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Brigham Young University 



Music and Old Instruments 


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(A.D. 1450—1878). 

The want of English works on the history, theory, or practice of Music, 
or the biographies of Musicians, accessible to the non -professional reader, has 
lung been a subject of remark. Of ' Methods' and special text-books there is 
no lack, nor of dictionaries of ' musical terms' ; but there is no one work in 
English from which an intelligent inquirer can learn, in small compass and 
in untechnical language, what is meant by a Symphony or Sonata, a Fugue, 
a Stretto, a Coda, or any other of the terms which necessarily occur iu every 
description or analysis of a Concert or a piece of Music, from which he can 
gain a readable and succinct account of the history of the various branches of 
the art, or of the rise and progTess of the Pianoforte and other instruments, 
or the main facts and characteristics of the lives of eminent or representative 
^ilusicians, or the circumstances attending the origin of their chief works. 

Such questions are now constantly occurring to those who formerly would 
never have thought of them. Music in England has recently made immense 
progress, and the number of persons who attend Concerts and practise Music 
has very largely increased. It is no longer regarded as a mere idle amusement, 
but is taking its right place beside the other Arts as an object of study and 
investigation. The demand for such information as that mentioned above is 
therefore naturally great. This demand the Dictionary of Music is designed 
to meet. It will contain articles on musical history and biography ; on the 
science and practice of composition, and the natui-e, construction, and use of 
musical instruments, explanations of musical terms, and general information 
on modern Music since the fifteenth century ; the whole arranged aliihabetically, 
and so given as to be intelligible to the Amateur, as well as useful to the 
professional Musician. Special attention will be paid to English Music. Every 
effort will be made to compress the articles as much as possible, consistent with 
their being intelligible and readable. Illustrations in music type and occasional 
wood-cuts will be given. 


Sir Julius Benedict 

Joseph Bennett, Esq. . . 

J. R. Sterndaee-Bennett, Esq. 

Mrs. Carr 

W. Chappell, Esq., F.S.A. 


J. B. 

J. R. S.-B. 
M. C. C. 
W. C. 

M. GusTAVE Chouquet, Keeper of the Museum of the Con- 
servatoire de Musique, Paris 
W. H. CuMMiNGS, Esq., The Chapel Royal 
E. Danneeuther, Esq. . . 
Heee Paul David 
James W. Davison, Esq. 
E. H. DoNKiN, Esq. 


C. A. Ftffe, Esq. 

De. Feanz Gehring, Vienna 

Rev. Thomas Heemoee, Master of the Children of the Chapels Royal 

Dr. Feedinand Hillee . . 

A. J. HiPKiNS, Esq. 

E. J. Hopkins, Esq., Organist to the Temple 

Rev. J. Peect Hudson . . 

Feanz Huefpee, Esq. 

John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. 

Me. 'W. H. Husk, Librarian to the Sacred Harmonic Society 

H. J. Lincoln, Esq. 

Chaeles Mackeson, Esq. 

Here A. Maczewski, Concert-director, Kaiserslautern 

Julian Maeshall, Esq. . . 

De. E. G. Monk, Organist of York Cathedral . . 

Rev. Sie Feedeeick A. G. Ouselet, Baet., Professor of Music, 


C. Hubert H. Paret, Esq. 

Heer Ernst Pauer 

Edwaed H. Pembee, Esq., Q.C. 

Miss Phillimoee . . 

H5rr C. F. Pohl, Librarian to the Gesellschaft der Musik- 

freunde, Vienna 
William Pole, Esq., F.R.S., Mus. Doc. 
V. de PoNTiGNY, Esq. . . 
E. Peout, Esq. 
Dr. Rimbault 
H. H. Statham, Esq. 
De. W. H. Stone 
Aethue Sullivan, Esq., Mus. Doc. 
Franklin Tayloe, Esq. . . 
Alexandee "W. Thayee, Esq., United States Consul, Trieste, 

Author of the Life of Beethoven 

C, A. W. Teoyte, Esq 

Colonel H. Waee, Public Library, Boston, U. S. 
The Editor 



Published on the First of every Month 

since January ist, 1871. 

The principal and distinguishing features of this Periodical are : — 

I. — Analyses of important Musical Works, especially those less known to the British 
Musical Public ; Articles of Musical History and Criticism. 

2. — A record of the chief current Musical News, both Home and Foreign. For the 
Foreign branch Messrs. AUGENER & CO.'S extensive business connections with the 
Continent offer peculiar facilities: and arrangements have been made with Special Corre- 
spondents at the principal centres of Music abroad, who will continue to supply interesting 
communications written expressly for " The Monthly Musical Record." 

3. — Reviews of New Music, both British and Foreign. It is unnecessary to point out 
that the notices contained in the existing IMusical Periodicals are chiefly if not exclusively 
devoted to works published in this country, and that a more comprehensive record, 
including the progress of Musical Art abroad, is a very important desideratum in English 
Musical Literature. 

4. — Occasional Translations of Articles by the best Foreign Writers on Music. 

The price of " The Monthly Musical Record'''' is — 

Annual Subscription (Free by Post) 2s. ed. 

Single Numbers ( „ „ ) Os. 2^d. 

Twelve Ntimbers with Title and Index bound 

Volume I, 


net 3s. 

Volume IV. 




„ II. 


net 3s. 

» V. 




„ III. 


net 3s. 
Volume VII. 1877 

„ VI. 





" The second volume of the Monthly Musical Record, published by AuGEXER & Co., is a notable 
instance of the fallacy of the opinion with regard to the weakness and subservient character of 
musical joumalisra. There is not a line in the whole of the many pages that betrays the least 
suspicion of any purpose but the good and advancement of art for its own sake. There is a fair 
scholarly tone in the articles, independent of their great value as critical contributions; a free, 
liberal, and conscientious measurement of all new aspirants for musical fame ; and a caustic bitter- 
ness — not at all unjustifiable — in the exposure of anything approaching to sham, shallow pretence, 
or unwarrantable abuse. The value of the articles is such that they deserve to be rescued from a 
newspaper grave and preserved in the form of the volume now under notice, while the style of the 
work is a credit to editor and contributor alike, and a worthy pattern for imitation in musical 
literature." — Morning Post, March 10, 1873. 

" The addition of another year to the age of the Monthly Musical Record sees an increase in 
its power and value as a faithful and impartial chronicle of musical events. The penisal of the 
pages brings a pleasure in which a feeling of gratitude is not unmingled. It is no small praise to 
the editors and contributors of the Record upon reading once more the accounts of events which 
have become history to find the style as piquant in the present as it was in the past, and to note also 
that the criticisms considerably increase in value in the yearly volume, woi thy as they appeared to 
be in the monthly number. This excellence is likely to be the most certain method of strengthening 
and solidifying success for the future." — Morning Post, February 15, 1877. 

A/l Communications respecting Contributions for itiscrtion, etc., to he addressed to t/ie 
Editor, care 0/" Messrs. Augener & Co., 86, Netvgate Street, E.C. 

Advertisements and Business Communications to be addressed to the 


AUGENER & CO., 86, Newgate Street, London, E.C. 



Piihlished by LAMBORN COCK, 6^, New Bond Street, London. 


Minuetto and Trio from Symphony in G minor Op. 43 . . . 3 

Sonata, 'The Maid of Orleans' Op. 46 ... 10 6 

The Major, Minor, and Chromatic Scales, for Pianoforte Students, preceded by a complete analysis 

of the Table of Intervals, with remarks on the best Method of Practice, Fingering, &c 4 


Fantasie — Overture, ' Paradise and the Peri ' — Arranged by W. Dorrell . 
Symphony in G minor, Op. 43 — Arranged by Arthur O'Leary — complete 

First INIovement, separately 

Minuetto and Trio, ditto 

Romanza, ditto 

Rondo Finale, ditto 

Introduction — ' Woman of Samaria ' . 


Romanza, for Viola, or Violoncello and Pianoforte, from Symphony in G minor 


Op. 44 
Op. 43 

Symphony in G minor 


Op. 43 • • 14 


I Overture — 

■ Paradise and Peri ' 

Op. 42 


Minuetto and Trio from Symphony in G minor — Arranged by Dr. Steggall 3 

' O ye the wise who think,' from International Exhibition Ode — By Dr. Steggall 4 

/our Movements from ' The Woman of Samaria ' — Arranged by Dr. Garrett each 3 

Third Movement from the Sonata ' Maid of Orleans,' for Harmonium — By W. H. Callcott 2 


ODE, composed for the Opening of the International Exhibition, 1862. The words by Alfred 

Tennyson, D.C.L., Poet Laureate. 
With Organ or Pianoforte Accompaniment, price 6s. A71 Octavo Edition, Paper Cover, \s. nett. 

Chorl's Parts. 

Soprano, Contralto, Tenor, and Bass each 2 

Stringed P.\rts. 

Violino, imo 1^1 ^''o'^ 1 

Violino, 2ndo 1 6 | Violoncello and Basso 2 

The Wind P.\rts may be hired of the Publisher. The Chorale printed separately on a Card, Sixpence. 


Anthem, composed for the occasion of the Consecration of the Chapel of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, May 12th, 1S69. Price 5.J. Separate Chorus Parts, \s. each. 

The Better Land, Song 3 

Remember now thy Creator, Duet (for Two Trebles) No. i. Op. 30 3 

Do no evil ,, ,, No. 2, Op. 30 3 

And who is he that will harm you ? ,, No. 3, Op. 30 3 

Cast thy bread upon the waters No. 4, Op. 30 3 

Remember now thy Creator, AntJiem, Verse, and CJiortis 3 

Ditto ditto „ ,, 8vo edition, nett 

Sweet Stream that winds. Four-part Song (quarto) nett 

Of all the Arts beneath the heaven. Four-part Song (quarto) nett 

The Woman of Samaeia, 

Vocal Score (folio) nett 12 

The itiJiole of the Numbers are publisJied separately. 

Octavo Edition, in Paper Cover, 4j. ; in Cloth Boards, fo. 

Chorus Parts. Stringed Parts. 


4 3 I Tenor .... 3 9 N Violin primo . 11 3 

4 I Bass 4 ii Violin secondo . 11 3 

The Wind Parts may be hired of the Publisher. 


Octavo Editioti, Gd. nett. 

Viola 11 

Violoncello and Basso 18 

LAMBORN COCK, 63, New Bond Street, London. 





A The name of the sixth degree of the natural 
scale of C. The reason of its being 
* applied to the sixth instead of the first 
degree -will be found explained in the article 
Alphabet. It represents the same note in 
English or German, and in French and Italian 
is called La. 

A is the note given (usually by the oboe, or by 
the organ if there be one) for the orchestra to 
tune to, and it is also the note to which French 
and German tuning-forks are set, the English 
being usually tuned to C. 

In aU stringed instruments one of the strings 
is tuned to A ; in the violin it is the second 
string, in the viola and violoncello the first, and 
in the contrabasso generally the third. A is also 
the key in which one of the clarinets in the 
Drchestra is set. In German the keys of A 
major and A minor are occasionally expressed 
byAJfandAb. [F.T.] 

AARON (correctly Aeon), Pieteo, bom at 
Florence in the latter part of the 15th century. 
A monk of the order of Jerusalem, and devoted 
X) the study of counterpoint. His various works 
m the history and science of music (for a list 
)f which see Becker, 'Musik Literatur,' Leipsic, 
(836) were printed at Venice and Milan. By 
Pope Leo X he was admitted into the Roman 
7ha,pel, and distinguished in various ways. 
.n or about 1516 Aaron founded a school of 
ausic at Rome, which obtained much reputa- 
ion. He became a canon of Rimini, and died 
ni533- [C.F.P.] 

ABACO, EvAEiSTO Felice dall', bom at 
i^erona, and renowned as performer and composer 
in the violin ; in 1 726 concert-meister in the band 
■f the Kurfiirst Max Emanuel of Bavaria. Died 
a 1 740. Compositions of his for church and cham- 
>er were printed at Amsterdam. [C. F. P.] 

A BATTUTA (Ital., 'with the beat'). An 
indication, mostly used in recitatives, where after 
the free declamation of the singer the strict time 
is resumed. It is thus equivalent to A tempo. 

ABBATINI, Antonio Maria, was bom at 
Tifemo, or at Castello (Baini), in 1595 or 
1605, and died in 1677. Was successively Ma- 
estro di Cappella at the Lateran, the Church 
of the Gesii, and San Lorenzo in, and 
three times held the like office at Maria Mag- 
giore : was also, for a time, maestro at tlie 
church of Loreto. Was offered by Pope Urban 
VIII the task of rewriting the ; but 
refused to supersede the music of Palestrina by 
any of his own. His published works consist 
of four books of Psalms and three books of 
Masses, some Antifone for twenty-four voices 
(Mascardi, Rome, 1630-1638, and 1677), and 
five books of Mottetti (Grignani, Rome, 1635). 
He is named by Allacci as the composer of an 
opera ' Del male in bene.' The greater part of his 
productions remain unprinted. Some academical 
lectures by bim, of much note in their time, 
mentioned by Padre Martini, do not seem to 
have been preserved. He assisted KiucHER in 
his ' Musurgia.' [E. H. P.] 

ABBE, Philippe Pierre de St. Sevin and 
Pierre de St. Sevin, two brothers, violoncellists, 
were music-masters of the parish church of Agea 
early in the last century. It seems doubtful 
whether they were actually oulained priests, or 
merely in consequence of their olfice had to wear 
the ecclesiastical dress. From this circumstance 
however they received the name of Abbe I'aini? — 
or simply I'Abbe — and I'Abbe cadet, respectively. 
They gave up their connection with the church 
and went to Paris, where they obtained engai'e- 
ments at the Grand Opora. They were both 
excellent players, but the younger brother seeuia 


to have been the more celebrated of the two, 
and to have been specially remarkable for his 
beautiful tone. It is said to have been owing 
in great measure to the impression produced by 
his playing that the viola di gamba more and 
more feU into disuse and the violoncello was more 
extensively introduced. (Batistin.) [T. P. H.] 

ABBEY, John, a distinguished organ-builder ; 
was bom at Whilton, a Northamptonshire village, 
Dec. 22, 1785. In his youth he was employed 
in the factory of Davis, and subsequently in that 
of Russell, both organ-builders of repute in their 
day. ^ In 1826 Abbey went to Paris, on the in- 
vitation of Sebastian Erard, the celebrated harp 
and pianoforte maker, to work upon an organ 
which Erard had designed, and which he sent to 
the Exhibition of the Productions of National 
Industry in 1827, and also to build an organ for 
the Convent of the Legion of Honour, at St. 
Denis. He also built an organ from Erard's de- 
sign for the chapel of the Tuileries, which, how- 
ever, had only a short existence, being destroyed 
in the Revolution of 1830. Having established 
himself as an organ-builder in Paris, Abbey be- 
came extensively employed in the construction, 
renovation, and enlargement of organs in France 
and elsewhere. Amongst others he built choir 
organs for accompanying voices for the cathe- 
drals of Rheims, Nantes, Versailles, and Evreux, 
and for the churches of St. Eustache, St. Nicholas 
des Champs, St. Elizabeth, St. Medard, St. Eti- 
enne du Mont, and St. Thomas Aquinas, ia 
Paris; and large organs for the cathedrals of 
Rochelle, Rennes, Viviers, Tulle, Chalons-sur- 
Mame, Bayeux, and Amiens, and for churches, 
convents, and chapels at St. Denis, Orleans, Caen, 
Chalons, Picpus, and Versailles. He repaired 
and enlarged organs in the cathedrals of Mende, 
Moulins, Rheims, Evreux, and Nevers, and in 
the churches of St. Etienne du Mont, St. Philippe 
du Roule, The Assumption, and St. Louis de An- 
tin in Paris. He also built many organs for 
Chili and South America. In 1831 Abbey was 
employed, at the instance of Meyerbeer (who 
had introduced the instrument into the score of 
his opera 'Robert le Diable,' then about to be 
produced), to build an organ for the Grand Opera 
at Paris, which instrument continued to be used 
there until it was destroyed, with the theatre, by 
fire in 1873. Abbey was the first who intro- 
duced into French organs the English mechanism 
and the bellows invented by Cummins. His ex- 
ample was speedily followed by the French 
buUders, and from that period may be dated the 
improvements in organ building which have 
raised the French builders to their present 
eminence. His work was well finished, and gener- 
ally satisfactory. He died at Versailles, Feb. 19, 
1859. He left two sons, E. and J. Abbey, who 
now carry on the business of organ-builders in 
Versailles. r^_ H H 1 

ABBREVIATIONS. The abbreviations em- 
ployed m music are of two kinds, namely, the 
abridgment of terms relating to musical ex- 
pression, and tbe true musical abbreviations by 


the help of which certain passages, chords, etc. 
may be written in a curtailed form, to the greatei 
convenience of both composer and performer. 

Abbreviations of the first kind need receive 
no special consideration here; they consist foi 
the most part of the initial letter or first syllable 
of the word employed— as for instance, p. foi 
piano, cresc. for crescendo, oh. for oboe, cello for 
violoncello, fag. for bassoon (fagotto), timp. for 
drums (timpani) ; and their meaning is every- 
where sufficiently obvious. Those of musical pas- 
sages are indicated by signs, as foUows. 

The continued repetition of a note or chord 
is expressed by a stroke or strokes across the 
stem, or above or below the note if it be a semi- 
breve (Ex. i), the number of strokes denoting 
the subdivision of the written note into quavers, 
semiquavers, etc., unless the word tremolo or 
tremolando is added, in which case the repetition 
is as rapid as possible, without regard to the 
exact number of notes played. On bowed in- 
struments the rapid reiteration of a single note 
is easy, but in pianoforte music an octave or 
chord becomes necessary to produce a tremolo, 
the manner of writing and performing which is 
shown in Ex. 2. 


• In the abbreviation expressed by strokes, as 
above, the passage to be abbreviated can of 
course contain no note of greater length than 
a quaver, but it is possible also to divide a long 
note into crotchets, by means of dots placed over 
it, as in Ex. 3. This is however seldom done, 
as the saving of space is inconsiderable. When 
a long note has to be repeated in the form of 
triplets or groups of six, the figure 3 or 6 is 
usually placed over it in addition to the stroke 
across the stem, and the note is sometimes, 
though not necessarily, written dotted (Ex. 4). 


viated by the repetition of the cross strokes with- 
out the notes as many times as the group has 
to be repeated (Ex. 7) ; or the notes fonning the 
group are written as a chord, witli the necessary 
number of strokes across the stem (Ex. 8). In 
this case the word simili or seyue is added, to 
show that the order of notes in the first group 
(which must be written out in full) is to be re- 
peated, and to prevent the possibility of mis- 
taking the effect intended for that indicated in 
Ex. I and 2. 

The repetition of a group of two notes is ab- 
breviated by two white notes (minims or semi- 
breves) connected by the number of strokes or- 
dinarily used to express quavers, semiquavers, 
etc., according to the rate of movement intended 
(Ex. 5). The duration of the whole passage 
should be at least a minim, since if a crotchet 
were treated in this manner it would present the 
appearance of two quavers or semiquavers, and 
would be unintelligible. Nevertheless, a group 
of demisemiquavers amounting altogether to the 
value of a crotchet is sometimes found abbreviated 
as in Ex. 6, the figure 8 being placed above the 
notes to show that the value of the whole group 
is that of a crotchet, and not a quaver. Such 
abbreviations, though perhaps useful in certain 
cases, are generally to be avoided as ambiguous. 
It will be observed that a passage lasting for 
the value of one minim requires two minims to 
express it, on account of the group consisting of 
two notes. 


A group of three, four, or more notes is abbre- 

Another sign of abbre\'iation of a group con- 
sists of an oblique line witli two dot*--, one on 
each side (Ex. 9); this serves to indicate the 
repetition of a group of any number of notes of 
any length, and even of a passage composed of 
several groups, provided such passage is not more 
than two bars in length (Ex. 10). 

A more usual method of abbreviating the re- 
petition of a passage of tlie length of the above 
is to write over it the word bis (twice), or m 
some cases ter (three times), or to enclose it 
between the dots of an ordinary repeat ||i — ^ - 

Passages intended to be played in octaves are 
often written as single note>^ with the wortls con 
ottaci or con Sri placed above or below them, 


according as the upper or lower octave is to be 
added (Ex. 1 1). The word 8va (or sometimes 8va 
alta or Sva bassa) written above a passage does 
not add octaves, but merely transposes the pas- 
sage an octave higher or lower : so also in clari- 
net music the word chalumeau is used to signify 
that the passage is to be played an octave lower 
than written (Ex. 12). All these alterations, 
which can scarcely be considered abbreviations 
except that they spare the use of ledger-lines, 
are counteracted, and the passage restored to its 
usual position, by the use of the word loco, or in 
clarinet music by clarinette, 

II. Con 8vi. 

12. 8va loco 

Sva bassa. loco 

In orchestral music it often happens that cer- 
tain of the instruments play in unison ; when this 
is the case the parts are sometimes not all written 
in the score, but the lines belonging to one or 
more of the instruments are left blank, and the 
words coi violini or col basso, etc., are added, to 
indicate that the instruments in question have to 
play in uuison with the violins or basses, as the 
case may be, or when two instruments of the 
same kind, such as first and second violins, have 
to play in unison, the word unisono or col primo 
is placed instead of the notes in the line belonging 
to the second. — Where two parts are written on 
one staff in a score the sign ' a 2' denotes that 
both play the same notes ; and 'a I ' that the 
second of the two is resting. — The indication 
•as' 'a 4' at the head of fugues indicates the 
number of parts or voices in which the fugue is 

An abbreviation which is often very trouble- 
some to the conductor occurs in manuscript 
scores, wlien a considerable part of the composi- 
tion is repeated without alteration, and the cor- 
responding number of bars are left vacant, with 
the remark co7ne sopra (as above). This is not 
met with in printed scores. 


There are also abbreviations relating to the 
theory of music, some of which are of great 
value. In figured bass, for instance, the various 
chords are expressed by figures, and the authors 
of several modern theoretical works have in- 
vented or availed themselves of various methods 
of shortly expressing the different chords and 
intervals. Thus we find major chords expressed 
by large Roman numerals, and minor chords by 
small ones, the particular number employed de- 
noting the degree of the scale upon which the 
chord is based. GottMed Weber represents an 
interval by a number with one or two dots be- 
fore it to express minor or diminished, and one 
or two after it for major or augmented, and 
Andre makes use of a triangle, [\, to express a 
common chord, and a square, □, for a chord of 
the seventh, the inversions being indicated by one, 
two, or three small vertical lines across their 
base, and the classification into major, minor, 
diminished, or augmented by the numbers i, 2, 
3, or 4, placed in the centre. [F. T.] 

ABEILLE, JoH. Che. Ludwig, born at 
Bayreuth Feb. 20, 1761, composer, pianist, and 
organist. Studied at Stuttgart, and in 1782 be- 
came a member of the private band of the Duke 
of Wiirtemberg. On Zumsteeg's death in 1802 he 
succeeded him as concert-meister, and was shortly 
afterwards made organist in the court chapel 
and director of the official music. In 1832, 
having completed a period of fifty years' faithful 
service, he received the royal gold medal and 
a pension, shortly after which he died, in his 
seventy-first year. Abeille's concertos and trios 
for the harpsichord were much esteemed, but 
his vocal compositions were his best works. 
Amongst them are several collections of songs 
(e.g. 'Eight Lieder,' Breitkopf and Hartel) which 
are remarkable for simple natural grace, and a 
touching vein of melody. Some of these still 
survive in music-schools. His Ash- Wednesday 
hymn for four voices, and his operettas of ' Amor 
und Psyche,' 'Peter und Annchen,' were well 
known in their day, and were published, in piano- 
forte score, by Breitkopf and Hartel. [C. F. P.] 

ABEL, Clamor Henrich, bom in West- 
phalia about the middle of the 17th century, 
chamber-musician to the court of Hanover. His 
work ' Erstlinge Musikalischer Blumen ' appeared 
first in three vols. (Frankfort, 1674, 1676, and 
1677), afterwards united under the title 'Drei 
opera musica' (Brunswick, 1687). [M. C. C] 

ABEL, Karl Friedkich, one of the most 
famous viol-da-gamba players, born at Ccithen in 
1725. He was brought up at the Thomas-school 
at Leipsic under Sebastian Bach. In 1748 he 
obtained a post under Hasse in the court band at 
Dresden, where he remained ten years. In 1759 
he visited London, and gave his first concert on 
April 5 at the ' great room in Dean-street, Soho,' 
when, in addition to the viol-da-gamba, he per- 
formed 'a concerto upon the harpsichord, and a 
piece composed on purpose for an instrument 
newly-invented in London, and called the penta- 
chord,' the wnole of the pieces in the programme 


being of his own composition. His facility was 
remarkable : he is reported to have performed 
more than once on the horn, as well as on ' new 
instruments never heard in public before.' From 
the year 1765 however he confined himself to 
the viol-da-gamba. He was appointed chamber- 
musician to Queen Charlotte, with a salary of 
£200 a-year. On the arrival of John Christian 
Bach, in the autumn of 1762, Abel joined him ; 
they lived together, and jointly conducted Mrs. 
Comelys' subscription concerts. The first of 
their series took place in Carlisle-house, Soho- 
square, on January 23, 1765, and they were 
maintained for many years. The Hanover-square 
Kooms were opened on Feb. i, 1775, by one of 
these concerts. Haydn's Symphonies were first 
performed in England at them, and "Wilhelm 
Cramer the violinist, father of J. B. Cramer, 
made his first appearance there. After Bach's 
death on Jan. i, 1782, the concerts were continued 
by Abel, but with indifferent success. In 1 783 he 
returned to Germany, taking Paris on the way 
back, where he appears to have begun that in- 
dulgence in drink which eventually caused his 
death. In 1785 we find him again in London, 
engaged in the newly established 'Professional 
Concerts,' and in the 'Subscription Concerts' of 
Mr. Salomon and Mme. Mara at the Pantheon. 
At this time his compositions were much per- 
formed, and he himself still played often in pub- 
lic. His last appearance was at Mrs. BiUington's 
concert on May 21, 1787, shortly after which, on 
June 20, he died, after a lethargy or sleep of 
three days' duration. His death was much spoken 
of in the papers. Abel's symphonies, overtures, 
quartetts, concertos, and sonatas were greatly 
esteemed, and many of them were published by 
Bremner of London and Hummel of Berlin. 
The most favourite were ' A fifth set of six over- 
tures, op. 14' (Bremner), and 'Six sonatas, op. 18.' 
Abel's playing was most remarkable in slow 
movements. ' On the viol-dargamba,' says the 
'European Magazine,' 1784, p. 366, 'he is truly 
excellent, and no modern has been heard to play 
an. Adagio with greater taste and feeling.' Bur- 
ney's testimony is to the same effect, and he adds 
that ' his musical science and taste were so com- 
plete that he became the umpire in all musical 
controversy, and was consulted like an oracle.' 
He was accustomed to caU his instrument ' the 
king of instruments,' and to say of himself that 
there was ' one God and one Abel.' Among his 
pupils both in singing and composition were 
J. B. Cramer, Graeff, and Brigida Giorgi (Sig- 
nora Banti). His firiend Gainsborough painted 
a three-quarter-length portrait of Abel playing 
on the viol-da-gamba, distinguished by its careful 
execution, beauty of colouring, and deep expres- 
Bion. It wafi bequeathed by Miss Gainsborough 
to Mr. Briggs, and was sold in London in 1866. 
Gainsborough also exhibited a whole-length of 
Abel at the Royal Academy in 1777, and a- very 
powerful portrait of him by Kobineau is to be 
found at Hampton Court. [C F. P.] 

ABEL, Leopold August, bom at Cothen 
1720, death unknown; elder brother of the pre- 


ceding, violinist, and pupil of Benda. He played 
in the orchestra of the theatre at Brunswick, and 
was successively conductor of the court band to 
the Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (i 758), 
the Margrave of Schwedt (1766), and the Duke 
of Schwerin. He composed six violin concertos 
mentioned in Bohme's catalogue, but never rose 
to the reputation of his brother. [M. C. C] 

ABELL, John, a celebrated alto singer and 
performer on the lute, was bom about 1660, 
and probably educated in the choir of the Chapel 
Royal, of which establishment he was sworn a 
'gentleman extraordinary' in 1679. He was 
greatly patronised by royalty, and between the 
years 1679 and 1688 received 'bounty money' 
amounting to no less than £ 740. (See ' Moneys 
received and paid for secret serv-ices of Charles J I 
and James II' — Camd. Soc.). Charles II sent 
him to Italy to study, and after his return 
Evelyn thus describes meeting him : ' Jan. 24, 
1682-3. After supper came in the famous 
treble, Mr. Abel, newly returned from Italy. 
I never heard a more excellent voice, and would 
have sworn it had been a woman's, it was so 
high and so well and skilfully managed, being 
accompanied by Signer Francisco on the harpsi- 
chord.' He remained in the service of the 
chapel until the Revolution of 1688, when he 
was dismissed for his supposed leaning to the 
Romish religion. After this he travelled abroad, 
visiting France, Germany, Holland, and Poland, 
leading a vagrant sort of life, and depending for 
his support upon his voice and lute. About the 
latter end of the reign of Queen Anne, Abell 
returned to England, and occupied a prominent 
position on the stage. Congreve, in a letter 
dated 'Lond. Decem. 10, 1700,' says 'Abell is 
here : has a cold at present, and is always 
whimsical, so that when he will sing or not upon 
the stage are things very disputable, but he 
certainly sings beyond all creatures upon earth, 
and I have heard him very often both abroad 
and since he came over,' {Literary Belies, 179^, 
p. 322). 

In 1 70 1 Abell published two works, 'A 
Collection of Songs in Several Languages,' which 
he dedicated to William III, and 'A collection 
of Songs in English." The latter contains a 
very curious poem of some length, addressed to 
' All lovers of Musick,' in which he describes 
some of his doings on the continent. His death ia 
not recorded, but it was after 1716. when he gave 
a concert at Stationers' Hall. (Hawkins, Bitt. ; 
Cheque-Book Chap. Rvy., etc.). [E. F. R.] 

ABOS, Geronimo, bora at Malta in the be- 
ginning of the 1 8th century, died at Naples about 
1786, a composer of the Neapolitan school, and 
pupil of Leo and Durante. He was a teacher in 
the Conservatrio of ' La Pietk ' at Naples, and 
trained many eminent singers, of whom April* 
was the most famous. He visited Rome, Venice, 
Turin, and, in 1756, London, where he held the 
post of maestro al cembalo at the opera. His 
operas are ' La Pupilla e '1 Tutore,' ' La Serva 
Padrona,' and ' L'ltigenia in Aulide ' (Naples), 



' L' Artaserse ' (Venice, 1746), 'L'Adriano' 
(Rome, 1750), 'Tito Manlio,' and 'Creso' 
(London, 1756 and 1758). His church music 
includes seven Masses, two Kyries, and several 
Litanies to the Virgin, preserved in manuscript 
in Naples, Rome, Vienna, and the Conservatoire 
in Paris. The style of his composition somewhat 
resembles that of Jomelli. [M. C. C] 

ABRAMS, The Misses Henrietta, Theodo- 
SIA, and Eliza, were three sisters, vocalists. 
Henrietta, the eldest, was a pupil of Dr. Arne, 
and first appeared in public at Drury Lane theatre, 
in her master's musical piece, ' May Day,' on Oct. 
28> 1775. She and her sister Theodosia sang 
at the opening of the Concert of Ancient Music 
in 1776. Henrietta possessed a soprano, and 
Theodosia a contralto voice of excellent quality. 
The youngest sister, Ehza, was accustomed to 
join with her sisters in the pieces which were 
sung at the Ladies' Catch and Glee Concerts. 
The elder two sang at the Commemoration of 
Handel, in Westminster Abbey, in 1784, and at 
the principal London concerts for several years 
afterwards, when they retired into private Hfe. 
They both attained to an advanced age ; Theo- 
dosia (then Mrs. G-arrow) was living in 1834. 
Henrietta Abrams composed several pleasing 
songs, two of which, ' The Orphan's Prayer ' 
and ' Crazy Jane,' aided by the expressive sing- 
ing of her sister, Theodosia, became very popular. 
She published, in 1787, 'A Collection of Songs,' 
and 'A Collection of Scotch Songs harmonized 
for three voices,' besides other pieces at later 
dates. [W. H. H.] 

ABT, Franz, bom at Eilenburg in Prussian 
Saxony, Dec. 22, 1819. His father was a clergy- 
man, and Franz, though destined to the same 
profession, received a sound musical education, 
and was allowed to pursue both objects at the 
Thomas-School and University of Leipsic. On 
his father's death he relinquished the church as 
a profession and adopted music entirely. His 
first residence was at Ziirich (1841), where he 
acted as capellmeister, occupying himself more 
especially with men's voices, both as composer 
and conductor of several societies. In 1852 he 
entered the staff of the Hof-theater at Brunswick, 
where since 1855 he has filled the post of leading 

Abt is well knovm by his numerous songs 
for one or more voices, which betray an easy 
fluency of invention, couched in pleasing popular 
forms, but without pretence to depth or indi- 
viduality. Many of his songs, as for instance 
'When the swallows,' were at one time univer- 
sally sung, and have obtained a more or less 
permanent place in the popular repertory. Abt 
is a member of a group of composers, embracing 
his contemporaries Truhn, Kiicken, Gumbert, 
and others, who stand aloof from the main course 
taken by the German Lied as it left the hands 
of Schubert, Schumann, and Franz, — which 
aims at the true and living expression of inward 
emotion. In reference to this the composers in 
question are somewhat in the background ; but it 


cannot be denied that in many dilettante circles ; 
Abt is a prime favourite for his elegance and 1 
easy intelligibility. His greatest successes in \ 
Germany and Switzerland have been obtained in 
part-songs for men's voices, an overgrown branch 
of composition unfortunately devoted to the pur- 
suit of the mere superficial enjoyment of sweet 
sounds, and to a great extent identified with his 

The list of Abt's compositions is enormous, 
and contains more than 400 works, consisting 
chiefly of ' Lieder ' of the most various kinds for 
one, two, or three solo voices, as well as for 
chorus, both female and mixed, and, as already 
mentioned, especially for men's voices. Of the 
solo ' Lieder,' a collection of the less-known ones 
has been published by Peters under the title of 
' Abt-Album.' The part-songs are to be found in 
many collections. In the early part of his life 
Abt composed much for the pianoforte, chiefly 
pieces of light salo7i character. These have never 
had the same popularity with hia vocal works, 
and are now virtually forgotten. [A. M.] 

ABYNGDON, Henry. An English eccle- 
siastic and musician. He succeeded John Ber- 
nard as subcentor of WeUs on Nov. 24, 1447, 
and held that post till his death on Sept. I, 
1497, when he was succeeded by Robert Wydewe. 
(Beckynton's and Oliver King's registers at 
Wells.) In addition to the succentorship at 
Wells Abyngdon held the oflice of 'Master of 
the Song' of the Chapel Royal in London, to 
which he was appointed in May 1465 at an 
annual salary of forty marks, confirmed to him 
by a subsequent Act of Parliament in 1473-4. 
(Rimbault, 'Cheque-book of Chapel Royal,' p. 4.) 
He was also made Master of St. Catherine's 
Hospital, Bristol, in 1478. (CoUinson, ii. 283.) 
Two Latin epitaphs on Abyngdon by Sir 
Thomas More have been preserved (Cayley's 
'Life of More,' i. 317), of which the English 
epitaph quoted by Rimbault from Stonyhurst 
is an adaptation. In these he himself is styled 
* nobilis,' and his office in London ' cantor,' 
and he is said to have been pre-eminent both 
as a singer and an organist : — 
* Millibus in mille cantor fuit optimus ills, 

Praeter et haec ista fuit optimus orgaquenista.' 
More's friendship is evidence of Abyngdon's 
ability and goodness, but the acquaintance can 
only have been slight, as More was but seventeeu 
when Abyngdon died. None of his works are 
known. [G.] 

stitution, which, following the frequently changed 
political conditions of France since 1791, has 
been called in turn Royale, Nationale, and Im- 
periale, has already entered its third century. 
In 1669 royal letters patent were granted by 
Louis XIV to the Abbe Perrin, Robert Cambert, 
and the Marquis de Sourdeac, for the establish- 
ment of an Academic wherein to present in public 
' operas and dramas with music, and in French 
verse,' after the manner of those of Italy, for the 
space of twelve years. Nearly a century prior 


to this, in 1570, similar privileges had been 
accorded by Charles IX to a Venetian, C. A. 
de Baif, in respect to an academy ' de poesie et 
de musique,' but its scheme does not appear to 
have included dramatic repres-ntation. In any 
case it failed utterly. The establishment of the 
existing institution was however also preceded, 
and therefore facilitated, by a series of per- 
formances in Italian by Italian artists, beginning 
in 1584 and continued with little interruption 
till 1652, and by rarer though not less important 
ones by French artists, beginning from 1625, 
when ' Akebar, roi du Mogol,' was produced in 
the palace of the bishop of Carpentras. This has 
frequently been spoken of as the earliest veritable 
French opera ; but that title is more justly due 
to the ' Pastorale en musique ' of Cambeet — the 
subject of which was given to the Abbe Perrin 
by the Cardinal Legate of Innocent X — first 
performed at Issy in 1659. Two years after, 
Cambert followed this opera by ' Ariane,' and in 
the following year by 'Adonis.' The Acadcmie 
was opened in 1671 with an opera by the same 
master, ' Pomone,' which attained an enormous 
success ; having been repeated, apparently to the 
exclusion of every other work, for eight months 
successively. The 'strength' of the company 
engaged in its performance presents an interesting 
contrast with that of the existing grand opera, 
and even of similar establishments of far less 
pretension. The troupe consisted of five male 
and four female principal performers, fifteen 
chorus - singers, and an orchestra numbering 
thirteen ! The career of the Academic under 
these its first entrepreneurs was brought to an 
end by the jealousy of an Italian musician then 
rising in court favour, J. Baptiste Lullt, who, 
through his influence with Mme. de Montespan, 
succeeded in obtaining for himself the privileges 
which had been accorded to Perrin and Cambert. 
The latter, the master-spirit of the enterprise 
thus wrecked, notwithstanding his hospitable 
reception by our Charles II, died in London 
shortly afterwards, at the age of forty-nine, of 
disappointment and home - sickness. By this 
disreputable proceeding LuUy made himself 
master of the situation, remaining to the time 
of his death, in 1687, the autocrat of the French 
lyric drama. In the course of these fourteen 
years he produced, in concert with the poet 
QuiNAULT, no fewer than twenty grand operas, 
besides other works. The number, success, and, 
more than all, the merit, of these entitle Lully to 
be regarded as the founder of the school of which 
Meyerbeer may claim to have proved the most 
distinguished alumnus ; though, as we have seen, 
its foundation had been facilitated for him by 
the labours of others. In the course of his 
autocracy, Lully developed considerably musical 
form in its application to dramatic effect, and 
added considerably to the resources of the 
orchestra ; though, in comparison with those 
of more recent times, he left them still very 
meagre. He is said to have first obtained 
permission, though in spite of great opposition, 
for the appearance of women on the stage ; but 


as the troupe of his predecessor Cambert in- 
cluded four, his claim to their first introiiuction 
there needs qualification. Probably he got 
prohibition which had eeased to be operative 
exchanged for avowed sanction. The status 
of the theatrical performer at this epoch would 
seem to have been higher than it has ever been 
since ; seeing that, by a special court order, even 
nobles were aUowed, without prejudice to thtir 
rank, to appear as singers and dancers before 
audiences who paid for admission to their 
performances. What it was somewhat later may 
be gathered from the fact that, not to mention 
innumerable less distinguishedinstances, Christian 
burial was refused (1673) to Molitre and (1730) 
to Adrienne Le Couvreur. LuUy's scale of pay- 
ment to authors, having regard to the value of 
money in his time, was liberal. The composer 
of a new opera received for each of the first ten 
representations 100 livres (about £4 sterling), 
and for each of the following twenty repre- 
sentations, 50 livres. After this the work 
became the property of the Acadi-mie. The 
theatre was opened for operatic performance 
three times a week throughout the year. On 
great festivals concerts of sacred music were 
given. The composers contemporary with Lully 
(many of them his pupils) could only obtaia 
access to the Academic by conforming to his style 
and working on his principles. Some few of 
these however, whose impatience of the LuUian 
despotism deprived them of all chance of a hearing 
within its walls, turned their talents to account 
in the service of the vagrant troupes of the 
Foire Saint-Germain ; and with such success 
as to alarm Lully both for his authority and his 
receipts. He obtained an order {more suo) for 
the suppression of this already dangerous rivalry, 
which however proved itself far too supple for 
legislative manipulation. The 'vagrants' met 
each new ordonnance with a new evasion, and 
that of which they were the first practitioners, 
and the frequenters of the Fcire the first patrons, 
subsequently grew into the most delightful, 
because the most truly natural, of all French 
art products, the Opera Comique. The school 
of composition established by Lully did not die 
with its founder; nor for many years was any 
serious violation of his canons permitted by 
his adopted countrymen. Charpentier (1634- 
1702), a composer formed in the school of 
Carissimi, was unsuccessful in finding favour 
for the style of his master : Campra (1660-1744) 
was somewhat less so ; while Marais, Desmarets, 
Lacoste, and Monteclair were gradually enabled 
to idve more force, variety and character to 
orchestration. The last of these (1666-1737) 
first introduced the three-stringed double-b:i8s, 
on which he himself was a performer, into the 
orchestra. But a condition of an art on the 
whole .so stagnant as this was sure eventually 
to become insupportable, if not to the public, 
to the few who at all times, consciously or 
unconsciously, direct or confirm its inclinations. 
Their impatience found expression in the AbW 
Baguenet's ' Parallele des Italiena et dea Francaia, 





en ce qui regarde la musique et les opera' (1704"), 
one of a considerable number of essaj's which 
assisted in preparing the way for a new style, 
should a composer present himself of sufficient 
genius, culture and courage, to introduce it. 
Such an one at length did present himself in 
Jean Philippe Rameau, whose arrival in Paris 
in 1 721, at the somewhat mature age of forty- 
two, forms an epoch in the history not merely 
of French opera but of European music. In the 
face of much opposition this sturdy Burgundian 
succeeded first in obtaining a hearing from and 
eventually in winning the favour — though never 
to the same extent as Lully the affections — of 
the French people. Between 1737 and 1760, 
irrespective of other work, he set to music no 
less than twenty-four dramas, the majority of 
them grand operas. The production of these at 
the Academic he personally superintended ; and 
some idea ot his activity and influence as a director 
may be gathered from the fact that in 1750, 
fourteen years before the close of his career, the 
number of performers engaged at the Academie 
had risen to I49 ; a number doubtless to some 
extent rendered necessary by the increased 
craving of the public ear for intensity, but more 
by the varieties of musical effect of which he 
himself had been the inventor. In 1763 the 
theatre of the Palais Royal, built by Lemercier, 
so long resonant with the strains of Lully and 
Rameau, was destroyed by fire. The ten years 
which connected the death of Rameau with the 
arrival in Paris of Gluck were marked by the 
production of no work of more than secondary 
rank. On April 19, 17^4, the 'Iphigenie en 
Aulide' of this master was heard for the first 
time. The production of this work was followed 
by that of a series of others from the same hand, 
one and all characterised by a direct application 
of musical form and colour to dramatic expression 
before unlvnown to the French or any other 
theatre. The arrival in Paris shortly after of the 
admirable Piccinni brought Gluck into relation 
with a master who, while not unworthy to cope 
with him as a musician, was undoubtedly his 
inferior as a diplomatist. Between these two 
great composers the parts of the typical 'ruse 
Italian ' and the ' simple-minded German ' were 
interchanged. The latter left no means untried 
to mar the success of the former, for whose genius 
he openly professed, and probably felt, high ad- 
miration ; and in the famous war of the Gluckists 
and Piccinnists — whose musical knowledge for 
the most part was in inverse ratio to their literary 
skill — the victory which fell eventually to the 
former was the result no less of every species of 
chicanery on the part of Gluck than of genius 
especially adapted to captivate a people always 
more competent to appreciate dramatic than 
musical genius. In 1781 the second Palais 
Royal theatre, like its predecessor, was burnt 
to the ground. The Academie, for many weeks 
without a home, at length took temporary refuge 
in the Salles des Menus-Plaisirs. Meanwhile 
the architect Lenoir completed the Salle de la 
Porte Saint-Martin in the short space of three 

months. The result of this extravagant speed 
was that, after the first performance, said to 
have been attended (gratis) by 10,000 persons, 
the walls were found to have ' settled ' two inches 
to the right and fifteen lignes to the left. In 
1784 an Ecole Royale de Chant et de Declama- 
tion, afterwards developed into the Conservatoire, 
was grafted on to the Academie. In 1787 the 
Academie troupe is said to have consisted of 250 
persons — an increase of 100 on that of Rameau. 
The unfortunate Louis XVI took great interest 
in the Academie, and even gave much personal 
attention to its regulation. He reduced the 
working expenses by nearly one-half; not at the 
cost of the working members, but by the aboli- 
tion of sinecures and other incumbrances on 
its income. In 1784 he established prizes for 
libretti, and in 1787 issued several well- 
considered ordonnances for the regulation of 
the establishment. But from 17 89 the thoughts 
of the ill-starred king were exclusively occupied 
by more weighty and more difficult subjects. 
On April 20, 1 791, the royal family attended 
the Academie for the last time. The opera was 
the ' Castor et Pollux ' of Rameau. Shortly after 
this the 'protection,' or exclusive right of 
performance of grand opera, was withdrawn 
from the Academie and the liberte des theatres 
proclaimed. Hitherto the names of the artists I 
concerned in the Academie performances had ■ 
never been pubHshed. This rule was violated > 
for the first time in the affiche announcing 
' L' OfFrande k la Liberte,' an opera-ballet by 
Gardel and Gossec. The history of the Academie 
during the next few years is a part of the history 
of the French Revolution, and could only be 
mede intelligible by details out of aU proportion 
with our space. The societaires, as public ofiicers, 
were largely occupied in lending the charms of 
their voices and instruments — the onlj^ charms 
of which they were receptive — to 'Fetes de la 
Raison,' ' Sans - Culottides,' and more lately 
'Hymnes k I'Etre Supreme,' alike unmeaning, 
indecent, or blasphemous. In many of these the 
talents of the illustrious Cherubini, who had 
taken up his residence in Paris in 1 788, were 
employed. The chronological ' Notice ' of his 
compositions, which he himself drew up f Paris, 
1845), contains the titles of a large number of 
productions of this class — 'Hymne a la Fra- 
ternite,' ' Chant pour le Dix Aoiit,' ' Le Salpetre 
Republicain,' and the like. In 1 794 the Academie 
was transferred to the Rue de Richelieu, a 
locality (the site of the Hotel Louvois) chosen 
it was said by Henriot, convinced of 'the in- 
utility of books,' in the hope that an establish- 
ment so liable to conflagration as a theatre might 
lead to the destruction of the Bibliotheque 
Nationale contiguous to it ! In its new abode 
the Academie took a new name — Theatre des 
Arts. Here for the first time the pit was 
provided with seats. In the four or five years 
following this removal, the habitues of the 
Academie became weary of a repertoire having 
constant ultimate reference to liberte, fraternite, 
or egalite. The old operas, subjected always to 


iemocratic purification, were again heard. In 
1799 Gluck's 'Armide' was revived. During 
the consulate no new works of importance were 
brought forward at the Theatre des Arts, eventu- 
sJly the scene of two conspiracies against the 
First Consul, which, had they been successful, 
would have altered seriously the subsequent 
history of Europe. On the occasion of the fir.-t 
of these the 'Horaces' of Porta, and on that 
of the second the 'Creation ' of Haydn were 
performed, the latter for the first time in Paris. 
During the ten years which follow 1804 French 
opera was much developed through the labours 
both of foreign and of native composers ; among 
the former, Spontini, Eodolphe Kreutzer, and 
Cherubini ; among the latter Lesueur and Catel. 
Among the most important of their works were 
'Les Bardes' of Lesueur and *La Vestale' of 
Spontini— the latter an enormous success won 
despite bitter and long-continued opposition. To 
Spontini, on account of it, was awarded the prize 
of 10,000 francs, decreed at Aix-la-ChapeUe by 
Napoleon for the best opera produced at the 
Academic (now) Imperiale. In 18 14 the allies 
occupied Paris, and the Emperor of Russia and 
the King of Prussia assisted at a performance of 
' La Vestale ' on April i . On May 1 7 following 
' (Edipe k Colone ' and a Ballet de Circonstance 
were played before Louis XVIII. On April 1 8, 
18 1 5, Napoleon witnessed another performance 
of ' La Vestale,' and on July 9 of the same year 
the same opera was again performed before 
Louis XVIII, the Emperor of Austria, and 
the King of Prussia. The assassination of the 
Due de Berri on the evening of Feb. 13, 1820, 
interrupted for several months the performances 
of the Academic. The act and its consequences 
were attended by every conceivable circumstance 
that could add to their ghastliness. The dying 
victim, who could not be removed from the 
theatre, lay, surrounded by his weeping family, 
separated only by a thin partition from an 
audience, unconscious of course of the tragedy 
in progress behind the scenes, convulsed with 
laughter at the antics of PolichineUe ! The last 
sacraments of the church were administered to 
the duke on condition — exacted, it may be 
presumed, by the clergy in attendance — that 
the building in which these horrors were being 
enacted should be forthwith demolished. On 
May 3, 182 1, the Academic troupe resumed 
its performances in the Salle Favart, with an 
Opera de Circonstance, the combined work of 
Berton, Boieldieu, Kreutzer, Cherubini, and 
Paer, in honour of the infant Due de Bourdeaux. 
In the next year the Academic was again 
transferred — this time to the Rue Le Peletier, 
the salle of which was destined to be for many 
Bucceeding years its home, and the scene of 
even greater glories than any it had yet known. 
About this time a change of taste in music, 
mainly attributable to a well-known critic, 
Castil-Blaze, showed itself among the opera 
habitues of Paris. French adaptations of the 
German and Italian operas of Mozart, Rossini, 
Meyerbeer, and even Weber, were produced 


in rapid succession and received with great 
favour. The 'Freischutz' of the last great 
master was performed at the Odton 387 times 
in succession. The inevitable result soon followed. 
The foreign composers who had so effectually 
served the Academic indirectly, were called upon 
to serve it directly. The career of Mozart, alas ! 
had many years before come to an imtiraely end, 
and that of Weber was about to prove scarcely 
more extended. But Rossini and Meyerbeer, 
though already renowned and experienced, had 
not yet reached the age when it is impossible or 
even very difficult to enter on a new career. They 
became and remained French composers. Mean- 
while Hekold, Auber, and other native musi- 
cians, had made themselves known by works of 
more than promise ; and the services of a body 
of operatic composers, foreign and French, un- 
precedented in number and ability, were made 
to contribute at the same time to the pleasure 
of a single city and the prosperity of a single 
institution. By a fortunate coincidence too, 
there flourished during this period a playwright, 
Augustin Eugfene Scribe, who, despite his gtyle 
impossible, must be regarded as the greatest 
master the theatre has known of that most 
difficult and thankless of literary products, the 
libretto. The two years immediately preceding 
and the eighteen following the revolution of 
July form the period during which the Academie 
attained its highest excellence and success. Not 
to speak of a large number of works which in 
other times might have deserved special mention, 
this period includes the composition and pro- 
duction of the ' Comte Ory ' and the ' Guillaume 
Tell' of Rossini, the 'Muette' of Auber, the 
'Robert le Diable' and 'Huguenots' of Meyer- 
beer, the ' Juive ' and ' Charles VI ' of Halevy, 
the ' Favorite ' of Donizetti, and the ' Benve- 
nuto Cellini' of Berlioz. These works were 
performed almost exclusively by native artists, 
whose excellence has especial claims on our 
admiration from the fact that, fifty years before, 
singing as an art can scarcely be said to have 
existed in France. Writing from Paris in 1778, 
Mozart says — 'And then the singers ! — but they 
do not deserve the name ; for they do not sing, 
but scream and bawl with all their might 
through their noses and their throats.' With 
the times, like many other things, French 
singing had certainly changed in 1830. Transi- 
tory as is the reputation of the average vocsdist, 
the names of Cinti-Damoureau, Falcon, Nourrit, 
Levasseur, and the later Duprez, are as little 
likely to be forgotten as those of the admirable 
masters of whose works they were the first 
interpreters. Since 1848 the lyric dramas pro- 
duced at the Acadi'mie hold no place besides 
those of earlier date. Few of them— this is the 
best of tests — have been performed with any 
success, or even at all, out of France. The 
' Prophite ' of Meyerbeer and the ' Vi'pres 
Siciliennes' of Verdi present all but the only 
exceptions; and the composition of the fonner 
of these belongs to an earlier epoch. In 1861, 
when the second empire was, or seemed to bo. 



at its zenith, the foundations were laid in Paris 
of a new Acad^mie, designed on a scale, as 
respects magnitude and luxury, unprecedented 
in any age or country. Its progress, from the 
first slow, was altogether stopped by the 
Franco-German war and the political changes 
accompanying it. The theatre in the Rue Le 
Peletier having meanwhile, after the manner 
of theatres, been burnt to the ground, and the 
works of the new one resumed, the Academie, 
installed in its latest home, once more opened its 
doors to the public on Jan. 5, 1875. In some 
respects the new theatre is probably the most 
commodious yet erected, but the salle is said to 
be deficient in sonority. 

Since the foundation of the Academie in 
1669, its relations with the Government, though 
frequently changed, have never been altogether 
interrupted. The interference of the state with 
the entrepreneur has been less frequent or 
authoritative at one time than at another; but 
he has always been responsible to a ' department.' 
Before and up to the Revolution the ultimate 
operatic authority was the King's Chamberlain ; 
under the Empire the Steward of the Imperial 
Household ; under the Restoration the King's 
Chamberlain again ; under Louis PhUlippe the 
Minister of Fine Art ; and under Napoleon III 
(after the manner of his imcle) the Steward of 
the Imperial Household again. The arbitrary 
rule of one of these officers. Marshal VaiUant, 
brought the working of the Academie to a 
complete standstill, and the Empexor was com- 
pelled to restore its supervision to the Minister 
of Fine Art. From the foundation of the 
Academie to the present time its actual 
management has changed hands, in the course 
of two centuries, nearly fifty times, though 
many managers have held office more than once ; 
giving an average of only four years to each 
term of management. In the present year 
(1875) the entrepreneur, subject to the Minister 
of Fine Art, is M. Halanzier, who receives from 
the state a yearly aUowanoe (subvention) of 
£32,000, the principal conditions of the enjoyment 
of which are that he shall maintain an efficient 
Etas', open his theatre four times a week, and 
give favourable consideration to new works by 
native composers. 

The facts in this article are drawn from the 
following works, amongst others : — ' Histoire de 
la Musique dramatique en France,' Gustavo 
Chouquet, 1873; 'Histoire de la Musique en 
France,' Ch. Poisot, i860; 'Notice des Manu- 
scrits autographes de la Musique composee 
par Cherubini,' 1845; Koch's ' Musikalisches 
Lexicon,' edited by von Dommer; 'Critique 
et litterature musicales,' Scudo, 1859 ; 'Me- 
moires pour servir a I'histoire de la Revolution 
op6ree dans la Musique par M. le Chevalier 
Gluck,'i7Si. [J. H.] 

association was formed about the year 1 710 at the 
Crown and Anchor Tavern in the Strand, by 
a body of distinguished instrumentalists, pro- 
fessional and amateur, including the Earl of 


Abercom, Mr. Henry Needier, Mr. Mulso, and 
other gentlemen, for the study and practice of 1 
vocal and instrumental works, and an important 
feature in the scheme was the formation of a j 
library of printed and MS. music. The Academy j 
met with the utmost success under the direction j 
of Dr. Pepusch, the gentlemen and boys of St, | 
Paul's Cathedral and the Chapel Royal taking part ] 
in the performances. In 1828 Dr. Maurice Greene i 
left the Academy and established a rival institu- I 
tion at the Devil Tavern, Temple Bar, but this only 
existed for a few years, and the old Academy con- 1 
tinned its work, with Mr. Needier as leader of i 
the orchestra, among the members of wh'ch was | 
the Earl of Abercom. In the season of 173 1-2 1 
the Academy performed Handel's 'Esther,' the ] 
members appearing dressed in character, and its 1 
success is said to have led Handel to consider the 1 
desirability of establishing oratorio performances ; 
at Covent Garden. In 1 734 there was a second , 
secession from the Academy, Mr. Gates retiring '. 
and taking with him the children of the Chapel 1 
Royal. After passing through one season without 
any treble voices the Academy issued invitations 
to parents to place their children under the 
instruction of Dr. Pepusch, one of the conditions 
being that they should sing at the concerts. A 
subscription list was also opened to provide the 
necessary funds, and among those who supported 
the Academy were Handel and Geminiani, the 
latter of whom frequently played at its concerts. 
The death of Dr. Pepusch in 1752 was a serious 
loss to the institution, but the doctor bequeathed 
to it the most valuable portion of his library. The 
Academy closed its career in 1792 under the 
conduct of Dr. Arnold, who had been appointed 
its director in the year 1 789. [C. M.] 

This is not an academy in the European sense 
of the word, but is the name of a large building 
employed for the performance of operas and 
concerts, opened in 1854, burnt down in 1866, 
re-opened in Feb. 1867. The chief public 
institution in New York for teaching music is 
the New York consebvatort of mcsic. 

'in the church style'), is used in three senses, 
(i) as showing that the piece is for voices 
without accompaniment ; or (2) where instruments 
are employed, that these accompany the voices 
only in unisons or octaves and have no in- 
dependent parts; or (3) as a time indication, 
in which case it is equivalent to Alla bkeve. 

A CAPRICCIO (Ital.). 'At the caprice' or 
pleasure of the performer, both as regards time 
and expression. 

ACCADEMIA, an institution which flourished 
all over Italy in the i6th and 1 7th centuries, and, 
speaking generally, was founded for promoting 
the progress of science, literature, and art. II 
Quadrio ('Storia e Ragione,' i. 48-112) gives 
an account of all the Italian academies from 
the earliest times, and the mere alphabetical Ust 
would fill several pages. Even fix)m his volumi- 




I lous work but little beyond the names and mot- 

! oes of these institutions, the dates of their foun- 

(lation, and their general objects can be ascer- 

! ained. A detailed history of their endowments 

•nd separate objects would require an examina- 

ion into the archives of each particular city, 

I ind it is doubtful whether such an examination 

inrould supply full information or repay it when 

upplied. Not is it an easy task to separate 

hose institutions which had music for their 

ispecial object. 

The ' Accademie,' even those especially devoted 
a music, do not come under the same category 
iS the CoNSERVATORioa. The latter were schools 
"ounded and endowed for the sole purpose of 
jiving instruction in music. The Academies 
yere either public institutions maintained by the 
state, or private societies founded by individuals 
» further the general movement in favour of 
(cience, literature, and the fine arts. This they 
lid in various ways, either by public instructions 
md criticisms, facilitating the printing of standard 
yorks on music, illustrating them with fresh 
aotes, or by composing new ones; and every 
weeh the Academicians would assemble to 
jompare their studies and show proofs of their 
industry. The study of one science or art 
would often help to illustrate the other. By the 
and of the i6th century poetry had become so 
closely allied to music in the drama that an 
academy could hardly have one of these arts 
for its object without including the others also, 
while many, like the 'Alterati' at Florence, the 
'Intrepidi' at Ferrara, the 'Intronati' and the 
*Roz2!i' at Siena, devoted their energies to 
promoting the successful combination of the two 
arts in theatrical representation. 

As far as regards science, the study of ma- 
thematical proportions was found to throw light 
upon the theory and the practice of music, when 
the Greek writers upon music came to be trans- 
lated and studied in Italy in the i6th and 17th 
centuries. Take for example the mathematical 
demonstrations of Galileo in his 'Trattato del 
Suon,' the writings of the great Florentine theo- 
rist, Giambattista Doni (a member of the literary 
academy ' Delia Crusca '), and Tartini's ' Trattato 
di Musica.' From the 15th to the i8th century 
the passion for academical institutions was so 
vehement in Italy that there was scarcely a 
town which could not boast at least one, while 
the larger cities contained several. At first they 
went by the name of their founder, as that of 
'Pomponio Leto' at Rome, or 'Del Pontano' 
at Naples. But as they increased and multiplied 
this did not suflBce, and each chose a special 
name either with reference to its particular 
object or from mere caprice. Hence arose a 
number of elaborate designations indicative 
either of praise or blame, 'Degli Infiammati,' 
'Dei SoUeciti,' 'Degl' Intrepidi,' etc. Each of 
these societies had moreover a device bearing 
a metaphorical relation to its name and object. 
These were looked upon as important, and were 
as highly esteemed as the crests and coats of 
arms of the old nobility. 

Selecting, as far as possible, the academies 
which had the cultivation of music for their 
special object, we find that the earliest in Italy 
were those of Bologna and Milan, founded, the 
former in 1482, the latter in 1484. In the i6th 
and 1 7th centuries Bologna had no less than six 
societies for public instruction in music, Cesena 
and Ferrara one each, Florence five, Padua and 
Salerno one each, Siena four, entirely for musical 
dramatic representations, Verona one, founded 
by Alberto Lavezzola — a combination of two 
rival institutions which in 1543 became united — 
Vicenza two, also founded entirely for musical 

At this period there appear to have been no 
particular academy for music either at Milan, 
Rome, Naples, or Venice, though the science was 
probably included in the general studies of the 
various academies which flourished in those 
cities, while it could be specially and closely 
studied in the famous Neapolitan and Venetian 
Conservatories (see Consekvatorio) or under 
the great masters of the Pontifical and other 
Chapels at Rome. 

The ' Accademie' were all more or less short- 
lived, and that of the ' Filarmonici ' (at Bologna) 
is the only one which Bumey ('Musical Tour,* 
1773), mentions as still extant. According to the 
' Report on Musical Education ' of 1866, the only 
institutions for public and gratuitous instruction 
now existing in Italy are : — 

(1) The Royal Musical Institute of Florence, 

founded i860, 

(2) The ' Reale Conservatorio di Musica' at 

Milan, founded by Napoleon, 1 808, and 
still flourishing, accorcHng to the latest 
report of 1873. 

(3) The Royal Neapolitan College, which has 

taken the place of her four Couser- 

It is difficult to determine how far the 
musical life of Italy was affected by these 
Accademie and Conservatorios ; certainly the 
genius of Palestrina, Stradella, or Cherubini, 
can no more be attributed to them than that of 
Dante to the Schools ; while the Accademia della 
Crusca might lacerate the heart of Tasso by 
picking to pieces a poem which not one of lier 
Academicians could have produced. Yet, on the 
other hand, it may be urged that lovers of musio 
owe much to such institutions when their members 
are capable of discerning the bright light of 
genius and cheering it during its existence, 
besides being ready to impart the information 
which is rerjuired for the general purposes of 
musical science. (See Bologna, Conskrvato- 
RIO, Ferrara, Florence, Lombardy, Milan, 
Naples, Padoa, Rome, Salerno, Sikna,Vbnicb, 
Verona, Vicenza). 

TTie name ' Accademia ' is. or was, also given 
in Italy to a private concert. Bumey says in 
his 'Musical Tour': 'The first I went to was 
composed entirely of dilettanti. II Padrone, or 
the master of the house, played the first Wolin, 
and had a very powerful bandj there were 



twelve or fourteen performers, among whom 
were several good violins ; there were likewise 
two German flutes, a violoncello, and small 
double bass ; they executed, reasonably well, 
several of our [J. C] Bach's symphonies, different 
from those printed in England: all the music 

here is in MS Upon the whole, this 

concert was much upon a level with our own 
private concerts among gentlemen in England.' 
('Tour,' ii. 94-95). From Italy the use of the 
word spread to Germany. 'Besuche er mich 
nicht mehr,' said Beethoven on a memorable 
occasion, ' keine Akademie ! ' [C. M. P.] 

ACCELERANDO (Ital.V Gradually quicken- 
ing the time. In the finale to his quartett in 
A minor (op. 132") Beethoven is not satisfied 
with the Italian, but has added above it 'immer 
geschwinder.' [E. P.] 

ACCENT. As in spoken language certain 
words and syllables receive more emphasis than 
others, so in music there are always some notes 
which are to be rendered comparatively prominent; 
and this prominence is termed ' accent.' In order 
that music may produce a satisfactory effect upon 
the mind, it is necessary that this accent (as in 
poetry) should for the most part recur at 
regular intervals. Again, as in poetry we find 
different varieties of metre, so in music we meet 
with various kinds of time ; i. e. the accent may 
occur either on every second beat, or isochronous 
period, or on every third beat. The former is 
called common time, and corresponds to the 
iambic or trochaic metres ; e. g. 

' Away ! nor let me loiter in my song,' 

' Fare thee well ! and if for ever.' 

When the accent recurs on every third beat, 
the time is called triple, and is analogous to the 
anapaestic metre ; e. g. 

' The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the 

As a general rule the position of the accent is 
indicated by bars drawn across the stave. Since 
the accents recur at regular intervals it follows 
of course that each bar contains either the same 
number of notes or the same total value, and 
occupies exactly the same time in performance, 
unless some express direction is given to the 
contrary. In every bar the first note is that on 
which (unless otherwise indicated) the strongest 
accent is to be placed. By the older theorists 
the accented part of the bar was called by the 
Greek word thesis, i. e. the putting doivn, or 
' down beat,' and the unaccented part was simi- 
larly named arsis, i.e. the lifting, or 'up beat.' 
In quick common and triple time there is but one 
accent in a bar ; but in slower time, whether 
common or triple, there are two — a stronger ac- 
cent on the first beat of the bar, and a weaker one 
on the third. This will be seen from the following 
examples, in which the strong accents are marked 
by a thick stroke (>») over the notes, and the 
weak ones by a thinner (— ). 


1. 1 00th Psalm. 


m=t -JiT^ 



All peo - pie that on earth do dwell 

2. Beethoven, Eroica Symphony (Scherzo). 
Allegro vivace. 



3 ^ ji="^ ^tT~ i '^-Tt '' 

3. Beethoven, Symphony in C minor (Finale 



4. Haydn, Quartett, Op. 76, No. i (ist movt 



^^^"^^ S^^ fe^^^ 


5. Mozart, Symphony in Eb. || 


m^^=^=i=^ ^i ^^ ^-^L^^ ^ 

6. Beethoven, Trio, Op. 70, No. 2 (3rd move 





7. Mendelssohn, 'Pagenlied.' 

Con moto. 

^^-r^rr^-W^f - fslrj , f ,^ N 

The above seven examples show the positioi 
of the accents in the varieties of time mosi 
commonly in use. The first, having only tw( 
notes in each bar, can contain but one accent 
In the second and third the time is too rapic 
to allow of the subsidiary accent ; but in the 
remaining four both strong and weak accentt 
will be plainly distinguishable when the music 
is performed. 

It wiU. be observed that in all these examples 
the strcmg accent is on the first note of the bar, 
It has been already said that this is its regulai 
position ; still it is by no means invariable. 
Just as in poetry the accent is sometimes thrown 


or forward a syllable, as for instance 

^ '^iStop ! for thy tread is on an Empire's dust,' 
ehere the first syllable instead of the second 
eceives the accent, so in music, though with 
auch more frequency, we find the accent trans- 
erred from the first to some other beat ia the 
)ar. Whenever this is done it is always clearly 
ndicated. This may be done in various ways. 
Sometimes two notes are united by a slur, 
howing that the former of the two bears the 
tocent, in addition to which a s/ is not infrequently 
idded; e.g. 

i. Haydn, Quartett, Op. 54, No, 2 (ist move- 


■C2- ^ 


'n' ^^^ =gig:^ 


J. Beethoven, Sonata, Op. 27, No. 1 (Finale). 





¥ *r 



In the former of these examples the phrasing 
marked for the second and third bars shows that 
the accent ia these is to fall on the second and 
fourth crotchets instead of on the first and third. 
In Ex. 9 the alteration is even more strongly 
marked by the sf on what would naturally 
be the unaccented quavers. Another very fre- 
quent method of changing the position of the 
accent is by means of Syncopation. This was 
a favourite device with Beethoven, and has since 
been adopted with success by Schumann, and 
other modem composers. The two following 
examples from Beethoven will illustrate this : 


10. Symphony in Bb (ist movement). 




11. Sonata, Op. 28 (ist movement). 



In the following example, 
12. Schumann, Phantasiestiicke, Op. 1 2, No. 4, 

wiU be noticed not merely a reversal of the accent, 
as in the extracts from Beethoven prcNnously 
given, but also in the last three bars an efiect 
requiring further explanation. This is the 
displacing of the accents in such a way as to 
convey to the mind an impression of an alteration 
of the time. In the above passage the last three 
bars sound as if they were written in 2-4 instead 
of in 3-4 time. This effect, frequently used in 
modem music, is nevertheless at least as old as 
the time of Handel. A remarkable example of 
it is to be found in the second movement of his 
Chandos anthem ' Let God arise.' 

fore Him, 

flw be - ton him. 

As instances of this device in the works of 
later composers may be quoted the following : 

14. Beethoven, Eroica Symphony (1st move- 


*/ '/ ^ If >f '/ </' 

15. Webeb, Sonata in C (Menuetto). 

In both these passages the accent occurring on 
every second insteail of on every third beat, 
produces in the mind the full etfect of common 
time. It is in quick movements that this 
modification of the accent is most often foimd ; 
that it may nevertheless be verj' eftectively 
employed in slower music will be seen from 
the following example, from the Andante of 
Mozart's 'Jupiter' Symphony, in which, to save 
space, only the upper part and the bass are given. 
It will be noticed that the extract also illuatratea 
the syncopation above referred to. 



A nearly analogous effect — the displacing of 
the accents of 6-8 time to make it sound like a bar 
of 3-4 time is also sometimes to be met with ; e. g. 
in the Andante of Mozart's Symphony in G 
minor — 






ra-t.r ^ FT'S 

The reverse process — making a passage in 
common time sound as if it were in triple — is 
much less frequently employed. An example 
which is too long for quotation may be seen 
in the first movement of dementi's Sonata in 
C, op. 36, No. 3. Beethoven also does the same 
thing in the first movement of his symphony in 
B flat. 




Though no marks of phrasing are given here, 
as in some of the examples previously quoted, 
it is obvious from the form of the passage, which 
consists of a sequence of phrases of three minims 
each, that the feeling of triple time is conveyed 
to the hearer. In this contradiction of the natural 
accent lies the main charm of the passage. 

In the well-known passage in the scherzo of 
the ' Eroica ' symphony, where the unison for the 
strings appears first in triple time 

19. .f 






-*- ^ 

and immediately afterwards in common time 

there is not exactly (as might be imagined at 
first sight) a change of accent ; because the bars 
are of the same length in both quotations, and 
each contain but one accent, which in the first 
extract comes 'on the second instead of the first 
beat. The difference between the two passages, 
apart from the 4./ in the first, consists in the fact 
that in the former each accent is di\ided into 
three and in the latter into two parts. The 


change is not in the frequency with which 
accents recur, but in the subdi^dsion of the ba 
Another displacement of accent is someti 
found in modem compositions, bearing soa 
resemblance to those already noticed. It ( 
in so arranging the accents in triple time as ' 
make two bars sound like one bar of double 
length ; e. g. two bars of 3-8 like one of 3-4, J 
two of 3-4 like one of 3-2. Here again 
credit of the first invention is due to Handel, 
will be seen from the following extract from 
opera of ' Kodrigo.' 



go - de 


When forty years later Handel used this theme 
for his duet in 'Susanna,' 'To my chaste Su- 
sanna's praise,' he altered the notation and wrote 
the movement in 3-4 time. 

Of the modem employment of this artifice the 
following examples will suffice : — 

22. Schumann, P. F. Concerto (Finale). 




-=4— N- i r 


23. Bkahms, ' Schicksalslied.' 

^^^J I r ^ j I ^-f-M^^H^4-^^ ' 


Wie Was - ser von Klip 


At first sight the second of these examples 
seems very like the extract from Handel's 'Let 
God arise.' The resemblance however is merely 
external, as Brahms' s passage is constructed on a 
sequence of three notes, gi\'ing the effect of 3-2 
time, while Handel's produces the feeling of 
common time. 

It will be seen from the above extracts what 
almost boundless resources are placed at the 
disposal of the composer by this power of varying 
the position of the accent. It would be easy to 
quote at least twice as many passages illustrating 
this point ; but it must suffice to have given a 
few representative extracts showing some of the 
effects most commonly employed. Before leaving 
this part of the subject a few examples should 
be given of what may be termed the curiosities 
of accent. These consist chiefly of unusual 
alternations of triple and common-time accents. 
In all probability this peculiar alternation was 
first used by Handel in the following passage 
from his opera of ' Agrippina,' 




Bel pia ce - re 

e go - de-re fi • do a - mor ! 

In the continuation of the song, of which the 
j jening bars are given here, the alternations of 
' )inmon and triple time become more frequent. 
1 1 the rare cases in which bars of 3-4 and 2-4 
I me alternate, they are sometimes written in 
-4 time, the accent coming on the first and 
■urth beats. An example of this time is found 
I the third act of Wagner's ' Tristan und Isolde,' 
I which the composer has marked the secondary 
jcent by a dotted bar. 



A similar exaiaple, developed at greater 
jngth, may be seen in the tenor air in the 
econd act of Boieldieu's 'La Dame Blanche.' 

One of the most interesting experiments in 
oized accents that has yet been tried is to be 
bund in Liszt's oratorio 'Christus.' In the 
)astorale for orchestra entitled ' Hirtengesang 
ji der Elrippe ' the following subject plays an 
mportant part. 



^ ^frf 


It is impossible to reduce this passage to any 
uiown rhythm ; but when the first feeling of 
rtrangeness is past there is a peculiar and quaint 
;harm about the music which no other combination 
would have produced. Such examples as those 
last quoted are however given merely as curiosities, 
Mid are in no way to be recommended as models 
for imitation. 

Besides the alternation of various accents, it 
is also possible to combine them simultaneously. 
The following extract from the first finale of 
' Don Giovanni ' is not only one of the best- 
known but one of the most Buccessful experiments 
in this direction. 




r^pTi rf 

In the above quotation the first line gives a 
quick waltz in 3-8 time with only one accent in 
the bar, this accent falling with each beat of the 
second and third lines. The contredanse in 
2-4 time and the minuet in 3-4 have each two 
accents in the bar, a strong and a weak one, as 
explained above. The crotchet being of the 
same length in both, it will be seen that the 
strong accents only occur at the same time in 
both parts on every sixth beat, at every second 
bar of the minuet, and at each third bar of the 
contredanse. A somewhat similar combination 
of different accents will be found in the slow 
movement of Spohr's symphony ' Die Weihe der 

. All the accents hitherto noticed belong to the 
class called by some writers on music grammatical 
or metrical ; and are more or less inherent in 
the very nature of music. There is however 
another point of view from which accent may be 
regarded — that which is sometimes called the 
oratorical accent. By this is meant the adapta- 
tion in vocal music of the notes to the words, 
of the sound to the sense. We are not speaking 
here of the giving a suitable expression to the 
text ; because though this must in some measure 
depend upon the accent, it is only in asecondary 
degree connected with it. What is intended is 
rather the making the accents of the music 
correspond with those of the words. A single 
example will make this clear. The following 

love - ly fish - er - maid - en 1 

is the commencement of a well-known song 
from the ' Schwanengesang ' by Schubert. The 
line contains seven syllables, but it is evident 
that it is not every line of the same length to 
which the music could be adapted. For in- 
stance, if we try to sing to the same phrase 
the words 'Swiftly from the mountain's brow,' 
which contain exactly the same number of 
syllables, it will be found impossible, because 
the accented syllables of the text will come on 
the unaccented notes of the music, and vice 
versa. Such mistakes as these are of course 
never to be found in good music, yet even the 
greatest composers are sometimes not sufficiently 
attentive to the accentuation of the words which 
they set to music. For instance, in the followintf 
passage from ' Freischiitz,' Weber has, by means 
of syncopation and a sforzando, thrown a strong 




accent on the second syllable of the words 
'Augen,' 'taugen,' and ' holden,' all of which 
(as those who know German will be aware) are 
accented on the first syllable. 


p^j^': i i y Q l ^trry^ 

Triibe Au-gen, 





- nem 

. ti "■ — ■' 1 ->' 


hoi - den Braut - chen nicht. 

The chann of the music makes the hearer 
overlook the absurdity of the mispronunciation ; 
but it none the less exists, and is referred to not 
in depreciation of Weber, but as by no means a 
solitary instance of the want of attention which 
even the greatest masters have sometimes given 
to this point. Two short examples of a some- 
what similar character are here given from 
Handel's ' Messiah ' and ' Deborah.' 

i -^1^^T^ 



the chas-tisement, tbe cbac - tisement 

m \-^ r i 



And tby right hand vie - to - . - • nous. 

In the former of these extracts the accent on 
the second syllable of the word 'chastisement' 
may not improbably have been caused by Handel's 
imperfect acquaintance with our language ; but 
in the chorus from 'Deborah,' in which the 
pronunciation of the last word according to the 
musical accents wiU be vict8rious, it is simply 
the result of indifference or inattention, as is 
shown by the fact that in other parts of the 
same piece the word is set correctly. 

Closely connected with the present subject, 
and therefore appropriately to be treated here, 
is that of Inflexion. Just as in speaking we 
not only accent certain words, but raise the voice 
in uttering them, so in vocal music, especially in 
that depicting emotion, the rising and falling 
of the melody should correspond as far as possible 
to the rising and falling of the voice in the 
correct and intelligent reading of the text. It 
is particularly in the setting of recitative that 
opportunity is afforded for this, and such well- 
known examples as Handel's ' Thy rebuke hath 
broken his heart' in the 'Messiah,' or 'Deeper 
and deeper still' in 'Jephtha,' or the great 
recitative of Donna Anna in the first act of 
' Don Giovanni ' may be studied with advantage 
by those who would learn how inflexion may be 
combined with accent as a means of musical 
expression. But, though peculiarly adapted to 
recitative, it is also frequently met with in songs. 
Two extracts from Schubert are here given. In 
asking a question we naturally raise the voice at 
the end of the sentence ; and the following 

quotation will furnish an example of what may 
be called the interrogatory accent. 

32. Schubert, ' Schone Mullerin,' No. 8. 


r u ugi=*> — ^ 


Ver - driesst dich denn mein Gruss so schwer ? Ver- 


me.' g 

start dich denn mein BUck so sehr ! 

The passage next to be quoted illustrates what 
may rather be termed the declamatory accent. 

33. 'Winterreise,' No. 21. 


Bin matt zum Nieder-sinken.Bin todtlich schwer verletzt 

The word ' matt ' is here the emphatic word 
of the line ; but the truthful expression of the 
music is the result less of its being set on the 
accented part of the bar than of the rising 
inflexion upon the word, which gives it the 
character of a cry of anguish. That this is the 
case will be seen at once if C is substituted for 
F. The accent is unchanged^ but all the force 
of the passage is gone. 

What has just been said leads naturally to the 
last point on which it is needful to touch — the 
great importance of attention to the accents and 
inflexions in translating the words of vocal music 
from one language to another. It is generally 
difficult, often quite impossible, to preserve them 
entirely ; and this is the reason why no good 
music can ever produce its full effect when sung 
in a language other than that to which it was 
composed. Perhaps few better translations 
exist than that of the German text to which 
Mendelssohn composed his ' Elijah ' ; yet even 
here passages may be quoted in which the 
composer's meaning is unavoidably sacrificed, as 
for example the following — 



So ihr mich von ganz - em Herzen sucbet. 
If with all your hearts ye tru ly seek me 

Here the different construction of the English 
and German languages made it impossible to 
preserve in the translation the emphasis on the 
word ' mich ' at the beginning of the second bar. 
The adapter was forced to substitute another 
accented word, and he has done so with much 
tact ; but the exact force of Mendelssohn's idea 
is lost. In this and many similar cases aU that 
is possible is an approximation to the composer's 
idea ; the more nearly this can be attained, the 
less the music will suffer. 

The word ' rhythm ' is sometimes inaccurately 
used as synonymous with accent. The former 
properly refers not to the beats within a bar but 
to the recurrence of regular periods containing 




the same number of bars and therefore of 
accents. [E. P.] 

ACCENTS. Certain intonations of the voice 
used in reciting various portions of the liturgical 
services of the Church. The Ecclesiastical 
Accent is the simplest portion of the ancient 
Plainsong. Accents or marks, sometimes 
called pnenms, for the regulation of recitation 
and singing were in use among the ancient 
Greeks and Hebrews, and are still used in the 
synagogues of the Jews. They are the earliest 
forms of notes used in the Christian Church, and 
it was not till the nth and 12th centuries that 
they began to be superseded by the more definite 
notation first invented by Guido Aretino, a 
Benedictine monk of Pomposa in Tuscany, 
about 102S. Accents may be regarded as the 
reduction, under musical laws, of the ordinary 
accents of spoken language, for the avoidance 
of confusion and cacophony in the union of 
many voices ; as also for the better hearing of 
any single voice, either in the open air, or in 
buildings too large to be easily filled by any one 
person reciting in the perpetually changing tones 
of ordinary speech. They may also be con- 
sidered as the impersonal utterance of the lan- 
guage of corporate authority, as distinguished 
from the oratorical emphasis of individual elo- 

Precise directions are given, in the ritual 
books of the Church, as to the accents to be used 
in the various portions of the sacred ofiices and 
liturgy. Thus the Prayer Accent or Cantus 
CoUtctarv.m is either Ferial — an uninterrupted 
monotone, or Festal — a monotone with an occa- 
sional change of note as at {a), styled the_pz«ic- 
tuni principale, and at (6) called the semi- 
pnnctum. The following examples are taken 
from Guidetti's 'Directorium C^hori,' compiled 
in the i6th century under the direction of 
Pale-strina (ed. 1624); the English version is 
from Marbeck. 

I . The Ordinary Week-day Accent for Prayers 
(' Tonus orationiun ferialis').' 

per . . . Dom - i r num nos - tnim, etc. A - men. 



— <&— 

— iSS — 



— e>— 

— .st- 

— tsi— 

I through our Lord Je - sus 

2. The following Ferial Accent (Tonus ferialis) 
is used at the end of certain prayers. 

per . . . Chris - turn Dom 

num nos • trum 

3. The Festival Accents for Prayers ('Tonus 
jrationum festivus'). 

1 The breves and semibreves in the above ex.imples represent the old 
»1ack notes of the same name (■ and ♦) which answered to the 
jnK and short times of syllables in prosody (- and ^<) ; a more pro- 
loged sound was indicated by the long ithus ^ ur p) 

per Dom -i- num nos -imm Je-sumChris-tum fi-li-um tu-um 


qui tecum vivit 

Je - busCliristtliineun-ly be-gut-tcu 

nnitate Spi - ri - tua Sane - ti De - ua 
(a) _ _- 

Son, who with Thee and the Ho - ly Spi - rit 

per om - ni - a sae - cu - la sae - en - lo - rum. A - men. 

li? - eth and reign-eth e - ver one God, etc. A - men. 

4. In the ancient Sarum use there was the 
fall of a perfect fifth, called the grave accent, 
at the close of a prayer, with a modification of 
the Amen, thus — 




per, etc. fi - U - um tu - um. A - men. 

5. There are also the accents for reciting the 
Holy Scriptures, viz. the Cantus or Tonus 
lectionis, or ordinary reading chant ; the Tonus 
Capituli for the office lessons ; the Cantus 
Prophetnrum or Prophetiae, for reading the 
Prophets or other books not Gospels or Epistles ; 
the Cantus Epistolae and Evanfielii for the 
Epistles and Gospels ; as well as other accents for 
special verses and responses, of great variety and 
beauty, which may be best learnt from the noted 
service-books themselves. The following examples 
will show their general character. The responses 
are for the most part sung in unison — but some of 
them have been harmonised for several centuries, 
and such as are most known in the English Church 
are generally sung with vocal, and sometimes 
with organ harmonies. These harmonies have, 
however, in too many cases, obscured the accents 
themselves, and destroyed their essential cha- 
racteristics. In Tallis's well-known ' Responses' 
the accents being given to the tenor are, in 
actual use, entirely lost in the accompanying 

(a) The Tonus Lectionis. 

At il - le . . . spe-rans se a - U.quid ac-cep -tu-rum ab e 

(&) Tonus Capituli. IMonotonic except at the 

prae - hen - de - ret et Pe 

2 For a rearranjrement of these, with a view to restore the proper 
STipreniaoy of the accents themselves, see Appendix I. to 'Acconipain-ing 
H.iniionies to the Rev. T. Helmore's Brief Director)- of riainsons*. 
and for the rule of their proper formation, see the ' S. Marli's t'liaiit 
Book,' p. 61. 



Bf De 

(c) The Accent of Interrogation. 

<iiu so - lus es? Quid da - ma - bol 

(d) The Tonus Prophetlae. 

-tSI-ig -<S-<^-^>— IS»- 

Lec-tio U - bri Le • 

ti - ci. In di - e • bus il - lis. 

dix - it Do - mi ■ nus ad Hoy - sen, etc. 

ending on the reciting note ; and differing, in 
this respect only, from the Tonus Lectionis. 

Di • dt Do - mi - uus om - ni - - po - tens. 

(c) The Tonus Epistolae, Accent for the Epistle. 
Monotonic except that the Accent of Inter- 
rogation is used when a question is asked. 

(/) The Tonus Evangelii, or Accent for the 


ending with the fall of a major sixth. It does not 
appear to be prescribed in any Gregorian Treatise 
or Directorium, but is well known to musical 
travellers, and is mentioned by Mendelssohn in 
his letter from Kome, 1831, to Zelter, on the. 
music of the Holy Week ; {6) The interrogative, 

before explained ; (7) The acute 

used specially for monosyllabic and Hebrew 
words, when otherwise the medial accent would 
be employed. These, including the semipunc- 
tum, and with the addition of the punctum prin- 
cipale, and perhaps a few other varieties, con- 
stitute the first and simplest portion of that 
voluminous Plaintune from which Marbeck se- 
lected the notes set to the English Prayer-book, 
and which was ordered by Queen Elizabeth's 
famous Injunctions to be used in every part of 
the Divine Service of the Reformed Church of 
England. [T. H.] 

ACCIACCATUEA. (Ital. from acciacare, to 
crush, to pound ; Ger. Zusammenxchlag ; Fr. 
Pince etouffe.) A now nearly obsolete descrip- 
tion of ornament, available only on keyed instru- 
ments, in which an essential note of a melody is 
struck at the same moment with the note imme- 
diately below it, the latter being instantly re- 
leased, and the principal note sustained alone 
(Ex. i). It is generally indicated by a small 
note with an oblique stroke across the stem (Ex, 
2"), or when used in chords by a line across the 
chord itself (Ex. 3). 

,6. The Sarum use was in some parts of the ser- 
vice more varied than the Roman, as given above 
from Guidetti. But the general rules were not 
widely different, and, from a review of the whole 
subject, it may be stated briefly that there are 
some seven ecclesiastical accents, viz. (i) The 

monotonic ; (2) The semitonic 
(3)Themedial fej ^ ^ ; (4) 

The accent of 

a final fourth 


-ig ' C ? C? '^ H-Sl- 


ip - se est Hex Crio • ri - ae. 

; of this there is a vari- 

ation used in Rome, thus, 


ra - ti - 

Its use is now confined exclusively to the 
organ, where it is of great service in giving the 
eliect of an accent, or sforzando, to either single 
notes or chords. 

The term Acciacatura is now very generally ap- 
plied to another closely allied form of ornament, 
the short appoggiatura (see that word). [F. T.] 

ACCIDENTALS. The signs of chromatic 
alteration, employed in music to show that the 
notes to which they are applied have to be raised 
or lowered a semitone or a tone. They are five 
in number, the sharp (If) (Fr. diJese, Ger. Kreuz) 
and double sharp ( x ) (Fr. double-diese, Ger. 


Doppelkreuz), which being placed before a note 
raise it respectively a semitone or a tone ; the 
flat (b) {Ft. bemol, Ger. Be) and double-flat (bb) 
(Fr. double-hemol, Ger. Doppelbe), which cause 
the note to be lowered to the same extent ; and 
the natural ([;) (Fr. hecarre, Ger. Quadrat), which 
is applied to an already chromatically altered 
note in order to restore it to its original position. 

In modem music the sicns are placed at the 
banning of the composition, immediately after 
the clef, when they affect every note of the 
same name throughout the piece ; and they are 
also employed singly in the course of the piece, 
in which case they only affect the note to which 
they are applied and any succeeding note on the 
same line or space within the same bar. Strictly 
speaking, only those which occur in the course of 
a composition are accidentals, the sharps or flats 
placed after the clef being known as the 
Signature, but as their action is the same 
wherever placed it will not be necessary to make 
any distinction here. 

The invention of accidentals dates from the 
division of the scale into hexachords, an arrange- 
ment usually attributed to Guido d'Arezzo 
(a.d. 1025) but probably in reality of later 
date.^ These hexachords, of which there were 
seven, were short scales of six notes each, formed 
out of a complete scale extending from G, the 
first line of the bass stave, to E, the fourth space 
of the treble, and commencing on each successive 
G, C, and F, excepting of course the highest C 
of all, which being the last note but two, could 
not begin a hexachord. The chief characteristic 
of the hexachord was that the semitone fell 
between the third and fourth notes ; with the 
hexachords of G and C this was the case 
naturally, but in singing the hexachord of F 
it was found necessary to introduce a new B, 
half a tone lower than the original, in order 
that the semitone might fall in the right place. 
This new note, the invention of which laid the 
foundation of all modern chromatic alterations, 
was called B molle (Fr. Bemol, Ital. Bemolle, 
stUl in use\ and the hexachord to which it 
belonged and the plainsong in which it occurred 
were termed respectively hexachordum molle and 
canttLg mollis, while the hexachord of G, which 
retained the original B, was known as hexa- 
chordum durum, and the melody employing it as 
eantiii< durus. 

For the sake of distinction in vsriting (for 
modem notation was not yet invented, and 
musical sounds were generally expressed by 
letters), the unaltered higher B was written 
of a square form, after the fashion of a black 
letter b, from which circumstance it received the 
Dame B quadratum (Fr. Be qnarre, Be carri, 
Ital. Be quadro, Ger. Qtiadrat, stUl in use), while 
the new lower B was written as a Roman b and 
called B rotundum (Fr. B rond, Ital. B rotondo). 
The square B, slightly altered in shape, has 
become the ij and the round B the b of modem 

I Goido himself never speaks of hexachords in his writiniis, hut on 
Qm oontrary eajrs that there are seven sounds in the scale, (dee Fetis, 
'Blographie Unirerselle des Musiciens,' art. Guido.) 



music, and they have in course of time come to be 
applied to all the other notes. The inconvenience, 
as it at that time appeared, of having two different 
kinds of B's led the German musicians to intro- 
duce a new letter, H, which however, probably 
on account of its similarity of shape, was given to 
the square B, while the original designation of 
B was made over to the newly-invented round B. 
This distinction, anomalous as it is, remains in 
force in Germany at the present day. 

The sign for chromatically raising a note, the 
sharp, is of later date, and is said to have been 
invented by Josquin de Pres (1450-1521). It 
was originally written as a square B crossed out 
or cancelled, to show that the note to which it 
was applied was to be raised instead of lowered,* 
and was called B cancellatum (latticed or can- 
ceUed B). 

Modem music requires double transposition 
signs, which raise or lower the note a whole 
tone. These are the double flat, written bb, 
(or sometimes in old music a large b or a Greek 
h), and the double sharp, written Jij, %, =§, or 
more commonly x . The double sharp and 
double flat are never employed in the signature, 
and the only case in which the natural is so 
placed occurs when in the course of the com- 
position it becomes necessary to change the 
signature to one with fewer flats or sharps, in 
order to avoid the use of too many accidentals. 
In this case the omitted sharps or flats are 
indicated in the new signature by naturals. The 
proper use of the natural is to annul the effect 
of an already used sharp or flat, and it has thus 
a double nature, since it can either raise or lower 
a note according as it is used to cancel a flat or 
a sharp. Some of the earlier composers appear 
to have objected to this ambiguity, and to obviate 
it they employed the natural to counteract a flat 
only, using the flat to express in all cases the 
lowering of a note, even when it had previously 
been sharpened : thus 

b . a « f tf- 

\ I I 


would be written 

^ ^3p r ^ ^ 

This method of writing merely substitutes a 
greater equivocalness for a less, and is only 
mentioned here as a fact, the knowledge of 
which is necessary for the correct interpretation 
of some of the older compositions. 

After a double sharp or flat the cancelling 
signs are [jjand tjb, which reduce the note to 
a single sharp or flat (for it very rarely happens 
that a double sharp or double flat is followed at 
once by a natural) ; for example — 


' Some writers contend that the four cross lines of the sharp were 
intended to represent the four commas of the chromatic semitone, but 
this appean to be a fanciful deiiration, unsupported by proof. 

C 2 




Wien a note which is sharpened in the 
signature becomes altered in the course of the 
composition to a flat, or vice versa, the alteration 
is sometimes expressed by the sign [] b or t] J, the 
object of the natural being to cancel the signature, 
while the following flat or sharp indicates the 
further alteration, as in Schubert's ' Impromptu,' 
Op. 90, No. 2, bars 4 and 164 ; this is, however, 
not usual, nor is it necessary, as a single sharp or 
fiat fully answers the purpose. (See Beethoven, 
Trio, op. 97, bar 35). 

Until about the beginning of the 1 7th century 
the accidentals occurring during a composition 
were often not marked, the sin^^ers or plaj'ers 
being supposed to be sufficiently educated to 
supply them for themselves. In the signature 
only the first flat, Bb, was ever marked, and 
iudeed we find numerous examples of a similar 
irregularity as late as Bach and Handel, who 
sometimes wrote in G minor with one flat, in 
C minor with two, and so on. Thus Handel's 
Suite in E containing the 'Harmonious Black- 
smith ' was originally written with three sharps, 
and is so published in Arnold's edition of 
Handel's works. No. 128 ; and the trio in ' Acis 
and Galatea,' 'The flocks shall leave the moun- 
tains,' though in C minor, is written with two 
flats in the signature and the third marked 
throughout as an accidental. In the same way 
the sharp seventh in minor compositions, although 
an essential note of the scale, is not placed in the 
signature, but is vsritten as an accidental. 

In French the chromatic alterations are ex- 
pressed by the words diese (sharp) and bemol 
(flat) affixed to the syllables by which the notes 
are usually called; for example, Eb is called 
mi-himol, G)f sol-diese, etc. and in Italian the 
equivalents diesis and hemolle are similarly 
employed, but in German the raising of a note 
is expressed by the syllable is and the lowering 
by es joined to the letter wliich represents the 
note, thus Gj is called Gis, Gb Ges, and so on 
with aU except Bb and B^, which have their 
own distinctive names of B and H. Some 
writers have lately used the syllable Hes for Bb 
for the sake of uniformity, an amendment which 
appears to possess some advantages, though it 
would be more reasonable to restore to the 
present H its original name of B, and to em- 
ploy the syllables Bis and Bes for B sharp and 
B flat. [F. T.] 

ACCOMPANIMENT. This term is applied 
to any^ subsidiary part or parts, whether vocal or 
instrumental, that are added to a melody, or to 
a musical composition in a greater number of 
parts, with a view to the enrichment of its 
general efl'ect ; and also, in the case of vocal 
compositions, to support and sustain the voices. 

An accompaniment may be either 'Ad libi- 
tum' or ' Obligate.' It is said to be Ad libitum 
when, although capable of increasing the relief 
and variety, it is yet not essential to the complete 
rendering of the music. It is said to be 
Obligate when, on the contrary, it forms an 
integral part of the composition. 

Among the earliest specimens of instrumental 

accompaniment that have descended to us, may 
be mentioned the organ parts to some of the 
services and anthems by English composers of 
the middle of the i6th century. These consist 
for the most part of a condensation of the voice 
parts into two staves ; forming what would now 
be termed a 'short score.' These therefore are 
Ad libitum accompaniments. The following 
are the opening bars of 'Kejoyce in the Lorde 
allwayes,' by John Eedford (about 1543) : — 


■i ^ -rj 



I I 




I I 

L I I 




Before speaking of Obligato accompaniment 
it is necessary to notice the i-emarkable instru- 
mental versions of some of the early church 
services and anthems, as those by Tallis, Gibbons, 
Anmer, etc. which are still to be met with in 
some of the old organ and other MS. music 
books. These versions are so full of runs, trills, 
beats, and matters of that kind, and are so 
opposed in feeling to the quiet solidity and sober 
dignity of the vocal parts, that even if written 
by the same hand, which is scarcely credible, 
it is impossible that the former can ever have 
been designed to be used as an accompaniment 
to the latter. For example, the instrumental 
passage coiresponding with the vocal setting of 
the words ' Thine honourable, true, and only Son,' 
in the Te Deum of Tallis (died 1585) stands 
thus in the old copies in question : — 

1/ ,j^: 

=^;= — !"""" 


— ^ 


A • • • 

— \ — '■ — 1 — \ ! — 


■ ! 



^-n=^— — 

■^ — *-*^ 



while that of the phrase to the words ' The noble 
army of martj-rs praise Thee,' in the well- j 




knovm Te Deum in F of Gibbons (1583-1625), 
appears in this shape : — 






- ^^ U^-^^^TF ^ 





The headings or 'Indexing' of these versions 
stand as follows, and are very suggestive : — ' Tali's 
in D, organ part varied' ; 'Te l5eum, Mr. Tallis, 
with Variations for the Organ' ; 'Gibbons in F, 
Morning, with Variations'; 'Te Deum, Mr. 
Oriando Gibbons, in F fa ut, varied for the 
Organ'; and so forth. There is little doubt 
therefore that the versions under notice were not 
intended as accompaniments at all, but were 
variations or adaptations like the popular ' Tran- 
scriptions' of the present day, and made for 
seijarate use, that use being doubtless as volunta- 
ries. This explanation of the matter receives 
confirmation from the fact that a second old and 
more legitimate organ part of those services is 
also extant, for which no ostensible use would 
have existed, if not to accompany the voices. 
Compare the following extract from Gibbons's 
Te Deum ('The noble army of Martyrs') with 
the preceding. 

An early specimen of a short piece of 'obligato' 
organ accompaniment is presented by the opening 
phrase of Orlando Gibbons's Te Deum in D 
minor, which appears as follows : — 

The early organ parts contained very few if 
any directions as to the amount of organ tone to 
be used by way of accompaniment. Indeed the 
organs were not capable of affording much 
variety. Even the most complete instruments of 
Tallis's time, and for nearly a century afterwards, 
seem to have consisted only of a very limited 
' choir ' and ' great ' organs, sometimes also called 
'little' and 'great' from the comparative size 
of the external separate cases that enclosed them ; 
and occasionally 'soft,' as in the preceding ex- 
tract, and ' loud ' organs in reference to the com- 
parative strength of their tone. 

Other instruments were used besides the organ 
in the accompaniment of church music. Dr. 
Eimbault, in the introduction to 'A Collection 
of Anthems by Composers of the Madrigalian 
Era,' edited by him for the Musical Antiquarian 
Society in 1 845, distinctly states that ' all verse 
or solp anthems anterior to the Restoration were 
accompanied with viols, the organ being only 
used in the full parts ; ' and the contents of the 
volume consist entirely of anthems that illustrate 
how this was done. From the first anthem in 
that collection, 'Blow out the trumpet,' by M. 
Este (about 1600), the following example is taken 
— the five lower staves beina: instruments : — 









g- P M 



The resources for varied organ accompaniment 
were somewhat extended in the 17th century 
through the introduction, by Father Smith and 
Renatus Harris, of a few stops, until then 
imknown in this country; and also by the 



insertion of an additional short manual organ 
called the Echo ; but no details have descended 
to us as to whether these new acquisitions were 
turned to much account. The organ accompani- 
ments had in fact ceased to be written with the 
former fullness, and had gradually assumed simply 
an outline form. That result was the consequence 
of the discovery and gradual introduction of a 
system by which the harmonies were indicated 
by means of fiqures, a short-hand method of 
writing which afterwards became well known by 
the name of Thorough Bass. The 'short-score' 
accompaniments — which had previously been 
generally written, and the counterparts of which 
are now invariably inserted beneath the vocal 
scores of the modern reprints of the old full 
services and anthems — were discontinued ; and 
the scores of all choral movements published 
during the iSth and the commencement of the 
present century, were for the most part furnished 
with a figured bass only by way of written 
accompaniment. The custom of indicating the 
harmonies of the accompaniment in outline, and 
leaving the performer to interpret them in any 
of the many various ways of which they were 
susceptible, was followed in secular music as 
well as in sacred ; and was observed at least 
from the date of the publication of PurceU's 
'Orpheus Britannicus,' in 1697, down to the 
time of the production of the English ballad 
operas towards the latter part of the last 

In committing to paper the accompaniments 
to the 'solos' and 'verses' of the anthems 
written during the period just indicated, a 
figured bass was generally all that was associated 
with the voice part ; but in the symphonies or 
' ritornels ' a treble part was not unfrequently 
supplied, usually in single notes only, for the 
right hand, and a figured bass for the left. 
Occasionally also a direction was given for the 
use of a particular organ register, or a com- 
bination of them ; as 'cornet stop,' 'bassoon stop,' 
'trumpet or hautboy stop,' 'two diapasons, left 
hand,' 'stop diapason and flute'; and in a few 
instances the particular manual to be used was 
named, as 'eccho,' 'swelling organ,' etc. 

Although the English organs had been so 
much improved in the volume and variety of 
their tone that the employment of other in- 
struments gradually fell into disuse, yet even the 
best of them were far from being in a state of 
convenient completeness. Until nearly the end 
of the 1 8th century English organs were without 
pedals of any kind, and when these were added 
they were for fifty years made to the wrong 
compass. There was no independent pedal organ 
worthy of the name ; no sixteen-feet stops on the 
manuals ; the swell was of incomplete range ; 
and mechanical means, in the shape of composition- 
pedals for changing the combination of stops 
were almost entirely unknown ; so that the 
means for giving a good instrumental rendering 
of the suggested accompaniments to the English 
anthems really only dates back about thirty 
years. I 


The best mode of accompanying a single voice 
in compositions of the kind under consideration 
was fully illustrated by Handel in the slightly I 
instrumented songs of his oratorios, combined i 
with his own way of reducing his thorough-bass 
figuring of the same into musical sounds. Most 
musical readers will readily recall many songs so 
scored. The tradition as to Handel's method 
of supplying the intermediate harmonies has been 1 
handed down to our own time in the following 
way. The late Sir George Smart, at the time of 
the Handel festival in Westminster Abbey in 
1784, was a youthful chorister of the Chapel 
Eoyal of eight years of age ; and it fell to his lot 
to turn over the leaves of the scores of the music 
for Joah Bates, who, besides officiating as con- 
ductor, presided at the organ. In the songs 
Bates frequently supplied chords of two or 
three notes from the figures on a soft-toned 
unison-stop. The boy looked first at the book, 
then at the conductor's fingers, and seemed 
somewhat puzzled, which being perceived by 
Bates, he said, 'my little fellow, you seem 
rather curious to discover my authority for the 
chords I have just been playing;' to which 
observation young Smart cautiously replied, 
'well, I don't see the notes in the score;' 
whereupon Mr. Bates added, 'very true, but 
Handel himself used constantly to supply the 
harmonies in precisely the same way I have 
just been doing, as I have myself frequently 

Acting on this tradition, received from the 
lips of the late Sir George Smart, the writer of , 
the present article, when presiding occasionally, 
for many years, at the organ at the concerts 
given by Mr. Hullah's Upper Singing Schools in 
St. Martin s Hall, frequently supplied a few 
simple inner parts ; and as in after conversations 
with Mr. Hullah as weU as with some of the 
leading instrumental artists of the orchestra, he 
learnt that the etfect was good, he was led to 
conclude that such insertions were in accordance 
with Handel's intention. Acting on this con- 
viction he frequently applied Handel's perfect 
manner of accompanying a sacred song, to anthem 
solos ; for its exact representation was quite 
practicable on most new or modernised English 
organs. Of this fact one short illustration must 
suffice. The introductory symphony to the alto 
solo by Dr. Boyce ( 1 7 10- 1 7 79) to the words begin- 
ning ' One thing have I desired of the Lord ' is, 
in the original, written in two parts only, namely, 
a solo for the right hand, and a moving bass in 
single notes for the left; no harmony being 
given, nor even figures denoting any. By taking 
the melody on a solo stop, the bass on the pedals 
(sixteen feet) with the manual (eight feet) 
couijled, giving the bass in octaves, to represent 
the orchestral violoncellos and double basses, 
the left hand is left at liberty to supply inner 
harmony parts. These latter are printed in 
small notes in the next and all following examples. 
In this manner a weU-balanced and complete 
effect is secured, such as was not possible on any 
organ in England in Dr. Boyce's own day. 





dal 16 «.. with ^^"^ ' ' ^ " ' 

P<;da; 16/<., wJ<A 
manual 8/t. coupled. 

Notice may here be taken of a custom that 
has prevailed for many years in the manner of 
supplying the indicated harmonies to many of 
Handel's recitatives. Handel recognised two 
wholly distinct methods of sustaining the voice 
in such pieces. Sometimes he supported it by 
means of an accompaniment chiefly for bow 
instruments ; while at other times he provided 
only a skeleton score, as already described. In 
the four connected recitatives in the ' Messiah,' 
beginning with 'There were shepherds,' Handel 
alternated the two manners, employing each 
twice ; and Bach, in his ' Matthew Passion 
Music,' makes the same distinction between the 
ordinary recitatives and those of our Lord. It 
became the custom in England in the early part 
of the present century to play the harmonies of 
the figured recitatives not on a keyed instrument, 
but on a violoncello. When or under what cir- 
cumstances the substitution was made, it is not 
easy now to ascertain ; but if it was part of 
Handel's design to treat the tone-quality of the 
smaller bow instruments as one of his sources of 
relief and musical contrast, as seems to have 
been the case, the use of a deeper toned instru- 
ment of the same kind in lieu of the organ 
would seem rather to have interfered with that 
design. It is not improbable that the custom 
may have taken its rise at some provincial music 
meeting, where either there was no organ, or 
where the organist was not acquainted with the 
traditionary manner of accompanying ; and that 
some expert violoncellist in the orchestra at the 
time supplied the harmonies in the way that 
afterwards became the customary manner. 

But to continue our notice of the accompani- 
ments to the old anthem music. A prevalent 
custom with the 18th-century composers was to 
write, by way of introductory s3rmphony, a bass 
part of marked character, with a direction to the 
effect that it was to be played on the ' loud organ, 
two diapasons, left hand ' ; and to indicate by 
figures a right-hand part, to be played on tlie 
'soft organ,' of course in close harmony. By 
playing such a bass on the pedals (sixteen feet) 
with the great manual coupled thereto, not only 
is the bass part enriched by being played in 
octaves, but the two hands are left free for the 



interpretation of the figures in fuller and more 
extended harmony. The following example of 
this form of accompaniment occurs as the com- 
mencement of the bass solo to the words ' Thou 
art about my path and about my bed, ' by Dr. Croft 
(1677 to 1727). 

Soft Organ. \ 





6 5 







Pedal ^6fl., with manual %fl. coupled. 







Sometimes the sjrmphony to a solo, if of an 
arioso character, can be very agreeably given 
out on a combination of stops, sounding the 
unison, octave, and sub-octave, of the notes 
played, as the stopped diapason, flute, and bourdon 
on the great organ ; the pedal bass, as before 
consisting of a light - toned sixteen - feet stop 
with the manual coupled. Dr. Greene's (died 
1755) alto solo to the words 'Among the gods 
there is none like Thee, O Lord,' is in a style 
that aff'ords a favourable opportunity for this kind 
of organ treatment. 

Gt. Orpan, Bourdon, Stopped 
Diapason and Flute. 


Pedal 16 ft., with Great Organ coupled. 

g^^ F=^?=E^ ^^ 



The foregoing examples illustrate the manner 
in which English anthem solos and their sym- 
phonies, presenting as they do such varied 
outline, may be accompanied and filled up. But 
in the choral parts of anthems equaUj appropriate 
instrumental efiFects can also frequently be in- 
troduced, by reason of the improvements that have 
been made in English organs within the last 
thirty years. The introduction of the tuba on 
a fourth manual has been an accession of 'great 
importance in this respect. Take for illustration 
the chorus by Kent (1700-1776), 'Thou, O 
Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer,' the 
climax of which is, in the original, rather 
awkwardly broken up into short fragmentary 
portions by rests, but which can now be 
appropriately and advantageously united by a 
few intermediate jubilant notes in some such 
manner as the following : — 

Great Organ with Double Diapason. 


I Kill 


■<S- -^— <S- -f^^SS)--^ -S'-S^ 


] !•' J » — I- 

p- o it- -rs 

III o »• » I o 

• » I 


I I -^ i I g- 


Again, in Dr. Greene's anthem, 'God is our 
hope and strength, ' occurs a short chorus, ' 
behold the works of the Lord,' which, after a 
short trio, is repeated, in precisely the same 
form as that in which it previously appears. 
According to the modern rules of musical con- 
struction and development it would be considered 
desirable to add some fresh feature on the repe- 
tition, to enhance the effect. This can now be 
supplied in this way, or in some other analogous 
to it. 

Great Organ, with Double Diapason. 

J h^ !V. 

The organ part to Dr. Arnold's collection of 
Cathedral IMusic, published in 1790, consists 
chiefly of treble and bass, with figures ; so 
does that to the Cathedral Music of Dr. Dupuis, 
printed a few j'ears later. Vincent Novello's 
organ part to Dr. Boyce's Cathedral Music, 
issued about five-and-twenty years airo, on the 
contrary, was arranged almost as exclusively in 
' short score.' Thus after a period of three 
centuries, and after experiment and much ex- 
perience, organ accompaniments, in the case of 
full choral pieces, came to be written down on 
precisely the same principle on which they were 
prepared at the commencement of that period. 

Illustrations showing the way of interpreting 
figured basses could be continued to almost any 
extent, but those already given will probably be 
sufficient to indicate what may be done in the 
way of accompaniment, when the organ will 
pennit, and when the effects of the modem 
orchestra are allowed to exercise some influence. 

Chants frequently offer much opportunity for 


variety and relief in the way of accompaniment. 
The so-called Gregorian chants being originally 
written without harmony — at any rate in the 
modem acceptation of the term — the accompanyist 
is left at liberty to supply such as his taste and 
musical resources suggest. The English chants, 
on the other hand, were written with vocal har- 
mony from the first ; and to them much agreeable 
change can be imparted either by altering the 
position of the harmonies, or by forming fresh 
melodic figures on the original harmonic pro- 
gressions. When sung in unison, as is now 
not unfrequently the case, wholly fresh harmonies 
can be supplied to the English chants, as in the 
case of the Gregorian. Treated in this manner 
they are as susceptible of great variety and 
agreeable contrast as are the older chants. 

In accompanying English psalm tunes it is 
usual to make use of somewhat fuller harmony 
than that which is represented by the four 
written voice-parts. The rules of musical com- 
position, as well as one's owu musical instinct, 
frequently require that certain notes, when 
combined with others in a particular manner, 
should be followed by others in certain fixed 
progressions; and these progressions, so natural 
and good in themselves, occasionally lead to a 
succeeding chord or chords being presented in 
'incomplete harmony' in the four vocal parts. 
In such cases it is the custom for the ac- 
companyist to supply the omitted elements of the 
hannony ; a process known by the term ' filling 
in.' Mendelssohn's Organ Sonatas, Nos. 5 and 
6, each of which opens with a chorale, afford 
good examples of how the usual parts may be 
supplemented with advantage. The incomplete 
harmonies are to be met with most frequently in 
the last one or two chords of the clauses of a tune ; 
the omitted note being generally the interval of 
a fifth above the bass note of the last chord ; 
■frhich harmony note, as essential to its correct 
introduction, sometimes requires the octave to the 
preceding bass note to be introduced, as at the 
end of the tliird clause of the example below ; or 
to be retained if already present, as at the end of 
the fourth clause. An accompaniment which is 
to direct and sustain the voices of a congrega- 
tion should be marked and decided in character, 
without being disjointed or broken. This com- 
bination of distinctness with continuity is greatly 
influenced by the manner in which the repetition 
notes are treated. Repetition notes appear with 
greater or less frequency in one or other of the 
vocal parts of nearly all psalm tunes, as exhibited 
in the example below. Those that occur in the 
melody should not be combined, but on the 
contrary should generally speaking be repeated 
with great distinctness. As such notes present no 
melodic movement, but only rhythmic progress, 
congregations have on that account a tendency 
to wait to hear the step from a note to its 
iteration announced before they proceed ; so 
that if the repetition note be not clearly defined, 
hesitation among the voices is apt to arise, and 
the strict time is lost. The following example 
will sound very tame and undecided if all the 



repetition notes at the commencement of the first 
and second clauses be held on. 

A very little will suffice to steady and con- 
nect the organ tone ; a single note frequently 
being suflicient for the purpose, and that even 
in an inner part, as indicated by the binds in the 
following example. A repetition note in the 
bass part may freely be iterated on the pedal, 
pai-ticularly if there should be a tendency among 
the voices to drag or proceed with indecision. 

Old Hundredth time. 

The important subject of additional accompani- 
ments to works already possessing orchestral 
parts, with the view of supplying the want of an 
organ, or obtaining the increased effects of the 
modem orchestra, is treated under the head of 
Additional Accompaniments. [E. J. H.] 

ACCORDION (Ger. Ilandharmonika, also 
Zichhannonika). A portable instrument of the 
free-reed species, invented at Vienna by Damian, 
in the year 1829. It consists of a small pair of 
hand-bellows, to one side of which is affixed a 
key-board, containing, according to the size of 
the instrument, from five to fifty keys. Tliese 
keys open valves admitting the wind to metal 
reeds, the latter being so arranged that each 
key sounds two notes, the one in expanding, the 
other in compressing the bellows. The right 
hand is placed over the key-board, while the left 
works the bellows, on the lower side of which 
are usually to be found two keys which admit 
wind to other reeds furnishing a simple harmony 
— mostly the chords of the tonic and dominant. 
It will be seen that the capabilities of the in- 
strument are extremely limited, as it can only 
be played in one key, and even iu that one 
imperfectly ; it is, in fact, but little more than 
a toy. It was originally an extension of the 
' mouth-harmonica ' — a toy constructed on a 
similar principle, in which the reeds were set 
in vibration by blowing through holes with the 
mouth, instead of by a key-board. This latter in- 
strument is also known as the .Molina, [E. P.] 



ACTS AND GALATEA. A 'masque,' 
or 'serenata,' or 'pastoral opera,' composed by 
Handel at Cannons, probably in 1720 (date is 
wanting on autograph) ; and performed there 
probably in 1 72 1. Words by Gay, with additions 
by Pope, Hughes, and Dryden. Ee-scored by 
Mozart for "Van Swieten, Nov. 1788. Put on 
the stage at Drury Lane by Macready, Feb. 5, 
1842. — 'Aci, Galatea, ePolifenio,' an entirely dif- 
ferent work, was composed in Italy in 1708-9. 

ACT. A section of a drama having a complete- 
ness and often a climax of its own. Though the 
word Act has no representative in Greek, the 
division indicated by it was not unknown to the 
ancient theatre, where the intervention of the 
chorus stopped the action as completely as the 
fall of the curtain in the modem. The ' Plutus ' 
of Aristophanes, the earliest Greek play from 
which the chorus was extruded, has come down 
to us without' breaks or divisions of any kind; 
practically, therefore, it is 'in one act.' Whether 
the earlier essays of Roman dramatists were 
divided into acts by themselves is uncertain. 
The canon of Horace, that a drama should con- 
sist of neither more or less than five acts (' Epist. 
ad Pisones,' 189), was doubtless drawn from pre- 
vious experience and practice. 

The number of acts into which the modem 
drama is divided, though of course largely de- 
pendent on the subject, is governed by many 
considerations unknown to the ancient, in which 
' the unities ' of place as well as of time and 
action was strictly observed. With us the locality 
generally changes with each act, frequently with 
each scene. For this change the convenience of 
the mechanist and even of the scene-shifter has 
to be consulted. In the musical drama other 
considerations beside these add to the difficulties 
of laying out the action ; such as variety and 
contrast of musical effect, and the physical capa- 
bilities of the performers, whose vocal exertions 
must not be continued too long without interrup- 
tion. It is not surprising therefore that operas, 
even of the same class, present examples of every 
kind of division. French 'grand opera' consists 
stiU generally, as in the days when Quinault and 
Lully worked together, of five acts ; French 
' opera comique ' of three, and often one only. 
The Italians and Germans have adopted every 
number of acts, perhaps most often three. In 
performance the division into acts made by the 
author or composer is frequently changed. 
Mozart's ' Nozze di Figaro,' originally in four 
acts, is now generally played in two ; and Mey- 
erbeer's ' Huguenots,' originally in five, in four. 

The curtain let down between the acts of a 
drama is called in the theatre ' the act drop.' 

Handel (Schoelcher, 288, etc.) applies the word 
to oratorios, and it is used by J. S. Bach in a 
manner probably unique. He heads his cantata 
'Gottes Zeit ist das allerbeste Zeit' with the 
words 'Actus Tragicus.' It is what would be called 
among ourselves a funeral anthem. [J, H.] 

ACTION (Fr. Le Mecanique ; Ital. Mecanica ; 
Ger. Mechanismus, Mechanik), tfie" mechanical 


contrivance by means of which the impulse of 
the player's finger is transmitted to the strings 
of a pianoforte, to the metal tongue (free reed) 
of a harmonium, or by the finger or foot to the 
column of air in an organ-pipe. In the harp the 
action, governed by the player's foot upon the 
pedals, effects a change of key of a semitone or 
whole tone at will. In the pianoforte the action 
assumes special importance from the capability 
this instrument has to express gradations of tone ; 
and as the player's performance can never be 
quite consciously controlled — more or less of it 
being automatic — we are, through the faithful 
correspondence of the action with the touch, 
placed in direct relation with the very individ- 
uality of the player. It is this blending of con- 
scious and unconscious expression of which the 
pianoforte action is the medium that produces 
upon us the artistic impression. There have 
been important variations in the construction of 
pianoforte actions that have had even geogra- 
phical definition, as the English, the German 
action, or have been named from structural dif- 
ference, as the grasshopper, the check, the repe- 
tition action. In the organ and harmonium, as 
in the old harpsichord and spinet, the action 
bears a less important part, since the degree of 
loudness or softness of tone in those instruments 
is not affected by the touch. For history and 
description of the different actions see Clavi- 
chord, Harmonium, Harp, Harpsichord, Or- 
gan, and Pianoforte. [A. J. H.] 

ACUTENESS. A musical sound is said to be 
more acute as the vibrations which produce it are 
more rapid. It is said to be more grave as the 
vibrations are slower. Thus of the two notes 




the former of which is produced by 5 1 2 vibrations 
per second, and the latter by 256, the former is 
called the more acute, the latter the more grave. 
The application of these terms is not easy to 
account for. 'Acute' means sharp in the sense 
of a pointed or cutting instrument, and 'grave' 
means heavy ; but there is no direct connection 
between the impression produced by rapid vibra- 
tions on the ear and a sharp edge, nor between 
the effect of slow vibrations and the force of 
gravitation; neither are these terms consistent, 
for one is not the antithesis to the other. To be 
correct, either the slow vibration-sound should be ' 
called 'blunt,' or the quick one 'light.' The 
terms however are as old as the Greeks, for we 
find them applied in the same way by Aristides 
Quintilianus, who uses b^vs to denote the quick 
vibrating sounds, and ^apvs to denote the slow 
ones, and they have been transmitted through the 
Latin acer and gravis down to our day. Other 
figurative terms are similarly applied. ' Sharp,' 
for example, is clearly synonymous with ' acut-e,' 
both in derivation and application; but 'flat' 
has no analogy with grave or heavy. It is a 
more correct antithesis to acute or sharp, for 
one can fancy a blunt edge to be in some degree 


flattened, and a blunt needle would, under the ] 
microscope, undoubtedly show a flat surface at 
its end. 

There are however two other words still more 
generally used. These are 'high' and 'low' ; the 
former denoting greater, the latter less, rapidity 
of vibration. The application of these is the 
most puzzling of all, as there is no imaginable 
E connection between any number of vibrations per 
second, and any degree of elevation above the 
earth's surface. It is very customary to use 
the figure of elevation to express an idea of 
magnitude or superiority, as high prices, high 
pressure, elevation of character, and so on ; 
and if the vibration-numbers corresponding to 
any note had been a matter of general know- 
ledge in early ages, we might have assumed that 
the terms had been chosen on this principle. 
But the vibration-numbers are quite a modem 
discovery, not even yet generally believed in by 
practical men: and unfortunately such relations of 
sound as do address themselves to the eye point 
entirely the other way ; for, as already stated, the 
grave sounds convey most strongly the idea of 
magnitude, and therefore by analogy these ought 
to have been called high rather than low. 

The ancients appear to have imagined that the 
acute sounds of the voice were produced from 
the higher parts of the throat, and the grave ones 
from lower parts.* And this has been supposed 
by some writers to have been the origin of the 
terms ; but the idea is incorrect and far-fetched, 
and can hardly be considered a justification. 

As soon as anything approaching the form of 
musical notation by the position of marks or 
points came into use, the terms high and low were 
naturally seized upon to guide such positions. 
Thus our musical notation has come into being, 
and thus the connection between high notes and 
quick vibrations has become so firmly implanted 
in our minds, that it is exceedingly difficult 
to bring ourselves to the appreciation of the 
truth that the connexion is only imaginary, 
and has no foundation in the natural fitness of 
things. [W. P.] 

ADAGIETTO (Ital., diminutive of Adagio). 
(l) a short adagio (e.g. Kaff's Suite in C). (2) 
As a time indication, somewhat less slow than 

ADAGIO (Ital. nd agio, 'at ease,' 'leisurely'), 
(i) A time-indication. It is unfortunate that 
great difierences of opinion prevail among mu- 
sicians as to the comparative speed of the terms 
used to denote slow time. According to the older 
authorities adagio was the slowest of aU time, 
then came grave, and then largo. This is the 
order g ven by Clementi. In some more modem 
works however, largo is the slowest, grave being 
second and "adagio third ; while others again 
give the order thus — grave, adagio, largo. It 
is therefore impossible to give any absolute rule 
on the subject ; it will be [sufficient to define 
adagio in general terms as 'very slow.' The exact 

' See passage from AiisUdes Quintilianos, quoted In Smith's Har- 
monics, p. 2. 



pace at which any particular p'ece of music thus 
designated is to be taken will either be indicated 
by the metronome, or, if this has not been done, 
can be for the most part determined with 
sufficient accuracy from the character of the 
music itself (2) The word is used as the name 
of a piece of music, either an independent piece 
(as in the case of Mozart's Adagio in B minor for 
piano, or Schubert's posthumous Adagio in E), 
or as one of the movements of a symphony, 
quartett, sonata, etc. When thus employed, the 
word not only shows that the music is in very 
slow time, but also indicates its general character. 
This is mostly of a soft, tender, elegiac tone, as 
distinguished from the largo, in which (as the 
name implies) there is more breadth and dignity. 
The adagio also is generally of a more florid 
character, and contains more embellishments 
and figurated passages than the largo. The 
distinction between the two will be clearly seen 
by comparing the adagios in Beethoven's sonatas, 
op. 2, Nos. I, 3, and op. 13, with his largos in the 
sonatas op. 2, No. 2 and op. 7. (3) It was 
formerly used as a general term for a slow move- 
ment — ' No modem has been heard to play an 
Adagio with greater taste and feeling than Abel.' 
Thus in the autograph of Haydn's Symphony in 
D (Salomon, No. 6 ), at the end of the first move- 
ment, we find ' Segue Adagio,' though the next 
movement is an Andante. [E. P.] 

ADAM, Adolphe Chaeles, bora in Paris 
July 24, 1803, was the son of Louis Adam, a 
well-known musician and pianoforte -player 
at the Conservatoire. Although thus intimately 
connected with the art of music he strenuously 
resisted the early and strong desire of his son 
to follow the same calling. Adolphe was sent to 
an ordinary day-school and was refused all musical 
instruction, which he himself tried to supply by 
private studies, carried on in secret and without 
guidance or encouragement. This struggle be- 
tween father and son lasted for a long time. At 
last the quiet persistence of the young man over- 
came the prejudices of paternal obstinacy. In 
his sixteenth year he was allowed to enter the 
Conservatoire, but only as an amateur, and on 
condition of his promising solemnly never to 
write for the stage, an engagement naturally 
disregarded by him at a later period. His first 
master was Benoist, and his instrument the 
organ, a choice truly surprising in the future 
composer of 'La jolie fille de Gand' and 'Le 
Postilion de Longjumeau.' His relations however 
to the 'queen of instruments' were by no means 
of an elevated or even lasting kind. Unabashed 
by the great traditions of Frescobaldi, Bach, or 
Handel, he began to thrum little tunes of his 
own on the organ, which however he soon 
abandoned for its miniature counterpart the har- 
monium. Adam's first success indeed was due to 
his clever improvisations on that instrument in 
fashionable drawing-rooms. It was perhaps owing 
to his want of early training that even at a more 
advanced period he was unable to read music at 
sight. The way in which he at last acquired the 
sense of intuitive hearing, so indispensable for 



the musical composer, is pleasantly described by 
Adam himself in the autobiographical sketch of 
his life. ' Soon after my admission to the Con- 
servatoire,' he says, 'I was asked by a school- 
fellow older than myself to give a lesson at his 
solfeggio class, he being otherwise engaged. I 
went to take his place with sublime self-assertion, 
and although totally unable to read a ballad I 
somehow managed to acquit myself creditably, so 
creditably indeed that another solfeggio class was 
assigned to me. Thus I learnt reading music 
by teaching others how to do it.' We are also 
told of his studying counterpoint under Eler 
and Eeicha, which however, to judge hj the 
results, cannot liave amounted to much. The 
only master to whom Adam owed not only 
an advance of his musical knowledge but to 
some extent the insight into his own talent, was 
that most sweet and most brilliant star of modern 
French opera, Boieldieu. He had been appointed 
professor of composition at the Conservatoire in 
182 1, and Adam was amongst his first and most 
favourite pupils. The intimacy which soon sprang 
up between the teacher and the taught has been 
pleasantly described by Adam in his posthumous 
little volume ' Derniers souvenirs d'un musicien.' 
It was owing to this friendship that Adam was 
able to connect his name with a work vastly 
superior to his own powers, Boieldieu's 'Dame 
Blanche,' of which he composed or rather com- 
bined the overture. By Boieldieu's advice and 
example also our composer's talent was led to 
its most congenial sphere of action, the comic 
opera. Adam's first connections with the stage 
were of the humblest kind. In order to acquire 
theatrical experience he is said to have accepted 
the appointment of supernumerary triangle at 
the Gymnase, from which post he soon advanced 
to that of accompanyist at the same theatre. 
His first independent attempt at dramatic com- 
position was the one-act operetta of 'Pierre et 
Catherine,' brouglit out at the Opera Comique in 
1829. It was followed the next year by the 
three-act opera 'Danilowa.' Both were favour- 
ably received, and, encouraged by his success, 
Adam began to compose a number of operatic 
works with a rapidity and ease of productiveness 
frequently fatal to his higher aspirations. We 
subjoin a list of the more important of these 
works, with the dates of their first performances : 
'Le Chalet,' 1834 ; 'Le Postilion de Longjumeau,' 
1835 (Adam's best and most successful work) ; 
*Le Brasseur de Preston,' 1838; ' Le Eoi d' 
Yvetot,' 1842; 'Cagliostro,' 1844; 'Richard en 
Palestine,' same year ; also the ballets of 'Faust,' 
1832 (written for London); 'La jolie fiUe de 
Gand,' 1839; and 'Giselle,' 1S41. Our remarks 
on the remaining facts of Adam's biography can 
be condensed into few words. In 1S47 he started, 
at his own expense and responsibility, a new 
operatic theatre called Theatre National, and 
destined to bring the works of young aspiring 
comjaosers before the public. These laudable 
efforts were interrupted by the outbreak of the 
devolution in the February of the ensuing year. 

' Halevy, the composer of the ' Juive." 


The theatre had to close, Adam having sunk in 
the enterprise all his earnings, and having more- 
over incurred a considerable debt, to discharge 
which he henceforth, like Sir Walter Scott, con- 
sidered the chief task of his life. This task he 
accomplished in the course of five years, during 
which time, besides producing several operas, he 
occupied himself in writing criticisms and ft^idl- 
letons for the newspapers. His contributions 'to 
the ' Constitutionel,' 'Assemblee Nationale,' and 
'Gazette Musicale,' were much appreciated by 
the public. Although a critic he succeeded in 
making no enemies. Some of his sketches, since 
collected, are amusing and well though not bril- 
liantly written. In 1844 he was elected Member 
of the Institute ; in 1849 Professor of Composition 
at the Conservatoire. He died suddenly in 1856. 
His reputation during his lifetime was not limited 
to his own country. He wrote operas and ballads 
for London, Berlin, and St. Petersburg, which 
capitals he also visited personally. His deserv- 
edly most popular opera, as we said before, is the 
'Postilion de Longjumeau,' still frequently 
performed in France and Germany. In the 
latter country it owes its lasting success chiefly 
to the astonishing vocal feats of Herr Wachtel, 
whose own life seems strangely foreshadowed by 
the skilful and amusing libretto. 

Adam attempted three kinds of dramatic 
composition, viz. the grand opera, in which he 
utterly failed, the ballet, in which he produced 
some of the most charming melodies chorea- 
graphic music has to show, and the comic opera, 
the one and only real domain of his talent. As 
the most successful of his works in these re- 
spective branches of art we mention ' Eichard 
en Palestine,' 'Giselle,' and the 'Postilion de 
Longjumeau.' Adam's position in the history of 
music, and more especially of comic opera, may 
be briefly described as that of the successor 
and imitator of Boieldieu. His early style is 
essentially founded on the works of that master. 
With him he shares, although in a lesser degree, 
the flowing melodiousness and rhythmical piquancy 
of his style, the precision of declamatory phrasing, 
and the charming effects of a graceful though 
sketchy instrumentation. When inspired by the 
sweet simplicity of the French popular song, 
Adam has occasionally eflects of tenderest pathos ; 
in other places, as for instance in the duet 
between the terrified accomplices in the last act 
of the 'Postilion,' his rollicking humour shows 
to great advantage. At the same time it cannot 
be denied that his works mark the decline of 
French national art. His melodies are frequently 
trivial to absolute vulgarity ; the structure of his 
concerted pieces is of the flimsiest kind ; dance- 
rhythms prevail to an immoderate extent : all 
this no less than the choice oi hasarde subjects 
seems to indicate the gradual decline from the 
serene heights of Boieldieu's humour to the miry 
slough which has swamped that sweetest growth 
of French national art, the comic opera, and 
the murky surface of which reflects the features 
of Beethoven's countryman, Jacques Offenbach. 
It is a fact of ominous significance that Adam , 




regarded with interest, and gave his journalistic 
aid to, the theatrical creation of that enterprising 
composer — the ' BoufFes Parisiens.' [F. H.] 

ADAM, Louis, bom at Miettershelz in 
Alsace, 1758, died in Paris 184S; a pianist 
of the first rank ; appeared in Paris when only 
seventeen as the composer of two symphonies- 
concertantes for the harp, piano, and violin, the 
first of their kind, which were performed at the 
Concerts Spirituels. Having acquired a reputation 
for teaching, in 1797 he was appointed professor 
at the Conservatoire, a post he retained forty- 
five j'ears, training many eminent pupils, of 
whom the most celebrated are Kalkbrenner, 
Herold, father and son, Chaulieu, Henri le Moine, 
and Mme. Eenaud d'Allen, and last, though 
not least, his owti more famous son, Adolphe 

Adam was a remarkable example of what may 
be done by self-culture, as he had scarcely any 
professional training, and not only taught him- 
self the harp and violin, and the art of com- 
position, but formed his excellent style as a 
pianist by careful study of the works of the 
Bachs, Handel, Scarlatti, Schobert, and later 
of Clementi and Mozart. His ' Methode de 
doigte' (Paris, 1798) and 'Methode Nouvelle 
pour le Piano' (1802), have passed through many 
editions. [M. C. C] 

ADA:MBEEGER, VALEyiiN. Singer, bom 
at Munich July 6, I743- Remarkable for his 
splendid tenor voice and admirable method. He 
was taught singing by Valesi, and at his instance 
went to Italy, where he met with great success 
under the Italianised name of Adamonti. He 
was recalled to Vienna by the Emperor Joseph, 
and made his first appearance in German opera 
at the Hof-und-National-Theater there on Aug. 
21, 1780. In the interim however he had visited 
London, where he sang in Sacchini's ' Creso ' at 
the King's Theatre in 1777. In 1789 he entered 
the Imperial Chapel. Later in life he became 
renowned as a teacher of singing. It was for 
him that Mozart composed the part of Bebnonte 
in the 'Seraglio,' as well as the fine airs 'Per 
pietk,' 'Aura che intomo,' and 'A te, fra tante 
aflfaoni' (Davidde Penitente). He also appeared 
in tlie ' Schauspiel-Director ' of the same master. 
In 1782 he married Anna Maria, daughter of 
Jacquet the actor, herself a noted actress. She 
died 1804. His daughter Antoine, also a player, 
a woman of much talent and amiability, was 
betrothed to Korner the poet, but their union 
was prevented by his death in action, Aug. 26, 
1813, after which, 1S17, she married Jos. Ameth, 
trustee to the imperial cabinet of antiquities. 
Fetis and others give Adamberger's name Joseph, 
and his death as on June 7, 1803 — both incorrect. 
He died in Vienna, Aug. 24, 1804, aged sixty-four. 
Mozart's letters contain frequent references to 
him, and always of an affectionate and intimate 
character. Tlu-ough all the difficulties and vi- 
cissitudes of theatrical life, nothing occurred to 
interrupt their intercourse, though evidence is 
not wanting that Adamberger's temper was none 

of the best. Mozart took his advice on musical 
matters, and on one occasion names him as a man 
' of whom Germany may well be proud.' [C. F. P.] 

at Bolsena, 1663. On the recommendation 
of Cardinal Ottoboni (Corelli's patron) he was 
appointed master of the Pope's chapel, and 
acting professor of music. While in this post 
Ad ami wrote ' Osservazioni per ben rejolare il 
Coro dei Cantori della Capella Ponteficia,' etc., 
(Rome, 1711), which is iu reality a history of 
the Papal chapel, with twelve portraits and 
memoirs of the principal singers. He die I, 
July 22, 1742, much esteemed both as a man 
and a musician. [C. F. P.] 

ADAMS, Thomas, was bom Sept. 5, 1785. 
He commenced the study of music, under Dr. 
Busby, at eleven years of age. In 1802 he ob- 
tained the appointment of organist of Carlisle 
Chapel, Lambeth, which he held until 1814, in 
which year (on March 22) he was elected, after 
a competition in playing with twenty-eight other 
candidates, organist of the church of St. Paul's, 
Deptford. On the erection of the church of St. 
George, Camberwell, in 1824, Adams was chosen 
as its organist, and on the opening of the church 
(March 26, 1824), an anthem for five voices, ' Ohow 
amiable are Thy dwellings,' composed by him for 
the occasion, was performed. In 1833 he was ap- 
pointed organist of the then newly re-built church 
of St. Dunstan-inthe West, Fleet Street, which 
post he held, conjointly with that of Camber- 
well, until his death. From their commencement 
Adams for many years superintended the annual 
evening performances on the ApoUonicon, a large 
chamber-organ of peculiar construction (containing 
both keys and barrels), and of great power, built by 
Flight and Robson, and first exhibited by them 
at their manufactory in St. Martin's Lane in 
181 7. For a period of upwards of a quarter of a 
century Adams occupied a very prominent posi- 
tion as a performer on the organ. Excelling in 
both the strict and free styles, he possessed a 
remarkable faculty for extemporising. His ser- 
vices were in constant requisition by the organ- 
builders to exhibit the qualities of their newly 
built organs, prior to their removal from the 
factories to their places of destination. On such 
occasions the factories were crowded by pro- 
fessors and amateurs, anxious of witnessing the 
perfonnances, and Adams played from ten to 
twelve pieces of the most varied kind, including 
two or three extemporaneous effusions, not only 
with great effect, but often with remarkable ex- 
hibition of contrapuntal skill, and in a manner 
which enraptured his hearers. Even in so small 
a field as the interludes then customary between 
the verses of a psalm tune, he would exhibit this 
talent to an extraordinary degree. Adams was a 
composer for, as well as a performer on, his instru- 
ment. He published many organ pieces, fugues, 
and voluntaries, besides ninety interludes, and 
several variations on popular themes. He also 
published numerous variations for the piano- 
forte, and many vocal pieces, confiisting of short 



anthems, hymns, and sacred songs. Besides his 
published works, Adams composed several other 
pieces of various descriptions, vrhich yet remain 
in manuscript. He died Sept. 15, 1858. His 
youngest son, Edgar Adams, follows the pro- 
fession of his father, and holds the appointment 
of organist of the church of St. Lawrence, Jewry, 
near GuildhaU. [W. H. H.] 

ADCOCK, J Aires, a native of Eton, Bucks, 
was born in 1 778. In 1 786 he became a chorister 
in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, under William 
Webb (and afterwards under Dr. Aylward), and 
in Eton College Chapel under William Sex- 
ton. In 1797 he was appointed lay clerk in St. 
George's Chapel, and in 1 799 obtained a similar 
appointment at Eton. He soon afterwards re- 
signed those places and went to Cambridge, 
where he was admitted a member of the choirs 
of Trinity, St. John's, and King's Colleges. He 
afterwards became master of the choristers of 
King's College. He died April 30, 1S60. Al- 
cock published several glees of his own compo- 
sition, and 'The Rudiments of Singing,' with 
about thirty solfeggi to assist persons wishing 
to sing at sight. [W. H. H.] 

ADDISON, John, the son of an ingenious 
village mechanic, at an early age displayed a 
taste for music, and learned to play upon several 
instruments. Having, about 1793. married Miss 
Willems, a niece of Eeinhold, the bass singer, a 
lady possessed of a fine voice and considerable 
taste, he conceived the idea of pursuing music as 
a profession. Soon after her marriage Mrs. Ad- 
dison made a successful appearance at Vauxhall 
Gardens. Addison then went with his wife to 
Liverpool, where he entered on his professional 
career as a performer on the double bass, an in- 
Btrument to which, as an orchestral player, he 
afterwards confined himself. From Liverpool they 
went to Dublin, where Addison soon became 
director of the amateur orchestra of the private 
theatre, and, from having to arrange the music, 
improved himself in composition. After fulfilling 
other engagements in Liverpool and Dublin, Mr. 
and Mrs. Addison came to London, where, on 
Sept. 17, 1796, the latter appeared at Covent 
Garden Theatre as Eosetta in ' Love in a Vil- 
lage,' and afterwards performed other characters. 
In 1797 they went to Bath, where Mrs. Addison 
Btudied under Eauzzini. After a three years' 
engagement in Dublin, they proceeded to Man- 
chester, where Addison was induced to abandon 
the musical profession and embark in the cotton 
manufacture. In this, however, he was unsuc- 
cessful, and soon resumed his profession. After 
a brief sojourn in the provinces he returned to 
London, and engaged with Michael Kelly as ma- 
nager of his music business. He was also en- 
gaged at the Italian Opera and the Ancient and 
Vocal Concerts as a double bass player. In 1805 
he made himself known as a composer, by the 
music to Skefiington's ' Sleeping Beauty.' He 
afterwards composed several pieces for the Ly- 
ceum, and composed and adapted others for Covent 
Garden Theatre. On March 3, 1815, a short 


sacred musical drama entitled 'Elijah raising 
the Widow's Son,' adapted by Addison to music 
by Winter, was produced at Drury Lane Theatre 
in the series of Lenten oratorios, under the di- 
rection of Sir George Smart. Addison next em- 
ployed himself as a teacher of singing, and in 
that capacity instructed many singers who main- 
tained very creditable positions in their profession ; 
amongst others, James Pyne, Pearman, Leoni 
Lee, and Thomas MUlar. He died at an advanced 
age, on Jan. 30, 1844. His principal dramatic 
compositions are 'The Sleeping Beauty,' 1805; 
'The Russian Impostor,' 1809; 'My Aunt,' 
1813; 'Two Words,' 1816; 'Free and Easy,' 
1816 ; ' My Uncle,' 181 7 ; 'Robinet the Bandit,' 
' Rose d' Am our,' an adaptation of Boieldieu's 
opera of that name, 181 8. He was one of the six 
composers who contributed the music to Charles 
Dibdin the younger's opera, ' The Farmer's 
Wife,'ini8i4. [W. H. H.] 

the published scores of the older masters, 
especially Bach and Handel, much is to be 
met with which if performed exactly as printed 
will fail altogether to realise tlie intentions of 
the composer. This arises partly from the 
difFerence in the composition of our modem 
orchestras as compared with those employed 
a century and a half ago ; partly also from 
the fact that it was formerly the custom to 
write out in many cases little more than a 
skeleton of the music, leaving the details to be 
filled in at performance from the ' figured bass.' 
The parts for the organ or harpsichord were 
never vmtten out in full except when these in- 
struments had an important solo part ; and even 
then it was firequently the custom only to write 
the upper part and the bass, leaving the 
harmonies to be supplied from the figm-es by the 
player. Thus, for instance, the first solo for the 
organ in Handel's Organ Concerto in G minor 
No. I, is thus written in the score : — 






^P= P t- =r= 

It is evident from the figures here given that 
the passage is intended to be played in the fol- 
lowing, or some similar way. 


"^ r r h I r r f 




% r \- t^S =gg 

and that a performer who confined himself to 
the printed notes would not give the effect which 
Handel designed. Similar instances may be found 
in nearly all the works of Bach and Handel, in 
many of which nothing whatever but a figured 
bass is given as a clue to the form of accom- 
paniment. At the time at which these works 
were vsritten the ai-t of plajing from a figured 



bass was so generally studied that any good 
musician would be able to reproduce, at least 
approximately, the intentions of the composer 
from such indications as the score supplied. But 
when, owing to the growth of the modem 
orchestra, the increased importance given to the 
instrumental portion of the music, and the re- 
sultant custom which has prevailed from the 
time of Haydn down to our own day of writing 
out in full all parts which were ohhligato — i. e. 
necessary to the completeness of the music — the 
art of pLiying from a figured bass ceased to be 
commonly practised, it was no longer possible for 
whoever presided at the organ or piano at a per- 
formance to complete the score in a satisfactory 
manner. Hence arose the necessity for additional 
accompaniments, in whicli the parts which the 
composer has merely indicated are given in full, in- 
stead of their being left to the discretion (or indis- 
cretion, as the case might be) of the performer. 

2. There are two methods of writing additional 
accompaniments. The first is to write merely a 
part for the organ, as Mendelssohn has done 
with so much taste and reserve in his edition of 
' Israel in Egypt,' published for the London 
Handel Society. There is more than one reason, 
however, for doubting whether even his accom- 
paniment would succeed in bringing out the 
true intentions of the composer. In the first 
place, our modern orchestras and choruses are so 
much larger than those mostly to be heard in 
the time of Bach and Handel, that the efifect 
of the combination with the organ must 
necessarily be diflferent. An organ part filling 
up the harmony played by some twenty or 
twenty-four violins in unison (as in many of 
Handel's songs) and supported by perhaps 
twelve to sixteen bass instruments will sound 
very different if there is only half that number 
of strings. Besides, our modem organs often differ 
hardly less from those of the last century than 
our modem orchestras. But there is another 
and more weighty reason for doubting the ad- 
visability of supplementing the score by such an 
organ part. In the collection of Handel's con- 
ducting - scores, purchased some twenty years 
since by M. Schoelcher, is a copy of ' Saul ' 
which contains full directions in Handel's own 
writing for the employment of the organ, re- 
printed in the edition of the German Handel 
Society ; ^ from which it clearly appears that it 
was nowhere used to fill up the harmony in the 
accompaniment of the soncrs. This must there- 
fore have been given to the harpsichord, an in- 
strument no longer in use. and which, if it were, 
would not combine well with our modem 
orchestra. It is therefore evident that such an 
organ part as Mendelssohn has written for the 
songs in ' Israel,' appropriate as it is in itself, is 
not what the composer intended. 

3. The method more frequently and also more 
successfully adopted is to fill up the harmonies 
with other instruments — in fact to rewrite the 
score. Among the earliest examples of this 

' See also Chrysander's ' Jahrbiicher fiir Husikalische WIssenschaft,' 
Bauil I, wbicb coutoiiis a long article on this subject. 


mode of treatment are Mozart's additional ac- 
companiments to Handel's 'Messiah,' 'Alex- 
ander's Feast,' 'Acis and Galatea,' and 'Ode for 
St. Cecilia's Day.' These works were arranged 
for Baron van Swieten, for the purpose of perform- 
ances where no organ was available. What m-as 
the nature of Mozart's additions will be seen pre- 
sently ; meanwhile it may be remarked in passing, 
that they have always been considered models of 
the way in which such a task should be performed. 
Many other musicians have followed Mozart's ex- 
ample with more or less success, among the chief 
being Ignaz Franz Mosel, who published editions 
of ' Samson,' ' Jephtha,' * Belshazzar,' etc., in 
which not only additional instrumentation was 
introduced, but utterly unjustifiable alterations 
were made in the works themselves, a movement 
from one oratorio being sometimes transferred to 
another ; Mendelssohn, who (in early life) re- 
scored the ' Dettingen Te Deum,' and ' Acis and 
Galatea'; Dr. Ferdinand Hiller, Professor G. A. 
Macfarren, Sir Michael Costa, Mr. Arthur Sul- 
livan, and last (and probably best of all) Robert 
Franz. This eminent musician has devoted 
special attention to this branch of his art ; and 
for a complete exposition of the system on which 
he works we refer our readers to his ' Offener 
Brief an Eduard Hanslick,' etc. (Leipzig, Leuck- 
art, 1 871). Franz has published additional ac- 
companiments to Bach's ' Passion according to 
St. Matthew,' ' Magnificat,' and several ' Kirchen- 
cantaten,' and to Handel's 'L' Allegro' and 'Ju- 

4. The first, and perhaps the most important 
case in which additions are needed to the older 
scores is that which so frequently occurs when 
no instrumental accompaniment is given except- 
ing a figured bass. This is in Handel's songs 
continually to be met with, especially in ca- 
dences, and a few examples follow of the various 
way in which the harmonies can be filled up. 

At the end of the air ' Rejoice greatly' in the 
'Messiah,' Handel writes thus, — 

thy King com - eth un - to thee 

€i^Vr-^ U^^^ ^ ^=j^ 

Mozart gives the harmonies in this passage to 
the stringed quartett, as follows : — 
2. Viol. 1 & 2 







thy King 




Sometimes in similar passages the accom- 
paniments are given to a few wind instruments 
with charming effect, as in the following ex- 
amples by Mozart. For the sake of comparison 
we shall in each instance give the score in its 
original state before quoting it with the addi- 
tional parts. Our first example is from the 
close of the song ' What passion,' in the ' Ode for 
St. Cecdia's Day.' 

3- Voce 

sor • rows, and ac - quaint - ed with grief 
Bassi I 


In the first of the foregoing quotations (No. 4^ 
it wiU be seen that Mozart has simply added 
in the flute and bassoon the harmony which 
Handel no doubt played on the harpsichord. 
In the next (No. 6), from 'He was despised,'! 
the harmony is a little fuller. 

In all the above examples the treatment of the 
harmony is as simple as possible. When similar! 
passages occur in Bach's -works, however, they 
require a more polj-phonic method of treatment, 
as is proved by Franz in his pamplilet above 
referred to. A short extract from the ' Passion 
according to Matthew' will show in what way 
his music can be advantageously treated. 


The figures here give the clue to the harmony, 
but if simple chords were used to fill it up, as in 
the preceding extracts, they would, in Franz's 
words, 'faU as heavy as lead among Bach's parts, 
and find no support among the constantly moving 
basses.' Franz therefore adopts the polj-phonic 
method, and completes the score as follows : — 

Somewhat resembling the examples given 
above is the case so often to be found both in 
Bach and Handel in which only the melody and 
the bass are given in the score. There is hardly 
one of Handel's oratorios which does not contain 
several songs accompanied only by violins H 
unison and basses : w^hile Bach %• ery frequent 
accompanies his airs Avith one solo instrum 
either wind or stringed, and the basses. In sa. 
cases it is sometimes sufficient merely to add an 
inner part: at other times a somewhat fuUer 
score is more effective. The following quotations 
wiU furnish examples of both methods. 



Haxdel, ' Sharp violins proclaim.' (Ode for 
St. Cecilia's Day.) 

Bach, ' Ich hatte viel Bekiimmemiss.' 
Oboe , ^ L, 

Haxdel, ' I know that my Eedeemer liveth.' 
Viol. 1, 2 (Messiah.) 






Flauto Solo 

Ditto (Mozart). 



ClarineUo Solo in A 



Fatjotto Solo [jj«. 

•«: ^ 

yM. 1, 2 <r_ 

!>> I 

I I 

B/M«t ( Fio/a oW 8i'a.) 





In the first of these extracts nothing is added 
but a viola part ; in the second Mozart has 
doubled the first violins by the second in the 
lower octave, and assigned a full harmony to the 
three solo vrind instruments, while in the third 
Eranz has added the string quartett to the solo 
oboe, and again treated the parts in that poly- 
phonic style which experience has taught him 
is alone suitable for the fitting interpretation 
of Bach's ideas. 

5. In all the cases hitherto treated, the melody 
being given as well as the bass, the task of the 
editor is comparatively easy. It is otherwise 
however when (as is sometimes found with 
Handel, and stiU more frequently with Bach) 
nothing whatever is given excepting a bass, 
especially if, as often happens, this bass is not 
even figured. In the following quotation, for 
example, taken from Bach's 'Magnificat' ('Quia 
fecit mihi magna'), 

it is obvious that if nothing but the bass part 
be played, a mere caricature of the composer's 
intentions will be the result. Here there are no 
figures in the score to indicate even the outline 
of the harmony. The difficulties presented by 
such passages as these have been overcome in 
the most masterly manner by Robert Eranz, who 
iillq up the score thus — 


Viol. 1, 2 




g T^^gi^ ^" 



By comparing the added parts (which, to save 
space, are given only in compressed score) with 
the original bass, it will be seen that they are 
aU founded on suggestions thrown out, so to 
speak, by Bach himself, on ideas indicated in the 
bass, and it is in obtaining unity of design by 
the scientific employment of Bach's own material 
that Franz shows himself so well fitted for his 
self-imposed labour. It has been already said 
that Bach requires more polyphonic treatment 
of the parts than Handel. The following extract 
from Franz's score of 'L' Allegro' ('Come, but 
keep thy wonted state') wiU show the different 
•method in which he fiUs up a figured bass in 
Handel's music. The original stands thus — 

which Franz completes in this manner- 


Here it will be seen there is no attempt at 
imitative writing. Nothing is done beyond 
harmonising Handel's bass in four parts. The 
harmonies are given to clarinets and bassoons in 


order that the first entry of the strings, whic-l* 
takes place in the third bar, may produce th i 
contrast of tone-colour designed by the compose) ijj 
6. It is quite impossible within the Umita cto 
such an article as the present to deal exhaustive!)^ 
with the sabject in hand ; enough has, it 
hoped, been said to indicate in a general mannej 
some of the various ways of filling up th: 
orchestration from a figured bass. This howevei 
though perhaps the most important, is by n; 
means the only case in which additional ac 
companiments are required or introduced. I 
was mentioned above that the composition of th 
orchestra in the days of Bach and Handel wa 
very different from that of our own time. Thi 
is more especially the case with Bach, wh 
employs in his scores many instruments noA 
altogether fallen into disuse. Such are the viol 
d'amore, the viola da gamba, the oboe d'amore 
the oboe da caccia (which he sometimes calls th 
' taille '), and several others. In adapting thes 
works for performance, it is necessary to sub 
stitute for these obsolete instruments as far a 
possible their modern equivalents. Besides this 
both Handel and Bach wrote for the trumpet 
passages which on the instruments at presen 
employed in our orchestras are simply impo£ 
sible. Bach frequently, and Handel occasionaUj 
writes the trumpet parts up to C in alt, an 
both require from the players rapid passages i: 
high notes, the execution of which, even wher 
possible, is extremely uncertain. Thus, i; 
probably the best-known piece of sacred musi 
in the world, the Hallelujaih chorus in th 
'Messiah,' Handel has written D in alt fo 
the first trumpet, while Bach in the ' Cum Sanct 
Spiritu ' of his great Mass in B minor has evei 
taken the instrument one note higher, the whol 
first trumpet part as it stands being absolute! 
unplayable. In such cases as these it become 
necessary to re-write the trumpet parts, givin 
the higher notes to some other instrument. Tlii 
is what Franz has done in his editions of Bach' 
'Magnificat' and 'Pfingsten-Cantate,' in whic' 
he has used two clarinets in C to reinforce an 
assist the trumpet parts. The key of both piece 
being D, the clajinets in A would be thos 
usually employed ; the C clarinets are here use 
instead, because their tone, though less rich, i 
more piercing, and therefore approximates mor 
closely to that of the high notes of the trumpei 
One example from the opening chorus of th 
' Magnificat ' will show how the arrangemen 
is ett'ected. Bach's trumpet parts and thei 
equivalents in Franz's score will alone b 
quoted. ■ 

Tromba 1 in D 

Tromhe 2, 3 in D 







It is to be regretted that the same amount 
reverence for the author's intentions shown 
the above arrangement has not always been 
inced even by great musicians in dealing with 
e scores of others. Mozart, in his arrangement 
the ' Messiah,' thought fit to re-write the song 
?he trimipet shall sound,' though whatever 
istacle it may have presented to his trumpeter 
has been often proved by Mr. Thomas Harper 
id others that Handel's trumpet part, though 
fficult, is certainly not impossible. Mendels- 
hn, in his score of the 'Dettingen Te Deum,' 
IS altered (and we venture to think entirely 
oilt) several of the very characteristic trumpet 
Jts which form so prominent a feature of the 
jrk. As one example out of several that might 
! quoted, we give the opening symphony of the 
:oruB ' To thee Cherubin.' Handel writes 
2 Tronibe 


These trumpet parts are assuredly not easy; 
stiU they are practicable. Mendelssohn however 
alters the whole passage thus : — 

i "'/j jgD 



and, still worse, when the symphony is repeated 
in the original by oboes and bassoons, the 
arranger gives it to the full wind band with 
trumpets and drums, entirely disregarding the 
ideas of the composer. The chief objection to 
be urged against such a. method of procedure 
as the above — so unlike Mendelssohn's usual' 
reverence and modesty ' — is not that the instru- 
mentation is changed or added to, but that the 
form and character of the passage itself is altered. 
Every axrangement must stand or fall upon its 
owTi merits; but it wiU be generally admitted 
that however allowable it may be, nay more, 
however necessary it frequently is, to change 
the dress in which ideas are presented to us, the 
ideas themselves should be left without modifica- 

7. Besides the cases already referred to, 
passages are frequently to be found, especially in 

> The Te Deum and Acis were instrumented by Mendelssohn as an 
exercise for Zclter. The date on the MS. of Aris is Januarr 183). He 
mentions them in a letter to De\Tient in 1833, sjieaking of his additions 
to the Te Deum as ' interpolations of a very arbitrary kind, mistakes 
as I now consider them, which I am anxious to correct." It is » 
tbouiiand pities tlutt the work should have been published. 

D 2 



the works of Bach, in which, though no obsolete 
instruments are employed, and though everything 
is perfectly practicable, the effect, if played as 
written, will in our modem orchestras altogether 
differ from that designed by the composer. 
From a letter written by Bach in 1730"^ we 
know exactly the strength of the band for which 
he wrote. Besides the wind instruments, it 
contained only two or at most three first and 
as many second violins, two first and two second 
violas, two violoncellos and one double-bass, thir- 
teen strings in all. Against so small a force 
the solo passages for the wind instruments would 
stand out with a prominence which in our 
modern orchestras, often containing from fifty 
to sixty strings, would no longer exist ; and as 
aU the parts in Bach's music are almost in- 
variably of equal importance, it follows that the 
wind parts must be strengthened if the balance 
of tone is to be preserved. This is especially 
the case in the choruses. It would be impos- 
sible, without quoting an entire page of one of 
Bach's scores, to give an extract clearly showing 
this point. Those who are familiar with his 
works will recall many passages of the kind. 
One of the best known, as well ias one of the 
most striking examples is in the short chorus 
'Lass ihn kreuzigen' in the 'Passion according 
to Matthew.' Here an important counterpoint 
is given to the flutes above the voices and 
stringed instruments. With a very small band 
and chorus this counterpoint would doubtless be 
heard, but with our large vocal and instrumental 
forces it must inevitably be lost altogether. 
Franz, in his edition of the 'Passion,' has 
reinforced the flutes by the upper notes of the 
clarinets, which possess a great similarity of 
tone, and at the same time by their more incisive 
quality make themselves distinctly heard above 
the other instruments. 

8. In Handel's orchestra the organ was almost 
invariably used in the choruses to support the 
voices, and give fuUness and richness to the 
general body of tone. Hence in Mozart's 
arrangements, which were written for per- 
formance without an organ, he has supplied 
the place of that instrument by additional wind 
parts. In many of the choruses of the ' Messiah' 
(e.g. ' And the glory of the Lord,' ' Behold the 
Lamb of God,' 'But thanks be to God,' etc.) 
the wind instruments simply fill in the harmony 
as it may fairly be conjectured the organ would 
do. Moreover, our ears are so accustomed to 
a rich and sonorous instrumentation, that this 
music if played only with strings and oboes, or 
sometimes with strings alone, would sound so 
thin as to be distasteful. Hence no reasonable 
objection can be made to the filling up of the 
harmony, if it be done with taste and contain 
nothing inconsistent with the spirit of the 

9. There yet remains to notice one of the most 
interesting points connected with our present 
subject. It not seldom happens that in additional 
accompaniments new matter is introduced for 

^ See Bitter, ' Johann Sebastian Bach,' ii. 15-22. 

which no warrant can be found ia the origin; 
Sometimes the composer's idea is modified, son 
times it is added to. Mozart's scores of Hanc 
are full of examples of this kind; on the oth 
hand Franz, the most conscientious of arrange 
seldom allows himself the least liberty in tl 
respect. It is impossible to lay down a 
absolute rule in this matter; the only test 
success. Few people, for instance, would objt 
to the wonderfully beautiful wind parts whi 
Mozart has added to 'The people that walk- 
in darkness,' though it must be admitted tl; 
they are by no means Handelian in char act 1 
It is, so to speak, Mozart's gloss or commenta 
on Handel's music ; and one can almost far 
that could Handel himself have heard it 
would have pardoned the liberty taken with 1 
music for the sake of the charming effect of t 
additions. So again with the trumpets a: 
drums which Mozart has introduced in the so 
' Why do the nations.' No doubt Handel cov 
have used them had he been so disposed ; but 
was not the custom of his age to employ th( 
in the accompaniments to songs, and here agt 
the excellence of the effect is its justificatit 
On the same ground may be defended the givi 
of Handel's violin part to a flute in the 
'How beautiful are the feet,' though it is equa 
impossible to approve of the change Mozart 1 
made in the air and chorus ' The trumpet's lo 
clangour' in the 'Ode to St. Cecilia's Day,' 
which he has given a great portion of 1 
important trumpet part (which is imperativ( 
called for by the words) to the flute and ol 
in unison ! The passages above referred to in 
the 'Messiah' are so well known as to rem 
quotation superfluous; but two less famil 
examples of happily introduced additional mat 
from the ' Ode to St. Cecilia's Day ' will 
interesting. In the first of these, 

Viol. 1, 2 


li n ' r 1 p - 



from the song ' Sharp violins proclaim,' it will 
seen that Handel has written merely violins £ 
basses. The dissonances which Mozart has ad( 
in the viola part, 
Viol. 1, 2 





^ ^ 4s m m^ 

are of the most excellent effect, well sui 


jreover to the character of the song which 
jats of 'jealous pangs and desperation.' Our 
it extract will be from the song ' What passion 
nnot music raise and queU. ? ' in which Mozart 
s added pizzicato chords for the strings above 
e obligato part for the violoncello. 




Violoncello Solo 


'iol. 1, 2 



'j ^P^iPgFfflrtHt^ 







i^ J j 1^ ^ 

10. It hag been said already that additional 
jompaniments must in all cases be judged 
on their own merits. The question is not 
lether but how they should be written. Their 
cessity in many cases has been shown above ; 
d they will probably continue to be written 

the end of time. While however it is 
possible to lay down any absolute law as to 
lat may and what may not be done in this 
ipect, there are two general principles which 
ky be given as the conclusion of the whole 
ktter. First, that all additions to a score 
irely for the sake of increasing the noise are 
jolutely indefensible. At many operatic per- 
mances, Mozart's ' Don Giovanni ' and ' Figaro' 
} given with copious additional accompaniments 

trombones; and a conductor has even been 
own to reinforce the score of Weber's overture 

'Euryanthe,' which already contains the full 
nplement of brass, with two comets and an 
iudeide. AU such procedures are utterly 
urtistic, and cannot be too strongly condemned. 
id lastly, no one who ^vrites additional 
x)Tnpaniments has any right whatever to 
uper with the original text, either by addirg, 
cting out, or largely modifying passages. By 

means let such additions be made as are 
aded to adapt the music to our modem 
(uirements, but let the changes be such as 
bring out more clearly, not to obscure or alter 
3 thought of the composer. These additions 

moreover should be in unison with the spirit, as 
well as the letter of the original. To hear, as is 
sometimes to be heard, Handel's music scored 
after the fashion of Verdi's grand operas shows 
an equal want of artistic feeling and of common 
sense on the part of the arranger. Those 
additional accompaniments will always best fulfil 
their object in which most reverence is shown 
for the author's original intentions. [E. P.] 

A DEUX MAINS (Fr.). 'For two hands.' 
A term applied to music for one performer on 
the piano, as contradistinguished from A qoatbe 
MAINS, etc. 

ADLGASSER, Anton Cajetan. Bom t 728 
at InzeU in Bavaria. After being a pupil of 
Eberlin's, he was sent to Italy by the Arch- 
bishop of Salzburg, and recalled thence to the 
post of organist to the cathedral and cembalist to 
the court at Salzburg, where he died Dec. 21, 
1777, from an apoplectic stroke while at the 
organ. Adlgasser was noted both as organ player 
and contrapuntist. His works remain mostly in 
MS. The principal of them are a requiem, a 
litany, and a salve regina. [C. F. P.] 

AD LIBITUM (Lat.). At the pleasure of the 
performer, as regards time and expression. In 
the case of arrangements — 'with violin or flute 
ad libitum' — it signifies that the solo instrument 
may be left out or exchanged at pleasure. 

ADLUNG, Jacob, bom at BinderBleben, Er- 
furt, Jan. 14, 1699; a theologian, scholar, and mu- 
sician. His taste for music came late ; the clavier, 
organ, and theory, he learned from Christian 
Keichardt the organist, who though not a musi- 
cian of the first rank was truly devoted to his 
art. After the death of Buttstett in 1727 Ad- 
lung received his post as organist of the Evan- 
gelical church, where he was soon known for his 
masterly playing, and in 174T became professor 
at the Eathsgymnasium of Erfurt. In 1736 his 
house and all his possessions were burnt, but 
the undaunted man was not discouraged. He 
taught both music and language, wrote largely 
and well on music, and even constructed in- 
struments with his own hands ; and thus made 
a successful resistance to adverse fortune till 
his death, July 5, 1762. Three of his works 
are of lasting value in musical literature: (1) 
'Anleitung zur musik. Gelahrtheit,' with a pre- 
face by Joh. Ernst Bach (Erfurt, 1758) ; a 2nd 
edition, issued after his death, by J. A. HiLLER 
(Leipsic, 1783). (2) ' Musica mechanica Organ- 
oedi,' etc. (Berlin, 1 768), a treatise in two volumes 
on the structure, use, and maintenance of the 
organ and clavi-cj-mbalum. This contains addi- 
tions by J. F. Agricola and J. L. Albrecht, a 
translation by the former of a treatise on the 
organ by Bedos db, and an autobiogra- 
phy of Adlung. (3) 'Musikalisches Siebenge- 
stirn' (Berlin, 1 768). (See HiUer'a Lebensb. ber. 
Musikgelehrten.) [C. F. P.] 

ADOLF ATI, Andrea, bom in Venice 1711, 
date and place of death unknown; was a pupil of 
Galuppi, conductor of the music in the church 





of Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, and in 
that of the Annunciation at Genoa, the latter 
from about 1750 till his death. His principal 
operas are ' L'Artaserse,' ' L' Arianna,' ' Adriano 
in Siria,' and ' La Gloria ed il Piacere,' the first 
produced in Eome in 1742, the three last in 
Genoa in 1750-1752. He left also sacred com- 
positions, chiefly Psalms. 'Arianna' is said to 
contain an air in the measure of five beats to 
the bar. [M. C. C] 

ADEIEN, or ANDRIEN", Maetin Joseph, 
called Adrien l'Aine, bom at Liege 1766; a 
base singer, taking alternate parts vsdth Cheron 
at the opera in Paris from 1785 to 1804 ; after- 
wards choirmaster at the opera. In March 1822 
he succ^eeded Lalne as professor of declamation 
at the Ecole Eoyale de Musique, and died in the 
following November, a victim to the exaggerated 
system of declamation then in vogue. His voice 
was harsh, and his method of singing bad, but 
he had merit as an actor. He composed the 
'Hynme k la Victoire' on the evacuation of the 
Trench territory in 1795, and the hymn to the 
martyrs for liberty. 

His brother (name unknown) was bom at Liege 
r767 ; published five collections of songs (Paris, 
1 790-1802), and was for a short time choirmaster 
at the Theatre Feydeau. 

Another brother, Ferdinand, was a teacher of 
singing in Paris, choir-master of the opera (1799- 
iSoi) and composer of songs. [M. C. C] 

A DUE (Ital., 'In two parts'), or A 2. This 
expression is used in two exactly opposite ways 
in orchestral scores. For the wind instruments, 
for which two parts are usually written on the 
same stave, it indicates that the two play in uni- 
son ; for the strings, on the other hand, it shows 
that the whole mass, which usually plays in uni- 
son, is to be divided into two equal parts, the 
one taking the upper and the other the lower 
notes. In practice there is never any difficulty 
in seeing which meaning is intended. [E. P.] 

AELSTERS, Georges Jacques, born of a 
musical family at Ghent, 1770, died there 1849 ; 
cariUoneur of that town from 17 88 to 1839; for 
fifty years director of the music at the church 
of St. Martin, and composer of much church 
music still performed in Flanders, especially a 

AENGSTLTCH (Germ, 'fearfully'). A word 
which calls for notice here only on account of its 
use by Beethoven at the head of the recitative 
in his Missa Solennis, 'Agnus Dei, qui tollis 
peccata mundi, miserere nobis.' In this most 
dramatic and emotional part of his great work 
Beethoven seems to realise the 'prayer for 
internal and extemfil peace' which he gives as 
a motto to the entire ' Dona' : the fierce blasts 
of the trumpets alternating with the supplications 
of the voices bring before us the enemy at the 
very gates. As in the case of Accelerando 
Beethoven has accompanied the German word 
with its Italian equivalent tramidamente. 

JEOUJsJa HARP. (Fr. La Harpe ^o- 

lienne ; Ital. Arpa cC Eolo ; Ger. A eohhari 

Windharfe.) The name is from Aeolus the gw 

of the wind. The instrument, of which the is 

ventor is unknown, woidd appear to owe it 

origin to the monochord, a string stretched upo: 

two bridges over a soundboard. The strin 

happening to be at a low tension and expose 

to a current of air woidd divide into variou 

aliquot parts according to the varying strengt 

of the current, and thus give the harmonic 

or overtones we hear in the music of lit 

instrument. Had the principle of the ^olia 

harp never been discovered, we should in thet 

days of telegraphy have found it out, as it : 

of frequent occurrence to hear musical sounc 

from telegraph vdres which become audib. 

through the posts which elevate the wire 

and assume the function of soundboards. Ont 

recognised on a monochord, it would be 

simple process to increase the number 

strings, which, tuned in unison, would I 

differently affected in relation to the currej 

of air by position, and thus give different v 

brating segments, forming consonant or dissonai 

chords as the pressure of wind might determin 

That musical sounds could be produced I 

unaided wind has been long known in the Eae 

According to tradition King David's harp {kinno 

sounded at midnight when suspended over 1 

couch in the north wind ; and in an o 

Hindu poem, quoted by Sir William Jones, tl 

vina, or lute of the country is said to ha' 

produced tones, proceeding by musical interva 

by the impulse of the breeze. In the prese 

day the Chinese have kites with vibrating strin| 

and the Malays have a curious ^Eolian instrumei 

a rough bamboo cane of considerable heigl 

perforated with holes and stuck in the groun 

This is entirely a wind contrivance, but th 

have another of split bamboo for strings. ( 

Engel, 'Musical Instruments,' 1874, p. lOi 

St. Dunstan of Canterbury is said to have hu 

his harp so that the wind might pass "through t 

strings, causing them to sound, and to have be 

accused of sorcery in consequence. This was 

the loth century. It was not until the_ 17 

we meet with the ^olian harp itself. Kirol 

(1602-1680) first wrote about it. He speakfl 

it in his ' Musurgia Universalis' as being 

new instrument and easy to construct, and 

being the admiration of every one. He descril 

the sounds as not resembling those of a string 

or of a wind instrument, but partaking of t 

qualities of both. This is quite true, and i 

plies to any stretched string the sound of whi 

is made continuous by any other agency th 

that of a bow, and not dying away as we usua 

hear the tones of pianofortes, harps, and guita 

Thomson, in the 'Castle of Indolence,' in w< 

known lines, describes the JEoMan harp, I 

except one phrase, 'such sweet, such sad, sij 

solemn airs divine,' misses the elegiac note tl 

distinguishes the instrument. Matthew Youi 

bishop of Clonfert, in his 'Enquiry into i 

Principal Phenomena of Sounds and Mum 

Strings ' (1784), gives fuU particulars of it, a 


jffers a theory of its generation of sound. It 
ilso gained attention in Germany about the 
>ame time, through a description of it in the 
■Gottingen Pocket Calendar' for 1792. H. C. 
Koch, a German, appears to have bestowed 
;lie most attention upon the effects obtainable 
t>y varying the construction and stringing of 
ihe iEolian harp ; but it is of little importance 
whether the tone be a little louder or a little 
softer, the impression to be derived from the 
instrument is as attainable from one of simple 
build as from double harps, or from one with 
weighted (spun) strings added. 

An .(Eolian harp is usually about three feet 
long, five inches broad, and three inclies deep ; of 
pine wood, with beech ends for insertion of the 
tuning- and hitch-pins, and with two narrow 
bridges of hard wood over which a dozen catgut 
jtrings are stretched. These are tuned in the 
most exact unison possible, or the beats caused 
by their difference would be disagreeable. The 
iirection sometimes attached to tune by inter- 
nals of fourths and fifths is only misleading. 
The tension should be low ; in other words, the 
strings be rather slack, the fundamental note 
not being noticeable when the instrument sounds. 
There are usually two soundholes in the sound- 
board. The ends are raised above the strings 
about an inch, and support another pine board, 
between which and the soundboard the draught 
of air is directed. To hear the ^olian harp 
it should be placed across a window sufficiently 
opened to admit of its introduction, and situated 
obliquely to the direction of the wind. The 
evening time is the best, as the feelings are 
then more attuned to the chords we are to 
listen to. The modifications of tone, increasing 
and decreasing in a manner inimitable by voices 
or instruments, are perfectly enchanting. An 
instrument producing chords by the wind alone, 
without our interference, stimulates the fancy, and 
ia in itself an attractive phenomenon. The sounds 
are so pure and perfectly in tune, that no tuning 
we might accomplish could rival it. For we have 
here not tempered intervals but the natural tones 
of the strings, the half or octave, the third or 
interval of the twelfth, and so on, in an arith- 
metical progression, up to the sixth division, 
the whole vibrating length being taken as the 
first — we are listening to full and perfect har- 
mony. But the next, the seventh, stiU in cort- 
sonance with the lowest note, in effect not unlike 
the dull sad minor sixth, but still more mourn- 
ful, is to our ears transcendental, as our musical 
system does not know it : and it would be too 
much out of tune with other intervals conso- 
nant to the key-note for admission to our scales. 
We are impressed with it as by a wail — in the 
words of Coleridge a 'sweet upbraidin'i',' ('The 
.^olian Harp,' Poems, i. 190) — to be followed as 
the wind-pressure increases by more and more 
angpiy notes as we mount to those dissonances in 
the next higher octave, especially the eleventh 
and thirteenth overtones that alternate and seem 
to shriek and howl until the abating gust of wind 
suffers the lower beautiful harmonies to pre- 



dominate again. The mind finds in this return a 
choral echo as of some devotional antiphon, at least 
this has been the writer's experience, and not the 
mingling of violins, flutes, harps, and chromatic 
sequences by which some have described it. The 
^olian harp is nature's music ; man's music is 
an art, implying selection. He chooses intervals 
to construct his scales with, and avoids ratios 
that do not coincide with his instinctive feeling 
or intention. [A. J. H.] 

^OLIANMODE. The ^Eolians, who migrated 
from Greece to Asia Minor in the 12 th century 
B.C., have the credit of improving the system 
of the Greek music by the addition of another 
TETRACHOED. Very great uncertainty obscures 
this subject; indeed from the earliest records 
we can find, it would seem that from time to 
time the Greek modes experienced those changes, 
regarded by some as deteriorations, by others 
(probably) as improvements, to which all living 
art is necessarily subject. UTiether they owed 
their original impressiveness to the varieties of 
their intervals, or to some kind of prosodaic time 
peculiar to each, or to the combination of both, 
we read the following eulogy on their native 
energy, and also a lament over their too general 
neglect, in a quotation cited by Dr. Bumey from 
Heraclides of Pontus, a contemporary of Plato 
and Aristotle (about 335 B.C.). Describing 
what he then styled the three most ancient 
modes, he says, 'the Dorian is grave and 
magnificent, neither too diffusive, gay, nor 
varied ; but severe and vehement. The kalian 
is grand and pompous, though sometimes sooth- 
ing, as it is used for the breaking of horses, and 
the reception of guests ; and it has likewise an 
air of simplicity and confidence, suitable to 
pleasure, love, and good cheer. Lastly, the 
Ionian is neither brilliant nor effeminate, but 
rough and austere ; with some degree however 
of elevation, force, and energy. But in these 
times, since the corruption of manners has 
subverted everything, the true, original, and 
specific qualities peculiar to each mode are lost. 
(Dissertation on the Music of the Ancients, 4to., 
p. 60). But there is no doubt that whatever 
may have been the nature of the Greek modes, 
we have their counterparts and, as it were, their 
living descendants in the Ecclesiastical Modes 
which still bear their names, and are, most 
likely, if not the same, yet the legitimate 
inheritors of their peculiar lineaments ; nor to 
fit audience in the present day are they found 
destitute of their parents' varied and attractive 

The authentic ^olian mode— or, as it is often 
called, the Hyper-^olian — as we now know it, is 
the ninth of the church modes, scales, or tones, 
as they are variously called. Its notes range 
thus — as in the modem minor scale, though 
without any accidentals in ascending : — 

The Ilyper-^Eolian Mode. Authentic. 




and its melodies are contained within tlie octave 
from A to A. The division of the scale is 
'harmonic,' i.e. the diapente (A to E) is below 
the diatessaron (E to A). Thus the final is A, 
and the dominant E. 



Its plagal mode is called the Hypo-j^olian, and 
has the 'arithmetical' division, i. e. the diatessaron 
below the diapente. Here the final is A, and 
the dominant C : — 

The Hypo-^olian Mode. Plagal. 


with its diatessaron and diapente ; 
4. -^ 


The melodies in the Hypo-^Eolian mode range 
from the fourth below to the fifth above the final 
A. The dominant is C in this plagal mode, 
according to the rule that 'the dominants of 
the plagal modes are always the third below 
the dominants of the relative authentic, unless 
this third happens to be B, when the nearest 
sound C is substituted for it,' as appears, for 
example, in the eighth mode. 

The pitch of the authentic ^olian scale being 
higher than is convenient for many voices led to 
its being often transposed a fifth lower by the 
use of the B flat. The scale will thus begin on 
D, and the semitones (as in our modern minor 
scales) vdll fall in the same places as before, viz. 
between the second and third, and fifth and sixth 
notes of the scale. 



In this position the .^Eolian mode is apt to be 
confounded with the Dorian, or first mode, with 
which, when thus transposed, it corresponds, 
except in the upper tetrachord, the semitone of 
which in the Dorian mode falls between the sixth 
and seventh notes of the scale. The transposed 
final is D, and the dominant A, as in the first 
mode, but the semitones fall (as in the un- 
transposed position) between the second and 
third of the scale (E and F), and between the 
fifth and sixth (A and B b). 

The service-books contain hymns, antiphons, 
etc., which, though belonging originally to this 
^olian mode, are sometimes ascribed to the two 
Dorian modes ; and the scale of the Hypo-Dorian 
is the same as that of the Hyper-^olian, but an 
octave lower, and having of course its own plagal 
character and treatment, and thus differing 
from the authentic Hyper-^olian. 

Examples of the .^olian mode may be found 

in the chorales 'Puer natus in Bethlehem,' 
No. 12, and ' Herzliebster Jesu,' No. iii, ol 
Bach's '371 Choralgesange.' The latter is from 
the St. John Passion. Mozart's Requiem may 
be said almost to begin and end with the ^oliaii 
scale, for the 'Te decet hymnus' and 'Lux 
.Sterna' which form so prominent a feature in 
the first and last movements are given in the 
melody of the 'Tonus Peregrinus,' which is 
founded directly on this scale. 

It may be well to state here that from 
the earliest date of any kind of counterpoint 
the ancient tones have been harmonised both 
in the organ accompaniment, and, for some 
portions of the divine service, in vocal parts ; 
and although, from the vast quantity of Gregorian 
music used in the antiphonars, psalters, hymna- 
ries, etc., of the Western churches, it is found 
expedient to use vocal unisons (or octaves) with 
organ accompaniment in aU ordinary services, 
yet the psahn tones have for centuries been sung 
in the Sistine Chapel (where there is no organ nor 
other instrument) with vocal harmonies in three 
parts, to which Baini added a fourth part for the 
soprano. Gafforius arranged them in the 15th 
century, and the style of vocal accompaniment 
called Faux-BOURDON, in which he set them, had 
grown up gradually and very generally in the 
churches, most probably from the first invention 
and subsequent improvements of the organ. 
Some intimations of this are contained in the 
'Micrologus' of Guide Aretino, written in the 
latter part of the nth century. [T. H.] 

MOLINA. A small and simple 'free reed' 4j 
instrument, invented about 1829 by Messrs.* 
Wheatstone. It consisted of a few free reeds, rt 
which were fixed into a metal plate and blown (•! 
by the mouth. As each reed was furnished with .< 
a separate aperture for supplying the wind, a Jf 
simple melody could of course be played by } 
moving the instrument backwards and forwards «! 
before the mouth. Its value for artistic purposes <4 
was nil ; its only interest is a historical one, a 
as being one of the earliest attempts to make il 
practical use of the discovery of the free reed, -i 
The seohna may be regarded as the first germ of f( 
the Accordion and Concertina. [E. P.] 

^OLODION, or JEOLODICON (also called | 
in Germany WindharmoniJca), a keyed wind- 
instrument resembling the harmonium, the tone 
of which was produced from steel springs. It 
had a compass of six octaves, and its tone was 
similar to that of the harmonium. There is 
some controversy as to its original inventor ; x 
most authorities attribute it to J. T. Eschenbach w 
of Hamburg, who is said to have first made it 
in 1800. Various improvements were subse- 
quently made by other mechanicians, among 
whom may be named Schmidt of Presburg, Voit 
of Schweinfurt, Sebastian Muller (1826), and F. 
Sturm of Suhl (1833). The instrument is now 
entirely superseded by the harmonium. A modi- 
fication of the seolodion was the ^OLSKLAVIER, 
invented about 1825 by Schortmann of Buttel- 
stadt, in which the reeds or springs which 


roduced the sound were made of wood instead 
f metal, by which the quality of tone was made 
jfter and sweeter. The instrument appears to 
ave been soon forgotten. A further modification 
.•as the ^OLOJiELODicox or choraleon, con- 
iructed by Brunner at Warsaw, about the year 
825, from the design of Professor HoflFmann in 
hat city. It dififered from the aeolodion in the 
jct that brass tubes were affixed to the reeds, 
luch as in the reed-stops of an organ. The 
latrument was of great power, and was probably 
itended as a substitute for the organ in small 
hnrches, especially in the accompaniment of 
horals, whence its second name choraleon. It 
taken no permanent place in musical history. 
n the -EOLOPAXTALOX, invented about the year 
830, by Dlugosz of Warsaw, the seolomelodicon 
/as combined with a pianoforte, so arranged 
hat the player could make use of either in- 
crument separately or both together. A some- 
what similar plan has been occasionally tried 
nth the piano and harmonium, but without great 
access. [E. P.] 

AERTS, EcroiUB, bom at Boom, 1822, died 
t Brussels, 1853 ; an eminent flutist and 
omposer, studied under Lahon in the Con- 
arvatoire at Brussels. From 1837 to 1840 he 
ravelled professionally through France and 
taly, and on his return to Brussels studied 
omposition under Fetis. In 1847 was appointed 
■rofessor of the flute at the Conservatoire, and 
ret flute at the Theatre. He composed sympho- 
.ies and overtures, aa weU as concertos and other 
lusic for the flute. [M. C. C] 

AFFETTUOSO (Ital.), or Con Affetto, 'with 
jeling.' This word is most commonly found in 
ach combinations as 'andante afiettuoso' or 
allegro aSettuoso,' though it is occasionally 
•laced alone at the beginning of a movement, 
a which case a somewhat slow t'me is intended. 
t is frequently placed (like 'espressivo' 'canta- 
•ile,' etc.) over a single passage, when it refers 
aerely to that particular phrase and not to the en- 
ire movement. The German expressions ' Innig,' 
Mit iimigem Ausdruck,' to be met with in Schu- 
lann and other modem German composers are 
quiva'.ent to 'Afi"ettuoso.' [E. P.] 

AFFILARD, Michel l', a tenor singer in 
he choir of Louis XIV from 1683 to 1708, 
fith a salary of 900 livres. His work on 
inging at sight, 'Principes tres faciles,' etc., in 
7hich the time of the airs is regulated by 
pendulum, — precursor of the metronome — 
lassed through seven editions (Paris, 1691 ; 
Lmsterdam, 171 7.) 

AFRAXIO, lived in the beginning of the 
6th century, a canon of Ferrara, and reputed 
Qventor of the bassoon, on the ground of a 
nnd instrument' of his called Phagotum, which 
9 mentioned, and figured in two woodcuts, at 
». 1 79 of the ' Introductio in Chaldaicam linguam ' 
>f Albonesi (Pavia, 1539), a work dedicated 
>y the author to his uncle Afrtinio. The in- 
trument sufficiently resembles the modem 
MBSoon or fagotto to make good Afranio's right ; 



but the book does not appear to contain any 

account of it. 

AFZELIUS, Arvtd August, bom 1785, a 
Swedish pastor and archaeologist : edited conjointly 
with Geijer a collection of Swedish national 
melodies, ' Svenska Folkvisor,' 3 vols. (Stock- 
holm, 1 814-16, continued by Arwidsson), and 
wrote the historical notes to anotlier collection, 
' Afsked af Svenska Folksharpan ' (Stockholm, 

AGAZZARI, Agostino, was a cadet of a 
noble family of Siena, and bom on Dec. 2, I578. 
He passed the first years of his professional life 
in the service of the Emperor Matthias. After 
a time he came to Rome, where he was chosen 
Maestro di Cappella at the German College 
(before 1603) at the chiu-ch of S. Apollinaris,' 
and subsequently at the Seminario Romano. An 
intimacy grew up between him and the well- 
known Viadana, of Mantua, and he was one of 
the earliest adopters of the figured bass. In the 
preface to his third volume of 'Motetti' (Zanetti, 
Rome, 1606), he gives some in.structions for its 
employment. In 1630 he returned to Siena, and 
became Maestro of its cathedral, a post which he 
retained till his death, probably in 1 640. Agazzari 
was a member of the Academy of the Armonici 
Intronati. His publications are numerous, and 
consist of Madrigals, Motetts, Psalms, Magni- 
ficats, Litanies, etc., republished in numerous 
editions at Rome, Milan, Venice, Antwerp, 
Frankfort, and elsewhere. His one substantive 
contribution to the scientific literature of music 
is a little work of only sixteen quarto pages, 
entitled ' La Musica Ecclesiastica, dove si contiene 
la vera diffinizione della IMusica come Scienza non 
piti veduta e sua nobilta ' (Siena, 1638); the 
object of which is to determine how church music 
should best conform itself to the Resolution of the 
Council of Trent. Palestrina, however, had worked 
at a clearer practical solution of that problem than 
any which the speculations of a scientific theorist 
could possibly evolve. On the authority of Pitoni, 
a pastoral drama, entitled 'Eumelio,' has been 
ascribed to Agazzari. It was undoubtedly per- 
formed at Amelia, and printed by Domenico 
Domenici at RonciHone in 1614 (Allacci, 'Dra- 
maturgia ') ; but no author's name is affi-^ed 
either to music or libretto. 

A short motett by Agazzari is given by Proske 
in the 'Musica divina' (Lib. Motettorum, No. 
Ixv). [E. H. P.] 

AGITATO (Ital.), also Con Agitazione, 
'agitated,' 'restless.' This adjective is mostly 
combined with ' allegro ' or ' presto ' to describe 
the character of a movement. In the somewhat 
rare cases in which it occurs without any other 
time-indication (e g. Mendelssohn's ' Lieder ohne 
Worte,' Book i., No. 5, 'Piano agitato') a rather 
rapid time is indicated. 

AGNESI, Maria Teresa, bom at Milan, 
1724; sister of the renowned scholar, Maria 
Gaetana Agnesi ; a celebrated pianist of her 

> Bnini alone mentions this second appointment ; but he Is prob- 
ably right. 



time, composed four operas, 'Sofonisbe,' 'Giro 
in Armenia,' 'Nitocri,' and 'Insubria conso- 
lata' (1771), several cantatas, and many piano- 
forte concertos and sonatas, well known in 
Germany. [M. C. C] 

AGOSTINI, LuDOVico, born 1534 at Ferrara. 
In holy orders, and both poet and composer. 
Became chapel-master to Alfonso II, Duke of 
Este, and died Sept. 20, .1590. A collection of 
his masses, motetts, and madrigals, appeared 
shortly before his death. 

AGOSTINI, Paolo, an Italian composer, who 
stands out in relief from too many of his con- 
temporary countrymen. He was bom at Val- 
lerano in 1593, and was a pupil, at Eome, of 
Bernardino Nanini, whose daughter he married. 
After being organist of S. Maria in Trastevei-e, 
and Maestro di Cappello at S. Lorenzo in Da- 
maso, he succeeded Ugolini as Maestro at the 
Vatican Chapel, in 1629. Unhappily for his 
art, he died a few months after his preferment, 
in the 36th year of his age. 

Pitoni, who would seem to be nothing if not inac- 
curate, has a story to the effect that Agostini 
owed his appointment at the Vatican to an un- 
answered challenge to a musical encounter, which 
he sent to Ugolini, who had been his fellow- 
pupil under Nanini ; the Chapter conceived that, 
if their Maestro shunned a professional duello 
with Agostini, he ought to give up his iplace to 
him. But this is hardly probable, and Baini, 
with unnecessary perseverance, exposes its im- 
probability. A more pleasant anecdote is that 
Urban VIII happened to enter the Basilica at 
the moment when a work of Agostini's, for forty- 
eight voices, after the fashion then in vogue, was 
being performed by the choir. The Pope stopped 
to hear it out ; and, at its conclusion, rose and 
bowed pointedly to its composer, to mark his 
sense of its beauty. 

The extant published works of Agostini con- 
sist of two volumes of Psalms for four and eight 
voices (printed by Soldi, Eome, 16J9) ; two 
volumes of Magnificats for one, two, and three 
voices (Ibid., 1620) ; and five volumes of Masses 
for eight and twelve voices, published (Eobletti, 
Eome) in .1624, 1625, 1626, 1627, and 1628 re- 
spectively. He was one of the first to employ 
large numbers of voices in several choirs. 
Ingenuity and elegance are his prevailing char- 
acteristics ; but that he could and did rise beyond 
these, is proved by an 'Agnus Dei' for eight 
voices in canon, which was published by P. 
Martini in his ' Saggio di Contrappunto Fugato,' 
and which is allowed to be a masterpiece. The 
fame, however, of Agostini rests upon his un- 
published pieces, which form the great bulk of 
his productions. They are preserved partly in 
the Corsini^ Library, and partly in the Collection 
of the Vatican.* A motett by Agostini is given 

• Paolo Agostini must not be confounded witli the earlier and in- 
ferior Ludovico ARostini of Ferrara, who. having lived for fifty-5ix 
years, and having been Maestro at the Cathedral of his native town, 
died in ISiW, and left certain masses, madrigals, and motetti behind 
him : nor with Pietro Simoni Agostini, a Koman, who lived during the 
latter half of the 17th century, and was the author of some published 
cantatas, and of 'H Katto delle Sabine," an opera performed in 
Venice iniseo. 


in Proske's 'Musica Divina' (Liber Motettonun 
No. Ixx.) [E. H. P. 

AGEELL, JoHANN, bom at Loth in Sweden 
studied at Linkoping and Upsal. Appointe( 
court musician at Cassel in 1723, and in I74( 
conductor at Nuremberg, where he died, 1767 
He left nine publislied works (Nuremberg) 
concertos, sonatas, etc., and many more ii 

AGEEMENS (Fr., property Agremens di 
Chant or de Musiqne ; Ger. Manieren ; Eng 
Graces). Certain ornaments introduced inti 
vocal or instrumental melody, indicated eithe 
by signs, or by small notes, and performed ac 
cording to certain rules. 

Various forms of agremens have been fron 
time to time invented by diflferent composers 
and many of them have again fallen into disuse 
but the earliest seem to have been the inventicn 
of Chambonnieres, a celebrated French organis 
of the time of Louis XTV (1670), and they wep 
probably introduced into Germany by MuFPAl 
organist at Passau in 1695, who in his youth ha< 
studied in Paris. The proper employment of tb 
agremens in French music — which, according t 
Kousseau (Dictionnaire de Musique, 1768) wer 
necessary 'pour couvrir un peu la fadeur di 
chant fi'an9ais' — was at first taught in Pari 
by special professors of the 'gout du chant, 
but no definite rules for their application wer 
laid down until Emanuel Bach treated then 
very fully in his 'Versuch liber die wahr 
Art das Clavier zu spielen,' in 1752. Ii 
this he speaks of the great value of the agr^ 
mens : — ' they serve to connect the notes, the; 
enliven them, and when necessary give then 
a special emphasis, . . . they help t 
elucidate thfi character of the music ; whether i 
be sad, cheerful, or otherwise, they always cod 
tribute their share to the efi"ect, 
an indifferent composition may be improved b; 
their aid, while without them even the bes 
melody may appear empty and meaningless.' A 
the same time he warns against their too fire 
quent use, and says they should be as the oma 
ments with which the finest building may b 
overladen, or the spices with which the best disl 
may be spoilt. 

The agremens according to Emanuel Bach ar 
the Bebung,^ Vorschlag, Triller, Doppelschlas 
Mordent, Anschlag, Schleifer, Schneller, auv 
Brechung (Ex. i). 






r > I I r*?f^rprF 

2 The Bebung (Fr. ' balancement ' ; Ital. ' tremolo 1 cannot bee 
ecuted on the modem pianoforte. It consisted in giving to the key ■ 
the clavichord a certain trembling pressure, -which produced a kind 
pulsation of the sound, without any intervals of silence. On stringi 
instruments a similar effect is obtained by a rocking moveiuent 0§ U 
finger without raising it from the string. 






Tu addition to these, Marpurg treats of the 
Nachschlag (Ex. 2), which Emanuel Bach does 
u it recognise, or at least calls ' U!,dy, although 
extraordinarily in fashion,' but which is largely 
employed by modern composers. 
2 Nachichlag. 







The principal agremens of French music were 
the Appogiature, TriUe, and Accent, which re- 
sembled respectively the Vorschlag, Triller and 
Nachschlag described above, and in addition 
the Mordant — which appears to have dififered 
from the Mordent of German music, and to 
have been a kind of interrupted trill, — the Coul^, 
Port de voix, ^ Port de voix jette, and the 
Cadence pleine ou brisee* (Ex. 3). 




* •- 



Port de voir. 

Port de voixjettd 

§ =!=^s^^L-^ m 

-'• U^ M^r^ ?^J=UU 


Cadence pleine. 

Cadence brisee. 

The aorremens or graces peculiar to old English 
music differed considerably from the above, and 

' The term ' Port de voix,' which ouirtit properly to siRtiify the 
canyinfi of the voice with extreme smoothness from one note to an- 
other (Ital. ■ portamento di voce"), b»s been very generally applied to 
the appOKgiatura. 

' The DoppelschlaE (Eng. ' Turn ") was often called Cadence by the 
Flench writers of the time of Couperin nTW); and indeed Sebastian 
Bach uses the word in this sense io his ' Clavier-Biichlein' (1?20|. 

have now become obsolete. They are described 
in an instruction-book for the violin, called the 
Division Violist, by Christopher Simpson, pub- 
lished in 1659, and are divided into two classes, 
the 'smooth and shaked graces.' The smooth 
graces are only adapted to stringed instruments, 
as they are to be executed by sliding the finger 
along the string : they include the Plain-beat or 
Eise, the Backfall, the Double Backfall, the Ele- 
vation, the Cadent, and the Springer, which ' con- 
cludes the Sound of a Note more acute, by 
clapping down another Finger just at the ex- 
piring of it.' The effect of this other finger upon 
the \'iolin would be to raise the pitch of the last 
note but one (the upper of the two written notes) 
so that the Springer would resemble the French 
Accent. The ' shaked graces' are the Shaked 
Beat, Backfall, Elevation, and Cadent, which are 
similar to the plain graces with the addition 
of a shake, and lastly the Double Eelish, of which 
no explanation in words is attempted, but an 
example in notes given as below (Ex. 4). 

4- Plain-beat. 

Back/all. Double Back/all. 

'^^'' "+^^ 

Shaked Elevation. 

Shaked Cadent 



^ r ^■^M^^-isg^TTl 

Double Relith. 






The agr^mens used in modern music or in tKe 
performance of the works of the great masters 
are the acciacatura, appopgiatura, arpeggio, mor- 
dent, nachschlag, siiake or trill, slide, and turn; 
each of which will be fully described in its own 
place. [F. T] 

AGRICOLA, Alexander, a composer of 
great celebrity living at the end of the 15th 
century and beginning of the i6th. Crespel's 
lament on the death of Ockenheim mentions 
Agricola as a fellow-pupil in the school of that 
master ; and the dates of his published works, 
together with an interesting epitaph printed in 
a collection of motetts published at Wittenberg 
in 1538, furnish us with materials for briefly 
sketching his life. The words of the epitaph, 
which bears the title ' Epitaphium Alex. Agri- 
colae Sjrmphoniastae regis Castaliae Philippi,' are 
as follows : — 

' Musica quid defies ? Periit mea aura decusque. 

Estne Alexander ? Is meus Agricola. 
Die age qualis erat ? Clarus vocum manuumque. 
Quis locus hunc rapuit ? Valdoletanus ager. 
Quis Belgam hunc tra.'cit? Magnus rex ipse 
Quo morlso interiit ? Febre furente obiit. 
Aetas quae fuerat ? Jam se\agesimus annus. 
Sol ubi tunc stabat ? Virginio capite.' 

The question ' Quis Belgam hunc traxit ?' seems 
to imply that Agricola was not a native of that 
country, though F^tis claims him as a Belgian on 
the strength of this very sentetice, which he 
renders ' Who brought him from Belgium ? ' He 
was however certainly educated there, and lived 
the greater part of his life in the Netherlands. 
At an early age he distinguished himself both as 
a singer and performer. His fame soon spread 
to distant countries, and the great printer Pe- 
trucci published some of his works at Venice in 
1503. He entered the service of Philip, duke of 
Austria and' sovereign of the Netherlands, and 
followed him to Castile in 1 506. There Agricola 
remained until his death, at the age of 60 (about 
the year 1530), of acute fever, in the territory of 
Valladolid. Amongst Agricola's known works 
the most important are two motetts for three 
voices from the collection entitled ' Motetti 
XXXIII' (Venice, Petrucci, i.';o2) ; eight four- 
part songs from the collection ' Canti cento cin- 
quanta' (Venice, Petrucci, 1503) ; and a volume 
of live masses ' Misse Alex. Agricolae ' (Venice, 
Petrucci, 1505). It is not improbable that a 
large number of his comjDositions may still be 
contained in the libraries of Spain. [ J.R. S.-B.] 

AGRICOLA, Geoeg Ludwig, born Oct, 25, 
1643, at Grossen-FuiTa in Thuringia, where 
his father was clergyman ; brought up at 
Eisenach and Gotha and the universities of 
Wittenberg and Leipsic ; kapellmeister at Gotha 
in 1670. He composed ' Musikalische Ne- 
benstunden' for two violins, two violas, and 
bass; religious hjrmns and madrigals; sonatas 
and preludes, 'auf franzosisclie Art,' etc., etc. 
He died at Gotha in Feb. 1676 at the age of 

thirty-three, fuU of promise, but without ac- 
complishing a style for himself. [F. G.] 
AGRICOLA, JoHANN, born at Nuremberg 
about 157°' professor of music in the Gymna- 
sium at Erfurt in 16 11, and composer of 
three collections of motetts (Nuremberg, 1601- 

AGRICOLA, JoHANN Friedeich, bom Jan. 
4, 1720, at Dobitschen, Altenburg, Saxony. 
His lather was a judge, and his mother, Maria 
Magdalen Manke, from Giebrichenstein near 
Halle, was a friend of the great Handel. He 
began to learn music in his fifth year under a 
certain Martini. In 1738 he entered the 
University of Leipsic when Gottsched was 
Professor of Rhetoric. But though he went 
through the regular course of 'humanities' he 
also studied music under Sebastian Bach, with 
whom he worked hard for three years. After 
this he resided at Dresden and Berlin, and 
studied the dramatic style under Graun and 
Hasse. In 1 749 he published two pamphlets on 
French and Italian taste in music under the 
pseudonym of Olibrio. In the following year a 
cantata of his, ' II Filosofo convinto in amore,' was 
performed before Frederic the Great, and made 
such an impression on the king as to induce him 
to confer on Agricola the post of Hof-componist. 
He had an equal success with a second cantata, 
' La Ricamatrice.' Agricola then married Signora 
Molteni, prima donna of the Berlin opera, and 
composed various operas for Dresden and Berlin, 
as well as much music for the Church and many 
arrangements of the king's melodies. After the 
death of Graun (Aug. 8, 1759) he was made 
director of the roj'al chapel ; but without the 
title of 'kapellmeister.' There he remained till 
his death in 1774 — Nov. 12 (Forkel) or Dec. i 
(Schneider, Hist, of Berlin Opera). Agricola's 
compositions had no permanent success, nor were 
any printed excepting a psalm and some chorals. 
He had the reputation of being the best organ- 
player in Berlin, and a good teacher of singing. 
He translated with much skill Tosi's 'Opinioni 
de' Cantori,' and made some additions of value to 
Adlung's 'Musica mechanica organoedi.' [F. G.] 

AGRICOLA, Martin, whose German name, 
as he himself tells us, was Sohr, or Sore, was 
born about 1 500 at Sorall in Lower Silesia. In 
1524 we find liim teacher and cantor in the first 
Protestant school at Magdeburg, and lie remained 
there till his death, June 10, 1556. The assertion 
of his biographer Caspar that Agricola reached 
the age of seventy has misled all following 
writers as to- the date- of his birth. In his 
'Musica instrumentalis deudsch,' which, not- 
withstanding its potyglott title is written in 
German, he states that he had no ' activum 
prfficeptorem' for music, but learned the art 
by himself while constantly occupied as a school- 
master. That work is remarkable not only for its 
musical ability but for its German style, which has 
all the force and flavour of the writings of his 
contemporary Luther himself. Agricola's chief 
protector and friend was Rhaw, the senator of 


Wittenberg, renowned in liis own day as a 
jrinter of music. This excellent man printed 
nany of Agricola's works, of which the following 
nav be named amongst others : — ' Ein kurtz 
leutsche Musica,' 1528; ' Musica instrumentalis 
leudsch,' 1529, '32, '45 ; 'Musica figuralis 
leudsch,' 1532; 'Von den Vroportionibus' ; 

Rudimenta Musices,' 1539. The list of the rest 
jrill be found in Draudius' ' Bibliotheca Classica,' 
). 1650; Walther's 'Lexicon'; Marpurg's 

Beitrage,' vol. v ; Forkel's ' Literature,' and 
jerber's ' Dictionary.' Mattheson in his ' Epho- 
•us' (p. 124") praises him for having been the 
irst to abolish the ' ancient tablature,' and adopt 
Jie system of notation which we still employ. 
But this is inaccurate. All that Agricola pro- 
losed was a new ' tablature ' for the lute, better 
ian the old one. On the conflict between the 
jld and new notation, Agricola's writings are 
full of interest, and they must be studied by 
)very one who wishes to have an accurate view 
)f that revolution. But unfortunately they are 
Doth rare and costly. [E. G.] 

AGRICOLA, Wolfgang Chbistoph, lived 
ibout the middle of the 17th century, composed a 

Fasciculus Musicalis' (Wurzburg and Cologne, 
165 1 ), of masses, and 'Fasciculus variarum can- 
donum,' of motetts. 

AGTHE, Cabl Christian, bom at Hettstadt, 
1739; died at Ballenstedt, 1797 ; organist, com- 
poeer of six operas, three pianoforte sonatas 
^Leipsic, 1790), and a collection of Lieder (Des- 
»u, 1782). His son, W. J. Albkecht, bom at 
Ballenstedt, 1700, in 1810 settled at Leipsic, 
uid 1823 at Dresden asteacherof Logier's system, 
under the approval of C. M. von Weber, and in 
1826 founded a similar establishment at Posen. 
Later he was at Berlin. Kullak is his best- 
known pupil. [M. C. C] 
AGUADO, DiONisio, bom in Madrid, 17S4, 
a remarkable performer on the guitar ; received 
luB chief instruction from Garcia, the great singer. 
In 1825 he went to Paris, where he associated 
with the most eminent artistes of the day, till 
1838, when he returned to Madrid, and died 
there in 1849. His method for the guitar, an 
excellent work of its kind, passed through three 
editions in Spain (Madrid, 1825-1843) and one 
in Paris (1827). He also published 'Colleccion 
de los Etudios para la guitarra' (Madrid, 1820), 

Colleccion de Andantes,' etc., and other works 
for his instrument. [M. C. C] 

monk and Spanish composer at the beginningof the 
1 7th century. His chief work was a collection of 
Magnificats for four five, six, seven, and eight 
Toicea, many of which are still sung in the cathe- 
dral of Saragosa, where he directed the music, 
and at other churches in Spain. 

AGTJJARI, Lccrezia, a very celebrated 
nnger, who supplies an extraordinary example of 
the fashion of nicknaming musicians ; for, being 
% natural child of a noble, she was always an- 
nottoced in the playbills and newspapers as Xa 



BastanJinn, or Badardella. She was bom at 
Ferrara in 1 743, instructed in a convent by the 
P. Lambertini, and made her debut at Florence 
in 1764. Her triumph was brilliant, and she 
was eagerly engaged for all the principal towns, 
where she was enthusiastically received. She did 
not excel in expression, but in execution she sur- 
passed all rivals. The extent of her register was 
beyond all comparison. Sacchini said he had 
heard her sing as high as Bb in altissimo, and 
she had two good octaves below : but Mozart 
himself heard her at Parma in 177Q, and says of 
her ' that she had ' a lovely voice, a flexible 
throat, and an incredibly high range. She sang 
the following notes and passages in my pre- 
sence : — 

H ,-1 1 1 1 ' rJ !^ 1 1 I 1 



Ten years later, in speaking of Mara, he says, 
' She has not the good fortune to please me. She 
does too little to be compared to a Bastardella — 
though that is her peculiar style — and too much 
to touch the heart like an Aloysia Weber.'* 
Leopold Mozart says of her, 'She is not 
handsome nor yet ugly, but has at times a 
wild look in the eyes, like people who are subject 
to convulsions, and she is lame in one foot. Her 
conduct formerly was good ; she has, consequently, 
a good name and reputation. 

Agujari made a great sensation in the carnival 
of 1774 at Milan, in the serious opera of 'II 
Tolomeo,' by Colla, and still more in a cantata 
by the same composer. In 1780 she married 

1 letter of March 34, 1770. 

» Utter of Not. 13. 1730. 



Colla, who composed for her most of the music 
she sang. She sang at the Pantheon Concerts 
for some years, from 1775, receiving a salary at 
one time of £100 a night for singing two songs, 
a price which was then simply enormous. She 
died at Parma, May 18, 1783. [J. M.] 

AGUS, Henri, bom in 1749, died 1798; 
composer and professor of solfeggio in the 
Conservatoire of Paris (1795). His works, which 
display more learning than genius, consist of 
trios for strings, two compositions for violoncello, 
published in London, where he lived for some 
time, and six duos concertants for two violins, 
published by Barbieri (Paris) as the op. 37 of 

AHLE, JoHANN EoDOLPH, church composer, 
bom at Miihlhausen in Thuringia, Dec. 24, 1625; 
educated at Gottingen and Erfurt. In 1^44 he 
became organist at Erfurt, but soon after settled 
at his native place, where in 1655 he was 
appointed member of the senate and afterwards 
burgomaster. He died in full possession of his 
powers July 8, 1673. His published compositions 
include 'Compendium pro tenellis' (1648), a trea^ 
tise on singing which went through three editions ; 
' Geistlichen Dialogen,' ' Symphonien, Paduanen, 
und Balleten' ; ' Thuringische Lustgarten,' a 
collection of church music; 400 'geistlichen 
Arien,' 'geistlichen Concerte,' and 'Andachten' 
on all the Sundays and Festivals, etc., etc. He 
cultivated the simple style of the choral, avoiding 
polyphonic counterpoint. His tunes were for 
long very popular, and are still sung in the 
Protestant churches of Thuringia — amongst 
others that known as 'Liebster Jesu wLr sind 
hier.' Able left a son, Johann Georg, born 
1650, who succeeded to his father's musical hon- 
ours, and was made poet laureate by the Emperor 
Leopold I. He died Dec. 2, 1706. His hymn 
tunes were once popular, but are not now in 
use. [F. G.] 

AHLSTROEM, A. J. E, bom about 1762 ; 
a Swedish composer, organist at the church of 
St. James, Stockbohn, and court accompanjdst ; 
composed sonatas for pianoforte (Stockholm, 1783 
and 1786), cantatas, and songs, and edited with 
Boman 'Walda svenska Folkdansar och Folkle- 
dar,' a collection of Swedish popular airs, some 
of which have been sung by Mme. Liud- 
Goldschmidt. He was also editor for two years 
of a Swedish musical periodical 'Musikaliskt 
Tidsfordrif.' [M. C. C] 

AIBLINGER, Johann Caspar, born at 
Wasserburg in Bavaria, Feb. 23, 1779. His 
compositions are much esteemed, and performed 
in the Catholic churches of South Germany. In 
1803 he went to Italy, and studied eight years at 
Vicenza, after which he settled at Venice, where 
in conjunction with the Abbe Gregorio Trentino 
he founded the ' Odeon' Institution for the 
practice of classical works. In. 1826 he was 
recalled to his native country by the king, and 
appointed kapellmeister of his court music. In 
1833 however he returned to Italy, and resided 
at Bergamo, occupying himself in the collection 


of ancient classical music, which is now in thJ 
Staatsbibliothek at Munich. His whole effortil 
to the end of his life were directed to th( 
performance of classical vocal music in th( 
All Saints' church at Munich, erected in 1826 
His single attempt at dramatic composition wa; 
an opera of 'Rodrigo a Chimene,' which wa; 
not successful. The bravura airs for Mme 
Schechner and for Pellegrini were much liked 
but the piece shewed no depth of invention. I: 
church music however he was remarkably happy 
his compositions in this department are in th( 
free style of his time, written with great skill 
and full of religious feeling, tuneful, agreeable 
and easy melody, and exactly suited to smal 
church choirs. They consist of masses, somi 
requiems, graduals, litanies, and psalms, wit! 
accompaniments for orchestra and organ, pub 
lished at Munich, Augsburg, and Paris (Schott) 
Aiblinger died May 6, 1867, [C. F. P. 

AICHINGER, Gregor. Born about 1565 
took holy orders, and entered the service 
FreihMT Jacob Fugger at Augsburg as organist 
In 1599 he paid a visit of two years to Rome tt 
perfect himself in music. The date of his deatl 
is unknown, but it is supposed that he was alivt 
at the time of the publication of one of his works 
Dec. 5, 1613. In the preface to his 'Sacra* 
Cantiones' (Venice,, 1590), he praises the music 
of Gabrieli ; and his works also betray the 
influence of the Venetian school. They art 
among the best German music of that time 
bearing marks of real genius ; and are superio; 
to those of his contemporary, the learned Gallus 
or Handl. Amongst the most remarkable are 1 
' Ubi est frater,' and ' Assumpta est Maria,' botl 
for three voices; an 'Adoramus' for four; ant 
an 'Intonuit de ccelo' for six voices, the las 
printed in the Flonlegium Portense. A Litan)', ; 
Stabat Mater, and various motetts of his an 
printed in Proske's ' Musica divina.' [F. G. 

AIMON, Pamphile Leopold Francois, vio 
lonceUist and composer, born at L'Isle, near Avig 
non, 1779; conducted the orchestra of the theatrt 
in Marseilles when only seventeen, that of th( 
Gymnase Dramatique in Paris 1 821, and of tlii 
Theatre Francais, on the retirement of Baudron 
1822. Of his seven operas only two wen 
performed, the 'Jeux Floraux' (1818), ant 
'Michel et Christine' (1821), the last witl 
great success. He also composed numerou; 
string quartetts, trios, and duos (Paris ant 
Lyons), and was the author of ' Connaissance; 
preliminaires de L'Harmonie,' and other trea 
tises. [M. C. C. 

AIR (Ital. ana; Fr. air; Germ. Arie, fron 
the Latin aer, the lower atmosphere; or ara 
a given number,, an epoch, or period of time) 
In a general sense air, from the element whos< 
vibration is the cause of music, has come t( 
mean that particular kind of music which i; 
independent of harmony. In common parlance 
air is rhythmical melody — any melody or kint 
of melody of wnich the feet are of the samt 
duration, and the phrases bear some recognisablt 


! •oportion one to another. In the i6th and 17 th 
: mturies air represented popularly a cheerful 
i rain. The English word glee, now exclusively 
bplied to a particular kind of musical com- 
j jaition, is derived from the A. S. jligS®' ^^ 
\b primitive sense simply music. Technically 
'\ 1 air is a composition for a single voice or any 
.onophonous instrument, acccompanied by other 
jices or by instruments. About the be;^inning 
f the 17th century many part-songs were 
ritten, differing from those of the preceding 
intury in many important particulars, but 
! liefly in the fact of their interest being 
irown into one, generally the upper, part ; 
le other parts being subordinate. These other 
irts were generally so contrived as to admit of 
eing either sung or played. The first book of 
brd's 'Musike of sundrie kinds' (1607') is 
this class. Subsequently to its invention, 
riaa were for a considerable time commonly 
oblished with the accompaniment only of a 
igured bass.' The aria grande, great or more 
rtended air, has taken a vast variety of forms. 
hese however may be classed under two heads, 
le aria with 'da capo' and the aria without. 
be invention of the former and older form has 
ten long attributed to Alessandro Scarlatti 
659-1725) ; but an aria printed in the present 
iriter's 'Lectures on the Transition Period of 
[nsical History,' shows that it was used as 
iriy as 1655, i.e. four years before A. Scarlatti 
18 bom, by the Venetian, Francesco Cavalli, 
master in whose opera 'Giasone' (1649) the 
ne which divides air from recitative seems to 
ave been marked more distinctly than in any 
receding music. The so-called ' aria' of Monte- 
erde and his contemporaries (c. 1600) is^ardly 
istinguishable from their 'musica parlante,' a 
ery slight advance on the 'plain-song' of the 
liddle ages. The aria without ' da capo' is but 
more extended and interesting form than that 
f its predecessor. In the former the first section 
r division is also the last ; a section, always in 
aether key and generally shorter, being inter- 
osed between the first and its repetition. In the 
itter the first section is repeated, often several 
mea, the sections interposed being in different 
eya from one another as well as from the first, 
hich, on its last repetition, is generally more or 
S8B developed into a ' coda.' The aria grande has 
sumed, under the hands of the great masters 
f the modem school, a scope and a splendour 
"hich raise it to all but symphonic dignity, 
J specimens of these qualities we may cite 
leethoven's 'Ah, perfido,' and Mendelssohn's 
Infelice.' The limits of the human voice 
)rbid, however, save in rare instances, to the 
ri», however extended, that repetition of the 
une strains in different though related keys, 
y which the s\anphonic 'form' is distinguished 
"om every other. But compositions of this 
laea, especially those interspersed with re- 
itative, though nominally sometimes arie belong 
}ther to the class ' scena.' [J. H.] 

AIRY, Sir George Btddell. The present 
uitronomcr Royal, and late President of the 



Royal Society, the author of one of the latest 
works on acoustics, ' On Sound and Atmospheric 
Vibrations,' London 186S. The most important 
portion of this work is its elaborate mathematical 
treatment of the theory of atmospheric sound- 
waves, a subject first discussed by Sir Isaac 
Newton in the ' Principia.' [W. P.] 

A'KEMPIS, Florentino, organist of St. 
Gudule, at Brussels, about the middle of the 1 7th 
century ; composed three symphonies (Antwerp, 
1644, 1647, and 1649), ' Missae et Motetta' (Ant- 
werp, 1650), and another mass for eight voices. 

AKEROYDE, Samuel, a native of Yorkshire, 
was a very popular and prolific composer of 
songs in the latter part of the 17th century. 
Many of his compositions are contained in the 
following collections of the period : ' D'TJrfey's 
Third Collection of Songs' 1685 ; 'The Theatre 
of Musick,' 16S5-1687 ; 'Vinculum Societatis,' 
1687; ' Comes Amoris,' 1687-1694 ; 'The Ban- 
quet of Musick,' 1688-1692 ; 'Thesaurus Mu- 
sicus,' 1693-1696 ; and in 'The Gentleman's 
Journal,' 1692-1694. He was also a contri- 
butor to the Third Part of D'Urfey's ' Don 
Quixote,' 1696. [W. H. H.] 

ALA, Giovanni Battista, bom at Monza 
about the middle of the i6th century, died at 
the age of thirty-two ; organist of the Church del 
Servitori, in Milan, and composer of canzonets, 
madrigals, and operas (Milan, 1617, 1625), 
'Concertiecclesiastici' (Milan, 1618, 1621, 1628), 
and several motetts in the 'Pratum musicum* 
(Antwerp, 1634). 

ALARD, Delphin, eminent violinist. Bom at 
Bayonne, March 8, 181 5 ; shewed at an early 
age remarkable musical talent, and in 1827 was 
sent to Paris for his education. At first he was 
not received as a regular pupil at the Conser- 
vatoire, but was merely allowed to attend Ha- 
beneck's classes as a listener. He soon however 
won the second, and a year later the first prize 
for violin-playing, and from 1831 began to make 
a great reputation as a performer. In 1843, on 
Baillot's death, he succeeded that great master 
as professor at the Conservatoire, which post 
he still holds (1875). Alard is the foremost 
representative of the modem French school of 
violin playing at Paris, with its characteristic 
merits and drawbacks. His style is eminently 
lively, pointed, full of elaii. He has published 
a number of concertos and operatic fantasias 
which, owing to their brilliancy, attained in 
France considerable popularity, without ha\'ing 
niuch claim to artistic worth. On the other 
hand, his 'Violin School,' which has been trans- 
lated into several languages, is a very compre- 
hensive and meritorious work. He also edited 
a selection of violin compositions of the most 
eminent masters of the 1 8th century, ' Les 
maltres classiques du Violon,' etc. (Schott), in 
40 parts. [P. D.] 

ALBANl, Mathias, a renowned violin- 
maker, bom 1 62 1, at Botzen, was one of Stainer's 
best pupils. The tone of his violins, which are 
generally very high in the belly, and have a dark 




red, almost brown, varnish, is more remarkable 
for power than for quality. He died at Botzen 
in 1673. His son, also named Mat bias, was at 
first a pupil of his father, afterwards of the 
Amatis at Cremona, and finally settled at Rome. 
His best violins, which by some connoisseurs are 
considered hardly inferior to those of the Amatis, 
are dated at the end of the 1 7th and beginning 
of the 1 8th century. A third Albani, whose 
Christian name is not known, and who lived 
during the 1 7th century at Palermo, also made 
good violins, which resemble those of the old 
German makers. [P. D.] 

ALBENIZ, Pedeo, born in Biscay about 
1755, died about 1821 ; a Spanish monk, con- 
ductor of the music at the Cathedral of St. Se- 
bastian, and (1795) ^t that of Logrono ; com- 
posed masses, vespers, motetts, and other church 
music, never published, and a book of solfeggi 
(St. Sebastian, 1800). 

ALBENIZ, Pedro, bom at Logrono, 1795, 
died at Madrid 1855 ; son of a musician, 
Matteo Albeniz, and pupil of Henri Herz and 
Kalkbrenner ; organist from the age of ten 
at various towTis in Spain, and professor of 
the pianoforte in the Conservatoire at Madrid. 
He introduced the modern style of pianoforte 
playing into Spain, and all the eminent pianists 
of Spain and South America may be said to 
have been his pupils. He held various high 
posts at the court, and in 1847 was appointed 
secretary to the Queen. His works comprise a 
method for the pianoforte (Madrid, 1840), adopted 
by the Conservatoire of Madrid, seventy compo- 
sitions for the pianoforte, and songs. [M. C. C] 

ALBERGATI, Count Pikeo Capacelli, of 
an ancient family in Bologna, lived in the end 
of the 17th and beginning of the i8th centuries, 
an amateur, and distinguished composer. His 
works include the operas ' Gli Amici' (1699), 
'II Principe selvaggio' (171 2), the oratorio 
'Giobbe' (Bologna, 1688), sacred cantatas, 
masses, motetts, etc., and compositions for va- 
rious instruments. 

ALBERT, Heinrich, born at Lobensteiu, 
Voigtland, Saxony, June 28, 1604 ; nephew and 
apparently pupil of the famous composer Heinrich 
Schiitz. He studied law in Leipsic, and music 
in Dresden. In 1626 he went to Konigsberg, 
where Stobbseus was at that time kapellmeister. 
In 1 63 1 he became organist to the old church in 
that city, and in 1638 married Elizabeth Starke, 
who is referred to in his poem as ' Philosette.' 
Of the date of his death nothing certain is 
known. It is given as June 27, 1657 (by Fetis 
Oct. 10, 1651). One of his books of 'Arien' 
(Konigsberg, 1654), contains a statement that 
it was 'edited by the authors widow,' but the 
same book comprises some poems on the events 
of the year 1655. It is plain therefore that the 
date 1654 is an error. 

Albert was at once poet, organist and composer. 
As poet he is one of the representatives of the 
Konigsberg school, with the heads of which he 
was closely associated. 

His church music is confined, according t^ 
Winterfeld, to a Te Deum for three voices 
published Sept. 12, 1647. He however compose 
both words and music to many hymns, which an 
still in private use, e.g. 'Gott des Himmels uu( 
der Erden.' These, as well as bis secular songs 
are found in the eight collections printed for hiD 
by Paschen, Mense, and Reussner, under th 
patronage of the Emperor of Germany, the Kin; 
of Poland, and the Kurfiirst of Brandenburg 
These collections sold so rapidly that of some 
them several editions were published by th 
author. Others were surreptitiously issued a 
Konigsberg and Dantzic under the title c 
' Poetisch - musikalisches Lustwaldlein,' whic 
Albert energetically resisted. These latte 
editions, though very numerous, are now ex 
ceedingly rare. Their original title is 'Erste 
(Zweiter, etc.) Theil der Arien etlicher thei] 
geistlicher theils weltlicher, zur Andacht, gute 
Sitten, keuscher Liebe und Ehrenlust, diene 
der Lieder zum singen und spielen gesetzt.' 
Then followed the dedication, a difFereut one t 
each part. The second is dedicated to his ' mo- 
revered uncle, Heinrich Schiitz,' the only exis' 
ing reference to the relationship between then 
Albert's original editions were in folio, but aftt 
his death an octavo edition was published in 165 
by A. Profe of Leipsic. In his prefaces Albei 
lays down the chief principles of the musical ar 
a circumstance which gives these documen 
great value, as they belong to a time in whic 
by means of the 'basso continue' a reform : 
music was eflFected, of which we are still feelir 
the influence. Mattheson, in his 'Ehren-pforte 
rightly assumes that Albert was the author of tl 
'Tractatus de modo conficiendi Contrapunctaix 
which was then in manuscript in the possession 
Valentin Hausmann. In the preface to the sixt 
section of his ' Arien ' Albert speaks of tl 
centenary of the Konigsberg University, Au 
28, 1644, and mentions that he had written 
'Comodien-Musik.' for that occasion, which w 
afterwards repeated in the palace of the Ku 
fiirst. Albert was thus, next after H. Schut 
the founder of German opera. Both Schut/ 
'Daphne' and Albert's 'Comodien-Musik' a 
pear to be lost, doubtless because they were n 

Albert's 'Arien' give a lively picture of tl 
time, and of the then influence of music. WLi 
the object of the opera as estabHshed in Ita 
was to provide music as a support to the spoki 
dialogue, so the sacred 'concert' came in 
existence at the same time in Italy and Gt 
many as a rival to the old motetts, in which t 
words were thrown too much into the bac 
ground. But the sacred 'concert' again, beii 
sung only by a small number of voices, neces; 
tated some support for the music, and this w 
the origin of the 'basso continuo.' Albert w 
in the best position — knowing Schiitz who h: 
been a pupil of Gabrieli in Venice ; and on 1 
arrival at Konigsberg he underwent a seciv 
course of instruction under Stobbaeus, from whi 

1 F^tis mhtal^es this title for that of tba oiigmal edition. 


;^nated the peculiar character of his music, 
luch may be described as the quintessence of 
1 that was in the best taste in Italy and 
ennany. Owing to the special circumstance 
lat Albert was both a musician and a poet — 
id no small poet either — he has been rightly 
died the father of the German ' Lied.' It is 
ire for a composer to make music to his own 
letry. and since the time of Albert and his 
imrades in the Konigsberg school, one example 
dy is found of it — Richard Wagner. But to 
•nclude, Albert's work in German music may 
s described as a pendant to the contemporary 
mmencement of Italian opera. [F. G.] 

ALBERT, PRINCE. Francis Charles Au- 
JSTUS Albert Emmanuel, Prince Consort of 
ueen Victoria, second son of Ernest Duke 
■ Saxe-Coburg-SaaKeld, was bom at Rosenau, 
)burg, Aug. 26, 1819, married Feb. 10, 1840, 
id died Dec. 14, 1861. Music formed a 
stematic part of the Prince's education (see 
B own ' Programme of Studies ' at thirteen 
are of age in 'The Early Years,' etc., p. 107). 
t eighteen he was 'passionately fond' of it, 
lad already shown considerable talent as a 
mposer,' and was looked up to by his com- 
inions for his practical knowledge of the art 
b. 143, 173); and there is evidence (lb. 70) 
at when quite a child he took more than 
dinary interest in it. When at Florence in 
•39 he continued his systematic pursuit of it 
b. 194) and had an intimate acquaintance 
th pieces at that date not generally known 
b. 209-211).* His organ-playing and sing- 
s' he kept up after his arrival in England 
lai-tin's ' Life,' 85, 86, Mendelssohn's letter of 
ily 19, 1842), but his true interest in music 
\a shown by his public action in reference to 
and the influence which from the time of his 
uriage to his death he steadily exerted in 
?our of the recognition and adoption of the best 

lliis was shown in many ways. First, by his 
mediate reorganisation of the Queen's private 
nd from a mere wind-band to a fuU orchestra 
ating from Dec. 24, 1840), and by an immense 
arease and improvement in its repertoire. There 
now a peculiar significance in the fact that — 
name only a few amongst a host of great 
-^ trka — Schubert's great symphony in C (probably 

-J ier its rejection by the Philharmonic band, 
len offered them by Mendelssohn in 1844), 
fih's ' Matthew-Passion,' Mendelssohn's ' Atha- 
and ' QCdipus,' and Wagner's ' Lohengrin,' 
<re first performed in this country at Windsor 
rtle and Buckingham Palace. Secondly, 
acting in his turn as diiector of the 
icient Concerts, and choosing, as far as the 
les of the society permitted, new music in the 
^grammes; by his choice of pieces for the 
aaal ' command nights ' at the Philharmonic, 
lere his programmes were always of the highest 
iBB, and included first perfui-mances of Slen- 

'^ laBohn's 'Athalie,' Schubert's overture to 




' p. 2U, /or ' Nencini ' read ' Nannlni." 

' Fierabras,' and Schumann's ' Paradise and the 
Peri.' Thirdly, by the support which he gave 
to good music when not officially connected with 
it : witness his keen interest in Mendelssohn's 
oratorios, and his presence at Exeter Hall when 
' St. Paul ' and ' Elijah ' were performed by the 
Sacred Harmonic Society. Tliere can be no 
doubt that, in the words of a well-known musical 
amateur, his exaiuple and influence had much 
effect on the performance of choral music in 
England, and on the production here of much 
that was of the highest class of musical art. 

The Prince's delight in music was no secret 
to those about him. In the performances at 
Windsor, says Mr. Theodore Martin, from whose 
' Life ' (i. App. A) many of the above facts are 
taken, ' he found a never-failing source of delight. 
As every year brought a heavier strain upon his 
thought and energies, his pleasure in them ap- 
peared to increase. They seemed to take him 
into a dream-world, in which the anxieties of life 
were for the moment forgotten.' 

Prince Albert's printed works include 'L'in- 
vocazione all' Armonia,' for solos and chorus ; 
a morning service in C and A ; anthem, ' Out 
of the deep ; ' five collections of ' Lieder und 
Romanzen,' 29 in all ; three canzonets, etc. [G.] 

ALBERTAZZI, Emma, the daughter of a 
music-master named Howson, was born May i, 
1 8 14. Beginning at first with the piano, she 
soon quitted that instrument, to devote herself 
to the cultivation of her voice, which gave early 
promise of excellence. Her first instruction waa 
received from Costa, and scarcely had she 
mastered the rudiments, when she was brought 
forward at a concert at the Argyll Rooms. In 
the next year, 1830, she was engaged at the 
King's Theatre in several contralto parts, such as 
Pippo in the 'Gazza Ladra,' and others. Soon 
afterwards she went to Italy with her father, 
and got an engagement at Piacenza. It was 
here that Signer Albertazzi, a lawyer, fell in 
love with her, and married her before she was 
seventeen. CeUi, the composer, now taught her 
for about a year ; after which .she sang, 1832, in 
Generali's 'Adelina,' at the Canobbiana, and 
subsequently was engaged for contralto parts at 
La Scala. There she sang in several operas with 
Pasta, who gave her valuable advice. She sang 
next at Madrid, 1833, for two years; and in 
1835 at the Italian Opera in Paris. This was 
the most brilliant part of her career. In 1837 
she appeared in London. Madame Albertazzi 
had an agreeable presence, and a musical 
voice, not ill-trained ; but these advantages 
were quite destroyed by her lifelessness on 
the stage — a resigned and automatic indiffer- 
ence, which first wearied and then irritated her 
audiences. To the end of her career — for she 
afterwards sang in English Opera at Drury 
Lane — she remained the same, unintelligent 
and inanimate. Her voice now began to fail, 
and she went abroad again, hoping to recover 
it in the climate of Italy, but without success. 
She sang at Padua, Milan, and Trieste, and 
returned in 1846 to London, where she sang 



for the last time. She died of consumption, 
Sept. 1847. [J. M.] 

ALBINONI, TOMASSO, dramatic composer and 
violinist. Born at Venice in the latter half of the 
17th century. The particulars of his life are 
entirely unknown. He wrote forty-two operas 
(the first of which appeared in 1694), which are 
said to have been successful from the novelty 
of their style, though a modern French critic 
describes the ideas as trivial and the music as 
dry and unsuited to the words. Greater talent 
is to be seen in his instrumental works, concertos, 
sonatas, and songs. He was also an excellent 
performer on the violin. Albinoni's sole interest 
for modem times resides in the fact that the 
great Bach selected themes from his works, 
as he did from those of CorelU and Legrenzi. 
'Bach,' says Spitta (i. 423), 'must have been 
peculiarly partial to Albinoni. Down to a late 
period of his life he was accustomed to use bass 
parts of his for practice in thorough-bass, and 
Gerber relates that he had heard his father (a 
pupU of Bach's) vary these very basses in hrs 
master's style with astonishing beauty and skill.' 
Two fugues of the great Master's are known to 
be founded on themes of Albinoni's — both from 
his ' Opera prima.' One (in A) is to be found at 
No. 10 of Cahier 13 of Peter's edition of Bach's 
clavier-works ; the other (in F jf minor) at No. 5 
of Cahier 3 of the same edition. For further 
particulars see Spitta, i. 423-426. [p. H. D.] 

ALBONI, Makietta, the most celebrated 
contralto of the 19th century, was bom at Ce- 
sena, Bomagna, in 1824. Her first instruction 
was received in her native place ; after which 
she was taught by Mme. Bertoletti, at Bologna, 
who has taught many other distuiguished singers. 
There she met Rossini, and was so fortunate as 
to obtain lessons from him : she is said to have 
been his only pupil. Charmed with her voice 
and facility, he taught her the principal con- 
tralto parts in his operas, with the true tradi- 
tions. With this great advantage Alboni easily 
procured an engagement for several years fi-om 
Merelli, an impresario for several theatres in 
Italy and Germany. She made her first appear- 
ance at La Scala, Milan, 1843, in the part of 
Maffio Orsini. In spite of her inexperience, 
her voice and method were briUiant enough to 
captivate the public. In the same year she 
sang at Bologna, Brescia, and agaia at Milan; 
soon afterwards with equal success at Vienna. 
In consequence of some misunderstanding about 
salary she now broke her engagement with 
Merelli, and suddenly took flight to St. Peters- 
burg. She remained there, however, but a short 
time ; and we find her in 1 845 singing at concerts 
in Hamburg, Leipzig, Dresden, as well as in 
Bohemia and Hungary. At the carnival of 1847 
she sang at Rome in Pacini's ' Saffo,' introducing 
an air from Rossini's ' Semiramide,' which was 
enthusiastically applauded, but could not save 
the opera. In the spring of the same year she 
came to London, and appeared at Covent Garden, 
in the height of the ' Jenny Lind fever,' She was 


indeed a trimip card for that establishment again 
the strong hand of the rival house. The d£ 
after her debut the manager spontaneously rais* 
her salary for the season from £500 to £200 
and her reputation was established. She sang 
'Semiramide' first, and afterwards in ' Lucrez 
Borgia ' ; and in the latter had to sing t!' 
'Brindisi' over and over again, as often as t! 
opera was performed. As Pippo in the 'Gaz 
Ladra ' she had to sing the whole first solo of t 
duett 'Ebben per mia memoria' three tin; 
over. Her appearance at that time 
really splendid. Her features were regulsu 
beautiful, though better fitted for comedy th 
tragedy ; and her figure, not so unwieldy as 
afterwards became, was not unsuited to the pa 
she played. Her voice, a rich, deep, true a 
tralto of fully two octaves, from G to G, was 
sweet as honey, and perfectly even throughc 
its range. Her style gave an idea, a recoUectii 
of what the great old school of Italian sing:' 
had been, so perfect was her command of 1 
powers. The only reproach to which it was oj 
was a certaia shade of indolence and insoucian 
and a want of fire at times when more enei 
would have carried her hearers completely aw; 
Some singers have had the talent and knowlec 
to enable them to vary their fiorituri : Alb 
never did this. When you had heard a sc 
once from her, perfect as it was, you never hei 
it agaia but with the selfsame ornaments £ 
cademe. Her versatility was great, -^too grt 
perhaps, as some critics have said ; and it 
been asserted that she did serious harm to 
voice by the attempt to extend it upwards. T 
is, however, not clear to all her admirers, si 
she has returned to her legitimate range. ! 
sang agaia in London in 1 848 at Covent Gard 
and in 1849, 1851, 1856, 1857, and 1858 at! 
Majesty's Theatre. She appeared at BrusseL 
1848, with no less success than in London 
Paris. In 1849 she returned to Paris, and s 
with equal eclat in ' Cenerentola,' ' L'ltaHana 
Algieri,' and 'La Gazza Ladra.' In the r 
year she visited Geneva, and made a toni 
France, singing even in French at Bourdeaua 
the operas ' Charles VI,' ' La Favorite,' 
Reiae de Chypre,' and ' La Fille du Eegimt 
On her return to Paris she surpassed the b 
ness of this experiment by attempting the pai 
Fides in the ' Prophfete' at the Grand Opera, 
with the most brilliant success. She now n 
a tour ia Spain, and next a trimnphal prog 
through America. Of late years, since her 1 
riage with Count A. Pepoli, a gentleman of 
Bolognese family, she has lived in Paris, w 
she has delighted her admirers with most of 
old characters as well as some new, and not 
in the part of Fidahna in Cimarosa's ' M 
monio Segreto.' Since the untimely death of 
husband she has been heard only in Ross 
' Mass,' in which she sang in London in i 
and similar music. [J, 

Contrapuntist and teacher of sacred music, < 
poser and organist ; born Feb. 3, 1 736, at T^ln 


k. suburg, near Vienna ; died at Vienna, March 7, 
' 509. SeyMed has appended his biography to 
' le complete edition of his works (Vienna, 1826, 
>37). Albrechtsberger began life as a chorister 
. his native town and at Melk. At the latter 
ace he was taken notice of by the Emperor 
jseph, then Crown Prince ; and on a later occa- 
on, the Emperor passing through Melk renewed 
le acquaintance, and invited him to apply for 
le post of court organist on the first vacancy, 
[eantime Albrechtsberger studied hard under 
le direction of Emmerling. After being organ- 
t for twelve years at Melk, he obtained a 
milar post at Eaab in Hungary, and then at 
[ariataferl. Here he remained instructor in the 
jnily of a Silesian count till he left for Vienna 
i Regens Chori to the Carmelites. In 1772 he 
•as appointed court organist, and twenty }'ear3 
,ter director of music at St. Stephen's, where he 
i once commenced his career as a teacher. The 
amber of his pupils was very large. Amongst 
le most celebrated are Beethoven, Hummel, 
Teigl, Seyfried, Eybler and Mosel. Nottebohm 
Beethoven's 'Studien,' 1873) speaks in the highest 
rms of the instruction which he gave Beethoven. 
[is compositions are computed by Seyfried as 
61, of which only twenty-seven are printed, 
'hey are chiefly in possession of Prince Esterha2y 
ialantha. The finest is a Te Deum, which was 
ot performed till after his death. His great 
!ieoretical work (not without defects) is entitled 
Griindliche Anweisung zur Composition,' 
Leipsic, 1790 ; second edition 1818.) An 
English edition, translated by Sabilla Novello, 
J published by Novello, Ewer, and Co. [F. G.] 
ALBUMBLATT (Germ. ; Fr. Feuinet d'al- 
um). A short piece of music, such as might 
uitably be written in a musical album. Its 
3rm entirely depends upon the taste and fancy 
f the composer. As good examples of this class 
f piece may be named Schumann's 'Album- 
latter,' op. 124, a collection of twenty short 
aovements in the most varied styles. [E. P.] 

ALCESTE, tragic opera in three acts by Gluck, 
ibretto by Calzabigi ; first performed at Vienna 
)ec. 16, 1767, and in Paris (adapted by du Eol- 
et) April 23, 1776. It was the first in which 
Jluck attempted his new and revolutionary style, 
nd contains the famous ' Epttre dedicatoire ' ex- 
lounding his principles. 'Alceste' was revived 
t Paris in 1861 by Mme. Pauline Viardot. 

ALCOCK, John, Mus. Doc. Bom at London, 
V.pi-il II, 1 715, became at seven years of age a 
horister of St. Paul's Cathedral under Charles 
£ing. At fourteen he became a pupil of Stanley, 
he blind organist, who was then, although but 
ixteen, organist of two London churches. All- 
lallows, Bread-street, and St. Andrew's, Holbom. 
in 1735 Alcock became organist of St. Andrew's 
Jhurch, Plymouth, which place he quitted in 
1742, on being chosen organist of St. Lawrence's 
/hurch, Reading. In 1749 he was appointed 
Biganist, master of the choristers, and lay vicar 
»f Lichfield Cathedral. On June 6, 1755, he 
ook the degree of bachelor of music at Oxford, 



and in 1761 proceeded to that of doctor. In 
1760 he resigned the appointments of organist 
and master of the choristers of Lichfield, retain- 
ing only that of lay vicar. He died at Lichfield 
in March, 1806, aged 91. During his residence 
at Plymouth, Alcock published ' Six Suites of 
Lessons for the Harpsichord' and 'Twelve Songs,' 
and whilst at Reading he published 'Six Con- 
certos,' and a collection of ' Psalms, Hymns, and 
Anthems.' In 1753 he published a 'Morning 
and Evening Service in E minor.' He likewise 
issued (in 1771) a volume containing 'Twenty- 
six Anthems,' a ' Burial Service,' etc. He was 
the composer of a number of glees, a collection 
of which, imder the title of ' Harmonia Festi,' he 
published about 1 790. His glee, ' Hail, ever 
pleasing Solitude,' gained a prize medal at the 
Catch Club in 1770. In 1802 Alcock edited a 
collection of PsaJm Tunes, by various authors, 
arranged for four voices, under the title of ' The 
Harmony of Sion.' He was also author of a 
novel entitled ' The Life of Miss Fanny Brown.' 
Dr. Alcock's son, JoHX Alcock, composed and 
published at intervals, from 1773 to 1776, a few 
short anthems. [W. H. H.] 

ALCHYMIST, DER, Spohr's eighth opera; 
libretto by Pfeiffer on a Spanish tale of Wash- 
ington Irving's ; composed between Oct. 1829 and 
April 1830, and first performed at Cassel on July 
28, 1830, the birthday of the Elector. 

ALDAY, a family of musicians in France. 
The father, bom at Perpignan, 1737, was a 
mandoline player, and the two sons violinists. 
The elder of the two, bom 1 763, appeared at the 
Concerts Spirituels, first as a mandoline player, 
and afterwards as a violinist. His works are 
numerous, and include a 'Methode de Violon,' 
which reached several editions. Alday le jeune, 
bom 1 764, a pupil of Viotti, was a finer player 
than his brother, and achieved a great reputa- 
tion. He played often at the Concerts Spirituels 
up to 1 791, when he came to England, and ia 
1806 was conductor and teacher of music in 
Edinburgh. He published three concertos for vio- 
lin, three sets of duos, airs varies, and trios, all 
written in a light pleasing style, and very popular 
in their day, though now forgotten. [M. C. C] 

ALDOVRANDINI, Giuseppe Antonio Vin- 
CENZO, bom at Bologna about 1665 ; member of 
the Philharmonic Academy at Bologna (1695), 
and conductor of the Duke of Mantua's band ; 
studied under Jacopo Perti. He composed eleven 
operas (i 696-1 711) — of which 'Amor toma in 
cinque et cinquanta,' in the Bologna dialect, was 
perhaps the most famous — also ' Armenia Sacra 
(Bologna, 1701), a collection of motetts, the ora- 
torio 'San Sigismondo' (Bologna, I704)> ^^d other 
music, sacred and instrumental. [M. C. C] 

ALDRICH, Henry, D.D., was bom in 1647, 
and educated at Westminster School. In due 
course he passed to Christ Church, Oxford, of 
which foundation he was afterwards so dis- 
tinguished a member. He was admitted a 
student in 1662, and took his degree as Master 
of Arts in 1669. He then took holy orders, and 
E 2 



was elected to the living of Wem, in Shropshire, 
but continued to reside in his college and 
became eminent as a tutor. In February 1681 
he was installed a Canon of Christ Church, and 
in May following he took his degrees as Bachelor 
and Doctor in Divinity. In 1689 he was installed 
Dean of Christ Church. He was as remarkable 
for the zeal with which he discharged the duties 
of his station as for the urbanity of his manners. 
His college was his first consideration, and he 
sought by every means to extend its resources 
and uphold its reputation. He closed his career 
Dec. 14, 1 710. 

Dr. Aldrich was a man of considerable attain- 
ments, a good scholar, architect, and musician. 
He vprote a compendium of logic, which is still 
used at Oxford, and a number of tracts upon 
theology, the classics, etc., the titles of which 
may be seen in Kippis {Biog. Brit.). He was 
also one of the editors of Clarendon's History 
of the Rebellion. Of his skill in architecture 
Oxford possesses many specimens ; amongst others 
Peckwater quadrangle at Christ Church, the 
chapel of Trinity College, and AU Saints' church. 
He cultivated music with ardour and success. 
'As dean of a college and a cathedral he re- 
garded it as a duty, as it undoubtedly was in 
his case a pleasure, to advance the study and 
progress of church music. His choir was well 
appointed, and every vicar, clerical as well as lay, 
gave his daily and efficient aid in it. He con- 
tributed also largely to its stock of sacred music ; 
and some of his services and anthems, being 
preserved in the collections of Boyce and Arnold, 
are known and sung in every cathedral in the 
kingdom.' He formed a large musical library, 
in which the works of the Italian composers, 
particularly of Palestrina and Carissimi, are 
prominent features. This he bequeathed to his 
college, and it is to be regretted that a catalogue 
has not been printed. Catch-singing was much 
in fashion in the Dean's time ; nor did he 
himself disdain to contribute his quota towards 
the stock of social harmony. His catch, ' Hark 
the Bonny Christ Church Bells,' in which he 
has made himself and his college the subject 
of merriment, is well known. He afterwards 
wrote and used to sing a Greek version of this 
catch. He was an inveterate smoker, and 
another of his catches in praise of smoking is 
so constructed as to allow every singer time for 
his puff. 

Dr. Aldrich's compositions and adaptations for 
the church are ' A Morning and Evening Service 
in G' (printed by Boyce); 'A Morning and 
Evening Service in A' (printed by Arnold) ; and 
about fifty anthems, some original, others adapta- 
tions from the Italian. Some of these are to 
be found in the printed collections of Boyce, 
Arnold, and Page ; others in the Ely, the 
Tudway, and the Christ Church MSS. (Hawkins, 
History; Biog. Did. U.K.S.; Hayes, Remarhs 
on Avison, etc.). [E. F. E.] 

ALESSANDRO, Romano, surnamed della 
Viola from his skiU on that instrument, lived in 
the latter half of the i6th century. In 1560 he 


was admitted into the choir of the Pope's chapel j 
at Rome. He composed music for his own and „ 
other instruments, as weU as motetts and songs, % 
among which are a set of 'Canzoni alia Napo d 
letana ' for five voices. The MSS. of some ol J 
these works are to be seen in the Royal Librarj i 
at Munich. [E. H. D.; i 

ALEXANDER BALIJS. The thirteenth o\ 
Handel's oratorios; composed next after 'Judaut^ 
Maccabseus.' Words by Dr. MoreU, who ought i 
to have known better than write Balus for Balas a 
First performance, Covent Garden, March 9 
1748. Dates on autograph: — begun June i 
1747 ; end of second part, fuUy scored, Jime 24 
do. ; end of third part, fully scored, July 4, do. 

ALEXANDER, Johann (or, according tr 
Fetis, Joseph), violoncellist, lived at Duisbui| 
at the end of the last and beginning of th< 
present century. He was distinguished more fo: 
the beauty of his tone and the excellence of M' 
style than for any great command over technica 
difficulties. He wrote a good instruction boo! 
for his instrument, ' Anweisung fiir das ViolonceU, 
Breitkopf and Hartel, 1801 ; also variations 
potpourris, etc. [T. P. H. 

Handel's to Dryden's words, as arranged anc 
added to by Newburgh Hamilton. Dates 01 
autograph : — end of first part, Jan. 5, 1736 ; eii< 
of second part, Jan. 1 2, do. ; end of Hamilton'; 
additions, Jan. 1 7, do. First performance, Coven 
Garden, Feb. 19, do. Re-scored by Mozart fo: 
Van Sivieten, July, 1790. 


AL FINE (Ital.). * To the end.' This tern 
indicates the repetition of the first part of a move 
ment either from the beginning {d(i capo) or froE 
a sig-n ^ (dal segno) to the place where the won 
fine stands. Frequently instead of the word fin 
the end of the piece is shown by a double-ba 

with a pause above it, thus ^E- 

by Schubert, in three acts; libretto by F. vo 
Schober. Dates on autograph (Musikvereii 
Vienna) : — end of first act, Sept. 20, 1821 ; en 
of second act, Oct. 20, 1821 ; end of third ac 
Feb. 27, 1822; overture (MS. vnth Spina), De< 
1823. First performed at Weimar, June 1a 
1854. This overture was played as the prelud 
to ' Rosamunde' in Dec. 1823, and encored. Th 
opera remains in MS. except the overture (Spini 
1867) and a bass cavatina and tenor air (bot 
Diabelli, 1832). 

ALFORD, John, a lutenist in London J 
the 1 6th century. He published there in 156! 
a translation of Adrien Le Roy's work 
the lute (see Le Roy) under the title of '2 
Briefe and Easye Instruction to leame tb 
tableture, to conduct and dispose the hand 
unto the Lute. Englished by J. A..' with 
cut of the lute. [W. H. H. 





iIANI, Fkancesco, violoncellist, bom at 
iacenza. He for a time studied the violin 
ider his father, who was first violin in the 
chestra, but afterwards devoted himself to the 
doncello imder G. Rovelli, of Bergamo. He 
as appointed first cellist of the theatre at 
iacenza, and was celebrated as a teacher of 
a- instrument. He wrote three books of duets 
r two cellos. [T. P. H.] 

ALI BABA, ou les quabante voleurs, an 
)era of Cherubini's, produced at the Grand 
p^ra on July 22, 1833 (the seventy-third year 
' the composer). The music was adapted and 
-written from his KouKOURGi (17Q3) to a 
5w libretto by Scribe and Melesville. The 
/erture was probably quite new. For Men- 
ilfisohn's opinion of the opera see his letter 
•Feb. 7,1834. 

ALIPRANDI, Bernardo, bom in Tuscany 
; the beginning of the 1 8th century ; was 
»mposer at the Bavarian court in 1730, 
id afterwards was appointed director of the 
•chestra at Munich. He there wTote the 
jeras 'Alithridate' (1738), 'Iphigenie' (1739), 
semiramide' (1740). Bernardo, a son of the 
receding, was fiirst violoncellist about 1780 
I the Munich orchestra. He is said to have 
)mposed both for the ceUo and viola di gamba, 
lough Fetis says that he wrote only for the 
.rmer. [T. P. H.] 

ALTZARD, Adolphe Joseph Louis, bom 
1 Paris, 1 81 4; a bass singer of some eminence ; 
egan his musical career as a pupU of Urban 
the violin ; but his master accidentally 
iscovering that he had a remarkably fine voice, 
ersuaded him to abandon his instrument, and 
3 enter the Conservatoire as a pupil of Banderali. 
lis voice was naturally a deep bass, but finding 
hat after singing at the opera in Paris for five 
ears he was still employed in secondary parts, 
e entered upon a diligent course of practice, 
y which he gained several notes in the upper 
3gister, and was able to take baritone parts, 
lie strain upon, his chest however was too great 
J be maintained without injury, and after several 
ttacks, he died of consumption at Marseilles at 
he age of thirty-six. [M. C. C.] 

ALKAN, Charles Henri Valentin. Bom 
t Paris, 1813; stiU living (1875). Pianist and 
omposer, chiefly of etudes and caprices for his 
Qstrument. His astounding op. 35 (12 etudes), 
p. 39 (12 etudes), and Trois grandes Etudes, 
i) ' Fantaisie pour la main gauche seul,' (2) 
Introduction et Finale pour la main droit seul,' 
3) ' Etude a mouvement semblable et perpetuel 
(Our les deux mains,' have not yet met with the 
tttention on the part of pianoforte virtuosi which 
hey merit. They belong to the most modem 
levelopement of the technique of the instrument, 
ind represent in fact the extreme point which 
t has reached. Though they cannot stand com- 
Muison in point of beauty and absolute musical 
/alue with the etudes of Chopin and Liszt, yet, 

like those of Anton Rubinstein, which are in 
some respects akin to them, they have a valid 
claim to be studied ; for they present technical 
specialities nowhere else to be found, diflBculties 
of a titanic sort, effects peculiar to the instrument 
carried to the very verge of impossibility. Alkan 
was admitted to the Conservatoire of Paris in his 
sixth year (1819) and remained there until 1830, 
during which term he was successful in several 
competitions, and left the institution with the 
first prize in 1826, and honourable mention at 
the Concours of the Institut in 1831. After a 
short visit to London in 1833 he settled as a 
master of the pianoforte at Paris. His published 
compositions mount up to opus 72, and include 
two concertos, several sonatas and duos, a trio, 
a large number of pieces caracteristiqucs, and 
transcriptions and songs. Amongst these his 
works for the pi^oforte with pedals, known in 
England as the ' Pedalier grand,' op. 64, 66, 69 
and 72, take rank with his etudes. [E. D.] 

ALLA BREVE (Ital.). Originally a species 
of time in which every bar contained a breve, or 
four minims; hence its name. In this time, 
chiefly used in the older church music, the 
minims, being the unit of measurement, were 
to be taken fast, somewhat like crotchets in 
ordinary time. This time was also called Alia 
Capella. Modem alia breve time simply 
differs from ordinary common time by being 
always beaten or counted with two minims (and 
not with four crotchets) in the bar, and therefore 
is reaUy quick common time. It is indicated 
in the time-signature by (]}, i.e. the C which 
is used to show four-crotchet time, with a stroke 
drawn through it. [E. P.] 

ALLACCI, Leone, bom in the island of Chios 
of Greek parents in 1586, went to Rome at nine 
years of age, and in 1661 became 'custode' of 
the Vatican Library. He died in 1669, and his 
name is only worth preserving for his ' Dramma- 
turgia' (Rome, 1666) a catalogue of Italian 
musical dramas produced up to that year, in- 
dispensable for the history of Italian opera. A 
new edition, carried down to 1755, appeared at 
Venice in that year. [F. G.] 

ALL' ANTICO (Ital.). 'In the ancient style.' 

ALLEGRANTI, Madalena, was a pupil of 
Holtzbauer of Mannheim, and appeared for the 
first time at Venice in 1771. singing at 
other theatres in Italy, she went in 1774 to 
Germany, where she continued . to perform at 
Mannheim and Ratisbon till the year 1 779, when 
she returned to Venice. She sang there at the 
theatre of San Samuele during the Carnival, and 
eventually came to England in 1781. Here 
she was enthusiastically admired in her first 
opera, the ' Viaggiatori felici ' of Anfossi. Her 
voice, though thin, was extremely sweet, of ex- 
traordinary compass upwards, and so flexible as 
to lead her to indulge in a flowery style of singing, 
which had then the merit of considerable novelty. 
She was also a good actress. But it was soon 
found that there was a great sameness in her 



manner and embellishmente, and she became 
gradually so disregarded, by the end of her 
second season, that she went to Dresden, 
where the Elector engaged her at a salary of 
a thousand ducats. She came a second time to 
London, many years later, and reappeared in 
Cimarosa's ' Matrimonio Segreto.' Never was 
a more pitiable attempt; she had scarcely a 
thread of voice remaining, nor the power to sing 
a note in tune : her figure and acting were 
equally altered for the worse, and after a few 
nights she was obliged to retire, and quit the 
stage for ever. She performed in oratorio in 
1 799. A pretty portrait of AUegranti is engraved 
by Bartolozzi, after Cosway. [J. M.] 

ALLEGEI, Geegokio, a beneficed priest 
attached to the cathedral of Fermo, and a 
member of the same family which produced 
Corregio the paiater, was also a musical composer 
of much distraction. He was bom at Kome 
about the year 1580, and was a pupil of G. M. 
Nanini. During his residence at Fermo he acted 
as chorister and composer to the cathedral. 
Certain Mottetti and Concerti which he published 
at this time had so great a repute that they 
attracted the notice of Pope Urban VIII, who ap- 
pointed him, on Dec. 6, 1629, to a vacancy among 
the Canfori of the Apostolic Chapel. This post 
he held until his death, in 1652. 

His name is most commonly associated with a 
'Miserere' for nine voices in two choirs, which is, 
or was till lately, sung annually in the Pontifical 
Chapel during the Holy Week, and is held to be 
one of the most beautiful compositions which have 
ever been dedicated to the service of the Roman 
Church. There was a time when it was so much 
treasured that to copy it was a crime visited 
with excommunication. Not that its possession 
was even thus confined to the Sistine Chapel. 
Dr. Bumey got a copy of it. ^ Mozart took 
down the notes while the choir were singing it, 
and Choron, the Frenchman, managed to insert 
it in his 'Collection' of pieces used in Rome 
during the Holy Week.* Leopold I, a great lover 
of music, sent his ambassador to the Pope with a 
formal request for a copy of it, which was granted 
to him. The emperor had the work performed 
with much ceremony by a highly qualified choir 
at Vienna. The effect, however, was so dis- 
appointing that he conceived himself the victim 
of a trick upon the part of the cop}^st, and 
complained to the Pope that some inferior 
composition had been palmed off upon him. 
The fact was that the value of this curious 
and very delicate work depends almost entirely 
upon its execution. It is simple almost to the 
point of apparent insipidity, and it only assumes 
its true character when sung by the one choir 
which received and has retained as traditions the 
original directions of its author. In the Sistine 
Chapel it has ever commanded the enthusiasm 
of musicians for a certain indescribable profundity 
of sadness, and a rhythmical adaptation to the 

1 Most probably through Santarelli the singer. 

* It wUl be found in the ' bacrej ilinstrelsy ' of the late Mr. W. 
Ayrton. tParkerj 


words about which it is woven, but which, ii | 
spite of its apparent simplicity, are so diificul : 
to produce that no fraud was necessary t 
account for the imperial failure at Yienna. Th^ 
effects of Allegri's 'Miserere' are like the aront 
of certain deKcate vintages which always perishe 
in transit ; although in Rome, to turn to i 
metaphor of Baini's, they have never shorn 
a wrinkle of old age. ' 

As the man's music so was the man. Adam 
of Bolsena says that he vras of a singula 
gentleness and sweetness of soul and habit. Hi 
doors were constantly thronged by poor, wh 
sought him as much for the more impalpabl 
sustenance of his kindness as for the mor 
material fruits of his bounty ; and his leisur 
hours were commonly spent among the prison 
and pest-houses of Rome. He died at a ripe ol 
age, on Feb. 18, 1562, and was laid in S. Man 
in Vallicella, in the burial-place belonging to th 
Papal Choir. 

His published works consist chiefly of tw 
volumes of 'Concertini' and two of 'Motetti 
all printed during his lifetime by Soldi of Rom( 
Some stray Motetti of his were, howeve; 
inserted by Fabio Constantini in a collectic 
intituled, ' Scelta di Motetti di diversi e< 
cellentissimi autori, a due, tre, quattro, 
cinque voci.' But the Archives of S. Maria i 
Vallicella are rich in his manuscripts, as ai 
also the Library of the CoUegio Romano an 
the Collection of the Papal Choir. Kircher tc 
in his 'Musurgia' has transcribed an extra* 
from his instrumental works ; and the librai 
of the Abbe Santini contained the scores t 
various pieces by him, including 'Magnificats 
'Improperia,' ' Lamentazioni,' and 'Motetti 
A ' Veni Sancte Spiritus' by him for four voia 
is included in the 'Musica divina' of Prosli 
(Liber Motettorum, No. ix.) [E. H. P 

ALLEGRO (Ital.) The literal meaning 
this word is 'cheerful,' and it is in this sem 
that it is employed as the title of Milton's wel 
known poem. In music however it has tl 
signification of 'lively' merely in the sense 
quick, and is often combined with other won 
which would make nonsense with it in 
original meaning^ — e. g. ' allegro agitato e (x 
disperazione ' (Clemen ti, 'Didone abbandonata' 
"V\'Tien tmaccompanied by any qualifjang woi 
' allegro ' indicates a rate of speed nearly inte 
mediate between 'andante' and 'presto.' The: 
is however no other time indication which is 
frequently modified by the addition of otb 
words. To quote only some of the more commo 
' allegro molto,' ' allegro assai,' ' aUegro con bri< 
(or 'con fuoco'), and "'allegro vivace,' wiU a 
indicate a quicker tune than a simple aUegr< 
an 'allegro assai,' for instance, is often almo 
equivalent to a ' presto.' On the other han 
' allegro ma non troppo,' ' allegro moderato,' 
' allegro maestoso,' will all be somewhat slowc 
The exact pace of any particular allegro 
frequently indicated by the metronome, but ev« 

s ' Senza aver contratto ruga di yecchiezza,' 




is by no means an infallible guide, as the 
me movement if played in a large hall and 
ith a great number of performers would require 
be taken somewhat slower than in a smaller 
om or with a smaller band. In this, as with 
1 other time-iniiications, much must be left to 
le discretion of the performer or conductor. If 
i have true musical feeling he cannot go far 
rong ; if he have not, the most minute directions 
iU hardly keep him right. The word ' allegro ' 
also used as the name of a piece of music, 
ither a separate piece (e.g. Chopin's 'Allegro 
e Concert,' op. 46), or as the first movement 
f a large instrumental composition. In these 
aaes it is generally constructed in certain 
efinite forms, for which see Symphony and 
lONATA. Beethoven also exceptionally uses the 
rord ' allegro ' instead of ' scherzo.' Four 
Qstances of this are to be found in his works, 
iz. in the symphony in C minor, the quartette 
Q E minor, op. 59, No. 2, and F minor, 
ip 95, and the Sonata quasi Fantasia, op. 27, 
Ho. I. [E. P.] 

ALLEGRETTO (Ital.). A diminutive of 
allegro,' and as a time-indication somewhat 
ilower than the latter, and also faster than 
■ andante.' Like ' allegro ' it is frequently com- 
bined with other words, e. g. ' allegretto moderato,' 
■allegretto vivace,' 'allegretto ma non troppo/ 
'allegretto scherzando,' etc., either modifying the 
pace or describing the character of the music. 
The word is also used as the name of a move- 
ment, and in this sense is especially to be often 
found in the works of Beethoven, some of whose 
allegrettos are among his most remarkable com- 
positions. It may be laid down as a rule with 
regard to Beethoven, that in all cases where the 
word ' allegretto ' stands alone at the head of 
the second or third movement of a work it 
indicates the character of the music and not 
merely its pace. A genuine Beethoven allegretto 
always takes the place either of the andante or 
scherzo of the work to which it belongs. In the 
seventh and eighth symphonies, in the quartett 
in F minor, op. 95, and the piano trio in E flat, 
op. 70, No. 2, an allegretto is to be found instead 
of the slow movement ; and in the sonatas 
in F, op. 10, No. 2, and in E, op. 14, No. i, in 
the great quartett in F, op. 59, No. i, and the 
trio in E flat, op. 70, No. 2, the allegretto takes 
the place of the scherzo. This use of the word 
alone as the designation of a particular kind of 
movement is peculiar to Beethoven. It is worth 
mentioning that in the case of the allegretto of 
the seventh symphony, Beethoven, in order that 
it should not be played too fast, wished it to be 
marked ' Andante quasi allegretto.' This indica- 
tion however does not appear in any of the 
printed scores. In the slow movement of the 
Pastoral Symphony, Beethoven also at first indi- 
cated the time as 'Andante molto moto, quasi 
allegretto,^ but subsequently struck out the last 
two words. [E. P.] 

ALLEMANDE. i. One of the movements 
of the Suite, and, as its name implies, of Ger- 
man origin. It is, with the exception of the 

Prelude and the Aib, the only movement of 
the Suite which has not originated in a dance- 
form. The allemande is a piece of moderate 
rapidity — about an allegretto — in common time, 
and commencing usually with one short note, 
generally a quaver or semiquaver, at the end of 
the bar. 


J. S. Bach, Suites 
Anglaises, No. 3. 

Sometimes instead of one there are three short 
notes at the beginning : as in Handel's Suites, 
Book i. No. 5. 


The homophonic rather than the polyphonic 
style predominates in the music, which fre- 
quently consists of a highly figurate melody, 
with a comparatively simple accompaniment. 
Suites are occasionally met with which have 
no allemande (e. g. Bach's Partita in B minor), 
but where it is introduced it is always, \m- 
less preceded by a prelude, the first movement 
of a suite ; and its chief characteristics are the 
uniform and regular motion of the upper part ; 
the avoidance of strongly marked rhythms or 
rhythmical figures, such us we meet with in the 
CouRANTE ; the absence of all accents on the 
weak parts of the bar, such as are to be found 
in the Sarabande ; the general prevalence of 
homophony, already referred to ; and the simple 
and measured time of the music. The alle- 
mande always consists of two parts each of 
which is repeated. These two parts are usually 
of the length of 8, 12, or 16 bars; sometimes, 
though less frequently, of 10. In the earlier 
allemandes, such as those of Couperin, the 
second is frequently longer than the first : Bach, 
however, mostly makes them of the same 

2. The word is also used as equivalent to the 
Deutscher Tanz — a dance in triple time, closely 
resembling the waltz. Specimens of this species 
of allemande are to be seen in Beethoven's 
' 1 2 Deutsche Tiinze, fiir Orchester,' the first of 
which begins thus : — 




It has no relation whatever to the allemande 
spoken of above, being of Swabian origin. 

3. Tlie name is also applied to a German 
national dance of a lively character in 2-4 time, 
similar to the Contredanse. [E. P.] 

UNG. See Mdsikalische Zeitung. 



ALLISON, EiCHAED, a teacher of music in 
London in the reign of Elizabeth, the particulars 
of whose birth and decease are unknown. His 
name first occiu-s as a contributor to T. Este's 
'Whole Eooke of Psalms,' 1592. A few years 
later he published on his own account 'The 
Psalmes of David in Meter,' 1599, a coUection 
of old church tunes harmonised by himself in 
four parts, with an accompaniment for the ' lute, 
orpharyon, citterne or base violl,' and im- 
portant as being one of the earliest to give the 
melody in the cantus or soprano part — the usual 
practice being to give it to the tenor. Allison 
advertises it 'to be solde at his house in the 
Duke's-place near Aide-gate,' and dedicates it to 
the Countess of Warwick. It is ushered forth 
by some complimentary verses by John Dow- 
land, the celebrated performer on the lute, and 
others. He appears to have been patronised by 
Sir John Scudamore, to whom he dedicated his 
coUection of part-songs entitled, ' An Houres 
Recreation in Musicke, apt for Instruments and 
Voyces,' 1606. This publication contains ' a 
prayer' set to music, 'for the long preservation 
of the king and his posteritie,' and ' a thanks- 
giving for the deliverance of the whole estate 
from the late conspiracie' — the Gunpowder Plot. 

Allison, Robert, probably a relative of 
Richard, was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal. 
After serving in the royal establishment for 
twenty years he sold his place, Feb. 8, 1609-10, 
to Humphry Bache. (Allison's publications; Camd. 
Soc. Cheque-m. of Chap. Royal.) [E. F. R.] 

ALL' OTTAVA (Ital.). 'In the octave.' 
(i) In pianoforte music a passage marked aZi' Sva. 
(or merely 8wa.) is to be played an octave higher 
than written, if the sign is placed above the notes, 
an octave lower if placed below them. In the 
latter case the more accurate indication Sva. hassa 
is frequently employed. The duration of the 
transposition is shown by a dotted line, and when 
the notes are again to be played as written, the 
word loco (Ital., 'in its place') is put over (or 
under) the music. (2) In orchestral scores, 
especially manuscripts, alV 8?;a. signifies that one 
instrument plays in octaves with another, either 
above or below. (3) In playing from a figured 
bass the term shows that no harmonies are to be 
employed, and that the upper parts merely double 
the bass in octaves. In this case it is equivalent 

to TASTO SOLO. [E. P.] 

ALL' UNISONO (Ital., abbreviated Unis.). 
'In unison.' In orchestral scores this term is 
used to show that two or more instruments, the 
parts of which are written upon the same stave, 
are to play in unison. In modern scores the 
words a due, a tre, etc., are more frequently 

ALPENHORN, or ALPHORN, an instru- 
ment with a cupped mouthpiece, of wood and 
bark, used by the mountaineers in Switzerland 
and many other countries to convey signals and 
to produce simple melodies. It is nearly straight, 
and three or more feet in length. Those in the 
Museum at South Kensington are respectively 


7 ft, 5 in, and 7 ft. 11 in, long. There is a:i* 
Swedish instrument of this kind called Lure ; 'i 
another of kindred nature used in the Hima-.j 
layas ; and another by the Indians of South j) 
America, 1 

The notes produced are evidently only the \- 
open harmonics of the tube, somewhat modified 'f, 
by the material of which it is made, and by the i 
smaUness of the bore in relation to its length. J 
The melody is termed ' Rana des Vaches,' Its ,1 
principal musical interest is derived from its r. 
introduction into the finale of Beethoven's Pas-': 
toral Symphony, and Rossini's opera of ' WiUiam 4 
Tell,' Beethoven employs the ordinary horn, 
alone ; but in the overture the long solo, now 1 
usually played by the oboe, sometimes by the^ 
cor anglais, was originally intended for, and \ 
played by, a tenoroon or alto fagotto standing i 
in F, which much more nearly approaches the'| 
real tone of the Alpenhorn. than the other in- ;i 
struments, J 

A similar combination of cupped mouthpiece* 
with wooden tube existed in the serpent, and the^ 
result was a peculiar covered and tender quality Ij 
of tone now lost to music, except in so far as it |i 
can be traced in some organ reed-stops, with* 
wooden, not metal bells, [W, H, S.] j 

ALPHABET, The musical alphabet, which 
serves as the designation of aU musical sounds, 
consists of the seven letters A, B, C, D, E, F, 
and Gr, and, in German, H in addition. In the 
natural scale (i, e. the scale without sharps or 
flats) the order of these letters is as follows : — 
C, D, E, F, G, A, B (or, in German, H), C ; the 
cause of this apparently arbitrary arrangement 
vdU be best understood from a brief glance at the 
history of the musical scale. 

According to Isidore, bishop of Seville {circa 
595), the oldest harps had seven strings, and the 
shepherds' pandean pipes seven reeds, ^ from 
which it appears probable as well as natural that 
the ancient scale consisted of seven sounds. 

These seven sounds, which served for both 
voices and instruments, were gradually added to, 
until, in the time of Aristoxenus (340 B.C.), there 
were fifteen, extending from A the first space of 
the bass stave to A the second space in the 
treble. Each of these sounds had its distinctive 
name, derived from the position and length of the 
different strings of the phorminx or lyre, and in 
order to avoid writing them in fuU the ancient 
Greek authors expressed them by certain letters 
of the alphabet. ^ As however the properties of 
the notes varied continually with the different 
modes and so-called mutations, which by this 
time had been introduced into the musical 
system, these letters were wiitten in an immense 
variety of forms, large and small, inverted, 
turned to the right or left, Ij^ng horizontally, 
accented in many ways, etc., so that, according 
to Alypius, the most intelligible of the Greek 
writers who wrote professedly to explain them, 

1 Before the time of Terpander (about 670 B.C.) the Greek l.vTe is 
supposed to have had but four strings. Boethius attributes its e.xten- 
sion to seven strings to Terpander. 

2 For a full description of tlie Greek scale see Sir J. Hawkins, 
'Histuiy of Music,' ch. iv. 


the musical signs in use in his day amounted to 
BO fewer than 1 240, and it appears probable that 
even this number was afterwards exceeded. 

The Romans, who borrowed the Greek scale, 
and gave Latin names to each of its fifteen 
sounds, did not adopt this complicated system, 
but employed instead the first fifteen letters of 
their alphabet, A to P, and later still, Gregory 
the Great, who was chosen pope a.d. 590, 
discovering that the second half of the scale, 
H to P, was but a repetition of the first, A to H, 
abolished the last eight letters and used the first 
seven over again, expressing the lower octave by 
capitals and the upper by smaU letters. * 

So fcir the original compass of the Greek scale 
was preserved, and thus A was naturally applied 
to the first and at that time lowest note, but 
about the beginning of the loth century a new 
note was introduced, situated one degree below 
the lowest A, and called (it is difficult to say 
why) after the Greek letter gamma,^ and written 
r. To this others were fi'om time to time added 
until the lower C was reached, in the early part 
of the 1 6th century, by Lazarino. Thus the 
modem scale was established, and A, originally 
the first, became the sixth degree. 

In Germany the same system was originally 
adopted, but when accidentals were invented, 
and it became customary to sing in certain cases 
Bb instead of Bj, the square shape of the natural 
soon became transformed into the letter H, which 
was applied to the note Bfl (the original B), while 
the rounder form of the flat received the name 
of B, a distinction which remains in force to the 
present day. (See Accidentals.) [F. T.] 

ALSAGER, Thomas Massa, bom 1779, died 
1846, one of the family of Alsager, of Alsager, 
Cheshire. He was for many years a proprietor 
and one of the leading men in the management 
of ' The Times,' being especially concerned in all 
that related to music and the collection of mer- 
cantile and foreign news. The professionally 
trained musical critic, added at his suggestion to 
the staflF of ' The Times,' was the first employed 
on any daily paper. He was the intimate friend 
of Lamb, the Bumeys, Wordsworth, Talfourd, 
Leigh Hunt, Mendelssohn, Moscheles, and many 
other celebrities. But what entitles him to 
mention here was his intense devotion to music, 
to which he gave all the leisure he could spare 
from a busy life. His practical ability in music 
was very great, and it is a fact that he could 
perform on all the instruments in the orchestra. 
The frequent private concerts given by the 
'Queen-Square Select Society' at his residence 
in London will long be remembered by his many 
musical friends, and were the means of intro- 
ducing to this country many works and foreign 

' This system of Pope GreRory forms the so-called b»sia of the 
German Tablalur, in which the octave from the C next below the bass 
•tore to C second space is called the kTeat octave, and is indicated by 
upitab; the octave next itbove is known as the small octave, and is 
expressed by small letters ; and all succee<linK octaves are called once- 
marked, twice-marked octaves, etc., and the letters representing them 
have one, two, or more horizontal lines drawn above them, thus :, etc. 

' The addition of the T is by some attributed to Guido d'Arezzo ; but 
be speaks 01 it in his ' Micrologus ' (A.D. HXA) as being already in use. 



musicians. There Sivori for the first time at- 
tempted quartett playing, and there on March 
28, 1834, took place the first performance in 
England of Cherubini's ' Requiem,' principal 
soprano Mrs. H. R. Bishop ; first violin M. Spag- 
noletti. In 1 843 the society held a special musi- 
cal festival in honour of Spohr, who himself led 
three pieces. One object of the society was to 
establish a taste for Beethoven's chamber music, 
by performing it in the most perfect manner 
attainable. It was divided into two classes, one 
called the pianoforte and the other the violin 
class, and separate evenings were devoted to 
each kind of composition, special attention being 
bestowed on those least known to the public. 
These residted in the series of chamber concerts 
given publicly in Harley Street in 1845 and 
1846, and called the 'Beethoven Quartett So- 
ciety,' the whole being due to the enthusiasm, 
knowledge, and munificence of Mr. Alsager. 

ALT. The notes in the octave above the 
treble stave, beginning with the G, are said to 
be IN ALT, and those in the next octave in 


ALTENBURG, Johann Ernst, a famous 
trumpet-player, bom 1734 at Weissenfels, and 
son of Johann Caspar, also an excellent master 
of the same instrument. The father served in 
several campaigns, and was in action at Malpla- 
quet. After leaving the army he travelled much 
in Europe, and was admired wherever he came, 
and so successful that he was able to refuse an 
offer fi-om Frederic Augustus of Poland to enter 
his service with a salary of 600 thalers. He 
died in 1 761. His son — more celebrated than the 
father — after completing his education, adopted 
the military career, and was a field trumpeter in 
the army during the Seven Years' War. After 
the peace of Hubertsburg he became organist at 
Bitterfeld. He was the author of a book entitled 
' Versuch einer Anleitung zur heroischer musikal- 
ischenTrompetkunst' (Halle, 1 795),which, though 
poor in style, is so complete in its treatment of 
the subject, as to be of the greatest interest in 
relation to trumpet music. [F. G.] 

ALTHORN, an instrument of the Saxhorn 
family, usually standing in Eb or F. It is exclu- 
sively used in military music, and often replaces 
the French horn, for which however it is a poor 
substitute as regards tone. It is much easier to 
learn than the horn, and presents greater facility 
in rapid melodic passages. The least objection- 
able way of introducing it into the reed band is 
to associate a pair of these instruments with two 
French horns, reserving characteristic holding 
notes for the latter. In the brass band, where 
variety of timbre is less attainable, it answers 
its purpose well, and can better be played on 
horseback, from its upright bell. The name is 
also given to the saxhorn in Bb, but this is best 
distinguished as the Baritone. The scale and 
compass of this and the other Saxhorns are 
given under that word. [W. H. S.] 

ALTO (from the Latin altus, high, far re- 
moved). The male voice of the highest pitch. 




called also counter-tenor, i.e. contra, or against 
the tenor. In the i6th and early part of the 
lytli centuries the compass of the alto voice was 
limited to the notes admissible on the stave which 
has the C clef on its third line ; i.e. to the notes 
a sixth above and a sixth below 'middle C 
Later however this compass was extended by 
bringing into use the third register of the voice, 
or 'falsetto,' a register often strongest with 
those whose voices are naturally ' bass.' The 
falsetto counter-tenor, or more properly counter- 
alto, still to be found in cathedral choirs, dates — 
if musical history is to be read in music — from 
the restoration of Charles II, who doubtless de- 
sired to reproduce at home, approximately at 
least, a class of voice he had become accustomed 
to in continental chapels royal and ducal. The 
so-called counter-tenor parts of Pelham Hum- 
phreys his contemporaries and successors, habi- 
tually trariscend those of their predecessors, from 
Tallis to Gibbons, by at least a third. The con- 
tralto part is properly written on the stave which 
has G on its second line ; it consequently 
extends to the eighth above middle C and 
the fourth below. This stave is now obsolete, 
and the part for which it is fitted is, in Eng- 
land, written either on the alto stave, for which 
it is too high, or on the treble stave for which 
it is too low. On the continent tlie stave 
which has the C clef on the first line is sometimes 
used for it. For the female alto voice see Con- 
tralto. [J. H.] 

ALTO is also the Italian term for the Tenor 
violin, called alto, or alto di viola, as distinguished 
from basso di viola, because, before the invention, 
or at least before the general adoption of the vio- 
lin, it used to take the highest part in composi- 
tions for string-instruments, corresponding to the 
soprano part in vocal music. Por further parti- 
culars see Viola. [P. D.] 

ALTRO VOLTO (Ital. 'another turn'), a 
term in use during the early part of the last 
century for encore, a word which has now 
entirely superseded it. 

AMATI, a family of celebrated Italian violin- 
makers, who lived and worked at Cremona, and 
are generally regarded as the founders of the Cre- 
mona school. There is considerable uncertainty 
as to the different members of the family, which 
was one of the ohlest and noblest of the town. 

I. Andrea, the eldest, appears to have been 
born some time between 1520 and 1525. 
Fetis mentions two instruments of Andrea 
Amati, which are dated 1546 and 1551 ; one of 
them a rebec with three strings, the other a 
viola bastardo, or small violin. There can be 
no doubt that he was originally a maker of the 
older viola di gamba, and that only later in life 
he began to make violins. We do not know 
whether he was a direct pupil of one of the 
great Brescia makers, Gaspar da Salo or Maggini. 
In spite of some similarity his violins certainly 
differ materially in shape and workmanship from 
the works of these older masters. Very few 
authentic instruments of his make are extant, 

and those are not in good preservation. They ,' 
retain the stiff upright Brescian soundhole, but ! 
in almost every other respect mark a great > 
advance upon the productions of the older school. < 
Andrea worked mostly after a small pattern ; i 
the belly and back very high ; the varnish 
of amber colour; the wood, especially that of 
the belly, most carefully chosen ; the scroll 
beautifully chiselled ; the general outline ex- 
tremely graceful. A few violoncellos and tenors 
of this master are also known. The tone of his 
instruments is clear and silvery, but, probably 
owing to their small size and high elevation, not 
very powerful. The fourth string is particularly 
weak. Andrea died probably in 1577. 

2. NicoLO, younger brother of Andrea (not to 
be confounded with Nicolo son of Geronimo) 
appears to have made basses in preference to 

3. Antonio, bom 1550, and 4. Geeonimo, 
died 1635, sons of Andrea, worked conjointly 
very much in their father's style ; Greronimo 
appears to have afterwards made violins of a 
larger pattern independently of his brother, 
which however are inferior to those made 
conjointly with him. 

5. Nicolo, bom September 3, 1596, died 
August 12, 16S4, son of Geronimo, was the 
last and doubtless the most eminent of the 
family. Although he did not materially alter 
the model adopted by the rest of the Amatis he 
improved it in many respects. His outline is 
still more graceful, his varnish of deeper and 
richer colour, and the proportions, as regards 
thickness of wood and elevation of back and 
belly, are better calculated by him than by his 
predecessors. His instruments have in con- 
sequence, besides the clearness and transparency 
of the older Amatis, greater power and intensity 
of tone. As a rule he too worked after a small 
pattern, but he also made some large violins,^ 
the so-called 'Grand Amatis,' which are par- 
ticularly high-priced — and a great number of 
beautiful tenors and violoncellos. His instru- 
ments enjoyed even during his life-time a great 
reputation, and it is related that Charles IX of 
France gave him an order for twelve violins, six 
tenors, and six violoncellos, for his private band. 
Andrea Guarneri and the still greater Antonio 
Stradivari were his pupils. His label runs 
thus, 'Nicolaus Amati Cremonens. Hieronimi 
filii Antonii nepos fecit anno 16 — .' 

6. Geronimo, his son, was but an in- 
different maker. The violins of the Amati are 
the link between the Brescia school and those 
masters who brought the art of violin-making 
to its greatest perfection, Antonio Stradivari and 
Josef Guarneri. The tone of Gaspar da Salo's 
and Maggini's violins is great and powerful, 
but has a peculiarly veiled character, reminding 
one of the viola da gamba. In Nicolo Amati's 
instruments the tone is clearer and more trans- 
parent, but comparatively small. It was left to 
another generation of makers to combine these 
qualities and to fix upon a model, which after 
the lapse of nearly a century and a half has 





proved itself incapable of even the most trifling 
improvement. [P. D.] 

AMBASSADRICE, L', opera in three acts ; 
libretto by Scribe ; music by Auber ; first per- 
formed at the Opera Comique, Dec. 21, 1836. 

AMBER WITCH, THE, a romantic opera in 
four acts, by W. V. Wallace ; libretto by H. F. 
Chorley ; first produced at Her Majesty's Theatre, 
Feb. 28, 1861. 

AMBROGETTI, Giuseppe, an excellent 
huffo, who appeared in 1807, and at Paris in 1815 
in ' Don Giovanni ' ; and at the opera in London 
in 181 7, where he was very successful. His voice 
was a bass of no great power, but he was an 
excellent actor, with a natural vein of humour, 
though often put into characters unsuited to him 
as a singer ; yet he acted extremely well, and in 
a manner too horribly true to nature, the part of 
the mad father in Paers beautiful opera ' Agnese,' 
whUe that of the daughter was sung by Cam- 
porese. He remained until the end of the season 
of 18 2 1, in which his salary was £400. He 
married Teresa Strinasacchi the singer. The 
date of his death is not known. He was said 
to have become a monk in France ; but in 1838 
he was in Ireland, since which nothing has been 
heard of him. [J. M.] 

AMBROS, August Wilhelm. Bom Nov. 1 7, 
18 16, at Mauth in Bohemia. By virtue of his 
' Geschichte der Musik' (Breslau, Leuckart), the 
fourth volume of which, covering the epoch of 
Palestrina, has recently appeared, he must be 
considered the greatest living German authority 
on all questions concerning the history of Euro- 
pean music from ancient Greece to the present 
day. In spite of having suffered tiU past his 
fiftieth year under that curse of dilletantism, 
serving two masters — being at the same time 
a hardworked employe in the Austrian Civil 
Service and an enthusiastic musician and litte- 
rateur, pianist, composer, critic and historian 
— his indomitable pluck and perseverance has 
enabled him to put forward a formidable array 
of writings on the history and aesthetics of music, 
all of which bear the stamp of a rich, highly 
cultured and very versatile mind. They are as 
remarkable for their many-sided learning and 
accuracy as for their lucid arrangement and 
brilliant diction. Ambros' father, postmaster 
and gentleman farmer, was a good linguist and 
excellent mathematician, and his mother, a sister 
of KiESEWETTER, the historian of music, a 
good pianist of the old school and an accom- 
plished singer. They gave him every chance 
to acquire the elements of modem culture 
at the gymnasium and subsequently at the 
university of Prague ; drawing, painting, poetry 
were not forgotten ; music orJy, which fas- 
cinated him above all things, and for instruc- 
tion in which he passionately longed, was strictly 
prohibited. It was intended that he should enter 
the civil service, and music was considered both 
a dangerous and an undignified pastime. Never- 
theless he learnt to play the piano on the sly, 
and worked hard by himself at books of Counter- 

point and Composition. In 1840, after a brilliant 
career and with the title of doctor juris, he left 
the university and entered the office of the 
Attorney-General, where he steadily advanced 
to Referendarius in 1845, Prosecuting Attorney 
in matters of the press in 1848, &c Soon after 
1850, when he married, his reputation as a 
writer on musical matters spread beyond the 
walls of Prague. He answered Hanslick's 
pamphlet, 'Vom musikalisch Schonen,' in a 
little volume, ' Die Granzen der Poesie und der 
Musik,' which brought down upon him, especially 
in Vienna, a shower of journalistic abuse, but 
which procured for him on the other hand the 
friendship and admiration of many of the foremost 
German musicians. It was followed by a series 
of elaborate essays : ' Culturhistorische Bilder 
aus der Musikleben der Gegenwart,'" which were 
read with avidity and appeared in a second 
edition (Leipzig, Mathes) in 1865. Thereupon 
the firm of Leuckart engaged him to begin his 
'History of Music,' his life's work. From i860 
to 1864 he was making researches towards it in 
the Court Library at Vienna, at Venice, Bologna, 
Florence and Rome. In 1867 he was ransack- 
ing the Royal Library at Munich, one of the 
richest in Europe, and in 1868, 1869, and 1873 
was again in Italy extending his quest as far 
as Naples. The third volume, reaching to 
Palestrina, was published in 1868. In 1872 and 
1874 he published two series of 'Chips from his 
Workshop,' under the title of 'Bunte Blatter,' 
being essays on isolated musical and artistic 
subjects, and written in a sparkling non-technical 
manner, but fuU of matter interesting both to 
professional artists and dilettanti. He is now 
Professor of the History of Music at the uni- 
versity of Prague ; and, thanks to the hberality 
of the Academy of Science at Vienna, is in 
possession of sufficient means and leisure to 
continue his great task. He has appeared in 
public repeatedly as a pianist, and his com- 
positions, Overtures to ' OtheUo,' and Calderon's 
'Magico Prodigioso' ; a number of pianoforte 
pieces, ' Wanderstiicke,' ' Kinderstiicke,' ' Land- 
schaftsbilder' ; numerous songs ; a ' Stabat Mater,' 
two Masses in B flat and A minor, etc., most 
of which have a strong smack of Schumann, 
besides proving him to be a practical musician 
of far more than common attaimuents, give an 
additional weight to his criticisms, showing these 
to stand upon the firm ground of sound technical 
attainments. He died, June 28, 1876. [E. D.] 

AMBROSIAN CHANT. The ecclfesiastical 
mode of saying and singing Divine Service, set 
in order by St. Ambrose for the cathedral church 
of Milan about a.d. 3S4, We have little 
historical information as to its peculiarities. 
That it was highly impressive we learn from 
the well-known i)assage in St. Augustine's ' Con- 
fessions,' book ix. chap. 6. 

It has been stated without proof, and repeated 
by writer after writer on the subject, that St. 
Ambrose took only the four 'authentic' Greek 
modes, beincf the first, third, fifth, and seventh 
of the eight commonly called the Gregorian 



Tones, from being all used in the revision of 
the Roman Antiphonarium by St. Gregory the 
Great at a subsequent date (a.d. 590), But 
St. Ambrose's own statement in his letter to his 
sister St. Marcelina is merely that he wished 
to take upon himself the task of regulating the 
tonality and the mode of execution of the hymns, 
psalms, and antiphons that were sung in the 
church he had built at Milan. It must be 
confessed that we really know little or nothing 
of the system and structure of the Ambrosian 
melodies, and no existing records show any- 
thing essentially different from Gregorian plain- 

The subject of Byrd's anthem 'Bow Thine 
ear, Lord,' originally written to the words 
' Ne irascaris domine,' 

has always been quoted, since Dr. Crotch published 
his 'Specimens,' as a portion of the plainsong of 
St. Ambrose. A comparison of the liturgical 
text and ritual of Milan and Rome shows 
a different setting of the musical portions of the 
mass, as well as many variations in rubrics and 
in the order and appropriation of various portions 
to the celebrant and assistants, in the two uses. 
Thus the 'Gloria in excelsis' precedes the 
Kyrie in the Milan and follows it in the Roman 
Mass. The setting of the intonation of this, 
as taken from the missals of the two, may be 
here given as a specimen of the differences in the 



Glo - ri - a in ex - - eel - - sis De - 0. 

These intonations of the Creed 


Cre - do in u - num De - - um. 


-i^ <^ r - ^ a ' ^ ^ —IS tgv 

will also serve to show the kind of difference still 
discernible in the two rites.'^ 

But the principal boon bestowed on the 
Church by St. Ambrose was the beautiful rhyth- 
mical hymns with which he enriched the musical 
service of Milan Cathedral. Many hymns are 
called Ambrosian because written after his 

1 The Roman examples are from a fine quarto Missale Eomanum 
printed at Antwerp in 1598, corresponding with Guidetti's Dtrectorium 
aiul the present use. Those for the use of Milan are from a portion of 
the 'Missale Ambrosianum Caroli Cajetam Cardinalis, novissime 
impressum, Mediolaui," A.D. 1831, brought from Milan in 1871 by the 
■writer of this article. 


manner ; but some ten of the ancient hymns are 
from his own pen, among which may be mentioned 
' Veni Redemptor Gentium' and 'Eterna Christi 
munera' (Hymnal Noted, Nos. 12, 36). 

The entire accent and style of chanting, as 
regulated by St. Ambrose, was undoubtedly an 
artistic and cultivated improvement on that of 
preceding church services, such as would naturally 
result from the rare combination of piety, zeal, 
intellect, and poetical and musical power by 
which he was distinguished. The Ambrosian 
chant was eventually merged, but certainly not 
lost, in that vast repertory of plainsong, whether 
then ancient or modern, which we now call 
Gregorian, from the name of the next gi-eat 
reformer of church music, St. Gregory the 
Great. [T. H.] 

AMEN. This word has been often employed 
by composers as an opportunity for the display 
of fugue and counterpoint, just as some of 
Palestrina's finest music is given to the names 
of the Hebrew letters, Aleph, Beth, etc., in his 
' Lamentationes Jeremiae.' Witness Handel's 
final chorus in the ' Messiah,' Dr. Cooke's Amen 
in double augmentation, engraved on his tomb 
(see Augmentation), another very spirited 
chorus in the Italian style by the same composer 
(HuUah's Part Music, No. 6), fine choruses by 
Leo, Cafaro, Clari, and Bonno in the Fitzwilliam 
Music, and many others. [G.] 

AMERICAN ORGAN. A free -reed in- 
strument similar in its general construction to 
the Harmonium, but with some important 
differences. In the first place the reeds in the 
American organ are considerably smaller and 
more curved and twisted than in the harmonium, 
and there is a wider space left at the side of 
the reed for it to vibrate, the result being that 
the tone is more uniform in power, and that 
the expression stop when used produces much 
less effect. The curvature of the reeds also 
makes the tone softer. In the American organ 
moreover the wind-channel or cavity under which 
the vibrators are fixed is always the exact length 
of the reed, whereas in the harmonium it is 
varied according to the quality of tone required, 
being shorter for a more reedy tone and longer 
for a more fluty one. Another point of difference 
in the two instruments is that in the harmonium 
the wind is forced outward through the reeds, 
whereas in the American organ, by reversing 
the action of the bellows, it is drawn inwards. 
The advantages of the American organ as 
compared with the harmonium are that the 
blowing is easier, the expression stop not being 
generally used, and that the tone is of a more 
organ -like quality, and therefore peculiarly 
adapted for sacred music ; on the other hand, 
it is inferior in having much less variety of tone, 
and not nearly so much power of expression. 
These instruments are sometimes made with two 
manuals ; in the most complete specimens the 
upper manual is usually furnished with one set 
of reeds of eight-feet and one of four- feet pitch, 
and the lower manual with one of eight- and one of 


rixteen-feet, those on the upper manual being also 
voiced softer for the purposes of accompaniment. 
A mechanical coupling action is also provided by 
which the whole power of the instrument can be 
obtained from the lower row of keys. Pedals, 
mmUar to organ pedals, are also occasionally 
added and provided with reeds of sixteen- and 
eight-feet pitch. The names given to the stops 
vary with diBFerent makers; the plan most 
usually adopted being to caU them by the names 
of the organ stops which they are intended to 
imitate, e. g. diapason, principal, hautboy, gamba, 
flute, etc. Two recent improvements in the 
American organ should be mentioned — the auto- 
matic swell, and the vox humana. The former 
consists of a pneumatic lever which gradually 
opens shutters placed above the reeds, the lever 
being set in motion by the pressure of wind from 
the bellows. The greater the pressure, the wider 
the shutters open, and when the pressure is 
decreased they close again by their own weight. 
In this way an efiect is produced somewhat 
similar, though far inferior, to that of the 
expression stop on the harmonimn. The vox 
humana is another mechanical contrivance. In 
this a fan is placed just behind the sound-board 
of the instrument, and being made to revolve 
rapidly by means of the pressure of wind, its 
revolutions meet the waves of sound coming 
from the reeds, and impart to them a slightly 
tremulous, or vibrating quality. 

The principle of the American organ was first 
discovered about 1835 by a workman in the 
fjfictory of M. Alexandre, the most celebrated 
harmoniiun - maker of Paris. M. Alexandre 
constructed a few instruments on this plan, but 
being dissatisfied with them because of their 
want of expressive power, he soon ceased to 
make them. The workman subsequently went 
to America, carrying his invention with him. 
The instruments first made in America were 
known as 'Melodeons,' or ' Melodiums,' and the 
American organ under its present name, and 
with various improvements suggested by ex- 
perience, was first introduced by Messrs. Mason 
and Hamlin of Boston, about the year i860. 
Since that time it has obtained considerable 
popularity both in America and in this country. 

A variety of the American organ was in- 
troduced in 1874 by Messrs. Alexandre under 
the name of the 'Alexandre Organ.' In this 
instrument, instead of the single channel placed 
above the reeds there are two, one opening out 
of the other. The effect of this alteration is to 
give a quality of tone more nearly resembling 
that of the flue-stops of an organ. The reeds are 
also broader and thicker, giving a fuller tone, and 
being less liable to get out of order. [E. P.] 

AMICIS, Anna Lccia de, a very celebrated 
singer, bom at Naples about 1 740. She was at 
first successful only in 'Opera Buffa,' in which 
she sang in London in 1 763, appearing in ' La 
Cascina,' a pasticcio, given by John Christian 
Bach, and other similar pieces. Bach, however, 
thought so highly of her that he wrote for her in 
serious opera, in which she continued afterwards 



to perform until she left the stage. Bumey sajrs 
she was the first singer who sang rapid ascending 
scales staccato, mounting with ease as high as 
E in altissimo. Her voice and manner of singing 
were exquisitely polished and sweet ; and ' she 
had not a movement that did not charm the eye, 
nor a tone but what delighted the ear.' In 1771 
she retired, and married a secretary of the King 
of Naples, named Buonsollazzi. In 1773 she sang 
in Mozart's early opera, ' Lucio SUla,' at Milan, 
the principal part of Giunia. On this occasion 
she exerted herself much in behalf of the young 
composer, who took great pains to please her, 
and embellished her principal air with new and 
peculiar passages of extraordinary difficulty. 
On the night of the first performance the 
tenor, who was inexperienced, ' being required, 
during the first air of the prima donna, to make 
some demonstration of anger towards her, so ex- 
aggerated the demands of the situation, that it 
seemed as if he were about to give her a box on 
the ear, or to knock her nose ofi" with his fist, 
and at this the audience began to laugh. Signora 
de Amicis, in the heat of her singing, not knowing 
why the public laughed, was surprised ; and 
being unaware of the ridiculous cause, did not 
sing well the first evening, and an additional 
reason for this may be found in a feeling of 
jealousy that the prima uomo (Morgnoni), im- 
mediately on his appearance on the scene, should 
be applauded by the Archduchess. This, how- 
ever, was only the trick of a musico ; for he 
had contrived to have it represented to the Arch- 
duchess that he would be unable to sing from 
fear, in order to secure immediate applause and 
encouragement from the court. But to console 
de Amicis, she was sent for the next day to 
court, and had an audience of both their royal 
highnesses for an hour.' ^ In 1 789 she still sang 
well, though nearly fifty years old. The date of 
her death is not known. [J. M.] 

AMICIS, DoirENico de'. This artist, who is 
not mentioned by any of the biographical dic- 
tionaries, sang with Anna de' Amicis in 1 763 at 
London, in ' La Cascina.' It is impossible to say 
how he was related to that singer ; but it is 
possible that he was her first husband. [J. M.] 

opera in three acts, words by J. T. Haines, music 
by W. M. Rooke. Produced at Covent Garden 
Theatre Dec. 2, 1837, and ran for more than 
twenty nights. 

AMNER, John, Organist and Master of the 
Choristers of Ely Cathedral. He succeeded 
George Barcroft in 1610, and held the appoint- 
ments till his death in 164 1. He took his degree 
as Bachelor in Music at Oxford in May 161 3. 
In 161 5 he printed his 'Sacred Hymns of 3, 4, 
5, and 6 parts, for Voices and Vyols,' dedicated 
to his 'singular good lord and maister,' the 
Earl of Bath. He composed much church music. 
• Three services and fifteen anthems are preserved 
in the books at Ely ; and several other speci- 
mens of his skill are to be found in MS. else- 

■ Letter of Leopold Mozart. 




where. (Dickson's Cat. of Musical MSS. at Ely; 
Eimbault, Bib. Madrigaliana.) [E. F. E.] 

AMNEE, Ealph, the son of John Amner, 
before mentioned. It appears from the Eegisters 
of Ely that he was elected a lay-clerk there 
in 1604, and was succeeded in 1609 by ISIichael 
Este, the well-known composer. Amner was 
then probably admitted into holy orders, as he is 
styled 'Vicar,' i.e. Minor Canon. Upon the 
death of John Amerj', a gentleman of the Chapel 
Eoyal, July 18, 1623, 'Ealphe Amner, a basse 
from Winsore, was sworn in his place.' He died 
at Windsor, March 3, 1663-4. In Hilton's 
' Catch that Catch Can,' 1 66 7, is 'a Catch in stead 
of an Epitaph upon JNIr. Ealph Amner of Wind- 
sor, commonly called the BuU Speaker, who 
dyed 1664 ; the music composed by Dr. WiUiam 
Child.' {iteg. of Ely ; Cheque-Book of Chapel 
Eoyal, Camd. Soc). [E. F. E.] 

AMOEEVOLI, Angelo, born at Venice, 
Sept. 16, 1 71 6. After appearing at the principal 
opera-houses in Italy with brilliant success, where 
he was admired for his fine voice and vocalisation, 
and the perfection of his shake, he was engaged 
for the Court Theatre at Dresden. He sang for 
the Earl of Middlesex at the opera in London 
in 1 741 ; but returned to Dresden, where he died, 
Nov. 15, 179S. [J. M.] 

ANACKEE, August Feiedkich, bom Oct. 
17, 1790, at Freiberg in Saxony, son of a very 
poor shoemaker. As a scholar at the Gymnasium 
his musical faculty soon discovered itself, but his 
poverty kept him down, and it was not tiU a 
prize of 1 300 thalers in a lottery fell to his share 
that he was able to procxire a piano and music. 
The first piece he heard performed was Beethoven's 
Polonaise in C, and Beethoven became his worsliip 
through life. In 18 13, after the battle of Leipsic, 
he went to that university, and acquired the 
friendship of Schicht, F. Schneider, and others 
of the best musicians. In 1S22 he was made 
'cantor' of his native place, and principal music- 
teacher in the normal school. From that time 
onwards for thirty years his course was one of 
ceaseless activity. No one ever worked harder 
or more successfully to make his oiEce a reality. 
In 1823 he founded the Singakademie of Frei- 
berg, and in 1830 started a permanent series of 
first-class subscription concerts ; he formed a 
musical association among the miners of the 
Berg district, for whom he wrote numerous part- 
songs ; and in short was the life and soul of 
the music of the place. At the same time he 
composed a mass of music of all kinds and aU 
dimensions. But his music is nothing remarkable : 
it is the energy and devotion of the man that 
will make him remembered. He died at his 
post on August 21, 1854, fuU of honour and 
esteem. The only piece of An acker's which 
has probably been printed in England is a 
'Miner's Song' (four parts) in the collection 
called 'Orpheus,' No. 41. [G.] 

ANACEEON, ou l' amour fugitif, an opera- 
ballet in two acts, the libretto by Mendouze, and 
the music by Cherubini, produced at the Opera 

in Paris on Oct. 4, 1S03. It is now only knowi 
by its magnificent overture. 

of this aristocratic society, established by severa 
noblemen and other wealthy amateurs, were helc 
at the Crown and Anchor Tavern in the Stranc 
towards the close of the last century. The concerts 
in which the leading members of the musical pro 
fession took part as honorary members, wen 
given fortnightly during the season, and were fol 
lowed by a supper, after which the president 6: 
his deputy sang the constitutional song ' To Ana 
creon in Heaven.' This was succeeded by song 
in every style, and by catches and glees simj 
by the most eminent vocalists of the day. Th' 
privilege of membership was greatly valued, anc 
names were frequently placed on the list for ; 
long period in advance. The society was dissolvei 
in 1 7Si6, when Sir Eichard Hankey was president 
owing, as Parke states in his ' Musical Memoirs, 
to the annoyance of the members at a restrain 
having been placed upon the performance of som' 
comic songs which were considered unfit for th 
ears of the Duchess of Devonshire, the leader c 
the haut-ton of the day, who was present private! 
in a box specially fitted up under the orchestra 
The members resigned one after another, ant 
shortly afterwards the society was dissolved at i 
general meeting. [C. M. 

ANALYSIS. The practice now prevalent 11 
England of accompanying the titles and word" 
of the music performed at concerts by an analysi , 
of the music is one of comparatively recent date 
The identity of the pieces in the programmes a 
the end of the last and the beginning of the presen 
century is rarely certain. ' New Grand Overture ; 
Haydn,' or 'Grand Overture, MS., Haydn,' is th 
usual designation of Haydn's symphonies as the 
were produced at Salomon's concerts in 1 791, '92 
The programmes of the Philharmonic Society ar 
at first almost equally vague — ' Symphonj 
Mozart,' 'Symphony, Beethoven,' 'Symphony 
never performed, Beethoven,' is with rare es 
ceptions the style in which the pieces de resist ani 
at the Society's concerts are announced. It : 
not xmtU the fifth season (1817) that the numbe 
or the key indicates which works the audienc 
might expect to hear. The next step was to prii 
on the fly-leaf of the programme the words ( 
the vocal pieces, with, in the case of Spohr 1 
'WeihederTone' (Feb. 23, 1835), atranslation ( ' 
Pfeiffer's 'Ode,' or of the 'Pastoral SjTnphonj 
(May 1 1, 1835), some verses from Thomson's 'Se; 
sons,' or at the first performance of the overtui 
to 'Leonora,' No. i (due to Mendelssohn\ a shoi 
account of the origin and dates of the four ovej 

The first attempt to assist amateurs to foUo' 
the construction of classical music during ii 
performance which the writer has met with 
that of Mr. Thomson, late Professor of ls\ 
in the L^niversity of Edinburgh, who in the 
1 841, and even earlier, added analytic; 
historical notices of the pieces in the progr 
of the concerts of the Professional Societ_^ 


^ Jdinburgh. His analyses entered thoroughly into 

he construction of the overtures and symphonies 

22, erfonned, but did not contain quotations from 

jjl he music. — The next step appears to have been 

aade by Mr. John Ella when he started the 

latinees of the Musical Union in 1845. His 

-ynoptical analysis,' with quotations, has pre- 

rved its original form and extent down to the 

Tgj (resent time. — The same thing was done, but at 

■; ;^ preater length, by Dr. Wylde in the programme- 

. -J tooks of the New Philharmonic Society, which 

Sjj. iommenced its concerts in 1852. Some of these 

ija malyses were accompanied by extracts, and in 

™ nany cases are of permanent value, such as those 

Ijl )f Beethoven's ' Pastoral Symphony,' Mozart's 

[^ Eflat ditto, and the overture to the 'Zauberflote' 

• f, [1858). An analysis of the 'Messiah' was issued 

L jj( jy the Sacred Harmonic Society in 1853, and was 

:» followed by similar dissections of 'The Creation,' 

jj, Beethoven's Mass in D, 'Israel in Egypt,' the 

;^ji^ Lobgesang,' Mozart's 'Requiem,' and, some 

I, J, fears later, 'Naaman.' 

-I^ As early as 1847 Mr. Hullah had given bio- 
l-ii graphical notices of composers in the book of 
,.A words of his historical concerts at Exeter Hall. 
^ The books of words of the Handel Festival 
i^ (1857, etc.) contain historical accounts of the 
works performed. In connection with the early 
j[ij Handel Festivals the late Mr. Chorley published 
two pamphlets called ' Handel Studies,' contain- 
ing jmalyses of the ' Messiah,' the Dettingen ' Te 
w Deimi,' and ' Israel in Egypt.' 

In 1859 the Monday Popular Concerts were 
established, and the programmes contained notices 
of the pieces. On the occasion of Mr. Charles 
Halle's Beethoven-recitals two years later fuU 
and able analyses of the whole of the sonatas 
were published, accompanied by copious extracts. 
These have since been incorporated in the Mon- 
day Popular Concert books, with similar analy- 
ses of other pieces, the whole forming a body 
of criticism and analysis which does honour to 
its author. — Shortly after the foundation of the 
Saturday Concerts at the Crystal Palace, short 
remarks were attached to some of the more 
prominent pieces. These have gradually become 
more systematic and more analytical, but they 
M are of a very mixed character when compared 
IB with those last mentioned. — The same may be 
i« said of the remarks which adorned the pro- 
grammes of Herr Pauer's recitals in 1862, '63, '67, 
' which are half biographical and half critical, 
but do not attempt to analyse each piece. 

In 1869 the Philharmonic Society adopted 
analytical programmes prepared by Mr. Mac- 
ferren, which have been maintained since. Mr. 
Macfarren also prepares similar notices for the 
British Orchestral Society ; as he did those for 
the Chamber Concerts of MM. Ellindworth, Bla- 
grove, and Daubert in 1861. 

In addition to the above, analytical programmes 

issued by the Wagner Society, the Reid 

;ert, the Glasgow and Edinburgh Choral 

IS, the Liverpool Philharmonic Society, the 

. >t Hall Concerts, Mr. Walter Bache, and 

-ners. The book of words of Mr. Sullivan's ora- 



torio 'The Light of the World' contains a length- 
ened analysis of the work number by number. 

The practice of analysing pieces of classical 
music with the view to enable the more or less 
cultivated amateur to seize the ideas and mode 
of treatment of the composer, is one which, if 
carried out with skill and judgment, is surely 
commendable. The fact that a movement is 
written on a definite plan or 'form,' and governed 
by rules more or less rigid, though obvious to 
the technical musician is news to many an 
amateur; and yet without understanding such 
facts it is impossible fully to appreciate the 
intention or the power of the composer. In fol- 
lowing the scheme of the music the hearer adds 
to the pleasure of the sounds the pleasure of the 
intellect. In addition to this there are few great 
pieces of music in which historical or Ijiographi- 
cal facts as to the origin and progress of the work, 
key, etc., coimecting the music with the person- 
ality of the composer, may not be stated so as 
to add materially to the pleasure and profit of the 

Analytical programmes do not appear to have 
been yet introduced into the concert-rooms 
abroad ; but elaborate analyses of single works 
have been made by foreign critics, such as 
Wagner's of the ninth 8}'mphony (translated 
and circulated in 1855, when Wagner conducted 
that Symphony at the Philharmonic), Liszt's of 
' Tann^iauser ' and ' Lohengrin,' and von Billow's 
of Wagner's ' Faust Overture ' ; and the step from 
these to illustrated analyses like those used in 
England will not impossibly soon foUow. [G.] 

ANALYSIS OF COMPOuxD Musical Sounds. 
The separation of such sounds into their component 
elements, or the determination of the elements 
they contain. The sounds ordinarily met with 
in music are not simple and single notes as is 
commonly supposed, but are usually compounds 
of several sounds, namely one fundamental one 
(generally the most powerful) accompanied by 
higher harmonics, varying in number and strength 
in different cases. These however blend so com- 
pletely into one sound that the unaided ear, 
unless specially trained, fails to distinguish the 
separate elements of which it is made up. Such 
a compound sound is intentionally produced 
artificially with the compound stops of a lai^e 
organ, and if these are well in tune and well 
proportioned, it is often difficult to distinguish 
them separately. 

In acoustical investigations it is very desirable 
to ascertain of what simple sounds a compound 
one is composed, and this is done by a species of 
analysis similar to that so common in chemistry. 
In compound chemical substances the elements 
are, like the elements of a compound sound, 
usually undistinguishable by the eye, and the 
plan is adopted of applying to the substance a 
tfst, which having a peculiar affinity for some 
particular element, will make known its presence 
in the compound. Such a test exists for elemental 
sounds in what the Germans call MUtonen ; or 
sympathetic resonance. 

Certain bodies will vibrate when certain notes, 



corresponding to their vibratory capacity, and 
those only, are sounding near them, and they 
therefore test the presence of such notes, whether 
perceptible or not to the ear. For example, if we 
wish to find out whether the note is present in a 
compound sound, we have only to bring within 
its range a sonorous body, tuned to that note, 
as for example the second string of a violin, and 
if that note is present, in sufficient force, the 
string wiU be sympathetically set in vibration. 
We can judge a pnori by the theoretical laws of 
harmonics, what notes are or are not likely to be 
present in a certain compound sound, and by 
applying tests for each, in this way, the sound 
may be completely analysed, both (as chemists 
say) quantitatively and qualitatively, that is, we 
may not only find what notes are present but 
also, by proper provision in the test body, what 
are the relative strengths of each note. 

This method of analysis is chiefly due to 
Hehnholtz, the test bodies preferred by him being 
hoUow glass vessels. Each of these has such a 
capacity that the air it contains wiU vibrate with 
a particular note, and by having several of these, 
tuned to the notes required, the presence of these 
notes in any compound sound may be ascertained 
with great facility. [W. P.] 

certs, or, to give them their formal title, The 
Concert of Antient Music, were established in 
1776 by a coiTmiittee consisting of the Earls of 
Sandwich and Exeter, Viscount Dudley and 
Ward, the Bishop of Durham, Sir Watkin W. 
Wynn, Eart., Sir R. Jebb, Bart., and Messrs. 
Morrice and Pelham, who were afterwards joined 
by Viscount Fitzwilliam and Lord Paget (after- 
wards Earl of Uxbridge). The performances 
were also known as ' The King's Concerts.' Mr. 
Joah Bates, the eminent amateur, was appointed 
conductor, the band was led by Mr. Hay, and 
the principal singers were Miss Harrop (after- 
wards Mrs. Bates), the Misses Abrams, Master 
Harrison (subsequently a famous tenor), the Rev. 
Mr. Clarke, Minor Canon of St. Paul's (tenor), 
Mr. Dyne (counter-tenor), and Mr. Champness 
(bass) . The chief rules of the concerts were that no 
music composed within the previous twenty years 
should be performed, and that the directors in 
rotation should select the programme. Mr. Bates 
retained the conductorship tiU the time of his 
death in 1 7 79, and directed the concerts personally, 
except for two years, when Dr. Arnold and Mr. 
Knyvett acted for him. He was succeeded by 
Mr. Greatorex, who remained in office until his 
death in 1831, when Mr. Knyvett, who had been 
the principal alto singer for many years, was 
chosen to succeed him. The resolution of the 
directors in 1839 to change the conductor at the 
choice of the director for each night led to the 
resignation of Mr. Knyvett, and the post was then 
offered to Dr. Crotch, who ultimately declined it. 
Sir G«orge Smart was invited to conduct the first 
two concerts of 1840, and was succeeded by Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Henry) Bishop, Mr. Lucas, and 
Mr. Turle. It was found however that this system 
did not work well, and in 1843 Sir Henry Bishop 


was appointed sole conductor. There was als 
a change in the leadership of the band, Mr. \\ 
Cramer succeeding Mr. Hay in 1780, and bein 
succeeded in his turn by his son Fran9ois, wh 
fiUed the post from his father's death in 180 
untn 1844, when he retired. Mr. J. D. Lode 
led the band from 1844 to 1846, in which yea 
Mr. T. Cooke was appointed. IJntil 1841 it wa 
the custom for the conductor to preside at th 
organ, but in that year the directors appointee 
Mr. Charles Lucas as their organist. The bani 
at the time of the establishment of the concert 
consisted of sixteen violins, five violas, fou 
ceUos, four oboes, four bassoons, two doubl 
basses, two trumpets, four horns, one trombone 
and drum. At the close of the concerts th 
orchestra numbered seventeen viohns, five violas 
five cellos, five double basses, three flutes, tw^ 
oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns 
three trumpets, three trombones, two drums 
one harp, two cymbals, and triangle. Th 
canto chorus at first consisted entirely of boj- 
selected chiefly from the boys of the Chape 
Royal and Westminster Abbey, but they after 
wards gave place to ladies. The earlier pro 
grammes included an overture (usually one 
Handel's), two or three concertos by Handei 
Martini, CoreUi, Avison, or Geminiani, severa 
choruses and solos from Handel's oratorios, an( 
an anthem, glee, or madrigal ; but occasional!; 
an entire work, such as the Dettingen ' Te Deum, 
was given as the first part of the concert. Fo 
many years the programmes were almost ex 
clusively Handelian, varied by songs from Gliick 
Bach, PurceU, Hasse, and others. After the yea 
1826 there was greater variety in the schemes, an( 
Mozart's Jupiter Symphony, his Symphonies ii 
D and E flat, the overture to the ' Zauberflote, 
and a selection from his Requiem were include( 
in the programmes for 1826. From that date ai 
orchestral work by Mozart was performed a 
nearly every concert, although Handel stil 
maintained his supremacy. In 1834 we fin( 
Haydn's 'Surprise' symphony, and in 1835 ; 
selection from the ' Creation ' and the ' Seasons 
in the programmes. In the latter year Beethovei 
was represented by his ' Prometheus ' overture 
and during the last ten years of the concerts hi; 
symphony in D, overtures to 'Fidelio' anc 
' Egmont,' a chorus from ' King Stephen,' au( 
other works were given. In 1847, at a concer 
directed by Prince Albert, Mendelssohn was thi 
solo organist, and played Bach's Prelude ani 
Fugue on the name of 'Bach.' The later pro 
grammes were drawn from varied sources, Hande 
being only represented by one or two items. Ii 
1785 the Boyal Family commenced to atteni 
the concerts regularly, and then it was that the^ 
were styled ' The King's Concerts.' As a marl 
of his interest in the performances King Georgt 
the Thfrd personally wrote out the programmes 
and in later years Prince Albert was one of tlu 
directors. Among the distinguished artistes wh( • 
appeared at these concerts were Madame Mar£ ■• 
and Mrs. Billington (1785), Signora Storace 
(1787), Miss Parke, Miss Poole (1792), Messrs 


" iarrison and Bartleman (i 795). Up to 1 795 the 
mcerts were held in the new rooms, Tottenham 
treet, afterwards known as the Queen's or West 

^ oadon Theatre, but in that year they were 
imoved to the concert-room in the Opera House, 
id in 1804 to the Hanover Square Rooms. 
1 181 1 Catalan! made her first appearance, and 
TO years later Miss Stephens (afterwards Countess 
fi^sex) made her debut at these concerts. In 
J16 Mrs. Salmon was heard, and shortly after- 
tads Messrs. Braham and Phillips were engaged. 
1 addition to the twelve concerts given every 
3ar a thirteenth was added, when ' The Messiah ' 
as performed in aid of the ' Fund for the Sup- 
jrt of Decayed Musicians and their Families,' 
practice stiU maintained in the annual per- 
irmances by the Royal Society of Musicians. 
I accordance with one of the customs connected 
ith the concerts it was the rule for the director 
the day to entertain his brother directors 

Ti id the conductor at dinner. The library of 

« d masters belonging to the society was after 
discontinuance removed to Buckingham 

palace. [C. M.] 

ANDANTE (Ital., participle of the verb 

idare, 'to go'). Going, moving along at a 

^ oderate pace. In modem music this word is 

liefly used to designate a rather slow rate of 

ovement ; formerly however it was used more 

jnerally in its literal sense. Thus in Handel's 

uflic we frequently find the indication ' andante 

legro,' a contradiction in terms in the modem 

iiwe of the words, but by which is simply meant 

noving briskly.' Andante is a quicker rate of 

ovement than larghetto, but on the other hand 

slower than allegretto. As with most other 

me-indicationa it is frequently modified in 

i eaning by the addition of other words, e. g. 

mdante sostenuto' would be a little slower, 

id 'andante un poco allegretto' or 'andante 

m moto' a trifle faster, than 'andante' alone. 

^ ike adagio, largo, etc., this word is also used 

\ I the name of a piece of music (e. g. Beethoven's 

indante in F ' ) or as the name of a slow move- 

ent of a symphony, sonata, etc. [E. P.] 

j^ANDANTINO (Ital.). The diminutive of 
ffl NDANTE (q. v.). As 'andante' means literally 
iii foiiig,' its diminutive must mean ' rather going,' 
8. not going quite so fast ; and properly 
ndantino' designates a somewhat slower time 
An -andante. Some modem composers however, 
rgetting the original meaning of the word, and 
inking of andante as equivalent with 'slow,' 
« andantino for ' rather slow,' i. e. somewhat 
licker. In which sense the word is intended 
n only be determined by the character of the 
asic itself. No more striking proof of the un- 
rtainty which prevails in the use of these time- 
dications can be given than is to be found in 
e feet that three movements in Mendelssohn's 
ilijah' the first of which, 'If with all your 
arts,' is marked 'andante con inoto,' the 
cond, 'The Lord hath exalted thee,' merely 
ndante,' and the third, 'O rest in the Lord,' 
•ndantino/ are all in exactly the same time, 



the metronome indication being in each case 
J = 72- [E. P.] 

ANDER, Aloys, one of the most famous 
German tenor singers of recent times ; born Au- 
gust 24, 182 1, at Libitz in Bohemia. His voice 
though not powerful was extremely sympathetic 
in quality. He went to Vienna in the hope that 
his talents would be recognised there, but it 
required all the energy and influence of Wild the 
singer, at that time Ober-Regisseur to the court 
opera-house before he was allowed to make the 
experiment of appearing there for the first time 
(Oct. 22, 1845) as Stradella in the opera of that 
name, though with no previous experience of the 
boards whatever. His success was complete, and 
decided his course for life, and that single night 
raised him from a simple clerk to the rank of 
a ' primo tenore assoluto.' Still more remarkable 
was his success in the 'Prophfete,' whi^h was 
given in Vienna for the first time on Feb. 28, 
1850. Meyerbeer interested himself in the rapid 
progress of Ander, and from that date he became 
the established favourite of the Vienna public, to 
whom he remained faithful, notwithstandin"' 
tempting offers of engagements elsewhere. His 
last great part was that of Lohengrin, in which 
he combined all his extraordinary powers. As 
an actor he was greatly gifted, and had the 
advantage of a very attractive appearance. His 
voice, not strong and somewhat veiled in tone, 
was in harmony with all his other qualities ; his 
conceptions were fuU of artistic earnestness, and 
animated by a noble vein of poetry. His physical 
strength however was unequal to the excitement 
of acting, and was impaired by the artificial 
means which he took to support himself. His 
last appearance was as Arnold in ' William Tell,' 
on Sept. 19, 1864 ; he was then failing, and shortly 
afterwards totally collapsed. He was taken to 
the Bath of Wartenberg in Bohemia, where he 
died on Dec. 11, but was buried in Vienna amid 
tokens of universal affection. [C. F. P.] 

ANDERSON, Mrs. Luct, is the daughter of 
Mr. John Philpot, a professor of music and 
music-seller at Bath, where she was bom in 
1797. Miss Philpot early manifested a love for 
pianoforte playing, and although she never re- 
ceived any other instruction upon the instrument 
than some lessons given, at very irregular inter- 
vals, by her cousin, Mr. Windsor, of Bath, she 
soon, by perseverance and observation of the 
eminent players who occasionally appeared at the 
Bath concerts, arrived at such a degree of skill 
as to be able to perform in public at those con- 
certs, which she did with great success, and ako 
to follow music as a profession. Ill health, how- 
ever, induced her to quit Bath and to come to Lon- 
don, where her success was speedily assured, she 
soon becoming eminent in her profession. In 
July 1820 Miss Philpot was married to Mr. 
George Frederick Anderson, a violinist engaged 
in all the best orchestras, and subsequently, for 
many years, master of the Queen's private band. 
Mrs. Anderson enjoys the distinction of being tlie 
first female pianist who played at the Philhar- 



monic Society's concerts. She was tlie instruc- 
trees on the pianoforte of the Princess, now Queen, 
Victoria, and of her children. [W. H. H.] 

ANDRE, JoHANN, the head of an extensive 
musical family, was born at Offenbach, A.M. on 
March 28, 1741. His father was proprietor of a 
silk factory, and the boy was intended to carry on 
the business. But the love of music was too 
strong in him; he began by teaching hunself, 
until in 1761 he happened to encounter an 
Italian opera company at Frankfort, which 
added fresh food to his desire. His first comic 
opera, 'Der Topfer' (the Potter), was so 
successful as to induce Goethe to confide to him 
his operetta of ' Erwin und Elmire,' (i 764) which 
had equal success, as had also some songs 
produced at the same time. After this Andre 
received a call to act as director of the music 
at the Dobblin Theatre in Berlin, which he 
obeyed by settling in Berlin with his family, 
after handing over the factory (to which since 
1774 he had added a music printing office) to 
his younger brother. Here he enjoyed the 
instruction of Marpurg, and composed a quantity 
of songs, dramas, and other pieces for the 
theatre. Not being able however, owing to the 
distance, to give the necessary attention to 
the printing-office, he returned to Offenbach at 
the end of seven years, and resided there in 
the pursuit of his business and his music till 
his death on Jime 18, 1799. Before that date 
his establishment had issued the large number 
of 1200 works, and he himself had composed, 
in addition to many instrumental pieces, some 
thirty operas and dramas, and a vast number 
of melodious songs and vocal pieces, many 
of which became popular, amongst them the 
Btill favourite Volkslied 'Bekranzt mit Laub.' 
Among his operas was one by Bretzner in 
four acts, 'Belmonte und Constanza, oder die 
Entfuhrung aus dem Serail,' produced in Ber- 
lin on May 26, 1781, and often repeated with 
applause. Shortly afterwards, on July 12, 1782, 
appeared Mozart's setting of the same opera, 
with alterations and additions to the text by 
Stephanie. A paper war followed between the 
two librettists, during which Andre took occasion 
to speak nobly on the side* of Stephanie, not- 
withstanding his having assisted Mozart in the 
preparation of an opera which had far surpassed 
his own. After Andre's death the business was 
carried on by his third son, Johann Anton, the 
most remarkable member of the family. He 
was bom at Offenbach, Oct. 6, 1775, and while 
almost an infant showed great predilection and 
talent for music. He was an excellent player 
both on the violin and piano, and a practised 
composer before entering at the University of 
Jena, where he went through the complete 
course of study. He was thus fuUy competent 
on the death of his father in 1 799 to assume the 
control of the business, and indeed to impart 
to it fresh impulse by allying himself vnth 
Senefelder the inventor of lithography, a process 
which he largely applied to the production of 
music. In the same year with his father's death 


he visited Vienna, and acquired from Mozart'iA 
widow the entire musical remains of the great 
composer, an act which spread a veritable hale 
round the establishment of which he was thf 
head. Andre published the thematic catalogue ■ 
which Mozart himself had kept of his work 
from Feb 9, 1784 to Nov. 15, 179X, as well a,^ 
a further thematic catalogue of the whole of th( 
autographs of the master which had come int< 
his possession. Andre was equally versed in th( 
theory and the practice of music : he attemptec 
every branch of composition, from songs t( 
operas and symphonies, with success. Amongs t 
other things he was the author of 'Proverbs,! 
for four voices (op. 32), an elaborate joke whicll 
has recently been the object of much dispute | 
owing to its having been published in 1869 b; 
Aibl of Munich as a work of Haydn's. As ; 
teacher he could boast of a series of distinguishe( 
scholars. His introduction to the violin and hi 
treatise on harmony and counterpoint were botl 
highly esteemed. So also were the two firs 
volumes of his unfinished work on composition 
Andre was dignified with the title of Hofrath 
and by the accumulation of musical treasures h 
converted his house into a perfect pantheon c 
music. He died on April 8, 1842. An ide 
of the respect in which he was held may b 
gained from various mentions of him in Met 
delssohn's letters, especially that of July 14, 183^ 
and a very characteristic account of a via 
to him in Hillers 'Mendelssohn,' chapter 
Of his sons mention may be made of AuGDS! 
the present proprietor of the establishment, an 
publisher of the ' Universal- Lexikon der Toi 
kunst' of Schladebach and Bemsdorf ; of JoHAH 
Baptist, pupil of Aloys Schmitt and Kesslei 
and afterwards of Taubert and Dehn, a resider 
in Berlin; of Julius, who addicted himself 1 
the organ, and was the author of a 'Practicj 
Organ School,' which has gone through severs 
editions, and of various favourite pieces for thi 
instrument, as well as of four hand arrangemeff 
of Mozart's works ; lastly of ELiKL AuGOS' 
who in 1835 undertook the management of H 
branch establishment opened at Frankfort by h 
father in 1828, adding to it a manufactory 
pianos, and a general musical instrument busines 
He named his house ' Mozarthaus,' and til 
pianos manufactured there ' Mozartfliigel,' eac 
instrument being ornamented vrith a portra 
of the master from the original painting 1 
Tischbein in his possession. In 1855, on tl 
occasion of the Munich Industrial Exhibition, 1 
published a volume entitled ' Pianoforte makm| 
its history, musical and technical importano 
(' Der Klavierbau,' etc.). [C. F. P 

ANDREOLI, Giuseppe, a celebrated conte 
bassist, bom at Milan in 1 757, died in 1 832 ; mei 
ber of the orchestra of La Scala and profess 
of his instrument at the Conservatorio of Miliu 
also played the harp with success. [T. P. B 

ANDREOLI. A musical family, not relat< 
to the foregoing. Evangelista, the father — bo: 
I Sio, died June 1 6, 75 — was organist and teach 
at Mirandola in Modena, His son, Guglieglm 


8 bom there April 22, 1835, and vras pupil at 
; Conservatorio of Milan from 1847 to 53. 
pianist of great distinction, remarkable for 
1 soft and delicate touch, pure taste, and power 
expression, as weU as for great execution. He 
a well known in London, where he appeared 
the Crystal Palace (Dec. i.^, 56), the Musical 
lion (April 27, 58), the New Philharmonic 
[ay 9, 59), and elsewhere. His health was 
ver strong, and he died at Nice i860. His 
npositions were unimportant. His brother 
KLO was also bom at Mirandola, and brought 
at the Conservatorio of MUan, where he is 
w (1875) professor of the piano. He too was 
'ourably kiiown in London, though since 1871 
1 health has confined him to Italy and the 
ith of France. [G.] 

ANDREONI was an Italian singer engaged 
the season of 1 741 in London. He seems to 
ve had an artificial low soprano or contralto 
ice, for his name appears to the song ' Let 
/men oft appear' in Handel's 'Allegro,' to 
dch the composer has added in his MS. the 
irds 'un tono piti basso in sop°°,' meaning 
it it must be transposed for him. The song 
a probably sung by him in Italian, as a trans- 
ion, beguming 'Se I'lmeneo fra noi verrk,' is 
led, as also to the song 'And ever against 
sing cares' (' E contro all' aspre cure'), which 
fiven to the same singer. He had arrived too 
«ntly to be able to learn the language in time 
the performance. He sang the contralto 
fcn's part in Handel's 'Imeneo' the same year, 
d in 'Deidamia,' that master's last opera. He 
38 not seem to have gone with him, however, 
Ireland ; nor to have sung again in London. 
8 subsequent history is not known. [J. M.] 

ANDREVI, Francesco, bom near Lerida in 
talonia of Italian parents in 1785, died at 
fcelona in 1 844 ; was successively the director 
music in the cathedrals of Valencia, Seville, 
lurdeaux (1832 to 1842) where he fled during 
3 civil war, and in the church of Our Lady 
Mercy at Barcelona. His sacred compositions 
re good and numerous, but a ' Nunc Dimittis ' 
:1 a ' Salve E^ina,' printed in Eslava's collection 
Spanish church music, ' Lira Sacro-Hispana,' are 
onlypublished works. His treatise on Harmony 
i Counterpoint was translated into French 
aris, 1848). [M. C. C] 

ANERIO, Femce, an Italian composer of 
) Roman school, was bom about 1560, and, 
er completing his studies under G. M. Nanini, 
a made Maestro at the English College. He 
erwards took service with Cardinal Aldo- 
indini, and upon the death of Palestrina was 
med 'Compositore' to the Papal Chapel, on 
)ril 3, 1594. The date of his death is un- 
own. His printed compositions include the 
lowing: three books of 'Sacred Madrigals' for 
e voices (Gardano, Rome 1585) ; three books 
'Madrigals' ; two books of sacred 'Concerti' ; 
o books of Hymns, Canticles, and Mo- 
ti. ; ' Responsori' for the Holy Week ; Litan- 
, Canzoni, and Motetti. His unpublished 



works are preserved in the collections of S. Maria 
in Vallicelia, of the Vatican Basilica, and of the 
Pontifical Chapel. In the library of the Abbfe 
Santini also, there was a considerable number of 
Anerio's Masses, with Psalms and other pieces. 
A Mass, a Te Deum, and 1 2 motets (one Car 8 
voices) by him, are given in Proske's ' Musica 
divina.' [E, H. P.] 

ANERIO, Giovanni Francesco, a younger 
brother of the preceding, bom at Rome about 
1567. His first professional engagement was as 
Maestro di Cappella to Sigismund III, King of 
Poland. He afterwards served in the same 
capacity in the cathedral of Verona. Thence he 
came to Rome to fill the post of musical in- 
structor at the Seminario Romano, and was 
afterwards Maestro di CappeUa at the church 
of the Madonna de' Monti. Lastly, in 1600, he 
was made Maestro at the Lateran, where he 
remained until 161 3. He then disappears. He 
was one of the first Italians who made use of the 
quaver and its subdivisions. His printed works 
form a catalogue too long for insertion here. 
Suffice it to say that they consist of all the usual 
forms of sacred music, and that they were 
published (as his brother's were) by Soldi, 
Gardano, Robletti, etc. Giovanni Anerio had a 
fancy for decking the frontispieces of his volumes 
with fantastic titles, such as 'Ghirlanda di sacra 
Rose,' 'Teatro armonico spirituale,' 'Selva armo- 
nica,' 'Diporti musicale,' and the like. He was 
one of the adapters of Palestrina's mass ' Papse 
MarceUi.' (See Palestrina). There were 
scores of several of his masses in the collection of 
the Abbfe Santini. A requiem of his for 4 voices 
has been recently published by Pustet of Regens- 
burg. [E. H. P.] 

ANET, Baptiste, a French violinist, pupil of 
Corelli. After studying for four years under that 
great master at Rome, he appears to have re- 
turned to Paris about 1700, and to have met 
vsdth the greatest success. There can be little 
doubt that by his example the principles of the 
great Italian school of violin -playing were first 
introduced into France. Probably owing to the 
jealousy of his French colleagues Anet soon left 
Paris again, and is said to have spent the rest of 
his life as conductor of the private band of a 
nobleman in Poland. 

He published three sets of sonatas for the 
violin. [P. D.] 

ANFOSSI, Pasquale, an operatic composer 
of the 1 8th century. Bom at Naples in or about 
1729. He first studied the violin, but deserted 
that instrument for composition, and took lessons 
in harmony fix)m Piccinni, who was then in the 
zenith of his fame. His two first operas, ' Caio 
Mario' and ' I Visionari,' the first brought out in 
Venice, the second in Rome, were failures ; but 
his third, 'L'Incognita persequitata,' made his 
fortune. Its success was partly owing to the 
ill-feeling of a musical clique in Rome towards 
Piccinni, whom they hoped to depreciate by the 
exaltation of a rival. Anfossi lent himself to 
their intrigues, and treated his old master and 




benefactor with great ingratitude. In his own 
turn he experienced the fickleness of the Roman 
public of that day, and quitting, first the capital, 
and afterwards Italy, brought out a long string of 
operas in Paris, London, Prague, and Berlin, with 
varying success. He returned to Italy in 1 784, 
and to Rome itself in 1787. Tiring of the stage, 
he soug-ht for and obtained the post of Maestro 
at the Lateran, and held it till his death. 

The music of Anfossi was essentially ephe- 
meral ; he was the fashion in his day, and for 
a time eclipsed his betters. But, although a 
musician of undoubted talent, he was destitute 
of real creative power, and it is not likely that 
his reputation will ever be rehabilitated. He 
composed no less than forty-six operas and one 
oratorio, besides certain pieces of church-music, 
some of which are in the collection of the Lateran 
and others were in that of the Ahhh Santini. 

Mozart composed two airs for soprano and one 
for tenor, for insertion in Anfossi's opera of ' II 
Curioso indiscrete' on the occasion of its per- 
formance at Vienna in 1783, and an arietta for 
bass for the opera of 'Le Gelosie fortunate' at 
the same place in 1788. (See Kochel's Cata- 
logue, Nos. 418, 419, 420, 541.) [E. H. P.] 

ANGLAISE. The English country-dance 
(contredanse), of lively character, sometimes in 
2-4, but sometimes also in 3-4 or 3-8 time. It 
closely resembles the Ecossaisb (q. v.), and 
most probably took its origin from the older form 
of the French Bigaudon. [E. P.] 

ANGLEBERT, Jean Henkt d'. chamber- 
musician to Louis XIV, and author of ' Pifeces 
de Clave9in,' etc. (Paris, 1689), a collection of 
fugues and of airs, some by Lulli, but mostly 
original, arranged for the harpsichord. ' Les 
Folies d'Espagne,' with twenty-two variations, 
was afterwards similarly treated by Corelli, and 
has been erroneously supposed to be his com- 
position. [M. C. C] 

ANGRISANI, Caklo, a distinguished basso, 
bom at Reggio, about 1 760. After singing at 
several theatres in Italy, he appeared at Vienna, 
where, in 1798 and 1799, he published two col- 
lections of ' Nottumi ' for three voices. In 1 8 1 7 
he sang at the King's Theatre in London with 
Fodor, Pasta, Camporese, Begrez, Naldi, and 
Ambrogetti. His voice was full, round, and 
sonorous. [J. M.] 

ANIMATO or CON ANIMA (Ital.), 'With 
spirit.' This direction for performance is seldom 
to be found in the works of the older masters, 
who usually employed 'Conspirito' or 'Spiritoso.' 
Haydn and Mozart rarely if ever use it ; Bee- 
thoven never once employs at. In the whole of 
Clementi's sonatas, numbering more than sixty, 
it is only to be found three times. He uses it in 
the first allegro of the sonata in D minor. Op. 
50, No. 2, and in the rondo of the 'Didone 
abbandonata,' Op. 50, No. 3. In both these cases 
passages are simply marked ' Con anima.' The 
third instance is especially interesting as proving 
that the term does not necessarily imply a quick 
tempo. The slow movement of his sonata in 

E flat, Op. 47, No. I, is inscribed 'Adagio moll 
e con anima.' Weber frequently uses the ter 
(see his sonatas in A flat and D minor), Chop' 
employs it in his ist Scherzo and his E mine 
Concerto, and it is also to be met with in Mendel 
sohn, — e. g. ' Lieder ohne Worte,' Book 5, No. i 
'Allegro con anima,' symphony of 'Lobgesan;i 
first allegro ' animato' (full score, p. 1 7). In the 
and similar cases no quickening of the tempo , 
necessarily implied ; the eflfect of animation is I 
be produced by a more decided marking of tl 
rhythmical accents. On the other hand the ter 
is sometimes used as equivalent to ' stretto,' 
for instance in the first allegro of Mendelssohi 
Scotch Symphony, where the indication ' ass 
animate' is accompanied by a change in 
metronome time from • " = 100 to p ' = 120, 
at the close of the great duet in the third act 
Auber's 'Hayd^e,' where the coda is marked on 
'animato,' but a quicker time is clearly intend* 
In this, as in so many similar cases, it is imp 
sible to lay down any absolute rule. A go 
musician will never be at a loss as to whether t 
time should be changed or not. [E 

ANIML^CCIA, Giovanni, an Italian compos 
born at Florence at the end of the 15th or 
beginning of the i6th century. He studi 
music under Claudeo Goudimel, and in 1555 w 
made Maestro at the Vatican, retaining tl 
post until his death. He died beyond all quest! 
in 1 5 71, for, although Poccianti in his ' Catalog 
Scriptormn Florentinorum' places his death 
1569, Adami, Pitoni, and Sonzonio all give 
date 1571. But better than any such author 
are two entries in the Vatican Archives, one 
his death in March 15 71, and the other of 
election of Palestrina in his place in Aj 
following. There can be no doubt, although 
fame and his work were so soon to be eclipsed 
the genius of Palestrina, that his music waf 
great advance upon the productions of 
Flemish school. More than one passage in 
dedications of his published pieces show too t 
he was touched by the same religious spirit 
responsibility which filled the soul of Palestrii 
and the friendship of Saint Filippo Neri, wh 
they both shared, is alone an indication of t 
similarity. The saint's admiration of AnimiM 
may be gauged by his ecstatic declaration t 
he had seen the soul of his friend fly upwa 
towards heaven. 

Animuccia composed the famous ' Laudi,' wl 
were simg at the Oratorio of S. Filippo after 
conclusion of the regular office, and out of 
dramatic tone and tendency of which the '( 
torio' is said to have been developed. Henct 
has been called the ' Father of the Oratorio.' 
is strange that a form of music which Protest! 
ism has made so completely its own should h 
been adopted, even to its very name, from 
oratory of a Catholic enthusiast in the later i 
of the Church's power. 

Several volumes of his works, comprif 
masses, motetti, madrigals, Magnificats, 
some of the ' Laudi,' were published in 8 
lifetime by the Dorici and their successors, f 



,no, and by the successors of Baldo. Martini 
d two of his 'Agnus' in his ' Esemplare' — 
reprinted by Choron, ' Principes,' vol. v. But 
ulk of his compositions is probably in MS. 
the rapidity with which he wrote some 
if is afforded by an extract quoted both by 
iaini and Fetis from the Vatican Archives. It 
; an order to the Paymaster of the Chapter to 
ay Animuccia twenty-five scudi for fourteen 
ymns, four motetti, and three masses, all of 

hich are shown in the order itself to have been 
jmposed in less than five months. [E. H. P.] 

ANIMUCCIA, Paolo, brother of the fore- 
oing, but whether older or younger does not 
ppear. Pitoni, with inaccuracy, takes upon 
imself to doubt the relationship altogether ; 
ut Poccianti, who was their contemporary, 
iatinctly affirms it, speaking of Paolo as, 'Ani- 
luccia, laudatissimi Joannis frater.' He was 
lade Maestro at the Lateran on the removal of 
lubino to the Vatican in 1550, and held the 
ost till 1552 when he was succeeded by 
lUpacchini. Pitoni insists that he remained at 
be Lateran from 1550 to 1555 ; but the ' Libri 
tensuali ' are against him. Baini, however, hints 
hat it is possible that he may have occupied the 
•ost a second time temporarily in 155.5, just 
lefore the election of Palestrina, and that this 
oay have misled Pitoni. He died, according 
Poccianti, at Rome in 1563. He has left but 
ittle printed music behind him. Two madrigals 
if his appear in two separate volumes, one in a 
)ook of pieces by Orlando Lasso, and the other 
n a miscellaneous collection of various authors, 
iiid both published by Gardano of Venice in 
559. There is a motet of his in a Collection 
if Motetti published at Venice in 1568 ; and 
Sarre of Milan published some of his motetti in 

miscellaneous volume in 1588. According to 
Fetis the Library of John IV, King of Portugal, 
iontained a collection of Paolo Animuccia's Mad- 
•igals in two books intituled ' II Desiderio, Mad- 
igali a cinque, Lib. 2.' [E. H, P.] 

ANNA AMALIA, Duchess of Saxe Weimar, 
Dom at Brunswick, Oct. 24, 1739, and learned 
nusic from the conductors of the ducal chapel at 
Weimar. She composed the music in Goethe's 
tnelolrama of 'Erwin und ELnire,' a notice of 
which will be found in the 'Teutscher Mercur,' 
May, 1776. The duchess was a woman of fine 
ind noble taste, and to her countenance and 
support is greatly due the excellence of the music 
in the Weimar theatre about 1770. She died 
April 12, 1807. [F. G.] 

ANNA AMALIA, Princess of Prussia, sister 
of Frederic the Great, bom Nov. 9, 1723, was 
a pupil of Kirnberger; she is the composer of 
a cantata by Ramler, ' Der Tod Jesu,' the same 
which was set to music by Graun. The princess 
was an able contrapuntist, and her style is full of 
vigour and energy, as may be seen from a portion 
of her cantata which is included in Kimberger's 
'Kunst des reinen Satzes.' She is also said to 
have played the clavier with great taste and ability. 
She died at Berlin, March 30, 17S7. [F. G.] 



ANNA BOLENA, opera by Donizetti; li- 
bretto byRomani; produced at Milan in 1822, 
in Paris Sept. 183 1, and in London. 

ANNIBALI, DoMENico, an Italian eopran- 
ist at the court of Saxony ; was engaged by 
Handel for his opera at London in the autumn 
of 1736, and made his debut in 'Arminio.' He 
appeared next in ' Poro,' introducing three songs, 
not by Handel, wliich probably he had brought 
with him from Italy to display his particular 
powers — an example frequently followed since his 
day. He performed in the cantata * Cecilia, - 
volgi,' and sang the additional song,. ' Sei del 
ciel,' interpolated by Handel between the iirst 
and second acts of 'Alexander's Feast.' In 1737 
he performed the part of Justin in the same 
master's opera of that name, and that of De- 
metrio in his 'Berenice.' After that his name 
does not appear again. [J. M.] 

ANSANI,. Giovanni, bom at Rome about 
the middle of the 1 8th century, was one of the 
best tenors of Italy. In 1770 he was singing 
at Copenhagen. About 1780 he came to London, 
where he at once took the first place ; but, being 
of a most quarrelsome temper, he threw up 
his engagement on account of squabbles with 
Roncaglia. He retiu-ned the next year with 
his wife, Maccherini, who' did not succeed. 
He sang at Florence in 1784, at Rome the 
autumn of the same year, and elsewhere in Italy ; 
and finally retired to Naples at the age of 50, 
where he devoted himself to teaching singing. 
He was still alive in 181 5. He was a spirited 
actor, and had a full, finely-toned, and com- 
manding voice. Dr. Bumey says it was one of 
the sweetest yet most powerful tenors he ever 
heard; to which, according to Gervasoni, he 
added a very rare truth of intonation, great 
power of expression, and the most perfect method, 
both of producing the voice and of vocalisation. 
His wife had as bad a temper as himself, and 
they were, therefore, the most inharmonious 
couple. It is said that, when singing together 
in Italy, if one were more applauded than the 
other, the unsuccessful one would hire persons 
to hiss the more fortunate rival. 

Ansani was known also as a composer of 
duets and trios for soprano and bass, with a 
basso-continuo. Gerber reports that an Opera 
of his composition, called 'La Vendetta di Minos,' 
was performed at Florence in 1791. Tlie date 
of his death is not known. [J. M.] 

ANSWER. An answer in music is, in strict 
counterpoint, the repetition by one part or instru- 
ment of a theme proposed by another. In the 
following chorus from Handel's 'Utrecht Jubi- 

O go your way 




a and c are the tbeme, and 6 and d tlie successive 
answers. In Germany the theme and answer 
are known as dii,x and comes, or as Fuhrer and 
Gefdhrter. (See the articles Canon, Counter- 
point, and Fugue.) 

The word is used in looser parlance to denote 
such replies of one portion of a phrase to another, 
or one instrument to another, as occur in the 
second subject of the first movement of Bee- 
thoven's 'Sinfonia Eroica': — 

or throughout the Scherzo of Mendelssohn's 
'Scotch Symphony,' or frequently elsewhere. [G.] 

ANTHEM (Gr. Antipliona; Ital. and Span. 
Antifona ; Eng. Antiphon). The idea of re- 
sponsive singing, choir answering to choir, or 
choir to priest, seems inherent in the term, and 
was anciently conveyed by it ; but this, as a 
necessary element of its meaning, has disappeared 
in our modern Anglicised sjmonym 'anthem.' 
This word — after undergoing several changes 
in its Anglo-Saxon and Early-English forms, 
readily traceable in Chaucer, and those writers 
who preceded and followed him, and subsequently 
used by Shakspere, Milton, and others, — has at 
length acquired a meaning equally distinctive 
and widely accepted. It now signifies a musical 
composition, or sacred motet, usually set to 
verses of the Psalms, or other portions of 
Scripture, or the Liturgy, and sung as an 
integral part of public worship. If it be not 
possible so to trace the wordn etyniologically as 
to render it 'the flower of song,' as some scholars 
have wished, yet the anthem itself in an artistic 
aspect, and when represented by its finest 
examples, may justly be regarded as the culmi- 
nating point of the daily ritual-music of our 
English Church. 

Anthems are commonly described as either 
' full,' ' verse,' ' solo,' or ' for a double choir ' ; 
the two former terms correspond to ' tutti ' and 
' soH ' in current technical phraseology. In his 
valuable work 'The Choral Service of the 
Church' Dr. Jebb makes a distinction between 
' full anthems, properly so called, which consist 
of chorus alone, and the fuU anthem with 
verses ; these verses however, which form a very 
subordinate part of the compositions, do not 
consist of solos or duets, but for the most part 
of four parts, to be sung by one side of the choir. 
In the verse anthem the solos, duets, and trios, 
have the prominent place : and in some the 
chorus is a mere introduction or finale.' 

Nothing can be more various in form, extent, 
and treatment, than the music of 'the anthem' 
as at present heard in churches and cathedrals. 
Starting at its birth from a point but little 
removed from the simplicity of the psalm- or 
hymn -tune, and advancing through various 
intermediate gradations of development, it has 
frequently in its later history attained large 


dimensions ; sometimes combining the 
elaborate resources of counterpoint with 
symmetry of modem forms, together wit 
separate organ, and occasionally orchestra 
accompaniment. In its most developed form tb 
anthem is peculiarly and characteristically 
English species of composition, and is perhaj 
the highest and most individual point whic 
has been reached by English composers 

The recognition of the anthem as a stated pai 
of divine service dates from early in Elizabeth 
reign; when were issued the Queen's 'Injum 
tions,' granting permission for the use of 
hymn or such like song in churches.' A fe" 
years later the word 'anthem' appears in tl 
second edition of Day's choral collection, entitle 
' Certain Notes set forth in four and five Pari 
to be sung at the Morning and Evening Praye 
and Communion' ; and at the last revision ( 
the Prayer Book in 1662 the word appeared i 
that rulDrick which assigns to the anthem th 
position it now occupies in Matins and Evensonj 
Only one year later than the publication of th 
'Injunctions' Strype gives probably the earlies 
record of its actual use, at the Chapel Eoyal o 
mid-Lent Sunday, 1560: 'And, Service coi 
eluded, a good Anthem was sung.' (The prayei 
at that time ended with the third collect, 
Excepting during the Great RebeUion, whe 
music was banished and organs and choir-booi 
destroyed, the anthem has ever since held i1 
place in choral service. At the present day, a 
far from there being any prospect of its wit! 
drawal, there seems to exist an increasing lev 
for this special form of sacred art, as weU as a 
earnest desire to invest its performance always 
and particularly on festivals, with all attainabl 
completeness and dignity. 

Ever since the Reformation anthems hav 
been composed by weUnigh all the eminen 
masters which this country has produced, fror 
Tye and his contemporaries onwards to GibbonJ 
Purcell, Boyce, Attwood, and our stiU-lament© 
Stemdale Bennett. The history of the anther 
accordingly can only be completely told in tha 
of music itself. The following attempt 
classification, and references to examples, ma; 
serve in some measure to illustrate the sub 

Eaelt School, 1520-1625. — Tye, TaUi 
Byrd, Gibbons. The vagueness of tonalit; 
anciently prevalent begins in the music 
Tye to exhibit promise of settlement ; whil' 
in that of Gibbons it almost-ientirely disappears 
Tye's anthem 'I will exalt Thee, Lord' 
remarkable in this respect, as well as for it 
general clearness and purity of harmony. 
TaUis' style 'I caU and cry,' and 'All peopl 
that on earth do dwell,' are good examples 
'Bow Thine ear' and 'Sing joyfully,' Byrd, witl' 
' Hosanna,' ' Lift up your heads,' ' O clap you: 
hands together,' and ' Almighty and everlasting 
God,' Gibbons, are assuredly masterpieces o • 
vocal writing, which can never grow out of date 
Most of the anthems of this period are ' fuU ' 
' verse ' or ' solo ' anthems, however, are at leas' 


i old as the time of Gibbons. Sir F. Ouseley 

as clone good service to the cause of church 

lusic and the memory of our • English Palestrina' 

Y his recent publication of a ' Collection of the 

acred Compositions of Orlando Gibbons.' In 

lis interesting and most valuable work will be 

)und (besides several ' full ' anthems, and other 

latter) not less than twelve ' verse ' anthems, 

)me of which have solos; none of these are 

jntained in Boyce's ' Cathedral Music,' and all 

lay probably be reckoned among the earliest 

nown specimens of this kind of anthem. The 

rdnployment of instruments in churches as an 

■» 3companiment to the singers dates as far back 

3 the 4th century, when St. Ambrose introduced 

lem into the cathedral service at Milan. Later 

I Q, some rude form of organ began to be used ; 

at only to play the plainsong in unison or 

tjtaves with the voices, as is now often done 

ff. dth a serpent or ophicleide in French choirs. 

seems to be beyond doubt that the use of 

j. )me kind of instrumental accompaniment in 

[ aurches preceded that of the organ. During our 

first period' it would seem that anthems when 

erformed with any addition to the voices of the 

boir were always accompanied by such bow 

istruments as then represented the infant 

^ rchestra. 'Apt for viols and voices' is a 

li ommon expression on the title-pages of musical 

^ ublications of this age. The stringed instrument 

arts were always in unison with the voices, and 

ad no separate and independent function, except 

bat of filling up the harmony during vocal 

rests,' or occasionally in a few bars of brief 

ymphony. Before the Restoration, according 

Dr. Rimbault, 'verses' in the anthems 'were 

ccompanied with viols, the organ being used 

nly in the full parts.' The small organs of this 

leriod were commonly portable ; a fact which 

4eem^i to indicate that such instrumental aid 

a was employed to support the singers was 

. 'laced in close proximity to them : an arrange- 

^Qent so natural, as well as desirable, that it 

1 3 surprising to find it ever departed from in the 

iresent day. 

Second Period, 1650- 17 20. — Pelham Hum- 
ihrey, Wise, Blow, Henry Purcell, Croft, 
rVeldon, Jeremiah Clarke. Such great changes 
n the style and manner of anthem-writing are 
ibservable in all that is here indicated, tiiat a 
lew era in the art may be said to have begun. 
; Craceable, in the first instance, to the taste and 
ancy of Humphrey and his training under 
julli, this was still more largely due to the 
enowned Purcell, whose powerful genius towers 
doft, not only among Ids contemporaries, but in 
he annals of all famous men. The compositions 
)f this period are mostly distinguished by novelty 
)f plan and detail, careful and expressive treat- 
nent of the text, daring hannonies, and flowing 
;ase in the voice parts ; while occasionally the 
, i^ery depths of pathos seem to have been sounded, 
rhe following may be mentioned as specimens of 
■he above masters. ' Hear, heavens ' and ' O 
Lord my God,' Humphrey ; ' Prepare ye the 
tvay ' and ' Awake, awake, put on thy strength,' 



Wise ; ' I was in the Spirit,' and * I beheld, and 
lo ! ' Blow ; ' give thanks,' ' O God, Thou hast 
cast us out,' and ' O Lord God of Hosts,' Purcell ; 
'God is gone up,' 'Cry aloud and shout' (from 
'O Lord, I will praise Thee'), and 'Hear my 
prayer, O Lord,' Croft ; ' In Thee, Lord ' and 
'Hear my crying,' Weld on; and 'I will love 
Thee ' and ' Lord God of my salvation,' Clarke. 
While all these pieces are more or less excellent, 
several of them can only be described in the 
language of unreserved eulogy. As the 'fuU' 
anthem was most in vogue in the former period, 
so in this the ' verse ' and ' solo ' anthem grew 
into favour. It seems to have been reserved for 
Purcell, himself through life a 'most distinguished 
singer,' to bring to perfection the airs and graces 
of the 'solo' anthem. 

During this period instrumental music began 
to assume new and individual importance, and to 
exercise vast influence upon the general progress 
of the art. Apart from the frequent employment 
of instrumental accompaniments by anthem com- 
posers, the effect of such additions to the purely 
vocal element upon their style and manner of 
writing is clearly traceable from the time of Pel- 
ham Humphrey downwards. 

Some interesting notices^ of this important 
change and of the general performance of 
anthems in the Chapel Royal may be gleaned 
from the diaries of Pepys and Evelyn. To quote 
a few : Pepys, speaking of Christmas Day tliere 
in 1662, says, 'The sermon done, a good anthem 
followed with vialls, and the King came down 
to receive the Sacrament.' Under the date Nov. 
22, 1663, recording his attendance at the chapel, 
the writer says, ' The anthem was good after 
sermon, being the fifty-first psalme, made for five 
voices by one of Captain Cooke's boys, a pretty 
boy, and they say there are four or five of them 
that can do as much. And here I first perceived 
that the King is a little musical, and kept good 
time with his hand all along the anthem.' 
Evelyn, on Dec. 21, 1663, mentions his visit 
to the chapel, and records it in the following 
important passage : — ' One of his Majesty's chap- 
lains preached ; after which, instead of the 
ancient, grave, and solemn wind music ac- 
companying the organ, was introduced a concert 
of twenty-four violins between every pause, after 
the French fantastical light way, better suiting 
a tavern, or playhouse, than a church. This 
was the first time of change, and now we no 
more heard the comet which gave life to the 
organ ; that instrument quite left off in which 
the English were so skilful ! ' 

The development of the simple stringed quartet 
of Charles the Second's royal band was rapid and 
important. Purcell himself wrote trumpet parts 
to his celebrated 'Te Deum,' and in 1755 Boyce 
added hautboys, bassoons, and drums to the score. 
Handel's Chandos anthems were variously instru- 
mented ; amongst them, in addition to the stringed 
quartet, are parts for flutes, oboes, bassoons, and 
trumpets; though aU these instruments are not 

> I am Indebted for tbesa to the Idndnea of mj friend Dr. Kim- 



combined in any single piece. After tliis, witli 
Haydn and Mozart shining high in the musical 
firmament, it was but a short and easy step to 
the complete grand orchestra of Attwood's coro- 
nation anthems. 

Third Period, 1720-1845. — Greene, Boyce, 
W. Hayes, BattishiU, Attwood, Walmisley. At 
the beginning of this period the anthem received 
little accession of absolute novelty ; yet, probably 
owing to the influence of Handel, it found able 
and worthy cultivators in Greene and several of 
his successors. ' I wiU sing of Thy power ' and 
* clap your hands,' Greene ; ' give thanks,' 
and the first movement of ' Turn Thee unto me,' 
Boyce ; with ' worship the Lord ' and ' Praise 
the Lord, Jerusalem,' Hayes, are admirable 
examples of these several authors. To BattishiU 
we owe one work of eminent and expressive 
beauty : his ' Call to remembrance ' seems like 
a conception of yesterday, so nobly does it 
combine the chief merits of our best modern 
church composers vdth the skiU and power of 
the elder masters. ' Withdraw not Thou ' and 
'Grant we beseech Thee,' Attwood, with 'Re- 
member, Lord ' and '0 give thanks,' Walmisley, 
belong almost to the present day. With names 
so familiar in 'quires and places where they 
sing' this brief record of notable an them- writers 
of the past may be fitly closed. 

The number of anthems composed previously 
to the last hundred years, and scattered among 
the MS. part-books of cathedral libraries, 
considerable though it be, represents but 
imperfectly the productive powers of the old- 
English school. It is probable that many 
hundreds of such pieces have been irretrievably 
lost, either by the sacrilegious hand of the 
spoiler or the culpable neglect of a mean 
parsimony. Of the seventy-one anthems written 
by Blow, and sixty by Boyce, as composers to 
the Chapel Royal, how few remain, or at least 
are accessible ! And, to glance farther back,, 
where are the missing outpourings of the genius 
of Orlando Gibbons, or the numerous 'com- 
posures ' of all his fertile predecessors 1 The 
principal treasures actually preserved to us are 
contained, for the most part, in Day's ' Collection,' 
already mentioned, Barnard's 'Church Music,' 
the volumes of Tomkins, Purcell, Croft, Greene, 
and Boyce, the collections of Boyce, Arnold, and 
Page in priat, and of Aldrich, Hawkins, and 
Tudway in MS., together with that of the 
twenty-two anthems of the Madrigalian era, 
edited by Dr. Rimbault for the Musical Anti- 
quarian Society, and Sir F. Ouseley's edition 
of Gibbons already mentioned. 

Foremost among aU foreign contributions to 
our national school of church music must be 
placed the twelve anthems written by Handel 
for his princely patron the Duke of Chandos. 
Standing apart from any similar productions 
composed on English soil to texts from the 
English Bible and for the chapel of an English 
nobleman, these works of England's great adopted 
son may justly be claimed as part of her rich 
inheritance of sacred art. Belonging to a class 


suited for special occasions are the Funeral 
Coronation anthems of the same master. These. 
together with Mendelssohn's stately yet moving 
psalms and anthems— some of them also com. 
posed to English words — may be legitimatelj 
adopted as precious additions to our native stort 
of choral music. 

Widely different from such genuine coni' 
positions are those adaptations, in the first 
instance from Handel by Bond, and later 011 
from Masses and other works, which have found 
their way into use in this country. Whethei 
in these we regard the application of strange 
words to music first inspired by other and widelj 
different sentiments, or the affront to art involved 
in thus cutting and hacking the handywork of a 
deceased master (even in his lightest mood) foi 
the sake of pretty phrases or showy passages — 
which, however appropriate to their original 
shajje and purpose, are palpably out of keeping 
in an Anglican service, as well as unsuited tc 
our churches and their simpler executive means 
— such adaptations are radically bad, and 
repugnant to aU healthy instincts and true 
principles of feeling and taste. The adaptationE 
of Aldrich in the last and Rimbault and Dyce 
in the present century from Palestrina and other 
old continental composers, though not free from 
objection as such, are not included in the 
foregoiag condenmation. 

The eclecticism of existing usage in the 
selection of anthems is well shown by the 
contents of a book of words recently put forth 
for cathedral use. In addition to an extensive 
array of genuine church anthems of every age 
and school, from Tye and Tallis to the latest 
living aspirants, here are plentiful extracts from 
the oratorios of Handel, Haydn, Spohr, and 
Mendelssohn ; two from Prof Macfarren's ' St, 
John the Baptist,' a few of Bach's motets and 
choruses, several highly objectionable adaptations 
from Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and lastlj 
some specimens of French taste in 'church 
music' from the pen of M. Gounod. A wide 
range of art, truly ! 

Concernin:^ the choice of the anthem the same 
clerical and high authority before quoted remarks 
that ' it ought to be a matter of deliberate and 
religious study ' ; and being a ' prescribed part 
of the service, every notion of ecclesiastical 
propriety dictates that it should harmonise with 
some portion of the service of the day.' Dr. 
Jebb further says that 'at each of the particular 
seasons of the year it would be well to have a 
fixed canon as to the anthems from which a 
selection should invariably be made.' These 
opinions carry conviction with them, and need 
no enforcement. 

In counterpoint and its concomitants, the great 
works of former ages will scarcely ever be 
equalled, stiU less surpassed. Yet, while the 
English Church can reckon among her living 
and productive writers Dr. S. S. Wesley, whose 
anthems, whether for originality, beauty, or 
force, would do honour to any school or country, 
together with the genial and expressive style of 


John Goss, and the facile yet masterly art 
Sir Frederick Ouseley, not to particularise 
er well-known names, we may be well content 
h the present fortune of the anthem, as well 
bopeful for its future. 

»Vhile many fine examples of eight-part writing 
st among the anthems of Gibbons, PurceU, 
1 various later composers, it is much to be 
ired that the plan of writing for two choirs, 
ated antiphonally, were more cultivated among 
than has hitherto been the case. The ample 
jcei and acoustical properties of our cathedrals 
1 large churches are eminently suited to 
lance the effects belonging to such a disposition 
voices ; while the attendance of trained and 
f-dependent bodies of singers would ensure 
nece'«ary point and firmness of attack in 
•formance. In this direction, and in the 
plo^-ment of an independent obhliqato ac- 
npaniment for organ, orchestra, or both com- 
led, probably lie the most promising paths to 
eah fields and pastures new' for the rising 
lool of musicians who aspire to distinction as 
nposers of the anthem. [E. G. M.] 

ANTICIPATION is when a part of a chord 
out to follow is introduced beforehand. Thus 
has been very customary in a perfect cadence 
the end of a strain, to anticipate, before the 
aclusion of the dominant harmony, one of 
e notes of the tonic or following chord. This 
very common in the old masters, as in the 
lowing example from the ' Messiah' : — 










It is considered a grace of style by modem 
igers to give the anticipated note with peculiar 
liberation and emphasis. 

The following passage from Handel's 'Funeral 
nthem' contains an anticipation of two notes 
the closing chord. 

Beethoven has many striking examples of 
anticipation of a quite different and bolder kind. 
Thus, in a well known passage in the last move- 
ment of the C minor Symphony, the basses, first 
with the drums alone and then with the stringed 
instruments, anticipate the harmony of the great 
crash of the Allegro four bars before it breaks in 
(see the original Svo score, p. 150^. 

There is a similar anticipation of four bars 
at the beginning of the last movement of the 
Pastoral Symphony. 

In the first movement of the ' Sinfonia Eroica, 
just before the reprise of the principal subject, 
there is an anticipation of four bars of a melody, 
still more daring because it is more completely 
separated from the part anticipated. 



4 ' < r "^ 

2 \ 

Professor Ouseley ('Harmony,' p. 204") is of 
linion that the third note, G, of the first 
iprano is also a sort of anticipation of the 
tcceeding chord. 

This is a musical illustration of the adage, 
'Coming events cast their shadows before,' and 
it is ditficult to explain it on any other principle. 
(See Harmony.) L^V. P.] 

ANTIGONE of Sophocles. Mendelssohn in 
Sept. 1 84 1 composed music — Introduction and 
seven numbers (.Op. 55) — to Donner's version. 
First performance at New Palace, Potsdam, Oct. 
28, 1 841 ; first public do. at Berlin opera, Nov. 6. 

ANTINORI, Ldigi, was born at Bologna 
about 1697. He was one of the best tenor 
singers of the beginning of the iSth centurj-, 
being gifted with a voice of pure and penetrating 
quality, and having acquired an excellent method 
of using it. He came to London in 1725 and 
eang in 'Elisa,' an anonymous opera; and in 
' Elpidia,' by Vinci and others, a pasticcio given 
by Handel, in which Antinori took the place of 
Borosini, who sang in it at first. In the season 
of 1726 he appeared in Handel's 'Scipio' and 
' Alessandro.' After that season his name does 
not appear again. [J. M.] 

ANTIPHON (from the Greek avTKpuviw, to 
raise the voice in reply), a short piece of plain- 
song introduced before a psalm or canticle, to the 
Tone of which it corresponds, while the words are 
selected so as specially to illustrate and enforce 
the evangelical or prophetic meaning of the text. 

The following is the antiphon which opens 
the service of Lauds (corresponding to the Eng- 
lish Morning Prayer) on Easter Day, and supplies 
the evangeScal comment on the Psalm which 
follows it. The same Psalm is sung at the 
beginning of Lauds every Sunday,, but with a 
different antiphon, suggesting a different appli- 
cation of its contents. 



^f^-^ ^ -&--&- -^s^- 

jS^,^S- ^ -^. 

su - per e - um, al-Ie^-Iui-o, al-le-lui-a. 

Psalm, 92 (=93 Eng. Ps.) 


-IS- -f5>- -g?- -t&- -^ -^ -(g- -&- -Gi- 


Do - mi- nus reg-na-vit, de -co- rem in- du - tus est: 




in-du-tus est Do-mi-nus for-ti - tu - di-nem, et praecinxit se. etc. 

The connection of the music of the antiphon 
with that of the psalm is explained by Durandus 
from the etymology of the term — 'because an- 
tiphons are as keys and indices according to the 
modulation and sound of which the following 
canticle or psalm is sung alternately. For the 
tone of the whole psalm is taken from the tone 
of the antiphon.' 

Antiphonal or alternate singing, as in the 
chanting of psalms verse by verse — or by half 
verses, as heard by Mendelssohn in Rome during 
the Holy Week (see his Letter of June 16, 1831) 
— is of very high antiquity. It was character- 
istic of the Hebrew and early Christian worship, 
and is mentioned by Philo in the middle of the 
first century, describing the Therapeutse (De Vit. 
Cont.\ and has always been more or less prac- 
tised in the Church. 

The French term 'antienne' and the English 
' anthem ' are derived from antiphon, probably in 
reference to each of the meanings given above, 
as an independent piece of music sung from side 
to side of the choir. [T. H.] 

ANTIQUIS, Giovanni d', lived in the second 
half of the 1 6th century ; director of music in the 
church of !r^t. Nicholas at Bari in the kingdom 
of Naples, and author of two collections — ' Villa- 
iielle alia Napolitana, a tre voci, di diversi musici 
di Bari' (Venice, 1574), and 'II primo libro di 
canzonette a due voci, da diversi autori di Bari' 
(Venice, 1584) — of the works of local composers, 
24 in all, few if any of whom are known else- 
where. The list will be found in Fetis, and 
a copy of the first of the two collections is in 
the Munich Library. [M. C. C] 

A PIACERE (Ital.'), 'At pleasure.' An indi- 
cation to the performer to use his discretion 
as to time. A rallentando is almost always im- 

APOLLONICON. The name given to a large 
chamber organ of peculiar construction, com- 
prising both keyboards and barrels, erected by 


Messrs. Flight and Robson, organ-builders, ar f 
for many years publicly exhibited by th^m : }• 
their rooms in St. Martin's Lane. Prior 1 . 
building the ApoUonicon, Messrs. Flight ai .|i 
Robson had constructed, under the inspectit »( 
of Purkis, the organist, a similar but small' •( 
instrument for Viscount KirkwaU, a well-know 1I 
musical amateur. This instrument, being e: ^ 
hibited at the builders' factory and attractii i 
great attention, induced its fabricators to for j 
the idea of constructing a larger instrument upi i 
the same plan for public exhibition. Th< 
accordingly in 1812 commenced the building 
the ApoUonicon. They were engaged near 
five years in its construction, and expendi 
£10,000 in p.-rfecting it. 

The instrument contained about 1900 pipe 
the lowest (twenty-four feet in length and twent 
three inches in aperture) sounding GGG, and tl 
highest sounding A in altissimo. There we 
forty-five stops, several of which gave excelle: 
imitations of the tones of the wind instrumen | 
of a complete orchestra, viz. flute, oboe, clarinf \ 
bassoon, trumpet, horn, and trombone. A pa ; 
of kettledrums were inclosed within the cas 
and struck, when required, by cm-iously contrivij 
machinery. The manuals were five in numbci 
a central one comprising a scale of five octavt 1 
and four others, two on either side of the centi i 
one, each having a scale of two octa\es. To t: 1 
central manual were attached a swell and sor 1 
composition pedals, and also a pedal keyboard ' 
two octaves. The manuals were detached fro 
the body of the organ, so that the players s; 
with their faces to the audience and their bac i 
to the instrument. The ban-els were three 1 
number, each two feet in diameter and eight ft /, 
long, and each acting on a distinct division of 1 1 
instrument. In their revolution they not on 
admitted the wind to the pipes, but regulat 1^ 
and worked the stops, forming by instantaneo ri 
mechanical action all the necessary combinatici ',: 
for producing the various gradations of pow' 
To secure the means of performing pieces 
greater length than were usually executed 
barrels, spiral barrels were introduced, in whi 
the pins, instead of being arranged in circl 
were disposed in spiral lines. The instrumei 
with the exception of the keyboards, was : 
closed in a case twenty feet wide and deep, a 
twdnty-four feet high, the front being divid 
into three compartments by pilasters of t! 
Doric, surmounted by others of the Ionic ord ■ 
Between the upper pilasters were three paintir ' 
by an artist named Wright, the central c 
representing Apollo, and the others the Mui 
Clio and Erato, all somewhat larger than li 
size. The mechanical action of the ApoUonic 
was first exhibited in June 18 17, when t 
barrels performed the overtures to Mozair 
' Clemenza di Tito ' and Cherubini's ' Anacrec 
In November following a selection of saci 
music was played on the keys by Purkis. T 
mechanical powers of the instrument were 
nearly a quarter of a century exhibited dai 
and on Saturday aftemotms Purkis perforix 


I elections of music on the keys. The following 
i rograinme, performed by him in 1 830, aSorcls 
feir sample of the quality of these selections : — 
t rertures to Mozart's ' Zauberflote ' and Paer's 
■[ Sophonisba' ; divertunento by Purkia on Swiss 
1 ;rs ; the grand scena for soprano from Weber's 
'1 Freischiitz ' ; songs by Barnett and Phillips ; 
ad movements by Pleyel and Dussek. Tor 
)me time annual evening performances were 
iven under the superintendence of Thomas 
At various periods additional sets of barrels 
)! 'ere provided which performed the following 
ifieces: — the overtures to Mozart's 'Idomeneo,' 
^Nozze di Figaro,' and 'Zauberflote'; Bee- 
^ ioven's ' Prometheus ' ; Webers' ' Freischiitz ' 
nd ' Oberon ' ; and the military movement 
•om Haydn's twelfth symphony. The per- 
)rmance of the overture to ' Oberon ' in par- 
: cular has been recorded as a perfect triumph 
? mechanical skill and ingenuity, every note 
Jf the score being rendered as accurately as 
lOugh executed by a fine orchestra. The 
jtting of the music on the barrels was entrusted 
) the younger Flight (the present representative 
r the firm), who used for the purpose a micro- 
leter of his own invention. About the year 
840, the exhibition of the instrument having 
ecome unremunerative, the Apollonicon was 
iken down and its component parts employed in 
le construction of other organs. A lengthened 
ichnical description, illustrated by engraved 
^ures, of the instrument made for Lord Kirk- 
all will be found embodied in the article 
Organ' in Eees' Cyclopedia. [W. H. H.] 

APPASSIONATA(Ital.), 'Impassioned.' Best 
nown by its use in ' Sonata appassionata ' as a 
tie for Beethoven's Op, 57. The title was not 
is, but was added by Cranz the publisher, or 
)me one else. He himself only uses the term 
.vice — in Sonatas Op. 106 and iii. 
)ectively the ancient and modem German terms 
■r Fingering. 

APPOGGIATURA. (Ital. from appoggiare, to 
an upon ; Ger. Vorschlag, Vorhalt ; Fr. Port 
z voix.) One of the most important of melodic 
•naments, much used in both vocal and instru- 
ental compositions. It consists in suspending 
• delaying a note of a melody by means of a 
)te introduced before it ; the time required for 
8 performance, whether long or short, being 
ways taken from the value of the principal 
3te. It is usually written in the form of a 
nail quaver, semiquaver, or demisemiquaver, 
ther with or without a stroke across the stem 
3x. I). 

The appoggiatura may belong to the same 
umony as the principal note (Ex. 2), or it 
Ay be one degree above or below it. In the 
■tier case it is a so-called 'auxiliary note' 
ometimes called 'transient' or 'changing' note — 
7ech»elnote), and follows the known rule of such 
Jtes, that the lower auxiliary note should be 
ily one semitone distant from the principal 



note, the upper being either a tone or a semi- 
tone according to the scale (Ex. 3). 
Written. 2 % 








With regard to its length, the appoggiatura 
is of two kinds, long and short ; the long appog- 
giatura bears a fixed relation to the length of the 
principal note, as will be seen presently, but the 
short one is performed so quickly that the ab- 
breviation of the following note is scarcely 
perceptible. There is also a difference between 
the two kinds in the matter of accent ; the long 
appoggiatura is always made stronger than the 
principal note, while in the case of the short 
one the accent faUs on the principal note itself 
(Ex. 4). 

4- Written, 

On this subject authorities would seem to 
differ, Leopold Mozart, Himimel, and others 
holding the view advanced above, while Emanuel 
Bach, Marpurg, and Agricola give the rule that 
all appoggiaturas should be accented. It is 
however evident that a note which passes away 
so quickly as a short appoggiatura can scarcely 
receive any effective accent, and besides this it is 
doubtful whether the above-named writers may 
not have intended the rule to refer exclusively to 
the long appoggiatura ( Vwhalt), as they often 
used the word Vorschlag for both kinds indis- 
criminately. Since then there is no accent on 
the short appoggiatura, the term itself, which 
means a note dwelt upon, seems inappropriate, 
and accordingly the word ' acciacatura' has been 
very generally substituted for it, though properly 
belonging to another similar kind of ornament. 


The rules relating to the length of the long 
appoggiatura are three, and are thus given by 
Tiirk in his ' Clavierschule ' : — 'Whenever it is 
possible to divide the principal note into two 
equal parts, the appoggiatura receives one half ' 
(Ex. 5). 'When the principal note is dotted 
the appoggiatura receives two-thirds and the 
principal note one' (Ex. 6), If the principal 
note is tied to another shorter note, the appog- 
giatura receives the whole value of the principal 
note' (Ex. 7). The third rule is commonly 
though not invariably followed when the principal 
note is followed by a rest (£x. 8). 




5. MozAKT, Sonata in A minor. 

g, it r ^. 

r ; . I Sih-d^ 

6. Hummel, ' Pianoforte School.' 

Exceptions to the above rules aie met with as 
follows : — to the first and second rules in Bach 
and Mozart, who frequently employed an appog- 
giatura (called by Marpurg ' der kiirzeste Vor- 
halt ') which was worth one third or less of the 
principal note, but which differed from the short 
appoggiatura in being accented (Ex. 9). An ex- 
ception to the second rule occurs whenever its 
strict observance would occasion a fault in the 
harmonic progression (Ex. 10), or when it would 
interfere with the rhythmic regularity of the 
passage (Ex. 11). Exceptions to the third rule 
are of stni more frequent occurrence ; many 
passages containing a tied note preceded by an 
appoggiatura would entirely lose their signi- 
ficance if the rule were strictly adhered to. 
Taste and experience alone can decide where 
similar exceptions are admissible. 

In the works of some of the earlier composers 
an appoggiatura is occasionally, though very 
rarely, to be met with, which although placed be- 
fore a note capable of being halved, yet receives 
three-fourths of its value. This appoggiatura 
was usually dotted (Ex. 1 2). 

9. Bach, ' Passionsmusik.' 

MozART, Fantasia in C minor. 

10. Bach, ' Suites Fran^aises.' 



4 ,^ 


• ■ ^ 



1 1 . ScHUBKRT, Eondo, Pianoforte and Violin. 
1^ n 



-.- ^ { ^ J^lX X 












The appoggiatura, whether long or short, 
always included in the value of the principi 
note ; if therefore it is applied to a chord 
delays only the note to which it belongs, ti 
other notes of the chord being played with 
(Ex. 13). 

1 3, Beethoven, Andante in F. 

— •-; — '^ — i — - — 

The manner of writing the appoggiatura beaj 
no very definite relation to its performance, an 
its appearance is unfortunately no sure guide s 
to its length. In music of the 17th century, s 


lich period the short appoggiatura appears to 
,Te first come into use, it was customary to make 
e of certain signs (Ex. 14), but as after a time 
e long appoggiatura was introduced, these were 
ven up in favour of the small note still used. 
lis small note ought always to be written of 
e exact value which it is to bear, if a long 
.poggiatura (Ex. 1.=;) ; or if a short one it should 
, written as a quaver or semiquaver with a 
ort stroke across the stem in the opposite 
rection to the hook (Ex. 16).* 

14. Written. 





K .^ J 


^^ g_^-/ 


But the earlier writers often wrote the short ap- 
)ggiatura as a semiquaver or demisemiquaver 
itiiout the stroke, and in many new editions of 
d compositions we find the small note printed 
ith the stroke even where it should be played 
ng, while in modem music the semiquaver 
ittiout the stroke is often met with where the 
lort appoggiatura is obviously intended. In 
us uncertainty the surest guide is the study of 
16 treatment of the appoggiatura by the great 
asters in the numerous cases in which they 
vre written it out in notes of the ordinary size 
«e Beethoven, Bagatelles, Op. 119, No. 4, Bar 
; Mozart, Sonata in C, Halle's edition, No. 6, 
ar 37, &c.), as by analogy we may hope to 
rrive at some understanding of their intentions 
jspecting it when we find it merely indicated 
J the small not«. 

The following series of examples of the con- 
itions under which the several kinds of appog- 
iatura are most commonly met with, may also 
e of service in the same direction. 

The appoggiatura is short when used before two 
r more repeated notes (Ex. 1 7), before detached 
r staccato notes (Ex. 18), or leaps (Ex. 19^ at 
le commencement of a phrase (Ex. 20), and be- 
)re groups containing dotted notes in somewhat 
uick tempo (Ex. 21). 

17. Beethoven, Septett. 



18. MozABT, Sonata in C. 


MozABT, Sonata in C. 

• This traniTerw stmke Is probahly an ImitaHon of the stroke across 
be note in the (dov obsolete) acciacators. (See that word.) 


20. MozAKT, Sonata in A minor. 



' r^ r 

21. Hummel, Op. 55. 

In triplets, or groups of four or more equal 
notes, the appoggiatura is short (Ex. 22), except 
in groups of three notes in slow triple time (Ex, 
23). The appoggiatura at a distance from its 
principal note is short (Ex. 24), except sometimes 
in slow cantabile passages (Ex. 25). Appog- 
giaturas occurring in a melody which ascends or 
descends by diatonic degrees are rrKxlerately 
short (Ex. 26), as are also those which occur in a 
melody descending by thirds (Ex. 27). Ema- 
nuel Bach says of these — 'when the appog- 
giaturas fill up leaps of a third in the melody 
they are certainly short, but in adagio their ex- 
pression should be smoother, as though repre- 
senting one of a triplet of quavers rather than 
a semiquaver.' Tiirk calls them 'undecided 


Bagatelles,' No. 


23. Mozart, 'Don Giovanni. 



Toe -CI mi qaSl. 

24. Haydn, Sonata in E b. 

25. Mozakt, 'Requiem.' 


26, Bach, Passepied in B, 


27. Mozabt, Rondo in D. 




In groups of two equal notes the appoggiatura 
is long if in slow tempo or at the end of a phrase 
(Ex. 28) ; if otherwise, short (Ex. 29), 


28, Gkaun, ' Der Tod Jesu.' 

-p--t--F-«-P--»- -»- -J- ^ 


Es hat li - - ber-wuD-den der lo - we. 

29. Hummel, ' Pianoforte School.' 


When applied to the last note but one of a 
final cadence the appoggiatura should, according 
to Emanuel Bach, be short. But later composers 
have usually preferred the long appoggiatura un- 
der these circumstances, especially when accom- 
panied by the seventh of the chord (Ex. 30), or 
by a part moving in sixths with it (Ex. 31). 
Beethoven has even lengthened it beyond the 
value of the principal note, but in this case it is 
always written as an ordinary note (Ex. 32). 
When however, in Haydn, Mozart, and all later 
composers, the final note of the cadence is ajiti- 
cipated, the appoggiatura to the preceding note 
is short (Ex. 33). 

30. Mozart, First Mass. 

32. Beethoven, Op. 30, No. 3. 

1 h .» f» f^ —,....-, 

g;bU '^1 .---^^1 1 — 

tf — '* ' 

■ — ■ ^ — ■ — 1 — • 

nJ J bJ J J 

^Al ;i 

—t P ^ 

33. Mozart, Sonata in F. 

In vocal recitative, at the close of a phrase, 
or of a section of a phrase, an appoggiatura 
is often introduced which has the full value 


of the principal note, and indeed appeal 
in its stead (Ex. 34) ; such an appoggiatur 
is often not indicated, but is left to the discretio 
(or want of discretion) of the singer (Ex. 35' 
It is more appropriate at the close of the who] 
recitative than after its component phrases, an 
is especially so when the melody descends a thir 
or a fourth (Ex. 36). 

34. Weber, ' Der Freischiitz.' 

35. Haydn, 'The Seasons.' 

-0- h 




: g. f ■ 


— tff — 1 — 1 

The meek - eyed mom ap - pears. 

36. Bach, ' Passionsmusik.' 

— — • 9-" 


They an - swered no - thine. 



Handel, 'Messiah.' 

haTe them 




- ri 


/ I i^ 

— ^— 


^)-^ <^ <^ ?^^ 



Wh^i a triU or other ornament appears in con 
bination with an appoggiatura, the latt-er is lonj 
and the triU is performed on the principal not 
or on the appoggiatura, according as it is place 
above the one or the other (Ex. 37). 

37. Hatdn, Sonata in F. TiJBK. 

The proper execution of the appoggiatm 
seems to be most doubtful in the group in whic 
the note bearing the appoggiatura is followed b 
two or four notes of half its own value. In th 
majority of such cases the appoggiatura shoul 
be long (Ex. 3S), and particularly in smoothl 
flowing passages in moderate or slow tempo (E: 
39). But there are numerous exceptions, as ft 
example when the emplojnnent of the long a] 
poggiatura would alter the rhythm of the passag 


j. 40), or when (according to Tiirk) only a 
( le example is present (Ex. 41). 

38. Beethoven, Op. 10, No. 3. 






MozAKT, Sonata in D. 



39, Mozart, Sonata in C, Andante. 

40. Webeb, ' Der Freiscliutz,' 

41. TiJRK. 




n such cases no definite rule can be given, 
, the question becomes a matter of taste and 
ing. [F. T.] 

giatura doppin ; Ger. Doppelvorschlag ; Fr. 
'•< de voix double.) An ornament composed 
.wo short notes preceding a principal note, the 
I being placed above and the other below it. 
sy are usually written as small semiquavers. 
Oie first of the two may be at any distance 
n the principal note, but the second is only 
I degree removed from it. They have no fixed 
•ation, but are generally slower when applied 
a long note (Ex. i) than when the principal 
.e is short (Ex. 2) ; moreover, the double ap- 
fgiatura, in which the first note lies at a 
tance from the principal note, should always 
somewhat slower than that in which both notes 
close to it (Ex. 3). In all cases the time 
[uired for both notes is subtracted from the 
ue of the principal note. 

The double appoggiatura is sometimes, though 
rely, met with in an inverted form (Ex. 4), and 
nanuel Bach mentions another exceptional 

kind, in which the first of the two small notes 
is dotted, and receives the whole accent, while 
the principal note becomes as short as the second 
of the two small notes (Ex. 5). 

The dotted double appoggiatura, written as 
above, is of very rare occurrence ; but it i.s 
frequently found in the works of Mozart, 
Beethoven, etc., written in notes of ordinary size 
(Ex. 6). 

6. Beethoven, Sonata, Op. 53. 

— • — • — • — • — • — • — m — ■ — I — |S- 

APRILE, Giuseppe, bom at Bisceglia in 
Apulia, 1738, an eminent soprano singer; was 
educated at the Conservatorio of 'La Pietk' at 
Naples, and sang in all the principal theatres of 
Italy and Germany. Dr. Burney heard him at 
Naples in 1770 and says that he had a weak and 
unequal voice, but was perfectly in tune, had an 
excellent shake, and great taste and expression. 
He was an excellent teacher of singing, and was 
one of Cimarosa's masters. He composed son<TS, 
but his best work, a system of solfeggi (London 
and Paris), has passed through many editions and 
is still valued. It is included in Peters' edition. 
He was living in Naples in 1792. [M. C. C] 

A PRIMA VISTA (Ital.), 'At first sight.' 

A PUNTA D'ARCO (Ital.), 'With the 
point of the bow ' (in violin music). 

A QUATRE MAINS (Fr. ; Germ. Zu tier 
JTdnden, Vierhdndig ; Ital. a quattro mani). 
Music written for two performers upon one 
pianoforte, and usually so printed that the part 
for each player occupies the page which is 
directly opposite to him. 

By far the greater proportion of music ' 11 
quatre mains' consists of arrangements of orches- 
tral and vocal compositions and of quartetta, etc. 
for stringed instruments ; indeed, scarcely any 
composition of importance for any combination 
of instruments exists which has not been arranged 
and published in this form, which on account 
of its comparative facility of performance is 
calculated to reproduce the characteristic effects 
of such works more readily and faithfully than 
arrangements for pianoforte solo. 

But besides this, the increase of power and 
variety obtainable by two performers instead of 
one offers a legitimate inducement to composers 
to vsrite original music in this form, and the 
opportunity has been by no means neglected, 




although cultivated to a less extent than might 
have been expected. 

The earliest printed works for the pianoforte 
a quatre mains of which we have any know- 
ledge were published in Dessau about 1782, 
under the title ' Drey Sonaten fiirs Clavier als 
Doppelstiicke fiir zwey Personen mit vier Han- 
den von C. H. Muller' ; before this however, 
E. W. Wolf, musical director at Weimar in 
1761, had written one or more sonatas for two 
performers, which were published after his death. 
So far as is known these were the lirst com- 
positions of their kind, although the idea of the 
employment of two performers (but not on one 
instrument) originated with Sebastian Bach, who 
wrote three concertos for two pianofortes, or 
rather harpsichords, three for three, one of which, 
in D major, is still unpublished, and one for four, 
all with accompaniment of stringed instruments. 
But the short compass of the keyboard, which in 
Bach's time and indeed until about 1770 never 
exceeded iive octaves, was ill adapted to the 
association of two performers on the same 
instrument, and it is doubtless on this account 
that the earlier composers have left so little 
music of the kind. 

Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, appear to 
have had but little inclination for this description 
of composition. According to F^tis, Haydn 
wrote but one piece ' a quatre mains,' a di- 
vertissement, which was never published, the 
two sonatas op. 81 and 86 published under his 
name being spurious. Of the nine pianoforte 
duets by Mozart the two finest, the Adagio and 
Allegro in F minor and the Fantasia in F minor, 
were originally written for a mechanical organ or 
musical clock in a Vienna exhibition, and were 
afterwards arranged for piano by an unknown 
hand. Beethoven left but one sonata, op. 6, 
three marches, op. 45, and two sets of variations, 
none of which are of any great importance. 

But of all the great composers Schubert has 
made the fullest use of the original effects 
possible to music 'a quatre mains,' some of his 
most genial and effective compositions being in 
this form, as for instance the 'Grand Duo,' 
op. 140, and the 'Divertissement Hongroise,' 
op. 54. In addition to these he wrote fourteen 
marches, six polonaises, four sets of variations, 
three rondos, one sonata, one set of dances, and 
four separate pieces, all, almost without exception, 
masterpieces of their kind. 

Among modern compositions 'a quatre mains,' 
those of Schumann and Brahms are the most 
interesting, Mendelssohn having left but one 
original work of the kind, although he himself 
arranged some of his orchestral works and also 
the octett, op. 20, and the variations for piano- 
forte and violoncello, op. 83, in this form. 
Besides writing a number of small pieces for two 
performers, Schumann made a very novel and 
successful experiment in his 'Spanische Liesbe- 
lieder,' op. 138, which consist of ten pieces 
for four voices, being songs, duets, and a 
quartett, with pianoforte accompaniment a 
quatre mains, and an analogous idea has since 


been carried out by Brahms, who has _ 
two sets of waltzes (^Liebeslieder, opp. 5 2 ; 65) 
pianoforte a quatre mains, with accompanim 
of four voices. 

Organ music a quatre mains is very rs 
although the experiment has been made by He 
Hopner, and especially by Julius Andre, who 
written twenty -four pieces for two perform 
on the organ ; but no increased effect appe 
to be obtainable from such an arrangem 
which can at all compensate for its practi 
inconvenience, and the same observation app] 
to compositions for the pianoforte ' a six mail 
of which a few specimens exist, mostly 
Czerny. [F, ' 

ARABESQUE (Germ. Arabeske). Origina 
an architectural term applied to ornamentat. 
in the Arabic style, whence its name, (i) 
title has been given, for what reason is not v< 
clear, by Schumann to one of his pianofo 
pieces (op. 18), which is written in a fo: 
bearing some analogy to that of the rondo, and 
has been since occasionally used by otlier writi 
for the piano. (2) The word 'Arabesque' 
sometimes used by writers on music to expn 
the ornamentation of a theme. Thus Dr. Ha 
von Billow, in his edition of Beethoven's sonat; 
in a note on the adagio of the sonata in E 
op. 106, speaks of the ornaments introduced 
the return of the first subject as 'diese 1 
vergleichlich seelenvollen Arabesken' — these j 
comparably expressive Arabesques. [E 

ARAGONI, SiGNOK. This name, with th 
of Strada, is affixed by Walsh to the canta 
' Cecilia, volgi,' added to the first edition of ' Ale 
ander's Feast.' It is evidently a blunder, beii 
doubtless meant for Annibali, who in fact sang 
with Strada, and whose name (Hannibali) appea 
to the succeeding song, ' Sei del ciel.' [J. M 

ARANAZ, Pedko, a Spanish priest aa 
composer, born at Soria in Old Castile ; w 
appointed towards the end of the i8th centu: 
conductor of the choir in the cathedral 
Cuenfa, and died there in 1825 at a considerab 
age. His chm-ch music, which was good, is 
be found at Cuencja, in the Escurial, and sea 
tered in various churches of Spain ; but Esla'' 
has preserved in his ' Lira Sacro-Hispana ' £ 
' Offertorium ' for five voices and a ' Lauda 
Dominum' for six voices, with strings, hom 
and organ. [M. C. C 

ARBEAU, Thoinot, priest of Langres i 
France. His real name was Tabourot, of whic 
the above is a kind of anagram. He lived aboi 
the end of the i6th century, and was the authc 
of a remarkable book, now of excessive rarit; 
entitled ' Orchesographie et Traite en forme c 
dialogue par lequel toutes personnes peuvei 
facilement apprendre et pratiquer rhonn6i 
exercise des danses ' (Langres : Jean de Prey 
1589). It contains a great number of Franc 
dance-tunes with words fitted to the melodiei 
and is of great interest and use in the histor 
of dance music. [F. G. 


iRCADELT, Jacob, one of the most promi- 
it among the distinguished band of Nether- 
id musicians who taught in Italy in the i6th 
itaiy and saw the fruit of their labours 
the foundation of the great Italian school. 
! was singing-master to the boys at St. Peter's, 
me, during the year 1539, and was ad- 
tted to the college of papal singers in 1540. 
my masses and motets of Arcadelt are among 
( manuscripts of the papal chapel, but those- 
his works which were published during his 
i in Rome were entirely secular, and consisted 
efly of the famous madrigals which placed 
Q at the head of the so-called " Venetian 
lool" of madrigal writing. Five books of 
.drigals, each containing forty or fifty separate 
mbers, were printed in Venice, and many 
.tions of these were published with great 
ridity. An excellent copy of the first four 
jks is in the library of the British Museum, 
1 in the same library may be found a few 

the many collections of madrigals which 
itain compositions by Arcadelt. In the year 
55 he entered the servace of Cardinal Charles 
Lorraine, duke of Guise, and went with him 
Paris, where he probably ended his life. In 
ris three books of his masses were published 

1557, and other sacred works appear in 
lections printed since he left Italy. It seems 
)bahle therefore that he devoted this second 
Parisian period of his life to church com- 
lition, but it is as a madrigal writer that his 
ne is most celebrated. Thus Pitoni, in 
iaking of the first book of madrigals, says 
kt their exceedingly lovely and natural style 
ised them still to be sung in his time (1657- 
43). Bumey gives one, 'II bianca,' in his 
[istory' (iii. 303) ; and two to Slichel Angelo's 
rds ' Deh dimm' Amor,' and ' lo dico che fra 
i,' will be found inGotti's 'Vita di M.' (1875). 
1 Ave Maria has been edited by Sir Henry 
shop and other English musicians, is quoted 
Mr. Hullah in his musical lectures, and has 
;n printed in the 'Musical Times' (No. 183) ; 
tthe authorship is disputed. A Pater noster 

8 voices is given by Commer, 'Collectio,' 
I. 21. [J.E.S.-B.] 

AECHLUTE (Fr. V ArcTiiluth ; Ital. Arci- 
to ; Ger. Eizlaute). A large theorbo or double- 
;ked lute, large especially in the dimensions of 
) bfxly, and more than four feet high ; — that 
the figure is 4 ft. 5 in. over all. The double 
:k contains two sets of tuning pegs, the lower — 
the subjoined example in South Kensington 
iseum — holding 14, and the upper 10. The 
ings of catgut or metal were often in pairs, 
led in unison, and comprised a compass of 
jut two octaves from G below the bass clef, 
le archlute is described by Mersenne (' Har- 
mie Universelle,' 1636) and Kircher (' Musur- 
i,' 1650), but not being named in Luscinius 
536) it may be assumed to be ot later intro- 
ction than that date. It was used in the 1 7th 
itury in common with the chitarrone and 
»lone (bass viol) for the lowest part in in- 
nmental music and accompaniments, particu- 



larly in combination with the clavicembalo for 
the support of the re- 
citative. Early edi- 
tions of Corelli's So- 
natas had for the bass 
the violone or arciliuto, 
and Handel also em- 
ployed the archlute. 
The sound - board, 
pierced with from one 
to three ornamental 
Boundholes, was of 
pine, and the vaulted 
back was built up of 
strips of pine or cedar 
glued together. The 
frets adjusted along 
the neck to fix the in- 
tervals were of wire or 
catgut, examples dif- 
fering. A wealth of 
ornament was be- 
stowed upon the necks 
and backs of these 
beautiful instruments, 
in common with other 
varieties of the lute 
and cither. The chi- 
tarrone had a smaller 
body and much longer 
neck, and differs so 
much as to require se- 
parate description. In 
the photographs pub- 
lished by the Liceo 
Comunale di Musica 
of Bologna, the appli- 
cation of the names 
archlute and chitar- 
rone is reversed. 
( See Chitarrone, 
Lute, Theorbo.) 

[A. J. H.] 

ARCO, Italian for 'bow.' As a musical 
term 'arco' or 'col arco' is employed whenever 
after a pizzicato passage the bow is to be used 
again. [P. D.] 

ARDITI. LuiGi, bom at Crescentino in Pied- 
mont, July 16, 1825 ; studied music at the Con- 
servatorio at Milan, and began his career as a 
violin player. In 18 40 he produced an overture, 
and in the Carnival of 184 1 an opera 'I Briganti,' 
at the Conservatorio. In 1842 he followed these 
by a second Overture and a ' Sovenir di 
Donizetti.' He made his debut as director of 
the opera at Vercelli in 1843, and was made 
honorary member of the Accademia Filarmonica 
there. In 1846 he left Italy with Bottesini for 
the Havannah, where he composed and produced 
an opera ' II Corsaro.' He made frequent visits 
to New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, and 
amongst other things conducted the opera at the 
opening of the Academy of Music in New York, 
and produced a new opera of his own 'La Spia' 
(1856). The same year he left America for 
Constantinople, and fijaally settled in Loudon in 




58 as conductor to Her Majesty's Theatre, under 
the successive managements of Lumley, E. T. 
Smith, and Mapleson. Mr. Lumley has left on 
record his verdict of Signor Arditi, ' than whom, 
taking all qualities into account, a more able 
conductor never reigned in this country' 
('Reminiscences,' 447 note). Arditi took an 
Italian company (Piccolomini, Giuglini, etc.) on 
an artistic tour to Hamburgh, Berlin, Dresden, 
etc., and thus became known and liked by the 
German public. In the winters of 1871 and 
1873 he conducted the Italian Opera at St. 
Petersburgh, and since 1870 has performed the 
same office each spring at Vienna. His compo- 
sitions, besides those mentioned above, comprise 
a 'Commemoration Ode,' performed at the Crystal 
Palace June 10, 1873. His vocal waltz 'II Bacio' 
is a universal favourite. [G.] 

ARGYLL ROOMS. At the commencement 
of the present century there stood in Argyll 
Street, Oxford Street, a mansion which had been 
occupied by a Mr. Joiiffe. This was taken a 
few years afterwards by Col. Greville, who 
altered and added to it, and fitted it up for the 
meetings of a fashionable association termed 
the Pic-Nics, who had burlettas, vaudevilles 
and ballets on a small scale performed there. 
But the fashionable folk, with their accustomed 
fickleness, soon deserted the place, and Greville 
was compelled to seek refuge on the continent, 
having been obliged to make over ' The Argyll 
Rooms' (as he had named them) to a Mr. Slade, 
to whom he was indebted. Slade conducted the 
business of the rooms for several years, letting 
them for concerts and other entertainments. 
During his management one of the events of 
interest which occurred there was a reading by 
Mrs. Siddons, on Feb. 10, 181 3, of Shakspere's 
Macbeth, for the benefit of the widow of 
Andrew Cherry, dramatist and actor. In the 
same year the rooms acquired greater celebrity 
by being selected by the then newly-formed 
Philharmonic Society as their place of per- 
formance. In 1 81 8 the western end of the 
concert room falling within the line required 
for the formation of Regent Street, Slade was 
awarded by a jury £23,000 as compensation 
(a sum considered at the time as exceedingly 
beyond the real value of the property), and the 
whole of the old building was removed and new 
rooms erected on the east side of Regent Street 
at the north-west comer of Argyll Place. The 
new building was designed by John Nash; and 
had all the defects of his manner. On the side 
next Regent Street was a balcony supported by 
eight heavy and clumsily designed caryatides. 
The persons by whom the new rooms were 
erected were twenty-one of the principal pro- 
fessors of music in London, who had formed 
themselves into an association for the purpose 
of printing the best music in the best manner 
and selling it at a moderate profit. This 
association was called The Royal Harmonic 
Institution, and, for the purposes of its trade, 
occupied the south-western angle of the new 
building (at the corner of Regent Street and 

Arg:yll Place), a circular fronted erection m\ 
a domed roof. The great expense incurred ( 
the erection of the building, joined to ot - 
untoward events, soon led to the withdra! 
of most of the original speculators, at a loss 
about £1800 to each, and the place eventut 
fell into the hands of two of their body, Wt . 
and Hawes. But differences soon arose betw. . 
these two, and ultimately Hawes, by the cc • 
mission of an act of bankruptcy, forced . 
dissolution of the partnership, and the cono, 
remained in the hands of Welsh alone. Dui- 
the Philharmonic Society's tenure of the rori 
(old and new), a period of about seventeen ye; 
many events of great interest to musicians 
curred there. There, on March 6 and April 

1820, Spohr appeared, first as violinist and last 
conductor (Selbstbiog. ii. 86), when a baton v 
used for perhaps the first time at an Engl 
concert. There also on June 18 following, at 
benefit concert, his first wife (Dorette Scheidl 
made her only appearance in England (and 1 
last on earth) as a harpist. There, on June 

1821, Moscheles made his first appearance in t 
country. There too Weber, on April 3, iS 
two months before his decease, conducted i^ 
of the Philharmonic Society's concerts. A 
there a still greater musician than either fi 
presented himself before an English audience : 
on May 25, 1829, the youthful Mendelssc 
conducted, at one of the concerts of the PI 
harmonic Society, his symphony in C minor, a 
a month later, at the benefit concert of Drou 
the flautist, on midsummer night, June 24, p 
duced for the first time in England his beauti 
overture to 'A Midsummer Night's Dreai 
Besides concerts the rooms were let for miscel 
neous performances and exhibitions. One of 1 
most attractive of the latter was a French ex 
bition of dramas performed by puppets, cal 
'The French Theatre du Petit Lazary,' wh 
was given in 1828 and 1829. In 1829-1830 1 
rooms were tenanted by a M. Chabert, calli 
himself 'The Fire King,' who entertained 1 
public by entering a heated oven and cookin. 
steak in it, swallowing phosphorus, etc. Duii 
his tenure of the place, at 10 o'clock in 1 
evening of Feb. 6, 1830, a fire broke out, wli 
in a short time completely destroyed the buildii 
It was re-edified soon afterwards, but never 
gained its former reputation. The Philharmo 
concerts were removed after the fire to I 
concert-room of the King's Theatre, and thei 
to the Hanover Square Rooms, and althou 
a few concerts and other entertainments wi 
occasionally given in the Argyll Rooms the pL 
became by degrees deserted by caterers for pul 
amusement and was in the course of a few ye: 
converted into shops. [W. H. 1 

ARIA, Italian for AiR. 

ARIA DI BRAVURA. The composition a 
performance of this class of aria began a 
ended with the last century ; the century 7 
excellence of great Italian singers, as the W' 
'singer' was once interpreted. [J. i 


ARIETTA. Diminutive of Aria. A short air, 
snerally of sprightly character, and having no 
jcoud part. [J. H.] 

ARIOSO. Literally 'airy.' Used substan- 
vely, it would seem to mean that kind of air 
hich, partaking both of the character of air 
id recitative, requires rather to be said than 
mg. Mendelssohn's two pieces, ' But the Lord 
mindful ' and ' Woe unto them that forsake 
in' are marked 'Arioso,' and are both of the 
laracter indicated, [J. H.] 

ARIOSTI, Attilio, a Dominican monk and 
1 operatic composer ; was born about the year 
)6o. Under a papal dispensation he gave up 
a ecclesiastical profession for that of music, of 
hich he had from his youth been a regular 
udent. His first opera was 'Dafne,' written 
the words of Apostolo Zeno. It was brought 
tt at Venice in 1686. Its success was sufficient 

determine the direction of his talent, for 
enceforth, with the exception of one oratorio 
id some cantate to be hereafter mentioned, he 
rote only for the stage. In 1690 he became 
ther private composer or Maestro di Cappella 

the Electress of Brandenburg ; and he re- 
uned a member of her household until l'ji6, 
hen, at the invitation of the managers of the 
alian opera in London, he came to England, 
lis interval, however, he does not seem to have 
ent altogether at Berlin. Apparently he had 
id one visit at least to Italy, and one to 
uatria, bringing out his 'Nabucodonosor' at 
anice, his ' La piti gloriosa fatica d' Ercole ' 

Bologna, and his 'Amor tra Nemici' at 
inice. His first appearance in London was 
the representation of Handel's 'Amadis,' at 
lich he played a solo on the then little-known 
jtrument the viole d' amour. In 1720 the 
.•ectors of the opera made formal engagements 
• a term with Ariosti, Bononcioi and Handel 
write operas in turn for the theatre. It was 
»nged that the first to be produced, which 
ts ' Mucius Scaevola,' should be the joint work 
the three authors, Ariosti writing the first act. 
le stipulations of this engagement were rigidly 
hered to without the slightest tinge of jealousy 
ill-feeling ever having maiTed the relations of 
5 rival composers. But not the less was it 
ivitable that the genius of Handel should 
lert itself, and at the close of the season of 
27 Ariosti and Bononcini were honourably 
missed. Bononcini was subsequently supported 
the Marlborough family, but Ariosti, finding 
OBelf without a patron, quitted England in 
28, and passed the rest of his life in an 
Kjurity which no biographer has been able 
pierce. Fetis says that on the eve of his 
jarture from England he published a volume 

Cantate by subscription, and that they 
Jised £1000. It may be hoped that this is 
fact, and that the destitution hinted at by 
ler writers was not the absolute condition of 

old age. 

Iriosti wrote ^teen complete operas, of which 



the names and dates of publication are as 
follows : — 'Dafne,' 1696 ; 'Eriphyle,' 1697 ; 'La 
Madre dei Maccabei,' 1 704 ; ' La Festa d'Imenei,' 
1700; 'Atys,' 1700; 'Nabucodonosor,' 1706; 
' La piti gloriosa fatica d' Ercole,' 1 706 ; ' Amor 
tra Nemici, 1708; 'Giro,' 1721 ; 'Coriolanus,' 
1723; ' Vespasien,' 1724; ' Artaserses,' 1724; 
' Dario,' 1725; ' Lucius Verus,' 1 726 ; ' Teuzone,' 
1727. To these are to be added the first act 
of 'Mucius Scaevola'; the 'Cantate' above 
mentioned, published along with some lessons 
for the viola d'amore, 1728; and his one oratorio 
' Radegonda Regina di Francia,' J693. [E. H. P.] 
ARMIDE. One of Gluck's greatest operas, 
produced (in his sixty-fourth year) on Sept. 23, 
1777, at the Academie royale. The libretto is 
by Quinault, the same which was set by Lulli 
in 1686. 'Armide' followed 'Alceste' (1776) and 
preceded ' Iphigeuie in Tauris '(1779). Comparing 
it with 'Alceste,' Gluck himself says, ' The two 
operas are so difi^erent that you will hardly be- 
lieve them to be by the same composer. ... I 
have endeavoured to be more of the painter and 
the poet and less of the musician, and I confess 
that I should like to finish my career vrith this 
opera. ... In Armide there is a delicate quality 
which is wanting in Alceste, for I have dis- 
covered the method of making the characters 
express themselves so that you will know at once 
whether it is Armida who is speaking or one of 
her followers.' The overture was originally 
written 27 years before for 'Telemacco.' 

in three acts, founded on Victor Hugo's 'Mary 
Tudor' ; words by J. V. Bridgman, music by 
Balfe; produced at Covent Garden, under the 
Pyne and Harrison management, Feb. 12, 

ARNE, Michael, the son (Bumey says the 
natiu-al son) of Dr. Ame, was born in 1741. 
He was brought on the stage at an early :il:o 
by his aunt, Mrs. Cibber, who took great pains 
in teaching him the part of the Page in Ot- 
way's tragedy, ' The Orphan' ; and his father 
was equally assiduous in qualifying him as a 
singer, and brought him out in that capacity 
at Marylebone Gardens in 1751. But neither 
acting nor singing was his vocation. At ten or 
eleven years of age he had acquired such skill on 
the harpsichord as to be able to execute, with 
unusual correctness and rapidity, the lessons of 
Handel and Scarlatti, jfnd some years later he 
manifested some ability as a composer. In ' The 
Flow'ret, a new Collection of English Songs, 
by Master Ame,' is a song called 'The Highland 
Laddie,' which attained great popularity, and 
was in 1755 adapted by Linley to the wortls 
'Ah, sure a pair were never seen,' in Sheridan's 
opera, 'The Duenna.' In 1763 M. Ame ap- 
peared as a dramatic composer with ' The Fairy 
Tale.' In 1764 he composed, in conjunction with 
Battishill, the music for the opera of ' Ahnena,' 
which was withdrawn after a few nights, not 
from want of merit in the music, but owing to 
the dulness of the dialogue. On Nov. 5, 1 766, 



Ame married Miss Elizabeth Wright, a vocalist 
of some repute. In 1767 he wrote the music for 
Garrick's dramatic romance, 'C}Tnon,' which was 
highly successful, and is his best work. Soon 
afterwards he gave up his profession and devoted 
himself to the study of chemistry, and built a 
laboratory at Chelsea, where he attempted the 
discovery of the philosopher's stone. FoUed in 
his object, and ruined by the expenses, he re- 
turned to the pursuit of music, and wrote the 
music tor several dramatic pieces — amongst them 
O'Keefe's ' Positive Man,' in which is the well- 
known song, 'Sweet PoU of Plymouth' — and 
numerous songs for Vauxhall and the other public 
gardens. In 1779 he was engaged as director of 
the music at the Dublin Theatre, and in 1784 
and subsequent years had the direction of some 
of the Lenten Oratorios at the London theatres. 
Michael Arne's dramatic compositions were ' The 
Fairy Tale,' 1 763 ; ' Hymen,' 1 764 ; ' Almena,' 
1764; 'Cymon,' 1767; 'The Fathers,' 177S; 
'The Belle's Stratagem,' 1780; 'The Choice of 
Harlequin,' 1781 ; 'The Positive Man,' 1712 ; 
* Tristram Shandy,' 1 783. He died about 
1806. [W. H. H.] 

ARNE, Thomas Augustine, Mus. Doc, was 
the son of an upholsterer in King Street, Covent 
Garden, where he was bom on March 1 2 or May 
28 (the precise date cannot be ascertained), 1710. 
He was educated at Eton, and being intended 
by his father for the profession of the law, was 
on leaving college placed in a solicitor's office for 
three years. But his love for music predominated, 
and instead of applying himself to the study of 
the law, he privately conveyed a spinet to his 
bedroom, and by muifling the strings with a 
handkerchief contrived to practice during the 
night undetected. He took lessons on the violin 
from Festing, and would occasionally borrow a 
livery in order to gain admission to the servant's 
gallery at the opera. He made such progress on 
the violin as to be able to lead a chamber band 
at the house of an amateur who gave private 
concerts. There he was one evening accidentally 
discovered by his father in the act of playing the 
first violin. After some fruitless eiforts to induce 
his son to devote himself to the profession for 
which he had designed him, the father gave up 
the attempt as hopeless, and permitted the youth 
to follow the bent of his inclination. Being free 
to practice openly, Arne soon, by his skill on the 
violin, charmed the whole farnily, and fitndiug 
that his sister, Susanna ]Maria (who afterwards 
as Mrs. Gibber became famous as a tragic actress) 
had an agreeable voice, he gave her such in- 
structions as enabled her to appear in 1732 in 
Lampe's opera 'Amelia.' Her success was such 
as to induce her brother to re-set Addison's opera 
'Rosamond,' and his composition was produced 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, March 7, 1733, 
Miss Arne performing the heroine, and her 
younger brother the page. Soon afterwards Arne 
got Fielding's ' Tragedy of Tragedies' altered into 
the 'Opera of Operas,' and> setting it to music 
'after the Italian manner,' brought it out at the 
Haymarket Theatre, his young brother re- 


presenting the hero, Tom Thumb. In 1734 1 
set for the same theatre a masque called ' Die 
and ^neas,' which was performed (as th( 
customary) with a harlequinade intermixed. ] 
1736 he composed some music for Aaron Hil 
tragedy of 'Zara,' in which his sister made 'h 
first attempt as an actress.' In 1736 An 
married CecUia, the eldest daughter of Charl 
Young, organist of AllhaUows, Barking, a puj 
of Geminiani and a singer of eminence, wl 
was frequently engaged by Handel for 1 
performances. In 1738 Ame was engaged 
compose the music for Dr. Dalton's adaptati 
oi Milton's ' Comus,' which was brought out 
Drury Lane Theatre. This work fully establ: 
his reputation ; its graceful and flowing mel 
making an immediate and lasting impre;^: 
In 1 740 he re-set Congreve's masque ' T 
Judgment of Paris,' which was performed 
Drury Lane. On August 14 in the same ye; 
to celebrate the anniversary of the accessiijii 
the House of Hanover, Thomson and Malle 
masque of 'Alfred,' with music by Ame, w 
performed, for the first tune, in a tempora 
theatre in the garden of Cleifden, Bucks, th 
the residence of Frederick, Prince of "Wal. 
The work contains some fine songs, but is mc 
especially distinguished by its finale, the famo 
patriotic song ' Rule Britannia,' a song whi 
wUl continue to be heard as long as love 
country animates the breasts of Englishmen. < 
Dec. 20, in the same year, Shakspere's 'As Y 
Like It' being performed at Drury Lane Theat: 
after having been laid aside for forty years, Ar 
gave to the world those beautiful settings of t 
songs ' Under the greenwood tree,' ' Blow, Ijlo 
thou winter wind,' and 'When daisies pie 
which seem to have become indissolubly aUit 1 
the poetry. After producing some minor p: 
Arne went in 1742 with his wife to Du^. 
where they remained \mtil 1 744. During his :>r 
there he produced, besides his former pieces. J 
operas 'Britannia' and 'EHza,' and his mr.- 
farce 'Thomas and Sally,' and also gave con 
with great success. On his return he was a. 
engaged as composer at Drury Lane, and on i 
death of Gordon he succeeded him as leader 
the band there. In 1745 Ame was engage ' 
composer to Vauxhall Gardens, and wrote 
Mrs. Ame and Lowe the pastoral dialogue ' C 
and Phoebe,' which proved so successful that 
was performed throughout the entire season, 
held that engagement for many years, dur 
which he composed for the Gardens, as well 
for Ranelagh and Marylebone Gardens, 
immense number of songs. On a revival 
Shakspere's ' Tempest ' in 1 746 (at Drury Lan 
Ame supplied new music for the masque and 1 
song 'Where the Bee sucks,' a composition 
perennial beauty. On March 12, I755) te mi 
his first essay in oratorio by the production 
'Abel,' in which the simple and beautiful mdc 
known as the Hymn of Eve became exceedinj 
popular. On July 6, 1759, the L^niversity 
Oxford created Arne Doctor of Music. In ij 
the Doctor ventured on the bold experiment 





iCing before an English audience an opera 

i mposed after the Italian manner, with recitative 

stead of spoken dialogue. For this purpose 

! selected the 'Artaserse' of Metastasio, which 

I himself translated into English. Departing 

a great extent from his former style he crowded 

any of the airs with florid divisions, particularly 

,ose in the part of Mandane, which he composed 

r his pupil, Miss Brent. The other singers 

ere Teuducci, Peretti, Beard, Mattocks, and 

[iss Thomas. The success of the work was 

jcided, and 'Artaxerxes' retained possession 

: the stage for upwards of three-quarters of a 

jntury. The part of Mandane was long con- 

dered the touchstone of the powers of a soprano 

nger. The composer sold the copyright for 

xty guineas, an insignificant amount compared 

ith the sums which later composers obtained, 

ut probably as much as the then more limited 

emand for music justified the publisher in giving. 

tn Feb. 29, 1 764, Dr. Ame produced his second 

ratorio, 'Judith,' at the chapel of the Lock 

[ospital, in Grosvenor Place, Pimlico, for the 

enefit of the charity. In 1 765 he set Metastasio's 

pera 'Olimpiade,' in the original language, and 

ad it performed at the King's Theatre in the 

laymarket. It was represented however but 

idee, owing, it has been supposed, to some petty 

ialousy of an Englishman composing for an 

kalian theatre. In 1769 Dr. Ame set such 

ortions of the ode, written by Garrick for the 

hakspere jubilee at Stratford-on-Avon, as were 

itended to be sung, and some other incidental 

lusic for the same occasion. His last dramatic 

omposition was the music for Mason's 'Carac- 

icus' in 1776. Dr. Ame produced numerous 

lees, catches, and canons, seven of which obtained 

rizes at the Catch Club, and instrumental music 

f various kinds. He died March 5, 1778, and 

ra,s buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden. Shortly 

efore his dissolution he sang with his dying 

reath a Hallelujah. Mrs. Ame survived her 

uslsand about seventeen years, dying in 1795. 

t must not be forgotten that Dr. Ame was the 

rst introducer of female voices into oratorio 

horuses; whiah he did at Covent Garden 

.'heatre on Feb. 26, 1773, in a performance of 

is o^vn 'Judith.' Dr. Arne was author as well 

8 composer of 'The Guardian outwitted,' 'The 

lose,' 'The Contest of Beauty and Virtue,' and 

Phoebe at Court,' and the reputed author of 

Don Saverio' and 'The Cooper. A fine portrait 

f him by ZofFany is in the possession of the 

lacred Harmonic Society. 

The following is a list of Dr. Ame's com- 
loeitions: — 

Oratorios: Abel, 1755. Judith, 
f84. Operas and other musical 
ieces : Kosamond, 1733. The Opera 
f Operas, or Tom Thumb the 
■reat. 1733. Dido and ^neas, 17S4. 
he Fall of Phaeton. 1736. Music 
I Zara, 17.%. Comus. 1738. The 
udgmeiit of Paris, 1740. Alfred, 
140. Pongs In As You Like It, 
740. Songs in Twelfth N'Ight. 1741. 
he Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, 
?*]. Sunns in The Merchant of 
'enice. 1742. Britannia. 1743. Eliza. 
?43, Thomas and Sally. 1743. The 
'emple of DulDeas, I74S. King 

Pepin's Campaign, 174'j. Music In 
The Tempest, 1746. Neptune and 
Amphitrite. 1746. Don Saverio, 

1749. Dirge in Borneo and Juliet, 

1750. The Prophetess, 17.59. The 
Sultan. 17.59. Artaierxes. 1762. 
I.ove in a Village (chiefly compiled), 
1762. The Birth of Hercules (not 
acted), 1763. The Guardian out- 
witted, 1764. Olimpiade (Italian 
opera>, 176,5. The Lailies' Frolic, 

1770. Additions to rurcell's King 
Arthur, 1770. The I'airy Prince, 

1771. The Cooper, 1772. Choru.«es 
iQ MaioD's £Ifrlda, 1772. The Bose, 

1773. The Contest of Beauty and 
Virtue. 1773. Achilles in I'etticoats, 
1773. May Day. 1775. Phoebe at 
Court, 1776. Music in Mason's 
Caractacus, 1770. Besides these 
Ame composed many incidental 
songs, etc. for other plays, as The 
Tender Husband, The Kehearsal. 
The Rival Queens, etc. Collections 
of songs under the following titles : 
Lyric Harmony, The Agreeable 
Musical Choice, Summer Amuse- 

ment, The Winter's Amusements, 
The Syren, Vocal Melody, 1753, 
The Vocal Grove, 1774, and nearly 
twenty books of songs sung at 
Vauxhall, Itanelagh, and Maryle- 
bone Gardens. Glees, Catches, and 
Canons : thirteen glees, ten catches, 
and six canons, are printed in War- 
ren's collections. Ode on Shak- 
sp-^re, 1769. Sonatas or les.sons for 
the harpsichord. Organ Concertos. 
Overtures etc. for the orchestra. 

[W. H. H.] 
ARNOLD, JoHANN Gottfried, violoncellist 
and composer, born in 1773, was the son of the 
schoolmaster of Niedemhall near Oehringen in 
Wiirtemberg. From his earliest childhood he 
showed such a passion and aptitude for music 
that his father apprenticed him in his twelfth 
year to the musical director (Stadtmusikus) of 
the neighbouring town of Kiinzelsau. During 
this time he devoted himself chiefly to the 
practice of the violoncello, at which, under the 
influence of a most exacting master, he worked 
with such diligence as, it is said, permanently to 
injure his health. In 1 789 his term of apprentice- 
ship came to an end, and the following year he 
took his first regular engagement at Wertheim, 
where his uncle, Friedrich Adam Arnold, was 
established as musical director. He continued to 
study with unabated energy. After making 
concert tours in Switzerland and Germany, he 
spent some time at Ratisbon in order to take 
advantage of the instruction of the able violon- 
cellist Willmann. Making constant improvement, 
he visited Berlin and Hamburg, at which latter 
town he had the good fortune to make the 
acquaintance of Bernard Romberg, whose style 
and method he studied to great advantage. 
In 1798 he became attached to the theatre 
at Frankfort as first violoncellist, where he 
occupied himself much with composition, and 
enjoyed a great reputation both as executant and 
teacher. The career however of this young and 
talented artist was speedily cut short, for he died 
of an affection of the lungs in 1806 at the early 
age of thirty-four. Besides compositions and 
'transcriptions' for his own particular instru- 
ment, he wrote original pieces for the flute and 
piano, and made quartet arrangements of various 
operas, etc. Fetis (' Biographic ') gives a list of 
his compositions, including five concertos for the 
violoncello; a symphonic concertante for two flutes 
and orchestra ; airs with variations, op. 9 (Bonn) ; 
easy pieces for the guitar, etc. [T. P. H.] 

ARNOLD, Samuel, Mus. Doc. Bom in Lon- 
don, Aug. 10, 1740, and educated in the Chapel 
Royal under Bernard Gates and Dr. Nares. 
His progress was so great that before he had 
attained his twenty -third year Beard engaged 
him as composer to Covent Garden Theatre, 
where in 1765 he brought out the opera of 
'The Maid of the Mill.' Many of the songs 
were selected from the works of Bach, Galuppi, 
Jomelli, and other Italian writers. This opera 
was one of the first, since the time of Purcell, in 
which concerted music was employed to carry 
on the business of the stage, anci it was used by 
Arnold with great cleverness. The success of the 
work decided the composer's future connection 




with the stage, which he cultivated with such 
diligence and success, that from 1765 to 1802 he 
produced no less than forty-three operas, musical 
afterpieces, and pantomimes. His attention was 
early directed to sacred music, and his first pro- 
duction of this kind was an oratorio called ' The 
Cure of Saul,' performed in 1767. In the fol- 
lowing year he produced 'Abimelech,' and after- 
wards 'The Eesurrection,' and 'The Prodigal Son,' 
which were performed during several successive 
seasons under his own direction. 

In 1769 Arnold purchased Marylebone Gar- 
dens, then a place of fashionable resort, which 
he rendered more attractive by composing and 
producing several burlettas, performed by the 
principal singers of the time. Ultimately, how- 
ever, he retired from the speculation with con- 
siderable loss. (See Marylebone Gardens.) 
In 1773 Arnold's oratorio of 'The Prodigal 
Son was performed at the installation of Lord 
North as Chancellor of the University of Ox- 
ford. On this occasion Arnold was offered the 
honorary degree of Doctor in Music, but he 
preferred taking it in the prescribed mode. It is 
said that Dr. Hayes, the Professor, returned the 
candidate's exercise unopened, remarking, 'Sir, 
it is quite unnecessary to scrutinise an exercise 
written by the composer of The Prodigal Son.' 

Dr. Arnold succeeded Dr. Nares in 1783 as 
Organist and Composer to the Chapel Eoyal, for 
which establishment he wrote several services 
and anthems. Shortly afterwards he published 
a continuation of Boyce's ' Cathedral Music,' in 
four volumes, a new edition of which was issued 
in 1847 by the writer of the present article. In 
1 79 1, in conjunction with Dr. Callcott, he pub- 
lished a work entitled, 'The Psalms of David,' 
etc. He also published 'An Ode for the Anni- 
versary of the London Hospital.' 

In 1786 Dr. Arnold issued proposals for a 
uniform edition of Handel's works, and the 
list was headed by George III as a subscriber 
for twenty-five copies. He met with suflacient 
encouragement to carry it on to 168 numbers, 
or about forty volumes, but not enough to enable 
him to complete his plan, for the edition con- 
tains only five out of Handel's forty-three operas. 
It was about this time that, in conjunction 
with his friend Callcott, he established the Glee 
Club ; and on the death of Stanley he joined 
Linley as conductor of the oratorios at Drury 
Lane, for some time a profitable speculation, but 
at length opposed by Ashley at Covent Garden, 
who by converting the so-called oratorio into a 
medley of light compositions, stimulated the 
public appetite for novelty, and the more clas- 
sical performance at the rival theatre was de- 
serted. His last oratorio, 'Elijah,' was produced 
in 18 10, but it met with little success, and was 
not repeated. 

In 1 789 Dr. Arnold was appointed Conductor 
of the Academy of Ancient Music, a noble 
institution then in its decline ; in 1793 he suc- 
ceeded Dr. Cooke as Organist of Westminster 
Abbey, and three years later, on the death of Dr. 
P. Hayes, was requested to conduct the yearly | 


performance at St. Paul's for the benefit of tl 
Sons of the Clergy. About two years aftenvarc 
a fall from the steps of his library occasione 
a_ tedious confinement, and probably hastene 
his death. He died October 22, 1802. H 
remains were deposited near those of his gre; 
predecessors, Purcell, Blow, and Croft, in Wes 
minster Abbey. 

Dr. Arnold wrote with great facility and co 
rectness, but the demand upon his powers wr 
too varied and too incessant to allow of h 
attaining great excellence in any department ( 
his art. 

_ The following is a list of his dramatic compi 
sitions : — 

Maid of the Mill, 1765. Eosa 
mond, 1767. Portrait, 1770. Motiier 
Shipton, 1770. Son-in-Law, 1779. 
Summer Amusement, 1779. Fire 
and Water, 1780. Wedding Night, 
1780. Silver Tankard, 1780. Dead 
Alive, 1781. Castel of Andalusia. 
1782. Harlequin Teague, 1782. 
Gretna Green, 1783. Hunt the 
Slipper, 1784. Two to One, 1784. 
Here, There, and Everywhere, 1784. 
Turk and No Turk, 1785. Siege of 
Cuzzola, 1785. Inkle and Yarico, 
1787. Enraged Musician, 1788. Bat- 
tle of Hexham, 1789. New Spain, 

1790. Basket Maker, 1790. Surrenc 
of Calais, 1791. Harlequin a 
Fau.stus, 1793. Children in t 
Wood, 1793. Auld Robin Gn 

1794. Zorinskl, 1795. Mountainee 

1795. Who Pays the Eeckonii 
1795. Love and Money, 1795. Bs 
nian Day, 1796. Shipwreck. 17 
Italian Monk, 1797. Fake and Tri 
1798. Throw Physic to the D.i 
1798. Cambro-Britons, Y7». i.i 

Three-fingered Jack, 1800. J, 
view, 1801. Corsair. 1801. Veter 
Tar, 1801. Sixty-Third Letter, IS' 
Fairies' Revels, 1802. 

The work by which Arnold will be lonfje.' 
remembered is entitled ' Cathedral Music, bein 
a collection in score of the most valuable an 
useful compositions for that service by the sever? 
English masters of the last 200 years ; selecte 
and revised by Dr. Samuel Arnold, Organist an 
Composer to His Majesty's Royal Chapels.' Th 
Preface is dated 480, Strand, Nov. i, 1790. Th 
contents are as follows : — 

VOL. 1. I Bryan, M. and E. Serv. In G. 

Patnck, M. and B. Serv. G minor. Travers, M. Serv. in F. 
Child, M. and E. Serv. E minor. 

Do. Pull Anth., If the Lord 

Do. F. A. O pray. 

Clark. Sanctus. 

Kent, P. A. Hearken unto. 

Croft, Verse Anth., I will give. 

Kmg, F. A. Hear O Lord. 

Do. F. A. Rejoice in the Lord. 

Do. M. and E. Serv. B flat. 

Croft, M. Serv. B minor. 

Aldrich, M. and B. Serv. in A. 

Do. 2 Chants. 

Purcell, Verse A, Blessed are they. 

TaUis, F. A. AH people. 

Goldwin, M. and E. Serv. in F. 

Weldon, Solo A. God Thou hast. 

Aldrich, F. A. We have heard. 

Gold A-iu, F. A. Behold my servant. 

Aldrich, F. A. Not unto us. 
Do. F. A. O praise. 

VOL. 2. 
Greene, M. and E. Serv. In C. 
Do. Solo A. Praise the Lord. 
Do. V. A. Like as the hart. 
Croft, V. A. Be merciful. 
King, M. and E. Serv. in F. 
Do. F. A. O pr.^y. 
Greene, V. A. O Lord I will. 
Do. V. A. I will magnify. 
King, M. and E. Serv. in A. 
Tudway, V. A. Thou o Lord. 
Weldon, F. A. Who can tell. 
Greene, V. A., praise. 

VOL 3. 

Boyce, M. Serv. in A. 

Do. Solo A. Lord what is. 

Do. F. A. Save me o God. 

Chants by Savage, Travers, Nari 

Boyce. Solo A. Lord teach us. 

TaUis, F. A. Hear the voice. 

Aldrich, V. A. I am well pleased. 

Travers, S. A. Ponder my words. 

Nares. M. and E. Serv. in F. 

Do. F. A. Blessed is he. 

Do. F. A. O Lord grant. 

Do. F. A. Try me. 

Do. Chant. 

Travers, Te Deum in Dv 

King, M. and E. Serv. in C. 

Do. V. A. Wherewithal. 

Greene, V. A. Hear my prayer. 

Boyce, S. A. Turn Thee. 

Do. F. A. Blessing and glory. 

King, M. Serv. in A. 

Hall and Hine. Te Deum and Jnl 

Greene, V. A. God Thou hast. 

Ayrton, Chant. 

Travers, V. A. Ascribe. 

Aldrich, E. Serv. in F. 

Dupuis, Chant. 

Boyce, S. A. Ponder my words. 

Greene, S. A. O Lord God. 

VOL. 4. 
The Organ part to the foregoing, 

(Harmonicon for 1830; Old Playhills: Bioq 
Diet. U. K. S:) [E. F. ^: 

ARNOULD, Madeleine Sophie, a famoui 
actress and singer, and the original Iphigenie ii 
Gluck's opera. Born in Paris, Feb. 14, 1744 
in the same room in the Rue de Bethisy in whicl 
Admiral Coligny was murdered, Aug. 24, 1572 




he Princess of Modena hearing the child sing 
. the church of Val de Grace was so charmed 
At she recommended her to the royal Intendant 
Music. Against the will of her mother, 
)phie became a member of the Chapelle Roy- 
e, and was taught comedy by Mile. Hippolyte 
lairon, and singing by Mile. Tel. Mme. de 
ompadour hearing her on one occasion was so 
uch struck by the young artist that she 
laracteristically said, 'With such talents you 
ay become a princess.' She made her debut on 
ec. i.s, 1 7. "17, and remained on the stage till 
78, the most admired artist of the Paris Opera. 
I that year she left the boards and retired into 
ivate life. Mile. Amould was not less re- 
)wned for her wit and power of conversation 
;an for her abUity as a singer and actor. The 
\jnouldiana ' contain a host of her caustic and 
itty speeches. She died in 1803. [F. G.] 

ARPEGGIO (Ital., from Arpa, the harp ; 
rpeggiare, to play upon the harp). The 
nployment in vocal or instrumental music of 
le notes of a chord in succession instead of 
oaultaneously ; also, in pianoforte music, the 
eaking or spreading of a chord, either upwards 


The introduction of the arpeggio as an ac- 
mpaniment to a melody marks an important 
loch in the history of pianoforte music. It is 
id to have been invented about 1730 by 
Iberti, a Venetian amateur musician, in whose 
Till Sonate per Cembalo ' are found the earliest 
jns of emancipation from the contrapuntal form 

accompaniment exclusively used up to that 
me. The simple kind of arpeggio employed by 
m, which is still known as the ' Alberti bass,' 
fix. i) has since become fully developed, not 
one as accompaniment, but also as an essential 
irt of the most brilliant instrumental passages 
' modem music. 


Arpeggio passages such as those alluded to are 
most invariably written out in full, but the 
mple spreading of the notes of a chord (in 
mtradistinction to concento, the sounding of all 
le notes together) is usually indicated by certain 
gns. According to Tiirk (' Clavierschule ') the 
gns for the arpeggio, beginning with the lowest 
)te, are as in Ex. 2, those for the descending 
■peggio as in Ex. 3. The latter is however only 
et with in old music ; the downward arpeggio, 
hich is but rarely employed in modem music, 
jing now always WTitten in full. 

The arpeggio in modem music is usually 
indicated as in Ex. 4, and occasionally (as for 
instance in some of Hummers compositions) by a 
stroke across the chord (Ex. 5). This is however 
incorrect, as it may easily be mistaken for the 
combination of arpeggio with Acciacatcka, 
which, according to Emanuel Bach, is to be 
written and played as in Ex. 6. 








^ ^ 



In the arpeggio as above, the notes when once 
sounded are all sustained to the full value of the 
chord, with the exception only of the foreign 
note (the acciacatura) in Ex. 6. Sometimes 
however certain notes are required to be held 
while the others are released; in this case the 
chord is written as in Ex. 7. 




The arpeggio should, according to the best 
authorities, begin at the moment due to the 
chord, whether it is indicated by the sign or by 
small notes, and there can be no doubt that the 
effect of a chord is weakened and often spoilt by 
being begun before its time, as is the bad habit 
of many inexperienced players. Thus the com- 
mencement of Mozart's 'Sonata in C (Ex. 8) 
should be played as in. Ex. 9, and not as in Ex. 10. 

Nevertheless it appears to the writer that there 
are cases in modem music in which it is advis- 
able to break the rule and allow the lad note 


of the arpeggio to fall upon the beat, as for in- 
stance in Mendelssohn's 'Lieder ohne Worte,' 
Book V. No. I, where the same note often serves 
as the last note of an arpeggio and at the same 
time as an essential note of the melody, and on 
that account will not bear the delay which would 
arise if the arpeggio were played according to 
rule. (See Ex. ii, which could scarcely be 
played as in Ex. 12). 

m^^^E^s^ ^ 










In music of the time of Bach a sequence of 
chords is sometimes met with bearing the word 
' arpeggio' ; in this case the order of breaking the 
chord, and even the number of times the same 
chord may be broken, is left to the taste of the 
performer, as in Bach's 'Sonata for Pianoforte 
and Violin,' No. 2 (Ex. 13), which is usually 
played as in Ex. 14. 

Sometimes the arpeggio of the first chord of 
a sequence is written out in full, as an indication 
to the player of the rate of movement to be 
applied to the whole passage. This is the case in 


Bach's 'Fantasia Cromatica,' (Ex. 15), which 
intended to be played as in Ex. 16. Su. 
indications however need not always be strict 
followed, and indeed Mendelssohn, speaking 
the passage quoted, says in a letter to his siste 
' I take the liberty to play them (the arpeggio 
with every possible crescendo and piano and j 
with pedal as a matter of course, and the ba 
notes doubled as well. . . . N.B. Each cho; 
is broken tirice, and later on only once, as 
happens.' (Mendelssohn, 'Briefe,' ii. p. 241 
In the same letter he gives as an illustration t] 
passage as in Ex. 1 7. 

When an appoggiatura is applied to an arpeggi 
chord, it takes its place as one of the notes of Qi 
arpeggio, and occasions a delay of the particula 
note to which it belongs equal to the tim 
required for its performance, whether it be loiij 
or short (Ex. 18). 

Chords are occasionally met with (especially ii 
Haydn's pianoforte sonatas) which are partl'i 
arpeggio, one hand having to spread the chore 


vhiie the other plays the notes all together ; 
he correct rendering of such chorda is as follows 
Ex. 19). 



[F. T.] 

ARPEGGIONE, or Guitab Violoncello, 
stringed instrument, played with a bow, which 
/as invented by G. Staufer, of Vienna, in 1823, 
ut appears never to have come much into use, 
nd whose very name would probably now be 
nknown, if it were not for an interesting sonata 
in A) for pianoforte and arpeggione by Franz 
chubert, written in 1824, and only lately pub- 
died (Vienna, J. P. Gotthardt). 

The arpeggione appears to have been of the 
ize of the viol-da-gamba, or a small violoncello ; 
be shape of the body something like that of the 
uitar. The finger-board had frets, and the six 
trings were tuned thus — 


in instruction-book for the arpeggione by Vine, 
chuster, the same for whom Schubert wrote 
is sonata, has been published by A. Diabelli 
nd Co., of Vienna. [P. D.] 

16 musical counterpart of literary translation. 
'oices or instruments are as languages by which 
le thoughts or emotions of composers are made 
nown to the world ; and the object of arrange- 
lent is to make that which was written in one 
lusical language intelligible in another. 

The functions of the arranger and translator 
re similar ; for instruments, like languages, are 
laracterised by peculiar idioms and special 
ptitudes and deficiencies which call for critical 
bility and knowledge of corresponding modes 
f expression in dealing with them. But more 
lan all, the most indispensable quality to both 

a capacity to understand the work they have 
» deal with. For it is not enough to put note 
ir note or word for word or even to find 
jrresponding idioms. The meanings and values 
words and notes are variable with their 
jlative positions, and the choice of them 
emands appreciation of the work generally, as 
ell as of the details ot the materials of which 

is composed. It demands, in fact, a certain 
jrrespondence of feeling with the original 

author in the mind of the arranger or translator. 
Authors have often been fortunate in having other 
great authors for their translators, but few have 
written their own works in more languages than 
one. Music has had the advantase of not only 
having arrangements by the greatest masters, but 
arrangements by them of their own works. Such 
cases ouyht to be the highest order of their kind, 
and if there are any things worth noting in the 
comparison between arrangements and originals 
they ought to be found there. 

The earliest things which answered the purpose 
of arrangements were the publications of parts 
of early operas, such as the recitatives and airs 
with merely figm-ed bass and occasional indi- 
cations of a figure or a melody for the accom- 
paniment. In this manner were published operas 
of LuUi and Handel, and many now forgotten 
composers for the stage of their time and before ; 
but these are not of a nature to arouse much 

The first arrangements which have any great 
artistic value are Bach's ; and as they are many 
of them of his own works, there is, as has been 
before observed, especial reason for putting con- 
fidence in such conclusions as can be arrived at 
from the consideration of his mode of proce- 
dure. At the time when his attention was first 
strongly attracted to Italian instrumental music 
by the principles of form which their composers 
had originated, and worked with great skill, 
he arranged sixteen violin concertos of Vivaldi's 
for the clavier solo, and three of the same and a 
first movement for the organ. Of the originals of 
these it appears from Spitta' that there is only 
one to be found for comparison ; but, as Spitta 
observes, from the freedom with which Bach 
treated his original in this instance it is 
legitimate to infer his treatment of the others. 
Vivaldi's existing concerto is in G major, and is 
the basis of the second in Bach's series— in the 
same key (Dorfi'el, 442).^ In form it is excellent, 
but its ideas are frequently crude and unsatisfac- 
tory, and their treatment is often thin and weak. 
Bach's object being rather to have good illus- 
trations of beauty of form than substance, he did 
not hesitate to alter the details of figures, rhythms, 
and melodies, and even successions of keys, to 
amplify cadences, and add inner parts, tiU the 
whole is transformed into a Bach-commentary on 
the form-principles of the Italians rather than an 
arrangement in the ordinary meaning of the term. 
It is not however an instance to justify arrangers 
in like freedom, as it is obviously exceptional, 
and is moreover in marked opposition to Bach's 
arrangements of his own works. 

Some of these are of a nature to induce the 
expectation that the changes would be consider- 
able ; as for instance the arrangement of the 
prelude to the Solo Violin Sonata in E, as the 
introduction in D to the Cantata ' Wir danken dir 
Gott'' for obligate organ with accompaniment 

' Johann Sebastian Bach, von Fbilipp Spitta, toL i. p. 410 (Breit- 
kopf, 1873). 

2 This and similar references are to the Thematic Catalogue of Bach'l 
published instrumental works by Alfred DiirlTel (Peters. 1S07). 

' Leipzig Bachgesellschaft, Cantata 29 (Vol. v. No.!)). 



of strings oboes and trumpets. The original 
movement consists almost throughout of con- 
tinually moving semiquavers embracing many 
thorough violin passages, and certainly does not 
seem to aiFord much material to support its 
changed condition. But a comparison shows 
that there is no change of material importance in 
the whole, unless an accompaniment of masterly 
simplicity can be called a change. There are 
immaterial alterations of notes here and there for 
the convenience of the player, and the figure 

in the violin sonata, is changed into 

in the organ arrangement — and so on, for effect, 
and that is all. 

Another instance of a like nature is the ar- 
rangement of the fugue from the solo violin 
sonata in G- minor (No. i) for Organ in D minor 
(Dorffel, 821). Here the changes are more impor- 
tant though still remarkably slight considering 
the difference between the violin and the two 
hands and pedals of an organ. 

The most important changes are the follow- 
ing :— 

The last half of bar 5 and the first of bar 6 
are amplified into a bar and two halves to en- 
able the pedals to come in with the subject in 
the orthodox manner. 















Afr^^1 A,:^^ j-^ 






In the same manner two half-bars are inserted 
in the middle of bar 28, where the pedal comes 
in a second time with a quotation of the subject 
not in the original. In bar 16 there is a similar 
point not in the original, which however makes 
no change in the harmony.. 

The further alterations amount to the filling 
up and wider distribution of the original harmonies, 
the addition of passing notes and grace notes, 
and the remodelling of violin passages : of the 
nature of all which changes the following bar 
is an admirable instance — 






Organ arrangement 


Two other arrangements of Bach's, namely ths 
of the first violin concerto in A minor, and 
the second in E major as concertos, for tb 
clavier in G minor and D major respectivel 
(Dorffel, 600, 603 ; 564, 570), are not onlyiatei 
esting in themselves, but become doubly so whe; 
compared with Beethoven's arrangement of bi 
violin concerto in D as a pianoforte concerto. ' 

The first essential in these cases was to ad 
a suflBciently important part for the left hanc 
and the methods adopted afford interestin 
illustrations of the characteristics of the tw 
great masters themselves, as well as of th 
instruments they wrote for. A portion of thi 
requirement Bach supplies from the string at 
companiment, frequently without alteration ; bu 
a great deal appears to be new till it is analysed 
as, for instance, the independent part given to th 
left hand in the first movement of the concerto i 
G miaor from the twenty-fifth bar almost to th 
end, which is as superbly fresh and pointed as i 
is smooth and natural throughout. On examin£ 
tion this passage — which deserves quotation if i 
were not too long — proves to be a long variatio 
on the original bass of the accompaniment, an 
perfectly faithful to its source. 

Bach's principle in this and in other cases ( 
like nature is contrapuntal ; Beethoven's is th 
exact contrary almost throughout. He supplic 
his left hand mainly with imisons and unisor 
disguised by various devices (which is in cor 
formity with his practice in his two great concertc 
in G and E flat, in which the use of unisor 
and disguised unisons for the two hands is ver 
extensive) ; and where a new accompaniment ) 
inserted it is of the very simplest kind possibli 
such as 







after the cadenza in the first movement ; or els 
it is in simple chords, forming unobtrusiv 
answers to figures and rhythms in the orchestrs 

1 Breitkopf 's edition of Beethoven, No. 73. 




Both masters alter the original violin fifrures 
ire and there for convenience or effect. Thu8 
ich, in the last movement of tbe G minor 
ivier concerto (Dorffel, 566), puts 





: the violin figure 

fc ft 

* ■ . ■ c: 

d in the last movement of the D major (DorffeL 

2) puts feji.^ 







the E major vioKn concerto. 
The nature of Beethoven's alterations may be 
Iged of from the following quotation from the 
t movement, after the cadenza : — 











A.nother typical alteration is after the coda in 
5 first movement, where, in the thirteenth bar 
m the end, in order to give the left hand some- 
ng to do, Beethoven anticipates the figure 
smoothly flowing semiquavers with which the 
rt of the violin closes, making the two hands 
emate till they join in playing the last passage 
octaves. In both masters' works there are 
tances of holding notes being changed into 
ikes in the arrangements, as in the 7th and 
I bars of the slow movement of the D concerto 
Bach, and the 2nd and 5th bars after the first 
ti in the last movement of Beethoven's concerto, 
both there are instances of simple devices to 
rid rapid repetition of notes, which is an easy 
■cess on the violin, but an effort on the piano- 
te, and consequently produces a different effect, 
ey both amplify arpeggio passages within 
derate bounds, both are alike careful to find 
)recedent for the form of a change when one 
iomes necessary, and in both the care taken to 
faithful to the originals is conspicuous. 
rhe same care is observable in another 
angement of Beethoven's, viz. the Pianoforte 
.0* made from his second symphony, 
rhe comparison between these is very interest- 
owing to the unflagging variety of the 

' Breitkopf 's edition of BeethOTen, No. 90. 

distribution of the orchestral parts to the three 
instruments. The pianoforte naturally takes the 
substance of the work, but not in such a manner 
as to throw the others into subordination. The 
strings are used mostly to mark special orchestral 
points and contrasts, and to take such things as 
the pianoforte is unfitted for. Their distribution 
is so free that the violin will sometimes take 
notes that are in the parts of three or more in- 
struments in a single bar. In other respects the 
strings are used to reinforce the accompaniment, 
so that in point of fact the violin in the trio 
plays more of the second violin part than of the 
first, and the violoncello of any other instrument 
from basso to oboe than the part given to it in 
the symphony. 

The changes made are few and only such as 
are necessitated by technical differences, and are 
of the same simple kind with those in the concerto, 
and originating in similar circumstances. Every- 
thing in the distribution of the instruments sub- 
serves some purpose, and the re-sorting of the 
details always indicates some definite principle 
not at variance with the style of the original. 

An illustration of the highest order in more 
modem works is found in the exquisitely artistic 
arrangement of the 'Midsummer Night's Dream' 
music for four hands on one pianoforte by 
Mendelssohn himself. 

The step from Beethoven to Mendelssohn 
embraces a considerable development of the 
knowledge of the technical and tonal qualities 
of the pianoforte, as well as of its mechanical 
improvement as an instrument. This becomes 
apparent in the different characteristics of Men- 
delssohn's work, which in matter of detail is 
much more free than Beethoven's, though quite 
as faithful in general effect. 

At the very beginning of the overture is an 
instance in point, where that which appears in 
the score as 
Violins dimded 

is in the pianoforte arrangement given as 



the object evidently being to avoid the repetition 
and the rapid tlurds which would mar the light- 
ness and crispness and delicacy of the passage. 

In one instance a similar eti'ect is produced by 
a diametrically contrary process, where Bottom's 
bray, which in the original is given to strings and 
clarinets («), is given in the pianoforte arrange- 
ment as at (6) : — 

J- i (6)^3 > 




It is to be remarked that the arrangement 
of the overture is written in notes of half the 
value of those of the orchestral score, with twice 
the amount in each bar ; except the four 
characteristic wind-chords — tonic, dominant, sub- 
dominant, and tonic — which are semibreves, as 
in the original, whenever they occur ; in all the 
rest semiquavers stand for quavers, quavers for 
crotchets, crotchets for minims, etc., as may be 
seen by referring to the above examples. The 
change may possibly have been made in the 
hope that the players would be more likely 
to hit the character of the work when playing 
from the quicker looking notes ; or it may have 
been a vague idea of conforming to a kind of 
etiquette noticeable in music, church music affect- 
ing the longer looking notes, such as semibreves 
and minims, while orchestral music has the faster 
looking notes, such as quavers (overtures to 
'Coriolan,' ' Leonore,' ' Fidelio,' ' Jessonda,'etc.), 
and pianoforte music descends to semiquavers — ■ 
as though to mark the relative degrees of dignity. 

The pianoforte arrangement of the scherzo of 
the ' Midsummer Night's Dream ' abounds with 
happy devices for avoiding rapid repetitions, and 
for expressing contrasts of wind and strings, and 
imitating the effect of many orchestral parts which 
it would be impossible to put into the arrangement 
in their entirety. One of the happiest passages 
in the whole work is the arrangement of the 
passage on the tonic pedal at the end of this 






1"" — H*" b>«- 


(ff pedal, pizzicali bassi, and Comi and Trombe on first 
beat of each bar.) 

Prima \ 


Secondo R. H. 





Mendelssohn often takes the freedom of slightly 
altering the details of a quick passage in order 
to give it greater interest as a pianoforte figure ; 
which seems to be a legitimate development of 
the theory of the relative idiomatic modes of 
expression of different instruments, and its adap- 
tation to details. 

The method most frequently adopted by him 
to imitate the effect of the contrast of wind 
and strings in the same position, is to shift the 
figure or chords of one of them an octave higher 
or lower, and to give them respectively to the right 
and left hands, as in the first part of the music 

to the first scene of the second act. The cod • 
tinual alternation of the hands in the same positio i 
in the Intermezzo after the second act represent^ 
the alternation between violins and oboi, an , 
clarinets and flutes. < 

In the music to the first scene of the third a< 
an important drum roll is represented by a has 
shake beginning on the semitone below the priil 
cipal note, which is much happier than the usui 
method. In these respects Mendelssohn's princ 
pies of arrangement accord with those of Bac 
and Beethoven, differing only in those respec 
of treatment of detail which are the result of 
more refined sense of the qualities of the piani 
forte arising from the long and general cultivi 
tion of that instrument. 

A still further development in this direction 
found in the arrangement by Herr Brahms 
his pianoforte quintett in F minor (op. 34) i 
a sonata for two pianofortes. In this the mai 
object seems to have been to balance the wox 
of the two pianofortes. Sometimes the fin 
pianoforte, and sometimes the second has tl 
original pianoforte part for pages together, an 
sometimes for a few bars at a time , but whei 
ever the nature of the passages admits of i 
the materials are distributed evenly betwet 
the two instruments. There are some changes- 
such as the addition of a bar in two places in tl 
first movement, and the change of an accident 
in the last — which must be referred to critic, 
considerations, and have nothing to do wH 

The technical changes in the arrangement a: 
the occasional development of a free inner pa 
out of the materials of the original witho 
further change in the harmonies, the filling i 
of rhythm-marking chords of the strings, frequei 
reinforcement of the bass by doubling, and, whi( 
is especially noticeable, frequent doubling 
both melodies and parts of important figures. 
is this latter peculiarity which especially marl 
the adaptation of certain tendencies of model 
pianoforte-playing to arrangement, — the tendenc »i 
namely, to double all the parts possible, to fill i li 
chords to the utmost, and to distribute the not 
over a wider space, with greater regard to tht 
tonal relations than formerly, and by every mea: 
to enlarge the scope and effective power of t! 
instrument, at the same time breaking down i 
the obstructions and restrictions which the 
dogmas of style in playing placed in the way 
its development. 

Another admirable instance of this kind is tl 
arrangement by Herr Brahms of a gavotte 
Gluck's in A ; which however in its new for » 
is as much marked by the personality of tl tt 
arranger as that of the composer — a dangero 
precedent for ordinary arrangers. 

The most remarkable instance of the adaptati< 
of the resources of modern pianoforte-playii t 
to arrangement, is that by Tausig of Bacb 
toccata and fugue for the organ in D, 'zu 
Conzertvortrag frei bearbeitet.' The difiiculty 
such a case is to keep up the balance of the e 
larged scale throughout. Tausig' s perfect maste; 




I f his art has carried him through the ordeal 
nscathed, from the first bar, where 


I- lifinoTnes *^ 


own to the end, where Bach's 

nd the result in the hands of a competent per- 
jrmer is magnificent. 

The point which this arrangement has in 
ommon with the foregoing classical examples, 
its remarkable fidelity to the materials 
f the original, and the absence of irrelevant 
latter. The tendency of high class modem ar- 
angements is towards freedom of interpretation ; 
nd the comparison of classical arrangements 
^ith their originals shows that this is legitimate, 
p to the point of imitating the idioms of one 
istrument by the idioms of another, the effects 
f one by the effects of another. Beyond that 
es the danger of marring the balance of the 
riginal works by undue enlargement of the 
;ale of particular parts, of obscuring the per- 
jnality of the original composer, and of ca- 
icature, — that pitfall of ill -regulated admira- 
ion, — instances of which may be found in modem 
transcriptions,' which are the most extreme ad- 
ance yet achieved in the direction of freedom of 

The foregoing is very far from exhausting the 
arieties of kinds of arrangement ; for since these 
re almost as numerous as the possible inter- 
hanges between instruments and combinations 
f instruments, the only course open is to take 
7pical instances from the best sources to illustrate 
eneral principles — and these will be found to 
pply to all arrangements which lay claim to 
rtistic merit. To take for instance an arrange- 
lent of an orchestral work for wind band : — the 

absent strings will be represented by an increased 
number of clarinets of different calibres andcorni 
di bassetto, and by the bassoons and increased 
power of brass. But these cannot answer the 
purpose fully, for the clarinets cannot take the 
higher passages of the violin parts, and they 
will not stand in an equally strong degree of 
contrast to the rest of the band. Consequently 
the flutes have to supplement the clarinets in 
places where they are deficient, and the parts 
originally belonging to them have to be pro- 
portionately modified ; and in order to meet 
the requirements of an effect of contrast, the 
horns, trombones, etc. for lower parts, have to 
play a great deal more than in the original,, 
both of melody and accompaniment. The part 
of the oboes will probably be more similar than 
any other, though it will need to be modified 
to retain its relative degree of prominence in 
the band. On the whole a very general inter- 
change of the parts of the instruments becomes 
necessary, which is done with due respect to 
the peculiarities of the different instruments, 
both as regards passages and relative tone 
qualities, in such a manner as not to mar the 
relevancy and balance of parts of the whole 

Of arrangements of pianoforte works for full 
orchestra, of which there are a few modem 
instances, it must be said that they are for the 
most part unsatisfactory, by reason of the marked 
difference of quality between pianoforte and 
orchestral music. It is like trying to spread 
out a lyric or a ballad over sufficient space to 
make it look like an epic. Of this kind ai-e the 
arrangements of Schumann's 'Bilder aus Osten' 
by Eeinecke, and Raff's 'Abends' by himself. 
Arrangements of pianoforte accompaniments are 
more justifiable, and Gounod's ' Meditation ' on 
Bach's Prelude in C, Liszt's scoring of the 
accompaniment to Schubert's hymn ' Die All- 
macht,' and his development of an orchestral 
accompaniment to a Polonaise of Weber's out 
of the materials of the original, without marring 
the Weberish personality of the work, are both 
greatly to the enhancement of tlie value of the 
works for concert purposes. The question of 
the propriety of eking oiit one work with portions 
of another entirely independent one — as Liszt 
has done in the Introduction to his version of 
this Polonaise — belongs to what may be called 
the morale of arrangement, and need not be 
touched upon here. Nor can we notice such 
adaptations as that of Palestrina's ' Missa Papae 
Marcelli ' — originally written for 6 voices — for 
8 and 4, or tliat by the late Vincent Novello 
of VVilbye's 3-part madrigals for 5, 6, and 7 

As might be anticipated, there are instances 
of composers making very considerable alterations 
in their own works in preparing them for per- 
formance under otlier conditions than those for 
which they were originally written, such as the 
arrangement, so-called, by Beethoven himself of 
his early Octett for wind instruments in Eb 
(op. 103) as a quintett for strings in the same 




key (op. 4) and Mendelssohn's edition of the 
scherzo from his Octett in Eb (op. 20) for full 
orchestra, introduced by him into his symphony 
in C minor — which are rather new works founded 
on old materials than arrangements in the ordinary 
sense of the term. They are moreover exceptions 
even to the practice of composers themselves, and 
do not come under the head of the general subject 
of arrangement. For however unlimited may be 
the rights of composers to alter their own works, 
the rights of others are limited to redistribution 
and variation of detail ; and even in detail the 
alterations can only be legitimate to the degree 
which is rendered indispensable by radical 
differences in the instruments, and must be 
such as are warranted by the quality, proportions, 
and stj'le of the context. 

It may be convenient to close this article with 
a list of adaptations of their own wotIls by the 
composers themselves, as far as they can be 
ascertained : — 

1. Bach's arrangements of his own works are 
numerous. Some of them have already been 
noticed, but the following is a complete list of 
those indicated in Doi-ffel's Thematic Catalogue. 

Concerto in F for clavier and two flutes with 
4tett acct. (D. 561-3), appears also in G as 
concerto for violin and two flutes with 5tett 
acct (D. 1072-4). — Concerto in G minor for clavier 
with 5tett acct. (D. 564), as concerto in A 
minor for violin with 4tett acct. (D. 600). — 
Concerto in D major for clavier with 4tett acct. 
(D. 570), as concerto for violin in E major with 
4tett acct. (D. 603). — The Prelude and Fugue in 
A minor for clavier solo (D. 400, 401), appears, 
with much alteration, as ist and 3rd movements 
of concerto for clavier, flute, and violin in same 
key, with 5tett acct. (D. 582, 584). The slow 
movement of the same concerto, in C (D. 583), 
is taken from the third organ sonata, where it 
stands in F (D. 774). — The fugue in G minor for 
violin solo, from Sonata 1 (D. 610) appears in 
D minor, arranged for the organ (D. 821). — 
Sonata 3 for violin solo in A minor (D. 621-4), 
appears in D minor for clavier solo (D. 108-1 1). — 
The prelude in E for violin solo to Sonata 6 (D. 
634) is arranged for organ and full orchestra in 
D, as ' sinfonia ' to the Eathswahl cantata ' Wir 
danken dir, Gott,' No. 29 of the Kirchencantaten 
of the BachgeseUschaft (vol. v. i), and the first 
movement of the 5th Sonata for Violin in C (D. 
630) appears as a separate movement for Clavier 
in G (D. 141). — The first movement of the Con- 
certo in E for Clavier appears in the Introduction 
to the Cantata 'Gott soU aUein'; and the two 
first movements of the Concerto in D minor ap- 
pear in the Cantata 'Wir mtissen durch viel 

2. Handel was very much in the habit of 
using up the compositions both of hunself and 
others, sometimes by transplanting them bodUy 
from one work to another — as his own AUelujahs 
from the Coronation Anthems into 'Deborah,' 
or Kerl's organ Canzoua, which appears nearly 
note for note as 'Eg-j'pt was glad' in ' Israel in 
Egypt ' ; and sometimes by conversion, as in the 

'Messiah,' where the Choruses 'His yoke' am 
'All we' are arranged fi?om two of his owi 
Italian Chamber duets, or in ' Israel in Egypt 
where he laid his organ Fugues and an earl; 
Magnificat under large contribution. In othe 
parts of ' Israel,' and in the ' Dettingen Te Deum 
he used the music of Stradella and Urio wit] 
greater or less freedom. But these works com' 
under a different category from those of Bach, am 
will be better examined under their own heads 
More to the present purpose are his adaptation 
of his Orchestral works, such as the 2nd, 3rd 
4th, and 5th of the 2nd Set of Organ Concertos 
which are mere adaptations of the i ith, loth, ist 
and 6th of the 12 Concerti Grossi (op. 6). No. 
of the same set of Organ Concertos is parti; 
adapted from the 6th Sonata or Trio (op. 5). 

3. Beethoven. The arrangements of the eeventl 
and eighth symphonies for two hands, publishec 
by Steiner at the same time with the scores 
although not by Beethoven himself, were lookec 
through and corrected by him. He arranged thi 
Grand Fugue for String Quartett (op. 133) as : 
duet for Piano. No other pianoforte arrange 
ments by him are known ; but he is said t< 
have highly approved of those of his symphoniei 
by Mr. Watts. Beethoven however rearrangec 
several of his works for other combinations o 
instruments than those for which he originall; 
composed them. Op. i, No. 3, pianoforte trio 
arranged as string quintett (op. 104). Op. 4 
string quintett (two violins), arranged from th( 
octett for wind instruments (1796), publishec 
later as op. 103. Op. 14, No. i, pianoforte sonati 
in E, aiTanged as a string quartett in F. Op. 16 
quintett for pianofoi-te and wind instruments 
arranged as a pianoforte string quartett. Op. 20 
the Septett, arranged as a trio for pianoforte 
clarinet or vioUn, and cello (op. 38). Op. 36 
symphony No. 2, arranged as a pianoforte trio 
Op. 61, vioHn concerto, arranged as pianofortt 
concerto. The above are all that are certaiol^ 
by Beethoven. Op. 31, No. i, Pianoforte So 
nata — G, aiTanged as a string quartett, is allowec 
by Nottebohm to be probably by the composer 
So also were Op. 8, Nottumo for String Trii 
arranged for Pianoforte and Tenor (op. 42), anc 
Op. 25, Serenade for Flute, Violin, and Tenor 
arranged for Pianoforte and Flute i^op. 41), wen 
looked over and revised by him. 

4. Schubert. Arrangement for four hands o 
overture in C major 'in the Italian style' (op 
170), overture in D major, and overture t( 
' Rosamunde ' ; and for two hands of the ac 
companiments to the Romance and three choruse: 
in the same work. The song 'Der Leidende 
(Lief. 50, No. 2), in B minor, is an arrangemen' 
for voice and piano of the second trio (in Bt 
minor) of the second Entracte of ' Rosamunde.' 

5. Mendelssohn. For four hands: the Octet! 
(op. 20) ; the ' Midsummer's Night's Dream 
overture and other music; the 'Hebrides' over- 
ture; the overture for military band (op. 24) 
the andante and variations in Bb (op. 83 a), 
originally written for two hands. For twc 
hands : the accompaniments to the Hochzeit 


Jes Camaclio, and to the 95th Psalm (op. 46). 
He also arranged the scherzo from the string 
XJtett (op. 20) for full orchestra to replace the 
ninuet and trio of his symphony in C minor 
)n the occasion of its performance by the Phil- 
larmonic Society, as noticed above. 

6. Schumann. For four hands : Overture, 
icherzo, and finale ; Symphony No. 2 (C major) ; 

> )verture to ' Hermann und Dorothea.' Madame 
Schumann has arranged the quintett (op. 44) for 
"our hands, and the accompaniments to the opera 
tf Genoveva' for two hands. 

7. Brahms has arranged Nos. I, 3, and 6 
if his ' Ungarische Tanze,' originally published 
s piano pieces for fom- hands, for full orchestra. 
le has also arranged his piano string quintett 
op. 34) as a 'Sonata' for four hands on two 
(ianos, and his two Orchestral Serenades for 
'iano, h quatre mains. [C. H. H. P.] 

ARRIAGA, Juan Cbisostomo d', bom at 
JUbao 1808, a violinist and composer of great 
ironiise. When a mere child, without having 
samt even the elements of harmony, he wrote 
, Spanish opera, and at the age of thirteen was 
ent to the Conservatoire at Paris to study the 
iolin imder Baillot and harmony under Fetis. 
n two years he became a learned contrapuntist, 
nd wrote an ' Et vitam venturi ' in eight parts, 
yhich Cherubini is said to have pronounced a 
aasterpiece, (Fetis.) On his premature death, 
f decline, at Marseilles in 1826, this gifted 
rtist left three quatuors for the violin (Paris, 
824) — compositions deserving to be better 
:nown — an overture, a symphony, and many 
ther unpublished works. [M. C. C] 

ARRIGONI, Carlo, a lutenist, bom at 
Horence at the beginning of last century, 
irhose only claim to notice is his possible anta- 
>ni8m to Handel. He is said by Fetis and 
ichoelcher to have been engaged, with Porpora, 
a composer to the theatre at Lincoln's Inn, which 
vaa started as an opposition to Handel in 1734, 
.nd to have produced there in that year an opera 
ailed ' Fernando' without success ; but it is 
mpossible to discover on what this is grounded, 
niat Arrigoni was in London at or about that 
iite is possible, and even probable, since a volume 
f his 'Cantate da Camera' was published there 
a 1732; and in Arbuthnot's satire 'Harmony 
tt an Uproar,' the 'King of Arragon' is men- 
ioned amongst Handel's opponents, a name which 
Jumey ('Commemoration') explains to mean 
Urigoni. But on the other hand the impression 
iB made must have been very small, and his 
pera becomes more than doubtful, for the names 
leither of Arrigoni nor Fernando are found in 
he histories of Bumey or Hawkins, in the MS. 
iegister of Colman, in the newspapers of the 
>eriod, nor in any other sources to which the 
mter has had access. It is in accordance with 
his that Arrigoni is mentioned by Chrysander 
a connection with Arbuthnot's satire only 
'Handel,' ii. 343). 

In 1738, taking a leaf out of his great 
•ntagonist's book, he produced an oratorio 



called 'Esther,' at Vienna, after which he 
appears to have retired to Tuscany, and to 
have died there about 1743. [G.] 

ARSIS AND THESIS. Terms used both in 
music and in prosody. They are derived from 
the Greek. Arsis is from the verb cupcu {tollo, 
I lift or raise), and marks the elevation of the 
voice in singing, or the hand in beating time. 
The depression which follows it is called Oiats 
{depositio or remissio). 

When applied to beating time, arsis indicates 
the strong beat, and thesis the weak : for the 
ancients beat time in exactly the reverse way to 
ours, lifting the hand for the strong beat and 
letting it fall for the weak, whereas we make 
the down beat for the strong accents, and raise 
our hand for the others. 

When applied to the voice, a subject, coimter- 
point, or fugue, are said to be ' per thesin,' when 
the notes ascend from grave to acute ; ' per 
arsin' when they descend from acute to grave, 
for here again the ancient application of the 
ideas of height or depth to music was apparendy 
the reverse of our own. 

A fugue 'per arsin et thesin' is the same 
thing as a fugue 'by inversion,' that is to say, 
it is a fugue in which the answer to the subject 
is made by contrary motion. (See FuGUE, 
Canon, Inversion, and Subject). The terms 
arsis and thesis may be regarded as virtually 
obsolete, and are practically useless in these 
days. [F. A. G. 0.] 

ARTARIA. A well-known music-publishing 
firm in Vienna, the founders of which were 
Cesare, Domenico, and Giovanni Artaria, three 
brothers from Blevio on the Comersee, who 
settled in Vienna about the end of the year 
1750. In 1770 the privilege of the Empress 
was granted to Carlo, the son of Cesare, and his 
cousins, to establish an art business in Vienna. 
To the sale of engravings, maps, and foreign 
music, was added in 1 776 a music printing press, 
the fii"st in Vienna, from which two years later 
issued the first publications of the firm of Artaria 
and Co. At the same time appeared the first of 
their catalogues of music, since continued from 
time to time. From the year 1 780 a succession 
of works by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and 
other composers, were pubUshed by the firm, 
which is in fuH activity at the present day. A 
branch house was founded at Mayence in 1793 
by the brothers of Pasquale Artaria ; this was 
afterwards extended to Mannheim, in conjunc- 
tion with the bookselling house of Fontaine, 
under the name of Domenico Artaria. In 1 793 
the Vienna firm united -with Cappi and Mollo, 
who however shortly afterwards dissolved the 
association, and started houses of their own, 
Cappi again subsequently joining with Tobias 
Haslinger, and Mollo with DiabeUi. In 1802 
the business came into the hands of Domenico, 
a son-in-law of Carlo. Under his management 
the business reached its climax, and the house 
was the resort of all the artists of the city. His 
valuable collection of autographs by Mozart, 



Haydn, Beethoven, and other famous composers, 
was known far and wide, though in course of 
time in great measure dispersed. Domenico died 
on July 5, 1842, and the business has been car- 
ried on since under the old name by his son 
August. Haydn was for many years in most 
intimate relations with Artaria and Co. What 
they published for Beethoven may be seen in the 
fullest detail in Nottebohm's catalogue of the 
works of the great composer. [C. F. P.] 

AETAXERXES, an opera in three acts 
composed by Dr. Arne, the words translated 
from Metastasio's ' Artaserse,' probably by Arne 
himself. Produced at Covent Garden Theatre 
Feb. 2, 1762, and long a favourite piece on the 
London boards. 

ARTEAGA, Stefano, a learned Jesuit, born 
about 1750 at Madrid. On the suppression of 
the order he went to Italy and became a member 
of the Academy of Padua. He afterwards 
resided at Bologna, and there made the ac- 
quaintance of Padre Martini, at whose instance 
he investigated the rise and progress of the 
Italian stage. His work, entitled ' Rivoluzioni 
del teatro musicale Italiano, dalla suo origine 
fine al presente,' (two vols., 1783) is of im- 
portance in the history of music. A second 
edition, in three vols., appeared at Venice in 
1785. He also left behind him a MS. treatise 
on the rhythm of the ancients, of which however 
all traces have disappeared. [F. G.] 

ART OF FUGUE, THE (Die Eunst der 
Fuge), a work of Sebastian Bach's, in which 
the art of fugue and counterpoint is taught, 
not by rules but in examples. It was written 
in 1 749, the last year of his life, and is therefore 
the last legacy of his immense genius and ex- 
perience. The work consists of sixteen fugues — 
or in Bach's language 'counterpoints' — and four 
canons, for one pianoforte, and two fugues for 
two pianofortes, all on one theme 

in every variety of treatment ; and closes with 
a fugue on three new subjects, in the same key 
as before, the third being the name of Bach 
(according to the German notation) : — 

This fugue leaves off on a chord of A, and is 
otherwise obviously unfinished, interrupted, ac- 
cording to Forkel, by the failure of Bach's eyes, 
and never resumed. On the other hand the 
writing of the autograph (Berlin Library), though 
small and cramp, is very clear, and not like the 
writing of a half -blind man. We learn on the 
same authority that it was the master's intention 
to wind up his work with a fugue on four sub- 
jects, to be reversed in all the four parts ; of this 
however no trace exists. The Art of Fugue was 
partly engraved (on copper) before Bach's death. 


and was published by Marpurg in 1752 at foui 
thalers, with the addition at the end of a Chorale 
' Wenn wir in hochsten Nothen sind,' in foui 
parts in florid counterpoint, which is said to have 
been dictated by the master to his son-in-la\\ 
Altnikol very shortly before his departure, and is 
thus his 'Nunc dimittis.' This chorale, whicl 
has no apparent connection with the preceding, 
portion, is in G major ; it is omitted in the edi 
tions of Nageli and Peters, but will be founc 
in Becker's ' J. S. Bach's vierstimmige Kirchen 
gesange' (Leipzig, 1843). 

Thirty copies only of the work were printec 
by Marpurg, and the plates, sixty in number 
came into the hands of Emanuel Bach, who 01 
Sept. 14, 1766, in a highly characteristic ad 
vertisement, offered them for sale at any reason 
able price. What became of them is not known 
There are two modern editions — that of Nagel 
of Ziirich (1803), published at the instigatioi 
of C. M. von Weber, a splendid oblong folio 
with the fugues engraved both in score and ii 
compressed arrangement ; and that of Peter. 
(1839), edited by Czerny. Neither of these ha; 
the Chorale ; but the latter of the two contain; 
the 'Thema regium' and the 'Ricerca' from thi 
' Musikalisches Opfer.' An excellent analysi; 
of the work is Hauptmann's ' Erlauterungen. 
etc., originally prefixed to Czemy's edition, bu 
to be had separately (Peters, 1841). [G. 

ARTUSI, Giovanni Maria, bom at Bologu; 
in the second half of the i6th centiuy, was ; 
canon of San Salvatore, Venice, a leariiei 
musician, and a conservative of the staunches 
order, whose life was devoted to combatting tli( 
innovations of the then 'music of the future. 
His 'Arte del contrapunto ridotto in tavole 
was published in 1586 and '89 (translated int( 
German by Frost), but his principal works an 
controversial, ' Delle imperfezioni delle musicE 
moderna,' 1600 and 1603, directed against 
Monteverde's use of unprepared sevenths anc 
ninths ; ' Difesa ragionata della sentenze dat( 
di Ghisilino Dankerts ' ; ' Impresa del Zarlino, 
1604; ' Considerazione Musical!,' 1607. Artus: 
was active also as a composer; he published 
'Canzonette' for four voices, and a 'Cantatt 
Domino' of his wiU be found in the Vincent 
collection dedicated to ScHiETi. [F. G.' 

ARWIDSSON, Adolf Iwae, bom in 1791 al 
Padajoki in Finland ; professor of history at th( 
university of Abo from 1817 to 1821, when he 
was banished by the Russian government for a 
political article. He retired to Stockholm, anc 
was appointed keeper of the royal library. He 
edited a most interesting collection of Swedisi 
national songs, ' Svenska Fornsanger,' in 3 vols. 
(Stockholm, 1834, 1837, and 1842), which forms 
a continuation of the ' Svenska Folkvisor ' oj 
Geijer and Afzelius. [M. C. C] 

ASANTSCHEWSKY, Michel Von, born 
1839 ^* Moscow, since 1839 director of the Con- 
servatoire de Musique at St. Petersburg, one oi 
the most cultivated of living Russian musicians, 
is remarkable for the delicate finish of diction 




1 form which characterises his compositions, 
well as for the extensive range of his know- 
Ige in musical matters generally. He com- 
ited his education in counterpoint and compo- 
'on under Hauptmann and Richter at Leipsic 
iween the years 1861 and 1864, and lived 
ring some years subsequently, aJtemately at 
ris and at St. Petersburg. He has acquired 
•eputation among book-coUectors as the pos- 
sor of one of the finest private libraries of 
rks upon music in Europe. Among his printed 
apositions the following should be noted : op. 
Sonata in B minor for pianoforte and violon- 
lo; op. 10, Trio in F sharp minor for piano 
I strings; op. 12, Fest-Polonaise for two 
nofortes ; Passatempo for piano a quatre 
ins. [E. D.] 

iSCANIO EST ALBA. A 'theatrical sere- 
le' in two acts (overture and twenty-four 
nbers), composed by Mozart at MUan, Sept. 
71, for the betrothal of the Archduke Ferdi- 
id and Princess Maria of Modena. First 
formance, Oct. 17, 1771 (Kochel, No. iii). 
VSCENDING SCALE. It is a peculiarity of 

minor scale adopted in modem music, that 
form is frequently varied by accidental chro- 
tic alterations, to satisfy what are assumed to 
the requirements of the ear; and as these 
irations most commonly take place in ascend- 

passages, it is usual, in elementary works, to 
8 different forms of the minor scale, for as- 
ding and descending. 

•"or example, the normal form of the scale of 
ninor is 

gj J 

in descending, as here shown, the progressions 
n natural and proper. 

Jut if the motion take place in the reverse 
sction, thus — 

No. I. 

1 said that the succession of the upper notes 
pproaching the key note A, do not give the 

which ought to correspond to our modern 
ility. It is argued that the penultimate note, 
leventh, being the leading or sensible note of 

key, ought to be only a semitone distant 
1 it, as is customary in all weU-defined keys ; 

that, in fact, unless this is done, the tonality 
Dt properly determined. This reason has led 
he accidental sharpening of the seventh in 
nding, thus — 

No. 2. 

ut here there is another thing objected to ; 
ely, the wide interval of three semitones 
augmented second) between the sixth and the 
Qth, F t] and G (, which it is said is abrupt and 

unnatural, and this has led to the sharpening of the 
sixth also, thus — 

No. 3. 


-y ^ ^ C ^ZZD, 

:^. Sir -'^ '^ 

to make the progression more smooth and regular. 
This is the succession of notes usually given as 
the ascending minor scale. 

The first alteration — namely, the sharpening of 
the leading note— is no doubt required if the per- 
fect modem tonality is to be preserved, for no 
doubt an ascending passage, thus — 

would give rather the impression of the key of C 
or of F than that of A. 

But the necessity for sharpening the sixth is 
by no means so obvious ; it may no doubt 
be smoother, but the interval of the augmented 
second is one so familiar in modem music, as to 
form no imperative reason for the change. Hence 
this rule is frequently disregarded, and the form 
marked No. 2 is very commonly used, both for 
ascending and descending. 

We may instance the fine unison passage in the 
last movement of Schumann's Symphony, No. i : — 







where not only does the peculiar rhythm give 
a most striking original effect to the common 
succession of notes, but the strong attention drawn 
to the objectionable augmented interval, shows 
how effectively genius may set at nought common- 
place ideas as to musical propriety. [W. P.] 

ASCHER, Joseph, was bom in London, 1831, 
and died there 1869. A fashionable pianist, and 
composer of drawing-room pieces. He was 
taught by Moscheles, and followed his master to 
the Conservatorium at Leipzig. His successful 
career began in Paris, where he was nominated 
court pianist to the Empress Eugenie, an honour 
which appears to convey considerable business 
advantage in the fashionable world, and is ac- 
cordingly a coveted title. 

His compositions amount to above a hundred 
salon pieces — mazurkas, gallops, nocturnes, 
etudes, transcriptions, etc. — well written and 
effective, of moderate difficulty, and rarely if 
ever without a certain elegant grace and finish. 
Among the best are ' La perle du Nord' and 
' Dozia,' both mazurkas, and ' Les gouttes d'eau,' 
an ^tude. Ascher believed in himself, and in his 
earlier compositions at least, offered his best ; 
but the dissipated habits he gradually fell into 
ruined both his health and his taste. [E. D.] 

ASHE, Andrew, was bom at Lisbum in 
Ireland, about the year 1759. Before he had 
completed his ninth year he was sent to England 
to an academy near Woolwich, where he remained 


98 ASHE. 

more than three years, when his father, having 
experienced a reverse of fortune, was compelled 
to recall him to Ireland. Luckily for him, as he 
stood weeping with the letter in his hand, Count 
Bentinck, a colonel in the army, who was riding 
by, learning the cause of his grief, wrote to his 
father offering to take the boy under his protection. 
Ashe accompanied his patron to Minorca, where, 
the love for music which he had already shown 
at school continuing, he received instruction on 
the violin. He next went with the Count through 
Spain, Portugal, France, and Germany, and lastly 
to Holland, where such an education as would 
qualify him to become his benefactor's confidential 
agent in the management of his estates, was 
provided for him. But Ashe's mind was too 
strongly attracted towards music to suffer bim 
to attend to anything else, and the Count per- 
ceiving it permitted him to follow the bent of his 
inclination. He acquired a general knowledge 
of several wind-instruments, but evinced the 
most decided predilection for the flute, the study 
of which he pursued so assiduously that in the 
couse of a few years he became the admiration 
of Holland. Quitting the roof of Count Bentinck 
he engaged himself as chamber musician at 
Brussels, first to Lord Torrington, and next to 
Lord Dillon. About 1778 ^^ obtained the post 
of principal flute at the opera-house of Brussels. 
About 1782 he returned to L-eland, where he 
was engaged at the concerts given at the Rotunda, 
Dublin. In 1791 Salomon engaged him for the 
concerts given by him in Hanover Square, at 
which Haydn was to produce his grand symphonies, 
and he made his appearance at the second concert, 
on February 24, 1792, when he played a concerto 
of his own composition -with, decided success. He 
soon became engaged at most of the leading 
concerts, and on the resignation of Monzani was 
appointed principal flute at the Italian opera. 
In 1799 he married Miss Comer, a pupil of 
Kauzzini, who, as Mrs. Ashe, was for many years 
the principal singer at the Bath concerts, the 
direction of which after the death of Eauzzini 
in 1 8 10, was confided to Ashe. After conduct- 
ing these concerts with considerable ability for 
twelve years. Ashe relinquished the direction 
in 1822, having during the last four years of 
his management been a considerable loser by 
them. Mrs. Ashe first appeared at the Concert 
of Ancient Music in 1807 and also sung in the 
oratorios. Two of Ashe's daughters, one a harpist 
and the other a pianist, performed in London 
in 1821. [W. H. H.] 

ASHLEY, John, a performer on the bassoon 
at the end of the last century. In 1 784 he was 
assistant conductor, under Joah Bates, at the 
commemoration of Handel ia Westminster Ab- 
bey, where his name also appears as playing the 
double bassoon, employed to strengthen the bass 
of the choruses. In 1795 he undertook the di- 
rection of the Lent ' oratorios ' at Covent Garden. 
These performances, which took place on the 
Wednesdays and Fridays in Lent, were originated 
by Handel, under whose direction, and after- 
wards that of Smith and Arnold, they were cor- 


rectly designated — that is, they consisted of ai 
entire oratorio or musical drama. Under Ash 
ley's management this character was lost, an 
the performances (with few exceptions) wer 
made up of selections, including every class c 
music, sacred and secular, 'in most admire 
disorder.' It was at these oratorios that Brahai 
obtained celebrity by his fine rendering c 
sacred music. For many years Ashley an 
his four sons visited different parts of Englanr 
giving what they called 'Grand Musical Festivals 
The father and sons performed themselves, an 
with some popular singer, and a little provinci: 
help, they contrived to interest the public, an 
to fill their own pockets. On the death of D 
Boyce, Ashley bought the plates of his ' Cathi 
dral Music,' and the second edition (1788) beai 
his name as the publisher. 

Ashley, General, his eldest son, was a pup 
of Giardini and Barthelemon, and a fair perfoniii 
on the violin, of which instrument he was cw 
sidered an excellent judge. He was scarce! 
known out of his father's orchestra. He died i 
1 81 8. Ashley, Charles Jane, bom in 177 
was a performer of considerable excellence on tl 
violoncello. In conjunction with his brother, 'tl 
General' (as he was always called), he carrii 
on the oratorios after his father's death. I: 
had great reputation as an accompanyist, ai 
was considered second only to Lindley. He w 
one of the founders of the Glee Club in 179 
an original member of the Philharmonic Societ 
and for some years Secretary to the Royal Socie 
of Musicians. Nearly twenty years of his li 
were passed in the rules of the King's Ben^ 
Prison. In the latter part of his career (wh. 
nearly 70), he became the proprietor of the Tivi 
Gardens, Margate, the anxieties of which undt 
taking hastened his death, which occurred 
Aug. 20, 1843. 

Ashley, John James, was a pupil of Johai 
Schroeter, and a good organ and pianoforte playi 
He is remembered as an excellent singing-mast. 
numbering among his pupils Mrs. Vaughan, M 
Salmon, Master Elliot (afterwards the glee coi 
poser), Charles Smith, etc. 

Ashley, Richard, was a viola perform' 
connected with the principal orchestras in Lond 
and the provinces. Nothing is known of i 
career. (Bumey, Comm. of Handel ; M 
Periodicals; Biog. Diet. U. K S.) [E. F. 1 

ASHLEY, John, known as ' Ashley of Bat 
was, for upwards of half a century, a perfom 
on the bassoon, and a vocalist in his native ci 
He is chiefly remembered as the writer a 
composer of a large number of songs and baUj 
(between the years 1780 and 1830), many 
which acquired considerable popularity. He 
also deserving of notice as the author of t 
ingenious pamphlets in answer to Mr. Richj 
Clark's work on the origin of our Natioi 
Anthem: — 'Reminiscences and Observations 
specting the Origin of God save the King,' 182 
'A Letter to the Rev. W. L. Bowles, supf 
mentary to th« Observations, etc' 1828, b( 
pubUshed at Bath. [E. F. ] 




ASHWELL, Thomas, a cathedral musician 
the middle of the i6th century, who adhered 
he Romish faith, and some of whose motets 
I remain amongst the MSS. in the Music 
col at Oxford. [W. H. H.] 

iSIOLI, Bonifacio, bom at Correggio, 
•il 30, 1769; began to study at five years 
age. Before eight he had written several 
ises, and a concerto for pianoforte. At ten 
vent to study at Parma under Morigi. After 
lurney to Venice, where he enjoyed his first 
Uc success, he was made maestro di capella 
lis native town. By eighteen he had com- 
,d five masses, twenty-four pieces for the 
•ch and the theatre, and a number of 
,mmental pieces. In 1787 he changed his 
lence to Turin, where he remained nine 
s, composing five cantatas and instrumental 
ic. In 1796 he accompanied the Duchess 
rardini to Venice, and remained there till 
), when he removed to Milan, and in 18 10 
aris. There he continued in the service of 
empress Marie Louise tiU July 181 3. On 
all of the empire Asioli returned to Cor- 
io, and died there May 26, 1832. Besides his 
wsitions he published a ' Trattato d'armonia 
wcompagnamento ; ' a book of dialogues on 
ame ; ' Osservazioni sul temperamento, etc. ; 

Disinganno' on the same. His principal 

is ' II Maestro di composizione.' All these 
are written with accuracy and a clear and 
ant style. AsioU's biography was written 

loli, a priest of Correggio, under the title 

Vita di B. Asioli,' etc. (Milan : Ricordi, 

[F. G.] 

OLA, or ASULA, Giovanni Matteo, born 

ifona in the latter half of the 1 6th century ; 

and composerof church music andmadrigals. 

vas one of the first to use figured basses. 

92 he joined other composers in dedicating 

ection of Psalms to Palestrina. 

PULL, George, born in 18 14, at a very 
age manifested an extraordinary capacity 
pianoforte player. At eight years of age, 
thstanding that the smallness of his hands 
uch that he could not reach an octave, so as 
ss down the two keys simultaneously with- 
•eat difficulty, and then only with the right 

he had attained such proficiency as to be 
o perform the most difficult compositions of 
jrenner, Moscheles, Hummel, and Czerny, 
8 the concertos of Handel, and the fugues 
ch and Scarlatti, in a manner almost ap- 
ling the excellence of the best professors. 
.80 sang with considerable taste. As he 
jlder, his improvement was such as to lead 

expectation that he would eventually take 
» amongst the most distinguished pianists. 

hopes were, however, disappointed, by his 

from a pulmonary disease, at the age of 
en. He died Aug. 20, 1832, at Leam- 
, and was buried two days afterwards at 
igham. AspuU left several manuscript 
sitions for the pianoforte, which were sub- 
itly published, with bis portrait prefixed, 

under the title of 'George Aspull's posthumous 
Works for the Pianoforte.' [W. H. H.] 

ASSAI (Ital.), 'Very'; e.g. 'Allegro assai,' 
very fast ; 'Animato assai,' with great animation; 
' Maestoso assai,' with much majesty, etc. 

ASSMAYER, Ignaz, bom at Salzburg, Feb. 
II, 1790 : in 1808 organist of St. Peter's in that 
city, where he vprote his oratorio ' Die Siindfluth' 
(the Deluge), and his cantata ' Worte der Weihe.' 
In 1815 he removed to Vienna ; in 1824 became 
organist to the Scotch church ; in 1825 Imperial 
organist; in 1838 vice, and in 1846 chief, Kapell- 
meister to the court. He died Aug. 31, 1862. 
His principal oratorios — 'Das Geliibde' (the 
Vow) ; ' Saul und David,' and * Saul's Tod ' — 
were frequently performed by the ' Tonkiinstler- 
Societat,' of which Assmayer was conductor for 
fifteen years. Besides these larger works he 
composed fifteen masses, two requiems, a Te 
Deum, and various smaller church pieces, as well 
as nearly sixty secular compositions. These last 
are all published. His music is con-ect and fluent, 
but wanting in invention and force, [C. F. P.] 

ASTON, Hugh, was an organist and church 
composer in the time of Henry VIII. A 'Te 
Deum' for five voices and a motet for six voices 
composed by him are preserved in the Music 
School at Oxford. [W. H. H.] 

ASTORGA, Emandele Baron d', bom at 
Palermo in 168 1 (Fetis pretends to give the day of 
his birth). He began the serious business of life 
by witnessing the execution of his father, the 
Marchese Capece da RoSrano, who was captain 
of a mercenary troop, and perished on the scaf- 
fold along with several Sicilian nobles after an 
unsuccessful emeute against the power of Spain. 
In the agony of this tenible occasion his mother 
actually died, and the child himself fainted away. 
After a time the orphan attracted the notice of 
the Princess Ursini, maid of honour to the wife 
of Philip V, who placed him in the convent of 
Astorga in Spain. In this asylum it was that 
he completed the musical education which there 
is reason to believe he had commenced imder 
Francesco Scarlatti at Palermo. He quitted it 
after a few years, and on his entrance into the 
world obtained, through the influence of his pa- 
troness, the title of Baron d' Astorga. In 1704 
he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the court 
of Parma. There he soon became a favourite for 
his music's sake and for his personal gifts, for he 
was a handsome man, composed with ease and 
ability, and sang with extraordinary finish and 
feeling his own graceful and original melodies. 
It is not otherwise than consonant with a charac- 
ter of which we have only slight though sug- 
gestive glimpses, to hear that on the termination 
of his mission he still lingered at the court of 
Parma, forgetful of his Spanish ties, and fettered 
by a secret love affair with his pupil Elisabetta 
Farnese, the niece of the reigning duke. Nor is 
it surprising that his entertainer should soon 
have found means to transfer so dangerous an 
ornament of his palace to some distant capital. 
Accordingly we find Astorga dismissed, early in 




1705, witli a letter of recommendation to Leo- 
pold I at Vienna. The emperor yielded at once 
to the fascinations of his visitor, and would have 
attached him to his person had not his own 
death too rapidly interrupted his intentions. 
Astorga remained in or returned to Vienna 
during the reigns of Joseph I and Charles VI, 
and for many years led a romantic life of travel 
and adventure, in the course of which he visited 
and revisited Spain, Portugal, England, and Italy, 
reconcLling himself on his way to the neglected 
protectress of bis boyhood. In 171 2 he was in 
Vienna, and acted as godfather to the daughter 
of his friend Caldara, whose register (May 9) 
may stiU be seen at S. Stephen's. In 1720 he 
reappeared there for a short time, and thence he 
finally retired to Bohemia, where he died, Au- 
gust 21, 1736, not however, as usually stated, 
in a monastery, but in the Schloss Kaudnitz, 
which had been given up to him by its owner, the 
prince of Lobkowitz, and the archives of which 
contain evidence of the fact. This circumstance 
has only very recently been brought to light. 

Among Astorga's compositions are his re- 
nowned 'Stabat Mater,' for 4 voices and or- 
chestra, probably composed for the 'Society of 
Antient Musick' of London, and executed at 
Oxford in 1 71 3, MS. copies of the score of which 
are to be found in the British Museum and the 
imperial libraries of Berlin and Vienna ; and a 
pastoral opera 'Dafni' (not 'Dafne'), composed 
and performed at Barcelona in Jime 1 709, and 
probably last heard at Breslau in 1726, and to 
be found in the Hofbibliothek at Vienna in the 
Kiesewetter collection. A requiem is also men- 
tioned as possibly lying in the castle where he 
ended his days. His name is also known by his 
beautiful cantatas, of which a great number are 
extant. The Abb6 Santini had no less than 98 
of these, 54 for soprano and 44 for contralto, with 
accompaniment for figured bass on the harpsi- 
chord, besides ten composed as duets for the 
same two voices. Of the Stabat Mater Haupt- 
mann (no indulgent critic) writes (' Briefe,'_ u. 
51), 'It is a lovely thing, ... a much more im- 
portant work than Pergolesi's, and contains a 
trio, a duet, and an air, which are real master- 
pieces, wanting in nothing ; neither old nor new, 
but music for all times, such as is too seldom to 
be met with.' The work is pubUshed (with 
pianoforte accompaniment) in the Peters Collec- 
tion, and has been recently re-instrumented by 
Franz and issued by Leuckhart. [C. F. P.] 

A TEMPO (Ital.). 'In time.' When the 
time of a piece has been changed, either tempo- 
rarily by an ad libitum, a jnacere, etc., or for 
a longer period by a piil lento, piv. allegro, or 
some similar term, the indication a tempo shows 
that the rate of speed is again to be that of the 
commencement of the movement. 

ATHALIA. The third of Handel's oratorios ; 
composed next after ' Deborah.' Words by Hum- 
phreys. The score was completed on June 7, 
1733. First performed at Oxford July 10, I733- 
B«vived by Saca:ed Harmonic Society June 20, 


ATHALIE. Mendelssohn composed overture 
march, and six vocal pieces (Op. 74) to Eacine'i ^ 
drama. In the spring of 1 843 the choruses alomff, 
(female voices), with pianoforte. In May or Jun. 
1844, the overture and march. Early in 184, 
choruses re-written and scored for orchestra ^_ 
First performed at Berlin, Dec. i, 1845 ; in Eng 
land, Windsor Castle, Jan. i, 1847 ; Philhai ^ 
monic, March 12, 1849. j^ 

ATTACCA, i.e. 'begin' (Ital.), when place f> 
at the end of a movement— as the Scherzo < i 
Beethoven's C minor Symphony, or aU thethre i. 
first movements of Mendelssohn's Scotch ditto- 
signifies that no pause is to be made, but that tb t 
next movement is to be attacked at once. U 

ATTACK. A technical expression for d. ^ 
cision and spirit in beginning a phrase < ^ 
passacre. An orchestra or performer is said to t 
'wanting in attack' when there is no firmne ' 
and precision in their style of taking up ti 
points of the music. This applies especially 
quick tempo. It is equivalent to the coup d archt ^ 
once so much exaggerated in the Paaris ^ 
chestras, and of which Mozart makes such gan ^ 
(Letter, June 12, 1778). _ . c ^ 

The chef d'attaque in France is a sort ot su 
conductor who marks the moment of entry f 
tbe chorus. ^j 


Pierre, a music printer of Paris m the 16 

century, said to have been the first in Fran 

to adopt moveable types ('caracteres mobiles 

for music. The engraver of his types was Piei 

Hantin. Between the years 1527 and 1536 

printed nineteen books containing motetts 

various masters, French and foreign. Ma 

of these composers would be entirely unknot 

but for their presence in these volumes. Amo 

them we may cite Grosse, N. Gombert, Claud 

Hesdin, Consilium, Certon, Eousee, Mout. 

Hottinet, Momable, Le Eoy, Manchicourt, 

Heurteur, Vermont, Eichefort, Lasson, L henti 

Lebrun, Wyllart, Feuin, L' enfant, Montu^ Vct 

lot G Louvet, Devitis, Jacquet, Delata 

Lono'ueval, Gascogne, Briant, and Passere 

The" coUection is thus historicaUy most ; 

portant, and it is also of extreme rar 

Attaignant was still printing in 1543,, wli 

date appears on a 'Livre de dancenea 

Consilium. He was however dead m 15 

since some compositions of Gervais prmted 

his press in that year are said to be editol 

his widow. L 

ATTEEBUEY, Ltjffman, one of the musici 
in ordinary to George III, and the compose, 
numerous catches and glees. Between 1 7 7» 
1780 he obtained from the Catch Club prizes 
three glees and two catches. He also comp( 
an oratorio called 'Goliah,' which was perform 
for the first time at the Haymarket Theatrt 
Wednesday, May 6. i773. being announcec 
' for that night only.' It was agam performe 
West Wycombe church on August 13, i77£ 
the occasion of the singular ceremony of deposi 


le heart of Paul Whitehead, the politician and 
i! jrsifier, inclosed in a marble um, as directed by 
is will, in the mausoleum there of his patron, 
ord Le Despencer. About 1790 Atterbury 
ublished ' A Collection of Twelve Glees, Rounds,' 
jc. Eleven glees and nineteen catches by him 
■e included in Warren's collections. His glee, 
i 2ome, let us all a - Maying go,' still retains its 
opularity. He died in Marsham Street, West- 
linster, June 11, 1796. He is said to have 
: )mbined with the profession of music the trade 
f a builder. [W. H. H.] 

I ATTEY, John, a composer of part-songs, 
1 'ho flourished in the first quarter of the 1 7th 
l^ntury. He appears to have been patronised 
y the Earl and Countess of Bridgewater, to 
■bom he dedicates his ' First Booke of Ayres of 
'cure Parts, with Tableture for the Lute,' in 
622. On the title-page of this work he calls 
imself ' Gentleman and Practitioner of Musicke.' 
t contains fourteen songs in four parts, which 
»ay be sung as part-songs or as solos by a 
jprano voice, accompanied by the lute, or the 
ite and bass-viol. As no second collection ap- 
eared, it is probable that the composer did not 
leet with sufficient encouragement in all cases, 
lie madrigalian period was rapidly declining. 
Rimbault, Bihl. Madrig.) [E. F. E.] 

ATTWOOD, THOMA.S, the son of a trumpeter, 
iola -player, and coal-merchant, was bom in 1 767. 
i.t nine years of age he became a chorister in the 
Ihapel Eoyal, where he had for his masters suc- 
essively Dr. Nares and Dr. Ayrton, and where 
e remained about five years. In his sixteenth 
ear, performing in a concert at Buckingham 
louse, he attracted the attention of the Prince 
f Wales (afterwards George IV), who sent him 
a Italy to study. In 1783 he went to Naples, 
rhere he remained for two years under the 
uition of Filippo Cinque and Gaetano Latilla. 
''rom Naples he went to Vienna, and studied 
jider Mozart — who expressed a highly favour- 
ble opinion of his talent (Kelly's Eeminiscences, 
. 225) — until February, 1787, when he returned 
England. He became organist of St. George 
he Martyr, Queen Square, and a member of the 
*rince of Wales's chamber band. He was ap- 
'ointed musical instructor to the Duchess of 
fork in 1791, and to the Princess of Wales in 
795. In the latter year, on the decease of John 
ones, organist of St. Paul's Cathedral, Attwood 
•ecame his successor; and in June, 1796^ on the 
leath of Dr. Dupuis, he was appointed Composer 
o the Chapel EoyaL In 182 1 he was nominated 
rganistof GeorgelV's private chapel at Brighton. 
Vttwood was one of the original members of the 
■*hilharmonic Society on its establishment in 1 8 1 3, 
.nd for some years occasionally conducted its 
oncertfi. In 1836, on the decease of John Stafford 
Imith, he succeeded him as organist of the Chapel 
loyal. Attwood died at his residence in Cheyne 
iValk, Chelsea, on Majch 28, 1838. He was 
mried in St. Paul's Cathedral, under the organ. 
in the early part of his life Attwood was much 
aigaged in dramatic composition, in which he 
vas very successful. 



The pieces set by him were — ^The Prisoner, 
1792; The Mariners, 1793; Caernarvon Castle, 
1793; The Adopted Child, 1795; The Poor 
Sailor, 1 795 ; The Smugglers, 1 796 ; The Mouth 
of the Nile, 1798 ; The Devil of a Lover, 1798 ; 
A Day at Eome, 1 798 ; The Castle of Sorrento, 
1 799 ; The Eed Cross Knights, 1 799 ; The Old 
Ciothesman, 1 799 ; The Magic Oak, 1799 ! Tru^ 
Friends, 1800 ; The Dominion of Fancy, 1800 ; 
The Escapes, or. The Water Carrier (partly 
selected from Cherubini's 'Les Deux Joum^es,' 
and partly original), 1801 ; H Bondocani, 1801; 
St. David's Day, 1801 ; and. The Curfew, 1807. 
He also contributed two songs to 'G^y Man- 
nering,' 1816. 

Later in life Attwood devoted his attention 
more to cathedral music. A volume of his 
church compositions, containing four services, 
eight anthems, and nine chants, was published 
about fifteen years after his death, under the 
editorship of his godson. Dr. Thomas Attwood 
Walmisley. Besides these compositions Attwood 
produced two anthems with orchestral accom- 
paniments ; one, ' I was glad ' (a remarkably fine 
composition), for the coronation of George IV, 
and the other, ' Lord, grant the King a long 
life,' for that of William IV; and he had com- 
menced a third, intended for the coronation of 
Queen Victoria, when his career was closed by 
death. He also, following the example of Mat- 
thew Lock, composed a ' Kjrrie eleison,' with 
different music for each repetition of the words. 
Attwood produced many sonatas and lessons for 
the pianoforte, and numerous songs and glees. 
Of his songs, ' The Soldier's Dream ' long main- 
tained its popularity; and of his glees, 'In peace 
Love tunes the shepherd's reed,' and ' To all that 
breathe the air of Heaven,' are still well known 
to all admirers of that species of music. Att- 
wood' s compositions are distinguished by purity 
and taste as well as by force and expression. 

It is interesting to notice that Attwood, a 
favourite pupU' of Mozart, was one of the first 
among English musicians to recognise the genius 
of the young Mendelssohn. A friendship sprang 
up between the two composers which was only 
broken by the death of the elder. Thus the 
talented Englishman appears aa a connecting 
link between the two gifted Germans. Several 
of Mendelssohn's published letters were written 
from Attwood's villa at Norwood, his three 
Preludes and Fugues for the organ are dedicated 
to him, and the autograph of a Kyrie eleison in 
A minor is inscribed ' For Mr. Attwood ; Berlin, 
24 March, 1833.' [W. H. H.] 

AUBADE. A French term (from auhe, the 
dawn), answering to nocturne or serenade. It 
was originally applied to music performed in the 
morning, and apparently to concerted music 
(Littr^) ; but is now almost confined to music for 
the piano, and an Aubade has iro distinct form 
or character of its own. Stephen Heller and 
Schulhoff have written pieces bearing this title. 

AUBER, Daniel-Fkan(;oi8-Esprit, was bom 
January 29, 17S4 (according to Fetis, 1782), at 
Caen, where his parents were on a visit. The 



family, although of Norman origin, had been 
settled in Paris for two generations, and that me- 
tropolis was always considered as his home by our 
composer. In his riper years he hardly ever left 
it for a single day, and not even the dangers of 
the Prussian siege could induce the then more 
than octogenarian to desert his beloved city. Al- 
though destined by his father for a commercial 
career, young Auber began to evince his talent for 
music at a very early period. At the age of eleven 
he wrote a number of ballads and 'Romances,' 
much en vogue amongst the elegant ladies of 
the Directoire ; one of them called 'Bonjour' is 
said to have been very popular at the time. A 
few years later we find Auber in London, nomi- 
nally as commercial clerk, but in reality more 
than ever devoted to his art. Here also his vocal 
compositions are said to have met with 
great success in fashionable drawing-rooms ; his 
personal timidity however — a feature of his 
character which remained to him during his 
whole life — prevented the young artist from 
reaping the full benefit of his precocious gifts. 
In consequence of the breach of the Treaty of 
Amiens (1804) Auber had to leave England, 
and on his return to Paris we hear nothing more 
of his commercial pursuits. Music had now 
engrossed all his thoughts and faculties. His 
debut as an instrumental composer was ac- 
companied by somewhat peculiar circumstances. 
Auber had become acquainted vsdth Lamarre, a 
violonceUoplayer of considerable reputation ; and 
to suit the peculiar style of his friend, our com- 
poser wrote several concertos for his instrument, 
which originally appeared under Lamarre's name, 
but the real authorship of which soon transpired. 
The reputation thus acquired Auber increased 
by a violin-concerto vso-itten for and first played 
by Mazas at the Conservatoire with signal 
success ; it has since been introduced here by 
M. Sainton. His first attempt at dramatic com- 
position was of a very modest kind. It consisted 
in the re-setting of an old opera-libretto called 
'Julie' for a society of amateurs (in 181 1 or 12). 
The orchestra was composed of two violins, two 
violas, violoncello, and double-bass. The re- 
ception of the piece was favourable. Cherubini, 
the ruler of the operatic stage at that time, was 
amongst the audience, and recognising at once 
the powerful though untrained genius of the 
young composer, he ofiered to superintend his 
further studies. To the instruction of this 
great composer Auber owed his mastery over the 
technical difficulties of his art. As his next 
work, we mention a mass written for the private 
chapel of the Prince de Chimay, from which the 
beautiful a capella prayer in 'Masaniello' is 
taken. His first opera publicly performed was 'Le 
Sejour militaire,' and was played in 1S13 at the 
Theatre Feydeau. Its reception was anything 
but favourable, and so discouraged was the 
youthful composer by this unexpected failure that 
for six years he refrained from repeating the 
attempt. His second opera, 'Le Testament, ou 
lea Billets-doux,' brought out at the Opera 
Comique in 1819, proved again imsuccessful, but 


Auber was now too certain of his vocation to I 
silenced by a momentary disappointment. H 
immediately set to work again, and his nej 
opera, 'La Bergere chatelaine,' first performs 
in the following year, to a great extent realise 
his bold expectations of ultimate success. Tl 
climax and duration of this success were, to 
great extent, founded on Auber's friendship an 
artistic alliance with Scribe, one of the mot 
fertile playwrights and the most skilful libretti) 
of modem times. To this union, which laste 
unbroken tiU Scribe's death, a great number < 
both comic and serious operas owe their existeno 
not all equal in value and beauty, but all evinciii 
in various degrees the inexhaustible producti's 
power of their joint authors. Our space wUl n( 
allow us to insert a complete list of Auber 
numerous dramatic productions ; we must lim 
ourselves to mentioning those amongst his wori 
which by their intrinsic value or external grace 
execution have excited the particular admirj 
tion of contemporary audiences, or on whic 
their author's claim to immortality seems chiefl 
to rest. We name 'Leicester,' 1822 (being tb 
first of Auber's operas with a libretto by Scribe) 
'Le Magon,' 1825 (Auber's chef-d'oeuvre 
comic opera); 'La Muette de Portici' (Masan 
ello) 1828; Tra Diavolo,' 1830; 'Lestocq 
1835; 'Le Cheval de Bronze, 1835; 'L'An 
bassadrice,' 1836; 'Le Domino noir,' 1837 
'Les Diamans de la couronne,' 1841 ; 'Carl 
Broschi,' 1842 ; 'Haydee,' 1847; 'L'Enfant prt 
digue,' 1850; ' Zerline,' 1851 (written fc 
Madame Alboni) ; 'Manon Lescaut,' 1856 
'La fiancee du Roi des Garbes,' 1867; 'L 
premier jour de bonheur,' 1868 ; and 'Le IWv 
d' amour,' first performed in December i86c 
the Opera Comique. 

Auber's position in the history of his art ma 
be defined as that of the last great representativ 
of opera comique, a phase of dramatic music i 
which more than in any other the pecuUaritit 
of the French character have found their fa 
expression. In such works as 'Le Ma9on' c 
'Les Diamans de la couronne,' Auber ha 
rendered the chevaleresque grace, the vervi 
and amorous sweetness of French feeling in 
manner both charming and essentially nationa 
It is here that he proves himself to be tb 
legitimate follower of Boieldieu and the moi 
than equal of Herold and Adam. With thef 
masters Auber shares the charm of melod 
founded on the simple grace of the popuk 
chanson, the piquancy of rhythm and the cai 
bestowed upon the distinct enunciation of tb 
words characteristic of the French school. lik 
them also he is unable or perhaps unwilling t 
divest his music of the peculiarities of his ow 
national type. We have on purpose cited tb 
' Diamans de la couronne ' as evincing the chan 
of French feeling, although the scene of ths 
opera is laid in Portugal. Like George Brow 
and the 'tribu dAvenel' in Boieldieu's 'Dam 
Blanche,' Auber's Portuguese are in realit 
Frenchmen in disguise ; a disguise put on nior 
for the sake of pretty show than of actm 


eception. We here recognise again that 
malgamatisg force of French culture to which 
11 civilised nations have to some extent sub- 
litted. But 80 great is the charm of the natural 
race and true gaiete de cceur with which 
Luber endows his creations that somehow we 
)rget the incongruity of the mongrel type. In 
amparing Auber's individual merits with those 
f other masters of his school, of Boieldieu for 
istance, we should say that he surpasses them 
11 in brilliancy of orchestral effects. He is, 
a the other hand, decidedly inferior to the 
ist-mentioned composer as regards the structure 
f his concerted pieces. Auber here seems to 
vck that firm grasp which enables the musician, 
y a distinct grouping of individual components, 
> blend into a harmonious whole what seems 
lost contradictory, yet without losing hold of 
ae single parts of the organism. His ensembles 
re therefore frequently slight in construction ; 
is style indeed may be designated as essentially 
omophonous ; but he is (perhaps for the same 
sasou) a master in the art of delineating a 
haracter by touches of subtlest refinement. 
Amongst his serious operas it is particularly one 
rork which perhaps more than any other has con- 
-ibuted to its author's European reputation, but 
'hich at the same time difiers so entirely from 
Luber's usual style, that without the most 
idubitable proofs one would hardly believe it 
) be vmtten by the graceful and melodious but 
nything but passionately grand composer of 
Le Dieu et la Bajadere 'or ' Le Cheval de 
Ironze.' We are speaking of 'La Muette de 
'ortici,' in this country commonly called, after its 
bief hero, ' MasanieUo.' In it the most violent 
assions of excited popular fury have their fullest 
ivay ; in it the heroic feelings of self-surrendering 
)ve and devotion are expressed in a manner 
oth grand and original ; in it even the traditional 
)rms of the opera seem to expand with the 
npetuous feeling embodied in them. Auber's style 
L MasanieUo is indeed as different as can be 
nagined from his usual elegant but somewhat 
igid mode of utterance, founded on Boieldieu 
ith a strong admixture of Rossini. Wagner, 
ho undoubtedly is a good judge in the matter, 
ad certainly free from undue partiality in the 
rench master's favour, acknowledges in this 
3era 'the bold effects in the instrumentation, 
irticularly in the treatment of the strings, the 
rastic grouping of the choral masses which here 
■r the first time take an important part in the 
;tion, no less than original harmonies and happy 
rokes of dramatic characterisation.' Various 
mjectures have been propounded to account for 
us singular and never- again-attained flight of 
ispiration. It has been said for instance that 
le most stirring melodies of the opera are of 
jpular Neapolitan origin, but this has been 
intradicted emphatically by the composer himself, 
he solution of the enigma seems to us to lie in 
le thoroughly revolutionised feeling of the time 
;8a8), which two years afterwards was to explode 
le established governments of France and other 
tontries. This opera was indeed destined to 



become historically connected with the popular 
movement of that eventful period. It is well 
known that the riots in Brussels began after a 
performance of the 'Muette de Portici' (August 
25, 1830), which drove the Dutch out of the 
country, and thus in a manner acted the part of 
' Lilliburlero.' There is a sad significance in the 
fact that the death (May 13, 1871) of the author 
of this revolutionary inspiration was surrounded 
and indeed partly caused by the terrors of the 
Paris commune. 

About Auber's life little remains to be added. 
He received marks of highest distinction from his 
own and foreign sovereigns. Louis Philippe made 
him Director of the Conservatoire, and Napoleon 
III added the dignity of Imperial Maitre-de- 
ChapeUe. He however never acted as conductor, 
perhaps owing to the timidity already alluded to. 
Indeed he never was present at the performance 
of his own works. When questioned about this 
extraordinary circumstance, he is said to have 
returned the characteristic answer, ' Si j'assistaia 
k un de mes ouvrages, je n'ecrirais de ma vie ime 
note de musique.' His habits were gentle and 
benevolent, slightly tinged with epicureanism. 
He was a thorough Parisian, and the bonmots 
related of him are legion, [F. H.] 

AUBERT, Jacques ('le vieux'), an eminent 
French violinist and composer, bom towards the 
end of the 1 7th century. He was violinist in the 
royal band, the orchestra of the Opera, and the 
Concerts Spirituels. In 1 748 he was nominated 
leader of the band and director of the Due de 
Bourbon's private music. He died at Belleville 
near Paris in 1753. 

The catalogue of his published compositions 
contains five books of violin sonatas with a bass ; 
twelve suites en trio ; two books of concertos for 
four violins, cello and bass ; many airs and 
minuets for two violins and bass ; an opera and 
a ballet. All these works are of good, correct 
workmanship, and some movements of the sonatas 
are certainly not devoid of earnest musical 
feeling and character. 

His son Louis, bom in 1720, was also violinist 
at the Opera and the Concert Spirituel, and 
published a number of violin compositions and 
some ballets, which however are very inferior 
to his father's works. He retired fi«m public 
activity in 1771. [P. D.] 

AUBERT, PiERKE Francois Olivhr, vio- 
loncellist, bom at Amiens in 1763, for twenty- 
five years member of the orchestra of the Opera 
Comique at Paris. His chief merit is having 
published two good instruction books for the 
violoncello at a time when a work of that kind 
was much needed. He wrote also string quar- 
tets, sonatas and duets for violoncello, and a 
pamphlet entitled 'Histoire abreg^e de la musique 
ancienne et modeme.' [T. P. H.] 

AUER, Leopold, bom May 28, 1845, at 
Veszprem in Hungary, an eminent violin -playeri 
was a pupil of Dont at the Vienna Conservatorio 
and afterwards of Joachim. From 1863 to 1865 
he was leader of the orchestra at Diisseldorf, 



from 1866 to 1867 at Hamburg, and since 1868 
he has lived at St. Petersburg as solo-violimst to 
the court, though frequently visiting London. 

Auer has all the qualities of a great violinist — 
fullness of tone, perfect mastery over all techni- 
cal diflBculties, and genuine musical feeling. His 
success in the principal towns of the contiaent, as 
well as in London, has been very great. [P. D.] 

AUGARTEN. The weU-known public garden 
on the Au, or meadow, between the Danube and 
the Donau-Canal, in the Leopoldstadt suburb of 
Vienna, interesting to the musician from its having 
been, like our own Vauxhall and Ranelagh, the 
place of performance — often first performance — 
of many a masterpiece. It was dedicated to the 
public by the Emperor Joseph II, and was opened 
on April 30, 1775. At first it appears to have 
been merely a wood ; then a garden — ' the 
Tuileries garden of Vienna' — but after a time 
a concert-room was bmlt, and in 1782 summer 
morning concerts were started by Martin, a 
well-known entrepreneur of the day, in associa- 
tion with Mozart, then at the height of his 
genius. Mozart mentions the project in a letter 
(May 18, 1782) to his father, and the first series 
of the concerts opened on the 26th of May, under 
brilliant patronage, attracted partly by the novelty 
of music so nearly in the open air, by the beauty 
of the spot, and by the excellence of the music 
announced. The enterprise changed hands re- 
peatedly, until, about the year i Soo, the concerts 
were directed by Schuppanzigh, the violin-player, 
of Beethoven notoriety. They did not however 
maintain their high character or their popularity, 
but had to suffer the inevitable fate of all similar 
institutions which aim over the heads of those 
whom they wish to attract. In 181 3 they were 
in the hands of the 'Hof-Traiteur' and Wranitzky 
the musician. By 1830 performers of eminence 
had ceased to appear, then the performances in 
the Augarten dwindled to one on the 1st May, a 
great annual festival with the Viennese ; and at 
length they ceased altogether in favour of other 
spots more fashionable or less remote, and the 
garden reverted to its original use as a mere place 
for walking and lounging. But its musical glories 
cannot be forgotten. Here Mozart was to be seen 
and heard in at least one series of concerts, at 
each of which some great symphony or concerto 
was doubtless heard for the first time ; and here 
Beethoven produced one (if not more) of his 
masterpieces — the Kreutzer sonata, which was 
played there (May 1803) by Bridgetower and 
himself, the two first movements being read from 
autograph and copy dashed down only just before 
the commencement of the concert. Besides this, 
his first five symphonies, his overtures, and three 
first pianoforte concertos were stock pieces in the 
programmes of the Augarten. The concerts took 
place on Thursday mornings, at the curiously 
early hour of half-past seven, and even seven. 
Mayseder, Czemy, Stein, Clement, Linke, Mos- 
cheles, and many other great artists were heard 
there. (The above information is obtained from 
Hanslick's ' Concert wesen in Wien,' and Eies's 
'Notizen.') [G.] 


AUGMENTATION. This term ia used to 
express the appearance of the subject of a fugue 
in notes of double the original value, e.g. 
crotchets for quavers, minims for crotchets, etc., 
and is thus the opposite to Diminution. Or it is 
a kind of imitation, or canon, where the same 
thing takes place. Dr. Benjamin Cooke's cele- 
brated canon by double augmentation (engraved 
on his tombstone) begias as follows, and is per- 
haps the best instance on record. 

^ ^^^^^m^^ ^rit^j i^t m 



• men, A 

^VK] ■ J.ig=M^^^F^^=J^ 

We subjoin by way of example one of a simpler 
kind by Cherubini. 





When introduced into the development of a 
fugue, augmentation often produces a great 
eflFect. As examples we may cite the latter 
part of Handel's chorus ' first created beam ' 
in 'Samson'; the concluding chorus of Dr. 
Hayes' anthem 'Great is the Lord'; Dr. Croft's 
fine chorus 'Cry aloud and shout'; Leo's 'Tu 
es Sacerdos' in F, in his 'Dixit Dominus' in A' ; 
and several of J. Sebastian Bach's fugues in his 
' Wohltemperirte Clavier.' The old Italian 
church composers were very fond of introducing 
augmentation, especially towards the end of a 
choral fugue, and in the bass. They would call 
it ' La fuga aggravata nel Basso.' Fine examples 
are found in ' Amens ' by Leo, Bonno, and Cafaro, 
in Novello's Fitzwilliam music. [F. A. G. 0.] 

which is extended by the addition of a semitone 
to its normal dimension. The following examples 
show the augmentations of intervals commonlj 
used : — 

■( g < p ggL 


Perfect Augmented fourth. Perfect Augmented 
fourth. ,or tritone. fifth. fifth. 



-J — iJ- 


Major Augmented, or extreme 
sirth. shAxp sixth. 





fVERKE, a collection of ancient and modem 
nusic in strict style, published with the counte- 
lance of the 'Konigliche Akademie der Kunste' 
)f Berlin in 1840 (,8vo. Trautwein). It con- 
Ains : — 



Fugue. • Tn Ber.' Graim. 
i. Do. ' Heine Zunge.' Fascb. 
a. Do. froin4tett.Finln. J.Haydn. 

4. Do. ' Balleluja.' Haodel. 

5. Do. ' Dl I'alimenta." Saumann. 
8. Do. for Org., G minor. Fr. Bach. 

7. Futrue, 'Auf, dass wir." C. K E. 

8. Do.'LobetseinenVamen."Fe«a. 

9. Do. for Piano, Bi7. Kiruberger. 
a Canon, Kyrie. Fui. 

1. Fig. Choral, Ich lasse. J. 6. 
(J. C.) Bach. 

2. Fugue for Piano in F. Clementi. 
Do. Gott ist ofieubaret. Keiser. 
Kvrie. Lotti. 

5. Fugue for Piano. D m. Marpurg. 
Du. 2 Choirs, 'Durch deuselbi- 

gen.' J. C. Bach. 
Christe. Graun. 

8. Fugue for Piano, A min. Tele- 

9. Do. ' Christe." Basse. 

>X Do. ' Quam dim,' M. Haydn. 

3. Do. for Piano In C. Mozart, 

2. Motet. 'Was betrubst.'H.Schiitz. 

3. Fig.Clioral.'EwigerLob.'Zelter. 
A. Fugue for Org. in C. Pachelbel. 
5. Kyrie. F. Schneider. 

S. Fugue, 'Lasst uns.' Spohr. 
Do. for «ett in C. Kelz. 

8. Motet (a 6) "Tu es Petrus.' Pa- 

9. Canou.'Sanctus' and ' Eosaima.' 

0. Fugue for Organ, In Bb. Faster- 


3. Benedictus, etc. SalierL 
2. Fugue, ' Tu ad deiteram.' 


33. Do. for Org., B (j. Albrechts- 


34. Motet, ' Hilf Herr." Homilius. 

35. F'ugue. ' Time imponent.' Jo- 


3fi. Do. for 4tett, A min. Gassmann. 

37. Do. ' Mai uon turbarsi.' Mar- 

3R. 'Ave Maria.' KJeln. 

39. Fugue, for 4tett in C. Henning. 

40. Do. 'Timeutibus.' Vierling. 

41. Do. ' Et in saecula.' Caldara. 

42. Do. for Organ (4 subj-). Fres- 


43. ' Eja mater.' Astorga. 

44. Fughetta,'Cum6ancto.' Keiss- 


45. Introd. and Fugue for Org. M. 

G. Fischer. 

46. Motet, ' d' immenso.' J. A. 


47. Fugue. 'Halleluja.' G.Harrer. 

48. Do. for Piano, in F. N.I.eBegue. 

Some copies have an Appendix : 
Aria, ' Ingemesco.' Durante. 
Do. Agnus. J. S. Bach. 
Duet. ' Occhi perche." StefiFani. 
' Salve Kegiua.' Pergolesi. 
' O my Irene ' (Theodora). Handel. 
Chorus and Air (Israeliten). C. P. 

E. Bach. 
Duet and Choms (Morgengesang) 

Solo and Chorus (Do.) Do. 
Aria, ' Pieta Signore.' Basse. 
Scena iDavidde pen.). Xaumann. 
Irio. 'Dominus. Leo. 
■ Gratias ' and 'Deus later." F. Feo. 

AUTHENTIC. Such of the ecclesiastical 
modes are called authentic as have their sounds 
joiuprised within an octave Irom the final, 
rhey are as follow, in order of the Gregorian 
system : — 

No. I Blode. Compass. Final. Dominant. 






Ionian or lastian 





E toE 


F toF 




A to A 




A mode, or tone, or scale, must be made up of 
the union of a perfect fifth (diapente) and a 
perfect fourth (diatessaron). In the authentic 
modes the fifth is below, and the fourth above. 
Thus in mode i fix)m D to A is a perfect fifth, 
and from A to the upper D, or final, a perfect 
fourth. In mode g, from A to E is a perfect 
fifth, and from E to the upper A, or final, a 
perfect fourth, and so on. 

In all these the fifths and fourths are perfect ; 
but no scale or mode could be made upon B in 
conformity with this theory, for from B to F is an 
imperfect fifth and from F to the upper B is a 
tritone or pluperfect fourth, both which intervals 
are forbidden in the ancient ecclesiastical melody. 
This may serve also to explain the irregularity of 
the dominant of the third mode. In all the other 
authentic modes the fifth note of the scale is the 
dominant ; but in the third mode, the fifth being 

B, and consequently bearing forbidden relations 
with F the fourth below it and F the fifth above 
it, B was not used, but C the sixth was sub- 
stituted for it as the dominant. It is to be borne 
in mind that melodic and not harmonic con- 
siderations lay at the foundation of all these 
rules, and that the 'dominant' then meant the 
prevailing or predominant sound in the melody of 
the tone or scale. The prefix hyper (or over) is 
often added to the name of any authentic mode 
in the sense of upper, to distinguish it from the 
corresponding plagal mode, to which the word 
hypo (under or lower) was prefixed. Thus while 
the authentic Dorian or hyperdorian scale ran 
from D to D, its plagal, the h}T)odorian, began 
on the A below and ran to its octave, the 
dominant of the authentic scale. 'Ein feste 
Burg' and * Eisenach' are examples of ' authentic' 
melodies, and the Old looth and Croft's 104th of 
'plagal' ones. [Gregorian Tones.] 

The meaning of the term ' authentic ' is 
variously stated. It is derived from the Greek 
verb aiiOevTeco, to rule, to assume authority over, 
as if the authentic modes ruled and had the 
superiority over their respective plagal modes. 
They are also called authentic as being the true 
modes promulgated by the authority of St. 
Ambrose ; or as authentically derived from the 
ancient Greek system; or as being formed (as 
above stated) of the perfect diapente (or fifth) in 
the lower, and of the perfect diatessaron (or fourth) 
in the upper part of their scales, which is the 
harmonic division, and more musically authorita- 
tive than the arithmetical division which has 
the fourth below and the fifth above. [T. H.] 

AUXCOUSTEAUX, Arthur d', bom in 
Picardy at Beauvais (Magnin) or St. Quentin 
(Gomaxt). His family coat of arms contains 
a pun on his name ; it is ' Azur a trois 
cousteaux, d' argent garnis d'or.' He was a 
singer in the church of Noyon, of which fact 
there is a record in the library of Amiens. 
Then he became ' Maistre de la Sainte Chapelle' 
at Paris, and, as appears from the preface to 
a psalter of Godeau's published by Pierre le 
petit, * haut centre ' in the chapel of Louis XIII. 
He died in 1656, the year of publication of the 
psalter just mentioned. He left many masses 
and chansons, all printed by Ballard of Paris. 
His style is remarkably in advance of his 
contemporaries, and Fctis believes him to have 
studied the Italian masters. [F. G.] 

AVERY, John. A celebrated organ-builder, 
who built a number of instruments, ranging 
between 1775 and 1808. Nothing whatever is 
known of his life : he died in i S08, while engaged 
in finishing the organ of Carlisle Cathedral. The 
organs he is recorded to have built, are — St. 
Stephen's, Col eman-street, 1775 ; Croydon Church, 
Surrey, 1 794 (destroyed by fire in 1 866) ; Win- 
chester Cathedral, 1799; Christ Church, Bath, 
1 800 ; St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, 1804; 
King's College Chapel, Cambridge, 1804 (some 
of the earlier work of Dallam's organ was, no 
doubt, incorporated in this instrument, but the 
case is the original one, erected by Chapman 



and Hartop in 1606) ; Sevenoaks Churcli, Kent, 
1798 ; Carlisle Cathedral, 1808. [E. F. E.] 

AVISON, Chakles, bom at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, in 1 710. When a young man he visited 
Italy for the purpose of study, and after his re- 
turn to England, became a pupil of Geminiani. 
On July 12, 1736, he was appointed organist of 
the church of St. Nicholas, in his native town. 
In addition to his musical attainments, he was a 
scholar, and a man of some literary acquirement. 
In 1752 he published the work by which he is 
best known, ' An Essay on Musical Expression.' 
It contains some judicious reflections on the art, 
but the division of the modem authors into classes 
is rather fanciful than just. Throughout the 
whole of this work we find the highest encomiums 
on Marcello and Geminiani, frequently to the 
disparagement of Handel. In the following 
year it was answered anonjrmously by Dr. W. 
Hayes, the Oxford professor, in a pamphlet en- 
titled ' Remarks on Mr. Avison's Essay on Mu- 
sical Expression,' Hayes points out many errors 
against the rules of composition in the works of 
Avison ; and infers from thence that his skill in 
the science was not very profound. He then 
proceeds to examine the book itself, and seldom 
fails to establish his point, and prove his adver- 
sary in the wrong. Before the conclusion of the 
same year, Avison re published his Essay, with 
a reply to these Remarks, in which he was 
assisted by the learned Dr. Jortin, who added 
'A Letter to the Author, concerning the Music of 
the Ancients.' In 1757 Avison joined John 
Garth, organist of Durham, in editing an edition 
of Marcello's Psalms, adapted to English words. 
He prefixed to the first volume a Life of Mar- 
cello, and some introductory remarks. 

As a composer, Avison is known, if at all, by 
Ms concertos. Of these he published five sets 
for a full band of stringed instruments, some 
quartets and trios, and two sets of sonatas for the 
harpsichord and two violins — a species of composi- 
tion little known in England until his time. The 
once favourite air, ' Sound the loud timbrel,' is 
found in one of the concertos. Geminiani held 
his pupil in high esteem, and in 1 760 paid him 
a visit at Newca.stle. He died in 1770, and 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Andrew 
there. He was succeeded as organist of St. 
Nicholas by his son and grandson. The former 
died in 1793 ; the latter in 1816. (Hawkins, 
Hist. ; Kippis, Biog. Brit. ; Erand, Newcastle, 
etc.) [E. F. R.] 

AVOGLIO, SiGNOEA, was one of those who 
accompanied Handel in his visit to Ireland, at 
the end of 1 741. In the newspapers of the time 
she is called 'an excellent singer,' and she had 
the honour of sharing vsdth Mrs. Gibber the 
soprano music of the Messiah at its iirst and 
succeeding performances in Dublin. Handel, 
in a letter to Jennens, Dec. 29, 1741, says, — 
'Sig™ Avolio, which I brought with me from 
London, pleases extraordinary.' She sang again 
in 'The Messiah,' when given in London, after 
Handel's return from Dublin, dividing the so- 
prano part with Mrs. Clive. Before this time, 


she had sung with success in the 'Allegro, Pen- 
seroso, and Moderato'; and she appeared subse- 
quently in 'Semele' and in 'Samson,' 1743. In 
this last she sang the famous 'Let the brio-ht 
Seraphim ' at the first performance of the oratorio 
Feb. 18. [J. M.] 

Italian opera by Balfe — his second — produced at 
Pavia in 1830 or 31, chiefly worth notice because 
of the fact that in it RoNCO^fi made his second 
public appearance. 

AYLWAED, Theodore, Mus. Doc., was born 
in or about 1 730. Of his early career but little 
information can be gleaned. We find him in 1 7 5 5 
composing for the church, and in 1759 for the 
theatre. In 1769 the Catch Club awarded hinj 
the prize medal for his serious glee, ' A cruel 
fate,' a surprising decision, as one of the com 
peting compositions was Ame's fine glee, ' Come 
shepherds we 11 follow the hearse.' On June 5, 
1 771, Aylward was appointed Professor of Music 
in Gresham College. In 1784 he was nominated 
one of the assistant directors of the Commemo 
ration of Handel. In 1788 he succeeded William 
Webb as organist and master of the choristers 
of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. On Nov. 19, 
1 791, he took the degree of Bachelor of Music 
at Oxford, and two days afterwards proceeded tc 
that of Doctor. He died Feb. 27, 1801, aged 70, 
Dr. Aylward published 'Six Lessons for the 
Organ, Op. i ' ; ' Elegies and Glees, Op. 2 ' 
' Six Songs in Harlequin's Invasion, Cymbeline 
Midsummer Night's Dream,' etc. ; and ' Eight 
Canzonets for two soprano voices.' Two glee= 
and a catch by him are included in Warren t 
collections. His church music, with the ex 
ception of two chants, remains in manuscript 
Dr. Aylward is said (on the authority of Bowles 
the poet) to have been a good scholar, and pos 
sessed of considerable literary attainments. Haj-- 
ley, the poet, inscribed some lines to his memor\- 
Dr. Aylward's great - great - nephew, Theodort 
Aylward, is now (1876) the organist of Llandaf! 
Cathedral. [W. H. H." 

AYETON, Edmund, Mus. Doc, was bom a1 
Ripon, in 1 734, and educated at the grammai 
school there. His father, a magistrate of the 
borough, intended him for the Church, but hit 
strong predilection for music induced his fathei 
to let him study for that profession. He wat 
accordingly placed under Dr. Nares, organist ol 
York Llinster, and made such rapid progress, 
that at an early age he was elected organist, 
auditor, and rector-chori of the collegiate church 
of Southwell, where he remained many years 
In 1764 he was appointed a gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal. He was shortly afterward; 
installed as a \'icar-choral of St. Paul's, anu 
afterwards became one of the lay-clerks oi 
Westminster Abbey. In 1780 he was promoted 
by Bishop Lowth to the office of Master ol 
the children of His Majesty's chapels, on the 
resignation of Dr. Nares. In 1784 the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge created him Doctor in 
Music, some time after which he was admitted 


ad eundem by the University of Oxford. The 
anthem by which he obtained his degree, ' Begin 
unto my God with timbrels,' was performed in 
St. Paul's Cathedral, July 28, 1784, the day of 
general thanksgiving for the termination of the 
American revolutionary war, and was afterwards 
published in score. In 1 805 he relinquished the 
mastership of the children of the chapel, ha\ing 
been allowed during many years to execute the 
duties of his other offices by deputy. He died 
in 1808, and his remains were deposited in the 
cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Dr. Ayrton'e 
contributions to the Church consist of two 
complete morning and evening services, and 
several anthems. {Mue. Periodicals ; Biog. Diet. 
U. K. S.) ■ [E. F. R.] 

AYRTOlSr, William, son of the preceding, was 
bom in London in 1777. He was educated 
both as a scholar and musician, and was thus 
qualified to write upon the art. He married a 
daughter of Dr. S. Arnold, which introduced him 
into musical society, and he became a fashionable 
teacher. Upon the death of Dr. Aylward, in 
I Sox, he was a candidate for the office of Gresham 
Professor of Music, but was unsuccessful, on 
account of his youth. In the palmy days of the 
'Morning Chronicle' Mr. Ayrton was its hono- 
rary musical and literary critic from 181 3 to 26 ; 
and he wrote the reviews of the Ancient Concerts 
and Philharmonic Society in the 'Examiner' 
from 1837 to 185 1, also gratizitously. He was 
a Fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, 
and an original member of the Athenaeum Club. 
He was one of the promoters and members of the 
Philharmonic Society at its foundation in 1813, 
and subsequently a director. More than once he 
held the important post of musical director of the 



King's Theatre, and in that capacity had the 
merit of first introducing Mozart's ' Don Gio- 
vanni ' to an English audience in 181 7, and 
afterwards others of Mozart's operas. According 
to a writer of the period he twice, if not oftener, 
regenerated that theatre, when its credit was 
weakened by repeated failures. In 1823 he 
commenced, in conjunction with ilr. Clowea 
the printer, the publication of the 'Harmoni- 
con,' a monthly musical periodical, which was 
continued for eleven yeara. Independently of 
the valuable essays, biography, and criticism in 
this work, it contains a choice selection of vocal 
and instrumental music. The writing of this 
journal and its criticisms upon the art were 
much in advance of anything that had previously 
appeared in England. This was followed in 
1834 by the 'Musical Library,' a collection of 
vocal and instrumental music, consisting of songs, 
duets, glees, and madrigals, and a selection of 
pianoforte pieces and adaptations for that in- 
strument, and extending to eight volumes. A 
supplement containing biographical and critical 
notices, theatrical news, etc., was issued monthly, 
making three extra volumes. He wrote the 
musical articles for the 'Penny Cyclopaedia' ; the 
chapters on music in Knight's ' Pictorial History 
of England'; and the musical explanations for 
the 'Pictorial Shakespeare.' His latest work 
was a well-chosen collection of ' Sacred Minstrel- 
sy,' published by J. W. Parker, in two vols. He 
died in 1858, {Imp. Did. of Biog. ; Private 
sources.) [E. F. R.] 

AZOR AND ZEMIRA, ok The Magio 
Rose, in three acts ; the English version of 
Spohr's opera Zemike und Azok, produced at 
Covent Garden Theatre, AprU 5th, 1831, 


BThe name of the seventh degree of the 
natural scale of C. In French and Italian 
it is called Si, and in German if {Ha), 
the name B being given to our Bb. The reason 
of this anomalous arrangement is explained in 
the article Accidentals. 

B is an important note in the history of the 
musical scale, since its addition to the hexachord 
of Guido, which contained only six notes, trans- 
formed the hexachord at once into the modern 
scale of seven sounds?, and obviated the necessity 
for the so-called mutations or changes of name 
which were required whenever the melody passed 
beyond the limits of the six notes forming a 
hexachord (see that word). The date of the 
first recognition of a seventh sound in addition 
to the six already belonging to the hexachord is 
uncertain, but Burmeister, writing in 1599, 
speaks of the additional note as nota adventitia, 
from which it would appear that it had not then 
come into general use. 

At the time when the necessity for the intro- 
duction of accidentals began to be felt, B was 

the first note wMch was subjected to alteration, by 
being sung a semitone lower, and as it was con- 
sidered that this change had the effect of making 
the melody softer and less harsh, the altered B 
(Bb) was called B moLle, while the original B re- 
ceived the name of B durum. It should be 
borne in mind that the modem German designa- 
tions B dur and B violl (which answer to our 
B flat major and B flat minor) have nothing to 
do with the older Latin names, as the melody 
which contained the B molle, and was on that 
account called canttts mollis, was identical with 
the modem key of F major. 

It is on account of B having been the first 
note to which a flat was applied that the name 
of the flat in German is B (also written Be), and 
that scales having flat signatures are called B- 

Bb is the key in which one of the clarinets in 
use in the orchestra is set, and in which horns, 
trumpets, and certain brass instruments belong- 
ing to military bands can be made to play by 
arrangement of their crooks. 




The letter B. or col B. in a score is an abbre- 
viation of Basso, or col Basso. (See also Acci- 
dentals, Alphabet.) [F. T.] 

BABAN, Gkacian, a Spanish composer, musi- 
cal director in the cathedral of Valencia from 
1650 to 1665. His masses and motets, written 
ior several choirs, are preserved at Valencia. 
A Psabn of his is given by Eslava. 

BABBINI, Matteo, a celebrated Italian 
tenor, was bom at Bologna, 1754. He was 
intended for the practice of medicine ; but, on 
the death of his parents, took refuge with an 
aunt, the wife of a musician named Cortoni. The 
latter instructed him, and cultivated his voice, 
making him a good musician and first-rate singer. 
His debut was so brilliant that he was at once 
engaged for the opera of Frederick the Great. 
After staying a year at Berlin, he went to Russia, 
into the service of Catherine II. In 1 78 5, he sang 
with success at Vienna ; and in the next season in 
London, with Mara, when he took, though a 
tenor, the first man's part, there being no male 
soprano available. As far as method and know- 
ledge went, he was a very fine singer, but he did 
not please the English cognoscenti ; his voice was 
produced with effort, and was not strong enough 
to have much effect. He sang again, however, 
the next year (1787"), and returning to Italy in 
1789, appeared in Cimarosa's 'Orazi,' and was 
afterwards engaged at Turin. In 1792, the King 
of Prussia recalled him to Berlin, where he dis- 
tinguished himself in the opera of 'Dario.' 
During the next ten years he sang at the prin- 
cipal Theatres of Italy, and appeared in 1802, at 
Bologna, though then 50 years old, in the ' Manlj ' 
of Niccolini, and Mayer's 'Misteri Eleusini.' 
He now retired from the stage and settled in his 
native town, where he lived generally esteemed 
and honoured for the noble use he made of his 
riches; and died Sept. 21, 181 6. His friend. 
Doctor Pietro Brighenti, published 'Elogio di 
Matteo Babbini,' Bologna, 1822. [J. M.] 

BACCUSI, Ippolito, an Italian monk and 
musical composer of the 1 6th century. The dates 
of his birth and death are unknown, but we find 
him Maestro di Cappella at the cathedral of 
Verona in 1590. Scipione Cerreto gives an 
indication of his exact epoch by saying that he 
had composed works previously to 1550. This 
statement Fetis disbelieves, but he does not say 
why. Baccusi was one of the first composers who 
introduced into his accompaniments to church 
music instrumental parts in unison with the 
voice, in order to support the singers. The 
works in which he applied this system are 
printed ; the first is intituled ' Hippolyti Baccusi, 
Eccl. Cath. Veronae musicje magistri, missae tres, 
turn viva voce turn omni instrumentorum genere 
cantatu accommodatissimae, cum octo vocibus, 
Anadino, Venice, 1596.' The other is a volume 
containing the psalms used at vespers, with two 
Magnificats. It has a frontispiece occupied by 
an analogous inscription of even greater length 
and, if possible, of even less elegant latinity. 
The rest of his compositions consist principally 

of masses, madrigals, mottetti, and psalms, and i, 
were published for the most part during his | 
lifetime by Venetians such as Gardano Vincenti j 
and Rampazetti. Isolated pieces of his are found j 
in several miscellaneous publications of the period, j 
Perhaps the most interesting of these is that \ 
contributed by him to the volimie dedicated by 1 
fourteen different Italian composers to their great 
contemporary, Palestrina. [E. H. P.] j 

BA CH. Though the name of Bach is familiar to j 
all lovers of music, it is not generally known that it j 
was borne by a very numerous family of musicians j 
who occupied not merely honourable but promi- 
nent places in the history of their art through a 
period of nearly two hundred years. In this family 
musical talent was as it were bequeathed, and 
it seems almost like a law of nature that the 
scattered rays of the gift should after a hundred 
years finally concentrate in the genius of Johann 
Sebastian, whose originality, depth, and force, 
exhibit a climax such as only a few great spirits 
of any time or country have attained. But fiom 
this climax the artistic power of the race began 
to diminish, and with the second generation after 
its great representative was entirely extinguished. 
The history of the Bach family is not only a 
guide towards a just appreciation of the great- 
ness of Sebastian, but it has an independent 
interest of its own through the eminence of some 
of its individual members. Bom and bred in the 
Thiiringen, the heart of Germany, the family for 
the most part remained there throughout two 
centuries ; the sons of Sebastian being the first 
to spread to more distant parts. This stationary 
condition naturally produced a strong family 
feeling. According to tradition meetings of all 
the members took place for the purpose of social 
rutercourse and musical recreation, and it seems 
that the brothers often married sisters. The 
Bachs always learned from one another, for they 
rarely had means for seeking their education 
elsewhere ; thus the artistic sense and capacity 
of the family, as we have said, hereditary, 
and by its undisturbed activity during a whole 
century became an important element in the 
development of Johann Sebastian. To this family 
unity also we may ascribe the moral excellence 
and cultivation of the Bachs. 

Fully to appreciate the importance of these 
qualities in the development of the race, we must 
consider that these predecessors of Johann 
Sebastian lived in the miserable time of the 
Thirty Years' War, and in the midst of the 
moral indifferent! sm and coUapse of intellectual 
power which distinguished that unhappy period 
Yet the house of Bach exhibits an almost ..g^^niform 
example of moral worth together with a constant 
endeavour after the highest ideals — qualities 
which are all the greater because under the 
circumstances of the time they could hardlj 
meet with recognition or encouragement. 

In course of time the towns of Amstadt, Erfurt, 
and Eisenach became the centres of the family : 
there we find its most important representqftives. 
and an uninterrupted sequence through several 
generations filling the same office ; so that, foi 





instance, in Erfurt the town musicians were 
known as 'the Bachs,' even though there had 
leased to be any Bach among them. Another 
proof of the strong family feeling (and a valuable 
source of information) is the genealogy of the 
Bach family, begun by the great Sebastian him- 
self, but chiefly composed by his son Carl Philip 
Emanuel. It contains fifty-three male members 
of the family, and gives the origin and dates of 
birth and death of each, and the most important 
events in their lives. This genealogical table 

soon became circulated amongst the family, and 
a copy of it in Emanuel's handwriting is to 
be found in the Royal Library at Berlin. For an 
account of the Bach-literature see the article on 
JoHANN Sebastian. 

The following table exhibits the chief members 
of this remarkable family, and contains all those 
whose lives are touched on below. The same 
numeral is affixed to each in both genealogy and 

4. Johannes, Erfurt, 

13. Job. 

1. Hans Bach, 

at Wechmar about 1561. 


2. Veit Bach, 1 1619. 

3. Hans B. 'd. Spielmann,' 1 1626. 

Job. Christoph ; Erfurt and Arnstadt, 

5. Heinrich, Arnstadt, 

12. Joh. 

7. Georg 

8. Joh. 

9. Joh. 

19. Joh. 

15. Joh. 
Bern hard, 


18. Joh. Ernst, 

14. Joh. 

10. Joh. 

11. Joh. = 20. Jlaria 




16. Joh. 


17. Joh. 


23. Wilh. 

25. C. Phil. 


22. Joh. Christoph 

24. "Wilhelm, Berlin, 

21. Joh. Christian 

The earliest notices go back to the beginning 
of the 1 6th century, and mention four distinct 
branches, of which the last only is of general 
interest, because it is that fi"om which Johann 
Sebastian is descended. This, the actual musical 
branch, lived in Wechmar, a small place near 
Gotha. Hans Bach [i], the eldest of the 
Bachs, is mentioned as a Gemeinde-Vormund- 
schnftsglied there in 1561. Then comes Veit [2], 
possibly the son of the former, bom between 
1550 and 60, and generally considered the pro- 
genitor of the race. He is said to have been 
a baker, and to have moved into Hungary with 
many other Evangelicals for protection from 
persecution. But under the Emperor Rudolf II 
the Catholic reaction gave the Jesuits the upper 
hand, and this caused Veit to return home and 
settle at Wechmar as a baker and miUer. The 
genealogy states that he loved and practised 
music; his chief delight was in a 'Cythringen' 
(probably a zither), upon which he used to play 
while his mill was at work. He died in 1619. 
But the real musical ancestor of the family was 
Hans [3], the son of Veit, bom somewhere 
about 1580, and mentioned as 'the player' — that 
is to say, a professional musician. He was also 
a carpet-weaver, and is said to have been of 
a cheerful temperament, full of wit and fun. 
These characteristics are alluded to in a portrait 
formerly in the possession of Emanuel, in which 
he was represented as playing the violin with a 

bell on his shoulder, while below is a shield with 
a fool's cap. His profession took him all over 
the Thiiringen, and he was well known and 
beloved everywhere. He died 1626. in the year 
of the first great plague. Of Hans's many 
children three sons deserve mention : — 

Johannes Bach [4], born 1604, apprenticed 
at Suhl to the ' Stadt-pfeifer,' became organist at 
Schweinfurt, and perhaps also temporarily at 
Suhl. After an unsettled life amidst the turmoil 
of the Thirty Years' War, he settled at Erfurt in 
1655 as director of the ' RathsMusikanten,' and 
in 1647 became organist in the church there, 
thus representing both sacred and secular music. 
He was the forefather of the Bachs of Erfiirt, 
and died there in 1673. His sons were Johann 
Christian and Johann .lEgidius. (See below, 
Nos. 12 and 13.) 

( Heinrich [5], bom 1615. As a boy showed 
a remarkable taste for organ-playing ; to satisfy 
which he would go off on Sundays to some 
neighbouring town to hear the organ, there being 
none at Wechmar. He received his musical 
education from his father and his elder "brother 
Johann, probably during his residence at Schwein- 
furt and Suhl, and followed his father to Erfurt. 
In 1 641 he became organist at Amstadt, where 
he died in 1692, having filled his post for more 
than half a century. With him begins the line 
of Arnstadt Bachs. Besides his father's great 
musical gifts he inherited his cheerful disposition. 



which, coupled with great piety and goodness, 
enabled him to overcome the disastrous effects of 
the war, and so to educate his children, all of 
them more or less gifted, as to enable tliem to fill 
honourable places in the history of music. For 
the life of Heiiirich we have complete material 
in his funeral sermon by Gottfried Olearius (Arn- 
stadt, 1692). In his sons, Johann Christoph 
and Johann Michael (see those names, Nos. 16 
and 19) the artistic importance of the elder 
Bachs before Johann Sebastian reaches its cli- 
max. In Kitter's ' Orgelfreund,' vol. vi. No. 14, 
there is an organ piece on the chorale 'Christ 
lag in Todesbanden,' which is ascribed to Hein- 
rich Bach ; of his other compositions nothing is 

Ohristoph [6], the second son, bom 161 3, we 
mention last because he is the grandfather of 
Johann Sebastian. After a temporary post at 
the court of Weimar, and a stay at Prettin in 
Saxony, he settled at Erfurt in 1642, as member 
of the ' Eaths-Musik ' ; moved from thence to 
Arnstadt 1653-4, and died there in 1661 as 
'Stadt-Musikus' and 'Hof-Musikus' to the 
Count of Schwarzburg. Unlike his brother Hein- 
rich he occupied himself exclusively with the 
town music — the ' Kunst-Pfeiferthum.' Further 
details of his life are wanting. His sons 
were — 

Geokg Cheistoph [7], bom 1642 at Erfurt, 
first school-teacher, then cantor at Themar 
near Meiningen, 1668 ; twenty years afterwards 
removed to Schweinfurt in the same capacity, 
and died there. None of his compositions are 
known to exist. 

Johann Christoph [8], and his twin brother 
Johann Ambrosids [9], born 1645 at Erfurt, 
were so much alike in appearance and char- 
acter that they were regarded as curiosities. 
After the early death of the father, who taught 
them the violin, and after they had completed 
their years of study and travel, Johann Christoph 
came to Arnstadt as Hof-Musikus to the Count 
of Schwarzburg. Disputes with the Stadt- 
Musikus caused the dismissal of all the court 
musicians, including Christoph, but he was after- 
wards restored to his post. He devoted himself 
to the church music, which had been much 
neglected, helped his old uncle Heinrich in his 
official work with the utmost disinterestedness, 
and died 1693. With his sons the musical 
activity of this branch of the family ceased. 
Ambeosios was more important. He remained 
with his brother till 1667, when he entered the 
association of the Erfurt ' Raths-Musikanten.' 
We have already mentioned that he was a 
violinist, but his importance in the history of 
music is due to the fact of his being the father 
of Johann Sebastian. He left Erfurt after a few 
years, and in 1671 settled at Eisenach, where he 
died in 1695. Of his numerous children we need 
only mention the two sons : — 

Johann Christoph [10], bom 1761. After 
receiving instruction from the celebrated organ- 
player Pachelbel in Erfurt, he became organist 
at Ohrdruff, and died in 1721. Further details 


about him will be found in the biography of his 
younger brother, the great Johann Sebastian. 
(See the article on him.) 

Having thus sketched the general course of 
the family, we will take its various members 
in alphabetical order, reserving Johann Sebastian 
for the crown of all. 

Johann ^gidids [12], younger son of the 
old Johannes of Erfurt, born 1645, was a member 
of the society directed by his father, became 
organist in St. Michael's Church, and in 1682 
succeeded his brother Johann Christian [13], 
as ' Raths-Musik director.' He died at Erfurt 
in 1 71 7. Of his numerous children only two 
sons survived him — Johann Christoph [14], 
born 1685, who succeeded to the post of his 
father — and 

Johann Beenhaed [15], bom 1676, He was 
organist first at the Kaufmann's Church in Er- 
furt, then at Magdeburg, and finally at Eisenach, 
where, in 1 703, he succeeded the older and more 
famous Johann Cheistoph [16]. These appoint- 
ments, especially the last, give a favourable idea 
of his ability as an organist and composer. Of 
his compositions there still exist preludes on 
chorales, as well as pieces for klavier and suites 
for orchestra (or ' overtures after the manner of 
Telemann,' as they were called). The former 
were in the collections of Walther, the lexico- 
grapher, which are partly preserved in the Berlin 
library, and the latter amongst the remains of 
Sebastian, copied by himself. Johann Bemhard 
died in 1749. 

Another Johann Beenhaed, son of Se- 
bastian's brother Christoph [10], was bom in 
1700, succeeded his father as organist at Ohr- 
druff, and died in 1742. 

Johann Christian [13], eldest son of Johann 
of Erfurt, born 1640, was at first a member of 
his father's musical society ; then removed to 
Eisenach, his younger brother ^gidius taking 
his place. Christian was the first of the family 
to go to Eisenach, but in 1668 we find him 
again at Erfurt ; he succeeded his father in the 
direction of the musical society, and died in 
1682. He was succeeded by his younger brother 
^gidius. One son, Johann Christoph (1673- 
1727) is mentioned as organist at Gehren (near 
Arnstadt), where he succeeded the famous 
Michael (see that name, p. iii). He had 
studied theology, but was of a quarrelsome 
haughty disposition, and had many conflicts with 
his superiors. 

Johann Cheistoph [16], the most famous 
of this oft-recurring name, and also the most 
famous of the older generations, was the son of 
the old Heinrich [5], of Arnstadt, and was 
born in 1643. He was a highly gifted musician, 
and through his own merits alone, independent 
of his illustrious nephew, occupies a very pro- 
minent place in musical history. His life was ex- 
tremely simple. He was educated by his father, 
and at twenty-three became organist to the 
churches at Eisenach. Later he also became 
court-organist there, and died in 1703. Of his 
four sons we may mention Johann Nicolaus 


17], 1669-1753. (See his name, p. 112.) Chris- 
oph's moral excellence, his constant striving 
,fter the highest ideals, his industry, and his tech- 
ical proficiency, give him the most prominent 
^lace amongst the elder branch of the family. 
le was not only, as the old authorities tell us, one 
f the finest ors^an-players and greatest contra- 
lUntists of his day, but he was altogether one of 
he most important artists and composers of the 
Thole 17th century. He was regarded with 
:ndisputed consideration by the family, and 
oth Johann Sebastian and his son Emanuel 
lad the greatest respect for him. In spite of 
his, his importance during his life-time was not 
aore widely recognised, and after his death he 
ras but too soon forgotten; but this may be 
xplained by the overpowering fame of his great 
tephew, by the quiet, reserved, simple nature 
f the man, who lived only for his art and his 
anily, and lastly by the nature of his compo- 
itions. His few remaining works prove him 
have been of a thoroughly independent and 
liginal nature, which, though affected by the 
afluences of the time, was so in its own in- 
ividual way. Having no sympathy with the 
revalent Italian style, he endeavoured to carry 
n the art in his own way, and therefore to 
certain degree stood aloof from his contem- 
oraries. The leading feature in the develop- 
aent of the 17th century is the rise of in- 
trimiental music, — the struggle of the modem 
cales with the old ecclesiastical modes, the 
evelopment of homophony with its melodious 
haracter, and its richness of harmony, in contra- 
istinction to the old strict polyphony. These 
hief points in the general tendency of the time 
re not wanting in Johann Christoph. His 
ultivated sense of form enabled him to give his 
ompositions that firm and compact structure 
/hich was a result of the new principles, while 
is natural musical feeling supplied due ex- 
'ression. His most important compositions are 
.is vocal works, especially his motets ; the few 
hat exist only increase our regret at the loss of 
arther proofs of his great ability. One of his 
lest works was a kind of oratorio, for double 
horus and orchestra, called ' The Combat of 
lichael and the Devil' (Rev. xii. 7-12) ; Johann 
lebastian valued it very highly, and had it 
■erformed at Leipsic, as did Emanuel after him 
t Hamburg. Eight of his motets are given in 
he 'Musica Sacra' (of the Berlin 'Domchor') 
y Neidhart and Hertzberg; and others in a 
ollection by Naue (' Neun Motette . , von 
ohann Christoph und Johann Michael Bach,' 
icipzig, Hoftneister). The best-known of them 
) ' Ich lasse dich nicht,' familiar in England 
nder the title of ' I wrestle and pray,' for a 
)ng time attributed to Johann Sebastian himself, 
nd in fact so published by Schicht in his six 
lotets. His few remaining instrumental works — 
rrangements of chorales, and variations for 
lavier — are less important, owing perhaps to 
le absence of Italian influence, and were soon 
)rgotten. Gerber was in possession of a MS. 
olume of organ music originally belonging to 



the Bach family, containing eight pieces by 
Johann Christoph ; this invaluable book comprised 
works by all the celebrated organ-masters from 
1680 to 1720, but has unfortunately been lost 
through the carelessness of Gerber's legatees. 

Johann Ernst [18], the eon of Johann 
Bernhard, of Eisenach, bom 1722-77, studied 
law at the Leipsic University, and established 
himself as a lawyer at Eisenach. He was also 
so clever a musician as to be of great use to his 
father in his profession. He was at first appointed 
his assistant in 1748, and afterwards succeeded 
him ; he also became Capellmeister at the court 
of Weimar, but kept up his house at Eisenach. 
Some of his vocal pieces are preserved, and 
show that he was superior to his time as a com- 
poser of sacred music, which was then rapidly 
declining. One or two of his compositions for 
klavier are to be found in Bauer's ' AJte Meister,' 
series 2, bk. 3. 

Johann Michael [19], younger son of old 
Heinrich, and brother of Johann Christoph of 
Eisenach, bom in 1648. He, like his brother, was 
educated by his father, whom he afterwards 
supported and helped in his professional duties. 
In 1673 he was appointed organist at Gehren 
near Arnstadt, where he died in 1694, in the 
prime of life. He had six children, a boy who 
died early, and five daughters, the youngest of 
whom, Maria Barbara [20], became the first wife 
of Johann Sebastian, and died 1720. Johann 
Michael had the same nature and character as 
his brother, the same simple pious mind and 
constant lofty aims. In depth of intention, 
flow of ideas, he vied with his brother, but the 
latter surpassed him in feeling for form. His 
invention is remarkable, but form is always his 
difficulty ; in him we feel the want of certainty 
so characteristic of that time, which resulted 
from the constant seeking after new forms ; and 
the defect is equally evident in his stiff counter- 
point. We may however assume that with his 
great gifts Michael would have developed more 
in this direction but for his early death. The 
decline of the polyphonic style is especially felt 
in his motets, because he failed to build up 
his movements in the definite forms demanded 
by the new homophonic style. In instrumental 
music he seems to have been more important, 
perhaps because he was more accessible to the 
influence of Italy than his brother. Walther 
says that he wrote 'starke,' that is to say 're- 
markable' sonatas, and his pieces were certainly 
longer esteemed than those of Johann Christoph. 
In the organ-book already mentioned there were 
no less than seventy- two fugued and figured 
chorale-preludes of his, showing how much those 
of his compositions were then valued. Of his 
vocal works, motets, arias, and church pieces 
with instrumental accompaniments, forerunners 
of Johann Sebastian's cantatas, some are still 
preserved, and give a highly favourable opinion 
of Michael's capacities. In the depth and force 
of his expression his relationship with Sebastian 
is clearly felt. (See the above-mentioned col- 
lections of Naue and Neidhardt). Michael 



Each also employed himself in making instru- 

There is a younger Johann Michael, bom in 
1754 or 1755, whose connection with the family 
is not quite clear ; he was perhaps descended 
from the branch which settled at Schweinfurt. 
He became Cantor at Tonna, and also travelled 
to Holland, England, and even to America. On 
returning to Germany he studied at Gottingen, 
and then established himself as a lawyer at 
Giistrow, in Mecklenburg. In 1 780 he published 
a book or pamphlet called ' Kurze und systema- 
tische Anleitung zum Generalbass,' etc. 

Johann Nicolaus [17], a son of the cele- 
brated Johann Christoph, bom 1669, became 
organist of the town and university church at 
Jena, and died there 1753. For a long time he 
was in the position of senior to the whole family ; 
but none of his sons lived, and thus his branch 
died out with him. He was known as a composer 
of ' suites,' and a mass by him in his own hand- 
writing exists, giving a favourable impression of 
his talents in vocal composition. There is also a 
comic operetta by him called ' Der Jenaische 
Wein- und Bier-Rufer' (The wine and beer crier 
of Jena), a scene from Jena college life. He 
acquired great reputation in the manufacture of 
instruments. Incited, and perhaps even directed, 
by his uncle Johann Michael, he made many 
improvements in the construction of pianos, but 
his efforts were chiefly directed towards estab- 
lishing equal temperament in the tuning of organs 
and pianos, an idea which at that time met with 
universal opposition. 

Johann Christian [21], known as the Milanese 
or English Bach, eleventh son of Johann Se- 
bastian, and youngest of those who survived 
their father, was born at Leipsic in 1735. Next 
to his brother Emanuel he is probably the best 
known amongst the sons of Sebastian, and the 
only one who broke through family traditions 
by travelling and adopting modern fashions 
in composition. His talent was certainly very 
remarkable, but his character and tempera- 
ment forced him into directions very different 
from those of his ancient and honourable 
family. He was only fourteen when his father 
died, and he then went to live with his brother 
Emanuel in Berlin, where he studied pianoforte- 
playing and composition. A certain gaiety of 
disposition, possibly increased by his acquaintance 
with Italian singers, led him to Milan, where 
in 1754 he became organist of the cathedral. 
He wrote a great deal of vocal music in the 
pleasant and somewhat superficial manner of the 
Neapolitans then in vogue, which was in great 
favour with singers and amateurs. Inclination and 
talent made him turn to opera, and as he wished 
to devote himself to it entirely, but considered it 
hardly consistent with his position as cathedral 
organist, he left Milan in 1759, after manying 
the Italian prima donna Csecilia Grassi, and 
accepted an appointment as Director of Concerts 
in London, where he remained till his death in 
178a. He was clever, intelligent, and genial, 
but in spite of his easy circumstances he died 


much in debt. The elegance and brilliancy of 
his pianoforte compositions made him thefavourite 
of aU amateur pianofoi te-players, and did much 
towards the general diffusion of the taste for 
pianoforte-playing. But his greatest triumphs 
were won by his operas ; the first was ' Orion e, 
ossia Diana vendicata,' 1763, and this was 
followed by many others. Some of his sacred 
works, however, seem more important, such as 
Masses, Psalms, and a Te Deum, where we find 
such echoes of the hereditary musical spirit of the 
family as prove that Christian was stiU a member 
of the race. Burney kept up an intimate in- 
tercourse with him for many years, and gives a 
detailed account of him in his 'History of Music,' 
vol. iv. 

Johann Christoph Friedrich [22], called 
the Biickeburg Bach, ninth son of Sebastian, 
bom at Leipsic in 1732. He at first studied 
jurisprudence at Leipsic, but true to family 
tradition soon forsook the law, and under the 
direction of his father and elder brother became 
a thorough musician. He finally entered the 
service of Count Schaumburg as CapeUmeister 
at Biickeburg, where he remained till his death 
in 1795, leaving behind him the reputation of 
an upright, modest, amiable man. As a composei 
he was industrious in all branches, especially in 
oratorios and passion music, and occasionally in 
opera. Though not attaining the eminence oi 
his brothers, his compositions do no discredit to 
the family. In style he approaches nearest to 
his brother Emanuel. He left one son, WiLHELM 
Friedrich. (See that name.) 

WiLHELM Friedemann [23], Called the Halle 
Bach, eldest of Johann Sebastian's sons, bom 
at Weimar in 1710. In the opinion of all his 
acquaintances he was not only the most giftec 
of the brothers, but altogether an unusually ablf 
man, a genius on whom the father buUt greai 
hopes, and to whom the brothers looked foi 
replacing him. Unhappily he entirely departec 
from the respectable and honourable ways of the 
Bachs. An obstinate character and utter mora! 
recklessness prevented him from attaining th« 
eminence which his youth seemed to promise 
and his life exhibits the melancholy spectacle o 
a ruined genius. He was educated chiefly b^ 
his father, who fully appreciated his remark 
able abilities, and devoted special care to it 
he also received instruction on the violin Iron 
Graun, He attended the ' Thomas Schule, 
and afterwards the university at Leipsic, anc 
distinguished himself greatly in mathematics 
In 1733 he became organist at the church o 
St. Sophia at Dresden, and in 1747 music 
director and organist of St. Mary's at Halle 
He held this office tiU 1767, when he wa! 
obliged to give it up, his way of life becomin| 
more and more disorderly and dissolute, anc 
making him careless and irregular in his duties 
He then lived without regular occupation a 
Brunswick and Gottingen, and also at Berlin 
where Forkel, his father's biographer, lookec 
after him with the greatest devotion ; h( 
occasionally gave concerts on the piano or organ 


wandered about with travelling musicians, 
lit always sinking deeper and deeper. Quite 
t the last he received an appointment as Capell- 
leister at Hessen- Darmstadt, but he never took 
le post, and died at Berlin in 1784 in a state 
f great degradation and want. He wa^ the 
reatest organ-player of his time, a thorough 
laster of the theory of music, in which his 
markable mathematical knowledge was of great 
jrvice to him, a master of fugue, and a famous 
aproviser. Very few of his compositions have 
3en published ; he only wrote them down when 
3cessity forced him to. This shows with what 
xjility he could compose, but also how indifferent 
matter it was to him. The royal library at 
erlin possesses a good many of his writings, 
id some have been printed in the different 
Elections of old pianoforte music. Two noble 
ntasias were introduced by Madame Arabella 
oddard at the Monday Popular Concerts, and 
we been published in London. 
WiLHELM Friedrich Ernst [24], son of 
8 Biickeburg Bach, and the last grandson 

Sebastian. Born at Biickeburg in 1759, 
! was educated under his father's care until 
le to perform in public ; he then accepted an 
vitation from his uncle Christian in London, 
lere he remained some years, much sought 
ter and respected as a pianoforte teacher. 
a his uncle's death he returned to Germany 
d settled at Minden. On the accession of 
ing Frederic William II of Prussia he wrote 
' Huldigungs cantata,' and was rewarded bj' 
ing called to Berlin in 1790 as 'cembalist' 

the Queen, with the title of Capellmeister. 
lis post he retained under Queen Louise, wife 

Frederic "William III, and after her death 
tired into private life. He was the teacher 
the royal children, as he had been of Frederic 
illiam III and his brothers. He lived in com- 
2te retirement till 1845. As the sole and last 
presentative of the family, he assisted, with his 
fe and two daughters, at the inauguration of 
s monument erected to the memory of Johann 
bastian in front of the 'Thomas Schule' at 
iipsic in 1 843 through the efforts and instigation 
Mendelssohn, \^'ith him the descendants of 
hann Sebastian Bach became extinct. He 
is a good pianoforte and violin player, but 
! modesty prevented him from often appearing, 
d although he wrote much, in many styles, 
ry little of his music is publit^hed. 
Cakl Philipp Emanuel [25], third son of 
bastian, often styled the Berlin or Hamburg 
ch, born at Weimar March 14, 1714. His 
aeral precocity, quickness, and oijcnness to im- 
;ssions, induced his father to bring him up 
the study of philosoj^hy. With this view he 
nt to the Thomas School and afterwards to 
) universities of Leipsic and Frankfort-on the- 
.er, where he entered on the study of law. 
t the thorough grounding in music which, as 
matter of course, he had received from his 
her, and the natural influences of so musical 
lOuse, had virtually decided his future. When 
entered at Frankfort he was already not only 



a fine player but a thorough musician. While 
there he conducted a singing society, which gave 
him opportunities of composing, and at length 
he finally relinquished law for music, in 1737 
went to Berlin, and in 1746 obtained the ap- 
pointment of Kammer-musiker and cembalist at 
the Court, with the special duty of accompany- 
ing Frederic the Great's flute solos at the private 
concerts. The Seven Years War (1757) how- 
ever put an end to this pleasant position. Bach 
migrated to Hamburg and took the direction of 
the music in one of the churches there. In 1 767 
he succeeded Telemann, and this post he held till 
his death, Sept. or Dec. 14, 1788. As composer, 
director, teacher, and critic, his influence was very 
great, and he was beloved and respected both by 
his brother professionals and by the whole town. 
His goodness, pleasant manners, literary culture, 
and great activity in music, all combined to place 
him at the head of his father's sons and scholars. 
But when we remember that for a Bach his 
musical gifts were by no means extraordinary — 
far below those of Friedemann, for example — it 
is plain that he stands so high because he is 
recognised historically as one of the most re- 
markable figures in the transition period between 
J. S. Bach and Haydn. In such periods a man 
is eminent and influential more from his general 
cultivation than from proficiency in any special 
branch. At the particular time at which E. 
Bach lived there were no great men. The 
gigantic days of Handel and Bach were exchanged 
for a time of peruke and powder, when the 
highest ideal was neatness, smoothness, and 
elegance. Depth, force, originality, were gone, 
and 'taste' was the most important word iu 
all things. But taste has to do with externals, 
and therefore lays an undue stress on outward 
form in art, and this was the direction taken 
by the musical works which acted as important 
precursors of the so-called classical period. No- 
where does the tendency to formal construction 
show itself so strongly as in the works of 
Emanuel Bach, and he is therefore to be regarded 
as the immediate jjrecursor of Haydn. No doubt 
he is aftectetl and restricted by the tendencies 
of the time, but he had the ]>ower of bringing 
them together and throwing them into artistic 
form, and therefore his works are of greater im- 
portance than those of any of his contemj)oraries. 
To form a right judgment of him as a composer 
he must be regardeil apart from his father, and 
solely from the point of view of his own time ; 
and when so judged it is impossible to deny that 
he surpassed most of his contemporaries, and ia 
of paramount importance as a connecting link 
between the periods of Handel and Bach on the 
one hand and Haydn and Mozart on the other. 
His music is wanting in depth and earnestness, 
but it is always cheerful, highly finished, often 
full of intelligence and charm ; and in regarl to 
form, where his relation to Haydn — a man far 
more gifted than himself — is most evident, wa 
find him in possession of all those germs which 
in Haydn's hands sprang into such luxuriant 
growth — the homophonic thamatio movement. 




the cyclical sonata-forai, and new treatment of 
the orchestra. 

His compositions in all departments are ex- 
traordinarily numerous ; a complete list of them 
will be found in Gerber. Historically his in- 
strumental compositions are the most valuable, 
because the development of the larger forms of 
instrumental music is the great characteristic 
of modern times. His vocal music, chiefly for 
the church, is for the most part flat and mo- 
notonous, a quality perhaps partly due to the 
dry and un enthusiastic rationalism of that day. 
Most important of all are his numerous com- 
positions for the clavier — 2 1 o Solo pieces ; 5 2 Con- 
certos with orchestral accompaniments ; Sonatas, 
Trios, etc. — in which he has exhibited and de- 
veloped his father s principles of technique. Many 
of these pieces have been republished in the 
various collections of ancient music ; and his 
principal work 'Sona,ten, nebst Rondos und 
freien Phantasien, fiir Kenner und Liebhaber' 
(6 parts, I779~87), was republished a few years 
since by Baumgart. Of his orchestral works, 
18 in number, several have been recently re- 
issued by Breitkopf & Hartel, and have excited 
so much interest as to procure them a place in 
the programmes of Orchestral Concerts. Bach's 
vocal works comprise — 2 Oratorios, 'Die Israeliten 
in der Wiiste' and 'Die Auferstehung und Him- 
melfahrt Jesu'; a celebrated 'Heilig' (Sanctus) 
for 2 Choirs ; ' Melodien ' to GeUert's sacred 
songs ; 2 2 Passions ; sacred Cantatas ; Singspiele ; 
secular songs, etc., etc. That he was not with- 
out ability in literature is shown by his great 
work ' Versuch iiber die wahre Art Klavier zu 
spielen' (2 parts, 1780) with examples and 18 
specimen pieces. This book deserves notice as 
the first methodical treatise on clavier-playing ; 
but it is more important still as containing the 
foundation of those principles which were first 
laid down by the great John Sebastian, and were 
afterwards developed by Clementi, Cramer, Field, 
and Hummel, into the pianoforte-playing of the 
present day. Bach lays special stress on refine- 
ment and taste in execution, in connection with 
which he gives detailed rules for the execution 
of the ornaments or 'Manieren' then considered 
80 indispensable, and in this respect, as the most 
complete and authentic authority, his work will 
always possess considerable value. It has recently 
/been re-edited (1857) by ScheUing. [A. M.] 

' BACH, JoHANN Sebastian — 'to whom,' in 
Schumann's words, ' music owes almost as great a 
debt as a religion owes to its founder' — youngest 
son of Ambrosius Bach, was born at Eisenach 
March 21, 1685. His life, lil^e that of most of 
his family, was simple and uneventful. His 
father began by teaching him the violin, and the 
old-established family traditions and the musical 
importance of Eisenach, where the famous Jo- 
hann Christoph was still actively at work, no 
doubt assisted his early development. In his 
tenth year the parents both died, and Sebastian 
was left an orphan. He then went to live with 
his elder brother, Johann Christoph, at that time 
organist at OhrdrufF, and under his direction 

began the clavier, at the same time carrying 01 
his education at the Ohrdruff 'Lyceum.' Th 
remarkable genius of the boy began at once t 
show itself. He could soon play all his lessons b; 
heart, and aspired to more advanced music. Thi 
impulse his brother it seems did not encourage 
We are told that he possessed a MS. volume cor 
taining pieces by Frohberger, Pachelbel, Ker 
Buxtehude, and other celebrated composers of th 
day. This book became an object of longing t 
the young Sebastian, but was strictly withhel 
from him by his brother. Determined nevertb 
less to gain possession of the volume, the be 
managed with his little hands to get it throug 
the latticed door of the cupboard in which it w{ 
kept, and at night secretly copied the whole of 
by moonlight, a work which occupied him s' 
months. When the stem brother as last di 
covered the trick, he was cruel enough to tal 
away from the boy his hardly-earned work. 

At the age of fifteen (1700) Johann Sebastif 
entered the ' MichaeHs' school at Liineburj 
his beautiful soprano voice at once procun 
him a place among the ' Mettenschuler,' wl 
took part in the church music, and in retu: 
had their schooling free. Though this gave hi 
an opportunity of becoming acquainted with voc 
music, instrumental music, especially organ ai 
pianoforte playing, was always his chief stud 
Bohm, the organist of St. John's at Liinebui 
no doubt had an inspiring effect upon him, b 
the vicinity of Hamburg offered a still great 
attraction in the person of the famous old Dut 
organist Reixken. In his holidays Bach ma 
many expeditions to Hamburg on foot to he 
this great player. Another powerful incentive 
his development was the ducal 'Hof-kapeUe' 
Celle, which, being in a great measure compos 
of Frenchmen, chiefly occupied itself with Frer 
instrumental music, and thus Bach had ma 
opportunities of becoming acquainted with 
branch of chamber and concert music, at tl 
time of great importance. After remaini 
three years at Liineburg he became for a ti: 
'Hofinusikus' at Weimar in the band of Prii 
Johann Ernst, brother of the reigning da 
and in 1703 was made organist at Amstadt 
the 'new church.' Here he laboured w 
restless eagerness and energy at his own 
velopment in both technique and theory, £ 
very possibly neglected the training of the cha' 
choir. In 1705 he obtained a month's leave 
visit Liibeck in order to make acquaintance w 
the organist Buxtehude and hear his fam 
evening performances on the organ during I 
vent. He seems to have considered his s 
there of so much importance that he prolon; 
it for three months. This liberty, and his hs 
in accompanying the services of indulging 
fancy to the disturbance of the congregati 
drew upon him the disapprobation of the chu 
authorities, but without interfering with his 
sition as organist — a fact which proves that 
performances of the young genius were aire; 
appreciated. It seems that his reputation as 
organist was even then so great that he 


received applications from various quarters. In 
1707 he went to MiiUhausen in the Thiiringen, 
and in the following year to Weimar as court- 
organist. From this time we may consider his 
studies to have been completed ; at Weimar his 
feme as the first organist of his time reached its 
climax, and there also his chief organ composi- 
tions were written, — productions unsurpassed 
and unsurpassable. In 1714, when twenty-nine 
years of age. Bach was appointed ' Hof-Concert^ 
meister,' and his sphere of activity became 
considerably enlarged. An interesting event 
took place at this time. Bach used to make 
yearly tours for the purpose of giving perform- 
ances on the organ and clavier. On his arrival 
at Dresden in the autumn of 171 7 he found 
there a French player of great reputation named 
Marchand, whose performances completely carried 
away his hearers, though he had made many 
enemies by his arrogance and intolerance of 
ompetition. Bach was induced to send a written 
haUenge to the Frenchman for a regular musical 
X)ntest, offering to solve any problem which 
ids opponent should set him, of course on 
ondition of being allowed to reciprocate. Mar- 
ihand agreed, in his pride picturing to himself 
I glowing victory ; time and place were fixed 
ipon, and a numerous and brilliant audience 
ssembled. Bach made his appearance — but no 
Marchand : he had taken himself off that very 
noming ; having probably found an opportunity 
f hearing his opponent, and no longer feeUng 
he courage to measure his strength with him. 

On his return from Dresden in 1 7 1 7 Bach was 
ppointed Kapellmeister at Ccithen by Prince 
jcopold of Anhalt-Cothen. This young prince, a 
Teat lover of music, esteemed Bach so highly that 
e could not bear to be separated from him, and 
ven made him accompany him on his journeys. 
Jach's duties consisted merely in directing the 
*rince's chamber-music, as he had nothing to 
o with the church music or organ - playing, 
accordingly this period of his life proved ex- 
raordinarily fertile in the production of instru- 
lental music. A journey to Hamburg in 1721 
roiight him again in contact with the aged 
leinken ; on this occasion he was a candidate 
)r the post of organist at the * Jacobi Kirche,' 
here he was attracted by the splendid organ, 
a spite of his great fame, and notwithstanding 
is having again excited the most unmixed 
Imiration by his organ-playing in Hamburg, 
5 failed to obtain the post ; an unknown and 
isignificant young man being preferred to him, — 
)ssibly because he offered to pay 4000 marks 
r the office. At length, in 1723, Bach was 
)pointed cantor at the Thomas-iSchule in Leipsic, 
id organist and director of the music in the 
TO chief churches. Ciithen was no field for a 
an of his genius, and the Duke's love of music 
mI considerably cooled since his second marriage, 
e therefore quitted the place for his new post, 
ough retaining sufficient interest in it to write 

1 funeral ode (Trauei^Ode) on the death of the 
achess in 1727. His position at Leipsic he 




for the services of the church his great Passions 
and Cantatas, and his High mass in B minor 
(i7.^.^)> which exhibit the power of his unique 
genius in its full glory. In 1 736 he received the 
honorary appointments of Hof-Componist to the 
Elector of Saxony, and Kapellmeister to the 
Duke of Weissenfels. In 1747, when already 
somewhat advanced in age, he received an in- 
vitation to Berlin to the court of Frederic the 
Great, where his son Emanuel held the post of 
cembalist, a fact which made the king desirous 
of hearing and seeing the great master himself. 
Bach accepted the invitation, was received with 
the utmost respect and kindness by the king (April 
7, 1 747)\had to try all the Silbermann pianofortes 
and organs at Potsdam, and excited the greatest 
wonder by his improvisation on given and self- 
chosen themes. On his return to Leipsic he 
worked out the theme which the king had given 
him, and dedicated it to him under the title 
of ' Alusikalisches Opfer.' He now began to 
suffer from his eyes, and subsequently became 
quite blind. This was possibly caused by 
excessive straining of his sight, not only with 
the enormous number of his own compositions, 
but also with copying quantities of separate 
parts, and works by other composers, as materials 
for his own studies : besides this he himself en- 
graved more than one of his own pieces on 
copper. On July 28, 1750, his life was brought 
to an end by a fit of apoplexy. 

Bach was twice married (Oct. 17, 1707, and 
Dec. 3, 1721) ; by his first wife, Maria Barbara, 
the daughter of Michael Bach of Gehren, he had 
seven children. She died at Cothen in 1720, 
during her husband's absence at Karlsbad with 
the Prince. Three only of her children survived 
their father — an unmarried daughter and two 
sons, Wilhelm Friedemann and Philip Emanuel. 
His second wife, Anna Magdalena Wiilkens, 
youngest daughter of the Weissenfels Hof-Trom- 
peter, had a musical nature and a fine voice, and 
showed a true appreciation for her husband. She 
helped to encourage a strong artistic and musical 
feeling in his house, and besides attracting foreign 
artists, exerted a beneficial influence on the sons, 
who were one and all musically gifted. This 
marriage produced thirteen more children, nine 
sons, of whom only two survived the father, Jo- 
hann Christoph Friedrich and Johann Christian. 

In Johann Sebastian centres the progressive 
development of the race of Bach, which had been 
advancing for years ; in all the circumstances of 
life he proved himself to be at once the greatest 
and the most typical representative of the family. 
He stood, too, on the top step of the ladder : 
with him the vital forces of the race exhausted 
themselves; and further power of development 
stopped short. 

All the family traits and qualities of the Bachs 
to which we drew attention in the introduction 
to this article, and which were handed on by 
natural disposition as well as education and 
tradition, stand out in Johann Sebastian with 

I owe this date to Mr. Carljle, thnuith ba hiu omitted all meatioa 
o( 'Jie uccurreuce In his Life of Frederick. [0.| 

I 2 




full decision and typical clearness: — a deeply 
religious sentiment which, though in many points 
closely approaching to the pietism then de- 
veloping itself, yet adhered with a certain naive 
severity to the traditional, orthodox, family 
views ; a truly wonderful moral force, which, 
without any show, embraced the problem of life 
in its deepest sense ; and a touching patriarchal 
spirit, which was satisfied with humble cir- 
cumstances, rejoiced in the blessing of an 
unusually numerous family, and regarded the 
family life as the chief raison d'etre. With and 
above all this there was an artistic striving, 
founded exclusively on ideal views, and directed 
with complete self-forgetfulness to ideal aims 
alone. His art and his family, — those were the 
two poles around which Bach's life moved ; out- 
wardly, simple, modest, insignificant ; inwardly, 
great, rich, and luxurious in growth and pro- 
duction.^ His activity was extraordinary and 
unceasing. Besides his official duties and liis 
actual labour as a composer, which in themselves 
alone are astonishing, he made copies for himself 
of other composers' works, including those of the 
Bach family ; he sometimes engraved on copper, 
and even occupied himself with the manufacture 
of instruments. He invented an instrument 
between the violoncello and viola, which he 
called viola pomposa, and devised a piano with 
catgut strings which he called lauten-clavicym- 
balum. At the same time he was a model 
j)aterfamilias, made the musical education of 
his sons his especial and peculiar care, wrote 
educational works for his pupils like the 'Kla- 
vierbiichlein ' for his son Friedemann, and the 
famous ' Kunst der Fuge,' and also trained a 
great number of pupils who afterwards them- 
selves became famous, such as Johann Caspar 
Vogler, Agricola, Altnikol, afterwards his son- 
in-law, JNIarpurg, Kirnberger, and Ludwig 
Krebs. Bach's development points to a steady 
and indefatigable pursuit of a definite and fixed 
aim, guided by his genius alone. He had a 
clear insight into his artistic mission ; developed 
himself out of himself with a perfect unity of 
purpose, holding aloof from external influences 
in the field of art, but rather drawing them to 
himself and so appropriating them through the 
power of his genius as to mould them into a 
complete whole. If in a measure he ran counter 
to the continual encroachments of Italian opera, 
this may be attributed less to his artistic than to 
his moral and religious views. 

Bach's importance for the history of music 
lies in the fact that, starting with instrumental 
music, and adhering to the spirit of it, he 
developed all forms and species of composition 
in an entirely new and independent manner. 
The old vocal style, which was founded ex- 
clusively on polyphony, was exhausted. Bach 
created an entirely new vocal style based on 
instrumental principles, carried it to the summit 
of perfection, and there left it. 

Bach's masterly counterpoint is generally 
spoken of as the special mark of his genius ; 
and unapproachable as he is in this branch, Ws 

real power lies less in the almost inconceivable 
facility and dexterity with which he manages 
the complicated network of parts, than in that 
formal conformation of the movements which 
resulted from this manner of writing ; in this 
he exhibits a consistency, fertility, and feeling 
for organic completeness which are truly in- 
imitable. His melody, his harmony, and his 
periods all seem to be of one mould: an in- 
destructible spirit of severe logic and un- 
alterable conformity to law pervades the whole 
as well as the parts. These formal principles 
are governed, pervaded, and animated from first 
to last by the idea of the musical composition ; 
so that the materials, though in themselves 
void of expression, become imbued with an 
inexhaustible depth of meaning, and produce 
infinite varieties of form. This wonderful^uijity 
of idea and formal cflnstruction gives the-sta»p 
of-the true work of art to Bach's compositions, 
and explains the magical attraction which they 
exert on those who make them their earnest 
study. Besides these less obvious qualities, 
Bach's importance in the history of music showE 
itself in the immediate influence he exerted ir 
various ways towards its greater development 
,SHe first settled the long dispute between th( 
old church modes and the modem harmonic 
system ; in his chorales he often makes use o: 
the former, but the harmonic principle is pre 
dominant in his works, ius^ as it still lies a' 
the root of modern musicNA^Jonnected with thii 
was the ' equal temperament ' which Bach re 
quired for instruments with fixed intonation 
He put this in practice by always tuning hi 
pianos himself, and moreover embodied hi 
artistic creed in relation to it in his famou 
' Wohltemperirte Klavier,' a cpllection of pre 
ludes and fugues in all keys. _X|Bach's influenc 
on the technical part of piano-playing must no 
be forgotten. The fingering which was the; 
customary, which hardly made any use of th 
thumb, and very seldom of the little finger, wa 
inadequate for the performance of his workf 
But he stood entirely upon his own ground, an 
formed for himself a new system of fingerinj 
the main principle of which was the equal ue 
and development of all the fingers, thus layin 
the foundation of the modern school; on th 
other hand he laid down many rules whicl 
though no longer binding, to a certain degr« 
reconciled the old and the new schools, 
gave the whole system a thoroughly person 
stamp, making it appear, like everything else 
Bach's, unique. 

Bach wrote unceasingly in every form ax. 
branch, and the quantity of his works is enormou 
A tolerably complete catalogue (by Emanuel Bai 
and Agricola) is given in Mitzler's ' Musilvaliscb 
Bibliothek' (1754), of which the following is 
summary : — 

I. Vocal Worlcs. Five sets of Sacred Cantat 
(Kirchen-Cantaten) for every Sunday and Hoi 
day in the year, besides many single ones, such 
'Gottes Zeit ist die beste Zeit'; and others f 
special occasions, such as the 'Trauer-ode' ( 



the death of the Electress of Saxony ; 5 Pas- 
sions ; the Christmas Oratorio (in 5 parts) ; the 
Grand Mass in B minor, and 4 smaller do. ; 
Motetts ; 2 Magnificats, 5 Sanctus, as also many 
Secular Cantatas, including two comic ones, a 

* Bauer n -Can tate' and a ' Coffee-Cantate.' 
2. Instrumental Worhg. A vast number of 

piano pieces of all kinds — Inventions, in 2 and 3 
parts; Suites (6 small, called 'French Suites,' 
and .6 large 'English Suites'); Preludes and 
Fugues, amongst them the ' Wohltemperirte 
Klavier' in two parts, 48 Preludes and Fugues 
in all keys; the 'Kunst der Fuge'; Sonatas for 
piano with one or more instruments, amongst 
them the famous 6 Sonatas for Piano and Violin ; 
Solo-sonatas for Violin and for Violoncello ; Solos, 
Trios, etc., for different instruments in various 
combinations ; Concertos for i to 4 pianos ; Do. 
for violin and other instruments with orchestra ; 
Overtures and Suites for orchestra ; lastly an 
endless quantity of organ compositions — Fan- 
tasias, Toccatas, Preludes, Fugues and arrange- 
ments of Chorales. Of this almost inexhaustible 
mass a few only were printed during Bach's life- 
time. These were — the ' Klavier -Uebung,' or 
Clavier practice, a collection of pieces for piano 
and organ, in 4 parts (1731-42); the Musikal- 
isches Opfer,' dedicated to Frederic the Great, 
and a few organ arrangements of chorales ; and 
shortly after his death the 'Art of Fugue' (i 752), 
engraved by Bach himself, and a collection of 
Chorales selected by Emanuel Bach from his 
father's Cantatas, and published in two volumes 
(1765-69). These were afterwards reprinted in 
a more complete form by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, and 
in 1843 a 4th edition in score, specially ari;angei:l, 
was published in Leipsic by C. F. Becker.^ The 
great mass of Bach's MSS. however lay untouched 
and unknown for many years ; the vocal works 
seem to have been more especially ignored. The 
time immediately following Bach had no sympathy 
with the depth and individuality of his genius. 
True, his pupils and sons revered him as a con- 
summate and inimitable contrapuntist and a 
masterly composer, and with true instinct set 
themselves to collect and copy all his existing 
works for piano and organ which they could 
procure. But with their generation all real in- 
terest in this mighty genius vanished, and it is 
not too much to say that within forty years after 
Bach's death, his fame, though still unapproach- 
able, had become a mere historic tradition. 
How quickly and how generally this was the 
case is evident from the fact that the works of 
his son Emanuel were esteemed at least as highly 
as his own, ^ and that even a man like Adam 
Hiller, one of the most prominent and influential 
musicians of Bach's school, and one of his suc- 
cessors as Cantor at St. Thomas', Leipsic, in his 

* Lebensbeschreibung beriilunter Musikgelehrten 
und Tonkiinstler ' (Leipsic, 1784) chiefly admires 
his counterpoint and part-writing, and finds his 
melodies 'peculiar' {aonderbar). 



It was the revolution produced by the com- 
posers of the classical period succeeding that just 
mentioned which first paved the way back to the 
understanding of Bach; at the end of the iSth 
and beginning of the 19th centuries, the music 
publishers began to recollect the existence of 
these forgotten works. The ' Wohltemperirte 
Klavier' was published by Kollmann in London 
in 1 799, and was soon followed by the firms of 
NiigeU at Ziirich, Simrock at Bonn, Kii,hnel 
(now Peters) and Breitkopf & Hiirtel in Leipsic, 
with a number of piano and organ works. The 
six^ unaccom|>anied motets, for 5 and 8 voices, 
edited by Schicht, were published by Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel as early as 1802. In 1809 the per- 
formances of Bach's Fugues and Trios by Samuel 
Wesley and Benjamin Jacob on the organ of 
Surrey Chapel, London, (one of the very few 
pedal organs at that time in England,) caused an 
extraordinary sensation, which was followed up 
by the publication of the 48 Preludes and Fugues 
(Birchall, 1809) and the 6 organ trios, all by 
Wesley and Horn. But it was Mendelssohn who 
gave the permanent impetus to the growing 
worship of Bach in Europe by the performance * 
of the Matthew Passion in Berlin, March 12, 
1829, exactly one hundred years after its produc- 
tion. A powerful excitement seized the musical 
world ; people began to feel that an infinite 
depth and fulness of originality united with a 
consummate power of fonnal construction was 
lying hidden in these neglected works. Per- 
iormances of the Passion and of other vocal 
music of Bach took place in Berlin and else- 
where — e. g. in Breslau by the ' Sing-akademie,' 
under Mosevius — the editions increased in num- 
ber and began to include the vocal works. The 
most important of these is that of Peters (dating 
from 1837), ' Gesammt Ausgabe der instrument- 
alen Werke Bach's,' edited by Czerny, Griepenkerl 
and Roitsch, with whom Hauptmanu, David, 
Dehn, etc., were afterwards associated. This edi- 
tion is still in progress, and includes 13 volumes 
of pianoforte works, 13 for pianoforte with ac- 
companiment, 18 for other instruments, 9 for 
organ: and an excellent thematic catalogue by 
A. Diirffel (1866), specially referring to this edi- 
tion. The same firm has begun an edition of 
the vocal works, and besides full and compressed 
scores of the Matthew and John Passions, the 
Christmas oratorio, the B minor Mass, and 4 
smaller ditto, the 6 Motets, the Magnificat and 
4 Sanctus, has published 10 Cantatas with piano 
accompaniment — all at the well-known low prices 
of this firm. Mention should be made of 4 Kirch- 
engesiinge, published in score with pianoforte 
arrangement by J. P. Schmidt (Trautwein) ; of 
' Eiu' feste Burg,' and the 1 1 7th Psalm, and ' Lob, 
Ehre, Weisheit' (8 voc), issued by Breitkopfs, 
and of two comic Cantatas, edited by Dehn and 
published by Crantz — all harbingers of the edi- 
tion of the Bach-Gesellschaft. 

Mendelssohn was not content with the revival 

' This edition contains tlie Chor.ile wlilch closes the original edition » The 3n\ of these, ' Ich Lasse dlch nicht,' Is now known to be by 
of the 'Art of FuKue.' , J. Christoph Bach. 

2 See, lor cx-iniple, Burney's ' Present State,' etc. if. 2J5. . I « See Devrlenfs ' Recollections,' p. 38, etc., etc. 




of the Passion music ; through his efforts ' a 
monument was erected, in 1842, which perpetu- 
ates the features of the great master in front of 
the ' Thomas schule,' over which he presided, and 
under the very windows of his study. Kor was 
the result of Mendelssohn's enthusiasm to stop 
here. In 1850, the centenary of Bach's death, 
the ' Bach-GeseUschaft ' was founded at Leipsic 
for the publication of his entire works. This 
gave a real and powerful impulse to the worship 
of Bach ; the discovery of the unsuspected trea- 
sures which were revealed even by the first 
annual volume led to the foundation of 'Bach 
Societies' all over Germany, which devote them- 
selves to the performance of his works, especially 
the vocal works, and have thereby awakened such 
an enduring interest that now the Cantatas, Pas- 
sions, and Masses of Bach rank with Handel's 
oratorios in the standing repertoires of all great 
German choral societies, and are regarded as 
tests for their powers of execution. No doubt 
the first impulse to these societies was given by 
the original Bach Society mentioned above. [See 

Besides all these efforts for diffusing the know- 
ledge of Bach's works, we must mention the 
labours of Robert Franz, the famous song-writer 
at Halle. In the performance of Bach's great 
vocal works with instrumental accompaniment, 
the organ forms an essential part, being necessary 
for carrying out Bach's obhgato accompaniments. 
At concerts, where Bach is most frequently to 
be heard now, an organ not being always attain- 
able, Franz devoted himself to replacing the 
organ part by arranging it for the orchestral 
instruments now in use. His thorough under- 
standing of Bach's manner of writing, the musical 
affinity of his ovni nature, make him pre-emi- 
nently fitted for this work. A number of his 
arrangements, some in full score, some arranged 
for piano, have been published by C. F. Leuckart 
at Leipsic. 

Amongst the literature relating to Bach we 
must first mention a biography written by his 
son Emanuel and his pupil Agricola. It ap- 
peared in the ' Musikalische Bibliothek' of 
Mitzler in 1754, and is especially important 
because it contains a catalogue of Bach's works 
which may be considered authentic ; it includes 
both the then published works and all the 
MS. works which could be discovered, and is 
the chief source of all investigations after lost 
MSS. The first detailed biography of Bach 
was written by Professor Forkel of Gottingen, 
* Ueber Bach's Leben, Kunst und Kimtswerke,' 
2 vols., Leipsic, 1802 ; afterwards, in 1850, 
there appeared, amongst others, Hilgenfeldt's 
' J. S. Bach's Leben, Wirken, und Werke,' 4to. ; 
in 1865 'J. S. Bach,' by C. H. Bitter (2 vols. 
8vo., Berlin), and in 1873 the ist vol. of Spitta's 
exhaustive and valuable 'J. S. Bach.' The 
English reader will find a useful manual in 
Miss Kay Shuttleworth's unpretending 'Life,' 

' See his Letters, Nov. 30, 39 ; Aug. 10. 40 ; Dec. 11, 42 ; and a paper 
by Schiunann entitled ' Mendelssohn's Orgel-Concert,' in his ' Gesam- 
melte Schriften' (iii. 253), 

There are also biographical notices in Gerber, 
Fetis, and the other biographical dictionaries ; 
and monographs by Mosevius on the ' Matthew 
Passion' (_Trautwein, 1845) and on the sacred 
cantatas and chorales (Id. 1852). In von Win- 
terfeld's weU-known work, ' Der evangelische 
Kirchen Gesang,' there is frequent reference to 
Bach. Mention should also be made of Haupt- 
mann's ' Erlauterungen ' of the 'Art of Fugue' 
(Peters), and of the admirable Prefaces to the 
various annual volumes of the Bach-Gesellschaft. 

In England the study of Bach has kept pace 
with that in Germany, though with smaller 
strides. The performances and editions of Wes- 
ley have been already mentioned. In 1844 or 
45 ]\Iessrs. Coventry and Hollier published 14 
of the grand organ preludes and fugues and 
two toccatas. These appear to have been edited 
by Mendelssohn. ^ They are printed in 3 staves, 
and a separate copy of the pedal part ' arranged 
by Signor Dragonetti' (probably at the instiga- 
tion of Moscheles), was published for the 
CeUo or Double Bass. About the same time Dr. 
Gauntlett edited some Choruses for the organ. 
In 1854 the Bach Society of London was formed, 
the results of which are given under that head. 
On April 6, 18 71, took place the first performance 
of the Passion in Westminster Abbey, which has 
now become an annual institution, and has spread 
to St. Paul's and other churches. [A. SI.] 

BACH-GESELLSCHAFT. A German society 
formed for publishing a complete critical edition 
of the works of John" Sebastian Bach, in an- 
nual instalments, as a memorial of the centenary 
of his death — July 28, 1850. The idea originated 
with Schumann, Hauptmann, Otto Jahn, C. F. 
Becker, and the firm of Breitkopf & Hartel ; was 
cordially endorsed by Spohr, Liszt, and aU the 
other great musicians of the day (how enthusi- 
astically would Mendelssohn have taken a lead, 
had he been spared but three years longer !), and 
the prospectus was issued to the pubHc on the an- 
niversary itself. The response was so heartj' and 
immediate, both from musicians and amateurs, 
at home and abroad, as to leave no doubt of the 
feasibihty of the proposal ; the society was 
therefore defuiitely established. Its affairs were 
administered by a committee (Hauptmann, 
Becker, Jahn, Moscheles, Breitkopf & Hiirtel), 
whose headquarters were at Leipsic ; the annual 
subscription was fixed at 5 thalers, or 15s., and 
the publications are issued to subscribers only, 
so as to prevent anything like speculation. The 
first volume appeared in December 1S51, and 
contained a preface and list of subscribers, em- 
bracing crowaed heads, nobility, public libraries, 
conservatoires and other institutions, and private 
individuals. The total number of copies sub- 
scribed for was 403, which had increased at the 
l9,st issue (XXII — for 1872) to 519, the English 
contingent having risen at the same date from 
23 to 56 — or from 5"7 per cent to I0"8 per cent 
of the whole. 

2 See his letter printed in the Appendb: to Polko's ' Reminiscences ' 
{Longmans, l£u9). Some of the pieces are headed ' arranged by Men- 


The principles laid down for editing tlie 
folumes are stated in the preface to vol. i. 
« follows : — The original MS. to be consulted 
wherever possible ; and also, as of extreme im- 
)ortance, the separate parts, which are often 
lither in Bach's own writing or revised and 
iorrected by him, exhibiting notes and marks 
<f great consequence, both as corrections and 
ts evidence of his practical care for the 
lerformance of his music, often making the 
«parate parts more valuable than the score 
tself. Where such originals are not obtainable, 
■ecourse to be had to the oldest copies, especially 
hose by Bach's own scholars ; or, in default of 
■hese, the earliest printed editions, particularly 
vhen issued during his lifetime. No conjectural 
■eadings to be admitted. 

The discovery of the original MSS. is beset 
with difficulties. Bach's MSS., except a few 
vhich were in the hands of Kirnberger and 
iittel, came first into the possession of his sous, 
^^riedemann and Emanuel. Those entrusted to 
^riedemann were lost, mislaid, or sold. Eman- 
lel, on the contrary, took the greatest care of 
us, and left a catalogue which has pi'oved of 
naterial value to investigators. A portion of 
lis collection was acquired by Nageli the pub- 
isher, of Zuricli, but the principal part is now 
n the Berlin Imperial Library, and in that of 
he Joachimsthaler Gymnasium in the same city, 
vliich latter contains also the MSS. formerly 
)elonging to Kirnberger and his pupil the 
rincess Anna Amalia. The library of the 
Thomas-School at Leipsic once contained a large 
lumber of cantatas, both in score and parts ; 
)ut they were neglected by Cantor Midler 
1801-9), ^^'^ ^^ ^'^ death all but a very small 
)ortion had vanished. Thus, although the bulk 
)f the existing autographs is now to be found in 
3erlin, a considerable number remain witlely 
cattered in private collections, access to which 
"or such purposes as those of the Bach-Gesell- 
ichaft is naturally attended with much trouble. 

It has been the aim of the editors, by the 
neans just indicated, to obtain a text which 
hould express the composer's intentions as 
learly as possible. Each volume contains a pre- 
ace, setting forth the sources drawn upon for the 
x)ntents of the volume, and the critical method 
mployed in dealing with them, with a host of 
nteresting particulars on the nature and con- 
lition of the MSS., on Bach's method of ^vriting, 
)n his efibrts to find the most perfect expression 
or his ideas (as shown by the incessant varia- 
ions in his numerous copies of the same work), 
»n the practical execution of Bach's music, etc., 
o that these prefaces may really be said to 
ontain the sum of the present knowledge on 
he subject of Bach and his music in general. 
The 1st and 2nd years' volumes were edited by 
Eauptmann, the 3rd by Becker, the 4th and 6th 
jv liietz, the 14th by Kroll, and the re»t by 
^V. Bust, who has showai himself to the world 
n these prefaces the accurate indefatigable in- 
irestigator which his friends have long known 
liin to be. The following complete list of the i 



yearly issues to the date of this article (1876) 
may not be unwelcome to our readers : — 

1851. First Year. 
Church Cantatas. Vol. 1. 

1. Wie schuu leuchi«t. 

2. Ach Ciolt. vom Uiuimel 

3. Ach Gott, wie manciies. 

4. Christ lag iu TuJesbanden. 

5. Wo soil ich flieheu hiu. 

6. Bleib* bei uns. 

7. Christ uuser Herr. 

y. Liebster Gott, vraim werd' 

ich sterbea ? 
9. Es ist das Heil. 

10. Meiiie Seel" erhebt. 

1«52. Second Year. 
Church Cantatas. VoL 2. 

11. Lobet Gott. 

12. Weinen, Klagen. 

13. Meiue fc^euf/er. 

14. War" Gott nicht mit uns. 
1.). Denn du wirst meine Seele. 

16. Herr Gott dich loben wir. 

17. Wer Danic opfert. 

18. Gleich wie der liegen. 

19. Es erhub sich ein Streit. 

20. Ewiglieit, du Douuerwort. 

1853. Third Year. 
Clavier Works. Vol. 1. 
15 Inventions and 15 Symphonies. 
Pt. 1. 6 Partitas, 
rt. 2. A Concerto and a Partita. 
Pt. 3. Choral-I'reluiles aud 4Juets. 
I't. 4. Air. with 30 Variations. 
Toccata in FJ minor. 
Toccata in C minor. 
Fugue in A minor. 

1854. Fourth Year. 

Passion ilusic from St. Matthew. 

1S55. Fifth Year. 

Church Cantatas. Vol. 3. 

21. Ich hatte viel Bekiimmeruiss. 

22. Jesus nahm zu sich. 

23. Du wahrer Gotu 

24. Ein unsierirbt Gemiithe. 

25. Es ist nichts Gesuudes. 
2G. Ach wie flUchtig. 

27. Wer weiss, wie nahe mir. 

28. Gottlob ! nun geht. 

29. Wir danken dir. Gott. 

30. Freue dich, erliiste bchaar. 

Christmas Oratorio. In 4 sections. 

1806. Sixth Year. 
Mass in B minor. 

1857. Seventh Y'ear. 
Church Cantatas. Vol. 4, 

31. Der Himmel lacht. 

32. Liebster Jesu. 

33. Allein zu dir, Herr. 

34. O ewiges Feuer. 
3.^. Geist und Seele. 

ZG. Schwiugt freudig eucb. 
37. Wer da glaubei. 

35. Aus tiefer Notli. 

39. Brich dem Hungrigen. 

40. Dazu ist erscbieiien. 

1S5S. Eighth Y'ear, 
Four Masses : in F, A, G minor, 
aud G. 

1859. Ninth Year. 
Chamber Music. Vol. 1. 

3 Sonatas for Clavier and Mute. 
t-uiie for t lavier and Violin. 
6 f^onatas for ditto, ditto. 
3 ditto for Clavier aud Vtola dl 

Sonata for Flute.Violin, and figured 

Ditto for 2 Violins and ditto. 

1860. Tenth Year. 
Church Cantatas. V oL 5. 

41. Jesu. nun sei gepre!v;t. 

42. Am Abend aber desaclblgen. 

43. Gott falirct auf. 

44. Sle werdeii euch. 
4.'). V.i ist dir gesagt. 

+'». Schauet doch und s«het. 
47. Wer skh selbst erholiet. 
4.'^. Ich elender Meiisch. 

49. Ich geh' und suche, 

50, Nuo iat das Ueil. 

1861. Eleventh Year. 
Magnificat in U. 

Four Saiictus', in C, D, D minor, 
aud G. 

Chamber Music. Vocal. 
Phoebus and I'an. 
Weichet nur. betrubte Schatten. 
Amore traditore. 

1862. Twelfth Tear. 
Passion Music from St. John. 

Church Cantatas. YoL 6. 
.'n. Jauchzet Gott. 
5-2. Faische Welt. 

53. Schlagedoch. 

54. Widerstehe doch. 

55. Ich armer Mensch. 

56. Ich will de» Kreuzstab. 

57. Selig ist der Maun. 

58. Ach Gott, wie mancbes. (2nd 


59. Wer niich liebet. 

90. Ewigkeit. (2nd version.) 

1863. Thirteenth Year. 
Betrothal Cantatas. 

Dem Gerechten muss das Ucht. 
Der Herr detiket an uns. 
Gott ist uiisere Zuversicbt. 
Tliree Chorales. 

Clavier Works, VoL 2. 
The French t^uites. 
The English Suites. 

Funeral Ode on the Duchess of 

1864. Fourteenth Y'ear. 
Clavier Works. Vol. 3. 

The welt-tempered Clavier, com- 
plete with .\ppeudix. 

1865. Fifteenth Year. 
Organ Works : 

6 Sonatas. 

18 Preludes and Fugues. 

3 Toccatas. 


1866. Sixteenth Year. 
Church Cantatas. Vol. 7. 

61. Nun komm, der Ueideu. 
»^2. Ibid. (2ud version.) 

63. Christen, atzet diescn Tag. 

64. Seliet. welch" eine Liebe. 

65. Sie werden aus Saba. 

66. Erfreut euch, ihr llerzen. 

67. Halt' im Gedachtiilss. 

68. Also hat Golt die Welt. 

69. Lobe den Uerru. 

70. Wachet, betet, seid bereit. 

1867. Seventeenth Year. 
Chamber Music. Vol. 2. 

Concertos for tlavier and OrchM- 
tra: D minor; E; D; A; i'" 
minor ; F ; G minor. 

Concerto for Clavier, Mute, and 
Violin, with Ordiestra. 

1868. Eighteenth Year. 
Church Cantatas. Vol. K. 

71. Gott ist mein Kunlg. 

2. Alles nur nach Goites Wlllen. 

73. Herr. wie du willst. 

74. Wer mich liebet, 2ud version. 

75. Die Elenden sollen esseu. 
Die Himmel erziihleu. 

77. Du sollst Gott. 
'8, Jesu, der du melne S««le. 

79. Gott der Herr ist Souu'. 

80. £lu' teste Burg. 

1869. Nineteenth Year. 
Chamber Music Vol. 3. 

Concertos for various iti^lru- 
ments, with Orchestra. 

1870. Twentieth Year. 
Church CanUtas. VuL 9. 

81. Jesus scliliift. 

82. Ich habe grnug. 

83. Erfreute ZtiU 



F4. Ich bin vergtugt. 

BS. Ich bin ein guter Hirt. 

86. Wahrlich, ich sage eucb, 

87. Eisher habt ihr niclits. 

&•*. Siehe, ich will viel Fischer. 
^9. Was soil ich aus dir nmchen. 
90. Es reifet euch. 

S Dramas for various festir'ties. 

1871. Tmnty first Tear. 
Chamber Music. Vols. 4 and 5. 
2 Concertos for Violin and Or- 
1 ditto for 2 ditto and ditto. 
1 Symphony movement for Violin. 

S Concertos for 2 Claviers and Or- 

Easter Oratorio. 

1872. Tweiity-secoT-d Tear. 

(Issue! in 176.1 
Church Cantatas. Vol. 10. 

91. Gelobet seist rtu. 

92. Ich hab' in Gottes. 

93. Wer nur den lieben Gott. 

94. Was frag' ich. 

95. Christus der ist mein Leben. 

96. Herr Christ, der eiu'ge. 

97. In alien meinen Thaten. 
91 Was Gottthut. das. 

92. Ditto. (2ud version.) 

93. Ditto. (3rd version.) 

[A. M.] 

BACH SOCIETY, THE. This society was 
instituted in London in 1849, and its primary 
objects are stated in the prospectus to be — 
(I) the collection of the musical compositions 
of J. S. Bach, either printed or in MS., and 
of all works relating to him, his family, or 
his music; and (2) the furtherance and promo- 
tion of a general acquaintance with his music 
by its public performance. The original com- 
mittee of management consisted of the late Sir 
W. S. Bennett (chairman), Messrs. E. Barnett, 
G. Cooper, F. R. Cox, J. H. B. Dando, W. Dor- 
reU, W. H. Holmes, E. J. Hopkins, C. E. Horsley, 
John Hullah, H. J. Lincoln, 0. ]\Iay, and H. 
Smart, with Sir G. Smart and JNIr. Cipriani Pot- 
ter as auditors, and Dr. Charles Steggall as hon. 
secretary. Under the auspices of the society the 
first performance in England of the ' Passion ac- 
cording to St. Matthew ' (Grosse Passions-Musik) 
took place at the Hanover Square Rooms on 
April 6, 1854, Dr. Bennett conducting. The 
principal vocalists were Mme. Ferrari, Misses 
B. Street, Dolby, Dianelli, and Freeman, and 
Messrs. Allen, Walworth, W. Bolton, and Signer 
Ferrari. Mr. W. Thomas was principal violin, 
Mr. Grattan Cooke first oboe, and ]\Ir. E. J. 
Hopkins was at the organ, the new instrument 
by Gray and Davison being used on this occasion 
for the first time. The English version of the 
words was by Miss Helen F. H. Johnston. A 
second performance was given at St. Martin's 
Hall on March 23, 1858, Dr. Bennett again con- 
ducting. The audience on this occasion included 
the late Prince Consort. On June 21, 1859, the 
Society gave a performance of miscellaneous 
works by Bach, including the Concerto in C 
minor for two pianofortes, the Chaconne for vio- 
lin (by Herr Joachim), and the Solo Fugue for 
pianoforte in D. The concert of 1S60, on July 
24, included the first eleven movements from the 
INIass in B minor. Three years later, on June 
13, 1861, the Society gave the first performance 
in England of 'The Christmas Oratorio' (Weih- 
nachts-Oratorium) also under Sir W. S. Bennett's 
direction. The Society was dissolved on March 
21, 1870, when the library was handed over to 
the Royal Academy of Music. [C. M.] 

BACHE, Feancis Edward, born at Birming- 
ham Sept. 14, 1S33 ; died there Aug. 24, 1858, in 
his twenty-fifth year. As a child he showed%ery 
great fondness and aptitude for music, studied 
the violin with Alfred Mellon (then conductor of 
the Birmingham theatre), and in 1846 was allowed 


to play in the festival orchestra when Mendels- - 
sohn conducted ' Elijah.' 

In the autumn of 1849 he left school al 
Birmingham to study under Stemdale Bennetl 
in London. His first overture was performed at - 
the Adeljjhi Theatre in Nov. 1850, and about a 
year later his ' Three Impromptus ' (his first pianc 
piece) came out. He remained studying with 
Bennett, and during the latter part of the time 
writing for Addison, HolUer, and Lucas, from 
1849 to 53. In Oct. 53 he went to Leipsic, f 
studied with Hauptmann and Plaidy, and took 
occasional organ lessons from Schneider at Dres- ^ 
den. He returned to London (after a short visit ^ 
to the opera, 'William Tell,' etc., at Paris) early 
in 1855. At the end of 55 he was driven by 
severe illness to Algiers, but returned to Leipsic 
for the summer and autumn of 56 ; then went to 
Rome for the winter, calling on old Czemy in 
Vienna, w'ho was much pleased wdth him, and a 
wrote to that eflTect to Kistner. He reached 
England very iU in June 57, passed that winter Ii 
in Torquay, and returned to Birmingham, which 
he never again left, in April 58. 

Bache's published compositions are numerous, 
and include four mazurkas, op. 1 3 ; five charac- 
teristic pieces, op. 15 ; Souvenirs d' Italia, op. 19, 
for piano solo ; andante and rondo polonaise, for 
piano and orchestra; trio for piano and string8> 
op. 25 ; romance for piano and violin ; six songs, 
op. 1 6 ; barcarola Veneziana. Also a concerto in 
E for piano and orchestra, and two operas, 'Rii' 
bezahl ' and ' Which is ^^^lich,' aU unpublished 
With all their merit, however, none of these can 
be accepted by those who knew him as adequate 
specimens of his ability, which was unquestion' 
ably very great. His youth, his impressionable 
enthusiastic character, and continual ill-health 
must all be considered in forming a judgment of 
one who, had he lived, would in all probability 
have proved a lasting ornament to the English 
school. [G.] 

BACHELOR OF MUSIC. 'Bachelor,' a 
word whose derivation has been much disputed, 
is the title of the inferior degree conferred in 
various faculties by the Universities of this 
country. In Music, as in Divinity and Medi- 
cine, the degrees given are those of Bachelor 
and Doctor. There is no degree of Master, as in 
'Arts.' The letters M.D. and M.B. being ap- 
propriated to degrees in Medicine, the abbrevia- 
tions Mus. D. and Mus. B. are employed to 
distinguish those in Music. The degree of 
Bachelor must, in the ordinary course, precede 
that of Doctor; it is permitted, however, in 
cases of great merit, and especially where the 
candidate has obtained a high reputation in the 
art before offering himself for the degree, to pass 
at once to the degree of Doctor of Music without 
having previously taken that of Bachelor. 

' IMusic ' was one of the so-called seven arts 
taught in the monastic schools which arose in 
Western Europe under Charlemagne and his suc- 
cessors. The Universities, an expansion of these 
schools, inherited their curriculum ; and during 
the Middle Ages the 'Ars Mu.sica' was studied. 


ike certain other branches of knowle<lge, in the 
X)oks of Boethius, a Roman author of the 6th 
«ntury, whose writings famished the Dark Ages 
viih some poor shreds of the science of the 
mcient world. The study of Boethius was a 
iedantic repetition of mathematical forms and 
)roportions, in keeping with the spirit of seho- 
asticism, and calculated to retard rather than 
idvance the progress of the art. Although it 
v&a a common thing for the scholar in the 
Middle Ages to play upon an instrument or 
wo (see e.g. Chaucer's Clerk of O.xenford in 
he 'Prologue'), it is probable that no practi- 
:al acquaintance with music was originally re- 
[uired for a degree, but that the scholar had 
>nly to read in public a certain number of 
exercises' or discourses upon Boethius, a cere- 
aony which held the place of examination in the 
diddle Ages. We cannot, however, speak with 
ertainty; for the earliest mention of graduates 
a music, viz. Thomas Seynt Just and Henry 
labj-ngton at Cambridge, dates no further back 
han 1463. Forty years later a more or less 
laborate composition appears to be regularly de- 
landed of candidates for a degree. In 1506 
tichard Ede was desired to compose 'a Mass 
rith an Antiphona,' to be solemnly sung before 
he University of Oxford on the day of his ad- 
lis-ion to the degree of Bachelor; and in 15 18 
ohn Chard e was desired ' to put into the hands 
f the Proctors' a mass and antiphona which 
e had already composed, and to compose another 
lass of five parts on ' Kyrie rex splendens.' 
'he statutes given to the University of Oxford 
y Laud in 1636 enact that every candidate for 
le degree of Bachelor of Music shall compose a 
iece for five voices with instrumental accom- 
animents, and have it publicly performed in the 
Music School' ; and though the words in which 
ae degree was conferred still contained a per- 
lission ' to lecture in every book of Boethius,' it 
'ould seem that music was more seriously and 
jcceasfully cultivated at Oxford during the 1 7th 
mtury than it has been before or since. The 
)rpor into which the English Universities fell 
uring the 1 8th century affected the value of 
leir musical diplomas. Compositions were in- 
eed still required of candidates for degrees; 
ut the absence of a bond fide examination 
mdered the degree of little value as a test of 
ersonal merit. The reforming spirit of our own 
ay has however extended itself in this direction, 
ad the following rules, depending in part upon 
le statutes of the Universities, in part upon 
^ulations dra\vn up by the present professors 
I pursuance of the statutes, are now in force as 
) the degree of Bachelor of Music. 
At Oxford the candidate must (i) pass a pre- 
minary examination (partly in writing, partly 
ifd voce) in Harmony and Counterpoint in not 
lore than four parts. He has then (2) to pre- 
^nt to the Professor of Music a vocal composition 
jntaining pure five-part harmony and gootl fugal 
)unterpoint, with accompaniment for at least a 
uintett stringed band, of such length as to 
:cupy from twenty to forty minutes if it were 



performed, no public performance however 
being required. (3) A second examination 
follows after the interval of half a year, em- 
bracing Harmony, Counterpoint in five parts. 
Canon, Imitation, Fugue, Form in Composition, 
Musical History, and a critical knowledge of 
the fuU scores of certain standard compositions. 
If the candidate is not already a member of the 
University, he must become so before entering 
the first examination ; but he is not required 
to have resided or kept terms. The fees amount 
in all to about £18. 

The Cambridi^e regulations are nearly to the 
same effect. There is, however, only one ex- 
amination ; and, in addition to the subjects given 
above, a knowledge of the quality, pitch, and 
compass of various instruments is required. The 
rules of Trinity College, Dublin, state that the 
degree of Bachelor of Music in that college is 
intended to show ' that a sound practical know- 
ledge of music has been attained, sufficient to 
manage and conduct a choir, or to officiate in 
cathedral or church service.' The number of 
persons annually taking the degree of Mus. Bac. 
at Oxford has increased considerably during the 
last ten years; in 1S66 the number was three, 
in 1874 eleven. There does not seem to have 
been a similar increase at Cambridge. The de- 
gree of Mus. Bac. does not exist in foreign 
Universities. [C. A. F.] 

BACHOFEN, Johann Caspar, bom at 
Zurich, 1692, in 1718 singing-master in the 
Latin school, and cantor of one of the Zurich 
churches. Succeeded Albertin as director of 
the 'Chorherm-geseUschaft' Association; died 
at Zurich, 1755. His hymns were very popular 
all over Switzerland, and his works give abundant 
evidence of his diligence and the wide range of 
his talent, (i) ' Musicalisches Halleluja oder 
schone und geistreiche Gesange,' etc. (no date), 
containing 600 melodies for two and three voices, 
with organ and figured bass. Eight editions 
down to 1767. (2) ' Psalmen Davids . . . sammt 
Fiist und Kirchengesangen,' etc., 8vo., 1759 
(second edition). (3) 'Vermehrte Zusatz von 
Alorgen, Abend .... Gesiingen,' 1738- (4) 
Twelve monthly numbers containing sacred airs 
arranged in concert-style (concert-weise) for two 
and three voices; 1755 (4th ed.). (5) Brockes' 
' Irdisches Vergniigen in Gott,' set to music ; 
1740 (icoo pages). (6) ' Musicalische Erget- 
zungen' ; 1755. (7) ' Der fiir die Siinden der 
Welt,' etc. (Brockes' ' Passion'), 1 759. (8) ' Mu- 
sic. Notenbiichlein,' an instruction- book in music 
and singing. [F. G.] 

BACK. The back of the instruments belong- 
ing to the violin-tribe appears to have two dis- 
tinct functions. It has on the one hand to 
participate in the vibrations of the whole body 
of the instrument, and on the other to act as 
a sounding-board to throw back the waves of 
sound. This is the reason why the back, as a 
rule, is made of hard wood (maple\ which, 
although not as easily set into vibration as deal, 
the usual material for the belly, is better adapted 



to tlie fulfilment of the above functions. Isow 
and then we meet with a violoncello by one ot 
the old makers with a back of pine or lime-wood. 
But the tone of such an instrument, however 
good in quality, is invariably wanting in power 
and intensity. -, . , n 

The backs of violins, tenors, and violoncellos 
are shaped after one and the same model : most 
elevated and thickest in the centre ; somewhat 
thinner and slanting towards the edges. Thej 
are made either of one piece, or of two, joined 
lengthwise in the middle. The back of the 
double-bass has retained that of the older viol- 
di-gamba tribe : it is flat, and at the top slants 
towards the neck. Close to the edges the back 
is inlaid -\vith a single or double line of purfling, 
which is merely intended to improve the outward 
appearance of the instrument. [P. D.] 

BADIALI, Cesake, a very distinguished 
basso cantante ; made his first appearance at 
Trieste, 1827. After achieving a brilliant success 
at every one of the chief theatres of Italy, and 
especially at Milan, where he sang in 1830, 
1831, and 1832, he was engaged for the opera 
of Madrid, then at Lisbon, and did not return to 
Italy tiU 1838. On his reappearance at Milan, he 
was welcomed vdth enthusiasm ; and continued 
to sing there, and at Vienna and Turin, until 
1S42, when he was appointed principal chamber- 
singer to the Emperor. He sang afterwards at 
Rome, Venice, Trieste, Turin, and other towns 
of less importance. In 1845 he was at Leghorn. 
The Accademia di S. Cecilia of Eome received 
him as a member of its body. In 1859 he made 
his first appearance in London, when he made 
the quaint remark, 'What a pity I did not 
think of this city fifty years ago !' He 
retained at that time, and for some years longer, 
a voice of remarkable beauty, an excellent 
method, and great power of executing rapid 
passages. He was one of the few who have 
ever sung the music of Assur in Ilossini's 
' Semiramide ' as it was written : in that part 
he was extremely good, and not less so in that 
of the Conte Eobinson in the ' JNIatrimonio 
Segreto.' A singular feat is ascribed to him. 
It is said that, when supping with friends, he 
would drink a glass of claret, and, while in 
the act of swallowing it, sing a scale ; and if 
the first time his execution was not quite perfect, 
he would repeat the performance with a fuU 
glass, a loud voice, and without missing a note 
or a drop. 

He was a good musician, and left a few songs 
of his own composition. For the last ten years 
of his life he resided and sang in Paris, where he 
died about the year 1870. [J. M.] 

BARIMANN. The name of a remarkable 
family of musicians, (i) Heinbich Joseph, 
one of the finest of clarinet players — 'a truly 
great artist and glorious man' as Weber calls 
him — born at Potsdam Feb. 1 7, 1 784, and educated 
at the oboe school there, where his ability pro- 
cured him the patronage of Prince Louis Ferdi- 
nand of Prussia, The peace of Tilsit (1807) 


released him from a French prison, and he then 
obtained a place in the court band at Munich. 
He next undertook a tour through Germany, 
France, Italy, England, and Russia, which es- 
tablished his name and fame far and wide. His 
special claim on our interest arises from his 
intimate connection with C. M. von Weber, 
who arrived in Munich in 181 1, and wrote 
various concert-pieces for Barmann, which re- 
main acknowledged masterpieces for the claxinet. 
Meyerbeer also became closely acquainted with 
him during the congress at Vienna in 181?,. 
Not less interesting and creditable was hi: 
intimacy with Mendelssohn, who was evidently 
on the most brotherly footing with him and hi= 
family, and wrote for him the two duets fui 
clarinet and basset-horn published as Op. 113. 
He died at Munich June 11, 1847, leaving 
compositions behind him which are highly es- 
teemed for their technical value. (z) His 
brother Karl, born at Potsdam 1782 and die 1 
1842 ; a renowned bassoon player, and belonge^. 
to the royal band at Berlin. More importani 
was (3) Kael, the son of Heinrich, and the 
true scholar and successor of his father. He 
was born at Munich 1820, and during ? 
lengtliened tour in 1838 was introduced by hi,- 
father to the musical world as a ^d^tuoso of the 
first order. After this he at once took the place 
of first clarinet in the Munich court band, witl 
which he had indeed been accustomed to pi;.' 
since the age of fourteen. His compositions fiji 
the clarinet are greatly esteemed, especially lii; 
'Clarinet School' (Andre, Offenbach) in twc 
parts, the second of wluch contains twenty gran, 
studies ; also a supplement thereto, ' Materialiei 
zur weiteren technischen Ausbildung,' — a col 
lection of difficult passages from his own works 
(4) His son, Karl jun., a fine pianoforte player 
is teacher at this time (1S75) in the musi( 
school at Munich. 

Weber's friendship for the Barmanns lia: 
been already mentioned. Two of his letters t. 
them will be found in ' Letters of Distinguishec 
Musicians' (pp. 351, 381). The same collectioi 
contains no less than thirteen letters frcm 
Mendelssohn to Heinrich, and one to Carl- 
letters delightful not only for their fun anf 
cleverness, but for the close intimacy whicl 
they show to have existed between the two 
and the very great esteem which Jlendelssohn— 
a man who did not easily make fiiends — evident 1; 
felt for the great artist he addresses. Otlie 
references to Barmann will be found in ISIen 
delssohn's ' Eeisebriefe.' [A.M. 

BAGATELLE (Fr. 'a trifle'). A short piec 
of pianoforte music in a light style. The nam 
was probably first used by Beethoven in hi 
'Seven Bagatelles,' op. 33, who subsequentl; 
also wrote three other sets, two of which ar 
published as ops. 119 and 126 ; the third is stil 
in manuscript (Thayer, ' Chron. Verz.' Ko. 267' 
As bearing upon the title, it is worth while t 
mention that Beethoven's manuscript of his of 
119 has the German inscription ' Kleinigkeiten. 
instead of the French equivalent. The forna of th 


bagatelle is entirely at the discretion of the com- 
poser, the only restriction being that it must be 
short and not too serious in its character. [E. P.] 
BAGGE, Selmar, musician and critic, bom 
at Coburg June 30, 1S23, son of the Rector of 
the G}Tnnasium there. His musical studies 
began early, and in 1837 he entered the Con- 
servatorium at Prague under D. Weber. Later 
Btill he was a pupil of Sechter at Vienna, where 
in 1 85 1 he became professor of composition at 
the Conservatorium, and in 1853 organist of 
one of the churches. In 1855 he resigned his 
professorship and took to writing in the *Mo- 
natsschrift fiir Theater und JIusik,' but he soon 
turned it into the 'Deutsche Musikzeitung,' of 
which periodical he was foimder and editor. In 
1863 he transferred himself to Leipsic as editor 
of the ' Deutschen Allgemeine Musikzeitung,' 
1 ; this he relinquished in 1S6S for the director- 
■ of the music school at Basle. Bagge is a 
iig conservative and an able writer. Beetho- 
. and Schumann are his models in art, and 
lias no mercy on those who differ from him, 
ciaUy on the New German school. His 
., ~ic is correct and fluent, but poor in invention 
ail 1 melody. [G.] 

BAGXOLESL Anna. An Italian contralto, 
who sang in London, 1732, in Handel's operas. 
She made her first appearance, Jan. 1 5, in ' Ezio,' 
md sang subsequently in ' Sosarme,' in a revival 
af ' Flavio,' and in ' Acis and Galatea ' at its first 
pulilic performance, June 10, and the succeeding 
■ sions in that year. She also appeared in a 
ise of Ariosti's 'Cajo Marzio Coriolano.' Xo- 
_;■ is now known of her after-career. [J. M.] 
I AGPIPE (Fr. Cornemicse ; Ital. Cornamusa ; 
ierm. Sackpfeife). An instrument, in one or 
; )tlier of its forms, of very great antiquity. By 
;he Greeks it was named doKavXos or av/jujiiliveia ; 
)y the Romans Tibia utricularis. Mersennus 
alls it Sardeiine, and Bonani Piva or Ciaramella. 
n Lower Brittany it is tenned Bignou, from a 
'■1 ton word biff 710 — 'se renfler beaucoup.' It 
lieen named Musette (possibly after Colin 
i -et, an ofiicer of Thibaut de Champagne, 
iug of Navarre). Corruptions of these names, 
'j uch as Samponia or iSarnphoneja, and Zampuyna, 
.1 re also common. 

It appears on a coin of Nero, who, according 

I Suetonius, was himself a performer upon it. 

t is mentioned by Procopius as the instrument 

f war of the Roman infantry. In the crozier 

iven by William of Wykeham to New College, 

•iford, in 1403, there is the figure of an angel 

laying it. Chaucer's miller performed on it — 

' A bagpipe well couth he blowe and sowne.' 

Shakespeare often alludes to it. He speaks 

^. f 'the drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe,' of 

le antipathy some people have to its sound, 

■^, ad of some who laugh like parrots at a bagpiper. 

.t the close of the 15th century the bagpipe 

'Ills to have come into general favour in 

L iitil recently music for the bagpipe was not 
litten according to the usual system of notation, 



but was taught by a language of its own, the 
notes having each names, such as hixlroho, 
hananin, hiechin, hachin, etc. A collection of 
piobaireachd (pibrochs) in this form was pub- 
lished by Capt. Niel Macleod at Edinburgh in 

In Louis XIV's time the bagpipe fonned one 
of the instruments included in the band of the 
'Grande Ecurie,' and was played at court 

Its essential characteristics have alwajrs been, 
first, a combination of fixed notes or ' drones,' with 
a melody or ' chaunter' ; secondly, the presence of 
a wind-chest or bag. From these peculiarities, 
the Greek, and from the second of them the 
Latin names clearly come. Although it has no 
I doubt been re-invented in various times and 
places, it seems to be connected with the Keltic 
race, whether in Ireland, Scotland, or Brittany. 

The wind has been variously supplied, either 
from the breath of the player, or from a small 
pair of bellows placed under one arm, the sac or 
bag being under the other. In the latter form it 
contains all the essentials of the organ. It is 
somewhat remarkable that the use of the lungs 
themselves as the wind-chest to reed instruments 
should have been adopted later and less uni- 

At the present time there are four principal 
forms of the instrument used in this country — two 
Scotch (Highland and Lowland), the Irish, and 
the Northumbrian. The Scotch Highland pipe 
is blown from the chest, the others from bellows. 
The Irish bagpipe is perhaps the most powerful 
and elaborate instrument, keys producing the 
third and fifth to the note of the chaunter having 
been added to the drones. The Northumbrian 
is small and sweeter in tone ; but the Scotch pipe 
is probably the oldest and certainly the most 
characteristic form : it will therelbre be considered 
first, and at the greatest length. 

In this instrument a valved tube leads from 
the mouth to a leather air-tight bag, which has 
four other orifices ; three large enough to contain 
the base of three fixed long tubes termed drones, 
and another smaller, to which is fitted the 
chaunter. The former are thrown on the shoulder ; 
the latter is held in the h.-vncls. All four pipes 
are fitted with reeds, but of different kinds. The 
drone reeds are made by splitting a round length 
of 'cane' or reed backwanls towards a joint or 
knot from a cross cut near the open end ; they thus 
somewhat resemble the reed in organ pipes, the 
loose flap of cane replacing the tongue, tl»e uncut 
part the tube or reed proper. These are then set 
downwards in a chamber at the base of the 
drone, so that the current of air i.ssuing from the 
bag tends to close the fissure in the cane caused 
by the springing outwards of the cut flap, thus 
setting it in vibration. The drone reeds are 
only intended to produce a single note, which 
can be tuned by a slider on the pipe itself, 
varying the length of the consonating air-column. 

The chaunter reed is diH"erent in form, being 
made of two appro.ximated edges of cane tied 
together, and iu thus essentially a double rued. 



like that of the oboe or bassoon, while the drone 
reed roughly represents the single beating reed 
of the organ or clarinet. The drone reed is 
an exact reproduction of the ' squeaker ' which 
children in the fields fashion out of joints of 
tall grass, probably the oldest form of the reed 
in existence. 

The drone tubes are in length proportional to 
their note, the longest being about three feet 
hicrh. The chaunter is a conical wooden tube, 
about fourteen inches long, pierced with eight 
sounding holes, seven in front for the fingers, and 
one at the top behind for the thumb of the right 
hand. Two additional holes bored across the 
tube below the lowest of these merely regulate 
the pitch, and are never stopped. 

The compass is only of nine notes, from G to 

A inclusive y^ — ^ 

They do not form any 

diatonic scale whatever, nor indeed are they 
accurately tuned to one another. The nearest 
approximation to their position can be obtained 
by taking the two common chords of G and A 
superposed, and adding one extra note in the 
neighbourhood of F, or FJ. In the former 
common chord, which is tolerably true, we have 
G, B, D, G, upwards, and in the latter A, C t, 
E, A, which is far less accurate. G to A is 
not however a whole tone, only about -2. of one. 
CJp, unlike that of the tempered scale, which is 
nearly a comma sharp, is here as much flat. 
The B and D accord with the low G, and not 
with the low A. It appears to the writer better 
thus to describe the real sounds produced than 
to indulge in speculation as to Lydian and Phry- 
gian modes. 

In the tuning of the drones there seems to be 
difference of practice. Glen's ' Tutor for the Great 
Highland Bagpipe ' states that the drones are all 
tuned to A ; the two smaller in unison with 
the lower A of the chaunter, the largest to 
the octave below ; whereas from other works 
it appears that the sequence G, D, G, as 
well as D, A, D, are both admissible. But the 
Northumbrian or border pips, a far more accurate 
instrument according to modern musical notions 
than the Scotch, provides for a possible change of 
key by the addition of a fourth supplementaiy 
drone ; probably the three notes G, D, and A, 
might be tolerated, in alternate pairs, according 
to the predominant key of G or A in the melody. 
There is good ground, however, for believing that 
any attempt to accommodate the bagpipe to modern 
scale-notation would only result in a total loss 
of its archaic, semi-barbarous, and stimulating 

Some confirmation of the view here taken as to 
the scale of the bagpipe may be derived from an 
examination of the music ^vritten for it. It is 
known to all musicians that a feirly passable 
imitation of Scotch and Irish tunes may be 
obtained by playing exclusively on the 'black 
keys.' This amounts simply to omission of semi- 
tones ; and in semitones lies the special character 
of a scale, whether major or minor. The minor 


effect may indeed be obtained ; and is usual 
remarkable in all tunes of the Keltic family, b 
it is done by chord rather than by scale. Xo 
of the oldest and most characteristic Scot 
melodies contain scales ; all proceed more or h 
by leaps, especially that of a sixth, with abunda 
use of heterogeneous passing notes. If the a: 
of the pibrochs be read with a view to map o 
the resting or sustained notes in the melid 
it will be found, in the most characteristic a 
original tunes, that the scale is A. B, D, E, 1 
and high A. This is equivalent to the Ijlac 
key scale, beginning on Db. 'Mackimioi 
lament' is a good example. The minor efit 
named above is gained through the major sixi 
with the help of the drone notes ; a fact whii 
though rather startling, is easily demonstrable 

This use of ornamental notes has in course ' 
time developed into a new and proniiiit 
character in bagpipe music. Such a developuK 
is only natural in an instrument possessing 
real diatonic scale, and therefore reljnni 
tolerance of jarring intervals on perpetual ; 
pension, or on constant discord and resolutij 
with a ' drone bass ' in the strictest sense of t 
term. The ornamental notes thus introduceii ; ■ 
termed 'warblers,' very appropriately, after t 
birds, who, until trained and civilised, some'ii: 
by the splitting of their tongues, entirely disicg; . 
the diatonic scale, whether natural or temper . 
First-rate pipers succeed in introducing a ' warbl 
of eleven notes between the last up-beat antl i 
first down-beat of a bar. Warblers of se\ 
notes are common, and of five usual. 

The Irish bagpipe differs from the Scotch 
being played by means of bellows, in ha'.iii. . 
softer reed and longer tubes, with a chauii- 
giving ten or even twelve notes. The scale i 
said to be more accurate than the Scotch. 1 
Northumbrian, of which a beautiful specin . 
has been lent to the vrriter by ilr. Charles . 
Keene, is a much smaller and feebler instrumt . 
The ivory chaunter has, besides the seven he i 
in front, and one behind, five silver keys produc } 
additional notes. It is moreover stopped at s 
bottom, so that when all holes are closed a 
sound issues. The long wail with which a Sco i 
pipe begins and ends is thus obviated. E;i 
hole is opened singly by the finger, the otba 
remaining closed, contrary to the practice f 
other reeds. The gamut of the Northumbriar i 
Border pipes is given as fifteen notes, includ * 
two chromatic intervals, C and C J5, D and I ': 
The drones can be tuned to G, D, G, or 
D, A, D, as above stated. 

Considering the small compass of the bagp , 
the music written for it appears singulr ^ 
abundant. ' Tutors' for the instrument have I 
published by Donald MacDonald and Ai 
Mackay. Glen's collection of music for the _ : 
Highland bagpipe contains instructions for 
management of the reeds, etc., with 213 tin . 
UUeam Ross, the present Queen's Piper, j; - 
lished a collection of pipe music in 1869 con.- - 
ing of 243 marches, piobaireachds, or pibro( , 
strathspej's, and reels, selected from a thous; i 





re, amassed during thirty years from old pipers 
\d other local sources. The chief collection of 
orthumbrian music is known as Peacock's ; a 
ok which is now so scarce as to be almost 

,Many composers have imitated the tone of the 
igpipe by the orchestra ; the most familiar cases 
cur in the ' Dame Blanche ' of Boieldieu and 
e ' Dinorah' of Meyerbeer. [W. H. S.] 

BAI, TojfMASO, was bom at Crevalcuore, near 
ologna, towards the end of the 17th century, 
id was for many years one of the tenor singers 
I the chapel of the Vatican. In 171 3 he was 
ade maestro of that basilica, according to an 
ctract from the chapel books cited by Baini, 
Bcause he was the oldest and most accomplished 
lember of the choir. ' He died in the year 
flowing this recognition of his excellence. His 
ane rests on a single achievement. His ' Mise- 
sre,' written at the request of his choir, is the 
ily one (if we except that by Baini) out of a 
mg series by composers known and unknown, 
icluding Naldini, Felice Anerio, Tartini, and 
Jessandro Scarlatti, which has been thought 
orthy to take permanent rank with those of 
Lllegri and Palestrina. Other works by Bai 
ist, but they are in manuscript. They consist 
a mass, twelve motetti for four, five, and 
^ht voices, and a 'De Profundis' for eight 
oices. They are all enimierated in the cata- 
gue of the collection made by tlie Abbe 
tini, [E. H. P.] 

BAILDON, Joseph, a gentleman of the 
apel Royal, and lay-vicar of Westminster 
bbey in the middle of the 18th century. In 
763 he obtained one of the first prizes given 
ly the Catch Club for a catch, and in 1766 was 
warded a prize for his fine glee, 'When gay 
chus fills my breast.' In 1768 he was 
pointed organist of the churches of St. Luke, 
id Street, and All Saints, Fidham. Ten catches 
d four glees by him are contained in Warren's 
lUections, and others are in print. Baildon 
lublished a collection of songs in two books 
titled 'The Laurel,' and 'Four Favourite 
ngs sung by Mr. Beard at Eanelagh Gar- 
ins.* [W. H. H.] 
BAILLOT, PiEBRE Marie Francois de 
Ai.ES, takes a prominent place among the great 
rench violin-players. He was born Oct. i, 
771, at Passy, near Paris, where his father kept 
school. He shewed very early remarkable mu- 
sical talent, and got his first instruction on the 
violin from an Italian named Polidori. In 1780 
Bainte- Marie, a French violinist, became his 
teacher, and by his severe taste and methodical 
instruction gave him the first training in those 
artistic qualities by which Baillot's playing was 
afterwards so much distinguished. When ten 
years of age, he heard Viotti play one of his 
concertos. His performance filled the boy with 
intense admiration, and, although for twenty 
years he liad no second opportunity of hearing 
him, he often related later in life, how from that 

1 ■ Come U plu antico e virtuoso delU Cappe'la.' 

day Viotti remained for him the model of a violin- 
player, and his style the ideal to be realised in 
his own studies. After the loss of his father in 
1783 a Mons. de Bouchepom, a hi eh government 
official, sent him, with his own children, to Rome, 
where he was placed under the tuition of the 
violin-player PoUani, a pupil ot Nardini. Al- 
though his progress was rapid and soon enabled 
him to play successfully in public, we find him 
during the next five years living with his bene- 
factor alternately at Pau, Bavonne, and other 
places in the south of France, acting as his 
private secretary, and devoting but little time 
to his violin. In 1791 he came to Paris, de- 
termined to rely for the future on his musical 
talent. Viotti procured him a place in the 
opera-band, but Baillot very soon resigned it, in 
order to accept an appointment in the ^Ministere 
des Finances, which he kept for some years, 
devoting merelv his leisure hours to music and 
violin-playing. After having been obliged to join 
the army for twenty months he returned, in 
1795, to Paris, and, as Fetis relates, became 
accidentally acquainted with the violin-compo- 
sitions of Corelli, Tartini, Geminiani, Locatelli, 
Bach (?) and Handel. The study of the works 
of these great masters filled him with fresh 
enthusiasm, and he once more determined to 
take up music as his profession. He soon 
made his appearance in public with a concerto of 
Viotti, and with such succec-s, that his reputation 
was at once established, nnd a professorship of 
violin-playing was given him at the newly-opened 
Conservatoire. In 1802 he entered Napoleon's 
private band, and afterwards travelled for three 
years in Russia (1S05-1808) together with the 
violoncello-plaj'er Lamare, earning both fame and 
money. In 18 14 he started concerts for chamber- 
music in Paris, which met with great success, and 
acquired him the reputation of an unrivalled 
quartett-player. In 18 15 and 1S16 he travelled 
in Holland, Belgium, and England, where he 
performed at the Philharmonic concert of Feb. 
26, 1S16, and afterwards became an ordinary 
member of the Society. From 1821 to 1831 he 
was leader of the band at the Grand Opera ; from 
1825 he filled the same place in the Royal Band ; 
in 1833 he made a final tour tlii-ough vSwitzerland 
and part of Italy. He died Sept. 15, 1842, 
working to the end with unremitting freshness. 
He was the last representative of the great 
classical Paris school of violin-playing. After 
him the influence of Pagan inis style became 
paramount in France, and Baillot's true disciples 
and followers in spirit were, and are, only to be 
found among the violinists of the modem Ger- 
man school. His playing was distinguished by a 
noble powerful tone, great neatness of execution, 
and a pure, elevated, truly musical style. An 
excellent solo-player, he was unrivalled at Paris 
as interpreter of the best classical chamber-music. 
Mendelssohn and Hiller both speak in the high- 
est terms of praise of Baillot as a quartett- 
player. An interesting account of some of his 
personal traits will be found in a letter of the 
former, published in 'Goethe and Mendelssohn' 



(iS72y Although his compositions are almost 
entirely forgotten, liis 'Art du Violon' still main- 
tains its place as a standard work. 

He also took a prominent part with Rode and 
Kreutzer in compiling and editing the ' ]\I^thode 
de Violon adoptee par le Conservatoire,' and a 
similar work for the violoncello. His obituary 
notices of Gr(5try (Paris, 1814) and Niotti (1825"), 
and other occasional writings, shew remarkable 
critical power and great elegance of style. 

His published musical compositions are: — 15 
trios for 2 violins and bass ; 6 duos for 2 violins ; 
1 2 etudes for violin ; 9 concertos ; symphonic 
concertante for 2 ^dolins, with orchestra ; 30 airs 
varies; 3 string quartetts; i sonata for piano 
and violin ; 24 preludes in all keys, and a num- 
ber of smaller pieces for the violin. [P. D.] 

BAKER, , Mus. Doc, was bom at 

Exeter in 1768. Taught by his aunt, he was 
able at seven years of age to play upon the 
harpsichord, and about the same time was placed 
under the tuition of Hugh Bond and William 
Jackson, then organist of Exeter cathedral. He 
also received lessons on the violin from Ward. 
In 1775 he quitted Exeter for London, where he 
was received into the family of the Earl of 
Uxbridge, who placed him under William Cramer 
and Dussek for instruction on the violin and 
pianoforte. He afterwards obtained an appoint- 
ment as organist at Stafford. He took the degree 
of Doctor of Music at Oxford about 1801. He 
died about 1S35. Dr. Baker's compositions 
comprise anthems, glees, organ voluntaries, 
pianoforte sonatas, and other pieces, the music 
to an unfortunate musical entertainment called 
' The Caffres,' produced for a benefit at Covent 
Garden Theatre, June 2, 1802, and at once 
condemned, and numerous songs, many of them 
composed for Incledon, his former feUow-pupil 
under Jackson. [W. H. H.] 

BALBI, LuiGi, bom at Venice towards the 
middle of the i6th century, a Cordelier monk, 
pupil of Costanzo Porta, director of the music in 
the church of S. Antonio at Padua, and afterwards 
in the convent of his order at Venice (1606). 
He composed masses, motetts, and madrigals 
(Venice, 1576-1606), and died in 1608. One 
seven-part and five eight-part motets by him are 
printed in Bodenschatz's 'Florilegium Por- 
tense,' Pt. 2. [M. C. C] 

BALDASSAREI, Benedetto, an eminent 
Italian singer, who sang the tenor part of Timante 
in Handel's opera ' Floridante,' at its first and suc- 
ceeding performances in 1721. He appeared also 
in Buononcini's 'Crispo,' and other pieces, in the 
next year. He had already sung in ' Numitor ' 
by Porta, and other operas, with Durastanti and 
her companions of the old troupe. [J. M.] 

BALDENECKER, Nicolaus, member of an 
extensive family of musicians, born at Mayence 
1782, first violin at the Frankfort theatre from 
1803 to 51, and joint-founder with Schelble of the 
amateur concerts which resulted in the famous 
'Cacilien-Verein' of that city. 


BALDI, a counter-tenor singer, who sa~ig ' 
London in operas of Handel, Buononcini, a ' 
others, from 1725 to 28. In the first j"ear he sa h 
in 'Elisa'andLeonardo Vinci's 'Elpidia,'replaci ' 
Pacini in the latter, who previously sang in ^'■ 
In 1726 he appeared in Handel's 'Alessandr '^^ 
'Ottone,' and 'Scipione' ; in 1727 in 'Admel " 
and 'Riccardo,' as well as in Buononcini's 'At " 
anatte'; and in 1728 he sang in 'Tolome • 
'SLroe,' and 'Radamisto,' — all by Handel. ] ' 
seems to have been an excellent and use: ■' 
artist, only eclipsed by the great Senesino, w 
monopolised the leading parts. [J. "N. 

BALELLI, an Italian basso engaged at t 
opera in London towards the end of the 18 
century. In 1787 he sang in 'Giulio Cess j, 
in Egitto,' a pasticcio, the music selected 
Arnold from various works of Handel's ; a: 
in the 'Re Teodoro,' a comic opera of Paisid 
In 17SS he appeared in Sarti's 'Giulio Sabine 
and the next year in Cherubini's 'Ifigeai 
and in operas both comic and serious 
Tarchi. [J. IV. 

BALFE, Michael William, was bom 
Dublin, May 15, 1808. When he was four ye£ 
old his family resided at Wexford, and it w 
here, in the eager pleasure he took in listeni: 
to a military band, that Balfe gave the first sij 
of his musical aptitude. At five years of a 
he took his first lesson on the violin, and 
seven was able to score a polacca compos 
by himself for a band. His father now soug 
better instruction for him, and placed him und 
O'Rourke (afterwards known in London 
Rooke), who brought him out as a violinist 
May 1816. At ten years old he composed 
ballad, afterwards sung by Madame Vest) 
in the comedy of 'Paul Pry,' under the tii 
of ' The Lover's Mistake,' and which even nt 
is remarkable for the freshness of its melod 
the gift in which he afterwards proved 
eminent. W^hen he was sixteen his fatb 
died, and left him to his own resources ; 
accordingly came to London, and gained co 
siderable credit by his performance of violin sol 
at the so-called oratorios. He was then engag 
in the orchestra at Drury Lane, and when f 
Cooke, the director, had to appear on the sta 
(which was sometimes the case in the iraporta 
musical pieces), he led the band. At this peri 
he took lessons in composition from C. F. Hoi 
organist of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, ai; 
father of the popular song-writer. In 1825 » 
met with a patron, the Count Mazzara, whom ' ? 
accompanied to Italy. At Rome he was locat I 
in the house of his patron, and studied couute a 
point under Frederici, afterwards head of t. 
Conservatorio at Milan. He next went 
Milan, and studied singing imder FUippo Gal 
Here he made his first pubUc essay as a dramal 
composer by writing the music to a baUs 
entitled 'La Perouse,' the melody and instr 
mentation in which created a favourable sens 
tion. He was now in his 20th year. Visitii 
Paris, he was introduced to Rossini, then direct' 


I f the Italian Opera ; the maestro was not slow 

II perceive his talent, and offered him an en- 
ai [agement as principal barytone, on condition that 
jii 16 should take a course of preparatory lessons from 
J i iordogni. He made his first appearance at the 
^ lose of 1828 in 'Figaro,' with decided success. 
•tit Vt the close of his Paris engagement he returned 
ii o Italy, and was welcomed by a new patron, 
« he Count Sampieri of Bologna. In the carnival 

I ieason of 1829-30 he was principal barytone at 
ti Palermo, and here produced his first complete 
t| jpera 'I Rivali di se stessi,' written in the short 
space of twenty days. This was followed in 
rapid succession by ' tin Avvertimento ai gelosi,' 
produced at Pavia, and 'Enrico Quarto' at 
Milan, where he was engaged to sing with Mali- 
bran at the Scala. At Bergamo he met Mile. 
Rosen, a German singer, whom he married. He 
. continued to sing on the stage in Italy until the 
^spring of 1835, when he came to London, and 
Appeared at several public and private concerts. 

Balfe's career as a writer of English operas 
commenced from this j'ear, when he produced the 
' Siege of Rochelle' at Drury Lane (Oct. 29), with 
distinguished success. It was played for more 
than three months without intermission, and com- 
pletely established the composer's fame. ' The 
Maid of Artois' came out in the following spring, 
its success heightened by the exquisite singing 
of Malibran. 'The Light of other days' in this 
opera, says one of his biographers, ' is perhaps 
the most popular song in England that our days 
have known.' In the autumn of this year Balfe 
[i appeared as a singer at Drury Lane. In 1S37 
1 he brought out his ' Catherine Grey ' and ' Joan 
i of Arc' — himself singing the part of Theodore ; 
and in the following year (July 19, 38), ' Falstaff' 
^ was produced at Her Majesty's Theatre, the first 
Italian opera written for that establishment by 
an English composer since Ame's ' OljTnpiade.' 
Two months previously 'Diadeste' was given at 
Drury Lane. In 1839 he was much on the 
boards, playing Farinelli in Bamett's opera of 
that name at Drury Lane, and in an English 
version of Ricci's ' Scaramuccia ' at the Lyceum. 
In 1840 he entered the field as manager of the 
Lyceum (the English opera-house), and pro- 
duced his 'Keolanthe' for the opening night, 
with Madame Balfe in the principal character; 
but with all its merited success the opera did 
not save the enter])rise from an untoward close. 

Balfe now migrated to Paris, where his genius 
was recognised, and MM. Scribe and St. George 
furnished him with the dramatic poems which 
inspired him with the charming music of 'Le 
Puits d'Amour' (performed in London under 
the title of 'Geraldine'), and 'Les Quatre fils 
d'Aymon' (known here as 'The Castle of 
Aymon'), both given at the Opera Comique. 
While thus maintaining his position before the 
■ most fastidious audience of Europe, Balfe returned 
en passant to England, and produced the most 
successful of all his works, 'The Bohemian Girl' 
(Nov. 27, 1843). This opera has been translated 
into almost every European language, and is as 
great a favourite on the other side of the 

BALFE. 127 

Atlantic as on this. In 1844 he brought out 
' The Daughter of St. Mark,' and in the following 
year 'The Enchantress' — both at Drury Lane. 
In 1845 he wrote ' L'Etoile de Seville' for the 
Academic Eoyale, in the course of the re- 
hearsals of which he was called to London to 
arrange his engagement as conductor of Her 
Majesty's Theatre ; which office he filled to the 
closing of that establishment in 1S52. 'The 
Bondman' came out at Drury Lane in the winter 
of 1 846, Balfe having arrived from Vienna specially 
for the rehearsals. In Dec. 1847 he brought out 
' The Maid of Honour,' — the subject of which is 
the same as Flotow's ' Martha,' — at Drury Lane. 
In 1849 he went to Berlin to reproduce some 
of his operas, when the king offered him the 
decoration of the Prussian Eagle, which as a 
British subject he was unable to accept. Between 
this year and 1852, when the 'Sicilian Bride' 
was given at Drury Lane, and a few weeks later, 
at the Surrey Theatre, ' The Deal's in it,' 
Balfe had undertaken to conduct a series of 
National Concerts at Her Majesty's Theatre : 
the plan of these performances was devised with 
a view to the furtherance of the highest pur- 
poses of art, and several important works were 
produced in the course of the enterprise, which 
did not, however, meet with success. 

At the close of 1852 Balfe visited St. Peters- 
burg with letters of introduction from the Prince 
of Prussia, now Emperor of Germany, where 
he was received with all kinds of distinction. 
Besides popular demonstrations and imperial 
favour he realised more money in less time 
than at any other period. The expedition to 
Trieste, where his next work 'Pittore e Duca.' 
was given during the Carnival, with such success 
as the failure of his prima donna could permit, 
brings us to 1856, when, after an absence of four 
years, he returned to England. 

In the year after his return Balfe brought 
out his daughter Victoire (afterwards married to 
Sir John Crampton, and subsequently to the 
Duke de Frias), as a singer at the Italian opera 
at the Lyceum ; and his next work, ' The Rose 
of Castile,' was produced by the English company 
also at this theatre on Oct. 29, 1857. This was 
succeeded, in 185S, by 'La Zingara,' the Italian 
version of 'The Bohemian Girl,' at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, and by ' Satanella' at the Lyceum, 
'Satanella' had a long run, and one of the songs, 
' The power of Love,' became very popular. His 
next operas were 'Bianca,' i860 ; 'The Puritan's 
Daughter,' 1861 ; ' The Armourer of Nantes' and 
'Blanche de Nevers' in Feb. and Nov. 1863. 

In December 1869 the French version of his 
'Bohemian Girl' was produced at the Theatre 
Ljrrique of Paris under the title of ' La Bohe- 
mienne,' for which the composer wrote several 
additional pieces, besides recasting and extending 
the work into five acts. Tlie success attending 
this revival procured him the twofold honour of 
being made Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur by 
the Emperor of the French, and Commander of 
the Order of Carlos III by the Regent of Spain. 

In 1864 Balfe retired into the country, became 




the proprietor of a small landed property in 
Hertfordshire, called Rowney Abbey, and turned 
gentleman farmer. Here he amused himself 
with agriculture and music, making occasional 
visits to Paris. He had several severe attacks 
of bronchitis, and suffered much from the loss 
of a favourite daughter, which much weakened 
his constitution. In September 1870 he caught 
a violent cold, which caused a return of his old 
complaint, and on October 20 he expired. 

*I1 Talismano,' the Italian version of Balfe's 
last opera, ' The Knight of the Leopard,' was 
produced at Drury Lane, on June 11, 1874 ; and 
on September 25 in the same year a statue to 
his memory, by a Belgian artist, M. Mallempre, 
was placed in the vestibule of Drury Lane, the 
scene of so many of his triumphs. 

Balfe's miscellaneous pieces are numerous, 
including the operetta of ' The Sleeping Queen,' 
performed at the Gallery of Illustration ; three 
cantatas — ' Mazeppa,' performed in London ; and 
two others composed at Paris and Bologna. 
Many of his ballads are not likely to be soon 
forgotten. His characteristics as a composer 
are summed up by a brother artist (Professor 
Macfarren) in the following words : — ' Balfe 
possesses in a high degree the qualifications that 
make a natural musician, of quickness of ear, 
readiness of memory, executive facility, almost 
unlimited and ceaseless fluency of invention, 
with a felicitous power of producing striking 
melodies. His great experience added to these 
has given him the complete command of orchestral 
resources, and a remarkable rapidity of pro- 
duction. Against these great advantages is 
balanced the want of conscientiousness, which 
makes him contented with the first idea that 
presents itself, regardless of dramatic truth, 
and considerate of momentary effect rather than 
artistic excellence ; and this it is that, with all 
his well-merited success with the million, will 
for ever prevent his works from ranking among 
the classics of the art. On the other hand it 
must be owned that the volatility and spontaneous 
character of his music would evaporate through 
elaboration, either ideal or technical ; and that 
the element which makes it evanescent is that 
which also makes it popular.' {Imp. Diet, of 
Ihiiv.Biog.; Kenney's IZemoiV, 1875). [E.F.R.] 
BALINO, see Fabri. 

BALL, William, an English litterateur, who 
died in London on May 14, 1S69, aged 85, and 
deserves a place in a Dictionary of Music for 
having adapted to English words the librettos of 
various great musical compositions — INIasses of 
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven (No. x), Mozart's 
'Requiem,' Spohr's 'God, thou art great,' Ros- 
sini's 'Stabat Mater,' and especially Mendels- 
sohn's 'St. Paul' and 'Lobgesang.' 

BALLABILE (Ital., from haUare, to dance). 
A piece of music adapted for dancing. The term 
can be applied to any piece of dance music. 
Meyerbeer frequently uses' it in his operas, e.g. 
in ' Robert le Diable,' where the three dances in 
the scene of the resurrection of the nuns in the 


third act are entitled in the score ' 1°. 2*". and ;, 
ballabile.' He also applies the term to the dam 
music of the ball-room scene at the commenc 
of the fifth act of the 'Huguenots.' Mrn 
recently Dr. Hans von Billow has given the tit 
of 'Ballabili' to the dance-numbers of h 
'Carnevale di Milano,' these dances being n 
spectively a polacca, a waltz, a polka, a quadrill 
a mazurka, a tarantella, and a galop. [E. P 

BALLAD, from the Italian hallata,^ a danc 
and that again from hallare, to dance. Tli 
form and application of the word have varie 
continually from age to age. In Italy a Ballet: 
originally signified a song intended to be sung i 
dance measure, accompanied by or intermixe 
with dancing ; ' in the Crusca dictionary,' sa^ 
Burney, 'it is defined as Canzone, che si cajit 
ballando' — a song sung while dancing. The (A 
English ballads are pieces of narrative verse i: 
stanzas, occasionally followed by an envoi o 
moral. Such are 'Chevy Chase,' 'Adam Bell 
Clym of the Clough and William of Cloudeslee 
' The Babes in the Wood' ; and, to come to moi 
modem times, such are 'Hozier's Ghost' (Wal 
pole's favourite). Goldsmith's ' Edwin and An 
gelina,' and Coleridge's 'Dark Ladie.' But th' 
term has been used for almost every kind 
verse — historical, narrative, satirical, political, re 
ligious, sentimental, etc. It is difficult to dis 
cover the earliest use of the word. Many refer 
ences which have been made to old authtT, 
reputed to have employed it are not to th( 
point, as it will be found in such cases that th( 
original word in the old Latin chronicles i: 
some form of the noun ' cantilena.' 

In a MS. of the Cotton collection, said to bt 
as ancient as the year 1326, mention is made 
ballads and roundelays (Hawkins, Hist, of jNIu 
sic). John Shirley, who lived about 1440, ma U 
a collection of compositions by Chaucer, Lydgate 
and others, and one of the volumes, now in tht 
Ashmolean collection, is entitled ' A Boke clepec 
the abstracte brevyaire, compyled of diverse 
halades, roundels, . . . collected by John Shirley. 
In the devices used at the coronation of Henrj 
VI (Dec. 17, 1431) the king was portrayed in 
three several ways, each 'with a ballad' (Sharer 
Turner). Coverdale's Bible, printed in 1535. 
contains the word as the title of the Song oi 
Solomon — 'Salomon's Balettes caUed Cantica 

Ballad making was a fashionable amusement 
in the reign of Henry VIII, who was himsell 
renowned for ' setting of songes and makyng ot 
ballettes.' A composition attributed to him, and 
called ' The KjTiges Ballade ' (Add. MSS. Brit. 
Mus. 5665), became very popular. It was men- 
tioned in ' The Complainte of Scotland,' published 
in 1548, and also made the subject of a sermon 
preached in the presence of Edward VI by Bishop 
Latimer, who enlarged on the advantages of 
'Passetyme with good companye.' Amongst 
Henry's effects after his decease, mention is 
made of 'songes and ballades.' In Queen Eliza- 

^ Ballata = a dancing piece, as SuonatOt a sounding piece, and 
Cantata, a sinRiug piece. 

Selection of §art-^usic 





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PLOTOW, F. von. 

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little sacred gems, selected from the sacred writings of Haydn, Spohr, Handel, Dr. Arne, Mendelssohn, Rossi 
Mozart, Cherubini, Mehul, and Naumann, and arranged easily for a solo pianist. These pieces are equally suita 
for the harmonium or American organ." — Vide Sunday Times. Beautifully illustrated. Each book post free 

24 stamps. 

London: ROBERT COCKS & Co., New Burlington-street. 



Pkofessor op Music in the Univeesity of Oxford. 
A Treatise on Harmony. Second Edition. 4to., los. 

A Treatise on Counterpoint, Canon, and Pugue, based upon that of Cherubi 
4to., i6j. 

A Treatise on Musical Porm and General Composition. 4to., los. 

A Miisic Primer for Schools. By J. Troiitbeck, M.A., Music Master in We; 
minster Sclaool, and R. F. Dale, M.A., B. Mus., Assistant Master in Westminst 
School. Crown 8vo. cloth, is. 6d. 

OXFORD, Printed at the CLARENDON PRESS, and Published by MACMILLA] 
& CO., LONDON, Publishers to the University. 

Now ready, fiill music size, pp. 101, price 6s. 6d. nett. 





The chief aim of this Work is to form and preserve the right touch from the outset, the neglect of 
which, more than of anything else, is the secret of inability to make progress towards really 
artistic playing. The position of the hands are indicated by Woodcuts. The Exercises and 
Lessons are so carefully arranged and graduated that the right action may be scrupulously 
maintained. Time is treated of in the present work in a course of special separate lessons, 
so arranged as to give a complete mastery of the subject. 


From the Standard. — " Instruction books for the use of this instrument are innumerable, but the 
book which we deem considerably in advance of all others is this present one by Mr. Goddard." 

From the Sunday Times. — "A highly compendious and exhaustive pianoforte tutor, dealing with 
the subject from a point which has not previously been taken. It would take up too long a time to 
|)ass in review all the manifold excellences embraced in Mr. Goddard's book, but we can only say that 
it is thoroughly worthy of the attention both of tutors and pupils." 

r From the Era. — " The marmer in which the various lessons are arranged, both in their character 
'and natural sequence, cannot be too highly commended, and we think the work, which is most 
excellently got up, is likely to take the place of many existing manuals." 

From the Figaro. — " The whole work is one of the best which has been devised for some time." 

London : GODDARD & CO., 4, Argyll Place, Regent Street. 



The Vertical Pianette, trichord treble 
Do., with reverberating brass bridge 
The Oblique Trichord throughout . . , 

25 to 34 gs. 
42 to 50 gs. 
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susceptibility and durability of the mechanism, these unique Instruments are now in very 

general demand, and are to be had only of 


201, Regent Street ; 46, Moorgate Street ; 35, Church Street, Liverpool ; 

At their Agencies in Dublin, Belfast, Brighton, Glasgow, and Edinburgh ; and 
of the principal Musicsellers throughout the country. 


Specialities in Pianofortes, 


pass five octaves, 15 guineas, or <£l 10s. per quai-ter on the tlu'ee years 
system of purchase. 


wahiut, 20 guineas, or 2 guineas per quarter on the three years' system o: 

CHAPPELL k CO.'S YACHT PIANINOS, 30 guineas, oi 

^3 per quarter on the three years' system of purchase. 

CHAPPELL & CO.'S BOUDOm PIANINO, 35 guineas, oi 

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CHAPPELL & CO.'S MODEL PIANETTE, 35 guineas, oi 

£3 lOs, per quarter on the three years' system of purchase. 

CHAPPELL & CO.'S ENGLISH MODEL, 40 guineas, oi*' 

£4 per quarter on the three years' system of purchase. 

CHAPPELL & CO.'S COLONIAL MODEL, 45 guineas, on: 

£4 10s. per quarter on the three years' system of purchase. 

C!:IAPPELL & CO.'S OEIENTAL MODEL, 38 guineas, oi 

£15 per year on the three years' system of purchase. 

CHAPPELL k CO.'S FOREIGN MODEL, 50 guineas, oi 

£5 per quarter on the three years' system of purchase. 


£5 10s. per quarter on the three years' system of purchase. 

CHAPPELL & CO.'S OBLIQUE GRAND, 70 guineas, oi 

£7 per quarter on the three years' system of purchase. 


guineas, or £9 per quarter on the three years' system of purchase. 


or £8 per quarter on the three years' system of pui'chase; 


guineas, or £11 per quarter on the three years' system of purchase. 

Upwards of one hundred varieties on view. 

SHOW ROOMS, 50, New Bond-street. 
STEAM FACTORY, Chalk Farm-road, N.W. 

iTart II.] 





(A.D. 1450 — 1878) 






VOL. I. 



[ The Riijht of Trantlalion and Reproduction is retervcd. ] 

Price Three SkiUinffs and Sixpence. Fart III will be published on Juhi 1. 

Established 32 years— 1846 to 1878. 



ESS riX; 

6 & 7 







12 TO 125 GUINEAS. 



6 & 7 




<^*^' Ceslimnnxals. <&*^ 


The tone of the Estev Organs is wonderfully 
beautiful and noble, and the one I possess— a really 
magnificent instrument — gives me a great deal of 
pleasure. My great friend the Abbe Franz Liszt, 
also, is charmed with it, and expresses himself highly 
satisfied with these Organs. 


The EsTEY Organs merit the highest admiration, 
not only on account of their magnificent tone, but 
also on account of their touch and their solid and 
tasteful construction. I consider them unsurpass- 


The EsTEY Organs distinguish themselves through 
power and fulness of tone, and at the same time 
through a wonderful softness and tenderness. 

Prom MADAME ESSIPOFF (Pianist). 

I have often had the opportunity to hear and play 
on the EsTEY Organs, and was perfectly charmed 
with the full, sympathetic tone of these instruments. 
On no other Organ can be produced, with such purity 
and precision, the choir-like sound in lower registers 
so similar to a fine Church Organ ; and with pleasure 
I have played for hours on these instruments ; re- 
commending them most warmly to the music -loving 


This is to certify to Estey & Co., that the Organ 
furnished by them two years ago, for use in the 
Grand Ducal Palace, has proved itself exceedingly 
appropriate in the celebration of religious services, 
very durable, and not in the least affected by any 
changes in the temperature. 

From J. JOACHIM (VioHnist). 

It was to me of the greatest interest to become 
acquainted with the Organs of Estey & Co., the 
full, round, and soft tone of which, between Oboe 
and Clarinet, reminds me in its character of the 
Pipe Organ. The touch is light. I am, therefore, 
glad to be able to recommend these beautiful instru- 

From F. KUCKEN. 

The Organs from the manufactory' of Estey & Co. 
are undoubtedly the finest instruments of their kind. 
Power and softness of tone, with light touch, are 
qualities which enable a practised player to produce 
a wonderful effect upon his audience. 


I have heard the beautiful Organs of Estey & Co., 
and was astonished at the full, noble, and sweet 
tone of these instruments, which resembles so much 
the Pipe Organ, and which I have never found in any 
other American Organ. 

From OLE BULL CViolinist). 

After having plaj'ed and examined the Organs of 
Estey & Co., I can fully confirm that they are the 
best substitute for the Pipe Organ in smaller Churches 
and in Schools, and that the smaller ones are very 
appropriate for family use, and should be highly 
recommended, and, after having used and heard the 
above Organs in our late Concerts, we fully concur ia 
the above statement, and say in addition, that the 
tone is very beautiful, round, and effective. 

From A. RUBINSTEIN (Pianist). 

It gives me great pleasure to give due praise to 
Estev & Co. for their really splendid Organs. The 
tone of these instruments is full, noble, and charming, 
and has the advantage of pleasing and captivating 
the ear. To these artistic qualities must be added 
that they are of solid workmanship and of the most 
elegant finish, and I doubt not their having an extra- 
ordinarj' success. 

From C. SAINT SAENS (Organist and 


I have played upon the Organs of Estev & Co., 

and have been charmed with their quality of tone, 

which comes very near that of a Pipe Organ, and the 

resources it gives to the player. 

From A. WILHELMJ (Violinist). 

I herewith testify with great pleasure to the cele- 
brated Organ manufacturers, Estey & Co., that their 
Organs are fine (beautiful) beyond comparison ; I rate 
them above similar instruments of anj' other manufac- 
turers that I have seen. The tone (sound) is full, round, 
and noble ; the touch exceedingly light and easj' ; the 
tune of the different registers specific and distinct ; 
and the whole construction of blameless solidity. 



Sole Agents for the United Kingdom. 




(A.D. 1450 — 1878). 

The want of English works on the history, theory, or practice of Music, 
or the biographies of Musicians, accessible to the non-professional reader, has 
long been a subject of remark. Of 'Methods' and special text-books there is 
no lack, nor of dictionaries of 'musical terms'; but there is no one work in 
English from which an intelligent inquirer can learn, in small compass and 
in untechnical language, what is meant by a Symphony or Sonata, a Fugue, 
a Stretto, a Coda, or any other of the terms which necessarily occur in every 
description or analysis of a Concert or a piece of Music, from which he can 
gain a readable and succinct account of the histoiy of the various branches of 
the art, or of the rise and progress of the Pianoforte and other instruments, 
or the main facts and characteristics of the lives of eminent or representative 
Musicians, or the circumstances attending the origin of their chief works. 

Such questions are now constantly occurring to those who formerly would 
never have thought of them. Music in England has recently made immense 
progress, and the number of persons who attend Concerts and practise Music 
has very largely increased. It is no longer regarded as a mere idle amusement, 
but is taking its right place beside the other Arts as an object of study and 
investigation. The demand for such information as that mentioned above is 
therefore naturally great. This demand the Dictionary of Music is designed 
to meet. It will contain articles on musical histoiy and biography ; on the 
science and practice of composition, and the nature, construction, and use of 
musical instruments, explanations of musical terms, and general information 
on modem Music since the fifteenth century; the "whole arranged alphabetically, 
and so given as to be intelligible to the Amateur, as well as useful to the 
professional Musician. Special attention will be paid to English Music. Every 
effort will be made to compress the articles as much as possible, consistent wth 
their being intelhgible and readable. Illustrations in music tji^e and occasional 
wood-cuts will be given. 


SiE Julius Benedict 

Joseph Bennett, Esq. . . 

J. E,. Steendaxe-Bennett, Esq. 

D. Baptie, Esq., Grlasgow 
Mks. Carr 

jViLLiAM Chappell, Esq., F.S.A. 
M. GusTAVE Chouquet, Keeper of the Museum of the Con 

servatoire de Musique, Paris 
Arthur Duke Coleridge, Esq., Barrister-at-Law 
W. H. CuMMiNGS, Esq., The Chapel Royal 

E. Dannreuther, Esq. . . 
Herr Paul David 





R. S.-B 




C. C. 


. C. 





D. C. 


. H. C. 





James W. Davison, Esq. 

E. H. DoNKiN, Esq 


C. A. Fyffe, Esq., Barrister-at-Law 

De. Feanz Geheing, Vienna 

Kev. Thomas Helmoee, Master of the Children of the Chapels Eoyal 

George Heebeet, Esq 

De. Feedinand Hillee . . 

A. J. HiPKiNS, Esq 

E. J. Hopkins, Esq., Organist to the Temple 
Kev. T. Peect Hudson . . 
Feanz Hueffee, Esq. 
John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. 
"William H. Husk, Esq., Librarian to the Sacred Harmonic Society 

F. H, Jenks, Esq, Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 
H. J. Lincoln, Esq. 
Chaeles Mackeson, Esq. 

Here A. Maczewski, Concert-director, Kaiserslautern 
Julian Maeshall, Esq. . . 
Mes. Julian Marshall . . 

De. E. G. Monk, Organist of York Cathedral . . 
SiE Heebeet Oakeley, Mus. Doc, Professor of Music at the 

University of Edinburgh . . 
Rev. Sie Feedeeick A. G. Ouselet, Baet., Professor of Music 


C. HuBEET H. Parey, Esq 

Heee Eenst Pauee 

Edward John Payne, Esq., Barrister-at-Law ,. 

Edward H. Pembee, Esq., Q.C. 

Miss Phillimoee . . 

Heek C. F. Pohl, Librarian to the Gesellschaft der Musik- 

freunde, Vienna 
William Pole, Esq., F.R.S., Mus. Doc. 
VicTOE de Pontigny, Esq. 
E. Peout, Esq. 
PtEV. William Pulling, Eastnor, Ledbury 


"W. S. RocKSTEo, Esq. 
H. H. Statham, Esq. 

De. W. H. Stone 

Arthur Sullivan, Esq., Mus. Doc. 
Franklin Taylor, Esq. . . 

Alexander W. Thayee, Esq., United States Consul, Trieste, 
Author of the Life of Beethoven 

C. A. W. Teoyte, Esq 

Colonel H. Waee, Public Library, Boston, Mass., U. S. A 
The Editoe 

Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 
Ajml I, 1878. 

J. W. D. 

E. H. D. 
H. S. E. 
e. A.F. 

F. G. 
T. H. 

G. H. 

A. J. H. 

E. J. H. 
T. P. H. 

F. H. 
J. H. 

W. H. H. 
F. H. J. 
H. J. L. 
A. M. 
J. M. 
F. A. M. 
E. G. M. 

H. S. 0. 


C. H. H. P. 



J. P. 


H. P. 


M. P. 


F. P. 


. P. 








F. R. 


S. R. 


H. S. 


H. S. 





W. T. 






Professor of Music in the University op Oxford. 
A Treatise on Harmony. Second Edition. 4to., loj. 

A Treatise on Counterpoint, Canon, and Fugue, based upon that of Cherubini. 
4to., i6j. 

A Treatise on Musical Form and General Composition. 4to., los. 

A Music Primer for Schools. By J. Troutbeck, M.A., Music Master in West- 
minster School, and R. F. Dale, M.A., B. Mus., Assistant Master in Westminster 
School. Crown 8vo. clotb, is. 6d. 

OXFOBD, Printed at the CLARENDON PRESS, and Published by MACMILLAN 
& CO., LONDON, Publishers to the University. 

ART AT HQmi &] 

MUSIC IN THE HOUSE. By John Hullah. With Illustrations. Third 

Edition. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

A PLEA FOR ART IN THE HOUSE. With Special Reference to 

the Economy of Collecting Works of Art and the importance of Taste in Education and 
Morals. By W. J. Loftie, F.S.A. With Illustrations. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 
2s. 6d. 


WOODWORK, AND FURNITURE. By Ehoda and Agnes Garret. 
^ With Illustrations. Fourth Edition. Cro\vn Svo. 28. 6d. 


N I T U R E. By Mrs. OrriNSMITH. With Numerous Illustrations. Second Edition. 
Crown Svo. 2g. 6d. 

THE DINING-ROOM. By Mrs. Loftie. With Numerous Illustrations. 

Crown Svo. 2*. 6d. 


merous Illustrations. Crown Svo. 28. 6d. 

Others to follow. 


SOUND AND MUSIC. A Non-Mathematical Treatise on 
the Physical Constitution of Musical Sounds and Harmony, including the chief 
Acoustical Discoveries of Professor Helmholtz. By Sedley Taylor, M.A. 
late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Crown %vo. 8j. 6d. 

"In no previous scientific treatise do we remember so exhaustive and so richly illustrated 
a description of forms of vibration and of wave-motion in fluids." — Musical Standard. 


the Mathematical Elements of Music. By Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Second Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown ^vo. gs. 



VALS AND TEMPERAMENT. With an account of an Enharmonic Har 
monium exhibited in the Loan Collection of Scientific Instruments, South 
Kensington, 1876; also of an Enharmonic Organ exhibited to the Musical 
Association of London, May 1875. By R. H. M. Bosanquet, Fellow of 
St. John's College, Oxford. 2>vo. 6s. 

SOUND AND MUSIC. By Dr. W. H. Stone. Two Lectures 

delivered at South Kensington. Illmtrated. Crown %vo. 6d. 

THE THEORY OF SOUND. By Lord Rayleigh, M.A., 

F.R.S. Vols. I and 2. 8w. 12s. 6d. each. (Vol. 3 in preparation.) 

Lnsf Taylor, edited by George Grove. i8mo., cloth, price \s. 

" There are many hints of almost priceless worth not only to pupils but to teachers." — 
Morning Post. 

"The amount of valuable information here collected is surprising considering the limited 
compass within which it is contained." — Illustrated London News. 

GOETHE AND MENDELSSOHN (1821— 1831). From 
the German of Dr. Karl Mendelssohn, son of the Composer, by M. E. vot 
Glehn. From the Private Diaries and Home Letters of Mendelssohn, with 
Poems and Letters of Goethe never before printed. Also Two New and 
Original Portraits, Facsimiles, and Appendix of Twenty Letters hitherto un- 
published. Second Edition. Crown 'ivo. ^s. 


By Ferdinand Hiller. Translated by M. E. von Glehn. With Lithographic 
Portrait from a drawing by Carl Muller, never before published. Seconc 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 'js. 6d. 

" We most heartily recommend Dr. Killer's ' Letters and Recollections ' to the perusal of ever) 
aspiring young musician ; they will find there a noble example of a noble life." — Athenaum. 

THE SONG BOOK. Words and Tunes from the best Poets 

and Musicians, selected and arranged by John Hullah. i8mo., cloth extra 
4s. 6d. 



betli's reign ballads and ballad singers came into 
disrepute, and weie made the subject of repres- 
rive legislation. ' Musicians held ballads in con- 
tempt, and great poets rarely wrote in ballad 

Morley, in his 'Plaine and easie introduction 
to Practical! Musicke,' 1597, says, after speaking 
of Vilnnelle, ' there is another kind more light 
than this which they tearm Ballete or daunces, 
and are songs which being sung to a dittie may 
likewise be danced, these and other light kinci 
of musicke are by a general name caUed aires.^ 
huch were the songs to which Bonny Boots, a 
well-known singer and dancer of Elizabeth's 
court, both 'tooted it' and 'footed it.' In 1636 
Butler published ' The Principles of Musicke,' 
and in that work spoke of ' the infinite multitude 
of Ballads set to sundry pleasant and delight- 
ful tunes by cunning and witty composers, with 
country (lances fitted unto them.' After this the 
title became common. 

The name has been applied to a pastoral song, 
' ."turner is icumen in,' preserved in the Harleian 
MSS., which dates from the 13th centurj', and 
furnishes the earliest example known (though it is 
obvious that so finished a composition cannot 
have been the first) of part music. The music 
is in triple measure, and a sort of dance 
rhythm, but the song can in no sense be called 
a ballad. [See Sumer is iccmen in.] The 
music of many real old ballads has however sur- 
vived, for which the reader may be referred to 
Mr. W. Chappell's well-known work. 'Chevy 
Chase' appears to have been sung to three tunes. 
I HEVY Chase.] One of these, 'The hunt is up,' 
!- a favourite popular air, of which we give 
tiie notes — 




- * • ■ I— * I '• » ' - - I--* 5 t— ta JU .^ I I ■ r- 

This old tune was otherwise employed. In 15.37 
information was sent to the Council against John 
flogon, who, 'with a crowd or a fyddyll,' sang a 
Bong with a political point to the tune 'The hunt 
is up.' 'If a man,' saj-s Fletcher of Saltoun, 
' were permitted to make all the ballads, he need 
not care who should make the laws of a nation.' 
•Lilliburlero' (beloved of my uncle Toby), is a 
striking proof of the truth of Saltoun's remark, 
since it helped to turn James II out of Ireland. 
The tune and the history of the song will be 
found under Lilliburlero. 'Marlbrouk,' the 
'Marseillaise,' and the ' Wacht am Rhein,' are 
other instances of ballads which have had great 
political influence. 

Ballads have sunk from their ancient high 
estate. Writing in 1802 Dr. Bumey said, 'A 
ballad is a mean and trifling song such ;vs is gen- 
erally sung in the streets. In the new French 
Encyclopedie we are told that we English dance 
and sing our ballads at the same time. We have 
often heard ballads sung and seen country dances 
danced; but never at the same time, if there 

was a fiddle to be had. The movement of our 
country dances is too rapid for the utterance of 
words. The English ballad has long been de- 
tached from dancing, and, since the old transla- 
tion of the Bible, been confined to a lower order 
of song.' Notwithstanding the opinion of Dr. 
Bumey the fact remains incontrovertible that the 
majority of our old ballad tunes are dance tunes, 
and owe their preservation and identification to 
that circumstance alone — the words of old bal- 
lads being generally found without the music 
but with the name of the tune attached, the 
latter have thus been traced in various collec- 
tions of old dance music. The quotation already 
made from Butler shews that the use of vocal 
ballads as dance tunes implied in the name had 
survived as late as the reign of Charles I. One 
instance of the use of the word where dancing 
can by no possibility be connected with it is in 
the title to Goethe's ' Erste Walpurgisnacht,' 
which is called a Ballad both by him and by 
Mendelssohn, who set it to music. The same 
may be said of Schiller's noble poems 'Der 
Taucher,' ' Ritter Togenburg,' and others, so 
finely composed by Schubert, though these are 
more truly ' ballads ' than Goethe's ' Walpurgis- 
nacht.' So again Mignon's song 'Kennst du 
das Land,' though called a ' Lied ' in Wilhelm 
Meister, is placed by Goethe himself at the head 
of the 'Balladen' in the collected edition of his 
poetry. In fact both in poetry and music the 
term is used with the greatest freedom and with 
no exact definition. 

At the present time a ballad in music is gen- 
erally understood to be a sentimental or romantic 
composition of a simple and unpretentious cha- 
racter, having two or more verses of poetry, but 
with the melody or tune complete in the first, 
and repeated for each succeeding verse. ' Ballad 
concerts' are ostensibly for the performance of 
such pieces, but the programmes often contain 
songs of all kinds, and the name is as in- 
accurate as was ' Ballad opera' when applied 
to such pieces as ' The Beggar's Opera,' which 
were made up of well-knuwn airs with fresh 
words, [English OrEUA.] [W. H. C] 

BALLADE, a name adopted by Chopin for 
four pieces of pianoforte music (op. 23. 3S, 47, 52) 
which, however brilliant or beautiful, have no 
peculiar form or character of their own, beyond 
being written in triple time, and to which tlie 
name seems to be no more specially applicable 
than that of ' S<mnet' is to the pieces which 
Liszt and others have written under that name. 
Brahms has also published four ' Balladen' (op. 10) 
and Liszt two. 

B.A.LLARD, a family of printers, who for 
nearly 200 years virtually enjoye<l the monopoly 
of printing music in Fnince. Their types were 
made by Guillaume le Be in 1540, and remained 
in use as late as 1 750. The first patent was 
granted to Robert Ballard by Henri II in i.';52, 
and lie and his son-in law Adrien Leroy printed 
many tablatures for the lute and other music. 
They were followed by Pierre, and he again by 



his son Robert, under whom the house rose 
to its greatest height both in privileges and 
position. He was succeeded by Christophe, 
T. B. Christophe, and Christophe Jean Fran9ois, 
who died in 1765. His son held the patent until 
ir was abolished during the Revolution. One of 
the earliest specimens of their art of printing 
is 'The Psalms of Marot,' 1562. Lully's operas 
were printed by the Ballards— first about 1700, 
from moveable types, and afterwards from en- 
graved copper plates. [F. G.] 

BALLERINA (Ital.), a female ballet-dancer. 

BALLET. The ballet is a more modern en- 
tertainment even than the opera, with which it 
has long been intimately connected. The name 
seems to have been derived from the Italian 
ballaia, the parent of our own 'ballad'; and 
the earliest ballets (Ballets de Cour), which 
corresponded closely enough to our English 
masques, were entertainments not of dancing 
only, but also of vocal and instrumental music. 
M. CastU Blaze, in an interesting monograph ('La 
Dance,' etc. ; Paris, Paulin), traces back the 
ballet from France to Italy, from Italy to Greece, 
and through the Greek stage to festivals in 
honour of Bacchus. But the baUet as signifying 
an entertainment exclusively in dancing dates 
from the foundation of the Acad^mie Royale de 
Musique, or soon afterwards. In 1671, the j'ear 
in which Cambert's 'Pomone,' the first French 
opera heard by the Parisian public, was produced, 
'Psyche,' a so-called tragedie-ballet by Mohere 
and Corneille was brought out. Ballets however 
in the mixed sty^le were known much earlier ; and 
the famous ' Ballet comique de la Royne,' the 
'mounting' of which is said to have cost three- 
and-a-half millions ol francs, was first performed 
at the marriage of the Duke of Joyeuse in 1581. 
[Baltazarini.] The work in question consisted 
of songs, dances, and spoken dialogue, and seems 
to have diSered in no important respect from the 
masques of an earlier period. Another celebrated 
ballet which by its historical significance is better 
worthy of remembrance than the ' Ballet comique 
de la Royne, ' was one represented on the occasion 
of Louis XI Vs marriage with Marie Therfese, and 
entitled 'II n'y a plus de Pyr^n^es.' In illus- 
tration of this supposed political fact half the 
dancers were dressed in the French and half in 
the Spanish costume, while a Spanisli nymph and 
a French nymph joined in a vocal duet. Other 
ballets of historical renown were the 'Hercule 
amoureux,' at which more than 700 persons were 
on the stage, and the ' Triomphe de 1' Amour' in 
i68i. Louis XIV took such a delight in ballets 
that he frequently appeared as a ballet-dancer, or 
rather as a figurant, himself. For the most part 
his majesty contented himself with marching 
about the stage in preposterous costumes, and 
reciting verses in celebration of his own great- 
ness. Occasionally, however, he both sang and 
danced in the court ballets. When in 16O9 the 
'Great Monarch' assumed, ostensibly for the last 
time, the part of the Sun in the ballet of ' Flora,' 
it was thought that Hia Majesty's theatrical 


career had really come to an end. He felt, 
however, as so many great performers have since 
done under similar circumstances, that he had 
retired too soon ; and the year afterwards he ap- 
peared again in ' Les Amants magnifiques,' com- 
posed by the king himself, in collaboration with 
Moliere. In this work Louis executed a solo on 
the guitar — an instrument which he had studied 
under Francesco Corbetta, who afterwards went 
to England and obtained great success at the 
court of Charles II. It is indeed recorded of him 
that in connection with 'Les Amants mag- 
nifiques/ he played the part of author, ballet- 
master, dancer, mimic, singer, and instrumental 
performer. As Louis XIV did not think it be- 
neath his digni ty to act at court entertainments, he 
had no objection to his courtiers showing them- 
selves publicly on the s-tage. In the royal letters 
patent granted to the Abbe Perrin, the first di- 
rector of the French Opera, or 'Academic Royale 
de Musique' as from the beginning it was called, 
free permission was given to ' all gentlemen and 
ladies vsdshing to sing in the said pieces and 
representations of our royal academy without 
being considered for that reason to derogate from 
thefr titles of nobility, or from thefr privileges, 
rights, and immunities.' The right to sing seems 
to have been interpreted as including the right 
to dance ; and several ladies and gentlemen of 
good birth profited by the king's liberality to 
appear in the ballets represented at the Academic 
Royale. The music of Louis XIV's ballets was 
for the most part written by Lulli, who also 
comp(jsed the songs and symphonies for the 
dance-interludes of Moliere's comedies. The dra- 
matic ballet or ballet (Taction is said to have 
been invented by the Duchesse du Maine, cele- 
brated for her evening entertainments at Sceaux, 
which the nobles of Louis XIV's court found so 
exhilarating after the formal festivities of Ver- 
sailles. With a passion for theatrical representa- 
tion the Duchess combined a taste for literature ; 
and she formed the project of realising on the 
stage of her own theatre her idea of the panto- 
mimes of antiquity, as she found them described 
in the pages of her favourite authors. She went 
to work precisely as the arranger of a ballet would 
do in the present day. Thus taking the fourth 
act of 'Les Horaces' as her libretto (to use the 
modern term), she had it set to music for orchestra 
alone, and to the orchestral strains caused the 
parts of Horace and of CamiUe to be performed in 
dumb show by two celebrated dancers who had 
never attempted pantomime before. Balon and 
Mademoiselle Prevost, the artists in question, 
entered with so much feeling into the characters 
assigned to them, that they drew tears from the 

Mouret, the musical director of the Duchess's 
'Nuits de Sceaux,' composed several ballets, on 
the principle of her ballet of ' Les Horaces,' for the 
Academic Royale. During the early days of the 
French opera, and until nearly the end of the 
17th century, it was diflScult to obtain dancen 
in any great number, and almost impossible tc 
find female dancers. The company of vocalistt 


was recruited from the cathedral choirs, but for ' 
the ballet there were only the dancing masters 
of the capital and their pupils of the male sex to 
select from. There were no dancing mistresses, 
and ladies would not under any circumstances 
have consented to dance in public. On this 
pjiat, however, the fashion was destined soon to 
change. Nymphs, dryads, and shepherdesses 
were for a time represented by boys, who equally 
with the fauns and satyrs wore masks. But at 
last ladies oi the highest position, with Madame 
la Daupliine and the Princesse de Conti amongst 
them, appeared by express desire of the king in 
the ballets at Versailles ; and about the same 
time several ladies of title taking advantage of 
the royal permission, joined the opera in the 
character of ballet-dancers. The first professional 
ballerina of note at the Academic was Mile. La- 
fontaine, who with three other danseuses and 
a befitting number of male dancers, formed the 
entire ballet company. It is not necessary to 
relate the stories, more or less scandalous, told of 
Various ballet dancers — of the Demoiselles de 
Camargo, of MUe. Pelissier (who, expelled from 
Piiris, visited London, where she was warmly 
received in 1734) ; of Mile. Petit, dismissed from 
the opera for misconduct, and defended in a 
pamphlet by the Abbe de la Marre ; of Mile. 
Maze, who, ruined by Law's financial scheme, 
dressed herself in her most briUiant costiune, 
and drowned herself publicly at noon ; or of 
^Ille. Subli^tny, who came to England with 
letters of introduction from the Abb^ Dubois to 
Locke. The eminent metaphysician, who had 
hitherto paid more attention to the of>erations of 
the human mind than to the art of dancing, did 
honour to the abbe's recommendation, and (as 
Fontenelle declared in a letter on the subject) 
'constituted himself her man of business.' We 
now, however, come to a ballerina, MUe. Salle, 
who besides being distinguished in her own par- 
ticular art, introduced a general theatrical reform. 
In the early part of the i8th century — as indeed 
at a much later period — all sorts of anachronisms 
and errors of taste were committed in connection 
with costume. Assyrian, Greek, and Koman 
warriors appeared and danced pas seuls in the 
ballets of the Academic Eoyale, wearing laced 
tunics and powdered wigs with pigtails a yard 
long. The wigs were surmounte<i by helmets, 
and the manly breasts of the much-beribboned 
warriors were encased in a cuirass. Mile. Salle 
proposed that each character should wear tlie 
costume of his country and period ; and though 
this startling innovation was not accepted gene- 
rally in the drama imtil nearly a century later, 
MUe. Saiy succeeded in causing the principles 
she advocated to be observed at the opera — at 
least during her own time, and so far as regarded 
the baUet. MUe. SaUe's reform was not main- 
tained even at the Academie ; for about half a 
century later Galatea, in Jean Jacques Rousseau's 
' Pygmalion,' wore ' a damask dress made in the 
Polish style over a basket hoop, and on her head 
an enormous pouf surmounted by three ostrich 
feathers.' It has been said that MUe. de Sub- 



ligny brought to London letters from the Abb6 
Dubois to Locke. MUe. SaUu arrived with an 
introduction from FonteneUe to Montesquieu, 
who was then Ambassador at the court of St. 
James's. This artist was, indeed, highly es- 
teemed by the literary society of her time. She 
enjoyed the acquaintance not only of FonteneUe, 
Montesquieu, and our own Locke, but also of 
Voltaire, who wrote a poem in her honour. In 
London MUe. Salle produced a ' Pygmalion' of 
her own, which, at least as regards the costumes, 
was very superior to the 'Pygmalion' of Rousseau 
brought out some forty or fifty years afterwards. 
In representing the statue about to be animated, 
she carried out her new principle by wearing not 
a Polish dress but simple drapery, imitated as 
closely as possible from the statues of antiquity. 
A fuU and interesting account of MUe. Salle's per- 
formance, written by a corresjKjndent in London, 
possibly Montesquieu himself, was published on 
March 15, 1734, in the 'Mercure de France.' 
' She ventured to appear,' says the correspondent, 
'without skirt, without a dress, in her natural 
hair, and with no ornament on her head. She wore 
nothing in addition to her bodice and under 
petticoat but a simple robe of muslin arranged 
in drapery after the model of a Greek statue. 
You cannot doubt, sir,' he adds, ' the prodigious 
success this ingeiiious ballet so weU executed 
obtained. At the request of the king, the queen, 
the royal family, and all the court,^ it wiU be 
performed on the occa.sion of MUe. Salle's benefit, 
for which aU the boxes and places in the theatre 
and amphitheatre have been taken for a montli 

Madeleine Guimard, a celebrated dameute at 
the French opera during the Gluck and Piccinni 
period, is frequently mentioned in the correspond- 
ence of Grimm and of Diderot. Houdon, the 
sculptor, moulded her foot. Fragonard, the 
painter, decorated her rooms, untU presuming to 
faU in love with her it was found necessary to 
replace him by Louis David — afterwards so famous 
as a historical painter in the classical style ; 
Marie Antoinette consulted her on the subject of 
dress, and when by an accident on the sti^e she 
broke her arm, prayers were said at Notre Dame 
for MUe. Guimard s injured limb. Mannontel, 
referring to her numerous acts of charity, ad- 
dressed to her a flattering epistle in verse ; and a 
popular divine made her munificence the subject 
of a sermon. The chronicles of the time laid 
stress on Guimard's excessive thinness, and she 
was familiarly known as the ' Spider,' while a wit 
of the period called her la itqiieUtte det (irdces. 
The French Revolution drove numert>u.<j French 
artists out of the country, many of whom visited 
London. 'Amongst them,' says Lonl Mount- 
Edgecumbe in his Memoirs, 'came the famous 
Mile. Guimard, then near sixty years old, but 
etiU fuU of grace and gentility ; and she had never 
possessed more. 

Gaetan Vestris, the founder of the Vestna- 

family, was as remarkable for his prolougtd 

yuuthfulness as MUe. Guimard herself— who, 

however, instead of being ' near sixty,' was not 

J^ 2 



more than forty-six wlien she arrived in London'). 
Gaetan Vestris made his debut at the French 
opera in 1748; and M. Castile Blaze, in his 
'Histoire de I'Academie Royale de Musique,' 
tells us that he saw him fifty-two years afterwards, 
when he danced as well as ever, executing the 
steps of the minuet ' avec autant de grace que 
de noblesse.' The family of Vestris— originally 
Yestri — came from Florence. Gaetan had three 
brothers, all dancers ; his son Auguste was not 
less famous than himself ('Auguste had Gaetan 
Vestris for his father,' the old man would say — 
'an advantage which nature refused me'); Au- 
guste's nephew was Charles Vestris, and Au- 
guste's favourite pupil was Perrot, who married 
Carlotta Grisi, and who by his expressive pan- 
tomime more even than by his very graceful 
dancing, enjoyed in London an amount of success 
which male dancers in this country have but rarely 
obtained. Innumerable anecdotes are told of the 
vanity and self-importance of Gaetan Vestris, the 
head of this family of artists. On one occasion 
when his son was in disgrace for having refused, 
on some point of theatrical honour, to dance in 
the divertissement of Gluck's ' Armide,' and was 
consequently sent to Fort-l'Eveque, the old man 
exclaimed to him in presence of an admiring 
throng : ' Go, Augustus ; go to prison ! Take 
my carriage, and ask for the room of my friend 
the King of Poland.' Another time he reproved 
Augustus for not having performed his duty by 
dancing before the King of Sweden, 'when the 
Queen of France had performed hers by asking 
him to do so.' The old gentleman added that 
he would have ' no misunderstanding between 
the houses of Vestris and of Bourbon, which had 
hitherto always lived on the best terms.' The 
ballet never possessed in London anything like 
the importance which belonged to it in France, 
from the beginning of the 18th century until 
a comparatively recent time. For thirty years, 
however, from 1820 to 1S50, the ballet was an 
attractive feature in the entertainments at the 
King's (afterwards Her Majesty's) Theatre ; and 
in 1 8 21 the good offices of the British ambassador 
at the court of the Tuileries were employed in 
aid of a negociation by which a certain number 
of the principal dancers were to be temporarily 
' ceded ' every year by the administration of the 
Academie Royale de Musique to the manager 
— at that time Mr. Ebers, of our Italian Opera. 
Miles. Noblet and Mercandotti seem to have been 
the first danseuses given, or rather lent, to Eng- 
land by this species of treaty. Mile. Taglioni, 
who appeared soon afterwards, was received year 
after year with enthusiasm. Her name was given 
to a stage coach, also to a great coat ; and — 
more enduring honour-— Thackeray has devoted 
some lines of praise to her in the 'Newcomes,' 
assuring the young men of the present genera- 
tion that they will ' never see anything so grace- 
ful as Taglioni in La Sylphide.' Among the 
celebrated dancers contemporary with Taglioni 
must be mentioned Fanny Ellsler (a daughter of 
Haydn's old copyist of the same name) and 
Cerito, who took the principal part in the once 


favourite ballet of 'Alma' (music by CostaV 
Fanny Ellsler and Cerito have on rare occasions 
danced together at Her Majesty's Theatre the 
minuet in 'Don Giovanni.' To about the same 
period as these eminent ballerine belonged Carlotta 
Grisi, perhaps the most charming of them all. 
One of her most admired characters was that of 
Esmeralda in the ballet arranged by her husband, 
the before-mentioned Perrot, on the basis of Victor 
Hugo's 'Notre Dame de Paris.' Pugni, a com- 
poser, who made ballet music his speciality, and 
who was attached as composer of ballet music to 
Her Majesty's Theatre, wrote music for Esme- 
ralda full of highly rhythmical and not less 
graceful melodies. In his passion for the ballet 
Mr. Lumley once applied to Heinrich Heine for 
a new work, and the result was that ' Mephisto- 
phela,' of which the libretto, written out in great 
detail, is to be found in Heine's complete works. 
The temptation of Faust by a female Mephisto- 
pheles is the subject of this strange production, 
which was quite unfitted for the English stage, 
and which Mr. Lumley, though he duly paid for 
it, never thought of ]iroducing. In one of the 
principal scenes of ' Mephistophela ' the temptress 
exhibits to her victim the most celebrated dan- 
seuses of antiquity, including Salome the daugh- 
ter of Herodias. King David too dances a pas 
seul before the ark. Probably the most perfect 
ballet ever produced was ' Giselle,' for which the 
subject was furnished by Heine, the scenario by 
Theophile Gautier, and the music by Adolphe 
Adam. Adam's music to 'Giselle' is, as Lord 
Mount-Edgcumbe said of Madeleine Guimard, 
' full of grace and gentility.' The 'Giselle Waltz ' 
will long be remembered : but we must not expect 
to see another ' Giselle ' on the stage until we have 
another Carlotta Grisi ; and it is not every day 
that a dancer appears for whom a Heine, a 
Gautier, and an Adam will take the trouble to 
invent a new work. Beethoven's ' Prometheus ' 
is perhaps the only ballet which has been per- 
formed entire in the concert room, for the sake of 
the music alone. The Airs de Ballet from Auber's 
'Gustave' and Rossini's 'William Tell' are occa- 
sionally found in concert programmes, and those 
in Schubert's 'Rosamunde' and Gounod's 'Reine 
de Saba' have immortalised those operas after 
their failure on the stage. [H. S. E.] 

BALLETS, compositions of a light character, 
but somewhat in the madrigal style, frequently 
with a 'Fa la' burden which could be both sung 
and danced to ; these pieces, says Morley 
(Introduction), were ' commonly called Fa las.' 
Gastoldi is generally supposed to have invented 
or at all events first published ballets. His col- 
lection appeared in 1 59 7, and was entitled ' Balletti 
a cinque voci, con li suore versi per cantare, 
auonare et ballare.' The first piece in the book is 
a musical ' Introduzione a i Balletto,' with direc- 
tions for the performers 'Su cacciam man a gli 
stromenti nostri, e suoniam et cantiam qualche 
Balletti.' These must therefore have had both 
instrumental and dancing accompaniments. In 
1595 Morley published a collection of ' Ba'lets 
for five voices,' professedly in imitation of Gas. 


toldi, and was followed three years later by 
Weelkes, with ' Ballets and Madrigals to 5 
voices.' 'Balletto' is used by Bach for an allegro 
in common time. See Catalogue, Anh. i . Ser. 3. 
Inv. 2 & 6. [W. H. C] 

four acts, libretto by vSomma, music by Verdi. 
Produced at Rome in 1859; at Paris, Theatre 
des Italiens, Jan. 13, 1861 ; and in London, 
Lyceum, June 15, 61. 

BALTAZABINI (or BaltaoertniX an Ita- 
lian musician ; the best vinlinist of his day. 
He was brought from Piedmont in 1577 by 
Marshal de Brissac to Catherine de' Medicis, 
who made him intendant of her music and her 
first valet de chambre, and changed his name to 
M. de Beaujoyeulx, which he himself adopted. 
He seems to have been the first to introduce 
the Italian dances into Paris, and thus to have 
been the founder of the ballet, and, through 
the ballet, of the opera. He associated the best 
musicians of Paris with him in his undertaking. 
Thus in the entertainment of ' Circe,' produced 
by him at the marriage of the Due de Joyeuse 
and Mile, de Vaudemont, on Sunday Oct. 15, 
1581, known under the title of 'Ballet comique 
de la royne,' etc. (Paris, 1582), he states in the 
preface that the music was by Beaulieu and 
Maistre Salmon. Several numbers from it are 
given by Burney (Hist. iii. 279-283) ; and the 
Ballet in all its details and its connexion with 
the opera has been made the subject of a work 
'Les origines de I'OpcSra, etc.; par L. Cellier' 
(Paris, 1868).' The MSS. of others of Baltzarini's 
ballets are in the Bibliotheque Nationale. [G.] 

BALTZAR, Thomas, born at Liibeck about 
1630; the finest violinist of his time, and the 
first reaUy great peiforraer heard in England. 
He came to this country in 1656, and stayed 
for some time witli Sir Anthony Cope, of Hanwell, 
Oxon. Evelyn heard him play March 4, 1656, 
and. has left an account which may be read in 
his Diary under that date. Anthony Wootl met 
him on July 24, 1658, and 'did then and there 
to his very great astonishment, heare him play 
on the violin. He then saw him run up his 
Fingers to the end of the Fingerboard of the 
Violin, and run them back insensibly, and all 
with alacrity, and in very gdod tune, which he 
nor any in England saw the like before . . . 
Wilson thereupon, tiie public Piofessor, . . . did, 
after his humoursome way, stoop downe to Balt- 
zar's Feet, to see whether he had a Huff on ; that 
is to say, to see whether he was a Devil! or not, 
because lie acted beyond the parts of a man. 
.... Being much admired by all lovers of 
musick, his company was therefore desired ; and 
company, especially muxicall company, delighting 
in drinking, made him drink more than ordinary, 
which brought him to his grave.' At the 
Restoration Baltzar was ajjpointed leader of the 

' The air which of late years has been somewliat InvoRue abrtmd and 
at home, uniler the title ol • Gavotie de Louis XIII.' Is taken from this 
Ballet, where the first strain appears as ' Le son de la Clochette auiinel 
Circe sortlt de son iardin'-' un son fort nay." The Trio to the ' Uavolt* ' 
has been added by the modern arrani;er. 



King's celebrated band of twenty-four violins, 
but died soon after, and was buried in the 
cloister of Westminster Abbey. He is entered 
on the Register as 'Mr. Thomas Balsart, one of 
tlie violins in the King's Service July 27, 1663.' 

Baltzar did mucli towards jdacing the violin 
in England in its present po.sition. at the head 
of all stnnged instruments. He appears from 
Wood's account to have introduced the practice 
of the shift, till then unknown, and the use of 
the u|>per part of the finger-board. Playford's 
' JJivision Violin' contains all that appear to 
have been printed of his compositions, but 
Burney speaks in high terms of some MS. solos 
in his possession ; and a s-t of sonatas for .-i 
' lyra violin, treble violin, and bass viol ' were 
sold at the auction of Thomas Britton the 
'musical small coal man.' [M. C. C] 

BANCHIERI, Adriano, born at Bologna, 
^f>^7> pupil of Gerami the organist of the 
cathedral of Lucca and afterwards of S. Marco 
in Venice, He was first orLranist at Imohi, of 
S. Maria in Regola ; then in 1603 we find 
him at S. Michele in Bosco near Bologna. 
Gerber's statement that he was chosen abbot 
of Bosco is unsupported, and appears to be 
contradicted by the fact that on his works he 
is uniformly described as ' Monaco olivetano.' 
His first w'ork, ' Conclusioni per organo,' a|>pear- 
ed at Lucca in 1591 ; and Zuchelli gives the 
date of his death as 1634 He was great in all 
departments, theory, the church, and the theatre. 
His most important theoretical work is probably 
his ' L'Oigano siionarino' (Amadius, Venice, 
1605), which was often reprinted. It contains 
the first precise rules for accompanying from 
a figured bass — afterwards publi-shed separately 
by Lomazzo at Milan. In a later work, 
'Moderna practica nnisicale' (Venice, 1613), 
he treats of the influence of the basso continuo 
on the ornaments in singing, and the altera- 
tions necessary in consequence thereof. At the 
same time he mentions the changes in harmony 
and tonality which were at th:it time beginning 
to prevail, as incomi>rehensible. In addition to 
his many compositions for the church, Banchieri 
wrote what were tiien called 'intennedi' for 
comedies. In his 'La Pazzia senile, laggiona- 
meiili vaghi e dilettevole, comjio.-ti e dati in luce 
colla musica a tre voci,' jndjlisiied Jit Venice in 
1598 and reprinted at Colo;gne — itself a kind 
of imitation of the ' Anti[)arnft,s8o' of Orazio 
Vecchi— the transition from the madrigal to 
the new form of tlie intennedio is very obvious ; 
the work may be :dnu>st called the first comic 
opera. He afterwards com])o.sed a pendant to 
it uniler the name of ' La prndenza giovenile,' 
to which he boldly affixed the title of • Coinedia 
in miisica,' and which was published at Milan 
by Tini in 1607. Another analogous work is 
'La barca di Venezia a Patlua' (Venice, 1623), 
and still more so ' La fida fanciulia, coinedia 
esemplare, con niusicali intennedi apparente etl 
inai)parenti,' Bologna, if)2S and 1629. Bjinchicri 
was a poet as well as a musician, and wrote 
comedies under the name of Camillo Scaligeri 



della fratta. Lastly, in his «Cart,ella musicale' 
(1 614) we find a project for the foundation of 
an academy of science and art in his monastery 
at Bologna. [F- ^-^ 

BAND. A combination of various instru- 
ments for the performance oi music. The old 
English term was 'noiee.' The French word 
'bande' was applied to the ' vingt-quatre violins' 
of Louis XIV. (Littre.) Charles II had his 
'four-and-twenty violins/ and the word doubt- 
less accompanied the thing. It first appears in 
a MS. order (Ld. Chamberlain's Warrt. Bks. May 
31, 1661) that the King's band of violins shall 
take instructions from Hudson and Mell. (See 
also State Papers, Domestic, Ixxvii. No. 40, 
and Ixxix. Aug. 19, 63.) It is not mentioned 
by Johnson (nor indeed in Latham's Johnson), 
Richardson, or Webster. The various kinds 
of bands will be found under their separate 
heads, viz. Harmonie-Music; Military Band; 
Okchestb-v; King's Private Band; Wind 
Band. Bandmaster and Bandsmen are re- 
spectively the leader and members of a Military 
Band. [G.] 

BANDERALI, Davidde, born at Lodi 1780, 
died in Paris 1849; first appeared as a buflfo 
tenor singer, which part may be said to have 
been created by him. He soon relinquished the 
stage, and became professor of singing in the 
Conservatoire first of Milan, and afterwards — 
on the recommendation of Rossini — in that of 
Paris (1828). In both places he trained singers 
who became celebrated. [M. C. C] 

PANDORA, Ital. Mandora, or Mandola ; 
Neapolitan dial. Pandura ; Span. Bundolon ; 
Old Eng. Pandore, are the Romance names of 
varieties of the cither in the countries desig- 
nated. Like the lute in size and in the form 
of the pear-shaped body, they are classed with the 
cither because they have generally wire strings 
(tuned in pairs) and are played with a plectrum 
of tortoiseshell or quill. The mandoline is a 
small and very beautiful instrument of the kind. 
These instruments, with their names, were de- 
rived from the East. In the heyday of the 
Renaissance they became very generally used 
to accompany the voice and support the recitals 
of improvisatori, as well as for solo performance. 
Although -navhovpa appears in Greek, it was not 
a true Greek instrument, but an exotic. Athe- 
nseus states that Pythagoras, writing about the 
Red Sea, says the Troglodytes made the pan- 
doura of daphne, i. e. laurel, which grew near 
the seashore. According to Mr. Engel ('Musi- 
cal Instruments,' 1S74) the tambour or tam- 
boura is their Eastern representative. There 
are several varieties of these pear-shaped instru- 
ments used in Turkey and Bulgaria. The large 
Turkish taniboura has a circular body, the open 
strings producing four tones : it has thirty-five 
frets of thin catgut bound round the neck and 
disposed for the intervals, smaller than halftones, 
belonging to the Arabic scale. The tamboura is 
also found in Persia, Egypt, and Hindostan. 
The ancient Egyptian nofre, hieroglyphic for 


' good,' was a tamboura ; and the Assyrians had 
an instrument of the kind, also played with a 
plectrum. The idea of tension would seem to 
bf? inherent in the first syllable of names of the 
bandora or tamboura family of instruments, pre- 
serving everywhere so remarkable an identity. 
(See Banjo, Calascione, Cither, Lute, Man- 
doline.) [A. J. H.] 
BANISTER, John, born 1630, son of one of the 
waitts of the parish of St. Giles'- in -the -Fields, 
London. He received the rudiments of his 
musical education from his father, and arrived 
at great proficiency on the violin. He was 
noticed by Charles II, who sent him to France 
for improvement ; and on his return he was 
appointed leader of the king's band. The State 
Papers inform us, '1663, Mr. Banister appointed 
to be chief of His Majesty's violins.' Pepys, in 
his Diary, under the date Feb. 20, 1666-7, 
says : — ' They talk how the King's violin, 
Banister, is mad that a Frenchman is come 
to be chief of some part of the King's 
musique.' The Frenchman here alluded to was 
I3ie impudent pretender Louis Grabu. It is 
recorded, we know not upon what authority, 
that Banister -was dismissed the King's service 
for saying, in the hearing of His Majesty, that 
the English performers on the violin were superior 
to those of France. This musician is entitled to 
especial notice as being the first to establish 
lucrative concerts in London. These concerts 
were made known through the medium of the 
'London Gazette' ; and on December 30, 1672, 
there appeared the following advertisement : — 
'These are to give notice that at Mr. John 
Banister's house, now called the Musick-school, 
over against the George Tavern in White Friars, 
this present Monday, will be musick performed 
by excellent masters, beginning precisely at four 
of the clock in the afternoon, and every afternoon 
for the future, precisely at the same hour.' Many 
similar notices may be found in the same paper 
(1673 to 1678), from which it appears that 
Banister carried on these concerts till near the 
period of his decease, which occurred on the third 
of October, 1679. He was buried in the cloisters 
of Westminster Abbey. Banister, wrote the music 
to the tragedy of ' Circe,' written by Dr. Charles 
Davenant, eldest son of Sir William Davenant, 
performed at the Duke of York's Theatre in 
1676. Downes ('Roscius Anglicanus,' 1703) 
calls it an 'opera,' and says 'AH the musick was 
set by Mr. Banister, and being well performed, 
it answered the expectation of the company.' 
One of the songs is printed in the second book 
of 'Choice Ayres and Songs,' 1676, and a MS. 
copy of the first act is preserved in the library 
of the Sacred Harmonic Society. Jointly with 
Pelham Humplirey he wrote the music to ' The 
Tempest,' jDerformed in 1676, some of the songs 
of which were published in the same year. He 
contributed to Playford's ' Courtly Masquing 
Ayres,' 1662; and some lessons for 'viols or 
violins of his are appended to a small volume 
entitled ' New Aj-res and Dialogues,' 1678. 
(Hawkins ; Notes to NortlCs Memoirs of Musick, 


etc.). His son, John, was educated in music 
under his father, and attained great excellence 
as a performer on the violin. He was one of 
the ' musicians' of Cliarles II, James II, William 
and Mary and Anne ; and, at the beginning of 
the iSth century, when Italian operas were first 
introduced in English form into this country, 
he occupied the post of principal violin. He 
composed some music for the theatre, and, in 
conjunction with Godfrey Finger, published a 
small collection of these pieces. He was also 
a contributor to Henry Playford's ' iJivision 
Violin,' 1685, the first printed book for the 
violin put forth in this country. He resided 
for many years in Brownlovv Street, Drury Lane, 
where he died in 1735. There is a fine mezzotint 
engraving of liim by Smith. [E. F. li.] 

BANJO (American"). An instrument of the 
guitar kind, played with the fingers, but without 
the aid of frets to guide the stopping in tune 
of the strings. The banjo has a long neck, and 
a body like a drumhead, of parchment, strained 
upon a hoop to the required writhe or degree of 
Btifihess for resonance. There is no back to it. 
Eanjcjes have five, six, seven, or nine catgut 
strings, the lowest in pitch being often covered 
with wire. The chanterelle or melody-string is 
called from its position and use the thumbstring, 
and is placed not, as in other fingerboard instru- 
ments, highest in series, but on the bass side 
of the lowest-tuned string, the tuning-peg for 
it being inserted halfway up the neck instead 
of in the head. The length of the thumb- 
string is given as sixteen inches from the nut 
to the bridge, and tbat of the others twenty-four 
inches. The five-stringed banjo is tuned either 
_n. I , — the last note being the 
^ ~1 ~~8 » * ' — ' thumbstring, or in G, 
iJ -I • a note lower. The six- 
, . , -n. • — The seven- 

' ""°^' ^h =r-f-r- r=^ - stringed in- 
is tuned ^^-r'^=f=^ troducesthe 



middle C in the lowest octave, and 
the nine has three thumb strings S 


but is rarely used. The pitch of the banjo, like 
that of the guitar, is an octave lower than 
the notation. 'Barre' designates the false nut 
made by placing the first finger of the left hand 
across the whole of the strings at certain lengths 
from the bridge to effect transposition. [See 
Capo Tasto.] 

As to the origin of the banjo the existence 
of instruments of the lute or guitar kind im- 
plies a certain grade of knowledge and culture 
among the people who know how to stretch 
strings over soundboards, and to determine tiie 
required intervals by varying the vibrating 
lengths of the strings. Such instruments found 
in use by savage or very unciviliseil peoples 
suggest their introduction throu-h political or 
religious conquest, by a superior race. The 
Arabs may thus, or by trade, have bestowed a 
guitar, instrument upon the negroes of Western 
Africa, and the Senegambian 'bania' be, as 

Jlr. Carl Engel suggests (' Musical Instruments,' 
1874, p. 15J), the parent of the American 
negro's banjo. Others derive the name from 
Bandore. [A. J. H.] 

BANTI, Brigitta Giorgi, said to have been 
the daughter of a Venetian gondolier, was born 
at Crema, Lombardy, 1759. She began life as a 
' cantante di piazza,' or street singer ; and re- 
ceived some little instruction at tlie expense of 
a rich amateur. At the age of 19 she set out 
for Paris, to seek her fortune, supporting herself 
by singing at inns and cafes by the way. De 
Vi.sme8, Director of the Acadeniie, happening to 
hear a splendid voice on the Boulevard at Paria 
one evening, stopjjed at the caf • where the girl 
was singing, and slipping a louis into her hand 
desired her to come to him at the Opera the next 
day. Here, upon liearing an air of Sacchini 
twice or thrice, she astonished the Director by 
singing it perfectly from beginning to end. Ha 
engaged her for the Ojiera, where she made a 
triumphant debut in a song between the seomd 
and third acts of ' Iphigt'nie en Aulide.' While 
singing in Paris, though she never made the 
slightest mistake in concerted pieces, she some- 
times executed her airs after a very strange 
fashion. For instance : in the allegro of a cava- 
tina she would, in a fit of absence, recommence 
the air from the very beginning, go on with it to the 
turning-point at the end of the second part, again 
reconunence, and continue this proceeding until 
warned by the conductor that she had better 
think of ending. In the meantime the public, 
delighted with her voice, is said to have been 
quite satisfied. Agujari having left London, the 
managers of the Pantheon gave the young singer 
— still called Giorgi — an engagement, on ct)n- 
dition that £100 a year should be deducted from 
her salary for the cultivation of her voice. Sac- 
chini was her first master, but he soon gave her 
up in despair. Piozzi foUowcxl, with no better 
success. Abel was the last. She was at this 
time, without doubt, a very bad singer with a 
very beautiful voice ; and of so iniloleut and 
careless a disposition that she never could be 
made to learn the first rudiments of music. In 
1780 she left England, and sang to enthiwiastic 
autliences at several foreign courts. Lord Mount* 
Edgcumbe heard her at Keggio in 17S5, where, 
he says, her singing was delightful. In 1799 
she returned to London, making her d£hul in 
Bianchi's ' Semiramide,' in which she introduced 
an air from Guglielud's ' DelH)ra,' with violin 
obligato, originally played by Cramer, afurwanls 
by V'iotti, Salomon, and Weichsell, the brotiier 
of Mrs. BillingUtn. This song, though long and 
very fatiguing, was always encored, and Banti 
never failed to repeat it. CJenius in her seemeil 
to supply the want of science ; and the most 
correct ear, with the nuwt exquisite taste, en- 
abled her to sing with more effect, expression, 
and apparent knowledge of her art, than nmny a 
better singer. She never was a gixxl unisician, 
nor could sing at sight with ease ; but having 
once learnt a song, and mu.slere<l it^ chara4.-l«-r, 
she threw into it deeper pathos and truer feeling 



than any of her rivals. Her voice was of most 
extensive compass, rich and even, and w-ithout 
a fault in its whole range,— a true voce di petto 
throuo-hout. In her youth it extended to the 
hio-hest pitch, and was so agile that she excelled 
most singers in the bravura style ; but, losing a 
few of her upper notes, she modified her manner 
by practising the cantabile, to which she de- 
voted herself, and in which she had no equal. 
Her acting and recitative were excellent. Her 
most favourite pieces were the ' Alceste ' of 
Gluck, in which she very greatly excelled, three 
of her songs in it having to be repeated every 
night; his ' Ifigenia in Tauride'; PaisieUo's 
'Elfrida' and 'Nina'; ' Mitridate,' by Naso- 
lini ; ' Alzira,' ' Merope,' ' Cinna,' and others 
comj)osed expressly for her by Bianclii. She 
also acted in comic operas, and was particularly 
successful in PaisieUo's ' Serva Padrona.' Her 
spirits never flagged ; nor did her adnoirers ever 
grow weary of her. They never wished for an- 
other singer ; but Mrs. Billington had now re- 
turned, and astonished the public with her 
marveUouB execution. The manager engaged her 
for the next season, and allowed Banti, whose 
health was now failing, to depart. Before the 
close of her last season (1802), however, an in- 
teresting performance took place. Banti pre- 
vailed on Mrs. Billington to sing with her on the 
night of her benefit, leaving her the choice of 
opera and character. Portogallo's ' Merope ' was 
chosen, Mrs. Billington acting the part of the 
heroine, and Banti that of Polifonte, though 
written for a tenor. Banti died at Bologna, 
February 18, 1806, bequeathing her larjmx (of 
extraordinary size) to the tovra, the municipality 
of which caused it to be preserved in spirits. Her 
husband was the dancer Zaccaria Banti, who 
was dancing in London as early as 1777 in 
Sacchini's 'Creso.' She left a daughter, married 
to Dr. Barbieri, who raised to her memory a 
monument in the cemeter}' outside the walls of 
Bologna, which was afterwards repaired and 
adorned by her husband, and from which we 
learn the places and dates of her birth and death 
(' Harmonicon,' viii.). [J. M.] 

BAPTISTE, a violin-player, whose real name 
was Baptiste Anet, a pupil of Corelli, and ap- 
parently one of the first to introduce the works 
and style of his great master at Paris, thereby 
materially influencing the development of violin- 
playing in France. When French writers of the 
period speak of him as an extraordinary pheno- 
menon, and as the first of all violinists, we must 
remember that at that time instrumental music, 
and especially the art of violin-playing, was still 
in its infancy in France. Baptiste"^ did not settle 
in Paris, in spite of his great success, owing 
probably to the circumstance of Louis XIV 's 
exclusive liking for old French music and for 
Lully. From Paris he went to Poland, where 
he spent the rest of his life as conductor of the 
private band of a nobleman. He published three 
sets of sonatas for the violin ; two suites de 
pieces pour deux musettes, op. 2 ; and six duos 
pour deux musettes, op. 3. [p. D.] 


BAPTISTIN", Jean, a violoncellist whose 
real name was .1 ohann Baptist Struck ; of 
German parentage, boi-n at Florence about i6qo. 
He came to Paris, and he and Labbe were the 
earliest players of the cello in the orchestra of the 
Opera. He had two pensions from the king, 
fixing him — the first to France, and the second 
to Paris. He produced 3 operas and 15 ballets, 
and published 4 books of cantatas. He died 

BAR. A vertical line drawn across the stave 
to divide a musical composition into portions of 
equal duration, and to indicate the periodical re- 
currence of the accent. The word bar is also 
commonly, though incorrectly, applied to the 
portion contained between any two such vertical 
lines, such portion being termed a 'measure.' 
In the accurately ancient 'measured music' 
{mnsica memurulu — that is, music consisting of 
notes of various and determined length, and so 
called to distinguish it from the still older musica 
clwralis or plana, in which all the notes were 
of the same leng-th) there were no bars, the 
rhjiihm — which was always triple — being shown 
by the value of the notes. But as this value 
was not constant, being afiected by the order in 
which the longer or shorter notes followed each 
other, doubtful cases occasionally arose, for the 
better understanding of which a sign called 
punctam divisionis was introduced, written , or 
s/ , which had the effect of separating the 
rhythmic periods without afifecting the value of 
the notes, and thus corresponded precisely to 
the modem bar, of which it was the earliest 

The employment of the bar dates from the 
beginning of the i6th century, and its object 
appears to have been in the first place to 
facilitate the reading of compositions written in 
score, by keeping the different parts properly 
under each other, rather than to mark the 
rhythmic divisions. One of the earliest instances 
of the use of the bar is found in Agricola's 
'Musica Instrumentalis ' (1529), in which the 
examples are written on a single stave of ten lines, 
the various parts being placed above each other 
on the same stave (the usual arrangement in 
the earhest scores'), with bars di'awn across the 
whole stave. Morley also in his 'Practical 
Musick' (1597) makes a similar use of bars 
in all examples which are given in score ; but 
the introduction of the bar into the separate 
voice parts used for actual performance is of 
much later date. The works of Tallis (1575), 
Byrd (1610), and Gibbons (1612), were all pub- 
lished without bars, while in Eavenscrofl's 
Psalter (1621) the end of each line of the 
verse is marked by a single bar. This single 
bar is termed bj' Butler ( ' Principles of Mu- 
sick,' 1636') an imperfect close, which he says 
is introduced 'at the end of a strain, or any 
place in a song where all the parts meet 
and close before the end,' while the perfect 
close (the end of the whole composition) is 
to be marked with 'two bars athwart afll the 


Henry Lawes appears to have been the first 
English musician who regularly emiiloyed bars 
in his compositions. Hiss ' Ayres and Dialogues,' 
published in J 6^^, are barred throughout, though 
the ' Choice Psahnes put into Musick for Three 
Voices' by Henry and William Lawes, published 
only five years previously, is still without bars. 
The part-writing of the ' Choice Psalines ' is in 
many cases varied and even elaliorate. and there 
must have been considerable difficulty in per- 
forming them, or indeed any of the c impositions 
of that date, without the assistance of any signs 
of rhythmic division, especially as they were not 
printed in score, but only in separate parts. 
Their general character may be judged from 
the following example, which has been translated 
into modem notation and placed in score for 
greater convenience of reading. It may be ob- 
served that although without bars, the ' Choice 
salmes' are intended to be sung in conunon 
ime, and that all have the sign C 3,t the com- 
mencement ; some of the ' Ayres and DialoT-ues,' 
^n the other hand, are in triple time, and are 
irked with the figure 3. 



I^ot in thy wrath a -gainst 


rise Kor in thy fu-ry Loni 

chas - tise Thy ar-r( 

Nor in thy fu-ry 

Nor in thy fu-ry Lord chas - tise 

' B =: »«— H i 1- 


Nail to the ground, 


'^ ■ 

-J» •-<» «*-= "^ 

-> — 

4 1 — 

Jc^ ,_ 



Thy ar - rows wound. Nail 

to the ground, Thy 

> N 


Thy ar - rows wound. Nail 

to the ground. 

— 1— 
— « — 



hand up 



1 1 

--■ r 





- on 






to the ground thy hand up • on ma. 

Tliy band up ■ 

In modem music the use of bars is almost 
universal. Nevertheless there are some cases in 
which for a short time the de.signeti irregularity 
of the rhythm requires that they should Ije dis- 
pensed with. An exauiple of this is found in 
certain more or less extended passages termed 
cadences (not to be confounded with the har- 
monic cadence or close), which usually occur 
near the end of a composition, and serve the 
purpose of affording variety and (lisjjlajHn;; the 
powers of e.xecution of the perfonner. (See 
the close of the Largo of Beethoven's Concerto in 
C minor, op. 37.") Also occaj<ionally in patii-ages 
in the style of fantasi.-i, which are devoid of any 
definite rhythm, examples of which may he found 
in the Prelude of Handel's first Suite in A, in 
Emanuel Bach's Fantasia in C minor, at the 
beginning of the last movement of Bet-thoven's 
Sonata in Bflat. op. 106, and in the third move- 
ment of Mendelssohn's Sonata, op. 6. 

But even in this kind of unbarred music the 
relative value of the notes must be approximately 
if not absolutely preserved, and on this account 
it is often expedient during the study of such 
music to divide the pas-sage into imaginary bars, 
not always necessarily of the same length, by 
the help of which its mnsical meaning becoTnes 
more readily intelligible. This has indeed been 
done by Von Btilow in regard to the pas.sage in 
the Sonata above alluded to, and it is so pulv 
lished in the ' Instructive Edition of Beethoven's 
Works' (Stuttgart, Cotta, 1 871), the result being 
a considerable gain in point of perspicuity. Simi- 
lar instances w^ occur to every student of piano- 
forte music. 

A double bar, consisting of two parallel verti- 
cal lines, is always jiliiced at the end of a c«jm- 
position, and .-sometimes at the close of a station or 
strain, esi)ecially if the strain has to be repeated, 
in which case the dots indicating repetition are 
placed on one or both sides of the double bar, 
according as they may be required. Unlike the 
single bar, the double bar dtx» not indi<ate a 
rhythmic period, as it m.iy occur in the middle or 
at any part of a measure, l)ut merely signifies the 
rhetoiifiil close "f a portion of the comp«i»ition 
comi'lete in itself, or of the wliole work. [F. T.] 

BARBAJA, DoMEXico, bom 1778 at Milan, 
of poor parentage; was successively waiter at 
a cofleehouse on the Piazza, manager of an 
Enudish riding-circus, lessee of the Cucagna 
plavhouse at Naples, and director of the San 
Carlo theatre. Wiiile at Naples he ma«le 
the acquainUince of Count (i.illeiilKTg. the 
Austrian aml-as-xador, followe 1 him to \ ienna 
in iSji, and obuiued the direction of both tha 



'Kiirntliner-thor' theatre and that 'auf der 
Wien,' which he held till 1828. He was the first 
to introduce a subscription into the Vienna the- 
atres. During his management the company 
embraced the best talent of the day, including 
Mesdames Colbran-Eossini. Sontag, Esther Mom- 
belli, Giuditta Grisi, Mainvielle-Fodor, Feron, 
Canticelli ; Signori Donzelli, Cicimarra, Bassi, 
Tamburini, Rubini, David, Nozzari, Lablache, 
Ambrogi, Benedetti, and Botticelli. The ballet 
was sustained by Duport, Salvatore, and Taglioni. 
Though Barbaja introduced Rossini into Vienna, 
he by no means neglected German opera, and 
under his management Weber's 'Euryanthe' was 
produced Oct. 25, 1825. He was at the same 
time manager of the two most celebrated opera- 
houses in Jtaly, La Scala at Milan, and San 
Carlo at Naples ; not to mention some smaller 
operatic establishments also under his direction. 
Bellini's first opera, ' Bianca e Ferdinando,' was 
written for Barbaja and produced at Naples. 
His second opera," ' II Pirata,' was also composed 
for Barbaja. and brought out at ]Milan. Several 
of Donizetti's works, and all Rossini's later works 
for the Italian stage, were first presented to the 
public by the famous impresario, who was destined 
one day himself to figure in an opera. Barbaja 
is at least introduced by name in ' La Sirene,' by 
Scribe and Auber. From his retirement till his 
death, Oct. 16, 1841, he resided on his property 
at Posil'ppo. He was very popular, and was 
followed to his grave by an immense concourse 
of people. [C.F. P.] 

BARBELLA, Emandele, violinist. Bom at 
Naples in the earlier part of the i8th century. 
The following short account of his musical 
education was -m-itten by himself at the request 
of Dr. Burney, who gives it in his History (iii. 
570) : — ' Emanuele Barbella had the violin 
placed in his hand when he was only six and 
a half years old, by his father Francesco Barbella. 
After his father's decease he took lessons of 
Angelo Zaga, till the arrival of Pasqualino Bini, 
a scholar of Tartini, in Naples, under whom he 
studied for a considerable time, and then worked 
by himself His first instructor in counterpoint 
was Michele Gabbalone ; but this master dying, 
he studied composition under the instructions of 
Leo, till the time of his death.' He adds, ' Non 
per questo, Barbella e un vero asino che non sa 
iiiente' — 'Yet, notwithstanding these advantages, 
Barbella is a mere ass, who knows nothing.' He 
wrote six sonatas for violin, and six duos for 
violin and bass, adhering closely to the principles 
of Tartini. Burney gives an example of his 
composition, and says that his tone and manner 
were 'marvellously sweet and pleasing, even 
■without any other accompaniment than the drone- 
bass of an open string.' He died at Naples in 
1773- [E. H. D.] 

this name, founded on the celebrated play of 
Beaumarcliais (1775"), have been often produced. 
Two only can be noticed here: (i) that of 
Paisiello, first performed at St. Petersburg in 



17S0, and at Paris in 1789 — at the 'Theatre dc 1 
Monsieur,' in the Tuileries, July 12, and at the 
Theatre Feydeau, July 22 ; (2) that of Ro-sini 
libretto by Sterbini — produced at Rome, Dec 
26, 1S16, and at Paris, in the Salle Louvoi 
Oct. 26, 1S19. Rossini hesitated to umlertakc 3 
the subject previously treated by Paisiello, anc » 
before doing so obtained his permission. He is I 
said to have completed the opera in 15 days 
On its appearance in Paris an attempt was made 
to crush it by reviving Paisiello's opera, but the ; 
attempt ]iroved an entire failure ; Paisiello's (la_> 
was gone for ever. [G 

opera in 2 acts ; words by Madison Morton 
music by John Hullah. Produced at Covenijo 
Garden, Nov. 11, 1837. 

BARBIE RI, a Spani-sh dramatic composei K 
of the present daj', and chief promoter of at ■ 
association for instituting a Spanish nationu' ^ 
opera in opposition to the Italian. ' Jugar cor* 
fuego' (iS5i\ 'La Hechicera,' 'La Espada de « 
Bernardo,' and 'El Marques de Caravaca,' arf 
the names of some of his operas which have beer W 
performed in Madrid with success, 

BARBIREAU,' Maitre Jacques, a cele 
brated musician of the 15th century, choi- 
master and teacher of the boys in the cathedi- 
of Antwerp from 1448 till his death in 149. 
Many of the great musicians of the 15th anc 
16th centm-ies were his pupils; he maintainei 
a correspondence with Rudolph Agricola, and f" 
is constantly quoted by his contemporary Tinctoi 
as one of the greatest authorities on music oi i"' 
his time. Of his compositions, a mass for five 
voices, 'Virgo parens Christi,' another for foui 
voices, 'Faulx perverse,' and a Kyrie for thcf:; 
same, are in the imperial library at Vienna, and t 
some songs for three and four voices in that oi u) 
Dijon. Kiesewetter has scored the Kyrie from u) 
the first-named mass and a song for three voices, »• 
' Lome (I'homme ) bany de sa plaisance.' [M. C. C.1 (.i 

BARCAROLE (ltal.\ i.e. a ' boat-song. 
Pieces of music written in imitation or recollection ^' 
of the songs of Venetian barcaioli as they row «i 
their gondolas — or as they formerly did ; for 
their songs at present appear to have little inc; 
them either agreeable or characteristic. Barca- 
roles have been often adopted by modern com 
posers ; as by Herold in ' Zampa' ; by Aubei 
in 'Masaniello' and ' Fra Diavolo' ; by Doni 
zetti in 'Marino Faliero'; by Schubert, 'Au: 
dem Wasser zu singen' (Op. 72) ; by Chopir 
for Piano solo (Op. 60) ; and by Sterndale Ben- 
nett for Piano and Orchestra in his ^th Con- 
certo. Mendelssohn has left several examples 
The first ' Song without words ' that he com- 
posed — published as Op. 19, No. 6 — is the 'Ve 
netianisches Gondellied' in G minor, whicl 
the autograph shows to have been written al 
Veniie Oct. 16, 1830. Others are Op. 30, No. 6 
Op. 62, No. 5 ; and the beautiful song, Op. 57 
No. 5, ' Wenn durch die Piazzetta.' One essentia 

1 Pronounced Barbtrieau ; calleii alio JBarbicoIa, liarbjrianus, ant 


laracterisfcic in all these is the alternation of 
strong and a light beat in the nioveinent of 
-8 time— Chopin's alone being in 12-8 — with 
triplet figure pervading the entire composition, 
le object bein^*- perhaps to convey the idea of 
le rise and fall of the boat, or the regular 
onotonous strokes of the oars. The autograph 
Bennett's barcarole is actually marked ' In 
•wing time.' The tempo of the barcaroles 
noted above differs somewhat, but is mostly 
■ a tranquil kind. The 'Gondoletta' entitled 
La Biondina,' harmonised by Beethoven, and 
iven in his ' 1 2 verschiedene Volki-lieder' (^Xotte- 
3hm"s Catalogue, p. 176), though of the same 
laracter as the boatmen's songs, is by Pistrucci, 
1 Italian composer. [W. H. C] 

BAECROFTE, Thomas, said to have been 
.^ganist of Ely Cathedral circ. 1535. Nothing 
. known of his biography. A Te Deimi and 
■enedictus (in F), and two anthems are ascribed 
> him in Tudway's ilS. Collection. The former 
re dated 1532, a date much too eai-ly for an 
Inglish setting of these hymns. It seems much 
jore probable that the author of these composi- 
ons was George Barcrofte, A.B , vicar-choral and 
rganist of Ely Cathedral in 1579. The latter 
'ed in 1609. The service above mentioned, and 
i of the anthems, ' Almighty God,' were 
nted by the Motett Society. E. F. R.] 

BARDELLA, Antonio Xaldi, called '11 
Jardello,' chamber - musician to the Duke of 
'iiscany at the end of the 16th and beginning 
f the 17th centuries, and, according to Arteaga, 
aventor of the Theorbo. Caccini states that he 
cas an adnrirable performer on that instrument. 
BARDI, Giovanni, Count of Vemio, a 
Horentine noble, lived in the end of the 16th 
entury, an accompb'shed scholar and mathe- 
nutician, member of the aca'lemy Delia Crusca, 
ind of the Alterati in Florence, maestro di 
auiera to Pope Clement VIII. Doni attributes 
o him the first idea of the opera, and it is 
ertiiin that the first performances of the kiml 
vere held in his house by his celebnted band 
>f friends, Vicenzo Galilei, Caccini, Strozzi. 
ZoTsi, Peri, and Rinuccini, and that he himself 
;omposed the words for more than one such 
)iece, e.g. ' L'amico fido,' and ' II combattimento 
I'Apollino col serpente.' [M. C. C] 

BARGAGLIA, Scipione, a Neapolitan com- 
joser and contrapuntist, mentioned by Cerreto, 
ived in the second half of the i6th century. 
Acconling to Bumey the word 'Concerto' occurs 
for the first time in his work ' Trattenimenti 
. da suonare' (Venice, 1587). 
BARGIEL, WoLDEMAR, son of a teacher of 
music at Berlin, and step-brother of Mme. Clara 
WieckSchumann \his mother being the divorced 1 
wife of Friedrich Wieck), was bom at Berlin, | 
Oct. 3, ltS28. He was made to play the piano, ' 
the violin, and organ at home, and was instructed 
in counterpoint by Dehn. As a youth of i S, and 1 
in accordance with the advice of his brother in- 
law, Robert Schumann, he spent two years at the 
Cotuseriatoriuiu of Leipzig, which was then (^1846) , 



under Mendelssohn's supervision : and, before 
leaving it, he attracted general attention by an 
octet for strings, which was performed at one 
of the public examinations. 

After his return to Berlin, in 1S50, he com- 
menced work as a teacher, and increased his 
reputation as a composer by the publication of 
various orchestral and chamber works, as well as 
pianoforte pieces. In 1859 he was called to a 
professorship at the Conservatorium of Cologne, 
which, in 1865, he exchanged for the poet of 
Capellmeister, and director of the school of music 
at Rotterdam. Latterly (iS74\ he has found a 
field still more fit for his powers, at the Ktinig- 
liche Hochschule fiir ^lusik, which is now flourish- 
ing under the leadership of Joachim, at Berlin. 

As a composer, Bargiel must be ranked among 
the foremost disciples of Schumann. He makes 
up for a certain lack of freshness and spontaneity 
in his themes by most carefully elalwrated treat- 
ment. Besides his pianoforte pieces, op. 1-5, and 
his trios for pianoforte and strings, two overtures 
for full orchestra, 'Zu einem Trauerspiel,' and 
' Medea,' and the 23rtl Psalm for female voices 
should be particularly mentioned. [E. D.] 

BARITONE, the name usually applied to the 
smaller bass saxhorn in Bb or C. It stands in 
the same key as the euphonium, but the bore 
being on a considerably less scale, and the 
mouthpiece smaller, it gives higher notes and a 
less volume of tone. It is abnost exclusively 
used in reed and brass ban<l8, to the latter of 
which it is able to furnish a certain variety of 
quality. [W. H. S.] 

BARKER, Charles Spackman, was bom at 
Bath Oct. 10, 1S06. Left an orphan at five 
years old, he was brought up by his g">dfather, 
w-ho L-ave him such an etlucation as would fit 
him for the medical profession. But Barker, 
accidentally witnessing the operations of an 
eminent London organ-buiMer, who was erecting 
an organ in his neighbourhoi),!, deterniineil on 
following that occupation, and plai-ed himself 
umler the builder tor instruction in the art. 
Two years afterwards he returned to Bath and 
established himself as an organ-builder there. 
About 1S32 the newly-built large organ in York 
Minster attracted general attention, and Barker, 
impressed by the imuieiise labour occasionetl to 
the j)layer by the extreme hardness of touch of 
the keys, turned his thoughts towanls devising 
some means of overcoming the resistance offercnl 
by the keys to the fingers. Tlie result was the 
invention of the pneumatic lever, by which 
ingenious contrivance the pressure of the wind 
which occasioned the resistance to the touch 
was skilfully api)lied to les.-ien it. Barker 
ottered his invention to several English organ- 
builders, but fin"ling them iniiispiweil to adopt 
it, he went to Paris, where he arrived alwut 
the time that Cavailli-Col was builling a large 
oi^an for the church of St. Denis. To that 
eminent buihler he adiiressed himself, and Ca- 
vaillt', seeing the importance of the invention, 
immediately adopted it. lUrkor afterwanla 
took the direction of the business of Daublaina 




and Callinet (afterwards Ducroquet, and later 
jMerklin and Sclratz), and built in 1845 a large 
organ for the church of St. Eustache, which 
was unfortunately destroyed by fire six months 
after its erection. He also repaired the fine 
organ of the church of St. Sulpice. Later the 
pneumatic lever came gradually into use in 
England. Barker is also the inventor of the 
electric action. He has returned to England, and 
at present (1875) resides in London. [W. H. H.] 

BARNARD, Rev. John, a minor canon of 
St. Paul's cathedi-al in the time of Charles I, was 
the first who published a collection of cathedral 
music. His work appeared in 1641 under the 
title of 'The First Book of Selected Church 
Musick, consisting of Services and Anthems, 
such as are now used in the Cathedrall and 
CoUegiat Churches of this Kingdome. Never 
before printed. Whereby such Bookes as were 
heretofore with much difficulty and charges, 
transcribed for the use of the Quire, are now 
to the saving of much Labour and expence, 
publisht for the genei-al good of all such as shall 
desire them either for publick or private exercise. 
Collected out of divers approved Authors.' The 
work was printed, without bars, in a bold type, 
with diamond headed notes, in ten separate parts — 
niedius, first and second contratenors, tenor and 
bass us for each side of the choir, Decani and 
Cantoris. A part for the organ is absolutely 
necessary for some of the verse anthems in which 
intermediate symphonies occur, but it is extremely 
doubtful whether it was ever printed. From 
many causes - the wear and tear resulting from 
daily use in choirs, the destruction of service- 
books during the civil war, and others— it 
happened that a century ago no perfect copy of 
this work was known to exist, the least imperfect 
set being in Hereford cathedral, where eight of 
the ten vocal parts (some of them mutilated) 
were to be found, the bassus decani and medius 
cantoris being wanting. It so remained until 
January 1862, when the Sacred Harmonic Society 
acquired by purchase a set consisting also of 
eight vocal parts, including the two wanting in 
the Hereford set, and some also being mutilated. 
A duplicate of the bassus decani which had 
been with this set was purchased by the Dean 
and Chapter of Hereford, and a transcript of the 
imperfect medius cantoris was permitted by the 
society to be taken for them, so that the Hereford 
set still retains its pre-eminence. The work does 
not include the compositions of any then living 
author, the compiler in his preface declaring his 
intention of giving such in a future publication. 
Its contents are as follows : — 

Tallis, 1st Serv. 4 voices, D min. 
N. Strogers, 4 v. D min. 
E. Bevin, 4 .and 5 v. D min. 
W. Bird, 4, 6 and 6 v. D min. 
O. Gibbons, 4 v. F. 
W. Mundy, 4, 5 and 6 v. B min. 
E- Parsons, 4, 5, 6 and 7 v. F. 
T. Morley, 1, 2, 3, 4 and .5 v. i) min 
Vt. Gyles, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 v, C. 
[Tlie above are Mg. and Ev. 

Mr. Woodson, Te Deum, 4 v. D min . 
Bird, 2nd Serv. witli verses, Mag 

and N. D. & min. 
Bird. 3rd S., Mag. and N. D. 5 v. C. 
Morley, 2nd S., Mag. and N. D. 5 

V. G. 
O. Gibbons, 2nd S., Mg. and Ev. 1, 2, 

3, 4 and 5 v. D minor 
Tallis, 1st Preces. 
Do. 1st Ps. to do. Wlierewithall. 

Services complete, and are each Do. 2nd Ps O doe well 
entitled ' 1st Service '.] ; Do. 3rd Ps., My soul cleaveth. 

3, Hird's 1st Preces. 

Mr. Ward, Mag. and N. D. 

Do. 2nd Ps., Save me o God. 
Do. 2iid Preces. 
Do. 1st Ps. to do. When Israel. 
Do. 2nd Ps., Hear my prayer. 
Do. 3rd Ps., Teach me o Lord. 
O. Gibbons. 1st Preces. 
Do. Ps. to do. Thou openest. 
Tallis, Responses, Prayer, etc. 
Do. Litany. 

Full A nthemx, 4 parts. 
Tallis, Lord give thy H. Spirit. 
E. Hooper, Teach me. 
Farranr. Hide not tliou. 
Do. Call to I'emembrance, 
.7. Phepheard. Haste Thee. 
Do. (2nd pt.) But let all. 
W. Mundy. Lord the maker. 
Do. Lord the world's Saviour. 
O. Gibbons. Deliver us. 
Do. (2nd pt.) Blessed be. 
O. Gibbons. Almighty .4 everlasting. 
Batten. praise the Lord. 
Do. Hide not Thou. 
Do. Lord we beseech Thee. 
Do. Haste Thee o God. 
Do. (2nd pt.) But let all those. 
Do. When tlie Lord. 
Dr. Tye. I will e.valt Thee. 
Do. (2nd pt.) Sing unto the Lord, 
Do. Deus misereatur. 
into 3 little anthems. 
Full A nihems of 5 parts. 
Tallis, With all our hearts. 

Do. Blessed be Thy name. 

K. Hooper. O Thou G. Almighty. 

Tallis. I call and cry. 

Mundy. O Lord, I bow. 

Bird. Prevent us. 

E. Hooper, Behold it is Christ. 

Kobt. White. The Lord bless us. 

Tallis, Wipe away. 

Bird, God whom our offences. 

Do. Ld. make thy servant Chai 

Dr. Tye, I lift my heart. 

Bird. Lord turn. 

Do. (2nd pt.) Bow Thine ear. 

Dr. Giles, give thanks. 

Ftill Anthems for 6, 7, 8 part). 
Bird, Sing joyfully. 6 v. 
K. Parsons, Deliver me. 6 v. 
C. Gibbons, Uosanna. 6 v. 
Do. Lift up your heads, 6 v. 
Weelkes, O Lord grant, 6 and 7 v. 

A nthems with Verset. 
Bird, Ld. rebuke me not. 
Do. Hear my prayer. 
W. JIundy, .\h helpless wretch. 
Morley. Out of the deep. 
O. Gibbons, Behold Thou hast. 
Batten, Out of the deep. 
Ward, I will praise. 
Bird, Thou God. 

[Divided p„-_ {,1,^;^^ 


Do. (2nd pt.) Christ is risen. 
Dr. Bull. Deliver me. 
Ward, Let God arise. 

4 and 5 v. G min. 

Do. 1st Ps. to do. clap. 

From the printed and manuscript parts, aided 
by other old manuscript organ and voice parts, 
Mr. John Bishop of Cheltenham has made a score 
of the work, which, it is to be regretted, remains 
unpublished. It is now in the British Museum. 

Seven separate parts of the MS. collections 
made by Barnard for his work, comprising upwards 
of 130 services and anthems besides those included 
in the published work, are now in the library of 
the Saci-ed Harmonic Society. [W. H. H.l 

EARNETT, John, born at Bedford July i, 
1802. His mother was a Hungarian, and his 
father a Prussian, whose name was Bernhard 
Beer, which was changed to Barnett Barnett on 
his settlement in this country as a jeweller. In 
his infancy John shewed a marked predilection 
for music, and as his childhood a Ivanced proved 
to have a fine alto voice. At the age of eleven 
he was articled to S. J. Arnold, proprietor of 
the Lyceum, Arnold engaging to provide him 
with musical instruction in return for his ser- 
vices as a singer. The young vocalist accordingly 
appeared upon the stage at the Lj^ceum, and 
continued a successful career until the breaking 
of his voice During this time he was receiving 
instruction in music, first from C. E. Horn, and 
afterwards from Price, the chorus -master of 
Drury Lane. He wrote, while yet a boy, two 
masses and many lighter pieces, some of which 
were published. At the expiration of his term 
with Arnold he took pianoforte lessons of Perez, 
organist of the Spanish, and subse- 
quently of Ferdinand Ries. From the latter he 
received his first real lesson in harmony. 

His first essay for the stage was the musical 
farce of 'Before Breakfast' (Lyceum, 1825), the 
success of which induced him to continue the 
line he had commenced. Among the pieces he 
subsequently wrote may be enumerated 'Mon- 
sieur Mallet,' ' Robert the Devil,' ' Country Quar- 
ters,' 'Two Seconds,' 'The Soldier's Widow,' 
I The Picturesque,' ' Married Lovers,' 'The Deuce 
is in her,' 'Charles the' (which con- 


tained the popular ballad 'Rise gentle Moon'), 
and ' The Carnival of Naples,' the latter per- 
formed at Covent Garden in i8.^o. Meantime 
he was not unmindful of the higher branches of 
his art, and in 1829 published his oratorio of 
'The Omnipresence of the Deity,' which lias never 
been performed in public. In 31 he brought 
out at Sadler's Wells 'The Pet of the Petticoats,' 
subsequently transplanted to the greater theatres. 
This was his most important dramatic work up 
to this period. It was deservedly popular, and 
contained dramatic music then new to the 
English stage. 

In 1832 Bamett was engaged by Madame 
Vestris as music-director of the Olymjdc Theatre, 
for which he wrote a number of popular musical 
pieces — ' The Paphian Bower,' ' Olympic Revels,' 
'The Court of Queen's Bench,' 'Blanche of Jer- 
sey,' etc. Also for Drury Lane a lyrical version 
of Mrs. CentlivTe's ' Bold stroke for a Wife,' with 
Braham in the principal character. Under the 
title of ' Win her and Wear her' this piece was 
played for a few nights, but failed to obtain the 
success it merited, partly owing to the inappro- 
priateness of the subject. The music contains 
many gems introduced by the composer into his 
later works. 

In 1834 he published his ' Lyrical Illustrations 
of the Modem Poets,' a collection of songs of 
remarkable beauty and poetic feeling ; and 
shortly afterwards ' Songs of the Minstrels,' 
and ' Amusement for Leisure Hours.' These 
productions, the first especially, raised him in the 
estimation of the musical world. 

Bamett's great work 'The Mountain Sylph' 
■was produced at the Lyceum in August 1834 
with remarkable success. It was originally de- 
signed as a mu.sical drama for one of the minor 
theatres, and afterwards extended into complete 
operatic form. It met with some opjiosition on 
the first night, but soon became a standard 
favourite. ' Here then,' says Professor Macfarren, 
'was the first English opera constructed in the 
acknowledged form of its age since Ames time- 
honoured Artaxer.xes ; and it owes its import- 
ance as a work of art, not more to the artistic 
mould in which it is cast than to the artistic, 
conscientious, emulous feeling that pervades it. 
Its production opened a new period for music in 
this country, from which is to be dated the 
establishment of an En^^lish dramatic school, 
which, if not yet accomplished, has made many 
notable advances.' Bamett dedicated the work 
to his old master, Arnold, extolling him as the 
fosterer of the British Muse ; but before the 
year was out he changed his tone, complaining 
in the public prints that this same manager 
had refused to pay him for the composition of a 
new opera. 

He now spent some time in Paris, with the 
purpose of producing there his opera of ' Fair 
Rosamond,' but returned, on the invitation of 
Bunn, to bring out the work at Drury Lane. 
It was performed in February 1837, with in- 
different success, mainly owing to its ill-con- 
Btructed libretto. It is full of charming music, 




and, wedded to a new poem, would command 
attentio.i from an audience of the present day. 
In this year Barnett married the daughter of 
Lindley the violoncellist, with whom he went to 
Frankfort, with the view of studying Vogler's 
system ot harmony and the principles of composition 
under Snyder von Wartensee. Here he wrote a 
symphony and two quartets, which are still un- 
published. On his return to London in 1 838, he 
produced his opera of 'Farinelli' at Drury Lane, 
perhaps his best work. In this year, in con- 
junction with Morris Barnett, the actor, dra- 
matist, and journalist, he opened the St. James's 
Theatre, with the intention of founding an Eng- 
lish opera house ; but (owing to unforeseen cir- 
cumstances) the theatre prematurely closed at 
the end of the first week. 

At the beginning of 1841 Bamett established 
himself as a singing master at Cheltenham, 
where he remains (1876) in extensive practice. 
In the following year he published a pamphlet 
of sixty pages, entitled ' Systems and Singing 
Masters : an analytic comment upon the Wilheui 
System as taught in England' — cleverly and 
caustically written, but unjustly severe upon 
Mr. Hullah. 

Mr. Bamett has at least three operas which 
have never been performed. 'Kathleen,' the li- 
bretto by Sheridan Knowles, is highly s|K)ken of 
by those who have heard the music. His single 
songs are said to number nearly four thousand. 

Bamett's music is highly dramatic. His melo- 
dies are marked by decided character, and his 
skill in orchestration is <;reat. It is much to be 
regretted that he has withheld his later works 
from the public. {Imp. bid, of Univ. Bioij. ; 
Private sources.) [E. F. R.] 

BARNETT, John Francis, nephew of the 
preceding, son of Joseph Alfred Bamett, a 
professor of music, was born Oct. f>, 1838. He 
began the study of the pianoforte when six years 
old under the guidance of his mother. When 
eleven lie was placed under Dr. Wylde. The boy 
progressed rai)idly in his studies, and a twelve- 
month later became a candidate for the Queen's 
Scholarship at the Royal Academy of M usic. This 
he gained, and »i tlie expiration of two years, the 
duration of the scholarship, he comptted again, 
and was again successful. During the first year 
of his scholarship he was engaged and played 
(from memory) Memlelssohn's Concerto in D 
minor at the New Philharinonic Society, under 
the direction of Spolir (.July 4, i^^.^3). The 
second scholarship coming to an end in 1857, 
he visited Germany, studied under Hauptmann 
and Rietz at the Coneervatoriuni at Leipsic, 
and performed at the Gewamlhaus (Mar. 22, 
i860). At the expiration of three years he 
retumeil to London and played at the Phil- 
harmonic, June 10, 1861. The first comiH>- 
sition that brought the young composer into 
notice was a synipliony in A minor, produced 
at the Musical Society of London (June 15, 
18^^14). He has since written several quartets 
and quintets for string instruments, pianoforte 
trios, as well as an 'Overture Symphoniquc" for 



the Philharmonic Society (May ii, 1868), a con- 
certo ill D minor, and other works. In 1867, at 
the request of the committee of the Birmingham 
Festival, he composed his cantata 'The Ancient 
Mariner,' on Coleridge's poem, which was an 
acknowledged success. In 1870 he received a 
second comiuission from the Birmingham Festival 
committee to write a cantata, and tliis time he 
chose ' Paradise and the Peri,' which was per- 
formed the same year with great success. Both 
these works have been given repeatedly in 
England and the Colonies. Mr. Barnets next 
wrote his overture to Shakspeare's ' Winter's 
Tale ' for the British Orchestral Society, which 
performed it Feb. 6, 1873. In the same year he 
produced his oratorio 'The Eaising of Lazarus,' 
which may be regarded as his most important 
work. In the following year he received a con- 
mission to an instrumental work for the 
Liverpool Festival, when he chose for his theme 
Scott's ' Lay of the Last Minstrel.' This was 
produced on Oct. i, 1874. Be.sides the works 
enumerated, Mr. Barnett has written a number 
of pianoforte and vocal compositions, including a 
' Tantum Ergo ' in eight parts. [E. F R.] 

BARON", Ernst Theophilus, a famous lute 
player, born at Breslau Feb. 27, i6g6. His 
first instruction was obtained from Kohatt, a 
Biihemian, in 1 710, next in the Collegium 
Elizabethanum at Breslau ; and he afterwards 
studied law and philosophy at Leipsic. After 
residing in Halle, Ccithen, Zeltz, Saalfeld, and 
Rudolstadt, he appeared in Jena in 1720, 
whence he made an artistic tour to Cassel, 
Fulda, Wiirzburg, Nuiemberg, and Regensburg, 
meeting everywhere with brilliant success. In 
Nuremberg he made some stay, and there pub- 
lished his 'Historisch-theoretisch und practische 
TJntersuchung des Instruments der Lauten ' 
(J. F. Riideger, 1727), to which he afterwards 
added an appendix in Marpurg's 'Historisch- 
kritischen Beitrage,' etc. In 1727 Meusel, lute- 
nist at the court of Gotha, died, and Baron 
obtained the post, which however he quitted 
in 1732, after the death of the duke, to join 
the court band at Eisenach ; there he remained 
till 1737, when he undertook a tour by Merse- 
burg and Cothen to Berlin, and was engaged 
iDy King Friedrich Wilhelra I. as theorbist, 
though he possessed no theorbo, and was com- 
pelled to obtain leave to procure one in Dresden. 
Weiss, the great theorbist, was at that time 
living in Dres-den, and from him, Hofer, Kropf- 
gans, and Belgratzky, a born Circassian, Baron 
soon learnt the instrument. After this he re- 
mained in Berlin till his death, April 20, 1 760 ; 
and published there a great number of short 
papers on his instrument and music in general. 
Many of his cumpositions for the lute were 
published by Breitkopfs. [F. G.] 

BARONESS, THE, an artist of German origin, 
as is supposed, who sang in the operas abroad 
and in London, and was known by no other 
name. She sang the part of Lavinia, in the 
opera of ' Camilla,' by Buononcini (Drury Lane, 


1 7o6\ and that of EuriUa in ' Love's Triumph,' at 
the Haymarket, some time afterwards. She was 
a perfect mistress of the grandest method of 
singing, an art which was even then becoming 
rare, and she shared that proud preeminence 
with but a few such singers, as Cornelio GaUi, 
Tosi, and Siface. She took a great part, with 
Sandoni, in the teaching and cultivation of 
Anastasia Robinson, so far as that singer would 
submit to receive any instruction at all ; being 
herself, at the same time, engaged at the Opera, 
and ' greatly caressed,' as Hawkins informs us. 
Her name must not be confounded with that of 
Hortensia, the mistress of Stradella, as was done 
by Humfrey Wanley, the compiler of the Har- 
leian Catalogue, relying on the information of 
his friend Berenclow ; for that unfortunate lady 
was, according to the best accounts, assassinated 
at the same time with her lover. [J. M.] 

BARRE, Antonio, was of French extraction, 
but the place and date of his birth are unknown. 
We find him as a composer of established repute 
at Rome in 1550. In 1555 he started in that 
capital a printing-press, which he afterwards 
removed to Milan, and from which he published 
a series of six volumes containing pieces by 
himself and other writers. The titles of these 
ai-e as follows: — (i) 'Primo Libro delle Muse 
a 5 voci, MadrigaU di diversi Autori.' (2) 
'Primo Libro delle Muse a 4 voci, Madrigali 
ariosi di Antonio Barre ed altri diversi autori.' 
Both of these volumes were dated 1555, and 
were dedicated, the first to Onofrio Virgili, the 
second to the Princess Felice Orsini. (3) 'Se- 
condo Libro delle Muse a quattro voci, Madrigali 
ariosi di diversi excellentissimi Autori, con due 
Canzoni di Gianetto, di nuovo raccolti e dati in 
luce. In Roma appresso Antonio Barre 1558.' 
(4) 'Madrigali a quattro voci di Francesco 
Menta novamente da lui composti e dati in luce ; 
in Roma per Antonio Barre 1560.' (5) 'II 
Primo Libro di Madrigali a quattro voci di 
Ollivier Brassart. In Roma per Antonio Barre 
1564.' Of this last only the alto part is known 
to exist, having been actually seen by Fetis. 
(6) 'Liber Primus Musarum cum quatuor voci- 
bus, seu sacne cantiones quas vulgo Mottetta 
appellant. Milan, Antonio Barre, 1588.' Out 
of these six volumes even the learned and 
indefatigable Baini had only thoroughly satisfied 
himself as to the existence of the two first. The 
last is said to contain no less than twenty-nine 
pieces by Palestrina, besides specimens of the 
work of Orlando Lasso, Rore, Animuccia, and 
other rare masters. [E. H. P.] 

BARRE, Leonard, a native of Limoges, and 
pupil of Willaert, a singer in the Papal Chapel 
in 1537, and thus contemporary with Arcadelt. 
He was one of the musicians sent by the Pope 
to the Council of Trent in 1545 to give advice 
on church music. His claims as a composer rest 
on some motets and madrigals published in a 
collection at Venice in 1544, and on many MS. 
compositions preserved in the library of the 
Papal Chapel. [J. R. S. B.] 


BARREL ORGAN. A musical instrument, 
of all others the most easy of manipulation, as 
it requires nothing beyond the retjular rotary 
motion of a handle to keep it plajang. In some 
examples even this power is applied mechani- 
cally, either by means of clock-work, or by 
weights. These instruments are of the most 
various capacities, from the simple street organ 
— the 'barrel organ' of ordinary parlance — to 
large and complicated machines representing the 
full orchestra. But the principle of action is the 
same in all. A wooden cylinder, or barrel, placed 
horizontally, and armed on its outside circum- 
ference with brass staphs or pins, slowly re- 
volves, in the direction from back to front ; and 
in doing so the pins raise certain trigger-shaped 
keys, which correspond with simple mechanism 
communicating with valves that on being opened 
allow wind to enter the required pipes. In this 
way either melody or harmony is produced. The 
wind is produced by bellows which are worked 
by the same motion which turns the barrel. 
The most simple kind of instrument of this na- 
ture is the small 'bird organ,' used, as its name 
implies, for teaching bulfiuches to pipe — which 
plays the simplest music in melody only. 

It is not positively known when barrel organs 
were first made, but they are supposed to date 
from about the beginning of the last century. 
An organ-builder of the name of Wright, the 
great-grandfather of the jiresent firm of Robson, 
made a barrel organ for Fulhani Church, which 
alone would carry the date a long way back in 
the last century. Mr. Flight of Exeter Change, 
the grandfather of the present builder of that 
name, was also a celebrated maker of barrel 
organs in his day. The finest and most elabo- 
rate specimen ot a 'Finger and Barrel' organ 
that was ever made, was the Apollonicon, con- 
structed by Flight and Robson at a cost of nearly 
£10,000, and first exhibited by them about the 
year 18 15. This has been already described 
under its own head. The firms of Flight and 
Robson, and of Bryceson, father of the present 
builder of that name, made perhaps the greatest 
number of barrel organs, which kind of instru- 
ment was in much demand some fifty years ago, 
for churches and chapels, though now seldom 
met with there. These were set with psahn and 
hymn tunes, chants, and occasionally with volun- 

A church barrel organ had rarely a chromatic 
compass of notes, but usually only a greater 
or less approximation thereto. Thus it would 
generally have either 8, 14, 17, 21, 27, 28, or 31 
keys. In the case of one having 14 keys, two 
diutonic scales, of short range, would be pre- 
sented, namely G and D, into which all the tunes 
'marked' upon the barrel would be transjiosed, 
and a few pipes at somewhat large intervals 
apart would be supplied by way of bass, such as 
1) and G. In organs with more keys, the Gjt 
would be inserted, allowing the scale of A to be 
used. In organs having a further increa-setl 
number of keys the D ^ would be introduced, 
permitting the scale of E to be employed ; and 



r<i. ♦ 


so on. Strange to say, scales with flats were 
never planned unJens specially ordered ; mrr was 
there much provision for tunes in the minor mode 
in organs with comj)aratively but few ' keys.' 

Some organs are made having the complete 
compass and with all the chromatrc etniitones, 
and are 'marked' to play overtures, movements 
of symphonies, selections from operas, sets of 
waltzes, and other music of that cla-ss in the 
most beautiful manner. The place occupied in 
the making of these instruments by the late 
John Robson has been taken by Messrs. Imhof 
and Mukle of London, who supply a large num- 
ber of mechanical organs to private houses in the 
country at prices ranging from £100 to £1500. 
One of the completest of these instruments con- 
tains 8 ordinary stops, ranging through a com- 
plete chromatic scale of 5^ oc- «'•«•. ^ 
taves, and six solo stops ; with a ^E 

swell of three stops in addition 

to drums, triangle, cymbals, and 5 

castanets — in fact a representation of the entire 
orchestra. Tliree machines work the whole of this 
elaborate apparatus. The barrels can be changed 
very rapidly, and as each barrel takes 1 1 , minutes 
to complete its revolutions there are few move- 
ments of the great symphonies and few overturea 
which cannot be performed, and in fact the best 
machines contain barrels for such movements as 
well as for the operatic selections more usually 
found on them. The mechanical contrivances in 
these instruments are highly ingenious, the music, 
as already remarked, is often ot the best, and the 
effect in a suitable space and under proper cir- 
cumstances is very pleasing. Instruments of this 
character are occasionally furnished with a man- 
ual, and are then known as ' Barrel and Fiag&c 

Tlie ordinary street organ was first made by » 
builder named Hicks at the beginning of tliis 
century. At present the smallest kind has 34 
keys, sounding the following notes : — 


i *rrrrrr 

In the secomi size an A is added on the fifth 
line of the bass stave, and a C's in the trelile ; ia 
the third size an F, ¥9, (>> and A in alt.; and 
in the fourth, the largest of all, the scale is con- 
tinued up to E, and C $ is addeil in alt. The 
ett'ect even of simple nKxlulations with such im- 
perfect means will be easily understood. In fjtct 
the 'setting' the barrels of a street organ — like 
the hearing them— must be a coiisUtut struggle 
with ditticulties. There are 2 stops, an o|>en 
(rarely of metal) and a closed (wood). The bar- 
rel is set to play 9 or 10 tunt-s. These instru- 
ments weigh from 40 to 56 ll>8., anil cost from 
£18 uj)wards. The jii|K'8 and all other parts are 
made at tlie factory ot tlie firm alreatiy mentioned, 
in the Black Forest, but the barrels arts 'stft' — 
i.e. the pins are inserted — and the whole put 
together in London. Street organs are cliieHy 
used in England, but are also largely exjxirtc*] to 
South America, the Wtwt Indies, uud other plauei. 



The annexed illustration shows a cross section 
of an ordinary barrel organ, a is the barrel, 
'set' round its circumference with 'pins,' at the 
various intervals, and of the various lengths, 
necessary for the music, and turned by the worm 
6 on the shaft c\ dd are the bellows worked by 
the cranks e e on the shaft and the connecting 
rods //, and delivering the wind into an air 
chamber g, which runs to the further end of the 
case, and is kept at a uniform pressure by the 
spiral springs A /*. The air vessel again delivers 
the wind into the wind-chest m, which communi- 
cates with the pipes n n. Each pipe has its 
valve 0, which is kept closed by a spring until 
the corresponding pin on the barrel raises the 
trigger -p, and forcing down the connecting wire 
r, opens the valve and admits wind to the pipe, 
s s is the case. Space being very valuable in 
these instruments the pipes are packed together 
very closely, and are often bent in shape to fit 
the demands of the case. In the diagram one is 
shown lying beneath the floor of the bellows. 

The baiTcl is made of staves, about 2^ inches 
wide, of the best pine wood without knots or 
sap, and seaso7aed for many years before being 
used. At each end of the barrel, and sometimes 
also in the middle, is a circular piece of hard 
mahogany called a barrel-heud, to which the 
staves are glued and pegged. The barrel is then 
handed to the turner, who makes it perfectly 
cylindrical, and it is then covered with cartridge 
paper and sometimes painted. At one end of 
the barrel the ' head ' is furnished with a circle 
of teeth for the worm connected with the handle 
to work in when slowly rotating the barrel. 
Projecting from this 'head' is the notch-pin. 
The number of notches in the pin corresponds to 
the number of tunes played by the barrel. A 
Icnife lowered into the notch prevents the barrel 
from shifting its position. The simplest arrange- 
ment is for the barrel to play a tune completely 
through in the course of a single revolution. 

The keys are usually 7-8ths of an inch apart, 
and the intervening space upon the barrel may be 
filled either with pins for producing fresh tunes 
to the number of nine or ten, or with a continua- 
tion of the original piece lasting for the same 
number of revolutions of the barrel. In the 
latter case the 'notches' are arranged in a spiral 
80 as to allow the barrel to shift horizontally to 
left or right at the end of each revolution with- 
out the intervention of the hand. 

It is not within the scope of this article to 
speak of the players of the street organs, but it 
may be mentioned that there are some four 
'masters' in London, employing from 30 to 50 
men each, to whom the organs are let out on 
hire. The number of organs sold for use in 
London alone by the house already named is 
about 30 a year, but the export trade to the 
West Indies, Brazil, etc., is also considerable. 

Barrel organs have been made with three and 
four barrels in a circular revolving iron frame. 
The first of the kind, containing four barrels, 
was made by Mr. Bishop, sen., the father of the 
present organ-builder of that name, for North- 


allerton church, Yorkshire, about the year 1S20. 
Many years later Messrs. Gray and Davison 


made grinder organs with three barrels in one 
frame. [E. J. H.] 

BAEEET, Apollon Marie-Eose, a remark- 
able oboe player, born in the south of France 
in 1 804, pupil of Vogt at the Conservatoire, solo 
player at the Odeon and Op^ra Comique, and at 
last permanently attached to the Italian Opera 
in London till 1874. Barret is the author of the 
' Complete Method for the Oboe, comprising all 
the new fingerings, new tables of shakes, scales, 
exercises,' etc. (JuUien and Co.). [F. G.] 

BAEEETT, John, a pupil of Dr. Blow, was 
music master at Christ's Hospital and organist 
of the church of St. Mary-at-Hill about 1710. 
Many songs by him are in the collections of the 
period, pai-ticularly in D'Urfey's 'Wit and 
Mirth, or. Pills to purge Melancholy,' in which 
is 'lanthe the lovely,' which furnished Gay with 
the tune for his song ' When he holds up his 
hand' in ' The Beggar's Opera.' Barrett com- 
posed overtures and act tunes for 'Love's last 
shift, or. The Fool in Fashion,' 1696, 'Tun- 
bridge Walks,' 1703, and 'Mary, Queen of 
Scots,' 1703. [W. H. H.] 

BAEEINGTON, Daixes, the Hon., bom in 
London 1727, died there 1800, Eecorder of 
Bristol and puisne judge in Wales, is mentioned 
here as the author of an account of Mozart 
during his visit to London in 1764, at eight 
years of age, in the 'Philosophical Transactions' 
for 1780 (vol. xi.). Barrington also published 
'Miscellanies' (London, 1781), in which the 
foregoing account is repeated, and a similar ac- 
count is given of the early powers of four other 
childi-en, William Crotch, Charles and Samuel 
Wesley, and Lord Mornington. [M. C. C] 


BAHNBY, Joseph, born at York Aug. 12, 
1838, a chorister in York Minster, and student 
at the Royal Academy of Music : was for nine 
years organist of St. Andrew's, Wells Street, 
London, and contributed much to the excellence 
of the services at that church. Conductor of 
'Bamby's Choir,' of the 'Oratorio Concerts,' and 
of the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society ; and 
appointed to the important post of succentor and 
director of musical instruction at Eton College, 
1875. Mr. Barnby has published an oratorio, 
* Rebekah,' which contains some charming modem 
music, and many other compositions, both sacred 
and secular. He edited the 'Hymnary' for 
Messrs. Novello, to which he contributed many 
tunes, justly admired for beauty of melody and 
harmony. [E. F. R.] 

BARSANTI, Francesco, bom at Lucca 
about 1690. In 1714 he accompanied Geminiani 
to England, which country henceforth became 
his own. He played both the flute and oboe, the 
latter for many 'years in the opera band. He 
held a lucrative situation in Scotland, and while 
there made and published 'A Collection of Old 
Scots' Tunes, with the Bass for Violoncello or 
Harpsichord,' etc. (Edinburgh, 1 742). After his 
return to England about 1750, he played the 
viola at the opera in winter and Yauxhall in 
summer. At the close of his life he was de- 
pendent upon the exertions of his wife and his 
daughter, a singer and actress of considerable 
ability. His other publications include ' Twelve 
concertos for violins,' and Six ' Antifone' in the 
style of Palestrina. [M. C. C] 

BARTEI, GiEOLAMO, general of the Augustin 
order of monks at Rome in the beginning of the 
17th century. From two somewhat obscure 
passages in Baini's 'Meinorie' we gather that he 
published at Rome in 1 6 1 8 some masses for eight 
voices, some ricercari for two voices, and two 
books of concert! for two voices. To these Fetis 
adds some 'Responsoria' for four equal voices, 
printed at Venice in 1607. 

BARTHEL, Johann Christian, born at 
Plauen 1776, a musician fi-om a very early 
age, in 1789 played at the house of Doles 
before Mozart, who praised him highly, and 
Boon after entered the school of St. Thoin.ns 
at Leipsic as a pupil of J. A. Hiller. At 
sixteen, on Hiller's recommendation, he was 
appointed concert-conductor to the court of 
Schcineburg, and some time aftervards occupied 
a similar post at Greitz, In 1806, on tlie 
death of J. G. Krehs, was appointed organist 
to the court of Altenburg, where he remained 
till his death in 1831. [M. C. C] 

BARTHELEMON, Francois Hippowte, 
bom at Bourdeaux July 27, 1741, was the son 
of a French government officer and an Irish 
lady. He commenced life as an officer in the 
Irish brigade, but being induced by the Earl 
of Kelly, a well-known amateur composer, to 
change his profession for that of music, he 
became one of the most distinguished violinists 
of his time. In J 765 he came to England, and 



was engaged as leafier of the opera band. In 
1766 he produced at the King's Tlieatre a 
serious opera called 'Pelopida,' and in the 
same year married Miss Mary Young, a niece 
of Mrs. A me and Mrs. Lampe, and a favourite 
sint;er. In 1 76S Garrick engaged him to com- 
pose the music for the burletta of 'Orpheus,' 
introduced in his farce 'A Peep behind the 
Curtain,' the great success of which led to his 
composing the music for other pieces brought 
out at tlie same theatre. In 1768 lie went to 
Paris, and produced there a pastoral opera calletl 
'Le fleuve Scamandre.' In 1770 BartheK-nioa 
became leader at Vauxhall Gardens. In 1776 
he left England with his wife for a professional 
tour through Germany, Italy, and France. At 
Florence Barthtlemon, at the request of the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, set to music the Abate 
Semplici's oratorio 'Jefte in Masfa.' He re- 
turned to England late in 1777. An ac- 
(juaintance with the Rev. Jacob Duch^, chap- 
lain to the Female Orphan Asylum, led to his 
composing, about 1780, the well-known tune 
for the morning hymn 'Awake, my soul.' In 
1784 Barthi-li-mon and his wife made a pro- 
fessional visit to Dublin. In 1791-9 he con- 
tracted an intimacy with Haydn, then in Lon- 
don. On Sept 20, 1799, Mrs. Bartholemon 
died. Besides the compos'tions above named 
Barthelemon wrote the music for the following 
dramatic pieces: — 'Tlie Enchanted Girdle'; 
' The Judgment of Paris,' 1 768 ; ' The Election,' 
1774; 'The Maid of the Oaks,' 1774; ' Belphe- 
gpr,' 177^; ^^'^ several quartets for stringed 
instruments, concertos and duos for the violin, 
lessons for the pianoforte, and pieludes for the 
organ. As a player he was distinguished by 
the firmness of his hand, the purity of his tone, 
and his admirable manner of executing an 
adagio. He died July 20, 1808. [W. H. H.] 
BARTHOLDY, Jacob Salomon, of a Jewish 
family, born at Berlin 1779, died in Rome 
1825, a Prussian diplomatist, .and author of an 
important article in tlie Berlin ' IMnsikiilischer 
/5eitung' for 1805, ' Ueber den Volksgesang der 
§icilianer.' [M. C. V.] 

. BABTHOLOMEW, William, bora in London 
1793; died Aug. iS, i8r>7. A man of many 
accomplishments— chemist, violin-pl.ayer, and ex- 
cellent flower-painter ; but to the English public 
familiar as the translator or adaptor of the w»)rd3 
of most of MenileL-iSohn's vocal works. ' St. Paul ' 
and the ' Lobgesaiig ' wore adapte<l by others, 
but 'Antigone' (for which he reoeivetl the gold 
medal of merit frt>m the King of Prussial. ' Atlia- 
lie,' '(Edipus,''LaudaSion,'tho'Walpurgi8night.' 
the Finale to ' Loreley,' ' Elijah,' and the frag- 
ments of 'Christus,' with mowt of Mendelssohn's 
songs, were Mr. B:irtholomew'8 work — not. as 
anv one familiar with Moiulelssohn's habits will 
believe, without constant suggestion and 8U|>er- 
vision from the composer. ■ Hear my Prayer' 
was composed at Mr. Bartholomew's rwiuest 
for the concerts of Miss Mounsey, a lady whom 
he married in 1853. Besides the above, Mr. 


Bartholomew wrote English words for mhnYs 
•Wi' ^by command of the Queen); Spohrs 
'Snda'; Costa's 'Eli,' ' Naaman ' and ' The 
Dream^"- a^d Mrs. Bartholomew's 'The ^ati- 
Sv '^t^ For the last few years of his life he 
wScoSned to his room by paralysis of the lower 

BARTLEMAN, James, was born Sept. 19, 
1760, probably at Westminster, and educated 
under Ur. (Jooke in the chonstei^ school of 
Westminster Abbey. He soon showed voice 
and clacity far beyond his fellow pupils, and 
became^ great favourite with his master. His 
voice while it remained a soprano was remark- 
able for strength and tine quality of tone. He 
dktUuished himself as a boy-singer by his 
refinS and expressive rendering oi Br Greenes 

solo anthem, 'Acquaint t^^y^^l^ ^^^V'^tl^^^n 
was greatly patronised by Sir John Hawkins m 
whose family he was a frequent ^nsitor ^see Miss 
Hawkins's 'Anecdotes'). In 1788 his name 
appears for the first time as a bass chorister 
at the Concerts of Ancient Music where he 
remained till 179I' ^^^^n he quitted it to 
assume the post of first solo bass at the newly 
established Vocal Concerts. In 1 795 he returned 
to the Ancient Concerts, and immediately took 
the station which, till compelled by ill health, 
he never quitted, of principal bass^smger m the 
first concert of the metropolis. Before Bartle- 
man's time only one bass solo of ^^f f ^^ ^ '^^ 
been heard at these concerts -that of the Cold 
Genius in the 'Frost Scene' of ' King Arthur. 
It is to him we are indebted for making us ac- 
quainted with those magniiicent monuments ot 
the giant of English composers, ' Let the dreadtul 
Endnes,' 'Thy Genius, lo!' 'Ye twice ten 
hundred Deities,' ' Hark, my Dandcar. In the 
short course of one season he revived them all, and 
continued to sing them with unabated applause 
until he sang no more. Bartleman's execution 
was that of his time and school, and confined 
chiefly to written divisions ; his own ornaments 
were few, simple, and chaste, and always in strict 
keepincr with the feeling of the air m which they 
were introduced. The latter years of his life 
were embittered by disease which he vainly 
struggled against. He died April 15, 1821, and 
was buried in the cloisters of Westminster. His 
epitaph is by Dean Ireland. He formed a large 
and valuable musical library, which was sold by 
auction by White of Storev's Gate, shortly after 
his death. {Barmonicon, 1830; Boohs of -^noent 
Concerts; Private Sources.) [E. l.RJ 

BARTLETT, John, an English musician of 
the eariy part of the 17th century. He pub- 
lished a work entitled ' A Book of Ayres, with a 
Triplicitie of Musicke, whereof the First Part is 
for the Lute or Orpharion, and Viole de Gamba, 
and 4 Parts to Sing : the Second Part is for 
2 Trebles, to sing to the Lute and Viole : The 
Third Part is for the Lute and one Voyce, 
and the Viole di Gamba,' 1606. It is dedicated 
to the ' Right Honourable his singular good Lord 
and Maister, Sir Edward Seymore.' Bartlett 


took his degree as Mus. Bac. at Oxford in 

1 6 10 (^Wood, Athence Oxon.; Eimbault, mb. 

3Iad.) CE- F. R.J 

BARTOLINI, ViNCENZiO, a very good second 

soprano, appeared in London, 1782, in 'U 

Convito,' a comic opera by Bertoni. In the 

next season he took part in ' L' Olimpiade, a 

pasticcio; and in 1784 hs sang in Ajifossi a 

'Issipile' and 'Due GemeUe,' and the 'Demo- 

foonte' of Bertoni. He sang also m the Com - 

i memoration of Handel in Westminster Abbey 

that year, and in 1786 we find him still m Lon- 

don, performing in Tarchi's ' Virgima. He was 

singino- with success at Cassel m 1 792. [^ • -^^-J 

BARYTUN, also Viola di Bardone or 

BORDONE. ^o*cZo/ie is the Italian for 'drone, and 

Leopold Mozart, 


his ' Violin 
School,' contends 
that the tone of 
this instrument, 
owing probably to 
the vibration of 
the sympathetic 
metal-strings, was 
suggestive of the 
hum of the bee. 

The Baryton, a 
stringed instru- 
ment not unlike 
the viola da gam- 
ba, played with a 
bow, was in use up 
to the end of the 
1 8th century, but 
owing probably to 
its complicated 
mechanism and to 
the weakness of 
its tone, which 
rendered it unfit 
for use in orches- 
tral playing, is 
. , _, // iiiiii now entirely o1> 

i I ji=i=-=yj])\ ^"^*'*®- ■"•^^ ^""^^ 

^ I WVfJuWs \ "^'*' ^'^^ broad, 
ar i //(/[///». boUowed out, and 

It was usually 
mounted with 
=ix or seven catgut 
strings, stretched 
over the finger- 
board, and played 
on with the bow ; 
while the metal 
strings, varpng 
m number from nine to twenty-four, and running 
underneath the fingerboard, were pinched with 
the thumb of the left hand, and acted at the 
same time as sympathetic strings, ihe catgui 
strings were tuned as follows : — 


Leopold Mozart considered it one of the loveliest 
of instruments; and when we hear that Haydn 
for a considerable time tried hard to learn to 
play it, we must regret its being now so entirely 

C. F. Pohl, in his Biography of Haydn (Berlin, 
1875), gives us the following notices concerning 
the baryton. 

1. Makers : — M. Feldlen (1656), H. Kramer 
(1714), D. A. Stadlmann (1732), J. Stadlmann 
(1750), all of Vienna ; Joachim Tielke at Ham- 
burg (1686), maker of the fine specimen in the 
S. Kensington Museum, from wh ch our cut is 
taken ; and Andreas Stainer, of Absom in the 
Tyrol (1660). 

2. Performers: — M. A. Berti, Vienna (1721- 
1740); Signor Farrant, London (1744); Abell, 
London (1759-87). Anton Kraft, Karl Franz 
and Andreas Lidl, members of Prince Esterhazy's 
private band under Haydn (Lidl played in con- 
certs in England in 1776); Friedel, member of 
the royal band at Berlin at the end of the last 
and beginning of the present century. Fauner 
(1794) and V. Hauschka (1795-1S23) are named 
as accomplished amateur-performers. 

3. Composers : — Niemecz, L. Tomasini and A. 
Kraft of Esterhaz, Wenzl Pichl, Ferd. Paer, 
Weigl and Eybler, all of Vienna ; and last, but 
not least, Haydn. Pohl enumerates no less than 
175 compositions of Haydn's for the instrument; 
viz. 6 Duets for two barytons, 12 Sonatas for 
barjiion and violoncello, 1 2 Divertimenti for two 
barytons and bass, 125 Divertimenti for baryton, 
viola and violoncello ; 17 so-called Cassations ; 3 
Concertos for Viaryton with accompaniment of 
two violins and bass. [P. D.] 

BARYTON (Ital. Baryton; Fr. Bas!>e-Taille, 
Concordant). The male voice intermediate to 
the bass and the tenor. The compound Qapva- 
Tovos signifies 'of heavy timhre,' — in this in- 
stance, in relation to the tenor. It is therefore a 
misnomer ; for, however close their approximation 
in compass, the quality of what is now understood 
by the bar^-ton voice unmistakealily marks it as 
a high bass, not a low tenor. The recognition 
of this important fact is manifest in the works 
of the majority of modem composers. One in- 
stance out of many will suffice. The principal 
part in Mendelssohn s oratorio 'Elijah' ranges 
from the C in the liass stave to the F above it, 
very rarely descending below the former note. 
Sung, as it might be with perfect — or too much — 
ease, by a low tenor, it would oljviously lose all 
its dignity and breadth. Since tlie production of 
Mozart's ' Nozze di Figaro' and ' Don Giovanni' 
the baryton voice has found much favour with 
composers, and been cultivated with unpre- 
cedented success. Innumerable principal parts 
have been written for it ; and not to speak of 
artists of this class still before the public, the 
names of Bartleman in England, of Ambrogetti 
in Italy, and of Martin in France, are historical. 
[BassJ. [J- H.] 

BASEVI, Abkamo, a learned Florentine mu- 
sician, founder and i)roprietor of the musical 



ppriodical 'Armonia' and of its continuation 
'Boccherini,' and one of the originators of the 
Societii del Quartette,' which has done much to 
introduce German music into Italy. Basevi is 
the composer of two operas. ' RtimiMa ed Ezze- 
lino,' produced at the Teatro Alfieri in March 
1840, and 'Enrico Odoardo' at the Pergola in 
1847 ; the author of theoretical works on music, 
of a treatise ' Sulla divinazione,' and a ' Studio 
delle opere di G. Verdi, 1859.' [F. G.] 

BASILI, or EASILY, Dostenico Andrea, 
chapel-master at Loreto in the middle of last 
century. He died in 1775. Santini's collection 
contained works by him ; and a set of twenty- 
four studies of his for the clavier, entitled 
' Musica universale,' etc. was printed by Aless- 
andri of Venice, and is not without merit. His 
son Francesco was bom in 1766, and on the 
death of his father the boy was sent to Rome 
and became a scholar of Janxaconi. While 
still young he was made chapel - master at 
Foligno. His first appearance in opera was 
at Milan, in 'La bflla incognita,' when he 
was twenty-two. For Rome he wrote ' La 
Locandiera' (17^9); for Florence 'Achille nell' 
assedio di Troja' (1798) and the ' Ritomo 
d'Ulysse' (1799), and for Venice 'Antigono,* 
Later he became chapel-master at Macerate, 
and wrote a large number of comic operas for 
Venice, not all equally successful. He then 
made a rich marriage, which enabled liim to 
give up work, but the marriage turned out 
unhappy, and after a separation, in 1816, he 
returned to his former post at Loreto. For 
the San Carlo at Naples Basili composed an 
oratorio, 'Sansone,' in which Lahlache sang the 
chief part. A requiem which he had written 
for Jannaconi was perfomied on March 23, 1816, 
at the Apostles' Church in Rome. In i«27 he 
was appointed director of the Conser\'atorio at 
Milan, where it was his fortune to refuse 
admission to Verdi. In Au^'ust 1837 he was 
called to Rome to take the place of chapel- 
master at St. Peter's, vacant by the death of 
Fioravanti, and remained there till his own death 
on March 25, 1850. While at Rome he was 
made very unhappy by his inability with the 
means at his disposal to perforai the great 
masterpieces of old Italian church music. If 
supported in his wish a great revival mi.dit 
have been accomplisheii, but with Basili the 
last hope of a resurrection of Italian church 
music has perished, a doom which neither Ros- 
sini nor Verdi— whose style the rigid Basili 
would hardly have approved — have done much to 
avert. In addition to many ojieras, besides those 
already named, and much church music. Basili 
composed symphonies in the style of Haydn, one 
of which used often to be played at Brussels 
under Fetis' conducting, and always with great 
applause. L*.- "•] 

BASS. (Ger. BaM ; Fr. liasse ; Ital. lta*»o.) 

The lower or grave part of the musical system, 

as contradistinguished from the treble, whioh is 

the hitch or acute part. The limits of the two 

^ L 2 



are c^enerally rather vague, but middle C is the 
practical division between them. Attempts have 
been made to spell the word 'base'; but this 
proceeds from a mistake. 'Bass' derives its 
form from the French or Italian, though ulti- 
mately from the Greek ISaais in its sense _ of 
foundation or support, the bass being that which 
supports the harmony. In former times this 
was much more obvious than it is now, when 
a single bass line represented a wliole piece,_ and 
an accompanyist was satisfied with the addition 
of fio-ures, from which he deciphered the rest of 
the "harmony without having it written out in 
full. The importance of melody, which is a 
development of more modern styles, has some- 
what obliterated this impression, and music 
seems to most people now-a-days to depend 
more upon the upper part than to rest upon the 
lower. [C. H. H. P.] 

BASS is also the lowest or deepest of male 

By the old masters those notes of the bass voice 
only were employed which could be placed on the 
bass stave, eleven in number. By the moderns 
this compass has been largely extended, chiefly 
upwards. For whereas even the employment of 
the lower E is now exceptional, and that of the 
D below it most rare, its double octave, and 
even the F and F 3f above it, are not unfre- 
quently called into requisition, even in choral 
music. Examples dating even as far back as the 
end of the lytli century point to the existence of 
bass voices of extraordinary extent. The Ser- 
vices (intended for choral performance) of Blow 
and his contemporaries abound in deep notes; 
and iu a solo Anthem, ' They that go down to the 
sea in ships,' composed no doubt for an excep- 
tional performer, Mr. Gostling, of His Majesty's 
Chapel Royal, as well as for a special oc- 
casion — the escape of King Charles II and the 
Duke of York from shipwreck — Purcell has 
employed repeatedly both the lower D and the 
E two octaves and a tone above it. Handel 
however has employed a still more extended 
compass. In a song for Polifemo, ' Nel Africano 
selve,' from his early Acis and Galatea, is the 
following passage, quoted by Chrysander (Handel, 
i. 244) :— 

A contemporary singer, BoscHi, might by all ac- 
counts have sung these passages — the groups of 
high notes in the third or falsetto register. 

No theory resting on difference of pitch will 
account for such passages. If the church-pitch 
of the 17th century was lower than that of our 
own time, the lower notes employed in them be- 
come still more astonishing to us than they are 
already ; if (as is probable if not certain) that 
pitch was higher than our own, the higher notes 
will stand in the same predicament. The un- 
questionably greater compass of the basses, and 


even tenors, of fonner times, is however ex* 
plained by the fact, that judicious training, 
while it increases the intensity and flexibility, 
and improves the quality and equality of a, 
voice, diminishes its compass. Voices of exten- 
sive range are rarely homogeneous; and theirtimbre 
or quality is gentrally found to be in inverse 
ratio to their extent. More than one passage 
in Milton, beyond doubt a competent judge, in- 
dicates the existence, at any rate in Italy, of 
considerable vocal skill even in the 1 7th century ; 
and if half that has come down to us respecting 
the accomplishments of Balthazar Ferkt be true, 
one singer at least flourished in the first half of 
that century of extraordinary skill. But prior to 
the end of it, when the first Italian schools were 
opened at Bologna under Pjstocchi, singing, in 
the full sense of the word, was an art, skill in 
which was confined to a small number of per- 
sons, and instruction in which had not extended 
beyond the land of its origin. It is not extraor- 
dinary therefore that in the North of Europe 
very extensive — in other words, untrained — voices 
existed in the 17th century iu greater number 
than now. 

The intensity or power of the bass voice is due to 
the same causes as that of the tenor, the contralto, 
the soprano, or indeed of any other wind-instru- 
ment — the capacity and free action of the ap- 
paratus by which it collects and ejects air — in 
the human body, the lungs. Its 'volume' de- 
pends on the caiiacity of the pharynx, the cavity 
at the back of the mouth, between the root of 
the tongue and the veil of the palate, the part 
of the "vocal mechanism most easily open to 
inspection. As with all well-endowed vocalists, 
the jaw of the bass is generally wide, the 
tongue large, the teeth small, and the mouth 
capable of easy expansion. The bass singer is 
generally above, as the tenor is generally below, 
the middle height. 

The bass voice is of three kinds ; the Basso 
profondo, the Basso cantante, and the Baryton. 
To these may be added the altogether ex- 
ceptional Contra-Basso, standing in the same 
relation to the Basso profondo as the instrument 
so called does to the violoncello. This voice, 
found or at least cultivated only in Russia, is by 
special training made to descend with facility to 

C below the bass stave, ^ : , and even two, 

three, and four notes lower. 

The Basso profondo and the Basso cantante are 
distinguished rather by their quality than their 
compass ; that of both extending occasionally 
from the E flat below the bass stave to the F 
above it. This possible compass is frequently in- 
creased by a third register, or falsetto, of a quality 
wholly distinct from that of the first or second 
The English male counter-tenor is in general 
a bass whose second and third registers have 
been cultivated exclusively, always to the de- 
terioration, sometimes to the destruction, of the 

The employment of basses and barytons in 


principal characters on the operatic stage, though 
frequent only since the latter part of the last 
century, dates from a much earlier epoch. In- 
stances of it may be found in the operas of 
Lully and his imitators, native and foreign. Its 
subsequently increased frequency may still be 
attributed to the French, with whom dramatic 
proi^riety, In opera, has always taken precedence 
of musical effect. Gluck and his contemporary 
Piccinni, whose laurels were chiefly gathered on 
the French stage, both employ this class of voice 
largely ; but it first assumed its still greater im- 
portance in the operas of Mozart, who would seem 
to have been the first composer to recognise the 
fact that the bar)i;on or higher bass is the average 
ami therefore typical, voice of man. To the pro- 
minence given both to the bass and the baryton 
voice in his later operas he was doubtless urged 
by a variety of causes, not the least being a 
paucity of competent tenors in the companies 
for which he had to write. To this however 
must be added the decline, in number, excel- 
lence, and popularity, of the class of vocalists 
of which Farinelli may be regarded as the 
type ; and (closely coimected with this) to an 
increased craving for dramatic effect, only at- 
tainable by the employment of basses and bary- 
tons, among whom as a rule — liable however to 
splendid exceptions — singing actors have always 
been found in the greatest excellence and num- 
ber. This change in the once established order 
of things has not been brought about without 
protest. A distinguished amateur, the Earl of 
Mount -Edgecumbe, whose 'Musical Reminis- 
cences' embody an account of the Italian Opera 
in England from 1773 to 1834, says, in reference 
to it: — 'The generality of voices are (now) 
basses, which, for want of better, are thrust up 
into serious operas where they used only to 
occupy the last place, to the manifest injury of 
melody, and total subversion of harmony, in 
which the lowest part is their peculiar province. 
These new singers are called by the novel appella- 
tion of hasso cuntante (which by-the-bj'e is a kind 
of apology, and an acknowledgment that they 
ought not to sing), and take the lead in operas 
with as much propriety as if the double-bass 
were to do so in the orchestra, and play the part 
of the first fiddle. A bass voice is too unbend- 
ing and deficient in sweetness for single songs, 
and fit only for those of inferior character, or 
of the buffo style. In duettos it does not coalesce 
80 well with a female voice, on account of the 
too great distance between them, and in fuller 
pieces the ear cannot be satisfied without some 
good intermediate voices to fill up the interval, 
and complete the harmony.' And he adds in a 
note, ' It has always surprised me that the prin- 
cipal characters in two of Mozart's operas should 
have been written for basses, namely. Count 
Almaviva and Don Giovanni, both of wliich 
seem particularly to want the more lively 
tones of a tenor ; and I can account for it in no 
Other wise than by supposing they were written 
ibr some particular singer who hail a bass voice, 
for he has doije so in no other instance.' In 



making this last assertion the venerable writer 
forgot or ignored Mozart's 'Cosl fan tutte ' 
Die Zauberrtote,' and 'Die Entfuhrung aus 
de li Serail,' in all of which basses are employed 
for principal characters. His argument, how- 
ever, thouyh ingenious, is based on an assumj)- 
tion unjustified and unjustifiable by either 
theory or practice — that melody inevitably 
occupies, or is only effective in, an upi)er part. 
The example of Mozart, which he so severely 
denounces, has been followed largely by Ros- 
sini and all the operatic composers of later 
times. In the majority of their operas buMi 
C'lutanti appear in large nuinljers, without any 
'kind of apology,' and persons who 'ought 
not to sing' do so, greatly to the enhancement 
of dramatic effect and thj pleasure of their 
hearers. [Bauyto.v.] [j. H.I 

BASS-BAR, an oblong piece of wood, fixed 
lengthwise inside the belly of the various instru- 
ments belonging to the violin-tribe, running in 
the same direction with the btrings, below the 
G string, and acting as a beam or girder to 
strengthen the belly against the pressure of the 
left foot of the bridge, as the sound-post does 
against that of the riyht foot. It is the only 
essential part of the instrument which, owing to 
the gradual elevation of the pitch, has had to 
undergo an alteration since Stradivari's time. 
Tartini states, in the year 1734, that the tension 
of the strings on a violin was equal to a weight 
of 63 11)S., while nowa-days it is calculated at 
more than 80 lbs. This enormous increase of 
pressure requires for the belly a proportionate 
addition of bearing-power, and this could only 
be given by strengthening the bai>s-bar, which 
has been done by giving it a slight additional 
depth at the centre, and abiding considerably 
to its length. In consequence of this we hardly 
ever find inan old instrument the original biUi>*- 
bar of the maker, just as rarely as the original 
sound-post or bridge, all of which, however, 
can be made as well by any experienced living 
violin-maker as by the original Stradivari or 
Amati. [1*. D.] 

BASS CLARIXET, an instrument of the 
same construction as the oriliiiary chirinet, but 
speaking an octave lower. The one most gen- 
erally used is that in Bb, but Wagner writes for 
one in A, and a third in C has been employetl. 
They are all slow -speaking lioUow - toned in- 
struments, rather wanting in j)o\vor. The clarinet 
quality is less marked than in the acuter forms 
of the instrument, insomuch that they more re- 
semble an organ pij)e of bounlon tone. Meyer- 
beer, from his friendship with Sax, who j)aid 
particular attention to this instrument, has in- 
troduced it in his openvs and other works. In 
the fifth act of 'The Huguenots' there is a fine 
declamatory passage for it in iib, exhibiting it« 
extreme lower compass : — 



In the Coronation March of the 'Prophete' it 
takes the melody, and in Auber's Exhibition 
March two such instruments are employed. It is 
written in the treble or tenor clef, the latter being 
better, as assimilating its part to that for the 
bassoon. Although occasionally of value for pro- 
ducing exceptional effects, it does not present any 
great advantages for orchestral use. [W.H.S] 

BASS CLEF. The well-known mark of the 
bass a^:= is a modification of the letter F, which 
clef, has in the course of centuries arrived 

at its present shape, in the same way that the 
G and C have altered their forms. 

The early sub -division of the graver male 
voices is attested by the variety of positions on 
the stave occupied by the bass or F clef. Since 
the beginning of the iSth century this clef (.for 
whatever variety of bass voice) has occupied 
the fourth line exclusively. Up to that period 

its occasional position on the third line '^-- 

indicated that the music following it was for the 
baryton voice ; the stave so initiated being 
called the baryton stave. At a still earlier 
epoch the bass clef was sometimes placed on the 

fifth line, 

This hasso profondo stave, 

which makes room for two more notes below 
than can be placed on the bass stave proper, is 
used (among others) by L. Lossius in his 'Psal- 
modia' (Wittenbach, 1579), and more recently 
by Praetorius in his 'Candones Sacrae' (Ham- 
burg, 1622). It does not seem however at any 
time to have met with general favour. On the 
other hand, the baryton stave was much em- 
ployed, not only for choral music, but for solos, 
up to the beginning of the last century. Some 
of Purcell's songs {e. g. ' Let the dreadful en- 
gines') in the 'Orpheus Britannicus' are written 
upon it, and with reason, for it takes in, with 
the aid of a single leger-line, the entire compass 
employed, from the lower A to the upper F. 
[Clef.] [J- H.] 

BASS-DRUM. This is the largest of all 
drums, and is used in military bands and modem 
orchestras. [Drum, 3.] [V. de P.] 

BASS FLUTE. There were in former times 
four forms of the flute a bee or iiageolet, the 
lowest being the bass flute, and the others 
respectively tenor, alto, and descant flutes. These 
are now all but disused. A bass flute still exists, 
though it is rarely heard, and is not \NTitten for 
by any composer of eminence. Its compass is 



Bass-flute, to bring the mouthpiece •within reach 
of the finger holes the tube was bent, and re- 
turned upon itself, as in the Bassoon ; but as 
made by Boehm it resembles an ordinary flute of 
large size — 32 inches long, and one inch diameter. 
The Bass-flute requires a great deal of breath, 
and the tone is not strong, but it is of very tine 
quality. [W. H. S.] 

BASS TRUMPET. [Trombone.] 

BASS TUBA. The lowest of the saxhorns. 

BASSANI, Giovanni Battista, an eminent 
violin-player and composer, was born at Padua 
about 1657. He lived for some years at 
Bologna as conductor of the cathedral-music, 
and from 1685 in a similar position at Ferrara, 
where he was a member of the 'Accademia della 
Morte.' He was also made a member, and in 
1682 'principe' of the 'Accademia dei Filar- 
monici' of Bologna. From 1680 to 1710 he 
published six operas and thirty-one vocal and 
instrumental works, viz. masses, cantatas for 
one, two, or thres voices with instruments, 
and two sets of sonatas for two violins with 
bass — a complete list is given by Fetis. These 
works, copies of which are now very rare, are 
said to be written in a noble pathetic style, 
and to be marked by good and correct work- 
manship. Kent borrowed from them largely. 
Amongst others the chorus ' Thy righteousness,' 
in his anthem 'Lord what love,' is taken from 
Bassani's ^Magnificat in G minor with very 
sliuht alteration. The 'Hallelujahs' in 'Hearken 
unto this' are transcribed note for note from 
Bas'Sani's 'Alma Mater.' But Kent was a sad 

Bassani died at Ferrara in 1716. It is gen- 
erally believed, though not abso- 
lutely proved, that CoreUi was his 
pupil. [P- D.] 

BASSET-HORN (Fr. Cor de Bas- 
sette ; Ital. Corno di Hassetto ; Germ. 
Bassethoni). A tenor clarinet stand- 
ing in F, furnished with additional 
low keys and a prolonged bore, en- 
abling it to reach the octave C, which 
is equivalent to F below the basa 


With the exception 

upwards. In older forms of the 

of the last four semitones thus add- 
ed, the instrument is in all respects 
a clarinet, and the necessary trans- 
position will be found under that 
heading. These four notes are ob- 
tained by means of long keys worked 
by the thumb of the right hand, 
which, in the ordinary clarinet, has 
no other function besides that of sup- 
porting the instrument. For con- 
venience of handling, the instrument 
has been made in various curved 
shapes ; with a bend either between 
the right and left hands, or in the 
upper part just below the mouthpiece. Occasion- 


ally it has "been made with a bore abruptly bent 
on itself like that of the bassoon. Its compass is 
more extensive than even the clarinet, and its 
tone fuller and more reedy. 

Mozart is the composer who has written most 
for this instrument. In one great work, his 
' Requiem,' it replaces the clarinet, there being 
independent parts for two players. Perhaps the 
finest instance of its use is in the openinij of the 
' Record are.' In his opera 'Clemenza di Tito' 
it is also employed, and a fine obbligato is 
allotted to it in the song '2s on piu di fiori.' In 
his chamber music there are often parts for two 
or even three bassethoms. 

Mendelssohn has also written for it, especially 
two concert-jieces for clarinet and bassetliom, 
op. 113 and 114, intended to be played by the 
Bamianns, father and son, with pianoforte ac- 
companiment. Other composers have occasion- 
ally employed it, but it is to be regretted that 
it has never taken so prominent a place in or- 
chestral music as its fine tone and facility of 
execution entitle it to hold. It is often confused 
with the CoK axglais, or English horn, which 
is an oboe of similar pitch to the Basset- 
bom. [W. H. S.] 

BASSI, LuiGi, bom at Pesaro 1766, died at 
Dresden 1825. An eminent baritone singer, 
first appeared on the stage in women's parts at 
the age of thirteen ; a j)upil of Laschi at 
Florence. In 1 784 he w^ent to Prague, where 
he made a great reputation, especially in Paisi- 
ello's ' Re Teodoro,' and ' Barbiere di Siviglia,' 
and Martini's ' Cosa vara.' Mozart wrote the 
part of Don Juan for him.' He is said to have 
asked Mozart to write blm another air in place 
of 'Fin c'han dal vino' in Don Juan, but 
Mozart replied ' Wait till the performance : if 
the air is not applauded, I will then write you 
another.* A hearty encore settled the question. 
He is also said to have induced Mozart to re- 
write 'La ci darem' five times to suit him. 
But these stories are probably mere legends of 
Mozart's good humour. In 1806 Bassi left 
Prague in consequence of tlie war. For some 
years he was in the pay of Prince Lobkowitz, 
Beethoven's friend, appearing occasionally in 
public in Vienna; but in 1814 he returned to 
Prague, when Weber had the direction of the 
opera, and in 181 5 was called to Dresden as 
ft member of the Italian company there, but 
shortly afterwards became manager of the opera 
instead, and died there in 1825. Bassi was gifted 
with a fine voice, even throughout the register, 
a prepossessing appearance, and considerable 
dramatic ability. He is not to be confounded 
with Nicolo or Vincenzo Bassi. [M. C. C] 

BASSI RON, Philippe, a native of the 
Netherlands, living in the 15th century, and 
contemporary with .losquin des Pres. Some of 
his masses were printed by Petrucci of Fossom- 
broneini5o8. [J. R. S. B.] 



' Bassi Is usuiUly said to have been also the oriirinal AlmavlTa in ] 
Fiiraro; but this is incorrect, ilaudlni was the flist. 8e« Jahn'l 
* Uozart ' C-'nd ed.) ii. ':43. I 

BASSO COXTINUO, Bassb Continue, or 
simply Co.NTiNUO, is the same thing as our 
English term Thorough-Bass in its original and 
proper signification, as may be seen by com- 
parison of English with foreign works where 
these terms occur. For instance, in the score 
of the ' Matthiius Passion' of Bach the lowest line 
in the accompaniments of the choruses is for the 
violoncellos and basses and 'organ e continuo,' 
for tlie two latter of which figures are added ; 
while in the recitative a sinsle line and figures 
is given for the ' continuo' al<me. The e iition 
of Purcell's ' Orpheus Britannicus,' publu-hed in 
1698 - 1 702, has the title ' A collection of choicest 
songs for i, 2, and 3 voices, with symphonies for 
violin and flutes and a thorouf/h-btui' to each 
song figured for the Organ, Harpsichord, or 
Theorbo-Lute.' The origin of the name is the 
same in both cases, as it is the ba'-s which con- 
tinuex or goes throtujh the whole piece, from which 
with the aid of figures the accompaniment used 
to be played. (For complete discussion of the 
subject see [C. H. H. P.] 

BASSO DI CAMERA, Italian for a chamber- 
bass ; that is, a small double bas«, such as is 
generally used by double-bass players lor solo 

BASSO OSTINATO is the same as the 
English Grouxd-Bass, which see. It means the 
continual repetition of a phrase in the bass part 
through the whole or a portion of a movement, 
upon which a variety of harmonies and figures 
are successively built. [C. H. H. P.] 

BASSOON (Fr. Basion, Ital. Fagotto, Ger. 
Faf/ott). A wooden double -reed instrument of 
eight-foot tone. The English and French names 
are derived troui its pitch, which is the natural 
bass to the oboe and other reed instruments ; 
the Italian and Gennan names come from its 
resemblance to a faggot or bundle of sticks. 

It is probably, in one fonn or another, of great 
antiquity, although there exists circumstantial 
evidence of its discovery by Afranio, a Canon of 
Ferrara. This occurs in a work by the inventor's 
nephew, entitled ' Introductio in Chaldaicain lin- 
guam, mystica et cabalistica, a Tlujseo Albonesio 
utriusque juris doctori,' etc. (^Pavia, 1539). It 
is illuotrate<l by two rough wtHxlcuts, and 
is tenned 'Descriptio ac simulacrum Phajjoti 
Afranii,' from whicli it would appejir that the 
author, although an Italian, did not realise the 
etymological origin of the name. A class of in- 
struments named bombards, ptimmers, or brum- 
mers, which were ma»le in many ke\-8, seems 
to have been the inunediate pretlecessor of the 
bassoon. Stime of the older fonns are well 
described, with representations of their 8ha|>e, 
in the ' Metodo complete di Fagotto' of Willent. 
Tliey possess a contrivance which does not exUt 
at the present day on any reed, though it some- 
what anticipates the 'crooks' and • trausjx>si!ig 
slides' of brass instruments. Besides the holes 
to be stopiHxl by tlie fingers, there are other 
intermediate apertures stopped by iH'gs, and 
only to be opened in certain keys. No doubt 



in the older style of music this mechanism 
may have been useful ; but it would hardly 
adapt itself to the rapid modulations of later 

The Bassoon is an instrument which has evi- 
dently originated in a fortuitous manner, de- 
veloped by successive improvements rather of an 
empirical than of a theoretical nature ; hence its 
general arrangement has not materially altered 
since the earliest examples. Yarious attempts 
have been made to give greater accuracy and 
completeness to its singularly capricious scale ; 
but up to the present time all these seem either 
to have diminished the flexibility of the instru- 
ment in florid passages, or to have impaired its 
peculiar but telling and characteristic tone. 
Almeiirader in Germany is credited with certain 
imjDrovements, but one of the best of these efforts 
at reconstruction was shown in the Exhibition of 
1 85 1 by Cornelius Ward, and it has already fallen 
entirely into disuse. Hence bassoons by the older 
makers are generally preferred to newer speci- 
mens, and they therein alone resemble stringed 
among wind-instruments. Those of Savary espe- 
cially are in great request, and command high 
prices. The copies of these made by Samme in 
this country are not far inferior to them, though 
they lack the particular sweetness and singing 
tone of the French maker. 

The compass is from sixteen -foot Bb to Ab 

in the treble '&- 

The upper limit has been 
greatly raised in modern 
instruments by additional 
mechanism, so that the C, 
and even the F above the 
Ab referred to, can be 
reached. The natural scale 
is however that named, the 
notes above Ab being un- 
certain and somewhat dif- 
ferent in quality from those 

Like the oboe, of which it 
is the bass, the bassoon gives 
the consecutive harmonics of 
an open pipe, a fact which 
Helmholtz has shown mathe- 
matically to depend on its 
conical bore. 

It consists of five pieces, 
named respectively the crook, 
wing, butt, long joints, and 
bell. These, when fitted to- 
gether, form a hollow cone 
about eight feet long, tapering 
from -^ of an inch at the reed 
to If inches at the bell end. 
In the butt joint this bore 
is bent abruptly back upon 
itself, both sections being 
pierced in the same block of wood, and united 
at the lower end ; the prolongation of the double 
tube being in . general stopped by- means of a 


flattened oval cork. The whole length of the in- 
strument, by internal measurement, being ninety- 
three inches, about twelve are in the crook, 
thirty - two in the downward branch, and the 
remaining forty -nine in the ascending joints. 
The height is thus reduced to a little over four 
feet, and the various holes are brought within 
reach of the fingers. They would still be situated 
too far apart for an ordinary hand if they were 
not pierced obliquely ; the upper hole for each 
forefinger passing upwards in the substance of 
the wood, and those for the third or ring-fingers 
passing downwards in a similar way. There are 
three holes in the wing joint — so named from 
a projecting wing of wood intended to contain 
them; three others on the front of the butt 
joint — to be closed by the first three fingers of 
the left and right hands respectively ; a single 
hole on the back of the butt joint, for the 
thumb of the right hand ; and a series of inter- 
locking keys on the long joint, producing the 
lowest notes of the scale by means of the left 
thumb. It will thus be seen that the instru- 
ment is held in the hollow of the two hands, 
with the left uppermost, at the level of the 
player's breast, the right hand being somewhat 
below and behind the right thigh. A strap 
round the neck supports the bulk of the weight. 
The little finger of the right hand touches two 

keys which produce Ab and F *^~~j^ ~-^ . With 

this latter note the real fundamental scale ends, 
exactly as it does in the oboe ; all the mechanism 
of the long joint and bell only strengthening the 
tone and producing the seven lowest semitones 
upwards from Bb. In comparing the bassoon 
with its kindred treble instrument, the oboe, it 
must be remembered that it has this supple- 
mentary prolongation of its compass downwards, 
which the other lacks. The seven lowest holes 
and keys therefore produce only one sound 
apiece ; but the case is totally different with 
those following next above them, from the little 
finger of the right hand to the forefinger of the 
left. These eight holes and keys can each be 
made to give two sounds at an interval of an 
octave by varying the pressure of the lip. After 
the double register thus obtained has been run 
through, there still remain a few notes to be got 
by cross -fingei'ings at the interval of a twelfth, 
namely the Ff, Gl], and Ab, with which the 
natural scale has been stated to end. In modem 
instruments two or even three keys are added at 
the top of the wing -joint, to be worked by the 
thumb of the left hand stretched across from 
the other side. They open small harmonic holes 
close to the crook, and enable seven semitones to 

be added, from A to Eb inclusive E 


Even above this there are two outlying notes, 
Elj and F ^ 

:, to be obtained by 

exceptional players without mechanism ; and it 
is not improbable that still higher, although 


useless, harmonics might by assiduous study be 
exacted from this remarkable instrument. 

It will thus be seen — what indeed was affirmed 
in the outset — that the scale of the bassoon is 
complicated and capricious. To this it must be 
added that it is variable in different patterns, 
and that even a fine player cannot play upon an 
unfamiliar instrument. Each has to be learned 
independently ; and although the theoretical 
imperfection of such a course is ob\'ious, it has 
a certain compensation in the fact that a bassoon- 
player must necessarily rely upon his ear alone 
for correct intonation, and that he thus more 
nearly approximates to the manipulation of 
stringed instruments than any member of the 
orchestra, except the trombones. In some of the 
most important and delicate notes there are two, 
three, or even four alternatives of fingering open 
to the performer ; as these produce sounds slightly 
differing in pitch and quality, they may be 
employed by a judicious musician for obtaining 
accurate consonance and for facilitating difficult 
passages. But it must be admitted that the 
scale of the bassoon is a sort of compromise, 
for the construction of which no precise formula 
can be given. 

Whatever its theoretical imperfections, it 
cannot be denied that the musical A^alue of the 
bassoon is very great, and it has for about two 
centuries been largely used by composers. Its 
position in the orchestra has somewhat changed 
in the course of time. Originally introduced — 
probably first in Cambert s ' Pomone ' (Paris, 
1671) — as a purely bass instrument, it has grad- 
ually risen to the position of tenor, or even alto, 
frequently doubling the high notes of the vio- 
loncello or the lower register of the viola. The 
cause of the change is evidently the greater 
use of bass instruments such as trombones and 
ophicleides in modern orchestral scores, on the one 
hand, and the improvements in the upper register 
of the bassoon itself on the other. There is a 
peculiar sweetness and telling quality in these ex- 
treme sounds which has led to their being naoied 
vox-humana notes. We have good evidence that 
even in Haydn's time they were appreciated, for 
in the graceful minuet of his ' Military Symphony' 
we find a melody reaching to the treble Ab. 
The passage affords an excellent specimen of good 
solo writing for the instrument, though requiring 
a first-rate player to do it justice. 



Indeed it is between the time of Handel and 
Haydn that the above-mentioned change seems 
to have taken place. Handel's scores contain 
few bassoon parts, and those — with one remark- 
able exception, the Witch music in the oratorio 
of Saul — mostly of a ripieno character ; Haydn 
QD the. other hand uses it as one of the most 

prominent voices of his orchestra. Boieldieu also, 
who dates a little later, has assigned to the bas- 
soon the principal melody in the overture to the 
' Dame Blanche,' repeating it afterwards with in- 
creased elaboration in the form of a variation. 


*l| 1 I ' 



Bach uses it frequently, sometimes merely to 
reinforce the basses, but often with an inde- 
pendent and characteristic part. The 'Quoniam' 
in the Mass in B minor has two bassoons obli- 
gate throughout, and other instances of its use 
will be found in the cantatas ' Am Abend aber ' 
(No. 42), and ' Ich hatte viel Bekiimmerniss ' 
(No. 21), in the volumes of the Bach-GeseU- 
schaft. In the Score of the Matthew Passion 
the bassoon does not appear. Boyce, a writer 
who can hardly have known much of foreign music, 
gives it a fine part in the song ' Softly rise thou 
southern breeze,' in his 'Solomon' (1743). 

Cherubini has given it a fine solo in his opera 
of ' Medee,' which is remarkable for its difficulty, 
and also for its extraordinary compass, ending on 
the extreme high notes. 

Mozart, besides a concerto with orchestra which 
is hardly^ known, constantly employs the bas- 
soon in his scores. It figures prominently in his 
symphonies, even when other wind-parts are de- 
ficient ; most of his masses contain fine phrases 
for it ; in the Requiem, of which the instrumenta- 
tion is peculiar, it fills a leading place, contrasting 
with three trombones and two corni di bassetto. 
AU his operas moreover assign it great promi- 
nence ; he seems fully aware of its beauty as an 
accompaniment to the voice, which it supports 
and intensifies without the risk of overpowering 
the singer. 

Beethoven never fails to employ it largely, 
reinforcing it in some works by the contrafagotto. 
The First Symphony is remarkable for the as- 
signment of subject as well as counter-subject in 
the slow movement to first and second bassoons 
working independently ; both afterwards joining 
with the two clarinets in tlie curious dialogue 
of the trio between strings and reeds. The 
Second Symphony opens with a prominent pas- 
sage in unison with bass strings ; in tlie Adagio 
of the Fourth is an effective figure exhibiting the 
great power of staccato playing possessed by the 
bassoon ; in the first movement of the Eighth it 
is em{)loyed with exquisite humour, and in the 
minuet of the same symphony it is entrusted 
with a melody of considerable length. Perhaps 
the most remarkable passage in Beethoven's 
writing for this instrument, certainly the least 
known, occurs in the opening of the Finale of the 
Ninth or Choral Symphony, where the theme of 
tlie movement, played by cellos and violas in 
unison, is accompanied by the first bassoon in a 

> In iSHat, cuiiipused l?r4. Kochel, >'o. IHL, 




lone indepenclent melody of the greatest in- 
genuity and interest. 

Mendelssohn shows some peculiarity in dealing 
with the bassoon. He was evidently struck, not 
only with the power of its lower register, a fact 
abundantly illustrated by his use of it in the 
opening of the Scotch S3anphony and, with the 
trombones, in the grand chords of the overture to 
'Euy Bias'-; but he evidently felt, with Bee- 
thoven, the comic and rustic character of its tone. 
This is abundantly shown in the music to the 
'Midsummer Night's Dream,' where the two 
bassoons lead the quaint clowns' march in thirds ; 
and still further on in the funeral march, which 
is obviously an imitation of a smaU country band 
consisting of clarinet and bassoon, the latter 
ending unexpectedly and humorously on a soli- 
tary low C. In the Overture the same instru- 
ment also suggests the braying of Bottom. It is 
worth notice how the acute ear of the musician 
has caught the exact interval used by the animal 
without any violation of artistic propriety. As 
if in return for these vile uses, the same com- 
poser has compensated the instrument in num- 
berless fine figures, of which it is unnecessary to 
specify more than the quartett of horns and bas- 
soons in the trio of the Italian Symphony, the 
majestic opening phrases of the so-called ' Pil- 
grim's March,' and the flowing cantabUe in oc- 
taves with the oboe which forms the second 
movement of the introductory symphony to the 
' Hymn of Praise.' 

Weber exhibits the same knowledge of its 
powers as his predecessors. Although the 
French horn, and after it the clarinet, are 
obviously his favourite instruments, the bassoon 
comes very little behind them. One of the 
loveliest phrases ever assigned to this instrument 
occurs in the 'Agnus Dei' of his mass in G. 

It' is absolutely alone on the telling G of the 
upper register ; the voice following in imitation 
and the bassoon then repeating the passage. In 
the Concert-Stiick, for piano and orchestra, there 
is a difficult but beautiful point for bassoon 
alone, which leads into the mai'ch for the clari- 
nets. His two symphonies are marked by the 
same character, especially the first, in which 
the bassoon leads throughout, with some effective 
organ points. The overtures, and indeed all 
his operas, are very fully scored for bassoons. 
His bassoon concerto in F and his Hungarian 
rondo are grand works, scored for full orchestra. 

Meyerbeer has somewhat neglected the bassoon 
for the bass clarinet — in the Prophete March 
for instance ; but he has given it many passages 
of importance, and some of a grotesque character, 
as in the incantation scene of ' Robert le Diable.' 
He frequently employs four instead of two ia- 

The Italian writers use it freely. Donizetti 
assigns it an obbligato in the air ' Una furtiva 
lagrima.' Rossini opens the 'Stabat Mater' with 
the efiective phrases — 




gEg ji=?=J ^b^ g £^ ^[==i^^=^^ ^g 





for bassoons and cellos in unison, which again 
occur at the end of the work. In his latest 
composition, the 'Messe Solennelle' it is almost 
too heavily written for, and is at times comic and 

Auber writes but little for the bassoon, using 
it chiefly in sustaining high notes at the very top 
of its register. There is however a melodious 
passage for the two, with the horns, in the 
overture to the ' Sirene.' 

The following list of music for bassoon, solo 
and concertante, may be found useful. The 
writer desires to acknowledge the valuable aid 
he has received in its compilation and elsewhere 
from Mr. Charles Evans of the British Museum. 

Mozart, concerto in Bb ; Ferdinand Da\'id, 
concertino in Bb, op. 1 2 ; Kalliwoda, var, 
and rondeau in Bb, op. 57 ; Weber, andante 
and rondo ongarese in C op. 55, concerto in F, 
op. 75 ; Kummer, concerto in C, op. 25 ; Neu 
kirchner, fantasia with orchestra ; Jacobi, pot 
pourri with orchestra ; Dotzauer, quatuor, op 
36, with violin, viola, and cello ; twelve piece! 
for three bassoons, by G. H. Kunmier, op. il 
twelve trios for three bassoons, by G. H. Kummer 
op. 1 3 ; forty-two caprices for bassoon, by E 
Ozi ; six duos concertants for two bassoons, b;; 
E. Ozi ; Lindpaintner, op. 24, rondeau in Bb. 

Other works will be found under Clarinet 
Oboe, etc. [W. H. S. 




operetta or pastoral in one act (15 Nos.), word 
by Scliachtner from the French, the music b; 
Mozart 'in his 12th year,' 1768; performed ii 
a Garden-house at Vienna belonging to hi 
friends the Messmers. (Kochel, No. 50 ; Jahi 
1st ed. i. 122). The subject of the Intrade (i 
G) is by a curious coincidence all but identica 
with the principal theme of the first moveaien 
of Beethoven's 'Eroica' Symphony: — 

BASTON, JosQUiN, a Flemish composer 
the first half of the i6th century, and sti 
living in 1566. Unlike most of his contempora 
rits, he does not seem to have visited Italy, as hi 
published works, consisting of motets and char 
sons, form part of collections printed either a 
Louvain or Antwerp. [J. R. S. B. 

BATES, JoAH, was bom in 1740 at Halifax 
where he received his early education under Dj 
Ogden, and learned music from Hartley, organis 
of Rochda'e. He subsequently removed t 
Manchester, where he studied organ - playin 




■der Robert Wainwright, organist of tTie 
dlegiate church, now the cathedral. He next 
jmoved to Eton and thence to Cambridge, where 
e became fellow and tutor of King's College. 
le then became private secretary to the Earl of 
andwich, first Lord of the Admiralty, and a 
;ell known musical amateur. About that time 
e conceived the plan of the Concert of Ancient 
lusic which was established in 1776, Bates 
eiiig appointed conductor. In 1 780 he was 
ppointed a commissioner of the Victualling 
)flice, and married Miss Sarah Harrop, a pupil 
f Sacchini, and a favourite concert singer, who 
lad studied under him the music of Handel and 
he elder masters. He next, in 1783, in con- 
unction with Viscount Fitzwilliam and Sir 
Vatkin Williams Wynne, projected the Com- 
Qemoration of Handel, which was carried into 
iffect the following year. Bates officiating as 
onductor. He was afterwards appointed a 
ommissioner of the Customs and a director of 
Greenwich Hospital. Having projected the 
ilbion Mills, of the success of which he was 
o sanguine as to invest the whole of his own 
ind his wife's fortunes in them, he was nearly 
uined by their destruction by fire in 1791. 
n I7Q3 he resigned the conductorship of the 
IJoncert of Ancient Music. He died June 8, 
799. A fine painting of Joah Bates and his 
vife, by F. Coates, R. A., is in the possession of 
he Sacred Harmonic Society, [W. H. H.] 

BATES, William, a composer of the i8th 
jentury, produced music for the following dra- 
natic pieces: — 'The Jovial Crew,' comic opera, 
1760; 'Pharnaces,' opera, 1765; 'The Ladies' 
Frolick,' an alteration of 'The Jovial Crew' 
jointly with Dr. Arne), 1770; ' The Theatrical 
Candidates,' musical prelude, 1775. He was 
ilso the composer of ' Songs sung at Marybon 
3ardens, 17OM,' and of several glees, catches, 
md canons, eleven of which are included in 
Warren's collections. It has been conjectured 
;hat he was a member of one of the theatrical 
orchestras. [See Catley, Axxe.] [W. H. H.] 

BATESON, Thomas, one of the great English 
madrigalian composers of the Elizabethan period, 
rhe dates of his birth and decease are unknown ; 
but we may infer that he was a young ' practi- 
tioner in the art ' when he produced his ' First 
Set of Madrigals' in 1604, whtrein he compares 
his compositions to ' young birds feared out of 
their nest before they be well feathered,' and 
hopes they will be ' so shrouded ' in ' the leaves 
of his patron's good liking,' so that neither any 
'ravenous kite nor craftie fowler, any open 
mouthed Momus or mere shy detractor may de- 
vour or harm them that cannot succour or shift 
for themselves ' At the back of the dedication 
to his ■ honourable and most respected good 
friend Sir William Norres,' is the madrigal 
' When Oriana walkt to take the ayre,' with the 
following note. 'This song was sent too late, 
and should have been printed in the set of 
Orianas ' (a set of matlrigals in praise of Queen 
Elizabeth, published in 1601). In 1599, five 

years prior to the date of his first publication, he 
was appointed organist of Chester Cath*lral, 
which situation he held till 161 1, Shortly after 
this date he went to reside in Ireland, under the 
patronage of Lord Chichester, and in 161 8 pub- 
lished his ' Second Set of Madrigals.' On the 
title-page of this work he styles himself ' Bachelor 
of Musick, Organist, and ^Master of the Children 
of the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Trinity, 
Dublin.' In the university of the latter city he 
is supposed to have taken his degree. Bateson's 
first set of Madrigals was reprinted by the Musi- 
cal Antiquarian Society, and specimens of his 
church music are in the same society's ' Anthems 
by Composers of the Madi-igalian Era.' {The 
composer's works ; Private Sources.) [E. F. E..] 

BATON, Charles, called 'le jeune' to dis- 
tinguish him from bis eliler brother Henri, who 
performed on the musette. Was a player on the 
Vielle or hurdy-gurdy in Paris in the miildle 
of the 18th century. He puMish^d an ' Examen 
de la lettre de M. Rousseau sur la musique 
Fraii9aise' (Paris, 17.^4), and a ' Memoire sur 
la Vielle' in the ' Mercure' for 1757. He 
improved his instrument, and composed much 
for it — Suites for two vielles, musettes, etc. 
Baton died at Paris in 1758. 

BATON (Fr. Baton'), the stick with which the 
conductor of an orchestra beats the time. Hence 
the expression 'under Mr. — 's baton,' i.e. under 
his direction. The first baton employed in Eng- 
land was probably the ' Taktirstiibchen ' used by 
Spohr at the Philharmonic in 1820 (Selbstbiog. 
ii. 87). Batons are usually timed out of maple- 
wood for lightness, 21 or 22 inches long, and 
tapering from 3-4th3 to 3-8ths of an inch in 
diameter. They are occasionally given as ' testi- 
monials,' in which case they are made of metal or 
of ivory ornamented with silver or gold. 

When Berlioz and Mendelssohn met at Leipsic 
in 1 84 1 they exchanged batons, and Berlioz ac- 
companied his with the following letter, in the 
vein of Fenimore Cooper : — ' Au chef Men- 
delssohn. Grand chef! nous nous sommes promis 
d'echanger nos tomahawcks ; voici le mien ! II 
est grossier, le tien est simple ; les squaws seules 
et les visages pfJes aiment les armes orm'-es. Sois 
mon trhre ! et quand le Grand Esprit nous aura 
envoyes chasser dajis les paj's des ames, que nos 
guerriers suspendent nos tomawcks a la porte 
du con eil.' Mendelssohn's reply is not extant, 
but no doubt it was' quite a prujios. [G.] 

BATTEN, Adrian, the date of whose birth 
is not known, was brought up in the Cathedral 
Choir of Winchester, under John Holmes the 
organist, and in 161 4 appointed vicar-choral of 
Westminster Abbey. In 1624 he removed to 
St. Pauls Cathedral, where he held the same 
office in addition to that of organist. Batten's 
name is well known in our cathe<lral choirs from 
his short full anthem ' Deliver us, O Lord.' 
Burney says of him : ' He was a good harmonist 
of the old school, without adding anything to 
the common stock of ideas in melody or nitxlu- 
I latioa with which the art was furnished long 



before he was bom. Nor did he correct any of 
the errors in accent with which former times 
abounded.' This criticism is hardly just. Bat- 
ten's anthem, ' Hear my prayer,' is, in point of 
construction and effect, equal to any composition 
of his time. He composed a Morning, Com- 
munion, and Evening Service in the Dorian 
Mode, and a large number of anthems ; the 
words of thirty-four may be found in Clifford. 
Six are printed in Barnard, two more in Boyce, 
and 1 8 others are comprised in Barnard's MS. 
collection in the library of the Sacred Harmonic 

The date of Batten's death is uncertain. He 
was living in 1635, when he made a tr.inscript of 
some anthem music, to which the following note 
is appended : — ' All these songs of Mr. John 
Holmes was prickt from his ovtm pricking in the 
year 1635, by Adrian Batten, one of the vickers 
of St. Paul's in London, who sometime was his 
scholar.' He is supposed to have died in 1640. 
(Bumey, Hist.; MIS. Accounts of Wedminstcr 
and St. Paul's.) [E. F. R.] 

BATTISHILL, Jonathan, the son of Jona- 
than Battishill, a solicitor, and grandson of the 
Rev. Jonathan Battishill, rector of Sheepwash, 
Devon, was born in London in May 173S. In 
1747 he became a chorister of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral under William Savage, and on the breaking 
of his voice his articled pupil. On the expiration 
of his articles he officiated for Dr. Boyce at the 
organ of the Chapel Royal, and composed some 
songs for Sadler's Wells Theatre. Soan after- 
wards he was engaged to play the harpsichord 
at Covent Garden Theatre, an early result of 
which engagement was his marriage in 1763 
to Miss Davies, a singing-actress at that theatre, 
and the original performer of Madge in 'Love 
in a Village.' On her marriage Mrs. Battishill 
retired from the exercise of her profession. In 
1764 Battishill composed, in conjunction with 
Michael Arne, the music for the opera of 
'Almena.' The piece, owing to the poverty 
of the dialogue, was soon withdrawn, but for 
jiroof that want of merit in the music had 
nothing to do with the withdrawal it is only 
necessary to refer to Battishill's songs 'Thus 
when young Ammon march'd along' and ' Poised 
in Heaven's eternal scale,' written to display 
the fine bass voice of Samuel Champness. In 
the same year Battishill composed the music 
for the pantomime 'The Rites of Hecate.' At 
a later period he abandoned the theatre and 
devoted his attention to the composition of 
church music, and produced several anthems 
(including that beautiful one ' Call to re- 
membrance'), in which melody and skilful 
treatment of the parts are admirably combined. 
In 1 77 1 he gained the Catch Club prize for 
his fine Anacreontic glee ' Come bind my hair.' 
About this time he was appointed organist of 
the united parishes of St. Clement, Eastcheap, 
and St. Martin, Orgar, and soon afterwards 
of Christ Church, Newgate Street. In 1775 he 
lost his wife, and her death so affected him 
that he desisted fiom composition, and devoted 


much of his time to his books, of which li( 
had collected between six and seven thousanc 
volumes, chiefly classical works. He died a 
Islington Dec. 10, 1801, aged sixty-three years 
and was buried, pursuant to his dying wish, ii 
St. Paul's Cathedral, near the grave of Dr 
Boyce. Battishill published two collections 
songs for three and four voices, and a coUectioi 
of favourite songs sung at the public garden 
and theatres. Several of his glees and catche 
are printed in Warren's and other collections 
Four of his anthems are included in Page' 
'Hannonia Sacra.' In 1804 Page edited 'Si: 
Anthems and Ten Chants,' with a hnely engravec 
portrait of the composer prefixed. In the sami 
year Page also inserted in a collection of hymn 
twelve psalm tunes and an ode composed by Bat 
tishill. The popular song ' Kate of Aberde© 
was composed by Battishill for Ranelagh Gardens! 
Battishill's compositions are distinguished by ai 
uncommon combination of energy and vigou 
with grace and elegance. [W. H. H. 

military programme-music describing the en 
gagement between the Prussians and Austrian 
before Prague, in 1757. It was composed b; 
Kotzwara — a native of Prague — for Piano, witl 
Violin and Cello ad libitum, and was publishe( 
at Hamburg and Berlin (according to Fetis 
about 1792, and in London in I7g3. The pieo 
had an immense success at the time and for 
quarter of a century after, and was the pr( 
cursor of the 'Siege of Valenciennes,' and man; 
others of the same kind — culminating in B& 
thoven's ' Battle of Vittoria.' The English edi 
tions contain ' God save the King,' as the Hymi 
of triumph after the victory, and a drum-cal 
' Go to bed Tom,' Now as ' Heil dir i] 
Siegerkranz,' which has become a kind of Prus 
sian national hymn, to the tune of 'God savi 
the King,' was not produced till I799> i 
seems probable that the tune and the nami 
have been put into the English editions fo 
the English market, and that if the Germai 
edition could be seen (which the writer has no 
been able to do) it would be found that somi 
Prussian air and call were there instead of thosi 
named. [Gr. 

English name for Beethoven's ' Wellingtons Sieg 
oder die Schlachii bei Vittoria.' It was first per 
formed in London, under the direction of Sii 
George Smart, at Drury Lane Theatre on Feb 
10, 1815. 

BATTON, Desire Alexandre, born in Parii 
1797, died there 1S55 ; tlie son of an artificia 
flower maker. W^as a pupil at the Conservatoin 
(including counterpoint under Clierubiiii) fron 
1806 to 181 7, in which year he won the 'Grand 
Prix' for his cantata 'La mort d' Adonis,' enti 
tling bim to travel for five years in Italy anc 
Germany at government expense, and he ac- 
cordingly started in 1818, after the performanct 
of his comic opera 'La Fenetre secrfete' at the 
Theatre Feydeau, During his tour he compose*^ 


jveral works, chiefly sacred music, in Rome, 
nd a symphony performed in Munich. After 
is return to Paris in 1823 he brought out three 
peras, the failure of which drove him to adopt 
is father's trade. ' La Marquise de Brinvilliers,' 
omposed in 1832 in conjunction with Auber, 
lerold, andCarafa, was however better received, 
tetton's failure as a dramatic composer may in 
reat part be attributed to the poverty of his 
.bretti. [M. C. C] 

BATTUTA (Ital. beat, or measure). 'A bat- 
ata,' like 'a tempo,' means a return to the strict 
eat. Beethoven uses the word in the Scherzo of 
he Choral Symphony — 'Ritmo di tre battute,' 
Ritmo di quattro battute,' to signify that the 
hythm in those places goes in groups of three 
:ars or four bars respectively. In the Presto of 
.is E flat Quartett (Op. 74), where the time 
hanges to ' Piii presto, quasi prestissimo,' he 
.dds the direction ' Si ha s'immaginar la battuta 
li 6-8' — the movement being written in 3-4. 

I lative of the Netherlands, contemporary with 
fosquin des Pres, and from 1513 to 1518 chapel- 
naster of the church of Notre Dame at Antwerp, 
vhere he died in 1529. Two of his motets were 
)rinted by Petrucci of Fossombrone in 15 19, 
vhicli suggests that he visited Italy, and proves 
n any case that his fame had reached that 
'.ountry during his lifetime. The rest of his 
vorks, many of which are preserved in the Papal 
jhapel, are included in collections published 
tome time after his death. [J. R. S. B.J 

BAUMGARTEN, C. F., a native of Germany, 
ind pupil of the famous organist J. P. Kunzen 
;ame early to London and never left it ; was 
)rganist at the Lutheran Chapel in the Savoy, 
tnd leader of the band of the English opera, 
Jovent Garden. He was also composer and 
eader of the Duke of Cumberland's private 
;)and, which contained Blake, Waterhouse, Shield, 
Parke, and the elder Cramer. Baumgarten wrote 
aauch for the 'Professional Concerts' of 1783 and 
uiter, various operas and pantomimes — amongst 
jther.s. Blue Beard, 1792. As an organist he 
liad great skill in modulation and a thorough 
snowledge of his instrument, but as a vioUn- 
player, both in concerted music and as a leader, 
be was languid and wanting in energy — ' a sleepy 
Drchestra,' says Haydn in his diary. His theo- 
retical knowledge was acknowledged by Haydn 
and Gyrowetz. 'He was the man to mix learn- 
ing with effect, and therefore to write captiva- 
tions that are felt by all' ('The World,' 1787). 
When he made Haydn's acquaintance in 1792 he 
had almost forgotten his mother tongue. In 
1794 he lost his position at Covent Garden, and 
was succeeded by Mountain (' The Oracle,' Sept. 
19). After this nothing is known of him. Bauni' 
garten was a man of much ability and culture ; 
his pupils were numerous and distinguished, 
He wrote an admirable treatise on music, and 
was a keen student of astronomy, mathematics, 
and history ; but he does not seem to have pos- 
aessed the art of making use of his advantages, 



and was quickly forgotten. A song of his, 
' Her image ever rose to view,' from ' Netley 
Abbey,' is preserved in Ayrton's 'Musical Li- 
brary.' [C. F. P.] 

BAYADERES, dancing girls attached to the 
Hindoo temples. The nature of their pro- 
fession may be inferred from Goethe's Ballad 
'Der Gott und die Bajadere,' which forms the 
groundwork of Catel's opera 'Les Bayaderes,'^ 
and of Auber's opera-ballet 'Le Dieu et la 
Bayadtire.' Tliey are a prominent feature in 
Spohr's ' Jessonda.' 

BAYLY, Rev. Anselm, D.C.L, son of An- 
selm Bayly of Haresfield, Gloucestershire, was 
born in the year 1719. He matriculated at 
Exeter College, Oxford, Nov. 4, 1740. On Jan. 
22, 1 741, he was appointed lay vicar of West- 
minster Abbey, and on the 29th of the same 
month was admitted a gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, both places being vacant by the death 
of John Church. On March 13, 1744, having 
resigned his place as gentleman, he was ad- 
mitted priest of the Chapel Royal. He graduated 
as B.C.L. June 12, 1749, and D.C.L. July 10, 
1764. In the latter year, on the death of the 
Rev. Dr. Fifield Allen, Bayly was appointed 
his successor as sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, 
He died in 1792. He was author of 'A 
Practical Treatise on Singing and ' Playing,* 
1 771, and 'The Alliance of Musick, Poetry, 
and Oratory,' 17S9, and of several theological 
and grammatical works. In 1769 he edited a 
collection of the words of Anthems, to which 
he contributed an interesting preface on cathedral 
music. [W. H. H.] 

BAZZINI, Antonio, eminent violinist, was 
bom in 181 8 at Brescia. From 1840 he has 
played with great success in mo^t of the prin- 
cipal towns of Italy, Germany, France, and 
Belgium. As a performer he belongs to the 
school of Paganini, his playing, although not 
free from mannerism and a certain sentimen- 
tality, being distinguished by a most brilliant 
technique of the left hand and the bow, and 
by great vivacity of style. As a composer for his 
instrument Bazzini shews more earnest artistic 
feeling than most modern Italians. Having pub- 
lished in earlier years a number of operatic 
fantasias, many pieces de »alon, a concertino and 
and an allegro de concert, he lias of late come 
forward with works for the chamber and church, 
which have met with great success at Milan and 
other Italian places. Bazzini is now (1876) 
Professor of Composition at the Milan Con- 
servatorio. [P. D.] 

BEALE, John, a pianist, bom in London 
about 1796, was a pupil of John Baptist Cramer. 
In 1820 he was elected a member of the 
Philharmonic Society, and in 1821 was an 
active promoter of a concert given to celebrate 
the birthday of Mozart. On the establish- 
ment of the Royal Academy of Music he was 

Kor an anmslmt anecdote connected with this opera and with 
tlie tlislll<e of Napuleuu 1 to loud music see Ciemeut, ' l)lctiuuuali:« 
Ljrrlque,' p. 92*. 



named one of the professors of the pianoforte ' 
there. [W.H.H.] 

BEALE, William, was born at Landrake 
Jan. I, 1784, and brought up as a chorister of 
Westminster Abbey under Dr. Arnold and j 
Robert Cooke. In 18 13 he gained by his | 
madrigal, 'Awake, sweet muse,' the prize cup ' 
given by the Madrigal Society. He published , 
in 1820 a collection of his glees and madrigals. I 
On the title-page of his madrigal ' What ho ! I 
what ho!' published in 18 16, he is styled 
'Gent", of His Majesty's Chapels Royal.' It 
is certain, however, that he never held such an 
appointment. He died in London on the 3rd of 
May, 1854. [W.H.H.] 

BEARD, John, one of the most eminent of 
English tenor singers, born about 171 7, was in 
his boyhood a chorister of the Chapel Royal 
under Bernard Gates. He first appeared as a 
tenor singer in Handel's performances at Covent 
Garden ITheatre in 1736, singing in 'Alexanders 
Feast,' ' Acis and Galatea,' and ' Atalanta.' On 
Aug. 30, 1737, he appeared at Drury Lane 
Theatre as Sir John Loverule in Coffey's ballad 
opera ' The Devil to Pay,' and in the following 
season was regularly engaged there. In 1739 
h,e married Lady Henrietta, the young widow 
of Lord Edward Herbert, and daughter of the 
Earl of Waldegrave, on which he retired for 
a short time from professional life. After 
fourteen years uninterrupted happiness, Lady 
Henrietta died in 1753, aged thirty-six. Beard 
performed at Drury Lane until 1743, after which 
he was engaged at Covent Garden until 1748; 
he then returned to Drury Lane, where he 
continued until 1759, in which year he married 
Charlotte, daughter of John Rich, proprietor of 
Covent Gai-den Theatre, and was again engaged 
at that house. Ricli dying in 1761, Beard 
became, in right of his wife, proprietor and 
manager of the theatre, and so continued until 
an increasing deafness determined him to dispose 
of his interest in it and quit the stage. He took 
his leave of the public as Hawthorn in ' Love in 
a Village' May 23, 1767. After his retirement 
he resided at Hampton, where he died, Feb. 
4, 1 79 1, in his seventy -fourth year. His wife 
survived him until August 26, 1818, when she 
died at Hampton at the great age of ninety-two. 
Beard throughout life bore the reputation of 
being a highly honourable and upright man. 
To form an estimate of his abilities as a singer 
it is only necessary to remember that Handel 
composed for him the great tenor parts in 
'Israel in Egypt,' 'Messiah,' 'Samson,' 'Judas 
Maccabeus,' and ' Jephthah.' [W. H. H.] 

BEAT. The name given in English to a 
melodic grace or ornament, but with considerable 
uncertainty as to which particular ornament it 
denotes, tlie word having been very variously 
applied by different writers. 

With some authors it signifies the AcciA- 
CATURA, but it appears to be most generally 
understood to mean the Mordent (Ger. 
Beisser) (Ex. i), in which connection it seems 


not impossible that its English name may hai 
been originally ' bite.' Dr. Callcott however, i 
his Grammar of Music, speaks of the beat as 
reversed shake, and derives its name from Batt 
ment, giving an example as in Ex. 2. Batteme^ 
again, according to Rousseau (Dictionnaire c 
Musique"), is a shake beginning on the upp< 
instead of the princijial note (Ex. 3) 
I. Written. 2. 3. 

It is doubtless owing to this uncertainty that tl 
word has now almost fallen into disuse. [F.T 

BEAT. The movement of the hand or bate 
by which the rhythm of a piece of music is i 
dicated, and by which a conductor ensures pe 
feet agreement in tempo and accent on the pa 
of the orchestra or chorus ; also, by analogy, tl 
different divisions of a bar or measure wil 
respect to their relative accent. 

Among the ancients the ordinary method 
beating time was by striking the foot upon tl 
ground. The person who exercised this functioi 
corresponding to our modem conductor, W! 
called by the Greeks Coryphaeus (principal), an 
by the Romans PedaHm or Pediculariiis, froi 
the custom of employing the foot to beat witl 
and it was usual for him to wear sandals of wot 
or metal, called pedicula or scabella, in ordi 
by their percussion to render the rhjiihm moi 
evident. Sometimes the measure was markt 
bv clapping the hands — in which case the tim 
beater was called Manuductor; and sometimes I 
the striking together of oyster-shells, bones, etc 

To our ears this incessant and noisy percussii 
would be unendurable, and a modern conduct 
would be severely criticised who could not ke< 
his performers in time by the noiseless mov 
ments of his baton ; nevertheless, the improv 
ment is of comparatively recent date, for we fii 
Rousseau in 1768 complaining that the listen 
at the Paris opera should be 'shocked by tl 
continual and disagreeable noise made by hi 
who beats the measure.' 

The method of beating now commonly in ui 
in England, France, and Germany is as follows 
the first note of each bar (which has always tl 
strongest accent) is indicated by a downwai 
movement of the hand or baton, and this part 
the bar is therefore usually known as the 'dowi 
beat'; in triple time this is followed by tw 
unaccented beats, which are shown by a mov 
ment first to the right and then upwards, unle 
in scherzos or other movements in rapid tim 
where it is usual to give merely a down beat 
the beginning of the bar. In common time the: 
may be either one or three non-accents, in tl 
first case the simple up-beat suffices, in the latfc 
the beats following the down-beat are to the lef 
to the right, and then upwards. In aU casi 


he movement immediately preceding the down- 
leat is an up beat. 

In beating compound time (that is, time in 
fhich each beat is made up of three parts) it is 
, tustomary to give each beat three times in suc- 
•.ession, thus in 12-8 time there would be three 
lown, three left, three right, and three up-beats, 
!xcept in rapid tempo, when the ordinary number 
»f beats will suthce, one beat being equivalent 
o three notes. 

In the greater part of Italy a somewhat different 
nethod of beating is adopted, there being no beats 
» the right or left ; when therefore there are 
nore than two beats in a bar, two down-beats 
tre given in succession, followed in triple time by 
me and in common time by two up-beats. 

In theoretical works, the down-beat or ac- 
jent. and the up-beat or non-accent, are usually 
ipoken of by their Greek names of thesis and 
irds. [F. T.] 

BEATRICE DI TEXDA. Italian opera, the 

libretto by F. Eomani, the music by Bellini ; 

aroduced at Venice in 1833. and at the Theatre 

'I ies Italiens, Paris, Feb. 8, 1841, and in London, 

it the King's Theatre, March 22, 1836. 

BEATS are a wavy throbbing effect produced 
-. the sounding together of certain notes, and 
- 1 noticeable in unisons and consonances, when 
:a.. perfectly tuned to one another, 
j To explain their origin reference must be made 
J x> elementary facts in the science of sound. 
;, Sound is conveyed to our ears by the waves 
, into which the air, or other medium, is thrown 
5 by the vibration of what is called the sounding 
, body. These waves are proportionally relative 
to the rapidity of the vibrations of the note 
g sounding, and therefore also to its pitch ; they 
) jonsist of alternate condensation and rarefaction, 
' each vibration being considered (in England and 
I Grermany) to comprise both the compression and 
distension of the particles of the air analogous 
to the crest and trough of a wave ot' water. 
These are, as it were, opposite forces, and can 
be made to counteract each other if two waves 
be simultaneously produced which start at such 
a distance from each other that the condensation 
of one exactly corresponds to the rarefaction of 
the other. A very simple proof of this may be 
obtained by striking a large tuning-fork and 
holding it close to the ear, and turning it 
slowly round ; when a particular point will be 
found on either side of the fork at which the 
sound ceases, although the fork continues to 
vibrate, because the two prot)gs are in such a 
position relative to the ear that their sound- 
waves in that direction mutually counterbalance 
one another. 

Beats are produced by sound-waves which 
have such relations in size and rapidity, that at 
certain intervals they cross one another and, con- 
densation and rarefaction being simultaneous for 
the moment, produce silence. For instance, if 
two notes which vibrate respectively 100 and lor 
times in a second be sounded together, it is clear 
that the sound-waves of the latter will gain -^^ 



on the former at each vibration, and half-way 
through the second will have gained so much 
that its condensation will exactly correspond 
with the rarefaction of the other note (or vice 
versa), and for the moment silence will result; 
and so for each second of time. 

If the notes be further apart, as 100 to 102, the 
latter will gain twice as much in every vibration, 
and there will be two places where the waves 
counteract each other, and therefore two beats in 
each second. Hence the rule that the number of 
beats per second is equal to the difference betueen 
the rates of vibration of the notes. 

It is found practically that it is not necessary 
for the waves to be exactly in opposition ; for in 
the case of one note with 100 vibrations in a 
second and another with 103, though ths three 
beats will be heard according to the rule above 
given, it is proved mathematically that there will 
be only one point at which the condensation and 
rarefaction are exactly simultaneous, and the 
other two extremes of opposition are not ex- 
act, though within xoToo of a second of coinci- 

In point of fact the sound will be lessened to 
a minimum up to the extreme of opposition in the 
position of the waves, and increased to the full 
power of the two sounds up to the perfect coin- 
cidence of the vibrations. 

It will have been observed that the beats in- 
crease in number as the notes become more wide 
apart. According to Helmholtz they are most 
disagreeable when they number about 33 in a 
second, which is nearly the number produced by 
the sounding together of treble C and Db. From 
that point they become less and less harsh till 
with such an interval as treble C and E, which 
produces 128 beats in a second, there is no un- 
pleasant sensation remaining. 

Beats are of three kinds. The first and most 
commonly known is produced by the sounding 
together of two notes nearly in unison — to which 
the above description applies simply. They are 
associated with the name of the great violinist 
Tartini, for reasons concerning which a contro- 
versy has arisen, and which are too long to be 
here set down. 

The second kind arises from the imperfect 
tuning of consonances — such as tlie third, fourth, 
fifth, sixth, or octave. Here the notes are too 
wide apart for the primary beats as described 
above to be noticealde But the pri.uary beats 
are in this case thrown iuto grou[;s or cycles, 
which produce the effect of beats. These were 
first investigated by Dr. Robert Smith, Master of 
Trinity Coll. Cambridge ^,died 17O8), and are 
called after him. 

The third kind, also due to the imperfect 
tuning of consonances, is that which has been 
most carefully investigated by Helmholtz, and is 
called by him the over-tone beat. It is produced 
exactly in the manner first describeil bet»\een the 
harmonics of one note and anotlier fundamental 
note which is not in tune with the first, or be- 
tween the harmonics of two fundamentals which 
are out of tune. 



For instance, if bass C be sounded with middle 
C, and the latter be slightly out of tune, middle 
C and the iirst harmonic of the lower C will be 
in the position of imperfectly tuned unisons, 
and beats will be produced. If C and G be 
sounded together, and the latter be out of tune, 
the second harmonic of the former and the first of 
the latter will clash in a similar manner, and 
beats will be produced between them. And so 
with other consonances. 

The value of beats to organ-tuners is well 
known, as their disappearance when the notes 
are in tune is a mucli safer criterion of exactness 
than the musical sense unaided. Moreover it is 
possible to discover, by simple calculation of the 
number of beats in a second relative to the num- 
ber of vibrations, the exact amount any note is 
out of tune with another. 

For more complete discussion of this subject, 
see an article by W. Pole, Mus. Doc. F.R.S., in 
'Nature' for 1876, Nos. 324, 325. [C. H. H. P.] 

BEAULIEU, Maeie Desire, whose family 
name wa.s Martin, son of an artillery officer 
of Niort, born in Paris 1791. He studied under 
Rodolph Kreutzer, Benincori, and Mehul, and 
obtained the 'Grand Prix' at the Conservatoire 
in 1810. He did not accept the five years' tour 
to which the prize entitled him, and settled at 
Niort. Here he founded quartet meetings, and 
in 1829 a Philharmonic Society, which was after- 
wards expanded into the 'Association musicale 
de rOuest' (1S35). This society was the first 
of its kind in provincial France, and through 
the untiring zeal of its founder has attained 
a high pitch of excellence. Yearly festivals are 
held in turn at Niort, Poitiers, La Eochelle, 
Angouleme, Limoges, and Roche fort ; and Men- 
delssohn's ' St. Paul' and ' EHjah ' were performed 
at Eoehelle by this society long before they were 
heard in Paris. Beaulieu wrote in all styles, but 
excelled in church music. His principal work 
was a requiem on the death of Mehul, composed 
1819, performed 1S40. He also wrote much 
on music. A complete list of his compositions 
is given by Fetis. [M. C. C] 

BEAUMAVIELLE. a baritone singer, 
brought from Toulouse by Perrin to sing in 
' Pomone,' the first French opera by Cambekt, 
produced in 1671. After Lulli had obtained 
the transference of Perrin's monopoly to himself, 
Beaumavielle was one of the best singers at his He died in 1688, soon after Lulli, 
and was succeeded by Thevenard. [M. C. C] 

BEBUNG (Ger. ; Fr. Balancement ; Ital. 
Tremolo), a certain pulsation or trembling effect 
given to a sustained note in either vocal or in- 
strumental music, for the sake of expression. On 
stringed instruments it is effected by giving an 
oscillating movement to the finger while pres.sing 
the string ; on wind instruments and in singing 
by the management of the breath. 

The word Bebung refers, however, more parti- 
cularly to an effect peculiar to the old clavichord, 
but not possible on the modern pianoforte, in 
which the continuous and uninterrupted repeti- 


tion of a note was produced not by a fresh blow 
but by a movement of the tip of the finger with 
out leaving the key. This effect was formerb 
held in high estimation as a means of expression 
and Emanuel Bach in the introduction to hi 
' Versuch iiber die wahre Art das Clavier zi 
spielen,' says, comparing the then newly- invent© 
pianoforte with the clavichord, ' I believe, never 
theless, that a good clavichord possesses — wit] 
the exception that its tone is weaker — all th 
beauties of the former (the pianoforte), and ii 
addition the Behung and the power of sustainin 
the tone, inasmuch as after striking each note 
can give a fresh pressure.' 

The Bebung was not often marked, excej 
sometimes by the word tremolo. Marpurg, how 
ever ('Principes du Clavecin'), gives the followin 
as the sign of its emplo}"ment, using as many doi 
over the note as there were to be repetitions 

the sound — 



BECHER, Aleeed Julius, bom of Germa 
parents at Manchester, 1 803 ; educated at He 
delljerg, Gottingen, and Berlin. His life w£ 
one of perpetual movement and adventure. Befoi 
he was 40 he had lived in Elberfeld, Cologm 
Dtisseldorf, the Hague, and London, had practise 
as an advocate, edited a mercantile newspape 
and twice filled the post of Professor of Con 
position. But whatever else he did he ws 
alwaj^s faithful to music. In 1841 his wandering 
came to an end in Vienna, and at the instanc 
of Mendelssohn he took up musical criticism, i 
which he was very successfid, associating himse 
with the 'Wiener Musik-Zeitung' and tl 
' Sontag-sblattem.' He was equally enthusiast 
for the old masters and for Berlioz. In 1848 
threw himself into politics as a violent democra 
became editor of the 'Radikale,' was tried b 
court martial and shot on Nov. 23, 1848, in tl 
Stadtgraben of Vienna. Becher published song 
sonatas, and pianoforte pieces, many of wMc 
became favourites. He composed a symphon.} 
a violoncello fantasia (performed at a concert 
which he had the aid of Jenny Lind), and striii 
quartets. But these, though fuU of ability 
intelligence, never made any impression on tl 
public. Becher's literary works were almoi 
entirely fugitive, but he published a biograph 
of Jenny Lind ( 1 846). [C. ¥. P 

BECHSTEIN, Friedeich Wilhelh Kabi 
The first half of this century was not marke 
by any noteworthy progress in North Germa 
pianoforte-making, the instruments made bein 
far behind the Viennese. But this reproac 
cannot now be applied either to Berlin c 
Leipsic. Herr Bechstein established his worl 
shops in the former city in 1855. By th 
adoption of the American system of iron framin 
and of an action based upon the English, he ha 
raised a reputation for his concert instrumeni 
reaching beyond Prussian limits. Herr Becl 
stein is a native of Gotha. [A. J, H. 


BECK, Fbanz, bom at Mannheim 1731, died 
xt Bourdeaux 1809, violinist and composer. 
When quite young he took refuge in Paris from 
the eflFects of a duel, and thence removed to 
Bourdeaux. Here he became director of a series 
of concerts (1780), and trained many eminent 
musicians ; among others Blanchard and Bochsa. 
His compositions are excellent, though com- 
paratively few in number. They comprise 24 
Symphonies (1 776); a 'Stabat Mater,' performed 
at the Concerts Spirit uels in 1783 ; ' Bandore,' a 
melodrama (1789); a 'Gloria' and 'Credo'; 
MS. Sonatas for Pianoforte, and Quartets for 
Strings. [M. C. C] 

BECKER. In Russia the pianoforte-makers 
have been Germans. The leading Russian 
house at the present time owes its origin to 
Jacob Becker, a native of the Bavarian Pala- 
tinate, who founded it in 1841. Although 
pianoforte - making had early in this century 
been introduced in St. Petersburg, until about 
1850 pianists had imported their instruments 
for public performance. From that time how- 
ever Becker succeeded in making concert instru- 
ments, and since 1871 Mr. Paul Peterssen, the 
present head of the house, by adopting modem 
principles of framing, has made an efi'ectual 
' stand against this — to Russian interests — dis- 
j advantageous competition, and it has now 
1 become as much a matter of course to hear the 
• Russian pianofortes of Becker in the concerts of 
' Petersburg and Moscow as it is to hear the Rus- 
sian language in polite society. [A. J. H.] 

BECKER, Carl Ferdinand, organist and 
professor at the Conservatorium of Leipsic, bom 
in 1804, studied the piano, harmony, and com- 
position, under Schicht and Schneider. Played 
the piano in public at fourteen years old, but 
afterwards paid more attention to the organ, 
and rose by degrees to be organist of the Nicolai- 
Kirche in Leipsic. On the foundation of the 

\ Conservatorium at Leipsic he was invited by 
Mendelssohn to join the new enterprise. The 
estimation which Becker enjoyed in Germany 
was due less to his compositions than to his 
productions in musical literature. Prominent 
amongst these are his * Systematisch-chronolo- 
gische Darstellung der musik-Literatur,' etc. 
(1836), with a supplement (1839), in which 
Becker is said to have been assisted by Anton 
Schmid, custos of the Hof bibUothek at Vienna. 
He also wrote 'Hausmusik in Deutschland in 
i6t€n, I7ten, i8ten Jahrh.' (1840); also 'Die 
Tonwerke des i6ten und I7ten Jahrh.' — a cata- 
logue of the music printed during that period 
(1847) ; and a catalogue of his own coUecti< n — 
' Alphabetisch und chronologisch geordnetes Ver- 

ifi zeichniss,' etc. (Breitkopf, 1847). The collection 

a itself, containing works of the greatest rarity, he 
bequeathed to the city of Leipsic at bis death 

iiOct. 26, 1877. [F. G.] 

13 BECKER, CoNSTANTiN JcLius, bom at Frei- 
berg Feb. 3, 181 1. Showed an early talent for 
music, which was well developed by his master 

' A.N ACKER. In 1835 he came to Leipsic and 



assisted Schumann in editing the 'Neue Zeit- 
schrift fiir Musik'; but in 1843 removed to 
Dresden and occupied himself in teaching sing- 
ing. In 1846 he returned to Oberlossnitz, and 
lived there in solitude till his death, Feb. 26, 
1859. A sjTnphouy of his was performed with 
great applause at the Gewandhaus in 1843, 
and his opera 'Die Belagerung von Belgrad' 
was produced at Leipsic on May 21, 1848. But 
the work by which he will be remembered is 
his 'Miinnergesang-Schule,' 1845. He was the 
author of 'Die Neuromantiker,' a romance 
(1840), and of a translation of Berlioz's 'Voyage 
Musicale.' [F. G.] 

BECKER, Dietrich, violinist and composer 
to the Hamburg senate towards the middle of 
the 17th century; one of the earliest German 
instrumental composers ; published sonatas on 
chorales for violin, viol di gamba, and bass 
(Hamburg, 1668), as well as 'Die musikalischen 
Friihlingsfruchte,' consisting of pieces for in- 
struments in four and five parts, with basso con- 
tinuo. [F. G.] 

BECKER, Jean, eminent violin-player, bom 
at Mannheim in 1836. His first teacher was 
Kettenus, then leader of the Mannheim orchestra, 
and he afterwards learned fi-om Alard in Paris. 
He began to perform in public when only eleven, 
and was still very young when he became the 
successor of Kettenus. In 1859 he play-ed with 
great success in Paris, and thence went to 
Lon3on, where he appeared at the Monday 
Popular Concerts, and was for one season leader 
of the Philharmonic Concerts. After travelling 
for some years through most parts of Europe, 
he settled in 1866 at Florence, and associated 
himself with two Italian musicians, Masi and 
Chiostri, and the German violoncellist Hilpert. 
These artists, well known under the name of the 
' Florentiner Quartett,' have earned, by their 
careful and spirited performances of the classical 
masterpieces of quartet literature, a great and 
well-deserved reputation in most musical centres 
of the continent. Becker's style as a solo-player 
appears to be a compromise between the severe 
style of the German school and the lighter and 
more brilliant one of the French. [P. D.] 

BECKWITH, John Christmas, Mus. Doc., 
was bom Dec. 25, 1759, and studied music 
under Dr. Philip Hayes. He succeeded Garland 
as organist of the cathedral and St. Peter's Man- 
croft, ■ Norwich, about 1780. On July 5, 1803, 
he took his degrees as Mus. Bac. and Mus. Doc. 
at Oxford. He composed many anthems — six 
of them published by Clementi — and a few vocal 
pieces, some of which became popular. He was 
considered a good singing-master, and was the 
instructor of Thomas Vaughan. In 1808 he 
published a set of chants under tlie following 
title : — 'The First Verse of every Psahn of Da- 
vid, with an Ancient or Modem Chant, in 
Score, adapted as much as possible to the Senti- 
ment of each Psalm.' The preftice to this work 
contains ' a short history of chanting,' which 
displays learning and research, and contains the 



first siig;estion of marked psalters. Dr. Buck, 
who was his pupil and successor at Norwich 
Cathedral, describes his master as being almost 
as proficient in painting as in music. He died 
June 3, 1809. [E. F. R.] 

BEDOS DE CELLES, Dom Fean^ois, a 
learned Benedictine, born at Caux in the diocese 
of Bezieres in 1706, entered the order at Toulouse 
in 1726, and died at St. Maur on Nov. 25, 1779. 
Author of 'L'art du facteur d'orgues' (Paris, 
1766-78), an admirable work for the time, 
written at the request of the Academie des 
Sciences ; also of an account of the new organ at 
St. Martin of Tours, in the ' Mercure de France' 
for Jan. 1762, of which a German translation 
by J. F. Agricola will be found in Adelung's 
'Musica mechanica organcedi.' De Celles was 
a member of the Academie des Sciences of 
Bourdeaux, and corresponding member of that 
of Paris. [F. G.] 

BEER, Jacob Meyee, the original name of 
GiACOMO Meyerbeee. 

BEER, Joseph (sometimes written BOER), 
a remarkable clarinet - player ; born 1744 at 
Griinwald in Bohemia, served as trumpetei- first 
in the Austrian and then in the French army 
during the Seven Years' War. In 1 7 7 ^ ^^ went 
to Paris, and there took up the clarinet, on which 
he rap dly became the first performer of his time. 
In 1 78 2 he left Paris, and travelled through 
Holland, Italy, Russia, and Hungary, exciting 
everywhere the greatest possible enthusiasm. He 
died at Potsdam in 181 1. As a performer Beer 
united a masterly execution to great power of 
expression, and indeed effected a complete revo- 
lution in the clarinet, which he greatly improved 
by the addition of a fifth key. Till nearly fifty 
years old he had heard only French players, and 
had insensibly acquired their loud harsh tone ; 
but having heard in Brussels a German per- 
former, Schwartz, he discovered what the in- 
strument was capable of, and finally became as 
celebrated for the softness and purity of his tone, 
for the delicacy of his nuances, and especially 
his decrescendo, as he was for his execution. 
In fact he marks an epoch in the history of the 
instrument. His compositions comprise three 
concertos for two clarinets, variations, and 
duets. [M. C. C.] 

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig vanS born at Bonn, 
probably Dec. 16, 1770.^ The earliest form of 
the name is that with which we are familiar, 
but it takes many other shapes in the uncertain 
spelling of the time, ..such as Biethoffen, Biethofen, 
Biethoven, Bethoven, Betthoven, and Bethof. He 
himself appears to have always spelt it as we 
know it.^ The family belonged originally to a 
village near Louvain ; thence in 1650 they moved 
to Antwerp, where in 1 685 the name appears in 
the registers. His father Johann or Jean, and 

' Van in Dutch is not, like von or de, ft sign of nobility. 

2 The baptism is registered on the 17th, and it was the custom to 
baptise on the day following birth. Beethoven's own belief was that he 
w IS born in 1772, whicli accounts for an occasional mistake in his esti- 
uate of the age at which he wrote his early works, 

•' In his letters ; but in an advertisement of his, 31 March, ISM, it Is 
Bethofeu (JJottebohm, Beethoveniuiui, p. 4), 


his grandfather Ludwig, were both musicians in 
the Court band of the Elector of Cologne, at 
Bonn — the latter a bass-singer, and afterwards, 
Capellmeister, appointed March 1733, ^^^ former 
a tenor singer, March 27, 1756. The grandfather 
lived till Dec. 24, 1773, when the little Ludwig 
had just completed his third year. He was a small 
lively person with extraordinarily bright eyes, 
much respected and esteemed as a musician, and 
made an indelible impression on his grandson. 
His portrait was the only one which Beethoven 
took from Bonn to Vienna, and he often spoke of 
it to the end of his life. Beethoven's mother — ■ 
daughter of the chief cook at Ehrenbreitstein — 
was married to Johann on Nov. 12, 1767. She 
was twelve years younger than her husband ; her 
original name had been Keverich, but at the 
time of the marriage she was a widow — Maria 
Magdalena Leym or Laym. She died after a 
long illness on July 17, 1787, a woman of soft 
heart and easy ways, much beloved by her son. 
The father, on the other hand, was a severe 
hard man of irregular habits, who evidently saw 
his son's ability, gave him the best instruction 
that his poverty would allow, and kept him to 
his music with a stern, strict, perhaps cruel, hand. 
It is perhaps fortunate he did so. I'he first 
house they occupied in Bonn, that in which the 
great composer was born, was 5 1 5 in the Boun- 
gasse, now designated by a tablet erected in 1 8 70. 
Besides their eldest, Ludwig Maria, who was bom 
April I, 1769, and lived but six days, the Bee- 
thovens had three other sons — Caspar Anton 
Carl, April 7, 1774; Nikolaus Johann, Oct. i, 
1776; and August Franz Georg. Jan. 16, 17S1, 
died Aug. 1 6, 1 783 ; a daughter, Feb. 23,17 79, who 
lived only four days, and a second girl, Maria 
Margaretha Josepha, May 4, 1786. The first of 
these was the father of the ill-fated youth who 
gave his uncle so much distress, and was probably 
the ultimate cause of his death. He died at 
Vienna, Nov. 5, 1815. The second, Johann, was 
an apothecary, at Linz and Vienna, the ' Guts- 
besitzer ' of the well-known anecdote, his brother's 
hete noire, and the subject of many a complaint and 
many a nickname. He died at Vienna Jan. 1 2, 
1848. From the Bonngasse the family migi-ated 
to 7 or 8 on the Dreieck, and thence to the Rhein- 
gasse, No. 934. To the latter they came in 1775 
or 76, and there they remained for a few years. 
Johann Beethoven's income from the Chapel was 
300 florins a year (£25') — a miserable pittance, 
but that of most musicians of the chapel ; and 
this appears to have been his sole means of sub- 
sistence, for his voice was nearly gone, and there 
is no sign of his having had other employment.* 

According to Beethoven's own statement in the 
dedication to his earliest publication — the 3 Sona- 
tas for Pianoforte (1781 or 82) — he began music 
in his fourth year. The few traits preserved of 
that early period show that, like other children, 
he did not acquire it without tears. His father 
was his first teacher, and from him he learned 
both violin and clavier ; reading, writing, arith- 
metic, and a little Latin he obtained in one of 

* See the register in Thayer, Ludwig van Beelhot-ais Lelen, i. 147. 


the common public schools, and even this ceased 
when he was thirteen. At school he was shy and 
uncommunicative, and cared for none of the or- 
dinary games of boys. Before he was nine his 
music had advanced so far that his father had 
no longer anything to teach him, and in 1779 
he was handed over to PfeifFer, a tenor singer 
who had recently joined the opera in Bonn, and 
seems to have lodged with the Beethovens, and 
by whom he was taught, irregularly enough, but 
apparently with good and lasting effect, for a 
year. At the same time he fell in with a certain 
Zambona, who taught him Latin, French, and 
Italian, and otherwise assisted his neglected edu- 
cation. The organ he learned from Van den 
Eeden, organist to the Court Chapel, and an old 
friend of his grandfather's. About this time, 1 780, 
81, there is reason to believe that the Beethovens 
found a friend in Mr. Cressener, the English 
charge d'affaires, long time resident at Bonn, 
and that he assisted them with a sum of 400 
florins. He died on Jan. 1 7, 1 781, and Beethoven 
(then just past ten) is said to have written a 
Funeral Cantata to his memory,* which was per- 
formed. The Cantata, if it ever existed, has 
hitherto been lost sight of. One composition of 
tliis year we have in 9 Variations on Dressler's 
March in C minor,^ which though published in 
1 783, are stated on the title to be 'composees .... 
par un jeune amateur L. v. B. age de dix ana. 
1780.' In Feb. 1781 Neefe succeeded Van den 
Eeden as Organist at the Court, and Beethoven 
became his scholar. This was a great step for 
the boy, since Neefe, though somewhat over 
conservative as a musician, was a sensible man, 
and became a real friend to his pupil. 

There is ground for supposing * that during the- 
winter of 1781 Ludwig and his mother made a 
journey in Holland, during which he played at 
private houses, and that the tour was a pecuniary 
success. On June 29, 1782, old Van den Eeden 
was buried, and on the next day the Elector's 
band followed him to Miinster, where as Bishop 
he had a palace, Neefe leaving Ludwig, then 1 1^ 
years old, behind him as his regularly appointed 
deputy at the chapel organ, a post which, though 
unpaid, was no sinecm-e, and required both skill 
and judgment. This shows Neefe's confidence 
in his pupil, and agrees with his account of hun, 
\\-ritten a few months later, as 'playing with 
force and finish, reading well at sight, and, to 
sum up all, playing the greater part of Bach's 
Well-tempered Clavier, a feat which will be 
understood by the initiated. This young genius,' 
continues he, ' deserves some assistance that he 
may travel. If he goes on as he has begun, he 
will certainly become a second Mozart.' 

On the 26th April 1783, Neefe was promoted 
to the direction of both sacred and secular music, 
and at the same time Beethoven (then i 2 years 
and 4 months old>, was appointed ' Cembalist im 
Orchester,' with the duty of accompanying the 
rehearsals in the theatre ; in other words of con- 
ducting the opera-band, with all the responsi- 



' Thay<T, 1. 1 1."). 
» Tliayer. 1. 116. 

I B.*H. Complete Edition. No. 166. 

bilities and advantages of practice and experience 
which belong to such a position. No pay ac- 
companied the appointment at first, but the 
' duties ceased when the Elector was absent, so 
; that there was leisure for composition. The pieces 
[ published in this year are a song, 'Schilderung 
eines * Madchens,' and 3 Sonatas for Piano solo,' 
composed, according to the statement of the 
dedication, in 1781. On Aug. 16, 1783, the 
youngest boy, August Franz, died, the father's 
voice began still further to fail, and things 
generally to go from bad to worse. 

The work at the theatre was now rather on 
the increase. From Oct. 83 to Oct. 85, 2 operas 
of Gluck, 4 of Salieri, 2 of Sarti, 5 of Paisiello, 
with a dozen others, were studied and performed ; 
but Ludwig had no pay. In Feb. 84 he made 
an application for a salary, but the consideration 
was postponed, and it was probably as a set-off 
that he was shortly afterwards appointed second 
Court-organist. Meantime, however, on April 
15, 84, the Elector Max Friedrich died,, and this 
postponed still farther the prospect of emolument. 
The theatrical company was dismissed, and Neefe 
having only his organ to attend to, no longer 
required a deputy. The Beethovens were now 
living at No. 476 in the Wenzelgasse, whither 
they appear to have moved in 83, and Ludwig 
played the organ in the Minorite church at the 
six o'clock mass every morning. 

The music of 84 consists of a Rondo for 
the Piano in A,° published early in the year, 
and a song 'An einen ''Saugling': a Concerto 
for Piano and a piece in 3-part harmony, both 
in MS., are mentioned as probably belonging to 
this year.' 

One of the first acts of the new Elector Max 
Franz, was to examine his establishment, and 
on June 27, 84, he issued a list of names and 
salaries of his band,® among which Beethoven's 
father appears with a salary of 300 florins, and 
Beethoven himself, as second organist, with 150 
florins, equivalent to £25 and £13 respectively. 
A memorandum of the same date '" shows that 
an idea was entertained of dismissing Neefe and 
putting Be.ethoven into his place as chief organist. 
In fact Neefe's pay was reduced from 400 to 200 
florins, so that 50 florins a year was saved by 
the appointment of Beethoven. An economical 
Elector ! In the Holy Week of 1 78.!; the incident 
occurred (made too much of in the books) of 
Beethoven's throwing out the solo singer in 
Chapel by a modulation in the accompaniment, 
which is chiefly interesting as showing how early 
his love of a joke showed itself." During thia 
year he studied the violin with Franz Ries — 
father of Ferdinand. The music of 1785 is 3 
Quartets for Piano and Strings," a Minuet for 
Piano in Eb,'^ and a song 'Wenn jemand eine 
Reise thut' (Op. 52, No. 1). 

In 1786 nothing appears to have been either 
composed or published, and the only incident of 
this year that has survived, is the birth of a 

«B.*H.No.228. » Ibid. 1««-1.V>. • Ibid. 196. 'Ibid. 229. 
e Thayer. 1. 1*'. » Ibid. I. IM. » Ibid. 1. Uli. 

" Fchliidler, /.'loi/rflfAM. 1. 7 ; Tlmver. 1.161. 
UB.* 11.70-77. M Ibid. 193. 




second girl to the Beethovens — Marie Marga- 
retha Joseplia, May 4. 

In 1787 occurred the first real event in Bee- 
thoven's life — his first journey to Vienna. Con- 
cerning tliis there is an absolute want of dates 
and details. Some one must have been found to 
supply the means for so expensive a journey, but 
no name is preserved. As to date, his duties as 
organist would probably prevent his leaving 
Bonn before the work of Holy Week and Easter 
was over. The two persons who were indelibly 
impressed on his recollection by the visit ^ were 
Mozart and the Emperor Joseph. From the 
former he had a few lessons, and carried away a 
distinct — and not very appreciative^ — recollection 
of his playing; but Mozart must have been so 
much occupied by the death of his father (May 
28) and the approaching production of 'Don Gio- 
vanni' (Oct. 29) that it is probable they had not 
much intercourse. The well-known story of Bee- 
thoven's introduction to him, when divested of the 
ornaments ^ of Seyfried and others, stands as 
follows: — Mozart asked him to play, but thinking 
that his performance was a prepared piece, paid 
little attention to it. Beethoven seeing this en- 
treated Mozart to give him a subject, which he 
did ; and the boy, getting excited with the occa- 
sion, played so finely that Mozart, stepping softly 
into the next room, said to his friends there, ' Pay 
attention to him ; he will make a noise in the world 
some day or other.' His visit seems not to have 
lasted more than three months, but, as we have 
said, all certain information is wanting. He re- 
turned by Augsburg, where he had to borrow 
three Carolins (£3) from Dr. von Schaden. His 
return was hastened by the illness of his mother, 
v%'ho died of consumption July 17, 17^7) ^^'^ ^i^ 
account of himself in a letter * to Von Schaden, 
written seven weeks after that date, is not en- 
couraging. A short time more and the little 
Margaretha followed her mother, on Nov. 25, so 
that 1787 must have closed in very darkly. The 
only compositions known to belong to that year 
are a Trio in E b,^ and a Prelude in F minor for 
Piano solo:® However, matters began to mend ; 
lie made the acquaintance of the von Breuning 
family — his first permanent friends — a mother, 
three boys, and a girl. He gave lessons to the 
girl and the youngest boy, and soon became an 
inmate of the house, a far better one than he had 
before frequented, and on terms of close intimacy 
with them all. The family was a cultivated and 
intellectual one, the mother — the widow of a man 
of some distinction— a woman of remarkable sense 
and refinement ; the childi-en, more or less of 
his own age. Here he seems to have been first 
initiated into the literature of his country, and to 
have acquired the love of English authors which 
remained with him through life. The intimacy 
rapidly became strong. He often passed whole 
days and nights with his friends, and accompanied 
them on excursions of several weeks duration to 
their uncle's house at Kerpen, and elsewhere. 
At the same time he made the acquaintance of 

1 Schindler. i.!."!. 2 Thayer, ii. Sffi!. » See .Tahn, in Thayer. i.l64 
« Nohl, Bi-O^e, No. 2. 6 B. .t H. S6. 6 Ibid. .i)5. 


Count Waldstein, a young nobleman eight years 
his senior, an amateur musician, whose acquaint- 
ance was peculiarly useful in encouraging and 
developing Beethoven's talent at a time when it 
naturally wanted support. On Waldstein Bee- 
thoven exercised the same charm that he did 
later on the proud aristocracy of Vienna. The 
Count used to visit him in his poor room, gave 
him a piano, got him pecuniary help under the 
1 guise of allowances from the Elector, and in other 
I ways sympathised with him. Either now or 
I shortly afterwards, Beethoven composed a set of 
1 variations for 4 hands on a theme of the Count's,^ 
and in 1805 made him immortal by dedicating 
to him the grand sonata (op. 53), which is usually 
known by his name. Another acquaintance was 
the Countess of Hatzfeld, to whom he dedicated 
a set of Variations, which were for long his show- 

In the summer of 17S8, when Beethoven was 
17I years old, the Elector altered the plan^ of his 
music, and formed a national theatre on the 
model of that of his brother the Emperor Joseph. 
Reicha was made director, and Neefe pianist and 
stage-manager. The band was 31 strong, and 
contains names such as Hies, the two Rombergs, 
Simrock, Stumpff — which often recur in Bee- 
thoven's life. He himself played second viola, 
both in the opera and the chapel, and was still 
assistant Hof-organist. In this position he re- 
mained for four years ; the opera repertoire was 
large, good, and various, the singers were of 
the best, and the experience must have been of 
great practical use to him. Among the operas 
played in 89 and 90 were Mozart's ' Entfuhrung,' 
'Figaro,' and 'Don Giovanni' — the two first ap-, 
parently often. Meantime Johann Beethoven 
was going from bad to worse. Stephen Breuning 
once saw Ludwig take his drunken father out of 
the hands of the police, and this could hai-dly 
have been the only occasion. At length, on 
Nov. 20, 1789, a decree was issued ordering a 
portion of the father's salary to be paid over to 
the son, who thus, before he was nineteen, be- 
came the head of the family. 

The compositions of 17S9 and 90 are 2 Pre- 
ludes for the Piano (op. 39), 24 Variations on 
Righini's 'Venni' Amore,' a Song 'Der'" freie, 
Mann>' and probably a Cantata on the death of 
the Emperor Joseph II, still in MS." The only 
extra musical event of this year was the visit 
of Haydn and Salomon on their road to London. 
They arrived on Christmas Day. One of Haydn's 
Masses was performed ; he was complimented by 
the Elector, and entertained the chief musicians 
at dinner at his lodgings. 1 791 opened well for 
Beethoven with a ' Ritter Ballet,' a kind of masked 
ball, in antique style. Count Waldstein appears 
to have arranged the plan, and Beethoven composed 
the music ; but his name does not seem to have been 
connected with it at the time, and it remained 
unpublished till 1872, when it appeared arranged 
for piano. In the autumn the troupe accompanied 
the Elector to Mergentheim, near Aschaffenburg,. 

' B. A H. 122. s Thaver. i. 1S2. 9 B. 4 H. 178. " Jbid. 232. 

11 Thayer, i. 232. He died I'eb. 2u, 1790. 


to a conclave of the Deutschen Orden ; the journey 
was by water along the Rhine and Main, the 
weather was splendid, — there was ample leisure, 
and the time long remained in Beethoven's recol- 
lection ' a fruitful source of channing images.' 
At Aschaffenburg he heard a fine player — the 
Abbe Sterkel, and showed his instant appre- 
ciation of the Abbe's graceful finished style by 
imitating it in extemporising. In Mergentheim 
the company remained for a month (18 Sept. — 
20 Oct.). An interesting account of the daily 
musical proceedings is given by Junker, the 
Chaplain at Kirchberg,' including an account of 
Beethoven's extempore playing. He compares it 
with that of Vogler, whom he knew well, and 
pronounces it to have displayed all Vogler's ex- 
ecution, with much more force, feeling, and ex- 
pression, and to have been in the highest degree 

The Beethovens were still living in the Wen- 
zelgasse, Carl learning music, and Johann under 
the Court Apothecary. Ludwig took his meals 
at the Zehrgarten- — a great resort of the Univer- 
sity professors, artists, and literary men of Bonn, 
and where the lovely Babette Koch, daughter 
of the proprietress, was doubtless an attrac- 
tion to him.^ His intimacy with the Breunings 
continued and increased ; Madame von Breun- 
ing was one of the very few people who could 
manage him, and even she coidd not always 
make him go to his lessons in time : when he 
proved too obstinate she would give up the 
endeavour with the remark ' he is again in his 
raptus,^ an expression which Beethoven never 
forgot. Music was their great bond, and Bee- 
thoven's improvisations were the delight of the 
family. His duties at the organ and in the 
orchestra at this time were not very great ; 
the Elector's absences were frequent, and gave 
him much time to himself, which he spent partly 
in lessons, partly in the open air, of which he 
was already very fond, and partly in assiduous 
practice and composition. The sketch-books of 
that time are crammed with ideas, and confirm 
his statement, made many years later,* that he 
began thus early the method of working which 
80 emphatically distinguishes him. 

In July 1792 Haydn again passed through 
Bonn on his return from London. The Elector's 
Band gave him a dinner at Godesberg, and Bee- 
thoven submitted a cantata to him, ' which Haydn 
greatly praised, warmly encouraging the composer 
to proceed with his studies.' What the cantata 
was is not known, though it is conjectured to 
have been on the death of the Emperor Leo- 
pold II.* 

The compositions which can be fixed to the 
years 1791 and 92 consist of Songs (portions of 
op. 52), a Kondino* for Wind instruments, the Trio 
tor Strings, op. 3, an Allegro and Minuet for 
2 Flutes (Aug. 23, MS.), and perhaps a set of 14 

> Th»yer. 1. 209-a.^ > Vb\A. L 218. 

• He wrote twice to her within a year alter he left Bonn. See his 
letter to Eleonore Breuiiing. Nov. 2, 17.i3. 

* Letter to Archd. liodolpb, July 'a, 1815, Sketches of the Bonn date 
^re Id the BritUh Museum. 

> Thayer, I. '^2. Ue died March 1, 1792. tB. «H. No.60, 



Variations^ for Pianoforte, Violin, and Cello, in Eb, 
published in 1804 as op. 44 ; 12 Variations' for 
Piano and Violin on 'Se vuol ballare'; 13 ditto 
for Piano* on ' Es war einmal'; and 12 ditto'" for 
Piano, 4 hands, on an air of Count Waldstein's. 

Hitherto the Elector seems to have taken no 
notice of the most remarkable member of his 
orchestra. But in the course of this year — 
whether prompted by Neefe or Waldstein or by 
his own observation, or possibly by Haydn's ap- 
probation — he determined that Beethoven should 
visit Vienna in a more permanent manner than 
before, for the purpose of studying at his expense. 
Haydn was communicated with, and in the very 
beginning of November Beethoven left Bonn, as 
it proved, never to return to it again. His part- 
ing words to Neefe are preserved:" — 'Thank 
you for the counsel you have so often given me 
on my progress in my divine art. Should I 
ever become a great man you will certainly have 
assisted in it, which will be all the more gratify- 
ing to you, since you may be convinced that' etc. 
The Album in which his friends — Waldstein, the 
Breunings, the Kochs, Degenhart, and others — 
inscribed their farewells is still existing,'^ and 
the latest date is Nov. i. E. Breuning's lines 
Contain allusions to ' Albion,' as if Beethoven 
were preparing to visit England — possibly witli 
Haydn ? Waldstein's entry is as follows : — ' Dear 
Beethoven, you are travelling to Vienna in ful- 
filment of your long-cherished wish. The genius 
of Mozart is siill weeping and bewailing the 
death of her favourite. With the inexhaustible 
Haydn she round a refuge, but no occupation, and 
is now waiting to leave him and join herself to 
some one else. Labour assiduously, and receive 
Mozart's spirit from the hands of Haydn. Your 
true friend Waldstein. Bonn, October 29, 1 792.' 

What provision the Elector made for him be- 
yond his modest pay of 1 50 florins is not known. 
An entry of 25 ducats (£12 los.) is found in his 
notebook shortly after he reached Vienna, but 
there is nothing to show what length of time 
that moderate sum represented, or even that it 
came trom the Elector at all. 

Thus ended the first perioil of Beethoven's life. 
He was now virtually twenty -two. The list of 
his known compositions to this time has been 
given year by year. If we add the Bagatelles 
(op. 33), the 2 easy Sonatas (op. 49), the 2 Violin 
Kondos (op. 51), the Serenade Trio (op. 8), and 
a lost Trio for Piano, Flute, and Bassoon," — all 
probably composed at Bonn — and compare them 
with those of other composers of the first rank, 
such as Mozart, Schubert, or Mendelssohn, it 
must be admitted that tliey are singularly few 
and unimportant. For the orchestra the Kitter- 
ballet already referred to is the single composition 
known, while Mozart — to mention him only — 
had in the same period written 36 Symphonies, 
including so mature a masterpiece as the. ' Parisian' 
in D. Against Mozart's 28 Operas, Cantatas, and 
Masses, tor voices and full orchestra, composed 

' Nottebohm, Bttthovrmana, III. » B. * H. Xo. Ue. 

» IbWI. .\.i. 175. '" Ibid. No. 122. " Thayer, 1. 227. 

12 Nottebohm, Brrthomiinna. XXVU. 
u Thayer, Vmtichmu.'So.n. 



before he was 23, Beethoven has absolutely no- 
thino- to show. And the same in other depart- 
ments. That he meditated great works, though 
they did not come to paper, is evident in at 
least one case. A resident in Bonn, writing to 
Schiller's sister Charlotte, on Jan. 26, 1793,' 
gays : — 'I enclose a setting of the Feuer-fnrhe on 
which I should like your opinion. It is by a 
young man of this place whose talent is widely 
esteemed, and whom the Elector has now sent 
to Vienna to Haydn. He intends to compose 
Schiller's Freude, and that verse by verse. I 
expect something perfect ; for, as far as I know 
him, he is all for the grand and sublime. Haydn 
informs us that he shall set him to great operas, 
as he himself will shortly leave off composing. 
He does not usually occupy himself with such 
trifles as the enclosed, which indeed he composed 
only at the request of a lady.' This letter, 
which shows how early Schiller's ' Hymn to 
Joy' had taken possession of Beethoven — there 
to remain till it formed the finale to the Ninth 
Symphony thirty years later — is equally inter- 
esting for the light it throws on the impression 
which Beethoven had already made on those 
who knew him, and who credited him with the 
intention and the ability to produce great works, 
although he had not yet produced even small 
ones. This impression was doubtless due mainly 
to the force and originality of his extempore 
playing, which even at this early age was pro- 
digious, and justified his friends in speaking of 
him''' as one of the finest pianoforte-players of 
the day. 

By the middle of November Beethoven was 
settled at Vienna. His first lodging was a garret 
at a printer's in the ' Alservorstadt' ^ outside the 
walls, in the direction of the present Votive- 
Church ; but this was soon exchanged for one ' on 
the ground floor,'* of which we have no nearer 
description. On the journey from Bonn we find 
him for the first time making notes of little oc- 
currences and expenses — a habit which never left 
him. In the entries made during his first few 
weeks in Vienna we can trace the purchase of a 
wig, silk stockings, boots, shoes, overcoat, writing- 
desk, seal, and hire of piano. From the same source 
we can infer the beginning of his lessons. The 
first payment to Haydn is 8 groschen (say i)\d., 
we may surely presume for one hour) on Dec. 12. 
The lessons took place in Haydn's house ^ (Ham- 
berger Haus, No. 992) now destroyed. They 
were lessons in 'strict counterpoint,' and the text- 
book was Fux's 'Gradus ad Parnassum.' Of 
Beethoven's exercises 245 have been preserved,® 
of which Haydn has corrected 42. Haydn was 
naturally much occupied, and it is not surprising 
that Beethoven should have been dissatisfied with 
his_ slow^ progress, and with the cursory way in 
which his exercises were corrected, and have se- 
cretly accepted the offer of additional instruction 
from Schenk, a well-known Vienna composer. 

> Thayer, Lebm. i. 237. 2 Ibid. i. 227 and 213. > Ibid. ii. 103. 

* Ibiil. i. 233, ' auf der Erd.' 5 ibid. j. 259. 

« Foi- all the exercises here mpniioned and an able faithful com- 
mentary, see iNuttebobm's invaluable edition ul' Beeihoien's Himiieyi 
Toi. i. 1373. 


But no open rupture as yet took place. Bee- 
thoven accompanied Haydn to Eisenstadt some 
time in 1793; a-nd it was not until Haydn's 
departure for England on Jan. 19, 94, that he 
openly transferred himself to another master. 
He then took lessons from Albrechtsberger in 
counterpoint, and from Schuppanzigh on the 
violin, three times a week each. In the former 
the text-book was Albrechtsberger's own 'An- 
weisung zur Composition,' and the subject was 
taken up where Haydn had left it, and pursued 
much farther. No less than 263 exercises are in 
existence under the following heads — Simple strict 
counterpoint ; Free composition in simple counter- 
point ; Imitation ; Simple fugue ; Fugued cho- 
rale ; Double fugue, with triple counterpoint in 
the 8th, loth, and 12th; Triple counterpoint and 
Triple fugue ; Canon. Nottebohm has pointed 
out the accuracy and pains which Albrechtsberger 
bestowed on his pupil, as well as' the care with 
which Beethoven wrote Lis exercises, and the 
characteristic way in which he neglected them in 
practice. He also gives his reasons for believing 
that the lessons did not last longer than March 
1795. The impression they left on Albrechts- 
berger was not flattering : ' Have nothing to 
do with him,' said the old contrapuntist to an 
enquiring lad, 'he has learnt nothing, and will 
never do anything in decent style.'* In fact 
what was a contrapuntist to do with a pupil who 
regarded everything in music — even consecutive 
fifths ^ — as an open question, and also thought it 
a good thing to 'learn occasionally what is 
according to rule, that one may hereafter come 
to what is contrary to rule ? ' ^^ Besides the 
lessons with Haydn and Albrechtsberger, some 
exercises exist in Italian vocal composition, dating 
from 1793 to 1802, and showing that Beethoven 
availed himself of Salieri's well-known kindness 
to needy musicians, to submit his pieces to him. 
Salieri's corrections are chiefly in the division of 
the Italian syllables. Another musician whom 
he consulted, especially in his early attempts at 
quartet writing, was Aloys Forster, to whom he 
remained long and greatly attached.^^ 

Meantime Beethoven kept up communication 
with Bonn. On Dec. 18, 92, his poor father died, 
and the 100 thalers applied to the support of his 
brothers naturally stopped. On Beethoven's ap- 
plication, however, the grant was allowed to go 
on, in addition to his own pay. Eies drew and 
transmitted the money for him.'^ The Breunings 
still held their place in his heart; two letters to 
Eleonore, full of affection, are preserved, and he 
mentions having also written twice to one resident 
of Bonn, and three times to another, in the 
course of the first twelvemonth. In January 
1794 the Elector visited Vienna, and with the 
March quarter-day Beethoven's allowance ceased. 
In the following October the Emperor declared 
war with France, Bonn was taken possession of 
by the republican army, and the Elector fled, 

' Nottebohm, Bfelhovmi's SlKdien, p. 196. 

8 Dolezalek, in Thayer, ii. 117. 

9 KiPS. fSiorirfiphiaclie Noliten, p. CT. 

1 ' Tze. uy, qu^ t -d in no'e to Lady Wallace's edition of the Laten, 
ii. 12. 11 Thayer, i. 281. ^ Ibid. '£& 2a7. 


Now that Beethoven is landed in Vienna — as 
it turns out, never again to leave it — and is left 
to his own resources, it may be convenient to 
pause in the narrative of his life, and sketch his 
character and person as briefly as possible. He 
had ah-eady a large acquaintance among the aris- 
tocracy of Vienna. Among his kindest friends 
and most devoted admirers were the Prince and 
Princess Karl Lichnowsky. They devoured his 
music, gave him a quartet of valuable instru- 
ments * for the performance of it, put up with his 
caprices and eccentricities, gave him an annuity 
of £60, and made him an inmate of their house 
for years. He was also frequently at the houses 
of Baron van Swieten, Prince Lobkowitz, Count 
Fries, and other noblemen, at once leaders of 
fasliion and devoted amateurs. At these houses 
he was in the constant habit of playing, and in 
many of them no doubt he taught, but as to the 
solid results of this no record remains — nor do we 
know the, prices which he obtained for his pub- 
lished works, or the value of the dedications, at 
this period of his career. Musical public, like that 
which supported the numerous concerts flourish- 
ing in London at this date,^ and enabled Salomon 
to risk the expense of bringing Haydn to Eng- 
land, there was none ; musicians were almost 
directly dependent on the appreciation of the 

That Beethoven should have been so much 
treasured by the aristocracy of Vienna notwith- 
Btanding his personal drawbacks, and notwith- 
standing the gap which separated the nobleman 
from the roturier, shows what an inmiense power 
there must have been in his genius, and in the 
absolute simplicity of his mind, to overcome the 
abruptness of his manners. If we are to believe 
the anecdotes of his contemporaries his sensitive- 
ness was extreme, his temper ungovernable, and 
his mode of expression often quite unjustifiable. 
At the house of Count Browne, when playing a 
duet with Ries, a young nobleman at the other end 
of tlie room persisted in talking to a lady : several 
attempts to quiet him having failed, Beethoven 
suddenly lifted Ries's hands from the keys, say- 
ing in a loud voice 'I play no longer for such 
hogs ' ; nor would he touch another note nor allow 
Eies to do so, though entreated by aU.^ On another 
occasion, when living in the house and on the 
bounty of the Lichnowskys, the prince, knowing 
how sensitive Beethoven was to neglect, ordered 
his servants whenever they heard Beethoven's 
bell and his at the same time to attend to Bee- 
thoven's first. No sooner however did Beethoven 
discover that such an order had been given than 
he engaged a servant of his own to answer his 
bell.* During one of the rehearsals of ' Leonora,' 
the third bassoon was absent, at which Beethoven 
was furious. Prince Lobkowitz, one of his best 
friends, tried to laugh off" the matter, saying that 
as the first and second were there the absence 
of the third could not be of any great consequence. 

' The«« were In his possewlon for more than 20 years, and are now In 
the Bibliothek at B*rlln. Tohl. JMrrder^rhl <i,t ConsmuloriKou 4c. 
p. IB. » See I'ohl, a.i.v.fn in ;.<m.(./ii, 7— W. ' RIes. p. 92. 

* S«e also the Letter to Zmeikall on the Countess ErdoJjr's Influence 
STei her servant ; Nubl, Brie/e Ikelhomu, Ho. oi. 



But so implacable was Beethoven that in crossing- 
the Platz after the rehearsal he could not resist 
running to the great gate of the Lobkowitz Palace 
and shouting up the entrance,^ ' Lobkowitzscher 
Esel' — 'ass of a Lobkowitz.' Any attempt to 
deceive him, even in the most obvious pleasantry, 
he could never forgive. When he composed the 
well-known 'Andante in F' he plaj'ed it to 
Ries and Krumpholz. It delighted them, and 
with difficulty they induced him to repeat it. 
From Beethoven's house Ries went to that of 
Prince Lichnowsky, and not being able to contain 
himself played what he could recollect of the new 
piece, and the Prince being equally delighted, it 
was repeated and repeated till he too could play 
a portion of it. The next day the Prince by way 
of a joke asked Beethoven to hear something 
which he had been composing, and thereupon 
played a large portion of his own 'Andante,' 
Beethoven was furious ; and the result was that 
Ries was never again allowed to hear him play in 
private. In fact it led in the end to Beethoven's 
ceasing to play to the Prince's circle of friends.* 
And on the other hand, no length of friendship 
or depth of tried devotion prevented him from 
treating those whom he suspected, however un- 
justly, and on however insufficient grounds, in 
the most scornful manner. Ries has ^ described 
one such painful occurrence in his own case k pro- 
po-i to the Westphalian negotiations ; but all his 
friends suff'ered in turn. Even poor Schindler, 
whose devotion in spite of every drawback was so 
constant, and who has been taunted with having 
'delivered himself body and soul to Beethoven,' 
had to suff'er the most shameful reproaches be- 
hind his back, the injustice of which is most surely 
proved by the fact that they are dropped as 
suddenly as they were adopted.* When Moritz 
Lichnowsky, Schuppanzigh, and Schindler were 
doing their utmost to get over the difficulties of 
arranging a concert for the performance of the 
Choral Symphony and the Mass in D, he 
suddenly suspected them of some ulterior pur- 
pose, and dismissed them with the three following 
notes : ' — ' To Count Lichnowsky. Falsehoods 
I despise. Visit me no more. There will be 
no concert. Beethoven.' 'To Herr Schindler. 
Visit me no more till I send for you. No concert. 
Beethoven.' ' To Herr Schuppanzigh. Visit me 
{hexiirhe er mich) no more. I give no concert. 

The style of the last of these three precious 
productions — the third person singular ^in which 
the very lowest rank only is addressed, seems to 
open us a little door into Beethoven's feeling 
towards musicians. When Hummel died, two 
notes from Beethoven'" were found among his 
papers, which tell the story of some sudden 
violent outbreak on Beethoven's j'art. ' Komme 
er (^the same scornful style as before) nicht mehr 
zu niir ! er ist ein falscher Hund, und falsche 
Hunde hole der Schinder. Beethoven.' And 
though this was followed by an apology couched 
in the most ultra-affiectionate and coaxing terms — 

» Thayer. 11. 2»>. «nie».p.]02. Tnild.p.(lfi. « Schindler, U. 6f. 
• gee Jiritfe, Kos. 278, 2iiU, 2M. >» Thayer, 11. M. 



* Herzens Natzerl,' ' Dich kiisst dein Beethoven,' 
and so on — yet the impression must have remained 
on Hummel's mind. There can be no doubt that 
he was on bad terms with most of the musicians 
of Vienna. With Haydn he seems never to have 
been really cordial. The old man's neglect of his 
lessons embittered him, and when after hearing 
his first three Trios, Haydn, no doubt in sincerity, 
advised him not to publish the third, which 
Beethoven knew to be the best, it was diificult 
to take the advice in any other light than as 
prompted by jealousy, True he dedicated his 
three Pianoforte Sonatas (op. 2) to Haydn, and 
they met in the concert-room, but there are no 
signs of cordial intercourse between them after 
Beethoven's first twelve months in Vienna. In 
fact they were thoroughly antagonistic. Haydn, 
though at the head of living composers, and as 
original a genius as Beethoven himself, had 
always been punctilious, submissive, subservient 
to etiquette. Beethoven was eminently in- 
dependent and impatient of restraint. It was 
the old world and the new — De Brdzd and Mira- 
beau ' — and it was impossible for them to agree. 
They probably had no open quarrel, Haydn's 
tact would prevent that, but Haydn nick-named 
him ' the Great Mogul,' and Beethoven retorted 
by refusing to announce himself as ' Haydn's ^ 
scholar,' and when they met in the street their 
remarks were unfortunate, and the antagonism 
was but too evident. 

For Salieri, Eybler, Gyrowetz, and Weigl, 
able men and respectable contrapuntists, he had 
a sincere esteem, though little more intimate 
feeling. Though he would not allow the term 
as regarded Haydn, he himself left his char- 
acteristic visiting card on Salieri's table as his 
' scholar ' — ' Der Schuler Beethoven war da.' ^ But 
with the other musicians of Vienna, and the 
players of his own standing, Beethoven felt 
no restraint on open war.* They laughed at his 
eccentricities, his looks and his Bonn dialect, * 
made game of his music, and even trampled * on 
it, and he retorted both with speech and hands. 
The pianoforte -players were Hummel, Woelffl, 
Lipawsky, Gelinek, Steibelt. Steibelt had dis- 
tinctly challenged him,' had been as thoroughly 
beaten as a man could wish, and from that day 
forward would never again meet him. Gelinek, 
though equally vanquished, compensated himself 
by listening to Beethoven on all occasions, and 
stealing his phrases * and harmonies, while Bee- 
thoven retorted by engaging his next lodging 
where Gelinek could not possibly come within 
the sound of his piano. WoelfH and Hummel 
were openly pitted against him, and no doubt 
there were people to be found in Vienna in 1 795, 
as there are in London in 1876, to stimulate 
such rivalry and thus divide artists whom a 

> Carlyle's French Sgvnhilion, bk. v. ch. 2. 2 Eies, p. 86. 

3 Ahs Moschel'fs' Lrhen, i.lO. 

' He calls them his ' deadly enemies.' Letter to Eleanore von 
Breuning, Nov. 2. 93. a Thayer, ii. 55. 

6 Kozeluch, see Thayer, ii. 108. Eomberg did the same thing some 
years later ; and see Spohr's curious story of him, Selbstbiog, i. 85. 

* See the story in Ries, p. 81. 

" Letter to Eleonore v. Breuning, Nov. 2, 1793, with Wegeler's 
remarks, B. Notizetit p. 59, 


little care might have united. Hummel is said 
to have excelled him in clearness, elegance, and 
purity, and Woelffl's proficiency in counterpoint 
was great, and his huge hands gave him ex- 
traordinary command of the keys ; but for fire, 
and imagination, and feeling, and wealth of ideas 
in extempore playing, none of them can have ap- 
proached Beethoven. 'His improvisation,' says 
Czerny,' ' was most brilliant and striking ; in 
whatever company he might chance to be, he 
knew how to produce such an effect upon every 
hearer, that frequently not an eye remained dry, 
while many would break out into loud sobs ; for 
there was something wonderful in his expression, 
in addition to the beauty and originality of his 
ideas, and his spirited style of rendering them,' 
He extemporised in regular ' form,' and his 
variations — when he treated a theme in that 
way — were not mere alterations of figure, but 
real developments and elaborations of the subject, 
' No artist,' says Eies,"^ ' that I ever heard came 
at all near the height which Beethoven attained 
in this branch of playing. The wealth of ideas 
which forced themselves on him, the caprices to 
which he surrendered himself, the variety of 
treatment, the diiBculties, were inexhaustible.' 
Even the Abb^ Vogler's admirers were compelled 
to admit as much.^^ He required much pressing, 
often actual force, to get him to the piano, and 
he would make a grimace or strike the keys with 
the back of his hand *^ as he sat down ; but when 
there he would extemporise for two hours and 
even more at a time, and after ending one of his 
great improvisations, he would burst into a roar 
of laughter, and banter his hearers on their 
emotions. 'We artists,' he would say, 'don't 
want tears, we want applause.' *' At other times 
he would behave as if insulted by such indications 
of sympathy, and call his adniirers fools, and 
spoiled children. 

And yet no outbursts of this kind seem to 
have made any breach in the regard with which 
he was treated by the nobility — the only un- 
professional musical society of Vienna. Certainly 
Beethoven was the first musician who had ever 
ventured on such independence, and there was 
possibly something piquant in the mere novelty ; 
but the real secret of his lasting influence must 
have been the charm of his personality — his 
entire simplicity, joined to his prodigious genius. 
And he enjoyed good society. ' It is good,' said 
he, ' to be with the aristocracy ; but one must be 
able to impress them.' ^ 

This personal fascination acted most strongly 
on his immediate friends — on Krumpholz (,who 
seems to have played the part of Coleridge's 
humble follower John Chester'*), on the some- 
what cold and self-possessed Breuning, as well as 
on Ries, Zmeskall, Schindler, Holz, and others, 
who had not, like Haslinger or Streicher, any- 
thing to gain from him, but who suffered his 

» Thayer, Ii. 10. 

10 Czerny gives the various forms of his improvisations. Thayer. i{. 
347. " A'o<i2eii. P.IOO. - Thayer, ii. 2.36. " ibid. ii. 349. 312. 

I* Conversation with Bettina. Thayer, ii. 13. '5 Ibid. ii. 313. 

16 ' One of those who were attracted to Coleridge as flies to buney, or 
bees to the sound of a brass pan." Uazlitt, in The Liberul, 


(roughest words and most scurvy treatment, and 
; returned again and again to their worship with 
I astonishing constancy. Excepting Breuning none 
' of these seem really to have had his confidence, 
or to have known anything of the inner man 
i which lay behind the rough husk of his exterior, 
juid yet they all clung to him as if they had. 
I Of his tours cle force in performance too much 
lis perhaps made in the books. His transposing 
I the Concerto in C into CJ at rehearsal was 
exactly repeated by ' Woelffl ; while his playing 
the piano parts of his Horn Sonata, his Kreutzer 
Sonata, or his C minor Concerto without book, 
3r difficult pieces of Bach at first sight, is no 
more than has been done by Mozart, Mendelssohn, 
Stemdale Bennett, and many inferior artists. 
No, it was no quality of this kind that got him 
;he name of the 'giant among players'; but the 
oftiness and elevation of his style, and his great 
50wer of expression in slow movements, which 
vhen exercised on his own noble music fixed his 
learers and made them insensible to any faults 
)f polish or mere mechanism. 

It was not men alone who were attracted by him, 
le was an equal favourite with the ladies of the 
3ourt. The Princess Lichnowsky watched over 
lim — as Madame von Breuning had done — like 
I mother.^ The Countesses Gallenberg and Er- 
lody. the Princess Odescalchi, the Baroness 
Ertmann, the sisters of the Count of Bruns- 
wick, and many more of the reigning beauties 
>f Vienna adored him, and would bear any 
udeness from him. These young ladies went 
io his lodgings or received him at their 
)alaces as it suited him. He would storm at 
he least inattention during their lessons, and 
vould tear up the music and throw it about.^ 
3e may have used the snuffers as a toothpick in 
Vladame Ertmann's drawing-room ; but when 
ihe lost her child he was admitted to console 
ler; and when Mendelssohn saw her* fifteen 
/cars later she doted on his memory and recalled 
.he smallest traits of his character and behaviour. 
ie was constantly in love, and though his taste 
vas very promiscuous,' yet it is probably quite 
rue that the majority of his attachments was for 
vomen of rank, and that they were returned or 
uflFered, Unlike poor Schubert, whose love for 
he Countess Marie Esterhazy was so carefully 
ioncealed, Beethoven made no secret of his 
ittachments. Many of them are perpetuated in 
.he dedications of his sonatas. That in Eb (op. 7), 
ledicated to the Countess Babette de Keglevics, 
vas called in allusion to him and to her, ' die 
'erliebte.' To other ladies he writes in the most 
ntimate, nay affectionate style. He addresses 
.he Baroness Ertmann by her Christian name 
v8 'Liebe, werthe, Dorothea Cacilia,' and the 
-!ountes8 Erdody — whom he called his confessor 
—as 'Liebe, liebe, liebe, liebe, liebe, Griifin.'" 
Thayer's investigations^ have destroyed the ro- 

< Thajer, II. 26. 

' ' Slie would hare put me under a Bla» c&'w If she could,' said 
leetlioven. s Countess (jallenberg, In Thajer. II. 1?2. 

* Letterof July 14, 1831. 

' See the anecdote In Thayer. 11. 104: and Eles's rennark about the 
allor'j^laughters, Nolizm. p. 119. 

<> MuUl, i\tue Ilrir/e, Mo. ISO. 1 Bee rol. II. ICC. etc 



mance of his impending marriage with Giulietta 
Guicciardi (atterwards Countess Gallenberg) ; 
yet the fact that the story has been so long 
believed shows its abstract probability. One 
thing is certain, that his attachments were all 
honourable, and that he had no taste for im- 
morality. ' Oh God ! let me at last find her who 
is destined to be mine, and uho thall atrenythtn 
me in virtue.^ Those were his sentiments as to 
wedded love. 

His dedications have been mentioned. The 
practice seems virtually to have begun with 
him," to have sprung from the equal and in- 
timate relation in which he — earliest among 
musicians — stood to his distinguished friends ; 
and when one looks down the list," from op. i to 
op. 135 — unsurpassed even by any later composer 
— and remembers that the majority were inspired 
by private fi-iendship,^" and that only a minority 
speak of remuneration, it is impossible not to be 

Formal religion he apparently had none ; his 
religious observances were on a par with his 
manners. It is strange that the Bible does not 
appear to have been one of his favourite bo .ks. 
He once says to a friend," ' It happens to be 
Sunday, and I will quote you something out of 
the Gospel — Love one another ' ; but such 
references are very rare. But that he was really 
and deeply religious, 'striving sacredly to fulfil 
all the duties imposed '^ on him by humanity, 
God, and nature,' and full of trust in God, love 
to man, and real humility, is shown by many and 
many a sentence in his letters. And that in 
moments of emotion his thoughts turned up- 
wards is touchingly shewn by a fragment of a 
hymn — 'Gott allein ist unser Herr' — which 
Mr. Nottebohm'^ has unearthed from a sketch- 
book of the year 1818, and which Beethoven 
has himself noted to have been written, ' Auf 
dem Wege Abends zwischen den und auf den 
Bergen.' The following passages, w^hich he 
copied out himself and kept constantly before 
him, served him as a kind of Creed, and sum up 
his theology : — • 

I am that which is. 

I am all that is, that was, and that shall be. 
No mortal man hath lifted my veil. 

He is alone by Himself, and to Him alone do 
all things owe their being. 

How he turned his theology into practice is 
well exemplified in his alteration of Moscheles' 
pious inscription. At the end of his arrange- 
ment of Fidelio Moscheles had written ' Fine. 
With God's help.' To this Beethoven added^ 
' man, help thyself.' " 

In his early Vienna days he attempted to dress 

s Mozart's six quartets are dedlcateil to Ilaydn, but this Is quite ta 
exccpi Inn. Ilaydn dedicated a Sonata or two In Loudon, but it was not 
I)Ih practice. 

9 As given In Nottebohm's Thrmatitrhei Veneichnitn. Anhang Iv. c. 

>" In dedicating opus 90 to I'rlncc Moritz Llchnowsliy lie says, that 
' anything approaching a gift In return would only distress him. and 
that he sliould decidedly refuse it.' See also the letter to Ziueslull 
(Dec. IG. 181fii dedicating op. 95. 

'1 l"rau Streiclier, Brit/e, No. 200. 

13 Letter to Archd. Kodolph. July 18, 1821. 

" AV«r Beelhoveniana, No.VIL 

l« Uoscheles, Ltbm, 1. 18. 


in the fashion, wore silk stockings, perruque, long 
boots, and sword, carried a double eye-glass and a 
seal-ring. But dress must have been as unbearable 
to him'^ as etiquette, and it did not last; 'he 
was meanly dressed,' says one of his adorers, 
' and very ugly to look at, but full of nobility and 
fine feeling, and highly cultivated.'^ Czerny 
first saw him in his own room, and there his 
beard was nearly half an inch long, his black 
hair stood up in a thick shock, his ears were 
filled with wool which had apparently been 
soaked in some yellow substance, and his clothes 
were made of a loose hairy stuff, which gave 
him the look of Eobinson Crusoe. But we know 
that he never wore his good clothes at home ;^ 
at any rate the impression he usually made was 
not so questionable as this. Those who saw him 
for the first time were often charmed by the 
eager cordiality of his address, and by the absence 
of the bearishness and gloom* which even then 
were attributed to him. His face may have been 
ugly, but all admit that it was remarkably ex- 
pressive. When lost in thought and abstracted 
his look would naturally be gloomy, and at such 
times it was useless to expect attention from 
him ; but on recognising a friend his smile was 
peculiarly genial and winning.' He had the 
breadth of jaw which distinguishes so many 
men of great intellect ; the mouth firm and de- 
termined, the lips protruded with a look almost 
of fierceness: but his eyes were the special feature 
of the face, and it was in them that the earnestness 
and sincerity of his character beamed forth. They 
were black, not large but bright, and when 
under the influence of inspiration — the raptusoi 
Madame von Breuning— they dilated in a peculiar 
•way. His head was large, the forehead both high 
and broad, and the hair abundant. It was 
originally black, but in the last years of his life, 
though as thick as ever, became quite white, 
and formed a strong contrast to the red colour ^ 
of his complexion. Beard or moustache he never 
wore. His teeth were very white and regular, 
and good up to his death ;' in laughing he 
shewed them much. The portraits and busts 
of Beethoven are with few exceptions more or 
less to blame ; they either idealise him into a 
sort of Jupiter Olympus, or they rob him of all 
expression. It must have been a difficult face 
to take, because of the constant variety in its 
expression, as well as the impatience of the 
sitter. The most trustworthy "likenesses are 
(i) the miniature by Hornemann, taken in i8:3, 
and photogi-aphed in Breuning's 'Schwarzspa- 
nierhaus' (, Vienna, 1874) ; (2) the head by l.e- 
tronne, engraved by Hofel, and (badly) by Kiedel 
for the A. M. Z., 1817 ; (3) the little full length 

1 • It Is no object to me to have my hair dressed," says he, a propos 
to a servant who possessed that accomplishment, Feb. 2.5. 1813. 

'^ Countess Cialleuberg, in Thayer, ii. 172. ^ Letter of June 16. 1S25. 

« Spohr, Sdbsilnoii. 198. E. B.. in Ihayer ii. 297. ■ 

6 Eochlitz, -Fiir Fyemide d. Tonlmnst, iv. SM ; and the charming 
account (by a niece of Dr. Burney) in the Harvwnicon, Dec. 1825. 

6 ?ir Julius Benedict's recollection. 

7 Breuniug, Aus dem SrlnvarzsjxntierhauSt p. G7. 

8 I heartily wish it were in my power to give these two portraits, so 
full of character and so unlike the ordinary engravings. The fi rst of 
the two has a special interest as having been sent by Beethoven to 
Breuning as a pledge of reconciliation. See the letter, p. 192. 


sketch by Lyser, to the accuracy of which Breui 
ing expressly testifies, except that the hat slioul 
be straight on the head, not at all on one side 

He was below the middle height— not more th 
5 feet 5 inches ; but broad across tie shoulde 
and very firmly built— 'the image of strength, 
His hands were much covered with hair, thefinge 
strong and short (he could barely span a tenth 
and the tips broad, as if pressed out with lo. 
practising from early youth. He was ve: 
particular as to the mode of holding the haa 
and placing the fingers, in which he was 
follower of Emanuel Bach, whose Method he er 
ployed in his earlier days. In extempore playii 
he used the pedal far more than one wou 
expect from his published sonatas, and this^ma 
his quick playing confused, but in Adagios . 
played with divine clearness and expression 
His attitude at the piano was perfectly quiet ai 
dignified, with no approach to grimace, except 
bend down a little towards the keys as his deafne 
increased.'^ This is remarkable, because as 
conductor his motions were most extravagant 
At a x>ianissimo he would crouch down so as 
be hidden by the desk, and then as the crescen 
increased, would gradually rise, beating allt 
time, until at the fortissin.o he would sprLag in 
the air with his arms extended as if wishing 
float on the clouds. When, as was sometiir 
the case after he became deaf, he lost his plai 
and these motions did not coincide with t 
music, the effect was very unfortunate, thou 
not so unfortunate as it would have been h 

3 Seyfried, Biorir. Notizfn, 13.—' In that limited space was cono 
trated the plnck of twenty battalions.'— Eo(/;di. ch. xviii. 
HI Czerney, in Thayer, ii. 34S. " Thayer, n. 23«, 

u Seyfried, p. 17, confirmed by Spohr, Sdhslhiog. i. 'iOl. 


himself been aware of the mistake. In the 
ihestra, as at the piano, he was urgent in 
manding ex{)res8ion, exact attention to jiiaiio 
d forte, and the slightest shades of niiaucc, 
1 to temiio rubato. Generally speaking he 
i8 extremely courteous to tlie band, thou.Lch 
this rule there were now and then exceptions. 
lOUgh so easily made angry his jiains as a 
icher must have been great. ' Unnaturally 
tient,' says one pupil,' ' he would have a pas- 
je repeated a dozen times till it was to his 
nd" ; 'infinitely strict in the smallest detail,' 
fa another,''' ' until the right rendering was 
tained.' 'Comparatively careless' as to the 
ht notes being plavfd, but angry at once at 
y failure in expression or nuance, or in ap- 
jhension of the character of the piece ; saying 
it the first might be an accident, but that 
3 other showed want of knowledge, or feeling, 
attention.' What his practice was as to re- 
meration does not appear, but it is certain 
it in some cases he would accept no pay from 
i pupils. 

His simplicity and absence of mind were now 
d then oddly shown. He could not be brought 
understand why his standing in his nightshirt 
the open window should attract notice, and 

<ed with perfect simplicity ' what those d d 

ys were hooting at.'* At Penzing in 1823 he 
aved at his window in full view, and when the 



people collected to see him, changed his lodging 
rather than forsake the practice.* Like Newton 
he was unci>nscious that he had not dined, and 
urged on the waiter paymtnt for a meal which 
he had neither ordered nor eaten. He forgot 
that he was the owner of a horse until recalle 1 
to the fact by a long bill for its keep. In fact 
he was not made for practical life ; never couhl 
play at cards or dance, dropped everything that 
he took into his hands, and overthrew the ink 
into the piano. He cut himself horribly in 
shaving. "A disorderly creature' i^eiii unordent- 
licher Mensch) was his own description, and ' ein 
konfuser Kerl' that of his doctor,'' who wi.sely 
added the saving clause ' though he may still be 
the greatest genius in the world.' His ordinary 
handwriting was teiTible, and supplied him with 
many a joke. ' Yesterday I took a letter myself 
to the post office, and was asked where it w.,» 
meant to go to. From which I see that my 
writing is as often misunderstood as I am myself.'' 
It was the same twenty j'ears before — ' this cursed 
writing that I cannot alter.'* Much of his 
difficulty probably arose from want of pens, 
which he often begs firom Ziueskall and Breun- 
ing ; for some of his MSS. " are aS clear and 
flowing as those of Mozart, and there is a truly 
noble character in the writing of some of his 
letters, e.g. that to Mr. Broad wood »^see p. iy4J, 
of which we give the signature. 

Notwithstanding his illegible hand Beethoven 
ta a considerable letter writer. The two col- 
Jtions published by Nohl contain 721, and 
eee are probably not more than half of those 

wrote.'" Not a large numl.)er when compared 
th thos3 of Mendelssohn or even Mozart — both 

whom died so early, — but large under all the 
'cumstances. 'Good letters' they camiot be 
lied. They contain no descriptions or graces 

style ; they are often clumsy and inc rrect. 
at they are also often eminently interesting 
)m being so brimful! of the writer's personality, 
ley are all concerned with himself, his wants 
id wishes, his joys and sorrows ; sometimes 
ben they speak of his deafness or his ill health, 

confess his faults and appeal to the affection 

his correspondent, they overflow with feeling 
id rise into an aftecting eloquence, l)ut always 

the point. Of these, tlie letters to VVegeler 
id Eleanore von Breuning, and that to his 
•others (called his 'Will'), are fine specimens, 
any of those addressed to his nephew are inex- 
essibly touching. But his letters are often very 

• Bles, p. 94. » Countess Gallenberg, in Tbajer, 11. 172. 
» Kies. p. !>«. « lloscheles, LrLrn, 1. 17. 

• Breuning, p. «. » Tliayer, 11. MO. 
» Letier to icnieskall, Oct. 9, 1»13. 

short. Partly perhaps from his deafness, and 
partly from some idiosyncrasy, he would often 
write a note where a verbal question would seem 
to have been more convenient. One constant 
characteristic is the fun they contain. iSwift 
himself never made worse puns with more plea- 
sure, or devised queerer spelling" or more miser- 
able rhymes, or bestowed more nicknames on his 
friends. Krumpholz is 'my fool'; he himself is 
' the Generalissimus,' Haslinger 'the Adjutant,' 
Schindler 'the Samothracian ' and 'Pap:igeno'; 
Schuppanzigh is 'Falstaff' ; Bernard, 'Bernardus 
non ISanctus ' ; Leidesdorf is ' Dorf des Leides' ; 
Hoffmunn is adjured to be 'kein Hofmann,' 
Kiihlau is ' Kiihl nicht lau,' and so on. Nor 
are they always comuic il f<iut, as when he 
addresses Holz as ' lieber Holz vom Kreuze 
Christi,' or apostrophises ' Monsieur Friederich, 
nommo Liederlich,' Sometimes such names bite 
deeply : — his brother .1 ohaim is the ' Braineater,' 
' Pseudo-brother,' or ' Asinus,' and Caspar's widow 
the ' C^ueen of Night.' No one is spared, A 
canon to Count Moritz Lichnowsky runs ' Bester 

e Letter to Slmroclc. Aut'.2, 17!M. 

^ For Instance a MS. of the K (tat Concerto, formerly In possession of 
Mr. rowt!il. >" Thayer's two vols, coniain uiauj' not before published. 
U See ^Oi. ai6, 302 of Nolil's Itrir/t. 



Herr Graf, du bist ein Schaf.' The anecdote 
about his brother already alluded to is a case in 
point.' Johann, who lived on his own property, 
called on him on some jour dc fete, and left his 
card ■ Johann van Beethoven, Gutsbesitzer' (land 
proprietor), which Beethoven immediately re- 
turned after writing on the back 'L. van 
Beethoven, Hirnbesitzer ' (brain proprietor). 
This fondness for joking pervaded his talk 
also ; he liked a home-thrust, and delivered it 
with a loud roar of laughter. To tell the truth 
he was fond of horse-play, and that not alwa3'S 
in good taste. The stories — some of them told 
by himself — of his throwing books, plates, eggs, 
at the servants ; of his pouring the dish of stew 
over the head of the waiter who had served him 
wrongly ; of the wisp of goat's beard sent to the 
lady who asked him for a lock of his hair — are 
aU instances of it. No one had a sharper eye 
or ear for a joke when it told on another. He 
was never tired of retailing the delicious story of 
Simon the Bohemian tenor who in singing the 
sentence 'Auf was Art Elende' transformed it 
into ' Au ! fwa ! SarteUen Thee ! ' ^ But it must be 
confessed that his ear and his enjojmient were less 
keen when the joke was against himself. When 
at Berlin in 1 796 he interrupted Himmel in the 
middle of an improvisation to ask when he was 
going to begin in earnest. But when Hirmnel, 
months afterwards, wrote to him that the latest 
invention in Berlin was a lantern for the blind, 
Beethoven not only with characteristic simplicity 
did not see the joke, but when it was poinded out 
to him was furious, and would have nothing 
more to do with his correspondent. 

The simplicity which lay at the root of so 
many of his characteristic traits, while it gave 
an extraordinary force and freshness to much 
that he did and said, must often have been very 
inconvenient to those who had intercourse with 
him. One of his most serious quarrels arose 
from his divulging the name of a very old and 
intimate friend who had cautioned him privately 
against one of his brothers. He could see no 
reason for secresy ; but it is easy to imagine the 
embarrassment which such disregard of the ordinary 
rules of life must have caused. Rochlitz describes 
the impression he received from him as that of 
a very able man reared on a desert island, and 
suddenly brought fresh into the world. One 
little trait from Breuning's recollections ex- 
emplifies this — that after walking in the rain 
he would enter the living room of the house and 
at once shake the water from his hat all over 
the furniture, regardless, or rather quite unaware, 
of the damage he was doing. His ways of eating 
in his later years became quite unbearable. 

One fruitful source of difficulty in practical life 
was his lodgings. His changes of residence were 
innumerable during the first year or two of his 
life in Vienna ; it is iiiipos.iible to disentangle 
them. Shortly after his arrival the Lichnowskys 
took him into their house, and there for some 
years he bad nominally a jji'ed a terre ; but with 

» Schlndler (1st ed.) 121. 

s Thayer, ii. 227. 


all the indulcjence of the Prince and Print 
the restraint of being forced to dress for dim 
of attending to definite hours and definite ra 
was too much for him, and he appears very s< 
to have taken a lodging of his own in the to> 
which lodging he was constantly changing. 
1803, when an opera was contemplated, he 1 
free quarters at the theatre, which came to 
end when the house changed hands early in 18 
A few months later and he was again lodgec 
the theatre free. At Baron Pasqualati's houst 
the ramparts he had rooms — with a beauti 
look-out^ — which were usually kept for h 
where he would take refuge when composi 
and be denied to every one. But even 
this he had a separate and fresh quarter nea 
every winter.* In summer he hated the city, 
usually followed the Vienna custom of leav 
the hot streets for the delicious wooded envir 
of Hetzendorf, Heiligenstadt, or Dobling, at t! 
time little villages absolutely in the country, 
for Modling or Baden, further off. To this 
' looked forward with the delight of a child. 
No man on earth loves the country more. Woe 
trees, and rocks give the response which man 
quires.' ' Every tree seems to say Holy, ^ Ho! 
Here, as already remarked, he was out of do 
for hours together, wandering in the woods, 
sitting in the fork of a favourite lime-tree in 
Schonbrunn gardens * sketch-book in hand ; h 
his inspiration flowed, and in such circumstan 
the 'Mount of OUves,' 'Fidelio,' the ' Ero 
Symphony,' and the majority of his great wo: 
were sketched and re-sketched, and erased a 
re-written, and by slow degrees brought far 
to perfection. 

His difficulties with his lodgings are nol hard 
understand ; sometimes he quarrelled with th 
because the sun did not shine into the rooms, a 
he loved the light ; sometimes the landlord int 
fered. Like other men of genius whose appearai 
would seem to belie the fact, Beethoven was 
tremely fond of washing.'' He would pour wa 
backwards and forwards over his hands for a k 
time together, and if at such times a musi 
thought struck him and he became absorbed, 
would go on untU the whole floor was swimmii 
and the water had found its way through 1 
cieling into the room beneath. On one occas: 
he abandoned a lodging for which he had p; 
heavily in advance, because his landlord. Baa 
Pronay. insisted on taking oflT his hat to h 
whenever they met. One of the most moment* 
of his changes was in 1 804. After he was tun 
out of his lodgings at the theatre Beethoven a 
Stephen Breuning inhabited two sets of rooms 
a building called the Rothe Haus. As each 
was large enough for two, Beethoven soon ino\ 
into Breuning' s rooms, but neglected to give 1 
necessary notice to the landlord, and thus afte 
time found that he had both lodgings on 

3 Thayer, ii. 25S. 

• See the list for 1822. 3, and 4. In Breuning. 43-15. 

5 Letter to Mme. von Drossdick. Brie/e, Xo. 61 ; also to Archd. 
dolpli, May 27. 1813, and to Hauschka, Xo. 210. Xohl. Lehm, ii. 673. 

'' Tliayer, ii. 278. 

~ In a letter to Countess Erdddy accepting an invitatioD 
stipulates for ' a little bath room.' 


ndfl at once. The result was a violent quar- 
, which drove Beethoven off to Baden, and 
Hinged the two friends for a time. We have 
ethoven's version of the affair in two letters to 
es — July, and July 24, 1804 — angry implacable 
ters, but throwing a strong light on his cha- 
fer and circumstances, showing that it was 
1 the loss of the money that provoked him, but 
imputation of meanness; showing further that 
■e, as so often elsewhere, his brother was his 
1 genius ; and containing other highly interest- 
f personal traits. 

Besides the difficulties of the apartments there 

re those with servants. A man whose prin- 

les were so severe as to make him say of a 

vant who had told a falsehood that she was 

; pure at heart, and therefore could not ^make 

)d soup ; who punished his cook for the stale- 

e of the eggs by throwing the whole batch at 

• one by one, and who distrusted the expend- 

re of every halfpenny — must have had much to 

itend with in his kitchen. The books give 

I details on this subject, which need not be 

■eated, and indeed are more unpleasant to 

, itemplate than many other drawbacks and dia- 

sses of the life of this great man. ■ 

[n the earlier part of his career money was no 

ect to him, and he speaks as if his purse were 

rays open to his friends.^ But after the charge 

; his nephew was thrust upon his hands a great 

jj mge in this, as in other respects, came over 

i; a. After 1 8 1 3 complaints of want of money 

»und in his letters, and he resorted to all 

t isible means of obtaining it. The sum which 

had been enabled to invest after the congress 

considered as put by for his nephew, and 

srefore not to be touched, and he succeeded in 

intaining it till his death. 

[t is hard to arrive at any certain conclusion 

1 the nature and progress of Beethoven's deaf- 

(i IS, owing to the vagueness of the information. 

i SBculty of hearing appears first to have shown 

;lf about 1798 in singing and buzzing in his 

ji s, loss of power to distinguish words, though 

,, could hear the tones of voice, and great dislike 

ij mdden loud noise. It was even tlien a subject 

the greatest pain to his sensitive nature ; ^ 

e Byron with his club-foot he lived in morbid 

liad of his infirmity being observed, a temper 

ich naturally often kept him silent ; and when 

!W years later^ he found himself unable to hear 

! pipe of a peasant playing at a short, dis- 

jjice in the open air, it thi-ew him into the 

( jpest melancholy, and evoked the well-known 

D ter to his brother in 1802, which goes by the 

^ ne of his Will. Still many of the anecdotes 

his behavour in society show that during the 

. -ly years of the century his deafness was but 

f -tial ; and Ries, intimate as he was with his 

J ater, admits that he did not know it till told * 

J S. Breuning. It is obvious from Schindler's 

1 tenient that he must have been able to hear 

; yellowhammers in the trees above liim when 

■See Xohl. Ul,m, 111. Ml. 

l-etter to Wegeler, .lune 29, IWl. 

Letter- to Ameudft (180U): Wegeler, Juae 29 N'or.lG (1501). Bies, p.98. 

Ule>, p.il8. 



he was composing the Pastoral Symphony in 1807 
and 1808. A few facts may be mentioned bearing 
on the progress of the malady. In 1 805 he was 
able to judge severely of the nuances in the 
rehearsal of his opera. In 1807, 1809, 181 3 he 
conducted performances of his own works. In 
1 8 14 he played his B fiat trio — his last appearance 
in public in concerted music. From 1 8 1 6 to 1818 
he used an ear trumpet.' At the opening of the 
Josephstadt Theatre in 1822, he conducted the 
perfonnance — nearly to ruin it is true, but at the 
same time he was able to detect that the soprano 
was not singing in time, and to give her the 
necessary advice. A subsequent attempt (in 
Nov. 1822) to conduct 'Fidelio,' led to his hav- 
ing to quit the orchestra, when his mortification 
was so great that Schindler treats the occurrence 
as an epoch in his life.* At this time the hear- 
ing of the right ear was almost completely gone ; 
what he did hear — amongst other things a 
musical box' playing the trio in ' Fidelio,' and 
Cherubini's overture to ' INIedea ' — was with the 
left ear only. After this he conducted no more, 
though he stood in the orchestra at the per- 
formance of the ' Choral Symphony,' and had 
to be tuTEed round that he might see the applause 
which his music was evoking. From this to the 
end all communication with him was carried on 
by writing, for which purpose he always had a 
book of rough paper, with a stout pencil, at hand. 
The connexion between this cruel malady and 
the low tone of his general health was closer than 
is generally supposed. The post mortem examina- 
tion showed that the liver was shrunk to half its 
proper size, and was hard and tough like leather, 
with numerous nodules the size of a bean woven 
into its texture and appearing on its siu-face. 
There were also marks of ulceration of the 
pharynx, about the tonsils and Eustachian tubes. 
The arteries of the ears were athrumatous, and 
the auditory nerves — especially that of the right 
ear — were degenerated and to all ajipearance 
paralysed. The whole of these appearances are 
most probably the result of syphilitic affections 
at an early period of his life.* The pains in the 
head, indigestion, colic, and jaundice, of which 
he frequently complains, and the deep depression 
which gives the key to so many of his letters, 
would all follow naturally from the chronic in- 
flammation and atrophy implied by the state of 
the liver, and the digestive derangements to which 
it would give rise, aggravated by the careless way 
in which he lived, and by the bad food, hastily 
devoured, at irregular intervals, in which he 
too often indulged. His splendid constitution 
and his extreme fondness for the open air must 
have been of great as.sistance to him. How 
thoroughly he enjoyed the country we have al- 
ready seen, for, like Mendelssohn, he was a great 
walker, and in Vienna no day, however busy or 
however wet, passed without its 'constitutional' 
— a walk, or rather run, twice round the ramparts, 

» Schindler. 11. 170. • Ibid. 11. ' Ibid. 9. 

> Thl5 dIaffiiuMs. which I owe to the kindneu of my friend Dr. 
Lauder Dninton. 1» confirmed by the existence of two prescriptions, • ( 
wiilcli. since the passatie In the text was nritleii. I have beeu tuld bj 
Mr. Thayer, who heard of them from Dr. bartollul. 



a part of the city long since obliterated ; or far- 
ther into the environs. 

Beethoven was an early riser, and from the 
time he left his bed tiU dinner— which in those 
days was taken at, or shortly after, noon — the 
day was devoted to completing at the piano and 
writinf down the compositions which he had 
previously conceived and elaborated in his sketch- 
books, or in his head. At such times the noise 
which he made playing and roaring was some- 
thino- tremendous. He hated interruption while 
thus^ engaged, and would do and say the most 
horribly'rude things if disturbed. Dinner— when 
he remembered it — he took sometimes in his own 
room, sometimes at an eating-house, latterly at 
the house of his friends the Breunings ; and no 
sooner was this over than he started on his walk. 
He was fond of making appointments to meet on 
the glacis. The evening was spent at the theatre 
or in society. He went nowhere without his 
sketch-books, and indeed these seem to distin- 
guish him from other composers almost as much 
"as his music does. They are perhaps the most 
remarkable relic that any artist or literary man 
has left behind him. They afford us the most 
precious insight into Beethoven's method of com- 
position. They not only show — what we know 
from his own admission — that he was in the 
habit of working at three, and even four, things 
at once,' but without them we should never 
realise how extremely slow and tentative he was 
in composing. Audacious and impassioned be- 
yond every one in extemporisi