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Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 


Prof. Harvey Olnick 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2007 








(A.D. 1450-1889) 















{The Right of Translation and Reproduction is reserved.} 



Tlih Dictionanj was originally published between the dates 1877 and 1889, and the Pa)is 
have since been reprinted from plates, mth corrections as required. 



The general aims and intentions of the Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians were stated in the Preface to Volume I., and need not be 
repeated here. The work now appears before the public in a complete 
form. The large demand for it, which has gone on steadily increasing, 
not only in this country and the United States of America, but on the 
Continent of Europe, shows that on the whole the book has fulfilled the 
intentions with which it started. Shortcomings there will always be in 
^ a work of this description, arising from inexperience, from the progress 
• of the general subject, or from deaths of old musicians and arrivals of 
new ones ; but it is hoped that these have been met by the Appendix 
promised at the outset. For this very important part of the undertaking 
the Editor has secured the able co-operation of the gentleman whose 
name appears on the title-page of Volume IV., and who has been of 
signal assistance to him in a very trying portion of his work. To Mr. 
Fuller Maitland, and to all the other contributors to the Dictionary, who 
have so successfully and so cheerfully laboured throughout the long 
course of its publication, the Editor here returns his heartfelt thanks for 
their valuable assistance ; and embraces the opportunity to express his 
pride and pleasure at having had the aid of so distinguished an array 
of workers. To the publishers he offers his sincere acknowledgements 
for much patience, and many a friendly act. 

It would be invidious to single out special articles in addition to 
those already mentioned, where all have been written with such devotion 
and intelligence ; but the Editor cannot help mentioning, amongst many 
others, the long articles on Schumann, Spontini, and Weber, by Dr. Spitta 
of Berlin ; on Sonata, Symphony, and Variations, by Dr. Hubert Parry ; 
on Song, by Mrs. Edmond Wodehouse ; on Scotish Music, by Mr. J. Muir 
Wood; on Wagner, by Mr. Dannreuther; on the Organ, by Mr. E. J. 
Hopkins ; the Piano by Mr. Hipkins ; the Violin by Mr. Payne ; and 
those on Schools of Composition, and other historical subjects, by Mr. W. S. 

A copious Index of the whole four volumes has been prepared by 
Mrs. Wodehouse, and will shortly be published in a separate volume. 

29 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 
Easter, 1889. 


Addison F. Andeews, Esq., New York 

Gael Aembeustee 

David Baptie, Esq., Glasgow . . 

James E. Steendale-Bennett, Esq 

E. H. M. BosANQUET, Esq. 

Kev. H. E. Beamlet 

HoEATio F. Beown, Esq. 

De. Heemann Budy 

Hon. Mes. Bueeell 

Mes. Waltee Caeb 

"William Chappell, Esq., F.S.A. 

Alexis Chitty, Esq. 

M. GusTAVE Chouquet, Keeper of the Museum of the Con 

servatoire de Musique, Paris 
Arthue Duke Coleeidge, Esq., Barrister-at-Law . . 
Feedeeick Coedee, Esq., Mendelssohn Scholar, 1875-79 
Geoege Aethur Crawford, Major 
William H. Cummings, Esq. .. 
"W. G. CusiNS, Esq., Conductor of the Philharmonic Society 

Master of the Music to the Queen 
Lionel Cust, Esq. 
Edward Danneeuther, Esq. .. 
Heee Paul David 
John Hunter Davie, Esq. 

A. F. A. 

C. A. 

D. B. 

J. E. S.-B. 

H. F. B. 
M. B. 
M. C. C. 

A. D. C. 
G. A. C. 
W. H. C. 

W. G. 0. 
L. C. 


James W. Davison, Esq. J.W. D. 

Hakry Collins Deacon, Esq. . . . . . . . . , . H. C. D. 

Db. Alfbed Dobffel, Leipzig. . . . . . . . , . A. D. 

Edwabd H. Donkin, Esq E.H. D. 

Clabence Eddy, Esq. . . . . . . , . . . . . C. E. 

H. Suthebland Edwabds, Esq. H. S. E. 

Louis Engel, Esq. . . L. E. 

Herb Max Feiedlandbb, Berlin . . . . . . . . M. F. 

Henby Fbedeeick Fbost, Esq., Organist of the Chapel Royal, Savoy H. F. F. 

J. A. FuLLEB Maitland, Esq. . . J. A. F.-M., or in Appendix M. 

John T. Fyfe, Esq J.T.F. 

Chables Allan Fyffe, Esq., Barrister-at-Law . . . . C. A. F. 

Db. Fbanz Gehbing, Vienna . . . . . . . . . . F. G. 

S. B. GosLiN, Esq S. B. G. 

J. C. Gbiffith, Esq. . . J. C. G. 

Rev. Thomas Helmobe, Master of the Children of the Chapels Royal T. H. 

William Hendebson, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . "W. H. 

Geobge Hebbebt, Esq. . . . . • • , . . . G. H. 

Db. Febdinand Hillee, Cologne .» ,. .. .. H. 

A. J. HiPKiNS, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. J. H. 

Edwabd John Hopkins, Esq., Organist to the Temple . . E. J. H. 

Rev. T. Percy Hudson T.RH. 

Fbancis Hueffeb, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . F. H. 

A. Hughes-Hughes, Esq. .. .. .. .. .. A.H.-H. 

John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. . . . . . . . . . . J. H. 

W. Hume, Esq W. He. 

William H. Husk, Esq., Librarian to the Sacred Harmonic Society W. H. H. 

F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, Mass., U.S.A F. H. J. 

MoNS. Adolphe Jullien, Paris . . . . . . . . A. J. 

J. A. Kappey, Esq. . . J. A. K. 

MoBTON Latham, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . M. L. 

James Lecky, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . J. L. 

R. B. Litchfield, Esq. , , , . , . . . , . R. B. L. 


Heney J. Lincoln, Esq. 

Stanley Lucas, Esq., Secretary to the Philharmonic Society 
Herb Feedinand Ludwig 
Hercules MacDonnell, Esq. .. 

Sir George Alexander Macfarren, Mus. Doc, Professor 
of Music in the University of Cambridge, &c., &c. .. 
Charles Mackeson, Esq., F.S.S. 
Herr a. Maczewski, Concert-director, Kaiserslautern 
Julian Marshall, Esq. 
Mrs. Julian Marshall 
EussEL Martineau, Esq. 


Eev. John Henry Mee, M.A., Mus. Bac. 

Miss Louisa M. Middleton 

Eev. J. E. Milne 

Edwin G. Monk, Esq., Mus. Doc, Organist of York Cathedral 

Mrs. Newmarch 

Sir Herbert S. Oakeley, Mus. Doc, Professor of Music at 

the University of Edinburgh 
Eev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., Mus. Doc, 

Professor of Music in the University of Oxford 
Henry Parr 

Walter Parratt, Esq., Mus. Bac. 
C. Hubert H. Parry, Esq., Mus. Doc. 
Here Ernst Pauer 

Edward John Payne, Esq., Barrister-at-Law 
Eev. Hugh Pearson, Canon of Windsor 
Edward H. Pember, Esq., Q.C. 
Miss Phillimore 
Here C. F. Pohl, Librarian to the Gesellschaft der Musik- 

freunde, Vienna .. 

William Pole, Esq., F.E.S., Mus. Doc 

E. PoLONASKi, Esq 

Victor de Pontigny, Esq. 


. J. 







. M. 

. D. 







, M. 
























H. S. O. 








C. H. H. 




J. P. 


■ P. 


H. P. 


M. P. 


F. P. 






DE P. 


Reginald Lane Poole, Esq 

Ebenezeb Prout, Esq. . . . . . • • • . . • . 

Rev. William Pulling 

Charles H. Purday, Esq. 

LuiGi Ricci, Esq. .. .. .. .. .. ., 

Edward F. Rimbault, Esq., LL.D. .. 

SiGNOR F. Rizzelli 

W. S. RocKSTRO, Esq. .. 

Desmond Lumley Ryan, Esq. . . 

Curt Schulz, Esq. 

Carl Siewers, Esq. 

T. L. Southgate, Esq. . . 

Dr. Philipp Spitta, Berlin : Professor in the University ; Se- 
cretary to the Royal Academy of Arts ; and Managing- 
Director of the Royal High-School for Music 

W. Barclay Squire, Esq. 

Sir John Staineb, Mus. Doc, Oxon. . . 

H. H. Statham, Esq. . . 

Charles Edward Stephens, Esq., F.C.O., Hon. Member 
R. A. M., &c 

Sib Robert P. Stewart, Mus. Doc, Professor of Music in 
Dublin University 

T. L. Stillie, Esq., Glasgow .. 

William H. Stone, Esq., M.D. 

J. Stuttaford, Esq. 

Sib Abthub Seymour Sullivan, Esq., Mus. Doc, Principal 
of the National Training School of Music 

Franklin Taylor, Esq. 

H. R. Tedder, Esq 

Alexandeb W. Thayer,, Esq., United States Consul, Trieste, 
Author of the Life of Beethoven 

Miss Bebtha Thomas . . 

John Thomas, Esq 

E. P. 

W. Pg. 

C. H. P. 

E. F. R. 

F. Rz. 
W. S. R. 

D. L. R. 
C. Sch. 


T. L. S. 

H. H. S. 


R. P. 8. 
W. H. 8. 

F. T. 


A. W. T, 





C. A. W. Teoyte, Esq. 

Colonel H. Ware, Public Library, Boston, Mass., U.S.A 

Frederick Westlake, Esq. . 

Mrs. Edmond Wodehouse 

J. MuiR Wood, Esq., Glasgow . 

h. e. wooldridge, esq. 

The Editor 

A. H. W. 
J. M. W. 
H. E. W. 




SUMER IS ICUMEN IN (continued from 
Tol. iii. p. 768). 

While receiving with due respect the judg- 
ment of the writers already quoted, we cannot but 
feel that, in most cases, their authority is weak- 
ened, almost to worthlessness, by the certainty 
that it rests on evidence collected entirely at 
second-hand. Neither Forkel, de Coussemaker, 
nor Ambros, ever saw the original document ; 
their statements, therefore, tend rather to confuse 
than to enlighten the enquirer. Still, great as 
are the anomalies with which the subject is sur- 
rounded, we do not believe them to be irrecon- 
cileable. Some critics have trusted to the peculiar 
counterpoint of the Rota, as the only safe guide 
to its probable antiquity. Others have laid 
greater stress upon the freedom of its melody. 
We believe that the one quality can only be 
explained by reference to the other, and that the 
student who considers them separately, and with- 
out special reference to the caligraphy of the 
MS., stands but a slender chance of arriving at 
the truth. We propose to call attention to each 
of these three points, beginning with that which 
seems to us the most important of all — the cha- 
racter and condition of the MS. 

I. The style of the handwriting corresponds 
so closely with that in common use during the 
earlier half of the "13th century that no one 
accustomed to the examination of English MSS. 
of that period can possibly mistake it. So positive 
are the indications, on this point, that Sir Fred- 
erick Madden— one of the most learned palaeo- 
graphers of the present century — did not hesitate 
to express his own conviction, in terms which 
leave no room for argument. • The whole is of 
the thirteenth century,' he says, 'except some 
writing on ff. 15-17.* And, in a later note, 
comparing this MS. with the * Cartulary of 
Reading' (MSS. Cott. Vesp. E. v.), he states his 
belief that, 'in all probability, the earlier por- 
tion of this volume' — i,e. that which contains 
VOL. IV, FT, I, 

the Rota — ' was written in the Abbey of Read- 
ing, about the year 1 240.' ^ The present libra- 
rian, Mr. E. Maunde Thompson, unhesitatingly 
endorses Sir F. Madden's judgment; and the 
Palaeographical Society has also corroborated it, 
in connection with an autotype facsimile — Part 
VIII, Plate 125 (Lond. 1878)— referred to the 
year 1 240. 

Fortunately the MS. is in such perfect pre- 
servation that the corrections made during its 
preparation can be distinctly traced. In a few 
places, the ink used for the Antiphon on the 
preceding page can be seen through the vellum : 
but, apart from the spots traceable to this cause, 
there are a considerable number of evident 
erasures, clearly contemporary with the original 
handwriting, and corrected by the same hand, 
and in the same ink. The second note on Stave i 
was originally an F. The first and second notes 
on Stave 4 were originally two C s ; the fourth 
note was a D; and the fifth, a 0. Between 
the sixth and seventh notes, in the same Stave, 
there are traces of a D, and also of an F : the D 
has certainly been erased to make room for the 
present notes; the appearance of the F is pro- 
duced by a note showing through from the 
opposite side. The eighth note on this Stave was 
an E. Over the ligature which immediately 
follows, there are traces of a C ; and, towards the 
end of this Stave, a last erasure has been made, 
for the insertion of the solitary black square 
note.^ The marks which show through the vel- 
lum are to be found near the beginning of Stave 
3, and in several other places. Neither these, 
nor the erasures, are to be seen in our facsimile^ 
though traces of both may be found in the auto- 
type of the Palaeographical Society. 

2. The mixed character of the Part -Writing 
has puzzled many an able commentator ; for, side 
by side with passages of rudest Discant, it exhibits 

1 See vol. iii. p. 268 a (note) ; and 765 b (note), 
a Compare witb/acnmtltf, vol. iii o. 269. 


progressions which might well have passed un- 
censured in the far later days of Palestrina. 
The 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 24th bars* are in 
Strict Two-Part Counterpoint of the First and 
Second Order, of irreproachable purity.'' But, 
in passing from the 9th to the loth, and from 
the 13th to the 14th bars, a flagrant violation 
of the First Cardinal Rule » results in the form- 
ation of Consecutive Fifths between the First 
and Third Cantus Parts, in the one case, and 
between the Second and Fourth Cantus, in the 
other. The same Rule is broken, between Cantus 
II, and Bassus I, in passing from bar 1 7 to bar 
18; and, in bars 37, 38, 39, a similar infraction 
of the Rule produces no less than three Con- 
secutive Fifths between Cantus I, and Bassus II. 
Between bars 29 and 30, Cantus I and II sing 
Consecutive Unisons ; and the error is repeated, 
between bars 33, 34, by Cantus II and Cantus III, 
simultaneously with Consecutive Fifths between 
both these Parts and Cantus I. Similar faults 
are repeated, as the Rota proceeds, with per- 
sistent regularity. 

Now, the smooth progressions shown in the 
4th, 8th, and 24th bars, are as stringently for- 
bidden in the Diaphonia of the nth and 12th 
centuries, as the Consecutive Fifths in bars 37, 
38, and 39, are in the Counterpoint of the 15th 
and i6th, or even in that of the 14th century. 
To which of these epochs, then, are we to refer 
the Rota ? The peculiarity of the Part- Writing 
clearly affords us no means whatever of answer- 
ing the question, but is calculated rather to mis- 
lead than to throw new light upon the point at 

3. Turning from the Part- Writing to the Me- 
lody, we find this pervaded by a freedom of rhythm, 
a merry graceful swing, immeasurably in advance 
of any kind of Polyphonic Music of earlier date 
than the Fa las peculiar to the later decads of 
the 1 6th century — to which decads no critic has 
ever yet had the hardihood to refer the Rota. 
But, this flowing rhythm is not at all in advance 
of many a FolkSong of quite unfathomable 
antiquity. The merry grace of a popular 
melody is no proof of its late origin. The 
dates of such melodies are so uncertain, that 
the element of Chronology may almost be said 
to have been eliminated from the history of 
the earlier forms of National Music. In most 
cases, the original Poetry and Music owed their 
origin, in all probability, to the same heart and 
voice. The melodies were not composed, but 
inspired. If the verses to which they were in- 
debted for their existence were light and trip- 
ping, so were they. If the verses were gloomy, 
the melodies naturally corresponded with them. 
And, because their authors, however unskilled 
they might be in the Theory of Music, were in 
the constant habit of hearing Church Melodies 
sung in the Ecclesiastical Modes, they naturally 
conformed, in most cases, to the tonality of those 

J In thia. and all other cases, the references appljf to OUT own Soore 
in modern Notation, vol. 111. p. 766, 

2 See Strict Codnterpoint, vol. 111. p. 741—743. 

3 lb. p. 741 a. 


venerable scales. We believe the Melody of the 
Rota to be an inspiration of this kind — a Folk-* 
Song, pur et simple, in the Transposed Ionian 
Mode, owing its origin to the author either of 
the English or the Latin verses to which it is 

Now, some Folk-Songs of great antiquity 
possess the rare and very curious peculiarity of 
falling into Canon of their own accord. An 
old version of * Drops of brandy ' forms a very 
fair Canon in the unison for two voices. In the 
days of Madame Stockhausen, three independent 
Swiss melodies were accidentally found to fit 
together in the same way, and were actually 
published in the form of an English Round, 
which soon became very popular. 

The melody of the Rota — if we are right in 
believing it to be a genuine Folk-Song — possesses 
this quality in a very remarkable degree. What 
more probable, then, than that a light'hearted 
young Postulant should troll it forth, on some 
bright May -morning, during the hour of recrea- 
tion ? That a second Novice should chime in, a 
little later 1 That the effect of the Canon should 
be noticed, admired, and experimented upon, until 
the Brethren found that four of them could sing 
the tune, one after the other, in very pleasant 
Harmony ? There must have been many a 
learned Discantor at Reading, capable of modi- 
fying a note or two of the melody, here and 
there, for the purpose of making its phrases fit 
the more smoothly together. So learned a mu- 
sician would have found no difl&culty whatever in 
adding the pes, as a support to the whole — and 
the thing was done. The Harmony suggested, 
in the first instance, by a veritable • Dutch Con- 
cert,' became a Round, or Canon, of the kind 
proved, by Mr. Chappell's opportune discovery 
of the Latin pun [see vol, iii. p. 768 a], to have 
been already familiar to English ears ; for which 
very reason it was all the more likely, in a case 
like the present, to have been indebted for its 
confection to a happy accident. 

The foregoing suggestion is, of course, purely 
hypothetical. We do not, however, make it 
with the intention of evading a grave chrono- 
logical diflBculty by a mere idle guess. The 
influence exercised, by the point we are consider- 
ing, upon the history of Mediaeval Music in 
general, and that of the Early English School in 
particular, is of so great importance, that the 
element of conjecture would be altogether out of 
place in any chain of reasoning professing to 
solve the difficulties of an enigma which has puz- 
zled the best Musical Antiquaries of the age. 
We venture, therefore, to propose no conjectural 
theory, but simply to epitomise the results of a 
long course of study which has rendered the 
Reading MS. as familiar to us as our own 
handwriting ; submitting it to our readers with 
all possible deliberation, as a means of accounting 
for certain peculiarities in the Rota which would 
otherwise remain inexplicable. It accounts for 
a freedom of melody immeasurably in advance 
of that attained by the best Polyphonists of 
the 15th century, whether in the Flemish or 


Italian School. It accounts for the transcription, 
in a handwriting of the 13th century, of pro- 
gressions which were not sanctioned by scholastic 
authority until the 15th ; and, at the same time, 
for the admixture, with these, of other progres- 
sions, which, in the 15th century, would have 
been peremptorily forbidden; in other words, 
it accounts for simultaneous obedience to two 
distinct Codes of Law diametrically opposed to 
each other ; two systems of Part- Writing which 
never were, and never could, by any possibility 
be, simultaneously enforced — viz.theLaw of Coun- 
terpoint, which, in the 14th and 15th centuries, 
forbade the approach to a Perfect Concord in 
Similar Motion ; and that of Diaphonia, which, 
in the nth and 12th, practically enjoined it, 
by employing no other Intervals than doubled 
Fourths, Fifths, and Octaves. It accounts for the 
erasures to which we have already called atten- 
tion ; placing them in the light of improvements, 
rather than that of necessary corrections. More- 
over, it accounts, with still greater significance, 
for the otherwise inexplicable absence of a whole 
army of familiar progressions, conventional forms 
of ornamentation, Cadences true, false, plain, 
diminished, modal, or medial, and of Licences in- 
numerable, which, after the substitution of Coun- 
terpoint for Discant, never failed to present them- 
selves, at every turn, in Polyphonic compositions 
of every kind, produced in every School in Eu- 
rope. These anomalies have not been accounted 
for by any critic who has hitherto treated the 
subject. Yet, surely, those who doubt the antifjuity 
of the Rota, on the ground of its advanced construc- 
tion, owe us some explanation as to the presence 
of this advanced style in certain passages only. 
We sorely need some information as to how it 
came to pass that the piece was written in three 
distinct styles: two, of part-writing, separated by 
an interval of two or three centuries, at least ; 
and one, of melody, which, if not the result of an 
inspired Folk- Song, of remotest antiquity, must 
bring us down to a period subsequent to the in- 
vention of Monodia in the 1 7th century. Our 
theory, if admissible at all, explains all these 
things. A learned Musician, deliberately in- 
tending to write a Canon for six voices, would, 
had he lived in the 1 2th century, have adopted 
the style observable in bars 37, 38, and 39, as that 
of the entire composition. Another, flourishing 
in the 15th century, would have confined himself 
to that shown in bars 4, 6. 8, and 24. But, 
though the later savant would never have passed 
the Fifths and Octaves, the earlier one, had he 
possessed sufficient natural genius to enable him 
to rise above the pedantry of the age, would 
surely have excused a great deal of what he 
considered, and taught, to be licence. Finding 
that a Popular Melody of the day fitted together, 
in certain places, in a — ^to his ear — delightful 
succession of similar Perfect Concords, he would 
surely have forgiven certain other passages which 
defied his rules, but, judged by his natural in- 
stinct, did not 'sound bad.' Whether John of 
Fornsete did really construct the Rota on this 
principle, or not, we can never know for cer- 


tain : but, since the accident we have suggested 
certainly has happened, and been turned to 
advantage in other cases, there is nothing 
improbable in the supposition that it may 
have happened before, in that which we are now 

The fact that no other English Rota of equal 
antiquity with this has as yet been brought to 
light, proves nothing. The wonder is, not that 
we can find no similar examples, but, that even 
this one should have escaped the wholesale 
destruction which devastated our Cathedral and 
Monastic Libraries, first, during the reign of 
King Henry VIII, and afterwards, during the 
course of the Great Rebellion. Moreover, we 
must not forget that the Reading MS., though it 
contains only one Rota, contains no less than 
three Latin Antiphons, two for three Voices, 
and one for *four; and that the Chaucer MS,' 
of very little later date, contains several Compo- 
sitions for two Voices, all tending to prove the 
early date at which the Art of Polyphonic Com- 
position was cultivated in England.^ 

These suggestions are made for the express 
purpose of inviting discussion ; and, should any 
new light be thrown upon the subject, in the 
meantime, it will be noticed in a future article 

on ViLLANELLA. _ [W.S.R.] 

SUPERTONIC. The second note of the scale 
upwards, as D in the key of C. It is brought 
into much prominence in modern music as the 
dominant note of the dominant key. The strong 
tendency to find the chief balance and antithesis 
in that key, and to introduce the second subject 
of a movement in it, as well as the tendency to 
make for that point even in the progress of a 
period, necessarily throws much stress upon the 
root-note of the harmony which leads most 
directly to its tonic harmony, and this is the domi- 
nant of the new key or supertonic of the original 
one. It has consequently become so familiar, 
that its major chord and the chord of the minor 
seventh built upon it, although chromatic, are 
freely used as part of the original key, quite 
irrespective of the inference of modulation which 
they originally carried. Some theorists recognise 
these chords as part of the harmonic complement 
of the key, and consequently derive several of the 
most characteristic and familiar chromatic com- 
binations from the supertonic root. [C.H.H.P.] 

SUPPE, VON, known as Franz von Sdppe, 
the German Offenbach, of Belgian descent, though 
his family for two generations had lived at 
Cremona, was born at Spalato, or on board ship 
near it, April 18, 1820, and his full baptismal 
name is Francesco Ezechiele Ermenegildo 
Cavaliere Suppe Demellt. His taste for music 
developed early. At 1 1 he learned the flute, at 

1 See vol. Hi. p. 270 a. _, ,, ^ „, 

2 Arundel MSS. No. 248. See vol. 111. p. 4Z7 b. The MontpelHer 
MS. is certainly no older than this, and probably not so old. 

3 Fosbroke, in his ' British Monachism ' (vol. ii. p. 113). tells us that 
the Song of the Anglo-Saxon Monks consisted of a method of flgurato 
Discant, in which the various Voices, following one another, were 
perpetually repeating different words, at the same time. Surely, mia 
savours strongly of the ' form of the Round.' 

B 2 


13 harmony, and at 15 produced a mass at the 
Franciscan church at Zara. His father, however, 
had other views for him, and sent him to 
the University of Padua. But music asserted 
itself; he learned from Cigala and Ferrari, and 
wrote incessantly. At this moment his father 
died, the mother settled in Vienna, where Fran- 
cesco joined her; and after a little hesitation 
between teaching Italian, practising medicine, 
and following music, he decided on the last, 
got lessons from Seyfried, and obtained a gra- 
tuitous post as Conductor at the Josephstadt 
theatre. This was followed by better engage- 
ments at Pressburg and Baden, and then at the 
theatres ander-Wien, Quai, and Leopoldstadt 
in Vienna, with the last-named of which he 
is still connected. His work at these houses, 
though for long mere patching and adding, was 
excellent practice, and he gradually rose to more 
independent things. In 1844 a • Sommemachts- 
traum,' founded on Shakspeare, and composed 
by him, is mentioned in the A. M. Z. * Der 
Kramer und sein Commis' followed. In 1847 
he was at the Theatre an-der-Wien and (Aug. 7) 
brought out a piece, ' Das Madchen vom Lande ' 
(The country girl), which met with wild success. 
Ten years later (Jan. 8, 1858) a Singspiel, 
* Paragraph 3,' spread his fame into North Ger- 
many, and from th^ time a stream of pieces 
flowed fivm his pen. His works are said by the 
careful Wurzbach ^ to reach the astonishing num- 
ber of 2 grand operas, 165 farces, comediettas, 
and vaudevilles, etc., as well as a Mass ( 'Missa 
dalmatica,' Spina, 1877), a Requiem produced at 
Zara in i860 under the title of 'L'estremo Giu- 
dizio' etc., etc. A list of 49 of his operatic pieces 
is given by Wurzbach, but a few only are dated. 
Another list of 21 is given by Batka in Pougin's 
supplement to Fdtis, but the titles are French, 
and it is hard to make the dates agree. Some 
of the pieces are mere parodies, as ' Tannen- 
hauser,' 'Dinorah, oder die Turnerfahrt nach 
Hutteldorf.' One, 'Franz Schubert,' is founded 
on the life of Schubert, and contains five of his 
songs. The only pieces of Suppe's known out 
of Germany are ' Fatinitza,' produced at Vienna, 
Jan. 5, 1876 ; at the Alhambra, London, June 20, 
1878, and at the Nouveaut^s, Paris, March 1879 ; 
and 'Boccaccio,' which was brought out in London, 
at the Comedy Theatre, April 22, 1882. The 
overture to 'Dichter und Bauer,' the only one of 
his overtures known in England, must be his 
most popular work abroad, since it has been 
arranged for no less than 59 different combina- 
tions of instruments, all published by Aibl of 
Munich. It is a stock piece in the Crystal Palace 
repertoire. [G.] 

SURIANO. [See Soriano, vol. iii. p. 638.] 
SURMAN, Joseph, bom 1803, son of a dis- 
senting minister at Chesham, became a music 
copyist, tenor chorister, and clerk at a dissenters' 
chapel. On the establishment of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society in 1832 he was appointed 
its conductor. In 1838 he became music pub- 

1 Biov. Lezikon des Oesterrelnb. Fart 40; 188a 


lisher, chiefly of sacred music in separate parts. 
About the same time he was assistant conductor 
of the Melophonie Society. In 1842 he was 
chosen to condact the Worcester Festival. An 
inquiry by a special committee into his official 
conduct ^s agent for and conductor of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society having resulted in an unanim- 
ously adverse report, he was removed from his 
office, Feb. 15, 1848. He then attempted the 
formation of the * London Sacred Harmonic So- 
ciety,' but failing to obtain sufficient members 
carried on concerts in the society's name at his 
own expense for 7 or 8 years. Surman died 
Jan. 20, 1871. [W.H.H.] 

SUSANNA. An oratorio in three parts, by 
Handel ; the author of the words is not known. 
The overture was begun on July 11, 1748, a 
month after the completion of ' Solomon,* and the 
work was finished on the 24th of the following 
mouth. It was produced during the season ot 
1749. [G.] 

SUSATO. [See Ttlman.] 

SUSPENSION is the process of arresting the 
conjunct motion of one or more parts for a time, 
while the rest of the components of the chord 
proceed one step onwards, and thereby come to 
represent a different root. The part which is 
stayed in this manner commonly produces dis- 
sonance, which is relieved by its then passing on 
to the position it would have naturally occupied 
sooner had the motion of the parts been simul- 
taneous. Thus in the progression of the chord 
of the Dominant seventh to Tonic harmony (a), 
the part which takes the upper note (or seventh) 
can be delayed and made to follow into its position 
after the rest of the chord has moved, as in (6), 
thereby producing a fourth in place of a third 
for a time. Similarly the fifth, or the fifth and 
third, can be suspended, producing a ninth, or a 
ninth and seventh, against the tonic note ; and 
the dissonant effect is similarly relieved by their 
passing on to their normal position in the chord 
afterwards, as in (c). In all such cases the first 
occurrence of the note in the part whose motion 
is suspended is called the 'Preparation,* as in 









the first chord of (6) and of (c) ; the moment of 
dissonance resulting from the motion of the other 
parts, is called the * Percussion * of the discord, 
and the release of the dissonance, when the part 
proceeds to its natural place in the harmony, is 
called the ' Resolution.' 

Suspension was among the very first methods 
discovered by the early harmonists for introducing 
dissonance into their music. In the earliest times 
composers depended chiefly upon the different 
degrees and qualities of consonances — sixths, 
thirds, fifths, and octaves — to obtain the necessary 
effects of contrast between one musical moment 
and another. Then, when, in the natural order of 
things, something stronger was required, it was 
found in this process of suspension. But for some- 



time it was used very sparingly, and c(Jmposers 
required no more than the least dissonant forms to 
carry out their purposes. For a long while, more- 
over, all discords appeared to the early writers 
as no more than artificial manipulations of the 
motion of the parts of this kind, and it was only 
by the use of such means that they even learnt 
to use some discords, which are at the present 
day looked upon in a totally diflFerent light. About 
the beginning of the 17th century they began to 
realise that there was a radical difference in the 
character and constitution of certain groups of dis- 
cords, and to use at least one freely as an inde- 
pendent or fundamental combination. From that 
time discords began to be classified, instinctively, 
into definite groups. Certain of the less dissonant 
combinations have in course of time been grouped 
into a special class, which is freed from the obli- 
gation of being prepared, and thereby loses one 
of the most essential characteristics of suspension. 
These are the Dominant discords of the minor 
seventh and major and minor ninths ; certain 
corresponding chromatic chords on Tonic and 
Supertonic roots, which have been naturally affi- 
liated upon the key; and the chord sometimes 
known as that of the added sixth. Another class 
has been created by some theorists, which is much 
more intimately connected with the class of suspen- 
sions; if indeed they are not actually suspensions 
slightly disguised. These are the discords which 
are arrived at by the same process of staying or 
suspending the motion of a part, but which are 
distinguished by further motion of the other parts 
simultaneously with the resolution of the discord, 
thereby condensing two motions into one ; as in 
{d) and (e). When treated in this manner the 
chords are described by some theorists as * Pre- 
pared discords.' The province of suspensions 







appears by this process to have been reduced, 
but what was lost by the process of classification 
has been amply made up by the invention of a 
great variety of new forms. 

About the time that composers first began to 
realise the character of the dominant seventh, 
they also began to use a greater variety and a 
harsher description of suspensions. The earliest 
experiments of note in both directions are 
commonly ascribed to the same man, namely 
Monteverde. Since his time the progress has 
been tolerably constant in one direction ; for the 
tendency to look for fresh and more vivid points 
of contrast necessarily leads to the use of sus- 
pensions of more complicated and harsher char- 
acter. At the present time the varieties of possible 
suspensions are so numerous that it would be 
almost as absurd to endeavour to make a catalogue 
of them, as it would be to make a list of possible 

combinations of sounds. But if the principle be 
properly understood, it is not necessary to give 
more than illustrative examples; for the like 
rules apply to all; and their kinds are only 
limited by the degree of harshness considered 
admissible, and by the possibility of adequate 
and intelligible resolution. Classical authority 
not only exists for a great variety of chromatic 
suspensions, often derived from no stronger basis 
than a comljination of chromatic passing or orna- 
mental notes ; but also for remarkable degrees of 
dissonance. Beethoven for instance, in the Bb 
Quartet, op. 130, iised the suspended fourth to- 
gether with the third on which it is to resolve, 
and put the latter at the top, and the former at 
the bottom (/); and Bach supplies many ex- 
amples of similar character. Certain simple rules 








are almost invariably observed — such as that the 
moment of percussion shall fall upon the strong 
beat of the bar ; .and that the progression shall 
not imply a violation of rules against consecutive 
perfect concords, which would occur if the arti- 
ficial suspension of the part were removed, as 

in (9)' 

Composers early discovered a means of varying 
the character of the process by interpolating 
notes between the sounding of the discord and 
its resolution, as in (A). Instances are also to 

(9) _ ih) i^n^ I 





be found in which some such forms were used as 
sufficient to constitute resolution without arriving 
at the normal note, — habit and familiarity with 
a particular form of motion leading to the ac- 
ceptance of a conventional formula in place of the 
actual solution. The following examples from 
Corelli's ist Sonata of opera 2da and 5th of 
opera 4ta are clear illustrations. 

(fc) ^^ I , (0_ ^ ^ 

This particular device is characteristic rather of 
the early period of harmonic music up to Corelli'a 
time than of a later period. The following pas- 
sage from Schumann's variations for two piano- 


fortes is characteristic of modem uses of combined 
and chromatic suspension, and also of interpola- 
tion of notes between percussion and resolution. 

(m) xst Piano, 

Some theorists distinguish the combinations which 
resolve upwards from those that resolve down- 
wards, styling the former Retardations. [See 
Ketardation; Harmony.] [C.H.H.P.] 

SVENDSEN, Jo HAN Severin, was bom Sept. 
30, 1840, at Christiania, where his father was 
a military band-master. At the age of 1 1 he 
wrote his first composition for the violin. When 
15 he enlisted in the army, and soon became 
band-master. Even at that age he played with 
considerable skill flute, clarinet, and violin. He 
soon left the army, and worked during the next 
few years in the orchestra of the Christiania 
theatre, and at a dancing academy, for which he 
arranged some dtudes by Paganini and Kreutzer 
for dancing. A strong desire to travel drove 
him, at 21, on a roving tour over a great part of 
Sweden and North Germany. Two years after, 
being in Liibeck in extremely reduced circum- 
stances, he fortunately met with the Swedish- 
Norwegian Consul Herr Leche, whose interest 
he gained, and who shortly after obtained a 
stipend for him from Charles XV. to enable him 
to perfect himself as a violinist ; but being soon 
afterwards attacked with paralysis in the hand, 
he was compelled to give up the bow for com- 
position. He came to Leipzig in 1863, ^^^ ^^ 
works beii^ already known there, he was placed 
in the finishing class of the Conservatorium, re- 
ceiving, however, instruction in elementary theory 
of music, which he had never been taught. His 
instructors were Hauptmann, David, Richter, 
and Reinecke, of whom he considers that he 
owes most to the first. Whilst in Leipzig he 
wrote a Quartet in A, an Octet and a Quintet, 
all for strings ; Quartets for male voices ; and a 
Symphony in D. The following anecdote of this 
period is both characteristic and authentic. On 
hearing that his octet had been played with 
great success by the students, Reinecke asked 
to see it ; he declined, however, to suggest any 
improvements in so splendid a work, but re- 
marked somewhat sarcastically, * The next thing 
will be a symphony, I suppose.' Barely a week 


after Svendsen laid his Symphony in D before his 
astonished instructor. 

On leaving Leipzig in 1867 ^^ received the 
great honorary medal of the Academy. After 
travelling in Denmark, Scotland, and Norway, 
Svendsen went in 1868 to Paris. The French 
Empire was then at its zenith, and hia sojourn 
in the capital of France influenced the com- 
poser to a very great extent. Whilst there, 
he played in Musard's orchestra, and at the 
Oddon, and became intimately acquainted with 
Wilhelmine Szarvady, De Beriot, Vieuxtemps, 
and Leonard. He arranged the incidental musio 
to Copp^e's 'Le passant,' in which both Sarah 
Bernhardt and Agar performed, but on the 
whole his Paris productions were few — a Con- 
certo for violin in A, and orchestral arrangements 
of studies by Liszt and Schubert ; he also began 
'Sigurd Slembe,' the overture to a Norwegian 
drama of that name. He left Paris at the be- 
ginning of the war in 1870 for Leipzig, where 
he had been offered the conductorship of the 
well-known Euterpe concerts, which however 
were discontinued, owing to the war. At a 
great musical festival at Weimar, in the same 
year, he first met Liszt and Tausig, and his 
octet was played by a party containing David, 
Helmesberger, Griitzmacher, and Hechmann, with 
great approbation. Early in the following year 
his Symphony in D was performed at the 
Gewandhaus, and his fame as a composer esta- 
blished. He composed in that year his Concerto 
for cello in D. In the autumn he went to 
America to be married to an American lady, 
whom he had met in Paris, and returned the 
same year to Leipzig, where, after the end of the 
war, he undertook the leadership of the Euterpe 
concerts for one year. There he finished the 
overture to * Sigurd Slembe,' which was played 
at the Euterpe then, and in the following year 
at the musical festival at Cassel, where Liszt 
was present, and both times with great success. 
This year was one of the most momentous in 
Svendsen's life, since in it he met Wagner at 
Bayreuth, and soon became his intimate associate. 
He took the opportunity of making himself fully 
acquainted with Wagner's music and ideas. In 
Wagner's house he met the Countess Nesselrode, 
who formed a warm friendship for the Norwegian 
composer, and whose talents and experience be- 
came of great benefit to him. In Bayreuth some 
of his happiest days were spent, and it was 
during this stay he composed his Camaval k 
Paris, a charming composition which depicts with 
great force the varied aspects of the capital of 
pleasure. The longing to see his country after 
an interval of so many years made him disregard 
various tempting offers, and he left Bayreuth for 
home. For the next five years he was conductor 
of the Christiania Musical Association and teacher 
of composition, and composed comparatively few 
works, which may be explained by the unfor- 
tunate want of pecuniary independence. The 
pieces of this period are : — Funeral march for 
Charles XV; 'Zorahayde,' a legend for orchestra; 
Coronation march of Oscar II, and a Polonaise in 



E for the same occasion ; * Romeo and Juliet,' a 
fantasiefor orchestra; four Norwegian rhapsodies; 
arrangements of some Norwegian, Swedish and 
Icelandic ballads for orchestra ; and his chef- 
(Toeuvrey a symphony in Bb. In 1874 his labours 
found some appreciation from his countrymen in 
the shape of an annuity granted by the Storthing, 
and several decorations conferred on him by the 
king. After five years of hard work, he was 
enabled once more to proceed abroad. In 1877 
he revisited Leipzig, and conducted a new work 
at the Gewandhaus ; went thence to Munich, 
and eventually to Rome, where he spent the 
winter. In 1878 he visited London for the first 
time, and there met Sarasate, who assisted him 
in the performance of his quartet, quintet, and 
octet. From London he went to Paris, where 
he stayed until 1880, during which time his 
works were several times performed — as also at 
Angers, where the post of conductor was offered 
him by the Musical Association. But Svendsen, 
true to his resolution to return home, refused 
this lucrative appointment, and in the autumn 
of that year we again find him in his old post 
as conductor of the Musical Association in Chris- 
tiania, in which capacity he has since acted. 
During the last few years he has produced only 
some minor compositions, besides arranging for 
orchestra several studies by foreign composers. 

Svendsen's music is all of very high character, 
remarkable for strong individuality, conciseness, 
and the absence of anything national or Scandi- 
navian ; as well as for an elaborate finish strictly 
in harmony with the traditions of the great 
masters. Of these there is, however, only one 
whose influence can be traced in his compositions, 
namely Beethoven. He is one of the most cosmo- 
politan composers of the age. 

His printed works are as follow :^ 

15. Symphony no. 2 In Bt?. 

16. Carnaval des artistes Nor- 

17. Ehapsodie Xorvegienne no. 
1, for orch. 

18. Overture to Komeo and 

19. Ehapsodie Norv^gienne no. 

20. Scandinavian airs arranged 
for string quartet. 

21,22. Rhapsodies Norv^giennes 
nos. 3, 4. 

23. Five songs, French and Ger- 
man, for voice and PF. 

24. Four do., French and Nor- 
vfegian, do. 

25. Bomance by Popper, ar- 
ranged for cello and PF. 

26. Bomance for violin and 
orch. in G. fC S 1 

SVENDSEN, Olup, a distinguished flute- 
player, bom in Christiania April 19, 1832. He 
learnt the rudiments of playing from his father, 
a musician ; when 1 2 years old played the flute 
in small orchestras ; and at 1 4 was engaged as 
first flute in the Christiania theatre. In 1851 
he went to Copenhagen, and took lessons from 
Nils Petersen, then a flute-player there. In 
1853 he entered the Conservatoire at Brussels, 
where he studied for two year?, after which he 
was engaged by Jullien for his Concerts in Lon- 
don. In September, 1856, he joined the Band 

Op.l. string quartet, in A minor. 

2. Songs for men's voices. 

3. Octet for strings in A minor. 

4. Symphony in D. 

6. String quintet in C. 

6. Concerto for violin and 

orch. iu A. 

7. Do. for cello and orch. in D 


8. Overture In to BjOmson's 

drama of ' Sigurd Slem- 

9. Carnaval k Paris, for orch. 

10. Funeral march for Charles 


11. Zorahayde, legend for orch. 

12. Polonaise for orch. 

13. Coronation march for Oscar 


14. Marriage Cantata, for chor. 

and orch. 


of the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, where he re- 
mained tiU the end of 1858. In 1861 Svendsen 
was appointed first flute in the Queen's private 
band, and the same year joined the Philharmonic 
orchestra. He was ten years in the orchestra 
at Her Majesty's Theatre; and since 1867 has 
been professor of his instrument at the Royal 
Academy of Music. He is well known as a solo- 
player throughout Belgium, Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark, and France. [G.] 

TERSZOON, the greatest of Dutch organists, was 
born of a Deventer family in the summer of 1562. 
His father, * Mr. Pieter,' was organist of the Old 
Church at Amsterdam, which place disputes with 
Deventer the honour of having given the son 
birth.^ Of Sweelinck's boyhood we know nothing, 
except that he was taught by Jacob Buyck 
(Buchius) the pastor of the Old Church. There 
is a tradition that he was sent to Venice to 
study music under Zarlino and Gabrieli ; but 
with this is connected a mistake of old stand- 
ing, which places his birth in 1540, 22 years 
too early .3 Now, as we know that he was in 
Holland from 1577, at latest, onwards, it be- 
comes barely credible that the lad of 15 could 
have followed the instruction of the Venetian 
masters to any important extent ; and it is likely 
that the whole story is based upon the close study 
which his works prove him to have devoted to 
those of * the apostle of musical *science,* whose 
* Istituzioni harmoniche ' he translated.'* Some 
time between 1577 and 1581 Sweelinck was ap- 
pointed to the organ istship previously held by 
his father (who died in 1573); and this post he 
filled until his death, Oct. 16, 1621. For a 
generation he was the glory of Amsterdam. 
When he played the organ there, says a contem- 
porary, ' there was a wonderful concourse every 
day ; every one was proud to have known, seen, 
heard the ®man.' And when he died it was 
the greatest of Dutch poets, Vondel, who wrote 
his epitaph, and surnamed him ' Phoenix of 
Music' He must also have been a distinguished 
figure in the society of Amsterdam, then in its 

1 Of the seven or more ways in vrhich the name is spelled, these 
two have the warrant of the musician's own signature. The Germans 
of the time seem to have naturalised him as Schweling ; in Amster- 
dam he was Itnown as plain Jan Pietersz. 

2 Deventer is consistently mentioned by Sweelinck's later bio- 
graphers ; but the Amsterdam claim has the support of the oflBcial 
entry of his marriage there in 1590, in which his birthplace is not 
stated. The omission was the rule when the person was a native of 
the city. Else documentary evidence is equally wanting on both sides. 

3 The correction of this and the rest of the mistakes which confuse 
every single date in Sweelinck's life is due to the essay of F. H. J. 
Tledeman, ' J. P. Sweelinck, een bio-bibliografischeSchets,' published 
by the Vereeniging voor Nederlandsche Muziekgeschiedenis (Amster- 
dam, 1876), which supersedes a shorter sketch published by the same 
writer as an introduction to the 'Begina Coeli' in 1869. Both are 
based upon a biography, which remains in MS. in the possession of 
the Vereeniging, by Bobert Eitner, who has done good service liy 
rescuing the works of Sweelinck from the obscurity of the GrauB 
Kloster at Berlin. 

4 So Zarlino Is entitled by his modern biographer, P. Caffl, ' Delia 
Vita e delle Opere del Prete G. Zarlino ' (Venice 1836). Neither here 
nor in the chapters on Zarlino and Andrea Gabrieli contained in his 
' Storia della Musica Sacra,* vol. i. p. 129 etc. (Venice 1854), does Caffi 
take any notice of the Dutch scholar. Nor have I been able to dis- 
cover any trace of his residence at Venice in the MS. collections of 
S. Marco. 

5 MS. at Hamburg, formerly belonging to the great organistBeincke. 

6 Sweertius, in Tiedeman, p. 16. Sweelinck's portrait at Darmstadt 
gives his strong irregular features a kindly expression, with a touch 
of sadness in them. It is reproduced in photograph by Mr. Tledemaa, 



greatest brilliancy, not only for his unmatched 
powers as an organist, but also for his skill, 
fancy, and charming versatility on the clavi- 
cymbel.^ The town bought him for public service 
a new * clavecirapbel ' from Antwerp at a cost of 
200 gulden ; and the instrument seems to have 
travelled with him all over the country.' 

What was published however by Sweelinck in 
his life-time was entirely vocal music, and in- 
cludes — besides occasional canons, marriage- 
songs, etc., his 'Chansons fran9aises' (3 parts, 
Antwerp, 1592-4), 'Rimes fran9aises et itali- 
ennes ' (Ley den 16 1 2), and the great collections 
of sacred music on which, with his organ works, 
his fame chiefly rests. These are the ' Pseaumes 
mis en musique ' for 4-8 voices (published in 
several editions at Leyden, Amsterdam, and 
Berlin), and the ' Cantiones Sacrae ' (Antwerp 
1 61 9). A Regina Coeli from the latter, 3 Chan- 
sons, and 8 Psalms in 6 parts have been lately 
reprinted, in organ-score, by the Association for 
the History of Dutch Music (pts. i, v, vii, and vi; 
Utrecht and Amsterdam, 1869-1877); which has 
also published for the first time seven of Swee- 
linck's organ works ^ (pt. iii.) [Vereeniging.] 

The psalms make an interesting link between 
the tranquillity of the old polyphonists and the 
rhythm of modern music. Formally they stand 
nearest to the earlier style, but the strictness of 
their counterpoint, the abundance of imitation 
and fugue in them, does not hinder a general 
freedom of effect, very pure and full of melody, 
to a greater degree than is common in works of 
the time. The organ pieces are also historically 
of signal importance. Though they may not 
justify the claim made for Sweelinck as 'the 
founder of instrumental music,' * they at all 
events present the first known example of an in- 
dependent use of the pedal (entrusting it with a 
real part in a fugue), if not with the first example 
of a completely developed organ-fugue. 

It is as an organist and the founder of a school 
of organists that Sweelinck had most influence, 
an influence which made itself felt through the 
whole length of northern Germany.' In the next 
generation nearly all the leading organists there 
had been his scholars : his learning and method 
were carried by them from Hamburg to Danzig. 
His pupil Sell eidemann handed down the tradition 
to the great Reincke * — ^himself a Dutchman — 
from whom, if we accept a statement supported 
alike by unanimous testimony and by exhaustive 
analysis of their works, it turned to find its 
consummation in Sebastian Bach.'' [R.L.P.] 

1 On this he was the master of Christina van Erp, the famoo* 
lutenlst, and wife of the more famous poet. Pleter Corneliszoon 
Hooft. See the * Bouwsteenen ' of the Vereenlglng, vol. 1. pp. 13 f. 

2 See an anecdote In Baudartius. 'Memoryen," xUl. p. 163; cited 
by Tledeman, p. 16. 

3 The bibliography of Sweelinck Is given at length by Tledeman, 
pp. 43—75. To this should be added some supplementary particulars 
communicated by Dr. J. F. Heije In the 'Bouwsteenen,' vol, L pp. 
39— »6. 

* See Eltner's preface to the edition, and Tledeman, pp. 54 tl. 

» The wide distribution of his worits Is shown by early transcripts 
existing in the British Uuseum, and by copies of the extremely rare 
printed works preserved in the Blblioth6que Natlonale. Curiously 
enough not a single MS. of Sweelinck remains in Holland. 

» Often erroneously known as Reinken. 

T Spitta, ' J. S. Bach," i. 96. 192-213. 


SWELL (HARPSICHORD). The desire for 

a power of increase and decrease on keyboard 
instruments like the harpsichord and organ, so as 
to emulate the bow instruments, and even the 
human voice, in that flow and ebb which are at 
the foundation of form no less than of expression, 
has led to the contrivance of mechanical swells 
as the only possible approach to it. A swell was 
first attempted on the Organ ; the harpsichord 
swell was introduced by Robert Plenius in a 
sostenente variety of the instrument, named by 
him • Lyrichord,' and is described (in 1 755) as 
the raising of a portion of the lid or cover of the 
instrument by means of a pedal. Kirkman 
adopted this very simple swell, and we find it 
also in many small square pianos of the last cen- 
tury. About 1 765 Shudi introduced the Venetian 
swell, and patented it in 1769. This beautiful 
piece of joinery is a framing of louvres which 
open or close gradually by means of a pedal (the 
right foot one) and thus cause a swell, which 
may be as gradual as the performer pleases. 
Shudi bequeathed this patent to John Broad- 
wood, who inherited it on the death of Shudi in 
1773. When the patent expired, Kirkman and 
others adopted it, and it was fitted to many old 
harpsichords, and even to pianos, but was soon 
proved unnecessary in an instrument where 
power of nuance was the very first principle. 

The English organ-builders perceived the great 
advantage of Shudi's Venetian swell over the 
rude contrivance they had been using [see Organ, 
vol. ii. p. 596 a], and it became generally adopted 
for organs, and has since been constantly retained 
in them as an important means of eflfect. [A. J.H.] 

SWELL-ORGAN. The clavier or manual of 
an organ which acts upon pipes enclosed in a 
box, such box having shutters, by the opening of 
which, by means of a pedal, a crescendo is pro- 
duced. The shutters are made to fold over each 
other like the woodwork of a Venetian blind, 
hence the expressions 'Venetian Swell' and 
•Venetian Shutters' sometimes found in specifi- 
cations. To the swell-organ a larger number of 
reed-stops is assigned than to other manuals. 

The firat attempt at a ' swelling organ' was 
made by Jordan in 171 2. The crescendo was 
obtained by raising one large sliding shutter 
which formed the front of the box. The early 
swell-organs were of very limited compass, some- 
times only from middle C upwards, but more 
generally taken a fourth lower, namely, to fiddle 
G-. For many years the compass did not extend 
below Tenor C, and even now attempts are 
sometimes made to reduce the cost of an organ 
by limiting the downward compass of the Swell ; 
but in all instruments with any pretension to 
completeness the Swell manual is made to CC, 
coextensive with the Great and Choir. [See 
Organ, vol. ii. p. 596, etc. ; also 604.] [J.S.] 

SWERT, DE, Jules. An eminent violon- 
cellist, born Aug. 16, 1843, at Louvain, where 
his father was Capellmeister at the Cathedral. 
He was grounded in the cello and in music by 
his father, and afterwards took lessons from 
Servais in preparation for the Brussels Conser- 


vatoire. After gaining the first prize there, at 
15, he went to Paris, made the acquaintance of 
Kossini, and was much applauded. He then 
began a lengthened tour through Belgium, Hol- 
land, Denmark, Sweden, South Germany, Switzer- 
land, etc., in which his programmes embraced 
both classical and modern pieces. Two, on which 
he gained great fame, were cello arrangements 
of the violin concertos of Beethoven and Men- 
delssohn. In 1865 he took a post as leader at 
Diisseldorf, then in the Court band at Weimar, 
and next at Berlin. He did not however retain 
the last of these long, but gave it up for concert 
tours, which have since occupied him. In the 
intervals of these he has resided at Wiesbaden 
and Leipzig. His first opera, * Die Albigenser,' 
was produced at Wiesbaden in 1878, with much 
success. A second, 'Die Grafen von Hammer- 
stein,' is announced for publication. De Swert 
has a Primer for the Cello in preparation for 
Messrs. Novello. He visited England in the 
spring of 1875, ^^^ appeared at the Crystal 
Palace on April 24. [G.] 

SWIETEN, Gottfried, Baron VAN. A 
musical amateur of great importance, who resided 
at Vienna at the end of last century and beginning 
of this one. The family was Flemish, and Gott- 
fried's father, Gerhard,* returned from Leyden to 
Vienna in 1745, and became Maria Theresa's 
favourite physician. Gottfried was bom in 1 734, 
and was brought up to diplomacy, but his studies 
were much disturbed by his love of music, and 
in 1769 he committed himself so far as to com- 
pose several of the songs in Favart's ' Rosibre de 
Salency ' for its public production at Paris. In 
1 771 he was made ambassador to the Court of 
Prussia, where the music was entirely under the 
influence of Frederick the Great, conservative 
and classical. This suited Van Swieten. Handel, 
the Bachs, and Haydn were his favourite masters ; 
in 1774 he commissioned C. P. E. Bach to vmte 
six symphonies for orchestra. He returned to 
Vienna in 1778 ; succeeded his father as Prefect 
of the Public Library, and in 178 1 was appointed 
President of the Education Commission. He 
became a kind of musical autocrat in Vienna, 
and in some respects his influence was very 
good. He encouraged the music which he ap- 
proved; had regular Sunday-morning meetings 
for classical music, as well as performances of 
the great choral works of Bach, Handel, and 
Hasse, etc. ; employed Mozart to add accompani- 
ments to Handel's * Acis,' ' Messiah,' ♦ St. Ce- 
cilia,' and * Alexander's Feast,' and Starzer to do 
the same for 'Judas'; translated the words of 
the * Creation ' and the ' Seasons ' into German 
for Haydn; and himself arranged Handel's 'Atha- 
liah ' and ' Choice of Hercules.' He supplied 
Haydn now and then with a few ducats, and gave 
him a travelling -carriage for his second journey 
to England.^ In his relation to these great 
artists he seems never to have forgotten the 
superiority of his rank to theirs ; but this was 
the manner of the time. Van Swieten patron- 

i Evidently not a yery wise person. See Carlyle's 'Frledrlch,' 
Sk. zzi. cb. 5. a Griesinger, Biog. Not. 66. 


ised Beethoven also [see vol. i. p. 1760] ; but 
such condescension would not be at all to Bee- 
thoven's taste, and it is not surprising that we 
hear very little of it. His first Symphony is, 
however, dedicated to Van Swieten. He was 
the founder of the ' Musikalischen Gesellschaft,* 
or Musical Society, consisting of 25 members of 
the highest aristocracy, with the avowed object 
of creating a taste for good music — a foreruimer 
of the ' GeseUschaft der Musikfireunde,' founded 
in 1808. 

Van Swieten died at Vienna March 29, 1803. 
His music has not survived him, but it would be 
interesting to hear one of the six symphonies 
which, in Haydn's words,^ were ' as stiff as him- 
self.' [G.] 

SWINNERTON HEAP, Charles, was born 
at Birmingham in 1847, ^^^ educated at the 
Grammar School of that town. Displaying at a 
very early age an aptitude for music, on leaving 
school he was articled to Dr. Monk at York, 
where he remained for two years. In 1865 he 
gained the Mendelssohn Scholarship, and was 
sent to Leipzig for two-and-a-half years, studying 
under Moscheles and Reinecke. On his return 
he became a pupil of Mr. Best at Liverpool, and 
since 1868 has devoted himself to professional 
duties in Birmingham, at the classical concerts 
of which town he has constantly appeared as a 
pianist, and in which district he is widely known 
as a conductor. In 1870 he wrote an exercise 
for the Cambridge Degree of Mus. Bac, which 
produced so favourable an impression upon the 
Professor of Music (Sir Sterndale Bennett) that 
he offered to accept the work (the ist part of an 
oratorio 'The Captivity') as an exercise for the 
Mus. Doc. degree. Mr. Swinnerton Heap ac- 
cordingly set the 3rd Psalm for the Mus. Bac. 
exercise, and in the following year proceeded to 
the degree of Mus. Doc. His principal works 
are a pianoforte trio (performed at Leipzig), a 
sonata for clarinet and piano, a quintet for 
pianoforte and wind instruments, two overtures 
(one produced at the Birmingham Festival of 
1879 and afterwards played at the Crystal Palace 
Concerts), a 'Salvum fac Regem' (performed 
at Leipzig), a short cantata, 'The Voice of 
Spring,' and numerous anthems, songs, and organ 
pieces. [W.B.S.] 

SWINY, Owen, frequently called Mac Swiny, 
'a gentleman born in * Ireland.' In a letter,* 
dated Oct. 5, 1706, and addressed to Colley 
Gibber, whom he calls in turn * puppy,' 'his 
Angel' (twice), 'his Dear,' and finally 'Unbe- 
liever,' — this singular person describes how Rich 
had sent for him from his ' Quarters in the North,* 
and how ' he was at a great charge in coming 
to town, and it cost him a great deal of money 
last winter,' and ' he served him night and day, 
nay, all night and all day, for nine months.' 
He had 'quitted his post in the army' on the 
faith of promises that, in return for managing 
' the playhouse in the Haymarkett ' under Rich, 

» Griesinger, Biog. Not. 67. 
• la the writer's possession. 

4 Biogr. DiMD. 



he was to have * lOo Guineas per annum Salary, 
ft place at Court, and the Devil and all.' This 
was the somewhat inauspicious beginning of 
Swiny's theatrical career. Having come up to 
London, as described, in 1705, he soon found 
that Rich intended nothing seriously for his ad- 
vantage ; and he announces (in the same letter) 
that, in consequence of the general discontent of 
the actors with Rich, and although Rich might 
have had the house for £3 or £3 io«. a day, he 
(Swiny) had taken a lease for seven years at 
£5 a day, and meant to begin in a few days. 

In 1 707 we find him in partnership with Wilks, 
Dogget, and Gibber in the King's Theatre, having 
taken the lease from Vanbrugh, and very soon 
quarrelling with them and petitioning the Lord 
Chamberlain's interference in his favour. He 
was mixed up in most of the quarrels and intrigues 
of the time. 

In May, 1709, Swiny engaged the famous 
Nicolini for three years, that great singer having 
recently made a most successful dibut in London. 
Before the completion of this term, however, 
Swiny appears to have 'absented himself from 
his creditors ' and become bankrupt. 

After this, he lived for some years in Italy ; 
but, on his return to England, a place in the 
Custom-house was found for him, and he was 
appointed Keeper of the King's Mews. While 
in Italy, with Lord Boyne and Walpole, he 
wrote to Colman (July 12, 1730) from Bologna, 
• on the subject of engaging singers for the Opera, 
then in the liands of Handel. Swiny died October 
2, 1 754, leaving his fortune to Mrs. WoflSngton. 
He was the author of several dramatic pieces, 
viz. ' The Quacks, or Love's the Physician ' 
(1705); 'Camilla' (1706); ' Pyrrhus and Deme- 
trius' (1709); and 'The Quacks, or Love's the 
Physician,' an altered version of the first piece. 

Two years before his death, a fine portrait of 
Swiny, after Van Loo, was scraped in mezzotint 
by J. Faber, junr. It represents him, in black 
velvet, holding in his hand a book, of which the 
title seems to be 'Don Quixote.' [J.M.] 

SYLPHIDE, LA. One of the most famous 
ballets on record : in 2 acts ; libretto by A. Nour- 
rit the singer, music by Schneitzhoffer. Pro- 
duced at the Grand Opera, Paris, March 12, 
1832. The part of La Sylphide was danced by 
Mdlle. Taglioni, and was one of her greatest 
parts, both in Paris and in London, -where the 
piece was brought out at Covent Garden Theatre, 
for her benefit, July 26, 1832. Thackeray has 
embalmed it in ' Pendennis ' (chap, xxxviii.) [G.] 

SYLVANA, accurately Silvana. Weber's 
3rd opera, composed at Stuttgart, 18 10, and 
produced at Frankfort, Sept. 16, 1810, [See 

' Ballet- pantomime ' in 2 acts and 3 tableaux; 
libretto by Barbier, music by Delibes. Produced 
at the Grand Opdra, Paris, June 14, 1876. [G.] 

SYMPHONIQUES, ETUDES, t. c. Symphonic 
Studies. The name of a theme and set of varia- 
tions in C J minor by Robert Schumann, forming 

7. FestklSnge. 

8. H^roide funfebre. 

9. Hungaria. 

10. Hamlet. 

11. Hunnenschlacht (Battle with 

the Huns). 

12. Ideale. 


op. 13. The work is dedicated to W. Stemdale 
Bennett, and Mr. Spitta has pointed out that the 
theme contains a reference to him, inasmuch as 
it is identical with a part of the romance in 
Marschner's 'Templer und Judin,* *Du stolzes 
England freue dich,' in which this country is 
called on to rejoice in her famous men. [See 
vol. iii. p. 410 a.] The first edition was published 
by Haslinger in 1 837, as • Florestan und Eusebius, 
zwolf Etuden (Etudes Symphoniques).' Those 
published after that date are entitled ' Etudes en 
forme de Variations,* and have been materially 
altered. [G.] 

is. Symphonic Poems. A title employed by Liszt 
for twelve pieces of orchestral music of cha- 
racteristic, i. e. descriptive, kind, and of various 
dates — one feature of which is that the move- 
ments are not divided, but lead into each other 
without interruption. 

L Ce qu'on entend sur la mon- 

2. Tasso. Lamento e Trionfo. 

3. Les Preludes. 

4. Orpheus. 
6. Prometheus. 
6. Mazeppa. 

Of these the following have been performed at 
Mr. Baches annual concerts : — no. 3, May 26, 
1871 and twice besides; no. 4, Nov. 27, 73; 
no. 2, Nov. 27, 73; no. 6,Feb. 27, 77, and Feb. 25, 
79. Nos. 6, II, and 12 have also been played 
at the Crystal Palace (Dec. 9. 76 ; May 17, 79 ; 
Apr. 16, 81 respectively) ; and nos, 2, 9 at the 
Philharmonic (June 9, 1873; Feb. 23, 1882, 

St. Saens has adopted the title * Pobmes sym- 
phoniques ' for 4 pieces : — 

1. Le Rouet d'Omphale. I 3. Danso macabre. 

2. Phaeton. I 4. La Jeunesse d'Hercule. [G.l 

SYMPHONY (SiNFONiA, Sinfonie, Sym- 
PHONIE). The terms used in connection with any 
branch of art are commonly very vague and in- 
definite in the early stages of its history, and are 
applied without much discrimination to different 
things. In course of time men consequently 
find themselves in difficulties, and try, as far as 
their opportunities go, to limit the definition of 
the terms, and to confine them at least to things 
which are not obviously antagonistic. In the end, 
however, the process of sifting is rather guided by 
chance and external circumstances than deter- 
mined by the meaning which theorists see to be 
the proper one ; and the result is that the final 
meaning adopted by the world in general is fre- 
quently not only distinct fi'om that which the 
originad employers of the word intended, but 
also in doubtful conformity with its derivation. 
In the case of the word ' Symphony,! as with 
•Sonata,' the meaning now accepted happens 
to be in very good accordance with its deriva- 
tion, but it is considerably removed firom the 
meaning which was originally attached to the 
word. It seems to have been used at first in a 
very general and comprehensive way, to express 
any portions of music or passages whatever which 
were thrown into relief as purely instrumental 


in works in which the chief interest was centred 
upon the voice or voices. Thus, in the operas, 
cantatas, and masses of the early part of the 
17th century, the voices had the most important 
part of the work to do, and the instruments' chief 
business was to supply simple forms of harmony 
as accompaniment. If there were any little por- 
tions which the instruments played without the 
voices, these were indiscriminately called Sym- 
phonies ; and under the same head were included 
such more particular forms as Overtures and 
Ritomelli. The first experimentalists in harmonic 
music generally dispensed with such independent 
instrumental passages altogether. For instance, 
most if not all of the cantatas of Cesti and Eossi '■ 
are devoid of either instrumental introduction or 
ritomel ; and the same appears to have been the 
case with many of the operas of that time. There 
were however a few independent little instru- 
mental movements even in the earliest operas. 
Peri's ' Euridice,' which stands almost at the head 
of the list (having been performed at Florence in 
1600, as part of the festival in connection with 
the marriage of Henry IV of France and Mary 
de' Medici), contains a ' Sinfonia ' for three flutes, 
which has a definite form of its own and is very 
characteristic of the time. The use of short in- 
strumental passages, such as dances and intro- 
ductions and ri torn els, when once fairly begun, 
increased rapidly. Monteverde, who folio wedclose 
upon Peri, made some use of them, and as the 
century grew older, they became a more and more 
important element in dramatic works, especially 
operas. The indiscriminate use of the word 'sym- 
phony,' to denote the passages of introduction 
to airs and recitatives, etc., lasted for a very long 
while, and got so far stereotyped in common 
usage that it was even applied to the instru- 
mental portions of airs, etc., when played by 
a single performer. As an example may be 
quoted the following passage from a letter of 
Mozart's — *Sie (meaning Strinasacchi) spielt 
keine Note ohne Empfindung ; sogar bei den 
Sinfonien spielte sie alles mit Expression,' etc.'' 
With regard to this use of the term, it is not 
necessary to do more than point out the natural 
course by which the meaning began to be re- 
stricted. Lulli, Alessandro Scarlatti, and other 
great composers of operas in the 17th century, 
extended the appendages of airs to proportions 
relatively considerable, but there was a limit 
beyond which such dependent passages could 
not go. The independent instrumental portions, 
on the other hand, such as overtures or toc- 
catas, or groups of ballet tunes, were in different 
circumstances, and could be expanded to a very 
much greater extent ; and as they grew in im- 
portance the name * Symphony' came by degrees 
to have a more special significance. The small 
instrumental appendages to the various airs and 
so forth were still symphonies in a general sense, 
but the Symphony par excellence was the in- 
troductory movement ; and the more it grew in 

> MSB. In the Christ Church Library, Oxford. 
2 She does not play a note without feeling, and even in the Sym- 
phonies played all with expression. 



importance the more distinctive was this ap- 
plication of the term. 

The earliest steps in the development of this 
portion of the opera are chiefly important as 
attempts to establish some broad principle of 
form; which for some time amounted to little 
more than the balance of short divisions, of slow 
and quick movement alternately. Lulli is credited 
with the invention of one form, which came ulti- 
mately to be known as the ' Ouverture h, la ma- 
nihre Fran9aise.' The principles of this form, as 
generally understood, amounted to no more than 
the succession of a slow solid movement to begin 
with, followed by a quicker movement in a^ 
lighter style, and another slow movement, not 
so grave in character as the first, to conclude 
with. Lulli himself was not rigidly consistent 
in the adoption of this form. In some cases, as 
in 'Perse'e,' 'Thesee,' and * Belldrophon,' there 
are two divisions only — the characteristic grave 
opening movement, and a short free fugal quick 
movement. 'Proserpine,' 'Phadton,' 'Alceste,' 
and the Ballet piece, * Le Triomphe de I'amour,' 
are characteristic examples of the complete 
model. These have a gi'ave opening, which is 
repeated, and then the livelier central move- 
ment, which is followed by a division marked 
* lentement ' ; and the last two divisions are 
repeated in full together. A few examples are 
occasionally to be met with by less famous 
composers than Lulli, which show how far the 
adoption of this form of overture or symphony 
became general in a short time. An o|era 
called 'Venus and Adonis,' by Desmarests, of 
which there is a copy in the Library of the 
Royal College of Music, has the overture in 
this form. ' Amadis de Grfece,' by Des Touches,, 
has the same, as far as can be judged from> 
the character of the divisions ; * Albion and 
Albanius,' by Grabu, which was licensed for pub- 
lication in England by Eoger Lestrange in 16S7, 
has clearly the same, and looks like an imitation 
direct from Lulli; and the ' Venus and Adonis' 
by Dr. John Blow, yet again the same. So the 
model must have been extensively appreciated. 
The most important composer, however, who fol- 
lowed Lulli in this matter, was Alessandro Scar- 
latti, who certainly varied and improved on the 
model both as regards the style and the form^ 
In his opera of ' Flavio Cuniberto'^ for instance, 
the ' Sinfonia avanti I'Opera ' begins with a divi- 
sion marked grave, which is mainly based vxi 
simple canonical imitations, but has also broad 
expanses of contrasting keys. The style, for the 
time, is noble and rich, and very superior to 
LuUi's. The second division is a lively allegro, 
and the last a moderately quick minuet in 6-8 
time. The 'Sinfonia' to his serenata *Venere, 
Adone, Amore,' similarly has a Largo to begin 
with, a Presto in the middle, and a movement, 
not defined by a tempo, but clearly of moderate 
quickness, to end with. This form of * Sinfonia ' 
survived for a long while, and v/as expanded at 
times by a succession of dance movements, for 
which also Lulli supplied examples, and Handel 

> us. in Christ Church Library. 



at a later time more familiar types ; but for the 
history of the modern symphony, a form which 
was distinguished from the other as the * Italian 
Overture,* ultimately became of much greater 

This form appears in principle to be the exact 
opposite of the French Overture : it was similarly 
divided into three movements, but the first and 
last were quick and the central one slow. Who 
the originator of this form was it seems now 
-impossible to decide; it certainly came into 
vogue very soon after the French Overture, and 
quickly supplanted it to a great extent. Certain 
details in its structure were better defined than 
in the earlier form, and the balance and dis- 
tribution of characteristic features were alike 
freer and more comprehensive. The first al- 
legro was generally in a square time and of 
solid character; the central movement aimed at 
expressiveness, and the last was a quick move- 
ment of relatively light character, generally in 
some combination of three feet. The history 
of its early development seems to be wrapped in 
obscurity, but from the moment of its appear- 
ance it has the traits of the modern orchestral 
symphony, and composers very soon obtained 
a remarkable degree of mastery over the form. 
It must have first come into definite acceptance 
about the end of the 17th or the beginning 
of the 1 8th century; and by the middle of the 
latter it had become almost a matter of course. 
Operas, and similar works by the most con- 
spicuous composers of this time, in very great 
numbers, have the same form of overture. For 
instance, the two distinct versions of *La Cle- 
menza di Tito ' by Hasse, * Catone in Utica ' by 
Leonardo Vinci (1728), the * Hypermnestra,' 
'Artaserse, ' and others of Perez, Piccini's ' Didone,' 
Jomelli's 'Betulia liberata,' Sacchini's ' CEdipus,' 
Galuppi's ' II mondo alia reversa' — produced the 
year before Haydn wrote his first symphony — 
and Adam Hiller's 'Lisuart und Dariolette,' 
"*Die Liebe auf dem Lande,' 'Der Krieg,' etc. 
And if a more conclusive proof of the general 
acceptance of the form were required, it would 
be found in the fact that Mozart adopted it 
in his boyish operas, 'La finta semplice' and 
*Lucio Silla.' With the general adoption of 
'ihe form came also a careful development of 
the internal structure of each separate move- 
ment, and also a gradual improvement both in 
the combination and treatment of the instru- 
ments employed. Lulli and Alessandro Scarlatti 
were for the most part satisfied with strings, 
which the former used crudely enough, but the 
latter with a good deal of perception of tone 
and appropriateness of style; sometimes with 
the addition of wind instruments. Early in the 
eighteenth century several wind instruments, 
such as oboes, bassoons, horns, trumpets, and 
flutes, were added, though not often all together; 
and they served, for the most part, chiefly to 
strengthen the strings and give contrasting de- 
grees of full sound rather than contrasts of colour 
and tone. Equally important was the rapid im- 
provement which took place simultaneously in 


internal structure; and in this case the develop- 
ment followed that of certain other departments 
of musical form. In fact the progress of the 
•Sinfonia avanti I'Opera' in this respect was 
chiefly parallel to the development of the Clavier 
Sonata, which at this time was beginning to at- 
tain to clearness of outline, and a certain maturity 
of style. It will not be necessary here to repeat 
what has elsewhere been discussed from different 
points of view in the articles on Fobm, So- 
nata, and Suite ; but it is important to realise 
that in point of time the form of this ' Sinfonia 
avanti I'Opera ' did not lag behind in definition 
of outline and mastery of treatment; and it 
might be difficult to decide in which form 
(whether orchestral or clavier) the important 
detail first presents itself of defining the first and 
second principal sections by subjects decisively 
distinct. A marked improvement in various 
respects appears about the time when the 
symphony first began to be generally played 
apart from the opera ; and the reasons for this 
are obvious. In the first place, as long as 
it was merely the appendage to a drama, less 
stress was laid upon it; and, what is more 
to the point, it is recorded that audiences were 
not by any means particularly attentive to the 
instrumental portion of the work. The descrip- 
tion given of the behaviour of the public at 
some of the most important theatres in Europe 
in the middle of the eighteenth century, seems 
to correspond to the descriptions which are 
given of the audience at the Italian Operas in 
England in the latter half of the nineteenth. 
Burney, in the account of his tour, refers to 
this more than once. In the first volume he 
says, * The music at the theatres in Italy seems 
but an excuse for people to assemble together, 
their attention being chiefly placed on play 
and conversation, even during the performance 
of a serious opera.' In another place he de- 
scribes the card tables, and the way in which 
the ' people of quality ' reserved their attention 
for a favourite air or two, or the performance 
of a favourite singer. The rest, including the 
overture, they did not regard as of much con- 
sequence, and hence the composers had but 
little inducement to put out the best of their 
powers. It may have been partly on this ac- 
count that they took very little pains to connect 
these overtures or symphonies with the opera, 
either by character or feature. They allowed 
it to become almost a settled principle that 
they should be independent in matter ; and con- 
sequently there was very little difficulty in ac- 
cepting them as independent instrumental pieces. 
It naturally followed as it did later with an- 
other form of overture. The 'Symphonies' which 
had more attractive qualities were played apart 
from the operas, in concerts ; and the precedent 
being thereby established, the step to writing 
independent works on similar lines was but 
short; and it was natural that, as undivided 
attention would now be given to them, and 
they were no more in a secondary position 
in connection with the opera, composers should 


take more pains both in the structure and in 
the choice of their musical material. The Sym- 
phony had however reached a considerable pitch 
of development before the emancipation took 
place ; and this development was connected with 
the progress of certain other musical forms be- 
sides the Sonata, already referred to. 

It will accordingly be convenient, before pro- 
ceeding further with the direct history of the 
Symphony, to consider some of the more im- 
portant of these early branches of Musical 
Art. In the early harmonic times the rela- 
tionships of nearly all the different branches 
of composition were close. The Symphony 
was related even to the early Madrigals, 
through the • Senate da Chiesa,' which adopted 
the Canzona or instrumental version of the 
Madrigal as a second movement. It was also 
closely related to the early Fantasias, as the 
earliest experiments in instrumental music, in 
which some of the technical necessities of that 
department were grappled with. It was directly 
connected with the vocal portions of the early 
operas, such as airs and recitatives, and derived 
from them many of the mechanical forms of 
cadence and harmony which for a long time 
were a necessary part of its form. The solo 
Clavier Suite had also something to do with 
it, but not so much as might be expected. As 
has been pointed out elsewhere, the suite-form, 
being very simple in its principle, attained to 
definition very early, while the sonata-form, 
which characterised the richest period of har- 
monic music, was still struggling in elementary 
stages. The ultimate basis of the suite-form 
is a contrast of dance tunes ; but in the typical 
early symphony the dance-tunes are almost in- 
variably avoided. When the Symphony was ex- 
panded by the addition of the Minuet and Trio, 
a bond of connection seemed to be established ; 
but still this bond was not at all a vital one, for 
the Minuet is one of the least characteristic 
elements of the suite-form proper, being clearly 
of less ancient lineage and type than the AUe- 
mande, Courante, Sarabande, or Gigue, or even 
the Gavotte and Bourr^e, which were classed 
with it, as Intermezzi or Galanterien. The 
form of the Clavier Suite movements was in 
fact too inelastic to admit of such expansion 
and development as was required in the or- 
chestral works, and the type did not supply the 
characteristic technical qualities which would be 
of service in their development. The position 
of Bach's Orchestral Suites was somewhat dif- 
ferent; and it appears that he himself called 
them Overtures. Dehn, in his preface to the 
first edition printed, says that the separate MS. 
parts in the Bach archives at Hamburg, from 
which he took that in C, have the distinctive 
characteristics of the handwriting of John Se- 
bastian, and have for title 'Ouverture pour 
2 Violons,' etc. ; and that another MS., probably 
copied from these, has the title 'Suite pour 
Orchestre.' This throws a certain light upon 
Bach's position. It is obvious that in several 
departments of instrumental music he took the 



French for his models rather than the Italians. 
In the Suite he followed Couperin, and in the 
Overture he also followed French models. These 
therefore appear as attempts to develop an in- 
dependent orchestral work analogous to the 
Symphony, upon the basis of a form which had 
the same reason for existence and the same 
general purpose as the Italian Overture, but a^ 
distinctly different general outline. Their chief 
connection with the actual development of the 
modern symphony lies in the treatment of the in- 
struments ; for all experiments, even on different 
lines, if they have a common quality or principle^ 
must react upon one another in those respects. 

Another branch of art which had close con- 
nection with the early symphonies was the 
Concerto. Works under this name were not by 
any means invariably meant to be show pieces 
for solo instruments, as modem concertos are ;, 
and sometimes the name was used as almost 
synonymous with symphony. The earliest con- 
certos seem to have been works in which groups 
of • solo ' and * ripieno ' instruments were used, 
chiefly to obtain contrasts of fullness of tone. 
For instance, a set of six concertos by Alessandro 
Scarlatti, for two violins and cello, ' soli,' and 
two violins, tenor, and bass, 'ripieni,' present 
no distinction of style between one group and 
the other. The accompanying instruments for 
the most part merely double the solo parts, and 
leave off either to lessen the sound here and 
there, or because the passages happen to go a 
little higher than usual, or to be a little difficult 
for the average violin-players of that time. When 
the intention is to vary the quality of sound 
as well, the element of what is called instru- 
mentation is introduced, and this is one of the 
earliest phases of that element which can be 
traced in music. The order of movements and 
the style of them are generally after the manner 
of the Senate da Chiesa, and therefore do not 
present any close analogy with the subject of 
this article. But very soon after the time of 
Corelli and Alessandro Scarlatti the form of 
the Italian overture was adopted for concertos, 
and about the same time they began to show 
traces of becoming show-pieces for great 
performers. Allusions to the performance of 
concertos by great violin - players in the 
churches form a familiar feature in the musical 
literature of the i8th century, and the three- 
movement-form (to all intents exactly like that 
of the symphonies) seems to have been adopted 
early. This evidently points to the fact that 
this form appealed to the instincts of com- 
posers generally, as the most promising for free 
expression of their musical thoughts. It may 
seem curious that J.S.Bach, who followed French 
models in some important departments of in- 
strumental music, should exclusively have fol- 
lowed Italian models in this. But in reality 
it appears to have been a matter of chance 
with him; he always followed the best models 
which came to his hand. In this department 
the Italians excelled ; and Bach therefore fol- 
lowed them, and left the most important early 



specimens of this kind remaining — almost all in 
the three movement-form, which was becoming 
the set order for symphonies. Setting aside 
those specially imitated from Vivaldi, there are 
at least twenty concertos by him for all sorts of 
Bolo instruments and combinations of solo instru- 
ments in this same form. It cannot therefore 
be doubted that some of the development of 
the symphony-form took place in this depart- 
ment. But Bach never to any noticeable 
extent yielded to the tendency to break the 
movements up into sections with corresponding 
tunes ; and this distinguishes his work in a very 
marked manner from that of the generation 
of composers who followed him. His art belongs 
in reality to a different stratum from that which 
produced the greater forms of abstract instru- 
mental music. It is probable that his form pf art 
could not without some modification have pro- 
duced the great orchestral symphonies. In order 
to get to these, composers had to go to a different, 
and for some time a decidedly lower, level. It 
was much the same process as had been gone 
through before. After Palestrina a backward 
move was necessary to make it possible to arrive 
at the art of Bach and Handel. After Bach 
men had to take up a lower line in order to get 
to Beethoven. In the latter case it was neces- 
sary to go through the elementary stages of de- 
fining the various contrasting sections of a move- 
ment, and finding that form of harmonic treat- 
ment which admitted the great effects of colour 
or varieties of tone in the mass, as well as in the 
separate lines of the counterpoint. Bach's position 
was so immensely high that several generations 
had to pass before men were able to follow on 
his lines and adopt his principles in harmonic 
music. The generation that followed him showed 
scarcely any trace of his influence. Even before 
be had passed away the new tendencies of music 
were strongly apparent, and much of the ele- 
mentary work of the modem sonata form of art 
had been done on different lines from his own. 

The * Sinfonia avanti I'Opera ' was clearly by 
this time sufficiently independent and complete 
to be appreciated without the opera, and without 
either name or programme to explain its meaning; 
and within a very short period the demand for 
these sinfonias became very great. Bumey's tours 
in search of materials for his History, in France, 
Italy, Holland, and Germany, were made in 1770 
and 72, before Haydn had written any of his 
greater symphonies, and while Mozart was still 
a boy. His allusions to independent * sympho- 
nies ' are very frequent. Among those whose 
works he mentions with most favour are Sta- 
mitz, Emmanuel Bach, Christian Bach, and 
Abel. Works of the kind by these composers 
and many others of note are to be seen in great 
numbers in sets of part -books in the British 
Museum. These furnish most excellent mate- 
rials for judging of the status of the Symphony 
in the early stages of its independent existence. 
The two most important points which they 
illustrate are the development of instrumentation, 
and the definition of form. They appear to 


have been generally written in eight parts. Most 
of them are scored for two violins, viola, and 
bass ; two hautboys, or two flutes, and two 
* cors de chasse.' This is the case in the six 
symphonies of opus 3 of John Christian Bach ; 
the six of Abel's opus 10, the six of Stamitz's 
opus 9, opus 13, and opus 16; also in a set 
of 'Overtures in 8 parts' by Ame, which must 
have been early in the field, as the licence 
from George II, printed in full at the beginning 
of the first violin part, is dated January 1 7^^. 
The same orchestration is found in many sym- 
phonies by Galuppi, Ditters, Schwindl, and others. 
Wagenseil, who must have been the oldest of this 
group of composers (having been bom in the 17th 
century, within six years after Handel, Scarlatti, 
and Bach), wrote several quite in the characteristic 
harmonic style, *k 4 parties obligees avec Cors 
de Chasse ad libitum.' The treatment of the in* 
struments in these early examples is rather crude 
and stiff. The violins are almost always playing, 
and the hautboys or flutes are only used to rein- 
force them at times as the * ripieni ' instruments 
did in the early concertos, while the horns serve 
to hold on the haniionies. The first stages of 
improvement are noticeable in such details as the 
independent treatment of the strings. In the ' sym- 
phonies before the opera' the violas were cared 
for so little that in many cases ^ not more than 
half-a-dozen bars are written in, all the rest being 
merely *col basso.' As examples of this in works 
of more or less illustrious writers may be men- 
tioned the 'Sinfonias' to Jomelli's 'Passione' 
and 'Betulia Liberata,' Sacchini's 'QEdipus,' and 
Sarti's ' Giulio Sabino.' One of the many honours 
attributed to Stamitz by his admiring contempo- 
raries was that he made the violas independent of 
the basses. This may seem a trivial detail, but it 
is only by such details, and the way in which they 
struck contemporary writers, that the character 
of the gradual progress in instrumental composi- 
tion can now be understood. 

The general outlines of the form were extremely 
regular. The three movements as above described 
were almost invariable, the first being a vigorous 
broad allegro, the second the sentimental slow 
movement, and the third the lively vivace. The 
progress of internal structure is at first chiefly 
noticeable in the first movement. In the early 
examples this is always condensed as much as 
possible, the balance of subjects is not very clearly 
realisable, and there is hardly ever a double bar 
or repeat of the first half of the movement. The 
divisions of key, the short ' working^ut ' portion, 
and the recapitulation, are generally present, but 
not pointedly defined. Examples of tlus condition 
of things are supplied by some MS. symphonies 
by Paradisi in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cam- 
bridge, which in other respects possess excellent 
and characteristically modern traits. The first 
thing attained seems to have been the relative 
definition and balance of the two subjects. In 
Stamitz, Abel, J. C. Bach, and Wagenseil, this 
is already commonly met with. The following 

1 It Is notorious that Mozart gave fuller parts to the second violin 
because of the incompetence of the viola-players. 


examples from the first movement of the fifth 
symphony of Stamitz's opus 9 illustrate both 
the style and the degree of contrast between the 
two principal subjects, 
ist subject. 





JUi UJi^^ ^^ 

The style is a little heavy, and the motion 
constrained, but the general character is solid 
and dignified. The last movements of this period 
are curiously suggestive of some familiar ex- 
amples of a maturer time; very gay and obvious, 
and very definite in outline. The following is 
very characteristic of Abel : — 

I %. ji g ill I I F I I ! I 

— ' ' ' ' ' LLLl bfcfi^ ^ ^ 

^ etc. 

• . — m r^ 

It is a noticeable fact in connection with 
the genealogy of these works, that they are 
almost as frequently entitled • Overture ' as 

* Symphony ' ; sometimes the same work is 
called by the one name outside and the other in ; 
and this is the case also with some of the earlier 
and slighter symphonies of Haydn, which must 
have made their appearance about this period. 
One further point which it is of importance to 
note is that in some of Stamitz's symphonies 
the complete form of the mature period is found. 
One in J) is most complete in every respect. The 
first movement is Allegro with double bars and 
repeats in regular binary form ; the second is an 
Andante in G, the third a Minuet and Trio, and 
the fourth a Presto. Another in Eb (which is 
called no. 7 in the part-books) and another in F 
(not definable) have also the Minuet and Trio. 
A few others by Schwindl and Ditters have the 
same, but it is impossible to get even approxi- 
mately to the date of their production, and 
therefore little inference can be framed upon the 
circumstance, beyond the fact that composers 
were beginning to recognise the fourth movement 
as a desirable ingredient. 

Another composer who precedes Haydn in 
time as well as in style is Emmanuel Bach. He 
was his senior in years, and began writing sym- 
phonies in 1 741, when Haydn was only nine 
years old. His most important symphonies were 
produced in 1 776 ; while Haydn's most important 
examples were not produced till after 1 790. In 
style Emmanuel Bach stands singularly alone, 
at least in his finest examples. It looks almost 
as if he purposely avoided the form which by 
1776 must have been familiar to the musical 
world. It has been shown that the binary form 
was employed by some of his contemporaries in 
their orchestral works, but he seems determinedly 
to avoid it in the first movements of the works 
of that year. His object seems to have been to 
produce striking and clearly outlined passages, 
and to balance and contrast them one with an- 
other according to his fancy, and with little 
regard to any systematic distribution of the suc- 
cessions of key. The boldest and most striking 
subject is the first of the Symphony in D : — 




g^^r ^ex^r 



The opening passages of that in Eb are hardly 
less emphatic. They have little connection with 
the tendencies of his contemporaries, but seem 
in every respect an experiment on independent 
lines, in which the interest depends upon the 
vigour of the thoughts and the unexpected 
turns of the modulations; and the result is 
certainly rather fragmentaiy and disconnected. 
The slow movement is commonly connected 
with the first and last either by a special 
transitional passage, or by a turn of modula- 
tion and a half close. It is short and dependent 
in its character, but graceful and melodious. 
The last is much more systematic in structure 
than the first; sometimes in definite binary 
form, as was the case with the early violin sonatas. 


In orchestration and genei-al style of expression 
these works seem immensely superior to the other 
early symphonies which have been described. 
They are scored for horns, flutes, oboi, fagotto, 
strings, with a figured bass for ' cembalo,' which 
in the symphonies previously noticed does not 
always appear. There is an abundance of unison 
and octave passages for the strings, but there is 
also good free writing, and contrasts between 
wind and strings; the wind being occasionally 
left quite alone. All the instruments come in 
occasionally for special employment, and con- 
sidering the proportions of the orchestras of the 
time Bach's eflfects must have been generally clear 
and good. The following is a good specimen of 
his scoring of an ordinary full passage : — 

fel^'^^h" ! ^ ^ ^^ 


It has sometimes been said that Haydn was 
chiefly influenced byEnamanuel Bach, and Mozart 
by John Christian Bach. At the present time, and 
in relation to symphonies, it is easier to understand 
the latter case than the former. In both cases 
the influence is more likely to be traced in clavier 
works than in those for orchestra. For Haydn's 
style and treatment of form bear far more re- 
semblance to most of the other composers whose 
works have been referred to, than to Emmanuel 
Bach. There are certain kinds of forcible ex- 
pression and ingenious turns of modulation which 
Haydn may have learnt from him; but their 
best orchestral works seem to belong to quite 
distinct families. Haydn's first symphony was 
written in 1759 for Count Morzin. Like many 
other of his early works it does not seem dis- 
coverable in print in this country. But it is 
said by Pohl,* who must have seen it some- 
where in Germany, to be • a small work in three 
movements for 2 violins, viola, bass, 2 oboes, 
and 2 horns ' ; from which particulars it would 

1 Joseph Haydn, rol. 1. 284 (1876). 

appear to correspond exactly in externals to the 
examples above described of Abel's and J. C. 
Bach's, etc. In the course of the next few 
years he added many more ; most of which appear 
to have been slight and of no great historical 
importance, while the few which present pecu- 
liarities are so far isolated in those respects that 
they do not throw much light upon the course of 
his development, or upon his share in building up 
the art-form of the Symphony. Of such a kind 
is the movement (dramatic in character, and in- 
cluding long passages of recitative) in the Sym- 
phony in C, which he wrote as early as 1 76 1 .' For, 
though this kind of movement is found in instru- 
mental works of an earlier period, its appearance 
in such a manner in a symphony is too rare to 
have any special historical bearings. The course 
of his development was gradual and regular. He 
seems to have been content with steadily im- 
proving the edifice of his predecessors, and with 
few exceptions to have followed their lines. A 
great deal is frequently attributed to his con- 
« Ibid. 287. 397. 


nection with the complete musical establishment 
which Prince Esterhazy set up at his great palace 
at Esterh^ ; where Haydn certainly had op- 
portunities which have been the lot of scarcely 
any other composer who ever lived. He is de- 
scribed as making experiments in orchestration, 
and ringing the bell for the band to come and 
try them ; and, though this may not be absolutely 
true in fact, there can scarcely be a doubt that 
the very great improvements which he effected 
in every department of orchestration may to a 
great extent be attributed to the facilities for 
testing his works which he enjoyed. At the 
same time the really important portion of his 
compositions were not produced till his patron, 
Prince Nicolaus Esterhazy, was dead, and the 
musical establishment broken up ; nor, it must 
be remembered, till after that strange and 
important episode in Haydn's life, the rapid 
flitting of Mozart across the scene. When 
Haydn wrote his first symphony, Mozart was 
only three years old; and Mozart died in the very 
year in which the famous Salomon concerts in 
London, for which Haydn wrote nearly all his 
finest symphonies, began. Mozart's work there- 
fore comes between Haydn's lighter period and 
his greatest achievements ; and his symphonies 
are in some respects prior to Haydn's, and cer- 
tainly had effect upon his later works of all 

According to Kochel, Mozart wrote altogether 
forty-nine symphonies. The first, in Eb, was 
written in London in 1 764, when he was eight 
years old, and only five years after Haydn 
wrote his first. It was on the same pattern as 
those which have been fully described above, be- 
ing in three movements and scored for the usual 
set of instruments — namely, two violins, viola, 
bass, two oboes and two horns. Three more 
followed in close succession, in one of which 
clarinets are introduced instead of oboes, and 
a bassoon is added to the usual group of 
eight instruments. In these works striking 
originality of purpose or style is hardly to be 
looked for, and it was not for some time that 
Mozart's powers in instrumental music reached 
a pitch of development which is historically 
important ; but it is nevertheless astonishing to 
Bee how early he developed a free and even rich 
style in managing his orchestral resources. With 
regard to the character of these and all but a 
few of the rest, it is necessary to keep in mind 
that a symphony at that time was a very much 
less important matter than it became fifty years 
later. The manner in which symphonies were 
poured out, in sets of six and otherwise, by 
numerous composers during the latter half of 
the eighteenth century, puts utterly out of the 
question the loftiness of aim and purpose which 
has become a necessity since the early years of 
the present century. They were all rather slight 
works on familiar lines, with which for the time 
being composers and public were alike quite 
content ; and neither Haydn nor Mozart in 
their early specimens seem to have specially 
exerted themselves. The general survey of 

VOL. IV. FT. I. 



Mozart's symphonies presents a certain number 
of facts which are worth noting for their 
bearing upon the history of this form of art. 
The second symphony he wrote had a minuet 
and trio; but it is hardly possible that he 
can have regarded this as an important point, 
since he afterwards wrote seventeen others 
without them ; and these spread over the whole 
period of his activity, for even in that which he 
wrote at Prague in 1 786, and which is last but 
three in the whole series, the minuet and trio are 
absent. Besides this fact, which at once con- 
nects them with the examples by other com- 
posers previously discussed, there is the yet 
more noticeable one that more than twenty of 
the series are written for the same peculiar 
little group of instruments, viz. the four strings, 
a pair of oboes or flutes, and a pair of horns. 
Although he used clarinets so early as his third 
symphony, he never employed them again till 
his thirty-ninth, which was written for Paris, 
and is almost more fully scored than any. In 
the whole forty-nine, in fact, he only used clari- 
nets five times, and in one of these cases (viz. 
the well-known G minor) they were added after 
he had finished the score. Even bassoons are 
not common ; the most frequent addition to the 
little nucleus of oboes or flutes and horns being 
trumpets and drums. The two which are most 
fully scored are the Parisian, in D, just alluded 
to, which was written in 1778, and that in Eb, 
which was written in Vienna in 1788, and 
stands first in the famous triad. These facts 
explain to a certain extent how it was possible 
to write such an extraordinary number in so 
short a space of time. Mozart's most con- 
tinuously prolific period in this branch of art 
seems to have been when he had returned to 
Salzburg in 1771 ; for between July in that 
year and the beginning of 1773, it appears to be 
proved that he produced no less than fourteen. 
But this feat is fairly surpassed in another sense 
by the production of the last three in three suc- 
cessive months, June, July, and August, 1788; 
since the musical calibre of these is so immensely 
superior to that of the earlier ones. 

One detail of comparison between Mozart's 
ways and Haydn's is curious. Haydn began 
to use introductory adagios very early, and 
used them so often that they became quite a 
characteristic feature in his plan. Mozart, on 
the other hand, did not use one until his 44th 
Symphony, written in 1783. What was the 
origin of Haydn's employment of them is 
uncertain. The causes that have been sug- 
gested are not altogether satisfactory. In the 
orthodox form of symphony, as written by the 
numerous composers of his early days, the open- 
ing adagio is not found. He may possibly have 
observed that it was a useful factor in a certain 
class of overtures, and then have used it as an 
experiment in symphonies, and finding it answer, 
may have adopted the expedient generally in 
succeeding works of the kind. It seems likely 
that Mozart adopted it from Haydn, as its first 
appearance (in the symphony which is believed 




to have been composed at Linz for Count Thun) 
coincides with the period in which he is con- 
sidered to have been first strongly influenced 
by Haydn. 

The influence of these two great composers 
upon one another is extremely interesting and 
curious, more especially as it did not take efiect 
till comparatively late in their artistic careers. 
They both began working in the general direc- 
tion of their time, under the influences which 
have been already referred to. In the depart- 
ment of symphony each was considerably in- 
fluenced after a time by a special circumstance of 
his life ; Haydn by the appointment to Esterh^z 
before alluded to, and the opportunities it afforded 
him of orchestral experiment; and Mozart by 
his stay at Mannheim in 1777. For it appears 
most likely that the superior abilities of the 
Mannheim orchestra for dealing with purely 
instrumental music, and the traditions of 
Stamitz, who had there effected his share in the 
history of the Symphony, opened Mozart's eyes 
to the possibilities of orchestral performance, 
and encouraged him to a freer style of compo- 
sition and more elaborate treatment of the 
orchestra than he had up to that time attempted. 
The Mannheim band had in fact been long con- 
sidered the finest in Europe; and in certain 
things, such as attention to nuances (which in 
early orchestral works had been looked upon as 
either unnecessary or out of place), they and 
their conductors had been important pioneers; 
and thus Mozart must certainly have had his ideas 
on such heads a good deal expanded. The quali- 
ties of the symphony produced in Paris early in 
the next year were probably the firstfruits of these 
circumstances ; and it happens that while this 
symphony is the first of his which has maintained 
a definite position among the important landmai-ks 
of art, it is also the first in which he uses 
orchestral forces approaching to those commonly 
employed for symphonies since the latter part of 
the last century. 

Both Haydn and Mozart, in the course of their 
respective careers, made decided progress in 
managing the orchestra, both as regards the 
treatment of individual instruments, and the 
distribution of the details of musical interest 
among them. It has been already pointed out 
that one of the earliest expedients by which 
contrast of effect was attempted by writers for 
combinations of instruments, was the careful 
distribution of portions for • solo ' and * ripieno ' 
instruments, as illustrated by Scarlatti's and later 
concertos. In J. S. Bach's treatment of the or- 
chestra the same characteristic is familiar. The 
long duets for oboes, flutes, or bassoons, and the 
solos for horn or violin, or viola da gamba, which 
continue throughout whole recitatives or arias, 
all have this same principle at bottom. Com- 
posers had still to learn the free and yet well- 
balanced management of their string forces, and 
to attain the mean between the use of wind 
instruments merely to strengthen the strings and 
their use as solo instruments in long independent 
passages. In Haydn's early symphonies the old 


traditions are most apparent. The balance be- 
tween the difierent forces of the orchestra is as 
yet both crude and obvious. In the symphony 
called 'Le Matin' for instance, which appears 
to have been among the earliest, the second 
violins play with the first, and the violas with 
the basses to a very marked extent — in the first 
movement almost throughout. This first move- 
ment, again, begins with a solo for flute. The 
slow movement, which is divided into adagio 
and andante, has no wind instruments at all, 
but there is a violin solo throughout the middle 
portion. In the minuet a contrast is attained 
by a long passage for wind band alone (as in 
J. S. Bach's 2nd Bourree to the ' Ouverture ' in C 
major) ; and the trio consists of a long and 
elaborate solo for bassoon. Haydn early began 
experiments in various uses of his orchestra, and 
his ways of grouping his solo instruments for 
effect are often curious and original. C. F. Pohl, 
in his life of him, prints from the MS. parts a 
charming slow movement from a Bb symphony, 
which was probably written in 1766 or 1767* 
It illustrates in a singular way how Haydn at 
first endeavoured to obtain a special effect with- 
out ceasing to conform to familiar methods of 
treating his strings. The movement is scored 
for first and second violins, violas, solp violoncello 
and bass, all * con sordini.' The first and second 
violins play in unison thoughout, and the cello 
plays the tune with them an octave lower, while 
the violas play in octaves with the bass all but 
two or three bars of cadence ; so that in reality 
there are scarcely ever more than two parts 
playing at a time. The following example will 
show the style : — 

vioiini 1*2 

Towards a really free treatment of his forces he 
seems, however, to have been led on insensibly 
and by very slow degrees. For over twenty years 
of symphony- writing the same limited treatment 
of strings and the same kind of solo passages are 
commonly to be met with. But there is a grow- 
ing tendency to make the wind and the lower 
and inner strings more and more independent, 
and to individualise the style of each within 
proportionate bounds. A fine symphony (in E 
minor, 'Letter I') which appears to date from 
1772, is a good specimen of Haydn's inter- 
mediate stage. The strings play almost inces- 
santly throughout, and the wind either doubles 


the string parts to enrich and reinforce them, 
or else has long holding notes while the strings 
play characteristic figures. The following pas- 
sage from the last movement will serve to 
illustrate pretty clearly the stage of orchestral 
expression to which Haydn had at that time 
arrived : — 

Cornl in E 




Cornl In O 

In the course of the following ten years the 
progress was slow but steady. No doubt many 
other composers were writing symphonies besides 
Haydn and Mozart, and were, like them, im- 
proving that branch of art. Unfortunately the 
difficulty of fixing the dates of their productions 
is almost insuperable ; and so their greater re- 
presentatives come to be regarded, not only as 
giving an epitome of the history of the epoch, 
but as comprising it in themselves. Mozart's 
first specially notable symphony falls in 1778. 
This was the one which he wrote for Paris after 
his experiences at Mannheim ; and some of his 
Mannheim friends who happened to be in Paris 
with him assisted at the performance. It is in 
almost every respect a very great advance upon 
Haydn's E minor Symphony, just quoted. The 
treatment of the instruments is very much freer, 
and more individually characteristic. It marks 
an important step in the transition from the kind 
of symphony in which the music appears to have 
been conceived almost entirely for violins, with 
wind subordinate, except in special solo passages, 
to the kind in which the original conception in 
respect of subjects, episodes and development, 
embraced all the forces, including the wind instru- 
ments. The first eight bars of Mozart's sym- 
phony are sufficient to illustrate the nature of 
the artistic tendency. In the firm and dignified 
beginning of the principal subject, the strings, 
with flutes and bassoons, are all in unison for 
three bars, and a good body of wind instruments 
gives the full chord. Then the upper strings are 
left alone for a couple of bars in octaves, and 
are accompanied in their short closing phrase by 
an independent full chord of wind instruments, 
piano. This chord is repeated in the same form 
of rhythm as that which marks the first bars of 
the principal subject, and has therefore at once 
musical sense and relevancy, besides supplying 

the necessary full harmony. In the subsidiary 
subject by which the first section is carried on, 
the quick lively passages of the strings are ac- 
companied by short figures for flute and horns, 
with their own independent musical signifi- 
cance. In the second subject proper, which 
is derived from this subsidiary, an excellent 
balance of colour is obtained by pairs of wind 
instruments in octaves, answering with an in- 
dependent and very characteristic phrase of their 
own the group of strings which give out the 
first part of the subject. The same well-balanced 
method is observed throughout. In the work- 
ing out of this movement almost all the instru- 
ments have something special and relevant of 
their own to do, so that it is made to seem as 
if the conception were exactly apportioned to 
the forces which were meant to utter it. The 
same criticisms apply to all the rest of the 
symphony. The slow movement has beautiful 
independent figures and plirases for the wind 
instruments, so interwoven with the body of the 
movement that they supply necessary elements 
of colour and fulness of harmony, without ap- 
pearing either as definite solos or as meaningless 
holding notes. The fresh and merry last move- 
ment has much the same characteristics as the 
first in the matter of instrumental utterance, and 
in its working-out section all the forces have, if 
anything, even more independent work of their 
own to do, while still supplying their appropriate 
ingredients to the sum total of sound. 

The succeeding ten years saw all the rest of 
the work Mozart was destined to do in the de- 
partment of symphony ; much of it showing in 
turn an advance on the Paris Symphony, inas- 
much as the principles there shown were worked 
out to greater fullness and perfection, while the 
musical spirit attained a more definite richness, 
and escaped further from the formalism which 
characterises the previous generation. Among 
these symphonies the most important are the 
following : a considerable one (in Eb) composed 
at Salzburg in 1780 ; the ' HafFner ' (^in D), which 
was a modification of a serenade, and had ori- 
ginally more than the usual group of movements ; 
the ' Linz ' Symphony (in C ; ' No. 6 ') ; and the 
last four, the crown of the whole series. The first 
of these (in D major) was written for Prague in 
1 786, and was received there with immense favour 
in January 1787. It appears to be far in advance 
of all its' predecessors in freedom and clearness 
of instrumentation, in the breadth and musical 
significance of the subjects, and in richness 
and balance of form. It is one of the few of 
Mozart's which open with an adagio, and that too 
of unusual proportions ; but it has no minuet and 
trio. This symphony was in its turn eclipsed 
by the three great ones in E flat, G minor, 
and C, which were composed at Vienna in June, 
July and August, 1788. These symphonies are 
almost the first in which certain qualities of 
musical expression and a certain method in their 
treatment stand prominent in the manner which 
was destined to become characteristic of the 
great works of the early part of the nineteenth 



century. Mozart having mastered the principle 
upon which the mature art-form of symphony 
was to be attacked, had greater freedom for the 
expression of his intrinsically musical ideas, and 
' could emphasise more freely and consistently the 
typical characteristics which his inspiration led 
him to adopt in developing his ideas. It must 
not, however, be supposed that this principle is 
to be found for the first time in these works. 
They find their counterparts in works of Haydn's 
of a much earlier date ; only, inasmuch as the 
art-form was then less mature, the element of 
formalism is too strong to admit of the musical 
or poetical intention being so clearly realised. 
It is of course impossible to put into words with 
certainty the inherent characteristics of these or 
any other later works on the same lines ; but that 
they are felt to have such characteristics is in- 
disputable, and their perfection as works of art, 
which is so commonly insisted on, could not 
exist if it were not so. Among the many 
writers who have tried in some way to describe 
them, probably the best and most responsible 
is Otto Jahn. Of the first of the group (that in 
Eb), he says, * We find the expression of per- 
fect happiness in the charm of euphony' which 
is one of the marked external characteristics of 
the whole work. ' The feeling of pride in the 
consciousness of power shines through the mag- 
nificent introduction, while the Allegro expresses 
the purest pleasure, now in frolicsome joy, now 
in active excitement, and now in noble and 
dignified composure. Some shadows appear, it 
is true, in the Andante, but they only serve to 
throw into stronger relief the mild serenity of 
a mind communing with itself and rejoicing 
in the peace which fills it. This is the true 
source of the cheerful transport which rules the 
last movement, rejoicing in its own strength 
and in the joy of being.' Whether this is all 
perfectly true or not is of less consequence than 
the fact that a consistent and uniform style and 
object can be discerned through the whole work, 
and that it admits of an approximate descrip- 
tion in words, without either straining or violating 
familiar impressions. 

The second of the great symphonic trilogy — 
that in G minor — has a still clearer meaning. 
The contrast with the Eb is strong, for in no 
symphony of Mozart's is there so much sadness 
and regretfulness. This element also accounts 
for the fact that it is the most modern of his 
symphonies, and shows most human nature, 
E. J. A. Hoffmann (writing in a spirit very dif- 
ferent from that of Jahn) says of it, ' Love and 
melancholy breathe forth in purest spirit tones ; 
we feel ourselves drawn with inexpressible long- 
ing towards the forms which beckon us to join 
them in their flight through the clouds to an- 
other sphere.' Jahn agrees in attributing to it 
a character of sorrow and complaining ; and 
there can hardly be a doubt that the tonality 
as well as the style, and such characteristic 
features as occur incidentally, would all favour 
the idea that Mozart's inspiration took a sad 
cast, and maintained it so far throughout; so 


that, notwithstanding the formal passages which 
occasionally make their appearance at the closes, 
the whole work may without violation of prob- 
ability receive a consistent psychological ex- 
planation. Even the orchestration seems appro- 
priate from this point of view, since the prevailing 
effect is far less soft and smooth than that of 
the jjrevious symphony. A detail of historical 
interest in connection with this work is the 
fact that Mozart originally wrote it without 
clarinets, and added them afterwards for a per- 
formance at which it may be presumed they 
happened to be specially available. He did 
this by taking a separate piece of paper and 
rearranging the oboe parts, sometimes combining 
the instruments and sometimes distributing the 
parts between the two, with due regard to their 
characteristic styles of utterance. 

The last of Mozart's symphonies has so obvi- 
ous and distinctive a character throughout, that 
popular estimation has accepted the definite 
name * Jupiter ' as conveying the prevalent feel- 
ing about it. In this there is far less human 
sentiment than in the G minor. In fact, Mozart 
appears to have aimed at something lofty and 
self-contained, and therefore precluding the shade 
of sadness which is an element almost indis- 
pensable to strong human sympathy. When he 
descends from this distant height, he assumes a 
cheerful and sometimes playful vein, as in the 
second principal subject of the first movement, 
and in the subsidiary or cadence subject that fol- 
lows it. This may not be altogether in accord- 
ance with what is popularly meant by the name 
'Jupiter,' though that deity appears to have 
been capable of a good deal of levity in his time ; 
but it has the virtue of supplying admirable con- 
trast to the main subjects of the section ; and it 
is so far in consonance with them that there is 
no actual reversal of feeling in passing from one 
to the other. The slow movement has an appro- 
priate dignity which keeps it in character, and 
reaches, in parts, a considerable degree of 
passion, which brings it nearer to human sym- 
pathy than the other movements. The Minuet 
and the Trio again show cheerful serenity, and 
the last movement, with its elaborate fugal treat- 
ment, has a vigorous austerity, which is an ex- 
cellent balance to the character of the first 
movement. The scoring, especially in the first 
and last movements, is fuller than is usual with 
Mozart, and produces effects of strong and clear 
sound ; and it is also admirably in character with 
the spirit of dignity and loftiness which seems to 
be aimed at in the greater portion of the musical 
subjects and figures. In these later symphonies 
Mozart certainly reached a far higher pitch of 
art in the department of instrumental music than 
any hitherto arrived at. The characteristics of 
his attainments may be described as a freedom 
of style in the ideas, freedom in the treatment 
of the various parts of the score, and indepen- 
dence and appropriateness of expression in the 
management of the various groups of instruments 
employed. In comparison with the works of his 
predecessors, and with his own and Haydn's 


earlier compositions there is throughout a most 
remarkable advance in vitality. The distribu- 
tion of certain cadences and passages of tutti 
still appear to modem ears formal; but compared 
with the immature formalism of expression, 
even in principal ideas, which was prevalent 
twenty or even ten years earlier, the improve- 
ment is immense. In such structural elements 
as the development of the ideas, the concise and 
energetic flow of the music, the distribution and 
contrast of instrumental tone, and the balance 
and proportion of sound, these works are gene- 
rally held to reach a pitch almost unsurpassable 
from the point of view of technical criticism. 
Mozart's intelligence and taste, dealing with 
thoughts as yet undisturbed by strong or pas- 
sionate emotion, attained a degree of perfection in 
the sense of pure and directly intelligible art which 
later times can scarcely hope to see approached. 
Haydn's symphonies up to this time cannot 
be said to equal Mozart's in any respect ; though 
they show a considerable improvement on the 
style of treatment and expression in the ' Trauer ' 
or the • Farewell' Symphonies. Of those which 
are better known of about this date are ' La 
Poule' and 'Letter V,' which were written 
(both for Paris) in 1786 and 1787. 'Letter Q,' 
or the ' Oxford ' Symphony, wliich was per- 
formed when Haydn received the degree of 
Doctor of Music from that university, dates 
from 1788, the same year as Mozart's great 
triad. 'Letter V* and 'Letter Q' are in his 
mature style, and thoroughly characteristic in 
every respect. The orchestration is clear and 
fresh, though not so sympathetic nor so elastic 
in its variety as Mozart's ; and the ideas, with 
all their geniality and directness, are not up to 
his own highest standard. It is the last twelve, 
which were written for Salomon after 1790, 
which have really fixed Haydn's high position 
as a composer of symphonies; these became so 
popular as practically to supersede the numer- 
ous works of all his predecessors and contempo- 
raries except Mozart, to the extent of causing 
them to be almost completely forgotten. This is 
owing partly to the high pitch of technical skill 
which he attained, partly to the freshness and 
geniality of his ideas, and partly to the vigour 
a,nd daring of harmonic progression which he 
manifested. He and Mozart together enriched 
this branch of art to an extraordinary degree, 
and towards the end of their lives began to 
introduce far deeper feeling and earnestness 
into the style than had been customary in early 
works of the class. The average orchestra had 
increased in size, and at the same time had 
gained a better balance of its component ele- 
ments. Instead of the customary little group 
of strings and four wind instruments, it had 
come to comprise, besides the strings, 2 flutes, 
2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, and 
drums. To these were occasionally added 2 clari- 
nets, as in Haydn's three last (the two in 
D minor and one in Eb), and in one move- 
ment of the Military Symphony. Neither 
Mozart nor Haydn ever used trombones in 



symphonies ; but uncommon instruments were 
sometimes employed, as in the 'Military,' in 
which Haydn used a big drum, a triangle and ! 
cymbals. In his latest symphonies Haydn's 
treatment of his orchestra agrees in general with 
the description already given of Mozart's. The 
bass has attained a free motion of its own ; the 
violas rarely cling in a dependent manner to it, 
but have their own individual work to do, and 
the same applies to the second violins, which no 
longer so often appear merely 'col imo.' The wind 
instruments fill up and sustain the harmonies 
as completely as in former days ; but they cease 
merely to hold long notes without characteristic 
features, or slavishly to follow the string parts 
whenever something livelier is required. They 
may still play a great deal that is mere doubling, 
but there is generally method in it ; and the 
musical ideas they express are in a great measure 
proportioned to their characters and style of 
utterance. Haydn was rather fond of long 
passages for wind alone, as in the slow movement 
of the Oxford Symphony, the opening passage of 
the first allegro of the Military Symphony, and 
the ' working out ' of the Symphony in C, no. i 
of the Salomon set. Solos in a tune-form for 
wind instruments az"e also rather more common 
than in Mozart's works, and in many respects the 
various elements which go to make up the whole 
^re less assimilated than they are by Mozart. 
The tunes are generally more definite in their 
outlines, and stand in less close relation with their 
context. It appears as if Haydn always re- 
tained to the last a strong sympathy with simple 
people's-tunes ; the character of his minuets 
and trios, and especially of his finales, is some- 
times strongly defined in this respect ; but his way 
of expressing them within the limits he chose is 
extraordinarily finished and acute. It is possible 
that, as before suggested, he got his taste for sur- 
prises in harmonic progression from C. P. E. Bach. 
His instinct for such things, considering the age 
he lived in, was very remarkable. The passage 
on the next page, from his Symphony in C, just 
referred to, illustrates several of the above points 
at once. 

The period of Haydn and Mozart is in every 
respect the principal crisis in the history of the 
Symphony. When they came upon the scene, 
it was not regarded as a very important form 
of art. In the good musical centres of those 
times — and there were many — there was a great 
demand for symphonies ; but the bands for which 
they were written were small, and appear from 
the most natural inferences not to have been very 
efiBcient or well organised. The standard of 
performance was evidently rough, and composers 
could neither expect much attention to pianos 
and fortes, nor any ability to grapple with tech- 
nical diflBculties among the players of bass in- 
struments or violas. The audiences were critical 
in the one sense of requiring good healthy work- 
manship in the writing of the pieces — in fact 
much better than they would demand in the 
present day ; but with regard to deep meaning, 
refinement, poetical intention, or originality, they 






U d 



-4— f-4 

:t=^JU^ - ^M 

^ ^ i J 


appear to have cared very little. They wanted 
to be healthily pleased and entertained, not 
stirred with deep emotion; and the purposes 
of composers in those days were consequently 
not exalted to any high pitch, but were limited to 
a simple and unpretentious supply, in accordance 
with demand and opportunity. Haydn was 
influenced by these considerations till the last. 
There is always more fun and gaiety in his music 
than pensiveness or serious reflection. But in 
developing the technical part of expression, in 
proportioning the means to the end, and in 
organising the forces of the orchestra, what he 
did was of the utmost importance. It is, how- 
ever, impossible to apportion the value of the 
work of the two masters. Haydn did a great 
deal of important and substantial work before 
Mozart came into prominence in the same field. 
But after the first great mark had been made 
by the Paris S^phony, Mozart seemed to rush 
to his culmination ; and in the last four of his 
works reached a style which appears richer, 
more S3mipathetic, and more complete than any- 
thing Haydn could attain to. Then, again, when 

he had passed away, Haydn produced his greatest 
works. Each composer had his distinctive char- 
acteristics, and each is delightful in his own 
way; but Haydn would probably not have 
reached his highest development without the 
influence of his more richly gifted contempo- 
rary ; and Mozart for his part was undoubtedly 
very much under the influence of Haydn at an 
important part of his career. The best that 
can be said by way of distinguishing their re- 
spective shares in the result is that Mozart's last 
symphonies introduced an intrinsically musical 
element which had before been wanting, and 
showed a supreme perfection of actual art in 
their structure ; while Haydn in the long series 
of his works cultivated and refined his own 
powers to such an extent that when his last 
symphonies had made their appearance, the 
status of the symphony was raised beyond the 
possibility of a return to the old level. In 
fact he gave this branch of art a stability and 
breadth which served as the basis upon which 
the art of succeeding generations appears to 
rest ; and the simplicity and clearness of his style 


and structural principles supplied an intelligible 
model for his successors to follow. 

One of the most important of the contem- 
poraries of Haydn and Mozart in this depart- 
ment of art was F. J. Gossec. He was bom in 
I733» one year after Haydn, and lived like 
him to a good old age. His chief claim to re- 
membrance is the good work which he did in im- 
proving the standard of taste for instrumental 
music in France. According to Fdtis such things 
as instrimiental symphonies were absolutely un- 
known in Paris before 1 754, in which year Gossec 
published his first, five years before Haydn's 
first attempt. Gossec's work was carried on 
most effectually by his founding, in 1770, the 
•Concert des Amateurs,' for whom he wrote 
his most important works. He also took the 
management of the famous Concerts Spirituels, 
with Gavini^s and Leduc, in 1773, and furthered 
the cause of good instrumental music there 
as well. The few symphonies of his to be 
found in this country are of the same calibre, 
and for the same groups of instruments as those 
of J. C. Bach, Abel, etc., already described ; but 
F^tis attributes importance to him chiefly because 
of the way in which he extended the dimensions 
and resources of the orchestra. His Symphony 
in D, no. 21, written soon after the founding of 
the Concert des Amateurs, was for a full set of 
strings, flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, 
trumpets, and drums ; and this was doubtless an 
astonishing force to the Parisians, accustomed 
as they had been to regard the compositions 
of Lulli and Eameau as the best specimens of 
instrumental music. But it is clear from other 
indications that Gossec had considerable ideas 
about the ways in which instrumental music 
might be improved, analogous on a much smaller 
scale to the aspirations and attempts of Berlioz 
at a later date. Not only are his works carefully 
marked with pianos and fortes, but in some (as 
the Symphonies of op. xii.) there are elaborate 
directions as to how the movements are to be 
played. Some of these are curious. For instance, 
over the ist violin part of the slow movement of 
the second symphony is printed the following: 
* La difference du Fort au Doux dans ce morceau 
doit 6tre excessive, et le mouvement mod^r^, k 
I'aise, qu'il semble se jouer avec le plus grand 
facility.' Nearly all the separate movements of 
this set have some such directions, either longer 
or shorter; the inference from which is that 
Gossec had a strong idea of expression and style 
in performance, and did not find his bands very 
easily led in these respects. The movements 
themselves are on the same small scale as those 
of J. C. Bach, Abel, and Stamitz ; and very 
rarely have the double bar and repeat in the 
first movements, though these often make their 
appearance in the finales. The style is to 
a certain extent individual ; not* so robust or so 
full as that of Bach or Stamitz, but not without 
attractiveness. As his works are very difficult 
to get sight of, the following quotation from the 
last movement of a symphony in Bb will serve to 
give some idea of his style and manner of scoring. 



I. b^ J1^.J^^J] 


It it 



Another composer of symphonies, who is often 
heard of in juxtaposition with Haydn and 
Mozart, and sometimes as being preferred to 
them by the audiences of the time, is Gyrowetz. 
His symphonies appear to be on a larger scale 
than those of the prior generation of composers 
of second rank like himself. A few of them 
are occasionally to be met with in collections 
of * Periodical overtures,' * symphonies,' etc., pub- 
lished in separate orchestral parts. One in C, 
scored for small orchestra, has an introductory 
Adagio, an Allegro of about the dimensions of 
Haydn's earlier first movements, with double bar 
in the middle; then an Andante con sordini (the 
latter a favourite device in central slow move- 
ments) ; then a Minuet and Trio, and, to end with, 
a Rondo in 2-4 time, Allegro non troppo. Others, 
in Eb and Bb, have much the same distribution of 
movements, but without the introductory Adagio. 
The style of them is rather mild and complacent, 
and not approaching in any way the interest or 
breadth of the works of his great contemporaries ; 
but the subjects are clear and vivacious, and 
the movements seem fairly developed. Other 
symphony writers, who bad vogue and even 



celebrity about this time and a little later, sucli 
as Krommer (beloved by Schubert), the Rombergs, 
and Eberl (at one time preferred to Beethoven), 
require no more than passing mention. They 
certainly furthered the branch of art very little, 
and were so completely extinguished by the ex- 
ceptionally great writers who came close upon 
one another at that time, that it is even dijQBcult 
to find traces of them. 

The greatest of all masters of the Symphony 
followed so close upon Haydn, that there is less 
of a gap between the last of Haydn's Symphonies 
and his first than there was later between some 
of his own. Haydn's last was probably written 
in 1795. When Beethoven wrote his first can- 
not be ascertained ; sketches for the Finale are 
found as early as the year last mentioned ; but 
it was not actually produced in public tiU April 
2, 1800. Like Schumann and Brahms in later 
days, he did not turn his attention to this 
blanch of composition till comparatively late. 
The opus-number of his first symphony is 21. 
It is preceded by eleven pianoforte sonatas, 
several works for pianoforte combined with 
other instruments, the well-known Septuor in 
Eb, and several chamber compositions for strings. 
So that by the time he came to attacking 
Symphony he had had considerable practice in 
dealing with structural matters. Tlie only works 
in which he had tried his strength with the 
orchestra were the two concertos — the Bb, op. 19, 
which was written in or about 1795, and the 
C major, op. 15, which was written about 
1796. He showed himself at once a master of 
the orchestra ; but it is evident that at first he 
stepped cautiously in expressing himself with 
such resources. The ist Symphony is less free 
and rich in expression, and has more elements 
of formality, than several works on a smaller 
scale which preceded it. This is explicable on 
the general ground that the orchestra, especially 
in those days, was not a fit exponent of the same 
kind of things which could be expressed by solo 
violins, or the pianoforte. The scale must neces- 
sarily be larger and broader; the intricate 
development and delicate or subtle sentiment 
which is quite appropriate and intelligible in 
the intimacy of a domestic circle, is out of 
place in the more public conditions of orchestral 
performance. This Beethoven must have in- 
stinctively felt, and he appears not to have found 
the style for full expression of his personality in 
either of the first symphonies. The second is 
even more curious in that respect than the first, 
as it comes after one of the richest and most 
interesting, and another of the most perfectly 
charming and original of the works of his early 
period, namely the Sonatas in D minor and Eb 
of op. 31. However, even in these two sym- 
phonies there is a massiveness and breadth and 
seriousness of purpose, which mark them as pro- 
ducts of a different and more powerfully consti- 
tuted nature than anything of the kind produced 
before. At the time when the ist Symphony 
appeared, the opening with the chord of the 
minor 7th of C, when the key of the piece was 


C major, was looked upon as extremely daring ; 
and the narrow-minded pedants of the day felt 
their sensitive delicacy so outraged that some 
of them are said never to have forgiven it. 
The case is very similar to the famous introduc- 
tion to Mozart's C major String Quartet, about 
which the pedants were little less than insulting. 
Beethoven had to fight for his right to express 
what he felt to be true ; and he did it without 
flinching; sometimes with an apparent relish. 
But at the same time, in these early orchestral 
works he seems to have experimented with 
caution, and was content to follow his predecessors 
in a great deal that he put down. There are 
characteristic things in both symphonies ; for in- 
stance, in the ist the transitional passage which 
begins at the 65th bar of the Allegro, passing 
from G to G minor and then to Bb and back again, 
and the corresponding passage in the second 
half of the movement. The working out of the 
Andante cantabile and the persistent drum 
rhythm are also striking points. In the 2nd 
Symphony the dimensions of the Introduction 
are unusual, and the character of all the latter 
])art and the freedom of the transitions in it are 
decisive marks of his tendencies. The Slow move- 
ment has also a warmth and sense of genuine 
sympathy which is new ; the Scherzo, though 
as yet short, has a totally new character about 
it, and the abrupt sforzandos and short striking 
figures and still more the coda, of the Finale, 
are quite his own. In the orchestra it is worth 
noting that he adopted clarinets from the first, 
apparently as a matter of course ; in the first 
two symphonies he continued to use only the 
one pair of horns, as his predecessors had done ; 
in the third he expanded the group to three. 
In the 4th he went back to two, and did not 
use four till the 9th. The disposition of his 
forces even in the first two is more indepen- 
dent and varied than his predecessors. The 
treatment of the several groups of instruments 
tends to be more distinct and appropriate, and 
at the same time more perfectly assimilated in 
the total effect of the music. The step to the 
3rd Symphony is however immense, and at last 
shows this branch of composition on a level with 
his other works of the same period. It is sur- 
rounded on both sides by some of his noblest 
achievements. Opus 47 was the Sonata in A for 
violin and pianoforte, known as the 'Kreutzer.* 
Opus 53 is the Sonata in C major, dedicated to 
Count Waldstein. Opus 54 is the admirable little 
Sonata in F major. Opus 55 is the Symphony, 
and opus 57 the Sonata known as the 'Appas- 
sionata.' It appears that Beethoven had the idea 
of writing this symphony as early as 1 798, but 
the actual work was probably done in the summer 
and autumn of 1803. There seems to be no 
doubt that it was written under the influence of 
his admiration for Napoleon. His own title-page 
had on it ' Sinfonia grand e. Napoleon Bonaparte,' 
and, as is well known, the name ' Eroica ' was 
not added till Napoleon became Emperor ; after 
which event Beethoven's feelings about him 
naturally underwent a change. To call a great 




work by the name of a great man was quite a 
different thing from calling it by the name of a 
crowned ruler. However, the point remains the 
same, that the work was written with a definite 
purpose and under the inspiration of a special 
subject, and one upon which Beethoven himself 
assuredly had a very decided opinion. The result 
was the richest and noblest and by far the biggest 
symphony that had ever yet appeared in the 
world. It is very possible that Beethoven meant 
it to be so ; but the fact does not make the step 
from the previous symphonies any the less re- 
markable. The scoring throughout is most freely 
distributed. In the first movement especially 
there is hardly any one of the numerous subjects 
and characteristic figures which has not pro- 
perties demanding different departments of the 
orchestra to express them. They are obviously 
conceived with reference to the whole forces at 
command, not to a predominant central force and 
appendages. The strings must necessarily have 
the greater part of the work to do, but the sym- 
phony is not written for them with wind as a 
species of afterthought. But it is still to be 
noticed that the balance is obtained chiefly by 
definite propositions and answers between one 
group and another, and though the effect is 
delightful, the principle is rendered a little 
obvious from the regularity of its occurrence. 
The second movement is specially noticeable as 
reaching the strongest pitch of sentiment as yet 
shown in an orchestral slow movement. In the 
earliest symphonies these movements were nearly 
always remarkably short, and scored for fewer 
instruments than the first and last. Frequently 
they were little better than 'intermezzi,' attached 
on both sides to the more important allegros. 
Even Mozart's and Haydn's latest examples had 
more grace and sweetness than deep feeling, and 
frequently showed a tendency to formalism in the 
expression of the ideas and in the ways in which 
the ornamental fiorituri were introduced. In 
the Eroica the name ' Marcia funebre' at once 
defines the object ; and though the form of a 
march is to a certain extent maintained, it is 
obvious that it is of secondary importance, since 
the attention is more drawn to the rich and noble 
expression of the finest feelings of humanity over 
the poetically imagined death of one of the world's 
heroes, than to the traditional march form. The 
music seems in fact to take almost the definite- 
ness of speech of the highest order ; or rather, to 
express the emotions which belong to the im- 
agined situation with more fulness and compre- 
hensiveness, but with scarcely less definiteness, 
than speech could achieve. In the third move- 
ment appears the first of Beethoven's large or- 
chestral scherzos. Any connection between it 
and the typical Minuet and Trio it is hard to see. 
The time is quicker and more bustling ; and the 
character utterly distinct from the suave grace 
and somewhat measured paces of most of the 
previous third movements. The main points of 
connection with them are firstly the general out- 
lines of form (that is, the principal portion of the 
Scherzo corresponding to the Minuet comes first 

and last, and the Trio in the middle) and secondly 
the humorous element. In this latter particular 
there is very great difference between the naif 
and spontaneous fun of Haydn and the grim 
humour of Beethoven, sometimes verging upon 
irony, and sometimes, with evident purpose, upon 
the grotesque. The scherzo of the Eroica is not 
alloyed with so much grimness as some later 
ones, but it has traits of melancholy and serious- 
ness here and there. The effect in its place 
is chiefly that of pourtraying the fickle crowd 
who soon forget their hero, and chatter and 
bustle cheerfully about their business or pleasure 
as before ; which has its humorous or at 
least laughter-making ironical side to any one 
large-minded enough to avoid thinking of all 
such traits of humanity with reprobation and 
disgust. The last movement is on a scale more 
than equal to that of all the others, and, like 
them, strikes an almost entirely new note in 
symphonic finales. The light and simple cha- 
racter of Haydn's final rondos is familiar to 
every one ; and he was consistent in aiming at 
gaiety for conclusion. Mozart in most cases 
did the same; but in the G minor Symphony 
there is a touch of rather vehement regret- 
fulness, and in the C major of strength and 
seriousness. But the Finale of the Eroica first 
introduces qualities of massiveness and broad 
earnest dignity to that position in the symphony. 
The object is evidently to crown the work in a 
totally different sense from the light cheerful 
endings of most previous symphonies, and to 
appeal to fine feelings in the audience instead 
of aiming at putting them in a cheerful humour. 
It is all the difference between an audience 
before the revolutionary epoch and after. The 
starting-point of the movement is the same 
theme from the Prometheus music as that of the 
pianoforte variations in Eb (op. 35). The basis of 
the whole movement is mainly the variation- form, 
interspersed with fugal episodes ; and a remark- 
able feature is the long Andante variation im- 
mediately before the final Presto — a somewhat 
unusual feature in such a position, though 
Haydn introduced a long passage of Adagio in 
the middle of the last movement of a symphony 
in F written about 1777 ; but of course in a very 
different spirit. The Finale of the Eroica as 
a whole is so unusual in form, that it is not 
wonderful that opinions have varied much con- 
cerning it. As a piece of art it is neither so 
perfect nor so convincing as the other move- 
ments ; but it has very noble and wonderful 
traits, and, as a grand experiment in an almost 
totally new direction, has a decided historical 

It is not necessary to go through the whole 
series of Beethoven's Symphonies in detail, for 
one reason because they are so generally familiar 
to musicians and are likely to become more and 
more so ; and for another because they have been 
so fully discussed from different points of view in 
this Dictionary. Some short simple particulars 
about each may however be useful and interest- 
ing. The order of composition of the works which 



succeeded the Eroica Symphony is almost im- 
possible to unravel. By opus-number the 4th 
Symphony, in £b, comes very soon, being op. 60; 
but the sketches for the last movement are in 
the same sketch-book as parts of Fidelio, which is 
op. 72, and the Concerto in G, which is op. 58, was 
begun after Fidelio was finished. It can only be 
seen clearly that his works were crowded close 
together in this part of his life, and interest 
attaches to the fact that they represent the warm- 
est and most popular group of all. Close to the 
Bb Symphony come the Overture to * Coriolan,' 
the three String Quartets, op. 59, the Violin Con- 
certo, the PF. ditto in G major, the Symphony in 
C minor, and the *Sinfonia Pastorale.' The Bb 
is on a smaller scale than its predecessor, and of 
lighter and gayer cast. The opening bars of 
the Introduction are almost the only part which 
has a trace of sadness in it ; and this is probably 
meant to throw the brightness of the rest of the 
work into stronger relief. Even the Slow Move- 
ment contains more serenity than deep emotion. 
The Scherzo is peculiar for having the Trio re- 
peated — altogether a new point in symphony- 
writing, and one which was not left unrepeated 
or unimitated. What the symphony was meant 
to express cannot be known, but it certainly is 
as complete and consistent as any. 

The C minor which followed has been said to 
be the first in which Beethoven expressed him- 
self freely and absolutely, and threw away all 
traces of formalism in expression or development 
to give vent to the perfect utterance of his musi- 
cal feeling. It certainly is so far the most 
forcible, and most remote from conventionalism 
of every kind. It was probably written very 
nearly about the same time as the Bb. Notte- 
bohm says the first two movements were written 
in 1805 ; and, if this is the fact, his work on 
the Bb and on the C minor must have overlapped. 
Nothing however could be much stronger than 
the contrast between the two. The C minor is, in 
the first and most striking movement, rugged, 
terrible in force ; a sort of struggle with fate, one 
of the moat thoroughly characteristic of Beetho- 
ven's productions. The second is a contrast; 
peaceful, though strong and earnest. The Scherzo 
again is one of his most original movements ; in 
its musical spirit as utterly unlike anything that 
had been produced before as possible. Fidl of 
&nc7, fun, and humour, and, notwithstanding the 
pauses and changes of time, wonderful in swing ; 
and containing some devices of orchestration 
quite magical in their clearness, and their fitness 
to the ideas. The last movement, which follows 
without break after the Scherzo, is triumphant ; 
seeming to express the mastery in the wrestling 
and striving of the first movement. It is histori- 
cally interesting as the first appearance of trom- 
bones and contra&gotto in modem symphony; 
and the most powerful in sound up to that time. 
The next symphony, which is also the next opus- 
number, is the popular 'Pastoral, 'probably written 
in 1808, the second of Beethoven's which has a 
definitely stated idea as the basis of its inspira- 
tion, and the first in which a programme is sug- j 


gested for each individual movement; though 
Beethoven is careful to explain that it is * mehr 
Empfindung als Malerei.* Any account of this 
happy inspiration is clearly superfluous. The 
situations and scenes which it brings to the mind 
are familiar, and not likely to be less beloved as 
the world grows older. The style is again in 
great contrast to that of the C minor, being 
characterised rather by serenity and content- 
ment ; which, as Beethoven had not heard of all 
the troubles of the land question, might naturally 
be his feelings about country life. He used 
two trombones in the last two movements, but 
otherwise contented himself with the same group 
of instruments as in his earliest symphonies. 

After this there was a pause for some years, 
during which time appeared many noble and 
delightful works on other lines, including the 
pianoforte trios in D and Eb, the Mass in C minor, 
op. 86, the music to Egmont, op. 84, and several 
sonatas. Then in one year, 181 3, two symphonies 
appeared. The first of the two, in A major, num- 
bered op. 92, is looked upon by many as the most 
romantic of all of them ; and certainly has quali- 
ties which increase in attractiveness the better 
it is known and understood.^ Among specially 
noticeable points are the unusual proportions 
and great interest of the Introduction {poca 
sostenuto) ; the singular and fascinating wilful- 
ness of the first movement, which is enhanced by 
some very characteristic orchestration; the noble 
calm of the slow movement; the merry humour 
of the scherzo, which has again the same peculi- 
arity as the 4th Symphony, that the trio is re- 
peated (for which the world has every reason to 
be thankful, as it is one of the most completely 
enjoyable things in all symphonic literature) ; and 
finally the wild headlong abandonment of the 
last movement, which might be an idealised 
national or rather barbaric dance-movement, and 
which sets the crown fitly upon one of the 
most characteristic of Beethoven's works. The 
Symphony in F, which follows immediately a» 
op> 93> is again of a totally different character. 
It is of specially small proportions, and has rather 
the character of a return to the old conditions 
of the Symphony, with all the advantages of Bee- 
thoven's mature powers both in the development 
and choice of ideas, and in the treatment of the 
orchestra. Beethoven himself, in a letter to Salo- 
mon, described it as * eine kleine Symphonie in 
F,' as distinguished from the previous one, which 
he called * Grosse Symphonie in A, eine meiner 
vorziiglichsten.' It has more fun and light-heart- 
edness in it than any of the others, but no other 
specially distinctive external characteristics, ex- 
cept the substitution of the graceful and humor- 
ous 'Allegretto scherzando' in the place of the 
slow movement, and a return to the Tempo di 
Menuetto for the scherzo. After this came again 
a long pause, as the greatest of all symphonies 
did not make its appearance till 1824. During that 
time however, it is probable that symphonic work 
was not out of his mind, for it is certain that the 
preparations for putting this symphony down on 
1 Beethoren't own riew of it may b« read Jnst below. 


paper spread over several years. Of the intro- 
duction of voices into this form of composition, 
which is its strongest external characteristic, 
Beethoven had made a previous experiment in 
the Choral Fantasia; and he himself spoke of 
the symphony as 'in the style of the Choral 
Fantasia, but on a far larger scale.' The scale is 
indeed immensely larger, not only in length but 
in style, and the increase in this respect applies 
to it equally in comparison with all the sym- 
phonies that went before. The first movement is 
throughout the most concentrated example of 
the qualities which distinguish Beethoven and 
the new phase upon which music entered with 
him, from all the composers of the previous half 
century. The other movements are not less 
characteristic of him in their particular ways. 
The second is the largest example of the typical 
scherzo which first made its appearance for the 
orchestra in the Eroica; and the supreme slow 
movement (the Theme with variations) is the 
finest orchestral example of that special type 
of slow movement; though in other depart- 
ments of art he had previously illustrated it 
in a manner little less noble and deeply ex- 
pressive in the slow movements of the Bb Trio 
and the Bb Sonata (op. io6). These movements 
all have reference, more or less intelligible ac- 
cording to the organisation and sympathies of 
the hearer, to the Finale of the Symphony, which 
consists of a setting of Schiller's ode 'An die 
Freude.' Its development into such enormous 
proportions is of a piece with the tendency shown 
in Beethoven's previous symphonies, and in some 
of his sonatas also, to supplant the conventional 
type of gay last movement by something which 
shall be a logical or poetical outcome of the 
preceding movements, and shall in some way 
clench them, or crown them with its weight 
and power. The introduction of words moreover 
gives a new force to the definite interpretation of 
the whole as a single organism, developed as a 
poem might be in relation to definite and co- 
herent ideas. The dramatic and human elements 
which Beethoven introduced into his instru- 
mental music to a degree before undreamed of, 
find here their fullest expression ; and most of 
the forms of music are called in to convey his 
ideas. The first movement of the symphony is 
in binary form ; the Second in scherzo, or ideal- 
ised minuet and trio form ; the third in the form 
of theme and variations. Then follows the curious 
passage of instrumental recitative, of which so 
many people guessed the meaning even before it 
was defined by the publication of the extracts 
from the MS. sketch-books in the Berlin Library; 
then the entry of the noble tune, the theme of the 
entire Finale, introduced contrapuntally in a man- 
ner which has a clear analogy to fugal treatment ; 
and followed by the choral part, which treats 
the theme in the form of variations apportioned 
to the several verses of the poem, and carries 
the sentiment to the extremest pitch of exult- 
ation expressible by the human voice. The 
instrumental forces employed are the fullest ; in- 
cluding, with the usual complement, four horns, 



three trombones in the scherzo and finale, and 
contrafagotto, triangle, cymbals, and big drum in 
the finale. The choral forces include four solo- 
voices and full chorus, and the sentiment ex- 
pressed is proportionate to the forces employed. 

In Beethoven's hands the Symphony has again 
undergone a change of status. Haydn and Mo- 
zart, as above pointed out, ennobled and en- 
riched the form in the structural sense. They 
took up the work when there was little more 
expected of the orchestra than would have been 
expected of a harpsichord, and when the object 
of the piece was slight and almost momentary 
entertainment. They left it one of the most im- 
portant branches of instrumental music, though 
still to a great extent dependent on formal per- 
fection and somewhat obvious artistic manage- 
ment for its interest. Their office was in fact to- 
perfect the form, and Beethoven's to use it. But 
the very use of it brought about a new ratio 
between its various elements. In his work first 
clearly appears a proportion between the force& 
employed and the nobility and depth and general 
importance of the musical ideas. In his hands 
the greatest and most pliable means available 
for the composer could be no longer fit for light- 
ness and triviality, but only for ideal emotions of 
an adequate standard. It is true that earlier com- 
posers saw the advantage of adopting a breadth of 
style and largeness of sentiment when writing for 
the orchestra ; but this mostly resulted in posi- 
tive dullness. It seems as if it could only be 
when the circumstances of history had undergone 
a violent change that human sentiment could 
reach that pitch of comprehensiveness which in 
Beethoven's work raised the Symphony to the 
highest pitch of earnest poetic feeling : and the- 
history of his development is chiefly the coor- 
dination of all the component elements ; the pro- 
portioning of the expression and style to the 
means ; the expansion of the form to the require- 
ments of the expression ; the making of the or- 
chestration perfectly free, but perfectly just in 
every detail of expression, and perfectly balanced 
in itself; and the eradication of all traces of 
conventionalism both in the details and in the 
principal outlines, and also to a great extent in 
the treatment of the instruments. It is chiefly 
through Beethoven's work that the symphony 
now stands at the head of all musical forms what- 
ever; and though other composers may here- 
after misuse and degrade it as they have degraded* 
the opera, the cantata, the oratorio, the mass, 
and such other forms as have equal possibilities 
with the symphony, his works of this kind stand 
at such an elevation of human sympathy and 
emotion, and at such a pitch of individuality and 
power, in expression and technical mastery, that 
it is scarcely likely that any branch of musical 
art will ever show anything to surpass them. 

It might seem almost superfluous to trace the 
history of Symphony further after Beethoven.. 
Nothing since his time has shown, nor in the 
changing conditions of the history of the race is 
it likely anything should show, any approach 
to the vitality and depth of his work. But it 



is just these changing conditions that leave a 
little opening for composers to tread the same 
path with him. In the millions of the human 
species there are endless varieties of mental and 
emotional qualities grouped in different indi- 
viduals, and different bands or sets of men ; and 
the many-sided qualities of artistic work, even 
far below the highest standard, find their ex- 
cuse and explanation in the various groups and 
types of mind whose artistic desires they satisfy. 
Those who are most highly organised in such 
respects find their most perfect and most sus- 
tained gratification in Beethoven's works; but 
others who feel less deeply, or are less wide in 
their sympathies, or have fewer or different 
opportunities of cultivating their tastes in such 
a musical direction, need musical food more in 
accordance with their mental and emotional or- 
ganisation. Moreover, there is always room to 
treat an accepted form in the mode character- 
istic of the period. Beethoven's period was much 
more like ours than that of Haydn and Mozart, 
but yet it is not so like that a work expressed 
entirely in his manner would not be an anachron- 
ism. Each successive generation takes some 
colour from the combination of work and changes 
in all previous generations; in unequal quantities 
proportioned to its amount of sympathy with 
particular periods. By the side of Beethoven 
there were other composers, working either on 
parallel lines or in a different manner on the 
same lines. The succeeding generations were 
influenced by them as well as by him; and 
they hStve introduced some elements into sym- 
phony which are at least not prominent in his. 
<)ne of the contemporary composers who had 
most influence on the later generation was 
Weber; but his influence is derived from other 
departments, and in that of Symphony his contri- 
bution is next to nothing — two only, so slight 
and unimportant, as probably to have had no 
influence at all. 

Another composer's symphonies did not have 
much immediate influence, chiefly because they 
were not performed ; what they will have in the 
future remains to be seen.^ In delightfulness, 
Schubert's two best works in this department 
stand almost alone ; and their qualities are 
unique. In his earlier works of the kind there is 
an analogy to Beethoven's early works. Writing 
for the orchestra seemed to paralyse his par- 
ticular individuality; and for some time after 
he had written some of his finest and most 
original songs, he continued to write sym- 
phonies, which were chiefly a mild reflex of 
Haydn and Mozart, or at most of the early 
style of Beethoven. His first attempt was made 
in 1813, the last page being dated October 28 of 
that year, when he was yet only sixteen years 
old — one year after Beethoven's Symphonies 
in A and F, and more than ten years before the 
great D minor. In the five following years he 
wrote five more, the best of which is No. 4, the 
Tragic, in C minor ; the Andante especially being 

1 As we write, the announcement appears of a complete edition of 
-Scbubert's works, published and MS., b; Breltkopf A Hftrtel. 


very fine and interesting, and containing many 
characteristic traits of the master. But none of the 
early works approach in interest or original beauty 
to the unfinished one in B minor, and the very 
long and vigorous one in C major; the first com- 
posed in 1822, before Beethoven's No. 9, and the 
second in 1828, after it. In these two he seems to 
have struck out a real independent symphony- 
style for himself, thoroughly individual in every 
respect, both of idea, form, and orchestration. 
They show singularly little of the influence 
of Beethoven, or Mozart, or Haydn, or any 
of the composers he must have been familiar 
with in his early days at the Konvict ; but the 
same spirit as is met with in his songs and piano- 
forte pieces, and the best specimens of his cham- 
ber music. The first movement of the B minor 
is entirely unlike any other symphonic first move- 
ment that ever was composed before. It seems 
to come direct from the heart, and to have the 
personality of the composer in it to a most un- 
usual degree. The orchestral forces used are the 
usual ones, but in the management of them there 
are numbers of effects which are perfectly new 
in this department of art, indicating the tend- 
ency of the time towards direct consideration ol 
what is called 'colour' in orchestral combinations, 
and its employment with the view of enhancing 
the degree of actual sensuous enjoyment of a 
refined kind, to some extent independent of 
the subjects and figures. Schubert's mature or- 
chestral works are however too few to give any 
strong indication of this in his own person ; and 
what is commonly felt is the supreme attractive- 
ness of the ideas and general style. As classical 
models of form none of Schubert's instrumental 
works take the highest rank; and it follows 
that no compositions by any writer which have 
taken such hold upon the musicians of the pre- 
sent time, depend so much upon their intrinsic 
musical qualities as his do. They are therefore 
in a sense the extremest examples that can be 
given of the degree in which the status of such 
music altered in about thirty years. In the epoch 
of Mozart and Haydn, the formal elements abso- 
lutely predominated in importance. This was the 
case in 1795. The balance was so completely 
altered in the course of Beethoven's lifetime, that 
by 1824 the phenomenon is presented of works in 
the highest line of musical composition depend- 
ing on the predominating element of the actual 
musical sentiment. It must be confessed that 
Schubert's position in art is unique; but at 
the same time no man of mark can be quite 
unrepresentative of his time, and Schubert in 
this way represents the extraordinary degree 
in which the attention of musical people and 
the intention of composers in the early years 
of the present century was directed to the 
actual material of music in its expressive sense, 
as distinguished from the external or structural 

The relation of the dates at which more or less 
well-known symphonies made their appearance 
about this time is curious and not uninstructive* 
Mendelssohn's Reformation Symphony was pro- 


duced only two years after Schubert's great 
Symphony in C, namely in 1830. His Italian 
Symphony followed in the next year ; and Stem- 
dale Bennett's in G minor, in 1834. 

The dates and history of Spohr's productions 
are even more striking, as he was actually a 
contemporary of Beethoven's, and senior to 
Schubert, while in all respects in which his style 
is characteristic it represents quite a later genera- 
tion. His first Symphony (in Eb) was composed 
in 181 1, before Beethoven's 7th, 8th, and Qth, 
and when he himself was 27 years old. This 
was followed by several others, which are not 
without merit, though not of sufficient histo- 
rical importance to require special consideration. 
The symphony of his which is best known at 
the present day is that called the * Weihe der 
Tone,' which at one time enjoyed great celebrity. 
The history of this work is as follows. He in- 
tended first to set a poem of the same name 
by his friend Pfeiffer. He began the setting 
in 1832, but finding it unsatisfactory he aban- 
doned the idea of using the words except 
as a programme ; in which form they are 
appended to the score. The full description 
and purpose of the work as expressed on the 
title is ' Characteristisches Tongenialde in Form 
einer Sinfonie, nach einen Gedicht von Carl 
Pfeiffer'; and a printed notice from the com- 
poser is appended to the score directing that 
the poem is to be either printed or recited 
aloud whenever the symphony is to be performed. 
Each movement also has its title, like the Pas- 
toral of Beethoven; but it differs from that 
work not only in its less substantial interest, but 
also in a much more marked departure from the 
ordinary principles of form, and the style of the 
Buccessive movements. 

The earlier part of the work corresponds fairly 
well with the usual principles of structure. It 
opens with a short Largo of vague character, 
passing into the Allegro, which is a continuous 
movement of the usual description, in a sweet, 
but rather tame style. The next movement might 
be taken to stand for the usual slow movement, 
as it begins Andantino ; but the development is 
original, as it is broken up by several changes of 
tempo and time-signatures, and is evidently based 
upon a programme, for which its title supplies 
an explanation. The next movement again might 
be taken as an alternative to the Minuet and 
Trio, being marked ' Tempo di Marcia,* which 
would suggest the same general outline of form. 
But the development is again independent, and 
must be supposed to follow its title. From this 
point all connection with the usual outlines 
ceases. There is an Andante maestoso, based 
upon an Ambrosianischer Lobgesang, a Larghetto 
containing a second hymn-tune, and a short 
Allegretto in simple primary form to conclude 
with. From this description it will be obvious 
that the work is an example of thoroughgoing 
* programme music' It is clearly based rather on 
the musical portrayal of a succession of ideas in 
themselves independent of music, than upon the 
treatment of principles of abstract form, and ideas 



intrinsically musical. It derives from this fact a 
historical importance which its musical qualities 
taken alone would not warrant, as it is one of 
the very first German examples of its kind pos- 
sessing any high artistic excellences of treatment, 
expression, and orchestration. It contains a 
plentiful supply of Spohr's characteristic faults, 
and is for the most part superficial, and deficient 
in warmth of feeling and nobility of thought; 
but it has also a fair share of his good traits — 
delicacy and clearness of orchestration, and a 
certain amount of poetical sentiment. Its suc- 
cess was considerable, and this, rather than 
any abstract theorising upon the tendencies of 
modern music, led him to several further experi- 
ments in the same line. The symphony (in C 
minor) which followed the 'Weihe der Tone' was 
on the old lines, and does not require much notice. 
It contains experiments in unifying the work by 
unusual references to subjects, as in the first 
movement, where conspicuous reference is made 
in the middle part of the Allegro to the charac- 
teristic feature of the slow introduction ; and in 
the last, where the same subject is somewhat 
transformed, and reappears in a different time 
as a prominent feature of the second section. 
In the next symphony, and in the 7th and 
9th, Spohr again tried experiments in pro- 
gramme. Two of these are such curiosities as 
to deserve description. The 6th, op. n6, in 
G, is called * Historische Symphonic,' and 
the four movements are supposed to be illus- 
trations of four distinct musical periods. The 
first is called the Period of Handel and Bach, 
and dated 1720; the second, the Period of 
Haydn and Mozart, and dated 1780 (i.e. before 
any of the greatest instrumental works of either 
Haydn or Mozart were produced); the third is 
the Period of Beethoven, and dated 18 10; and 
the fourth, * Allerneueste Periode,' and dated 
1840. This last title seems to imply that Spohr 
regarded himself as belonging to a different 
generation from Beethoven. The first period is 
represented by an introductory Largo in contra- 
puntal style, and an Allegro movement, part 
after the manner of the old Canzonas, and part 
a Pastorale, introduced for contrast. The style 
has scarcely the least affinity to Bach, but the 
Handelian character is extremely easy to imitate, 
and hence in some respects it justifies its title 
fairly well. The slow movement which follows 
has good qualities and graceful points. It has 
more the flavour of Mozart than Haydn, and 
this is enhanced by the Mozartian turns and 
figures which are introduced. One which is very 
conspicuous is the short figure:— 

which is found in several places in Mozart'3 
works. The second subject moreover is only an 
ingenious alteration of the second subject in 
the slow movement of Mozart's Prague Sym- 
phony in D : — 



Nevertheless, the whole effect of the move- 
ment is not whskt its title implies. The scoring 
is fuller, and the inner parts richer and freer in 
their motion than in the prototypes, and the 
harmonization is more chromatic, after Spohr's 
manner. The Scherzo professes to be in Bee- 
thoven's style, and some of his characteristic 
devices of harmony and rhythm and treatment of 
instruments are fairly well imitated {e.g. the 
drums in G, D, and Eb), though in a manner 
which shows they were but half understood. 
Curiously enough, one of the most marked figures 
does not come from Beethoven, but from Mozart's 
G minor Symphony : — 

The last movement, representing the then 
* latest period,' has of course no names appended. 
Spohr probably did not intend to imitate any one, 
but was satisfied to write in his own manner, of 
which the movement is not a highly satisfactory 
example. It is perhaps rather to the composer's 
credit that his own characteristics should peep out 
at all corners in all the movements, but the result 
can hardly be called an artistic success. However, 
the experiment deserves to be recorded and de- 
scribed, as unique among works by composers of 
such standing and ability as Spohr ; and the more 
so as it is not likely to be often heard in future. 
His next Symphony (No. 7, in C major, op. 12 1) is 
in many respects as great a curiosity of a totally 
different description. It is called * Irdisches und 
Gottliches in Menschenleben,' and is a double 
symphony in three movements for two orches- 
tras. The first movement is called 'Kinderwelt,' 
the second *Zeit der Leidenschaften,' and the 
last (Presto) 'Endlicher Sieg des Gottlichen.' 
In the first two the second orchestra, which is 
the fuller of the two, is little more than an 
accompaniment to the first. In the last it has 
a good deal of work to do, uttering chiefly vehe- 
ment and bustling passages in contrast with 
quiet and sober passages by the first orchestra ; 
until near the end, when it appears to be sub- 
dued into consonance with the first orchestra. 
The idea seems to be to depict the divine and 
the worldly qualities more or less by the two 
orchestras ; the divine being given to the smaller 
orchestra of solo instruments, and the worldly to 
the fuller orchestra. The treatment of the instru- 
mental forces is on the whole very simple ; and no 
very extraordinary effects seem to be aimed at. 

Spohr wrote yet another programme sym- 
phony after this (No. 9, in B, op. 143) called 
' Die Jahreszeiten,' in which Winter and Spring 
are joined to make Part I, and Summer and 
Autumn to make Part II. The work ap- 


proaches more nearly to the ordinary outlines of 
the Symphony than his previous experiments in 
programme, and does not seem to demand so 
much detailed description. In fact, but for his 
having been so early in the field as a writer of 
thoroughgoing programme-music, Spohr's position 
in the history of the Symphony would not be an 
important one ; and it is worthy of remark that 
his being so at all appears to have been an 
accident. The *Weihe der Tone* would not 
have been a programme symphony but for the 
fact that Pfeiffer's poem did not turn out to be 
very suitable for a musical setting. It is not 
likely that the work would have attained such 
popularity as it did but for its programme ; but 
after so good a result in relation to the public, 
it was natural that Spohr should try further 
experiments on the same lines; and hence he 
became one of the earliest representatives of 
artistic speculation in a direction which has 
become one of the most conspicuous subjects of 
discussion among modem musical philosophers. 
As far as intrinsic qualities are concerned it is 
remarkable how very little influence he has had 
upon the subsequent history of the Symphony, 
considering the reputation he enjoyed in his life- 
time. His greatest excellence was his treatment 
of his orchestra, which was delicate, refined, and 
extremely clear ; but it must be confessed that he 
erred on the side natural to the virtuoso violinist, 
and was too fond of bringing his first violins into 
prominence. His. ideas and style generally were 
not robust or noble enough to stand the test of 
time. His melodies are not broad or strong ; his 
hannonisation, though very chromatic to look at, 
is not radically free and vigorous; and his rhythm, 
though sometimes complicated and ingenious, is 
neither forcible nor rich in variety. None of 
his works however can be said to be without their 
good points, and the singularity of his attempts 
at programme-music give them an interest which 
the unlikelihood of many performances in the 
future does not by any means diminish. 

An interesting fact in connection with Spohr 
and the history of the Symphony is that he seems 
to have been the first to conduct an orchestra 
in England with a baton; the practice having 
previously been to conduct *at the pianoforte.* 
The occasion was one of the Philharmonic Con- 
certs in 1820. The habit of conducting at the 
pianoforte was evidently a tradition continued 
from the days when the Symphony was an 
appendage of the Opera, when the principal 
authority, often the composer in person, sat at 
the principal clavier in the middle of the 
orchestra giving the time at his instrument, and 
filling in the harmonies under the guidance of a 
figured bass. Almost all the earlier independent 
symphonies, including those of Philip Emanuel 
Bach of 1776, and some of Haydn's earlier ones, 
have such a figured bass for the clavier player, 
and an extra bass part is commonly found in the 
sets of parts, which may be reasonably surmised 
to be for his use.* The practice was at last 

1 Mendelssohn's early Symphonlei are marked * KlaTler mit deflo. 
Basse.' ISee vol. iL 265, note S.) 


abrogated inEnglandby Spohr, possibly because he 
was not a clavier but a violin player. In Germany 
it was evidently discontinued some time earlier. 
The most distinguished composers of sym- 
phonies who wrote at the same time as Spohr, 
were entirely independent of him. The first of 
these is Mendelssohn, whose earliest symphonies 
even overlap Beethoven, and whose better-known 
works of the kind, as before mentioned, begin 
about the same time as Spohr's best examples, 
and extend over nearly the same period as his 
later ones. The earliest which survives in 
print is that in C minor dedicated to the Lon- 
don Philharmonic Society. This work was 
really his thirteenth symphony, and was finished 
on March 31, 1824, when he was only fifteen 
years old, in the very year that Beethoven's 
Choral Symphony was first performed. The 
work is more historically than musically in- 
teresting. It shows, as might be expected, how 
much stronger the mechanical side of Mendels- 
sohn's artistic nature was, even as a boy, than his 
poetical side. Technically the work is extra- 
ordinarily mature. It evinces not only a perfect 
and complete facility in laying the outline and 
carrying out the details of form, but also the 
acutest sense of the balance and proportion of 
tone of the orchestra. The limits of the attempt 
are not extensive, and the absence of strong 
feeling or aspiration in the boy facilitated the 
execution. The predominant influence is clearly 
that of Mozart. Not only the treatment of the 
lower and subordinate parts of the harmony, but 
the distribution and management of the different 
sections and even the ideas are like. There is 
scarcely a trace of the influence of Beethoven, and 
not much of the features afterwards characteristic 
of the composer himself. The most individual 
movements are the slow movement and the trio. 
The former is tolerably free from the influence of 
the artificial and mannered slow movements of 
the Haydn and Mozart style, and at the same 
time does not derive its inspiration from Beetho- 
ven: it contains some very free experiments 
in modulation, enharmonic and otherwise, a few 
characteristic figures similar to some which he 
made use of later in his career, and passages 
of melody clearly predicting the composer of 
the Lieder ohne Worte and the short slow- 
movements of the organ sonatas. The Trio is 
long and very original in intention, the chief 
feature being ingenious treatment of arpeggios 
for the strings in many parts. The other move- 
ments are for the most part formal. The Minuet 
is extraordinarily like that of Mozart's G minor 
Symphony, not only in accent and style, but in 
the manner in which the strings and the wind 
are grouped and balanced, especially in the short 
passage for wind alone which occurs towards the 
end of each half of the movement. It was 
possibly owing to this circumstance that Men- 
delssohn substituted for it the orchestral arrange- 
ment of the Scherzo of his Octet when the work 
was performed later in his life. In the last 
movement the most characteristic passage is the 
second subject, with the short chords of pizzicato 



strings, and the tune for the clarinet which 
comes after the completion of the first period by 
strings alone. He used the same device more 
than once later, and managed it more satis- 
factorily. But it is just such suggestions of the 
working of the musical spirit in the man which 
make an early work interesting. 

His next symphony happened to illustrate 
the supposed tendency of the age towards pro- 
gramme. It was intended for the tercentenary 
festival of the Augsburg Protestant Confession 
in 1830, though owing to political circumstances 
its performance was deferred till later. He evi- 
dently had not made up his mind what to call 
it till some time after it was finished, as he 
wrote to his sister and suggested Confession 
Symphony, or Symphony for a Church Festival, 
as alternative names. But it is quite evident 
nevertheless that he must have had some sort 
of programme in his mind, and a purpose to 
illustrate the conflict between the old and new 
forms of the faith, and the circumstances and 
attributes which belonged to them. The actual 
form of the work is as nearly as possible what 
is called perfectly orthodox. The slow in- 
troduction, the regular legitimate allegro, the 
simple pretty scherzo and trio, the short but com- 
pletely balanced slow movement, and the regular 
last movement preceded by a second slow in- 
troduction, present very little that is out of the 
way in point of structure ; and hence the work 
is less dependent upon its programme than 
some of the examples by Spohr above described. 
But nevertheless the programme can be clearly 
seen to have suggested much of the detail of 
treatment and development in a perfectly con- 
sistent and natural manner. The external traits 
which obviously strike attention are two ; first, 
the now well-known passage which is used 
in the Catholic Church at Dresden for the 
Amen, and which Wagner has since adopted 
as one of the most conspicuous religious motives 
of the Parsifal; and secondly, the use of 
Luther's famous hymn, * Ein' feste Burg,' in the 
latter part of the work. The Amen makes its 
appearance in the latter part of the opening 
Andante, and is clearly meant to typify the old 
church ; and its recurrence at the end of the 
working out in the first movement, before the 
recapitulation, is possibly meant to imply that 
the old church still holds its own: while in 
the latter portion of the work the typical hymn- 
tune, introduced softly by the flute and by 
degrees taking possession of the whole orchestra, 
may be taken to represent the successful spread 
of the Protestant ideas, just as its final utterance 
fortissimo at the end of all, does the establishment 
of men's right to work out their own salvation 
in their own way. There are various other 
details which clearly have purpose in relation to 
the programme, and show clearly that the com- 
poser was keeping the possible succession of events 
and circumstances in his mind throughout. The 
actual treatment is a very considerable advance 
upon the Symphony in C minor. The whole 
work is thoroughly Mendelssohnian. There is no 



obvious trace either in the ideas themselves, or in 
the manner of expression of the Mozartian in- 
fluence which is so noticeable in the symphony 
of six years earlier. And considering that the 
composer was still but 21, the maturity of style 
and judgment is relatively quite as remarkable 
as the facility and mastery shown in the work 
of his 15 th year. The orchestration is quite 
characteristic and free ; and in some cases, as 
in part of the second movement, singularly happy. 
The principle of programme here assumed seems 
to have been maintained by him thenceforward ; 
for his other symphonies, though it is not so 
stated in the published scores, are known to 
have been recognised by him as the results 
of his impressions of Italy and Scotland. The 
first of them followed very soon after the Re- 
formation Symphony. In the next year after 
the completion of that work he mentioned the 
new symphony in a letter to his sister as far ad- 
vanced ; and said it was * the gayest thing he 
had ever done.' He was in Rome at the time, 
and it appears most probable that the first and 
last movements were written there. Of the 
slow movement he wrote that he had not found 
anything exactly right, ' and would put it oif till 
he went to Naples, hoping to find something to 
inspire him there.' But in the result it is dif- 
ficult to imagine that Naples can have had 
much share. Of the third movement there is 
a tradition that it was imported from an 
earlier work ; and it certainly has a consider- 
able flavour of Mozart, though coupled with 
traits characteristic of Mendelssohn in perfect 
maturity, and is at least well worthy of its 
position ; and even if parts of it, as is possible, 
appeared in an earlier work, the excellences of 
the Trio, and the admirable effect of the final 
Coda which is based on it, point to considerable 
rewriting and reconstruction at a mature period. 
The actual structure of the movements is based 
upon familiar principles, though not without 
certain idiosyncrasies : as for instance the appear- 
ance of a new prominent feature in the working- 
out portion, and the freedom of the recapitula- 
tion in the first movement. In the last move- 
ment, called Saltarello, he seems to have giv6n 
a more free rein to his fancy in portraying some 
scene of unconstrained Italian gaiety to which 
he was a witness ; and though there is an un- 
derlying consistency in the usual distribution 
of keys, the external balance of subjects is 
not so obvious. The last movement is hence 
the only one which seems to depend to any 
extent upon the programme idea; in all other 
respects the symphony belongs to the * classical ' 
order. Indeed such a programme as the pur- 
pose to reproduce impressions of particular 
countries is far too vague to lend itself to ex- 
act and definite musical portrayal of external 
ideas, such as might take the place of the 
usual outlines of structure. In fact it could 
lead to little more than consistency of style, 
which would be equally helpful to the composer 
and the audience ; and it may well have served 
as an excuse for a certain laxity and profusion 


in the succession of the ideas, instead of that 
difficult process of concentrating and making 
relevant the whole of each movement upon the 
basis of a few definite and typical subjects. The 
characteristics of the work are for the most part 
fresh and genial spontaneity. The scoring is of 
course admirable and clear, without presenting 
any very marked features; and it is at the 
same time independent and well proportioned in 
distribution of the various qualities of sound, and 
in fitness to the subject matter. 

In orchestral effects the later symphony — 
the Scotch, in A minor — is more remarkable. 
The impressions which Mendelssohn received in 
Scotland may naturally have suggested more 
striking points of local colour ; and the manner 
in which it is distributed from first page to last 
serves to very good purpose in unifying the 
impression of the whole. The effects are almost 
invariably obtained either by using close har- 
monies low in the scale of the respective in- 
struments, or by extensively doubling tunes and 
figures in a similar manner, and in a sombre 
part of the scale of the instruments ; giving an 
effect of heaviness and darkness which were pos- 
sibly Mendelssohn's principal feelings about the 
grandeur and uncertain climate of Scotland. 
Thus in the opening phrase for wind instru- 
ments they are crowded in the harmonies almost 
as thick as they will endure. In the statement 
of the first principal subject again the clarinet 
in its darkest region doubles the tune of the 
violins an octave lower. The use of the whole 
mass of the strings in three octaves, with the wind 
filling the harmonies in rhythmic chords, which 
has so fine and striking an effect at the be- 
ginning of the 'working out' and in the coda, 
has the same basis : and the same effect is 
obtained by similar means here and there in 
the Scherzo; as for instance where the slightly 
transformed version of the principal subject is 
introduced by the wind in the Coda. The same 
qualities are frequently noticeable in the Slow 
movement and again in the coda of the last 
movement. As in the previous symphony, the 
structure is quite in accordance with familiar 
principles. If anything, the work errs rather 
on the side of squareness and obviousness in 
the outlines both of ideas and structure; as 
may be readily perceived by comparing the 
construction of the opening tune of the intro- 
duction with any of Beethoven's introductions 
(either that of the D or Bb or A Symphonies, 
or his overtures) : or even the introduction 
to Mozart's Prague Symphony. And the im- 
pression is not lessened by the obviousness 
of the manner in which the succeeding recita- 
tive passages for violins are introduced; nor by 
the squareness and tune-like qualities of the first 
subject of the first movement, nor by the way 
in which the square tune pattern of the scherzo 
is reiterated. In the manipulation of the fa- 
miliar distribution of periods and phrases, how- 
ever, he used a certain amount of consideration. 
For example, the persistence of the rhythmic 
figure of the first subject of the first allegro. 


in the inner parts of the second section of that 
movement, serves very good purpose; and the 
concluding of the movement with the melancholy 
tune of the introduction helps both the senti- 
ment and the structural effect. The scherzo is 
far the best and most characteristic movement 
of the whole. In no department of his work 
was Mendelssohn so thoroughly at home ; and 
the obviousness of the formal outlines is less 
objectionable in a movement where levity and 
abandonment to gaiety are quite the order of 
the day. The present scherzo has also certain 
very definite individualities of its own. It is a 
departure from the 'Minuet and Trio' form, 
as it has no break or strong contrasting portion 
in the middle, and is continuous bustle and 
gaiety firom beginning to end. In technical de- 
tails it is also exceptionally admirable. The 
orchestral means are perfectly suited to the end, 
and the utterances are as neat and effective as they 
could well be ; while the perfect way in which 
the movement finishes off is delightful to almost 
every one who has any sense for art. The slow 
movement takes up the sentimental side of the 
matter, and is in its way a good example of his 
orchestral style in that respect. The last move- 
ment. Allegro vivacissimo, is restless and im- 
petuous, and the tempo -mark given for it in 
the Preface to the work, 'Allegro guerriero,' 
affords a clue to its meaning. But it evidently 
does not vitally depend upon any ideal pro- 
gramme in the least; neither does it directly 
suggest much, except in the curious independent 
passage with which it concludes, which has more 
of the savour of programme about it than any 
other portion of the work, and is scarcely ex- 
plicable on any other ground. It is to be noticed 
that directions are given at the beginning of the 
work to have the movements played as quickly 
as possible after one another, so that it may have 
more or less the effect of being one piece. Men- 
delssohn's only other symphonic work was the 
Lobgesang, a sort of ecclesiastical counterpart of 
Beethoven's 9th Symphony. In this of course 
the programme element is important, and is il- 
lustrated by the calls of the brass instruments 
and their reiteration with much effect in the 
choral part of the work. The external form, as 
in Beethoven's 9th Symphony, is that of the three 
usual earlier movements (i) Introduction and 
Allegro, (2) Scherzo, or Minuet and Trio, and 
(3) Slow Movement (which in the present case 
have purposely a pietistic flavour), with the 
Finale or last moveriaent supplanted hy the long 
vocal part. 

The consideration of these works shows that 
though Mendelssohn often adopted the appearance 
of programme, and gained some advantages by it, 
he never, in order to express his external ideas 
with more poetical consistency, relaxed any of the 
familiar principles of structure which are regarded 
as orthodox. He was in fact a thoroughgoing 
classicist. He accepted formulas with perfect 
equanimity, and aimed at resting the value of 
his works upon the vivacity of his ideas and the 
great mastery which he had attained in technical 

VOL. IV. PT. I. 



expression, and clearness and certainty of or- 
chestration. It was not in his disposition to 
strike out a new path for himself. The per- 
fection of his art in many respects necessarily 
appeals to all who have an appreciation for first- 
rate craftsmanship ; but the standard of his 
ideas is rather fitted for average musical intel- 
ligences, and it seems natural enough that these 
two circumstances should have combined suc- 
cessfully to attain for him an extraordinary 
popularity. He may fairly be said to present 
that which appeals to high and pure sentiments 
in men, and calls upon the average of them to 
feel at their best. But he leads them neither 
into the depths nor the heights which are be- 
yond them ; and is hence more fitted in the end 
to please than to elevate. His work in the de- 
partment of Symphony is historically slight. In 
comparison to his great predecessors he esta- 
blished positively nothing new ; and if he had been 
the only successor to Beethoven and Schubert it 
would certainly have to be confessed that the 
department of art represented by the Symphony 
was at a standstill. The excellence of his or- 
chestration, the clearness of his form, and the 
accuracy and cleverness with which he balanced 
and disposed his subjects and his modulations, 
are all certain and unmistakeable ; but all 
these things had been attained by great masters 
before him, and he himself attained them 
only by the sacrifice of the genuine vital force 
and power of harmonic motion and freedom of 
form in the ideas themselves, of which his 
predecessors had made a richer manifestation. 
It is of course obvious that different orders of 
minds require different kinds of artistic food, 
and the world would not be well served without 
many grades and standards of work. Mendels- 
sohn did good service in supplying a form of 
symphony of such a degree of freshness and light- 
ness as to appeal at once to a class of people 
for whom the sternness and power of Beethoven 
in the same branch of art would often be too 
severe a test. He spoke also in the spirit of his 
time, and in harmony with it ; and as illustra- 
tions of the work of the period in one aspect his 
symphonies will be among the safest to refer to. 
Among his contemporaries the one most 
natural to bracket with him is Sterndale Bennett, 
whose views of art were extraordinarily similar, 
and who was actuated in many respects by similar 
impulses. His published contribution to the 
department we are considering is extremely slight. 
The symphony which he produced in 1834 
was practically withdrawn by him, and the only 
other work of the kind which he allowed to be 
published was the one which was written for 
the Philharmonic Society, and first played in 1864. 
The work is slight, and it is recorded that he did 
not at first put it forward as a symphony. It had 
originally but three movements, one of which, 
the charming minuet and trio, was imported 
from the Cambridge Installation Ode of 1862. 
A slow movement called Komanze was added 
afterwards. Sterndale Bennett was a severe 
classicist in his views about form in music, and 




the present symphony does not show anything 
sufficiently marked to call for record in that 
respect. It is singularly quiet and unpretentious, 
and characteristic of the composer, showing his 
taste and delicacy of sentiment together with 
his admirable sense of symmetry and his feeling 
for tone and refined orchestral effect. 

The contemporary of Mendelssohn and Stem- 
dale Bennett who shows in most marked contrast 
with them is Robert Schumann. He seems to 
represent the opposite pole of music ; for as they 
depended upon art and made clear technical 
workmanship their highest aim, Schumann was 
in many respects positively dependent upon his 
emotion. Not only was his natural disposition 
utterly different from theirs, but so was his 
education. Mendelssohn and Stenidale Bennett 
went through severe technical drilling in their 
early days. Schumann seems to have developed 
his technique by the force of his feelings, and 
was always more dependent upon them in the 
making of his works than upon general prin- 
ciples and external stock rules, such as his two 
contemporaries were satisfied with. The case 
affords an excellent musical parallel to the 
common circumstances of life ; Mendelssohn and 
Stemdale Bennett were satisfied to accept cer- 
tain rules because they knew that they were 
generally accepted ; whereas Schumann was of 
tlie nature that had to prove all things, and 
find for himself that which was good. The 
result was, as often happens, that Schumann 
affords examples of technical deficiencies, and 
not a few things which his contemporaries had 
reason to compare unfavourably with the works 
of Mendelssohn and Sterndale Bennett ; but in 
the end his best work is far more interesting, 
and far more deeply felt, and far more really 
earnest through and through than theirs. It 
is worth observing also that his feelings towards 
them were disinterested admiration and enthu- 
siasm, while they thought very slightly of him. 
They were also the successful composers of their 
time, and at the head of their profession, while 
he was looked upon as a sort of half amateur, 
part mystic and part incompetent. Such cir- 
cumstances as these have no little effect upon 
a man's artistic development, and drive him 
in upon his own resources. Up to a certain 
point the result for the world in this instance 
was advantageous. Schumann developed alto- 
gether his own method of education. He began 
with songs and more or less small pianoforte 
pieces. By working liard in these departments 
he developed his own emotional language, and 
in course of time, but relatively late in life as 
compared with most other composers, he seemed 
to arrive at the point when experiment on the 
scale of the Symphony was possible. In a letter 
to a friend he expressed his feeling that the 
pianoforte was becoming too narrow for his 
thoughts, and that he must try orchestral compo- 
sition. The fruit of this resolve was the Bb Sym- 
phony (op. 38), which was produced at Leipzig 
in 1 841, and was probably his first important 
orchestral work. It is quite extraordinary how 


successfully he grappled with the diflaculties of 
the greatest style of composition at the first 
attempt. The manner is thoroughly S3'mphonic, 
impressive and broad, and the ideas are more 
genuinely instrumental both in form and expres- 
sion than Mendelssohn's, and far more incisive 
in detail, which in instrumental music is a most 
vital matter. Mendelssohn had great readiness 
for making a tune, and it is as clear as possible 
that when he went about to make a large instru- 
mental work his first thought was to find a good 
tune to begin upon. Schumann seems to have 
aimed rather at a definite and strongly marked 
idea, and to have allowed it to govern the form 
of period or phrase in which it was presented. 
In this he was radically in accord with both 
Mozart and Beethoven. The former in his in- 
strumental works very commonly made what is 
called the principal subject out of two distinct 
items, which seem contrasted externally in cer- 
tain characteristics and yet are inevitable to one 
another. Beethoven frequently satisfied himself 
with one principal one, as in the first movements 
of the Eroica and the C minor; and even where 
there are two more or less distinct figures, they 
are joined very closely into one phrase, as in the 
Pastoral, the No. 8, and the first movement of 
the Choral. The first movement of Schumann's 
Bb Symphony shows the same characteristic. 
The movement seems almost to depend upon the 
simple but very definite first figure — 


which is given out in slow time in the Intro- 
duction,^ and worked up as by a mind pondering 
over its possibilities, finally breaking away with 
vigorous freshness and confidence in the * Allegro 
molto Vivace.' The whole first section depends 
upon the development of this figure ; and even 
the horns, which have the last utterances before 
the second subject appears, continue to repeat 
its rhythm with diminishing force. The second 
subject necessarily presents a different aspect al- 
together, and is in marked contrast to the first, 
but it similarly depends upon the clear character 
of the short figures of which it is composed, 
and its gradual work up from the quiet begin- 
ning to the loud climax, ends in the reappear- 
ance of the rhythmic foi-m belonging to the 
principal figure of the movement. The whole 
of the working-out portion depends upon the 
same figure, which is presented in various as- 
pects and with the addition of new features 
and ends in a climax which introduces the 
same figure in a slow form, very emphatically, 
corresponding to the statement in the Introduc- 
tion. To this climax the recapitulation is duly 
welded on. The coda again makes the most 
of the same figure, in yet fresh aspects. The 
latter part is to all intents independent, appa- 
rently a sort of reflection on what has gone 
before, and is so far in definite contrast as to 
explain itself. The whole movement is direct 

1 6m the curious anecdote, toI. ill. p. Hi. 


and simple in style, and for Schumann, singu- 
larly bright and cheerful. The principles upon 
which he constructed and used his principal 
subjects in this movement are followed in the 
first movements of the other symphonies ; most 
of all in the D minor ; clearly in the C major ; 
and least in the Eb, which belongs to the later 
period of his life. But even in this last he 
aims at gaining the same result, though by dif- 
ferent means ; and the subject is as free as any 
from the tune-qualities which destroy the com- 
plete individuality of an instrumental subject in 
its most perfect and positive sense. In the first 
movement of the D minor he even went so far 
as to make some important departures from the 
usual outlines of form, which are rendered pos- 
sible chiefly by the manner in which he used the 
characteristic figure of his principal subject. It 
is first introduced softly in the latter part of the 
Introduction, and gains force quickly, so that in 
a few bars it breaks away in the vigorous and 
passionate allegro in the following form — 



which varies in the course of the movement to 


and ^F^ ^^ 

In one or other of these forms it continues 
almost ceaselessly throughout the whole move- 
ment, either as actual subject or accompaniment; 
in the second section it serves in the latter 
capacity. In the latter part of the working-out 
section a fresh subject of gentler character is 
introduced, seeming to stem and mitigate the 
vehemence expressed by the principal figures of 
the first subject : from the time this new subject 
makes its appearance there continues a sort of 
conflict between the two; the vehement subject 
constantly breaking in with apparently undimin- 
ished fire, and seeming at times to have the upper 
hand, till just at the end the major of the origi- 
nal key (D minor) is taken, and the more genial 
subject appears in a firm and more determined 
form, as if asserting its rights over the wild 
first subject ; and thereupon, when the latter 
reappears, it is in a much more genial character, 
and its reiteration at the end of the movement 
gives the impression of the triumph of hope and 
trust in good, over the seeds of passion and 
despair. The result of the method upon which 
the movement is developed is to give the impres- 
sion of both external and spiritual form. The 
requirements of key, modulation, and subject 
are fulfilled, though, from the point of view of 
classical orthodoxy, with unusual freedom. The 
spiritual form, — the expression in musical terms 
of a type of mental conflict, so depicted that 
thinking beings can perceive the sequence to 
be true of themselves — is also very prominent, 
and is the most important element in the work, 
as is the case in all Schumann's best works ; 
moreover in this movement everything is strongly 
individual, and warm with real musical life in 

his own style ; which was not altogether the 
case with the first movement of the Bb. In 
the C major Symphony (op. 6i) the first allegro 
is ushered in by a slow introduction of important 
and striking character, containing, like those 
of the two just mentioned, anticipations of its 
principal figures. In the allegro the two principal 
subjects are extremely strong in character, and 
the consistent way in which the whole movement 
is developed upon the basis of tlieir constituent 
figures, with allusions to those of the introduction, 
is most remarkable. Here again there is a sort 
of conflict between the principal ideas. The first 
subject is just stated twice (the second time 
with certain appropriate changes), and then a 
start is instantly made in the Dominant key, 
with new figures characteristic of the second 
section ; transition is made to flat keys and 
back, and an allusion to the first subject ends 
the first half; but all is closely consistent, 
vigorous, and concise. The development portion 
is also most closely worked upon the principal 
subjects, which are treated, as it seems, exhaus- 
tively, presenting especially the figures of the 
second subject in all sorts of lights, and with 
freshness and warmth of imagination, and variety 
of tone and character. The recapitulation is pre- 
ceded by allusions to the charactei-istic features 
of the introduction, considerably transformed, 
but still sufficiently recognisable to tell their 
tale. The coda is made by fresh treatment of 
the figures of the principal subjects in vigorous 
and brilliant development. 

The Symphony in Eb has no introduction, and 
Schumann seems to have aimed at getting his 
strong effects of subject in this case by means 
other than the vigorous and clear rhythmic forms 
which characterise the first movements of the 
earlier symphonies. The eff"ect is obtained by 
syncopations and cross rhythms, which alter- 
nately obscure and strengthen the principal 
beats of the bar, and produce an eff'ect of 
wild and passionate effort, which is certainly 
striking, though not so immediately intelligible 
as the rhythmic forms of the previous sym- 
phonies. The second subject is in strong con- 
trast, having a more gentle and appealing cha- 
racter ; but it is almost overwhelmed by the 
recurrence of the syncopations of the principal 
subject, which make their appearance with per- 
sistency in the second as in the first section, 
having in that respect a very clear poetical or 
spiritual meaning. The whole development of 
the movement is again consistent and impressive, 
though not so fresh as in the other symphonies. 
As a point characteristic of Schumann, the 
extreme conciseness of the first section of the first 
movement in the Bb, D minor, and C major 
Symphonies is to be noticed, as it bears strongly 
upon the cultivated judgment and intelligence 
which marks his treatment of this great instru- 
mental form. The first half is treated almost as 
pure exposition; the working-out having logi- 
cally the greater part of interesting development 
of the ideas. The recapitulation is generally 
free, and in the D minor Symphony is practically 

D 2 



supplanted by novel methods of balancing the 
structure of the movement. The coda either 
presents new features, or takes fresh aspects 
of the principal ones, enhanced by new turns 
of modulation, and ending with the insistance 
on the primary harmonies of the principal key, 
which is necessary to the stability of the move- 
ment. In all these respects Schumann is a 
most worthy successor to Beethoven. He re- 
presents his intellectual side in the consistency 
with which he developes the whole movement 
from a few principal features, and the freshness 
and individuality with which he treats the 
firm; and he shows plenty of the emotional 
and spiritual side in the passionate or tender 
qualities of his subjects, and the way in which 
they are distributed relatively to one another. 
Schumann's sjnnphonic slow movements have 
also a distinctive character of their own. Though 
extremely concise, they are all at the same time 
rich and full of feeling. They are somewhat in 
the fashion of a * Romanze,' that in the D 
Symphony being definitely so called; and their 
development depends rather upon an emotional 
than an intellectual basis; as it seems most just 
that a slow movement should. His object appears 
to have been to find some noble and aspiring 
tjtrain of melody, and to contrast it with episodes 
of similar character, which carry on and bear 
upon the principal idea without diverting the 
chain of thought into a different channel. Hence 
the basis of the movements is radically lyrical ; 
and this affords an important element of contrast 
to the first movement, in which there is always 
an antithetical element in the contrast of the 
two principal subjects. The romanze of the 
D Symphony is constructed on a different prin- 
ciple ; the sections and musical material being 
strongly contrasted; this may be partly owing 
to the closeness of its connection with other parts 
of the symphony, as will be noticed further on. 
The scherzos, including that in the 'Overture 
Scherzo and Finale ' (op. 52), have a family like- 
ness to one another, though their outlines are dif- 
ferent ; they all illustrate a phase of musical and 
poetical development in their earnest character 
and the vein of sadness which pervades them. 
The light and graceful gaiety of most of the 
minuets of Haydn and Mozart is scarcely to be 
traced in them ; but its place is taken by a 
certain wild rush of animal spirits, mixed up in 
a strange and picturesque way with expressions 
of tenderness and regret. These scherzos are in 
a sense unique ; for though following in the same 
direction as Beethoven's in some respects, they 
have but little of his sense of fun and grotesc^ue, 
while the vein of genuine melancholy which per- 
vades them certainly finds no counterpart either 
in Spohr or Mendelssohn ; and, if it may be 
traced in Schubert, it is still in comparison far 
less prominent. In fact Schumann's scherzos are 
specially curious and interesting, even apart from 
the ordinary standpoint of a musician, as illus- 
trating a phase of the intellectual progress of the 
race. Schumann belonged to the order of men 
with large and at the same time delicate sym- 


pathies, whose disposition becomes so deeply 
impressed with the misfortunes and unsolvable 
difficulties which beset his own lot and that of 
his fellow men, that pure unmixed lighthearted- 
ness becomes almost impossible. The poetical 
and thoughtful side of his disposition, which 
supplied most vital ingredients to his music, 
was deeply tinged with sadness ; and from this 
he was hardly ever entirely free. He could 
wear an aspect of cheerfulness, but the sad- 
ness was sure to peep out, and in this, among 
thoughtful and poetically disposed beings, he 
cannot be looked upon as singular. Hence the 
position of the Scherzo in modem instrumental 
music presents certain inevitable difficulties. 
The lively, almost childish, merriment of early 
examples cannot be attained without jarring 
upon the feelings of earnest men ; at least in 
works on such a scale as the symphony, where 
the dignity and importance of the form inevit- 
ably produce a certain sense of responsibility 
to loftiness of purpose in the carrying out of 
the ideas. A movement corresponding to the 
old Scherzo in its relation to the other move- 
ments had to be formed upon far more compli- 
cated conditions. The essential point in which 
Schumann followed his predecessors was the de- 
finition of the balancing and contrasting sections. 
The outlines of certain groups of bars are nearly 
always very strongly marked, and the movement 
as a whole is based rather upon effects attainable 
by the juxtaposition of such contrasting sections 
than upon the continuous logical or emotional 
development which is found in the other 
movements. The structural outline of the old 
dance-forms is still recognisable in this respect, 
but the style and rhythm bear little trace of the 
dance origin; or at least the dance quality has been 
so far idealised as to apply rather to thought and 
feeling than to expressive rhythmic play of limbs. 
In Schumann's first Symphony the scherzo has 
some qualities of style which connect it with the 
minuets of earlier times, even of Mozart; but 
with these there are genuine characteristic traits 
of expression. In the later scherzos the poetical 
meaning seems more apparent. In fact the scherzo 
and the slow movement are linked together as the 
two sections of the work most closely representa- 
tive of human emotion and circumstance ; the first 
and last movements having more evident depend- 
ence upon what are called abstract qualities of 
form. In its structural outlines Schumann's 
Scherzo presents certain features. In the Sym- 
phonies in Bb and C he adopts the device of two 
trios. Beethoven had repeated the trio in two 
symphonies (4th and 7th), and Schimaann ad- 
vanced in the same direction by writing a second 
trio instead of repeating the first, and by making 
the two trios contrast not only with the scherzo, 
but also with each other ; and as a further result 
the trios stand centrally in relation to the first 
and last statement of the scherzo, while it in its 
turn stands centrally between them, and thus the 
whole structure of the movement gains in in- 
terest. It is worthy of note that the codas to all 
Schumann's scherzos are specially interesting and 


full; and some of them are singular in the fact 
that they form an independent little section con- 
veying its own ideas apart from those of the 
principal subjects. His finales are less remark- 
able on general grounds, and on the whole less 
interesting than his other movements. The diffi- 
culty of conforming to the old type of light 
movements was even moresevere for him than it 
was for Beethoven, and hence he was the more 
constrained to follow the example set by Bee- 
thoven of concluding with something weighty 
and forcible, which should make a fitting crown 
to the work in those respects, rather than on the 
principle of sending the audience away in a good 
humour. In the Bb Symphony only does the 
last movement aim at gaiety and lightness ; in 
the other three symphonies and the Overture, 
Scherzo, and Finale, the finales are all of the 
same type, with broad and simple subjects and 
strongly emphasised rhythms. The rondo form 
is only obscurely hinted at in one ; in the others 
the development is very free, but based on binary 
form ; and the style of expression and develop- 
ment is purposely devoid of elaboration. 

Besides the points which have been already 
mentioned in the development of the individual 
movements, Schumann's work is conspicuous for 
his attempts to bind the whole together in various 
ways. Not only did he make the movements 
run into each other, but in several places he 
connects them by reproducing the ideas of one 
movement in others, and even by using the same 
important features in different guises as the essen- 
tial basis of different movements. In the Sym- 
phony in C there are some interesting examples 
of this ; but the Symphony in D is the most 
remarkable experiment of the kind yet produced, 
and may be taken as a fit type of the highest 
order. In the first place all the movements 
run into each other except the first and second ; 
and even there the first movement is purposely 
so ended as to give a sense of incompleteness 
unless the next movement is proceeded with at 
once. The first subject of the first movement 
and the first of the last are connected by a 
strong characteristic figure, which is common 
to both of them. The persistent way in which 
this figure is used in the first movement has 
already been described. It is not maintained 
to the same extent in the last movement ; but 
it makes a strong impression in its place there, 
pai-tly by its appearing conspicuously in the 
accompaniment, and partly by the way it is led 
up to in the sort of intermezzo which connects 
the scherzo and the last movement, where it 
seems to be introduced at first as a sort of re- 
minder of the beginning of the work, and as if 
suggesting the clue to its meaning and purpose ; 
and is made to increase in force with each re- 
petition till the start is made with the finale. 
In the same manner the introduction is connected 
with the slow movement or romanze, by the use 
of its musical material for the second division of 
that movement; and the figure which is most 
conspicuous in the middle of the romanze runs all 
through the trio of the succeeding movement. So 



that the series of movements are as it were inter- 
laced by their subject-matter ; and the result is 
that the whole gives the impression of a single 
and consistent musical poem. The way in which 
the subjects recur may suggest different ex- 
planations to different people, and hence it is 
dangerous to try and fix one in definite terms 
describing particular circumstances. But the 
important fact is that the work can be felt to 
represent in its entirety the history of a series 
of mental or emotional conditions such as may 
be grouped round one centre; in other words, 
the group of impressions which go to make the 
innermost core of a given story seems to be 
faithfully expressed in musical terms and in 
accordance with the laws which are indispens- 
able to a work of art. The conflict of impulses 
and desires, the different phases of thought and 
emotion, and the triumph or failure of the different 
forces which seem to be represented, all give the 
impression of belonging to one personality, and of 
being perfectly consistent in their relation to 
one another; and by this means a very high 
example of all that most rightly belongs to 
programme music is presented. Schumann how- 
ever wisely gave no definite clue to fix the story 
in terms. The original autograph has the title 
* Symphonische Fantaisie fur grosses Orchester, 
skizzirt im Jahre 1841; neu instrumentirt 1851.' 
In the published score it is called 'Symphony,' 
and numbered as the fourth, though it really 
came second. Schumann left several similar 
examples in other departments of instrumental 
music, but none so fully and carefully carried 
out. In the department of Symphony he never 
again made so elaborate an experiment. In his 
last, however, that in Eb, he avowedly worked 
on impressions which supplied him with some- 
thing of a poetical basis, though he does not make 
use of characteristic figures and subjects to con- 
nect the movements with one another. The 
impressive fourth movement is one of the most 
singular in the range of symphonic music, and is 
meant to express the feelings produced in him 
by the ceremonial at the enthronement of a 
Cardinal in Cologne Cathedral. The last move- 
ment has been said to embody * the bustle and 
flow of Rhenish holiday life, on coming out into 
the town after the conclusion of the ceremony in 
the Cathedral.' ^ Of the intention of the scherzo 
nothing special is recorded, but the principal 
subject has much of the ' local colour ' of the 
German national dances. 

As a whole, Schumann's contributions to the 
department of Symphony are by far the most 
important since Beethoven. As a master of 
orchestration he is less certain than his fellows of 
equal standing. There are passages which rise 
to the highest points of beauty and effectiveness, 
as in the slow movement of the C major Sym- 
phony; and his aim to balance his end and 
his means was of the highest, and the way in 
which he works it out is original ; but both the 
bent of his mind and his education inclined him 
to be occasionally less pellucid than his prede- 

» For Schumann's Intention see Wassielewiky, 3rd ed. 2C9. 272. 



cessors, and to give his instruments things to do 
which are not perfectly adapted to their idiosyn- 
crasies. On the other hand, in vigour, richness, 
poetry and earnestness, as well as in the balance 
which he was able to maintain between origin- 
ality and justness of art, his works stand at the 
highest point among the moderns whose work is 
done; and have had great and lasting effect 
upon his successors. 

The advanced point to which the history of 
the Symphony has arrived is shown by the way 
in which composers have become divided into two 
camps, whose characteristics are most easily 
understood in their extremest representatives. 
The growing tendency to attach positive mean- 
ing to music, as music, has in course of time 
brought about a new position of affairs in the 
instrumental branch of art. We have already 
pointed out how the strict outlines of form in 
instrumental works came to be modified by the 
growing individuality of the subject. As long as 
subjects were produced upon very simple lines, 
which in most cases resembled one another in all 
but very trifling external particulars, there was no 
reason why the structure of the whole movement 
should grow either complex or individual. But 
as the subject (which stands in many cases as 
a sort of text) came to expand its harmonic out- 
lines and to gain force and meaning, it reacted 
more and more upon the form of the whole move- 
ment ; and at the same time the musical spirit 
of the whole, as distinguished from the technical 
aspects of structure, was concentrated and unified, 
and became more prominent as an important 
constituent of the artistic etisemhle. In many 
cases, such as small movements of a lyrical cha- 
racter for single instruments, the so-called classi- 
cal principles of form were almost lost sight of, 
and the movement was left to depend altogether 
upon the consistency of the musical expression 
throughout. Sometimes these movements had 
names suggesting more or less of a programme ; 
but this was not by any means invariable or neces- 
sary. For in such cases as Chopin's Preludes, and 
some of Schumann's little movements, there is 
no programme given, and none required by the 
listener. The movement depends successfully 
upon the meaning which the music has sufficient 
character of its own to convey. In such cases the 
art form is still thoroughly pure, and depends upon 
the development of music as music. But in pro- 
cess of time a new position beyond this has been 
assumed. Supposing the subjects and figures of 
music to be capable of expressing something 
which is definite enough to be put into words, 
it is argued that the classical principles of struc- 
ture may be altogether abandoned, even in their 
broadest outlines, and a new starting-point for 
instrumental music attained, on the principle of 
following the circumstances of a story, or the 
Buccession of emotions connected with a given 
idea, or the flow of thought suggested by the 
memory of a place or person or event of history, 
or some such means ; and that this would serve 
as a basis of consistency and a means of uni- 
fying the whole, without the common resources 


of tonal or harmonic distribution. The story or 
event must be supposed to have impressed the 
composer deeply, and the reaction to be an out- 
flow of music, expressing the poetical imaginings 
of the author better than words would do. In 
some senses this may still be pure art ; where 
the musical idea has really sufficient vigour and 
vitality in itself to be appreciated without the 
help of the external excitement of the imagina- 
tion which is attained by giving it a local habi- 
tation and a name. For then tlie musical idea 
may still have its full share in the development 
of the work, and may pervade it intrinsically as 
music, and not solely as representing a story 
or series of emotions which are, primarily, ex- 
ternal to the music. But when the element 
of realism creeps in, or the ideas depend for their 
interest upon their connection with a given 
programme, the case is different. The test seems 
to lie in the attitude of mind of the composer. 
If the story or programme of any sort is merely 
a secondary matter which exerts a general influ- 
ence upon the music, while the attention is con- 
centrated upon the musical material itself and 
its legitimate artistic development, the advan- 
tages gained can hardly be questioned. The 
principle not only conforms to what is known of 
the practice of the greatest masters, but is on 
abstract grounds perfectly unassailable ; on the 
other hand, if the programme is the primary 
element, upon which the mind of the composer 
is principally fixed, and by means of which the 
work attains a specious excuse for abnormal de- 
velopment, independent of the actual musical 
sequence of ideas, then the principle is open to 
question, and may lead to most unsatisfactory 
results. The greatest of modem programme 
com])osers came to a certain extent into this 
position. The development of pure abstract 
instrumental music seems to have been almost 
the monopoly of the German race ; French 
and Italians have had a readier disposition for 
theatrical and at best dramatic music. Berlioz 
had an extraordinary perception of the possi- 
bilities of instrumental music, and appreciated 
the greatest works of the kind by other com- 
posers as fully as the best of his contemporaries ; 
but it was not his ovm natural way of expressing 
himself. His natural bent was always towards 
the dramatic elements of eflfect and dramatic 
principles of treatment. It seems to have been 
necessary to him to find some moving circum- 
stance to guide and intensify his inspiration. 
When his mind was excited in such a manner he 
produced the most extraordinary and original 
effects ; and the fluency and clearness with 
which he expressed himself was of the highest 
order. His genius for orchestration, his vigor- 
ous rhythms, and the enormous volumes of 
sound which he was as much master of as the 
most delicate subtleties of small combinations 
of instruments, have the most powerful efiect 
upon the hearer ; while his vivid dramatic per- 
ception goes very far to supply the place of 
the intrinsically musical development which 
characterises the works of the greatest masters 


of abstract music. But on the other hand, as is 
inevitable from the position he adopted, he was 
forced at times to assume a theatrical manner, 
and a style which savours rather of the stage 
than of the true dramatic essence of the situa- 
tions he deals with. In the *Symphonie Fan- 
tastique,' for instance, which he also called 'Epi- 
sode de la Vie d'un Artiste,' his management of 
the programme principle is thorough and well- 
devised. The notion of the ideal object of the 
artist's affections being represented by a definite 
musical figure, called the *id^e fixe,' unifying 
the work throughout by its constant reappear- 
ance in various aspects and surroundings, is very 
happy; and the way in which he treats it in 
several parts of the first movement has some of 
the characteristic qualities of the best kind of 
development of ideas and figures, in the purely 
musical sense; while at the same time he has 
obtained most successfully the expression of the 
implied sequence of emotions, and the absorption 
consequent upon the contemplation of the • be- 
loved object.' In the general laying out of the 
work he maintains certain vague resemblances 
to the usual symphonic type. The slow intro- 
duction, and the succeeding Allegro agitato — 
representing his passion, and therefore based to 
a very great extent on the 'id^e fixe' — are equi- 
valent to the familiar opening movements of 
the classical symphonies ; and moreover there is 
even a vague resemblance in the inner structure 
of the Allegro to the binary form. The second 
movement, called' Unbal,' correspondsin position 
to the time-honoured minuet and trio ; and 
though the broad outlines are very free there is 
a certain suggestion of the old inner form in the 
relative disposition of the valse section and that 
devoted to the ' idde fixe.' In the same way the 
*Scfene aux Champs' corresponds to the usual 
slow movement. In the remaining movements 
the programme element is more conspicuous. A 
'Marche au supplice' and a * Songe d'une nuit de 
Sabbat' are both of them as fit as possible to 
excite the composer's love of picturesque and 
terrible effects, and to lead him to attempt 
realistic presentation, or even a sort of musical 
scene-painting, in which some of the character- 
istics of instrumental music are present, though 
they are submerged in the general impression by 
characteristics of the opera. The effect produced 
is of much the same nature as of that of pas- 
sages selected from operas played without action 
in the concert-room. In fact, in his little pre- 
face, Berlioz seems to imply that this would be a 
just way to consider the work, and the condensed 
statement of his view of programme music 
there given is worth quoting : * Le compositeur 
a eu pour but de d^velopper, dans ce qu'elles ont 
de musical, diffdrentes situations de la vie d'un 
artiste. Le plan du drame instrumental, prive 
du secours de la parole, a besoin d'etre expose 
d'avance. Le programme (qui est indispensable 
k rintelligence complete du plan drainatique de 
I'ouvrage) doit dont etre consider^ comme le texte 
parld d'un Opera, servant k amener des morceaux 
de musique, dont il motive le caractbre et I'ex- 



pression.'* This is a very important and clear 
statement of the position, and marks suflBciently 
the essential difference between the principles of 
the most advanced writers of programme music, 
and those adopted by Beethoven. The results are 
in fact different forms of art. An instrumental 
drama is a fascinating idea, and might be carried 
out perfectly within the limits used even by 
Mozart and Haydn ; but if the programme is in- 
dispensable to its comprehension those limits have 
been passed. This does not necessarily make 
the form of art an illegitimate one; but it is 
most important to realise that it is on quite a 
different basis from the type of the instrumental 
symphony; and this will be better understood 
by comparing Berlioz's statement with those 
Symphonies of Beethoven and Mendelssohn, or 
even of Raff and Rubinstein, where the adoption 
of a general and vague title gives the semblance 
of a similar use of programme. Beethoven liked 
to have a picture or scene or circumstance in 
his ^ mind ; but it makes all the difference to 
the form of art whether the picture or story is 
the guiding principle in the development of the 
piece, or whether the development follows the 
natural implication of the positively musical idea. 
The mere occurrence, in one of these forms, of a 
feature which is characteristic of the other, is 
not suflficient to bridge over the distance between 
them; and hence the 'instrumental drama' or 
poem, of which Berlioz has given the world its 
finest examples, must be regarded as distinct 
from the regular type of the pure instrumental 
symphony. It might perhaps be fairly regarded 
as the Celtic counterpart of the essentially Teu- 
tonic form of art, and as an expression of the 
Italo-Gallic ideas of instrumental music on lines 
parallel to the German symphony; but in reality 
it is scarcely even an offshoot of the old sym- 
phonic stem; and it will be far better for the 
understanding of the subject if the two forms 
of art are kept as distinct in name as they are in 

The only composer of really great mark who 
has worked on similar lines to Berlioz in modem 
times is Liszt; and his adoption of the name 
'Symphonic poem' for such compositions suffi- 
ciently defines their nature without bringing them 
exactly under the head of symphonies. Of these 
there are many, constructed on absolutely inde- 
pendent lines, so as to appear as musical poems 
or counterparts of actual existing poems, on such 
subjects as Mazeppa, Prometheus, Orpheus, the 
battle of the Huns, the ' Preludes ' of Lamartine, 
Hamlet, and so forth. [See p. io6.] A work 
which, in name at least, trenches upon the old 
lines is the 'Faust Symphony,' in which the con- 
nection with the programme-principle of Berlioz 

I The composer has aimed at developing various situations in the 
life of an artist, so far as seemed musically possible. The plan of an 
Instrumental drama, being without vfords, requires to be explained 
beforehand. The programme (which is indispensable to the perfect 
comprehension of the dramatic plan of the work) ought therefore to 
be considered In the light of the spoken text of an Opera, serving to 
lead up to the pieces of music, and indicate the character and ex- 

3 This important admission was made by Beethoven toNeate: 'I 
have always a picture iu my thoughts wheu I am composiug, aad 
work to It.' (Thayer. III. 343.) 



is emphasised by the dedication of the piece to 
him. In this work the connection with the old 
form of symphony is perhaps even less than in 
the examples of Berlioz. Subjects and figures are 
used not for the purposes of defining the artistic 
form, but to describe individuals, ideas, or cir- 
cumstances. The main divisions of the work are 
ostensibly three, which are called 'character pic- 
tures ' of Faust, Margaret, and Mephistopheles 
severally ; and the whole concludes with a setting 
of the 'Chorus mysticus.' Figures are used 
after the manner of Wagner's 'Leit-motiven' to 
portray graphically such things as bewildered 
inquiry, anxious agitation, love, and mockery, 
besides the special figure or melody given for each 
individual as a whole. These are so interwoven 
and developed by modifications and transfonna- 
tions suited to express the circumstances, as to 
present the speculations of the composer on the 
character and the philosophy of the poem in 
various interesting lights ; and his great mastery 
of orchestral expression and fluency of style con- 
tribute to its artistic importance on its own hasia; 
while in general the treatment of the subject 
is more psychological and less pictorially realistic 
than the prominent portions of Berlioz's work, 
and therefore slightly nearer in spirit to the 
classical models. But with all its striking char- 
acteristics and successful points the music does 
not approach Berlioz in vitality or breadth of 
musical idea, '- 

The few remaining modern composers of sym- 
phonies belong essentially to the German school, 
even when adopting the general advantage of 
a, vague title. Prominent among these are KafF 
and Rubinstein, whose methods of dealing with 
instrumental music are at bottom closely related. 
Raff almost invariably adopted a title for his 
instrumental works ; but those which he selected 
admit of the same kind of general interpretation 
as those of Mendelssohn, and serve rather as a 
means of unifying the general tone and style of 
the work than of pointing out the lines of actual 
development. The several Seasons, for instance, 
serve as the general idea for a symphony each. 
Another is called *Im Walde.' In another 
several conditions in the progress of the life of a 
man serve as a vague basis for giving a certain 
consistency of character to the style of expression, 
in a way quite consonant with the pure type. In 
one case Raif comes nearer to the Berlioz ideal, 
namely in the Lenore Symphony, in some parts 
of which he clearly attempts to depict a suc- 
cession of events. But even when this is most 
pronounced, as in the latter part of the work, 
there is very little that is not perfectly intel- 
ligible and appreciable as music without re- 
ference to the poem. As a matter of fact Raff 
is always rather free and relaxed in his form; 
but that is not owing to his adoption of pro- 
gramme, since the same characteristic is observ- 
able in works that have no name as in those that 
have. The ease and speed with which he wrote, 
and the readiness with which he could call up a 
certain kind of genial, and often very attractive 
ideas, both interfered with the concentration 


necessary for developing a closely-knit and com- 
pact work of art. His ideas are clearly defined 
and very intelligible, and have much poetical 
sentiment ; and these facts, together with a very 
notable mastery of orchestral resource and feeling 
for colour, have ensured his works great success ; 
but there is too little self-restraint and concentra- 
tion both in the general outline and in the state- 
ment of details, and too little self-criticism in the 
choice of subject-matter, to admit the works to the 
highest rank among symphonies. In the broadest 
outlines he generally conformed to the principles 
of the earlier masters, distributing his allegros, 
slow movements, scherzos, and finales, accordmg 
to precedent. And, allowing for the laxity above 
referred to, the models which he followed in the 
internal structure of the movements are the 
familiar types of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 
His finales are usually the most irregular, at 
times amounting almost to fantasias; but even 
this, as already described, is in conformity with 
tendencies which are noticeable even in the 
golden age of symphonic art. Taken as a whole, 
Raff's work in the departtnent of symphony is 
the best representative of a characteristic class 
of composition of modem times — the class in 
which the actual ideas and general colour and 
sentiment are nearly everything, while their 
development and the value of the artistic side 
of structure are reduced to a minimum. 

Rubinstein's works are conspicuous examples 
of the same class ; but the absence of concentra- 
tion, self-criticism in the choice of subjects, and 
care in statement of details, is even more con- 
spicuous in him than in Raff. His most im- 
portant symphonic work is called ' The Ocean * 
— the general title serving, as in Raff's sym- 
phonies, to give unity to the sentiment and tone 
of the whole, rather than as a definite programme 
to work to. In this, as in Raff, there is much 
spontaneity in the invention of subjects, and in 
some cases a higher point of real beauty and 
force is reached than in that composer's works ; 
and there is also a good deal of striking interest in 
the details. The most noticeable external feature 
is the fact that the symphony is in six move- 
ments. There was originally the familiar group 
of four, and to these were added, some years 
later, an additional slow movement, which stands 
second, and a further genuine scherzo, which 
stands fifth, both movements being devised in 
contrast to the previously written adagio and 
scherzo. Another symphony of Rubinstein's, 
showing much vigour and originality, and some 
careful and intelligent treatment of subject, is the 
' Dramatic' This is in the usual four movements, 
with well devised introductions to the first and 
last. The work as a whole is hampered by 
excessive and unnecessary length, which is 
not the residt of the possibilities of the sub- 
jects or the necessities of their development ; and 
might be reduced with nothing but absolute 

The greatest existing representative of the 
highest art in the department of Symphony is 
Johannes Brahms. Though he has as yet given 




the world only two examples,^ they have that 
mark of intensity, loftiness of purpose, and artistic 
mastery which sets them above all other con- 
temporary work of the kind. Like Beethoven 
and Schumann he did not produce a sym- 
phony till a late period in his career, when 
his judgment was matured by much practice 
in other kindred forms of instrumental com- 
position, such as pianoforte quartets, string 
sextets and quartets, sonatas, and such forms of 
orchestral composition as variations and two 
serenades. He seems to have set himself to prove 
that the old principles of form are still capable 
of serving as the basis of works which should 
be thoroughly original both in general character 
and in detail and development, without either 
falling back on the device of programme, or 
abrogating or making any positive change in the 
principles, or abandoning the loftiness of style 
which befits the highest form of art; but by 
legitimate expansion, and application of careful 
thought and musical contrivance to the develop- 
ment. In all these respects he is a thorough de- 
scendant of Beethoven, and illustrates the highest 
and best way in which the tendencies of the age in 
instrumental music may yet be expressed. He dif- 
fers most markedly from the class of composers re- 
presented by Raff, in the fact that his treatment 
of form is an essential and important element in 
the artistic effect. The care with which he deve- 
lops it is not more remarkable than the insight 
shown in all the possible ways of enriching it with- 
out weakening its consistency. In appearance it is 
extremely free, and at available points all possible 
use is made of novel effects of transition and in- 
genious harmonic subtleties ; but these are used 
in such a way as not to disturb the balance of 
the whole, or to lead either to discursiveness or 
tautology. In the laying out of the principal 
sections as much freedom is used as is consistent 
with the possibility of being readily followed 
and imderstood. Thus in the recapitulatory por- 
tion of a movement the subjects which charac- 
terise the sections are not only subjected to 
considerable and interesting variation, but are 
often much condensed and transformed. In 
the first movement of the second symphony, for 
instance, the recapitulation of the first part 
of the movement is so welded on to the working- 
out portion that the hearer is only happily con- 
scious that this point has been arrived at with- 
out the usual insistance to call his attention to 
it. Again, the subjects are so ingeniously varied 
and transformed in restatement that they seem 
almost new, though the broad melodic outlines 
give sufl&cient assurance of their representing the 
recapitulation. The same effect is obtained in 
parts of the allegrettos which occupy the place 
of scherzos in both symphonies. The old type of 
minuet and trio form is felt to underlie the well- 
woven texture of the whole, but the way in which 
the joints and seams are made often escapes 
observation. Thus in the final return to the 

1 A third, in F, was produced at Vienna on Dec. 2. 1883, but the 
facts ascertainable about it are not yet sufficiently full to base any 
discussiun upon (Dec. 31). 

principal section in the Allegretto of the 2nd 
Symphony, which is in G major, the subject 
seems to make its appearance in Fj major, 
which serves as dominant to B minor, and going 
that way round the subject glides into the prin- 
cipal key almost insensibly.^ In the Allegretto 
of the Symphony in C the outline of a charac- 
teristic feature is all that is retained in the 
final return of the principal subject near the 
end, and new effect is gained by giving a fresh 
turn to the harmony. Similar closeness of tex- 
ture is found in the slow movement of the 
same symphony, at the point where the prin- 
cipal subject returns, and the richness of the 
variation to which it is subjected enhances 
the musical impression. The effect of these 
devices is to give additional unity and consist- 
ency to the movements. Enough is given to 
enable the intelligent hearer to imderstand the 
form without its appearing in aspects with which 
he is already too familiar. Similar thorough- 
ness is to be found on the other sides of the 
matter. In the development of the sections, for 
instance, all signs of 'padding' are done away 
with as much as possible, and the interest is 
sustained by developing at once such figures of 
the principal subjects as will serve most suitably. 
Even such points as necessary equivalents to 
cadences, or pauses on the dominant, are by 
this means infused with positive musical in- 
terest in just proportion to their subordinate 
relations to the actual subjects. Similarly, 
in the treatment of the orchestra, such a thing 
as filling up is avoided to the utmost possible ; 
and in order to escape the over-complexity of 
detail so unsuitable to the symphonic form of art, 
the forces of the orchestra are grouped in masses in 
the principal characteristic figures, in such a way 
that the whole texture is endowed with vitality. 
The impression so conveyed to some is that the 
orchestration is not at such a high level of per- 
fection as the other elements of art ; and certainly 
the composer does not aim at subtle combinations 
of tone and captivating effects of a sensual kind 
so much as many other great composers of modem 
times ; and if too much attention is concentrated 
upon the special element of his orchestration it 
may doubtless seem at times rough and coarse. 
But this element must only be considered in its 
relation to all the others, since the composer 
may reasonably dispense with some orchestral 
fascinations in order to get broad masses of 
harmony and strong outlines ; and if he seeks 
to express his musical ideas by means of sound, 
rather than to disguise the absence of them 
by seductive misuse of it, the world is a gainer. 
In the putting forward and management of 
actual subjects, he is guided by what appears 
to be inherent fitness to the occasion. In the 
fiirst movement of the Symphony in C, atten- 
tion is mainly concentrated upon one strong 
subject figure, which appears in both the prin- 
cipal sections and acts as a centre upon which the 
rest of the musical materials are grouped ; and 

a For a counterpart to thla see the first movement of BcethOTen'f 
" — ■"* in F, op. 10, no. 2. 



the result is to unify the impression of the whole 
movement, and to give it a special sentiment in 
an unusual degree. In the first movement of 
the Symphony in D there are even several sub- 
jects in each section, but they are so interwoven 
with one another, and seem so to fit and illustrate 
one another, that for the most part there appears 
to be but little loss of direct continuity. In 
several cases we meet with the devices of trans- 
forming and transfiguring an idea. The most 
obvious instance is in the Allegretto of the 
Symphony in D, in which the first Trio in 3-4 time 
(a) is radically the same subject as that of the 
principal section in 3-4 time (6), but very differ- 
ently stated. Then a very important item in the 
second Trio is a version in 3-8 time (c) of a figure 
of the first Trio in a -4 time (d). 

i.ri i ii ^mw 


^ ^^ 

•" nnH 


Of similar nature, in the Symphony in C minor, 
are the suggestions of important features of sub- 
jects and figures of the first Allegro in the open- 
ing introduction, and the connection of the last 
movement with its own introduction by the same 
means. In all these respects Brahms illustrates 
the highest manifestations of actual art as art ; 
attaining his end by extraordinary mastery of 
both development and expression. And it is 
most notable that the great impression which his 
larger works produce is gained more by the effect 
of the entire movements than by the attractive- 
ness of the subjects. He does not seem to 


aim at making his subjects the test of success. 
They are hardly seen to have their full meaning 
till they are developed and expatiated upon in 
the course of the movement, and the musical 
impression does not depend upon them to any- 
thing like the proportionate degree that it did 
in the works of the earlier masters. This is in 
conformity with the principles of progress which 
have been indicated above. The various elements 
of which the art-form consists seem to have been 
brought more and more to a fair balance of func- 
tions, and this has necessitated a certain amount 
of * give and take ' between them. If too much 
stress is laid upon one element at the expense ot 
others, the perfection of the art-form as a whole 
is diminished thereby. If the effects of orchestra- 
tion are emphasised at the expense of the ideas 
and vitality of the figures, the work may gain 
in immediate attractiveness, but must lose in 
substantial worth. The same may be said of 
over-predominance of subject-matter. The sub- 
jects need to be noble and well marked, but if 
the movement is to be perfectly complete, and to 
express something in its entirety and not as a 
string of tunes, it will be a drawback if the mere 
faculty for inventing a striking figure or passage 
of melody preponderates excessively over the 
power of development ; and the proportion in 
which they are both carried upwards together to 
the highest limit of musical effect is a great test 
of the artistic perfection of the work. In these 
respects Brahms's Symphonies are extraordin- 
arily successful. They represent the austerest 
and noblest form of art in the strongest and 
healthiest way; and his manner and methods 
have already had some influence upon the younger 
and more serious composers of the day. 

It would be invidious, however, to endeavour 
to point out as yet those in whose works his 
influence is most strongly shown. It must suf- 
fice to record that there are still many com- 
posers alive who are able to pass the symphonic 
ordeal with some success. Amongst the elders 
are Benedict and Hiller, who have given the 
world examples in earnest style and full of vigour 
and good workmanship. Among the younger 
representatives the most successful are the Bo- 
hemian composer Dvorak, and the Italian 
Sgambati; and among English works may be 
mentioned with much satisfaction the Norwe- 
gian Symphony of Cowen, which was original 
and picturesque in thought and treatment ; the 
Elegiac Symphony of Stanford, in which excel- 
lent workmanship, vivacity of ideas, and fluency 
of development combine to isstablish it as an ad- 
mirable example of its class ; and an early sym- 
phony by Sullivan, which had such marks of excel- 
lence as to show how much art might have gained 
if circumstances had not drawn him to more 
lucrative branches of composition. It is obvious 
that composers have not given up hopes of deve- 
loping something individual and complete in this 
form of art. It is not likely that many will be 
able to follow Brahms in his severe and uncom- 
promising methods ; but he himself has shown 
more than any one how elastic the old principles 


may yet be made without departing from the 
genuine type of abstract instrumental music ; 
and that when there is room for individual expres- 
sion there is still good work to be done, though 
we can hardly hope that even the greatest com- 
posers of the future will surpass the symphonic 
triumphs of tlie past, whatever they may do in 
other fields of composition. [C.H.H.P.] 

(U. S. A.), owes its existence, and its large per- 
petual endowment, to the generosity and taste of 
Mr. Henry Lee Higginson, a well-known citizen 
of Boston, and affords a good instance of the muni- 
ficent way in which the Americans apply their 
great riches for the public benefit in the service 
of education and art. Mr. Higginson had for 
long cherished the idea of having 'an orchestra 
which should play the best music in the best way, 
and give concerts to all who could pay a small 
price.'' At length, on March 30, 1881, he made 
his intention public in the Boston newspapers as 
follows : — ^The orchestra to number 60, and their 
remuneration to include the concerts and 'careful 
training.' Concerts to be twenty in number, 
on Saturday evenings, in the Music Hall, from 
middle of October to middle of March. Single 
tickets from 75 to 25 cents (3s. to is.) ; season 
tickets (concerts only) 10 to 5 dollars ; one public 
rehearsal, i«. entrance. Orchestra to be per- 
manent, and to be called The Boston Symphony 

Mr. Georg Henschel was appointed conductor, 
and Mr. B. Listemann leader and solo violin. A 
full musical library was purchased, and the first 
concert took place on Oct. 22, 1881, at 8 p.m. 
Its programme, and that of the 17th concert, 
Eeb. 18, 1882, give a fair idea of the music per- 
formed : — 

I. Overture, op. 124, Beethoven. Air, Orpheus, 
Gluck. Sjmiphony in Bb, Haydn. Ballet music, 
Rosamunde, Schubert. Scena, Odysseus, Max 
Bruch. Festival Overture [Jubilee], Weber. 

XVII. Overture, Leonore, no. i, Beethoven. 
Rhapsody for contralto, chorus, and orch. (op. 
53), Brahms. Symphony no. 8, Beethoven. Vio- 
lin Concerto, Mendelssohn. Overture, Phbdre, 

There were twenty concerts in all, and the 
last ended with the Choral Symphony. 

Since the first season some extensions have 
taken place. There are now 24 concerts in the 
series. The orchestra numbers 72, and there is 
a chorus of 200. There are three rehearsals for 
each concert, and on the Thursdays a concert is 
given in some neighbouring city of New England. 
Both the performances and the open rehearsals 
are crowded, and so far the noble intention of 
the founder, *to serve the cause of good art 
only,* has been fulfilled. We can only say Esto 
perpdua. [G.] 

organised October 15, 1878, and incorporated by 
the State legislature, April 8, 1879. I^s object 
is the advancement of music by procuring the 

1 us. letter to Editor. 



public performance of the best classical composi- 
tions, especially those of a symphonic character. 
The society in its five seasons has given thirty 
regular concerts and as many public rehearsals 
(six in each season), and two special concertat 
with the public rehearsals — in all, sixty-four en- 
tertainments. At these concerts there have been 
brought out 89 works, 14 of them for the first 
time in New York. The orchestra numbers 70 
players, and the soloists, vocal and instrumental, 
are the most distinguished attainable. The 
concerts of the first four seasons were given in 
Steinway Hall ; those of the fifth in the Academy 
of Music. Dr. Leopold Damrosch has been the 
conductor since the start. Ofl&cers (1883") : — 
president, Hilborne L. Rossevelt ; treasurer, W. 
H. Draper, M.D. ; recording secretary, Rich- 
mond Delafield; corresponding secretary, Morris 
Reno ; librarian, D. M. Knevals, and twelve 
others, directors. [F.H.J.] 

SYMPSON (or SIMPSON, as he sometimes 
spelled his name), Christopher, was an eminent 
performer on, and teacher of the viol, in the 17 th 
century. During the Civil War he served in 
the army raised by William Cavendish, Duke of 
Newcastle, in support of the royal cause, and 
afterwards became an inmate of the house of Sir 
Robert Bolles, a Leicestershire baronet, whose 
son he taught. In 1655 he annotated Dr. Cam- 
pion's * Art of Setting or Composing of Musick 
in Parts,' another edition of which appeared in 
1664, and the tract and annotations were added 
to several of the early editions of Playford's 
'Introduction to the Skill of Musick.' [See 
Campion, Thomas, and Playford, John.] In 
1659 he published 'The Division Violist, or. 
An Introduction to the Playing upon a Ground,' 
dedicated to his patron, Sir Robert Bolles, for 
the instruction of whose son he tells us the book 
was originally prepared, with commendatory 
verses by Dr. Charles Colman, John Jenkins, 
Matthew Lock, John Carwarden, and Edward 
Galsthorp, prefixed. In 1665 he published a 
second edition with a Latin translation printed 
in parallel columns with the English text, and 
the double title, 'Chelys, Minuritionum Artificio 
Exomata sive, Minuritiones ad Basin, etiam Ex- 
tempore Modulandi Ratio. The Division Viol, 
or, The Art of Playing Ex-tempore upon a 
Ground,' dedicated to his former pupil. Sir John 
Bolles, who had succeeded to the baronetcy. A 
third edition appeared in 1712, to which a por- 
trait of Sympson, finely engraved by Faithorne, 
after J. Carwarden, was prefixed. In 1665 he 
published 'The Principles of Practical Musick,' 
of which he issued a second edition in 1667, 
under the title of ' A Compendium of Practical 
Musick, in five Parts, Teaching, by a New and 
Easie Method, i. The Rudiments of Song. 
2. The Principles of Composition. 3. The Use 
of Discords. 4. The Form of Figurate Descant. 
5. The Contrivance of Canon.' This was dedi- 
cated to the Duke of Newcastle, and had com- 
mendatory verses by Matthew Lock and John 
Jenkins prefixed. It became popular, and other 
edifiona with additions appeared in 1678, 1706^ 




1714, 1722, 1727, and 1732, and an undated 
edition about 1760. A portrait of the author, 
drawn and engraved by Faithome, is prefixed 
to the first eight editions. Sir John Hawkins 
in his History gives a long description of the 
Division Viol and Compendium (Novello's 
edition, pp. 708-712). He tells us also that 
Sympson 'dwelt some years in Turnstile, Hol- 
bom, and finished his life there' (at what date 
is not stated), and that he was of the Romish 
communion. [W.H.H.] 

SYNCOPATION. The binding of two simi- 
lar notes so that the accent intended for the 
second appears to fall upon the first. [See Accent.] 
In the Coda of the great 'Leonora' Overture 
('No. 3') Beethoven has a passage given out syn- 
copated on the wind and naturally on the strings, 
then vice versa. 

It was not however always sufficient for Bee- 
thoven's requirements, as may be seen from a 
well-known place in the Scherzo of the Eroica, 
where he first gives a passage in syncopation — 

and then repeats it in common time, which in 
this instance may be taken as an extreme form 
of syncopation. 

Schumann was fonder of syncopation than any 
other composer. His works supply many in- 
stances of whole short movements so syncopated 
throughout that the ear loses its reckoning, and 
the impression of contra-tempo is lost : e. g. Kin- 
derscenen. No. 10 ; Faschingsschwank, No. i, 
and, most noticeable of all, the opening bar of 
the • Manfred ' Overture. 


Wagner has one or two examples of exceed- 
ingly complex syncopation : an accompaniment 
figure in Act 2 of ' Tristan imd Isolde,' which 
runs thus throughout, 





and a somewhat similar figure in Act i of ' Gbt- 
terdammerung * (the scene known as 'Hagen's 
watch '), where the quavers of a 1 2-8 bar are so 
tied as to convey the impression of 6-4. The 
prelude to Act 2 of the same work presents a 
still more curious specimen, no two bars having 
«t all the same accent. 

Its effect in the accompaniment of songs may 
be most charming. We will only refer to Men- 
delssohn's 'Nachtlied' (op. 71, no. 6), and to 
Schumann's *Dein Bildniss' (op. 39, no. 2). [F.C.] 

SYNTAGMA MUSICUM, i.e. Musical Trea- 
tise. A very rare work, by Michael Praetorius. 

A detailed account is given in vol. iii. pp. 25-26. 
It remains only to speak of its interest as a biblio- 
graphical treasure. It was originally designed for 
four volumes, three only of which were published, 
with a supplementary collection of plates which 
Forkel mistook for the promised fourth volume. 
The first volume of the edition described by 
Fetis was printed at Wittemberg in 161 5; the 
second and third at Wolfenbiittel in 1619 ; and 
the collection of plates — Theatrum Instrumen- 
torum seu Sciagraphia — at Wolfenbiittel in 1 620.* 
A copy of this edition is in the Town Library at 
Breslau;'* Mr. Alfred H. Littleton also possesses 
a very fine and perfect copy, which corresponds, 
in all essential particulars, with that described 
by F^tis. But neither F^tis nor Mendel seems 
to have been aware of the existence of an older 
edition. A copy of this is in the possession of 
the Rev. Sir F. A. G. Ouseley. The ist volume 
bears the same date as Mr. Littleton's copy, 
' Wittebergae, 1615'; but the 2nd and 3rd 
volumes are dated 'Wolfenbiittel, 1618'; and 
the difference does not merely lie in the state- 
ment of the year, but clearly indicates an earlier 
issue. In the edition of 161 8, the title-page of 
the 2nd volume is piinted entirely in black : in 
that of 1 6 19, it is in black and red. The title- 
page of the 3rd volume is black in both editions; 
but in different type : and, though the contents 
of the 2nd and 3rd volumes correspond generally 
in both copies, slight typographical differences 
may be detected in sufficient numbers to prove 
the existence of a distinct edition, beyond all 
doubt. It has long been known that twenty 
pages of the General Introduction were more 
than once reprinted; but these belong to the 
first volume, and are in no way concerned with 
the edition of 161 8, of which, so far as we have 
been able to ascertain. Sir F. Ouseley's copy is 
an unique example. 

But, apart from its rarity, the book is doubly 
interesting from the extraordinary dearth of other 
early treatises on the same subject. Three similar 
works only are known to have preceded it ; and 
the amount of information in these is compara- 
tively very small. The earliest is a small volume, 
of 1 1 2 pages, in oblong 4to, by Sebastian Vir- 
dung, entitled ' Musica getuscht und aussgezogen, 

1 In our description of this edition, In the article Peaetobidb, Um 
following errata occur— 

Vol. Hi. p. 266, line 19. for 1618 read 1618. 
note, for 1519 read 1619. 
3 See the exhaustive Catalogue b; Emil BCbm (Berlin, 1883). 


15 1 1.' It is written in German dialogue, 
carried on between the * Autor ' and ' Silvanus '; 
and is illustrated by woodcuts of Instruments, 
not unlike those in the Syntagma. The next, 
also in small oblong 4to, is the ' Musica instru- 
mentalisch deudsch * of Martin Agricola, printed 
at Wittemberg in 1529, but preceded by a Pre- 
face dated Magdeburg 1528. This also con- 
tains a number of woodcuts, like those given by 
Virdung. The third and last treatise — another 
oblong 4to — is the 'Musurgia seu praxis musicae* 
of Ottomarus Luscinius (Othmar Naclitigal, or 
Nachtgall), dated Argentorati (Strasburg) 1536, 
and reprinted, at the same place, in 1542. The 
first portion of this is a mere Latin translation of 
the dialogue of Virdung. The book contains 102 
pages, exclusive of the Preface, and is illustrated 
by woodcuts, like those of Virdung and Agricola. 

All these three volumes are exceedingly scarce, 
and much prized by collectors, as specimens of 
early typography, as well as by students, for the 
light they throw upon the Instrumental Music 
of the i6th century, concerning which we pos- 
sess so little detailed information of incontestable 
authority. The Breslau Library possesses none 
of them. A copy of Nachtigal's ' Musurgia ' is in 
the British Museum ; and also a very imperfect 
copy — wanting pages 1-49, including the title- 
page— of Agricola's * Musica Instrumentalis.' 
Mr. Littleton possesses perfect copies of the en- 
tire series. 

An earlier work by Nachtgall — ' Musicae In- 
stitutiones' — printed at Strasburg in 151 5, does 
not touch upon Orchestral or Instrumental 
Music ; and does not, therefore, fall within our 
present category, [W.S.R.] 

SYREN. [See Siren, vol. iii. p. 517.] 



SYSTEM. The collection of staves necessary 
for the complete score of a piece — in a string 
quartet, or an ordinary vocal score, four; a PF. 
trio, four ; a PF. quartet, five ; and so on. Two 
or more of these will go on a page, and then we 
speak of the upper or lower system, etc. [G.] 

SZYMANOWSKA, Marie, a distinguished 
pianist of her day, who would, however, hardly 
have been remembered but for Goethe's infatua- 
tion for her. She was bom about 1 790, of Polish 
parents named Wolowski, and was a pupil of 
John Field's at Moscow. She travelled much 
in Germany, France, and England, and died at 
St. Petersburg of cholera in Aug. 1831. One of 
her daughters married the famous Polish poet 
Mickiewicz, whom she had introduced to Goethe 
in July 1829. Goethe knew her as early as 18 21, 
and even then overpraised her, setting her above 
Hummel ; * but those who do so,* says Felix 
Mendelssohn, who was then at Weimar,^ * think 
more of her pretty face than her not pretty play- 
ing.' Goethe renewed the acquaintance in Aug. 
1823, at Eger, where she and Anna Milder were 
both staying, calls her *an incredible player,' 
and expresses his excitement at hearing music 
after an interval of over two years in a remark- 
able letter to Zelter of Aug. 24, 1823, again com- 
paring her with Hummel, to the latter's disad- 
vantage. Mme. Szymanowska appears to have 
helped to inspire the * Trilogie der Leidenschaft,' 
and the third of its three poems, called ' Aussoh- 
nung,' is a direct allusion to her. In 1824 she 
was in Berlin. ' She is furiously in love (rasend 
verliebt) with you,' says Zelter to the poet, ' and 
has given me a hundred kisses on my mouth for you .' 

Her compositions were chiefly for the PF., 
with a few songs. [G.] 

SCHUTZ, Heinrich (name sometimes La- 
tinized Sagittarius), 'the father of German 
music,' as he has been styled, was bom at 
Kostritz, Saxony, Oct. 8, 1585. Admitted as a 
chorister into the chapel of the Landgraf Mau- 
rice of Hesse-Cassel, besides a thorough musical 
training, Schiitz had the advantage of a good 
general education in the arts and sciences of the 
time, which enabled him in 1607 to proceed to 
the University of Marburg, where he pursued 
with some distinction the study of law. The 
Landgraf, when on a visit to Marburg, observing 
in his proUgi a special inclination and talent for 
music, generously offered to defray the expense 
of his further musical cultivation at Venice un- 
der the tuition of Giovanni Gabrieli, the most 
distinguished musician of the age. Schiitz ac- 
cordingly proceeded to Venice in 1609, and 
already in i6ii published the firstfruits of his 
studies under Gabrieli, a book of five-part madri- 
gals dedicated to his patron. On the death of 
Gabrieli in 1612, Schiitz returned to Germany 
with the intention of resuming his legal studies, 
but the Landgraf's intervention secured him 
once more for the service of art. A visit to 

Dresden led to his being appointed Capellmeister 
to the Elector of Saxony in 161 5, an office which 
he continued to hold, with some interruptions, 
till his death in 1672. His first work of import- 
ance appeared in 1619, ' Psalmen David's sammt 
etlichen Motetten und Concerten mit 8 und mehr 
Stimmen,' a work which shows the influence of 
the new Monodic or Declamatory style which 
Schiitz had learned in Italy. His next work in 
1623, an oratorio on the subject of the Resur- 
rection, testifies the same earnest striving after 
dramatic expression. In 1627 he was commis- 
sioned by the Elector to compose the music for the 
German version by Opitz of Riuuccini's ' Daphne,' 
but this work has unfortunately been lost. It 
deserves mention as being the first German 
opera, though it would appear to have been 
remodelled entirely on the primitive Italian 
opera of Peri and Caccini. Schiitz made no 
further efforts towards the development of opera, 
but with the exception of a ballet with dialogue 
and recitative, composed in 1638, confined him- 
self henceforward to the domain of sacred music, 
introducing into it, however, the new Italian 
1 Goethe and Mendelssohn, p. 25. 



Stilo Recitativo, and the element of dramatic 
expression. In 1625 appeared his 'Geistliche 
Gesange,' and in 1628 his music to Becker's 
metric J Psalms. After a second visit to Italy 
in 1628, he published the first part of his ♦ Sym- 
phoniae Sacrae' (the second part appeared in 
1647, the third in 1650), which has been regarded 
as his chief work, and testifies how diligently 
he had studied the new art of instrumental ac- 
companiment which had arisen in Italy with 
Monteverde. Two pieces from this work, The 
Lament of David for Absalom, and the Con- 
version of S. Paul, are given in Winterfeld's 
« Gabrieli.' The Thirty Years War interrupted 
Schiitz's labours at Dresden in 1633, and com- 
pelled him to take refuge at the Court of King 
Christian IV. of Denmark, and of Duke George 
of Brunswick. In this unsettled time appeared 
his 'Geistliche Concerte zu i bis 5 Stimmen, 
1636 and 1639, and in 1645 his 'Sieben Worte ' 
(first published by Riedel, Leipzig, 1870). This 
last work may be considered as the germ of 
all the later Passion-music, uniting as it does 
the musical representation of the sacred narra- 
tive with the expression of the reflections and 
feelings of the ideal Christian community. As 
Bach later in his Passions, so Schiitz in this 
work accompanies the words of our Lord with 
the full strings. On Schiitz's return to Dresden, 
he found the Electoral Chapel fallen into such 
decay, and the difficulties of reorganisation so 
great for want of proper resources, that he 
repeatedly requested his dismissal, which how- 
ever was not granted. Ijike Weber at Dresden 
with Morlacchi, so even in 1653 Schiitz found it 
difficult to work harmoniously with his Italian 
colleague Bontempi. Italian art was already 
losing its seriousness of pujpose, and in the 
further development of the Monodic style, and 
the art of instrumental accompaniment, was 
renouncing all the traditions of the old vocal 
and ecclesiastical style. This seems to have 
caused a reaction in the mind of Schiitz, the re- 
presentative of serious German art ; and his last 
work — the four Passions, ' Historia des Leidens 
und Sterbens unseres Herrn und Heilandes 
lesu Christi' (1665-6) — is an expression of 
this reaction. Instrumental accompaniment is 
here dispensed with, and dramatic expression 
restricted for the most part to the choruses ; but 
in them is manifested with such truth and power 
as to surpass all previous essays of the same 
kind, and give an imperishable historical value 
to the work. Schiitz himself regarded it as his 
best work. Carl Biedel has made selections 
from the * Four Passions * so as to form one 
Passions-musik suitable for modem performances 
— a questionable proceeding. Schiitz died Nov. 
6, 167a. His importance in the history of 
music lies in the mediating position he occupies 
between the adherents of the old Ecclesiastical 
style and the followers of the new Monodic 
Btyle. While showing his thorough appreciation 


of the new style so far as regarded the im- 
portance of dramatic expression, he had no 
desire to lose anything of the beauty and power 
of the pure and real a-capella style. And so by 
his serious endeavour to unite the advantages of 
the Polyphonic and the Monodic styles, he may 
be considered as preparing the way for the later 
Polyodic style of Sebastian Bach. [See vol. ii. 
539 &» 6656.] [J.R.M.] 

STIMPSON, James, a well-known Birming- 
ham musician, born at Lincoln Feb. 29, 1820, 
son of a lay vicar of the cathedral, who removed 
to Durham in 1822, where James became a 
chorister in 1827. In February 1834 he was 
articled to Mr. Ingham, organist of Carlisle Ca- 
thedral; in June 1836 was appointed organist of 
St. Andrew's, Newcastle ; and in June 1841, on 
Ingham's death, was made organist of Carlisle. 

In February 1 842 James Stimpson was unani- 
mously chosen organist at the Town Hall and 
St. Paul's, Birmingham, out of many competitors, 
and in the following year justified the choice by 
founding the Festival Choral Society and its 
Benevolent Fund, in connection with the Trien- 
nial Festivals. He continued organist and 
chorus-master to the Society until 1855. His 
activity, however, did not stop here. In 1844 he 
was instrumental in starting the weekly Monday 
Evening Concerts, of which, in 1859, he took the 
entire responsibility, to relinquish them only after 
heavy losses in 1867. 

In 1845 Mr. Stimpson had the satisfaction 
of having the pedals of the Town Hall organ 
increased from 2 to 2^ octaves, so that he 
was able to perform the works of J. S. Bach 
unmutilated. He is still organist of the Town 
Hall, and gives weekly recitals throughout the 
year to audiences varying from 600 to 1 000. 
In the absence of a permanent orchestra — a fact 
remarkable in a town of the wealth, importance, 
and intelligence of Birmingham — many a young 
amateur has derived his first taste for classical 
music from the excellent programmes of Mr. 
Stimpson. He was permanent organist of the 
Birmingham festivals, and Mendelssohn's last 
visit there was to conduct 'Elijah' for Mr. 
Stimpsou's benefit April 25, 1847. He intro- 
duced Sims Reeves and Charles Halle to Bir- 
mingham, and laboured from 1849 ^^^^^ 1868, 
in many ways, in the service of good music, 
gaining thereby the gratitude and respect of his 
fellow townsmen. He has been Professor of 
Music at the Blind Institution for 25 years. 

D'Almaine published in 1850 'The Organists' 
Standard Library,' edited by Mr. Stimpson, con- 
sisting principally of pieces hitherto unpublished 
in this country. His other publications consist 
mostly of arrangements, one of the best known 
being the favourite anthem ' As pants the hart * 
fix)m Spohr's 'Crucifixion.' His long experience 
in teaching the theory of music is embodied in a 
manual published by Rudall, Carte & Co. [G.] 



TABLATURE (La.t.Tabulatwa, from Tabula, 
a table, or flat surface, prepared for writing; 
Ital. Intavolatura; Fr. Tahlature; Germ. 
Tabulatur). A method of Notation, chiefly used, 
in the 15th and i6th centuries, for the Lute, 
though occasionally employed by Violists, and 
Composers for some other Instruments of like 

In common with all other true systems of 
Notation, Tablature traces its descent in a direct 

line from the Gamut of Guido, though, in its 
later forms, it abandons the use of the Stave. 
It was used, in the i6th century, by Organists, 
as a means of indicating the extended Scale of 
the instruments, which, especially in Germany, 
were daily increasing in size and compass. For 
this purpose the lower Octave of the Gamut 
was described in capital letters ; the second, in 
small letters ; the third, in small letters with a 
line drawn above them :- 

This Scale was soon very much extended ; the 
notes below Gamut G (F) being distinguished by 
double capitals, and those above g by small letters 
with two lines above them, the lower notes being 
described as belonging to the Double Octave, and 
the two upper Octaves as the Once-marked, and 
Twice-marked Octaves. 

Several minor diff'erences occur in the works 
of early authors. Agricola, for instance, in his 

• Musica instrumentalis,' carries the Scale down 
to FF ; and, instead of capitals, permits the use 
of small letters with lines below them for the 
lower Octaves — ff g a etc. But the principle 
remained unchanged ; and when the C Scale 
was universally adopted for the Organ, its Tabla- 
ture assumed the form which it retains in Ger- 
many to the present day : — 

Double Octave. 

Great Octave. 

Small Octave. 




Once-marked Octave. 


D E F G A B 

c d 

f g a b 

Thrice-marked Octave. 

Twice-marked Octave. 


-•- JL 

cffeTgaScde fg 

The comparatively recent adoption of the C 
Pedal-board in England has led to some confusion 
as to the Tablature of the lower Octave ; and hence 
our English organ-builders usually describe the 
Great C as Double C, using tripled capitals for 
the lowest notes — a circumstance which renders 
caution necessary in comparing English and Ger- 
man specifications, where the actual length of the 
pipes is not marked. 

In process of time, a hook was added to the 
letters, for the purpose of indicating a Q ; as, 
q (cJJ), 4 (djf), etc. : and, in the absence of a 
corresponding sign for the b, c, was written for d b, 
4 for e b, etc., giving rise, in the Scale of Eb, to 
the monstrous progression, DJJ, F, G, GjJ, Aj, C, 
D, D J — an anomaly which continued in common 
use, long after Michael Prsetorius had recom- 
mended, in his ' Syntagma Musicum,' ^ the use 
of hooks below or above the letters, to indicate 
the two forms of Semitone — q, d, etc. Even as 
late as 1808 the error was revived in connection 
with Beethoven's Eroica Symphony, which was 

1 See p. 44. 

c d e ? g a U «*•=• 

announced in Vienna as 'Symphonic in Dis' 

For indicating the length of the notes, the 
following forms were adopted, at a very early 
period :— 




















Grouped ^ 


c. ete. 


Tiro Orotcheti ~H~ Four Qu 

By mea,nH of these Signs 
to express passages of con 

« Xhayer'f 'ObronologUcliei 

iviir. J_ ' "1 - - 

, it was 


quite p 
e comj 



without the use of a Stave; though, very fre- 
quently, the two methods of Notation were com- 
bined, especially in Compositions intended for a 
Solo Voice, with Instrumental Accompaniment. 
For instance, in . the following example from 
Arnold Schlick's • Tabulaturen Etlicher lobgeseng 
iind liedlein ufF die orgeln und lauten ' (Mentz, 

Maria Zart 


15 1 2), the melody is given on the Stave, and the 
Bass in Organ Tablature, the notes in ihe latter 
being twice as long as those in the former — a 
peculiarity by no means rare, in a method of 
Notation into which almost every writer of emi- 
nence introduced some novelty of his own de- 

Though no doubt deriving its origin from this 
early form, the method of Tablature used by 
Lutenists differed from it altogether in prin- 
ciple, being founded, in all its most important 
points, upon the peculiar construction of the in- 
strument for which it was intended. [See Lute.] 
To the uninitiated. Music written on this system 
appears to be noted, either in Arabic numerals, 
or small letters, on an unusually broad Six-lined 
Stave. The resemblance to a Stave is, however, 
merely imaginary. The Lines really represent 
the six principal Strings of the Lute ; while the 
letters, or numerals, denote the Frets by which 
the Strings are stopped, without indicating either 
the names of the notes to be sounded, or their 
relation to a fixed Clef. And, since the pitch of 
the notes produced by the use of the Frets will 
naturally depend upon that of the Open Strings, 
it is clearly impossible to decypher any given 
system of Tablature, without first ascertaining 
the method of tuning to which it is adapted, 
though the same principle underlies all known 
modifications of the general rule. We shall do 
well, therefore, to begin by comparing a few of 
the methods of tuning most commonly used on 
the Continent. [See Scordatuba.] 

Adrien le Roy, in his 'Briefve et facile In- 
struction pour aprendre la Tablature,' first printed 
at Paris in 155 1, tunes the Chanterelle — i. e. the 
I at, or highest String, to c, and the lower Strings, 
in descending order, to g, d, bb, f, and c ; see (a) 
in the following example. Vincenzo Galilei, in 
the Dialogue called 'II Fronimo' (Venice, 1583), 
tunes his instrument thus, beginning with the 
lowest String, G, c, f, a, d, g, as at (6) : and this 
system was imitated by Agricola, in his 'Musica 
Instrumentalis ' (Wittenberg, 1529); and em- 
ployed by John Dowland in his ' Bookes of Songes 
or Ayres ' (London, 1 597-1 603), and by most Eng- 
lish Lutenists, who, however, always reckoned 
downwards, from the highest sound to the lowest, 
as at (c). Thomas Mace describes the English 
method, in * Musick's Monument ' (London, 1676 
fol.), chap. ix. Scipione Cerreto, * Delia prattica 

musica vocale et strumentale' (Napoli, 1601), 
gives a somewhat similar system, with 8 strings, 
tuned thus, beginning with the lowest, C, D, G, 
c, f, a, d, g, as at (d) in the example. Sebastian 
Virdung, in * Musica getuscht' (151 1), gives the 
following, reckoning upwards, as at (e) — A, d, g, 
b, e, a ; and this method, which was once very 
common in Italy, is followed in a scarce collection 
of Songs with Lute Accompaniment, published at 
Venice by Ottaviano Petrucci, in 1509. 


Adribn lb Roy. 




V. Galilbi. 





J. Dowland. 




S. Ckrreto. 

-..•- F F=t 

O. Petrucci. Seb. Virduno. 


It will be understood that these systems apply 
only to the six principal Strings of the Lute, 
which, alone, were governed by the Frets. The 
longer Strings, sympathetically tuned in pairs, by 
means of a separate neck, were entirely ignored, 
in nearly all systems of Tablature, and used only 
after the manner of a Drone, when they hap- 
pened to coincide with the Tonic of the Key 
in which the Music was written. Of this nature 
are the two lowest Strings at (d) in the foregoing 

Of the Lines — generally six in number — 
used to represent the principal Strings, Italian 
Lutenists almost always employed the lowest for 


the Chanterelle and the highest, for the gravest 
String. In France, England, Flanders, and Spain, 
the highest line was used for the Chanterelle, and 
the whole system reversed. The French system, 
however, was afterwards universally adopted, both 
in Italy and Germany — a circumstance which 
must be carefully borne in mind with regard 
to Music printed in those countries in the 1 7th 

The Frets by which the six principal Strings 
were shortened, were represented, in Italy, by 
the numerals i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, to which 
were afterwards added the numbers 10, ii, 12, 
writtMi X, X, X. In France and England the 
place of these numerals was supplied by the 
letters a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, etc. : and, after a 
time, these letters came into general use on the 
Continent also. Of course, one plan was just as 
good as the other ; but there was this important 
practical dlflference between them : in England 
and France a represented the Open String, and 
b the first Fret ; in Italy, the Open String was 
represented by a cypher, and the first Fret by 
the number i. The letter &, therefore, corre- 
sponded to the figure i ; and c to 2. The letters, 
or numerals, were written either on the lines or 
in the spaces between them, each letter or 
numeral representing a Semitone in correspond- 
ence with the action of the Frets. Thus, when 
the lowest String was tuned to G, the actual 
note G was represented by a (or o) ; GjJ, or 
Ab, by b (or i) ; A, by c (or 2) ; AJ, or Bb, 
by d (or 3). But when the lowest String was 
tuned to A, b (or i) represented Bb ; c (or 2) 
represented Btl; and d (or 3) represented c. 
The following example shows both the French 
and the Italian Methods, the letters being 
written in the spaces — the usual plan in England 
— and the lowest place being reserved for an 
additional Open Bass String. 






and English 

J. DowJ 







a b c d e 




) Loveri string 



Italian Tahlature. 




-0—1-2 3 




In order to indicate the duration of the notes, 
the Semibreve, Minim, Crotchet, Quaver, and 
Dot — or Point of Augmentation — were repre- 
sented by the following signs, written over the 
highest line ; each sign remaining in force until 
it was contradicted by another — at least, during 
the continuance of the bar. At the beginning 
of a new bar, the sign was usually repeated. 






In order to afford the reader an opportunity of 
practically testing the rules, we give a few short 
examples selected from the works already men- 
tioned; showing, in each case, the method of 
tuning employed — an indulgence very unusual 
in the old Lute-Books. Ordinary notation was 
of course used for the voice part. 






Awake, sweet 
anterelle. |S 

c c d 




art re - 



d d a 



d d 






d f 


^ a 



e f 




Lowett String. 





1 ^ 



^ ^.(^ 

c d 


a a 


d b a 


d d 



e a a 




e a f ace 

f d 


^ ^^ M 

d d c 

d d . 

d d b 

aba a 

e c 

c a . 

f a 


-^ r'r — r^ ■ 


VOL. IV. PT. I. 






r [ ^ i J 






Italian method. 

Ottaviano Petrttcci. 


g^ f=^ g^ : 

1 h 

Af - flit • U spir-ti 

Lowest String. 


^ > 

^ h h > 

^ ^^ N N 


3 .... 

_e-x — 

3-1— o 


o — 


N h ^ N 


N N 1 





These examples will enable the student to solve 
any ordinary forms of Tablature. Those who wish 
to study the supplementary Positions of Galilei, 
and the complicated methods of Gerle,' Besardus,^ 
and other German writers, will find no difficulty 
in understanding the rules laid down in their re- 
spective treatises, after having once mastered the 
general features of this system. 

It remains only to speak of Tablature as 
applied to other intruments than that for which 
it was originally designed. 

During the reign of King James T, Coperario, 
then resident in England, adapted the Lute 
Tablature to Music written for the Bass Viol. 

1 In nuMt modern editions, this note Is erreueously printed O. 

a Hiuica Teutscb CNarnberg, 1642). 

> Tbesaonu barmonlciu (Colon. Agr. 1603). 


Tins method of Notation was used for beginners 
only, and not for playing in concert. John Play- 
ford, in his ' Introduction to the Skill of Music * 
(loth edit., London, 1683), describes this method 
of Notation as the 'Lyra-way'; and calls the 
instrument the Lero, or Lyra- Viol. The six 
strings of the Bass Viol are tuned thus, be- 
ginning with the 6th, or lowest String, and 
reckoning 'upwards— D, G (F), c, e, a, d; and 
the method proposed is exactly the same as that 
used for the Lute, adapted to this system of 
tuning. Thus, on the 6th String, a denotes D 
(the Open String) ; b denotes D J ; c denotes E ; 
etc. ^ A player, therefore, who can read Lute- 
Music, will find no difficulty in reading this. 

John Playford, enlarging upon Coperario's idea, 
recommended the same method for beginners on 
the Violin, adapting it to the four Open Strings of 
that instrument— G, D, A, E. The following Air, 
arranged on this system, for the Violin, is taken 
from a tune called * Parthenia.' 

J J J J J J.J. j.^i JJ 





J.J. J.^J J J 

D C A 

F E F 

This adaptation to the Violin is one of the latest 
developments of the system of Tablature on 
record : but Mendel,* not without show of reason, 
thinks the term applicable to the Basso Continue, 
or Figured-Bass ; and we should not be very far 
wrong were we to apply it to the Tonic-Sol-Fa 
system of our own day. [W.S.R.] 

performance consisting generally of a mixture of 
narration and singing delivered by a single in- 
dividual seated behind a table facing the audience. 
When or by whom it was originated seems doubt- 
ful. George Alexander Steevens gave, about 
1765, entertainments in which he was the sole 
performer, but such were probably rather lec- 
tures than table entertainments. In May 1775, 
R. Baddeley, the comedian (the original Moses in 
•The School for Scandal'), gave an entertain- 
ment at Marylebone Gardens, described as • an 
attempt at a sketch of the times in a variety of 

* If uslkallschei Conversations Lexicon (Berlin, 1869). 


caricatures, accompanied with a whimsical and 
satirical dissertation on each character ' ; and in 
the June following George Saville Carey gave at 
the same place * A Lecture on Mimicry,' in which 
he introduced imitations of the principal theatri- 
cal performers and vocalists of the period. John 
Collins, an actor, in 1775 gave in London a table- 
entertainment, written by himself, called 'The 
Elements of Modern Oratory,' in which he intro- 
duced imitations of Garrick and Foote. After 
giving it for 42 times in London he repeated 
it in Oxford, Cambridge, Belfast, Dublin, and 
Birmingham. He subsequently gave, with great 
success, an entertainment, also written by him- 
self, called 'The Evening Brush,' containing seve- 
ral songs which became very popular; among 
them the once well-known 'Chapter of Kings' 
— 'The Romans in England once held sway, 
etc.' ^ Charles Dibdin commenced in 1789 a 
series of table entertainments in which song was 
the prominent feature, and which he continued 
with great success until 1801. Dibdin's posi- 
tion as a table entertainer was unique. He 
united in himself the functions of author, com- 
poser, narrator, singer, and accompanyist. [See 
Dibdin, Charles, in which article it was by 
mistake stated that Dibdin was the originator 
of this class of entertainment.] On April 3, 181 6, 
the elder Charles Mathews gave, at the Lyceum 
Theatre, his ' Mail Coach Adventures,' the first 
of a series of table-entertainments which he con- 
tinued to give for many years, and with which 
he achieved an unprecedented success. Into these 
his wonderful power of personation enabled him 
to introduce a new feature. After stooping be- 
hind his table he quickly reappeared with his 
head and shoulders in costume, representing to 
the life some singular character. The old Scotch- 
woman, the Thames waterman, and the Milton- 
struck ironmonger were a few only of such per- 
sonations. Mathews's success led to similar 
performances by others. Foremost among these 
were the comedians John Reeve and Frederick 
Yates, whose fwU was imitation of the principal 
actors of the day. W. S. Woodin gave for seve- 
ral seasons, with very great success, table-enter- 
tainments at the Lowther Rooms, King William 
Street, Strand; a place now known as Toole's 
Theatre. — ^Henry Phillips, the bass singer, and 
John Wilson, the Scotch tenor, gave similar enter- 
tainments, of a more closely musical kind : and 
Edney, the Erasers, and others, have followed in 
their wake. [See Phillips, Henry ; and Wilson, 
John.] [W.H.H.] 

TABOR. A small drum used to accompany 
a pipe, both being played by the same man. [See 
Pipe and Tabor.] Tabret is a diminutive of 
Tabor. [V.deP.] 

TABOUROT. [See Abbeau, vol. i. p. 80.] 

TACCHINARDI, Niccol5, a distinguished 
tenor singer, bom at Florence in September 1776. 
He was intended for an ecclesiastical career, but 
his artistic bias was so strong that he abandoned 

I See a copy of the worda In ' Notes and Queries ' for 1866. 



the study of literature for that of painting and 
modelling. From the age of eleven he also re- 
ceived instruction in vocal and instrumental 
music. When 17 he joined the orchestra at the 
Florence t-lieatre as violin-player, but after five 
years of this work, his voice having meanwhile 
developed into a beautiful tenor, he began to sing 
in public. In 1804 he appeared on the operatic 
stages of Leghorn and Pisa ; afterwards on those 
of Venice, Florence, and Milan, where he took a 
distinguished part in the gala performances at 
Napoleon's coronation as king of Italy. 

At Rome, where his success was as permanent 
as it was brilliant, his old passion for sculpture 
was revived by the acquaintance which he made 
with Canova, in whose studio he worked for a 
time. Canova executed his bust in marble, thus 
paying homage to him in his v/orst aspect, for 
he was one of the ugliest of men, and almost a 
hunchback. When he appeared at Paris in 181 1, 
his looks created a mingled sensation of horror 
and amusement ; but such was the beauty of his 
voice and the consummate mastery of his style, 
that he had only to begin to sing for these per- 
sonal drawbacks to be all forgotten. He is said 
to have taken Babini for his model, but it is 
doubtful if he had any rival in execution and 
artistic resource. The fact of so ugly a man sus- 
taining the part (transposed for tenor) of Don 
Giovanni, with success, shows what a spell he 
could cast over his audience. 

After three successful years in Paris, Tacchi- 
nardi returned in 1 814 to Italy, where he was ap- 
pointed chief singer to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
with liberty to travel. He accordingly sang at 
Vienna, and afterwards, in Spain, distinguishing 
himself especially at Barcelona, although then 50 
years old. After 1831 he left the stage, and lived 
at his country house near Florence. He retained 
his appointment from the Grand Duke, but de- 
voted himself chiefly to teaching, for which he 
became celebrated. He b uilt a little private theatre 
in which to exercise his pupils, of whom the most 
notable were Mme. Frezzolini, and his daughter 
Fanny, Mme. Persiani, perhaps the most striking 
instance on record of what extreme training and 
hard work may effect, in the absence of any su- 
perlative natural gifts. His other daughter, Elisa, 
was an eminent pianiste. Tacchinardi was the 
author of a number of solfeggi and vocal exercises, 
and of a little work called * Dell' opera in musica 
sul teatro italiano, e de' suoi difetti.' He died in 
i860. [F.A.M.] 

TACET. i.e. Ms silent.' An indication often 
found in old scores, meaning that the instrument 
to which it refers is to leave off playing. [G.] 

TADOLINI, Giovanni, bom at Bologna in 
1793, learned composition from Mattei, and sing- 
ing from Babini, and at the age of 1 8 was appointed 
by Spontini accompanyist and chorus-master at 
the Theatre des Italiens, Paris. He kept this post 
till the faU of Paris in 18 14, when he retumed to 
Italy. There he remained, writing operas and 
occupied in music till 1830, when he went back 
to the Theatre Italien, with his wife, Eugeni* 




Savorini (born at ForVi, 1809), whom he had mar- 
ried shortly before, and resumed his old functions 
till 1839, when he once more returned to Italy, 
and died at Bologna Nov. 29, 1872. His operas 
are 'La Fata Alcina ' (Venice, 1814) ; 'La Princi- 
pessa di Navarra ' (Bologna, i8i6?) ; 'II Credulo 
deluso' (Rome, 1820?); 'Tamerlano' (Bologna, 
1822?) 'Moctar* (Milan. 1824?); 'Mitridate' 
(Venice, 1826?); 'Almanzor' (Trieste, 1828?). 
One of his canzonets, 'Eco di Scozia,' with horn 
obligato, was much sung by Rubini. Tadolini 
was at one time credited with having written 
the concluding fugue in Rossini's Stabat (see 
Berlioz, 'Soirees de I'orchestre' 2bme Epilogue). 
The above is chiefly compiled from Fdtis. [G.] 

TAGLICHSBECK, Thomas, bom of a musical 
family at Ansbach, in Bavaria, Dec. 31, 1799, 
studied at Munich under Eovelli and Gratz, and 
by degrees became known. Lindpaintner in 1 820 
gave him his first opportunity by appointing him 
his deputy in the direction of the Munich theatre, 
and about this time he produced his first opera, 
'Weber's Bild.* After this he forsook Munich 
and wandered over Germany, Holland, and Den- 
mark, as a violinist, in which he acquired great 
reputation. He then settled in Paris, and on 
Jan. 24, 1836, a symphony of his (op. 10) was 
admitted to the unwonted honour of peiform- 
ance at the Conservatoire. It must have had 
at least the merit of clearness and effect, or it 
would not have been followed by a second per- 
formance on April 2, 1837 — ^ ^^^6 honour for any 
German composer but a first-rate one. 

In 1827 he was appointed Kapellmeister of the 
Prince of HohenzoUern Hechingen, a post which 
he retained till its dissolution in 1848. The rest 
of his life was passed between Lowenberg in 
Silesia, Dresden, and Baden Baden, where he died 
Oct. 5, 1867. His works extend to op. 33, and 
embrace, besides the symphony already men- 
tioned, three others — a mass, op. 25 ; a psalm, 
op. 30 ; a trio for PF. and strings ; a great 
quantity of concertos, variations, and other pieces 
for the violin ; part-songs, etc., etc. [G.] 

TAGLIAFICO, Joseph Dieddonn4 bom 
Jan. I, 182 1, of Italian parents, at Toulon, and 
educated at the College Henri IV, Paris. 
He received instruction in singing from Pier- 
marini, in acting from Lablache, and made his 
<M)ut in 1844 at the Italiens, Paris. He first 
appeared in England April 6, 1847, at Covent 
Garden Theatre, as Oroe in 'Semiramide,' on the 
occasion of the opening of the Royal Italian 
Opera. From that year until 1876 he appeared at 
Covent Garden season by season, almost opera 
by opera. His parts were small, but they were 
thoroughly studied and given, and invariably 
showed the intelligent and conscientious artist. 
In the intervals of the London seasons he had 
engagements in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Paris, 
and America ; was stage manager at the Thd3.tre 
des Italiens, Monte Carlo, etc., and for many 
years corresponded with the 'Menestrel' under 
the signature of * De Retz.' In 1877, on the death 
of M. Desplaces, he was appointed stage manager 
of the Italian Opera in London, which post he 


resigned in 1882 on account of iU health. Mme. 
Tagliafico, formerly Cotti, was for many years a 
valuable 'comprimaria* both at Covent Garden 
and Her Majesty's. [A.C.] 

TALEXY, Adrien. A pianist and voluminous 
composer, born about 1820; produced between 
1872 and 1878 six one-act operettas at the 
Bouffes-Parisiens and other Paris theatres, none 
of which met with any special favour. He is 
the author of a ' Mdthode de piano ' ; 20 ' Etudes 
expressives,' op. 80 (with Colombier) ; and of 
a large number of salon and dance pieces for 
piano solo, some of which enjoyed great popu- 
larity in their day. In i860 M. Talexy con- 
ducted a series of French operas at the St. James's 
Theatre, London, for Mr. F. B. Chatterton, begin- 
ning with La Tentation, May 28, which however 
did not prove a good speculation. He died at 
Paris in 1 88 1. [G.] 

TAILLE. Originally the Fiench name for 
the tenor voice, Basse-taille being applied to the 
baritone ; but most frequently employed to de- 
signate the tenor viol and violin. It properly 
denominates the large tenor, as distinguished 
from the smaller contralto or haute-contre : but 
zttf — ^s often applied to both instruments. The 
-M— tenor violoncello clef was originally ap- 
~" propriated to the Taille. [See Tenor 
Violin.] [E.J.P.] 

TALISMANO, Hi. Grand opera in 3 acts ; 
music by Balfe. Produced at Her Majesty's Opera, 
June II, 1874. The book, founded on Walter 
Scott's 'Talisman,' was written by A. Mattheson 
in English, and so composed ; but was translated 
into Italian by Sig. Zaflfira for the purpose of 
production at the Italian Opera. The work was 
left unfinished by Balfe, and completed by Dr. 
G. A. Macfarren. [G.] 

TALLYS (as he himself wrote his name), 
TALYS, or TALLIS (as it is usually spelled), 
Thomas, the father of English cathedral music, 
is supposed to have been bom in the second 
decade of the i6th century. It has been con- 
jectured that he received his early musical 
education in the choir of St. Paul's Cathedral 
under Thomas Mulliner, and was removed 
thence to the choir of the Chapel Royal ; but 
there is no evidence to support either state- 
ment. The words * Child there ' which occur at 
the end of the entry in the Cheque-book of the 
Chapel Royal recording his death and the appoint- 
ment of his successor, and which have been relied 
upon as proving the latter statement, are am- 
biguous, as they are applicable equally to his 
successor, Henry Eveseed, and to him. It is how- 
ever highly probable that he was a chorister 
in one or other of the metropolitan choirs. He 
became organist of Waltham Abbey, which 
appointment he retained until the dissolution 
of the abbey in 1540, when he was dismissed 
with 20s. for wages and 20*. for reward.^ It is 
probable that he soon after that event obtained 
the place of a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. 
His celebrated Preces, Responses and Litany, and 

1 This fact was discovered by Mr. W. H. Cumming*. 


his Service in the Dorian mode, were most prob- 
ably composed soon after the second Prayer Book 
of Edward VI. was issued in 1552. In 1560 he 
contributed eight tunes to Day's Psalter (one of 
which, a canon 2 in i, was subsequently adapted 
and is still used to Ken's Evening Hymn), and 
four anthems to Day's Morning, Communion, 
and Evening Prayer. On January 2 1, 1575-6 he 
and William Byrd obtained Letters Patent giving 
them the exclusive right of printing music and 
ruled music paper for twenty-one years ; the first 
of the kind. The first work printed under the 
patent was the patentees' own * Cantiones quae ab 
argumento Sacrae vocantur, quinque et sex par- 
tium,' containing 34 motets, 16 by Tallis, and 18 
by Byrd, and dated 1575. In the patent the 
grantees are called * Gent, of our Chappell ' only, 
but on the title-page of the 'Cantiones' they 
describe themselves as ' Serenissimae Regineee 
Maiestati h. priuato Sacello generosis, et Organis- 
tis.' The work is a beautiful specimen of early 
English musical typography. It contains not 
only three laudatory poems, one ' De Anglorum 
Musica' (unsigned), and two others by ' Richardus 
Mulcasterus' and 'Ferdinandus Richardsonus,' 
but also at the end a short poem by Tallis and 
Byrd themselves : — 


Haft tibi primitias sic commendamus, amice 
Lector, ut ivfantem deponitura suum 
Nutricijidei vix Jirma puerpera credit. 

Quels pro lacte tuce gratea frontis erit 
Eac etenimfretce, magnam promittere messem 

Audebunt, cassce, falcis honore cadent. 

which has been thus happily Englished : — * 

The Framees of the Musicke to the Reader. 
As one, that scarce recouer'd from her Throes 
With trustie Nurse her feeble Babe bestowes ; 
These firstlings, Reader, in thy Hands we place, 
Whose Milk must be the Fauour of thy Face ; 
By that sustayn'd, large Increase shal they shew, 
Of that depriued, ungarner'd must they gee. 

About the same time Tallys composed his 
markable Song of Forty parts, for 8 choirs 
of 5 voices each, originally set to Latin 
words, but adapted to English words about 
1630.'' [See vol. iii. p. 274.] Tallys, like 
his contemporary, the famous Vicar of Bray, 
conformed, outwardly at least, to the various 
forms of worship which successive rulers 
imposed, and so retained his position in the 
Chapel Royal uninterruptedly from his ap- 
pointment in the reign of Henry VIII until 
his death in that of Elizabeth. From the 
circumstance of his having selected his Latin 
motets for publication so lately as 1575 it may 
be inferred that his own inclination was toward 
the older fai'.h. He died November 23, 1585, 
and was buried in the chancel of the parish 
church at Greenwich, where in a stone before 
the altar rails a brass plate was inserted with an 
epitaph in verse engraven upon it. Upon the 
church being taken down for rebuilding soon 

1 By Mr. H. F. Wilson, of Trinity Colleee, Cambridge, to ivhom the 
Editor's best acitnowledgmnents are due. 

2 Copies are to be found in the Madrigal Society's Library, made by 
John Immyns ; the British Museum ; the Royal College of Music ; 
the Library of Sir F. A. G. Ouseley. 



after 1710 the inscription was removed, and Tallys 
remained without any tombstone memorial for 
upwards of 150 years, when a copy of the epitaph 
(which had been preserved by Strype in his 
edition of Stow's Survey of London, 1720,^ and 
reprinted by Hawkins, Bumey and others) was 
placed in the present church. The epitaph was 
set to music as a 4-part glee by Dr. Cooke, 
which was printed in Warren's collections. 
Tallys's Service (with the Venite as originally 
set as a canticle), Preces and Responses, and 
Litany, and 5 anthems (adapted from his Latin 
motets), were first printed in Barnard's Selected 
Church Musick, 1641. The Service, Preces, Re- 
sponses and Litany, somewhat changed in form 
and with the substitution of a chant for Venite 
instead of the original setting, and the addition 
of a chant for the Athanasian Creed, were next 
printed by Dr. Boyce in his Cathedral Music, 
All the various versions of the Preces, Responses 
and Litany are included in Dr. Jebb's ' Choral 
Responses and Litanies.' He appears to have 
written another service also in the Dorian mode, 
but * in 5 parts two in one,' of which, as will be 
seen from the following list, the bass part only 
is at present known. A Te Deum in F, for 5 
voices, is much nearer complete preservation 
(see List). Hawkins included in his History 
scores of two of the Cantiones, and, after having 
stated in the body of his work that Tallys did not 
compose any secular music, printed in his appen- 
dix the 4-part song, • Like as the doleful dove.* 
Bumey in his History printed an anthem from 
Day's Morning, Communion, and Evening prayer, 
and two of the Cantiones. Several MS. compo- 
sitions by Tallys are preserved at Christ Church, 
Oxford, in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, in 
the British Museum, and elsewhere. (See the 
List.) We give his autograph from the last leaf 
of a MS. collection of Treatises on Music, 
formerly belonging to Waltham Abbey, now in 
the British Museum (Lansdowne MS. 763). 

A head, purporting to be his likeness, together 
with that of Byrd, was engraved (upon the same 
plate) for Nicola Haym's projected History of 
Music, 1726. A single impression alone is known, 
but copies of a photograph taken from it are 
extant. [W.H.H.] 

The following is a first attempt to enumerate 
the existing works of Tallys : — 

3 By an odd misprint the composer's name It called 'Qallys' 
Strype^ copy. 




The earliest appearance is giren. 

Hear the Tolce and prayer (» 
Prayer •). 

Lord in thee Is all my trust (' a 

Prayer ')• 
Remember not, O Lord God (' the 

If ye lore me (' the Anthem *). 

1 glye you a new Commandment.) 
(All for four voices. Printed In 

John Day's 'Homing and Evening 
Prayer and Communion,' 1560 ?) 

Han blest no doubt. 1st tune. 
Let God arise, 2iid do. 
Why fumeth in flght, 3rd do. 
O come In one, 4th do. 
Even like the hunted hind, 5th do. 
Expend, O Lord, 6th do. 
Why bragst in malice high. 7th do. 
God grant with grace, 8th do. 
Come, Holy Ghost, eternal God. 
(All for four voices. In John Day's 
'Whole Psalter* 1663? The 8 tunes 
(In the Tenor part) are in the 8 
modes, 1 in each. No. 8— a Canon 

2 In 1, sung upside down— is the 

In Jejunio et fletu, & S, No. ZflL 

SuscipequsBSO, 47. No. 27. 

SlenimC^dapars), i7. No. 28. 

Miserere nostrl. 47. No. 34 (Haw- 
. kins, HI. 276). 
(All from the Cautlones sacre. 

etc. 157Sw) 

• First Service,* or • Short Service * 
—In D dor. Venite. Te Deum. 
Benedfctus, Kyrie, Creed, 
Sanctus. Gloria in Excelsis, 
Uagniflcat, NuncDImittis; all 

' First preces.* 

First Psalm to do.' (P«. cxix.) 
' AVherewithal,' a chant har- 

Second do., ' do well,' do. 

Third do. ' My soi^l cleavelh,' do. 
all four it 4. 

Responses, Lord's Prayer, and 
Litany 4 5. 

(Anthem) O Lord, give thy Holy 
Spirit, 4 4. (Adapted from 
Latin, according to Tudway.) 

tune usually sung to 'Glory to'With all our hearts. 4 5 (Sal vator 

Thoe. my God this night.') Mundl, No. 1). 

Blessed be thy name. 4 6 (Mihi 

Salvator mundi, 4 5. No. 1 (Bur- 1 autem nimis). 

ney, iii.76). Adapted to 'With i call and cry, 4 5(0 sacrum con- 
all our hearts,' by Barnard, j vivium). 
Also(?) to 'Teach me, O Lord,', Wipe away my Mns, 4 5 (Absterge 
Ch. Ch., and ' When Jesus.' Domine).2 See ' Forgive me,' 

Absterge Domine, 4 5. No. 2 (Haw- MS. 

khis. 111. 267). Adapted to (All from Barnard's ' First Book 
'Wipe away.' by Barnard If g^i^^jg^ church Music, 1641.) 
Also to ' Discomfit them, O 
Lord '(1588?) and 'I look for Litany. Preces, and Responses. 4 4. 

the Lord. 
In manus tuas, 4 5. No. 3. 
Uihl autem nimis, 4 5. No. 7. 

Adapted to 'Blessed be thy 

In Rimbault's ' Full Cathedral 
Service of Thomas Tallis ' ; and 
Jebb's ' Choral Responses and 
Litanies' (1817). 
name,' by Barnard. Also to Like as the doleful dove, 4 4. In 
Great and marvellous.' by Hawkins, Appendix. 

Motett Society 
Onata lux (Hymn), 45. No. 8. 
O sacrum convivium. 4 5. No. 9. 

Adapted to 'I call and cry,' 

by Barnard. 
Derelinquit Implus, 4 5. No. 13 

(Burney, Hi. 80). 
Sabbathum dum translsset, 46. 

No. 14. 
Virtus, honor et potestas, 4 6. 

No. 15. 
IlliB dum pergunt (Hymn), 4 5. 

No. 16 (? has a 2nd part. Rex 

Proculrecedant(Hymn),45. No.20 
SalvatorMundl. 45. No. 21 (differ- 
ent from No. 1). 
FMtl sunt Nazarel, 4 5. No. 22. 

All people that on earth do dwell, 
4 4. In Arnold's Cathedral 
Music, vol. 1. 

Hear my prayer, 44. In 'Anthems' 
and Services forChurchChoirs. 
Burns, 1846, vol. 1. 15. 

Blessed are those. 4 5. In Motett 
Society's Collection, liL 131. 

Great and marvellous, 4 5. Ibid, 
ill. 99, adapted from ' Mlhi au- 
tem nimis,' Cantio 7; and 
' Blessed be thy Name.' in Bar- 

Verba mea auribus, 4 5. In Roch- 
litz's Sammlung. A retransla- 
tlon of ' I call and cry.' 

'Come, Holy Ghost, our souls in- 
spire.' Parish Choir. 


Oh. Ch. - (3hrlst Church Library, Oxford. M.S.O. ■=■ Music School, 
Oxford. R.C.M.-Llbrary of Royal College of Music. Add. MS.^ 
Additional MS3. British Museum. F.W.-Fitzwilliam Museum, 
Cambridge. O.-Library of Rev. Sir F. A. G. Ouseley. Bt. P.H.— 
Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

'Second Psalms' to Preces, viz. Adesto nunc. 4 5. Ch. Ch. 

Pss. ex. and cxxxii. Probably Ad nlhilum deductus, 4 5. 2nd 

Part of ' Domine quis.' 

MSS. 5,059. 
A new commandment (?) » 
Arise, O Lord. P. H. 

Chants harmonised. rart of ' Domine quis.' Add. 

• Third Psalms 'to Preces, viz. Ps. 
cxix. 145-176. Do. 
(Both these are In a Bass part 

book, formerly Juxon's, in the Li- Ave Dei patris. 43. R.C.H. 

brary of St. John's Coll., Oxford.) | Ave Domini fllia. 4 3. Do. 

Service 'of five parts, two in one'i^J^ Sa gr;t1a'-4 J^Do 
In D dor., containing Venite. ^-rosa 42 n'o 
Te Deum, Benedlctus. 1 \ u 
Nloene Creed, Sanctus, GlorIa|B^e»if<^,»™ those that are unde- 
In Excelsis. Magnificat, and filed, 4.5. M.S.O. 
Nunc Dimittis. Bass part In De lamentatione (Gimel, Daleth) 
Juion book. St. John's. Oxford. 4 6. Ch. Ch. Add.M8.5or>9.' 
No other parts yet known. | Deliver me, God. St. Paul's list. 

» Printed by Day with the name of Sheppard ; and given In ' Parish 
Choir ' as by Sheppard. See Add. MS. 30,513. 

» Of these four5-part anthems there are transcripts In the Fitz- 
WiUiam Museum of 'I call and cry' by Blow and by Purcell ; of 
' With all our heart,' ' Blessed,' and ' Wipe away,' by Blow only. 

3 I have not been able to discover If this is the same as ' I give you 
a new commandment.' 

Discomfit them, Lord, adapted 
(?15«8) from 'Absterge Do- 
mine.' Ch. Ch. 

Domine quis habltabit, 4 5. Ch.Ch. 
Add. MS. 5.059. 

Dominus tecum, 43. B.C.M. 

Eccetempus,44. Add. MS. 30.513. 

Et benedictus. In Lute tablature. 
Add. MS. 29,246. 

Ex more docti mistico. Add. MS. 

' Fancy ' for the Organ in A minor. 
Ch. Ch. 

Felix namque. No. 1, for Virginals. 
Virginal Book. Fitzwllliam 
Library. Cambridge. 

Felix namque. No. 2. lor do. Do. 

Felix namque. No. 3, 'Mr. Thos. 
Tallis Offetary.' for do. Add. 
MS. No. 30.485. 

Fond youth is a bubble. 4 4. 
Add. MS. 30.513.4 

Forgive me. Lord, my sin. Clif- 
ford's list. This Is probabl}- 
only a variant of ' Wipe away 
my sins.' 

Gaude glorlosa, 48. Ch. Ch. 

Gaudegloriosa. 43. R.C.M.s 

Gaude Virgo Maria. 46. M.S.O. 

Gloria tibl Trinitas, 44(?) Ch.Oh 

Gloria tibl Domine. 4 5 (?) 0. 

Hec deum cell. 4 5. Ch. Ch. 

How long, 4 4(?) In Lute tablature. 
Add. MS. 29,247 ; 31,992, 

If that a sinner's sighs, 4 5. O. 
I look for the Lord, 4 5. Ch. Ch, 

An adaptation of 'Absterge 

Inciplt lamentatio (Aleph, Beth) 

4 5. Do. Add. MS. 5.059. 
In nomine. 44. M.S.O. 
In nomine, 44. Do. 
In nomine. Lute tablature. Add. 

MSS. 'iy.'>46. 
I will give thanks. St. Paul's list. 
I will cry unto God. Do. 

Laudate Dominum, 45. Ch. Ch. 
Let the wicked forsake his way. 
Calvert's list. 

Magnificat anlma mea 46. Cb.Ch. 
Maria Stella, 43. R.C.M. 
Miraculum videte. 4 6. Ch. Ch. 
Natus est nobis 4 2. Add. MS. 

Nunc dimittis Domine, 4 6. Ch.Ch. 

Ogive thanks. MS. by A. Batten, 

God be merciful. P.H. 

O thou God Almighty. 4 4. Ch.Ch. 

O praise the Lord. Adapted to ' O 
Salutaris.' Bass part in Bar- 
nard's MS. Coll. R.C.M. 

Salutaris, 45. Ch.Ch. 

O sing unto the Lord (Ps. cxllz), 
6. M.S.O. 

O thou God Almighty, 4 4. Ob. Ch. 

Out of the deep. 44. Ch.Ch. 

ye tender babes, 44. Add. MS. 

Fange lingua (no name), 44. Do. 
range lingua (no name). 4 4. Do. 
Pange lingua (no name), 4 4. Do. . 
Per haec nos. 4 3. R.C.M. 
Per haec nos. 4 4. Add. MS. 

Poyncte, a (for the Virginals). 44. 


Quidamftilt. 40. Ch.Ch. 

Salve Intemerata, 4 6. Ch. Ch. 
Salve intemerata, 4 3. R.0.M.» 
Save Lord and hear us. St. Paul's 

Soleimis urgebat, 4 5. Ch. Ch. 

Te Deum, English, In F, a 6, 
Parts for 1st Countertenor, 
Tenor, Bass Cant., in Barnard's 
MS. Collection in R.C.M. An 
Organ part in Ch. Ch. 

Teach me, O Lord, 45. Ch. Ch. (?) 
adaptation of Salvator Mundl 
No. 1. 

Teach me thy way, 44. Ch.Ch. 

Tu fabricator. 4 5. Do. 

Tu nimirum, 4 4. Add. MS. 29,246. 

Up. Lord, and help us. St. Paul's 

Varlis Unguis. 47. Ch.Ch. 
Veni redemptor, 4 4. Add MS. 

Veni redemptor ( No 2), 4 4. Do. 
Verily, verily, 4 4. Ely. P.H. 

Add. MS. 15,166. 

When Jesus went Into Symon the 
Pharisee's house, 4 5. Adapted 
to ' Salvator mundi ' (No. 21). 
Add. MS. 31,226. 

The Editor has to express his sincere thanka 
to the Rev. Sir F. A. G. Ouseley, Bart. ; Rev. J. 
H. Mee ; Rev. W. E. Dickson ; Mr. John Bishop ; 
Mr. Bertram Pollock, and several others, for their 
kind help in making out this list. [G.] 

TAMBERLIK, Enrico, bom March i6, 1820, 
at Rome, received instruction in singing irom 
Borgna and Guglielmi, and made his dibut in 
1841 at the Teatro Fondo, Naples, in Bellini's 

4 The volumes In the Add. MSS. numbered 30.613 and 30.488 
are valuable, not only because they contain works not known else- 
where, but because of the light they throw on the domeitie 
position of music in thelGth century. They are arrangements for the 
Virginals— the fashionable keyed instrument of the day— exactly 
analogous to the arrangements for the Pianoforte of our own times t 
and It is startling to find that the sacred choral music of that day was 
the favourite music, and that the learned contrapuntal 5- and 6- 
part motets of Tallis, Edwardes, Farrant, Taverner, Byrde, Crequil- 
lon, Josquin, Orlando Lasso, and others, were compressed for the 
amusement of musical amateurs Just as oratorios, operas, and oper- 
ettas are now. From Add. MSS. 29,246, 29,247, another thing is plain, 
tliat these learned compositions were arranged for the Lute so that 
the top part could be .suiig solo, and the other parts played as 
accompaniment. An example of this may be found in the ' Echos du 
temps pass6,' where Gibbons's ' Silver Swan ' is set to French words 
(Le Croisu captiO as a solo with accompaniment ; but It will be new 
to many to find the same practice In the 16th century. 

s This and ' Salve Intemerata,' for 3 voices in R.O.M., no. 1737, ap- 
pear to be portions of 5-part motets to the same words, reduced to 
3 parts by simple omissions of voice-parts. The same probably 
applies to all the 3- part motets in R.C.M. mentioned above ; but they 
require Investigation. 


*I Capuletti.' He sang with success for several 
years at the San Carlo, also at Lisbon, Madrid, 
and Barcelona. He first appeared in England 
April 4, 1850, at the Royal Italian Opera, as 
Masaniello, and obtained immediate popularity 
in that and in his other parts of the season, viz. 
PoUio, Robert, Roderick Dhu, Otello ; April 20, 
Amenofi, on the production of a version of 
*Mose in Egitto,' entitled *Zora'; and July 25, 
in Leopold, on the production of *La Juive' in 
England. He possessed a splendid tenor voice, 
of great richness of tone and volume, reaching 
to C in alt, which he gave with tremendous 
power, and 'as clear as a bell.' His taste and 
energy were equal, and he was an excellent 
singer, save for the persistent use of the 'vibrato.' 
In person he was singularly handsome, and was 
an admirable actor. He remained a member 
of the company until 1864 inclusive, excepting 
the season of 1857, singing in the winters at 
Paris, St. Petersburg, Madrid, North and South 
America, etc. His other parts included Arnold ; 
Emani; Aug. 9, 51, Phaon (Saffo); Aug. 17, 
52, Pietro il Grande; June 25, 53, Benvenuto 
Cellini; May 10, 55, Manrico (Trovatore) — on 
production of those operas in England ; also. May 
27, 51, Florestan (Fidelio); July 15, 52, Ugo 
(Spohr's Faust) ; Aug. 5, 58, Zampa ; July 2, 63, 
Gounod's Faust — on the revival or production 
of the operas at Covent Garden, etc. He re- 
appeared at the same theatre in 1870 as Don 
Ottavio, the Duke (Rigoletto), John of Leyden ; 
and in 1877, at Her Majesty's, as Ottavio, Otello, 
and Manrico, and was well received, though his 
powers were on the wane. He is now living at 
Madrid, where he carries on a manufactory of 
arms, occasionally singing in public. [A.C.] 

bourine.] [V.deP.] 

TAMBOURIN. A long narrow drum used 
in Provence, beaten with 
a stick held in one hand, 
while the other hand plays 
on a pipe or flageolet with 
only three holes, called a 
galouhet. [See Drum 3, vol. 
i.p. 466.] [V.deP.] 

TAMBOURIN, an old 
Proven9al dance, in its ori- 
ginal form accompanied by 
a Flute and Tambour de 
Basque, whence the name 
was derived. The drum ac- 
companiment remained a 
characteristic feature when 
the dance was adopted on the stage, the bass 
of the tune generally consisting of single notes 
in the tonic or dominant. The Tambourin was 
in 2-4 time, of a lively character, and generally 
followed by a second Tambourin in the minor, 
after which the first was repeated. A well- 
known example occurs in Rameau's * Pieces 
de Clavecin,' and has often been reprinted. 
It was introduced in Scene 7, Entr^ III, of 
the same composer's ' FStes d'H^b^,' where it 



is entitled 'Tambourin en Rondeau,' in allu- 
sion to its form, which is that of an 8-baried 
Rondeau followed by several 'reprises.* The 
same opera contains (in Entree I, Scenes 5 and 9) 
two other Tambourins, each consisting of two 
parts (major and minor). We give the first part 
of one of them as an example. Mile. Camargo 
is said to have excelled in this dance. 






^J^tJ=^^Q-;= j 


TAMBOURINE (Fr. Tamhour de Basque). 
This consists of a wooden hoop, on one side of 
which is stretched a vellum head, the other side 
being open. Small rods with fly-nuts serve to 
tighten or loosen the head. It is beaten by the 
hand without a stick. Several pairs of small 
metal plates, called jingles, are fixed loosely round 
the hoop by a wire passing through the centres 
of each pair, so that they jingle whenever the 
tambourine is struck by the hand or shaken. 
Another effect is produced by rubbing the head 
with the finger. It is occasionally used in or- 
chestras, as in Weber's 
overture to 'Preciosa,' and 
at one time was to be seen 
in our military bands. In 
the last century it was a 
fashionable instrument for 
ladies. The instrument is 
probably of Oriental origin, being very possibly 
derived from the Hebrew TopTi^ (Exod. xv. 20). 
The Egyptian form is somewhat similar to our 
own, but heavier, as may be seen from the wood- 
cut, taken from Lane's ' Modern Egyptians.' 

The French Tambourin is "quite a different 
thing, and is described under the 3rd kind of 
Drums, as well as under its proper name. 
[Drum 3, and Tambourin.] 

The modem 
Egyptians have 
drums (Dara- 
hulikeh) with one 
skin or head, and 
open at the bot- 
tom, which is the 
only reason for 
classifying them 
with tambour- 
ines. [See vol. i. 
p. 463.] The an- 
nexed woodcut (also from Lane) shows two 
examples ; the first of wood, inlaid with tortoise- 

1 This root survives in the Spanish advfe. a tambourine. 



pbell and mother-of-pearl, 1 7 inches high and 6| 
diameter at top ; the second is of earthenware, 
Io| inches high and 8| diameter. [V.deP.] 

TAMBURINI, Antonio, baritone singer, emi- 
nent among the great lyric artists of the 19th 
century, was bom at Faenza on March 28, 1800. 
His father was director of military music at 
Fossombrone, Ancona. A player himself on horn, 
trumpet, and clarinet, he instructed his son, at 
a very early age, in horn-playing, accustoming 
him in this way to great and sustained efforts, 
even to overtaxing his undeveloped strength. At 
nine the boy played in the orchestra, but seems 
soon to have been passed on to Aldobrando Rossi 
for vocal instruction. At twelve he returned 
to Faenza, singing in the opera chorus, which 
was employed not only at the theatre but for 
mass, a fact which led him to devote much time 
in early youth to the study of church music. He 
attracted the notice of Madame Pisaroni and 
the elder Mombelli ; and the opportunities which 
he enjoyed of hearing these great singers, as well 
as Davide and Donzelli, were turned by him to 
the best account. At eighteen, and in possession 
of a fine voice, he was engaged for the opera of 
Bologna. The piece in which, at the little town 
of Cento, he first appeared, was * La Contessa di 
colle erboso, ' of Generali. His favourable reception 
there and at Miiandola, Correggio, and Bologna, 
attracted the notice of several managers, one of 
whom secured him for the Carnival at Piacenza, 
where his success in Rossini's * Italiana in Algeri' 
procured for him an engagement that same year 
at the Teatro Nuovo at Naples. Although his 
beautiful baritone voice had now reached its full 
maturity, his execution was still imperfect, and 
the Neapolitan public received him somewhat 
coldly, though speedily won over by his great 
gifts and promise. The political troubles of 1 820, 
however, closed the theatres, and Tamburini sang 
next at Florence, where, owing to indisposition, 
he did himself no justice. The memory of this 
was speedily wiped out by a series of triumphs at 
Leghorn, Turin, and Milan. About this time he 
lost his mother, an affliction which so plunged 
him in melanclioly that he thought of retiring to 
a cloister. It is fortunate for the public that his 
calling interposed a delay between this design and 
its execution, so that it was never carri^ into 
effect. At Milan he met and married the lovely 
singer, Marietta Gioja, for whom, as well as for 
him, Mercadante wrote the opera of *I1 Posto 

Proceeding to Trieste, he passed through Ven- 
ice, where an unexpected toll was demanded of 
him. Special performances were being given in 
honour of the Emperors of Austria and Russia, 
then at Venice, and Tamburini was not allowed 
to escape scot-free. He was arrested • by author- 
ity,* and only after a few days, during which he 
achieved an immense success, was he allowed to 
proceed. From Trieste he went to Rome, where 
he remained for two years ; thence, after singing 
in 'Mosfe' at Venice, with Davide and Mme. 
Meric Lalande, he removed to Palermo, where he 


spent another two years. He now received an 
engagement from Barbaja for four years, during 
which he sang in Naples, Milan, and Vienna, 
alternately. At Vienna he and Rubini were 
decorated with the order of 'the Saviour,' an 
honour previously accorded to no foreigner but 
Wellington. Tamburini first sang in London in 
1832, and soon became an established favourite. 
His success was equally great at Paris, where he 
appeared in October of the same year as Dandini 
in the * Cenerentola.' For ten years he belonged 
to London and Paris, a conspicuous star in the 
brilliant constellation formed by Grisi, Persiani, 
Viardot, Rubini, Lablache, and himself, and was 
long remembered as the baritone in the famous 
•Puritani quartet.' Without any single com- 
manding trait of genius, he seems, with the excep- 
tion of Lablache, to have combined more attractive 
qualities than any man-singer who ever appeared. 
He was handsome and graceful, and a master in 
the art of stage-costume. His voice, a baritone 
of over two octaves extent, was full, round, sonor- 
ous, and perfectly equal throughout. His exe- 
cution was unsurpassed and unsurpassable ; of a 
kind which at the present day is wellnigh obsolete, 
and is associated in the public mind with soprano 
and tenor voices only. The Parisians, referring; 
to this florid facility, called him ' Le Rubini des 
basse-tailles.' Although chiefly celebrated as a 
singer of Rossini's music, one of his principal 
parts was Don Giovanni. His readiness, versati- 
lity and true Italian cleverness are well illustrated 
by the anecdote of his exploit at Palermo, during 
his engagement there, when he not only sang his 
own part in Mercadante's * Elisa e Claudio ' but 
adopted the costume and the voice — a soprano 
sfogato — of Mme. Lipparini, the prima donna, who 
was frightened off the stage, went through the 
whole opera, duets and aU,a,nd finished by dancing 
a pas de quatre with the Taglionis and Mile. Ri- 
naldini. For the details of this most amusing 
scene the reader must be referred to the lively 
narrative of Mr. Sutherland Edwards' 'History of 
the Opera,' ii. 272. 

In 1 841 Tamburini returned to Italy and sang 
at several theatres there. Although his powers 
were declining, he proceeded to Russia, where he 
found it worth his while to remain for ten years. 
When, in 1852, he returned to London, his voice 
had all but disappeared, in spite of which he sang 
again after that, in Holland and at Paris. His 
last attempt was in London, in 1859. From that 
time he lived in retirement at Nice, till his death 
November 9th, 1876. [F.A.M.] 

TAMERLANO. Opera in 3 acts; libretto by 
Piovene, music by Handel. Composed between 
July 3 and 23, 1724, and produced at the King's 
Theatre, London, Oct. 31, 1724. It comes be- 
tween *Giulio Cesare' and 'Rodelinda.' Pio- 
vene's tragedy has been set 14 times, the last 
being in 1824. [G.] 

TAM-TAM. The French term for the gong 
in the orchestra; evidently derived from the 
Hindoo name for the instrument (Sanscrit turn- 
turn), [See Gong.] [G.] 


TANCREDI. An opera seria in 2 acts ; the 
libretto by Rossi, after Voltaire, music by Ros- 
sini. Produced at the Teatro Fenice, Venice, 
Feb. 6, 1 81 3. In Italian at the ThdMre des 
Italiens, Paris ; and in French (Castil Blaze) at 
the Odeon. In England, in Italian, at King's 
Theatre, May 4, 1820. Revived in 1837, Pasta; 
1841, Viardot; 1848, Alboni; and July 22, 29, 
1856, for Johanna Wagner. Tancredi contains 
the famous air ' Di tanti palpiti.' [G.] 

TANGENT, in a clavichord, is a thick pin of 
brass wire an inch or more high, flattened out 
towards the top into a head one-eighth of an inch 
or so in diameter. It is inserted in the back end of 
the key, and being pushed up so as to strike the 
pair of strings above it, forms at once a hammer 
for them and a temporary bridge, from which 
they vibrate up to the soundboard bridge. In 
the clavichord no other means beyond this very 
primitive contrivance is used for producing the 
tone, which is in consequence very feeble, al- 
though sweet. The common damper to all the 
strings, a strip of cloth interwoven behind the 
row of tangents, has the tendency to increase this 
characteristic of feebleness, by permitting no 
sympathetic reinforcement. 

In all clavichords made anterior to about 1725 
there was a fretted (or gehunden) system, by 
which the keys that struck, what from analogy 
with other stringed instruments may be called 
open strings, were in each octave F, G, A, 
Bb, C, D, E b. With the exception of A and D 
(which were always independent), the semitones 
were obtained by the tangents of the neighbour- 
ing keys, which fretted or stopped the open 
strings at shorter distance, and produced Fjf, 
G J, B CI, C J, and E I3. Owing to this contrivance 
it was not possible, for example, to sound F and 
F J together by putting down the two contiguous 
keys; since the Fj alone would then sound. 
We have reason to believe that the independence 
of A and D is as old as the chromatic keyboard 
itself, which we know for certain was in use in 
1426. Old authorities may be quoted for the 
fretting of more tangents than one ; and Adlung, 
who died in 1762, speaks of another fretted 
division which left Eb and B independent, 
an evident recognition of the natural major 
scale which proves the late introduction of this 

The tangent acts upon the strings in the same 
way that the bridging or fretting does upon the 
simple monochord, sharpening the measured 
distances which theory demands by adding ten- 
sion. Pressing the key too much therefore makes 
the note sound intolerably out of tune. An 
unskilful player would naturally err in this 
direction, and Emanuel Bach cautions against it. 
In his famous essay ^ on playing he describes an 
effect special to the tangent, unattainable by 
either jack or hammer, viz. the Beben or Behung, 
which was a tremolo or vibrato obtained by a 
tremulous pressure upon the key with the fleshy 

» ' Versuch tlber die wahre Art Klavier ni spielen/ 1753, another 
edition. 1780. and republished by ScheUing. 1857. 



end of the finger. It was marked with a line 
and dots like the modern mezzo staccato^ but 
being upon a single note, was, of course, en- 
tirely different. 

The article Clavichord is to be corrected by 
the foregoing obsei-vations. [A. J.H.] 

KRIEG AUF WARTBURG. An opera in 3 
acts ; words and music by Wagner. Produced 
at Dresden, Oct. 20, 1845. At Cassel, by Spohr, 
after much resistance from the Elector, early in 
1 853. At the Grand Opera, Paris (French transla- 
tion by Ch. Nuitter), March 13, 186 1. It had 
three representations only.^ At Covent Garden, 
in Italian, May 6, 1876. The overture was first 
performed in England by the Philharmonic 
Society (Wagner conducting). May 14, 1855. 
Schumann saw it Aug. 7, 1847, and mentions it 
in his • Theaterbiichlein ' as *an opera which 
cannot be spoken of briefly. It certainly has 
an appearance of genius. Were he but as melo- 
dious as he is clever he would be the man of the 
day.' [G.] 

TANS'UR, William, who is variously stated 
to have been born at Barnes, Surrey, in 1699, 
and at Dunchurch, Warwickshire, in 1700, and 
who was successively organist at Barnes, Ewell, 
Leicester, and St. Neot's, compiled and edited 
several collections of psalm tunes, and was author 
of some theoretical works. The principal of his 
several publications are * The Melody of the 
Heart,' 1737; 'A Compleat Melody, or. The 
Harmony of Sion,' 1735 and 1738; 'Heaven on 
Earth, or. The Beauty of Holiness,' 1738; 'A 
New Musical Grammar,' 1 746 ; in which he 
styles himself, 'William Tans'ur Musico Theo- 
rico ' ; * The Royal Melody compleat, or, The New 
Harmony of Zion,' 1754 and 1755; *The Royal 
Psalmodist compleat ' (no date) ; * The Psalm 
Singer's Jewel,' 1760; *Melodia Sacra,' 1772; 
and 'The Elements of Musick displayed,* 1772. 
He died at St. Neot's, Oct. 7, 1 783. He had a son 
who was a chorister at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. [W.H.H.] 

TAN-TA-RA. A word which occurs in English 
hunting songs, and is evidently intended to imi- 
tate the note of the horn. One of the earliest 
instances is in ' The hunt is up,' a song ascribed 
by Chappell to Henry VIII's time : — 

Tlie horses snort to be at the sport. 

The dogs are running free, 
The woods rejoice at the merry noise 

Of hey tantara tee ree I 

Another is ' News from Hide Paik,' of Charles 

II's time : — 

One evening a little before it was dark, 
Sing tan-ta-ra-ra-ra tan-ti-vee, etc. 

2 For the extraordinary uproar which it created see Prosper 
Meriinde's ' Lettres ^ une Inconnue,' li. 151-3. One ot the joltes was 
'qu'on s'ennuie aux rt5citatifs, et qu'on se lanne aux airs.' Even 
a man of sense lilte MerimtSe says that he * could write something 
as good after hearing his cat wallc up and down over the key* 
of the piano.' Berlioz writes about it in a style which is equallj 
discreditable to his taste and his penetration (Correspondance iuedite, 
Xos. cliitocvl). 



But the word is as old as Ennius, who has 
At tuba terribili sonitu taratantara dixit. 

And the same form occurs in Giimald (1557) 
and Stanyhurst (1583). [G.] 

TANTO, i.e. 'too much,' as in Beethoven's 
String Trio (op. 9, no. i) — 'Adagio ma non 
tanto,' i.e. Slow, but not too slow. Tanto has 
practically the same force as * Troppo.' [G.] 

TANTUM ERGO. The first words of the 
last two stanzas of the Hymn 'Pange lingua 
gloriosi Corporis Mysterium,' written by S. Thomas 
Aquinas, for the Festival of Corpus Christi.^ 

The extreme solemnity of the circumstances 
under which 'Tantum ergo' is sung in the 

Modus I. 


Roman Catholic Church, renders its adaptation 
to solemn Music more than ordinarily impera- 
tive. It is used whenever the Eucharist is carried 
in Procession ; at the conclusion of the Ceremony 
of Exposition ; and at the Office of Benediction : 
and never heard but in the presence of the 
Eucharist. Except, of course, in Processions, it 
is sung kneeling. 

The Plain Chaunt Melody of ' Tantum ergo ' 
is the same as that used for *Pange lingua.' 
The purest printed version is that given in the 
new Batisbon Office-Books; but, owing to the 
excision of certain 'grace-notes,' this version is, 
at present, less popular than that printed in the 
Mechlin Vesperal.* The pure version stands 
thus — 

From the Ratisbon Vesperal. 

_, ■'27' _ 

Tan-tum er - go Sa - era 
Gen - i - to • ri gen - i 

men - turn 
to - que 

Ve - 


-re - mur cer - iiu 
Ju - bi-la- tl 

Et an - tl - quum doo - u - men-tum 
6a - lus, ho > nor, vir - tus quo-qae 

^^-^^=r* — 

No - TO ce - dat rl - tu - 
Sit et ben - e - die • ti • 


■^S'— ^1^— gy— p^g- 


rrses-tet fl - des sup-pie - men - turn 6en-su-um 

Fro - ce - den - ti ab u • tro - que Compar sit lau-da - ti - o 

de - fec-tui. A • • men. 

The antient Melody has been frequently treated j 
in Polyphonic form, and that very finely ; but 
no setting will bear comparison with the mag- 
nificent * Pange lingua ' in Palestrina's * Hymni 
totius anni,' which concludes with a * Tantum 
ergo ' for 5 Voices, in which the Melody is as- 
signed, entire, to the First Tenor, while the re- 
maining Voices accompany it with Harmonies 
and Points of Imitation. Vittoria has also 
written a very beautiful ' Pange lingua,' which, 
unhappily, treats the alternate stanzas only ; 
the first stanza of 'Tantum ergo' is there- 
fore omitted, though the music written for the 
second — 'Genitori, Genitoque' — may very con- 
sistently be sung to it. 

The almost daily use of ' Tantum ergo ' at 
the Office of Benediction has led to the fabrica- 
tion of an immense number of modern Melodies, 
of more or less demerit. One of the best of 
these — a really good one — attributed to Michael 
Haydn, is extremely popular, in England, as 
a Hymn-Tune — — under the title of 
'Benediction.'^ Another, said to be 'Gre- 
gorian,' and probably really of Plain-Chaunt 
origin, is scarcely less popular, under the title of 
•S. Thomas.'* A third, set for two Voices by 
V. Novello, is equally pleasing, though wanting 
in solemnity. These, however, are quite ex- 
ceptionally good specimens. Notwithstanding 
the beauty of the text, and the solemnity of 
the occasions on which it is sung, it is doubtful 
whether any Hymn has ever been fitted to so 
much irreverent music as * Tantum ergo.' The 
present Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster has 
sternly condemned the use of such Music in 

1 Not to be mistaken for the Hrmn (better known in England), 
■ung, under the same title, during Holy Week— 'Fange lingua gloriosi 
Lauream certaminis.' 

2 Hymns Ancient and Modern, Hymn 67, new ed. 
• Ibid.. Hymn 51. ibid. 

England, and his remonstrance has not been 
without efiect; but hitherto the reform has 
only been a partial one. 

Of orchestral settings of 'Tantum ergo,' the 
two fiinest are unquestionably those by Mozart — 
Nos. 142 and 197 in Kochel's Catalogue — for 
4 Voices, with accompaniments for Stringed In- 
struments, 2 Trumpets, and Organ. Schubert 
has left three ; one, op. 45, and one in MS., both 
in C, and both for quartet, orchestra, and organ ; 
and one in Eb (MS., 1828). [W.S.R.] 

TAPPERT, WiLHELM, German critic and 
writer on music, born Feb. 19, 1830, at Ober- 
Thomaswaldau in Silesia; began life as a school- 
master, but in 1856 adopted music, under Dehn 
for theory and KuUak for practice. Since that 
time he has resided in Berlin, where he is well 
known as a teacher and musical writer, and an 
able and enthusiastic partisan of Wagner. He 
was a teacher in Tausig's school for higher PF.- 
playing. His 'Wagner Lexicon' (1877) con- 
tains a collection of all the abuse that has been 
lavished on that composer and his friends — a 
useless and even mischievous labour. Much 
more important are his researches into ancient 
Tablatures, on which it is to be hoped he will 
soon publish something. From 1 876-80 he edited 
the *Allgemeine Deutsche Musikzeitung.' He 
is a contributor to the ' Musikalisches Wochen- 
blatt ' and has published several pamphlets, es- 
pecially one on consecutive fifths, ' Das Verbot 
von Quintenparallelen ' (1869). C^O 

TARANTELLA, a South Italian dance, which 
derives its name from Taranto, in the old pro- 
vince of Apulia. The music is in 6-8 time, 
played at continually increasing speed, with 
irregular alternations of minor and major. It is 

« For a free reading of the Impure version, see • Hymns Ancient 
and Modern,' Hymn 309, no. 3, new ed. 


generally danced by a man and a woman, but 
sometimes by two women alone, who often play 
castagnets and a tambourine. It was formerly 
sung, but this is seldom the case now. The 
Tarantella has obtained a fictitious interest from 
the idea that by means of dancing it a strange 
kind of insanity, attributed to the effects of 
the bite of the Lycosa Tarantula, the largest 
of European spiders, could alone be cured. It 
is certain that a disease known as Tarantism 
prevailed in South Italy to an extraordinary ex- 
tent, during the 15th, i6th, and 17th centuries, 
if not later, and that this disease — which seems 
to have been a kind of hysteria, like the St. 
Vitus dance epidemic in Germany at an earlier 
date — was apparently only curable by means of 
the continued exercise of dancing the Tarantella; 
but that the real cause of the affection was 
the bite of the spider is very improbable, 
later experiments having shown that it is no 
more poisonous than the sting of a wasp. 
The first extant notice of Tarantism is in 
Niccolo Perotto's 'Cornucopia Linguae Latinse' 
(p. 20 o, ed. 1489). During the i6th century the 
epidemic was at its height, and bands of musi- 
cians traversed the country to play the music 
which was the only healing medicine. The forms 
which the madness took were very various : 
Home were seized with a violent craving for 
water, so that they were with difficulty pre- 
vented from throwing themselves into the sea, 
others were strangely affected by different colours, 
and all exhibited the most extravagant and out- 
rageous contortions. The different forms which 
the disease assumed were cured by means of 
different airs, to which the Tarantists — the name 
by which the patients were known — were made 
to dance until they often dropped down with 
exhaustion. The epidemic seems only to have 
raged in the summer months, and it is said that 
those who had been once attacked by it were 
always liable to a return of the disease. Most 
of the songs, both words and music, which were 
used to cure Tarantism, no longer exist, but the 
Jesuit Kircher, in his 'Magnes' (Rome, 1641), 
book III, cap. viii., has preserved a few speci- 
mens. He says that the Tarantellas of his day 
were mostly rustic extemporisations, but the airs 
he gives (which are printed in Mendel's Lexicon, 
sub voce Tarantella) are written in the Ecclesi- 
astical Modes, and with one exception in common 
time. They bear no resemblance to the tripping 
melodies of the modem dance.^ Kircher' s work 
contains an engraving of the Tarantula in two 
positions, with a map of the region where it is 
found, and the following air, entitled 'Antidotum 
Tarantulae,' which is also to be found in Jones's 
'Maltese Melodies' (London, 1805) and in vol. ii. 
of Stafford Smith's 'Musica Antiqua' (1812), 
where it is said to be derived from Zimmermann's 

> It has been suggested that these fragments of melodies— for they 
are little more— are ancient Greek tunes handed down traditionally 
In Taranto. 

2 In Mazella's ' Ball!, Correntl,' etc., (Rome, 1689), Is a Tarantella In 
common time in the form of a short air with ' partite,' or variations. 
Mattheson (Vollkomener Kapellmeister, 1739) says there U one In the 
' Quintessence des Nouvelles ' for 1727. 










1 J i ^ J. ^ 1*1 ' 


J- J-J- J J 1^1 

I 1^ 





For farther information on this curious sub- 
ject we must refer the reader to the following 
works : — 

N. Perotto, 'Cornucopia' (Venice, 1480); A. Kircher, 
•Magnes' (Rome, 1641); 'Musurgia' (Kome, 1G50) ; Her- 
mann Grube, 'De Ictu Tarantulae' (Frankfurt, 1G7!») ; 
G. Baglivi, ' De Praxi Meclica' (Eome, 16',)(j) ; Dr. Peter 
Shaw, 'New Practice of Physic,' vol. i. (London, 1720); 
Fr. Serao, 'Delia Taran tola '^ (Eome, 1742); Dr. II. Mead,^ 
' Mechanical account of Poisons' (3rd ed., London, 1745) ; 
J, D. Tietz,'Von den Wirkunsen der T6ne auf den mensch- 
lichen Korper' (in Justi's 'NeuenWahrheiten,' Leipzig, 
1745) ; P. J. Buc'hoz, ' L'art de connaitre et de designei* 
le pouls par les notes de la musique ' (Paris, 1806) ; J. F. 
E. Hecker, 'Die Tanzwuth' (Berlin, 18a2) ; A. Vergari, 
'Tarantismo' (Naples, 183'J) ; De Reuzi, in ' Eaccoglitorw 
Medico' for 1842; C. Engel, 'Musical Myths,' vol. ii, 
(London, 1876). 

The Tarantella has been used by many modern 
composers. Auber has introduced it in ' La 
Muette de Portici,' Weber in his E minor Sonata, 
Thalberg wrote one for Piano, and Rossini a vocal 
Tarantella * La Danza ' (said to have been com- 
posed for Lablache) the opening bars of which 
are here cfiven : — 


» • a' • ■■■ 1^ S 'f^. s 

(^.U.-L—L.l U ■ 

*^ Gli la 

luna 6 in mez - zo al ma - re mamma 

=j=g_J J^ 

, f -• ji • " p -. • . - 

—4- — 1 U iJ i — Hd 1 — 

mla 81 sal-teri 

— *^ ...^-tfct: 

I'ora i, 

bel - la per danz - 

— \ 

a • re chl d In amor non man - che - ra, etc. 

One of the finest examples is in the Finale 
to Mendelssohn's Italian Symphony, where it is 
mixed up with a Saltarello in the most effective 
and clever manner. Good descriptions of the 
dance will be found in Mme. de Stael's 'Corinne ' 
(Book VI. ch. i.), Mercier Dupaty's ' Lettres sur 
ritalie' (1797), and Goethe's 'Fragmente tiber 
Italien.' It was danced on the stage with great 
success by Cotellini (i 783-1 785) at the Teatro 
dei Fiorentini at Naples, and in our own day by 
the late Charles Matthews. [W.B.S.] 

TARARE. Opera, in prologue and 5 acts 
(afterwards 3 acts) ; words by Beaumarchais, 
music by Salieri. Produced at the Grand Op^ra 
June 8, 1787. Translated into Italian (with 
many changes of text and music) as * Axur, Re 
d'Ormus,' for the betrothal of the Archduke 
Franz with Princess Elizabeth of Wurtemberg 
at Vienna, Jan. 8, 1788. Produced in English 
as 'Tarrare, the Tartar Chief,' at the English. 
Opera House, London, Aug. 15, 1825. L^""'] 



TARTINI, Giuseppe, famous violin-player and 
composer, was born at Pirano, a town in Istria, 
-April 12, 1692. His father, a Florentine by 
birth and an elected Nobile of Parenzo, intended 
him for the Church, and sent him to the school of 
the Oratorians in his native town. Later on he 
attended an ecclesiastical school at Capo d'Istria, 
and there received his first instruction in music. 
Being entirely averse to the Church career, he 
went, at eighteen, to Padua, and matriculated as 
a student of law. But law was not more to his 
taste than theology. Led by his highly impulsive 
temperament he even set aside his musical studies 
in favour of the then fashionable art of fencing. 
In this he soon became so great an adept as to 
propose seriously to adopt it as a profession at 
Naples or Paris. Fortunately for music Tartini's 
passionate character involved him in a serious 
difficulty and caused him to exchange the 
sword for the fiddlestick and the pen. He fell in 
love with a niece of the Archbishop of Padua, 
•Cardinal Comaro, and was secretly married to her. 
The immediate consequences of this hasty step 
were disastrous. His parents withdrew all further 
support, and the Cardinal was so incensed by 
what he considered an insult to his family, that 
Tartini had to fly from Padua. He first went 
to Rome, but not considering himself safe there, 
took refuge in a monastery at Assisi, of which a 
relative of his was an inmate. Here he remained 
for two years, and in the solitude of monastic life 
resumed his musical studies, and at last discovered 
his true vocation. The organist of the monastery. 
Padre Boemo, was an excellent musician,and being 
delighted to find so talented a scholar, spared no 
time and trouble in teaching him counterpoint and 
■composition. As a violinist he appears to have 
been his own teacher. His progress however 
must have been very rapid, as we know that his 
performances at the services of the monastery 
chapel soon became a well-known attraction to 
the neighbourhood. The development of his mu- 
sical genius was not however the only fruit of 
these two years: he underwent a remarkable 
change of character. Influenced by the peaceful 
religious life around him, he seems entirely to 
have lost his quarrelsome temper, and acquired 
that modesty of manner and serenity of mind with 
which he has been credited by all who knew him 
later in life. His residence at Assisi came to a 
sudden end by a curious accident. One day, at the 
service, a gust of wind blew aside the curtain 
behind which Tartini was playing a solo. A 
Paduan, who happened to be present, instantly 
recognised his strongly-marked features, and 
brought the news of his whereabouts to his native 
town. Meanwhile the Archbishop's pride had 
softened, and Tartini was allowed to rejoin his 
wife. He went with her to Venice, where he 
met Veracini, and was so much struck with the 
great Florentine violinist, as at once to recognise 
the necessity for fresh studies, in order to modify 
his own style and correct the errors into which 
he, being almost entirely self-taught, had very 
(naturally fallen. For this purpose he went to 
Ancona, leaving even his wife behind, and 


remained for some time in complete retirement. 
In 1 72 1 he appears to have returned to Padua, 
and was appointed solo violinist in the chapel of 
San Antonio, the choir and orchestra of which 
enjoyed a high musical reputation. That his 
reputation must have been already well estab- 
lished is proved not only by this appointment, 
but more especially by the fact that in 1723 he 
received and accepted an invitation to perform 
at the great festivities given for the coronation 
of Charles VI at Prague. On this occasion he 
met with Count Kinsky, a rich and enthu- 
siastic amateur, who kept an excellent private 
band, and prevailed on Tartini to accept the 
post of conductor. This he retained for three 
years and then returned to his old position at 
Padua. From this time he appears never again 
to have left his beloved Padua for any length of 
time, where he held an highly honoured position, 
with an income sufficient for his modest require- 
ments. An invitation to visit England, under 
most brilliant conditions (£3000), which he re- 
ceived from Lord Middlesex, he is reported to 
have declined by stating ♦ that, although not rich, 
he had sufficient, and did not wish for more.' His 
salary at San Antonio's was 400 ducats, to which 
must be added the fees from his numerous pupils 
and the produce of his compositions. Burney, 
who visited Padua a few months after his deatla, 
gives a few interesting details. But when he 
writes, * He married a wife of the Xantippe sort, 
and his patience upon the most trying occasions 
was always truly Socratic,' we need not attach 
too much weight to such a statement. Great 
artists are frequently but indifferent managers, 
and, in their honest endeavours to restore the 
balance, their wives have often most undeserv- 
edly gained unpleasant reputations. Burney 
continues, 'He had no other children than 
his scholars, of whom his care was constantly 
paternal. Nardini, his first and favourite pupil, 
came from Leghorn to see him in his sickness 
and attend him in his last moments with true 
filial affection and tenderness. During the latter 
part of his life he played but little, except at the 
church of S. Antony of Padua, to which he de- 
voted himself so early as the year 1722, where 
his attendance was only required on great festivals, 
but so strong was his zeal for the service of his 
patron-saint, that he seldom let a week pass with- 
out regaling him to the utmost of his palsied 
nerves.' He died Feb. 16, 1770, was buried in 
the church of S. Catherine, a solemn requiem 
being held in the chapel of S. Antonio. At a 
later period his statue was erected in the Prato 
della Valle, a public walk at Padua, where it may 
still be seen among the statues of the most emi- 
nent men connected with that famous university. 
Tartini's fame rests on threefold ground. He 
was one of the greatest violinists of all time, an 
eminent composer, and a scientific writer on musi- 
cal physics. To gain an idea of his style of 
playing we must turn to the testimony of his 
contemporaries. They all agree in crediting him 
with those qualities which make a great player : 
a fine tone, unlimited command of fingerboard 


and bow, enabling him to overcome the greatest 
difficulties with complete ease ; perfect intonation 
in double-stops, and a most brilliant shake and 
double-shake, which he executed equally well with 
all fingers. That the composer of the ' Trillo del 
Diavolo,' and many other fine and noble pieces, 
could not have played but with the deepest feeling 
and most consummate taste, it is almost super- 
fluous to say. Indeed we have his own testimony, 
when Campagnoli in his Violin-School reports 
him as having remarked upon a brilliant virtuoso : 
' That is beautiful ! That is difficult ! but here 
(pointing to the heart) he has said nothing to me.' 
At the same time it ought to be mentioned that 
QUANZ (see that article), who heard him at Prague, 
and who certainly was no mean authority, while 
granting his eminence as a player generally, 
adds: 'his manner was cold, his taste wanting 
in noblesse and in the true style of singing.' 
Whatever the reason of this strange criticism 
may have been, to our mind it stands condemned 
by the deeply emotional and pathetic character 
of Tartini's compositions, and the want of taste 
we presume to have been on the side of the 
critic rather than of the artist. Quanz also states, 
that he was fond of playing in extreme positions, 
a statement which is difficult to understand, 
because in his works we very rarely find him 
exceeding the compass of the third position. But 
if it is to be understood that Tartini, in order to 
continue the same musical phrase on the same 
string, frequently used the higher positions for 
passages which, as far as the mere mechanical 
production of the sounds was concerned, he might 
have pLiyed in lower ones, Quanz's criticism 
would imply that Tartini used one of the most 
important and efPective means for good musical 
phrasing and cantabile playing, in doing which he 
was anticipating the method by which the great 
masters of the Paris School, and above all Spohr, 
succeeded in making the violin the 'singing 
instrument' par excellence. That Tartini should 
ever have condescended to astonish his audiences 
by the execution of mechanical tricks after the 
fashion of a Locatelli (see that article), appears, 
from the character of all his known compositions, 
morally impossible. Both as player and com- 
poser he was the true successor of Corelli, re- 
presenting in both respects the next step in the 
development of the art. But there is an undeni- 
able difference of character and talent between 
the two great masters. They are striking in- 
stances of the two main types of the Italian 
artist, which can be distinguished from the oldest 
times down to our days. The one, to which 
Corelli belongs, gifted with an unerring sense of 
artistic propriety and technical perfection, the 
strongest feeling for beauty of form and sound — 
with pathos, dignity and gracefulness their chief 
means of expression ; the other, of which Tartini 
was a representative, while sharing all the 
great qualities of the former, adds to them that 
southern fire of passionate emotion which carries 
everything before it. In technique Tartini re- 
presents a considerable progress upon Corelli by 
his introduction of a great variety of bowing, 



which again was only possible by the use of a 
longer and elastic bow. [See Bow ; and Tourte.] 
His work, 'Arte dell' Arco,* 'L'art de I'archet' 
— a set of studies in the form of 50 Variations * 
gives a good idea not only of his manner of 
bowing, but also of his left-hand technique. In 
respect of the latter the advance upon Corelli is 
still more striking. Double stops of all kinds, 
shakes, and double shakes are of frequent oc-: 
currence. We remember how Corelli (see that 
article) was puzzled by the difficulty of a passage 
in an overture of Handel's. That could certainly 
not have happened with Tartini. In some of his 
works there are passages which, even to the 
highly developed technique of the present day 
afford no inconsiderable difficulty. We will 
mention only the famous shake-passage in the 
• Trillo.' But at the same time he shows his 
appreciation of purity of style by the absence of 
mere show-difficulties, which he certainly was 
quite capable of executing. 

How great he was as a teacher is proved by 
the large number of excellent pupils he formed. 
The most eminent are Nardini, Bini, Manfredi, 
Ferrari, Graun, and Lahoussaye. Some of these 
have borne most enthusiastic testimony to his 
rare merits and powers as a teacher, to liis un- 
remitting zeal and personal devotion to his 
scholars, many of whom were linked to him by 
bonds of intimate friendship to his life's end. Of 
the pre-eminently methodical and systematic style 
of his teaching, we gain an idea from a most 
interesting letter, addressed by him to his pupil 
Maddalena Lombardini-Sirmen, and from his 
pamphlet ' Trattato delle appogiature.' [See 
Violin-playing.] The following characteristic 
head is reproduced from a drawing in possession 
of Julian Marshall, Esq. 

As a composer, not less than as a player, he 
stands on the shoulders of the greatest of his pre- 
decessors, Corelli. He on the whole adopts the 
concise and logical forms of that great master and 
of Vivaldi (see that article) ; but in his hands the 
forms appear less rigid, and gain ampler and 
freer proportions ; the melodies are broader, the 
phrases more fully developed ; the harmonies and 
» Becently republUhed bj Ford. DftTld. Offenbach, Andrf. 



modulations richer and more varied. Still more 
striking is the progress if we look at Tartini's 
subject-matter, at the character of his ideas, 
and the spirit of their treatment. Not content 
with the noble but somewhat conventional pathos 
of the slow movements of the older school, their 
well-written but often rather dry fugues and 
fugatos and traditional dance-rhythms, he intro- 
duces in his slow movements a new element of 
emotion and passion; most of his quick move- 
ments are highly characteristic, and even in their 

* passages ' have nothing dry .ind formal, but are 
full of spirit and fire. In addition to all this we 
not rarely meet with an element of tender dreamy 
melancholy and of vivid imagination which now 
and then grows into the fantastic or romantic. 
His works bear not so mucli the stamp of his time 
as that of his own peculiar individuality ; and in 
this respect he may well be regarded as a proto- 
type of the most individual of all violinists, 
Paganini. What we know from one of his 
pupils about his peculiar habits in composing, 
throws a significant light on the more peculiarly 
intellectual bent of his musical talent. Before 
sitting down to a new composition, he would 
read a sonnet of Petrarch ; under the notes of 
his violin-parts he would write the words of a 
favourite poem, and to single movements of his 
sonatas he would often give mottos, such as 

* Ombra cara ' or * Volgete il riso in pianto o mie 
pupille.' The most striking illustration of this 
peculiar side of his artistic character is given in 
his famous sonata ' II Trillo del Diavolo.' Ac- 
cording to Lalande (* Voyage d'un Francais en 
Italic 1765 et 66,' torn. 8) Tartini himself used 
to relate the circumstances under which he con- 
ceived the idea of this singularly fine piece, in 
the following manner : ' One night I dreamt that 
I had made a bargain with the devil for my soul. 
Everything went at my command, — my novel 
servant anticipated every one of my wishes. Then 
the idea struck me to hand him my fiddle and to 
see what he could do with it. But how great 
was my astonishment when I heard him play 
with consummate skill a sonata of such exquisite 
beauty as surpassed the boldest flight of my 
imagination. I felt enraptured, transported, en- 
chanted; my breath was taken away; and I 
awoke. Seizing my violin I tiied to retain the 
sounds I had heard. But it was in vain. The 
piece I then composed, the Devil's Sonata, 
although the best I ever wrote, how far below the 
one I had heard in my dream 1' 

The number of his compositions is enormous. 
F^tis enumerates over 50 Sonatas with bass, 18 
Concertos with accompaniment of stringed orches- 
tra, and a Trio for 2 violins and bass, all which 
■were published in various editions at Paris, Lon- 
don, and Amsterdam. In addition to these a 
large number of works exist in MS. Gerber 
speaks of over 200 violin concertos, F^tis of 48 
unpublished sonatas and 127 concertos. He also 
composed a Miserere, which was performed during 
Holy Week in the Sistine Chapel in the year 1 768 ; 
but according to F^tis this was a work of little 
importance and has never been performed again. 


It remains to speak of Tartini's writings on 
the theory of music. During his stay at Ancona, 
probably in 1716, he discovered the fact that, in 
sounding double stops, a third or combination- 
sound was produced. He was not content to 
utilise this observation by making the appear- 
ance of this third note a criterion of the perfect 
intonation of double stops (which do not produce 
it at all unless taken with the most absolute 
correctness), but he tried to solve the scientific 
problem underlying the phenomenon. In the 
then undeveloped state of acoustics it was im- 
possible for him to succeed. It is also highly 
probable that his knowledge of mathematics 
was insufficient for the task. At any rate he 
wrote and published an elaborate work on the 
theory of musical science generally, and on the 
phenomenon of a third sound in particular, un- 
der the title 'Trattato di Musica secondo la 
vera scienza dell' Armenia' (Padua, 1754). His 
theories were attacked in a number of pamph- 
lets, amongst them one by J. J. Rousseau. 
In 1767 he published a second book, *Dei prin- 
cipii dell* Armenia Musicale contenuta nel 
diatonico genere,' and towards the end of his life 
he wrote a third one on the mathematics of music, 
' Delle ragioni e delle proporzioni,' which how- 
ever has never been published and appears to be 
lost. The absolute value of Tartini's theoretical 
writings is probably not great, but there remains 
the fact, that he was the discoverer of an interest- 
ing acoustical phenomenon which only the ad- 
vanced scientific knowledge of our days has 
been able to explain (Helmholtz) — a fact which; 
coupled with his serious attempts to solve the 
problem, speaks much for his intellectual attain- 
ments and versatility of mind. 

Finally he wrote, under the title * Trattato delle 
appogiature si ascendenti che discendenti per il 
violino,' etc., a little work on the execution and 
employment of the various kinds of shakes, mor- 
dents, cadenzas, etc. As giving an authentic 
explanation and direction for the execution of 
these ornaments according to the usage of the 
classical Italian school, this work is most interest- 
ing. It appears that it has never been published 
in Italian, but a French translation exists, under 
the title 'Traits des agr^mens de la Musique, 
compost par le c^lbbre Giuzeppe Tartini k Padoue, 
et traduit par le Sigr. P. Denis. A Paris chez 
M. de la Chevardier.' ^ [P.D.] 

TASKIN, Pascal, celebrated instrument- 
maker, and head of a family of musicians, bom 
1 723, at Theux in the province of Li^ge, migrated 
early to Paris, and was apprenticed to Etienne 
Blanchet, the best French clavecin-maker of the 
period. Succeeding eventually to the business, 
he improved the tone of his spinets and harpsi- 
chords, by substituting slips of leather for the 
crowquills then in use in the jacks (1768). [See 
vol. ii. p. 27a.] In 1772 Louis XV. offered him 
the post of Keeper of the Musical Instruments 
and the Chapel Royal, vacant by the death of 

» The writer of this article has to acknowledge his obllgatloiu 
for much valuable Information contained in Waslelewsky's book. ' Dia 
Violine und Ihre Meister.' 




Chiquelier, but tlie life at Versailles would not 
have suited the inventor, who wished to be at 
liberty to continue his experiments, and he 
contrived to get his nephew and pupil, Pascal 
Joseph, appointed in his stead. Having thus 
succeeded in preserving his independence with- 
out forfeiting the royal favour, he was shortly 
after elected an acting member of the corporation 
of musical instrument-makers (1775). He was 
brought more before the public by a piano made 
for the Princess Victoire in the shape of our 
present 'grands,' the first of the kind made in 
France. Other inventions were for using a single 
string doubled round the pin in his two-stringed 
pianos, working the pedal by the foot instead of 
by the knee, and the ' Armandine' (1789) called 
after Mile. Armand, a pupil of his niece, who be- 
came an excellent singer at the Opdra and the 
Opdra Comique. This fine instrument, now in 
the museum of the Paris Conservatoire, is like 
a grand piano without a keyboard, and with gut- 
strings, and is therefore a cross between the harp 
and the psaltery. Other specimens of his manu- 
facture are the harpsichord with two keyboards 
made for Marie Antoinette and still to be seen 
in the Petit Trianon, the pretty instrument in 
the possession of the distinguished pianist Mile. 
Josephine Martin, and those in the Conserva- 
toire, and the Mus^e des Arts ddcoratifs in Paris. 
Pascal Taskin died in Paris, Feb. 9, 1795. His 

Pascal Joseph,* born Nov. 20, 1750, at 
Theux, died in Paris, Feb. 5, 1829, Keeper of the 
King's Instruments and the Chapel Royal, from 
1772 to the Revolution, was his best pupil and 
assistant. He married a daughter of Blanchet, 
and was thus brought into close connection with 
the Couperin family. Of his two sons and two 
daughters, all musicians, the only one calling for 
separate mention here is the second son, 

Henri Joseph, born at Versailles, Aug. 24, 
1779, died in Paris, May 4, 1852, learned music 
as a child from his mother, and so charmed the 
Court by his singing and playing, that Louis XVI 
made him a page of the Chapel Royal. Later 
he studied music and composition with his aunt, 
Mme. Couperin, a talented organist, and early 
made his mark as a teacher, virtuoso, and com- 
poser. Three operas were neither performed nor 
engraved, but other of his compositions were 
published, viz. trios for PF., violin, and cello ; a 
caprice for PF. and violin ; a concerto for PF. 

I and orchestra; solo-pieces for PF., and songs. 
A quantity of Masonic songs remained in MS. 
Like his father he had four sons ; none of them 
became musicians, but his grandson Alexandre 
seems to have inherited his talent. This young 
singer (born in Paris, March 8, 1853) is a 
thorough musician, has already created several 
important parts, and may be considered one of 
the best artists at the Opera Comique (1883). 
The writer of this article, having had access to 
fEunily papers, has been able to correct the errors 
of previous biographers. [G.C] 

> F^tis confuses' tbe uncle and nephew. 

TASTO SOLO. Tasto (Fr. toucTie) means the 
part in an instrument which is touched to pro- 
duce the note ; in a keyed instrument, therefore, 
the key. ' Tasto solo,' the key alone, is in old 
music written over those portions of the bass or 
continue part in which the mere notes were to 
be played by the accompanyist, without the chords 
or harmonies founded on them. [G.] 

TATTOO 1 (Eappel: Zapfenstreich), the signal 
in the British army by which soldiers are brought 
to their quarters at night. The infantry .signal 
begins at 20 minutes before the hour appointed 
for the men to be in barracks, by the bugles in 
the barrack-yai-d sounding the * First Post ' or 
* Setting of the Watch.' This is a long passage 
of 29 bars, beginning as follows — 

■ 1 ■ rs 







t- — r - 1 


and ending with this impressive phrase : — 

This is succeeded by the 'Rolls,'" consisting of 
three strokes by the big drum, each stroke fol- 
lowed by a roll on the side-drums : — 




li I- - 

Li) r ■ — I » r - 

The drums and fifes then march up and down 
the barrack-yard playing a succession of Quick 
marches at choice, till the hour is reached. 
Then ' God save the Queen ' is played, and the 
Tattoo concludes by the ' Second Post ' or ' Last 
Post,' which begins as follows — 






and ends like the 'First Post.' The other 
branches of the service have their tattoos, which 
it is not necessary to quote. 

J The Tvord Is derived by Johnson from the French tapotez totu ; 
and its original form seems to have been ' tap-to' (see Count Mans- 
field's ' Directions of Warre,' 1624), as if It were the signal for the 
tap-rooms or bars of the canteen to put-to or close. Curiously 
enough, however, 'tap' seems to be an acknowledged term for 
the drum — 'tap of drum.' Tapoter is probably allied to the 
German zapfen, the tap of a casli, and tap/enstreich, the German 
term for tattoo ; this also may mean the striking or driving home 
of the taps of the beer-barrels. The proverbial expression ' the devil's 
tattoo'— meaning the noise made by a person absorbed In thought 
drumming with foot or fingers, seems to show tliat the drum and not 
the trumpet was the original instrument for sounding the tattoo. 

a For det^ms see Potter's ' Instructions for the Side Drum.' 



Since the time of Wallenstein the Zapfen- ^ 
streich in Germany has had a wider meaning, 
»nd is a sort of short spirited march played not 
only by drums and fifes or trumpets but by the 
whole band of the regiment. It is in this sense 
that Beethoven uses the word in a letter to 
Peters (1823 ?) : — 'There left here last Saturday 
three airs, six bagatelles, and a tattoo, instead 
of a march . . . and to-day I send the two tattoos 
that were still wanting . . . the latter will do for 
marches.' [See Zapfenstreich.] [G.] 

TAUBERT, Karl Gottfried Wilhelm, one 
of those sound and cultivated artists who 
contribute so much to the solid musical repu- 
tation of Germany. He was the son of a 
musician, and was born at Berlin March 23, 
181 1. Though not actually brought up with 
Mendelssohn he trod to a certain extent in the 
same steps, learned the piano from Ludwig 
Berger, and composition from Klein, and went 
through his course at the Berlin University 
1827-30. He first appeared as a PF. player; 
in 1831 was made accompany ist to the Court 
concerts, and from that time his rise was steady. 
In 1 834 he was elected member of the Academy 
of Arts, in 1841 became music- director of the 
Royal Opera, and in 1845 Court Kapellmeistei- — 
a position which he held till his retirement from 
the Opera in 1869 with the title of Oberkapell- 
raeister. Since that time he has conducted the 
royal orchestra at the Court concerts and 
soirees, in which he has distinguished himself 
as much by very admirable performances as by 
the rigid conservatism which has governed the 
programmes. In 1875 he was chosen member 
of council of the musical section of the Academy. 
Among his first compositions were various small 
instrumental pieces, and especially sets of songs. 
The songs attracted the notice of Mendelssohn, 
and not only drew from him very warm praise 
and anticipation of future success (see the letter 
to Devrient, July 15, 1831), but led to a corre- 
spondence, including Mendelssohn's long letter 
of Aug. 27, 1 83 1. In these letters Mendelssohn 
seems to have put his finger on the want of 
strength and spirit which, with all his real 
musicianlike qualities, his refined taste and 
immense industry, has prevented Taubert from 
writing anything that will be remembered. 

The list of his published works is an enormous 
one : — 3 Psalms and a Vater unser ; 7 Operas, of 
which the last, 'Macbeth,' was produced Nov. 
16, 1857 ; Incidental music to 8 dramas, in- 
cluding 'The Tempest' (Nov. 28, 1855) ; 4 Can- 
tatas; 294 Solo-songs, in 52 nos., besides Duets 
and Part-songs; 3 Symphonies and a Festival- 
overture for full orchestra ; 2 Trios for PF. and 
strings; 3 String- quartets ; 6 Sonatas for PF. 
and violin ; 6 Sonatas for PF. solo ; and a host 
of smaller pieces. The complete catalogue, with 
full details of Taubert's career, will be found in 
Ledebur's * Tonkunstler-Lexicon Berlins.' 

In this country Taubert is almost unknown, [G.] 

TAUDOU, Antoine, composer of the modem 
French school, bom at Perpignan, Aug. 24, 


1846, early evinced such aptitude for music that 
he was sent to Paris and entered at the Conser- 
vatoire, where he carried off successively the first 
prizes for solfeggio, violin (1866), harmony (67), 
fugue (68), and finally, after two years' study of 
composition with Reber, the Grand Prix de Rome 
(69). The subject of the cantata was 'Francesca 
da Rimini,' and the prize score was distinguished 
for purity and elegance. 

So far, no work of M. Taudou's has been pro- 
duced on the stage, but his chamber-music and 
orchestral pieces have been well received. These 
include a trio for flute, alto, and cello ; another 
for PF., violin, and cello ; a violin-concerto played 
at the Soci^t^ des Concerts du Conservatoire, of 
which M. Taudou is one of the best violinists ; 
a string-quartet in B minor, often heard in Paris; 
and for orchestra a ' Marche-Ballet,' a ' Chant 
d'automne,' and a ' Marche-Noctume.' He has 
published songs and pieces for PF., but a cantata 
written for the inauguration of a statue to Arago 
(1879) at Perpignan, is still in MS. In January 
1883 he was chosen professor of harmony and 
accompaniment at the Conservatoire. [G.C.] 

TAUSCH, Julius, born April 15, 1827, at 
Dessau, where he was a pupil of F. Schneider's. 
In 1844 he entered the Conservatorium of Leip- 
zig, then in the second year of its existence, 
and on leaving that in 1846 settled at Dusseldorf. 
Here he gradually advanced ; on Julius Rietz's 
departure in 1847 taking the direction of the 
artists' Liedertafel, and succeeding Schumann 
as conductor of the Musical Society, temporarily 
in 1853, and permanently in 1855. He was 
associated in the direction of the Lower Rhine 
Festivals of 1863, 1866 (with O. Goldschmidt), 
1869, 1872, and 1875. In the winter of 1878 
he conducted the orchestral concerts at the 
Glasgow Festival. 

Tausch has published a Fest-overture, music 
to Twelfth Night, various pieces for voices and 
orchestra, songs, and pianoforte pieces, solo and 
accompanied. His last publication is op. 17. [G.] 

TAUSIG, Carl (1841-1871), ♦ the infallible, 
with his fingers of steel,' as Liszt described him, 
was, after Liszt, the most remarkable pianist of 
his time. His manner of playing at its best 
was grand, impulsive, and impassioned, yet with- 
out a trace of eccentricity. His tone was superb, 
his touch exquisite, and his manipulative dex- 
terity and powers of endurance such as to astonish 
even experts. He made a point of executing 
his tours de force with perfect composure, and 
took pains to hide every trace of physical effort. 
His repertoire was varied and extensive, and he 
was ready to play by heart any representative 
piece by any composer of importance from Scar- 
latti to Liszt. A virtuoso par excellence, he was 
also an accomplished musician, familiar with 
scores old and new, a master of instrumentation, 
a clever composer and arranger. 

Carl Tausig was bom at Warsaw, Nov. 4, 
1 841, and was first taught by his father, Aloys 
Tausig, a professional pianist of good repute. 
When Carl was fourteen, his father took him to 


Liszt, who was then at Weimar, surrounded by 
a very remarkable set of young musicians. It will 
suffice to mention the names of Billow, Bronsart, 
Klind worth, Pruckner, Cornelius, Joseph Joachim 
(concertmeister), Joachim E-aff (Liszt's amanu- 
ensis) to give an idea of the state of musical 
things in the little Thuringian town. During 
the interval from 1850-1858 Weimar was the 
centre of the 'music of the future.* Liszt, as 
capellmeister in chief, with a small staff of singers 
and a tolerable orchestra, had brought out ' Tann- 
hauser' and 'Lohengrin,' Berlioz's *Benvenuto 
Cellini,' Schubert's 'Alfonso and Estrella,' etc. 
He was composing his ' Pofemes symphoniques,' 
revising his pianoforte works, writing essays and 
articles for musical papers. Once a week or of tener 
the pianists met at the Alte Burg, Liszt's re- 
sidence, and there was an afternoon's 'lesson' 
(gratis of course). Whoever had anything ready 
to play, played it, and Liszt found fault or en- 
couraged as the case might be, and finally played 
himself. Peter Cornelius used to relate how Liszt 
and his friends were taken aback when young 
Tausig first sat down to play. 'A very devil of 
a fellow,' said Cornelius, ' he dashed into Chopin's 
Ab Polonaise, and knocked us clean over with 
the octaves.' From that day Tausig was Liszt's 
favourite. He worked hard, not only at piano- 
forte playing, but at counterpoint, composition, 
and instrumentation. In 1858 he made his dihut 
in public at an orchestral concert conducted by 
Billow at Berlin. Opinions were divided. It 
was admitted on all hands that his technical 
feats were phenomenal, but sober-minded people 
talked of noise and rant, and even those of more 
impulsive temperament who might have been 
ready to sympathise with his ' Lisztian eccen- 
tricities,' thought he would play better when his 
period of 'storm and stress ' was over. In 1859 
and 60 he gave concerts in various German 
towns, making Dresden bis head-quarters. In 
1862 he went to reside at Vienna, when, in 
imitation of Billow's exertions in Berlin, he 
gave orchestral concerts with very 'advanced' pro- 
grammes. These concerts were but partially suc- 
cessful in an artistic sense, whilst pecuniarily they 
were failures. After this, for some years, little 
was heard of Tausig. He changed his abode 
frequently, but on the whole led the quiet life of 
a student. The * storm and stress * was fairly at 
an end when he married and settled in Berlin, 
1865. Opinions were now unanimous. Tausig was 
hailed as a master of the first order. He had 
attained self-possession, breadth and dignity of 
style, whilst his technique was as ' infallible ' as 
ever. At Berlin he opened a school, ' Schule des 
hoherenClavierspiels,' and at intervals gave piano- 
forte recitals, of which his ' Chopin recitals ' were 
the most successful. He played at the principal 
German concert-institutions, and made the round 
of the Russian towns. He died of typhoid fever, at 
Leipzig, July 17, 1 87 1. 

Shortly before his death Tausig published an 
Opus I, — • Deux Etudes de Concert.* With this 
he meant to cancel various compositions of pre- 
vious date, some of which he was sorry to see in 

VOL. IV. PT. I. 



the market. Amongst these latter are a piano- 
forte arrangement of ' Das Geisterschiff, Syni- 
phonische Ballade nach einem Gedicht von 
Strachwitz, op. i ,' originally written for orchestra ; 
and 'Reminiscences de Halka, Fantaisie de 
concert.' A pianoforte concerto, which contains 
a Polonaise, and which, according to Felix Drae- 
seke was originally called a Phantasie, several 
' Po^mes symphoniques,' etc., remain in manu- 
script. Tausig's arrangements, transcriptions, 
and fingered editions of standard works deserve 
the attention of professional pianists. They are 
as follows : — 

Wagner : Die Meiatersinger von NUrnberg, vollstan- 
diger Clavierauszug. 

Bach: Toccata und Fuge fUr die Orgel in D moll; 
Choral -Vorspiele fiir die Orgel ; Praeludium, Fuge, und 
Allegro ; 'Das wohltemperirte Clavier,' a selection of the 
Preludes and Fugues, carefully phrased and fingered, 

Berlioz : Gnomenreigen und Sylphentanz aus 'La Dam- 
nation de Faust.' 

Schumann : El Contrabandista. 

Schubert : Andantino und Variationen, Kondo, Marche 
militaire. Polonaise m^lancolique. 

Weber : Aufforderung zum Tanz. 

Scarlatti : 3 Sonaten, Pastorale, und Capriccio. 

Chopin : Concerto in E minor ; score and PF. part dis- 
creetly retouched. 

Beethoven : 6 Transcriptions from the string quartets, 
op. 59, 130, 131, and 135. 

' Nouvelles soirees de Vienne— Valses caprices d'apr^a 
Strauss.' 1-5. (These are pendants to Liszt's 'Soirees de 
Vienne' after Schubert.) 

'Ungarische Zigeunerweisen' (fit to rank with the 
best of Liszt's ' Khapsodies hongroises '). 

Clementi : Gradus ad Parnassum, a selection of the 
most useful Studies, with additional fingering and 

Tausig*s • Tagliche Studien ' is a posthumous 
publication, consisting of ingeniously contrived 
finger exercises ; among the many * Indispensables 
du Pianiste,' it is one of the few really indispens- 
able. [E.D.] 

TAVERNER, John, was organist of Boston, 
Lincolnshire, and afterwards (about 1530), of 
Cardinal (now Christ Church) College, Oxford. 
Being associated with John Frith and other 
favourers of the Reformation, he was imprisoned 
upon suspicion of having concealed some (so- 
called) heretical books, but, by the favour of 
Wolsey, was released. His compositions consist 
of masses and motets, many of which are extant 
in MS. in the Music School and Christ Church,^ 
Oxford, the British Museum,^ and elsewhere. 
Hawkins printed a 3-part motet by him, 'O 
splendor gloriae,'^ and Bumey a 5-part motet, 
'Dum transisset Sabbatum.' Morley includes 
him among the eminent musicians of his time. 
He died at Boston and was buried there. 

Another John Taverneb, of an ancient Nor- 
folk family, son of Peter Tavern er, and grandson 
of Richard Tavemer, who in the reigns of Ed- 
ward VI. and Elizabeth was a lay-preacher, and 
in the latter reign high-sheriff of Oxfordshire, 
was bom in 1584. On Nov. 17, 1610, he was 
appointed professor of music at Gresham College 
upon the resignation of Thomas Clayton. His 
autogi'aph copy of 9 lectures, part in Latin and 
part in English, delivered by him in the college 

» 17 motets for S, 4, 5, 6 voices. 

a Among the most Interesting are parts of a Mass for 6 voices 
• Gloria tlbl, Trinitas.' copied by Dr. Bumey. Add. MS. 11.687. 
3 TbU U noted in the Christ Church Catalogue as ' partly by Tye. 




in that year, is preserved in the British Museum 
(Sloane MSS., 2329). He subsequently entered 
into Holy Orders, and in 1622 became Vicar of 
Tillingham, Essex, and in 1627 Rector of Stoke 
Newington. He died at the latter place in 
August, 1638. [W.H.H.] 

TAYLOR, Edward, was bom Jan. 22, 1784, 
in Norwich, where, as a boy, he attracted the 
attention of Dr. Beckwith, who gave him in- 
struction. Arrived at manhood he embarked in 
business in his native city, but continued the 
practice of music as an amateur. He possessed 
a fine, rich, full-toned bass voice, and became 
rot only solo vocalist, but an active manager 
of the principal amateur society in Norwich. He 
took a leading part in the establishment in 1824 
of the existing triennial Norwich Musical Fes- 
tival, training the chorus, engaging the band and 
singers, and making out the entire programmes. 
In 1825 he removed to London, and, in connec- 
tion with some relatives, entered upon the pro- 
fession of civil engineer, but not meeting with 
success he, in 1826, adopted music as a profession, 
and inamediately attained a good position as a 
bass singer. In 1830 he translated and adapted 
Spohr's 'Last Judgment.' This led to an in- 
timacy v«dth Spohr, at whose request he subse- 
quently translated and adapted the oratorios, 
♦Crucifixion' (or 'Calvary'), 1836, and 'Fall of 
Babylon,' 1842. On Oct. 24, 1837, he was ap- 
pointed professor of music in Gresham College in 
succession to R. J. S. Stevens. He entered upon 
his duties in Jan. 1838, by the delivery of three 
lectures, which he subsequently published. His 
lectures were admirably adapted to the under- 
standing of a general audience ; they were 
historical and critical, excellently written, elo- 
quently read, and illustrated by well chosen 
extracts from the works described efficiently 
performed. In 1 839 he published, under the title 
of 'The Vocal School of Italy in the i6th century,* 
a selection of 28 madrigals by the best Italian 
masters adapted to English words. He conducted 
the Norwich Festivals of 1839 and 1842. He 
wrote and composed anode for the opening of the 
present Gresham College, Nov. 2, 1843. In 1844 
he joined James Turle in editing * The People's 
Music Book.' In 1845 ^® contributed to 'The 
British and Foreign Review,' an article entitled 
*The English Cathedral Service, its Glory, its 
Decline, and its designed Extinction,' a produc- 
tion evoked by some then pending legislation 
connected with the cathedral institutions, which 
attracted great attention, and was afterwards 
reprinted in a separate form. He was one of the 
originators of the Vocal Society (of which he was 
the secretary), and of the Musical Antiquarian 
Society (for which he edited Purcell's 'King 
Arthur'), and the founder of the Purcell Club. 
[See Musical Antiquarian Society, Purcell 
Club, and Vocal Society.] Besides the before- 
named works he wrote and adapted with great 
skill English words to Mozart's 'Requiem,' 
Graun's *Tod Jesu,' Schneider's 'Siindfluth,' 
Spohr s ' Vater Unser,' Haydn's ' Jahreszeiten,' 
and a very large number of compositions intro- 


duced in his lectures. He was for many years 
music critic to * The Spectator ' newspaper. He 
died at Brentwood, March 12, 1863. His valu- 
able library was dispersed by auction in the fol- 
lowing December. [W.H.H.] 

TAYLOR, Franklin, a well -known pianoforte- 
player and teacher in London, bom at Birming- 
ham, Feb. 5, 1843, began music at a very early age ; 
learned the pianoforte under Chas. Flavell, and 
the organ under T. Bedsmore, organist of Lichfield 
Cathedral, where at the age of 1 1 he was able 
to take the service. In 1859 he went to Leipzig 
and studied in the Conservatorium with Sullivan, 
J. F. Barnett, etc., under Plaidy and Moscheles 
for pianoforte, and Hauptmann, Richter, and 
Papperitz for theory. He left in 1861 and made 
some stay in Paris, where he had lessons from 
Mme. Schumann, and was in close intercourse with 
Heller, Schulhoff, Mme. Viardot, etc. In 1862 
he returned to England, settled permanently in 
London, and began teaching, and playing at the 
Crystal Palace (Feb. 18, 1865, etc.), the Monday 
Popular Concerts (Jan. 15, 66, etc.), as well as at 
the Liverpool Philharmonic, Birmingham Cham- 
ber Concerts, and elsewhere. At the same time 
he was organistsuccessively of Twickenham Parish 
Church, and St. Michael's, Chester Square. In 
1876 he joined the National Training School as 
teacher, and in 1882 the Royal College of Music 
as Professor of the Pianoforte. He is President 
of the Academy for the higher development of 

His Primer of the Pianoforte (Maemillan 1879) 
— emphatically a ' little book on a great subject,' 
and a most useful and practical book too — has 
been published in German. He has also compiled 
a PF. tutor (Enoch), and has edited Beethoven's 
Sonatas I-12 for C. Boosey. He has translated 
Richter's treatises on Harmony, Counterpoint, 
and Canon and Fugue (Cramer & Co.) ; and ar- 
ranged Sullivan's Tempest music for four hands 
on its production. With all his gifts as a player 
it is probably as a teacher that his reputation 
will live. His attention to his pupils is unre- 
mitting, and his power of imparting tone, touch, 
and execution to them, remarkable. Gifted with 
a fine musical organisation himself, he evokes 
the intelligence of his pupils, and succeeds in 
making them musicians as well as mere fine 
technical performers. [G,] 

TECHNIQUE (Germ. TechniJc). A French 
term which has been adopted in England, and 
which expresses the mechanical part of playing. 
A player may be perfect in technique, and yet 
have neither soul nor intelligence. [G.] 

TEDESCA, ALLA (Italian), ' in the German 
style.* * Tedesca ' and ' Deutsch' are both derived 
&om an ancient term which appears in mediaeval 
Latin as Theotisca. Beethoven employs it twice 
in his published works — in the first movement of 
op. 79, the Sonatina in G, — 

Presto alia tedaca. 


and again in the fifth movement of the Bb 
quartet (op. 130) — 

Alia danza tedesca. Allegro assai. 

In a Bagatelle, No. 3 of op. 1 19, he uses the 
term in French — * A rallemande,' but in this case 
the piece has more affinity to the presto of the 
sonatina than to the slower movement of the 
dance. All three are in G. The term ' tedesca,' 
says Eiilow, has reference to waltz rhythm, and 
invites changes of time. — [See Teutsche.] [G.] 

TE DEUM LAUDAMUS (Eng. We praise 
Thee, God). A well-known Hymn, called the 
Ambrosian Hymn, from the fact that the poetry 
is ascribed by tradition to S. Ambrose and S. 
Augustine. The English "^ version, one of the 
most magnificent to be found even in the Book 
of Common Prayer, appears in the first of the 
English Prayer-books in the place which it now 
occupies. The custom of singing Te Deum on great 
Ecclesiastical Festivals, and occasions of special 
Thanksgiving, has for many centuries been uni- 
versal in the Western Church ; and still pre- 
vails, both in Catholic and Protestant countries. 



And this circumstance, even more than the sub- 
limity of the Poetry, has led to the connection of 
the Hymn with music of almost every known 

The antient Melody — popularly known as 
the 'Ambrosian Te Deum' — is a very beautiful 
one, and undoubtedly of great antiquity ; 
though it cannot possibly be so old as the Hymn 
itself, nor can it lay any claim whatever to the 
title by which it is popularly designated, since 
it is written in the Mixed Phrygian Mode — i.e, 
in Modes III and IV combined; an extended 
Scale of very much later date than that used by 
S. Ambrose. Numerous versions of this vener- 
able Melody are extant, all bearing more or less 
clear traces of derivation from a common original 
which appears to be hopelessly lost. Whether 
or not this original was in the pure Mode III it 
is impossible to say with certainty; but the 
older versions furnish internal evidence enough 
to lead to a strong conviction that this was the 
case, though we possess none that can be referred 
to the age of S. Ambrose, or within two centuries 
of it. This will be best explained by the sub- 
joined comparative view of the opening phrases 
of some of the earliest known versions. 


From the Dodccachoidon of Glareamis (Basiliae, 1547). 

-& <&- 

ter • num Fa - trem om - nls 

The traditional Roman Version, from the Supplement to the Ratisbon Gradual. 

Te De 

« mm : Te Do - mi - num con - fl - te • mur. 

- ra • - tur. 

Early Anglican Version, from Marbecke's 'Booke of Common Praier noted * (London, i^go). 


wor - shipp 


In all these cases, the music to the verse * Te 
aetemum Patrem ' ('AH the earth doth worship 
Thee ') is adapted, with very little change, to the 
succeeding verses, as far as * Te ergo quaesumus ' 
(* We therefore pray Thee'), which verse, in Ca- 

1 In one yerse only does this grand paraphrase omit a character- 
istic expression in the original— that which refers to the WhU* Bcbei 
of the Martyrs : 

' Te Hartymm eandidaiu$ laudat exercitus.' 
• The noble army of Martyrs praise Thee.* 
The name of the translator is not ImoTrn. 

tholic countries, is sung kneeling. The only 
exception to this is the phrase adapted to the 
word 'Sanctus' ('Holy'), which, in every in- 
stance, difiers from all the rest of the Melody.' 
As far, then, as the verse * Te ergo qusesumus* 
inclusive, we find nothing to prevent us from 
believing that the Music is as old as the text ; 
for it nowhere deviates from the pure Third 
Mode, as sung by S. Ambrose. But, at the next 

a Harbecke, however, makes another marked change at 'Thou arte 
the Kyng of Glorye.' 





verse, * .sterna fac' ('Make them to be num- I with a marked allusion to the Fomrth Gregorian 
bered'), the Melody passes into the Fourth Mode, | Tone, of which S. Ambrose knew nothing. 

tar- aa 

cum Sanc-tts 

This phrase, therefore, conclusively proves, 
either that the latter portion of the Melody is a 
comparatively modem addition to the original 
form ; or, that the whole is of much later date 
than has been generally supposed. We are 
strongly in favour of the first supposition ; but 
the question is open to discussion on both sides. 
The beauty of the old Melody has led to its 
frequent adoption as a Canto fermo for Poly- 
phonic Masses ; as in the case of the fifth and 
sixth Masses — *In Te, Domine, speravi,' for 5 
voices, and 'Te Deum laudamus,' for 6 — in 
Palestrina's Ninth Book. But the number of 
Polyphonic settings is less than that of many 
other Hymns of far inferior interest. The reason 
of this must be sought for in the immense popu- 
larity of the Plain Chaunt Melody in Italy, and 
especially in the Roman States. Every peasant 
knows it by heart ; and, from time immemorial, 
it has been sung, in the crowded Roman Churches, 
at every solemn Thanksgiving Service, by the 
people of the city, and the wild inhabitants of 
the Campagna, with a fervour which would have 
set Polyphony at defiance.^ There are, however, 
some very beautiful examples j especially, one 
by Felice Anerio, printed by Proske, in vol. iv. of 
* Musica Divina,' from a MS. in the Codex 
Altaemps. Othobon,, based on the antient Me- 
lody, and treating the alternate verses only of 
the text — an arrangement which would allow 
the people to take a fair share in the singing. 
The 'Tertius Tomus Musici opens' of Jakob 
Hand! contains another very fine example, in 
which all the verses are set for two Choirs, which, 
however, only sing alternately, like the Decani 
and Cantoris sides in an English Cathedral. 

Our own Polyphonic Composers have treated 
the English paraphrase, in many instances, very 
finely indeed : witness the settings in Tallis's 
and Byrd's Services in the Dorian Mode, in 
Farrant's in G minor, in Orlando Gibbons's in 
F (Ionian Mode transposed), and many others 
too well known to need specification. That these 
fine compositions should have given place to 
others, pertaining to a School worthily repre- 
sented by * Jackson in F,' is matter for very 
deep regret. We may hope that that School 
is at last extinct: but, even now, the 'Te 
Deum' of Tallis is far less frequently heard, 
in most Cathedrals, than the immeasurably in- 
ferior * Boyce in A ' — one of the most popular 
settings in existence. The number of settings, 
for Cathedral and Parochial use, by modern Com- 
posers, past and present, is so great that it is 
difficult even to count them.' 

» An exceedingly corrupt excerpt from the Boman version— the 
Terse 'Te SBternum Patrem'— has long been popular here, as the 
' Roman Chant.' In all probability It owes its introduction to this 
country to the zeal of some traveller, who • picked it up by ear.' 

'i A second setting in the Dorian mode, and a third In F, by Tallis, 
both for 5 voices, are unfortunately incomplete. [See p. 54,1 

in kIo • rl • • DO • 

It remains to notice a third method of treat- 
ment by which the text of the ' Te Deum ' has 
been illustrated, in modern times, with extra- 
ordinary success. The custom of singing the 
Hymn on occasions of national Thanksgiving 
naturally led to the composition of great works, 
with Orchestral Accompaniments, and extended 
movements, both for Solo Voices and Chorus. 
Some of these works are written on a scale 
sufficiently grand to place them on a level with 
the finest Oratorios ;. while others are remark- 
able for special effects connected with the par- 
ticular occasion for which they were produced. 
Among these last must be classed the Compo- 
sitions for many Choirs, with Organ and Orches- 
tral Accompaniments, by Benevoli, and other 
Italian Masters of the 1 7th century, which were 
composed for special Festivals, and never after- 
wards permitted to see the light. Sarti wrote 
a * Te Deum ' to Russian text, by command of 
the Empress Catherine II, in celebration of 
Prince Potemkin's victory at Otchakous, in which 
he introduced fireworks and cannon. Notwith- 
standing this extreme measure, the work is a 
fine one ; but far inferior to that composed by 
Graun, in 1756, by command of Frederick the 
Great, in commemoration of the Battle of Prague, 
and first performed at Charlottenburg, in 1762, 
at the close of the Seven Years' War. This is 
unquestionably the most celebrated ' Te Deum * 
ever composed on the Continent ; and also one 
of the finest. Among modem Continental set- 
tings, the most remarkable is that by Berlioz, 
for two Choirs, with Orchestra and Organ 06- 
hh'f/ato, of which he says that the Finale, from 
'Judex crederis,' is * without doubt his grandest 
production.' Of this work (op. 22) nothing is yet 
known in England ; but it was performed at Bor- 
deaux, Dec. 14, 1883. Cherubini, in early youth, 
wrote a Te Deum, the MS. of which is lost; but, 
strangely enough, his official duties at the French 
Court never led him to reset the Hymn. 

But the grandest Festal settings of the * Te 
Deum' have been composed in England. The 
earliest of these was that written by Purcell 
for S. Cecilia's Day, 1694; a work which must 
lit least rank as one of the greatest triumphs of 
the School of the Restoration, if it be not, 
indeed, the very finest production of that bril- 
liant period. As this work has already been 
described in oup account of that School,' it is 
unnecessary again to analyse it here. It is, how- 
ever, remarkable, not only as the first English 
* Te Deum ' with Orchestral Accompaniments ; 
but also as having stimulated other English Com- 
posers to the production of similar works. la 
1695, Dr. Blow wrote a 'Te Deum,' with Accom- 
paniments for 2 Violins, 2 Trumpets, and ~ 

< See VOL Ut. pp. 281-886. 



the exact Orchestra employed by Purcell ; and, not 
long afterwards. Dr. Croft produced another work 
of the same kind, and for the same Instnunents. 

The next advance was a very important one. 
The first Sacred Music which Handel com- 
posed to English words was the 'Utrecht Te 
Deum,' the MS. of which is dated Jan. 14, 1 71 2.* 
Up to this time, Purcell's Te Deum had been 
annually performed, at S. Paul's, for the benefit 
of the 'Sons of the Clergy.' To assert that 
Handel's Te • Deum in any way resembles it 
would be absurd : but both manifest too close an 
affinity with the English School to admit the possi- 
bility of their reference to any other ; and, both 
naturally fall into the same general form, which 
form Handel must necessarily have learned in this 
country, and most probably really did learn from 
Purcell, whose English Te Deum was then the 
finest in existence. The points in which the 
two works show their kinship, are, the massive 
solidity of their construction; the grave de- 
votional spirit which pervades them, from be- 
ginning to end ; and the freedom of their Subjects, 
in which the sombre gravity of true Ecclesiastical 
Melody is treated with the artless simplicity of a 
Volkslied. The third — the truly national char- 
acteristic, and the common property of all our 
best English Composers — was, in Purcell's case, 
the inevitable result of an intimate acquaintance 
with the rich vein of National Melody of which 
we are all so justly proud ; while, in Handel's, 
we can only explain it as the consequence of a 
power of assimilation which not only enabled 
him to make common cause with the School of 
his adoption, but to make himself one with it. 
The points in which the two compositions most 
prominently differ are, the more gigantic scale 
of the later work, and the fuller development of its 
Subjects. In contrapuntal resources, the Utrecht 
Te Deum is even richer than that with which 
Handel celebrated the Battle of Dettingen, 
fought June 27, 1743; though the magnificent 
Fanfare of Trumpets and Drums which intro- 
duces the opening Chorus of the latter, surpasses 
anything ever written to express the Thanks- 
giving of a whole Nation for a glorious victory.'^ 

The Dettingen Te Deum represents the cul- 
minating point of the festal treatment to which 
the Ambrosian Hymn has hitherto been sub- 
jected. A fine modern English setting is Sul- 
livan's, for Solos, Chorus, and Orchestra, com- 
posed to celebrate the recovery of the Prince of 
Wales, and performed at the Crystal Palace. A 
more recent one is Macfarren's (i 884). [W.S.R.] 

TELEMANN, Geobg Philipp, German com- 
poser, son of a clergyman, bom at Magdeburg 
Marcli 14, 168 1, and educated there and at 
Hildesheim. He received no regular musical 
training, but by diligently studying the scores 
of the great masters — he mentions in particular 
LuUy and Campra — made himself master of 
the science of music. In 1 700 he went to the 

» Old Style; representing Jan. 14, 1713, according to our present 
mode of reckoning. 

2 For an account of the curious work which, of late years, has been 
»<> frequently quoted In connection with the Dettingen Te Deum, we 
must refer the reader to the article on Ubio, Doh Fbancbsoo. 

university of Leipzig, and while carrying on 
studies in languages and science, became organist 
of the Neukirche, and founded a society among 
the students, called 'Collegium musicum.' In 
1 704 he became Capellmeister to a Prince Prom- 
nitz at Sorau, in 1708 Concertmeister, and then 
Capellmeister, at Eisenach, and, still retaining 
this post, became Musikdirector of the Church 
of St. Catherine, and of a society called * Frau- 
enstein' at Frankfort in 1711, and also Capell- 
meister to the Prince of Bajnreuth, In 1721 he 
was appointed Cantor of the Johanneum, and 
Musikdirector of the principal church at Ham- 
burg, posts which he retained till his death. He 
made good musical use of repeated tours to 
Berlin, and other places of musical repute, and 
his style was permanently atFected by a visit of 
some length to Paris in 1737, when he became 
strongly imbued with French ideas and taste. 
He died June 25, 1767. 

Telemann, like his contemporaries Matheson 
and Keiser, is a prominent representative of the 
Hamburg school in its prime during the first 
half of the i8th century. In his own day he was 
placed with Hasse and Graun as a composer of 
the first rank, but the verdict of posterity has 
been less favourable. With all his undoubted 
ability he originated nothing, but was content 
to follow the tracks laid down by the old con- 
trapuntal school of organists, whose ideas and 
forms he adopted without change. His fertility 
was so marvellous that he could not even reckon 
up his own compositions; indeed it is doubtful 
whether he was ever equalled in this respect. 
He was a highly-skilled contrapuntist, and had, 
as might be expected from his great productive- 
ness, a technical mastery of all the received forms 
of composition. Handel, who knew him well, 
said that he could write a motet in 8 parts 
as easily as any one else could write a letter, 
and Schumann quotes an expression of his to 
the effect that 'a proper composer should be 
able to set a placard to ^music ' : but these 
advantages were neutralised by his lack of any 
earnest ideal, and by a fatal facility naturally 
inclined to superficiality. He was over-addicted, 
even for his own day, to realism; this, though 
occasionally effective, especially in recitatives, 
concentrates the attention on mere externals, 
and is opi)osed to all depth of expression, and 
consequently to true art. His shortcomings are 
most patent in his church works, which are of 
greater historical importance than his operas and 
other music. The shallowness of the church- 
music of the latter half of the i8th century is 
distinctly traceable to Telemann's influence, al- 
though that was the very branch of composition 
in which he seemed to have everything in his 
favour — position, authority, and industry. But 
the mixture of conventional counterpoint with 
Italian opera air, which constituted his style, 
was not calculated to conceal the absence of any 
true and dignified ideal of church music. And 
yet he composed 12 complete sets of services 

3 ' Gesammelte Schriften,' li. 235. Compare Bameau't ' Qu'on m« 
donne la Gazette de Hollande.' 



for the year, 44 Passions, many oratorios, in- 
numerable cantatas and psalms, 32 services for 
the installation of Hamburg clergy, 33 pieces 
called 'Capitans-musik,' 20 ordination and anni- 
versary services, 12 funeral, and 14 wedding ser- 
vices — all consisting of many numbers each. Of 
his grand oratorios several were widely known 
and performed, even after his death, especially a 
' Passion' to the well-known words of Brookes of 
Hamburg (1716) ; another, in 3 parts and 9 
scenes, to words selected by himself from the 
Gospels (his best-known work) ; * Der Tag des 
Gerichts '; * Die Tageszeiten ' (from Zechariah) ; 
and the *Tod Jesu' and the 'Auferstehung 
Christi,' both by Ramler (1730 and 1757). To 
these must be added 40 operas for Hamburg, 
Eisenach, and Bayreuth, and an enormous mass 
of vocal and instrumental music of all kinds, 
including no less than 600 overtures in the 
French style. Many of his compositions were 
published, and he even found time to engrave 
several himself; Gerber ('Lexicon,' ii. 631) gives 
» catalogue. He also wrote an autobiography, 
printed in Matheson's ' Ehrenpforte ' and ' Gen- 
eralbass-schule ' (1731, p. 168). A fine chorus 
for 2 choirs is given in Rochlitz's Sammlung, and 
Hullah's Vocal Scores. Others will be found in 
Winterfeld, and in a collection — 'Beitrag zur 
Kirchenmusik' — published by Breitkopf. Organ 
fugues have been printed in Korner's * Orgel 
Virtues.' Very valuable examinations of his 
Church-Cantatas, and comparisons between them 
and those of Bach, will be found in Spitta's 
' Bach ' (Transl. i. 490 etc.) [A.M.] 

TELLEFSEN, Thomas Dyke Acland, a 
Norwegian musician, born at Dronthjem Nov. 26, 
1823, and probably named after the well-known 
M.P. for North Devon, who was much in the habit 
of travelling in Norway — was a pupil of Chopin, 
and first came to England with his master in 
1848. He was in the habit of returning to this 
country, had many pupils, and used to give con- 
certs, at one of wliich he was assisted by Madame 
Lind-Goldschmidt. He edited a collection of 
Chopin's PF. works (Paris, Richault), and was 
interesting chiefly from his intimate connexion 
with that remarkable composer and player, 
though it can hardly be said that his playing 
was a good representation of Chopin's. He died 
at Paris in Oct. 1874. [G.] 

TELL-TALE. A simple mechanical con- 
trivance for giving information to an organ- 
blower (and sometimes also to an organist) as 
to the amount of wind contained in the bellows. 
A piece of string is fixed by one end to the 
top board of the bellows and carried over a pul- 
ley; a small metal weight is attached to the 
otiier end of the string. As the bellows rise 
the weight descends, as they sink the weight 
ascends ; and the words ♦ Full' and * Empty ' mark 
the limits of the journey down and up. [J.S.] 

TEMPERAMENT (Fr. Tempirament ; Ger. 
Temperatur ; comp. Ital. temperare, to tune) is 
the name given to various methods of Tuning, 
in which certain of the consonant intervals, 


chiefly the Fifth and Major Third, are inten- 
tionally made more or less false or imperfect; 
that is to say, either sharper or flatter than 
exact consonance would require. If, on the con- 
trary, all the consonant intervals are made per- 
fectly smooth and pure, so as to give no Beats 
(see Appendix), the tuning is then called Just 

When a piece of music containing much 
change of key is executed in just intonation, we 
find that the number of notes employed in each 
Octave is considerable, and that the difference 
of pitch between them is, in many cases, com- 
paratively minute. Yet, however great the 
number of notes may be, and however small 
the intervals which separate them, all these 
notes can be correctly produced by the voice ; 
as they may be derived from a few elementary 
intervals, namely the Octave, Fifth, Major 
Third, and Harmonic Seventh.^ Instruments 
like the violin and the trombone are also suit- 
able for the employment of just intonation ; 
because, in these cases, the player can modify 
the pitch of each note at pleasure, being guided 
by his sense of key-relation. But it is other- 
wise with instrimients whose tones are fixed, 
such as the pianoforte, organ, and harmonium. 
Here the precise pitch of each note does not 
depend on the player, but is settled for him 
beforehand by the tuner. Hence, in these in- 
struments, the number of notes per Octave is 
limited, and cannot furnish all the varieties of 
pitch required in just intonation. A few scales 
may, indeed, be tuned perfectly ; but if so, cer- 
tain notes which belong to other scales will be 
missing. Compromise then becomes a mechani- 
cal necessity; and it is found that by putting 
most of the consonant intervals, except the Oc- 
tave, slightly out of tune, the number of notes 
required in modulation may be considerably re- 
duced, without too much offence to the ear. 
This mode of tuning is called Temperament, 
and is now usually applied to all instruments 
with fixed tones. And although voices, violins, 
and trombones naturally have no need of tem- 
perament, they must all conform to the intona- 
tion of any tempered instrument which is played 
in concert with them. 

We shall omit from the present article all re- 
ference to the arithmetical treatment of tempera- 
ment, and simply deal with its physical and 
audible effects. We shall describe the means 
by which any student may obtain for himself 
a practical knowledge of the subject, and point 
out some of the conclusions to which such know- 
ledge will probably lead him.^ The first and 
most important thing is to learn by experience the 
effect of temperament on the quality of musical 
chords. To carry out this study properly it is ne- 

1 Some theorists exclude the Harmonic Seventh from the list of 
elementary intervals, but It is often heard In unaccompanied vocal 
harmony. See below, p. 77 o. 

2 Those who wish to study the subject more In detail may consult :— 
(1) Bosanquet, * Elementary Treatise on Musical Intervals and Tem- 
perament' (Macmlllan): (2) Helmholtz, 'Sensations of Tone." chap- 
ters xiv, to xvli. ; and Ellis's Appendix xix. sections A to G, tables i. to 
vi.: (3) Perronet Thompson, 'On the Principles and Practice of Just 
Intonation ' : (4) Woolhouse, ' Esssy on Musical Intervals.' 


eessary to have an instrument which is capable of 
producing all the combinations of notes used in 
harmony, of sustaining the sound as long as may 
be desired, and of distinguishing clearly between 
just and tempered intonation. These conditions 
are not fulfilled by the pianoforte ; for, owing to 
the soft quality of its tones, and the quickness 
with which they die away, it does not make the 
effects of temperament acutely felt. The organ 
is more useful for the purpose, since its full and 
sustained tones, especially in the reed stops, en- 
able the ear to perceive differences of tuning 
with greater facility. The harmonium is superior 
even to the organ for illustrating errors of in- 
tonation, being less troublesome to tune and less 
liable to alter in pitch from variation of tempera- 
ture or lapse of time. 

By playing a few chords on an ordinary har- 
monium and listening carefully to the effect, the 
student will perceive that in the usual mode of 
tuning, called Equal Temperament, only one 
consonant interval has a smooth and continuous 
sound, namely the Octave. All the others are in- 
terrupted by heats, that is to say, by regularly 
recurring throbs or pulsations, which mark the 
deviation from exact consonance. For example, 
the Fifth and Fourth, as at (a;), are each made 
to give about one beat per second. This error 
is so slight as to be hardly worth notice, but in 
the Thirds and Sixths the case is very different. 
The Major Third, as at (y), gives nearly twelve 
beats per second : these are rather strong and dis- 
tinct, and become still harsher if the interval 
is extended to a Tenth or a Seventeenth. The 
Major Sixth, as at (2), gives about ten beats per 
second, which are so violent, that this interval 
in its tempered form barely escapes being reckoned 
as a dissonance. 

The Difference-Tones resulting from these tem- 
pered chords are also thrown very much out of 
tune, and, even when too far apart to beat, still 
produce a disagreeable effect, especially on the 
organ and the harmonium. [Resultant Tones,] 
The degree of harshness arising from this source 
varies with the distribution of the notes ; the 
worst results being produced by chords of the 
following types — 



By playing these examples, the student will 
obtain some idea of the alteration which chords 
undergo in equal temperament. To understand 
it thoroughly, he should try the following simple 
experiment. * Take an ordinary harmonium and 
tune two chords perfect on it. One is scarcely 
enough for comparison. To tune the triad of 
C major, first raise the G a very little, by scraping 
the end of the reed, till the Fifth, C— G, is dead 
in tune. Then flatten the Third E, by scraping 

the shank, till the triad C — E — G is dead in 
tune. Then flatten F till F— C is perfect, and 
A till F — A — C is perfect. The notes used are 
easily restored by tuning to their Octaves. 
The pure chords obtained by the above process 
offer a remarkable contrast to any other chords 
on the instrument.'* It is only by making one- 
self practically familiar with these facts, that the 
nature of temperament can be clearly understood, 
and its effects in the orchestra or in accompanied 
singing, properly appreciated. 

Against its defects, equal temperament has 
(me great advantage which specially adapts it to 
instruments with fixed tones, namely its extreme 
simplicity from a mechanical point of view. It 
is the only system of tuning which is complete 
with twelve notes to the Octave. This result is 
obtained in the following manner. If we start 
from any note on the keyboard (say Gb), and 
proceed along a series of twelve (tempered) Fifths 
upwards and seven Octaves downwards, thus — 

5 ^^^ 7 

we come to a note (FjJ) identical with our original 
one (Gb). But this identity is only arrived at 
by each Fifth being tuned somewhat too flat for 
exact consonance. If, on the contrary, the Fifths 
were tuned perfect, the last note of the series 
(Fj) would be sharper than the first note (Gb) 
by a small interval called the 'Comma of Pytha- 
goras,' which is about one-quarter of a Semitone. 
Hence in equal temperament, each Fifth ought 
to be made flat by one-twelfth of this Comma; 
but it is extremely difficult to accomplish this 
practically, and the error is always found to be 
greater in some Fifths than in others. If the 
theoretic conditions which the name ' equal 
temperament' implies, could be realised in the 
tuning of instruments, the Octave would be 
equally divided into twelve Semitones, six Tones, 
or three Major Thirds. Perfect accuracy, in- 
deed, is impossible even with the best-trained 
ears, but the following rule, given by Mr. Ellis, 
is much less variable in its results than the or- 
dinary process of guesswork. It is this : — ' make 
all the Fifths which lie entirely within the 
Octave middle c' to treble c" beat once per second ; 
and make those which have their upper notes 
above treble c" beat three times in two seconds. 
Keeping the Fifth treble /' and treble c" to the 
last, it should beat once in between one and two 
seconds.' ^ In ordinary practice, however, much 
rougher appi-oximations are found suflScient. 

The present system of tuning, by equal tem- 
perament, was introduced into England at a 
comparatively recent date. In 1854 organs 
I Bosanquet, ' Temperament.* p. S. < Ibid. p. 0. 



built and tuned by this method were sent out 
for the first time by Messrs. Gray & Davison, 
Walker, and Willis. 1854 is therefore the date 
of its definite adoption as the trade usage in 
England. There was no equally tempered organ 
of English make in the Great Exhibition of 1 85 1 ; 
and before that time the present system appears 
to have been only used in a few isolated cases, 
as in the organ of S. Nicholas, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, which was retuned in 1842. For the 
pianoforte equal temperament came into use 
somewhat earlier than for the organ. It was 
introduced into the works of Messrs. Broad- 
wood about 1846. In France the change had 
already taken place, for M. Aristide Cavaill^- 
Coll states that since 1835 ^^ ^^^ consistently 
laboured to carry out the equal principle in the 
tuning of his organs.^ What little is known of 
the history of temperament in Germany, seems 
to show that the new tuning was employed there 
at a still earlier date, but there are reasons for 
believing that equally tuned organs had not 
become general even as late as the time of Mozart 
(died 1 791). Emanuel Bach seems to have been 
the first musician who advocated in a prominent 
manner the adoption of equal temperament, 
whence we may infer that it was unusual in 
his day.^ His father is also said to have en- 
ployed this system on his own clavichord and 
harpsichord: but even his authority was not 
sufficient to recommend it to his contemporary 
Silbermann, the famous organ-builder (1683- 
1753). An earlier builder, Schnitger, is said to 
have used something approaching it in the organ 
built by him about 1688-93, in the S. Jacobi 
Church at Hamburg. Before that time the sys- 
tem appears to have had hardly more than a 
theoretic existence in Europe.^ 

The mode of tuning which prevailed before 
the introduction of equal temperament, is called 
the Meantone System.* It has hardly yet died 
out in England, for it may still be heard on 
a few organs in country churches. According 
to Don B. Yniguez, organist of Seville Cathedral, 
the meantone system is generally maintained on 
Spanish organs, even at the present day.' Till 
about a century ago, this tuning, or a closely 
allied variety, was almost universally employed, 
both in England and on the Continent. It was 
invented by the Spanish musician Salinas, who 
was bom at Burgos in 15 13, lived for many 
years in Italy, and died at Salamanca in 1590." 
On account of its historical interest, as well as 
its intrinsic merits, the meantone system requires 
a short explanation. It will be convenient to 
take equal temperament as the standard of com- 
parison, and to measure the meantone intervals 
by the nmnber of equal Semitones they contain. 

I BllU. In • Nature ' for Aug. 8, 1878, p. 388. 

s 0. P. K. Bach, 'Versuch fiber die wahre Art du Clavier rn 
splelen, Elnleltung, sect. 14 ; published 1753. 

3 ElHs. 'History of Musical Pitch,' In Journal of Society of Art*. 
March 5 and April 2, 1880, and Jan. 7, 1881. From these valuable 
papers many of the facts given In the text have been derived. 

* Otherwise Mesotonic ; so called because In this tuning the Tone 
is a mean between the Major and the Minor Tones of Just Intonation ; 
or half a Major Third. See p. 79 b. 

'> The invention of this temperament has also been attributed to 
Zarlino and to Guido d'Aiezzo. 


The relations of the two systems may therefore 
be described as follows. 

If we start from say D on the keyboard, 
and proceed along a series of four equal tempera- 
ment Fifths upwards and two Octaves down- 
wards, thus — 

* ^^ ■••w^ 

we arrive at a note (Fj) which we employ as 
the Major Third of our original note (D). This 
tempered interval (D — Fjf) is too sharp for ex- 
act consonance by nearly one-seventh of a Semi- 
tone ; but if we make these Fifths flatter than 
they would be in equal temperament, then the 
interval D — Fj will approach the perfect Major 
Third. We may thus obtain a number of systems 
of tuning according to the precise amount of 
flattening we choose to assign to the Fifth. Of 
this class the most important is the Meantone 
System, which is tuned according to the following 
rule. First, make the Major Third (say D— F|) 
perfect; then make all the intermediate Fifths 
(D— A— E— B— Fjf) equally flat by trial. After 
a little practice this can be done by mere estima- 
tion of the ear ; but if very accurate results are 
desired, the following method may be used. A 
set of tuning forks should be made (say at French 
pitch) giving </ «= 260.2, ^ = 389.1, d' = 290*9, 
a'= 435 vibrations per second. The notes c', flr', 
d', a', of the instrument should be tuned in unison 
with the forks, and all other notes can be ob- 
tained by perfect Major Thirds and perfect 
Octaves above or below these. 

There is one difficulty connected with the use 
of the meantone system, namely that it requires 
more than twelve notes to the Octave, in order 
to enable the player to modulate into any given 
key. This aiises from the nature of the system; 
for as twelve meantone Fifths fall short of seven 
Octaves, the same sound cannot serve both for 
Gb and for Fj. Hence if we tune the following 
series of meantone Fifths 

on the piano, or on any other instrument with 
twelve notes to the Octave, we shall have only 
six Major scales (Bb, F, C, G, D, A), and three 
Minor scales (G, D, A). When the remoter keys 
are required, the player has to strike GjJ instead 
of Ab, or Eb instead of Dj, producing an intoler- 
able eficct. For in the meantone system the in- 
terval Gj— Eb is sharper than the 'perfect Fifth 
by nearly one-third ot a Semitone, and the four 
intervals B— Eb, F#— Bb, CJ— F, GJ— C, are 
each sharper than the perfect Major Third by 
more than three-fifths of a Semitone. The 
extreme roughness of these chords caused them 
to be compared to the howling of wolves. 


To get rid of the ' wolves * many plans were 
tried. For instance, the GjJ was sometimes raised 
till it stood half-way between G and A ; but the 
result was unsatisfactory, for the error thus 
avoided in one place had to be distributed else- 


where. This was called the method of Unequal 
Temperament, in which the notes played by the 
white keys were left in the meantone system, 
while the error was accumulated on those played 
by the black keys. The more usual scales were 
thus kept tolerably in tune, while the remote 
ones were all more or less false. Such a make- 
shift as this could not be expected to succeed, 
and the only purpose it served was to prepare 
the way for the adoption of equal temperament. 
The meantone system is sometimes described 
as an * unequal temperament,' but wrongly, since 
in it the so-called 'good keys' are all equally 
good ; the ' bad keys ' are simply those for which 
the necessary notes do not exist when the system 
is limited to twelve notes per Octave. The de- 
fect therefore lies not in the system itself, but in 
its application, and the only legitimate remedy 
is to increase the number of notes, and so pro- 
vide a more extended series of Fifths. This was 
well understood from the first, for we find that 
as early as the 1 6th century many organs were 
constructed with extra notes. ^ Salinas tells us 
that he had himself played on one in the Domi- 
nican Monastery of Santa Maria Novella at 
Florence. Similar improvements were attempted 
in England. In the deed of sale of the organ 
built by Father Smith in 1682-3 for the Temple 
Church, London, special mention is made of the 
additional notes, which were played in the fol- 
lowing manner : — two of the black keys were 
divided crosswise ; the front halves, which were 
of the usual height, playing GJJ and Eb ; the back 
ones, which rose above them, A b and D J. About 
1865, this organ was tuned for the first time 
in equal temperament, but the extra keys were 
not removed till 1878. The same method was 
followed in designing another organ of Father 
Smith's, which was built for Durham Cathedral 
in 1684-5, although the additional notes do not 
appear to have been actually supplied till 1691.^ 
A different but equally ingenious plan of con- 
trolling the extra notes was used in the organ of 
the Foundling Hospital, London.^ Here the key- 
board was of the ordinary form, without any 
extra keys ; but by means of a special mechanism 
four additional notes, Db, Ab, DJ, AJJ, could be 
substituted at pleasure for C$, GjJ, Eb, Bb of the 
usual series. Close to the draw-stops on either 
side there was a handle or lever working in a 
horizontal cutting, and having three places of 
rest. When both handles were in the mid 
position, the series of notes was the same as on 
an ordinary instrument, namely 

Eb-Bb-F-C-G-D-A-E-B-Fj-CjJ-Gjt ; 
but when the handles on both sides were moved 
in the outward direction, the Eb and Bb pipes 
were shut off, and the DjJ and AJ were brought 
into operation. The use of this mechanism was 

> The extra notes were sometimes called ' Quartertones,' not a very 
suitable name, since a Quartertone is not a sound, but an interval, 
and the Semitone is not divided equally In the meantone system. 

2 See vol. ii. p. 593, note. 

3 The history of this instrument has been carefully Investigated 
by Mr. Alexander J. Ellis. F.R.S. The facts given in the text were 
derived by him from a MS. note-book made by Mr. LefiBer (died 
1819). organist of 8. Katharine's (then by the Tower), and father of 
the singer William Lefflek. [See vol. ii. p. 112.] 



afterwards misunderstood ; the levers were nailed 
up for many years, and at last removed in 1848; 
but the tuning remained unaltered till 1855, 
when the organ itself was removed and a new 
one built in its place. The history of the old 
organ just described is of special interest, as 
bearing on Handel's position with reference to 
the question of temperament. Unfortunately all 
that we can now ascertain on the subject amounts 
to this : — that Handel presented an organ to the 
Hospital ; that he performed on it at the opening 
ceremony on May i, 1750 ;* and that it was still 
in existence in 1785.* We first hear of the extra 
notes in 1 799,^ but there is nothing to show that 
they did not belong to the original instrument 
given by Handel half a century before. Assuming 
this to have been the case, it would tend to show 
that the great composer was not in favour of 
abolishing the meantone system, but of remedy- 
ing the defective form in which it was then 
employed. His example, and that of Father 
Smith, found few imitators, and those who did 
attempt to solve the problem seem often to have 
misunderstood its nature.'^ The difficulty how- 
ever could not be shirked ; for the development 
of modern music brought the remote keys more 
and more into common use ; and as instruments 
continued to be made with only twelve notes per 
Octave, the only possible way to get rid of the 
' wolves ' was to adopt equal temperament. 

The long contest between the different systems 
of tuning having practically come to an end, we 
are in a position to estimate what we have gained 
or lost by the change. The chief advantage of 
equal temperament is that it provides keyed in- 
struments with unlimited facility of modulation, 
and places them, in this respect, more on a level 
with the voice, violin and trombone. It has 
thus assisted in the formation of a style of com- 
position and execution suited to the pianoforte. 
It is the only system of intonation which, in 
concerted music, can be produced with the same 
degree of accuracy on every kind of instrument. 
Its deviations from exact consonance, though 
considerable, can be concealed by means of unsus- 
tained harmony, rapid movement, and soft quality 
of tone, so that many ears never perceive them. 
By constantly listening to the equally tempered 
scale, the ear may be brought not only to tolerate 
its intervals, but to prefer them to those of any 
other system, at least as far as melody is con- 
cerned. It has proved capable of being applied 
even to music of a high order, and its adoption 

* Brownlow, ' History and Objects of the Foundling Hospital,' p. 78. 

5 Burney, ' Slcetch of the life of Handel,' p. 28, prefixed to ' Account 
of the Commemoration.' 

6 See remarks by an anonymous writer in ' The European Maga- 
zine," for Feb. 1799. who, however, states (l)that the organ with extra 
notes was not given by Handel, and (2) that it was built under the 
direction of Dr. Robert Smith, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
The contradiction between this writer and Burney might be removed 
by supposing that a new instrument was built between 1785 and 1799 ; 
but of this we have no record. If the extra notes were designed by 
Dr. Smith, it must have been before 1768, as he died in that year, 
aged 79. In 1762 he had published a ' Postscript ' to his treatise on 
' Harmonics,' recommending an arrangement of stops by which a 
meantone series of nineteen notes to the Octave (Db to Fjfjf) aWW 
be played with the ordinary keyboard. He had this plan cibrried 
out in a harpsichord constructed by Eirkman. 

7 See account of Renatus Harris's invention, Hopkins, ' The Organ, 
in RImbault's ' History of the Organ,' pp. 121, 122. 



may be considered an artistic success. From a 
commercial point of view, the change has been 
highly advantageous. It has enabled the maker 
of the pianoforte or the organ to obviate a 
serious imperfection without disturbing the tra- 
ditional structure of the instrument; while, on 
the other hand, alterations both in the internal 
mechanism and in the form of keyboard would 
have been necessary if musicians had insisted 
that the * wolves ' should be got rid of without 
abolishing the old tuning. Trade usage will, 
therefore, be strongly on the side of equal tem- 
perament for a long time to come, and any at- 
tempt to recover the nieantone system can only 
be made on a small scale, and for special pur- 
poses. Still, as many writers have pointed out, 
such a limited restoration would be useful. It 
would enable us to hear the music of the earlier 
composers as they heard it themselves. The 
ecclesiastical compositions of Bach, and all the 
works of Handel and his predecessors as far back 
as the 1 6th century, were written for the mean- 
tone system. By performing them in equal tem- 
perament we fail to realise the original intention. 
This would not be matter for regret if the old 
music were improved by our alteration; but such 
is certainly not the case. The tuning in which 
the old composers worked is far more harmonious 
than that which has replaced it. This much is 
generally admitted even by those who do notfavour 
any attempt to restore the meantone system. 
They sometimes appeal to the authority of Se- 
bastian Bach, and quote his approval of equal 
temperament as a reason why no other tuning 
should be used. But in reality very little is cer- 
tainly known of Bach's relations to the subject. 
We are told that he was accustomed to tune his 
own clavichord and harpsichord equally, though 
the organ still remained in the meantone system. 
This statement is borne out by internal evidence. 
In Bach's organ works the remoter keys are 
scarcely ever employed, while no such restrictions 
are observable in his works for the clavichord. 
With his preference for a wide range of modula- 
tion he would naturally find the limits of the 
old-fashioned meantone organ irritating, and we 
can easily understand that he would have fa- 
voured any tuning which made all the keys 
available. He would doubtless have welcomed 
any practical method of extending the meantone 
system ; but to provide this was a task beyond 
the inventive capacity of that age. His authority, 
then, may fairly be quoted to show that all the 
keys must be in tune to the same degree ; but 
this condition can be realised by many other 
systems besides temperament when a sufficient 
number of notes is provided in each Octave. 
If the question were to be decided by an appeal 
to authority alone, we might quote the names of 
many musicians of last century who were ac- 
quainted with both kinds of temperament, and 
whose judgment was directly opposed to that of 
Bach. But this style of argument, always in- 
conclusive, will appear peculiarly out of place 
when we consider what changes music has 
passed through since Bach's day. That the de- 


fects of equal temperament were not so notice- 
able then as now, may be attributed both to the 
different kind of instrument and the different 
style of composition which have since been de- 
veloped. The clavichord which is said to have 
been an especial favourite with Bach, was cha- 
racterised by a much softer quality of tone, and 
feebler intensity, than the modern pianoforte.* 
Again, composers of a century and a half ago 
relied for effect chiefly on vigorous counterpoint 
or skilful imitation between the various melodic 
parts, and not on the thick chords and sustained 
harmonies which have become so marked a fea- 
ture in modern music. Owing to these changed 
conditions the evils of temperament are greatly 
intensified nowadays, and the necessity for some 
remedyhas become imperative. There is but one 
direction in which an efficient remedy can be 
found, namely in the use of some more har- 
monious form of intonation than that which at 
present prevails. It is only by the help of an 
instrument on which the improved systems of 
tuning can be employed in an adequate manner, 
that the student will be able to estimate their 
value. Such an instrument we will now proceed 
to describe. 

If we wish to employ any other system of tuning 
than equal temperament, we must increase the 
number of notes per Octave, since the ordinary 
twelve notes, unless tuned equally, are useless for 
anything beyond illustration or experiment. The 
methods used by Father Smith and byHandel can- 
not be followed nowadays. The ordinary keyboard 
is already so unsymmetrical, that the insertion 
of a few additional black or white keys would 
make it almost unplayable ; and the changing of 
levers would be a troublesome interruption of 
the performance. The only way to bring the 
improved systems of temperament within the 
range of practical music, is to remodel and 
simplify the keyboard. This has been done in 
different ways by several inventors of late years. 
At a meeting of the Musical Association ot Lon- 
don on May i, 1875, an organ on which one of 
the stops was tuned according to the meantone 
system was exhibited by Mr. R. H. M. Bosan- 
quet, of S. John's College, Oxford. The key- 
board of this instrument — which is now in the 
South Kensington Museum — is arranged sym- 
metrically, so that notes occupying the same 
relative position always make the same musical 
interval. There are twelve finger keys in the 
Octave, of which seven as usual are white and 
five black. The distance across from any key 
to its Octave, centre to centre, is six inches ; 
each key is three-eighths of an inch broad, and 
is separated on either side from the next key by. 
the space of one-eighth of an inch. As the 
Octave is the only interval in which all systems 
of intonation agree, keys an Octave apart are 
on the same level with each other. The rest 
of the keys are placed at various points higher 
or lower to correspond with the deviations of 
the pitch of their notes from equal temperament. 
Thus the G key is placed a quarter of an inch 
X Bosanquet, 'Temperament,' pp. 28, 29. 


farther back, and one-twelfth of an inch higher 
than the C. The D key recedes and rises to the 
same extent relatively to the G, and so with 
the rest. After twelve Fifths we come to the 
Bj key, and find it three inches behind and 
one inch above the C from which we started. 
This oblique arrangement enables us to greatly 
increase the number of notes per Octave without 
any inconvenience to the player. At the same 
time the fingering is greatly simplified, for any 
given chord or scale always has the same form 
under the hand, at whatever actual pitch it may 
be played. Nor is it necessary to decide before- 
hand on the exact key- relationship of the passage, 
as it will be played in the same manner, what- 
ever view may be taken of its analysis. The 
advantage of having thus to learn only one style 
of fingering for the Major scale, instead of twelve 
different styles, as on the ordinary keyboard, is 
self-evident. Chromatic notes are played accord- 
ing to the following rule : — put the finger up for 
a sharp and down for a flat. This results from 
the principle on which the keyboard is arranged, 
the higher keys corresponding to notes which 
are reached by an upward series of Fifths, and 
the lower keys to notes reached by a downward 
series. The following diagram shows the positions 
of the notes on the keyboard when applied to the 
meantone system : — 


aff . . 

. . . riJt 

//ff . . . . 



6 . 











As all proposed improvements, either in music 
or anything else, are sure to meet with opposi- 
tion, we will here consider some of the objections 
which may be made to the use of an instrument 
such as we have just described. It is natural 
that the new form of keyboard should be re- 
ceived with some hesitation, and that its style of 
fingering should be thought difficult ; but in fact 
the old keyboard is far from being a model of 
simplicity, and many attempts have been made 
to reform it, independently of any aim at im- 
proving the tuning. [See Key, vol. ii. pp. 54, 

55.] On the new keyboard the fingering is of 
the simplest possible character, and permits the 
attainment of any required rate of speed. All 
desirable combinations lie within easy grasp • 
related notes beinix nearly on the same level. 
To prove that ordinary music can be easily 
adapted to the meantone organ, Mr. Bosanquet 
performed on it three of Bach's preludes at the 
meeting of the Musical Association already re- 
ferred to. There would be no difficulty in con- 
structing this form of keyboard with several 
manuals, nor in applying the same symmetrical 
arrangement to a pedal. 

The advantage gained by employing an im- 
proved system of tuning depends so much on 
the quality of tone of the instrument, that it 
is very doubtful whether it would be worth while 
to adopt the meantone system for the pianoforte. 
It is only on the modern 'concert-grand' that the 
defects of equal temperament are felt to any 
great extent, and it might therefore be well to 
construct these instruments with a complete 
meantone scale. Still, the result would hardly 
be so satisfactory as on the organ, whether used 
in solo performance or in leading the voices of 
a choir. 

The last objection which has to be considered 
is that enharmonic changes are supposed by 
some to be impossible in any system of tuning 
which provides distinct sounds for Gb and Fj. 
This view is incorrect, as we shall recognise if 
we enquire what enharmonic changes really are. 
For the most part they are merely nominal, being 
used to avoid the strange appearance of remote 
keys. Thus in the ' Pro Pecc.itis ' of Rossini's 
' Stabat Mater,' there is apparently an enhar- 
monic modulation from the key of At] to that 

A ! ■ ! — m— -^m~, , — I — <ii — ; — m—] — i*--. 

But in reality it is a chromatic modulation 
from Aq to CJI, with no enharmonic element 
whatsoever. The passage would be played on a 
meantone instrument as follows : — 




It would be unnecessary in general to translate 
passages of this kind into correct notation before 
performing them, as in most cases the key- 
relations would be tolerably clear, in whatever 
way they were written. Should there be any 
chance of error in taking the accidentals literally, 
a large acute or grave mark might be drawn 
across the staif, to indicate that the notes are 
to be played twelve Fifths higher or lower than 
they are written. In the present instance, the 
acute mark could be used. 

Sometimes the enharmonic change is real, and 
not merely a device of notation. Take the fol- 
lowing extract from * The people shall hear * in 
the * Israel in Egypt ' : — 

Here Bb must be played in the second bar 
and A J in the third, a modulation which is 
rendered easy by the general construction of the 
passage. * Enharmonic changes (Helmholtz re- 
marks) are least observed when they are made 
immediately before or after strongly dissonant 
chords, or those of the Diminished Seventh. 
Such enharmonic changes of pitch are already 
sometimes clearly and intentionally made by 
violinists, and where they are suitable even pro- 
duce a very good eiFect.' ^ 

The necessity of avoiding • wolves ' in the 
raeantone system sometimes restricts the choice 
of notes. Thus in a passage in the 'Lachrymosa* 
of Mozart's Requiem : — 

the discord Ab — F — Bb — Eb must be played 
exactly as it is written, owing to the Bb and Eb 
lieing prepared. Even if Gj stood in the text, 
Ab would be substituted in performance, as the 
'wolf G% — Eb is inadmissible. All such dif- 
ficulties can be solved in a similar way. On the 
other side, we have to reckon the great variety 
of chords and resolutions which are available in 
the meantone system, but have no existence in 
-«qual temperament. Many chromatic chords 
i ' Sensationi of Tone,' p. 613. 


may have two or more forms, such as the fol- 
lowing : — 


##ii #^l#f^ 

each of which may be used according to the key- 
relation of the context, or the eflfect required in 
the melodic parts. Again, the Augmented Sixth 
is much flatter in the meantone system than in 
equal temperament, slightly flatter even than 
the interv^ called the Harmonic Seventh. When 
the strange impression which it causes at first 
has worn ofi", its effect is peculiarly smooth and 
agreeable, especially in full chords. It is also 
available as Dominant Seventh, and may be 
written with the acute mark (G — /F), to dis- 
tinguish it from the ordinary Minor Seventh got 
by two Fifths downwards (G— C— F). 

It is important to recognise the fact that the 
forms of chords can only be settled by actual 
trial on an instrument, and that the judgment 
of the ear, after full experience of the different 
modes of tuning, cannot be set aside in favour 
of deductions from any abstract theory. Practice 
must first decide what chord or progression sounds 
best ; and this being done, it may be worth while 
to ask whether theory can give any reasons for 
the ear's decision. In many cases our curiosity 
will be unsatisfied, but our preference for one 
effect rather than another will remain unchanged. 
Neither can theory solve those questions which 
sometimes arise as to the correct mode of writing 
certain chords. All questions of notation can 
only be decided by playing the disputed passage 
in some system of tuning which supplies a sepa- 
rate sound for each symbol. The reason why 
Gb and FjJ were not written in the same chord 
was a purely practical one ; these two signs ori- 
ginally meant different sounds, which formed 
combinations too rough for use. Our notation 
having been formed long before equal tempera- 
ment came into use, it is not surprising that 
the symbols, do not correspond with the sounds. 
But they correspond exactly with the mean- 
tone scales, and it is on this system of tuning 
that all our rules of notation are founded. * It 
is only necessary to remember that we have here 
the original system, which belongs from the very 
beginning of modern music onward to our musicid 
notation, to see that by employing it we have 
the true interpretation of our notation ; we have 
the actual sounds that our notation conveyed to 
Handel, to all before Bach, and many after him, 
only cured of the wolf, which was the consequence 
of their imperfect methods,'* 

To carry out any system of temperament con- 
sistently in the orchestra is practically an im- 
possible task. Tempered intervals can only be 
produced with certainty on a small nimxber of 
the instruments, chiefly the wood-wind. The 
brass instruments have an intonation of their 
own, which differs widely from either of the 
temperaments we have described. Thus the 
French horn, whose notes are the harmonics 
3 Bosanquet, ' Temperament,' p. S9. 


arising from the subdivision of a tube, gives a 
Major Third much flatter than equal tempera- 
ment, and a Fifth much sharper than the meantone 
system. [See Node ; and Pabtial Tones.] There 
is necessarily a great deal of false harmony when- 
ever the brass is prominently heard in tempered 
music. Again, the tuning of the string-quartet is 
accomplished by just Fifths (C— G— D— A— E), 
but as these instruments have free intonation, 
they can execute tempered intervals when sup- 
ported by the pianoforte or organ. In the ab- 
sence of such an accompaniment, both violinists 
and singers seem unable to produce equally 
tempered scales or chords. This is precisely 
what might have been expected on theoretic 
grounds, .is the consonant relations of the different 
notes being partially lost through temperament, 
the altered intervals would naturally be difficult 
to seize and render. Fortunately, we have positive 
facts to prove the truth of this deduction. The 
subject has been recently investigated by two 
French savans, MM. Cornu and Mercadier.^ 
' Their experiments were made with three profes- 
sional players, M. Leonard the Belgian violinist, 
M. Seiigmann, violoncellist, and M. Ferrand, 
violinist of the Opdra Comique, besides amateur 
players and singers. The i-esults showed that a 
wide distinction must be drawn between the in- 
tervals employed in unaccompanied melody, and 
those employed in harmony. In solo perform- 
ances, continual variety of intonation was ob- 
served ; the same pitch was seldom repeated, 
and even the Octave and the Fifth were some- 
times sharpened or flattened. So far as any 
regularity could be traced, the intervals aimed 
at appeared to be those known as Pythagorean, 
of which the only consonant ones are the Octave, 
Fifth, and Fourth. The Pythagorean Major 
Third is obtained by four just Fifths up, and is 
consequently so sharp as to amount to a disson- 
ance. In melody, a scale tuned in this manner 
is found to be not unpleasant, but it is impossible 
in harmony. This fact also was verified by 
Cornu and Mercadier, who report that, in two- 
part harmony, the players with whom they ex- 
perimented invariably produced the intervals of 
just intonation. The Thirds and Sixths gave 
no beats, and the Minor Seventh on the Do- 
minant was always taken in its smoothest form, 
namely the Harmonic Seventh. 'I have myself ob- 
served,' says Helmholtz, • that singers accustomed 
to a pianoforte accompaniment, when they sang 
a simple melody to my justly intoned harmonium, 
sang natural Thirds and Sixths, not tempered, 
nor yet Pythagorean. I accompanied the com- 
mencement of the melody, and then paused while 
the singer gave the Third or Sixth of the key. 
After he had given it, I touched on the instru- 
ment the natural, or the Pythagorean, or the 
tempered interval. The first was always in uni- 
son with the singer, the others gave shrill beats.'* 
Since, then, players on bowed instruments as 
well as singers have a strong natural tendency 
towards just intervals in harmony, it is not clear 

1 See Ellis'* Appendix to the 'Seasatlons of Tone,' p. 787. 
s * Sensations of Tone,' p. 6i0. 



why their instruction should bo based on equal 
temperament, as has been the practice in recent 
times. This method is criticised by Helmholtz 
in the following words : — ' The modem school of 
violin-playing, since the time of Spohr, aims 
especially at producing equally tempered intona- 
tion. . . . The sole exception which they allow is 
for double-stop passages, in which the notes have 
to be somewhat differently stopped from what 
they are when played alone. But this exception 
is decisive. In double-stop passages the indi- 
vidual player feels himself responsible for the 
harmoniousness of the interval, and it lies com- 
pletely within his power to make it good or bad. 
. . . But it is clear that if individual players feel 
themselves obliged to distinguish the different 
values of the notes in the different consonances, 
there is no reason why the bad Thirds of the 
Pythagorean series of Fifths should be retained 
in quartet-playing. Chords of several parts, exe- 
cuted by a quartet, often sound very ill, even when 
each one of the performers is an excellent solo 
player; and, on the other hand, when quartets 
are played by finely cultivated artists, it is im- 
possible to detect any false consonances. To my 
mind the only assignable reason for these results, 
is that practised violinists with a delicate sense 
of harmony, know how to stop the tones they 
want to hear, and hence do not submit to the 
rules of an imperfect school.' 

Helmholtz found, by experiments with Herr 
Joachim, that this distinguished violinist in 
playing the unaccompanied scale, took the just 
and not the tempered intervals. He further ob- 
serves that, *if the best players, who are tho- 
roughly acquainted with what they are playing, 
are able to overcome the defects of their school 
and of the tempered system, it would certainly 
wonderfully smooth the path of performers of the 
second order, in their attempts to attain a per- 
fect ensemble, if they had been accustomed from 
the first to play scales by natural intervals.' 

The same considerations apply to vocal music. 
* In singing, the pitch can be made most easily 
and perfectly to follow the wishes of a fine musi- 
cal ear. Hence all music began with singing, 
and singing will always remain the true and 
natural school of all music. . . . But where are 
our singers to learn just intonation, and make 
their ears sensitive for perfect chords ? They are 
from the first taught to sing to the equally tem- 
pered pianoforte. . . . Correct intonation in sing- 
ing is so far above all others the first condition 
of beauty, that a song when sung in correct in- 
tonation even by a weak and unpractised voice 
always sounds agreeable, whereas the richest 
and most practised voice offends the hearer when 
it sings false or sharpens. . . . The instruction of 
our present singers by means of tempered instru- 
ments is unsatisfactory, but those who possess 
good musical talents are ultimately able by their 
own practice to strike out the right path for 
themselves, and overcome the error of their ori- 
ginal instruction. . . . Sustained tones are prefer- 
able as an accompaniment, because the singer 
himself can immediately hear the beats betweea 



the instrnment and his voice, when he alters the 
pitch slightly. . . . When we require a delicate 
use of the muscles of any part of the human 
body, as, in this case, of the larynx, there must 
be some sure meims of ascertaining whether suc- 
cess has been attained. Now the presence or 
absence of beats gives such a means of detecting 
success or failure when a voice is accompanied 
by sustained chords in just intonation. But 
tempered chords which produce beats of their 
own, are necessarily quite unsuited for such a 
purpose.' * 

For performance in just intonation the three 
quartets of voices, strings, and trombones have a 
pre-eminent value ; but as it requires great prac- 
tice and skill to control the endless variations of 
pitch they supply, we are obliged to have some 
fixed and reliable standard by which they can at 
first be guided. We must be certain of obtaining 
with ease and accuracy any note we desire, and 
of sustaining it for any length of time. Hence 
we come back once more to keyed instruments, 
which do not present this difficulty of execution 
and uncertainty of intonation. The only question 
is how to construct such instruments with an 
adequate number of notes, if all the intervals are 
to be in perfect tune. Theoretically it is neces- 
sary that every note en the keyboard should be 
furnished with its Fifth, Major Third, and Har- 
monic Seventh, upwards and downwards. There 
should be Fifths to the Fifths, Thirds to the 
Thirds, and Sevenths to the Sevenths, almost to 
an unlimited extent. Practically these condi- 
tions cannot be fully carried out, and all instru- 
ments hitherto constructed in just intonation 
have been provided with material for the simpler 
modulations only. One of the best-known histo- 
rical examples is General Perronet Thompson's 
organ, now iii the collection of instruments in the 
South Kensington Museum. In each Octave 
this organ has forty sounds, which may be di- 
vided into five series, the sounds of each series 
proceeding by perfect Fifths, and being related 
to those of the next series by perfect Major 
Thirds. The interval of the Harmonic Seventh 
is not given. With a regular and consistent 
form of keyboard it would have been more suc- 
cessful than it was, but the idea of arranging 
the keys symmetrically had not then been de- 
veloped. The first application of this idea was 
made by an American, Mr. H. W. Poole, of 
South Danvers, Massachusetts. His invention 
is described and illustrated in * Silliman's Jour- 
nal' for July, 1867. The principle of it is that 
keys standing in a similar position with regard 
to each other shall always produce the same 
musical interval, provided it occurs in the same 
relation of tonality. But if this relation of 
tonality alters, the same interval will take a 
different form on the keyboard. There are five 
series of notes, each proceeding by perfect 
Fifths : — (i) the keynotes ; (2) the Major Thirds 
to the keynotes ; (3) the Thirds to the Thirds ; 

(4) the Hai-monic Sevenths to the keynotes; 

(5) the Sevenths to the Thirds, The Major 

I ' Sensations of Tone,' pp. 605-510. 


Thirds below the keynotes, which are so often 
required in modem music, as for instance in the 
theme of Beethoven's Andante in F, are not 
given. So that the range of modulation, though 
extensive, is insufficient for general purposes.^ 

Owing to the limited number of notes which 
keyed instruments can furnish, the attempt to 
provide perfect intervals in all keys is regarded 
by Helmholtz as impracticable. He therefore 
proposes a system of temperament which ap- 
proaches just intonation so closely as to be in- 
distinguishable from it in ordinary performance. 
This system is founded on the following facts : — 
We saw that in equal temperament the Fifth is 
too flat for exact consonance, and the Major 
Third much too sharp. Also that the interval 
got by four Fifths up (D— A— E— B— Fj) is 
identified with the Major Third (D— FJJ).^ Now 
if we raise the Fifths, and tune them perfectly, 
the interval D — Fj becomes unbearable, being 
sharper than the equal temperament Third. But 
in a downward series of just Fifths the pitch 
becomes at each step lower than in equal tem- 
perament, and when we reach Gb, which is eight 
Fifths below D, we find that it is very nearly 
identical with the just Major Third of D, thus — 

The best way of applying this fact is to tune a 
series of eight notes by just Fifths — say Db, Ab, 
Eb, Bb, F, C, G, D ; then a similar series form- 
ing just Major Thirds with these ; whence it will 
result that the last note of the latter series 
(FjJ) will form an almost exact Fifth with the 
first note of the former series (Db).* 

In applying the ordinary' musical notation to 
systems of temperament of this class, a difficulty 
arises ; for the Major Third being got by eight 
Fifths downward, would strictly have to be 
written D — Gb. As this is both inconvenient and 
contrary to musical usage, the Major Third may 
still be written D — FjJ, but to distinguish this Fj 
from the note got by four Fifths up, the following 
convention may be used. The symbols Gb and 
Fj are taken to mean exactly the same thing, 
namely the note which is eight Fifths below D. 
We assume Gb— Db— Ab— Eb— Bb— F— C-— 
G — D — A — E — B as a normal or standard series 
of Fifths. The Fifth of B is written indifferently 
/Gb or /Fj, the acute mark (/) serving to show 
that the note we mean belongs to the upward, 
and not to the downward series. The Fifth of 
/Fj is written fCf, and so on till we arrive at 
/B, the Fifth of which is written // Fj. In like 
manner, proceeding along a downward series, the 

* The keyboard Invented by Mr. Colin Brown of Glasgow, Is similar 
in principle to Mr. Poole's, except that it does not give the two series 
of Harmonic Sevenths. See Bosanquet, ' Temperament.' 

» In general when a series of Fifths Is compared with a Major 
Third, the number of Octaves (by which we must ascend or descend 
In order to bring the notes into the same part of the scale) Is not 
expressed, but can be easily supplied by the reader. 

* The error, which is called a ' Skhlsma,' is about the fifty-first 
part of a Semitone. This system, therefore, differs so slightly from 
Just Intonation, that we shall henceforward treat them as practically 


Fifth below Fj (or Gb) is written \B, and so on 
till we arrive at \FJJ, the Fifth below which is 
written \\B. The notes B, E, A, D have their 
Thirds in the same series as themselves, thus 
D — Fjf, \D— \FjJ. Other notes have their Thirds 
in the series next below, thus C— \E, \C— wE. 
These marks may be collected at the signature, 
like sharps and flats. The keys of A and E will 
be unmarked ; the key of C will have three grave 
notes, \A, \E, \B. When it is necessary to 
counteract the grave or acute mark and restore 
the normal note, a small circle (o) may be pre- 
fixed, analogous to the ordinary natural. 

To apply this mode of tuning to the organ 
would be expensive without any great advantages 
in return. Ordinary organ-tone, except in the 
reed and mixture stops, is too smooth to distin- 
guish sharply between consonance and dissonance, 
and the pipes are so liable to the influence of heat 
and cold that attempts to regulate the pitch 
minutely are seldom successful. Still less would 
it be worth while to tune the pianoforte justly. 
It is chiefly to the orcliestra that we must look 
for the development of just intonation ; but 
among keyboard instruments the most suitable 
for the purpose is the harmonium, which is 
specially useful as a means of studying the 
effects obtainable from untempered chords. 


flP . , 

, . ,/e^ 

/a" .... 







\h , 






There is in the South Kensington Museum a 
harmonium, the tuning of which may be con- 
sidered identical with the system just explained. 
The form of keyboard is that which has already 
been described in connexion with the meantone 
temperament ; and it is equally applicable to the 
system of perfect Fifths. Being an experimental 
instrument it was constructed with eighty-four 
keys in each Octave, but for ordinary purposes it 
is found that about half that number would be 
suflficient. The fingering of the Major scale 
resembles that of Ab Major on the ordinary key- 
board, and is always the same, from whatever 

note we start as Tonic. Moreover the form which 
any given chord takes does not depend on 
theories of tonality, but is everywhere symme- 
trical. The diagram in the preceding column 
shows the positions of the notes on the keyboard 
when applied to the system of perfect Fifths. 

It is unnecessary to consider here the objections 
which might be made to the use of this tuning, 
as they would, no doubt, be similar to those we 
have already noticed in dealing with the mean- 
tone temperament. But it may be pointed out 
that the supposed difficulty of enharmonic change 
no more exists here than elsewhere. We may 
even modulate through a series of eight Fifths 
down, and return by a Major Third down, without 
altering the pitch. The following passage from 
a madrigal, * voi che sospirate,' by Luca Mar- 
enzio (died 1 590) illustrates this : — 








1 1- 





g-g- ^S'g'-' 



- ins ' .^.^ 

In the 4th bar Gj and CjJ are written for Ab 
and Db ; and in the 5th bar FjJ, \B and D 
for Gb, \Cb, Ebb, but the confused notation 
would not affect the mode of performance either 
with voices or the justly tuned harmonium. 

The practical use of this instrument has 
brought to light certain difficulties in applying 
just intonation to ordinary music. The chief 
difficulty comes firom the two forms of Supertonio 
which are always found in a perfectly tuned 
Major Scale. Thus, starting from C, and tuning 
two Fifths upwards (C — G — D) we get what 
might be considered the normal Supertonic (D); 
but by tuning a Fourth and a Major Sixth up- 
wards (C — F — \D) we arrive at a flatter note, 
which might be called the grave Supertonic ( \D). 



The first form will necessarily be employed in 
chords which contain the Dominant (G), the 
uecond form in chords which contain the Sub- 
dominant (F) or the Superdominant (\A). Other- 
wise, false Fifths or Fourths (G— \D; D— \A) 
would be heard. The result is that certain 
chords and progressions are unsuitable for music 
which is to be performed in perfect tuning. Let 
us take the following example and arrange it in 
its four possible forms : — 

(l) (2) 

All of these are equally inadmissible ; No. i 
being excluded by the false Thirds (F — A; 
A— C) ; No. 2 by the false Fourth (\A— D) ; 
No. 3 by the false Fifth (G— \D) ; No. 4 by the 
sudden fall of the pitch of the tonic. If this 
kind of progression is employed, all the advan- 
tages of just intonation are lost, for the choice 
only lies between mistuned intervals and anabrupt 
depression or elevation of the general pitch. 

The idea of writing music specially to suit 
different kinds of temperament is a somewhat un- 
familiar one, although, as already remarked. Bach 
employed a narrower range of modulation in his 
works for the meantone organ than in those for 
the equally tempered clavichord. The case has 
some analogy to that of the different instruments 
of the orchestra, each of which demands a special 
mode of treatment, in accordance with its capa- 
bilities. The same style of writing will evidently 
not suit alike the violin, the trombone, and the 
harp. In the same way, just intonation differs 
in many important features both from the equal 
and from the meantone temperament ; and before 
any one of these systems can be used with good 
effect in music, a practical knowledge of its 
peculiarities is indispensable. Such knowledge 
can only be gained with the help of a keyed 
instrument, and by approaching the subject in 
this manner, the student will soon discover for 
himself what modulations are available and suit- 
able in perfect tuning. He will see that these 
restrictions are in no sense an invention of the 
theorist, but are a necessary consequence of the 
natural relations of sounds. 

If just intonation does not permit the use of 
certain progressions which belong to other sys- 
tems, it surpasses them all in the immense 
variety of material which it places within the 
composer's reach. In many cases it supplies two 
or more notes of diflferent pitch where the or- 
dinary temperament has but one. These alter- 
native forms are specially useful in discords, 
enabling us to produce any required degree of 
roughness, or to avoid disagreeable changes of 
pitch. For instance, the Minor Seventh may be 
taken either as C — /Bb (ten Fifths up), or as 
C— Bb (two Fifths down), or as C— \Bb (four- 
teen Fifths down). When added to the triad 


C— \E— G, the acute Seventh, /Bb, is the 
roughest, and would be used if the Minor Third 
G — /Bb should occur in the previous chord. 
The intermediate form, Bb, would be used when 
suspended to a chord containing F. The grave 
Seventh, \Bb, is the smoothest, being an ap- 
proximation to the Harmonic Seventh. Many 
other discords, such as the triad of the Aug- 
mented Fifth and its inversions, may also be 
taken in several forms. But this variety of 
material is not the only merit of perfect tuning. 
One of the chief sources of musical effect is the 
contrast between the roughness of discords and 
the smoothness of concords. In equal tempera- 
ment this contrast is greatly weakened, because 
nearly all the intervals which pass for consonant 
are in reality more or less dissonant. The loss 
which must result from this in the performance 
of the simpler styles of music on our tempered 
instruments, will be readily understood. On the 
other hand, in just intonation the distinction of 
consonance and dissonance is heard in its full 
force. The diflferent inversions and distributions 
of the same chord, the change from Major to 
Minor Modes, the various diatonic, chromatic, 
and enharmonic progressions and resolutions have 
a peculiar richness and expressiveness when heard 
with untempered harmonies. 

There is yet another advantage to be gained 
by studying the diflferent kinds of tuning. We 
have seen that even in those parts of the world 
where equal temperament has been established 
as the trade usage, other systems are also em- 
ployed. Many countries possess a popular or 
natural music, which exists independently of the 
conventional or fashionable style, and does not 
borrow its system of intonation from our tempered 
instruments. Among Oriental nations whose 
culture has come down from a remote antiquity, 
characteristic styles of music are found, which 
are unintelligible to the ordinary European, only 
acquainted with equal temperament. Hence 
transcriptions of Oriental music, given in books 
of travel, are justly received with extreme scep- 
ticism, unless the observer appears to be well 
acquainted with the principles of intonation and 
specifies the exact pitch of every note he tran- 
scribes. As illustrations of these remarks we 
may cite two well-known works on the history 
of the art, Kiesewetter's 'Musik der Araber,' 
and Villoteau's * Musique en ifegypte.' Both of 
these authors had access to valuable sources of 
information respecting the technical system of an 
ancient and interesting school of music. Both 
failed to turn their opportunities to any advan- 
tage. From the confused and contradictory state- 
ments of Kiese wetter only one fact can be gleaned, 
namely, that in the construction of the lute, the 
Persians and the A.rabs of the Middle Age em- 
ployed the approximately perfect Major Third, 
which is got by eight downward Fifths. From 
the work of Villoteau still less can be learnt, for 
he does not describe the native method of tuning, 
and he gives no clue to the elaborate musical 
notation in which he attempted to record a large 
number of Egyptian melodies. Yet it would 


have been easy to denote the oriental scales and 
melodies, so as to enable us to reproduce them 
with strict accuracy, had these authors possessed 
a practical knowledge of un tempered intervals. 

It may be useful, in concluding this article, to 
refer to some current misapprehensions on the 
subject of temperament. It is sometimes said 
that the improvement of intonation is a mere 
question of arithmetic, and that only a mathe- 
matician would object to equal tuning. To find 
fault with a series of sounds because they would 
be expressed by certain figures, is not the kind 
of fallacy one expects from a mathematicifin. In 
point of fact, equal temperament is itself the 
outcome of a mathematical discovery, and fur- 
nishes about the easiest known method of calcu- 
lating intervals. Besides, the tenor of this article 
will show that the only defects of temperament 
worth considering are the injuries it causes to 
the quality of musical chords. Next, it is said 
that the differences between the three main 
systems of tuning are too slight to deserve atten- 
tion, and that while we hear tempered intervals 
with the outward ear, our mind understands 
what are the true intervals which they represent. 
But if we put these theories to a practical test, 
they are at once seen to be unfounded. It lias 
been proved by experiment that long and ha- 
bitual use of equal temperament does react on 
the sense of hearing, and that musicians who 
have spent many years at the keyboard have 
a dislike to just chords and still more to just 
scales. The Major Sixth is specially objected to, 
as differing widely from equal temperament. 
This feeling is so entirely the result of habit 
and training, that those who are not much ac- 
customed to listen to keyed instruments do not 
share these objections, and even equally tempered 
ears come at last to relish just intervals. We 
may infer, then, that the contrast between the 
various kinds of intonation is considerable, and 
that the merits of each would be easily appre- 
ciated by ordinary ears. And although the student 
may, at first, be unable to perceive the errors 
of equal temperament or be only vaguely con- 
scious of them, yet by following out the methods de- 
tailed above, he will soon be able to realise them 
distinctly. It need not be inferred that equal 
temperament is unfit for musical purposes, or that 
it ought to be abolished. To introduce something 
new is hardly the same as to destroy something 
old. An improved system of tuning would only 
be employed as an occasional relief from the 
monotony of equal temperament, by no means 
as a universal substitute. The two could not, 
of course, be heard together ; but each might be 
used in a different place or at a different time. 
Lastly, it is said that to divide the scale into 
smaller intervals than a Semitone is useless. 
Even if this were true, it would be irrelevant. 
The main object of improved tuning is to diminish 
the error of the tempered consonances : the sub- 
division of the Semi tone is an indirect result of this, 
but is not proposed as an end in itself. Whether 
the minuter intervals would ever be useful in 
melody is a question which experience alone can 

VOL. IV. TT. I. 



decide. It rests with the composer to apply the 
material of mean and just intonation, with which 
he is now provided. The possibility of obtaining 
perfect tuning with keyed instruments is one 
result of the recent great advance in musical 
science, the influence of which seems likely to be 
felt in no bianch of the art more than in Tem- 
perament. [J.L.] 

TEMPESTA, LA. An Italian opera in 3 
acts ; libretto partly founded on Shakspeare, 
translated fiom Scribe ; music by Hal^vy. Pro- 
duced at Her Majesty's Theatre, London, June 8, 
1850 (Sontag, Lablache, Carlotta Grisi, etc.). 
Produced in Paris, Theatre Italien, Feb. 25, 185 1. 
Mendelssohn, at the end of 1847, had the libretto 
under consideration, but it came to nothing. [See 
vol. ii. 289 6.] [G.] 

TEMPEST, THE. 'The music to Shak- 
speare's Tempest' was Arthur Sullivan's op. i. 
It consists of twelve numbers : — No. i. Introduc- 
tion; No. 2, Act I, Sc. 2, Melodrama and Songs, 
' Come unto these yellow sands,' and 'Full fathom 
five'; No. 3, Act 2, Sc. i,- Andante sostenuto, 
Orch. and Melodrama ; No. 4, Prelude to Act 3 ; 
No. 5, Act 3, Sc. 2, Melodrama, Solemn music; 
and No. 6, Banquet dance ; No. 7, Overture to 
Act 4 ; No. 8, Act. 4, Sc. i. Masque, with No. 9, 
Duet, SS. 'Honour, riches'; No. 10, Dance of 
Nymphs and Reapers ; No. 1 1, Prelude to Act 5 ; 
No. 12, Act 5, Sc. I, Andante, Song, * Where 
the bee sucks,' and Epilogue. It was first per- 
formed at the Crystal Palace April 5, 1862. 
The music is arranged for 4 hands with voices 
by F. Taylor, and published by Cramers. [G.] 

TEMPLETON, John, tenor singer, born at 
Riccai'ton, Kilmarnock, July 30, 1802. At the 
age of fourteen he made his first appearance in 
Edinburgh, and continued to sing in public until his 
sixteenth year, when his voice broke. Appointed 
precentor in Dr. Brown's church, Edinburgh, at 
the age of twenty, he began to attract attention, 
until Scotland became too limited for his am- 
bition, and he started for London, where he 
received instruction from Blewitt in thorough 
bass, and from Welsh, De Pinna, and Tom 
Cooke in singing. In vocalisation, power, com- 
pass, flexibility, richness of quality, complete 
command over the different registers, Templeton 
displayed the perfection of art ; though not re- 
markable for fulness of tone in the lower notes, 
his voice was highly so in the middle and upper 
ones, sustaining the A and Bb in alt with much 
ease and power. The blending of the chest 
register with his splendid falsetto was so perfect 
as to make it difficult to detect the break. He 
now resolved to abandon his prospects in Scot- 
land and take to the stage. His first theatrical 
appearance was made at Worthing, as Dermot 
in 'The Poor Soldier,' in July 1828. This 
brought about engasrements at the Theatre 
Royal, Brighton, Southampton and Portsmouth, 
and Drury Lane. He made his first appearance 
in London, Oct. 13, 1831, as Mr. Belville in 
' Rosina.' Two days later he appeared as Young"' 
Meadawa in ' Love in a Village,' Mr. Wood 




taking tlie part of Hawthorn, with Mrs. Wood 
(Miss Paton) as Rosetta. After performing for 
a few months in stock pieces, he created the 
part of Reimbaut in Meyerbeer's 'Robert le 
Diable ' on its first performance in this country, 
Feb. 20, 1832. He appeared as Lopez in Spohr's 

• Der Alchymist' when first produced (March 20, 
1832), Bishop's 'Tyrolese Peasant' (May 8, 
1832), and John Bamett's 'Win her and wear 
her' (Dec. 18, 1832) ; but the first production of 
' Don Juan' at Drury Lane, Feb. 5, 1833, afforded 
Templeton a great opportunity. Signer Begrez, 
after studying the part of Don Ottavio for eight 
weeks, threw it up a week before the date an- 
nounced for production. Templeton undertook the 
character, and a brilliant success followed. Bra- 
ham, who played Don Juan, highly complimented 
Templeton on his execution of ' II mio tesoro,' 
and Tom Cooke called him * the tenor with the 
additional keys.' 

Madame Malibran, in 1833, chose him as 
her tenor, and 'Malibran's tenor' he remained 
throughout her brief but brilliant career. On the 
production of * La Sbnnambula,' at Drury Lane, 
May I, 1833, Templeton's Elvino was no less 
successful than Malibran's Aniina. After the per- 
formance Bellini embraced him, and, with many 
compliments, promised to write a part that would 
immortalise him. * The Devil's Bridge,' * The 
Students of Jena' (first time June 4, 1833), 'The 
Marriage of Figaro,' 'John of Paris,' etc., gave 
fresh opportunities for Templeton to appear with 
Malibran, and Tvith marked success. In Auber's 
*Gustavus the Third,' produced at Covent Garden, 
Nov. 13, 1833, he made another great success as 
Colonel Lillienhom. During the season the opera 
was repeated one hundred times. Alfred Bimn, 
then manager of both theatres, so arranged that 
Templeton, after playing in *La Sonnambula' or 
•Gustavus the Third' at Covent Garden, had 
to make his way to Drury Lane to fill the rdle of 
'Masaniello' — meeting with equal success at both 

On the return of Madame Malibran to England 
in 1835, the production of ' Fidelio' and of Balfe's 

• Maid of Artois ' (May 27, 1836) brought her and 
Templeton again together. July 16, 1836, was 
fated to be their last appearance together. At 
the end of the performance Malibran removed the 
jewelled betrothal ring from her finger which 
she had so often worn as Amina, and presented 
it to Templeton as a memento of respect for his 
talents ; and it is still cherished by the veteran 
tenor as a sacred treasure. Templeton sustained 
the leading tenor parts in Auber's 'Bronze 
Horse' (1836), in Herold's 'Corsair' (1836), 
Rossini's 'Siege of Corinth* (1836), in Balfe's 
*Joan of Arc' (1837) and 'Diadeste' (1838), 
in Mozart's 'Magic Flute' (1838), Benedict's 
'Gipsy's Warning' (1838), H. Phillips' 'Har- 
vest Queen' (1838), in Donizetti's 'Love Spell' 
(1839), and in 'La Favorita' (1843) on their 
first performance or introduction as English 
operas ; altogether playing not less than eighty 
different leading tenor characters. 

In 1836-37 Templeton made his first profes- 


sional tour in Scotland and Ireland with great 
success. Returning to London, he retained liis 
position for several years. In 1842 he visited 
Paris with Balfe, and received marked attention 
from Auber and other musical celebrities. The 
last twelve years of his professional career were 
chiefly devoted to the concert-room. In 1846 he 
starred the principal cities of America with his 
'Templeton Entertainments,' in which were given 
songs illustrative of England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land, and as a Scottish vocalist he sang himself 
into the hearts of his countrymen. With splendid 
voice, graceful execution, and exquisite taste, he 
excelled alike in the pathetic, the humorous, and 
the heroic ; his rendering of ' My Nannie O,' 
' Had I a cave,' ' Gloomy winter,' ' Jessie, the 
Flower o' Dunblane,' 'Com Rigs,' 'The Jolly 
Beggar,' and 'A man's a man for a' that,' etc., left 
an impression not easily effaced. Mr. Templeton 
retired in 1852, and now enjoys a well-earned 
repose at New Hampton. [W. H.] 

TEMPO (Ital., also Movimento ; Fr. Mouve- 
ment). This word is used in both English and 
German to express the rate of speed at which a 
musical composition is executed. The relative 
length of the notes depends upon their species, 
as shown in the notation, and the arrangement 
of longer and shorter notes in bars must be in 
accordance with the laws of 2'ime, but the actual 
length of any given species of note depends upon 
whether the Tempo of the whole movement be 
rapid or the reverse. The question of Tempo is 
a very important one, since no composition could 
suffer more than a very slight alteration of speed 
without injury, while any considerable change 
would entirely destroy its character and render 
it unrecognisable. The power of rightly judging 
the tempo required by a piece of music, and of 
preserving an accurate recollection of it under 
the excitement caused by a public performance, 
is therefore not the least among the qualifications 
of a conductor or soloist. 

Until about the middle of the 17th century, 
composers left the tempi of their compositions 
(as indeed they did the nuances to a great extent) 
entirely to the judgment of performers, a correct 
rendering being no doubt in most cases assured 
by the fact that the performers were the com- 
poser's own pupils ; so soon however as the 
number of executants increased, and tradition 
became weakened, some definite indication of 
the speed desired by the composer was felt to be 
necessary, and accordingly we find all music 
from the time of Bach * and Handel (who used 
tempo-indications but sparingly) marked with 
explicit directions as to speed, either in words, 
or by a reference to the Metronome, the latter 
being of course by far the most accurate method. 
[See vol. ii. p. 318.] 

Verbal directions as to tempo are generally 
written in Italian, the great advantage of thig 
practice being that performers of other nation- 
alities, understanding that this is the custom, 

> In the 48 Preludes and Fugues there is but one tempo-indlcft* 
tion. Fugue 24, toI. i. is marked ' Largo,' and even this is rather ait 
Indication of style than of actual speed. 



and having learnt the meaning of the terms in 
general use, are able to understand the directions 
given, without any further knowledge of the 
language. Nevertheless, some composers, other 
than Italians, have preferred to use their own 
native language for the purpose, at least in part. 
Thus Schumann employed German terms in by 
far the greater number of his compositions, not 
alone as tempo-indications but also for diiections 
as to expression,^ and Beethoven took a fancy 
at one time for using German,'^ though he after- 
wards returned to Italian. [See vol. i. p. 193.] 

The expressions used to denote degrees of 
speed may be divided into two classes, those 
which refer directly to the rate of movement, as 
Lento — slow ; Adagio — gently, slowly ; Moderato 
— moderately; Presto — quick, etc.; and those (the 
more numerous) which rather indicate a certain 
character or quality by which the rate of speed 
is influenced, such as Allegro — gay, cheerful; 
Vivace — lively; Animato — animated; Maestoso — 
majestically J Grave — with gravity; Largo — 
broad; etc. To these last may be added ex- 
pressions which allude to some well-known form 
of composition, the general character of which 
governs the speed, such as Tempo di Minuetto — 
in the time of a Minuet; Alia Marcia, Alia 
Polacca — in the style of a march, polonaise, and 
so on. Most of these words may be qualified by 
the addition of the terminations etto and ino, 
which diminish, or issimo, which increases, the 
effect of a word. Thus Allegretto, derived from 
Allegro, signifies moderately lively. Prestissimo 
— extremely quick, and so on. The same 
varieties may also be produced by the use of the 
words molto — much ; assai — very ; piu — more ; 
meno — less ; un poco (sometimes un pocketiino ^) 
— a little ; nan troppo — not too much, etc. 

The employment, as indications of speed, of 
words which in their strict sense refer merely to 
style and character (and therefore only indirectly 
to tempo), has caused a certain conventional 
meaning to attach to them, especially when used 
fcy other than Italian composers. Thus in most 
vocabularies of musical terms we find Allegro 
rendered as 'quick,' Largo as 'slow,' etc., 
although these are not the literal translations 
of the words. In the case of at least one word 
this general acceptance of a conventional mean- 
ing has brought about a misunderstanding which 
is of considerable importance. The word is 
Andante, the literal meaning of which is ' going,' * 
but as compositions to which it is applied are 
usually of a quiet and tranquil character, it has 
gradually come to be understood as synonymous 
with ' rather slow.' In consequence of this, the 
direction piit andante, which really means 
•going more* i.e. faster, has frequently been 
erroneously understood to mean slower, while 
the diminution of andante, andantino, literally 

1 He used Italian terms In op. 1-4, 7-11, 13-15, 88, 41, 44, 47, 62, 64, 
and 61 ; the rest are In German. 

3 Beethoven's German directions occur chiefly frpm op. 81a to 101, 
irlth a few isolated instances as for on as op. 128. 

3 See Brahms, op. 34. Finale. 

* The word is derived trom andare, ' to go.' In his Sonata op. 81 a, 
Beethoven expresses AndanU by the words In gehtnder Betoegung— 
la going movement. 



'going a little,' together with meno andante — 
'going less' — both of which should indicate a 
slower tempo than andante — have been held to 
denote the reverse. This view, though certainly 
incorrect, is found to be maintained by various 
authorities, including even Koch's 'Musikal- 
isches Lexicon,' where piii, andante is distinctly 
stated to be slower, and andantino quicker, 
than andante. In a recent edition of Schumann's 
• Kreisleriana ' we find the composer's own in- 
dication for the middle movement of No. 3, 
'Etwas langsamer,' incorrectly translated by 
the editor poco piii andante, which coming im- 
mediately after animato has a very odd effect. 
Schubert also appears to prefer the conventional 
use of the word, since he marks the first move- 
ment of his Fantasia for Piano and Violin, op. 159, 
Andante molto. But it seems clear that, with 
the exception just noted, the great composers 
generally intended the words to bear their literal 
interpretation. Beethoven, for instance, places his 
intentions on the subject beyond a doubt, for the 
4th variation in the Finale of the Sonata op. 109 
is inscribed in Italian * Un poco meno andante, cio 
h, un poco piii adagio come il tema ' — a little less 
andante, that is, a little more slowly like (than ?) 
the theme,' and also in German Etwas langsamer 
als das Thema — somewhat slower than the theme. 
Instances of the use of piii andante occur in 
Var. 5 of Beethoven's Trio op. i, no. 3, in 
Brahms's Violin Sonata op. 78, where it follows 
(of course with the object of quickening) the 
tempo of Adagio, etc. Handel, in the air 
' Revenge, Timotheus cries ! ' and in the choruses 
' For unto us ' and ' The Lord gave the word,' 
gives the direction Andante allegro, which may 
be translated * going along merrily.' 

When in the course of a composition the 
tempo alters, but still bears a definite relation to 
the original speed, the proportion in which the 
new tempo stands to the other may be expressed 
in various ways. When the speed of notes of 
the same species is to be exactly doubled, the 
words doppio movimento are used to denote the 
change, thus the quick portion of Ex. i would 
be played precisely as though it were written 
as in Ex. 2. 

Brahms, Trio, op. 8. 

Allegro doppio viovhnento 
Adagio non troppo 


Another way of expressing proportional tempi is 
by the arithmetical sign for equality ( = ), placed 
between two notes of different values. Thus 
(^ =s J would mean that a crochet in the one 
movement must have the same duration as a 

s Beethoven's Italian, however, does not appear to have bee« 
faultless, for the German translation above shows him to have used 
the word come to express ' than ' Instead of 'like.' 




minim in the other, and so on. But this method 
is subject to the serious drawback that it is 
possible to understand the sign in two opposed 
senses, according as the first of the two note- 
values is taken to refer to the new tempo or to 
that just quitted. On this point composers are 
by no means agreed, nor are they even always 
consistent, for Brahms, in his ' Variations on a 
Theme by Paganini,' uses the same sign in 
opposite senses, first in passing from Var. 3 to 
Var. 4, where a J^ of Var. 4 equals a J of Var. 
3 (Ex. 3), and afterwards from Var. 9 to Var. 
10, a J of Var. 10 being equal to a ^** of Var. 9 
(Ex. 4). 
Ev.8. Var.3. ^ 

-^ 1 J ^-<^-^-» — — 


Var. 10. (J=^N 



A far safer means of expressing proportion is by 
a definite verbal direction, a method frequently 
adopted by Schumann, as for instance in the 
'Faust' music, where he says Ein Taltt loie vorher 
zicei — one bar equal to two of the preceding move- 
ment; and Um die JIdlfte langsamer (by which is 
to be understood twice as slow, not hcilf as slow 
again), and so in numerous other instances. 

When there is a change of rhythm, as from 
common to triple time, while the total length of 
a bar remains unaltered, the words Vistesso tempo, 
signifying * the same speed,' are written where the 
change takes place, as in the following example, 
where the crotchet of the 2-4 movement is equal 
to the dotted crotchet of that in 6-8, and so, bar 
for bar, the tempo is unchanged. 

Bbethovbn, Bagatelle, op. 119, No. 6. 

The same words are occasionally used when 
there is no alteration of rhythm, as a warning 
against a possible change of speed, as in Var. 3 


of Beethoven^s Variations, op. lao, and also, 
though less correctly, when the notes of any 
given species remain of the same length, while 
tlie total value of the bar is changed, as in the 
following example, where the value of each quaver 
remains the same, although the bar of the 2-4 
movement is only equal to two-thirds of one of 
the foregoing bars, 

BsKTHOVEN, Bagatelle, op. 126, No. 1. 
Andante con tnofo. Vistesso tempo. 

A gradual increase of speed is indicated by 
the word accelerando or stringendo, a gradual 
slackening by ralkntando or ritardando. All 
such effects being proportional, every bar and 
indeed every note should as a rule take its share 
of the general increase or diminution, except 
in cases where an accelerando extends over 
many bars, or even through a whole composition. 
In such cases the increase of speed is obtained 
by means of frequent slight but definite changes 
of tempo (the exact points at which they take 
place being left to the judgment of performer or 
conductor) much as though the words piit mosso 
were repeated at intervals throughout. Instances 
of an extended accelerando occur in Mendels- 
sohn's chorus, ' ! great is the depth,* from ' St. 
Paul' (26 bars), and in his Fugue in E minor, 
op. 35, no. I (63 bars). On returning to the 
original tempo after either a gradual or a precise 
change the words tempo pHmo are usually em- 
ployed, or sometimes Tempo del Tema, as in 
Var. 1 2 of Mendelssohn's ' Variations S^rieuses.* 

The actual speed of a movement in which the 
composer has given merely one of the usual 
tempo indications, without any reference to the 
metronome, depends of course upon the judg- 
ment of the executant, assisted in many cases by 
tradition. But there are one or two considera- 
tions which are of material influence in coming 
to a conclusion on the subject. In the first 
place, it would appear that the meaning of the 
various terms has somewhat changed in the 
course of time, and in opposite directions, the 
words which express a quick movement now signi- 
fying a yet more rapid rate, at least in instru- 
mental music, and those denoting slow tempo a 
still slower movement, than formerly. There ia 
no absolute proof that this is the case, but a 
comparison of movements similarly marked, but 
of different periods, seems to remove all doubt. 
For instance, the Presto of Beethoven's Sonata, 
op. 10, no. 3, might be expressed by M.M. 
,s5 = 144. while the Finale of Bach's Italian 
Concerto, also marked Presto, could scarcely be 
played quicker than <5l = i26 without disad- 
vantage. Again, the commencement of Handel's 
Overture to the * Messiah ' is marked Grave, and 
is played about J = 60, while the Grave of Bee- 
thoven's Sonata Pathdtique requires a tempo of 
only J^ = 60, exactly twice as slow. The causes 
of these difierences are probably on the one hand 
the greatly increased powers of execution pos- 


sessed by modem instrumentalists, which have 
induced composers to write quicker music, and 
on the other, at least in the case of the piano- 
forte, the superior sostenuto possible on modem 
instruments as compared with those of former 
times. The period to which the music be- 
longs must therefore be taken into account in 
determining the exact tempo. But besides this, 
the general character of a composition, especially 
as regards harmonic progression, exercises a very 
decided influence on the tempo. For the appa- 
rent speed of a movement does not depend so 
much upon the actual duration of the beats, as 
upon the rate at which the changes of harmony 
succeed each other. If, therefore, the harmonies 
in a composition change frequently, the tempo 
will appear quicker than it would if unvaried 
harmonies were continued for whole bars, even 
though the metronome-time, beat for beat, might 
be thd same. On this account it is necessary, in 
order to give effect to a composer's indication 
of tempo, to study the general structure of tlie 
movement, and if the changes of harmony are 
not frequent, to choose a quicker rate of speed 
than would be necessary if the harmonies were 
more varied. For example, the first movement 
of Beethoven's Sonata, op, 22, marked Allegro, 
may be played at the rate of about <sJ = 72, but 
the first movement of op. 31, no. 2, though also 
marked Allegro, will require a tempo of at least 
<d = 1 20, on account of the changes of harmony 
being less frequent, and the same may be ob- 
served of the two adagio movements, both in 
9-8 time, of op. 22 and op. 31, no. i ; in the 
second of these most bars are founded upon a 
single harmony, and a suitable speed would be 
about ^N = 1 1 6, a rate which would be too quick 
for the Adagio of op. 22, where the harmonies 
are more numerous.^ 

Another cause of greater actual speed in the 
rendering of the same tempo is the use of the 
time-signature dJ or alia breve, which requires 
the composition to be executed at about double 
the speed of the Common or C Time. The 
reason of this is explained in the article Bbeve^ 
vol. i. p. 274. 

A portion of a composition is sometimes 
marked a ptacere, or ad libitum, at 'pleasure,' sig- 
nifying that the tempo is left entirely to the per- 
former's discretion. Passages so marked however 
appear almost always to demand a slower, rather 
than a quicker tempo — at least, the writer is ac- 
quainted with no instance to the contrary. [F.T.] 

TEMPO DI BALLO is the indication at the 
head of Sullivan's Overture composed for the 
Birmingham Festival 1870, and seems less to in- 
dicate a particular speed than that the whole work 
is in a dance style and in dance measures. [G.] 

J Hummel, In hii ' Pianoforte School,' speaking In praise of the 
Metronome, gives a list of instances of the variety of meanings 
attached to the same words by different composers, in which we find 
JPretto varying from ol=72 to 0=224, Allegro from 0=60 to 
0=172, Andantt from J^=S2 to J^ = 1S2 etc. But Hummel does 
not specify the particular movements be quotes, and it seems prob- 
able that, regard Iselng had to their varieties of harmonic structure, 
the discrepancies may not really have been so great as at first sight 



TEMPO ORDINARIO (Ttal.), common time, 
rhythm of four crotchets in a bar. The time- 
signature is an unbarred semicircle C , or in 
modem form Q, in contradistinction to the barred 
semicircle (^ or 0, which denotes a diminished 
value of the notes, i. e. a double rate of movement. 
[See Breve; Common Time.] In consequence of 
the notes in tempo ordinario being of full value 
(absolutely as well as relatively), the term is 
understood to indicate a moderate degree of 
speed. It is in this sense that Handel employs 
it as an indication for the choruses ' Lift up your 
heads,' ' Their sound is gone out,' etc. [F.T.] 

TEMPO RUBATO (Ital., literally roUed or 
stolen time). This expression is used in two differ- 
ent senses ; first, to denote the insertion of a short 
passage in duple time into a movement the 
prevailing rhythm of which is triple, or vice versa, 
the change being effected without altering the 
time-signature, by means of false accents, or 
accents falling on other than the ordinary places 
in the bar. Thus the rhythm of the following 
example is distinctly that of two in a bar, al- 
though the whole movement is 3-4 time. 

Schumann, Jsovellette, Op. 21, No. 4. 






2. In the other and more usual sense the term 
expresses the opposite of strict time, and indicates 
a style of performance in which some portion of 
the bar is executed at a quicker or slower tempo 
than the general rate of movement, the balance 
being restored by a corresponding slackening or 
quickening of the remainder. [Kubato.] Perhaps 
the most striking instances of the employment of 
tempo ruhato are found in the rendering of Hun- 
garian national melodies by native artists. [F.T.] 
TENDUCCI, GiusTO Ferdinando, a cele- 
brated sopranist singer, very popular in this 
country, was bom at Siena, about 1 736, whence 
(like a still greater singer) he was sometimes 
called Senesino. His earliest stage-appearances 
in Italy were made at about twenty j^ears of age, 
and in 1758 he came to London, where he finst 
sang in a pasticcio called 'Attalo.' But it was 
in the * Ciro riconosciuto ' of Cocchi that he first 
attracted special notice. Although he had only 
a subordinate part, he quite eclipsed, by his voice 
and style, the principal singer, Portenza, and 
from that time was established as the successor 
of Guadagni. In company with Dr. Ame, in 
whose * Artaxerxes ' he sang with great success, 
he travelled to Scotland and Ireland, retuming to 
London in 1765, where he was the idol of the 
fashionable world, and received enormous sums 
for his performances. In spite of this, his vanity 
j and extravagance were so unbounded that in 



1776 he was forced to leave England for debt. 
In a year, however, he found means to return, 
and remained in London many years longer, 
singing with success as long as his voice lasted, 
and even when it had almost disappeared. In 
1785 he took part in a revival of Gluck's *Orfeo,* 
and appeared at Drury Lane Theatre as late as 
1790. He also sang at the Handel Commemo- 
ration Festivals at Westminster Abbey, in 1784 
and 1 791. Ultimately he returned to Italy, and 
died there early in this century. 

Tenducci was on friendly terms with the 
Mozart family during their visit to London in 
1764. In 1778, at Paris, he again met Mozart, 
who, remembering their former intercourse, wrote 
a song for him, which has been lost. He was the 
author of a Treatise on Singing, and the composer 
of an overture for full band (Preston, London), 
and of * Ranelagh Songs,' which he sang at con- 
certs. [F.A.M.] 

TENEBR^ (Liteially, Darkness). The 
name of a Service appointed, in the Roman 
Breviary, for the three most solemn days in 
Holy Week, and consisting of the conjoined 
Matins and Lauds, ^ for the Thursday, Friday, 
and Saturday, which are sung ' by anticipation ' 
on the afternoons of the Wednesday, Thursday 
and Friday. The name is taken from the open- 
ing sentence of the Responsorium which follows 
the Fifth Lesson on Good Friday, Tenebrce 
factce sunt — There was darkness. 

The Service begins with three Nocturns, each 
consisting of three Psalms, with their doubled 
Antiphons, a Versicle and Response, and three 
Lessons, each followed by its appropriate Re- 
sponsorium. The Psalms and Antiphons are 
sung in unisonous Plain Chaunt ; and, at the con- 
clusion of each, one of the fifteen candles on the 
huge triangular Candlestick by which the Chapel 
is lighted is ceremoniously extinguished. The 
Lessons for the First Noctum on each of the 
three days are the famous 'Lamentations,' 
which have already been fully described.'' The 
Lessons for the Second and Third Nocturns are 
simply monotoned. Music for the Responsoria 
has been composed by more than one of the 
greatest Polyphonic Masters ; but most of them 
are now sung in unisonous Plain Chaunt. The 
Third Noctum is immediately followed by Lauds, 
the Psalms for which are sung in the manner, 
and with the ceremonies, already described. 
Then follows the Canticle, • Benedictus,' during 
the singing uf which the six Altar Lights are 
extinguished, one by one. And now preparation 
is made for the most awful moment of the whole 
— that which introduces the first notes of the 
'Miserere.'' The fifteenth candle, at the top 
of the great Candlestick, is removed from its 
place, and hidden behind the Altar. The An- 
tiphon, * Christus factus est obediens,' is sung by 
a single Soprano Voice; and, after a dead silence 
of considerable duration, the Miserere is sung, 
in the manner, and with the Ceremonies de- 
scribed in vol. ii. pp. 335-338. The Pope then 

1 Sm Uatins, and Lauds. 2 See Lamentations. 

i See MisiBEBi. 


says an appointed Prayer ; the Candle is brought 
out from behind the Altar; and the Service 
concludes with a trampling of feet, sometimes 
said to represent the passage of the crowd to 
Calvary, or the Jews seizing our Lord. 

The Services proper for Holy Week are de- 
scribed, in detail, in the 'Manuel des C^r^monies 
qui ont lieu pendant la Semaine Sainte,' formerly 
sold annually in Rome, but now very difficult to 
obtain. The Music was first published by Dr. 
Bumey, in • La Musica della Settimana Santa,' 
now very scarce, and has since been reprinted, 
by Alfieri, in his ♦ Raccolta di Musica Sacra.' 

A minute and interesting account, though 
somewhat deformed by want of sympathy vrith 
the ancient Ritual, will be found in Mendelssohn's 
letter to Zelter, of June 16, 183 1. [W.S.R.] 


' tenderly' ; a term slightly stronger and used more 
emphatically than dolce, but having very much the 
same meaning and use in music. A good instance 
of the distinction between the terms is found in 
the lovely second movement of Beethoven's Sonata 
in E minor, op. 90, where the subject, at its first 
entry labelled dolce, is subsequently directed to 
be played teneramente. From the whole charac- 
ter of the movement it is evidently intended to 
become slightly more impassioned as it goes on ; 
and it is generally understood that the second 
and following entries of the subject should be 
played with more feeling, and perhaps in less 
strict time, than the opening bars of the move- 
ment. [J.A.F.M.] 

TENOR (Fr. Taille; Ger. Tenor Stimme)- 
The term applied to the highest natural adult 
male voice and to some instruments of some- 
where about the same compass. Its etymology 
is accepted to be teneo, '1 hold,' and it was 
the voice that, in early times, held, took, or 
kept the principal part (originally the only- 
real part), the plainsong, subject, air, or mo- 
tive of the piece that was sung. It holds the 
mid-position in the musical scale. Its 
clef is the C clef on the fourth line of 
the stave (in reality the middle line of 
the great stave of eleven lines *) generally super- 
seded in the present day by the treble or G clef, 
which however does not represent or indicate 
the actual pitch, but gives it an octave too high. 
The average compass of the tenor voice is C to 
A or B (a), though in large rooms notes below F 
(6) are usually of little avail. In primitive times, 
(o) j=a. or i^ „ „ (6) 

before true polyphony or harmony were known, 
it was natural that what we now call the tenor 
voice should hold the one real part to be sung, 
should lead, in fact, the congregational singing, 
for the reason that this class of voice is sweeter 
and more flexible than the bass voice, and also 
would most readily strike the ear, as being the 
higher voice in range, until boys were employed; 
4 See 'A Short Treatise on the Stare ' (Hullah). 


and even then boys could not have either the 
knowledge or authority to enable them to lead 
the singing, more especially as the chants or 
hymns were at first transmitted by oral tra- 
dition; and females were npt officially engaged 
in the work. The boys probably sang in unison 
with, at times an octave higher than, the tenor, 
and the basses in unison with, or an octave 
below, the tenor, as suited them respectively. 

An elaborate classification of voices was not 
then necessary. Indeed it is most probable that 
at first the only distinction was between the 
voices of boys and men, alius and hasstis {high 
and l(yvo), the very limited scales then in use 
coming easily within the compass of the lower 
part of tenors and the higher part of basses ; and 
it will have been only observed that some men 
could sing higher or lower than others, while 
the different qualities of voices will not have 
been taken into account. If a very low bass 
found a note rather high, he may have howled 
it as he best could, or it would perhaps itself 
have cracked up into falsetto, or he will have 
gone down instinctively to the octave below, 
or remained where he was until the melody 
came again within his reach — ears being not yet 
critically cultivated. Even now, towards the end 
of the 19th century, it is not at all unusual to 
hear amongst a congregation basses singing the 
air of a hymn below the actual bass part, or 
soprani singing in the tenor-compass for con- 
venience sake. In a few village churches, and 
in many Scotch kirks, an after-taste of such 
early singing is still to be had. But with the 
extension of the scale and the introduction of 
a system of notation, and the consequent gradual 
replacement of the empirical mode of practice 
by more scientific study, the first rude attempts 
at harmony and polyphony, diaphony or or- 
ganum (which see), would necessitate a more 
exact classification of voices. 

The term Baritone is of comparatively late intro- 
duction. This voice is called by the French hasse- 
taille, or low tenor, taille being the true French 
word for tenor, and it is not impossible that, 
as this word signifies also the waist or middle of 
the human figure, it may have been adopted to ex- 
press the middle voice. The addition of a second 
part, a fourth or fifth above or below the Canto 
Fermo or plain-chant, v»rould also so much in- 
crease the compass of music to be sung, that the 
varieties and capacities of different voices would 
naturally begin to be recognised, and with the 
addition of a third part, triplum (treble), there 
would at once be three parts, altus, medius, 
and bassus, — high, middle, and low ; and as the 
medius, for reasons already given, would natu- 
rally be the leader who held {tenuit) the plain- 
song, the term tenor would replace that of medius. 
Then, as the science and practice of music ad- 
vanced, and opera or musical drama became more 
and more elaborated, the sub-classification of each 
individual type of voice in accordance with its 
varied capacities of expression would be a matter 
of course. Hence we have tenore rohusto (which 
used to be of about the compass of a modern 



high* baritone), tenore di foizay tenore di mezzo 
carattere, tenore di grazia, and tenore leggiero, 
one type of which is sometimes called tenore 
contraltino. These terms, though used very 
generally in Italy, are somewhat fantastic, and 
the different qualifications that have called them 
forth are not unfrequently as much part of the 
morale as of the physique. Although not only 
a question of compass but of quality, the word 
' tenor ' has come to be adopted as a generic term 
to express that special type of voice which is so 
much and so justly admired, and cannot now be 
indicated in any other way. 

The counter-tenor, or natural male alto, is a 
highly developed falsetto, whose so-called chest 
voice is, in most cases, a limited bass. Singers 
of this class down to the beginning of the 17th 
century came principally from Spain, they being 
afterward chiefly superseded by artificial male 
alti. One of the finest examples of counter-tenor 
known in London at the time of writing this 
article is an amateur distinguished for his excel- 
lent part-singing. Donzelli was a tenore rohusto 
with a voice of beautiful quality. It has been 
the custom to call Duprez, Tamberlik, Wachtel, 
Mongini, and Mierzwinski tenori robtisti, but 
they belong more properly to the tenori di forza. 
The tenore rohusto had a very large tenor quality 
throughout his vocal compass. 

It is not easy to classify precisely such a voice 
as that of Mario,^ except by calling it the per- 
fection of a tenor voice. Mario possessed, in 
a remarkable degree, compass, volume, richness, 
grace, and flexibility (not agility, with which 
the word is often confounded in this country, 
but the general power of inflecting the voice 
and of producing with facility nice gradations of 
colour). Historical singers are generally out of 
the usual category, being in so many cases gifted 
with exceptional physical powers. Rubini, a 
tenore di grazia, physically considered, was en- 
dowed with an extraordinary capacity of pathetic 
expression, and could at times throw great force 
into his singing, which was the more striking 
as being somewhat unusual, but he indulged too 
much perhaps in the vihrato, and may not im- 
probably be answerable for the vicious use of this 
(legitimate in its place) means of expression, which 
has prevailed for some years past, but which, be- 
ing now a mannerism, ceases to express more than 
the so-called ' expression stop' on a barrel organ. 
But it must be said of Rubini that the vibrato 
being natural to him, had not the nauseous effect 
that it has with his would-be imitators. 

Davide, who sang in the last half of the iStli 
century, must have been very great, with a beau- 
tiful voice and a thorough knowledge of his art. 
[See vol. i. p. 434.] His son is said to have been 
endowed with a voice of three octaves, comprised 
within four B flats. This doubtless included 
something like an octave o( falsetto, which must 
have remained to him, instead of in great part 
disappearing with the development of the rest of 

1 Baritone may etymologically be considered to mean a heavy 
voice, and as the priccipal voice was the tenor, it may be taken to 
mean heavy tenor, almost equivalent to Basse-laille, 

3 Died at Borne Dec. 11, 1863. 



the voice, as is usually the case. In connection with 
this may be mentioned the writer's experience 
of a tenor, that is to say a voice of decided tenor 

tone, with a compass of ^ 

that of 

a limited bass only, thus showing how the word 
' tenor' has come to express quality quite as much 
as compass. — Roger (French), another celebrity, 
and a cultivated man, overtaxed his powers, as 
many otheis have done, and shortened his active 
artistic career. — Campanini is a strong tenore di 
mezzo caratlere. This class of tenor can on oc- 
casions take parti di fwza or di grazia. 

If the Germans would only be so good as to 
cultivate more thoroughly the art of vocalisation, 
we should have from them many fine tenori di 
forza, with voices like that of Vogel. 

A tenore di grazia of modern times must 
not be passed without special mention. Italo 
Gardoni possessed what might be called only 
a moderate voice, but so well, so easily and 
naturally produced, that it was heard almost to 
tiie same advantage in a theatre as in a room. 
This was especially noticeable when he sang the 
part of Florestan, in ♦ Fidelio,* at Covent Garden, 
after an absence of some duration from the stage. 
The unaffected grace of his style rendered him 
as perfect a model for vocal artists as could well 
be found. Giuglini was another tenore di grazia, 
with more actual power than Gardoni. Had it 
not been for a certain mawkishness which after 
a time made itself felt, he might have been 
classed amongst the tenori di mezzo carattere. 
In this country Braham and Sims Reeves have 
their place as historical tenori, and Edward 
Lloyd, with not so large a voice as either of 
these, will leave behind him a considerable repu- 
tation as an artist. 

Of the tenore leggiero, a voice that can generally 
execute fioritura with facility, it is not easy to 
point out a good example. The light tenor, 
sometimes called tenore contraliino, has usually 
a somewhat extended register of open notes, and 
if the singer is not seen, it is quite possible to 
imagine that one is hearing a female contralto. 
The converse of this is the case when a so-called 
female tenor sings. One of these, Signora Mela, 
appeared at concerts in London in the year 1868. 
A favourite manifestation of her powers was the 
tenor part in Rossini's Terzetto buffo * Pappataci.' 
Barlani-Dini is another female tenor, singing at 
present in Italy. These exhibitions are, however, 
decidedly inartistic and inelegant, and may easily 
become repulsive. A list of tenor singers will be 
found in the article Singing. [See vol. iii. p. 5 1 1 .] 

Tenor is also the English name of the viola. 
[See Tenor Violin.] The second of the usual 
three trombones in a full orchestra is a tenor 
instrument both in compass and clef. 

The Tenor Bell is the lowest in a peal of bells, 
and is possibly so called because it is the bell 
11 pon which the ringers hold or rest. The Tenor- 
drum (without snares) is between the ordinary 
side-drum and the bass-drum, and, worn as a 
side drum, is used in foot-regiments for rolls. 


There are various opinions as to the advisa- 
bility of continuing, or not, the use of the tenor 
clef. There is something to be said on both 
sides. It undoubtedly expresses a positive position 
in the musical scale; and the power to read 
it, and the other G clef, is essential to all 
musicians who have to play from the music 
printed for choirs and for orchestra up to the 
present day. But as a question of general utility 
a simplification in the means of expressing mu- 
sical ideas can scarcely be other than a benefit, 
else why not continue the use of all the seven 
clefs ? The fact that the compass of the male 
voice is, in round terms, an octave lower than 
the female (though from the point of view of 
mechanism the one is by no means a mere 
re -production of the other), renders it very easy, 
indeed almost natural, for a male voice to sing 
music in the treble clef an octave below its 
actual pitch, or musical position in the scale, 
and as a matter of fact, no difficulty is found in 
so doing. In violoncello or bassoon-music the 
change from bass to tenor clef is made on ac- 
count of the number of ledger lines that must 
be used for remaining in the lower clef. This 
objection does not exist in expressing tenor music 
in the treble clef. On the contrary, if it exists 
at ail it is against the tenor.— A kind of com- 
promise is made by Mr. Otto Goldschmidt in 
the • Bach Choir Magazine ' (Novello), where a 
~- double soprano clef is used for the 
tenor part. This method was proposed 
by Gr^try, Essai s. la musique, v. 200, 
While on the subject of clefs, passing reference 
may be made to Neukomm's somewhat erratic 
idea of putting the whole of the tenor part in 
his edition of Haydn's ' Creation ' in the bass clef. 
It was an attempt to make the desired simplifi- 
cation, and at the same time denote the actual 
pitch of the voice. [H. C. D.] 

TENOROON, a name sometimes given to 
the Tenor Bassoon or Alto Fagotto in F. It is 
obviously a modification of the word Bassoon, 
for which little authority can be found. The 
identity of this instrument with the Oboe di 
Caccia of Bach has already been adverted to, 
and the error of assigning parts written for it 
by that composer, Beethoven, and others, to the 
Como Inglese or Alto Oboe in the same key has 
been corrected. At the present time it has 
entirely gone out of use. A fine specimen, now 
in the writer's possession, was until lately in 
the boys' band at the Foundling Hospital; 
supposed to be intended, from its smaller size, 
for the diminutive hands of young players. 

Its tone is characteristic, somewhat more reedy 
than that of the Bassoon. The word was used by 
Gauntlett for the compass of a stop. [W.H.S.] 

TENOR VIOLIN (Alto, Contralto, Quinte, 
Taillb, Bratsohe, Viola, etc.) A violin usually 
about one-seventh larger in its general dimen- 
sions than the ordinary violin, and having its 
compass a fifth lower, or an octave above the 
violoncello. As its name implies, it corresponds 
in the string quartet to the tenor voice in the 


vocal quartet. Its part is written in the C alto 
clef, thus — 

The three uppermost strings of the Tenor are 
identical in pitch with the three lowest strings 
of the violin ; but their greater length requires 
them to be proportionately stouter. The fourth 
string, like the third, is covered with wire. The 
player holds the Tenor like the violin ; but the 
stop is somewhat longer, the bow used for it is 
somewhat heavier, and it requires greater mus- 
cular force in both hands. The method of execu- 
tion in other respects is identical with that on 
the violin. The tone of the Tenor however, 
owing to the disproportion between the size and 
pitch of its strings on the one hand, and the 
comparatively small size of its body on the other, 
is of a different quality from that of the violin. It 
is less powerful and brilliant, having a muflSed 
character, but is nevertheless sympathetic and 
penetrating. Bad Tenors are worse than bad vio- 
lins ; they are unequal and ' wolfish,' and have 
sometimes a decided nasal twang. The instrument 
is humorously described by Schnyder von Warten- 
see, in his 'Birthday Ode' addressed to Guhr: — 

Mann nennt mich Frau Base, (Aunt) 

Denn etwaa sprech* ich durch die Nase, 
Doch ehrlich mein' ich ea, und treu : 

Altmodisch bin ich: meine Sitte 

Ist stets zu bleiben in der Mitte. 
Und nie mach' ich ein gross' Geschrei. 

In this article, following common usage, the 
word ' Tenor ' is used to denote the intermediate 
member of the quartet to the exclusion of ' Alto ' : 
but the fact is that the Tenor and Alto were 
once distinct instruments, and the instrument 
which we call 'Tenor' is really the Alto, the 
true Tenor, which was a size larger, though of 
the same pitch, being practically obsolete. 

The Tenor is an earlier instrument than the 
violin, and is in fact the oldest instrument of 
the quartet. Both 'Violitio' in Italian and 
'Violon' in French appear to have originally 
designated the Tenor. In the first piece of 
music in which * Violino' occurs, a double quar- 
tet in the church style, published in 1597,' this 
instrument has a part written in the alto clef, 
from which the following is an extract : — 

This could not be played on the violin, and was 
obviously written for the Tenor : and an instru- 
ment of such a compass capable of holding its 
own against a cornet and six trumpets, however 
lightly voiced the latter may have been, can 
have been no ordinary fiddle. The large and 
solid Tenors of this period made by Gaspar di 

I Giovanni Gabriel!, Sonate Plan e Forte allaquarta bassa. Frinted 
in the Musical Appendix to Waslelewskls ' Die Violine im xvii Jahr- 
liundert).' The lowest parts iii each quartet are assigned to trum- 
vets \.Ti'omboui}, the other soprano part to the cornet (Ziuken). 


Salo, the earlier Amatis, Peregrine Zanetto, etc., 
many of which are still in existence, appear to 
represent the original 'Violine' These Tenors 
when new, must have had a powerful tone, and 
they were probably invented in order to produce 
a stringed instrument which should compete in 
church music with the comet and trumpet. Being 
smaller than the ordinary bass viola, which was 
the form of viol chiefly in use, they obtained the 
name *Violino.' This name was however soon 
transferred to the ordinary violin. When the latter 
first made its appearance in Italian music,'* it 
was called * Piccolo Violino alia Francese ' ; indi- 
cating that this smaller ' Violino,' to which the 
name has been since appropriated, though not 
generally employed in Italy, had come into use 
in France. It accords with this that the original 
French name of the violin is ' Pardessus ' or 
* dessus ' ' de Violon,' or ' treble of the Violon,' 
Violon being the old French diminutive of Viole,* 
and exactly equivalent to * Violino.' Again, the 
very old French name 'Quinte' for the Tenor, 
and its diminutive ' Quinton,' used for the violin, 
seems to indicate that the latter was a diminutive 
of some larger instrument in general use. We 
have therefore good ground for concluding that 
the Tenor is somewhat older than the treble or 
common violin, and is in fact its archetype. 

Very soon after the ' Orfeo ' of Monteverde, 
which is dated 1608, we find the above-mentioned 
composer, Gabrieli, writing regular violin passages 
in a sonata for three common violins and a Bass, 
the former being designated * Violini.' * We may 
therefore fairly suppose that the early years of 
the 17th century saw the introduction of the 
violin into general use in Italy, and the transfer 
of the name ' Violino ' to the smaller instrument. 
In the same year (16 15) we have a 'Canzonk 
6' by the same writer, with two treble violins 
(Violini), a comet, a tenor vioKn (called Tenore) 
and two trumpets.' In Gregorio Allegri's ' Sym- 
phonia k 4'* (before 1650) the Tenor is deno- 
minated 'Alto,' and the Bass is assigned to the 
'Basso di Viola' or Viola da Gamba. Massi- 
miliano Neri (1644), in his 'Canzone del terzo 
tuono ' ' has a Tenor part in which the Tenor is 
called for the first time 'viola,' a name which 
has clung to it ever since. 

Shortly after this (1663) we have a string 
quintet with two viola parts, the upper of which 
is assigned to the 'Viola Alto,' the lower, written 
in the Taille or true tenor clef, to the 'Viola 
Tenore.'* It appears from the parts that the 
compass of the two violas was identical, nor 
is any distinction observable in the treatment. 
This use of the two violas is common in the 
Italian chamber music of the end of the 17th 
century, a remarkable instance being the 'So- 
nate Varie' of the Cremonese composer Vitali 
(Modena, 1684): and Handel's employment of 
the two instruments, mentioned lower down, is 

2 In the ' Orfeo ' of Monteverde. 

3 So voXIk, vaXlon ; iupe, jupon, etc. 

« Sonata con tre Violini. 1615. Wa*ielewtki, Appendix, p. 13. 

6 Ibid. p. 15. 6 Ibid. p. 26. 7 Ibid. p. 32. 

« Sonata a cinque, da Giovanni Legrenzi. Wasielewslci. Appendix, 
p. 43. The treble parts are«ssigned to violins, ttae tiaas to the ' Viola 
da brazzo.* 




probably based on reminiscences of this class of 
music. But the compass and general effect ol the 
instruments being the same, the disappearance 
of the great viola was only a matter of time. 
Though the fiddle-makers continued for some 
time to make violas of two sizes, alto and 
tenor [see Stradivari], the two instruments 
coalesced for practical purposes, and the superior 
facility with which the smaller viola (Alto) was 
handled caused the true Tenor to drop out of use. 
From about the end of the century the Alto 
viola appears to have assumed the place in the 
orchestra which it still occupies, and to have 
had substantially the same characteristics. 

The Tenor has been made of all sizes, ranging 
from the huge instruments of Caspar di Salo 
and his contemporaries to the diminutive ones, 
scarcely an inch longer than the standard violin, 
commonly made for orchestral use a century or 
so ago : and its normal size of one-seventh larger 
than the violin is the result of a compromise. 
The explanation is that it is radically an ano- 
malous instrument. Its compass is fixed by 
strictly musical requirements: but when the 
instrument is built large enough to answer 
acoustically to its compass, that is, so as to 
produce the notes required of it as powerfully as 
the corresponding notes on the violin, it conies 
out too large for the average human being to play 
it fiddle-wise, and only fit to be played cello- 
wise between the knees. If, however, the Tenor 
is to be played like the violin, and no one has 
seriously proposed to play it otherwise, it follows 
that its size must be limited by the length of the 
human arm when beat at an angle of about 1 20 
degrees. But even the violin is already big 
enough : though instruments have from time to 
time been made somewhat larger than usual, and 
that by eminent makers [see Stradivari], play- 
ers have never adopted them ; and it is practi- 
cally found that one-seventh longer than the 
ordinary violin is the outside measurement for 
the Tenor if the muscles of the arms and hands 
are to control the instrument comfortably, and to 
execute ordinary passages upon it. The Tenor 
is therefore by necessity a dwarf : it is too small 
for its pitch, and its tone is muffled in conse- 
quence. But its very defects have become the 
vehicle of peculiar beauties. Every one must 
have remarked the penetrating quality of its 
lower strings, and the sombre and passionate 
effect of its upper ones. Its tone is consequently 
so distinctive, and so arrests the attention of the 
listener, that fewer Tenors are required in the 
orchestra than second violins. 

Composers early discovered the distinctive 
capabilities of the Tenor. Handel knew them, 
though he made but little use of them : they 
were first freely employed in that improvement 
of the dramatic orchestra by Cluck and Sacchini, 
which preceded its full development under Mozart. 
Previously to this, the Tenor was chiefly used 
to fill up in the Tutti. Sometimes it played in 
unison with the violins ; more frequently with 
the violoncellos : but in general it was assigned 
a lower second violin part. Handel employs the 

Tenor with striking effect in 'Revenge, Timotheua 
cries.' The first part of the song, in D major, 
is led by the violins and hautboys in dashing 
and animated passages ; then succeeds the trio 
in C minor, which introduces the vision of the 
♦ Crecian ghosts, that in battle were slain.' Here 
the violins are silent, and the leading parts, in 
measured largo time, are given to the tenors in 
two divisions, each division being reinforced by 
bassoons. The effect is one of indescribable gloom 
and horror. It is noteworthy that the composer, 
whether to indicate the theoretical relation of 
the two parts, or the practical employment of 
the larger Tenors by themselves for the lower 
one, has written the first part only in the alto 
clef, and headed it ' Viola,' the second part being 
written in the Taille or true tenor clef, and 
headed 'Tenor': but the compass of the parts is 
identical. The climax will serve as a specimen : — 



^J J j-*-r- -U-f i I I r3EB 


glo-rioos on the Plain 

andun ' 




Berlioz, who overlooks this passage in Handel, 
enumerates among the early instances of the em- 
ployment of its distinctive qualities, the passage 
in *Iphigenia in Aulis,' where Orestes, over- 
whelmed with fatigue and remorse, and panting 
for breath, sings *Le calme rentre dans mon 
ccEur'; meanwhile the orchestra, in smothered 
agitation, sobs forth convulsive plaints, unceas- 
ingly dominated by the fearful and obstinate 
chiding of the Tenors. The fascination, the 
sensation of horror, which this evokes in the 
audience, Berlioz attributes to the quality of 
the note A on the Tenor's third string, and the 
syncopation of the note with the lower A on the 
basses in a different rhythm. In the overture to 
• Iphigenia in Aulis,' Gluck employs the Tenors 
for another purpose. He assigns them a light 
bass accompaniment to the melody of the first 
violins, conveying to the hearer the illusion that 
he is listening to the violoncellos. Suddenly, at 
the forte, the basses enter with great force and 
surprising effect. Sacchini uses the Tenors for the 
same effect (pour preparer une explosion) in the 
air of (Edipus, * Votre coeur devient mon asyle,' 
(This effect, it may be observed, is also to be 
found in Handel.) Modern writers have often 
used the Tenor to sustain the melody, in antique, 
religious, and sombre subjects. Berlioz attributes 
its use in this way to Spontini, who employs it 
to give out the prayers of the Vestal. Mehul, 
fancying that there resided in the Tenor tone a 
peculiar aptitude for expressing the dreamy cha- 
racter of the Ossianic poetry, employed Tenors 
for all the treble parts, to the entire exclusion 
of violins, throughout his opera of ' Uthal.* It 
was in the course of this dismal and monotonous 
wail that Grdtry exclaimed ' Je donnerai un louis 
pour entendre une chanterelle ! ' 

Berlioz, in ' Harold en Italic,' and Bennett, in 
his Symphony in G minor, have employed the 
Tenor with great effect to sustain pensive melo- 
dies. When melodies of a similar character are 
entrusted to the violoncellos, the tone acquires 
great roundness and purity if reinforced by the 
Tenors — witness the Adagio of Beethoven's Sym- 
phony in C minor. In chamber music, the Tenor 
executes sustained and arpeggio accompaniments, 
occasionally takes up melodic subjects, and em- 
ployed in unison is a powerful supporter of either 
of its neighbours. Mozart's Trio for piano, clari- 
net, and viola, one of the most beautiful and 
effective works in the whole range of chamber 
music, affords admirable illustrations of its gen- 
eral capacities when used without a violoncello. 

Brahms's Quintet in Bb, and one of his 
string quartets, will afford good examples of the 
prominent use of the viola, and the special effect 
produced by it. It is interesting to observe that 
the modem chamber string quartet, of which 
the Tenor is so important a member, is based, 
not on the early chamber music, but on the 
stringed orchestra of the theatre. Corelli, Pur- 
cell, and Handel employed the Tenor in their 
orchestral writings, but excluded it from their 
chamber music; nor was it until the orchestral 
quartet had been perfected for theatrical pur- 

poses by Handel, Gluck, and Sacchini that the 
chamber quartet settled into its present shape in 
the hands of Haydn, Abel, J. C. Bach, and their 
contemporaries. Mozart marks the period when 
the Tenor assumed its proper rank in both kinds 
of music. 

The Tenor is essentially an ancillary instru- 
ment. Played alone, or in combination with the 
piano only, its tone is thin and ineffective : and 
the endeavours which have been made by some 
musicians to create an independent school of 
tenor-playing, and a distinctive class of tenor 
music, are founded on error. It is simply a large 
violin, intended to fill up the gap between the 
fiddle and the bass ; and except in special effects, 
where, as we have seen, it is used for purposes 
of contrast, it imperatively demands the ringing 
tones of the violin above it. 

Competent musicians, who are masters of the 
piano, attracted by the simplicity of the tenor part 
in most quartets, often take up theTenor with but 
little knowledge of the violin. This is a mis- 
take : it is usually found that the Tenor can only 
be properly played by a practised violinist. The 
Violin and Tenor make an effective duet ; witness 
the charming works of Haydn, Mozart, and 
Spohr, and the less known but very artistic 
and numerous ones of Rolla, by the aid of which 
any competent violinist will soon become master 
of the Tenor. Mozart wrote a concerto for Vio- 
lin, Tenor, and Orchestra. The trios of Mozart 
and Beethoven for Violin, Tenor, and Violoncello 
are too well known to need more than mentioning. 

Owing, probably, to the structural peculiarities 
that have been explained above, what is the best 
model for the violin is not the best for the Tenor. 
It would seem that the limitation which neces- 
sity imposes upon its length ought to be com- 
pensated by an increase in height : for Tenors of 
high model are undoubtedly better than those of 
flat model, and hence Stradivari Tenors are kept 
rather to be admired than played upon. The best 
Tenors for use are certainly those of the Amati 
school, or old copies of the same by good English 
makers : in this country the favourite Tenor- 
maker is undoubtedly Banks. New fiddles are 
sometimes fairly good in tone : but new Tenors 
are always intolerably harsh, from the combined 
effect of their newness and of the flat model which 
is now universally preferred. If, however, makers 
of the Tenor would copy Amati, instead of Stra- 
divari, this would no longer be the case. 

Mr. Hermann Ritter, a Tenor-player resident 
in Heidelberg, in ignorance of the fact that the 
large Tenor was in use for more than a century, 
and was abandoned as impracticable, claims a 
Tenor of monstrous proportions, on which he is 
said to play with considerable effect, as an inven- 
tion of his own.^ If all Tenor-players were of the 
herculean proportions of Mr. Ritter, the great 
Tenor might perhaps be revived : but human 

1 See 'Die Qeschlchte der Viola Alts, tind die GnindsStze Ihret- 
Baues, Von H. Ritter ' (Leipzio, Weber. 18T7); 'Hermann Kitter und 
seine Viola Alta, Von E. Adema' (Warzburg, Stuber, 1881). The prac- 
tical vlolln-maker may estimate the value of Instruments constructed 
on Mr. Bitter's rules from the fact that he takes as his guide the 
'calcolo ' of Bagatella ! 




beings of ordinary stature are quite incapable of 
wrestling with such an instrument : to which it 
may be added that tlie singular and beautiful 
tenor tone, resulting from the necessary dispro- 
portion between the pitch and the dimensions of 
the instrument, is now too strongly identified 
with it to admit of any change. 

The following is a list of special music for the 

Methods : 

Bbdni, Marsh, Fickert, Lutgen (recom- 

Studies : 
Campagnoli — 41 Caprices, op. 22. 
Kayser — Studies, op. 43, op. 55. 

Tenor and Orchestra : 
F. David— Concertino, op. 12. 

Tenor and Piano : 

Schumann — op. 113, *Mahrchen Bilder,* 4 

W. Hill — Nottumo, Scherzo, and Romance. 

Joachim — Op. 9, Hebrew Melodies ; op. 10, 
Variations on an original theme. 

Kalliwoda — 6 Nocturnes, op. 186. 

LiJTGBN— Barcarole, op. 33. 

Taglichsbeck — Op. 49, Concertstiick. 

HoFMANN. C. — Reverie, op. 45. 

Wallner — Fantaisie de Concert. 

Herr H. Ritter has also edited * Repertorium 
fiir Viola Alta* (Niimberg, Schmid), containing 
twenty-two pieces, mostly classical transcriptions 
with pianoforte accompaniment. [E. J.P.] 

Scherzo. Presto. 


In Beethoven's (dictated) letter to Moscheles 
acknowledging the £100 sent by the Philhar- 
monic Society, and dated Vienna, March 18, 
1827, eight days before his death, there occur 
the words 'A Symphony completely sketched 
is lying in my desk, as well as a new Overture 
and other things.* This therefore was the 
'Tenth Symphony.' It should however be re- 
marked that a large part of the letter con- 
taining the words quoted is struck through with 
the pen. Two days afterwards, says Schindler 
(ii. 142), 'he was greatly excited, desired to 
have the sketches for the Tenth Symphony 
again brought to him, and said much to me 
on the plan of the work. He intended it abso- 
lutely for the Philharmonic Society.* Some 
sketches — whether those alluded to or not — 
were printed in the ist no. of Hirschbach's 
♦ Musikalisch-kritisches Repertorium.' for Jan. 
1844, with an introduction which we translate : — 

' From Beethoven's sketch-books. Herr Schind- 
ler on his return from Berlin to Aix la Chapelle, 
not only showed many very remarkable relics of 
Beethoven to his friends at Leipzig, but has 
been good enough to allow us to publish some 
of them in this periodical. The following are 
some of the existing sketches of the Tenth Sym- 
phony and of an Overture on the name of Bach,^ 
all belonging to the summer months of the year 
1824, and in the order in which they were noted 

*From the sketches for the Tenth Sym- 
phony : — * 










^111 I 






Andante. A flat. 


m: I r fmn 



Some further scraps of information have been 
Mndly furnished by Mr. Thayer, *Carl Holz 
told Otto Jahn that there was an Introduction 
to the Tenth Symphony in Eb major, a soft 
piece; then a powerful Allegro in C minor. 
These were complete in Beethoven's head, and 
had been played to Holz on the piano.' Con- 
sidering that the date of Beethoven's death was 
1827, nearly three years after the sununer of 
1824, and considering also Beethoven's habit 

of copious sketching at works which were in 
his head, it is almost impossible but that more 
sketches than the trifles quoted above exist in 
some of the sketch-books. And though Notte- 
bohm is unhappily no more, some successor to 
him will doubtless be found to decypher and 
place these before us. [G.] 

1 rosslbly for the overture mentioned above. These are omitted in 
the present reprint. 

2 We have no clue as to whichof the words attached to theslcetchea 
are Beethoven's, and which Schindler's. 


TENUTO, 'held'; a direction of very frequent 
occurrence in pianoforte music, though not often 
used in orchestral scores. It (or its contraction 
ten. ) is used to draw attention to the fact that parti- 
cular notes or chords are intended to be sustained 
for their full value, in passages where staccato 
phrases are of such frequency that the players 
might omit to observe tliat some notes are to be 
played smoothly in contrast. Its effect is almost 
exactly the same as that of legato, save that this 
last refers ratlier to the junction of one note with 
another, and tenuto to the note regarded by itself. 
Thus the commoner direction of the two for pas- 
sages of any length, is legato: tenuto however 
occurs occasionally in this connection, as in the 
slow movement of Beethoven's Sonata, op. 2, no. 
2, in A, where the upper stave is labelled ' tenuto 
sempre,* while the bass is to be played staccato. 
Another good instance is in the slow movement 
of Weber's Sonata in Ab, op. 39. [J.A.F.M.] 

TERCE (Lat. Officium {vel Oratio) ad horam 
tertiam. Ad tertiam). The second division of 
the Lesser Hours, in the Roman Breviary. The 
Office consists of the Versicle and Response, 
•Deus in adjutorium'; the Hymn 'Nunc Sancte 
nobis Spiritus'; 48 Verses of the Psalm, 'Beati 
immaculati,' beginning at Verse 33, and sung 
in three divisions under a single Antipbon ; the 
Capitulum and Responsorium for the Season ; 
and the Prayer or Collect for the Day. The 
Plain Chaunt Music proper to the Office will 
be found in the *Antiphonarium Romanum,' and 
the * Directorium Chori.' [W.S.R.] 

TERPODION. A musical friction-instrument, 
invented by Buschmann of Berlin in 1816, and 
improved by his sons in 1832. The principle ap- 
pears to have been the same as that of Chladni's 
clavicylinder, except that instead of glass, wood 
was employed for the cylinder. [See Chladni.] 
In form it resembled a square piano, and its keys 
embraced 6 octaves. Warm tributes to its merits 
by Spohr, Weber, Rink and Hummel are quoted 
(A. M. Z. xxxiv. 857, 858, see also 634, 645; 
and 1. 451 note), but notwithstanding these, the 
instrument is no longer known. [G.] 

TERZETTO (Ital). Generally a composition 
for three voices. Beyond one instance in Bach, 
and a few modern examples consisting of pieces 
not in sonata-form, the term has never been 
applied to instrumental music. It is now be- 
commg obsolete, being superseded by Trio, 
which is the name given to music written for 
three instruments, and now includes vocal music 
as well. It would have been wiser to preserve 
the distinction. 

A Terzetto may be for any combination of three 
voices, whether for three trebles — as the unac- 
companied Angels* Trio in 'Elijah,' those of the 
three ladies and three boys in * Die Zauberflote,' 
and that for three florid sopranos in Spohr's 
* Zemire und Azor' — or for three male voices, like 
the canonic trio in the last-named opera. More 
frequent, naturally, are Terzetti for mixed voices, 
the combinations being formed according to the 
exigencies of the situation. There is nothing to 



be observed in the form of a Terzetto different 
from that of any other vocal composition ; but as 
regards harmony it should be noticed that when 
a bass voice is not included in the combination 
the accompaniment usually supplies the bass 
(where 4-part harmony is required) an(t the three 
upper parts, taken by the voices, must be so 
contrived as to form a tolerable 3-part harmony 
themselves. Such writing as the following, for 


though sounding well enough when played on the 
piano, would have a detestable effect if sung, as 
the bass would not really complete the chords of 
6-^ demanded by the lower parts, on account of 
the difference of timbre. 

We may point to the end of the 2nd act of 
Wagner's 'Gotterdaminerung' as an example of 
three voices singing at the same time but cer- 
tainly not forming a Terzetto. [^-C] 

TESI-TRAMONTINI, Vittoria, celebrated 
singer, bom at Florence in 1690.^ Her first 
instructor was Francesco Redi, whose school of 
singing was established at Florence in 1706. 
At a later date she studied under Campeggi, at 
Bologna, but it is evident that she sang on the 
public stage long before her years of study were 
over. Fdtis and others say that her debut was 
made at Bologna, after which nothing transpires 
about her till 1719, in which year she sang at 
Venice and at Dresden, and just at the time 
when Handel arrived there in quest of singers 
for the newly-established Royal Academy in 
London. It seems probable that he and Vittoria 
had met before. In his Life of Handel, Dr. 
Chrysander suggests, and shows good reason for 
doing so, that Vittoria Tesi was the young prima 
donna who sang in Handel's first Italian opera 
* Rodrigo,' at Florence, in 1707, and in his 
*Agrippina,' at Venice, in 1708, and who fell 
desperately in love with the young Saxon 
maestro. Her voice was of brilliant quality and 
unusual compass. Quantz, who heard her at 
Dresden, defines it as * a contralto of masculine 
strength,' but adds that she could sing high or 
low with equally little effort. Fire, force, and 
dramatic expression were her strong points, and 
she succeeded best in men's parts : in florid 
execution she did not greatly excel. Her fame 
and success were at their zenith in 17 19, but it 
does not appear that Handel made any effort to 
secure her for England. Perhaps he objected to 
her practice of singing bass songs transposed 
alV oltava. La Tesi sang at Venice in 1723, at 
Florence and Naples in 1724-5, at Milan in 
1727, Parma 1728, Bologna 1731, Naples (San 
Carlo Theatre) from November 4, 1737* t^l^ *^^® 



end of the ensuing Carnival, for which engage- 
ment she received about 500^., a large sum in 
those days. In 1 748 she was at Vienna, where, 
in 1749, she played in Jommelli's 'Didone.' The 
book was by Metastasio, who wrote of this 
occasion, *' The Tesi has grown younger by 
twenty years.' She was then fifty- five. Bumey 
met her at Vienna in 1772, and speaks of her 
«s more than eighty. Hiller and Fetis say she 
was only that age at her death, in 1775. But 
if Gerber's date and Chrysander's theory are 
right, Bumey was right. Her nature was 
vivacious and emporU to a degree, and many 
tales were told of her freaks and escapades. 
Perhaps most wonderful of all is the story of her 
marriage, as told by Bumey in his ' Musical 
Tour * ; in which, to avoid marrying a certain 
nobleman, she went into the street, and ad- 
dressing herself to a poor labouring man, said 
she would give him fifty ducats if he would 
marry her, not with a view to their living to- 
gether, but to serve a purpose. The poor man 
readily consented to become her nominal hus- 
band, and they were formally married; and 
when the Count renewed his solicitations, she 
told him that she was already the wife of another. 
Among the pupils of La Tesi were the • Teube- 
rinn,' and Signora de Amicis, who took a friendly 
interest in the boy Mozart, and sang in his 
earliest operatic efforts in Italy. [F. A. M.] 

TESSITURA (Italian), literally texture, from 
tessere, to weave. A term, for wliich there is no 
direct equivalent in English, used by the Italians 
to indicate how the music of a piece * lies ' ; that 
is to say, what is the prevailing or average 
position of its notes in relation to the compass 
of the voice or instrument for which it is written, 
whether high, low, or medium. ' Range * does not 
at all give the idea, as the range may be ex- 
tended, and the general tessitura limited; while 
the range may be high and the tesdtura low, 
or medium. In place of a corresponding word 
we say that a part 'lies high or low.' 

' Vedrai carino,' • Dalla sua pace,' 'Dove sono,' 
are examples of high tessitura, fatiguing gene- 
rally to voices that are not highly developed. 
Indeed, there are many who would prefer sing- 
ing the 'Inflammatus' from Rossini's 'Stabat 
Mater' to such a piece as 'Dove sono.' Many of 
the old Italian composers wrote music of a high 
tessitura, though it is true that the pitch was 
lower in their day than it is now. * Deh ! vieni, 
non tardar,' is an example of moderate tessitura,' 
though it has a compass of two octaves. The fes- 
eitura of the vocal music in Beethoven's 9th Sym- 
phony is justly the singers' nightmare. [H.C.D.] 

TETRACHORD (Gr. TerpaxopSov). A system 
of four sounds, comprised within the limits of a 
Perfect Fourth. 

It was for the purpose of superseding the cum- 
brous machinery of the Tetrachords upon which the 
old Greek Scale depended for its existence,* that 

I A description of the Greek Tetrachords would be quite beside the 
purpose of the present article. Those who wish for a closer ac- 
quaintance with the peculiarities of the Greek .Scale will do well to 
consult a little tract, by General Perronet Thompson, called 'Just 
Intouatioa ' (Loudon, EfflDgham Wilson, 11 Boyal Exchanse). 


Guido d'Arezzo invented the series of Hexa- 
chords, which, universally accepted by the Poly- 
phonic Composers of the Middle Ages, remained 
in constant use until the Ecclesiastical Modes 
were finally abandoned in favour of our present 
Scale ;^ and it is only by comparing these Hexa- 
chords with the divisions of the older system that 
their value can be truly apfireciated. It is not 
pretended that they were perfect ; but modem 
mathematical science has proved that the step 
taken by Guido was wholly in the right direc- 
tion. The improvement which led to its aban- 
donment was, in the first instance, a purely 
empirical one ; though we now know that it 
rests upon a firm mathematical basis. The 
natural craving of the refined musical ear for 
a Leading Note led, first, to the general employ- 
ment of a recognised system of ' accidental ' 
sounds'; and, in process of time, to the un- 
restricted use of the ^olian and Ionian 
Modes — the prototypes of our Major and Minor 
Scales. These changes naturally prepared the 
way for the unprepared Dissonances of Monte- 
verde ; and, with the introduction of these, tlie 
old system was suddenly brought to an end, and 
our present Tonality firmly established upon its 

Our present Major Scale is formed of two 
Tetrachords, separated by a greater Tone: the 
Semitone, in each, occurring between the two 
highest sounds. 


Our Minor Scale is formed of two dissimilar 
Tetrachords, also disjunct (i.e. separated by a 
greater Tone) ; in the uftpermost of which the 
Semitone occurs between the two gravest sounds, 
as at (a) ; while, in the lower one, it is placed 
between the two middle ones ; as at (6) (&). 



This last Tetrachord maintains its form un- 
changed, whether the Scale ascend or descend; 
but, in the ascending Minor Scale, the upper 
Tetrachord usually takes the form of those em- 
ployed in the Major Mode. 


Devil's Country-house). A comic opera in 3 acts, 
by Kotzebue, music by Schubert; composed be- 
tween Jan. II and May 15, 18 14, and re-written 
in the autumn. Act 2 was afterwards burnt. Acts 
I and 3 of the 2nd version are in the collection 
of Herr Nicolaus Dumba of Vienna. The overture 
was played by the London Musical Society, June 
17, 1880, and at the Crystal Palace on Oct. 23 
following. It contains a singular anticipation of 
the muted violin passage in the overture to 

3 8«e hexacbord. 

a 8m Ucsica Ficta. 


*Euryanthe.' The work will form no. 6 of 
Series XV, in the complete critical edition of 
Schubert, announced by Messrs. Breitkopfs. [G.] 

TEUTSCHE. Mozart's way of spelling Deut- 
sche, i.e. Deutsche Tanze — little German waltzes 
in 3-8 or 3-4, of which he, Beethoven, and 
Schubert, wrote many. For Schubert's *Atzen- 
brucker Deutsche, July 1S21,' see vol. iii. p. 
334 6. The famous ' Trauer-Waltzer,' sometimes 
called *Le D^sir' (op. 9, no, 2), for long attri- 
buted to Beethoven, is a Teutsch. [Allemande, 
no. 2, vol. i. p. 55 6.] [G.] 

THALBERG, Sigismond, one of the most 
successful virtuosi of this century, was born at 
Geneva — according to his biographer, Mendel, on 
May 5, according to Fetis on Jan. 7, according 
to a brother of his now established at Vienna, on 
Feb. 7, 1812. Being the son of Prince Dietrich- 
stein, who had many wives without being mar- 
ried, Thalberg had several brothers of different 
family names. The one just mentioned is Mr. 
Leitzinger, three months older than Thalberg — 
a fact which speaks for itself. Another half- 
brother of his is Baron Denner. Thalberg's 
mother was the Baroness Wetzlar, a highly- 
educated lady, full of talent, who took the 
greatest care of Thalberg's early education. In 
Geneva he remained in the pension Siciliewski 
under the guidance of a governess, Mme. Denver, 
and the superintendence of his mother. This 
Mme. Denver, and Miiller — a Frenchman, al- 
though his name be German — took Thalberg to 
Vienna to his father's palace. He was then just 
10 years old. The Prince was so fond of him 
that he gave up an Ambassador's appointment 
to devote all his time to the education of ' Sigi ' 
(this was his pet-name). Thalberg showed a 
great aptitude for music and languages, and 
was destined by his father to become a diplo- 
matist, and with a view to this had the best 
masters to teach him. If a friendly — perhaps 
too friendly — source is to be credited, he made 
rapid progress, especially in Greek and geo- 
graphy, which may account for the curious 
collection of maps with which he adorned his 
room at Naples. His first success dates back 
so far as 1826, when he was 14 years old, and 
played at an evening party at Prince Clemens 
]Metternich's, the then master of the diplomatic 
world, of whom it is said that, when a lady, a 
great patroness of music, asked him whether it 
was true that he was not fond of music, he re- 
plied : — 'Oh, Madame, je ne la crains pas!' 
About Thalberg's piano teachers a number of 
divergent reports are current; but it is certain 
that he learned from Mittag, and that the great 
organist and harmonist, Sechter, the first Ger- 
man who simplified and most clearly demon- 
strated the principles of harmony, taught him 
counterpoint. F^tis's statements about Thalberg 
are not sufiiciently verified. Czemy never taught 
him, though he gave five or six lessons to Franz 
Liszt. The first opportunity which offered for 
Thalberg's celebrity was in 1833, at a soiree 
given by Count Apponyi, then Austrian Am- 



bassador at Paris, and later Austrian Ambas- 
sador in London. Thalberg was then 2 1 years 
old, of an agreeable aristocratic appearance, re- 
fined manners, very witty ; only a trifle too much 
given to making puns, an amusement rather easy 
in French, and in which foreigners too much in- 
dulge. Kind-hearted, and uncommonly careful 
not to say an incautious word which might hurt 
any one's feelings, he became at once the ladies' 
pet— and what that means in Paris, those who 
know French society will not undervalue. His 
innovations on the piano were of the smallest 
possible importance ; he invented forms and 
effects. He had wonderfully formed fingers, the 
forepart of which were real little cushions. This 
formation and very persevering study enabled 
Thalberg to produce such wonderful legates, that 
Liszt said of him, * Thalberg is the only artist, 
who can play the violin on the keyboard.' When 
he played for the first time in public, at Viexma, 
1829, his touch and expression at once conquered 
the audience, but even then principally the ladies. 
In Paris his winning manners and the touch of 
scientific education, which with adroit modesty he 
knew how to show under pretence of concealing 
it, contributed as much as his talent to render him 
the talk of the day. Thalberg was so fond of music 
that he overcame Prince Dietrichstein's idea of 
a diplomatic career, by dint of earnest determin- 
ation. He often left his bed at three o'clock in 
the morning to practise his piano, and those who 
heard hini privately and knew him intimately were 
much more apt to estimate the ease with which he 
overcame difficulties, than those were who heard 
him play his compositions in public. Among all 
great piano-players, it should be said of him, 
as Catalani said of Sontag : ' His genre was not 
great, but he was great in his genreJ' He was . 
amiable, both as a man and as a performer. It 
was certainly a curious anomaly that while he 
so earnestly preached against the mania of the 
century to sacrifice everything to effect, the gist 
of his art, the aim and purpose of all his musical 
studies, was nothing but to produce effect. 

In his career as a composer of operas, two events, 
both unfoitunate, must be mentioned. His opera 
'Cristina' was a dead failure. 'Florinda,' which 
was performed under Balfe's direction in London 
in 185 1, with Cruvelli, Sims Reeves, Lablache, 
was, as an eyewitness states, by the best critics of 
the time found ugly, difficult to sing, uninter- 
esting. Even the song which was the hit of the 
evening, so well sung by Sims Reeves that it 
created a genuine success, was, to say the least, 
unhandsome. The Queen and Prince Albert 
headed a most brilliant assembly, and everything 
was done that could make the work acceptable, but 
the thin stuff of the score could not be sustained. 
The story was badly told, the music devoid of 
interesting ideas, and so the fate of the opera 
was sealed ; partly, it was asserted by Thalberg's 
j friends, Mme. Cruvelli bore the fault of the non- 
success, because, not being pleased with her r6le, 
she deliberately sacrificed it, and at one moment 
hummed her air instead of singing it ; so much 
so, that a person "sitting in the front row of the 



8tall8, behind Balfe, who conducted, heard him 
call out to Cruvelli, * Sing properly, for if you do 
not respect yourself, you ought at least to respect 
the audience, and Her Majesty the Queen.* 

But if Thalberg was not successful on the 
stage, it is but fair to say that his compositions 
for the piano not only combined novel effects 
both in form and arrangement, but real inven- 
tion, because he had the talent, through adroit 
use of the pedal and new combinations, to make 
you believe that you heard two performers at 
the same time. 

A catalogue at the end of this article gives a 
list of his piano compositions. It comprises more 
than ninety numbers, many of which earned 
glory and money for their author, and stamped 
him as a specialist for his instrument, the com- 
bined effects of which nobody had ever better 
understood. Robert Schumann was one of the 
composers for whom Thalberg entertained a per- 
fect enthusiasm, although their natures both 
as musicians and men widely differed. It is 
undeniable that until 1830 the performers of 
Mozart, Beethoven, Hummel, Moscheles, etc., sub- 
mitted their talent to the interpretation of the 
composer, whereas afterwards the sacrifice of the 
composer to the virtuoso became the fashion, 

Thalberg married, not, as F^tis states, in 1845, 
but in 1843, at Paris, Mme. Boucher, the daughter 
of the famous Lablache, and widow of a painter 
of merit. He travelled through Belgium, Hol- 
land, England, and Russia in 1839, and Spain 
1845, went to Brazil in 1855, North America 
1856, and settled in Posilipo (Naples) in 1858. 
He appeared again in public in 1862, and in 1863 
played in London, in concerts arranged by his 
brother-in-law, Frederic Lablache, after which 
. he retired to Naples and lived as a landowner 
and winegrower. The writer saw him in his 
house at Posilipo, that wonderfully picturesque 
position above the Bay of Naples, opposite San 
Agata, and over all the property there was not 
a trace of a piano to be found. His collection 
of autographs (still apparently unsold) was of 
extraordinary interest and value. Thalberg died 
at Naples on April 27, 1871. He leaves a 
daughter (granddaughter of Madame Angri), 
who resembles him much, and who broke what 
seemed to be a promising career as a prima 
donna by singing too early and straining her 
voice in parts too high for her tessitura, both 
common faults with present singers, who are 
always too anxious to reap before they have 
sown, and who fancy that shouting high notes 
to elicit injudicious applause is all that is re- 
quired to make them renowned singers. 

Schumann, in an access of ill-humour (boser 
Laune), says that Thalberg kept him in a 
certain tension of expectancy, not ' on account of 
the platitudes which were sure to come, but on ac- 
count of the profound manner of their preparation, 
which warns you always when they are to burst 
upon you. He deceives you by brilliant hand and 
finger work in order to pass off his weak thoughts, 
and it is an interesting question how long the 
world will be pleased to put up with such me- 


chanical music* It was the Grand Fantaisie 
(op. 22) which so irritated Schumann. It once 
happened that while Mme. Schumann was playing 
Thalberg's waltzes, Schumann laid a few roses 
on the desk, which accidentally slipped down 
on the keyboard. By a sudden jump of the 
left-hand to the bass her little finger was 
wounded by one of the thorns. To his anxious 
inquiries she replied that nothing much was the 
matter, only a slight accident, which showed, 
like the waltzes themselves, no great suffering, 
only a few drops of blood caused by rose-thorns. 
Thalberg's first Caprice (E minor), says Schu- 
mann, containsawell-developed principal thought, 
and is sure to provoke loud a))plause ; and he ex- 
presses the wish that Thalberg might furnish for 
the appreciation of the critic a piece thoroughly 
well-written throughout. His wrath however 
relents when speaking of Thalberg's Variations 
on two Russian airs. He finds the intro- 
duction,* through which, every now and then, the 
childs song peeps like an angel's head, fanciful 
and effective.' ' Equally tender and flexible are 
the variations, very musicianlike, well-flowing, 
and altogether well rounded off. The finale, so 
short that the audience is sure to listen whether 
there is nothing more to come ere they explode 
in spontaneous applause, is graceful, brilliant, 
and even noble.' These expressions seem cer- 
tainly enthusiastic enough, and scarcely bear 
out the severity of his judgment on the general 
qualities of the composer of the Fantaisie. (See 
'Ges. Schriften,' i. 316; ii. 55). 

Concerning Thalberg's fantasia on motifs from 
the 'Huguenots,' some of Erard's friends fancied 
that he had written the brilliant octave repetition 
variation to show off the double echappement of 
Erard. This is not very likely. Thalberg had one 
thing in view, and that only — to find new forms, 
new effects, new surprises for the public. Schu- 
mann says that in this fantasia Thalberg reminds 
him of Goethe's saying : — * Happy are those who 
by their birth are lifted beyond the lower stratum 
of humanity, and who need not pass through those 
conditions in which many a good man anxiously 
passes his whole life ' (G. S. ii. 66). 

Thalberg had the great art of composing works 
much more difficult in appearance than in reality. 
His studies, incomparably easier than those of 
Moscheles and Chopin, sound as brilliantly as 
if they required the most persevering labour to 
overcome their difficulties. That makes them 
grateful to play and pleasing to the ear. It has 
been said of the * Etudes * that they are graceful 
work for ladies, ' for the tepid temperature of the 
drawing-room, not for the healthy atmosphere 
outside the house.' His studies and his * Art du 
chant ' are only specimens of what he could do 
best. It is in one or another form his full, light, 
energetic and singing touch. His studies are the 
expression of his successes, of his glory, and of 
his very industrious hard work. For be it well 
known, he studied perpetually. Thalberg was es- 
sentially the pianist of the French, who in art, poli- 
tics, and life, have only one desire, 'Autre chose !' 
He was therefore continually forced to devise 


gome surprising effect, and thereby to find at 
every moment 'autre chose.' Schumann, who 
knew human nature well, says that to criticise 
Thalberg would be to risk a revolt of all the 
French, German, and foreign girls. 'Thalberg 
sheds the lustre of his performance on whatever 
he may play, Beethoven or Dussek, Chopin or 
Hummel. He writes melody in the Italian style, 
from eight bars to eight bars. He knows wonder- 
fully how to dress his melodies, and a great deal 
might perhaps be said about the difference between 
real composition, and conglomeration in this new- 
fashioned style ; but the army of young ladies 
advances again, and therefore nothing remains 
to be said but, He is a god, when seated at the 
piano.* (G. S. iii. 75.) 

That Thalberg, like De Beriot, once took a grand 
motif of Beethoven and distorted it into 'effective 
variations,' enraged Schumann, as it must every 
true musician. His was a certain mission: elegance 
and effect ; to pour a rain of rosebuds and pink 
diamonds into the eager listener's ear and enchant 
him for the moment — no more. 

It is interesting to learn the opinion of two 
great authorities both in piano and composition, 
viz. Mendelssohn and Rubinstein, on the relative 
merits of Liszt and Thalberg. Mendelssohn, in 
his Letters, speaks of the 'heathen scandal 
(Heidenscandal) both in the glorious and the 
reprehensible sense of the word, which Liszt 
created at Leipsic' He declares Thalberg's calm 
ways and self-control much more worthy of the 
real virtuoso. Compare this with Liszt's opinion 
of himself, when he has been heard to say, after 
Thalberg's immensely successful concerts, given 
at Vienna after his return from Paris, that ' he 
hoped to play as Thalberg did, when once he 
should be partly paralysed and limited to the use 
of one hand only.' Undoubtedly Liszt's execution 
was more brilliant, and particularly more crush- 
ing. The strings flew, the hammers broke, and 
thus Chopin said once to him, * I prefer not 
playing in public, it unnerves me. You, if you 
cannot charm the audience, can at least astonish 
and crush them.* Mendelssohn continues, in his 
comparison of the two men, that Liszt's com- 
positions are beneath his performance, since 
above all 'he lacks ideas of his own, all his 
writing aiming only at showing off his virtuosity, 
whereas Thalberg's "Donna del lago," for in- 
stance, is a work of the most brilliant effect, with 
an astonishing gradual increase of difficulties and 
ornamentation, and refined taste in every bar. 
His paw {Favst) is as remarkable as the light 
deftness of his fingers. Yet Liszt's immense 
execution {Technik) is undeniable/ Now put 
against this, what Rubinstein said, when asked 
why in a Recital programme he had put 
Thalberg's Don Juan fantasia immediately after 
Liszt's Fastasia on motifs of the same opera : 
*Pour bien faire ressortir la difference entre 
«et Spicier et le Dieu de la musique.' Un- 
necessary to point out that with Rubinstein the 
*God of music' is Liszt, and Thalberg the 
'grocer.* Thalberg, a perfect aristocrat in 
look, never moved a muscle beyond his elbow. 

VOL. IV. PT. I. 



His body remained in one position, and what- 
ever the difficulties of the piece, he was, or at any 
rate he appeared, unmoved, calm, master of the 
keyboard, and what is more difficult, of himself. 
Liszt, with his long hair flying about at every 
arpeggio or scale, not to mention his restlessness 
when playing rapid octaves, studied his public 
unceasingly. He kept the audience well under 
his eye, was not above indulging in little 
comedies, and encouraging scenes to be played 
by the audience — for instance, that the ladies 
should throw themselves upon a glove of his, 
expressly forgotten, on the piano, tear it to bits 
and divide the shreds among themselves as 
relics ! It gave a sensational paragraph ! 
Thalberg thoroughly disdained such a petty 
course. In their fantasias — because, not until 
the gray hair adorned the celebrated Abbe's 
forehead, did his orchestral fertility assert itself 
— there was a marked difference to this effect : 
Liszt heaped, as Mendelssohn and Schumann 
said, difficulty upon difficulty, in order to furnish 
himself with a pretext for vanquishing them 
with his astounding mechanism. His smaller 
works, arrangements of Schubert's songs, Rossini's 
* Soirees musicales,' etc., or the little Lucia fan- 
tasia — which so pleased Mendelssohn — with its 
arpeggios and shakes for the left hand excepted, 
there are very few that le commun des martyrs 
of the pianist-world could even attempt to play. 
In his Puritani fantasia and others there are 
sometimes shakes for the last two fingers, ex- 
tending over several pages, which he himself 
played divinely, his shake with the little finger 
being most stupendous ; but who else could do 
it? His concertos, unhandsome and unmusical, 
requiring a strength and execution very rarely 
to be met with, are not grateful, while Thalberg's 
compositions are so. In the latter, first of all, 
you find the fundamental basis of all music — 
singing. Where there is not one of those graceful 
little Andante-cantabile which he ordinarily puts 
at the beginning of his pieces, one finger is sure 
to sing a motif which the others in varied modes 
accompany. Whether the figure be that of 
chromatic scales as in the Andante, or the motif 
be surrounded with arpeggios as in * Moise,* or 
interwoven in scales as in the minuet of 'Don 
Juan,' or changing hands as in the Airs Russes, or 
specially brilliantly arranged for the left hand 
to play the motif, with accompanying chords 
written on two lines, while the right hand plays 
a brilliant variation noted on a third line, as in 
his fantasia on 'God save the Queen' — you always 
hear the two hands doing the work of three, 
sometimes you imagine that of foxu*, hands. 

Forty years ago photography had not reached 
its present place in artistic life — at least not por- 
trait photography — and the likenesses of artists 
depended on the engraver : witness the wonder- 
ful portrait of Jenny Lind engraved at that 
date. At Vienna that was the grand time 
for the lithographers. Kaiser and the famous 
Kriehuber made the most successful portraits 
both of Thalberg and Liszt, especially of the 
latter, who courted advertisement of any kind, as 




much as Thalberg treated it infra dignitatem. 
Kriehuber made a splendid portrait of Thal- 
berg, though it seems never to have gone 
largely into the trade. In fact Thalberg never 
encouraged the hero-worship of himself in any 

Thalberg appeared at the Philharmonic 
Concerts in London on May 9 and June 
6, 1836. He played at the first concert his 
Grand Fantasia, op. i, and at the second his 
Caprice No. 2 in Eb. 

The following is a list of his published com- 
positions, in the order of their opus-number, from 
the * Biographical Lexicon of the Austrian Em- 
pire' of Dr. von Wurzbach (1882). The first 
three were published as early as 1828, when he 
[6 years old. 


I. Fant&Isle et Tariations (Eu- 

S. Do. Do. (Tb£m» dcossals). 
S. Impromptu (Si6ge do Corin 


4. Souvenirs de VIenne. 

5. Gran Concerto (F minor). 

e hi*. Hommage ^ Bossini (Gull 

6. Fantalsle (Robert le Diable). 

7. Grand Divertissement (F 


8. Sechs deutsche Lleder (1—6). 

9. Fantaisle (La Straniera). 

10. Gr. Fantaisie et Variations (I 


11. Seclis deutsche Lleder (7—12). 

12. Gr. Fiintaisle et Variations 


13. Seclis deutsche Lleder aS— 18) 

14. Or. Fantaisie et Variations 

(Don Juan). 

15. Caprice B minor. 

16. 2 Nocturnes (V%, B). 

17. 2 Airs russes varies (G). 

18. DiTertissemeut (Soirees musi- 


19. 2nd Caprice (Eb). 

20. Fantaisie (Uuguenots). 
2L 3 Nocturnes. 

22. Grand Fantaisie. 

23. Sechs deutsche Lleder (19—24). 
S4. Sechs ditto do. (25-30). 

25. Sechs ditto do. (31-36). 

26. 12 Etudes. 

27. Gr. Fantaisie (God save the 

Queen and Rule Britannia) 

28. Nocturne (E). 

29. Sechs deutsche Lleder (37—42). 

30. Sechs ditto do. (43—48). 

31. Scherzo (A). 

32. Andante In D». 
S3. Fantaisie (Moise). 
84. Divertissement (Gipsy's Warn- 

88. Grand Nocturne (F{> 
86&ts. Etrennes auz Jeunes Pi- 
anistes. Nocturne. 

86. (1) La Cadence. Impromptu 

(A minor). (2) Nouv. Etude 
de Perfection. (3)Mi manca la 
voce(Ab). (4)LaKomanesca. 
(6) Canzonette Italienne. (6) 
Romance sans paroles. 

87. Fantaisie (Oberon). 

88. Romance et Etude (A). 
99. Souvenir de Beethoven. Fan- 
taisie (A minor). 

40. Fantaisie (Donna del Lago), 
41. 2 Romances sans paroles. 
42. Gr. Fantaisie (Serenade et 
Henuet, D. Juan). 

Gr. Fantaisie No. 2 (Hugue- 

Andante final de Lucia, varl^e. 

Theme orig. et Etude (A 

Gr. Caprice (Sonnambula). 

Gr. Valses brillantes. 

Gr. Caprice (Charies VI). 

Fantaisie (Lucrezia). 

Gr. Fantaisie (Semi ramide). 

Fantaisie (La Muette). 

Gr. Fantaisie (Zampa) 

Thalberg et de Beriot. Or. 
Duo concertante (Semlra- 

Le Depart. varI6e en forme 

Grand Senate (C minor). 

10 Morceaux, servant d'Ecole 

Gr. Caprice (Marche de Ber- 

59. Marche funSbre varide. 
«). Barcarole. 

61. Melodies Styrlennes Gr. Fant. 
arr. par Wolflf. 

62. Valse melodique. 

63. Gr. Fantaisie (Barbler). 

64. Les Caprlcleuses, Valses. 

65. Tarantelle. 
65. Souvenir de Festb. 

Introd. et Var. sur la Barcarole 
67 Gr. Fantaisie (Don Pasquale). 

Fantaisie (Fille du Regiment). 
69. Trio. 

0. L'Art du chant appllqud au 
Piano. 4 Series containing 
22 transcriptions. 
70 o. Ballade de Preciosa; transc. 
70 b. Grand duo de Freischiltz. 
71. Florinda, op^ra. 6 Transcrii>- 

72 or 74. Home, sweet home I . . 

73. The last rose of summer. . . 

74. Lilly Dale . . Varide. 

75. Les Soirees de Pausillppe. 24 
Fens^es musicales, in 6 

76. O^lebre Ballade. 

77. Gr. Fantaisie de Concert (H 

78. Ditto. do. (Traviata). 
a. 8 Melodies de F. Schubert 

796. Romance dramatlque. 

80. La Napolltalne. Danse. 

81. Souvenir duBallo in Maschera. 

82. Ditto de RIgoletto. 

83. Air d'AmazUy (Fernand Cor- 

JJnimnAereS pfeee*.— Anf Flttgeln (Mendelssohn) transcr.— 2 Mor- 
ceaux sur Lucrezia. -Arietta, 'No so fremar.'— Zwel Gedlchte.— 
Thalberg and Panofka, Grand Duo.— Graciosa, Rom. sans paroles.— 
Kocturno In D'\— Romance Tari4e In Eb.— Viola, Melodle.— Thalberg 
Oaloppe.— La Berceuse.— Le flls du Corse.— FauUne. Yalse.— Larmes 
d'uneieuns fllla.— Pianoforte School. 



THAYER, Alexander Wheelook, the bio. 
grapher of Beethoven, was born near Boston, 
U. S. A., at South Natick, . Massachusetts, Oct. 
2 2, 1 817, and is descended from original settlers 
of 1629. In 1843 he graduated at Harvard 
University, took the degree of Bachelor of Laws 
there, and was for a few years employed in the 
College library. In 1849 he left America for 
Europe, and remained for more than two years in 
Bonn, Berlin, Prague, and Vienna, studying Ger- 
man, corresponding with newspapers at home, and 
collecting materials for a life of Beethoven, the 
idea of which had presented itself to him while at 
Harvard, and which has since been his one serious 
pursuit for 30 years. In 1852 he tried journal- 
ism on the staff of the New York 'Tribune,' but 
only to the detriment of his health. ' Dwight's 
Journal of Music ' was started at Boston in 
April 1852, and Thayer soon became a promi- 
nent and favourite writer therein. In 1854 
he returned to Germany, and worked hard at 
the rich Beethoven materials in the Royal 
Library at Berlin for nearly a year. Hi-health 
and want of means drove him back to Boston 
in 1856, and amongst other work he there 
catalogued the musical library of Lowell Mason. 
In the summer of 1858, by Mason's help, he 
was enabled to cross once more to Europe, re- 
mained for some months in Berlin and Frank- 
fort on the Oder, and in 1859 arrived at Vienna 
more inspired than ever for his mission. A severe 
and able review of Marx's Beethoven in the 
' Atlantic Monthly,' republished in German by 
Otto Jahn, had made him known in Germany, 
and henceforth the Biography became his voca- 
tion . The next year was passed in Berlin, 
Vienna, Gratz, Linz, Salzburg, Frankfort, Bonn, 
etc., in intercourse with Hiittenbrenner, We- 
geler, Schindler and other friends of Beethoven, 
in minute investigation of documents, and in 
a fruitless visit to Paris for the sake of papers 
elucidating the history of Bonn. His next vibit 
was to London, where he secured the reminis- 
cences of Neate, Potter, and Hogarth (Neate's 
particularly valuable), and received much sub- 
stantial kindness from Chorley. From England 
he returned to Vienna, and in 1863 accepted 
a small post in the U. S. Legation there, 
afterwards exchanged for that of U. S. Consul 
at Trieste, where he still resides. His book 
is entitled *Ludwig van Beethoven's Leben.* 
It was written in English, translated into Ger- 
man by Herr H. Deiters of Bonn, and published 
by Weber of Berlin — vol. i (1770-1796) in 1866; 
vol. 3 (1792-1806) in 1873; vol. 3 (1807-1816) 
in 1879. Vol. 4 is in preparation, but can hardly 
finish the work, since ii full and complicated 
years are still left to be described. 

The quantity of new letters and facts, and 
of rectifications of dates, contained in the book 
is very great. For the first time Beethoven's life 
is placed on a solid basis of fact. At the same 
time Mr. Thayer is no slavish biographer. He 
views his hero from a perfectly independent 
point of view, and often criticises his caprice 
or harshness (as in the cases of Malzel and 



Johann Beethoven) very sharply. When the 
work is completed it will be a mine of accurate 
information, indispensable for all future stu- 
dents. With some condensations an English 
edition would be very welcome. 

Besides the Biography, Mr. Thayer is the 
author of counties^ articles in American news- 
papers; of 'Signer Masoni' (Berlin, Schnei- 
der, 1862) ; of *Ein kritischer Beitrag zur Bee- 
thoven-Literatur ' (Berlin, Weber, 1877); ^^^ 
of 'The Hebrews and the Red Sea' (Andover, 
Mass., Draper). [G.] 

THEATRE. A terra usually employed in 
England for a house in which plays are acted, 
in contradistinction to an opera-house, in which 
musical pieces are performed. Abroad this dis- 
tinction, either of house or word, does not pre- 
vail to at all the same extent as here. [G.] 

THEILE, Johann, known to his contem- 
poraries as 'the father of contrapuntists,' the 
son of a tailor, was born at Naumburg, July 29, 
1646, learned music under great difficulties at 
Halle and Leipzig, and became a pupil of the 
great Heinrich Schtitz. In 1673 he became 
Capellmeister to the Duke of Holstein at Got- 
torp, and in 1678 produced a Singspiel, 'Adam 
and Eva,' and an opera, ' Orontes,' at Hamburg. 
In 1685 he became Capellmeister at Wolfen- 
biittel, then went to Merseburg and finally back 
to his native town, where he died in 1724. 
Buxtehude, Hasse, and Zachau were all his 
scholars. His principal works are a German 
Passion (Liibeck 1675) ; a Christmas Oratorio 
(Hamburg, 1681, MS.) ; * Noviter inventum 
opus musicalis compositionis 4 et 5 vocum,' etc. 

20 masses in Palestrina style ; Opus secundum 

— instrumental; two treatises on double counter- 
point, 1 69 1. Korner has printed in the ' Orgel- 
virtuos' No. 65 a chorale by Theile, which is 
characterised by Spitta (Bach, i. p. 98) as 'very 
scientific but intolerably pedantic and stifi".' 
No other work of his appears to have been 
reprinted. [G.] 

of musical works, in which, in addition to the 
title and other particulars of each, the first few 
bars— the theme— either of the whole work or of 
each movement are given in musical notation. 

1. The earliest published list of this description 
was in six parts, issued between 1762 and 
1765, and 16 supplements extending from 1766 
to 1787, the whole forming a thick 8vo. volume 
of 792 pages. Part I is signed by Johann Gottlob 
Immanuel Breitkopf, the virtual founder of the 
great firm. [See vol. i. p. 272.] It is mentioned 
by Burney in his Musical Tour (ii. 74). 

2. Haydn, towards the end of his life (1797), 
made a thematic catalogue of a large number 
of his works. This has not been printed, but 
copies have been made by Dehn, Otto Jahn, 
and others. It is now superseded by the com- 
plete thematic list which forms so valuable a 
part of Mr. C. F. Pohl's ' Life of Haydn ' (i. 284, 
etc.; 317, etc.; 334; 345 J ii. Anhang). 

3. A thematic catalogue has been preserved, in 

which Mozart entered his works as he composed 
them, from Feb. 9, 1784, to Nov. 15, 1791. This 
interesting document was published by Andre in 
Nov. 1828. The title, in Mozart's hand, runs as 
follows :— 

aller meaner Werke 
vom Monath Febraio 1784 bia Monath 1. 

Wolfgang Amade Mozart. 
It contains 145 works, begins with the PF. con- 
certo in Eb (K. 449), * 9te Hornung,' ^ 1 784, and 
ends with the ' kleine Freymaurer Kantate,* 
Nov. 15, 1 791 — nineteen days before his death. 

4. A thematic catalogue of the MSS. by Mozart 
then in the hands of Andre — an octavo pamphlet 
of 79 closely printed pages — was published by 
him at Offenbach on May i, 1841 ; one of 172 
important symphonies and overtures was issued 
by Hofmeister in 1831 ; and one of Mozart's 
PF. sonatas, prepared by Edward Holmes, by 
Messrs. NoveUo & Co. in 1849. 

5. In 1851, Breitkopf & Hartel published their 
first thematic catalogue of Beethoven's works. 
This was a thick volume of 167 pages, large 
8vo, and a great advance on anything before 
it. It is arranged in order of opus-numbers, 
with names of dedicatees and publishers, arrange- 
ments, etc. The 2nd edition, 1868, is much en- 
larged (220 pages) by the addition of many 
interesting particulars, dedications, dates of com- 
position, etc. It is in fact a new work, and is a 
model of accuracy, as may be infei-red from the 
name of its compiler, Gustav Nottebohm. So is 
the Catalogue of Schubert by the same inde- 
fatigable explorer and critic — 288 pages, pub- 
lished by Schreiber. Vienna, 1 8 74, dealing both 
with the published and the unpublished works, 
and extraordinarily accurate considering the im- 
mense difficulties involved. Catalogues of Men- 
delssohn, Schumann, Chopin, and Liszt have been 
published by Breitkopf; of Moscheles by Kistner ; 
and of Bach's instrumental works in Peters's 
collected edition (by A. Dorffel, Aug. 1867). 

Two Catalogues stand apart from the rest 
owing to the vast amount of information that 
they contain, and still more to the important fact 
that they are arranged in the chronological order 
of the composition of the works — the only real 
method of contemplating the productions of a 
composer. These are Von Kochel's ' Chronolog- 
isch-thematisches Verzeichniss ' of all Mozart's 
works (Breitkopfs, 1862, 551 pages), and Jahns's 
' Carl Maria von Weber in seinen Werken. 
Chron. Them. Verzeichniss,' etc. (Schlesinger, 
1 87 1 — 480 pages, and 8 pages more of facsimiles 
of handwriting). These two works (the latter 
perhaps a trifle overdone) are indispensable to 
all students. [G.] 

THEME— t.g. Subject, or Text (Ital. B Tema,^ 
H Soggetto, H Motivo ; Germ, from Lat. Thema, 
from Ital. Motiv ; Fr. Tli^me, Air). A term 
only to be applied, in its fullest significance, to 
the principal subject of a musical composition ; 

1 The old German term for February. 

a Used thus, with the masculine article, In order to dlstingulsli « 
from La Tema (fear). 





although, in general language, it is frequently 
used to denote a Subject of any kind, whether 
of a leading or subsidiary character. From the 
time of Sebastian Bach to our own, the terms 
Theme and Subject have been used with much 
looseness. In his ' Musikalisches Opfer,' Bach 
designates the Motivo given to him by Frederick 
the Great as 'II Soggetto reale,' in one place, 
and ' Thema regium * in another ; thus proving, 
conclusively, that he considered the two terms as 
interchangeable. But, in another work, founded 
on a Motivo by Legrenzi, he calls the principal 
Subject • Thema,' and the Counter-Subject * Sub- 
jectum'; and this is unquestionably the more 
correct method of using the terms. [See SuB- 
JEC3T, vol. iii. p. 749.] 

A familiar application of the word ' Thema ' is 
found in connection with a Subject followed by 
Variations ; as, ' Tema con Variazioni,' with its 
equivalent in other languages. In the 18th 
century, this form of composition was called 
*Air et Doubles'; the substitution of the word 
'Doubles' for * Variations,' clearly owing its origin 
to the then almost universal custom of wiiting 
the two first Variations in the Second and Third 
Orders of Counterpoint — that is to say, in notes 
the rapidity of which was doubled at each new 
form of development. [W.S.R.] 

THEORBO (Fr. Thdorbe, Tuorbe ; Ital. Tiorba 
or Tuorha, also Archi- 
liuto). The large 
double-necked lute with 
two sets of tuning pegs, 
the lower set holding 
the strings which lie 
over the fretted finger- 
board, while the upper 
set are attached to the 
bass strings, or so -called 
diapasons, which are 
used as open notes. 
The illustration has 
been engraved from a 
specimen at South 
Kensington Museum, 
According to Baron's 
* Untersuchung des In- 
struments d. Lauten* 
thePaduan theorbo was 
the true one. The Eng- 
lish Archlute of that 
time, so frequently 
named as an alterna- 
tive to the harpsichord 
or organ for the Basso 
Continuo or 'Through 
Base' accompaniment, 
was such a theorbo, 
and we must, onBaron's 
authority, allow it a 
deeper register than 
has been stated in the 
article Abchlute [vol, 
i. p. 81]. He gives 

— eight notes on the fingerboard and nine off. 
This is the old lute-tuning of Thomas Mace 
('Musick's Monument,' London 1676), who says 
(p. -207) that the theorbo is no other than the 
old English lute. But early in the 1 7 th century 
many large lutes had been altered to theorbos 
by substituting double necks for the original 
single ones. These altered lutes, called, accord- 
ing to Mersenne, * luth tdorbd ' or ' liuto attior- 
bato,' retained the double strings in the bass. 
The theorbo engraved in Mersenne's ' Harmonie 
Universelle ' (Paris, 1636) is really a theorboed 
lute. He gives it the following accordance : — 

The Chanterelle single. For the ' Tuorbe ' as 
practised at Rome the same authority gives 
(p. 88)- 




In the musical correspondence of Huygens, 
edited by Jonckbloet and Land, and published 
(1882) at Leyden, is to be found a letter of 
Huygens wherein he wishes to acquire a large 
lute, to elevate it to the quality of a theorbo, 
for which he considered it from its size more 
fit. The same interesting work enables the 
writer to make some corrections to Lute. [See 
vol. ii. p. 177 &.] It was Charles I who bought 
a Laux Maler lute for £100 sterling, and 
gave it to his lutenist, whose name should be 
spelt Gaultier.* The lute had belonged to Jehan 
Ballard, another famous lutenist who never would 
part with it. The King bought it of his heritors. 
Two other corrections in the same article may 
be here appropriately introduced. As M. Chou- 
quet has pointed out, the wood of old lutes 
could not be used for repairing fiddles. What hap- 
pened was, the lutes were transformed into Vielles 
or Hurdy-gurdies. Professor Land suggests that 
Luther is a local name. Lutemaker in German 
would be Lauter. The drawing of the Maler 
lute, vol. ii. p. 1 76, shows a guitar head and single 
stiinging, which became adopted before the lute 
went entirely out. Following Gaultier in the 
Huygens correspondence, Maler's period was 
about 1500-20, later than the date given by Carl 

Prjetorius ('Organographia,* Wolfenbiittel 
1619, p. 50), with whom Mersenne agrees, 
states that the diflference between lute and the- 
orbo is that the lute has double and the theorbo 
single basses. The Paduan theorbo is about 4 ft. 
7 ins. high. Praetorius, in the work referred to 

1 Huygens met Gaultier In England, In 1C22 at the EilliKrewi^ 
whoK musical reunions he remembered all his life. 


{V' 52). seems to prefer the Roman theorbo or 
Chitarronb, which, although according to his 
measurement about 6 ft. i in. in height, is not 
so broad in the body or so awkward to hold 
and grasp as the Paduan. Baron praises espe- 
cially the Roman theorbos of Buchenberg or 
Buckenberg, a German lute-maker, who was 
living at Rome about a.d. 1606. His instru- 
ments had ' ovalround ' bodies of symmetrical 
form and a delicate and penetrating metallic 
timbre ; a criterion of good tone in a stringed 

Mace regards the lute as a solo instrument, 
and the theorbo as a concert or accompanying 
instrument : the name theorbo, however it origin- 
ated, certainly became fixed to the double-necked 
lute ; which first appeared with the introduction 
of opera and oratorio, when real part-playing was 
exchanged for the chords of the figured bass. 
Merseime ('Harmonicorum,' Kb. xii. Paris, 1636) 
calls it 'Cithara bijuga.' One account credits 
the invention of the double neck to a Signor 
Tiorba about 1600. Athanasius Kircher (*Mu- 
surgia,' Rome 1650, cap. ii. p. 476) attributes 
the introduction of the theorbo to a Neapolitan 
market follower, who gave it the name in a joke. 
His idea, says the same authority, was brought 
to perfection by a noble German, Hieronymus 
Capsberger. M.Victor Mahillon, in his catalogue 
of the Brussels Museum (1880, p. 249), names as 
the inventor, a Roman called Bardella (properly 
Antonio Naldi) who was in the service of the 
Medicis, and was much praised by Caccini in 
the preface to 'Nuove Musiche' (a.d. 1601). 
These attributions all centre in the same epoch, 
that of the rise of accompaniment. The theorbo 
was last written for by Handel, as late as 1732, 
in the oratorio of ' Esther,' in combination with 
a harp, to accompany the song * Breathe soft, ye 
winds,' a fact which would seem to support 
Mace's view of its being an orchestral instrument. 
The Archiliuto also appears in 'Deborah,' 1733, 
in ' Gentle Airs.' It remained in occasional use 
until the end of the i8th century. Breitkopf's 
Thematic Catalogue for 1 769 contains eight pages 
of * Partite per il Liuto solo.' 

The drawing to Aechlute and Chitarronb 
should be referred to. [A.J.H.] 

THEORY. A term often used in England to 
express the knowledge of Harmony, Counter- 
point, Thorough-bass, etc., as distinguished fi^om 
the art of playing, which is in the same way called 
* Practice.* ' The theory and practice of music' is 
an expression often heard, and to be interpreted 
as above. [G.] 

THESIS (from 06<tis, a putting down), an an- 
cient musical term, the opposite of Arsis. [See 
vol. i. p. 95&]. It is now only occasionally 
employed for the down -beat of the bar in con- 
ducting. [G.] 

Comic opera in 2 acts ; words by W. S. Gilbert, 
music by Arthur Sullivan. Produced at the Gaiety 
Theatre, Dec. 23, 1871, the tenor part being 
taken by Mr. Toole. It ran 80 nights con- 



secutively, but has not been revived. Thespis 
was the first of the series of Gilbert-Sullivan 
pieces which have proved so popular. [G.] 

THIBAUT, Anton Friedrich Justus, born 
Jan. 4, 1772, at Hameln on the Weser, studied 
law at Gottingen, became tutor at Konlgsberg, 
and law-professor at the University of Kiel, 
then at Jena, and in 1805 at Heidelberg, where 
he remained till his death, March 25, 1840. The 
Archduke of Baden made him Geheimrath. He 
was an ardent admirer of the old Italian church- 
composers, especially of Palestrina, and founded 
a society for the practice of such music at his 
own house. ^ The performances took place be- 
fore a select circle of invited guests, and were 
distinguished for their variety, Thibaut placing 
at their disposal the whole of his valuable and 
scarce collection of music. After his death 
Heidelberg no longer took the same interest in 
the Palestrina school, but in the meantime a 
large proportion of the professors and amateurs 
of Germany had become familiarised with one 
of the noblest and most elevating branches of 
the art. Mendelssohn for instance writes with 
the greatest enthusiasm about Thibaut, 'There 
is but one Thibaut,' he says, 'but he is as good 
as half a dozen. He is a man.' Again, in a 
letter to his mother from Heidelberg, dated 
Sept. 20, 1827, is the following characteristic 
passage. 'It is very singular, the man knows 
little of music, not much even of the history of 
it, he goes almost entirely by instinct ; I know 
more about it than he does, and yet I have 
learned a great deal from him, and feel I owe 
him much. He has thrown quite a new light 
on the old Italian church music, and has fired 
me with his lava-stream. He talks of it all 
with such glow and enthusiasm that one might 
say his speech Uossoms. I have just come from 
taking leave of him, and as I was saying that 
he did not yet know the highest and best of 
all, for that in John Sebastian Bach the best of 
everything was to be found, he said Good- 
bye, we will knit our friendship in Luis da 
Vittoria (Palestrina's favourite pupil, and the 
best exponent of his traditions) and then we 
shall be like two lovers, each looking at the full 
moon, and in that act no longer feeling their 
separation.' ^ 

One of Thibaut's greatest services to the cause 
of art was his collection of music, which included 
a very valuable series of Volkslieder of all nations. 
The catalogue was published in 1 847 (Heidelberg) 
and Thibaut's widow endeavoured to sell it to 
one of the public libraries of Germany, but was 
unable to do so till 1850, when it was acquired 
for the court library of Munich. Of still greater 
value is his book 'Ueber Reinheit der Tonkiinst* 
(Heidelberg 1825, with portrait of Palestrina; 
2nd edition 1826). The title does not indicate 
(as his friend Bahr observes in the preface to 
the 3rd edition, 1853) purity either of con- 
struction or execution, but purity of the art 

1 From this, Gervlnus seems to have taken the Idea of his Sodetf 
for the cultivation of Handel's music. 
i « See • The Mendelssohn Family.' vol. 1. p. 138. 



itself. Music was to him an elevating, I might 
Bay a moral, art, and this treatise may justly 
claim to have exercised a moral influence. Thibaut 
maintains that as there is music which acts 
as a powerful agent in purifying and cultivating 
the mind, so there is music which has as de- 
praving an influence as that exercised by im- 
moral literature. From this point of view he 
urges the necessity of purity in music, and sets 
himself firmly against all that is shallow, com- 
mon, unhealthy or frivolous. But this is diflfi- 
cult ground. His idea of impurity may be 
gathered from the fact that in the essay on instru- 
mentation he unhesitatingly condemns the flutes, 
clarinets, and bassoons, added by Mozart to 'The 
people that walked in darkness,' urging that they 
entirely change the character of the piece. He also 
strongly censures the frequent changes of tempo 
and expression by which Mozart gives colour 
to his splendid motet 'Misericordias Domine.' 
The remaining articles are on the following 
topics : — The Chorale ; Church-music outside the 
Chorale ; Volksgesange ; The study of models as 
a means of culture ; Instrumentation as a means of 
effect ; the great masters compared ; Versatility ; 
Corruptions of the text ; and Choral unions. It 
is not too much to say that this book, dealing as 
it does in a spirit of great earnestness with 
questions which are at this moment agitating 
the musical world, will always be of interest. 
The last German edition came out in 1861. 
The English version ('Purity in Musical Art,' 
John Murray 1877) is by Mr. W. H. Gladstone, 
son of the Premier. [F-GrO 

THILLON, Anna, was bom in 1819 in Lon- 
don. Her father's name was Hunt. At the age 
of fourteen she left England for France with her 
mother and sister, and received instruction from 
Bordogni, Tadolini, and M. Thillon, conductor of 
the Havre Philharmonic Society, whom she mar- 
ried at the early age of fifteen. She appeared at 
Havre, Clermont, and Nantes, with such success 
as to obtain an engagement at the Th^^tre de la 
Renaissance, Paris (Salle Ventadour), where she 
made her debut Nov. 15, 1838, as the heroine, on 
the production of Grisar's * Lady Melvil.' She 
was very popular in that and several new operas, 
as Argentine in *L*Eau Merveilleuse,' Grisar; 
D^nise in *La Chasse Royale,' Godefroid; La 
chaste Suzanne, Monpou; etc. Her voice was 
a 'soprano sfogato' of marvellous timbre, from 
Bb below the stave to Eb in alt., and, combined 
with her personal charms, it obtained for her the 
favour of the public in a remarkable degree. In 
August 1840 she first appeared at the Opdra 
Comique as Mathilde in *La Neige.' She next 
played Elizabeth in 'Lestocq,' and became a 
great favourite with Auber, who gave her in- 
struction, and composed 'Les Diamans de la 
Couronne' (produced March 6, 1841) expressly 
for her. She also sustained the parts of Bianca 
di Molina and Casilda in his *Duc d'Olonne' 
and *Part du Diable' on their production. 
Mme. ThiUon also created Geraldine (• Les Puits 
d' Amour'), Balfe; Gorilla ('Cagliostro'), Adam ; 
Maro[uise de Gfevres ('Sainte Cecile*); Montfort; 


and played Laurette on the revival of Gr^try's 
* Richard Coeur de Lion.' On May 2, 1 844, she first 
appeared in public in England at the Princess's 
in the * Crown Diamonds,' and met with extra- 
ordinary success, both on account of her voice, 
her charming acting and attractive manners; 
and the opera, then first produced in England, 
ran to the end of the season. She was also well 
received at the Philharmonic and other concerts. 
She afterwards appeared in England in 45 and 
46 at Drury Lane, playing Stella in the 'En- 
chantress,' on its production May 14, 45, a part 
composed expressly for her by Balfe ; in 46 at 
the Haymarket in * Le Domino noir ' and * L'Eau 
merveilleuse'; and in 48 at the Princess's in 
*La Fille du Regiment.' She also played at 
Brussels and in the French and English provinces, 
and from 51 to 54 in America, first introducing 
opera at San Francisco. She reappeared in 
54 at JuUien's concerts, after which she was 
only heard at intervals, on account of a severe 
throat attack. Her last appearances in opera 
were in 1856 at the Lyceum as La Catarina. The 
performances ended abruptly on account of her 
illness. She was last heard in public at Kuhe's 
Festival of 1867. She and her husband now reside 
at Torquay. [A.C.] 

THIRD. One of the most important intervals 
in modem music, since, by one or other of its 
principal forms, it supplies the means of de- 
finition in all the most characteristic chords. 
Three forms are met with in modern music- 
major, minor, and diminished. The first of these 
occurs most characteristically in the major scale 
between the Tonic and the Mediant — as between 
C and E in the key of C (a). It is also an im- 
l^ortant factor in the Dominant chord, whether in 
the major or minor mode — as between G and B 
in the Dominant of the key of C (6). The minor 
third occurs most characteristically in the minor 
scale as the converse to the principal major third 
in the major scale ; that is, between Tonic and 
Mediant ; as C and Eb in C minor (c). It also 
makes its appearance characteristically in the 
chord of the subdominant — as F-Ab in C minor 
(d) ; but both this minor third and the major 

third of the dominant chord are sometimes sup- 
planted by major and minor thirds respectively 
for the convenience of melodic progression in 
the minor mode. In all fundamental discords, 
such as the Dominant seventh and Dominant 
major and minor ninths, the first interval from 
the root-note in the original position of the 
chord is a major third. 

The major third is well represented in the 
series of partial tones or harmonics, by the tone 
which comes fourth in order, and stands in the 
second octave from the prime tone or generator. 

The ratio of the sounds of the major third is 
4 : 5, and that of the minor third 5 : 6. Thirds 
were not accepted by the ancients as consonances. 




and when they began to come into use in the 
early middle ages as so-called imperfect con- 
sonances the major third used was that commonly 
known as the Pythagorean third, which is ar- 
rived at by taking four fifths from the lower 
note. The ratio of this interval is 64: 8i, and 
it is therefore considerably sharper than the just 
or natural third ; while the major third of equal 
temperament generally used in modem music lies 
between the two, but a little nearer to the 
Pythagorean third. 

The resultant tones of thirds are strong. That 
of the major third is two octaves lower than the 
lowest of the two notes, and that of the minor 
third two octaves and a major third. 

Diminished thirds are rough dissonances ; they 
occur in modem music as the inversions of aug- 
mented sixths, as FjJ — Ab (e) ; and their ratio 
is 225 : 256. They are of powerful effect, but are 
sparingly used by great masters of the art. They 
rarely appear in the position of actual thirds, but 
more commonly in the extended position as dimin- 
ished tenths. [C.H.H.P.] 

THIRLWALL, John Wade, born Jan. 11, 
1809, at a Northumbrian village named Shil- 
bottle, was the son of an engineer who had been 
the playmate of George Stephenson. He ap- 
peared in public before he was 8 years old, at 
the Newcastle Theatre, afterwards became music 
director at the Durham Theatre, and was en- 
gaged by the Duke of Northumberland to collect 
Northumbrian airs. He subsequently came to 
London, was employed in the Opera band, and 
was music director at Drury Lane, the Hay- 
market, Olympic, and Adelphi Theatres suc- 
cessively. After the death of Nadaud in 1864 
he was appointed conductor of the ballet music 
at the Royal Italian Opera. In 1843 he com- 
posed the music for * A Book of Ballads,' one of 
which, ' The Sunny Days of Childhood,' was very 
popular ; also many songs, violin solos, and in- 
strumental trios. He was for some time music 
critic to the ' Pictorial Times,' * Literary Gazette,' 
and 'Court Circular.' Besides music he culti- 
vated poetry and painting, and in 1872 published 
a volume of poems. He died June 15, 1875. 

His daughter and pupil, Annie, a soprano 
singer, first appeared at the National Concerts, 
Exeter Hall, in 1855. On Feb. 4, 1856, she 
first performed on the stage at the Strand Thea- 
tre, whence she removed to the Olympic, Oct. 1 2, 
1856. In Oct. 1859 she joined the Pyne and 
Harrison company at Covent Garden. A few 
years afterwards she became the leading member 
of an English-Opera company which performed 
in the provinces, and retired in 1876. [W. H. H.] 

THOINAN, Ernest, the nom de plume of 
Ernest Roquet, a distinguished amateur and col- 
lector of works on music. From collecting he 
advanced to writing, first as a contributor to ' La 
France musicale,' •£' Art musical,' and others. His 
essays in these periodicals he has since pub- 
lished : — *La Musique k Paris en 1862 ' (Paris, 
1863) ; • L'Opera des Troy ens au Pdre La chaise' 
(1863); *Les origines de la Chapelle musique 
des souverains de France ' (1864); 'Les deplora- 

tions de Guillaume Crestin' (1864) » * Mangars' 
(1865) ; • Antoine de Consu' (1866) ; 'Curiosit^s 
musicales' (1866); * Un Bisaieul de Molifere : 
recherches sur les Mazuel' (1878); Louis Con- 
stantin, roi des violons' (1878); 'Notes biblio- 
graphiques sur la guerre des Gluckistes et des 
Piccinnistes ' (1878). These pamphlets contain 
much curious information, and many corrections 
of F^tis's mistakes. He has also republished 
the very scarce * Entretien des musiciens,' by 
Annibal Gantaz (1878), with notes and ex- 
planations. He has in preparation a book on 
Lully, said to embody many unpublished docu- 
ments. .[Gr.C] 

THOMAS, Arthue Goring, born at Ratton, 
Sussex, in November, 1851, was educated for 
another profession and did not begin to study 
music seriously until after he came of age. In 
1875 he went to Paris, and studied for two years 
under M. Emile Durand. On his return to 
England he entered the Royal Academy, studied 
there for three years under Messrs. Sullivan and 
Prout, and twice gained the annual prize for 
composition. His principal compositions are an 
opera in 3 acts (MS.), libretto by Mr. Clifford 
Harrison, on Moore's poem *The Light of the 
Harem ' ; four Concert-scenas, two of which have 
been performed in London and one at the Crystal 
Palace ; an anthem for soprano solo, chorus, and 
orchestra, performed at S. James's Hall in 1878 ; 
some detached pieces for orchestra ; ballet music, 
etc. ; a number of songs ; and a cantata, 'The Sun- 
worshippers,' given with success at the Norwich 
Festival in 1881. His 4-act opera, 'Esmeralda,' 
words by Randegger and Marzials, was produced 
by Carl Rosa at Drury Lane, March 26, 1883, 
with great success, and has since been reproduced 
at Cologne. [W.B.S.] 

THOMAS, Charles Ambroise, eminent 
French composer, bom at Metz, Aug. 5, 1811. 
The son of a musician, he learnt his notes with 
his alphabet, and while still a child played the 
piano and violin. Having entered the Paris 
Conservatoire in 1828, he carried off the first 
prize for piano in 1829, for harmony in 1830, 
and the Grand Prix in 1832. He also studied 
the piano with Kalkbrenner, harmony with Bar- 
bereau, and composition with the venerable Le- 
sueur, who used to call him his 'note sensible' 
(leading-note), because he was extremely sensi- 
tive, and the seventh of his pupils who had 
gained the Prix de Rome. His cantata * Her- 
mann und Ketty ' was engraved, as were also 
the works composed during his stay in Italy, 
immediately after his return. The latter com- 
prise a string-quartet and quintet; a trio for 
PF., violin, and cello ; a fantasia for PF, and 
orchestra ; PF. pieces for 2 and 4 hands ; 6 
Italian songs; 3 motets with organ; and a 
' Messe de Requiem ' with orchestra. 

Early works of this calibre gave promise of 
a musician who would work hard, produce much, 
and by no means rest content with academical 
honours. He soon gained access to the Op^ra 
Comique, and produced there with success 'La 
double Echelle,' i act (Aug. 23, 1837); 'Le 



Perruquier de la licence,' 3 acts (Maxell 30, 
1838) ; and * Le Panier fleuri/ i act (May 6, 
1839). Ambition however prompted him to 
attempt the Academic, and there he produced 
*La Gipsy * (Jan. 28, 1839), a ballet in 3 acts, of 
which the 2nd only was his; 'Le Comte de 
Carmagnola' (April 19, 1841) ; * Le Guerillero ' 
(June 2, 1842), both in 2 acts; and 'Betty' 
(July 10, 1846), ballet in 2 acts: but it was hard 
for so young a composer to hold his own with 
Auber, Halevy, Meyerbeer, and Donizetti, so 
Thomas returned to the Op^ra Comique. There 
he composed successively * Carline,* 3 acts (Feb. 
24, 1840) ; 'Ang^Iique et MMor,' i act (May 10, 
1843); *Mina,' 3 acts (Oct. 10, 1843); 'Le 
Caid,' 2 acts (Jan, 3, 1849); *Le Songe d'une 
nuit d'dt^,' 3 acts (April 20, 1850) ; 'Raymond,' 
3 acts (June 5, 1851); *La Tonelli,' 2 acts 
(March .^o, 1853); *La Cour de C^limfene/ 2 
acts (April 11, 1855) ; 'Psych^,' 3 acts (Jan. 26, 
1857, revived with additions May 21, 1878) ; 
'Le Camaval de Venise,' 3 acts (Dec. 9, 1853); 
•Le Roman d'Elvire,' 3 acts (Feb. 3, i860); 
'Mignon,' 3 acts (Nov. 17, i866) ; and 'Gille et 
Gillotin,' I act, composed in 1861, but not pro- 
duced till April 22, 1874. To these must be 
added two cantatas composed for the inaugura- 
tion of a statue to Lesueur at Abbeville (Aug, 10, 
1852), and for the Boieldieu centenary at Rouen 
(June 13, 1875) ; a * Messe Solennelle' (Nov. 22, 
1857), a 'Marche R^ligieuse * (Nov. 22, 1865) 
composed for the Association des Artistes 
Musiciens; and a quantity of part-songs and 
choral scenas, such as 'France,' 'Le Tjnrol,' 'L'At- 
lantique,' 'Le Carnavalde Rome,' ' LesTraineaux,' 
* La Nuit du Sabbat,' etc. The life and dramatic 
movement of his unaccompanied part-songs for 
men's voices showed the essentially dramatic 
nature of M. Thomas's genius, which after en- 
larging the limits of opera comique, found a 
congenial though formidable subject in * Hamlet,' 
5 acts (March 9, 1868). The Prince of Denmark 
was originally cast for a tenor, but there being 
at that time no tenor at the Opdra capable of 
creating such a part, Thomas altered the music 
to suit a baritone, and entrusted it to Faure. 
The success of this great work following im- 
mediately on that secured by ' Mignon,' pointed 
out its composer as the right man to succeed 
Auber as director of the Conservatoire^ (July 6, 
1871). The work he has done there— daily in- 
creasing in importance — has been already de- 
scribed. [See CoNSERVATOiBE, vol. i. 393.] A 
post of this nature leaves scant leisure for other 
employment, and during the last twelve years M. 
Tliomas has composed nothing beyond the solfeg- 
gios and exercises for the examinations, except 
one opera ' Fran9oise de Rimini ' (April 14, 1882), 
the prologue and fourth act of which are en- 
titled to rank with his 'Hamlet.' 

The musical career of Ambroise Thomas may 
be divided into three distinct periods. The first 
period extended to 1848, and, taking 'Mina' 
and 'Betty' as specimens, its main characteristics 

1 He had been Professor of Composition since 1852 and a 
of the lostitate from 1861. 


were elegance and grace. The second began 
with the op^ra bouffe ' Le Caid/ the refined wit 
of which was a protest against the hackneyed 
phrases and forced declamation of the Italian 
school, and continuing with *Le Songe d'une 
Nuit d'dt^,' ' Raymond,' and 'Psych^,' all works 
novel in form, and poetic in idea, ended in i86i. 
The last 20 years include * Mignon,* * Hamlet/ 
and • Fran9oise de Rimini,' all full of earnest 
thought, and showing continuous progress. 

Carrying forward the work begun by Harold, 
he brings to his task an inborn instinct for the 
stage, and a remarkable gift of interpreting 
dramatic situations of the most varied and op- 
posite kinds. His skill in handling the orchestra 
is consummate, both in grouping instruments of 
different timbre, and obtaining new effects of 
sound ; but though carrying orchestral colouring 
to the utmost pitch of perfection, he never allows 
it to overpower the voices. With a little more 
boldness and individuality of melody this accom- 
plished writer, artist, and poet — master of all 
moods and passing in turn from melancholy 
musings to the liveliest banter — would rank with 
the leaders of the modern school of composers ; 
as it is, the purity and diversity of his style 
make him a first-rate dramatic composer. 

Ambroise Thomas is one of the few survivors 
of a society of eminent artists — Gatteaux, Baltard, 
Hippolyte Flandrin, Alexandre Hesse, and many 
others — who gathered round Ingres as their head. 
Intimate from his youth with the family of 
Horace Vernet, he was much in good society, 
though it would be unfair to call him devoted 
to it. Tall, slender, and fond of physical exer- 
tion, he enjoys country life, but he is also known 
as a connoisseur of old furniture and hHc-a-brac, 
and an assiduous fi'equenter of the Hotel 
Drouot. Indeed his rooms at the Conservatoire, 
his villa at Argenteuil, and his island retreat 
at Zilliec in Brittany, may almost be called 
museums. M. Thomas was made a Grand Cross 
of the Legion of Honour in 1880. 

There is a fine oil-painting of him by Hippolyte 
Flandrin, a terra-cotta bust by Doublemard, and 
a marble bust and medallion, the last a striking 
likeness, by Oudind. [G.Cj 

THOMAS, Harold, bom at Cheltenham, 
July 8, 1834, a favourite pupil of Stemdale 
Bennett, under whom he was placed at the Royal 
Academy of Music at a very early age. His 
other masters were Cipriani Potter (theory), and 
Henry Blagrove (violin). He made his first ap- 
pearance as a pianist at a Royal Academy Con- 
cert, May 25, 1850, and after this appeared 
frequently at the same concerts, both as pianist 
and composer. In 1858, Mr. Thomas played 
before the Queen and Prince Consort at Windsor, 
and in 1864 played Bennett's First Concerto at 
the Philharmonic. A few years later, he retired 
from public life and devoted himself to teaching. 
Mr. Thomas is now Professor of the piano at the 
Royal Acadeniy of Music, and the Guildhall 
School of Music. His compositions include many 
original piano pieces, some songs, many arrange- 
ments, etc., and three overtures for orchestra : — 


* Overture for a Comedy ' ; * As you like it,* 
produced by the Musical Society of London in 
1864; and 'Mountain, Lake, and Moorland,' 
produced at the Philharmonic in 1880. The 
last two works have been frequently played with 
great success. [W.B.S.] 

THOMAS, John (known in Wales as * Pen- 
cerdd Gwalia,' i.e. chief of the Welsh minstrels, 
a title conferred on him at the Aberdare 
Eisteddfod of 1861), a very distinguished harpist, 
was born at Bridgend, Glamorganshire, on St. 
David's Day, 1826. He played the piccolo when 
only four, and when eleven won a harp at an 
Eisteddfod. In 1840 he was placed by Ada, 
Countess of Lovelace (Byron's daughter), at the 
Royal Academy, where he studied under J. B. 
Chatterton (harp), C. J. Read (piano), and Lu- 
cas and Cipriani Potter (composition). He re- 
mained at the Academy for about eight years, 
during which time he composed a harp concerto, a 
symphony, several overtures, quartets, two operas, 
etc. On leaving the Academy he was made in 
succession Associate, Honorary Member, and 
Professor of the Harp. In 185 1 he played in 
the orchestra of Her Majesty's Opera, and in the 
same year went a concert tour on the continent, 
a practice he continued during the winter months 
of the next ten years, playing successively in 
France, Germany, Russia, Austria, and Italy. In 
1862 Mr. Thomas published a valuable collection 
of Welsh melodies, and in the same year gave 
with great success the first concert of Welsh 
music in London. In 1871 he was appointed 
conductor of a Welsh Choral Union, which for 
six years gave six concerts annually. In 1872, 
on the death of Mr. J. B. Chatterton, he was 
appointed Harpist to the Queen, and is now 
teacher of the harp at the Royal College of 

Mr. Thomas has always taken a deep interest 
in the music of his native country. There 
has scarcely been an Eisteddfod of importance 
held during the last twenty years at which 
he has not appeared as both adjudicator and 
performer, and he has recently (1883) collected 
a large sum with which he has endowed a per- 
manent scholarship for Wales at the Royal 
Academy of Music. In 1866, at the Chester 
Eisteddfod, he was presented with a purse of 
500 guineas in recognition of his services to 
Welsh music. Mr. Thomas is a member of 
the Academies of St. Cecilia and the Philhar- 
monic of Rome, the Florentine Philharmonic, 
and the Royal Academy, Philharmonic, and 
Royal Society of Musicians, of London. His 
compositions include a large amount of harp 
music, amongst which are 2 concertos, one of 
which was played at the Philharmonic in 1852 ; 
' Llewelyn,' a cantata for the Swansea Eisteddfod 
(1863) ; and 'The Bride of Neath Valley,' for 
the Chester Eisteddfod (1866). [W.B.S.] 

THOMAS, Lewis William, bom in Bath, of 
Welsh parents, learnt singing under Bianchi Tay- 
lor, and in 1850, when 24, was appointed lay-clerk 
in Worcester Cathedral. In 1852 he was made 
master of the choristers, and during the next few 



years sang frequently at Birmingham, Gloucester, 
Hereford, and Worcester. In 1854 he made his 
first appearance in London, at St. Martin's Hall; 
in 1855 ^^ sang at the Sacred Harmonic, and 
in 1856 settled in London, with an appoint- 
ment at St. Paul's. In the following year 
Mr. Thomas left St. Paul's for the choir of the 
Temple Church, and in the same year was ap- 
pointed a gentleman of Her Majesty's Chapel 
Royal. In 1857 he had lessons of Mr. Randegger, 
and appeared under his direction on the operatic 
stage, which however he soon abandoned for the 
concert-room, where he is chiefly known as a 
bass singer of oratorio music. During the last 
few years Mr. Thomas has been a contributor 
to the press on matters connected with music 
and art. [W.B.S.] 

THOMAS, Theodore, born Oct. 11, 1835, at 
Esens, in Hanover ; received his first musical 
instruction from his father, a violinist, and at 
the age of six made a successful public appear- 
ance. The family emigrated to the United States 
in 1845, and for two years Theodore made fre- 
quent appearances as a solo violinist in concerts 
at New York. In 1851 he made a trip through 
the Southern States. Returning to New York 
he was engaged as one of the first violins in 
concerts and operatic performances during the 
engagements of Jenny Lind, Sontag, Grisi, Ma- 
rio, etc. He occupied the position of leading 
violin under Arditi, and subsequently, the same 
position in German and Italian troupes, a part 
of the time officiating as conductor, until 1861, 
when he withdrew from the theatre. In 1855 
he began a series of chamber-concerts at New 
York, with W. Mason, J. Mosenthal, Carl Berg- 
mann, G. Matzka, and F, Bergner, which were 
continued every season until 1869, In 1864 Mr. 
Thomas began his first series of symphony con- 
certs at Irving Hall, New York, which were 
continued for five seasons, with varying success. 
In 1872 the symphony concerts were resumed 
and carried on until he left New York in 1878. 
Steinway Hall was used for these concerts, and 
the orchestra numbered eighty performers. In 
the summer of 1866, in order to secure that effi- 
ciency which can only come from constant practice 
together, he began the experiment of giving 
nightly concerts at the Terrace Garden, New 
York, removing, in 1868, to larger quarters at 
the Central Park Garden. In 1869 he made his 
first concert tour through the Eastern and Western 
States. The orchestra, at first numbering forty 
players, was, in subsequent seasons, increased to 
sixty. The programmes presented during these 
trips, as well as at New York, were noticeable 
for their catholic nature, and for the great number 
of novelties brought out. But it was also notice- 
able that the evenings devoted to the severer class 
of music, old or new, in the Garden concerts 
at New York, were often the most fully at- 
tended. Thomas's tendencies, it was plainly seen, 
were toward the new school of music; but he 
was none the less attentive to the old, and he 
introduced to American amateurs a large num- 
ber of compositions by the older masters. The 



repertory of the orchestra was very large, and 
included compositions in every school. In 1878 
Thomas was appointed director of the new Col- 
lie of Music at Cincinnati. In April, 1879, he 
■was unanimously elected conductor of the New 
York Philharmonic Society, a position which he 
had occupied in the season of 1877-78. The 
concerts by the Brooklyn Philharmonic Society 
were in his charge during the seasons of 1862, 
1866 to 1870 inclusive, and have been since his 
last election. May 26, 1873. He has directed 
several festivals at Cincinnati and New York 
since 1873. In 1883 he went from New York 
to San Francisco with an orchestra and several 
eminent singers, giving, on his way, concerts in 
the principal cities. In some cities embraced in 
this tour, notably Baltimore, Pittsburg, Chicago, 
Milwaukee, St. Louis, Denver, and San Fran- 
cisco, festivals, in which were included perform- 
ances of important choral works, were given 
with the aid of local societies under his direction. 
Mr. Thomas withdrew from the College of Music 
at Cincinnati in 1880. At present (18S3) he 
is director of the Philharmonic Societies of 
Brooklyn and New York, and of the New York 
Chorus Society. [F.H.J.] 

THOMSON, George, born at Limekilns, 
Edinburgh, Mar. 4, 1757 or 1759, died at Leith, 
Feb. II, 1 85 1, was for tifty years 'Secretary to 
the Board of Trustees for the Encouragement 
of Arts and Manufactures in Scotland.' His 
place in musical history is that of the most en- 
thusiastic, persevering and successful collector 
of the melodies of Scotland, Wales and Ireland, 
a work begun in his youth and continued for 
forty years or more. 

I. (i) Scotland. He proposed to rescue from 
oblivion, so far as it could possibly be accom- 
plished, every existing Scotch melody, in all its 
forms and varieties. Being in correspondence 
■with and knowing personally gentlemen in every 
part of Scotland, no man had greater facilities 
for the work. He proposed, further, to publish 
* all the fine airs both of the plaintive and lively 
kind, unmixed with trifling and inferior ones.' 
The precise date at which he began the publi- 
cation in 'sets' does not appear; but the preface 
to the second edition of the first volume — con- 
taining 25 songs — is dated Edinburgh, Jan. i, 

(2) Ireland. At first he included 20 favourite 
Irish airs in his 'sets,' denoting them in the 
index by an asterisk. Burns persuaded him to 
undertake a separate publication of Irish me- 
lodies, and offered to write the new texts. This 
was the origin of the two volumes under that 
title, for the collection of which Thomson was 
indebted especially to Dr. J. Latham of Cork, 
and other friends in various parts of Ireland, who 
are responsible for whatever faults of omission and 
commission they exhibit. [See Irish Music, 
vol. ii. p. 22.] 

(3) Wales. Meantime he undertook to collect 
the melodies played by Welsh harpers and adapt 
them to the voice. The project found favour 
in Wales, and friends in all parts of it sent 


them to him as played by the harpers ; ' but 
the anxiety he felt to have a complete and au- 
thentic collection induced him to traverse Wales 
himself, in order to hear the airs played by the 
best harpers, to collate and correct the manu- 
scripts he had received, and to glean such airs 
as his correspondents had omitted to gather.' 
There was of course no deciding as to the 
original form of an air on which no two 
harpers agreed, and Thomson could only adopt 
that which seemed to him the most simple and 
perfect. Very few if any had Welsh texts, or 
were at all vocable. To make them so, he in 
some cases omitted monotonous repetitions; in 
some repeated a strain; in most discarded the 
ornaments and divisions of the harpers ; but no 
changes were made in the tunes except such as 
were absolutely necessary to 'make songs of 
them.' ^ 

II. In regard to their texts, these three col- 
lections of melodies consisted of four classes: 
(i) without words ; (2) with none in English ; 
(3) with English texts, silly, vapid, or indecent, 
not to say obscene ; (4) a few with unimpeachable 
words, even in which cases he mostly thought it 
well to add a new song.^ In fact, in the first 
24 Scotch airs, 16 have 2 songs each, most if 
not all written expressly for the work. A 
large number of eminent authors were employed 
by Thomson for this purpose. 

When the melody was known to the poet, there 
was no difficulty in writing an appropriate song ; 
when not, Thomson sent a copy of it with its 
character indicated by the common Italian terms. 
Allegro, etc., which were a sufficient guide. 
Burns was the principal writer. Allan Cunning- 
ham, in his ' Life and Works ' of the poet, leaves 
the impression that Thomson was niggardly and 
parsimonious towards him. Thomson disdained to 
take any public notice of Cunningham's charges ; 
but in a copy of the work in possession of his son- 
in-law, George Hogarth (i860), there are a few 
autograph notes to the point. Thus in July 
1793, Bums writes: 

•I assure you, my dear sir, that you truly hurt 
me with your pecuniary parcel. It degrades me 
in my own eyes. However, to return it would 
savour of affectation ; but as to any more traflBc 
of this debtor and creditor kind, I swear by that 
HONOUB which crowns the upright statue of 
Robert Burns's integrity — on the least motion 
of it I will indignantly spurn the by-past trans- 
action, and from that moment commence entire 
stranger to you !'^ 

Thomson writes, Sept. i, to Bums : — 

* While the muse seems so propitious, I think 
it right to inclose a list of all the favours I have 
to ask of her— no fewer than twenty and three ! 
. . . most of the remaining airs ... are of that 
peculiar measure and rhythm that they must be 
familiar to him who writes for them.' 

A comparison of dates removes the doubt in 

I This of course detracts largely from the value of his labour. [G.} 
3 The same leaven of Interference. 

» This protest evidently refers to all songs written or to be writteu, 
and thus disposes of Cuuniogham's arguments. 


relation to Moore, raised in the article on Irish 
Music. True, the completed volumes of Thom- 
son's ' Irish Melodies' are dated 1814 ; but they 
were completed long before, except as to the 
instrumental accompaniments. Messrs. Power 
engaged Moore to write songs for their rival 
publication in 1806, at which time the poet was 
only known in Edinburgh as a young writer of 
indecent and satiric effusions. (See ' Edinburgh 
Review' of July 1806.) 

Til. As to the instrumental accompaniments, 
Thomson's plan was as new and original as it 
was bold. Besides the pianoforte accompani- 
ment each song was to have a prelude and coda, 
and parts ad libitum throughout for violin, or 
flute, and violoncello, the composition to be 
entrusted to none but the first composers. 

In the years 1 791-3, Pleyel stood next to Haydn 
and Mozart ; they in Vienna, he at that time 
much in London. Thomson engaged Pleyel for the 
work, but he soon ceased to write, and Thomson 
was compelled to seek another composer. Mo- 
zart was dead ; Haydn seemed to occupy too 
lofty a position ; and Kozeluch of Vienna was 
engaged. But the appearance of Napier's Collec- 
tion of Scotch Songs with pianoforte accompani- 
ments, written by Haydn during his first visit to 
London, showed Thomson that the greatest living 
composer did not disdain this kind of work. 
Thomson applied to him ; and Haydn worked for 
him until about 1806. The star of Beethoven 
had now risen, and he did not disdain to continue 
the work. But he, too, died before Thomson's 
work was completed, and Bishop and George 
Hogarth made up the sixth volume of Scotch 
songs (1841). 

The following list exhibits each composer's 
share in the work : — 

Scotch Songs. 

Vol. I. originally all by Pleyel. 

Vol. II. „ „ Kozeluch (?). 

In the second edition of these (1803) Thomson substi- 
tuted arrangements by Haydn for several which 
were ' less happily executed than the rest.' 

Vols, in., IV. all by Haydn. 
Vol.V.(Pref. dated June 1,1818) Haydn . . . 4 
Beethoven . 26 



Vol. VI. (dated Sept. 1841) 

Haydn. . . 12 

Beethoven . 13 

Kozeluch . . 1 

Hogarth . . 21 

Bishop ... 6 


Welsh Melodies. 

The Preface is dated May, 1809. 

Vol. I. Kozeluch 10 

Haydn 20 


Vol. n. Kozeluch 15 

Haydn 17 

Kozeluch and Haydn 1 


Vol. ni. Haydn ..... 4 
Beethoven .... 26 


As a means of extending the knowledge of the 
Scotch melodies, Thomson, at the beginning of 
his intercourse with Pleyel and Kozeluch, ordered 
sonatas based upon such airs. Both composed 

works of this kind; but how many does not 
appear. It is evident from a letter of Beethoven 
to Thomson (Nov. 1, 1806) that besides arrange- 
ments of melodies, the latter had requested trios, 
quintets, and sonatas on Scotch themes from him 
also. Beethoven's price for compositions, which 
could only sell in Great Britain and Ireland, 
was such as could not be acceded to, and none 
were written. About 1818-20 he wrote varia- 
tions on a dozen Scotch melodies, which Thomson 
published, but which never paid the cost of 
printing either in Great Britain or Germany. At 
the lowest estimate Beethoven received for his 
share in Thomson's publications not less than 
•£5 50* George Hogarth, who married Thomson's 
daughter, told the writer that the Scotch songs 
only paid their cost. 

In the winter of 1860-61 there appeared in 
Germany a selection of these songs from Bee- 
thoven's MSS,, edited by Franz Espagne, in the 
preface to which he writes : ' The songs printed 
in Thomson's collection are, both as to text and 
music, not only incorrectly printed, but wilfully 
altered and abridged.' These groundless charges 
were made honestly, but with a most plentiful 
lack of knowledge. They need not be discussed 
here, as they were amply met and completely 
refuted in the Vienna 'Deutsche Musikzeitung' 
of Nov. 23 and Dec. 28, 1861. All Beethoven's 
Scotch and Irish songs are contained in Breit- 
kopf 's complete edition of his works, Series 24, 
Nos. 257-260. [A.W.T.] 

THOMSON, John, first Professor of Music 
at Edinburgh University, was the son of an 
eminent clergyman, and was born at Ednam, 
Kelso, Oct. 28, 1805. His father afterwards 
became minister of St. George's Church, Edin- 
burgh. He made the acquaintance of Mendels- 
sohn during the visit of the latter to Edinburgh 
in the summer of 1829, and showed him much 
attention, which Mendelssohn requited by a 
warm letter of introduction to his family in 
Berlin, in which he says of Thomson ' * he is 
very fond of music ; I know a pretty trio of his 
composition and some local pieces which please 
me very well * (ganz gut gefallen). During his 
visit to Germany he studied at Leipzig, kept 
up his friendship with Mendelssohn, and made 
the intimate acquaintance of Schumann, Mo- 
scheles, and other musicians, and of Schnyder 
von Wartensee, whose pupil he became. In 1839. 
he was elected the first Keid Professor at Edin- 
burgh, a result which was doubtless not unin- 
fluenced by the warm testimonials from his 
Leipzig friends which he submitted. He gave 
the first Reid Concert on Feb. 12, 1841, and 
the book of words contains analytical remarks 
by him on the principal pieces — probably the 
first instance of such a thing. Thomson died 
May 6, 1841, deeply lamented. He wrote three 
operas or dramatic pieces, ' Hermann, or the 
Broken Spear,' * The House of Aspen,' and • The 
Shadow on the Wall.' The last two were brought 
out at the Royal English Opera (Lyceum), on 

1 He spells the name Thompson, but it must surely be the sam» . 
man. See ' Die Familie Mendelssohn,' 1. 243. 



Oct. 27, 1834, and April 21, 1835 respectively, 
and had each a long run. Two of his songs, 
• Harold Harfager/ and 'The Pirates' Serenade,' 
are mentioned as spirited and original. [G.] 

THORNE, Edward H., bom at Cranboume, 
Dorsetshire, May 9, 1834, received his musical 
education at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, where 
he was articled to Sir George Elvey. In 1832 
he was appointed to the Parish Church, Henley, 
and in 1862 to Chichester Cathedral, which 
appointment he resigned in 1870 in order to 
devote himself more closely to the more con- 
genial work of teaching the pianoforte. Mr. 
Thome removed to London, and has been suc- 
cessively organist at St. Patrick's, Brighton; 
St. Peter's, Cranley Gardens ; and St. Michael's, 
Comhill. His published works comprise several 
services, including a Magnificat and Nunc Di- 
mittis for chorus, soli, and orchestra, written for 
the Festival of the Sons of the Clergy ; the 1 25th 
Psalm; a festival march, toccata and fugue, 
funeral march, overture, and six books of volun- 
taries for the organ ; some pianoforte pieces ; 
several songs and part-songs ; the 47th Psalm 
(for female voices), etc. His unpublished works 
include trios for piano-violin, and violoncello; 
sonatas for the violoncello, and the clarinet ; the 
57th Psalm for tenor solo, chorus, and orchestra ; 
and many other compositions. [W.B.S.] 

THORNE, John, of York, an eminent musi- 
cian in the middle of the 16th century, is men- 
tioned by Morley in his * Introduction.' He 
was probably attached to York Cathedral. A 
3-voice motet by him, 'Stella cceli,' is printed 
in Hawkins's History. He was also a skilled 
logician. He died Dec. 7, 1573, and was buried 
in York Cathedral. [W. H. H.] 

THOROUGHBASS (Thoroughbase, Figured- 
Bass; Lat. Bassus generalis, Bassus continuus ; 
Ital. Continuo, Basso coniinuo^; Germ. General- 
bass ; Fr. Basse continue, Basse chiffrie). An 
instrumental Bass-Part, continued, without in- 
terruption, throughout an entire piece of Music, 
and accompanied by Figures, indicating the gene- 
ral Harmony. 

In Italy, the Figured-Bass has always been 
known as the Basso continuo, of which term our 
English word. Thorough (i.e. Through) bass, is a 
sufficiently correct translation. But, in England, 
the meaning of the term has been perverted, 
almost to the exclusion of its original intention. 
Because the Figures placed under a Thorough- 
bass could only be understood by a performer 
well acquainted with the rules of Harmony, those 
rules were vulgarly described as the Rules of 
Thoroughbass ; and, now that the real Thorough- 
bass is no longer in ordinary use, the word sur- 
vives as a synonym for Harmony — and a very 
incorrect one. 

The invention of this form of accompaniment 
was long ascribed to Lodovico Viadana (1566- 
1644), ^^ ^^^ authority of Michael Praetorius, 
Johann Cruger, Walther, and other German 

1 Not to l>e mistaken for Bcmw oUinato (Fr. Bau« eontreinU) irhtch 
Indicates a Ground-Bass. 


historians of almost equal celebrity, fortified by 
some directions as to the manner of its perform- 
ance, appended to Viadana's 'Concerti ecclesi- 
astici.' But it is certain that the custom of in- 
dicating the Intervals of a Chord by means of 
Figures placed above or below the Bass-note, 
was introduced long before the publication of 
Viadana's directions, which first appeared in a 
reprint of the * Concerti ' issued in 161 2, and are 
not to be found in any earlier edition; while a 
true Thoroughbass is given in Peri's * Euridice,* 
performed and printed in 1600 ; an equally com- 
plete one in Emilio del Cavaliere's Oratorio, * La 
rappresentazione dell' anima e del corpo,' pub- 
lished in the same year ; and another, in Caccini's 
'Nuove Musiche' (Venice, 1602). There is, in- 
deed, every reason to believe that the invention 
of the Continuo was synchronous with that of the 
Monodic Style, of which it was a necessary con- 
tingent; and that, like Dramatic Recitative, it 
owed its origin to the united eflPbrts of the en- 
thusiastic reformers who met, during the closing 
years of the i6th century, at Giovanni Bardi's 
house in Florence. [See Viadana, Ludovico ; 
MoNODiA ; Recitative ; also vol. ii. p. 98.] 

After the general establishment of the Mono- 
dic School, the Thoroughbass became a necessary 
element in every Composition, written, either 
for Instruments alone, or for Voices with Instru- 
mental Accompaniment. In the Music of the 
1 8th century, it was scarcely ever wanting. In 
the Operas of Handel, Buononcini, Hasse, and 
their contemporaries, it played a most important 
part. No less prominent was its position in 
Handel's Oratorios ; and even in the Minuets 
and Gavottes played at Ranelagh, it was equally 
indispensable. The * Vauxhall Songs ' of Shield, 
Hook, and Dibdin, were printed on two Staves, 
on one of which was written the Voice-Part, 
with the Melody of the Ritomelli, inserted 
in single notes, between the verses, while the 
other was reserved for the Thoroughbass. In 
the comparatively complicated Cathedral Music 
of Croft, Greene, and Boyce, the Organ-Part 
was represented by a simple Thoroughbass, 
printed on a single Stave, beneath the Vocal 
Score. Not a chord was ever printed in full, 
either for the Organ, or the Harpsichord ; for the 
most ordinary Musician was expected to play, at 
sight, from the Figured-Bass, just as the most 
ordinary Singer, in the days of Palestrina, was 
expected to introduce the necessary accidental 
Sharps, and Flats, in accordance with the laws 
of Cantus Fictus. [See MusiCA Ficta.] 

The Art of playing from a Thoroughbass still 
survives — and even flourishes — among our best 
Cathedral Organists. The late Mr. Turle, and 
Sir John Goss, played with infinitely greater 
efiect from the old copies belonging to their 
Cathedral libraries, than from modem ' arrange- 
ments ' which left no room for the exercise of 
their skill. Of course, such copies can be used 
only by those who are intimately acquainted 
with all the laws of Harmony : but, the applica- 
tion of those laws to the Figured Bass is exceed- 
ingly simple, as we shall now proceed to show. 


1. A wholesome rule forbids the insertion of 
any Figure not absolutely necessary for the ex- 
pression of the Composer's intention. 

2. Another enacts, that, in the absence of any 
special reason to the contrary, the Figures shall be 
written in their numerical order; the highest 
occupying the highest place. Thus, the full 
figuring of the Chord of the Seventh is, in all 
ordinary cases, s ; the performer being left at 
liberty to play the Chord in any position he may 
find most convenient. Should the Composer 
write a, it will be understood that he has some 
particular reason for wishing the Third to be 
placed at the top of the Chord, the Fifth below 
it, and the Seventh next above the Bass ; and 
the performer must be careful to observe the 
directions implied in this departure from the 
general custom, 

3. In conformity with Rule i, it is understood 
that all Bass-notes unaccompanied by a Figure 
are intended to bear Common Chords. It is only 
necessary to figure the Common Chord, when it 
follows some other Harmony, on the same Bass- 
note. Thus, at (a), in Example i, unless the 
Common Chord were figured, the ^ would be 
continued throughout the Bar ; and in this case, 
two Figures are necessary for the Common Chord, 
because the Sixth descends to a Fifth, and the 
Fourth to a Third. At (6) two Figures are equally 
necessary; otherwise, the performer would be 
perfectly justified in accompanying the lower G 
with the same Chord or the upper one. Instances 
may even occur in which three Figures are 
needed, as at (c), where it is necessary to show 
that the Ninth, in the second Chord, descends 
to an Eighth, in the third. But, in most ordi- 
nary cases, a 3, a 5, or an 8, will be quite suf- 
ficient to indicate the Composer's intention. 



The First Inversion of the Triad is almost 
always sufficiently indicated by the Figure 6, 
the addition of the Third being taken as a matter 
of course ; though cases will sometimes occur in 
which a fuller formula is necessary; as at (a), 
in Example 3, where the 3 is needed to show 
the Resolution of the Fourth, in the preceding 
Hannony ; and at (6), where the 8 indicates the 
Resolution of the Ninth, and the 3, that of the 
Fourth. We shall see, later on, how it would 
have been possible to figure these passages in a 
more simple and convenient way. 

A small treatise which was once extraordin- 
arily popular in England, and is even now used 
to the exclusion of all others, in many * Ladies 
Schools,' foists a most vicious rule upon the 
Student, with regard to this Chord ; to the effect 
that, when the Figure 6 appears below the 

Supertonic of the Key, a Fourth is to be added to 
the Harmony. We remember, when the treatise 
was at the height of its popularity, hearing Sir 
Henry Bishop inveigh bitterly against this abuse» 
which he denounced as subversive of all true 
musical feeling ; yet the pretended exception to 
the general law was copied into another treatise, 
which soon became almost equally popular. No 
such rule was known at the time when every one 
was expected to play from a Thoroughbass. 
Then, as now, the Figure c indicated, in all 
cases, the First Inversion of the Triad, and 
nothing else; and, were any such change now 
introduced, we should need one code of laws for 
the interpretation of old Thorough-Basses, and 
another for those of later date. 









9 8 
5 8 
4 S 

The Second Inversion of the Triad cannot be 
indicated by less than two Figures, J- Cases 
may even occur, in which the addition of an 8 is 
needed ; as, for instance, in the Organ-Point at 
(a), in Example 3 ; but these are rare. 


^^ g^- 

In nearly all ordinary cases, the Figure 7 only 
is needed for the Chord of the Seventh ; the ad- 
dition of the Third and Fifth being taken for 
granted. Should the Seventh be accompanied by 
any Intervals other than the Third, Fifth, and 
Octave, it is, of course, necessary to specify them ; 
and instances, analogous to those we have already 
exemplified when treating of the Common Chord, 
will sometimes demand even the insertion of a 3 
or a 6, when the Chord follows some other Har- 
mony, on the same Bass-note. Such cases are 
very common in Organ Points. 

The Inversions of the Seventh are usually indi- 
cated by the formulae, «, *, and * ; the Intervals 
needed for the completion of the Harmony being 
understood. Sometimes, but not very often, it 
will be necessary to write s, *. or 4. In some 
rare cases, the Third Inversion is indicated by a 
simple 4 : but this is a dangerous form of abbre- 
viation, unless the sense of the passage be very 
clear indeed ; since the Figure 4 is constantly 
used, as we shall presently see, to indicate another 
form of Dissonance. The Figure 2, used alone, 
is more common, and always perfectly intelligible; 
the 6 and the 4 being understood. 



The Figures », whether placed under the 
Dominant, or under any other Degree of the Scale, 
indicate a Chord of the Ninth, taken by direct 
percussion. Should the Ninth be accompanied by 
other Intervals than the Seventh, Fifth, or Third, 
Buch Intervals must be separatelynoticed. Should 
it appear in the form of a Suspension, its figuring 
will be subject to certain modifications, of which 
we shall speak more particularly when describing 
the figuring of Suspensions generally. 

The formulae I and ? are used to denote the 
chord of the Eleventh — i.e. the chord of the 
Dominant Seventh, taken upon the Tonic Bass. 
The chord of the Thirteenth — or chord of the 
Dominant Ninth upon the Tonic Bass — is repre- 

» 9 7 

tented by e or I or f . In these cases, the 4 re- 

4 4 jj 

presents the Eleventh, and the 6 the Thirteenth : 
for it is a rule with modern Composers to use 
no higher numeral than 9 ; though in the older 
Figured Basses — such as those given in Peri's 
'Euridice,' and Emilio del Cavaliere's ' La Rap- 
presentazione dell' anima e del corpo,' — the 
numerals, Id, 11, 12, 13, and 14, are constantly 
used to indicate reduplications of the Third, 
Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh, in the Octave 

Accidental Sharps, Flats, and Naturals are ex- 
pressed in three different ways. A J, b, or tj, used 
alone — that is to say, without the insertion of a 
numeral on its own level — indicates that the Third 
of the Chord is to be raised or depressed a Semi- 
tone, as the case may be. This arrangement is 
entirely independent of other numerals placed 
above or helow the Accidental Sign, since these 
can only refer to other Intervals in the Chord. 
Thus, a Bass-note with a single b beneath it, must 
be accompanied by a Common Chord, with a flat- 
tened Third. One marked s must be accom- 
panied by the First Inversion of the Chord of the 
Seventh, with its Third flattened. It is true 
that, in some Thoroughbasses of the last century, 
we find the forms J3, bs, or |j3 ; but the Figure 
is not really necessary. 

A dash drawn through a B, or 4, indicates that 
the Sixth or Fourth above the Bass-note, must 
be raised a Semitone. In some of Handel's 
Thoroughbasses, the raised Fifth is indicated by 
d ; but this foim is not now in use. 

In all cases except those already mentioned, 
the necessary Accidental Sign must be placed 
before the numeral to which it is intended that 
it should apply; as be, jj7, tj5, b9, b4, [j4, [j6, 
etc.; or, when two or more Intervals are to be 

Altered, 1%, ''^ \,h etc. ; the Figure 3 being always 

suppressed in modem Thoroughbasses, and the 
Accidental Sign alone inserted in its place when 
the Third of the Chord is to be altered. 

By means of these formulae, the Chord of the 
Augmented Sixth is easily expressed, either in its 
Italian, French, or German form. For instance, 
with the Signature of G major, and Eb for a Bass- 
note, the Italian Sixth would be indicated by B, 
the French by 4, the German by \,5, or bs* 


The employment of Passing-Notes, Appoggi- 
aturas, Suspensions, Organ-Points, and other pas- 
sages of like character, gives rise, sometimes, to 
very complicated Figuring, which, however, may 
be simplified by means of certain formulae, which 
save much trouble, both to the Composer and the 

A horizontal line following a Figure, on the 
same level, indicates that the note to which the 
previous Figure refers is to be continued, in one 
of the upper Parts, over the new Bass-note, what- 
ever may be the Harmony to which its retention 
gives rise. Two or more such lines indicate that 
two or more notes are to be so continued; and, 
in this manner, an entire Chord may frequently 
be expressed, without the employment of a new 
Figure. This expedient is especially useful in the 
case of Suspensions, as in Example 4, the full 
Figuring of which is shown above the Continue, 
and, beneath it, the more simple form, abbreviated 
by means of the horizontal lines, the arrangement 
of which has, in some places, involved a departure 
fi:om the numerical order of the Figures. 

Ex. 4. 

l^T^. I H-.— . U 

3 8 - - 8 

Any series of Suspended Dissonances may be 
expressed on this principle— purposely exaggerated 
in the example — though certain very common 
Suspensions are denoted by special formulsB 
which very rarely vary. For instance, 4 3 is 
always understood to mean * ^ — the Common 
Chord, with its Third delayed by a suspended 
Fourth — in contradistinction to « 3 already men- 
tioned; 9 8 means the Suspended Ninth re- 
solving into the Octave of the Common Chord ; 
9 I indicates the Double Suspension of the Ninth 
and Fourth, resolving into the Octave and Third ; 

In the case of Appoggiaturas, the horizontal 
lines are useful only in the Parts which accompany 
the Discord. In the Part which actually contains 
the Appoggiatura, the absence of the Concord of 
Preparation renders them inadmissible, as at (o) 
in Example 5. 

Passing-Notes, in the upper Parts, are not often 
noticed in the Figuring, since it is rarely necessary 
that they should be introduced into the Organ 
or Harpsichord Accompaniment ; unless, indeed, 
they should be very slow, in which case they are 
very easily figured, in the manner shown at (6) iu 
Example 5. 




The case of Passing-Notes in the Bass is very 
different. They appear, of course, in the Continue 
itself ; and the fact that they really are Passing- 
Notes, and are, therefore, not intended to bear in- 
dependent Harmonies, is sufficiently proved by 
a system of horizontal lines indicating the con- 
tinuance of a Chord previously figured ; as in 
Example 6, in the first three bars of which the 
Triad is figured in full, because its intervals are 
continued on the three succeeding Bass-Notes. 






But in no case is the employment of horizontal 
lines more useful than in that of the Organ Point, 
which it would often be very difficult to express 
clearly without their aid. Example 7 shows the 
most convenient way of figuring complicated Sus- 
pensions upon a sustained Bass-Note. 

In the Inverted Pedal-Point, the lines are still 
more valuable, as a means of indicating the con- 
tinuance of the sustained note in an upper Part ; 

as in Example 8, in which the Figure 8 marks the 
beginning of the C, which, sustained in the Tenor 
Part, forms the Inverted Pedal, while the hori- 
zontal line indicates its continuance to the end of 


t-^ = l-n 1 1-, , 1 ^^-1 U-r-^ U, 

4 'y^ a N :j 5 fj j-^ 


When, in the course of a complicated Move- 
ment, it becomes necessary to indicate that a cer- 
tain phrase — such as the well-known Canto-Fermo 
in the 'Hallelujah Chorus' — is to be delivered in 
Unison, — or, atmost,only doubled in the Octave — 
the passage is marked Tasto Solo, or, T. S. — i. e. 
' with a single touch' ( = key).^ When the Sub- 
ject of a Fugue appears, for the first time, in the 
Bass, this sign is indispensable. When it first 
appears in an upper Part, the Bass Clef gives 
place to the Treble, Soprano, Alto, bv Tenor, as 
the case may be, and the passage is written in 
single Notes, exactly as it is to be played. In 
both these cases it is usual also to insert the first 
few Notes of the Answer, as a guide to the Ac- 
companyist, who only begins to introduce full 
Chords when the figures are resumed. In any 
case, when the Bass Voices are silent, the lowest 
of the upper Parts is given in the Thoroughbass, 
either with or without Figures, in accordance with 
the law which regards the lowest sound as the 
real Bass of the Harmony, even though it may 
be sung by a Soprano Voice. An instance of this 
kind is shown in Example 9. 
Ex. 9. ill III Handel. 

We shall now present the reader with a general 
example, serving as a practical application of the 
rules we have collected together for his guidance ; 
selecting, for this purpose, the concluding bars 
of the Chorus, 'All we like sheep,' from Handel's 
' Messiah.* 

Ex. 10. 


1 As lately as the last century, the keys of the Organ and Harpd- 
cbord were called * Touches ' by English vriten . 





The Figuring here given contains nothing which 
the Modern Professor of Harmony can safely 
neglect to teach his pupils. The misfortune is, 
that pupils are too often satisfied with writing 
their exercises, and too seldom expected to play 
from a Thoroughbass at sight. Many young stu- 
dents could write the figured Chords correctly 
enough ; but few care to acquire sufficient fluency 
of reading and execution to enable them to ac- 
company a Continuo effectively, though this power 
is indispensable to the correct rendering, not only 
of the works of Handel and Bach, but even of the 
Oratorios and Masses of Haydn and Mozart — 
the latest great works in which the Organ Part is 
written on a single Stave. [W.S.R.] 

OB Festivals of the. These Meetings were 
first held in 1724, if not earlier, but became 
permanent in that year, when the Three Choirs 
assembled at Gloucester for the performance of 
cathedral service on a grand scale, with or- 
chestral accompaniment. Their establishment 
was mainly promoted by Rev. Thomas Bisse, 
chancellor of Hereford, and brother of Dr. Philip 
Bisse, bishop of the diocese, and the proceeds 
were applied in aid of a fund for the relief of the 
widows and orphans of the poorer clergy of the 
three dioceses, or of the members of the three 
choirs.^ In 1725 a sermon was preached at 
Worcester for the benefit of the charity, and in 
1726 a remarkable one by the Rev. Thomas Bisse 
at Hereford. The meetings have since con- 
tinued to be held, in unbroken succession, up to 
the present time, the i6oth meeting having 
taken place at Gloucester in 1883. They are 
held alternately in each of the three cities, 
each having thereby in its turn a triennial fes- 
tival. On their first establishment it was cus- 
tomary for the members of the Three Choirs 
to assemble on the first Tuesday in Septem- 
ber, and unitedly to perform choral service on 
the following two days. Six stewards, two 
from each diocese, were appointed to superintend 
the distribution of the charity. Evening con- 

1 The utter did not long continue to participate in the benefits 
of the charity ; the relief Is supposed to have been discontinued when 
their performance ceased to be gratuitous. 


certs were given, in the Shire Halls usually, 
on each of the two days. Purcell's Te Deum 
and Jubilate in D, and Handel's Utrecht Te 
Deum and Jubilate were constantly performed, 
and from 1748 the Dettingen Te Deum. Ora- 
torios were given, as well as secular music, 
at the evening concerts, but it was not until 
1759 *^3,t they were admitted into the cathe- 
drals, when the * Messiah ' was performed in 
Hereford Cathedral, and continued to be the 
only oratorio so performed until 1787, when 
' Israel in Egypt ' was given in Gloucester Ca- 
thedral. In 1753 the festivals were extended 
to three days, and in 1836 to four days, at 
which they have ever since continued. It has 
always been the practice to hand over the col- 
lections made at the cathedral doors after the 
morning performances intact to the charity, 
the excess, if any, of expenditure over receipts 
from sale of tickets being made good by the 
stewards. The excess became eventually so 
permanent that in 1837 great difficulty 'was 
experienced in inducing gentlemen to undertake 
the office of steward, and the existence of the 
Meeting was seriously imperilled ; but the diffi- 
culty has been since overcome by very largely 
increasing the number of stewards. The festivals 
are conducted by the organist of the cathedral in 
which they are successively held, the organists 
of the other two cathedrals officiating respect- 
ively as organist and pianoforte accompanist. 
Deviations from this practice have, however, 
sometimes occurred. For instance, Mr. (after- 
wards Dr.) Boyce conducted in 1737, and for 
several subsequent years ; Dr. William Hayes 
(at Gloucester), in 1757 and 1760; and Dr. John 
Stephens (at Gloucester) in 1 766. The last occa- 
sion upon which a stranger was called upon to 
conduct was in 1842, when, in consequence of 
the illness of the then organist of Worcester 
cathedral, the baton was placed in the hands of 
Mr. Joseph Surman. Until 1859 the first morning 
of the festival was devoted to the performance of 
cathedral service by the whole of the performers, 
but since that time the service has been per- 
formed at an early hour by the members of the 
Three Choirs only, to organ accompaniment, and 
an oratorio given later in the day. In 1875 an 
attempt was made, at Worcester, to alter the 
character of the performances in the cathedrals, 
by excluding oratorios and substituting church 
music interspersed with prayers. But this met 
with decided opposition and has not been re- 
peated. The band at these festivals is com- 
posed of the best London professors, and the 
chorus comprises, in addition to the members 
of the Three Choirs, members of the local choral 
societies and others. The most eminent prin- 
cipal singers of the day are engaged for the 
solo parts. The pieces usually selected for per- 
formance at the Meetings were those which were 
most popidar. But occasionally new and untried 
compositions were introduced. For instance, an 
anthem by Boyce, Worcester, 1 743 ; anthems by 
Dr. Alcock and J. S. Smith, Gloucester, 1773; 
Clarke- Whitfeld's 'Crucifixion/ Hereford, 1822 ; 




F. Mori's 'Fridolin,' Worcester, 1851 ; an an- 
them (1852) and Jubilate (1855) by G. T. Smith, 
Hereford ; anthems by G. J. Elvey, Gloucester, 
1853, and Worcester, 1857; and Sullivan's 'Pro- 
digal Son,' Worcester, 1869; Beethoven's Mass 
in D, Mendelssohn's Lobgesang and Elijah, 
Spohr's Oratorios, and other favourite works. 
In later years new compositions were more fre- 
quently produced, and recently scarcely a year 
has passed without some new work being given. 
At the Gloucester Meeting of 1883 no fewer 
than three new works were performed for the 
first time, viz. sacred cantatas by Drs. Stain er 
and Arnold, and a secular choral work by Dr. 
Hubert Parry. This is not the place to dis- 
cuss, from either an artistic or a financial point 
of view, the desirability of such a course, but it 
may be noted that at the Gloucester Festival 
of 1883 the excess of expenditure over receipts 
from sale of tickets exceeded 500Z. [W.H.H.] 
THURNAM, Edward, bom at Warwick, 
Sept. 24, 1825, was organist of Reigate Parish 
Church from 1849, and from 1849 to 1876 con- 
ductor of the Reigate Choral Society, and also 
an able violinist, and the composer of a Cathedral 
Service, and several songs and pieces for various 
instruments, of considerable merit. He died 
Nov. 25, 1880. [W.H.H.] 

THURSBY, Emma, bom at Brooklyn, New 
York, Nov. 17, 1857, is the daughter of an 
Englishman, and is descended by her mother 
from an old United States family. She received 
instruction in singing first from Julius Meyer 
and Achille Erani, then in 1873 at Milan from 
Lamperti and San Giovanni, and finally com- 
pleted her studies in America under Madame 
RudersdorfF. In 1875 she undertook a tour 
through the United States and Canada. She 
made her debitt in England May 22, 1878, at 
the Philharmonic, with such success that she was 
engaged at a subsequent concert of the Society 
in the same season. She remained in England 
until the end of 1879, singing with acceptance 
at the Crystal Palace, the Popular 'Concerts, 
Leslie's Choir, etc., and in the summer of the 
same year sang in Paris and the French pro- 
vinces. In 1880-81 she made an extended con- 
cert-tour through Germany, Austria, Holland, 
Belgium, Spain, Norway, Denmark, etc., and 
returned to America at the end of 82. In 1883 
she was singing in the States and Canada. 

Her voice is a soprano, of remarkable compass, 
ranging from middle C to E b above the lines ; 
not large but rich ; somewhat veiled, but noble 
and sympathetic. • Miss Thursby's technique is 
extraordinary ; her legato and staccato are 
models of certainty and correctness, her respira- 
tion is admirably managed, and her shake as 
rippling as it is long enduring.' * [A.C.] 

TICHATSCHEK, Joseph Alois, bom July 
II, 1807, at Ober Weckelsdorf, in Bohemia. He 
began by studying medicine, but abandoned it for 
music, and received instruction in singing from 

J 'ninstnted Sporting and Dramatic News/ Oct. 18, 1879; and 
F. Gumbert. in the Neue Berliner HusikzeitunK. 
VOL. IV. FT. I. 

Ciccimara, a favourite Italian singing master. 
In 1830 he became a chorus singer at the 
Kamthnerthor theatre, was next appointed 
chorus inspector, played small parts, and after- 
wards, those of more importance, viz, Idreno 
(* Semiramide '), Alphonse (*Stumme'), and 
Raimbaud ('Robert'). He sang for two years 
at Gratz, and again at Vienna, as principal 
tenor. On Aug. 11, 1837, he made his debut at 
Dresden as Gustavus III. (Auber), with such 
success as to obtain an engagement for the fol- 
lowing year. At this period he attracted the 
attention of Schroeder-Devrient, who gave him 
the benefit of her advice and experience, with 
the result of a long and intimate friendship, 
which terminated only with her death. Until 
his retirement in 1870, he remained permanently 
in Dresden, where, on Jan. 16, as Idomeneo, 
he celebrated the 40th anniversary of his pro- 
fessional career, having previously, on Jan. 17, 
1863, celebrated his 25th anniversary at Dresden, 
as Hernando Cortes (Spontini). His repertoire 
consisted of the tenor parts in the operas of Gluck, 
Mozart, Beethoven, Weber,' Marschner, Mdhul, 
Boieldieu, Auber, Nicolo, Meyerbeer, Spontini, 
Flotow, Spohr, etc. ; and on Oct. 20, 42, and 
Oct. 19, 45 respectively, was the original Rienzi, 
and Tannhauser. In 1 841 he sang for a few nights 
in German at Drury Lane Theatre as Adolar, 
Tamino, Robert, etc. ; also at Liverpool and 
Manchester, and is thus described by a con- 
temporary — *Herr Tichatschek has proved him- 
self the hit of the season ; he is young, prepossess- 
ing, and a good actor ; his voice is excellent, and 
his style, though not wanting in cultivation, is 
more indebted to nature than art.' * [A.C.] 

TIE. A curved line uniting two notes of the 
same pitch, whereby they form a single note 
which is sustained for the value of both. The 
tie is also called the Bind, and by some writers 
the Ligature, although this term properly refers 
to certain slurred groups of notes which occur 
in ancient music. [Ligature, vol. ii. p. 136.] 
It has already been described under the former 
heading, but to what was there stated it may be 
added, that ties are occasionally met with in 
pianoforte music where the note is actually 
repeated. [See Bind, vol. i. p. 242.] To efiect 
this repetition properly some skill and care are 
required ; the finger which strikes the first of the 
two tied notes is drawn inwards, and the fol- 
lowing finger falls over it as closely and rapidly 
as possible, so as to take its place before the key 
has had time to rise to its full distance, and 
therefore before the damper has quite fallen. 
Thus there is no actual silence between the 
two sounds, the repetition takes place before 
the first sound has ceased, and an efiect is pro- 
duced which resembles the old effect of Bebuno 
as nearly as the modem pianoforte can imitate 
it. [See vol. i. p. 1 60.] The particular occasions 
on which this effect is required are not indicated 

2 On Oct. 13, 1842, he sang the part of Max on the occasion of tha 
hundredth performance of ' Der Freischatz.' a part he sang no less 
than 106 times during his career up to 1863. 

1 • Musical World.' June 17, 1841. 



by any specific sign, since an experienced per- 
former can always judge from the nature of the 
passage. As a rule, it may be said that when- 
ever two tied notes are written for which a 
single longer note might have been substituted, 
repetition is indicated — for the use of the tie 
proper is to express a note -value which cannot 
be represented by a single note, e.ff. five quavers. 
Thus Ex. I, which is an instance in point, might, 
if no repetition had been required, have been 
written in quavers, as in Ex. 2. 

llEKTHovEN. Sonata, op. io6. Adagio. 

Another instance of the employment of this 
close repetition sometimes occurs when an un- 
accented note is tied to an accented one, as in 
Ex. 3. Here the rhythm would be entirely lost if 
the tied notes were sustained instead of repeated. 
Chopin. Valse, op. 31, no. i. 

Ex.3, n— 5 I 





In the same sense it seems quite possible that 
the subject of the scherzo of Beethoven's Sonata 
for piano and violoncello, op. 69, and other 
similar phrases, may have been intended to be 
played with repetition ; and in support of this 
view it may be mentioned that an edition exists 
of the Sonata Pastorale, op. 28, by Cipriani 
Potter, who had opportunities of hearing Bee- 
thoven and becoming acquainted with his inten- 
tions, in which the analogous passage in the first 
movement is printed with what is evidently 
meant for a sign of separation between the tied 
notes, thus — 

Ex. 4. — __ 





TIEDGE, Christoph August, bom 1752, 
died March 8, 1841 ; a German elegiac poet 
and friend of Beethoven's, who in Rhineland 
dialect always called him 'Tiedsche,' and who 
set some lines to Hope — 'an die Hoffnung' 
— from his largest and best poem, * Urania,' to 
music twice, once in Eb, op. 32, and again in 
G, op. 94. Both are for voice and piano ; the 
former dates from 1808, the latter from 18 16. 
Tiedge's name occurs in the correspondence be- 
tween Beethoven and Amalie Sebald, and there 
is a most interesting letter from Beethoven 
to him of Sept. ii, 181 1, betokening great in- 
timacy. (Thayer, iii. 179, 21 3, etc.) [G.] 


TIERCE, i. e. Tiers, third. I. A name given to 
the interval of the Third, whether Major or Minor. 

I I. The fourth of the series of natural har- 
monics, being the Major Third in the third 
octave above the ground-tone or prime ; its vi- 
brations are five times as numerous as those of 
its prime. 

III. An open metal organ stop of the same 
pitch as the similarly-named harmonic; i.e. if 
the note CC is held down and the Tierce-stop 
drawn, the E above middle C will be heard. 
That such a stop can only be used in combina- 
tion with certain other harmonics, and then but 
sparingly, will be evident when it is remem- 
bered that if C, E, and G be held down there 
will be heard at the same time G sharp and B. 
Hence, the Tierce when found in a modern 
organ is generally incorporated as a rank of 
the Sesquialtera or Mixture, in which case it 
is of course combined with other harmonics, its 
near relations. Some organ-builders, however, 
altogether exclude it. A serious difficulty is 
now met with, if a Tierce be introduced ; it is 
this — modern organs are tuned to * equal temper- 
ament,' whereas the Tierce (whether a separate 
stop or a rank) certainly ought to be tuned 
to its prime in 'just intonation,' in which case 
tempered and natural thirds would be heard 
simultaneously when the Tierce is used. Much 
difference of opinion exists as to the utility or 
effect of this stop. [J. S.] 


Music, it is essential that every Composition 
should end with a Major Third, even though the 
Third of the Mode in which it is written should 
be Minor. The Third, thus made Major by an 
Accidental Sharp or Natural, is called the 'Tierce 
de Picardie.' It is not very easy to arrive at the 
origin of the term ; though it may perhaps be 
accounted for by the proximity of Picardy to 
Flanders, in which country the characteristic 
Interval was in common use, at a very early 
period. Rousseau's explanation of the term 
(Dictionn&ire, ' Tierce ') is a very strange one, 
viz. that it was given ' in joke, because the use 
of the interval on a final chord is an old one in 
church music, and therefore frequent in Picardy, 
where there is music in many cathedrals and 
other churches' ! [W.S.R.] 

TIERSCH, Otto, bom Sept. 1, 1838, at Kalbs- 
rieth in Thuringia, received instruction from 
Topfer of Weimar, Billermann, Marx, and Erk ; 
was then teacher in Stern's Conservatorium, and 
is now teacher of singing to the city of Berlin. 
His writings are practical, and concern them- 
selves much with an endeavour to make the 
modern discoveries of Helmholtz and others, in 
acoustics, available in teaching singing. The 
principal are as follows, 'System und Method 
der Harmonielehre' (1868) ; * Elementarbuch der 
musikalischen Harmonie und Modulationslehre ' 
(1874); 'Kurzes praktisches generalbass Har- 
monielehre ' (1876) ; the same for Counterpoint 
and Imitation (1879). The article on 'Har- 
monielehre' in Mendel's Lexicon is by him. [G.], 




TIETJENS or TITIENS, Therese Caroline 
Johanna, the great prima donna, was bom at 
Hamburg, of Hungarian parents, according to 
some biographers in 1834, to others, in 183 1. The 
latter date agrees best with subsequent facts, and 
also with the inscription on her tombstone, which 
states that she died in 1877, aged 46. 

Her voice, even in childhood, gave so much 
promise of future excellence that she was edu- 
cated for the lyric stage. She appeared for the 
first time at the Hamburg Opera, in 1849, as 
Lucrezia Borgia, and achieved an immediate 
success. She proceeded to Frankfort, and thence, 
in 1856, to Vienna, where, though not engaged 
as the leading prima donna, her performance of 
Valentine raised her at once to the highest rank. 

The late Madame Jullien heard her at this 
time, and it was largely due to her glowing ac- 
counts that Mdlle. Tietjens was quickly engaged 
by Mr.Lumley for his last season at Her Majesty's 
Theatre in London; and when, on April 13, 1858, 
she appeared in ' The Huguenots,' her imperson- 
ation of Valentine achieved a success which in- 
creased with every repetition of the opera, and 
was the first link in that close union between 
the performer and the public which was only to 
be severed by death. 

England from that time became her home. 
She remained at Her Majesty's Theatre during 
the successive managements of Mr. E. T. Smith 
and Mr. Mapleson, and after the burning of the 
theatre in 1867 followed the fortunes of the com- 
pany to Drury Lane. She sang at Covent Gar- 
den during the two years' coalition of the rival 
houses in 69 and 70, returning to Drury Lane in 
71, and finally, just before her death, to the new 
house in the Haymarket. 

Her performances are still fresh in the memory 
of all opera and concert goers. Never was so 
mighty a soprano voice so sweet and luscious in 
its tone : like a serene, full, light, without dazzle 
or glare, it filled the largest arena without appear- 
ing to penetrate. It had none of a soprano's 
shrillness or of that peculiar clearness called 
' silvery ' ; when it declined, as it eventually did, 
in power, it never became wiry. It had a mezzo- 
soprano quality extending to the highest register, 
perfectly even throughout, and softer than velvet. 
Her acting in no way detracted from her singing ; 
she was earnest, animated, forcible, in all she 
did conscientious and hearty, but not electric. 
Her style of singing was noble and pure. When 
she first came to England her rapid execution left 
much to be desired ; it was heavy and imperfect. 
Fluency and flexibility were not hers by nature, 
but by dint of hard work she overcame all diffi- 
culties, so as to sing with success in the florid 
music of Hossini and Bellini. Indeed she at- 
tempted almost everything, and is perhaps the 
only singer, not even excepting Malibran, who 
has sung in such completely opposite r61es as 
those of Semiramide and Fides. But her perform- 
ance of light or comic parts was a mere tour 
de force; her true field was grand opera. As 
Lucrezia, Semiramide, Countess Almaviva, she 
was great ; as Donna Anna and Valentine she 

was greater ; best of all as Fidelio, and as Medea 
in Cherubini's opera, revived for her and not 
likely to be forgotten by any who heard it. 

In the * Freischtitz,' as in * Fidelio,' her ap- 
pearance was unsuited to her part, but she sang 
the music as no one else could sing it. In her 
later years she set a good example by undertaking 
the r6le of Ortrud in ' Lohengrin.* The music 
however did not show her voice to advantage, 
and this was still more the case with the music 
of Fides, although her acting in both parts was 
very fine. Her repertoire also included Leonora 
(•Trovatore'),the Favorita, Alice, Lucia, Amalia 
('Un Ballo in Maschera*), Norma, Pamina, 
Margherita, Marta, Elvira ('Ernani') Reiza 
(' Oberon'), and Iphigenia in Tauris. 

Her voice was as well suited to sacred as to 
dramatic music, and she applied herself as- 
siduously to the study of oratorio, for which her 
services were in perpetual request. Perhaps the 
hardest worked singer who ever appeared, she 
was also the most faithful and conscientious of 
artists, never disappointing her public, who knew 
that her name on the bills was a guarantee against 
change of programme, or apology for absence 
through indisposition. No doubt her splendid 
physique enabled her often to sing with impunity 
when others could not have done so, but her 
ceaseless eff'orts must have tended to break up 
her constitution at last. This great conscien- 
tiousness, as well as her genial sympathetic nature, 
endeared her to the whole nation, and, though 
there never was a ' Tietjens fever,' her popularity 
steadily increased and never waned. Her kind- 
ness and generosity to young and struggling 
artists and to her distressed countrymen knew no 
bounds and became proverbial. 

The first symptoms of the internal disorder 
which proved fatal to her appeared in 1875, but 
yielded to treatment. They recurred during a 
visit to America in the next year, but were again 
warded off for the time, and throughout a sub- 
sequent provincial tour in this country she sang 
'as well as she had ever done in her life.' In 
1876 she had her last benefit concert, at the 
Albert Hall. In April 1877 her illness increased 
to an alarming extent, and her last stage-ap- 
pearance was on May 19, as Lucrezia. 'She 
fainted twice during the performance, in her 
dressing-room; but she would appear, though 
she had to undergo a painful operation on the 
following Tuesday. *If I am to die,' she said 
to a friend, *I will play Lucrezia once mqre.' 
Those who then heard her will always recall her 
rendering of the despairing cry after Gennaro's 
death. She died Oct. 3, 1877, and was buried 
in Kensal Green Cemetery. On the day before, 
a messenger had arrived from the Queen and 
Princesses with special enquiries, which had 
greatly pleased her. Her death was felt as a 
national loss, and it may be long before any 
artist arises who can fill the place she filled so 
worthily and so well. [F.A.M.] 

TIETZE. [See Titze.] 

TIGRANE, IL. An Italian opera, composed 
by Righini, 1800, the overture of which was at 





one time a favourite in London. The discovery 
of the parts of this overture in his father's 
warehouse gave Schumann his first opportunity 
of conducting.* It lias been lately re-scored, 
and published by Aibl of Munich. [G.] 

TILMANT, TniopHiLE, French conductor, 
bom at Valenciennes July 8, 1 799, and educated 
at the Paris Conservatoire, where he took the 
first violin prize in R. Kreutzer's class in 1818. 
He played with great fire and brilliancy, and 
had a wonderful instinct for harmony, though 
without much scientific knowledge. On the 
formation of the Soci^t^ des Concerts in 1828 he 
was appointed vice-conductor, and also played 
solo in a concerto of Mayseder's. In 1834 ^® 
became vice- and in 1838 chief-conductor at the 
Theatre Italien, where he remained till 1849. 
In 1838, with his brother Alexandre, a distin- 
guished cellist (bom at Valenciennes Oct. 2, 1808, 
died in Paris June 1 3, i88o),he founded a quartet- 
society, which maintained its popularity for some 
ten years or so. In 1849 he succeeded Labarre 
as conductor of the Op^ra Comique, an enviable 
and responsible post, which he held for nearly 
20 years. The composers whose operas he mounted 
found him earnest and conscientious, and he con- 
ducted with a fire and a dash perfectly irresistible, 
both there and at the Concerts du Conservatoire, 
which he directed from i860 to 1863. In 1868 he 
left the Opdra Comique, and retired to Asniferes, 
where he died May 7, 1878. He received the 
Legion of Honour in 1861. [G.C.] 

TIMANOFF, Vera, a native of Russia, re- 
ceived pianoforte instruction in music fi:om Liszt, 
and for a long time past has enjoyed a wide 
continental reputation. She made her debut in 
England, August 28, 1880, at the Promenade 
Concerts, Covent Garden, where she fulfilled six 
nights' engagement under the conductorship of 
Mr. F. H. Cowen, and made a lively impression 
by her brilliant rendering of the works of her 
master and other pieces of the same school. On 
May 19, 1881, she played Chopin's Concerto in 
F minor at the Philharmonic, and * by her bril- 
liant execution of the florid passages, by the 
delicacy with which she rendered the fairylike 
fancies of the composer, and by the marked 
character resulting from her strong feeling for 
rhythm and accent, gave the concerto an ad- 
ventitious interest." On May 13, 1882, she 
played at the Crystal Palace Liszt's 'Fantasia 
on the Ruins of Athens,' and on June 6 of the 
same year she gave a recital and was heard with 
pleasure in light pieces of Moskowski, Liszt, and 
Rubinstein. [A.C.] 

TIMBALES is the French word for Kettle- 
drams. [See Drum 2 ; vol. i. p. 463.] In that 
article, at p. 464 6, it is mentioned that Meyer- 
beer used 3 drums, G, C, and D, in No. 17 of 
the score of * Robert le Diable ' ; but it was really 
written for 4 drums, in G, C, D, and E, and was 
so played at the Paris Acaddmie, where it was 
produced. This real kettle-drum solo begins 

1 WMlelemki, p. 14. 

3 Daily Telesrapb. 

thus, and is probably a unique example of its 
kind : — 

'V 9^ J 

— 1 

, -) M 

TH 1 rn .N^ 


- -r- —\ 


1 Lj s 1 = 

— • •■•^ 



* -d* * ^ 1 - 

The printed score has only 3 drums, G, C, and 
D, to facilitate the performance in ordinary 
orchestras, the E being then played by the con- 
trabasso. [V. de P.] 

TIMBRE. A French word, originally signify- 
ing a bell, or other resonant metallic instrument, 
of which the sense was subsequently extended to 
denote peculiar ringing tones, and lastly employed 
by the older writers on Acoustics to indicate the 
difference between notes which, though of iden- 
tical pitch, produce dissimilar effects upon the 
ear. The cause of this variety not being then 
understood, the vagueness which characterises 
the expression was hardly misplaced. But the 
researches of Helmholtz put an end to the 
ambiguity, by showing that difference of timbre 
was due to change in the upper-partial tones, or 
harmonics, which accompany the foundation-tone, 
or ground-tone, of a note or sound. 

A somewhat better, but rather metaphorical 
phrase was afterwards suggested in Germany; 
by which varieties of timbre were termed Klang- 
fdrhe or Sound-colours. This term, in the out- 
landish shape of 'Clangtint,' was adopted by 
Tyndall and other writers as an English equiva- 
lent of the German word. 

But a term has been latterly employed which 
must commend itself to all as at once a pure English 
word and a symbol to express the idea, now become 
definite ; namely the word Quality. A sound 
may therefore be said in fair English to possess 
three properties, and no more— Pitch, Intensity, 
and Quality ; respectively corresponding to the 
Frequency, the Amplitude, and the Form of the 
Sound-wave. In case this definition be objected 
to as unnecessarily geometrical, the Quality, or 
Timbre, of a note may be described as the 
sum of the associated vibrations which go to 
make up that complex mental perception. 

* If the same note,' says Helmholtz,' 'is sounded 
successively on a pianoforte, violin, clarinet, oboe, 
or trumpet, or by the human voice, notwith- 
standing its having the same force and pitch, 
the musical tone of each is different, and we 
recognise with ease which of these is being used. 
Varieties of tone-quality seem to be infinitely 
numerous even in instruments ; but the human 
voice is still richer, and speech employs these very 
qualitative varieties of tone in order to distin- 
guish different letters. The different vowels 
belong to the class of sustained tones which can 
be used in music ; while the character of conson- 
ants mainly depends on brief and transient noises.* 

It is well known that he analysed these com- 
pound tones by means of Resonators, and sub- 
sequently reproduced them synthetically by a 

» •Senskttoai of Tpne.' EUU't tnuul. p. 28. 


system of electrically controlled tuning-forks. 
Hie full demonstration of these facts occupies 
the larger part of his classical work on ' Sensa- 
tions of Tone,' and can hardly be given in a brief 
summary. Pure tones can be obtained from a 
tuning-fork held over a resonance tube, and by 
blowing a stream of air from a linear slit over 
the edge of a large bottle. The quality of tone 
in struck strings depends on (i) the nature of 
the stroke, (2) the place struck, and (3) the 
density, rigidity, and elasticity of the string. 
In bowed instruments no complete mechanical 
theory can be given; although Helmholtz's 
beautiful • Vibration Microscope ' furnishes some 
valuable indications. In violins, the various parts, 
such as the belly, back, and soundpost, all con- 
tribute to modify the quality ; as also does the 
contained mass of air. By blowing across the 
/-hole of a Straduarius violin, Savart obtained 
the note c' ; in a violoncello, F ; and in a viola, a 
note one tone below that of the violin. 

Open organ pipes, and conical double reed 
instruments, such as the oboe and bassoon, give 
all the notes of the harmonic series. Stopped 
pipes and the clarinet give only the partial tones 
of the uneven numbers. On this subject, neither 
Helmholtz nor any other observer has given more 
detailed information: indeed the distinguished 
German physicist points out that here there is 
still • a wide field for research.* 

The theory of vowel-quality, first enunciated 
by Wheatstone in a criticism on Willis's experi- 
ments, is still more complicated. Valuable as are 
Helmholtz's researches, they have been to some 
extent corrected and modified of late by R. Koenig 
in his • Experiences d'Acoustique.' ^ The latter 
writer begins by stating that, according to the 
researches of Bonders and Helmholtz, the mouth, 
arranged to produce a particular vowel-sound, has 
a powerful resonance-tone which is fixed for each 
vowel, whatever be the fundamental note. A 
slight change of pronunciation modifies the sound 
sufficiently to sustain the proposition made by 
Helmholtz of defining by these accessory sounds 
the vowels which belong to different idioms and 
dialects. It is therefore very interesting to deter- 
mine the exact pitch of these notes for the dif- 
ferent vowels. Helmholtz and Bonders however 
difier considerably in their results. Koenig de- 
termines the accessory resonance-tones for the 
vowels as pronounced by the North-Germans as 
follows : — 
















3600 vibrations. 

The simplicity of these relations is certainly in 
their favour, and is suggested by M. Koenig as 
the reason why we find essentially the same 
five vowels in all hvnguages, in spite of the un- 
doubted powers which the human voice possesses 
of producing an infinite number and v.iriety of 
such sounds. [W.H.S.] 

1 Quelques Gzp^rieneeB d'Acoustique. Tula 1882 (prirately printed). 
Bssajr vi. p. 42. 

TIME (Lat. Tempus, Tactus; Ital. Tempo, 
Misura, Tatto ; Fr. Mesure; Germ. TaJd, Tdktart, 

No musical term has been invested with a 
greater or more confusing variety of significa- 
tions than the word Time ; nor is this vagueness 
confined to the English language. In the Middle 
Ages, as we shall show, its meaning was very 
linaited ; and bore but a very slight relation to 
the extended signification accorded to it in modern 
Music. It is now used in two senses, between 
which there exists no connection whatever. For 
instance, an English Musician, meeting with two 
Compositions, one of which is headed, ' Tempo di 
Valza,' and the other, 'Tempo di Menuetto,' will 
naturally (and quite correctly) play the first in 
' Waltz-Time ' ; that is to say, at the pace at which 
a Waltz is commonly danced ; and the second, at 
the very much slower pace peculiar to the Minuet. 
But an Italian Musician will tell us that both 
are written in * Tempo di tripla di semiminima'; 
and the English Professor will (quite correctly) 
translate this by the expression, ♦ Triple Time,* 
or ' 3-4 Time,' or ' Three Crotchet Time.' Here, 
then, are two Compositions, one of which is in 

* Waltz-Time,' and the other in ' Minuet Time,* 
while both are in 'Triple Time'; the words 

* Tempo ' and ' Time ' being indiscriminately used 
to indicate pace and rhythm. The difficulty 
might have been removed by the substitution of 
the term * Movimento ' for ' Tempo,' in all cases 
in which pace is concerned ; but this word is 
very rarely used, though its French equivalent, 
' Mouveraent,* is not uncommon. 

The word Tempo having already been treated, 
in its relation to speed, we have now only to 
consider its relation to rhythm. 

In the Middle Ages, the words * Tempus,' 

* Tempo,* 'Time,' described the proportionate 
duration of the Breve and Semibreve only; 
the relations between the Large and the Long, 
and the Long and the Breve, being determined 
by the laws of Mode,'* and those existing be- 
tween the Semibreve and the Minim, by the 
rules of Prolation.' Of Time, as described by 
mediaeval writers, there were two kinds — the 
Perfect and the Imperfect, In Perfect Time, 
the Breve was equal to three Semi breves. The 
Signature of this was a complete Circle. In 
Imperfect Time — denoted by a Semicircle — the 
Breve was equal to two Semibreves only. The 
complications resulting from the use of Perfect 
or Imperfect Time in combination with the 
different kinds of Mode and Prolation, are 
described in the article Notation, and deserve 
careful consideration, since they render possible, 
in antient Notation, the most abstruse combina- 
tions in use at the present day. 

In modern Music, the word Time is applied 
to rhythmic combinations of all kinds, nxostly 
indicated by fractions (^ etc.) referring to the 
aliquot parts of a Semibreve — the norm by which 

2 Here, again, we meet witli another curious anomaly ; for th« 
word ' Mode ' is also applied, by mediaeval writers, to the peculiar 
forms of Tonality which preceded the Invention of the modera 
Scale. •* See MojjE, Tuolaiiok, and Vol. U. pp. 471 6 -472 a. 



the duration of all other notes is and always has 
been regulated. [See Time-Signature.] 

Of these combinations, there are two distinct 
orders, classed under the heads of Common (or 
Duple) Time, in which the contents of the Bar* 
— as represented by the number of its Beats — 
are divisible by a ; and Triple Time, in which 
the number of beats can only be divided by 3. 
These two orders of Time — answering to the 
Imperfect and Perfect forms of the earlier system 
— are again subdivided into two lesser classes, 
called Simple and Compound. We shall treat 
of the Simple Times first, begging the reader to 
remember, that in every case the rhythmic 
value of the Bar is determined, not by the 
number of notes it contains, but by the number 
of its Beats. For it is evident that a Bar of 
what is generally called Common Time may just 
as well be made to contain two Minims, eight 
Quavers, or sixteen Semiquavers, as four Crotch- 
ets, though it can never be made to contain 
more or less than four Beats. It is only by the 
number of its Beats, therefore, that it can be 
accurately measured. 

I. Simple Common Times (Ital. Tempi pari; Fr. 
Mesures d qiiatre ou d deux temps ; Germ. Einfache 
gerade Tdkt), The forms of these now most com- 
monly used, are — 

I. The Time called 'Alia Breve,' which con- 
tains, in every Bar, four Beats, each represented 
by a Minim, or its value in other notes. 
A , ^^ ^ ^^ ^ 

This species of Time, most frequently used in 
Ecclesiastical Music, has for its Signature a 
Semicircle, with a Bar drawn perpendicularly 

through it' ^ 

and derives its name 

from the fact that four Minims make a Breve. 

a. Four Crotchet Time (Ital. Tempo ordi- 
nario ;' Fr. Mesure d, quatre temps ; Germ. Vier- 
vierteltaJd) popularly called Common Time, par 


1 — r 


This kind of Time also contains four Beats in a 
Bar, each Beat being represented by a Crotchet — 
or its value, in other notes. Its Signature is an 

unbarred Semicircle ( - {* ■ ) , or, less com- 
monly, J. • 

3. The Time called Alia Cappella— some- 
times very incorrectly misnamed Alia Breve — 

1 strictly speaking, the term ' Bar' applies only to the lines drawn 
perpendicularly acros.i the Stave, for the purpose of dividing a Com- 
position into equal portions, properly called ' Measures.' But. in 
common language, the term 'Bar' Is almost invariably substituted 
for ' Measure.' and consequently used to denote not only the perpen- 
dicular lines, but also the Music contained between them. It is in 
this latter sense that the word is used throughout the present 

3 Not a 'capital 0, for Common Time,' as neophytes sometimes 


containing two Minim Beats in the Bar, and 
having for its Signature a barred Semicircle ex- 
actly similar to that used for the true Alia Breve 
already described (No. l). 

This Time — essentially modem— is constantly 
used for quick Movements, in which it is more 
convenient to beat twice in a Bar than four 
times. Antient Church Music is frequently 
translated into this time by modem editors, 
each bar of the older Notation being cut into 
two ; but it is evidently impossible to call it 
* Alia Breve,' since each bar contains the value 
not of a Breve but of a Semibreve only. 

4. Two Crotchet or Two-four Time, sometimes, 
though very improperly, called ' French Common 
Time' (Ital. Tempo di dupla; Fr. 3Iesure A 
dev^ temps; Germ. Zweivierteltdkt), in which 
each Bar contains two Beats, each represented 
by a Crotchet. 

In very slow Movements, written in this Time, 
it is not at all unusual for the Conductor to 
indicate four Beats in the Bar instead of two ; 
in which case the effect is precisely the same as 
that which would be produced by Four Crotchet 
Time, taken at the same rate of movement for 
each Beat. It .would be an excellent plan to 
distinguish this slow form of ^ by the Time- 
Signature, ^ ; since this sign would indicate the 
subsidiary Accent to be presently described. 

5. Eight Quaver Time (Germ. AchtachteltaJct) 
— that is, eight Beats in a Bar, each represented 
by a Quaver — is not very frequently used : but 
an example, marked |, will be found in the PF. 
arrangement of the Slow Movement of Spohr's 
Overture to 'Faust.' 

A A A A A A h A 

In the Orchestral Score, each Bar of this Move- 
ment is divided into two, with the barred Semi- 
circle of Alia Cappella for its Time-Signature. 
It is evident that the gross contents of a Bar of 
this Time are equal, in value, to those of a Bar 
of 4; but there is a great difference in the 
rendering, which will be explained later on. 

6. Two Quaver Time (Germ. Zweiachteltdkt, 
or Viersechszehntheiltakt), denoted by 2 or j"^ is 
also very uncommon : but examples will be found 
in the Chorus of Witches in Spohr's Faust, and 
in his Symphony * Die Weihe der Tone.' 
A A A A 

3 Not to be mistaken for the ' Tempo ordlnarlo ' so often nsed by 
Handel, In which the term 'Tempo' refers to pace, and not to 
rhythm, or meoswr*. 

The forms of Simple Common Time we have 
here described suffice for the expression of every 
kind of Rhythm characterised by the presence of 



two, four, or eight Beats in a Bar, though it 
would be possible, in case of necessity, to invent 
others. Others indeed have actually been in- 
vented by some very modem writers, under 
pressure of certain needs, real or supposed. The 
one indispensable condition is, not only that the 
number of Beats should be divisible by 2 or 4, 
but that each several Beat should also be capable 
of subdivision by 2 or 4, ad infinitum} 

II. When, however, each Beat is divisible by 
3, instead of 2, the Time is called Compound 
Common (Germ. Gerade zusammengesetzte Told)-. 
Common, because each Bar contains two, four, 
or eight Beats ; Compound, because these Beats 
are represented, not by simple, but by dotted 
notes, each divisible by three. For Times of 
this kind, the term Compound is especially 
well-chosen, since the peculiar character of the 
Beats renders it possible to regard each Bar as 
an agglomeration of so many shorter Bars of 
Triple Time. 

The forms of Compound Common Time most 
frequently used are — 

la Twelve-four Time (Germ. Zwolfviertel- 
faJct), ^?, with four Beats in the Bar, each Beat 
represented by a dotted Minim — or its equi- 
vjJent, three Crotchets; used, principally, in 
Sacred Music. 

2 a. Twelve-eight Time (Ital. Tempo di Do- 
diciupla; Germ. ZwolfachteltaJct), ^ , with four 
Beats in the Bar, each represented by a dotted 
Crotchet, or its equivalent, three Quavers. 
A A A 

3 a. Twelve-sixteen Time, j| ; with four 
Beats in the Bar, each represented by a dotted 
Quaver, or its equivalent, three Semiquavers. 



4 a. Six-two Time, f ; with two beats in each 
Bar ; each represented by a dotted Semibreve — 
or its equivalent, three Minims; used only in 
Sacred Music, and that not very frequently. 

5 a. Six-four Time, (Germ. Sechsvierteltaht), 
with two Beats in the bar, each represented by a 
dotted Minim — or its equivalent, three Crotchets. 
A A- 

6 a. Six-eight Time (Ital. Tempo di Sea- 
tupla; Germ. Sechsachteltakt), with two Beats 

» This law does not militate against the use of Triplets, Sextoles. 
or other groups containing any odd number of notes, since these 
abnormal groups do not belong to the Time, but are accepted as 
infractions of itt rules. 

in the Bar, each represented by a dotted Crotchet 
— or its equivalent, three Quavers. 
^ A A 

7 a. Six-sixteen Time, p^, with two Beats 
in the Bar, each represented by a dotted Quaver 
— or its equivalent, three Semiquavers. 

8 a. Twentyfour-sixteen, H, with eight Beats 
in the Bar, each represented by a dotted Quaver 
— or its equivalent, three Semiquavers. 
A A A A A 

III. Unequal, or Triple Times (Ital. Tempi dis- 
pari ; Fr. Mesures a trois temps ; Germ. Ungerade 
Taht ; Tripel TaU) diflfer from Common, in that 
the number of their Beats is invariably three. 
They are divided, like the Common Times, into 
two classes — Simple and Compound — the Beats 
in the first class being represented by simple 
notes, and those in the second by dotted ones. 

The principal forms of Simple Triple Time 
(Germ. Einfache ungerade Taht) are — 

16. Three Semibreve Time (Ital. Tempo di 
Tripla di Semibrevi), \, or 3, with three Beats 
in the Bar, each represented by a Semibreve. 
This form is rarely used in Music of later date 
than the first half of the 1 7th century ; though, 
in Church Music of the School of Palestrina, it 
is extremely conunon. 

A A^ ^-s ,--s 

26. Three-two Time, or Three Minim Time 
(Ital. Tempo di Tripla di Minime) with three 
Beats in the Bar, each represented by a Minim, 
is constantly used, in Modern Church Music, as 
well as in that of the i6th century, 


3 b. Three-four Time, or Three Crotchet Time 
(Ital. Tempo di Tripla di Semiminime, Emiolia 
maggiore; Germ. Dreivierteltakt) with, three Beats 
in the Bar, each represented by a Crotchet, is 
more frequently used, in modern Music, than 
any other form of Simple Triple Time. 

A A 

46. Three-eight Time, or Three Quaver Time 
(Ital. Tempo di Tripla di Crome, Emiolia 
minore ; Germ. Dreiachteltakt) with three Beats 
in the Bar, each represented by a Quaver, is also 
very frequently used, in modem Music, for slow 



It is possible to invent more forms of Simple 
Triple Time (as ^q, for instance), and some very 
modem Composers have done so ; but the cases 
in which they can be made really useful are 
exceedingly rare. 

IV. Compound Triple Time (Germ. Zusammen- 
gesetzte Ungeradetakt) is derived from the simple 
form, on precisely the same principle as that 
already described with reference to Common 
Time. Its chief forms are — 

ic. Nine-four Time, or Nine Crotchet Time 
(Ital. Tempo di Nonupla maggiore ; Germ. Neun- 
vierteltakt) contains three Beats in the Bar, each 
represented by a dotted Minim — or its equiva- 
lent, three Crotchets. 

2C. Nine-eight Time, or Nine Quaver Time 
(Ital. Tempo di Nonupla minore ; Germ. Neun- 
addeltakt) contains three Beats in a Bar, each 
represented by a dotted Crotchet — or its equiva- 
lent, three Quavers. 
A A 

3 c. Nine-sixteen Time, or Nine Semiquaver 
Time (Germ. NennsecJiszehntheiltakt), contains 
three Beats in the Bar, each represented by a 
dotted Quaver— or its equivalent, three Semi- 

It is possible to invent new forms of Compound 
Triple Time (as 2) i but it would be difficult to 
find cases in which such a proceeding would be 
justifiable on the plea of real necessity. 

V. In addition to the universally recognised 
forms of Rhythm here described, Composers have 
invented certain anomalous measures which call 
for separate notice: and first among them we 
must mention that rarely used but by no means 
unimportant species known as Quintuple Time 
(4 ^^ ^)' ^^^^ ^^® Beats in the Bar, each Beat 
being represented either by a Crotchet or a 
Quaver as the case may be. As the peciiliarities 
of this rh3rthmic form have already been fully 
described,^ we shall content ourselves by quoting, 
in addition to the examples given in vol. iii. p. 6 1, 
one beautiful instance of its use by Brahms, who, 
in his 'Variations on u Hungarian Air,' Op. 21, 
No. 2, has fulfilled all the most necessary condi- 
tions, by writing throughout in alternate Bars 
of Simple Common and Simple Triple Time, 
under a double Time-Signature at the beginning 
of the Movement. 

There seems no possible reason why a Com- 
poser, visited by an inspiration in that direction, 
should not write an Air in Septuple Time, with 



seven beats in a bar. The only condition need- 
ful to ensure success in such a case is, that the 
inspiration must come first, and prove of suffi- 
cient value to justify the use of an anomalous 
Measure for its expression. An attempt to 
write in Septuple Time, for its own sake, 
must inevitably result in an ignoble failure. 
The chief mechanical difficulty in the employ- 
ment of such a Measure would lie in the un- 
certain position of its Accents, which would not 
be governed by any definite rule, but must 
depend, almost entirely, upon the character of 
the given Melody, and might indeed be so 
varied as to give rise to several different species 
of Septuple Time ' — a very serious objection, for, 
after all, it is by the position of its Accents that 
every species of Time must be governed.' It was 
for this reason that, at the beginning of this 
article, we insisted upon the necessity for measur> 
ing the capacity of the Bar, not by the number 
of the notes it contained, but by that of its 
Beats : for it is upon the Beats that the Accents 
fall ; and it is only in obedience to the position 
of the Beats that the notes receive them. Now 
it is a law that no two Accents — that is to 
say, no two of the greater Accents by which 
the Rhythm of the Bar is regulated, without 
reference to the subordinate stress which ex- 
presses the division of the notes into groups — 
no two of these greater Accents, we say, can 
possibly fall on two consecutive Beats; any more 
than the strong Accent, called by Grammarians 
the ' Tone,' can fall on two consecutive syllables 
in a word. The first Accent in the Bar — ^marked 
thus ( A ) in our examples, corresponds in Music 
with what is technically called the * Tone-syllable' 
of a word. Where there are two Accents in the 
Bar, the second, marked thus, ( A ), is of much less 
importance. It is only by remembering this, that 
we can understand the diflference between the 
Time called 'Alia Cappella,' with two Minim Beats 
in the Bar, and 4 with four Crotchet Beats : 
for the value of the contents of the Bar, in notes, 
is exactly the same, in both cases ; and in both 
cases, each Beat is divisible by 2, indefinitely. 
The only difference, therefore, lies in the distri- 
bution of the Accents; and this difference is 
entirely independent of the pace at which the 
Bar may be taken. 

A A A 

In like maimer, six Quavers may be written, 

s See the remarks on an analogous uncertainty in Quintuple Time. 
Vol. Hi. p. 616. 

8 The reader will bear in mind that we are here speaking of 
Accent, pur et simple, and not of emphasis, A note may be em- 
phasised, in any part of the Bar ; but the quiet dwelling upon it 
which constitutes true Accent— Accent analogous to that used In 
speaking— can only take place on the accented Beat, the position of 
which Is invariable. Hence it follows that the most strongly accented 
notes in a given passage may also be the softest. In all questions 
concerning Rhythm, a clear understanding of the difference between 
Accent— produced by quieUy dwelling on a note— and Empfaasis— 
produced by forcing it. U of the utmost importance. 




with equal propriety, in a Bar of ^ or in one of 
^ Time. But the effect produced will be alto- 
gether different ; for, in the first case, the notes 
will be grouped in three divisions, each contain- 
ing two Quavers ; while, in the second, they will 
form two groups, each containing three Quavers. 
Again, twelve Crotchets may be written in a 
Bar of §, or ^? Time ; twelve Quavers, in a Bar 
of ^, or ^g ; or twelve Semiquavers, in a Bar of 
^, or § ; the division into groups of two notes, 
or three, and the effect thereby produced, de- 
pending entirely upon the facts indicated by the 
Time- Signature — in other words, upon the ques- 
tion whether the Time be Simple or Compound. 
For the position of the greater Accents, in 
Simple and Compound Time, is absolutely identi- 
cal ; the only difference between the two forms 
of Khythm lying in the subdivision of the Beats 
by 2, in Simple Times, and by 3, in Compound 
ones. Every Simple Time has a special Com- 
pound form derived directly from it, with the 
greater Accents — the only Accents with which 
we are here concerned — falling in exactly the 

same places; as a comparison of the foregoing 
examples of Alia Breve and ^^, C and 3^* -A-Ua 
Cappella and §, 4 and §, | and Jg, | and j^, g 
and 6^, § and ^, 3 and §, g and 9^, wiU dis- 
tinctly prove. And this rule applies, not only 
to Common and Triple Time, but also to Quint- 
uple and Septuple, either of which may be 
Simple or Compound at will. As a matter of 
fact, we believe we are right in saying that 
neither of these Rliythms has, as yet, been at- 
tempted, in the Compound form. But such a 
form is possible : and its complications would in 
no degree interfere with the position of the 
greater Accents.^ For the strongest Accent wiU, 
in all cases, fall on the first Beat in the Bar; 
while the secondary Accent may fall, in Quin- 
tuple Time — whether Simple or Compound — 
either on the third or the fourth Beat ; and 
in Septuple Time — Simple or Compound — on the 
fourth Beat, or the fifth — to say nothing of 
other places in which the Composer would be 
perfectly justified in placing it.'' 

In a few celebrated cases — more numerous, 
nevertheless, than is generally supposed — Com- 

Danza Tbdesca. 

Ex. 1. 

From ' II Don Giovanni. 

1 Compound Quintuple Bhythm would need, for Its Time-Signa- i means satisfactory 'rule of thumb,' that all firactions with i 
ture. the fraction ^' or \^; and Compound Septuple Bhythm. 2^^ or rator greater than 5 denote Compound Timea. 
i'^. Tyrus are sometimes taught the perfectly correct though by no I 2 See TiHE-BEATWa. 




posers have produced particularly happy effects 
by the simultaneous employment of two or 
more different kinds of Time. A very simple 
instance will be found in Handel's so-called • Har- 
monious Blacksmith,' where one hand plays 
in Four-Crotchet Time ( C ). and the other in 
^&. A more ingenious combination is found in 
the celebrated Movement in the Finale of the First 
Act of *Il Don Giovanni,' in which three dis- 
tinct Orchestras play simultaneously a Minuet in 
? Time, a Gavotte in ^, and a Waltz in 3, as in 
Ex. I on previous page ; the complexity of the ar- 
rangement being increased by the fact that each 
three bars of the Waltz form, in their relation to 
each single bar of the Minuet, one bar of Compound 
Triple Time (S) ; while in relation to each single 
bar of the Gavotte, each two bars of the Waltz 
form one bar of Compound Common Time (§). 

A still more complicated instance is found in 
the Slow Movement of Spohr's Symphony, ' Die 
Weihe der Tone ' (Ex. a on previous page) ; and 
here again the difficulty is increased by the con- 
tinuance of the slow Tempo — Andantino — in the 
part marked ^, while the part marked Allegro 
starts in Doppio movlmento, each Quaver being 
equal to a Semiquaver in the Bass. 

Yet these complications are simple indeed 
when compared with those to be found in Pales- 
trina's Mass *L'hommearmd,' and in innumerable 
Compositions by Josquin des Pres, and other 
writers of the 15th and i6th centuries ; triumphs 
of ingenuity so abstruse that it is doubtful 
whether any Choristers of the present day could 
master their difficulties, yet all capable of being 
expressed with absolute certainty by the various 
forms of Mode, Time, and Prolation, invented 
in the Middle Ages, and based upon the same 
firm principles as our own Time-Table. For, 
all the mediaeval Composers had to do, for the 
purpose of producing what we call Compound 
Common Time, was to combine Imperfect Mode 
with Perfect Time, or Imperfect Time with the 
Greater Prolation; and, for Compound Triple 
Time, Perfect Mode with Perfect Time, or Perfect 
Time with the Greater Prolation. [W.S.R.] 

TIME, BEATING. Apart from what we know 
of the manners and customs of Greek Musicians, 
the practice of beating Time, as we beat it at the 
present day, is proved, by the traditions of the 
Sistine Choir, to be at least as old as the 15th 
century, if not very much older. In fact, the 
continual vaiiations of Tempo which form so im- 
portant an element in the interpretation of the 
works of Palestrina and other mediaeval Masters, 
must have rendered the * Solfa '^-or, as we now 
call it, the Baton — of a Conductor indispens- 
able ; and in the Pontifical Chapel it has been 
considered so from time immemorial. When 
the Music of the Polyphonic School gave place 
to Choruses accompanied by a full Orchestra, 
or, at least, a Thoroughbass, a more uniform 
Tempo became not only a desideratum, but al- 
most a necessity. And because good Musicians 
found no difficulty in keeping together, in Move- 

ments played or sung at an uniform pace from 
beginning to end, the custom of beating time 
became less general ; the Conductor usually ex- 
changing his desk for a seat at the Harpsichord, 
whence he directed the general style of the 
performance, while the principal First Violin — 
afterwards called the Leader — regulated the 
length of necessary pauses, or the pace of ritar- 
dandi, etc., with his Violin-bow. Notwithstand- 
ing the evidence as to exceptional cases, afforded 
by Handel's Harpsichord, now in the South 
Kensington Museum,* we know that this custom 
was almost universal in the i8th century, and 
the earlier years of the 19th — certainly as late 
as the year 1829, when Mendelssohn conducted 
his Symphony in C Minor from the Pianoforte, 
at the Philharmonic Concert, then held at the 
Argyle Rooms.'' But the increasing demand for 
effect and expression in Music rendered by the 
full Orchestia, soon afterwards led to a per- 
manent revival of the good old plan, with which 
it would now be impossible to dispense. 

Our present method of beating time is directly 
derived from that practised by the Greeks; 
though with one very important difference. The 
Greeks used an upward motion of the hand, which 
they called the dpais (arsis), and a downward 
one, called Oeais {thesis). We use the same. The 
difference is, that with us the Thesis, or down- 
beat, indicates the accented part of the Measure, 
and tlie Arsis, or up-beat, its unaccented portion, 
while with the Greeks the custom was exactly 
the reverse. In the Middle Ages, as now, the 
Semibreve was considered as the norm from 
which the proportionate duration of all other 
notes was derived. This norm comprised two 
beats, a downward one and an upward one, 
each of which, of course, represented a Minim. 
The union of the Thesis and Arsis indicated by 
these two beats was held to constitute a Measure 
— called by Morley and other old English writers 
a 'Stroake.' This arrangement, however, was 
necessarily confined to Imperfect, or, as we now 
call it. Common Time. In Perfect, or Triple 
Time, the up-beats were omitted, and three 
down-beats only were used in each Measure ; 
the same action being employed whether it con- 
tained three Semibreves or three Mimims. 
When two beats only are needed in the bar, 
„ .^ we beat them, now, as 

Fig. 1. 1 they were beaten in the 

time of Morley; the 
down-beat representing 
the Thesis, or accented 
part of the Measure, and 
A 1 cs B 1 f5 the up-beat, the Arsis, 

^) I «^ or unaccented portion, as 

at (a) in the annexed 
diagram.' But it some- 
times happens that Pres- 
1 i tissimo Movements are 

taken at a pace too rapid to admit the delivery 

1 See vol. 11. p. 564, note. 2 See vol. II. p. 263. 

» The diagrams indicate a downward motion towards 1, for the 
beginning of the bar. The hand then passes through the other 
beats. In the order In which they are numbered, and, on reaching the 
last, is supposed to descend thence perpendicularly, to 1. tor the be- 
glonlug of the oezt bar. 


of even two beats in a bar ; and, in these cases, 
a single down-beat only is used, the upward 
motion of the Conductor's hand passing unnoticed, 
in consequence of its rapidity, as at (b). 

When three beats are needed in the bar, the 
custom is, in England, to beat once downwards, 
once to the left, and once upwards, as at (a) 
in Fig. 2. In France, the same system is 
used in the Concert-room; but in the Theatre 
it is usual to direct the second beat to the right, 



as at B, on the ground that the Conductor's Baton 
is thus rendered more easily visible to performers 
seated behind him. Both plans have their advan- 
tages and their disadvantages; but the fact that 
motions directed downwards, or towards the 
right, are always understood to indicate either 
primary or secondary accents, weighs strongly in 
favour of the English method. 

But in very rapid Movements — such as we 
find in some of Beethoven's Scherzos — it is better 

Fig. 2. 


Em. 4. 

to indicate 3-4 or 3-8 Time by a single down- 
beat, like those employed in very rapid 2-4 ; only 
that, in this case, the upward motion which the 
Conductor necessarily makes in preparation for 
the downward beat which is to follow must be 
made to correspond as nearly as possible with 
the third Crotchet or Quaver of the Measure, 
as in Fig. 3. 

"When four beats are needed in the bar, the 
first is directed downwards ; the second towards 
the left; the third towards the right; and the 
fourth upwards. (Fig. 4.) 

It is not possible to indicate more than four 
full beats in a bar, conveniently. But it is easy 
to indicate eight in a bar, by supplementing each 
full beat by a smaller one in the same direction. 

Fi&. 5. 

as at (a) in Fig. 5 ; or, by the same means, to 
beat six Quavers in a bar of very slow 3-4 Time, 
as at (b), or (0). 

Compound Times, whether Common or Triple, 
may be beaten in two ways. In moderately 
quick Movements, they may be indicated by the 
same number of beats as the Simple Times from 
which they are derived : e. g. 6-8 Time may be 
beaten like 2-4; 6-4 like Alia Cappella; 12-8 
like 4-4 ; 9-8 like 3-4 ; 9-16 like 3-8, etc., etc. 
But, in slower Movements, each constituent of 
the Compound Measure must be indicated by a 
triple motion of the Baton ; that is to say, by 
one full beat, followed by two smaller ones, in 

the same direction ; 6-4 or 6-8 being taken as 
at (a) in Fig. 6 ; 9-4 or 9-8 as at (b) ; and 
12-8 as at (0). The advantage of this plan is, 
that in all cases the greater divisions of the bar 
are indicated by full beats, and the subordinate 
ones by half-beats. 

For the anomalous rhythmic combinations 
with five or seven beats in the bar, it is difl&cult 
to lay down a law the authority of which is 
sufl&ciently obvious to ensure its general accepta- 
tion. Two very different methods have been re- 
commended; and both have their strong and 
their weak points. 

One plan is, to beat each bar of Quintuple 


Time in two distinct sections; one containing 
two beats, and the other, three: leaving the 
question whether the duple section shall precede 
the triple one, or the reverse, to be decided by 
the nature of the Music. For Compositions like 
that by Brahms (Op. 21, No. 2), quoted in the 
preceding article, this method is not only excel- 
lent, but is manifestly in exact accordance with 
the author's intention — which, after all, by divid- 


ing each bar into two dissimilar members, the 
one duple and the other triple, involves a com- 
promise quite inconsistent with the character of 
strict Quintuple Rhythm, notwithstanding the 
use that has been made of it in almost all other 
attempts of like character. The only Composition 
with which we are acquainted, wherein five in- 
dependent beats in the bar have been honestly 
maintained throughout, without any compromise 

Fig. 6. 

whatever, is Reeve's well-known 'Gypsies' Glee ';' 
and, for this, the plan we have mentioned would 
be wholly unsuitable. So strictly impartial is 
the use of the five beats in this Movement, that 
it would be quite impossible to fix the position 
of a second Accent. The bar must therefore be 
expressed by five full beats ; and the two most 
convenient ways of so expressing it are those 
indicated at (a) and (b) in Fig. 7. 

This is undoubtedly the best way of indicating 
Quintuple Rhythm, in all cases in which the Com- 

poser himself has not divided the bar into two 
unequal members. 

Seven beats in the bar are less easy to manage. 
In the first place, if a compromise be attempted, 
the bar may be divided in several different ways ; 
e.g. it may be made to consist of one bar of 
4-4, followed by one bar of 3-4 ; or, one bar of 
3-4, followed by one bar of 4-4 ; or, one bar of 
3-4, followed by two bars of 2-4 ; or, two bars 
of 2-4, followed by one of 3-4 ; or, one bar of 2-4, 
one of 3-4, and one of 2-4. But, in the absence 

Fig. 7. 

of any indication of such a division by the Com- 
poser himself, it is much better to indicate seven 
honest beats in the bar. (Fig. 8.) 

Yet another complication arises, in cases in 
which two or more species of Rhythm are em- 
ployed simultaneously, as in the Minuet in 'Don 
Giovanni,' and the Serenade in Spohr's 'Weihe 
der Tone.* In all such cases, the safest rule is, 
to select the shortest Measure as the norm, and 
to indicate each bar of it by a single down-beat. 
Thus, in *Don Giovanni,' the Minuet, in 3-4 
Time, proceeds simultaneously with a Gavotte in 

1 6«eT0l.iiLp.61& 

2-4, three bars of the latter being played against 
two bars of the former ; and also with a Waltz 
in 3-8, three bars of which are played against 
each single bar of the Minuet, and two against 
each bar of the Gavotte. We must, therefore, 
select the Time of the Waltz as our norm ; in- 
dicating each bar of it by a single down-beat ; in 
which case each bar of the Minuet will be in- 
dicated by three down beats, each bar of the 
Gavotte by two, and each bar of the Waltz by 
one — an arrangement which no orchestral player 
can possibly misunderstand. 
In like manner, Spohr*8 Symphony will be 


most easily made intelligible by the indication 
of a single down-beat for each Semiquaver of the 
part written in 9-16 Time — a method which 
Mendelssohn always adopted in conducting this 

This method of using down-beats only is also 
of great value in passages which, by means of 
complicated syncopations, or other similar ex- 
pedients, are made to go against the time ; that 
is to say, are made to sound as if they were 



written in a different Time from that in which they 
really stand. But, in these cases, the down- 
beats must be employed with extreme caution, 
and only by very experienced Conductors, since 
nothing is easier than to throw a whole Orchestra 
out of gear, by means used with the best possible 
intention of simplifying its work. A passage 
near the conclusion of the Slow Movement of 
Beethoven's ' Pastoral Symphony ' will occur to 
the reader as a case in point. 

Fig. 8. 

The rules we have given will ensure mechanical 
correctness in beating Time. But, the iron strict- 
ness of a Metronome, though admirable in its 
proper place, is very far from being the only 
qualification needed to form a good Conductor, 
who must not only know how to beat Time with 
precision, but must also learn to beat it easily 
and naturally, and with jiisb so much action as 
may suffice to make the motion of his B^ton seen 
and understood by every member of the Orches- 
tra, and no more. For the antics once practised 
by a school of Conductors, now happily almost 
extinct, were only so many fatal hindrances to 
an artistic performance. 

Many Conductors beat Time with the whole 
arm, instead of from the wrist. This is a very 
bad habit, and almost always leads to a very 
much worse one — that of dancing the Baton, 
instead of moving it steadily. Mendelssohn, 
one of the most accomplished Conductors on 
record, was very much opposed to this habit, 
and reprehended it strongly. His manner of 
beating was excessively strict ; and imparted 
such extraordinary precision to the Orchestra, 
that, having brought a long level passage— such, 
for instance, as a continued forte — into steady 
swing, he was sometimes able to leave the per- 
formers, for a considerable time, to themselves ; 
and would often lay down his Baton upon the 
desk, and cease to beat Time for many bars 
together, listening intently to the performance, 
and only resuming his active functions when his 
instinct told hira that his assistance would pre- 
sently be needed. With a less experienced chief, 
such a proceeding would have been fatal : but, 
when he did it — and it was his constant practice 

I See the examples of these two passages, tn the foregoing article 
(p. 121). 

— one always felt that everything was at its very 

It may seem strange to claim, for the me- 
chanical process of time-beating, the rank of an 
element — and a very important element — neces- 
sary to the attainment of ideal perfection in art : 
yet Mendelssohn's method of managing the 
BS,ton proved it to be one. He held 'Tempo 
rubato ' in abhorrence ; yet he indicated nuances 
of emphasis and expression — as opposed to the 
inevitable Accents described in the foregoing 
article — with a precision which no educated 
musician ever failed to understand ; and this 
with an effect so marked, that, when even Ferdi- 
nand David — a Conductor of no ordinary ability 
— took up the baton after him at the Gewand- 
haus, as he frequently did, the soul of the Orches- 
tra seemed to have departed.'^ The secret of this 
may be explained in a very few words. He 
knew how to beat strict Time with expression ; 
and his gestures were so full of meaning, that he 
enabled, and compelled, the meanest Ripieno to 
assist in interpreting his reading. In other words, 
he united, in their fullest degree, the two quali- 
fications which alone are indispensable in a great 
Conductor — the noble intention, and the power 
of compelling the Orchestra to express it. No 
doubt, the work of a great Conductor is immea- 
surably facilitated by his familiarity with the 
Orchestra he directs. Its members learn ta 
understand and obey him, with a certainty 
which saves an immensity of labour. Sir Michael 
Costa, for instance, attained a position so eminent, 
that for very many years there was not, in all 
England, an orchestral player of any reputation 

' We do not make this assertion on our own unsupported authority. 
The circumstance has been noticed, over and over again ; and all 
who carefully studied Mendelssohn's method will bear witness to 



who did not comprehend the meaning of the 
slightest motion of his hand. And hence it was 
that, during the course of his long career, he 
was ahle to modify and almost revolutionise 
the method of procedure to which he owed his 
earliest successes. Beginning with the com- 
paratively small Orchestra of Her Majesty's 
Theatre, as it existed years ago, he gradually 
extended his sway, until he brought under 
command the vast body of 4000 performers as- 
sembled at the Handel Festivals at the Crystal 
Palace. As the number of performers increased, 
he found it necessary to invent new methods of 
beating Time for them ; and, for a long period, 
used an uninterrupted succession of consecutive 
down-beats with a freedom which no previous 
Conductor had ever attempted. By using down- 
beats with one hand, simultaneously with the 
orthodox form in the other, he once succeeded, 
at the Crystal Palace, in keeping under command 
the two sides of a Double Chorus, when every one 
present capable of understanding the gravity of 
the situation believed an ignoble crash to be 
inevitable. And, at the Festival of 1883, his 
talented successor, Mr. Manns, succeeded, by 
nearly similar means, in maintaining order under 
circumstances of unexampled difficulty, caused 
by the sudden illness of the veteran chief whose 
place he was called upon to occupy without due 
time for preparation. In such cases as these the 
Conductor's left hand is an engine of almost un- 
limited power, and, even in ordinary conducting, 
it may be made extremely useful. It may beat 
four in a bar, or, in unequal combinations, even 
three, while the right hand beats two ; or the 
reverse. For the purpose of emphasising the 
meaning of the right hand.its action is invaluable. 
And it may be made the index of a hundred 
shades of delicate expression. Experienced players 
display a wonderful instinct for the interpretation 
of the slightest action on thepart of an experienced 
Conductor. An intelligent wave of the baton will 
often ensure an effective sforzando, even if it be 
not marked in the copies. A succession of beats, 
beginning quietly, and gradually extending to 
the broadest sweeps the baton can execute, will 
ensure a powerful crescendo, and the opposite pro- 
cess, an equally effective diminuendo, unnoticed 
by the transcriber. Even a glance of the eye 
will enable a careless player to take up a point 
correctly, after he has accidentally lost his place 
— a very common incident, since too many players 
trust to each other for counting silent bars, and 
consequently re-enter with an indecision which 
energy on the part of the Conductor can alone 

It still remains to speak of one of the most 
important duties of a Conductor — that of start- 
ing his Orchestra. And here an old-fashioned 
scruple frequently causes great uncertainty. 
Many Conductors think it beneath their dignity 
to start with a preliminary beat : and many more 
players think themselves insulted when such a 
beat is given for their assistance. Yet the 
value of the expedient is so great, that it is mad- 
ness to sacrifice it for the sake of idle prejudice. 


No doubt good Conductors and good Orchestras 
can start well enough without it, in all ordinary 
cases ; but it is never safe to despise legitimate 
help, and never disgraceful to accept it. A 
very fine Orchestra, playing Beethoven's Sym- 
phony in minor for the first time under a 
Conductor with whose 'reading' of the work 
they were unacquainted, would probably escape 
a vulgar crash at starting, even without a pre- 
liminary beat; but they would certainly play 
the first bar very badly : whereas, with such a 
beat to guide them, they would run no risk at all. 
For one preliminary beat suffices to indicate to 
a cultivated Musician the exact 'rate of speed at 
which the Conductor intends to take the Move- 
ment he is starting, and enables him to fulfil his 
chiefs intention with absolute certainty. [W.S.R.] 

TIME-SIGNATURE (Lat. Signum Modi, 
vel Temporis,vel Prolationis; Germ. Taktzeichen). 
A Sign placed after the Clef and the Sharps or 
Flats which determine the Signature of the Key, 
in order to give notice of the Rhythm in which 
a Composition is written. 

Our present Time-signatures are directly de- 
scended from forms invented in the Middle Ages. 
Mediaeval Composers used the Circle — the most 
perfect of figures — to denote Perfect (or, as we 
should now say. Triple) Rhythm ; and the Semi- 
circle for Imperfect or Duple forms. The Sig- 
natures used to distinguish the Greater and Lesser 
Modes,^ Perfect or Imperfect — Signa Modi, 
Modal Signs — were usually preceded by a group 
of Rests,^ showing the number of Longs to 
which a Large was equal in the Greater Mode, 
and the number of Breves which equalled the 
Long in the Lesser one — that is to say, three 
for the Perfect forms, and two for the Imperfect. 
Sometimes these Rests were figured once oiUy : 
sometimes they were twice repeated. The fol- 
lowing forms were most commonly used : — 

Greater Mode Perfect. 





Greater Mode Imperfect. 
- or 



Lesser Mode Perfect, 

Lesser Mode Imperfect. 

Combinations of the Greater and Lesser Modes, 
when both were Perfect, were indicated by a 
Point of Perfection, placed in the centre of the 
Circle, as at (a) in the following example. When 
the Greater Mode was Perfect, and the Lesser 
Imperfect, the Point was omitted, as at (Jb). 

1 See Mode. 

3 The reader mnst be careful to obserre the position of these 
Rests ; because It Is only when they precede the Circle or Semicircle, 
that they are used as signs. When they follow It, they must be 
counted as marks of silence. 


When both Modes were Imperfect, or the 
Greater Imperfect and the Lesser Perfect, the 
difference was indicated by the groups of Rests, 
as at (c) and (d). 

(6) Greater Mode Perfect, 
and Lesser Imperfect. 



(a) Both Modes Perfect. 




/-\ T>^iu nir^A^^ T ^»_fc^* («0 Greater Modes Imperfect, 

(c) Both Modes Imperfect. and Lesser Perfect. 



The Circle and the Semicircle, were also used 
either alone or in combination with the figures 
3 or 2, as Signatures of Time, in the limited 
sense in which that term was used in the Middle 
Ages;^ i.e. as applied to the proportions existing 
between the Breve and the Semibreve only — 
three to one in Perfect, and two to one in Im- 
perfect forms. 

Perfect Time. 




Imperfect Time. 



The same signs were used to indicate the pro- 
portion between the Semibreve and the Minim, 
in the Greater and Lesser Prolation ; ^ but gener- 
ally with a bar drawn perpendicularly through 
the Circle or Semicircle, to indicate that the 
beats were to be represented by Minims ; and 
sometimes, in the case of the Greater Prolation, 
with the addition of a Point of Perfection. 

The Greater Prolation. 


i^$^ °- |=s=i 



The Lesser Prolation. 
- or 


Combinations of Mode, Time, and Prolation 
sometimes give rise to very complicated forms, 
which varied so much at different epochs, that 
even Omitoparchus, writing in 15 17, complains 
of the diflficulty of understanding them.^ Some 
writers used two Circles or Semicircles, one 
within the other, with or without a Point of 
Perfection in the centre of the smaller one. The 
inversion of the Semicircle ( D) always denoted 
a diminution in the value of the beats, to the ex- 
tent of one-half; but it was only at a compara- 
tively late period that the doubled figure (C )) 
indicated an analogous change in the opposite 
direction. Again, the barred Circle or Semi- 
circle always indicated Minim beats ; but the 
unbarred forms, while indicating Semibreves, in 
Mode, and Time, were used, by the Madrigal 
writers, to indicate Crotchet beats, in Prolation. 

The application of these principles to modern 

1 See p. 176. 

2 See Trolation. 

s See TOl. 111. p. 12. 

Time-signatures is exceedingly simple, and may 
be explained in a very few words. At present 
we use the unbarred Semicircle to indicate 
four Crotchet beats in a bar ; the barred Semi- 
circle to indicate four Minim beats, in the Time 
called Alia breve, and two Minim beats in Alia 
Cappella. Some German writers once used the 
doubled Semicircle, barred, (C| )) for Alia breve 
— which they called the Grosse Allabrevetalct, 
and the ordinary single form, barred, for Alia Cap- 
pella — Kleine AllabrevetaJct : but this distinction 
has long since fallen into disuse. 

The Circle is no longer used ; all other forms 
of Rhythm than those already mentioned being 
distinguished by fractions, the denominators of 
which refer to the aliquot parts of a Semibreve, 
and the numerators, to the number of them con- 
tained in a bar, as ^ ( = J ), § ( = |^ ), etc. And 

even in this we only follow the mediseval cus- 
tom, which used the fraction § to denote Triple 
Time, with three Minims in a bar, exactly as 
we denote it at the present day. 

A complete list of all the fractions now used as 
Time-Signatures will be found in the article 
Time, together with a detailed explanation of the 
peculiarities of each. [W.S.R.] 

TIME TABLE. A Table denoting the forms 
and proportionate duration of all the notes used 
in measured Music. 

The earliest known indication of a Time Table 
is to be found in the well-known work on Can- 
tus mensurahilis, written by Franco of Cologne 
about the middle of the nth century. Franco 
mentions only four kinds of notes, the Large (or 
Double Long), the Long, the Breve, and the 
Semibreve. Franchinus Gafurius, in his 'Practica 
musicae,' first printed at Milan in 1496, de- 
scribes the same four forms, with the addition of 
the Minim. These were afterwards supplemented 
by the Greater Semiminim, now called the 
Crotchet, and the Lesser Semiminim, or Quaver ; 
and, later still, by the Semiquaver, the Demi- 
semiquaver, and the Half-Demisemiquaver. 

The modern Time Table, denoting the pro- 
portionate value of all these notes, is too well 
known in our schoolrooms to need a word of de- 
scription here. [W.S.R.] 

TIMIDAMENTE. The indication written by 
Beethoven in his MS. of the Mass in D at the 
well-known passage in the ' Agnus ' where the 
trumpets produce their thrilling effect — 'Ah 
Miserere ! ' etc. ; but changed by the engravers of 
the first score and subsequent editions to * Tra- 
midamente.' The mistake was corrected in 
Breitkopf 's critical edition. [G.] 

TIMPANI is the Italian word for kettle- 
drums. Printers and copyists often substitute 
y for i in this word, which is a great fault, as 
the letter y does not exist in the Italian lan- 
guage. [V. de P.] 

TINCTORIS, Joannes de, known in Italy 
as Giovanni del Tintore, and in England as 
John Tinctor. was born at Nivelle in Brabant 



in the year 1434 or 1435.^ The peculiar form 
of his name has led to the supposition that he 
was the son of a dyer ; but the custom of using 
the genitive case, when translating proper names 
into Latin, was so common in Flanders during 
the Middle Ages, that it cannot, in this instance, 
be accepted as a proof of the fact. All we really 
know of his social status is, that his profound 
learning and varied attainments were rewarded 
with honourable appointments, both in his own 
country and in Italy. In early youth he studied 
the Law; took the Degree of Doctor, first in 
Jurisprudence, and afterwards in Theology ; was 
admitted to the Priesthood, and eventually ob- 
tained a Canon ry in his native town. He after- 
wards entered the service of Ferdinand of 
Arragon, King of Naples, who appointed him 
his Chaplain and Cantor, and treated him 
with marked consideration and respect. At 
Naples he founded a public Music-School, com- 
posed much Music, and wrote the greater 
number of his theoretical works. He returned 
to Nivelle in 1490, and died there, as nearly 
as can be ascertained, in 1520. Franchinus 
Gafurius makes honourable mention of him 
in several places. None of his Compositions 
have been printed, but several exist in MS. 
among the Archives of the Pontifical Chapel. 
One of these, a * Missa Thomrae armd,' It 5, is 
remarkable for the number of extraneous sentences 
interpolated into the text. In the 'Sanctus' 
the Tenor is made to sing * Clierubim ac Sera- 
phim, cseterique spiritus angelici Deo in altissi- 
mis incessabili voce proclamant'; in the first 
*Osanna,' the Altus sings 'Pueri Hebraeorum 
stementes vestimenta ramos palmarum lesu filio 
David, clamabant ' ; and in the ' Benedictus,' the 
Tenor interpolates ' Benedictus semper sit filius 
Altissimi, qui de coelis hue venit '; while, in each 
case, the other Voices sing the usual words of tlie 
Mass.^ This senseless corruption of the authorised 
text, it will be remembered, was one of the 
abuses which induced the Council of Trent to 
issue the decree which resulted in the composition 
of the * Missa Papje Marcelli.' ' 

The theoretical works of J. de Tinctoris are 
more numerous and important, by far, than his 
Compositions. Their titles are * Expositio manus,' 

* Liber de natura et proprietate tenorum,' 'De 
notis ac pausis,* *De regulari valore notarum,' 

* Liber imperfectionum notarum,* 'Tractatus 
alterationum,' 'Super punctis musicalibus,' ' Liber 
de arte contrapuncti,' * Proportionale musices,' 
'Complexus efFectuum musices/ and 'Termino- 
rum musicse diffinitorium.' 

This last-named work will, we imagine, be 
invested with special interest for our readers, 
since it is undoubtedly the first Musical Diction- 
ary that ever was printed. It is of such extreme 
rarity, that, until Forkel discovered a copy in the 
Library of the Duke of Gotha, in the latter half 
of the last century, it was altogether unknown. 
About the same time, Dr. Bumey discovered an- 

1 Not, u some hUtorians have supposed, tn liSO. 

> Bee rol. U. pp. 228b, 229a. 

> Bee TOl. Ui. p. ass. 


other copy, in the Library of King George III, 
now in the British Museum.* The work is un- 
dated, and the place of publication is not men- 
tioned ; but there is reason for believing that it 
was printed at Naples about the year 1474. It 
contains 291 definitions of musical terms, arranged 
in alphabetical order, exactly in the form of an 
ordinary Dictionary. The language is terse and 
vigorous, and, in most cases, very much to the 
purpose. Indeed it would be difficult to over- 
estimate the value of the light thrown, by some 
of the definitions, upon the Musical Terminology 
of the Middle Ages. Some of the explanations, 
however, involve rather curious anomalies, as 
for instance, ' Melodia idem est quod armonia.* 

Forkel reprinted the entire work in his 'Liter* 
atur der Musik,' p. 204 etc.; and his reprint 
has been republished, in the original Latin, under 
the editorship of Mr. John Bishop, of Chelten- 
ham, by Messrs. Cocks & Co.' 

No other work by J. de Tinctoris has ever 
been printed ; though both F^tis and Choron are 
said to have once contemplated the publication 
of the entire series. [W. S. R.] 

TIRABOSCHI, GiROLAMO, a well-known 
writer on Italian literature, born at Bergamo, 
Dec. 28, 1 731, and educated by the Jesuits, to 
which order he at one time belonged. He was 
librarian of the Brera in Milan for some years, 
and in 1 770 removed to a similar post at Modena. 
His 'Storia della Letteratura Italiana' (13 vols, 
quarto, 1772 to 1782) includes the history of 
Italian music. He published besides 'Biblloteca 
Modenese ' (6 vols. 1 781 to 86) the last volume of 
which, ' Notizie de' pittori, scultori, incisori, ed 
architetti, nati degli Stati del Sig. Duca di 
Modena,' has an appendix of musicians. Tira- 
boschi died June 3, 1797, at Modena. [P.G.] 

TIRANA. An Andalusian dance of a very 
graceful description, danced to an extremely 
rhythmical air in 6-8 time. The words which 
accompany the music are written in * coplas ' or 
stanzas of four lines, without any * estrevillo.* 
[See Seguidilla, vol. iii. p. 457 a.] There are 
several of them in Preciso's *Colleccion de Coplas,* 
etc. (Madrid, 1 799), whence the following example 
is derived: — 

TCi eres mi primer amor, 
T(i me enseBaste & querer 
No me ensefies d. olvidar, 
Que no lo quiero aprender.' 

Tiranas are generally danced and sung to a 
guitar accompaniment. The music of one (* Si 
la mar fuera de tinta') will be found in 'Arias 
y Canciones Nacionales Espafloles* (London, 
Lonsdale, 18 71). [W.B.S.] 

TIRARSI, DA, Ho draw out.' Trombe, or 
Comi, da tirarsi, i.e. Trumpets or Horns with 
slides, are found mentioned in the scores of 
Bach's Kirchencantatas, usually for strengthen- 
ing the voices. See the Bachgesellschaft volumes, 
ii. pp. 293, 317, 327 ; X. 189, etc. etc. [G.] 

* King's Lib. 66. e. 121. 

5 At the end of ' Hamilton's Dictionary of 2000 Musical Terms.' 
s Translation :— Thou art my first love. Thou taughtest me to love. 
Teach me not to fortet, For I do not wish to learn it. 


A song written by Thomas Moore to the tune 
of 'The Groves of Blarney'; this again being 
possibly a variation of an older air called ' The 
Young Man's dream,' which Moore has adapted 
to the words 'As a beam on the face of the 
waters may glow.' Blarney, near Cork, be- 
came popular in 1788 or 1789, and it was then 
that the words of *The Groves of Blarney* were 
written by R. A. Millikin, an attorney of Cork. 
The tune may be older, though this is not at 
all certain : it is at all events a very beautiful 
and characteristic Irish melody. We give it in 
both its forms, as it is a good example of the 
way in which Moore, with all his taste, often 
destroyed the peculiar character of the melodies 
he adapted.* 

The Groves of Blarney, 



na .. ~ 

■/* :i — 




14 "^^J 1 La **- J 

The Latt Rose of Summer, 

'Tls the last rose of sum-mer. Left 

K — A I ' ^ • •- 

bloom - tog a - lone; All her love - ly 

give sigh 


Beethoven (20 Irische Lieder, No. 6) has set 
it, in E b, to the words * Sad and luckless was the 
season.' Mendelssohn wrote a fantasia on the 
air, published as op. 15,^ considerably altering 

> The writer Is Indebted to Mr. T. W. Joyce for the above Informa- 
tion. See too Mr. and Mrs. S. 0. Hall's * Ireland,' i. 49, and Lover's 
• Lyrics of Ireland.' 

2 Of the date of this piece no trace Is forthcoming. It probably be- 
longs to his first English visit. Its publication (by Spina) appears to 
date from Mendelssohn's visit to Vienua, e» rouU to Italy. 
VOL. IV. PT. 3. 

the notation ; and Flotow has made it the leading 
motif in the latter part of 'Martha.' Berlioz's 
enthusiasm for the tune equals his contempt for 
the opera. * The delicious Irish air was so simply 
and poetically sung by Patti, that its fragrance 
alone was sufficient to disinfect the rest of the 
work.' 3 [G.] 

TITZE, or TIETZE, LuDwm, member of the 

Imperial chapel and of the Tonkiinstler-Societat, 
and Vice-Pedell of the University of Vienna, bom 
April I, 1797, died Jan. 11, 1850. Possessor of a 
sympathetic and highly-trained tenor voice, with 
a very pure style of execution, Titze was univer- 
sally popular. He sang at the Concerts Spirituels, 
and acted as choir-master, Karl Holz being leader, 
and Baron Lannoy conductor. Between 1822 and 
1 8 39 he appeared at 2 6 concerts of the Tonkiin stler- 
Societat, singing the tenor solos in such works as 
Handel's 'Solomon,' 'Athaliali,' * Jephthah,' and 
' Messiah,' and Haydn's ' Creation' and ' Seasons,' 
associated in the latter with Staudigl after 1833. 
From 1822 he also sang at innumerable concerts 
and soirdes of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. 
His special claim to distinction, however, was his 
production of Schubert's songs at these soirees. 
He sang successively, ' Rastlose Liebe' (1824 
and 31); *Erlkonig' (1825); 'Der Einsame' 
(1826); 'Nachthelle' (1827) ; 'Norman's Ge- 
sang' (March 8, 1827, accompanied by Schubert 
on the PF., and 1839); 'Gute Nachf (1828); 
' Der blinde Knabe,' and ' Drang in die Feme' 
(1829) ; * Liebesbotschaft,' and 'Auf dem Strome' 
(1832) ; 'An mein Herz,' 'Sehnsucht,' and ' Die 
Sterne' (1833); besides taking his part in the 
quartets 'Geist der Liebe' (1823 and 32) ; 'Die 
Nachtigall' (1824) ; 'Der Gondelfahrer' (1825); 
and the solo in the 'Song of Miriam' (1832). 
At the single concert given by Schubert, March 
26, 1 828, he sang 'Auf dem Strome,' accompanied 
on the French horn by Lewy, jun.. and on the 
PF. by Schubert. These lists show that Schu- 
bert's works were not entirely neglected in 
Vienna. His name appears in the programmes 
of the Gesellschaft soirees 88 times between 182 1 
and 1840. [C.F.P.] 

TOCCATA (Ital.), from toccare, to touch, is the 
name of a kind of instrumental composition 
originating in the beginning of the 17th cen- 
tury. As the term Sonata is derived from the verb 
suonare, to sound, and may thus be described as 
a sound-piece, or Tonstiick, so the similarly formed 
term Toccata represents a touch-piece, or a com- 
position intended to exhibit the touch and exe- 
cution of the performer. In this respect it is some- 
what synonymous with the prelude and fantasia ; 
but it has its special characteristics, which are 
so varied as to make them difficult to define 
clearly. The most obvious are a very flowing 
movement in notes of equal length and a homo- 
phonous character, there being often indeed in 
the earlier examples but one part throughout, 
though occasionally full chords were employed. 
There is no decided subject which is made such 
by repetition, and the whole has the air of a 

* 'Lettreiiatimes.'p.283. 



showy improvisation. Giovanni Gabrieli (i557~ 
1 613) and Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) were the 
first writers of any importance who used this 
form, the Toccatas of the latter being scarcely 
80 brilliant as those of the former, though more 
elaborate. Frescobaldi, Luigi Rossi, and Scherer 
developed the idea and sometimes altered the 
character of the movement, using chords freely 
and even contrapuntal passages. It was Bach 
however who raised the Toccata far beyond all 
previous and later writers. The Toccatas to his 
Fugues for Clavecin are in some cases a chain 
of short movements of markedly different tempi 
and styles. The fourth of those in the Peters 
Volume of ' Toccatas and Fugues ' is the only one 
which answers to the description given above, 
the others being almost overtures. That to the 
G minor Fugue in No. 211 of the same edition is 
very extended. His organ Toccatas are very 
grand, one of the finegt being that in F on this 
subject^ — 

the semiquaver figure of which is treated at great 
length alternately by the two hands in thirds 
and sixths over a pedal bass, and then by the 
pedals alone. Another in C (Dorffel, 830) is 
equally brilliant. Bach sometimes begins and 
ends with rapid cadenza-like passages in very 
short notes divided between the two hands, as in 
the well-known Toccata in D minor, with its fugue, 
which Tausig has arranged as a piano solo.'' 

Probably from the fact of its faint individuality 
the Toccata has in later times had but a flickering 
vitality, and has found scant favour with com- 
posers of the first rank. A collection of six 
Toccatas for piano published by Mr. Pauer has 
resuscitated as prominent specimens one by 
F. Pollini (not the famous one of his 32) in G, 
and others by Czerny, Onslow, Clementi, etc. 
That by Pollini is of the form and character of a 
Bourr^e, and the others would be better named 
Etudes in double notes, having all definite sub- 
jects and construction. The same may be said of 
Schumann's Toccata in C (op. 7), which is a 
capital study for practice, and is in sonata form. 
Contemporary musicians have given us two or 
three specimens of real Toccatas worth mention, 
prominent among them being that in G minor 
by Rheinberger, which is a free fugue of great 
boldness and power. The same composer has 
used the diminutive term TOCOATINA for one of 
a set of short pieces; and another instance of 
the use of this term is the Toccatina in Eb by 
Henselt, a short but very showy and difficult 
piece. Dupont has published a little PF. piece 
entitled Toocatella. Toccatas by Walter Mac- 
farren and A. H. Jackson may close our list of 
modem pieces bearing that name. [See Touch ; 
Tucket.] [F.C] 

1 (Dflrffel's Cat. 816). In the old edltloni of tblc, Behumsnn hu 
pointed out a hoit of errors. See ' Gesammelto Schriften,' W. 59. 

» Both these— hi D and F— are entitled * Prnludlum (Toccata).' 
Three Toccatas— in F with a fugue, in D minor, and in E with two 
fugues— are printed in vol. 15 of the Bachgesellschaft edition. 


TODI, Ldiza Rosa de Aquiar, known as 
Madame Todi, from her husband Francesco 
Saverio Todi, was a famous mezzo-soprano 
singer, and was born at Setubal, Jan. 9, 1753- 
She received her musical education from David 
Perez, at Lisbon. When, in her seventeenth 
year, she first appeared in public, she at once 
attracted notice by the beautiful, though 
somewhat veiled, quality of her voice. She 
made her cUhtct in London in 1777, in Pai- 
siello's * Due Contesse,' but was not success- 
ful. Her voice and style were unsuited to 
comic opera, which, from that time, she aban- 
doned. At Madrid, in the same year, her per- 
formance of Paisiello's ' Olimpiade ' won warm 
admiration, but her European fame dates from 
1778, when her singing at Paris and Versailles 
created a lasting sensation. She returned for one 
year to Lisbon, but in 1781 was at Paris again. 
In 1782 she engaged herself for several years 
to the Berlin Opera, at a yearly salary of 2000 
thalers. But the Prussian public thought her 
affected and over-French in manner, and at the 
end of a year she gave up her engagement and 
returned to Paris, where she always found an 
enthusiastic welcome. Madame Mara was also 
in Paris, and the two queens of song appeared 
together at the Concert Spirituel. The public 
was divided into 'Maratistes' and 'Todistes,' 
and party spirit ran as high as between the 
'Gluckistes ' and * Piccinnistes,' or the adherents 
of Cuzzoni and Faustina. The well-known retort 
shows that the contest was not conducted with- 
out wit : — * Laquelle etoit la meilleure ? C'est 
Mara. C'est bien Todi (bient6t dit).' 

Mara excelled in bravura, but Todi would 
seem to have been the more pathetic. Their 
rivalry gave rise to the following stanza — 

Todi, par sa voix touchante, 
De doux pleurs raoiiille mes yeux; 
Mara, plus vive, plus brillante, 
M'^tonne, me transporte aux cieux. 
IVune ravit et I'autre enchante, 
Mais celle qui platt le mieux 
Est toujours celle qui chante. 

Todi returned to Berlin in 1 783, where she sang 
the part of Cleofide in *Lucio Papirio.* The 
king wished her to remain, but she had already 
signed an engagement for St. Petersburg. There 
her performance of Sarti's 'Armida' was an 
immense success. She was overwhelmed with 
presents and favours by the Empress Catherine, 
between whom and the prima donna there 
sprang up a strange intimacy. Todi acquired 
over Catherine an almost unbounded influence, 
which she abused by her injustice to Sarti, the 
imperial Chapelmaster, whom she disliked. 
Seeing that she was undermining his position at 
court, Sarti revenged himself by bringing Mar- 
chesi to St. Petersburg, whose wonderful vocal 
powers diverted some part of the public admira- 
tion from Todi. Todi retorted by procuring Sarti's 
dismissal. This ugly episode apart, she is asserted 
to have been amiable and generous. 

Meanwhile the king of Prussia was tempting 
her back to Berlin, and, as the Russian climate was 
telling on her voice, she, in 1 786, accepted his offers. 


and was far more warmly received than upon her 
first visit. With the exception of six months in 
Russia, she remained at Berlin till 1 789, achiev- 
ing her greatest triumphs in Reichardt's * Andro- 
meda' and Neumann's 'Medea.' In March 1789 
she reappeared in Paris, and among other things 
sang a scena composed for her by Cherubini, 
*Sarete alfin contenti,' eliciting much enthusiasm. 
After a year's visit to Hanover she proceeded to 
Italy, and sang with great success. In 1792 she 
returned to Lisbon, where she died October i, 


It is strange that Todi should have made no 
impression in this country, for there seems no 
doubt that she was one of the best singers of 
her time, equal in many respects, superior in 
some, to Mara, who was much admired here. 
Lord Mount-Edgecumbe speaks of her as having 
* failed to please here,' and Bumey, later in her 
career, writes of her, ' she must have improved 
very much since she was in England, or we 
treated her very unworthily, for, though her voice 
was thought to be feeble and seldom in tune 
while she was here, she has since been extremely 
admired in France, Spain, Russia, and Germany, 
as a most touching and exquisite performer.' 

There is a pretty and scarce portrait of her in 
character, singing, called ' L'Euterpe del Secolo 
XVIII * (i 79 1 ) . She was twice married, and left 
to her husband and her eight children, who sur- 
vived her, a sum of 400,000 francs, besides jewels 
and trinkets worth a fortune. [F,A.M.] 

TOD JESU, DER, ». e. the Death of Jesus— 
the 'Messiah' of Germany, a * Passions-Cantate,' 
words by Ramler, music by Graun. It was 
first performed in the Cathedral of Berlin, on 
Wednesday before Easter, March 26, 1755, and 
took such hold as to become an essential part of 
the Passion week at Berlin. It is still given 
there at least twice a year. In England I can 
find no record of its complete performance. There 
are three editions of the full score — 1760, 1766, 
1810; and PF. arrangements without number, 
beginning with one by J. Adam Hiller, 1783, and 
ending with one in Novello*s 8vo. series. [G.] 

TOFTS, Mbs. Cathbeinb, * little inferior, 
either for her voice or her manner, to the best 
Italian women,' ^ was the first of English birth 
who sang Italian Opera in England. A sub- 
scription concert was instituted in November 
1703 at the Theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
where Mrs. Tofts sang several songs, both 
Italian and English." In the following year 
she continued to sing at the ' Subscription 
Music' On January 29, Margherita de I'Epine 
sang for the first time, at Drury Lane. On the 
second appearance of this, Tofts's future rival, a 
disturbance occurred at the Theatre, while she 
was singing, which *was suspected'^ to have been 
created by her emissaries,' a suggestion which 
she denied in the 'Daily Courant,' Feb. 8, 1704. 
In the same year she sang and played the part 
of Pallas in Weldon's 'Judgment of Paris.' 

In 1 705 came the first attempt to plant Italian, 

1 Hawkins. > Borsey. 



or psendo-Italian, Opera in England ; and to 
the success of this endeavour Mrs. Tofts and 
her rival were the chief contributors, the 
former playing successively the chief parts in 
•Arsinoe,' 'Camilla,' * Rosamond,' 'Thomyris,' 
and 'Love's Triumph.* *Mrs. Tofts,' who took 
her first grounds of musick here in her own 
country, before the Italian taste had so highly 
prevailed, was then not an adept in it; yet 
whatever defect the fashionably skilful might 
find in her manner, she had, in the general 
sense of her spectators, charms that few of 
the most learned singers ever arrive at. The 
beauty of her fine proportioned figure, and 
the exquisitely sweet, silver tone of her voice, 
with that peculiar rapid swiftness of her 
throat, were perfections not to be imitated 
by art or labour.' At a very early stage of 
her short but brilliant career, she drew a salary 
of £500,* higher than that which was paid to 
any other member of the company, — a sure 
test of the estimation in which she was held 
by the management and the public: at the 
same time, Valentin! and de I'Epine only drew 
£400 apiece, and the Baroness, £200. At 
another time, this salary was commuted* into a 
share in the profits of the theatre. Again, we 
find her* offering to sing for 20 guineas a night, 
or 'in consideration the year is so far advanced* 
for 400 guineas till the ist of July, provided 
she was allowed to sing in another play, to be 
produced elsewhere, if not on an opera night. 
These were high terms in 1 708. She sang also 
at the concerts at Court. Meanwhile, she was 
no stranger to the quarrels and disputes which 
seem to have prevailed at the Opera then as in 
later times. There was a warm correspondence * 
about a bill of 80 guineas, for Camilla's dress, 
which Rich declined to pay ; but Camilla refused to 
appear in * Thomyris ' till it was paid ; and Rich 
then compromised the matter. She further de- 
manded* an allowance for 'locks for hair, Jewells, 
ribbons, muslin for vails, gloves, shoes, washing 
of vails, etc.,' for which she modestly affirmed 
that *£ioo was not sufficient for the season.' 

Were it not that similar complaints and 
demands were common from other singers, there 
would seem to be here some foundation for the 
charge brought against Mrs. Tofts in the epigram, 
attributed to Pope : — 

So bright is thy beauty, so charming thy Bong, 

As had drawn both the beasts and their Orpheus along ; 

But such is thy avarice, and such is thy pride, 

That the beasts must have starved, and the poet have diedl 

She must however have had a great passion 
for money, and a great disregard of the means 
of raising it, if Lady Wentworth's contemporary 
account may be trusted. 'Mrs. Taufs,' says 
that delightful writer and most eccentric speller, 
* was on Sunday last at the Duke of Somerset's, 
where there were about thirty gentlemen, and 
every kiss was one guinea; some took three, 
others four, others five at that rate, but none 
less than one.'* 

• Otbbar's Apology. « Colce Papers, In the writer's possession. 
» Letter. March 17, 1709, in * Wentworth Papers,' p. 66. 



This unfortunate singer, the first English- j 
woman distinguished in Italian Opera, lost her 
reason early in 1709. In a most ungenerous 
vein Steele alludes to her affliction/ and 
attributes it to the habit she had acquired of 
regarding herself as really a queen, as she 
appeared on the stage, a habit from which she 
could not free herself. Bumey supposes that 
this was an exaggeration, by means of which 
the writer intended only to • throw a ridicule on 
opera quarrels in general, and on her particular 
disputes at that time with the Margarita or 
other female singers.' Hawkins says that she 
was cured, temporarily at least, and *in the 
meridian of her beauty, and possessed of a large 
sum of money, which she had acquired by 
singing, quitted the stage (1709), and was 
married to Mr. Joseph Smith, afterwards Eng- 
lish consul at Venice. Here she lived in great 
state and magnificence, with her husband, for a 
time ; but her disorder returning' (which, if true, 
upsets Bumey's theory), 'she dwelt sequestered 
from the world in a remote part of the house, 
and had a large garden to range in, in which 
she would frequently walk, singing and giving 
way to that innocent frenzy which had seized 
her in the earlier part of her life.' She was 
still living about the year 1735.' 

Her voice did not exceed in compass' that of 
an ordinary soprano, and her execution, as shown 
by the printed airs which she sang, 'chiefly 
consisted in such passages as are comprised in 
the shake, as indeed did that of most other 
singers at this time.' It may be observed, 
however, that all singers * at this time ' added a 
good deal to that which was • set down for them' 
to execute ; and probably she did so too. 

It is somewhat strange that, of a singer so 
much admfred as Mrs. Tofts undoubtedly was, no 
portrait should be known to exist, either painted 
or engraved. [J.M.] 

TOLBECQDE, a family of Belgian musicians, 
who settled in France after the Restoration. 
The original members were four brothers :— the 
eldest, Isidore Joseph (bom at Hanzinne Ap. 17, 
1 794, died at Vichy May 10, 1871), was a good con- 
ductor of dance-music. Jean Baptiste Joseph 
(bom at Hanzinne in 1797, died in Paris, Oct. 23, 
1869), violinist, composer, and excellent conductor, 
directed the music of the court balls during 
Louis Philippe's reign, and also those at Tivoli 
when those public gardens were the height of 
the fashion. He composed a quantity of dance- 
music — quadrilles, vakes, and galops — above the 
average in merit; an op^ra-comique in one act 
•Charles V. et DuguescUn' (Od^on, 1827), with 
Gilbert and Guiraud ; and with Deldevez, ' Vert- 
Vert' (Op^ra, 1 851), a 3-act ballet, his most 
important work. He was a member of the 
8oci6t6 des Concerts du Conservatoire from its 
foundation in 1859. The third brother, Auguste 
Joseph, also bom at Hanzinne, Feb. 28, 1801, 
died in Paris, May 2 7, 1 869. A pupil of Kudolph 

1 Tatler, No. 20, May 26. 1709. 

2 Hawkins. Buruey says (probably a miqirlnt) In 170B. 
' Buraey. 


Kreutzer, he took the first violin prize at the 
Conservatoire in 1821, made some mark as a 
virtuoso, was an original member of the Soci<5t6 
des Concerts, and one of the best violinists at 
the Op^ra, and for several seasons was well 
known in London, where he played first violin at 
Her Majesty's Theatre. The youngest, Chables 
Joseph, bom May 27, 1806, in Paris, where he 
died Dec. 39, 1835, was also a pupil of R. Kreut- 
zer, and an original member of the Society des 
Concerts. He took a prize at the Conservatoire 
in 1824, and became conductor at the Vari^tds in 
1830. In this capacity he composed pretty songs 
and pieces for interpolation in the plays, several 
of which attained some amount of popularity. 

The Tolbecque family is at this moment re- 
presented by Auguste, son of Auguste Joseph, 
a distinguished cellist, born in Paris, March 30, 
1830. He took the first cello prize at the Con- 
servatoire in 1849, and has published some 15 
works of various kinds for his instrument, in- 
cluding *La Gymnastique du Violoncelle' (op. 
14), an excellent collection of exercises and 
mechanical studies. He is also a clever restorer 
of old instruments, and formed a collection, 
which he sold to the Brussels Conservatoire 
in 1879. H^^ ^o"» Jean, bom at Niort, Oct. 7, 
1857, took the first cello prize at the Paris Con- 
servatoire in 1873, and has studied the organ 
with Cdsar Franck. [G.C.] 

TOLLET, Thomas, composed and published 
about 1694, in conjunction with John Lenton, 
* A Consort of Musick in three parts,' and was 
author of * Directions to play on the French 
flageolet.' He was also a composer of act tunes 
for the theatre, but is best known as composer 
of * Toilet's Ground,' printed in the Appendix to 
Hawkins's History. [W.H.H.] 

TOMASCHEK, Wenzel, composer, bom 
April 17, 1774, at Skutsch in Bohemia. He 
was the youngest of a large family, and his 
father, a well-to-do linen-weaver, having been 
suddenly reduced to poverty, two of his brothers, 
a priest and a public official, had him educated. 
He early showed talent for music, and was placed 
at Chrudim with Wolf, a well-known teacher, 
who taught him singing and the violin. He 
next wished to learn the piano and organ, and 
his brother the priest sent him a spinet, on 
which he practised day and night. The Minorite 
fathers of Iglan offered him a choristership, with 
instruction in theory. On the breaking of his 
voice in 1 790, he went to Prague to study philo- 
sophy and law, supporting himself the while by 
giving lessons. All his spare time, even the 
hours of rest, was spent in studying the works 
of Marpurg, Kirnberger, Matheson, Tiirk, and 
Vogler, and he thus laid a solid foundation of 
scientific knowledge. Neither did he neglect 
practical music, but made himself familiar with 
the works of Mozart and Pleyel, and became ac- 
quainted with Winter, Kozeluch, and above all, 
Beethoven, who exercised a life-long influence 
over him. In his autobiography, published in a 
volume called 'Libussa' (1845, etc.), Tomaschek 
writes, * It was in 1 798, when I was studying 


law, that Beethoven, that giant among players, 
came to Prague. At a crowded concert in the 
Convict-hall he played his Concerto in C (op. 15), 
the Adagio and Rondo grazioso from the Sonata 
in A (op. 2), and extemporised on a theme from 
Mozart's Clemenza di Tito, "Ah tu fosti il primo 
oggetto." His grand style of playing, and 
especially his bold improvisation, had an extra- 
ordinary effect upon me. I felt so shaken that 
for several days I could not bring myself to touch 
the piano ; indeed it was only my inextinguishable 
love for the art, that, after much reasoning with 
myself, drove me back to the instrument with 
even increased industry.' Before long, however, 
the critical faculty returned. After hearing Bee- 
thoven twice more, he says, 'This time I was 
able to listen with greater calmness of mind, and 
though I admired as much as ever the power 
and brilliancy of his playing, I could not help 
noticing the frequent jumps from subject to 
subject which destroyed the continuity and 
gradual development of his ideas. Defects of 
this kind often marred those most magnificent 
creations of his superabundant fancy.' 'Had 
Beethoven's compositions (only a few of which 
were then printed) claimed to be classical 
standard works as regards rhythm, harmony, 
and counterpoint, I should perhaps have been 
discouraged from carrying on my self-cultivation ; 
but as it was, I felt nerved to further effort.' 
Three years later Tomaschek declared Beethoven 
to have still further perfected his playing. He 
himself about this time published some 'Un- 
garische Tanze* (without ever having heard a 
Hungarian air) and Holty's * Elegie auf eine 
Kose,' an early specimen of programme-music. 
Twelve waltzes had a great success at the 
Prague Carnival of 1797; but these he burnt. 
He was known as a pianist, and esteemed as 
a teacher by the principal nobility, bat hesi- 
tated between the profession of music and an 
official career. Meantime Count Bucquoi von 
Longueval offered him the post of composer in 
his household, with such a salary as to place 
him at ease in money-matters; and this he 
accepted. Prague continued to be his home, 
but he made occasional journeys, especially to 
Vienna. In November 1814 he paid Bee- 
thoven a visit, of which he has left an account 
('Libussa,' 1846) in the form of a conversation. 
He tells us that Meyerbeer and other artists 
had put themselves at Beethoven's disposal, for 
the performance of the * Battle of Vittoria,' and 
that Meyerbeer played the big drum. * Ha ! ha ! 
ha ! ' exclaims Beethoven, 'I was not at all pleased 
with him ; he could not keep time, was always 
coming in too late, and I had to scold him well.^ 
Ha ! ha ! ha ! I dare say he was put out. He 
is no good. He has not pluck enough to keep 
time.' Pluck was a quality which Meyerbeer 
never possessed, even at the time of his greatest 
successes. A fortnight later Tomaschek repeated 
the visit, and describes it in even greater detail 
('Libussa' 1S47). Meyerbeer's 'Two Caliphs' 

I This looks as if Beethoven, even in 1814, wuld hear pretty well on 



v/as then being performed, and on Tomaschek 
saying that it began with a Hallelujah and ended 
with a Requiem, Beethoven remarked, * Yes, it 
is all up with his playing.' And again, 'He 
knows nothing of instrumental music; singing 
he does understand, and that he should stick to. 
Besides, he knows but little of composition. I 
tell you he will come to no good.' Beethoven's 
prophecy was not fulfilled ; but these notes are 
interesting records of his opinions, and show a high 
esteem for Tomaschek. 

Tomaschek's house became the centre of mu- 
sical life in Prague, and the list of his pupils in- 
cludes Dreyschock, Kittl, Kuhe, Schulhoff, Bock- 
let, Dessauer, Worzischek, and Wiirffel. In 
1823 he married Wilhelmine Ebert, remaining 
in Count Bucquoi's service, though with a house 
of his own, where he was much visited by 
strangers, especially by English. He was hos- 
pitable and pleasant except on the subject of 
music, on which he was given to laying down 
the law. In person he was tall, and of a mili- 
tary carriage. The superficial was his abhorrence. 
Even in his smaller works there was a technical 
completeness, which procured him the title of the 
' Schiller of music' His church music includes 
a Missa Solennis in Eb, and several Requiems, 
but his predilection was for dramatic music, to 
which he was led by its connection with the 
Ballad and the Lied. He set several of Goethe's 
and Schiller's poems, and also old Czech songs 
from the Koniginhof MS.'* 

Tomaschek played his setting of Goethe's 
poems before the poet himself at Eger, and 
was very kindly received. His opera ' Seraphine' 
(181 1) was weU received at the National Theatre 
in Prague, in spite of a poor libretto ; but in spite 
of this success he declined to permit the appearance 
of two other operas, 'Alvara' and 'Sakuntala.' 
He left scenas from Goethe's ' Faust,' and from 
'Wallenstein,* 'Maria Stuart,' and the 'Braut 
von Messina,' as well as other vocal compositions, 
which were presented with his other remains to 
the Bohemian National Museum in Prague, by 
his nephew Freiherr von Tomaschek. 

Besides a quantity of smaller works, chiefly 
Lieder, Tomaschek published 1 10 with opus 
numbers, including the interesting 'Eklogues' 
(op- 35' 39» 47. 51. 5.3, 66 and 83) and ' Dithy- 
ramb ' (op. 65, Prague, Berra), which would still 
repay the attention of pianists. It is unfor- 
tunate for Tomaschek's fame that his works 
were contemporaneous with Beethoven's, but 
they exercised a material influence on such an 
artist as Robert Schumann. Is it too much to 
hope that these lines may direct some musicians 
to an unjustly forgotten composer ? 

Tomaschek died April 3, 1850, and was buried 
in the churchyard of Koschir, near Prague. [F.G.] 

TOMASINI, LuiGi (Aloysius), eminent violin- 
ist, and distinguished member of Prince Ester- 
hazy's band under Haydn, born 174I at Pesaro. 
In 1757 he became a member of Prince Paul 
Anton's household at his palace of Eisenstadt in 

2 The authenticity of which has been disproved by Sembora, th* 
great authority on Csech literature. 



Hungary, and on Haydn's undertaking the Vice- 
Capellmeistership in 1761, was at once promoted 
by him to be first violin. He was afterwards 
leader, and director of the chamber-music, with a 
largely increased salary. Prince Nicholas (suc- 
cessor to Paul Anton) left him a pension in 1 790, 
but Tomasini remained in the service till his 
death, April 25, 1808. He was on the most in- 
timate terms with Haydn, who wrote all his 
quartets with a view to Tomasini's playing, and 
remarked to him, 'Nobody plays my quartets so 
much to my satisfaction as you do.' He only 
once appeared in public in Vienna, at a concert 
of the Tonkiinstler-Societat (1775), of which he 
had been a member from its foundation in 1771. 
In all probability Haydn gave him instruction in 
composition. He published violin-concertos, quar- 
tets, duos, concertants (dedicated to Haydn), etc. 
For the Prince he wrote * 24 Divertimenti per il 
Paridon (barytone), violino, e violoncello,' now in 
the archives of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde 
in Vienna. A few of Haydn's violin-concertos 
were written expressly for Tomasini (' fatto per il 
Luigi' ). Besides two daughters, who saug in the 
church and opera at Eiaenstadt, Tomasini had two 
talented sons. The eldest, 

Luigi, bom 1779, ^^ Esterhaz, an excellent 
violinist, was received into the chapel in 1796, 
dismissed several times for incorrigible levity, but 
as often readmitted at Haydn's request. The 
latter speaks of his *rare genius,' and so did 
Hummel. He played in Vienna in 1796 and 1801 
at the Tonkiinstler-Societat, and in 1806 at the 
Augarten concerts. In 1808 he had to fly, for 
having married, without the Prince's leave, Sophie 
GroU, a singer in the chapel, but he secured an 
appointment as Concertmeister to the Duke of 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz. In 18 12 he and his wife 
gave a concert in Berlin, when Luigi played 
Beethoven's concerto, and his wife, a pupil of 
Righini's, was much applauded. In 18 14 he gave 
a concert in the court theatre in Vienna, after 
which he wholly disappears. His brother, 

Anton, bom 1775 at Eisenstadt, played in the 
chapel as an amateur from 1791 to 96, when he 
became a regular member. His instrument was 
the viola. He married the daughter of a Polish 
General in 1803, in which year he also became a 
member of the Tonkiinstler-Societat. He resem- 
bled his brother both in talent and disposition, 
and, like him, was several times dismissed, and 
taken on again with increased salary. In 1820 
be became leader of the band, and died at Eisen- 
stadt June 12, 1824. [C.F.P.] 

TOMKINS. A family which, in the i6th and 
1 7th centuries, produced many good musicians. 

Rev. Thomas Tomkins was chanter and minor 
canon of Gloucester Cathedral in the latter part 
of the 1 6th century. He contributed to 'The 
Triumphes of Oriana,' 1600, the madrigal *The 
feunes and satirs tripping,' commonly attributed 
to his more celebrated son and namesake. 

John Tomkins, Mus. Bac., one of his sons, was 
probably a chorister of Gloucester Cathedral. He 
afterwards became a scholar of King's College, 
Cambridge, of which in 1606 he was appointed 1 


organist. He resigned ini62 3 upon being chosen 
organist of St. Paul's Cathedral. In 1625 he was 
appointed gentleman extraordinary of the Chapel 
Royal * for the next place of an organist there/ 
and in 1625 became Gospeller. He died Sept. 
27, 1638, and was buried at St. Paul's. Some 
anthems by him are contained in Barnard's MS. 
collection. His son, Robert, was in 1641 one of 
the King's musicians. 

Thomas Tomkins, Mus. Bac, another son of 
Thomas, was a pupil of Byrd, and graduated at 
Oxford, July 11, 1607. He soon afterwards be- 
came organist of Worcester Cathedral. On Aug. 
2, 162 1, he was sworn in as one of the organists 
of the Chapel Royal upon the death of Edmond 
Hooper. In 1622 he published ' Songs of 3, 4, 5 
and 6 parts,' containing 28 madrigals and an- 
thems of a high degree of excellence. He died 
in June, 1656, and was buried at Martin Hass- 
ingtree, Worcestershire. A collection of hia 
church music, comprising 5 services and 68 
anthems, was published in 1664 under the title 
of 'Musica Deo Sacra & Ecclesiae Anglicanae; 
or, Musick dedicated to the Honor and Service of 
God, and to the Use of Cathedral and other 
Churches of England, especially to the Chappel 
Royal of King Charles the First.' A second im« 
pression appeared in 1668. 

Many MSS. of his music are found in the 
Tudway collection, at Ely, Ch. Ch. Oxford, etc. 
At St. John 8 Coll. Oxford, there is a volume 
written by him and Este, containing, among other 
remarkable things, the bass part of a Service by 
Tallis for 5 voices, otherwise unknown. [See 
Tallis, vol. iv. p. 54 a.] 

Giles Tomkins, a third son, succeeded his 
brother, John, as organist of King's College, 
Cambridge, in 1622. He afterwards became 
organist of Salisbury Cathedral, which appoint- 
ment he held at the time of his death in 1668. 

Nathaniel Tomkins, bom 1584, son of a gen- 
tleman of Northampton, chorister of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, from 1596 to 1604, clerk there 
from 1604 to 1606, and usher of the College 
School from 1606 to 161 o, and Abeaham Tom- 
kins, chorister of the same College from 161 1 to 
1617, were probably members of another branch 
of the same family. [W. H. H.] 

TONAL FUGUE (Fr. Fugue du Ton ; Germ. 
Einfache Fuge, Fuge dea Tones). A form of 
Fugue, in which the Answer {Comes), instead of 
following the Subject {Dux) exactly. Interval 
for Interval, sacrifices the closeness of its Imita- 
tion to a more important necessity — that of exact 
conformity with the organic constitution of the 
Mode in which it is written ; in other words, to 
the Tonality of its Scale. [See Subject.] 

This definition, however, though sufiBcient 
to distinguish a Tonal Fugue from a Real one 
of the same period and form, gives no idea what- 
ever of the sweeping revolution which followed 
the substitution of the later for the earlier 
method. A technical history of this revolution, 
though giving no more than a sketch of the 
phases through which it passed, between the 
death of Palestrina and the maturity of Handel 


and Sebastian Bach, would fill a volume. We 
can here only give the ultimate results of the 
movement ; pausing first to describe the position 
from which the earliost modern Fuguists took 
their departure. 

The Real Fugue of the Polyphonic Composers, 
as perfected in the i6th century, was of two 
kinds — Limited, and Unlimited. With the 
Limited form— now called Canon — we have, here, 
no concern.^ The Unlimited Real Fugue started 
with a very short Subject, adapted to the opening 
phrase of the verbal text — for it was always vocal 
— and this was repeated note for note in the 
Answer, but only for a very short distance. The 
Answer always began before the end of the Sub- 
ject; but, after the exact Imitation carried on 
through the first few notes, the part in which it 
appeared became ' free,' and proceeded whither 
it would. The Imitation took place generally in 
the Fifth above or the Fourth below ; sometimes 
in the Fourth above, or Fifth below, or in the 
Octave ; rarely, in Unlimited Real Fugue, in any 
less natural Interval than these. There was no 
Counter-Subject ; and, whenever a new verbal 
phrase appeared in the text, a new musical phrase 
was adapted to it, in the guise of a Second "Sub- 
ject. But it was neither necessary that the open- 
ing Subject should be heard simultaneously with 
the later ones ; nor, that it should reappear, after 
a later one had been introduced. Indeed, the 
cases in which these two conditions — both indis- 
pensable, in a modern Fugue — were observed, 
even in the slightest degree, are so rare, that 
they may be considered as infringements of a 
very strict rule. 

The form we have here described was brought 
to absolute perfection in the so-called * School of 
Palestrina,' in the latter half of the i6th century. 
The first departure from it — rendered inevitable 
by the substitution of the modern Scale for the 
older Tonalities — consisted in the adaptation of 
the Answer to the newer law, in place of its 
subjugation, by aid of the Hexachord, to the 
Ecclesiastical Modes. [See Hexachobd.] The 
change was crucial. But it was manifest that 
matters could not rest here. No sooner was the 
transformation of the Answer recognised as an 
unavoidable necessity, than the whole conduct 
of the Fugue was revolutionised. In order to 
make the modifications through which it passed 
intelligible, we must first consider the change 
in the Answer, and then that which took place 
in the construction of the Fugue founded upon 
it — the modern Tonal Fugue. 

The elements which enter into the composition 
of this noble Art-form are of two classes ; the one, 
comprising materials essential to its existence ; 
the other consisting of accessories only. The es- 
sential elements are (i) The Subject, (3) The 
Answer, ( 3) The Counter-Subject, (4) The Codetta, 
(5) The Free Part, (6) The Episode, (7) The 

1 Those who wish to trace the relation between the two wHI do 
well to study the • Messa Canonica,' edited by La Fage, and by him 
attributed to Palestrina, or the ' Mlssa Canonica ' of Via, side by 
side with Palestrlna's ' Mlssa ad Fugam' ; taking the two first-named 
works as examples of Limited, and the third of Unlimited Beal 



Stretto, and (8) The Pedal-Point, or Organ-Point. 
The accessories are, Inversions of all kinds, in 
Double, Triple, or Quadruple Counterpoint ; 
Imitations of all kinds, and in all possible Inter- 
vals, treated in Direct, Contrary, or Retrograde 
Motion, in Augmentation, or Diminution ; Modu- 
lations ; Canonic passages ; and other devices too 
numerous to mention. 

Among the essential elements, the first place 
is, of course, accorded to the Subject; which 
is not merely the Theme upon which the Com- 
position is formed, but is nothing less than an 
epitome of the entire Fugue, which must contain 
absolutely nothing that is not either directly 
derived from, or at least more or less naturally 
suggested by it. 

The qualities necessary for a good Subject are 
both numerous and important. Cherubini has 
been laughed at for informing his readers that 
' the Subject of a Fugue ought neither to be too 
long, nor too short' : but, the apparent Hibernian- 
ism veils a valuable piece of advice. The great 
point is, that the Subject should be complete 
enough to serve as the text of the discourse, 
without becoming wearisome by repetition. For 
this purpose, it is sometimes made to consist of 
two members, strongly contrasted together, and 
adapted for separate treatment ; as in the fol- 
lowing Subject, by Telemann, in which the first 
member keeps up the dignity of the Fugue, while 
the second provides perpetual animation. 




First Member, | 

Second Member. 




Sometimes the construction of the Subject is 
homogeneous, as in the following by Kirnberger ; 
and the contrast is then produced by means of 
varied Counterpoint. 

-f^ r-r f-& . 





Many very fine Subjects — perhaps, the finest 
of all — combine both qualities ; aff'ording suffi- 
cient variety of figure when they appear in com- 
plete form ; and, when separated into fragments, 
serving all necessary purposes, for Episodes, 
Stretti, etc., as in the following examples — 



Mbndblssohn (Op. 3S, No. 4). 

Sometimes, the introduction of a Sequence, or 
the figure called ROSALIA, affords opportunities 
for very effective treatment. 


Sebastian Bach constantly made use of this 
device in his Pedal Fugues, the Subjects of 
■which are among the longest on record. There 
are few Subjects in which this peculiarity is 
cnrried to greater excess than in that of his 
Pedal-Fugue in E Major. 

Very different from these are the Subjects 
designed by learned Contrapuntists for the ex- 
press purpose of complicated devices. These are 
short, massive, characterised by extremely con- 
cordant Intervals, and built upon a very simple 
rhythmic foundation. Two fine examples are to 
be found in Bach's • Art of Fugue ' ; and the ' Et 
vitam* of Cherubini's ' Credo ' in G for 8 voices. 

S. Bach. 





Next in importance to the Subject is the 
Answer; which, indeed, is neither more nor 
less than the Subject itself, presented from a 
different point of view. We have already said 
that the Tonal Answer must accommodate itself, 
not to the Intervals of the Subject, but, to the 
organic constitution of the Scale. The essence of 
this accommodation consists in answeringtheTonic 
by the Dominant, and the Dominant by the Tonic : 
not in every unimportant member of the Subject — 
for this would neither be possible nor desirable 
— ^but in its more prominent divisions. The first 
thing is to ascertain the exact place at which 
the change from Real to Tonal Imitation must 
be introduced. For this process there are cer- 
tun laws. The most important are — 

(i) When the Tonic appears in a pr(»mnent 
position in the Subject, it must be answered by 
the Dominant ; all prominent exhibitions of the 
Dominant being answered in like manner by the 
Tonic. The most prominent positions possible 
are those in which the Tonic passes directly to the 
Dominant, or the Dominant to the Tonic, without 
the interpolation of any other note between the 
two ; and, in these cases, the rule is absolute. 


Subject. Answer. Subject. Answer. 

(2) When the Tonic and Dominant appear in 
less prominent positions, the extent to which 
Rule I can be observed must be decided by the 
Composer's musical instinct. Beginners, who 
have not yet acquired this facidty, must carefully 
observe the places in which the Tonic and Do- 
minant occur ; and, in approaching or quitting 
those notes, must treat them as fixed points to 
which it is indispensable that the general contour 
of the passage should accommodate itself. 

(o) Dominant, answered by Tonic, at («). 

(6) Dominant, answered by Supertonic, at (d). 

(3) The observance of Rules i and 2 will 
ensure compliance with the next, which ordains 
that all passages formed on a Tonic Harmony, in 
the Subject, shall be formed upon a Dominant 
Harmony in the Answer, and vice versd. 

Subject. Answer. 


Dominant Dominant Tonic "^ 
Harmony. Harmony. Harmony. 

(4) The Third, Fourth, and Sixth of the Scale 
should be answered by the Third, Fourth, and 
Sixth of the Dominant, respectively. 


W («) (/) 

(a) Sixth of Tonic (6) Third of Tonic, (c) Fourth of Tonic, 
(d) Sixth of Dominant (e) Third of Dominant. 
(/) Fourth of Dominant. 

(5) The Interval of the Diminished Seventh, 
whether ascending or descending, should be an- 
swered by a Diminished Seventh. 



(6) As a general rule, all Sevenths should be 
answered by Sevenths ; but a Minor Seventh, 
ascending from the Dominant, is frequently an- 
swered by an ascending Octave ; in which case, 
its subsequent descent will ensure conformity with 
Rule 4, by making the Third of the Dominant 
answer the Third of the Tonic. 








(7) The most difficult note of the Scale to 
answer is the Supertonic, It is frequently ne- 
cessary to reply to this by the Dominant ; and 
when the Tonic is immediately followed by 
the Supertonic, in the Subject, it is often ex- 
pedient to reiterate, in the Answer, a note, 
which, in the original idea, was represented by 
two distinct Intervals ; or, on the other hand, to 
answer, by two different Intervals, a note which, 
in the Subject, was struck twice. The best safe- 
guard is careful attention to Rule 3, neglect of 
which will always throw the whole Fugue out 
of gear. 





(a) (6) (c) (d) 

(a) Tonic, answered by Dominant, at (e). 

(6) Supertonic, answered by Dominant, at (d). 

Simple as are the foregoing Rules, great judg- 
ment is necessary in applying them. Of all the 
qualities needed in a good Tonal Subject, that of 
suggesting a natural and logical Tonal Answer 
is the most indispensable. But some Subjects 
are so difficult to manage that nothing but the 
insight of genius can make the connection between 
the two sufficiently obvious to ensure its recogni- 
tion. The Answer is nothing more than the pure 
Subject, presented under another aspect : and, 
unless its effect shall exactly correspond with 
that produced by the Subject itself, it is a bad 
answer, and the Fugue in which it appears a 
bad Fugue. A painter may introduce into his 
picture two horses, one crossing the foreground, 
exactly in front of the spectator, and the other 
in such a position that its figure can only be 
truly represented by much foreshortening. An 
ignorant observer might believe that the pro- 
portions of the two animals were entirely 
different ; but they are not. True, their actual 
measurements differ; yet, if they be correctly 
drawn, we shall recognise them as a well- 
matched pair. The Subject and its Answer 
offer a parallel case. Their measurement (by 
Intervals) is different, because they are placed 
in a different aspect; yet, they must be so ar- 
ranged as to produce an exactly similar effect. 
We have shown the principle upon which the 
arrangement is based to be simply that of an- 
swering the Tonic by the Dominant, and the 
Dominant by the Tonic, whenever these two 
notes follow each other in direct succession; 
with the farther proviso, that all passages of 
Melody formed upon the Tonic Harmony shall 
be represented by passages formed upon the 
Dominant Harmony, and vice versd. Still, great 
difficulties arise, when the two characteristic 
notes do not succeed each other directly, or, 
when the Harmonies are not indicated with 
inevitable clearness. The Subject of Handel's 
Chorus, 'Tremble, guilt,' shows how the whole 
swing of the Answer sometimes depends on the 

change of a single note. In this case, a per- 
fectly natural reply is produced, by making the 
Answer proceed to its second note by the ascent 
of a Minor Third, instead of a Minor Second, 
as in the Subject — i.e. by observing Kule 4, with 
regard to the Sixth of the Tonic. 

Subject. .«.. ^ 5^ 


1^ r ' ' T 1 h 1 


t^ — i— r~» — 1 — r — t-^*r-F- 


.^-h p — 1 h — J 1 -- ^' \rd__ 

-1 ^?-_^_iL. 

The Great Masters frequently answered their 
Subjects in Contrary Motion, giving rise to 
an apparently new Theme, described as the In- 
verted Subject (Inversio; Bivolta, Eivolzimento; 
Umkehrung). This device is usually employed 
to keep up the interest of the Composition, after 
the Subject has been discussed in its original 
form : but some Masters bring in the Inverted 
Answer at once. This was a favourite device 
with Handel, whose Inverted Answers are so 
natural, as to be easily mistaken for regular ones. 
The following example is from Cherubini's 
• Credo ' already mentioned. 





Et Titam. 
Inversion ; or Answer in Contrary Motion. 

Another method of answering is by Diminu- 
tion, in which each note in the Answer is made 
half the length of that in the Subject. This, 
when cleverly done, produces the effect of a new 
Subject, and adds immensely to the spirit of the 
Fugue; as in Bach's Fugue in E, No. 33 of 
the XL VIII, bars 26-30 ; in the Fugue in Cj 
minor, No. 27 of the same set; and, most espe- 
cially, in Handel's Chorus, • Let all the Angels.' 


Answer, by 1 diminution. 
Allied to this, though in the opposite direc- 
tion, is a highly effective form of treatment by 
Augmentation, in which each note in the An- 
swer is twice the length of that in the Subject, 
or in Double Augmentation, four times its length. 
The object of this is, to give weight to massive 
passages, in which the lengthened notes produce 
the effect of a Canto fermo. See Bach's Fugue 

1 The ' Answer 'here might with equal propriety be considered as tho 
* Subject • ; In wbicb case ibe answer would be by Augmentation. 



in DJ minor, no. 8, in the XL VIII, and many 
other celebrated instances. 

Subject. Chbrubini. ' Et vitam.' 

By these and similar expedients, the one Sub- 
ject is made to produce the effect of several new 
ones ; though the new Motivo is simply a modified 
form of the original. 

But a good Subject must not only suggest a 
good Answer : it must also suggest one or more 
subsidiary Themes so constructed as to move 
against it, in Double Counterpoint, as often as it 
may appear.^ These secondary Themes are called 
Counter -Subjects {Contra-Subjectum; Contra- 
Tema\ Contra-suhjekt\Contre-sujet). The Counter- 
Subject or Counter-Subjects, however numerous 
they may be, must not only move in Double 
Counterpoint with the Subject, but all must be 
capable of moving together, in Triple, Quadruple, 
or Quintuple Counterpoint, as the case may be. 
Moreover, after the Subjecthas once been proposed, 
it must nevermore be heard, except in company 
with at least one of its Counter-Subjects. The 
Counter-Subjects usually appear, one by one, as 
the Fugue develops ; as in Bach's Fugue in CjJ 
Minor — No. 4 of the XLVIII. Less frequently, 
one, two, or even three Counter-Subjects appear 
with the Subject, when first proposed, the Com- 
position leading off, in two, three, or four Parts, 
at once. It was an old custom, in these cases, 
to describe the Fugue as written upon two, 
three, or four Subjects. These names have 
sometimes been erroneously applied even to 
Fugues in which the Counter-Subjects do not 
appear until the middle of the Composition, 
or even later. For instance, in Wesley and 
Horn's edition of Bach's XLVIII, the Fugue 
in CJJ minor is called a 'Fugue on 3 Subjects,' 
although the real Subject starts quite alone, 
the entrance of the first Counter-Subject taking 
place at bar 35, and that of the second at bar 
49. Cherubini very justly condemns this no- 
menclature, even when the Subject and Counter- 
Subjects begin together. *A Fugue,* he says, 
'neither can nor ought to have more than one 
principal Subject for its exposition. All that 
accompanies this Subject is but accessory, and 
neither can nor ought to bear any other 
name than that of Counter-Subject. A Fugue 
which is called a Fugue on two Subjects, ought 
to be called a Fugue on one Subject, with one 
Counter-Subject,' etc. etc. It is highly desirable 
that the nomenclature thus recommended should 
be adopted: but there is no objection to the 
terms Single and Double Fugue, as applied 
respectively to Fugues in which the principal 
Counter-Subject appears after or simultaneously 
with the Subject; for, when the two Motivi 
begin together, the term 'Double' is surely 
not out of place. When two Counter-Subjects 

1 8m 0«UKTIB-SDBJI0T. TOl. I. p. 4M, 


begin together with the Subject, the Fugue may 
fairly be called Triple ; when three begin with it, 
it may be called Quadruple ; the number of pos- 
sible Counter-Subjects being only limited by that 
of the Parts, with, of course, the necessary reserva- 
tion of one Part for the Subject. A Septuple 
Fugue, therefore, is a Fugue in seven Patts, 
written upon a Subject, and six Counter-Subjects, 
all beginning together. 

The Old Masters never introduced a Counter- 
Subject into their Real Fugues. Each Part, after 
it had replied to the Subject, was free to move 
wherever it pleased, on the appearance of the 
Subject in another Part. But this is not the case 
in the modem Tonal Fugue. Wherever the 
Subject appears, one Part, at least, must accom- 
pany it with a Counter-Subject ; and those Parts 
only which have already performed this duty 
become free— that is to say, are permitted, for 
the moment, to fill up the Harmony by unfettered 

When the Subject and Counter-Subject start 
together, the Theme is called a Double-Subject ; 
as in the last Chorus of Handel's 'Triumph of 
Time and Truth,' based on the Subject of an 
Organ Concerto of which it originally^ formed the 
concluding Movement; in the 'Christe' of Mo- 
zart's Requiem ; and in the following from Haydn's 
* Creation.' 

It is very important that the Subject and 
Counter-Subject should move in different figures. 
A Subject in long-sustained notes will frequently 
stand out in quite a new aspect, when contrasted 
with a Counter-Subject in Quavers or Semi- 
quavers. In Choral Fugues the character of 
the Counter-Subject is usually suggested by a 
change in the feeling of the words. For instance, 
the words of the Chorus, * Let old Timotheus,' 
in 'Alexander's Feast,' consist of four lines of 
Poetry each sung to a separate Motivo. 

In order that the Subject may be more naturally 
connected with its first Counter-Subject, it is 
common to join the two by a Codetta (Fr. 
Querie; Germ. Nachsatz), which facilitates the 
entrance of the Answer, by carrying the leading 
Part to a note in harmonious continuity with it. 
The following Codetta is from the celebrated Fugue 
called ' The Cat's Fugue,' by D. Scarlatti. 



bJ- C ^ • 


Codetta. Counter-Subject. 

^ " — 




z See the original MS., in the British Museum, George III. MSS. 
SIO [274. d.] 




The alternation of the Subject with the An- 
swer — called its Kepercussion (Lat. Bepercussio ; 
Ital. Hepercussione ; Germ. Wiederschlag) — is 
governed by necessary, though somewhat elastic 
laws. Albrechtsberger gives twenty-four different 
schemes for a Fugue in four Parts only, showing 
the various order in which the Voices may con- 
sistently enter, one after the other. The great 
desideratum is, that the Answer should follow the 
Subject, directly; and be followed, in its turn, 
by an immediate repetition of the Subject, in 
some other Part: the process being continued, 
until all the Parts have entered, in turn, with 
Subject and Counter-Subject, alternately, and 
thus become entitled to continue, for a time, 
as Free Parts. But the regularity of this alter- 
nation is not always possible, in Choral Fugues, 
the management of which must necessarily con- 
form to the compass of the Voices employed. 
For instance, in Brahms's 'Deutsche Requiem,' 
there are two Subjects, each embracing a range 
of no less than eleven notes — a fatal hindrance 
to orthodox fugal management. 

When the Subject has been thus clearly set 
forth, so as to form what is called the Exposition 
of the Fugue, the order of its Repercussion may 
be reversed ; the Answer being assigned to the 
Parts which began with the Subject, and vice 
versd : after which the Fugue may modulate at 
pleasure. But, in common language, the term 
Subject is always applied, whether accurately or 
not, to the transposed Theme, even though it 
may appear in the aspect proper to the Answer. 

As the Fugue proceeds, the alternation of 
Subject and Answer is frequently interrupted 
by Episodes (Ital. Andamenti; Fr. Divertisse- 
ments), founded on fragments of the Subject, or 
its Counter-Subjects, broken up, in the manner 
explained on page 135 ; on fragments of contra- 
puntal passages, already presented, or on passages 
naturally suggested by these. Great freedom is 
permitted in these accessory sections of the Fugue, 
during the continuance of which almost all the 
Parts may be considered as Free, to a certain 
extent. Nevertheless, the great Fuguists are 
always most careful to introduce no irrelevant 
idea into their Compositions ; and every idea not 
naturally suggested by the Subject, or by the con- 
trapuntal matter with which it is treated, must 
necessarily be irrelevant. It is indeed neither 
possible nor desirable, that every Part should be 
continuously occupied by the Subject. When it 
has proposed this, or the Answer, or one of the 
Counter-Subjects deduced from them, it may 
proceed in Single or Double Counterpoint with 
■ome other Part. But, after a long rest, it 
must always re-enter with the Subject, or a 
Counter-Subject ; or, at least, with a contra- 
puntal fragment with which one or the other of 
them has been previously accompanied, and which 

may, therefore, be fairly said to have been sug- 
gested by the Subject, in the first instance. And 
thus it is, that even the Episodes introduced into 
a really good Fugue form consistent elements of 
the argument it sets forth. In no Fugue of the 
highest order is a Part ever permitted to enter, 
without having something important to say. 

After the Exposition has been fully carried 
out, either with or without the introduction of 
Episodes, the subsequent conduct of the Fugue 
depends more on the imagination of the Com- 
poser than on any very stringent rule of construc- 
tion ; though the great Fuguists have always 
arranged their plans in accordance with certain 
well-recognised devices, which are universally 
regarded as common property, even when trace- 
able to known Masters. And here it is that 
the ingenious Devices (Fr. Artifices ; Germ. Kun- 
steleien) described at page 135 as accessory ele- 
ments of the Fugue, are first seriously called 
into play. The Composer may modulate at 
will, though only to the Attendant Keys of the 
Scale in which his Subject stands. He may 
present his Subject, or Counter-Subject, upside- 
down — i. e. inverted by Contrary Motion ; or 
backwards, in ' Imitatio cancrizans ' ; or, * Per 
recte et retro ' — half running one way, and half 
the other ; or, by single or double Augmentation, 
in notes twice, or four times, as long as those in 
the original ; or by Diminution, in notes half the 
length. Or, he may introduce a new Counter- 
Subject, or even a Canto fermo. In short, he 
may exercise his ingenuity in any way most con- 
genial to his taste, provided only that he never 
forgets his Subject. The only thing to be de- 
sired is, that the Artifices should be well chosen : 
not only suggested by the Subject, but in close 
accordance with its character and meaning. It 
is quite possible to introduce too many De- 
vices ; and the Fugue then becomes a mere 
dry exhibition of learning and ingenuity. But 
the Great Masters never fall into this error. 
Being themselves intensely interested in the pro- 
gress of their work, they never fail to interest the 
listener. Among the most elaborate Fugues on 
record are those in Sebastian Bach's 'Art of 
Fugue,' in which the Subject given on page 136 
is treated with truly marvellous ingenuity and 
erudition. Yet, even these are in some respects 
surpassed by the * Et vitam venturi,' which forms 
the conclusion of Cherubini's Credo, Alia Cap- 
pella, for eight Voices, in Double Choir, with 
a Thorough-Bass. The Subject (quoted on page 
136) is developed by the aid of five distinct 
Counter-Subjects, three of which enter simul- 
taneously with the Subject itself; the First after 
a Minim-rest; the Second after three Minims; 
the Third after two bars : the Subject itself oc- 
cupying three bars and one note of Alia Breve 
Time. It may therefore justly be called a Quad- 
ruple Fugue. ThetworemainingCounter-Subjects 
enter at the fifth and sixth bars, respectively; 
and, because the first proposal of the Subject 
comes to an end before their appearance, Cheru- 
bini, though giving them the title of Counter- 
Subjects, does not number them, as he did the- 



first three, but calls one I'autre, and the other le 
nouveau contre-sujet. The Artifices begin at the 
fourth bar, with an Imitation of the Third 
Counter-Subject in the Unison, and continue 
thence to the end of the Fugue, which em- 
bodies 243 bars of the finest contrapuntal writing 
to be found within the entire range of modern 

When the capabilities of the Subject have 
been demonstrated, and its various Counter-Sub- 
jects discussed, it is time to bind the various 
members of the Fugue more closely together, in 
the form of a Stretto ^ (Lat. Restrictio ; Ital. 
Stretto, Restretto ; Germ. Engfuhrung ; Fr. Rap- 
pi-ochement), or passage in which the Subject, 
Answer, and Counter-Subjects, are woven to- 
gether, as closely as possible, so as to bind the 
whole into a knot. Aptitude for the formation 
of an artful Stretto is one of the most desir- 
able qualities in a good Fugal Subject. Some 
Subjects will weave together, with marvellous 
ductility, at several difierent distances. Others 
can with difficulty be tortured into any kind of 
Stretto at all. Sebastian Bach's power of inter- 
twining his Subject and^Counter-Subjects seems 
little short of miraculous. The first Fugue of 
the XL VIII, in C major, contaixis seven distinct 
Stretti, all differently treated, and all remark- 
able for the closeness of their involutions. Yet, 
there is nothing in the Subject which would 
lead us to suppose it capable of any very extra- 
ordinary treatment. The secret lies rather in 
Bach's power over it. He just chose a few simple 
Intervals, which would work well together ; and, 
this done, his Subject became his slave. Almost 
all other Fugues contain a certain number of 
Episodes ; but here there is no Episode at all : 
not one single bar in which the Subject, or some 
portion of it, does not appear. Yet, one never 
tires of it, for a moment ; though, as the Answer 
is in Real Fugue, it presents no change at all, 
except that of Key, at any of its numerous re- 
currences. Some wonderfully close Stretti will 
also be found in Bach's 'Art of Fugue'; in 
Handel's *Amen Chorus'; in Cherubini's 'Et 
vitam,' already described; in the *Et vitam' of 
Sarti's * Credo,' for eight Voices, in D ; and in 
many other great Choral Fugues by Masters of 
the 1 8th century, and the first half of the 19th, 
including Mendelssohn and Spohr. Some of 
these Stretti are found on a Dominant, and 
some on a Tonic Pedal. In all, the Subject is 
made the principal feature in the contrapuntal 
labyrinth. The following example, from the 
'Gloria* of Purcell's English 'Jubilate,' composed 
for S. Cecilia's Day, 1694, is exceptionally in- 
teresting. In the first place, it introduces a 
new Subject, — a not uncommon custom with 
the earlier Fuguists, when new words were to 
be treated — and, without pausing to develop 
its powers by the usual process of Repercus- 
sion, presents it in Stretto at once. Secondly, 
it gives the Answer, by Inversion, with such 
easy grace, that one forgets all about its inge- 
nuity, though it really blends the learning of 

1 From »ringere, to biad. 


Polyphony with the symmetry of modem Form 
in a way which ought to make us very proud of 
our great Master, and the School of which he 
was so bright an ornament. For, when Purcell'g 
*Te Deum' and 'Jubilate' were written, Se- 
bastian Bach was just nine years old. 

Subject Inversion. 

With the Stretto or Organ-Point the Fugue 
is generally brought to a conclusion, and, in many 
examples, by means of a Plagal Cadence. 

Having now traced the course of a fully de- 
veloped modern Tonal Fugue, from its Exposi- 
tion to its final Chord, it remains only to say a 
few words concerning some well-recognised ex- 
ceptions to the general form. 

We have said that the modem Fugue sprang 
into existence through the recognition of its 
Tonal Answer, as an inevitable necessity. Yet 
there are Subjects — and very good ones too — 
which, admitting of no natural Tonal Answer 
at all, must necessarily be treated in Real Fugue : 
not the old Real Fugue, formed upon a few slow 
notes treated in close Imitation ; but, a form of 
Composition corresponding with the modern Tonal 
Fugue in every respect except its Tonality. Such 
a case is Mendelssohn's Fugue in E minor (op. 35, 
no. i), in which the Answer is the Subject ex- 
actly a fifth higher. 



Again, a Fugue is sometimes written upon, or 
combined with, a Canto fermo ; and the resulting 
conditions very nearly resemble those prevailing 
on board a Flag-Ship in the British Navy ; the 
functions of the Subject being typified by those 
of the Captain, who commands the ship, and the 
privileges of the Canto fermo, by those of the 
Admiral, who commands the Captain. Some- 
times the Subject is made to resemble the 
Canto fermo very closely only in notes of shorter 
duration ; sometimes it is so constructed as to 
move in Double Counterpoint against it. In 
neither case is it always easy to determine which 


is the real Subject ; but attention to the Expo- 
sition will generally decide the point. Should 
the Canto fermo pass through a regular Expo- 
sition, in the alternate aspects of Dux and 
Comes, it may be fairly considered as the true 
Subject, and the ostensible Subject must be ac- 
cepted as the principal Counter-Subject. Should 
any other Theme than the Canto fermo pass 
through a more or less regular Exposition, that 
Theme is the true Subject, and the Canto fermo 
merely an adjunct. Examples of the first method 
are comparatively rare in Music later than the 
17th century. Instances of the second will be 
found in Handel's * Utrecht Te Deum and Ju- 
bilate,' 'Hallelujah Chorus,' 'The horse and his 
rider,' Funeral, and Foundling Anthems; and 
in J. S. Bach's * Choral Vorspiele.' 

Other exceptional forms are found in the ' Fugue 
of Imitation,' in which the Answer is neither an 
exact reproduction of the Subject, nor necessarily 
confined to Imitation in any particular Interval ; 
the Fughetta, or Little Fugue, which terminates 
at the close of the Exposition ; and the Fugato, 
or Pezzo Fugato, which is not really a Fugue, 
but only a piece written in the style of one. 
But these forms are not of sufficient importance 
to need a detailed description. [W.S.E..] 

TONALITY is the element of key, which in 
modem music is of the very greatest importance. 
Upon the clearness of its definition the existence 
of instrumental music in harmonic forms of the 
Sonata order depends. It is defined by the con- 
sistent maintenance for appreciable periods of 
harmonies, or passages of melody, which are 
characteristic of individual keys. Unless the 
tonality is made intelligible, a work which has 
no words becomes obscure. Thus in the binary 
or duplex form of movement the earlier portion 
must have the tonality of the principal key well 
defined; in the portion which follows and sup- 
plies the contrast of a new and complementary 
key, the tonality of that key, whether dominant or 
mediant or other relative, must be equally clear. 
In the development portion of the movement 
various keys succeed each other more freely, 
but it is still important that each change shall 
be tonally comprehensible, and that chords be- 
longing to distinct keys shall not be so recklessly 
mixed up together as to be undecipherable by 
any process of analysis — while in the latter 
portion of the movement the principal key again 
requires to be clearly insisted on, especially at 
the conclusion, in such a way as to give the 
clearest and most unmistakeable impression of 
the tonality ; and this is commonly done at most 
important points by the use of the simplest and 
clearest successions of harmony. Chords which 
are derived from such roots as dominant, sub- 
dominant, and tonic, define the tonality most 
obviously and certainly; and popular dance- 
tunes, of all times, have been generally based 
upon successions of such harmonies. In works 
which are developed upon a larger scale a much 
greater variety of chords is used, and even chords 
belonging to closely related keys are commonly 
interlaced without producing obscurity, or weak- 



ening the structural outlines of the work ; but 
if chords are closely mixed up together without 
system, whose roots are only referable to keys 
which are remote fi:om one another, the result is 
to make the abstract form of the passage unin- 
telligible. In dramatic music, or such music 
as depends for its coherence upon words, the 
laws which apply to pure instrumental music 
are frequently violated without ill efiects, inas- 
much as the form of art then depends upon 
different conditions, and the text may often 
successfully supply the solution for a passage 
which in pure instrumental music would be 
unintelligible. [C.H.H.P.] 

TONE, in the sense of Quality, the French 
timbre, is distinguished as harsh, mild, thin, 
full, hollow, round, nasal, metallic or woody; 
and most persons agree in assigning these epithets 
to varieties of tone as usually heard. No valid 
reason was forthcoming for the cause of these 
varieties until Helmholtz, in 'Die Lehre der 
Tonempfindungen,' settled its physical basis, de- 
monstrating and explaining it by his theory of 
tone sensations. Since the publication of that 
great work the why and wherefore of differences 
of quality may be learned by all enquirers, 
without any preliminary knowledge of mathe- 
matics ; and as there are admirable translations 
of Helmholtz's great work, in French by M. 
Gudroult, and in English by Mr. A. J. Ellis, 
those who wish to pursue the study of the 
subject will find no insurmountable hindrance 
to doing so. 

If, as Helmholtz points out, the same note is 
sounded successively on a pianoforte, a violin, 
clarinet, oboe or trumpet, or by the human voice, 
though the pitch be the same and the force equal, 
the musical tone of each is different and may be 
at once recognised without seeing the instrument 
or singer. These varieties of quality are infi- 
nitely numerous, and we can easily distinguish 
one voice from another in singing or speaking 
even by memory, at distances of time and space ; 
and by the delicate shades of quality in vowel 
tone we perceive that each individual is furnished 
with a distinct vocal instrument. This infinite 
gradation of tone is due to the fact that simple 
tones are very rarely heard, but that in nearly 
every musical sound, though accepted by the ear 
as one note, several notes are really heard in 
combination, and it is the different relative 
numbers and intensities of the notes combined 
that cause the sensation of different quality. In 
the analysis of the combination the lowest tone 
is called the 'Prime' or 'Fundamental,' and 
the higher ones, the 'Upper Partials.'^ The 
running off into upper partial tones is to be 
attributed, as Mr. Hermann Smith discovered, 
to the energy with which the sounding medium, 
whatever it may be, is agitated. The ^olian 
Harp is a beautiful instance of the influence of 
varying energy. In it several strings are tuned 
to one pitch, but they are not equally sub- 

» We abstain from reference to the much-debated combination or 
differential tones which the ear can perceive lower In pitch than tbt 



mitted to the force of the wind, and in conse- 
quence we hear lower or higher notes in com- 
binations of concord or dissonance, as the strings 
vibrate in longer or shorter sections due to the 
less or greater power of the wind, and its point 
of impact on the string.^ The pulsations known 
as Beats, which may be heard by touching and 
holding down almost any key of a pianoforte 
not recently tuned, affect the ear by their fre- 
quency. K unapparent or nearly so, Helmholtz 
characterises the sound as ' continuous,' if per- 
ceptibly apparent as 'discontinuous,' and while 
continuity is harmonious and gratifies the ear, 
discontinuity is discordant and more or less 
pains the ear according to the frequency of the 
disconnection. Now the prime and upper partials 
which in strings, narrow tubes, reeds and the 
human voice form a musical note, proceed in a 
regular succession, the Arithmetical Progression 
of I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc. This succession may also 
be expressed in ratios which show by fractions 
the vibrating divisions of the string. We express 
the same succession by Unison, Octave, Twelfth, 
Double Octave, etc. Up to 8, which is the 
Third Octave from the Prime or Fundamental, 
the successive combination of these increasing 
divisions of the string (or of the air column) is 
sufficiently continuous or free from prominent 
beats to satisfy the ear as harmonious, but that 
point passed, the greater frequency of beats 
caused by the increasing nearness of the suc- 
cessive partials causes a disagreeable sensation 
which is extreme when a string vibrating in 1 2 
sections and another vibrating in 1 3, are sound- 
ing together. The reader must take for granted 
that for simple tones the particles vibrate like 
the bob of a pendulum. For compound tones 
the form of the vibration is very different. The 
particular form in any case depends upon the 
number and intensity of the partials or simple 
tones of which it is compounded, and produces 
the effect called quality of tone. There is 
another circumstance called 'phase,* depending 
upon the points of their vibrations in which 
two partials coincide, when compounded ; this 
alters the form of vibration in the compound 
tone, but has no perceptible effect on its 

We have so far touched upon the voice, and 
those instruments of strings, reeds, and narrow 
pipes which may have a regular series of harmonic 
proper tones ; there are however irregular causes 
of musical or partially musical sound with inhar- 
monic proper tones, not following an arithmetical 
order of succession : among these are wide pipes, 
stretched membranes (as drums), plates (as 
gongs), elastic rods (as tuning-forks), and the 
various metal and wooden harmonicas. The use 
of nearly all these varieties is in consequence 
much restricted in our modem European music. 
As to Resonance, any elastic body fastened so as 
to be permitted to vibrate will have its own 
proper tones, and will respond sympathetically to 

1 The peculiar, touching, ch&racter of the .SCollan harp harmony li 
determined by the frequent presence of the Harmonic Seventh, an 
interval rejected In our music and replaced by sharper diatonant 
sevenths of an entirely different tone chancter. 


the influence of other periodic vibrations, as may 
be commonly observed with violins, pianofortes, 
harps, and other stringed instruments, where 
the comparatively faint sound of the strings is 
materially reinforced by the responsive sound- 

In many wind instruments the phenomena of 
Harmonics become of the first importance. In 
these they are caused by increase of pressure or 
force of blowing; and, in point of fact, as each 
higher note is gained by the rejection of a lower 
factor of sound, the quality of each note changes 
and gains in brilliancy as it ascends in pitch. In 
stringed instruments it is sufficient to touch the 
vibrating string gently with the finger, to damp 
all those simple vibrations which have segmental 
cui-ves or loops at the point touched ; while at 
the apparent resting-places from vibration which 
are called nodes, the simple vibrations meeting 
there continue to sound with undiminished loud- 
ness. The quality is changed from the full sound- 
ing note ; the vibrating complex being simpler, 
sounds sweeter and purer, until in the very 
highest harmonics the difference to the ear be- 
tween string and wind seems almost lost. The 
greater consistency of metal assists the mainten- 
ance of a state of vibrating motion once assumed, 
and from this what we characterise as metallic 
tone is the comparatively steady lasting of the 
high upper partial tones, but with the possible 
fault of becoming tinkling. In the less elastic 
mass of wood, the upper partials rapidly die 
away. Unless this decrease be too rapid the ear 
delights in the greater prominence gained for the 
prime and its nearer upper partials. If too rapid 
we characterise the tone as woody. 

In the Pianoforte we meet with the readiest 
application of the terms 'metallic ' and ' woody.' 
Modem pianos, where the framing which holds 
the strings and bears their draught is of iron, 
frequently have a * metallic * tone from the higher 
elasticity of the framing, which being metal does 
not allow the high upper partials of the string 
to die away so soon as they did in the older 
pianos of iron and wood or of wood alone, the 
inferior elasticity of which permitted them to 
become extinct sooner and the string to pass 
more quickly into longer segments of vibration. 
The extreme influence of metal may be to main- 
tain a * ringing ' or even a ' tinkling ' tone ; from 
the wood we get a 'dull' or 'woody' quality. 
There are however other conditions to be pre- 
sently referred to. To show the strength of the 
octave harmonic in a good pianoforte you will 
rarely find the tuner adjust the pitch note C (a) 
to its corresponding tuning-fork. He prefers the 
middle C (J) an octave lower, because its first upper 
partial (c) beats, for a certain space of time, more 

(a) (6) (c) 

distinctly with the fork than the fundamental with 
which it is in unison. The scheme of strengthening 
the octave harmonic by an additional octave string 
is certainly a work of supererogation 1 But one 


very important factor in pianoforte tone is the 
hammer, both in its covering and in its striking 
place against the string. Helmholtz shows that 
a soft hammer causes softer or rounder tone be- 
cause the greater continuity of contact of the 
soft material damps the very high upper partials, 
while the less continuity of contact of a hard- 
surfaced hammer allows small section s of the string 
to sound on. Strength of blow causes loudness by 
increasing the amplitude or greater vibrating ex- 
cursion of the string, while it also expends more 
energy and increases the number of upper partials 
in the tone. Weakness of blow is, of course, of 
reverse influence. The striking-place, or point 
of contact of hammer and string, affects the tone 
variously. Experience teaches that it should be 
upon a nodal point, although many pianoforte 
makers neglect an accurate adjustment of the 
striking line, to the detriment of purity of tone. 
If the string could be struck exactly at the half 
of its length between the bridges, a kind of 
clarinet tone of great beauty would be obtained. 
On the other hand, by striking very near the 
wrestplank bridge, and thus favouring the very 
high partials at the expense of the lower ones, 
an approximation to the oboe tone would be 
gained. The so-called * Lute ' stop, in the 
harpsichord, is a practical illustration of this 
change of quality. The best fundamental tone 
in combination with the best sounding partials 
is obtained at the eighth of the string ; at the 
ninth the tone hardens by diminution of the 
power of the prime, which is proved by the ham- 
mer requiring more 'toning' or softening. The 
high upper partials continue to come into greater 
prominence as we ascend to the tenth and higher, 
for which reason, to get brighter trebles, piano- 
forte makers have adopted the device of bringing 
the striking-place inwards as they ascend, with 
a loss of equality of tone. In the old keyboard in- 
struments which preceded the pianoforte, and 
indeed in the early pianofortes, no attention was 
paid to accuracy of striking-place. In Harpsi- 
chords and spinets the strings were usually 
touched somewhere between the half and the 
tenth of the length; but the small diameter 
of the strings favoured the due formation of 
agreeable upper partials.^ 

The framing and weight of stringing have much 
to do with the bars attached to the under side of 
the belly or soundboard of a pianoforte. These 
bars cross the direction of the grain of the Spruce 
Fir of which the belly is made, and promote the 
elasticity of this most important tone reinforcer. 
Without the Resonance table the strings would 
offer scarcely any sound, and without the 
elasticity gained by the bars their high upper 
partials would be imperfectly reflected, or im- 
mediately lost. The hard wood bridge carries 
the complete pulsations of the strings to the 
soundboard by alternating greater and less pres- 
sures. On the whole no other musical instru- 

1 The effect of the striking Is due, generally, to the Intensity of 
motion of the simple vibrations, and the corresponding Increase 
or decrease of the partials, at the point of excitement by the hammer, 
thus affecting the composition of the musical tone. Helmholtz (Ellis) 
p. 123. 



ment is capable of the infinite variety of the 
tone qualities of the pianoforte, as various as the 
wonderfully nervous touch of the ends of the 
fingers of the player, which differs in every in- 
dividual so that no two persons produce quite the 
same tone from the pianoforte unless they may 
be said to agree in the bad tone obtained by in- 
elastic thumping. 

^ We can compare, although remotely, the 
violin with the pianoforte in some of the funda- 
mental principles of tone-production, but in many 
respects these instruments are very different. 
For instance, in the tone-production, the string 
clings to the bow until it is suddenly detached, 
when it rebounds and is caught by the bow again. 
Thus a peculiar vibrational form ensues, in which, 
according to Helmholtz, the prime or fundamental 
tone is stronger than in the pianoforte, while the 
first upper partials are comparatively weak. The 
sixth to the tenth are much stronger, which gives 
the bowed instruments their cutting character — 
the 'scolding violins,' as old Thomas Mace 
called them when they were beginning to super- 
sede the viols and lutes. Any scratching of the 
bow is immediately shown by sudden jumps or 
displacements of the compound figure of vibration. 
The form of this figure is however tolerably in- 
dependent of the place of bowing, usually at 
about one-tenth of the length of the string. The 
quality becomes somewhat duller as we approach 
the fingerboard, and brighter as we approach the 
bridge, at least for forte passages. We have re- 
semblances to the pianoforte in the pressure of 
■topping in the violin by the finger, in the piano- 
forte by a firm wrestplank bearing ; by this power 
the production and continuity of the upper par- 
tials is assisted and maintained. The * bass bar ' 
in the violin answers to the more complex barring 
of the piano, by screwing the belly up to the 
required pitch of elasticity for the reinforce- 
ment of the upper partials. Lastly, the bowing 
has some analogy to the touch of the pianoforte 
player; in that quality of individuality which 
extinguishes or subordinates the mechanical in 

Recent researches have proved that the orches- 
tral division of wood and brass in wind instruments 
is nominal, or nearly nominal, only. The material 
affects the tone of those instruments by the 
rigidity or elasticity which it offers for enclosing 
columns of air. The cause of the difference 
of the quality of tone is the shape of the air 
column as it approximates to a cylindrical or 
conical form, and is wide or narrow for the pro- 
duction of the proper tones ; the upper partials as 
determining the quality, and in combinations as 
harmonics. The production of the tone — whether 
by double reed (as in the oboe), by single reed 
(as in the clarinet), or by embouchure (as in the 
flute); the hypothetical air reed in flue organ 
pipes, and the action of the lips as vibrating 
membranes in the cupped mouthpieces of horns, 
trumpets, trombones, etc. — has its place in the 
determination of quality ; so much so, that to pre- 
serve the colour of tone in the orchestra, clarinets 
and oboes have not been improved, as the flute 




has been, lest their distinctive qualities of tone 
should be destroyed. But orchestral qualities, 
considered as a whole, do slowly change. It 
would not now be possible to restore the orches- 
tral colouring of Handel or Bach. 

The most strident reed-tone is heard in the 
harmonium. In that variety called the American 
organ, the force of the high upper partials en- 
gendered by the action of the reed, is qualified 
by altering its position and form. It is imp'ossible 
in a dictionary article to carry out the discussion 
of various qualities of tone, even as far as the 
subject is already known ; the writer can only 
refer the inquirer to the best existing sources of 
our knowledge : to the great work of Helmholtz 
already referred to — especially in Mr. Ellis's 
translation, which contains appendices of great 
importance; to the writings of Dr. Stone and 
M. Mahillon on wind instruments; to Mr. Walter 
Broadwood's translation of an essay by Theobald 
Boehm, on the flute, and to some interesting 
articles 'In the Organ and in the Orchestra,* 
written by Mr. Hermann Smith, and published in 
'Musical Opinion.' The writer can only lay claim 
to independent investigation as regards the piano- 
forte and its congeners. [See Timbre.] [A.J.H.] 


most typical examples of the Church Modes, 
which are described at p. 340 b of vol. ii. [See 
also Geegorian Tones, in Appendix.] [G.] 

TONIC SOL-FA is the name of a method of 
teaching singing which has become popular in 
England during the last thirty years. It is the 
method now most generally used in primary 
schools, and is adopted widely for the training 
of popular choirs. Its leading principle is that 
of 'key relationship' (expressed in the word 
* Tonic '), and it enforces this by the use of the 
ancient sound-names, do, re, mi, etc., as visible, 
as well as oral, symbols. These names are first 
put before a class of beginners in the form of a 
printed picture of the scale, called a ' Modulator.' 
For simplicity's sake they are spelt English-wise, 
and si is called te to avoid having two names 
with the same initial letter. In the first lessons 
the teacher practises the class in the singing 
of the sounds as he points to the name of each, 
first taking the do, me, soh, of the common chord. 

making his pupils feel the special character of 
each sound, its distinguishing melodic effect, and 
afterwards training them to recognise the inter- 
mediate sounds in the same way. It is on 
this * feeling ' of the different character of each 
sound, the difierence due 
to its place in the scale, 
that the greatest stress 
is laid. When the pupil 
has caught the percep- 
tion of these differences, 
and has learnt to as- 
sociate the difference of 
the feeling with the dif- 
ference of the name, he 
has grasped, in its essen- 
tial principle, the secret 
of singing at sight. — The 
central column only of the 
modulator is used at first. 
The lateral columns are 
for teaching and ex- 
plaining change of key. 
The fe, se, etc. represent 
the occasionally used 

* chromatic * sounds, i. e. 

• flats ' and * sharps ' not 
involving modulation in- 
to a new key. The 
names of the sounds are 
so placed on the modu- 
lator as to show, accur- 
ately, the true positions of the sounds in 
the natural (untempered) scale. When the class 
can, with some readiness, sing the sounds as 
the teacher points to them on the modulator, 
they are introduced to exercises printed in 
a notation formed out of the initials of the 
scale-names; d standing for doh, r for ray, 
etc. The duration of each sound is indicated 
by the linear space it occupies, each line of 
print being spaced out into divisions by bars 
and dots. A ' rest ' is shown by a blank 
space, the prolongation of a sound by a line 
( — ) occupying the space. Sounds in upper 
and lower octaves are distinguished by small 
figures: thus, 6}, r^ etc. signify an upper oc- 
tave ; d, r, etc. a lower. The following is an 
example of a vocal score : — 



- n' - 1 

-^ n -8 

— DOH'— f 

TE — n 

tn le 

— LAH ^ r 

la se 

- SOH — d 

ba f e I 

— FAH 


— ME — 1, 

ma re 

- KAY — s, 

de ' 

-DOH- f, 

t, - n, 

— 1, ^ r, 

- 8, -d, 


- f, 


- n, -la 

Since first I sftw your fiwe I n-solT'd to bon-our and re- 
P rf 

KeyD. M. 60. 

Thomas Ford. 



d :-.r 

m :f 

Alto. i 

1. Since 


r :-i 

r :r 

Tenor. \ 
Bass. ^ 


m : f 

sun, vrhose 

d :-.d 

8 :1 

beams mott 

d :1. 


8 :f 

bee, I 

r :r 

.m 1 r 

re - sol 

.r jr 


?'d To 






:- 8 |f :m 

. our and re- 

:-.d It, :d 


t :t 

glo- rl 

.t It 

- oos are 

:1 .t 

Be - 



:-.8 |8 :8 

- eth no be- 


8, :s 

.8, l8 


m|r :d 



~w ~ r 

3:^<i_^— :pi 

:1 — t 



-^-j— .-i-«- ~-i — i 






K 1 


heart had ne-ver known you. 

^ — \ — u_ 


J : 



r :- 










a :t, 




. If 








s : - 

hold - 

s, : - 

- I 




: m 







:-.d 1 






s :f. 








dain'd. I 

r :r 1 










- er 


t :t 

past com 

s, :s. 




:1 .t 













m .r 



1 d 





1 d 



: - 
: - 


I ■» 


1 d 

The method is, it will be seen, identical 
in principle with the old system known by 
the name of the ' Moveable Do,' and the 
notation is only so far new in that symbols are 
written down which have been used, orally, 
for some eight centuries. The syllables at- 
tributed to Guido, circa 1024 [see Hexachoed], 
were a notation, not of absolute pitch, but of 
tonic relation; his ut, re, mi, etc., meaning 


sometimes ^— ^ 

and so on, according as the tonic changed its 
pitch; and this ancient use of the syllables to 
represent, not fixed sounds, but the sounds of 
the scale, has been always of the greatest service 
in helping the singer, by association of name 
with melodic effect, to imagine the sound. 
The modern innovation of a * fixed Do ' is one 
of the many symptoms (and effects) of the 
domination of instruments over voices in the 
world of modem music.^ 

The Tonic Sol-fa method, indeed, though 
spoken of as a novelty, is really a reversion to 
ancient practice, to a principle many centuries 
old. Its novelty of aspect, which is undeniable, 
results from its making this principle more 
prominent, by giving it visual, as well as oral, 
expression ; that is, by using the old sound- 
names as written symbols. Those who follow 
the old Italian and old English practice of the 

1 sir John Herschel said In 1868 (Quarterly Journal of Science, 
art. 'Musical Scales')—' I adhere throughout to the good old system of 
representing by Do, Re, Mi, Fa, etc., the scale of natural notes tn any 
hey whatever, taking Do for the key-note, whatever that may be. In 
opposition to the practice lately introduced (and soon I hope to be 
exploded), of taking Do to represent one fixed tone C,— the greatest 
retrograde step, in my opinion, ever taken in teaching music, or any 
other branch of knowledge.* 
VOL. IV. PT. a. 

* Moveable Do ' are, in effect. Tonic Sol-faists. 
The question of notation is a distinct one, and 
turns on considerations of practical convenience. 
The argument for adhering to the old tonic use 
of the syllables rests broadly on the ground that 
the same thing should be called by the same 
name ; that, for example, if 


is to be called do, 
reasonable that 

do, re 1 si, do, re, it is not 

dz-ij =i^! — — ^ 

4—1 H— t—- -•--- ^- 

the essential effect of which on the ear is the 
same — for the tune is the same, and the tune is 
all that the ear feels and remembers — should be 
called by another set of names, si, si, do \ la, si, 
do. And, conversely, it is not reasonable that 
if, for example, in the passage 
, I . ,-. 



the last two sounds are called do, la, — the same 
sounds should be also called do, la, in the passage 

where they sound wholly different ; the identity 
of pitch being as nothing compared to the change 
of melodic effect — a change, in this case, from the 
plaintive to the joyous. It is on this perception 
of the 'mental effect' of the sounds of the scale 
that the Tonic Sol-fa teacher relies as the means 
of making the learner remember and reproduce 
the sounds. And it is this that constitutes the 
novelty of the system as an instrument of teaching. 



To mal<e the beginner feel these eflfects for him- 
self is the teacher's first object. As a help to 
such perception a set of descriptive names are 
used in the earliest lessons. The pupil is told he 
may think of the do as the 'strong' tone, of the 
me as the ' steady' or 'calm' tone, of the lali as 
the * sad ' tone, and so on ; these epithets giving, 
in a rough way of course, some indication of the 
* mental effect.' When in this way the pupil has 
learnt to associate the names with the several 
sounds, he refers the letters on the printed page 
to a mental picture of the modulator, and though 
the music does not ' move up and down,' as in 
the Staff notation, the syllable-initials suggest to 
him the names ; he sees these names, mentally, 
in their places on the scale, and with the remem- 
brance of the name comes the remembrance of 
the sound. 

This constant insistance on the scale and 



h^tr^^^-il^ ^ 

the "1 meaning that the singer is to sing the 
sound which is the me of the scale in which he 
began, but to call it lah wliile singing it, and 
sing onwards accordingly. When the key 
changes again to the original tonic he is iji- 
formed of it by the '^s, which means that he 
is to sing again tlio sound he has just sung as 
doh, but to think of it and sing it as soTi. These 
indications of change of key give the singer direct 
notice of what, in the Staff notation, he is left 
to find out inferentially from the occurrence of a 
sharp or flat in one of the parts, or by comparing 
his own part with the others. To make these 
inferences with any certainty requires a consider- 
able knowledge of music, and if they are not 
made with certainty the * reading ' must be 
mere guess-work. Remembering that in music 
of ordinary difficulty — say in Handel's choruses 
— the key changes at an average every eight 
or ten bars, one can easily see what an advan- 
tage the Tonic Sol-faist has in thus being made 
at every moment sure of the key he is sing- 
ing in. The method thus sweeps out of the 
beginner's way various complications which 
would puzzle him in the Staff notation — ' signa- 
tures,' 'sharps and flats,' varieties of clef. To 
transpose, for instance, tlie above chant into the 
key of F, all that is needed is to write ' Key F ' 
in place of ' Key E b.' Thus the singer finds all 
keys equally easy. 'Accidentals' are wholly 
unknown to him, except in the comparatively 
rare case of the accidental properly so called, that 
is, a 'chromatic' sound, one not signifying change 
of key.^ 

These advantages can, it is true, be in part 
secured by a discreet use of the ' tonic ' principle, 
— a ' moveable do ' — with the staff notation. But 
the advocates of the letter notation urge that the 

1 In the Soprano part, for Instance, of the Messiah choruses 
there are but three real ' accidentals.' 


nothing but the scale carries the singer with ease 
over the critical difficulties of modulation. He 
has been taught to follow with his voice the 
teacher's pointer as it moves up and <lown the 
modulator. When it touches soh (see the modu- 
lator above) he sings soh. It moves to the doh 
on the same level to the right, and he sings the 
same sound to this new name. As he follows 
the pointer up and down the new scale he is soon 
taught to understand that a new sound is wanted 
to be the te of the new doh, and thus learns, by the 
'feeling' of the sounds, not by any mere ma- 
chinery of symbols, what modulation is. When 
he has been made familiar witli the change from 
scale to scale on the modulator, he finds in the 
printed music a sign to indicate every change of 
key. Thus the changes between tonic and 
dominant in the following chant are shown as 
follows (taking the soprano part only) : — 

Key Eb. 


f. Key Eb. 

•1^ I f : m I 1 :- 

Key Bb. 

II '^ I t:d' I d' 


r :m I r :r | d : — 

old notation hampers both teacher and learner 
with difficulties which keep the principle out of 
view ; that the notes of the staff give only a 
fictitious view of interval. To the eye, for in- 
stance, a major third (a) looks the same as a 
minor third (&) ; which of the two is meant can 
(a) {h) 




only be determined by a process of reasoning on 
the 'signature.' A like process is needed before 
the reader can settle which sound of the scale 
any note represents. In the above chant, for 
example, before the singer can sing the opening 
phrase he must know that the first sound is the 
soh of the key. The staff notation shows him a 
mark on a particular line, but it is only after he 
has made certain inferences from the three ' flats ' 
on the left that he can tell whore the sound is in 
the scale. How much better, the Sol-faists say, 
to let him know this at once, by simply printing 
the sound as soh. Why impede the singer by 
troubling him with a set of signs which add 
nothing to his knowledge of the facts of music, 
and which are only wanted when it is desired to 
indicate absolute pitch, a thing which the sight- 
reader is not directly concerned with ? 

The question of the utility of a new notation 
is thus narrowed to a practical issue : one which 
may be well left to be determined by teachers 
themselves. It is of course chimerical to suppose 
that the ancient written language of music could 
be now ' disestablished,' but musicians need not 
object to, they will rather welcome, any means 
of removing difficulties out of the learner's way. 
The universal language of music — and we are 
apt to forget how much we owe to the fact that 
it is universal — may well be said to be abnost a 
miracle of adaptation to its varied uses ; but it is 


worth observing that there is an essential differ- 
enoe between the sight-reader's and the player's 
use of any system of musical signs. The player 
has not to think of the sounds he makes before 
he makes them. When he sees, say, the symbol 

its meaning to him is not, in practice. 





' imagine such and such a sound,* but * do some- 
thing on your instrument which will make the 
sound.' To the pianist it means * touch a certain 
white key lying between two black keys ' ; to the 
violoncellist, ' put the middle finger down on the 
first string,' and so on. The player's mental 
judgment of the sound only comes in after it has 
been produced. By this he 'checks' the accuracy 
of the result. The singer, on the contrary, knows 
nothing of the mechanical action of his own 
throat : it would be useless to say to him, * make 
your vocal chords perform 256 vibrations in a 
second.' He has to think of the sound first ; 
when he has thought of it, he utters it spon- 
taneously. The imagination of the sound is all 

in all. An indication of absolute pitch only 
is useless to him, because the melodic effect, 
the only effect the memory can recall, depends 
not on absolute but on relative pitch. Hence a 
* tonic * notation, or a notation which can be 
used tonically, can alone serve his purpose. 

An exposition of the details of the method 
would be here out of place, but one or two points of 
special interest may be noticed.^ One is the treat- 
ment of the minor scale — a crux of all Sol-fa 
systems, if not of musical theory generally. Tonio 
Sol-faists are tauglit to regard a minor scale as 
a variant of the relative major, not of the tonio 
major, and to sol-fa the sounds accordingly. The 
learner is made to feel that the special * minor * 
character results from the dominance of the lah, 
which he already knows as the plaintive sound of 
the scale. The ' sharpened sixth' (reckoning from 
the lah), when it occurs, is called ba (the only 
wholly new sound-name used (see the modulator, 
above), and the 'leading' tone is called se, by 
analogy with ie (Italian si) of the major mode. 
Thus the air is written and sung as follows : — 

God be for us, who can be a ' 


gainst us? 

who can be 


gainst us? who can be a - gainst us? 

Key Bb. 

Lah is C. 

1, d • 


:i, n 

:n :1 s : 



If God 

be for 

us, who can 



n : 1, 

gainst us ? 


= = 1 

: :1, n : 

who can 





1 t, :1, 

1 gainst us? 

d s : 

who can 

-.f : n 1 r 

be a- 'gainst 

: d 



Experience appears to show that, for sight-read- 
ing purposes, this is the simplest way of ti-eating 
the minor mode. Some musicians object to it on 
the ground that, as in a minor scale the lowest (and 
highest) sound is essentially a tonic, in the sense 
that it plays a part analogous to that of the do 
in a major scale, calling it la seems an incon- 
sistency. But this seems a shadowy objection. 
The only important question is, what sign, for 
oral and ocular use, will best help the singer to 
recognise, by association with mental effect, one 
sound as distinguished from another ? Experience 
shows that the Tonic Sol-fa plan does this 
effectually. The method is also theoretically 
sound. It proceeds on the principle that simi- 
larity of name should accord with similarity of 
musical effect. Now as a fact the scale of A 
minor is far more closely allied to the scale of C 
major than it is to the scale of A major. The 
identity of ' signature ' itself shows that the sub- 
stantial identity of the two first-named scales has 
always been recognised. But a proof more effec- 
tive than any inference from signs and names is 
that given by the practice of composers in the 
matter of modulation. The scales most nearly 
related must evidently be those between which 
modulation is most frequent ; and changes be- 
tween tonic major and relative minor (type, C 
major to and from A minor) are many times 
more frequent than the changes between tonic 

major and ^onic minor (type, C major to and from 
C minor). In Handel's music, for instance, the 
proportion is some nine or ten to one.^ If there- 
fore the Tonic Sol-faist, in passing from C major 
to A minor, changed his doh, he would be adopt- 
ing a new set of names for what is, as near as 
may be, the same set of sounds. 

The examples above given show the notation 
as applied to simple passages ; the following will 
show how peculiar or difficult modulations may 
be rendered in it : — 

1 The best summary account of this system for the musician is 
given in 'Tonic Sol la,' one of the 'Music Primers' edited by Dr. 
Stainer (Novel lo). 

2 In ' Judas ' the transitions from major to relative minor, and 
from minor to relative major, are, as reclconed by the writer, 67 in 
number; the transitions from major to tonic minor, and from 
minor to tonic major, being only 7. The practice of centuries in 
points of technical nomenclature cannot, of course, be reversed, but 
it is plain that the phrase ' relative ' minor is deceptive. The scale 
called "A minor' would be more reasonably called (as its signature 
In effect calls it) C minor. It has not been sufficiently noticed that 
the diflFerent kinds of change from minor to major are used by com- 
posers to produce strilcingly different effects. The change to rela- 
tive major (e.g. A minor to C major) is the ordinary means ol 
passing, say, from the dim to the bright— from pathetic to cheerful. 
But the change to tonic major (A minor to A major) is a change to 
the Intensely bright— to jubilation or triumph. A good instance is 
the beginning of the great fugue in 'Judas,' 'We worship God'— a 
point of extraordinary force. Another is the well-ltnown choral 
finale in ' MoS(5 in Egitto,' 'Dal tuo stellato soglio,' where, after the 
repetition in three successive verses of the change from G minor to 
Bb major, giving an effect of reposeful serenity, the culminating 
effect, the great burst of triumph in the last verse, is given by the 
change from G minor to G major. Other Instances are the passago 
in ' Elijah '— ' His mercies on thousands fall '—and the long prepared 
change to the tonio major which begins the finale of Beethoven's 
C minor Symphony. 

L 2 




They stand be -fore God's throne, and serve him day and 


i^g^ : 

night. And the Lamb shall lead them to foun-tains of liv-lng vra-teri . 


Af- fright -ed fled hell's spl-rits black In throngs. 


id - 

Down they sink in the deep a • byas to end - less night. 

In the teaching of Harmony the Tonic Sol-fa 
method puts forward no new theory, but it uses 
a chord-nomenclature which makes the expres- 
sion of the facts of harmony very simple. Each 
chord is represented by the initial letter, printed 
in capitals, of the sol-fa name of its essential 
root, thus — 

M J y cj. 


the various positions of the same chord being 
distinguished by small letters appended to the 
capital, thus — 

Da or D D6 

Harmony being wholly a matter of relative, not 
absolute pitch, a notation based on key-relation- 
ship has obvious advantages as a means of indi- 
cating chord-movements. The learner has from 
the first been used to think and speak of every 
sound by its place in a scale, and the familiar 
symbols m, f, etc. convey to him at once all that 
is expressed by the generalising terms * mediant,' 
* subdominant.'etc. Another point in the method, 
as applied to Harmony teaching, is the promi- 
nence given to training the ear, as well as the 
eye, to recognise chords. Pupils are taught, in 
class, to observe for themselves how the various 
consonances and dissonances sound ; and they are 
practised at naming chords when sung to them. 

The Tonic Sol-fa method began to attract 
public notice about the year 1850. Its great 
success has been mainly due to the energy and 
enthusiasm of Mr. John Curwen, who died in 
June 1880, after devoting the best part of his 
life to the work of spreading knowledge of music 
among the people. Mr. Curwen [see Curwen, 
Appendix], born in 181 6, was a Nonconformist 
minister, and it was from his interest in school 
and congregational singing that he was led to 
take up the subject of teaching to sing at sight. 

Key Gb. 

{ m I f :-.r I s : -.t, | d : | : d 
1 r : -.r I f : -.t. | d : | : d .r 

G : Seven removes. 

I «»»r.,l,:d.t,,t, 1 m.r,r:t,.s, | r.d|| 

Key Eb. Lali is C. 

j m I 1 : — I— : d' J m' : d' | 1 : m 
|d :-.t,Il, :_| : | : Jl :_ | _: 1 
I I . — I s : s I f : ^ I m : — 
|r :-id : -[ t, : -il, : 1, | m -|| 

His system grew out of his adoption of a plan of 
Sol-faing from a modulator with a letter nota- 
tion, which was being used with success for 
teaching children some forty years ago, by a 
benevolent lady living at Norwich. He always 
spoke ofthislady,MissElizabethGlover(d, 1867), 
as the originator of the method. Her rough 
idea developed under his hand into a complete 
method of teaching. He had a remarkable gift 
for explaining principles in a simple way, and 
his books strike the reader throughout by their 
strong flavour of common sense and incessant 
appeal to the intelligence of the pupil. They 
abound with acute and suggestive hints on the 
art of teaching : and nothing, perhaps, has more 
contributed to the great success of the method 
than the power which it has shown of making 
teachers easily. A wide system of examinations 
and graduated ' certificates,' a college for training 
teachers, and the direction of a large organisa- 
tion were Mr. Curwen's special work. [See ToNio 
Sol-fa College.] For some time the system 
was looked on with suspicion and disfavour by 
musicians, chiefly on account of the novel look of 
the printed music, but the growing importance of 
its practical results secured the adhesion of musi- 
cians of authority. Helmholtz, viewing it from the 
scientific as well as the practical side, remarked 
in his great work on Sound (1863) on the value 
of the notation as 'giving prominence to what is 
of the greatest importance to the singer, the 
relation of each tone to the tonic,' and described 
how he had been astonished — ' mich in Erstaunen 
setzen' — by the 'certainty' with which 'a class 
of 40 children, between 8 and 12 in a British 
and Foreign school, read the notes, and by the 
accuracy of their intonation.'* The critical ob- 
jection which the Tonic Sol-faists have to meet 
is, that the pupil on turning to the use of the 
Staff notation has to learn a fresh set of signs. 
Their reply to this is, that as a fact two-thirds 
of those who become sight-singers from the letter 
notation, spontaneously learn to read from the 
staff. They have learnt, it is said, ' the thing 
music,' something which is independent of any 
system of marks on paper ; and the transition to 
a set of new symbols is a matter which costs 
hardly any trouble. With their habitual de- 

1 TonempJIndung, App. XVIII. (Ellis p. 639). Professor Helmholti 
confirmed this experience in conversation with the writer in 1881. 


(lendence on tlie scale they have only to be told 
that such a line of the staff is doh, and hence 
that the next two lines above are me and soh, 
and they are at home on the staff' as they were 
on the modulator. The testimony of musicians 
and choirmasters confirms this.^ Dr. Stainer, 
for instance, says (in advocating the use of the 
method in schools) : * I find that those who have 
a talent for music soon master the Staff notation 
after they have learnt the Tonic Sol-fa, and 
become in time good musicians. It is therefore 
quite a mistake to suppose that by teaching the 
Tonic Sol-fa system you are discouraging the 
acquisition (the future acquisition) of Staff music, 
and so doing a damage to high art. It may be 
said, if the systems so complement one another. 
Why do you not teach both ? But from the time 
that can be devoted to musical instruction in 
schools it is absurd to think of trying to teach 
two systems at once. That being so, then you 
must choose one, and your choice should be 
governed by the consideration of which is the 
simpler for young persons, and there cannot be 
a doubt which is the simpler.' This testimony 
is supported by a general consensus of practical 
teachers. The London School Board find that 

* all the teachers prefer to teach by the Tonic 
Sol-fa method,' and have accordingly adopted it 
throughout their schools; and it now appears 
that of the children in English primary schools 
who are taught to sing by note at all, a very large 
proportion (some 80 per cent) learn on this plan. 
In far too many schools still, the children only 
learn tunes by memory, but the practicability of 
a real teaching of music has been proved, and 
there is now fair hope that ere long the mass of 
the population may learn to sing. The following 
figures, from a parliamentary return of the 

* Number of Departments ' in primary schools in 
which singing is taught (1880-1), is interesting. 
They tell a tale of lamentable deficiency, but show 
in what direction progress may be hoped for : — 





School Board Schools 
(England and Wales) . 

Other Schools 
(England and Wales) .. 

Schools in Scotland . . 













Writing down a tune sung by a teacher has 
now become a familiar school exercise for 
English children, a thing once thought only 
possible to advanced musicians ; and it has 
become common to see a choir two or three 
thousand strong singing in public, at first sight, 
an anthem or part-song fresh from the printer's 
hands. Such things were unknown not many 
years back. In the great spread of musical 
knowledge among the people this method has 

I It is stated that of2025pupns who took the 'Intermediate Certi- 
ficate ' in a particular year, 1327 ' did so with the optional require- 
ment of sinKinis a hymn-tune at sight from the Staff-notation.' 


played a foremost part, and the teaching of the 
elements is far from being all that is done. 
Some of the best choral singing now to be 
heard in England is that of Tonic Sol-fa choirs. 
The music so printed includes not only an im- 
mense quantity of part-songs, madrigals, and 
class-pieces, but all or nearly all the music of 
the highest class fit for choral use — the oratorios 
of Handel, masses by Haydn and Mozart, can- 
tatas of Bach, etc. One firm alone has printed, 
it is stated, more than 16,000 pages of music. 
Leading English music-publishers find it de- 
sirable to issue Tonic Sol-fa editions of choral 
works, as do the publishers of the most popular 
hymn-books. Of a Tonic Sol-fa edition of the 
'Messiah,' in vocal score, 39,000 copies have 
been sold. 

To the pushing forward of this great and 
beneficent work of spreading the love and know- 
ledge of music, Mr. Curwen devoted his whole 
life, and seldom has a life been spent more 
nobly for the general good. He was a man of 
singularly generous nature, and in controversy, 
of which he naturally had much, he was re- 
markable for the perfect candour and good temper 
with which he met attack. If the worth of a man 
is to be measured by the amount of delight he 
is the means of giving to the world, few would 
be ranked higher than Mr. Curwen. His was 
a far-reaching work. Not only has it been, in 
England, the great moving force in helping on 
the revival of music as a popular enjoyment, but 
it has had a like effect in other great com- 
munities. We read of the forming of choral 
classes, in numbers unknown before, in New 
Zealand, Canada, Australia, India, the United 
States. Even from savage and semi-savage 
regions — Zululand or Madagascar — come ac- 
counts of choral concerts. When one thinks of 
what all this means, of the many hard-working 
people all over the world who have thus been 
taught, in a simple way, to enter into the enjoy- 
ment of the music of Handel or Mendelssohn, 
of the thousands of lives brightened by the 
possession of a new delight, one might write on 
the monument of this modest and unselfish 
worker the words of the Greek poet : ' The joys 
that he hath given to others — who shall declare 
the tale thereof.' ^ 

Of the ' Galin-Chev^ ' method of teaching 
sight-reading, which is based, broadly speaking, 
on the same principle as the Tonic Sol-fa method, 
a notice is given under Cheve, in the Ap- 
pendix. [R.B.L.] 

the few public institutions in England wholly 
devoted to promoting the knowledge of music. 
It was founded by Mr. Curwen (see preceding 
article) in 1869, in order to give stability and 
permanence to the Tonic Sol-fa system of teach- 
ing, and was definitely established in its present 
form in 1875 ^Y incorporation under the Com- 
panies Act 1862. The College is chiefly an 

2 eirel xf/dfifJLOi apiOfjibv irepiTTe^evyev' 

eKeifO? oca \dptxar' aAAot? e9r)Ktv, 
Tts ai/ ifypacra.1. SvvaLio ; FuiDAB. 


examining body, but it also carries on the teach- 
ing of music (mainly directed to the training of 
teachers) by means of lectures and correspondence 
classes. The buildings, lecture-rooms, ofl&ces, 
etc., are at Forest Gate, E., an eastern suburb of 
London, some twenty minutes' railway journey 
from the City. 

The examinations are based on a system of 
graded certificates, arranged so as to test the 
progress of pupils from the earliest stage. From 
the elementary certificate upwards the power to 
sing at sight is demanded. The higher certificates 
are granted upon a paper examination combined 
with vocal tests, on the rendering of which the 
local examiner has to report to the College. The 
official report gives the number of certificates 
granted in the year 1879-80 at 15,755, which 
was 964 more than in the previous year. The 
number of persons entered in correspondence 
classes was 4729. The subjects of these were 
Harmony-Analysis, Musical Composition (four 
stage:'), Staff Notation, Musical Form, Musical 
and Verbal Expression, Counterpoint, English 
Composition, Organ-fingering and Chord-naming. 
Students from all parts of the world enter these 
con'espondence classes. The College further or- 
ganises a summer term of study, lasting for six 
weeks in vacation time, which is attended by 
young teachers and students from Great Britain, 
the Colonies, etc. A great point is made of the 
art of presenting facts to the learner, and of 
cultivating the intelligence as well as the ear and 
voice. The students give model lessons, which 
their teachers criticise. The total number of 
certificates issued by the College up to the 
present time (September 1 884) is stated to be as 
follows: — ^junior, 51,500; elementary, 163,850; 
intermediate, 44,073; matriculation, 3,367; ad- 
vanced, 525. The receipts for the year 1883-84 
were £1398, the payments £904. Tiie total 
payments for the new buildings were £3635. 
Altogether the published reports of the College 
give an impression of a vast amount of useful 
work carried on with thoroughness and spirit. 

The College has 1465 shareholders, and is 
governed by a council, in the election of which 
every holder of a ' Matriculation ' certificate has 
a vote. The constitution of the council is some- 
what curious. It is composed of 48 members 
elected in eight classes of six members each, and 
drawn from the following classes of society : — 
(a) handworkers, (&) clerks and employes, (c) 
masters in commercial or professional occupations, 
(cf) schoolmasters, (e) professional musicians, (/) 
clergymen and ministers, (g) persons of literary 
and other qualifications, and {h) honorary mem- 
bers. The object of this arrangement is to prevent 
the Colleoe getting into the hands of any one 
interest or party. The present president is Mr. 
J. Spencer Curwen, A.Il.A.M., who succeeded 
his father, the founder, in 1880. [Il.B.L.] 

founded in Dresden in 1854 ^^r the popularisa- 
tion of good chamber music. It took its rise from 
Bichard Pohl's evenings for the practice of 
chamber-music, and its first and present presi- 


dent is Herr Fiirstenau. The following mu- 
sicians are, or have been, honorary members :— 
VonBiilow, Chrysander, Hauptmann, Otto Jahn, 
Joachim, Lauterbach, Julius Kietz, Clara Schu- 
mann, and Ferdinand David. By degrees orches- 
tral works were introduced into the practices 
and performances. Out of 992 works played 
between 1S54 and 1879, Il6 were in MS., 95 
being by members and 21 by non-members. 
These figures show the liberality of the society 
in producing the work of modem artists. Fur- 
thermore, it possesses a considerable library, has 
provided lectures on the science of music by such 
men as Fiirstenau, F. Heine, Riihlmann, and 
Schneider (author of the * History of the Lied'), 
and in all respects amply fulfilled its professed 
object, the promotion of the art of music. After 
an existence of 25 years, it musters 195 ordinary 
members (practical musicians) and 164 extra- 
ordinary ones. For further details see the Fes- 
tival prospectus of 1879. L^-^-] 
bass drum as thunder. This direction occurs in 
Harold's overture to ' Zanipa,' and a few other 
works, and means a roll. But as the bass druni 
is played with one stick only, the roll is 
best executed with a two-headed stick 
(Tampon or Mailloche double), as made 
in Paris, by Tournier, Boulevard 
St, Martin. It is held in the middle, 
where it is i/^inch in diameter, so that 
the roll is easily made by an alternate 
motion of the wrist. The stick, ending in 
a round knob at each end, is turned out 
of a piece of ash ; the knobs are thickly 
covered with tow and a cap of chamois 
leather, and are both of the same size. When 
finished the heads are about 2| inches in diameter, 
and the same in length. The length of the whole 
stick is 1 2^ inches. [V. de P.] 
TONOMETER. [See Sciieiblee, vol. iii. 

p. 2436. Also TUNING-FOKK.] 

TORCULUS, or Cephalicus. A Neume, 
indicating a group of three notes, of which the 
second was the highest ; as C, D, C, [See vol. 
ii. pp. 467 6, 468 a]. [W.S.R.] 

TORELLI, Giuseppe, violinist and composer^ 
was borti about the middle of the 1 7th century'. 
He lived for many years in Bologna as leader of 
a church orchestra, but in 1701 accepted the 
post of leader of the band of the Markgraf of 
Brandenburg-Anspach at Anspach in Germany, 
where he died in 1708. To him is generally as- 
cribed the invention of the ' Concerto * — or, more 
correctly speaking, the application of the sonata- 
form to concerted music. His most important 
work, the Concerti grossi, op. 8, were published 
at Bologna, 1709, three years earlier than Co- 
relli's Concerti grossi. They are written for 2 
obligate violins and stringed orchestra, and are 
said clearly to present the main features of the 
concerto-form, as used by Corelli, Handel, and 
others. According to F^tis, eight works of his 
have been published — all in concerted style, for 
2, 3, or 4 stringed instruments. L^*-^*] 


TORQUATO TASSO. Lyric drama in 4 
acts ; libretto by Ferretti, music by Donizetti. 
Produced at the Teatro Valle, Rome, in the 
autumn of 1833 > ^-t H. M. Theatre, London, Mar. 
3. 1840. [G.] 

TORRANCE, Rev. Geoege William, M.A., 
Mus.D. University of Dublin, born at Rathmines, 
Dublin, in 1835. Educated as a chorister in 
Christ Church Cathedral, he afterwards became 
successively organist of Blackrock, Dublin, and 
of the city churches of St. Andrew and St. Anne. 
Among his earlier compositions was a *Te Deum' 
and 'Jubilate,' sung in Christ Church Cathedral. 
At 19 he composed his first oratorio, 'Abra- 
ham,' which was performed in 1855 at the An- 
cient Concert Rooms, Dublin, by all the leading 
musicians of the city. Sir Robert Stewart pre- 
siding at the oi'gan and the composer conducting. 
* Abraham' was performed four times in two years. 
It was rightly deemed a wonderful work for a 
mere lad to produce ; the airs were written after 
the manner of Beethoven, the choruses followed 
that of Handel: of plagiarism there was none, and 
if the work was lacking in experience, it was yet 
a bold and successful effort for a boy in his teens. 
In 1856 Mr. Torr.ance visited Leipsic, and during 
his studies in that city became acquainted with 
Moscheles and other eminent musicians. Upon 
his return he produced an opera 'William of 
Normandy,' and several minor works, some of 
which have since been published. In 1859 Mr. 
Torrance entered the University of Dublin, with 
a view to studying for the ministry of the Church 
of England; here he graduated in Arts in 1864, 
and produced the same year a second oratorio, 
' The Captivity,' to Goldsmith's words. He took 
the degree of M.A. at the University in 1867, was 
ordained deacon in 1865, and priest in 1866. 

In 1869 he emigrated to Melbourne, Victoria. 
In 1879 he obtained the degrees of Mus. B. and 
Mus. D. from Dublin University, on the recom- 
mendation of Sir Robert Stewart, Professor of 
Music in the University, the 'Acts' publicly 
performed for tlie degree being, for Mus.B. a Te 
Deum and Jubilate (composed 1S78), for Mus.D. 
a selection from his oratorio ' The Captivity.' 
He received an honorary degree of Mus. D. ad 
eundem from the Melbourne University, the first 
and only degree yet conferred in Music by that 

Ini882 Dr. Torrance produced a third oratorio, 
'The Revelation'; this was performed with great 
success in Melbourne, the composer conducting. 
He was elected president of the Fine Arts section 
of the • Social Science Congress ' held in Mel- 
bourne in 1880, when he delivered the opening 
address on Music, since published. In 1883 he 
was appointed by the Governor of Victoria to 
be one of the Examiners for the 'Clarke Scholar- 
ship' in the Royal College of Music. 

He is also the author of a paper on 'Cathedrals, 
their constitution and functions,' and is at present 
Incumbent of Holy Trinity Church, Balaclava, 
near Melbourne, a handsome new church recently 
built, with a fine 3-manual organ constructed 
specially to be played by liimself during service. 



We believe Dr. Torrance to be the only Doctor 
of Music in the southern hemisphere — although 
many able musicians are settled in the principal 
cities. [R.P.S.] 

acts ; libretto by Sterbini, music by Rossini. Pro- 
duced at the Teatro Valle, Rome, Dec. 26, 1815; 
and reproduced at Paris, Nov. 21, 1820. The 
piece was a failure. [G.] 

_ TOSI, Pier Francesco, the son of a musi- 
cian of Bologna, must have been born about 1650, 
since we learn from the translator of his book 
that he died soon after the beginning of George 
II's reign (1730) above eighty years old.^ In 
the early part of his life he travelled a great deal, 
but in 1693 we find him in London, giving regu- 
lar concerts,^ and from that time forward he 
resided there almost entirely till his death, in 
great consideration as a singing-master and a 
composer. A volume in the Harleian Collection 
of the British Museum (no. 1272) contains seven 
songs or cantatas for voice and harpsichord, with 
his name to them. . Galliard praises his music 
for its exquisite taste, and especially mentions 
tl)e pathos and expression of the recitatives. 
When more than seventy Tosi published the work 
by which his name is still known, under the 
modest title of 'Opinioni de' cantori antichi e 
moderni, o sieno osservazioni sopra il canto figu- 
rato, . . .* (Bologna 1723), Avhich was translated 
after his death into English by Galliard — 
' Observations on the Florid Song, or sentiments 
of the ancient and modern singers,' London, 1742 
— second edition, 1743; and into German by 
Agricol.v — 'Anleitung zur Singkimst,' Berlin, 
1757. It is a practical treat'se on singing, in 
which the aged teacher embodies his ovvn ex- 
perience and that of his contemporaries, at a 
time when the art was probably more thoroughly 
taught than it has ever been since. Many of its 
remarks would still be highly useful. [G.M.] 

TOSTI, Francesco Paolo, an Italian com- 
poser, born April 7, 1847, at Ortona sul mare, in 
the Abruzzi. In 1 858 his parents sent him to the 
Royal College of St. Pietro a Majella at Naples, 
where he studied the violin under Pinto, and 
composition under Conti and the venerable Mer- 
cadante. The young pupil made wonderful pro- 
gress, and was by Mercadante appointed maestrino 
or pupil teacher, with the not too liberal salary 
of 60 francs a month. He remained in Naples 
until the end of 1869, when, feeling that his 
health had been much impaired by overwork, 
he went back to Ortona with the hope of regain- 
ing strength. However, as soon as he got home 
he was taken seriously ill with bronchitis, and 
only after seven months recovered sufficiently to 
go to Rome and resume work. During his illness 
he wrote ' Non m'ama piti ' and ' Lamento d'a- 
niore'; but it was with difficulty that the young 
composer could induce a publisher to print these 
songs, which have since become so popular, and 
it was not till a considerable time after they 

1 Galliard's Prefatory Discourse, p. Till. 
> Hawkins, 'History,' v.S. 



sold well that he disposed of the copyright for the 
insigniticant sum of £20 each. Sigr. Sgambati, 
the well-known composer, and leader of the new 
musical school in Rome, was among the first to 
recognise Tosti's talent, and in order to give his 
friend a fair start in the fashionable and artistic 
world, he assisted him to give a concert at the ' Sala 
Dante/ the St. James's Hall of Rome, where he 
achieved a great success, singing several of his 
own compositions, and a ballad purposely written 
for him by Sgambati, * Eravi un vecchio sene.' 
The Queen of Italy, then Princess Margherita di 
Savoja, honoured the concert with her presence, 
and showed her appreciation by immediately ap- 
pointing him as her teacher of singing. Shortly 
afterwards he was entrusted with the care of the 
Musical Archives of the Italian Court. It was 
in 1875 that M. Tosti first visited London, where 
he was well received in the best circles, both as 
an artist and as a man. Since then he has paid 
a yearly visit to the English capital, and in 1880 
was called in as teacher of singing to the Royal 
Family of England. 

M. Tosti has written Italian, French, and 
English songs : and though the Italian outnumber 
by far both the English and French, his popularity 
rests mainly on his English ballads. The wind 
and tide of fashion are fully in his favour, yet it 
would be unsafe to determine what place he will 
ultimately hold amongst song composers. "What 
can even now be said of him is that he has an 
elegajit, simple and facile inspiration, a style of 
his own, a genuine Italian flow of melody, and 
great skill in finding tlie most appropriate and 
never-failing efiects for drawing-room songs. He 
is still in the full strength of intellectual power 
and life, and each new composition shows a 
higher artistic aim and a nobler and more vigor- 
ous expression of thought than the last. There 
is therefore good ground to hope that his future 
works may win for him from critics of all nations 
the high estimation in which he is now held by 
English and Italian amateurs. 

He has published, up to the end of 1883, 35 
songs, in addition to 4 Vocal Albums, and 15 
duets, * Canti Popolari Abruzzesi.' Of his songs 
the most popular in London are * For ever,' 'Good- 
bye,' 'Mother,' 'At Vespers,' • Amore,' * Aprile,' 

* Vorrei morire,' and ' That Day.' [G.M.] 

TOSTO. Piu TOSTO ^ (plutet) is an expression 
occasionally used by Beethoven, as in the second 
of the Sonatas for PF. and cello (op. 5) — 

* Allegro molto, piti tosto presto ' ; or the second 
of the three Sonatas for PF. and violin (op. 1 2) — 

* Andante, p'lb. tosto Allegretto.' The meaning 
in these cases is • Allegro molto, or rather presto,' 
and * Andante, or rather Allegretto.' It has the 
same force with 'quasi' — 'Andante quasi Alle- 
gretto' (op. 9, no. 2.) i.e. 'Andante, as if Alle- 
gretto.' [G.] 

TOUCH (Ger. AnscJdag). This term is used 
to express the manner in which the keys of the 

> 'Sather than the Madonna del Granduca shall leave Florence,' 
said Cavour,'i'ti<<o«<o mifaccio/are la guerra.' [Tim** of June 12, 188i, 
p. 8a.) 


pianoforte or organ are struck or pressed by the 
fingers. It is a subject of the greatest importance, 
since it is only by means of a good touch that a 
satisfactory musical effect can be produced. Touch 
on a keyed instrument is therefore analogous to 
a good production of the voice on the part of a 
singer, or to good bowing on that of a violinist. 

I. Pianoforte. To the student of the pianoforte, 
cultivation of touch is not less necessary than 
the acquirement of rapidity of finger, since the 
manner in which the keys are struck exercises 
a very considerable influence on the quality of 
the sounds produced, and therefore on the effect 
of the whole passage. A good touch 
implies absolute equality of the fingers and a 
perfect control over all possible gradations of tone, 
together with the power of producing different 
qualities of sound at the same time, as in the 
playing of fugues, and polyphonic music generally. 
In fact all the higher qualities of pianoforte 
technique, such as crispness, delicacy, expression, 
sonority, etc., depend entirely upon touch. 

Generally speaking, pianoforte music demands 
two distinct kinds of touch, the one adapted for 
the performance of brilliant passages, the other 
for sustained melodies. These two kinds are in 
many respects opposed to each other, the first 
requiring the fingers to be considerably raised 
above the keys, which are then struck with 
firmness and rapidity, while in the other the keys 
are closely pressed, not struck, with more or less 
of weight according to the amount of tone desired. 
This quality oi percussion in brilliant passages is 
to some extent a characteristic of modem piano- 
forte-playing, the great players of former times 
having certainly used it far more sparingly than 
at present. Thus Hummel (Pianoforte School) 
says that the fingers must not be lifted too high 
from the keys ; and going back to the time of 
Bach, we read that he moved only the end joint 
of the fingers, drawing them gently inwards 'as if 
taking up coin from a table.' [See vol. ii. p. 736 6.] 
But the action of the clavichords, and after them 
of the Viennese pianos, was extremely light, the 
slightest pressure producing a sound, and there 
is no doubt that the increase of percussion has 
become necessary in order to overcome the greater 
resistance offered by the modern keyboard, a 
resistance caused by the greater size of the instru- 
ments, and consequent weight of the hammers, 
which had increased in the lowest octave of 
Broad wood pianos from 2^ oz. in 181 7 to 4 oz. in 
1874, ^^^ which, although now somewhat less, 
being in 1884, 3 oz., is still considerably in excess 
of the key-weights of the earliest pianos. 

It seems possible that the great improvement 
manifested by modern pianofortes in the direction 
of sonority and sustaining power may have given 
rise to a certain danger that the cultivation of the 
second kind of touch, that which has for its object 
the production of beautiful tone in cantabile, may 
be neglected. This, if it were so, would be very 
much to be regretted. The very .fact that the 
pianoforte is at its best unable to sustain tone 
equably, renders the acquirement of a 'singing* 
touch at once the more arduous and the mora 


necessary, and this was recognised and insisted 
upon by Emanuel Each. For an expressive 
melody to be hammered out with unsympathetic 
fingers of steel is far worse than for a passage to 
lose somewhat of its sparkle through lack of per- 
cussion. Beethoven is reported to have said 
that in adagio the fingers should feel ' as if glued 
to the keys,' and Thalberg, who himself possessed 
an extraordinarily rich and full tone, writes ^ that 
a melody should be played 'without forcibly 
striking the keys, but attacking them closely, and 
nervously, and pressing them with energy and 
vigour.' * When,' he adds, * the melody is of a 
tender and graceful character the notes should be 
Jcneaded, the keys being pressed as though with 
a boneless hand {main desossde) and fingers of 
velvet; the keys should be felt rather than 
struck.' In an interesting paper on ' Beauty of 
touch and tone,' communicated to the Musical 
Association by Mr. Orlando Steed, the opinion 
is maintained that it is impossible to produce any 
difference of quality, apart from greater or less 
intensity of sound, in a single note, no matter 
how the blow may be struck (though the author 
admits that the excessive blow will produce a 
disagreeable sound). But it is shown by Helm- 
holtz ^ that the linibre or sound-quality of piano- 
forte strings, variation in which is caused by 
greater or less intensity of the upper partial tones, 
depends upon two conditions among others, 
namely, upon the length of time the hammer 
remains in contact with the string, and upon the 
hardness of the hammer itself, and it is a ques- 
tion whether the nature of the blow may not be 
slightly affected in both these respects by dif- 
ferences of touch. It would seem possible that 
the greater rebound of the hammer which would 
be the consequence of a sharp blow upon the key 
might render the actual contact with the string 
shorter, while the greater force of the blow might 
compress and so slightly harden the soft surface 
of the felt with which the hammer is covered ; 
and the natural result of both these supposed 
changes would be to increase the intensity of the 
partial tones, and thus render the sound thinner 
and harder. Moreover when the key is struck 
from any considerable distance a certain amount 
of noise is always occasioned by the impact of 
the finger upon the surface of the key, and this 
gives a certain attack to the commencement of 
the sound, like a hard consonant before a vowel, 
which conduces to brilliancy of efi'ect rather than 
smoothness. The fact is, that Touch depends on 
so many and such various conditions, that though 
its diversities can be felt and recognised by any 
ordinarily attentive listener, they are by no means 
easy to analyse satisfactorily. 

In relation to phrasing, touch is of two kinds, 
legato and staccato : in the first kind each finger 
is kept upon its key until the moment of striking 
the next ; in the second the notes are made short 
and detached, the hand being rapidly raised from 
the wrist, or the fingers snatched inwards from 
the keys. Both kinds of touch are fully described 

1 L'art du chant appllqu6 au piano. 

2 The Sensations ut Tone, translated by A. J. £UU, p. 121. 



in the articles on Legato, Staccato, Dash, and 

Sometimes two different kinds of touch are 
required at the same time from one hand. Ex. i, 
from Thalberg's Don Giovanni Fantasia, op. 42, 
is an instance of the combination of legato and 
staccato touch, and Ex. 2. is an exercise recom- 
mended by Thalberg for the cultivation of dif- 
ferent degrees of cantabile tone, in which the 
large notes have to be played with full tone, the 
others piano, without in the least spreading the 


Ex. 2. 


-l-J !- 



An excellent study on the same subject has been 
published by Saint-Saens, op. 52, no. 2. [F.T.] 

II. Organ. Until recent times Touch was 
an impossibility upon large organs. Burney, in 
his Tour, in 1772, speaks of a touch so heavy 
that ' each key requires a foot instead of a 
finger to press it down ; again of a perfoimance 
by a M. Binder, at Dresden, who at the con- 
clusion was in as violent a heat with fatigue 
and exertion as if he had run eight or ten 
miles full speed over ploughed fields in the 
dog days ! Of an organ in Amsterdam he 
reports that each key required almost a two 
pound weight to put it down ! The mechanism 
of English organs was probably never so bad as 
this, but it is said that Mendelssohn, after playing 
at Christ Church, Newgate Street, was covered 
with perspiration. The pneumatic actionhas solved 
this difiiculty. Still the question of organ touch 
is complicated by the peculiarities of the instru- 
ment and the varieties of mechanism. Many 
organs exist with four keyboards (even five 
may be met with), and the necessarily differ- 
ent levels of these make it almost impossible 
to keep the hand in a uniform position for all 
of them. It is rare to find any two of these 
manuals with a similar touch, and the amount 
of force required to press down the key varies 
within wide limits. Even on the same key- 
board the touch is appreciably heavier in the 
bass, and inequalities occur between adjacent 
notes. A recently regulated mechanism is 
sometime in a state of adjustment so nice, that 
the slightest pressure upon the key produces a 
squeak or wail. This same mechanism after a 
time will be so changed by use and variations 
of temperature as to allow of the key being 
pressed almost to its limit without producing 
any sound. 

These considerations will show that the deli- 
cate differences which are characteristic of the 
pianoforte touch are impossible with the organ. 
Fortunately they are not needed, but it must 




not be supposed that touch on the organ is of 
no importance. The keys must be pressed 
rather than struck, but still with such decision 
that their inequalities may be neutralised, 
otherwise the player will find that some notes 
do not speak at all. Perhaps the most impor- 
tant part of organ touch is the release of the 
key, which can hardly be too decided. The 
organ punishes laxity in this direction more 
severely than any instrument. Shakes on the 
organ should not be too quick ; with the pneu- 
matic action they are sometimes almost impos- 
sible. Care should be taken in playing staccato 
passages on slow speaking stops of the Gamba 
kind, especially in the lower part of the key- 
board. The crispness should be not in the 
stroke but in the release of the key. It is 
generally said that the hand should be held 
rather higher above the keys than in the case 
of the piano, but as has been before pointed out, 
it is difficult to keep the same position towards 
keys so differently placed in relation to the 
performer as the upper and lower of four or even 
three manuals. 

Modem key makers have invented a new 
danger by lessening the space between the black 
keys, so that in a chord where the 
white keys must be played between 
the black, it is impossible for some 
fingers to avoid depressing the adjacent notes. 

Pedal touch has within recent times become 
a possibility, and passages for the feet .ire now 
as carefully phrased as those for the fingers. 
Mendelssohn's organ sonatas afford the earliest 
important examples. Freedom in the ancle joint 
is the chief condition of success in this. The 
player must be warned that large pipes will not 
speak quickly, and that a staccato must be pro- 
duced by allowing the pedal key to rise quickly 
rather than by a sharp stroke. [W.Pa.] 

TOUCH in bell-ringing denotes any number 
of changes less than a peal, the latter term being 
properly used only for ' the performance of the 
full number of changes wliich may be rung on a 
given number of bells.' By old writers the word 
touch is used as equivalent to sound, in which 
sense it occurs in Massinger's 'Guardian' (Act ii. 
Sc. 4), where Severino says 'I'll touch my horn 
— (blows his horn).' An earlier example will be 
found in the Romance of Sir Gawayne and the 
Green Knight (c. 1320) line 120, p. 4 of the 
edition of 1864. The word appears also to have 
been used in English music during two centuries 
for a Toccata. *A touche b}' Mr. Byrd ' is found 
in the MS. of a virginall piece in the British 
Museum ; and * Mr. Kelway's touches,' as a 
heading to several passages of a florid character, 
appears in a MS., probably in the handwriting 
of Dr. B. Cooke, in the Library of the Royal 
CoUege of Music. [W.B.S.J 

TOURDION, or TORDION. * A turning, or 
winding about ; also, a trick e, or pranke ; also, 
the daunce tearmed a Round.' (Cotgrave.) The 
early French dances were divided into two classes, 
'Danses Basses' or 'Danses Nobles,' and *Danses 
par haut.' The former of these included all regular 

dances, the latter were mere improvised romps 
or • baladinages.' The regular Basse Dance con- 
sisted of two parts, the first was twice repeated, 
and the last, or • Tourdion,' was probably some- 
thing like our modern round dances. The Tour- 
dion was therefore the French equivalent for the 
German Nachtanz, Proportio, or Hoppeltanz, and 
the Italian Saltarello. [See vol. iii. p. 221 6.] 
Tabourot says that the 'Tourdion was nearly the 
same as the Galliard, but the former was more 
rapid and smooth than the latter. [See vol. i. 
p. 578 a.] Hence he defines it as a * Gaillarde par 
terre,' i.e. a galliard deprived of its chai-acteristio 
jumps and springs. Both dances were in 3-time. 
The following is the tune of the Tourdion given 
in the ' Orch^sographie ' : 

Further particulars as to these dances may be 
found in the * Provinciales ' of Antonio de Arena 
(1537)- [See Trihoris.] [W.B.S.] 

TOURJfiE, Eben, Mus. Doc, father of the 
Conservatory or class system of musical instruc- 
tion in America, was bora at Warwick, Rhode 
Island, June i, 1834. His family being in humble 
circumstances it became necessary to put him to 
work at the early age of eight; but his thirst for 
knowledge was so great, that he soon became a 
laborious student at the East Greenwich seminary. 
Having a good alto voice he sang in the choir 
of the Methodist Church, learning his part by 
rote. But it chanced that the oiganist was 
about to withdraw, and young Tourjee was in- 
vited to fill her place. He was at that time 
but thirteen, and knew absolutely nothing of the 
instrument ; but he managed to pick out the 
tunes required for the following Sunday, and 
played them with such success that he was ap- 
pointed to the position. He at once began to 
study with a teacher in Providence, often walking 
thirteen miles each way. At the age of fifteen he 
became clerk in a music store in Providence, and 
thus had opportunities for study which he did not 
fail to improve. At the age of seventeen he 
opened a music store in Fall River, where he also 
taught music in the public schools and formed 
classes in piano, voice, and organ, charging the 
moderate sum of one dollar to each pupil for 
twenty lessons. This was in 1851, and was 
really the beginning of the class system, which 
he has since so largely developed. He also edited 
and published a musical paper with much ability. 
He afterwards removed to Newport, and con- 
tinued his work as organist and choirmaster of 
Old Trinity Church there, and as Director of 
the local Choral Society. In 1859 ^® founded 
a Musical Institute at East Greenwich, where 


he had an opportunity of carrying out his ideas 
regarding class-teaching, under more favourable 
auspices than before. In 1863 he visited Europe, 
in order to gain information regarding the 
methods employed in France, Germany, and Italy 
in conservatory teaching. He took this oppor- 
tunity of studying virith many eminent masters, 
amongst others August Haupt, of Berlin. On his 
return to America he removed to Providence, 
and established the 'Providence Conservatory 
of Music,' which had great success. In 1867 
he extended his work by founding 'The New 
England Conservatory of Music,' in Boston, and 
continued for a time to keep both schools in oper- 
ation. He drew round him the most eminent 
teachers in Boston, and placed a good musical 
education within the reach of the poorest students. 
In 1869 his executive and organising abilities 
were made use of by the projectors of the great 
•Peace Jubilee,' and there is no doubt that the 
success of that enterprise was largely due to his 
efforts. During the same year the degree of 
Doctor of Music was conferred upon him by 
Middletown University. Since the foundation of 
Boston University he has been the highly hon- 
oured Dean of the College of Music attached 
thereto. But his greatest work has been the 
establishment of the great Conservatory just 
mentioned, from which have graduated thousands 
of pupils, filling honourable positions as teachers, 
pianists, organists, and vocalists, and proving 
themselves able musicians. 

Dr. Tourjee has not accumulated wealth, for 
the needs of others have always been more promi- 
nent with him than his own. Many are the 
charitable enterprises in which he has been active, 
and the persons who have been aided by his bounty. 
Among the positions which he has filled may be 
named that of President of the ' Boston Young 
Men's Christian Association,' 'City Missionary- 
Society,' and ' National Music Teachers' Associ- 
ation.' He is ever genial in manner, and untiring 
in work. He is at present in robust health, and 
it is to be hoped that his useful life may be spared 
for long. [G.] 

TOURS, Berthold, bom Dec. 17, 1838, at 
Rotterdam. His early instruction was derived 
from his father, who was organist of the St. 
Laurence church, and from Verhulst. He after- 
wards studied at the Conservatoires of Brussels 
and Leipzig, and then accqmpanied Prince 
George Galitzin to Russia, and remained there 
for two years. Since 1861 he has resided in 
London, writing, teaching, and playing in the 
band of the Royal Italian Opera, and other good 
orchestras. In 1878 he became musical adviser 
and editor to Messrs. Novello, Ewer, & Co., 
and in that capacity has arranged several im- 
portant works from the orchestral scores, such 
as Beethoven's Mass in C, four of Schubert's 
Masses, 'Elijah,' Gounod's 'Redemption,' etc. 
etc., besides writing the * Primer of the Violin ' 
in the series of that firm. Mr. Tours's composi- 
tions are numerous. He has written for the piano 
and other instruments, and a large number of 
songs, some of which have been very popular. 



But his best work is to be found in his Hymn- 
tunes, Anthems, and Services, for the Anglican 
Church, particularly a Service in F and an 
Easter Anthem, 'God hath appointed a day,* 
which are greatly in demand. [G.] 

TOURTE, FRAN901S, the most famous of vio- 
lin-bow-makers, born in Paris 1747, died there 
1835. His father and elder brother were bow- 
makers also ; and the reputation which attaches 
to the family name is not due to Fran9ois alone. 
Xavier Touite, the elder brother, known in France 
as 'Tourte I'aine, ' was also an excellent workman: 
tradition says that the brothers commenced busi- 
ness in partnership, Fran9ois making the sticks, 
and Xavier the nuts and fittings. They quarrelled 
and dissolved partnership, and each then set up 
for himself, Xavier reproducing as well as he could 
the improvements in the stick which had been 
introduced by Fran9ois. The latter has been 
denominated the Stradivari of the bow: and 
there is some truth in this; for as Stradivari 
finally settled the model and fittings of the 
violin, so Tourte finally settled the model and 
fittings of the bow. But he had more to do 
for the bow than Stradivari for the fiddle. The 
Cremona makers before Stradivari had nearly 
perfected the model of the violin : it only re- 
mained for him to give it certain finishing 
touches. But Tourte, properly speaking, had no 
predecessors. He found bow-making in a state 
of chaos, and he reduced it to a science ; and he 
may be said to have invented the modern bow. 
Perhaps the best idea of the bows which were in 
use in Tourte's youth may be gained from the 
accompanying illustration, which is copied from 
the first edition of Leopold Mozart's 'Violin 
School,' 1756. (Fig. I.) For this fearful imple- 

Fig. I. 


ment Tourte substituted the bow now in use. 
(Fig. 2.) The service which he thus rendered to 
music appears greater the more we think of it : 
for the Tourte bow greatly facilitated the new- 
development of violin music which began with 
Viotti, Rode, and Kreutzer. Before his time 



all the modern forms of staccato must have been 
impossible, and the nuances of piano and forte 
extremely limited ; a rawness, especially on the 
treble strings, and a monotony which to our 
ears would be intolerable, must have deformed 
the performances of the best of violinists. The 
violin, under Tourte's bow, became a different 
instrument : and subsequent bow-makers have 
«xclusively copied him, the value of their pro- 
ductions depending on the success with which 
they have applied his principles. 

Setting aside for the moment the actual model- 
ling of the Tourte stick, an examination of 
Tourte's own bows proves that his first care was 
to select wood of fine but strong texture, and 
perfectly straight grain, and his second to give 
it a permanent and regular bend. This was 
effected by subjecting it in a state of flexion to 
a moderate heat for a considerable time. To 
apply a sufficient degree of heat to the very 
marrow of the stick without rendering the ex- 
terior brittle, is the most difficult part of the 
bow-maker's art : cheap and bad bows have 
never been thoroughly heated, and their curva- 
ture is therefore not permanent. Tourte's first 
experiments are said to have been made on the 
staves of old sugar hogsheads from Brazil. 
This is not unlikely : probably the bent slabs of 
Brazil wood employed for this purpose had ac- 
quired a certain additional elasticity from the 
combined effect of exposure to tropical heat and 
the absorption of the saccharine juices : and in 
connection with the latter it has been suggested 
that the dark colour of the Tourte sticks is not 
wholly attributable to age, but partly to some 
preparation applied to them in the process of 
heating. The writer cannot agree with this 
suggestion, especially as some of Tourte's finest 
bows are extremely pale in colour. Be this as 
it may, it is certain that the greater elasticity 
■which he secured in the stick by the choice 
and preparation of the wood enabled him to 
carry out to the fullest extent the method of 
bending the stick of tlie bow the reverse way, 
that is, inwards, and thus to realise what had 
long been the desideratum of violinists, a bow 
which should be strong and elastic without 
being heavy. By thus increasing and econo- 
mising the resistance of the stick he liberated 
the player's thumb and fingers from much use- 
less weight. By a series, no doubt, of patient 
experiments, he determined the right curvature 
for the stick, and the rule for tapering it 
graduall^'^ towards the point,* so as to have the 
centre of gravity in the right place, or in other 
words to 'balance' properly over the string in 
the hand of the player. He determined the 
true length of the stick, and the height of the 
point and the nut, in all which particulars the 
bow-makers of his time seem to have erred on 
the side of excess. Lastly, he invented the 
method of spreading the hairs and fixing them 
on the face of the nut by means of a moveable 

1 Mathematically Investigated, Tourte's bow, when unstrung, is 
fuund 10 form a logarithmic curve, the ordlnates of which increase 
In arithmetical proportion, and the abtciuM io geometrical pro- 


band of metal fitting on a slide of mother-of- 
pearl. The bow, as we have it, is therefore the 
creation of the genius of Tourte. 

Tourte's improvements in the bow were 
effected after 1775. Tradition says that he 
was materially assisted in his work by the 
advice of Viotti, who arrived in Paris in 1782. 
Nothing is more likely; for only an accom- 
plished violinist could have formulated the de- 
mands which the Tourte bow was constructed 
to satisfy. Viotti no doubt contributed to 
bring the Tourte bow into general use, and it 
is certain that it quickly drove the old bar- 
barous bows completely from the field, and 
that in Paris there at once arose a school of 
bow-makers which has never been excelled. 

For the excellent bows which thus became for 
the first time obtainable, violinists were willing 
to pay considerable sums. Tourte charged 12 
louis d'or for his best bows mounted in gold. 
As the makers increased in number the prices 
fell ; but the extreme rarity of fine Pernambuco 
wood perfectly straight in grain has always 
contributed to keep up the price of the vei-y best 
bows. Tourte's bows, of which during a long 
life he made an immense number, are common 
enough ; but owing to the great number of al- 
most equally good ones which were made by his 
successors, only extraordinary specimens fetch 
very high prices. A very fine Tourte has been 
recently sold for £30: common ones vary in 
price from £5 to £10. It is a singular fact that 
there is no difference of opinion among violinists 
as to Tourte's merits. His bows are universally 
preferred to all others: and they show no signs of 
wearing out. Tourte never stamped his bows. 
Genuine ones are sometimes found stamped with 
the name, but this is the work of some other 
hand. His original nuts are usually of tortoise 
shell, finely mounted in gold, but wanting the 
metallic slide on the stick, which was introduced 
by Lupot. 

Like Stradivari and Nicholas Amati, Tourte 
continued to work to within a very few years 
of his death, at an advanced age. His atelier 
was on the fourth floor of No, 10, Quai de 
I'Ecole : after making bows all day he would 
descend in the evening, and recreate himself by 
angling for gudgeon in the Seine. His peaceful 
career came to an end in April 1835, in his 88th 
year — nearly the same age as that attained by 
the two famous violin-makers of Cremona above 
mentioned. [E.J.P.] 

TOWER DRUMS, THE. Handel frequently 
borrowed a pair of kettledrums from the Master- 
General of the Ordnance for his own perform- 
ances of his oratorios ; and as they were kept 
in the Tower of London, they were usually 
called 'the Tower Drums.' They were in fre- 
quent request after his death, including the 
Commemoration Festival in Westminster Abbey 
in 1784. Dr. Burney, in his account of this 
Festival, says they were taken by Marlborough 
at the battle of Malplaquet in 1 709. 

A much larger pair, 39 and 35 inches in 
diameter, were made expressly for that Festival 


from the design of a Mr. Asbridge, of Drury 
Lane orchestra, and have since obtained the 
name of 'Tower Drums,' from a notion that 
the head of one of them was made from the 
skin of a b'on in the Tower menagerie. These 
drums came into the possession of the late 
T. P. Chipp, the well-known kettledrummer, 
and on the sale of his instruments were bought 
by H. Potter & Co., military musical instrument 
makers. They added a brass T-shaped key to 
each tuning-screw, and presented them (1884) 
to the Crystal Palace Company, who have placed 
them in their large orchestra. 

Larger drums were made for the Sacred Har- 
monic Society (47 and 43 inches in diameter), 
but no tone cau be got from such overgrown 
instruments. [V. deTP.] 

TOWERS, John, bom at Salford Feb. 18, 
1836, was for six years choir-boy in Manchester 
Cathedral, in 1856 entered the Royal Academy 
of Music, London, and in the following year 
became pupil of A. B. Marx in Berlin, where he 
remained for more than two years, at the same 
time with J. K. Paine and A. W. Thayer. He 
then returned to England, and after a residence 
of two years in Brighton, settled at Manchester, 
where he has since remained as choirmaster, 
conductor, and organist. He conducts the Al- 
derley Edge, Fallowfield, and Rochdale Orpheus 
Glee Societies, the last-named being one of the 
most successful choirs in Lancashire, and is now 
organist to St. Stephen's, Chorlton in Medlock. 
Besides a few musical trifles, Mr. Towers has 
published a chronological list of Beethoven's 
works (Musical Directory, 1871), an interesting 
pamphlet on the 'Mortality of Musicians,* a 
'List of Eminent Musicians,' etc., etc. He is 
also a more or less regular contributor to the 
press. [G.] 

TRACKER. A thin flat strip of wood used 
in the mechanism of an organ for the purpose of 
conveying leverage from one portion of the instru- 
ment to another. A tracker difiers from a sticker 
in the fact that a tracker pulls, while a sticker 
pushes ; while therefore a tracker can be flat 
and thin, a sticker is round and rigid. For 
example, if, when one end of a key is pressed 
down it raises a sticker at its other end, it is 
clear that the sticker will push up a lever at a 
higher level ; but the other end of the lever at 
the higher level will df course descend, and to 
this therefore must be attached a tracker. It 
will be evident also that a sticker, having only 
to remain in an upright position, can be kept in 
its place simply by means of a bit of wire inserted 
at each end and passing loosely through holes in 
the ends of the levers. But a tracker having to 
pull and be pulled is provided at each end with 
a tap-wire (or wire like a screw) which when 
passed through the hole in the lever is secured 
by a leather button. In all cases noisy action is 
prevented by the insertion of a layer of cloth or 
some other soft material. Trackers are generally 
made of pine-wood about one eighth of an inch 
in thickness and fiom one third to a half of an 
inch in width. The length of trackers varies of 



course according to circumstances; in long 

* actions ' or extended * movements ' (as for 
example, when mechanism is taken under a floor 
or up a wall) they are sometimes twelve or more 
feet in length ; in such cases they are formed of 
two or more parts joined together by wire. In 
order to prevent long trackers from swinging 
about laterally when in use they are often made 
to pass through a register or thin board containing 
holes of suitable size lined with cloth. A tracker 
may convey leverage from any part of an instru- 
ment to another, but its final function is to lower 
the pull-down and let air pass through the pallet 
into the pipe. [J.S.] 

TRAETTA, Tommaso Michele Francesco 
Saverio, an Italian composer of the i8th cen- 
tury. Until recently it was believed that his 
name was Trajetta, and the date of his birth 
May 19, 1727; but the certificate of birth pub- 
lished by the ' Gazetta Musicale di Milano ' of 
1879, No. 30, settles beyond question that he was 
the legitimate son of Filippo Traetta and Anna 
Teresa Piasanti, and was born in the year 1727, 
on March 30, *ad hore 16* in the morning, 
at Bitonto (Terra di Bari). At eleven years 
of age he became pupil of Durante at the 

* Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto' at 
Naples, to which institution he belonged until 
the autumn of 1748, when we find him teaching 
singing, and occasionally writing some sacred 
music for several churches of Naples. Two years 
afterwards he tried his hand at the stage, and his 
first opera, ' Farnace,' produced at the San 
Carlo at Naples in 1750, met with such success 
that he was forthwith commissioned to compose 
six more operas for the same house. Of these 
nothing is known, except the title of one, ' I pas- 
tori felici,' 1753; yet they were probably not 
less successful than 'Farnace,' since his name 
spread rapidly, and he received engagements 
at Florence, Venice, Rome, Turin, Verona, 
Parma, etc. Goldoni and Metastasio did not 
disdain to write librettos for him ; Goldoni 
a comic opera 'Buovo d'Antona' (Florence, 
1756); and Metastasio ' L'Olimpiade ' (Ve- 
rona, 1758). Towards the end of 1759 Traetta 
accepted the appointment of Maestro di Cap- 
pella and teacher of singing to the Princesses, 
off'ered to him by Don Filippo, Infanta of Spain, 
and Duke of Parma. The first opera he com- 
posed for the Ducal Theatre of Parma was 
'Solimano' (Carnival, 1759), followed in the 
spring by * Ippolito ed Aricia.' This appears to 
have been a masterpiece, as both the Duke and 
the audience were exceedingly pleased with it ; 
and on its reproduction six years later for the 
wedding of the Princess Maria Luisa with 
Charles III. King of Spain, a life pension was 
granted to the composer. In 1759 and 1760 
Traetta went twice to Vienna to witness the per- 
formance of two operas purposely written for the 
Austrian capital, 'Ifigenia in Aulide ' (1759). 
and * Armida' (1760). 

In 1765, after the death of the Duke, Traetta 
left Parma and settled in Venice, as principal of 
the ' Conservatorio dell' Ospedaletto.' He held 



tlie appointment for nearly three years, and re- 
signed it on the invitation of Catherine II. of 
Russia, to succeed Galuppi as ' Maestro di Corte.' 
The severe climate of Russia however did not 
agree with the Italian maestro ; in 1775 he gave 
up his position, and in 1776 accepted an engage- 
ment in London, where however he was not 
very successful, owincf chiefly to the firm hold 
which Sacchini had taken of the English public. 
He accordingly returned to Naples, but the 
climate of Russia and the anxieties of London 
had impaired both his health and his genius, 
and the few operas he wrote before his death 
show that the spring pf his imagination was dried 
up. He died in Venice on April 6, 1779, and 
was buried in the church of Santa Maria Assunta, 
where the following epitaph is engraved on his 












Though Traetta was gifted with great intel- 
ligence, and his music is full of vigour and not 
wanting in a certain dramatic power, yet his 
works are now entirely forgotten.^ Burney, Gal- 
vani, Grossi, Florimo, and Clt^ment all praise him, 
and Florimo even finds in him a tendency towards 
the same dramatic expression and dignity in the 
musical treatment of the libretto that a few years 
afterwards made the name of Gluck immortal. 
However this may be, nobody can deny that 
Traetta had, as a man, a very peculiar character, 
an extraordinary estimation of his own talent, 
and an unusual readiness in making it clear to 
everybody : ' Traetta,' says Florimo, ' at the first 
performance of his operas, when presiding at the 
clavicembalo, as was customary at that time, 
convinced of the worth of his works, and per- 
suaded of the special importance of some pieces, 
— was Jn the habit of turning towards the audi- 
ence and saying: Ladies and gentlemen, look 
sharp, and pay attention to this piece.' 

Subjoined is a catalogue of his works. 

Famace. Napoli, 1751. 
I pastorl fellci. Do. 1758. 
Ezlo. Rome, HM. 
Lenozzecontiastate. Do. 1751. 
L'liicredulo. Napoli, 1755. 
La faiite furba. Do. 1756. 
Buovo d' Aiitona. Flrenze, 17iJ6. 
>'lttetl. Keggio, 1757. 
DIdone abbaudoaata. Venezia, 
Ollmplade. Verona, 1758. 
Sollmano. Parma, 1759. 
Ippolito ad Aricia. Do. 1759. 
Ifigenla in Aulide. Vienna, 1759. 

Armida. Do. 1760. 

Sofonlsba. Parma. 1760. 

Enea nel Lazio. Torina, 1700. 

I TIndaridi. Parma, ]7(0. 

EneaeLavinla. Do. 1761. 

Antlgono. I'adova, 17(Vi. 

La francese a Malghera. Ven- 
ezia, 1764. 

La buona figliuola maritata. 
Parma, 1765. 

Semiramide. Venezia, 1765. 

Le Serve rivall. Do. 1766. 

Amor in trappola. Do. 176S. 

Ifigenla in Taurlde. Mllano.1768. 

L'Isola dlsabitata. Bologna, 

* His name does not occur once in tiie programmes of the Piiil- 
harmonlc Society, and only once in all the three indexes of tta« Allg. 
JJu&xkallsche Zeitung. 


I Oermondo. London. 1776. !a 'divertimento for four orches- 

) Merope. Mllano. 1776. Itras* with the title • Le quattro 

I La dUIatta di Dario. Venezia, «tagionl el dodicimesldeir anno" 

1778. |(t)ie four seasons, and tl«e twelve 
II c waller? errante. Do. 1778. months of the year). <! 
Artenlce. Do. 177S. A Stabat Mater of hl« for four 
GU Erol dei CampI Ellsi. Do. [voices and accompauimtnt of 

1779. Written on the composer's several instruments is Icnown, 
deatlibed, and finished by Gen- land the Archives of the ' Real 
naro Astaritta. |ColIeglo dl Napoli.' contain the 

Le feste d" Imeneo, a prologue following c impositions:— 
and trilogy, viz. 1". trlonfo d'Amore, I Lezione terza for soprano. 
Triole.Saffo. and Egle, for the we<l- 1 39 Arle (some with accompanl- 
ding of the Archdulte Joseph of ment of violin and basso, and 
Austria with the Infanta Dona some with accompaniment of 
Isabella di Borbone, at Parma, several Instruments). 
Sept. 1761. I TDuetti. 

II Tributo Campestre. 'com-] Aria -TerroremMnspIrava,' with 
panlmento pastorale,' on the occa- pianoforte accompaniment, 
slon ofMaria Carolina of Austria.] Aria' Ah! consolall tuodolore.* 
wife to Ferdinand IV. King of arranged for two violins, viola. 
Sicily, passing through Mantua in and ba.sso. ' 
1768. j A Canon 'Sogno, ma te non 

In the sJime year he wrote an miro ' for two sopranos and 
OratdUo Salomone. for the ' Con- basso. 

servatorio dell" Ospedaletto' Inj A Solfeggio, with pianoforte 
Venice ; and about 1770 he wrote accompaniment. I G. AI 1 

NATIONAL, was founded by the Society of 
Arts. The subject had been in the air since 
the year 1866, a Musical Committee had been 
appointed, and in 1873 a meeting was held at 
Clarence House, the Duke of Edinburgh in 
the chair, at which it was resolved that it is 
desirable to erect a building at a cost not ex- 
ceeding £20,000 for the purposes of a Training 
School for Music at Kensington, in connexion 
with the Society of Arts. A site on the imme- 
diate west side of the Albert Hall was granted 
by the Commissioners of 1851, the construction 
of the building, on the design of Captain F. Cole, 
R.E., was undertaken by Mr. (now Sir) Charles 
J. Freake, at his own cost ; the first stone was 
laid on Dec. 18, 1873, and the School was opened 
at Easter 1876, with 82 free scholarships, of 
which 4 were founded by the Society of Arts, 2 
by members of the Society, 5 by Mr, Freake, 10 
by the Corporation of London, 14 by City Guilds, 
33 by provincial towns, and the remainder by 
private donors. The scholarships were of the 
value of £40 a year each, and were founded for 
five years, by subscription renewable at the end 
of that term ; they carried free instruction for 
the same period, and were obtainable * by com- 
petitive examination alone.' The Duke of Edin- 
burgh was chairman of the Council, Mr. (now 
Sir Arthur) Sullivan was appointed Principal, 
with a staff of Teachers; in 1881 he was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Stainer as Principal, and the 
School continued to flourish till Easter 1882, 
when it came to an end owing to the determin- 
ation arrived at to establish the Royal College 
of Music on a wider and more permanent basis. 
The College, on its formation, took over the 
building, furniture and fittings, organ and music, 
and a balance at the banker's of £1100. The 
instruction in the Training School was system- 
atic and thorough, and in proof of its efficiency 
during the short period of its existence it is 
sufficient to name Eugene D'Albert, Frederic 
Cliffe, Annie Marriott, and Frederic King, as 
having received their education there. 

2 This composition is only mentioned In a letter bearing the dat« 
2—13 Dec. 1770, written by Catheriae II. of Bussia to Voltaire. 


The Eotal College of Music, which thus 
became the successor of the Training School, 
was founded by the Prince of Wales at a 
meeting held at St. James's Palace Feb. 28, 
1882, and was opened by H.R.H. on May 7 of 
the following year. Negotiations took place 
with the Royal Academy of Music with the 
object of a union with the two bodies; but these 
have hitherto unfortunately come to nothing. 
Like its predecessor, the College rests on the 
basis of endowed scholarships lasting not less 
than three years ; but the funds for these are in 
this case provided by the interest of money sub- 
scribed throughout the country and permanently 
invested. The College opened with 50 Scholars 
elected by competition, of whom 15 receive 
maintenance in addition, and 42 Paying Stu- 
flents. It was incorporated by Royal Charter on 
May 23, 1883, and is governed by a Council, 
presided over by the Prince of Wales, and 
divided into a Finance Committee, and an Exe- 
cutive Committee. The staff are as follows : — 
Director, Sir George Grove, D.C.L. ; Principal 
Teachers, forming tlie Board of Professors, J. F. 
Bridge, M us. D.; H.C. Deacon; Henry Holmes ; 
Mad. Lind-Goldschmidt ; Walter Parratt ; C. 
Hubert H. Pari-y, Mus.D. ; Ernst Pauer ; C. V. 
Stanford, Mus.D. ; Franklin Taylor ; A. Visetti. 
Other principal teachers : — Mme. A. Goddard ; 
JohnF. Barnett; G. C. Martin, Mus.D.; R. Gom- 
pertz; C. H. Howell; F. E. Gladstone, Mus.D.; 
J. Higgs, Mus.B. ; G. Garcia, etc. Registrar, 
G. Watson, jun. The College possesses the ex- 
tensive, rare, and valuable library of the late 
Sacred Harmonic Society, presented through the 
exertions of Sir P. Cunlitfe Owen, and that of the 
Concerts of Antient Music, given by the Queen. 
The Examiners at the end of the first year were 
Dr. Joachim, Manuel Garcia, Otto Goldschmidt, 
Jos, Barn by, Dr.Stainer, andSirF. Ouseley. [G.] 

TRAMIDAMENTE. This strange direction, 
with dngstlich below it as its German equivalent, 
is found at the Recitative with the Trumpets in 
the 'Agnus' of Beethoven's Mass in D, in the 
old score (Schotts). In the new edition of Breit- 
kopf & Hartel it appears as 'timidamente,' 
which is correct Italian, and is the translation 
of ' angstlich ' — with distress. [G.] 

TRANQUILLO, an Italian term, meaning 
'calmly,' 'quietly.' Thenotturno in Mendelssohn's 
Midsummer Night's Dream music is marked 
* Con moto tranquillo.* [G.] 

TRANSITION is a word which has several 
different senses. It is most commonly used in 
a vague way as synonymous with modulation. 
Some writers, wishing to limit it more strictly, 
use it for the actual moment of passage from one 
key to another ; and again it is sometimes used 
to distinguish those short subordinate flights out 
of one key into another, which are so often met 
with in modern music, from the more prominent 
and deliberate changes of key which form an im- 
portant feature in the structure of a movement. 
The following example from Beethoven's Sonata 
in Bb, op. 106, is an illustration of the process 


defined by this latter meaning of the term ; the 
transition being from Fff minor to G major and 
back : — I w , 

[See Modulation.] [C.H.H.P.] 

pianoforte accompaniments were set in full no- 
tation, the practice of which, as Mr. W. H. Cum- 
mings has shown,^ was first due, about 1780-90, 
to Domenico Corri of Edinburgh, the entire 
accompaniment, at that time the most important 
study in keyboard playing, was from the figured 
bass stave, known as ' Figured,' * Through ' or 
'Thorough' bass. From the varying natural 
pitch of voices, transposition was a necessary 
and much cultivated resource, and if the chro- 
matic keyboard had been originally contrived 
to restore the chromatic genus of the Greeks, 
it was certainly very soon after permanently 
adopted to facilitate the practice of transposition. 
But the difficulties of the process seem to have 
very early prompted the alternative of a shifting 
keyboard, applied in the first instance to the 
diatonic arrangement of the keys, which in the 
1 6th century was still to be met with in old 
organs : in other words, whatever the key might 
be, to play apparently in C. The oldest authority 
on the organ extant is the blind organist of 
Heidelberg, Arnold Schlick, who in 15 11 pub- 
lished the ' Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organ- 
isten,' of which only one copy is now known to 
exist.'^ Schlick is quoted by Sebastian Virdung, 
who also published his book in 15 ii, and (2nd 
cap. p. 19, Berlin reprint p. 87) has an interest- 
ing passage on transposing organs, which we 
will freely translate. 

When an organ in itself tuned to the right pitch can 
be shifted a tone higher or lower, it is a great advantage 
to both organist and singers. I have lieard years ago of 
a Positive so made, but I only know of one complete 
organ, and that one I use daily, which together vyith its 
positive, two back manuals, pedals, and all its many and 
rare registers, may be shifted higher and back again as 
often as necessity requires. For some chapels and singers 
ad Ganlum Mensurahilem such a contrivance is specially 
useful. Two masses or Magnificats may be in the same 
tone, and set in the same notation of line and space, and 
yet it may be desirable to sing the one a note higher 
than the other. Say both masses are in the Sixth 
Tone, with Clef C ; the counter bass going an octave 
lower 3 — in the other the counter bass goes a note or 
more lower, to B or A4, which are too low for bass 
singers, and their voices heard against others would be 

1 vide rroceedings of the Musical Association 1880—81, pp. 19—28. 

2 neprinted in the Monatshefte fUr Muslk-geschichte, BerUn 1869 ; 
edited with eiplanatory notes by Herr Eobert Eitner. 

s To the 0, second space of the bass clef, but evidently, as will b* 
obvious, sounding the F lower. 
* In our pitch the double E and D. 


too weak, if it were not possible to sing the part a note 
higher. Now in the first mass the counter bass in C can 
be played on an organ as set, but the other demands 
transposition to D, with the semitones F 5 and C J, which 
to those who have not practised it, is hard and imjws- 
sible. So therefore, with an organ, as described, the 
organist may go on playing in C ( E-sol-fa-ut) on the key- 
board, although the pipes are in D (D-la-sol-re). 

We may assume that in course of time the 
increasing skill of organists rendered mechanical 
transpositions unnecessary, since for the organ 
we hear no more about them ; but for the harpsi- 
chord they were to be met with in the 1 6th and 
following centuries. Praetorius (A.D. 1619) speaks 
of transposing clavicymbals (harpsichords) which 
by shifting the keyboard could be set two notes 
higher or lower, and describes a *Universal- 
Clavicymbal' capable of gradual transposition 
by semitones to the extent of a fifth. Bumey 
in his musical tour met with two transposing 
harpsichords; one a German one, made under 
the direction of Frederick the Great, at Venice ; 
the other (a Spanish one, also with moveable 
keys) at Bologna, belonging to Farinelli. 

Considering the musical knowledge and skill 
required to transpose with facility beyond a sup- 
posititious change of signature and corresponding 
alteration in reading the accidentals, as from C 
to Cj or Cb ; it might appear strange that me- 
chanical contrivances for transposition have not 
been permanently adopted, but it finds its ex- 
planation in the disturbance of the co-ordination 
of hand and ear. Those who have the gift of 
absolute pitch are at once upset by it, while 
those who have not that gift and are the more 
mimerous, find a latent cause of irritation which, 
somehow or other, is a stumblingblock to the 
player. In the present day it is not a question 
of Temperament, equal or imequal, so much as 
of position in tlie scale of pitch, of which, if the 
ear is not absolutely conscious, it is yet conscious 
• to a certain extent. 

The transposing harpsichord mentioned by 
Burney, as belonging to Count Torre Taxis of 
Venice, had also a Pianoforte stop, a combina- 
tion in vogue at the time it was made, 1760. 
A German pianoforte with moveable keyboard 
was made for the Prince of Prussia in 1786, and 
about the same period Sebastien Erard con- 
structed an organised pianoforte, another favoured 
combination of the latter half of the i8th cen- 
tury, which transposed a semitone, whole tone, 
or minor third each way, to suit the limited 
voice of Marie Antoinette. Roller of Paris is 
also said to have made transposing pianos. 

The most prominent instances of transposing 
pianofortes made in England in the present 
century are the following: — (i) The square 
piano of Edward Ryley, patented in 1801, and 
acting by a false keyboard, which was placed 
above the true one, and could be shifted to any 
semitone in the octave. Ryley's idea as stated 
in his specification went back to the original 
one of playing everything in the so-called natural 
scale of C. The patent for this complete trans- 

1 Tills very difficult passage In the quaint original has been ren- 
dered from an elucidatory footnote bjr the Editor, Herr Eituer. 


poser wag bought by John and James Broad- 
wood, and an instrument so made is in the 
possession of the present firm. (2) The Royal 
Albert Transposing piano, brought out by Messrs. 
Addison & Co. soon after the marriage of Her 
iNIajesty the Queen, a piccolo or cottage instru- 
ment, is described by Rimbault in his History, 
as having the keys divided at half their length, 
the front and back ends being capable of moving 
independently of each other. (3) Messrs. Broad- 
woods' transposing Boudoir Cottage pianos, made 
about 1845, displayed the novel feature of the 
instrument itself moving while the keyboard and 
action were stationary. In some of theii pianos 
made in this way, the instrument was suspended 
between two pivoted metal supporters which 
allowed the gradual movement, semitone by 
semitone, effected by turning a pin at the side 
with an ordinary tuning-hammer. Subsequently 
the instrument was moved in a groove at the 
top and on two wheels at the bottom of the 
outer fixed case, but neither contrivance was 
patented, nor was long continued to be made. 
(4) The latest attempt at transposing by the 
keyboard has been brought forward in the 
present year (1884) by Hermann Wagner of 
Stuttgart. He names his invention * Transponir- 
Pianino,' We gather from the description and 
drawings in the 'Zeitschrift fiir Instrumenten- 
bau,* Band 4, No. 12 (Leipzig, Jan. 12, 1884) 
that the keyboard moves bodily, there being a 
preliminary movement for protecting the action 
cranks or rockers by raising them together while 
the keyboard is being shifted. (5) The last 
transposing contrivance to be mentioned is the 
' Transpositeur ' of Messrs. Pleyel, Wolfi; & C*. 
of Paris, invented by M. Auguste Wolff in 1873. 
The Transpositeur being an independent false 
keyboard can be applied to any pianoforte by 
any maker. It has therefore the great merits 
of adaptability and convenience. It can be 
placed upon the proper keyboard of an instru- 
ment, and by touching a spring to the right 
hand of the player and a button which per- 
mits the keyboard to be shifted through all 
the semitones of an octave, the transposition de- 
sired is effected. The Transpositeur is patented 
and is sold by the Pleyel firm in Paris, or their 
agent, Mr. Berrow, in London, at a moderate 
price. It is of course open to the same natural 
objection which we have already noticed in 
speaking of the transposing clavicymbals of Prae- 
torius. [A.J.H.] 
TRANSPOSITION, change of key, the nota- 
tion or performance of a musical composition in 
a different key from that in which it is written. 
When it is said that a piece of music is in a cer- 
tain key, it is understood that it consists of the 
notes of a certain scale, and that, except chro- 
matic passing-notes and suchlike melodic changes, 
no note can be employed which is not a part of 
that scale. Each note of the composition there- 
fore occupies a definite position as a degree of the 
scale in which it is written, and in order to trans- 
pose a phrase, each note must be written, sung, 
or played a certain fixed distance higher or lower, 


that it may occupy the same position in the new 
scale that it held at first in the original one. Thus 
Exs. 2 and 3 are transpositions of Ex. i, one being 
a major second higher, and the other a major 
second lower ; and the notes of the original phrase 
being numbered, to show their position as degrees 
of the scale, it will be seen that this position re- 
mains unchanged in the transpositions. 

^ Original Key C, 


Transposed into Bb. 
TX9 7 IS 33 ^4 32 I 

It is, however, not necessary that a transposition 
should be fully written out, as above. By suffi- 
cient knowledge and practice a performer is 
enabled to transpose a piece of music into any 
required key, while still reading from the original 
notation. To the singer such a proceeding offers 
no particular difficulty, since the relation of the 
various notes to the key-note being understood, 
the absolute pitch of the latter, which is all that 
has to be kept in mind, does not matter. But to 
the instrumental performer the task is by no 
means an easy one, since the transposition fre- 
quently requires a totally different position of the 
fingers. This arises from the fact that in trans- 
position it often happens that a natural has to be 
represented by a sharp or flat, and vice versa, as 
may be seen in the above examples, where the 
BB of Ex. 1, bar 2, being the 7th degree of the 
scale, becomes CJJ, which is the 7th degree of the 
scale of D, in Ex. 2 ; and again in bar 3, where 
EB, the 4th degree, becomes E b in Ex. 3. The 
change of a flat to a sharp, though possible, is 
scarcely practical. It could only occur in an 
extreme key, and even then could always be 
avoided by making an enharmonic change, so that 
the transposed key should be more nearly related 
to the original, for example — 

In D. In Cb. In B|J (enharmonic change). 

-I 4_„ ,_,_j. 

Hence it will not suffice to read each note of a 
phrase so many degrees higher or lower on the 
stave ; in addition to this, the relation which 
every note bears to the scale must be thoroughly 
understood, and reproduced in the transposition 
by means of the necessary sharps, flats, or naturals ; 
while the pianist or organist, who has to deal with 
many sounds at once, must be able also instantly 
to recognise the various harmonies and modula- 
tions, and to construct the same in the new key. 
The faculty of transposition is extremely valu- 
able to the practical musician. To the conductor, 
or to any one desiring to play from orchestral 
VOL. IV. PT. 2. 


score, it is essential, as the parts for the so-called 
'transposing instruments' — horns, trumpets, clari- 
net, drums — being written in a different key 
from that in which they are to sound, have to be 
transposed back into the key of the piece, so as 
to agree with the strings and other non-transpos- 
ing instruments. [See Score, platino from, 
vol. iii. p. 436.] Orchestral players and accom- 
panists are frequently called upon to transpose, in 
order to accommodate the singer, for whose voice 
the written pitch of the song may be too high or 
too low, but it is probably extremely seldom that 
transposition takes place on so grand a scale as 
when Beethoven, having to play his Concerto in 
C major, and finding the piano half a tone too 
flat, transposed the whole into C J major ! 

Transposed editions of songs are frequently 
published, that the same compositions may be 
made available for voices of different compass, 
but transpositions of instrumental music more 
rarely. In Kroll's edition of Bach's Preludes and 
Fugues, however, the Fugue in C jj major in vol. i. 
appears transposed into Db. Tliis is merely an 
enharmonic change, of questionable practical 
value, the sounds remaining the same though the 
notation is altered, and is only made to facilitate 
reading, but the change into G of Schubert's Im- 
promptu, op. 90, no. 3, which was written in Gb, 
and altered by the publisher, was doubtless de- 
signed to render it easier of execution. [F.T,] 

TICAL MODES. Composers of the Polyphonic 
School permitted the transposition of the Eccle- 
siastical Modes to the Fourth above or Fifth below 
their true pitch ; effecting the process by means 
of a Bb placed at the Signature, and thereby 
substituting for the absolute pitch of a Plagal 
Mode that of its Authentic original. Trans- 
position to other Intervals than these was utterly 
forbidden, in writing: but Singers were permitted 
to change the pitch, at the moment of perform- 
ance, to any extent convenient to themselves. 

During the transitional period — but very rarely 
earlier than that — a double Transposition was 
effected, in a few exceptional cases, by means of 
two Flats ; Bb raising the pitch a Fourth, and Eb 
lowering it, from thence, by a Fifth — thus really 
depressing the original pitch by a Tone. As 
usual in all cases of progressive innovation, this 
practice was well known in England long before 
it found favour on the continent. A beautiful 
example wiU be found in Wilbye's ' Flora gave me 
faiiest flowers,* composed in 1 598 ; yet Morley, 
writing in 1597, severely condemns the practice. 
It will be seen, from these remarks, that, in 
Compositions of the Polyphonic aera, the absence 
of a Bb at the Signature proves the Mode to stand 
at its true pitch ; while the presence of a Bb 
proves the Composition to be quite certainly 
written in a Transposed Mode.^ In modem 
reprints, the presence at the Signature of one or 
more Sharps, or of more than two Flats, shows 
that the pitch of the piece has heen changed, or 
its Mode reduced to a modern Scale, by an editor 
of the present century. [W.S.R.] 

> See rol. IL p. 474 a. 





TRASUNTINO, Vito, a Venetian harpsi- 
chord-maker, who made an enharmonic (quarter- 
tone) archicembalo or large harpsichord for 
Camillo Gonzaga, Conte di Novellara, in 1606, 
now preserved in the Museum of the Liceo 
Communale at Bologna. It was made after the 
invention of Don Nicola Vicentino, an enthusiast 
who tried to restore Greek music according to 
its three genera, the diatonic, chromatic and 
enharmonic, and published the results of his 
attempt at Rome in 1555, under the title of 
'L'Antica Musica ridotta alia Moderna Prat- 
tica.' From engravings in this work illus- 
trating a keyboard invented to include the 
three systems, Trasuntino contrived his instru- 
ment. A photograph of it is in the South 
Kensington Museum. It had one keyboard of 
four octaves C — C, with white naturals ; the 
upper or usual sharps and flats being divided 
into four alternately black and white, each 
division being an independent key. There 
are short upper keys also between the natural 
pemitones, once divided, which makes thirty- 
two keys in the octave; 125 in all. Tra- 
puntino made a Tetracorda, also preserved at 
Jjologna, with intervals marked off to tune 
the archicembalo by — an old pitch -measurer or 
quadruple monochord. When F^tis noticed Tra- 
suntino (Biographic Universelle, 1865, p. 250), 
the archicembalo was in the possession of Baini. 
It was not the first keyboard instrument with 
enharmonic intervals ; Vicentino had an organ 
built, about 1 561, by Messer Vicenzo Colombo 
of Venice. There is a broadsheet describing it 
quoted by Fdtis as obtained by him from Signer 
Gaspari of Bologna : 'Descrizione dell' arciorgano, 
nel quale si possono eseguire i tri generi della 
musica, diatonica, cromatica, ed enannonica, 
in Venetia, appresso Niccolo Bevil' acqua, 1561, 
a di 25 ottobrio.' 

A harpsichord dated 1559, made by a Tra- 
Buntini, is cited by Giordano Riccati ('Delle corde 
ovvero fibre elastiche'), and was probably by 
Vito's father, perhaps the Messer Giulio Tra- 
suntino referred to by Thomas Garzoni (' Piazza 
universale di tutte le professioni del mondo,' 
Discorso 136) as excellent in all 'instrumenti 
da penna' — quilled instruments, such as harpsi- 
chords, manichords, clavicembalos and cithers. 
Of Vito, Fioravanti says (Specchio di Scientia 
Universale, fol.273), 'Guide [or Vito] Trasuntino 
was a man of much an4 learned experience in 
the art of making hai^teichords, clavicembalos, 
organs and regals, so tfia^his instruments were 
admired by every one before all others, and 
Other instruments he improved, as might be 
Been in many places in Venice.' These cita- 
tions are rendered from F^tis. 'Manicordo,' as 
in the original, is the clavichord. It is doubtful 
whether 'arpicordi' and 'clavicembali' here dis- 
tinguish upright and horizontal harpsichords, 
or harpsichords and spinets. [A. J.H.] 

TRAUER-WALTZER, i.e. Mouming-walta, 
a composition of Schubert's (op. 9, no. 2), dating 
from the year 1816, 

which would not be noticed here but for the 
fact tliat it is often attributed to Beethoven, 
under whose name a * Sehnsuchts-waltzer ' (or 
Longing waltz), best known as 'Le D^sir' (first 
of a set of 10 all with romantic titles), com- 
pounded from Schubert's waltz and Himmel'a 
' Favoritwaltzer,* was published by Schotts in 
1826. Schubert's op. 9 was issued by Cappi 
and Diabelli, Nov. 29, 182 1, so that there is no 
doubt to whom it belongs. The waltz was much 
played before publication, and got its title in- 
dependently of Schubert. In fact, on one occa- 
sion, hearing it so spoken of, he said, ' Who could 
be such an ass as to write a mourning- waltzy 
(Spaun's Memoir, MS.) Except for its extraor- 
dinary beauty Schubert's Waltz is a perfect type 
of a German ' Deutsch.' [See Teutsch.] [G.] 

TRAVENOL, Louis, a violin-player, bom 
in Paris in 1698, might be allowed to go down 
to oblivion in his native obscurity but for his 
accidental connection with Voltaire. He entered 
the opera band in April 1739, and remained 
there till 1759, when he retired on a pension of 
300 francs a year. In 1 783 he died. The title 
of one of his numerous pamphlets (all more or 
less of the same querulous ill-natured bilious 
tone), * Complainte d'un musicien opprim^ par ses 
camarades' — complaint of an ill-used musician — 
throws much light on his temper, and justifies 
Voltaire in suspecting him of having had a hand 
in circulating some of the lampoons in which his 
election to the Academic Francaise (May 9, 
1746) was attacked. Voltaire, however, seems 
to have made the double mistake of having 
Travenol arrested without being able to prove 
anything against him, and of causing his father, 
an old man of 80, to be imprisoned with him. 
The affair was brought before the Parlement, 
and after a year's delay, Voltaire was fined 500 
francs. A shower of bitter pamphlets against 
him followed this result. (See Fdtis; and 
Carlyle's ' Friedrich,' Bk. xvi. chap. 2.) [G.] 

TRAVERS, John, commenced his musical 
education as a chorister of St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, where he attracted the attention of 
Dr. Godolphin, Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral and 
Provost of Eton College, by whom he was placed 
with Maurice Greene as an articled pupil. He 
soon afterwards made the acquaintance of Dr. 
Pepusch, who assisted him in his studies to his 



great advantage. About 1725 he was appointed 
organist of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, and sub- 
sequently organist of Fulhara Church. On May 
10, 1737, he was sworn in organist of the Chapel 
Royal in the room of Jonathan Martin, deceased, 
upon which he relinquished his place at Fulham. 
He composed much church music : his well- 
known Service in F, a Te Deum in D, and two 
anthems were printed by Arnold, and another 
anthem by Page ; others are in MS. in the books 
of the Chapel Royal. He published ' The Whole 
Book of Psalms for one, two, three, four and five 
voices, with a thorough bass for the harpsichord," 
2 vols. fol. But the work by which he is best 
known is his ' Eighteen Canzonets for two and 
three voices, the words chiefly by Matthew Prior,' 
which enjoyed a long career of popularity, and 
two of which — 'Haste, my Nanette,' and *I, 
my dear, was born to-day ' — are still occasionally 
heard. An autograph MS. by him, containing 4 
melodies in some of the ancient Greek modes, for 
4 voices with instrumental accompaniments, the 
fruit, doubtless, of his association with Pepusch, 
is amongst Dr. Cooke's MS. collections now in 
the library of the Royal College of Music. 
Upon the death of Dr. Pepusch he became the 
possessor, by bequest, of one half of the Doctor's 
valuable library. He died 1 758. [W. H. H.] 
TRA VERSO (Ger. Querflote), the present 
form of flute, held square or across (d travers) 
the performer, in distinction to the flute k bee, 
or fl;igeolet with a beak or mouthpiece, which was 
held straight out, as the clarinet and oboe are. 
It came in early in the i8th century, and was 
called the * German flute ' by Handel and others 
in this country. In Bach's scores it is called 
Flauto traverse, Traverse, and Traversiere. [See 
Flute.] [G.] 

TRAVIATA, LA ('The misguided one'). 
Opera in 3 acts; libretto by Piave, music by 
Verdi. Produced at Teatro Fenice, Venice, 
March 6, 1853; ^* ^^'^ Theatre Italien, Paris, 
Dec. 6, 1856 ; at Her Majesty's Theatre, London 
<d^b(it of Mile. Piccolomini), May 24, 1856 ; in 
English at Surrey Theatre, June 8, 1857. The 
opera was written in a single month, as is proved 
by the autograph in possession of Ricordi. [G.] 

organ, as the most powerful, complicated, and 
artificial instrument, is naturally the most diSi- 
eult to manage. The pleasure of producing large 
volumes of sound is a snare to almost all players ; 
the ability to use the pedals with freedom tempts 
many to their excessive employment ; the bitter 
brilliance of the compound stops has a surprising 
fascination for some. Draw all the stops of a 
iarge organ and play the three notes in the bass 
«tave (a). At least one pipe ^ :•: 

speaks each note of the bunch 
of sounds placed over the 
chord. If this cacophony is the 
result of the simplest chord, 
some i dea,though faint, may be 
formed of the eff'ect produced 
by the complex combinations 





of modern music. Of course no sound-pioducing 
instrument is free from these overtones, but their 
intensity does not approach that of their at-tificial 
imitations. We have all grown up with these 
noises in our ears, and it would be impossible to 
catch a first-rate musician and make him listen 
for the first time to an elaborate fugue played 
through upon a full organ ; if we could, his opi- 
nions would probably surprise us. 

The reserve with which great musicians speak 
of the organ, and the unwillingness to write 
music for it (the latter, no doubt, to be accounted 
for partly on other grounds) are noticeable ; but 
we meet occasionally with expressions of opi- 
nion which probably represent the unspoken 
judgment of many and the half-conscious feeling 
of more. 

The mechanical soulless material of the organ. 
(Spitta, Life of Bach, vol. 1. p. 284.) 

Another day he (Mendelssohn) played on the organ at 
St. Catherine's Church, but I confess that even Mendels- 
sohn's famous talentj like that of many other eminent 
organists, left me quite cold, though I am far from at- 
tributing this to any want in their playing. I find it 
immensely interesting to stand by an organist and watch 
the motions of his hands and feet whilst I follow on the 
music, but the excessive resonance in churches makes it 
more pain than pleasure to me to listen from below to 
any of those wonderful creations with their manifold in- 
tricacies and brilliant passages. (F. Hiller, ' Mendels- 
sohn,' Transl. p. 185.) 

With reference to compound stops, Berlioz 
says (Traite d'Instrumentation, p. 16S) : — 

Les facteurs d'orgue et les organistes s'accordent a trou- 
ver excellent I'effet produit par cette r^sonnance multi- 
ple . . . En tout cas ce singulier procede tendi-ait ton- 
jours h donner h I'orgue la r^sonnance harmonique qu'on 
cherche inutilement a 6viter sur les grands pianos a 

In the same connexion Helmholtz (Sensations 
of Tone, Ellis's translation) writes : — 

The latter (compound stops) are artificial imitations 
of tlie natural composition of all musical tones, each 
key bringing a series of pipes into action which cor- 
respond to the first three or six partial tones of the 
corresponding note. Ihey can be used onl// to accompamj 
congregational singing. When employed alone they pro- 
duce insupportable noise and horrible confusion. But 
when the singing of the congregation gives overpower- 
ing force to the prime tones in the notes of the melody, 
the proper relation of quality of tone is restored, and the 
result is a powerful well-proportioned mass of sound. 

It may be well then, without writing an organ 
tutor, which is beyond the scope of such a work 
as this, to give a few hints on the management 
of the organ. 

The selection and combination of stops is a 
matter of considerable difficulty, partly because 
stops of the same name do not produce the same 
effect. Undoubtedly much larger use should be 
made of single stops. The most important stop 
of all — the open Diapason — is very seldom heard 
alone, being nearly always muffled by a stopped 
Diapason, and yet when used by itself it has a 
clear distinctive tone very pleasant to listen to. 
Reeds too, when good, are much brighter when 
unclouded by Diapason tone, and this is espe- 
cially the case with a Clarinet or Cremona, though 
both are coupled almost always with a stopped 
Diapason. Organ-builders seem to have a craze 
on this point. The writer has often noticed that 
thev ask for the two to be drawn together. The 



employment of single stops has this further ad- 
vantage in an instrument of such sustained 
sound, and which it is almost impossible to keep 
quite in tune, that the unison beats are then not 
heard. Families of stops should be oftener heard 
alone. These are chiefly (i) stops with open 
pipes, such as the open Diapason, Principal, 
Fifteenth ; (3) stops with closed pipes, such as 
the stopped Diapason, Flute and Piccolo; (3) 
Harmonic stops ; (4) Reeds. Stops of the Gamba 
type nearly always spoil Dia])ason tone. 16- 
feet stops on the manuals should be used spar- 
ingly, and never when giving out the subject of a 
fugue, unless the bass begins. The proper place 
for the mixture work has already been indicated 
in the extract from Helmholtz. It would be 
well if organs possessed composition pedals, 
drawing classes of stops, rather than, or in addi- 
tion to, those which pile up the tone from soft to 

Couplers are kept drawn much more than they 
ought to be, with the effect of half depriving 
the player of the contrast between the different 
manuals. The writer knew a cathedral organist 
who commenced his service by coupling Swell to 
Great, and Swell to Choir, often leaving them to 
the end in this condition. Another evil result 
of much coupling is that the pipes of different 
manuals are scarcely ever affected equally by 
variations of temperature, and the Swell of 
course being enclosed in a box is often scarcely 
moved, so that at the end of an evening the heat 
of gas and of a crowd will cause a difference of 
almost a quarter of a tone between the pitch of 
the Great and Swell Organs. On this account 
every important instrument ought to have a 
balanced Great Organ which does not need sup- 
plementing by the Swell Reeds for full effect. 

The Pedal Organ is now used far too fre- 
quently. The boom of a pedal Open, or the in- 
distinct murmur of the Bourdon, become very 
irritating when heard for long. There is no 
finer effect than the entrance of a weighty pedal 
at important points in an organ-piece, but there 
are players who scarcely take their feet from the 
pedal-board, and so discount the impression. 
Care should be taken to keep the pedal part 
fairly near the hands. The upper part of the 
pedal-board is still too much neglected, and it is 
common to hear a player extemporising with 
a humming Bourdon some two octaves away 
from the hand parts. 

The old habit of pumping the Swell Pedal 
with the right foot, and hopping on the pedals 
with the left, has now probably retired to remote 
country churches, but the Swell Pedal is still 
treated too convulsively, and it should be remem- 
bei:i9& in putting it down that the first inch makes 
more difference than all the rest put together. 

In changing stops it is important to choose 
the moment between the phrases, or when few 
keys are down. One finds still a lingering belief 
that repeated notes should never be struck on 
the organ. Nothing can be further from the 
truth. These repercussions are a great relief 
from the otherwise constant grind of sound. 




Again, the great aim of the old organist was to 
put down as many notes as pos- 
sible, not merely those belong- 
ing to the chord, but as many 
semitones as could conveniently 
be held below each. This at 
all events does not suit the 
modern organ, and now one oc- 
casionally detects with pleasure 
even an incomplete chord. Few 
organists have the courage to 
leave in its thin state the chord 
X which is to be found on the 

last page of J. S. Bach's * Passacaglia' (a), and yet 
the effect is obviously intentional. In Wesley's 






Anthem 'All go to ono 
place,' at the end of the 
phrase * eternal in the hea- 
vens,' we find a beautiful 
chord which would be ruined 
by filling up, or byapedal(6). 
Here, as in management of 
stops, contrast and variety 
are the things to be aimed at. Thus trio- 
playing, such as we see in the 6 Sonatas of 
J. S. Bach, gives some of the keenest enjoyment 
the instrument can afford. The article Phras- 
ing should be read by the student. [Vol. ii. 
p. 706.] Much of it applies with almost greater 
force to the organ than to the piano. Extem- 
porising on the organ will frequently become an 
aimless, barless, rhythniless wandering among 
the keys to which no change of stops can give 
any interest. 

So much oratorio music is now sung in churches 
and in other places, where on account of the 
expense or from other reasons, an orchestra is 
unattainable, that the organ is often called upon 
to supply the place of a full band. It cannot be 
said that the artistic outcome of this treatment 
of the instrument is good. The string tone, in 
spite of stops named Violin-Diapason, Gamba- 
Violoncello, and others, has no equivalent in the 
organ. The wind is susceptible of closer imita- 
tion, but the attempt to produce with two hands 
and feet the independent life and movement of 
so many instruments is obviously absurd. The 
organist does his best by giving the background 
of the picture, so to speak, upon one manual and 
picking out the important features upon another. 
Doubtless clever feats may be performed with a 
thumb upon a third keyboard, but in this case 
phrasing is usually sacrificed. The string tone 
is best given by stops of the Gamba type, but of 
these no organ possesses enough to furnish the 
proper amount, and Diapasons coupled even to 
Swell Reeds have to be called into requisition. 
Some stops of the small open kind fairly give 
the horn-tone. Flutes, oboes, clarinets, bas- 
soons, and trumpets have all been copied by the 
organ builder, with more or less success, but 
their hard unvarying tone contrasts unfavourably 
with that of their orchestral prototypes. More- 
over the instrument itself varies the quality 
with the intensity ; the Swell-box, though regu- 
lating the intensity, leaves the quality untouched. 


On tliis point an almost complete analogy may 
be found in the case of painting, engraving, and 
chromo-lithographs. The piano may be said to 
give the engraving of an orchestral work, the 
organ the chromo-lithograph with all its defects 
of hard outline and want of delicate shading. 
There can be no doubt that this treatment of 
the organ has had a mischievous effect upon 
organ building, organ music, and organ playing. 

The employment of the organ with the orchestra 
is not without its dangers, but the main principles 
are clear. Never use imitation stops or mixtures 
and hardly ever 4-ft. or 2 -ft. work. The Diapasons 
and the pedal stops are the only effects which 
can be used without clash and harshness. A 
pedal alone has often a wonderfully fine effect. 
Instances in Mendelssohn's organ parts (which 
are models) will readily occur. There is a long D 
at the end of the first chorus of Sullivan's 
•Martyr of Antioch,' again another in Brahms's 
Requiem, at the end of No. 3, where the pedal may 
be introduced with the happiest results, [See 
Registration, vol. iii. p. 94.] [W.Pa.] 

TREBELLI, Zelia, an operatic singer who 
took the public by storm, and stepped into the high 
position which she maintains to the present day. 

Zelia Gilbert* was born in Paris in 1838. So 
early was her talent recognised that she was taught 
the piano at the age of six. Guided by her Ger- 
man teacher, she learnt to reverence and enjoy 
the works of Bach and Beethoven. After ten 
years her wish for instruction in singing was 
encouraged by her parents, who only thought 
thereby to add one other graceful accomplish- 
ment to those which were to render their 
daughter useful and acceptable in society. The 
services of Herr Wartel were secured, and so 
delighted was he with his clever pupil that he 
never rested until he had persuaded her parents 
to allow of his training her for the lyric stage. 
Five years of close study prepared for her debut, 
which was made at Madrid as Mile. Trebelli, 
under the most favourable circumstances and 
with complete success, Mario playing Almaviva 
to her Rosina, in *I1 JBarbiere.' 

Trebelli's appearances in the opera-houses 
of Germany were a series of brilliant triumphs. 
Public and critics were alike carried away by 
enthusiasm when they heard her rendering of 
the parts of Rosina, Arsace, Orsini, Urbano, 
Azucena and others. No member of Merelli's 
Italian troupe was gifted with so brilliant a 
voice and so much executive power. Nor could 
the audiences fail to be impressed by the ac- 
tress's varied powers so rarely at the command 
of one individual, Trebelli expressing at one 
time the fire of an almost manly vigour, and 
at another the charm of womanly tenderness 
and delicacy. The German criticisms which 
declared the voice a contralto, comparing it 
with Alboni's in quality and with Schechner's 
in power, were not supported by English 
opinions. As a mezzo-soprano, its brilliancy, 
power and flexibility were appreciatively no- 
ticed ; the artist's control over voice and action 

1 • Trebelli ' is obviously intended as the reverse of Gillebert. 



enthusiastically praised. Trebelli appeared first 
in London at her Majesty's Theatre, May 9th, 
1862, as Orsini in 'Lucrezia.' 'A more encour- 
aging reception has seldom been awarded to 
a debutante.' Since then, she has been a recog- 
nised favourite with our opera and concert 
audiences. Those who have long been familiar 
with her appearances in frequent co-operation 
with Mdlle. Titiens in the chief Italian operas, 
will not easily forget the performances of Oberon, 
where Trebelli's impersonation of the captive, 
Fatima, was invested with peculiar charm. 
More recent and more widely known is her 
rendering of the very opposite character of 
the heroine in * Carmen.' 

At the present time (1884) Madame Trebelli 
is making a tour through the United States 
with Mr. Abbey's troupe. 

Madame Trebelli's marriage to Signor Bet- 
tini, about 1863, was, in a few years, followed 
by a separation. [L.M.M.] 

TREBLE {Canto; BisJcant; Dessus). A 
general term applied to the highest voices in 
a chorus or other concerted vocal piece, and 
to the upper parts in concerted instrumental 
music; also to soprano voices generally. The 
treble clef is the G clef on the second line of 
the upper (our treble) stave ; the eighth line of 
the great stave of eleven lines {Chiave di sol, 
chiave di violino ; Clef de Sol). 

Its etymology does not refer it to any special 
class of voice. It has been said to be a corrup- 
tion of Triplum, a third part superadded to the 
Altus and Bassus (high and low). In this case 
it will have been sung by boys, who till then 
will have joined instinctively in congregational 
singing in unison with, or an octave above, the 
tenor. Another derivation is Thurible, the vessel 
in which incense is burnt in the services of the 
Roman Catholic Church, from the Latin Thuri- 
hulum. The portable thurible or censer was 
carried and swung by boys. But there is very 
strong doubt whether the thurible boys ever had 
any share in the vocal part of tlie church services ; 
and if they did not, this theory is overturned. The 
thurible-bearers would surely be called, in de- 
scribing a religious procession, • the thurifers.' 
The derivation from Triplum seems therefore 
the more probable. At wiiat time ' treble ' may 
have found its way into English it is difficult to 
say. ' Childish treble,' as the voice of old age, 
appears in Shakspeare, and 'faint treble' used 
to be applied to what is commonly known as 
falsetto. English amateur pianists frequently 
call the right hand the treble hand. The word 
Triplum as a third part was of course introduced 
at a very early date, and marks a most import- 
ant step in the progress of part-music. 

The treble clef is a modification of the' letter 
^ . [Clef.] It is used for the violin, flute, 
hautboy, clarinet, horn, and trumpet ; also in 
very high passages on the viola, violon- 
cello, and bassoon. The double G clef has 
been used for tenor parts in choruses, the 
music being sung an octave lower than written ; 
also for the horn in low keys. [Tenoe.] [H.C.D.] 



TREITSCHKE, Georg Friedrich, author and 
entomologist, deserves a place in a Dictionary of 
Music, as the adapter of Joseph Sonnleithner's 
libretto for Beethoven's 'Fidelio,' for its revival 
in 1814. He was bom at Leipzig, Aug. 29, 1776, 
died at Vienna. June 4, 1842. In 1793 his 
father sent him for further education to Switzer- 
land, and there he became acquainted with 
Gessner of Zurich, who inspired him with a love 
of literature. In 1802 he went to Vienna, and 
fell in with Baron Braun who made him manager 
and librettist of the Court theatre, of which he 
himself was director. In 1 809 he became vice- 
director of the theatre an-der-Wien, but in 1814 
returned to his former post. In 1822 the whole 
of the financial arrangements of the Court theatre 
were placed in his hands, and remained there 
till his death. He adapted a host of French 
librettos (Cherubini's ' Deux Joum^es,' ' M^d^e,' 
' Aline,' etc.) for the German stage, not always , 
it must be owned, with the skill shown in ' Fi- 
delio.' His connexion with Beethoven was con- 
siderable. Besides the revision of * Fidelio' in 
1 81 3-14, a letter of Beethoven to him, dated 
June 6, 181 1, seems to speak of a ^proposed 
opera book ; another, of July 3, of a melodrama. 
Beethoven supplied music to a chorus of his, 
♦ Germania,' h propos to the Fall of Paris (March 
31, 1814), and to another chorus, ' Es ist voll- 
bracht,' celebrating the entry of the Allies into 
Paris, July 15, 18 15. Treitschke made a col- 
lection of 2,582 species of butterflies, now in the 
National Museum in Pesth, and was the author 
of several books on entomology. His first wife, 

Magdalene, nde de Caro, a celebrated dancer 
— born at Civita Vecchia, April 25, 1788, died 
at Vienna, Aug. 24, 1816 — was brought up in 
London and Dublin, and became thoroughly 
English. Introduced on the stage by Noverre, her 
grace and charm created a perfect furore. She 
afterwards studied under Duport, made several 
tours, and on her return to London appeared with 
Vestris in the * Caliph of Bagdad.* There in 1 815 
she closed her artistic career, went back to her 
husband in Vienna, died, and was buried near 
Haydn's grave. [^-Gr-] 

TREMOLO. A figure consisting, in the case 
of bowed instruments, of reiterated notes played 
as rapidly as possible with up and 
down bow, expressed thus with the 
word tremolo or tremolando added 
(without which the passage would 
be played according to the rhythmical value of 
the notes), producing a very fine effect, if ju- 
diciously used, both in fortissimo and pianissimo 
passages. On the pianoforte it is a rapid alter- 
nation of the parts of divided chords, repro- 
ducing to a great extent the above-mentioned 
eflfect. Good examples of Tremolo are to be 
found in various branches of music — for the 
Piano in the Introduction to Weber's Solo Sonata 
in Ab, and in the Finale to Schubert's Rhapsodic 
Hongroise, where it gives the effect of the cym- 
balum or zither in the Hungarian bands; for 

I Unless this refers to Fidelio. 


the Piano and Violin, in the Introduction to 
Schubert's Phantasie in C (op. 159); for the 
Orchestra, in Weber's Overtures, and Schubert's 
Overture to Fierabras. For the PF. and Voice a 
good example is Schubert's song ' Am Meer.' Bee- 
thoven uses it in the Funeral March of the Solo 
Sonata, op. 26 ; in the Sonata Appassionata, and 
that in C minor, op. iii. The strictly classical 
PF. writers evidently did not consider tremolo 
without rhythm legitimate in original piano 
words — another example (if such were needed) 
of the purity with which they wrote. The tj'e- 
molo on the PF. is therefore a reproduction of 
the effect of other instruments, as in Beethoven's 
Funeral March just mentioned. This, though 
written rhythmically, is, by common consent, 
played as a real tremolo, being clearly a repre- 
sentation of the roll of muffled drums. Some of 
the best of the Romantic school, as Weber and 
Schumann, have used the real Tremolo. Bee- 
thoven ends a droll note to Steiner'' on the 
dedication of the Sonata, op. 106, as follows : — 

ad aniiciim 
de amico. 


Ad - ju - tantl 

1. In vocal music the term is applied totheabuse 
of a means of expression or effect, legitimate if 
used only at the right time and place, and in the 
right way. It assumed the character of a vocal 
vice about forty years ago, and is supposed to have 
had its origin in the vibrato of Rubini, first 
assuming formidable proportions in France, and 
thence quickly spreading throughout the musical 

The Vibrato and the Tremolo are almost equally 
reprehensible as mannerisms. Mannerisms ex- 
press nothing but carelessness or self-sufficiency, 
and the constant tremolo and vibrato are there- 
fore nauseous in the extreme. Their constant 
use as a means of expression is simply false, for 
if they are to represent a moral or physical state, 
it is that of extreme weakness or of a nervous 
agitation which must soon wear out the un- 
fortunate victim of its influence. The tremolo 
is said to be frequently the result of forcing the 
voice. It may be so in some cases, but it is 
almost exclusively an acquired habit in this age 
of 'intensity.' It is a great mistake to say that 
it is never to be used, but it must only be so 
when the dramatic situation actually warrants 
or requires it. If its use is to be banished en- 
tirely from vocal music, then it should equally 
disappear from instrumental music, though, by 
the way, the instrumental tremolo is more nearly 
allied to the vocal vibrato. Indeed, what is called 
'vibrato' on bowed instruments is what would 
be ' tremolo ' in vocal music. [Vibrato.] What 
is it that produces its fine effect in instrumental 
music ? In loud passages it expresses sometimes 
joy and exultation ; in others, agitation or ter- 
ror; in all cases, tension or emotion of some 

» See Thayer, ill. 601. 




kind. In soft passages it has a beautifully weird 
and ethereal effect of half-light when not spun 
out. In vocal music it is to be used in the first- 
named situations. The human voice loses its 
steadiness in every-day life under the influence 
of joy, sorrow, eagerness, fear, rage, or despair, 
and as subjects for vocal treatment usually have 
their fair share of these emotions, we must ex- 
pect to hear both the vibrato and the tremolo 
in their places, and are very much disappointed 
if we do not. Reason, judgment, and taste must 
be brought to bear with the same kind of philo- 
sophical and critical study by means of which an 
actor arrives at the full significance of his part, 
and it will be found that a big vocal piece like 
'Ah perfido,* 'Infelice,' or *Non piti di fiori,' 
requires more psychological research than is 
generally supposed. Singers, and those of this 
country especially, are very little (in too many 
oases not at all) alive to the fact, that the mo- 
ment singing is touched, we enter upon the re- 
gion of the dramatic. In speaking generally of 
dramatic singing, the operatic or theatrical is 
understood. But the smallest ballad has its 
share of the dramatic, and if this were more 
widely felt, we should have better singing and a 
better use of the tremolo and vibrato, which 
can hardly fail to place themselves rightly if the 
inlport of the piece to be sung be rightly felt 
and understood. By tremolo is usually under- 
stood an undulation of the notes, that is to say, 
more or less quickly reiterated departure from 
true intonation. In some cases this has been 
cultivated (evidently) to such an extent as to be 
utterly ludicrous. Ferri, a baritone, who flour- 
ished about thirty-five years ago, gave four or five 
beats in the second, of a good quarter-tone, and 
this incessantly, and yet he possessed a strong 
voice and sustaining power to carry him well 
through his operas. But there is a thrill heard 
at times upon the voice which amounts to neither 
tremolo nor vibrato. If it is the result of pure 
emotion, occurring consequently only in the right 
place, its effect is very great. 

The vibrato is an alternate partial extinction 
and re-enforcement of the note. This seems to 
have been a legitimate figure, used rhythmically, 
of the fioritura of the Farinelli and Caffarelli 
period, and it was introduced in modern times 
with wonderful effect by Jenny Lind in ' La 
Figlia del Reggimento.' In the midst of a flood 
of vocalisation these groups of notes occurred — 

executed with the same biilliancy and precision 
as they would be on the pianoforte, thus — 

[See Singing, iii. 496 ; also Vibbato.] [H.C.D.] 

TREMULANT. A contrivance in an organ 
producing the same effect as tremolando in singing. 

Its action practically amounts to this: — the air 
before reaching the pipes is admitted into a box 
containing a pallet to the end of which is attached 
a thin arm of metal with a weight on the end 
of it ; when the air on its admission raises the 
pallet the metal arm begins to swing up and 
down, thus producing alternately an increase 
and diminution of wind-pressure. Its use is 
generally limited to such stops as the Vox Jiumana 
andafew otherstopschiefly of the reed family. The 
tremulant is happily much less in vogue in this 
country than on the continent, where its abuse 
is simply offensive. It is difiicult to conceive how 
good taste can tolerate these rhythmical pulsations 
of a purely mechanical pathos. [J.S.] 

TRENCHMORE, an old English country 
dance, frequently mentioned by writers of the 
1 6th and 17th century. According to Mr. Chap- 
pell ('Popular Music') the earliest mention of 
it is in a Morality by William Eulleyn, published 
in 1564. The chai-acter of the dance may be 
gathered from the following amusing quotation 
from Selden's 'Table Talk ' (1689) : ' The Court 
of England is mvich altered. At a solemn Danc- 
ing, first you had the grave Measures, then the 
Corrantoes and the Galliards, and this is kept up 
with Ceremony ; at length to Trenchmore, and 
the Cushion-Dance, and then all the Company 
dance. Lord and Groom, Lady and Kitchen-Maid, 
no distinction. So in our Court, in Queen Eliza- 
beth's time, Gravity and State were kept up. In 
King Jameses time things were pretty well. But 
in King Charles's time, there has been nothing 
but Trenchmore, and the Cushion-Dance, omnium 
gatherum tolly -poUy, hoite come toite.' Trench- 
more appears first in the Dancing Master in the 
fifth edition (1675), where it is directed to be 
danced 'longways for as many as will.' The 
tune there given (which we reprint) occurs in 
' Deuteromelia ' (1609), where it is called 'To- 
morrow the fox will come to town.' 



1 1st time. 

2nd time. f 

.n g > 

— P — Q— P- 

-^" S N- 

— h - — m-\ 


:* •■■*? J • 

• C L- 


J ^ 


TRENTO, ViTTORio, composer, born in 
Venice, 1761 (or 1765), date of death unknown, 
pupil of Bertoni, and composer of ballets. His 
first, ' Mastino della Scala' (1785), was successful 
enough to procure him commissions from various 
towns. He was induced by Dragonetti to come 
to London, and there he composed the immensely 
popular 'Triumph of Love' (Drury Lane, 1797). 
His first opera buffa, * Teresa Vedova,' succeeded, 
and was followed by many others. In 1804 he 
composed 'Ifigenia in Aulide.' In 1806 he be- 
came impresario in Amsterdam, and there pro- 
duced with great success an oratorio 'The 
Deluge' (1808). Soon afterwards he went to 
Lisbon, also as impresario. In 1824 he returned 
to Venice, and alter that his name disappears. 
He composed about 10 ballets, 20 oi)eras, and a 




few oratorios, one being the • Maccabees.* His 
scores are in the collection of Messrs. Ricordi 
of Milan. [F.G.] 

able collection of ancient and modem pianoforte 
music, made and edited by Madame Farrenc, and 
published part by part by Leduc of Paris, from 
June 1861 to 1872. M. Farrenc contributed 
some of the biographical notices to the work, but 
his death in 1865 prevented his having any large 
shaie in it ; the rest of the biographies were 
written by Fetis jun. The collection has been 
since superseded by separate publications and 
more thorough editing, but it will always remain 
a remarkable work. Its contents are as follows. 
The reduction that has taken place in the price 
of music during the last twenty years may be 
realised when we recollect that this edition, 
which boasts of being the cheapest then pub- 
lished, was issued at 25 francs or £1 per part. 

Pakt I. I Part X. 

History of the Piano ; and treatise Albreclitsberger. 12 Fugues, 

on Ornament. 
C. P. £. Bach. C Sonatas. 

Do. 6 do. 
3. P. Rameau. 1st Book of Pieces 

Do. 2nd do. 
Durante. 6 Sonatas. 
Porpora. C Fugues. 

J. L. Dussek. S Sonatas, Op. 35 ; 

Sonata, Op. 64. 
Frescobaldi. Pieces. 
J. L. Krebs. 3 Fugues. 

PART xvin. 

J. Christian Bach. 7 Sonatas. 

Beethoven. 6 Airs with variations. 

J. Christ. Smith. 9 Suites de 

Clementl. 3 Sonatas, Op. 8 ; 4 So- 
natas and 1 Toccata. 
Part XIX. 

H. d'Anglebert. Pieces for Clave- 

W. A. Mozart. 3 Sonatas. 

D. Scarlatti. Pieces 331 to 1S2. 

Hummel. Fantasia, Op. 18. 

Part II. 
C. P. E. Bach. 6 Sonatas. 
Kuhnau. 7 Sonatas. 
11. 1'urcell. Collection of Pieces. 
I>. Scarlatti. Pieces 1 to 20. 
Hummel. Ops. 8, 9, 10, 15, 
Lindemann. Pieces. 
Schvranenberg. 2 minuets. 

Part III. 
Pad. Martini. 12 Sonatas. 
K. Couperin. 1st Boole of I'ieces. 
Hummel. Ops. 21, 40, 57, 70. 

Part IV. 

C. P. E. Bach. 6 Sonatas, 
Do. C do. 

Handel. Suites de Pieces, Book 1 . 
Do. Do. Book 11. 
Do. Do. Book 111. 
Do. 6 Fugues. 

Part V. 
Chambonni^res. Ist Bk. of Pieces. 
Do. 2nd do. 

D. Scarlatti. Pieces 27 to 49. 
Beethoven. Sonatas, Ops. 2, 7, 10. 

Part VI. 
Parthenia. Byrd, Bull. Oibbons. 
Pieces by English writers of ituii 

and 17th centuries. First 

Friedemann Bach. 12 Polonaises 

and Sonata. 
<\ P. E. Bach. 6 Sonatas. 
Beethoven. Ops. 13, 14, 22. 2G, 27. 


Part VII. 
Th. Muflfat. Pieces. 
G. Benda. 6 Sonatas. 
C. P. E. Bach. 6 Sonatas. 
Beethoven. Sonatas, Ops. 31, 49. 

Part VIII. 
Couperin. 2ud Book of Pieces. 
D.Scarlatti. Pieces 50 to 77. 
C. P. E. Bach. 6 Sonatas. 
Do. 6 do. 

Part IX. 
Fried. Bach. 8 Fugues. 
J. W. Haessler. 2 Fantasies, 6 

Sonatas, 4 Solos. 
G. Ifufbt. 12 Toccatas. 
Beethoven. Sonatas, Ops. 53, 54, 

OT, li, 79, 81. 90. 

Kuhnau. Exercises, Parts 1 and 2. 

W. A. Mozart. 6 Sonatas. 

M. Clementl. 3 Sonatas, Op. 2. 

2 do. Op. 7. 
J. P. Kimberger. 6 Fugues. 
Do. Collection of Pieces. 
Part XI. 

C. P. E. Bach. 5 Sonatas. 4 Kon- 

Ch. Nichelmann. 5 Sonatas; C 
Sonatas, Op. 2. 

D. Scarlatti. Pieces 78 to 94. 
Froberger. 5 Caprices, 6 Suites. 
J.S.Bach. 6 Suites. 

Part XII. 

Couperin. 3rd Book of Pieces. 

Kuhnau. Toccata. 

llummel. Introduction and Ron- 
deau, Op. 19. 

Kimberger. Collection of Pieces, 
No. 2, 
Do. Do. No. 3. 

F. V. Buttstedt. 2 Sonatas. 

J. E. Ebeilin. 6 Preludes and 

Beethoven. Sonatas, Ops. 101, IOC. 
Part XIII. 

Frescobaldi. 3 Fugues, 6 Canzone. 

Fried. Bach. 1 Suite, 4 Fantasies. 

W. A. Mozart. 3 Sonatas. 

[). Scarlatti. Pieces 9:> to 110. 

los. Haydn. 5 Sonatas. 

C. P. E.Bach. 6 Sonatas. 

Part XIV. 
Mattheson. Pieces. 
Beethoven. Sonatas. Ops. 109, 110, 

I'roberger. 8 Toccatas, 6 Suites. 
Albrechtsberger. 18 Fugues. 
Hummel. Rondeau brillant, Op. 

109 ; Sonata, Op. 13. 
Fasch. 2 Sonatas, 1 Piece. 
Goldberg. Prelude and Fugue. 

Part XV. 
Touperin. 4th Book of Pieces. 
W.A.Mozart. 4 Sonatas. 
J.S.Bach. 6 English Suites. 
Hummel. Sonata, Op. 20. 

D. Zipoli. Pieces for Organ and 

tor Clavecin. 

Part XVI. 

C. M. von Weber. 4 Sonatas, Ops. 

24, 89, 49, 70. 

D. Scarlatti. Pieces Ul to 130. 
L. Claude Daquin. Pieces for 

J. W. Haessler. 3 Sonatas. 
F.Chopin. 9 Nocturnes. 

Part XVII. 
P. D. Paradies. 10 Sonatas. 
Hummel. Adagio ; Sonata, Op. 18. 
J. 0. F. Bach. Sonatas aad Pieces. 

Duphly. Piece for Clavecla. 
F. Ries. Sonata, Op. 26. 
Haydn. 5 Sonatas. 

Part XX. 
Varions authors, 17th century. 

Pieces for Clavecin. 
Do. 18th century. Do. 
Claudio Merulo. Toccata for oi^ 

J. B. Cramer. 3 Sonatas. 
W. A. Mozart. Romance. 
D. Steibelt. Sonata. Op. 64. 
Cbr. Schaffratb. 2 Sonatas, Op. 2. 
J.G.Wernicke. 6 Pieces. 
F. Mendelssohn. Rondo capric- 

cioso. Op. 14 s 8 Fantasias. 

Op. 16. j-Q-j 

TRIAD is a chord of three notes standing in 
the relation to one another of bottom note, third, 
and fifth. It is of no consequence what the 
quality of the combination is, whether consonant 
or dissonant, major or minor. The following are 
specimens : — 



TRIAL, Jean Claude, French composer, bom 
at Avignon, Dec. 13, 1732, was educated at the 
Maitrise, and early studied the violin, for which 
his first compositions were intended. Settling 
in Paris he became intimate with Rameau, and 
was taken up by the Prince de Conti, who made 
him conductor of his own music, and procured 
him the joint-directorship with Berton of the 
Op^ra (1767). He composed ' Esope k Cythfere' 
(1766), and • La Fete de Flore' (1771), each in 
one act, and with Berton 'Sylvie,' 3 acts (1766), 
and 'Thdonis,' i act (1767); also short over- 
tures, orchestral divertissements, cantatas, and 
the music for ' La Chercheuse d'esprit.' He died 
of apoplexy June 23, 1771. His brother, 

Antoine, his junior by four j'ears, was also 
bom at Avignon, and educated at the Maitrise, 
but forsook ecclesiastical plainsong for stage 
ariettas. Having appeared with success as a 
comedy-tenor in several provincial towns, he 
went to Paris in 1764, and there quickly rose 
into favour as a singer of considerable musical 
attainments, and an actor possessing real wit 
and originality. For 30 years composers eagerly 
vied with each other in writing parts for him, 
and he left permanent traces at the Op^ra 
Comique, where the comedy-tenor part is still 
called by his name. Like Dugazon, Antoine 
Trial embraced with fervour the doctrines of the 
Revolution, and on the fall of Robespierre was 
constrained by the mob to atone for his previous 
exploits by singing the * Rdveil du Peuple ' on 
his knees. Forced to give up his post in the 
municipality, and subjected to many cruel 
humiliations, his mind gave way, and he poisoned 
himself Feb. 5, 1795. His wife, Marie Jeanne 
Milon, sang under the name of Mme. Mande- 
ville, and having a voice of remarkable compass 
and flexibility, brought into fashion airs full of 
roulades and vocalises. Their son, 

Abmand Emmanuel, born in Paris, March i, 
1 771, began early to compose, and produced at 
the Comedie Italienne 'Julien et Colette' (1788), 
'Adelaide et Mirval' (1791); *Les deux petits 




Aveugles,* and ' Le Si^ge de Lille' (1792) ; 'La 
Cause et les Effets, ou le Reveil du Peuple en 
1789' (•1793), besides taking part in the cele- 
brated revolutionary piece ' Le Congrfes des Rois.' 
A first-rate accompanyist, Armand Trial might 
have made both name and money, but though 
he married Jeanne M^on, a charming artist at the 
Theatre Favart, he plunged into dissipation, and 
died in Paris, from its effects, Sept. 9, 1 803. [G.C.] 

TRIAL BY JURY. A very extravagant ex- 
travaganza ; words by W. S. Gilbert, music by 
Arthur Sullivan. Produced at the Royalty 
Theatre, London, March 25, 1875. It owes its 
great success to the remarkable drollery of 
woi'ds and music, the English character of the 
institution caricatured, and the great humour 
thrown into the part of the Judge by the 
composer's brother, Frederick, who died with a 
great career before him. [G.] 

TRIANGLE. This is a steel rod bent in a 
triangular form, but open at one angle. The 
boater is of the same metal, and 
should be somewhat of a spindle 
shape, so as to give a heavier 
or lighter stroke at the per- 
former's discretion. It is hung 
by a string at the upper angle, 
held in the performer's hand, 
or more frequently attached to his desk or to 
one of his drums, as it is seldom that a man has 
nothing else to play besides this little instrument, 
except in military bands. It suits all keys, as 
besides the fundamental tone there are many 
subordinate ones, not harmonics. The woodcut is 
from an instru ment of the pattern used at the Grand 
Opdra in Paris. It is an isosceles triangle, the 
longest side 7| inches, and the short side or base 
7 inches. Thickness -^ of an inch. Rossini and 
his followers make frequent use of it, and Brahms 
has introduced it in the Finale of his Variations 
on a theme of Haydn's. Beethoven has a few 
strokes of it in his 9th Symphony. [V. de P.] 

TRIBUT DE ZAMORA, LE. A grand opera 
in 4 acts; words by MM. d'Ennery and Brdsil, 
music by Gounod. Produced at the Grand Opera, 
Paris, April i, 1881. The story is a Moorish 
one, the scene is laid in Spain, and the action 
includes a ballet on the largest scale. The 
principal parts were taken by Mad. Krauss and 
M. Lassalle. [G.] 

TRIl&BERT, Charles Louis, French 'oboist, 
eon of a wind-instrument maker, born in Paris 
Oct. 31, 1 8 10. He was well educated at the 
Conservatoire, and took the first oboe prize in 
Vogt's class in 1829. He had an excellent tone, 
great execution, and good style, and is still re- 
membered at the Theatre des Italiens, and the 
Soci^td des Concerts. Although much occupied 
with instrument-making, he carried on his artistic 
cultivation with earnestness, and composed much 
for the oboe — original pieces, arrangements of 
operatic airs, and (in conjunction with M. Jan- 
court) fantaisies-concertantesfor oboe and bassoon. 
At the Paris Exhibition of 1855 Tridbert obtained 
a medal for his adaptation of Boehm's contriv- 

ances to the oboe, and for improved bassoons. 
This skilled manufacturer and eminent artist 
succeeded Verroust as professor of the oboe at 
the Conservatoire in April 1863, and retained 
the post till his death, July 18, 1867. His 
brother Fk:6derio (died in Paris March 1878, 
aged 65) was his partner, and showed consider- 
able inventive genius. He constructed bassoons 
after Boehm's system, a specimen of which may 
be seen in the Museum of the Conservatoire. 
Frdddric Triebert was devoted to his art, and 
conversed on it with much learning and intelli- 
gence. He left a son, also named Fredj^rio, 
who is one of the best oboists of the French 
school. [G.C] 


an old Breton dance, long obsolete. Cotgrave 
describes it as * a kind of British and peasantly 
daunce, consisting of three steps, and performed, 
by three hobling youths, commonly in a round.* 
It is mentioned by Rabelais ('Pantagruel,* bk. 
iv. ch. xxxviii.) and by his imitator, Noel du 
Fail, Seigneur de la Herrisaye, in chapter xix. 
of his 'Contes et Discours d'Eutrapel' (1585). 
From this passage it would seem that it was a 
' Basse Danse,' and was followed by a * Carole ' — 
a low Breton name for a dance in a round, or ac- 
cording to Cotgrave * a kind of daunce wherein 
many daunce together.' [See Tourdion.] (Com- 
pare the Italian ' Carola,' described in Symonds* 
* Renaissance in Italy,' vol. iv. p. 261, note.) Du 
Fail says the dance was ' trois fois plus magistrale 
et gaillarde que nulle autre.' It was the special 
dance of Basse Bretagne, as the Passepied (vol. ii. 
p. 662) was of Haute Bretagne. JehanTabourot,in 
his 'Orch^sographie' [see vol. ii. p. 560a], says the 
Trihoris was a kind of Branle, and that he learnt 
it at Poitiers from one of his scholars. He gives 
the following as the air to which it was danced : 

^H^-^=d:^:^=^- 3:3:;a=J ^^I 

According to Littr^, the name is allied to the 
Burgundian ' Trigori,' a joyful tumult. [W.B.S.] 
TRILL (Ital. Trillo; Fr. Trille; Germ. 
Triller). An ornament consisting of the rapid 
alternation of a note with its major or minor 
second, generally known in English by the 
name of Shake, under which head it is fully 
described. [See vol. iii. p. 479.] The ornament 
itself dates from about the end of the i6th cen- 
tury, but it received the name of Trill at a some- 
what later date, not to be exactly ascertained. It 
is described in the • Nuove Musiche ' of Caccini, 
published in Florence in 1601, under the name 
of Gruppo, a name which is now used to express 
a turn-like group of four notes, also called 
Grojppo, thus : — 

Caccini also makes use of the term tnllo, but 
as indicating a pulsation or rapid repetition 
of a single sound sung upon a single vowel, an 
effect expressed in modem terminology by 
vibrato. [Vibrato.] [F.T.] 


sonata by Tartini, for violin solo with bass ac- 
companiment, which is so called from its being 
an attempt to recollect the playing of the devil 
in a dream. [See Tartini ; vol. iv. p. 62 a.] 
The Sonata consists of Larghetto affettuoso, 
Allegro, and Finale — Andante and Allegro inter- 
mixed. All the movements are in G minor. It 
is in the Allegro of the Finale that the Trill 
occurs, a long shake with a second syncopated 
part going on at the same time. 
tr tr, 

' ^^^ » » ' » [ 


versity wa3 founded in Dublin by Alexander 
de Bicknor, Archbishop of Dublin, in 1320, 
but died out in the early part of the 16th cen- 
tury. After a lapse of 60 or 70 years the 
present University of Dublin was founded in 
1 59 1 by Queen Elizabeth, and with it the 
•College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, 
near Dublin.' The College alone was incor- 
porated by charter, and its governing body or 
Board was entrusted with the management of 
the University. On this account, as well as 
from a mistaken interpretation of the original 
charter, an idea obtained currency that the 
University of Dublin did not acquire an inde- 
pendent existence, and that Trinity was a Col- 
lege endowed with the powers of an University. 
This is, however, quite erroneous. The Uni- 
versity and the College were both founded at 
the same time, but as the former possessed no 
distinct property, and had no share in directing 
the education of the students, its sole function 
consisted in conferring degrees. (See the Rev. 
Dr. Todd's preface to the Catalogue of Graduates 
of the University of Dublin, 1869, ^^^ Sir Joseph 
Napier's ' Opinion,' prefixed to vol. ii. of the same 
work, 1884, where the whole question is fully 
elucidated.) Any possible doubt was removed by 
the revised charter granted in 1857, by which 
the Senate of the University was formally in- 

In the 1 7th century two or three minor Col- 
leges or Halls were founded, but without success, 
and Trinity still remains the single College in 
the University of Dublin.* 

To obtain a regular degree at the University 
of Dublin, the candidate must matriculate at 
Trinity College, and complete the prescribed 
course of study, when a Grace is passed by 
the Board of the College and submitted for 
ratification to the Senate of the University, 

> According to precedent this was not necessary. The University 
of Paris never had a charter, nor was one granted to Oxford until the 
15th century, and then for special reasons. Sir Joseph Napier shows 
that a recognised University is In Its own nature a distinct corporation. 

2 A similar Instance Is afforded in the United States of America, 
where Harvard U the only College In Cambridge University. 


but the degree may be withheld either by the 
veto of any member of the University Caput, 
or, subsequently, by a majority of the Senate. 

A few degrees in Music seem to have been con- 
ferred in the 17th century, and Thomas Bateson* 
and Randolph, or Randal, Jewitt* are said to 
have received the degree of Mus.B. [See vol. i. 
p. 155.] 

In the latter part of the 1 8th century several 
musical degrees were given, and we find the 
names of * Garret Wesley, Earl of Momington\ 
Mus.D. (1764); *the Rt. Hon. Charles Gar- 
diner, Mus.D. causa honoris (1764); * Richard 
Woodward (organist of Christ Church, 1765- 
1777), Mus.B. 1768, Mus.D. 1771; Sampson 
Carter (elder brother ofThomas Carter) ".Mus.D.; 
Samuel Murphy (organist of St. Patrick's, 1773, 
and Christ Church, 1777), Mus.D.; Langrishe 
Doyle (organist of Armagh 1776, and then 
of Christ Church, Dublin, 1780), Mus.D.; 
Philip Cogan (organist of St. Patrick's, 1780), 
Mus.D. ; Sir John Stevenson', Mus.D. (1791, per 
diploma) ; and John Clarke^ (afterwards Clarke- 
Whitfeld), Mus.D. (1795). From 1800 to 1861 
the degree of Doctor was conferred on John 
Spray ; William Warren (organist of Christ 
Church, 1814, and of St. Patrick's, 1827), 1827 ; 
John Smith, 1827"; * Sir Robert P. Stewart'® 
(organist of Christ Church, 1844, and of St. Pa- 
trick's, 1852-1861), 1851, and* Francis Robinson, 
honoris causa, 1852. The degree of Bachelor 
was also taken by Nicholas H. Stack, 1845, and 
William Murphy. 

The names marked with an asterisk appear 
in the Catalogue of Graduates, and in these cases 
the degrees were taken regularly ; but most of the 
other musical degrees seem to have been merely 
honorary, and, conferring no University privileges, 
are not found in the University registers. 

The Professorship of Music was founded in 
1764, when Lord Mornington was appointed the 
first professor; but on his retirement ini774 the 
chair remained vacant until 1847, when it was 
filled by Dr. John Smith, and on his death in 
1S61, Dr., afterwards Sir Robert, Stewart wa» 
appointed to the office, which he still holds. 

Since his appointment, and, as it is understood, 
mainly through his exertions, the conditions on 

* The date, 1611, ordinarily given as that of Bateson's removal from 
Chester to Dublin, Is Incorrect. From the Chapter books of Christ 
Church it appears that he was appointed a Vicar Choral of that 
Cathedral on March 24, 1608-9, and Organist soon afterwards. 

< Hawkins's account of this musician Is confused. Jewitt, who 
became organist of both Christ Church and St. Patrick's Cathedrals 
In 1631, and was succeeded in the former post by Dr. Rogers In 1639, 
held at the same time a choral vicarage in St. Patrick's, of which ha 
was deprived by the Archbishop (also In 16S9) for not being in priest's 
orders, but was restored in 1641. He became a Vicar Choral of Christ 
Church in 1646, and probably returned to England on the suppression 
of the Cathedral establishments under the Commonwealth. Jewitt 
seems to have afterwards taken Holy Orders, was admitted a Minor 
Canon of St. Paul's In 1661, and finally became Organist of Win- 
chester, where he died July 4« 1675, and was succeeded by John 
Beading. s See vol. 11. p. 368. 

« See vol. 1. p. 317. 7 See vol. 111. p. 712. 

8 Organist of Armagh 1794— 17OT ; Master of the choristers of Christ 
Church and St. Patrick's, 1798. He was never organist of either of 
the Dublin Cathedra's, as is sometimes stated. He graduated Mus. B. 
at Oxlbrd in 1793, but his Cambridge degree of Doctor In 1799 was 
granted ad eundem from Dublin. See vol. i. p. 365. 

9 See vol. Hi. p. 540. The Grace passed by the Board for conferring 
the degree of Doctor on Warren and Smith is dated July 7, 1S27. 

i« See vol. ill. p. 718. 


which a degree in music is conferred by the Uni- 
versity of Dublin have been considerably remodel- 
led, by the addition of an examination in Arts to 
that in Music only. The existing regulations re- 
quire the candidate for the degree of Bachelor to 
pass the ordinary examination for entrance into 
Trinity College, except that any modern foreign 
language may be substituted for Greek. He 
must have studied or practised music for seven 
years, and must pass such examination and per- 
form such exercises as may be prescribed. A 
Doctor in Music must have taken the Degree of 
Bachelor and have studied music for twelve years. 
He also must pass such further examinations 
and perform such acts as may be prescribed. 

Trinity College was opened for the reception 
of students on the 9th January, 159I. On the 
centenary of that day a solemn commemoration 
was held within the College, for which an Ode, 
' Great Parent, hail I ' was written by Tate,^ 
then poet laureate, and set to music by Henry 
Purcell. [See vol. iii. p. 49.] 

The edition of this Ode, published by Good- 
ison, states that it was performed in Christ 
Church Cathedral on the 9th Jan. 169I, but 
this is certainly an error, and the registers of 
Christ Church make no reference to the subject. 
The General Register of Trinity College, however, 
does contain a full account of the proceedings 
within the College walls. After morning prayers 
in the Chapel came 'Musicus instrumentorum 
concentus.' Then followed sundry orations, after 
which we read 'Ode Eucharistica vocum et in- 
strumentorum Symphonia decantatur,' which 
no doubt is * Great Parent, hail ! ' The College 
Register states that the several exercises were 
laid up in the manuscript library, but a recent 
search for these papers has proved fruitless. 

In 1837 ^^^ ' University Choral Society' was 
founded for the cultivation of vocal music in 
Trinity College. Membership is restricted to 
students of the College and Graduates of the 
Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin. 
The Society meets weekly for practice from 
November to June, and usually gives three 
concerts during the season. At these concerts 
many important works have been performed 
for the first time in Dublin. Mr. Joseph Robin- 
son'* held the oflBce of Conductor from the found- 
ation of the Society until 1847, when he resigned, 
and was succeeded by the present Conductor, Sir 
Robert Stewart. 

To encourage the study and practice of sacred 
music in Trinity College, musical exhibitions have 
been lately founded. The exhibitioners are elected 
by examination held annually, and retain their 
places for two years with a power of re-election. 
They assist in the Choral Service of the College 
Chapel. [G.A.C.] 

stitution is the development of a Musical Society 
founded in 1872, under the title of the Church 

' See ' The Gentleman's Journal ' or * The Monthly Miscellany,' Jan. 
and Feb. 1694, p. 25. Tate was educated at Trinity College, where 
he obtained a Scholarship in 1672. ' See vol. ill. p. 140. 



Choral Society, with the object of promoting the 
improvement of church music and church sing- 
ing. In the following year examinations of a 
practical and theoretical character were esta- 
blished for admission to the position of Fellow of 
the Society, and in 1874 *o *^^^ of Associate, 
diplomas or certificates being granted to the suc- 
cessful candidates, who were subsequently classed 
as 'Licentiates,* 'Associates,' and 'Students.' 

In 1875 the Society was incorporated under 
the Companies' Act, and in 1881 reincorporated 
on a wider basis, under the name of Trinity Col- 
lege, London ; lectures and classes were organised 
for musical and general instruction ; examina- 
tions for diplomas and prizes were held ; and a 
library was opened. In 1876 women were ad- 
mitted to the classes then instituted, and soon 
afterwards the local examinations throughout 
the United Kingdom, which had been for some 
years held by the Society of Arts, but had lately 
been discontinued, were resumed and carried on 
by Trinity College. 

As at present constituted the College is under 
the direction of a Council, an Academical Board, 
and a Senate, and the studies, musical and lite- 
rary, are conducted by a Warden and a staff of 

The first Warden of the College was the Rev. 
H. G. Bonavia Hunt, who still holds the office, 
and to whose exertions the present position of 
the College is due. Among the professors and 
lecturers are Sir Julius Benedict; Mr. Carrodus; 
Mr. Dubrucq ; Mr. James Higgs, Mus.B. ; Mr. 
W. S. Hoyte; Mr. Lazarus ; Mr. George Mount ; 
Dr. W. H. Stone ; Mr. E. H. Turpin ; Mr. Brad- 
bury Turner, Mus.B. ; Mr. A. Visetti ; and Mr. 
C. E. Willing. 

The College has about 300 students at present 
on its books, and holds examinations at nearly 
200 local centres. A scholarship and two exhi- 
bitions, open to all comers, have been instituted, 
and prizes are awarded amongst the students of 
the College. A class for the practice of orchestral 
music meets weekly during Term, and instruction, 
is given in French, German, and Italian. 

The College publishes a Calendar annually, 
from which, or from the Secretary at the Col- 
lege, 13 Mandeville Place, Manchester Square, 
London, all information respecting examina- 
tions, courses of study, and fees, can be 
obtained. [G.A.C.] 

TRIO. A composition for three voices or 
instruments. [See Terzetto.] The term is also 
applied to the secondary movement of a march, 
minuet, and many other kinds of dance music. 

I. The Trio proper was originally called 
Sonata a tre, being in fact a sonata for three 
instruments, such as Bach affords us specimens 
of in a sonata for flute, violin and figured bass, 
and another for 2 violins and ditto (Bachge- 
sellschaft, vol. ix. 1859). Handel also left several 
trios for strings, besides one for oboe, violin, 
and viola. These compositions are all for two 
more or less florid parts in contrapuntal style 
upon a ground bass, and gradually paved the 
way for the string quartet. When the pianoforte 



came to form a part of the combination, Pianoforte 
trios, as they are called, caused all others to re- 
tire into the background, instances of modern 
string trios being rare. Trios for three stringed 
instiuments are felt to labour under the disad- 
vantage of producing an insufficient body of tone, 
and a free use of double stops is necessary if 
complete chords are desired. The string trio 
therefore demands music of a florid, polyphonic, 
Bachish character (if we may use such an ex- 
pression), rather than matter built on a harmonic 
basis, and Beethoven has turned his appreciation 
of this fact to the best account in the three trios 
op. 9, while on the other hand the greater num- 
ber of Haydn's string trios are very thin and 
poor. Mozart's only composition of this kind is 
the interesting Divertimento in Eb, which is in 
six movements. Beethoven also composed a little- 
known Trio for 2 oboes and cor anglais, which 
he afterwards rewrote for 2 violins and viola 
(op. 87). Other unusual combinations of instru- 
ments are shown in the trios of Reicha for 3 
cellos and for 3 horns, of Haydn for 2 flutes and 
cello, of Kuhlau and Quantz for 3 flutes. One 
especial kind of trio demands mention here, 
the Organ trio, a composition in which the three 
parts are furnished by the two hands on separate 
manuals and the pedals. Such are the 6 well- 
known Organ sonatas of J. S. Bach, and in more 
modern times those of J. G. Schneider, Henry 
Smart, and Rheinberger. 

As regards the large and important class of 
trios into which the pianoforte enters, it should 
be noticed that that instrument takes sometimes 
too prominent and sometimes too unworthy a 
part. Some of the earl}' Hnydn trios, for in- 
stance, are entitled Sonatas for Piano with ac- 
companiments of Violin and Cello, and that in C, 
which stands first in the collections (probably a 
very early work) is purely a solo sonata, the two 
stringed instruments scarcely ever doing more 
than double the melody or bass. The cello in- 
deed constantly performs this ignoble office in 
the Haydn trios, which are therefore scarcely 
more worthy of the name than the mass of so- 
natas and divertissements for piano 'with ad 
libitum accompaniment for flute or violin and 
cello ' which continued to be written up to the 
end of the first half of the present century.^ 
Mozart, whose genius inclined more towards 
polyphony than Haydn's, naturally succeeded 
better. His Trio in Eb for piano, clarinet, and 
viola is the best, those with violin being unpre- 
tentious. Of Beetboven's six well-known piano- 
forte trios that in Bb (op. 97), being the latest 
in date (18 10), is also the finest. Here we see 
the most perfect union of the three instruments 
possible. There is also a trio of his for piano, 
clarinet, and cello, a not over effective com- 
bination, for which he also arranged his Septet. 
Schubert characteristically" contented himself 
with the ordinary means at hand, and his two great 
works in Bb and Eb (both 1827) are well known. 
The modem trio, which begins with Mendels- 

1 See for example the list of Dussek'i works in the article on his 
4ianit, vol. I. p. 447. 2 See vol. ill. p. S63a. 


sohn's two in D minor and C minor, is scarcely a 
legitimate development of the old. The resources 
and technique of the pianoforte have greatly in- 
creased with the improvement of the instrument, 
but the violin remains where it was. Thus the 
balance is destroyed, the piano becomes almost 
equal to an orchestra, and the strings are its 
humble servants. To compensate them for their 
want of power it becomes necessary to confine 
them to the principal melodies, while the 
piano adds an ever-increasing exuberance in the 
way of arpeggio accompaniments. In spite of 
the great beauty of Mendelssohn's two primal 
types the precedent was a dangerous one, as the 
too-brilliant trios of Rubinstein, Raff", and others 
amply demonstrate. On the other hand, Schu- 
mann, in his two fine trios in D minor and 
F major (ops. 63 and 80), in steering clear of 
this bravura style for the piano — as indeed he 
always did — has sometimes given the string parts 
rather the air of orchestral accompaniments; but 
against this slight defect must be set a wealth of 
new treatment and many beauties, as in the 
slow movement of the 33 minor, a long-drawn 
melody treated in canon, with an indescribably 
original effect. There is also the set of four 
pieces (Mahrchenerzahlungen, op. 132) for piano- 
forte, clarinet, and viola; a late work, and less 
striking than the trios. It would be unfair to 
omit mention of Spohr as a trio writer, though 
in this department, as in most others, he left the 
art as he found it: and of his five trios the 
melodious op. 119, in E minor, is the only one 
now played. Mention should also be made of 
Sterndale Bennett's solitary specimen in A major, 
were it only for the original * Serenade,' in 
which a melody on the piano is accompanied 
pizzicato by the strings. Of Raff's four trios, the 
second (op. 112), in G, is most attractive from the 
melodious character of its subjects, otherwise it 
is open to the objection hinted above. Brahms