning the manner of exe- 
cuting such music. 

HuERTA, who enjoyed the reputation 
of being the best guitarist in Spain, at 
the age of seventeen, 1820, composed 
^"Blerjo'sHymn,'' which has become the 
Spanish Marseillaise, and is heard at 
every patriotic manifestation in Madrid ; 
became a resident of Paris, 1809. 

Hughes, an Englishman, blind him- 
self, in 1847 invented a system of em- 
bossed music for tlie blind ; it represents 
all the musical signs, including fingering 
and every variety of chords ; the system 
makes use of raised dots which are read 
by the fingers ; in 1855, associated with 
Denman, he exhibited a piano-forte 
with two rows of keys, bringing twice 
the number of notes under the same 
stretch of liand. 

HuLLAH, John, composer and music- 
teacher, born in Worcester, England, 
1812; first became known by his comic 
opera, "The Village Coquettes," 1836; 
produced two other operas, and then 
became famous for his popular singing 
schools in London; St. Martin's JEIail 
was built for liim ; wrote many songs, 
exercises, and studies of great value. 

Hummel, Johann Nepomuk, the 
great composer and pianist, born at 
Presburg, Nov. 14, 1778; played the 
violin at the age of four years ; as 
pianist became noted in all Europe, and 
composed much dramatic, church, and 
instrumental music ; died Oct. 17, 1837, 
at Weimar. 

Humphreys, Pelham, a celebrated 
English composer of anthems, was ad- 
mitted one of tlie gentlemen of Charles's 
chapel, 1066, and was a prolific com- 
poser ; died in 1074, aged 27. 

Hungarian Music is of Magyar 
origin; it has advanced from the time 

LI/ utxrt^(n->^, ii^ M^i, u/),,/0 , 



that people settled in Europe, and is 
noAv cultivated with care. 

IIuNTiNGToisr, Jonathan, a well- 
known teacher of music at Northamp- 
ton, Mass., in 1804 assisted William 
Cooper in preparing a music-book for 
publication; and in 1807 publisbed 
'* The Apollo Harmony,''^ with some new 

HuTCHiNSOif, Jesse, and Mary L., 
his Avife, were both singers, living in 
Milford, N.H., 1777: their family con- 
sisted of sixteen sons and daughters, 
all singers and musicians. The father 
died 1850, aged 73; the mother died 
Sept. 20, 1870, aged 83. Of the sixteen 
children, Jesse, the first son, died aged 
nine years ; David is a bass-singer, now 
living ; Noah, a tenor-singer, died 1873 ; 
Mary, the first daughter, died aged four 
years; Andrew was a good vocalist, 
and died in Boston, Mass., aged 52; 
Zephaniah acquired a musical educa- 
tion, and died in Illinois, aged 40; 
Caleb, a gifted vocalist, died aged 42; 
Joshua, the eighth child, a twin brother 
of Caleb, is well nown as a concert 
singer and the author of a Narrative of 
the family, resides at Milford. Jesse, 
the 2d, was educated a printer, and was 
also a musical director and writer for 
the newspapers; died near Cincinnati. 
O., May 15, 1853, aged 40, on a return 
concert trip from California. Judson 
wrote much music, and was a violinist 
and musician; died Jan. 11, 1854, at 
Lynn, Mass. ; Rhoda, a contralto, was 
one of the home branch singers ; John 
was a musician and composer of note, 
is living West; Asa had a voice of great 
compass and power; resides at Hutch- 
inson, Minn.; Elizabeth died young; 
Abby is well known as one of the trav- 
elling company, consisting of Jesse, 
John, Asa, and Abby. The whole tribe 
were musical ; and different members of 
the family have formed different com- 
panies, sometimes with relatives, thus 
keeping the number good ; David, 
Joshua, John, Rhoda, Asa, and Abby 
are yet (1875) living; Joshua and his 
friend Walter Kittredge now represent 
the family, and give concerts annually 
in the States. The compositions of the 
different members of the tribe are many 
and well known. Of the sixteen chil- 
dren, ten have died. Two of the com- 

panies, one led by Judson, and one by 
Joshua, were famous; Judson's com- 
pany travelled in Europe. 


poser who was a contemporary of Bee- 
thoven ; died at Gratz, 18(38. 

HuxTABLE, Anthony, was an emi- 
nent musician and violinist at the 
opera and principal concerts in London. 
When he retired from London, he set- 
tled near South Molton, in Devonshire, 
as a professor of the violin and piano. 
He led all the public concerts in the 
neighborhood ; died in 1818. 

HuxTABLE, Christopher, began the 
piano-forte and violin under his father's 
tuition, and performed in public when 
very young. He was organist of Barn- 
staple, in Devonshire, and professor of 
the piano-forte and violin. 

HuxTABLE, William, professor of 
the piano-forte and harp at Barnstaple, 
shared the same musical education as 
his brother; was also one of the first 
violin performers at the public concerts 
in his neighborhood. 

Hyagnis, a native of Celeenae, the 
capital of Phrygia, and contemporary 
with Erechtheus, who instituted the 
Panathensean games at Athens, 1506 
years before Christ, was the inventor of 
the flute and Phrygian mode, as well as 
of the names, or airs that were sung to 
the mother of the gods, to Bacchus, to 
Pan, and to some other divinities and 
heroes of that country. 

Hyde. A celebrated English per- 
former on the trumpet. 

Hydraulicon, a v/ater organ, acted 
upon by water, which, on being pumped, 
impelled the air into the pipes. 

Hydraulic Organs, used in Rome 
in the time of Plutarch ; they ceased to 
be used after the fall of the Roman 

Hyer Sisters, Anna and Emma, 
colored ; successful in the States as con- 
cert singers ; went to Europe, 1874. Writers. That man has not 
lived in vain who has written one hjTun 
that lives in the hearts and on the 
tongues of the people. Just as music 
has touched chords that are common to 
all hearts, travels from land to land 
with its burden of harmony, so do 
different hymns find their home in 
different countries and languages. 





Iambics. In the ancient music there 
were two kinds of Iambic verses ; one of 
which was recited to the sound of in- 
struments, and the other sung. 

Ignatius, St., first introduced anti- 
phonal singing among Christians. 

ILGEN, K. i)., horn'in Thuringia 1768; 
a musical writer. 

Imbault, J. J., violinist; born at 
Paris, 1753 ; author of valuable works. 

Impkessixg Musicians. In 1454, it 
was so difficult to procure musicians, 
that Henry VI. gave orders to impress 
them; Heniy VIII. gave power to im- 
press good voices for the choirs ; and in 
1550, Edward VI., and later Queen 
Elizabeth, impressed good voices, and 
educated them for the Church of St. 

Incledon, C, eminent vocalist ; born 
in Corn Avail, 1764; died at Worcester, 
England, Feb. 11, 1826. 

India has a system of notation, and 
a scale like that of Europe; but 
the tones are divided into semi and 
quarter tones. Hindoo and Brahmin 
works on music are met with, also fine 

Indian Singing. The Psalms were 
translated into Indian verse, 1661, by 
John Eliot, and printed at Cambridge, 
Mass., by Mr. Green; in 1689 the In- 
dians had learned to sing; and in 1705 
Jonathan George, an Indian, could 
pitch the tune for a psalm, and whole 
congregations of Indians could join in 

Indian or Mohawk Version of the 
Psalms and Hymns was published in 
London, for the use of Christian Indian 
tribes, 1787 ; and a work with the same 
title appeared for the Six Nations of 
Indians, published at Toronto, Canada, 

Indicator Apparatus for telling 
the names of the notes of music, in- 
vented by George Calkin. 

Infantas, Ferdinand de Las, a 
composer of the sixteenth century. 
Several of his sacred compositions were 
published at Venice, between the years 
1570 and 1583. 

Influence of Music. Baron Cu- 
vier asserted that the lion, savage and 
blood-thiisty as he is, could be entirely 

controlled by the notes of the flute or 
the guitar. Sir William Jones said 
music operates upon the lower animals 
by awakening uncontrollable instincts 
and sympathies. In Persia, a lutanist, 
playing, noticed that the nightingales 
in the trees vied with him until they 
fell to the ground in ecstasy, from which 
they were roused by a change in the 
music. Wilson says some officers con- 
fined in the Bastille with him, whenever 
they played upon their musical instru- 
ments, were surrounded by spiders 
and mice. An English naval officer, 
who, at the close of day, usually played 
more or less upon the violin, says a 
mouse came out of his hole regularly, 
to enjoy the music. In Eastern coun- 
tries musicians are employed to charm 
snakes, and lead them away from houses 
and streets, A New England flute-player, 
while in the mountain region, observed 
a huge black-snake in front of him, 
erect, and darting forth his tongue, pre- 
paratory to an attack ; seeing no chance 
of retreat, and having his" flute with 
him, he placed it to his mouth, and 
commenced a soothing strain, when the 
fire left the eye of the snake, and it lay 
quietly on the ground, as if dead. The 
Indian and Hottentot liave been known 
to weep under the influence of music. 
Some insane people have been restored 
to reason by music. A Grecian cured 
hypochondria by the melody of his flute; 
and removed sciatica, or rheumatism, by 
the notes of a trumpet. 

Ingalls, Jeremiah, born in Ando- 
ver, Mass., March 1, 1764; was a teacher, 
composer, and performer on the violon- 
cello; taught music in Massachusetts, 
New Hampshire, and Vermont many 
years; published at Exeter, N.H., " T/ie 
Christian Harmony,^' 1805; married and 
settled in Newbury, Vt. ; in 1810, re- 
moved to Rochester, and finally to Han- 
cock, Vt., where he died, April 0, 1838. 

Ingegneri, Marco Antonio, a 
celebrated composer of the sixteenth 
century, chapel-master of the cathedral 
at Cremona; published several works of 
sacred music and madrigals at Venice, 
previous to the year 1592. 

Innocent XL, born at Como, 1611; 
after becoming pope, issued a bull, 1686, 



forbidding all women learning to sing, 
or play upon any instrument; and or- 
dered the nuns, who had for a century 
taken a part in the musical exercises of 
the church, to learn of no other than 
their sister nuns. 

Instruction in Composition, D. V. 
Adam, Madrid, 1786. 

Instrumental Concertos, intro- 
duced into the church at Rome, by A. 
Agazzari, 1510. 

Instrumental Music is such as is 
composed for instruments, in which the 
voice has no part. 

Instruments. The chronological his- 
tory of music and musical instruments, 
coeval with man, is lost in the labyrinth 
of fable ; but the oldest existing records 
mention instruments, as well as the 
voice, employed for the purpose of har- 
mony. Ancient instruments are occa- 
sionally found among the ruins of anti- 
quity, and we know when some of them 
were used. The first upright harpsi- 
chord was made by a person named 
Shudi, about 1770. The first (horizon- 
tal) grand piano-forte is attributed to a 
Mr. Bacckus, seven years later. In 
1780 Robert 8toddart, England, "made 
the first upright grand piano-forte." 
Southwell, in 1790, produced the first 
cabinet piano-forte. 

Interrupted Marriage, an opera 
composed by J. R. Fairlamb. 

Intonation. All human passions, 
in all nations and in all states of society, 
are associated with certain intonations 
of voice ; and the great actors and musi- 
cians are those who can imitate these 
tones with the greatest perfection. Such 
is the law of nature; and upon this law 
the laws of expressive melody are built. 

Iperen, Josua van, a Dutch cler- 
gyman, who died at Batavia in 1780; 
published several musical works at Am- 
sterdam, 1778, 

Irish Harp. This had a greater 
number of strings than the lyre; yet 
for ages harpists only played melodies, 
as counterpoint was unknown. 

Irish Music. The Irish are essen- 
tially a musical people ; their songs are 
sung throughout the world, and are 
everywhei-e admired and applauded. 
The harp was early used, and music was 
early cultivated, in Ireland; the Italians 
derived the harp from this people; 
church music also flourished in Ireland 
previous to the seventh century, having 
been introduced from Gaul. Irish his- 

torians contend that their country is the 
celebrated Hyperborean Isle, and that 
music is the native production of the 
soil. Cambrenis, who did not admire 
the Irish, admitted their perfection in 
music, Handel declared that he would 
rather be the author of Carolan's *^ Ail- 
een Aroon,^^ than of all his own compo- 

Irish Pipes are different from the 
Scotch ; they can sound a strain almost 
as loud as the trumpet, and can breathe 
forth very soft tones; but the instru- 
ment is now little known. 

Irrig, Sebastian, a German musi- 
cian, published at Paris, in 1756, twelve 
sonatas for the harpsichord, in the style 
of Albertini. 

Isaac, Heinrich, chapel-master to 
the Emperor Maximilian I. ; born in the 
year 1440. In 1475 he held the situa- 
tion of chapel-master at the church of 
San Giovanni at Florence. 

Isabella, Queen, of Spain, was a 
performer upon the harp and piano- 
forte ; and a singer at private concerts, 
at one of which her mother assisted. 

IsAURE, Clemence, founded the 
Academy of the Jeux Floraux, at Tou- 
louse, 1824; one of the oldest musical 
institutions in existence. 

Isham, John, was the deputy of Dr. 
Croft for several years. He died in 
1726, liaving met with very little en- 
couragement in his musical studies, 
though he wrote sundry valuable com- 
positions for the use of tlie church. 

IsiDOR, Rose, gained, 1874, great 
popularity as a singer in Spain ; made 
her debut at the Malta Opera House, 
and after repeated triumphs went to 
London, Eng. 

IsiNARDi, Paolo, a celebrated poet 
and composer, born at Ferrara, flour- 
ished there in the second half of the six- 
teenth century ; composed a great num- 
ber of sonnets and madrigals, as also 
sacred music. 

Ismenias, a celebrated musician of 
Thebes, who, according to Lucian, 
gave three talents, or £581 5s., for a 
flute, at Corinth. 

Iso, a French musician, brought out 
at the Academy of Music, in 1759, the 
two following operas: " Phetiise,^' and 
" Zemkle.'^ 

IsoLA, Gaetano, a Genoese com- 
poser, wrote in the year 1791, for the 
theatre at Turin, the serious opera, "ia 
Conquista del Velio d^Oro.^' 



IsouAED, NicoLO, was born at Malta 
in 1775 ; after having composed for the 
different theatres of Italy and Malta, 
he established himself at Paris, where 
he wrote seventeen operas, both comic 
and serious. Nicolo played on the organ, 
harmonica, and several other instru- 
ments, with superior ability. He died 
in the midst of his career. 

Israel Restored, an oratorio. Dr. 
Boxfield, Baywater, England, 1849. 

Italian Music is characterized for 
its predominance of melody over har- 
mony. As Italy's climate, so is also her 
music. Both, however, often enervate. 
Italian music can easily be understood, 
it requiring but little thought or study 
to appreciate it. It will please at the 
first hearing, but often loses its charms 
by repetition. Hence it is welcomed by 
a class of persons who would receive 
German music coldly, for the very con- 
trary reasons. Italy's climate being 
favorable to the human voice and its 
culture, she educates many, and sends 
her singers, as she does her organ-grind- 
ers, to all capitals of Europe and to this 
country, taking with them their native 

operas. Were it not for this we should 
hear less of Italian music. 

Italian Opera was performed 1624, 
and the Italian school is yet unequalled 
in improving voices. 

Ives, E., of New York City, pub- 
lished, 1847, a series of music books for 
school use; also the ''Mozart Collec- 
tion," " Beethoven Collection," ''Musical 
Wreath," and "American Psalmody;" 
was a teacher and composer. 

Ives, Simon. Many catches and 
rounds of Ives's are to be found in 
"Hilton's Collection," and in Playford's 
" Musical Companion ; " as are also 
some songs, among the airs and dia- 
logues published in his time. He died 
in the parish of Christchurch, London, 
in 1662. 

IvoFF, General, composer of a 
Russian national hymn, very popular; 
an accomplished musician; died Dec. 
28, 1870. 

IzAAK, Henry, author of a mass 
found in the library at Brussels, in 1842, 
entitled " De Assumptione Beatm Marias 
Virginis." He was chief musician to 
the Emperor Maximilian I., about 1430. 


Jackson, G. K. A manuscript book, 
containing 310 pages of miscellaneous 
works for instruments and singing, 
books of harmony, and a system of 
tuning, &c., used in his school, for the 
instruction of his scholars, has come 
down to us. There seem to have been 
three musicians and composers in this 
family: the volume contains "A Pas- 
toral Drama, 1753, set to Music by Joseph 
Jackson" and several compositions by 
George Jackson, 1755. 

Jackson, John B., of Pumkintown, 
East Tenn., published 1838, " Knox- 
ville Harmony," the tunes in which, it 
is stated, are original compositions. 

Jackson, Samuel, organist at St. 
Bartholomew's Church, in New York, 
published a " Te Deum " in E [? in 1851 ; 
and in 1848 a collection of music called 
^'Sacred Harmony" was published in 
"Buckwheat" notes, which was com- 
piled by one of this name ; it may have 
been another Samuel Jackson ; it was 
printed by the Methodist Book Concern. 

Jackson, William, a native of York- 
shire, England, an eminent author and 

composer; chiefly known in this coun- 
try, since 1852, by his " Deliverance of 

Jackson, William, an eminent mu- 
sical composer, and a man of letters, 
was born in 1730, at Exeter, where he 
settled for life as a teacher, performer, 
and composer of music. His talents in 
musical composition were first made 
known in 1775, and it is by his vocal 
compositions that he has acquired the 
greatest reputation ; died 1803. 

Jacob, Benjamin, born in London, 
1778; became organist of Salem Chapel 
at the age of ten years, and later was 
very much celebrated as a performer at 
all the great festivals; he was also a 
teacher, and conductor of concerts; 
composed some glees and psalmody, 
and wrote a work on harmony; died 

Jacob, G., a Benedictine monk, and 
famous composer. 

Jacob, the violinist of Paris, died 

Jacobi, Conrad, a director of music 
at Dessau ; died there in 1811. 


\^, kXf 2.V 



Jacobi, Michael, a singer at Lune- 
burg ; he performed also on the violin, 
lute, and flute, from 1661 to 1663. 

Jacobi, Samuel Franz, conductor 
and organist at the Palace Church in 
Wittenburg in 1730. 

JACOBITUS, Petrus Amicus, pub- 
lished at Venice, in 1589, " Motetti a 4, 
5, e 6 wet," Op. 1. 

J ACOPONUS, a monk in the fourteenth 
century, is the author of the text and 
first melody to the " Stabat Mater Dolo- 
rosa.^ ^ 

Jadin, Louis, eminent at Paris as a 
pianist and composer, 1796 to 1810. 

Jaeger, Johann, a violoncellist to 
the Margrave of Anspach, was born in 

Jaeger, Johann Zach arias L., 
born at Anspach in 1777, was only 
eleven years of age when he was named 
chamber-musician and violoncellist in 
the chapel of the Margrave of Anspach. 

Jaell, Alfred, born at Trieste, 
March 5, 1830, was a violinist at the 
age of six years, but became celebrated 
as a pianist in 1843; gave concerts 
throughout Europe with great success ; 
came to this country in 1853, and gave 
concerts in all the principal cities of the 

Jaell, M., father of the above, was 
a violinist and leader of an orchestra in 
Vienna ; afterwards established a music 
school in Trieste ; died at Brussels, Sept. 
1, 1849. 

J AHN, August WiLHELM Friedrich, 
born at Arnstadt in the year 1780, was 
considered an excellent pianist, and 
also a good performer on the violin, 
violoncello, flute, and hautboy. 

Jahn, Otto, published, 1856, in 
Germany, a new ''Life of Mozart,'^ 
made up from the Mozart letters pre- 
served at Salzburg, and extending from 
1777 to 1784. 

Jamard, of Rouen, 1769, extended 
the theory of Balliere, built on the 
principle of the harmony of the column 
of air, from the sound of the French 
horn, until he arrived at the scale of 
the music of birds. 

James I., king of Scotland, an accom- 
plished musician, composed the ''Jolly 
Becfgar,'' and other works ; died Dec. 11, 
1542. Increased the pay of musicians, 
and gave them an act of incorporation. 

James, John, an organist, and com- 
poser for his instrument, in London; 
died about the year 1745. The style of 

hi\ compositions was dignified and sci- 

James, Mrs. C. Varian, born in 
Eastport, Me., after eight years in Italy 
sang atx Rome ; and returned to the 
United States, November, 1858, when 
she was\engaged for the opera at 

Jan, M. David, a Dutch composer at 
the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury ; set the^ one hundred and fifty 
psalms of David to music for four, five, 
six, seven, and eight voices, which he 
published at Amsterdam in the year 

1600. \ /4<iUvYl). 6ina^. 

Janes, WALTER>/s P c dh a m T-^fft6s., 
published "Harmonic Minstrelsy," 104 
pages, 1807, containing sacred music in 
three and four parts. 

J ANi, Johann, a composer and court- 
organist at Aurisch, in Germany, died 
in 1728. 

Janievics. See Yaniewicz. 

Jannequin, Clement, composed, in 
the time of Francis I., the "Cries of 
Paris," a curious medley, treated with 
much art ; also the "Chant de la Bataille 
de Marignan" 

Jan SEN, W. G. M., published at 
Konigsberg, in 1800, "15 Deutsche 
Lieder mit Begleitiing des Klavier." 

Japanese Music is not very har- 
monious, and they have few instru- 
ments ; the lute is a favorite, and is in 
general use. They use their voices with 
considerable taste and skill. 

Jarnowick, G., violinist; born at 
Palermo, 1745 ; died 1804. 

Jarvis, Charles H., born in Phila- 
delphia, Penn., 1837 ; published, 1845, 
a " Collection of Chants;" in 1856, with 
J. A. Getze, ''Tip-Top Glee Book;" a 
composer of much music, and a noted 
teacher in that city. 

Jasper, a composer of some sonatas 
for the piano-forte and violin, published 
at Mentz between the years 1794 and 

Jassou, Joa. And., author of a work 
entitled " De Canioribus Eccles. Vet. et 
Novi Testamenti" published at Helm- 
stadt in 1708. 

Jast, F., a dramatic composer at 
Vienna, brought out several operettas 
and ballets in that city, about the year 

Jay, Dr. John, a teacher, composer, 
and performer upon instruments; set- 
tled in London, 1800, as a teacher; was 
made bachelor of music, and member of 



the Royal Academy ; composed both 
vocal and instrumental music. 

Jay, Miss, eldest daughter of Dr. 
Jay, was celebrated as a performer on 
the harp ; received a medal from Prince 
Leopold ; the second daughter was a 
fine pianist. 

Jeep, Joiiann, a composer in the 
early part of the seventeenth century, 
was born in the Duchy of Brunswick. 
He published ^' Geistliche Psalmen und 
Kirchen Gesdng. D. M. Luihers und 
andererfrommen Christen, init 4 Stimmen 
dem Choral nach componirt durch,^' 
&c., Nuremburg, 1607. 

Jefferson, Thomas, the statesman, 
was a good violinist and tenor-singer; 
his wife was an excellent performer on 
the harpsichord ; visitors were often en- 
tertained at his house by music of the 
harpsichord, voice, and violin. 

Jeitteles, Aloys, author of the 
**Q/cZu.s' of Songs " by Beethoven, known 
under the name of "To the Distant 
Love," died May, 1858. 

Jelch, Vincentius, a countrapun- 
tist of the seventeenth century, pub- 
lished at Strasburg, " Parnassia militia 
Concertuum 1, 2, 3, et 4 Vocum,'^ 1C23; 
*^ Arion Primus,^^ 1628. This work 
contains twenty-one Latin motets for 
one, two, three, and four voices. And 
lastly, ^^ Arion Secundus,^^ 1628, con- 
taining psalms for vespers, arranged for 
four voices. 

Jeliotte, Pierre, a celebrated 
counter-tenor singer, born at Beam; 
composed ballet-music and many songs ; 
died in a state of great poverty, subse- 
quently to the year 1780. 

Jenkins, George, of High Holborn, 
Bloomsbury, published, 1791, eighteen 
airs for violins and bass ; also a collec- 
tion of new Scotch music, and a med- 
ley, on a new plan, with bass for violon- 

Jenkins, John, a native of Maid- 
stone, in Kent, born in the year 1592, 
was a celebrated composer of music for 
viols in the reigns of Charles I. and II. 
His compositions are chiefly fantasias, 
in five and six parts, several of which 
have been greatly admired. He died in 
the year 1678, at the great age of eighty- 
six years. 
^ Jenks, Stephen, of New Canaan, 
/ Conn., published " The Delights of Har- 
I mony,'^ 1805 ; twenty-six of the tunes in 
I this book were composed by him, and 
\ the work was published by su'bsciiption. 

, /f^' 7u.Yy^sy^' ^• 

He removed to Thompson, O., and died 
there in 1856. ''Mount Calvary ^^ was 
composed by Jenks, 1798. 

Jennings, Mrs., daughter of Mr. 
Williams, British Consul at Seville, 
appeared in opera at Berlin, 1849, and 
sang in all the principal characters of 
the Italian stage ; in 1850, sang at Dres- 
den and Hamburg, and went to reside 
in London. 

Jennison, Samuel, jun., author of 
''Mnsic in the past Half Century,''^ and 
other productions, 1851. 

Jerome de Moravie, a musical 
writer, about the year 1260, wrote a 
treatise "De3/u8ica." 

Jester, a native of Berlin, composed, 
about the year 1799, an operetta called 
"Der WunderigeU^ 

Jewit, Randolph, an English musi- 
cian, organist in Dublin, which city 
he quitted for England in 1639, and 
died at Winchester. 

Jews-Harp. This simple instru- 
ment is the only one practised by the 
inhabitants of St. Kilda. It came into 
notice, 1828, at the Royal Institution, 
where it was performed upon by Prof. 

Joachim, Joseph, born in Hungary, 
1831 ; became known as a violinist, at 
Paris, 1849; composed there four or- 
chestral overtures, and in 1856 became 
director of the court concerts for the 
King of Hanover; became chapel- 
master at the court of Weimar. 


NO, Petrus, a contrapuntist of the six- 
teenth century, published at Venice, iu 
1568, ''Thesaurus Musicus for four, five, 
six, and eight voices." 

Joannes, Damascenus, a celebrated 
church composer in the first half of the 
eighth century; died in 760. 

Joannes, Paduanus, published at 
Verona in 1578 a work entitled " In 
stitutiones Musicce.'^ 

Joannes, Salesberiensis, a native 
of Salisbury, in England; died in 1182; 
wrote a work which treats " De Musica 
et Instrumentis, et Modis, et Fructu 

JoBARD, M., afl5rms that those who, 
on shaking the head, hear two Id's 
(A's in perfect unison), are born musi- 
cians ; they have the voice and ear per- 
fectly correct ; but those who hear the 
la only in one ear have an imperfect 
appreciation of sound ; while those who 
perceive two different sounds, la and 

'^•^ ^^U^/k^ }^ri^ , o ■ ^6 IW-l ^ jV' 






another tone, not only do not love 
music, but detest and avoid it. By this 
novel method he proposes to discover 
and decide who may become good musi- 
cians. [See Latotjb, M. C, Nickles, 
J., and article La.] 

JocELYN, Simeon, of New Haven, 
Conn., published a collection entitled 
'■'■ Chorister^ s Companion,''^ 1788; and in 
1793 a supplement; was a teacher and 
composer of music; also published the 
'^Federal Harmony," at Boston, Mass. 

Joecher, Christian Gottleib, 
professor of history in Leipsic, published 
a treatise "De Viribus Musices in Cor- 
pore Humano." 

JoHANNOT, Tony, became famous in 
London, England, from a single comic 
song, the " Beadle of the Parish ; " also 
acted old men at the theatres ; died 1848. 

Johannsen, Mme., born in the duchy 
of Holstein, came to this country, 1857, 
and appeared in German opera at New 
York ; afterwards travelled in Germany, 
and settled at Berlin. 

John Brown Song originated with 
the Boston Light Infantry; the words 
were by different members of this com- 
pany ; the music, a very old hymn-tune, 
was adapted to the words by James E. 
Greenleaf, 1861. 

Johnson, A. N., born in Middlebury, 
Vt., early went to Boston, Mass., and 
became an organist there at the age of 
eighteen years ; became a teacher, com- 
poser, and author of a large number of 
books and works upon music ; was edi- 
tor of a musical paper, and a teacher in 
musical conventions ; was for some time 
professor in the Allegany Academy of 
Music, Friendship, N.Y. ; his works on 
harmony and thorough-bass were among 
the best of his publications. 

Johnson, Frank, a celebrated colored 
musician, and performer on the Kent 
bugle ; his reputation was not confined 
to this country; in 1834 he visited Eu- 
rope with his band, and gave a series of 
concerts in London ; he afterwards made 
the tour of the United States, perform- 
ing in all the large cities ; died in New 
York, April 5, 1844. 

Johnson, George W., published a 
very interesting work, " The Songs of 
the Bayaderes of Calcutta and of Delhi ; " 
which he noted from hearing of them. 

Johnson, Henry Philip, chapel- 
master and chamber-musician to the 
King of Sweden at Stockholm, com- 
posed for the theatre of that city the 

operas of "E'jyZe," 1774, and ^^Neptun und 
Amphitrit£," 1775; he wrote also a work 
on the organ, &c. 

Johnson, Ichabod, born in Wobum, 
Mass. ; a fifer in the army of the Revo- 
lution, and, for many years after the 
war, a teacher of vocal and instrumental 
music; used the vioUn in his schools; 
formed several bands in New England 
towns, and became a well-known band- 

Johnson, James, a music-seller and 
engraver in Edinburgh, Scotland, pub- 
lished between 1787 and 1803 six vol- 
umes of "T/^e Scot^s Musical Museum ; " 
he commenced the work of collecting 
and of setting to music such songs as 
had not been set to music previous to 
his time ; was the first who attempted to 
strike music upon pewter plates ; died at 
Edinburgh, Feb. 26, 1811. 

Johnson, J. C, teacher and composer 
of music, Boston, Mass., editor of " Jm- 
tenile Oratorios," ^^ Normal Song Book," 
^^ School Song Book," and other works; 
was associated for many years with A. 
N. Johnson, assisting in his publica- 

Johnson, Robert, a learned musi- 
cian, was one of the first of the English 
church composers who disposed their 
parts with intelligence and design. 

Jolly, an English composer of glees. 
Two of his compositions were much ad- 
mired at the British concerts. 

JoLY, a French musician, published 
at Paris, 1786, " Six Duos pour Violon." 

Jomelli, Nicolo, born at Aversa, 
near Naples, 1714; became a composer 
of operas at the age of twenty-three 
years ; was engaged at Rome, 1740 ; was 
celebrated in all Italy ; returned to Na- 
ples, 1768, where he continued to com- 
pose during life ; his works for the 
church and theatre are very numerous ; 
died at Naples, Aug. 28, 1774. 

Jonas, Carl, a celebrated composer 
and pianist, born at Berlin in 1770 ; was 
in the service of the King of Prussia, 
and a composer of merit. 

Jones, Darius E., published in New 
York, 1840, " Melodies of the Church,** 
" Temple Melodies," and other popular 

Jones, Edward, published, about the 
year 1785, a work entitled ^^ Musical a7id 
Poetical Belies of the Welsh Bards, pre- 
served by Tradition and Authentic Manu- 
scripts, never before published." 

Jones, E. T., for many years the or 


ganist of Canterbury Cathedral; died 


Jones, John, an organist at St. Paul's, 
London, composed a chant which was 
sung in unison by four thousand chil- 
dren in the presence of Haydn, who 
said it gave him the greatest pleasure of 
any music he had ever heard. 

Jones, John Hilton, of Bingham- 
ton, N.Y., 1853, published a practical 
guide to '' Thorough-bass,^^ intended to 
teach harmony without the aid of a 

Jones, Rev. W., a manufacturer of 
jEolian harps, in which the strings are 
fastened to a sounding-board within a 
case, to which the wind passes through 
an aperture. 

Jones, Robert, a voluminous com- 
poser. Two of the works published by 
him are, "^ Musical Dreame, or the 
Fourth Book of Ay res; ^^ and *' The Mu- 
ses Gardin for Delights,'^ 1609. 

Jones, Rev. W. of Nayland, in Suf- 
folk, an English musical amateur, who 
published, 1784, '^ A Treatise on the Art 
of Music,'^ considered a work of some 

Jones, W., bell-ringer at Pendleton, 
England, invented an apparatus worked 
by the simple turning of a handle, by 
which a peal of eight bells can be easily 
rung by a boy ; it is operated by levers 
and pulleys. 

Jongleurs. The jongleurs held a 
subordinate position; and they were 
sometimes compelled to play as many as 
nine different instruments, and to be 
skilful in the arts of rope-dancing and 
tumbling, in imitating the songs of birds, 
as well as to be of ready wit, and able to 
joke and play the fool. Hence the name 
jongleur is derived from joculato, a 
jester. The troubadours never sang for 
money, but for honor or love, while the 
jongleur was a paid servant. 

JoRTiN, Dr. John, vicar of Kensing- 
ton, was born in London in 1698. He 
published ^^ A Letter concerning the Mu- 
sic of the Ancients;^' died in 1770. 

Joseph, Georg, a musician in the 
service of the Bishop of Breslau in 1690, 
published some sacred compositions in 
that city. 

Josephine, wife of Napoleon, was a 
superior singer, and played several in- 
struments remarkably well, especially 
the harp, her favorite. 

JosQiHN, Des Pres, or Depres, the 
father of modern harmony, and one of 

the greatest supporters of ohurch-music ; 
was chapel-master to Louis XII. ; among 
musicians he was the giant of his age; 
composed much music; and his works 
were as well known in Europe as Han- 
del's have since been. 

Joubert, a violinist, and one of the 
best pupils of LuUi ; flourished at Paris 
about the year 1690. 

JoussE, J., a musician resident in 
London, born in France about 1760; 
published an introduction to the art of 
sol-fa-ing and singing, also published 
^^ Harmonic Cards,''"' to teach the chords. 


Jozzi, Giuseppe, an Italian sopranist, 
was in London in 1746, and performed 
in Gluck's opera "ia Caduta del Gi- 
ganti ; " settled as a singing-master at 
Amsterdam, where he published eight 

Jural, a descendant of Cain, and a 
son of Lamech, played on musical in- 
struments before the deluge, and taught 
others to play on the harp and organ. 
He is called the father of such as handle 
the harp (kinnor) and the organ. 

Jubilee Singers. Eight colored 
people of Nashville, Tenn., who in 1869 
commenced giving concerts to found a 
university; they were successful. The 
institution is Fisk University. 

Jubilees. There have been two 
great musical festivals at Boston, Mass., 
called Peace Jubilees: one in 1869, 
numbering 10,528 voices and an instru- 
mental force of 1,094 performers; 200,- 
000 people attended. At the Jubilee of 
1872, the chorus numbered 18,000; the 
orchestra, 2,000; buildings were erected 
for each of these festivals, capable of 
seating at one time 100,000 people. 

JuDELius, Joannes, a German mu- 
sician, published at Erfurt, in 1625, a 
work called '^Encomium Gamico-Har- 

JuDic, Mme. (Anna Damiens), born 
1849; appeared in opera at the age of 
sixteen; married, and in 1867 made a 
great reputation in Paris. 

JuDicE, Caesar de, a composer of 
madrigals and motets, published at Mes- 
sina and Palermo between the years 
1628 and 1666 ; was a native of Sicily. 

JuDKiN, T. J., published " Church 
and Home Psalmody,'" London, 1831. 

JuLiANUS Cesar possessed an organ 
which inspired the poet Graculus with 
the following lines: — 

" Tubes perceive I here, of another 



species, formed in the brazen regions of 
earth, and of powerful sound. But 
their sound is not awakened by our 
breath. Out from within the hollow 
of a bellows of bull's hide, the wind 
penetrates, at their bases, the sounding 
tubes. Behold! a strong man, endowed 
with quickly-flying fingers, touches the 
row of keys; and now, simultaneously 
blending, or in playful alternation, they 
sound forth in charming song." 

JuLiEN, G., an organist at Chartres, 
in France, towards the end of the seven- 
teenth century, published in Paris a 
book of organ-music. 

Jui.iEN, N., published at Paris in 
1780, under the name of ^'Julien I'ain^," 
a collection of comic opera songs for 
two violoncellos. 

JuLiEN, Pierre, a musician of the 
sixteenth century, born at Carpentras, 
in France, published in 1750, "ie Vrai 
Chemin pour apprendre a chanter toute 
Soi'te de Musique.'" 

JuLLiEN, George Louis, a French- 
man, born April 23, 1812, near Sis- 
teron, among the French Alps ; at the 
age of five years was a concert violin- 
ist ; in 1839 went to England, where his 
concerts and festivals for fifteen years 
made him very popular ; in 1856 he came 
to this country, and was immensely 
popular in New York, where he pro- 
duced some of the compositions of Fry 
and Bristow, Americans ; after his re- 
turn to England, he proposed to collect 
a monster orchestra, and make a tour 
around the globe, but did not succeed ; 
died March 16, 1860. 

JuLLiEN, G. L., jun., called Jullien 
11. , son of George Louis, was a member 
of Jullien's band, and inherited much 
of his father's energy and talent. 

Jullien, Paul, born at Crest, France, 
1841 ; remarkable as a violinist ; in 1850 
gained the first prize against seventeen 
competitors, and thereafter became a 
concert-player; came to this country, 

and performed at the concerts of Madame 

JuMiLHAC, Le PtRE DE, a Benedic- 
tine monk, published in Paris in 1673, 
"Xa Science et la Pratique du Plain- 

JuNGE, Joachim, a doctor of philos- 
ophy at Hamburg, died in 1657 ; among 
his published works is one entitled 
"■Harmonica Theoretical 

JuNGHAUTZ, J. A., organist at Arn- 
stadt, was born in 1745. He was known 
in Germany by some good compositions 
for the harpsichord. 

Junius, Adrianus, born in Holland 
in 1512, published a work, one of the 
chapters of which treats of ^^ Musica 
Instrumenta eoque spectantia." 

Junker, Karl Ludwig, a celebrated 
amateur musician in the north of Ger- 
many, died in 1797. He published many 
works on music between the years 1776 
and 1786. 

JusDORF, J. C, a flutist at Gottingen, 
has published several operas of music 
for his instrument, at Offenbach, since 
the year 1799. 

Just, J. A., a musician at the Hague, 
born about the year 1750, was considered 
one of the best performers of his time 
on the harpsichord ; published at Am- 
sterdam, the Hague, and Berlin, much 
music for his instrument. 

Justin Martyr died a martj-^r during 
the persecutions of Antoninus, in 163; 
works published at Paris in 1636 and 1742 
with excellent remarks on the church 
music used in his time. 

Justinian I., called "the Great," a 
Greek; was an excellent musician, and 
in the Greek Church they still sing a 
troparius, or hymn on the divinity of 
Jesus Christ, of his composition; died 
in 565. 

Justinianus, Leonakdus, a Vene- 
tian, lived about the year 1428; was cel- 
ebrated as a musical composer ; wrote a 
great number of amatory songs, which 
had much success. 


Kaa, F. I., a composer of instrumen- 
tal works at Cologne, 1783. 

Kaempfer, J., a celebrated Hunga- 
rian performer on the double bass, 1783. 

Kaleidoscope, Musical, consists of 
sixty sheets of music, twenty blue. 

twenty red, twenty black, printed notes ; 
any three sheets of one color furnish 
a piece of music, and any such piece 
changes character and form if you 
change one of the selected sheets. 
Kalkbrenner, C, a Prussian J«w, 



born at Munden, Germany, 1755, and 
famous as an historian and musical 
author; died at Paris, 1806. Fried- 
rich, son of C, born at Cassel, 1784; 
famous pianist and composer; died at 
Paris, 1849. 

Kallenbach, G. E. G., organist and 
composer, Magdeburg, from 1787 to 

Kalliwoda, J. W., born at Prague, 
1800; a distinguished instrumental com- 
poser; wrote much orchestra music. 

Kalozdy, one of a band of fifteen 
gypsies, and leader of the Hungarian 
orchestra formed in London, 1852 ; they 
know nothing of music, only as it is 
taught them by their leader. 

Kastner. M. Georges, of Paris, 
France, published, 1806, several musical 
works, among which one of some curi- 
osity is " The Cries of PariSy^^ and a 
collection of musical proverbs. 

Kastner, M. Frederick, invented, 
1873, the ^^ Pyrophone,^^ an instrument 
sounded by the action of fire : a lighted 
jet of gas plays upon glass tubes, pro- 
ducing the tones as desired. 

Karasek, or Karausciiek, a Bohe- 
mian violinist, died in 1789; composed 
some instrumental music, among which 
are concertos for the bassoon and vio- 
loncello, and symphonies. On the lat- 
ter-named instrument he was an excel- 
lent performer. 

Karelin, Sila Dementiewitsch, by 
birth a Russian, was, in the year 1796, 
the director of the musique de chasse of 
some nobleman at St. Petersburg. He 
was considered the finest performer in 
Russia on the cor de chasse; and his in- 
strument is said to have cost, at Mos- 
cow, eight hundred rubles. 

Karr, Henri, an excellent pianist, 
resident at Paris, was born at Deux- 
Ponts, in 1784. He has published some 
music for his instrument. 

Karsten, a good tenor-singer at the 
opera at Stockholm, by birtli a Swede. 
He was in London in the year 1792, and 
sang with much applause in various 
parties of the nobility. 

Katow, Helena, a Russian, born in 
Riga, of a Polish family, at an early age 
became known as a violoncellist ; came 
to this country, and appeared in Boston 
and other cities, 1865. 

Kauer, Ferdinand, a musi<;ian at 
Vienna, published there much dramatic 
and instrumental music, between the 
years 1794 and 1809. He is said to have 

been an excellent pianist; died in 1830, 
after losing a large number of manu- 
scripts and his musical library by a 
freshet from which he escaped only to 
be exhausted by debility, aged 80. 

Kaufmann, Carl, an organist at 
Berlin, born there in 1706; published 
some instrumental music about the year 
1790; died at Berlin in 1808. 

Kaufmann, Friedrich, the inventor 
of the harmonichord and other instru- 
ments, was born at Dresden, 1785; in 
1818 was offered the position of harmou- 
ichord-player in the orchestra at Darm- 
stadt; in 1839 completed the Sr/mpho- 
nion, and with his son made a tour of 
Germany, Russia, Sweden, and Den- 
mark ; on their return voyage the instru- 
ments were lost at sea ; but father and 
son constructed others and better ones, 
and established a permanent depot for 
the sale of their instruments, with which 
was combined a manufactory ; died 1872, 
aged 87. 

Kaufmann, Friedrich Theodob, 
son of the above-named, was born at 
Dresden, 1823; constructed a complete 
self-playing, orchestra-like instrument 
in 1851, after five years' unwearied exer- 
tions; it was called the '^Orchestrion,'^ 
and, when exhibited, created much ex- 
citement; died in Dresden, 1872, aged 

Kaufmann, Johann, a violoncellist 
at Stuttgard, born in 1760. 

Kaufmann, Johann Gottfried, 
born near Chemnitz, 1752 ; was the 
founder of a family distinguished for 
mechanical and musical talent; died at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1818. 

Kaufmann, Madame, wife of the 
preceding, was a celebrated singer at 
Stuttgard, in the service of the court. 

Kauth, Madame, an amateur com- 
poser of music for the piano-forte. 

Kayser, Elizabeth, celebrated for 
her talents as a singer. At the age of 
fifteen she sang with great success at 
the opera in Dresden. 

Keach, Benjamin, published, 1691, a 
tract proving singing to be a " holy 
ordinance of Jesus Christ." 

Keatinge, J. J., of Cincinnati, O., 
published " Singinfj Class Manual,^* 
1857; was a music-teacher. 

Keeble, John, organist of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, from 1759 to 
1787 ; published in 1784 a work entitled 
" The Theory of Harmonics." 

Keen, the dirge chanted at the Irist 



wake; the women who chant place 
themselves at each side of the corpse, 
and the chant is led by some talented 

Keeper, John, of Harthall, an Eng- 
lish church-composer, published in 1574, 
" Select Psalms, in four Parts,^' 

Kehl, Johann B., a singer and organ- 
ist, was born at Coburg; published sev- 
eral sonatas for the harpsichord, &c., 
1770, and left two oratorios in manu- 

Kehr, Charles Henry, bom in 
Eisenach, Aug. 29, 1820; came to 
America, 1883; became connected with 
the musical interests of Maryland, Penn- 
sylvania, and Virginia ; settled at Marion, 
Virginia, where he is a teacher and 
composer of reputation. 

Keifererus, Christianus, a monk 
and church-composer, published some 
sacred music at Augsburg and Ingolstadt, 
in the years 1612 and 1618. 

Keirt.eber was celebrated as a com- 
poser of canons; published one canon 
for five hundred and twelve voices and 

Keiser, R., born at Leipsic, 1673; 
composed one hundred and eighteen 
operas and much other music: died 

Keith, R. W., born at Stepney, 1787; 
author of many theoretical works on 

Keller, Carl, a German composer 
of flute-music at Vienna, born Oct. 16, 
1774 ; wrote much for his instrument. 

Keller, Godfrey, was a celebrated 
English master of the harpsichord, about 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
He published several sonatas in five 
parts, for flutes, hautboys, &c. ; also a 
work entitled "J. Complete Method for 
attainiwf to pia?/ a Thorough Bass upon 
either Organ, Harpsichord, or Theorbo 

Keller, H. M., a German organist; 
died in 1710; wrote some music for his 

Kellie, Lord Thomas Alexander, 
born in Scotland, Sept. 1, 1732; a great 
musical genius ; published at Edin- 
burgh, 1774, a volume of minuets ; died 
at Brussels, Oct. 9, 1781, aged 51. 

Keller, Matthias, born at Ulm, 
Wurtemburg, March 20, 1813 ; early be- 
came a band-master; came to this coun- 
try 1846; became a violinist in Phila- 
delphia, Penn., and a conductor of Eng- 
lish opera in New York; removed to 

Boston, Mass., and became celebrated 
as a song-writer, but chiefly as the au- 
thor of the ^^ American Hymn,''^ per- 
formed at the Peace Jubilee by a chorus 
of ten thousand five hundred voices and 
an orchestra of eleven hundred. 

Kellerman, Christian, violinist to 
the King of Denmark, who was accom- 
panist for Carlotti Patti. 1866; died at 
Copenhagen, January, 1867, aged 50. 

Kellner, David, a musician at Ham- 
burg, published there in 1732, " Treu- 
licher tlnterrichtim Generalbass,^^ which, 
in 1796, had arrived at its eighth edition. 

Kellner, Ernest Augustus, was 
born at Windsor, 1792; his compositions 
are chiefly manuscript, and consequently 
only known within the circle of his 
friends ; he has, however, written some 
masses and offertories, which have been 
sung at the Bavarian Chapel. 

Kellner, Johann Peter, cantor 
and organist at Grafenrode in Thu- 
ringia, was born there in 1705 ; composed 
much, including fugues, preludes, suites, 
passions, and other forms of church- 

Kellner, Johann Christophe, son 
of the preceding, was an organist at 
Cassel, and born in 1735; had published, 
up to the year 1785, fifteen operas of 
harpsichord music, together with some 
pieces for the organ. 

Kellogg, Clara Louisa, born at 
Charleston, S.C., of New England par- 
ents, 1840; removed to Connecticut 
when quite young, and made her first 
appearance in opera, at New York, 1861 ; 
fully established her fame as a singer 
and actress in *^Crispino,^^ ^^Faust,^' and 
other operas, 1865; in 1867, appeared 
with success at her Majesty's Theatre 
in London, and has since acquired the 
fame of a great artist. 

Kelly, Earl of, an eminent musical 
composer of vocal and instrumental 
music ; his works, for the space of nine- 
teen years, were published by Robert 

Kelly, Michael, born in Dublin, 
1764; celebrated as a tenor-singer at 
Venice ; in 1787 appeared at Drury Lane, 
London, and became musical director of 
that theatre; sang ai the Ancient Con- 
certs and at the principal music-meet- 
ings and theatres ; became celebrated as 
a composer, 1797; after which he wrote 
sixty pieces for the different theatres ; 
died in London, 1825. 

Kelz, Matth., a German musician in 



the seventeenth century, published sev- 
eral sacred works, and wrote a treatise 
on composition, in the Latin language, 
between the years 1626 and 1669. 

Kemblk, Adelaide, youngest sister 
of Fanny Kemble, in early life, 1841, 
gained great celebrity as an operatic 
singer; but abandoned the stage after 
marrying Mr. Sartoris. 

Kemble, Rev. C, an amateur mu- 
sician: published in London, 1841, 
*' Church Psalmody," and other musical 

Kemp, Andrew, master of the music 
school at Aberdeen, Scotland, 1570, and 
composer of some excellent airs. 

Kemp, Dr., an English musician of 
much talent as a theorist; composed 
some very pleasing vocal music. Among 
his works are ^^ Musical Illustrations of 
the Beauties of Shakspeare.^^ 

Kemp, Joseph, born in London, 1778 ; 
a musical composer ; wrote songs, glees, 
and in 1810, '^Musical Illustrations of 
the Lady of the Lake ; " died 1824. 

Kempton, Jenny, known as a vocal- 
ist in New England, 1850; went to Flor- 
ence, and became connected with an 
opera company there. 

Kendal, John, an English organist, 
published, in 1780, some music for his 

Kendall, Edward, born in Ver- 
mont; early went to Boston, Mass., 
where he became celebrated as a per- 
former upon the Kent bugle; was 
equally celebrated in England, where he 
was at one time connected with a Lon- 
don band, but spent most of his life 
with the bands and orchestras of Bos- 
ton; died of consumption, Oct. 26,1861, 
aged 53. 

Kendall, James, brother of the 
above, was celebrated as a clarinetist; 
played with Edward in tlie Boston bands 
and theatre orchestras ; died in San 
Francisco in 1874. 

Kenn, a performer on the horn, was 
engaged, in 1798, in the orchestra of the 
Grand Opera at Paris, where he also pub- 
lished some music for his instrument. 

Kennis, William Gommar, director 
of tlie music at the Church of St. Peter, 
at Louvain, about the year 1768, was 
considered, in 1772, as the first of all 
violinists in the Austrian Netherlands; 
published nine works at Paris. 

Kent Bugle, a keyed instrument of 
such compass as to be used as a solo in- 
strument or as an accompaniment. 

Kent, James, born at Winchester, 
March 13, 1700; was organist at Cam- 
bridge and Winchester, England, for 
many years ; composed a large number 
of anthems and other churcli music; 
died 1776. 

Kepler, Johann, born at Wiel, in 
the Duchy of Wurtemburg, in the year 
1571, and died in 1630; denies that the 
ancients had any idea of harmony; he 
compares their accompaniments to their 
melodies to the droning of a bagpipe. 

Kerana, a Persian wind-instrument 
of the trumpet kind, much used with 
other instruments. 

Keranim, a Hebrew sacerdotal trum- 

Keras, the hydraulic or water-organ 
of the ancients. 

Keren, a horn; the first used were 
ram's horns. 

Kerl, Johann Caspar, born in 1625, 
was a native of Saxony ; settled in Ba- 
varia, where he became chapel-master to 
the Elector Ferdinando Maria. Kerl's 
principal work is his '■^Modulatio Organ- 
ica super magnificat, octo Tonis ecclesias- 
ticis respondens,'' printed at Munich in 

Kerle, Jacob de, was born at Ypres, 
in Flanders ; his compositions, which are 
chiefly for the church, were published in 
different parts of Europe, from 1562 to 

Kerlin, Jean, a native of Brittany, 
one of the oldest violin-makers, 1449. 

Kerpen, F. H. Freiherr von, a 
canon of the cathedrals of Mentz and 
Wurtzburg, was an excellent amateur 
musician, and published much vocal and 
piano-forte music between the years 1780 
and 1800. 

Kerzel, or Kerzelli, Michael, a 
musician at Vienna, where he published, 
up to the year 1783, much violin music. 
About the year 1787, he went to Moscow, 
where he wrote some Russian operas. 

Kessel, Johann C. B., a singer at 
Eisleben, was born in 1766. In the year 
1790, he published at Leipsic, ''Unter- 
richi im zum Gehrauchefur 
Lehrer und Lernende.^' 

Kessler, Johann Wilhelm, an or- 
ganist at Ileilbronn, published at Stutt- 
gard in 1793-4, " Wiirtembergisches vier- 
stimmiges Choralhuch ;^^ also at Dann- 
stadt, in 1796, '^ Divertissemens SociauXy 
ou six Anglaises pour le Clavecin avec 
leur Chore'graphiey 

Kette, Albrecht, a celebrated or- 

lU^ AWy^ lO^rH^ (nr^ J^j^^J 

't^i^.rt>, i}r7.o , />y^i^ 




ganist of the court and cathedral at 
Wurtzburg, was born in 1726 ; composed 
much church music, and music for the 
organ ; died in tlie year 1767. 

Kettle-Drum, a drum the vellum 
head of which is spread over a body of 
brass ; very different from the military 

Key, Francis Scott, born in Mary- 
land, Aug. 1, 1779; wrote "■The Star 
Spangled Banner; " died at Washington, 
Jan. 11, 1843. 

Key Harp is in appearance like the 
piano-forte; but tuning-forks are vi- 
brated, instead of strings, by the stroke 
of the keys. 

Keyp:d Violin, played like the parlor 
organ by means of a keyboard ; it has 
forty strings sounded by bows mechan- 
ically moved ; invented 1848. 

Khisel, Giovanni Giacomo, a con- 
trapuntist of the 16tli century, and prob- 
ably a German, resident in Italy, pub- 
lished at Venice, in 1591, "Libro I. de 
Madrir/ali et Mofetti a4 e 5 voci.^'' 

Khivans. This people, like other 
Orientals, have for centuries been cele- 
brated for their music and song ; from 
this place go forth the best singers, 
violin and guitar players, known at Con- 
stantinople and other cities. 

KiiYM, or Kyhm, Carl, an instru- 
mental composer; published much music 
at Augsburg and Vienna since the year 

Kiallmaek, E., born at Lynn Regis, 
Norfolk, 1781 ; became a teacher of the 
piano-forte, harp, and violin; subse- 
quently a composer; published a large 
number of pieces for the piano-forte 
and violin. 

Kieffer, Aldine S., of Singer's 
Glen, Va. ; was at one time connected 
with Joseph Funk & Sons, in Rocking- 
ham County, Va., and published, 1868, 
" The Song-Crowned King,'' 144 pages; 
was also concerned in publishing " The 
Christian Harp,'" 112 pages; was in 
company with one Ruebush, and was 
teacher of music. 

KiELBLOCK, Franz, a native of Gus- 
trow, Germany ; a composer of fugitive 
music and one opera, "Miles Standish;'' 
for seventeen years, after coming to this 
country, 1843, was a music-teacher in 
New Bedford, and one of the original 
members of the old Germania Band, 
Boston ; died Aug. 13, 1867, aged 43. 

KiESER, J. J., an organist at Erfurt 

about the year 1750, composed much 
music for his instrument. 

Kiesewetter, Chrlstoph Gott- 
fried, born at Anspach in 1777 ; was a 
very celebrated violinist, and spent much 
time in England since the winter of 
1821, when lie performed at the Phil- 
harmonic Concerts in London; died 

Kiesewetter, Johann Friedrich, 
first violin at the Royal Chapel of An- 
spach, was born at Coburg. He obtained 
his public situation in the year 1754. 

Kilian, of Zurich, was the inventor 
of cast violin-strings ; the material from 
which they are manufactured becomes 
solid by being mixed with a varnish; 
claims that they rarely get out of tune, 
and never need rosin. 

Kimball, Jacob, jun., A.B., of Sa- 
lem, Mass., published at Exeter, N.H., 
1800, "The Essex Harmony;'' was a com- 
poser and teacher of music, and at one 
time connected with Samuel Holyoke in 
his publications. 

Kimball, Jacob, born at Topsfield, 
Mass., February, 1761; a famous teacher 
and composer of music, and a poet who 
wrote some of the psalms in Belknap's 
collection; taught music in Massachu- 
setts, New Hampshire, and Maine ; was 
chosen " to sit in the Elder's seat, and 
lead the Psalms," at Topsfield; pub- 
lished "The Bural Harmony," mostly 
original music 1793; died in Topsfield, 
July 24, 1826, aged 65. 

Kin, a Chinese instrument having five 
silk strings, and played with a bow. 

Kind, Frederic, the author of the 
libretto of " Ber Freischutz," and coad- 
jutor of C. M. von Weber, died at 
Dresden, 1853, aged 66. 

Kindermann, Johann Erasmus, a 
celebrated organist at Nuremberg, died 
in 1655. He composed many practical 
works, both vocal and instrumental, the 
latter being chiefly for the organ. 


died in 1726; wrote several works on 
music; among others one entitled "Be 
Musica litter at is necessaria." 

KiNDSCHER, L., a singer at the court 
church at Dessau, published there, in 
1792, a collection of twenty-four songs, 
and at Leipsic, in 1801, a similar col- 

King, a Chinese instrument with 
pendent stone, giving sixteen tones; 
the stones are struck with a hammer. 

King, Charles, educated in the 



choir of St. Paul's, under Dr. Blow, 
was at first a supernumerary singer in 
that cathedral for the small stipend of 
iourteen pounds a year. In the year 
1704, he was admitted to the degree of 
bachelor in music in the University 
of Oxford. King composed some an- 
thems and services. 

King, EuaEXE H., organist and 
teacher, Rochester, N.Y., died April 13, 
1873, aged 21. 

King, Dr. Henry, was the author 
of a new metrical translation of the 
Psalms, Oct. 30, 1651. He was Bishop 
of Chichester, and son of Dr. John King, 
Bishop of London; died Oct. 1, 1669. 

King, M. P., born 1765; an English 
composer, chiefly of vocal music, since 
the year 1790 ; also published "^ General 
Treatise on Music, particularly on Har- 
mony, or Thorowjh-BassV 

King, Robert, bachelor in music of 
Cambridge, in 1696, was one of the band 
of William and Mary. He composed 
various airs, printed in " The Tripla 
Concordia,^ ^ and set to music many 
songs, printed in the " Theatre of 

King, William A., a native of Lon- 
don, and son of M. P. King, was an 
organist of rare acquirements. He came 
to this country in 1835, and officiated as 
organist at several of the New York 
churches He published *' The Grace 
Church Collections^ of music, and 
''Kinrfs Quartets;'' died May 11, 1867. 

Kino, William, organist of New 
College, Oxford, set to music Cowley's 
^'Mistress,'' and published it with the 
following title: "Poe?n.s of Mr. Coioley 
and others, composed into Songs and 
Ayres, with a Thorough Basse for the 
Theorbo, Harpsecor, or Base Violl,'' 
Oxford, 1688. 

KiNGSLEY, George, born in North- 
ampton, Mass., July 7, 1811; published 
a number of excellent collections of 
music previous to 1853 ; was an organist 
and fine composer; his ^^Social Choir,'' 
three volumes, was very popular. 

KiNKEL, Charles, born in Germany, 
1832; came to this country, 1849, as a 
teacher of music; married, and taught 
music at an academy in Shelbyville, Ky. ; 
has composed a large number of salon- 
pieces, variations, and instructive piano- 
forte pieces for young players. 

KiNKEL, Johanna, author of '■'■Eight 
Letters to a Friend on Instruction on the 
Piano Forte." These letters were popu- 

lar in Germany, and were translated by 
William Grauert, A.M., and published 
in this country in 1860. 

KiNNOR, the national instrument of 
the Hebrews; well known in Asia; an 
antediluvian invention like the harp. 

KiRBYE, George, an English musi- 
cian and good madrigalist at the close 
of the sixteenth and beginning of the 
seventeenth century. In the year 1597, 
he and Thomas Weilkes published their 
first books of English madrigals. 

KiRCHER, Athanasius, born at 
Fulda, 1601 ; chiefly celebrated as the 
author of '■'■Musurgia Universalis," in 
ten books ; in 1673 he published a work 
explaining the nature, properties, and 
effects of sounds; died 1680. 


native of Berlin, born 1721. His knowl- 
edge of counterpoint and of all the laws 
and subtilties of canon and fugue was 
indisputable. He died in the year 1783. 
His principal works were theoretical 
and didactic. 

KiRSTEN, Friedrich, an organist at 
Dresden, published, between the years 
1770 and 1797, several works of piano- 
forte music. 

KiRSTEN, Michael, organist at Bres- 
lau, died in 1742. lie wrote some church 

Kit, a small violin once used by 

KiTCHiNER, William, born in Lon- 
don, 1775; wrote some valuable treatises 
on music, and a collection of the ''Loyal 
and National .Songs of England ; " died 

KiTTEL, Christoph, court organist 
and composer at Dresden, published 
there, in 1657, twelve canticles for four 

at Erfurt, was born there in 1732. He 
was a pupil of the great Sebastian Bach, 
and in all respects worthy of his master. 
He published "6 Sons, fiirs Klavier,'^ 
1787 ; died 1809. 

KiTTL, JoHANN Friedrich, born at 
Warlik, Bohemia, May 8, 1809; became 
celebrated as a composer; was chosen 
director of the Prague Conservatorium, 
1843 ; after which he composed a num- 
ber of successful operas. 

Klackel, Stephan, or Paten", 
chapel-master at Prague, was bom in 
1753. He was an excellent violinist, 
and was heard in most of the capitals 
of Europe ; died in 1788. 



Klengel, a. a., a German composer 
residing in Austria; his works are nu- 

Kles, F., a German instrumental 
composer; published some violin con- 
certos at Breslau, since the year 1786. 

Kletzinski, Johanx, an instrumen- 
tal composer of some eminence ; resided 
at Vienna in the latter part of the last 
century, and published there several 
operas of violin music. 

Klingemann, Gael, musician and 
poet, furnished the words to many of 
Mendelssohn's songs; was the trustee 
of the scholarship fund, by which an 
English pupil is sustained at Leipsic; 
died in London, 1862 ; Mrs. Goldschmidt 
(Jenny Lind) was elected to fill his 

Klingenstein, Bernhard, director 
of the music at Augsburg in the year 
1600; he published many sacred compo- 
sitions for the church. 

Klockenbring, Friedrich Ar- 
nold, published in 1787 a work enti- 
tled "• Aussetzungen verschiedenen,^' &c. ; 
died at Steinfurt, 1795. 

Kloeffler, Johann Friedrich, an 
instrumental composer ; published many 
works for the flute, violin, and piano- 
forte ; died at Steinfurt about the year 

Klose, F. J., a native of London, 
was an able instrumental performer, 
and a member of most of the orchestras 
in London, particularly of the King's 
Theatre and Concert of Ancient Music ; 
as a composer, he was most esteemed 
for facile works ; died 1830. 

Klots, Mathias, George, and Se- 
bastian, brothers, were apprentices of 
Jacob Steiner, at Absone, and after- 
wards, from his models, made instru- 
ments that were mistaken for those of 
the master. 

Klugling, organist of the Church 
of St. Peter and St. Paul, at Dantzic, in 
1782 ; he was considered among the best 
composers of his time on the organ and 
harpsichord, in the style of Schobert. 

Knafel, Joseph Leopold, a musi- 
cian resident at Vienna, known by the 
following compositions: '■'Sept Varia- 
tions pour le Clav. siir le Choeur des 
Paparjenos,^^ Vienna, 1799; "Six Vari- 
ations pour la Harpe, sur le Trio ' Pria 
c/i' io Vimpegno,^ ^^ Vienna, 1799; and 
^' Eecueil pour la Harpe a Crochets, cah. 
1," 1803. 

Knapp, Francis, born at Chilton, 

England, 1672 ; was a composer of mu- 
sic, and came to America. 

Knapton, Philip, was born at York 
in the year 1788; published '■'■ Three 
Sonatas for the Pia7io-Forte,^^ and vari- 
ous other works for the voice, the piano- 
forte, and the harp. 

Knecht, Justin Heinrich. master 
of a Lutheran school, and director of 
the music at Biberach in Swabia, was 
born there in 1752; became celebrated 
as a teacher, performer upon instru- 
ments, and composer. 

Knoep, Luder, an organist, and 
composer of light instrumental music, 
resided at Bremen in the middle of the 
seventeenth century. 

Knoop, George, whose abilities as 
a performer on the violoncello were 
highly esteemed in this country, died at 
Philadelphia, on the twenty-fifth day 
of December, 1849. The orchestras of 
the theatres performed a dirge at his 
burial in honor of him. 

Knorr, Julius, was born in Leip- 
zig, Germany, in 1799; he entered the 
University at the age of sixteen, and 
graduated with full honors. At the 
time he graduated he was a distin- 
guished pianist, and was much em- 
ployed by the noble and wealthy as an 
instructor and concert performer. He 
was for several years associated with 
Schumann as musical editor of the 
''Leipsic Signale,'^ but frequently played 
at the Gewandhaus concerts. Excessive 
indulgence in the fashionable follies 
of the time ruined his health, and dis- 
sipated his earnings. He died at Leip- 
sic, June 17, 1860, aged 61 years ; known 
in this country by his piano-forte in- 

Knox published, 1565, the first book 
printed in Scotland containing musical 
notation, "The Liturgy and Psalms;^' 
in this the Psalms are set to particular 
tunes, printed from music type. 

KxoxviLLE Harmony, John B. 
Jackson, Pumkintown, East Tenn., 

Knupfer, Sebastian, a singer and 
director of the music at Leipsic, was 
born in 1633. Some of his compositions 
for the church were much celebrated in 
Germany ; died in 1676. 

Knyvett, Charles, was appointed 
organist to the parish church of St. 
George, Hanover Square, in 1802. He 
afterwards engaged as a teacher of thor- 
ough-bass and the piano-forte, in Lon- 



don, in which capacity he was very 

Knyvett, William, was an eminent 
counter-tenor singer; first commenced 
orchestral singing at tlie Concert of An- 
cient Music about the year 1795 ; after 
which period he assisted in all the 
most important concerts and music 
meetings in London and the provincial 
towns. As a writer of glees, his produc- 
tions are airy and elegant. 


German chapel-master at a town near 
Halle, was born in 1674 ; wrote several 
operas for the German theatres between 
1716 and 1729; died at Weissenfels in 

KoBRiCHT, JoHANN Anton, organ- 
ist at Landsberg, in Bavaria, between 
the years 1748 and 1767; published at 
Nuremburg and Augsburg thirteen 
works, consisting chiefly of harpsichord 
and organ music. 

KoNiNCK, Servaas de, a Dutch 
composer, died at Amsterdam about 
1720; published several collections of 
songs and some motets. 

KoNiZEK, a celebrated violinist at 
Prague, flourished about the year 1722 ; 
was the master of the renowned A. F. 

KoPF, Dr., overseer of the establish- 
ment for the reformation of youthful 
offenders at Berlin, where music is 
taught to expel obduracy. 

KoppiTZ, Charles, born in Hol- 
stein. North Germany, 1830, a talented 
musician ; came as director at tlie Boston 
Theatre, and was at the Globe from its 
opening to its destruction ; as a writer 
of melodramatic music he was skilled 
and esteemed; died at St. John, N.B., 
June 22, 1873, aged 43. 

KoppRASCH, a German performer on 
the bassoon, and composer for his in- 
strument, towards the latter end of the 
last century. 

KoRPONAY, Gabriel de, a native 
of Poland, and a soldier; came to this 
country after his nation was conquered 
by Russia; settled in Philadelphia, 
Penn., and there introduced the music 
and the dance known as the polka. 

Kosleck, Herren, leader of the 
Imperial Prussian Quartet, with Phil- 
lipzs. Sens, and Diechen, all cornet 
players of eminence, came to this coun- 
try in 1872, and performed at the Peace 
Jubilee, Boston. Kosleck is noted as 
the discoverer of the *' Bishop £Zonis/* 

one of which he found among the art 
treasures of Heidelberg. 

KospoTH, Otto Carl Erdmann 
Freyiierb von, was one of the most 
distinguished musical amateurs of Ber- 
lin. He published several vocal works 
for the church and theatre; also some 
instrumental music. 

KossLOWSKY, J., chapel-master to 
the last King of Poland at Warsaw ; was 
appointed inspector of the Imperial 
Chapel at St. Petersburg; published 
some songs, and collections of polo^ 

KoTzwARA, Franz. This musician 
was born in Prague, and went to Lon- 
don about the year 1791; after which 
he published some songs and instru- 
mental music. 

KoTzscHMAR, HERMANN, bom in 
Finsterwald, Prussia, July 4, 1829; at 
the age of eight years made his appear- 
ance as a pianist and violinist, and at 
fourteen was member of the orchestra 
"8a.Tomfflns," which, after success in 
Germany, came to this country 1848. On 
the disbanding of this troupe, 1849, set- 
tled in Portland, Me., as organist and 
conductor of the Band and Orchestral 
Union ; composed much popular music, 
and is conductor of the Haydn Society 
of Portland. 

KozELUCH, JoHANN Anton, chapel- 
master at the Metropolitan Church at 
Prague, was born in Bohemia, in 1738- 
He is considered as having been one of 
tlie greatest masters of his time, both 
in his compositions for the church and 

KozELUCH, Leopold, was born in 
Bohemia in 1753, and resided during 
the greater part of his life at Vienna. 
He wrote a great number of concertos, 
sonatas, and other pieces for the piano- 
forte ; and his works first became cele- 
brated in England in the year 1785. 

Kracher, Joseph Matthias, an 
organist near Salzburg, in Germany, 
was born in 1752; composed some ex- 
cellent sacred music. 

Kramer, Christian, a Hanoverian 
musician, was leader of the famous 
band of George IV.; was a performer 
upon nearly every instrument then in 
use; the band played at the palace every 
day, and was made up of the best known 

Kranz, Johann Friedrich, cham- 
ber-musician and violinist in the servicf 
of the Duke of Saxe- Weimar, was born 



in that town in 1754; composed some 
plaasing vocal music. 

Kraus, Joseph, chapel-master to the 
King of Sweden, went to Mannheim in 
1756. His compositions were numer- 
ous, consisting of dramatic and instru- 
mental music; died at Stockholm in 

KpvAuse, Christian Gottfried, 
born in Silesia; composed some vocal 
and instrumental music; among the 
former are some sacred pieces highly 
esteemed: died in 1770. 

Krauss, Benedict, a good German 
composer for the church and theatre, 
was chapel-master to the Duke Clemens 
of Bavaria, and chef-tV orchestre of the 
Court Theatre at Weimar, in 17S5 ; wrote 
many works. 

Krebs, Johann Lewis, born Oct. 
10, 1713; court organist to the Duke of 
Saxe- Weimar, at Altenburg: died in 
the year 1780. Among his compositions 
are " CoUeciions of Exercisea for the 
Harpftichoi'd ;^^ '^ Easy Sonatas for the 
Harpsichord and Flute ;^' " <Si.c Trios 
for the Flute ;^^ "-Sir Sonatas for the 
Harpsichord and Flute ; " " vl Magnifi- 
cat for four Voices and 2?cfss;" and 
" Tu'o Sanctuses for a full Orchestral 

Krebs, Karl, composed the opera 
"vlr/nes," performed at Dresden, Jan. 
17, 1858. 

Krebs, Marie, a German pianist; 
gave concerts at the age of eleven years ; 
went to England 1864; and in 1867 
made a concert tour with Carlotta Patti, 
in France and Italy; afterwards came 
to this countrj'. 

Kreibich, Franz, a celebrated Ger- 
man violinist, flourished in Vienna 
about the year 1760, and composed some 
music for his instrument ; died in 1797. 

Kreissman, Augustus, a composer 
and teacher of music, Boston, Mass. ; 
published, 1851, " Anthems and 
Hymns,^^ being twenty-eight original 
compositions, well known and much 

Kreith, Carl, a flutist and com- 
poser for his instrument at Vienna, died 
previously to the year 1787. 

Kress, George Friedrich, a vir- 
tuoso on the violin, and a native of 
Darmstadt, was, about the year 1756, in 
the chapel of the Duke of Mecklenberg, 
at Schwerin ; composed some violin mu- 
sic ; died about 1775. 

Kreutzer, Conradin, was born at 
Mosskirch in the Schwarzwald in 1782. 

From early youth he had judicious 
teachers at his side, who quickly carried 
him through the courses and degrees 
of musical study. He was a Swabian. 
He published many works, but not un- 
til the age of 52 did he succeed in pro- 
ducing a work of magnitude, *' The 
Night Camp of Granada.^' This opera 
had a wonderful success. Kreutzer 
died in Russia, in December, 1849, aged 
67. Two years after his death his post- 
humous work *' J.?(re/ia" was brought 
out upon the German stage. 

Kreutzer, Rodolph, born at Ver- 
sailles, Nov. 22, 1767; travelled in Ger- 
many, Holland, and Italy, where he was 
generally considered one of the first 
violinists in Europe; composed much 
violin music and some dramatic pieces ; 
first violinist to Napoleon ; died Feb. 6, 
1831, aged 64. 

Krommer, born at Kammenitz, 1759, 
was a Moravian ; composed sixty-nine 
quartets for stringed instruments, and 
avast quantity of church music; some 
of his quartets were performed in Lon- 
don, 1862. 

Kuhnau, Johann Christoph, a 
singer and preceptor at the royal school 
of Berlin, may be reckoned among the 
most profound ecclesiastical contra- 
puntists of Germany, towards the close 
of the last century ; died at Berlin in 

KUHNEL, August, chapel-master at 
Leipsic in 1682, published several works 
for the viol da gamba, and other instru- 


da gambist at Berlin, and afterwards at 
Dresden and Hamburg, in the begin- 
ning of the last century. He published 
at Amsterdam some works for his in- 

KuLLAH, Theodore, born in Po- 
land, Sept. 12, 1818; court pianist to the 
King of Prussia; was instrumental in 
founding several music schools ; has 
composed much music for his instru- 
ment, and published a " School of Oc- 

KuMMEL, Bernhard Christophe, 
a German clergyman, published some 
vocal and instrumental music at Leip- 
sic, between the years 1788 and 1802. 


instrumental composer at Hamburg iu 
the early part of the last century. 

KUMMER, a performer on the bassoon 
at Dresden. In 1799 he was much ad- 



mired at Leipsic, where he also pub- 
lished some music for his instrument. 

KuMMij.K, Caspar, one of the most 
celebrated flutists in Germany; died 
August, 1870. 

KuMMER, Friedrich August, a 
distinguished violoncellist and composer 
for his instrument, was born at Mei- 
niingen in 1797. He entered the chapel 
of the King of Saxony in 1822, where he 
became first violoncellist. 

KUNZ, G., a native of Germany, came 
to this country, and settled in Philadel- 
phia as a music-teacher; perished on 
board "The Austria," burned at sea, 
September, 1858. 

Kuxz, Thomas Antox, was born in 
1759 at Prague, where he has chiefly 
resided, and has been considered an 
excellent composer and pianist; pub- 
lished several collections of songs ; is 
the inventor of a sort of organized 
piano-forte, called the " Orchestrion,'' 
which has twenty-one stops, imitating 
almost every description of instrument. 

KuNZE, C. H., a professor of music 
and instrumental composer at Heil- 
bronn, published several pieces for the 
horn and flageolet, between the years 
1793 and 1800. 

KuNZEX, Friedwich Ludw^g Emil, 
chapel-master to the King of Denmark 
in the year 1813, was born at Lubec in 
17G3 ; was in early life remarkable for 
his ability as a pianist ; composed many 
operas in the Danish language, also 
several oratorios, with other sacred mu- 
sic, besides many instrumental pieces. 

KuNZEN, JoHANN Paui., born in 
Saxony, 1696 ; was chorister in the 
church at the age of seven years, and 
organist at the age of nine ; became 
director of the opera at Hamburg, and 
the composer of operas, oratorios, and 
other music ; died at Lubec, 1781. 

KuNZEN, Karl Adolph, according 
to others Johann Adolph, son of the 
preceding, was born at Wittenberg in 
1720. The extraordinaiy precocity of 
his talent in harpsichord-playing caused 
his father to carry him to England in 

1729. He published in London a book 
of lessons; finally succeeded his father 
as organist at Lubec. 

KuRLAENDER, M. Elie, ouc of the 
oldest pianists and musicians, born in 
Koenigsberg, Prussia, and passed most 
of his life there, a renowned teacher ; 
died at Prague, 18.52, aged 100 years. 

Kurtzweil, an instrumental com- 
poser who probably resided at Vienna. 
He died before the year 1806. 

KuRziNGER, Igx. Franz Xav., a 
court musician at Mergentheim in Fi-an- 
conia, published at Augsburg, about 
the year 1758, a work of importance on 

KuRZiNGER, Paul, son of the pre- 
ceding, was, in 1807, resident as a musi- 
cian at Vienna; published several col- 
lections of songs, and some light music 
for the piano-forte. Kurzinger was 
born at Wurtzburg in 1760. 


MUK, chapel-master and singer at 
Prague, died in 1781. Among his works 
are two masses and eight symphonies. 

Kuzzi, Antox Joseph, a musician, 
resident at St. Petersburg in 1796, has 
published symphonies and concertos for 
almost all instruments ; likewise several 
operas, among which we can name 
'^ BeUnont und Konstanze,'' and many 
German and Italian songs. 

Kyle, John Archibald, well known 
at one time as the most distinguished 
flutist in this country, was of Irish 
descent, his father too being a musi- 
cian and band-master at the military 
academy, West Point. John accom- 
panied Jenny Lind when she sung in 
this country; in 1856 received an ap- 
pointment in the Custom House ; died 
in New York, March, 1871. 

Kytch, a celebrated German oboe- 
player, went to England, where his per- 
formance was held in high estimation; 
but he died very poor ; and the subscrip- 
tion raised for the relief of his children 
led to the establishment of the Royal 
Society of Musicians in London, April, 


L is sometimes placed over notes to 
b3 struck by the left hand. 
. La, a monosyllable applied to the 
note A in sol-fa-ing. 

Labarke, Theodore, bom at Paris, 
1808; a great harp virtuoso and popular 
composer ; wrote several works for the 
Opera Comique ; was professor of the 



harp at the conservatoire, and inspector 
of music at the Chapelle Imperiale ; died 
March 9, 1870, aged 62. 

Labitzky, J., born in Bohemia, 1802; 
went to reside in Karlsbad, where he 
became famous as a composer and mu- 
sician ; his beautiful waltzes have made 
him known in this country. 

Lablache, (Louis) Luigi, born at 
Naples, Dec. 6, 1794 ; early took, and to 
the day of his death held, rank in Eu- 
rope as one of the greatest of Italian 
singers; he had no equal as a bass 
singer; high and low comedy were 
equally native to his genius; he was 
also an instrumental performer and 
composer; his only daughter married 
Thalberg, the pianist, and came with 
him to this country, 1856 ; died at Na- 
ples, Jan. 23, 1858, aged 64. 

Laborde, Jean Benjamin, born at 
Paris, Sept. 5, 1734; became celebrated 
as a violinist and composer ; was a fa- 
vorite of Louis XY. ; published several 
important works, and composed some 
operas and romances which were pleas- 
ing and popular; guillotined July 22, 

Lachner, Franz, chapel-master to 
the king of Bavaria, was born at Krain. 
1804; became organist at Vienna, and 
took the prize there for composition; 
his works are numerous, and were writ- 
ten at Vienna, at Munich, and at Mann- 
heim; finally settled at Munich. 

Lacy, M., instituted in London, Eng- 
land, at Drury Lane Theatre, 1750, the 
first matinees, or morning concerts ; com- 
plaints were soon made that they at- 
tracted young merchants and shopkeep- 
ers at an unseasonable hour, and public 
opinion caused their speedy discontinu- 

Lacy, Rophino, born in Spain of 
British parents ; was eminent as a vio- 
linist; after visiting several countries, 
he went to England, and was leader of 
the Liverpool concerts; in 1820, was 
leader at the London Opera House; 
published much piano-forte music, some 
orchestral compositions, and six popu- 
lar songs. 

Lafont, C. p., violinist; bom at 
Paris, Dec. 1, 1791; died Aug. 23, 1839. 

Lagrua, E., a Sicilian, elected to 
take the place of Bosio at St. Peters- 
burg, after the death of that singer. 

Lahoussaye, Pierre, born at Paris, 
1735; became celebrated as a violinist 
in Italy; returning to Paris, was cJief 

cVorchestre at the Concert Spirituel, at 
the opera and theatre; died in Paris, 
after becoming a professor in the con- 

Laiolle, Franc de, composed the 
melodies of many songs in various lan- 
guages, printed in the Netherlands, 1530 
to 1540. 

Lalande, Maria, born in Italy, 
1798 ; sang with Malibran ; died at Chau- 
tilly, October, 1867. 

Lalorne, M., a composer and assist- 
ant of M. Carafa in writing "ia Vio- 

Lampe, J. F., of Saxony; famous 
composer and author ; died in London, 

Landsberg, the representative, pro- 
tector, and propagator of German music 
at Eome, in Italy, gave every year his 
concert, and left a library of more than 
four hundred theoretical works of Ital- 
ian masters, and a perfect collection of 
Italian church music of the fourteenth 
century ; died May, 1858. 

Lane, John, bom in Sanbornton, 
N.H., 1788; played the violin in the 
church for nearly sixty years, and 
taught school twenty-one winters ; died 
at Tilton, 1872, aged 84. 

La Pieta conservatory of music was 
founded at Naples, 1760. 

La Roche, Dr., of Philadelphia, 
owned a musical library of four hun- 
dred volumes ; was an amateur and pro- 
moter of music. 

La Scala, Milan ; deemed, with re- 
spect to architecture, the most beautiful 
opera-house in Europe; and, except 
those of Parma and San Carlos at Na- 
ples, it is the most spacious. 

Lasceux, Guillaume, an organist 
at Paris, was born at Poissy in 1740; 
published many works for the organ 
and harpsichord, between the years 1768 
and 1806. 

Laska, Francis, one of the best or- 
ganists in Bohemia; born in 1750, and 
lived, in 1788, at Mokarzow ; died Jan. 
19, 1795, leaving in manuscript several 
organ compositions. 

Lasser, John Baptist, court and 
private singer at Munich, was born at 
Steinkirchen, in Lower Austria ; about 
the year 1790 he was tenor-singer and 
performer at the theatre of Gratz; a 
composer of operas and other works. 

Lasser, son of the above, became 
celebrated as a musician, 1794, at 



Lasso, Orlando di, or Lassus, a 
Flemish composer, born at Mons, in 
Hainault, 1520; was carried to Naples 
when a child, but settled at Rome as a 
teacher of music; became very cele- 
brated as a composer, and wrote a large 
amount of music ; was also an organist ; 
died in Munich, June 15, 1593. 

Latin Hymns were used by the an- 
cient church, and her music was com- 
posed with especial reference to the 
rhythm and flow of Latin lines ; the 
most ancient pieces of English poetry 
extant are versified psalms. 

Latour, M. Cagniard, asserts that 
he hears the tone La (the A, according 
to the English, French, German, and 
American nomenclature) of the musical 
scale sounding in his head, when he agi- 
tates it from side to side. [See Nickles, 
J., JoBARD, M., and article La.] 

Latour, T. This elegant writer for 
the piano-forte was born in Paris in 
1766, and in the early part of the French 
Revolution went to London, where he 
earned a substantial reputation by the 
composition of very numerous works. 

Latre, Jean de, commonly called 
Petit Jean, a composer of the 16th 
century, published " Motetti c^ 5, 6, e 7 
Foe," Dusseldorf, 1566. 

La Trobe, Christian Ignatitjs, 
born at Fulnec, near Leeds, in York- 
shire, England, 1758; composed both 
vocal and instrumental music ; his selec- 
tion of sacred music, 1806, extended to 
five volumes. 

Latrobe, John A., published in 
London, 1831, " Music of the Church ; " 
in 1850, a volume of " Sacred Lyrics.^ ^ 

Laub, Ferdinand, violinist; born 
in Prague, Jan. 19, 1832 ; gave concerts 
at the age of six years; settled at 
Vienna, 1850 ; married a famous singer, 
and with her gave concerts in London, 
1851 ; in 18.53, visited Weimar, and 
was appointed chamber-virtuoso to the 
court; in 1856, received a similar ap- 
pointment at Berlin ; and in 1858 went 
to Russia with Welile. 

Laugher, Joseph Antony, Musices 
Director Delinffoe ad Danubium gloriosis- 
simce Domus AustriaccB, published many 
very important musical works about 
1792, vocal and instrumental. 

Lauder, James, of St. Giles, Edin- 
burgh, in 15.52 was licensed to travel in 
England and France for improvement 
in music and the playing of instruments ; 
was a composer and teacher. 

Lauduno, Nicolas dk. In the Bar- 
berini Library is preserved a manuscript 
treatise on music by this author. 

Laudus, Victorius, chapel-master in 
the cathedral church at Messina, about 
the year 1597, was born at Alcar, in Si- 
cily; published " JZ Primo Lihro de 
Madri(/ali a 5 Voci, con Bialoyo b, 8 
Voci,'' Palermo, 1597. 

Lauer, J. F. L., published at Gotha 
" Klamerliedersammlung,''^ 1786. 

Lavenu, L., born in London, 1817; 
at the age of seventeen years was con- 
ductor of music for Mori, and after- 
wards for Liszt; a composer and solo 
violoncellist ; composed his grand opera, 
" Loretta," 1846; was the conductor of 
the concerts of Catherine Hayes. 

Law, Andrew, a native of Cheshire, 
Conn. ; in early life celebrated as a 
teacher of vocal and instrumental mu- 
sic ; taught schools in New England and 
South for more than forty years ; pub- 
lished, 1782, '■'A Collection of Tunes and 
Anthems," " Christian Harmony," and, 
in 1792, " Sacred Hymns ;" his " Musi- 
cal Magazine^' was the first musical 
periodical published in this country; 
was the inventor of the patent note sys- 
tem, and published many books in that 
notation; in 1820, resided at Newark, 
N.J., and died in New Haven, Conn., 
1824; it has been stated by Allibone that 
he died at Cheshire, Conn., 1821. 

Lawatz published songs for the 
piano-forte, Altona, 1790. 

Lawes, William, born 1582; the son 
of Thomas Lawes, a vicar choral of the 
church of Salisbury, and a native of that 
city ; was a member of the choir of Chi- 
chester, and was called from thence, in 
1602, to the office of gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal ; composed some vocal 
and instrumental music ; died 1645. 

Lawrence, Alberto, an Italian 
singer of reputation, came to this coun- 
try to join the Parepa-Rosa opera com- 
pany ; as a barytone he made his debut 
at La Scala; sang at Lodi; visited 
France, Spain, and England, and, re- 
turning, sang in most of the Italian 
theatres previous to coming here. 

Lawrence, Alexander H., of 
Washington, D.C., celebrated as a mu- 
sician, and for his collection of quartet 
music of the old masters ; a member of 
the quartet party with Carusi, Burke, 
and Kley, himself playing the violon- 

Laws, Henry, born at Salisbury, 


England, 1600 ; introduced Italian music 
into England; set Milton's " Comus^^ to 
music; published the " Treasury of Mu- 
sic ;^^ wrote many songs and much 
other music ; wrote a coronation anthem 
for King Charles II., and died 1662. 

Layolle, Aleman, organist at 
Lyons, about the middle of the sixteenth 
century published *' Chansons et Voix- 
de-ville a quatre Voix,'^ Lyons, 1561. 

Lays, Feanqois, a singer of the opera 
at Paris, who had a brilliant reputation, 
was born in 1758; was professor of sing- 
ing in the conservatoire from 1795 to 
1799, and subsequently first singer in 
the chapel of Napoleon I. from 1801 to 
1815. He died in 1831, aged 73. 

Lazinsky, the bassoonist, died in 
1852, at Vienna. He was a worthy but 
eccentric man, who read books of devo- 
tion in the intervals of his performance, 
and who boasted that he never saw the 
foot of a danseuse. 

Lazzari, Alberto, published at 
Venice, in 1637, " Gloria di Veneiia, e 
altre Musiche a Voce sola,'^ &c.. Op. 3. 

Leach, George, an English musi- 
cian residing in New York, a brother 
of S. W. Leach, oratorio-singer, pub- 
lished, 1858, " The Church and Home,^^ 
assisted by H. C. Timm. 

Leaders, or persons chosen to set the 
psalm in church, were long considered 
important persons, and were given seats 
with the elders and deacons in church. 

Leaf Turner, which turns the 
leaves, and holds them in place upon the 
instrument ; invented 1859. 

Leal, Miguel, born at Lisbon; a 
good composer ; among his works there 
is one particularly distinguished, name- 
ly, " 3/ a Nove Coros.^^ 

Leander, two brothers, performers 
on the French horn, resided many years 
in London, up to about 1805. They 
were excellent virtuosi on their instru- 
ment, and were engaged in the orches- 
tra of the King's Theatre, and at most 
of the public concerts. 

Leavitt, Mary, an excellent alto 
singer, born in Amherst, N.H. ; married 
1777, and became the mother of the 
Hutchinson family of singers, sixteen 
children ; died in Milford, 1870. 

Lenton, John, one of the band of 
King William and Queen Mary, was a 
professor of the flute. He composed 
and published, in conjunction with Mr. 
Tollit, a work entitled '^ A Concert of 
Music, in three Parts.^^ 

Lentz, H. G., a German composer 
and professor of the piano-forte, seems 
to have resided some time in London, 
between the years 1784 and 1794 ; then 
went to Hamburg, and played two new 
concertos for the piano-forte, and sym- 

Lenzi, Carlo, formerly chef d'orches- 
tre at Bergamo ; obtained no small de- 
gree of fame as an artist in Italy; re- 
tired, probably on account of his old 
age, in 1802. 

Leo, Leonardo, born at Naples, 
1694; a composer of serious and comic 
operas ; was the founder of a school of 
singing in Naples ; was a busy writer, 
and late in life wrote many vocal works 
and much music for the church ; died at 
Naples, 1745, aged 51. 

Leopold, Geo. Aug. Julius, born at 
Leimbach in 1755, published ^^Gedank- 
en und Conjecturen zur Geschichte der 
Musik,"" Stendal, 1780. 

Leopold, the emperor, wrote and 
set to music many canzonets and madri- 
gals ; some of them were excellent ; he 
employed an Italian poet and musician 
to write operas at Vienna. 

Lepin. Under this name was pub- 
lished in Paris, in 1794, *^ Concerto pour 
le Clqv. avec deux V., A., et B.^' 

L'Epine, F. Margheeita, the first 
Italian singer of note who appeared in 
England; came there with a German 
musician ; sang in operas, concerts, and 
other musical entertainments from 1692 
to 1718; was an excellent musician and 
performer on the harpsichord ; her sister 
was also a singer. 

Lepine, a musician not much known, 
who composed the music of "ylc?/s et 
Galathee," an operetta which was repre- 
sented in 1787. 

Leprince, a French violinist, died in 
1781. On his voyage from Holland to 
St. Petersburg, the vessel he was in was 
taken by an English privateer, when he 
continued to play so cheerfully on his 
violin, that the English made him play 
to their dancing, and gave him back all 
his property. 

Leroy, Adrien, an excellent lutist 
and composer, was the first establisher 
of musical printing in France, and pub- 
lished, in 1583, a treatise on music. 

Leroy, Eugene, a composer of Paris, 
published there, previously to the year 
1798, four works of sonatas for the piano- 
forte; he died in 1816. 

Lescot, singer at the Theatre Itaiien 



*n Paris in 1788, was the composer of 
the printed operetta '* La Negressej^' 

Lesgu, a French composer, lived in 
the year 1678. 

Lesley, Henry, of Birmingham, 
England, oratorio composer; produced, 
1857, '^ Immanuel,^^ and in 1858 "Jit- 
dith,^^ poem by H. F. Chorley. 

Leslie, Benjamin, of Bradford, 
Mass., published, 1811, ^'The Concert 
Uarmony, or Youth'' fi Assistant,'^ many 
of the tunes being original; composed 
much psalmody, and was a teacher in 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire. 

L'espinasse, M., a professor of sing- 
ing in the Paris Conservatoire; died 
March, 1867. 

Lessel, V. F., a musician at Vienna, 
one of the three pupils of Haydn, pub- 
lished there '^Ariette pour le Clav. avec 
Far.," 1797, and some other composi- 

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, bom 
at Pasewalk, in Pomerania, in 1729; 
by his genius and learning acquired 
deep insight into what is really beauti- 
ful, and became a good composer ; died 

Lesueur, Jean FRANgois, conductor 
of Napoleon's chamber-music; born 
1766 ; was chapel-master of Notre Dame, 
Paris, for which he composed many 
oratorios, masses, and motets ; for thirty 
years he was considered in the first 
rank of church composers in Europe; 
he wrote several operas. 

Letendart, N., a pianist, born at 
Paris 1770, was considered in France as 
the best pupil of Balbatre; composed 
some music for his instrument. 

Letterio, Marino, an instrumental- 
ist, probably from Italy, acquired noto- 
riety in Paris by his ''Six Duosfaciles et 
progress, pour deux Hautbois^'''' Op. 2, 
Paris, 1801. 

Leuthard, Johann Daniel, born 
at Kerlsberg, near Rudolstadt, in 1706, 
was taught the piano-forte, and in 1727 
the violin. After this he entered, in 
1730, as musician in the service of the 
Duke of Weimar. Here he composed 
several instrumental works for the court 

Leutner, Madame Peschka, a 
native of Vienna, has sung in every 
European capital of note, and has a life 
engagement at the Leipsic opera; came 
to this country, 1872, and was heard at 
the Peace Jubilee; the arias yfiih.fiute 

accompaniment, in which the player 
varies the air and is followed by the 
wonderful singer with nicety and accu- 
racy, show what control she has of her 
voice, as well as its astonishing range. 

Levasseur, Jean Henri, called 
Levasseur the Younger, was chamber- 
musician to Napoleon, and first violon- 
cellist at the Grand Opera; composed 
much music for the violoncello and 
piano-forte ; died in 1823. 

Levasseur, M., a celebrated bass 
singer of the Grand Opera, after a pro- 
fessional career of 42 years, retired in 

Levasseur, Nicholas Prosper, 
born at Picardy, 1790 ; made his debut 
in opera, 1813 ; sang in England and 
Italy, and after retiring, 1852, became 
a professor at the Paris Conservatory, 
and died 1871, aged 81. 

Levasseur, Pierre FRANgois, 
called Levasseur the Elder, was born at 
Abbeville in 1753. He was a celebrated 
violoncellist in the orchestra of the 
Grand Opera at Paris, where he died in 

Levassor, a well-known French 
comedian and singer, who had been a 
public performer forty years, died at 
Paris, January, 1870, aged 62. 

Levesque, a musician in Paris about 
1790, published, conjointly with Beche, 
^'Solfeges d^Italie, avec la Basse chiffree 
par Leo, Durante, Scarlatti, Hasse, Por- 
pora,'' &c., Paris. 

Levett, an English composer, pub- 
lished the following works : '' Liiroduc- 
tory Lessons on Singing, particularly 
Psalmody, to ichich are annexed several 
Psalm-Tunes, in four Parts, proper for 
practice,''^ ''New Year''s Anthem,^* 
''Hymn for Easter Day,^' '^Hymn for 
Christmas Bay,''^ and "Hymn for Whit- 

Levi, Steffano, formerly organist in 
the Church of St. Blasius at Codogno, 
in the Milanese, published "Salmi," 
Milano, 1647. 

Levis, Antonio, an artist, placed 
among the composers of the first rank 
in the "Lidice de Spetfac," 1791; pro- 
duced "La Contadina in Corte,'' opera 
buffa, and "Isabella e Bodrigo,'' opera 
buffa, 1788. 

Levy, Michel, a popular music- 
teacher; died in Paris, April, 1870, ag<d 

Levy, a celebrated cometist, and 
member of the 9th Regiment Band, New 



York, was engaged to play for the Em- 
peror of Russia, 1872, at St. Petersburg. 

Lewy, Richaud, after becoming 
known in Vienna as a performer on the 
violin in the Karnthnerthor Orchestra, 
and composing some string-quartets and 
piano-forte pieces, was, in 1859, ap- 
pointed a professor in the conservato- 

Leyboene, George, wrote the song 
^^Champagne Charley,'^ and other popu- 
lar songs ; this song was named because 
the sobriquet had been applied to Mr. 
Charles Wright, a wine-merchant under 
the Opera Colonnade, Haymarket, Lon- 


of Lahm and Heiligersdorf, obtained 
high rank in Germany as a composer 
and singer; was a performer on the 
violin, and wrote the words for many 
operas; in 1800 he was director of the 
Court Theatre at Vienna. 

LiEBE, Therese, born at Strasburg, 
Germany, 1855; but soon a resident of 
London, where she had great success, 
as well as at Paris; on leaving Paris 
she appeared at most of the courts of 

LiEBERT, chapel-master to the Prince 
of Thurn and Taxis, at Regensburg, in 
1796 ; was a good composer. 


celebrated flutist in the service of the 
Margrave of Anspach, was born in 1732. 


son of the above, lived, in 1807, at Bam- 
berg; is equally familiar with musical 
literature, and with the nature and 
powers of the flute. 

LiEBiCH, Frank, at the age of eight 
years performed classical solos on the 
piano-forte and harmonium, at Bright- 
on, England. 


chapel-master to the Count of Reuss- 
Planischen, was born at Frankenberg, 
in Meissen, in 1672 ; proceeded to Dres- 
den, where he devoted himself entirely 
to music, in which profession his beau- 
tiful tenor voice afforded him a great 
advantage; died 1727. 

LiER, Miss Van, bom at Amsterdam, 
1857, made her debut at five years of age, 
and has become celebrated as a pianist. 

LiFONTi, M., manufacturer of stringed 
instruments, Cons^^fAntinople, perfected, 
1873, piano-forte mechanism claimed to 
assist the learner in the matter of touch 
and facility. 

LiGNE, Prinz Karl De, published at 
Vienna, of his own composition, "i?e- 
cueil 1, 2, 3, de Six Airs Francois pour 
le Clavecin,''^ Vienna, 1791. 

LiGou, Pierre, an abbe, born at 
Avignon in 1749, was appointed organist 
at Alais in 1769. He composed several 
operettas, also some church music, 
which had much success. 

LiLiEN, Baroness Antoinette de, 
an amateur at Vienna, whose composi- 
tions are praised for their powerful 
stvle. She published several works at 
Vienna, 1799. 

LiLiEN, Baroness Josephine de, 
probably sister to the preceding, pub- 
lished "I>ix Variations pour le Clav. sur 
une Bomance," 1800, at Vienna. 

Lilly, Edward, of Lancaster, O.; 
a natural contrapuntist; readily accom- 
panies on the piano-forte any piece of 
music, sung or played ; can make sudden 
transitions from one key to another, and 
has the power of extemporaneous com- 
position ; the slightest error in harmony 
he at once hears ; has never been taught 
only as nature has educated him. 

LiNC, OR Link, Wenzel, was born at 
Colditz in the year 1483 ; died in 1547. 
Among his numerous writings are some 
psalms, 1523. 

LiND, Jenny (Madame Gold- 
schmidt), born in Stockholm, Feb. 8, 
1820 ; won her way to the head of 
soprano singers ; became famous in 
Europe; came to this country, 1850; 
married Otto Goldschmidt of Hamburg, 
in Boston, Mass., February, 1852 ; made 
a tour of the United States, and returned 
to Europe, fixing their residence at 
Dresden ; she was a great singer, and 
made a conscience of her art. 

Lindley, Robert, born at Rotheram, 
in Yorkshire, in the year 1777. In 1794 
he succeeded Sperati as first violoncello 
at the King's Theatre; was considered 
as second to no violoncellist in Europe. 
He composed several concertos and 
other works for his instrument; died 
June 13, 1855, aged 78. 

Lindley, William, son of the pre- 
ceding, was bom in the year 1802 ; has 
regularly played at the Philharmonic, 
Ancient, and other concerts, and been 
engaged in the orchestra of the King's 
Theatre since the year 1819. 

Lindner, Adolf, a celebrated cornet- 
player and member of the orchestra of 
the Stadt Theatre ; died at Leipsie, May, 



Lindner, Feiedeich, born in Sile- 
sia, was celebrated as a singer and com- 
poser at Nuremburg; published three 
volumes, ^^ Musical Gems,'^ and much 
other music, 1590. 

LiNDPAiNTEE, Peter JOSEPH, born 
at Coblentz on the Rhine, Dec. 8, 1791 ; 
was conductor of music in London, 
1853; composed for the theatre, the 
church, and concert-room; was the 
most prolific and successful composer 
of his time, and a member of nearly all 
the musical societies of Germany ; died 
Aug. 21, 1856, aged 65. 

LiNDPAiNTEE, JACOB, father of the 
above, was a celebrated opera-singer at 
Augsburg, where with his family he 
settled, 1795, and remained there during 

Lindsay, Lady Ann, born Dec. 8, 
1750; celebrated as the author of "J.mM 
JRohin Gray,^' and other poems; died in 
London May 6, 1825, aged 75. 

Ling, W., a musician in London, 
about the year 1790, published " Three 
Sonatas for the Piano-Forte, with a Flute 
Obligato to one and two, with a Violin 

LiNGKE, Geoeg Feiederich, Coun- 
sellor of the mines to the King of Po- 
land and Elector of Saxony, published 
at Leipsic, in 1779, ^^ Kurze Musiklehre,^^ 

LiNiKE, JoHANN Geoeg, a composer 
of vocal music, violinist, and excellent 
chef d'orchestre ; became afterwards a 
member of the Chapel Royal and cham- 
ber-musician in Berlin ; was a composer 
of a variety of popular music. 

Lining out the Psalm had its ori- 
gin with metrical psalmody. The cus- 
tom came of necessity, and was not an 
American invention ; though among the 
Puritans a lack of books, want of skill 
to read, and a lack of conveniences for 
printing, made it necessary for one to 
parcel out the psalm or hymn, for others 
to sing. It was only practised until 
books could be obtained. 

LiNLEY, Maeia, daughter of Thomas 
Linley of London, England ; was in 1770 
greatly admired and the most accom- 
plised singer in the country; she mar- 
ried the celebrated Mr. Slieridan, 1778. 

Linley, Thomas, born at Wells 1725 ; 
became distinguished as a composer at 
Bath, where he conducted oratorios 
and concerts; was also a teacher of 
music; returning to London, he con- 
ducted the music at the Drury Lane 

Theatre, and composed many operas 
and other works ; died in Southampton 
Street, London, 1795. 

Linley, Thomas, jun., son of the 
above, born at Bath 1756; performed 
upon the violin at Worcester Cathedral, 
Sept. 8, 1773; succeeded his father as 
leader of the concerts and oratorios at 
Bath; composed some music for the 
theatres ; died 1787, aged 31. 

Linley, William, born 1767; early 
became known as a composer of music; 
produced two comic operas in England 
1795 ; afterwards published glees, songs, 
and the dramatic songs of Shakspeare 
in two volumes ; died 1835. 

Liszt, Feanz, was born at Raeding, 
Hungary, Oct. 22, 1811; in 1825 he pro- 
duced, at the Royal Academy of Music, 
an opera; in 1826 he and his father 
made a tour through the French prov- 
inces ; in 1830 he returned to Paris, 
and since then has become particularly 
celebrated as a pianist. He is the 
owner of the instrument played on by 
Beethoven ; and in 1853 he purchased 
the old harpsichord formerly belonging 
to Beethoven, which was offered for 
sale at Weimar, where Liszt now re- 

Lithogeaphic Printing aided but 
did not supersede printing from en- 
graved or from pewter plates, and it is 
more uncertain than the rolling press. 

Lithophone, an instrument consist- 
ing of eighteen sonorous fossils, which, 
when struck with a piece of stone, give 
out tunes resembling those from musi- 
cal glasses. An instrument called Lith- 
ophone, or natural piano, was invented 
by M. Bordas of France, 3861. 

Litolff, Heney, born in London, 
1820; at the age of nineteen procured 
the situation as pianist at the Brussels 
Conservatoire; from 1843 to 1848 trav- 
elled, visiting Frankfort, Leipsic, Dres- 
den, Berlin, and Vienna; produced two 
operas at Brunswick, and an overture ; 
returned to Brussels after an absence 
of fourteen years, wliere his works were 
received with great applause, and has 
since ranked with the greatest compos- 
ers and performers. 

Little, William, of Philadelphia, 
Penn., published " The Easy Instruc- 
tor,''^ 1798; used the patent notation; 
was a composer, as was his brother, N. 
Little; the book was printed from en- 
graved plates, and known as Little & 
Smith's Collection. 



LiVEEATi, Giovanni, born at Bo- 
logna, 1772; became famous as a per- 
former upon various instruments, as a 
singer and composer; wrote many op- 
eras and much vocal and instrumental 
music; settled in London, Eng., 1814. 

LiVERATi, Matteo, a distinguished 
professor of music at the court of the 
King of Prussia, and director of the 
theatre at Potsdam, 1790. 

Lock, Matthevt, the first in Eng- 
land to publish rules of thorough-bass ; 
born at Exeter, 1619 ; composer and au- 
thor ; died 1677. 

Lodee, the celebrated leader, died in 
London, September, 1845, in his fifty- 
eighth year. He was an excellent 
tenor, as well as violin-player. 

LoDER, Geoege, born at Bath, Eng- 
land, 1816; came to this country, and 
was conductor of the American Musical 
Institute, New York, 1846; business 
agent of Biscaccianti ; went with her 
to California, 1852, and became con- 
ductor of the San Francisco Philhar- 
monic Society. Died July 15, 1867. 

LoDER, John, a celebrated English vo- 
calist; died in London, April 14, 1853. 

Lodee, Kate, an English pianist of 
distinguished fame; retired from the 
profession, 1854. 

LoDi, Demeteio, a monk, born at 
Verona; flourished as a composer of 
church and instrumental music in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 

LoDi, Giov. LuiGi, called Sterkel. 
Through one of his works he became 
known in Germany, in 1798, as an ex- 
cellent and original composer for the 

LoEBEE, Johann Ernst, town or- 
ganist at Weimar about the year 1730; 
published at Erfurt, " Hochzeit-Conzert 
von 2 Stimmenund GeneralhanSy^ Erfurt, 

LoEHLEiN, Georg Simon, was born 
at Dnntzic in 1727 ; wrote several valua- 
ble instruction-books, some music for 
the theatre, twelve ballets, &c. ; was 
chapel-master at Dantzic, and died 
there 1782. 

LoEFGROEN, Anton, a Swcdc, was 
the editor of an academical work, pub- 
lished under the title, ^^ De Basso fun- 
damentali,^' Upsal, 1728. 

LoEHNER, Johann, a favorite com- 
poser and organist at Nuremberg, Avas 
born there in 1645; published several 
collections of music between the years 
1682 and 1700. 

LoEiLLET, Jean Baptiste, of Ghent, 
a famous master of the flute, and the 
author of four operas of solos for that 
instrument; he was also a celebrated 
performer on the harpsichord; died 

LoEWE, Dr. Carl, produced, in 
1855, a new oratorio, " f7o& ; " he had 
previously written two oratorios, ''■John 
//mss" and the ^' Seven Sleepers,'^ also 
" The Apostles at Philippi,'" " The Bra- 
zen Serpent,''^ and some other music. 
He also wrote a number of German 
ballads, of a wild, romantic character. 
Dr. Loewe is a German composer, pos- 
sessing a rich imagination, and great 
energy ; his song ^'■JephthaK s Daur/hter^* 
first brought him into notice. 

Loewe" Friedrich Aug. Leopold, 
born at Schwedt, in 1777, was a cele- 
brated perf oiTner on the tenor ; he also 
composed an operetta, called "Die JnseZ 
der Verfiihrunr/,^^ which was performed 
at Brunswick in 1797. 

Loewe, J. Heinrich, an instru- 
mental composer, and performer on the 
violin, tenor, and the piano-forte, resi- 
dent in Bremen, was born at Berlin in 
1766; had written, before the year 1794, 
" Die Pfarrers Tochter von Tauben- 
heiin,'' for the piano-forte; also several 
sonatas for the piano-forte, and con- 
certos for the violin and bassoon, with 
several smaller operas of variations. 

Loewe, Johann Karl Gottfried, 
born at Lobejun, near Halle, Nov. 30, 
1796; in 1817 became known as the 
composer of several popular ballads; 
was an organist and sight-singer at an 
early age; in 1819 settled at Stettin, and 
organized there orchestral concerts; 
was one of the most prolific composers 
of recent times; in 1826 published a 
vocal method for schools ; died April 20, 
1870, aged 74. 

Loewe, Sophie, a distinguished 
singer of Germany, left the stage 1848, 
on her marriage, and died at Pesth, 
Nov. 28, 1866. 

Logan, John, born atFala, Scotland, 
1748; published a revision of the ^'Psal- 
mody of Scotland,' ' 1781; died 1788. 

LoGiEE, B., was a performer upon 
various instruments, as is customary 
in Germany; in 1796 became the first 
violin at the chapel of Hesse-Cassel ; 
afterwards became concert-master at 
Gottingen, which place he retained du- 
ring life ; was also a composer. 

Logier, John Bernhard, bom at 



Hesse-Cassel 1780, was a flute-player at 
the age of nine years ; went to England, 
joined a band, and went to Ireland ; be- 
came a composer of military band- 
music, and an organist at Westport, 
Ireland ; invented the diiroplast to as- 
sist the position of the hand in playing 
the piano-forte, and this led to his 
famous system of teaching; was also 
author of many musical works, and the 
composer of much music ; his diiroplast 
and method of teaching made his for- 
tune; died in Dublin, 184G, aged CO. 

LoLLi, A., violinist, born at Bergamo, 
1728; died in Sicily, 1802. 

LoRiNi, ViKGiNiA Whiting, a native 
of Boston, Mass., became celebrated as 
a singer in the Mario company, 1855; 
in 1857 appeared in Florence, and in 
1859 in Paris ; since which time she has 
been singing in Italy, enjoying a reputa- 
tion seldom awarded to an American 

Louis, Madame, a Parisian amateur, 
published " Six Sonates pour le Clav. 
seul,^' Paris ; '' Recucii d^Ariettes choisis 
avec Ace. de Clav.^^^ Paris; ^' Fleur 
d'^'ptue," an operetta. 

Louis, Ph., composed music at Vien- 
na, 1799 ; some of which was published. 

Louis the Pious, successor of Char- 
lemagne, inherited his father's love for 
music ; he often joined his choristers in 
singing, and caused an organ to be con- 
structed for his church at Aix-la-Cha- 

LouLiE, FsANgois, a French musi- 
cian, was the author of an ingenious 
and useful book, published in 1698, by 
Estienne Roger, of Amsterdam, entitled 
" Elemens ou Prlncipes de Musique mis 
dans un Nouvel Ordre." 

LouvET, or LouvE, Alexandre, a 
composer and pianist at Paris, published 
there, about 1796, ^^Instructions the'o- 
riques et pratiques sur V Accord duPiano- 

LouYS, Maitre Jean, a French con- 
trapuntist of the sixteenth century. 

Lover, Samuel, a famous song- 
writer and musical composer; gave en- 
tertainments in London ; he wrote some 
popular novels and several successful 
dramatic works; came to this country 
in 1840. 

Low, Edward, originally a chorister 
in Salisbury Cathedral, was organist of 
Christ Church, Oxford, and professor of 
music in that university; died in 1682. 

Lowe, Edwai^d, published at Oxford, 

England, 1664, *' Performance of Cathe- 
dral Service.^' 

Loyseau, a French composer, flour- 
ished, about the year 1679, as organist 
of St. Martin's Church at Tours. 

LozEK, the elder, organist at Prague 
in the year 1800. 

Lozenge -Form Note. This was 
adopted by the early engravers of music- 
plates in accordance with the mode of 
writing music, which had prevailed 
from the twelfth centui-y. 

LuBi, Mariane, an amateur, pub- 
lished in Germany, " 12 Lieder Jiirs 
Iflavier,^^ 1801, and "12 neue deutsche 
Liederfiirs Klavier," 1803. 

LucA, Severo de, a Roman com- 
poser, flourished in the year 1700, in 
which year his oratorio, " II Martirlo di 
S. Erasmo,^' was performed in the 
church Delia Pieta, at Rome. 

Lucatello, Giov. Battista, be- 
longed, according to Terreto, to the 
celebrated composers of Italy at the end 
of the sixteenth century. 

Lucca, Pauline, born at Vienna, 
April 25, 1840 ; became celebrated as a 
singer 1856 ; was soon engaged for opera 
at Olmutz; next appeared at Prague; 
and went to London for the Italian 
opera, 1863; in 1866 began her trium- 
phant journeys between Berlin and 
Russia, which made her so famous both 
in this country and Europe. 

LuccnESi, Andrea. His opera, 
"^cZemira," was represented at Venice 
in 1775. 

Lucchesi, J.M., made himself known 
1794 by many pieces of instrumental 

LucciJiNi, Antonio Maria, flour- 
ished in 1730, at Venice, as one of the 
first composers for the theatre there. A 
concert-master of this name was also 
celebrated at Milan about the year 1750. 

LuciNDA, Francesco, chapel-master 
to the King of Sicily, was born in that 
island. He composed, in 1692, the 
opera " Gelidaura," for the theatre at 

LuciNi, Francesco. Walther calls 
him a bass-singer, and mentions the 
following of his works: ''■ C oncer ti di- 
versi, a 2, 3, e 4, con Partitura," Milan, 
1616 ; and the sequel to this work, Mi- 
lan, 1617. 

LucoME, M., of Havre, France, in- 
vented an instrument of the violin tribe, 
called "-Baryton;^' its tones are be- 
tween the viola and the violoncello. 


LuDO\aci, Thomas, a contrapuntist 
of the sixteenth century. 

LuDwiG, JoH. Adam Jacob, wrote 
several works concerning the structure 
and use of organs, 1764. 

LuELLiN, Geoege, was author of 
the additional matter to the second 
edition of Purcell's Orpheus Brittanicus, 
1702; died 1740. 

LuiDEES, a good violinist, was first in 
the service of Prince Ferdinand of 
Prussia, in Berlin. He then went, in 
1785, to Moscow. 

LuiGi, an Italian composer, of whose 
composition the opera buffa, '* L^Alber- 
gatrice riuace," was represented at 
Dresden in 1782. 

LuiJA, C. F., an artisan in Paris, 
published in the year 1791, " Trois So- 
nates pour le F.," Op. 1, Paris. 

LuiTGEET, F. H., a musician in Ham- 
burg, published many valuable works, 

LuiTTicH, JoHANN, a musician of the 
seventeenth century, born in Plauen, 
published " Venusgloddein, oder neue 
tceltliche Gesdnge,'' Jena, 1610. 

Luiz, Feancisco, a Portuguese chap- 
el-master in the cathedral-church at Lis- 
bon, died there in 1693; was eminent 
both for his theoretical Icnowledge and 
practical talents in music. 

LuLLO, Antonio, a musician; flour- 
ished in 1550 ; wrote a treatise entitled 
*' L'Arie intiera della Ilusica.'' 

LuLLY, or LuLLi, Jean Baptiste, 
born at Florence, 1634; rose from the 
position of lady's page to that of a cele- 
brated musician and composer; wrote 
many operas, and. works for the theatre ; 
invented the overture, and became noted 
as a violinist ; died in Paris, March 22, 

LuMBYE, H. C, born at Copenhagen, 
1808; composer of some very popular 
dance-music ; wrote " The Dream of the 
Savoj/ard," for grand orchestra, and 
much other music. 

LuPOT, Nicola, born at Stuttgard, 
1758 ; went to Paris 1794, and was made 
instrument-maker to the conservatory 
in 1795 ; he wrote ''The Complete Musical 
Instrument Maker, ^^ published at Paris, 

LusciNiTJS, properly Nachtigall, 
Ottomaeus, born at Strasburg ; studied 
music first in his native town, and then 
at Vienna, where he first became known 
as a teacher of music ; wrote some valu- 
able musical works, 1515 to 1542. 

LusiTANO, YiNCENTrNo, a musician 
at Rome, about the middle of the six- 
teenth century. His principal work is 
entitled, " Introduzione facilissima et 
novissima di Canto fenno e figurato Con- 
trapunto semplice,'^ Rome, 1553; Venice, 
1558 and 1561. 

LusTEiNi, Abbate, flourished in 
1755, at Rome, as one of the first chapel- 

Lute, a stringed instrument, formerly 
much used, containing many strings 
which are struck with the fingers. 

Lute Schools. Famous schools of 
this kind existed at Brescia, 1450 ; and 
later, at Venice, Bologna, and Mantua. 

LuTHEE, De. Maetin, bom at Isle- 
ben, Saxony, Nov. 10, 1483; wrote an 
''Eulogium on Jl/it.sic," and a number of 
choral melodies ; also published several 
collections of psalms and hymns with 
music; would not suffer any one to 
take the ofiice of schoolmaster who was 
not acquainted with music. 

LuzzAscHi, or LuzzASCo. This mu- 
sician was considered one of the great- 
est organists of his time in Italy. 

Luzzo, Feancesco, an Italian com- 
poser for the church, published ""Motetti 
Concertati a voci 2 e 3 voci,^' Venice, 

Lavoff, Alexis, a native of Revel, 
Esthonia, composed the Russian na- 
tional anthem ; it dates from 1830, when 
the Emperor Nicholas ordered it per- 
formed at concerts and in representa- 
tions on the stage. 

Lynch, Dominick, a native of New 
York City, and a melodist of great pow- 
ers; assisted D'Aponte (Da Ponte), in 
bringing to this country the first Italian 
opera troupe, of which Garcia, tenor, 
Angrisano, basso, and Miss Garcia, then 
the greatest singers known, were mem- 
bers ; Lynch was manager and leader at 
the first performance in New York, 1825 ; 
died at New Brighton, Staten Island, 

Lyon, Richaed, an Englishman, as- 
sisted in preparing the Bay Psalm Book 
(1722) for publication. 

Lyon, Samuel Thomas, was born in 
the year 1776. In the year 1798, he was 
unanimously elected a member of the 
Royal Society of Musicians, and in 1819 
elected as one of the court of assistants 
of perpetual governors of that institu- 

Lyons, James, A.M., published at 
Philadelphia, Penn., 1761, a new book of 


music, entitled " Urania ; or, a Choice 
Collection of Psalm-Tunes,^^ &c. ; in 1785, 
he published another book of Lessons 
for the Uranian Society, Philadelphia. 

Lyka Doppia, an instrument for- 
merly used, resembling the viol da 

Lyea Germanica. Catharine Wink- 
wortli, London, 1858. 

Lyra-Viol, in form like the common 
viol, and having six strings tuned harp 

Lyra Mendicorum, an instrument 
like the violin, with four strings. 

Lyre, one of the most ancient of 
stringed instruments ; it varied in size, 
and contained from three to eight or 
more strings. 

Lysaugiit, Edward, author of 
" Wearing of the Green,"" '* The Sprig of 
Shillalah," and other popular songs. 

Lysberg, Ch. B, von, for many 
years teacher of the piano-forte at the 
conservatory, died at Geneva, 1873. 


M, a letter much used as an abbrevia- 
tion, in connection with other letters ; 
as, M. G.,7nain gauche, left hand ; M.D., 
main droit, right hand. 

Mac Donald, John, of Dundee, 
Scotland, published nine minuets for 
the harpsichord or piano-forte; many 
of his compositions were afterwards 
used by Charles Duff; his " Treatise on 
the Violoncello" was published 1811. 

Mac Donald, Rev. W., in 1856, pub- 
Hshed the *' Wesley an Sacred Harp," at 
Boston, Mass., assisted by S. Hubbard. 

Mace, Thomas, born in England 
1613; distinguished among musicians 
by a work entitled "Music's Monument" 
published in 1676 ; was a performer 
upon the lute ; his work contains much 
concerning instruments, making it very 
valuable ; died 1679. 

Macfarren, George Alexander, 
born in London, March 2, 1813, entered 
the Royal Academy 1829, and in Septem- 
ber, 1830, composed his first symphony ; 
was appointed a professor 1834; pro- 
duced ''TheBeviVs Opera" 1838; in 1846 
brought out ^^ Don Quixote;" in 1849, 
"King Charles II.;" and since then 
a large variety of compositions in vari- 
ous branches of the art, among which 
his '*2?o5m Hood" became most popu- 
lar; besides his musical compositions 
has contributed extensively as essayist, 
critic, theorist, and biographer. 

Mac Gregor, John, author of 
^''Eastern Music" and other works, 

Machalath, a kind of lute or guitar 
used by the Hebrews. 

Machul, a Hebrew musical instru- 
ment ; there were two of this name, one 
having six strings, the other of metal 
and hung roimd with little bells. 

Mackay, Dr. Charles, born in 
Perth, 1812; a poet and musician; came 
to this country, November, 1857, as a 
popular lecturer, and gave his first lec- 
ture in Boston, Mass. His songs have 
attained great popularity ; the music of 
several of them was of his own com- 

Mackay, John, an organ-builder, 
Boston, Mass., from 1810 to 1812, with 
Thomas Appleton. 

Maclean, Charles, composed and 
published, 1737, in England, two collec- 
tions of instrumental music. 

MACLEOD, H. P., was celebrated as a 
teacher of music at Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, where he published several col- 
lections of duets, &c. 

Macomber, Emma and Clara, born 
in Easton, Mass. ; known by tlieir con- 
certs ; are twin sisters ; Emma violon- 
cellist, and Clara violinist; travelled 
mostly in the South and West; were 
also good singers ; were successful, and 
in three years redeemed their father's 
farm, and remained upon it. 

Macraphe d'Aruchin, a Hebrew 
instrument consisting of several orders 
of pipes, supplied with wind by a bel- 
lows, and played with keys; it was a 
kind of organ. 

Madagascar has its wandering 
bards, as the Irish and Scotch formerly 
had their harpers, whose presence is 
required on all festival occasions; and 
music and poetry is here a distinct pro- 

Madin, Henri, of an Irish family, 
was born at Verdun, in France, in 1698; 
a composer who succeeded Campra as 
master of the choristers in the Chapel 
Royal at Versailles, in which town he 
died in 1748. 

, V-t-vi-uvj: //^J-^ Au^,,^ ,/r^^J}. ^ ^ -^ ^ yi^^/li^^ , l^ 



Madonis, Giovanni, an excellent 
violinist, born at Venice. In 1731 he was 
invited to St. Petersburg, and in 1744 
was resident there. Several concertos 
and sonatas of his composition were 
published at Paris. 

Madke 1)e Deos, Antonio Da, 
vicar of the choir of his convent in Lis- 
bon, where he died in 1090; composed 
several psalms, motets, responsoria, and 
other church music. 

Madre de Deos, Fr. Filippe Da, 
a canon and composer, born in Lisbon, 
flourished about the year 1620 ; left, at 
his death, several musical works in 
manuscript, which are preserved in the 
royal library at Lisbon. 

Madkigal, an elaborate vocal com- 
position in four, five, six, and sometimes 
seven or eight parts, of a rich and sono- 
rous character, comprising imitations, 
canons, and fugues ; it is also defined 
as a choral glee, and as a pastoral love- 
song, sung by shepherds. 

MadPvIGAL Singing has been gen- 
erally cultivated in Europe from the 
latter part of the fifteenth century. 

Maelzel, John, born at Regensburg 
1772 ; went to Vienna 1800, and there 
constructed an instrument that imitated 
a band; he next invented the panhar- 
7nonicon, and afterwards his automaton 
trumpeter; was also the inventor of the 
automaton chess-player and the metro- 
nome; was some time in Boston, Mass., 
where he exhibited his chess - player 
with the burning of Moscow; died in 
Philadelphia, Penn., 1838. 

Maelzel, Leonard, brother of 
John, born in Regensburg 1776, assisted 
his brother in butlding his automatons, 
and in exhibiting them; he also invent- 
ed several automatons ; died in Vienna, 
Sept. 7, 1855, aged 79. 

Magadis, an ancient Greek instru- 
ment with double strings, tuned in 

Magas. There were anciently two 
instruments of this name; one of the 
string kind, the other a kind of flute. 

Mahoney, Cornelius, teacher of 
music at the Institute for the Blind, 
New York, in 1858 invented a new 
system of notation; the name of the 
note is cut in the character, showing 
white in the black notes, and black in 
the white ones ; he is also the inventor 
of embossed music for the blind, by 
which music can be read b) the touch 
of the fingers. 

Maillard, M. Aime, composed many 
operas, the most popular one being 
" Lara,^^ which had a long run at the 
Opera Comique, Paris; his ^^ Dragons 
de Villars^^ was also very successful; 
he went to reside at Moulins, where he 
died September, 1871. 

Maillot, M., one of the editors of 
" La France Musicale,^^ a writer of 
much ability and honesty ; died at Paris, 
April 1867, aged 54. 

Main, Sylvester, born in Weston, 
Conn., April 18, 1817; became a teacher 
of music at the age of fifteen ; went to 
New York, 1853, and became associated 
with I. B. Woodbury in the work of 
compihng and publishing music books; 
he was also associated with W. B. 
Bradbury; published the New York 
Musical Gazette ; was an instructor, 
leader, and composer; was one of the 
house of Biglow & Main; died at his 
home in Norwalk, Conn., Oct. 5, 1873. 
Assisted in compiling more than twenty 
collections of music, and was an excel- 
lent conductor. 

Mainzer, Dr. Joseph, born at 
Treves, 1801 ; was a performer on sever- 
al instruments; a director of music in 
London and Manchester; known by his 
popular work, '^Singing for the Million;^^ 
published a work on musical education, 
and a musical grammar ; died in Man- 
chester, England, November, 1851, aged 

Mairan, Jean Jaques Dortous de, 
born at Beziers, 1678; published, 1737, 
two important musical works; died at 
Paris, 1770. 

Maitland, Samuel K., born in Lon- 
don, England, 1792; known as the 
author of a valuable work on " Music 
and Painting,''^ 1852. 

Malanotte, Adelaide, became 
known as a concert singer at Venice, 
1813; Rossini wrote for her the role 
of Tancredi, which made her famous 
throughout Italy; after a few years of 
triumph, this marvellous cantatrice for 
whom was written the air " Z)i tanti 
paljyitl,'' died forsaken and partially de- 
ranged, aged 47. 

Malcolm, Alexander, published at 
Edinburgh, 1721, "J. Treatise of Music, ''^ 
speculative, practical, and historical; 
replete with musical erudition. 

Maletti, Jean de, a French com- 
poser, born at St. Maximin, in Provence ; 
published some works at Paris, 1578. 

Mallbran, Madame, eldest daugh- 

l/V^fcJl^ MLc^JhLy,Aiar ; 6, ^(^ ///i-J^^/ZwO^^Jc^^ 



ter of Manuel Garcia, first known as 
Maria Felicia Garcia, and then as Mali- 
bran ; afterwards married De Beriot, the 
violinist; was born in Paris, March 24, 
1808; came to this country 1825, with 
the Garcia troupe, brought outbyDomi- 
nick Lynch, and D' Aponte. of New York ; 
Maria was then the leading genius of 
operatic song and a superior actress; 
she married Mr. Malibran, a merchant 
of New York, who failed soon after, 
and was imprisoned for debt; she gen- 
erously resigned all her property to re- 
lease him, "and afterwards they were 
divorced ; she then made her appearance 
in France, 1827 ; in 1829 she appeared in 
London as Madame De Beriot, continu- 
ing to sing there and at Paris until her 
death, at Manchester, England, Sept. 23, 

Malimba, a Mexican instrument 
formed of slats of wood, bound upon 
bamboo canes ; the tones run through 
three octaves. 

Malvezzi, Christoforo, chapel- 
master at the court of Medicis, in the 
middle of the sixteenth century. 

Malzat, Johann Michael, wrote 
(1799) many works for the English horn 
and for the hautboy. 

Manchicourt, Pierre, a native of 
Bethune, and director of music; some 
of his compositions, written 1580, are 
still extant. 

Maxcinelli, Dom., an Italian com- 
poser of flute music, 1775. 

Mancini, Francesco, born at Na- 
ples, 1691 ; composed several comic 
operas ; excelled as a composer and 

Mancini, Giov. Battista, published 
some valuable musical works, at Vienna, 
1774 ; died 1800. 

Mandola was the name of a small 
lute formerly used in Italy. 

Mandoline, an Italian musical in- 
strument, furnished sometimes with 
catgut strings and sometimes with me- 
tallic ones, and was played by means of 
a quill or piece of wood. 

Manelli, Francesco, of Tivoli, 
composed the music of the first opera 
that was given at Venice, 1637; after- 
wai'ds wrote many other operas. 

Manenti, Giov. Pietro, ranked 
among the most eminent musicians, 

Manfredi, Ludovico, a minorite, 
and composer of church music at Ven- 
ice, 1038. 

Manfredi, Mutio, an Italian com- 
poser ; some of his works were published 
at Venice 1600. 

Manfredini, Vincenzio, chapel- 
master at the court of Russia ; born at 
Bologna ; published harpsichord and 
violin music ; also operas and motets. 

Mangean, a French violinist at the 
Concert Spirituel at Paris, in 1750; pub- 
lished several works of solos, duos, and 
trios for his instrument. 

Mangoni, Antonio, a composer of the 
seventeenth century, born at Caravag- 
gio, published ^''Missae Salmi," Milan, 

Manichord, a stringed instrument 
resembling the spinet. 

Maniere, Exupere de la, a pro- 
fessor of the harp and piano-forte at 
Paris, published there, in 1786, '^Sixieme 
Becueil des Airs var.pour la Uarpe." 

Manini, an Italian dramatic com- 
poser, wrote about 1733 in Rome, for 
the theatre there ; died 1785. 

Mankell, a German musician, has 
made himself known by instrumental 
music; composed and published at 
Hamburg, 1800. 

Manley, B., published at New York, 
1851, ''The Baptist Psalmody." 

Mann, Elias, born in Weymouth, 
Mass., 1750; was a singing master at 
Northampton, where he published Nov. 
3, 1778, ''The Northampton Collection'' 
of church music ; in 1805 he published 
some music books at Dedham, Mass. ; 
in 1807 he compiled ''The Massachusetts 
Collection; " he composed many church 
tunes; died at Northampton, May 12, 
1825, aged 75. 

Mann, Johann Christoph, a pro- 
fessor of the harpsichord at Vienna, 
about the year 1766; wrote much music 
for his instrument. 

Manni, Dominicus Maria, a learned 
writer at Florence in the beginning of 
the eighteenth century; published "De 
Florentinis Inventis Commentarius," Fer- 
rara. 1731. 

Manni, Genaro, a Neapolitan musi- 
cian, and nephew of D. Sarro. In 1751 
gave, at Venice, the opera "La Didone 
abbandonnata,'' of Metastasio; and, in 
1753, "<Siroe," of the same poet ; retired 
from public life about the year 1780. 

Mansfield, D. H., born in Maine, 
1810; published at Boston, Mass., 1849, 
"The American Vocalist," a book of 360 
pages; died in Bangor, Me., Feb. 25, 
1855, aged 45. 



Manx, Richaed, born at Southamp- 
ton, England, 1776 ; published a metrical 
version of the Psalms, 1824; died 1848. 

Manwaring, Edward, author of a 
work on ^'^ Harmony and Numbers^ 

Manx Version. Twenty-eight of the 
psalms in the Manx language ; was pub- 
lished by Robert Radcliffe, and Matthias 
Curgey, of the Isle of Man, 1761. 

Mara, Madame Gertrude E., born 
at Cassel, Germany, Feb. 23, 1749; her 
reputation as a singer was perhaps 
greater than that of any other during 
that century; when a child, studied the 
violin; after becoming celebrated as a 
vocalist she remained in England until 
1802, when she went to reside in Russia, 
losing her property there at the con- 
flagration of Moscow; in 1819 she re- 
turned to London ; but her powers were 
diminished, and she did not sing much 
after that time; died in Livonia, Jan. 
20, 1833, aged 84. 

Marbeck, John, organist at Windsor, 
to whom church music is under great 
obligations; for writing a commentary 
on the Bible he came near being burned 
at the stake; composed a musical service 
for the church, a Te Deum, and some 
other music. 

Marcello, Alless andro, of Venice, 
held a weekly musical meeting, at which 
his own compositions were almost ex- 
clusively performed ; the meetings were 
open to distinguished strangers : pub- 
lished much music between 1715 and 

Mabcello, Benedetto, born at 
Venice, 1680; was a composer of can- 
tatas, masses, and other music ; in 1724 
published '* The Paraphrase of the 
Psalms,^^ and set them to music; died 
at Brecia, 1739. 

MARCHisiOjCARLOTTAand Barbara, 
sisters, born at Turin, became celebrated 
while young as concert-singers ; visited 
the chief cities of Italy and Spain ; went 
to France, and became famous in opera. 
One of their brothers, Joseph, was a 
first-class pianist; another, Antonio, 
was a composer of note. 

Marenzio, Luca, born at Coccaglia, 
diocese of Brescia, 1540; published 
nine books of madrigals for five voices 
at Venice, between 1587 and 1601 ; a set 
for six voices, and another for three 
voices ; was of the Pope's chapel, Rome ; 
died there 1599. 

Marguerite de Valois, Queen of 

Navarre, composed mysteries and moral- 
ities ; a collection of her works was pub- 
lished in 1547. A French writer says, 
"If it were still the custom to perform 
pieces of this kind, we could not do bet- 
ter than translate into modern French 
the mysteries of the queen of Navarre." 

Marimba, a Brazilian instrument, 
with twenty keys of sheet-iron arranged 
like those of the piano-forte. The Af- 
rican marimba has fifteen wooden keys ; 
it is used there and in Portugal for 

Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm. 
born at Seehausen, Prussia, Oct. 1, 1718; 
celebrated as a musician, and as the au- 
thor of many theoretical and practical 
works upon music, and the composer of 
many songs and other music; died at 
Berlin, 1795. 

Marquard, Dr. Paul, born at Dres- 
den, 1836, became known through his 
learned labors towards a completion of 
a work on ''The Greek Musical Writers,'^ 
died at Catania, Sicily, Dec. 7, 1872. 

Marschner, Heinrich, born at Zit- 
tau, Aug. 16, 1795; became celebrated 
as a dramatic composer; resided at 
Prague, Dresden, and Berlin; besides 
dramas, he wrote quantities of songs, 
romances, and instrumental music; died 
at Hanover, Germany, Dec. 34, 1861. 

Marseillaise, a hymn composed by 
Rouget de I'lsle, 1792, when the French 
revolutionists arrayed themselves 
against royalty; the music has been 
claimed for others, and as of German 

M.\RSH, Alphonsus, was a gentleman 
of the chapel in the reign of Charles II. 
Various songs of his composition, as 
also of a son of his, having both his 
names, are extant in the " Treasury of 
Music," and other collections of that 

Marsh, J., a celebrated amateur, 
born at Dorking, Surrey, 1752; in 1787 
settled at Chichester, where he became 
concert-master, band-leader, organist, 
and composer of instrumental music, as 
well as of glees and church-music. 

Marsh, Simeon Bvcr ' lw ^, born in 
Sherburne, Chena^f^go County, N. Y., 
June 1, 1798; becAme known as a sing- 
er 1806, and commenced teaching music 
1817; composed two cantatas, " The 
Saviour,^ ^ and the ''King of the Forest." 
Published at Schenectady three juvenile 
singing-books, containing mostly ori- 
ginal compositions; setting the type, ad- 



justing the pages, and preparing the 
forms for the press, with his own hands. 

Marsh, Wilmot, author of metrical 
versions of some ecclesiastical hymns, 
London, 1845. 

Marshall, Leonard, of Boston, 
Mass., a teacher and composer, pub- 
lished the ^'Antiquarian,'^ the ^'Harpsi- 
chord,'' and many other collections of 

Marshall, William, a celebrated 
composer of Scottish airs and melodies, 
and no less eminent as a violinist ; born 
at Fochabers, Dec. 27, 1748, O.S. ; pub- 
lished a collection of "Airs," 176 tunes, 
to which he added 74 others soon after ; 
died at Newfield May 29, 188:3, aged 85. 

Marshall, William, Mus. Doc, 
Oxon. ; organist; author of ^'Cathedral 
Service,'" London; book of '^ Anthems,'' 
1840; ''Art of Reading Church-Music," 

Martini, Giovanni P. E., born at 
Freystatt, 1741; went to Paris, 1764, 
where he became celebrated as a com- 
poser ; was one of the inspectors at the 
conservatory ; wrote much instrumental 
and military music; and was the first 
who introduced a separate piano-forte 
accompaniment with dispersed chords, 
since imitated throughout Europe. 

Martini, Giuseppe San, a native of 
Milan; went to England, 1723; was an 
admired composer, and performed on 
the hautboy in the opera, until appointed 
director of the chamber-music of the 
Prince of Wales ; this place he held until 
1740, when he died. 

Martini, Padre Giambattista, 
a skilful composer and erudite musi- 
cian, born at Bologna, 1706 ; has written 
much church-music and several valu- 
able treatises on music ; his library con- 
tained seventeen thousand volumes, 
three hundred of which were in manu- 
script ; died Aug. 3, 1784. 

Marx, Adolph Bernhard, doctor 
and professor of music, born at Halle, 
Nov. 27, 1799; removed to Berlin, and 
became editor of a musical paper there ; 
was appointed music-director in the 
imiversity ; celebrated for his theoretical 
works on music and musical composi- 
tion; also known as the composer of 
musical dramas, symphonies, oratorios, 
&c. ; died at Berlin, May 17, 1866. 

Mary, Queen, a performer on the 
virginal and lute; the Catholic service 
was in her reign performed throughout 

Mason, Dr. Lowell, was born in r- 
Medfield, Mass., Jan. 8, 1792, and from 
childhood manifested great fondness for 
music. In 1821 the " Handel and Haydn 
Collection," his first church-music com- 
pilation, was published, and favorably 
received. Under his influence vocal 
music received an extraordinary impulse 
in Boston and throughout New England. 
Eminent teachers were introduced into 
the schools; the Boston Academy of 
Music was established; music was pre- 
scribed as a regular branch of instruc- 
tion in the schools of Boston, and sub- 
sequently throughout the entire country. 
His published works, particularly " The 
Carmina Sacra," had, and still have, a 
very wide circulation. Dr. Mason died 
at his residence in South Orange, N.J., 
Aug. 11, 1872, aged 80 years. 

Mason, L. W., supervisor of music in 
the Boston, Mass., schools, and author 
of the "National Music Charts." 

Mason, T. B., a veteran teacher of 
music; published at Cincinnati, O., 1834, 
the *' Sacred Harp." 

Mason, William, was born in Bos- 
ton, Jan. 24, 1829 ; and at the age of six 
years he played the organ in church, 
with the assistance of his father, Lowell 
Mason. He has published several pop- 
ular compositions for his instrument, 
and *' Mason & Hoadly's Method for the 

Masoni, Signor, a violinist, became 
celebrated at Leipsic, 1855 ; was a Vir- 
ginia, American slave, who left his 
master, Mr. Mason, 1840, being then 
known South as a plantation performer 
on the violin. 

Masse, Victor, born at Lorient, 
Brittany ; went to Italy, 1844, and there 
produced his first work for the Opera 
Comique ; afterwards composed several 
successful operas. 

Master Singers, a class of minstrels 
who flourished in Germany from the 
14th to the 17th century; they were 
formed into corporations; one at Ulra 
existed until 1839, being the last of 
these corporations ; they were succeeded 
by singing societies. 

Mather, Dr. Cotton, born at Bos- 
ton, Mass., Feb. 12, 1663; published, 
1718, the " Psalterium Americanum," 
and "The Accomplished Singer" in 
1721 ; died Feb. 13, 1728. 

Mathews, W. S. B., born at Loudon 
Centre, N.H., May 8, 1837; commenced 
teaching the piano-forte at the age of 




13 years, and has continued in that 
business since; in 1358 was attracted 
to Chicago, III., where he soon became 
known as a composer; published, 1859, 
** The Doctrine of Chords,''^ their con- 
struction, relation, and progression, 
newly stated. 

Matinees, or morning concerts, were 
instituted at Drury Lane Theatre, 1750, 
by M. Lacy. 

Mattei, Tito, a Neapolitan boy, at 
the age of twelve years appeared as a 
pianist in London, England, and was a 
rare musical prodigy. 

Matteis, Nicola, the first who en- 
graved music in England, was an excel- 
lent musician, and wonderful performer 
on the violin; composed much music; 
printed music for the violin, guitar, and 
a Avork on composition. 

Matteis, Nicola, jun., played the 
violin from a child; went to London, 
and became celebrated; was also a 
teacher ; died 1749. 

Mattheson, Johann, born at Ham- 
burg, 1681 ; wrote a number of musical 
works ; became celebrated by having 
fought a duel with Handel, 1704, when 
his sword broke against a button of 
Handel's coat, saving the life of the 
g reat compo ser ; died at Hamburg, 1704. 
^'T^Iattheav^ H. E., in connection with 
John Zundel, New York, published 
*' The Oriole,'''' a collection of youthful 

Mauduit, Jaques, an eminent musi- 
cal composer, and player upon the lute; 
added the sixth string to the violin, and 
introduced that instrument into con- 
certs; wrote masses and much other 

Maupin, N. Aubigny, a celebrated 
singer at the Paris opera; died 1707. 

Maurel, M., born at Marseilles; at 
the age of eighteen, won the first prize 
at the Conservatoire in that city; ap- 
peared at the Grand Opera in Paris, and 
then at Naples, Florence, Rome, Venice ; 
in 1873, he sang in London, and came 
to this country 1874. 

Maurice, Peter, of Oxford, Eng- 
land, author of a work entitled, *' What 
shall roe do with Music ? " 1856. 

Mauriceau, Jean, published, 1853, 
** Some Account of the Mrjsterious Music 
of the Bay of Pascagoula,'- which 
he found to proceed from cat-fish in 
that bay, instead of from the spirits of 
the Indians drowned there. 

Maxlm, Abraham, published at Hal- 

lo well. Me., 1816, the " Northern Har- 
mony,^^ 256 pages; he was a composer 
and teacher of music: was assisted in 
this work by J. C. Washburn. 

Maxwell, John, of Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, published, 1781, a work on " Time 
in Music.^^ 

May, JuLiANNA,born in Washington, 
D. C. ; went to Italy 1853 ; made her 
debut at Verona, Feb. 17, 1855, in opera, 
and soon after became prima donna at 
the Queen's Theatre. London; return- 
ing, sang in New York and Boston 

Mayer, Charles, born at Konigs- 
berg, 1799, and while yet a child went 
to Russia ; became a pianist, and at the 
age of nine years played at public con- 
certs ; in 1814 made the tour of France, 
and afterwards devoted his life to teach- 
ing and to composing; died at Dresden, 
July 2, 1862. 

Mayer-Marix, M., the inventor of 
the harmoniflufe, died in Paris, 1873. 

Mazaleni, for many years a popular 
tenor-singer in New York, in 1869 ap- 
peared in opera at Naples, and at Flor- 
ence, Italy. 

Mazzanti, born 1816, was a fisher- 
man; in 1824, at the carnival in Flor- 
ence, he became known for the immense 
power of his voice ; was educated, and 
soon made his appearance in opera 
with success. 

Mazzinghi, Joseph, born in London ; 
organist at the age of ten years ; com- 
poser and director of the music at the 
King's Theatre; a composer of several 
operas and much other music; also 
celebrated as a pianist, and as music- 
master to Queen Caroline, when Prin- 
cess of Wales. 

McCuRRY, John G., of Philadelphia, 
Penn., published, 1855, the ^'Social 
Harp ; " it was printed in the old style 
patent note system. 

McFadyen, Joseph, of Glasgow, 
Scotland, published " The Repository of 
Scots and Irish Airs.^' 

McGiBBON, William, of Edinburgh, 
published, between 1746 and 1762, sever- 
al excellent collections of music; also 
instruction books for all instruments; 
was assisted by Robert Bremner. 

McLean, Donald, a famous piper, 
who could play tunes requiring a pecu- 
liar pinching of the back hole of the 
chanter with the thumb in order to pro- 
duce the octave tones. 

McNaughton, J. H., a native of 





Scotland, born 1830, has published fifty- 
three songs, music and poetry, sixteen 
instrumental pieces, and been a public 
bass-singer; was connected with a 
Western newspaper 1852, and has since 
been a contributor to English periodi- 
cals ; is a performer upon the piano-forte 
and cornet; settled at Babble Brook, 
N.Y., where he wrote a work entitled 
" Bands and Band Music.^^ 

M'DoNALD, Joseph, born in Strath- 
naver, Scotland, became known as a 
composer, 1760; compiled a collection 
of Highland vocal airs, but died before 
it was published ; his brother Patrick 
added some to this work, and published 
it 1781. Patrick died at Kilmore, Sept. 
25, 1824, aged 68. 

M'DoNALD, Malcolm, of Dunkeld, 
Scotland, published four different col- 
lections of music and songs. 

Mechanical Flute-player. This 
automaton was full size, and blew into 
the flute with its lips, increased or dimin- 
ished the tone, and fingered the instru- 
ment well. Made by J. de Vaucanson. 

Mechanical Organist, invented 
1846, by Alexandre Debain, of Paris, 

Mechanical Pianist, invented 1853, 
by Alexandre Debain, of Paris, France. 

Medbury, Susie, born at Baltic, 
Conn., at three years of age sang in 
concerts, and at four was a public per- 
former upon the piano-forte. 

Megnin, Dr. Leopold, a distin- 
guished musician; author of an orato- 
rio called " The Belurje; " served with 
Napoleon's aniiy on the expedition to 
Moscow, and was at the battle of Water- 
loo; died in Philadelphia, Penn., June 
4, 1873, aged 80. 

MehlIg, Anna, born at Stuttgard, 
1849 ; at the age of sixteen commenced 
her concert career at Leipsic, and made 
the tour of the German cities ; then was 
in London during four summers ; came 
to this country, and won much admira- 
tion here as a pianist. 

Mehul, Etienne Henri, born at 
Givet, June 24, 1763, became known as 
an organist when a boy ; went to Paris, 
and became professor of composition at 
the conservatory, and also director, 
1810; composed for the Academy, the 
comic opera, and the theatre; and 
wrote much national and instrumental 
music; died Oct. 18, 1817, aged 53. 

Meibomius, Marcus, born at Ton- 
ningen, in Holstein, settled at Stock- 

holm, Sweden; wrote valuable works 
concerning the Greek music; went to 
Amsterdam, completed some works 
upon music in that place, and died 
there 1710. 

Meiggs, Henry, born at Catskill, 
N. Y. ; a resident of Williamsburg, and 
went to San Francisco ; built tliei-e the 
old Music Hall, and expended much 
money in producing the best music, and 
employing celebrated singers ; left that 
city in 1844, having accumulated 

Meissner. There were two musi- 
cians of this name in the eighteenth 
century ; Meissner of Salzbourg, singer, 
who had an extraordinary voice; Meiss- 
ner of Franconia, one of the founders 
of the school for the clarinet in Ger- 
many ; one of these was in Rome, May, 
1770, and assisted Mozart at a concert 
there, at the German college. 

Mellon, Alfred, a celebrated Eng- 
lish orchestral conductor, and director 
of the Musical Society of the London 
and Liverpool Association, died March 
27, 1867, aged 46; composed several 
successful overtures and other music; 
in 1868 his friends intended to erect for 
him a monument. 

Melone, Annibal, a learned contra- 
puntist at Bologna, about the year 1550; 
published a work very useful as respects 
the musical history of his time. 

Meloplast, an instrument intended 
to assist in teaching music; invented 
by Pierre Galen, 1819. 

Melvio, Francesco Maria, chef 
d^orchestre at Castello, in Italy, about 
1648. He published '■'Galatea,'''' Venice, 
1648, and " Cantiones SacrcB, 2-5 roc," 
Venice, 1650. 

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix, 
born at Hamburg, Feb. 3, 1809, was 
esteemed a prodigy at the age of eight 
years; appeared as a composer 1824; 
wrote his '^ Midsummer NirihVs Dream' ^ 
and had it performed 1827; won his 
great success in England; travelled 
much, composed much ; completed 
" Elijah " 1846; went to reside in Leip- 
sic ; and died there, Nov. 6, 1847, in the 
period of full promise, in the spring- 
time of his genius, a great and accom- 
plished man. 

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Paul, 
born at Hamburg, 1812, brother of Felix, 
a fine violoncellist and musician ; died at 
Berlin, June 21, 1874, aged 62; his quar- 
tet parties were renowned in Berlin ; 



and he edited two volumes of letters 
concerning the music of his brother. 

Mendelssohn, Nathan, musician, 
and uncle of Felix, died at Frankfort, 

Mendelssohn Qxhntette Club, 
formed in Boston, Mass., 1848. The 
five original members were August 
Fries, Francis Rziha, Edward Lehmann, 
Thomas Ryan, and Wulf Fries. 

Mengis, Joseph, born in Switzer- 
land 1818, became known as a vocalist 
in 1842, at the Helvetian Musical Festi- 
val; appeared in Paris the same year 
in opera, and remained there until 1847, 
when he went to England, and in 1848 
went with Catherine Hayes, singing in 
the French, German, Italian, and Eng- 
lish languages; came to Ibis country 

Merc AD ante, S., ranks as a compo- 
ser with Rossini ; born at Naples, 1798; 
wrote much instrumental music, and 
several operas; died December, 1870, 
almost totally blind. 

Mercantini, Luigi, celebrated as 
the composer of the " Garibaldi Hymn,^^ 
died at Palermo, January, 187.3; a 
splendid monument is erected there to 
his memory. 

Mercury invented the lyre, to which 
he gave three strings; wrote several 
books on music; his books were re- 
garded as sacred, and were carried about 
in processions with much pomp and 

Merddin, one of the three great 
bards of Wales, flourished as a singer 
and poet, 560. 

Meredith, a bass-singer of Liverpool, 
England, 1853 ; celebrated for the singu- 
lar power and depth of his voice ; was 
the envy and glory of England until a 
bass singer of Dublin, Patrick O'Reilly, 
who sang two full tones lower, made 
his appearance. 

Merli, Righetta, of Lucca, a blind 
girl, six years old, gave concerts at 
Rome; has wonderful musical talent; 
learns and plays classical music by 
hearing it ; is also a composer. 

Merrill, Solomon F., born in Shel- 
burne, April 12, 1820; was leader of a 
band there seventeen years ; taught 
music in many of the States ; became 
celebrated, not only as a teacher and 
band-master, but as a composer of vocal 
and instrumental music ; published 
some music books, and wrote much for 
other publications. 

Merrill, Thaddeus, born in Shel- 
burne, Mass., Sept. 25, 1777, was a fifer 
with Hitchcock, afterwards president of 
Amherst College ; was leader of the 
Shelburne choir for twenty years ; died 
Aug. 2, 1855. 

Mersenne, Pere, published, 1636, a 
valuable work on music, which has 
been much quoted by later writers ; he 
repeated jni for the seventh sound of 
the scale ; was a violinist. 

Merz, Karl, born inBensheim, Ger- 
many, Sept. 10, 1834; came to this 
country September, 1854 ; has composed 
and published a large number of pieces 
for the piano-forte, and some vocal 
music; became editor of the Western 
Mudcal World, 1870. 

Metallic Bars, like those of the 
music-box, were applied to a piano-forte 
by C. B. Clapp, of Gardiner, Me., 1848; 
he also invented an instrument with 
strings on both sides and a sounding- 
board in the middle. 

Metallic Tongues for piano-forte, 
made by S. B. Driggs, Detroit, Mich., 

Metallo, a church composer, 1650; 
wrote some books of motets. 

Metastasio, born at Rome, Jan. 3, 
1698; celebrated as an improvisatore 
and as a composer; became connected 
with the opera at Vienna, where he 
remained as poet, and died April 12, 
1782, known by all the eminent musi- 
cians, aged 84. 

Metcalfe, J. P., of London, Eng- 
land, author of the " Glee Hive,'^ and 
*' School Round Book,'' 1854. 

Methfessel, Friedrich, composer 
of vocal music, born at Stadtilm, 1771 ; 
lived like a minstrel, travelling from 
one town to another through .Germany; 
wrote many songs, and published a col- 
lection of them, 1798. 

Metrical Psalmody, or the Psalms 
of David written in metre, or rendered 
into poetic and musical measure, for 
the purpose of being sung, it has been 
supposed, originated with the Reforma- 
tion ; and many have considered it the 
offspring of Martin Luther's noble and 
devoted heart; but he did not apply 
poetic words to music, nor did he have 
music adapted to the Psalms for the 
purpose of use in public religious service, 
until about the year 1517. 

Metrical Romances, or romantic 
fiction, appear to have been cultivated 
from the eleventh century downwards, 



both by the troubadours of Provence 
and by the Norman poets ; and also by 
a class of persons named jongleurs, or 
minstrels, whose business it was to 
wander about from one mansion to an- 
other, reciting either their own compo- 
sitions or those of other persons, with 
the accompaniment of the harp. The 
early histories and chronicles partook 
largely of the character of these romantic 
tales, and were hawked about in the same 
manner. The basis of many of these 
metrical romances is supposed to have 
been certain collections of stories and 
histories compiled by the monks of the 
middle ages. Metrical psalmody may 
have originated from metrical romances. 

Metkonome, an invention of John 
Maelzel, intended to indicate the tone- 
time of a musical composition. There 
are now several kinds in use. Upon 
Maelzel' s there is an ivory scale, with 
degrees figured from 50 to 200; if the 
slide on the pendulum is fixed at 50, it 
will swing 50 times in a minute, and so 
on; and 50 whole, half, quarter, or 
eighth notes will be performed in one 
minute, &c. 

Metronome, Electric, capable of 
producing at any distance the same 
movement of the baton which is given 
by the conductor, in another place. 

Metronome, Portable, manufac- 
tured in Sheffield, England; it is the 
size of a small watch ; a tape is drawn 
from i<: which will vibrate as many times 
in a minute as are marked upon it. 

Mey, Auguste, the famous leader 
of the orchestra at the theatre and at 
societies ; died in Paris, 1873. 

Meyer, Leopold de, born at Vi- 
enna, Dec. 20, 1816 ; became early known 
as a pianist in his native city, and, being 
encouraged by the aristocracy, gained 
the favor of the Emperor of Austria, 
which laid the foundation for his bril- 
liant career; gave concerts throughout 
Europe, and came to America in 1846, 
where he met with equal success. 

Meyer, Phil., Sen., born at Stras- 
burg, in Alsatia, 1737; went to Paris, 
made improvements in the harp, and 
published a new method for that instru- 
ment ; composed some music ; became a 
teacher; and died 1819, aged 82. 

Meyerbeer, Giacomo, the cele- 
brated composer, was born at Berlin, 
--Sept. 5, 1794; early became known as a 
pianist and writer of operas; wrote his 
best wojks for the French stage after he 

^ ^i^>. ^i. 0^]^ ^ 

went to Paris; became not only famous, 
but immensely rich ; died at Paris, May 
2, 1864, aged 70 ; his original name w^as 
Jakob Meyer Beer. 

Meyerbeer, Jaquez, was one of 
the most effective composers of his day, 
and was remarkable for his musical tal- 
ents and fine taste. 

Mietzke, Carl, leader of the cele- 
brated orchestra at the court of Meck- 
lenburg, Germany; though upward of 
sixty years old, came to this country to 
attend the Peace Jubilee, Boston, 1869, 
playing the violin in the orchestra; was 
an eminent musician among the Ger- 
mans ; died at Neustraliz, Germany, 
Oct. 19, 1871. 

Mill, John Stuart, one of the 
clearest thinkers and most luminous 
writers of his time, added music to his 
other acquirements ; was a critic, and 
celebrated for improvisation ; died June, 
1873. , 

Millard^Harrison, born in Bos-AifV'^' 
ton, Mass., 1828; went to Italy; re- 
turned 1844, and appeared in opera, 
acquiring considerable reputation as a 
tenor; went to London, 1856, and was 
engaged to sing at Drury Lane Theatre ; 
a well-known writer of ballads ; con- 
ducted the performance of one of big 
own compositions at the Jubilee, 1872. 

Millard, James E., Oxford, Eng- 
land, published in London, 1848, ^'His- 
torical Notices of Choristers.''^ 

Miller, Abraham, compiler of the 
'^ Psalm-Singers' Companion," a work 
containing much of Ravenscroft's 

Miller, Edward, a teacher of music 
at Edinburgh ; editor of the Psalms in 
four parts, 1635 ; was made musician at 
the Chapel Royal for life. 

Mills, S. B., born in Cirencester, 
Gloucestershire, England, March 13, 

1838; made his debiit as pianist, Lon- , 
con'c^rts in England and in Germany ; 

donAl845; afterwards gave a series of ^^^ 
con'c6rts in England and in Germany ; 
came to this countrvK 1859 ; settled in L/^ . 
New York City, where lie has acquired / 
reputation as a composer, teacher, and 

Milton, John, father of the poet; 
born at Milton, England, acquired con- 
siderable reputation as a composer; 
wrote many psalm-tunes, 1683; also 
wrote madrigals and songs ; composed a 
fugue in forty parts ; died in London, 

Milton, John, born in I^ondon, Dec. 



9, 1608; a celebrated epic poet; was a 
musician and performer on the organ 
and flute ; when a boy, sang soprano in 
his father's choir; died Nov. 8, 1674. 

Minerva was the inventor of the 
flute ; being a performer on the pipe of 
Pan (Pandean pipes), found that she 
could produce the same variety of tones 
from a single pipe, by means of holes ; 
it was made of box-wood first, after- 
wards of bone. 

MiNGOTTi, Catakina, a celebrated 
singer, born at Naples, 1726; sang in 
several countries, and was famous in 
Italy, Germany, Spain, and England ; in 
1763, established herself at Munich; 
continued a favorite wherever she ap- 
peared until old age ; died 1807, aged 81. 

Minnesingers, of Germany, were 
knights as well as minstrels ; and were 
wanderers, living by the liberality that 
rewarded their songs. 

Minstrel. The name minstrel, or 
minestral, was a title given by Pepin, 
father of Charlemagne, to his chapel- 
master; and subsequently all through 
the middle ages the name was applied 
to travelling players and singers, a nu- 
merous class in Germany, France, Eng- 
land, and Italy, from the eighth to the 
eighteenth centuries, a period of a thou- 
sand years. The few relics of secular 
song now at hand, of a period earlier 
than the eleventh century, are only in 
"erse. rtir^' 

Mitchell, Nahum, born at Bridge- 
wat^r, Mass., 1769; became a composer 
and musician at an early age ; many of 
the popular tunes of 1800 were com- 

f)Osed by him ; he published several col- 
ections of church-music, among which 
the ^'Bridgeioater CoUection'^wsiS very 
popular; he wrote a grammar of music, 
a treatise on harmony, and a history 
of music ; contributed to the newspapers 
^ of his day ; and died Scptcm b cF , 1853, 
'^ aged 84 years. 

t ,/U^- Mitzler, von Kolof, Lorenz 
Christoph, born at Vettelsheim, 1711 ; 
singer, violinist, and composer; pub- 
lished a large number of theoretical and 
practical works on music; assisted in 
founding a society for improvement in 
the theory of music ; resided mostly at 

Moat, Mr., of London, 1852, invented 

a new violin-bow; it has a metallic 

head, and a shoulder for the first finger 

and thumb to rest upon. 

Mohammedan Music. It is con- 

sidered beneath the dignity of a believer 
to have any thing to do with music ; 
servants and slaves are usually the only 
performers of music, such as is heard ; 
they have tambourines, cymbals, and 
flutes, which are used to accompany the 
voice in the galleries of mosques, and 
on festive occasions. 

MoLDER, or Mulder, Richard, an 
eminent pianist in Germany; came to 
this country, 1860; conducted the or- 
chestra in New York, for the concerts 
of Agnes Fabbri. 

MoLiQUE, Bernhard, violiulst, born 
at Nuremberg, Oct. 7, 1803; was music- 
director at Stuttgard, 1826; visited 
Paris, Vienna, London, and St. Peters- 
burg ; obtained a great European repu- 
tation ; became distinguished as a com- 
poser for his instrument; died June, 

MoLLENHAUER, Eduard, 1859, in- 
vented an apparatus for violinists, called 
'''Arm-Guide;''^ a metallic belt fastens 
around the waist, and ligatures extend 
from the belt to the arms. 


RiCH, and Eduard, brothers, distin- 
guished virtuosos who have given con- 
certs in Germany, were born in Erfurt, 
the first in 1818, the second in 1828, and 
the third in 1830. Friedrich and Eduard 
are violinists, and played in New York 
in 1853, in Jullien's concerts. The other 
brother is a violoncellist, and arrived in 
New York, June, 1856, when he ap- 
peared at Dod worth's Academy. 

MoMiGNY, Jerome Joseph, de, a 
Belgian by parentage, born at Phillippe- 
ville, 1776; composed at Lyons some 
twenty works ; went to Paris, and wrote 
there some works and much music, and 
a new theory of music. 

Moncoulteau, M., born blind in 
Paris, 1800 ; celebrated for his improve- 
ments on the organ ; wrote a treatise on 
harmony, a manual of musical trans- 
position, &c. 

MoNGiNi, SiGNOR, gifted with one of 
the finest tenor voices of his' time, and 
well known in Europe, especially in 
England ; died 1874. 

MoNiuszKO, M., a composer of great 
reputation in his own country; died at 
Warsaw, 1872. 

Monk, E. G., published in London. 
England, 1850, a ''Part Song Book:' 

MoNNiER, Albert Henri, a com- 
poser of vaudevilles, extravaganzas, 
and the like; also a writer for the 


French journals ; died at Paris, July, 
1869, aged 52. 

MoNsiGNY, Pierre Alexandre, the 
French Sacchini, was born at Artois, 
1729; went in youth to Paris; became 
celebrated as a composer of operas, and 
director of the conservatory; in 1802, 
was pensioned as the composer of the 

Montague in 1580 travelled through 
Crermany, and wrote upon the music of 
that country ; he first heard interludes 
in Germany, and observed the custom 
of using violins and tabors at marriage 
ceremonies ; he heard here the bell- 
chimes of Bavaria. 

Montgomery, James, born at Irvine, 
Scotland, Nov. 4, 1771; wrote '^ Songs 
of Zion,^^ in imitation of the Psalms, 
and ''Christian Psalmist : " died April 30, 

Moore, Edward B., editor of " Tl^e 
Brooklyn (N.Y.) Union,^^ composed an 
opera, '' Mootla:^^ the scene is laid in 
Salem, Mass., during the days of witch- 

Moore, Henry E., born at Andover, 
N.H., July 21, 1803; composer, teacher, 
and performer upon instruments ; pub- 
lished several collections of vocal and 
instrumental music; and composed 
psalmody, songs, and orchestral band- 
music; was celebrated as a teacher all 
his life; died Oct. 23, 1841. 

Moore, Hugh, born at Amherst, 
N.H., Nov. 19, 1808; a poet and musi- 
cian, and connected with several news- 
papers in New England ; his early com- 
positions were all addressed to John W. 
Moore ; died at Amherst, Feb. 13, 1837, 
aged 29. 

Moore, Jacob Bailey, M.D., born 
at Georgetown, Me., Sept. 5, 1772; a 
poet and musician; composed much 
vocal and instrumental music, published 
m Holyoke's and other collections; also 
a performer upon several instruments ; 
died at Andover, N.H., Jan. 10, 1813. 

Moore, Thomas, a celebrated poet 
and musical amateur ; born in Dublin, 
Ireland, May 28, 1779; wrote ''Irish 
Melodies^'' and "Sacred Songs ;^^ there 
never lived a poet that was more 
charged with musical sentiment; died 
at Sloperton Cottage, Wiltshire, 1852 ; in 
1857, a bronze statue was erected to his 
memory in one of the squares of Dublin. 

MoosER, Aloyse, a celebrated organ- 
builder, born at Fribourg, Germany, 
1769; completed the new Fribourg or- 

gan, 1834, an instrument more widely 
known, except the Haarlem, than any 
other in Europe ; died 1838. 

Moravian Music. The Moravians 
of Nazareth, Penn., were among the 
earliest pioneers of music in America ; 
they used the old Moravian and Luther- 
ran chants and hymiis, as early as 1745; 
and now this people have regular musi- 
cal organizations to play and sing the 
best procurable music. Bethlehem, 
Penn., is the chief settlement, and here 
the church-music is very perfect. 

Moreno, Benita, who, with her sis- 
ter, first introduced Italian opera into 
Spain, was a celebrated Italian prima 
donna ; died 1872, at Estremadura, aged 

Morgan, George Washburne, born 
at Gloucester, England, April 9, 1822; 
became known as an organist, 1847; 
came to this country, 1853, and settled 
in Brooklyn, N.Y. ; was a soldier, and 
wounded at the battle of Bull Run; 
excelled as an organist, and had no 
superior as a pedal performer. 

Morgan, author of several psalm- 
tunes that have been popular, was a 
composer and music-teacher; but is 
better known on account of his excellent 
breed of Morgan horses than for his 
music ; was a resident of Randolph, Vt. 

Mori, Frank, son of the violinist, a 
well-known accompanist for the con- 
cert-room, in town and country, and 
composer of popular songs, died in 
London, 1873, at the age of 52. 

MoRLAccHi, Francesco, born in 
Perugia, 1784; became known as an 
instrumental performer and composer 
of music when a youth; became a 
member of the Philharmonic Academy 
at Bologna; wrote for all the great 
theatres of Italy; produced operas, 
masses, and every variety of church- 
music; also songs and instrumental 

Morley, Thomas, born 1563 ; bache- 
lor of music, and one of the gentlemen 
of Queen Elizabeth's chapel; celebrated 
for his "Plaine and Ea^ie Introduction 
to Practical iliisicke,^' aud as a musi- 
cian of merit; wrote much from 1593 
to 1601 ; among his compositions are 
some madrigals ; died 1604, aged 41. 

MoRNABLE, Antoine de, a French 
contrapuntist of the sixteenth century, 
of whose works there are still extant, 
in the Munich library, "Motettce Muai- 
cales^'^ Paris. 



MoRNiNGTON, the first earl of, was 
born in Ireland 1720, and composed 
many psalra-tunes and glees, some of 
which are yet used ; died 1781 ; he was 
father to the Duke of Wellington. 

MoRBisoN, William, of Inverness, 
was a noted musician, and a composer of 
marches, waltzes, and slow airs with 
variations ; published mostly at Inver- 
ness, Scotland. 

MoscHELES, Ignaz, pianist and com- 
poser; born at Prague, May 30, 1794; 
appeared in public at Vienna at the age 
of fifteen ; then went to Holland, Paris, 
and London; here he became famous; 
became a professor in the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music, and a concert director; 
his works are very numerous, and many 
of them celebrated; died at Leipsic, 
March 10, 1870. 

MosENTHAL, JOSEPH, bom at Cassel, 
Germany, December, 1834 ; musician and 
composer ; performer on the violin, viola, 
organ, and piano-forte ; a resident of 
New York; his compositions are grace- 
ful and learned. 

MosEB, August, son of the chapel- 
master Carl Moser, a native of Berlin, 
became celebrated as a violinist in Bel- 
gium, Paris, Algiers, and elsewhere, be- 
fore appearing in Berlin. 

Moser, Here, a voluminous com- 
poser for the violin, and a successful 
concert-master and teacher; died at 
Berlin, 1851, aged 77. 

MosEvius, JoHANN Theodor, One of 
the best musicians of Germany, cele- 
brated for his profound knowledge of 
the science ; died at Breslau, 1858, aged 

MosKOWA, Prince, born 1803; be- 
came known as a musician and com- 
poser at the age of thirteen ; owned one 
of the best existing libraries of old 
sacred music ; with Adam, founded the 
Sacred Concert Society ; composed sev- 
eral comic operas, and much other 
music ; died in Paris, July 25, 1857. 

MosLEY, William W., of London, 
England, published a work on the 
quantity and measure of " The Greek 
Chorus,^^ discovered 1847. 

Motherwell, William, bom at 
Glasgow, Oct. 13, 1797; published 
*^ Minstrelsy, Ancient and Modern,'''' 1827; 
was editor of "T/te Courier" newspaper; 
died Nov. 1, 1835. 

MoTTE, Gabrielle de LA, a teacher 
in Italy and France, came to this coun- 
try in 1854, and, after a concert tour, 

settled in Boston, Mass., as a teacher of 
the piano-forte. 

Mouret, a native of Avignon ; super- 
intendent of the music of the Duchess of 
Maine, 1707 ; produced many operas and 
ballets ; became insane, and died at 
Charenton, Dec. 22, 1738. 

Movable Music Types, of wood, 
were used at Venice, 1503. 

Moxley, for thirty years organist of 
the parish church of St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden, England, and a thoroughly 
educated musician, and performer of 
first-rate ability, died at his residence in 
London, December, 1852. 

MoYEs, Henry, born blind, at Kirk- 
aldy, Scotland, 1750; celebrated as a 
musician ; died 1807. 

Mozart, John George Leopold, 
born at Augsburg, Nov. 14, 1719 ; settled 
at Salzburg ; was an organist, violinist, 
composer, and teacher ; became court 
composer, and leader of the orchestra, 
1762 ; wrote for the church, the theatre, 
and for solo instruments ; his " Violin 
School" was popular; died May 28, 

Mozart, J. C. W. G., the great com- 
poser, was born at Salzburg, Jan. 27, 
1756 . So extraordinary was the child's 
progress in every thing appertaining to 
music, that, so early even as the age of 
six years, his father made professional 
tours with Mozart and his sister, five 
years older, to Munich, Vienna, Paris, 
and London ; and wherever they went 
the "infant prodigies" were enthusias- 
tically praised. It is said of him, that 
no musician ever embraced the art so 
extensively. He excelled in all styles, 
from the symphony to the dance, from 
operas to the most simple ballads. As 
a virtuoso, Mozart was one of the first 
pianists in Europe. But his most bril- 
liant and solid glory is founded upon 
his talents as a composer, in which the 
fertility of his ideas, and the clear and 
happy designs, are most striking ; died 
Dec. 5, 1792, aged 36. 

Mozart, Karl, son of the above, was 
a musician and composer ; he attended 
the centennial celebration of his father's 
birth at Salzburg, 1856; and died at 
Milan, Oct. 31, 1858, aged 80, leaving 
the bulk of his property to a religious 

Mozart, Maria Anna, W.I., daugh- 
ter of Leopold, was born in Salzburg, 
1751 ; appeared as pianist in the musical 
tours of the family from 1762 to 1767 ; 



married, and became a famous teacher ; 
died 1829. 

MuENscHER, Joseph, of Gambia, O., 
musician and composer, published, 18^0, 
''The Church Choir,'' 432 pages ; Wi^fianr 
Muenscher, his brother, assisted in/fts 
preparation. / 

Muhlenberg, Rev. Dr. W. A., St. 
Paul's College, Flushing, Long Island ; 
organist and composer of great merit ; 
published 1852, in New York, besides 
many hymns, a book of ^'Church Music," 
generally used ; also the " People's 

MuHLiNG, Aug., born in 1780 at Ra- 
guhne, distinguished himself as an ex- 
cellent soprano-singer, as also after- 
wards by his talents in composition 
both for the voice and orchestra; was 
an able pianist and violinist. 

Mulder, Richard, pianist and com- 
poser; came to this country, March, 
1860, with his wife, Signora Fabbri of 
Maretzek's opera troupe, and settled in 
New York. 

MuLLER, Andreas, city musician at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, in 1600, was 
born in Hammelburg. 

MuLLER, A. E., published "^ Method 
for the Piano-Forte;'' it was revised by 
Julius Knorr. 

MuLLER, August Eberhabd, chap- 
el-master, composer, organist, pianist, 
and flutist, at Leipsic; born at Nor- 
theim, in Hanover, 1767 ; composed very 
many works from 1797 to 1810, at which 
time he was immensely popular at Leip- 

MuLLER, Christian Gottlieb, born 
in 1800; was conductor at Attenburg, 
Germany; composed five symphonies, 
which were performed at Leipsic ; died 
June, 1863. 

MuLLER, Robert M., a well-known 
pianist to his Majesty the King of Sax- 
ony; in 1853 he translated '•'■ Kiesewet- 
ter's History of Music." 

MiJLLER, Theodor, born in Leipsic, 
1798; his father was the composer and 
organist, August Eberhard Muller ; and 
his mother was an excellent pianist 
and organist; the son composed many 
violin-pieces, overtures, &c. ; died at 
Weimar, 1846. 

MuLLER, Wilh. Adolph, published, 
1830, a work concerning organs and 
their manufacture. 

MuLLiNGER, John, celebrated in 1677 
for his work on '^ Periwigs and Music." 

Musical Academy. The first of 

ix^fA^vvvv^ /C/i-yx^-^y ^/t^iv-'V-v-, 

whicli^ we find a written account was 
established at Vincenza, 1500; the first 
in England was in 1710, in London ; one 
Was established in Paris, 1669; one in 
this country, at Boston, 1820, by Mr. 
Bailey; the Boston Academy of Music 
was organized 1833. 

Musical Characters, such as notes, 
rests, &c., were derived from the points 
used byGuido. 

Musical Chronometer, an instru- 
ment for measuring and keeping time, 
invented by Joseph Sauveur, 1700. 

Musical Conventions were held in 
New Hampshire, 1829. Moses E. Cheney 
claims to have held the first in Vei-mont. 

Musical Notes. Specimens exist of 
notes similar to those now in use, printed 
in 1300; books with musical notes were 
printed in 1453 ; notes were represented 
in the Bay Psalm-Book, by letters. 

Musical Short-Hand, devised 1874, 
by an Englishman ; it is merely phonog- 
raphy applied to music, and is based on 
Isaac Pitman's system of phonography. 
The signs used to represent the notes 
are twelve in number, corresponding to 
the black and white keys of the piano- 
forte ; and, owing to the ease with which 
a knowledge of them can be acquired, 
great speed may be attained by the 
learner, it being a very simple matter to 
take down any ordinary tune while it is 
being sung or played. 

Musical Sounds arise from equal 
vibrations of the air set in motion by 
whatever cause. These vibrations are 
palpable in the strings of a piano-forte, 
and the tremblings of the organ-loft 
when the deep tones are sounded. 

Musical Sticks, sixteen pine sticks 
about one inch wide, and from one to 
three feet long, laid upon ropes of straw, 
and struck with wood hammers to pro- 
duce sound; introduced in this country 
by Mr. Nelson, 1846. 

Music-bells, carillons, were used by 
King David ; prefixed to an ancient copy 
of the Psalms, he is represented as play- 
ing, with a hammer in each hand, upon 
five bells. 

Music Printing was commenced in 
this country about 1690, when under 
each note it was necessary to place the 
initial of the syllable to be applied in 
singing by note ; specimens exist, print- 
ed in 3698, badly done, with many errors, 
and with only bars to divide the lines of 
the poetry. Music was printed in Europe 



<^-/^^/,y9^V-i^. ,./-v 




Music, Sacred. Previous to the 
reformation, 1720, church music tunes 
were supposed to be holy; and the 
people put off their hats, and put on a 
great show of devotion and gravity, 
whenever psalm-tunes were sung. 

MuxcEY Veksion. a small number 
of the Psalms were in 1847 prepared to 
be sung by the Munceys, a North 
American tribe, followed by sixty-eight 
hymns ; translated by Richard Flood. 

MuxRO, Alexander, 1782, published 
in France a collection of Scotch music 
for the flute, with variations; was a 
native of Scotland, residing at Paris. 

MuNROE, James, of Carclel, Scotland, 
published "J. New Gaelic Song-Book,''^ 
at Glasgow. 

MuNSON, R. D., of Williston, Yt., 
constructed a wonderful musical calen- 
dar clock, after spending many months 
labor; it is an eight-day clock, which 

besides marking the hours, &c., has a 
cylinder attachment, which will play 
seven tunes. 

MuRSKA, Ilma de, born in Hungary, 
1848 ; won brilliant triumphs in all the 
cities of Europe, where she sang ; came 
to this country, and sang at Boston, 
Mass., October, 1878; in addition to her 
vocal greatness, she is an actress of 
marked dramatic power. 

MusARD, Philippe, the originator 
of the promenade concerts, and the 
popularizer of the bal masque^ loved 
his profession, and was the idol of Paris 
society; one of his sons came to New 
York, April, 1848, and while there com- 
posed several popular quadrilles and 
other dance-music; Philippe died at 
Auteuil, France, March 31, 1859, aged 
68. There were several of this family 
name distinguished for dance-music. 


Nacaire, a kind of brazen drum, 
formerly much used by the Italians and 

N^xiA, the goddess of funeral songs. 

Nageli, Hans Georg, a composer 
and music publisher ; by birth a Swiss ; 
wrote many songs with harp, harpsi- 
chord, or piano-forte accompaniments, 
also choruses ; among his songs may be 
mentioned '■'■Life let us cherish; ^^ also 
wrote several vocal schools, and a work 
on singing on the Pestalozzian system, 
much used in Europe and in America ; 
died at Zurich, Dec. 29, 1836. 

Nairn, Caroline, born in Perth, 
Scotland, 1766; wrote seventy songs, 
which were arranged with symphonies 
and accompaniments for the piano-forte 
by Finlay Dun, of London, and pub- 
lished in *' Modern Scottish Minstrelsy.^' 

Naker, a species of kettle-drum. 

Nakokus, a musical instrument; 
two brass plates suspended by strings 
and struck together to beat time ; used 
in Mahometan processions, and by the 

Naldi, S., born 1770, a celebrated 
Italian singer at the King's Theatre, 
London ; died Dec. 16, 1820. 

Nannetti, Signor, barytone singer, 
made his debut in Italian opera, and 
was engaged at Covent Garden, Lon- 
don, 1872. 

Napier, William, distinguished for 
his musical skill, and for his collection 
of ^* Scotch Ballads,^' 1792; was for 
many years a member of his majesty's 
band, and a concert performer ; died at 
Somerston, Scotland, aged 72. 

Napoleon, Arthur, born in Oporto, 
Portugal, Sept. 6, 1844; at the age of 
six years could play the piano-forte at 
concerts; in 1852 visited Paris; 1854 
was in London; made a tour of thirty- 
four towns with Clara Novello and other 
artists ; travelled through Germany and 
Italy; in 1857 gave concerts in Brazil 
and throughout South America.; came to 
New York 1858, and after successful con- 
certs in the States returned to Portugal. 

Nardini, Pietro, first violinist to 
the Duke of Tuscany at Florence ; born 
at Leghorn, 1725 ; among his works are 
six concertos, twelve solos, six quartets, 
six duets, and six solos for the flute; 
died at Florence, 1796. 

Nares, James, doctor of music ; born 
in England, 1715; organist and com- 
poser ; died Feb. 10, 1783. 

Nasard, a wind instrument of thick, 
reedy, nasal tone. 

Nash, F. H., teacher of singing and 
the cultivation of the voice, after seve- 
ral years, opened a school in New York 
for teaching music and elocution; 
author of " School Vocalist.^' 



Nason, Edward, of Newbury port, 
Mass., a composer and teacher of music ; 
in connection with his brother, Elias 
S. Nason of Natick, pubUshed 1847, 
**Nason^s Vocal Class - Book,^' also 
^^ Songs for the Schoolroom.^ ^ 

Natali, Agnes and Fanny, sisters, 
of Irish parentage, born in Philadelphia, 
Penn., commenced their career as 'sing- 
ers, with Morelli and La Grange, as the 
^^ Heron Family;'^ they visited the 
principal cities of South America, and 
returned to Philadelphia 1859, where 
they sang in opera. Fanny married 
Enrico Testa, the tenor ; Agnes became 
a great favorite at Havana. 

Nathan, I., author of a work on 
music, 1823, also *^ Hebrew Melodies.^^ 

Nathan, Isaac, born at Canterbury, 
England, 1792; became a composer, per- 
former, and teacher of music ; his com- 
positions exhibit versatility of talent, 
and his songs were popular; he was 
also successful in his orchestral arrange- 
ments; wrote an ^' Essay on the Theory 
of Music, ^^ and some other works. 

National. Melodies are rather a 
growth than a creation, — the work, not 
of one maker, but of many ; they are 
in most instances anonymous, and, 
though originating in one mind, by the 
time they become accepted as national 
they receive additions, and are different 
from the original. 

National Music. The Russians, 
Danes, Scotch, Irish, Welsh, French, 
Germans, Italians, and some other 
peoples, are rich in the possession of 
national music, because it has been col- 
lected and preserved. The music of 
England and America will show a 
national character as distinct, when 
gathered and examined. 

National Songs appeal to the heart, 
stir noble emotions, and feed the fires 
of nationality; they have immortality, 
though the names of the authors or 
composers cannot be discovered. 

Nativity, a mystery. A. Bartholo- 
mew, 1550. 

Nau, Dolores, born in New York, 
became celebrated as a pianist, harpist, 
and vocalist; went to Paris, received 
the first prize for singing, and was en- 
gaged at the Royal Academy of Music. 

Naumann, Johan Gottlieb, one of 
the first composers in Germany; born 
at Blasewitz, near Dresden, 1741 ; went 
early to Italy, where he composed his 
first successful operas ; was for a time 

chapel-master to the king of Prussia, 
but preferred to reside as much as pos- 
sible in his own country ; late in life he 
composed much sacred music ; his works 
are very numerous; died at his native 
village, Oct. 21, 1801, aged 60. 

Neate, Charles, born in London, 
March 28, 1784; a distinguished pianist 
and violoncellist; one of the first mem- 
bers of the Philharmonic Society, of 
which he became director; has been 
known for his compositions, published 
since 1822 ; in 1855 wrote a work on fin- 

Nebel, the ancient Jewish ten- 
stringed harp; its form resembled a 
bottle or flagon ; the strings are struck 
with a little iron rod. 

Necellini, Dom. Marco, chapel- 
master to the Duke of Parma about the 
year 1670, was in high repute as a com- 

Necken, the spirit of the water; 
represented as an old man, who plays 
his harp or violin in the roaring cata- 
racts; his music is said to consist of 
eleven chords, which are the very es- 
sence of all music; and all music ap- 
peals to the human heart in the same 
degree as it partakes of the inherent 
qualities of old Necken' s chords. There 
is a Norwegian legend that mortals have 
attempted to learn these chords, and 
have succeeded; some having learned 
two, others tliree, but few more than 
six. He wlio is taught to strike the 
eleventli chord, the legend says, must 
give his own soul in exchange ; at the 
ninth chord, lifeless objects begin to 
dance ; and, when the tenth is struck, 
the player is seized with such a rapture 
that he can never sleep, but plays on 

Needham, Elias P., a native of 
New York, born Sept. 29, 1812 ; was, in 
1835, first interested in the manufacture 
of melodeons, with Mr. Carhart ; is the 
inventor of a pneumatic machine for 
conveying packages and passengers 
through tubes from which the air has 
been exhausted; he and his son suc- 
ceeded Carhart as melodeon-makers. 

Neefe, Christian Gottlob, chapel- 
master and court organist at Boim; 
born in Saxony, 1748; became con- 
ductor of the orchestra, and later a 
teacher of music; removed to Dessau 
as leader of a band there, and as or- 
chestral chief, where he died 1798. 

Neginoth, a general term for all 



Bucli stringed instruments as were 
played with the hand or the plectrum. 

Negri, Dom. Francesco, an ecclesi- 
astic and pupil of Antonio Lotti at 
Venice, about the year 1740. Was 
eminent in his time as a performer on 
the harpsichord and violin. 

Negri, Giuseppe, musician in ordin- 
ary to the Elector of Cologne at the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century, was 
born at Verona. He published " Madri- 
(jali e Arie,^' Venice, 1622. 

Negri, Luigi, for twenty years mas- 
ter at the Royal Academy of Music, 
died in London, June, 1855, aged 42. 

Negri, Marco Antonio, a composer, 
born at Verona, also flourished about 
the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and published '' Salmi ci 7 voci,^^ 
Venice, 1613. 

Negri, Maria Catarina, an Italian 
singer, born at Bologna. She sang at 
the opera in London, under the direc- 
tion of Handel. 

Negro Minstrelsy was known in 
this country as early as 1814 ; and soon 
after the battle of Plattsburg a song 
was written intended as a negro's de- 
scription of that affair, called at the 
time *' Gubernor Prohose's Tea-Party^ 

Nehiloth, a general term for perfo- 
rated wind instruments of all kinds. 

Nehrlich, Johann Peter Theo- 
DOR, born at Erfurt, 1770 ; a singer, and 
professor of the harpsichord ; became 
music-master in a gentleman's family 
at Dorpat, in Esthonia, where he wrote 
some variations and songs ; removed to 
Moscow, where he devoted himself to 
teaching and to composition; wrote 
many preludes, odes, hymns, and piano- 
forte pieces. 

Neidhardt, Augustus, born Aug. 
10, 1794, the founder and director of the 
Dom. Chor., 182.3, at Berlin ; an excellent 
composer and musician ; died April 18, 
1861, aged 63 ; besides his national song 
many others were very popular. 

Neilson, Laurence Cornelius, 
born in London, went early to the West 
Indies, where his musical career began 
1785 ; after the death of his father he 
returned to England, and became organ- 
ist at Nottingham and Derby ; composed 
a great variety of vocal and instru- 
mental music, and a book of psalms 
and hymns. 

Nelson, a famous performer upon 
the dulcimer, the rock harmonicon, and 
musical sticks; gave concerts in this 

country, 1846, with Mr. Harrison, a 
fine singer of comic songs. 

Nelson, E. H. and T., of London, 
England, in connection with F. R. 
Crampton, published ^'Church Psal- 
ter;' 1856. 

Nelson, Richakd J., was the dis- 
coverer of what are now known in 
some American orchestras as "musicaZ 
stones;''^ he found them in the limestone 
region of Kendal, England. 

Neruda, Franz, a young musician 
and composer, at present attracting 
much attention in Germany ; is acci'ed- 
ited violoncellist to the king of Den- 

Neruda, Wilma, born at Brunn, 
Moravia ; a talented violinist of a 
family consisting of two brothers (pian- 
ist and violoncellist), and two sisters 
(pianist and violinist), who made sever- 
al excursions through Germany, and 
elsewhere; married Herr L. Normann, 

Nero, in 63, sang upon the stage at 
Naples; was a singer and player; ex- 
torted prizes at musical contests ; took 
great pains to preserve his voice; was 
a tyrant, and probably insane in regard 
to his musical accomplishments ; was 
detested, except by himself. 

Neubauer, Franz Christian, a 
Bohemian, became chapel - master at 
Minden, in Prussia, and was a conduc- 
tor there afterwards; wrote a number 
of excellent works for various instru- 
ments, and died 1795. 

Neubauer, Johann. Of this com- 
poser, residing at Vienna, many works 
are known. 

Neubebg, Von, for amusement, 
manufactured four violoncellos, five 
trombones, and twenty violins, in imi- 
tation of those by the old masters ; all 
of them excellent, and all given to 
friends in Germany, from 1800 to 1846 ; 
was a resident of Karlsbad. 

Neukomm, Sigismund, born at Salz- 
burg, July 10, 1778 ; composed his prin- 
cipal works in England, though he 
spent the latter part of .Is life in Paris ; 
his ^^ Mount Sinai^^ and "" David ^^ are 
known to the present generation; but 
his psalms, sacred music, and organ- 
pieces are not so much met with; he 
wrote a great many English songs, some 
of which are yet popular ; died at Paris, 
April 3, 1858. 

New Orleans, La., Opera, estab- 
lished by Davis, 1820. This city is tho 



only one in America which has con- 
stantly maintained a regular lyric thea- 
tre; tile regular season of opera is for 
six months in every year; and in this 
opera-house nearly all the popular 
French operas have been produced; 
many well-educated musicians reside 
here, and opera has been performed for 
the last fifty years. 

Nev7 Veksion of the Psalms intro- 
duced Dec. 3, 169G, by order of King 
William III., when the old version fell 
into disuse ; the new was by Tate and 

Ney, Jenny, born in Presburg, Hun- 
gary, was engaged at the Imperial Opera, 
Vienna, 1851 ; was greeted throughout 
Germany, and wherever she sang, as the 
first singer on the stage ; sang in Lon- 
don, 1855, and became chamber-singer 
of the court of Saxony. 

NiCHOLO, O. M., invented, 1823, a 
small wooden pipe, which produces 
sub-bass tones to CCC ; it has been ap- 
plied by him to church organs with suc- 

NiCHELMANN, Chrtstoph, chamber 
musician and professor of the harpsi- 
chord to the King of Prussia; born at 
Treuebriezen, 1717; resided much at 
Berlin, and there produced most of his 
compositions ; died 1761. 

Nicholson, father of Charles, was 
celebrated as a flutist, and much im- 
proved that instrument; died 1737, after 
having tauglit his son' all that seemed 
necessary for a performer to know. 

Nicholson, Henry D.,of Cambridge, 
England, came to this country, and, in 
1866, wrote a brief work on the " His- 
tory and Construction of the Organ." 

NicuoLSON, Richard, organist; was 
the first professor of music at Oxford, 
England, 1595, and was the composer 
of many madrigals. He died 1639. 

Nickels, Clara, of Boston, Mass., 
a popular vocalist, soprano, known at 
concerts and conventions ; a pianist and 
teacher of music. 

NiCKLES, J., treating of several novel 
and interesting topics concerning the 
''natural diapason," in a paper published 
in Paris, Feb. 28, 1858, re-affirms the 
statements which had been previously 
made concerning the hearing of La 
when agitating the head from side to 
side, and says: "M. Jobard became 
convinced, by experiment, of the fact ; 
and that any one can verify it if he will 
disencumber his neck of the cravat and 

collar, and place himself apart from all 


NicoLAi, Carl Otto E., born June 
9, 1810; was a son of Prussia, and began 
his career in Berlin as street musician; 
and, after wandering in many lands, 
became celebrated as a pianist, music- 
teacher, and composer of vocal and in- 
strumental music ; died May 10, 1844. 

NicoLAi, C. E. D., music-master at 
Kiinigsberg, Prussia, composer and 
author of a piano-forte school and other 
works ; died at Berlin, 1857. 

NicoLAi, C. S, T., son of David, was 
assistant organist to his father, 1795 ; so 
that the third generation of this family 
served at the same organ in the same 

NicoLAi, Friedrich, born at Berlin, 
1733; celebrated not only as a musician, 
but for his account of music at Vienna, 
and his observations made during an 
extended tour; died at Berlin, 1811, 
aged 78. 

NicoLAi, Otto, the composer of sev- 
eral operas, was chapel-master and mu- 
sician many years ; in 1849 produced his 
"•Lustigen Weiher von Windsor," and, in 
two months after conducting this work, 

NiEDERMEYER, M. Louis, director of 
the school of sacred music, established 
at Paris, 1861 ; born April 27, 1802, at 
Noyon, Switzerland; at the age of 19 
produced an opera; settled at Paris at 
the age of 21 ; has published a large 
number of melodies, and written much 
for the Italian theatres ; eight or ten of 
his operas were produced at Paris ; in 
1856 he established ''La Maiirise," 
which he continued during his life ; died 
at Paris, April 14, 1861, aged 59. 

NiEDT, Friedrich Eriiardt, a mu- 
sical theorist and composer; born in 
Thuringia; became a composer for the 
court of Copenhagen ; wrote many the- 
oretical works, and died 1717. 

NiLssoN, Christine, known as the 
Swedish vocalist, was born near Vexio, 
Sweden ; became known as a singer at 
the age of ten years ; first appeared in 
opera in 1860; since then has attained 
an immense reputation. 

Nolrega, a Jesuit, introduced music 
in his schools in order to make friends 
of the Brazilians ; he set the catechism, 
creed, and ordinary prayers to music, 
and thus taught the gospel in song to 
the natives. 

Noedwall, Andrfas O., a Swed- 



ish writer on acoustics, wrote '^Disser- 
iatio de Sono Simplici Directo,^^ Upsal, 

Norman, John, an English contra- 
puntist, of whose composition some 
masses were in the music-school at Ox- 
ford ; flourished about 1490. 

XoiJMANN, L., born in Stockholm, 
1831, a well-known artist and composer; 
teacher at the Royal Academy of Music 
in his native city, 1857; and kapell- 
meif'ter there, 1861. 

Norman Minstrels, after the con- 
quest, went to England from France, 
where they abounded ; and the kingdom 
swarmed with itinerant musicians and 

NoRRis, Charles, born at Salisbury, 
England, 1740; at the great Commemo- 
ration of Handel, in 1784, he was one of 
the principal tenor-singers, and Burney 
speaks in high terms of his pathetic 
delivery; his last efforts in public were 
at the Commemoration of 1790, and at 
the Birmingham Festival of the same 
year; he died ten days after his last 
appearance in public, at Imley Hall, the 
seat of Lord Dudley and Ward. Norris 
was a good musician ; he left some fine 
anthems, glees, and songs, and also 
some examples of instrumental music. 

North, Francis, son of Lord North, 
born 1640; wrote an ^'Essay on 3fusic,^^ 
1677, of considerable merit ; died 1685. 

North, Roger, a practical musician, 
both in singing and on the organ ; born 
at Rougham, England, 1650; was author 
of a work entitled " Memoirs of Music," 
with accounts of the celebrated British 
composers from 1650 to 1680 : he lived 
to the age of ninety years ; died 1740. 

Norton, John T., an English musi- 
cian of celebrity ; came to this country 
1830, and was noted as a trumpeter; 
continued to perform on that instru- 
ment until incapacitated by age ; died 
in Philadelphia, Penn., Feb. 1, 1868, 
aged 83 years. 

Norton, Thomas, an English writer 
who assisted Sternhold and Hopkins in 
their noted version of the Psalms, 27 
of which he turned into English metre ; 
died 1600. 

Nose Flute. The Tahitians have 
an instrument of the flute kind, made 
of bamboo-cane, and blown from the 
nostrils : one nostril is used for blowing, 
the other being stopped. 

NOTGER, or NOTKER, Balbulus, a 
musician, composed a collection of 

hymns, 850, the melodies to some of 
which consisted of fourths and fifths; 
died 912. 

NouGARET, Pierre J. B., a French- 
man of letters, born in Rochelle in 1742; 
published a ^^Histoire Philosophique de 
la Musique, et des Observations sur les 
differ ens Genres regus au Theatre.^* 
There is also a dissertation on the opera 

NovACK, Johann, chapel-master at 
Prague in 1756; was celebrated for his 
sacred compositions. 

NovELLo, Clara Anastasia, born 
in London, Jinie 35, 1818; at the age of 
nine years commenced singing and 
playing the piano-forte ; went to Paris, 
and sang there until 1830 ; returning to 
London, she sang at the Philharmonic 
concerts and festivals ; in 1841, she sang 
in Italy and Germany, but is best known 
as an oratorio-singer in England ; mar- 
ried Count Gigliucci, of Fermo, in the 
Roman states, 1848, and in 1860 retired 
from the stage. 

NovELLO, Sabilla, kuowu in Lon- 
don as a vocalist of great merit, has 
translated many theoretical works upon 

NovELLO, Vincent, born in Eng- 
land, Sept. 6, 1781 ; by descent an Ital- 
ian ; the larger part of his life and his 
professional career were passed in Lon- 
don, where his sound musical knowl- 
edge, and his command over the organ, 
enabled him to do valuable service to 
to his art. The masses of Mozart, 
Haydn, Hummel, and many writers 
less known, owe the largest share of 
their introduction in a complete form to 
Mr. Novello's editorship; died at Nice, 
Aug. 9, 1861, aged 80 years. 

Nugent, Thomas, a native of Ire- 
land, wrote, 1748, a work on music, 
which was noticed by Dr. Burney. 

NuMA, 715 B.C., maintained a com- 
pany of twelve young men whose duty 
it was to dance and sing hymns in 
praise of the god of war. 

Numeral Notation, claimed as the 
invention of R. F. Beal and H. W. Day, 
Boston, Mass., 1846; also by Harrison; 
was introduced by Rousseau, at Paris, 
France, 1742. Various systems of nu- 
meral notation have been invented ; but 
they have gone into disuse, never hav- 
ing received the sanction of the mass of 
musicians. The round-note system is 
easy and simple, and is adapted to the 
expression of music of all kinds. 




O. This capital letter was used by the 
ancients as the sign of triple lime ; it is 
also used by the Italians for or; SiS,flauto 
o violino, flute or violin. 

Oboe, a popular instrument in our 
orchestras ; it was the classical tibia 
mentioned by Horace, known as haut- 

Octachord, an instrument of ten 
strings upon a hollow frame, about two 
feet long, intended to be used as an aid 
in teaching the scale and the intervals. 

Octave Flute, an instrument which 
ranges an octave above the flute. 

Octavino, an old stringed instrument 
resembling the spinet. 

Octo-Bass, an instrument that de- 
scends a third lower than the four- 
stringed double bass. 

Odington, Walter, of Worcester- 
shire, England, wrote much upon music 
in the reign of Henry III. ; mentions 
major and minor semitones and the 
comma ; gives rules for the proportions 
of organ-pipes and for casting bells ; 
uses the terms longs and breves, and 
gives rules for organizing chants. One 
of this name, of Evesham, England, 
was noted for his skill in music, and 
wrote some valuable works there. 

Odo, a monk of Burgundy, was a 
celebrated musician, and in 920 wrote 
music in parts ; was living at the same 
period with Hucbald. 

O'DoNNELL, of Fermoy, Ireland, was 
perhaps the last Irish piper who confined 
himself to the real Irish melodies; he 
was an exquisite performer on the Irish 
pipes, and died in 1840. 

Oeckelen, Van, organ-builder, of 
Holland, constructed an automaton fig- 
ure that could play upon the clarinet 
and cornet, after coming to this country ; 
died in Maine. 

Oeckelen, Charles, born in Hol- 
land, 1847, son of the above, a composer 
and teacher of music, Rockland, Me. ; 
died there 1809, aged 41. 

Oesterreich, Georg, born at Mag- 
deburg, 1664; a celebrated tenor singer 
at Hamburg ; went to Wolfenbuttel, and 
became chapel-master and also famous 
as a musician ; died 1735. 

Offenbach, F., a celebrated singer 
in the synagogue at Cologne ; published, 

1838, a collection of Jewish chants and 
poems commemorative of the departure 
of the Israelites from Egypt. 

Offenbach, Jacques, born at Co- 
logne, June 24, -i8i^; is of Jewish ex- / i'- 
traction; settled in Paris 1842; was a 
performer on the violin and violoncello; 
became leader of the orchestra at the 
Theatre Fran^ais, 1847, and there be- 
came known as a composer ; in 1855 was 
appointed director of the Bouffes Pari- 
siens ; he soon, with the troupe of this 
theatre, visited his native country and 
England, and became celebrated as an 
opera-composer; his compositions are 
numerous and popular. 

Ogden, J. R., of London, assisted by 
J. Martineau, published '■'■Holy Songs 
and Mudcal Prayers " for the piano- 
forte, 1842. 

O' Kelly, Cormac, of Ballynascreen, 
county of Derry, a district celebrated 
for the manufacture of harps and the 
preservation of Irish melodies, made the 
harp of Hempsen the harper, 1700; it is 
still preserved at Doonhill. 

Old Hundred may have been of 
French origin ; it was printed in France, 
1550; in England, 1562; harmonized in 
France, 1565; in England, 1579; it has 
been claimed as the production of many 
different persons, and has held its place 
in the books of psalmody from ancient 
times. ^ 

Old Masters. The works of the -^ 
older masters, Haydn, Mozart, and par- ^ 
ticularly Sebastian Bach, whose compo- ^ 
sitions iiave become thoroughly known ^' 
even to musicians only during the last ^ 
forty years, have had a full share in ^ 
forming the musical life of the present ^^ 
age. But Beethoven is the presiding T 
genius of the century, and the grand } 
forms he perfected remain the ideal v^ 
types; inasmuch as the free, thematic ^ 
structure of the sonata and symphony ^ 
was made the vehicle of his conceptions. "^ 
He elevated the forms to match his grand I 
personality, and no successor has yet ''^ 
appeared to carry the dimensions of the ^^ 
art beyond the limits he set. Schubert, .7* 
Mendelssohn, Schumann, and others '^ 
have developed music in single, separate ^ 
points ; but no one of them has enlarged . $ 
the collective form as represented by 





Beethoven's symphonies or Handel's 

Oldest Notation. The oldest legi- 
ble notation of Christendom is in three 
or four parallel lines, the notes being 
square or angular, and variously colored ; 
the melodies are not divided into meas- 
ures by bars, though the notes are of 
different lengths. 

Old Oaken Bucket. This cele- 
brated old song was written, and 
adapted to an ancient Scottish melody, 
by S. Woodworth. 

Old Versions of Psalms. The 
early versions were made by men whose 
piety was better than their poetry, who 
had drank more of Jordan than of Heli- 
con; but the rhythmic form of the 
psalms is grateful to the ear, and facil- 
itated the retention of words in the 
memory. Experience shows that many 
persons draw their consolation in sick- 
ness and approaching death more largely 
from hymns than from any other species 
of meditation. Old versions are in 
existence dating from 1560 to 1636. 

Olimpus. There were two musicians 
of this name ; one invented the enhar- 
monic genus, was a composer of songs 
and elegies which were sung to the 
sound of the flute; the other was also 
a composer and flute- player. 

Oliphant, J., of London, England, 
wrote, 1838, *'Xa Musa Madrigalesca.^^ 

Oliver, Edward B., born in Boston, 
July 19, 1822 ; for many years a teacher 
of music at Farmington, Conn. ; estab- 
lished a musical institute at Pittsfield, 
Mass., 1856, and since a music school 
in Boston; has published a " Practical 
Text-Book ^^ for the piano-forte, '^ A 
Manual of Thorough-Bass,^' and many 
other compositions. 

Oliver, F. E., with Horatio South- 
gate, published the ^^ Psalter, with 
Chants,^' at Boston, Mass., 1838. 
l^til^ Oliver, Henry KEAiiit,E, born at 
Beverly, Mass., Nov. 24,' 1800 ; an ama- 
teur ; first began to compose music in 
1832 ; *' Federal Street, '^ a widely known 
hymn-tune, was his earliest production ; 
has written much music, and published 
the ^^ National Lyre" with Dr. Tucker- 
man, and in 1860, " Oliver's Coll. of 
Church Music,'' and in 1875, " Oliver's 
Original Sacred Music." " Federal 
Street" was performed under his lead 
at the Peace Jubilee of 1872 by 20,000 
singers, the audience of 40,000 joining. 

OiiERTi, a bowed instrument made of 

the cocoanut-shell ; the sounding-board 
is of skin or satin-wood, and the handle 
resembles the head of the violin. 

Onslow, George, a celebrated musi- 
cal amateur and composer, born at 
Clermont, in the Pay de Dome, France, 
July 27, 1784, of an English family; 
commenced his career as a composer 
for the piano-forte ; afterwards became 
known as a composer for stringed in- 
struments and for orchestra ; resided at 
Rouen after marriage, and died there 
Oct. 3, 1853, aged 69. 

Opera. A play resembling an opera 
was performed in London, England, 
1409 ; French opera was performed 1645 ; 
and Italian opera in France, 1577 ; Italian 
opera in England, 16.56; in America, 
1825. The following list mentions the 
number of operas composed by some of 
the gifted writers: Auber, 40 operas; 
Adam, 30; Balfe, 16; Bellini, 10; Bishop, 
75; Boildieu, 31; Carafa, 31; Cherubini, 
31 ; Cimarosa, 76 ; Donizetti, 63 ; Fiora- 
vanti, 25; Galuppi, 52; Gluck, .50; Gre- 
try, 60; Guglielmi, 80; Halevy, 31 ; Han- 
del, 42; Haydn, 25; Harald, 26; Isouard, 
39; Jomelli, 40; Kreutzer, 30; Leo, 28; 
Lindpaintner, 26 ; Lulli, 45; Marschner, 
20; Mehul, 49; Mercadante, 47; Meyer- 
beer, 18 ; Mozart, 18 ; Pacini, 60 ; Paer, 
60; Paisiello, 150; Piccini, 175; Porpora, 
24; Ricci (brothers), 26; Rossini, 50; 
Scarlatti, 200; Spohr, 12; Spontini, 25; 
Verdi, 20 ; Wagner, 8 ; Weber, 11 ; Weigl, 
46 ; Winter, 54. 

Opera Buffe was invented by P. 
Guglielmi; he was born in Italy, 1729, 
and died 1804. 

Opharion, an instrument very much 
resembling the bass-viol. 

Ophicleide, an instrument which 
offers great resources for maintaining 
the low part of masses of harmony ; it 
is used as an alto and bass. 

Opitz, Martin, whom the Germans 
call the father of their drama, wrote 
some operas, and translated ''Daphne" 
from the Italian, 1627. 

Oratorio. Performances of sacred 
music were called Oratorios because 
they commenced with the fathers of the 
oratory, when, to draw youths to church, 
they had hymns and sacred Stories writ- 
ten in dialogue, and set to music. After 
the first part came the sermon, which 
the people were induced to stay and 
hear in order to be present at the per 
formance of the second part. The sub- 
jects, in early times, were the "Good 



Samaritan," "Prodigal Son," "Tobit's 
Story," &c. ; and by the excellence of 
the composition, the band of instru- 
ments, and the performance, the oratory 
came into great repute ; and this species 
of musical drama obtained the general 
appellation of oratorio. 

Orchestral Piano, an instrument 
constructed for Liszt, 1853; it has the 
orgue melodium attached to the body of 
the grand piano-forte in such a manner 
as to be used at pleasure. 

Orchestrion, an instrument in- 
tended to possess the combined power 
and variety of a full orchestra ; invented 
by F. T. Kaufmann, 1851. 

Organ. An instrument well known 
as the most complicated, most harmo- 
nious, and most capable of producing 
an almost endless variety of combina- 
tions and effects, very properly called 
the king of instruments. The organ 
was first introduced into France in 757, 
the first one ever seen in that country 
being sent to Pepin, the founder of the 
Carlovingian race, by the emperor Con- 
stantine Copronimus; and soon after- 
wards they were introduced into all the 
churches of the western empire. 

Organized Lyre, an instrument of 
fifteen strings, embracing four octaves ; 
it has keys like those of the piano-forte, 
and two necks, each with six strings, to 
be played with the fingers. 

Organized Piano-forte, an instru- 
ment consisting of an organ and piano- 

Organolyricon, an extremely com- 
plex instrument of French invention, 
much on the principle of the organ, but 
combining a variety of instruments in 
imitation of a full band or orchestra. 

Organophonic Band, a Hungarian 
company, who without instruments, 
with the voice alone, imitate the wind 
and stringed instruments of a regular 
orchestra ; came to this country, 1848. 

Orloff, Gregorio, published "^ 
History of Music, ^^ 1822; was a Russian 
count, and a writer of ability. 

Orpheus was the inventor of the 
religious mysteries of the Greeks ; was 
a Thracian concerning whom number- 
less fables have been written. 

Oscar, King of Sweden, composed 
several hjTnns, and some marches which 
were very popular ; was in 1859 engaged 
upon an opera at the time of his death. 

Osgood, George L., tenor-singer of 
Theodore Thomas's orchestra, and 

teacher of music, Boston, Mass., pub- 
lished, 1874, ''Guide in the Art of Sincj- 
ing; " a work based on reliable traditions 
of the Italian school of vocalization. 

OsTEN, Theodore, born at Berlin, 
1812, a pianist and composer of some 
note; died at Berlin, April, 1870, aged 
56. His piano-forte music is well known 
in London. 

Oswald, James, a Scottish composer 
and editor of national music, was music- 
master at Dunfermline, 1730; taught in 
Edinburgh ; went to London 1741, and 
in 17G1 was chamber-composer to his 
majesty the king of England. 

Ottoman Instruments. Nineteen 
different instruments of music were 
early used, the most agreeable of which 
was the tambour, strung with eight cords, 
seven of steel and one of brass, with a 
long handle on which is a division for 
fingering the notes; and with this in- 
strument they can play any overture. 
They compose and execute music from 
memory; are rich in their semitones, 
of which they have twenty-four in num- 
ber. Music is reckoned essential in 
their education, and it resembles that 
of Persia. 

Oulibicheff, M., a celebrated Rus- 
sian amateur; author of ''The Life and 
Works of Mozart," and "The History of 
Music before Mozart," as also a work on 
Beethoven ; died Feb. 3, 1858, at Nijni- 
Novgorod, where he had long resided. 

OusELEY, Sir F. A. Gore," born 1827, 
a self-taucfht musician; at the age of 
eight years composed an operetta; in 
1853 composed an oratorio; in 1855 was 
chosen musical professor in the Univer- 
sity of Oxford ; is the precentor of Here- 
ford Cathedral, and an acknowledged 
musician and composer. 

Overstrung Bass strings, running 
diagonally in respect to the other strings 
of the instrument, were noticed in a 
Russian piano-forte brought to New 
York, 1849. 

Owen, Morgan, an eminent "Welsh 
bard and antiquarian, born 1788; died 
1868, aged 80. 

OxENFORD, John, born at Camber- 
well, England, 1812; published an illus- 
trated book of "French Songs," also 
poems and songs set to music. 

Ozi, Fran(;ois, born at Montpellier 
about the year 1750, was a celebrated 
perfonner on the bassoon. 

Ozi, Etienne, probably a son of the 
preceding, was born at Nismes, in Lan- 



giiedoc, in 1784. He was professor of 
the bassoon at the conservatory in 
Paris, and also first bassoon at the 

Academy of Music ; published "Method 
for Bassoon,''^ and much masic for that 

P. This letter is used as an abbrevia- 
tion of piano; pp. means piu piano, or 
more soft; and ppp., as soft as possible. 

Pacha, Omer, wife of a Turkish 
general, a Transylvanian by birth ; came 
to America 1859 ; has composed several 
marches and some other music ; became 
a teacher in New York, after a short 
concert-tour, 1860. 

Pacini, Giovanni, born at Syracuse, 
1796; went to Rome, and began his 
career as a composer of church-music ; 
at the age of thirteen composed for the 
theatre ; afterwards wrote operas for all 
the Italian theatres; his "Sa/fb" is 
known in this country ; he wrote masses 
and other religious and secular works 
later in life; died at Florence, Italy, 
December, 1867, aged 71. 

Packard, J. B., of Boston, Mass. 
published the " One Key Singer,'^ every 
tune being written in the key of C ; 
some of the music is composed by the 
publisher; also '■'■Musical Genis,^^ New 
York, 1849. 

Packeridge, M., an Irishman, was 
first to use the '^ Annonica^' in his 
country ; it was improved by E. Deleval, 
a member of the Royal Society, and 
further by Dr. Franklin, who perfected 
it and made of it an entirely different 

Paddon, John, for many years one 
of the most successful teachers of music 
in the city of Boston, Mass; died in 
Cambridge, April 27, 1846, aged 70. 

Padilla, Artot, wife of Padilla, a 
Spanish barytone at the Italian opera, 
Paris, has become celebrated as prima 
donna at Berlin. 

Paduana, Signora, a singer at Yen- 
ice. In 1768 she was considered to pos- 
sess the finest voice of any female in 

Paer, Ferdinando, born at Parma, 
1771 ; became known at Yenice as a 
dramatic composer; chapel-master at 
Dresden, 1801 ; was engaged by Napoleon 
for the court of France; composed 
thirty operas and much other music; 
died at Paris, 1839. 

Paqanini, Nicolo, bom in Genoa, 

cA^ rhfuri^^TT^ 


Feb. 18, 1784; his life presented nothing 
remarkable until 1813, when he com- 
menced giving concerts at Milan, and 
became known as the most v/onderful 
violinist living; from that time until 
his death he had a world-wide fame; 
he composed much for his instrument; 
it was thought that he possessed some 
secret knowledge of the violin that no 
other person had. He died at Nizza in 
Italy, May 27, 1840. 

Paget, Alexis, published in London 
and Dublin the " Teachers' Crown,'* 
with "Minor Cadences.'^ 

Paget, Lord, born in London, 1839; 
published waltzes for the piano-forte, 
with cornet accompaniments, 1857. 

Paine, David, born at Portland, Me,, 
where his father was a musician and 
organ-builder; at the age of ten years 
he walked six miles every Sunday to 
play the organ at Limington, Me. ; and 
in 1829 became organist and teacher 
of music at Eastport, these two organs 
being the only ones in the State at that 
time, except the organs in Portland; 
went to Boston, Mass., in 1840, where he 
was organist at different churches for 
twenty-three years; and in 1873 was 
organist at the Cambridge-street Church. 
Published the " Portland Collection,'* 
1839; "Social Minstrel,'' and "Jenny 
Lind Glee Book," Boston, 1851. 

Paine, John K., a composer and or- 
ganist of European as well as American 
reputation ; born in Portland, Me., 1839; 
made a professor in the Boston, Mass., 
University ; instructor of music at Har- 
vard College; his organ compositions, 
sonatas, string-quartets, and songs take 
high rank ; has composed one successful 
oratorio, "St. Peter." 

Paine, Thomas, born at Taunton, 
Mass., Dec. 9, 1773; had his name 
changed to Robert Treat Paine, jun., 
1801 ; wrote "Adams and Liberty," one 
of the most popular songs of the Revo- 
lution ; the music was English, but has 
since been known as the "Star-Spangled 
Banner;" died in Boston, Nov. 13, 

Paisiello, Giovanni, bom at Ta- 



rento, May 9, 1741 ; became known as a 
singer, 1754; and was an opera com- 
poser, 1703; went to Russia, 1770; was 
now famous as a composer; went to 
Warsaw and to Naples; wrote every- 
where for the courts, kings, emperors, 
theatres, and church; was celebrated 
in England, France, Italy, and Russia 
alike ; was a member of many learned 
societies; and died at Naples, June 5, 
1810, aged 75. 

Palestrina, Giovan. Pietro Aloi- 
sio DA, a celebrated Italian composer, 
born in Palestrina, near Rome, 1524; 
became known as a writer of madrigals, 
1559; was a chapel-master, 1502; and, 
having brought choral harmony to a 
degree of perfection that has never been 
exceeded, died in Rome, Feb. 2, 1594, 
aged 70; his works were numerous and 
of gi*eat value. 

Palfrey, Warwick, of Salem, Mass., 
published '^Evangelical Psalmodist,^^ 

Palmelodicon, an improvement 
upon Franklin's musical glasses. 

Palmer, William, a well-known 
musician of Washington, known South 
by his concerts; died June 30, 1850; 
gained much reputation under the 
name of Prof. Heller. 

Palmo, Ferdinand, erected a theatre 
in Chambers Street, New York, in 1843, 
where he made musical performances a 
conspicuous part of the entertainment; 
spent a fortune in the vain endeavor to 
make a permanent house for Italian 
opera in that city. His opera-house 
was sold to W. E. Burton in 1848, and 
was afterwards occupied by the United 
States Government. Born in Naples, 
1785; came to New York, 1810; died 
there Sept. 5, 1809. 

Pandean Pipes, one of the oldest 
instruments, made of reeds of different 
lengths, and producing as many tones as 
there were reeds. 

Pandora, a stringed instrument re- 
sembling a lute, with brass strings. 

Panharmonicon, an ancient wind- 
instrument, consisting of pipes and in 
some degree resembling a small organ. 

Panna, Csinka, a Hungarian gypsy- 
woman; a singer and celebrated violin- 
ist, 1772 ; possessed much musical intel- 
ligence, and was long leader of an or- 
chestra of celebrity in Hungary. 

Panormo, Ferdinand Charles, 
son of Francis, was an eminent pianist; 
at the age of six years played in public, 

and at the age of fifteen became known 
as a composer and performer in London, 
Scotland, and Ireland. 

Panormo, Francis, born in Rome, 
began his musical career in Paris, where 
he acquired celebrity as a composer of 
songs and music for the violin and flute ; 
went to London, and taught music there 
and in Dublin ; wrote some works upon 
music of high repute. 

Panseron, M., a much-esteemed 
French composer of vocal and other 
music ; in early life, chapel-master to a 
French prince, and author of some use- 
ful works on the science of music ; died 
August, 1859. 

Papanti, Lorenzo, celebrated as a 
performer on the French horn, and a 
violinist; known in the orchestra of 
Ostinelli, in Boston; at one time a 
teacher of music and dancing at West 
Point, and later in Boston ; was born in 
Florence, Italy, 1799; came to Boston, 
1824 ; was a musician on board ' ' The 
Constitution;" died May 7, 1872, aged 

Paradies, Domenico, went to Lon- 
don in 1742 ; was a composer, and per- 
former upon instruments ; set an Italian 
opera to music, 1743. 

Pardoe, M., of Albany, N.Y., 1835, 
constructed an automaton • trumpeter, 
which performed several very difiicult 
pieces of trumpet-music finely; it was 
considered a rival of Maelzel's. 

Parepa, Eupiirosyne, was born in - 
Edinburgh, Scotland, May 7, 1831^ ; after f 
becoming known as a singer she mar- ' 
ried Capt. Carvil of the English army, 
and made her appearance in opera at 
Malta, 1855; sang in Spain, Italy, and 
England until 1805, when her husband 
died ; came to the United States in 1800, 
appeared in concerts, and married Carl 
Rosa, violinist, at New York, Feb. 20, 
1807, and made her appearance in opera 
the same month at Springfield, Mass. ; 
sang at the first Peace Jubilee, Boston, 
in 1809 ; with her husband formed the 
Parepa-Rosa English Opera company, 
which became famous ; after a series of 
triumphs in this country, she went to 
England, and to Egypt; returning to 
London, she died, Jan. 2i, 1874, aged / 

Parke, John, born 1745; was a per- 
former on the hautboy at the oratorios, 
1770, and the successor of Fischer at 
Yauxhall Gardens ; became attached to 
the Carlton House band, and was en- 



gaged at all the music meetings of the 
country, and continued to play until 
near seventy years of age ; composed a 
large number of concertos ; died at Lon- 
don, 1829. 

Pakke, Miss, afterwards Mrs. Beard- 
more, was born in 1775 ; among the first 
orchestral singers and most celebrated 
pianists ; died at an early age in the year 
1822, her husband surviving her only 
four months ; published several sets of 
sonatas, besides detached pieces and 
some songs. 

Parke, William Thomas, a cele- 
brated performer on the hautboy ; born 
1762 ; performed at the London theatres 
in 1776; acquired considerable reputa- 
tion as a composer ; wrote many songs, 
glees, and instrumental pieces; was 
made a member of the Royal Society of 
Musicians, and enjoyed the favor of 
George lY. ; died Aug. 2, 1829, aged 67. 

Pakker, Caleb, a well-known melo- 
deon manufacturer of Concord, N.H., 
firm of Parker & Secomb, born in New 
Hampton, Sept. 10, 1810; died at a cur- 
ative establishment in Providence, R. L, 
where he had hoped to gain in health, 
Jan. 19, 1874, aged 64. 

Parker, J. C. D., born at Boston, 
Mass. ; in 1857, succeeded Mueller as 
organist and pianist to the Handel and 
Haydn Society ; a sound musician, and 
author of a "^Manual of Harmony ;'^ 
professor in the College of Music of 
Boston University ; published ^'Musical 
Dramas," in numbers. 

Parker, John R., music-dealer, Bos- 
ton, Mass.; in 1820, edited ''The Eu- 
terpeiad, or Musical Intelligencer^''^ pub- 
lished every Saturday by Thomas 
Badger, jun. ; it was the first of its kind 
in New England. 

Parker, Luther, of Charlemont, 
Mass. ; a composer of church-music, and 
a singing-master for many years. 

Parker, Matthew, born at Nor- 
wich, 1504; composed the music to 
Queen Elizabeth's Liturgy; also trans- 
lated the Psalms ; died in 1575. 

Parker, W. T., of London, England, 
pnncipal oboist to the Royal Theatre, 
Covent Garden, was born 1784; wrote 
*' Musical Memoirs ^^ and other works; 
was oboist forty years ; died 1838. 

Parkhurst, Miss, of London, Eng- 
land, wrote *' Stepping- Stone to Music,'^ 

Parma, Nicolo, a contrapuntist of 
the sixteenth century, born at Mantua ; 

published '' Cantiones Sacrce, 5, 6-10, 
Vocum,'' Venice, 1580. 

Parmentier, Jean, born at Dieppe, 
1494 ; composed loyal songs, ballads, ron- 
dos, "good and exceeding moralities," 
among which was one for ten actors, 
published 1531, at Paris. 

Parodi, Teresa, a native of Genoa, 
born Aug. 27, 1827; first appeared in 
opera at Bergamo, 1845, and at once be- 
came famous; sang in Italy, France, 
and England, everywhere with success ; 
came to this country in 1850, and re- 
mained in the United States, singing in 
all the principal cities, until 1854, when 
she was engaged at the Grand Opera, 
Paris; retured here in 1855, and gave 
concerts in the principal cities. 

Parran, Antoine, died at Bourges, 
1650; published at Paris in 1636 and 
1646, a work entitled "■Traitede Musique, 
contenant les Preceptes de la Composi- 

Parry, John, London, England, au- 
thor of a " Manual of Musical Terms;'''' 
wrote much on the subject of music, 
1863 ; was celebrated as a comic singer 
and pianist. 

Parry, John, born at Denbigh, North 
Wales, 1776 ; when a boy, made himself 
a fife, and learned to play such music as 
he heard; joined a military band, be- 
came leader, and could play upon three 
flageolets at the same time ; in 1807, 
went to reside in London, where he 
composed and published upwards of 
three hundred compositions, also books 
of instruction for several instruments, 
and many volumes of instrumental mu- 
sic for bands and orchestras; retired 

Parsley, R., author of the ''Fash- 
ionable Lyric Companion,^' published in 
London, England, 1787. 

Passion Plays. In the passion plays 
there was nothing spoken. The story 
and the dialogues were intoned, and the 
words of the people sung by a chorus. 
It was a common custom to give the 
words of the several characters in part 

Pasta, Giuditta, born at Serrano, 
near Milan, 1799 ; made her d^but, 1817 ; 
appeared in Paris, 1822, and in London, 
1824 ; was much admired as an opera- 
singer and actress ; sang mostly in Italy 
and France ; retired 1853 ; was of a Jew- 
ish family named Negri ; had one child, 
a daughter, born in 1825 ; died in 1865, 
aged 66. 



Pate, William O., born at Mobile, 
Ala., February, 1850 ; became celebrated. 
South, as a pianist ; went to England, 
and received the appointment of pianist 
to the Prince of Wales ; composed many 
pieces for piano. 

Patent Notes, invented by Andrew 
Law of Cheshire, Conn., 1792; three, 
new-shaped, were invented by J. B. 
Aiken, Philadelphia, Penn., 184G; and 
three others by G. Hendrickson of Vir- 
ginia, 1849. 

Patterson, J. T., born at Augusta, 
Me., March 25, 1837 ; blind, but became 
noted as a pianist, violinist, organist, 
and composer; a teacher for many 

Patterson, John, of Albany, N.Y., 
author of ^'Preceptors'' for the fife, 
flute, and other instruments; a well- 
known musician. 

Patti, Abelina, born at Madrid, 
Spain, April 9, 1843 ; came to America, 
1844 ; could sing before she could speak ; 
first appeared at the age of nine years, 
when she made the tour of the prov- 
inces with Strakosch and Ole Bull, 
clearing as her share of the profits 
$20,000 ; went to the West Indies with 
Gottschalk; visited Europe, where she 
was the leading prima donna several 
years ; married in London, and has 
since sung in Hamburg, London, and 

Patti, Amelia, was famous as a 
singer, and married Maurice Strakosch, 
the distinguished pianist and composer 
of New York. 

Patti, Carlos, was known in this 
country principally as a violinist, and 
leader of an orchestra at New Orleans, 
La. ; was born in the greenroom of the 
theatre, Madrid, 1842 ; was for a season 
director of Grand Opera in New York ; 
went to St. Louis, 1873, and died there, 
March 17, 1873. 

Patti, Carlotta, was born in Italy, 
but came here when a child ; appeared 
in New York, 1861, and soon after, at 
Covent Garden, London; sang in 
France, Belgium, Holland, Brussels, 
Liege, Antwerp, and Amsterdam ; went 
to nearly all the cities of Germany and 
Italy ; her success was immense, and in 
Paris she gave over one hundred con- 
certs; she visited Russia, Constantino- 
ple, Moldavia, Wallachia, and then re- 
turned to the United States. 

Patti, Salvator, married Madame 
Barilli, a celebrated prima donna and 

tragic actress ; he was an excellent tenor 
opera-singer of Milan, and came from 
Italy to this country in 1S44, bringing 
all his family with him ; they were all 
artists, and have since appeared in re- 
mote quarters of the globe. Died at 
Paris, Aug. 30, 1859. See Barilll 

Pattison, J. N., born at Niagara 
Falls, N.Y., 1840; first became known 
as pianist for a travelling concert troupe ; 
went to Europe, gave concerts in some 
of the Italian cities ; returning, appeared 
in New York, 18G2 ; since which, except 
when on protracted concert-tours, he has 
remained in that city, where he is well 
known as a pianist, teacher, and com- 

Paulus, M., and M. Maury, com- 
posers and musicians ; first and second 
leaders of the French Band, " Garde 
Repiiblicaiiie," since 1854; visited Lon- 
don 1871, and gave concerts with great 
success ; came to this country 1872, and 
performed at the Boston Peace Jubilee ; 
the band consists of men who have 
served at least two years in one of the 
French regiments, and who enlist for 
twenty-five years; numbers fifty-five 

Payne, John Howard, born ic New 
York, June 9, 1792; known in this 
country and in Europe as an actor, and 
for his connection with several news- 
papers and periodicals ; celebrated as 
the author of ''Home, Sioeet Home;" 
was appointed consul at Tunis, 1841 ; 
died there April 1, 1852; his monument 
says he was born in Boston, Mass. ; he 
did live there when a boy, and there 
made his first appearance at the old 
Boston Theatre. 

Peacham, Henry, published, 1624, 
a work upon music and musical men, 
very useful to persons fond of musical 

Peacock, Francis, born at Aber- 
deen, Scotland, 1723; was a composer 
and instrumental performer; published 
a collection of " Scottish Music," and 
was a member of the Aberdeen Musical 
Society; played the violin and violon- 
cello in the public concerts for many 
years ; died June 26, 1807, aged 84. 

Peak, Mr. and Mrs., with four 
children, commenced giving concerts 
1841 ; in 1854 the family, increased to 
eight, introduced hells, after the fashion 
of the Swiss bell-ringers, also the harp, 
violin, guitar, and other instruments. 
William H. became famous in another 

/l^c^ /O j-L-cy/cL [y^ ^ / i^^vvw , T/iyu^ /lA. ■ rrL^^z^j 



company, 1858; Lisetta was famous as 
a singer ; Alfred Fays was the principal 

Peakce, James, Mus. Bac, Oxford, 
England, New College, came to this 
country, and was organist at Philadel- 
phia, and settled at Quebec, Canada; 
published " Chants and Besponses,'^ 
1867, and has since written many church 
tunes and songs. 

Peaece, J., author of a work on 
violins and violin - players, Sheffield, 
England, 1866. 

PeaPvCE, T., of London, England, 
published, 1856, a " Collection o/" An- 

Pears ALL, R. L., known in London 
as an amateur composer of madrigals, 
died at his residence in Switzerland, 
September, 1856 ; was the author of 
many essays on music, and a composer 
of songs. 

Peaksall,, S., of London, England, 
author of " Hymns of the Church," 
printed 1843. 

Pease, E., of Cincinnati, O., author 
of " YoutKs Musical Lamp," and the 
*^ American School Song Book." 

Pease, Frederick N., in connec- 
tion with Edward A. Perkins, published 
in Boston, Mass., '' The Western Bell," 
glees, quartets, and choruses. 

Pease, M. H., published, 1852, at 
Pittsburg, Penn., the " Musical Instruc- 
tor ;" was assisted in the work by E. 
Pease and J. McMillen. 

Peasley, Aaron Merrill, in 1818 
invented and patented *'a new and 
useful improvement in organs," and 
claimed reed instruments as an Ameri- 
can invention. He reaped little benefit 
from his invention, for it was not until 
after the expiration of his patent that 
it became popular. In 1873 it was esti- 
mated that forty thousand organs, in 
which the tones are produced by vibra- 
tors or reeds, are sold annually in the 
United States alone, and that ten times 
as many are annually exported as the 
whole amount of foreign instruments 
brought into this country. 

Peblis, David, one of the principal 
musicians of Scotland in his time ; set 
some of the Psalms in four and five 
parts, 1530. 

Peck, Daniel L., of Philadelphia, 
Penn., published, 1810, a valuable col- 
lection of sacred music, some of which 
was original ; 104 pages. 

Pecke, Edward M., published much 

music in connection with Thomas Hel- 
more, London, England. 

Pedalier, a new French instrument, 
making an addition of the keyboard for 
the feet, commanding deeply-toned bass 
strings to the piano-forte. 

Peebles, J. M., of Boston, Mass., in 
connection with J. O. Bassett and K. 
H. Bailey, published, 1867, the " Spirit- 
ual Harp" and other collections of 
vocal music. 

Peerson, Martin, a composer of 
madrigals, motets, and chamber-music, 
in London, from 1620 to 1630. 

Pellegrini, a singer attached to 
the London theatres for nearly fifty 
years; went there with Monck Mason 
to introduce German opera; died at 
Munich, his native place, 1858. 

Peloubet, C, became generally 
known, 1866, as a manufacturer of 
organs and melodeons at Bloomfield, 
N.J. ; the firm name is C. Peloubet and 
Son, and their instruments have largely 
sold West. 

Pena, John, of Paris, France, first 
published the " Introduction to Har- 
monics" by Euclid, 1.557; it went 
through several editions. 

Pentachord, made of leather, hav- 
ing five strings, struck with a plectrum 
made of goat's horn. 

Pentatonic Scale, C, D, E, G, A; 
it may be represented by sharps from 
F:j* and the black keys of the piano- 
forte; it was known early to the Chi- 
nese, and has been used in Ireland and 

Pepin the Short, one of the kings 
of France, 750, organized a regular mu- 
sical establishment at his court; placed 
an organ, a present from Constantine, 
in his church, and obtained, for use in 
his choir, music from Rome, and a 
teacher who opened a singing-school at 
Rouen ; at this school the pupils sent 
into the provinces to teach were first 
called ** Masters of Music." 

Pepusch, John Christopher, a 
great theoretical musician, born at Ber- 
lin, 1667; at the age of fourteen was 
a teacher of the harpsichord; went to 
England 1700, and assisted in adapting 
operas to the stage ; became celebrated 
as a teacher and composer; was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society ; and died 
in London, England, 1752. 

Perelli, Natale, born at Milan, 
Italy, 1816; early became known as a 
composer of operas ; came to this 

/ kjuyHTiry-^ 2-^>nru / -t/v,Ou^.^ 

i^^l z;, /IT J/, /0/y.L^^ 



country, 1847, with the Marti troupe; 
appeared in the principal cities and in 
Boston on the first production of " Er- 
nani ; " returned to Pliiladelphia, Penn., 
where he was urged to remain; was 
employed there in teaching, singing, 
and composing until his death, Febru- 
ary, 18G7. 

Perez, David, of Spanish extraction, 
born at Naples 1711 ; composed his first 
opera 1741, and gained great reputation 
in Sicily, where he resided; afterwards 
wrote his best works in Naples ; visited 
Rome, Portugal, and other places by 
invitation ; was blind during the latter 
years of his life; was a fine singer; 
composed much for the theatre and 
the church; died 1778, in the service 
of King Joseph, after living many years 
in Portugal, aged 67. 

Pergolese, or Pergolest, Giovan- 
ni Battista, born at Jesi, Jan. 3, 1710; 
became a composer of operas early, but 
did not gain much reputation at first, 
though a man of great abilities ; his 
popularity increased after his death ; 
and his compositions, which were nu- 
merous, rank among the best of his 
time; his ^^ Salve Ber/ina,^^ printed in 
England, was his last work; died 1736. 
Pericles was a musician, and built 
the Odeon, or music-room, at Athens, in 
which poets and musicians practised 
daily; invited Antigenidas to come 
there as a teacher, and procured for 
him many scholars. 

Perignon, H. J., in 1800 was ap- 
pointed first violinist in the Royal 
Academy of Music at Paris, and com- 
posed much music for his instrument. 

Perkins, C. C, a native of Boston, 
in 1853 presented a statue in bronze, of 
Beethoven, to the Boston Music Hall 
Association; was a composer of orches- 
tral music; and a cantata, ^^ The Pil- 
gruns,-^ composed by him, was per- 
formed in Boston, Feb. 17, 1855. 

Perkins, Julius Edson, bom at 
Stockbridge, Vt., became somewhat 
celebrated as a bass -singer; went to 
Europe 1867 ; appeared in opera there, 
and since in London, as primo basso, 
with success ; died in London, England, 
Feb. 25, 1875. .mA^^ 

I Perkins, Henry S.fborn in Stock- 

[ bridge, Vt., March 20, 1833; early be- 
> came a singer, and peiformer on instru- 
\ ments ; became member of a concert 
i company 1855, after which he made 
I teaching music a business for several 

years ; and since 1862 has been known 
as a conductor of conventions West, 
and as a publisher of singing-books, and 
composer of music. ^^'^ 

Perkins, William OT, born at Stock- 
bridge, Vt., May 23, 1831; in 1849 be- 
came a choir-leader, performer upon 
instruments, and music - teacher ; in 
1848 commenced publishing church mu- 
sic books, and became celebrated as a 
conductor of musical conventions ; has 
held conventions in every State east of 
the Mississippi, and has become known 
as a composer of church-music, glees, 
and songs. 

Perret published at Paris, 1794, 
" Concertos, pour Basson,^^ and other 

Perronet, Edward, born at Shore- 
ham, England, wrote, among others, 
the inspiring and triumphant hymn, 
" All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name ; " 
died January, 1772. 

Persian Music, though not ad- 
vanced as in many other countries, has, 
within a few years, made wonderful 

Persiani, Madame, born 1800, one 
of the most celebrated operatic singers 
of this century, is the daughter of the 
famous tenor Tacchinardi ; in the winter 
of 1852 she was engaged in the opera at 
St. Petersburg ; retired from the stage 
1859; and died in Paris, May 27, 1867. 

Persiani, Signor, in 1846, after the 
dismissal of his wife from her Majesty's 
theatre, was instrumental in opening 
the Royal Italian Opera-House, 1847; 
he composed several operas, performed 
at Naples, Paris, Madrid, and Venice; 
died in Paris, 1869, aged 65. 

Perthaler, Caroline, born at 
Gries, in the Austrian Tyrol, 1805; 
celebrated as a pianist; died there 
December, 1873, aged 68. 

Peruzzi, Madame, daughter of the 
Russian consul at New York, became 
celebrated as a pianist, and was educated 
in this country. 

Peruzzini, Giovanni, editor of 
^^V Italia Musicale,'^ died at Venice, 
1869; was the author of various li- 

Pestalozzi, John Henry, bom in 
Zurich, Switzerland, Jan. 12, 1745; 
known throughout the world for bis 
system of teaching; his principles ot 
teaching have been applied in music 
schools with success; died at Brugg, 
Feb. 27, 1827, at the age of 82. 




Pestalozzian System in music ; a 
system written by H. G. Nageli of Zu- 
rich, 1812 ; it was used by Lowell Mason 
in this country, as were many composi- 
tions by this Swiss writer. 

Peter the Great regularly attend- 
ed the concerts of the German chamber- 
musicians at St. Petersburg, and took 
lessons on the violoncello from one of 
the performers, who pleased him, and 
whom he presented with a snuff-box 
mounted with brilliants. 

Peters, Absalom, born at Went- 
worth, N.H., Sept. 19, 1793, was a 
composer and writer on music, and a 

Peters, W. C, of Baltimore, Md., 
published the " Catholic Harmonist,'' 

Petrella, the composer of ^^ lone,'' 
was born in -Italy, 1813 ; composed five 
or six successful operas ; has a large 
reputation in his own country; but 
^''^)} only one of his works is yet known 
»^^( in America. 

7" Petrides, Joseph and Peter, broth- 
ers ; Joseph was born 1755, and Peter 
1766, at Prague; both celebrated per- 
formers on the French horn ; travelled 
through Germany, giving concerts, then 
through Italy, Sicily, France, Spain, and 
Portugal; after fifteen years' wander- 
ing, they settled in London, and became 
famous as composers and performers. 

Petrie, Robert, of Kirkmichael, 
Perthshire, Scotland, was a music- 
teacher, performer upon instruments, 
and a composer ; no less than four 
books by this author were published in 

Pettet, Alfred, teacher of music, 
and composer, London, England, pub- 
lished, 1827, a collection of "sacred mu- 
sic, all original. 

Pfeiffer, Charlotte Birch, au- 
thor of several musical dramas, and a 
well-known actress; died at Berlin 
Aug. 25, 1869. 

Pfeiffer, Michael T., bom m 
Sulcfelden, near Wurzburg, Nov. 1 
1771; celebrated as a violinist; in M04 
founded a school, and introduced the 
Pestalozzian method of teachine4nusic, 
at Aargau, and became a teacl)<^ of emi 

Pfeiffer, Oscar, born/ in Vienna, 
Oct. 27, 1830; in 1844 gayfe piano-forte 
concerts, and in 1845 made the tour of 
Europe ; was in Paris 1846, and in 1848 

many, and in 1850 came to this country; 
afterwards went to Spain, Portugal, and 
other countries, and came again to the 
United States, and settled in New York; 
his wife is a dramatic singer. 

Phemius, a poet and musician ; was 
employed to sing at weddings and 
feasts ; he was not only a singer, but a 
performer on the lyre. 

Philidor, Francois Andre Dani- 
CAN, born at Dreux 1726, became 
known as a composer in 1737; settled 
in Paris as a teacher and copyist ; trav- 
elled through Holland, England, Ger- 
many, and other countries, and in 1759 
became famous as a dramatic composer ; 
wrote for all the theatres, and for the 
Academy of Music; died in London, 

Philis, Jean Baptiste, a celebrated 
professor of the guitar, at Paris, France ; 
one of his daughters was the wife of 
Boieldieu the composer; another, Ja- 
canna, became a most brilliant singer at 
the Opera Comique. 

Philippi, H., teacher of piano-forte, 
Troy, N.Y., 1859, invented the " Chro- 
matic Keyboard," which he claimed as 
opening a new field for brilliant effects 
which require a lifetime of practice on 
the ordinary keyboard. 

PniLLipps, Aj)ELAide, born in Bris- 
tol, England ; came to America by way 
of Canada, and was early engaged at 
the Boston Museum; went to Europe 
1852 ; sang at some of the small towns 
in Italy, and returned to Boston 1855, 
at which time her mother died. Since, 
Miss Phillipps has continued an un- 
interrupted career of success ; has made 
frequent tours through the States, vis- 
ited Europe, been successful in London 
and in Paris, and constantly gained 
in reputation at home. Her father, 
Alfred Phillipps, died at Marshfield, 
Mass., Oct. 16, 1870. 

Phillips. Alic e, born 1844, daughter 

ofj ^enry PhilH p|) of Edgbaston, Eng- 

na7 Became Toiown as an excellent 

contralto-singer, 1861, at Birmingham, 

Oxford, and other places. 

Phillips, Austin, born in Bristol, 
England, Sept. 4, 1811, became cele- 
brated as an organist and composer; 
came to New York 1839, and was em- 
ployed there as an organist; died in 
1849; his brother William was a musi- 
cian at the Opera House, London; his 
sister Josephine was a vocalist of repu- 

in Russia; in 1849 wen^i^ through Ger- 



Phillips, Charles E., born at Wo- 
burn, Mass., 1796 ; celebrated as a 
musician and teacher ; author of several 
popular songs ; died at Nantucket, 1836, 
aged 40, 

Phillips, Philip, was born in 
Jamestown, Chautauqua County, New 
York, Aug. 13, 1834; gave his time to 
music-teaching from the age of nine- 
teen years; settled in Cincinnati, O; 
became known as a composer and maker 
of singing - books ; removed to New 
York 1866, and since, as the '* Singing 
Pilgrim,''^ has given concerts in most of 
the States, in England, and has also 
visited France and Italy. 

Phipps, S. B., born in Otisfield, Me., 
April 30, 1828 ; commenced teaching 
music 1849; went to Boston 1851, and 
taught in Massachusetts until 1859, 
when he composed some church tunes 
and songs, but has made teaching his 
business; was author of the ^^ Musical 

Phonomine, invented in Vienna, 
1834; it resembles an organ, and imi- 
tates a chorus of male voices. 

PiANAUTOMATON, an clcctric autom- 
aton piano-forte player invented in 
New York; it will perform any music 
supplied to it on paper. 

Piano-forte Androides, invented 
by M. Maillardet of Switzerland, in the 
form of a lady pianist, which performed 
eighteen tunes. 

Piano-forte, a well-known stringed 
and keyed instrument of German ori- 
gin, now largely manufactured in this 

Piano-forte Transposer, an in- 
vention perfected 1870, whereby trans- 
position on the piano-forte has been 
obtained by moving the keyboard. 

PiATTi, a Turkish musical instrument, 
which does not produce pure musical 
sounds, but is very loud. 

PicciNi, Nicola, born at Bari, in the 
kingdom of Naples, 1728, was one of 
the most fertile and original composers 
of the Neapolitan school ; went to Rome, 
and was there considered the best com- 
poser of his age; in 1776 resided in 
Paris, where he became principal of the 
singing-school, and established an annual 
concert; was eventually pensioned by 
Bonaparte, and made inspector of the 
conservatory of music; died in Passy, 
near Paris, May 7, 1801, aged 72. 

Picco, Joseph, a Sardinian minstrel, 
boru blind, and brought up among the 

Apennines, where his father was a 
shepherd; became celebrated at the age 
of twenty-five years as a performer upon 
the tibia pastoral, or small flute ; has ap- 
peared upon the stage in Italy, France, 
England, and other countries; his in- 
strument is very short, and has only 
three holes. 

PiccoLiNi, celebrated as a whistler; 
he made whistling a profession, 1865; 
gave concerts in Italy and elsewhere; 
performed such music as the cavatina 
'^ Casta Diva,'' to full accompaniment of 
piano-forte, and can make double notes 
with distinctness, and most excellent 

PiccoLOMiNi, Maria, born at Sienna, 
1835; was of an ancient Tuscan family; 
made her debut at Florence, 1852; be- 
came renowned in Italy, France, Eng- 
land, and elsewhere ; came to this coun- 
try 1858 ; made her first appearance in 
New York, where she was much es- 
teemed as a singer and actress. 

Pierce, Fargo J., published ^^ An- 
cient Harmony Revived,'' at Hallo well, 
Me., 1847; a book of 262 pages; he en- 
larged the work in 1855, at Boston, 
Mass., to 280 pages. 

Pierre, an opera, by Joseph Duggan, 
Philadelphia, Peun., 1853. 

PiERSON, H. H., born at Oxford, Eng- 
land, 1816; professor of music in the 
University of Edinburgh ; author of the 
opera ^'Leila," performed at Hamburg, 
and an oratorio, ^^ Jerusalem," 1856; re- 
ceived a medal from King Leopold, the 
first Englishman so honored. 

Pike, S. N., known as the proprietor 
and manager of an opera-house, Cincin- 
nati, O. ; died in New York, Dec. 10, 

PiLLSBURY, Dr. Amos, of Charleston, 
S.C., published, 1798, ''The United States 
Sacred Harmony," a compilation of the 
most popular tunes of the day. 

Pindar, born at Thebes, in Bceotia, 
B.C. 520; received musical instructions 
from his father, a flute-player ; became 
celebrated as a musician and poet; sang 
much at the temple of Apollo and at 
Delphos ; died at the age of 86. 

Pipe, a wind instrument, of which 
there have been many varieties; it is 
distinguished from the flute by being 
blown through one end, instead of the 

Pipe and Tabor Playing Andro- 
ides, invented by Jacques de Vaucan- 
son, 1738. 

/t-ii rVv-^am /'"t- i^x^c'l^ue^ 

f^-b 'i-J- f/yi^. •^-^'T-tTTA^ C-Uj 



Pitch. The pitch A has risen a full 
tone since 1799, and the French author- 
ities have ordered it lowered; the old 
tuning-fork, or A at 870 vibrations and 
C at 522 per second, is the standard. 

PiTCH-PiPE, an instrument used to 
ascertain the pitch or key in which to 
sing; the one first used in New England 
was a little box six inclies long, four 
wide, and one thick, furnished with a 
mouthpiece and slide, on which the 
letters of the octave were registered. 

PiTTMAN, JosiAH, of Loudou, Eng- 
land, a writer on music; published a 
collection of vocal music for the church, 

PiscHEK, a celebrated bass-singer at 
the Frankfort Opera, sung in London, 
1846, at ninety musical entertainments 
in one season. 

Pixis, Theodore, a professor in the 
Rhenish music-school, a violin virtuoso 
of the first rank; died Aug. 1, 1856. 

Plaidy, born in Germany; teacher 
of the piano-forte at the Leipsic Con- 
servatory, 1843; author of '' TecJmical 
Studies.' ' 

Plain Song, or the old ecclesiastical 
chant, justly claims the admiration of 
all people as fitted alike for all ages. But 
modern harmony has made of these old 
songs something better ; and it would be 
as absurd to refuse to use the modern 
improvements as it would be to refuse 
to use the telegraph, gas, or railway, 
because they were not used by our 

Plantade, Charles M., a celebrated 
composer and performer; one of the 
founders of the conservatoire concerts, 
and of the society of authors, composers, 
and editors of music in France ; died in 
May, 1870, aged 84. 

Playford, Henry, published, 1700, 
an original book of Scotch tunes ; was 
the second son of John, and a composer 
of merit. 

Playford, John, born 1613 ; was a 
music-seller in London; was the pub- 
lisher of a great number of musical 
works between 1665 and 1685 ; was the 
first printer of music in London ; he 
and his son, for fifty years, supplied all 
the nation with music books, instru- 
ments, &c. ; his '^Introduction to the 
Skill of Music,'' and his ''Whole Book 
of Psalms," had great sales; died 169.3. 

Platt, Robert, an eminent teacher, 
published his "System of Vocal Music," 
in London, England, 1847. 

Plays. During the age of trou- 
badours in the 18th century, a kind 
of drama of secular origin was the 
fashion. It was a simple, unpretending 
play, something like the modern vaude- 
ville, a mixture of dialogue and songs. 
Adam de la Halle was the author of 
several of these little plays, one of which 
was "Robin and Marion." 

Pleyel, Ignaz, born near Vienna, 
1757; was appointed chapel-master, 
1777 ; became a composer, visited Italy, 
and in 1783 was chapel-master at Stras- 
burg, where he composed much church- 
music, and his best violin and piano- 
forte music; in 1791 commenced his 
concerts in London ; removed to Paris 
1795, established a music-store and 
piano-forte manufactory ; he published 
a multitude of works, and died Nov. 14, 
1831, aged 74. 

Plimpton, inventor of the "Apol- 
Hno," was a native of Massachusetts, 
and first exhibited his musical machine 
1820; it combines the organ, orchestra, 
and military band. 

Plimptonia and Plimptonichord, 
names given to instruments made by 
Mr. Plimpton, similar to his Apollino. 

Pneumatic-Electric Organ, an or- 
gan to which electricity has been applied 
to form a connection between the keys 
and the valves, permitting the air to 
pass to the pipes. 

Poheman, David, of Lafayette, Ind., 
remarkable as a pianist ; executes very 
difficult music, though he cannot read a 
bar of simple music. 

PoLiPHANT, an instrument similar to 
a violin, used by Queen Elizabeth. 

Polka, a Bohemian dance, first 
known in England 1830, and in Vienna 
1839. It means half-step, and in thia 
country is similar to the schottisch. 

Polyplectrum, an instrument fox 
striking the lyre ; also an ancient spinet. 

Pommers, the family of oboes, of 
which there has been a variety. 

PoMPLiTZ, August, a well-known or- 
gan-builder of Baltimore, Md,, died Feb. 
3, 1874; was of high degree in the An- 
cient Scottish Rite. 

PoNiATOwsKi, Prince Joseph, was 
born in Rome in 1816, and was the son 
of Stanislas Poniatowski. The father, 
who resided at Rome, and afterwards at 
Florence, was a great patron of the fine 
arts. The young Joseph Poniatowski 
was naturalized in Tuscany, and in 1848 
was made a prince of Monte-Rotondo by 



the Grand Duke Leopold II. He was 
twice elected a member of the Chamber 
of Deputies of Florence, and subse- 
quently made minister plenipotentiary 
at Paris, London, and Brussels. He 
fixed his permanent residence at Paris 
in August, 1854. In the same year by 
an imperial decree he became a natural- 
ized Frenchman, and shortly after was 
elevated to the dignity of senator. 
Among the numerous operas which he 
composed, are the following: ''Jean de 
Proc^da,^' ''Buy Blas,^^ '''■La Fiancee 
d^Abydos,^^ '^ Esmeralda,^ ^ ''Don Deside- 
rio,^^ "La Comtesdma,^^ and "Pierre de 
Medicis.^^ He died in Paris, July, 

PoNTE, Adam De. A composer of 
the sixteenth century; his motets and 
other works were published at Venice, 

PoNTio, PiETRO, composer and prac- 
tical musician ; published a musical 
work, giving rules for learning to read 
music and to teach harmony, also giving 
directions for composing. 

Pool, David, in connection with 
Josiah Holbrook, Abington, Mass., pub- 
lished, 1813, at Providence, R.L, "The 
American and European Ilarmony,^^ a 
work much used, and known as " The 
Abington Collection.^' Mr. Holbrook 
was a native of Abington, and a teacher 
of music there, where he died; and 
Mr. Pool was a resident of the same 

Pool, Jabez, in 1854 published at 
Leeds, "The Pmlter, with Chants." 

Poole, Henry Ward, born at Salem, 
Mass., 1825; published, 1850, an "Essay 
on Perfect Intonation,'' connected with 
an account of the "Enharmonic Organ,'' 
invented by Alley and Poole 1848. 

Pope John XXII. inveighed strong- 
ly against the musical innovations in- 
troduced in his time (the 14tli century), 
and prohibited the use of counterpart, 
or music in parts, except on high festi- 
vals of the church ; and even then he 
directed that the same syllables should 
be uttered at the same time by all the 
singers of the different parts. 

Popular Airs, of different countries, 
were harmonized and introduced into 
the compositions of the old writers about 
1650 ; and after that time the progress of 
music was rapid. 

PoRPORA, NicoLO, bom at Naples, 
1687; gave his first opera at Vienna, 
1717; in 1773 he was engaged in London 

to direct the opera, but soon went to 
Venice ; was the composer of fifty operas 
and much sacred music; was distin- 
guished as a singing master ; retired late 
in life to Naples, where he died in 
poverty, 1767, aged 80. 

Porter, William S., of Boston, 
Mass., in 1834, published "The Musical 
Cyclopedia," or the principles of music 
considered as a science and an art ; it 
was the first work of that kind printed 
in this country. 

PoRTEUs, James, of Scotland, was a 
composer of instrumental music; pub- 
lished one collection at Edinburgh. 

PoRTMAN, Richard, born in Eng- 
land ; early went to France ; on his 
return was organist at the Chapel Royal, 
and in 1633 of Westminster Abbey. 

Portuguese Hymn, known as 
"Oporto" and as "Adeste Fideles," was 
written by John Reading of London ; it 
was sung at the Portuguese Embassy 
chapel in England, 1785, and was called 
Portuguese Hymn; it has since come 
into general use, and is the regular 
Christmas Hymn of the Catholic 

Potter, Cipriani, born in London, 
1792 ; became celebrated as a composer 
at the age of fourteen years ; wrote 
violin quartets, symphonies, and piano- 
forte sonatas ; was for many years prin- 
cipal of the Royal Academy of Music ; 
was an eminent teacher; retired from 
office 1859; and died October, 1871, 
leaving many works for his own partic- 
ular instrument, the piano-forte. 

Potter, John, an Englishman, was 
the author of " Music and Musicians," 
published in London, 1763; also wrote 
a serenato, 1765, and "The Choice of 

PouLTON, George R., born in Lan- 
singburg, N.Y., 1828 ; a composer, 
vocalist, and perfomier upon the organ, 
piano-forte, and violin ; became cele- 
brated as a teacher at Fort Edward In- 
stitute, 1857, and was well known by 
giving concerts with his sister Mary 
Anna Poulton. 

Powell, Thomas, bom in London, 
1776 ; early became a member of the 
Royal Society of Musicians ; was a com- 
poser, violoncellist, and performer on 
the piano-forte, harp, and violin; went 
to Dublin, married, and became a music- 
teacher there, and composed much 
music ; afterwards resided in Edinburgli, 
where he met with great success, and 

, CA^^r^^i^'*-^ 



' f^o 

l_y^L~, I <3 L/vj u->,^i^-^ I 



composed largely every variety of popu- 
lar music. 

Power, Thomas, of Boston, Mass., 
musical editor of " The Boston Atlas,^' 
author of several Masonic odes; died at 
Framingham, Sept. 9, 1868, aged 82. 

Pkadher, Loins B,, born in Paris, 
1781 ; professor of the piano-forte at the 
conservatory ; he formed many excellent 
pupils, and published a considerable 
number of musical works ; such as thir- 
teen collections of romances, many 
piano-forte works, and vocal rondos. 

Prangley, of London, was the in- 
ventor of ''The Trito-Dactylo-Gymnast,'' 
an instrument designed to render the 
third finger equal in power and pliancy 
to the others in learning the piano- 

Pratt, Henry, of Winchester, N.H., 
during his life built fifty organs, doing 
most of the work with his own hands ; 
he was self-taught ; a good mechanic and 
musician ; died August, 1841, aged 70. 

Pratt, Marshall, organist, musi- 
cian, and builder of organs. New Or- 
leans, La., son of Henry, was born in 
Winchester, N.H. ; died at New Orleans, 
August, 1829. 

Pratt, S. G., of Chicago, 111., has 
composed several symphonies, and other 
orchestral works produced 1874. 

Prescott, Abraham, born in Deer- 
field, N.H., July, 1790; in 1810 com- 
menced to make violoncellos, and suc- 
ceeded ; was for many years celebrated 
for his instruments, and as a maker of 
double-basses ; moved to Concord, N.H., 
and there founded the house of Pres- 
cott Brothers, knov/n as manufacturers 
of melodeons and organs ; died May 1, 
1858, aged 68. 

Prevost, Eugene, leader of the 
orchestra at Niblo's Garden, New York, 
1842 ; was a composer of merit ; pub- 
lished a ''Musical Albwn,^^ " Cossirno,'' 
and some sacred music ; received from 
the Queen of Spain the cross of the 
Order of Charles III. ; afterwards be- 
came known as the author of some 
French operas ; died 1872. 

Prevost, H., of London, invented 
musical stenography, 1849, 

Prieds, Mme. Julia, a famous 
Spanish singer, widow of the tenor 
Caponi; died at Paris, 1872, aged 52. 

Prince, George A., of Buffalo, N. Y., 
made some important improvements in 
melodeons, for which he took a patent, 
1846; employed at that time one hun- 

dred and fifty men, and finished seventy- 
five instruments a week. 

Pringle, John, of Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, was a composer of dance and other 
music; one of his collections is dedi- 
cated to Hon. Miss Elliott. 

Printing. This invention hastened 
the downfall of minstrelsy, not merely 
because of the greater diffusion of 
knowledge, and the more scientific cul- 
tivation of music, but because of the 
printing of the songs and ballads, which 
were sold for a penny. 

Printz, Wolfgang Caspar, born 
at Waldthurn, 1641 ; travelled through 
Silesia, Moravia, and Austria; settled at 
Sorau, Upper Saxony, as choir-master; 
was a violinist, organist, and composer ; 
wrote numerous works, musical and 
historical ; died at Sorau, 1717. 

Professor of Music was originally 
applied to learned musicians who held 
high positions in the universities; lat- 
terly has little significance. 

Prouty, E. K., born in Charlestown, 
N.H., 1801; was one of the pioneers in 
sacred music in Northern New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont; some of his com- 
positions were published, 1830; died at 
Newbury, Yt,, Sept. 26, 1869. 

Provenqal Music. The central 
object of Proven9al poetry and music 
was devotion to women. The oldest 
known Provencal melodies are by 
Chatelain de Coucy, a troubadour of 
the twelfth century; Thibaut, King of 
Navarre (1201-54); Gaucelm Faidit,"and 
Adam de la Halle. 

Prudent, Emile, born at Angou- 
leme, Feb. 3, 1817; took the second 
prize at the Paris Conservatory as 
pianist, and in harmony, 1833; settled 
at Nantes as a composer and teacher; 
gave concerts in France, Germany, 
Italy, Spain, Portugal, and England; 
died in Paris, April, 1863. 

Psalm-Book Music. Previous to 
1690, much of it was written with a 
pen, and bound in with the Psalms for 
the purpose of singing ; and in some of 
the old music-books lea ves ruled for the 
purpose were bound in the books, for 
the new music that appeared from time 
to time. 

Psalmody. See list of books at end 
of volume. 

Psalm-Singing by Christians dates 
from the last supper of Christ and 
his disciples. Psalmody was used by 
Martin Luther, in public service, 1517, 



and was made a college study by the 

Psalm-Tune Dancing. In the time 
of Charles IX., in dancing, the feet 
were seldom lifted from the ground, 
and psalm-tunes were danced; the 
king's favorite dance was the melody 
of the 129th Psalm. 

Psaltery, a stringed instrument 
much used by the Hebrews. 

PsALTERioN, like the psaltery, and 
having thirteen wire strings. 

PuENTE, Giuseppe del, barytone, 
who has obtained reputation; born at 
Naples, 1843, of Spanish parents; first 
appeared in Russia; came to this coun- 
try, 1844. 

PuGNANi, Gaetano, viollnist ; born 
at Turin, 1727; in 1754 went to Paris 
and other capitals of Europe, and in 
England produced some of his best 
violin-music; he became celebrated as 
a composer, and director of orchestras ; 
published a great variety of music, and 
died at Turin, 1798. 

PuGNi, C^SAR, composer of ballet 
music at the Imperial Theatre, St. 
Petersburg; died November, 1871. 

PULLEN, H. W., of London, England, 
published some valuable papers on the 
'^ State of Music in Englandy" and the 
''Choraf Servicer 1865. 

Punching Characters upon pewter 
plates caused a considerable advance in 
the production of musical works. 

PURCELL, Henry, born in London, 
1658; at the age of eighteen was ap- 
pointed organist of Westminster Abbey ; 
in 1682 he became organist of the Chapel 
Royal, and was famous as a composer 
for the stage, the chamber, and the 
church ; comparatively few of his com- 
positions were published until after his 
death ; few musicians wrote more, and 
few as well ; died Nov. 21, 1695, aged 37. 

PuRCHAS, A. G., a teacher of music, 
London, England, published, 1849, 
" First Lessons for Siwjing-Classes.^^ 

PuRDAY, Charles H., published a 
collection of hymns, entitled " Sacred 
Musical Offering ;^^ much of the music 
was arranged from Beethoven. 

PuRKis, John, born in London, 1781 ; 
was blind from birth ; at three years of 
age he could sing, and at nine was an 
organist ; could play any thing that he 

heard once; at twelve years of age he 
commenced to compose, and had learned 
the use of several instruments ; at the 
age of thirty years his sight was par- 
tially restored, and he went to London, 
and gave concerts there ; settled in Lon- 
don, he became the performer upon the 
ApoUonicon in that city. 

Pusiiee, Abraham, of Lebanon, 
N.H., a celebrated violinist, and teacher 
of dancing; was not a composer, but 
arranged much music for quadrille and 
other bands ; no man in the State was 
more extensively known; died March 
19, 1868, aged 76. 

PuTiNi, Bartolomeo, an excellent 
singer about the year 1755, performed, 
during several years, at the opera at 
Dresden, and afterwards at St. Peters- 

Puzzi, a celebrated performer on the 
French horn, resided in England in the 
early part of this century. 

Pyne, Louisa, born in England, 
1834 ; with a younger sister commenced 
singing in London, where they obtained 
considerable reputation before joining 
the "Pyne and Harrison Troupe ; " in 
1847 appeared in Paris ; after this at 
the Princess's, Hay market, Drury Lane, 
and at the Royal Italian Opera, London ; 
came to America 1854; returned 1857, 
and again appeared on the London 
stage; and later, with Mr. Harrison, 
managed the Lyceum Theatre ; while in 
this country she gave free concerts 
to many of our schools, and at the 
asylums of New York. 

Pyne, Susan, came to this country 
with the Pyne and Harrison English 
Opera Troupe, October, 1854, and con- 
tinued to sing in that company until 

Pyrene, a famous singer, B. C. 709; 
was the daughter of Teiresias, and was 
considered superior to any vocalist that 
had ever appeared in public. 

Pyrophone, an instrument consist- 
ing of glass tubes, which are made to 
sound by the action of a jet of gas ; it 
was invented by M. F. Kastner, 1873. 

Pythocritus, a flute-player; won 
the prize six times as a solo-player at 
Delphos ; was one of the first composers 
of love-songs; was engaged to sing at 




Q, sometimes used as an abbreviation 
of "quick;" as, Q. T., quick time. 

QuADKio, F. X., an Italian Jesuit, 
autlior of a valuable work on music, 

QuAGLiATi, P., a celebrated contra- 
puntist of Rome, 1695. 

Quakers. This community has been 
opposed to the introduction of music 
into its families; and in 1855 the yearly 
meeting in New York decided to ex- 
elude piano-fortes, and those using 
them, from the society; but since 
then B. B. Davis of Concord, N.H., 
has introduced vocal music among the 
Friends at Canterbury. 


CHiM, born near Hanover, 1697; cele- 
brated as a flutist, and composer for 
that instrument; went from Germany 
to Rome, 1724, and thence to Prussia, 
and remained in service at that court 
until his death ; died at Potsdam, 1773, 
leaving a great variety of unpublished 
compositions ; composed three hundred 
concertos for Frederick the Great, one 
of which was performed every night. 

QuEEJs^ Charlotte of England sup- 
ported a famous band of music, of 
which C. F. Abel was leader, 1761. 

Queen Elizabeth founded a school 
of counterpoint when she ascended the 
throne ; was musically educated ; was a 
singer and lutanist. 

Queex Mary, in 1549, caused Eng- 
lish words to be used in singing and 
chanting, instead of the Latin; was a 
performer on the virginal and the lute. 

Queex of Navarre, the celebrated 
Marguerite de Valois, composed mys- 
teries and moralities, which were repre- 
sented by the ladies of her court ; pub- 
lished 1.547. 

QuERCu, or Yan Der Eycken, Sy- 
MONA, born at Brussels, flourished in 

the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
as a singer, at Milan; author of *' Opus- 
culum 3fusices,'" 1508. 

Quesna, or QuESDNA, Francesco, 
an Italian composer towards the close 
of the seventeenth century. In 1692 he 
brought out, at Venice, the opera of 
''La Gelidauray 

QuESNEL, Joseph, born in France, 
1750; came to Canada 1788; wrote 
musical operettas and popular French 
musical compositions at Quebec and 
Montreal, at which place he died, 1809. 

QuiDOR, George W., published, in 
New York, 1847, " The American Musi- 
cal Monthly ;^^ it was a valuable pub- 
lication, designed to encourage native 
musical talent. 

QuiGG, James, became known as a 
minstrel, under the name of Hughes; 
died in New York, Nov. 11, 1871. 

QuiNAULT, Philip, born at Paris, 
1636; he was associated with Lulli in 
the composition of operas, for many 
years. Quinault was celebrated for his 
beautiful lyric poetry, and the gentle- 
ness with which he opposed the unjust 
satires of Boileau. It was long believed 
that Quinault entirely owed his success 
to Lulli ; but time appreciates all things, 
and it is now known that his poetry was 
greatly superior to the music of Lulli ; 
he died Nov. 29, 1688. 

QuiRSFELD, Johann, was born at 
Dresden, in 1642; published at Perna, 
in 1675, ''Breviarium Miisicuin ;" also 
wrote some other works on music. 

QuiTSCHREiBER, Georg, a musical 
author and composer, was born at 
Cranichfeld in 1569 ; died in 1638. He 
published several musical works. 

QuoiNTE, an ecclesiastic and esteemed 
church composer, flourished about the 
year 1720, and published many sacred 
musical works at Amsterdam. 


R, or R. H., the right hand in piano- 
forte music. 

Rabitp, a peculiar kind of fiddle used 
in Batavia, by the Bayaderes. 

Rachel, Mlle., born of Hebrew 

Jewish parents, at the Swiss village of 
Munf , March 24, 1820 ; attained a repu- 
tation as an actress rarely gained upon 
the modern stage ; with her sister Sarah, 
in 1833, was a singer at the caf^s on the 



boulevards, Paris ; came to this country, 
1855; died at Caunet, near Toulon, Jan- 
uary, 1858, aged 38. 

Rackett, an instrument related to 
the bassoon ; Prsetorius says had hardly 
any more tone than "one can get in 
playing on a comb." 

R AD AM A, King of Madagascar, was a 
musical amateur, and, to secure a good 
band of music for his own kingdom, 
sent twelve boys to France, and had 
them educated under a band-master 

Radeche, Robert, born in Silesia, 
1828; was, in 1852, leader of the or- 
chestra at the Leipsic Theatre, and 
afterwards, at Berlin, became an or- 
chestral performer, and a composer. 

Radeker, IIeinkich, organist at 
Haarlem, published some harpsichord 
music at Amsterdam. 

Raff, Anton, a celebrated German 
singer, born near Bonn, 1714; did not 
sing in public until 1738, when he was 
engaged as tenor at the principal 
theatres in Italy, and later in Spain; 
finally settled at Munich, where he 
opened a school in 1779; died there, 

Raff, Joachim, born at Lachen, 
1822; in 1843 published a great variety 
of piano-forte music; has resided at 
various towns on the Rhine, teaching, 
and writing for the musical journals ; 
when at Weimar, wrote ^ ^ King Alfred,^ ^ 
an opera; published many works at 
Wiesbaden, for orchestra, voices, and 
chamber ; in 1866 went to Vienna. 

Raimondi, Pietro, born at Rome, 
1787; became chapel-master at the 
Vatican; devoted most of his life and 
energy to grave and intricate tasks; 
was the composer of many operas ; his 
triple oratorio, executed at Rome, Aug. 
1852, was among his best works; died 
Oct. 30, 1853, aged GQ. 

Raisin, Jean Baptiste, a native of 
Troyes, and an organist, invented a 
curious spinet, went to Paris with his 
family, and exhibited his wonder, so 
contrived as to conceal inside a son of 
Baptiste, who there played unseen upon 
a set of keys connected with those in 
sight, and giving the appearance of a 
spinet, performing of its own accord 
any piece it was commanded to play. 

R ALSTON, Samuel, born in Donegal 
County, Ireland, 1756; came to this 
country in 1794, and settled in Pennsyl- 
vania; among other works, wrote a 

" Defence of Evangelical Psalmody ^^^ 
1844; died 1851. 

Rameau, Jean Philippe, born at 
Dijon, Sept. 25, 1683 ; became celebrated 
as a composer, and as the author of 
many theoretical works on music ; died 
at Paris, 1764, aged 81. 

Ramsay, Edward B., born at Bal- 
main, Scotland, 1793; wrote lectures on 
the character of Handel, and proposals 
for providing a '*peal of bells" for 
Edinburgh, 1863. 

Rangoni, J. B., published at Leghorn, 
1790, an '^ Essaij on Musical Taste.'^ 

R ANNIE, John, author of " Musical 
Dramas,^ ^ published in London, Eng- 
land, 1789. 

Rauscher, one of the best tenor- 
singers of Germany, died at Stuttgart, 
Dec. 16, 1866, aged 66. 

Rauzzini, Venanzio, born at Rome, 
1747; was an opera-singer in Vienna; 
went to London 1774, and was then the 
best pianist known ; settled at Bath as 
a conductor of concerts ; was the com- 
poser of several operas and much other 
music ; died 1810, aged 62. 

Ravanastron, invented by Ravana, 
King of Ceylon, B. C, and claimed as 
the first bow-instrument; it is also 
claimed that India made bowed instru- 
ments known in Asia and in Europe. 

Ravenscroft, Thomas, born 1592; 
a chorister, and became bachelor of 
music at Cambridge, England, and in 
1609 edited a collection of rounds, 
catches, &c. ; in 1611 wrote '■^ Melis- 
mata,''^ and some songs; chiefly known 
in this country by his '■'■Whole Booke of 
Psalms,^' 1621; composed much music, 
and the popular glee, " We be Three Poor 

Read, Daniel, of New Haven, 
Conn., composer and teacher of music; 
1806, published the ''Litchfield Collec- 
tion" of church music, 112 pages; it 
contained a large number of Read's 
compositions, with the dates when 
written; had previously, 1793, pub- 
ished "Columbian Harmony;" some 
of his tunes have continued in use to 
the present time. 

Rebec, an instrument with two 
strings, played on with a bow. 

Rebecca, a fiddle with three strings, 
formerly used in Italy. 

Reber, M., established his fame as a 
composer, by his symphonies, and be- 
came a member of the French Academy 



Recorder, an old wind-instrument 
resembling the flute. 

Recitative and Air. The honor 
of inventing the modern recitative be- 
longs to Jacopo Peri, a Florentine, who 
composed the text to a drama entitled 
*' Bafne,''^ performed 1594. 

Reed, Ephraim, a native and resi- 
dent of Taunton, Mass., prepared for 
publication ^^ North American Collection 
of Church 3Iusick,'^ a book of 200 pages, 
1811. The manuscript of this work is 
in the possession of Moses E. Cheney, 
Barnard, Vt., 1874; in it are quite a 
number of compositions by the author ; 
he published ^^ Musical Monitor,''^ 
Ithaca, KY., 1827, 256 pages. 

Reeds, for instruments, were pat- 
ented in 1818, by A. M. Peaslee ; reeds 
were improved by Carhart, who em- 
ployed an exhaust bellows ; E. Hamlin 
improved the reed in shape and in 
voicing: they are now made by machin- 
ery, and afterwards finished by hand. 

Reeve, Cotton, born at Norwich, 
England, became celebrated as a violin- 
ist and leader of orchestra in London; 
was also a composer. 

Reeve, John, was for fifty years 
celebrated in England as a musician 
and composer of simple and plaintive 

Reeve, William, born in London, 
1757 ; organist and composer ; his pieces 
for the theatre are very numerous ; but 
his chief forte was in the composition 
of comic songs. 

Reeves, Daniel M., London, Eng- 
land, wrote a valuable treatise on the 
*' Science of Music,'''' 1853. 

Reeves, J. Sims, born in Woolwich, 
England, 1821 ; was a performer upon a 
variety of instruments, but became 
famous as an oratoiio and ballad 
singer; created, in his own country, 
the greatest sensation of any tenor since 
Braham; made his first appearance at 
the Newcastle Theatre, 1838; is yet 
without a rival in England. 

Reeves, W. H., who came to this 
country, 1848, with the Madame Bishop 
Troupe, and sang in New York and 
Boston, was a brother of J. S. Reeves ; 
died in New York, April 17, 1857. 

Regal, a kind of portable organ, but 
different from the barrel-organ. 

Regnault, Charles, of New York, 
1859, published a "iVeiy Theory of 
Music, ''^ advocating the expression of 
musical intervals by numerals. 

Reich, M., member of the Grand 
Ducal Chapel of Weimar, was particu- 
larly celebrated as a music-master; 
Weber was one of his pupils; died 
1835, aged 70. 

Reicha, Anton, born at Prague, 
1770; became celebrated as a composer, 
1799; resided much at Vienna, but 
went to Paris 1808; his compositions 
were for instruments mostly, and were 
the admiration of the world ; died May 
28, 1836. 

Reichardt, J. F., chapel-master to 
three kings of Prussia; was manager 
of theatres and conductor of orchestras 
also; travelled through Europe as a 
violinist; became celebrated as a com- 
poser of operas, and works on music ; 
was connected with many learned 
societies; and died 1814, leaving a 
great list of musical compositions. 

Reichel, J., attached to the opera at 
Darmstadt, was one of the first bass- 
singers of Italy and Cermany; was a 
Hungarian; died June 30, 1856, aged 

Reichmeister, J. C, published, 1828, 
some very excellent papers concerning 
the organ. 

Reid, James, author of many popular 
songs ; died in Scotland, 1872, aged 73. 

Reinagle, Joseph, born at Ports- 
mouth, England, 1762 ; was a composer, 
and performer on the French horn and 
trumpet, but became more celebrated 
as a violoncellist, but finally became a 
violinist; resided two years in Dublin, 
and then settled as violoncellist in Lon- 

Reid, Gen. John, born in Perthshire, 
Feb, 13, 1721 ; removed to London, be- 
came a general, composed some music ; 
endowed a professorship of music in 
the Edinburgh University, and directed 
in his will, that, on the 13th of February 
annually, there should be " a concert by 
a full military band, which shall per- 
form some pieces of my music;" died 
in London, Feb. 0, 1807, aged 87. 

Reinecke, Carl, born in Altona, 
June 23, 1824 ; an excellent musician ; 
gave concerts at the age of eleven years ; 
visited the chief towns of Germany, 
and held various appointments at Co- 
logne and Breslau ; was director of the 
conservatory at Leipsic, where he set- 
tled 1870 ; his works are numerous in. 
every branch of the art, — secular, 
sacred, instrumental, and vocal. 

Reissiger, Carl Gottlieb, born at 



Betzig, Jan. 31, 1798; went to Vienna 
1821, and became a composer; settled 
in Berlin 182o, and there wrote his best 
compositions ; died at Dresden, Nov. 7, 
1859, aged Gl. 

Keiteb, Ernst, a German musician 
and composer; in 1846 became leader of 
a small orchestra and society at Basle, 
which soon became the best in Switzer- 
land; has composed much vocal and 
instrumental music. 

Relfe, J., of London, England, 
wrote " Principles of Harmony, Musical 
Science, and Musical Instruction,^' 1819. 

Relfe, John, born 1763; was early 
known as a composer ; professor at the 
*'■ Siwi-Akademie ;'' the organizer of a 
conservatory at the Hague, and later 
director of music at Dresden ; became 
chapel master 1827, and composed 
much dramatic and religious music. 

Rellstab, H. F. L., born at Berlin, 
April 13, 1799; was a musician, poet, 
and musical critic, connected with Paris 
papers ; died Nov. 28, 1860. 

Rellstab, J. C. F., printer, and pro- 
prietor of a music warehouse, Berlin; 
born in that city 1759; wrote a large 
number of valuable musical works, and 
composed a large amount of vocal and 
instrumental music; died 1813. 

Remack, Edmund, born at Posen, 
1832; came to this country 1856, and 
became known as a writer for the public 
journals; settled in New York 1858, 
and became editor of the '"'■ Abend 
Zeltung ; " as a linguist he had few 
superiors ; was a cultivated musician 
and able writer ; died Sept. 18, 1868. 

Remack, Edward, musician, and 
known as a writer for most of the lead- 
ing German newspapers of America; 
died in New York, Nov. 5, 1868, aged 36. 

Remenyi, a Hungarian violinist, who 
performed for the benefit of the soldiers 
of Gen. Gorgey, until the army surren- 
dered to the Russians ; became a wan- 
derer, but appeared again in Paris, 

Restoration of Music. With the 
restoration of monarchy, in 1660, came 
also that of the church and its choral 
music; and with Charles II. a new 
style and a nobler school arose. 

Retail, Alphonse, entered the con- 
servatory of music, Paris, 1810; in 1834 
was tenor-singer at the Opera Comique ; 
in 1849, professor of singing; and in 
1860 was decorated with the cross of 
the Legion of Honor ; died 1871. 

Rey, Jean Baptist, born at Lau- 
zerte, France, 1734 ; was self-instructed ; 
became a member of an orchestra at- 
tached to the Toulouse Opera, and 
famous as a composer; conducted the 
opera orchestra in Paris thirty-five 
years; died 1810. 

Rey, brother of the above, was vio- 
loncellist at the Royal Academy of 
Music, and assisted in the composition 
of an opera; died of delirium, 1811. 

Reynault, Charles, of New York ; 
author of a new theory of music which 
expresses musical intervals by numerals ; 
upper octaves by dots above the figures, 
and the reverse by dots below ; sharps 
and flats, by lines through the figures. 

Rheineck, Christoph, composer, 
tenor-singer, and pianist; born at 
Memmingen, 1748; produced his first 
opera at Lyons ; became disgusted with 
his profession at Paris ; returned to his 
native town, and settled as an innkeeper 
there; had composed much music; 
died 1796. 

Rhenish Men Song Union. A Ger- 
man company of male part-singers of 
great excellence, visited this country 
1853 ; gave concerts in the large cities. 

RiiiNEHART,W. H., of Cincinnati, O., 
published, 1848, the ^^ American Church 
Harp,'^ containing both hymns and 
tunes ; long 12mo, 132 pages. 

RiBiBLE, a small viol having three 
strings like the rebec. 

Ricci, or Rizzio, David, a celebrated 
lutist and singer, born at Turin, 1540; 
was the favorite of Mary Queen of 
Scots ; was the composer of some Scot- 
tish songs ; and was killed by being 
stabbed by the side of the queen, March 
9, 1566; received fifty-six wounds. 

Rice, Phil., the celebrated American 
banjoist, was a remarkable performer; 
Thalberg took lessons of him ; he pub- 
lished some music and a " Banjo In- 
structor;" died at Grand Lake, Ark., 
Dec. 4, 1847. 

Rice, T. D., the originator of negro 
musical and terpsichorean delineations 
in this country ; he won great fame as 
"Ji/n Crow Bice,'' and died in New 
York, 1859, aged 52. 

Richard, a Parisian manufacturer of 
harpsichords, 1621, conceived the idea 
of substituting small slips of cloth in 
place of the quill, for producing sound, 
and was successful. 

Richards, Brinley, born in South 
Wales, 1821 ; went to reside in London, 

■)L/^ J> l^l'lyV^^-^ 

U y^^'- 


':i /L^^ 

-iT' ff-<^-i/vJ /<^ 

-^ u^Jrln 

- /ffVv^ /U.c-^-(^ 



and has become celebrated in this coun- 
try and in Europe for his many com- 
positions for the piano-forte. 

EiCHAEDSON, Nathan, born at South 
Reading, Mass., 1823, has become fam- 
ous as the author of '' Richardson^ s New 
Method'''' for the piano-forte; failing 
health caused him to reside in Paris, 
France, where he died Nov. 19, 1855, 
aged 32. 

RiCHiNGs, Caroline, the adopted 
daughter of Peter Richings of Pennsyl- 
vania ; celebrated as a prima donna, and 
for organizing an English opera com- 
pany, 1867, which took high rank in this 

Rider, George T., born in Coventry, 
R.I., 1829; wrote '■'Plain Music ^^ for 
the Book of Common Prayer, 1854; 
author of '^Lyra Anglicana,-^ and '■'■Lyra 
Americana,''^ 1864. 

RiDDEi.L, Henry Scott, one of the 
native song-writers of Scotland, pub- 
lished 1831, " Sonfjs of the Ark ;" assid- 
uously cultivated the Muse all his life: 
died 1870, aged 72. 

RiDDELL, John, of Ayr, composed 
much music for violin, violoncello, and 
harpsichord; was a music-teacher, and 
had a small salary, 1776, from some 
gentlemen of musical note. 

RiEGLER, F. Xavier, profcssor of 
music at Presburg ; published three 
practical works for the harpsichord, at 
Vienna, 1779 ; was one of the best 
pianists of his time, and a composer of 

Riego, Amalia, born in Stockholm, 
was a street-singer; attracting the at- 
tention of the Princess Eugenie, was 
educated, and 1870 became celebrated 
as a singer at Stockholm. 

Riel, J. F. H., born at Potsdam, 
1775 ; famous as a music-teacher at 
Konigsberg; a pupil of Fasch. 

RiEM, W. F., composer and organist 
at Leipsic; published a large number 
of important works, quartets, quin- 
tets, &c. 

RiEPEL, Joseph, director, violinist, 
and composer; was the first German 
writer who explained the subject of 
rhythm, and rendered it intelligible; 
much of his music was published ; died 
%t Ratisbon, 1782. 

RiEs, Ferdinand, bom at Bonn in 
Germany, Nov. 29, 1784 ; composed mu- 
sic at the age of nine years; travelled 
through Sweden, Russia, and, after be- 
ing successful; went to England, where 

he became famous ; spent some time in 
Paris, but wrote most of his works in 
London ; died Jan. 13, 1838, aged 54. 

Ries, Franz, first violinist of the 
Electoral Chapel, father of Ferdinand 
Ries, was a music-teacher at Bonn ; be- 
came noted for assisting the Beethoven 
family in their time of need ; was con- 
cert-master at Cologne, and, at the age 
of ninety years, received the Prussian 
order of the Red Eagle ; died in his na- 
tive city, Bonn, 1845. 

Rietz, Maria Therese, a famous 
singer, and wife of the chapel-master; 
died at Dresden, Nov. 13, 1861. 

Righini, Vincenzo, chapel-master at 
Berlin; born at Bologna, 1756; became 
connected with the theatre at Prague, 
and a composer of vocal music and 
operas ; died Aug. 19, 1812. 

Rigoli, of Florence, invented the ver- 
tical harpsichord, 1620, which has since 
been imitated in a variety of the piano- 

RiGOLL, an instrument consisting of 
several sticks separated by beads, and 
struck with a ball upon the end of a 

RiGGS, Thomas Jefferson, born at 
Meredith, N.Y., Oct. 19, 1826; early 
became a performer upon instruments, 
and for many years has been a success- 
ful teacher and conductor; has com- 
posed songs and sacred music. 

Riley, E., of New York, published 
'■'■Vocal Melodies,'^ 1820; it was a collec- 
tion of foreign airs which he adapted to 
American words. 

Riley, William, of London, wrote 
''Parochial Music,'' 1762. 

Rimbault, Edward F., a well-known I .J),^ 
writer and composer in London, Eng- ^ ^^ 
land ; has published some thirty distinct . 
musical works, and has composed much'^'^^f 
sacred and secular music ; was editor of ik'^6 
" ChappelVs Musical Marjazine,'' and a 
contributor to the musical works of 
other publishers. 

RiNCK, Christian Heinrich, organ- 
ist and composer, born Feb, 18, 1770; 
was a learned and accomplished musi- 
cian, known in America on account of 
his organ-compositions ; died Aug. 7, 
1846, at Darmstadt, Gennany; his father 
was a teacher of music, and pianist. 

Ring, John, born in London, Eng- 
land, 1751; known by his work, ''The 
Commemoration of Handel,'' 1786; died 

Rinks, C, published in London, 1840, 



'* Selections of Psalm and Hymn 

EiNUCCiNi, OCTAVIA, an Italian com- 
poser, born at Florence, who went to 
France on the marriage of Henry IV., 
first introduced Italian music into that 
country ; an Italian company appeared 
in Paris, 1577. Died 1621. 

Rip van Winkle, composed by Geo. 
F. Bristow, Brooklyn, N. Y., for the 
Pyne and Harrison troupe. 

RiSTOBi, Adelaide, born a gypsy; 
was a singer in a wandering company, 
in which both her father and mother 
were actors; her father was an instru- 
mental performer. 

Ritchie, Dr., and Dr. Porteus, be- 
came somewhat noted in London, 1856, 
by their controversy about the organ as 
a church-instrument. 

RiTSON, Joseph, born in Stockton- 
upon-Tees, Oct. 2, 1752 ; published, 1783, 
a valuable collection of ^^ English Songs;^' 
in 1790, ^'Ancient Songs,^^ from the time 
of Henry to the Revolution ; in 1794, a 
collection of ^^ Scottish Songs ;'^ died 
Sept. 23, 1803. 

RiTTER, F. L., born in Germany; 
came to this country, and settled at 
Cincinnati, O. ; is a well-known musi- 
cian and composer; has published a 
''UUtory of Music,'^ and other valuable 

Roach, Thomas, a pauper child, 1854, 
was educated as a pianoforte-tuner by 
the Perkins Institution for the Blind ; 
died 1874, leaving $3,500 to that estab- 

Roast Beef of Old England. This 
celebrated old national song was com- 
posed by Richard Leveridge, 1720; he 
was the author of many songs. 

RoBBiNS, Charles, published " The 
Columbian Harmony," Portland, Me., 

RoBBiNS, Edgar A., teacher and 
composer of music, Boston, Mass. ; 
author of ''Practical Harmony,'' " The 
Art of Modulation,'' " Tlie American 
Method for Piano-Forte," and other 
works of value, 1872. 

Robert the Pious, King of France, 
996, was fond of composing hymns and 
of singing; he would frequently assume 
a monastic garb, and preside over the 
choir of St. Denys. 

Roberts, E., published " The -^mte- 
a collection of music, at New York, 
1869, in the compilation of which he was 
assisted by J. P. Morgan. 

r * 

Roberts, Henry, for many years 
choir-master in Cornwall, England; died 
there January, 1870. 

Robertson, Alexander, a song- 
composer, and for many years ringer of 
the music-bells, St. Giles' Church, Edin- 
burgh ; died Sept. 22, 1819. 

Robertson, Daniel, published at 
Edinburgh a collection of reels, &c., 
original, dedicated to Georgiana Scott 
of Seabank; this was for harpsichord 
with violoncello bass. 

Robertson, Lord, an amateur vo- 
calist of Edinburgh ; could sing Italian 
songs so well that none could distin- 
guish that he was a Scotchman, who 
did not know him ; died Jan. 10, 1855. 

Robertson, Thomas, of Dalraeny, 
Scotland, published, 1785, "T/ie History 
and Theory of Ancient and Modem 

Robinson, Charles S., of Brooklyn, 
N.Y., published ""Songs of the Church,'^ 
227 tunes, and ""Songs for Christian 

Robinson, Dr. F., musician and com- 
poser; vicar-choral of St. Patrick's, 
Dublin ; died 1872. 

Robinson, Edward B., of Portland, 
Me., in 1852 published some music, with 
the upper and lower lines of the staff 
made double thickness, — also the added 
lines, the fourth above and below, — on 
the supposition that this would assist 
in determining the letters, and render 
the reading of notes less difficult. 

Robinson, John, one of the choris- 
ters of the Chapel Royal ; an excellent 
performer on the organ ; an assistant of 
Dr. Croft's at the abbey, and in 3727 
organist there ; died 1762, aged 80; was 
buried in the same grave with Croft. 

Robinson, John, celebrated as a 
music-teacher, died at York, England, 
July, 1855; he left a large library, and 
some instruments, &c., of such value 
as to be sold at auction in London. 

RoBYN, William and Henry, broth- 
ers, born at Emmerick: William, 1813; 
Henry, 1824; came to this country, and 
both settled as music-teachers in St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Rocco, L. T., a well-known harpist, 
and member of Thomas's orchestra; af- 
terwards connected with an opera com- 
pany in New York ; committed suicide 
there 1873. He was considered the best 
harpist in this country. 

Roche, Thomas, a blind musician, 
extensively known at Lynn, Mass. ; died 



Aug. 17, 1873, aged 35 ; could detect the 
slightest error in any music he had once 

Rock Harmonicots", an instrument 
consisting of wooden bars across a 
frame, upon which certain sorts of 
rocks are placed, and made to give forth 
sounds when struck with wooden ham- 

Rode, Pierre, a French violinist, 
born at Bordeaux, Feb. 26, 1774 ; went 
to Paris at the age of thirteen years; 
spent five years in Russia, and settled 
at Berlin 1814; later in life returned to 
his native town ; published much music 
for his instrument ; died Nov. 25, 1830. 


Joseph, born at Strasburg, 1730 ; was a 
performer on the French horn, violinist, 
and a leader of orchestras in France; 
became a composer of ballet-music, and 
in 1784 was professor of composition at 
the academy; wrote many important 
works, and some for the horn and 

RoDWELT., George H., of London, 
England, musical director of the Adel- 
phi Theatre, and composer, was the au- 
thor of several operas and ballads, some 
of which were published in New York, 
1849; died February, 1852. 

Roe, a singer of note, and author of 
songs, some of which were written for 
John Parry; died in London, April, 

Rogers, Benjamust, born at Wind- 
sor ; was made bachelor of music, 1658 ; 
became organist in Magdalen College, 
Oxford, England, and was removed by 
James II. ; published " Court Ayres,^' 
hymns, anthems, and other musical 
compositions ; went to Dublin as organ- 
ist ; composed much for instruments ; 
died 1685. 

Rogers, Charles, of Edinburgh, 
Scotland, edited ''Modern Scottish Min- 
strelsy,''^ six volumes, 1857. 

Roger, Gustave Hippolyte, born 
in Paris, Aug. 27, 1815, famous as a 
tenor-singer from 1837 to 1849; also 
celebrated in Germany since that 

Roger, M., the well-known tenor of 
the Grand Opera, Paris, one of the finest 
musicians of his time, and one of the 
best actors on the French stage, until 
the loss of his voice, 1859, was greatly 
celebrated ; after this, the artist lost the 
use of one arm, which was amputated ; 
and the government gave him the office 

of professor of singing in the conserva- 

Rogers, Robert, born at South 
Anston, England, 1787 ; was a self-edu- 
cated musician, who devoted seven 
hours a day to the practice of the piano- 
forte and violin; joined a theatre or- 
chestra; became a teacher and organ- 
ist; published ^^ Selections of Sacred 

Rohner, G. W., of London, England, 
author of several highly-commended 
works on music, 1849; also ''Art of 
Singing,'' 1856. 

RoHR, J. H., professor of music, Phil- 
adelphia, Penn., and author of "First 
Lessons in Music.'' 

Roland, Alfred, a good musician 
and composer of France, being cured of 
disease by the waters and baths of the 
Pyrenees at Bagneres de Bigone, es- 
tablished there an asylum or hospital 
for the poor, in connection with a con- 
servatory of music ; for twenty years he 
was the leader of his band of musicians 
through Europe, France, Gennany, and 
Russia, giving concerts for the support 
of the institution; his band numbered 
eighty singers ; he at length became too 
aged to travel, but his band continued 
to do so under the name of "Les Mon- 
tagnards," six of them coming to 
America, 1858, and, going through the 
States, sang in Boston, Mass., April, 

Roller, Jean, the inventor of the 
Pianino; died in Paris, France, where 
he was exhibiting his new instrument, 
January, 1867. 

RoLT, Richard, born at Shrewsbury, 
England, 1724 ; early settled in London, 
where he composed operas and other 
music ; wrote more than three hundred 
songs and cantatas for the theatre. 

RoMAiKA. This famous Grecian 
dance requires a leader who gives as 
much liveliness and intricacy to the 
figure as possible, while the dancers 
must follow all the movements without 
breaking the chain, or losing the time of 
the music. 

Roman Decree, A.D. 679, " That no 
priest be a common rhymer, nor play on 
any musical instrument by himself or 
with any other men, but be wise and 
reverent as becomes his order." 

Romberg, Bernhard, violoncellist, 
born 1770 ; member of the orchestra at 
Hamburg, and chapel-master there; 
composed largely for his instrument, 



and also much pleasing vocal music; 
died 1841. 

Romberg, Dr. Andreas, violinist, 
born 1767; began to compose music 
1799; received the degree of doctor of 
arts, 1809; published thirty-three valu- 
able musical works ; died at Gotha, Nov. 
10, 1821. 

Romberg, Heinrich, born at Paris, 
1802 ; a violin virtuoso of celebrity ; was 
first violin at St. Petersburg, 1827 ; be- 
came a composer, and settled at Ham- 
burg 1848; died there, May 2, 1859. 

RoMiEU, of Montpellier, published, 
1743, ^'A New Discovery of the Grave 
Harmonics,'''' the third sound resulting 
from the coincident vibrations of two 
acute simultaneous sounds. Tartini 
made the same discovery, 1714. 
VRoot, George F., born in Sheffield, 
Mass. A 1820; removed to Boston 1838, 
and to New York 1844, and to Chicago 
1860 ; has given his time to composition, 
and the publication of his own produc- 
tions ; was made doctor of music by the 
Chicago University, 1872. 

Rootsey, S., of London, England, 
published ^'Notation of Music, '^ 1812. 

RoQUEPLAisr, M. N., whose name is 
intimately associated with the history of 
the opera in Paris, France, was a jour- 
nalist and musical director ; died April, 

RoRE, Cyprian, born at Mechlin, 
1516 ; a celebrated composer and singer 
at Venice and at Parma ; composed for 
and had charge of the music at these 
places for many years ; died at Parma, 

Rosa, Carl, born in Hamburg, 
March 22, 1842; made his first appear- 
ance as a violinist 1850; went through 
Scotland 1854; thence through Italy, 
Germany, France, and England ; in 1865 
played in concert with Mme. Parepa 
in London, and with her came to 
America, where they became soon well 
known ; married Parepa in New York, 
Feb. 26, 1867; after a concert-tour 
through the States, they returned to 
Europe, and organized an English opera 
company in London. 

Rosa, Salvator, born at Renessa, 
near Naples, 1616; painter, poet, and 
musician; eight cantatas and numerous 
songs of his composition were preserved ; 
he was a performer on the lute, and his 
songs in point of melody were superior ; 
died at Rome, 1673. 

RozscAVOLGY, a Jew, born 1787, was 

a composer of music in Hungary ; wrote 
the celebratedi2ar/oez?/ March; died 1848. 

Rose, Bernard, of Great Maddox 
Street, near St. George's Church, Han- 
over Square, London, published "^Twelve 
New EiKjlishCountnj-Dances, and Twelve 
of the most favorite Scotch ComKiry- 
Dances, for her lloyal Highness Princess 
Aw/usta's Birthday;'^ dedicated to the 
Duke of York. Price 2.s. Qd. Directions 
how to dance it accompany every tune 
in the book. 

Rose, J. H. Y., born at Quedlinburg, 
1743; famous organist; published a col- 
lection of Psalms with new melodies, for 
four voices, 1792. 

Roseburgh, Ida, made her debut in 
New York, 1873, as Rosina in the ^'Bar- 
ber of Seville,'^ and in the lesson scene 
sang the variations on the Carnival of 
Venice. She is a highly cultivated 
American soprano, who has been study- 
ing in Italy. 

'Roseingrave, Thomas, went to 
Rome 1710; in 1720 went to London as 
organist and teacher; published a col- 
lection of '^Lessons for the Harpsi- 
chord,'^ some songs, one opera, and 
some instrumental music; became in- 
sane, and died 1750. 

RosETTi, Antonio, born at Milan, 
1744; was chapel-master and violinist; 
generally played the double-bass ; but 
his principal merits were as a composer, 
and leader of an orchestra ; his publica- 
tions are supposed to be numerous ; but 
as there were several composers of the 
same name, about the same period, it is 
uncertain to which some of the compo- 
sitions belong. 

RosEwiG, A. H., music-master in 
Philadelphia, Penn., published, 1874, 
^%'anius Divinus," containing new 
masses, requiems, vespers, oft'ertoriums, 
hymns, and canticles, for all festivals 
and seasons. 

Ross, John, born at Newcastle, Nor- 
thumberland, Oct. 12, 1763; went to 
Aberdeen, Scotland, 1783; was organist 
there for 53 years ; was eminent as a 
composer and performer of music ; wrote 
much music at Aberdeen; died July 28, 
1837, aged 74. 

Rossi, Laure, who was eight years 
in America as chef d^orchestre of an 
operatic troupe, had previously been 
director at Milan, Italy, and since at 
Naples, and died there September, 1871. 

Rossini, Gioacchino, born at Pesaro, 
on the Gulf of Venice, February;, 1792 ; 1 4 





became director of an orchestra 1806, 
and was known as a composer 1808 ; his 
works include thirty-eight operas, an 
oratorio, two masses, nine cantatas, one 
*^Stabat Mater, ]A^a,nd many less impor- 
tant works ; he was the great composer 
/ 3 of his time ; died Nov. 14, 1869, at Paris, 
where he had long resided, aged 77. 

Rote, the same as the English hurdy- 
gurdy, producing tones by the friction 
of a wheel. 

RoTT, H., a musical instrument maker 
of Prague, in 1861 invented a new wind 
instrument for military bands, called the 


born at Lons le Saulnier, 1760; first 
produced his ^^Marseillaise Hi/mn'' at 
Strasbourg, 1792 ; he was a poet and mu- 
sician ; became a soldier, was wounded 
in service, went to reside in Paris, where 
he lived many years; in 1830 he was 
granted a pension by Louis Philippe, and 
died at Choisy-le-Roi, 1836, the possessor 
of the cross of the Legion of Honor, but 
wiihout other property to defray the 
expenses of his funeral. 

RvtUNDHEADS, a class of people whose 
characteristics were not unlike those of 
Calvin, were very inimical to music, and, 
while they were in power, church-music 
and the surplice were both under the 
ban ; but, when the Stuarts returned to 
fame, church-music resumed its sway. 
Except during this brief interregnum, 
when the Roundheads frowned on 
church-music, it has always flourished 
in England, having been improved by 
ecclesiastics, who visited Rome to gain 
musical information. The Venerable 
Bede was an able musician ; and a 
treatise entitled "De Musica Theoretica 
Practica et Mensurata,^' has been as- 
cribed to him. 

Rouse, Francis, published a version 
of the Psalms in England, 1648, which 
is still used in Scotland to some extent, 
and has been used in this country, 
South ; was employed by the Westmin- 
ster Assembly, which insisted upon the 
duty of regular singing as a part of 
public worship. 

RoussEA-u, Jean Jacques, celebrated 
as an author and musician; born at 
Geneva, 1712; wrote many works on 
musi.^, and published nearly one hun- 
dred songs ; published a ^^Musical Dic- 
tionary,'' 1768. 

RowE, John, of England, 1744, pre- 
sented Christ Church, Boston, Mass., 

with a chime of eight bells ; they were 
cast by Abel Rudhall, of Gloucester, 
England, and the bells are still perfect 
in every respect. 

RowELL, John, born in Hopkinton, 
N.H., was a musician of the old school, 
made drums, fifes, violins, and other 
instruments, and finally a piano-forte, 
all without instructions. 

Royal Academy of Music, London, 
England, established 1823 by the efforts 
of Lord Burgharst, its object being to 
benefit English students. 

Royal Society of Musicians, es- 
tablished April 19, 1738, in London, 
England, for the relief of indigent musi- 
cians and their widows and orphans. 

RuBiNELLi, Giovanni, a celebrated 
contraltist, born at Brescia, 1752; in 
1774 was a principal singer in Italy; 
went to London 1786 ; sang there with 

RuBiNi, Giovanni Battista, the 
most celebrated tenor of his time, born 
at Romano, April 7, 1795 ; was a violin- 
ist at the age of eight years ; sang mostly 
in Paris and London for many years, 
but later throughout Europe; died at 
Romano, in the province of Bergamo, 
March 2, 1854, aged 59, leaving an estate 
worth five million dollars. 

Rubinstein, Anton Gregory, born 
at Wechmotymetz, Russia, Nov. 18, 
1829; was early admitted into the Con- 
servatoire, and at the age of twelve years 
began to compose music ; became known 
as a pianist at Moscow, where he gave 
his first concert; commenced to travel 
in 1839; in 1852 he founded the Conser- 
vatoire of St. Petersburg, where he 
wrote his best compositions ; visited this 
country in 1873, and was enthusiastically 

Rubinstein, Nicholas, elder brother 
of Anton, was musically educated, and 
devoted himself to teaching music ; be- 
came director of the conservatorium at 

RucKERS, John and Andrew, re- 
nowned makers of the clavecin (harpsi- 
chord), or epinette (spinet), at Antwerp, 
1569 to 1620; a son of Andrew, born at 
Antwerp, made great improvements in 
these instruments ; died 1670. Handel 
had one of Rucker's harpsichords. 

RucziTZKA, a Bohemian musician, 
wrote the first Hungarian opera, ^'Bela- 

RuDERSDORFF, Erminia, bom at 
Ivanowsky, Russia, Dec. 12, 1822; after 



appearing in England and Germany as 
a concert-singer, made her debut in 
opera 1811 ; married Dr. Kuchenmeis- 
ter 1844 ; removed to London 1854, and 
was tUere an opera and oratorio singer ; 
came to tliis country, and sang at the 
May Festival, Boston, 1871, where she 
has since resided. 

Rudiments of Music, Andrew Law, 
Newark, N.J., 1783; his first book, 
^^ Tunes and Anthems,^^ was published 

RuDOLFSEN was Well known as an 
admirable horn-player in the old Ger- 
mania Society, and in the Boston orches- 
tras; was a concert-singer under the 
names of Signer Rudolfo and Herr Ru- 
dolph ; in all places he won good opinions. 

RuFiNATSCHA, JoHANN, bom in 
Vienna; was a teacher of the piano- 
forte and harmony ; has produced over- 
tures, symphonies, and orchestral works 
since 1848, which are popular in Germany. 

RuMSEY, H. S., celebrated as a min- 
strel; died at Newburgh, N.Y., Sept. 9, 

Russell, William, was born in Lon- 
don, 1777 ; became known as an organ- 
ist, 1789; was organist till 1800, when 
he was appointed composer and piano- 
forte-player at Sadler's Wells; his com- 
positions are numerous for the theatre; 
he also wrote two oratorios, and some 
other music ; died 1813, aged 36. 

Russian Music. The Russian music 
and religion came from Greece; they 
are a musical people, possessing many 
native songs ; among them German and 
Italian opera flourishes, and the com- 
mon people cultivate music and dancing. 
Their national hymn was composed by 
A. Swoff. Most of the great musical 
artists of the world visit Russia; and 
some excellent composers and pianists 
of Russia have lately been known in 
Europe and in this country. 

RziHA, F. VON, came to Boston, Mass., 
1847, as violinist, and leader of " The 
Steyermarldsche Musical Company,''^ of 
nineteen performers, constituting an 
orchestra of considerable power and 


S. This letter is used as an abbrevia- 
tion of solo; as, or(j. s., organ solo. 

Sacchini, a. M. G., born at Puzzuoli, 
May 11, 1734, became principal com- 
poser for the theatre at Rome ; in 1769 
was director of the Venice conserva- 
tory; went to England 1772, where he 
acquired additional fame ; went to Paris 
1781, where he was pensioned by the 
queen and by the theatre ; died at Paris, 
Oct. 7, 1786. 

Sacellus, Leo., chapel - master of 
the Duomo Church at Vicenza in 1600. 
Amongst his works were published at 
Antwerp '^Flores 2, 3, et 4, vocum,^^ 

Sachs, Hans, a Nuremburg cobbler, 
with Michael Behaim, Hadlaub, and 
Muscatblut, were the most famous of 
the ^^ Master- Singer s,^^ a class of min- 
strels combining the qualities of poets 
and singers, in the sixteenth century ; 
their compositions were chiefly devo- 

Sackbut, an ancient instrument 
identical with the trombone ; the mod- 
ern trombone was modelled from one 
excavated at Pompeii. 

Sacked Musical Drama was per- 

formed in Italy, at Padua, 1243; the 
Passion of Christ, at Friale, 1298. 

Sage, W. H., for many years organ- 
ist in New York, one of the originators 
of the Philharmonic Society, and a first 
violinist in the orchestras of that city, 
died in Orange, N. J., 1868. 

Saint-Am ANs, Louis Joseph, born 
at Marseilles 1749; in 1769 went to Paris, 
and became known as a composer; 
afterwards wrote operas and ballets for 
the theatre, and later became director 
of orchestra ; was celebrated mostly for 
his operas. 

Sala, Madame, long known as a 
lyric artist, made her appearance at 
Covent Garden, London, Dec. 14, 1827, 
in opera, and continued there until her 
death, July, 1860. 

Sale, J. B., bom at Windsor, Eng- 
land, 1779; was teacher of the piano- 
forte, singing, and the organ; also a 
composer of songs, glees, duets, and 
church music ; published a collection of 
psalmody, 1837, with alterations in 
melody and harmony; died 1856. 

Sale, John, bom in London, 1758, 
was chorister at Windsor; was a princi- 
pal bass at London, Liverpool, and the 



large towns, in oratorio, &c. ; died 

Salieri, Antonio, born at Legnano, 
Aug. 19, 1750; cliapel-master to tlie 
Emperor of Austria ; in 1784, after com- 
posing an opera, went to Paris, wliere 
it was performed before tlie royal fam- 
ily, the queen singing in it at every per- 
formance; he now composed for the 
theatres, and, on his return to Venice, 
produced many operas there, and other 
works ; was made leader at the Imperial 
Chapel ; and died in Vienna, 1825. 

Salinas, Francisco, born blind at 
Burgos, Spain, 1513; wrote '' De Mu- 
sica ; " died 1590 ; was a line singer and 
organist; was a professor of music at 

Salo, Gasparo di, supposed to have 
been the first maker of Italian violins, 
1450, was a native of Brescia, where 
lutes and viols were manufactured ; he 
worked at his business in that town for 
fifty years, and died there. 

Salomon, Johann Peter, born at 
Bonn, 1745, became celebrated in Ger- 
many and France as a violinist, and for 
general knowledge of music; went to 
England 1781; was one of the pro- 
moters of the Philharmonic Society; 
the great Haydn wrote twelve sympho- 
nies for the concerts of Salomon ; died 
in London, 1824. 

Saltoun, Lord, an accomplished 
and energetic supporter of music, and a 
violinist, died in London, August, 1853. 

Salviani became celebrated in New 
York, 1855, as a tenor ; went to Flor- 
ence, and became an opera-singer there. 

Sambuca, an ancient stringed instru- 
ment used by the Greeks. 

Sambucus, a flute made of elderwood. 

Sampunia, a Hebrew instrument re- 
sembling the bagpipe, made of sheep- 
skin, and round ; it had two pipes, one 
to fill the belly with wind, the other to 
emit the sound; the lower pipe to be 

Sampson, Richard, published a col- 
lection of psalmody, 1800; was well 
known at Westminster as organist. 

Samuels, Edward A., a native of 
Boston, known musically by his course 
of lectures on music before the Lowell 
Institute, 1866. 

Sances, Giovanni Felice, chapel- 
master to the Emperor Leopold I., at 
Vienna, in the first half of the seven- 
teenth century; he composed many 
motets, and other vocal music. 

Sancho, Ignatius, bom of African 
parents, on board a slave-ship, 1729 ; be- 
came servant in England ; published an 
essay on music, and gained reputation 
as a composer ; died 1780. 

Sander, F. S., a Bohemian musician 
resident at Breslau in Silesia; a good 
vocal and instrumental composer from 
the year 1783 to 1797. 

Sanders, Charles W., bom in Her- 
kimer County, N.Y., 1805; wrote and 
published the " Young Choir, ^' " School 
Sinqer," " Young Vocalist," and, with 
B. F. Russell, the '' Bobin Redbreast.'' 

Sanderson, Harry, born in Phila- 
delphia, 1838, an esteemed musical artist 
and brilliant pianist; brother of Col. 
Sanderson, who died in London, Nov- 
ember, 1871 ; became celebrated as a 
performer and teacher in New York, 
where he died, Sept. 27, 1871, aged 33. 

Sanderson, James, a dramatic com- 
poser, born at Workington, 1769, was a 
violinist at the theatre and in concerts ; 
became a teacher of the violin and 
piano-forte; became celebrated for his 
compositions and dramatic music, also 
published much music for the violin; 
his theatrical works number 154; was 

Sandys, Edwin, born in Worcester, 
England, 1561 ; wrote fifty psalms and 
hymns, set to be sung in five parts by- 
Robert Tailour, 1615 ; died 1629. 

Sandys, George, born at Bishop- 
thorpe, near York, England, 1577; made 
a translation of the Psalms, which 
Bishop King said "was too elegant to 
be sung or for vulgar use;" came to 
America 1615, and settled in Virginia; 
returned to England ; and died in Kent, 

Sandys, William, of England, wrote 
^'Christmas Carols,'' with music, ^^Fes- 
tivities and Carols," with their music, 
1856 ; a history of the violin, assisted by 
Simon A. Foster, 1863 ; and other works. 

Sanger, Zedekiah, of Dedham, 
Mass., published, 1808, the ''Meridian 
Harmony," 112 pages ; was a music- 
teacher, and was assisted by some of 
the old American composers in pre- 
paring this work. 

Sangerbunde Societies, originated 
in Germany, by G. F. Bischoff. 

Santley, the English barytone, was 
born in Liverpool, and became early 
known as a singer in the societies there 
and in London; in 1866 appeared in 
Italian opera. 



Saro, Heinricii, band-master and 
composer; the possessor of eight first- 
class decorations from rulers in Europe, 
one of which is the " Iron Cross,^' be- 
stowed on all the members of Kaiser 
Franz Garde-Grenadier Prussian Band, 
by Von Moltke, for bravery at the bat- 
tle of Gravelotte ; the band has been led 
by Saro for twelve years ; numbers sixty 
men, nearly all solo-players ; they came 
to this country 1872, and performed at 
the Peace Jubilee, Boston. 

Saroni, Adolph, organist and teach- 
er of music, New York, composed 
orchestral music and an overture which 
were performed in that city 1849. 

Saroni, H. S., was, in 1855, leader of 
the Philharmonic Society, Columbus, 
Ga. ; commenced in New York, 1850, 
the '^Musical Times ; " published ^' Marx 
Theory," and the '' Vade Mecum,'' 1852. 

Sarrette, Bernard, born at Bor- 
deaux, France, Nov. 27, 1765, though 
not known as a musician, was celebrated 
for the great service he rendered the 
musical art ; was the founder and 
earliest director of the Conservatory at 
Paris ; died March, 1858, aged 92. 

Sarrus, M., invented, 1849, a wind 
instrument, intended to take the place 
of the oboe and bassoon in orchestra, 
called the Sarrusophone ; he was a mu- 
sician of the 13th English Regiment. 

Sarti, Giuseppe, imperial chapel- 
master at St. Petersburg, born at Facu- 
sa, 1730; became celebrated by his " Te 
Deum,'' in which he introduced real 
firing of cannon; remained in Russia 
eighteen years, when he went to Milan 
in 1801 ; his compositions are numerous ; 
died at Milan, 1802. 

Satter, Gustav, pianist and com- 
poser, born at Vienna, February, 1831 ; 
became known as a composer 1851 ; com- 
menced travelling and giving concerts 
1852; came to this country in 1854; 
gave concerts in Boston and New York 
1855 ; published here quite a number of 
compositions, and in 1858 completed 
his third opera. 

Saunders, George, teacher of music 
and dancing, wrote a " Violin School,^^ 
Boston, Mass., 1857, and some original 

Saunderson, Dr. Nicholas, pre- 
sented a singular instance of delicacy of 
ear ; could readily distinguish the fifth 
part of a tone ; was celebrated as a 

Saust, Charles, born in Saxony, 

1773; went to England 1800, and be- 
came celebrated as a teacher and per- 
former on the flute there and in Ger- 
many; published much music for his 

Sax Horns, invented by A. Sax, and 
improved by M. Distin of London. 

Saxon Illustrations prove their 
fondness for music, — existing illumina- 
tions used as frontispieces to copies of 
the Psalms, in which David is depicted 
seated upon his throne playing on a 
harp, surrounded by Saxon "gleemen" 
performing on various instruments. 

Saxonians, a musical company, 
came to this country with Kotzschmar, 

Saxony not only had different mu- 
sical instruments, but the people of 
that country delighted in the harp ; and 
**gleemen," or the professed poets and 
musicians, were venerated and courted 
by all ranks and conditions. 

Saxophone, an instrument combin- 
ing the qualities of the alt-horn, clari- 
net, and flute ; it has a mouthpiece like 
the clarinet; the body is a cone of 
brass, and keyed. 

Scalese, Malania p., a contralto 
of much talent, and an excellent buffo- 
singer, died at Paris, May, 1867. 

Scaletta, Orazio, chapel-master of 
St. Anthony's Church at Padua, was 
born at Bergamo. He died of the 
plague, at Padua, in 1630 ; wrote much 

ScANDELLi, Antonio, chapel-master 
to the Elector of Saxony, died at Dres- 
den in 1580; published several col- 
lections of songs at Nuremburg. 

Scarlatti, Allessandro, born at 
Trapani, Sicily, 1659, was the greatest 
harp-player of his day ; became a cele- 
brated composer; improved the over- 
ture, reformed the opera, perfected the 
ohlvjato or accompanied recitative, and 
composed many cantatas ; retained his 
faculties as harpist to advanced age ; 
died 1725. 

Scarlatti, Domenico, son of the 
preceding, born in Naples, 1683, in- 
herited the talents of his father ; became 
master of the Royal Chapel, teacher to 
the queen, and composer for the 
church, opera, and theatre ; died 1751, 
aged 68. 

ScHAUENSEE, F. J. L. M. De, bom 
at Lucerne, Switzerland, 1720; singer, 
composer, and organist; after com- 
posing much music, some operas, and 



other works, became a priest of tlie 
Eoman Catholic Church. 

ScHEBEK, Edmund, one of the Aus- 
trian commissioners to the Paris Exhi- 
bition in 1855, published a work upon 
*' Orchestral Instruments," also a his- 
tory of the violin. 

ScHECHXER, Madame, in her time a 
very celebrated singer ; died at Munich, 
Germany, April, 1860, aged .56. 

ScHEiBE, J. A., chapel-master to the 
King of Denmark; born at Leipsic, 
1708; published a periodical, ^^ The 
Critical Musician ;'^ was a voluminous 
composer, and wrote, in addition to his 
many works, 1.50 pieces of psalmody, 
150 flute concertos, 30 violin concertos, 
70 symphonies, and quantities of other 
music ; died at Copenhagen, 1776. 

SciiEiBEL, Louise, a famous singer. 
See Louisa Abel. 

SciiENCK, brother of Johann, born at 
Wien-Neustadt, in Lower Austria, 1761 ; 
assisted Beethoven in his early lessons ; 
died at Vienna, Dec. 29, 1836, aged 75 ; 
was author of " The Villa[/e Barber." 

ScHEPvR, Emilius, of Philadelphia, 
Penn., invented, 1868, a two -octave 
chime of bells, capable of performing 
tunes and overtures, called the '^Auto- 
matic Carillon." 

Schilling, Dr. Gustavus, born at 
Schwiegerhausen, Hanover, Germany, 
Nov. 3, 1805; a celebrated composer, 
musician, and writer upon music; au- 
thor of a "-Madcal Dictionary " a ''Bio- 
graphical Lexicon" of musicians, and 
other works ; came to New York, 1857, 
with the expectation of publishing in 
this country some of his works, and of 
founding a music-school there or in 
Boston, but did not succeed. 

ScHiNDLER wrote a life of Beethoven 
which was translated into English 1840, 
and went through three editions. 

ScHLEiNiTZ, Herr, director of the 
** Conservatorium," Leipsic, was an ex- 
cellent musician, but gave his time to 
composition and teaching after 1855. 

ScHLiMBACH, G. C. F., author of 
some works concerning organ-building, 

ScHMiD, Anton, trustee of the Court 
Library in Vienna, and author of the 
Biography of Gluck, and other works, 
died there July 4, 1857, aged 71; he 
wrote the life of Hofhaimer, who was 
born 1459. 

Schmidt, Aloys, born at Erlenbach, 
on the Main, 1789, settled at Fraak^ 

fort; was court organist at Hanover; 
returned to Frankfort 1829 ; was an 
artist of good reputation as composer 
and pianist ; wrote many compositions, 
several operas, and two oratorios ; his 
studies and five-finger exercises are 
much used ; died July 26, 1866, aged 77. 

Schmidt, Bernard, went from Ger- 
many to London with two nephews, 
and commenced building organs there ; 
became famous for the excellence of 
his instruments. 

Schmidt, George A., early became 
known as a sound musician ; born at 
Frankfort ; and appointed chapel-master 
at Schwerin 1856. 

Schneckenburger, Max, an iron- 
founder at Burgsdorf, near Bern, pro- 
duced, February, 1840, a poem, " Die 
Wacht am Bhein ;" it was set to music 
by G. Mendel, 1852, but did not then 
attract attention ; in 1854 it was again 
set to music by Carl Wilhelm of Thurin- 
gia ; it became a favorite with the Ger- 
man soldiers, 1865, and was made a 
national song during the war with 
France. The author of the poem died 
Aug. 26, 1849, unknown : the Queen of 
Prussia conferred the dignity of poet- 
laureate on the author by having a 
medal struck to present him when 
found ; this after his death. See Wil- 

Schneider, J. C. F.,.a celebrated 
composer, and writer upon music, born 
at Waltersdorf, near Zittau, Jan. 3, 
1786 ; at the age of twelve was a distin- 
guished pianist, organist, and a per- 
former upon other instruments ; his 
great compositions date after 1813, and 
he owes his fame chiefly to his orato- 
rios; died at Dessau, Nov. 23, 1853, 
aged 67.^- ' \ 

Schoelcher, M. v., presented to 
the Conservatoire of Paris a curious 
collection of musical Instruments, con- 
sisting of forty-nine in number, few of 
which are known in Europe ; they are 
from Arabia, Egypt, Smyrna, Hayti, 
Mexico, Greece, and other parts of the 

Schreitzhoeffer, kettle-drummer 
of the opera at Paris, celebrated as the 
best performer on that instniment ever 
known, died 1852. 

Schroeter, C. G., organist; born at 
Hohenstein, Bohemia, Aug. 10, 1699; 
early travelled through Germany, Hol- 
land, and England; became organist at 
Nordliaus^n ; built_t here a p iano-forte,^ 

lyLw'W ^-(/Yi^i 




the first known in that country; wrote 
many musical works ; and died 1782. His 
instrument, with keys, strings, move- 
ments and hammers, 1717, was such 
that he could play j^icino and forte at 
pleasure; and this suggested the name 
"piano -forte." 

Schubert, Anna, mother of the 
composer Franz Schubert, and a lady 
of musical talent, died at Vienna, Feb- 
ruary, 1800, aged 77. 

Schubert, Ferdinand, brother of 
Franz Schubert, and the composer of 
some church-music; died at Vienna, 
1859, aged 05. 

Schubert, Franz, born at Vienna, 
Jan. 31, 1797; was a singing boy at the 
age of eleven years ; became master of 
the piano-forte and other instruments ; 
early became a composer; wrote much 
and well, was at home in every variety 
of music; died Nov. 19, 1828, aged 31; 
was the great song-writer of Germany. 

Schuetz, Henry, born in Saxony, 
Oct. 8, 1591 ; was termed the father of 
German music; composed the first 
German opera, "Dap/me," 1028; died 

Schuler, Karl, pianist, teacher, and 
composer, came to New York from Ger- 
many, 1873. Author of ''Woodland 
Sketches,'^ in three books, 1874. 


more than half a century orchestra- 
musician at the Kassel Tlieatre, North 
Germany, was in 1874 publicly deco- 
rated with the order of the crown, of 
the fourth degree, in the name of Kaiser 

ScHULz, J. p. C, born at Langen- 
salza, in Thuriugia, 1773 ; a composer, 
and conductor of orchestra, at Leipsic; 
died 1827. 

ScHULZ, Johann a. p., born in Lu- 
neburg, Prussia; was a composer and 
writer of some eminence, and chapel- 
master to the Prince of Prussia ; died at 
Schwedt, 1800. 

Schumann, Clara, born in Leipsic, 
Sept. 13, 1819, wife of the composer; 
formerly celebrated as a pianist, by her 
maiden name of Clara Wieck ; reached 
a high place as an artist in the sphere 
of instrumental music ; became a teacher 
at Leipsic after her husband died. 

ScHUNKE, LuDWiG, pianist and com- 
poser; was associated with Schumann 
in the "iVewe Zeitschrift fur Musik ;^' 
one of the cleverest musicians in Leip- 
sic ;^ died Dec. 7, 1834, aged 24. 

ScnuppANziGn, Ignaz, a celebrated 
violinist; born 1778; was one of the 
musicians at the house of Prince Lich- 
novvsky; died 1830. 

ScHUTZ, Heinrich, born at Kostritz, 
in Voightland, 1.585; went to Venice, 
and remained until 1012, where he pub- 
lished a collection of motets; in 1042 
was music-director to the King of Den- 
mark, and died there 1072, aged 88; 
composed and published many noble 

Scotch Bagpipe, a national instru- 
ment, very popular in the Highland 
districts, and different from the Irish 
bagpipe. It is extremely imperfect in 
all its different kinds, of which there 
are four. 

Scotch Scale of five tones, the pen- 
tatonic scale of Carl Engel, though dif- 
ferent, resembles that in use among the 
ancients, as also in Mexico and Peru at 
the time of their discovery. 

Scotch Tunes. Some give David 
Rizzio the credit of being the inventor 
of this species of music; others say it 
was brought from Rome by John the 

Scott, John James, of London, 
England, pointed the Psalter for chant- 
ing, 1841. 

Scott, M. Leon, of France, in 18.59 
discovered that musical sounds, like the 
light from visual objects, can be col- 
lected by means of scientific apparatus, 
and printed off. 

Scott, T. J., an American missionary, 
residing at Bareily, India, in 1809 pub- 
lished an account of the ''Music of Hin- 

Scott, Thomas, a celebrated Border 
bagpiper from 1733 to 1810; lived at 
Monklaw; Sir Walter Scott says, "he 
was a famous musician; on his death- 
bed, Jan. 27, 1823, in the ninetieth year 
of his life, he desired his son James to 
play one of his favorite tunes, that he 
might be sure the son knew it ; after- 
wards he hummed it over himself, cor- 
recting his son in several parts of it." 

Scottish Harp, an instrument much 
used by the Scotch ; it was introduced 
from Ireland ; and many of the High- 
land harpers became celebrated per- 

Scottish Harpers were generally 
composers ; and they acquired great pro- 
ficiency in the use of the harp, and, as 
performers, were little if at all inferior 
to the Irish and Welsh. 

cr\^ , 



Scottish Music. The Scotch scale, 
being different from that of other na- 
tions, gives a peculiarity to their music. 
This people were celebrated for their 
compositions, and as performers upon 
the harp and the bagpipe; they omit 
the chromatic degrees. The Scots have 
been, from the beginning of their his- 
tory, celebrated for musical genius ; the 
Scottish minstrels were much superior 
to the English ; their music is peculiar, 
and has commanded high esteem ; there 
is much beavity and simplicity in their 
melodies ; and their scale resembles the 
enharmonic of the Greeks, used by the 
Egyptians and other Eastern nations, 
but is not the same. 

ScKiBE, Eugene, born at Paris, 1791 ; 
a most prolific and successful dramatic 
writer; was associated with Auber, 
Donizetti, Halevy, Meyerbeer, and Ver- 
di; was author of 300 vaudevilles, 100 
comedies, and 100 operas ; also of comic 
operas, ballets, dramas, and novels; 
died in Paris, 1861, aged 70. 

ScROFF, a composer and critic, some- 
what noted in Russia for his writings, 
composed two or three operas; died 
1871 ; his works are of a national char- 

Scull, Benjamin F., author of sev- 
eral musical compositions, sacred and 
secular; died at Little Rock, Ark., 1869. 

Sea Shells. An instrument made 
from sea-shells was invented by Mr. 
Freberhuyser, of Albany, N.Y., 1840; it 
is so contrived with keys and valves as 
to be capable of being used in con- 

Sebastiani, Claudius, organist at 
Metz, published in 1.553 a singular work, 
entitled "Bellum musicale, inter plani et 
mensuralis canius reges, de principatu 
in musicce provinclce obtinendo conten- 

Sebastiani, di Albano, P. L., an 
Italian ecclesiastic and musical writer, 
died at Rome in 1809; published, 1789, 
^^Elements of the Theory of Music, ^^ and 
at Venice in 1802, 'Mn Easy and Sure 
Method of Composing Fugues J^ 

Secular Music in parts, 1185, is 
earlier found among the English annals 
than in any other records existing; that 
country was renowned for music before 
German genius suspected its own riches. 

Sechter, Simon, one of the learned 
contrapuntists of this century, enjoyed 
much reputation as a teacher and com- 
poser; his works number eighty; was 

court-organist and professor at the Vi- 
enna Conservatory ; died October, 1867, 
aged 79. 

Seguin, Arthur Edward Sheldon, 
born in London, 1808; having gained 
the honors of the Academy, appeared, 
1831, at the Queen's Theatre; became a 
popular favorite at the Opera House; 
came to this country 1838, and appeared 
in New York; subsequently visited the 
principal cities of the United States; 
died at New York, Dec. 11, 1852, aged 44. 

Seguin, Elizabeth, Baroness Boy- 
eska, born in London, 1815; became 
famous as a singer before appearing in 
opera; married Baron Boyeska, 1838, 
from whose estate came the name Pa- 
repa ; her husband dying, she began her 
public career as a singer, 1841, appearing 
in Italy, Spain, and other countries; 
was the mother of Parepa-Rosa ; died in 
London, 1870, aged 55. 

Seguin, Mrs., a London, England, 
singer, known as Miss Childe, came 
with her husband to this country, 1838 ; 
was thoroughly educated, and made de- 
cided improvement in the States; left 
the stage 1852, and has since been a 
music-teacher in New York. 

Seguin, Zelda, contralto ; known as 
an opera-singer throughout the States. 

Seidenburg, Madame, who gave 
concerts with Ole Bull, in Europe, in 
1852, came to New York for the Sontag 
opera there. 

Seiler, Emma, born in Germany; 
came to this country, and settled in 
Philadelphia, Penn., as a teacher of 
music; published there, in 1869, '^ The 
Voice in Singing ^ 

Selby, organist and composer, Bos- 
ton, Mass., 1780; performed at King's 
Chapel, April 23, 1782; at the oratorio 
concert when George Washington vis- 
ited Boston, Oct. 27, 1789 ; composed an 
original anthem for this occasion ; at a 
benefit-concert, 1772, had performed a 
portion of an opera, and an anthem in 
22 parts ; was assisted, at his concerts, 
by the band of his Majesty's 64th Regi- 

Seling, Hans, born at Prague, 1829 ; 
possessing remarkable talent as a pian- 
ist and composer, became celebrated at 
Paris, France, 1861; died at Prague, 
May, 1862, aged 33. 

Semicon, an ancient musical instru- 
ment of the harp family, having thirty- 
five strings. 

Sennefelder, a chorister of Munich, 




who copied music for a living ; in order 
to lighten the labor he was forced to 
undergo, finally invented lithography; 
twenty years after the invention, he 
published an account of the process; 
and his method is still used to some 
extent in Germany. 

Sekingiii, a Hindoo instrument of 
the violin genus, with three wire strings, 
played with a bow. 

Sermiento, Salvator, director of 
the Neapolitan Chapel Royal, and an 
operatic composer of note, died July, 
1869, aged 50. 

Seroff, born in Russia, wrote much 
national music ; he cultivated music as 
a recreation ; was a critical writer, and 
published many articles in the " Journal 
de St. Petersburg; ^^ died 1871. 

Serpent, a wind-instrument deriving 
its name from its form, and formerly 
much used in military bands. 

Servais, AdriEN F., born at Hal, 
near Brussels, June 7, 1807 ; was one of 
the most notable violoncellists of his 
time; in 1835 went to London, where 
he also became celebrated as a com- 
poser; in 1836 went to Paris; gave con- 
certs through Germany, and went to St. 
Petersburg 1839 ; in 1843 made an ex- 
tended concert-tour; and in 1848 was 
appointed professor at the Brussels Con- 
servatory; died at Hal Nov. 26, 1866, 
aged 59, the possessor of many decora- 

Severin, John, a Scandinavian com- 
poser, whose symphonic works have 
been introduced in this country by 
Theodore Thomas, has acquired fame 
in'Germany as a writer of symphonies. 

Sewall, Frank, published at Phila- 
delphia, Penn., 1867, ''^Ilymns with 
Tunes,^^ for the service of the church. 

Seward, Louis, music-teacher, San 
Francisco, Cal., 1873, invented " The 
Objective 3fusical Instructor,^ ^ involving 
the use of movable notes ; it consists of 
a long white board, painted with black 
lines to represent the musical staff, and 
arranged for the use of movable notes. 
On an easel affixed to the wall, or sus- 
pended from the ceiling, is any required 
length of this objective staff. Sunk into 
it are numerous longitudinal grooves, 
imperceptible at a distance. A box filled 
with notes of all kinds and value, the 
various clefs, an assortment of sharps 
and flats, rests, bars, dots, &c., is at 
hand. Each note is cast of rubber, 
metal, or is of wood painted black, 

some two or three inches in length, and 
fitted with a staple which slides into 
the longitudinal groove before men-^' 
tioned ; and a note, any note, any dot, 
any rest, any character of music, is 
hung anywhere on the board |n a 
twinkling. Leger-Iines are pr(>vided, 
and fit in their respective grooves, 
either below or above the sta^ 

Seward, Theodore F\, born in 
Florida, Orange Co., N.Y., Jan. 25, 1835; 
teacher and composer; has published 
several collections of music since 1860, 
assisted by Lowell Mason and William 
B. Bradbury, New York. 

Shalishim, a Syrian instrument like 
the triangle; the rods charged with 

Sharland, J. B., a well-known 
teacher of music, Boston, Mass., has 
published a '■'■School Chorus Book,'''' and 
some other works, and written some 
clever compositions. 

Sharp, Simeon, of London, England, 
wrote '■'Music, a Satire,''^ 1824. 

SiiARPE, Charles K., an accom- 
plished musical amateur of Edinburgh, 
published, 1839, the musical works of 
Lord Kelly with a portrait and notes; 
died October, 1851, aged 71. 

Shaw, O. J., son of Oliver, in 1851 
became very popular as a teacher and 
composer at Utica, N.Y. ; published 
several hundreds of his compositions; 
died July, 1861. 

Shaw, Oliver, born in Middlebor- 
ough, Mass., 1779; became blind, but 
continued to practise and compose 
music during life; was one of the first 
members of the Handel and Haydn 
Society, Boston ; taught music, formed 
a society in Providence, R.L, of which 
he was president twenty-five years ; 
wrote many beautiful songs, and much 
music for the church; died at Provi- 
dence, Dec. 31, 1848, aged 09. 

Shawm, a Hebrew instrument similar 
to the horn. 

Sheale, Richard, an English min- 
strel, was the preserver of the heroic 
ballad of "■Chevy Chase;'''' he was robbed 
of his money on Dunsmore Heath, but 
escaped to sing for the last time this 
favorite ballad to a printer. 

Shell. The first ancient in strument 
known; second, the ram's horn; third, 
an oaten straw, avena. 

Shelton, C.T., of New Haven, Conn., 
in 1873 had constructed an '■'■Electro- 
Music Reporter j' which applies electri- 



city to musical instruments, for the 
purpose of recording the inspirations of 
genius in musical composition. The 
recording apparatus is similar to that 
used in Morse's telegraph. 

SnEPARD, ANNE,"born in Cowes, Isle 
of Wight; wrote '^Around the Throne of 
God in Heaven ; " died 1857. 

Shepakd, Thomas, was an English 
clergyman, born at Towcaster, near 
Northampton, 1G05 ; became a Noncon- 
formist, and was consequently obliged 
to emigrate to New England, 1634 ; was 
settled at Cambridge, Mass., where he 
died Aug. 25, l(i49, aged 44 years. 

SiiEPiiEKD, William, musician, of 
Bristo, Scotland, in 1796, with Nathaniel 
Gow, carried on music-selling in Edin- 
burgh, and published two collections of 
dance-music of his own composition; 
died Jan. 19, 1812. 

Sherman, Rollin H., born in Weth- 
ersfield, Yt., March 10, 1832; teacher of 
music; published a ^'Musical Cate- 
chism,^^ and ^"Mechanical Exercises^^ for 
the piano-forte, 1859. 

Sherwin, William Fisk, born in 
c^. Ashfie ld, Franlilin Co., Mass., March 14, 
" 1826; a well-known teacher and com- 
poser ; also a popular conductor of con- 

Sherwood, E. H., solo-pianist, and 
author of many popular musical com- 
positions, became principal of the To- 
wanda, Penn., Musical Institute, 1873. 

Shield, William, born at Smalwell, 
1754 ; became very celebrated as a com- 
poser ; was a viola-player at Covent Gar- 
den, London, eighteen years ; he then 
visited Italy and France, returning in 
1792, and became master of musicians ; 
his works are very numerous ; died in 
London, Jan. 25, 1829. Late as he ap- 
peared, he struck out for himself a 
style of writing, pure, chaste, and 
original. His ^^Introduction to Ilar- 
mony,^^ a volume of glees, and a work 
on thorough-bass, are yet popular. 

Shophar, a silver trumpet made by 
the order of Moses; also made of a 
bent horn. 

Shore, Miss, an English singer of 
note ; daughter of the king's trumpeter ; 
a favorite joupil of Purcell. 

Short Hand, or abbreviated nota- 
tion, was first used by the immortal 
Handel, as his rapid imagination could 
not stop to lorite out its fluent fancies 
by the ordinary method; the idea has 
been useful to composer and copyist. 

Shindler, Mary S. B., born at 
Beaufort, S. C. ; author of '* Southern 
Harp,^^ '■^Northern Harp,'''' and many 
songs for piano-forte and guitar: her 
works, some of them, were written in 
the name of Mary S. B. Dana. 

Shultze, William, came to Boston, 
Mass., with the Germania Musical So- 
ciety as leader, 1848; it was the best 
band that had ever visited that city, and 
was directed by Carl Bergmann ; since 
connected with the Mendelssohn Quin- 
tette Club. 

Shumway, Nehemiah, of Phila- 
delphia, Penn., published, 1801, " The 
American Harmony, ^^ a book of two 
hundred and twenty pages, with a con- 
cise singers' manual ; some of the tunes 
and anthems were of his composition. 

Shuster, Joseph, a German com- 
poser, born at Dresden, 1748; was di- 
rector at the chapel and opera; pub- 
lished a large number of compositions, 
and died 1S\2. 

Shute, George, a well-known violin- 
ist and composer, died at Chicago, 111., 
May, 1856; was at the time with the 
Campbell troupe. 

Siamese Music. The Siamese have 
several rude instruments; the leading 
one resembling the hautboy, one the 
piano-forte, and several that are in- 
tended to represent other of the mod- 
ern instruments. 

Siccuma, Abel, B. A., of London, 
1836, invented the ''Diatonic Flute,'' in 
which E and G are fingered with a key 
instead of from a hole : thus the tones 
are equalized throughout the instru- 

SiEBER, Madame, widow of the 
celebrated publisher, and mother of 
the composer, died in Paris, 1852, aged 

Side Drum, a common military 

SiEDLER, Caroline, a celebrated 
vocalist, who sang in the first perform- 
ance of '' Der FreischUtz,'' died 1872. 

Siegert, born at Ernsdorf, May, 
1789; became a singer at the Breslau 
Theatre, in opera; began to compose 
music in 1816; in 1847, became royal 
music-director; his compositions were 
few, but were excellent. 

SiLCHER, F., a well-known composer 
of songs, some of which enjoy immense 
popularity in Germany, died September, 

Silk Strings for bow-instrumenta 



were used by the Hindoos, Chinese, 
Arabs, and other nations, before they 
were introduced in Europe. 

SiME, D., compiled the ^^ Edinburgh 
Musical Miscellany,^* a collection of 
songs, and some other musical works, 

SiMMS (brothers), Bishop, James, 
Edward, Ashburn, Oakover, Samuel, 
and Henry, all musicians, for some 
time travelled with their father, mother, 
and two sisters, giving concerts. Their 
compositions, sacred and secular, are 

SIMMS, John, a native of Strafford- 
shire, England, was a self-taught manu- 
facturer of instruments, a performer 
on the organ and violin, and a tuner 
and repairer. Married a wife who was 
a good musician, and had a family of 
eight sons and two daughters, all musi- 

Simon, Leonard Fitz, was the first 
stipendiary organist mentioned in Eng- 
land; was organist of Trinity College, 
Oxford, 1580, at a salary of 20s. a year. 

Simon, Jules, a writer on music, 
connected with '■'■ V Orpheon,''* died in 
Paris, 1869; is not to be confounded 
with the political economist. 

Simple Madrigals long antedated 
the opera, and were for voices only. 

Simpson. C. Florence, born in Mil- 
waukee, Wis., 1809; could play melo- 
dies which she had heard, upon the 
piano-forte, at the age of three years; 
will play a correct bass to any of the 
melodies she hears. 

Simpson, Christopher, an eminent 
English musician, born 1010; was a 
performer on instruments, but chiefly 
celebrated for his many works upon the 
subject of music; in his '■'■Compendium 
of Practical Music,'*'' he first applies the 
term ^^ degrees** to the lines and spaces, 

Simpson, Daniel, drummer for the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany of Boston, Mass , played for sixty- 
three years without missing a parade; 
the fifer, Si. Smith, played with Simp- 
son fifty-eight years ; the latter died in 

Simrock, a music-publisher of Bonn, 
whose name has been remarked on so 
much foreign music, died Dec. 13, 1808, 
aged 76. 

SiNA, a member of the Schuppan- 
zigh Quartet at Vienna during the 
lifetime of Beethoven; received from 

Paganlni the present of a violin and 
gold snuff-box, on which was a portrait 
of the great violinist ; died at Boulogne, 
France, 1859. 

Sinclair, John, born near Edin- 
burgh, 1790, became a singer at the Lon- 
don theatres, 1810; went to Paris 1819, 
and to Italy 1821 ; had an opera writ- 
ten for him by Rossini ; after singing in 
all the principal countries of Europe, 
came to this country 1830, and for 
some time gave concerts here; died in 
London, Sept. 22, 1857. His daughter 
married Edwin Forrest the tragedian, 
and appeared soon after in London. 

Sing and Fiddle. When the bass- 
viol, or " big fiddle," as it was called, 
was introduced into church, the holy 
men and the clergy opposed it, on the 
groimd that tlie human voice was the 
divinest of all instruments ; but the 
singers introduced the viol, and the 
minister rose and said, "The brethren 
will, if they please, sing and fiddle the 
Thirty-ninth Psalm." 

Singer, Otto, born in Dresden, Ger- 
many, 1835 ; became conductor of opera 
there; came to this country 1808, and 
settled in New York as a music-teacher; 
was drill-master for the chorus at the 
Cincinnati Festival, May, 1873, and is 
known as a composer. 

Singing in the churches of Scotland 
occupies an important place; generally 
there is no organ or instrumental music, 
except in some of the city churches, 
and the singing is performed by the 
whole congregation seated ; the music 
is such as was used in 1050 to 1781; 
and these tunes have been sung from 
age to age in public and in family wor- 

Singing at Sight. Affilard, 1700. 
Paris, France. 

Singing by Note, when first intro- 
duced, was met by the following objec- 
tions : It was a new way, an unknown 
tongue, not so melodious as the old 
way ; it caused good men to be disor- 
derly ; was popish; would cause the use 
of instruments ; was blasphemous ; was 
only a contrivance to get money ; and 
kept young people from the proper influ- 
ence of the family. 

Singing from Notes. This art was 
known in 1523, as Pietro Aaron, of 
Florence, gives a list of such extraordi- 
nanj performers as were able to sing 
from notes at that time. 

Singing in Public Worship was 



partially discontinued during the times 
of persecution, and consequently was 
so badly performed when attempted, 
that people of culture formed a distaste 
for it ; and hence arose the controversy 
whether singing was a Christian duty 
to be observed. 

Singing-Master's Assistant; or. 
Key to Practical Music; engraved by 
Benjamin Pierpont, June, 1778, 104 
pages; published in Boston, Mass., by 
Draper & Folsom. 

Singing Societies were formed in 
this country as early as 1720. 

Sirens. Sea-nymphs who enchanted 
the listeners to their songs ; but Orpheus 
surpassed them in singing, and they 
became rocks: they had also been 
beaten in a musical contest with the 

SiRMEN, LuDOVico, chapcl-mastcr 
at Bergamo: six violin trios of his 
composition were published at Paris in 


a celebrated female singer, violinist, and 
composer; in 1782 she was principal 
singer at the court of Dresden; visited 
England and Paris, where her perform- 
ances were highly applauded. She com- 
posed much violin music, a great part 
of which was published at Amster- 

SiSTRA, a class of brass instruments 
made in various forms, with rings upon 
bars, held upright and shaken. 

SiSTRUM, a brass or silver hoop fixed 
to the top of a long metal rod ; across 
the hoop were stretched three metal 
rods, passing through holes, on which 
hung many rings; and a slight shake 
produced a musical jingle of all. 

SivoRi, Camillo, born in Genoa, 
June 6, 1817; became celebrated as a 
violinist, and made the tour of France 
and England when ten years old; re- 
ceived the present of a violin from 
Paganini; came to America in 1846, 
and performed with Herz the pianist 
in many large cities, and then went to 

Skeffington, T. C, author of the 
^^ Handy Book of Musical Art,'' Lon- 
don, England, 1858; wrote also some 

Skeleton Automaton. A figure 
having the shape of a liuman skeleton 
was constructed in the 17th century, by 
one Alix, which, by means of concealed 
mechanism, played upon the guitar, 

moving its wooden fingers as if exe- 
cuting the music. 

Skeleton Guitarist, automaton, 
invented by Alix, in Provence, 1650. 

Skene, John, of Hallyards, was the 
original proprietor or compiler of the 
famous '* Skene Manuscript,'' 105 
tunes, 1620; died 1644. 

Skene, Robert, author of " The Coji- 
cordia," a collection of sacred music, 
with choice and original tunes, Louis- 
ville, Ky., 1861 ; 415 pp. 

Slatyr, William, in the sixteenth 
century published a collection of 
" Christmas Carols." 

Slavic Music of Russia. The old- 
est records of the Slaves refer to their 
love of music, and to the plaintive melo- 
dies with which they lulled themselves 
to sleep in their camps of war. " Wher- 
ever a Slavic woman is," says a Russian 
writer, " there is also song." Their 
ballads tell of lovers and of heroes ; and 
the same story and music may have 
charmed their ancestors for genera- 
tions, yet the words and airs have never 
been committed to writing. 

Sloman, Jane, published in New 
York, 1850, " The Melodist," for the use 
of female seminaries; the work con- 
tains a number of the compositions of 
this lady. 

Smart, Sir George, born in Lon- 
don, Eng , May 10, 1776; was present at 
the Handelian Commemorations of 1784, 
1785, 1786, and 1791; he directed the 
music at the coronation of William IV. 
and Queen Victoria; in 1811 he was 
knighted ; he was one of the founders 
of the London Philharmonic Society in 
1813; the renowned composer. Von 
Weber, died in his house in 1826; in 
1827 he was chairman of the banquet 
to the celebrated pianist and composer, 
Clementi, the teacher of Meyerbeer ; in 
1836 he conducted the Manchester Fes- 
tival, during the progress of which 
Malibran died; he gave lessons both 
upon the piano-forte and in singing, but 
had the greatest repute in the latter; 
among his pupils were Sontag and Jenny 
Lind ; he continued giving instructions 
till he was 80; and in 1867, at the age of 
91, full of well-earned honors, passed 
away from the scene of his labors. 

Smidt, a. L. C, born in Brunswick, 
Germany, 1770 ; was a celebrated violin- 
maker; down to the time of his death, 
for more than thirty years, he con- 
structed, on the average, one a week, 



with his own hands; his instruments 
were prized by German orchestras for 
evenness of tone ; died March 26, 1835, 
aged 65. 

Smith, Benjamin, born in Needham, 
Mass., 1764, entered tlie army as a fifer 
at the age of 16, and played that instru- 
ment until the close of the war, when 
he settled at Grafton. 

Smith, Charles, born in London, 
1786; was remarkable as a child on 
account of his ability to sing and play; 
performed much in public; became a 
concert-singer, and travelled more or 
less for some years, and became famous 
as a composer; wrote much for the 
London theatres; sang in oratorios; 
married in 1815, and accepted a lucra- 
tive situation in Liverpool. 

Smith, Dexter, born in Peabody, 
Mass., Nov._ 14, 1839; poet, musician, 
and composer; has written many popu- 
lar songs, both words and music, but is 
more known as a poet, and editor of 
musical publications ; is now the editor 
and proprietor of '^Dexter SmlWs 
Paper, ^^ IBoston, Mass. 

Smith, Dr. William, born in Scot- 
land, 1754; came to this country 1785; 
published a ^' Book of Chants,^' called 
the Churchman's Choral Companion, 
1809 ; introduced chanting and singing of 
anthems in America at New York, 1813 ; 
built several small organs, which had 
wooden pipes made of cedar, ranging 
about four octaves ; died in New York, 
April 6, 1821, aged 69. 

Smith, Geo. D., born at Wayne, 
Maine, Dec. 20, 1834; has been a 
teacher of the piano-forte and har- 
mony, at Rockland, since 1856; author 
of some church music. 

Smith, George, of London, England, 
published, 1860, his lectures on church 

Smith, Henry, published, 1841, at 
Chambersburg, Penn., " The Church 
Harmony, ^^ 304 pages, also a " Musical 

Smith, Henry, a singer, in London, 
England, 1846, became famous as an 
imitator of Henry Russell, drawing full 
houses by singing the songs of that 
celebrated ballad-writer; so great was 
the desire to patronize this poor but 
talented artist, that Russell found it 
necessary to procure an injunction of 

Smith, J. Wesley, bom in Durham, 
C(mn. ; connected with music from 

childhood; became well known as a 
counter-tenor singer and excellent 
flutist, while with the " Smith Family,'" 
— father, mother, four sons, and 
three daughters, — afterwards known 
as ^^JEolian Minstrels" and ^^ American 
Vocalists ;" Mr. Smith was the origi- 
nator of the continental companies in 
the costume of the patriots of 1776. 

Smith, Jerome, a well known band- 
master of Sakm, Mass., died Nov. 7, 

Smith, John, of Dublin, Ireland, 
published a " Treatise on the Theory 
and Practice of Music," 1853. 

Smith, Josiah, of Lexington, Mass., 
commenced playing the fife in public 
at the age of eleven years, and was still 
a fifer at the age of 68; has always been 
connected with some band; died 1875. 

Smith, Mrs. H. M., a well-known 
Boston vocalist, was born in Wethers- 
field, Vt., and became known as a singer 
when Miss Greenwood ; since her mar- 
riage has resided in Boston. 

Smith, Mrs. M. F. H., published some 
music at New York, 1867; also the 
" Sparkling Stream," and " Temperance 

Smith, Robert Archibald, born at 
Reading, Nov. 18, 1780; in 1812 went to 
Edinburgh, as teacher of music; pub- 
lished the " Scottish Minstrel," 1821, 
and various other works ; wrote many 
melodies and songs ; died at Edinburgh, 
Jan. 3, 1829, aged 49. 

Smith, Thomas F., of London, pub- 
lished '' The Devout Chorister " and 
other musical works, 1849. 

Smith, William, of Philadelphia, 
Penn., 1798, assisted William Little in 
publishing " The Ea^ Instructor; " was 
a teacher of music. 

Snegasius, Cyriacus, published at 
Oxford, in 1590, a tract upon harmonics, 
or the use of the monochord, an instru- 
ment for measuring and ascertaining 
the proportions of sounds by a single 

Snyder, William B., and W. L. 
Chapell, of Cincinnati, O., pub- 
lished, 1831, '* The Western Lyre," 184 
pages, to which was added a supple- 
ment, in 1835, of 40 pages. 

SoBOLEWSKi, Edward, born in Ko- 
nigsberg, Prussia, Oct. 1, 1804; con- 
ductor of music at Konigsberg, Prussia, 
and at Bremen; came to this country 
1859, and settled in Milwaukee, Wis., 
where he produced a musical drama. 



*' Mohega;^^ died at St. Louis, July, 

SoBOLEWSKi, Miss, a concert-singer, 
daughter of Edward, came to America 
with a European reputation as an artist, 
and appeared in opera, 1860. 

SociETE DEs Concerts, founded at 
Paris, France, Feb. 15, 1828; gives ten 
or more concerts annually. 

Society of British Musicians, 
formed 1834, and consisted of three 
hundred professional members. 

SoDi, a Parisian harpist and dramatic 
composer, brought out several operettas 
at the Theatre Italienne, between the 
years 1753 and 1760. 

SoECK Pipe ; same as the bagpipe. 

Soerensen, Johann, was born at 
Holstein in 1767; published much ad- 
mired vocal music, in the North of Ger- 
many, since the year 1796. 

Sola, Charles M. A, born at Turin, 
1786 ; was flutist at the theatre ; volun- 
teered as musician in the army for four 
years; wrote an opera 1816; went to 
London, and became known by his com- 
positions, vocal and instrumental. 

Solemn Feasts, called Adonia, were 
celebrated with musical lamentations, 
and date back to the days of Moses, 
and the slaughter of the first-born. 

Solo Singing was unknown, even 
up to the sixteenth century. All the 
speeches of single characters were sung 
in the form of madrigals by persons be- 
hind the scenes. There was a curious 
play of this period, wherein a servant 
accidentally pulls the spigot out of a 
wine-cask, and lets the liquor out. The 
master and servant grope on the floor, 
berating each other in five-part har- 
mony, until the unlucky spigot is found. 
It was toward the middle of the six- 
teenth century that a composer con- 
ceived the idea of giving the highest 
part of a madrigal to be sung by a single 
voice, and the other parts to be per- 
.formed on instruments. But this was 
not like the aria system of the present 
day. The melody had no beauty of its 
own disjoined from the accompaniment. 

Somerset, Lord, invented, 1649, a 
violin with eight strings, which in the 
hands of a master produced grand 

SoNTAG, Henrietta, born at Cob- 
lentz. May 13, 1805 ; made her debut at 
Darmstadt, in opera, at the age of six 
years ; became famous in Europe ; mar- 
ried, and retired from the stage for nearly 

twenty years, when she returned, and, 
after a brilliant success in Paris, Lon- 
don, &c., came to the United States, 
1852; after giving concerts in the prin- 
cipal cities, she went to Mexico, and 
died in that city June 18; 1854. J y 

Sound. A locomotive whistle can be / 
heard 3,300 yards, or nearly two miles ; 
the noise of the railway train, 2,800 
yards ; the bark of a dog, or the report 
of a musket, 1,000 yards; the roll of a 
drum, 1,600 yards; the human voice 
1,000 yards. If interrupted by obstacles 
of sufficient extent and regularity, sound 
is reflected, and produces an echo. 

Southard, L. H., of Boston, Mass., be- 
came known 1846, as an organist, pianist, 
and director of music; soon after, as 
a composer, and publisher of music- 
books; produced two or three operas, 
and in 1855 *'J. New Course of Har- 
mony,^^ and other works; has received 
the degree of doctor of music. 

South Sea Islanders. They use 
bamboo flutes having only two holes, 
giving four tones : they blow them from 
the nostrils. Dancers keep time by 
snapping the fingers. 

Southwell, William, of Dublin, in 
1800 increased the dimensions of the 
piano-forte "sounding-board," and in- 
vented the damper since in general use. 

Spagnoletti, Pietro, born at Cre- 
mona, 1768; after visiting all Italy went 
to London, a violinist; one of the foun- 
ders of the Philharmonic Society, 1813, 
and was leader of the orchestra at the 
King's Theatre; died Sept. 14, 1834. 

Spanish Music. This people delight 
in romance; their music is pleasing, 
especially their serenades and dance- 
music. The guitar is generally used to 
accompany the voice. 

Speaight, James G., was born in 
London, England, 1866; was bright, 
vivacious, and possessed of such won- 
derful powers as a musician that he had 
been exhibited as a child violinist ; came 
to this country with his father 1872; 
Was then able to play solos with pre- 
cision and skill, and had conducted an 
orchestra many times; died in Boston, 
Mass., Jan. 10, 1874. 

Speaking-Machine, invented by M. 
Faber of Freiburg ; capable of singing. 

Spectacle, or Eye-Glass Notes, 
are those called brillen-bassen, struck in 
rapidly reiterated quarter-notes. 

Spencer, Charles C, Mus. Doc, 
London, England, wrote several musical 



works of value, on composition, playing 
the piano-forte, and the theory of music, 
from 1840 to 1850. 

Spezia, Maria, a prima donna at La 
Scala, made her appearance in London, 

Spinet, a stringed instrument for- 
merly much in use, somewhat like the 

Spiritual Madrigals were origin- 
ally adapted to sacred words, and the 
music resembled that written for the 
church; tliey were written for voices 

Spofforth, Reginald, born at South- 
well, England, 1769; in 1793 received 
the prize from the Catch Club, London; 
in 1797 wrote for Covent Garden; in 
1797 directed the Bowman's Lodge So- 
ciety, and commenced teaching music; 
wrote a large number of glees; died 
September, 1827, aged 57. 

Spontini, Gaspard, born at Jesi, 
in the Roman states, Nov. 14, 1778; 
began to compose at the age of seven- 
teen years ; wrote some fifteen success- 
ful operas for the Italian theatres, and 
went to Paris 1804, where he continued 
to compose for the academy many 
years ; died in Majolati, near Jesi, Feb. 
24, 1851. p 

Spoiir,|Ludwig] Louis, concert-mas- 
ter, violinTst, and' composer; born at 
Brunswick, April 5, 1784 ; at the age of 
thirteen years was a musician in Chapel 
Royal at Brunswick ; became celebrated 
in Saxony and Prussia; went to Eng- 
land 1820 ; was not only a great violinist, 
but a composer of religious, dramatic, 
vocal, and instrumental music; cele- 
brated for his operas and his " Violin 
School;^' died at Btt tn o wick , Oct. 22, 
1859. C^Uo^<A^ 

Sporle, celebrated in London, Eng- 
land, as a dinner-singer, and as a com- 
poser of ballad-music ; died March, 1853. 

Stade, Franz, first violin, 1760, in 
the chapel of the Landgrave of Hesse- 
Cassel ; much of his violin-music was 
published at Paris, 1780. 

Stafford, W. C, of London, Eng- 
land, wrote and published a valuable 
*^ History of Music,'' one small volume. 

Staggins, Nicholas, became com- 
poser to Charles II. ; admitted to the 
degree of doctor in music, 1644; com- 
posed some music. 

Stainer, or Steiner, Jacob, bom at 
Absom, 1620; a violin-maker whose in- 
Btruments, after his deatl , were highly 

valued ; most of his violins were dated 
from 1650 to 1667. See Amati and 

Stamaty, M. Camille, celebrated 
in France as a pianist, composer, and 
teacher; was the son of the French 
consul ; died at Paris, April, 1870. 

Stammers, Joseph, seventy years of 
age, an Englishman, composed the 
stirring hymn, " Breast the wave, Chris- 

Standbridge, John C. B., a native 
of Birmingham, England, came to this 
country in childhood; became an organ- 
ist and composer, and finally an organ- 
builder, taking rank with the best in the 
country; he made Philadelphia, Penn., 
his home, and died there Dec. 14, 1871, 
aged 70. 

Standbridge, J. H. C.,,son of the 
organ-builder, of Philadelphia, Penn., 
with W. H. W. Darley, published 1844 
'^Cantus Ecclesice," a collection of music 
highly esteemed. 

Standing up to sing is of ancient 
origin; the Bible informs us that the 
singers and musicians stood when they 
performed in the temple service, and so 
did the people ; the Puritans performed 
their singing standing; it was their 
highest devotional act. 

Stanley, John, born 1713; became 
blind at the age of two years ; became 
organist at St. Andrews, 1726, and was 
remarkable for his voluntaries ; was 
master of the king's band, superin- 
tended the oratorio performances, and 
composed several works; died May 20, 
1786, aged 73. 

Starbird, Anna, in 1873 organized a 
concert company, and travelled through 
the States, British Provinces, and Can- 

Star-Spangled Banner, written 
by F. S. Key, 1814; the words were 
adapted to English music by F. Durang, 
of Baltimore, Md. ; the song was first 
printed by B. Ides of Baltimore, and 
first sung by F. Durang, at Baltimore, 
in a house near the Holiday Theatre. 

States, Agatha, born in Dublin, 
Ireland, 1841 ; came to San Francisco, 
Cal., with her parents when young; 
became known as principal vocalist of 
the Alleghanians ; married Sig. Orlan- 
dini; sang in most of the Italian cities, 
and in opera at New York 1868 ; made 
several starring tours in the United 
States, Mexico, South America, and 
Australia; returned to California 1873; 



and died at New York, Sept. 4, 1874, aged 
33, leaving one son and one daughter. 

Staudigl, Joseph, born at Wollen- 
dorf , in Lower Austria, April 14, 1807 ; 
early became celebrated as a German 
basso ; his voice was powerful and ex- 
tensive ; excelled as an oratorio-singer 
more than in opera ; became hopelessly- 
insane, and died March 28, 1861. 

Steam Organ invented by James 
Burkett, Ovingham, England, 1835. See 
BuRKETT, also Stoddard. 

Steffani, Agostino, born at Cas- 
tello-Franco, in the territory of Venice, 
1655 ; became celebrated as a musician, 
singer, and composer ; was president of 
the Academy of Ancient Music, London, 
1724 ; died at Frankfort, 1730. 

Steffy, Hans, published at Winches- 
ter, Va., 1839, ''The Valley Harmonist;' 
168 pages ; an appendix was added, 1840, 
of 50 pages. 

Steibelt, Daniel, born at Berlin, 
1755 ; became celebrated as a manufac- 
turer of piano-fortes ; resided in London 
and in Paris; was a good performer 
and composer; in 1799 became chapel- 
master; and died at St. Petersburg, 
in 1823, where he had produced some 

Steinway, Henry, born in the Duchy 
of Brunswick, Germany, Feb. 15, 1797 ; 
in early boyhood made musical instru- 
ments for his own use, and when young 
learned the organ factory business; in 
1849 sent his son Charles to this country 
to investigate the prospect of piano- 
making; in 1850 the family came and 
settled in New York, where he and four 
sons, in 1853, became known as piano- 
forte manufacturers, under the firm 
name of Steinway & Sons. Henry, jun., 
died March 11, 1865; Charles died in 
Brunswick, March 31, 1865, of typhoid 
fever ; and Theodore, who had remained 
in the German house, came to the firm 
in this country soon after ; Henry, liead 
of the house, died in New York, Feb. 7, 
1871, aged 74. 

Stenhouse, W., brought out an ex- 
tensive and very valuable work at Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, ''Illustrations of Lyric 
Poetry and Music of Scotland^' royal 

Step and Half-Step. Terms intro- 
duced by professors of psalmody, in place 
of **tone" and ''semitone," on the sup- 
position that the scale is a ladder, or col- 
lection of steps. 

Sternhold, Thomas, an officer of 

Edward VL, born in Hampshire, Eng- 
land, 1480; is chiefly known as con- 
nected with J. Hopkins in collecting 
"The Whole Book of Psalms'' into Eng- 
lish metre, under the title of Sternhold 
& Hopkins, which, with the music " to 
sing them withal," has been more used 
than any other version ever published ; 
died 1549. 

Sterry, John A., born at Norwich, 
Conn., 1834 ; organist and composer ; 
was editor of "The Continental Glee- 
Book,'' author of several quartets, 
songs, and pieces of sacred music. 

Stevens, a famous organ-builder of 
East Cambridge, yet in the business ; 
firm name Stevens & Jewett, Boston, 

Stevens, C. W., published in Boston, 
Mass., 1860, a collection of "American 
College Songs," with piano-forte accom- 

Stevens, I. Augustus, bom in 
Charlestown, Mass., 1833, an amateur 
musician of high attainments, and 
flutist; died July 19, 1874, aged 41. 

Stevens, Tinody, published a col- 
lection of Hungarian music at Klausen- 
berg, 1754 ; the work is a rare one ; Bee- 
thoven and Weber both used music from 
Hungarian composers. 

Stevens, William S., born in West- 
minster, England, 1778; made his first 
instrument, a fife, from a piece of cane, 
upon which he performed in public at 
the age of eight years ; became pianist 
and master of the choristers at the 
Haymarket Theatre; published songs, 
glees, and other music; wrote much 
upon every part of musical science. 

Stevenson, Sir John, born in Ire- 
land, 1772, cultivated secular and sacred 
music, but composed for the stage some 
successful operas ; was made doctor of 
music, and received a silver cup from 
the Catch Club ; wrote a great number 
of popular glees and songs ; died Sept. 
14, 1833. 

Stewart, N., author of catches, can- 
ons, glees, duets, and other music, in- 
stituted a "Catch Club," at Edinburgh, 

Stewart, Charles, musician to Mr. 
Strange, was a composer of instrumental 
music, and published two collections of 
dances at Edinburgh. 

Steyermark Band, known in this 
country as the Steyermarkische Musical 
Company, consisted of nineteen Ger- 
man musicians; came to this country. 



with F. Rziha as conductor, 1846 ; gave 
concerts in the large cities, and at the 
time considered the best orchestra which 
had visited here. 

Stick, John Wenzex., a celebrated 
horn-player, born 1775 ; made his repu- 
tation under the name of Giovanni 
Punto; gave Beethoven his knowledge 
of that instrument. 

Stickney, John, bom in Stoughton, 
Mass., 1742; became a teacher, com- 
poser, and publisher of music; pub- 
lished, 1774, "T/ie Gentleman and Ladif s 
Musical Companion.^' This was "print- 
ed by Daniel Bay ley in Newbury-Port." 
His wife was also a teacher, and travelled 
with him from place to place ; John died 

Stigelli, the German tenor, con- 
nected for some time, in this country, 
with Maretzek's opera troupe ; after 
returning to his native land, died at 
Como, near the lake, July, 1869; was 
an excellent actor, singer, and com- 

Stoddard, I. C, of Worcester, Mass., 
invented and exhibited, 1855, a simple 
but ingenious machine known as " The 
Calliope;'' it is a combination of steam 
whistles, played by striking keys similar 
to those of an organ. 

Stoddard, Solomon, born in Boston, 
1643; settled at Northampton, Mass., 
and in 1722 wrote his celebrated musi- 
cal essay, " Cases of Conscience ; " died 
1729, aged 86. 

Stoepel, Robert, born in Germany, 
leader of orchestra at the Princess' 
Theatre, London ; came to this country 
with his brother-in-law, William V. 
Wallace, and became leader of au or- 
chestra in New York, 1855 ; produced a 
cantata in Boston, Mass., 1859; married 
Matilda Heron. 

Stone, Joseph, with Abraham Wood, 
in 1793, published "T/ie Columbian Har- 
mony," which, though bearing the same 
name as a collection by Daniel Reed, was 
not the same work. 

Storage, Anna Celina, born 1765; 
quitted Vienna after the carnival of 
1787, when she went to London, and in 
a short time ranked amongst the favor- 
ite comic performers and singers of the 
stage. She died near London about the 
year 1814. 

Storage, Stefano, an eminent com- 
poser of theatrical music ; born in Eng- 
land, 1763; was a performer on the 
violin at the age of eleven years; was 

appointed composer at Drury Lane 
Theatre ; died March 19, 1796, aged 33. 

Storkmeyer, Christiano, of Rio 
de Janeiro, is a celebrated composer of 
Brazilian music, vocal and instrumen- 

Story, Florence L., born at Essex, 
Mass., Sept. 7, 1863; at the age of three 
years could play and sing one hundred 
and fifty different tunes upon the piano- 
forte, some of which were her own com- 
positions. After hearing a piece once 
or twice, could perform and sing it, 
learning the words as easily as the 

Stoughton Musical Society. This 
is one of the oldest societies in America ; 
it was formed November, 1786, and has 
held its meetings regularly to the pres- 
ent time. 

Stradella, Alessandro, born at 
Naples, 1645; a celebrated composer 
and violinist; was also an excellent 
singer ; his compositions are nearly all 
vocal ; eloped with a noble lady, whom he 
afterwards married ; but they were both 
assassinated at Turin, 1679. 

Strakosch, Max, born in Austria, 
1834 ; has gained a practical experience 
in every branch of his profession ; speaks 
English, French, German, and Italian 
fluently; has been a successful opera- 
manager in this country for many years. 

Strauss, John, a celebrated com- 
poser of waltzes and dance-music ; born 
at Vienna, March 14, 1804; at the age 
of nineteen was a member of Lanner's 
orchestra; subsequently organized a 
band of his own, and shared the laurels 
of the public ; the Strauss waltzes found 
their way over the wide world, and their 
author was much honored; died at 
Vienna, Sept. 15, 1849. 

Strauss, John, jun., eldest of the 
three sons of John; born in Vienna, 
1825 ; became director of the orchestra 
after the death of his father; and under 
his care the orchestra became the ad- 
miration of the world; was a prolific 
composer, and in Austria his talents 
received royal recognition ; the emperor 
of Russia, in 1853, engaged him to con- 
duct summer concerts at St. Petersburg ; 
married the singer Jetty Treffz ; went to 
Paris with his orchestra, 1867, and gave 
concerts there; also in London; came 
to this counti-y, and led the orchestra in 
the performance of some of his most 
famous compositions at the Peace Ju- 
bilee, Boston, 1872. 



Strauss, Edward, third son of 
John, on the death of Joseph succeeded 
to the leadership of the Vienna orches- 
tra in the absence of John, jun. ; he ex- 
celled as a violinist, and was also a com- 
poser ; an orchestra has always remained 
at Vienna, even when John, jun., was 
with a portion of it at St. Petersburg, or 
at other places. 

Strauss, Joseph, second son of 
John, was also a waltz composer, born 
1827 ; was the author of more than 200 
orchestral arrangements of operas, and 
300 other works ; died at Vienna, July 
22, 1870; when buried, his violin was 
laid with broken strings in the coffin 
with him. 

Street-Organ, the same as the 
hand-organ, producing music in parts. 
It originated in Germany. 

Strungk, N. Adam, a celebrated 
violinist, born at Zell, 1640, chapel-mas- 
ter to the Elector of Saxony; became 
organist at Brunswick, but the violin 
was his favorite ; was chosen composer 
and director of music at the Hamburg 
Theatre ; settled finally at Leipsic ; com- 
posed much music for stringed instru- 
ments, and died 1700. 

Strutt, Joseph, in his account of 
bell-ringing, says he saw a man in Lon- 
don ring twelve bells at a time ; two on 
his head, two in each hand, one on each 
knee, and two upon each foot, playing a 
variety of tunes. 

Stuart, the celebrated painter, 
when a young man, cultivated music, 
and became an organist ; went to Lon- 
don, and, not succeeding at first as a 
painter, became an organist at a salary 
which supported him until he became 
known as an American artist. 

Stuart, Alexander, set the songs 
in "T/iC Tea-Table Miscellany " to music, 
1726 ; was a composer of merit at Edin- 

Stuart, James, a minstrel, bom at 
Charleston, S.C., Dec. 25, 1728; was in 
the army at the battle of Quebec ; after- 
wards wandered through the world, and 
accompanied his songs upon the violin ; 
died April 18, 1844, aged 116. 

Stuart, James, son of Robert III., 
became a celebrated poet and musician ; 
a revival of songs and song-singing can 
be traced back to his confinement in the 
Tower, London. James I. also com- 
posed sacred and secular songs in 

Stumpf, Johann Christian, an 

excellent performer on the bassoon, 
and composer for wind-instruments, at 
Frankfort, where he died in 1801. 

Stuntz, Herr, who long held office 
as chapel-master at Munich, died there, 
July, 1859, at an advanced age. 

Style. That cast or manner of com- 
position or perfoiTuance on which the 
effect depends. 

Styles, or Stiles, F. H. E., publish- 
ed, 1760, a dissertation entitled ''An Ex- 
planation of the Modes or Tones in the 
ancient Grecian Music.'^ 

SucKOW, Christian, of Norway, cel- 
ebrated throughout Northern Europe as 
the Hardanger violinist, came to this 
country, 1872, and gave concerts in the 
large cities ; his violin has twelve strings, 
the usual four being supplemented by 
eight wire ones underneath; he also 
plays in imitation of various instru- 

Sudre, Franoois, bom at Toulouse 
in 1791. He visited many of the large 
cities in Europe for the purpose of 
bringing before the public an ingenious 
system of conveying intelligence by 
means of seven primitive musical 
sounds. In his system these sounds are 
employed to represent the twenty-four 
letters of the alphabet, and are to be 
combined in words of all kinds. 

SuFFERN, J. William, born at Suf- 
ferns, N.Y., Nov. 1, 1829; commenced 
teaching music at the age of twenty, 
having then become an organist and 
violinist; five years later commenced 
holding conventions throughout the 
West, and settled at Chicago; since 
which he has published some musical 

Sullivan, Arthltr S., author of 
"T^e Prodigal Son,^^ and many musical 
compositions for piano-forte, published 
in London since 1863. 

Sullivan, Mariah Dix, published 
at Boston, Mass., 1856, a collection of 
well-harmonized ^' Bible Songs;'* the 
melodies suitable for children to sing. 

Sumner, Albert I., organist at Os- 
wego, N.Y., and afterwards at Dresden, 
Germany; was the author of several 
favorite compositions ; and on his return 
to this country to assume the duties of 
organist at Bridgeport, Conn., perished 
with the steamer "Atlantic." 

Surenne, J. T., a popular composer 
and collector of the songs and dance- 
music of Scotland and Ireland ; has pub- 
lished several volumes since 1852. 



SuRRUSOPHONE, a wind instrument 
consisting of six different foi-ras, in- 
tended to supersede the oboe and bas- 
soon in orchestra. 

SussMAYER, Franz Xavier, music 
director and composer to the National 
Theatre at Vienna since the year 1795 ; 
published various operas and operettas 
for Vienna and other towns in Germany, 
which bear date from the year 1792 to 
1801 ; died at Vienna in 1803. 

Sutton, Emeline Fantoni, born at 
New Orleans, La., March 15, 1819; 
made her d^but in Paris, and soon after 
sung in Italy, where she created a great 
sensation in opera; returning to Paris, 
she sang at the court of Louis Philippe 
and through France; returning to this 
country, she appeared in New York, and 
then at Havana. 

SvENSDEN, a celebrated Norwegian 
composer, of Christiana, Norway, in 
187?t received from government a life- 
pension ; his orchestral compositions 
are known in this country ; married a 
Miss Jewett of New York City. 

Swan, Timothy, was of Scottish 
descent; born in Worcester, Mass., July 
23, 1758; he began to teach music at 
the age of 17 years; in 1801 he pub- 
lished '' 3%e Neio England Harmony;'^ 
was the author of ** China,^^ ^'Pownal,^' 
and ^^ Poland,^ ^ tunes yet holding their 
place in the books of psalmody; died 
July 23, 1842. 

Swan, W. H. and M. L., published 
at Knoxville, Tenn., 1851, and at Phila- 
delphia, 1848, "TAe Harp of Columbia,''^ 
224 pages, patent notes ; this work was 
without the use of signatures, or flats 
and sharps; the clefs were retained; 
some of the music was original. 

Swedish Vocal Quartet became 
famous in Russia, Germany, Belgium, 
Holland, and in 1873 in Paris. This 
quartet went out from the Stockholm 

Sweetser, Benjamin, Jun., of Port- 
land, Me., published, 1839, " The Cum- 
berland Collections^ of sacred music, 
304 pages; and, in 1848, *' The Ancient 
Sacred Lyre,^^ the same book, with a 
new name. 

SwELiNCK, Jan Peter, organist, 
born at Deventer, Holland, 1540; be- 
came very celebrated as a performer 
and composer ; died 1622. 

Swell Mute, a piano-forte attach- 
ment, invented by A. G. Corliss, Port- 
land, Me., 1854. 

SwiETEN, Gottfried, Freyherr 
Van, a distinguished amateur of music, 
died March 29, 1803. 

Swiss Bell-Ringers, a company 
which visited this country, giving con- 
certs, 1844; there were seven persons, 
using twenty-six bells, or at times forty- 
two bells, as the music required. 

Sylva, Tristao da, chapel-master 
to King Alphonso V. of Portugal, in 
the fifteenth century. 

Sylveira, Fr. Placido da, a Portu- 
guese church-composer, died in 1736. 

Syme, George, the best piper of his 
time ; had the art of producing the oc- 
tave tones. In Kay's Portraits, there is 
one of this piper, with this inscrip- 
tion : — 

" This represents old Gurdy Syme, 
A famous piper of liis time." 

Symmers, James, of Glasgow, Scot- 
land, introduced the sol-fa method of 
singing at sight from the common nota- 
tion, 1858. 

Symmes, Thomas, born at Bradford, 
Mass., Feb. 1, 1678; wrote three musical 
tracts upon music, intended to allay the 
great excitement of 1720 in regard to the 
use of new music by rule or by note ; 
it being in this country considered sin- 
ful to practise by rule ; died Oct. 6, 1725, 
aged 48. 

Symonds, Henry, one of the king's 
band of musicians in England ; a cele- 
brated master of the harpsichord in his 
time ; published six sets of lessons for 
his instrument ; died 1730. 

Symphonium, invented by Kauf mann, 

Symphony derives its origin from 
pieces of instrumental music performed 
upon strings in Italy. The Germans 
introduced oboes and horns into sym- 
phonies; and Gossec added clarinets, 
bassoons, and other wind-instruments. 

Syringa, the pipes of Pan ; also called 
syrinx; a rustic instrument constructed 
of seven, eight, or sometimes more 
pieces of reed cut of various lengths in 
regular gradation, and fastened together, 
generally with wax ; it has been regarded 
as the origin of the organ. 



T. This letter is used as an abbrevi- 
ation of tutti, all. 

Ta. One of the four syllables used 
by the Greeks in sol-fa-ing. 

Tabel, a Fleming, who was with 
Ruckers and his successors at Antwerp, 
went to England, 1680, and made the 
first harpsichords in London. 

Tabor, a small drum used by the 
Hebrews; they also used drums called 
taboret and tabret. 

Tacghinardi, Nicholas, a famous 
tenor-singer, born at Florence, Italy, 
1776 ; was only four feet three inches in 
height; was a violinist and public singer 
at the age of seventeen years; became 
the great tenor of Europe, and sang in 
all the principal theatres; in 1831, left 
the stage, and became a teacher ; com- 
posed many voice-exercises and some 
music; died at Florence, March 14, 1859, 
aged 83. 

Taddi, Signora, of Naples, 1824, 
could not only adopt as subjects, stories 
or incidents suggested by her auditors, 
but would declare her ideas in any metre 
prescribed, applying a melody, the time 
or measure of which should be dictated 
at the moment. 

Taglioni, Maria {Countess de Voi- 
sens), born in Stockholm, 1804; was a 
daughter of Philippo Taglioni, ballet- 
master ; was the recipient of more pub- 
lic favors than any performer had ever 
known ; in 1832, married Count de Voi- 
sens ; the story of her triumphs was re- 
peated in every city in Europe; com- 
posed many ballets herself, celebrated 
in this country ; died 1873. 

Taglioni, Salvatore, born at Na- 
ples; a brother of the above, was the 
composer of more than two hundred 
ballets ; died at Naples, 1869. 

Taglischbec, Herr, born 1790 ; was 
chapel-master to the Prince of Hohen- 
zoUern-Heckingen ; a violinist and com- 
poser ; died October, 1867. 

Taillefer, a celebrated minstrel; 
went to England with William the Nor- 
man ; sang at the head of the army at 
the battle of Hastings, where he lost his 

Talemanis", a great German musician ; 
born at Magdeburg, 1681 ; played every 
kind of instrument when a boy ; went 

to Leipsic ; composed psalms, and estab- 
lished a college of music; was after- 
wards director of opera, and organist. 

Talhaiarn, a Welsh bard of "the sixth 
century ; became so celebrated as to be 
reverenced as a saint. 

Taliesin, a celebrated Welsh bard of 
the sixth century, some of whose music 
is still preserved in his native coun- 

Tallis, Thomas, one of the greatest 
musicians of Europe during the six- 
teenth century, was born in England 
1520; celebrated for his song in forty 
parts, and for other compositions ; died 
Nov. 23, 1585. 

Talking-Machine, an invention of 
M. Faber, exhibited in Boston, Mass., 
1872 ; it produces fourteen sounds, and 
others are made by combinations of 
these; it also produces a laughing 
sound, a lisping, and a trilling sound. 

Talon, a musician in the chapel of 
the King of France, published, 1767, 
"iSix Symphonies,''^ which made him 

Tamberlik, Signor Henrico, bom 
in Rome, 1820, of a Polish family ; was 
placed in the army ; on discovering that 
he had a splendid tenor-voice, he left 
the army, and entered the San Carlo 
Theatre, 1841, as a singer, and made 
himself famous by thundering C-sharp, 
or ut de poitrine, in clear, bell-tongued 
tones again and again; afterwards his 
fortune was made, when he took Paris 
by surprise with the same tone, as 
Duprez did before him; sang in this 
country 1873, but thirty-two years' wear 
has somewhat injured the voice of the 
great artist, though he is still great. 

Tamboni, for whom Rossini wrote 
the part of Figaro, and who was cele- 
brated as a singer, died Feb. 28, 1837. 

Tambour de Basque, or Tambou- 
rine, a drum in the shape of a sieve, 
with bells or other loose metallic sub^ 
stances in the side, that jingle when 
shaken, or when the parchment cover- 
ing is struck. 

Tambura, instruments of the guitar 

Tamburona, the great or bass drum. 

Tamonti, Madame, an eminent 
singer, who made her debut in opera, in 

/ C^yy^'-Ay^^'-^yyy^-^-^ 


4l;d-/K<^ / i^-^ ^^J 



the time of Frederick the Great, died at 
Potsdam, at the age of 100 years. 

Tannahill, Robert, a noted musi- 
cian, born at Paisley, Scotland, June 3, 
1774, died May 17, iSlO, aged 36. 

Tarchi, Angioli, an Italian com- 
poser and professor of singing, resident 
at Paris, born at Naples, 1760; in 1781 
began to compose dramatic works, and 
soon became celebrated for his operas, 
which were so popular that he was 
troubled to supply the demand at the 
different theatres of Italy and France; 
also composed masses, oratorios, and 
other music. 

Tartini, Giuseppe, born at Pirano, 
Italy, April 12, 1692 ; went to Venice, be- 
came a violinist, and celebrated through- 
out Europe; but became more known 
by his dream, and the ^'DeviVs Sonata; ^^ 
his compositions are numerous; died 
Feb. 26, 1760, aged 68. 

Tassistro, Pietro, the band-master 
in Bonaparte's army, died at Milan, 
1867, aged 84; followed music all his 

Tate, Nahum, born in Dublin, Ire- 
land, 1652; was made famous by the 
versification of the Psalms, known as 
Tate and Brady's, published in London, 
1695 ; was poet-laureate to William III. ; 
died in Southwark, England, Aug. 12, 
1715 ; his version was published in this 
country, 1741. 

Tattersall, William de Chair, 
published in London, England, 1795, 
^^ Improved Psabnody,^^ and the Psalms, 
with new music, engraved. 

Tausch, Franz, clarinetist and in- 
strumental composer; born at Heidel- 
berg, 1762 ; became member of the chapel 
at Mannheim, and also violinist; per- 
formed at Berlin for a season, then at 
Paris and Hamburg, and in 1799 gave 
weekly concerts at "his own house ; his 
works are mostly concertos. 

Tausig, Carl, born near Warsaw, 
Nov. 4, 1841 ; went to reside at Dresden, 
and became celebrated as a pianist; 
went to Berlin 1865, and became court- 
musician; he composed largely; and 
died July 17, 1871, aged 30. 

Tatjz, L., a German musician, was 
celebrated as a pianist; composed two 
operas of sonatas for the harpsichord 
and violin, at Mannheim, 1780; died 

Taxis, Count Torre, of Venice, was 
a performer on the harpsichord, and a 
composer of masses, motets, and orato- 

rios. Dr. Burney says, " He owned an 
instrument, made in Berlin, which has 
several changes of stops, and is occa- 
sionally a harp, a harpsichord, a lute, or 
piano-forte ; by drawing out the keys, 
' the hammers are transferred to different 
strings, by which means a composition 
may be transposed half a note, a whole 
note, or a flat third, lower, at pleasure, 
without the embarrassment of different 
notes or clefs, real or imaginary." 

Taylor, Alfred, born in Philadel- 
phia, 1831, published several hymn and 
tune books which sold largely, among 
them the ' 'Prayer-Meeting Hymn Book,^' 

Taylor, Edward, Gresham profes- 
sor of music, London ; became known 
by his lectures on music, 1838. 

Taylor, George C, celebrated as a 
teacher and composer; Avas appointed 
professor of music at Madison Female 
College, Georgia, and settled there. 

Taylor, James, a comic singer of 
London, England, in 1866, sold his ser- 
vices for four months, to the highest 
bidder, at public auction, engaging to 
sing twice on every lawful evening, 
wherever employed ; was bid off at £325 
by the proprietor of the White-Bait 
Concert Room. 

Taylor, John, master of the choris- 
ters and organist at Westminster Abbey, 

Taylor, Mary, was a popular singer 
and actress; born 1836; her singing was 
much admired; retired from the stage 
1852; died Nov. 3, 1866, aged 30. 

Taylor, Richard, born in Chester, 
England, 1758, and became celebrated 
as a composer of English songs, some of 
which bad immense sales. 

Taylor, Samuel Priestly, organ- 
ist; born in London, England, 1779; 
played the organ when seven years old ; 
came to America 1806 ; settled in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. ; played an organ in New 
York; gave instruction on the organ, 
piano-forte, violin, violoncello, and clar- 
inet, all of which he played well; en- 
listed as a musician in a New York 
band for the war of 1812 ; was president 
of the old Philharmonic Society; re- 
moved to Boston, Mass., 1819, where he 
compiled a popular organ instruction 
book; returned to Brooklyn, N. Y., 
1826 ; continued to teach and give con- 
certs until 1864 ; played the organ until 
the age of 92 years, and gave instruc- 
tions until 1870 ; he first introduced 


VtviK 77Y-^>nOiA- 

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-MOvt*^ » 




chanting into New York; is now (1874) 
aged 95. 

Taylor, Sedley, wrote a ^'Treatise 
on the Phi/ steal Construction of Musical 
Sounds and Harmony. ^^ 

Taylor, Mrs. Thomas, formerly 
Laura W. Barker of London, com- 
posed piano-forte music, and wrote ori- 
ginal melodies for the ^^ Ballads and 
Songs of Brittany. ^^ 

Taylor, Thomas R., of Sheffield, 
England, was the composer of the hymn 
*^Tm but a Traceller here ; " died 18^i5. 

Taylor, Virgil Coryden, born at 
Barkhamstead, Conn., 1817 ; removed to 
Hartford, Conn; became known as a 
composer and publisher of music, 1850; 
published several excellent works, most 
of the tunes, anthems, and chants being 
of his own production, and very popu- 
lar; in 1854, removed to Brooklyn, N.Y., 
and became organist and conductor of 
music in that city. 

Telle, Friedrich Wilhelm, born 
at Berlin, Sept. 9, 1798; became cele- 
brated as a pianist 1816; known as a 
composer 1820; became music-director 
at several theatres; wrote operas and 
other works, and visited all the large 
cities until 1845, when he returned to 
Berlin, and died there May 10, 18G2. 

Telemann, GeorCxE Philip, born at 
Magdeburg, 1681 ; became a composer 
at the age of twelve years ; in 1701 was 
director of the operas at Leipsic ; acted 
as chapel-master at several courts, and 
finally settled as music-director at Leip- 
sic; was a very voluminous composer, 
and considered the greatest church- 
musician in Germany ; died 1767. 

Telephone, an instrument by which 
certain sounds are telegraphed to any 
distance, was invented by Dr. Van der 
Weyde, 1869. Mr. Elisha Gray of Chi- 
cago, 111., a well-known maker of tele- 
graphic appliances, has iiivented a 
method of transmitting musical sounds 
by an instrument in the same manner, 
or in some manner, which he calls the 
Telephone ; and has succeeded, 1874, in 
transmitting tones through an unbroken 
circuit of 2,400 miles, reproducing them 
on a violin at the receiving end. 

Telesphorus, a pope in the reign of 
Antonius Pius, first ordered the singing 
of hymns the night before Christmas, 
from which arose the custom of singing 
carols ; and tambours, organs, and vari- 
ous stringed instruments were used to 
accompany the voices. Died A.D. 138. 

Temple, Charles W. H., bom in 

Claremont, N. H., 1801 ; commenced 
teaching music 1817; went to Cincin- 
nati, O., and thence to Oxford as a 
teacher; was associated with the musi- 
cal societies and interests in South-west- 
ern Ohio, where he taught for 55 years, 
and composed some music. 

Templeton, a distinguished tenor- 
singer of London, England, came to 
this country 1846, and gave concerts of 
story and song in the chief cities. 

Tenor- Violin, or Viola, having its 
lowest tone on C, and playing the tenor 
part in concert. 

Terpander, lived B.C. 671, and was 
much honored as a musician; was 
teacher and pei-former upon the flute 
and the lute ; added three strings to the 
lute, making seven; was noted as a 
writer of music, which had before been 
performed by memory ; set many songs 
to music. 

Terpodian, an instrument invented, 
1833, by Buschmann of London, which 
in tone is a medium between the organ 
and musical glasses; it resembles the 

Terpsichore, the Muse of music, 
&c., presided over choral song, and 

Tesca, an excellent Italian bass-sing- 
er, who made his fame while a resident 
of England, sang at the commemoration 
of Handel in Westminster Abbey. 

Testa, Natali, contralto of the 
famed Natali Sisters, was a prominent 
singer before marriage, and has since 
appeared in opera. 

Thalates, of Crete, a poet and mu- 
sician, wrote and sang odes encouraging 
obedience and concord ; invented many 
new measures in verse ; his songs were 
very popular ; was the first to compose 
military dance-songs to flute accompani- 

Thalberg, Sigismond, born at Ge- 
neva, Jan. 7, 3812; became known as a 
composer and pianist when sixteen 
years old ; made the tour of Germany 
18.30; became famous at Paris 1835; 
afterwards made frequent tours in 
France, England, Germany, and Russia; 
came to this country 1856; remained 
here giving concerts in all the large 
cities until 1858; returned to Europe, 
and died April 29, 1871, aged 59. His 
compositions are numerous and greatly 

Thamyris was celebrated as a per- 



former on the cithara; was born in 
Thrace ; was the sweetest singer of his 

Thayer, Alexander W., of Boston, 
Mass., author of the "Li/e of Beethoven " 
written by him wliile in Europe, is well 
known at home and abroad as a musical 
critic and correspondent of American 

Theatre. The first theatre in Amer- 
ica was opened at Williamsburg, Va., 
Sept, 5, 17.52; one was opened in New 
York, 1753; at Albany, 1769; at Balti- 
more, 177o; at Boston, Mass., 1792. 

Theatre Lyrique, built in Paris, 
1846, by A. Dumas. French operas are 
here produced, and it is a training-school 
for artists. 

Theatrical Entertainments com- 
menced in Rome 365 years B.C. The 
modern theatre originated with the pil- 
grims to the Holy Land. 

Theorbo, a stringed instrument of 
the lute tone and form, having eight 
strings; it was invented in France, "by 

TiiiBAULT, Blanche and Gabri- 
elle, sisters ; the former received, 1869, 
the prize for singing for opera and for 
opera comic; the latter the prize for 
piano-forte playing at the Paris Con- 
servatoire : they are good musicians, and 
daughters of the chief of the band of 
the National Guard. 

Thiele, Louis, born in Germany, 
1816 ; became known as a pianist at the 
age of seven years ; at the age of four- 
teen was master of the organ, and 
shortly after known as a composer ; died 
of cholera, 1848, aged 32. 

Thomas of Bayeux was celebrated as 
a poet and musician while archbishop 
of York. 

Thomas, Ambroise, of Paris, pro- 
duced his first opera, "/fa»i^ei," 1868. 

Thomas, Isaiah, of Worcester, Mass., 
procured from Europe the first music 
type used in this country, 1786, and in 
that year published the first edition of 
the " Worcester Collectionof Sacred Har- 
mony.'^ In August, 1788, he published 
another edition, with the prefix ^^Laiis 
Deo ! " This was in three parts, printed 
typographically, and dedicated " to the 
several musical societies in the "JVctu- 
Englancl States." Mr. Reed, probably 
Daniel the composer, is mentioned in 
this work as author of what is said 
about moods of time. 

Thomas, J. R., of New York, author 

of a collection of church music 18G3, a 
collection of sacred choruses in 1875, and 
a well-known writer of popular songs. 

Thomas, Theodore, born in the 
kingdom of Hanover, 1835; could play 
the violin at the age of six years ; came 
to this country, and settled in New York 
1845 ; appeared directly in concerts, and 
visited the most prominent places of the 
Union ; was first violin to Sontag, Jenny 
Lind, Grisi, Mario, and others; con- 
ducted German and Italian opera, and 
travelled through the States with differ- 
ent troupes ; established symphony con- 
certs in New York; and finally organ- 
ized his orchestra, which has made him 
famous in this country and in Europe; 
is a self-educated musician. 

Thomson, George, born 1757; pub- 
lished 1793, a " Collection of Scottish 
Airs for the Voice,^^ the accompani- 
ments by Pleyel ; Burns assisted in pre- 
paring the work; died at Leith Links, 
Feb. 18, 1851, aged 94. 

Thomson, James, published at Edin- 
burgh, 1778, ''^Rudiments ofMusic,^^ with 
a collection of tunes and hymns. 

Thomson, William, appeared in 
concerts at Edinburgh when a boy, 1695 ; 
was celebrated for the quality of his 
voice ; went to London, and sang there 
when the opera and Handel's composi- 
tions were all the rage ; was the first to 
edit Scots tunes in England; published 
^^ Orpheus Caledonius.''^ 

Thompson, Jemima, born in the 
suburbs of London, 1813; while jour- 
neying in a stage-coach, 1841, composed 
that famous hymn, "J Think, when I 
Bead that Sweet Story of Old^ 

Thompson, Thomas, organist, born 
at Sunderland, England, 1777; played 
the violin and French horn at the thea- 
tres when twelve years of age ; per- 
formed as organist at London in con- 
certs and churches ; became a teacher, 
and composed some songs and duets. 

Thompson, Thomas P., born at Hull, 
England, 1783; wrote a work, '^Enhar- 
monic Theory of Music,'' 1829; and 
''Just Intonation,'' 1850. 

Thorbecke, Hermann, a native of 
Hanover ; came to this country 1838, and 
settled at Philadelphia, Penn., where he 
became celebrated as a composer and 
music-teacher ; on his return from Ger- 
many, where he had been on a visit, he 
perished at sea, September, 1858, aged 45. 

Thorne, E. H,, an English oiganist 
and composer ; published '* SacredMusic 




for the Home Circle,''^ consisting of 
standard tunes for four voices, London, 

Thoknton, B., born in London, 1724; 
wrote an *' Ode on St. Cecilia's Bay,'"' 
adapted to the ancient British instru- 
ments, — the salt-box, jews-harp, mar- 
row-bones, cleavers, and hurdy-gurdy, — 
with a history of those instruments. 

TnoTH, in the very earliest ages of the 
world, introduced the sistrum, lyre, and 
tambourine into Abyssinia from Egypt. 

Throope, or Troup, author of 
*' Christian Song,^' was a Vermont 
singing-master, and died at Chelsea in 
that State. 

TiBERiNi, a Roman musician, came 
to this country with the Strakosch con- 
cert company, and sang at Boston, 1856. 

Tibia Pares, a double flute; one 
played with the right, and the other with 
the left hand ; the flutes are united in 
the form of the letter A. 

Tii.LEARD, John, wrote several 
school music-books ; London, England, 


York, teacher of music, published, 1869, 
*' The Diadem,' ' with his system of 

Tillman, Samuel D., of the Ameri- 
can Institute, New York, in 1860 publish- 
ed a ''Musical Treatise,^' on sound, ac- 
companied by a new invention called 
''Tonometer,'''' which accurately measures 
to the eye all musical intervals, however 
minute ; has written a new method of 
musical notation, made some change in 
the solfeggio, and patented a "Music 
Medal,' ^ showing the notes and common 
chords in the major and minor key of 
any given tonic. 

TiMBALE, a kettle-drum. 

Timbrel, an ancient drum, in form 
like the tambourine. 

TiMM, C. H., born at Hamburg, 1811; 
came to this country, and settled in New 
York, where he soon became connected 
with all the musical interests of the city. 

Tiresias, a musician mentioned by 
Homer; practised music many years, 
and was a compiler of music-books. 


born at Hamburg, 18:}4; appeared on 
I -j-) the Hamburg stage at the age of fifteen ; 
/ became famous at Frankfort; went to 
Vienna, and thence to London, in 1856, 
where she found grace with the English 
critics, and became very popular in 
opera ; came to the United States in 1875. 

Toe Pedals. George Tolhurst, of 
Maidstone, England in 1870, arranged a 
set of pedals to an organ, to be played 
with the toes; he calls this machine 
" Pedaliera,'" and has demonstrated 
that the organ can be played by using 
the toes as well as the fingers. 

Tofts, Katherine, became known 
as an English vocalist 1703 ; became an 
opera-singer 1705 ; was made insane by 
her success, but, recovering, married the 
British consul at Venice, and died 1735; 
Mr. Smith, her husband, died 1771. 


at Skutsch, Bohemia, April 17, 1774; 
lived chiefly at Prague ; was a member 
of the great societies, and composed 
many important and valuable musical 
woi-ks ; died 1849. 

ToMLiNsox, J. H., of London, Eng- 
land, author of a work on the piano- 

ToMLixsoN, J. W., celebrated as a 

ToMLiNSON, Kellom, a composer and 
publisher of dance-music in London. 
England, from 1735 to 1744. 

ToNOGRAPH, an instrument for print- 
ing music while in the act of impro- 
vising or composing on a keyed instru- 
ment an invention (1850) of Levi 
Wilder, teacher of music at Baltimore, 
Md. It was compact enough to be 
placed under the lid of a pfano-forte, 
and capable of transferring all expres- 
sions ; it was never made a public manu- 
facture as the principle was found to 
infringe on a French patent. 

TooLHOLos, wandering minstrels of 
Tartary, who go from place to place 
with a violin and a flute suspended from 
their girdles, and perform music in the 
first families ; they are poets and sing- 
ers ; are common in China, and popular 
in Thibet. 

ToPLADY, Augustus, author of 
"Rock of Ages cleft for Me,'' died, 
1778, aged 38 ; Rowland Hill pronounced 
the funeral oration. 

Topp, Alide, is a German from 
Stralsund, Prussia ; beca:ne a successful 
pianist; performed much in Europe, 
and after coming to this country sus- 
tained her reputation in New York and 
other cities. 

ToRRiANi, OsTAVA, daughter of the 
Swedish consul, born at Hamburg, Ger- 
many, 1850; first appeared in public as 
a pianist ; made her debut as a vocalist 
at Milan ; after singing in Italy, Paris, 



and London, with success, came to 
America; her real name is Tornquist; 
afterwards sang in the principal cities 
of Euroi3e, and came again to America 
1873, with the Strakosch troupe, mak- 
ing her appearance at New York, in 
" Zwcirt." 

Toulon, for many years principal 
flutist at the Grand Opera, Paris ; a 
composer of much music for his instru- 
ment; died at Nantes, France, Sep- 
tember, 1805. 

TouKJEE, Dr. Eben, born at War- 
wick, R.I., June 1, 1834; became an 
organist at the age of thirteen years ; at 
the age of seventeen was editor of " The 
Key-Note,''^ and a conductor of con- 
ventions ; established a conservatory at 
Providence, R.I. ; in 1869 established 
the New England Conservatory, Boston, 
Mass. ; and in 1869 assisted in the first 
Peace Jubilee, as he did in that of 

Tourte, born at Paris 1747, was 
celebrated as a maker of violin-bows; 
died 1835. 

Traetta, or Trajetta, Tomaso, 
born at Naples, 1738; composer at the 
San Carlo Theatre, where he wrote many 
operas; went to St. Petersburg, and 
there composed seven operas and many 
cantatas ; went to England for a season, 
and died after returning to his own 
country, 1779. 

Trajetta, Filippo, born at Venice, 
January, 1776 ; was the son of Tomaso, 
and became celebrated as a musician and 
composer; joined the army, and com- 
posed many patriotic hymns for the sol- 
diers; was taken prisoner, and, escap- 
ing, came to America 1799; settled in 
Boston, Mass. ; wrote some music there; 
went to New York, and finally to Phila- 
delphia, Penn., where he produced sev- 
eral works, and died 1854, aged 78. 

Trastour, Eugene, a native of New 
Orleans, La. ; October, 1867, invented in 
New York, an electric automaton piano 
player, and two other similar instru- 
ments capable of performing any music 
written upon paper; is a pianist, and 
author of a work on the " Rudiments of 
Music, ''^ 

Travelling Companies, small 
troupes of musicians, vocal and instru- 
mental, of which the Hermanns, the 
Rayners, and others, were the pioneers 
in this country ; have, since 1840, been 
many in number, and have perhaps, on 
the whole, been instrumental in increas- 

ing a love for music, and promoting its 
development, throughout the United 

Trebelli, Zelia, born in Paris; 
made her debut in Madrid 1859, with an 
Italian opera troupe ; was a great favor- 
ite at Berlin 1860; is not only a great 
singer, but a splendid actress. 

Treffz, Henrietta (Jette), a 
Viennese ; born June 28, 1826 ; became 
famous in England 1850, at the Jullien 
concerts ; went with him through Eng- 
land, Ireland, Scotland, &c. ; accepted 
an engagement in Paris, and married 
John Strauss, jun., the great waltz-king 
of Vienna. 

Tremolophon, or Girardeon, an 
instrument something like a piano-forte, 
in which is machinery operated by a 
wheel, producing a trembling vibration 
and swelling tone; it was invented 
1840, by M. Girard, who died in Paris, 

Trentin, a. G., of Venice, 1823, in- 
vented the violacembalo, an improve- 
ment upon the bow piano-forte. 

Treu, Daniel Gottlieb, born at 
Stuttgard, 1695; at the age of twelve 
years published three overtures for the 
violin and three other instruments ; be- 
came celebrated at Venice, where he 
produced many operas; was called to 
Prague, where he had the direction of 

Triangular Harp, an instrument 
of great antiquity, invented in Ireland. 

Trichoruen, an instrument formerly 
used to accompany vocal music. 

Trigon, an ancient instrument, 
played on by women, and used at 

Triton, a famous trumpeter em- 
ployed by Neptune. 

Trombone, a brass wind-instrument, 
patterned after the sackbut; it is capa- 
ble of splendid effects when used in the 
orchestra or in military bands : there are 
three kinds, alto, tenor, and bass. 

Tromp de Bearn, the same as the 
jews-harp ; a toy for children. 

Troubadours. Prior to the age of 
the Troubadours we are unable to judge 
of secular music by examples. Proven- 
cal poetry and song held universal sway 
in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; 
kings and princes rivalled each other in 
the profession of troubadours. The word 
"troubadour" comes from trobartrou- 
ver, to find or invent. Besides these royal 
inventors, there was another class of 




troubadours, who were held in the ser- 
vice of royalty as court poets. The trou- 
badours, unlike their contemporaries 
the (rerman minnesingers, frequently 
were unable to sing their own songs ; 
and for this purpose they held in their 
employ minstrels, or jongleurs, who 
were persons skilled in singing and play- 

Trowbridge, Asa K., published at 
Boston, Mass., a collection of music all 
original, entitled " Temperance Melo- 

Trumpet, a musical wind-instrument 
of metal, which has been known in 
some form in all ages, and among all 
civilized people ; it is played through a 
mouthpiece, and within a few years 
has been supplied with keys. 

TscHUDi, BuRKHARDT, harpsichord- 
maker to the court of George II., was a 
Swiss, became famous, married in Lon- 
don. One of his instruments, with two 
manuals, made for the King of Prussia, 
1765, was in the palace at Potsdam, 
1862 ; died in London, 1773. 

Tubes, Mrs. F. C, published in Lon- 
don, 186.5, a translation of Joseph 
Schluster's " General History of Music, ^^ 
which is highly commended. 

TucKEKMAN, S. Parkman, born in 
Boston, Mass., 1819; organist and com- 
poser; was made doctor of music in 
England; in 1852 was created master of 
saci-ed music at Rome; many of his 
compositions were published in Eng- 
land, where he collected a valuable 
library of music: after his return to 
this country resided a few years in 
Greenfield, Mass. ; in 1855 went to re- 
side in New York; published several 
collections of music in this country, and 
a book of chants. 

Tufts, Rev. John, of Newbury, 
Mass., was a teacher of music; pub- 
lished the first singing-book printed in 
America, 1710; previous to which time 
all music was learned by rote. This book 
was opposed on the ground, that, if 
people " learned to sing by note, the next 
thing would be to pray by rule ; and 
then would come Popery. ^^ 

Tulley, J. H., a well-known English 
composer, and director of music at 
Drury Lane Theatre, died Jan. 28, 1868. 

TuLON, Jean Louis, a celebrated 
flutist; born at Paris, Sept. 12, 1786; in 
1804 entered the orchestra of the Italian 
opera; in 1826 was made professor at 
the conservatory; in 1843 he estab- 

lished a flute manufactory ; his compo- 
sitions were very much sought for. 

TuNiNG-FoRK Harmonium; an in- 
strument resembling the piano-forte, 
which has, in the place of strings, 
tuning-forks; which, when struck by 
the hammers, produce the tones. 

Turkish Music. Music was first in- 
troduced into Turkey in the year 1047, 
under the reign of Amurath, by one 
Schahculi, who carried it to Constanti- 
nople ; and it was brought to perfection 
under Mohammed IV., as well instru- 
mental as vocal. Prince Cantimer in- 
vented some of the notes first used by 
the Turks in recording music; before 
him they made use of letters and fig- 
ures, such as the Greeks and Latins 
used. They compose and execute from 
memory, and it would be difiicult to re- 
duce to a regular scale their notation ; 
and yet their music has the times and 
sounds of ours, and has lately been 
much improved. 

TuRLE, James, of London, England, 
has published, by himself, and with E. 
Taylor, as many as six different collec- 
tions of music since 1846 ; is organist at 
Westminster Abbey. 

Turner, John, author of a " Guide 
to Vocal 3Iusic,^^ with an historical in- 
troduction and a dictionary of musical 
terms; published in London, Eng., 
under the direction of the Committee 
for Promoting Christian knowledge; 
republished in this country 1836. 

Tye, Dr. Christopher, musically 
celebrated for having set fourteen chap- 
ters of the Acts of the Apostles to elabo- 
rate music, consisting of fugues, canons, 
and other complicated artificial forms ; 
he also wrote an excellent anthem for 
four voices. 

Tympanum anciently comprised the 
tambour, tabour, kettle-drum, nacara, 
and some timbrels. 

Typographical Music Printing 
was introduced into the Roman States 
by Montona, a printer, 1508. 

Typophone, a new instrument, 
played like the piano-forte, but in effect 
resembling the harp; introduced in 
Paris, 1869 ; invented by the maker of 
the Mustel organs. 

Tyrt^us, an Athenian general and 
musician, is celebrated by all antiquity 
for the composition of military songs and 
airs, as well as the performance of them. 

Tytler, James, born 1747, at Edin- 
burgh; son of a clergyman; was the 



author of many Scottish songs; came 
to America, and established a newspaper 
in Salem, Mass., which he continued 
until his death, 1805, aged 58. 

Tytler, William, of Woodhouselea, 
author of a ^^ Uissertation on Scottish 
Music," and other works, died Sept, 12, 
1792, aged 81. 


TJiiLiG, Theodore, musical editor, 
Berlin, wrote eighty-four compositions, 
and was a violinist of great talent; died 
Jan. 30, 1853, aged 31. 

Ulrich, Hugo, born Nov. 26, 1827, 
at Oppeln, wrote two symphonies, 
which won the prize at Brussels, 1853 ; 
composed trios, quartets, overtures, 
piano-forte works, and songs ; died 
May 23, 1872, at Berlin. 

Unger, Caroline, called in Italy 
Ungher, one of the best singers of re- 
cent times, was born at Vienna in 1800; 
in 1825 she sang at Naples, Milan, 
Turin, and Rome'with great success; 
in 1840 she retired from the stage, 
having married happily, and settled in 

Uxger, Johann Friedrich, coun- 
sellor of justice at Brunswick, was born 
there in 171G; he invented a machine 
to be attached to a harpsichord, which 
should write down every successive 
note performed on the instrument ; died 
at Brunswick in 1781. See Hohlfeld. 

Upham, Dr. J. B., originated the 
plan for procuring the Boston Music 
Hall organ, and in 1857 visited the 
principal factories of Europe, and gave 
the contract to Walcker of Ludwigs- 
burg; published, 1853, a work on 
^''Acoustic Architecture;" was Presi- 
dent of Handel and Haydn Society of 
Boston many years, and chairman of 
committee on music in the public 
schools of Boston. 

Urban, Christian, first alto violin 
at the Royal Academy, an esteemed 
musician ; devoted his talents to sacred 
music, but, to live, was forced to be- 
come a theatrical musician. While ac- 
companying the dance, he would not 
view the spectacle ; and, though many 
years a member of the opera orchestra, 
never saw the performance, and did not 
know the vocalists whom he assisted. 

Urbani. Peter, an Italian composer, 
born at Milan, 1749; resided for many 
years in Scotland and Ireland from 
about the year 1784. Amongst his 
works were "li Farnace" op. ser., per- 

formed at Dublin, and "IZ Trionfo di 
Clelia" op. ser., also performed at Dub- 
lin, in which city he died in the year 
1816, aged 67. 

Urena, Pietro D', a Spanish monk, 
flourished in the sixteenth century in 
the Milanese ; was born blind ; was the 
first who added a seventh syllable to 
the Guidonian scale. 

Urfey, Thomas d', a celebrated 
convivial songster in the reign of 
Charles II. He lived chiefly in the 
ale and wine houses of London, where 
he sang his own compositions with 
much humor. In 1719 there was pub- 
lished in London a collection of his 
songs, entitled " Wit and Mirth, or Pills 
to purge Melancholy." 

Urio, Francesco Antonio, chapel- 
master at Venice in the seventeenth 
century, published at Bologna, in 1697, 
^' Salmi Concertati, a 3 Voci, con Vio- 
lini," Op. 2. 

Ursillo, Fabio, published at Am- 
sterdam, about the year 1748, three sets 
of violin trios ; he was a chapel-master 
at Rome. 

Ursini, Giacomo, an Italian com- 
poser, born at Pantremoli ; published, 
amongst other works, ^'Madrigali a 4 
Voci," Venice; and " E'an anderes 
Werk," Venice, 1550. 

Urso, Camilla, born in Nantes, 
France, 1842; celebrated violinist; 
when a child, expressed the wish to 
learn the violin ; her success was won- 
derful ; she soon appeared in concerts, 
and everywhere with triumph ; came to 
this country 1852, and performed in all 
the principal cities; in 1854 was con- 
nected with the concert troupe of Mme. 
Sontag; in 1874 was giving concerts in 
Boston, assisted byGihnore's New York 

Urso, Salvator, born at Palermo, 
1810; was organist at the Church of 
the Holy Cross, at Nantes ; an excellent 
musician, and the father of the cele- 
brated violinist Camilla Urso; moved 
to Paris, in order to give his daughter a 
musical education in that city. ; < -^ 



Y is used for the word " violin ; " 
V. v., both first and second violin; also 
V. S., volti subito, turn over quick. 

Vallo, Signor, a resident of Phila- 
delphia, I?*enn., known as a violinist, 
and celebrated for his staccato and har- 
monic passages; has composed for his 
instrument some very excellent lessons. 

Valvis, Mlle. de, daughter of 
Philip of Orleans, who married the 
Duke of Modena 1719, introduced 
chorus into the Italian lyric drama; 
she brought a body of choristers from 
Paris, who appeared at tlie opera in 
Modena, being the first effective chorus 
heard in Italy. 

Van Alstyne, Frances Jane 

Crosby, born in South-east, Putnam 

1> County, N.Y., March 24, 182/; wrote * 

•^ <iolloction of Sunday-school hymns and 

some music. 

Yanderbergh, Charles Henry, 
invented, 1820, a new instrument called 
'^(Edophone,'' played by keys like the 
piano-forte. Into a block extending 
across the back of the instrument are 
inserted metallic bars, which are acted 
upon by a spring connected with the 
key ; and the tone thus produced is like 
that of a bell. 

Yan Lier, born at Amsterdam, 1857 ; 
made her debut at Paris, as a pianist, 
when three years old, and has since 
become celebrated there. 

Yan Zandt, Jennie, daughter of 
Signor Blitz; a vocalist somewhat 
known in opera; a careful, pains-tak- 
ing artist, possessing good dramatic 
ability; sang in London, in Italian 
opera, and made a tour through the 
provinces with Titiens and Santley; 
returning, was engaged at Philadelphia, 
Penn., 1874. 

Yarian, Mrs., an American lady, 
known in this country as a vocalist, 
and for her great versatility of talent ; 
after going to Italy was, in 1855, en- 
gaged to sing at Naples. 

Yarley, Nelson, came to this coun- 
try from England, 1872 ; his reputation 
as a tenor, oratorio, and opera singer 
had been fully established previously. 

Yauc ANSON, Jaques DE, an in- 
ventor, exhibited, 1738, in France, a 
machine capable of playing several airs 

on the German flute ; in 1741 he com- 
pleted a pipe and tabor player, operated 
in the same manner as his flute autom- 
aton, also musical androides; born 
in Grenoble, Feb. 24, 1709; died in 
Paris, Nov. 21, 1782. 

Yauxhall Gardens, though some- 
tliing similar had existed in London 
since 1660, were opened June 7, 1732; 
and this popular place of amusement 
was closed July 25, 1859. 

Yeldeke, Heinrich von, a German 
minnesinger, and originator of heroic 
minstrel song; was a Westphalian by 
birth, and a composer. 

Yelluti, or Yelutti, one of the 
most successful interpreters of Rossini's 
music, was born at Rome in 1781, and 
died Feb. 20, 1861, at his villa in the 
environs of Padua, where he had long 
resided. It was for him that Meyerbeer 
composed his *' II Crociato,^' and Ros- 
sini his " Aureliano in Palmy ra^ 
Yelluti was formerly one of the 
singers in the Sistine Chapel at Rome. 

Yento, Matthias, went from Italy 
into England, 1763 ; was a composer and 
teacher; was insured the expense of 
printing his works, though his music 
was trivial and uninteresting. He died 
in London, 1777. 

Yenua, one of the oldest members 
of the Royal Society of Musicians; 
leader of the ballets at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, London; composed a large 
number of ballets ; was a leading musi- 
cian and violinist at Reading, and re- 
tired, 1858, to Exeter, wealthy. 

Yera, a celebrated prima donna, who 
performed before the first Napoleon 
and Charles XII. ; died in Paris, 1867. 

Yeracini, Francesco Maria, born 
at Florence, 1685 ; celebrated as a vio- 
linist ; though a great artist, was very 
arrogant ; his style was peculiar to him- 
self, and he was noted for his shake and 
arpeggios; produced several successful 
operas in London. 

Yeraccordion, invented at Yienna, 
1857, by Randhartinger, consisting of 
glass bells attached to a conic iron 
roller, played with damp fingers. 

Yerbrugel, M., a Belgian, invented, 
1854, the electric metronome, used for 
conducting choruses behind the. scenes 



and in other dispersed situations, ren- 
dering it possible for three or four 
separate choruses and orchestras to 
move together with mathematical pre- 

Vebdelot, Piiilippus, a Flemish 
contrapuntist ; one of the best masters ; 
his works are all written either in Latin 
or Italian, and bear date previously to 
the year 1550. 

Verdi, Giuseppe, the reigning star 
of the Italian opera since Rossini ; born 
at Busseto, a village of Lombardy, Oct. 
9, 1S14 ; became the composer of many 
operas which have been presented in 
this country, as well as in Europe, by 
the Italian troupes which have visited 
New York and Boston; received the 
cross of the Legion of Honor from 
Louis Napoleon, 1855; was little known 
previous to 1839, when he produced his 
first opera; has written about thirty 
successful operas ; was a member of 
the Italian Parliament, 1861; in 1871 
went officially to Milan, to re-organize 
the Italian Musical Institute; has re- 
ceived numerous honors and decora- 
tions, both Italian and foreign. 

Verstovsky, director of the Moscow 
opera; the composer of a multitude of 
songs and some operas, since 1850; in 
his compositions has laid the old Rus- 
sian airs under contribution to some 
extent, and thus made his music popu- 
lar as national music. 

Vespa, GebonixMO, a celebrated Ital- 
ian composer towards the close of the 
sixteenth century. Amongst his works 
are, "'Madrigali a 5 voci,^^ Venice, 1570; 
and ^'■Madrigali a 5 voci,^^ Venice, 1575. 

Vespers, a public religious service, 
originally consisting of five Psalms of 
David, a hymn, the magnificat., or cant- 
icle of the Virgin Mary, and several 
prayers, anthems, &c., sung as an even- 
ing service ; introduced into the Uni- 
tarian churches in America, by Samuel 
Longfellow of Brooklyn, N.Y., Dec. 19, 

Vestris, Madame, born 1797; this 
delightful theatrical singer married 
Charles Mathews ; managed the Olym- 
pic Theatre, 1828 ; afterwards was man- 
ager of the Covent Garden and Lyceum 
Theatres; was a popular favorite to 
within a short time of her death ; died 
Aug. 8, 1856, aged 59. 

Vestvali, Felicita, came to this 
country with a reputation gained in 
Europe ; sang in New York and other 

cities; went to Mexico 1855, where 
she became manager of the National 
Theatre, 1856. 

Vieuxtemps, Henry, born at Ver- 
viers, Belgium, Feb. 20, 1820; at the 
age of twelve years played the viohn at 
the conservatory, Paris ; travelled and 
gave concerts throughout the Old 
World ; came to America 1843 ; came 
here again 1857, and gave concerts 
through the States, after which he be- 
came solo violinist at St. Petersburg; 
was also known as a composer. 

Vieuxtemps, Madame, wife of the 
celebrated violinist; born at Vienna; 
acquired, at an early age, a reputation 
as a pianist ; went with her husband on 
all his voyages, accompanying him on 
the piano-forte when he did not need 
an orchestra; died at St. Cloud, 1868, 
aged 53. 

Vinci, Leonardo da, born at 
Naples, 1690; a composer of rare abil- 
ity; wrote for all the great theatres 
of Italy; improved recitative, adapted 
music to the expression of words, made 
important improvements in dramatic 
representations, composed many operas 
for Rome and Italy ; and Avas poisoned 
in 1732. 

ViNER, William Letton, born at 
Bath, England, May 14, 1790; early 
became an organist and composer; 
wrote overtures, harp music, and songs ; 
came to this country, and settled in 
Massachusetts ; his library of 600 works 
was sold at auction in Boston, March, 

ViNiNG, Mary, a famous singer at 
the theatres and concerts in London; 
died there, Jan. 20, 1868, aged 71. 

ViNNiNG, John, father of Louisa; a 
violinist, singer, and pianist; two of 
his brothers are musicians ; the father 
of these sons was a flutist, but played 
entirely by ear, and any thing after 

ViNNiNG, Louisa, born at Kings- 
bridge, Devonshire, 1835; sang before 
she could speak ; frequently sang in her 
sleep ; sang before the queen and court 
at Buckingham Palace, 1840; her talent 
is natural," and up to that time she had 
not received instruction ; could repeat 
any air after hearing it a few times. 

VioccA, Pietro, an Italian com- 
poser, lived about 1720. From his 
works the following may be named: 
" Tre Marie a Pie delta Croce,''^ ora- 
torio; ""Partenza Amorosa,''^ opera. 



Viol, an ancient instrument like the 
violin, having six or more strings. 

Viola, a large kind of violin, and 
sometimes called tenor-viol; it occupies 
a place between the violin and violon- 

Viola, Alfons Della, chapel-mas- 
ter to the Duke of Este, at Ferrara, 
about the year 1541, was born in that 
city. It is a common opinion that he 
was the first who united singing with 
declamation on the boards of a thea- 

ViOLiCEMBALO, an instrument like a 
piano-forte, and played by a bow. 

Violin, a well-known instrument of 
the viol species, now used in all or- 

Violin-Makers. See Adams, Al- 
bani, the Amati family, Arey, Bergonzi, 
Kerlin, Klots, Stradivarius, Steiner, 
Supot, Guarnerius, Fischer, White. 

Violin-Strings. The manufacture 
of strings has been carried on in vari- 
ous towns in Italy for centuries ; and 
this branch of industry was introduced 
into France 1766. 

Violoncello, an instrument inter- 
mediate between the viola and double- 

ViOLONE, a name for the double-bass. 

ViON, a celebrated professor of the 
harpsichord, at Paris, France, 1780, 
and member of the Royal Academy of 

ViONETTO, born in Paris, France; 
published, 1780, three sonatas for the 
clavichord and violin ; also other works. 

VioTTi. Giovanni B., born at Pied- 
mont, 1753; left Italy 1778, and ap- 
peared in Paris 1782; remained in 
France until 1799, as composer and 
violinist; afterwards travelled much, 
but wrote most of his works in London 
and Paris, where he became famous; 
died in London, March 3, 1824, aged 71. 

Virginal, a keyed and stringed in- 
strument, in shape resembling the 

Virginal Book of Queen Elizabeth 
contains music so difficult that few in 
Europe could play the pieces without 
previous practice. 

ViTALiAN, pope, introduced the wind 
organ in Rome, in the year 757. 

ViViER, the celebrated horn-player, 
the admiration of Turkish, Russian, 
English, French, German, Italian, and 
American artists, was born in Corsica; 
could produce double and treble notes 
on his instrument; after taking resi- 
dence in Paris, he became known as the 
king of horn-players, and was celebrated 
also as a composer, violinist, pianist, 
vocalist, and mimic. His three sisters 
were also excellent musicians. 

Vocal Concerts had their first rise 
in Flanders, 1650. 

Vocal Organ in man is placed at 
the top of the windpipe, and, when 
perfect, renders the voice the most ac- 
ceptable and correct of musical instru- 

Vocal Society, London, England; 
founded 1832; an association of the 
eminent vocal performers of that me- 

Vogler, Abbe Georg Joseph, born 
at Wurzburg, 1749 ; travelled for many 
years to gain a knowledge of all the 
systems of music, and then formed one 
of his own ; was a great composer, and 
the inventor of some instruments; his 
^^ orchestrion'^ attracted much atten- 
tion; while he exhibited it, he also 
lectured on music; wrote a great 
amount of music, and published many 
important works ; died 1814. 

Voice-Maker, one whose business 
it is to cultivate and form the voice for 
opera or oratorio singing. 

VoLUMiR, born in France; a com- 
poser and violinist; in 1713, became 
leader of the concerts in Dresden. 

Vries, Rosa de, made her debut at 
Castle Garden, New York, 1851 ; sang 
at the Academy, 1855, and in 1866 at 
the Royal Italian Opera, Paris. 

Vuillaume, M., a musical instru- 
ment maker of Paris, France, invented 
a stringed instrument, the octo-baas ; it 
descends lower, by a third, than the 
four-stringed double-bass; it is oper- 
ated by keys and levers, and by foot- 
pedals; its compass is one octave and 
a fifth. 




Waage.n^, Cabl, a famous German 
musician, died Dec. 26, 1873, aged 

Wagnei;, Johanna, born at Han- 
over, 1831, a celebrated vocalist; made 
her first appearance at the age of fifteen 
years: appeared in London 1850, in 
opera, having previously sung through 
Italy and in Germany; finally settled 
at Berlin, and sang at the opera-house 

Wagner, Richard, born at Leipsic, 
May 10, 1813; early became music di- 
rector at the Magdeburg Theatre ; was 
known as a composer 183G; since 1853 
has excited no little attention as a re- 
markable innovator in dramatic music ; 
is famous for his colossal opera-house 
at Baireuth; it was to be finished May 
1, 1875; ^^ Tannhauser^^ was to be the 
first opera represented, and with an or- 
chestra of three hundred perform- 

Waite, J. J., of London, assisted by 
J. J. Gauntlett, published ''The Halle- 
lujah,'^ a book of psalmody, 1849. 

Waineavright, Harriet, of Eng- 
land, wrote a collection of ''Sow/s and 
Choruses,^' of which Dr. Burney says, 
*'I know of no female contrapuntist in 
Europe who could surpass, if equal, the 
merit of the composition." 

Wainwright, Jonathan Mayiiew, 
A.M., author of chants adapted to the 
liymns of the Church, a collection called 
^' Music of the Church,' ' and other works ; 
born in Liverpool, England, Feb. 24, 
1792 ; came to this country when a boy, 
and while in college oflEiciated as organ- 
ist at Christ Church, Boston, Mass. ; 
became a bishop, and died in New York 
Sept. 21, 1854. 

Wakefield, Samuel, Pittsburg, 
Penn., published, 1830, ''The Chi'istian's 
Harp,'' 100 pages; with an appendix of 
64 pages the next year, added by Lazarus 
B. McLain. 

Walcker, E. Friedrich, a distin- 
guished organ-builder; born at Carn- 
stadt, near Stuttgard, Germany; com- 
menced business 1820 ; made many im- 
provements in organs; in 1803 erected 
the great organ in Boston Music Hall ; 
died 1803, at Ludwigsburg, Bavaria, 
where his factory is situated. ____ 

Waldensbs, an oratorio, Asahel Ab- 
bot, New York, 1850. 

Wales. By the laws of Wales, a 
harp was one of the three things that 
were necessary to constitute a gentle- 
man or a freeman ; slaves could not own 
or play upon that instrument. 

W alder, J. J., a musician of Zurich, 
in Switzerland, 1790, published in that 
town, in 1788, a method for singing; 
also, about the same time, several col- 
lections of songs. 

Walker, Adam, of London, England, 
invented the Celcstina Stop, an instru- 
ment like the VioUcembalo, which ap- 
peared sixty years later. 

Walker, Archibald, of Edinburgh, 
was the author of acollection of "Church 
Tunes" used in Scotland, and also a 
composer of catches and songs. 

Walker, Henry Stephen, born in 
London 1803, was entered at the Royal 
Academy of Music, London, at the age 
of seven years ; gained both the bronze 
and silver medals ; is a musician now, at 
the age of eleven years (1874), and has 
made his appearance in Boston, Mass., 
with Mrs. Scott-Siddons, who brought 
the young pianist to this country; and 
he is a wonderful child artist. 

Waldhorn. The same fonii as the 
French horn. Literally, woodhorn ; and 
formerly much used. 

Walker, James, of Dysart, Scotland, 
published two different collections of 

Walker, Joseph C, an English 
author, born at Dublin in 1700, pub- 
lished in London, in 178(), a work en- 
titled ''Historical Memoirs of the Irish 
Bards." ^ 

Walker, William,, a teacher and 
composer of music in^Spartansburg, 
South Carolina; published, 1835, at 
Philadelphia, Penn., "The Southern Har- 
mony," 248 pages; it was enlarged to 
336 pages in 1857; also "The Southern 


and Western Pocket Harmonist," 1842; 
in 1807 he brought out "Christian Har- 
mony," 384 pages. 

Wallace, Lady M., published in 
London, Letters of Mendelssohn, and his 
Life; also Letters of Beethoven and 
Mozart, with many letters of other dis-^ 
ti^guished_musicians, 1868. 

i-lV , J* /Vw , Tn*-. l/yxr>7 ''^-'-v/?, o 

i-<^ . ^^- ^ Sr^jT ^/-^Ta-u, I'x^ 

S .c^ 



Wallace, William Yincent, born 
in Waterford, Ireland, March 11, 1815; 
was master of a band, and an excellent 
practical musician, playing nearly every 
instrument in the orchestra; was for 
many years music-director in Dublin; 
travelled extensively, giving concerts 
with great success ; came to this coun- 
try 1850; has published an immense 
amount of music, and some operas. In 
1857 he went to Europe with the inten- 
tion of bringing out two operas, one for 
the German, and one for the English 
stage; in London he became almost 
blind, and was obliged to abandon com- 
position ; retired to France ; and died at 
his hotel in the Pyrenees, Oct. 12, 

Wallenhaupt, Hermann A., born 
at Schkenditz, Prussia, Sept. 27, 1827 ; 
came to this country 1845, when a 
young man of seventeen years ; was a 
pianist and also a composer; settled in 
New York, where his piano-forte com- 
positions became famous ; many of them 
were republished in Europe ; his songs 
were celebrated as most beautiful ; died 
in New York. 

Wallix, Johan Olof, born in Dale- 
carlia, Sweden, Oct. 1.5,1779; published 
a Swedish psalm and hymn book, 1811, 
in which appeared some of his own com- 
positions ; died .June 30, 1839. 

Walsh, J., musical instrument maker 
to the king, residing in London, pub- 
lished ^^ The British Musical Miscellany, ^^ 
a collection of vocal and instrumental 
music, in six volumes. 

Walsyngham, Thomas de, flour- 
ished about A.D. 1400, and says five 
musical characters were used in his day ; 
" the large, the long, the breve, the semi- 
breve, and the minim. A new charac- 
ter, the crotchet, has lately been intro- 
duced ; but beyond the minim no subdi- 
vision ought to be made." 

Walter, Thomas, of Roxbury, 
Mass., born 1696; in 1721 published 
"T/je Grounds and Bules of Music Ex- 
plained;'''' this was the fourth singing- 
book published in this country, and 
contained twenty-four tunes in three 
parts. Was a composer and teacher ; died 

Walter, William. H., Mus. Doc, 
published in New York, " Psalms, Can- 
ticles, and Anthems;'''' also a ^'■Manual of 
Church Music,'" &c., 1869. 

Ward, Thomas, of Franklin Grove, 
111., invented, 1857, a machine for turn- 

ing the leaves of sheet-music for the 

Ware, F., born 1775; tenor-player at 
Covent Garden, and leader at the Music 
Hall, Liverpool, England ; also known 
as performer at other places. 

War Music. From the earliest days 
down to the present, no band of soldiers 
of any extent has undertaken a march 
without the enlivening influence of 
music. At the present day the Aus- 
trian, Prussian, French, English, Irish, 
and American military music is only 
equalled by the orchestral bands of the 
same countries. 

Warner, Anna B., author of many 
popular works, wrote '''•Jesus loves me, 
this I know, ^^ and several other popular 

Warner, James F., published, 1841, 
at Boston, Mass., a translation of ^^ God- 
frey Weber^s General Music Teacher; " 
also '^A Dictionary of Musical Terms; ^^ 
in 1848 removed to New York, and there 
opened a musical academy, and taught 
music at sight. 

War-Songs. The soldier has always 
desired something more than military 
music, some vocal demonstration in 
which he can himself take part; and 
this feeling is manifested in the savage 
war-whoop, as well as in the world- 
renowned Marseillaise ; every country, 
every people, has had and continues to 
cherish its war-songs. 

Warren, Alfred E., a well-known 
pianist and composer, had one of his 
compositions performed at three differ- 
ent concerts at the Peace Jubilee, 1872. 

Warren, Charles, a noted teacher 
of music in Ohio, published, 1850, an 
edition of " The Missouri Harmony," 
with modern harmony ; 270 pages. 

Warren, E. T., an English musician 
who published a monthly collection of 
ancient music, and annual collections 
of glees and madrigals. 

Warren, George William, bom in 
Albany, N.Y., Aug. 17, 1828; became 
known as a teacher and composer in 
1849; was an organist and director of 
music in the churches for many years. 

Warren, H., a celebrated organist 
at Montreal, Canada, died, as was sup- 
posed, from grief on account of the loss 
of the fine organ by fire ; after the loss 
he became ill, and died December, 1856. 

Warren, Henry, published ^'Notes 
upon Music," London, 1832. 

Warren, J. S., of Columbus, 0., 

^ U . Hm^ hryy>t^ . l^- /^^ Jfr ^^(^ . 


I, ^, r^^ lvru>v-vAv«-^ /^ iriA^ ' y ^-T^ 



published, 1856, *' Warren^ s Minstrel,'^ 
156 pages; a music-teacher in that 

Warren^, Joseph, of London, Eng- 
land, published ^^Hbits to Young Organ- 
ists,^' **A Dictionary of Musicians,'' and 
several other works on music, from 1844 
to 1853. 

Warren, Samuel W., of Montreal, 
Canada, completed his large organ for 
the Parish Church, 1858 ; made impor- 
tant improvements in the construction 
of pedal-keys, which are concave at the 

Wasielewski, Herr von, of Bonn, 
an able musician and violinist; pub- 
lished "J. History of the Violin," which 
gained for him a reward from Fine Arts 
Department of Prussia ; has also written 
"J. Life of Schumann." 

Water-Organ is the same as the 
hydraulic organ. 

Watkins, Thomas Philip, born in 
London, 1799, at the age of fifteen years 
was a performer in the orchestra at 
Covent Garden Theatre ; became a per- 
former at the king's concert of ancient 
music ; and in 1819 was engaged by 
Bishop for the Philharmonic Band, and 
was elected a member of the -Royal Soci- 
ety of Musicians. 

Watlen, John, musician, teacher, 
and composer, of London, England, had 
such reputation that he was also em- 
ployed in Scotland ; was also a music- 
r Watson, Henry C, born in Balti - 
) more, Mdv y— 18^ ; published '■'■Masonic 
\ \ Musical Manual," 1855; died 1669. -' 

Watson, J. Jay, known as the Amer- 
ican Paganini, was born in Gloucester, 
Mass., Sept. 23, 1830; became early cel- 
ebrated as a violinist and composer; in 
1858 visited Europe ; on his return 
opened a music-school in New York, 
where he has since remained ; is known 
by his many concerts and his conser- 
vatory of music, as well as by his com- 
positions and newspaper writings. 

Watson, James, born in Dundee, 
Scotland, became blind when a boy ; a 
performer on the violin and violoncello ; 
finally succeeded, 1821, in playing both 
instruments at the same time ; con- 
structed machinery by which he could 
bow the violoncello and finger it with 
his leg ; could perform music in four 
I parts. 

I Watt, James, the engineer and in- 

ventor, was born at Greenock, on the 

V I) , /^nrv- V ' / ^}^ ■ '^-At/w , i^ . 

Clyde, Jan. 19, 1736; invented an im- 
proved dulcimer and an improved jews- 
harp ; died Aug. 19, 1819, in his eighty- 
third year. 

Watts, Isaac, born at Southampton, 
England, July 17, 1674; known wher- 
ever psalms and hymns have been 
sung; his hymns were published in this 
country by Benjamin Franklin, at Phila- 
delphia, 1741 ; his Psalms at Boston, 
Mass. ; they were sent in manuscript to 
Dr. Cotton Mather, of Boston, who en- 
couraged the work, and advised its pub- 
lication. Watts died Nov. 25, 1748, aged 

Watts, John, London, England, pub- 
lished ^"Musical Miscellany," and other 
works, 1729, six volumes in all. 

Webb, George James, composer and t-c)"^^^ 
teacher of music; has published a num- /ir^3. 
ber of music-books at Boston, and later Vv%aa^ k; 
in New York ; was associated with Low- jf^ . 
ell Mason in many of his publications. 

Webb, T. S., of Boston, Mass., was 
the first president of the Handel and 
Haydn Society. 

Webb, Thomas S., of Rhode Island; 
author of some Masonic music, and a 
"Most Excellent Master's Song" in 
general use ; died 1819. 

Webbe, Samuel, born 1740; partic- 
ularly celebrated for his glees and part- 
songs; his compositions are known in 
all countries, and are many in number ; 
died 1817, aged 77. 

Webber, Isaiah, born at Hopkinton, 
N.H., 1793, was a teacher of music, 
leader of a choir, a performer upon sev- 
eral instruments, and a composer of 
music. His manuscript compositions 
form a volume of 150 pages. Mr. Web- 
ber had in his choir three viols, three 
clarinets, a Kent bugle, and sometimes 
other instruments, to support the voices. 

Weber, Albert, came to this country 
from Bavaria, and settled in New York, 
1845; was a journeyman piano-forte 
maker; worked at his trade by day, and 
gave music-lessons at night ; was organ- 
ist at one of the churches for some time ; 
became wealthy, and is now at the head 
of an extensive manufactory of piano- 
fortes in the city of his adoption. 

Weber, Carl Maria von, born at 
Eutin, Holstein, Dec. 18, 1786; became a 
composer when a boy ; composed operas 
1810, and his celebrated "Freischiitz" at 
Dresden, 1816 ; this made his fame and 
his fortune ; other operas followed, and 
in 1824 he wrote for the London theatres ; 



was immensely popular in England, as 
he was everywhere; wrote a great 
amount of music ; and died in London, 
June 5, 1826, aged 40. Madame Weber 
died at Dresden, February, 1843. 

Weber, Edmund von, director of 
the music at the Court Theatre in Salz- 
burg in 1797 ; was elder brother of the 
celebrated C. M. von Weber. Some of 
his instrumental works have been pub- 
lished. He has also composed some 
dramatic pieces. 

Weber, Franz, instituted " The Co- 
logne Union of Men^s Voices,^^ in Lon- 
don, 1842, with the object of promoting 
a taste for German song. 

Weber, Gottfried, a composer and 
writer about music ; bom at Freinsheim, 
Bavaria, March 1, 1779; composed a 
large amount of music, and perfomed 
on several instruments, but was chiefly 
celebrated for his theoretical works ; 
such as, "Musical Compofiition,^' "Dic- 
tionary of Music," and '^Thorough-Bass 
Instructor; -^ died Sept. 12, 1839. 

Weber, Heinrich Dionys, born at 
Welchau, Bohemia, 1771 ; wrote much 
dance-music, and introduced orchestral 
music in the ball-room ; composed three 
operettas, songs, and instrumental 
music, as well as church music ; made 
improvements in keyed instruments, 
adding valves to horns, and invented a 
method of tuning the kettle-drum to 
any desired key ; resided at Prague. 

Weber, J., author of "The Church of 
England Choral Book,'' published in 
London, 1856. 

Weber, J.R., published "School Part- 
Songs,'' 1862, assisted by W. J. Unwin; 
and, in the same year, "J. Singing 
Method,^' from the German. 

Webster, J. P., became known in 
New England as director of a quartet 
company called " Euterpeans ;''' after- 
wards as a popular song-writer at New 
Albany, Ind. ; was born at Manches- 
ter, N.H. ; published ''The Signet Ring,'' 
for sabbath schools, Chicago, 1868. 

Weeden, C, a composer of anthems 
and other music, residing at London, 
England, 1702. 

Wehle, Karl, born March 17, 1825 ; 
has travelled in France, Spain, England, 
and Germany, giving concerts, and has 
written many piano-forte compositions ; 
went to reside in Paris, 1858. 

Wehli, James M., a celebrated pianist 
and composer; in 1866 gave concerts 
through the States with Madame Hoff- 

man; has written some fine composi- 
tions for his instrument. 

Wehran, Augustus, author of a 
''Theory and Practice of Tuning in Gen- 
eral," published in London, 1853. 

Weichsell, Elizabeth, born in 
England, 1770; became famous, after 
marriage, as Mrs. Billington ; died 1817. 
See Billington. 

Weiprecht, Herr, a celebrated 
band-master and composer, died at Ber- 
lin, 1872. 

Weisenthal, T.V., of Boston, Mass., 
1820, became known as the composer of 
several pleasing songs published there 
and at Philadelphia, Penn. 

Weiss, Carl R., born at Muhlhousen ; 
was a flute-player at the age of nine 
years ; settled at Naples, and soon gave 
concerts in Rome; travelled through 
Italy, and finally settled in London, 
where he published about seventy com- 
positions for the flute. 

Wels, Charles, born at Prague, 
1830; came to this country, and settled 
in New York, where he is known as a 
pianist, teacher, and composer ; has pub- 
lished a collection of " Church Music " 
in New York, 1864, and many composi- 
tions for the piano-forte. 

Welsh Bards. The first musician 
or bard was an officer of dignity at the 
court of the Welsh king; and music, in 
Wales, was a royal accomplishment. 

Welsh Harp, an instrument of large 
proportions, of simplicity, and without 
ornament; it has two rows of strings, 
one of which gives the accidentals ; one 
of the Welsh harps has about a hundred 

Welsh, Thomas, bom at Wells, Eng- 
land, 1770; was engaged as an oratorio- 
singer at the Opera House, London, 
when a youth, and sang in several 
operas written for his voice ; became a 
composer when twenty-three years of 
age, and also a teacher. 

Welsh Music was received from Ire- 
land about 1100; it differs from the 
Gaelic, and accords with the perfect 
scale. They did not sing in unison, but 
in parts. Some of the old Welsh music 
is very pleasing. 

Wely-Lefebure, M. Louis James 
Alfred, born at Paris, Nov. 13, 1817; 
knew his notes and the use of the key- 
board before he knew his letters; be- 
came an organist at the age of fifteen ; 
was noted for his elegant improvisations 
on the organ, as well as for his more pre- 



tentious compositions; was celebrated 
as a composer of organ-music, much as 
yet unpublished ; died at Paris, Decem- 
ber, 1809, aged 52. M. Widor succeeded 
him as organist at the Church of Saint 

Weninqer, Francis Xavier, born 
in Austria, 1805; came to this country 
in 1830; wrote hymns and musical ac- 
companiments, a Te Deum, and other 
music, 1858. 

Werner, Anthony, for many years 
a well-known organist and teacher of 
music, Boston, Mass., died there Dec. 
21, 1866, aged 50 years; was teacher at 
the N. E. institution for the Blind nine 
years, and a member of the orchestra at 
the old Academy; was author of " The 
Memorare,^^ a collection of Catholic 
music, 1857. 

Wesley, Charles, son of Charles 
the hymn-writer, and nephew of John ; 
born at Bristol, England, 1757; played 
the harpsichord when a child, and at 
the age of thirteen years few could 
excel him; went to London, where he 
became at once known as a performer 
and composer; in 1779 he commenced 
giving concerts; in 1784 published a 
collection of songs, and has since pub- 
lished much other music. 

Wesley, Charles, known as the 
hymn-writer, son of Samuel rector of 
Epworth, born 1708 ; came to this coun- 
try with his brother John as a mission- 
ary of the English Church ; returned to 
England 1736 ; was a musical amateur, 
and composed some psalmody; died 

Wesley, Samuel S., was a composer 
of sacred music, and wrote chants for 
the daily service, London, 1846. 

West, whose name is connected with 
many of the old psalm-tunes, was a 
teacher, and resident of Woodstock, Vt. 

West, Benjamin, of Northampton, 
England, published in London, 1759, 
"iSacra Concerto; or, The Voice of 

West, H., a teacher of vocal and in- 
strumental music, London, England, 
published "A Singing Preceptor,'' 1846, 
and a book for the accordeon. 

Westlake, Frederick, a member 
of the Royal Academy, London, Eng- 
land, was a composer of sacred music, 
and published one collection of part- 
songs, 1863. 

Westropp, E. J., a composer of mu- 
sic, published in London, 1857, five 

different collections of music, among 
which were *' Carmina Sacra" and the 
" Normal Singer." 

Westropp, T., published, from 1861 
to 1863, 123 anthems, a violin-tutor, 
many sacred songs, and a complete 

Westphal, Johann Christoph, of 
Hamburg, was appointed, in 1803, or- 
ganist of St. Nicholas's Church in that 
town. He was celebrated as a per- 
former on that instrument, also as a 
pianist and violoncellist. He has also 
composed some good instrumental mu- 

Wetmore, Dr. Truman S-voorn 
Aug. 12, 1774, in Winchester, Conn., 
was one of the old pioneers of music in 
New England ; a contemporary of Jeuks, 
and a composer of music popular in his 
time ; died in Winchester July 21, 1861. 
His '^Florida" and *^ America" are 
still popular tunes. /^3 '^ 

Weyde, Van der, the inventor of 
the Telephone, discovered that a mag- 
netic current sent through wires pro- 
duced a lengthening and shortening of 
them, and that the vibrations were mu- 
sical, and could be made audible by a 
sounding-board ; this led to the inven- 

Weyse, C. E. F., an excellent pianist, 
resided at Copenhagen in 1798. He has 
published much instrumental music, of 
which four allegri di bravura for the 
piano-forte were republished at Berlin, 
in 1796, by the chapel-masters Schulz 
and Reichardt. He also produced a 
symphony, some sonatas, and several 

Wheat, Dr. Nathaniel, born at 
Canaan, N.H., 1773; settled in Candia, 
N. H., and removed to Manchester; 
was well known as a singer and violin- 
ist, though an eminent physician; pub- 
lished some music, taught many free 
schools ; and died Jan. 25, 1857, aged 
74 years. 

Wheatsone, M., 1829, invented an 
instrument of the accordeon family, 
in England, called ^^ Concertina ;" it 
was first introduced into America by 
Mr. Sedgwick, 1852 ; the tones are pro- 
duced as upon the accordeon. 

Wheeler, Miss, a singer at Covent 
Garden Theatre, London, procured for 
Mrs. Billington her first engagement of 
three years. 

Whichello, Abriell, organist in 
London, and celebrated as a teacher; 


composed many popular songs; and 
died 1745. 

White, A. Warren, bom at Barre, 
Mass., August, 1826; lias been engaged 
in the manufacture and sale of violins, 
in Boston, Mass., twenty -five years; 
and has gained a reputation for skill 
which has created a great demand for 
his instruments in this country. 

White, B. F., associated with E. J. 
King, published, 1844, at Philadelphia, 
Penn., " The Sacred Harp,'' 262 pages; 
an appendix, 1850, enlarged it to 360 
pages ; a second appendix, 1859, made a 
book of 432 pages. 

White, Edward L., bom in New- 
buryport, Mass., acquired large celebrity 
as a teacher and composer of music; 
settled in Boston, where he published 
much music, vocal and instrumental, 
some books, and some instruction- 
books ; died 1851. 

White, George L., teacher in the 
school for colored people of Nashville, 
Tenn., established 1866, encouraged the 
scholars to practise the melodies of their 
race, and with a select number com- 
menced giving concerts ; in 1871, a com- 
pany of eight was formed, called '^Ju- 
bilee Singers,'^ who came North, giving 
concerts, and realizing in one tour the 
sum of $20,000; with which and later 
earnings was founded the school known 
as Fisk University of Tennessee. 

White, John, violin-maker, Boston, 
Mass., made one instrument which be- 
came famous from the fact that the top 
was made from a part of an organ pre- 
sented to the town of Cambridge 1761 ; 
the back and hoops from an old com- 
munion-table of the old church at Lex- 

White, Robert, was an excellent 
composer of church services ; he died in 
1581. The works of Wliite do not ap- 
pear to have been ever printed. 

Whitefield, the celebrated preacher, 
was the first person who adapted de- 
votional poetry to the old popular songs 
of the Scotch and English. His reason 
was, as he said, " because it was not 
right that the Devil should have all the 
good music." He was such a lover of 
old tunes, that, were he now living, he 
would probably be willing, rather than 
give up the best music, that some one 
should take the modern school of " pro- 

Whiting, George E., a well-known 
♦organist and teacher at the New Eng- 

land Conservatory of Music, Boston, 
Mass. ; his method of instruction is 
much esteemed. 

Whiting, S. K., born at East Win- 
throp. Me., 1831; organist, teacher, 
and composer, at Rockland; has con- 
tributed to several collections of music, 
and published one or two books of 
sacred music. 

Whiting, Virginia, under the as- 
sumed name of Lorini, sang at Venice, 
Turin, Edinburgh, Brussels, Cologne, 
Berlin, Amsterdam, Paris, Leipsic, 
Dresden, and other places. 

Whitney, Myron W., born in Ash- 
by, Mass., Sept. 5, 1836; in early life 
went to Boston, Mass., and became 
known as a bass-singer, and teacher of 
music ; a solo-singer in the concerts and 
oratorios of that city ; went to Europe, 
was heard in London and elsewhere, 
when he became famous ; returning, he 
has been considered the leading bass- 
singer in this country. 

Whittlesey, Oramel, bom in Say- 
brook, Conn., Nov. 7, 1801; in 1836, he 
opened a seminary for instruction in 
music, called ^^ Music Vale Seminary,^' 
at Salem, Conn. ; ladies only are admit- 
ted to this school; as a composer of 
songs and other music he has become 
well known; is a bass-singer, and a per- 
former upon several instruments. 

Wiebe, Edward, born at Altona, 
Holstein, Nov. 17, 1816; early became 
a solo-singer in the school of "Ton- 
halle;" became a music-publisher and 
writer for the public journals ; came to 
America 1851, as a teacher of vocal 
and instrumental music; invented the 
" Scale Building Key Indicator,'^ the 
^' Music Becorder,^^ and other useful 
things ; has been an organist, teacher, 
director, and composer at Brooklyn, 
N.Y., since his arrival in this country. 

WiECK, Frederick, born 1784, was 
educated for the ministry; became a 
performer upon the harp, piano -forte, 
violin, horn, and double-bass, without 
instruction; settled at Leipsic as a 
teacher of music ; became famous as the 
instructor of Chopin and Schumann; was 
known as a great worker in the cause of 
music ; in 1840 went to reside in Dres' 
den; and died at Loschwitz, Oct. 6, 
1873, aged 89. He was the father of 
Clara Wieck, now the widow of Robert 

Wiedemann, a German musician, 
and celebrated as a flutist, went to Eng- 


f inn /'^v.^L. ) 

laud 172G; his quartets, trios, and 
duets were generally known in Europe, 
where he was long principal solo-per- 

WiENiAWSKi, Heinrich, bom at 
LubJin, Poland, June 10, 1835. There 
were two artists of this name, Heinrich 
the violinist, and Joseph the pianist; 
Joseph was born 1838; they performed 
at Munich, 1853 ; Heinrich took the first 
prize at the Paris Conservatory, and at 
the age of sixteen gave concerts at Ber- 
lin; in 1858 was with JuUien in Lon- 
don, and in 1859 was solo-violinist to 
the Emperor of Russia ; in 1860 was a 
professor in the conservatory at St. 
Petersburg ; came to this country 1872. 

WiEPKECHT,WiLHELM, bom at Asch- 
ersleben, Aug. 10, 1802; in 1824 en- 
tered the royal Kapelle at Berlin as 
violinist, but gave his attention mostly 
to military music, composing much, 
and making improvements in wind-in- 
struments ; invented the chromatic bass- 
tuba and an instrument of wood, called 
batyphon ; in 1838 became regimental 
band-director of all the military bands 
of Prussia; died Aug. 4, 1871, at Berlin. 

WiGHTMAN, Valentine, of Groton, 
Mass., published an " E'ssa?/ " concern- 
ing the singing of psalms, hymns, and 
spiritual songs ; undertaking to prove 
that singing was a duty. 

Wilder, Levi, born June 17, 1807, 
at Lancaster, Mass., commenced leading 
choirs, and teaching, at the age of 
twenty-two years ; went to Baltimore, 
Md., 1840, where he was a successful 
teacher in the public schools for seven 
years ; removed to Brooklyn, N.Y., 
and taught music in the schools there 
twenty-two years. (See "Tonograph.") 
Died at Brooklyn, July 28, 1874, and 
was buried at Paterson, N. J. 

Wilder, Philip Van, was author- 
ized by Edward VI. to take, in any 
place in England, 1550, as many singing 
children as he thought best, and teach 
them how to sing in the choirs of the 

Wilder, Solon, born in Princeton, 
Mass., 1831, was a composer and com- 
piler of musical works, a teacher in the 
Boston Academy of Music, and a well- 
known conductor of musical conven- 
tions ; died at Princeton, April 6, 1874 ; 
acquired his reputation as a teacher in 
Bangor, Me. 

y* Wilhelm, Carl, born at Schmalkal- 
/ den, iu Thuringia, Sept.yS, 1815 ; was a 

teacher and director of singing societies ; 
composed much piano-forte music and 
some songs ; set to music, 1854, " The 
Watch on the Bhine;" and the music 
of this one song made him suddenly 
famous in 1865, when it became a 
favorite with the German troops ; and, 
during the war with France, it became 
a national song. See Schneckenbur- 

WiLHORST, Cora de, born in New 
York, became known as a public singer 
after her marriage; made her cUbut 
at the Academy, 1857 ; gave concerts in 
the large cities, and went to Europe as 
an opera-singer. 

Willard, Rev. Samuel, published 
at Greenfield, Mass., 1814, " The Deer- 
field Collection of Sacred Music ;^^ it 
contained the music popular at that 
time ; 144 pages. 

William of Malmesbury, 1143, men- 
tions an organ, in playing which, " a 
wind forced out by the violence of 
water, passing through brass pipes, sends 
forth musical tones." This may have 
been something like the steam-organ, or 
calliope, which see. 

William II., King of Holland, was 
by instinct a musician and composer; 
composed when he rode about the coun- 
try on horseback; when he returned 
sang his melodies to his precentor, who 
added the accompaniments. 

William IX., Count of Poitou, was 
one of the earliest troubadours, who 
"sang new songs, and whose songs are 
not like the songs of any other." He 
was born in 1071, and died 1122. 

Williams, A., of London, England, ^./"jj 
a successful composer of psalmody, ^ 
wrote the first fugue-music introduced v , n^ 
into this country. T. Williams, proba- ^ 
bly a brother, was also a composer. His 
name became familiar in this coun- 
try as associated with William Tansur; 
they published " Williams' and Tansur' s 
Collection'^ of popular psalmody. A 
collection of music by these composers 
was published at Newburyport, Mass., 
by Daniel Bailey, 1769. 

Williams, George Ebenezer, cho- 
rister at St. Paul's, and in 1815 organ- 
ist at Westminster Abbey; died 1819, 
and was buried in the cloisters. 

Williams, W., of Boston, Mass., 
published, 1855, " Gloria in Excelsis," 
a collection of church-music entirely 
new ; also some other works. 

Willis, Richard Storrs, born in 



Boston, Mass., Feb. 10, 1819; after 
graduating at Yale College, where he 
was president of the Beethoven Club, 
and where he organized the " Student's 
Concert," went to Germany; returned 
1849; lectured in the States on church 
music; settled in New York, and be- 
came connected with the newspaper 
press; published the " Musical Worlcl;'^ 
became known as a composer, and pub- 
lished some books of sacred music and 
piano-forte compositions. 

WiLT^is, Robert, of Lexington, Ky., 
published, 1834, " The Lexington Cabi- 
net,^^ 200 pages; a collection of church 

Wilson, Henry, of Greenfield, Mass., 
in 1855 became organist and director at 
Hartford, Conn., where he composed 
much of the music used by his choir. 

Wilson, James, known as the au- 
thor of " The London Musical Cyclo- 

Wilson, John, renowned as a singer 
of Scotch ballads ; born in the canon- 
gate of Edinburgh, Dec. 25, 1800 ; was 
for many years a teacher, and giver of 
concerts, but in 1830 appeared in opera, 
and became a great favorite in Scotland, 
England, and Germany; came to this 
country 1838; after making a tour of 
the States, went to Canada; died at 
Quebec, July, 1849; buried at Quebec, 
where a monument marks his grave, 
erected in 1853. 

Wilson, William, published in 
London a collection of '^ Scotch Songs,'' 
original, for voice and harpsichord, with 
violin or flute accompaniments ; one of 
these songs is *' Roy's Wife of Aldi- 

Winch, A. B., teacher of music at 
Taunton, Mass., in 18.59 produced a 
cantata entitled '■^Demetrius." 

WiNKw^oKTH, Catharine, authoress 
of a number of musical works; pub- 
lished the ^''Choral Boole," '''Christian 
Singers," and other collections of mu- 
sic, in London, England; also some 
music in New York, 1858. 

Winner, Septimus, born in Phila- 
delphia, Penn., known as a music- 
dealer, publisher, composer, and author 
of several instruction-books ; published 
in Boston and New York, 1874. 

Winter, Peter Von, the eminent 
composer and violinist, born in Mann- 
heim, 1754; was conductor of the or- 
chestra of the theatre at Munich, 1770, 
and vice chapel-master; celebrated for 

his many compositions for the theatres 
of his own country, and for the Italian 
stage ; died 1825, in Munich. 

Winterstein, Carl, editor of the 
^'Deutsche Miisik - Zeitung ," Philadel- 
phia, Penn. ; successor of Philip Rohr, 
who was the editor after P. M. Wolfsie- 
per the founder, 1850. 

Withers, George, published " Songs 
and Hymns of the Church," 1624; but 
Sternhold and Hopkins' version was 
used, though the Bishop of Canterbury 
approved Withers' s book, with the alter- 
ation of only one word. 

Witt, Theodore de, born at Nieder- 
wesel, in the Netherlands, went to Ber- 
lin, where he became a pianist and 
composer; in 1850 went to Rome, and 
thence to Italy, where he was success- 
ful as a composer; and, after publishing 
some important works at JJdannheim, 
died Dec. 1, 1855. 

WocHNiNG, Carl, a fine musician, 
member of the New York Philharmonic 
Society, died in New York, 1848; about 
seventy of his fellow-musicians formed 
themselves into a military band, and 
performed funeral marches at his grave. 

Wolff, M. Auguste, of Paris, 
France, in 1858 invented an instrument 
named ^^ Pedalier ;" it is independent 
in itself, having its own strings and 
hammers, as well as mechanism; the 
pedals are for the feet, and the per- 
former uses them while his hands are 
upon the keyboard of the piano-forte, — 
combining the two instruments. 

WoLFSiEFER, P. M., editor of the 
^^ Deutsche Musik- Zeitung," Philadel- 
phia, Penn. ; founder of the German 
singing societies of that city; director 
of musical festivals, and known as a 
composer of merit ; commenced his 
paper 1856. 

WoLFSOHN, Carl, a Hungarian, and 
superior pianist, gave concerts in the 
States, 1836; had resided mostly in 
Philadelphia, where he composed much 
music for his instrument. 

Women-Singers. Among the Ameri- 
can scruples of conscience, the second 
was, "whether women may sing as 
well as men; because woman may not 
speak in church, how, then, shall she 
sing?" It was decided that all must 
pray, and therefore all, including wo- 
man, may sing. Women were forbid- 
den to sing by the pope, 1686. 

Wood, Abraham, of Northborough, 
Mass., published a collection of original 

^V/>v^ *^ P 

0*.v/vv_^ ^AH---«-->^/'J~"t^'^V7^->r)'^>-v^ 



» Woodman, J.'^ C, of New York, 
teacher and composer, published ** Mu- 
sical Casket,'^ and other works. 

Woods, Geokge, head of the firm of 
George Woods & Co., Cambridgeport, 
Mass., manufacturers of the Woods 
organs, is an inventor of many improve- 
ments in reed-instruments. 

WooDWORTH, Samuel, author of 
" The Old Oaken Bucket," was born in 
Scituate, Mass., Jan. 13, 1785; was con- 
nected with several newspapers in Bos- 
ton, New Haven, and New York ; died 
Dec. 9, 1842 ; his song will ever hold its 
place among the best of American com- 
positions ; was the author of an opera, 
" The Forest Rose.'' 

WooLETT, John, of Chicago, a solo 
tenor-singer, an enthusiastic musician, 
excellent conductor and voice-teacher, 

Worcester Collection. After five 
editions of this work had been pub- 
lished, 1786 to 1797, Oliver Holden 
altered, corrected, revised, and added to 
the sixth edition, which was printed at 
Boston, Mass . by Thomas & Andrews ; 
Holden became interested in the work, 
and edited the three later editions. 

Worcester Musical Association 
has held meetings since 1852 ; was or- 
ganized as a society 1863, and has held 
annual meetings regularly. 

WoRDE, Wynkyn de, published, 
1521, a set of " Christmas Carrols ; " 
festal chansons for enlivening the mer- 
riments of Christmas. 

WoRGAN, Thomas D., author of 
some musical works, London, 1807 ; but 
chiefly known by his *' Games,'" con- 
structed on the principles of music. 

Wragg, J., of London, England, a 
flutist and composer; author of an 
excellent '■^ Flute Preceptor" which has 
gone through forty editions in Lon- 
don, and has been also published in 
this country. 

Wright, Charles, was very popu- 
lar among the singers and dancers of 
the Haymarket Theatre, London, and 
was called "Champagne Charley." Late 
in life he labored under the monomania 
that one of his legs belonged to Mme. 
Vestris, and refused to stand up or 
walk on that account ; from him origin- 
ated the name of the song, " Champagne 

Wright, Melvin, born at London- 
derry, Vt., Feb. 22, 1824; became well 
known as a singer, teacher, and com- 

psalmody, called ^^ Divine Songs," 1789; 
and a second edition in 1790. 

Wood, D. S., of Virginia, 1852, in- 
vented an attachment of a violin to 
the piano-forte ; it is played with four 
bows, producing soft and sweet tones 
when the piano-forte is used. 

Wood, David B., born blind, 1836, 
learned music, and became a teacher 
at the Institution for the Blind in Penn- 
sylvania, where he produced a number 
of compositions of rare merit, and a 
^^ Dictionary of Musical Terms," in 
raised letters for the blind. 

Wood, Mrs. Mary, formerly Miss 
Paton, born at Edinburgh, Scotland, 
1802; was first known as a singer when 
Miss Paton; composed several songs, 
which were publislied, when five years 
of age; gave concerts 1810, at which 
she performed upon the harp and piano- 
forte ; appeared at the Haymarket Thea- 
tre, as a theatrical singer, 1822 ; became 
famous as an opera - singer ; married 
Joseph Wood ; came with him to this 
country 1833 ; both were popular singers 
here ; in 1856 they were living at Wake- 
field, but afterwards settled at Man- 
chester, England, where she died, 

Wood, Thomas, author of the oldest 
manuscripts in Scotland containing 
secular music; he wrote four books, 
which consumed four years' time ; they 
were completed in 1566 ; each book con- 
tained a distinct part of the music used 
after the Reformation. 

WooDBRiDGE, WiLLiAM C, the emi- 
nent geographer, was tlie first to advo- 
cate the expediency and practicability 
of introducing vocal music as a branch 
of common-school education, in a lec- 
ture at Boston, Mass., before a conven- 
tion of teachers representing eleven 
States of the Union. 
, Woodbury, Isaac B., born at Bever- 
^-' ly, Mass.A^1819, first became known in 
1849, in connection with the '^Ba7j State 
Glee Club;" in 1851 visited Europe, 
and after liis return became known by 
the publication of a number of music- 
books and some popular songs; his 
church music books, sabbath - school 
books, glee-books, and instruction-books, 
were popular ; was connected with seve- 
ral musical papers as editor, and as con- 
tributor in New York ; held many mu- 
sical conventions; composed largely; 
and died at Columbia, S. C, Oct. 26, 
1858, aged 39. 



poser of songs and other music, after he 
settled at Proctorsville. 

Wright, Thomas, born at Stockton, 
England, 1763, resided at Croft ; author 
of a concerto, 1795, and a, '' Primer of 
Music ;^^ was the first to introduce a 
method of marking time by the oscilla- 
tions of the pendulum ; his father was 
the organist at Stockton. 


at Bayreuth, 1755; was, in 1800, flutist 
in the orchestra of the Grand Opera at 
Paris; published various works for the 
flute ; died 1819. 

WuNDERLiCH, C. F., born at Culm- 
bach, 1722 ; a composer, and a performer 
upon the hautboy and clarinet from 
1738 to 1770. 

WuRSCHAWSKi, P. I. J., author of 
^^ Music of the Bible,^' and '^Specimens of 
Temple Music,'^ London, 1870. 

Wyat, Sir Thomas, of England, 
was the first of his countrymen who 
versified any part of the book of 
Psalms for the purpose of being set to 

Wyeth, John, of Harrisburg, 
Penn., published at Philadelphia, 1826, 
*' Wyeth'' s Repository^''' 144 pages; there 
were as many as five different collec- 
tions of music by this author. He was 
born at Cambridge, Mass., 1792; died 

Wylde, H., bom 1795; chorister at 
the Chapel Royal, 1805 ; organist at Wat- 

ford, 1809; published many songs and 

Wyman, Addison P., born in Cor- 
nish, N.H., June 23, 1832; early be- 
came a violinist ; taught vocal and in- 
strumental music; in 1859 was em- 
ployed as a teacher at Wheeling, Va. ; 
in 1867 opened a music-school at Clare- 
mont, N.H., and became extensively 
known as a composer of piano-forte 
music; died at Washington, Penn., 
April 15, 1872 ; the body was buried at 
Cornish. His wife, Anne E., died in 
Boston, Sept. 24, 1871, aged 36 ; a good 

Wyman, Chancey Milton, born at 
Rockingham, Vt., Dec. 20, 1835, became 
known as a teacher, and composer of 
church-music and songs, 1859; settled 
at Keene, N.H. vUi 

Wyman, Charles S., a native of 
New York ; wrote articles upon music 
and musical composition. 

Wynne, Miss Edith, a distinguished 
London vocalist, sang in Boston, Mass., 
1874, at the Handel and Haydn Society 
festival ; returned to London, May, 1874. 

Wythorne, Thomas, wrote " Songs 
for Five Voices," with musical notes; 
published by John Daye, 1571. A de- 
scendant of this Daye afterwards came 
to America, and was the first printer who 
practised the art of printing in this 
country, printing here the ^^ Bay Psalm 


Xavier, Anton Maria, chamber- 
violinist to the Emperor Napoleon, and 
member of the Royal Academy of 
Music, was born at Paris in 1769; his 
violin-playing was greatly admired at 
Paris; he published several composi- 
tions for his instrument, and many ro- 

XiMENES, Fran., cardinal, and Arch- 
bishop of Toledo, was born at Tordela- 
guna in 1457 ; he took a very active part 
in the organization of the Spanish 
church music of his time; and intro- 

duced the Mozarabic or Gothic chant, 
which differs in several respects from 
the Gregorian and Ambrosian chants. 

XiNDAVCLONis, a Greek, who married 
Angelina Bosio after her divorce from 
her Spanish husband, was formerly her 
courier and cook. On the death of the 
well-known opera-singer, lier Greek hus- 
band received a fortune of 600,000 francs, 
and was knighted by the King of Greece ; 
in 1870 he became insane, lost his prop- 
erty, and died a pauper in 1872, in Lon- 




Yaniewicz, Felicia, became distin- 
guished as an admirable pianist and 
singer; her public performances when 
quite young were creditable. 

Yaniewicz, Felix, was long well 
known in the musical world as a very 
eminent performer on the violin. His 
style seems to have been more the result 
of his own peculiar mode of feeling and 
expression than any scholastic imitation 
or predilection ; his concertos, trios, 
duets, and other compositions, gave 
proof of a fine and cultivated taste. 
Born at Wilna. 

Yaniewicz, Pauline, was also a 
vocalist of great reputation, and was 
chiefly educated by her father. 

YoNGE, Nicholas, author of a work 
entitled ^^ Musica Transalpina,^^ pub- 
lished in London in the year 1588. 

Yost, Michael. Under this name 
several pieces of instrumental music 
were published at Paris about the year 

Young, Andrew, of Scotland, while 
residing at Edinburgh, composed the 
famous Sunday-school hymn, " There is 
a Happy Land.^^ 

Young, Db., discovered that a lyre, 
from which he had removed all the 

strings but one, would, on being placed 
in a current of air, produce many notes 
and some chords. 

Young, Matthew, published at Dub- 
lin, in 1784, a treatise entitled ^' An In- 
quiry into the principal Phenomena of 
Sounds and Musical Strinr/s ; " he died 
at Whitworth, in Lancashire, in the year 

Young, Walter, wrote a dissertation 
on the influence of poetry and music on 
the Highlanders; was profoundly skilled 
in the theory of music ; died at Erskine, 
Scotland, Aug. 6, 1814. 

Yriarte, Don Tomas de, a Spanish 
author, published at Madrid, in 1779, a 
poem in five cantos, entitled "Za 

YssANDON, Jean, a French musician, 
published at Paris, in 1582, a work en- 
titled, " Traite de Musique pratique, 
divisee en deux Parties,''^ &c. 

Yzo published in 1754, probably at 
Paris, two works, entitled ^^ Apoloyie de 
la Musique et des Musiciens franQais, 
contre les Assertio7is peu melodieuses, 
peu mesurees et mal fondees de J. J. 
Rousseau, Citoyen de Geneve,'^ and '* Let- 
tre sur celle de J. J. Rousseau sur la 


Zabern, Jacob, published at Mu- 
nich, in 1500, a work entitled ^^Ars 
bene cantandi Choralem Cantum.^' 

Zaccariis, or Zachriis, Cesar de, 
born at Cremona, was musician to the 
Bavarian court, and flourished towards 
the end of the sixteenth century. 

Z ach, Johann, was born in Bohemia ; 
was chapel-master to the Elector of 
Mentz; and his instrumental composi- 
tions were much admired; he died in 
poverty in 1773. 

Zaccharelli, an Italian dramatic 
composer in the latter part of the last 

Zacharia, Justin Friedrich Wil- 
HELM, an eminent German poet and 
composer, was professor of belles lettres 
at the Gymnasium in Brunswick, where 

he died in 1777; his compositions were 
chiefly vocal. 

Zacharl^, of Switzerland, 1872, in- 
vented " The Art Pedal'' for the piano- 
forte; by it he claims that many fine 
and novel effects can be produced. 

Zachau, Friedrich Wilhelm, the 
son of a musician of Leipsic, was born 
in that town in 1C63 ; became a deeply- 
skilled proficient in the science of music, 
and likewise attained some excellence as 
a performer on the organ and other in- 
struments ; was organist of the Church 
of the Virgin Mary at Halle, in Saxony, 
where he continued until his death, in 
the year 1721; composed several pieces 
for the church, and some lessons for the 

Zacchini, Giulio, an organist at 



Venice, published in 1572 a work en- 
titled " Motetti a 4 vocV^ 

Zacconi, Ludovico, a musician in 
the service of the Duke of Bavaria, was 
the author of an excellent work, printed 
at Venice, first in 1591 and afterwards 
in 1596, under the title of ^^Pratica di 

Zahn, a celebrated performer on the 
bassoon, was born in Franconia ; he was 
engaged, in 1761, in the Imperial Chapel 
of St. Petersburg, and resided in Russia 
during twenty years. 

Zampieri, or Sampteri, a good Ital- 
ian violinist, resided for some time in 
England about the year 1795. 

Zaxciiius, court musician and organ- 
ist to the Emperor Rudolph II., was 
born at Treviso, 1570; flourished at 
Prague at the commencement of the 
seventeenth century, and published 
there, amongst other works, "5 Vesper- 
Psalmen von 8 und 12 Stimmen,^' 160.3. 

Zanetti or Zanettini, Antonio, a 
Venetian, was chapel-master to the Duke 
of Modena; he brought out at Venice 
six operas from 1675 to 1706. 

Zanetti, Francesco, chapel-master 
at Perugia, was born at Volterra about 
the year 1740; in 1790 he resided in 
England, where he published several 
compositions for the violin. 

Zanotti, Franc. M., an Italian au- 
thor, published at Milan, between 1770 
and 1782, his famous musical letters. 

Zanotti, Giovanni Calisto, was in 
1770 chapel-master at Bologna ; in 1791 
he is named as a dramatic composer in 
the Milan theatrical calendar. 

Zapf, Johann Nepomuk, pianist at 
Gratz, published, chiefly at Vienna, 
many works for his instrument since 
the year 1800. 

Zappa, Francesco, a good violon- 
cellist and composer for his instrument, 
published some of his music at Paris 
about the year 1776. 

Zarlino, Giuseppe, a celebrated 
chapel-master of St. Mark's Church at 
Venice, was born at Chiaggia, near 
Venice, 1520; his theoretical works 
raised him to the rank of one of the 
first classical authors of the sixteenth 
century ; also celebrated as a composer ; 
died 1.590. 

Zeller, G. B. L., chapel-master to 
the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and 
composer of some dramatic and violin 
music, died at Strelitz in the year 1803. 

Zellinger, a celebrated pianist of 

Vienna, published there, 1800, a number 
of works for his instrument, and died 
at an advanced age. 

Zelter, Carl Friedrich, born at 
Berlin, Dec. 11, 1758; was so fond of 
music that he would spend whole nights 
writing music, and playing the piano- 
forte and violin ; became celebrated as a 
performer, composer, and director of 
music; was a professor at tlie Berlin 
Academy, and connected with the vocal 
societies; died May 15, 1832, aged 74; 
his songs, especially the comic songs, 
are more celebrated than his church 

Zenaro, da Sal,o Giulio, a musi- 
cian of the sixteenth century, published 
at Venice in 1590, ^^MadrigaU Spirituali 
a 3 rod." 

Zeno, Apostolo, born at Venice, 
1669 ; composed several musical dramas, 
46 operas, and 17 oratorios ; died 1750, 
aged 81. 

Zerr, Anna, came to this country 
witli Jullien, 1853 ; had become famous 
as a singer at Vienna, previously ; re- 
turned after a sliort season. 

Zerrahn, Carl, the well-known or- 
chestral conductor in this country, was 
born in Malchon, in the Grand Duchy of 
Mecklenburg -Schwerin, July 28, 1826; 
came to America with the Germania 
Musical Society during tlie German revo- 
lution ; settled in Boston, but for six years 
played the flute and other instruments 
with the Germanians, travelling through 
the United States and Canada ; became 
conductor of tlie Handel and Haydn 
Society, 1857, and of the Harvard Mu- 
sical Association ; also directed the Or- 
chestral Union and the Philharmonic 
concerts ; has also had charge of other 
societies, and was a teacher in the high 
and normal schools of Boston from 1858 
until 1867; is now a teacher in the 
New England Conservatory of Music, 
and conductor in town and country. 

Zetus, a son of Jupiter and Antiope, 
very expert in music. 

Zeuner, Charles, born at Eisleben, 
Saxony, Seril. 20, 1795; came to Boston, 
Mass. , 1824, wliere he was celebrated as 
an organist and composer; published 
several excellent musical works; his 
oratorio, ^^ Feast of Tabernacles,^' was 
performed in Boston several times ; was 
organist at the Handel and Haydn Soci- 
ety ; assisted Lowell Mason in his pub- 
lications, for which he wrote much 
music ; removed to Philadelphia, Perm., 

l^ f4<AA^/Y\jLi^ C/Ly^%n 




1854; died at Smith's Woods, near Cam- 
den, N.J., Nov. 7, 1857, aged 62. 

ZiANi, Don Pietbo Andkea, by 
birth a Venetian, was in early age 
chapel-master of St. Mark's at Venice, 
and subsequently entered the service of 
the court at Vienna. He was one of 
the best theorists of his time, and the 
number of his practical works attests 
the fecundity of his talent. 

ZiANi, Makco Antonio, was a rela- 
tion of the preceding, and his successor 
in the place of chapel-master at Vienna. 
Some of his sonatas were published at 
Amsterdam, and likewise his operas 
and oratorios. 

ZiEBER, George B., of Philadelphia, 
Penn., published, 1848, ^^ Songs for the 
People," in the form of a monthly 

Ziegler, Franz, published at Nu- 
remberg, in 1740, a work entitled "84 
Interludia, sive breviores versiculi ad 
Musicam Choralem ubique necessarii." 
Some time afterwards he published a 
second collection of eighty easy fugues. 

Ziegler, Joseph, a good violinist at 
Vienna about the year 1750. He was 
one of the masters of Von Dittersdorf. 

Ziegler, Christian Gottlieb, an 
excellent organist and learned musician 
at Quedlinburg in the first half of the 
.last century. 

ZiELCHE, Hans Heinrich, chamber- 
musician and flutist to the King of 
Denmark, also court-organist at Copen- 
hagen, published there and at Berlin 
much music for the flute between the 
years 1775 and 1790. 

ZiMMERMANN, Anton, Organist of 
the Cathedral Church at Presburg; died 
in 1781. He left much instrumental 
music of his composition, chiefly in 

ZiMMERMANN, MADAME, was an ex- 
cellent singer; her husband dying, she 
lost her property, and was compelled to 
teach music ; became so celebrated as 
to be able to establish an extensive mu- 
sical institute, which flourished during 
her life. 

church-composer towards the close of 
the seventeenth century. 


liAUME, was born at Paris, March 17, 
1785; at fourteen years of age he ob- 
tained the prize for performance on the 
piano-forte, and for composition. His 
compositions consist of piano-forte mu- 

sic and a great variety of romances; 
died at Paris, November, 1853. 

ZiNGARELLi, NicoLO, chapel-mastcf 
of St. Peter's at Rome, was born at 
Naples, April 4, 1752, or, according to 
Gerber, at Milan in 1700; wrote for 
almost ail the theatres in Italy; and 
after having visited Paris in the year 
1789, where he produced his "^nti|7one," 
he returned to Italy, being chosen chap- 
el-master to the Cathedral of Milan. 
This situation he subsequently relin- 
quished, being elected, on the death of 
the celebrated Guglielmi in 1804, to his 
place in the chapel of the Vatican. 
From this epoch, church music was the 
only species of composition to which he 
applied himself. Zingarelli died. May 
5, 1837. 

ZiNK, Benedict Friedrich, organ- 
ist of the cathedral at Schleswick in 
1783, published some admired instru- 
mental music; died at Ludwigslust in 

ZiNK, Hartnack Otto Conrad, 
master of the choristers at the Chapel- 
Royal of Copenhagen ; a good performer 
on the flute and piano-forte, and pub- 
lished several compositions for those in- 

Zither, the guitar or cithern. 

Zithern, an instrument composed of 
the harp and guitar; introduced into 
this country by the Hauser family, 1849. 

ZoELLNER, Carl, a celebrated musi- 
cian, was so devoted to his art that he 
failed to accumulate property; died 
November, 1860 ; and the German sing- 
ing societies contributed to support his 

ZoNi, M., born at Brussels; became 
famous from his power of imitating, 
with his mouth, a whole orchestra of 
instruments ; is not only a musician of 
merit, but a musical ventriloquist ; has 
composed several pieces and an overture 
for his special use. 

ZoNKA, or ZoNCA, or ZONGA, Jo- 
hann Baptiste, a good bass -singer, 
and performer on the harmonica, be- 
longing to the Elector's Chapel at Mu- 
nich till 1786, when he returned to Italy, 
his native country. He published sev- 
eral bass-songs, with instrumental ac- 

ZoPFF, Dr. Herrman, born in Gla- 
gan, Silesia; founder of the Berlin Op- 
era Academy, and author of the opera 
'■'Mahomet ;" was celebrated as a com- 
poser and musician. 



Zoppis, Fkancesco, chapel-master 
to the Emperor of Russia at St. Peters- 
burg in 1756 ; his serious and comic op- 
eras were very successful. 

ZuccARi, Carlo, an Italian violinist 
and composer, flourished about the year 
1770; was for some time in England, 
and published in London '■'The Art of 
Adagio," consisting of solos for the 
violin and bass; and " T/iree Trios for 
Two Violins and Bass.^' 

ZuccARi, Giovanni, an Italian dra- 
matic composer, resided at Venice about 
the year 1720, and produced there the 
opera of '^Seleuco.^' 

ZuccHELL,ij Charles. This bass- 
singer is said to be an Englishman by 
birth, and to have passed the first eight 
or nine years of his childhood in Eng- 
land; sang at the Ancient Concert in 
1822; also performed at the King's The- 

ZuccHi. A celebrated Milanese vio- 
linist at the commencement of the last 

ZucHiNO, Geegorio, a monk, born 
at Brescia, flourished in the first years 
of the seventeenth century. Amongst 
his published works are ^'Hannonia 
Sacra, 8, 9, 10-16 voc, seu Motetii,^^ 
Venice, 1603; and ^'Misse a 8-16 ■»oc.," 
Venice, 1603. 

ZuFFi, Giovanni Ambrosio, organ- 
ist at Milan in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, published in that 
city, ^'■Concerti Eccles. a 1, 2, 3, e 4 voci, 
Parte Ima. e 2da.," Milan, 1621; and 
^^Concerti e Magnificat a 4 voci,''^ Milan, 

ZuLEHNER, a German musician, and 
composer of a mass and other works at 
Mentz; published in the latter part of 
the last century a very extensive col- 
lection of the best Italian, French, and 
German operas and oratorios, arranged 
for the piano-forte. 

ZuMPE, John, 1768, made the first 
square piano-forte used in England at 
his place in Germany; he called it 
"/orte-piano ,• " in it the twang of the 
plectrum was replaced by hammers, en- 
abling the performer to play loud and 
sqft at pleasure. 


at Gausingen, 1760; was a celebrated 
violoncellist, and composer of vocal mu- 
sic; concert-master and director of op- 
era at Stuttgard ; composed largely from 
1796 to 1800, and died in 1802. 

ZuNDEL, John, born near Stuttgard, 
South Germany, 1815 ; made the violin 
his principal instrument, but was per- 
suaded to lay aside that, and take up the 
organ ; early went to Russia, where for 
seven years he was organist and leader 
of the band of the emperor; came to 
America 1847; had previously published 
many musical works in Europe, and 
published several other works in this 
country, among which are his ''■Melo- 
deon Instructor,''^ " Organ Preludes and 
Interludes,^ ^ and a collection of psalmody 
original tunes; was later organist of 
Plymouth Church, at Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Zuphelius, Matthias, a contra- 
puntist of the sixteenth century. Sev- 
eral motets of his composition may be 
found in " Petr. Joanelli Nov. Thes. 
Music.,'' Venice, 1568. 

ZuRMSTEEG, Emilie, gained the rep- 
utation of being one of the best instruc- 
tors on the piano-forte in Germany ; died 
1857, aged 61. 

Zwingle, Ulrich, born atWildhaus, 
Switzerland, 1484; was a musician, and 
performer upon the lute, violin, and 
other instruments ; died 1531. 

Zygmantowsky, Nicolas, a cele- 
brated performer on the violoncello; 
born in 1769; played on the tenor at a 
public concert when only four years of 
age, and on the violoncello at seven; 
died before he had attained his eleventh 

Zyka, Joseph, chamber-musician 
and violoncellist at the Chapel Royal at 
Berlin, was born in Bohemia. He flour- 
ished about the middle of the last cen- 
tury, when much of his music was 
known in manuscript. 

Zyka, Joseph, Jun., youngest son of 
the preceding, was chamber-musician 
and performer on the tenor to the King 
of Prussia at Berlin. He composed 
various operettas, also some piano-forte 
music and cantatas. 


I have made the attempt, in this work, to give the pronunciations, as well 
as the definitions, of some of the most common musical terms. I do not know 
that any similar effort has been made in this country. 

This novel feature will, it is to be hoped, supply a want often felt, and give to 
this Dictionary an extent of usefulness which no previous publication of the 
kind possesses. The pronunciation of foreign words is sought to be conveyed 
by an arrangement of syllables, which, when pronounced according to the ordi- 
nary powers of English letters, will give the nearest approximation to the proper 
sounds. It is not pretended that absolute identity of sound with the foreign 
words will thus in every case be attained. In certain words this is quite unat- 
tainable. Some sounds, especially in French words, have no equivalents in 
English, and therefore cannot be presented to the mind by the eye ; the exact 
knowledge of them is communicable solely througli the ear. Yet it is believed, 
that in all cases, by due attention to the instructions here given, a degree of 
accuracy may be obtained, abundantly sufficient for all ordinary acquirements. 
It may be necessary to add, that, in the syllables which mark the pronunciation, 
certain letters must be pronounced with the following powers : — 
ah, — as heard in the word father. 




For terms not here explained, see *' Moore's Complete Encyclopedia of Music. 

A. Ah. A preposition signifying at, by, for, 
with, &c. Thus A 2 signilies by or for two 
voices; A3, three voices, &.Q ; A Capo., at 
one's will or fancy. Also the nominal of the 
natural minor mode, and the sixth note of 
the ascending scale of C. 

A. Ah. For. 

A Cinque. Ah Chin-quay. For five voices or 

A Quattro. Ah Quah-tro. For four voices or 

A Tr6. Ah Tra. For three voices or instru- 

A Ballata. Ah Bahl-lah-tah, In the ballad 

Abb., Abbandonato. Ahb-bahn-do-nah-to. 

A. n. Plac, A Bene Placito. Ah Bay-na Plah- 
che-to. At pleasure. 

Abbreviature. Ah-bray-ve-ah-too-ray. The 
Italian term for abbreviations in musical no- 

Academie. Ah-kad-a-rae. (Nationale. Nah- 
se-on-ahl.) A place of instruction. Tlie 
Academie Nationale, in Paris, is an institute 
for instruction in the fine arts, particularly 
music and dancing. 

A Capo., A Cappriccio. Ah Kah-preech-e-o. 
At one's fancy or caprice. 

Accel., Accelerando. Ah-chel-la-rahn-do. 
With increasing velocity. 

Accel., Accelerate. Ah-chel-a-rah-to. With 
increased quickness. 

Accent. Ak-sent. An emphasis given to a note. 

Accentuare. Ah-chen-too-ah-ray. To play 
witli accented expressioji. 

Accaciatura. Ah-kah-chah-too-rah. That 
sweeping of the chords and dropping-in of 
accented notes allowed, and eftective, in 

Accidents. Ak-se-dents. A term applied to 
flats, sharps, or naturals, which do not belong 
to the key in which the music is written. 

Accompaniment. Ak-kum-pa-ne-ment. The 
instrumental added in harmony to a compo- 
sition, vocal or instrumental. 

Accordatura. Ahk-kor-dah-too-rah. Tho 
scale or tuning of open strings. The notes 
G, D, A, and E are the Accordatura of tho 

Accordo. Ahk-kor-do. A chord. 

Accres., Accresimento. Ahk-kray-se-men-to.. 
Augmenting or increasing. 

Acute. A-kute. A term applied to any sound 
that is high compared to another sound. 

Ado.. Adagio. Ah-dah-je-o. A slow move- 
ment, the second degree between slow and 



Adagio Cantabil^ e Sostenuto. Ah-dah-je-o 
Can-tah-be-lay a So-stay-noo-to. Implies 
that the movement is to be performed with 
a graceful and austained expression. 

Ad Lib.. Ad Libitum. Ad Lib-e-tum. At lib- 
eily ; implying that the performer is to take 
license as 'to the time, introduction of em- 
bellishments, &c. 

A Due. Ah Doo-ay. For two voices or in- 
Btruments, &c. 

A Deux Temps. Ah Deu-tong. An expression 
as to time, signifying two crotchets, or beats, 
in a bar. 

Affet.,Alfettuoso. Ahf-fet-oo-o-so. Tenderly. 

Affliz., Alflizione. Ahf-fleetz-e-o-ne. Sorrow- 
fully, afflictedly. 

Affret., Affrettando. Alif-fret-tahn-do. In- 
creasing in quickness. 

Agio, Agiole. Ah-je-o, Ah-je-o-lay. Light, 
easy, tree. 

Ago,."'Agito., Agitato. Ah-je-to, Ah-je-tah-to. 
With vehemence, betraying irresolution. 

Air. A tune with or without words 

AlaGrec. Ah lah Grek. At the beginning of 
a chorus, implies that it is to be played in 
the style of those introduced in the ancient 
Greek tragedies. 

A la Polacca. Ah lah Po-lak-kah. In the 
Poli-;h style. See Polacca. 

Al. Alia. Ahl-ah. In the style of. 

Al. Antica. Ahn-te-kah. In' the ancient style. 

Al. Breve. Bray-vay. An obsolete term for 
slow time iised in church-music. 

Al. Cac. Alia Caccia. Katch-e-ah. In the 
hunting stvle. 

Al. Cap , Alia Capella. Kah-pel-lah. In the 
church or ecclesiastical style. 

Al' Espag., Air Espagnuola.' Es-pah-nu-o-lah. 
In the Spanish style. 

Al' Ing . Air Inglese. In-glay-zay. In the 
English style. 

Al' Itala., Air Italiana. E-tah-le-ah-nah. In 
the Italian style 

Al. Mod., Alia 'Modema. Mo-dair-nah. In the 
modern stvle. 

AL Jlil., Alia 3IUitaire. Me-le-tair. In the 
military stvle. 

AL Pola , Alia Polacca. Po-lak-kah. In the 
PoUsh style. 

Al. llus., Alia Russe. Roos-say. In the Rus- 
sian style. 

Al. Segno. Say-neo. To the mark ; referring 

to this figure \^^, and indicating that all the 

bars after it are to be repeated till stopped 
by a double bar. 

Al. Sicila.. Alia Sioiliana. Se-chil-e-ah-nah. 
In the Sicilian style. 

Al. Scoz., Alia Scozzese. Skotz-zav-zav. In 
the Scottish style. 

AL Ted., Alia Tedesca. Tay-des-kah. In the 
Gennan style. 

AL Turca.. Alia Turca. Toor-kah, In the 
Turkish style. 

Allegretto. Ah-lay-gret-to. Somewhat quick- 
er than Andante, but not as quick as Allegro. 

Alio.. Allegro. Ah-lay-gro. Gay, quick; the 
third degree of musical rai)idity. 

Alio. Agito., Allegro Agitato. Ah-je-tah-to. 
Quick and agitated. 

Alio. Furioso. Allegro Furioso. Foo-re-o-so. 
With vehement quickness. 

Alio. A ssai., Allegro Assai. Ah-sah-e. Quick- 
er than Allegro. 

Alio. Como , Allegro Oomodo. Ko-mo-do. 
Conveniently quick. 

Alio. c. Brio., Allegro con Brio. Bre-o. Quick 
and brilliant. 

Alio. c. Fuo., Allegi-o con Fuoco. Foo-o-ko. 
Quick, with lire. 

Alio. c. ]\Iot , Allegro con Mo to. Mo-to. Quicker 
than Allegro. 

Alio. c. Spi., Allegro con Spirito. Spe-re-to. 
Quick, with spirit. 

Alio. iMoL, Di Mol. ; Allegro Molto or Di Molto. 
3Iohl-to. Very quick. 

Alio. Vel., Allegro Veloce. Vay-lo-chay. Quick, 
with rapidity. 

Alio. Viv., Allegro Vivace. Ve-vah-chay. 
Quick, with vivacity. 

Alio. A'ivo., Allegro Vivo. Ve-vo. Quick, with 

Allemande. Ahl-mahnde. A slow air in com- 
mon time of four crotchets in a bar. 

Air Improvista. Ahl' Im-pro-vees-tah. An 
expression applied to any extemporary strain. 

Altissimo. Ahl-te-se-mo. The highest; ap- 
plied especially to those notes in the treble 
staff which are^nore than an octave above F 
on the fifth line. 

Alt. Alto. Ahl-to. High. That part of the 
scale of sounds which lies between F on the 
fifth line on the treble clef and F in altissi- 
mo; the space between the mezzo-soprano 
and tenor. The word is often used as a com- 
paiative ; 8vo alt. signifying an octave higher, 

Alto Clef. Ahl-to Clef. The name tHj: 
given to the C clef when placed on 45T 
the third line of the staff ; thus, "{"l ^ 

Aniabe., Amabile. Ah-mah-be-lay. Amiably, 

Amateur. Am-ah-toor. A non-professional 

practitioner of music. 
Amor. Amoroso. Ahm-o-ro-so. Lovingly, 

Anacreontic. An-ak-re-on-tik. Denotes a 

gay hilarity of movement, and a free and 

easy style of performance. 
And. Andante. Ahn-dahn-te. Slowly and 

And. Largo. Lar-go. Slowly and distinctly. 
Ando., Andantino. Ahn-dahn-tee-no. Some- 

wtiat slower than Andante. 
Andte. con. Mo., Andsinte con Moto. Mo-to. 

Slowly, and with emotion. 
Andte. Graz., Andante Grazioso. Grat-se-o-so. 

Slowly and gracefulh'. 
Andte. 'Maes., Andante Maestoso. Mah-es-to- 

so. Slowly and majestically. 
Andte. non Trop., Andante nonTroppo. Trop- 

po. Not too slowly. 
Andte. Paste., Andante Pastorale. Pahs-to- 

rah-lay Slowly, and in the pastoral style. 
Ani., Aiiimato., An-e-mah-to. Animatedly. 

Con Animato, signifying that a passage is to 

be played spiritedly. 
Anthem. An-them. A vocal composition set 

to words, generally selected from the Psalms, 

and adapted to cathedral service. 
Anticipation. An-tis-e-paj-shun. AteiTnused 

in hnrniony, implying that a note or chord is 

introduced before' its expected appearance. 
A Piac, A Piacere. Ah Pe-a-chair-ay. At 

pleasure; nearly synon. with Ad Libitum. 
A Poco, a Poco. P'o-ko. By little and little ; 

as, A Poco piu Mosso, quicker by degrees. 
Appoggiatura. Ap-podg-e-ah-too-rah. Liter- 
ally, leaning. A short note or chain of notes, 

which, having to be played within the time 

of the other notes in the bar, are written in 

smaller characters. 



Aria. Ah-re-a. An air. 

Aria Biitfa. Boof-fah. A comic air. 

Aria tli Bravura. Brah-voo-rah. An air in 
the Bravura style. 

Aria di Oantabile. Kan-tah-be-lay. An air 
in a fji'aceful, tlowing style. 

Aria Fugata. Foo-gah-tah. A f uguecl air. 

Aria rarlaate. Par-lahn-tay. An air partak- 
ing of the song and recitative. 

Arietta. Ah-re-ct-tah. A short air or melody. 

Arioso. Ah-re-o-so. Airlike, melodious. 

Armonioso. Ar-mon-e-o-so. Harmonious. 

Arpeg., Arpeggio. Arpedg-e-o. A quick suc- 
cession of notes, composing a chord. 

Assai. Ahs-sah-e. An augmentive adverb, 
used to increase the force of an adjective : 
as, Adagio Assai, slower than Adagio; Alle- 
gro Assai, quicker than Allegro, 

A Tempo. Teni-po. Words directing a return 
to the regular time a piece of music is 
written in, after it lias been deviated from 
in pursuance of some other direction. 

Atto. At-to. The Italian for " act ; " applied 
particularly to the divisions of an opera. 

Augmentation. Awg-men-tay-shun, When 
the subject of a fugue is taken up in notes of 
double the original value. 

Augmented. Awg-ment-ed. Intervals that 
arc more than major, or perfect. 

Authentic Cadence. A final cadence in any key. 

Auxiliary Notes. Awg-zil-ya-re. Notes stand- 
ing on the next degree of the statf , above or 
below a principal note. 

Auxiliary Scales. Scales of the relative keys 
belonging to a principal key. 

B. The seventh note of the natural major 

Bachelor of Music. A degree in music taken 

at one of the universities. The phrase is 

generally abbreviated into Mus. Bac. 
Ballad. Bal-ad. A brief, simple tale set to a 

short melody. 
Ballet. Bal-iay. A representation of some 

tale told in dance, accompanied with music. 
Bar. An upright line placed across the staff, 

to divide the music into equal proportions. 
Barcarole, Bar-ka-role. A kind of song 

which originated with the Venetian gondo- 
Ballata. Bal-lah-tah. A ballad. 
Bard. A name originally given by the Cambro- 

Britoiis to their poets or minstrels, and, by 

allusion, since applied to poetic authors of 

all ages. 
Barytone, or Baritone. Bar-re-tone. A male 

voice between the tenor and bass. 
Barytone, or Baritone Clef. The F or bass clef 

placed on the third line of the stave ; thus : — 

Bass, or Base. The lowest or deepest parts in 

music or in the human voice. 
Bass Clef. The clef which has C on the second 

space, made thus : — 

Beat. A transient grace note, struck imme- 
diately before the not<5 it is intended to 
illustrate; it lies a lialf-lone below the prin- 
cipal note. 

Beating time. Marking, by hand or foot, the 
measure of a musical movement. 

Ben,, Bene. Bay-nah. Well, 

Ben. Marcato, ilar-kah-to. Well marked. 

Benedictus. Ben-e-dik-tus. That part of i% 
service in which the benediction is pro- 

Bis, Twice; implying that the bar or bars 
over which the word is written are to be 
twice i)layed or sung before proceeding with 
the following bars. 

Bolero, Bo-lay-ro. A Spanish dance in three- 
four time. 

Bravura, Bra-voo-rah. A florid kind of song, 
requiring, and adapted to display, great pow- 
ers of vocalization. 

Breve. Breev. The longest note in music, now 
nearly obsolete ; of the value of two semi 

Bril., Brillante. Bril-yahnt. Brilliantly. 

Brio. Bre-o, With b'ri.skness, 

Burto, Boof-fo, A comic singer or actor. 

Buft'a, Boof-fah. Comic; as, Opera Buffa, a 
comic opera. 

Builetta. Booi-let-tah. A species of light comic 
musical drama. 

C, The nominal of the natural major scale. 

Cad,, Cadenza. Kah-dain-tza. An extempore 

Cadence. Kay-dens. A reprise ; a pause at the 
end of an air, to afford the performer an oppor- 
tunity of introducing a turn, shake, or extem- 
pore grace. The embellishment thus intro- 
duced is also itself often spoken of as a 

Cadence Interrompue, An-ter-rom-pu. An ir- 
regular or broken cadence. 

Cadence Parfait. Par-fay. A perfect or regular 

Cadence llompu. Rom-pu. A broken or irregu- 
lar cadence. 

Cal,, Calando, Kah-lahn-do, Diminishing the 
sounds giadually, and slaclceningthe time. 

Calmo.. Calmato, ' Kahl-mah-to. Tranquilly. 

Camera. Kah-ma-rah. A chamber: as, Musica 
di Camera, chamber music, is tliat adapted for 
private parties; Voce <li Camera, a chamber 
voice, signifies a weak voice. 

Canon, Kan-on. A vocal composition in two 
or more parts, so constructed as to form a con- 
tinuous fugue. 

Cantata. ICahn-tah-tah. A composition con- 
sisting of mixed air and recitative. 

Cantatrice. Kahn-tah-tre-chay. A female 

Cant., Cantabile. Kahn-tah-be-lay, A terra 
indicative of flowing graceful melody. 

Canticle. Kan-te-kl. The ancient tenn for a 
hymn or sacred song. 

Caiito. Kahn-to. The treble pai-t of a chorus. 

Canzonet, Kan-zo-net. A short song in one, 
two. or three parts. In England canzonets are 
generally in two parts. 

Cap,, Capriccio, Kah-pritch-e-o. An in-egular 
or fanciful coinpositioii. conducted according 
to the caprice of the performer. 

Capella, Kah-pel-lah, A church or chapel, A 
Capella. in the sacred style. 

Carol. Kar-ol. The name piven to the old bal- 
lads sung by itinerant musicians at Christmas. 

Catch, Katcii. A humorous vocal composition, 
of English invention, written for three or four 
voices, and so constructed that the singers 
catch up other's sentences or phrases. 

Cavatina. Kah-vah-tee-nah. An air without 
a second part, occasionally preceded by a re- 



C. B. Brio, or Con Brio. Bre-o. With spirit or 

vivacity. ' 

Chant. Tchant. A style of singing between air 

and recitative, usedin cathedral services. 
Chantant. Shaun-tawng. In a singing style. 

Chasse. Shahsse. The designation of composi- 
tions illnstrative of hunting. 

Chiave. Ke-ah-vay. A clef or key. 

Chopiir. Keur. A'chorus. 

Choir, Koir. The part of a cathedral between 
the chancel and the nave. In modern times 
the singers are often spoken of as the choir, 
fronx their occupying that position. 

Choral. Ko-ral. Singing, the term being used 
chiefly in reference to chorus-singing. 

Chord. Kord. The harmonic union of sounds 
of various instruments or voices. 

Common Chord. The third, fifth, or eighth of 
any note struck immediately with it : the root 
of all concords. 

Chord of the Seventh. The root of all discords. 

Chorister. Kor-ister. Tlie name given to a per- 
son who assists in a choir. 

Chorus. Ko-rus. Originally implied indifferently 
a company of singers, dancers, a mixture of 
both, or an indiscriminate crowd acting in any 
way in concert. At present the term " chorus " 
comprehends only the composition or perform- 
ance of music sung by a plurality of voices. 

Chromatic. Kro-mat-ik. Musical phrases formed 
by successive semitonic intervals, or any series 
of dissonant and extraneous chords. 

Clef. Kief. The marks placed at the beginning 
of staves to indicate the scale of the composi- 
tion. The practice of misspelling this word, 
by using a double instead of a siiigle f, is so 
general, that it is worth while to call the stu- 
dent's particular attention to the error, in or- 
der to insure his avoiding it. 

Co., Coda. Ko-dah. A phrase added to the end 
of a piece by way of conclusion. 

Coi. Ko-e. With the ; as, Coi Bassi, with the 

Col., Colla. Kol-lah. With; as, Col Arco, with 
the bow. 

Colla Voce. Colla Vo-chay. With the voice. 

Come. Ko-ma, As ; as, Come Sopra, as above. 

Come Sta. Ko-ma Stab. As it stands. 

Common Time. Measures containing two, four, 
six, or eight parts in a bar ; as, 

Compound, In music, the opposite of simple ; 
the combination of two or more simpler musi- 
cal attributes. 

Compound Intervals. All intervals that exceed 
an octave. 

Compound Times. Those times which have two 
or more principal accents ; as, 

A Q. / i a. u 

^ O 'J: o cT 

Con. Kon. With. 

Con An., Con Anima. Ah-ne-mah. With ex- 

Con Affetto. Ahf-fet-to. Tenderly. 

Con Brio. Bre-o. Spiritedly, 

Con Celerita, Chay-lay-re-tah. With quickness. 

Con Comodo. Ko-mo-do, With an easy qvuck- 

Con Delicatezza. Day-le-kah-tait-zah. With 

ConDolca,, ConDolcezza. Dol-chait-zah. With 

Con Dole,, Con Dolore. Do-lo-re. With pathos, 

Con Espe., 'Con Espressione, Es-pres-e-o-ne. 

With expression. 
Con Gra., Con Grazia. Grah-tze-ah, With grace. 
Con Gradazione. Grah-dah-tze-o-nay, With 

gradual augmentation or dimiimtion. 
ConGravitah. Grah-ve-tah. With much gravity. 
Con Gus., Con Gusto. Goos-to. With taste. 
Con Impeto, Im-pay-to. With great force. 
Con Mo,, Con Moto. Mo-to. With spirit, agi- 
Con Molto Passione, Con Mohl-to Pas-se-o-nay. 

With great feeling. 
Con Molto Sentimento. Mohl-to Sen-t«-men-to. 

With great feeling or sentiment. 
Con Precisione, Pray-che-ze-o-nay. With great 

precision of time. 
Con Sordini. Sohr-de-ne, With dampers or 

Con Spirito. Spe-re-to. Spiritedly. 
Con Tena., Con Tenerezza. Tay-nay-ret-zah. 

With tenderness. 
Con Vari., Con Yariazioni, Vah-re-ah-tze-o-ne, 

With variations. 
Con Velo. , Con Velocita, Vay-lo-che-tah. With 

Con Vio." Con Violini. Ve-o-le-ne. With violins. 
Con Viva. , Con Vivacita. Ve-vah-che-tah, With 

Con Zelo, Zay-lo. With great zeal, or energy. 
Conco., Concerto, Kon-chair-to. A piece for 

several instruments, with solos for a single 

Concere., Concertante. Kon-chair-tahn-te. A 

piece for two or more instruments, with ac- 
Concord. Kon-kord. The harmony of musical 

Conductor. Kon-duk-tor, One who fixes and 

guides the time in an orchestra. 
Connoisseur. Kon-nay-soor. One competent to 

criticise and appreciate music. 
Consonance. Kon-so-nance. Two or more 

pleasing sounds heard together. 
Contra Basso, Kon-tra Bas-so, The lower bass, 

usually called the double-bass. 
Contre-Danse. Kon-tr Danz. The dance so 

called because the parties are placed in pairs 

opposite to each other. The English country 

dance being of French origin, there is little 

doubt that the English term is a corruption of 

the French one. 
Contralto, Kon-trahl-to, The counter-tenor 

voice, a quality of male voice approximating 

to the treble, being higher than the tenor. 
Contrapuntist. Kon-tra-pun-tist, One skilled 

in the science of composition. 
Contrapunto. Kon-trah-poon-to. Counterpoint, 

the art of combining and modulating conso- 
nant sounds. 
Contrary Motion, When one part ascends, and 

another descends, 
Corda. Kor-dah, A string ; as, Una Cords, one 

Coi-iph^e. Kor-e-fay. The person appointed to 

lead off the dances in a ballet. 
Corona. Kor-o-nah. A pause, thus marked : '^^ 
CotUlon. Ko-tU-yon, An old-fashioned dance 

in six-quaver time. 
Counterpoint. Koun-ter-point, The art of 

combining and modulating consonant sounds. 
Counter- Tenor. Koun-ter-Ten-or. The highest 

natural male voice, called contralto in Italian, 

The counter-tenor clef is the C on the tlurd 

hne of the staff. 



Crea., Crescendo, Kray-sliayn-do. A gradual 
rise of sounds, commonly marked thus : — =C 

Crotchet. Krotch-et, One of the musical notes 
its length one-half that of the minim. 

D. The second note of the natural major scale. 

Da. Dah. For, to, by, from. 

Danse. Dahns. The French for dance. 

D. C, Da Capo. Dah Kah-po. A direction to 
begin the air over again, and end with the 
first strain. 

Dec, Deciso. Day-chee-zo. Boldly, with decis- 

Decres., Decrescendo. Day-kray-shayn-do. A 
gradual decrease of sound, commonly marked 
thus: ;:r=— 

Degree. De-gre. An academical title conferred 
by a university on a qualified professor of 
music ; also tlie difference of position or ele- 
vation between any two notes. Degrees are 
conjunct and disjunct. When two notes ai-e 
so situated as to form an interval of a second, 
the degree is said to be con junct ; when they 
form a third or greater interval, the degree 
is called disjunct. 

Delo., Delicato. Day-le-kah-to. Delicately. 

Demi. Dem-e. Half : as, Demi-tone, an inter- 
val of half a tone; Demi-cadence, half a 

Demisemiquaver. Dem-e-sem-e-qua-ver. The 
sixth degree of sound or interval, reckoning 
from the semibreve. 

Derivatives. De-riv-a-tivs. Inverted chords, or 
chords that are not fundamental. 

Descant. Des-kant. An extemporaneous move- 
ment on a given subject. 

Dessus. Day-seu. The upper part of a com- 
position, either instrumental or vocal. 

Destra. Day-strah. With the right hand. 

Devoze., Devozione. Day-vo-tze-o-nay. De- 

Deux. Deu. The French for two. 

Diap , Diapason. Di-a-pa-zon. A kind of rule 
or scale by which makers determine the meas- 
urement of the various parts of instruments. 
There is a fixed diapason for trumpets, «S:c., as 
also for bells. The term is also applied to cer- 
tain stops on the organ ; as, open diapason, 
stop diapason. 

Diatonic. Di-a-ton-ik. One of the musical 
scales, consisting of tones and semitones. 

Di Grado. De Grah-do. A passage of notes 
which succeed each other by conjunct de- 

Dilettante. De-lai-tahn-tay. A patron and ad- 
mirer of music. 

Dim. , Diminuendo. De-me-noo-en-do. The same 
as Decrescendo. 

Diminished. Di-min-isht. Applied to chords 
or intervals which are less than perfect or 

Diminution. Dim-e-nu-shn. The imitation of, 
or reply to, any given subject, in notes of half 
the length or value of those of the subject 

Di Molto. De Mohl-to. An augmentative ex- 
pression: as, Allegro di Molto, very quick; 
Largo di Molto, very slow. 

Director. Di-rek-tor. The person who under- 
takes the management of a performance, un- 
connected with the science, such as selecting 
the pieces and performers, &c. 

Dirge. Derje. A solemn composition performed 
at funeral ceremonies. 

Discord. Dis-kord. A dissonant or inharmoni- 
ous combination of sounds, so called in contra- 

distinction to concord, to give greater effect to 
whicli, the discord is occasionally used by com- 

Dissonance. Dis-so-nanse. The same as dis- 

Distance. Dis-tanse. The distance between 
any two notes. 

Dito. De-to. The finger. 

Divertimento. De-vair-te-men-to. A short 
light composition, vocal or instrumental. 

Divertissement. Di-vair-tees-mong. A dance 
introduced between tlie acts of an opera, a 
practice of French origin. 

Division. De-vizh-un. This word implies the 
division of the intervals of the octave, and 
also signifies a long series of notes so running 
into each other as to form one connected 
chain of sounds ; and which, in vocal music, 
is always applied to a single syllable. 

Divoto. De-vo-to. In a devout maimer. 

Do. A substitute for the syllable Ut, applied 
by Guido to the first note of the natural 
major scale, answering to the English denom- 
ination C. 

Doctor. Dok-tor. In music, a composer or 
musician upon whom some university has 
conferred the degree. 

Doigt6. Dwaw-tay. Fingered. 

Dol , Dolce. Dohl-chay. Sweetly, insinuating- 

Dolce con Gusto. Goo-sto. With sweetness 
and delicacy. 

Dolce e Lusingando. A Loo-sin-gahn-do. In 
an insinuating style. 

Dolce ma jNIarcato. Mah Mar-cah-to. Sweetly, 
but well marked in accent. 

Dolce Maniera, Mahn-e-a-rah. In a sweet 
and pleasing manner. 

Dolcezza. Dohl-chait-zah. Sweetness of tone 
or expression. 

Dolcis., Dolcissimo. Dohl-che-se-mo. Extreme, 
ly sweet and delicate. 

Doiente. Do-len-tay. With grief, mournfully. 

Dolore. Do-lo-ray. Grief. 

Dol., Doloroso. Do-lo-ro-so. Pathetically. 

Dominant. Dom-e-nant. That sound which 
makes a fifth to the tonic. 

Doppio. Do-pe-o. Doubly quick. 

Doppio Movimento. Mo-ve-men-to. A move- 
ment doubled in speed. 

Doppio Tempo. Tem-po. In a doubly quick 

Dot. When placed after a note, implies that 
that note is to be lengthened one-half in its 

Double Bar. Two thick lines drawn across a 
staff, to divide the music into sections. 

Dritta. Dre-tah. Right; as, Mano dritta, the 
right hand. 

Due. Doo-ay. Two : as. A due, for two. 

Due Corde. Kor-day. For two strings. 

Due Cori. Ko-re. For two choirs. 

Due Volte. Vohl-tay. Twice. 

Duettino. Doo-et-te-no. A short duet. 

Duetto. Doo-et-to. A composition for two 
voices or instruments. 

Duo. Doo-o. A composition for two voices or 

E. And; as, Vio. e Flaut., Violino e Flauto, 
VioUn and flute. The third note of the 
natural major scale. 

Ecole. Ek-ol. A method ; a course of instruc- 
tive exercises for any voice or instrument. 

Eleg., Elegante. El-a-gahn-tay. With elegance 
and grace. 



Emphasis. Em-fa-sis. A strong accent applied 
to some particular note. 

Energ., Energico. A-nair-je-ko. Witli energy. 

Euhannonic. En-har-mon-ik. Changing the 
name of a note to another denomination: 
thus, C It D ^ is an enharmonic change. 

Entr' Acte. Awn-trahkt. Music played be- 
tween the acts of an opera or play. 

Eohan. E-o-le-an. As Eolian harp, a stringed 
instrument, acted upon and sounded by the 
agency of a current of air. 

Episode. Ep-e-sode. A composition entirely 
independent of the principal subject. 

Equal. The same : as, a duet for equal voices 
means for voices of the same species, two 
trebles, two tenors, &c. 

Erotic. E-rot-ik. In an amatory style. 

Espress., Espressivo. Es-pres-e-vo. With 

Espressione. Es-pres-e-o-ne. With expres- 

Essential. Es-sen-shal. A term applied to 
those notes of a chord which constitute its 
essential components, in contradistinction to 
its accidental or ornamental notes. 

Etoulf6. Et-oof-fay. Stilled, smothered. 

Etude. Et-ood. A musical study. 

Euphony. U-fone. Sweetness of sound. 

Evolutio. E-vo-loo-she-o. Inversion. 

Exercisi. Egs-er-se-se. Exercises, vocal or 

Extempore. Ex-tem-po-re. Without previous 
thought or meditation. 

Extended. Ex-teiwded. Applied to harmony, 
designates those parts in which the notes are 
separated by wide intervals. 

Extraneous. Ex-tra-ne-us. A term applied to 
those sharps or flats, and those chords and 
modulations, which, forsaking the natural 
course of the diatonic intervals, digress into 
abstruse and chromatic evolutions of melody 
and harmony. 

Extravaganza. Ex-trav-a-gan-zah. A compo- 
sition wild in idea, and incoherent in con- 

/. Forte. Four-tay. Loud. 

Fa. The fourth degree in the natural major 
scale, answering to the English denomina- 
tion F. 

Falsetto. Fawl-set-to. The notes in a man's 
voice, above the natural compass, which may 
be attained by art. 

Fandango. Fan-dan-go. A popular and hvely 
Spanish dance in triple time. 

Fantasia. Fan-tah-ze-ah. A composition or 
performance in which the artist is allowed 
free range for his imagination, either in the 
construction of his melodies, or in deahng 
with those of others. 

Ferm., Fermate. Fair-mah-tay. Firmly and 

ff. Fortissimo. For-te-se-mo. Very loud. 

Fier , Fiero. Fe-a-ro. Boldly and energetic- 

Fieramente. Fe-a-rah-men-tay. Boldly and 

Figured Bass, or Base. Figures used over or 
under the bass notes, to denote the harmony 
formed by the upper or superior parts of a 
composition, in order to facilitate tlie per- 
formance of chords. 

Fin., Finale. Fe-nah-lay. The last movement 
of a composition. 

Fine. Fe-nay. The end of a piece. 

tin qui. Fin-kwe. To this place. 

Fioritura. Fe-o-re-too-rah. Graces added to 
the notes of a melody by the vocalist. 

Florid. Flor-id. Ornamented, embellished. 

Focoso. Fo-ko-so. In a spmted style. 

Fortement. Fomt-mong. With vigor and 

Forz., Forzando. For-tzahn-do. A stress on a 
note, also marked =- 

Fretta. Fra-tah. Increasing the velocity. 

Fugue (pronounced in one syllable, as written). 
A composition in which one section of the 
performers leads off a succession of notes, 
called the subject, which, after being taken 
up, at regular inten-als, by another section 
of the performers, is carried through the 
movement, and is ultimately repeated by all 
parts of the orchestra. 

Full Score. A complete score of all the parts 
of a composition, either instrumental, vocal, 
or both combined. 

Fundamental Bass. The roots of the various 
chords which constitute a proper harmonic 
progression, useful in provuig the correctness 
of the harmony. 

Fuoco. Foo-o-ko. Spirit. Con Fuo., Con 
Fuoco, signifying that the note or passage is 
to be sounded strongly, and held on with 

Fur..Furioso. Foo-re-o-so. Furiously, passion- 

G. The fifth note of the natural major scale. 

Gaiement. Gay-mong. In a lively style. 

Galoppe. Gal-op. A quick German dance in 
two-four time. 

Galopade. Gal-o-pard. A quick German 
dance in two-four time. 

Gamut. Gam-ut. The name given to the scale 
or table of musical notes. Originally the 
gamut, as invented by Guido, comprised but 
six notes, to which he added a seventh, 
adopting for its sign the Greek Gamma, 
whence the word " gamut." Subsequentlythe 
gamut was extended. At present the term 
is understood to comprehend the whole exist- 
ing scale ; and to leam the names and situa- 
tions of the different notes is learning the 

Gav., Gavotta. Gah-vot-tah. The hvely dance 
that concludes a minuet. 

Gavotte. Gah-vot. The hvely dance that con- 
cludes a minuet. 

Gig., Giga. Je-gah. A quick dance in com- 
pound common time. 

Gio., Giocosamente. Jo-ko-sah-men-te. Hu- 

Gio., Giocoso. Jo-ko-so. Humorously. 

Giusto. Ju-sto. Exact. Tern. Giu., Tempo 
Giusto., In exact time. 

Glee. A vocal composition in three or more 
parts, either tender, merry, or grave, although 
the term would seem to indicate that the glee 
was originally restricted to lively subjects. 

Glis., Glisando. Gle-sahn-do. In a ghding 

Gorgheggi. Gor-gedg-e. Exercises for the 
voice, more particularly for acquiring rapid 

Gorlitza. Gor-lit-zah. A dance combining the 
peculiarities of the mazurka and polka. 

Graces. Gra-ses. The embellishments which 
a performer occasionally introduces, to 
heighten the effect of a composition. 

Grando. Grahn-do. In a pompous style. 

Grandiose. Grahn-de-o-so. In a pompouB 



Grave, Gravement. Grahv-mong. Slowly and 
solemnly. In time, slower than Largo, but 
not so slow as Adagio. 

Graz.. Grazioso. Grah-tze-o-so. In a graceful 

Ground. The name given to a composition in 
which the bass, consisting of a few bars of 
independent notes, is perpetually repeated to 
a continually varying melody ; as, in PurceU's 
Ground. Pepusch's Ground, '&c. 

Group. Groop. Applies to a certain kind of 
diminution of long notes, by breaking or 
dividing them into notes of less value, for 
the pui-pose of embellishment. 

Guaracha. Ga-rak-kah. A lively Spanish 

Gus., Gustoso. Goos-to-80. Con Gus., Con 
Gusto. With taste. 

Harmonics. Har-mon-iks. Those concomitant 
accessory sounds which accompany the presto 
tone of any choi'd or string. 

Harmony. Har-mo-ne. The combination of 
two or more sounds, according to musical 
rides; a succession of combined sounds com- 
posed of consonant intervals, and moving 
according to the established laws of modula- 

Heptachord. Hep-ta-kord. A scale of seven 

Hexachord. Hex-a-kord. A scale of six notes. 

Holding-note. A note that is sustained during 
the performance of others. 

Hornpipe. Horn-pipe. A lively and ancient 
English dance, generally in common time. 

Impresario. Im-pray-sah-re-o. The Italian 
term for a conductor. 

Impromptu. Im-prom-tu. An extemporane- 
ous performance. 

Improvisare. Im-pro-ve-sah-ray. To extem- 

In. The Italian for In: thus. In tempo, means 
in time; In Alt., in the highest, applied to 
the notes above F on the upper line of the 
treble staff. 

Indeciso. In-day-che-zo. Undecided; indicat- 
ing that the performer may vary the time, 
according to his taste and judgment. 

Inno., Innocente. In-no-chen-ta. Artless and 

Instrumental Score. An orchestral arrange- 
ment of instruments placed in their proper 
bars under each other, and used by the con- 
ductor. See Cadence. 

Intermezze. In-tair-mets-ay. The Italian 
term for interlude. 

Interrupted. A term expressing those cadences 
in which the bass, instead of falling or rising 
from the fifth to the key-note, passes to some 
other, and thus interrupts the usual close, or 
final cadence. See Cadence. 

Interval. In-ter-val. The difference in point 
of gi'avity or acuteness between any two 
sounds, as regulated by the established sys- 
tem of musical science. 

Intonation. In-to-na-shun. A word relating 
both to the consonance and to the strength 
and weakness of sounds. Intonation not 
only includes the act of tuning, but the giv- 
ing to the tones of the voice or instrument 
that occasional impulse, swell, or decrease, on 
•wliich, in a great measure, all expression 
depends. A good intonation is one of the 
first qualifications in the higher walks of 

Intro., Introduzione. In-tro-doots-e-o-nay. 

An introductory movement. 
Inversion. In-ver-shun. A changed position 

either of a subject or of a chord. 
Istes., Istesso. The same; as, Istesso Tempo, 

the same time. 

Jaeger. Ya-gur. The German for huntsman. 
Jig. A quick dance in six-eight or twelve-eight 

Kapell-Meister. Kah-pel-My-ster. In Germany, 
the chapel-master, or conductor of the mu- 
sical part of a service. 

Key, or Key-note. The fundamental note or 
tone to which the whole of a movement has 
some relation or bearing, to which all its 
modulations are referred, and in which it 
ends as well as begins. 

Key-board. The frame containing the entire 
set of keys of a pianoforte, organ, or other 
keyed instrument. 

Kyrie. Ky-re. The vocative of a Greek word 
meaning Lord; whence masses and services 
beginning with this word are sometimes so 

La. Lah. The sixth note of the natural major 
scale, answering to the English note A. 

La Finale, Lah Fe-nah-le. The last figure of 
a quadiUle. 

Lament., Lamentevole. Lah-men-tay-vo-lay. 

La Poule. Lah Pool. The second figure in a 

Larg., I^arghetto. Lar-gait-to. Not quite so 
slow as Largo. 

Largo. Lar-go. The movement one degree 
quicker than Grave. 

La Trenise. Lah Tray-neez. The fourth figure 
in a quadrille, also called Pastorale. 

Lay-Clerk. A vocalist who takes part in the 
services and anthems of a cathedral, but is 
not one of the priesthood. 

Leader. Lead-er. One who leads a band, cho- 
rus, &c. 

Leading-Note. The half-tone below the key- 

Leger-lines. Ledg-er. The lines added above 
or below the regular staff, for the placing of 
such notes as are above or below the range of 
the staff; the word " legere " beiii"; the Latin 
for to read, it follows that ler/ei- lines are to 
facilitate the reading of the notes. 

Leggiero. Ledg-e-ay-ro. In a light, gay man- 

Lego., Legato. Lay-gah-to. To be played 
smoothly and connectedly. 

Lento., Lentando. Len-tahn-do. ImpMngthat 
the notes over which it is written are to be 
performed from first to last with increasuig 

Lento. Len-to. Slow and expressive. 

Le Pantalon. Le Pan-ta-long. The first figure 
in a quadrille. 

L'6t6. Lay-toy. The third figure in a qua- 

Libretto. Le-bret-to. The words of an opera 
or oratorio. 

Lied. Leed. The Gemmn for a song or air. 

Ligature. Lig-a-ture. The hne or band by 
which the toils of notes in music are con- 

L'Istesso. I^stoys-so. The samej as, L'ls- 
tesso tempo, in the same time. 



Loco. Lo-ko. A word used in contradiction 
to 8va., and signifying that the notes over 
which it is placed are not to be played an 
octave higher, but just as written. 

Lusingando. Loo-sen-gahn-do. In a playful 

Lusingato. Loo-sen-gah-to. In a playful man- 

Lyric. Lyr-ik. The term by which is distin- 
guished the kind of poetiy adapted or in- 
tended to be sung 

Ma. Mah. But ; as, Vivace, ma non ti'oppo ; 
Lively, but not too much so. 

Madrigal. Mad-rig-al. An elaborate vocal 
composition much in vogue in England in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The 
madrigal is seldom in less than five or six 
parts, has its fugues, and is altogether com- 
plex and scientific in its construction. 

Maeso. , Maestoso. Mah-es-to-so. In a majestic 

Maestro. Mah-es-tro. The master, applied 
generally to one having the management of a 

Maestro del Coro. Del Ko-ro. The master of 
a choir, 

Mahj-e-o-ray. The Italian for 

Mag-nif-e-kat. A portion of the 



Major. Ma-jor. The Latin for greater, the 
opposite of minor. 

Major Mode. That in which the third is four 
semitones above the tonic or key-note. 

Mano., Mah-no. The hand : as.'Mano destra, 
or dritta, the right; Mano sinestra, the left 

Mano.. Mancando. Mahn-kahn-do. Diminish- 
ing the sounds. 

Marcato. Mar-kah-to. Marked ; as, Ben Mar- 
cato, well marked. 

Marcia. Mar-chah. A march. 

Marsch. The German for a march. 

Measure. Mezh-ure. That division of time by 
which the air and movement of music are 

Mediant. Me-de-ant. The appellation given 
to the third above the key-note, because it 
divides the interval between the tonic and 
the dominant into two thirds. 

Melody. Mel-o-de. A succession of simple 
sounds, so regulated as to produce a pleasing 
effect upon the ear ; distinguished from har- 
mony by not including a combination of parts. 

Men,, Meno. May-no. Less. 

mf. Men. Forte, less loud; Meno Mosso, 

Mesto., Mestoso. Mais-to-so. Sadly, pensively. 

Methode. Met-tode. An instruction-book. 

M., Mezzo. Met-so. Half; somewhat; rather. 

M. F. Mezzo Forte. Bather loud. 

M. P. Mezzo Piano. Rather soft. 

Mezzo Soprano. So-prah-no. A low scale of 
treble voice. 

M. V. Mezzo Voce. With half the usual voice. 

Mi. Me. The third degree of the natural ma- 
jor scale, answering to the English note E. 

3Iinim. Min-iin. One of the musical notes, 
ita length being one half of a semibreve, 

Mino,, Minuetto, Min-oo-et-to, The minuet 
time, three crotchets or three quavers in a 

Minore. IVIe-no-ray. The Italian for minor. 

Minor. Mi-nor. The Latin for less, the oj)- 
I)osite of major. 

Minor Mode. That in which the third is three 
semitones above the tonic or key-note. 

Mode. The designation of any systematic se- 
ries of musical sounds. 

Modo., Moderato. Mod-a-rah-to. Moderately 

Modulation. Mod-u-lay-shun. The art of con- 
ducting harmony through those keys and 
modes which have a due relation to the fun- 
damental or original key. 

Molto,, Molil-to. Much, or very well : as, AUo. 
Mol., Allegi-o Molto, very briskly; Molto Sos- 
tenuto, well sustained, 

Morceau. Mor-so, The French term for a short 
musical piece, 

Morceaux. the plural of above word, also pro- 
nounced Mor-so, 

Morendo, Mo-ren-do, Letting the sounds die 

Motet, Mo-tet, The name of certain elabo- 
rate compositions, in parts, chiefly sacred. 

Motive. Mo-te-vo. The subject or theme of a 
musical composition, particularly used in 
reference to fugues. 

Moto. Mo-to. Emphasis, feeling; as, Con 
Moto, with emphasis. 

Movement. ]Moov-nient. Any single strain or 
phrase of a composition. 

Movimento. Mo-ve-men-to. Movement, 

IVIus. Bac, The abbreviation of Bachelor of 

Mus, Doc, The abbreviation of Doctor of Mu- 

Music. Mu-zik, Vocal and instrumental melody 
and harmony, 

Musico. Moo-ze-ko. A musician. 

Mute, A small instrument made generally of 
brass, but sometimes of ivory or boxwood, to 
be fixed on the bridge of a violin, for the pur- 
pose of deadenhig the sound. 

Natural. Nat-u-ral. The character which re- 
stores a note to its original state, after it has 
been flattened or sharpened by previous 

Non. Not. 

Non JNIol., Non Molto. Not too much. 

Non Tan., Non Tanto. Not too much. 

Non Trop., Non Troppo. Not too much. 

Nota. No-tah. A note; as, — 

Nota Buona. Boo-o-nah. An accented note. 

Nota Cattiva. Kaht-te-vah. An unaccented 

Nota Cambiata. Kahm-be-ah-tah. A note ir- 
regular in transition. 

Nota Caratteristica. Kah-rah-tay-re-ste-kah. 
A characteristic or leading note. 

Notation. No-ta-shun. The manner of ex- 
pressing, or representing by characters, all 
the different sounds used in music. 

Notes, The characters which, by their various 
forms and positions, indicate the gi-avity or 
acuteness, and duiation, of the various mu- 
sical sounds. 

Notturno. Not-toor-no. A species of musical 
composition slight in pretension. 

Nuovo. Nofc-o-vo. New. 

O. Or, as. 

Oblique Motion. That movement of the parts 
of a composition in which one voice or instru- 
ment holds on or repeats the same note, whila 
another ascends or descends. 

Ob., Obligato. Ob-le-gah-to. A part that can- 
not be omitted. 



8va., Ottava. Ot-tah-vah. Ottava Alta signi- 
fies that the passage is to be played an octave 
higher than written. When 8va. is placed un- 
der the bass, the passage is to be played in 

Octave. Ok-tave. An interval containing seven 
degrees, or tvv^elve semitones, and whicli is the 
first of the consonances in the order of gen- 

Open Harmony is when the parts composing 
the harmony lie distant from each other. 

Opera. Op-a-rah. A musical drama, consist- 
ing of recitatives, airs, duets, trios, choruses, 
&c., elucidated by sceueiy, costumes, ma- 
chinery, &c. 

Operetta. Op-a-ret-tah. A short drama, with 
music inti'oduced. 

Oratorio. O-i-ah-to-re-o. A sacred drama, per- 
formed generally without the aid of scenery 
or dramatic action. 

Orchestra. Or-kes-trah. A terra, in modern 
times, understood to mean either the instru- 
mentalists in a musical performance, or the 
section of the building occupied by them. 

Ordo.,Ordinario. Or-de-nah-re-o. Ordinai7;as, 
Ordo. Tempo, in the ordinary time. 

Organo. Or-gah-no. The organ. 

Organist. Or-gan-ist. The term "organist" 
may, in strictness of speech, be applied to any 
masterly performer on the organ, but in its 
common acceptation signifies a professor of 
music who holds the office of organist in some 
cathedral, parochial church, or chapel, or is 
the deputy of a person so appointed. 

Overture. 0-ver-ture. The instrumental in- 
troduction to an oratorio, opera, &c. 

p. This letter, by itself, stands for Piano, soft. 

Pantomime. Pan-to-mime. Derived from two 
Greek words, signif j-ing " Imitating many 
things." Pantomimes are dramas of action, 
without dialogue, and may be either serious 
or comic. They are in England almost wholly 
the latter, enlivened by music, scenery, dan- 
cing, &c. 

Parlando. Par-lahn-do. In a declamatory 

Parlante. Par-lahn-tay. In a declamatory 

Part. The name of each section of a harmon- 
ized composition. 

Passage. In music, any phrase or short portion 
of an air. 

Passing Notes. Notes introduced between two 
others, for the purpose of softening a dis- 
tance, or melodizing a passage; and which 
notes are not calculated in the harmony. 

Passionato. Pah-se-o-nah-to. Impassioned. 

Pasticcio. Pahs-te-che-o. An opera, the mu- 
sic of which is not the vmiform production of 
one master, but selected from a variety of 
composers. In this species of writing, in- 
stead of the melodies being composed to the 
words, the words are written to the melodies. 

Pastorale. Pahs-to-rah-lay. A soft rural move- 
ment, generally written in sLx or twelve qua- 
vers in a bar, and moving by alternate crotch- 
ets and quavers, like the Siciliano. The fourth 
figure in a quadrille, also called La Trenise. 

Patet., Patetico. Pah-tait-e-ko. Pathetically. 

Pause. A mark or character, consisting of a 
curve drawn over a dot, and signifying that 
the note or rest over which it is placed is to 
be continued beyond the regular time. 

Ped., Pedal. Ped-al, The wooden rest for the 
foot under a pianoforte, by the use of which 

the dampers are raised from the strings, thus 
allowing them their full vibration. The direc- 
tion for using tlie pedal is given by the word 
Ped., or this mai'k : :ft 

Pedal-Note. A holding-note, effected by aid 
of the foot on the pedal of the instrument, 
during wliich the harmony formed by the 
other parts of the composition is allowed to 

Perden., Perdendosi, Pair-den-do-se. A direc- 
tion to diminish the sounds gradually till all 
but lost to the ear. 

Perfect. Per-feckt. Complete and satisfactory. 

Perfect Cadence. Ka-dense. A close, perfect 
both in harmony and melody. 

Pes., Pesante. Pay-zahn-tay. With weight and 
imiiortance, impressively. 

Phrase. Fraze. Any regular course of notes 
conveymg an idea; synonymous with " pass- 

Piac, Piacere. Pe-ah-cha-ray. At pleasure in 
regard to time. 

Plan.. Piangevole. Pe-ahn-jay-vo-lay. Plain- 

Pianissimo. Pe-ah-ne-se-mo. As soft as pos- 

Piano. Pe-ah-no. Soft. 

Pietoso. Pe-ay-to-so. In a calmly religious 

Piu. Pew. More ; it increases the signification 
of the word to wliich it is added : as, Piu Piano, 
softer; Piu Forte, louder. 

Pizzo., Pizzicato. Pits-.see-kah-to. Chiefly appli- 
cable to the violin, signifying that the passage 
over which the word appears is to be played 
with the fingers instead of the bow. 

Poco. Po-ko. A Mttle ; as, Poco Lento, a little 

Poi. Po-e. Then : as, Poi Segue, then follow. 

Polacca. Po-lak-kah. A Polish movement of 
three crotchets in a bar, chiefly characterized 
by its emphasis or accent being laid upon the 
first unaccented part of the bar. 

Polka. Pol-kah. A Polish dance in two-four 

Polonaise. Po-lo-naze. As a dance, synony- 
mous with the polacca ; but, the dance being 
obsolete, the music of a polonaise is generally 
played by the band as a prelude or invitation 
to the ball. 

Pompo., Pomposo. Pom-po-zo. In a pompous 

Portamento. Port-ah-men-to. Ease and firm- 
ness of execution. 

Port^e. Port-ay. The five lines on which the 
notes are written ; the staff. 

Posato. Po-sah-to. In a serious and steady 

Pot Pourri. Po-poo-re. The arrangement of 
various melodies in one piece, in the style of a 

Precentor. Pre-sen-tor. The ancient title for 
a master of a choir. 

Precisione. Pray-che-ze-o-ne. Exactness in 

Preghiera. Pray-ghe-a-rah. A prayer. 

Prelude. Pre-lude. A short introductory com- 
position or performance. 

Preludio. Pray-loo-de-o. A short introductory 
composition or performance. 

Presto. Pres-to. Quick. 

Preso,, Prestissimo. Pres-te-se-mo. Very quick. 

Prima. Pre-mah. The feminine of Primo, the 

Prima Buffa. Boo-fah. The principal female 
singer in Italian comic opera. 



Prima Donna. Don-nah. The prmcipal female 

singer in Italian serious opera. 
Prima Vista. Vee-stah. At tirst sight. 
Prima Volta. Vohl-tah. The first time. 
Primo. Pre-mo. First: as, Imo. Vol., Primo 

Volta, — the first time; Primo Violino, first 

vioUn ; Primo Tempo, in the original time ; 

Primo Bulifo. the principal male comic singer. 
Psalm. Sahm. A sacred song. 
Psalmody. Sahlm-o-de. The art of composing 

or performing psalms and hymns. 
Puntato. Poon-tah-to. In a staccato and pomted 


Quadrille. Ka-dril. A dance consisting of 
movements divided into five figure,s, and 
designated Le Pantalon, La Poule, L'Ete, La 
Trenise or Pastorale, and La Finale. 

Quadruple. Quod-ru-pl. Four part. 

Quadruple Counterpoint. Counterpoint for four 
voices or instruments. 

Quantity, in music, does not signify so much the 
number of notes as their relative duiation. 

Quartet. Kwar-tet. A composition for four 
voices or instruments. 

Quartetto. Kwartet-to. A composition for four 
voices or instruments. 

Quasi. Kwah-se. In the manner of ; as. Quasi 
Andante, in the Andante style. 

Quaver. A musical note, in length one-half of 
a crotchet. 

Quintet. Kwin-tet. A vocal or instrumental 
composition for five performers. 

Quintetto. Kwin-tet-to. A vocal or instru- 
mental composition for five performers. 

B. or R. H. The passage to be played by the 
right hand. 

Eaddo., Kaddolcendo. Kahd-dohl-chen-do. To 
be played in a soft, assuaging style. 

Ball., Kallentando. Ral-len-tahn-do. To slack- 
en time by degrees. 

Banz des Vaches. Bahns-da-Varsh. Airs of 
husbandmen, chiefly Swiss, and said to be 
played on pipes with the object of collecting 
the cattle. 

Be. Ray. The second degree of the natural 
major scale, answering to the English note D. 

Becitative. Res-e-ta-teev. A kind of musical 

Bedovva. Re-dow-ah. A slow and graceful 
dance in triple time. 

Beel. A lively Scotch dance, the music of which 
is in common time. 

Bef rain. Re-f rane. The burden of a song re- 
peated at its ending. 

Register. Rej-is-tur. A term applied to and 
signifying the compass, or graduated notes of 
a voice. 

Rehearsal. Re-her-sal. The private execution 
of a composition previous to its public pei-form- 

Relative. Rel-a-tiv. An epithet applied to those 
chords, and those modes or keys, which, by 
reason of the aftinity and identity of some of 
their component sounds, admit of an easy and 
natural transition from one to the other. 

Repeat. Re-peet. A character denoting that tt 
the passage last performed is to be re- rt 
peated, marked by dots at the side of the vj 
bar line, thus : 

Repercussion. Re-per-kush-on. Frequent repe- 
tition of the same sound. 

Replica. Ray-ple-kah. A word implying a re- 

Reprise. Ray-preez. An extempore grace, 
played in a pause made for its introduction. 

Requiem. Re-que-em. A funeral sen'ice com- 
posed and performed for the repose of the souls 
of the departed. 

Resolution. Res-o-lu-shun. That modulation 
or change of harmony, by which the unaccord- 
ing note of any discord falls to one of the con- 
cording notes of the succeeding harmony. 

Rest. A mark or character of silence, introduced 
and counted into the time of a composition. 

Rhythm, Rithm. That property or quality in 
melody by which the cadences of eveiy move- 
ment are regulated. 

Ridotto. Re-dot-to. An Italian entertainment 
combining singing and dancing. 

Rinf., Rinforzando. Reen-for-zahn-do. Inti- 
mates that a note or passage is to be struck 
strongly, and held on. 

Ripieno. Re-pe-ay-no. Implies that the part 
is not a principal one. 

Ritard., Ritardando. Re-tar-dahn-do. Directs 
a slackening of the time. 

Ritomella. Re-tor-nel-lah. A short measure 
preceding or following the air. 

Riverscio. Re-vair-sho. Inverted. 

Rivolto. Re-vohl-to. The Italian for inversion. 

Romanza. Ro-man-zah. A sweet and touch- 
ing melody adapted to romantic poetiy. 

Rondo. Ron-do. A composition, vocal or in- 
sti-umental, consisting generally of three 
strains, the first ending in the original key, 
while the others are so constructed as to get 
back, in a natural manner, to the first strain. 

Root. A term applied to the fundamental note 
of any chord. 

Roulade. Roo-lahd. A quick succession of 
decorative notes. 

Round. A species of fugue, somewhat in the 
style of a catch, except that the performers 
follow each other though the various parts, 
whence the name. 

Roundelay. Roun-de-lay. A lay or song in 
which continual returns are made to the 
burden, or original couplet. 

Rubato. Roo-bah-to. In-egular; as, Tempo 
Rubato implies that the time is to be alter- 
nately quickened and retarded. 

Russe. Roos. Russian. 

Saltando. Sahl-tahn-do. Proceeding by skips. 

Sanctus. Sank-tus. A portion of the mass in 
tlie Roman Catholic Church. 

Saiabanda. Sar-ra-ban-dah. A dance said to 
be originally derived from the Saracens. Ac- 
cording to some authors, it had its appellation 
from a comedian, named Saaabandi, who first 
introduced it into France. The tune of the sar- 
aband is written in three-two or three-four 
time, and its chaiacter is both expressive and 

Scale. The entire diatonic sounds of our musi- 
cal system. 

Scena. Sha-nah. A scene; a passage in an 

Scher., Scherzando. Skair-zahn-do. In a play- 
ful manner. 

Scherzo. Skairt-zo. Playfulness ; a composi- 
tion of a playful character. 

Scio., Sciolto. Shohl-to. Free style of playing, 
neither Legato nor Staccato. 

Score. An entire draught of all the parts of a 
composition, ranged one above another, in 
their exact relative positions as to time, so 
that the eye takes the entire harmonies at 
a glance. 



Secondo. Sek-on-do. The second part, either 
vocal or instrumental. 

Segno. Sayn-yo. A sign or mark ; as, Al Segno, 
go back to the sign. 

Segue. Seg-guay. It follows, understood in 
connectio.i with some other term; as, Segue 
Coro, the chorus follows. 

Semi. Sem-e. Half. 

Semibreve. Sem-e-breev. A note equal to two 

Semitone. Sem-e-tone. Half a tone. 

Semiquaver. Sem-e-qua-ver. A musical note; 
its length behig one-half that of a quaver. 

Semplice. Sem-ple-che. With simplicity and 

Sempre. Sem-pray. Always; as, Sem. P., 
Sempre Piano, always soft. 

Senta., Sentimentale. Sen-te-men-tah-lay. 
With feeling and sentiment. 

Sen., Senza. Sen-zah. Without. 

Senza Interruzione. In-tair-rootz-e-o-ne. With- 
out interruption. 

Sen. Kepli., SenzaReplica. Ray-ple-kah. With- 
out repeat. 

Senza Rigore. Re-go-ray. Not in strict time. 

Senza Stromenti. Stro-men-te. Without instru- 

Septet. Sep-tet. A piece of music arranged for 
seven voices or instruments. 

Septetto. Sep-tet-to. A piece of music arranged 
for seven voices or instruments. 

Septuor. Sep-tu-or. A piece of music arranged 
for seven voices or instruments. 

Sequence. Se-quense. A regular alternate suc- 
cession of similar chords. 

Serenade. Ser-re-nade. A concert performed 
in the open air, and under the windows of the 
party it is intended to entertain. 

Serenata. Sa-ra-nah-tah. A composition on an 
amorous subject, consisting of solos, duets, 
choruses, &c. ; as, Handel's Acis and Galatea. 

Seria. Say-re-ah. Serious ; as, Opera Seria, a 
serious or tragic opera. 

Serioso. Say-re-o-so. In a serious style. 

Service. Ser-vis. A composition of the morn- 
ing or evening prayers in solos, duets, cho- 
ruses, &c., for the use of chui'ches. 

Sestet. Ses-tet. A piece of music arranged for 
six voices or instruments, 

Sestetto. Ses-tet-to. A piece of music aiTanged 
for six voices or instrumemts. 

Sextuor. Sex-tu-or. A piece of music arranged 
for six voices or instruments. 

Sf., Sforzando. Sfor-zahn-do. A mark indicat- 
ing that a passage is to be begun energetically, 
but continued more softly. 

Si. Se. The seventh note of the natural major 
scale, answering to the English note B. 

Siciliano. See-chil-ly-ah-no. A pastoral move- 
ment in six-eight or nine-eight time. 

Signature. Sig-na-ture. A name given to the 
number of flats or sharps indispensable to each 
key, and placed at the beginning of each stave . 

Signe. Se-ne. The sign : Al Signe meaning 
that a piece is to be played or repeated up to a 
sign, or direction, generally marked thus : ^ 

Similar Motion. When two or more parts move 
in the same progression. 

Sinestra. Se-nes-trah. The lef t ; as, Mano sen- 
estra, the left hand. 

Stnfonia. Sin-fo-ne-ah. A symphony. 

Si Replica. Se Ray-ple-kah. ImpUes that the 
movement to which the words are applied is to 
be repeated. 

Slen , Slentando. Slen-tahn-do. A direction to 
slacken the time. 

Slur. A curvilinear line drawn under or over 
notes as a direction to glide them one into 
the otlier. 

Smorz., Smorzando. Smor-zahn-do. Smother- 
ing the sounds, in the legato style. 

Soave. So-ah-va. Sweetfy. 

Sol. Sohl. The lifth note of the natural major 
scale, answering to the English note G. 

Sol-fa-ing. Sohl-fah-ing. The art of sounding 
notes, articulating at the same time the cor- 
responding syllables of the gamut. 

Solfeggi. Sohl-fedge-e. Exercises for the voice 
in the practice of sol-fa-ing. 

Solo. So-lo. A composition for a single voice 
or instrument. 

Sonata. So-nah-tah. An instrumental com- 
position, consisting of several movements, 
written for, and intended to display the pow- 
ers of, a single instrument to each part. 

Sonatina. Son-ah-te-nah. A short and easy 

Song. A short lyric poem set to music, or 
adapted for music. 

Sopra. So-prah. Above, or upper; as, Nelle 
Parte di Sopra, in the higher or upper part. 

Soprano. So-prah-no. The lower quality in 
a treble voice. 

Sos., Sostenuto. Schs-tay-noo-to. A direction 
to sustain the notes to their entire length. 

Sotto. So-to. Below, under; as, 8.V., Sotto 
Voce, So-to Vo-chay. In an undertone. 

Spaces. The voids or intervals between the 
lines of the staff. 

Spi., Spiritoso. Spe-re-to-so. With spirit. 

Stac, Staccato. Stahk-kah-to. A direction to 
play notes crisply and distinctly. 

Staff. The live lines on which the notes are 

Staves. The plural of staff. 

Stem. The short vertical line projecting from 
the head of a note. 

Straccinato. Stratch-e-nah-to. Slackening the 

Strain. Those successive portions of a compo- 
sition which constitute musical phrases or 
periods, the first ending at the first double 
bar; the second lying between that and the 
second double bar ; the third following ; and 
so on. 

Strathspey. Strath-spe. A lively Scotch 
dance, in common time. 

Strepito. Stray-pe-to. Impetuously, boister- 

Strepitoso. Stray-pe-to-so. Impetuously, bois- 

Stretto. Strait-to. Shortened in time ; imply- 
ing that the movement is to be considerably 

Strino., Stringendo. Strin-jen-do. To quicken 
the time. 

Studio. Stu-de-o. A study or exercise. 

Sub. From, under, below. 

Sub-Dominant. The fourth degree from the 

Sub-Semitone. The note which is a semitone 
below the tonic, or key-note. 

Sub.. Subito. Soo-be-to. Quickly. 

Sub-Tonic. The note below the tonic. 

Super. Soo-per. Above. 

Super-Dominant. Above the dominant. 

Super- Tonic. The note above the tonic. 

Suspension. Sus-pen-shun. The retaining in 
any chord some note or notes of the preced- 
ing chord. 

Symphony. Sim-fo-ne. The introduction and 
concluding instrumental parts of a VDcal 



composition. Also a composition for a full 
orchestra, comprising various movements. 
Syncopation. Sin-ko-pa-shun. The process by 
which the last note of a bar is so blended 
with the first note of the following bar, as to 
form one continuous sound. 

T., Tacet. Ta-set. To be sUent. 

Tan., Tanto. Tahn-to. So much. 

Tarantella. Tar-an-tel-la. A dance deriving 
its name from the superstition said to have 
existed, that its dancers could thereby cure 
the effect of a bite from the tarantella. 

Tardo. Tah-do. In a dragging manner. 

T. S., Tasto Solo. Tahs-to Solo. Written over 
or under bass notes as a direction not to 
accompany them with chords. 

Te Deum. De-um. A hymn of thanksgiving 
to the Almighty. 

Tema. Tay-mah. A theme or subject. 

T., Tern.. Tempo. Tem-po. Time. 

Tem. di Bal., Tempo di Ballo. Bah-lo. In the 
time of a dance. 

Tem. Irao., Tempo Primo. Pre-mo. In the 
original time, 

Tem. Com., Tempo Comodo. Ko-mo-do. A 
convenient degree of quickness. 

Tem. di Gav., Tempo di Gavotta. Gab-vot-tah. 
In gavot time. 

Tem. di IVIarcia, Tempo di Marcia. Mar-che- 
ah. In the time of a march. 

Tem. Giu., Tempo Giusto. Ju-sto. In strict 

Tem. Min., Tempo di IVIinuetto. Min-oo-et-to. 
In minuet time. 

Tem. Rub., Tempo Rubato. Roo-bah-to. 
Time alternately accelerated and retarded. 

Tempestoso. Tem-pes-to-zo. In a violent or 
tempestuous manner. 

Temps. Tong. The French for time. 

Tenera., Tenerezza. Tay-nay-ret-zah. Ten- 

Tenor. Ten-or. The second male voice, reck- 
oning from the bass ; as also the third of the 
four parts in harmonical composition, reckon- 
ing from the upper part. The Tenor is the 
prevaiUng voice in man. 

Tenor Clef. The clef which has C -[g| 
on the fourth line, made thus : {{_il 

Ten., Tenuto. Tay-noo-to. A direction to 
hold a note to its f uU length ; sjTionymous 
with Sostenuto. 

Terzetto. Tertz-et-to. A composition for three 

Tetrachord. Tet-ra-kord. The interval of a 

Theme. A musical subject. 

Theory. The-o-re. The principles of a science 
independent of its practical exemplification ; 
as, a person may be a good theoretical musi- 
cian without performing or singing well. 

Thorough Bass. The art of placing from figures 
placed over or under any bass note. 

Ties. Those thick lines which unite the tails of 
notes, and distinguish quavers, semiquavers, 
&G., from crotchets; as also the curves, or 
slur-marks, drawn over or under the heads 
of notes to be performed as one sound. 

Time. The measure of sounds, so as to regu- 
late their duration. 

Time-Table . A representation of the several 
notes and their relative lengths or durations. 

Timo., Timoroso. Te-mo-ro-so. Expressive of 
timidity and awe. 

Toccata. Tok-kah-tah. A brilliant piece of 

Tone has various musical significations: 1. 
The distance or interval between two sounds ; 
2. The property of sound constituting grave 
and acute ; 3. The particular quality of a 
voice or instrument, as we speak of "a rich 
tone, a, poor tone, a fall-toned violin, &c. 

Tonic. Ton-ik. The key-note of a composition. 

Tosto. Tos-to. Rather; as, Piu Tosto Largo, 
rather slow. 

Touch. The term by which the quality of a 
keyed instrument is defined, or the fingering 
of an instrumental perfoi-mer is described. 
WTien the keys of an organ or piano-forte 
are moved with difliculty, it is said to have a 
heavy touch ; if the reverse, a light touch. 

Trachea. Tra-ke-a. The windpipe. 

Tranqua., Tranquillezza. Trahn-quil-let-zah. 

Transient. Tranz-e-ent. Passing: a transient 
modulation consisting in quitting a key almost 
as soon as it has been entered upon. 

Transition. Tran-sizh-un. The softening of a 
disjunct interval by the introduction of inter- 
mediate sounds. 

Transposition. Trans-po-sizh-un. The shift- 
ing of a composition from the key in which it 
is written to one higher or lower, to suit the 
compass of a particular voice or instrument; 
in doing which correctly, all the intervals of 
the original must be preserved, by introducing 
the flats, sharps, &c., of the adopted key. 

Treble. Treb-el. The highest vocal part. 

Treble Clef. The clef which has C dfr: 
on the third space, made thus : KS 

Trem., Tremando. Tra-mahn-do. With a 

tremulous motion. 
Triad. Tri-ad. A chord consisting of three notes. 
Tiill. A shake, commonly written tr. 
Trillando. Tril-lahn-do. Shakingly, or with 

Trio. Tre-o. A composition in three parts. 
Triple. Trip-el. Three-part. 
Triple Time. A movement of three beats in a 

Triplet. Trip-let. Three notes sung or played 

in the time of two, 
Troppo. Tro-po. Too much : the negative, 

non, Is usually before it; as. Allegro non 

Troppo, not too quick. 
Troubadour. Troo-bah-door. The appellation 

given to the early poet-musicians, or bards, 

of Provence and iSTormandy. 
Trouveres. Troo-vair. The French for Trou- 
Tune. An air, or succession of measured 

sounds, at once agreeable to the ear, and in 

accordance with musical rule. 
Tutti. Too-tee. All; in contradistinction to 

solo, points out where aU are to take up the 

Tutta, Toot-tah ; Tutte, Toot-ta; Tutto, Toot- 
to. Have the same meanings : being the 

various inflections, singular and plural, of the 

same adjective. 
TyroUenne. Te-ro-le-en. A Tyrolese dance. 

Un. Oon. The Italian for the English article 
A; as, Un Po., Un Poco, A little. 

Unison. U-ne-zun. Two or more sounds, so 
directly similar that the ear perceives no dif- 
ference, are called in unison. The octave of a 
note is also its unison, for the same reason. 



CTnisi., XJnisoni. Oo-ne-so-ne. A direction to 
play the parts in octaves, or unison. 

Valse. Volse. A waltz. 

Valse a Deux Temps. Ah-deu-Tong. A waltz 
in two-four time. 

Varia. Variamento. Var-e-ah-men-to. In a 
varied and free style. 

Variai., Variazioni. Var-e-ah-tze-o-ne. Vari- 
ations on a theme or air. 

Vaudeville. Vo-de-vele. A short drama inter- 
spersed with songs. 

Veloce. Vay-lo-chay. With extreme rapidity. 

Velocissimo. Vay-lo-che-se-mo. Very quick- 

Velocita. Vay-lo-che-tah. Quickly. 

Vibration. Vi-bra-shun. That tremulous mo- 
tion of any sonorous body by which sound is 
produced with corresponding tremulousness. 

Vig., Vigoroso. Vig-o-ro-so. With strength. 

Vivace. Ve-vah-chay. Vivaciously. 

Vivacissimo. Ve-vah-che-se-mo. With ex- 
treme vivacity. 

Vocal. Vo-kal. A term applied to those musi- 
cal sounds which proceed from the human 
musical organs ; also to music composed for 
the voice, and performances consisting of 

Vocalize. Vo-kal-ize. To practise singing on 
the vowels. 

Vocalizzi. Vo-kah-let-ze. Exercises in singing 
upon vowels. 

Vocal Score. A vocal arrangement of all the 
separate voice parts, placed in their proper 

bars under each other, and used by the vocal 

Voce. Vo-chay. The Itahan for voice. 

Voce di Camera. Kam-e-rah. A voice only 
calculated for chamber performance. 

Voce di Petto. Pet-to. The natural, or chest 

Voce Sola. So-lah. A direction that the pass- 
age over which it is written is to be sung 
without accompaniments. 

Voce di Testa. Tes-tah. The Itahan tenn for 
a falsetto, or head voice. 

Voice. The sound produced by the vocal or- 

Vol., Volante. Vo-lahn-tay. Lightly and 

V. lma,'Volta Ima. Vohl-tah. The first time. 

Vole., Volonte. Vo-lohn-tay. Will; as, A 
Volante, at will. 

v., VoUi. Vol-te. Turn over leaf. 

V. S., Volti Subito. Soo-be-to. Turn over 

Voluntary. Vol-un-ta-re. An extempore per- 
formance upon, or a composition written for, 
the organ, generally performed during pauses 
in the church services. 

Walzer. Vahlt-zer. The German for waltz. 

Zeloso. Zay-lo-so. Enthusiastically. 

Zoppo. Zop-po. Leaping: an Italian term 
chiefly used in counterpoint, indicating that 
the theme, by the aid of syncopation, is made 
to advance by leaps or starts. 




(Giving the Popular Title of each publication, with the name of the author or compiler wher 
known, and the year in which many of the older works appeared, but not including periodicals.) 

Fkom 1640 TO 1875. 

Abington Collection; or, American and European Harmony. 1813. D. Pool and J, Holbrook. 
Academy Vocalist. 1852 ___________ George F. Root. 

Amateur's School for the Piano-forte --------- .J. C. Beckel. 

Alexander's Flute Instructor ---------- H. W. Alexander. 

Amateur Organist, Original Compositions --_____ John Zundel. 

American Piano-forte Method ----------E. A. Robbing. 

" Choir. Church Music. 18G0 - - - -A. J. Abbey 

•< Choir. Church Music. 1858 - - - - - - - -A. N. Johnson. 

" Church Harp. Church Music. 1848 W. H. Rhinehart. 

•' Collection. Instrumental, 1856 ------- John \V. Moore. 

♦' Harmony. Church Music. 1801 ------ Nehemiah Shnmway. 

" Harmony, or Royal Melody. 1774 ------- William Tansur. 

" Harmony, or Universal Psalmodist, 1774 ------ A. WUhams. 

" Harmony. Original Church Music. 1792 ------ Oliver Holden. 

" Church Organ \ oluntaries ----- A. N. Johnson and H. S. Cutler. 

" Reed Organ -- W. H. Clarke. 

" School for the Melodeon - - - - - - - - - T. E. Gumey. 

•' VioUnist _-- j. p. Hanks. 

" Tune Book ------------ Lowell Mason. 

" Harp ------------- Charles Zeuner. 

" Musical Class Book Th. Bissell. 

" Repertorj', Band Music - - - - - - - - -E. A. Samuels. 

" Musical Directory --------- Thomas Hutchinson. 

•* Singing Book. 1771 ---------- Daniel Reed. 

" Psalmoily. 1829 - - - - - - - -.-D. Dutton and E. Ives. 

*• Preceptor, for Piano-forte. 1839 -------- Maximilian Hall. 

" School Readei-s. Three Books - - - - - L. O. Emerson and W. S. Tilden. 

" Musical Primer. 1808 --------- Amos Blanchard. 

" School Melodist. 1855 ---------- Josiah Osgood. 

" Repository of Sacred Music. 1830 ------ Samuel Waketield. 

" IVlinstrel. 1852 --------A. Abbot and George Andrews. 

Amphion. Part Songs for male voices --------- J. E. Gould. 

Andre's Organ School - Jul. Andr6. 

Andre's School of Instruction ---------- Jul. Andre. 

Angucra's Complete Method for Guitar ---------J. Anguera. 

Ancient Lyre. 1833 ------------- Charles Zeuner. 

Ancient Harmony Revived. 1847 G. W. Fargo and Jesse Peurce. 

Antiquarian ------------- Leonard Mai-shaU. 

Ancient Sacred Lvre. 1848 Benjamin Sweetser, jun. 

Anthems and Hyinns ---------- Augustus Ivreissmann. 

Anthem Serial --S. Lasar. 

Appendix to Marx's Musical Composition --------- E. Girac. 

Apollo Harmony. 1807 ---------- Jonathan Huntington. 

Art of Singing, in Three Parts, 1803 --------- Andrew Law. 

Art of Singing -------------- Carl Gaertner. 

Art of Singing ----- Cario Bassini. 

Art of Singing. Tenor Voice -- Carlo Bassini. 

Arbuckle's Comet Instructor ---------- M. Arbuckle. 

Arion. Part Songs for Male Voices --------- John D. WUlard. 

Atlantic Glee Book - -------- B. F. Baker and L. H. Southard. 

Asaph. Church Music --------- Lowell and WUliam Mason. 

Ascher's Modern Pianist --_--.------ J. Ascher. 

Alberti's German Accordeon Instructor --------- Carl Alberti. 




Amateur Journal. Band Music nJr'lS," fvobe* 

Amateur Album, for Piano-forte TohnS Adams' 

Adams's New INIusical Dictionary p M^nd^Shn" 

Atlialie. Racine's. An Oratorio - - - - ^^- ^j^^^^^.^^^^J^' 

Alpine Glee Singer - - - vm'mi,«S' 

American Vocalist. Church Music "^l ^T;r ^ Toh ,f<Sn " 

Alleghany Collection. Church Music - - - - ^' V't^^J l,*^^^- 

Arban's Cornet Method w « PpvS" 

Advance. Church Music -, -n ^ TTn.1,rPs and a W Foster 

Anthem Offering. Church Music ------ !>• F- Hodges and G. W. Foster. 

Anthem Choir. Church Music ---------- wTTmi'inhiPv^' 

Alt of Reading Music R^han^viiner' 

Alt Life and Theories - t u w-.Lu^nr^* 

Anthem Thanksgivmg. Church Music - - - I- 1^- ^^ «o^^^ J^^- 

Accoideon Primer Sen W mer" 

:: St^th^o^^l -.----■-------■-■-■-■-■ leTwhuS 

Army Drum and fSc Book B A. Burditt and Cassidy O. W. Keach. 

Aida. Libretto of an Opera " ^.^f- :.,,pr;' 

Afiicaine. Libretto of an Opera - - - - - c^ Meje Deer. 

Anna Bolena. Libretto of an Opera --------- t^. Donizetti. 

lSt5fp°Sf?WsecondP.;W ------------ --F.B.Me„ae>.BoW. 

lX%fSS?p1c£rrsQ.e.- sabbath ScU-ools- ------ -- ^-fdKS^: 

iss^-v^rspSr-':*":""- ---------------„vi= 

Appendix to Encyclopaedia of Music domi w. ivioore. 

Baker's Modem Instructions for Piano ^^^'^T^r'^^J^t' 

Beck and Lawton's Piano Method - - f^,;^' ^4,^1^^^ 

BeUak's Piano-fort^e Method ----- "^ M^PrtSi* 

Beitini's Piano-forte Method - - - - -R^«,.H;„n;;fVRpvPr' 

Beyer's Prenminai-y School for Piano ■^^'^'^^' t wh^fl* 

Boston Piano-fort;e Instructor - - - -^ ' ' ,- " - " " wtspS* 

Beri^ini's Twenty-tive Studies for Piano. Opus 29, 32, and 100 H. Betim. 

Beitini's Self-teaching Catechism Tn.v?ll Mn«m!* 

Boston Academy's Manual of Music Lowell Mason. 

Baker's Theoretical and Practical Harmony irpipvw' 

BlSho^eJ's^St'eT-"'"-'^'"-" .■-■-'-■-"-■- Dr. Nohfand £ady Wallace! 
BaSSs S?e'iSSc Gems for Piano - lat SSacS- 
Baumbach's One Hundred Operatic Melodies Adolph Baumbach. 

Batiste's Organ Voluntaries -^ - - \ q\varren' 

Beauties for the Organ. Two Numbers ^^, T^vlffpr' 

Brauer's Primary Course. Organ ~ " ' " i^ Phnrlo^' Rochsa 

Bochsa's Harp Method ----- - N-^^^^^'Said 

Ballard's Guitar Method - - c iiiilnorH 

Brahiard's Melodic School for Violin »• :J^y,^J"f'^^- 

Brainard's Opera Melodies for Violin "rr T^!.St>r 

Beibiguer's Flute Method TowSfSon* 

^^^^^"lS&^o?r^"-^ -.-.-.-.----■-■-■-■-"- LreiiMSo^m 

'« ChirufBook L. Mason and G.J. Webb. 

Bradbur'^j^rAntfemBook - - - WiUiam B Bmlbury. 

Bohemian Giri. Opera ^ R Demmte?* 

Beauties of Vocal Melody - - - ?" Sp3S* 

i?;tnGKe'Boor'^l'" Vocal Music -_-_-_-_-_ " j^. ^,,,,-„ ,„^^^^-^vtbb: 

iSnMeToSfom Glee Book B. F. Baker and L. H. Southard 

Baker's Church Music ^" v T^aWpr* 

Baker's Short Anthems and Sentences - - - - - - - - I ,.^.'^~i>^'J:^^^u' 

Baumbach's Sacred Quartets ------ " " " .," f^^J^^P^Vf^l'^^V^^^^^ 

Beethoven Collection of Church Music - - - E. Ives, W. Alfers, and H. ^- Jimm. 

Blessner's Floi-a Sacra. Church Music - r^^kii ^iac!f«' 

Boston Academy Collection of Church Music - -,' JfJl Os3' 

Bay State Collection of Church Music ^- ^- ^''^"'''^rPPnni.'n tIw^s 

Beauties of Harmony. 1813 ^ Tnlm S" 

Psalmody. 1805 w-ino'!^ r^^^^l^ 

Church Music. 1804 - - - ^'S^T^^Sl^i?.^* 

Billings and Holden CoUection. 1836- - - - ; "„- " ^ wmiJ^ -^'-Rrlnwv 

Book of Worship L. W. Bacon and William B. Bradbury. 

Boston Musical Institute's Collection. Church Music - , - „ " ^-, " ^ t'^^'^^L^iu"'!^' 
Boston Musical Education Society Collection. Chmch Music. B F. Baker and I- B. Woodbun^. 

^n.iniiPf- Vocal Music - - li. H. Southard and George W. Pratt. 

iS-streerciuecti^^^^ 1810 Nahum Mitchell. 


Bridgewater Collection of Church Music. 1824 - - - - Brown, Mitchell, and Holt. 

Buckley's New Banjo Method ----------- James Buckley. 

Burning Ship. A Cantata ------------ b. F. Baker. 

Beethoven's Sonatas. Two volumes ----___ Louis Van Beethoven. 

Bach's Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues --------- J.S.Bach. 

Baillot, Rode, and Kreutzer's Violin Method - - - - P. Baillot, P. Rode, Rud Krcutzer. 

Book of Cantatas -- ----W. B. Bradbury. 

Beauties of Caledonia. Scotch Melodies --------- Selected. 

Buhler's Messe in E17. - - - - - L. Buhler. 

Buclv's INIotet Collection for Choirs --------- Dudley Buck. 

Beren's New School Velocity for Piano ---------- h. Beren. 

Bonaldi's Six Studies of Vocalization. Soprano edition. Contralto edition - - Fr. Bonaldi. 
Bordogni. Thirty-six Vocalises, in Three Books ------- M. Bordogni. 

Bordogni. Twelve New Vocalises, in Two Books ---_-. m. Bordogni. 
Barnby's Eight Four-Part Songs ------____ j. Barnby. 

Buck's Six Four-Part Songs. Male Voices --------- D. Buck. 

Best's Morning Service ------------ W. T. Best. 

Baumbach's New Collection, Sacred Quartets ------ Adolph Baumbach. 

Buck's Second Collection, Motets ---------- Dudley Buck. 

Belshazzar. Sacred Cantata - --------- J. A. Butterlield. 

Beatitudes. Sacred Cantata, Sabbath Schools - - - - - - -J. P. Webster. 

Baker's Formation and Cultivation of Voice ------- B. F. Baker. 

Bassini's Cultivation of Young Voice --------- Carlo Bassini. 

Bagioli's Vocal Method ------------- A. Bagioli. 

Buds and Blossoms. Sacred arrangements for Piano. Two Volumes - - - - C. Grobe. 

Bochsa's First Six weeks at Harp ---------- N. C. Bochsa. 

Boehm's Flute Instructor ------------ G. Haslam. 

Bassini's New Vocal Method ----------- Carlo Bassini. 

Book of Praise - - - - - - -W. T. Eustis, jun., Edw. P. Parker and others. 

Baxter's Piano Technics ----------- James Baxter. 

Baxter's Technics for Voice ----------- James Baxter. 

Bugle Notes. Temperance Song Book ----- W. F. Sherwiu and J. N. Stearns. 

Brilliant Gems. Piano Pieces ----------- Selections. 

Baptist New Hymn and Tune Book --------- Philip Phillips. 

Beethoven, Life of------------ Richard Wagner. 

Beauties of Strauss for Piano -------- From Strauss's works. 

Banjoist - - - - - - - - - - - •> - - -C. C. Couverse. 

Back's Dictionary of Musical TeiTns --------- Dudley Buck. 

Bailey's Sacred Music ----------- Eben H. Bailey. 

Bottesini's Double-Bass Instructor --------- s. Bottesini. 

Boston Conservatory Method for Piano ---------J. Eichberg. 

Bride of Messina. Opera -----------J. H. Bonawitz. 

Bracket's Zither Duets ----------- Ph. Louis Bracket. 

Brightest and Best. Sabbath School Book - - - Rev. Robert Lowry and W. H. Doane. 
Bay State Psalm Book, 1640. Compiled by several Puritan clergymen. - - Henry Dunster. 
BurgmiUler's Elementary Instruction Book. Piano ------ Fr. Burgmuller. 

Burgmuller's Twenty-five Studies (Op. 100). For Piano ----- Fr. Burgmuller. 

Burrowes's Piano-forte Primer -----------J. F. Bun-owes. 

•' Thorough-Bass Primer - -- J. F. Burro wes. 

" Through-Bass Primer Companion- - - - - - - - J. F. Burrowes. 

Buckley's New Violin Method ----------- Jas. Buckley. 

Buckley's Banjo Guide Jas. Buckley. 

Briggs's Banjo Instructor ----------- Thomas F. Brings. 

Bugle Preceptor - B. A. Burditt. 

Bond's National Airs for Brass Band -----------A. Bond. 

Brass Band Journal. Twenty-four Numbers. ------ Arranged in Parts. 

Baker's and Southard's Vocal Method B. F. Baker and L. H. Southard. 

Baker's Elementary Music Book - ----B. F. Baker. 

Baker's School Music Book B. F. Baker. 

Bird's Vocal Music Reader - ------ Joseph Bird. 

Belle Helene. Libretto of an Opera Jaquese Offenbach. 

Barbe Bleue. Libretto of an Opera --- Jaquese Offenbach. 

Bohemian Girl. Libretto of an Opera - JI. W. Balfe. 

Barber of Seville. Libretto of an Opera .--- G. Rossini. 

Belshazzar's Feast. A Cantata G. F. Root. 

Beatitudes. A Cantata -------------J. P. Webster. 

Bird's One Hundred Single and Double Chants George Bird. 

Bohemian Gul. An Opera ------------ M. W. Balfe. 

Cjecilia, for High Schools ------- Sigismund Lasar and Lowell Mason. 

Canadian Church Psalmody ----------- J. P. Clarke. 

Cantata. Catholic Music. Two Volumes --------- A. Werner. 

Cantata Domino. Chants and Hymn Tunea - - - - - L. H. Steiner and H. Schwing. 

Cantica Laudis. Church Music ------ Lowell Mason and George J. Webb. 

Cantica Sacra. Patent notes ------------J. J. Tast. 

Cantus Ecclesiae. Church Muaic - - - - J. H. C. Stanbiidge and W. H. W. Darley. 


Carliart's Melodeon Instructor ---- T. E. Gurney. 

Carmiiia Sacra ; or, Boston Collection of Sacred Music ------ Lowell Mason. 

Cathedral Chants. Organ accompaniments -------- A. U. Hayter. 

Cathedral Chants. Gregoiian Tones --------- S.T. Tuckerman. 

Cecilian Glee Book -------- Edward L. White and A. N. Johnson. 

Celestina; or. Sacred Minstrel Virgil Corydon Taylor. 

Chapel Melodies ---- - Sylvester and H, P. Main. 

Chopin's Waltzes and Mazurkas Fi-ederic Chopin. 

Choir Chorus Book. Church Music - - A. N. Johnson. 

Choral Harmony. ----------- Handel and Haydn Society. 

Choralist. ----- -- Haiidel and H ay dn Society. 

Choralist ----- -._. William B. Bradbury. 

Choral. Church Music -------- B. F. Baker and I. B. Woodbury. 

Chorister's Companion, 1782 - - Simeon Jocelyn and Daniel Eeed 

Chorus Wreath. Oratorio Choruses, Glees, &c. - - - - - - -L. O. Emerson. 

Curtiss' Piano Jlethod N. P. B. Curtiss. 

Czerny's Piano Method - _--_- Carl Czerny. 

Catechism of Music James Clarke. 

Christian Hymn and Tune Book -- Amos Sutton Ilayden. 

" Harp. Patent notes -- - Ruebush and Kieffer. 

" Harmony, 1867. Patent notes William AValker, 

•* Harp. 1805 ------------ Jeremiah Ingalls. 

" Harp. 1836. Patent notes Samuel Waketield. 

" Melodies. 1807 ---------- George Barrell Cheever. 

" Harmonist. 1804. Baptist Hjnnns Samuel Holyoke. 

" Harmony. 1794. Patent notes Andrew Law. 

•' Psalmody. 1832 ---- E. Barrett and E. Coleman. 

•* L^Te. Church Music -- -_- Joshua Leavitt. 

" Minstrel. Patent notes J. B. Aiken. 

" Psalmist --------- Silas W. Leonard and A. D. Fillmore. 

Church ^lelodies ----------- Thomas Hastings and Son. 

" and Home. Anthems and select sacred pieces - - George Leach and II. C. Timm. 

«' Pastorals for Social Worship Nehemiah Adams. 

" Music in America. 1853 Nathaniel D. Gould. 

" Choir. 1839. Church Music - -- Joseph Muenscher. 

" Chant Book. Original _--.- William Staunton. 

" Harmony. 1848. Patent notes Henry Smith. 

" Chorals and Choir Studies .-- Richard Storrs 'Willis. 

Collection of Approved Tunes and Anthems. 1779 Andrew Law. 

" Chants. 1845 _-_-- Charles Jarvis. 

" Psalms and Hymns for the SLx Indian Nations _ - - - A Committee. 

Coronation of David. Cantata W. J. D. Leavitt. 

Coronation of Church Music Sylvester and H. P. Main. 

Curtiss's Method for Spanish Guitar - - - N. P. B. Curtiss. 

Cumberland Collection ---- Benjamin Sweetser. jun. 

Cumberland Harmony J. D. McCullum. 

Cooke's Vocal Method T. Cooke. 

Crescentina's Art of Singing -----------A. Panseron. 

Coronet. Vocal for Schools ------------ G. F. Ptoot. 

Carponlier's First Method for the Piano -- Adolph Carpentier. 

Child's First Book for the Piano J. T. Craven. 

Clifton's Piano Instructions ------------- Clifton. 

Catholic Vocalist Henry T Ilochol. 

Colman's Firet ISIass in F - II. S. Colman. 

Carmina Alterna E. E. Hale and O. B. Bro\vn. 

Chime. Churoh Music Virgil Corydon Taylor. 

Choral Harmony. Chm-ch Music B. F. Baker and W. O. Perkms. 

Choral Tribute. Church Music L. O. Emerson. 

Chorister. Church Music W. O. Perkins. 

Church Bell Church ]\Iusic W. O. Perkins. 

♦« Choral Book ---------- B. F. Baker and J. W. Tufts. 

" Manual --------- J, C. Beckel. 

" IMelodist E. L. White and J. E. Gould. 

Classical Chorus Book B. F. Baker and L. H. Southard. 

Conceitina. Church Music - Vkgil C. Taylor. 

Caniillus. A Cantata - B. F. Baker. 

Carcassi's Method for Guitar M. Carcass!. 

CaruUi's Method for Guitar Fred. CaruUi. 

Convei-se's Method for Guitar C. C. Converse. 

Coupa's Instructions for Guitar -- ---J. B. Coupa. 

Campagnoli's Violin Method ---- --B. Campagnoli. 

Czerny's One Hundred Progressive Piano Lessons ------- Carl Czemy. 

Callcott'a Musical Grammar John W. Callcott. 

Cherubini's Counterpoint and Fugue ----------J. Cherubini. 

Carpentier' 8 Elementary School for Piano-forte ------ Adolph Carpentier. 

Carr's Analytical Instructor for Piano-forte ------ -- M. Carr. 


Clialloner's Preceptor for Piano-forte --------- N. B. Challoner. 

Cramer's Instructions for Piano-forte - - - - - - - - - -J.B. Cramer. 

Cross's Piano-forte Method - - - - -M. H. Cross. 

Choruses of Eli M. Costa. 

Choruses of Elijah F. B. Mendelssohn. 

Carmina Collcgensia -----H. K. Waite. 

College Glee Book C. W. Stevens. 

Cabinet Organ Treasury ----- J. W, Elliot. 

Christian Heart Songs. Hymns and Tunes ---------J. Zuntlel. 

Charm. Sabbath Schools - - - P. P. Bliss. 

Coronation. Church Music T. F. Seward and C. G. Allen. 

Christian Songs. Sabbath Schools Selected. 

Clarke's Dollar Instructor for Piano W. H; Clarke. 

" " " Violin - - - W. H, Clarke. 

" " " Reed Organ W. H. Clarke. 

" Short Voluntaries for Organ W.H.Clarke. 

Campana's Solfeggi F. Caniijana. 

Coon's Brass Band Music. Six Numbers Oscar Coon. 

Cirillo's Twenty Exercises for Voice -----------V. Cinllo. 

Cirillo's Forty Exercises for Voice -----------V. Cirillo. 

Choice Trios. Female Voices W. S. Tilden. 

Cheerful Voices. School Song Book L. O. Emerson. 

Chorus Choir. Sacred Choruses, &c. Eben Tourj^e. 

Children of Jerusalem. Juvenile Cantata J. C. Johnson. 

Culprit Fay. Cantata J. L. Ensign. 

Casket. Sabbath School Song Book Asa Hull. 

Catholic Choir Book K- Garbett. 

Chants and Responses James Pearce. 

Chants and Responses L-O. Emerson. 

Carmina Yalensia J. O. Heald and S. T. Button. 

Carol. Sabbath School Music - - - W. B. Bradbury. 

Chorus Glee Book -- I. B. Woodbury and Thomas Hastings. 

Chime Bells. Piano Music Selections. 

Chapel Gems. Sabbath School Music George F. Root. 

Church Organ. Church Music B. F. Baker. 

" Singer. Church Music Karl Reden and Goodenough. 

" Psaltery, Church Music ------ E. Ives. 

Columbian Glee Book . - - I.B.Woodbury. 

Cottage Glees I. B. Woodbury. 

Cultivation of Voice without a Master _-- l, B. Woodbury. 

Clariona. Sabbath School Music W. B. Bradbury. 

Cythara. Church Music I.B.Woodbury. 

Chapel Melodies S. J. Vail and Robert Lowry. 

Cantilena. School Music Book G. F. Bristow. 

Cluster. Church Music - - - - S. W. Martin, J. M. Stillman, and T. INIartin Townie. 

Clarke's New Method for Piano Hugh A. Clarke. 

Clarke's Improved School Cabinet Organ -- Hugh A. Clarke. 

Crown. Sabbath Schools --------- Geo. F. Root and P. P. Bliss. 

Chaplet. Sabbath Schools ----H. Millard. 

Crown of Life. Sabbath Schools - - - W. A. Ogden. 

Choice. Four-Part Music James McGranahan and C. C. Case. 

Carmina Concordia Truman Weed. 

Cantus Divinns. Catholic Music A. H. Rosewig. 

Chickering Collection. Four-Part Songs. Male Voices Selected. 

Ciystal. Church Choirs F. H. Pease. 

Christmas Chimes. Carols W. Dressier. 

Christmas Carols John Stainer. 

Choralist. Twenty-three numbers. Sacred Choruses Different Authors. 

Choral Classics. In Numbers for Societies Different Authoi-s. 

Christmas and Easter Carols A. P. Howard. 

Czeniy's Studies in Velocitv- For Piano. Complete ------ Carl Czerny. 

" One Hundred Easy Lessons for Piano Carl Czerny. 

" Thirty Nouvelle Etudes for Piano Carl Czerny. 

" Letters to a Young Lady Carl Czerny. 

Corfe's Principles of Harmony Joseph Corte. 

Chit-Chat on INIusic H. C. \\ atson. 

Cabinet Organ Companion ^^,^r^%^';.,,' 

Clarke's New Method for Reed Organ w' „" 9, , ®* 

Clarke's New Reed Organ Companion - - - - - - - - - ^^ * -^i,; Clarke. 

Caledonia Collection for Violin - - t a r^' ^°,"'?* 

Cunnabel's Method for Accordeon ---------- J- S. CunnaV>el. 

Concertina Without a JLaster Case, Sedgwick, and Ruttiiiger. 

Converse's Method for Banjo ----------- C. C. Convei-se. 

Christmas Carols. From the German and English Selections. 

Classic Glee Book „ ^^^®,n^^^,"^- 

Concordia. Glee Book V. C. iayior. 


Covert and Dodge Temperance Songs ------ B. Covert and O. E. Dodge. 

Crystal Spring. Temperance Songs - - - - - - - - - -S. K. Whiting. 

Chapel. Church Music ------------ L. B. Barnes. 

Cantica Ecclesiastica. Anthems, &c. --------- George J. Webb. 

Choral Selections for Conventions, &c. Two Books ------- Selections. 

Creation. An Oratorio --------------J. Haydn. 

Creation. Choruses alone -------------J, Haydn. 

Clarion. Church Music ------------ Leonard Marehall. 

Convention Chorus Book ------- Selections. 

Canzonetta. Cantata ------------ Author unknown. 

Columbia. Cantata ------------- Geo. A. Mietzke. 

Chapel Gems. Sabbath Schools -- G. F. Root. 

Cherub. Sabbath Schools ------------J. C. Johnson. 

Choral Mass inF-------------- Carl Greith. 

Concone's Mass inF------------- J. Concone. 

Crivelli's Art of Singing ------------- D. CriveDi. 

Carmina INIelodia. Schools - - - - - - - - -A. N. and J. C. Johnson. 

College Hymn and Tune Book - - - - - - - - - - -W. O. Perkins. 

Common School Song Book ------------ Asa Fitz. 

Concordia. School Song Book ---C. Grobe, 

Colonial Harmonist. 1832 - Mark Bundiam. 

Columbian Harmony -- Joseph Stone and Abraham Wood. 

" Song Book. 1854 I.B.Woodbury. 

" Harmony. 1830 - --J. A. Moore. 

" Hannony. 1793 - Daniel Read. 

" Repository of Sacred Harmony. 1809 ------ Samuel Holyoke. 

" Sacred Minstrel. Original --------- Joel Hannon. 

" Sacred Harmonist. 1808 O. Shaw, A. Albee, and H. Mann. 

" Harmonist. 1816 -- Timothy Flint. 

Compilation of Genuine Church Music ---------- Joseph Funk, 

Comprehensive JMusic Teacher ----------- John W. Moore. 

Complete Melody. Three Parts -- --- Thomas Bailey, 

Concert Harmony. Two Parts ----------- Benjamin Leslie. 

Concone's Fifty Lessons in Singing ----------J. Concone, 

Congregational Church Music ---------- Leonard W. Bacon. 

" Harp. Church Music ---------- L. B. Barnes. 

" Singer. Church Music ---------- Asa Fitz. 

" Tune Book. Church Music ..- Elias Nason. 

Constellation ; for Conventions. Select Anthems and Choruses Selections. 

Continental Harmony. 1794 ----------- WUliam Billings. 

" For Old Folks' Concerts. ----<»---- Selections. 

" 1794 I. Thomas and E. T. Andrews. 

" Vocalist's Glee Book. 1834 ---- John A. Sterry. 

Cramer's Fortj'-two Piano Studies. Complete - - - - - - - -J. B. Cramer. 

Czemy's One Hundred and Ten Piano Exercises -------- Carl Czeniy. 

Czemy's One Hundred and One Preparatory Lessons. Complete - - - - Carl Czeniy. 

Concone's Twenty-tive Lessons in Singing --------- j. Concone. 

Concone's A^oice Part alone. For Schools ---------J. Concone. 

Creation . Libretto of Oratorio --.------_- j. Haydn. 

Cinderella. Libretto of Opera --------__-. G. Rossini. 

Carnival of Venice. Libretto of Opera ---------A. C. Petrella. 

Come, Let us Sing. (95th Psalm.) - - - - - - - - -F. B. Mendelssohn. 

Coniopeon Preceptor ------------- B. A. Burditt. 

Capuletti e Montecchi. Libretto of Opera ----------V. Bellini. 

Crown Diamonds. Libretto of Opera - - - - - - - - -D. F. E. Auber. 

Centennial Collection of Brass Band Music. In Numbers - - - - - 

David's Harp. 1842 H.W.Day. 

Delights of Harmony. 1805 - Stephen Jenks. 

Deertield Collections. 1814. Church Music -------- Samuel WiUard. 

Devout Psalmodist. 1813 ----------- John Bun-oughs. 

Deutsches Choral buch. 1852 Samuel Wakefield. 

Devotional Harmonist. 1849 ---------- Charles Dingley. 

Dictionary of Musical Information ---------- John W. Moore. 

Dictionary of Musical Terms. 1836 ---------- John Turner, 

Dissertation on Scottish Music. 1800 --------- James Tytler. 

Dissertation on Musical Taste. 1822 --------- Thomas Hastings. 

Divine Songs. 1789 -.--.-- Abraham Wood. 

Dictionary of Five thousand Musical Terms John S. Adams. 

Dulcimer Instructor --------------- j. Low. 

Dulcimer without a Master --- --. e. Durand. 

Draper's Fife Melodies ---- Alonzo Draper. 

Distin's Tutor for the Saxhorn. ------------ M. Distin. 

Don Pasquale. Libretto. Opera ---...-.-. Q. Donizetti. 
Don Carlos. Libretto. Opera ------------g. Verdi. 

Dinorah. Libretto. Opera ------------ Meyerbeer. 


Don Bucefalo. Libretto. Opera ----------- F. Cagiioni. 

Deems's Vocal Instructor ------------ J. M. Deema. 

Damoreau's Vocal Method ---------- Mme. Cinti iJamoreau. 

Drummer's and Fifer'a Guide ------- Geo. B. Bruce and Dan Emmett. 

De Monti's Mass in C ----------- Arranged by Peters. 

Derleth's Massin E[? ------------- Alois Derleth. 

Dielman's Mass ------------- Henry Dielman. 

Drobisch's Mass iuF C.L. Drobisch. 

Drobisch's Mass in C ------ C. L, Drobisch. 

Darley & Stanbridge's Chants of the Episcopal Church. - W. H. W. Darley & J. C. B. Stanbridge. 

Doctor of Alcantara. An Opera --- Julius Eichberg. 

Doctor of Alcantara. Libretto Julius Eich berg. 

Diapason. Church Music ------------ G. F. Koot. 

Dyer's Anthems -- Samuel Dyer. 

David, an Oratorio -- S. Neukomm. 

Der Freischutz. An Opera CM. von Weber. 

Der FreischUtz. Libretto ---CM. von Weber. 

Desert Flower. An Opera W.V.Wallace. 

Don Giovanni. An Opera - - - - -W. A. Mozart. 

Don Giovanni. Libretto W. A. Mozart. 

Dearborn's Flute Preceptor Nathaniel I^earbom. 

Dresslcr's Flute Instructor ----R. Dressier. 

Deems's Piano Method J. M. Deems. 

Duvemoy's Fifteen Studies for Piano - - - - - - - - -J. B. Duvernoy. 

Duvemoy's ficole du Mecanisme for Piano ------- J. B. Duvernoy. 

Duvernov's Ecolo du Stj-le for Piano J. B. Duvernoy. 

De Monti's Mass in B I? H. De Monti. 

Deems's Solfeggi J. M. Deems, 

David's Violin School Ferd. David. 

Ditson, O. & Co.'s Brass Band Music -- B. A. Burditt. 

Devotional Chimes. Hymns and Tunes ---------- Asa Hull. 

Danks' Anthem Services H. P. Danks. 

Day Spring. Church Music LB. Woodbury. 

Dodworth's Brass Band School ------ H. B. Dodworth. 

Dulcimer. 1849. Church Music LB. Woodbury. 

Dodworth's Cornet Instructor H. B. Dothvorth. 

Dyer's Sacred Choruses ------- Samuel Dyer. 

De La Motte's Piano and Musical Matter Gabrielle De La Motte. 

Dobson's New System for Banjo George C. Dobson. 

Dettingen Te Deum - George F. Handel. 

De Beriot's Violin School Charles De BerioL 

Daniel. Sacred Cantata - George F. Root and W. B. Bradbuiy. 

Diamond Hymns. Sabbath Schools -----------J. Rigg. 

Dinorah ; or. Pardon di Ploermel. An Opera G.Meyerbeer. 

Dame Blanche. Libretto of Opera Boieldieu. 

Don Giovanni. Complete Opera as Piano Solo ------- W.A.Mozart. 

Der Freischutz. Complete Opera as Piano Solo - CM. von Weber. 

Easy Instructor. 1798 William Little and William Smith. 

Easy Guide to Vocal Music. 1836 John Turner. 

Eastern Lvre --- David Paine and Edward Howe. 

Ecclesiastical Harmony. 1834 T. B. Mason. 

Education of the Voice. 1855 Carlo Bassini. 

Elementary Studies in Music. 1869 Benjamin Jepson. 

Encyclopcc'dia of Music. 1852 John W. Moore. 

Episcopal Harp, 1840 S. Parkman Tuckemian. 

Essex Harmony ; or, Musical Miscellany. 1785 - - Daniel Bailey. 

Essex Harmony. 1800 Jacob Kimball, jun. 

Euphonia. 1859 --- Charles F. Heuberer and E. Penibeau. 

Evangelical Music. 1834 ------- J. H. Hickok and George Fleming. 

Emani. An Opera G. Verdi. 

Ernani. Libretto. Opera G. Verdi. 

Excelsior. Church Music ----J. W. Suffern. 

Engedi. An Oratorio L. Van Beethoven. 

Easter Morning. A Cantata Dudley Buck. 

Excelsior Melodcon Instructor ----------- L. Warden. 

Everest's Piano-forte Instructor ----------- C Everest. 

Excelsior Piano-forte Instructor James Bellak. 

Ehlert's Letters on Music ------------ Louis Ehlert. 

Exercise Song Book - Asa Fitz. 

Emerson's New Method for Reed Organ - - - L. O. Emerson. 

Eaton's New Method for Cornet -----E. K. Eaton, 

Emerson's Singing School L. O. Emerson. 

•' Chants and Responses ---------- L, O. Emerson. 

" Episcopal Chants L.O. Emerson. 

-Empiro Collection. Church Music --------- A, N. Johnson, 


Excelsior School Song Book -- j?- J'J?*H®'** 

Enchanter. Glee Book V.O.Taylor. 

Echo of Happy Voices. Sabbath School ^ - Selected. 

Eichberg's Violin Method Juhus Lichberg. 

Elementary Music Reader ----------- ' , " ^; Jepson. 

Excursion. A Cantata J- ^I- ^^^^'^^il^'^ck. 

Every Sabbath. Sabbath School Book JF'^'J9 ^^''^V®' 

Echoes from Zion. Sabbath School Book W. F. Slierwm. 

Excelsior Collection for Flute - - " - - - - - ' ' . ' ,^- 7 ""^er. 

English Concertina Instructor Case, Sedgwick, and Faittniger. 

Etiquette of Ball Room ^"]^,.^^®'^- 

Ethiopian Glee Book. Three Volumes Publisher. 

Eli. An Oratorio ^}- Costa. 

Eli. Choruses - - ^„", M- Costa. 

Elijah. An Oratorio F- B. Mendelssohn. 

Elijah. Libretto F. B. Memlelssohn. 

Esther. Sacred Cantata; also Libretto alone W.B.Bradbury. 

Etoile du Nord. Opera Libretto G. Meyerbeer. 

ExceMor Glee and Chorus Book L-O. Emerson. 

Easter Carols ^ ^Av^' PP^'^J"^' 

Ehjah. Choruses alone F. B. Mendelssohn. 

Elements of Musical Composition "^„" ^,. ™®*"' 

Excelsior Collection for Flute -S;^*V^"®^ 

EUsire d'Amore. Libretto of Opera G. Donizetti. 

Emani. Complete Opera for Piano Solo -- G. Verdi. 

Foster's Social Orchestra --- Stephen C. Foster. 

Fi-esh Laurels. Sabbath School - W. B. Bradbury. 

First Year on Organ J. Zundel. 

Fairy Fingers ; a Collection of Piano Music Selections. 

First Music Reader L. W. Mason. 

Fireside Echoes. Vocal Music Selections. 

Fountain of Sacred Song. Church Music Leonard Marshall. 

Fauy Grotto. Cantata G. W. Stratton. 

" Echoes. School Songs "William Dressier. 

" Voices. School Songs William Dressier. 

Flute Bouquet. Flute Solos Se]>. \Vinner. 

Fairy Bridal. A Cantata JH. Hewitt. 

Festival Cantata Eugene Thayer. 

Festival of the Rose. A Cantata J-C. Johnson. 

Forty-Sixth Psalm. A Cantata Dudley Buck. 

Forty-Sixth Psalm. Orchestral Parts Dudley Buck. 

Forest Chou-. School Song Book George F. Root. 

FenoUosa's Piano-Forte Method M. Fenollosa. 

Feder's Guitar Method OttoFeder. 

Fountain of Gems for Piano-forte Enist Leslie. 

Faust An Opera Charles Goiniod. 

Faust. Libretto - Charles Gounod. 

Fifty Pieces for the Organ E. Batiste. 

Family Circle Glee Book. Two Volumes Elias Howe. 

Festival Glee Book G. F. Root and W. B. Br.idbury. 

Friedham's Instructor for Double Bass John Fnedhara. 

Festival Chimes. Glee Book S. W. Martin. 

First Steps in Thorough Bass. " By a Teacher of Music.'' 

Flute Made Easy „ Selected. 

Flute and Piano Duets -- ». Winner. 

Forty-Five Opera Choruses --- Edwin Brace. 

Flower Festival ; or, " Banks of Rhine." A Cantata J.C.Johnson. 

Franklin Harmonv. 1825 John Rothloust. 

FraDiavolo Libretto of an Opera D. F. E. Auber. 

Fruits and Flowers. Church Music. Patent notes William Walker. 

Funk's Genuine Church Music Joseph Funk. 

Family Mmstrel. 1830 Charles Dingley. 

Federal Hannony. 1788 - John Korman. 

" Harmony. 1793 - Simeon Jocel>Ti. 

" Hannony. 1788- - - - - Timothy Swan. 

Flagg's Collection (engraved). 1764 Josiah Flagg. 

Flora's Festival. 1847. A Cantata - - William B. Bradbury. 

Flower Queen. A Cantata -- - George F. Root. 

Forest Melody. A Cantata J^'J^- Ciutis. 

Fidelio. Libretto of an Opera L-V. Beethoven. 

Fleur de Th6. Libretto of an Opera F- R. Herve. 

Fille de Madame Angot. Libretto of an Opera Charies Lecocq. 

Favorita. Libretto of an Opera -- G. Donizetti. 

Fille du Regiment. Libretto of an Opera --- G. Donizetti. 

Flauto Magico. Libretto of an Opera - - - J. C. W. A. Mozart. 


Fireside Melodies. Glee Book -------_--._ ^gj^ pj^.^ 

Father Kemp's Old Folks Concert Tunes --------_ H.P.Kemp*. 

Fanner's Mass in B [7 - Henry Fanner! 

Fen-ari's Instructor in Singing ---------- _.q^ Ferrari 

French Horn Instructor ----- Author unknown! 

Faust. Complete Opera as Piano Solo --------- c. Gounod. 

Gems of Gennan Song -----------__. Selected. 

Gems of Strauss. Dance Music. Piano-forte ---_-. From Strauss' Works! 
German Four-Part Songs. Mixed Voices --------- N. H. AUen! 

Gounod's Clioral Music ----------.-_(_;_ Gounod! 

Golden Chain. Sabbath Schools -----------w'. B. Bradbury. 

*' Shower. Sabbath Schools - - - - - - - - - -W, B. Bnidbury' 

" Censer. Sabbath Schools - --------- W.B.Bradbury! 

" Promise. Sabbath Schools ---------- T. E. Perkins. 

Gems of Sacred Song ----------_-__ Selected! 

" Scottish Song - Selected. 

" English Song -. Selected. 

Golden Trio. Sabbath Schools ---------.. ■\;V'. B. Bradbury. 

Gi-andpa's Birthday. A Cantata -----------c. A. White. 

Goldbeck's Technics for Piano ---------- -Robert Golilbeck! 

Getze's School for Cabinet Organ ----------- j. a. Getze. 

Golden Treasury. Piano Music- -------.--. Selected! 

Gaertner's Violin School ------------ Qa,r\ Gaertner. 

Gaortner's Art of Singing Carl Gaertner. 

Golden Leaves. Vocal Music -.---.W. S. Hays. 

Golden Chimes. Piano-forte Music ----------- (j. Kinkel. 

Genevieve. An Operetta ----- -G. W. Stratton. 

Guiding Star. Hymn and Tune Book Rev. D. C. John. 

Golden Leaves and Blossoms. Piano Music --------- c. Kinkel. 

" Rule. Sunday Schools - S. W. Straub. 

" Curcle. Piano Music Selected. 

" Sunbeams. Sabbath Schools ----- D. F. Hodges and J. H. Tenney. 

Gospel Songs. Hymns and Tunes ----- p. p. bUss. 

Golden Gate. Sunday Schools --- Knowles Sliaw. 

Gleanings for Vocal Practice ----------- Mrs. J. H. Long. 

Gospel Siflger. Hymns and Tunes ---------- Philip Philhps. 

Golden Crown. Sabbath School Music --------- H. T. Merrill. 

Golden Harp. Sabbath School Music --------- L. O. Emerson. 

Guide to Musical Composition ---------- -h. Wohlfahrt. 

Grobe's New Practical Method for Piano-forte -------- c. Grobe. 

Gordon's Sliort Voluntaries - -- - - - - - - - - -S. T. Gordon. 

Guitar at Home ---------- k. Flint. 

Great Rebellion. A Cantata ------ jos. P. Webster. 

Gentlemen's Glee Book ----- Lowell Mason. 

Greeting. Glee Book -------L. O. Emerson. 

Generah's Vespers ----------- arranged by W. Dressier. 

GeneraU's Mass inG- -- - -- - - - - arranged by W. Dressier. 

Guignard's Mass ---- ----- Aug. Guignard. 

Garcia's New Treatise on the Art of Singing ------- - Manuel Garcia. 

Gems of Four-Part Songs ----------- Adolphus Jackson. 

Graumiar School Chorus Book - -- - - - - - - - -J. B. Sharland. 

Grammar School Vocalist - - - - - - - - N. P. B. Curtiss and F. H. Nash. 

Golden Chord. Piano-forte Music ----------- Selected. 

Guitar without a Master ----------- Author unknown. 

Genevieve de Brabant. Libretto of Opera - ------ - Jaquese OlTenbach. 

Grande Duchesse. Libretto of Opera -------- Jaquese Olfenbach. 

Gustavus Third. Libretto of Opera --------- D. F. E. Auber. 

Giuramento. Libretto of Opera ---------- s. Mercadante. 

Gazza Ladra. Libretto of Opera ----------- G. Rossini. 

Glee Hive -.--L. Mason and G. J. Webb. 

Gentle Annie Melodist. Two Numbers ---------- Selected. 

Gardiner's Music of Nature ---------- William Gardiner. 

Gentleman and Lady's Musical Companion. 1774 ------- John Stickney. 

German Glee Book. 1848. With Accompaniments ------- H. Meiggs. 

German Glee Book -------------- N. H. Allen. 

Germania Collection. Instrumental ---------BA. Burditt. 

Gleanings from the History of JMusic. 1849 -------- Joseph Bird. 

Gloria in Excelsis. 1855. Church Music --------- W. Williams, 

Golden Lyre. 1850. Church Music^ -------- Virgil Con-don Taylor. 

Gospel Harmonist. 1841 ----------- Thomas Whittemore. 

Grace Church Collection of Church Music. 1836 - - - - - - Wilham A. Khig. 

Greatorex CoUectioii of Church IMusic. 1851 ------- H. W. Greatorex. 

Grounds and RiUes of Jlusic. 1746 -------«- Thomas Walter. 

Godfrey Weber's General Music Teacher - -.- - -- - - - J. F. Warner. 

Graupner's Rudiments for. the Piano - -.-,-.- ^ - - - -G. Graupner* 



German Concertina Instructor Williams and Coule 

German Conceitina Instructor -- -- A. 13. bedqwicK. 

Guitar Piimer S. Winner. 

Gounod's Messe Solennelle -,, L.Gounod. 

Giro 116 Girotla. Libretto of an Opera Charles Lecocq. 

Golden llobin. School Song Book - - W.O. Perkins. 

Golden Wreath. School Song Book , "^ -cT " " ^ t" -n iP' , !^?^^i* 

Glad Tidings. Sabbath School Music - - - - L. O. Emerson and L. B. Starkweather. 

Hallowell Collection of Sacred Music. 1817 - - „- - ^- " , ." " , ,>; v " ^?*?n^^®* 

Hallowed Souths - S. Main, T. E. Perkins, and Philip Phillips. 

Hallelujah. cWch Music - - Lowell Mason. 

Handel and Haydn Collection of Church Music. 1822 f^-^T^" Mason. 

Handel Collection. Church Music - - A. :n. Johnson. 

Harmonia Americana. 1701 - Samuel Holyoke. 

" Ecclesia. Patent notes ^- Jesse 15. Aiken. 

" Ccelestis. 1709. Figured bass Jonathan Benjanun. 

Sacra. Patent notes -^ -^.- ^^^^^P^^'™^' 

Sacra. Anthem Book E. L. White and J. L. Gould. 

Harmonic Minstrelsy. 1807 Walter Janes. 

Harmonicon. Sacred Music. 1849 t "x^ ' J- l^awson. 

Harmonist. Methodist. Patent notes L- Mason and G. Lane. 

Harmonist's Companion. 1807. Patent notes - Andrew Law. 

Hannonist's Companion. 1797 - - - - - - - - " " - Daniel Belknap. 

Harmony of Maine. 1794 Samuel and Supply Belcher. 

Harmony of Zion. 1818 - - Stephen Jenks. 

Harp of Columbia. 1848. Patent notes W. K. and M.L. Swan. 

" David. Church Music George Kingsley.. 

« Judah. Church Music '-.hS^i^^^^^F^^' 

« the South. Patent notes „%„ T . ' ^^ •*<•;), ^2, ^'* 

" the West J-F. Webster and A. T. Sharpe. 

" Praise. Church Music ^-,. ", Leonard MarshaU. 

Harpsichord. Church Music L. MarshaU and H. N. Stone. 

Hartford Collection. Church Music .;; t."-o ," 'it w"*^ /J"^* 

Haydn Collection. Church Music B. F. Baker and L. H. Southard. 

Haymakers. A Cantata - George F. Loot. 

Herald of Sacred Song. 1857 Henry^tone, jun. 

Hesperian Harp. Patent notes - Wilhani Houser. 

Hints concerning Church Music - James M. Hewens. 

History of Forty Choirs Thomas Hastings. 

Hosanna. Church Music Leonard Marshall. 

Hubbard's Anthems. 1814 John Hubbaid. 

Hmnorous Songs 7 "o +; u i2"' 

Hvmnist. Sacred Music. Patent notes Amos Sutton Harden. 

Hymns for Schools, and Tunes for aU Metres J^/ D. CJeveJana. 

Hymn of the Seasons. 1839 5'''^'^«?f ^^.v* 

Hymns and Songs of Praise R- !>• Hitchcock. 

Hymns and Tunes. 1782 Andiow Law. 

Howe's Leviathan Collection for Violin :^'?^^ ft^^^^'^- 
Howe's Circle of Brilliants for Piano-forte -^w II ^^' 

Hai-vard Collection of Sacred Music ,^*'-^; "eara. 

Hastings' Church Music Thomas Hastings. 

Havter's Church Music -r'u -^ir « i^'- 

Hopkins' Sacred Songs John H Hopkins. 

Howe's Drawing-room Dances .-.-------- ^^^^^^^^Y^' 

Home Recreations for Cabinet Organ ...------ vv. ±i. ciarKe. 

Hayden's Guitar Method Improved W. L. ilaycien. 

Henning's Practical Violin School ^^"tt^"'«"i^" 

HUl's Practical Viohn School *^' ^-.f^"^' 

Hamilton's Modern Instructions. Piano-forte d. 11 aniilton. 

Herz's Complete Method for the Piano-forte ■fj^^'^ ^^^i' 

Hummel's Complete Method for the Piano-forte J. JS. Hummel. 

Hunten'9 Method for the PianO-forte J^.Uunten. 

HistoiT of Music in New England. 1846 ^ ^^^^i'P -i?^ * 

Hamilton's Dictionary of Musical Terms •^•^ llamilton. 

Hastings' Musical Taste t "* ti -iV^^' 

Hamilton's Harmony and Thorough Bass J, A. Hamilton. 

Hamilton's Key to Harmony and Thorough Bass - - - - - - -J. A. Hamilton. 

Home Circle. Piano-forte IMusic. Three Volumes SelecteO. 

" Companion. Piano-forte and Vocal Music o i ^'t h 

" Treasure. Four-Hand Music -._-. - belectea. 

Hamilton's Organ Instructor J. A. Hamilton. 

Hamilton's Preceptor for Violoncello -- - - •'^;'^ o?' , ^5* 

Happy Hour. Juvenile Classes - J- B. Sharland. 

Hour of Singing. High Schools - - L. O. Emerson and W. S. Tilden. 

' How shalll teach? Educational . - - - - - - - - - LoweU Mason. 


Hour of Singing for Higli Schools L. O. Emerson and W. 8. Tilden. 

Happy Hours. Sunday Schools Howard Kingsbury and A. A. Graley. 

Happy Voices. Sunday Schools -------____. -\v. \v. It, 

Harp of Zion. Church Music - - - - - - - - -A. D. and J. H. Fillmore* 

Hymnals. Church Music ---.--____. Philip Phillips. 

Holbrook's Quartets. Sacred ----------__ Selected. 

Hearth and Home. "Vocal Music ---------.__ Selected! 

History of the Peace Jubilee -----__.^ Gilmore. 

Household Book of Songs - Prancia C. Bowman and Charles A. Dana! 

Hour of Praise. Church Music ------____ George F. Root. 

Hymnary. Sunday Schools ---------____ 8. Lasar! 

Hour ill Fairy Land. A Cantata ---___>___ ji;^ Sciioeller. 

Headlight. School Songs H. S. PerkLas and C. A. White. 

Hymns and Harmonies for Catholic Sunday Schools - - - - - - J. F. LoughUn. 

Hermon. Church Music - -R. M. Mcintosh and T. O. Summera. 

Harp of David. Church Music --------___ George Kingsley. 

Hiawatha. An Opera Robert .stoepel. 

High School Vocalist ->.. a. J. Cleaveland. 

Hunter's Daughter. An Opera ----------- j. w. Turner. 

Howe's Songs of Scotland ------------- Elias Howe. 

Howe's Songs of Ireland ---_-_._____ Elias Howe. 

Holland's School for Guitar --------___ Justin Holland. 

Hymnal. Episcopal Church J. Ireland Tucker. 

Harp of Praise. Church Music --------- Leonanl Marshall. 

History of Music. Two Volumes ----------- pr. L. Ritter. 

High School Chorahst -------------- Selections. 

Hohmann's Practical Course of Singing --------- c. Hohmann. 

Home Melodist. Collection of words and melodies ------- Selected. 

Harmony of the Spheres. A Cantata --------- Andreas Romberg. 

Hymn of Praise. A Cantata ----------- f. IMendelssohn. 

Haydn's First, Second, Third, Fourth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Sixteenth, Masses - J. Haydn. 

Hear my Prayer ----- F. Mendelssohn. 

Huguenots. Libretto of an Opera ---------- g. Meyerbeer. 

Instructions in playing Church Music --------- A. N. Johnson. 

Instrumental Assistant. 1806 ---------- Samuel Holyoke. 

Instrumental Preceptor. 1807 ----------- j. Herick. 

Introduction to Sacred Music. 1838. Patent notes ------ A. S. Hrjden. 

Introductoi-y Lessons, Church Music. 1785 -------- Uranian Society. 

Irish Melodies ------- Thomas Moore. Arranged by John Stevenson. 

Instructions in Thorough Bass --____-__- A. N. Johnson, 

Indian or Mohawk Version. 1839 --------- For the Six Nations. 

Israel in Egypt. An Oratorio ----------- G. F. Handel. 

Ivanhoe Masonic Quartets ----------- Thomas C. Pollock. 

Instrumental Musician ----------.---J. H. Seipp. 

Institute Melodies -------_--___ N. B. Clapp. 

Institute Chorus Book ------------- F. H. Brown. 

Indian Summer. A Cantata -----------J. C. Johnson. 

Introit. Church Music ------------- John Zundel. 

Intermediate School Music Reader ---------- L. W. Mason. 

Imperial. Conventions, Choirs, &c. ----------J. R. Murray. 

Influence of Music on Health -----------Dr. H. Chomet. 

lone. Libretto of Opera ------------ Ricci Brothers. 

Israel in Egypt. Choruses from the Oratorio -------- G. F. Handel. 

Jubilant Voices ----------- B.F. Baker and D. F. Hodges. 

Jubilate. Church Music - - - - - - - - - - - -L. O. Emerson. 

Jubilee. Church Music ----------- William B. Bradbury. 

Jubilee. Glees and Choruses of Peace Jubilee -------- Selections. 

Juvenile Harmony. 1825. Patent notes -------- William C. Knight. 

Juvenile Minstrel. 1847. Patent notes -------- Jesse B. Aiken. 

Juvenile Oratorios. 1849 ------------J. C. Johnson. 

Judas Maccabgeus. An Oratorio. Also libretto alone - - - - - - G. F. Handel. 

JuUien's Music for the Million ------------ M. Jullien. 

Jarvis's New Improved Slethod. Piano-forte -------- Charles Jarvis. 

Jousse's Instruction for Piano-forte ---------- J. Jousse. 

Judas Maccabaeus Choruses ----------- G. F. Handel. 

Juive. Libretto of an Opera ------------ F. Halevy. 

Jewett's National Violin Teacher- ----------J. P. Jewett. 

Jewett's National Flute Teacher ---------- J, P. Jewett. 

Jewett's Flutina and Accordeon Teacher --------- J. P. Jewett. 

Johnson's New Harmony, Thorough Bass, Melodeon, &c. - - - - - A. N. Johnson. 

Jepson's Music Reader -------------- B. .lepson. 

Joy. For Conventions, Choirs, &c. -----------P. P. Bhss. 

Joyful Songs. Sabbath Schools ---------- James R. Murray. 

Johnson's Harmony Instructor -----------A. N. Johnson. 


Juniata Ballads - - - . - Marion Dix Sullivan. 

Jewel. Glee Book ------- E. Let^lie. 

Jarviri's Chants of the Protestant Episcopal Church -------J. C. Jai-vis. 

Knoxville Harmony. 1838 John B.Jackson. 

Kalkbrenner's Piano Method Fred. Kalkbrenuer. 

Kiiorr's Guide for Young Pianist *^"^iV^T^>^i?''^- 

Kelley's Companion for Guitar - ' ^ Z^}: i^e^ley. 

Kreutzer's Fortv Studies for Violin Bud. Kreutzer. 

Rummer's Practical Instructions for Flute --------- C. Kummer. 

Kummer's Amateur Instructions for Flute ------- - - C. Kummer. 

Key Note. Church Music William BBradhnry. 

King's New Collection. Chm-ch Music W A. lung. 

Knitze's Mass Pastoral Arranged by Peters. 

Kendall's Clarionet Instructor Ned. Kendall. 

Keystone Collection. Church Music A.N.Johnson. 

Kingsley's Social Choir. Three Volumes George Kingsley. 

Kimball's Organ Voluntaries ,, - H- 1^* i^'i^^fi" 

Kimball's New Method. Heed Organ Horace E. Kimball. 

Kinkel's Forty-three Scales. Exercises, and Solfeggios for Voice - - - Charles Kinkel. 

Kinkel'a New Method. Be ed Organ Charles Kinkel. 

Knon's Materials for Piano Julius Knorr. 

Knorr's Methodical Guide for Teachers --------- Juhus Knorr. 

Ladies' Glee Book. Translated from the French ------ Henry C. Watson. 

Laua Deo; or, Worcester Collection. 1786 Isaiah 1 horn as. 

Laus Deo. The Harmony of Zion. 1818 Stephen Jenks. 

Lexington Cabinet. 183-1 ---- Bobert Willis. 

Liberty Minstrel. 1844 George \y Clark. 

Life of Schumann. Translated by Miss A. L. Alger Wasialewski. 

Life of Haydn -------- L. A. C. Bombat and William Gardiner. 

Litchtield Collection. 1806 ^ Daniel Head. 

Lute of Zion. Church Music. 1855 I-B. W oodbury. 

Lvra Sacra. Church Music. 1832 - - - Lowell Mason. 

Linda di Chamounix. Libretto of an Opera G- Donizetti. 

Lohengrin. Libretto of an Opera K.\Vagner. 

Lucia di Lammermoor. Libretto of an Opera -------- G. Donizetti. 

Lucrezia Borgia. Libretto of an Opera --------- G. Donizetti. 

Luisa Miller. Libretto of an Opera ^ ,% ^ , . ' 

Leonora. Libretto of an Opera G. Mercadante. 

Laurel Wreath for High Schools -.-- W. O. Perkins. 

Lombardi. Libretto of an Opera - - " - - - - - - - '„ ^J" ^^"^ 

LilvBell. A Cantata ^^V^-,\?'ir°"^* 

Lui-Une. An Opera --^-.- W. V. Wallace. 

Love's Triumph. An Opera ^^,0'}, ,^®* 

Lauda Sion. Solo and Chorus --..- F. Mendelssohii. 

Lucia di Lammermoor. Complete Opera. Piano Solo ------ G. Donizetti. 

Lucrezia Borgia, Complete Opera. Piano Solo ------- G. Donizetti. 

Leader. Church Music - --..--.- - H. E. Palmer and L. O. Emerson. 

Lebert and Stark's Piano School. Part I. S. Lebert and L. Stark. 

Life of Von Weber. Two Volumes ------ Baron Max Maria von Weber. 

Legend of Don Munio. A Cantata --- D. I>uck. 

Legend of Don Munio. Choruses ----------- D. Buck. 

Loreley. Untinished Opera F. Mendelssohn. 

Liber Musica. Anthems, &c. I- B. Woodbury. 

Loud's Organ School ----- H. Loud. 

Lobe's Catechism of Music ------------ J. C. Lobe. 

Laila. Juvenile Opera ---- G. W. Stratton. 

Lejeal's Mass in D ---- .--- A.F.LejeaL 

Ludden's School for Voice t^ i\ n* 

Luminary. Church Anthems - - - -- - - - - - -J. P. I'owell. 

Life of Schubert C. F, Austin. 

Life of Beethoven. Edited by Ign. Moscheles F. Schmdler. 

Lablache's Method for Bass Voice Louis Lablache. 

Little Songs for Little Singers Lowell Mason. 

Little Sunbeam. Sabbath School Music W. H. Doane. 

Leslie's Duets for Violin or Flute and Piano ---------E. Leshe. 

Lablache's New Method of Singing Louis Lablache. 

LambOlotte's Mass D L. Lambillotte. 

Lyra CathoUca --- L. H. Southard and J. H. Willcox. 

Lacia di Lammermoor. An Opera ---------- G. Donizetti. 

Lucrezia Borgia. An Opera ----------- G. Domzetri. 

Laus Domino. Church Music. Anthems, &c. George Leach. 

Life of Mendelssohn. Translated by W. L. Gage W. A. Lampadius. 

Life of Handel Victor Schoelcher. 

Life of Rossini .-------- H. S. Edwards. 


Listeman's Method for Violin -------._. .jj, Listeman. 

Lenhart's Elements of Music -----------A. E. Lenhart 

Life and Lettsi-s of Gottschalk -------_._ Octavia llensel. 

Life of Chopin Franz Liszt. 

Latour's Improved Method for Piano-forte ------__. t. Latour. 

Logier's First Companion and Sequel for Piano-forte -----_ J. B. Logier. 

Mann's Piano Method ---------->._ Jean Mann, 

May's Practical Piano-forte School --------_._ a. May. 

Meuieke's Practical Piano-forte Instructor -_--____ q Meineke. 

Muller's Method for Piano-forte -----_____ A. E. ftluller. 

Marx's Musical Instruction ----------_. a. B. Marx. 

Materia Musica --.-_._. j q^ Engelbrecht. 

Music explained to the World -----.--__. J'. J. Fetis. 

Marx's Musical Composition ---------___ a. B. Jlarx. 

Mason's Musical Letters -------_-_._ Lowell Mason. 

Mendelssohn's Letters. Two Volumes ------- Felix B. Mendelssohn. 

Mozart. A Musical Novel ------------ _h. llau. 

Mozart's Letters -------- W. A. Mozart. 

Mendelssohn's Songs without Words - - - - - - - - -F. B. Mendelssohn. 

Mozart's Sonatas ----------___ \v, A. Mozart. 

Modern School for the Organ ---------__ John Znndel. 

Melodeon without a Master --.------_> e. L. White. 

May's New Violin Method - - - - - - - - - - - -D. M. H. May. 

Mazas's Violin Instructor ---------- -.p. Mazas. 

Musician's Companion for Flute or Violin ------- --E. Howe, jun. 

Musician's Omnibus. Instrumental --------_. e. Howe. 

Modern School for the Drum - . - - O. W. Keach, E. Howe, and B. A. Burditt. 

Moralt's Zither School -------- ^,Y Jloralt. 

Meigneu's Vocal Method ----------- Leopold Meignen. 

Millard's Vocal Text-Book H.Millard. 

Music Reader -- L. Meignen and W. W. Keys. 

Mason's Large Musical Charts ----------- L. W. Mason. 

Musical Casket for Schools -----------J, C. Woodman. 

Musical Spelling Book -------_--_- e. Ives, jun. 

Model Melodeon Instructor ------------ Selections. 

Musical Wreath --------------- E. Ives, jun. 

Martha. An Opera ------------- F. von Flotow. 

Madison Square Collection ------------- s. W. Coe. 

Mendelssohn's Four-Part Songs ---------- J. C. D. Parker. 

Mhinehaha Glee Book- -------------c M, Cady. 

Musical Lyra. Glee Book --------..-- F. H. Pease. 

Masonic Choir ------------- Jolm W. Dadmun. 

" Harp and Monitor ----------- George W. Chase. 

" Orpheus ------------- -Howard BI. Dow. 

Music of the Chapter ------------ John B. Marsh. 

MUlard's Sacred Quartets ------------- H. Millard. 

Mosenthal's Anthems ------------ Jos. Blosenthal. 

Moses in Egypt. An Oratorio - - - - - - - -.- - - -G. Rossini. 

Mount Sinai. An Oratorio ------------ S. Neukomm. 

May Queen. A Cantata ------------ W. S. Bennett. 

May Queen. Choruses alone ----------- w. S. Bennett. 

Mass for Three A'^oices ------------- Louis Selle. 

" in C-minor -------------- Charles Wels. 

"inC---------------- Alois Fusch. 

Memorare. Catholic Church Music --------- Anton Werner. 

Mercadante's Mass, Three Voices ---------- S. Mercadante. 

Missa pro Pace ------------- Theo. La Hache. 

Missa in D-major ------------- Henrj- Schwing. 

Mason's Book of Chants ------------ -*L. Mason. 

Melodeon Instructor -------------LB. Woodbury. 

Manual of Harmony ------------ J. C. D. Parker. 

Mason's Sacred Harp. 1834. Patent notes -------- T. B. Mason. 

Manhattan Collection. 1837 ----------- Thomas Hastings. 

Massachusetts Sacred Hannony. 1807 .--------- Elias Blann. 

•' Compiler. 1704 O. Holden, H. Gram, and S. Holyoke. 

" Harmony. 1778. With Fugue Music ------ Walter Janes. 

" Collection. 1840 --------- George James Webb. 

MeiTv Chimes -------------- L. O. Emerson. 

Sleriiliau Harmony. 1808 ----------- Zedekiah Sanger. 

Merrimack Collection. Instrumental --------- Henry E. Moore. 

Messiah. An Oratorio. Arranged by John Bishop - - - - - - -G. F. HandeL 

Mechanical Exercises for Piano-foite --------- R. K. Shemian. 

Middlesex Collection of Sacred Harmony. 1802 ------- Daniel Belknap. 

Middlesex Hannony. 1795 ----------- Samuel Babcock, 

Method for Voices ---------- Carlo Bassini and R. S. Willis. 


Methodist Harmonist. 1821 ------------ N. Bangs. 

Methodist Hymn and Tune Book ---------- Sylvester Mam. 

Melodia Sacra ---------- B. F. Baker and A. N. Johnson, 

Melodies of the Church. 1832 - -.-- -- - - --D. E. Jones. 

Melodies of the Church. Eight Hundred Hymns ------- Abner Jones. 

Melodia Sacra. Church Music ----------- Oliver Shaw. 

Melodist. A Collection Miss Jane Slowman. 

Mendelssohn Collection. Church Music - - William B. Bradbury and Thomas Hastings. 
Millard's S. S. Chaplet ------- George Cooper and Harrison Millard. 

Million's Glee Book. 1855 --- -- I. B. Woodbuiy. 

Minstrel. 1849. Much original ---------- V. C. Taylor. 

•' A Collection of Songs. 1812 --------- John Cole. 

" of Zion -------- William Hunter and Samuel Wakefield. 

Missouri Harmony ----- Allen D. Garden. 

Modem Harp. Church Music -------- E. L. White and J. E. Gould. 

" Harmony. Letters for notes. 1808 -------- George Hough. 

•« Instructions for Piano-forte ---- Thomas Baker. 

•' Psalmist. Partly Original ---------- Lowell Mason. 

" School for the Violin - - - - -- - - - - -L. G. Fessenden. 

Moore's Irish Melodies Thomas Moore. 

Moore's Complete Encyclopaedia- ---------- John W. Moore. 

Morninsc and Evening Service ----------- C. S. Elliott. 

Mountain Minstrel ------ T. D. Bonner. 

Mozart Collection. Sacred Music ----------- E. Ives. 

Mozart's Twelfth Mass. With Latin and English Text - - - - J. C. W. A. Mozart. 

Musician's Lexicon. 1850 ----------- John W. Moore. 

Music in Miniature. 1779 ------------ WiUiam Billings. 

" of the Church - - - - - - - - - - - -J. M. Wain w right. 

" Teacher's Assistant ------------- T. Cresset. 

" as it was and is------------ N. E. Cornwall. 

Musical Composers and their Works --------- Sarah Tytler. 

Musical Olio. 1805. Partly original T. Olmstead. 

Musica Sacra ---------- S. Warriner and Thomas Hastings. 

Musical Cyclopfetlia - ------------ William S. Porter. 

*' Grammar. 1833 ----------- John Wall Calcott, 

" Magazine. Church Music. 1805- Andrew Law. 

" Primer. Church Music. 1803 --------- Andrew Law. 

" Library ---------- Lowell Mason and G. J. Webb. 

" Monitor. 1827 ------- Wilham J. Edson and Ephraim Keed. 

'• Monitor. Church Music ----- George IT. Curtis. 

*' Instructor. 1808 ------- Nathan Chapin and Joseph Dickerson. 

" Instructor. 1810. Patent notes John Dickinson, jun. 

" Bouquet -----.------- William B. Bradbury. 

" Scale -------------- Horace P. Biddle. 

" Vade Mecum ------------ Herman S. Saroni. 

" Dictionary. 1795 -------- Hans Gram and Oliver Holden. 

Mack's New Meloileon Method ------------ E. Mack. 

Mason's Vocal Exercises and Solfeggios ---------- L. Mason. 

Musical Album for High Schools ----- G. F. Root. 

'• MiiTor for High Schools ----------- S. B. Phipps. 

" Pvecreations for High Schools -E. Ives, jun. 

May Festival. A Juvenile Cantata ---------- Unknown. 

Mendelssohn's Three Motets. Female Voices F. Mendelssohn. 

Musical Treasure. Vocal and Instrumental --------- Selections. 

3Iespiah. Choruses Alone. Oratorio --------- G. F. Handel. 

Moses in Egvpt. Choruses Alone. Oratorio --- G. Piossini. 

Messe Solennelle G. Rossini. 

Messe Solennelle. Choruses alone ---------- G. Rossini. 

IMelodeon Primer S. Winner. 

Martha. Complete Opera as Piano Solo F. von Flotow. 

Musical Text Book E. B. Oliver. 

Mason and Hoadley's Easy Svstem for Piano. American and Foreign 

Fingering William Mason and E. S. Iloadley. 

Musical Treasure of Vocal and Instinimental Music ------- Selections. 

" Gariand for Violin and Piano Sep. Winner. 

" Flowers for Flute and Piano Sep. Wmner. 

Mouth Harmonica Instructor ----------- M. Wallach. 

Marchesi's Exercises for Voice M. G Marchesi. 

Mazzoni's SolfegM Edited by Emma Seller. 

Musical Enthusiast. Operetta John H. Hewitt 

Melodeon. Hvmns and Tunes - - - - - - - - - - - J. W. Dadmun. 

Metropolitan Glee Book William B. Bradbury. 

Musical Leaves. Hymns and Tunes Philip Phillips. 

Musical Bouquet. School Singing Book W. B. Bradbury. 

Miracle of the Roses. Operetta -L. Bordese. 

Music without a Master S. K. Whiting. 


Mount Zion Collection of Church Music --------- T. E Perkins. 

Magic Circle. Piano Tieces ---------___*_ Selected* 

Musical Cascade. Vocal and Instrumental Music -------- Selected! 

May Chimes. Catholic Hymns and Tunes ------« Sisters of Noti-e Dame '' 

May Blossoms. Catholic liymns and Tunes ------ Publisher's Selections. 

Mason's First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Intermediate School Music Readers. L. W. Mason.* 
Musical Gem. Vocal and Instrumental Music ----__-_ Selections. 

Mocking Bird. School Music Book -----.---_ w. o. Perkins! 

Musical Curriculum for Piano-forte - - - - - - - - - - - ' G. F. Hoot! 

" Pastime. Flute or Violin Solos -------__ s.' Winner! 

" Pastime. Flute or Violin and Piano ------._ s! Winner! 

Maud Irving; or, Little Orphan. Operetta -.-_--_- W. Dressier' 
Musical Gift. Piano Music ----------__' Selected! 

Mother Goose. Set to Blusic ----------- j, yy^ Elliott! 

Merry Voices. School Music --------_. .j;, (jo^ Stewart! 

Morning Star. Church Music D. F. Hodges and G. W. Foster! 

31 ason and Hamlin Cabinet Organ Instructor -------- Euo-ene Thayer. 

Musical Blossoms. Piano Music ---------.-". Selections! 

Musical Gatherings Piano Music -------_-._ Selections! 

Mannerchor. For Male Voices -------__-- G. P\ Root! 

Mendelssohn's Four-Part Songs. Male Voices ------ Charles J Sprafrue! 

Mendelssohn. A Memoir ------------ Ferd. HiTler. 

Musical Hints Karl Merz. 

Musical Chimes for Female Schools, &c. -----_-__ -w. Dressier. 

Music and Morals --------_-___. Unknown! 

Mason and Hoadley's Piano-forte Method - - - - William Mason and E. S. Hoadley. 

Model School for Piano ---------.-_._ Unknown. 

Maritana. Libretto of an Opera ---------- "w, y. Wallace! 

Masaniello. Libretto of an Opera ---------- j), f. Auber. 

Martiri. Libretto of an Opera ----------- g. Donizetti! 

Man-iage of Figaro. Libretto of an Opera -------- W.A.Mozart. 

Martha. Libretto of an Opera ----------- f. von Flotow! 

Maria di Rohan. Libretto of an Opera ---_---_. q. Donizetti. 
Masked Ball. Libretto of an Opera --_----___ G. Verdi 

Moses in Egypt. Libretto G. Rossini. 

Magic Flute. Libretto of an Opera - - - - - - - - - -W. A. Mozart. 

Mignon. Libretto of an Opera ------__-_. Amb. Thomas. 

Messiali. Libretto of an Oratorio ------__-_ g. p. Handel. 

Miriam's Song of Triumph. Cantata -------___ p. Schubert- 
Morning. Cantata ---------_.__- p. Reis. 

Morning Stars. Sabbath School Music ----_-__. j. y. Blake. 

Mozart's First, Second, Seventh, Ninth, and Fifteenth Masses - - - - W. A. Mozart. 

Musical Friend. Vocal and Piano Music --------- Selected. 

Musical Fountain. School Songs -------_--_ g. F Root. 

Mass in G H. Millard, 

" for Four Voices .-S. Mercadante. 

"inC -------------- L. von Beethoven. 

"inF L. Bordese. 

Nason's Vocal Class Book --.--->.... Edward S. Xason. 

National Church Harmony ---__.___. Nathan D. Gould. 

" Choir. Select Anthems ---------- Henry E. INIoore. 

" Psalmist L. Mason and George James AVcbb. 

" Lyre - - S. P. Tuckermau, S. A. Bancroft, and H. K. Oliver. 

New American Melody. 1793 ------ Jacob French. 

'• Lute of Zion ----------- Sylvester and H. P. Main. 

" Carmina Sacra. 1841 ------------ Lowell Blason. 

" Selection of Sacred Music. 1820 ---------- Samuel Dyer. 

" Oratoiio Chorus Book - - - - - - - - - - - -J, E. Goidd. 

" Coui-se of Harmony ---___-_-.- L. H. Southard. 

" Brunswick Church Harmony ---------- Zebulon ICstey. 

Newburyport Collection. 1807 ----------- Daniel Bailey. 

New England Psalm Singer. 1770 -- -- William Billings. 

New and Complete Introduction to the Grounds of Music. 1764 - - - - Daniel Bailey. 

New Hampshire Collection. Church Music -------- Henry E. Moore. 

New York Collection of Sacred Music. 1827 -------- Samuel Dyer. 

" " Choralist -----_-. Thomas Hastings and W. B. Bradburv. 

" " Glee and Chorus Book --------- Wilham B. Biadbui^'. 

Nightingale. Vocal Music ------------ W. O. Perkins. 

Norfolk Collection of Sacred Music. 1795 --------- Amos Albee. 

Norfolk Compiler. Church Music. 1805 --------- Stephen .Jenks. 

Normal Singer. Church Music. 1854 ---------- Lowell Mason. 

Noi-mal Song Book --.--.-------J. C. Johnson. 

Northampton Collection. 1778 ---.------- Elias Mann. 

Northern Harp. Church Music. 1837 --------- Henry E. Moore. 

'« Harp --- ..- Mary S. B. Dana. 


Northern Harmony. 1816 ------ Abram Maxim and Japheth C. Wa=libume» 

Numeral Harmony ----------- H. \V. Day and T. Beals. 

New York Normal School Song Book - - - - L. A. Benjamin and 1. B. Woodbiuy. 

New Templi Carmina. Church Music -------- George Kuigsley. 

Normal I 'iano Instruction Book -----_-_--_ - C. Hess. 

Novello's Organ Voluntaiies ----------- Vincent NoveUo. 

Nicholson's Flute Method ----------- Charles Nicholson. 

Norma. An Opera ------------- Vincent Bellini. 

New Odeon. Glees. &c. --------- L. Mason and G. J. Webb. 

New Sacred Star. Church Music ----------- L. Marshall. 

Naaman. An Oratorio ------------- M. Costa. 

Nightingale. A Cantata -----------J. F. Reichardt. 

Newlaiid's Vespei-s -------------W. A. Newland. 

Nursery Rhymes -------------- j. "W. Elliott. 

Normal. Singing Schools, &c. -----------J. W, Suffera. 

Normal Musical Handbook ----------- George F. Root, 

New Harp of Zion. Church Tune Book - - - - - - -A. D. and J. it. Fillmore. 

New Silver Song. Sabbath Schools - - - - - - - - - -\V. A. Ogden. 

New Eva. Singmg Schools ------------ G. F. Root. 

Nava's Rejiertoire de Solfegge. Vocal ---------- G. Nava. 

National Chorus Book. Sacred and Secular -------- Selected. 

New Comic Songster -------------- Selected. 

National Hymn and Tune Book. For Schools, &c ------- Selected. 

New Congregational Harp and Chapel --------- L. B Barnes. 

Ninety-Eighth Psalm ------------- F. Mendelssohn. 

Niedermeyer's Mass inD----------- L. Niedermeyer. 

National Orchestra. Five or SLx Instruments. Twenty-one Numbers - - B. A. Burditt. 
New Germania. Four, Five, and Six Instruments - - - - - - -B. A. Burditt. 

Ninety-Fifth Psalm. " Come, let us sing " ------- F.B.Mendelssohn. 

New IMethod for Melodeon ------------By Publisher. 

" and Complete Method for Accordeon -------- By Publisher. 

" Lute of Zion. Church Music ---------LB. Woodbuiy. 

" Jlelodeon. Hymns and Tunes ---------J. W. Dadmun. 

" Olive Bi-anch. Church ]\Iusic ------ T. J. Cook and T. E. Perkins. 

" Shining Star. Sabbath School Music -------- T. E. Perkins. 

Novello's Vocal School ------------- s. Novello, 

New Musical Fountain. Temperance Songs - - - - - - - - - G. 1"\ Root. 

New Standard Singer. H\Tnns and Tunes -------- Pliilip Pliillips. 

Notes of Joy. Sabbath Schools --------- Mrs. J. F. Knapp. 

New Coronet. Singing Schools. &c. --------- George F. Root. 

New England Conser\-atory Method for Piano - - - - - - N. E. ConserAatory. 

Notre Dame System for Piano --------- Sisters of Notre Dame. 

Nativity. Christmas Carol ----------- -J. CBockel. 

New Year's IZve. A Cantata ----------- H. Schoeller. 

Norma. Libretto of Opei-a ------------ G. Verdi. 

Naaman. Libretto of Oratorio - - - - - --- ---. -Ji. Costa. 

Naaman. Chomses from the Oratorio ---------- M. Costa. 

New Oratorio Chorus Book ------------ Selections. 

Nicholson's Preceptive Lessons for Flute ------- Charles Nicholson. 

Nava's Twelve Vocalises ------------- G. Nava. 

Nine o'clock in Morning. School Song Book -------- H. Tucker. 

New England ajid Bay State Glee Book - - - - I. B. Woodbuiy and J. C. Johnson. 

New Temperance Melodist ------------ S. Hubbard. 

New School for Piano ------------- Sep. Winner. 

" '* " Melodeon ------------ Sep. Winner. 

" " " Cabinet Organ ----------- Sep. Winner. 

" " " Guitar Sep. Winner. 

« « " Violin Sep. Winner. 

" " " Flute Sep. Winner. 

" " " Piccolo and Boehm Flute - -------- Sep. Winner. 

" " ** German Accordeon ---------- Sep. Winner. 

" " " Banjo Sep. Winner. 

•' «« a Fife Sep. Winner. 

" " " Flageolet Sep. Winner. 

** " " Comet ------------ Sep. Winner. 

" " '* Clarionet ------ Sep. Winner. 

Norma. Complete Opera as Piano Solo ---------- G- Verdi. 

Organist. Music for Organ - - - - -- -L. H. Southard and G. E. Whiting. 

Offertorium. Catholic Church ----------- W. O. FLske. 

Original Hymn Tunes ------------- H. K. Oliver. 

Orpheon. Boys' High Schools, &c. ---------- W, O. Perkins. 

Osgood's Guide to Art of Singing ----------- G. L. Osgood. 

Orchestral Journal. Five or six'instruments. Twenty-four Numbers - - G. W. Friedrich. 
Organ Gems. For Church Organ ------_-__ F. S. Davenport. 

Organ at Home. For Reed Organ ----------- 


Oriola. Sabbath Schools ----------- W. B. Bradbury. 

Oriental Glee and Anthem Book --------_. Dr. t. Hastings. 

Organist's Companion. Church or Reed Organ -------- s. T. Gordon. 

Operatic Leaves. For Piano-forte ---------- Fr. Kunimer. 

Organist's Quarterly Review - - - - - - - - - - - -WIC. Tliayer. 

One Hundred and Ten Select Organ Pieces - - - - J. E. Trowbridge and J. W. Hill. 

Operatic Gems. Vocal ------------ George W. Tiyon. 

Outline of Musical Form ----------- "W. S. B. Mathews. 

Oliver's Thorough-Bass Instructor - - - - - -.- - - -E.B. Oliver. 

One Key Singer. Church Music ----------J. B. Packard. 

Ohio Sacred Harp. Church Music ------_-__ T.B.Mason. 

Ohio Harmonist. 1847. Patent notes --------- Alexander Auld. 

Offering of Praise. Church Music --------- Sylvester Main. 

Old Colony Collection. 1818. Three Volumes, quarto - - - _ H. and II. Society. 

Olive Leaf. Seven-shaped notes ---------- William Houser. 

Opera Chorus Book --------- E. L. White and John E. Gould. 

Oriental. Rare Jewish Melodies --------- William J. Wetmore. 

Organ Manual -------------- H. D. Nicholson. 

Original Hymn Tunes, Chants, and Sentences - - - - - - - - H. K. Oliver. 

Orphean Lyre. Glees and Catches -------- L. Mason and G. J. Webb. 

Our Saviour. An Oratorio ----------- William Williams. 

Oesten's Piano Method ------------- T. Oesten. 

Organist's Portfolio. Two Volumes --------- E. F. Rimbault. 

Operatic Album. Singing Book ------------ F. Ives. 

Offering. Church Music ----------- L. H. Southard, 

Oliver's Collection ------------- H. K. Oliver. 

Ohnevvald's Requiem Mass inF- - - - - - - - - - -J. Ohnewald. 

Opera Bouffe. Collection of Vocal and Instrumental ------ J. Offenbach. 

Ole Bull Violin Instructor ------------By Publisher. 

One Hundred Beautiful Melodies for Violin --------- S. Winner. 

One Hundred Operatic Au's for Flute ---------- S. Winner. 

Operatic Bouquet -------------- Edwin Bruce. 

Opera Choruses in fourteen Numbers --------- E. L. White. 

Orpheus. Libretto of Opera ----------- J. Offenbach. 

Othello. Libretto of Opera ------------ G. Rossini. 

Orphean Lyre. Two Volumes. English Glees ------- H. R. Bishop. 

Old Folks' Concert Tunes ------------ Father Kemp. 

Operatic Pearls. Vocal Collection ----------- Selections. 

Ossian's Harp. Vocal Collection --- Ossian E. Dodge. 

One Hundred Comic Songs ------------ Selections. 

" " Songs of Ireland ----------- -Selections. 

" " Songs of Scotland ----------- Selections. 

Oratorio Choruses, in single numbers ----------- Selections. 

Our Song-Birds. 1866, 1867. School Song Book - - - - G. F. Root and B. R. Hanby. 

One Hundred Voluntaries, Preludes, &c. Organ - - - - - - - Ch. H. Rink. 

Old Hmidredth Psalm Tune ------------ Havergal. 

Perkins's Singing School - - - - - - - - - - - -W. O. Perkins. 

Pure Diamonds. Sabbath Schools ---------- J. R. Muiray, 

Petersilea's Piano Method ----------- Carljie Petersilea. 

Pauline ; or. Belle of Saratoga. Operetta - - - - - - - - -H. P. Danks. 

Palmer's Concert Choruses -H. R. Palmer. 

Pearls of Melody. Instrumental Music for Piano-forte ------ Selections. 

Prometheus. A Cantata -----F. Liszt. 

Pure Li^ht. For Sabbath Schools ----------- Selections. 

Piano and Song __.-------- Translated from F. Wieck. 

Psahn King. Church Tune Book T. E. Perkins. 

Praise Offering. Clmrch Tune Book ----------V. C. Taylor. 

Palm. Church Tune Book -- C. M. Wyman. 

Priceless Gems, Vocal Music ._---By Publislier. 

Pearl Drops. Piano Pieces - By Publisher. 

Pleasant Memories. Piano Pieces ----------By Publisher. 

Pure Gold. Sabbath Schools Robert Lowry and W, H. Doane. 

Pearl. Sabbath Schools J. M. Kieffer. 

Peters's Parlor Comnanion. Two Violins and Piano ------ W. Dressier. 

Catholic Melodist W. C. Peters. 

" Catholic Choir Book W. C. Peters. 

" Sodality Hymn Book W. C. Peters. 

Palmer's Elements H. R. Palmer. 

Paine's Mass in D -- - John K. Paine. 

Palmer's Normal Collection. Sacred Music -------- H. R. Palmer. 

Piano at Home. Four-Hand Music Selections. 

Pestalozzian Music Teacher - Lowell Mason and T. F. Seward. 

Piano Teacher I-oius Plaidy. 

Primary Elements of IMusic ---------- Dr. H. R. Streeter. 

Pilgrim's Harp. Hymns and Tunes ----------- AsaHulL 


Perkins's Anthem Book ------__._._ yy. O Perkins 

Prodigal Son. A Cantata Arthur Sullivan! 

Passion Music according to St. Matthew ---_-_.._ joh. S. Bach 
Passion Music. Choruses -------____. JqIi. §,' Bach' 

Parker's Seven Four-Part Songs - - - - - - - - - _ J. C. D. Parker! 

Paige's New and Inductive Method for Piano -------- Mrs. J JB Pai^e' 

Piano without a Master -----E. L. White! 

Parlor Companion. Vocal and Instrumental Music ------_' Selected! 

Pianist's Album. Instrumental INIusic for Piano ----.___ Selected! 

Piano-forte Gems. Instrumental Music for Piano -----__ Selected! 

I'arty Dances. Viohn and Piano --------__. g Winner* 

Pleyel's Violin Duets ----___j pievel* 

Panseron's A B C of IMusic --------_-__a. Panseron! 

" A B C of Music abridged ----__.__ j^' Panseron' 

■r, /o MeOiod of Singing. In Parts a! I'anseron! 

Part Songs for Female Voices --------_-__§ MUller 

Primarj' School Song Book L. Mason and G. J. W^ebb! 

Ireciosa An Opera - - - Carl Maria von Wcbcr. 

Pardon di Ploennel. Libretto of the Opera -----__. (j, Meverbeer. 

Puiitani. Libietto of the Opera - - - - - - - - - _ -*V 'Bellini' 

Piiata. Libretto of the Opera --------.._ y' BelUni* 

Prophete. Libretto of the Opera -------___ q. Meyerbeer* 

Perichole. Libretto of the Opera --------_-j Offenbach! 

Poliuto ; or, the Martyrs. Libretto of the Opera ---.-__ g. Donizetti. 
Psalms of Life. Hymns and Tunes --------__js Adams' 

Praise to God. Oratorio George' F.Bristow! 

Pupil's First Prinier Francis H. Bro\%Ti. 

Peters s Mass in D _- W.C.Peters. 

Peters s Jubilee Mass inG- - - - - - - - _ _ _ -WC Peters 

Perfect Guide for Piano --_-_._ 'g Winner' 

Piano Primer "g" dinner' 

Perfect G uide for Melodeon --------____g W'inner* 

!! !! !! ^ahinet Organ g.' Winner. 

?.V"|.^r g. Winner. 

X'"?'' S. Winner. 

F?fe S. Winner. 

Fife - g_ Winner. 

German Concertina ------__-_g Winner 

u u .« Flageolet gl winner! 

Posthorn Preceptor B. A. Burditt. 

Parlor Melodies ^ - , - , - Miss M. E. Bailey. 

Parlor Harp and Social Melodist ---------__ A<^a Fitz. 

Palace of Industry. 1851 J.C.Johnson. 

Pestalozzian Song Book. 1844 j. C. Johnson. 

Plain and Easy Introduction to Music. 1712 John Tufts 

Pilgrim Fathers. A Cantata George F. Root. 

Practical Instructions in Hannony. 1854 -------_ AN Johnson 

!! Guide to Thorough Bass. 1853 John Hilton Jones! 

'/ Text book of Music Edward B. OUver. 

Province Harmony. 1809. Church Music Hezekiah Moore. 

Picnic. A Cantata J. R. Thomas. 

Pianist s Companion A. Schmitt and J. A. HamUton. 

Pittsourg Musical Instructor E. and M. H. Pease. 

Pitch. Intervals. Chords, and Scales Truman Crossett. 

Philadelphia Collection of Sacred Music -------__ Samuel Dyer 

Philosophy of Music E. and M. H. Pease! 

Polyhyinnia. Church Music Charles F. Heuberer. 

Portland Sacred INIusic Societv's Collection ----_-__ David Paine. 
Presbyterian Psalmodist. Patent notes - - - Thomas Hastings and W. B. Bradbury. 

Psalms of David, in heroic measure - --__ TTiomas Ciadock. 

Psalmodist. Church Music William B. Bradbuiy. 

Psalmodist s Companion. 1793 ------__-__ Jacob Fivneh 

Psalms and Hymns William Allen! 

^, ^^ ^^ l-'^^O -----____._ Francis Greenwood. 

_ , _.. , . l'^95 -------_____ Jeremy Belknap. 

Psalm Singer's Amusement. 1781 WUliam Billings. 

Psalmista. Church Music William B. Bradbury. 

Psalmist; or, Chonster's Companion ----.___. -N. D. Gould. 
Psalmodist's Assistant. 1806 ----_-.__. Abijah Forbush. 

Psalmodist - Thomas Hastings and W-. B. Bradburj-. 

Psaltery. 1846 - LoweU Mason and G. J. Webb. 

Psalter. Canticles and Anthems. 1844 John Culvert. 

" Noted. From Helmore's Work -- Edward I\I. Pecke. 

' Numeral Notation. New Plan. 1848 J. W. Morton. 

Parlor Lute. Glee Book ----__. __>_.hM Higgins 
Paiadise. A Cantata ------.._.. .._" Fawcett. 



Prize. Sabbath School Music -----.._--- g. F. Root. 

Plaiily's Technical Studies ------------ Louis I'laidy. 

Pollio's Musical Slcetches _---_------_ Elise Polko. 

Practical Organist ----------^-- Edward Travis. 

Panserou's Method of Singing -----------A. Panseron. 

Peters's Art of Singing ----------- William C. I'eters. 

Pardon di Plosrinel. An Opera ----------- G. Meyerbeer. 

Pacilic Gleo Book ---------- G. F. Hoot and J. II. Murray. 

Parlor Glee Book --------------J. p. Ordway. 

Patrio'ic Glee Book ------------- H. IM. Ili^gins. 

Philadelphia and New York Glee Book --------- S.B.Dyer. 

Parker's Sacred Chorus Book - - - - - - - - - - -J. C. D. I'arker. 

People's Tune Book ------------- Lowell Mason. 

Praise of Zion. Church Music ------- Solon Wilder and F. S. Davenport. 

Power of Song. A Cantata ------------A. Ilomberg. 

Praise of Friendship. A Cantata - - - - - - - - - -W. A. Mozart. 

Peters's Cathohc Harp -- -__-------- W. C. Peters. 

«' ** Harmonist ------------ W. C. Peters. 

Peters's Evening Sei-vice ------- W. C. Peters. 

Quarrel among Flowers. A Cantata --------- H. Schoeller. 

Quintet Orchestra. For two violins, clarionet, cornet, and bass ----- Selections. 

Quartet. Glees and Songs ------------- S. B. Dyer. 

Eesponsary. Introducing second trebles. 1795 -------- Amos Burr. 

Richardson's New Method for Piano-forte ------- Nathan Richardson. 

Richardson's IModern School for Piano-forte ------- Nathan Richardson. 

Rip Van Winkle. An Opera __-- George F. Bristow. 

Romberg Collection. Church Music T. M. Dewey and L. O. Emerson. 

Rover ; or, Happiness at Last. Pastoral, 1753 ------- Joseph Jackson. 

Rudiments of Music. 1783 Andrew Law. 

Rural Harmony. 1800 -------- Jacob Kimball and Samuel Holyoke. 

Rural Songster. Patent notes. 1851 ---- Lowell Mason. 

Rural Harmony. 1793 - Jacob Kimball, jun. 

Ruth and Naomi. A Cantata Leopold Damroch. 

Recreations for Cabinet Organ ----.----.- Selections. 

Root's School for Cabinet Organ George F, Root, 

Rules for Young Musicians ------------ R. Schumann. 

Richter's Harmony. Translated by J. C. D. Parker ------ E. F. Ilichter. 

Rossini's Vocal Exercises _____-- G. Rossini. 

River of Life. Sabbath School Music H. S. Perkins and W. W. Bentley. 

Recent Music and Slusicians ___.-- ign. Moscheles. 

Revivalist. Iljnnn and Tune Book ---------- Jos. Ilillman. 

Royal Diadem. Sabbath School Music - - - - - Robert Lowry and W. H. Doane. 

Rives' Vocal System Madam C. Rives. 

Rainbow. A Cantata Frank L. Bristow. 

Root's School of Singing - F. W. Root. 

Root's Model Organ School - George F. Root. 

Rush on the Voice -.- Benjamin Rush. 

Rajnnond's Organ Gems .-- R. F. Raymond. 

Revellers. A Cantata John II. Hewitt. 

Ritter's Art of Organ Playing Edited by John P. Morgan. 

Reward. Sabbath School Music ---. J. A. Kurzenlaiabe. 

Rudimontal Class Teaching H. R. Palmer. 

Reminiscences of Mendelssohn _------ Ehso Polko. 

Rimbault's Handbook for Piano E. F. Rimbault. 

Richardson's New Modern School for Piano-forte N. Rieliardson. 

Rohbock's Piano Instructor H. Rohbock. 

Richardson's Elements of Music at Sight N.Richardson. 

Rimbault's Handbook of Harmony Ed. F. Rimbault. 

Rink's First Three Months at the Organ C. H. Rink. 

Rink's Instructor for Beginners ----------- C. II. lank. 

Rink's Organ School. (Revised by Best) ----- C. II. Rink, 

Romberg's Violoncello School Bernard Romberg. 

Rounds, Canons, and Catches Heniy Carter. 

Runaway Flirt. A Cantata -- _ I^ail ^lerz, 

Rossini's Messe Solennelle ------------ G. A. liossim. 

■Rossi's Vespers William Dressier. 

■Rules for Young Musicians Robert Sclumiann. 

■Rink's Twelve Preludes for Organ _-- C. H. Rmk. 

Rink's Forty Preludes for Organ ----- C. II. Link. 

Rice's Banjo Method ^]^",r^'^^,^- 

Rigoletto. Libretto of an Opera _p- V^^J- 

Romeo and Juhet. Libretto of an Opera --------- - V. Leliim. 

Romeo and JiUiet, Libretto of an Opera -------- - C. Gounod. 

Rose of Castile. Libretto of an Opera w-------- M. W. Balfe. 


Robert le Diable. Libretto of an Opera -.--G. Meyerbeer. 

Sabbath-School Melodies William B. Bradbury. 

«4 " Choir- ---------- -William B. Bradbury. 

« « Choir ------------ William Williams. 

Sabbath Harmony. Church Music L.O.Emerson. 

Sabbath Minstrel. Patent notes Jesse b. Aiken. 

Sacred Harp. Patent notes B. F. White and E. J. King. 

" Songs. Patent notes. 1842 Thomas Hastings. 

" Harmony. Patent notes. 1838 Alexander Davidson. 

" Harmony. Patent notes. 1848 SamuelJackson. 

" Minstrel. Chm-ch Music. 1848 John W. Moore. 

" Minstrel. Church Music. 1834 George Fleming. 

" Harp. 1834 ------------ James H. Hickok. 

" Minstrel. 1840. Chm-ch Music -N. D. Gould. 

" Praise. 1856. Church Music Thomas Hastings. 

" Melodeon. Patent notes Amos Sutton Hayden. 

" Minstrel. Church Music Virgil C. Taylor. 

" Lyre. Church Music. 1840 Thomas Hastings. 

" Choir. Church Music. 1838 -George Ivingsley. 

" Star, or Union Collection Leonard Marshall. 

" Harmonist. Church Music George Ivingsley. 

" Music. Patent notes -^ Sfh Ely. 

" Music, or Melodies of the Church A. S. Hayden. 

'« Lute. Church Music S. Main and T. E. Perkins. 

" Haiinonicon. Two-Line Numerals. 1842 ------- T. Hamson. 

" Choral. Patent notes Samuel Wakelield. 

Salem Collection. 1805 -- -, Joseph Prince. 

Sanctus. Church Music Edward Hamilton. 

Seraph. Church Music. 1827 John Cole. 

Sera ohina; or, Christian Librai-y George Fleming. 

Select Harmony. Original. ITbG Andrew Law. 

Singers' First liook J. and H. Bird. 

Singing-:\Iaster*3 Assistant. 1778 William Billings. 

Sin'nn'g-School Companion - - - -. Joseph and Horace Bird. 

Seasons. Thompson's Hymn. 1839 Richard Gaibett. 

Seasons. A Cantata William B. Bradburj'. 

Select Harmony. Engraved Music. 1783 Oliver Brownson. 

" Tunes and Anthems. 1783 Oliver Brownson. 

" Hannony. 1785. For the Psalm Books Daniel Bailey. 

Schumann's Ssventy-live Songs „*?.*^|P -^'X^'?-^*?"' 

School Operettas William OJiske. 

" Triad - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -^V.F. Heath. 

" Vocalist ------------ E. Locke and S. Kourse. 

Shawm. Church Music Wilham B. Bradburj- and George F. Boot. 

Shawm. Church ]\Iusic Lowell and T. B. Mason. 

Social Woi-Lliip. 1854 .t" . J"" ^i^' ^^^*^5' 

♦« Harmonv. 1823. Quarto -- Nathan D. Gould. 

" Choir, three Volumes. 1849 - George Ivingsley. 

" Glee Book. 1847 ------- WiUiam Mason and S, A, Bancroft. 

" Sin^-in'T. 1844 - WiUiam B. Bradbuiy. 

" Harp. "Patent not«s John G. McCurry. 

Songs of Sacred Praise. 1845 Edward Hamilton. 

" " Zion. Church Music - James C. Caixell. 

" " Zion. Church Music Thomas A\ hittemore. 

" " the Temple. Church Music Brown, Mitchell, and Holt. 

" •' Worship. Church Music T.O'Kane. 

Song Land. Church Music Ii;yin2 Emerson. 

Song (Tov/ned King. Church Music - Aldine b. Ivieffer. 

Snarkhn-r Rubies. Sabbath Schools. Asa HuU and Harry Sanders. 

Springfield Collection. Sacred Music. 1816 Thomas Hastings. 

Southern and Western Pocket Harmonist. 1845 ^V ilham \\ alker. 

Melodies. Church Music E. A. Blackmar. 

" Church Melodies. 1849 , ..G^oi'ge/^ood. 

Harmonv. Patent notes. 1835 Wilham U alker. 

Stabat IMater. Latin and EngUsh Words ^- G. Kossmi. 

Star Collection. Instrumental John W. Sloore. 

Supplement to Chorister's Companion. 1792 Simeon J ocelyn. 

Supplement to Kentucky Harmony. 1820 - - - Ananias Davidson. 

Sulfolk Hannony. 1786 ^V illiam Billings. 

Sunbeams. For Conventions ----------- B. i'. Ijaker. 

Sternhold and Hopkins' Psalmes. 1693 Amencan Edition. 

St. Louis Harmony. 1833 John L. beat. 

Storm King. A Cantata. 1S50 - , ' ,, V' -f u'^^^.^f ^• 

Stoughton Collection. 1828 - Stoughton Musical Society. 

Southard's Thorough Bass and Harmony -.- L. H. Southard. 


Schneider's Practical Organ School ---------- p, Schneider. 

Schneider's Oi-gan Voluntaries ------.--._ p. ScJnieider. 

Short Voluntaries for Organ ----- William II. Clarke. 

Schatzman' 8 Sax-Horn Instructor- ----.-.--_ J. Schatzman. 
Sax-Horn Preceptor --------- ---__m. Distin. 

Sax-Horn Preceptor B. A. Burditt. 

Spring Holiday. A Cantata ----------- c. C. Converse. 

Song-Book of the Schoolroom ---.---_--__ j^,. jjason. 
Sonnambnla. Libretto of an Opera -------___ y. iJellinL 

Sappho. Libretto of an Opera -------_--__q, Pacini. 

Semiraniide. Libretto of an Opera ----------- G. Rossini. 

Son and Stranger. Libretto of an Opera - - - - - - - -F. B. Mendelssohn. 

Samson. Libretto of an Oratorio ---------- q, i,\ Handel. 

Stabat Mater. Libretto of an Oratorio -----____ q Rossini. 

St. Paul. Libretto of an Oratorio ---------- f. Mendels.sohn. 

Shower of Pearls. Collection of Vocal Duets --------- Selected. 

Silver Chord. Collection of Songs -------___- Selected. 

Seasons. A Cantata --------__--__ j, Haydn. 

Song Festival. Church Music ----------- V. C. Taylor. 

Sacred Chorus Book --. E. L. White and J. E. Gould. 

Samson. An Oratorio ----_---_--_ g. F. Han<lel. 
Samson. Choruses alone ------------ G. F. Handel. 

St. Paul. An Oratorio -- - - - F.B.Mendelssohn. 

St. Paul. Choruses alone --- - - - - - - - -F. B. Mendelssolin. 

Song of the Bell. A Cantata ----------- a. Romberg. 

Spring. From the Seasons. A Cantata --------- -J.Haydn. 

Saint Cecilia's Dav. A Cantata ----------J. B. Van Bree. 

Sabbath School, The. For Sunday Schools W. Williams. 

" " Trumpet. For Sunday Schools ------- W. O. Perkins. 

" " Wreath. For Sunday Schools --------- Asa Fitz. 

Southard's Mass inF- - - - - - - - - - - - -L. H. Southard. 

Soutliard's Mass inD------------ L. H. Soutliard. 

Stabat Mater W. H. Fry. 

Stearns's Mass in A- -- - - - - - - - - - - -C. C. Stearns. 

Saroni's Musical Grammar; or, Musical Vade-Mecum ------ H. S. Saroni. 

Sherman's Musical Catechism --------- RoUin K. Sherman. 

Seminary Bell. School Music Book ----------- C. Butler. 

Silver Bell. School Music Book ------------ C.Butler. 

" Clarion. School Music Book ---------- d. Shyrock. 

" Lute. School Music Book - --------- George F. Root. 

Sacred Lyre. Church Music -.- - - - - - - - - - -W. Ludden. 

Service of Song. Church Music ----------- B. F. Leavens. 

Schumann's Album for Young Pianist -------- Robert Schiimaim. 

Strauss' Dance Music. Violin or Flute and Piano - ------ John Strauss. 

Seller's p]xercises for female voice ---------- Emma Seiler. 

Songs of Salvation. Sabbath-School Book - - T. E. Perkins and Rev. Alfred Taylor. 
Streeter's Exercises in Voice-Building. In three books -- - - - - - H. R. Streeter. 

Shining Lights. Vocal Music ------------ Selected. 

Song IMamonds. Vocal Music -.- _---_.._-- Selected. 
Short Voluntaries for Organ. Nine numbers --------- J. Hiles. 

Sweet Sounds. Vocal JIusic ------------- Selected. 

Song Echo. School Song Book ---_-_--_- H. S. Perkins. 

Songs of Yale College Chas. S. Elliot 

Sechter's Fundamental Harmonies -------- Edited by C. C Muller. 

Song Monarch. Singin^j Schools, &c. - - - - - - H. R. Palmer and L. O. Emerson. 

Standai-d. Church Music -------- H. R. Palmer and L. O. Emerson. 

Sparkhng Jewels. Sabbath Schools - -------- KnoAvIes Shaw. 

Sacred Crown. Church Music ------- D. F. Hodges and G. W. Foster. 

Song King. Singing Schools, &c. - - - - - - - - - - - H. R. Palmer. 

Song Queen. Singing Schools, &c. --------- - H. R. Palmer. 

Sceptre. Church Music ------------A. Brooks Everett. 

Sabbath Guest. Anthems- ------- L. O. Emerson and J. II. Morey. 

St. Peter. Oratorio- ---_-------- -John K. Paine. 

St. Peter. Oratoiio. Choruses ---------- John K. Paine. 

Shining River. Sabbath School Music- ------ H. S. and W. O. Perldns. 

Silver Wings. Sabbath School Music --...-----C. C. Converse. 

Smith's Piano Jlethod - ------- Sydney Smith. 

Service of Song. Hvmn and Tune Book - - - • S. L. Caldwell and A. J. Gordon. 
Siebert's Art of Singing -------------- F. Siebert. 

Sabbath Harmony. Church Music ---------- L. O. Emerson. 

Sacred Melodeon. Church Music -----------A. S. Hayden. 

Singing-School Echo --------- N. Coe Stewart and J. M. Noilh, 

Strauss' Dance Music for Piano-forte ---------- John Strauss. 

Song Tree P. P. Bliss. 

Song Gift. Songs, &c. 

Songs of To-day. Sabbath Schools, - -. - - T.E. Perkins. 



Song Life. Sabbath Schools - - - - Philip Phillips. 

Strauss Waltzes. Two volumes. Piano- forte John btrauss. 

Sure Teacher. Child's Course for Piano-forte William lyes. 

Social .Song. Collection Vocal Music ---------- belected. 

Social Circle. Collection of Piano-forte Music --------- Selected. 

Silver Sounds ^ ^-^^^^^t 

Sunshine. Sabbath Schools -.„. P. P. i5hS3. 

Sangerfest. Male Voices William Dressier. 

Song Wreath - W^^^iUiams. 

Song Crown. Church Music - Iv-'^i^^^c '^IZ' 

Sparkling Stream. Temperance Melodies - ------- M. *. M. bmitn. 

Sacred Lute. Church Music T.E.Perkins. 

Selah. Church Music ^^^^mv^^* 

Singing Pilgrim. Hymns and Tunes - - - - r. 1 hillips. 

Seininai-v Album. Ladies' Schools ^- ^- ^^''^'^^j- 

Singer. 'Singing Schools, &c. T.F.Seward. 

Sabbath. Church Music -dvi^" ^rii^^o' 

Song Ministry - - - - PMip Philips. 

School Chimes James R. Murray. 

Son^s of Grace and Gladness. Sabbath Schools - - - - W. F. Sherwin and S. J. Vail, 

Son| Evangel. Sabbath Schools E. P. Hammond. 

SonfsofLove ^.B. Palmer. 

Sunbeam. Singing Schools ..__-_- Jf"^„ f^* 

School Tiiad. School Song Book ,-^--. " . ,V^' V ^C^tl 

Silver Carol. School Song Book J. H. Leshe and W\ A. Ogden. 

Song Era. Singing Schools J-Y* , , * 

Sacred Lvrics. Hymns and Tunes - -T VT^ ,^* 

Songs of "Gladness. Sabbath Schools -r^v-i- ^v-?v 

Standard Gems ^^^'^M^Sl* 

Sabbath Songs - - n^P it^i-^^' 

Stearns's Mass in D C.C.Stearns. 

Shaw's Instructions for Piano - ^- ,*^.^^- 

Songs of the Sanctuary. Hymns and Tunes ---- »eiectea. 

'' " Devotion. Hymns and Tunes " „ " " ^V^ Doane. 

« " the Temple. Church Music B. F. Baker and J. F. Fargo. 

'« " Joy. Hymns and Tunes *'• S* T»®-n^T 

Silver Threads of Song. Day Schools Cr -r'^ " "^ t :g-^l»^^'^^- 

Singing-Sohool Banner -- A. N. Johnson and J H. Tenney. 

Silver Carols. Day School J. H. Leshe and W. A. Ogden. 

Sunny Side Glee Book 'r^, t' ^rZ-^ ^'A^l^'^^i 

Seminary Class Book E. L. White and T.BisselL 

Singer's'Manual for Schools -r ;, t> Y; ^,*k ^?f 

Standbridge's Piano Instructor J. C. B. Standbndge. 

Scheidler's Piano School ^•-^•o^^^^'^i^^" 

Schneider's Harmony and Thorough Bass - *; ^^^".t!^®!* 

Southard's Course of Harmony L. H. boutnara. 

Stanton's Voluntaries -""""'' ^" H. btanton. 

Saunders' Self-Instructor, Violin ^..^^PI^^tt ^'^^•^* 

Spohr's Violin School Edited by U. C.HiU. 

Standard Singing School L. H. Southard. 

Shyrock's Miisic Charts ----- D. bhyrock. 

Song Garden. Three Books - - ^ Lowell Mason. 

Song Queen. Singiiig Book - - - - H. B. Pal"jer. 

Sonnambula. An Opera ^- o^f.^^„\?^- 

Southern and Northern Harp Mrs. S. B. Dana. 

•Sabbath Bell. Church Music ^-u" i ^^Ir iT 

Sabbath Harp. Church INI u sic Charles F.Heuberer. 

Sabbath Praise. Church Music ^J; W. bultem. 

Songs for the New Life - ^^"jl^ ^;,'^9?®^- 

Standbridge's Chants for the Church J-C. B. Standbndge. 

Spring. A Cantata ^^- ^enninges. 

Silver Chime. Sabbath-School Book - - - George F. Boot. 

Silver Spray. Sabbath-School Book »'"\itr" o f "«* 

Schmid's Mass, No. 1, in C Arranged by Peters. 

" " No. 2, in A . j i. tv i *.i, 

i< " No. 3, in C - - - - - - - - - - - Arranged by Derleth. 

" " No. 4, in D. " ^ |* 

" No. 5, in E^. 

:: :: s^- ?-?"?:• ' « - 

" " No. 7, m G. . -r^ . 

•Sanctuary Anthems - - - - A Kreissmann. 

Sonnambula Complete Operar as Piano Solo -------- - V. uemni. 

Thorough-Bass School - -------- ^JnTnrrt 

Torp's Guitar Instructor a S^^^iwS' 

Thalberg's L'Art du Chant. For Piano - - - - - - - - - . S- Thalberg. 


Taylor's Violoncello Instructor --.-----_, James B. Taylor. 

Traviata. An Opera ------------__ (j. VerdL 

Treasured Tokens ------------- J. R. Fairlamb. 

Trovatore. An Opera -----.----_--_ q. Verdi. 

Trinity Collection of Church Music - - - - - E. F. Hodges and S. P. Tuckei-man. 

Triumph. Church Music ------------ George F. lloot. 

Tune Book of Protestant Episcopal Church ----- - Muhlenberg and Bedell, 

Tuner's Manual ----------- Sumner Hill and O. B. Brown. 

Tuner's Guide -------------- o. Ditson, Pub. 

Tabular Scheme to Plaidy's Studies ---------- Heman Allen. 

Ten Christmas Carols -------------a. P. Howard. 

Tribute of Praise. Hymns and Tunes --------- Eben Tourj^e. 

Thomas's Sacred Quartets ------------J. R. Thomas. 

Thayer's Mass No. l------------- Eugene Thayer. 

Tabernacle. Church Tunes --.----- B. F. Baker and W. O. Perkins. 

Temperance Chimes --------- W. B. Bradbury and J. N. Stearns. 

Temple Melodies. Hymns and Tunes --------- Darius E. Jones. 

Triad. Church Music ------------- A. J. Abbey. 

Tonart. Church Music -------- Edward Roberts and John P. Morgan. 

True Choir. Church Music -----------A. N. Johnson. 

Thesaurus Musicus -------------A. Brooks Everett. 

Thayer's Art of Organ Playing. Five Parts - - - - - --W. Eugene Thayer. 

True Psalmist. Church Music ---------- A. N. Johnson. 

Thayer's Cabinet Organ Instructor ---------- W. E. Thayer. 

True Singing School Text Book ---------- A. N. Johnson. 

Trowbridge's Mass InE----------- J. E. Trowbridge. 

Temple Anthems ---------- Robert Lowry and W. H. Doane. 

Trumpet of Reform. For Granges, &c. - - - - - - - - - - G. F. Root. 

Temperance Echoes ------------ William Dressier. 

Tidal Wave. Temperance Songs ------- R. Lowry and W. H. Doane. 

Triumphlied. A Cantata ------------ j. Brahma. 

Temple Emanuel. Hymn Book - - - - - - - - - - -A. J. Davis. 

Terpsichore. Dance Music. For Two Violins, Clarionet, Comet, and Bass - - - Selected. 
Technical Studies. Plaidy's. Translated - - - - - - - - J. C. D. Parker. 

Temple Choir ------- Theodore F. Seward and William B. Bradbury. 

Temple Harmony. Church Music ---------J. C. Washbume. 

Templi Carmina, or Songs of the Temple ----- Brown, Mitchell, and Holt. 

Templi Carmina. Church Music ---------- George Kingsley. 

Tennessee Harmony. Church Music - - - - - - - - -A. W. Johnson. 

Timbrel of Zion. Patent Notes. 1853 T. R. ColUns. 

Timbrel. Church Music -------- B. F. Baker and I. B. Woodbury. 

Tip Top Glee Book. 1856 -------- c. H. Jarvis and J. A. Getze. 

Trinity Anthems and Trinity Psalter -------- - Henry S. Cutler. 

Treatises on Musical Sounds. With Tonometer - - - - - - -S. D. Tillman. 

Trophies of Song, With Introduction by E. Tourjee ------ W. F. Crafts. 

Twenty-one Madrigals, Glees, and Part Songs ----- L. Mason and J. G. Webb. 

Twin Sisters. A Cantata ----------- Hermon S. Saroni. 

Tyi-olean Lyre. Glees, &c. _ - - E. L. White and J, E. Gould. 

Two Hundred and Fifty Voluntaries for Organ ------- John Zundel. 

Tucker's Guitar Manual -_-.-------- H. Tucker. 

Traviata. Libretto of Opera ----- G. Verdi. 

Trovatore. Libretto of Opera ------------ G. Verdi. 

Two Cadis. Libretto of Opera ------------J. Eichberg. 

Two Cadis. An Opera -------------J. Eichberg. 

Trumpet of Freedom. National Songs ---------- Selected. 

Tuneful Hours. Glee Book ------------- Selected. 

Twelve German Chorals -------------J. S. Bach. 

Transient and Eternal. Cantata -----------A. Romberg. 

Trastour's Rudiments - ---------- Eugene Trastour. 

Tara's Harp. School Songs ------------J. A. Getze. 

Trovatore. Complete Opera as Piano Solo --------- G. Verdi. 

Union Harmony, or British America's Sacred Vocal Music. 1810 - - - From the English. 
Union Harmony. Church Music .----.--- George Hendricson. 

Union Harmony. Church Music ----------- Oliver Holden. 

Union. Church Music -------------T. J. Cook. 

Union Haimony. Church Music. 1810 --------- S. Humbert. 

Union Haimony. Church Music. 1837 -------- William Caldwell. 

Union Glee Book -----B. F. Baker and L. H. Southard. 

Union Piano-forte Instructor ------------ F. Rasche. 

Union Collection for Violin and Piano --------- S. Winner. 

Union Drum and Fife Book ------ Henry Simpson and Ira Canterbury. 

Unison Mass -------------- Theo. La Hache. 

Union Star Glee Book B. F. Baker and W. O. Perkins. 

United States Sacred Harmony. 1798- - - .- Amos PUlsbury. 

United States CoUection. Church Music ---------A. N. Johnson. 


Cniversal Harmony. 1769 Thomas Bailey. 

Universal Dictionary of Musical Terms -----.-. James F Werner. 
Urania. Sacred Music James Lyons. 

Valley Harmonist. Patent notes --------«. J. "W. Steffy. 

Valuable Collection. Church Music. 1810 -------- Daniel L. Peck* 

Version of the Psalms. 1756 Thomas Cradock.' 

Version of the Psalms. 1751 -------.---_ John Barnard. 

Vespers. Catholic Church -----.----___ Louis Selle* 

Vineyard of Song. Singing Schools, &c. C. G. Allen and T. F. Seward! 

Village Organist. School for Cabinet Organ -----___ William Weber 

Voice Building " „ - - ,^.- H. R. Streeter.* 

Viohn Amusements, Solos for Violin ---_-__. ._g Winner, 
Vaccai's Practical Method of Singing --------__ n. Vaccai! 

Vocalist's Companion ----------__. E. B. Oliver! 

Vestiy Chimes. Hymns and Tunes --------.__ Asa Hull' 

Violin Complete By Publisher! 

Violin Made Easy By Publisher. 

Voice in bmging Emma Sailer. 

Victory. Church Music -W. B. Bradbury. 

Voice Culture George J. Webb and C. G. Allen. 

Vespers for Catholic Church ---------- -_aF Leieal 

Violoncello Method Wulf Fries and C. Suck! 

Violoncello Preceptor ------_-__. ___j, Riley. 

Violoncello Method -------_-.___ Thos. Morley! 

Vocalist - Lowell Mason and George James Webb! 

Vespei-s m C W. O. Fiske. 

Vespers mC W. A. Newland. 

Voice Buildmg H. R. Streeter. 

Violoncello without a Master ------____. Unknown. 

Violoncello, The. An abridgment of the Complete Method . _ - . b. Romberg! 
Venite. Church Music --------_.._. y. C. Taylor 

Vespers for Catholic Church H. Millard! 

Violin and Flute Duets -------._»_.. g. Winner. 

Victory. Church Music Sylvester and h! P. Main. 

Village Compilation, 1806 Daniel Belknap. 

Village Harmony. 1794. Many different editors to 1820 Selections. 

Village Organist, With Appendix William Weber. 

Virginia Harmony. 1831 David L. Clayton and J. P. Carrell. 

Vocal and Instrumental Instructor .-.-.-^_. John W. Moore, 
Vocal School, Pestalozzian ------.-__._ h, W Day. 

Vocal Companion. 1796 Matthew Carey. 

Voice of Praise, 1859 Edward Hamilton. 

Vepres Sicihennes, Libretto of Opera ---.-_..._(j. Verdi. 

Webb's Mass- Samuel Webb. 

Wilson's Sacred Quartets, Two volumes -------- Hemy Wilson 

Willnian's Clarionet Method Thomas L. Willman! 

Welcome Guest. Collection of Piano Music ------___ Selected. 

Winner's Easy System for Piano -------^-__S. Winner. 

Wright's Piano Manual ------ "W". C. Wrifrht. 

Woman of Samaria. Libretto of Oratorio ------ w. Stemdale Benn%tt. 

World's Peace Jubilee Music. 1872 ----------- Selected. 

Wreath of Gems. Collection of Songs ---------- Selected! 

William Tell. Libretto of an Opera ---------- .Q Rossini' 

Wreath of School Songs E. L. White! 

Winner's Dance Music. Flute and Piano ------- -- g Winner! 

Wragg's Flute Preceptor -------------j Wrac»g 

AVichtl's Young Violinist ---- q[ AVichtl! 

Wakelleld's Christian Harp. 1818 ---. Lazarus B * M'Lain" 

Waldenses. An Oratorio, 1849 ----- Asahel Abbot! 

Walter's Collection. 1721 ------------ Thomas Walter. 

Warren's Minstrel. 1856, Patent notes -- -- J, S. Warren! 

Williams and Tansur's Collection. 1769 --------- Daniel Bailey 

Wesleyan Sacred Harp W. MacDonald and S. Hubbard, 

Wesleyan Harmony. 1820 Heni-v Little. 

Western Harmonious Companion ---------- James W Palmer. 

'' Harp. Church Music Samuel Wakefield. 

Harmony. Church Music Allen D. Carden. 

• Lyre. 1831 W. B. Snyder and W, L, ChapeU, 

_ , Harp - Mary S, B, Dana. 

Worcester Collection. 1797 --.. Oliver Holden. 

Woodland Sketches. For Piano-forte -.-- Karl Sohuler. 

Wyeth's Repository. Sacred Music. 1820 John Wyeth. 

Weiland's New Guitar Method ---------_- f. Weiland, 

Worrall's Guitar School -----__-_._. Henry WorralL 


Wichtl's Practical Violin School ----- G. Wichtl. 

Western Bell. Glees and Songs ------ F. H. Pease and E. A. Perkins. 

Western Harp, Songs, &c. _-------- - Mrs. M. S. U. Shindler. 

Walter's Manual Church Music - ---------- W.H.Walter. 

Wels'8 Church Music -------- Charles Wcls. 

Winter Evenings' Entertainment. A Cantata -------- A. Cull. 

Walter's Ancient and Modern Music ---------- Jacob Walter. 

Weber's Mass in G ------------ C. M. von Weber. 

Witzka's Mass in C , C. D. Witzka. 

Weber's Mass in El? -, C. M. von Weber. 

Wels'8 Grand Mass in Bp» Charles Wels. 

Webb's Vocal Technics George James Webb. 

Winner's Bands of Four. For Violin, Flute, Clarionet or Comet, and Violoncello - S. Winner. 

Wilhem's Method of Teaching Vocal Classes John HuUah. 

War Songs of Freemen ------------- Selected. 

Walpurgis Kight. A Cantata F. Mendelssohn. 

Woman of Samaria. Sacred Cantata W. Stemdale Bennett. 

Wilson's Book of Chants ------------ Hein7 \Vilson. 

World's Peace Jubilee Music O. Ditson. 

Woodbury's Cultivation of Voice without a Master ------ I. B. Woodbury. 

Whiting's First Six Months at the Organ George E. Whiting. 

White's Clarionet Method. Two Parts --------- Jean White. 

Watchword. Sunday Schools -----------J. Astor Hroad. 

White's Sacred Quartets C.A. Wlute. 

Welcome. Sunday Schools J-^I- Kielfer. 

Wyman's Piano Text Book Addison P. Wyman. 

Winnowed Hymns -- C.C. McCabe and D. T. Wacfarlan. 

Welcome Home, Piano Music ------------ Selected. 

Wliite's Method, Reed Organ C. A. White. 

Woodbury's Piano Instructor -.--------I. B. Woodbury. 

Warner's Dictionary of Musical Terms --------- James S. Wanier. 

Weber's Musical Composition. Two Volumes - ------ Godfrey Weber. 

Woodbury's Musical Composition I. B. Woodbury. 

Woodbury's Viohu Instructor I-B. Woodbmy. 

Young Choir. 1841 William B. Bradbury. 

" Ladies' Choir. 1846 George F. Hoot. 

" Ladies' Haip. 1847 George Kingsley. 

" Melodist -------- William B. Bradbury. 

" Men's Singing Book G. F. Root and L. Mason. 

" Shawm. School Songs W. B. Bradbury. 

•« Catholic's Vocal Class Book Selected. 

•' Organist J. A. Getze. 

•' Organist's Album G- Blessner. 

'« Ladies' Album - C. D. G. Adam. 

" Ladies' Vocal Class Book George J. W ebb. 

" Folks' Glee Book Charles Jarvis. 

Youthful Voices. Sabbath Schools -"- B.J.Lang. 

Zion's Choral. Church Music ---- C. Jarvis. 

" Harp. Church Music Smieon Jocelyn. 

" Harp. Sabbath Schools .- -J- A. Getze. 

Zundel's Voluntaries. Organist, Melodeon Instructor, Psalmody, and Original 

Tunes - - -- - -- - - - John Zundel. 

Zither New Method N. P. B. Curtiss and Ch. Bohr. 

Zion. Church Music W. O. Perkins. 

Zimmer'sMass M. 1. Zimmer. 

Zundel's Piano-forte Instructor ^,.'^^"" Zundel. 

Zeuner's Organ Voluntaries Charles Zeuncr. 

Zundel's Melodeon Instructor - John Zunuei. 

Zampa. Libretto of an Opera L. J. 1^. Heroia. 

Zundel's Treatise on Harmony and Modulation -------- ''• ^""^^'^j* 

" Fu^t Year on the Organ «{• ^'"^^^j- 

" Four Hundred and Forty-four Voluntaries d.zunaei. 

Stereotyped by C. J. Peters & Sou, Boston, Mass. 



Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston, C. H. Ditson & Co., New York. 

H^'Anjf BooJc published b^ Ditson & Co. will be mailed to any address, post-paid, 
OH receipt qfthe Retail Price. 

FORTE. Price $3.75. 

This excels in popularity all otter iiistruction books; and its annual sales of 23,{)0t 
copies, amounting in the aggregate to about A Quarteb of a Million Copies, eslab- 
iish the fact of its appreciation by teachers and pupils- 

It has recently been enriched by the addition of Czekny's " Letters on the Art of 
Playing the Piano," and of Schumann's " Maxims." 

It now contains 260 large, well-filled pages. It is believed that there is hardly a homo 
in the country, containing a piano-forte, without this celebrated book. 

THE ORGAN AT HOME. Price, in Boards, $2.50; m Cloth, 
$3.00; iu Full Gilt, $4.00. 

The large pages of this admirable collection are filled with music of the most pleas- 
ing and genial character. As modern Reed Organs have generally a very prompt touch, 
many of the pieces can be played with good effect on a piano-forte, while others con- 
tain the most attractive kind of Organ music. 

The Table of Contents covers two whole pages, and includes Marclves, Waltzes, An- 
dantes, Sacred and Secular Airs, Nocturnes, Short Voluntaries, Serenades, Prehcdes, 
Rondos, Reveries, Transcriptions, Overtures, and Extracts from Oratorios and Operas. 

The list of composers contains many world-famous names, and the more distin- 
guished among our American writers are not forgotten. 

Pages Full Sheet-music Size. 

THE PIANO AT HOME. A Collection of Four-hand Pieces fQ^ 
the Piano-forte. Price, Boards, $2.50; Cloth, $3.00; Fine Gilt, $4.00. 

Teachers of the Piano-forte will, at first sight, be taken with this book. It containt 
a large number of pleasing duets, some very easy, and others easy, moderately easy, or 
of medium difficulty. AH are within reach of players of ordinary ability, and well calcu- 
lated to develop an ear for time, and a certainty in execution, which one who plays alone 
■ometimes never attains. 

In addition, the duets are most pleasing things to hear in any homes where there is 
more than one piano-forte player, and afford a richness and fulness of harmony which 
does not belong to solo playing. 

P4XJES Full SHfCET-Masic Size. 

Valualile Collections of Bound Music 


c®-Eitlxer Booli sent, post-paid., for tlie Retail IPrice. «©a 

The Home Musical Library. 

Each book of the series is quite complete in itself, and two, three, or more, will con- 
•titute a valuable Library. But should one possess the whole, the purchaser would own 
nothing less than the greater part of all the good music composed during the last one 
hundred years. Church Music, Orchestra Music, and LIusic for Schools, of course, is 
not included. 

!^^ The accompaniments in all the books of Vocal Music may be played either upon 
the Piano-forte or lieed Organ. 

^^ All the pages in the books of this Library are large, of the ordinary Sheet Music 
size, and very compactly tilled. 

51^=" Each book contains a quantity of music which, if published in Sheet Music 
form, would sell for from $20 to §40. In the present shape, the same quantity may be 
bought for §2.50. 



pages. Vocal and Instrumental. A great 
variety of popular vocal music, in con- 
nection witli about an equal quantity of 
Waltzes, Polkas, Quadrilles, and other 
pieces for the Piano-forte. 

SILVER CHORD. 200 pages. Vocal. 
A large number of the most popular 

WREATH OF GEMS. 200 pages. 
Vocal Of the same general character as 
the '• Silver Chord," but with an entirely 
different list of songs. 

pages. Vocal. A large number of the 
best and most successful songs of recent 
publication. The latest vocal collec- 

pages. Vocal. An admirable selection 
of sacred music for Voice and Piano. It 
furnishes excellent material for singing 
at liome on the sabbath. 

pages. Vocal. Truly German and truly 
Gems. The chief favorites of Deutsch- 
land, with English and Gennan words, 

pages. Vocal. They are all sweet songs 
of Scotland; and there are many of 

200 pages. Vocal. By no means common 
Irish Songs, but sweet and classical pro- 
ductions, brought together by the genius 
of Moore and of Stephenson. A valua- 
ble collection of graceful music. 

SHOWER OF PEARLS. 240 pages. 
The very best Vocal Duets. 

OFERATIC FEARLS. 200 pages. 
Vocal. The most sung and the most 
often applauded of the airs of 50 favorite 

ORGAN AT HOME. 200 pieces. For 
Keed Organs. Instrumental. All of a 
genial, interesting, popular nature. 

FIANO AT HOME. Four-hand pieces 
for Piano-forte. A book of great value 
to teachers and pupils, as duet playing is 
an admirable method of acquiring "cer- 
tainty "in time and execution. Pieces 
requiring power sound twice as weU with 
four hands as with two hands. 

GEMS OF STRAUSS. 250 pages. In- 
strumental. The most brilliant pieces of 
tlie most brilliant composer in the world. 
This book has been exceptionally sue- 

CGSsf 111 

HOME CIRCLE. Vol. I. 216 pages. 
Instrumental. Contains a large number 
of pieces, all easy, and all universally 

HOME CIRCLE. Vol, II. 250 pages. 
Instrumental. In addition to a tine list 
of piano pieces of all kinds, this volume 
has about twenty-five four-hand pieces. 

PIANIST'S ALB UM. 220 pages. In- 
strumental. Sometimes called "Home 
Circle," Vol. III. It is tilled with the 
best music in great varietv. 

FIANO-FORTE GEMS. 216 pages. 
Instrumental. The fourth of the " Home 
Circle" series, and full of fresh, bright, 
and not difficult music. 

Price of Each Book, — Boards, $2.50; Cloth, $3.00 ; Fine GUt, $4.00. 





Valuable Theoretical Works 


OliyerDitson & Co., Boston, C. H. Ditson & Co., New YorL 


Guide to Musical Composition. For 

those who desire in a short time and with- 
out a teacher to acquire the art of com- 
posing the easier kinds of musical pieces. 
ByHEiXRiCH WoHLFAHKT. Translated 
by J. S. DWIGHT. Cloth, $1.25. 

Richter's Harmony. In extensive use in 
Germany, and considered by many a 
standard authority. Translated by J. C. 
D. Parker. §2.00. 

Baker's Theoretical and Practical 

Harmony. By B. F. Baker, who has 
long experience as a composer and 
teacher, and may be supposed to under- 
stand the best way of explaining Euro- 
pean theory to American minds. $2.00. 

Woodbury's Elements of Musical 

Composition. With rules for arranging 
Music for full Orchestra and Military 
Bands. By I. B. Woodbury. 75 cents. 

Burrowes's Thorough Bass Primer. 

60 cents. 

Burrowes's Companion to Thorough 

Bass Primer. Being Fifty Preliminary 
Exercises, to which is added a Key to the 
Exercises. 75 cents. 

First Steps in Thorough Bass. In 

Twelve Familiar Lessons between a 
Teacher and a Pupil. 75 cents. 

Johnson's Harmony. Practical In- 
structions in Harmony, upon the Pesta- 
lozziau or Inductive System. The utmost 
simplicity of language has been used in 
the explanations. By A. N. JOHNSON. 

A New Manual of Thorough Bass, 

and Text-Book of Musical Theory. By 
Edward B. Oliver. As a book of ref- 
erence it will be found invaluable. Cloth, 
67 cents ; boards, 50 cents. 

Pestalozzian Music Teacher. Dr. 

Lowell Mason introduced a new epoch of 
music and music teaching, which he was 
enabled to do only by being the best liv- 
ing example of a teacher. The above 
book contains a minute description of 
his methods. By Mason & Seward. 

How Shall I Teach? A pamphlet much 
sought after. The question asked is very 
satisfactorily answered by the author, Dr. 
Lowell Mason. 30 cents. 

Boston Academy's Manual. By Dr. 

Lowell Masox. 75 cents. 

Calcott's Musical Grammar. Contain- 
ing witliin a small com])ass the leading 
principles of Music. By Dr. Calcott. 

Five Thousand Musical Terms. A 
complete Dictionary of English and For- 
eign Words, Phrases, Abbreviations, and 
Signs, that are found in the Works of 
Musical Composers. By J. S. Adams. 
Boards, 75 cents. 

Clarke's Musical Catechism. Designed 
for the assistance of Teachers of the 
Piano-forte. 38 cents. 

L.enhart's Elements of Music. A clear 
arrangement of Rules for the Piano- 
forte. To which are added Burrowes's 
Guide to Practice, and Czerny's cele^ 
brated Letters. 50 cents. 

Marx's General Musical Instruction. 

An aid to teachers and learners in every 
branch of musical knowledge. By Dr. 
Marx. Cloth, $2.00. 
Materia Musica ; or, Materials for the 

Pianist. A Class-Book containing the 
Principles of Music applied to Pianoforte 
Playing. By J. C. Englebrecht. 75 cts. 

Moore's Complete Encyclopiedia of 

Music, Embracing a complete history of 
the science from the earliest time to the 
present; a full and comprehensive biog- 
raphy of more than four thousand dis- 
tinguished musical celebrities. By John 
W. INIOORE. Cloth, $G.OO. 

Appendix to Moore's Encyclopaedia 

of Music. Containing items of musical 
information collected since 1854, the datd 
of the tirst publication of the Encyclopa;* 
dia. By J. W. Moore. 50 cents. 

Oliver's Text-Book. By E. B. Oliver, 

Cloth, G7 cents. 

Outline of Musical Form. A Treatise 
on SyniTuetrv and Musical Form. Rhytlim, 
Melodic Structure, &c. By W. S. B. Ma- 
thews. 60 cents. 

The Tuner's Guide. Containing a com- 
plete Treatise on Tuninpitlie Piano-forte, 
Organ, Melodeon, and Seraphine; to- 
gether with a specification of defects and 
their remedies. 60 cents. 

Bitter's History of Music. A condensed 
and very readable history, in the form of 
lectures. By Prof. Kitter of Vassar Col- 
lege. 2 vols. Each $1.50. 

Seni, Postage paid, on Receipt of Price.