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Full text of "DICTIONARY OF NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY(ABBOTT-CHILDERS)"

7 



OF 



v . r - 



B: 







EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



SUPPLEMENT 



VOL. I. 



ABBOTT 




LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO,, 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1901 



right* rtservttt\ 



7 



OF 



v . r - 



B: 







EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



SUPPLEMENT 



VOL. I. 



ABBOTT 




LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO,, 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1901 



right* rtservttt\ 



7 



OF 



v . r - 



B: 







EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



SUPPLEMENT 



VOL. I. 



ABBOTT 




LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO,, 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1901 



right* rtservttt\ 



XO7 



Tina Supplement to the * Dictionary of National Biography ' contains a 
thousand articles, of which more than two hundred represent accidental 
omissions from the previously published volumes. Those overlooked 
memoirs' belong to various epochs of modiawil and modern history ; 
Bomo of the more important fill gaps in colonial history to which recent 
events have directed attention, 

But it is the main purpose of the Supplement to deal with distin- 
guished persons who died at too late a date to be included in the original 
work. The principle of the undertaking excludes living people, and in 
the course of the fifteen years during which the publication, in alpha- 
betical sequence, of the sixty-three quarterly volumes of the Dictionary 
was in progress, many men and women of eminence died after their 
due alphabetical place was reached, and the opportunity of commemo- 
rating them had for the time passed away. The Supplement contains 
nearly eight hundred memoirs of recently deceased persons, who, under 
the circumstances indicated, found no place in the previously published 
volumes. 

Since the resolve to issuo a Supplement to the Dictionary was first 
announced, more than four times as many names as actually appear in 
the supplementary volumes have been recommended to the Editor for 
notice. Every suggestion has been carefully considered, and, although 
the rejections have been numerous, the Editor hopes that ho has not 
excluded any name about which information is likely to be sought in 
the future by serious students. Eeputations that might reasonably be 
regarded as ephemeral have alone been consciously ignored. The right 



Prefatory Note 



of a person to notice in the Dictionary has boon hold to depend on tlio 
probability that his career would be the object of intelligent inquiry on 
the part of an appreciable number of persona a generation or more 
hence. 

Owing mainly to the longer interval of time that has olapHed nince 
the publication of the volumes of the Dictionary treating of the earlier 
portions of the alphabet, the supplementary nftiuos beginning with the 
earlier letters are exceptionally numerous. Half the Bupi>lotuontary 
names belong to the first five letters of the alphabet. The whole sorioB 
of names is distributed in the threo supplementary volumes thun: 
Volume I. Abbott Childers; Volume II, Chippendale -IIoHlo; Volume 
III. How Woodward. 

It was originally intended that the Supplement to the Dictionary 
should bring the biographical record of British, Irinh, and Colonial 
achievement to the extreme end of the nineteenth century, but the death 
of Queen Victoria on 22 Jan. 1901 rendered a slight modification of tlm 
plan inevitable. The Queen's death closed an important opoeli in 
British history, and was from a national point of view a hotter destined 
historic landmark than the end of the century with which it ahmwt 
synchronised. The scope of the Supplement was consequently extended 
so that the day of the Queen's death might become ita furthest limit. 
Any person dying at a later date than the Quoon wan therefore 
disqualified for notice. 1 The memoir of tho Quoon i from the nun of 
the Editor. 



Maroh - 

^ to 

song-writer), 8 April. n 

EISHT, Wmu* (ecclesiastical 

BBOWNE, Bra SAJTOH., V.O. (general) U March ^"/if ' Wau * t , 1 '" nl >" fl>rfH* (,( divinity 



Prefatory Note 



The choice of Quoon Victoria's last day of life as the chronological 
limit of the Supplement was warmly approved by Mr. George Smith, the 
projector and proprietor of the Dictionary. But, unhappily, while the 
supplementary volumes were still in preparation, the undertaking sus- 
tained the irreparable loss of his death (6 April 1901), In accordance 
with a generally expressed wiBh the Editor has prefixed a memoir of 
Mr. Smith to the first volume of the Supplement ; but, in order to obnervo 
faithfully the chronological limit which was fixed in couBultation with 
Mr. Smith, ho has given it a prefatory position winch is independent of 
the body of the work, 

A portrait of Mr. Smith, to whoflc initiative and munilicence tho 
whole work is duo, forms tho frontispiece to tho first volume of tho 
Supplement : it is reproduced from a painting by Mr, G. F. Watts, B,A., 
which was executed in 1870. 

Much information has boon derived by writers of supplementary 
articles from private sources. The readiness with which aBsiHtanco of 
HUB kind has been rendered can hardly be acknowledged too warmly. 
Tho principle of tho Dictionary requires that tho memoirs should be 
mainly confined to a record of fact, should preserve a strictly judicial 
tone, and should onchow Bonlimonl. The point of view from which the 

KWJIM, Eww UPTON (portrait painter), 7 April. HANVOIU), OWOIUIK EDWAIID LANOUAM, <Xtt, ( 

KiiMH, Fiwpwuatt BVAttvitumid .(booknullor autl 0.8.1, (Amoral), 137 April 

nutluir), iJO Fob, HAUNJMMKH, Hw KJJWIN (doniirt mirgoon), 15 Mar, 

FAIUIIAMN, Hut ANDHWW (on^inoor), 1*1 May, HMITH, JOHN HAM HUM (mttthomiUtoittn), Id July, 

FAUHI4U, JOHN (muMimau), 17 July. HTAVKOW*, Hut KiWAttu WiMiJAK, U*O.M,U. 

lYi'S5MttAL, UKOIUIU FMNCIH (phywoiHt), (inmior of Now ^co-lnnd), U Fob. 

iU b'ub. HVAINHU, Hwi JOHN (muuiuitni), 1 April, 

UAM^ FiTasMwwAiH), D.O.IJ, (phildo^Hl), HTWPIIWNH, JAMTKIH {^twiiun)! Ml> March. 

10 Ftl), BTVHJW, WIGWAM (biwliap of Oxford ana liiu- 

HAWHIH, Uwm HKtiTNAia) (clJvino)j !ii> Jivn, torJtwi), USi April. 

HoMiNH, KJ>WAUP JOHN (oi-KtuiMi), 4, Fob. TAIT, l*Tit OUTJIHIH ftwofnHHor of nibtuml 

HOHKINH, HIH ANVUtmv llil<KV (udtnirul) y philuHopliy at KtlinlnuKh), 4 July, 

21 Juno. VANM, CATUKUINB Inrtiv WIUI^MINA, DUCIIAHH 

jKAMfRHHoN, JOHN OouDV (logiU and luMUmoal ov OLHVKIIAND, W M.y. 

writorj, iS Fob, WAHH, (IKOWHO CUAULEH WINTMK (oluHHfanl 

IJRWH, JUUN THAVKKH (lupohbiohop of Oiitftria) f HvUoliur), ai Fb. 

(I Mity, WATKJN, Hiu J 4 h)WAHi> (railway <1irotor) ( 1 JJ April 

Lttvi^ljiNnitAy, Kcuinuv jAttttH|Ijoxu> WAMTAUH)]| WKHTWJTT, JUjtuoKw FOKB (binhap of Uurhuiix 

10 Juno. tuui ni'holar), '27 July. 

MONKIUUIHM, OHO (art oritio), iil July, WJI^HH, Hut UBOUOK OMWANKV (u<hw wl) 18 Fob. 

OuMKUtiU, MIMU KudANUtt ANNJfl (outomulogiat), YN<I, OnAUiiOTTM MAWY (uovuiiut uud hia- 

JiO July. , toriotbl wriior), '-34 



Prefatory Note 



articles are written cannot therefore be expected alwayn to ecmmiemd 
itself to the near relatives of their subjects ; but llio Editor doomn it 
right to state that the great majority of those who havo holpod in tho 
preparation of memoirs of their kinsmen and kinswomen havo nhown 
every disposition to respect the dispassionate aims which tho Dictionary 
exists to pursue. 

A special word of thanks is due to Mr. ThomftH Sowombo, Mr. A* I<\ 
Pollard, and Mr. B. Irving Carlyle, all of whom rondoral valuable 
assistance to the Editor during the publication of tho Hubfltanlivo work, 
for the zealous aid they have given him in preparing tho mipplomontal 
volumes, to which they have each contributed a very largo number of 
articles. Mr. Pollard has also helped tho Editor in Booing tlio 
; Supplement finally through tho press. 

V In the supplemental volumes cross roforonooa to ftrtlolon tlmt form pwt of thn 
Supplement are given thus [q. v. SupplJ, whilo cross rofonmoon to urtloluB that havo tUruady 
appeared in the substantive work are given in tho ordinary form ft, v J 



A 



-^ p. 

J, bj 



7 



OF 



v . r - 



B: 







EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



SUPPLEMENT 



VOL. I. 



ABBOTT 




LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO,, 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1901 



right* rtservttt\ 



< < -? SY 

v U - L , 



*~\ 

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GMOMGH SMITH (1824-1901), publisher, tho f Dimeter and proprietor of the 
' Dictionary of National Biography/ was of Scottiwh parentage, His patornal 
grandfather was a small landowner and farmer in Moraynhire (or Elginshire), 
who died young and loft his family ill provided for. Hia father, George Smith 
(17B9-184G), began life as an approntioo to Isaac Forayth, a bookseller and 
banker in tho town of Mltfiii, At a youthful ago ho migrated to London with 
no resources at his command boyond his abilities and powers of work. By 
nature industrious, conscientious, and religious, ho was soon making steady 
and satisfactory progroRB. At first he found employment in tho publishing 
IIOUHO of Bivingiion in St, Paul's Churchyard Subsequently he transferred 
IUR HorviooB to John Murray, tho famous publisher of Albernarle Street, and 
while in Murray's employ was sent on one Oceanian to deliver proof-shoots to 
Lord Byron. At length, in 18.16, he and another Scottish immigrant to 
London, Alexander Elder, a native of Banff, who was Smith's junior by a 
yottr, wont into partnership, and got up in business for themselves on a 
nuuloHt Hoalo, They opened promiwoH at 1/>B Eenehureh Street as booksollovs 
and wtationorH, The new firm was styled Smith & Elder. After throe years tho 
partituu'H added publiHhirifj; to tho oiihor brauolioH of their buBinofls. On 2 March 
JH1!) thoy were both admitted by redemption to tho freedom of the Stationers' 
Company. Mumburahip of the company was needful at the time for tho 
pursuit in London of the publinher's calling. Some four months later, 
on 19 July 1819, Smith & Elder entered their earliest publication in tho 
Stationers' Company's rogifltnr. It was a well-printed collection of 'Sermons 
and JWxpoBilionn ol interesting Portions of Bcripturo/ by a popular con* 
Kivtfatianal niirnKter, Dr. John M orison of Trevor Chapol, Brompton, Thus 
unul)truHivoly did the publiwhing Jiouso sot out on its road to fame and 
fortune, which it BOOH attained in moderate measure by dint of strenuous 
endeavour and nkilful adaptation of moans to ends. 

On 12 Oct. 18SJU- litllo more than a year after the elder Smith had become 
a London publisher -ho married, His wife, Mlixaboth Murray, then twenty, 
throe years old, ami thus her husband's junior by oiyht yours, was daughter 



Memoir of George Smith 



of Alexander Murray, a successful glass-ware manufacturer in London, who, 
like her husband, was of Elginshire origin. Mrs. Smith was a woman of 
much shrewdness, vivacity, and sanguine temper, in whoso judgment uml 
resourcefulness her husband, and afterwards hor children, placed tho utmost 
confidence. The young couple lived, on their marriage, over Smith <& .Kldor'n 
shop in Fenchurch Street, and there George Smith, the oldunt son and 
second child (of six), was born on 19 March 1824, * 

Very shortly after his birth the father removed his business and his family 
to 65 Cornhill to that house which was fated to acquire wi<lo rqwlo, jvliko in 
literary and commercial circles. There, at tho ago of six, young (joorgu Smith 
suffered an attack of brain fever, and his mother, who allowed lam spnoiuJ, 
indulgence, was warned against subjecting him to any severity of discipliiin, 
IFrom infancy he was active and high-spirited, and domestic leniency en- 
couraged in him an unruliness of temper which hampered tho COUPHO of hin 
education. But his parents desired him to enjoy every educational iulvimt,go 
that lay in their power. At first he was sent to Dr. Smith's Ixmnling school 
at Eottingdean. Thence he passed at the ago of ten to Morelwnt Taylor*' 
School, but soon left it for a school at Blackheath, where tho nuiHlor, finding 
him intractable, advised his parents, greatly to their indignation, to nond him 
to sea. Although he did well as far as the schoolwork waa eonoormul, hit* 
propensity for mischievous frolic was irrepressible, and after ho had npont tt 
few terms at the City of London School his father doomed it wiHcmt to taku 
him into his office. He had shown an aptitude for mathematics, dullghtiul in 
chemistry, and had not neglected Latin ; but he was too young to havo rtuub 
great advance in the conventional subjects of stutly when in 1H38, At tho atfu 
of fourteen, he began a business career. Subsequently he received lurtNonnnt 
home in French, and showed a quick intuitive appreciation of good litaUuw. 
But it was the stir of the mercantile world that first gave useful direction to 
his abundant mental energy. 

During his boyhood his father's firm had made notable proRroafl. On itn 
removal to Cornhill, in 1824, Smith & Elder wore joined by a third piu'tnor, 
and the firm assumed the permanent designation of Smith, Kidur, & Co. 
The new partner was a man of brilliant and attractive ^iftn, if of 
weak and self-indulgent temperament. His entry into the concern f>roaUy 
extended its sphere of action. His guardian, JEueas Macintosh, wan ohiol 
partner in a great firm of Calcutta merchants, and this conuoolion with 
India brought to the bookselling and publishing branches of Smith, MMor, 
& Co. s business the new department of an Indian agency, which in course 
at time far outdistanced in commercial importance the rent of their work 
At the outset the Indian operations were confined to the export of Htationtiry 
and books to officers in the East India Company's service; hut gradually 

iirrr* /Q m ^ od s was deait with > bmi ^ ^0*^1^ ^ 

undertaken, and Smith, Elder, & Co. ultimately left most of the othur Indiaw 

f ^ & Smith 



Memoir of George Smith xiii 

in London far behind alike in tho variety and extent ol their 
transactions. 

It was to tho third partner, who had become a liveryman of the 
Olothworkors' Company on 1 March 1837, that Smith was apprenticed on 
beginning his business earoer. On 2 May 1838 the fact ol his apprenticeship 
was duly entered in tho Olothworkore' Company's records, 

At the moment that Smith joined the firm it had entered into cloRo 
relations with Lioutonant Waghorn, the originator of tho overland route to 
India* While Wnghorn was experimenting with his new moans of com- 
municating with the oast, Smith, Elder, & Co. acted as his agents, and 
published from 1887 tho many pamphlets in which he pressed his schemes 
and opinions on public notice. Some of Smith's earliest reminiscences 
related to Waghorn's strenuous efforts to perfect his system, with which the 
boy's native activity of mind enabled him to sympathise very thoroughly. 
All tho letters that wore sent to India under Waghorn's supervision across the 
Isthmus of SUCH and through the Bod Sea were despatched from Smith, 
Elder, & Co.*s office in Cornhill, and those reaching England from India 
by the same route wore delivered there on arriving in London. Young Smith 
willingly helped his seniors to ' play at post office, ' and found that part of his 
duties thoroughly congenial. But as a whole Ms labours in Cornhill were 
arduous. lie was at work from half -past seven in the morning till eight 
o'clock in tho evening, with very short intervals, His father wisely trained 
him in all tho practical details of tho stationery and bookselling business. 
Ilo hail to mend tho ofiioo quills, and was taught how to bind books and 
even compono type. The dinner-hour in the middle ot the day he often, how- 
ever, contrived to spend at Dyer's riding sol tool in IHuslmry Square, where 
ho became an export horseman. Hiding remained all his life his main 
recreation. In IH'll, three years after hiu entry into the firm, his family 
removed to Domuark U'ilL 

Tho Htoady SucreiiHe in the firm 1 !* general Imsmoas was accompanied 
by marknd activity in the publishing tlopartmont, and early in tho thirties 
that dnpai'tnumt won an assumd ropuLalion, For the lirHt development of 
tho publishing branch Mr. Klxlor wart largely responsible, and though 1m 
applied h'mwolf to it Homowhati HpaHinotliciilly, aiul hm vonkmw worn by no 
UUMUIW uniformly HiiceosHful, HOMO mtortwting roBultfl were quickly achieved. 
AH narly aw I HUG Smith, Mldor, A Go, irmiud, in partnership with CJwlworH ft 
OollinH, a (SltiHgow firm, Jamus Donnogan's * Now Grook and En^linh 
'Lexicon/ which wan long a standard book. In 1827 they undertook shigln- 
Iwiidodtho iHHtKU)f l{ilnwd TliomHon's * GhrouieloR of Lotuion Ilridgtj.' Of 
moro popular literary work which t.hn linn produced, tho mowl attradiivo itum 
WU,H tho faHh]<)nn,bl(> annual mlltid c IViondttliip'a Offoring.' This olabortttoly 
tlluttU*aUl giftrluiok wan originally produced ab the end ot 1H24, under tho 
cliti(>rKlii]> of Thomas Kibblo J lorvoy (HiibBtunumtiy oditor of thti * Atlumawin '), 
bynintughbouring publisluw, Lnpiion Kolf(j of 13 Ck>mhi!l. Tho number for 
IH2H waw the (irKt pul>Imh<Kl by Smith, KhltM 1 , ft Co,, and for fourl.<Mw on- 
sucutivu years thoy ooulinuod to nwlco annually an addition to tho 



Memoir of George Smith 



Hervey was succeeded in the editorship by the Scottish poot, Thomas Prin^lo, 
and ultimately by Leitch Eitchie, a well-known figure in journalism, who 
otherwise proved of service to the firm. The writers in ' Friendship's Ofibnn^ ' 
were the most distinguished of their day. They included not only votorans 
like Southey, Coleridge, and the Bttrick Shepherd, but also beginners liko 
Tennyson and Euskin. The Hon. Mrs. Norton, Miss Mitford, Mm Biiriok- 
land, were regular contributors. To the volume for 1833 Macaulay contri- 
buted his ' Ballad of the Armada.' The numerous plates in each issue wuro 
after pictures by the greatest artists of the time, and wore engraved hy tho 
best available talent. When the series was at its aonith of popularity noinc 
eight to ten thousand copies of each volume were sold at Christmas. 

Another of the literary connections of the firm was Miss Louisa JTotirioUa 
Sheridan, a daughter of Captain W. B. Sheridan, a very distant relative of thn 
well-known family. 1 Of her personal attractions Smith cherished from boyhood 
admiring memories. Between 1831 and 1835 she edited for tho firm livn 
annual volumes entitled ' The Comic Offering, or Lady's M6lango of LiUuury 
Mirth,' which Eobert Seymour, the practical originator of * Pickwick/ holptul 
to illustrate; and in 1838 Smith, Elder, & Co. produced for hop 'Tim 
Diadem, a Book for the Boudoir,' with some valuable plates, and contri- 
butions by various well-known hands, including Thomas Campbell, Jaimw 
and Horace Smith, and Agnes Strickland. 

In its attitude to fiction the young firm manifested, under Loitoh Ritohio'H 
influence, an exceptional spirit of enterprise. In 1833 Smith, Elder, & (Jo* 
started a ' Library of Eomance,' a series of original novels and romnnooa, 
English, American, or translated from foreign tongues, which they publiwhod 
at the prophetic price of six shillings. Fifteen volumes appeared umtor 
Eitchie's editorship before the series ended in 1835, The first was 'Tim 
Ghost Hunter and his Family/ by John and Michael Banim, tho aut,hor 
of 'The O'Hara Family; ' the fourth was John Gait's ' Stolon Child ' (183tt) ; 
the sixth, 'The Slave-King, 1 a translation from Victor Hugo (1833) ; and tho 
fifteenth and last was ' Ernesto, 1 a philosophical romance of interest by 
William [Henry] Smith (1808-1872), who afterwards won fame as author of 
' Thorndale/ 

Among Smith, Elder, & Co.'s" early works in general light literature which 
still retain theu* zest were James Grant's ' Random Eocollootions of tho HOUHQ 
of Commons ' and ' Eandom Becollections of tho House of Lords' (IB'M 
Nor was the firm disinclined to venture on art publications involving somo- 
what large mks. Glarkson Stanfield's ' Coast Scenery,' a collection of forty 
views, issued (after publication in serial parts) at tho price of 32s flrf 
appeared in 1836; and 'The Byron Gallery,' thirty-six engravings of subjects 
from Byron s poems, followed soon afterwards at tho prico of 85s Those 
volumes met with a somewhat cool reception from tho book-buying public 
but an ambiton to excel in the production of expensively illustrated volumes 

pMiS Lieul - oolonfll * Henry Wyatt, and diod Wlt 



Memoir of George Smith 



was well alivo in the firm whon, in 1838, Smith first enlisted in its service. 1 
That year saw the issue of the lirflt portion of tho groat collected edition of 
Sir Humphry Davy's * Works, 1 which was completed in nine volumes next 
year. In 1838, too, the firm inaugurated a series of elaborate reports o 
recent expeditions which tho government had sent out for purposes of 
scientific exploration. Tho earliest of those groat scientific publications was 
Sir Andrew Smith's ' Illustrations of tho Zoology of, South Africa/ of which 
the lirst volume wan issued in 1838, and four others followed between that 
date and 1847, all embellished with drawing of exceptional beauty by Goorgo 
Henry !Ford. The government made a grant of 1,5001. in aid of tho publica- 
tion, and tho five volumes wore sold at the high price of 1SL Of like character 
were tho reports of the scientific results of Admiral Sir Edward Belcher's 
voyage to the Pacific in the Sulphur ; a volume on the ssoology, prepared by 
Eichard Brinsley Hinds, came out under Smith, Elder, & Co/s auspices in 
1843, a second volume (on the botany) appeared in tho next year, and a third 
volume (completing the zoology) in 1845, That was Smith, Elder, A Oo.'s 
third endeavour iix this special class of publication. To the second a more 
lasting interest attaches. It was 'The Zoological Eeport of tho Expedition 
of H.M.8. Boagle/ in which Darwin sailed as naturalist, 1OOOL was advanced 
by tho government to tho firm for tho publication of this important work, 
Tho first volume appeared in largo quarto in 1840. Four more volumes 
completed tho undertaking by 1848, tho price of tho whole being Bi. 156% 
Smith, Elder, & Co. wore thus brought into personal relations with Darwin, the 
oarlioHt of thoir authora who acquired worldwide fame. Independently of 
bin ofllcial reports they published for him, in more popular form, extracts from 
thorn in volumon bearing the titles ' Tho Structure and Distribution of Oonil 
Boofs ' in 1842, ' Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands ' in 18Ad> and 
* Geological Observations on South America ' in 1846, 

The widening range of tho firm's dealings with distant lands in its capacity 
of Indian aguutH rendered records of travel peculiarly appropriate to its 
publishing department!, and Smith, Elder, & Co. boldly contemplated tho 
equipment on their own account of explorers whose reports should sorve th",m 
aw literature* About 1B40 Austen llonry Layard sot out, at their euggoHlion, 
in tho company of Mdward Mitford, on an overland journey to Asia; but the 
two men quarrelled on the road, and tho work that the limn contemplated 
wan never written* Another project which was defeated by a like O&UHQ wan 
an expedition to tho south of Franco, on which Loitoh Bitchio and 3 am eft 
Angiwtuw St. John started in behalf of Smith, Elder, & CO/B publinlnn^ depart" 
ment. But the firm was now dependent on any single class of publication. 
It is noteworthy that no sooner had it opened relations with Darwin, tho 
writer who was to prove tho greatest English naturalist of tho century, than 



tho largo vnnturoa winch they undertook on thoir own account, Smith, MM or, & 
Co, ftotwl at thin time as agents for many elaborate* publications pvupawl by ronpouHiblo 
publtohwrsof Edinburgh and Glasgow; auoh wore Thomas Urown'n ' tfuHHil Ckmahulo^y of 
Orout Britain,' tho ihut of the twonty-oight wrial parts of which uppoarod in April lfc)JJ7 and 
Kuy'a 'lUdhiburgh rpjteaitB,' % vote. 4to. 



Memoir of George Smith 



its services were sought by him who was to prove the century's greatest art- 
critic and one of its greatest artists in English prose John Buskin. Jt 
was in 1843, while Smith was still in his pupilage, that Buskin's father, it 
prosperous wine merchant in the city of London, introduced his son's first. 
prose work to Smith, Elder, & Co.'s notice. They had already piibliahtMl 
some poems by the young man in 'Friendship's Offering.' In 1M3 ho 
had completed the first volume of * Modern Painters, by a GvtMhuito 
of Oxford/ His father failed to induce John Murray to issue it on cominiH- 
sion. The offer was repeated at Cornhill, where it was accepted with alacrity, 
and thus was inaugurated Buskin's thirty years' close personal oonnocstion 
with Smith, Elder, & Co., and more especially with George Smith, ou whotio 
shoulders the whole responsibilities of the firm were soon to fall, 

The public were slow in showing their appreciation of Buskin's 
earliest book. Of the five hundred copies printed of the first edition of 
the first volume of ' Modern Painters,' only 105 were disposed of within tho 
year. Possibly there were other causes besides public indifference for thiw 
comparative failure. Signs were not wanting at the moment that, ambilioiw 
and enlightened as were many of the young firm's publishing ontorpriHOH, 
they suffered in practical realisation from a lack of strict businoHH nmthod 
which it was needful to supply, if the publishing department was to aohiovo 
absolute success. The heads of the firm were too busily absorbed in thoii* 
rapidly growing Indian business to give close attention to the puhlmhin^* 
branch; managers had been recently chosen to direct it, and had not provrd 
sufficiently competent to hold their posts long. Salvation was at hand within 
the office from a quarter in which the partners had not thought to soak it* 
A predilection for the publishing branch of the business was already declaring 
itself in young Smith, as well as a practical insight into business method 
which convinced him, boy though he was, that some reorganisation wan 
desirable. With a youthful self-confidence, which, contrary to common 
experience, events showed to be justifiable, he persuaded his father Into in 
1843 a few months after the issue of the first volume of ' Modern Palntora/ 
and when he was in his twentieth year to allow him to assume, temporarily 
at any rate, control of the publishing department. Under cauliouB con- 
ditions his father acceded to his wish, and Smith at once accepted for 
publication a collection of essays by various writers on well-known literary 
people, edited by the somewhat eccentric and impracticable author of 
* Orion/ Bichard Hengist Horne. The enterprise called forth all Smith 'H 
energies. Not only did he supervise the production of the work, which 
was adorned by eight steel engravings, but, in constant interviews with tho 
author, he freely urged alterations in the text which he doomed notxlful 
to conciliate public taste. The book appeared, in February 1844, in two 
volumes, with the title 'The New Spirit of the Age/ and Smith had tho 
satisfaction of securing for his firm fair pecuniary profit from this his uarlicmt 
publication. Another edition was reached in July. His second publinMng 
venture was from the pen of a somewhat miscellaneous practitioner in litera- 
ture, Mrs. Baron Wilson, who had contributed to Mm Sheridan's ' Dindum * 



Memoir of George Smith 



as well as to ' Friendship's Offering.' For her he published, also in 1844 
(in June), another work in two volumes, * Our Actresses, or Glances at Stage 
Favourites Past and Present,' with five engravings in each volume, including 
portraits of Miss O'Neill, Miss Helen Faucit, and Mrs* Charles Kean. His 
third literary undertaking in the first year of his publishing career was of 
more permanent interest ; it was Leigh Hunt's ' Imagination and Fancy*' 
* It was characteristic of Smith's whole life as a publisher that lie was 
never content to maintain with authors merely formal business relations. 
From boyhood the personality of writers of repute deeply interested him, 
and that interest never diminished at any point of his career. In early 
manhood he was rarely happier than in the society of authors of 
all degrees of ability. With a city clork of literary leanings, Thomas 
Powell, 1 he was as a youth on friendly terms, and at Powell's house at 
Pockham he was first introduced to, or *camo to hear of, many rising men 
of letters. It was there that he first met Home, and afterwards Koberfc 
Browning. It was there that he -found the manuscript of Leigh Hunt's 
'Imagination and Fancy/ and at once visited the author in Edwardos 
Square, Kensington, with a generous offer for the rights of publication which 
was immediately accepted. Thenceforth Leigh Hunt was a valued literary 
acquaintance, and Smith published for him a whole library of attractive 
essays or compilations. Another house at which he was a frequent guest 
at this early period was that of Buskin's father at Denmark Hill Powell 
introduced him to a small convivial club, called the Museum Club, which 
met in a street off the Strand. Douglas Jerrold and Father Prout were 
prominent members. There he first made the acquaintance of George 
Henry Lewes, who became a lifelong associate, The club, however, fell 
into pecuniary difficulties, from which Smith strove in vain to relieve U, 
and it quickly dissolved, 

The grim realities of life were soon temporarily to restrict Smith's oppor- 

* tunities of recreation. Towards the end of 1844 a grave calamity befell his 
family, His father's health failed ; softening of the brain declared itself ; and 
recovery was Been to be hopeless. The elder Smith removed from Denmark 
Hfll to Boxhill, whore he acquired some eight to ten acres of land, and 
developed a lively interest in farming. But ho was unable to attend to the 

- work of the firm, and his place at Oornhill was taken by his son very soon 
after ho came of age in 1845. On 8 May 1846 George Smith was admitted 
by patrimony a freeman of the Stationers' Company, and little more than 
three months later his father died, at the age of fifty-seven (21 Aug. 1846), 
Thereupon the whole responsibility of providing for his mother, his young 
Brothers and sisters, devolved upon him, 

In 1849 Powell emigrated to Amerioa, where he became a professional man o* letters, 
and published some frankly Ul-natured sketches 01 miter* he had met, under tho titta of 
Living Authors o* England j" this was followed by < Hying Author* o* America,' (tot 
Bcrios, 1650). 



Memoir of George Smith 



of war. On one occasion Smith was able to answer the challenge of a 
scoffer who thought to name an exceptional article of commerce a human 
skeleton which it would be beyond his power to supply, by displaying in his 
oflico two or three waiting to be packed for transit, 

Smith's absorption in the intricate details of the firm's general 
operations prevented him from paying close attention to the minutioa of the 
publishing department ; but the fascination that it exerted on him never slept, 
and he wisely brought into the office one who was woll qualified to give him 
li torary counsel, and could be trusted to keep the department faithful to the best 
traditions of English publishing, His choice fell on William Smith Williams, 
who for nearly thirty years acted as his * reader ' or literary adviser. The 
circumstances under which he invited Williafias's co-operation illustrate 
the accuracy with which ho measured men and their qualifications* At the 
time the two met, Williams was clerk to Hullmandol & Walter, a firm of litho- 
graphers who were working for Smith, Elder, & Co* on Darwin's * The Voyage 
of H.M.S. Beagle/ On assuming the control of the Oornhill business Smith 
examined with Williams the somewhat complicated accounts of that under- 
taking* After very brief intercourse he perceived that Williams was an 
incompetent bookkeeper, but had exceptional literary knowledge and judg- 
ment. No time was lost in inducing Williams to enter the service of Smith, 
Elder, <fe Co., and the arrangement proved highly beneficial and congenial to 
both. 1 But Smith delegated to nono the master's responsibility in any branch 

1 William Smith Williams (1800-1875) played a useful part behind the scones of the 
theatre o nineteenth-century Utornturo. Ho was by nature too modest to gain any wide 
recognition, Ho began active life In 1817 as apprentice to tho publishing firm of Taylor & 
Hoflwoy of Pleat Street, who published writings oil Charles Lamb, Coleridge, and Koats, and 
became in 1821 proprietora of tho * London Magazine, 7 Williams cherished from boyhood 
a genuine! love of literature, and received much kindly notice from eminent writers associated 
with Taylor <& IToflBoy. Besides Keats, he oame to know Loigh Hunt and William Hasslitt. 
Marrying at twenty-live ho opened a bookshop on his own account in n court near tho Poultry, 
but inBuilleiont capital compelled him to relinquish this venture in 18*27, when he entered 
the oounting-houflo of tho lithographic printers, Hullmandd <fc Walter, where Smith mot 
him. At that time ho was devoting 1m leisure to articles on litorary or theatrical topics for tho 
* Bpootator, 1 * Athonamm,' and other weekly papers. During tho thirty years that ho spent 
in Smith's employ ho won, by his sympathetic criticism and kindly courtesy, the cordial 
regard of many distinguished authors whoRo works Smith, Blder, & Co. published* The 
paternal conn id oration that he showed to Charlotte Bronto is well known ; it is fully described 
in Mrs, Gaskell'a * Life ' of Miss Bronte*. ' He was my first favourable critic,' wrote Charlotte 
BrontB in December 1847 ; * ho first gave me encouragement to persevere as an author/ 
When flho flrat saw him at Cornhill in 1848, she described him as ' a pale, mild, stooping 
man of fifty.' Subsequently she thought him too much given to ' contemplative theorising,* 
and possessed by 'too many abstractions/ With Thackoray, Buskin, and Lowes ho wag 
always on very friendly terms* During his association with Smith ho did $o independent 
literary work beyond helping to prepare for the Arm, in 1861, a * Selection from tho Writings 
of John Buskin*' He was from youth a warm admirer of Buskin, sharing especially his 
enthusiasm for Turner, Williams retired from Smith, Elder, <fe Co.'s business in February 
1875, and died six months later, aged 75, at his residence at Twickenham (21 Aug.) His 
oldest daughter was the wife of Mr. Lowes Dickinson, the well-known portrait painter ; and 
his youngest daughter, Miss Anna Williams, achieved distinction as a singer* 

a2 



XX 



Memoir of George Smith 



of the business, and, though publishing negotiations wore thenceforth ofl,<m 
initiated by Williams, there were few that were not concluded personally by 
Smith. 

For some time after he became sole owner and manager at Gornhill Smith 
felt himself in no position to run large risks in the publishing department. 
A cautious policy was pursued ; but fortune proved kind It wart necosnary 
to carry to completion those great works of scientific travel by Sir Andruw 
Smith, Hinds, and Darwin, the publication of which had boon not only con- 
tracted for, but was actually in progress during Smith's pupilage. Tho firm 
had also undertaken the publication of a magnwn opus oE Mr John Ibmehol 

his ' Astronomical Observations made at the Capo of Good TIopo '- -towurdrt 

the expense of which the Duke of Northumberland had offered 1,000/, Tho 
work duly appeared in 1846 in royal quarto, with eighteen plattw, at tho prion 
of four guineas. A like obligation incurred by tho firm in earlier days WUH 
fulfilled by the issue, also in 1846, of the naturalwt Hugh Iftilconor't* ' Muuw 
Antiqua Sivalensis,' Nine parts of this important work were wmuwl at a 
guinea each in the course of the three years 1846 9. In IH'lfi, too, Hunldu 
completed the second volume of his * Modern Painters/ of which an tuUUun 
of 1,500 copies was issued ; and in 1849 Smith brought out tho mmoml of 
Buskin's great prose works, 'The Seven Lamps of Arohitiwturn,' which 
was the earliest of Buskin's books that was welcomed with practical warmth 
on its original publication- 

In fiction the chief author with whom Smith in tho first years of MB reign 
at Gornhill was associated was the grandiloquent writer of blood-curdling ro- 
mance, G. P. E. James, In 1844 Smith, Elder, & Co, had begun an ulitboratci 
collected edition of his works, of which they issued eleven volumes by 1H47, 
ten more being undertaken by another firm. Unhappily Smith, 331ttr, & (Jo. 
had also independently entered into a contract with James to publish evnry 
new novel that he should write ; 600J. was to be paid for the first million of 
1,250 copies. The arrangement lasted for four years, and then Bank honoath 
its own weight. The firm issued two novels by James in each of the yuurH 
1845, 1846, 1847, and no less than three in 1848. Each work wan In thww 
volumes, at the customary price of 31$. 6d. ; so that between 1846 and 1B4B 
Smith offered the public twenty-seven volumes from James's pen at a total 
cost to the purchasers of thirteen and a half guineas* James's fertility wau 
clearly greater than the public approved. Tho publisher requeued him to 
set limits to his annual output. He indignantly declined, but Smith per- 
sisted with success in his objections to the novelist's interpretation of tho 
original agreement, and author and publisher parted company* In 184H Smith 
issued a novel by his friend, George Henry Lewes, entitled i Bose, Blunoho, 
and Violet. 1 Although much was expected from it, nothing eamo. 

While the tragi-comedy of James was in its last stage, Smith became the 
hero of a publishing idyll which had the best possible effect on his reputation 
as a publisher and testified at the same time to his genuine kindness of heart. 
Eew episodes in the publishing history of the nineteenth century are of higher 
interest than the story of his association with Charlotte BrontS, In July 



Memoir of George Smith 



1847 Williams called Smith's attention to a manuscript novel entitled ' The 
Professor/ which had boon sent to the firm by an author writing under the 
name of * Ourrer Bell/ The manuscript showed signs of having vainly sought 
the favour of other publishing houses. Smith and his assistant recognised 
tlie promise of tho work, but neither thought it likely to be a successful 
publication. While refusing it, however, they encouraged the writer in 
kindly and appreciative terms to submit another effort. The manuscript of 
* Jane Eyre ' arrived at Oornhill not long afterwards. Williams read it and 
handed it to Smith. The young publisher was at onco fascinated by its sur- 
passing power, and purchased the copyright out of hand. He always 
regarded tho manuscript, which ho retained, as tho most valued of his literary 
treasures. Ho lost no time in printing it, and in 1848 the reading world re- 
cognised that he had introduced to its notice a novel of abiding fame. Later 
in 1848 i Shirley/ by i Ourrer Boll/ was also sent to Oornhill. So far * Gutter 
Boll ' had conducted the corroHpontloucc with tho firm as if the writer wore a 
man, but Smith shrewdly suspected that the name was a woman's pseudonym, 
His suspicions were confirmed in the summer of 1848, when Charlotte 
Bronte, accompanied by her sister Anno, presented herself without warning at 
Cornhill in order to explain some misunderstanding which she thought had 
arisen in the negotiations for the publication of * Shirley/ From the date of 
the authoress's shy and unceremonious introduction of herself to him at his 
office desk until her premature death some sevon years later, Smith's personal 
relations with her woro characterised by a delightfully unaffected chivalry. 
On their first visit to Oornhill he took Miss Bronte and her sister to the 
opera tho same evening. Smith's mother made their acquaintance next day, 
and thoy twice dined at her rosi donee, then at 4 Wostbourne Place. Miss 
Bronte frankly confided to a friend a day or two later her impressions of her 
publisher-host. * He is a firm, intelligent man of business, though so young 
[ho was only twenty f our] ; bont on getting on, and I think desirous of making 
his way by fair, honourable means. He is enterprising, but likewise cool 
and cautious* Mr* Smith is a practical man/ l 

On this occasion tho Bisters stayed in London only throe days. But next 
year, in November 1849, Miss BrontS was tho guest of Smith's mother 
at Wostbourno Place for nearly three) weeks. She visited the London sights 
under Smith's guidance ; he asked Thackeray, whoso personal acquaintance 
he does not BOOTH to have made previously, to dine with him in order to 
satisfy her ambition of mooting tho groat novelist, whose work aroused in her 
tho warmest onthusiafltn. On returning to Haworth in December she wrote 
to Smith : * Very easy is it to discover that with you to gratify others m to 
gratify yourself ; to servo others is to afford yourself a pleasure, I suppose 
you will experience your share of ingratitude and encroachments, but do not 
lot them alter you, Happily they are the lees- likely to do this because you arc 
half a Scotchman, and therefore must have inherited a fair share of prudouce 
to qualify your generosity, and of caution to protect your benevolence,' a 



1 'Comhitt MtfcgassiB, 1 December 1900 ; ot Ga$keir& 'XafaJ od* Shorter, p 808 ** 
GtaakoU'i ' Life,' cd. Shorter, p. m 



Memoir of George Smith 



Another visit a fortnight long followed in June 1850, Stnilh luul tltnu 
removed with his mother to 76 (afterwards 112) Gloucowtor Tumuio. Mm 
Bronte renewed her acquaintance with Thackeray, who Invited hor and Iu*r 
host to dine at his own house, and she met Lewes under Smith's roof, HoForo 
she quitted London on this occasion she sat to Goorgo Richmond for bur 
portrait at the instance of her host, who gratified hot: fathor by jmwmitintf 
him with the drawing together with an engraving of his ami bin thiutfhtor'a 
especial hero, the Duke of Wellington. Next month, in July 18/30, Smith 
made with a sister a tour in the highlands of Scotland, and bo alwayn 
remembered with pride a friendly meeting that bofoll him on tho jouwny with 
Macaulay, who was on his way to explore G-lencoc and KiUiocrankia At M<l iu- 
burghhe and his sister were joined on his invitation by M.IHH Bronlo, ami thny 
devoted a few days to visiting together sites of intorost in tho cdty and ii,n 
neighbourhood, much to Miss Bronte's satisfaction, She Imvollotl Htwth with 
them, parting from them in Yorkshire for her homo at liaworlh. 1 For a 
third time she was her sympathetic publisher's guowii in London, in Juno 
1851, when she stayed a month with his mother, and bo took hr to hnar 
Thackeray's 'Lectures on the Humourists' at Willing itooniH. In a Infctor 
addressed to Smith, on arriving home, she dosoribod him an * tho tmmt H]>iritii 
and vigilant of publishers/ In November 18C2 MIHB Bwntti Hunt to tlm 
firm her manuscript of 'Villette,' in which sho clrow hor portrait* of Bmit.b 
in the^ spundhearted, manly, and sensible Dr, John, wliik) hfo matlur wan 
the original of Mrs. Bretton. In January 1853 MIBB Brouiu viHitod Htuith 
and his family for the last time, They continued to corroHpond with uaoh 
other till near her premature death on 31 March 1805, 

An interesting result of Smith's personal and profoflflional relation* with 
Charlotte Bronte was to make him known to such wrikra an woro hor MondiB 
notably to Harriet Martineau and to Mrs. GaHkoll, for both of whom ho 
subsequently published much. But more important IB it to roocml thitt 
Charlotte Bronte was a main link in the chain that drow a writer at ffoniux 
far greater even than her own Thackeray himsolf into Snntb'n hliitory and 
into the history of his firm. In the late autumn of 1850, after tho iutenilmmfo 
of hospitalities which Miss Bronte's presence in London hod prompted, 
Thackeray asked Smith for the first time to publish a book for him, bin 
Itwasahum o^B sketch, with drawings byhimnulf, 

U n the Ehina> Th ^ k ^^ 

$UCCeS8ful with 

-Beboooa and Bowona,* wd 



to t eoooa an owona, w ttiuj 

deprecated the issue of mother that year. Smith had from early days, mnci 
he read the 'Pans Sketchbook' by stealth in Tegg's sale rooms, oLinbll 

^f*^z ^ and ** had been a y uthful W ^ 

-r UlamS had u b hi8 behalf made a ^ bid * Vanity 
Smith now purchased the copyright of 'The Xiokleburv/' 



tt*toh 
thousand. Though it was heavily bombarded by the ' Times/ it prowl 

1 Mrs, (feMl'i ' Life of Charlotte BrcmtV eel. Shorter. m . 460 * 



Memoir of George Smith 



successful and at once reached a second edition. 1 In 1851, when Smith hoard 
that Thackeray was engaged on a now work of importance which proved to 
be ' Esmond ' he called at his house in Young Street, Kensington, and 
offered him what was then the handsome sum of 1,2002. for the right of issuing 
tho first edition of 2,500 copies. 2 Thenceforth he was on close terms of 
intimacy with Thackeray. He was often at his house, and showed as tender a 
consideration for the novelist's young daughters as for himself. ' Esmond ' 
appeared in 1852 and was the first of Thackeray's novels to be published 
in the regulation trio of half-a-guinoa volumes. Just before its publication, 
when Thackeray was preparing to start on a lecturing tour in. America, 
Smith, with kindly thought, commissioned Samuel Laurence to drnw 
Thackeray's portrait, so that his daughters might have a competent present- 
ment of him at homo during his absence. Before Thackeray's return Smith 
published his * Lectures on the English Humourists,* and, in order to make 
the volume of more presentable sitfo, added elaborate notes by Thackeray's 
friond James Hannay, In December 1854 Smith published the best known ol 
Thackeray's ChriBtmas books, ' Tho Kose and the Bing.' * 



III 

Meanwhile Smith's private and business life alike underwent important 
change. Tho pressure of constant application was, in 1853, tolling on his 
health, and ho resolved to share his responsibilities with a partner. Henry 
Samuel King, a bookseller of Brighton, whoso bookBolling establishment JB 
still carried on there by Troachor & Co., camo to Cornhill to aid in the general 
superintendence and to receive a quarter share of the profits* His previous 
experience naturally gave him a particular interest in the publishing depart- 
mont. On 3 July 1B03 Charlotte Bronto wrote to Smith : ' 1 hope your partner 
Mr. King will Boon acquire a working faculty and loavo you some leisure and 
opportunity effectually to cultivate health/ At tho same data Smith became 
engaged to Hlixabotih) tho daughter of John Blakoway, a wine merchant of 
London, and granddaughter of Edward Blakoway, esq,, of Brosoloy Hall, 
Shropshire. Tho marriage took place on 11 Fob, 1804, For four yearB ho 
and hig wife lived at 112 Gloucester Torraco, where he had formerly roBided 
with MB mother. SubHoquontly they spent some timo at Wimbledon, and at 
tho end of 1HC9 they Hottlod at 11 Gloucester Square. 

Smith folt> from tho outnoti that tho prcsonoo of a partner at Oornhill 
hampered his indopondouco, but it relieved him of some labour and sot him 

* * Tho TCieldoburys ' boro or* tho titlo-pago tho actual year of publication! i,o. 1RBO. 
Thaolwvay'H tiarliw awl later ChmttuuH bookft wor each poBt-datod by a ywir. Thug 
'llcboooa and Kowuna,* which boai'H tho dato 1B50, wa published in Dooombov 1H40. 

* 01 Mrs. Jtltohio's * Ohaptor from some Memoirs," 1H?)4, p, 1BO. 

* Thackeray waft not yot, howovor, exoluaivoly i<lantifio<l with Bmith, Eldor, $ Co. 'The 
Nowcotium ' in 185;$ 5, a oolloctod edition of MiHoullancouB Writings in 1B55-7 (4 voln.), and 
* TJUe VirgiuiauB,' 18574), wore all iytjuod by Bradbury & E vana. 



Memoir of George Smith 



free to entertain new developments of business. One of his early hopua wan 
to become proprietor of a newspaper, and during 1854 ho listonod with much 
interest to a suggestion made to him by Thackeray that the novolint nhould 
edit a daily sheet of general criticism after the manner of Add-on and Stoolo's 
' Spectator ' or ' Tatler.' The sheet was to be called * Fair Play/ WUB to dual 
with literature as well as life, and was to be sorupulouBly frank and juHt in 
comment. But, as the discussion on the subject advanced, Thaokowy foami 
to face the responsibilities of editorship, and Smith was loft to dovolnp tho 
scheme for himself at a later period. Newspapers ot moro utilitarian typo 
were, however, brought into being by him and his firm before tho notion of 
'Pair Play ' was quite dropped, In 1855 Smith, Elder, & Go, Rtnrt.ocl a wwkly 
periodical called ' The Overland Mail/ of which Mr. (aftorwarcln Hit') John Kayo 
became editor. It was to supply home information toroadorn m India, Noxt 
year a complementary periodical was inaugurated under tho title of * Tho Homo- 
ward Mail/ which was intended to offer Indian DOWH to rcadortt in tho IJuitwl 
Kingdom. ' The Homeward Mail ' was placed in tho charge of M B, Kkwtwwk, 
the orientalist. The two editors were already associated an authorn with tho 
firm. Both papers were appreciated by the clients of the firm's agency and 
banking departments, and are still in existence. 

In order to facilitate the issue of these ' Mails * Smith, EMor, ft C!o, 
acquired for the first time a printing office of thoir own, Thoy took wtir 
premises in Little Green Arbour Court, Old Bailey, which had boon occupied 
by Stewart & Murray, a firm of printers whose partners wore roluAivtw of Mr. 
Elder. The house had been the home of Goldsmith, and Smith wan inuoh 
interested in that association. Until 1872, when tho printing oHiou wan 
made over to Messrs, Spottiswoode & do,, a portion o Smith, Klctor, & Co/ 
general literary work was printed at their own press, 

In 1857 the progress of the firm received a temporary ohook. Tim 
outbreak of the Indian mutiny dislocated all Indian buninoAB, and Smith, 
Elder, <fe Co.'s foreign department suffered sovorely, Gunw and ammunition 
were the commodities of which their clients in India than stood ehiufly in mtud, 
and they were accordingly sent out in amplo quantities. Jacob' 11 WHO and 
Hodson's Horse were both largely equipped from Garahilt, and tho otarkn 
there had often little to do beyond oiling and packing rovoivurs, It wtui H 
time of graye anxiety for the head of the firm, Tho telegraph winw wort) 
constantly bringing him distressing news of the murder of the firm'** eliimtn, 
many of whom were personally known to him, Tho maBBaora in India alno 
meant pecuniary loss. Accounts were left unpaid, and it was Olffloult to 
determine the precise extent of outstanding debts that would nmw bo 
discharged. But Smith's sanguine and resourceful tamper enabled him to 
weather the storm, and the crisis passed without permanent injury to his 

n ;n IT 6 ^ maging to the >*&*> interests of Smith, 

Elder <fe Co. was the transference of the government of Info in 1858 from 
the old company to the crown. Many of the materials for public work 
which private firms had supplied to the old East India Company 
officers were now provided by the new India office without the 



Memoir of George Smith xxv 



of agents ; and the operations of Smith, Elder, & Co/s Indian branch had 
to seek other channels than of old. 

The publishing department invariably afforded Smith a means of dis- 
traction from the pressure of business cares elsewhere. Its speculative 
character, which MB caution and sagacity commonly kept within reasonable 
limits of safety, appealed to one sido of his nature, while the social Intimacies 
which the work of publishing fostered appealed strongly to another side. 
The rapid strides made in public favour by Buskin, whose greatest works 
Smith published between 1850 and 1860, wore an unfailing source of 
satisfaction. In 1850 ho had produced Bunkin's fanciful 'King of the 
Golden Eivor,* Next year came the first volume of ' Stones of Yenioe, 1 
the pamphlets on * The Construction of Sheepfolds/ and ' Pre-Ikphaelitism,' 
and the portfolio of 'Examples of the Architecture of Venice/ The 
two remaining volumes of ' Stones of Venice * followed in 1853, In 1854 
appeared ' Lectures on Architecture and Painting/ with two pamphlets ; and 
then began the ' Notes on the Boyal Academy/ which were continued each 
year till 1859. In 1856 came the elaborately illustrated third and fourth 
volumes of * Modern Painters ; * in 1857, ' Elements of Drawing/ ' Political 
Economy of Art/ and * Notes on Turner's Pictures ; ' in 1858, an engraving by 
IIoll of Hiohraond's drawing of Buskin ; in 1859, * The Two Paths/ ' Elements 
of Perspective/ and the ' Oxford Museum ; ' and in 1860, the fifth and final 
volume* of ' Modern Painters/ The larger books did not have a rapid sale, 
but many of the cheaper volumes and pamphlets sold briskly. It was at 
Buskin's expanse, too, that Smith prepared for publication the first volume 
that was written by Buskin's friend, Dante Gabriel Bossotti, * The Early 
Italian Pootn/ 1861. In 1850 Buskin's father proved the completeness of 
his confidence in Smith by presenting him with one of the few copies of 
the volume of his son's ' Poems ' which his paternal pride had caused to be 
printed privatoly, Smith remained through this period a constant visitor at 
the BuHkiuB* houflo at Denmark 11 ill, and there he made the welcome addition 
to hia social circle of a largo number of artists, Of those Hillota became the 
fattiest of Montis; while Lnitfhton, John Looch, Itichard Doyle, (Sir) Frederic 
Burton, and the sculptor Alexander Mouro wore always hold by him in high 
oufawm. 

It wa& at Ruflkin's bouse that Smith was introduced to Wilkie Collins, 
son of a woll-kuown iwtrat. IIu iloolinod to publish Collins's first story, 
* Antonina/ booauHQ tho topic Roomofl too classical for general tasto, and ho 
neglected somu yuars later to truat quite gorioudy Collins's offer of hia 
1 Woman in White/ with tho nmilt that a profitable investment was missed; 
but in 1 850 he aecoptod tho volume* of short Hlorios called * After Dark/ and 
thus began buHhumu relations with Collins which lasted intermittently for 
noftrty twunty yoitr, 

In tho lato JifLiea Oharlotto Bronl8' Introduotion of Smith to Harriet 
Wiwtiuwwi boru praotlcal fnrit. In IHflB }\ isBuml a new edition of her 
novl ' Dewbrook, 1 & wull m her ' StiggoBtionR towards the future Govern- 
ment of India/ These wore followed by pamphlets respectively on tho 



XXVI 



Memoir of George Smith 



Endowed Schools of Ireland' and 'England and her floldiora,' and in . 
bv her well-known 'Household Education.' Subfloqnmttly h pul.l 
her autobiography, the greater part of which sho had o.wl to IK, put, n.to 
tvpe and to be kept in readines3 for circulation as soon RH hur dmlh ulu.uU 
take place. The firm also undertook the publication o tho many tnwta an<l 
pamphlets in which William Ellis, the zealous disciple* of John hUuui Mill, 
urged improved methods of education during tho middle ywrH of lh wrtilury. 
To a like category belonged Madame Venturi's triuwlation of MIUMIIII H 
works which Smith, Elder, & Co. issued in six volumes boUvwm JHCM mill 

1870 

At the same period as he became Miss Martineau'* publisher tluwt Ix'tfan 
Smith's interesting connection with Mrs. Gaskell, which wan likhwmu duo 
to Charlotte Bronte. Late in 1855 Mrs, GaskoU sot to work, at tho wqtmwt of 
Charlotte Bronte's father, on his daughter's life. Sho filoanod many partum- 
lars from Smith and his mother, and naturally roquoHtud him to publwh tho 
book, which proved to be one of the best biographic in tho lantfuatfw, But 
its publication (in 1857) involved him in unwonted anxiottim. Mro. tiankuH 
deemed it a point of conscience to attribute, for roaHonw that H!U> K'IWO in dotiul, 
the ruin of Miss Bronte's brother Branwoll to tho inaohinnUoiiH of a^latly, to 
whose children he had acted as tutor. As soon as Smith luarwni M r, (laHknll'H 
intention he warned her of the possible consoqiumcoB. Tho wanting paHHtid 
unheeded. The offensive particulars appeared in tho bio^mpUy, iuul p an HUOU 
as it was published, an action for libol was tlmuUouotl Mtu (lankoll wan 
travelling in France at the moment, and her addruBB wa unknown* Hinith 
bvestigated the matter for himself, and, perceiving that Mr. (laHkiill'H HtitUi- 
ments were not legally justifiable, withdrew tho book from airaulatiwu In 
later editions the offending passages wore supproHHod. Bir Jaimm HU^thon, 
on behalf of friends of the lady whoso character waw anporHod, U>ok twt in 
the negotiations, and on their conclusion handsomely ooiumuudud ' 

conduct. 



IV 

In the opening months of 1859 Smith turned his attention to an anlircriy 
new publishing venture. He then laid the foundations of tho ' (lortihill 
Magazine/ the first of the three groat literary edifices which ho roared by tun 
own effort. It was his intimacy with Thackeray that led Smith to <mtaUiiflh 
the * Cornhill Magazine.' The periodical originally was cloHiguwi with tho 
sole object of offering the public a novel by Thackeray m Htmal inHtaimoutH 
combined with a liberal allowance of other first-rate literary matter, hi 
February 1859 Smith offered Thackeray tho liberal terms of 350l for a monthly 
instalment of a novel, which was to bo completed in twelve numbers. Tha 
profits on separate publication of the work, after the first edition, wwro to 
be equally divided between author and publisher* Thackeray agrawl to 
these conditions ; but it was only after Smith had failed m wieu$ qu^rtyri* to 



Memoir of George Smith 



secure a fitting editor for the now venture- Tom Hughes was among those 
who wore invited and declinedthat ho appealed to Thackeray to fill the 
editorial chair. Ho proponed a salary of J.,GO(M. a year, Thackeray con- 
sented to take tho pent on the mulorntatuling that Smith should assist him 
in buBiuoHB details, Thackeray ohritonod tho periodical 'The GornhilT 
aftor itat publiBhing homo, and ehono for its cover the familiar design by 
Godfrey BykoH, a South Kensington art student. The 'Comhiir was 
launched ou 1 Jan. 1800. The firnt number reached a Halo of one hundred 
and twenty thousand copioH. Although BO vast a circulation was not main- 
tained, the magazine for many yearn enjoyed a jn'OHpority that was without 
precedent in tho annaln of MngHijh periodical publications* 

Thaekeray'n fame and gimiun rendered Horvieus to tho ' Oornhill ' that aro 
not iMwy to oxiiRKorato. lie wa not merely editor, but by far tho hrgont 
contributor, Uonidtw hiw novol of * Lovul tho Widower/ which ran through 
tho early uumborH, lie nupplied each month a delightful 'Roundabout Paper,* 
which wftH dtwrvwily paid at the high rate of twelve guineas a page, But 
identified an Tliackemy wan with tho HUCCOHB of tho 'CombiH' - an idontifioa- 
tion which Smith acknowledged by doubling his editorial wdory Thackeray 
would havo boon tho firnt to admit that the practical triumphs of tho enterprise 
were largely tho fwita of the energy, rcmouroofulnoBB, and liberality oJ! tho 
proprietor* Thoro wan no writer of otnineuco, there was hardly an artist 
ol dintin^uHhod merit (for the inaftoxmo waw richly iliutttratod), whoBo 
coop(.ration Hnnth, when planning with Thackeray the early numbers, did 
not Honk, of ton in a pomonal intiirviow, ou torm of exceptional muuifioonoo. 
AnnociateH of earlier date, like John Hunk in and George Henry LOWOB among 
authora, and Millain, Ijtrt^hton, and Kiuhard ])oyle among artists, were 
nwiuiHitionod m a mattor of ooumi. Lewen was an indefatigable contributor 
from tho ntark Ktmkin wrote a paper on ' Sir Jonhua and Holbein ' for tho 
third nuiuhor, but UuHkiu'H Hul)Hoyuont partiuipaiion brought homo to Smith 
and hm editor the pernonal uiuharniBttiuuntH inevitable iu tho conduct of a 
poj)ular maga*;ina by an editor and a publlnhor, botli of whom wore rich in 
eminent literary Wo<I. When, later in the first year, HuBkin sent for serial 
IBHUO a treating oti |K>litIoal economy! otititied ' Unto this Last/ his doctrino 
wan HOOU to ba too deeply tainted with soctaliBtic heresy to conoiliato 
subtiorlbora. Smith publinhed four artiolos and than informed tho author 
that tho editor could accept no more, Smith afterwards i$suod * Unto this 
Lawt' in a Boparato volumo, but tho forcod ooBHation of tho papers in tho* 
magatfino impaired tho old cordiality of intercourse between author and 
pubiUhor. 

Tho magassino noooBBarily brought Smith into rolations with many notaV)le 
writom and artiBtu of whom ho had known little or nothing before. lie 
vifllUid Tonnynon and offtired him 6flQQL for a poem of tho length of tho 
* Idylls of tho King/ This was declined, but * Tithonus ' appeared in tho 
second number. Another poot, a friand of Thackeray, who first oamo into 
relations with Smith through the 'Oorahlil, 1 was Mrs. Browning, whono 
God Piua, 1 illustratod by Leighton, adorned tho Bevonth number (July 



XXV111 



Memoir of George Smith 



I860). The artist, Frederick Walker, who was afterwards on intimate tnrms 
with Smith, casually called at the office as a lad and aftkod for work on tho 
magazine. His capacities were tested without delay, and ho ilhiHtrntotl 
the greater part of 'Philip/ the second novel that Thaokoray wroto for tho 
' Cornnill.' It was Leighton who suggested to Smith that ho nhould givo a 
trial as an illustrator to George Du Maurier, who quickly booamo emu of tho 
literary and artistic acquaintances in whose society ho most cloliKhttui ^ 

Two essayists of different type, although each was oiulowod with diHtino- 
tive style and exceptional insight, Htejames Stophon and MuUlww Arnold, 
were among the most interesting of the early contributors to tho 'OornhilL 1 
Stephen contributed two articles at the end of 1HGO, and Ummgh tho yoaro 
1861-3 wrote as many as eight annually on literary, philosophical, and 
social subjects. 

Matthew Arnold's work for the magazine was of graafc valuo^to^tfl 
reputation. His essay on Eugenie de Gu6rin (Juno 18(58) had tho dtotmotitm 
of bearing at the end the writer's name* That wa.B a dwtinction alniOHt 
unique in those days, for the ' Cornhill ' thon as a rulo joalounly Kuan'tail 
the anonymity of its authors. On 16 Juno 1868 Arnold wroto to bin mothur 
of his Oxford lecture on Heine: ' I have had two application** for Iho looturo 
from magazines, but I shall print it, if I can, im tho "Oornhill," btwauwi it 
both pays best and has much tho largest circle of roadorn. " KugAnio do 
Gu6rin" seems to be much liked.' 1 The lecture on Homo appoanitl in this 
'Cornhill' for October 1863. The hearty -welcome givon hit* artiohw by 
the conductors of the c Cornhill' inspired Arnold with a 'fitmtto of gmtittido 
and surprise. 1 A paper by him entitled * My Countrymen * in Vulwiary IHfiC 
'made a good deal of talk/ There followed his fine looturoK on ' Ooltso 
Literature,' and the articles which wore reiflsuod by Smith, Klt1r A Co. in 
the characteristic volumes entitled respectively ' Culture and Anarchy * (18GB), 
' St. Paul and Protestantism ' (1869), and * Literature and Pofpna * (IH71). 

With both Fitzjames Stephen and Matthew Arnold Smith mahitaitwd 
almost from their first introduction to tho ' Oornhill * oloHC porontl inktr* 
course. He especially enjoyed his intimacy with Matthuw Arnold, wtum<k 
idiosyncrasies charmed him as much as his light-hearted hantur, llu puh- 
lished for Arnold nearly all his numerous prose workfl, and nhowcd avary 
regard for him and his family. While Arnold was residing in tho country &t 
a later period, Smith provided a room for him at his publishing ofliouft In 
Waterloo Place when he had occasion to stay the night in town** 

1 < Letters of M. Arnold,* ed. G. W. E. Busaoll, L 195, 

Of. Arnold's c Letters,' ed. a. W.B. Eussell. On 81 May 1871 Arnold writdR to hbt mothav : 
1 1 have come in to dine with George Smith in order to moot old Charlos I&vttr * (H. Bl) On 
2 Oct. 1874 he writes again : I have been two nighta splendidly put up at K Hmitii'i* 
[residence in South Kensington], and shall be two nights thor noxfc wook* I Jik now to dim 
anywhere rather than at a club, and G, Smith has a capital billiard table, m& ftftor dinittr 
we play bilHards, which I like very much, and it suits me ' (iL 117)* Writing from his horn* 
at Cobham to his sister on 27 Dec. 1386, Arnold notes; Wo wore to Imvt din! with 
the George Smiths at Walton to-night, but can neither go no* telegraph* T& fOftdl ftw 
impassable and the telegraph wires broken * (ii, 360). 



Memoir of George Smith 



Chief among novelists whom the inauguration of tho 'Gornhill Maga- 
zine ' brought permanently to Smith's side was Anthony Trollope, Ilo had 
already made some reputation with novels dealing with clerical life, and whom 
in Octobar 1850 ho offorod his services to Thackeray as a writer of short 
stories ho was then personally unknown to both Smith and Thackcvray ..... ~ 
Smith promptly (on 2(5 Oct.) offorod him 1,0002, for the copyright of a clerical 
novel to run serially from Iho first munber, provided only that the first portion 
should be forwarded by 12 Doc. Trollopo was already engaged on an Irinh 
story, but a clerical novel would alono satisfy Smith* Tn the rewult Trollopo 
began 'Framloy Parsonage, 1 and Smith invited Millais to illustrate it. 
Thackeray courteously accorded the first place in the firnti number (January 
I860) to the initial instalment of Trollopo's novoL Trollopo was long a 
mainstay of the magazine, and his private relations with Smith wore very 
intimate. In Auguwt 1801 he began a second wtory, entitled * The 8trug$l<m of 
Brown, Jones, and Eobinaon/ a humorous satire on the ways of trade, which 
proved a failure. Six hundred pounds was paid for it, but Smith made MO 
complaint, merely remarking to the author that he did not think it equal 
to his usual work, In September 1862 Trollope offered reparation by sending 
to the 'Oornhiir *Tho Small House at AUington/ Finally, in 1800-7, 
Trollopc's 'OlavoringB 1 appeared in the magazine; for this he received 2,80(M- 
1 Whether much or littlo/ Trollope wrote, ' it was offered by the proprietor, 
and paid in a single cheque. 1 When contrasting his experiences as con* 
tributor to other periodicals with those ho enjoyed as contributor to tho 
'Oornhill/ Trollopo wrote, 'What I wrote for the "Cornhili Magaaino" 
I always wrote at the instigation of Mr, Smith.' l 

George Iletiry Lewes had introduced Smith to George Eliot soon after 
thoir union in XH54, Her voieo and conversation always filled Smith with 
admiration, and when tho Lowoflos settled at North Bank in 1808 he was 
rarely absent from hnr Sunday receptions until they ceased at LGWOB'S death 
in 1878. Early in 1862 she road to him a portion of the manuscript of 
'Komola/ and ho gave practical proof of hin faith in her genius by offering 
hew 10,000i, for tho right of iBHuitig the novel serially in the * Oornhill Maga- 
srino/ and of suhrtequont weparato publication, Tlie reasonable condition was 
attached that tho story should first ho distributed over sixtoon nuinbor 
of tho * Oornhill* Guorgo Mliot agreed to the tonne, but embarrassmcmtB 
foilowod. She doomed it necessary to divide the story into twelve parts 
instead of tho stipulated Aixtoon. From a budnass point of view tho ohangu, 
aB tho ttuthoniss frankly acknowledged, amounted to a serious broach of 
contract, but she was deaf to both Smith's and Lowest appeal to hor to 
rospoct tho original agmc^nusnt* She offered, however, in consideration of httr 
obntinacy, to aocupt tho reduced romunomtion of IfiQQL Tho story was not 
completed by tho authoress whim she settled this sorial division* Oltintattsly 
she UiHOOvorod that sho had tniscaloulatod tho length which the Btory would 
roach, and, after all, * Komola ' ran through fourteen numbers of tho magazine 
(July 1802 to August i868). Loighton was chosen by Smith to iUugtralo the 
* Anthony Troilopi 1 ! * A,utob!ogvapby/ 



XXX 



Memoir of George Smith 



story. The whole transaction was not to Smith's pecuniary iitK'ankRo, Imt 
the cordiality of his relations with the authoress romuinod uwshookiwl. II nr 
story of 'Brother Jacob/ which appeared in the ' Cornlrill ' in July IH(M, was 
forwarded to him as a free gift. Afterwards, in 1HGG, hn wmt him tlm 
manuscript of ' Felix Holt,' but after reading it ho did not fool jiwtifiiMJ m 
accepting it at the price of 5,OOOH., which George Eliot, or TJOWOH Hut upon it. 

Meanwhile, in March 1862 the 'Oornhill 1 had Htiflorod a Hovnm blow 
through the sudden resignation of the editor, Thackeray, Ht^ found tho 
thorns in the editorial cushion too sharp-pointed for his HwiHifcivo niU.tnu 
Smith keenly regretted his decision to retire, but whoa Thaekoray took publics 
farewell of his post in a brief article in tlio magassino for April ('To Contri- 
butors and Correspondents/ dated 18 March 1862), tho novolwt ntat.d that, 
though editor no more, he hoped ' long to remain to contribute to my friniul'ti 
magazine.' This hope was realised up to tho momout of Thwskoniy'H 
unexpected death on 23 Dec. 1863, His final ' Roundabout 1'apur * - * Ht-ran^ 
to say on Club Paper ' appeared in the magwaino for tho procmdinR Novoin- 
ber, and he had nearly completed his novel, ' Denis Duval/ which wan U> form 
the chief serial story in the 'Oornhill' during 1804. Nor wan Thaokoray 
the only member of his family who was in those oarly dayn a contributor to 
the magazine. Thackeray's daughter (Mrs. Bichmotid llitohio) bad otwtri- 
buted a paper called ' Little Scholars ' to tho fifth numbor whilu hor father wan 
editor, and in 1862, after his withdrawal, Smith accepted luu 1 novol, ' Tho Blory 
of Elizabeth/ the first of many from the same pen to appear BoriaUy in th 
' Oornhill.' Thackeray's death naturally caused Smith inUmHo pain, Ho at 
once did all he could to aid his friend's daughters* In cotiBultation with thnir 
friends, Herman Merivale, (Sir) Henry Colo, and Ktxjamoa Httsphan, lu> 
purchased their rights in their father's books, and by arrangement with 
Thackeray's other publishers, Chapman & Hall and Bradbury A HvanH, who 
owned part shares in some of his works, acquired tho whole of Thaoktsmy'$ 
literary property. He subsequently, published no loss than Hovon oomplutu 
collections of Thackeray's works in different forms, tho oarlioBt -tho * Library 
Edition ' in twenty-two volumes appearing in 1807-9. Thackeray's daughlom 
stayed with Smith's family at Brighton in the early dayB of thoir Borrow, tuitt 
he was gratified to receive a letter from Thackeray's mother, Mrs, Oarmiohnol 
Smyth, thanking him for his resourceful kindness (24 Aug. 1804). 'I rujoico, 1 
she wrote, 'that such a friend is assured to my grandchildren/ Hor ex- 
pressions were well justified. Until Smith's death thoro subsisted a uloHO 
friendship between him and Thackeray's elder daughter (Mm Bltohio), and 
he was fittingly godfather of Thackeray's granddaughter (Mm llitohiu'0 
daughter). 

On Thackeray's withdrawal from the editorship the office waB tem- 
porarily placed in commission. Smith invited Lewes and Mr. Frudoriak 
Greenwood, a young journalist who had contributed to tho second mimlwr 
a striking paper, 'An Essay without End/ to aid himself in eona^tiiJK tho 
magazine. This arrangement lasted two years, In 1864 Lowes nrimul 
and Mr, Greenwood filled the editorial chair alone until his absorption in 



Memoir of George Smith 



othnr work in 18(38 compelled him to dulufiato inoflt of bin fuuotioiiB to 
Dutton (look, 

A singular and Bomnwhat irritating oxpwioncn bofoll Kmith an proprietor 
in 1869. In April 1808 a goi-wiping artudo oallud * Don Kiuardo* narraUni 
floino advonturoH of '(Somiral Plantatfunot Harmon,' a naino which tlw \vrilor 
boliovud to bo wholly imaginary, hi Juno IHfjy Kmith wan prn<udod 
for libel by ono who actually boro that domination, it HttMioil 
to treat the Kftuvancsn Buricnwly, but tho jury rotiwiod a vnrdiuti for Urn 
plaintiff, and aBBQHBod tho I'lamatftw at GOJ. In March IH71 Mr. Pul.ton (look 
withdrew from tho oditorBhip of tho 4 CornhilL* Thoroupon Mr. Umliu Htnplwu 
booamo editor, and Smith practically loft tho whole tliroetum in thu now 
editor's hands. 

Until Mr. Stophon's actvont Smith hiul oomparativoly raroly loft tli Itolni 
of, hte fascinating vonturo. Ilin oontribntor TroJIopo ahvayn rnaintiunttd that 
throughout tho mxtiem Smith's hand oxoluBtvoIy guitkul tho fortomun of Llto 
'Oorahill/ 1 It was oortainly ho alono who oontrivoti to miouro moHtof thti 
important oontributio?is during tho lator yoani of tho tioowlo. On Thtvokoray'ii 
death he invited Gharlos Dickens to supply for tho February numbor of 1HC4 
an article * In Momoriam. 1 DiokonR promptly aooodod and doolltutd to oouupt 
payment for hie artiolo. It was to Smith ptirHonally that (korgo Kliot prottonttid 
hor story of 'Brother Jacob/ which appoared in July following, A yoar bwfoni, 
ho had undertaken tho publication of two novol> * Hylvia* Lovtirs ' and * A 
Dark Nifilit's Work,' by his acquaintance of oarlior daytt, MJH. GaHkoIl, and at 
tho waino tiino ho tirnu\^o<l for tho worial inniio in tho ma^axum of * Coiwin 
a now novul (18(53-4), aa woll an of hor final novul of * WivoH ami 
Tho lant bi i ^an in Atigtmt 1H(J4 and ondtsd in January IHfMl 
"Witli tho Hum of 2,00()/. which wan paid for tho work. Mm ClaHkoll purchamjd 
a country IIOUHO at J 1 oly bonrno, nuar Alton, whoru, boforo ho had <>ojnplut<sd tho 
inanuwsript of hor Htory, 8bo diod Hudd(nly on 12 Nov, IHO/i. Tho mlatinim 
omtintf b(twotni Hniith and Mrn (iaHkitll and hordatighturB at thotiuui of hor 
tl(Mith woro of tho f riondlitwt, and hiHfrlondHhip with tho dai^htorH proved lifo- 
lontf, AH in tlu oaHoof Tliackt^ray'H work, ho noon purohaHotl tho copy righto of 
all Mrw. ClaHfailVB boolw, and SHHIUH! many attractive* colluotioim of lluun, I lo was 
alno rt^pouHiblo for tho Burial a])poaranoo in tho * Cornhill " of Wilfcio CollinH'H 
* Arnuwlalo/ which wan continuod tftrough tho oxonptiOTial nuntbor of twenty 
partH (Nov<nnbor ,18(54 to Juno 180(5); of MIHH Thaokoray'n 'Villagu on thti 
(ItinV which appoarod in 1W5C-7; of throo Btoritm by (Jharlnn hovur-- 'Tho 
BramtotghB of JMnhop'H liVlly/ 'That Boy of NoroottV d * Lord Kil- 
gobbin 'which followed each othor in almost unintorrnptod mtoooMHiou 
through tho magiMino from 18(57 to JH72 ; of Charlun lioado'H * Put youmilf 
in his Haoo,' whloh wiw oonnnonood in J8Q9; and of Goorgo Morodith'u 
' Advonturoa of Harry liiohmond/ which htigan in 1870. 

Most of thoBO wriksrn wuro tho publinhurV pornonal triondK. Altliou^h 

Roado*H iKHfltorous porHonality did not aito^othor attmct Smith in privaUt lifo 

ho was fully alivo to his trattftpamnt nincurity* Apart from tho Uittgaiuu t ho 

1 Anthony TroUopo'n * Autobiogmtfhy, 1 ii. 



Memoir of George Smith 



transacted much publishing business with Wilkie Collins and with MIHB 
Thackeray (Mrs. Ritchie). He published (separately from the matfasdno) all 
Miss Thackeray's novels. For a time he took ovor WilkJo Oolliim'H hookn, 
issuing a collective edition of them between 18(55 and 1870. But thiH eonniw- 
tion was not lasting. Smith refused in the latter year to aoccdo to Collins'Hi 
request to publish a new work of his in sixpenny parts, and at tlw cloHo 
of 1874 Collins transferred all his publications (save those of which tho copy, 
right had been acquired by Smith, Elder, A Go.) to tho firm of OluUlo ft 
Windus. Smith was not wholly unversed in tho molhodn of pultliojiUtw 
which Collins had invited him to pursue. Ho had in 18(56 purolwHwl tho 
manuscript of Trollope's 'Last Chronicles of Barset' for 8,000/., and had 
issued it by way of experiment in sixpenny parts. Tho result did not 
encourage a repetition of the plan. 

One of the pleasantest features of tho early history of tho * Comhili ' wan 
the monthly dinner which Smith gave tho contributors for tho lirnt ynar at, 
his house in Gloucester Square. Thackeray was usually tho ehiof gunHt,, 
and he and Smith spared no pains to give tho mooting ovory convivial 
advantage. On one occasion Trollope thoughtlessly doHcribod tins (iritortain- 
ment to Edmund Yates, who was at feud with Thackeray, and YntoH wroto 
for a New York paper an ill-natured description of Smith in lus character of 
host, which was quoted in the ' Saturday Beview.' Thackeray uuulu a Htiili- 
ciently effective retaliation in a 'Boundabout Paper' ontitlud * On Soroww in 
Dining-rooms/ The hospitality which Smith offorod his ' Cornhill " coiuljutom 
and other friends took a new shape in 1863, when ho acquired a houHO at 
Hampstead called Oak Hill Lodge, For somo ton years ho residue! thorn during 
the summer, and spent the winter at Brighton, travelling to and from London 
each day. Partly on Thackeray's suggestion, at the beginning of each summor 
from 1863 onwards, there was issued by Mr. and Mrs* George Smith a gonornl 
invitation to their friends to dine at Hampstoad on any Friday they ohoHo, 
without giving notice. This mode of entertainment proved thoroughly BUO- 
cessful. The number of guests varied greatly : once they reached m many 
as forty, Thackeray, Millais, and Leech were among the earliest arrivaln ; 
afterwards Trollope rarely failed, and Wilkie Collins was often proBimt. 
Turgenieff, the Eussian novelist, was a guest on one occasion. Subsequently 
Du Maurier, a regular attendant, drew an amusing monu-eard, in which MTH, 
Smith was represented driving a reindeer in a sleigh which was ladon with 
provisions in a packing-case. Few authors or artists who gained reputation 
in the seventh decade of the nineteenth century failed to enjoy Smith's 
genial hospitality at Hampstead on one or other Friday during that period. 
Under the auspices of his numerous literary friends, he was admitted to two 
well-known clubs during the first half of the same decade, In 1861 he jolnod 
the Eeform Club, for which Sir Arthur Bailor, a friend ol Thackeray, pro- 
posed him, and Thackeray himself seconded him. In 1865 h was eluotod 
to the Garrick Club on the nomination of Anthony Trollope and Wilkie 
Collins, supported by Charles Beade, Tom Taylor, (Sir) Theodore Martin, 
and many others. He also became a member of the Cosmopolitan Club. 



Memoir of George Smith 



v 

The general business of Smith, Elder, & Co. through the sixties was 
extremely prosperous. In 1861 an additional office was taken in the west 
end of London at 45 Pall Mall, nearly opposite Marlborough House. The 
shock of the Mutiny was ended, and Indian trade was making enormous 
strides. Smith, Elder, & Co. had supplied some of the scientific plant 
for the construction of the Ganges canal, and in 1860 they celebrated the 
accomplishment of the great task by bringing out a formidable quarto, 
Sir Proby Thomas Cautley's 'Report of the Construction of the Ganges Canal, 
with an Atlas of Plans. 1 The publishing affairs of the concern were 
meanwhile entirely satisfactory. The success of the ' Cornhill ' had given 
them a new spur. It had attracted to the firm's banner not merely almont 
every author of repute, but almost every artist of rising fame. Not the least 
interesting publication to which the magazine gave rise was the volume 
called 'The Cornhill Gallery: 100 Engravings/ which appeared in 1864, 
Portions of it were reissued in 1866 in three volumes, containing respectively 
engravings after drawings made for the * Cornhill ' by Leighton, Walker, and 
Millais. Buskin's pen was still prolific and popular, and the many copy- 
rights that had been recently acquired proved valuable. 

With characteristic energy Smith now set foot in a new field of congenial 
activity, where he thought to turn to enhanced advantage the special position 
and opportunities that he commanded in the world of letters. The firm 
already owned two weekly newspapers of somewhat special character the 
( Homeward Mail' and ' Overland Mail' and Smith had been told that he 
could acquire without difficulty a third periodical, ' The Queen,' But it was 
his ambition, if he added to the firm's newspaper property at all, to 
inaugurate a daily journal of an original type, The leading papers paid 
small attention to literature and art, and often presented the news of the day 
heavily and uuintelligently. There was also a widespread suspicion that 
musical and theatrical notices, and such few reviews of books as wore 
admitted to the daily press, were not always disinterested. It was views like 
these, which Smith held strongly, that had prompted in 1854 Thackeray's 
scheme of a daily sheet of frank and just criticism to be entitled 'Pair Play.' 
That scheme had been partly responsible for Thackeray's 'Eoundabout Papers ' 
in the 'Cornhill Magazine/ but they necessarily only touched its fringe. 
Thackeray's original proposal was recalled to Smith's mind in 1863 by a cognate 
suggestion then made to him by Mr. Frederick Greenwood. Mr. Greenwood 
thought to start a new journal that should reproduce the form and spirit of 
Canning's ' Anti-Jacobin/ After much discussion the plan of a new evening 
newspaper was finally settled by Smith and Mr. Greenwood. Men of literary 
ability and unquestioned independence were to be enlisted in its service. News 
was to be reported in plain English, but the greater part of the paper was to be 
devoted to original articles on ' public affairs, literature, the arts, and all the 
influences which strengthen or dissipate society,' The aim was to bring into 

YOL. 



Memoir of George Smith 



daily journalism as much sound thought, knowledge*, and Htylu an wow pouwiblo 
to its conditions, and to counteract corrupting inlluoncoR. No bookn published 
by Smith, Elder, & Co. were to be reviewed. The advorfewmml. HopurLmont 
was to be kept free from abuses. Quack medicine voudora and mono.y-lowlurH 
were to be excluded. 

Smith himself christened the projected papor ' Tho Pall Mall Giwwlto/ in 
allusion to the journal that Thackeray invented for tha IxmnfU of Arthur 
Pendennis. To Mr. Greenwood's surprise Smith appointed him tnliior. Kintf, 
Smith's partner, agreed that the firm should umloHako (.ho pucimiary ivsjnm- 
sibilities. A warehouse at the river end of Salisbury Hid'oK, Htrantl, on Urn 
naked foreshore of the Thames, was acquired to nerve an a prinUntf-ofVuw, and 
a small dwelling-house some doors nearor the Slivand in thn Kami 1 , HU'nnt \van 
rented for editorial and publishing purposes, Late in 1804, a copy of tlm 
paper was written and printed by way of tostiing Lho gi'iusral nwt'-hinoi'y, 
Although independence in all things had boon adopted an tlto pa^or'n \vatt,h 
word, King, who was a staunch conservative, wan diKHRtisfWl with t.h< polili^ul 
tone of the first number, which in his opinion inclined to lihoralinin. Ho 
summarily vetoed the firm's association with tho nntovpi'tno, Hmith luul gono 
too far to withdraw, and promptly accepted tho HO!O owtiWHhip, 

The first number of the papor was issued from Haliwhury Klrtwt. on 7 Knh. 
1865, the day of the opening of parliament. It wan in form a hu^o quart <>, 
consisting of eight pages, and the price was twopence. Tho Wiling artmln hy 
the editor dealt sympathetically with 'tho Quo,en*H Batslumon/ Th tnly 
signed article was a long letter by Anthony Trollopo om thoAitHmntn civil 
war a strong appeal on behalf of tho north. Thu unHigwul artlcUm inrluihul 
an instalment of 'Eriends in Council/ by Sir Arthur llulpN ; ati ariicli* tt- 
titled ' Ladies at Law,' by John Ormsby ; and tho ikat of a miim of * hntiurB 
from Sir Pitt Orawley, bart, to his nophow on hiw entering pju'lianumf,/ hy 
' Pitt Crawley, 1 the pseudonym of Sir Reginald Palgt^va* Thm\ mm ihnuj 
of the ' occasional notes * which wore to form a spooial ftialun c*f tho papiT, 
One page the last was filled with advertwomonta. It wan not a Mining 
number. The public proved indifferent, and only four thousand ocmioH WHIHJ 
sold. . * 

Smith found no difficulty in collecting round him a brilliant band of pro- 
fessional writers and men in public life who wore ready to placo thoir pnw afe 
the disposal of the 'Pall Mall Gazette/ Many of thorn had almuiy win- 
tributed to the ' Oornhill/ The second number afforded oornqmniuUM prcitrf 
of the success with which he and Mr, Greenwood had recruited thwr HtatT. 
In that number Fitz james Stephen, who had long been a regular oontriiwtor 
to the ' OornhilV began a series of leading articles and other aoittrilnititmn 
which for five years proved of the first importance to tho ehttrautur of this 
paper. Until 1869 Fitzjames Stephen wrote far more than half tho Itwlwg 
articles ; in 1868 he wrote as many as two-thirds. When ho wnnl to Jmlitfe 
in 1869 his place as leader writer was to some extent fllloel by Kir Ifonry 
Maine; but during his voyage home from India in 1872 3 Fi 
Stephen wrote, for serial issue in the ' Pall Mall/ tho masterly 



Memoir of George Smith 



called ' Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity/ which Smith afterwards published 
in a volume. 

When the 'Pall Mall Gazette* was in its inception, Fitejames Stephen 
moreover introduced Smith to his brother, Mr. Leslie Stephen, with a view. 
to his writing in the paper. Liko Fitajames's first contribution, Mr. Leslie 
Stephen's first contribution appeared in the second number, and it marked 
the commencement of Mr. Leslie Stephen's long relationship with Smith and 
his firm, which was strengthened by Mr. Stephen's marriage in 1867 to 
Thackeray's younger daughter (she died in 1875), and was always warmly 
appreciated by Smith. George Henry Lewes's versatility was once again 
at Smith's command, and a salary for general assistance of 300Z. was paid 
him in the first year. Before the end of the first month the ranks of 
the writers for the 'Pall Mall' were joined by E, H. Hutton, Sir John 
Kaye, Charles Lever, John Addington Symonds, and, above all, by Matthew 
James Higgins. Higgins was a friend of Thackeray, and a contributor to the 
' Cornhill ; ' his terse outspoken letters to the * Times ' bearing the signature 
of ' Jacob Omnium ' were, at the time of their appearance, widely appre- 
ciated. He was long an admirable compiler of occasional notes for tho 
'Pall Mall,' and led controversies there with great adroitness. He was 
almost as strong a pillar of the journal's sturdy independence in its early 
life as litajames Stephen himself. Twice in March 1865, once in April, 
and once in May, George Eliot contributed attractive articles on social 
subjects. 1 Smith, who had persuaded Trollope to lend a hand, sent him to 
Exeter Hall to report his impressions of the May meetings ; but the fulfil- 
ment of the commission taxed Trollope's patience beyond endurance, and 
the proposal only resulted in a single paper called ' A Zulu in search of a 
Eeligion.' Much help was regularly given by Lord and Lady Strangford, 
both of whom Smith found charming companions socially. Among occa- 
sional contributors wero Mr, Goschon, (Sir) Henry Drummond Wolff, Tom 
Hughes, Lord Houghton, Mr, John Morley, and Charles Eeado, Thackeray's 
friend, James Hannay, was summoned from Edinburgh to assist in the 
office* 

But, despite so stalwart a phalanx of powerful writers, the public was slow 
to recognise tho paper's merits, Tho strict anonymity which the writers pre- 
served did not givo their contributions the benefit of their general reputation, 
and the excellence of the writing largely escaped recognition. In April 1865 
the sabs hardly averaged 618 a day, while the amount received for adver- 
tisements was often only 3Z. Smith's interest in the venture was intense, 
In every department of the paper he expended his personal energy. For the 
first two years ho kept with his own hand * the contributors* ledger ' and ' tho 
register of contributors/ and one day every week he devoted many hours at 
home to posting up these books and writing out and despatching the contri- 
butors' cheques. From the first ho taxed his ingenuity for methods whereby 
to set the paper on a stable footing. Since the public were slow to appreciate 

1 George Eliot's articles were: 'A Word for tho Germans* (7 March), * Servants' Logic ' 
(17 March), 'Little Falsehoods ' (8 April), < Modern Housekeeping ' (13 May). 



Memoir of George Smith 



the 'Pall Mall' of an afternoon, ho, for three wookB in the Boooncl month of 
its existence, supplied a morning edition, Exit buyers and advortintu'H provtul 
almost shyer of a morning than of an evening, and tho morning im-mo wan 
promptly suspended. Smith's spirits often drooped m tho facso of tho 
obduracy of the public, and he contemplated abandoning tho ontorprwo. 
His sanguine temperament never prevented him from frankly acknowledging 
defeat when cool judgment could set no other iutorprolation on t,ho ponition 
of affairs. Happily in the course of 1BG6 tho tido whowtul nigtm of turning, 
In the spring of that year Mr. Greenwood roquoBtod hit* brother io contribute 
three papers called ' A Night in a Casual Ward: by an Amo-tour Oasuitl.' 
General interest was roused, and the circulation of tho papor nlowly txmn. 
Soon afterwards an exposure of a medical quack, I)r Jluntw, who wan 
advertising a cure for consumption, led to an action for lilwl aguitmt l,ho 
publisher. Smith, who thoroughly enjoyed tho oxoitomont of thn ntru^lu 
justified the comment, and adduced in its support tho UwtiSmtmy of many 
distinguished members of the medical profession. Thn jury fjavo thn plainlitT 
one farthing by way of damages. Tho case attracted witlo alUmtiou, arut 
leading doctors and others showed thoir opinion of Hmith'H conduct, by 
presenting him after the trial with a silver vaHO and nalvnr in roeogniUon, 
they declared, of his courageous defence of tho right of hunnnt cHl.ir.iMin. A 
year later the victory was won, and a proIHablo poriod in Um fortuni'H of dhn 
* Pall Mall Gazette ' set in. In 1867 tho oonntruction of tho Thanitm Mtnhitnh* 
ment rendered necessary the demolition of tho old prinidn^-oflion, iintl mow 
convenient premises were found in Northumberland Htroot, Htraml. On 
29 April 1868 Smith celebrated the arrival of tho favouring hnuwi by a 
memorable dinner to contributors at Greenwich, Tho numbm* of pa^m of thy 
paper was increased to sixteen, and for a short timo in 1805) tho pritw wiw 
reduced to a penny, but it was soon raised to tho original twopttwm* In IH70 
the 'Pall Mall Gazette* was the first to announoo in ilm country ih<i IHHUU 
of the battle of Sedan and Napoleon Ill's summdor, 

The less adventurous publishing work which Smith and hfc parinur wt*ri> 
conducting at Oornhill at this time benefited by tho growth of Bnulh f H cirdo 
of friends at the office of his newspaper. Sir Arthur IltslpR, who wan writing 
occasionally for the ' Pall Mall Gazette,' was clork of tlu ouunoil and ih 
confidential relations with Queen Victoria. Smith publtehttd a IHW mr\m of 
his * Friends in Council' in 1869, At Helps's suggestion Smith, Kltltn-, & (Jo, 
were invited in 1867 to print two volumes in which Quuon Victoria wan 
deeply interested. Very early in the year there was delivered to Hmith thu 
manuscript of the queen's 'Leaves from the Journal of our Ufa in thu High* 
lands, 1848-186L 1 It was originally intended to print only a fuw copiun for 
circulation among the queen's friends. Smith was enjoined to titka every pro- 
caution for secrecy in the preparation of the book, The manager of tho llrm'n 
printing-office in Little Green Arbour Court sot up tho typo with a mngk mm* 
tant in a room which was kept tinder lock and key, and was always oooupiud 
by one or other of Athena while the work was in progreBS, Tha qumn ax* 
pressed her satisfaction at the way in which the secret was kopi Alto forty 



Memoir of George Smith 



copios had been printed and bound for her private use, she was persuaded 
to permit an edition to be prepared for the public. This appeared in December 
1867. It was in great request, and reprints were numerous. Meanwhile, 
at Helps's suggestion, Smith prepared for publication under very similar con- 
ditions General Grey's 'Early Years of the Prince Consort/ which was written 
under the queen's supervision. A first edition of five thousand copies appeared 
in August 1867. There naturally followed the commission to undertake the 
issue of the later ' Life of the Prince Consort/ which Sir Theodore Martin, 
on Helps's recommendation, took up after General Grey's death. Smith was a 
lifelong admirer of Sir Theodore Martin's wife, Helen Faucit, the distinguished 
actress, whose portrait he had published in his second publication (of 1844), 
Mrs. Wilson's ' Our Actresses.' He already knew Theodore Martin, and the 
engagement to publish his biography of Prince Albert, which came out in five 
volumes between 1874 and 1880, rendered the relations with the Martins very 
close. To Sir Theodore, Smith was until his death warmly attached. In 1884 
Smith brought out a second instalment of the queen's journal, ' More Leaves 
from the Journal of a Life in the Highland^ 1862.-1882/ which, like its fore- 
runner, enjoyed wide popularity. 

VI 

In 1868 a new act in the well-filled drama of Smith's business career 
opened. He determined in that year to retire from the foreign agency 
and banking work of the firm, and to identify himself henceforth solely with 
tho publishing branch. Arrangements were made whereby his partner, King, 
took over the agency and banking business, which he carried on under tho 
stylo of ' Henry S. King & Co.* at tho old premises in Oornhill and at the 
more recently acquired offices in Pall Mall, while Smith opened, under the 
old style of ' Smith, Elder, & Co*/ new promises, to which the publishing 
branch was transferred, to bo henceforth under his sole control. He chose 
for Smith, Elder, <fe Co.'s now homo a private residence, 15 Waterloo 
Place, than in tho occupation of a partner in tho banking firm of Harries, 
Farquhar, & Go. It was not tho most convenient building that could bo 
found for Ms purpose, and was only to bo acquired at a high cost. But ho 
had somewhat fantastically set his heart upon it, and he adapted it to his 
needs as saiinfactorily as ho could. In January 1869 ho with many 
memborg of tho Oornhill staff permanently removed to- Smith, Elder, <& Oo/s 
now abode. 

Tho increase of leisure and the diminution of work which the change 
brought with it had a very different effect on Smith's health from what was 
anticipated. Tho sudden relaxation affected his constitution disastrously, 
and for tho greater part of tho noxt year and a half he was seriously 
incapacitated by illness. Long absences in Scotland and on the continent 
became necessary, and it was not till 1870 was well advanced that his 
vigour was restored. Ho characteristically celebrated tho return of health 
by inviting the children of his numerous friends to witiuusu with hima and his 



Memoir of George Smith 



family the Covent Garden pantomime at Ohrfstmns 1870-71, Tito party 
exceeded ninety in number, and he engaged for his gtiewta, aftor much iu^o- 
tiation, the whole of the first row of the dross circle. Millaia'a ohiklrun Jillod 
the central places. 

In 1870 Smith's energy revived in its pristine abundance, and, finding 
inadequate scope in his publishing business, it nought additional oullotH olnu* 
where. Early in the year he resolved to make a Hupromu effort to jmxhuiu a 
morning paper. A morning edition of tho * Pall Mall (iiwwtto * wan dovwwl 
anew on a grand scale. In form it followed tho linos of * Tho Tumw* Hniith 
threw himself into the project with exceptional ardour. Jin Bjnmt (ivory night 
at the office supervising every detail of tho paper's production. But tho on* 
deavour failed, and, after four months of heavy toil and largo nxptmdituro, tho 
enterprise was abandoned. Meanwhile the independent evening IHHUO of tho 
' Pall Mall ' continued to make satisfactory progress. Hut tho discouraging 
experience of the morning paper did not daunt bin dotonninaUim k> obtam 
occupation and investments for capital supplemental to that with whieh hig 
publishing business provided him, Later in 1870 ho wont into partnornlnp with 
Mr. Arthur Bilbrough, as a shipowner and underwriter, at 30 Ftmahurah Hlirotit.. 
The firm was known as Smith, Bilbrough, ft Co, HmUh joined Uoytl'H in 
1871, but underwriting did not appeal much to him, and ho HOUU f?avo H 
up. On the other hand, the width of his intorcwt aud intdli&'wuw rmiiltitvti 
the position of a shipowner wholly congenial Ilia opowtumn in that wjwtiity 
were vigorously pursued, and were attended by BUGCOHH. Tho firm au^umul 
commanding interests in thirteen or fourteen sailing vosHoln of lurgo tcninago, 
and theyhuilt in 1874 on new principles, which woto attuwftrite Jmilatwl, 
a cargo boat of great dimensions, which Smith chriHtaod Old KfmHiiigtw^ 
after Miss Thackeray's well-known novel Tho book had junt piuiHod Koriully 
through the ' Cornhill. 1 Sailors who wore not awavo of iho HQIMM of thn tuno 
raised a superstitious objection to the epithet ' Old/ but Binith, aUhtHiglt 
sympathetic, would not give way, and ohovinhud a poroiwil pria in tltu 
vessel. When in 1879 he resigned his partnership in Smith, ililhrough, ft 
Co., he still retained his share in the Old Kensington, 

Until 1879, when he withdrew from tho shipping busInosB, ho iipmrt tho 
early part of each morning at its office in Fenohuroh Street atui tho nmt *> 
the working day at Waterloo Place, whoro, dospito his numerous othur ittlu- 
rests, he spared no pains to develop his publishing oonnootton. I tin HotUo- 
ment in Waterloo Place almost synchronised with the opening of hin omliibl 
relations with Eobert Browning, Smith had mot Browning mm&lly in tmriy 
life and Browning's friend Ohorley had asked Smith to take over tta poot'ii 
publications from his original publisher, Moxon; but, at the monmnt, tho 
financial position rf Smith, Elder, & ,0o. did not justify him in ac 



-. _ .roeticalWorks, andhe produced an edition in MX volutnos. Lu,lw in 
the i same year Browing placed m Smith's hands tho manuHoript of TJ,o Jttnu 

vel! SSLJ* P t d * he P f . 1>2 , 60/ - for the ri S M of P^MIcftMon during {Jvu 
yeara. The great work appeared in four monthly volumes, which wore Imuud 



Memoir of George Smith 



respectively in November and December 1868, and January and February 
1869. Of the first two volumes, the edition consisted of three thousand copies 
each; but the sale was not rapid, and of the last two volumes only two 
thousand were printed. Browning presented Mrs, Smith with the manuscript. 
Thenceforth Smith was, for the rest of Browning's life, his only publisher, 
and he also took over the works of Mrs. Browning from Chapman & Hall. 
The two men were soon on very intimate terms. In 1871 he accepted 
Browning's poem of ' Eerv6 Eiel ' for the * Cornhill Magazine.' Browning 
had asked him to buy it so that he might forward a subscription to the fund 
for the relief of the people of Paris after the siege* Smith sent the poet 
10QZ. by return of post. Fifteen separate volumes of new verse by Browning 
appeared with Smith, Elder, & Co.'s imprint between 1871 and the date of the 
poet's death late in 1889. In 1888, too, Smith began a new collected 
edition which extended to seventeen volumes, and yielded handsome gains 
(in 1896 he brought out a cheaper complete collection in two volumes), 
Ho thus had the satisfaction of presiding over the fortunes of Browning's 
works when, for the first time in his long life, they brought their author sub- 
stantial profit. Though Browning, like many other eminent English poets, 
was a man of affairs, he left his publishing concerns entirely in Smith's hands, 
No cloud over darkened their private or professional intercourse. The poofs 
last letter to his publisher, dated from Asolo, 27 Sept. 1889, contained the words 
' and now to our immediate business [the proofs of the volume ' Asolando ' 
wore going through the press at the moment], which is only to keep thanking 
you for your constant goodness, present and future/ x Almost Browning's last 
words on his deathbed wore to bid his son sect George Smith's advice when- 
ever he had need of good counsel. Smith superintended the arrangements 
for Browning's funeral in Westminster Abboy on 31 Dec. 1889, and was 
justly accorded a place among the pall-bearers, 

While the association with Browning was growing close Smith reluctantly 
parted company with another great author whose works he had published 
continuously from tho start of each in life. A rift in the intimacy between 
Buskin and Smith had begun when tho issue of * Unto this Last ' in the 

* Oornhill ' was broken off in 1861, and tho doath of Buskin's father in 1864 
severed a strong link in the chain that originally united them. But more than 
ten years pawed Iwforo tho alienation became complete. For no author did 
tho firm publish a greater number of separate volumes* During tho forties 
thay published throo volumes by Buskin ; during tho fifties no loss than twenty- 
six ; during tho sixties aw many as eight, including * Tho Grown of Wild Olive/ 

* Sesame and Lilies/ and * Quoon of tho Air.' In the early seventies Bunking 
pen was especially active. In 1871 ho entrusted Smith with tho first number 
of * Fora Glavi&nnu* In 1872 tho linn brought out four now works : ' The 
Magic's NGBV ' MunomPulvoriB,' 'AnUra Pcntolici/ and * Michael Angolound 
Tiutorot.' Hut by that dak) Eunkin had matured viowa about tho distribution 
ol books whiuh woro out of harmony with existing practice. Ho wished his 
volumes to ba sold to booksullorB at the advertised price without discount and 

* Mrs. Cry's * Liffc of Itobori Btfowjamg, 1 p. 417, 



Memoir of George Smith 



to leave it to them to make what profits they chose in disposing of tho hooks 
to their customers. Smith was not averse to makn tho oxpwimtmt. which 
Buskin desired, but the booksellers did not welcome tho now plan of Halo, and 
the circulation of Buskin's books declined, Furthor diflioultioH follo\vn<l in 
regard to reprints of his early masterpieces, 'Modern Painttn'H 1 and tho 
1 Stones of Venice.' Many of the plates wore worn out, and liuwlun luwitatinl 
to permit them to be replaced or retouched now that thuir original tmjLjniviir, 
Thomas Lupton, was dead, He desired to limit vory Mtritttly tho number of 
copies in the new editions; he announced that tho tiino had om for iasnittg 
a final edition of his early works, and pledged himnolf to Hiiffor no rnprint 
hereafter. These conditions also failed to hanmmwo wUh tho hithitual 
methods of the publishing business, A broach proytul iwwitablo, and 
finally Buskin made other arrangements for tho production and publica- 
tion of his writings. In 1871 he employed Mr, OJoortfo AHon to aid him 
personally in preparing and distributing them, and during tht) tummi of tho 
next six years gradually transferred to Mr, AHon all tho work that Hmith, 
Elder, & Co. had previously done for him. On B Sopt. 1H7H Ruskin wholly 
severed his connection with his old publisher by removing all hm hooka 
from his charge. 

Despite many external calls on Smith's attention, tho normal work of Urn 
publishing firm during the seventies and eighties woll miuutititmd itH ahamutor, 
The ' Cornhiir continued to prove a valuable rooniiting ground for author*. 
Mr. Leslie Stephen, after he became editor of tho miwumm in IH7I, 
welcomed to its pages the early work of many writom who worn in duo 
time to add to the stock of permanent English lltoraturo, John Atldinj^m 
Symonds wrote many essays and sketches for tho tuagiushm, ami Inn uhinf 
writings were afterwards published by Smith, Elder, & Co,, notably Inn * J 1 intory 
of the Renaissance,' which came out in sovon volumon hutwntm IH7fi ami 1HH6. 
Mr. Leslie Stephen himself contributed tho critical oHtmyH, whiuh wiru oU 
lected under the title of < Hours in a Library; ' and his Hmtory of Thotwht 
in the Eighteenth Century/ 1876, was among tho firm' mom ItiniortAnt 
publications. Eobert Louis Stevenson was a fmquwnt ocmtrilmLor. Mm 
Thackeray's 'Old Kensington' and <Mis AnRol/ Hlftokinoro'H ' Krroim,' 

rtlortlrn ini^MA*^ TJl^ 1 U -_^. ' _ n I fTTI i f-vrt .^ -_ . .. . * 



w -JL 7 -.,-, ..>,.*^v W ii,aifcly B j,- jv* *ri 
Crowd^ and ' The Hand of Bthelberta,' and Mr. Jamos Payn' 



ca > o 

periodical and the majority of them were afterwards insued by Smith, KWor, 
& Co. m book form Another change in the pmonml of the offloo kamo 

SroT^T v^T* ^ mith WiUiams in 1876 ' On ^orooomir 
ton of Mr. Leslie Stephen, his intimate friend, James Payn tho novlm 



Memoir of George Smith 



Mr, Leslie Stephen to withdraw from tho 'GornhilV Payn succeeded 
him as editor, filling, as before, the position of the firm's ' reader ' in addi- 
tion. With a view to converting the ' Cornhill ' into an illustrated reper- 
tory of popular fiction, Payn induced Smith to reduce its price to sixpence. 
The magazine was one of the earliest monthly periodicals to appear at that 
price. The first number of the ' Cornhill * under the now conditions was 
issued in July 1883 ; hut the public failed to welcome the innovation, and 
a return to the old tradition and the old price was made when Payn retired 
from the editorial chair in 189G. Payn had then fallen into ill-health, and 
during long years of suffering Smith, whose relations with him were always 
cordial, showed him touching kindness. While ho conducted the magazine, 
he accepted for the first time aerial stories from Dr. Con an Doyle (' Tho 
White Company/ 1891), H. S. Merrirnan, and Mr, Stanley Woyman, and thus 
introduced to the firm a new generation of popular novelists. Payn's connec- 
tion with the firm as * reader * was only terminated by his death in March 1898, 
Petty recrimination was foreign to- Smith's nature, and the extreme 
consideration which ho paid those who worked with him in mutual 
sympathy is well illustrated by a story which Payn himself related under 
veiled names in his 'Literary Recollections.' In 1880 Mr* Shorthouse's 
' John Inglesant' was offered to Smith, Elder, & Co., and, by Payn's advice, 
was rejected. It was accepted by another firm, and obtained great success. 
A few years afterwards a gossiping paragraph appeared in a newspaper 
refloating on the sagacity of Smith, Elder, <fe Co, in refusing the book. The 
true facts of the situation had entirely passed out of Payn's mind, and he 
regarded the newspaper's statement as a malicious invention, He men- 
tioned his intention of publicly denying it, Smith gently advised him 
against such a course. Payn insisted that the remark was damaging both to 
him and the firm, and should not be suffered to past* uncorroctod. Thereupon 
Smith quietly pointed out to Payn the true petition of affairs, and called 
attention to tho letter drafted by Payn himself, in which the firm had refused 
to undertake 'John IngloBant/ Payn, in reply, expreHBod his admiration of 
Smith's magnanimity in forbearing, at tho tima that tho work ho had rejected 
was achieving a triumphant circulation at tho hands of another firm, to 
complain by a single word of his want of foresight. Smith merely remarked 
that ho was Horry to d'mtrcmH Payn by any reference to tho matter, and should 
never have mentioned it had not Payn taken him unawares* 



VII 

Meanwhile now developments both within and without the publishing 
buwnoBS wore in progress. The internal developments showed that there was 
no diminution in the alertness with which modes of extending the scope of 
the firm's work were entertained, A series of expensive Editions de have was 
bogun, and a now dopartmtmt of medical literature was opened, Between 
October i878 and September 1879 thero was issued an tditim de Iwe of 



xiii Memoir of George Smith 



Thackeray's * "Works ' in twenty-four volumes, to which two additional volumes 
of hitherto uncollected writings were added in 188G. A mmilarly olahorato 
reissue of 'Bomola/ withLeighton's illustrations, followed in 1HHO, anil a like 
reprint of Fielding's 'Works' in 1882, Tho last of tlumu vwittmw jmn^d 
the least successful, In 1872 Smith inaugurated a dopartmnnt of nuulitial 
literature by purchasing, at the sale of tho Block of a iirm of nunUcal 
publishers, the publishing rights in Ellis's ' I)omoturtMtionH of Anatomy* 
and Quain and Wilson's * Anatomical Plates-' Thunu workn foruuul a miohwa 
of an extended medical library the chiof parti oE which Hmith, Kltlor, A Oo. 
brought into being between 1873 and 1887. Ernunt Hard tuituti an 
adviser on the new medical side of tho bunmoHB, ami at hin HU^^H- 
tion Smith initiated two weekly periodicals dealing with mml'mul tojww> 
which Hart edited. The earlier was the ' London Medical Bommi/ of which 
the first number appeared in January 1873 ; this Hocimti wan tho * Hauitary 
Becord,' of which the first number bogati in July JH74., Aftur wmw four 
years a monthly issue was substituted for tho weekly IHHUO iu oaoh tuii-w, mid 
both were ultimately transferred to other hands. Tho * Mudical Hcotmi ' wiw 
a high reputation among medical men through its COJMMH roportH of mtttlioal 
practice in foreign countries. Tho most notablo oontrihutioaH to ttttuiutiU 
literature which Smith undertook were, bosirloH Ellin'H ' DiMnouHtmtioim t*f 
Anatomy/ Holmes's ' Surgery/ Bristowo'B ' Mtulicims' Playfair'n * Midwifery/ 
Marshall's 'Anatomy for Artists, 1 and Klum'H 'Atlan of Hmtok^y.' II ti 
liked the society of medical men, and while the medical branch of hmlmMUuiNH 
was forming he frequently entertained his medical authors at a whint party 
on Saturday nights in his rooms at Waterloo Place. 

Of several new commercial ventures outwido tho publMiMg oiluw with 
which Smith identified himself at this period, one was tho Aybmhury Dairy 
Company, in the direction of which he was for many yearn aAHwriatuti with hi* 
friends Sir Henry Thompson and Tom Hughes* Othor itnamntiln muhtt 1 - 
takings led to losses, which wore facod boldly ami ohwirfully. It wan aliuont 
by accident that he engaged in tho ontorprwo whioh had tho inoHt oon- 
spicuous and auspicious bearing on his Uniwcial position during thti Innb 
twenty years of his life, When ho was dining with Mrutmt Hart ttttrly iu 
1872, his host called his attention to sonio natural aumtuti wtiUtr y & 
specimen of which had just been brought to this country for thu Itrnt tiwio 
from the Apollinaris spring in the valley of the Ahr, to this tnwl of Mm 
Bhine, between Bonn and Ooblenss, Smith, who was impWHBud by tho 
excellence of the water, remarked half laughingly that ho would likti to buy 
the spring. These casual words subsequently boro important fruit, NaKfttfa- 
tions were opened between Smith and Mr. Edward Btoinkopff t a Gitrman mur- 
chant in the city of London, whereby a private company wan forw<l m IB73 
for the importation of the Apollinaris water into England, Hart rcouivintf m 
interest in the profits. A storehouse was taken in tho Adalphi, antl an offluo 
was opened in Begent Street within a short distance of Waterloo PlacKi As 
was his custom in all his enterprises, Smith at tho outsat gave O!ORP prnwma! 
attention to the organisation of the new business, which grew titoadily from 



Memoir of George Smith 



feho first and ultimately reached enormous dimensions. The Apollinaris water 
Bold largely not only in England, but in America, Europe, India, and in the 
British colonies, The unexpected succoss of tho venture very sensibly 
augmented Smith's resources. The money he had invested in it amounted 
to a very few thousand pounds, and this small sum yielded for more than 
twenty years an increasingly large income which altogether surpassed tho 
returns from his other enterprises. In 1897 tho business was profitably 
disposed of to a public company, 

In 1880 Smith lightened his responsibilities in one direction by handing 
over the * Pall Mall Garotte * to Mr. Homy Yates Thompson, who had lately 
married his eldest daughter. Thenceforth the paper was wholly controlled 
by others. During the late seventies the pecuniary promise of the journal had 
not been sustained, It continued, however, to bo characterised by good literary 
stylo, and to attract much literary ability, and it still justified its original aims 
of raising th literary standard of journalism and of observing a severer coda 
of journalistic morality than had before been generally accepted. In 1870 
Charles Beade contributed characteristically polemical sketches on social topics 
which were remunerated at an unusually high rate. In 1871 Matthew Arnold 
contributed his brilliantly sarcastic series of articles called t Friendship's Gar- 
land.' Eichard Jeffories's 'The Gamekeeper at Home ' and others of the same 
writer's rural sketches appeared serially from 1876 onwards. Almost all 
Jofferios'tt books were published by Smith. At the same time other writers on 
tho paper gave him several opportunities of gratifying his taste for fighting 
actions lor libel. Dion Boucicault in 1870, Ilepworlh Dixon in 1872, and 
Mr. W. S, Gilbert in 1878, all crossed swords with him in the law courts 
on account of what they doomed damaging reflections made upon them in 
the ' Pall Mall Gazette ; ' but in each instance the practical victory lay 
with Smith, and ho was much exhilarated by the encounters. At length, 
during tho crisis in Eastern Europe of 1876 and the following years, 
tho political tone of tho paper became, under Mr, Greenwood's guidance, 
unflinchingly conservative. Smith, although no strong partisan in politics, 
always inclined to liberalism; and his sympathies with his paper in its 
existing .condition waned, BO that he parted from it without much searching of 
heart. 

To the end of his life Smith continued to give tho freest play to his instinct 
of hospitality, After 1872, when ho gave up MB houses both at Hampstoad 
and at Brighton, ho settled in South Kensington, where ho rented various 
residences from time to time tip to 1891, In that year he purchased the Duke 
of Somerset's mansion in Park Lane, which was his final London homo. 
IVom 1884 to 1897 he also had & ruHulunoo near Weybridgo. Of lato years 
lie usually spent tho spring in the Biviora, and on mom than ono occasion 
visited a Gorman watering-place in the summer. Wherever ho lived ho 
wukomod no guowts more frequently or with gruater warmth than the authors 
and artists with whom ho was professionally associated. His fund of enter- 
taining reminiscence was unfailing, and his genial talk abounded in. kindly 
ref orance to old friouds aud acquaintances. The regard in which he was held 



x iiv Memoir of George Smith ^ 

by those with whom he worked has been often indicat-ml in tho oourwn of thi 
memoir. It was conspicuously illustrated by the dying wonto of hm lifo.hmg 
friend Millais, who, when the power of spoooh hiul loft him during hi* lawt 
illness in 1896, wrote on a slato the words, 'I riiould like to mui Oonr^ 
Smith, the kindest man and the best gentleman I haw had to dual wil,h. f Tho 
constancy which characterised his mtiniaoioB in woll wem, tot), hi Inn nilat.iwm 
with Mrs. Bryan Waller Procter, Thackeray had introduced him in ttomjwnv- 
tively early days to Procter and his family, and thn daughter AdHauln, thu 
well-known poetess, had excited his youthful admiration. Whim IVootnr wiw 
disabled by paralysis, and more especially aftor hw death in IH74, Hniith 
became Mrs. Procter's most valued Mend and councilor, 1 In |w/ul htr it wtuikly 
visit, and thoroughly enjoyed her shrewd and puntfmit wit, Hhn jmwd hor 
confidence in him and her appreciation ol tho kimlutwH ho invariably nhmwl 
her by presenting him with a, volume of autograph lottorH that Thiuskmy hiul 
addressed to her and her husband, and finally nho mado him <^tnutt,ur of har 
will. She died in 1888. To the Imi Smith'rt photograph alwayn Htootl on hor 
writing-table along with those of Eobert Browning, .latuiw ,Hn?wt4l howull, and 
Mr. Henry James, her three other ctoscmii allhw, Another frrwl to whom 
Smith gave many proofs of attachment wan Tom ITuglwH, llnghw wan not 
one of Smith's authors. He had idoutifiod hinwulf in narly yt*arn too tiliwuly 
with the firm of Macmillan & Co, to ooixnooti himnnlf with any ol.hnr juihlinh*ir, 
But he wrote occasionally for the ' Pall Mall OiwotUi; 1 ho know and liktnl 
Smith personally, and sought his counHol whmi tho failure of hiw Hotllttmmt at 
Eugby, Tennessee, was causing him groat ftnxioty. 

In 1878 Smith's mother died at tho advanced ag<* of <nghiy-ott% having 

lived to see her son achieve fame and fortuwa. Hirt nltlor Hmtir tlitul two 

years later, and his only surviving sister, tho youngaBi of tho family, wiu* !*ft 

alone. Mainly in this sister's iutorost. Smith cmluwd on a vonttiro <*f a 

kind different from any he had yet essayed. lie had miula tho tL<tquu.mtiMw<t 

of Canon Barnett, vicar of St. Judo's, who WUH purHUadin^ um of woaJth 

to help in solving the housing question in tho uant cutd ctf Ijundnn by 

purchasing some of the many barely habilahlo tcmcwji'ntrt that dnfiuuui tho 

slums, by demolishing them, and by erecting on thnir niluH hlookn of xtuninl 

dwellings. It was one of the principlon of Canon BanuU*n tivatmtwi 

of the housing dif&culty that the services of liutitw Hhouhl he miltMtttti an 

rent-collectors and managers of house property in poor dintmtH* Uminr tha 

advice of Canon Barnett, Smith, ia 1880, rained a bleak of dwulIingM of n 

new and admirably sanitary type in George Yard in tho wy htmrt of 

"WhiteefiapeL The block accommodated forty fiunilioo, and tha inanagcmuwi 

was entrusted to his sister, who remained dirootreHH until har marriitKt) t and 

was then' succeeded by another lady. In carrying out thm phiianthrapus 

scheme Smith proposed to work on business lines. He hoped to how in 

practice that capital might thus be invested at a fair profit, and thnruby to induct) 

others to follow his example, But the outlay Bomewhat exce^deti tho QHtimibtatit 

and, though a profit was returned, it was smaller than was anticipated. Hmith, 

his wife, and his daughters took a warm interest in their tenants, whom for 



Memoir of George Smith 



several winters they entertained at Toynbee Hall, and through 'many summers 
at their house at Woybridge. Many amusing stones used Smith to report of 
his conversation with his humble guests on these occasions. 

VIII 

In 1882 Smith resolved to embark on a new and final enterprise, whieh proved 
a fitting crown to his spirited career. In that year there first took shape in 
his mind the scheme of the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' with which 
his name must in future ages be chiefly identified. By his personal efforts, 
by his commercial instinct, by his masculine strength of mind and will, by 
his quickness of perception, and by his industry, ho had, before 1882, built up 
a great fortune, But at no point of his life had it been congenial to his 
nature to restrict his activities solely to the accumulation of wealth. Now, 
in 1882, he set his mind upon making a munificent contribution to the literature 
of his country in the character not so much of a publisher seeking profitable 
investment for capital as of an enlightened man of wealth who desired at the 
close of his days to manifest his wish to serve his fellow countrymen and to 
merit their gratitude. On one or two public occasions he defined the motives 
that led him to the undertaking. At first he had contemplated producing a 
cyclopaedia of universal biography ; but his friend Mr. Leslie Stephen, whom he 
took into his confidence, deemed the more limited form whieh the scheme 
aflflumod to bo alone practicable. Smith was attracted by the notion of producing 
a book which would supply an acknowledged want in the literature of the 
country, and would compote with, or even surpass, works of a similar character 
which were being produced abroad. In foreign countries like encyclopaedia 
work had boon executed by meann of government subvention or under the 
axiHpicos of state-aided literary academies. Smith's independence of temper 
was always strong, and ho was inwpiritod by the knowledge that he was in 
a pcwition to purwuo single-handed an aim in behalf of whieh government! 
organisation had olsowhore boon enlisted. It would be difficult in the 
hittlory of publishing to match the magnanimity of a publisher who made 
Tip WH mind to produce that kind of book for which he had a personal 
liking, to involve himHolt in vawt expanse, for the sake of an idea, in what 
ho hold to bo tho public interest, without heeding considerations of profit 
or JOBS, It was in tho autumn of 1882 that, after long consultation with 
Mr. Lowlio Shvphon, HB first editor, the * Dictionary of National Biography ' 
waH btsgun. Mr, Stophon resigned the editorship of tho ' Cornhill ' in order 
to dovoto hiiDHolf exclusively to tho now enterprise. The story of tho pro- 
gress of tho publication has already been narrated in the ' Statistical Account,' 
profixofl to tho sixty-third and hint volume of the work, whieh appeared in 
July 1900* lloro it noud only bo said that the literary result did not disap- 
point Smith's expectations. As each quarterly volume came with unbroken 
punctuality from tho prosB ho perused it with an ever-growing admiration, 
and wan unsparing in his commendation and encouragement of those who 
ware engaged on tho literary side of itg production. In every detail of the 



x i v i Memoir of George Smith 

work's general management he took keen interest and played an native part 
in it from first to last. 

While the 'Dictionary ' was in progress many gratifying proofa wiv W ivm 

Smith on the part of the public and of the contributor, with whom hm 

relations were uniformly cordial, of thoir appndiitltm of hw patriotiw 

endeavour After he had indulged hta elmnietomtieiilly honpiUhln uwMnotH 

by entertaining them at his house in Park Lano in IHOU, ihny mviUni h'm^ to 

be their guest in 1894 at the WostaninHtar Palace JIotuL hnuth, in iHwmiiK 

thanks, expressed doubt whether a publwhor had owr Mom IKMIU onti.i- 

tained by a distinguished company of author. In 1H06 tho univurmty of 

Oxford conferred on him the honorary dcgroo of MA Homo two yi'iwi later, 

on 8 July 1897, Smith acted as boat to the wholo hotly of writon* and nmtm 

distinguished strangers at the Il6tel M6tropolo, and HIX dayn aftrnvardu, on 

14 July 1897, at a meeting of the second inturmiticmal library wwfwiuw at 

the council chamber in the Guildhall, a congratulatory rewolutwm \VIUH, tm Urn 

motion of the late Dr. Justin Whisor, librarian of Hurvuvd, unanimously 

voted to him ' for carrying forward so Btuptmdoun a work/ Tim votn wan 

carried amid a scene of stirring enthusiasm. Smith tlum Haiti that during ft 

busy life of more than fifty years no work had atTcmltul him m much intinHt 

and satisfaction as that connected with tho 'Dictionary, 1 In May^lWH), in 

view of the completion of tho groat undertaking Kin Hdward VII (thnti 

Prince of Wales) honoured with his prosonoo a Hinall ilmnt^r jiarty Kivon to 

congratulate Smith upon the auspicious event. Finally, on 30 Junn !(), tlw 

Lord Mayor of London invited him and tho editor to a brilliant htutijturi. at 

the Mansion House, which was attended by men of tho hinhont diitiiuiUti 

in literature and public life. Mr, John Morley, in propcwlnf} UH <ihiif toiwt, 

remarked that it was impossible to say too much of thn puhliti Hjwrit, ihn nunil- 

ficence, and the clear and persistent way in which flwlth had ttitrrlinl out thi> 

great enterprise. He had not merely inspired a famoiiH literary tuthiovi>ttt(nit t 

but had done an act of good citizenship of no ordinary quality or iimtfrnltufct. 

After 1890 Smith's active direction of affalra at Waterloo Vltt<w l( K<pt in 

regard to the 'Dictionary of National Biography/ HQitwwhat ttltnlniHluni. 

From 1881 to 1890 his elder son, George Murray Hmith, had joimtti httn in tho 

publishing business ; in, 1890 his younger son, Alexander Murray Hmith, cuuno 

in; and at the end of 1894 Beginald John Smith, K,0 M who hmlHhortly ltufvu 

married Smith's youngest daughter, entered the firm, Aftur IHU4 Hwith Iwft 

the main control of the business in tho hands of MB son, Aioxantiur Murnty 

Smith, and of his son-in-law, Eeginaid John Smith, of whom tht) fortiuif 

retired- from active partnership early in 1899, Smith RtSH rctaiiuitl tha 

'Dictionary 1 as his personal property, and until his death MB advlou and tho 

results of his experience were placed freely and constantly at tho tUHponal of 

his partners. His interest in the fortunes of the firm was tin&batd to ihn emtl f 

and he evenr played anew in his last days his former r6lo of adviuor in tho 

editorial conduct of the * Comhill Magazine.' The latest writer of roputn tuul 

popularity, whose association with Smith, Elder, & Co, was dirtmtly duo to 

himself, was Mrs, Humphry Ward, the niece of his old friend ICatthuw Arnold* 



Memoir of George Smith 



In May 1886 she asked him to undertake the publication of her novel of 
* Bqberfc Blsmere/ This he readily agreed to do, purchasing the right to issue 
fifteen hundred copies. It appeared in three volumes early in 1888. The 
work was triumphantly received, and it proved the first of a long succession 
of novels from the same pen which fully maintained the tradition of the 
publishing house in its relations with fiction. Smith followed with great 
sympathy Mrs. Ward's progress in popular opinion, and the cordiality that 
subsisted in her case, both privately and professionally, between author and 
publisher recalled the most agreeable experiences of earlier periods of his long 
career. Ho paid Mrs. Ward for her later work larger sums than any other 
novelist received from him, and in 1892, on the issue of ' David Grieve/ 
which followed ' Eobert Blsmere,' he made princely terms for her with pub- 
lishers in America. 

In the summer of 1899, when Dr. Htohett, the Australian writer, was on 
a visit to this country, he persuaded Smith to give him an opportunity of 
recording some of his many interesting reminiscences. The notes made by 
Dr. Fitchett largely deal with the early life, but Smith neither completed nor 
revised thorn, and they are not in a shape that permits of publication. Frag- 
ments of them formed the basis of four articles which he contributed to the 
' Cornhill Magazine ' in 1900-1. } 

Although in early days the doctors credited Smith with a dangerous weakness 

of the heart and he suffered occasional illness, he habitually enjoyed good 

health till near the end of his life. He was tall and of a well-knit figure, 

retaining to an advanced age the bodily vigour and activity which distinguished 

him in youth. Ho always attributed his robustness in mature years to the 

constancy of his devotion to his favourite exercise of riding. After 1895 he 

sulTorod from a troublesome ailment which he bore with great courage and 

chtiorfulnosfl, but it was not till the beginning of 1901 that serious alarm was 

felt. An operation became necessary and was successfully performed on 

11 Jan, 1901 at his house in Park Lane. Ho failed, however, to recover 

strength; but, believing that his convalescence might bo hastened by country 

air, ho was at his own request removed in March to Si George's Hill, 

Byfloat, near Woybritlgo, a house which he had rented for a few months. 

AfUvr his arrival there he gradually sank, and he died on 6 April. He was 

buried on the llth in the churchyard at Byfioot, The progress of tho 

mip'plomontal volumes of the 'Dictionary/ which wore then in course of 

preparation, waB conntantiy in his mind durilig his last weeks of life, and tho 

wwlum that ho expressed concerning thorn have been carried out. Ho 

boqunathod by will the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' to his wife, who 

had throughout thoir married life been closely identified with all his undor- 

takin#fl, and was intimately associated with every interest of his varied career, 

Smith was survived by his wife and all his children. His eldor son, George 

Murray Smith, married in 1885 Ellen, youngest daughter of the first Lord 

1 Tho artidoB wore ' In tho Early Forties/ November 1900; 'Charlotte Bronte/ Dooom- 
bar 1900; *0ur Birth and Parentage/ January 1901; and * Lawful Pleasures,' February 
U)01. Ho contemplated other papers of tho like kind, but did not live to undertake them. 



Memoir of George Smith 



Belper, and has issue three sons and a daughter, I Tin younger nnn, Alex- 
ander Murray Smith, who was an activo partner of the firm from IK{)0 to 
1899, married in 1893 Emily Tennyfton, daughter of Dr. Bradley, dean of 
Westminster. His eldest daughter married in 1H78 Henry Yatrw Thompson, 
His second daughter is Miss Ethel Murray Smith, Ilm youngtwt daughter 
married in 1893 Eeginald J. Smith, K.C., who joined, the firm of Hmith, 
Elder, & Co. at the end of 1894 and has boon since 1801) BO!O active partner* 

IX 

In surveying the whole field of labour that Smith ftMOinplmhetl in Inn 
more than sixty years of adult life, one is irnprosHod not merely hy the amount 
of work that he achieved hut by its exceptional variety, in hint them were 
combined diverse ambitions and diverse abilities which arc rarely found toget her 
in a single brain, 

On the one hand he was a practical man of InwmoBH, independent atnl 
masterful, richly endowed with financial instinct, mont methndiml, jmnuHo, 
and punctual in habits of mind and action, By natural temperament, nan^uine 
and cheerful, he was keen to entertain new fW^geKtumH, but the bold npirit 
of enterprise in him was controlled by a native pnulentse, In netfuUalion he 
was resolute yet cautious, and, scorning the pofatinoHH of diplwtmey, 1m WJIM 
always alert to challenge in open fight dishonesty ov moaimeHH on the part of 
those with whom he had to transact affairs, Monti of Im mereatif.ile ventures 
proved brilliant successes ; very few of them wont far iwtray, II in triumplm 
caused in him natural elation, but his cool judgment never BUtTemd him to 
delude himself long with false hopes, and when defeat wan umnmiaUhle he 
faced it courageously and without repining. Although ha wag impatient, of 
stupidity or carelessness, he was never a harah tokmanter. ,!Je wan, indeed, 
scrupulously just and considerate in his dealing with thtwu who wwJu-il 
capably and loyally for him, and, being a sound jutigo of iwon, Beldam had 
grounds for regretting the bestowal of his oonfidunoo. 

These valuable characteristics account for only a part of the intend 
attaching to Smith's career. They fail to explain why ho Hhould have been 
for half a century not merely one of the chief influtmccw in the cumnlry whieh 
helped literature and art conspicuously to flourwh, but the intimiihi friniMl. 
counsellor, and social ally of most of the m<m and women who umtlu Urn 
lastmg literature and art of his time. It would not ho accurate la tlmmlm 
him as a man of great imagination, or ono powsBod of library or tirtiHiin 
scholarship ; but it is bare truth to assert that his manoulino mind ami icmtKT 
were coloured by an intuitive sympathy with the working* of the imaghmtlm 
IE others; by a gift for distinguishing almost at a glance a good phmo of 
literature or art from a bad; by an innate respect for too who pumucnl 
mtel ectual and imaginative ideals rather than mere worldly pro^rii 

No doubt his love for his labours as a publisher was partly duo to tho 
scope xt gave to his speculative propensities, but it was L ffo L 
degree to the opportunities it offered him of cultivating the iattmwy of 



Memoir of George Smith 



whose attitude to life he whole-heartedly admired. He realised the sen- 
sitiveness of men and women of genius, and there were occasions on which 
he found himself unequal to the strain it imposed on him in his business 
dealings ; but it was his ambition, as far as was practicable, to conciliate it, 
and it was rarely that he failed. He was never really dependent on the 
profits of publishing, and, although he naturally engaged in it on strict 
business principles, he knew how to harmonise such principles with a liberal 
indulgence of the generous impulses which wholly governed his private and 
domestic life* His latest enterprise of the * Dictionary of National Biography ' 
was a fitting embodiment of that native magnanimity which was the mainstay 
of his character, and gave its varied manifestations substantial unity. 

[This memoir is partly based on the memoranda, recorded by Dr. Mtchett in 1899, to which 
reference has already been made (p. xlvii), and on the four articles respecting his early life 
which Smith contributed to the 'Cornhill Magazine,' November 1900 to February 1901. 
Valuable information has also been placed at the writer's disposal by Mrs. George M. Smith 
and Mrs. Yates Thompson, who have made many important suggestions. Numerous dates have 
been ascertained or confirmed by an examination of the account-books of Smith, Elder, & Co. 
Mention has already been made of Mrs. Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Bronte, Anthony Trollope's 
Autobiography, Mr. Leslie Stephen's Life of his brother Fitssjames, Matthew Arnold's 'Letters ' 
(od. G- W. E. Bussell), and other memoirs of authors in which reference is made to Smith. 
Mr. Leslie Stephen contributed an appreciative sketch * In Memoriam ' to the ' Cornhill 
Magazine ' for May 1901, and a memoir appeared in the * Times ' of 8 April 1901. Thanks 
are duo to Mr. C. K. Bivington, clerk of tho Stationers' Company, for extracts from the 
Stationers' Company's Registers bearing on the firm's early history.] S. L* 



7 



OF 



v . r - 



B: 







EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



SUPPLEMENT 



VOL. I. 



ABBOTT 




LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO,, 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1901 



right* rtservttt\ 



OF 



IN THE FIBST VOLUME OF THE SUPPLEMENT, 



0. A, A* . . 
J, G, A, . , 

A. J, A. . * 

W. A ..... 

J, B. A. . 

B. B ..... 
T. B ..... 

T, H. B . . 
J, B. B. . . 
0. B ..... 
H, B-tt. . , . 
H. E. D. B* 
T, G. B. . , 
G. B. B. . , 
T. B* B. . 

A. 11. B. . * 
K A, W, B, 

B. I. 0. . * 
W. w, . * 
E. O'H. . 
A. M. 0. , . 
r JC 0. . * . 
J. 8. 0. . . 
W. P, 0, . 
L, C* . 



G. A, AITKEN, C. D. . * * 

J. G. AtaicB. B. K, D. . 

SlB AfcHXANDBB AttBtlTIINOt, J. D-E, . - 

K.C.8.1, M . G. D . 

SIB WAJ&TMR ARMSMION<J. 

J. B* AWAY. F. G. E, . 

Tim BKV. BONALD BAYNIB. C. L. F. . 

THOMAS BATOM, 0. H, F. 

X'BOITEBBOK T. HUDSON BEAMS. W. Y. P. 

. F. E. 13xm>Mu>, IPJi.S. A. B. F. 

ritOFMHHcm Cusciit BicNALt. D. W. 3?, 

. IL BusvmiiDon. 11. G. . , 

* TUB BKV, H. E. D, BIAKIRTOM. A. G-ffi. . 
, TUBS BKV. CANON BoNNifit, F.B.S* A, G. . . 
, G, 3. BooMum, E, G. . . 
. T, B, BUOVMWO. H. P. G, 

* TIUB BMV. A. 11, 

, H. A. WAMJ 

F.H.A, A. H-. * 

13. Iitvroo CAnr^LiB. 0* A. H* * 

* WIMJCAM OAMU r. J. H. * 
. Si EHNUJHT OLATIKK, FS,A. 0. B. H. 
. MXHS A, M. OuBttxn* W. II,. * 

. TiioMi>BON Oooi>M, F.SA* F. "V. J". 

. J. B. COTTON- T* B, J. 

. W. P, ComiTOOT. J* K. . . 

, LTONTO CUBT, F.S.A. J- K. L. 

T, G. Ii. * 



CAMPBELL 

Pnorassott B. K. DOUGLAS. 

JAMES DBBDaus, C.M.G. 

. THE BIGHT HON. Sin MOUNT- 
STUART GKANT DUOT, G.C.S.I. 

F. G. EDWARDS. 
C. LITTON FAIKINKB. 
. C. H. Fnmr. 
W. Y. FiiMTonEB. 

. R. FortatTn, F.B.S* 



BIOHABD GABKHSTT, LL.0., C.B. 

Sm ARCHIBALD GEIKIH, F.B.S-. 
. THIG Biflv, ALBXANDB-& GORDON, , 
. EDMUND GOSHE, LL.I). 

. THE BKV, H, P. GUENBTT, 

D.OJJ. 

J. OUTHBSBT HADDBN. 
AitTiitJtt HAUDKN, Pix.D. 
. 0* AiYKXANi>rfiK HAUUIS, Q.M.G. 
. P. J, HABVOO. 
, C. E, HUOHJSB, 
* TK BJSV, WILLIAM HUNT, 
, F. V* JAMES. 

KBV. T. B. JOIINBTONH. 

T F.SA. 

i J. E. LAUGHTON. 
T* G. LAW, LL.D. 



List of Writers to Volume L Supplement. 



w,\r. L. . . 


W. J. LAWRENCE. 


G. W. l\ , 


, 0, W, I'ttoTtirijo, Mi.lJ, 


L S. L 


I. S, LlflADAM. 


K, B 


. MUNI'-HT lUlU'OHb. 


E L 


Miss ELIZABETH IJOT. 


F, 11. * . . 


, FHAMKH If,\i-'. 


Si Jj * . . 


SiDNinz LKB. 


W. 1. K. . 


. TIIK HUN, W, J*, Itini' 


E. M. L. . . 


COLONEL E. M. Lfcow, B.E, 


H. T. U, , . 


, HTIMIST J. Ui;. 


J, E. M. . , 


J. E. MACDONATJJ. 


L M. li. . 


. J. M. Ilt.M*, 


JB. M 


SHERIFF MACICAY, E.G. 


T. fl. 


. TiluMAf* Hl^VMHK. 


E. H. M. , . 


E. H. MARSHALL. 


0, F. H. . 


. MlHM (** I'^t.Ii HMtTtl< 


T. M 


SIR TinsoDoiiB MAIITIN, K.C.B., 


IL H N. . . 


Nw Hnun^iit Hu i-rv 




K.C.V.O. 


K. 0, H, . 


, R <. Sn iMM'sn. 


A, J. M. , . 


CANON A. J, MASON, 1XD. 


0. W. H, . 


, 0. \V. Nt'ri'M.v, 


L. M. M. . . 


MlSS MliDDT/RVON* 


ir. u. T. . 


. H, U, Tini^tt, fN.A, 


C M 


TlIE JjATK OoRMO MONKllUdKlt. 










1). Lii, ".. 


[* lit't'Tt KU I tlt'^>i^> 


N. M 


NOKMAN MOOMK, M.JX 


H. 11 V, . 


. r,nt.*NH, U. II. Vl l, U, 


J. B. N. . , 


J. B. JNiAH. 


T. II. W.. 


. T, tlrwtinv W*>, 


a. L G, N. 


G. Lie GHYH NOBOATI?. 


I', W, . , 


, IMn. W*H iut'rnr, 


P. M, O'D, , 


P. M, O'DONOCIHUK, 


W. W. W. 


. M.WHU W, \V. Wrw 4 


G. P 


Tim HON. Oitoitnie PKKL. 




RN.A, 


A, P. P. . . 


A, F. PoraiAUD. 


, a w, . 


* If, It* WtiuMfUtllt. 


D V A. P 


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SUPPLEMENT 



Abbott 



Abbott 



ABBOTT, AUGUSTUS (1804-1867), 
major-general royal (late Bengal) artillery, 
ald'oat of five sons of Henry Alexius Abbott 
rf Blackheath, Kent, a retired Calcutta mer- 
chant, and of bis wife Margaret, daughter of 
William Welsh of Edinburgh, N.B., writer 
bo the signet, and granddaughter of Captain 
G-ascoyne, a direct descendant of Sir Wil-. 
Uam (lascoigne (1350-1419) [c/r.], was bora 
in London on. 7 Jan. 1804, -ie was elder 
brother of Sir Frederick AbbottTq. v SuppL] 
and of Sir James Abbott [q, v, Suppl.] 

The fourth brother, SAXTNBEBS ALBXITTS 
ABBOTT (d, 1894), was a major-general in 
the Bengal army. He received the medal 
and clas-o for the battles of Mudki and Firoz- 
shah, waere he distinguished himself and 
was severely wounded. lie served with dis- 
tinction in civil government appointments in 
the Punjab and Oude, and after his retire- 
ment in 1868 was a^ent at Lahore for the 
Bind, Punjab, and lelhi railway, and after- 
wards on the board of direction at home. 
He died at Brighton on 7 Feb. 1894. 

The young-eat brother, KBITH EDWARD 
ABBOTT (& 1873), was consul-general at 
Tabriz in Persia, and afterwards at Odessa, 
where he died in 1878. He had received 
the order of the Lion and the Sun from the 
shah of Persia. 

Educated at Warfteld, Berkshire, under 
Dr. Fajthfull, and at Winchester College, 
Augustus passed through the military col- 
lege of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe, and went to India, receiving a com- 
mission as second lieutenant in the Bengal 
artillery on 16 April 1819, His further com- 

VOL, 



missions were dated : first lieutenant 7 Aup. 

1821, brevet captain 16 April 1884, captain 
10 May 1835, brevet major 4 Oct. 1843, major 
3 July 1846, lieutenant-colonel 16 June 1848, , 
colonel 14 Nov. 1868, colonel-commandant 
Bengal artillery 18 June 1868, and major- 
general 30 Dec. 1859, 

Abbott's first service in the Afield was at 
the fort of Bakhara in Malwa, in December 

1822. In the siege of Bhart jur in Decem- 
ber 1825 and January 1826 ^e commanded 
a battery of two eighteen-^ounder guns, 
built on the counterscarp of tae ditch at the 
north angle, which he held for three weeks 
without relief. He was commended by Lord 
Oombermere, and received the medal and 
prize money. On 11 Oct. 1827 he was ap- 
pointed adjutant of the Karnal division of 
artillery. In 1833-4 he served ag-ninst the 
forts of Shekawati, returning to Carnal. 

On 6 Aug. 1888 Abbott was given the 
command of a camel battery, and ; oined the 
army of the Indus under Sir Joan Rafter- 
wards Lord) Keane for the invasion of 
Afghanistan. He commanded his battery 
throughout the march by the Bolan pass to 
Kandahar, at the assault and capture of 
Ghazni on 28 July 1889, and at the occupa- 
tion of Kabul on 7 Aug. He was mentioned 
in despatches (London Gazette, 80 Oct. 1889), 
and received the medal for Ghazni, and, from 
the shah Shuja, the third class of the order 
of the Duranx empire. The camels of his 
battery having given out were replaced by 
galloways of the country, and he accom- 
panied Lieutenant-colonel Orchard, O.B,, to 
-,he attack of Pashut, fifty miles to the north- 



Abbott s 

east of Jalalabad, The fort was captured 
011 18 Jan. 1840, and Abbott was aiglily 
commended in Orchard's despatch (Calcutta 
Gazette, 15 Feb. 1840), He took part in 
the expedition into Kohistan under Briga- 
dier-general (afterwards Sir) Robert Henry 
Sale To. v.]) who attributed his success in the 
assault and capture, on 29 Sept., of the fort 
and town of Tutamdara, at tje entrance of 
the Ghoraband pass, to the excellent prac- 
tice made by ibboib'a guns. On 3 Oct. 
Abbott distinguished himself at the unsuc- 
cessful atack on Jalgjah, and was mentioned 
in despatches as meriting Sale's warmest ap- 
probation (London Gazette, 9 Jan. 1841). 
~,)n 2 Nov. 1840 Dost Muhammad was brought 
to bay at Parwandara, and Sale's despatch 
relates that a force of infantry, supported by 
Abbott's battery, cleared the pass and valley 
of Parwan, crowded with Afghans, in bril- 
liant style (ib. 12 Feb. 1841). 

In September 1841 Abbott was employed 
in an expedition into Zurxnat under Colonel 
Oliver, He crossed a pass 9,600 foot above 
the sea, and, after the forts were blown up, 
returned to Kabul on 19 Oct., in time to 
join Sale in his march to Jalalabad. Abbott 
commanded the artillery in the actions at 
Tezin and in the Jagclalak pass, wherts ho 
led the advanced guard (ib. 11 Fob. 1842). 
Sale occupied Jalalabad on 18 Nov., and 
Abbott commanded the artillery durlnjr the 
siege. lie took part in the sally under Colonel 
Dennie on 1 Dec., when he pushed his pirns 
at a gallop to a point which commanded the 
stream, and completed the defeat of the 
enemy. He drove off the enemy on 22 Fob* 
and ajain on 11 March 1842, when, he was 
slightly wounded. He commanded the artil- 
lery in the battle of Jalalabad on 7 April, 
when Akbar Khan was defeated and the s.ege 
raised. He was most favourably mentioned 
in Sale's despatches, and recommended for 
some mark of honour and for brevet rank 
(ib. 7 and 10 June, and 9 Aug. 1842). 

After the arrival at Jalalabad of Sir 
George Pollock [q.v.], to whose force Abbott 
had euready been appointed commandant of 
artillery, Abbott accompanied Brigadier- 
general Monteath's column against the Shin- 
waris. The column destroyed the forts and 
villages, and on 26 July, by the accurate 
fire of Abbott's guns, was enabled to gain 
the action of Marina. Abbott was thanked 
; b despatches (ib. 11 Oct. 1842' , He again 
cietnigui hed himself in the actons of Mamu 
Ipxel anc, Kuchli Khel on 24 Aug., at the 
fbrcing of the Jacdalak^pase on 8 Sent, and 
lit the battles of !Tesdn and the Hafi Kotal 
, : on island 13 Sept., when he was hotly en* 
ga$ed and Afcbar Khan was finally defeated. 



: Abbott 

Kabul wan occupied two dnyw liUnr, For 
thoRo s&rvicoH ho wan iwmtioncd iu d< 'Mpatrht 1 * 
(ib< 8 and 24 Nov. 18450. Abbott rHunicd 
to India with th army, and n nn of tho 
* illuHtriouN * ffarririnn of Jalalabad wan wtd* 
comod by tho tfovornr-g'rnl, Lord Klloa* 
borough, at Firospnr on 17 Dw, tit n< 
ceivec tho mudaln for Jalnlabad and Kabul, 
was mado a O.H, <m4 Od, IfrUi!, and was 
ap]>ointod honorary aido-dtH^itn in thi* go 
vonunv#omflriil f a uiHtim'-tioti wh -i*,h wan con- 
f(^rod <m him by thrw HuroiMulin^ K^v^rnorM- 
genwal Ail ordur wan iwHUtu^ that th gutm 
of his battery Hluutld bw itwtnntMni with thu 
namo 'Jalalabad/ nnd ihut tht\v nbtmld bu 
alwayH niiaiuod In t-ho Hani*' battt*ry, 

In"lHr>5 AbboM Hn^M'iuiiui to tht oll1(o of 
inflpoctoi^rtii'ral of oi'dtintu'CiUtid in iH^Hio 
thw command of th Ht'itfjnl^irtilli'rjf, Ittt 
WUH a mtmbt^ of th cMtmmht^o whit*h f** 
oorbud on t,h <lii\M\WH wf i 4 *trt)K{tur Il! 
rioalth compel hid him 1*i tvturu hotnti in 
1850. llo dbd at OhoUimham on tf5 fcVh, 
187. 

Abbott marrirl, in 1H4H, Sophia I*Hneiii f 
dau^htor of ( aptuitt Joltn ( lawi n of t !m IWH h 
and 88th ngtn**niH, by whom ho l*nd, with 
four danphttw, tbpi* HOM, nil of whntit fot* 
lowtul military enrwrM, Tht iddowf ^ AUK* 
tus Koilh (/*, IH44)| wiw major Intitan laff 
cona ; tho Mtieon<l William tli*nry (b* lH45} ( 



am. tba ytuMj^iit, Htmry Ali*xiu { 

is colonw. lur.iun ntnff aor|m and 1UI> oom 

man cling MalukfttK! bHpilo* 

Abbott WHJS oonntdtiritd by Hirnimrpio Pol- 
lock to be tho {taunt ftrtUhrymnti in India, 
and Lord KUtmbonwgh caumd kin trninu in 
b insuribfid on tltti mtmum(tnti*rictvtlm tlw 
gardtm of Southnuj Umw to r(Hruiuniutmt 
the BervieoM of thot to whom It** W**K w NH 
oially mdv^bUul for tho KuctuiH* af hi* Ind art 
ftdministrution, 

On Abbott'i journal and 0orrafiondHM 
Mr, 0. tt, Low bwid thit Wwtory of Tb 
A%han W, 18B-42 f f wbbltw#piiWiil4id 

PTha Afghan Ww, I8IS-42, trm tin firnvMl 

and G0rmtt<bnc c^f Midnr-tnom! Antttisi 



Abbott, by 0, E, Low, 1S79 5 IncU* OfRflv 

cords ; Royal KnglMtni JouriiftJ, I8 

sional Papr of tht Cor of Kovid 

1870 5 StubbA Htoty o? th* B^gnl . 

Vibart'i AddlaiwmU, if* litn* *pd MtA f 

Nottj StoQqwMi Mtmortiai of 

Kaye'i Hittor of thf Ww In A 



, 

rativ^ of the \ r ar in Afgfeaaitt j U big 1 * Bub'i 
Brigade in AfghRnitfttt with m Amuut of tin 
8Km and Bitaut of Jifckklmd | Ofogfuphieia 
Journal, 1804 ; private Mumo,] StH. ? 



Abbott 



Abbott 



ABBOTT, SIB FREDERICK (1805- 
1892), major-general royal (late Bengal) 
engineers, ' second son of Henry Alexius 
Abbott, and brother of Augustus and Sir 
James Abbott, who are separately noticed 
"Suppl.], was born on 13 June 1805 at 
ILittlecourt, near Buntingford, Hertford- 
shire. Educated at Wavfield, Berkshire, 
under Dr. Faithfull, and at the military col- 
loge of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe, he received his first commission in 
the Bengal engineers in 1823, His further 
commissions were dated : lieutenant 1 May 
18:44, captain 10 July 1832, brevet mujor 
2* Dec. 184:2, ma; or 8 Nov. 1843, brevet 
lieutenant-colonel 19 June 1846, lieutenant- 
colonial 11 Nov. 1846, colonel 20 June 
1854, and major-general 10 Sept. 1868. 

After the usual course of professional in- 
struction at Chatham, Abbott arrived in 
India on 29 Dec. 1823. He was posted to 
the sappers and miners on 28 Feb. 1824, and 
appointed assistant field-engineer under Cap- 
tain (afterwards Sir) John "Oheape [q. v.~ m 
the force under Sir Archibald Caucnbel^in 
the first Burmese war. He was made adju- 
tant to the sappers and miners on 12 Nov, 
182tf, and hold the appointment until 17 April 
1826. lie wont through the whole cam- 
paign, and particularly distinguished himself 
In the attack and capture o: the heights of 
Nmadi, near Prorne, on 2 Pec, 1825, when 
he ,ocl storming partioa in the assaults on 
throe stockades in succession, and was men- 
tioned by Canmboll in despatches (London 
Qassette, 25 April 1820)* 

When the Huraoflo war was ovor, Abbott 
was employed in the public worka depart- 
ment at Ikrdwan, Oawnpore, Karnal, and 
el so where, ITe married in 1885, and went 
home on furlou jfh in 1838, On his way back 
to India in 184'.) he was shipwrecked at the 
Mauritius. He arrived at Calcutta on 25 Dec. 
1840, and in June 1841 became garrison en- 
gineer and barrack master at Fort William, 
and eivil architect at the presidency, 

On 23 Fob, 1842 he was appointed chief 
engineer of the * Army of Retribution ' under 
Major-general (afterwards Field-marshal Sir) 
George Pollock [c..v.], sent to relieve the 
garrison of Jalalamd, where Abbott's bro- 
ther Augustus [q. v." commanded the artil- 
lery, ana to restore : ;he prestige of British 
arms in Afghanistan* A'jbott took part in 
forcing the Khaibar pass on 5 April, out by 
the time Pollock arrived at Jalalabad the 
garrison had relieved itself by its victorious 
action of 7 April with Akbar Khan. Abbott 
was engaged in the attack and capture of 
the forti&d villages of Mamu Khel and 
KucMKhel on 24 Aug., in forcing the 



Jagdalak pass on S Sept., in the actions of 
Tezin and the Haft Kotal on 12 and 13 Sept., 
and in the occupation of Kabul on 16 Sept. 
For his services on these occaaions he was 
favourably mentioned in despatches (ib. 
8 and 24 Nov. 1842). Much against his 
will he superintended the destruction of the 
celebrated covered bazaar and the beautiful 
mosque at Kabul, where the body of Sir 
William Hay Macnaghten [q, v." had been 
exposed to Afghan indip nities. A'abott made 
interesting reports on taese demolitions and 
on the cantonments of Kabul. For his ser- 
vices in the campaign he received the medal 
and a brevet majority. 

Abbott resumed his post of superintending 
engineer of the north-west provinces on 
80 Dec. 1842. On the outbreak of the first 
Sikh war he was called away again on active 
service on 1 Jan. 1840 to serve in the army 
of the Satlaj. He was placed in charge 
of the military bridging establishment, and 
acted also as aide-ae-camp to Sir Henry 
Hardinge, the governor-general, from wliom 
he carried confidential despatches to the com- 
mander-in-chief, Sir Hugh Gough, on 7 Feb. 
lie took part in the battle of Sobraon on the 
10th. He obtained great credit for the 
rapidity with which he bridged the Satloj 
after the battle, and enabled the army with 
its siege-train and enormous baggage-train 
to enter the Punja-b and advance on Lahore. 
He was mentioned most favourably in des- 
patches, received the medal and a brevet 
lieutenant-colonelcy, and was made a com- 
panion of the order of the Bath, military 
division, on 27 June 1846. On his retire- 
ment from the active list on 1 Dec. 1847 hl 
reports on public works continued to be text- 
books by which subsequent operations were 
regulatad. 

In 1851 Abbott succeeded Major-general 
Sir Ephraim Gerish Stannus [q, v,] as lieu- 
tenant-governor jpf the military college of 
the East India Company at Addiscombe, 
He was knighted in 1354, On the amalga- 
mation of the East India and royal services 
in 1861 Addiscombe College was closed, and 
Abbott's appointment ceased. He was a 
member of the royal commission of 18^9, 
presided over by Sir Harry David Jones 
"q. v.], on the defences of the United King-* 
dom, and in 1866 he was a member of a 
committee to inquire into the organisation 
of the royal engineer establishment at Chat- 
ham. He was also a member of the council 
of military education, but resigned this ap- 
pointment in 1868. He devoted his spare 
time to microscopical investigations and the 
study of polarisation of li#ht. He died at 
Bournemouth on 4 Nov* 1392, 

B2 



Abbott 



Abbott 



Abbott married, <m 14 Feb. 1885, in India, 
Frances, daughter of Lieutenant-colonel Cox, 
royal artillery, and widow of Lieutenant- 
colonel H. de Burgh of the Bengal cavalry ; 
his wife and dauglitor predeceased him. 

[India Office Eecords; Despatches; Boyal 
Engineers' Becords ; Boyal Engineers Journal, 
1893 (obituary notice by Major Broadtoot, 
B.K.); London Times, 7 Nov, 1892; .Ported 
History of the Corps of Boyal Engineers; 
Yiburt's Addiscombe (portrait); LoVw 1/t'u of 8ir 
George Pollock ; Kayo's History of the War in 
Afghanistan; Gleig's Side's Brigade in Afghani- 
stan ; Stocquflor's Memorials of Afghan Man ; 
Professional Papers of the Corps of lioyal Kn- 
gineers, 1879 ; private sources.] B. H. V. 

ABBOTT, SIB JAMES (1807-1896), 
general, colonel-commandant royal (lato 
Bengal) artillery, third son of Henry Alinciuft 
Abbott, and brother of Aupfustua and Sir 
Frederick Abbott, both of whom are noticed 
above, was born on 12 March 1H07. II o 
was educated at Blackhoath, whro one of hia 
schoolfellows was Ben; amin Disraeli (aftw- 
wards Earl of Beaconsliold). After pawing- 
through the military college of the Kiust 
India Company at Addiacombo, Abbott ro- 
ceived a commission as second lieutenant in 
the Bengal artillery on Juno 18:28, His 
further commissions were dated : first lieu- 
tenant 28 Sept. 18*27, brevet captain 6 June 
1838, captain 4 Aug. 1841, brevet ma; or 
7 June 1549, lieutenant-colonel 4 July 18 >7 
brevet colonel 28 Nov, 1857, colonel 18 Fob, 
186L major-general 10 June 1806, lieute- 
nant-general and colonel-commandant royal 
artillery 27 Feb. 1877, and general I Oct. 
1877. 

Abbott arrived in India on 20 Dec. 182S, 
His first active service was at the second 
siege of Bhartpur, under Lord Oombermere, 
in December 1825 and January 1826, when 
he served in the second company (com- 
manded by his brother Augustus) of the first 
battalion of foot artillery, and took part in 
the assault and capture of the fortress on 
18, Jan., receiving the medal, He was ap 
pointed adjutant of the Sirhind division of 
artillery on 21 Sept, 1827. From October 
1835 he was employed in the revenue survey 
of Gorakpur until 8 Aug* 1836 ; when he 
was placed in charge of the revenue survey 
of Bareli, and was highly commended 'by 
the deputy surveyor-general for his good 
work. 

In November 1838 Abbott joined the 
aermy of the Indus, under Sir John (after- 
wards Lord) Keane [q. v.l for 'the invasion 
of Afghanistan, and marched with it through 
the Bolan pass to Kandahar, where he 
arrived in April 1839, and received from the 



amir the third cliiHH of thn ordor of tlw 
Durum w*nuu In July hi* nct'otujmnii'd 
Major KlH<r:.t D'Atv.v Tmld | q, v*'| H iinn'mtum 
political oflicur m IVH minmtm to I I't*nt. On 
29 Doc. 1HM ho wan wnt. by Twld to tlm 
court; of Khiva, at, u tim wbon tin* Itu*Nbm 
general Porollidti wn mlvimtMiitf on Khiva 
for Uw oHtonnililn purpHo ol* im/jot iiif inp with 
thokhan, llnxratof Kliivi^foi 1 th? nliuw tit* 
.HiwHian ott|>t.iviM<ltuiniul in Mlttvrv! ( \ Innt, 
Abbott, nt tho tarnrtt fnt.i'PHf.y of tht'ttlmn t 
nndortook to vinit tin* ItuMmnn^tiurtibpiiring 
thokhttu*H ofl'cf to lit)mu all HUHMMU t*nji 
tivos. I to wt out h t v tlin Mun^h KUULtt 
rotito, utulr tho twort of HHHHHII Mhntui 1 , 
chiof of tho Ohmnlur TitrltomnnH, but on 
rcwchitttf tiht)(^iitinH(n found thut no tumta 
had luun pruvi*i'tl. II in HntuU jinpty wim 
troattlwirouHly attarluul on tho ni||iit of 
$3 April IH-IO ly KnRiiliM, Ablmlt *Kipml 
with bin lift, but wiw wyproly h<niit*n with 
clubs ami IUH right- hand injured by it Hithw 
cut, Urn property wn ]ilundir*f, nnd h 
and hi pjii'ty riHind Ibr <'i^hh<m dityn 
pMHonwrn iu tlw tonUof tlu* Knxnkn, nniil 
!.h<j Althtiuwidft arrived from Kldvu to hin 
roliof with un t'Kflo^rt, and i'ttmluH^n! him to 
Novo AUtxtuidrotr. tin tJn iniwd tin* 
and prmMMnhnl iy Ort^nhttr^ uuil 
to Ht, l**t<mburp: wttorti IM c*om 
t,1u n^otuiHonn t tutd arrivtnl in I'ln^- 
'and in Augunt, HH wriSvwl tbn thnnltM *>f 
Lord 1'iilmwKt onMJWtary for ft mM|jn niliiirnt 
for hia conductor tiwwwmim* nitt* itt 1H-UI 
a penmott | for the ir\iurit*n ho Imti nwivwi nfe 
thu Oaftptatii An tuMuiunt of hi* juurimy 
was publiiihed in th 'Arnntto Juuriml* of 
July 1 843, 

Abbott tftuniml to India In flu rtumbfv 
1841, and wan njipointtnl m^mrnd n imm 
mandofthe Mnirwnrti local ImttftlUm and 
assistant to Captnin Dbrn t f,)m ^u|]trirjt*n- 
dtmt of Mairwitra, In iH4*Jlu* wnnit]t|Kthttt*(l 
assistant tt> tha rAnidont Ht ludor** f with 
charffflof Nimar, and in IH4/I anmtniiuilnnw 
of limra. During bin truto IlnNnrn row 
from dtmolatirm t tinM-Nirity, Wliini Olmtiir 
Ringh, the Sikh oliinf o 1 1 wmw. rfiwlftrvd for 
Mulraj of Multan in 1H4H mul th mwottd 
Sikh war brok^ out, Abbott imd 'gulnvil 
such an influmiee ovar tlw inlmbhiint* of 
tha provinaa that ha onuld do whutnvor Im 
pleawd with a raou whom thi Hlklw oottld 
nwer control ' (gttvemor*g*nttrt to oirtt 
commlttwe, 7 Sept, IA48). 110 umd bii in- 
fluenoe to raisa tlw whal population, iftd 
after many small afiUn nmaind mtilar of 
the distriet and of nairij li tfet forta. fit 
drilled the raw lavim of tha mounteitMMrat 
and though ha was for aavml montlm out 
of from all commuuicatiuuii with 



Abbott 



Abbott 



troops, lie ballled the superior forc.es of tlie 
Chatar Singh, and occupied witli fifteen 
hundred matchlockmen the Marquella pass, 
and held at bay sixteen thousand Sikh troops 
and two thousand Afghan, horse who were 
preparing to cross. When the battle of 
Gu~rat,on 11 Feb. 1849, terminated the war, 
AbDott was still in his position at Nara, 
which he had held while twenty thousand 
Sikhs and Afghans were encamped within 
eight, For his services Abbott received the 
tlumks of the governor-general of India in 
council, and of ooth British houses of par- 
liament, the medal with clasps, and a brevet 
majority. 

Abbott continued to rule in Hazara. In 
December 1862 he commanded the centre 
column of the successful expedition into the 
Black Mountains, destined to punish the 
Hasanzais for the murder of Messrs. Game 
and Ta-)p, collectors of the salt tax. For 
his services he received the medal. He left 
Il'azara in 1858, after entertaining the in- 
habitants on the Nara hill for three days and 
three nights. He spent all his substance on 
them and left wita a month's pav in his 
pocket, Abbottabad, named after him, is a 
permanent memorial of his work in that 
country, He was made a companion of the 
order of the Bath, military division, on 34 May 
1878, and a knight commander on 2,6 May 
1894. Abbott retired from the active list on 
1 Oct. 1877, and died at Elleralie, Byde, Isle 
of Wight, on 6 Oct. 1896* He married : (1) 
at Calcutta, in February 1844, Margaret Ann 
Harriet (d, 1845), eldest daughter of John 
Hutchison Fergusson of Trochraigne, near 
Girvan, Ayrshire, by whom he ha a daugh- 
ter Margaret* IL A* FerguaBon- Abbott ; (2) in 
May 1868, Anna Matilda (d, 1870), youngest 
daughter of Major Iteymond de Montmo- 
swncy of the Indian army, by whom he had 
a son, James Eeymond de Montmorency 
Abbott. 

Abbott had both poetical feeling and lite- 
rary ability. He was the author of the folr 
' lowing works ; 1. ' The TEakoorine, a Tale 
of Maaodoo,' London, 1841, 8vo> S. 'Nar- 
rative of a Journey from Heraut to Khiva, 
Moscow, and Sfc Petersburg, during the 
late Bussian Invasion of Khiva, with some 
Account of the Court of Khiva and the 
Kingdom of Khaurism,' London, 1848, 2 yols. 
Svo ; 2nd edit, with considerable additions, 
1866: 8td edit, 1884, 8. < Prometheus'* 
Daughter: a Poem/ London, 1861, 8m 

[India Office Beeorda; Despatches; Times, 
8 Oet. 1806; Vibart'0 Addfoeombe, its Heroes 
and Men of Note ; Stubba's History of the Ben- 
gal Artillery; KayVs Histor;* of the War in 
j. Kaye'e Lives o:' Indian Qfftoeraj 



Royal Engineers Journal, 1893; The Afghan 
War, 1838-42, from tho Journal and Correspon- 
dence of Major-general Augustus Abbott, by 
0. E. Low, 1879 ; The Sikhs and the Sikh Ware, 
by Gough and Innes, 1897 ; private sources.] 

B. H. V. 

ABBOTT, Snt JOHN JOSEPH CALD- 
WELL (1821-1893), premier of Canada, 
was born at St. Andrew's, in the county or 
ArgenteuiL Lower Canada, on 12 March 
1821, 

His father, JOSEPH ABBOTT (1789-1863), 
missionary, born in Cumberland in 1789, 
went to Canada as a missionary in 1818, 
became the first Anglican incumbent of St. 
Andrew's, and is still favourably known by 
his story of < Philip Musgrave ' ( 1846), He 
died in Montreal in January 1 868. He mar- 
ried Harriet, daughter of Richard Bradford, 
the first rector of Chatham in the county of ' 
ArgenteuiL 

His eldest son, John Joseph, was educated 
privately at St. Andrew's, removed to Mont- 
real at an early age, and entered McGill 
University, He took the degree of B.C.L. 
in 1847. Throughout his life ,ae maintained 
a close connection with the university, hold- 
ing the position of dean in the faculty of 
law for several years-, and becoming subse- 
quently one of the governors. He received 
in his later life the honorary degree of D.C.L. 

Abbott was received as advocate at the 
bar of Montreal in October 1847, devoting 
his attention to commercial law* In 1862 
he was xnade queen's- counsel, He was ap- 
pointed solicitor and standing counsel for 
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in 
1880, and became director in 1887, 

In company with tbe Eedpaths, Molspns, 
Torrances, and others, Abbott signed in 1849 
the Annexation Manifesto, the promoters of 
which expressed a wish that Canada should 
join the XTnited States. But apart from this 
temporary ebullition of discontent his essen- 
tial loyalty was never doubtful On the 
rumour of the Trent affair in 1861 he raised a 
body of three hundred men called the ' Ar- 
genteuil Hangers * (now the llth battalion 
of militia), proffered his services to the 
government, and was employed in patrolling 
the frontier. He was afterwards commis- 
sioned? as lieutenant-colonel of the regiment. 

In 31857 he contested the representation 
of his native county of Argenteuil. He 
was not returned but claimed the seat and, 
after an investigation that lasted two years, 
obtained and held it until 1874. In 1 860 he 
published the proceedings under the title of 
? The Argenteuil Election Case,* It gives a 
vivid picture of the ways of election com- 
mittees in old Canada, and of the shifts 



Abbott 



Abbott 



common at the polls. In 1862 he entered 
as solicitor-general east the (Sandfield) Mac- 
donald-Sicotte government, a liberal 6& 
ministration which adopted as its principle 
a somewhat peculiar phase of parliamentary 
development known as * the double majority/ 
This meant that, inasmuch as the Union Act 
of 1841 gave equal representation to Uppor 
and Lower Canada, and the actuality itself 
was founded on practical as well as on histo- 
rical and racial grounds, no ministry should 
be satisfied with the confidence merely of 
the whole house ; it must command a majo- 
rity from each section of the province, The 
device was found to be unworkable^ and the 
ministry was defeated in 1803, within a year 
of its formation. The house was thereupon 
dissolved, the cabinet reformed, and the pro 
gramme recast. In the recasting the t double 
majority ' was abandoned, and hopes wuro 
held out that the representation problem 
would be solved on the basis of population 
merely. This change brought about the re- 
tirement both of Sicotte, toe Fronch*Gana 
dian leader, and of Abbott, who wan the 
ministerial representative for the Englinh of 
Lower Oanaca, From this time forth ho 
leaned to the conservatives. "When tho WHUO 
of confederation arose in 1865 he jo 'mod 
them openly. 

Shor5 as was his term of oflico, it was by 
no means unfruitful. He introduced th 
use of stamps in the payment of judicial 
and registration fees in Lower Canada, a 
reform much needed at the time j ho con- 
solidated and remodelled the jury law, which 
obtains in Quebec to-day almost as he left 
it ; he drafted and carried through the house 
an act respecting insolvency, which is tho 
foundation of Canadian jurisprudence on 
that subject. His object was to fuse into a 
consistent whole the leading principles of 
English, French, and Scottish law on the 
question, and his attempt is generally re- 
garded as a success. The Tear following he 
published 'The Insolvent lot of 1864,' with 
notes to show the general framework of the 
statute, the sources of its provisions, their 
juridical harmony and bearing. 

In 1873 Abbott's name figured largely in 
what is called the * Pacific Scanda . A 
year earlier he had become fellow-director 
with Sir Hugh Allan in the first project to 
build the Canada Pacific Eailway, As the 
elections were at hand Sir Hugh undertook 
:x> advance certain sums to the conservative 
f ?? er$ and dktowwd the money through 
Abbott, then his confidential adviser. The 
total amcunt acknowledged to have been 
thus received &d spent exceeded 25,<XXM, 
After the elections, which wete favourable 



to the conHitrvativtus copitw of corrtwpon- 
dnnce^ awl vouchwH awarding 1 tho mom\yn 
Camu hi to the luindimf thtHtppomtwn through 
a dark in Abbott'* oHUn% who iilmcondt'd 
shortly afttirwttrdH, Tlw htmmt dorlimut to 
accept tho explanation Unit thorn* munit 
used in a Atruitly hmmitrnhlo if not. 
way, and forcnd tho tfovymmtwt to t 
On &pi ma j t' ^ Ul c*mHtituiincHi in ,1874, tlw 
contwrvativw won* uttorty routed, Abbott 
wan ruturwd for hit* old conHtiruimoyi but 
was aiWward* unHoatfd on tho petition of 
Dr. Chrwtio, Four yourH liw, in IH7H, h 
wan again a eanduiahHiuul, iluiii^U d^lVut^ul, 
ttnanapfdcl tt> \rmt i\w viiH*tion, In tho ttoxt 
apptuU r IHHt), *MI btui a amjority, but thn r- 
turn was wti ajwta OIUM* mows A itow tthnv 
tion wa hold in iHMi, Tliin timithorocmviul 
an ovorwholmin^p voto, UH wart thon l'ft 
in undwturlMd iKwnonitiott of Ar^nlimil till 
1HH7, whim \w WHH Htimniotuui to tho mmntu* 

llin chiof^ iogtMlntivn work diiriu^ tlM*n 
ytmr had rofVroiHto to tmuhitw 5 Inn {iriimijial 
public inploym*nt wtm nMdtdi^ato to Mwg- 
-and in connoutiou with tho diNmi>wai of 
do Ht,-hwt frnm tho 
Tnor >f (jittthm 

m^tiott in 

local mlvk^m had 1tn |mm*Him'od 
fititutioiml hy hoth hram*httrt of t ho ilnttndinn 
logiHluturw, and tho ftominion fithtnof th**ni* 
up(n rucoinintnuiftd hm rmuovttt. At ttm in 
st aurt^ of t ht? M nnjtitM of I .unus f ^ ^ovtr}tor 
flmnrftl, tho <jtu*tion WHH r^fVmMi to Mug. 
.and. ( Abbott ntttsctuuiod in hi* mi won of 
attourinjdf thw homo (ovitrnntoiit'ii n^unt ti> 
tlw diHmimal, and t it* ndviw of tht 
nion oabimtt wiunu!t*opt(<d hyth* jiov 
genontl. From IHB7 to into Abbott ww 
mayor of Moutmal. 

II tat in tlui timtn for tht* ttivtuitm of 
Inkurfflftu in Qtit*bw, hk numitmnii tnmrinjf 
date 13 May iH7 At tlw Numu fititw he 
WM sworn of tho Ouniidmn privy isntinoil, 
ami became a memtor af tint i!nbiniit of Hir 
John Abxandw Mnediumld hi, v,|, without 
portfolio* Until thtt dt*atb r Mmuloinitd in 
,8t) 1 he acttul an thi^ic|miii*ut of tht* govorn* 
mtmt^s polioy in tlw iropur HCIUMI, At Bir 
John Sparrow David TiiumpNcin [q. v/ d- 
clined -x> accept tlw prHtnwmhip on UWH 
donald*a death, Abbott wan pnviittiid on t< 
take it with the potifc of prmidant of the 
council, the other cabinet miitbtni r**tainifif 
their portfolio! (June 1891), He w* tbin 
m hie sevtmty*firifc yaar ami m declining 
healthy on the other hand, the tnnibbi oJ 
the m.mitry were deeienintf <Jv by dav f 
jwrticularltr In oonaeot^u with the Mani 
M x>ba school qaastioE, He found the hunlun 
, more tkaii he could buar, u 



A Beckett 



A Beckett 



on 5 Dec. 1892. Betiring into private life, 
he sought in vain restoration to health by 
foreign travel On 24 May 1892 he was 
nominated KC.M.GK He died at Montreal 
on 80 Get. 1893. In 1849 he married Mary, 
daughter of the Yery Rev. T. Bethune of 
Montreal* 

[Dent's Canadian Port. Gall. in. 229 ; Dent's 
Last Forty Years, H. 423-30, 479, 526-8, 634; 
He port of Boyal Commission, Canada, 17 Oct. 
1873 ; Can. Sess. Papers (1879), Letellier Case; 
Morgan's Dom. Ann. Beg. (1879) ; Todd's Parl. 
Gove. in Col. pp. 601-20, 665 ; Cottfa Pol, Ap- 
pointments, pp. 26, 68, 171 ; GemmilVs ParJ. 
Companion '1892); Toronto Globe, 31 Oct. and 
2 Nov. 1893J T. B. B. 

A BECKETT, GILBERT ABTHUE 

(1837-1891), writer for ' Punch ' and for the 
stage, eldest son of Gilbert Abbott a Beckett 
[q. v/, by his wife Mary Anne, daughter of 
J osepj. Glossop, clerk of the cheque to the 
hon, corps of gentlemen-at-arms, was born at 
Portland House, Hammersmith, on 7 April 
1837. He entered Westminster school on 
6 June 1849, became a queen's scholar in 
1851, and was elected to Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, in 1865, matriculating on 7 June, and 
graduating B. A. in 1860. In the meantime, 
on 15 Oct. 1857, he had entered at Lincoln's 
Inn, but he was never called to the bar. In 
June 1862 he became a clerk in the office of 
the examiners of criminal law accounts, but 
in the course of a few years, as his literary 
work developed, he gave up this appoint- 
ment, For a time h contributed to the 
1 Glowworm' and other journalistic ven- 
tures, He also sent occasional contribu- 
tions to * Punch/ but at this time was not 
admitted to the salaried staff. He turned 
his attention to writing for the stage, and 
among his plays, original or adapted, are 
'Diamonds and Hearts/ a comedy (Hay- 
market, 4 March 1807); < Glitter, a comecy 
in two acts ' (St. James's, 26 Dec, 1868) ; 
'Red Hands, a drama, in a prologue and, 
three acts' (St< James's, 30 Jan. 1869); 
' Face to Face, a drama in two acts ' (Prince 
of Wales'e, Liverpool, 9 March 1869), and 
* In the Clouds, an extravaganza ' (Alexan- 
dra, 8 Dec. 1878). Among the numerous 
libretti that he wrote the most notable were 
those to Dr. Stanford's operas * Savonarola ' 
and i The Canterbury Pilgrims/ both pro- 
duced during 1884, the former at Hamburg 
and the laiter at Drury Lane* He also 
wrote eeveral graceful ballads, to which he 
furnished both words and music* 

In the meantime, inl879,Gilbe*t & Beckett 
toad been asked by Tom Taylor, the editor 
of 'Punch/ to follow the example of his 
younger brother Arthur, and become a 



regular member of the staff of 'Punch/ 
Three years later he was 'appointed to the 
Table.' The 'Punch* dinners 'were his 
greatest pleasure, and he attended them with 
regularity, although, the paralysis of the legs, 
the result of falling down t_ie stairway of 
Gower Street station, rendered his locomo- 
tion, and especially the mounting of Mr, 
Punch's staircase, a matter of gainful exer- 
tion' (SPIELMA.NN, Hist, of Punch, 1895, 
p, 388). To ' Punch ' he contributed both 
prose and verse ; he wrote, in greater part, 
the admirable parody of a boy's sensational 
shocker (March 1882), and he developed 
Jerrold's idea of humorous bogus advertise- 
ments under the heading * How we advertise 
how/ The idea of one of Sir John TennieVs 
best cartoons for ' Punch/ entitled ' Dropping 
the Pilot/ illustrative of Bismarck's resigna- 
tion in 1889, was due to Gilbert a Beckett. 

Apart from his work on 'Punch/ he 
wrote songs and music for the German 
Reeds* entertainment, while in 1878 and 
1874 he was collaborator in two dramatic 
productions which evoked a considerable 
amount of public attention. On 3 March 
1878 was given at the Court Theatre 'Th* 
Haopy Land: a Burlesque Version of W. S. 
Gilbert's" The Wicked World," ' by F. L. 
Tomline (i.e. W. S. Gilbert) and Gilbert a 
Beckett, In this atnuaing -jiece of banter 
three statesmen (Gladstone, T-iowe, and A,yi> 
ton) were represented as visiting Fairyland 
in order to ;nrmrt to the inhabitants the 
secrets of popular government. The actors 
representing ' Mr* &,,' * Mr. L./ and Mr, A.' 
were drossed so as to resemble the ministers 
satirised, and the representation elicited a 
question in the House of Commons fend an 
official visit of the lord chamberlain to the 
theatre, with the result that the actors had 
to change their < make-u'p/ In the follow- 
ing year A. Beckett furnished the ' legend* ta 
Herman Merivale's tragedy 'The White 
Pilgrim/ first iven at the Court in Fe- 
bruary 1874. A- the close of his life he fur- 
nished thft ' lyrics ' and most of the book for 
the operetta * La Oigale/ which at the time 
of his death was nearing its four hundredth 
performance at the Lyric Theatre. In 1889 
ae suffered a great shock from the death by 
drowning of liis only son, and he died in 
London on 16 Oct. 1891, and was buried in 
Mortlake^ cemetery. 'Punch' devoted some 
appreciative stanzas to his memory, bearing 
the epigraph ' Wearing the white flower of a 
blameless life' (24 Get, 1891). His portrait 
appeared in the well-known drawing of ' The 
Kaho^any Tree' (PwncA, Jubilee Number, 
18 Ju!,y 1887), and likenesses were also given 
in the 'Illustrated London News 'and in 



Abercromby 



8 



Achcson 



Spielmann's * History of Punch ' (189$. lie 
married Emily, eldest daughter of William 
Hunt, J.P., of Bath, and Ms only daughter 
Minna married in 1896 Mr, Hugh Chiford, 
C.M.GK, governor of Labuan and Bntisfc 
North Borneo* 

[Illustr. Load. News, 24 Oct. 1801 ; Posters 
Alumni Oaton. 1715-1886; Barker and Stem- 
ninr's Westminster School Begistor; Gaaette* 
21 Earch 1821 j Times, 19 Oct. 1891 ; Athonojam, 
1891, ii. 658 ; Era, 24 Oct. 1801.] T. S. 

ABEECBOMBY,ROBEBTWILLUM 
DUFF (1836-1895), colonial 'overnor. [See 
DOT, SIB BOBBRT WnuAMr 

ABEBDABE, B^BOK. [See BK00B, 
HBNRT ATTBTIN, 1816-1895.] 

ACHESOIT, SIB AECHIBALI), second 
EABL OE GOSFOBD in the Irish peerage, and 
first BAKON WoBHNGHm in the peerage of 
the United Kingdom (1776-1849), governor 
in-chief of Canada, born on 1 Aug. 1776 
(Hibernian Mag. vi. 645), was the eldest mil 
and heir of Arthur, the first earl, by MilH- 
cent, daughter of Lieutenant* sfpnoral Jfldward 
Pole of Kadborne in Derbys'iire. Entering 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 19 Jan, 179(J, he 
matriculated in the university on the 22nd 
of that month, and graduated MA, honorvi 
causa on 26 Oct. 1737, During the Irish 
troubles of the succeeding year he served as 
lieutenant-colonel in the Armagh militia. 
In 1807 he became colonel. 

His political life began with his election 
to the Irish parliament, on 9 Jan, 1798, m 
member for Armagh. He voted in tlie Irish 
House of Commons against union with Great 
Britain on 20 Jan, 1800, while his father 
cordially supported the measure in tbe Irish 
House of Lords, The offer of an earldom, 
made in that connection to his father, was' 
renewed in 1803, but was not accepted till 
three years later when the whigs came into 
power, 

As Acheson represented a county he be** 
came,' "by the terms of the Union Act, a 
member of the House of Commons in th 
first parliament of the United Kingdom 
(1801); At the general elections of 1802 
afc' 1806 he waa returned for Arma -h, and 
i 0oiinued to sit in the commons till ..4 Jan, 
.,*1^0 > ", when he succeeded his father as second* 
{ %rl o: GoBford. He was chosen a re->re 
eerfor Ireland in 1811. W:ule 
intervened to debate, he gave a 
to the whig party and pol 
rish,, questions. In 1882 



the ffunrd on {J Hjt, IKll, hit WUH on i\w 
same day (udlwl in i\w \\v\vy couH. NVxl 
yoar in Jnnu -ho btnmttu* protninvnt. HH uu 
exponent of t1 whig policy <t* * oomnliatinn ' 
in Ireland, I lavin ivportw, in luw ^npa?ity 




ces which he held for 
ot 



I laving ivportw), in luw ^np 
of lord- lieu twnant, in a 'conviliutury * ttni 
on certain Annagh rmtK l( a rtwilut-mti 
iaig both hi iiivtwti$ntt<m and rt rt WHH 
dwbatwd in tlin comuionH aft or a IMMH < di k ht,o 
Thtn'oupon JoMtiph II unto (q. v.^ nropnmnl a 
motion mio^iHing (Itmfonlj whic 1 \ nuunvtul 
warm aupport, frin O'Umnoll and IUM fti| 
lowow, and ftnmi iho ratiiralu j(***rally ; it 1 
wan accwptod by tho ffovttnmumt and arrivd 
amid much imtlnwiainn. 

On 1 July WM Ucwftml wan nominnttul 
by the prime tninintw* Lnrd Mtdhtnirnn, 
governor of LowwrC5anatln f ami f{ftviritof*in*> 
chiwf of llrikmh North Aim*rkii| Nowftmud** 
land oxctiptod. On th* wun day hit hotmitm 
royal commiHmmu*r with Hir umr^tt (lrty 
[({*,v. Hn|nL] find Hir UwrK < t *ij| |j. v.j U* 
oxamino Locally into tli amditinn m Liwt^r 
Canada and tfw ffrUwanw^of tlitu^tltmtntMi 
Four day aftorwardH hn wiw or*it* ( cl j* pwir 
of tho Ifnittul Kin'{dtm t adopting lh titlu 
of Haron W^jrUng 'mm ( frmit an t**ttnttt that 
camo to him tliwugh hiii wiik Arrivtiig in 
( v uclM)o on S$ Aug. 1H*J5, (Jonfortl nmim*d 
t^ie reinii of govtffnmont on 17 Htwt> imnui* 
diatoly aftw tho dttparturtt of hciru Aytmisr, 
lie loft tlM cwlony an Sia Kb, IWiH, I tin 
term of office, lasting two ttiit ft Iwlf ynwi 
and covwinpf tl pttrlod of tbw Clunndinn n* 
bullion, m a dark |mHiagt in ( rumduw hit* 
torv, and BtiU oronniottii tntwh diibftto. 

Ills appointment wan not^icioivnd with 
general favour. AMHW*<titutimwt muMttf>rm 
of &wy momimt wi^ri btnng tnootmL tltn no- 
mination of an unknown ami unified man 
ioemt'd to many ImKivrdwu* In t lit* r^f nnut', 
The whijf rtttnedy for colonial tvtli*t whirh 
Gbarltii Grant, lord C)ltinKlg[q>Vi]|th wbnkl 
mlnitr under I^ord AfvUxHima, embnciird In 
th original draft of Gofprd v M iwtruatloni, 
was not bmml on an twvmhmtion of acdonki 
facts, but procDadid on tin mmtmntiona 
tliat tlitjre was a vtiry O!OH anattirjr bn^watn 
Hah and colonial tuwditiona, ana thai th 
whig policy known in Iriih afairs ti f son* 
dilation 1 m?ecM only a triivi to provu an 
absolute gtie60 beyond tfat ita* 

The Ma Ibounui tMmt tmmmqnmtly in- 
Btruct^d Gosford to adopt aa matter o. 
ciple tliH three ehiaf dtmandt of I^uU 
Papmeau [a*?*] and Ilia political ag 
in Lower Oaimdft, Tha Srt dmand that 
tlie assemHy Bhottld haft ok eon t rot of tim 
waste or erown kads, nntl tht third 
that the %bktiv6 council should 
tive, were - v o be accspt^d *Atolitli!j$ 



Acheson 



Acheson 



second demand, that the assembly should 
dispose of all revenues independently of the 
executive, was to "be accepted with a proviso 
which had reference to the civil list- But 
the ministerial plans were foiled by the king, 
who, before Gosford left England, said to 
him with passionate emphasis : ' Mind what 
you are a'iout in Canada. By God, I will 
never consent to alienate the crown lands 
or make the council elective/ 

Despite this warning Goaford set himself, 
on arriving in Quebec, tae hopeless task of con- 
ciliating those whom he deemed the Cana- 
dian people. They suspected and declined 
his overtures. His attentions to Papmeau 
and his friends excited much comment and 
not a little ridicule amon^ the French Cana- 
dians, From the KngLsh community he 
held aloof, identifying them, in pursuance 
of the Irish analogy, with a small office- 
holding clic_ue whose headquarters were at 
Quebec* Tlie legislature met on 27 Get, 
1 836, when the governor dwelt at length on 
the commission of inquiry, its scope, and 
the redress of grievances, but he met with 
a serious rebuff. The assembly declined to 
recognise the commission, and assuming a 
defiant attitude refused to grunt the supplies 
which the governor demanded, Wit:i ex- 
pressions of regret he prorogued the legisla- 
ture. In transmitting to the king a petition 
from the assembly for redress of grievances 
ho asked for additional powers, 

Meantime masH-mcotnigs after the Irish 
pattern were organised by * the patriots ' on 
a large scale ; Goaford's conciliation was de- 
nounced as machiavellian, and he was burnt 
in etBgy, liiots took place in Montreal, 
which called for the intervention of the 
troops, But when the leading businessmen 
in the city petitioned the governor for leave 
to organise a rifle corps to preserve order, 
they received from Gosford a caustic re- 
primand. 

The noxt session opened on 22 Sept, 1836. 
Goaford submitted new instructions from 
home in full, because garbled copies, he said, 
had jfot abroad. The new instructions dif- 
ferec. from the old ones in that they set no 
limit to the commissioners* inquiries, The 
king had meanwhile warned the ministry at 
home that he would permit ' no modification 



of the constitution/ Relegating constitu- 
tional issues to the commissioners' report, 
Gosford mow pressed the assembly to vote 
supply* But, after &ome abortive proceed- 
ings, the assembly, to quote Bibaud's sum- 
mary, * donne un conseil l&gisktif eleetif 
coimna son ultimatum, une condition sine 
fua nm } &c, en d'autres teraes, se suicide.* 
sfaorogation followed on 4 Qcfc, 



About this time the commissioners finished 
their report. All its declarations were op- 
posed to the agitators' claims. In accord- 
ance with one of them the House of Com- 
mons at Westminster passed resolutions 
on March 1837 appropriating the Lower 
Canada revenues to tae payment of exist ing 
arrears (142,0002.) Thereupon Papmeau 
took a bolder stand and organised rebellion. 
Gosford, beyond issuing proclamations of 
warning ' to the misguided and inconside- 
rate/ took no steps to secure the public 
peace, But happily the Irish catholics de- 
clared against both Gosford and Papineau, 
who alike looked to thorn for aidj they 
made common cause with the English, not 
with the official clique but with the consti- 
tutionalists of Montreal, Quebec, and the 
eastern townships, thus uniting the English- 
speaking population, 

lieluctant to put the Westminster resolu- 
tions into force at the opening of the new 
reign of Queen Victoria, the English ministry 
ana Gosl'ord made one more effort to gain 
the assembly, It met on 26 Aug. 1837, the 
members appearing in homespun (6tof& du 
pate) as a protest against the importation 
of goods from abroad. They refused supply, 
repeated their ultimatum, and protested 
alike against the Canadian commissioners' 
recommendations and the resolutions of the 
English Iloxise of Commons. The legis- 
lature was dissolved, never to meet ajyain. 
By ^ Sept. Gosibrd had become convinces that 
Papineau's object was ' separation from the 
mother country/ and suggested the expe- 
diency of suspending the constitution* Still 
testing to the moral force of his procla- 
mations, he took no active steps to dissi- 
pate the gathering storm, and, at the very 
moment when the Eoman catholic bishop 
launched his mand&ment against civil war, 
and the French Canadian magistrates warned 
the people against the misrepresentations of 
the agitators, declined once more all volun- 
tary assistance. At length, when in Septem- 
ber 1887 the province was on the verge of 
anarchy, he intimated to the home govern* 
ment that they * might feel disposed to en- 
trust the execution of its jlans to hands not 
pledged as mine to a mile and conciliatory 
policy/ The actual conduct of affairs passed 
"nto the hands of Sir John Colborne Lq.v*], 
the lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 
who ultimately restored order. Gosford's 
resignation was accepted on 14 Nov,, and he 
returned to England. 

(jtosford received the thanks of the ministry 
for his services (23 Jan. 1888), together 
with the honour of knight grand cross 
on the civil side (19 July). To the end he 



Acland 



ID 



Acland 



remained convinced of the soundness of his 
Irish analogy and the general utility of his 
policy. On this ground he opposed tho 
union of Upper and Lower Canada, and cri- 
ticised the terms of the bill ahanly in all its 
stages through the House of Lores (1889-40). 
Thenceforth he devoted his attention to his 
estates, to the development of the linen in- 
dustry in Ireland, and the promotion there 
of agriculture -enerally. He exercised, be- 
sides the lord-lieutenancy, the functions of 
vice-admiral of the coast of the province 
of Ulster. He died at his residence, Market 
Hill, on 27 March 1849. 

On 20 July 1806 he married Mary (fl 
30 June 1841), only daughter of Itobert 
Sparrow of Worlmgham Hall in Deeded, 
Suffolk. BT her he had a son, Archibald, 
third earl o: Gosford (1806-1864), and four 
daughters, of whom Milliceut married Henry 
Bence Jones [q. v J 

[GK B, C[6kayne]'s Complete Peerage, m 61 ; 
Foster's Peerage of the Brit. Kmp, p. 808; 
Haydn's Book of Dignitiea (seo index, 'Gun* 
ford 3; Lodge's Peer, of Ireland, vi, 81 ; Notow 
and Queries, 2nd mr. ix. ^4, x i)9 ; Gent. Mug. 
xxxi. 537 ; Official Boturn of Momtoors of Pad, 
1878, pt. ii. (index, 'AchoHon'); ROHS'B Corn- 
waJlis Corresp. iii. 310; Parl, DwbntoH, 183d, 
xxvii, 1071-1112, 3rd Her, xlix, 882, Iv, 246-7; 
Col Official List, 1800, p, 10; lecky's Hist, of 
Ireland, v. 294; Parl. Papers, ISBGxxxix, 1-172, 
1837 xxxiv. 1 ; Ann, Register, Chron, 1888 pp. 
801-15, 1837 p, 209, 1838 p, 817; Brmww's 
Can. Archives, 1883, pp. 10G~4 ; G-lobanisy'* &a 
Rebellion de 1837-8, passim; David's Los 
Patriotes de 1837-8, passim ; Garaeau'n Hint 
du Can. iii. 311-60 ; Bibaud's Hist* <k Can* ii, 
413-8 ; Greville's Memoirs, iii, U8 266, 271-2, 
276-8; Edinburgh Review, cacxxiii. 319-20; 
Saaders's Lord Melbourne's Papers, p> $84-4, 
349-50; Leader's Life of Roebuck, p, - S j W- 
Dole's Hist, of England, iv, 110-30; Chriutw'd 
Sist, of Lower Can. vol. iv. passim; Bead's 
Canadian Rebellion, oh. ix, and x,; Kmgsford's 
Hist, of Can, ix, 686-634, x. M04.] 

T.B.B, 

ACLAND, Bis, HENRY WENT- 
WORTH (1815-1900), physician, fourth 
eon of Sir Thomaa Dyke Acia&d [a , 7.], wu 
bom at Killerton, Exeter, on 23 Aug. 1816* 
Sir Thomas Dyke Acland [q, v. Suppl." was 
ais elder brother, Henry was educatec, first 
, ?y Mr. Fisher, a jrivate tutor, to whom he 
dwexl much, anc. afterwards at Harrow 
School, which he entered between August 
leSS and April 1829 ; he was placed in Mr, 
Fherp '$ house, where, without achieving any 
s^ec^a, 4istinctiojDi,he became a monitor and ft 
, v taeqietplayer> Heleffc school at Easter 1882, 
but did not matriculate at OhristGhurch, Ox- 
: fed, until 2aOct. 1884, and graduatedfeA* 



,ami M,n. 

i mudo thn ac.- 
IUM junior by 



an artwtit?, 



linn 
London- 



tal840,M\.184iS f M.lliu 
in 1848. At Chrint Uhurdi h 
quamtanctt of John Uuidtm, 
four yoarfl, whilo both wtm* u 
Acland was by nnt.urtt of 
thutuafttiCf ami romantic tiMnpcriunwit , which 
strongly appuuhul to Utmkin.nmi tlwtwtiiuwi 
bocamo luMonff friond*. In 1HMH, luting in 
delicate Iwalth* Adnnd HJIIWI, uwrly two 
yoarn out of Ktulund, fop tlw mowi part 
emitting in tho huUtormnniuj UM n gutwt 
on board H.M.H. l**mbralw. \\h\\n thm 
he vtaittul thu^wMrrn *\wr*m of tint I^vaut 
to study th flito of tlm aiuncnt dty of i*r 
^amoH, and to Mphm* ttw hatikA if thu 
Simoia and Brnmantlrr, () of tin* ri'Hultn 
of law tlmu viijttH tu thtt Twwd wiw nn utv 
count of tlw pkmw of Troy, with i k mnommie 
drawing, which ivn ^ttbtiMluui jy Jamtm 
Wyatt at Oxford in ik'IU, 11^ afmt mado 
caniful drawing of th nittw of tlm 
churcht'M of AM a tmtntiontMt hy Nt, Paul, 

In IH40 Adand wn* tdtu^tul fitlow of 
All Htmk* (Jolli'tfu, Oxford, ftnii In tht mmi 
ytar following thu winh of hin ftitht^ !** 
ooiumniwufil tho ntujly of m<idu*imt, (nitoriti| 
himntdf, Ijy tlm ad vice of Hir HtMijnmiit (\i,- 
ism, n. w is^ q t v- ] f at y t)( <|m ir g 4 ,; HitnpHnl t 

I.urini( 18454 hit worltml hnrtl at 
with John Thomnn C^milottt 
v,] t and nttondud tlai ltH5lur*m of (Hir) 
Jiclmrd Owtw [<, v,] u^nm om(mrativu 
anatomy. In 1H4 J hit mi#rAtmi tt> Hdin* 
bur^h, wlur he livtnl with William 
X*ultny Almtm (17IKJ iHfii)), the uni- 
Terait" pwfowor of intHiidno. in IH44 1m 
gainuc tljajjild mttdnltfivuii In thti tn*M of 
nodical iUMprmUnoii for th bout nanny on 
'Faigncd rnwrnity. 1 In lH4ft lut vtturiuHl to 
Oxford on boing^ nppmntttti I *** r*imlt*r of 
anatomy at ('hrit '.!!mrrh ( Oxford. Thnt 
joaitbn lut hold until IHftH, It wim whiin 
^ee'a rodr that )m bojmn t uiulor tltt* innpi* 
ration of A!iwm and CJootkir, to ftmn at 
Christ Chureh an anatomitmi mnl phymo- 
logical lerien on the vlaii of tht liutttnvhut 
Museum in London, tfwn under tlm mm ami 
exposition of ttichwd Own, In IKW tie 
waa admitted a licwntiata of the Uoyal Ool- 

tee of l^vaieiane of Londnn t buintf ' ' " 
a :dlow of tho aoltep in IHfiO, am; 
ing the Ilarroian omtton in 1805, thu , 
occasion on which it waa given in Kngliah. 
Ha served the aiflet of 'oonelliariua ' in tho 
oollege t durin? the yiari IHW* H* 4, Mean- 

the Boyai^ Society, 

Acland*tt proffisiional positlan at Oxford 
grew rapidly in, importance and influence. 
In 1851 ja waa ap|mintdi jhyeioian to th 
BadolifftittflmwyatOafeforc!! - 



Acland i 

professor of clinical medicine in succession 
to Dr. John Kidd (1776-1851) [c x . v,~ In 
1851 also he was appointed Kadc-ifFe libra- 
rian, the library being then in the building 
now known as the hadclifle Camera, He 
assigned the Lee's readership in 1857 upon 
his nomination to the high post of regius 
-MTofeswor of medicine in the university of 
Oxford and master of Ewelme Hospital. 
He remained regius professor until 894, 
and continued to -iold the office of Kadcliffe 
librarian until a lew months before his death 
in 1900. Acland was also a curator of the 
Oxford University galleries and of the 
Bodleian library. In I860 he was elected 
an honorary student of Christ Church. 

Outside Oxford Acland's medical attain- 
ments also gained marked recognition. When 
the General Medical Council was established 
in 1858 Acland was chosen to represent the 
university. He continued a member of the 
council lor twenty-nine years, during thir- 
teen of which (1874-87) he was president. 
He was local secretary of the British Asso- 
ciation in 1847 when it met for the second 
time at Oxford, and in 1868 he was presi- 
dent of the British Medical Association. In 
18UO ho visited America as a member of the 
suite of H.U.H. the Prince of Wales, and 
on his return to England was appointed an 
honorary physician to his royal highness. 
lie was also physician to H.H.1L Prince 
Lecnold, afterwards the Duke of Albany, 
while ho was an undergraduate at Oxford. 

Acland was a man of wide sympathies 
and great versatility, who, by the accidents 
of time and position, was able to exercise 
a unique influence on ^tlxe teaching of medi- 
cine and science at Oxford, Entering the 
university as a teacher while he was still a 
young man, he found it almost medipoval in 
the character of its medical studies and 
methods. He ( liyod to see the faculty of 
medicine flourishing, in good repute, and 
equipped with the latest means of scientific 
investigation* But he was strongly opposed 
to the idea of making Oxford merely a 
medical school in the strictly medical sense. 
He wished to give every medical graduate of 
Oxford an opportunity of "aming the wide 
culture for which the un .versity^ has long 
been famed. He maintained that it was the 
function of the university to give a liberal 
education in ' arts/ and that a J tho sciences 
ancillary to medicine could be well and 
profitably taught within its walls, He was 
of opinion^ however, that purely professional 
medical studies could be pursued to greater 
advantage in the metropoas and other large 
centres of ^oiulation taan in Oxford* Im- 
pressed wita iese views, and convinced that 



i Acland 

the whole question of the teaching of natural 
science in Oxford depended upon their adop- 
tion, he strove hard to introduce biology and 
chemistry into the ordinary curriculum. In 
this effort he was brilliantly successful in the 
face of the most determined opposition, and 
especial credit must be given to him for this 
success, because others, perhaps equally far- 
sighted, had given up the endeavour in de-* 
spair and without a struggle in the belief 
tliat the project was impossible. To accom- 
plish his end Acland had the good fortune 
to gather round him such firm friends and 
strong allies as Dean Liddell, Canon Pusey, 
Dean Church, Bishop Jacobeon, Dean Stan- 
ley, and many others, by whose aid success 
was at last achieved. 

During the early years of his tenure of 
the regius professorship the university was 
rousec, from the apathy into which it bad 
fallen as to both the study of modern science 
and the teaching of mecicine, and Acland 
devoted the best years of his life to establish 
on a sound basis a great institution which 
should encourage research and studv in 
every branch of natural science, especially 
in relation to the practice of medicine. This 
institution is now known as the Oxford 
Museum. In his efforts to bring his scheme 
to fruition he had the sympathy and aid of 
his friend Ruskin, who assisted him to ob- 
tain, and even made some drawings for, the 
projected building ; and Ruskin contributed 
to a sketch of the museum's objects, which 
Acland published under the title of ' The Ox-* 
ford Museum ' in 1869. The foundation-stone 
of the building was laid on 20 June 18135, 
and it was opened in 1861. It forms a 
nucleus which, it is hoped, will ultimately be 
the centre of a cluster of buildings equipped 
for the study of the whole realm of nature. 
In 1862, at Acland's suggestion and on the 
advice of Sidney Herbert and W. E. Glad- 
stone, the Radcliffe^ trustees allowed the 
collections of scientific and medical books 
which formed the Radcliffe library to be 
moved from the Radcliife Camera to the new 
museum, at the same time increasing the 
annual grant for the purchase of books. The 
museum was thus put into possession of a 
first-rate scientific library, 

Acland devoted much time and thought 
to the subject of state medicine, for he saw 
early its relation to the morality and well- 
bein not only of this country but of the 
who-e civilisec world. In 1869 he served 
on a royal commission to invest! -ate the 
sanitary laws in England and Wa.es, and 
he wrote at various times a considerable 
number of pamphlets to show the effect of 
sanitation upon the health of individuals, 



Acland 



12 



Acland 



communities, and nations. He also did Ms 1801 } wprmtml with Idituiiui m 1WM. 
Sto mnrove the sanitary conditions of (The first, and mwrnid ml.tmn* nU ho r,,- 
Oxford ant of Marsh Gibbon, a village in print contain lottow ; iwm Ihujkin.) >. M m- 
S he *u interested as a trustee. gmphwd Hkfrtc A o ^ir Itei^min Ita,, V 

Aclaud's services to medicine and medical London, 18(4, Bvo. 10. Ilio lliv;iiui 
education were accorded high honours. In Oration/ London, IHflB.Hvo. 1. Modum! 
1883 he was made a companion of the Bath, Education : a Unfair wUlnHii.l to Uw mi- 
being promoted K.C.B. in 1884, and in 1890 thoritjos ot tlm Jo inn *" I 'wmtal 
he was created a baronet. Among manv and tlu. . olmn llo>kiw Un vw y, Hnti- 
other honorary distinctions A.clandw.18 both mow, W, hvo: t. lijMiir w t-nltwliln Iw 
MD and LL D of Dublin, D.O.L. of Dur- cause it shown what tlnht tlm mmt. ui 
ham! a member of the medical and philoso- univowity in tho Utiitwl Wiit.'H oww 
phical societies of Philadelphia, Chnstiania, motlim m hnjcliuul. 12. "''' * 
ithens, New York, and Massachusetts. He a tikutdi .drawn lor Urn Nw hvdi 
was also a kni ? ht of the rose of Brazil, an So^ty,' London, IHH3 Hvo 1, ' f ,ml h m 
order conferrec upon him in reeosmition of tho VillaffB,' Lmitlon, IHHl.Hvo. |.l.'Villng 
hb seS irf tKvestigation of cholera Health and Village I Jf,' Uuln, lNHt,Hvo. 



t 



1888. vol. i.)! l>iluury nntimw in fchn 

17 (H, IflOo, tho L>uut UW0, ii. UAH, and th 



Acland nursing AOLANB, HtBTTIOMAH I>YK M (tHOfl- 

ed and endowoc 1BUB}, politician awl wluoAtiimnl ritfc>nHi*r f 

bom at Killorton, l)uvtmUins <m S25 May 

oils of Sir Honry 180$), WOH tho ttUUmt tm <f Hir Thottmi 



Hir 



in 1856. [Porsonal knowkjfft* j Hh Htmry 

Acland died at his house in Broacl Street "^orks; Uingmphy in M!ut,t)mju>mry M(tititttl 

on 16 Oct. 1900, and waa buried in Eolywell ^n and their ProftmHitwHl Wurk* (Lwu'<Ht^^ 

cemetery at Oxford on the 19th. 
He married, on l^ July 1846, SaraK the 

eldest dan " " " 

1866) [ay. 

one daughter. AAAO OAU^OW w, **,*.****. .!..* i. ' 

son Dy^ce Acland, captain H.N., succeodod ^ ldl y Bi*on l) y - - - - ])|A> ^ 

25 Oct. 1878^and the Sarah Acland nursing AOLANB, Sin THOMAS I>YK M ( 
home at Oxford was founded 
in her memory, 

A half-length portrait in oils of Sir Honry , 

Acland, painted Dy Mr. W, W, Ouless, U.A,, D;'k Aftland JI7H7-1K71) [q,v,] f by hw 

was exhibited at the Koyal Academy in w-fo Lydia KVffnbut.Ii, only daufrhtttr cff 

1886; it is now in tlie possession of his son, Htmry Iluan) of Mitdmin Clruvtt, himd | 

*Dr. Theodore Dyke AciTand, ner in th wall-known lirm of biinhurit. 

Acland published : 1, * The Plains of Troy. Henry Wontwort-h Aulaiut I*!* v. 

Illustrated by a Panoramic Drawing taken was MB youn-w bw>thr Tlunnnn 

oa the spot, and a Map constructed after educated at Harrow wlww in lH*Jfl bti 

the latest Survey/ Oxford, 1889, Svo and won tlm Ptwl pr'ww with a tlwM^rtafmn ptil> 

foL 2, 'Letter from a Student on some Hahod in tho mim jmf m M*mtio numt 

Moral Difficulties in his Studies/ London, mate Pwliano diynnto *t in Hfih!m Ilnrro- 

1841, Svo, $. ' Feigned Insanity; how vionsia Amlitorin' rwoitata di lun. 1 A*r 

most usually simulated and how best de mdcccxxvi J (Loiultm, Hv)- -nd lit (Jhriit 

tected,' London, 1844, 8vo; 4, 'llemarhs Ohurch, Oxford, wlwnm* Iw ttifttriflultttmi on 

on the Extension of Education at the Uni- 28 Jumi 18tJ7, and gruduattu! liA, with a 

versity of Oxford,* Oxford, 1848, 8vo, double ftrat in 181 ami M. A, In 188B. llii 

6. ^Synopsis of the Physiological Series in tutor wai Thomai vowlwr Short [c.v.] f and 

the Christ Church Museum, arranged for among his Mantis w*sns W* E, m 1 ^ """ 

the use of Students after the plan of tho Sir Francis Doyle* Lrrd UUu'UFoni 

Hunterian Collection/ Oxford, 18154, 4toj Elgin, and Frodttriek t)onion M 

an interesting- work, as it shows the in- From 1SBI to 1BB0 b Wtt fallow of All 

fluence exercised by his London and Edin- Souls', and in 1BB7 lie ww nturnd to parUiiF 

burgh teachers modified by his Oxford sur- ment as constirvativa mwmbar for Wnt 

noundin % s. 6* ' Memoir of the Cholera at Somerset, At tlm tonm! eltiGtinn of 1841 

Oxford :nthe year 1854, with considerations to declined to ldnt:fy hlmatlf with the wi* 

suggested by the Epidemic. Maps and Plans,' teotionist f and thouA hs ihownd IcMin nfpi 

London, 1866, 4to. 7. 4 Notes on Drainage, towards the Young :ncland party durinfl 
, with especial reference to the Sowers and that parliament* h foiowdl Pmil on bfi 

S^am76 of the Upper Thames/ London, oonversion to ftw trad and did not iwk 
1,857, 3vo. 8. 'The Oxford Museum/ Oac- teel^tion to parliamimt in 1B47* 

IMfy Bro i 2nd edit I860 j 3rd edit Aolaud had from to fin* iatmitoa Urn- 



Aclancl i; 

self in educational matters ; his early efforts 
were devoted to the maintenance and defence 
of church schools, and to the establishment 
of diocesan theological colleges, but later on 
he became an advocate of more liberal edu- 
cational projects. In 1857-8 he took the 
leading- part in the establishment of the 
Oxford local examinations system, publishing 
in 1858 ' Some Account of the Origin anc. 
Objects of the new Oxford Examinations' 
(London, 8vo), which reached a second edi- 
tion in the same year ; on 14 June in the 
same year he was created IXCJL of Oxford 
University, He had equally at heart the 
improvement of Englisli agriculture and 
the promotion of technical education for the 
benefit of practical farmers, and much of 
the auccoss of the Bath and West of England 
Agricultural Society (the 'Journal* of which 
ha conducted for seven years) was clue to 
his efforts. In 1851 he published 'The 
Farming of Somersetshire ' (London, 8vo) ; 
and forty years later he wrote an * Intro- 
duction to the Chemistry of Farming-, spe- 
cially prepared for Practical Farmers ? (Lon- 
don, 1&91, 8vo), 

Acland also took an active part in the 
volunteer movement; he raised five corps 
of mounted rifles, was lieutenant-colonel of 
the 3rd Devonshire volunteer rifles from 
18(50 to 1881,, major of the 1st Devonshire 
ytioraanry cavalry from 1872, and published 
< Mounted Rilles ' (London, 1860, 12mo) 
and ' Principle^ and Practice of Volunteer 
Discipline* (London, 1808, 8vo). Acland 
was at the same time a discriminating patron 
of art, and was one of the early admirers of 
Millais, purchasing in 1854 his wall* known 
portrait of Kuakin standing by the river 
iYinlaHB ; two sketches by Killaifl, in which 
Acland figures, both elating from 1858, are 
reproduced in.T, G. MillniH'a ' Life of Milluia' 
(1^90, i. 202*3). Another of his friends was 
Kuskin, and in 1871 Acland and William 
Francis Opwper (afterwards Boron Mount- 
Temple) V L , v, &up;>i] wore the original 
triiHtoon o lluHkjn'H Iluild of St. George [see 
Ittrsxisr, JOHN, SuppL] 

In 1H/39 Aeland unsuccessfully contested 
Birmingham as a moderate liberal against 
John Bright [q,v, Suppl], but in 1805 he 
was returned aa a liberal for North Devon- 
shire, the representation of which he shared 
with Sir Stafford Northcote [q. v.] (after- 
wards Earl of Iddeslei^h) for twenty years. 
Ho served on the scaools commission in 
1864-7., and took an unusually active part 
in tftxft debates in committee on W. E Fors- 
tar's education bill in 1 870-1 , Ho succeodad 
hk father as eleventh baronet on 522 July 
1S71 ? and was sworn of the privy council in 



\ Adair 

1888; on 30 April 1880 he moved the re- 
election of Henry Bouverie William Brand 
(afterwards Viscount Hampden) [a, v. SuppL] 
to the speakership, In November 1885 he was 
returned to parliament for West Somerset. 
In the following June he voted in favour of 
Gladstone's first home rule bill, and; as a 
consequence, was defeated by Charles Isaac 
Elton jj. v. SuppL] in July 1886, This 
closed is political career; he died at Killer- 
ton on 29 Hay 1898, ten days after hisfrieixd 
Gladstone, who was seven months his junior ; 
he was buried in the family vault at Culm 
St. John on 3 June, A committee has re- 
cently been formed for the purpose of erect- 
ing at Oxford a memorial to Acland in re- 
cognition of his services to the cause of edu- 
cation (see Times, 6 Nov. 1900), 

Acland married, first, on 14 March 1841, 
Mary, eldest daughter of Sir Charles Mor- 
daunt, bart., by whom he had issue two 
daughters and three sons, viz. Sir Charles 
Thomas Dyke Acland, twelfth and present 
baronet, JBrancis Gilbert (& 1874), and the 
Eight Hon* Arthur Herbert Dyke Acland, 
vice-president of the committee of coun- 
cil on education from 1892 to 1895. His 
first wife died on 11 June 1851, and on 
8 June 1856 Acland married Mary, only sur- 
viving child of John Erskine, and niece of 
the second earl of Bosslyn; she died on 
14 May 1892, 

Besides the works mentioned above, and 
a number of speeches and pamphlets, Ac- 
land published : 1. ' Meat, Milk, and Wheat 
... to which is added a Beview of the 
Questions at issue between Mr. "afterwards 
Sir John Bennett] Lawes [c .v. SuppL] and 
Baron Liebi^,' London, 18~57, 8vo; and 
2* ' Knowledge, Duty, and Faith ; sugges- 
tions for the Study of Principles, , . / Lon- 
don, 1896, 8vo. 

[Times, 30 May and 4 June, 1898, and 6 Nov. 
1000; .Daily News, 30 May 1898; Poster's 
Alumni Qxon, 1710-1836; Annual Krister, 
1808 ; Hansard'8 ParL Debates ; Official I-Utura 
of Members of Far!.; Burke's and Poster's 
Peerages; Men of the Time, 1896; Andrew 
Lan*8 Life and Letters of Sir Stafford North- 
cote, 1890 ; H. L. Thompson's Memoir of Dean 
Ljddell, 1900, pp. 268, 271-2; OollingwoorVs 
Life of Buskin ; Mowbray's Seventy Years at 
Westminster, p. 47 j Tuokwoll's Bernini* concos 
of Oxford, 1900; J, GkHillafrt Life of Millais, 
1899 ; Acland's works in Brit. Mus. Library.] 

A, T? P P. 

ADAIE, JAMBS (ft. 1775), historian of 
the American Indians, was probably an 
offahoot of the Adair family of Kinhilt, , 
Wigtownshire, He went out to America in 
1785, and spent the following forty years of 



Adair 



Adams 



his life as a trader among the Indians of 
Georgia and the two Carolmas. He was a 
close and sympathetic observer of Indian 
life and customs, and m 1776, stimulated 
by the encouragement of a few intimate 
friends, such as Sir William Johnson, bart, 
Colonel George Craghan, George Gulp im, 
and Lachlan M'Gilwray,he determined to 
throw his notes into the form of a book 
He mentions a string of disadvantages 
under which he laboured, notably The 
: ealousy, secrecy, and closeness ot the 
"-ndians, but hoped to be able to correct the 
very sxiperficial notions that prevailed as to 
their civilisation, His book was called 
< The History of the American Indians ; : * 
containing an Account of their Origin, 
Lan -uage, Manners, ... and other 1 par- 
ticulars, sufficient to render it A Complete 
Indian System . . . with A New Map ot 
the Country ' (London, 4to). . 

The value of Adair's work as snowing 
the relations between the Indians and the 
English traders was recognised, and a Gor- 
man translation appeared at Brealau in 
1782, It must be admitted that a very 
disproportionate s^ace is given to tho hypo- 
thesis that the American Indiana are de- 
scended from the lost ten tribes of Iwaol 
Thomas Thorow ;ood, adopting an old idea 
of the Spanish Z^as Casas, had first main- 
tained this theory in English in 1650 in his 
< Jewes in America.' Both Roger Williams 
and Jonathan Edwards seemed rather in** 
clined to favour the view, which, as elabo- 
rately set forth by Adair, has since found 
champions in Elias Boudinot (' Star in the 
West,'1816) and in Edward King, viscount 
Kangsborough [q. v,] Among the points of 
similarity between the Jews and Indians, 
Adair emphasised the division into tribes, 
worship of a great spirit, Jehovah, notions 
of a theocracy, of ablutions and uncleannoBS, 
cities of refuge, and practices as regards di- 
vorce and raising seed to a deceased brother* 
The bias imparted by this theory to many 
of Adair's remarks led Volney to condemn 
the whole book unjustly in his ' Tableau 
du Climat et du Sol des Etats-Unis ' (p,433). 
The second half of the book is more strictly 
'An Account of the Katahba, Cherake 
Muskohge,0hoktah, and Ohikkasah Nations.' 
Lord Kmgsborough reprinted the whole of 
the first part of Adair's work in the eighth 
volume of his sumptuous ' Mexican An- 
tiquities ' (1830 fol.), with an appendix of 
notes and illustrations from inedited works 
by French and Spanish authors, ' affording 
the most satisfactory proofs of Adairs 
veracity in the minutest particulars/ Adair's 
map of the American Indian nations is 



partially reproduced in Wmaor'w 'Ilwtory 
of America/ (vii 448). 



[Adah's Hintory, 177fi; I/ml KinpfHlmrou jjh'g 
Mexican Antiuuiticfl, volH, vi and viii,; Win- 
sor'B Hist, of America, i. 110, 3*0, Bttft, 424, 
v. 68 ; IPiold'fl Indian Bibliography ; Bimoroft'H 
Native EacoB, v. 91 (opitomtHin jf Adair'H VI<WM) ; 
AllibontffJ Diet, of Kn^tinh L torttturo ; Hiti^r. 
Diet, of S.D,U,K, 1842, i. mi.] T. W, 



ADAMS, TOANOTS WILLTAM I.AU- 
DIDRDALlfi (1HO:MK(W), author, born at, 
Malta on a? Snt. 1N*&, wiw gmiulwmi of 
Francis Adatun q, v/] and mm f Andnw 
Loith Atlams [q.v.] who marritul on 2<H)ct, 
I860 Btn'tha JIUMS <lhwti dauglitor of Vw* 
dcriclc Gruwly of thn Avontus Hnwiwicfc 
Tie WB edwcatwl at ft privatw Hrlwl at 
ShrowHbury--lht; (UnHtonljury of hin auto- 
biographical writing and from IH7W to 1HHO 
at ?am Aftnr two ynam* *Kjmriwu'<aH an- 
sifttant rnant sr at, Vimt mr ( 1< l !*, \w mnrriwl 
and wont to Aimtraliti. Thons ntiiid om 




, -- .siKwrnn, 

lowod until, in IKHH, h flrwtort a 

iwmo of htR * Bcmp of th Armyof tho N ight .,' 
JIi vorRO IB chaotic, hut tho utopitm forvonr 
of the pocsnw IR Ht4'tkii% awl t In* nrijfmnlitv 
oftim intimiw, Thu book wiw thrico r^j 
lishd in London* 1 It^ miw wvritt* winu* 
Australian gltchB for tint '" 



tho 



In hii 



which too oft^n MU^wt tht* minor |utt com 
to judpttimt, for t,iu ' Ntnv Hivf"*" ' A ^"** 
a couple of yuw in Mnjilnnd, 1u, , 
wintor of lHOil-8 in Attfxnntlriii, 
hard againnt incurnblw lung dtmiiiius in hii 
endeavour to finih a work irmn tlm itiitjtilty 
of the British ocoinfttion of .{gytit.. During 
the summttrhunuttrUtiUonUw Uond, Mr 
gate, whWi on 4 Mpt. iHUrt, in a fit of 
dttproBflion ft>Uowing htv r ICMW of Wwwl, 
lie mortally wounded himfw.f with a pUtol, 
IIo was frwioe marriatl, but hft no iue* 
Peraonftlly he wa a mm of rfturmlttg raannar 
and no mall litawry faculty. 1 1 i pMftionAto 
sympathy with the outuuit m& ojtpnMifld 
dn)va him into mm*f both in thought awl 
exprwicm, Ilia aehiavamtnt, llkit tlutt of 
Marie Baahbirt^^ derivei muah 0f its in** 
tercat from hk sadly pr^mihtura *vut; but 
what h@ might have jushlavwi by th m^ 
cise of due artifttic nmtrtunt in fit Imnt indi- 
cated by his ine drams * Titerium* mbml v 
ing a powerful original ooncwptirm of tiit 
-tyrant w the deli^mti though - 1 -*--* 



Adams 15 

exterminator of the anti-social gang of greedy 
and lustful Roman aristocrats. 

Adams published: 1. 'Henry and other 
Tales: a volume of Poems/ London, 1884. 
2, 'Leicester: an Autobiography,' London, 
1885. 3. 'Australian Essavs/ Melbourne 
and London, 1886, 4. ' Maceline Brown's 
Murder/ Sydney, 1880, 5, < Poetical Works/ 
Brisbane and London, 1886. 6. * Songs of 
the Army of the Nbht/ Sydney, 1888 ; Jjon- 
don,1890, 1893, and 1894, 7. < John Webb's 
End : a Story of Bush Life/ London, 1891. 
8. 'The Melbournians : a Novel/ London, 

1892. 9. * Australian Life : Short Stories/ 

1893. Posthumously were issued : 10. 'The 
New Egypt : a Social Sketch/ 1893 ; dedi- 
cated to Jr. W Longsdon, who saw the un- 
finished work through the press after his 
frond's death, 11, 'Tiberius: a Drama/ 
with portrait and introduction by Mr. W, M. 
Itofisetti, 1894; dedicated to his brother, 
who had died of consumption in Queensland 
on 13 Sept. 1892, l 'A Child of the 
Age/ 1894 ; a very elaborate rifacimento of 
'Leicester.' 13. * Essay a in Modernity: Cri- 
ticisms and Dialogues/ 1899. 

[Introductions to Songs of the Army of the 
Nifcht and Tiber! UH, both in the 1804 edition, 
win portraits; Times and Daily Cliron. 5 and 
6 Sept, 1893; Athenaeum, 1893, ii. 359, 629; 
Saturday Ho view, 21 July 1894 ; Boose's Modern 
English Biogr. 1892, p. 15; Brit. Mus. Oat.] 

T. 8. 

ADAMS, JOHN COUCH ( 181 9-1892), 
astronomer, and discoverer of the planet 
1 Neptune/ born on 5 Juno 1819 at Lid- 
cot, near Launcoflton, Cornwall, was eldest 
son of Thomas Adams, a tenant farmer, by 
his wife Tabitha Knill Grylls, the possessor 
of a small eflfcato. He 'read at an early 
nge some books on astronomy inherited by 
hirt mother, established a sundial on the 
parlour window-sill, and observed solar alti- 
'"tuloB with an instrument constructed by 
himfielf out of ^ pasteboard. II is education, 
begun at the village school of Laneast, was 
continued under his relative, John Couch. 
Grylla, first at Bovonport, later at Saltaslx 
ant, Landulph, All his snare time was given 
to astronomy* He Btuuod the subject in 
the library of the Mechanics' Institute at 
Pevonport, read Samuel Vince's * Fluxions/ 
drew maps of the constellations, and com* 
puted ceTaKtial phenomena. His account of 
~he partial solar eclipse of 15 May 1885, 
viewed at Stoke * with a small spyglass/ got 
into print in the London papers ,* and alter 
three weeks' watching ho caught sight of 
Halley'ft comet on 16 Get 1885, The deve- 
lopment of his genius for mathematics de*- 
termined Ms parents to afford him a uni- 



Adams 

versity career, and in October 1839 he 
entered St. John's College, Cambridge, as a 
sizar. He graduated in 1843 as senior 
wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, and 
became shortly afterwards a fellow and 
tutor of his college. 

At the age of twenty-two Adams, after a 
thorough study of the irregularities in the 
motion of the planet Uranus, perceived that 
they were due to the presence of an exterior 
planet, the existence of which was not yet 
recognised. He thereupon formed the design 
of locating in the sky the undiscovered ex- 
terior planet. A memorandum to that effect, 
dated 3 July 1841, is preserved among his 
papers, and he had no sooner taken his 
degree than he attacked the problem. Find- 
ing it soluble, he applied, through James 
Challis [q. v/, to Sir George Biddell Airy 
[q. v.Suppl.l :or complete observational data, 
and with their aid obtained values for the 
mass, heliocentric longitude, and elliptic ele^ 
ments of the unseen body. These Adams 
communicated to Challis in September 1845. 
A paper embodying the same results, and 
containing, as Chai; is said, ' the earliest evi- 
dence of the complete solution of an inverse 
problem of perturbations/ was deposited by 
Adams at the Hoyal Observatory, Green- 
wich, on 21 Oct. 1846, after two fruitless 
attempts to obtain an interview with Airy. 
Seven months later, the French astronomer 
Leverrier announced a conclusion similar to 
Adams's, and in consequence a search for 
the missin" planet was "begun by Ohallis on, 
29 July 140, The new planet, which, was 
christened i Neptune/ was however, dis- 
covered at Berlin \rr_ the astronomer Galle 
on 23 Sept. from ^everrier's indications, 
Adams's theory remaining un divulged. The 
first public mention of his name relative 
to the event was by Sir John Herschel 
in the * Athenaeum' of 3 Oct, and a letter 
frdm ^ Challis to that journal on 17 Oct. 
described in detail the transactions between 
Adams, Airy, and himself. But ' there was 
naturally a disinclination to give full credit 
to facts thus suddenly brougkt to light at 
such a time. It was startling to realise that 
the astronomer royal had in his possession 
the data which would have enabled the 
planet to be discovered nearly a year before. 
Jn the other hand, it seemec extraordinary 
that a competent mathematician, who had 
determined the orbit of the disturbing planet, 
should have been content to refrain for so 
long from making public his results* (GL&x- 
snj3B, Biographical Notice, p. xxii), Adams 
himself explained, forty years later, that his 
reticence was due to lus wish that the En, ;- 
lish astronomers, to whom lie imparted ti.s 



Adams 



Adams 



calculations, mi tot 'loolc for the planet and 
find it, so that tuis country origin have had 
the full credit of the discovery' (private 
letter). He sent Airy improved elements 
of the planet on 2 Sept. 1846, and drew up 
shortly afterwards a paper on the sublet 
for the British Association, but readied 
Southampton a day too late to present it* 
Finally, on 13 Nov. 1846, he laid sefortj the 
Boyal Astronomical Society the long-sup- 
pressed investigation in which he^ had de- 
termined, from the irregularities of Uranus, 
the orbit and place of Neptune (Mnnoirs 
Royal Astronomical Soc 4 vol.xyi,); ^ The im- 
portance attached to it was signified by its 
issue as an appendix to the ' Nautical Al- 
manac' for l&Tl, and as a supplement to 
No. 593 of the * Astronomische Nachrichten* 
(2 March 1847). A French version, with a 
brief appendix by Adams, appeared in 1870 

' in Liouville's ' Journal de MatU6matiq lies' 
(ii. 83). 

The publication stirred widespread ex- 
citement. A long and bitter controversy 
ensued. The scientific world split into 
'Adamite 'and ' anti-Adamite' factions. But 
their contentions were unshared by tlifl per- 
sonages to whom they related. AdamaVi 
conduct throughout was marked by the 
utmost dignity and forbearance, He ut- 
tered no complaint; he laid no claim to 
priority; Leverrier had no warmer adrairor. 
3[e made personal acquaintance wi f h him at 
the Oxford meeting of the British Associa- 
tion in June 1847, and both were Sir John 
Herschel'a guests at Oollingwood in the en- 
suin ' month. 

Ac.ams refused knighthood in 1847, but 
the Adams prize, awarded bi-annually for 
the best essay in astronomy, mathematics, 
or physics, was founded in 1848, at the uni- 
versity of Cambridge, to commemorate his 
( deductive discovery ' of Neptune, He was 
elected a fellow 01 the Royal Society on 
7 June 1849. He observed the total eclipse 
of the sun on 28 July 1851 at Frederiksvaem 
in Sweden (Memoirs Royal Astron. Soc t xxi. 
103). Adams was an unsuccessful candi- 
date for the post of superintendent of the 
* Nautical Almanac,' vacant by the death of 
William Samuel Stratford fo, v,] in 1858, 
His fellowship at St. John's expiring in 
3862, he was elected in February 1858 'to a 
fellowship of Pembroke College, which he 
held uuC his 'death. He occupied the chair 
of mathematics in the university of St, An- 
drews toiflg the session of 1858-9, vacat- 
ing it "iti obnsequenee of his election, late 
i*T 18B, to succeed George Peacock [4, v," 

, as kowiicleafli professor of astronomy and 
at- Cambridge, His lectures m 



ly 
hut tlu> 



in 



this capacity woro gimorally on thu lunar 
theory* 

Adams's new tablm of tha lunar parallax, 
conimumcutod to tho Itoyal Agronomical 
Society in IHfilJ, woro appnudwl to tlm 
1 Nautical Almanac * for '1850, In 185,1 lw 
presented to tlw Ko^al Hooioty a memoir on 
the secular accol oration of ilw moon** moan 
motion, domoiMtratinK thoim*om~>lttt<mnHM of 
La->laco'a explanation of thts p-iwuimtjn 
(Pitt Tram, cxliii. ?), Thin vnw high 
diapleasmpf to Frtnioh ^untu^ 
attacks of Pinna, Ilatm^n, an<l 
left unshaktm coiu,hwiottH which worn i 
londontly voriHi'd by Doliutnuy, 
Sir John William Ltihbo'4c|t|,v, 
"liod to o]bj(M?t.ioiJH in th * Monthly 
Cor April IHtJOj Flana atitntipttid a ft}tn 
in a serins of ltttff to Sir John liuhlttirtfi in 
Juno " ami PoutAconiantntmttnutul lor wtma 
time -onjjfor to \VF$H thnuutharn nr^ummti 
in the '(kwnptw^ RoniluM, 1 At^ ndmimblti 
account of th dirtmiHMion wiw iitMttrtml hy 
Dolunnay in tlm * (JonnulMMtutcu *!* 'IVmjw* 
for JHtU, AditmH nflmut hi *ntt!mtin nnd 
improved hm rwult in ]>ii|wrM iiuhtiiti 
thu 'Oomptt'H HonluH f for ilnnunry 
and in ( Monthly Notiwn,* Jhiiw iHHt), Tim 
iinal upshot, wan to mlu^n tho vnliu* for 
lunar uccttlorut.it >n fmm 10 tn iilmut M a 
contury, (Hhr points nonm^tml with tlm 
lunur thoory won* trnntiul of by him In 
aeparat.0 momoiw prjtmmti^l at itttrviU to 
tho Uoyal AHtrnnonucul Noriotv* 

The Leonid fthnw**r of \m\ (tirrwUHl hh 
attention to tho mtmnnt*nt of tluwu mttfwim, 
Laborimwly calculating th Him* trm 
thum of plantitury pitrt urbfttinntif 1m npp ii*d 
thwjfn fti A oritoriim f<;r tlm thttitrmhmtitm of 
thoir orbit and ptirltnl (M**nthty A^//(Wy 
xxvii. 1247)* Tlii, iiktt most of bin* work, WM 
deftnitivoly done, Ili pubUnhiul writing* 
in pure matlmmtitiwi ww mnrttnttigfttit tlrnn 
extannive, but 1m wroywl mnnipttUtittMiiong 
lines of ftguroi;, awl, .Mving tialeulatnd thirty* 
one ' BarufnuUian intnilH^n, 1 !m 0mphyt<d 
them to obtain tlm valiwi of * Kutiir** oon 
istant'to mi pkeoi of dm-unnU. lit* iiui 
wan frequently aikd and gntntod in aom* 
putation* of anoitmt flctUp*i und of 0tbnr 
astroncmtiaal ^hotiomcna, ll WD,I m ami* 
duous ttuden*i of Sir Imao Newton** work f 
and catalogued with Inbomte ORW tlii 
voluminotw opltation of hii manusaript* 
prasentad by l*ord Portsmouth to the unl* 
vawlty. lie luooewled Uhallia m dirwtor 
of the Cambrid^ obiirvntnry in 1881 1 and 
the gqubitiott En W70 of a ftm trannir* 
circle by Bimms dwld^d him to undfftatca 
one of the itaMontis aMignnd for cibwrvatlon 
to various <KKp0mfcwi by tht 



Adams i 

Astronomische Gesellschaft. The practical 
part of the work was done by Mr, Graham, 
Adams's assistant, and the primary results 
were published in 1897. 

Adams presided over the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society for the terms 1851-3 and 
1874r-6, A testimonial was bestowed upon 
him by the society in. 1848 for his researches 
into the perturbations of Uranus, and their 
old mecal in 1866 for. his contributions to 
lunar theory. The Koyal Society adjudged 
him the Copley medal in 1848. Honorary 
degrees were conferred upon him by the 
universities of Oxford and Cambridge, of 
Edinburgh, Dublin, and Bologna. He was 
a corresponding member of many foreign 
societies, inducing the Academies of Paris 
and St. Petersburg. He declined the office 
of astronomer royal on Airy's resignation of 
it in 1881. In 1884 he acted as one of the 
delegates for Great Britain at the Interna- 
tional Meridian Conference of Washington. 

He died after a long illness on 21 Jan. 1892, 
and was buried in St. Giles's cemetery, Cam- 
bridge, A portrait medallion of him by Mr. 
Bruce Joy was in 1896 placed in Westminster 
Abbey, close to the grave of Newton, and a 
bust .by the same artist was presented by 
Mrs. Adams to St. John's College. Portraits 
of him, painted respectively by Mogford in 
1851 and by Herkomer in 1888, are in the 
combination rooms of St, John's and of 
Pembroke Colleges. A memorial tablet to 
him was erected in Truro Cathedral on 
27 May 1893 (Observatory, xvi. 378), and a 
"bust, executed when he was a young man, 
stands on the^ staircase of the Iloyal Astro- 
nomical Society's rooms in Burlington 
House, A photograph of him, taken by 
Mrs. Myers four mouths before his death, was 
engraved in the ' Observatory ' for April 1892. 

'Adams was a man of learning as well as 
a man of science. He was an omnivorous 
reader, and, his memory being exact and 
retentive, there were few subjects upon 
which he was not possessed of accurate in- 
formation. Botany, geology, history, and 
divinity, all had their share of his eager 
attention' (GxAisHER), He enjoyed novels, 
and collected ei -ht hundred volumes of 
early printed boo-<$, which he bequeathed to 
the 'University library of Cambridge. Great 
political questions affected him, deeply, and 
1 in times of public excitement his interest 
was BO intense that he could scarcely work 
or sleep. 1 ' His nature was sympathetic and 
generous* and in few men have the moral 
and intellectual qualities been more perfectly 
balanced.' The honours showered upon him, 
Dr. Donald Mac Alister wrote, t left him as 
they found him modest, gentle, and sin- 

VQfc, 



i Adams 

cere/ lie married in 1863 Eliza, daughter 
of Haliday Bruce of Dublin, who survives 
him. 

The first volume of his ' Scientific Papers ' 
was published in 1896 at the University 
Press, Cambridge, under the editorshn of 
his youngest Brother, Professor WiOam 
Grylls Adams, F.It.S. A biographical notice 
by Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, and a steel en- 
graving by Stodart from a photograph of 
Adams by Ma^rall, are prefixec. This volume 
includes all his published writings. A se- 
cond volume containing those left in manu- 
script, so far as they could be made avail- 
able for publication, appeared in 1901, edited 
by Prof. W, Grylls Adams and Mr. R. A. 
Sampson, M.A, 

^Memoir by Dr. Q-laiflher prefixed to Adams's 
Scientific Papers ; Monthly Notices, liii, 1S4? 
Observatory, xv, 174; Kar-ure, xxxiv. 665, xlv. 
801 ; Astronomical Journal, No. 254 ; Grant's 
History of Physical Astronomy, , 168 ; Edin- 
burgh Review, No. 381, p. 71 J A. M. C. 

ADAMS, WILLIAM HENRY DAVEN- 
PORT (1828-1891), miscellaneous writer, 
born in London on 6 May 1828, grandson of 
Captain Adams, K.N. (d. 1806), was the only 
son of Samuel Adams (6. Ashburton, in Devon* 
shire, 1798, d. 1853), who married in 1827 
Elizabeth Mary Snell. He was christened 
William Henry, and assumed the additional 
name of Davenport by the desire of his 
great-uncle, Major Davenport. He was edu- 
cated privately, under George Dawson, and 
became an omnivorous reader. After some 
experience as a teacher of special subjects in 
private families, he began a life of unceasing 
Jterary toil by editing a provincial news- 
paper in the Isle of Wight, and while still 
young established a connection with the 
Condon press through such journals as the 
'Literary Gazette/ the * London Journal/ 
and * London Society/ He made some repu- 
tation in turn as a writer of popular science^ 
a writer for boys, a translator, and a lexi- 
cographer. He supervised a new edition of 
Macken2ie's ' National Cyclopedia/ and did 
a large amount of reading and writing for 
Messrs. Black (for whom he wrote ' Guides * 
to Kent and Surrey), for Bladkie & Son of 
Glasgow, ard Nelson & Sons, Edinburgh. 
In 1870 he founded the 'Scottish Guardian,* 
which he edited down to 1878, and subse- 
quently he projected and edited a series of 
volumes caLed 'The Whitefriars Library of 
Wit and Humour.' He died at Wimbledon 
on 30 Dec. 1891, and was buried at Kensal 
Green. He married in 1860 Sarah Esther 
Morgan, a Welsh lady, by whom he left 
two sons and two daughters, his eldest son, 
W. Davenport Adams, being the author 



Adler 



18 



Adye 



of the 'Dictionary of English Literature* 
(1878). 

Adams's voluminous compilations, num- 
bering nearly 140 in all, include a number 
of useful translations from the French of L. 
Figuier, J. 0. F. Hoefer, A. Mangin, Jules 
Michelet, and B. H. Rvoil. His best work 
is contained in the following : 1. ' History, 
Tomography, and Antic uities of the Isle of 
Wiht/ 1856 and 18fc4. 2. < Memorable 
Battles in English History/ 1862, 1868, and 

1878. 3. ' Famous Regiments/ 1864. 4. ' Fa- 
mous Ships of the British Navy/ 1808. 
5. < Lighthouses and Lightships/ 1870, 1876, 

1879. 6. 'The Arctic World: its Plants, 
Animals, and Natural Phenomena/ 1876. 
7 'The Bird World/ 1877. 8. 'English 
Party Leaders/ 2 vols. 1878. 9. ' The Merry 
Monarch/ 1885. 10. ' England on the Sea/ 
2 vols. 1885. 11. ' England at War/ 2 vols, 
1886. 12. 'Good Queen Anne/ 1886. 13. 'A 
Concordance to the Plays of Shakespeare/ 
1886. 14. ' Witch, Warlock, and Magician/ 
1889. He also edited a single-volume anno- 
tated edition of Shakespeare's ' Plays/ 

[Times, 31 Dec. 1891 ; Ann. ftep 1891 ; 
Ualkett and Icing's Diet, of Anon, and jteendon. 
Lit. pp. 609, 1689, 2460, 2530, 2682, 2829; 
Biograph, September 1879 j private informa- 
tion,] T. 8, 

ADLEB, NATHAN MARCUS (1803- 
1890), chief rabbi, born at Hanovor on 
15 Jan. 1803, -was third son of Mordocai 
Adler, rabbi in Hanover, and grand-nephew 
of Rabbi David Tewele SdhUf, chief rabbi of 
London in the reign of George III (from 
1765 to 1792), In addition to careful in- 
struction in Hebrew and theology, he received 
a good general education, and he attended 
successively the universities of Gottingen, 
Erlangen, Wiirzburg, and Heidelberg, On 
27 March 1828 he received a certificate of 
ordination from Abraham Bing, the chief 
rabbi of Wiirzburg, and on 6 June graduated 
PLD. from the university of Erlan^en, In 
1829 he was elected chief rabbi of tue grand 
duchy of Oldenburg, and in 1880 he under- 
took the office of chief rabbi of Hanover, 
which his father was unable to fill from lack 
of qualifications required by the government* 
On 13 Oct. 1844 he was elected chief rabbi 
of London, in succession to Rabbi Solomon 
" Hirschel [c. v.], and on 9 July 1846 was in- 
stalled at tae ^reat synagogue. He entered 
on his office shortly after the foundation of 
the 'reform' congregation in Burton Street, 
at a time when one "Darty in the Jewish 
cHurch was urging rap;,d innovation, while 
another was opposing all change. Adler re- 
presented the moderate party, which desired 



to effect improvement by gradual modifica- 
tions, II is first efforts wtr for the im- 
provement of Jewish school H, eHpuciaily of 
those for the middle clam 1 1 hmpoctud the 
schools and jjomtod out thoir dolUimsleH, 
On his inithitive & training 1 enllog'o for the 
Jewish ministry, known UH JOWH' Oolk^tj, 
was founded nt 10 Kinnbury Hquaru on 
11 Nov. 1 855, From him aim) 'proaiiodwl, ou 
24 Sept. 1BOO, the ilrt ( propuwil tor uniting 
the English conpfrogalioiw tmdor on ma- 
nagement, which roHuHod in the puHnagfl of 
the Unitod Hyna^oj^uoH bill through purlia- 
mont in 1870, For many yearn Iw livwi at 
4 Crosby H<; itaro, BiMliopHgnto, Huhwnqitently 
ho romovou to UJ Fuwbury Hquuw, and in 
1880 ho left London for Itaffhum, whiirw ho 
took a houHe at JUJ Firwt Avonuo. II in aon> 
I)r. Hermann Adlor, WIIH at thw amo time 
ap'jomtod to porform tho main dutioH f Im 
oillce, witli t\w t,itltM>f dhffat ohiwf rabbi, 
Dr. Acllwr diil at h'w rtwi<iinco at. Hriglittm 
on 21 Jan, 1 HiK), and WIIH luriwd at Wtltondou 
cemetury on I2M Jan. 

Adlor wan twice marnwl. By hi Urut 
wife, Honriotta Wormn (tL IHfrl), of Kmuk* 
fort, he had ilvo children -two MOUH and thnta 
daughters. Th younger MOII, Dr. Unrmann 
Adlor, Hucc<Hdiwl him aw tihinf rabbi* By 
his ocH>nd wifw, CoUwtine Lehfoldti who 
Hurvivod him, h^ had ont^ mm aud tw< <iaugh- 



A portrait of Adler by Hoi onion Alexander 
Hart [q, vj i in the v*wt py ntom of the |jr*iat 
fiywagogui^ and another hv Mr. ii B. M&rkn 
was presented to the council by the pnwukiit 
of tho united s^na^ogtie. 

Adlar pwblw.ul Meveral Aermonn v and WM 
tho author of a Hebrew commentary on 
Ohaldee paraphrase of Onkettm on the I*e 
teuch, ' Nettnah la-ger/ WUna, IB74 1 
edit* 1877, 

[Jewtoh Qwrterly Bwtaw, July 1^00 j Jewimh 
OhronicU, 24, n Jam 1800 j iiltigmph, l^lif- 
18-.J R L 0, 

ADYE, 8m JOHN MILLER (WB- 
1900), fftnpal t bom at Btytm<*ttki, Kant, on 
1 Nov. IB 19, was son of Major JUUIHM PtttttHan 
Ady% li.A, by Jane, daughter of J Mor* 
timer Kvlwm of Sovtmoa^H, I!i grand* 
father, Major Stephen Pnytit Adjt [q. y.] f 
served in the mvm yean wa? w m offlatr 
of royal artillery j he had three mm In the 
regiment, and there hat baun an untoukta 
uooefliion of mimbim of the family In It 
ever since, 

J. M, Ad entered the military academy 
at Woolwiosae a oadet sn Ftbrury 1684. 
He pasHtul out at the It^ad of hm tnttch, m& 
by Lia own choice rtoeivtd a oommliiioi n 



Adye 



second-lieutenant in the royal artillery on 
13 Dec. 1836. He became first-lieutenant 
on 7 July 1839; was sent to Malta in 1840, 
to Dublin (as adjutant) in 1843, and was 
posted to troop of horse artillery in 1845. 
Tie was promoted second-captain on 29 July 
1846, and captain on 1 April 1852* He was 
in command of the artillery detachment at 
the Tower of London in the spring of 1848 
when attack by the Chartists was appre- 
hended. 

In May 1854, on the outbreak of the Cri- 
mean war, Adye went to Turkey as brigade- 
major of artillery. Lord Raglan obtained for 
him a brevet majority on &2 Sept., and made 
him assistant adjutant-general of artillery. 
He was present with the headquarter staff 
at Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman, where 
General Fox Strangways, who commanded 
the artillery, was killed close by him. He 
served throughout the siege of Sebastopol, 
and remained in the Crimea till June 1856. 
He was three times mentioned in despatches 
(London Gazette, 10 Oct. and 2 Dec. 1854, 
and 2 Nov. 1855), was made brevet lieute- 
nant-colonel on 12 Dec. 1854, and C.B. on 
6 July 1865. He received the Crimean 
medal with four clasps, the Turkish medal, 
the Mediidie (4th class), and the legion of 
honour (3rd class). 

Adye was stationed at Cork Harbour when 
the Indian mutiny broke out, and in July 
1857 he was sent to India as assistant 
adjutant-general of artillery. From Calcutta 
he went up to Cawnpore, and arrived there 
on 21 Nov. to find t.xat Sir Colin Campbell 
had already left for the relief of Lucknow, 
and that the Gwalior contingent was ad- 
vancing upon Cawnporo* He took part in 
the actions fought there by "Windham [see 
WIND n AM, SIK OHA.ELBS ASH] on the 2"6th 
and following days, and brought in a 
24-pounder which had been upset and aban- 
doned in one of the streets of the town. He 
afterwards wrote an account of the defence 
of Cawnpore. He was present at the battle, 
of 6 Dec,, in which the Gwalior contingent 
was routed by Sir Colin Campbell after his 
return from Lucknow, His administrative 
duties then obliged Adye to return to Cal- 
cutta, and he saw no more fighting during 
the mutiny. He was mentioned in des- 
patches (Zon& Qa. 29 Jan* 1858), and re- 
ceived the medal. He became regimental 
lieutenant-colonel on 29 Aug. 1857, and was 
made brevet colonel on 19 May 1860. 

In May 1869 he was appointed to com- 
jmand the artillery in the Madras presi- 
dency, and in March 1868 deputy adjutant- 
general of artillery in India. In this post, 
which he held for three years, it fell to him 



9 Adye 

to carry out the amalgamation of the three 
Indian regiments of artillery with the royal 
artillery, a difficult task demanding patience 
and tact. In November 1863 he joined the 
commander-in-chief, Sir Hugh Hose, at La- 
hore, and was sent by him to the Umbeyla 
Valley, where General Chamberlain's expe- 
dition against the Sitana fanatics was at a 
deadlock. Adye, who was accompanied by 
Major (now Earl) Koberts, was to see 
Chamberlain, and to brin^ back a personal 
report of the situation. He was present at 
the action of 15 Dec. which finally dispersed 
the tribesmen, and at the burning of Eulka, 
the home of the fanatics, a week afterwards. 
He was mentioned in despatches (Land. Gaz. 
19 March 1864) and received the medal with 
Umbeyla clasp. 

After nine years of Indian service Adye 
returned to England. He had formed 
strong views, to which he afterwards gave 
frequent expression, as to the importance of 
trusting the people of India, and" admitting 
them to high office, civil and military. He 
had the fullest faith in a policy of concilia- 
tion and subsidies as the solvent for frontier 
difficulties. He became regimental colonel 
on 6 July 1807. 

On 1 April 1870 he was appointed director 
of artillery and stores. To his administra- 
tion has been attributed the failure of the 
British artillery to keep pace in improve- 
ments with that of other countries. Adye 
was "undoubtedly a firm believer in the 
wro light-iron muzzle-loader. But the re- 
version to muzzle-loading had taken place 
in 1863 before he came into office, and it 
was only after he had left office that im- 
provements in gunpowder furnished irresis- 
tible arguments in favour of breech-loading 
"see ABMSXROKQ, SIB WILLIAM GEORGE, 
Suppl.] Outside the duties of his own de- 
partment he was a staunch supporter of Card- 
well.^ army reforms; and when they were 
criticised by John Holms, M.P. for Hackney, 
he wrote a pamphlet in reply, ' The British 
Army in 1875/ which was published in 1876 P 

In the autumn of 1872 he was sent to the 
Crimea, in c8mpany with Colonel Charles 
George Gordon, to report on the British 
cemeteries there. The report was sensible 
enough, involved no great expenditure, and 
was carried out, Adye was made K.C.B, 
on 24 May 1873, and promoted major-gene- 
ral on 17 "Nov. 1875 and lieutenant-general 
in 1879. 

On 1 Aug. 1875 he succeeded Sir Lintom 
Simmons as 'overnor of the military aca- 
demy at^ Woo,.wich. He took an active part 
in the discussion which followed aoou after- 
wards about the advance of Bussia towards 

02 



Adye 



20 



Ainsworth 



India and our relations with Afghanistan, September 1892, Adye wrote: L <Tko Do- 
He made light of the danger from Russia, fence of Gawnporo, London, 1858, 8vo, 
advocated <a consistent policy of forbear- 2. 'Iteview of the Crimean War to the 




^ etf the forward policy on the North; 

West frontier, and printed a paper for pri- 
vate circulation in December on * England, 
Kussia, and Afghanistan. 1 

~" " returned to office in 



1897, 8vo, 

[Adye'a TtcooUctIon of 
1895; Times, 27 Aug. 1000,] 



Military Lift, 
K. MM* 



not 



c infinding a seat in parliament, In 



AIWW0MH, WILLIAM FRANCIS 

8W-la0^irl|^ ***, bom 
on 9 Nov. 1807 at Kxittar, WUM t.w mm o 



wwec n , 

August 1882, on the outbreak of Arabi John Amsworth of Rmilmm m Chtwhim, 

Pace's rebellion in Egypt, he accompanied captam m the .15th and ISRtU npnumta. 

Sir Garnet Wolseley to Egypt as chief of The noveltBt, William Ilarniym Anwworth 

the staff, with the temporary rank of general, [a.v.] f WM IUH ojwm f and at Im instance iw 

and he is entitled to a share of the credit adopted tho additional Oimntmn namo of 

for the success of that well-organised er>e- Francis to avoid oonfiukron of -jmonakty. 

dition. He was mentioned in despatches In 182/ ho bccanw ft liOMtmt o- tlio Royal 



(Ion* 6to. 8 Sept, and 6 Oct. 188*2), and Oollogo ol SiiWHonn, Kdmbur^h, whwe htj 

receivedthethanksofparliament,theG,C.B., fillod^ tho office oi ->widont ;n the Royal 

the medal with clasp and bronze star, and Physical and the Chilian w)fl*tm. 1I 

the -rand cross of the Medjidle. alterwawta procodd to Umdon and Patw. 
' of 



. 

Ac've returned to the war ofllce in Octo- whore he bocama m vntrn* at t jw Memxil of 
ber, but left it at the end of 1882 to become miiwB, While in Franco ho gaiiwd praetl- 



ffovernor of Gibraltar. There he tried to oal expwriwntso of gwioy among th moun- 
reconcile the dual interests of a fortress and tains of AuvrKn and tlw Pynmawi* Aftor 



BU&lJlOU WAltSltJIlwClili Y *Wtli J OWAOj WlAV V** *A1WT irwWKwy ,--,. w.-~- ,T... ,-,.-,,, . .. ,,w, -m, . ,-r. 

1886 he was placed on the retired lift, lowing year. In 18ftl,QntkttHp;iaaranaeof 

having reached the age of sixty-seven. He cholera at Bundorland, Aimworti 

devoted some of his leisure to a volume of thither to Htudy it t and yublifthdi 

autobioOTaphic^lreminiscencesCNo^,^/"^)* riencea in ' Ubwrvatloni on thw 

which was illustrated by his own sketches, Cholera,^ Ixrndon, IHttai, 8vt, Thia tra 

for he was an excellent artist* He became ld to hi appointment m nurffpon to 

general on 20 Nov. 1884, and a colonel- cholera hoap tal of Ht, (inoq^X Hanom 

commandant on 4 Nov, 1881. He was also Square, Oit the outbrewnk of th*t diai in 

honorary colonel, from 6 May 1870, of the Ireland he acted auaoflmivttly w nuvgnon of 

3rd Kent artillery volunteers and the 8rd thehotpitaUatWuitport|lUlHnrobtfOlaNH 

volunteer battalion of the West Kent regi- morris, and Newport, Ha dMttfiuntijr H 

ment. corded many incultvntu of hin m>jmmi in 

He died on 26 Auy, 1900 at Oragside, 'Aiaworth's Migaiiiui' and th 4 NiW 

Rothbury, Northumberland, while on a visit Monthly Magftjsina* 1 In 1BS4 Im pttbM 

to Lord Armstrong. In 1856 he married 'An Account, of the Gave* of Bady bani 

Mary Cordelia, daughter of Admiral the In Kerry/ Dublin, Svo, in which ht how 

Honourable Sir Montagu Stopford, and had a grap of geological principle rtmarkablt 

several children. His eldest son, Colonel in a tmtiie of o early a da"a 

John Adye, R A,, has seen active service in In 18S5 Ainiort4 t aftar itudylng tbt 

Af -hanistan, E^ypt, the Soudan, and South art of making observations uwUir Hir Ed* 

Af-ica, His elcest daughter Winifreda Jane ward Sabine [q, v.] was r) pointed uur 

married, m 1889, Lord Armstrong's grand*- and 'fcologisfc to the txpedHion to tbi 

nephew and heir, Mr. William Henry Wat* * 



an 



under Pra&di Bawdon Chmmj 
On his f&tnm ht pttbliihid U obitf* 
In addition to the pamphlets already men- vaticms \mdar the titk of * He^&rch^i in 
tioned, and an article ' In Defence of Short Assyria, Babylo?ua t and OhaM^a/ lx>tt<lou f 
Service* in the i Niiieten.th Century' for 1888, 8vo, with a ddifttbtt to OhMaqr 



Ainsworth 



21 



Airey 



Shortly afterwards he was placed in charge 
of an expedition to the Christians of Chaldaea, 
which was sent out by the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society and the Society for Promoting 
Christian knowledge. ^ He proceeded to Me* 
sopotamia, through Asia Minor, the passes of 
Taurus, and Northern Syria, reaching Mosul 
in the spring of 1840. During the summer 
he explored the Kurdistan mountains and 
visited the lake of Urimiyeh in Persian terri- 
tory, returnin- through Greater Armenia, 
and reaching Constantinople late in 1840. 
The expedition proved more tedious than 
had been anticipated ; the funds for its sup- 
port were exhausted, and Ainsworth was left 
to find his way home at his own expense. 
In 1842 he published an account of the 
expedition entitled ' Travels and Researches 
in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Chaldeea, and 
Armenia, 1 London, 2 vols. 12mo. Two years 
later, in 1844, he produced his masterpiece, 
the ' Travels in the Track of the Ten Chou- 
sand Greeks/ London, 8vo, a geographical 
and descriptive account of the expedition of 
Cyrus and of the retreat of his Greek mer- 
cenaries after the death of the Persian 
prince. In 1854 he furnished a geographical 
commentary to accompany the translation 
of Xeno^hon's 'Anabasis' by John Selby 
Watson "q, v.],' which was issued in Bohn's 
i Classical Library,' and was republished in 
1894 as one of Sir John Lubbock's < Hun- 
dred Books/ 

After his return to England in 1841 
Ainsworth settled at Hammersmith, and 
assisted his cousin, William Harrison Ains- 
worth, in the conduct of several magazines, 
including ' Ainsworth's/ ' Bentley's Miscel- 
lany/ and the ' New Monthly.' "n 1871 he 
succeeded his cousin as editor of the ' New 
Monthly Magazine/ and continued in that 
post until 1879. For some years he acted 
as honorary secretary to the Syro-Egyptian 
Society, founded in 1844, and he was con- 
cerned with various endeavours to promote 
the adoption of the Euphrates anc Tigris 
valleys route to India, with which Gaes- 
ney's expedition had been connected. He 
was one of the founders of the West London 
Hospital, and its honorary treasurer until 
his death at 11 Wolverton Gardens, Ham- 
mersmith, on 27 Nov. 1896, He was the 
lost survivor of the original fellows of the 
newly formed Royal Geographical Society 
in 1880, was elected a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries on 14 April 1858, and was 
also a corresponding member of several 
foreign societies* He married, and left a 
son and two daughters* 

Besides the works already mentioned 
Amsworth was the author of; 1 'The 



Claims of the Christian Aborigines of the 
Turkish or Osmanlee Empire upon Civilised 
Nations/ London, 1843, 12mo. 2. 'All 
Round the World, an Illustrated Record 
of Travels, Voyages, and Adventures/ Lon- 
don, 1860-2, 4 vols. 4to. 3. ' Wanderings 
in every Clime/ London, 1872, 4to. 4. * A 
Personal Narrative of the Euphrates Expe- 
dition/ London, 1888, 2 vols. 8vo. 6. The 
River Karun, an Opening to British Com- 
merce/ London, 1890, 8vo. He also trans- 
lated Fra^ois Au^uste Marie Mignet's 
' Antonio Perez and Philip II,' London, 1846, 
8vo, and edited i Lares and Penates ' from 
the papers of William Burckhardt Barker 
[4vT], London, 1853, 8vo. 

[0-eogr. Journ. 1897, ix. 98 j Biograph, 1881, 
vi. 350-3; Athenaeum, 1806, ii.,799; Times, 
30 Nov. 1896 ; Mrs. Chesney and Mrs. O'Don- 
nell's Life of General Chesney, ed. Stanley 
Lane-Poole, 1885.] E, I. 0, 

AIREY, SIR JAMES TALBOT 1812- 
1898), general, born on 6 Se-3t. 181. , was 
son of -lieutenant-general Sir 7 Jeorge Airey 
'q. v.l, by Catherine, sister of the second 
Jord Talbot de Malahide. Richard, lord 
Airey [<l.v.], was his brother., He was com- 
missioned as ensign in the 80th foot on 
11 Feb. 1880, became lieutenant on 3 May 
1833, and exchanged to the 3rd buffs on 
23 Aug. He was aice-de-camp to the governor 
of Malrasfrom May 1834 to July 1837. On 
26 Jan. 1841 he was appointed extra aide- 
de-camp to Major-general Elphinstone, and 
accompanied him to Afghanistan* In the 
latter part of that year he was present at 
the forcing of the Khoord Cabul pass, and 
the actions near Cabul, and on 21 Dec, he 
was given up of his own accord to Akbar 
Khan as a hostage. He was released with 
the other captives on 21 Sept. 1842, joined 
the force sent into Kohistan under Brigadier 
M'Caskill, and was present at the capture 
of Istalif. He was twice mentioned in 
despatches (12 Oct. 1841 and 30 Sept. 1842), 
anc received the Afghan medaL He also 
received the bronze star for the Gwalior 
campaign of 1848, in which he took parfc 
with his regiment* He was promoted cap* 
tain on 22 * uly 1842. and was aide-de-camp 
to the governor of Ceylon from April 1847 
to March 185L On 11 Nov. 1851 he became 
regimental ma;or, and on 17 July 1854 he 
exchanged to tie Coldstream guards as cap- 
tain and lieutenant-colonel. 

He served throughout the war in $ie 
Crimea with the lig,it division as assistant 
c uartermaster-general, being present a the 
Lima, Balaclava, Inkerman, and the assault 
of the Redan, and he accompanied tfoe 63$.- 



Airy 

pedition to Kertch. He was three times 
mentioned in despatches (28 Sept. and 11 Nov, 
1854, 18 Sept. 1855). Pie received tho 
Crimean medal with four clasps, the Turkish 
medal, the legion of honour (6th. class), and 
the MecF idle (4th. class). , He was made 0,B, 
on 5 Jmy 1865. He was promoted colonel 
on 26 Dec. 1859, and became regimental 
ma^or in the Ooldstream guards on 22 May 
18C6. He was promoted major-general on 
6 March 1868, and commanded the troops at 
Malta from 21 Aug. 1875 to 31 Dec, 1878. 
He became lieutenant-general on 1 Oct. 1877, 
and was placed on the retired list on 1 July 
1881, with the honorary rank of general. 
He was made K.O.B. on 2 June 177, and 
colonel of the Royal Inniakilling fusiliers on 
13 March 1886. He died in London on 
1 Jan. 1898. He was unmarried, 

[His own narrative of his experience in Afghan* 
istan i is given, under the title of ' The Oabool 
Captives/ in United Service Majr., November 
1845 to April 1846. See also Times, 3 Jan. 
1898; ArmyLists.l E. M. L, 

AIEY, SiRGffiOEGE BIDDELL (1801- 
1892), astronomer royal, was born at Aim* 
wick in Northumberland on 27 July 1801. 
His father, William Airy of Luddington in 
Lincolnshire, was then collector of excise in 
Northumberland, whence he was transferred 
to Hereford in 1802, and to Essex in 1810. 
Three years later he lost his appointment 
and lapsed into poverty. He died on 
26 March 1827. His wife, Ann, a woman 
of strong natural abilities, was the daugh- 
ter of a well-to-do Suffolk farmer : she died 
in 1841. 

George Biddell was the eldest of four 
children. At ten years of age he took first 
olace m Byatt Walker's school at Colches- 
ter, picked up stores of miscellaneous infor- 
mation from his father's books, and became 
notorious for" his skill in constructing pea-* 
shooters. From 1812 he spent his hcutays 
at Playford, near Ipswich, with hift uncle, 
Arthur Biddell, a farmer and valuer, whose 
influence upon his career proved decisive. 
He met at his house, Thomas Clarkson fq.v.l, 
Bernard Barton [c , v,], Sir William Cubitt 
Lq, v.J, Robert anc James Bansome fa. v A 
and studied optics, chemistry, and mechanics 

*J*j i^[ ary ' Prom 1814 to 1819 Airy 
Attended the grammar school at Colchester, 
where he was noted for his memory, repeat- 
ing at one examination 2894 lines of Latin 
Terse. By Clarkson's advice he was sent to 
Oamhndge, and entered as sizar of Trinity 
College in October 1819. In 1822 he took a 
scholarship, and in 1823 graduated as senior 
wrangler and first Smi& prizeman. His 



32 Airy 

year ranked m an annm mi'/vrAt/A, and Iw 
had no close competitor. On IUH lor,tion to 
a fellowship of Im collugo in Octobor 18&I 
he becaxno UHMtftttt nwthomutiail tutor; Iw 
delivered lucturoa, took pupils, and purwwwi 
original soiontifitt inywi.igntionH 

Airy's * Mathonwtical Tnw.tn on Phyflical 
Astronomy ' was publinliml in 18^ and it 
immediately bocamo a toxt-boolt in thti uni- 
versity. An twMiiy on tho undulatorv 
thoory of light wi8 uppwultnl to the* tuwan'd 
edition in 1881. 1<W Inn variotiH optical 
researches, ehiulty eontaimul in piipow laid 
before the Cambridge PhiloHophutal Society 
he recwviwl in 1HH , th Uoploy modal from 
the Uoyal Rocioty, \\\\ WH atimittwl to 
momhornhip of th AHtronnmical and (Jeo- 
lo^foal Mocit^titm nwpt^otively in IHSiK and 
lb^), and wan awartlotl in* iHiifi tlm gold 
modal of tho forwr hculy for IUH dotoction 
ofthe'lonff iunqimlity' cf SVmw atut tha 
earth, commutiiwittul to thn lioynl Siwioty 
on 24 Nov. IHrtl, Thn LolnndtN "riat! fol- 
lowed in 18W4, and on Jan, 18,'}.$ ho was 
elected a cornwpondwnt of tho Fnmh Aca- 
demy Of HOLOU(UM* 

A trij> to Hcotlaml with hin niiHtw, Klissa- 
both Airy, in tXw nnmni(r of IHS8 had 
'opened,* ho Haiti, *a complt*tt*ly tww world 
to him,' In tho enHtiin^ wiutor ho tuvmi 
in London with Hir Jntnt'N South fr v,] met 
Bir Humphry Davy and Hir John llowctoJ, 
and Imd hh i!rHt (txpwitmmi of pructitml 
tronomy, During a walking tour In Derby- 
shire in 1SS4 ho wrwmiil, aft^r two clays 1 
acquaintance*, for lie mrtla, rid<mt ilauirhiw 
of Aicliard Bmith, rwtor of KdimMor, nwar 
Ohfttsworth, and vactuvid a bfniigitntit ra 
fuRaL Thenceforth h mnwntrattni h! 
ellortft upon gtscnrin^ a pamtion in life and 
an income, In 18:115 ana IH'J<$ Im kd 
ing parties to KwwJok nnd Orlmnii, i 
jauca, on the fllrnt ooorMion, of th* yum* 
bouthey and Wordsworth, and making no- 
ouaintanea in Paris, on th nwmrL with 
Laplace, Ar^Pouillat, and Bmtvarxl On 
7 Pec, 1826 ha was elated Lurmiian profta* 
sorof mathematien at OAmbridtft( but thi 
emoluments of tlm offlca W>/, imr annum, 
with 10p/, m ipmftwt mnmbor of tlm board 
J longitude very ilightly excnedttd tlions 
of his relinquiibod tutonhip, Airy ranawad 
the prestige of the Lucaman chair by hii 
araour for the promotion of exiorlmentai 
physics in, the univeriity, In ha lecturei 
on h;ht to first drew attention to the defect 
of vision ainoa oallad * Mtlgwatiami' from 
wich he peruonally imfferta. A trip to 
Dublin m 1827 in tuait of tht vmmt mt 
of astronomer rova: in Iwland M to mf ra- 
suit j hut on 6 ftfc 1888 he suooooddi ftolwrl 



Airy 2 

. Woodhouse [c . v.] as Plumian professor of 
astronomy anc director of the Cambridge ob- 
servatory. His income was now augmented 
to 6QO& a year, and thus provided for, he 
succeeded in inducing Bicnarda Smith to 
marry him on 24 March 1830. At the obser- 
vatory he introduced an improved system of 
meridian observations, afterwards continued 
at Greenwich and partially adopted abroad, 
and set the example of thoroughly reducing 
before publishing them. He superintended, 
besides the erection of several instruments, 
and devised the equatorial mount for the 
Cauchoix twelve-inch lens, which was pre- 
sented in 1833 to the institution by the 
Duke of Northumberland. In Pebruary 
1835 Sir Bobert Peel offered Airy a civil-list 
pension of 300/. a year, which, by his re- 
quest, was settled on ais wife; and on 18 June 
1835 he accepted the post of astronomer 
royal, for which Lord Melbourne designated 
him in succession to John Pond [q. v. J 

Airy's tenure of the office of astronomer- 
royal lasted forty-six years, and was marked 
by extraordinary ener y. He completely re- 
equipped the Royal )servatory with instru- 
ments designed by himself. The erection in 
1847 of an altazimuth for observing the moon 
in every part of the sky proved o: great im- 
portance for the correction of lunar tables. 
A new transit circle of unprecedented optical 
power and mechanical stability was mounted 
in 1851, and a reflex zenith tube replaced 
Troughton's zenith sector in the same jrear, 
The inauguration in 1859 of a thirteen-inch 
equatorial by Merz finished the transforming 
process. Its xise the astronomer royal was 
resolved should never interfere with the 
1 staple and standard work' of the establish- 
ment; yet, while firmly adhering to the meri- 
dional system prescribed ' by both reason and 
tradition," he kept well abreast of novel re- 
quirements. In 1888 he created at Greenwich 
a magnetic and meteorological department, 
Broods plan of photographic registration 
being introduced in 184S. J'rom 1854 tran- 
sits were timed by electricity; spectroscopic 
observations were organised in 1868, and 
the "orismatic mapping of solar prominences 
in 1374 ; while with the lew heliograph a 
daily record of sunepots was begun in 1878 
Meantime Airy accomplished the colossal 
task of reducing all the planetary and lunar 
observations made at Greenwich between 
1750 and 1830, for which he received the 
gold medal of the Boyal Astronomical So- 
ciety in 1846, and an equivalent testimonial 
in 1848, The mass of materials thus pro- 
vided^ was indispensable to the progress of 
calestial mechanics. , 

Airv observed the total solar eclipse 'of 



3 Airy 

8 July 1842 from the Superga, near Turin 
(Memoirs of &oy. Attr. Society, vol xv.). 
and that of 28 July 1851 from Gothenburg- 
in Sweden (#. vol. xxi.) He subsequently 
visited Upsala, was received in audience by 
King Oscar at Stockholm, and on the return 
journey inspected the pumping-engines at 
^laarlem. 3?or the Spanish eclipse of 18 July 
1860 he organised a cosmopolitan expedition, 
which he conveyed to Bilbao and Santander 
in the troopship Himalaya, placed at his dis- 
posal by the acmiralty. Ee fixed his own 
station at Herena, but was disappointed in 
the result. In the autumn of 185* he super- 
intended an elaborate series of pendulum* 

increase of gravity with descent below the 
earth's surface. Similar attempts made by 
him in the Dolcoath mine, Cornwall, in 18215 
and 1828, with the co-operation of William 
"Whewell [o v<] and Richard Sheepshanks 
[q, v.], had ^een accidentally frustrated. He 
now renewed them in the Harton colliery, 
near South Shields, at a depth of 1,260 feet. 
The upshot was to give G'.~>6 for the mean 
density of the earth (Phil, Trans, cxlvi, 342), 
a value considerably too high. Airy ex- 
plained the method m a popular lecture at 
South Shields, 

The preparations for the transit of Venus 
in 187 cost him enormous labour. The 
entire control of the various British expedi- 
tions was in his hands ; he provided twenty- 
three telescopes, undertook the preliminary 
work at the observatory, and the subsequent 
reduction of the vast mass of collected data. 
The volume embodying them was issued in 
1881. Incredible industry and hi#h busi- 
ness capacity alone enablec, him to discharge 
the miscellaneous tasks imposed upon him. 
He acted as chairman and working secretary 
of the commission of weights and measures 
(1838-1842), sat on the tidal harbour and 
railway gauge commissions in 1846, on the 
sewers commission m 1848, on the exchequer 
standards and the coinage commissions in 
1868. He experimented in 1838 on the cor- 
rection of compaaaes in iron ships, devising 
the principle still in use; contributed ener- 
getically to the improvement of li aftxthouses, 
aided in the delimitation of the 'JLaine and 
Oregon boundaries, and settled the provisions 
for the sale of gas. The reduction of tidal 
observations in Ireland and India, and the 
determination in 1862 of the difference of 
longitude between Valencia, co, Kerry, and 
Greenwich, engaged his strenuous attention. 
He was consulted about the launch of the 
Great Eastern, the laying of the Atlantic 
cable, Babbaga's calctilatmg machine; the 
chimes of Westminster clock, and the smoky 



Airy *- 

Chimneys of Westminster Palace, A pa^er 
on suspension bridges, contributed in Ife07 
to the Institution of Civil Engineers, was 
honoured with the Telford mecal; and he 
delivered in 1869 lectures oix jpagnetism in 
the university of Cambridge, besides at sundry 
times numerous discourses to the general 
public. He failed in 1858 to obtain the office 
of superintendent of the Nautical Almanac, 
although 'willing to take it at a low rate 
for the addition to my salary,* 
Airy was elected a fellow of the Boyal 

Society on 21 Jan, 1836, frequently sat on 
the council, and was president 1872-73. He 
presided over the Boyal Astronomical So- 
ciety during three biennial periods, and for 
a fourth term of one year on,y ; he presided 
over the British Association at its Ipswich 
meeting in 185 L He became a member 
of the "Giunbridge Philosophical Society in 
1823, and later of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, of the Royal Irish Academy, and 
of several foreign scientific bodies. On 
18 March 1872 he succeeded Sir John 
Herachel as one of eight foreign members of 
the French Institute; he was presented in 
1876 with the freedom of tho city of London, 
was created D.O.L of Oxford (20 Jane 1844), 
LL.D. of Cambridge (1862) and Edinburgh, 
iwid elected honorary fallow of IVinityColloge^ 
Cambridge. The czar Nicholas sent him a 
gold mecal specially struck ; and among the 
orders conferred upon Him were those of 
?our le M6rite of rrussia, of the Legion of 
Honour, of the North Star of Sweden, of the 
Dannebror, and of tho Hose of BrassiL On 
17 May 1^71 he was appointed companion of 
the Bath, and, a year later (17 June 1872), 
ma promoted to be knight commander, His 
wife died on 13 Aug. 1875, and on the ground 
of the lapse of her pension Airy obtained an 
augmentation of his salary to 1,2QQ yearly. 

Airy was an indefatigable traveller, In 
18:29 e inspected the observatories of Turin, 
Milan, Bolo-na, and Ploren.ce; in 1885 exa* 
mined the ]V.arkree refractor in Ireland, and 
in 1848 elaborately tested the great Parsons- 
town reflector, Jn 1846 he visited Hansen 

* at Gotha, Gauss at Gottingen, and Caroline 
Lucretia Herschel [<;*.] at Hanover ; in 1847 
spent a month at Pu'kowa with Otto Struve, 
a^d, returning by Berlin, and Hamburg, saw 
Hutoboldt, Galle, Repsold, ajnd Bunker, 
He entered into correspondence with Lever- 
rier in June 1846 about the still unseen 
planet Neptune, and on 9 July suggested to 
.Processor Ohallis a plan of searea* IE the 

^Wtorog year be .escorted Leverrier to the 

'naefttw* of the Brit kh Association at Ox* 

j s /.tod, :!Jis unjustifiable apldaess to Joha 



f Airy 

Couch Adams "q.v Suppl.] %va (lcmbtleim 
duo to tho ttuuurrtiflHnumtH that followed 
his accidental yet rogrnt table oiniHsion to 
pay duo attention to tho lotter in which 
A cams commumcatod to him tho progress 
of his Neptune investigation, 

Airy resigned tho oilico of astronomer 
royal on 15 Auy, 1HH1> and ronukd tlionce-* 
forward, with his two unmarriud dau^htHrB, 
at the White UOUHO, ckws to Gr(Muwioh 
Park, and at l*kyford whw Iw Imd bought 
a cottago iu 18-15, ,11 m wiin tlmw wa 
to comploto tho * Numerical Lunar f 
upon wluch ho had boon nn^aftod from 
Printed in 1H86, tho eolniwal *wfbm 
proved, howwver, to bo muiitrm iml by un- 
explained errors, * With painful alarm/ the 
n#o<l author noted in tho pwfact* t M find 
t"iat tlitt oqu)\t.ionH am Jtuji- HntiHiitHl, and thitt 
the diBCordanott is Inr^o,* Aft^r twc ; 
of hopelesH fltrujfffle, hj lwwt,t'<l ft-om ' 
towards c k .t>rrnct ion wliich hiivu not bmi : 
nowed* Ho oontinutMl to njny (^ciirHmna 
to Cumborland and Playftml', lint a fall m 
11 Nov. 1H01 prodtuuMl an intunwl hyury 
nocAfletitiatinp; a mirtftaal opomtton, whicm lid 
survived only a fow davH, Ho <1U1 nt tJw 
White Hou on *J Jan. 1HI)*J, and wn bnritid 
in Play ford churchyard* 

* He wan (f medium utAtuws* Mr. Wilfrid 
Airy wrta, * and not powerfully built,* * Tli 
ruling feature of hit dwrnotwr ww order* 
From the time that h wimt. up to Cam- 
bridge to t.ha tuul of 1m life hm lyntem of 
order was strictly mAintaiiwd, 1 He enforotid 
it upon himself no km rigidly thun upon hln 
subordinate^ and k^pt ID at th Eovtl 
Observatory a apt-iron fiMiplino, which 
powerfully contributed to the ^ffiottnoy of 
jU administration. He novv dMtrovtd a 
document, but deviis^d an ininniotti pkn of 




anxious to put htUm into thatr proi^r 
than to xnantw their oantimtt.' * II v i nutuni 
was eminently praetieal, and hln dlsllk of 
mere theoretical probkma and InviwtifttioRt 
wa$ proportionatily great* II w 
at war with aomn of tha 



on 



(sar after year ha cpituftiHt^d the 
House papers and the Bmith^ 
very sevjirely, and oonduotod m iniersit* 
ing nd aor.moniawt private wrmnpond* 
ence with Fmfaftaor Ckylay on the tame 
subject* A very import nt fafttum of hii 
investigationi wa their thoroughnen. ' fit 
was never aatififltd with leaving % result an 
a barren mathtfmatieaUxpw*ion, He would 
reduce it, if possibly to n pmotieal and 



Airy 



Aitchison 



numerical form, at any cost of labour. . , . 
To one who had known, in some degree, of 
the enormous quantity of arithmetical work 
which he had turned out, and the unsparin ; 
manner in which lie had devoted himself 
to it, there was something very pathetic 
in his discovery, towards the close of his 
long life, that " the figures would not add 
ur> " ' (Autobiography of Sir George Biddell 
^.ity,p. 3) 

The amount of his labours almost exceeds 
belief. On the literary side alone they 
have rarely been equalled. He published 
eleven separate volumes, includin ; treatises 
on 'Gravitation' (1834 and 1884; , on ' Tri- 
gonometry* (written, for the Encyclopedia 
Metropohtana about 1825 and reprinted in 
1855), on 'Partial Differential Equations' 
(1866), 'On Sound and Atmospheric Vibra- 
tions' (1868 and 1871). His ' Popular As- 
tronomy/ embodying six lectures delivered 
at Ipswich in 1848, passed through twelve 
editions- And the papers contributed by 
, him to journals and scientific collections 
numbered 877, besides 141 official reports 
and addresses. He wrote on ' The Figure of 
the Earth/ and on ' Tides and Waves/ in 
the * Encyclopaedia Metropolitan ; ' his 'Re- 
port on the Progress of Astronomy/ drawn 
uj) for the British Association in 1832, is 
still valuable ; he gave the first theory of 
the diffraction of o DJect-glasses in an essay 
read before the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society on 24 Nov. 1834 ; for his discussion 
of the * Laws of the Tides on the Coasts of 
Ireland' (Phil, Tram. 12 Dec. 1844) he was 
awarded a royal medal by the Royal Society 
in 1846 j he communicated important re- 
searches on ancient eclnses to that body in 
1868, and to the Royal Astronomical Society 
in 1857j and he introduced in 1869 a novel 
method of dealing with the problem of the 
sun's translation (Memoirs of the Royal A*~ 
tronomic&l Society, xxviii. 143). 

Airy left six children, his three eldest 
having died young. His third son, Mr. 
Osmund Airy, was appointed government 
inspector of schools in 1876; his daughter 
HiCda married, in 1864, Dr* Routh of (Sam- 
bridge. 

[Air* left a detailed autobiography, "which 
was published at Cambridge in )89', under the 
editorship of his eldest son,Mr. Wilfrid Airy, with 
the additions of a personal sketch and a complete 
bibliographical appendix. A portrait is pre- 
fixed, copied from a steel-engraving executec by 
0, H, Jeens in 187ft (Nature, xviiu 689), The 
following sources of information may alo be con- 
sulted : Proceedings Boyal Soc. li. 1 (K JLUoxith) ; 
Monthly Notices, 1H. 212; Qbs*mtor,y, xv. 7 
(K Dunkm), with a photograph taken on 



his ninetieth birthday; Nature, 31 Oct. 1878 
(Winnecke), 7 Jan. 1892; Times, 5 Jan. 1802; 
English Mechanic, 8 Jan. 1892; Grant's Hist, 
of Physical Astronomy; Oraves's Life of Sir 
William Rowan Hamilton, passim.] A, M. C. 

AITCHISON, SIR CHARLES UM- 
PHERSTON (1832 - 1896), lieutenant- 
governor of the Panjab, born in Edinburgh 
on 20 May 1882, -was the son of Hugh 
Aitchison of that city, by his wife EliasabetJ, 
daughter of Charles Unvpherston of Loan- 
head near Edinburgh. lie was educated in 
the hiafh school and university, where he 
took tjte degree of M.A. on 23 April 1853. 
While a student in the university of Edin- 
burgh, Aitchiaon attended the lectures of Sir 
"William Hamilton (1788-1856) [q. v.] on 
logic and metaphysics. He afterwards passed 
some time in. Germany, where he studied the 
works of Fichte, and attended the lectures 
of Tholuck at the university of Halle. In 
1855 he passed fifth at the first competitive 
examination for the Indian civil service, and 
after spending a year in England in the study 
of law and oriental languages he landed at 
Calcutta on 26 Sept, 1856, In March 1857 
he was appointed an assistant in Hissar, then 
a district of the north-western provinces, 
and in the following month was transferred 
to the Panjab, where lie joined shortly after 
the outbreak of the mutiny* Owing to this 
transfer he escaped a massacre of Europeans 
which took jjlace at Hissar on 29 May, His 
first station in his new province was Amrit- 
sar, and immediately alter his arrival there 
he was employed under the orders of the 
deputy commissioner in carrying out the 
measures which were taken to prevent the 
Jalandhar mutineers from crossing the Beas 
river. Shortly afterwards he was appointed 
personal assistant to the judicial commis- 
sioner, in which capacity he compiled 'A. 
Manual of the Criminal Law of the Panjab ' 
(1860). While thus employed, he was much 
thrown with Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence 
(afterwards Baron Lawrence) [q. v/, with 
whose policy, especially on the Central Asian 
question, and on British relations with Af- 
ghanistan, he was strongly imbued during 
the remainder of his life* In 1892 he con- 
tributed a memoir of Lord Lawrence to Sir 
William Hunter's ' Rulers of India* series. 

In 1859 he -'oined the secretariat of the 
government of India as wider-secretary in the 
political department, and served there until 
L865, when, at the instance of Sir John 
Lawrence, then governor-general, in order 
that he might acquire administrative ex- 
perience, he took up administrative work in 
-..he Panjab, serving first as a _ deputy-com- 
missioner and subsequently officiating as com* 



Aitchison 



Altken 



missioner of Lahore. In. 1868 he rejoined 
the secretariat as foreign, secretary, and re- 
tained that appointment until 1878. 

As secretary Aitchison was extremely in- 
dustrious and thorough in his work. He 
exercised a marked influence on successive 
governors-general, who regarded him as a 
wise and trusted adviser. During the earlier 
jart of his service in the Indian foreign office 
ae commenced the compilation of a valuable 
work entitled 'A Collection of Treaties, En- 
ga "ements, and Sanads relating to India and 
ne'.ghbouring Countries ; ' the first volume 
appeared at Calcutta in 1862, and eleven 
volumes were issued by 1892 ; each treaty is 
prefaced by a clear historical narrative. In 
1875 he published a treatise on* The Native 
States of India/ with the leading cases illus- 
trating the principles^ which underlie their 
relations witJi the British government. A 
fitaunch believer in the policy of masterly 
inactivity, he regarded with grave apprehen- 
sion the measures which, carried out under 
the 'overnment of Lord Lytton, culminated 
in t'ae Afghan war of 1878-9. "See LYTTON, 
EDWAJID ROBERT BTJLWBE, firs-" EAWL.] 

Before the war broke out in 1878 he ac- 
cepted the appointment of chief commissioner 1 
of British Burma. When holding that ottico 
he raised two questions of considerable im- 
portance. The first was the question of the 
opium trade as bearing upon Burma. The 
aecond had reference to the relations of cer- 
tain English public servants with the women 
of the country Neither of these questions 
was dealt witu officially by Lytton's govern- 
ment ; but with reference to the second the 
viceroy intimated semi-officially that he 
disapproved of a circular which Aitchison 
Lad issued, as mixing up morals with poli- 
tics. ^ After Aitchison's departure from the 
province both these questions were taken 
up by his successor, who received the sup- 
port of Lord Bipon's government in dealing 
with them. The number of licensed opium 
shops was then ^reduced to one-third of 
those previously licensed, and the consump- 
tion of licit opium was reduced by two- 
fifths, involving a loss of revenue of four 
lakhs of rupees. On the other question, the 
principle of Aitchison's circular, stopping 
she promotion of officers who continued the 
practice which he had denounced, was en- 
forced, 

In 1881 Aitchison left Burma to become 
ixextyear(4 April 1882) lieutenant-gover- 
nor of the Pan;a"b. His government there 
was very successful, and popular with all 
classes of the people. He was a staunch 
itavocate of the policy of advancing natives 
of India in the .public service as they proved 



their fitnosfl for higher posts awl for more 
responsible duties. On thin point, in con- 
auction with what i known aa tho llbwrt 
Bill, he advocated UMIMIW ovw\ moro 
libural than tliow prnpomul by Lord Union's 
government. II o had inUmttwl to luavo 
India for good wlwn hw litmtmmntrgowsrnor-. 
shiy camo to an und in 1KS7, but; bmn# 
invited by Lord Duilwin, to join tho council 
of tho (jprnnrnor-jafonural and giv tho vicoroy 
the benefit of hia oxjwriunou on thu many 
questions which had to b dwlt with couatn 
quent upon th annoxtit ion of Uppw Burma, 
he returned to India for another nineteen 
months. During thn lattw *wrt of his 
government of tlut Panjab lw hat, dincharg-od 
the additional duty of prwidinff ovnr the 
public florvico commiHuion, and tluw duty lie 
continued to porform aftp joining tho 
govwnor-gonoraTH touti<nl. lln gav tuiro* 
jnitting atUmtion to thin work, and by hi* 
influonctt ovor t!i Homowhnt httrognooui 
body of which tho cmmmMmnn was coi|>8wl 
he mduowl thorn to - >nHont a unanimous 
report. Ho rrt.irecl nn< , Himlly l<ft India in 
Novombw IHHH, Kurly in tho folio wing ywup 
LoHettlod in London, hut Mub*t*quntly moved 
to Oxfonl In 1881 1m wait nominfttad 
K.O.S.I-, and in 1R88 OJ.K. H ntonivod 
tho doflruo of LL.l), from th univwftiity of 
Edinburgh on 534 Kb. 1877, aiul that of 
honorary M,A V from Oxfuvd Uniwriity in 
1895, ^ ' 

Aitdmon* m mmntfally mligiou* man* 
was^ a oonwintwit and warm Muppnrter of 
Christian miiwions white In India, and afbor 
his retirement wa m nctt ivts moinhnr of the 
committwo of the Church MinMmtmrvHooiety* 
lie diod at Oxford on W Fob. lHi)t, 

Aitchwon married, on S) KeTb, IB(I1 Baa* 
trie Lyell, daughter of JARUM Cox, 0L, of 
Clement Park, ^orfarnhin*. 

'Twelve Indian Staton-nan, by O^orflft flmfth, 
O^B, f 1I*D., LftBdon, lj The Imim 
1890 1 persouiil veeoltotioiM, J A* J. 



Bii WILLJAM (18SM..1808), 
pathologist, oldiMt son of William Aitkm, a 
medical practitioner of Uuiultm, wai bom 
there on 23 April 18SA, Having waeivd 
his general education at tlw high Mbaol 9 ha 
was apprenticed to hb father, and at the 
same time attended tha wnotiats of the Dun- 
dee Itoyat Infirmary* In JAM ha mafcriew- 
lated at the imi?ersity of Edinburgh, and 
m 1848 graduated M.I) obtaining a ld 
medal for his thenii ' On Inflammatory Effu 
sions into the Subfltanea of the Lunn as 
Baodiaad by Contagious Famit' (Afti/Mrf. 
Buy* ^wm, 1849). In October of tta ame 
year he was appointed demomtrator of ana* 



Alban 



Alban 



tomy at the university of Glasgow, under 
Allen Thomson, and also patholojiat to the 
royal infirmary, which posts he .ield up to 
18*53. In that year he was sent out to the 
Crimea under Dr. Kobert S, D. Lyons [q. v,] 
as assistant pathologist to the commission 
appointed to investigate the diseases from 
which our troops were suffering 1 (Part. 
Papers, 1856). In 1860 he was selected for 
the poet of professor of pathology in the 
newly constituted army medical school at 
Port Pitt, Chatham, which was afterwards 
removed to Netley. This appointment he 
held until April 1892, when railing ^health 
necessitated his retirement, and he died the 
same year on 25 June. He had been elected 
F.K.S, in 1878, and was knighted at the 
jubilee in 1887, In the following year he 
received the honorary degrees of LL.IX from 
the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. 
He married in 1884 Emily Clara, daughter 
of Henry Allen, esq., who survived him. 
His portrait by Symonds is at Netley Hos- 
pital. 

His works include a well-known ' Hand- 
book of the Science and Practice of Medi- 
cine/ 1857, 7th edit 1880; 'An Essay on 
the Growth of the Recruit and Young Sol- 
dier/ 2nd edit. 1887; and an unfinished 
* Catalogue of the Pathological Museum at 
Netley Hospital. 1 

[Men and Women of the Time, 13th edit., 
1891; obituary notice in the Lancet; informa- 
tion from J. IX Malcolm, esq., FJI.C.S. Edin.] 

J. B. N. 

ALBAN, ST. (rf. 304 P), called 'the pro- 
tomartyr of Britain/ and by many mediaeval 
writers, by a strange confusion, * the proto- 
martyr of the English/ was according to 
Bede a pagan when, during the persecution 
m the reigns of Diocletian and Maximian, 
he gave shelter to a Christian cleric and was 
converted by him. After some days the 
1 prince/ hearing that the cleric wa$ with 
Alban, sent to arrest him* On the approach 
of the soldiers Alban put ^on his teacher's 
cloak or cowl, and gave himself UT in his 
stead, "When taken before the jucge, who 
asked him how he dared B shelter a 'sacri- 
legious rebel/ he declared himself a Christian, 
and refused to sacrifice to the heathen 
deities. He was scourged and led forth to 
be beheaded outside the city of Verulamium, 
A great multitude accompanied him, and 
thronged the bridge across the river (the 
Vet), whose waters divided so that he crossed 
dryshod. On this the executioner threw 
down his sword, declaring that he would 
rather die with him than put him to death. 
Alban was led to the top of a flower-clad hill 
(the site of the future abbey), where a spring 



of ^ water rose miraculously to quench his 
thirst. One was found to act as executioner, 
and Alban was beheaded. The soldier who 
had refused to execute him wasalso beheaded, 
and the eyes of him who had taken the exe- 
cutioner's place dropped out. Alban suffered 
on 22 June. "When the persecution ceased 
a church was built on the place of his mar- 
tyrdom, and there down to Bede's day (731) 
it was believed that frequent miracles were 
wrought. Bede, copying from Gildas, adds 
that at the same time Aaron and Julius were 
martyred at * Legionurn urbs/ or Caerleon, and 
many more of both sexes in various places. 

Doubt has been cast on this narrative, 
because the Diocletian persecution did not 
extend to Britain (EuflEBitrs, JUstoria JSbc/e- 
siaatica, viii. 13, and other authorities quoted 
in Councils and JEkcksiastical Documents, i. 
7). Aaron and Julius are certainly rather 4 
shadowy- persons, and the statements of 
Gildas and later writers as to numerous mar- 
tyrdoms, which imply a widespread persecu- 
tion in Britain, are untrustworthy.^ Yet 
there is not sufficient reason for rejecting 
the individual case of Alban, who may have 
suffered at some other time, and in a merely 
local persecution, In any case his martyr- 
dom rests on fair historical ground, since it 
was believed at Verulamium a century and 
a quarter after the date generally assigned 
to it. For Constantius, in his 'Life of Ger- 
manuV [q. v.], bishop of Auxerre, written 
about forty years after the bishop's death, 
records that in 429 Germanus and Lu;pu$ 
visited the tomb of Alban, and that Ger- 
manus took away some earth which was be- 
lieved to be reddened by the martyr's blood. 
Germanus built a church at Auxerre in 
honour of St Alban, which was standing in 
the eleventh century (Xtecueil de$ Histortens, 
x. 172). In the sixth century the martyr- 
dom was recorded by Gildas, and noticed in 
a poem written 569-74 by Venantius For- 
tunate, afterwards bishop of Poitiers, in 
a line quoted by Bede, whose account of 
Alban was probably taken, from some source 
not now known to exist* The foundation of 
the abbey of St. Alban is attributed to Offa 
(d, 796) [q, v.], who was believed to have 
discovered the martyr's body. 

It was believed at St. Albans that Alban'a 
body was carried off by the Danes, and re- 
stored through the agency of the sacristan 
Egwin, who went to Denmark and secretly 
abstracted it. In the twelfth century the 
convent of Ely; claimed that they had thfc 
body, but an inquisition into the matter 
having been made by order of Hadrian IV, 
they definitely renounced their pretensions, 
It is said that while some excavations were 



Albemarle 



Albert 



being made at Verulatnium, in the time of 
the ninth abbot, in the latter ;>art of the 
tenth century, an ancient boo.t was dis- 
covered in a wall of the Koinan city, bound 
in oak boards, and written in a language 
which none could read save an old priest 
named TJnwon. He declared it to contain 
the story of Albaa "written in the British 
language. By the abbot's command the 
book was translated into Latin, and when 
the translation was finished the original 
volume crumbled away. 

The cleric who was sheltered by Alban 
received the name Amphibalus, which first 
appears in the ' Historia Britonum ' of Geof- 
frey of Monmouth [q. v.], and is evidently a 
confusion between the man and his cloak, 
for 'amphibalus 7 is equivalent to 'caraealla/ 
the word used in Bede's story. In 1178 a 
body asserted to be the remains of Amplii- 
balus was found on RedbournGreeu, near St. 
Albans, where it was believed that lie was 
put to death after the martyrdom of his 
disciple. The body was laid in the abbey 
church, and, at the bidding of Abbot Symon, 
a monk of the house named William trans- 
lated from English into Latin the story of 
Alban and his teacher in an elaborate form, 
supplying, as he says, the name Amplubalua 
from the * History ' of Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
The compiler of the ' Chronica Mivora ' took 
the legend from William's work. "St. Alban 
of Britain has been, confused with a St. 
Alban or Albinus of Mainz, said to have 
been martyred in the fifth century, and with 
a martyr Albinus, whose body was trans- 
lated by the .Empress Thetnhano to the 
church of St. Pantaleon at Cologne. At 
least three places in France bear the name 
St. Alban, a village near St. Brieuc (Cites 
duNord), a village near Koanne (Loire), and 
a small town near Mende (Loz&re). 

[Bede's Hist. BecL i. cc. 7, I ft (Plummet's 
Bede, 11, 17-20, 33) ; Conatantius'a tifo of St, 
Germamis, l, 25, ap, AA, 88. Bolland, Jul. 81, 
^202 sqq. 224, 250; Gildiw, Hist. p. 17 (tingl. 
Hist. Soc,); Venanthis Fortunatus, De Virtrini- 
tate, Miscall. viii. 6 (Patrol, Lab. Ixxxviii. 207' 
Wliara of St. Albans and notes, ap* AA, S3. 
Bolland, Jun. 22, v. 126 scq,; Matt Panto's 
Cluton. Maj. i. 149-52, 233, 31, 356-8, tj. 302: 
Gesta Abb, S. Alb, i. 12-18, 27, 70, 176, 192-3 : 
Geoffrey of Monmouth's Hist. Brit, v, f>, od. 
Giles; Usher's Antu. pp. 76-89, 281 j Bright 1 * 
Early Engl. Church liist pp. 6, 7, ed. 189*,] 



,, 

WU.LUM COTOCS, 1632-1894 .] 



n VICTK 

, DtTKE Otf 

iAU3 and EARI, o^^ ATHLOSTE 



born at Fragmorn, Buckinglm-uanlim*, on 
8 Jan. 1864, wan thu uldiwt wwi of Albort 
Edward, princo of Walew (now Edward VII,), 
and^^iiuMjnJ^Aloxandm, oldiwt daug-htor of 
Christian TX, kin^ of I)ntnuirk. (juoou 
Victoria [q. v. SuppL] wan IUH grandmother, 
and Prince Albert Victor Blood m^vt to IUH 
father in the direct lino of HutMito.HHiott to tho 
throne. Ho vrnfl bapl-inod in Bucldngham 
Palace chapel on 10 March following him 
birth, and wan privately oducatod until! 877, 
when he was H<wt, to join th< training Hlup 
Britannia at. Dartinmit.h. In 1870 ho wont 
with his brother l*rino (iloorgo (now Ihilco 
of Cornwall an<l York) on a thrtw yearn* 
oruifle in H,MX Hmxjliantts which sailud 
round the world and vim tod mont, of tho 
British coloniH* An account of tlio crtuHc, 
' compiled from tlwi private, joumatn, loUrH, 
and noto-ljoolcH ' of tho yoiiug print;oH y wan 
pubjwlu^d in lHH(i iu two Htout. volunwM by 
th(ur tutor, Urn Utw. John N, (wow <5amm) 
Dalfcon. ^AfU i r Homo tuition in iHSSi tt from 
JamcB Ktnn(.h Sin]hon [wwi utuUsr STB* 
PIIHK, BIU.UMMH KITXJAMHM], Prince Allxirt 
Victor wan in October I HH3 witowt at, Trinity 
Oollo^,0ara bridge ; during tho lon^ vaca- 
tionflho fltudiml at Uiudel'mrff, and in iHHB 
ho waH created lum, LL,1), of Oiunhndp, 
1J -wax thn <nfc to Aldornhot, bmramn 
lieutenant in th 10th htWHarn in lHHO,uwjor 
in 1889, and in 1HHI) attain Tin tint flth 
lancow, captain in th JJnl ing* roynl rttlou, 
and aidMlHiftmi) to the quww, In 1HH7 Im 
vfoitod InJand, and in iHHt) !K) India (MHI 
J. 1), "UutiH, The 7M# */ <Uttwnw m tftmttom 
India, London, IMOI ), On $l May 1MOO ho 
was cruatud Earl of Athlonn nn4JT Duktt of 
OlarancB and Avomkk On 7 Dim. 1H91 
IUB betrothul waw tumouncixl with IUN (:*> 
the IMnftORH Miwy of Twk (now thn Dttnhiwi 
of Cornwall and York)* The wuldiiiir w 
fixed for ; J7 M), IHttsi, hut on 14 Jnn. 1H8 
the dukodioil of pneumonia following influ- 
enza at Handrijjglmm. lie WUH buriwl in 
St, Georgo*M dhft^I, WimiMor, on 1*0 Jan. 
His placa in t.ht direttt line of micewwion to 
the thmno was takim hy hw brother Utwqgn, 
than Duko of York, A portrait, minted 'y 
J. 8ant f K,A,, in 187*J, and atu>tlir of him 
ami Prince Goorgtt an midHhipmeti, -mint^l 
by 0. So!m, wara itxhibitmti iu the V .etorian 
exhibition; other portmitu aro ntproduiwcl 
m Vmoent*0 ' Memoir/ Hm death wa tho 
occasion of asany laments in prow* and vwu, 
of which Tonnywm's hgy f publmlied in th 
' Mmeteimth Century; Fcbrttftry iMUtf, in th 
most notable. Lewi HctlbornA'wrtttQ At tlw 
time, * I do not think there ban twwi a morn 
tragic event in our time, or one whtah i* 
more likely to towA the toutiof tin* ptutpW 



Albery 



Alcock 



generally' (Memorials, ii. 878). On 18 Dec, 8 July 1878. With Mr. Joseph Hatton he 

1892 King Edward VII, then Prince of produced at the Princess's, 80 Nov. 1878, 

Wales, laid the foundation-stone of the * Number Twenty, or the Bastille of Cal- 

1 Clarence Memorial Wing' of St. Mary's vados.' To the Haymarket he gave 'The 

Hospital, Paddington, which was designed Crisis 7 (2 Dec. 187 8), to the Prince of Wales's 

to commemorate the duke's name. * Duty/ from < Lea Bourgeois de Pont-Arcy ' 

[Memoir by J, G-. Vincent, 1893; O. E. (27 Sept. 1879), and to t.ie Vaudeville 'Jacw 

C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, viii. 237-8; and JUs' (29 May 1880). To the Criterion 

Dalton's Cruise of the Bacchante, 1886; Men Theatre he gave a series of successful adapta- 

of the Time, ed. 1891; Times, 15-21 Jan. tions, including * Pink Dominos' (founded 

1892 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] A, F. P. O n the French of Hennec uin and Delacour). 

ALBERY, JAMES (1838-1889), dra- Albery's work never fulfilled his promise, 



matist, eldest son of James and Amelia 
Eleanor Albery, was born in Swan Street, 
Trinity Square, London, on 4 May 1838, 
After some private schooling he entered an 
architect's office in FenchurcS Street at four- 



which at the outset was brilliant. He 
had a wild, extravagant imagination, and in 
' Oriana ' recalled the gifts o? Fletcher. He 
was for a time a sort of stock writer to the 
Criterion. At that theatre his wife, Miss 



teen, and remained there till, on the death Mary Moore, whom he married in 1878 when 

of his father in 1859, he helped his mother she was very young, played female 'lead/ 

in conducting the business of rope and twine He died, while still comparatively young, in 

* - _ i -__ -_ ^i. . Ti. ^A.!._. i> .1 T>.,* K~ u^ j kis c h am )) ers i n St. Martin's Lane on 15 Aug. 

1889, and was buried on 20 Aug. at Kensal 
Green. 
[Personal knowledge; Athenaeum, 24 

lCI" . Ct^f^H nw.3 TTnmf.fu/1'a T &! rt-f "ftlufirt 



dealer in the"Blackfriars Road* But he had 
already formed the ambition of writing for 
the stage. After several unsuccessful en- 
deavours, he, on 4 June 1866, gave to the 



Lyceum ' Dr. Davy/ an adaptation of ' Le ] 889 ; Scott and Howard's Life of Blancharc. ; 

I^Ant'/iii'M TJ/\l"vM ' 11^ 1 TTtl/l' TVfv TTttTTMClin A/ O<rin TPwn A IT.IVIO ft]f H _T Tf , 



J. 



A.LCOCK, SIR RUTHERFORD (1809- 
1897), diplomatist in China and Japan, bom 
in 1809, was the son of Thomas Alcock, a 
medical man practising at Ealing, and was 
himself educated for that profession, For a 
time he was house surgeon at Westminster 



Docteur Robin/ in which Mr. Herman Vezin Era Almanack.] 

played David Garrick. On 4 June 1870 Albery 

obtained at the Vaudeville his most con- 

spicuous success in a three-act comedy called 

Two Roses/ in which (Sir) Henry Irving 

made a great reputation in the role of Digby 

Grant. This was strengthened by the addi- 

tion (27 Au*.) of 'Chiselling/ a farce by -------------- 

Albery and foseih J. Dalley. On the 250th Hospital, and in 18&J he was appointed 
representation o:' Two Roses ' (the perform- surgeon to the British-Portuguese forces 
ance being for (Sir) Henry Irving-'s benefit), operating in Portugal In 1836 ae was trans- 
Albery delivered an original sketch, entitled ferred to the marine brigade engaged in the 
' Our Secretary's Reply/ ' Two Roses ' was Carlist war in Spain, and so highly were his 
printed in Lacy V Acting Plays/ 1881. services valued that, though he remained 

At the St. James's, 4 March 1871, was pro- only a year with his force, he became deputy 
duced Albery's 'Two Thorns/ which had inspector- -eneral of hospitals. On his return 



already been played at. the Prince of Wales's, to ICn^lanc, he resumed medical work as lec- 




tremens, and on 9 Sept. ais 'Apple* Bios- vice in China, he was nominated consul at 
' On 123 Oct., at the Lyceum, (Sir) Fuchow, one of the ports newly opened to 

V .. J1 __ T* .1 ^ 2 A1 J.^^,1,. Uw *!, + >.,. 4- * * 1CMO ^^-n Tio mrtttr f/\ 



somB. 



Jlenry Irving appeared as Jingle in'Al- trade by the treaty of 1842. On his way to 
berVs 'Pickwick/ a poor adaptation from his new post he was detained at Amoy, 
' 



Die', cans. ' Forgiven ' followed at the Globe where, in the absence of the consul, his 

(9 March 187:2), ' Oriana/ a fairy legend, services were requisitioned. Here, with the 

was given at the Globe on 15 Feb. 1873, assistance of Sir Harry Smith Parkes [q. v.], 

and the * Will of Wise King Kino/ a simi- he did some excellent work by bringin -home 

lar experiment, at the Princess's, 13 Sept. to the minds of the Chinese officials that 

6 April 1874 'Wig and Gown* was treaties were solemn engagements, and not 




1876 ; * The Man 



Gaiety, 4 l)ec. 1876 j and ' Jingle/ a revised 
version of "his 'Pickwick/ at the ~ 



ceum, 



was transferred to Shanghai, whither Parke$ 
followed him* 
Alcock had not been long at his new post 



Alcock 



Alexander 



when an incident occurred which well illus- l>y tho remark lYmeo Kmiff tnado to him, 
trated his courage and determination. Three that ' if Midland would only tako, away ho r 
missionaries in pursuit of their work had been opium and hor ittiMHioimricM tlw relations 
attacked and grievously ill-treated by a crowd between tho two countries would bo ovory- 
of iunkmen out of work. As the tao-Vai thin? that could bo dnniivd. 1 I.n 1871, Sir 
showed little inclination to punish the riotew, Kntaerfprd roHignodJim post, al; Peking and 
Alcock -oroclaimed that no duties would be retired from thn norvieo, Hottlm^ in London, 
-Daid by English ships, and that not one of the In hia rotiroinont ho fjroal ly int uroMtod him- 
:ourteen hundred ^rain junks which were self in honpitiil nutwing oHtabliKhmontH, in 
waiting to sail northwards would be allowed promotion of which hin modinal lmo\vlodf*<i 
to leave its anchorage until the criminals provod dlboUyo. II o norvod JIIM prowdont of 
had been seized and punished. Though at the Gootfwnhiwil Society (1870 K) and vico- 
this time there were lifty war junks in the m^ukmt o_ the ttoyal A niatio Hoeiot y 1 H75- 
harbour and only one British sloop-of-war, .878), and waa an activo supporter of many 
the bold threat had the desired effect; the charitable ninth ut.ionH. 
rioters were punished and the grain junks Sir KuUiorlbrd diod without wsmn at his 
were allowed to saiL Under his direction rosidtmo,o, II Groat Qu< k n St.roul, London, 
the municipal regulations for the government on 2 Nov. I HJ)7. I lo nwrrint lirHl, on 1 7 May 
of the British settlement at Shanghai were ,1811, HonrintU Mary (^ IS5JI), dan^htor of 
established, and the foundations of the vast Charltw Bacon ; and mwmd l>vm H J uly l8(iSi f 
city which has since arisen on the shores of Lucy ( d, 1 HSU)), widow of thn Roy, T, J 
the Wongpoo river were laid. JNril.inh c.haplain at Shun^ljai^ Two 

The services which Alcock had rendered of Alccxsk an* roproduwd in 

at this new port marked him out for promo- 
tion, and in 1858 he was appointed tTio first 
consul-general in Japan, on the conclusion 
of Lord Elgin's treaty, Alcock proceeded 
at once to Tokio. The admission of foreigners 
into the country had produced a wild formont 
among the military classes of Japan, a spirit 
which was not long in showing itself in its 
fiercest aspects. Several foreigners were 
murdered in the streets of Tokio, and Alcock'w 
Japanese linguist was cut down by a swords- 
man at the gates of the legation, Not con- 
tent with these isolated onslaughts the din- 
contented Bonins determined to makp a 
general attack up^on the British legation, 
Without any warning, on the night of 5 July 
1861, they scaled the outer fence, killed the 

gatekeeper and a groom, and rushed towards Hurry ParkuM, 2 voK IHUli ; 
the rooms occupied by the members of the Chirm during tlut Vfotoviim Kru, Ity'Aloxundttr 
legation, These defended themselves so wdl Midno, 1000; poramial kmiwlml^,| It, K, U, 
that they beat off their assailants* In tho 

following year Alcock returned to England ALEXAHBEE, M iw.nK(H I * FHA NCJKH 
on leave. He had already been created a ^IBlH-lHUo), pootortH, bom in <<) \Vu*khw 
C.B., and was now made a knight commander in 181 ft, WB tho Hijt>ttd dauj(hi*r of John 
of the Bath on 19 June 1862- On 28 March Humphroyfl, major in Uw royal tunrtniw, by 

1863 he received the honorary degree of his wito, thn daughter oM^rttruri U<ud of 
D.C.L. from the university of Oxford, In Dublin, and nioctu of Hir VlmmiiK UtMul 

1864 he returned to Tokio. Here troublous [q_, v*] Bho hwgan to writo prM^trv at nitut 
times were in store for him, and it was years of ago, wdw.ting trngit; Hubj<H*tM liko 
mainly due to his influence that the battle of the death ot Ntilmm and tho mnHMH<*r) of 
Shimonoseki, which opened the Straits to Glencoe. Wlul*^ hor fiithor wan living at 
foreign ships, was foug.it. Bally koan, in Wioklow, a friMndHhi^ awjH 

In 1865 Alcock left Japan on being ap between MIHK llumphroyHiind Lady Jlarriut 
pointed minister-plenipotentiary at Pejcin^. Howard, tho daughf r of tho Karl of Witk* 
There he conducted many delicate and dim- low, herwolf an authort^Hi Thoir intimacy 
cult negotiations with the Tsungli-yamen, cont'mned aftr Major Ihmiphtt\YHm<>vwl 
and the spirit in which Alcock conducted to Mill town, nar $ trabaiu^ tm th btirdori 
the negotiations was sufiiciently illustrated of Donegal and Tyrone Thuy cumo udr 



lishman in China,* on irotn a drawing 1 niad 
in JH-lJi by L* A. do l^alxM^k, and tht^ othor 
from a photograph ta,lt(u about- 1MHO. 

Alcock wan author of; \. * No ton on tho 
Medical Hintrnryaiui HtatiMtirn of tho Hritmh 
Lotion in Spain, 1 London, IHMH, Hvo. i^ 

ii 'KloinontH of JapiuuMo(iramniar/ Hhang- 
hai, 18(U, -Ho. !, 'Tho dental of tho Ty- 
coon/ London, 1 803, 1J volw, Hvo, f>. * Kiuniliar 
Dialo^ucm in Ja^anoHo, with Kit^linh ntid 
French TnuiHlutimiM, 1 Londtui, lH(JJJ t Hvo, 
(}. 'Art and Art InduMtrion hi Japan/ Lon- 
don, 1878, Hvo. Hit also in IKHJ oditi'd th 
* Diary' of AugUMt-un Raymond Margnry 

Ci- V J 

fB L, Poole and F, V, t)it'kinH*N Lif of Hir 
Hurry 



Alexander 



Alexander 



the influence of the Oxford movement, and 
turned to writing tracts, the prose part of 
which Lady Harriet supplied, while Miss 
Humphreys contributed a number of poems. 
The tracts began to appear in 1842, excited 
some attention, and were collected into a 
volume in 1848. In 1846 Miss Humphreys 
published * Verses for Holy Seasons ' (Lon- 
don, 8vo), with a preface by Walter Far- 
quhar Hook [q.v.~ ; it reached a sixth edition 
in 1888. There followed in 1848 her ' Hymns 
for Little Children/ for which John Keble 
[q. v.] wrote the preface ; this volume reached 
a sixty-ninth edition in 1896. Many of her 
hymns, including 'All things bright and 
beautiful,' ' Once in' royal David's city/ 
'Jesus calls us o'er the tumult/ 'The roseate 
hues of early dawn/ ' When wounded sore 
the stricken soul/ and ' There is a green hill 
far away/ are in almost universal use in 
English-speaking communities. Gounod, 
when composing a musical setting for the 
last, said t j,at the words seemed to set them- 
selves to music. 

On 15 Oct. 1850 Miss Humphreys was 
married at Camus-j uxta-Mourne to the Rev. 
William Alexander, rector of Termonamon- 
gan in Tyrone. In 1855 her husband became 
rector of Upper Fahan on Lough S willy, and 
in 1867 he was consecrated bishop of fterry 
and Raphoe, He remained in t-iis diocese 
until 1396, the year after his wife's death, 
when he was created archbishop of Armagh. 

Mrs. Alexander devoted her life to chari- 
table work, but she delighted in congenial 
society, and, apart from hymns, wrote much 
musical verse. Tennyson declared that he 
would be proud to be the author of her 
' Legend of Stumpie's Brae.' 

Mrs. Alexander died at the nalace, Lon- 
donderry, on 12 Oct. 1895, anc was buried 
on 18 Oct. at the city cemetery. She left 
two sons Robert Jocelyn and Cecil John 
Francis and two daughters, Eleanor Jane 
and Dorothea Agnes, married to George 
John Bowen, 

Besides the works already mentioned, her 
chief publications are : 1. ' The Lord of the 
Forest and his Vassals : an Allegory/ Lon- 
don, 1848, 8vo. 2. 'Moral Songs/ London, 
1849, 12mo; new edit, London, 1880, 8vo. 
8. < Narrative Hymns for Village Schools/ 
London, 1853, 4toj 8th edit, London, 1864, 
16mo. 4. t Poems on Subjects in the Old 
Testament/ London, 1854, 8vo. 5. 'Hymns, 
Descriptive and Devotional, for the use of 
Schools/ London, 1858, 32mo, 6, 'The 
Legend of the Golden Prayers and other 
Poems/ London, 1859, 8vo. 7. * Tho Baron's 
Little Daughter and other Tales/ 6th edit., 
London, 1888, 8vo* Mrs* Alexander also 



contributed to 'Lyra Anglicana/ to the 
'Dublin University Magazine,' and to the 
* Contemporary Review.' In 1864 she edited 
for the 'Golden Treasury Series' a selection 
of poems by various authors, entitled ' The 
Sunday Book of Poetry.' In 1896 the arch- 
bisho~) of Armagh published, with a biogra- 
phica- preface, a collective edition of her pre- 
viously published poems, excluding only some 
on scriptural subjects. 

[Preface to Mrs, Alexander's Poems, 1894 ; 
Times, 14, 19 Oct. 1893; Irish Times,19,22 Oct. 
1895; Londonderry Sentinel, 15, 17, 19, 22 Oct. 
1895; Dublin University Magazine, October 
1858, September 1859 ; Stephen Gvrynn in Sun- 
day Magazine, January 1896; Julian's Diet, of 
Hymnology.] E. I. G, 



ALEXANDER, Sra JAMES 
WARD (1803-1886), general, born on 
16 Oct. 1803, was eldest son of Edward 
Alexander of Powis, Clackraannanshire, by 
Catherine, do lighter of John Glas, provost of 
Stirling. lie obtained a Madras cadetship 
in 1820, and a cornetcy in the 1st light 
cavalry on 18 Feb. 1821. He was made 
adjutant of the bodyguard by Sir Thomas 
Munro, and served in the Burmese war of 
1824. Leaving the East India Company's 
service, he joined the 13th lijht dragoons 
as cornet on 20 Jan. 1825. 3fe was given 
a lieutenancy on half-pay on 26 Nov. As 
aide-de-camp to Colonel (afterwards Sir John 
Macdonald) ICinneir [q. y.], British envoy to 
Persia, he was present with the Persian army 
during the war of 1826 with Russia, and re- 
ceivec the Persian order of the Lion and 
Sun (2nd class). On 26 Oct. 1827 he was 
gazetted to the 16th lancers. He went to 
the Balkans during the Russo-Turkish war 
of 1820, and received the Turkish order of 
the Crescent (2nd class), 

He was promoted captain on half-pay on 
18 June 1830, and exchanged to the 42nd 
Highlanders on 9 March 1832. He went to 
Portugal during the Miguelite war (1832- 
1834), and afterwards visited South America 
and explored the Essequibo. Passing next 
to South Africa, he served in the KaBr war 
of 1835 as aide-cle-cam? to Sir Benjamin 
D'Urban [q, v.]. He lee an exploringSarty 
into Namaqualand and Damaralanc, for 
which he was knighted in 1838. He went 
on half-pay on 24 April 1838, but ex- 
changed to the 14th foot on 11 Sept. 1840, 
and went to Canada with that regiment in 
1841. From 1847 to 1855 he was aide-de- 
camp to D'Urban and to Sir "William Ro- 
wan, who succeeded D* Urban in command 
of the troops in Canada. He became major 
in the army on 9 Nov. 1840, lieutenant- 



Alexander 



Alexander 



colonel on 20 June 1854, and regimental 
major on 29 Dec, 1854. 

tlis regiment having been ordered to the 
Crimea, Alexander rejoined it there in May 

1855, and remained in the Crimea till June 

1856. He received the medal with clasp, 
the Sardinian and Turkish medals, and the 
Medjidie (5th class). On his return to Eng- 
land he was appointed to a depot battalion, 
but on 30 March 1858 he returned to the 
14th to raise and command its second bat- 
talion. He took that battalion to New 
Zealand in 1860, and commanded the troops 
at Auckland during the Maori war till 1862, 
receiving the medal. He had become colonel 
in the army on 26 Oct. 1868, and was 
granted a pension for distinguished service 
in February 1864. He was promoted major- 
general on 6 March 1868, and was made 
C,B, on 24 May 1873. On 1 Oct. 1877 he 
became lieutenant-general and was placed 
on the retired list, and on 1 July 1P81 he 
was given the honorary rank of general. He 
inherited the estate of "VVesterton, neat Bridge 
of Allan, was a magistrate, and deputy-lieu- 
tenant for Stirlingshire, and a fellow of the 
geographical and other societies. He saved 
Cleopatra's needle from destruction, and had 
mucS to do with its transfer to England in 
1877. He died at Eyde, Isle of Wight, on 
2 April 1885. In 1837 he married Eveline 
Mar .e, third daughter of Lieutenant-colonel 
Charles CornwaUs Michell. They had four 
sons and one daughter. 

His singularly varied service furnished 
him with materials for a large number of 
volumes of a rather desultory kind. He 
wrote : 1. ' Travels from India to England, 
by way of Burmah, Persia, Turkey, &c,/ 
1827, 4to. 2. * Travels to the Seat of War 
in the East, through Russia and the Crimea, 
in 1829/1830, 2 vols, 8vo. 8. ' Transatlantic 
Sketches,' 1833, 2 vols. 8vo. 4. ' Sketches 
in Portugal during the Civil War of 1834,' 
1835, 8vo. 5. ' Narrative of a Voyage of 
Observation among the Colonies of 'Vest 
Africa, and of a Campaign in Kaflftrland in 
1835,' 1837, 2 vols. 8vo. 6. * An Expedition 
of Discovery into the Interior of Africa, 
through the Countries of the Great Nama- 
quas, Boschmans, and Hill Damaraa,' 1838, 
2 vols. 8vo, 7. ' Life of Field-marshal the 
Duke of Wellington/ 1840, 2 vols. 8vo (trans* 
latedinto German by F. Bauer). 8. ' L' Acadie, 
or Seven Years 1 Exploration in British Ame- 
rica/ 1849, 2 vols. Bvo. 9. < Passages in the 
Life of a Soldier/ 1857, 2 vols. 8vo 10. < In- 
cidents of the Maori War, New Zealand, in 
1860-61/ 1863, 8vo. 11. < Bush-fighting, 
Illustrated by remarkable Actions and Inci- 
dents of the Maori War in New Zealand/ 



1873, Bvo. 12. < Otooijutra'rt Needle, the 
Obelisk of Alexandria, its AcquiHition and 
Removal to England described/ 1879, Bvo. 

[Timen, 7 April 1886; (VDonnoH'H ITintorioul 
Records of thn Hfch Kojftmonfr, p. 321 (with 
portnut] ; IJurko's Lawlou Gentry ; AlcxaudVr'rt 
works a'jovtt xnontionod.] M M. L, 

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM TAN DRAY 

(1808-1884), congregational divine, eldest 
son of William Alexander ( 1 78 1-1800), win 
merchant, byhta wife, KHssabeth LiwlMay(<i, 
1848), was born at Leith on iM AWJ;'. 1808* 
Having attended Leith High School and a 
boarding-school at Kant. Linton, ho enterod 
Edinburgh University in October 18&2, ami 
loft in J825. II o wart a good Latin Hchplur. 
The ropute of ThoimiH Ohalmora [q, v/J led 
him to iiuiBh IUH literary eourne at St. An- 
drews (181125-^7), "whew ho improved \m 
Greek, He often accompanied Ohulmera 
on hia rounds of village pr(ux<;hing, lliw 
Barents woro baptifit.H, but on Sft) Oct. I H20 
je became a wnbnr of tlie congregational 
church at Loith. In September 8Si7 IM> 
became a utiulent for th miuiHtry at the 
Glasgow Theological Acadomy, undor Italph 
Wardlaw [q, v/ and Greville Kwing (tyv.); 
by the ond of "the year h waH nppointtKl 
classical tutor in the Blackburn Theological 
Academy, a pout; which he tilled, teaching 
also Hebrew and all other HubjeetB cxtwpt 
theology, till December 18!fl v wlimi he began 
the stucly of medidtu* at E<Unburgh. Thi 
not proving to IUB taHtts aftjr Home pr- 
liminary trlaU he became tniniHter (October 
183'J) of Newiugton iii(lpendit church, 
Liverpool* Here ho rtmuutuid till May IHJiJ, 
but wafl never formally inducted to the 
-watorato, After a nhor-t vwit to (}^rinany, 
:ollowod by Home lit^erary work in London, 
he was calfod(1 Nov. 1HJJ.J) to the ptwl ornt e oC 
North College Strwit congrt^ational hwrh f 
Edinburgh, and ordained t.4i*re on fi F^h 
1885, 11 e wftH noon rewgmned m a preacher 
of power. Rejecting fruqmwf. (Jttllft to other 
postB, profoBsoVial a well m pastortU, 
romaitujd in thin charge lor over forty yt 
with undimmifthed reputation, Ho wnw 
made 1XD. of Rt AndrnwH in January IHKL 
In 1852) on the rtwignation of John Wilwm 
(1785-1854) [c, v.] f h wiw* an ttntt<*aowful 
candidate for t,w moral ^hiloHaphy ohair in 
Edinburgh Ihiivcw^ity* ^lin &uiuting**kmmH y 
improves in 1840, when the nmw was 
changed to Argylo H(j\ian^ (ihnjmi, wn bought 
by the govomtntmt in 1 855. For MIX 
the congregation mot in Qunwi Hfcnwt 
On 8 Nov. IBH1 a now building, 
AuffUBtinj Ohureh^wan opened (lorg I V 
Bridge, with a fwraon l>y ThomiiK Uuthria 



Alexander 



33 



Alford 



tq. v.]: an organ was added on 23 Oct. 1863. 
n 1861 the university of St. Andrews made 
him examiner in mental philosophy. In 
1870 Alexander was placed on the company 
for revision of the Old Testament, In 187'l 
he was made assessor of the Edinburgh 
University Court, He resigned his charge 
on June 1877, and in the same year was 
made principal of the Theological 'Hall (he 
had held the chair of theology from 1 854) ; 
this office he retained till July 1881. In 1884 
he was madeLL.D. of Edinburgh University 
at its tercentenary. He died at Pinkieburn 
House, near Musselburgh, on 20 Dec. 1884, 
and was buried on 24 Dec. at Inveresk. lie 
married (24 Aug. 18#7)a daughter (d. 15 Oct. 
1876) of James Marsden of Liverpool, and 
had thirteen children, of whom eight survived 
him. He was of genial tem-perament, as 
evidenced by his friendship witj. Dean Earn- 
say and his membership in the Hellenic 
Society, instituted by John Stuart Blackie 
[q, v.] His habits and tastes were simple. 
Of most of the learned societies of Ecin- 
burgh he was a member. His portrait, by 
Norman Macbeth [q. v.], is in tl'ie Scottish 
National Portrait Gallery ; a marble bust by 

Hutchinson is in the porch of Augustine 

/~\t i 

Church. 

He published, besides numerous sermons 
and pamphlets : 1. 'The Connexion and Har- 
mony of tho Old and New Testaments ' (con- 
gregational lecture, 1840), 1841, 8vo; 2nd 
edit, 1853, 8vo. 2. 'Anglo-Catholicism,' 
Edinburgh, 1 843, 8vo. 3. ' Switzerland and 
the Swiss Churches,' Glasgow, 1846, 16mo. 
4. 'The Ancient British "Church' [1852", 
16mo; revised edition by S. G. Green, 1886, 
8vo. 5. f Christ and Christianity, 7 Edin- 
burgh, 1854, Svo^ 6. ' Lusus Pootici, 1 1861, 
8yo (privately printed ; reprinted, with ad- 
ditions, in Ross's 'Life'). 7. 'Christian 
Thought and Work,' Edinburgh, 1862, 8vo. 
8. 'St. Paul at Athens,' Edinburgh, 1865, 
8vo. 9. ' Sermons,' Edinburgh, 1875, 8vo. 
Posthumous was 10. 'A System of Biblical 
Theology/ Edinburgh, 1888, 2 vols. 8vo 
(edited by James lloss). 

He published also memoirs of John Wat- 
son (1846), Ralph Wanllaw (1850), and 
William Alexander (1807); expositions of 
Deuteronomy ('Pulpit Commentary,' 1882) 
and Zochariah (1885); and translations of 
Billroth on Corinthians (1837), Havcrnick's 
Introduction to tho Old Testament (1852), 
and Dorner's ' History of the Poctrine of the 
Person of Christ,' vol. i. (1864). He edited 
Kitto's 'Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature' 
(1870, 8 vols.), and several theological works. 
His ' Hymns for Christian Worship ' reached 
a third edition in 1865, 
I. SflP, 



To the 'British Quarterly,' the 'British 
and Foreign Evangelical Review,' 'Good 
Words,' and other kindred periodicals he 
frequently contributed ; he edited tlie 
'Scottish Congre rational Magazine,' 1835- 
1840 and 1847-5,. To the 'Encyclopedia 
Britannica* (eighth edition) he contributed 
several articles on topics of theology and 
philosophy (the publisher, Adam "Black 
^c . v.], was a member of his congregation), 
His articles on 'Calvin' and ' Charming' 
raised some controversy, and were improved 
in the ninth edition. To the 'Imperial Dic- 
tionary of Biography ' he also contributed. 

[Life and Work, 1887 (portrait), by James 

A. a. 



ALFORD, MARIANNE MARGARET, 
VISCOUNTESS ALFOBD, generally known as 
LADY MATUAN* ALJWIID (1817-1888), artist, 
art patron, and author, elder daughter of 
Spencer Compton, second Marquis of North- 
ampton [q. vJ, by his wife Margaret, eldest 
daughter of Major-general Douglas Maclean- 
Olephane, was born in 1817 at Rome, where 
her father was then residing. Her childhood 
was spent in Italy, and thence she derived a 
love of that country which lasted through- 
out her life. She came to England in 1830 
with her parents, but in later life returned 
to s")end many winters in Rome. On 10 Feb. 
184, she was married at Castle Ashby to 
John Hume Cust, viscount Alford, elder sou 
of John Cust, first Earl Brownlow, and the 
heir to a portion of the larg-e estates of 
Francis Egerton. third and jist Duke of 
Bridge water [q. v.] In 1849 this -Dro-oertr 
passed to Lord Alford, but he died in .851, 
leaving his widow with two sons. A famous 
legal contest known as the Bridge water Will 
Case followed^Lord Al ford's death, and his 
elder son's claim to succeed to the Bridge- 
water estates was warmly disputed, but was 
finally settled by the House of Lords in the 
young man's favour on 19 Aug. 1853. 

Lady Marian Alford was an accomplished 
artist, inheriting 1 her tastes in this direction 
from both her parents, and, although she 
enjoyed no regular education in art, her 
drawings and paintings attain a very high 
standard. Her house in London, Alford 
House, Prince's Gate, was built mainly from 
her own designs. She was also a liberal and 
intelligent patron of artists in England and 
Italy, and a friend of the leading artists of 
the day. She was especially interested in 
needlework, both as a fine art and as an em- 
ployment for women, and it was greatly 
through her influence and personal efforts 
that tae Royal School of Art Needlework in 
Kensington took its rise* For many years 



Alfred 



34 



Alfred 



she collected materials for a history of needle- 
work which she published in handsome torm 
in 1886 under tlie title of ' Needlework as 
Art ' In society, as well as in art circles, 
Lady Marian Alford was noted for refine- 
ment and dignity, and for her powers ot 
conversation. She died at her son's house, 
Ashridge, Berkhampstead, on 8 leb. ISob, 
and was buried at Belton near tirantliam. 
Of her two sons the elder, John William 
Spencer Brownlow Egerton-Cust, succeeded 
his grandfather as second Enrl Browulow, 
* j- r unmarried in 1867, was suc- 
brother, Adelbort 
3t, third 



withdrawn, Tho oitiswna of the kingdom of 
Greece, having 1 deprived their despotic king, 
Otho, of tho crown, marked their confidence 
in Kngland by bestowing the dignity on the 
queen of Kn^'land's second won by an over- 
whelming majoril.y of votes, cunt on an 
appeal to universal NuH'm^o^) 45 Deo, 1H<lii), 
Tho total number of voteH given WIIH LM 1 ,aOli; 
of these IVmeo Alfnul roeoived &),<)!. 
Tlis election, which wan hailed throughout 
Ureeeo with unqualified enthusiasm, wan 
ratified by the* National Assembly (!J Knb, 
1S(>8), r f\w queen wan not averse to IVmeo 
Alfred's acceptance of tho honour, but Lord 



"Private information and personal know- 
lecge.] L ' - 

ALFRED ERNEST ALBERT, Duo 
OF EDIBTBUBOH and DUKE 01? S\XE-CouKG 
AND GOTHA (1844-1900), second son of 
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, was born 
at Windsor Castle on 6 Au$. 1844. In 1856 
Lieutenant (afterwards Sir John) Cowell 
of the royal engineers was appointed his 
rovernor, and in October 1857 .10 was esta- 
blished at Alverbank, a cottage near Hoaport, 
where he was prepared for the navy by the 
Rev. William Howe Jolley, a chaplain and 
naval instructor. It was the WIHU of tho 
prince consort that the boy should pass the 
usual entry examination, which he did in 
August 1858, when he was appointed to tho 
Euryalus, a 60-gun screw frigate?, specially 
commissioned by Captain John Walter Tarlo- 
ton, well known as a pood and careful officer. 
The Buryalus went in the first instance to 
the Mediterranean, and afterwards to tho 
Cape of Good Hope and Natal, giving the 
young prince the opportunity for an ex- 
cursion into the Orange Free State. On his 
return to Cape Town he tilted (on 17 Sint. 
1860) the first load of stones into the sea :or 
the breakwater in Table Bay. From tho 
Cape the Euryalus went to the West Indies, 
anc. returned to England in August 1861. 
The prince was then appointed to the St. 
George with Captain the Hon, Francis 
Egerton for service in the Channel, North 
America, West Indies, and the Mediterranean, 
being, by the special desire of his lather, 
treated on board as the other midshipman ; 
on shore lie occasionally took his place as 
the son of the queen. It was not, however, 
considered necessary, or indeed advisable, to 
subject him to the prescribed limits of age 
and service. 

In the winter of 1862-3 a prospect of 
securing a foreign throne was suddenly pre- 
sented to Prince Alfred, and as suddenly 



entered into with KUHHM and I'Yaneo, whereby 
no priiuw of any of those count Hen eould 
nflcend the throne of Oroero, Awortlin^ly, 
the crown WUH refused. At Lord UIIHMUH'H 
NUggeNttoN, however, tiejj?otiatioir)M woro 
opened with Prmeo Alfred'n uncle, Duke 
KrneHt of Saxo-()oburg-0otlw, with a view 
to his filling (he vacant olliee, but, it WUH 
deemed essential t.hut Duke I<)nuMt, who 
WJIB clul(lleHH,Mhould,ir hiMisHentcd,renounoo 
at once his duehy of Snxe-Oolnu^ in favour 
of his nophow t f*rince AllVed, Thiw condi- 
tion Duke KrncHt an<l hi couucil (Inclined 
to (entertain, and the (Ireok throne was 
Imally accepted (0 Marc!; IWW) by ^Wil- 
liam)"(leorge, wecoud wmof Ih'ince OhriHtiau 

eonlaneti with an earlier treaty, HI ton became 
king of Denmark (15 Nov. I WUH). Mean* 
while Alexandra, the winter of tho nexvl^y 
chotum king of Greece and (luti^htor of 
Primus OhriHtiau, married, <m 10 ( March 
18(i3, Princn AHVtuVH brother, tlu Prince of 
WaleB. One rewult of tlwwo trntiHactionH 
wan th fonnnl oxt'cution b % y the Prtncn of 
WalttH, who wan tlu* next heir to bin unclw 
KrntsHt of Hrt,v-(J<butX"^ ( >tha in tluj HUCCHH- 
Biou to the throne of that duchy, of a deed 
of ronunciutum, wliitih tnuiHforwl IUH tiths 
in tho duchy to Alfred, hin next brother 
(IS* April 18<W), A ft or more than thirty 
years the deed took etVoet, (MM^MKHJiUHV, 
itfwnowv, > ra7? I)UKK KUNIWT tw HAXJJ* 
COIJUHO, Mnwrir*) iv 8/MK)j FtNr>AV| JF/iV* 
ton/ qf fer<?wv, vii, i^H9 Btu; ,) 

Meanwhile, Priuce AL'rtl Htoadily pur* 
BUW! IUH cartMjr in the Jkit;ih navy* ^Ou 
iJ4 Feb. 1MB he wiw promoted to be lieu- 
tenant of tho Uuoon with (Juptftin (3unt 
Gltticlion [fieu Vt<rrR, Hnppi/ In her hw 
continued for three yearn, an<; mi &H Keb 



I860 he was promoted to be captain 

over the intermiulinte rank of <*ommiLnilt k r) 

At the same timo ho was grauttnl by parlm* 



Alfred 



35 



Alfred 



ment an income of 15,000/. a year, dating 
back to the day of his majority (6 Aug. I860), 
and on the queen's birtliday (24 May 1866) 
he was created Duke of Edinburgh and 
Earl of Ulster and Kent. The orders of the 
Garter, Thistle, and St. Patrick, Grand Cross 
of the Bath, St. Michael and St. George, 
Star of India, Indian Empire, and all the 
principal foreign orders were conferred on 
aim. In Marcj. 1866 he was elected master 
of the Trinity House ; in June he received 
the freedom of the city of London. 

In January 1867 he commissioned the 
Galatea, and in her visited Rio Janeiro, the 
Cape, Adelaide, Melbourne, Tasmania, and 
Sydney, At this last place he was shot in 
the back by an Irishman named O'Farrell 
(12 March 1868). The wound was fortu- 
nately trifling, but the indi ^nation excited 
was very great, and O'FarreL was tried, con- 
victed, and executed in the course of a few 
weeks. The Galatea returned to England 
in the summer of 18G8. After a short stay 
she again sailed for the far East, visiting 
India, China, and Japan, where the duke 
was honourably received by the Mikado. 
The Galatea returned to England and was 
-mid off in the summer of 1871. In February 
-876 the duke was appointed to the ironclad 
Sultan, one of the fleet in the Mediterranean 
under Sir Geoffrey Thomas Phipps Hornby 
[q. v, Suppl.] With Hornby he proved him- 
self an apt pupil. He attained a particular 
reputation for his skill in manoeuvring a 
fleet, and that not as a prince, but as a naval 
officer. 

On 30 Dec. 1878 he was promoted, by- 
order in council, to the rank of rear-ad- 
miral, and in November 1879 was ap- 
pointed to the command of the naval reserve, 
which he held for three years. During that 
period he mustered the coastguard shns each 
summer, and organised them as a f .eet in 
tho North Sea or the Baltic. On 30 Nov. 
188:2 he was promoted to be vice-admiral, 
and from December 1883 to December 1884 
commanded the Channel squadron. From 
1886 to 1889 he was commander-in-chief in 
the Mediterranean, and it was specially at 
this time that his skill in handling a ileet 
was most talked of. It was commonly said 
that, with the exception of Hornby, no one 
in modern times could be compared with 
him. On 18 Oct. 1887 he was made an 
admiral, and from 1890 to 1893 he was com- 
mander-in-chief at Devonport. On 3 June 
1893 he was promoted to the rank of admiral 
* of the fleet. 

A little more than two months afterwards, 
S2 Aug. 1893, on the death of his father's 
brother, he succeeded him as reigning duke 



of Saxe-Cpburg and Gotha, in virtue of the 
renunciation in 1863 by his brother, the 
Prince of Wales, of the title to that duchy. 
The question was then raised whether as a 
German sovereign prince he could retain hia 
privileges as an English peer or his rank as 
an English admiral of the fleer. This last 
he was permitted to hold by an order in 
council of 23 Nov. 1893, but it was under- 
stood that he had no longer a voice or seat 
in the House of Lords. He relinquished, 
too, the income of 15,000/. which had been 
settled on him on attaining his majority, but 
kept the further 10,000/. which was granted 
on his marriage in 1874, as an allowance to 
keep uo Clarence House, London, where he 
resided for a part of each year. In Germany 
there were many who affected to resent the 
intrusion of a foreigner among the princes of 
the empire ; but among his own subjects he 
speedily overcame hostile prejudices, adapt- 
ing himself to his new duties and new sur- 
rounding's, and taking- an especial interest 
in all taat concerned, the agricultural and 
industrial prosperity of the duchies. A keen 
sportsman, a man of refined tastes, passion- 
ately fond of music, and a good performer 
on the violin, lie was yet of a somewhat 
reserved disposition which prevented him 
from being so popular as his brothers ; but 
by those who were in a position to know 
him best he was admirec and esteemed. 
He died suddenly at Ilosenau, near Coburg, 
on 30 July 1900 of paralysis of the heart, 
which, it was understood, saved him from 
the torture of a slow death by an internal 
disease of a malignant nature. He was 
buried on 4 Aug. in the mausoleum erected 
by his uncle Duke Ernest II in the cemetery 
at Coburg. 

Duke Alfred married, at St. Petersburg 
on 23 Jan, 1874, the Grand Duchess Marie 
Aloxandrovna, only daughter of the Tsar of 
.Russia, Alexander II, and left by her four 
daughters, three of whom married in their 
father's lifetime, in each case before com- 
pleting their eighteenth year. The eldest 
daughter, Princess Marie Alexandra Victoria 
O 529 Oct. 1875), married, 10 Jan. 1893, 
Fferdinand, crown -prince of Roumania; the 
second daughter, Princess Victoria Melita 
(b. 25 Nov. 1876), married, on 19 April 
1K94, her first cousin Louis, grand duke of 
Hesse; the third daughter, Princess Alex- 
andra Louise Olga Victoria (b. I SeT>t.l878), 
married the Hereditary Prince oJ Hohon- 
lohe-Langenburg on 20 A^ril 1896; the 
fotirth daughter, Princess Beatrice Leo'ool** 
dine Victoria, was born on 20 April 188^, 

Duke Alfred's only son, Alfre Alexander 
"William Ernest Albert, born on ,15 Get, 



Allan 



Allen 



1874, died of phthisis at Meran on G^Fob. 
1899. The succession to the duchy of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha thus passed, on the renuncia- 
tion both of Duke Alfred's next brother, the 
Duke of Oonnaught, and of his son, to Duke 
Alfred's nephew, the Duke of Albany, pos- 
thumous son of his youngest brother, Leo- 
pold, duke of Albany, Queen Victoria's 
youngest son, 

A portrait of the duke by Von Angoli, 
dated 1876, is at Windsor, together with a 
picture of the ceremony of his marriago afc 
t Petersburg, which was' painted by N. 
Chevalier. 

[Times, 1 Aug. 1900 ; Army and Navy Gazette, 
4 Aug.; Milner and Briurloy's Cruise of Hor 
Majesty's ship Galutea, 1867-8; Sir Thcodoro 
Martin's Life of the Prince Consort; Proth pro's 



Lifo and Letters of Dean Stanley ; ^ 

Poster's Poerago.] J. K. L. 

ALLAN, STB HENRY MAUSTTMAN 
HAVE LOOK (1830-1897), general. [See 
HAVELOCK-ALLAN.] 

ALLABDYCB, ALEXANDER (184(1- 
1896), author, son of Jamoft AllarclycH, 
farmer, was bora on 21 Jan, 184() at Tilly- 
miirit-, Gartly, parish of llhynie, Aberdeen- 
shire. Receiving his first lessons in Latin 
from his maternal grandmother (KM mi, An 
Aberdeenthire Village Propaganda), h was 
educated at Hhynie parish scliool, Aberdeen 
grammar school, an the university of Aber- 
deen. In 1868 he became sub-editor of the 
'Friend of India' at Sorampore, Bengal, 
Lord Mayo appreciated him so highly that 
he oifore'd him an assifltant-coinmiKsionep- 
ship, but ho keit to journalism. He wan on 
the ' Friend of India ' till 1875, having appa- 
rently at the same time done work for the 
' Indian Statesman.' In 1875 he succeeded 
John Capper as editor of the ' Ceylon TimoB/ 
and one of his early experiences of otfico was 
tendering an apology to tho judicial bench 
for contempt (London Times > &5 April 1806). 
Returning to Europe, he was for a time at 
Berlin and afterwards in London, where ho 
wrote for ' Eraser's Magazine/ the ' Spec- 
tator/ and other poriocicab. In 1877 h 
settled at Edinburgh as reader to the houfto 
of Messrs. William Blackwood and Hons, 
and assistant-editor of ' Blaekwaod'a Maga- 
zine.' He died at Portobello on $& Ap^ril 
1896, and was buried in Rhynie 'parish 
churchyard, Aberdeenslure, 

When comparatively young Allardyce 
married his cousin, Barbara Anderson, who 
survived him* There was no family, 

Allardyce wrote : 1. ' The City of Sun- 
shine,' 1877; 2nd edit 1804; a vivacious 
tale of Indian life and manners, 2. * Memoir 



of Viscount; Keith of S(onelmvon Mamelwl, 
Admiral of thn Kod/ 1882; a trustworthy 
work. tt. ' Hal moral, a Romanes of the 
(Juoon's Country/ I8!)tt; a Jacobite tale. 
4. ' Karlseourt, a Novel of Provincial Lifn/ 
1894, 

In 1888 lie mlUod two worlvs of raro 
valuo and int.i^rcHt (ouch in 'J voln. 8vo) ; 
(]} tho Ochi^rtyro 1VISS. of John UamHtiy 
under tin* t.itlo of * Scotland and SrotHitHw 
in tho lOtgh! couth ( Vulury/ utuj (U) ' l^lv- 
toi'B from and to ( MuirloM Ktrkimt-ric.k Sharpt^ f 
[q, v,] Allardyco n^ularly wroto political 
and literary iirl.iclpM for* lilackwoodH Maga- 
xino/ and IIIH .skill in handling a .short, st(ry 
in illuHtratod in Mo third HOIMON of 'Tfthi 
from lUackwood/ At. tho titnn of h'm dtMith 
ho was preparing tlu^ vohuno on Abnrdron- 
wliiro for IMoHMrw. lUackwood\HHnmm)iV,oimty 



1 1'rivnto infoi*niut.ion ; Tinn'H, Sfti'ntHinan, atul 
Ahordoon Wm\ IVcHHof 24 April, and At.luMiuMiift 
of 2 May lBO(i,) T. , 



ALL'KN, (HUNT (1KIH 1M1M)), tnan of 
an<l man of HCMMUMS whoHi^ lull nainci 
was (llmrlcs (irnnt. Hlnirlhulio Allen, wim 
born ut Ahvin^lon, war Kin^Hloii in( 'anada, 
ou'Jl Koh, I.SI8, Uo WUM tho wrnml but 
only Hiirviving* nonof JoHopli Atil'moll Allt*n t 
a clergyman of t-ho FrLsh Church who ctni* 
grated to ('finadain 1H|(I, andnurvivod hw 
won by olvm months, dying at, AlwingUm, 
near KiiigHton, in Canada, on (5 Oct. 11KX). 
His mot,h<r (Charlotte (Vthcnm^ Ann) WUH 
the only duuglit-wr of Clmrlon William (Irani, 
fifth baron dc Longticuil, a tit.lo crtattd 
by LOIUH XIV in 1700, and the only onn in 
Canada that in ollicially ro^ogiuMfd. Thti 
nioUuir'H liuuilv <>f tho th*antH catnw to 
Canada from Blairdndin in Scotland, 

({rant. Allnn (<IH In* always Ktyltul him-* 
aolf) ftpimt tho first thirtnen yearn 'of his Ii( 
among the delightftd Htirrouiidin^H tf tho 
Thousand Isles, on t!r Upper St. mwrence, 
wlu*n* ht^ learnt to love uninmlH and thnvern* 
Ilifl ftiirluwt. teacher was hm lather, In about 
18(11 the family moved to Nwvhaven, Con* 
noctkuitf wlitTt* ho hntl a tutor from Yale, 
In the following year they went again to 
France* and he \ya placed for a timo in 
thoColliVgo Im|)fnnl ir. I Dieppe, before beui^ 
finally tranHfwrrml to King Kdwiml f H Kclmo,, 
Birmingham. In 1HU7 h wan eltHJted tcux 
noHfrmastership at Morton (College, Oxford* 
His undergraduate c*,areer wan hampere,d by 
an early marriage IUH first wife wan always 
an invalid and noon dknl ; but- li ^tiimid 
a first class in oloHfiical tnotoutitmM, Ami ft 
second clnfl in tin; ilnal dass'uml wchool after 
only a y tmr's reading* la tH7 1 



Allen 



37 



Allen 



B.A,, but proceeded to no further degree. 
For the next three years he undertook the 
uncongenial work of schoolmaster at Brigh- 
ton, Cheltenham, and Heading. In 1873 he 
was appointed professor of mental and moral 
philosophy in a college at Spanish Town in 
Jamaica, then founded by the government 
for the education of the negroes. The experi- 
ment of the negro college was a failure. 
The half-dozen students that could be got to 
attend required only the most elementary 
instruction, and the principal died of yellow 
fever. In 1876 the college was finally closed, 
and Allen returned to England with a small 
sum of money in compensation for the loss 
of his post. These three years, however, in 
Jamaica had an important influence on the 
development of Allen's mind. He had leisure 
to read and to allow his ideas to clarify. It 
was during this time that he acquired a fair 
knowledge of Anglo-Saxon for the benefit of 
hia pupils. He also studied philosophy and 
physical science, and framed an evolutionary 
system of his own, based mainly on the 
works of Herbert Spencer, In later y^ears 
he was not much of a student. His views 
were formed when he came back from 
Jamaica, and such thev remained to the end. 
While at Oxford Allen had contributed to 
a short-lived periodical, entitled * The Oxford 
University Magazine and Review, 1 of which 
only two numbers appeared (December 1869 
and January 1870). On re-settling in Eng- 
land in 1876, he resolved to support himself 
by his pen. His first book was an essay on 
* Physiological ^Esthetics' (1877), which he 
dedicated to Mr, Herbert Spencer and pub- 
lished at his own risk. The book did not sell, 
but it won for the author some reputation, 
and introduced his name to the editors of 
magazines and newspapers. He began to find 
a ready market for his wares popular scien- 
tific articles, always with an evolutionary 
moral in the ' Cornhill/ the ' St. James s 
Gazette/ and elsewhere. But such stray 
work did not yield a livelihood; and Allen 
was glad to accept an engagement of some 
months to assist Sir William Wilson Hunter 
[q. v. Suppl.] in the compilation of the ' Im- 
perial Gazetteer of India. ' I wrote/ he says, 
' with my own hand the greater part of the 
articles on the North- Western Provinces, 
the Punjab and Sind, in those twelve big 
volumes.' For a short time he was on the 
staff of the ' Daily News/ but niglitwork did 
not suit him, and he was one of the regular 
contributors to that brilliant but unsuccess- 
ful periodical, < London ' (1878-9). During 
this period he published another essay on 
'The Colour Sense 7 H879\ which won high 
approval from Mr. Alfred llussell Wallace ; 



three collections of -popular scientific articles 
(/ Vignettes from Kature/ 1881, < The Evo- 
lutionist at Large/ 1881, and ' Colin Clout's 
Calendar/ 1883), the value and accuracy of 
which are attested by letters from Darwin 
and Huxley; two series of botanical studies 
on flowers (' Colours of Flowers/ 1882, and 
* Flowers and their Pedigrees/ 1888) ; and a 
little monograph on ' Anglo-Saxon Britain * 
(1881). 

If the last-mentioned be excepted, all 
Allen's early publications from 1877 to 1 883 
were in the field of science. Unfortunately, 
he could not live by science alone. He has 
himself described how he became a novelist. 
His first essays in fiction were short stories, 
contributed to 'Belgravia* and other maga- 
zines under the pseudonym of J. Arbutlmot 
Wilson, and collected under the title of 
' Strange Stories ' (1884). In the opinion of 
his friends he never wrote anything better 
than some of these psychological studies, 
notably 'The Reverend John Greedy' and 
'The Curate of Churnside/ both of which 
appeared in the ' Cprnhill.' His first novel 
was ' Philistia/ which originally appeared as 
a serial in the * Gentleman's Magazine/ and 
was published in the then orthodox three 
volumes in 1884, again under a pseudonym 
this time Cecil Power. This book is largely 
autobiographical. Though it did not take 
with the public, the author received suffi- 
cient encouragement to go on. During the 
next fifteen years he brought out more than 
thirty books of fiction, of which the only one 
that need be mentioned here is ' The Woman 
who did' (189.5). This is a Twidenz-Romcm, 
written, as he said, 'for the first time in my 
life wholly and solely to satisfy my own taste 
and my own conscience.' The heroine is a 
woman with all the virtues who, out of 
regard to the dignity of her sex, refuses to 
submit te the legal tie of marriage. The 
disastrous consequences of such a scheme of 
life are developed by the author with re- 
morseless precision. He intended the book, 
in all seriousness, to be taken as a protest 
against the subjection of women, and he 
dedicated it to his wife, with whom he had 
passed l my twenty happ iest years.' The lack 
of humour in it puzzled his friends. The 
public read it eagerly, "but were shocked. 
3e followed it up with another * hill-top' 
novel, < The British Barbarians ' (1896), winch, 
was an equally inconsequent satire on the 
existing social system, and then quietly re- 
turned to the writing of commonplace fiction, 
some of which appeared under the fresh 
pseudonym of Olive Pratt Bayner. 

But Allen's intellectual activity was by 
no moans confined to novel writing. He 



Allen 



Allingham 



contributed regularly to newspapers, maga- compelled to winter m the >uth oi Luropo, 

zines and reviews, which contain some of usually at Antibjw, though once or twice ho 

his best work, often not reprinted. Of those wont as far aw Altfiow ami Jj W ypt. In iHtti 

that were republished in book form, the ho bought a plot, <>l ground almost OH the 

fullest liffht was thrown on the author's real summit oi Jhud llnad, and built huuHolt a 

views of life in Falling in Love, with other charming cottars which ho wil ml the Croft. 

Essays on more exact Branches of Science' Hero ho ioum. that ho could ^mduro tho 

(1889) and'PostprandiamilosophyXISW. severity of an Knglwh wmtouwnu Uurround- 

Twice he returned to the more abstruse ings wilder than at Dorking and with tho 




mics as beino- that of an amateur, Never- till after hin death, After montlm of 

theless Allen persisted in it, and when tho ing ho diod on 2H Or.t. II IK body WIIH wv- 

book passed into the remainder market in mated at Wnkiiiff, tbn only ceremony hning 

1894 he presented a copy to a friend with a memorial addroHH by Mr, I'miM-ir, Ham- * 

this inscription : ' It contains my main con- son. In 1878, jUHt befornMtnrl ing' lbrJnmaio.ii,, 

tributionto human thought. And I desire ho married bin Howmd wile, Kllen, yotm^Nt 

here to state that, when you and I liavo daughtor of Tlmmiw Jornird of Lymo Itogk 

passed away, I believe its doctrine will gra- Sho Burvivon him, together with one wm, tho 

dually be arrived at by other thinkers/ Ilia only IHRUO of tho nmrriiiffo. 
other serious work was* The Evolution of [Grunt Alien, a Mmunir, by I'M ward Olodd, 

the Idea of God' (1897), an inquiry into tho with portrnit and bibliotfmphy, London, H)00j 
origin of religions. This boo"c ia crowded t '* ^- ^ 

withanthropo-ogicalloro, and contains numo- ALLINGHAM, W H J ;i A M (1 8&I - 

rous brilliant apoyus, but it labours under ISBi)), pout, wan born at Uiilly.shnnimn.Dono- 

the defect of attempting to explain ovory- ijul, cm 10 Muro.h IHS-L \Villijuu All'mg- 

thing by means of a sin ^le theory. In con- -iiun, bin lather, who had Formerly \w\\ a 

nection with this should be read an essay on merchant, wan at. tlw i imo of his birih^ mana- 

the origin of tree worship that ho prtsfijcod gr of tho local hank; hm nxithor, KliwibcUi 
* 



to a verse translation of the Attis* of Ca- Crawford, WUH alno a nntivo of 

tullus (1892). In 1894 he issued a volumo on. Tho family, originally from^ flump- 

of tioems which he modestly entitled ' Tho bhiro, hud boon wnUlod in Ireland MUUIH tbo 



i\w 



Lower Slopes* (1894). In technique they tini of KlixiibH-h. ^Allhi^uuu 

are the verses of a prose writer, though bank with which IUN fn,th<r WHH 

they reveal not a little of tho heart of the at tho ago of thirt;;un, and stmvn to 

author, and the ideals of his youth, whon tho scanty odmuition bt^ bad r^MV<d^ nl a 

most of them were actually written, In th bottrdii^-wslmol by a V'^OI'CHIM w\\\m\ ofnnH- 

later years of his life Allen found a fronh improvement, At the a^^of twint,y-t.\vo 

interest in art, and particularly in Italian he received an appointment, in tlie ciiHt.oiwM, 

art. To art as a handicraft ho had always HiicceHHivoly tixmtid For mweral >nrn at 

been attracted, as may be seen in his vojy Donegal, HaUywluiruion, and other towHH in 

frst contribution to the ' Cornliill' on ' Oarv- UlHtor. He mwerthbHs paid ttlinont. annual 

ing a Coco-nut/ The appreciation of paint- visits to London, the ilrrtt-in IH-U^abtmt which 

ing and architecture came later, as tho ro- time ho contributed t.o Lfigh Ilunt'H ' .lour- 

suit of repeated visits to Italy, To hi nal, 1 and in 1847 be wmle the popncmal no- 

scientific mind they fell into their place m quaintanco of Ltugh Hunt*, who treated him 

branches of human evolution. It is this with ffrat ItindneHH, amUntPoduct'tl him* t> 

unifying conception of art, as well as of his- Carlylo and other men of letters, Through 

tory, that inspires the aeries of guide-books Coventry Patmoro ho beeame known to 



lory, 
whic 
Florence, Venice, and the 



which he wrote in his last years on Paris, Tennyson, ua well aw to KoHMtMi <mtl tho 
the cities of Belgium pre-Ha H ,)halit^ circlt* in $<weml The tor- 
(1897,1898), ' reaponumco of Tinnyfl(u atul Patmoro 



Grant Allen never enjoyed robust health* atteatH the high opinion which both enter- 

London was always distasteful to him* In tainod of tin* ^>oeti(ud immune of this ymnjj? 

1881 he settled at Dorking, where he do- Irishman, I I,H flrat vulumts otitith'tj Himply 

lighted in botanical walks in the woods and * Poomw ' 'London, 1HDO, lsimo% Miblmhtul iu 

sandy heaths ; but nearly every year he was 1850, wiU a dedication to Ijoiga Hunt, ww 



Allingham 



39 



Allingham 



nevertheless soon withdrawn, and his next 
venture, 'Day and Night Songs' (1854, Lon- 
don, 8vo), though reproducing many of the 
early poems, was on a much more restricted 
scale. Its decided success justified the publi- 
cation of a second edition next year, with the 
addition of a new title-piece, * The Music 
Master/ an idyllic poem which had appeared 
in the volume of 1850, but had undergone so 
much refashioning as to have become almost 
a new work, A second series of 'Day and 
Night Songs' was also added. The volume 
was enriched by seven very beautiful wood- 
cuts after designs by Arthur Plughes, as well 
as one by Millais and one by E-ossetti, which 
rank among the finest examples of the work 
of these artists in book illustration. Alling- 
ham was at this time on very intimate terms 
with Rossetti, whose letters to him, the best 
that Ilossetti ever wrote, were published by 
Dr. Birkbeck Hill in the ' Atlantic Monthly ' 
for 1896. Allingham afterwards dedicated a 
volume of his collected works to the memory 
of Rossetti, 'whose friendship brightened 
many years of my life, and whom I never 
can forget. 7 Many of the poems in this col- 
lection obtained a wide circulation through 
Irish hawkers as broadside halfpenny ballads. 
On 18 June 1864 he obtained a pension of 60J. 
on the civil list, and this was augmented to 
100/. on 21 Jan. 1870. 

In 1863 Allingham was transferred from 
Btillyshannon, where he had again officiated 
si nee 1856, to the customs house at Lymington. 



Lyrics and short Poems; or, Nightingale 
Valley '), a choice selection of English lyrics; 
in 1804 he edited 'The Ballad Book 7 for the 
'Golden Treasury' series, and in the same 
year appeared ' Laurence Blooinfield in Ire- 
land/ a poem of considerable length in the 
heroic couplet, evincing careful study of 
Goldsmith and Crabbe, and regarded by him- 
self as his most important work. It certainly 
was the most ambitious, and its want of suc- 
cess with the public can only be ascribed to 
the inherent cifficulty of the subject. The 
efforts of Laurence Bloomfield, a young Irish 
landlord returned to his patrimonial estate 
after an English education and a long mi- 
nority to raise the society to which he comes 
to the level of the society he has left, form 
a curious counterpart to the author's own 
efforts to exalt a theme, socially of deep 
interest, to the region of -ooetry, Neither 
Laurence Bloomfield nor Almgliam is quite 
successful, but neither is entirely unsuccess- 
ful, and the attempt was worth making in 
both instances. The poem remains the 
epic of Irish philanthropic landlordism, and 



its want of stirring interest is largely re- 
deemed by its wealth of admirable descrip- 
tion, both of man and nature. Turgenelf 
said, after reading it, *I never understood 
Ireland before. 7 Another reprint from 
'Frasor' was the 'Rambles of Patricius 
Walker, 7 lively accounts of pedestrian, 
tours, which appeared in book form in 1873. 
In 1865 he published 'Fifty Modern 
Poems,' six of wSich had appeared in earlier 
collections. The most important of the re- 
mainder are pieces of local or national in- 
terest. Except for 'Songs, Ballads, and 
Stories 7 (1877), chiefly reprints, and an occa- 
sional contribution to the ' Athenaeum/ he 
printed little more verse until the definitive 
collection of his poetical works in six volumes 
(1888-93) ; this edition included * Thought 
and Word,' ' An Evil May-Day : a religious 
-joem ' which .had previously appeared in a 
limited edition, anc ' Ashley Manor ' (an un- 
acted play), besides an entire volume of short 
aphoristic poems entitled ' Blackberries, 7 
which had been previously published in 
1884. 

In 1870 Allingham retired from the civil 
service, and removed to London as sub- 
editor (under James Anthony Froude [q. v. 
SuppL] of ' Eraser's Magazine/ to which he 
had long been a contributor. Four years 
later he succeeded Fro-ude as editor, and on 
22 Aug. 1874 he married Miss Helen Pater- 
son (b, 1848), eldest child of Dr. Alexander 
Henry Paterson, known under her wedded 
name as a distinguished water-colour painter. 
He conducted the magazine with much ability- 
until the commencement, in 1879, of a new 
and shortlived series under the editorship of 
Principal Tulloch. His editorship was made 
memorable by the publication in the maga- 
zine of Carlyle's * jJarly Kings of Norway/ 
given to him as a mark of regard by Carlyle, 
whom he free ueutly visited, and of whose 
conversation Lie has preserved notes which 
it may be hoped will one day be published. 
After the termination of his connection with 
' Fraser/ he took up his residence, in 1881, at 
Witley, in Surrey, whence in 1888 he re- 
moved to Ilampstead with a view to the 
education of his children. His health was 
already much impaired by the effects of a 
fall from horseback, and he died about a year 
after his settlement at Lyndhurst Eoad, 
Hampstead, on 18 Nov. 1889. His remains 
were cremated at WoMng. 

Though not rankin ? among the foremost 
of his generation, ALingham, when at his 
best, is an excellent poet, simple, clear, and 
graceful, with a distinct though not ob- 
trusivo individuality. His best, work is 
concentrated iu his * Day and Night Songs ' 



Allman 



Allman 



(1854), which, whether pathetic or sportive, 
whether expressing feeling or depicting 
scenery, whether upborne by simple melody 
or embodying truth in symbol, aCwaya fulfil 
the intention of the author and achieve the 
characterof works of art. The employment 
of colloquial Irish without conventional 
hibernicisms was at the time a noteworthy 
novelty. 'The Music Master '(18f)f>), though 



Allman'H reputation roMt on las 

-rations into tlio cUftuficution and inorpho- 
-<W of tho cadontorata and polyv.oa, Mis' 
* JV1 onograph of tho I'Voshwator Volyxoa' 
was oubHwhod by tho tUy Soo."uty in 'iSftlt, 
and ^n 1871*-ii the namo Hooioty publinhod in 
two fine folioH Allman'rt tnont important 
work, 'A Monograph oi 1 tho (3ynmohluHtic 
or Tubularian I !ydroid.' Tho way for t.hiH 



of no absorbing interest, is extremely pretty, had boon pnnaml by tho * M otmRraph oi t ho 
and although 'Laurence Bloomfiolc 7 will Nakod-oyod HoduMso, jMibhshod m I KM by 
mainly survive as a social document, the Edward Korl;os [H, v.|,juul by 1 ho M Voanie 
reader for instruction's sake will often be de- 
lighted by the poet's graphic felicity. The 
rest of Ailing-ham's poetical work is on a 
lower level; there is, nevertheless, ranch 
point in most of his aphorisms, though low 
may attain the absolute perfection which ab- 
solute isolation demands. 

Two portraits, one representing Ailing- 
ham in middle, the other in la-tor lilb, are 
reproduced in the collected edition of hia 



poems. 

A collection of prose works entitled 'Varie- 
ties in Prose ' was posthumously published 
in three volumes in 1893. 

[Atheiiweum, 23 Nov. 1889 ; Allinglmm'8 prc- 
fnces to his Moems; RosHotti'w lollops to him, 
edited by Dr. Uirkbock Hill; A. H, JMiloH'H Pools 
and Poetry of tho Century; private informa- 
tion; personal knowledge.] K. 0. 

ALLMAN, GEORGE JAMER (1812- 
1898), botanist and zoologist, borif at Cork 
in 1812, was eldest son o: James Alhmm of 
Bandon, co. Cork. He was educated at 
the Belfast academical institution and at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where ho praduatod 
B, A. 1839, IIL.B. 1848, and M, 1 ), 1 847 , In 
1842 he became a mumber, and in 18-14 a 
fellow, of the Royal College of SurgtumH, 
Ireland, and on 1 July 1H47 he was adwifclwl 
to the ad eundem degree of M,l). at Oxford, 
Originally intended lor the bar and then for 
medicine, he abandoned both in order to 
devote himself to the study of natural MCI- 
ence, and especially of marine zoology, of 
which he was one of the early pioneers in 
England, His first scientific pap<,r-~ on 
polyzoa appeared in 1843 ; it was followed 
'jy one on hydrozoa in 1844, and in tho next 
thirty years Allman published over a hundred 
capers" on these and similar subjects. In 
..844 he was appointed, in succession to his 
namesake, William Allman [q.v.], professor 
of botany in Dublin University. On 1 June 
1854 he was elected F.H.S., and in the fol- 
lowing year he was appointed regius pro- 
fessor of natural history, and keener of the 
natural history museum in the university of 
Edinburgh ; his inaugural lecture was pub- 
lished (Edinburgh, 1855). 



Ifydrozoa' o.'TliomaH Hoary' Huxlov [q, 
Suppl,], pu))lHluMl by tho Itoyul Sficicly in 
185!). Six yourn lator Allntnn was iuvltod 
to report, on tho hydrnidrt (n>lliMMr<l by Ij, l,'\ 
do PourtuU\M on ImliuU' of tho I'nil.wl Slulon 
govornmoul' in tho (Uilf Stroam ; AlliunnV 
rtport. ibnuoti ]urfc ii, of iho llHh vohuno of 
tho ' Mmuoir,s oi't.ho MtiMcum nl 1 ( 1 ntt|umt.ivo 
yjoolojyy at HarviU'd,' lit iHSJlho prrlniMncd 
a Hiiuilur stn'vico (or tho Hril.jHh yuvonuuont, 
contributing 1 a roport. on liydntidH to n noriow 
of Olmlhnuvr roporiH oditi'il by Sir ( 1 brltH 
Wyvillo TaoniH<m [4, v.| AlltiuiaV roport 
in pail, xx, of tho Ho.vonth vnlutun (iMHrt), 
For IUH work on hydronlH Allnmn roooivoU 
tlio UriHbnno modal [of t.ho Itoyul Society <>t* 
Edinburgh in 1^77, tho ('uanfnj;hnii tuodnl 
of tho Uoyal Ivinh A<',iulotny in IH7H, and 
tlio gold modul of tho 1/uuioun Socioty in 
IHOti. 

Moanwhilo, in 1M70, AUnutn rotinnl from 
hiw profoHHorMhip at Kdiitbur^h t hoiug 1 pro* 
Bontod with a twtiimmiul <u L'i* July, In 
1H71 ha wiw oleototl n moailior of tho Allu 1 * 
xiiiuim Club by t;lu^ commit too. I'Yom lHf)5 
till tho abdlitiou of tho bourd iu J- W H1 Ito 
was owo of tho HooU'wli llshory cotnmiH- 
Humor t and in lH7<t ho WIIM uppuiulod-a 
commiMHionor to "nujuirn into tho working of 
tho (iiiot'txV collogi^H in hvhmd, llu bad 
alwayn takou a lunu intoroHt. in tin* populu- 
rination of wiiioiu'o, and WHH otio tf tho *nrly 
promotom of tho British AMMooiatinn for tho 
Advftiwsomwiti of Hrionco; ho pvomdod ovor 
the biological m*<ttion in 1H7IJ, nrul ovoi* tlu^ 
nnitod aftHtuuation wlu*n it* mot at. SholUold 
in 1879. IhtMorvi'd on t.ho i*ttuil of tho 
Koyal Socioty from IH7! lo lH7it t and iu 
1874 ho Hucwodod (Hoorgo Itontlmin |tyv.] 
an pruHidunt <>1* tlm i/mnoan Stjcioty, to tho 
* Journal ' of which h had contrihutod HOVO- 
ral -)aptu*B, tlw* niont tiuportant hoirtpf^tluiti 
on tfio IVoHhwator moduna; ho i-olintpUHhod 
tho prtsflidoncy in 1HN.M, wlion ho WUH HH- 
coodod by Sh John Jjublxndt (now Uml Av* 
bury). Jlw alnt) act.od iln* tunny yoarn im 
examiner in natural hintory for tho mvorwity 
of London^ for tho urmy, uavy t and Indian 
medical and civil 



Allon 4 

On leaving Edinburgh Allman had settled 
first at Weybridge and then in close proxi- 
mity to Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace, at 
Ardmore, Parkstone, Dorset. He died there 
on 24 Nov. 1898, and was buried on the 
29th in Poole cemetery. His wife, Hannah 
Louisa, third daughter of Samuel Shaen of 
Crix, near Colchester, Essex, by whom he 
had no issue, predeceased him in 1890. 

Besides the works mentioned above and 
his numerous scientific papers, of which a 
list is given in the Royal Society's Catalogue, 
Allman published a lecture entitled *The 
Method and Aim of Natural History Studies' 
(Edinburgh, 1868, 8vo), and contributed to 
J. V. Carus's 'Icones Zootomicse' (Leipzig, 
1857, fol.),and * An Appendix on the Vegeta- 
tion of the Riviera' to A. Bar6ty's ' Nice and 
its Climate' (English transl. London, 1882, 
8vo). In the last. year of his life he printed 
a volume of poems for private circulation. 

[Allmau's Works in Brit. Museum Library j 
Proc. Liimean Soc. 1805-6, p. 30 ; Lists of Fel- 
lows of the Royal Soc. ; Nature, lix. 202, 269 (by 
Professor G. B. How-s); Cat. Grad. Tria. Coll. 
Dublin; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; 
Men of the Time, 1895; Who's Who? 1898; 
Times, 28 Kov. 1898 ; Huxley's Life and Letters 
of T. H. Huxloy, 1900.] A. F. P. 

ALLON, HENRY (1818-1892), congre- 
gational divine, born at Welt on, near H ull, 
on 13 Oct. 1818, was the son of William 
Allon, a builder and estate steward. He 
was apprenticed as a builder at Beverley, 
where he joined the congregational church, 
and began to preach at tae age of seventeen. 
His devout character attracted the attention 
of James Sherman [q. v.], and others, by 
whose influence he was received in 1839 as 
a student at Cheshunt College, where he 
studied theology under John llarris (1802- 
1850) [q. v.] In 1844 lie became assistant 
to Thomas Lewis at Union Clunel, Isling- 
ton, lie was ordained on 12 *Tune 1844:, 
and his Breaching at once created a re- 
markable impression. His striking presence 
added to the eiFect of his delivery, while he 
appealed in his sermons to the intellect 
rather than to the emotions of his hearers, 
On the death of Lewis on 29 Feb. 1852 
Allon became sole pastor of the church. In 
1861 Union Chapel was enlarged, and be- 
tween 1874 and 1877 it was rebuilt. Allon 
did not, however, confine his labours to his 
congregation, but extended them to many 
dUtbrent fields of action. His services to 
Cheshunt College wore very great, Alter 
Sherman's death in 1862 he filled the hono- 
rary office of secretary, and in 1864 he was 
appointed ministerial trustee, as well as one 
ot' the trustees of tho countess of Hunting- 



c Allon 

don's connection [see HASTINGS, SELINA". 
He also made extensive journeys throug'a 
the British Isles and the United States, 
where in 1871 he received the honorary 
degree of D.D. from Yale University. He 
received a similar distinction from St. An- 
drews in 1885. He was twice elected presi- 
dent of the Congregational Union in 1864 
and in 1881 an unprecedented distinction. 

In literature Allon was equally active, 
while his services to nonconformist music 
were of the first importance. In 1863 he 
compiled a ' Memoir of James Sherman ' 
(London, 8yo ; 3rd edit. 1804), ami in 1866, 
in conjunction with Henry Robert Reynolds 
"c^ v. Suppl.], he undertook to ed^t the 
'.British Quarterly Review/ the represen- 
tative organ of the free churches [see 
VAUGHN, ROBHBT, 1795-1868], In 1877 
he became sole editor, and continued in 
this position until the periodical was dis- 
continued in 1886. His services to hy mixology 
were of great value. He edited the ' Con- 
gregational Psalmist 'in 1858 in conjunction 
with Henry John Gauntlett "q.v. ], and new 
editions appeared in 1868, 1875, and 1889, 
A second ecition, a ' Chant Book,' was pub- 
lished in 1860; a third section, 'Anthems 
for Congregational Use/ in 1872, and a 
fourth, * Times for Children's Worship,' in 
1879. Besides editing these musical works 
he acted as editor to the *New Congrega- 
tional Hymn-book,' published ' Supplemental 
Hymns for Public Worshb ' in 1868, 
'llymns for Children's Worsliip' in 1878, 
and the ' Congregational Psalmist .Hymnal' 
in 1886. By these musical works, and by 
his lectures and writings, among which 
may be mentioned 'The Worship of the 
Church,' contributed to Henry Robert Rey- 
nolds's 'Ecclesia '(1870), Allon did much 
to improve the musical portion of noncon- 
formist worship. As a composer he is only 
represented by one hymn, 'Low in Thine 
agony,' written for Passiontide, 

Allon died at Canonbury on 16 April 
1892, and was buried in Abney Park ceme- 
tery on 21 April. A man of liberal thought 
and wide reading, many of his theological 
opinions were hardly in sympathy with tliose 
o~ his more conservative comtemporaries, 
such as John Campbell (1794-1867) [q. v/ 
They exposed him to animadversions, but no 
attack ever excited him to bitterness. In 
1848 he was married at Bluntiaham, in 
Huntingdonshire, to Eliza, eldest daughter 
of Joseph Goodman of Witton in that county. 
He left two sons and four daughters. A 
fund to establish a memorial to Allon was 
closed in 1897, By its means the chapel of 
Cheshunt College was enlarged, a new 



Allport 



Allport 



organ provided, and an Allan scholarship 
established. 

Besides the works already mentioned, and 
numerous sermons and pamphlets, Allon 
was the author of: 1. * The Vision of God, 
and other Sermons,* London, 1876, 8vo ; 3rd 
edit, 1877. 2. < The Indwelling of Christ, 
and other Sermons/ London, 1892, 8vo. He 
edited in 1869 the Sermons ' of Thomas 
Binney [q. v.] with a biographical and criti- 
cal sketch. A number of A-lon's letters to 
Reynolds are printed in < Henry Kobert 
Reynolds ; his Life and Letters/ edited by 
his' sisters in 1898. 

Alton's son, HENRY EBSKTNB ALLOW (1804- 
1897), musical composer, born in October 
1864, was educates at Amersham ITall 
School near Reading, at University College, 
London, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He studied music under William Henry 
Birch and Frederic Corder. Besides two 
cantatas, ' Annie of Lochroyau ' and ' Tlio 
Child of Elle/ and many songfl^ho published 
several sonatas and other pieces for the 
pianoforte, and the pianoforte and violin. 
3is work showed originality and rmwor, Ilo 
was one of the promoters of the* Now Musi- 
cal Quarterly Review/ to which he fre- 
quently contributed. He (Vied in London 
on 3 April 1897, and bequeathed his library 
of musical works to the Union Society of 
Cambridge University (information kindly 
given by Mr. L. T. Rowe), 

[Harwood's Honry Allou, 1804 (with portrait); 
Memorials of Henry Allon (with portrait), 1892; 
Congregational Year Book, 1803, pp, 202-5 
(with portrait); Historical Sketch, prt'iixocl^to 
Sermons preached at tho dedication of "Union 
Chapel, Islington, 1878; Burrell's MomoirB of 
T. Lewis, 1853 ; Waddinpton's Congregational 
History, 1850-1880, pp, 420-46; Conpfrogatiou- 
aiist, May 1870 (witS portrait); J. Ginnnow 
Bogota in Sunday Maga&no, 1892, pp, 387-01,] 

K. J. 0, 

ALLPORT, STK JAMES JOSEPH 
(1811-1892), railway manager, bom at Bir- 
mingham on 27 Feb. 1811, was third son of 
"William Allport (d. 1823) of Birmingham 
by Phoebe, daughter of Joatnlx Dickinson of 
woodgreen, Staffordshire. His father was a 
manufacturer of small arms, and for a time 
2rime warden of the Birmingham Proof 
House Company. James was educated in 
Belgium, and at an early age, on tho death 
of his father, assisted his mother in the conduct 
of her business. 

In 1839 he entered the service of the newly 
founded Birmingham and Derby Kaihvay aa 
chief clerk, and after -filling the post of traffic 
manager was soon appointed manager of 
that railway, "While MX this employment in 



dq)( 
W 



1841 he was one of tho firwt to advocate and 
propone tho oHtabltahinont of a railway clcar- 
mg-hon,so ByNtom. On tho amalgamation of 
Ida company with tho North Midland and 
Midland (Jountkw Railway on I Jan. 184-1, 
Allport was not noloctod an manager of tho 
joint undertaking, but through the inllnoneo 
of Cleorpo ItmlHon [q. v.], who had marhod 
his ability, wan appoint oil manager of tho 
Newcastle and Darlington lino. This lino 
prospered under IUM HIK yours* control, and 
developed into tho Yorfc, Newcastle, and 
Berwick Railway, Ilo was next chosen in 
1850 to inanngo tho Manchester, Sholliold, 
and LincolriHhiro, th<ti Itttlo morn tlian a 
branch of tho London and North- \\Vntom; 
and threo yoar,s lutt^r, on 1. Dot, 1H5JJ, ho 
wa appointed pnmral nuinngnr of tho Mid- 
land Railway, At. this period tho Midland 
Company only ]>onHOHNicl (ive hundre<l miUH 
of railroad T consiwiing of little nuro than nn. 
agglomeration ot* local lines nerving fclu 
midland <",ounti(\s, and was in a position of 
dq)(uid( v tico on the London and North- 
The extenHion of IUM railway 
and itrt ewmverMioti into a trutik lino 
the firot groat ohj(ctH of tlie new 
manager, and tho policy of nomirmg indo- 
pendent approach to tho controH of popula- 
tion WHH now inaugural ed, and heticolorth 
conHiHtently (olltnve<l, hi 18f>7 thiH work 
boffan by tho completion of ilw MidlaiuL 
lino from Lwmstnr in Hitchin, which now, 
instead of ttuffby, bonuttio t-he nearent point; 
of connection with London* In thin numo 
year Allport wan induced to accept tho 
position of managing director to hilmor'H 
^hiphuilding 1 Company at J arrow, and re- 
si^iiod IUH oiHco in the Midlund on *Jft May 
1857, but wtiH elected n director on <i O<tt, 
1857* Three yeurH later it, wan, lnwevei% 
found to he to the mterentof the Midland 
to recall him to the ptmt of j^one 
and hin wtrvicoH were nlmont. 
fwcceHsfully (mr^loy^d in op-xwi 
bill which wou d luive enn )lwl the London 
and North "Westoni, t.hndivati Northern, ami 
Manchester, Hhtiilu.tl<l and LittculuHhirt* Hnil* 
wayn by far-row.lung n^riMnitentH Horu 
to liand'imp traflic on the Midlutul In 
tho act cjf parliament wan w^cured hy 



of which tho company waM enabled to reach 
LaneaHhiru thvutigh the DerbyHhiro daien^ind 
in tho following yar powrH were (ranted to 
lay down tho line between BodftmL und Lon- 
don. Mot 8at.ifllied with thm rapid xt ennitm, 
Allporfc in I H(M WUH mainly reMjionmWo for 
tho introd\iction of tho Mil into jwriiunient 
authoriBmg tho creation ot* tlu^ Settle and 
Carliulo lino* CJreat ]ier^v**rauco and 
tenniuatiuu on tUo part of tho 



Allport 



43 



Althaus 



were necessary after the railway panic in 
186(5 to maintain the company's resolve to 
establish an independent route to the north. 
The difficulties and expense of the enter- 
prise were immense, and its construction 
gave Allport more anxiety than any other 
railway work he had ever undertaken (llail- 
way News, 1892, p. 685). The line was 
not completed for passenger trailic to Carlisle 
before 1876. The St. Pancras terminus of 
the Midland Railway had been opened on 
1 Oct. 1868. By the securing of a London 
terminus, and the creation of a new and 
independent route to Scotland, All-port's 
main purpose was accomplished, and the 
Midland line was established as one of the 
great railway systems of the country. 

The development of the coalfields in mid- 
England by means of his line was an object 
always kept in view by the general manager, 
and eventually successfully accomplished. 
The process, however, led in 1871 to a severe 
coal-rate struggle with the Great Northern 
Railway, in which Allport's action in sud- 
denly withdrawing through rates to all 
;parts of the Great Northern system, besides 
"ieing unsuccessful, proved subsequently 
somewhat prejudicial to the interests of his 
company. Competition with the Great 
Northern was one of the chief reasons which 
in the first instance caused the Midland 
board to decide on running third-class car- 
riages on all trains on and after 1 April 
1872. But Allport was a firm believer from 
the first in the eventual success of a course 
regarded at the time by most railway 
managers as revolutionary, and in after-life 
looked back on the improvement of the 
third-class passenger's lot as one of the 
most satisfactory episodes in his career 
(WILLIAMS, The Midland Railway, p. 280). 
The abolition of the second class on the 
Midland system from 1 Jan. 1875 was a 
further development of the same policy; but 
the change, though now followed on other 
lines, was not at first approved by public 
opinion. 

Aliport retired from his post as general 
manager on 17 Fob. 1880, when .10 was 
presented with 10,000/. by the shareholders, 
and elected as a director of the company. 
In 1884 he received the honour of knight- 
hood, and in 1886 was created a member oi 
the royal commission to report upon the 
state of railways in Ireland, lie was a direc- 
tor ^ of several important industrial under- 
takings. After his retirement he inspected 
tho IN ew York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio rail- 
way system on behalf of the bondholders, 
and exposed its mismanagement. He died 
on 25 April 1892, aud was buried in Belper 



cemetory, Derby, on 29 April. He married 
in 'J832 Ann (d. 1886), daughter of John 
Gold of Birmingham, by whom he left two 
sous and three daughters. 

[Times, 29 April 1892 ; Railway News, April 
1SU2 ; Acworfch's Rail ways of England, ed. 
1000, pp. 31, 65, 206; Burke's Landed Gentry, 
1886; WilliHniB's History of Midland Railway; 
and informntitm kindly convoyed by tho secretary 
of tho Midland Euilwny Company.] W. C-R. 

ALTHAUS, JULIUS (1833-1 900), phy- 
sician, born in Lippe-Detrnoid, Germany, on 
31 March 183$, was tho fourth and youngest 
son of Friedrich Althaus and Julie Uroescke. 
His father was general superintendent of 
Lippe-Detmold, a protestont dignity equal to 
the Anglican rural dean ; his mother was a 
daughter of the last protestant bishop of 
Magdeburg. He received his classical educa- 
tion at the university of Bonn, and be ^an his 
medical studies at Gottingen in 185 1. Il e pro- 
ceeded thence to Heidelberg and graduated 
M.D. at Berlin in 1865, with a thesis <de 
Pneumothorace, 7 He then proceeded to Sicily 
withProfessorJohannesMueller(1801-1858), 
and thence to Paris, where he worked under 
Professor Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1898), 
Althaus afterwards settled in London, when 
Robert Bentlev Todd [q. v.] gave him oppor- 
tunities of undertaking the electrical treat- 
ment of patients at King's College Hospital, 
In 1866 he was mainly instrumental in found- 
ing the Hospital for Epilepsy and Paralysis 
in Regent's Park, to which he was attached 
as physician until his resignation in 1894, 
when he was appointed to tae honorary office 
of consulting physician. He was admitted a 
member of "he Koyal College of Physicians 
of London in I860. At the time of his death 
he was a corresponding fellow of the New 
York Academy of Medicine, and he had re- 
ceived the insignia of the order of the crown 
of Italy. He died in London on 11 June 1900, 
and was buried at Wokinj. Althaus married, 
in June 1859, Anna Wilaelmina Peter, and 
had three children two sons and a daughter, 
of whom the latter survives him. 

Althaus was a man of very varied attain- 
ments, with great musical gifts. He was 
greatly interested in the therapeutic effects 
of electricity. He published : 1. ' A Treatise on 
Medical Electricity,' London, 1859, 8vo; 3rd 
edit. 1873. 2. ' "fiie Spas of Europe/ Lon- 
don, 1802, 8vo. 3 ' On Paralysis, Neuralgia, 
and other Affections of the Nervous System, 
and their successful Treatment by Galvanism 
and Faradisation/ London, 1864, 12mo. 4. 
1 On Sclerosis of the Spinal Cord/ London, 
1885, 8vo ; translated into German, Leipzig, 
1884, and into French by J. Morin, with a 



Amos 



44 



Amos 



preface by Prof, Charcot, Paris, 1885, Bvo. 
.). ' Influenza : its Pathology, Symptoms, 
Complications, and Sequels,' 2nd edit. Lon- 
don, 189ii, 12mo. 6, * On Failure of Brain 
Power : its Nature and Treatment,' 4tkedit, 
London, 1894, 12mo. 

[Dr. Pagel's Biograplusches Lexicon, 1900; 
obituary notices in the Lancet and Britinh 
Medical Journal, vol. i, 1900; Times, 13 June 
1900 ; private information.] DVL 1*. 

AMOS, SHELDON (1835-1880), jurist, 
fourth son of Andrew Amos [q. v.], by Mar- 
garet, daughter of William Lax [q. v.J, born 
in 1835, was an alumnus of Glare College,, 
Cambridge, in which university ho gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1859 (senior Optimo in mathe- 
matics, second class in. classics), having in 
the ^receding year taken the members' prixo 
for v ^atin prose. He was admitted on 2 
June 1859 member of the Inner Templo, 
where he was called to the bar oa 1 1. June 
1862. The honours which ho had taken in 
the previous examination did not bring 
brie'fs to his chambers, but procured him a 
readership at the Templo, wliich ho held 
until his election in 18(50 to the chair of 
jurisprudence in University College, In 
1872 he was elected reader under this Coun- 
cil of Leg-al Education, and oxnuunur in 
Constitutional Law and Iliwtorv to Iho Uni- 
\ p ersity of London, lie vacatec. the render- 
ship in 1875, tho exammerslnp in 1877, and 
the chair of jurisprudence in 1879, llis 
health was then gravely impaired, and a 
voyage to the Sout'-i Seas failed to restore 
it; nor did he lind colonial society congenial, 
and after a short residence at" Sydney 1m 
settled in Egypt, practising aa an advocate 
in the law courts and devoting his leisure 
time to the study of the complicated BOeiai 
and political problems which were then 
pressing for solution. lie was rowidont at 
Alexandria on the ove of tho British occu- 
pation, and suffered the loss of his library 
"ay the bombardment (July 1882)- On the 
subsequent reorganisation of the Egyptian 
judicature he was appointed jud^o o? tho 
court of appeal (native tribunals). Tho 
duties of the office proved exceptionally 
onerous to one who, though an aocom; tolio'd 
;uriat, was without experience of auninia- 
-ration. ^ Amos's health proved unequal to 
the strain, A furlough m England in tho 
autumn of 1885 failec to restore his powers, 
and on his return to Egypt he died suddenly, 
8 Jan. 1886, at his residence at Eamloh, 
near Alexandria. 

Amos married in 1870 Sarah Maclardio, 
daughter of Thomas Perceval Bunting, of 
Manchester, by whom he left issue* 



In early life Amos was a frequent, con- 
tributor to tho ' Westminster Review/ and 
well known UH an earnest; advocate of i ho 
higher education and political emancipation 
of women, and an a leader in tho crusado 
agaixiHt tho Contagions Diseases Ads, Ho 
was a friend and admirer of Ifyederiek 
DenUon Maurice, with wliom ho was asso- 
ciated an a locturor at the Working Men's 
College in Clreat Ormond Street, ^oudotu 
JIo was widely read in theology and plulo- 
flopliy, and iound Oolerid^e and (Jotnte 
equally congenial. II o never attempted 
any formal exposition of his \hiloHO|ihi~ 
cal ])OHilion y and in nnderwtoou to havo 
remained n devont and n.MHfMitiii,lly ortho- 
dox churchman. AH a thinker he IH bewt 
Icnown by IUH ^SjHtematic \ f i<\v of tho 
Scimicu of JtiriMpnulenee/ London, lH?i3, 
8vo, and his *Si(mco of Law/ 1K7-I, and 
'8<!i(uico of Politics/ 1HH.'J (Intnmational 
Scient.ifi(i Hones), ThoMo works, however 
have IONH of the met IKK! <hnn of the termi- 
nology of Hciouco, are wi^eNtivo rather than 
illiuninalivc, and an* marred by irrelevant 
dtitail and rhetorical rhapsody,, Amos isneini 
to bettor advantage in IUH I(MH ambitious 
'LeouireH on lutertHitional Law/ London, 
]S7iJ,Hvo, liis Hc.holarly (<li(irm of Mannin^'n 
' Comment ,riw on tho Law of Nations/ 
London, 187H, Hvo (cf. M.\NNIN<J WILLIAM 
Oi(H),and bis misnamed * Politinil and Leg'al 
ItemedioH for War/ London, I WHO, Hvo, 
which, by tho Hup;>rtnsu>n of a lew visionary 
<m ' L1 """" lL1 mi^-ht 'n n^idily rednred to a 
* : "" on the ritfh'tn and dttiM of 



tit-rt mid lumtrulH, Olhor worltN by 
Ainosans; l.'Au Mn^lirtli (luth*: !t.H DUli- 
cultiuH and \\w Modnn of ovot^omin^ them: 
a Pruclical Application of tht* S<ietun of 
JuriHprudnnw 1 ,' I Condon, 1H7.M, Svo, U t * Kifiy 
YoarMoftlu^ KnliHltJoimlitiil.ion 1H,1() HO* 



London, lHO f Wvo. 



Primorof thn 



, f . . 

liah (JonHtitution and Uovormwnt/ , 

fourth edition, 1HKH, Hvo. -I, ' lliMtory mid 
Prin(sipl of the t Hvil I/tiw tif Hmno UH ai<i 
to tho fcitudy of wMtwtilit! und compa 
Londtm, 1H8:?, Hvo, 



, 

was also author of tho following pamphI*t.H : 
nl* in I'Jn^Iuud viiwl 



L 'Capital Punisluwnl* 
as operating- in tins Pnmnt Ony/ Lotidon 
1804, Bvo. SJ, * (VHfi(*ation in lin jflund and 
tho State of Now York/ London, HOT, Hv, 
8. ' Modfsrn Tlwwritw of Uhurdi mid States 
a Political Panorama/ London, JMtyHvo, 
4. ' J.)iirrenmi of Hex an a Topic of JuriH- 
nrudonoe and LegwUtion/ Londttn, 1H70, 
8yo* f 'Tho -PreMtmt Statt of th ('Onl.a- 
00UB Di(mHH tJontrovtwy,' London, 1H70, 
STO, 6. *A Lecturn on tho hmi, Motlen of 
studying JuriHprudtwy JLoudow, 1870, Bvo* 



Anderdon 



45 



Anderdon 



7. e Tho Policy of tlie Contagions Diseases 
Acts of 1866 and 18(59, tested by the Prin- 
ciples of Ethical and Political Science/ Lon- 
don, 1870, 8vo. 8. 'The Existing 1 Laws of 
JDemerara for tlio Regulation of Coolie Im- 
migration/ London, 1871, ,8 vo. 9, 'A Con- 
cise Statement of some of the Objections to 
the Contagious Diseases Acts of 1864, 1866, 
and 1809,' London, 1876, 8vo. 10. 'The Pur- 
chase of the Suez Canal Shares and Inter- 
national. Law/ London, ] 876, 8vo. 11. 'A 
Comparative Survey of the Laws in force 
for tie Prohibition, "Kegulation, and Licens- 
ing of Vice in England and other Countries/ 
London, 1877, 8vo. 

['Foster's Men at the Bar ; Grad. Oant, 1800- 
1884; Law List, 1863 ; Timon, 4 Jan. 1886 ; Law 
Times, 9 Jan, 1886,- Law Journ. 9 Jan, 1886 ; 
Solicitors' Jonrn. 28 Jan. 1886 ; Law Mag. and 
Eor, iii. 661; Saturday It ov. xxxiv. 55; Athe- 
naeum, 1872 i. 557, 1873 i. 245, 1874 ii. 
342, 1880 i. 180, 595, 18SI3 i. 271; Academy, 
1883, i. 234; Remembrances of Sheldon Amos 
(privately printed, Leeds, 1880).] J.M.K. 

ANDERDON, WILLIAM HENRY 

(181 6-1890), Jesuit, born in New Street, 
Spring Gardens, London, on 26 Dec. 1816, 
was the eldest son of John Lavicourt An- 
derdon [q. v.] When about fifteen years 
of age he began to attend the classes at 
King's College, London. He matriculated 
on 16 Dec. 1835 at Balliol College, Oxford 
the college at which his nnc_e, Henry 
Edward (afterwards cardinal) Manning, had 
graduated live years earlier. Before long 
ae gained a scholarship at University Col- 
lege, and he graduated B.A. in 1839 (second 
class in classics), and M.A.inl842. Taking 
orders, he became curate first at Withyam, 
Kent, and afterwards at Reigate, In 1846 
he was presented to the vicarage of St, 
Margaret/a with Knighton, Leicester, but 
he resigned that living in 1850, and on 
23 Nov. in the same year he was received 
into the Roman catholic church at Paris by 
Pere de Ravignan in the chapel of Notre- 
Pame de Sion (GoNDON", Las IMcentea Con" 
wrsiom da FAnglrterre, 1851, p. 1,03). After 
^oing through a course of theology at Rome, 
lie was ordained priest at Oscott by Bishop 
Ullathome in 18^)3. Subsequently he de- 
livered lectures on elocution and rhetoric 
at Ushaw. 

His sermons drew lar^e congregations 
when he accepted the chaplaincy of the 
Catholic University in Dublin under the 
rectorship of Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) New- 
man. He held office in that institution from 
1856 to 1863. He also took part in found- 
ing a Franciscan convent at Druinshanbo. 



In 1 80.*? lie came to London to take the post 
of socroturT to his uncle Manning, who had 
just ascended the archiapiscopal throne of 
Westminster. Afterwards ho spent two years 
in a mission to America, returning to this 
country in 1870. lie received tho degree of 
D.D. from Rome in 1809. 

Having resolved to join the Society of 
Jesus ho entered the novitiate at Roeli amp- 
ton in June 1872, and took tho first vows in 
1874. His missionary career as a Jesuit 
began at the church of St. Alovsius, Oxford ; 
he spent a year at Bournemouth, and another 
year at Stonyhurst as prefect of philosophers 
and for many years ho was engaged in giving 
missions and retreats in various parts of tho 
country. He afterwards taught elocution 
to the novices at Mauresa House, Roeharup- 
ton, where he died on 28 July 1890. 

His works are: 1. 'A Letter to the 
Parishioners of St. Margaret's, Leicester/ 
London, 18/51, 8vo, explaining his reasons 
for joining the communion of the church, of 
Rome ; tjiis letter elicited several replies. 
2. 'Two Lectures on the Catacombs of 
Rome,' London, 1852, 8vo. 3. ' Antoine de 
Bonneval : a Story of the Frondo ' (anon.), 
London [18/57], 8vo. 4. 'The Adventures 
of Owen Evans, Esq., Surgeon's Mate, left 
ashore in 1739 on a Desolate Island 7 (anon.), 
Dublin, 1863, 8vo ; commonly known as 
'The Catholic Crusoe.' 5. 'Afternoons with 
the Saints/ 1863. 6. 'In the Snow : Tales 
of Mount St. Bernard/ London, 1868, 8vo. 
7. ' The Seven Ages of Clarewell : the His- 
tory of a Spot of Ground/ London, 1868, 
8vo. 8. 'The Christian /Esop: Ancient 
Fables teaching Eternal Truths/ London, 
1871, 8vo. 9. 'Is Ritualism Honest? ; 1877. 
10. 'To Rome and Back: Fly-loaves from 
a Flying Tour/ London, 1877, 8vo. 11. 
'Bracton: a Tale of 1812/ London, 18*2, 
8vo. 12. ' Fasti Apostolici : a Chronology 
of the Years between the Ascension of our 
Lord and the Martyrdom of SS. Peter and 
Paul,'" London, 1882, 8vo ; second thousand 
enlarged, 1884. 18. 'Evenings with the 
Saints/ London, 1883, 8vo. 14 'Luther 
at Table/ London, 1888, 8vo, 15. ' Luther's 
Words and the Word of God/ London, 1883, 
8vo. 16. ' What sort of Man was Martin 
Luther? a Word or Two on his Fourth 
Centenary/ London, 1883, 8vo. 17. 'Britain's 
Early Faith/ London, 1888, 8vo. He also 
published various controversial pamphlets 
and articles in the ' Dublin Review/ the 
* Month/ and the ' Weekly Register.' 

[Browne's Annals of the Tractarian Move- 
ment, pp. 175, 213; Foster's Alumni Oxon, 
1716-1886 ; Men of the Time, llthedit.; Marry 
England, xvi. 1-20, 110-31 (with portrait); 



Anderson 



4 r> 



Anderson 



Purcell's Life of Manning, 3rd edit. ii. 767 ; 
Times, 30 July 1890 j Weekly Register, 2 Aug. 
1890, p. 145,] T, C, 

ANDERSON, JAMES KOBTCRTSON 
(1811-1896), actor, was born in Glasgow on 
8 May 1811, and played first, at Edinburgh 
under William Henry Murray [c. v.], then 
on the Nottingham circuit, and" at New- 
castle-on-Tyne, From 1834 to ISM he WMS 
manager of tho Leicester, Gloucester, and 
Cheltenham theatres. His first appearance 
in London was made with Macroady on 
30 Sept. 1837 at Covent Garden as tflorael 
in the ' Winter's Tale.' On 2,'J May 1.838 
he was the first Sir Valentine do Grey in 
Knowles's ' Woman's "Wit/ at id on 7 March 
1839 the first Mauprat in * .Richelieu.' At 
Covent Garden he was Biron in ' Love's 
Labour's Lost/ and Komeo, and was the 
first Fernando in Knowles's 'John of Pro- 
cida/ and Charles Courtly in * London As- 
surance. 7 At Drury Lane ho was tho first 
Basil Firebrace in Jerrold's ' Prisoners of 
"War/ Titus Quintus Fulvius in Gerald 
Griffin's 'Gisippus/Earl Mortoun in Brown- 
ing's ' Blot in the 'Scutcheon/ and Wilton 
in Knowles's ' Secretary.' Ilo wan also soon 
as Othello, Orlando, Captain A bsolutt*, 1 1 arry 
Dorntpn, Fuulconbridgo, and PostlmmuH, 
to which parts at Covent Garden ho addod 
lago, Cassio, and others. lie then in 184(5-8 
visited America. On iiO Dec. 1840 ho opo.nod, 
as manager, Drury Luno with the * Merchant 
of Venice.' Among the pioeew he produced 
were the ' Elder Brother of Beaumont and 
Fletcher, Schiller's < Fiesoo/ * Assaol tho Pro- 
digal/ Boucicault's * Queon of Spades/ and 
Mrs. Lovell'a * In^omar/ in which he played 
the title-role, In , 85 1 ho was Captain Sidney 
Corn-town in Sullivan's < Old Love and tho 
New/ and the same year, with a loss of over 
9,OQO, he retired from management. In 
1853, 1856, 1856, and 1868 America waa re- 
visited. He was seen in 1855 at Drury Luno 
as Kob Roy. In 1803 lie joined Kichard 
Shepherd as manager of the Surrey, and, be- 
fore the house was burned, produced his own 
-)lay, the l Scottish Chief/ and the ' Second 
!?art of King Henry VI/ in which he doubled 
the parts of the Duke of York and Jack Cade. 
For '.lie benefit in 1865 at Drury Lane, he wa 
Antony in. 'Julius Ccesar. 7 After visiting 
Australia in 1867 he reappeared on 26 Sept. 
1874 at Drury Lane as Richard I in Halli- 
day's adaptation of the ' Talisman/ and played 
Antony in ' Antony and Cleopatra. 7 La was 
also seen at the Strand and at many east- 
end and country theatres. Besides the ' Scot- 
tish Chief he wrote other dramas, of which 
' Cloud and Sunshine ' was produced, On. 



115 Doc. 1875 at Drury Lano ho WIIH Moreutio, 
and on 1 Nov. 1HK-I fit. tho Lyceum Tyba.ll,. 
At tho outsot Awlomm, who had a fino 
iiguro and a wiporb voieo, won gonornl accep- 
tance. JVlacroady, diary of oulog-y to any 
possible rival, praiHod him, and WoHthuid 
Mai'flton held bin Ulric in'Wornnr* nqual 
to Walluck'n, II IH voict^ hn Hpoilod and woro 
out. In his laior yoarn lin ac,(,(Ml lit.tln. Ho 
WIIH a familiar (i^'tin^ at thnOarriok dlul) 
whern h( k wus rot.ituttil. but, always w 
Koturnin^ thonco ono ov(niii^ m Kt 
18J)5 to his rnoniH in tho Tcdionl 
Covtmt (InrdtMi, a hundred or two yardH oil*, 
l\i\ \va parrot ti*<l and rolihcd. I^roitt tlm 
ollectHof tlu^ iujuncs ho IU*VIM' rt^ovonuljutd 
ho iliod at Ilin* Hodford Uutnl on .'{ March 
wan huriotl at. Konwal Ur k <Mi. 

Unowl<<(lgc ; PIIHCOO'H Unhiunlio Lint,; 
Pollock'n Macroady ; Srol.t. and IhtNvunrN Ulan* 
clmrd; JWnivtoii'H Uicolh^t.ioiiH of <Mir rwoni, 
AotorH; Athoniuuiu, March iS9'; I'ini AUn.i- 
nack.J J. JL 

ANDRRRON", JOHN (1H 1 MO), natu- 
ral il, MtToud MOII of Thomas Amlownn, Mpn- 
taryof llui National Haulv of Srotlinul, WMH 
bo ni at ,K(liuhur,fh <n -1 Oct. iKJt.'t, After 
paHKinjy IUH Hclioo. diivH at. the (ieorj,^ SijimnH 
Acjidorny and the JU11 Street luMtit-ution, 
Edinburgh* he h'c.eivecl ii ( 'tuuora|)}Hin(nien(i 
in tho Rank of Scotland, whieh WIIM HOOII 
abandoned fort hi* tnt^licalcourNi* in the uiti- 
vurnity of Kdinhur^lu Anderson WMH a pupil 
of John Uootlsirl <j,v/]iVoi whom ht* received, 
his anatomical training; he ^nnhiat^l M.I), 
ill 1H&J, and rerun v<ti the ^o tl moiliil of tho 
univemt.y of Ifiilinhur^h for asoolo^v. At 
this period he wiw usHoo/uited with otli<rH in 
thu foundation of the 1 loyal I*hyMt<ml Society, 
which roHo from tho anhVa of the NVerm'rmu 
Sociut-y in tlu nume, city. Audei'Hon wan 
one of tho <,arly prewidentH f thm noeiety, 
Soon after tfriuiuut iiuf lw wan fippointtni Uv 
tho chair of natural history in tho I'Yeti 
Church (3oll(^(s at Kdmhurgh, pre.viouMly 
held by Dr*.Iha Flowing (l7Hf> 1857) [q.vl] 
ThiB ollh ho held for about two yoarw, la 
1804 ho proctM^h^i t. India, and thn newly 
pfltabliwhod Indian muwmm at <?ah*aittn WH 
in 1805 phuHul \wlr Im tthurge,, Thtt 
muwoum at Oalcut.ta wa built by th ^<- 
vornmunt for thu houmn^ of tint colloctiotm 
amtiBAud by the Awiatie Society of Bim#a1 t 
who woro unablo to continun to Htm upon 
their own jmnnJHtw tho rapi<lly growing 1 
maturial. The rich colhwiionn/ both zoo- 
logical and othnolo^ualj wow thnreibm 
handod ovwr to tho govwmnent. of Itulitu 
Andorflon waa tho flrnt Huperinttiuleut of 
that colloetiou undt>r thtuuw regime, but. hit 



Anderson 



47 



Anderson 



office was at first entitled that of curator. 
The duties of the head of this museum were 
varied by three scientific expeditions, to 
which Anderson was attached as naturalist. 
The first of these was undertaken under the 
command of Colonel (Sir) Edward Bosc 
Sladen [q. v.] in 1867. The members of the 
expedition proceeded to Upper Burmah, and 
succeeded in getting as far as Momein in 
Yunnan. A second expedition in 1875-G in 
the same direction, under the command of 
Colonel Horace Browne, was not so success- 
ful, owing to the treachery of the Chinese ; 
Augustus Raymond Margary [q. v.], who 
travelled in front of the rest of the members 
of the expedition, was murdered, and in con- 
sequence the expedition, which had not 
proceeded far beyond the Burmese frontier, 
was compelled to return. The information 
amassed during these two journeys was very 
considerable, and formed the basis of two 
large quarto volumes written by Anderson, 
and published in 1878-9. A third expedi- 
tion was made by Anderson to the Mergui 
archipelago in 1881-2, and was productive of 
much new information in marine zoology, as 
well as of facts concerning the Selungs, a 
tribe inhabiting some of the islands of the 
archipelago. His account of the results of 
this expedition was published in vols, xxi. 
and xxii. of the Linnean Society's 'Journal' 
(1889) ; as a further result of this mission 
Anderson published in 1890 * English Inter- 
course wit.i Siam in the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury ' (Triibner's Oriental Series), The lar^e 
amount of scientific work published by 
Anderson led to his election in 1879 as a fel- 
low of the Royal Society. He was created an 
honorary LL.D. of Edinburgh in 1886, and 
he was also a fellow of the Linnean Society 
and of the Society of Antiquaries. During 
the last years of Jiis tenure of the office of 
superintendent of the Calcutta museum, he 
was also professor of comparative anatomy 
at the meclcal school of Calcutta. In 1886 
he resigned his posts at Calcutta, and re- 
turned to London, where he devoted much 
of his attention to the Zoological Society of 
London, attending the scientific meetings 
and serving on the council and as vice- 
president. Anderson's last important under- 
taking was a volume upon the reptiles of 
Egypt, which was intended to be followed 
by a complete account of the zoolory of 
Egypt, He died at Buxton on 15 Aug. ..900. 
Anderson married Grace, daughter of Patrick 
Hunter Thorns of Aberlemno, Forfarshire, 

Anderson's scientific work was partly 
zoological and partly ethnological. His 
early training as an anatomist led him to 
treat zoology from the anatomical standpoint, 



and to dwell upon internal structure as well 
as external form in describing new forms of 
life. The vertebrata claimed his attention 
almost exclusively; and among the verte- 
brata his principal additions to knowledge 
concern the mammalia. The Yunnan expe- 
ditions allowed him to investigate the 
structure of that remarkable, nearly blind, 
fiuviatile dolphin of the muddy rivers of 
India, the p.atanist.a j his account is the 
principal source of information respecting 
this long-snouted whale. A small, partly 
freshwater and partly marine, dolphin 
named, on account of its likeness to the 
savage killer (orca), prcella, was described 
by Anderson for the first time in the same 
work, which contains abundant observations 
upon many other creatures. A memoir in 
the ' Transactions of the Zoological Society ' 
(1872, p. 683) upon the hedgehog-like ani- 
mal hylomys is another of his more impor- 
tant contributions to zoology. A variety of 
notes upon apes, reptiles, and birds, largely 
contributed to the Zoological Society of 
London, olfer many new facts of importance, 
illustrating not only the structure, but also 
the geographical distribution of animals. The 
ethnological work of Anderson is mainly his 
account of the Selungs already referred to. 

His principal works other than contribu- 
tions to the "Jransactions' and 'Proceedings' 
of various learned societies are: L 'Mandalay 
to Momein,' 1876. 2. 'Anatomical and Zoo- 
logical Researches, comprising an Account of 
tlie Zoological Results of the two Expeditions 
to Western Yunnan in 1868 and 1876, and a 
Monograph of the two Cetacean Genera, 
Platanista and Orcella/ 1878-9. 3. ' Cata- 
logue of Mammalia in the Indian Museum/ 
1881, pt. i. 4. ' Catalogue of Archaeological 
Collections in the Indian Museum,' '. 883, 
pts. i. and ii. 5. ' Contributions to the Fauna 
of Mergui and its Archipelago,* 1880. (This 
work is a reprint from the ' Journal of the 
Linnean Society/ and contains the contri- 
butions of several specialists.) 6. ' English 
Intercourse with Siam/ 1889. 7. ' A Contri- 
bution to the Herpetolo^y of Arabia/ 1898. 
8. 'Zoology of Egypt. ?art I. Reptilia and 
Batrachia/ 1898 ; a second part (Mammalia) 
is to be published. 

[Andorson's Works; .Royal Society's Cat. of 
Scientific Papers; Nature, 27 Sept. 1900; Times, 
17 Aug. 1900; Men of tho Time, ed. 1895." 

J? E 3 

ANDERSON, SIR WILLIAM (1835- 
1898), director-general of ordnance, born in 
St. Petersburg- on 5 Jan. 1836, was the fourth 
son of John Anderson, a member of the n'rm. 
of Matthews, Anderson, & Co., bankers and 
merchants of St. Petersburg, by his wife 



Anderson 



Frances, daughter of Dr. Simpson. 1 le was 
educated at the St. Petersburg high com- 
mercial school, of which lie became head. 
He carried off the silver medal, and although 
an English subject received the freedom of 
the city in consideration, of hia attainments. 
When he left Russia in 1849 he was pro- 
ficient in English, Russian, Gorman, and 
French. In 1849 he became a Htndent in 
the Applied Sciences department at King's 
College, London, and on leaving became an 
associate. He next served a pupilage at 
the works of (Sir) William .Fair jairn [q. v.] 
in Manchester, where he remained throo 
years, In 1855 he joined the firm of Court- 
ney, Stephens, & Co., of the JtlackhiiU IMaeo 
Ironworks, Dublin. There he did much 
general engineering work. Lie also de- 
signed several cranes, and was the first 
to adopt the braced web in Ixmt cranes 
r, Theory of Strains, 1873, p. 
' 



In 1863 he became president pi' tho Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers of Ireland. In 
1864 hu joined the linn of Eaaton & Amo,s 
of the Grove, Southwark, and wont to live 
at Erith, where the firm had decided to 
erect new works. Ho became a partner, 
and eventually head, of the firm wh'utli at a 
later date was .styled "Maston Si An din-son. 
At Erith he had the chid" responsibility in 
dosi ruing and laying out thr, works, fart 
of t"ie business of the firm at that time was 
the construction of pumping marlunory. 
Anderson materially improved the pat-lorn 
of centrifugal \mrnp devised by John uoorgo 
Appold [q. v/ In 1870 ho proceeded to 
Egypt to erect throo sugar mills ibr the 
Khedive Ismail, which ho had assiwtwl to 
design, la 1873 he prosontod to tho In.sti- 
tution of Civil EngineorR an account of the 
sugar factory at Aba-el- Wakf (Mmutw of 
Proceedwgit, '1872-8, xxxv, 37 *70), for which 
he received a Watt medal and a Tel ford 
premium, Anderson next turned his at- 
tention to gun mountings of tho Monerioir 
type, and designed several for tho British 
government, which wore mndo at; the Krith 
works* In 1870 he designed twin Mon- 
crieft" turret mountings for 40-ton guns for 
the Russian admiralty, which were made* at 
Erith and proved highly successful, Later 
he designed similar mounting's for 50-ton 
?uns for the same country, and about 1888 
ha designed the mountings for Her Majesty's 
shii; Hubert About 1878-82 he was oc- 
cupied with large contracts which his firm 
had obtained for the waterworks of Antwerp 
and Seville. To render the waters of tho 
river Nethe, which was little better than a 
sewer, available for drinking imposes, lie 
invented, in conjunction with Sir Frederick 



Anderson 



Abel, a revolving iron purifier, 
which proved porfooUy ot!ootual. Ho oon- 
tribulotl a -wpor <m tlio 'Antwerp Water- 
works 7 to Lie hiMtit'Utinn of (livil Wn^'inoorrt 
(Ib. Ixxii. 24 8;{), for which ho roooivod a 
Tolford medal and iremium, 

About 1888 Aw'ot'HonwoH asked by tho 
explosive committeo of Uio War OlliV-c to 
design tho maohinory for tho nwnufaetnro 
of t le now HiuoholoMN explosive., Cordite, Ho 
had hardly com monml thin tank when, on 
II Aujf. 1HHO, ho, was appointed director* 
{ronura of thoonlnamio ftietorioM, Tho duties 
of this pout. prnvritt.etl him from rontinuiug 
his work involution (,o t-hn <*onlit.o nitirhinorv^ 
which was commit tod to his oldest HOU. 
Anderson iniulo ninny improvomonts iti t>lio 
(h^tails of tho mmui^'omonl of Mn arsmial, 
and introduced greater o(uuoiny into iU ad- 
uiiniHtration. 

lln was olocto<l a ionler of the IiiHtitu- 
tion of Civil MngineiM'rt on IsJ.lnu. IK(il). la 
1SS(5 he wan electeil a iHiinIur of counoll, 
and in IHilO a vice-pre,si(lnt'., He wan also 
a inomhtir of tht hi,stitutiuu of Mecluuiicul 
'Mngiuee-rH, of which ho wan presidetili in 
IH*W ami IHiKJ, In 1HSD ho \VHH ]reHiileni, 
of Hec.tiun at. tho mooting 1 of the Ki'itmh 
AwHociatlon at. Newcastle, and on tlwtotuw,- 
wiou ho received t-lu honorary decree of 
I).(Uj. from DuHuim UnivorHityl On -i .hne 

I HO) ho \va olectod a follow of the Koyul 
Society, Ho WUM a vice-proNidont of ihn 
Society of Artw, a member of th<^ Uoynl 
LiHtitutioti, of t-ho Iron nit<l Steel IiiHtiuite, 
and of other Hociolion, llr^ wuw also ti lieu* 
ttmant-coloiit^l of t.ho cutfinccr nnl nulway 
volunteer Htall' corps, In 1H05 \w wan 
created (IB., atul in ISi)? IUUI 

AiulorHou dlod lit* Woolwich Arsenal on 

II Doc. IH9H. On 11 Nov. 



Kmrna Ml ton, daughter of J. It. Brown of 
, Ifmluorshire, )ln loft. IHHWV 



^ed nujueronn papers \<(\ 
c iuHtitiitionn, ami fleltveri^r mtuiy 
loottinw on Ncientilic Hubject H, His Howard 
Le-cture.8 on the '(-onvorsion of Ilent. Intu 
Work/ delivorecl Ixsftjre t.Ut* Sooiet.y of Art-H 
in 1884 aiHl ( l8S5, wore publishetf in 18H7 
in tho ' Sp(H'.inlist. f H Snriew/ A He.cnnd (Hii- 
tion apptiartsd in 1HSU, 

[MinntwH of t,ho ?j*cx, of tho Institution of 
Civil KuginiMW, 18080,exxxv, n$ (\\ Mm of 
tho Timo,' 1805.J K 1. U. 



AISTDEEBON, WII.1JAM (lHi"J HK)0), 
proftjflflor of anatomy to the Uoynl Academy, 
wan bora in London on 18 Doc. 18 1:2, ami 
educated at tho Oity of Lon<lnn School, 
Upon leaving- Kchool l\o Htu<lio<l at th Litm- 
both, School of Art and ubUiimnl a wwlui 



Anderson 



49 



Andrews 



for artistic anatomy. In 1864 he entered St. 
Thomas's Hospital, where he studied surgery 
under Sir John Simon and Le Oros Clark. 
In successive years he won the first college 
prize, the Physical Society's prize, and in. 
_867 carried off the coveted Cheselden medal. 
He passed F.R.C.S. in 1869, and after a 
house-surgeoncy at Derby returned to St. 
Thomas's on the opening- of the new build- 
ings in 1871 as surgical registrar and assis- 
tant demonstrator o- anatomy, He displayed 
a faculty of illustrating his teaching of ana- 
tomy by drawing, which was the admira- 
tion of successive generations of students. 
In 1873 he was appointed professor of ana- 
tomy and surjery at the newly founded 
Imperial Naval Medical College at Tokio 
anc sailed with his newly married wife for 
Japan. There he lectured not only on 
anatomy and surgery, but also on physio- 
logy and medicine. At first he had the 
assistance of an interpreter, but he rapidly 
acquired a working knowledge of the lan- 
guage, and soon gained the affection of his 
pupils. In 1880, after a gratifying audience 
with the emperor, he left Tokio to accept a 
position on the surgical staff at St. Thomas's, 
where he became senior lecturer on anatomy, 
while he examined in the same subject for 
tlie College of Surgeons and London Uni- 
versity. A stream of Japanese students 
flowec. to St. Thomas's as a result of Ander- 
son's connection with the college at Tokio. 
In 1891 he was promoted from assistant to 
full surgeon to las hospital. 

While in Japan Anderson formed a 
superb collection of Japanese paintings and 
engravings, and upon his return he disposed 
of the bulk of it, forming what is regarded 
as historically the finest collection in Europe, 
to the British Museum. A selection of 
its treasures was exhibited in the White 
Koom at the Museum between 1889 and 
1 892. Between 1882, when the transfer was 
made, and 1886 Anderson prepared his 
admirable 'Descriptive and Historical Ac- 
count of a Collection of Japanese and Chinese 
Paintings in the British Museum ' (London, 
1886), containing the most complete account 
which at present exists of the general his- 
tory of the subject. It was followed by his 
great work, ' Pictorial Arts of Japan, with 
some Account of the Development of the 
allied Arts and a brief History and Criti- 
cism of Chinese Painting ' (issued in port- 
folio form, 1886, 2 vols. with plates). This 
was an expansion of * A Sketch of the His- 
tory of Japanese Pictorial Art, 1 published in 
the ' Transactions of^ the Asiatic Society of 
Japan' for 1878. Of the remainder of An- 
ders/m's collections many examples were 

VOI. I. BUT. 



?urcha_sed by Ernest Abraham Hart [q. v, 
Sup-Dl." and aave since been dispersed. In 
1885 Anderson had contributed the intro- 
ductory essay on the * Pictorial and Glyptic 
Arts of Japan 7 to Murray's handbook for 
that country ; in 1888 he issued * An Histo- 
rical and Descriptive Catalogue of Japanese 
and Chinese Engravin "s exhibited at the 
Burlington Fine Arts C.ub,' and in 1895 he 
wrote a * Portfolio* monograph on * Japanese 
Wood Engravings ; their Listory, Technique, 
and Characteristics. 1 Anderson was chair- 
man of the council of the Japan Society 
from its constitution in January 189:2 until 
his death. In 1895 he was made a knight 
commander of the Japanese order of the 
Rising Sun. 

In January 1891 he was elected professor 
of anatomy at the Royal Academy in 
the room of Professor Marshall, whose 
worthy successor he approved himself. His 
sudden death on 27 Oct. 1900 was due to a 
rupture of the cord of the mitral valve. He 
was twice married : first, in 1873, to Mar- 
garet Hall, by whom he left a son and a 
caughter ; and. secondly, to Louisa, daughter 
of F. W. Tetley of Leeds, who survives him. 
Of high culture and distinguished appear- 
ance, Anderson's retiring nature alone pre- 
vented him from becoming a more prominent 
personality. Attractive portraits are given 
as frontispiece to ' Transactions of the Tapan 
Society 7 (vol. iv.), and in the 'Lancet' 
(10 Nov. 1900) and ' St. Thomas's Hospital 
Gazette ' (November 1900). 

Anderson wrote a paper, excellently 
illustrated, on ' Art in relation to Medical 
Science' ('St. Thomas's Hospital Beports,' 
vol. xv.), which is the best sketch on that 
subject accessible in English. In 1896 he 
published a small work on ' The Deformities 
of the Fingers and Toes/ and in the same 
year, in conjunction with Mr. Shattock, he 
wrote the section on 'Malformations/ a 
laborious and recondite piece of work in the 
' Nomenclature of Diseases.' 

[Times, 29 Oct. 1900 ; Lancet, 10 Nov. 1900 ; 
St. Thomas's Hospital Gazette, November 1900; 
Ciry of London School Hag, Nov. J900; Ander- 
son's Works and printed Testimonials (1891) in 
British Museum Library; information kindly 
;iren by Mr. E. Phend Spiers aud Mr. Arthur 
.Oi6sy.] T. S. 

ANDREWS, THOMAS (1813-1885% 
professor of chemistry, born on 19 Dec. 1813, 
was son of Thomas John Andrews, a linen, 
merchant of Belfast, by his wife, Elizabeth 
Stevenson. He received his early education 
at the Belfast Academy and Academical 
Institution, and then spent a short time in 



Andrews 



Andrews 



his lather's office, which he left in 1828 for Edinburgh in 1 87 1 , and wan pmsidont of tlio 

the university of Glasgow, where he studied association at (JloHtfow in 1870. In 1SHO ho 

chemistry under Thomas Thomson (1773- docliuod an oitVr of knighthood, Hi,s oon- 

185*2) "q. v,l nootion with (iuion f H Oollo^o WOH commo* 

In -830 he travelled to Paris, whore ho moratod by tho oHtablishmont after IUH doath 

became acquainted with many of the leading of an Androwa Htudcmlsliip, and his port rait 

French chemists, and spent a short time in was placed in tho examination hall of tho 

the laboratory of Dumas. Tho following collogo. 

years were occupied in medical studios, (irst AndrowH publinluHl no IOMH than fiftiy-ono 

at Trinity College, Dublin, then at Belfast, flciuntilic paporo, tho list of whuih in to bo 

and finally in Edinburgh, where in 1835 he found in tho ' lioyal SOIMOI/M Oatalotfuo,' 

received the dtoloma of the Royal Colloje of llw mont important nwuruhoM woro thono 

Surgeons of Edinburgh, and graduated II.1X dealing with 'unit of combination, ozono, and 

Declining the chairs of chemistry in the tho continuity of tho giiHuoun and liquid 

Richmond and Park Street schools of raedi- states of inaltor, 

uiiie at Dublin, he established himself in The roMourchas on boat of combination, 

practice in Belfast, and was at the same time car nod out IVo in 18 U to IH(M), doalt, with a 

appointed to teach chemistry in tho Koyal ^roat varit^t.y of olumi<al roaotionw and (^x- 

Belfast Academical Institution. During ten libitod a (logroi^ of prooiniou far in advant^ 

years he was occupied in this way, and of that of jmwious workrm in tho Hiumt 

gradually became known to the aciontiftc liold, thin boing largoly diio to him improvod 

world as the author of valuable papers on exporhnimtal unMhodrt* Tho oxporiinoaUoii 

subjects connected with voltaic action and ozono, which woro partly mrriod out in 

heat of combination. conjnnc.tion with P. U^'Vtit, finally oMit- 

In 1845 Andrews was appointed vice- blwhocl tho fact, that thin Mubstanco, which 

president of the Northern Ooll^^o (now was dineovorod by Sohtinbt'in in IHiO, U 

Queen's College, ttolfust), and roHijjfmsd both simply an allot ropin form of oxygon, atul i 

his teachinsr position and his private prac- a porfooUy dofuiitn HubHtanoo, which can bo 



his teaching position and his private prac- a ptn-i^ctly 

tice. Iii 1849 canio tho oponing ol tho t)ripanl in a ntimb<r of dilliMvnt . 
Queen's Colleges, in tho organisation of This work mornovor laid t hn basis lot* futuro 
which Andrews had been euguged since ri*8*ircluw by which tho nxaet relation of 
1845, and he was then appointed to the this romarkablo gaH to thii niniph^r oxygon 
-jrofesaorsiiip of chemifltry in Quoen'H Col- va finally a,sct*rtaino<i. 
'Jege, Belfast, a -jost which he only roHigrwd J5y far th most brilliant, and far-wadiing 
in lft79. Dtir.n^ the intervening period, of Androwrt's duscoyt^rioM, howvor, wan that 
while occupied with the alfairs of h's col- of tho tmntwuM t)f a (Critical tcmpwatuw, 
lege and tlio duties of his chair, ho was con- above ^whicsli a ffan cann(t bn convtu'Uul into 
stantlv engaged in scientilic research, and ft liquid Ijy prmMurij, Iiowovt^r groat, t The 
publiajed numerous valuable memoirs, rocordn of tho holtaviour of carbonic atud $w 
After his resignation of tho oHicus of vice- titular varying ti'inporatunw and p'(HHiu"iH, 
president aucl professor of ohemirttry in whicli wtmnnndn by Androws, havn iM^omo 
4ueen'a College, 'he lived in great rotiromont doHfliciil, and havn M^rvod UH tho foundation 
in Fort William Park, Belfast. Ilo died on of all tlm mow nc'*nt work on tlu^ rttlationM 
26 Nov. 1885, and was buried in the Borough of tho ganoouK and liquid ntat ivs of inat'ton 
cemetery, Belfast. Tlwws rcMirc',h(H inorcovHr pointtnl tmt tho 
In 1842 Andrews married Jano Ilardie, fnndamontul condition fur thn lit|HMfation 
daughter of Major Walker of tho 4^nd of all gastw. This cannot* b<^ nccompliHluui 
Highlanders, by whom he had four daughters imlH tho tmupfruturwof thn giw in !>*low 
and two sons. tho critical t.Hinpi^mttu'n, and it, in by Urn rt- 
Andrews was elected a fellow of tho Koyal cognition of thin fact that laim* oxpori- 
Society on 7 June 1849, and an honorary mcntcrn have bnon ahlo to bring about tho 
fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh reduction to fchw liquid Htuto of all known 
in 1870, The degree of doctor of laws was gases, a work which IIHH only r(?ontly bon 
conferred upon \iw. by the univeraity of complottHl by tht* liqu^ftuiticm of hydrogen, 
Edinburgh in 1871, by trinity College, Dub- Andrmvs ', dwwbwl by hm biograplwra 
lin, in 1873, and by the university of Glaa- a prHonally a man of nimj)ln unprct.ttnding 
gow in 1877 ; while the degree of'D.Sc. was nmnnor, thoroughly truHt. worthy and warm- 
conferred upon him in 1879 by the Queen's hearted. In hin laboratory ho' WIIH dintin* 
University of Ireland. He was president of guiahed by groat miuiipulat.iVo, doxtority, IIo 
the chemistry section of the British Asso- took a groat iixtoroHt in wh'.ial JjumtiouHj an B 
elation at Belfast in 1852, and again at evidenced by a pupar upon tho 



Angas 5 

question contributed to the social science 
congress in 1867. Another evidence of the 
same feeling was his devoted and energetic 
exertions on behalf of the poor during the 
Irish famine of 1847. In addition to his 
scientific papers and addresses Andrews pub- 
lished two pamphlets : ' Stadium Generals " 
(1867), which contains! a strong argument 
n gainst a proposal to sever the teaching 
from the examining university in Ireland; 
and 'The Church in Ireland' (1869), a plea 
in favour of the proposed disestablishment of 
the church of Ireland and the equitable dis- 
tribution for spiritual purposes of the church 
property among the whole population of the 
island. 

[The Scientific Papers of the late Thomas An- 
drews, -with a Memoir by P. G-. Tait and A. 
Crum Brown (1889); Roscoe and Schorlemmer's 
Treatise on Chemistry, vol. i. ; Rosenberg's Ge- 
schichto der Physik; Kopp's Die Eutwicke- 
lung der Cheraie in der neueren Zeit.] 

^ A. H-N. 

ANGAS, GEORGE FRENCH (1823- 
1886), artist and zoologist, born on 25 April 
1822 in the county of Durham, was the 
eldest son of George Fife Angas [q. v.], by 
his wife, Rosetta French (d. 11 Jan. 1867), 
Some years after his birth his family re- 
moved to Dawlish in Devonshire, where he 
first collected seaside specimens and ac- 
quired a taste for concaology. He was 
educated at Tavi stock, and placed by his 
father in business in London, Disliking 
commercial pursuits, he resolved to travel 
and turn to account his natural taste for 
drawing. After visit in y Malta and wander- 
ing through Sicily in t'-ie autumn of 1841, 
IIN published a description of his journey in, 
184i, dedicated to Queen Adelaide, and en- 
titled ' A Ramble in Malta and Sicily ' 
(London, 4to), The book was illustrated 
from hi a own sketches. 

To perfect himself as a draughtsman, in, 
3842, -ie studied anatomical drawing in Lon- 
don, and also learned thu art of lithography. 
In September 1843 he went to South Lus- 
tnilia, n colony of which his father was one 
of the founders. There he joined several 
of (Sir) George Grey's expeditions, and made 
sketches in water colours of the scenery, 
aborigines, and natural history of South 
Australia. Proceeding to New Zealand, he 
travelled over eight hundred miles on foot 
in the wildest regions, and made sketches 
of the country as he ; purneyed. Returning 
to England, lie pubJshed his sketches in 
184-9 in two imperial folio volumes, entitled 
* South Australia Illustrated* and ' The New 
Zealanders Illustrated/ and also wrote an 
account of Ms travels under the title ' Savage 



Arming 



Life in Australia and New Zealand ' (Lon- 
don, 1847, 2 vols. IS mo). He next spent 
two years in South Africa, and published 
the result of his labours in 1849 in another 
imperial folio work, 'The Kaffirs Illus- 
trated.' Several of the original drawings 
have been purchased for the print-room of 
the British Museum. 

Soon afterwards Angas was appointed 
naturalist to the Turko-Persian boundary 
commission, but after reaching Turkey he 
was invalided home. In 1849 he returned 
to South Australia. When the ' gold fever ' 
broke out in the following year, he accom- 
panied one of the first parties to the Ophir 
diggings, and made many sketches, pub- 
lished in London as ' Views of the Gold 
Ilegions of Australia' (London, 1851, fol.) 
After visiting other diggings, he settled at 
Sydney, where he obtained the post of director 
and secretary of the government museum. 
This appointment he held for more than 
seven years, returning 1 to South Australia 
on his retirement. Three, years later he 
went home to England with his wife and 
family. In his later years he wrote tales of 
adventure and travel for various journals, 
besides a lon series of articles on ' Commer- 
cial Natural History,' which appeared in the 
1 Colonies and India.' On 3 May 1866 he 
was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society. 
He was also a fellow of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society and of the Zoological Society. 
lie died on 8 Oct. 1886. In 1849 he mar- 
ried Alicia Mary Moran, by whom he had 
four daughters, 

Besides the works already mentioned he 
published : 1. f Polynesia ; a Popular De- 
scription . . . of the Islands of the Pacific/ 
London, 1866, 8vo. 2. * The Wreck of the 
Admella, and other Poems/ London, 1874, 
8vo. lie illustrated Agricola's ' Descrip- 
tion of the Barossa Kange' (3849), John 
McDouall Stuart's 'Explorations in Aus- 
tralia ' (18G4), and John Forrest's ' Explora- 
tions in Australia' (1875). He also con- 
tributed a number of papers on mollusca and 
on several Australian mammalia to the l Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society.' 

[Proceedings of tbe Linnean Society of Lon- 
don, July 1887, pp. 33-4; Hodder's George 
Fife Angas, 1891, pp, 286,203; Burke's Colo- 
niaLGentry, ii. 649; Boyal Soc, Cat, Scientific 
Papers.] E. L C. 



MAEY (1799-1847), dis- 
coverer of the ichthyosaurus, daughter of 
Richard Anning, a carpenter and vendor of 
natural curiosities at Lyme Eegis, was born 
in that town in May 1799. On 19 Aug* 
1800 she narrowly escaped death by light- 



Ansdell 



Ansdell 



nuig, She is presumed to have had some 
rudimentary education at the parish school, 
and seems to have learnt from her father 
how to collect fossils, a pursuit sho began to 
turn to good account after his death in 18 JO, 
earning a livelihood thereby. 

It was in 1811 that Mary Aiming mode 
the discovery to which she ^owes her lame. 
She noticed some bones projecting from the 
face of a cliff near Lyme, traced the position 
of the skeleton wita a hammer, and then 
hired men to dig out the lias block in which 
it was embedded, The skeleton, thirty foot 
long, is now in the British Museum; its 
discovery created a sensation among geolo- 
gists, and a long controversy took place Hifore 
the name Ichthyosaurus was agreed upon, 
and its position in natural history deter- 
mined. This discovery Mary Aiming fol- 
lowed up by finding the first specimen of 
J'lesiosaurus, and in 18^8 of Ptoroduotylns 
(WooDmw), Geology, 1887 > P- a(W N 
Paleontology, pp. SiO aqq. ; NumoLSON and 
LYDEKxmti Palaontolor/y, iL 11 -M ). < ) wing 
to her skill and care many line examples ol 
Ichthyosauri and Plesioauuri were, discovered 
and preserved, Sho also discovered the ->ons 
and ink sacs of fossil Loligo. Among t-ioao 
whoso studies she assisted, and wlmso col- 
lections she enriched, wore Sir I<3. Homo, Dr. 
W. Buckland, the Kev. W. 1). Conylwre, 
Sir II. de la lioche, Colonel Birch, Lord 
Enniskilltm, and Sir P. Egurton. A small 
government grant wns obtained for her from 
Lord Melbourne, and this, supplemented from 
other sources, procured her a small annuity, 
She died from cancer in the breast on 
9 March 1847, and was buried at Lymo, in 
the church of which the Gaolo -jical Society 
fifteen years afterwards placet, a memorial 
window to her. The local guide book re- 
marked that ' her death was in a pecuniary 
sense a great loss to the place, nfj hot 
presence attracted a large number of distin- 
guished visitors' (Beimim of Lym, Heffin). 
Among them was the king of Saxony, of 
whose visit an account ia given by Carl 
'G-ustav Carus in his * England xmd Schott- 
land im Jahre 1844,' Berlin, 1845, 

A posthumous portrait iu pastol, executed 
in !8oO by B. J. M, Donne, hangs in the 
apartments of the Geological Society at Bur- 
lington House, * 

[Quarterly Journal (Stool, See. vol. iv, p. xxiv j 
Roberta's lliab. of Lyme ItogiH, 1834, p, 284; 
All the Year Round, xiii, 60-S j private infor- 
mation,] B, B. W. 

ANSDELL, BIOEABD .(1815-1885), 

'animal painter, a native of Liverpool, was 
born on 11 May 1815, and baptised at St. 



Peter's Chiuvli in that city, His grand- 
father had Halt works iti tho neighbourhood 
of North xvieh, llo was oduealod at. tho 
Bluoeoat school, Liverpool, and, although 
attracted by urj; in youth, did not, dovoto 
himself to it with a view to nuiking it. his 
jm>roH8ion till ho WH twenty-one. VVhilo 
m Liverpool hti Httuliod animal life iu the 
country-Hnhi, I MM lirwi ii|)pennin<u k in Lon- 
don was in 1S.|(), when two of IUH pictaires, 
'(IroiiHO Shooliiifjf 1 and Mhillovvny Kami/ 
were, exhibited nt the Hoynl Aeademy, 
There followed in 1H1^ an important jiis- 
torical ]>ic,tur, 'Tho Death oi" Sir William 
Lanibtoti ;' but hen\ MM in mont of hi.s pio 
tares, tlm Hiibject w not. ihe main thin^, and 
waft .seloe.Uul 'for representation henui.se t.ho 
Hoomnvas on Murnton Mooi^aiid tho o^'onias 
of a wounded h(rsn c.ould bn well porlniyed 
tluH-o. His paint UI^H from this turn* forward 
were very numerous, Ilim Muece.NH made it 
posrtihle for him to travel, mid hel-ween IH57 
and lH(K) bin wubjedM wen* fotuid in Spain. 
JTiH cMirlier ]mintinjrH show t.i'n<*en of Land- 
8<Mr's inlluenc.o, awl there are works of that 
period produced by Ansdoil nnd (JiN^wie.k 
to^tithnr, tlu^ latter supplying t.lu^ ItunlHeapo, 
in which he x<elled UH other oollaho- 
rutors were Mr* W, I*. Krith, with whom ho 
-mint od 'The Keeper'H Daughter,' nnd John 
'.Miillip, who holpwl with tlm Hpnuinh pic- 
tures, 

AnsdeJt WUH hononn(1 no leas than throa 
with the Hey wood tnedal, a gift 
to the best, pwtwvw shown at tho 
nH in MiuwhewttT. l& 1^55 ho nv 
coicd a jnhl tuetlal at tho (Irrat, 



in Paris, the pie.lureM whir.h won i(. 

* The Wolf Slayer 1 inul ' Taming tho Drovo.' 



H was l(wt<{ A.U.A.in iHtJl, and U,A, iu 
1H70, 'Ho oxhibttiul in London gullerioH, 
inoatly at tho Royal Aeadewy, us nmny^iH 
I SI works, The avfrn^e prict^ of his j)i* 
turoHljotwomi IHOI and 1HHJ wan HH nearly 
JIB poHfiiblo 7HO/. A view of Nt, MwImeU 
Mount, Cornwall, was yurttluwed by Huron 
Albert (5 mat, and realised, at tho bitrouV 
miloin April lH77l,'Ut^ Hk 

In tho print room of tho British Musoum 
are, a ftnv imliilnrmit tohiK by AnsdelL 
Engravings nfttn* \i\$ worlw aro numowtm 
enough to provo that copiuH of hi worlw aro 
much in wtjwwt. 

In his Into? yetm* Aiwdell lived at Lytham 
JIoR, Konftinjfton, whenco lus removed to 
ColUngwoml T<twet, Kurnborttugh. Thort* 
ho diod on ^0 April l^Ho, Ho VVIIH buriod 
at Bropkwood omnotorvon thu^Jiit'd, !1 
married in St. Poter^ (j'liuHih^ Liverpool, on, 
14 Juno 1841, Marift Uonuu*, also or Livr 
pool Thoro wox*o olevutt cliiUruu of tht* 



Apperley 



S3 



Apperley 



marriage, and six sons and two daughters 
survived the artist. 

[Sanders's Celebrities of the Century ; Cyclo- 
paedia of Painters and Paintings, 1886 ; Painters 
and their Works, 1896 ; Diet, of British Artists, 
1895; W. P. Frith's Autobiography (1889); 
Times, 21, 22, 24 April 1885; Liverpool Daily 
Post, 21 April 1885 ; Art Journal, 1860 ; private 
information.] E. R. 

APPERLEY, CHARLES JAMES 

(1779-1843), sporting writer, known as 
1 Nimrod/ second son of Thomas Apperley, 
of an old Herefordshire family, was born at 
Plasgronow, Denbighshire, in 1778, In 
1 790 he was entered at Rugby, then under 
the mastership of Dr. James, and the home, 
according to ' Nimrod,' of much indiscipline 
and hard drinking. In 1798, on leaving 
Rugby, he was gazetted a cornet in Sir 
Watlun Wynn's ancient light British dra- 
goons, a regiment of fencible cavalry, with 
which he served in the suppression of the 
Irish rebellion. Returning to England in 
1801, when the Denbighshire yeomanry was 
disbanded, he married Winifred, daughter of 
William Wynn of Peniarth in Merioneth- 
shire, and settled at Hinkley in Leicester- 
shire. In 1804 he moved to Bilton Hall, 
near Rugby, once the property of Joseph 
Addison. There he hunted with the Quorn, 
the Pytchley, and the Warwickshire hounds* 
Unlike many sporting writers, he himself 
was a splendid rider, a good judge of horse- 
flesh and hounds, and indeed a good all- 
round sportsman. From Bilton he moved 
in 1809 to Bitterly Court in Shropshire, and 
accented a commission as captain in the 
Nottinghamshire militia, known as the Sher- 
wood Foresters. Subsequently he moved 
to Brewood in Staffordshire, and then to 
Beaurepaire House in Hampshire, where 
experiments in farming ran away with his 
capital. Meantime he had found a source 
of revenue in the publication of his varied 
sporting reminiscences, especially in the 
hunting field. On the ground that no 
' gentleman ' ever wrote for a sporting paper, 
he first planned a book on hunting, but he 
was eventually persuaded to offer his ser- 
vices to Pittman, the editor of the * Sport- 
ing Magazine,' in which his first paper on 
1 Foxhunting in Leicestershire ' appeared in 
January 1822. The paper provided him with 
a liberal salary and a stud of hunters, in re- 
turn for which he soon trebled the circula- 
tion. Unhappily in 1830 the ' Sporting Maga- 
zine r got into difficulties (consequent upon 
the death of its able editor), and, nis private 
finances having become involved, Apperley 
had to retire to Calais* During his stay in 



France he became a regular member of the 
staff of the i Sporting Review,' He began a 
series of volumes of sporting memoirs and 
reminiscences, and in 1835, at the earnest 
request of Lockhart, he published in the 
' Quarterly Review ' his three famous articles 
(which were at first attributed to Lord Al- 
vanley ) on ' Melton Mowbray/ ' The Road/ 
and 'The Turf/ A sportsman, who was also 
a wit and something of a scholar, * Nimrod ' 
had well-nigh a virgin field. As regards 
the archaeology of his subject, his volumes 
rank with those of Pierce Egan and the 
* Druid 7 [see DIXON, HENRY HALL, Smpl.J 
while, owing to the excellence of the p-ates 
by Alken, tiey are highly esteemod by col- 
lectors of choice books. * Nimrod' returned 
to Enf land in 1842, and died in Up->er Bel- 
grave _?lace, Pirnlico, on 19 May 18^3. 

He was on friendly and, as a sportsman, 
on equal terms with manv distinguished 
racing men and Meltonians. He was intimate 
with Henry Alken and with George Tatter- 
eall ('Wildrake'), and helped to introduce 
the work of Surtees to popular appreciation. 
An excellent outline sketch of K imrod was 
included in Maclise's ' Portrait Gallery.' 

Of Apperley's numerous children the 
second son, William Wynne Apperley, was 
entered as a cornet of Bengal cavalry in 1823, 
became superintendent of the central divi- 
sion of the stud department in Bengal, was 
promoted ma; or in the 3rd European light 
cavalry in 18o4, was remount agent at the 
Cape of Good Hope 1857-60, and died at 
Morben, near Machynlleth, Montgomery- 
shire, on 25 April 1872, aged 62. Nearly 
all 'NimrodV children and grandchildren 
are stated to have inherited his strong sport- 
ing proclivities. 

The following are * Nimrod's * publications : 
1. * Remarks on the Condition of Hunters, 
the Choice of Horses, and their Manage- 
ment,' London, 1831, 8vo ; reprinted from 
1 Snorting Magazine ; 4th ed. 1865. 2. ' N ira- 
roc/s Hunting Tours, interspersed with Cha- 
racteristic Anecdotes, Sayings, and Coings 
of Sport-ing Men . . . to* which are added 
Nimrod's Letters on Riding to Hounds/ Lon- 
don, 1835, 8vo> (the original appeared as 
'Letters on Hunting* in the *. Sporting 
Magazine'). 3. 'The Chace, the Turf, and 
the Road, By Nimrod/ London, 1837, 8vo, 
with portrait by Maclise, and thirteen full 
plates (uncoloured) by II. Alken (a reissue 
in a slightly altered form of the three ' Quar- 
terly ' articles mentioned above) ; reissued 
1843, 1852, 1870, and 1898. 4. * Memoirs of the 
Life of the late John Mytton, Esc ., of Hals- 
ton, Shropshire/ 1887, 8vo, witlx eighteen 
coloured plates by Alken and Rawlms j re^ 



Arbuthnot 



54 



Archbold 



issued 1837, 1800, 1851, 1892. 5. 'Sport- ployed in tho A fgluiu campaigns In tho 
illustrative of British Field Sports ^rat Afghan campaig-n h'Mmd command of 




Korthern Tour, descriptive of the principal ~- -- -~ --., - , . 

Hunts in Scotland and the North of Bng- Bright. Ho wan mentioned in d<w;>alcheH 

land/ 1838, 8vo (a sequel to No. 2). 7,<Nim- (& 4 May 1 880), mswvwl . tluj inw.jil, and 

rod Abroad/ London, 1842, 2 vols. Bvo. was made K.O.H. on J- ; May 1J*J jyW 

8 * The Horse and the Hound: their various already obtained tlio (J.U. on 20 May IK/1. 

Uses and Treatment,' Edinburgh, IH42, 8vo; llohad bocomo rogum'nlal uolonol on 1 July 



elates ; the ordinal edition is scarce, artillery at. lioudqunrU'W irom I Sopt 
*0 'Hunting Reminiscences; comprising to 31 Aug. 1KHJJ, durmj whioh turn* thn 
Memoirs of Wasters of Hounds, Notices of territorial Hyutom vnw irst applied to tho 
the Crack Eiders,' London, 184:5, Bvo, with regiment. II in iirnmms ami strict, NOIIHC ot 
thirty-two plates by ' Wildrake,' Alken, and jiwlico mad<i him an oxnsllcnt admiiUHt ral.or, 
Henderson. ^Tlo wnNtlum xniwlo tnnpwl nr-gwral of artil- 

I<HT and on 1 May iHHfi ho IxuMimn pnw 
** r ^;-an TV: onnniU <T , n,,;iv^ at 
t < a tmm a din ,iLniiHliiMl HJM ; O i..;n- 
to hulm m ISN j, hin ff 
cumnnund ot 1 1m Horn bay 
, and t.nniHlcrnMl to MadviiH 
on S) Dec. Hn Hiirwodod Lord IvoberlH^in 
Burma in 1HH7, luul <'.oi ilot<ul tho pacili* 



azino, 1843 



, 

trait GiiUoiy, ed. Bates; MaM'a Annuls of tho 8"-. 1J V rot urnd 

Iload 1876,m).l77].; Thormftnhy'HKiriKsof appointed to thn 

the Hunting tfiold; Lawlry'N Life of Tho Drnid army on U> 1<VI>., 



,..j Hunting 

[H. H. Dixon]; Slater's JBuvly Kditions, 1801, 
> 214; Halkett and Laiug'8 JUieU of Anon, and 
ZPtorodon. Lit.] T. S. 

ARBUTHNOT, Bra CHARLES 
GEOKGK (1824-1899), gonwal, born on 
19 May 1824, was fourth son of Aloxandor 
Arbuthnot, bishop of Killaloc, by Margaret 
Phoebe, daughter of Georgo IJingham, He 
was a younger brothor of Hir Alexander 
John Arbuthnot, K.C.&I. JIo WUH educated 
at Rugby, and in spite of his small m%o dis- 
tinguished himself at football there. After 

massing through tho Royal Military Academy 

lie was commissioned as second litsutonanb 

in the royal artillery on 17 Juno 1843. 

He was promoted lieutenant on 4 Fob, l&lfy 

second captain on 4 A>ril 1851, and first 

captain on 8 March '855. lu May he 

landed in the Crimea, and served during tho 

remainder of the wiege of Sebantoppl. lie 

was conspicuous for coolness and during, and 

was twice wounded. He w*w mentioned in 

despatches (London Getaette, 2 Nov. lfW>), 

and was given a brevet majority* II o alwo 

received the medal with clasp, the Turkish 

medal, and the Medjidie (5th claps)* 
He commanded K troop of horse artillery 

from 1857 to 1864, when ho became regi- 
mental lieutenant-colonel, (19 Dec.) llo 

went to India in 1868, where ho commanded 

A brigade of horse artillery till 1872, and of JMaekBtono's <t?tmnmmtanoH J (London, 

was deputy adjutant-general of artillery 4 VO)H, ttvo), with an unulywH and un opi- 

from 1873 to 1877. From 1 Oct. 1877 to tomoof th work, In 1H1JJ ho \mw\ tlu* 
31 July 1880 he was inspect or-goneral of first volumo of 'A Di^oHtof tho Ploim of 
artillery in India, except while actively om- tho Orowu ' (London, bvo), a compiktiou of 



cation of that Country. -1'iH WM-VUVVS v 
acknowl(dg't>cl by tin* Indian govornuinnt (/A. 
2 Sopt. 1SH7), liiut his rtMJiv(i tho modal 
with dawp. 

Ho bucamo liMitwwnt-gpnrrul on 1 A'jril 
18H(>, and gononil on fM July IWO, "lin 
connnnud of tho, Miuh-HH army nuno to nn 
end on 10 May 1HJH, whon ho WHM pliu^od 
on tlio roll rod fml, .Kinully nottllt^- in Kf(- 
lund, ho booanit^ (tolonol commandant on 
Itt Aujf, IHSKJ, an<l rocoivtul tho (I.<U1, on 
20 May 1804. llod'wd at Itic.hmond, Surroy, 
on 14'April IS{). In 1S<5H ho had nutmod 
Caroline Oharlotto.* dau^hlor of William 
Clarke, M.IK, of Harlwdiw; nhn Ntirvivod 
him. 

['Proc. of Unyal Artillorv liibt-ilution, vol. 
xxvi.; TimoH, 18 April IK1S),| 



JM. JU 



AECHBOLD, JOHN 
(1785- 1H70), lol writois horn in l7H5,wurt 
tho aocond on of John Aw.htoold of cti.^ 
Dahlin, 11 wan admittol a Htudtmt of 
Lincoln's Inn on 3 May 18(M,and WUH called 
to the bar on 5 May* 1814* From tho bo~ 
jfinnin^of liitt lopilouroor Arohbold dovotod 
:umaolf to compiling log'al troatiMoH, lit 
1811 ho brought <mt tui annotatod 



Archbold 



55 



Archbold 



all the statutes, adjudged cases, and other 
authorities upon the subject. This was one 
of three volumes of 'A Digest of Criminal 
Law/ which Archbold had prepared for the 
press, but as several books on the subject 
appeared about the same time he did not 
itfsue the other two volumes. 

In 1819 he published the first edition of 
what was perhaps his most notable work, 
' The Practice of the Court of King's Bench 
in Personal Actions and Ejectments' (Lon- 
don, 2 vols, 12mo). Previous to its appear- 
ance, ' The Practice of the Court of Jung's 
Bench in Personal Actions/ by William 
Trdd [q. v.], was the leading work on the 
subject ; but, while it maintained its place in 
the United States, it was largely superseded 
in England by Archbold's book, which was 
more explicit in regard to forms of pro- 
cedure. Archbold's t Practice ' went through 
fourteen editions. The third edition was 
edited by Thomas Chitty [q. v.], who added 
to it the 'Practice of the Courts of Common 
Pleas and Exchequer,' and the ninth edition, 
which appeared in 1855-6, was edited by 
Samuel Prentice. The fourteenth edition, 
published in 1885, was revised by Thomas 
Willes Chitty and John William St. Law- 
ranee Leslie. 

About 1824 Archbold published his < Sum- 
mary of the Law relative to Pleading and 
Evidence in Criminal Cases,' in which he 
incorporated the greater part of the two un- 
published volumes of his * Digest of Criminal 
-jaw.' The fourth (1831) and four suc- 
ceeding editions were edited by (Sir) John 
Jervis "q.v.l, the tenth (1846) to the fifteenth 
(ISG^'by William Newland Welsby [q. v.], 
and the sixteenth (1867) to the twenty-first 
(1893) by William Bruce. The twenty- 
second edition, by William Feilden Craies 
and Guy Stephenson, appeared in 1900. The 
work has also gone through several editions 
in the United States. 

In 1829 Archbold published a work upon 
the ' Practice of the Court of Common Pleas.' 
Afterwards the practice of all the courts of 
common law at Westminster was assimi- 
lated, and much altered by the statutes and 
new rules on the subject between 1831 and 
1834. To meet the altered conditions he 
prepared his ' New Practice of Attornies in 
the Courts of Law at Westminster/ which 
appeared in 1838, was remodelled in 1844, 
and reached a third edition in 1846-7 (Lon- 
don, 2 vols. 8vo). On the passage of the i 
Common Law Procedure Act in 1852 he ; 
prepared * The New Eules of Practice in the : 
Oourts of Law' (London, 1853, 8vo), and 
1 The New Practice, Pleadings, and Evidence 
in the Courts of Common Law at Westmin- 



ster ' (London, 1853, 12mo), which received 
a supplement in 1854, and -attained a second 
edition in 1855 (London, 8vo). 

Archbold's treatises on parish law were 
among his most important elucidations of 
English law. In 1828 he published < The 
Law relative to Commitments and Convic- 
tions by Justices of the Peace' (London, 
12ino), This was the foundation of his ' Jus- 
tice of the Peace and Parish Officer ' (Lon- 
don, 1840, 3 vols. 12mo), a work intended 
as a practical guide for county magistrates. 
The similar treatise by Kichard Burn [q. v.] 
had become, through the additions ot suc- 
cessive editors, rather a work of reference 
for lawyers than a guide for magistrates. A 
seventh edition of Archbold's work by James 
Paterson appeared in 1876 (London, 2 vols. 
8vo). The third volume of the original edi- 
tion, which dealt with ' The Poor Law/ was 
in especial demand, and developed into a 
separate treatise, which has remained a stan- 
dard authority on the subject ; the twelfth 
(1873), thirteenth (1878), and fourteenth 
(1885) editions of the volume on 'The Poor 
Law 7 were prepared by William Cunning- 
ham Glen, and the fifteenth (1898) by James 
Brooke Little. Archbold's latest contribu- 
tion to parish law was ' The Parish Officer ' 
(London, 1852, 12mo) ; a second edition by 
Glen appeared in 1855. With the "fourth 
edition (-864) the editor, James Paterson, in- 
corporated Shaw's * Parish Law ' "see SHAW, 
JOSEPH]. The eighth edition, by Tohn Theo- 
dore Dodd, appeared in 1895, 

Archbold died on 28 Nov. 1870, at 
15 Gloucester Street, Regent's Park, Lon- 
don. He is said to have been known as 
'pretty Archbold* (cf. An Appeal to the 
People of the United Kingdom of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland from James Wkarton^Gik, 
1836). Besides the works already mentioned, 
he was the author of: 1. 'A iMgest of tho 
Law relative to Pleading and Evidence in 
Actions, Real, Personal, and Mixed,' Lon- 
don, 1821, 12mo; 2nd edit. 1837. 2. < The 
Law and Practice in Bankruptcy,' 2nd edit, 
by John Flather, London, 1827, 12mo; llth 
edit, by Flather, 1856, 3. ' The Jurisdiction 
and Practice of the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions/ London, 1836, 12mo; 3rd edit, by 
Conway Whithorne Lovesy, 1869 ; 4th edit. 
by Frederick Mead and Herbert Stephen 
Croft, 1885, 8vo ; 5th edit, by Sir George 
Sherston Baker, 1898, 8vo. 4. < The Law of 
Nisi Prius,' London, 1843-5, 2 vols. 8vo ; 
vol. i. 2nd edit. 1845, 12mo; 3rd American 
edition by John 1C Findlay, 1853. 5. ' The 
Practice of the Crown Office of the Court of 
Queen'sBench,'London,1844, 12mo. 6. 'The 
Law of Landlord and Tenant,' London, 1846, 



Archdale 



Archdale 



12mo; 3rd edit, 1864. 7, <The Law rela- 
tive to Examinations and Grounds of Ap- 
pea in Cases of Orders of Removal,' Lon- 
don, 1847, 12mo ; 2nd edit. 1858. 8. 'The 
Practice of the New County Courts, 7 London, 
1847, 12mo; 9tli edit, by John Veaoy Vesey 
Fitzgerald, 1885, 8vo ; 10th edit, by Charles 
Arnold White, 1889. 9. 'A Summary of 
the Laws of Enjland in four Volumes^ 1 
London, 1848-9, L2mo ; onlv vols, i. and ii. 
appeared. 10. ' The Law relative to Pauper 
Lunatics,' London, 1851, liimo ; afterwards 
included in his ' Poor Law.' 11. ' The Now 
liules and Forms regulating the present 
Practice and Proceedings of the County 
Courts,' London, 1851, 12mo. 12, 'The 
New Statutes relating to Lunacy/ London, 
3854, 12mo; 2nd edit, by W. C. Glen and 
Alexander Glen, 1877, 8vo; 4th edit, by 
Sydney George Lushing- ton, 189f>. 13. 'The 
Law of Limited Liability, Partnership, and 
Joint Stock Companies, 1 London, 1>T)5, 
l^mo; 3rd edit. 1857, 14. <The Law and 
Practice of Arbitration and Award, 1 Lon- 
don, 1861, 12mt>, 15. 'The Law of Bank- 
ruptcy and Insolvency as foundod on tho 
recent Statute/ London, 18(51, 12iuo; 2nd 
edit. 1861. Archbold also edited annotated 
editions of numerous acts of parliament. 

[Boape's Modern English Biography ; Lin- 
coln's Inn Records, ]8JJ6, ii, 36; .Allihono'a 
Diet, of JEiigl. Lit.; Marvin's Legal Biblio- 
graphy.] E. L C, 

ARCHDALE, JOH1S T (/. 1604-1707), 
governor of North Carolina, was son of 
Thomas Archdale, and grandson of Richard 
Archdale, a London merchant, who in 1028 
acquired the manors of Temple Wy combe 
and Loakes m Buclungharaslnnj ( TYV. Lonr 
don, I 24 ; l&T>wom,'ucMnf/fwmhiw t Hi, 
640). Several members of the family were 
educated at Wadham College, Oxford, but 
yJohn does not appear to have been at any 
university, His eldest sister liacl married 
Ferdinanclo Gorges, grandson of Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges [q, vj, and in the autumn 
of 1664 Archdale accompanied his brother- 
in-law to New England to make good the 
latter's claim to the governorship of Maine 
(CaL State Papery Amer. and West Indies, 
1661-8, Nos. 868, 921, 1649), He carried 
with him a letter from Charles II, requiring 
the administrators to hand over to Arehdalo 
the government or to show cause to the con- 
trary. Archdale's request was refused, and 
he appealed to the commissioners, by whose 
intervention Gorges seems eventually to have 
made good hie claim (cf. ib. 1660-74, Nos. 
150,750), Early in 1674 Arelidale returned 
to England,bringing with him Gorges'a report 



on Maine, which he pruHonl nd to tlu* council. 
In England h opiwly identified himnolf with 
the newly forinod body of qimkorH. 

In 10H(> Arclidalt) viwitod North Carolina, 
and a letter writton by him to Guorgo Kox 
from Carolina in March in irintod in 



'History of Worth (.-urn ina. v In 1087-8 
ho wan acting UN commissioner for Gorjos 
in the govern mont of Muiiui. IIo had !>o- 
coine ouo of tho propriot.orH of North Caro- 
lina, and in 1(W)5 ho WHH npjKiintod^ovornot 
of that colony. HIM administration in taid 
to havo bet'n .singularly MucctvsHful, Ml<^ 
improved thomilitaryHyHtoiM^jjionodfriondly, 
communicationH with tho Indiiuin and' 
Spaniard*), diwcouragod th inhumauitioH of 
the former HO nfltwt.uaTlly UH to iudiuto tlumi 
to ronounco tlw ])racti of ^lundnriiijur Hhip* 
wrtsckod VHWIH and murdontip: limit <!r\VH ; 
and combined with .singular l\lint.y (ho lirm 
roqimitos of tho govornor with thn 
and Bimplo btmo.vol^nci^ of ihn (i 
(VV, 0. HIMMH, ti<Mf/i Cttwlhitt, p. 7^), 
cuakor proclivit.ioH induced him to iixompt 
jViendw from worvico in thn colonial militia, 
lie ttlno intro(lu((ul llm ciilt.uro of rico into 
the colony, mid on rolmtyuuthmK tlio govern* 
uumt in f(W)7 hi rH^ivod tho UiankM of tho 
colony for IUH 8rvi((w--a ro(n^nition Dial 
had not boon uucordtxl to any provioun 
governor, 

Boon lifter IUB return to Kn^hmd Ardi 
dale was, on Si I July IjlOH, <li-t(d inombor 
of parliament for Ohippin^ Wycininliis Hu<'k- 
inghanmhirrt. IT had a lownd himwilf to 
b<3 uominntnd * without !UH own wi'ltiupf ' by 
the church party in opjuwition to tlio Mar- 
quis of Wliarttm'H nnnnnco (0//I Jfatunt, \> 
570; lAm'HHiiii, ttritf ltvlnttun % ]>p. (07, 
469; MAdAxriAY, ii (jiia\ and liin oloftion 
wan a blow to tlm junto. But on 7 Jan. 
109R-9, having * had 'th advico of Inwywn 
that IUH rtllirmalion would Htund good inroad 
of an oat.h,' ho rofiwod to wwoar. Afur a 
debate tho UOUHW of (lommonR docidnd 
against him, a fw-Hh writ WH iNHiiiul T and on 
iii Jan. a Thoman Awhdnl (/Mwwhly his 
son; cf. GABDINWK, ,A ' 

874) wa f locttul in his '; 

Arehdalo took no furhor part in 
but in 1707 ho publwhod IUM ' Now 
tioti of that fortilw tmd pUiaflant 1'rovinws of 
Carolina . > , -with Rovwal romnrkuhh pa- 
sageaof Pi vino I*rovi<Un*eo during my timo' 
(London, 4to). It wan roprintod at (^hnrl^H- 
ton in 1822 from a copy in UharloHton 
Library, 'mnpowid to Iw th only copy 
extant/ but^t-iore m anolhor in tho 'UntinU 
Museum Library, It IH uletti nvprintwi in 
B IL Oarroir8*'nit.oriimi Culloctions on 
Carolina; Now York, UtiU. 



Archer 



S7 Archer 



[ A reli dale's New Description, 1707; Cal. 
Shite Papers, Amer. and West Indies ; Smith's 
Oat. Friends' Books, p. 120; Hewatt's South 
Carolina; Holmes's American Annals; Ban- 
croft's History of the "United States; Hutckin- 
son's Collection of Papers, pp. 386-8; Common a' 
Journals ; !Mr. John Ward Dean in Notes and 
Queries, 4thsor,vi.382; Appleton's Cyclopaedia 
of American Biography.] A. F. P. 

ARCHER, FREDERICK (1857-1880), 
jockey, born at St. George's Cottage, Chelten- 
ham, on 11 Jan. 1857, was the second son of 
William Archer, a jockey of the old school, 
who took over a stud of English horses to 
Russia in 1842, who won the Grand National 
at Liverpool on Little Charlie in 1858, and 
who eventually became landlord of the 
King's Arms at Prestbury, near Cheltenham. 
His mother was Emma, daughter of "William 
Hayward, a former proprietor of the King's 
Arms, On 10 Jan. 1867 Billy ' Archer ap- 
prenticed his son * Fred/ a quick, retentive, 
and exceedingly secretive boy, for five years 
to Matthew Dawson [c .v. 8up?l.], the trainer 
at Newmarket. As ' 3illy ' Arcber's son he 
was soon given an opportunity of showing his 
mettle, and on 28 Sept. 1870 at Chesterfield, 
upon Atholl Daisy, he won his first victory on 
the turf. Two years later, seal ing at that time 
5st 71b, he won the Cesare witch ou Salvanoe, 
and in 1874, in which year the death of Tom 
French made a clear vacancy for a jockey of 
the first order, he won a success u:>on Lord 
Falmouth's Atlantic in the Two Thousand 
Guineas which proved of the greatest value 
to his career. Thenceforth he became * a 
veritable mascotte ' of the- racing stable 
with which he was connected. In 1874, 
with 530 mounts, he scored 147 wins. In 
1877 he won his first Derby, and also the 
St. Leger, upon Lord Falmouth's Silvio. In 
1884, with 877 mounts, he secured no less 
than 241 wins. His most successful ;rear 
was probably 1885, when he won the r lVo 
Thousand Guineas on Paradox, the Oaks on 
Lonely, the Derby and St> Leger on Melton, 
and the Grand Prix on Paradox. In his 
last season he won the Derby and St. Leger 
on Ormonde. In all he is said to have worn 
silk 8,084 times, and to have ridden 2,748 
winners* His most exciting victory was 
perhaps the Derby of 1880, when he came 
up from the rear upon Bend Or with an ex- 
traordinary rush, beating Robert the Devil 
by a head. His nerve was of iron, and he 
never hesitated to take the inside of the 
turn and hug the rails at Tattenham Corner. 
The success which enabled him to remain 
premier jockey for the unprecedented period 
of ten years is attributes primarily to his 
coolness and to his judgment of pace* 



For keeping down his racing weight 
(8st lOlb in his later years), Turkish baths, 
almost total abstinence from solid food, and 
frequent alkaline medicines were his chief 
resources. In October 1886, with stern de- 
termination, he resolved to waste himself 
down to Sat 71b for the Cambridgeshire. 
He achieved his -lunose, but the effort cost 
him his life. lie 'ell seriously ill, and, in 
the depressed state occasioned bv fever con- 
sequent upon long starvation, s'lot himself 
with a revolver in the afternoon of 8 Nov. 
1886 at his residence, Falmouth House, 
Newmarket. He was buried in Newmarket 
cemetery on 12 Nov., and among the ad- 
mirers who sent wreaths were the Duke of 
"Westminster and the Prince of -Wales. 

He married ou 31 Jan, 1883 Rose Nellie 
(d. 1884), eldest daughter of John Dawson 
of Warren House, Newmarket, by whom he 
left a daughter. By means of retainers, 
fees, and presents he is said to have gained 
over 60,QCO in his professional capacity, and 
he left a considerable fortune. 

[Times, 9. 12, and 13 Nov. 1886; Field, 
13 Nov. 1886 ; Daily Telegraph, 12 Nov. 1886 ; 
Annual Kegister, 1886, p. 165; The Archers 
(biographical sketches of William and Frod. 
Archer), by A Cheltonian, 1885; ChetwynH's 
Racing Reminiscences, 1891 ; Porter's Kingsclere, 
1896, p. 330; Sporting and Dramatic Nows, 
13 Nov. 1886, portrait.^ T. S. , 

ARCHER, WILLIAM (1830-1897), 
naturalist and librarian, was the eldest son of 
the Rev. Richard Archer, vicar of Clonduir, 
co. Down, a member of a family long settled 
in co.Wexford,and of Jane Matilda, daughter 
of Watkins William Verllng of Dublin, his 
wife. Archer was born at Magherahamlet, 
co. Down, of which place his father was then 
perpetual curate, on 6 May 1830. His father 
died in 1848, leaving a young family in 
straitened circumstances. About 1 846 Archer 
came toDublin, where he resided thenceforth, 
and devoted his leisure to the study of 
natural history, for which he had from the 
first evinced a remarkable talent. His special 
gifts in this direction were first shown at 
the meetings of the Dublin Microscopical 
Club, founded in 1867, of which he was for 
many years secretary, and among whose 
members he quickly became notable through 
his investigations in connection with minute 
forms of vegetable and animal life. His 
contributions as a member of this club be- 
tween 1864 and 1879 were published in the 
1 Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science,' 
and in the * Proceedings of the Dublin 
Microscopical Club.' He was also an active 
; contributor to the ' Proceedings ' of the 



Archer 



Archibald 



and the Scandinavian languages the bettor 
to pursue his favourite Bcicnco. 
Archer's clriof work as librarian waa ' his 



nated hin character, Archw had a Ningular 
charm of inanunr, a g<ntloiuHH and rnliuu- 
xnont of disposition almoHt fcniininn. , . 
There was no lack of robust nous, howovor, 
abo\it his Bc'umtiflc inwight,; but a quaint 
sense of humour would alwayH parry a con- 
tentiouB criliciBtn * (J[*roctwlM</ti of lloi/al &V 
eiety, vol. Ixii.) 

"Proceedings of tho Koyni Irish Academy, 
vo*. iv. !3rd sor. 1808; ProooodingH of tho Royal 
Socioty, vol. latii,; Notes from tho Botanical 
School, Trinity Colleen, Dublin, Juno 1808, by 
Prof. K, P. VVrii^hl., JV1.0.; Tho Irish Natural- 
ist, vol. vi. Oct., 181)7, with port rait; The Library, 
ix. 208, with portrait. ; I'rooondiiigH of tho 
Natural TliHtory Mooioty of Dublin ; Tho Re- 
ports of tho National library, 1877 W5; Pro- 
CBodingH of I ho Dublin JVlioruHCopicul Hociety ; 
private information.] 0, L, l'\ 



Dublin Natural History Socioty, ai 
acquired a reputation for original 
in his favourite science. As a result of ....... , , it Ar 

lone; and patient investigations, in the course admirable dictionary catalogue* o( tho Na- 
of which he made many journeys to distant tional Library, and the adopting of tho 
parts of Ireland, he ' acquired a knowledge of decimal notation and clarification for nholf 
the minute freshwater organisms of Ireland arrangement, a aystmn . . , almoHt unknown 
unparalleled among British naturalists, and when Archer imi; adhered to it ( Report of 
perhaps not surpassed for any other country ' National Library t>flrlttn<lfor \ 81 5) * A part 
(Proceeding of Royal Society, vol. Ixii.) ' tt from tho umtifi onthuHiaam which domt- 
is, however, to his work among the protozoa 
that Archer will owe his ultimate place in 
science.' His essay on ' Chlamydomyxa 
labyrinthuloides, a new species and genus 
of Freshwater Sarcodic Organism, 7 won him 
m 1875 his election as a fellow of the Royal 
Society, in whose catalogue as many ns fifty- 
nine papers by Archer are enumerated. Prior 
to this ae had become a member of the Royal 
Irish Academy, to whose 'Proceedings' ho 
was a diligent contributor. From 1S75 to 
1880 he acted as secretary for foroign corre- 
spondence to the Academy, and in 1879 was 
awarded its Cunningham gold medal in re- 
cognition of liis scientific iittammt'xitft. 

Archer's extremely modost and retiring 
disposition was a constant bar to tho en- 
largement of his reputation. A diwtrust of 
his" abilities caused him to decline in 1872 
the professorship of botany at the Hoyal ... . t 

College of Science for Ireland. In 1870, (IBM 180ii) (ianiwhau MatoHman, tho HOU 
however, his friends procured his appoint- ofSarauwlArcliibaldancU'Jliaalioth.diu^hjnr 
ment as 'librarian to t.uj Royal Dulun So- ofMatthuwAw1iiltald,<'uwool^im)llS('<UiHh 
ciety and on the acquisition in 1877 of tho family whidi had notthul m thr north oi 
society's library by tie state Archer became Ireland, nnd 1 horn* mitfrati'tl t o Nova Scot ia 
librarian of the National Library of Ireland, in 1701 . J I w gnuulfathnr, JIUUCH Aiv.hihaUl, 
lie had previously added to his income had boon jutlgo of tlm <-ouH oj common ploiw 
by acting as secretary to a small slate for tho county of Oolduwt *r in Nova Scotia, 
company in Munster. Into the diaehar jo of B*nva born at Truro, Nova Scotia, on I K M ay 
the duties of his new office Archer Urew lai^amlwliioatrdal I'ictoiil^lli'pojtlMmwo 

himself with cliaractoristic soal, speedily he proowjdtsd to HalifHx ami ^wl _iorthr 

acquiring a high reputation among librarians, in tho chambrH of Willimn Hulhir, 
During lis tenure of this post tho library aftewardw roeorder of Halifax, Hn 
was transferred in August 1890 to the admitted an attorney of I'rinco K 
handsome building opposite to the Irish Island and Nova Scotia in IHttK, nml 
National Museum, deet^xxedby Sir Thomas to tho bar of tho lattw colony in 1S;JI>, 
Deane [c , v. Suppl.], the internal arrange- om y^urs dovoting himnelf to tho 
ments o:' which were based entirely on of hia;>rofi'Bon* r 

Archer's carefully considered recommenda- ( Archibald mtird public lvf<^ inlH 
tiona. Archer resigned his post in 1895, and ho waa d<K;td to tho HOUHO of AftMmnbly of 
Ee died, unmarried, at his residence, fi2 Lower Nova iScotia afl mnnibor lor Coldiivtor, and 
Hount Street, Dublin, on 14 Aug. 1897. during the yearn which followwl h took an 
Archer r s scientifir skill, knowledge, and active part in promoting li'giHlution, He 
capacity were, according to the testimony of was especially inttWBtod in mwiHimw for tho 
competent judges, out of all proportion to manairumont of ffoWfioUln. for dtmliutf with 
his public reputation. He was not only an 
indefatigable worker, but -josseased m a 
marked degree that scientific imagination 
which is essential to the highest results in 
research. He was an excellent linguist, and 



law 



WUH 



acquired a knowledge oj; German, Trench, 



managwnumt of g< >ld i\Mn t ; 
free education, and for yHtrictinK thn fran- 
chifto to ratopaywrH. In 1855 ho bucanm 
Q.C., ancl in AupiHt 185(J Iw WUH \ tf 
solicit or-gonural \vc thw "srovinco, ( )n - 4 J^jb. 
1857 ho wtmt out of or!ic with tho minift- 
try. Lator in the aamo year ho wae soul to 



Archibald 



Archibald 



England as one of two delegates to repre- 
sent the rights of the province against the 
General Killing Association, the monopoly 
of which over the coal areas the government 
was endeavouring to destroy. He also took 
part in the discussions on the project of an 
intercolonial railway for which the help of 
the home government was desired. He was 
required at the same time to discuss with the 
home authorities the question of the union 
of Nova Scotia with the provinces of New 
Brunswick, Cape Breton, and Prince Edward 
Island (v, his letter of 24 Nov. 1866 on union). 
On 10 Feb. 1860 he came into office a^ain 
as attorney-general, and in September 1861 
(ParL Papers, 1862, xxxvi. 651) was deputed 
to represent Nova Scotia at the conference at 
Quebec respecting the intercolonial railway 
scheme. In 1862 he was appointed advo- 
cate- general in the vice-admiralty court at 
Halifax. On 11 June 1863 he went out of 
office with his colleagues. In June 1 864 he 
was delegate of Nova Scotia to a conference 
held at Chariot tetown on the question of the 
legislative union of Nova Scotia, Prince Ed- 
ward Island, and New Brunswick, and simi- 
larly attended the conference on the question 
of a more comprehensive scheme of union 
which assembled at Quebec on 10 Oct. 1864. 
In 1866 he proceeded to London to take part 
in the consultations which led up to the 
federation of the Canadian provinces, and 
published a letter, dated 24 Nov. I860, re- 
cording his views on the subject of colonial 
union. In 1867 he was appointed secretary 
of state for the provinces under the new 
dominion government ; but in 1868, being 
beaten in the contest for Colchester, he re- 
signed his post. In 1869 he was elected to 
the dominion parliament; as member for Col- 
chester, but in May 1870 resigned in order 
to become the first lieutenant-governor of 
Manitoba on its transfer from the Hudson's 
Bay Company to the government of the 
dominion. 

On 2 Sept. 1870 Archibald arrived at 
Fort Garry, just as Colonel (now Lord) 
Wolseley was moving out on his Red River 
expedition. He was looked upon by many 
as a French sympathiser, and ; ustified this 
opinion by his conciliatory po'-icy towards 
the rebels. He lost no time in forming the 
rudiments of a council and talcing a census 
of the north-west territories with a view to 
the election of an assembly. On 15 March 
1871 he opened the first local parliament. 
He laid the foundation of the north-west 
mounted police and initiated a sound Indian 
policy. On 27 Au|. 1871 he had a mass 
meeting of the Indians and made a treaty 
with them, on behalf of the dominion govern- 



ment. Though abused at first by both 
ties, his administration proved very success- 
ful ; he maintained with skill his position in 
relation both to the central government and 
the people whom he had to accustom to the 
reign of order. In October 1872 he resigned 
by his own desire, with the unconcealed re- 
gret of the governor-general, the Earl (after- 
wards Marquis) of DuiFerin. 

On 24 June 1873 Archibald was appointed 
judge in equity in Nova Scotia, but on 4 July 
the office of lieutenant-governor became 
vacant, and he succeeded to the post, which 
he filled with such general approbation that 
at the end of his term in 1878 ho was re- 
a^pointod, and did not finally retire from 
this office till 4 July 1883. Iii 1888 he was 
once more induced to stand for Colchester, 
and was elected to the Canadian House of 
Commons; but in 1891, at the next general 
election, did not. offer himself as a candidate. 
He died at Truro on 14 Dec. 1892, and was 
buried in Truro churchyard. 

Archibald was created C.M.G. in 1873, 
and K.C.M.G. in 1886. In 1873 he became a 
director of the Canadian Pacific Railway and 
in 1884 chairman of the governors oiDul- 
housie College. In February 1886 he was 
elected president of the Nova Scotia, His- 
torical Society, in the proceedings of which 
he had for some years taken an active part, 
contributing various papers to its collections. 

Archibald was a staunch presby terian, but 
a man of broad views, of strong will but cool 
judgment, courteous and dignified in bear- 
ing. He married, on 1 June 1843, Elizabeth 
Archibald, daughter of John Burnyeat, in- 
cumbent of the parish of St. John, Colches- 
ter, Nova Scotia, whose wife was a connec- 
tion of the Archibald family. He had a 
son, who died young 1 , and three daughters, 
all married, one being the wife of Bishop 
Jones of Newfoundland. 

[Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical 
Society, 1895, ix, 197-201 ; Rose's Cyclopaedia of 
Canadian Biography ; Begg's Hi story of th e North- 
West, vol. ii. esp, pp. 90-100; the Citizen and 
Evening Chronicle (of Halifax, N.S.), 5 July. 
1883 ; Canadian Parliamentary Companion, 
1875.] C. A. H. 

ARCHIBALD, SIR THOMAS DICK- 
SON (1817-1876), judge, born at Truro, 
Nova Scotia, in 1817, was sixth son of Samuel 
George Williams Archibald, LL.D., of Nova 
Scotia, by Elizabeth, daughter of Charles 
Dickson of Onslow, Canada. Like Sir Adams 
George Archibald [q. v. Suppl.", he was de- 
scenced from Samuel Archibald who emi- 
grated to Nova Scotia from Ireland. The 
father was attorney-general of Nova Scotia, 
1831-41 ; advocate-general, 1837-41 ; mas- 



Argyll 



Armitage 



ter of the rolls and judge of the vice-ad- 
wiiralty court, 1841-6 ; and sometime speaker 
of the assembly. 

Thomas was educated at Fictou Presby- 
terian College, and in 1837 qualified for prac- 
tice as attorney and barrister- at-law in Nova 
Scotia. A visit to Europe, however, in the 
following year resulted in his settling in 
England, and on 11 Nov. 1840 he was ad- 
mitted at the Middle Temple, where, aftor 
some years of practice as a certificated 
special pleader, he was called to the bar on 
30 Jan. 1852. He was one of the favourite 
pupils of Serjeant Petersdorflf, whom he 
assisted in the compilation of his ' Abridg- 
ment/ At the bar his perfect mastery of 
die technicalities of pleaung (then a veri- 
table black art) stood him in such stead 
that, though not aa especially persuasive 
advocate, he slowly gained a lead on the 
home circuit. In 1868 he was appointed 
junior counsel to the treasury, and on 
i#) Nov. 1872 he succeeded Sir James 
Hannen [q. v. Suppl.] as justico of the 
queen's bench, being at the Bame, time in- 
vested with the coif. ^ On 5 Fob, 1873 ho 
was knighted. Trail slurred to the common 
pleas on 6 Feb. 1875 (vice Sir Henry Singer 
jteating, resigned), he retained his place and 
acquired the status of justice of the high 
court on the subsequent fusion of the courts 
by the Judicature Act. lie died at his resi- 
dence, Forchester Gate, Hyde Park, on 
18 Oct. 1876, leaving a well-merited repu- 
tation for sound law, unfailing conscitm- 
tioumess, and courtesy, 

Archibald married, in 1841, Sarah, only 
daughter of Richard Smith of Dudley 
Priory, "Worcestershire, by whom he lolt 
issue. 

He was author of 'Suggestions for 
Amendment of tho Law as to Pot itions of 
Itight; a Letter to William Bovill, Esq,, 
M.P.,* London, 1859, 8vo. 

[Law Mag, and Hov. M>. 1877; Ann, Ke#, 
1876* p. 155; Gont. Ma$. 1841, i, 645; Royal 
Kalendars, 1831-46; T.JUW List, 1852; Law 
Timea, Ixii. 11, 16; Burko'a Landed Gentry* 
H&yda's Book of Dignities, od. Ockerby." 

J. It E. 

ARGYLL, eighth Diro OP, [See CAMP- 
BELL, GBOBCHI DOUGLAS, 1823-1900.] 

ARMITAGE, EDWARD (1817-1800), 
historical painter, descended from an old 
Yorkshire family, was the eldest of seven 
sons of Jaraea Armitage of Leeds, and was 
born in London on %() May 1817* Ilia educa- 
tion, commenced in England, was completed 
on the continent, mainly in France and 
Germany. Having decided to become a 



painter, ho entered at 1,'arks in 1Htt7 the 
studio of Paul Dolaroeho, of whom ho be- 
came a favourite pupil, and who employed 
him aa an OHtuHtnnt in painting- 'wrtiouH of 
hie well-known homicyolo in 1, 10 amphi- 
theatre of tho Eeolo dew Beaux-ArU at, him. 
In 1843 he exhibited at tho Salon IUH first 
largo picture, M'romothouH .Bound,' which 
waa received with favour. In 1K-I.S ho en- 
tered into tho cartoon conipol.il ion lor tho 
decoration of tho new bonnes of parliament, 
and obtained a premium of JJOO/, lor * ( Jamr's 
Invasion of Britain/ tliodowpi being >hu:ed 
first, on the Hut. In tins competition o ' IH-15 
he wns again suiT-essf'til, being awarded 1200/. 
for 'The Spirit of Religion ' (cartoon ami 
coloured design), and in 1H-17 he carried oil' 
a prize of f>0(), for a vory largo oil painting, 
with lifo-Hixo iigureH, of * Tho Battle of 
Meeanee/ fouglit on 17 JhVb. IHI.'I, which 
was purdiased by (juof k n Vic.torm, and it* 
now at St. JainesV PulfUM). HIH ^roat. HU- 
COBH in thoMo ootnpfM.il ionx was Ib lowed by 
CommiHHionH to oxeeuto t.wo Tnsse.oeH on tho 
walls of the upper waiting hull of tho I IOUHO 
of Lords: 'Tho IVrHonilioation of Thames/ 
from Tope, and (Jio * Death of Manuion/ 
from Hcott. 

After Hpondhig twolvo montlm in nttidy at 
Homo, Armitage exhibited in IHI8 tor tho 
first time at tho IJoynl Ac.atloiny^ HMidin jf two 
pictureH, Mlenry Vill and Katberine ( *arr,' 
and 'Trafalgar,* r(jn*wutiug tlio death of 
Nolson. II ,H eontnbntioiiH to tlu" Aoadoiny 
exhibitionH continued rt^gularly till hiwdoatli, 
with tho oxc(tptioti of the, yearn IWV), 18t^, 
1880, and I8i)^* Tl(^ Htibjcctn of \m pioluroH 
wont gwutirully biblieal, and ho Holdom nont. 
moro than one t>r two a year, lie exhibited 
'Samson' in 1H51 and ' Ungar' in iHHiJ. 
During tho Crimean war he visited HuHHia, 
and in .IWHJ exhibited 'Tbe Bottom of tlm 
Uayinoat lukorman/iuul \i\ lHf7a 'Souvoiuv 
of Hcutari.' He atno painted large "net.ureH 
of the ' Uoavy Cavalry ( 1 harg< at Ba adava/ 
and 'TboSfcund of thiduardH at. tnkerrnan/ 
which were n<t exhibited* lit I HAH eamo 
^Ketribution 1 (now in the Leodw MUHOUIIJ), 
a coloHHal femalt^ figure holding a tigor by 
the throat, allofforiwil of tho Hu^prtwijion of 
tho Indian mutiny, and in lHf>0 * Ht,, bVanoiH 
and hiw early FoltoworH boforo l*ojm tnwi- 
cent III/ a dtwi^n for ft Hfo-iK fronwo 
(replaced by tin ou painting in 1HH7) in tho 
caUolic church of St. John tho MvangoliHt, 
Duncan Turraco, Inlington, Thin was fol- 
lowed ia IB(K) by a dusign of ' OhrjMt and tho 
Twolvo ApostltJH ' for tho a;mo of tho name 
church, A hoatl of oncj o? thesu apoHtlc^a 
(8t, Simon), in froHco, in in tho Btitit.h Kcm- 
eingtou Mutiouin, In 18(M came * Ahab and 



Armitage 



61 



Armstrong 



Jezebel/ in 1865 ' Esther's Banquet,' now in 
the Diploma Gallery of the Royal Acadomy, 
and in 1866 ' The Kemorse of Judus,' which 
Armitage presented to the National Gallery, 
and 'The Parents of Christ seeking Him/ 
which was engraved for the Art Union under 
the title of < , oseph and Mary.' In 1867 he 
was elected an associate of the Boyal Aca- 
demy, and in 187:2 a full member. During 
theae five years his subjects were varied in 
character, including 1 ' Herod's Birthday 
Feast/ now in the Corporation Art Gallery 
at Guildhall, ' Hero lighting the Beacon to 
guide Leander across the Hellespont/ and 
' A Deputation to Faraday, requesting him to 
accept the Presidency of the lloyal Society.' 
The hist of these contains portraits of Lord 
"Wrottesley, John Peter Gassiot, and Sir 
William Grove, and now hangs in the library 
of the Koyal Society. Among the most 
notable of his subsequent works were : ' A 
Dream of Fair Women/ a design for a frieze 
in two sections ; ' The Women of the Old 
Testament' (187^) and 'The Wom'en of An- 
cient Greece' (1874); 'In Memory of the 
great Fire of Chicago, and of the Sympathy 
shown to the Sufferers by both America and 
England' (1872), which was designed for the 
Town Hall at Chicago, and was bought by 
the * Graphic ; ' * Julian the Apostate pre- 
siding at a Conference of Sectarians' (1875) ; 
and 'Serf Emancipation: an Anglo-Saxon 
Noble on his Deathbed gives Freedom to his 
Slaves/ now in the Walker Art Gallery at 
Liverpool (1877). 

In 1878 Armitage exhibited 'After an 
Entomological Sale, beati possidentes? in 
which he represented himself in a sale room 
rejoicing over a fresh acquisition for his col- 
lection of insects-, in company with his friends 
Calderon, Hodgson, Winkfield, and others. 
Another of his tastes is reflected in a ' Yacht- 
ing Souvenir Lunch in Mid Channel/ which 
was exhibited in 1889. In 1898 he exhibited 
for" the last time, sending * A Moslem Doc- 
trinaire ' and a portrait of IUR brother, ' The 
late T. II. Armitage, Esq., M.D,, the Friend 
of the Blind/ 

In 1871 he was one ot the committee of 
artists employed in the decoration of West- 
mine tor Hall who made a report on fresco 
minting- (see Return to Home of Commons, 
No. 19 of 1872). In 1875 he was appointed 
professor and lecturer on painting to the 
"toyal Academy, His lectures were pub- 
lished in 1883. Always of independent 
means, Armitage was able to follow his ideals 
in art without regard to fashion or profit, 
and several of his largest works were exe- 
cuted entirely at his own expense. This was 
the case with the large monochrome frescoes 



in University Hall, Gordon Square, in me- 
mory of Crubh Kobinson, comprising por- 
traits of twenty-two men eminent in litera- 
ture, art, and other n-ofessions. The figures 
are over life-size, anc the composition twenty 
yards in length. Figures of saints in Mary- 
lebone church, and the Teredos (' Seven Works 
of Mercy 7 ) in St. Mark's Church, Hamilton 
Terrace, St. John's Wood, were also gifts. 

As an artist Armitagjo took an important 
part in the movements for the restoration of 
rreseo painting in England, and the decora- 
tion of the houses o: parliament with his- 
torical designs. His early training on the 
continent and his employment by Delaroclie 
upon a mural painting of a grand character 
influenced the direction of his art throughout 
his life. This art was cold, severe, and aca- 
demic, but always lofty in aim and large in 
design. Armitage did not confine his in- 
terests entirely to art; he was a great col- 
lector of butterflies, a keen yachtsman, and 
very hospitable host, whether afloat or ashore. 
He passed the board of trade examination for 
a master's certificate, and was a fellow of the 
G eo graphical Society, He became a < retired 
academician' about two years before his 
death, which took place from apoplexy and 
exhaustion following pneumonia, at Tun- 
bridge Wells, on 24 May 1896, after an illness 
of about three weeks. He was buried at 
Brighton. In 1853 he married Laurie, 
daughter of William and Catherine Barber 
of Booma, Northumberland. 

[Pictxiros and Drawings by Edward Armitage, 
R.A. 1898; Cat of National Gallery (British 
School 1 ) ; Mon of the Time, 1891 ; obituary no- 
tices in Times nnd other newspapers ; Clement 
and Button's Artists of the Nineteenth Century; 
private information.] C. M. 

ARMSTRONG, Bra ALEXANDER 

(1818-1899), naval medical officer, descended 
from a family originally of Cumberland, and 
from Major-general John Armstrong (1(578- 
1742 [q.v.]), was the son of Alexancer Arm- 
strong 1 of Croghan Lodge, Fermanagh. He 
studied medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, 
and at the university of Edinburgh, where 
he graduated with honours in 1841, and en- 
tered the navy as an assistant surgeon in 
March 1842. After a few months at Haslar 
Hospital and in the flagship at Portsmouth, 
he was appointed in June to the Polyphemus, 
a small steamer in the Mediterranean, and 
in 1843 was placed in medical charge of a 
party landed tor the exploration of Xantlius. 
Uor liis scientific observations on this expe- 
dition he received the official thanks of the 
trustees of the British Museum, and by his 
sanitary arrangements won the approval of 
, the comnaander-in-cliief, who recommended 



Armstrong 



Armstrong 



him for promotion. On his return to Eng- 
land in April 1846 he was appointed to the 
Grappler, fitting out for the west coast of 
Africa ; but before she sailed Armstrong was 
moved into the royal yacht, from which, on 
the occasion of the queen's visit to Ireland, 
he was promoted to the rank of surgeon on 
19 Oct. 1849, Two months later he was 
appointed as surgeon and naturalist to tho 
Investigator, going out to this Arctic uudor 
the command of (Sir) Kobert Joint Le 
Mesurier McCluro [q. v.], and in her ho 
continued the whole time till she was aban- 
doned in 1863. He returned to Kngliincl 
with McOlure in 1834. A great part of tho 
comparatively good success of the voyago 
was properly attributed to the excellent ar- 
rangements made and carried out by Arm- 
strong, with the result that no scurvy ap- 
peared on board till the spring of 185:2, and 
at no time did it assume dangerous propor- 
tions. For his journal during this voyage 
,!IQ was awarded the Gilbert Blaim ^old 
medal a reward for the best journal -tept 
by surgeons of the royal navy. Jn February 
185/5 ho was appointed to the CornwallLs, in 
which he served in the Baltic during that 
year's cam-palpi, and afterwards, till August 
1S5(>, on tae North American Htaliou. On 
19 July 1858 he was promoted to bo deputy 
inspector-general of hospitals and fleets, and 
from IH59 to 1804 was in rnodical chargo of 
the hospital at Malta. On 15 Nov, 1800 
.he was promoted to the rank of inspoctor- 
general, and from 18U9 to December 3871 
:ie was director-general of the medical de- 
partment of the navy. On 17 Jams 1871 
lie was nominated a military K.G.B,, and on 
12 June 1873 he was elected K.U.8. Ho re- 
tired from active service in December 1871, 
living, for the most part, in the Albany, or 
at the Elms, Sutton-'loimington, near lC<3- 
worth, where he died on 4 July 1809. Jn 
1894 he married the widow of "Sir William 
Khif; Hall [q.v/] Armstrong* waa tho author 
of * Personal Narrativo of the Diseovory of 
the North- Woat Passage* (8vo, 1857), and 
of 'Observations on Naval Hygiene 7 (8vo, 
1858). 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet, (2nd odit.' ; 
Times, 7 July 1899 ; Kdinlwrgh Graduates n 
Medicine, 1867, p* 125; Armstrong's Works: 
Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

, AKMSTROTO, SIB WILLIAM 
GEORGE, BABOK AttMsrBoira of Orapide 
(1810-1900), inventor and organiser o: in- 
dustry, was born on 26 Nov. 1810 at No, 9-~ 
formerly No, 6 Pleasant Bow, Shieldfiold, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
William Armstrong (1778-1857); his 



father, was tho son of a ycommt of YVreay, a 
village live mi les south of Carlisle. Towards 
the closo of tho eighteenth century he cunio 
to Newcastle, commencing 1 his career in that 
city as clerk in tho oHieoof Lonh, Ijiibbrin, & 
Co., corn morel mntH. 1 1<^ \VHHSOOII talasn into 
partnership, and wh(di hia wmiorH HiibHo- 
quontly rotircd ho bwamc Uio noh^ n^nvson- 
tativo of tho linn, which \vaw t,lMurorortli 
Htylod ArniHtrotij^ & (Jo,, merchant H, Oow- 
ffato. By IIIH outornMHi^ and ability ho cou~ 
6 iderably oxtondod 1. 10 bu.siiHSSH, llo highly 
approciatod tho advuntagOH of cduc.al iou^an'd 
devoted him soli' with oumowtnoHw and por- 
tiovoranco t< si udy during his ICIHUIU Ho 
was (specially fond (tl'malluMnatics, on which 
flubjoct ho nmtril)u1(td to tho * LadyV and 
'(JuutlonmnV Diaries, and colh^et.ed a larg-o 
library. In 17SW ArmHt.rong- joined Uw Lite- 
rary and Philosophical Society, which wan 
thon iivo yeans old. II waa'a warm wip- 
*)ortor and took an active, pnrl. for womo tamo 
In itH managt^nuuit. \\u was also oan of 
the original foundern of tlun local Natural 
History Society. \Vhoii \l WH propowwl to 
establish a chain hor of rotnnitMVo in tho 
town ho #avo inatnrial aid, and hel )d tho 
fiuhtttno to a micocrtst'ul IHHUO* Soon a'ter tho 
;>aHHin^(>r t.lu* Muni(*.ipal ffefonu Act. hi !S,'i5 
lie was returned by Jesiuond ward to tho 
town council, on tho two of hm sixtieth 
year, a,s a ivlm-mor. At. the next election, 
m NoviMiiboi* IHJVJ, lio was deleated, but; 
in IBW Armstrong ronuiuod liis wat with- 
out oppowition, liuring his lirsl period of 
couiuullorship ho took much interest in tho 
management of the river Tyne, and he wan 
the author of two pamphlets on the subject* 
In December 181;$, when Alilommu Jolm 
Itidltiy, chairman of the, river committee, 
died, he was unanimously appointed to tho 
olluWjt'.hcdut iosof which fie fu lilld I hrou^h* 
out. the inquiries and tho ntnrmy dolmten 
which t ouliuitialtMl in tho establishment ot 
tho Hivor r l'yno commission, On J Jan, 
1840 Armstrong WHS (hetod ald(rmau by n 
unanimous vote, He failed to secure elec- 
tion a mayor when ho was first nominated 
to that othco a iew months later, but ho 
was choHtm mayor in the following year* 
Ho goiutrally a<U.ml with tho pro^roMHW* 
-)art'7 in tlio city council, Although luj 
and jeg'un lifo an an ind(*pt.ndont politician, 
with Homowhiit rouctionary tondencioa, IUH 
sympathicH broadonod H ho grow older* and 
tpwurdA tho cloHo ho bocamo a whiuf <J f th 
Oroy school, although, ho wan always a 
cautiouH niformer. In 181*4 ho argued that 
canal betwoon Nowcwtlo and ( Carlisle would 
ervo inland commerce bottnr tihau a rail way, 
Again, in 18-10, when it was proposal that tlua 



Armstrong 



Armstrong 



city council should memorialise parliament to 
open the ports for the free admission of grain, 
he spoke strongly in favour of the com laws. 
He attended to his public duties till within 
a few weeks of his death, which took place 
on 2 June 1857, in the eightieth year of his 
age. He had desired that the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Newcastle should 
select from his library such scientific works 
as it did not already possess. This wish 
was so liberally interpreted by his son that 
in 1858 as many as 1,984 mathematical works 
and local tracts, most of them of great value, 
were added to the society's library, which 
thus obtained ' a more complete mathemati- 
cal department than any otlier provincial in- 
stitution in the kingdom 7 (DR. SPENCE WAT- 
SON, Hist, of the Literary and Philosophical 
Soc. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne). 

The elder Armstrong married Ann, eldest 
daughter of William Potter of Walbottle 
House, a highly cultured woman. By her 
he had two children, a son and a daughter. 
The son was the future Lord Armstrong. 
The daughter Ann married on 17 Aug. 18^6 
(Sir) William Henry Watson [q. v.], subse- 
quently a baron of the exchequer ; she died 
at Hastings on 1 June 1828, leaving an only 
child, John William Watson, of Adderstone 
Hall, Belford, whose son became her bro- 
ther's heir. 

William George Armstrong was a deli- 
cate child. Left to follow the natural bent 
of his mind, he never failed to amuse him- 
self with mechanical combinations. When 
only five or six he showed considerable in- 
genuity in constructing childish imitations 
of machines which had attracted his atten- 
tion. With a few discarded spinning wheels 
and common household articles he played at 
pumping water, grinding corn, and doing 
other useful work. He set his machinery in 
motion by strings attached to weights hung 
over the handrail of the staircase, so as to 
descend freely from the top to the bottom of 
the house. In the fine summer days he often 
visited the shop of a ;oiner, John Fordy, 
in the employment of ais maternal grand- 
father, William Potter; there he spent many 
happy hours learning the use of tools, mak- 
ing fittings for his engines, and copying the 
joiner's work. 

After attending private schools, first in his 
native city, and afterwards at Whickham, 
Northumberland, his health sufficiently im- 
proved to enable him, in 18:26, the year of his 
sister's marriage, to enter the grammar 
school at Bishop Auckland. There he re- 
mained for two years as a boarder with the 
head- master, the Rev, R. Thompson, During 
this period he paid a visit to the engineering 



works in that town of William Kamshaw, 
Avho, impressed with the intelligent interest 
the youth took in the machines, invited him 
to his house. He th us made the acquaintance 
of Ramshaw's daughter Margaret, whom he 
afterwards married. 

Meanwhile, upon leaving school, Arm- 
strong became an articled clerk in the olftce 
of Armorer Donkin, a solicitor of standing 
in Newcastle. He applied himself with cha- 
racteristic earnestness to the study of law, 
and, havinj duly served his clerkship, he 
completed -iis preparation for the legal pro- 
fession in Lont-on under the guidance of his 
brother-in-law, W. H, Watson, at that time 
a special pleader of Lincoln's Inn. He re- 
turned to Newcastle n 1833, and became 
a partner in the legal firm to which he had 
been articled, the style being altered to 
Messrs. Donkin, Stable, & Armstron j. Their 
business was a flourishing one, anc, the in- 
terests of many important families, estates, 
and companies were entrusted to their 
charge. In 1834 Armstrong married Miss 
Margaret Ramshaw. Three years his senior, 
she was a lady of great force of character^ 
who sympathised with her husband's labours, 
and loyally aided him in philanthropic work, 

In later years Armstrong named as his re- 
creations ' planting, building, electrical and 
scientific research;' but in early life he was 
an enthusiastic fisherman. This pastime 
afforded opportunities for his inventive 
genius. lie contrived a new bait-basket, 
and his tackle was continually being im- 
proved. Haunting the Coquet from morn- 
ing to night, he became so skilful that he 
was known in the district as 'the King- 
fisher/ While after trout in Dentdale ( York- 
shire, 1835), his attention was attracted to 
an overshot water-wheel, supplying power 
for some marble works. He observed that 
only about one twentieth of the energy of 
the stream was utilised, and from that time 
his thoughts were engrossed by the possi- 
bilities of water- worked machines as motors. 

After his return to Newcastle to devote 
himself to law, scarcely a day passed without 
his visiting Watson's High 3ridge engineer- 
ing works. On 29 Dec. 1838 he published 
in the * Mechanics' Magazine' the outcome 
of his observations, in an article ' on the 
application of a column of water as a motive 
power for driving machinery.' In the autumn 
of 1839, with Watson's fielp, he made an 
improved hydraulic wheel, with discs fixed 
on the periphery, arranged to enter suc- 
cessively a tube of corresponding section bent 
into the arc of a circle. A full account or 
' Armstrong's water-pressure wheel 7 is con- 
tained in the 'Mechanics' Magazine' for 



Armstrong 



Armstrong' 



IS April 1840. But although his rotatory- 
motor was recognised to bo sound in prin- 
ciple __j a new and most ingenious means of 
applying a neglected, cheap, and almost 
boundless source of power' it was not an. 
industrial success. With character i stic j udg- 
rnent Armstrong sought a more attractive 
solution of his great problem. 

In the autumn of the same year (18-10) 
one William Patterson was employed on a 
fixed high-pressure steam-engine at Cram- 
lingtou CoLiery. When he ~mt one hand 
on the safety valve, while t le other was 
exposed to a jet of steam from. a chink 
iu the boiler, he experienced a shock. Many 
persons investigated the phenomenon, but 
Armstrong first; arrived at correct conclu- 
sions, which were published in -mpers on 
* the electricity of elHuent steam' (J%i7. Mag. 
1841-3). He applied his results to the con- 
struction of a hydro-electric machine, which 
consisted essentially of an insulated boilor, 
from which steam at high -juusauro escaped 
through specially designed nozzles. This 
formed the most powerful moans of ^ gene- 
rating 1 electricity taen known, and it in still 
used for the production of electricity of high 
tension. In ~844 'our talent ed young towns- 
man' gave two ' very interesting lent urns cm 
hydro-electricity/ and it is recorded that 
Hhe perspicuity of his language/ IUR 'in- 
genious and effectual* illustrations, and 'his 
-uijny manner of explaining . . . the subject 
cou'.d scarcely be excelled ' (Lit. and PhiL 
Soc. Eeport). The small hydro-electric 
machine used for these experiments was 
subsequently presented by Lord Armstrong 
to the Durham. College of Science at New- 
castle, 

The uses and application of water at the 
time chiefly absorbed his attention, and he 
studied the subject in all its bearings with 
characteristic public spirit. As the popula- 
tion increased theTyne became imdriukuble, 
and the supply of pure water inadequate. 
In 184/5 proposals were brought forward to 
form an accumulation, reservoir at Whittle 
Dean, and to bring the water by 24-inch 
-)jpes, then the largest iu the world, to 
Newcastle* Armstrong's was the master 
mind which directed the movement (History 
of the Water Supply of Ntwca*tl&upvn-Tyne, 
1851), Messrs. Donkin, Stable, & Armstrong 
were the solicitors to the company, and at 
the iirst general meeting of shareholders, 
28 July 1845, Armstrong was appointed 
secretary. The directors' report presented 
to the second annual meeting, 25 Feb. 1,847, 
announced his resignation with an expression 
of regret. About this time, in conjunction 
\vith Thomas llawksley [q.v, Supplij, he in- 



vented a self-acting valve, which is at ill ex- 
tensively used by water companies, to clone 
the pipe automatically when the velocity of 
the water paswiug through it exceeds a cer- 
tain limit, so as to check the IOHH of water 
in case of a leak occurring beyond, the 
valve. Armstrong's interest in the Whittle 
Dean Water Company con! inued throughout 
his life. On the death of Mr, A. L, Potter 
in 18r>5 ho wan elected chairman. He held 
this cilice till 1S07, and it was largely owing 
to his able direction that it; developed into 
the important Newcastle and UatOHheud 
"Water Company. 

* lYu'.sovonineo generally provailfl' was 
Armstrong's favourite motto, For many 
jearw ho considered tho beHt. way of em- 
ploying water power before he arrived at 
tho concl union that wntor would be more 
useful as a moans of diMtributing than of 
obtaining energy. On thin principle ho 
planned a crane, every' motion of which was 
derived From hydraulic power. In 18-15 ho 
delivered three led urns to tho Literary and 
Philosophical Soeiety; tho i!n4 and last 
treated respectively of tho spheroidal stuto 
of liquids and tho characteristics of elec- 
tricity. The second (iJ DIM,-.,) was 'on the 
employment of a column of water as a 
motive power for propelling machinery/ It 
wan illustrated by experiments ; * a beautiful 
model, representing a portion of the quay of 
this town, with a crane upon it, adapted to 
work by the action of tho water in the street 
pipes, was placed upon t ho floor.' Tho model 
worked perfectly, but Armstrong ' stated 
that he did not advocate tho immediate 
adoption of his plan, because any plan, how- 
over useful, might bet injured if iwvod pre- 
maturely forward before tho ago was ready 
to roroivo it.' Nevertheless, on 14 Jan. 
1840 ho obtained permission from tho eor* 
^oration to oroct uu hydraulic rmo nt tht^ 
aead ol^ tho quay. M hin %VUH HO great a 
fluccefw in loauuig and diachnrging Hhi')H 
that on the following i) Nov. ho uskod to w 
allowed to erect, four othors, at tho Hatno 
tirao making valuublo Hug^eHtionH for facili- 
tating tho ,-iandling ot" tho mirUawUn of 
the port. Armstrong took out hiw (Imt 
patent for ' apparatUA fbr lifting, lowtsringv 
and hauling' on H July 1840. 

ArmHtrong^a flciontitio uttainmnntfl woro 
now widely wcopjniHed, and on 7 May 18 IB 
h WUH elected a i el low of tho Boyal Socioty 
as 'a gontloman well known iw'an 
investigator of physical Bfnonco, iw 
with reference "o tlus wlttctr'KMty o^' 
and the liydro-olect ric macluniJ.' Anmpf 
those who attentud hi ciuftlifi<sationfi we,nv 
Faraday, Grove, and WUetittttcmo* Much 



Armstrong 



Armstrong 



interest was also manifested in his cranes, 
and many inquiries were made about them. 
The first orders were dealt with in the High 
Bridge works of Mr. Watson, but special 
arrangements were desirable. Thereupon 
four substantial citizens, Messrs. Donkin, 
Potter', Cruddas, and Lambert, offered the 
money necessary to found special works for 
their manufacture. It was thus that the 
great engineering works at Elswick-on- 
Tyne first came into being. The deed of 
partnership is dated as from 1 Jan, 1847. 
Armstrong, who was the moving spirit, was 
appointed manager of the concern. He 
thereupon retired from the legal profession 
to devote himself to the more congenial pur- 
suits of an engineer. 

The engineering works originally con- 
sisted of offices, four workshops, two houses 
for foremen, and stables, standing on about 
5 acres on the left bank of the Tyne, a 
little way above Newcastle. Work was 
commenced on 1 Oct. 1847, and the first 
Elswick -jayskeet for wages due on 15 Oct. 
amounted, to 9/. 17,9. IQd. (Northern Coun- 
ties M'tfl. October 1900). During the earlier 
years the business chiefly consisted in the 
manufacture of Armstrong's newly devised 
hydraulic machinery. The first order for 
the new firm (15 May 1848) was for cranes 
for the Liverpool docks, but from the com- 
mencement Elswick produced a great variety 
of hydraulic machines. A diagonal two- 
cylinder double-acting engine was made for 
the *jress printing tht*' Newcastle Chronicle/ 
while mining machinery for the lead mines at 
Allenheads and winding engines for the 
South Hetton Coal Company were among 
their earliest productions, Armstrong's se- 
cond patent for a water-pressure engine bears 
date 11 May 1848. But in spite of Arm- 
strong's able management the Elswick engi- 
neering works die. not at first make very 
satis factory progress. Orders did not come 
in very rapidly, and there was naturally 
some difficulty at starting in estimating the 
cost of production. The tide of prosperity 
did not How towards Elswick conspicuously 
till JHfiO. In March 1852 three hundred 
and fifty men were employed, and their fort- 
nightly wages amounted to 37 Ql. Thence- 
forth the development was steady. 

All the hydraulic apparatus erected by 
Armstrong up to 1849 was worked by water 
from reservoirs, but in that year ,ie was 
commissioned to construct cranes at places 
on the II umber and Tees, where the pressure 
in the town mains was insufficient. To 
avoid the cost of building a high reservoir, 
he employed an air-vessel. This was a cast- 
iron chamber, closed at the top, and the 

VOL. I. SUP, 



air was compressed by water being" pumped 
into it. The working was not aitoget-ier 
satisfactory. In the following year (1850) 
lie * was engaged in the construction of tlie 
Ferry station of the Manchester, Sheffield, 
and Lincolnshire Railway at New Holland, 
and decided to apoly hydraulic pressure tor 
the cranes. . . . r Jhere was no possibility 
of obtaining pressure by a head of water, 
for not only was the surface absolutely 
flat, but the ground, which consisted of 
silt, afforded no foundation. . . . He was 
led to the idea of a new substitute for 
an elevated reservoir. This consisted of a 
large cast-iron cylinder, fitted with a loaded 
plunger to give pressure to the water in- 
jectec by the engine. This contrivance he 
called an accumulator. ... In no previous 
instance had a pressure exceeding 90 juninds 
on the square inch been used, but it was 
now decided to adopt a pressure of 600 
pounds' (SiR W, G. ARMSTRONG, Inst. of 
Civil Engineers, 1876-7, vol. i. pt. iv.) The 
storage capacity of the accumulator is not so 
great as that of a reservoir, but, on the other 
.land, the higher pressures employed enable 
the distributing pipes to be made of smaller 
dimensions than would otherwise be possi- 
ble, and the pressures are more uniform, By 
this invention hydraulic machinery was 
rendered available in almost every situation. 
Being very convenient where power is re- 
quired at intervals and for short periods, it has 
come into extensive use for working" cranes, 
hoists, and lifts, opening and shutting dock 
gates, docking and launching ships, moving 1 
capstans, turn-tables, and the like. In many 
cases it has caused important economies both 
as regards time and money, especially at, 
harbours and railway stations, where large 
amounts of traffic have to be dealt with. 
In the navy its applications are so numerous 
that it has been said without it a modern 
warship would be an impossibility. Such 
adaptations were the result of unwearied 
perseverance and unfailing resource. 

In 1850 Armstrong divided with Mr, W. D. 
Burlinson a prize given by the Glamorgan- 
shire Canal Company, on the merits o_ his 
crane and accumulator, for * the best machine 
to transfer coal from barges to ships.' In 
the same year he received the Telford medal 
from the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

Armstrong continued for many years to 
improve his hydraulic machinery, and to de- 
vtCop countless applications which attracted 
considerable attention. A third patent which 
dealt with the subject was taken out on 
2^ April 1856. The ingenuity and utility 
of his inventions in this connection brought 
him almost universal recognition. In 1862 



Armstrong 



66 



Armstrong 



Cambridge University voted him an honorary 
LL.D. degree ; in 1870 Oxford made him a 
D.C.L.; and in May 1878 the Society of 
Arts awarded to him the Albert medul ' be- 
cause of his distinction as an engineer and 
as a scientific man, and because by the 
development of the transmission of power 
hydraulically, due to his constant efforts ex- 
tending over many years, the manufactures 
of this country have been greatly aided, and 
mechanical power beneficially substituted 
for most laborious and injurious labour.' 

But these inventions far from exhausted 
Armstrong's genius, and in middle life he 
applied his mind to improvements in the 
manufacture of the machinery of war, which 
"brought him an equally wide and deserved 
reputation. It was just after the outbreak 
of the Crimean war in 1854 that ArmHtrong 
received at Elswick his first commisHion from 
the war olllce ; this was to design submarine 
mines for the purpose of blowing-up Russian 
ships that had been sunk in the harbour of 
SebastopoL Armstrong's mines proved very 
successful, but, as the war proprossod, ho 
turned his attention more especially to ar- 
tillery. It is said that an incident in the battle 
of Inkernmu (6 Nov. 1 854) led hi in to devote 
his energies to the improvement of ordnance. 
In the following month he submitted to Sir 
James Graham a communication 'fluggoating 
the expediency of enlarging the ordinary 
rifle to the standard of a leld-gun, and using 
elongated projectiles of load 1 (Industrial 
JResouives of Tyne, Wear^ and 7Vca, 18(J#), 
This was followed by an interview with the 
Duke of Newcastle, then secretary of state 
for war, who authorised him to make half 
a doxon guns according to his views. 

Armstrong has himself described in detail 
the evolution of" the gun which was HOOU 
to he widely known by his name, First, ho 
considered exhaustively all possible ma- 
terials, and selected shear steel and wrought 
iron, Then he proved experimentally that 
the ordinary method of making guns, by 
forcing the metal into the form and boring 
a :iole down it, was unsatisfactory, He 
adopted a construction more correct in prin- 
ciple, but more diilicult of execution. The 
strength of a metal cylinder does nob increase 
in the ratio of its thickness. A cylinder 
oifers the greatest resistance to bursting 
when the exterior layers are in a state o: 
tension, gradually increasing inwards past 
the neutral point till the internal layers are 
in a state of compression. Therefore an in- 
ternal cylinder of steel was enclosed in a 
jacket made by twisting a wrought-iron "bar, 
and welding the turns into a cylinder of 
internal diameter slightly smaller than the 



steel lining. The jacket was expanded by 
heat and a jppod over the core, and contract- 
ing in cooling produced tho desired distribu- 
tion of tension, Other rings aH necessary 
wero in turn whrunk cm this cylinder. 

At tho stuno time mochanical arrangements 
were contrived to counteract recoil, and to 
facilitate tho pointing of (,he gun. "Further- 
more), and this WUH a dovieo of t.ho utmost 
importance, tho gun waw made to load at ita 
buck end. Annul rong invented both tho 
screw and the wodgo methods of ('.losing 
tho brooch. In this former case a poworfiu 
screw proved a breoeh-piooo, currying tho * 
vont, HO a.s to close the tube. r faien tho 
rilling was ett'od.od by eight spiral grooves 
cut in the bore terminating at, tho nlightly 
ex wuded loading chamber, the niowt auit- 
ab.o form and rimmisionH for whiolx wore 
reached after careful invual-igationa. Lastly, 
with unwearied labour and infinite resource, 
Le dotenninod the best shape, diinonHionw, 
and tfhtirgo lor tho bullet. Tho elongated 
form with an ogival head which ho doHignod 
for the projectile IUIH never been improved 
upon. 

Armstrongs firnt JJ-pouiulor, built in ac- 
cordance with these principles, wan com- 
pleted in July lK~>/i, It. wan derided by 
tlie artillery ollircorn as a 'popgun. 1 There- 
U])on Armstrong mudo a (i-ponndor on tho 
same primui>loM,un<l h<^ continued asorioH of 
experiments witli it for a ('.otmidorablo tiino 
be 'ore HiibmittinK it to the wnr ollico. Tho 
earliest of his long Herios of putentH, eleven 
in nuinlxa*, touching ordnance and projec- 
tiles, waw dated 11 Fob, IH57; the Hocotid 
followed on 3$ July IH57. At. flwt t.ho mili- 
tary authoritioH looked coldly upon Arm- 
strong's now 4'un, but ilw morit was too great; 
to bo put aHius (,)u UJ Nov. 1H5H ilw com- 
xnittoo on rifled eawion, appointed by Utmo- 
ral IV-e,!, reported in favour of Armntrong's 
invention on <svory point, 

Armntrong then behaved with patriotic 
generosity, lie gave tho nation hin valuable 
patontH a.s a IVot^ gift , and plaeod his talnt,H 
at itB command, In 18/5U ho areopled the 
appointiutnit of engineer of rillod ordnaneo 
at Woolwich, and 1m f^riMvt Hervicow to tho 
state wero acknowledged by hi croat ion a 
knipht bac.holor and civil companion of the 
Balli (2 Fob, 1859), 

On 5J/5 Jan, 1H59 tho KlHwick Ordnance 



Company wan formed, Tht parttusrn 
MoHara, Cieorgo OrudduH, Latnuort, and tho 
manager, George KomleL Armstrong had 
no pecuniary intwoRt in thin new company, 
although its buildingH wore clono to tho 1^18- 
wick engineering works. The Klswick Ord- 
nance Company vraa ostttblwUod aoluly to 



Armstrong 



Armstrong 



make Armstrong guns for the British govern- 
ment under Armstrong's supervision. Ac- 
cordingly over three thousand guns were 
manufactured by the new company between 
1859 and 1863. At the latter date the British 
armament was the finest in existence. But 
there was then a reaction in favour of the 
superior simplicity of muzzle-loading guns. 
The breech-loading mechanism required ac- 
curate fittings and careful use. Breech-loaders 
are unfit weapons for imperfectly instructed 
gunners, and out of place when exposed to 
weather or drifting sand. Armstrong recog- 
nised the invincibility of official obtuseness 
and prej udice, and *ave up his official appoint- 
ment during 186^, when the government 
greatly reduced the orders they placed with 
the Elswick Ordnance Company, and prac- 
tically returned to muzzle-loaders. To that 
form of ordnance the authorities so obsti- 
nately adhered for the next fifteen years that 
England not only lost her supremacy in 
respect to her artillery but fell cangerously 
behind the rest of the world. 

Owing to the withdrawal of government 
support in 1863, the Elswick Ordnance Com- 
pany passed through a serious crisis, but 
Armstrong was equal to the sit nation. The 
ordnance company and its works were in- 
corporated with Armstrong's engineering 
company and its works. Blast furnaces 
were added, and the ordnance company, 
being released from the obligation to make 
gnns exclusively for the British government, 
was largely employed by foreign govern- 
ments. Great benefit resulted to the finan- 
cial position of the combined ordnance and 
engineering company. 

Meanwhile Armstrong improved his 
breech-action, and carefully investigated the 
best method of rifling, and the most advan- 
tageous calibre of the bore and structure 
of the cylinder, so as to obtain the greatest 
accuracy in shooting and the longest range 
with the minimum weight. At an early 
period of his gunnery researches he had re- 
cognised the desirability of building up guns 
with thin metal bands instead of large hoops, 
but circumstances interposed a long delay 
before he carried out that principle in prac- 
tice. The plan may have been first sug lasted 
to him by Contain Blakeney's proposal, pub- 
lished as ear y as 1855, to substitute wire 
wound at high tension round the core for 
hoops or ; ackets. The same idea had oc- 
curred independently to Brunei, who jave 
Armstrong a commission for a gun made on 
this principle. The order could not be exe- 
cuted, because it was found that Longridge 
had taken out a patent for this method of 
construction, though he had never carried ib 



into execution, After the patent had expired 
Armstrong redirected his attention to the 
sub'ect. In 1877 he made preliminary trials 
wit !a small wired cylinders, and in 1*879 he 
commenced a 6-inch breech-loading gun of 
this construction, which was finished in the 
beginning of 1880. Besults obtained with 
this gun were so satisfactory that at last 
even the British ordnance authorities ac- 
knowledged the folly of continuing to manu- 
facture unwieldy muzzle-loaders j and before 
the year was out, by Armstrong's persistent 
pressure, they were persuaded onre more to 
adopt breech-loading guns with polygroove 
rifling. 

Armstron <f s strenuous work at his hy- 
draulic machines and his celebrated guns 
by no means exhausted his energies or in- 
terests. At the same time he found oppor- 
tunity to give thoughtful consideration to 
problems of the highest importance to every 
practical engineer in connection with the 
economical use of fuel. In 1855 Armstrong, 
with two other engineers, was entrusted 
with the award of the 500/. premium offered 
by the Northumberland Steam Collieries 
Association for the best method of prevent^ 
ing smoke in the combustion of Hartley coal 
in marine boilers. Three reports (1857 and 
1858) were founded on a long series of ela- 
borate experiments. His attention having 
been thus attracted to the wasteful use of 
our natural fuel, he took advantage of his 
election to the presidency of the British 
Association, when it met "at Newcastle in 
1863, to discuss at length, in his presidential 
address, the probable duration of our coal 
supply. He pointed out how 'wastefully 
and extravagantly in all its applications 7 to 
steam-engines, or metallurgical operations, 
or domestic purposes, coal was being burnt. 
He calculated that in doing a given amount 
of work with a steam-engine only one- 
thirtieth of the energy of the coal is utilised. 
Assuming a moderate rate of increase in coal 
production, he came to the conclusion that 
before two centuries have passed ' England 
will have ceased to be a coal-producing 
country on an extensive scale.' 

There followed a royal commission to 
incuire into the duration of British coal- 
fields (1806), of which Sir W. O. Armstrong 
was a member, and before which he also 
appeared as a witness. His evidence was 
amonj the most valuable information col- 
lected by it. He twice returned to the sub- 
'ect, once in his ^residential address to the 
North of En-aflancT Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers in 1873, and a?ain in 
his presidentia. address to the mechanical 
section of the British Association at York in 



Armstrong 68 Armstrong 



. At York he considered whether the might ovon bo more than a niatch for an 
'monstrous waste' of the steam-engine might ironclad. Flo emmiomlod limit clriof foa- 
not bo avoided by electrical methods of bb- turos aa including ' groat- spund and nimblo- 
tainino' power. In 1863 he had pointed out ness of movement combined with grout 
that 'whether we uselxeat or electricity as the oIlbiiHivo power . . . little or no wido armour, 
motive power, we must equally depend upon but otherwise count ruotod to mininmo tho 
chemical affinity as the source of supply. . . . elibcta of projoctiloH.' On tho intnxl action 
Bat where are we to obtain materials so of high explosives Armstrong modi lied bus 
economical for this purpose as the coal we V'WWH to the extent of rocomnumdhitf that 
derive from the earth and the oxygen we oven cruusorH should be protected by side 
obtain from the air P ' But in 1883 the ad- armour. 

vance of electrical science suggests to him Jn 18S^, the .shipbuilding firm of Mossra. 
that a thermo-electric engine might 'not Mitcholl & Swan joitmd .oroon with Ann- 
only be used as an auxiliary, but in com- strong's company, and tho nnihul firms 
olete substitution for the steam-engine/ became Sir \Y, U. Armstrong, Mitchell, & 
because it might be used to utilise 'the Co., Limited. Tn I HSJi a now whip-yard wan 
direct heating action of tlio sun's rays/ Ho established at Klnwiek, ^ whore, under the 
calculated that 'the solar heat, operating manngmiiimt of Mr. VVluto, now Bir Wil- 
npon an area of one acre in the tropics, liam White, elmif coiwtruptnr to tho admi- 
would, if fully utilised, exert the amazing ralty, and HubHoquontly of Mr. P. Watts, a 
-Dower of 4,000 horsos acting for nearly nine llo.et of .splendid warHhipM wan built. Tho 
jo UTS every day, 7 Jle foresaw that, * when- development of the, ordnanoo dopartmont of 
ever the time comes for utilising the power the groat concern wont on at* this wamo ttmo 
of great waterfalls, the tranwraisaion of without intorruption. In 1HH5 a branch 
power by electricity will become a system factory wan opened at Posmioli on tlui bay 
of vast importance ' a -or ophocy which 1ms of Naploa to niakw W ^ or ^ M Italian 
been ful fited in a notake manner in Hiikse- government, Tn 1H1I7 Sir Jcwoph Whit- 
quent contrivances for the ut.iliwition of worih\s works at Opimahaw, noar Man- 
natural sources of energy at Geneva, Nio- cboHt.iir, for tho manufacture of tho Whit- 
gara, and elsewhere. worth guna, worn mc(tr])orut<u1 y and tho t.if.l 

Meanwhile tlie great Rlswick works wore of tho combinod contM^n.s^wuB hangd to 



^ 

rapidly growing alike in the engineering and Sir W, 0, Annstron^ Whitworth, ^ Corn- 
ranches. To these departments pany. Limited [HOHWIU 1 

' 



ordnance branches. To these departments pany. Limited [HOHWIUTWOHTH, 

a third that; of shipbuilding was finally At tho dato o'f Aruwt ron jf*a doath in 11)00, 

added. In 18GB the lOlswick firm began the company own, at Kswidc ulono, two 

to build ships in the Walker yard of Messrs, hundred and thirty acr<ut, and * a riuwnt ]iy- 

Mitcholl & Swan. slujot shows 8(>,HO'^A ]>aid in a flinglo wok* 

From a very early date Armstrong had to two/nty-llvo thousand and tw<nty-<M^ht 

devoted much attention to problems in con- workmuji (N* (I Mtty. Novombor 1900). 

nectionwith the mounting and working of Bom of Armatron^H gnuiuH, th Kluwiek 

guns on ships, and kindred matters of do- worku and thoir^o IrthootB wnre ivliuoflt to 

sign. He was a steadfast "believer in guns tho end of hut lifo larjf(ly itidobtod to hiB 

as ayainst, armour. He had himself worked auggostions. But tl (utormouH growth of 

at t'Ae improvement of armour plating. Tie tlui ontorpriHO waH pnrhapH clmrtly du< to his 

had produced steel of high tonwlo strength judiciouH Holtction of abh^ colli'a^U('H t and to 

and great toughness by tempering- it in an thowiso liberality by which h HtimuliittMl 

oil bath. For some years before tho intro- and onconratftul t hwu to do tht'ir bot^ Mon 

duction of high explosives he had taken modern dovolopmntH woro mainly initiated 

special interest in the design and con- by his partner, Sir^Andww KobK 
struction of the cruiser type, which was AroiHtronjjfa var'uul activith'H brought him 

indeed to a considerable extent originated 7Fftt w<mlth, which lui always ptit to <m 

by him. The Elswick firm built several Jghtonod UHOH. In 1H(KJ ho purclmHod Home 




as the h'rsc modern protected cruiser. Arm- out roads inon -itH rocky HlopoH, ho trainod 
strong strongly advocated the construction streams ant, dug- out 'lakon. ITtt owl 
of a large number of vessels of this class flowers, planted rum Hhrubw, and covered 
of moderate size. He believed that they tho ground with nnllitmH of noblo trtuw, till 
would be most effective protectors of com* , the bleak hillside, was tranHfornunl into a 
raerce, and that several acting together magnificent, park, and the barren wilderness 



Armstrong 



Armstrong 



was clothed with beauty. At Cragside, too, 
he dispensed a princely hospitality, and 
numerous men of distinction were among 
his guests. 

In 1 872 Armstrong visited Egypt to ad- 
vise a method of obviating the interruption 
to the Nile traffic caused by the cataracts. 
His interesting lectures to the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Newcastle, de- 
scribing his ;"ourney and the antiquities on 
the river-ban.c, were published in 1874. 

In later life Armstrong's happiest hours, 
when not employed in planting or building, 
were devotee to electrical research in his 
laboratory at Cragside. He expressed the 

X'nion tliat, if he had given to electricity 
time spent upon hydraulics, the results 
would have been even more remunerative. 

Among his early experiments with his hy- 
dro-electric machine he had shown that a cot- 
ton filament in two adjacent glasses travels* 
towards the positive electrode in one, while - 
an encircling tube of water moves towards - 
the negative electrode in the other. This 
was the starting-point of his subsequent re- 
searches into the nature of the electric dis- 
charge. About 1892 he repeated the ex-peri- , 
ment in a modified form, using a liuhmliorff 
induction coil giving an 18-inch spark, and 
he suggested that the phenomenon indicated 
the co-existence of two opposite currents in 
the movements of electricity, the negative 
being surrounded by the positive, like a 
core within a tube. In 1897 Armstrong 
published a beautifully illustrated volume 
on ' Electric Movement in Air and Water,' 
in which he discussed the most remarkable 
series of figures ever obtained by electric 
discharge over photographic plates. In 
these later investigations he employed a 
Wimslmrst machine with sixteen plates, 
each 34 inches in diameter. In the follow- 
ing November he invited Dr. H. Stroucl, of 
the Durham College of Science, to- continue 
his experiments. In a sup-jlemen-t to his 
book (-899) Armstrong deve-oped a method 
of studying the phenomena of sudden elec- 
tric discharge based upon the formation of 
Lichtenburg figures. The results confirm 
the accuracy of the interpretation as te> 
positive and negative distribution in his 
earlier work, and also extend the stii'dy of 
electric discharge in new directions. 

Throughout hia life Armstrong was a 
notable benefactor of his native city. There 
is hardly any meritorious institution in New- 
castle or the neighbourhood, educational or 
charitable, whicJL was not largely indebted 
to his assistance. He was a member of 
council of .the Durham College of Science 
(1878-1900). lie- kid the foundation stone 



of the present buildings (1887), and he was 
a generbus subscriber to its funds. He used 
his genius for landscape gardening to beau- 
tify Jesmond Dene, and then presented it to 
the town with some ninety-three acres, part 
of which is included in the Armstrong Park. 
In July 1886 Armstrong was induced to 
offer himself as a liberal unionist candidate 
far the representation of Newcastle in parlia- 
ment, but, chiefly owing to labour troubles, 
was not returned. Two months afterwards 
he was presented with the freedom of the 
city, anc in June 1887 he was raised to the 
peerage as Baron Armstrong in considera- 
tion of his varied and eminent public services. 
He represented Eothbury on the Northum- 
berland county council, 1889-92. He pur- 
chased Bamborough Castle in 1894, intend- 
ing to devote a portion of it to the purposes 
of a convalescent home. He commenced 
nobly conceived restorations, but he did not 
live to see the completion of his designs. 

Armstrong's great services to scientific 
invention were rewarded by many distinc- 
tions apart from those already mentioned, 
and numerous foreign decorations. He was 
created D.C.L. Durham (1882), Master of 
Engineering, Dublin (1892), and he received 
the Bessemer medal, 1891. He was an ori- 
ginal member of the Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute ; ^resident of the Mechanical Engineers, 
1861, -862, 1869 ; of the North of England 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers, 1872-3, 
1873-4, 1874-5; of the Institute of Civil 
Engineers, 1882 ; of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical SocietT of Newcastle, 1860-1900; 
of the Natural 'History Society of Northum- 
berland, Durham, and Newcastle, 1890- 
1900. 

Armstrong died at Cragside on 27 Dec. 
1900. On the last day of the nineteenth 
century his remains were laict beside those 
of his wife (who died on 2 Sept. 1893) in the 
extension of Kothbury c&urchyard, which 
overlooks the river Coquet. By his death 
Newcastle lost her greatest citizen, who con- 
ferred upon the city not only glory but most 
substantial benefits. Armstrong's name will 
always stand high among the most illustrious 
men of the nineteenth century, who have 
rendered it memorable for the advance in 
scientific knowledge and in the adaptation 
of natural forces to the service of mankind. 
Armstrong 1 had no issue, and his heir was 
his grand-nephew, William Henry Armstrong 
FitzPatrick Watson, son of John William 
Watson ^the son of Armstrong's only sister), 
by his wife, Margaret Godrnstn, daughter of 
Patrick Person FitzPatrick, esq., of Fitz- 
Leat House, Bognor. Armstrong's grand- 
, nephew, in 1889, on his marriage with 



Armstrong 



Arnold 



Winifreda Jane, eldest daughter of General 
Sir John A.dye [c . v, Suppl.], assumed the 
name and arms o: Armstrong in addition to 
those of Watson, in accordance with the 
wish of his great-uncle. 

Armstrong pursued all his researches with 
grip, tenacity, and concentration, with re- 
markable courage, zeal, and energy under 
the most perplexing circumstances. Fre- 
quently even disappointments and failures 
furnished the key to ultimate success. His 
colleague, Sir A. Noble, has spoken of his 
' extraordinary intuition as to liow a result 
would work out. He would very often make 
a guess at a result, while I, after much labour 
and calculation, would roach the same con- 
clusion/ He was a vigorous writer, and his 
expositions of his views were clear and 
forcible; but his busy life left no time for 
fanciful speculations, and but littlo oppor- 
tunity for literary work, although he was 
the author of a large number of addresses, 
papers, and pamphlets. These treat chiefly 
of engineering and scientific subjects ; throe 
are contained in * The Industrial Resourced 
of theTyne, Wear, and Teen/ 180:3, of which 
lie was joint editor. His most important 
work was his magnificently illustratcc ' Elec- 
tric Movement, hi Air and Wat or,' 1807, and 
the supplement, 1899. Among his papers 
the chie: are: 1838 and 1840, 'On the Ap- 
plication of a Column of Water as a Motive 
_?ower for driving Machinery* (Mechanics' 
Magazine) ; 1841-8, several papers ' On the 
Electricity of Kllluent Steam ' (Philosophical 
Maffosine); 1850, 'On the Application of 
Water Pressure aa a Motive Power' (Pro- 
ceedin(/s of Institute of Civil XSnyineer^ voL 
ix.); 18153, ' On Concussion of Pump Valves y 
(ft.wl.xii.); 1857-8, ' On the Usp of Steam 
Coals of the Hartley District in Marine 
Boilers;' 1858, 'Water-pressure Machinery 1 
(Proceeding* of Institute of Mechanical A- 
^wtww); 1863, 'The Coal Supply 1 (flrituA 
Association, Newcastle) ; 1803, <A Throe- 
cowered Hydraulic Engine;' 1863, 'The 
Construction of Wrought-iron Itifled Fidel 
Guns ; ' 1869, ' Artillery ' (Mechanical JB'nyi- 
nrO ; 1873, 'The Coal Supply' (North of 
England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineer*) i 1877, 'History of Modern De- 
velopments of Water-pressure Machinery' 
(Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers, 
vol. L); 1882, 'National .Defences ' '(ttoVZ.) ; 
1883, * Utilisation of Natural Forces ' 'British 
Association, York) ; 1883, ' Social Matters ' 
(Northern Union of Mechanics' Institutes). 
To the ' Nineteenth Century 7 he contributed 
three papers: ' The Vague Cry for Technical 
Education ' (1888); 'The f>y for Useless 
Knowledge 1 (1888) j and 'TUe New Naval 



Programme ' (1889). Ho contributed to the 
' Proceedings of the Royal Society ' l AH In- 
duction Machine,' 1802, and 'Novel Ell'ectB 
of Electric Discharge/ 1803, 

The chief portrait's of Armstrong are : 

1) by Mr. G, F. Watts, U.A., at Crag-aide ; 

2) full-length by Mrs. L. Waller, in the 
Council Chamber, Newcastle Town Hall 

(this was paid for by public subscription) ; 
r3) by Mr. J. C. Hcmiluy, at KlavricJk Works ; 
(4) head and shoulders, by Mrs, L. Waller, 
at Cragaide, of which copies exist in the 
Jubilee Hall, Kothbury, and the Literary 
and Philosophical Society and the InHtitufw 
of Civil Engineer**, London; (5) miniaturo 
of W. G. Armstrong-, aged 18 ; (0) miniaturo 
by Taylor (thene miniatures both at Cra i {- 
side); (7) bust by A, Munro, at Cragnko, 
of which a replica by the artist is in the 
Literary and Philosophical Library. 

[A. Life of Lord Armstrong 1 i inuludod in 
Iloroos of Industry,' by K. It. JOIION, 1 880, and 
in ' Grout Thinkorn and Workers/ by .H, Oooh- 
rano, 1888. A Hhorf. memoir "was writtmi by 
Mr. Watson Armstrong in OaBaior's Mug. March 
1806J H. P. 0. 

ARNOLD, MATTHEW (1822 1888), 
poet and critic, the ultloHt son <>i Dr. Thomas 
Arnold [c , v.], afterwards famous an head- 
master o: .Rugby, and his will* Mary (Pen- 
rose), was bom on 24 Dec. 182^ at Laloham, 
near Staines, where IUH fathor then took 
->upils. Thomas Arnold [<._. v, BuppL] wan 
aifl younger brother. JVIattaow nu^ru'tod to 
llugby with hi family in 1828, but in 1880 
returned to Laloham aa pupil of hw maternal 
uncle, the Kov, John BucklajuL In AuffWHt 
1880 ho was removed to "WinchoHtor, and in 
1837 entdjrccl Ku^by, which ho lft in 1841 
for BalHol CoUo/ifo, Oxford, whoro \w had 
gained a clasHica. Kcholiu-Hhiy* In 1840 ho 
liad won a priw* at Itu^by with IUH lirwtro- 
corded pootical production, ' Alaric at Homo ' 
(Uupby, 8vo, only two flopitifl extant; ro- 
printec.^808 and 189C); tlw work was 
dotnly influencfid by 'Ohildo Harold/ and 
in ITS form^of Htanxa wan original tor a prize 
")oem ; but it wan not othorwinti romarkablu* 
Nor was the poom on Oojtiwoll, which 
gained the Newel igato priz in Juno 1843 
(Oxford, Bvo), diHtinguiHlhul by any npocial 
chavacteriHtic* In 1844 Arnold took a Hucond 
class in lit. kum. t and in March 1845 was 
elected to a fellowwhip at Oriel. After a 
brief experience a a master at Kugby, he 
became in ^1847 private 8tjcrctary to the 
Marquis of Lansc,owne, then president of 
the council, and, aft HUfth, tae minister 
charged with the administration of public 
instruction* In 1801 Lord Lanwdowne pro 1 - 



Arnold 



Arnold 



cured for Arnold an inspectorship of schools, 
and on 10 June of that year he fulfilled a 
cherished wish by uniting himself to Frances 
Lucy, daughter of Sir "Villiam Wightman 
[q.v.], one of the judges of the queen's bench, 
Up to this time Arnold, though now eight 
and twenty, was known only to a few as a 
member of a highly intellectual Oxford set, 
to which Clougi, Lake, and J. D. Coleridge 
belonged, and to a few more as the author 
of a little volume of verse, ' The Strayed 
Reveller and other Poems/ published in 
1849 under the initial ' A ' (London, 16mo ; 
five hundred copies were printed, but it was 
withdrawn before many copies were sold 
and is very scarce). His correspondence of 
the period, which, though full of crudities, 
is more lively and original than the letters 
of later years, shows that he was profoundly 
interested in the questions of the day, espe- 
cially in the revolutionary movements of 
1848, and had already conceived the germs of 
most of the ideas waich he was afterwards 
to develop. He must have been studying 
French and German, but he seems to have 
made no attempt in the department of 
literary and philosophical criticism in which 
he was afterwards to become potent ; and 
his volume of verse, though including two 
of his best poems, ' The Forsaken Merman ' 
and * Mycerinus,' was too unequal as well 
as too diminutive to produce much effect. 
On the whole his mental progress up to 
this date seems slow ; but either a natural 
process or his contact with the busy world in 
the discharge of his really arduous duties as 
school inspector effected a speedy develop- 
ment; in 1852 he appears as a poet of 
mature power, and in 1853 not merely as a 
poet but as a legislator upon poetry. The 
volume of 1852 was ' Empedocles on Etna 
and other Poems' (London, 8vo; reissued 
1896, 4to ; the original is only less scarce 
than 'The Strayed Reveller'). The book, 
like it& forerunner, was published under the 
bare initial 'A.' It contained, with some 
short lyrics, two long poems, the dramatic 
'Empedocles on Etna/ and the narrative 
' Tristram and Iseult,' which were much 
more ambitious in design and elaborate in 
execution than anything previously at- 
tempted by Arnold. Botu poems had great 
attractions ; the songs of the harp-player 
Callicles in ' Empedocles ' are extraordinary 
combinations of pictorial beauty with lyrical 
-mssion, and the third canto of 'Tristram* 
IB a masterpiece of descriptive poetry. But 
neither the songs of Callicles nor the third 
canto of ' Tristram ' has much connection 
with the rest of the poem to which each 
If the finest passages are thus, 



strictly speaking, superfluous, the poems can 
hardly be other than disjointed and so in- 
deed they are not apparently from inability 
to conceive the subjects as wholes, but from 
inaptitude in the combination of details. 
They nevertheless contain sufficient beauty 
to j ustify by themselves a high poetical re- 
putation, and were accompanied by a nuin- 
aer of exquisite lyrics, among which it will 
suffice to name 'A Summer Night/ 'The 
Youth of Nature/ 'The Youth of Man/ 
' Isolation/ and ' Faded Leaves.' The spirit 
of these pieces may be described as inter- 
mediate between Wordsworth and Goethe, 
who are elsewhere in the same volume con- 
trasted with each other and with Byron in 
a very noble lyric. If, however, the poet 
neither expressed a new view of life nor 
created a new form of poetry, his style and 
cast of thought were indisputably his own. 
The volume nevertheless failed to win public 
attention, and the author, probably prompted 
less by disappointment than by dissatisfac- 
tion, with the defects which be had discovered 
in * Empedocles/ withdrew it after disposing 
of fifty copies. He was already providing 
himself with a new pi&ce de resistance, better 
adapted to exemplify his creed as a poet. 
He could not have chosen better than in 
* Sohrab and Rustum/ which first appeared 
in 'Poems by Matthew Arnold, a new 
edition * (1853, 8vo ; 1854 and 1857, slightly 
altered). Together with a re-issue of the 
most important contents ('Empedocles on 
Etna' excepted) of his former volumes, the 
new volume contained the new poems of 
'The Scholar-Gipsy' and 'Requiescat/ as 
well as 'Sohrab and Rustum. The last 
piece is an episode from Firdusi's 'Shah- 
Nameh/ noble and affecting in subject, and 
so simple in its perfect unity of action as 
to leave no room for digression, while fully 
admitting the adornments of description and 
elaborate simile. These are introduced with 
exquisite judgment, and f while greatly 
heightening the poetical beauty of the piece, 
are never allowed to divert attention from 
the progress of the main action, which cul- 
minates in a situation of unsurpassable 
pathos. Nothing could have more forcibly 
exemplified the doctrines laid down by the 
author in his memorably preface to this 
volume of ' Poems/ in whicin he condemns 
the prevalent taste for brilliant phrases and 
isolated felicities, and admonishes poets to 
regard above all things unity, consistency, 
and the total impression of the piece. 

This prefatory essay is a literary land- 
mark and monument o? sound criticism. It 
is also of peculiar interest as foreshadowing 
the character of the literary work 



Arnold 7 

which Arnold's name was hereafter to be 
mainly associated. The intellectual defects 
which the essay denounced were charac- 
teristically English defects. Soon discover- 
ing himself to be at issue with the bulk of 
his countrymen in every region of opinion, 
Arnold subsequently undertook tho un- 
popular office of detector- general of the in- 
tellectual failings of his own nation. The 
cast of his mind was rather critical than 
constructive, and the gradual drying up of 
his native spring of poetry, at no time 
copious, left him no choice between criticism 
and silence. 

In 1853 the exhaustion of his poetic 
faculty did not seem imminent, and some 
time was to elapse before Arnold assumed 
his distinctly critical attitude towards the 
temper of his times. In 1855 he published 
1 Poems . . . Second Series ' (London, 8vo), 
mostly reprints; but the most important, 

* Balder Dead/ a miniature blank-verse epic 
in the manner of ' Sohrab and lluatum,' was 
new, and almost as great a masterpiece of 
noblo "lathos and dignified narrative. 

In Hay 1857 Arnold WHS elected to tho 
professorship of poetry at Oxford, which ho 
Iield for ten years, lie inaugurated his 
tenure of office by publishing in 18f)8 a 
tragedy, 'Meropo/ avowedly intondud as a 
poetical manifesto, and therefore condemned 
in advance as a work of reflection rather 
than inspiration. It is stately but frigid: 
the subject evidently had not taken posses- 
sion of him as ' Sohrab ' and ' Bolder ' had 
done. It is also weighted by the unrhymod 
choral lyrics, whose mechanism contrasts 
painfully with the spontaneity of tho harp- 
flayer's songs in ' Erapodocles on Etna/ 
t 'is to Arnold's honour that, try as he 
would, he could not write lyrical poetry 
without a lyrical impulse, such as camo to 
him when in November 1857 he wrote 

* Kugby Chapel' on his father's death, or 
when in 1859 he celebrated his deceased 
brother and sister-in-law in 'A Southern 
Might,' one of the most beautiful of his 
poems [see ARNOLD, WILLIAM DBLAPIWID], 
or when he wrote 'Thy ma' on tho death of 
his friend dough in 1861, 

' Thyrsia ' and * A Southern Night ' wore 
first issued in Arnold's 'New Poems' of 
1867. Many other pieces that figure in that 
volume evince declining power not so much 
by inferiority of execution as by the in- 
creasing tendency to mere reflection : one of 
the pieces, ' (Saint Brand an/ was published 
separately (London, 1867, 4to). His * Poems' 
were fully collected in two volumes in 1869, 
when < Rujrby Chapel ' was first included, 
nod again in '1877. By that date his chiof 



2 Arnold 

work as a poet had been long since clone. 
Tho true olngiac not o was, however, at ruck 
once more in * Westminster Abbey, 7 a poem 
on tho death of Dean Stanley hi 1881 (in 
'Nineteenth Oontury/ January 1882), mag- 
nificont m its opening and its close, and 
nowhere unworthy of tho author or tho 
occasion. (All Arnold's poetry roappoaml 
in throe volumes in 1885, and in a single-" 
volume ' Popular edition' in 181)0. ' Selected 
Poems' were issued an a volume of tho ' Gol- 
don Treasury Series' in 1878.) 

Meanwhile Arnold's appointment at. Ox- 
ford had prompted two ol his most valuable 
eilbrts in literary oritic/tstn. In 1801 ho 
~)ublishod 'On Translating Iloinor: Throo 
Lectures tfivon at Oxford' (London, 8vo), 
one of the essays which mark epochs. There 
followed in 18(1:2 a second volume, M)n 
Translating Homer: last. Words.' Tho four 
locturos wore first, collected in 18{)(>, It 
is truo that Arnold's principles worn moro 
satisfactory than hi practice ; his own at- 
tempts at translation wore not very sueeoss- 
ful; and the lectures wore disli^urtul )>y in^ 
excnanblo (Hp])ancioH at the, oxponso of ")(n*- 
sona ontitlod to tho hi^luwt, reHpoct ~seo 
WKKHIT, loir A HOP OHAULMH'. .Huh mivoi* 
had tho characttuistieH of I om<r himsolf 
boon set forth with mich antJiority, or tho 
rules of translation HO unanswerably de- 
ducted from thorn, or popular inisconcMptionfl 
so effectually extinguished. H IH indeed a 
classic of criticism. Almost (Hjnal ]kruise i 
due to the leeturcH * On the Mtiuly of (oltic 
Literature ' deli vtired in 18(>7, even though 
his knowledge of thiw wubject, was by no 
moans equal to hiHliiinwlcd^unf Homer, and 
tho theme. M IOHH Husc.ppl.il) u of oloHoness of 
treatment and cofreincy of dtunoiiHt ration. It H 
chief merit, apart from tho fawjinnt.in^ Htyh^, 
i to have sot forth the essential nhnra(st<riH- 
tics of (Mtic pot^lry, and to have compre- 
hended tho.se cunlltiea of Kn^liwh poetry 
which chi(,tly UHtintfuiHh it from t-iat of 
other modtirn nutioiw undt^r th possibly in- 
exact but O'.rtnjiily convenient denomination 
of * Celtic ma#io.' 

In 1850 Arnold iHHued an able pairmhlot, 
'England and the .Italian (^uuHtum, but, 
with all liift poetical and critical activity, he 
was far from ne^iectinp IHH oilicial duticw* 
His correflpondoncci i tull of proofs of IUH 
Koal as an inspector of HohoolH, which are 
further illuwtrated by the valuable collection 
of his oilicial rtoortw publwhed by Mir Fmnc.iH 
Sand ford after am death. He d(4ightod iu 
foreign travel for the -)urpoflt> of in^ujcting 1 
foreign wchools and uiuvormtb, and his ob- 
R(rvations wro published in *uvral books 
of great though ephemeral vuluo : * Topular 



Arnold 



Arnold 



Education of France,' 1861; <A French 
Eton,' 1864; ' Schools and Universities on 
the Continent/ 18C8. At home his opposi- 
tion to Mr. Lowe's revised educational' code 
at one time seemed likely to occasion his 
resignation; but he held on, and gave no 
sign of retirement until he had earned his 
pension, except on one occasion, when he 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the 
librarianship of the House of Commons. 
After living some years in London he re- 
moved to Larrow, and in 1873 to Cobham. 
where he remained until his death. His 
domestic life, in general happy, was sadly 
clouded by the successive ceaths of three 
sons within a short period. 

As a critic Arnold considerably modified 
the accepted form of the English critical 
essay by giving it something of the cast of 
a causen'e, & method he had learned from 
one of the chief objects of his admiration and 
imitation, Sainte-Beuve. His critical powers 
were shown to very great advantage in the 
fine series of ' Essays in Criticism ' (1865 ; 
2nd edit, modified, 1869 ; 6th edit. 1889). 
Almost all the contents of this volume are 
charming, especially the sympathetic studies 
of Spinoza and Marcus Aurelius, and the 
contrast, combined with a parallel, between 
the religious ideas of Ptolemaic Alexandria 
and mediaeval Assisi, a pair of pictures in 
the manner of Arnold's friend, Ernest 
Kenan., The most important essay, how- 
ever, is that on Heine; for in depictin^ 
Heine, with perfect justice, as the intel- 
lectual liberator, the man whose special 
function it was to break up stereotyped 
forms of thought, Arnold consciously or un- 
consciously delineated the mission which he 
had imposed upon himself, and to which the 
best of his non-otticial energies were to be 
devoted for many years. He had become 
profoundly discontented with English in- 
difference to ideas in literature, in politics, 
and in religion, and set himself to rouse his 
countrymen out of what he deemed their 
intellectual apathy by raillery and satire, 
objurgation in the manner of a Buskin or a 
Carlyle not being at all in his way. There 
is a certain incongruity in the bombard- 
ment of such solid entrenchments with such 
light artillery ; it is also plain that Arnold 
is aa one-sided as the objects of his attack, 
and docs not sufficiently perceive that the 
defects which he satirises are often defects 
inevitably annexed to great qualities. Nor 
was it ^possible to lecture his countrymen 
as he did without assuming the air of the 
deservedly detested 'superior person.' 

With every drawback, together with some 
serious failures in good taste which cannot be 



overlooked, Arnold's 'crusade against British 
.Philistinism and imperviousness to ideas was 
as serviceable as it was gallant, and much 
rather a proof of his affection for his countrv- 
men than of the contempt for them unjust y 
laid to his charge. In literature and 'allie'd 
subjects his chief protest against their cha- 
racteristic failings was made in ' Culture and 
Anarchy ' (1869), a collection of essays (that 
had first appeared in the 'Cornhill Maga- 
zine') all leading up to the apotheosis of 
culture as the minister of the ' sweetness and 
light ' essential to the perfect character. In 
politics a more scientidc method of dealing 
with public questions was advocated in 
Friendship's Garland ' (1871), a book very 
seriously intended, but too full of persiflage 
for most serious readers. In theology ae 
strove to supplant the letter by the spirit in 
St. Paul and Protestantism ' (1870 : revised 
from the ' Oomhill j ' 4th edit. 1887) ; * Lite- 
rature and Dogma: an Essay towards a 
better Apprehension of the Bible ' (1873) ; 
' God anc, the Bible ; a Review of Ob'ections 
to "Literature and Dogma '" (187); and 
'Last Essays on Church and Religion' 
(1877). These books are not likely to be 
extensively read in the future, but their con- 
temporary influence is a noticeable ingredient 
in the stream of tendency which has brought 
the national mind nearer to Arnold's ideal. 

Arnold's critical interest in poetry re- 
mained at the same time unimpaired. In 
1878 he edited the 'Six Chief Lives' from 
Johnson's ' Lives of the Poets ' (5th edit. 
1889). He made excellent selections from 
Wordsworth (1879) and Byron (1881), ac- 
companied by admirable prefaces ; contri- 
buted the general introduction to Mr. T. H. 
Ward's > selections of English poets, and 
wrote for the same collection lue critical 
notices of Gray and Keats, valuable as far 
as they go, but strangely restricted in scope. 
In 1881 also he collected Burke's Letters, 
Speeches, and Tracts on Irish Affairs ' with 
a preface. He also produced annotated ver- 
sions of the writings of the two Isaiahs 
(1872 and 1883), the first of which, as 'A 
Bible-Reading for Schools/ went through 
numerous editions. 

In 1883, greatly to Arnold's surprise, Glad- 
stone conferred upon him a civil I'iflt pension 
of 250, which enabled him to retire from 
the civil service. In the winter of the same 
year he started on a lecturing tour in Ame- 
rica. His eldest daughter had married and 
settled in that country. Pie returned to 
England in the spring of 1884, having reaped 
a fair pecuniary reward from his lectures, 
although he incurred some adverse criticism. 
He paid another visit to America in 1886, 



Arnold 



74 



Arnold 



Among the fruits of his first American tour 
were two powerful lectures one on the im- 
portance of a high standard of culture, the 
other vindicating literary study as an instru- 
ment of education against the encroach- 
ments of physical science. These, with a 
hardly adequate lecture on Emerson, in 
which he finds much to say about Carlyle, 
were published in 1885 as * Discourses in 
America.' * Mixed Essays ' had appeared in 
1879 ; ' Irish Essays anc. Others ' was pub- 
lished in 1882, and 'Essays in Criticism, 
Second Series,' in 1888 ; and he continued to 
the last an active contributor to periodical 
literature, especially in the ' Nineteenth Cen- 
tury.' Essays from this review and from 
i Murray's Magazine ' were issued at Boston 
in 1888 as * Civilization in the United 
States.' His last essay, on Milton, appeared 
in the United States after his death. Arnold 
died very suddenly from disease of the heart 
on 15 April 1888 at Liverpool, whither he 
had gone on a visit to his sister to welcome 
his daughter homeward bound from America. 
Matthew Arnold was buried in the church- 
yard of AIL Saints, Laleliam, in the same 
grave with his eldest son Thomas ( 185:2- 
1868), and a grandson. 1 lis tombstone bears 
the inscription ' There is sprung \\ > a light 
for the righteous and joyful gladness for 
such as are true-hearted, 1*8. xcvii. 11. 

Arnold unwisely discouraged all biogra- 
phical memorials of himself, and the only 
authentic record is the disappointing ' Letters 
of Matthew Arnold, 184K-1888,' collected 
and arranged by Mr. C4. W, E. Russell in 
two volumes, 1895. Those are entertaining 
reading, and pleasing as proofs of the 
extreme amiability of one who was generally 
set down as supercilious and sardonic, but 
are remarkably devoid of insight, whether 
literary or political. This probably arises 
in jreat measure from their being mostly 
addressed to members of his own family, 
and so wanting tho HtimutaB arising from 
the collision, of dissimilar minds. They 
depict the writer's moral character, notwith- 
standing, with as much clearness as attrac- 
tiveness, and his intellectual character ia 
sufficiently evident in his writings. If a 
single word could resume him, it would be 
* academic ; ' but, although this perfectly 
describes his habitual attitude oven as a 
poet, it leaves aside his chaste diction, his 
pictorial vividness, and his overwhelming 
pathos. The better, which IB also the larger, 
part of his poetry is without doubt immor- 
tal. His position is distinctly independent, 
while this is perhaps less owing to innate 
originality than to tlxe balance of competing 
iaiuencsB. "Wordsworth saves him from 



being a mere disciple of Goollio, and f loot ho 
from beinjj a more follower of Wordsworth. 
As a critic he repeatedly evinced a hup'iy 
instinct for doing the right thing at Lie 
right time. Apart from thwr high intel- 
lectual merits, the scauouabloucHs of the 
preface to the poems of IHfitt, of tho lec- 
tures on Homer, and those on tho (Celtic 
spirit, renders these monumental in KiujliHh 
literature. His groat defect; as a critic is 
the absence of a lively awthotie sense ; the 
more exquisite boautuw of literature do not 
greatly impims him unless an vehicles for tho 
communication of ideas. He inherited his 
father's ethical cast, of mind ; com! net; iudcroHtg 
him more than genius* Nothing else can 
account for hia amassing definition of poetry 
as a 'criticism of life;' and in the same 
spirit, when he ought to be giving a com- 
prehensive view of Keats and (hniy, he 
spends bin time in inquiring whether Keats 
was manly, and why (I ray WUH unproduc- 
tive. When, however, ho could place him- 
self at n -)oint of view that suited him, 
none coulc write more to tho point. His 
characters of Spinoza, Marcus Aurelius, and 
Heine are masterly, and nothing can bo 
better than his poetical appreciation of 
'Wordsworth, Byron, and (joet.io. A great 
writer whose influence on conduct was 
mainly indirect, such an DickeiiH or Thacke- 
ray, seemed to ^uzftlo him ; Tennyson's 
beauties AS a poo'i wore unappreciated on 
account of his secondary place as a thinker ; 
and the vehemonco of a Carlyle or a Char* 
lotte Bronto offended his fastidious lasto. 
Thus, for oiio reason or another, he estimated 
the genius of his own ago much below its 
real desert, and tins unsympathetic attitude 
towards tho contemporary representatives 
of Kn/liHh thought perverted his entire 
view oJ it, political* nodal, and intellectual. 
Mr. Herbert Spencer eritieiHeM some of the 
caprices of his ' anti-patriotic bias ' and fle<!- 
tively ridicules his longings tor an lOn^linh 
academy in IHH * Study of Sociology' (c'w> 
ter (K. and notes). Yot, if Arnold cannot "io 
praitiod as lie praises Sophocles for having 
' seen UJ'o steadily and scum it whole/ ho at; 
all events tmw what escaped many others ; 
and if ho exaggerated the inaoeesHibiUty o; J 
tho English mind to ideas, he loft it more 
accessible than lie found it Thin would 
have contented him ; his aim was not to 
subjugate opinion, but to emancipate it;, con- 
tending for tho cndH of Ooothe with tho 
weapons of Heine. 

A noble portrait of Arnold, by Mr, G. F. 
Watts, It, A,, is in the National Portrait 
Gallery (itifl reproduced in Arnold^' Poems' 
in tho 'Temple Classics,' 1900 ? which also 



Arnold 



75 



contains a bibliographical sketch by Mr. 
Buxton Forman) ; and an excellent likeness 
is enjraved as the frontispiece to his ' Poeti- 
cal 'Works,' 1890 (cf. Harper's Magazine, 
May 1888). There is as yet no collective 
edition of his writings in England, though 
a uniform edition in ten volumes was issued 
in America (New York, 1884, &c.) ; a biblio- 
graphy was published by Mr, Thomas Bur- 
nett Smart in 1892. ' The Matthew Arnold 
Birthday Book, arranged by his daughter, 
Eleanor Arnold,' with a portrait, was issued 
in a handsome quarto, 1883, 

[Arnold's correspondence is the only compre- 
hensive authority for his life. Professor Saints- 
bury's monograph (1899) is admirable wherever 
it is not warped by hostility to Arnold's specula- 
tive ideas and some of his literary predilections. 
References to him in contemporary literature 
are endless, and he is the subject of innumerable 
critiques, including essays upon hie poetry by 
Mr. A. C. Benson and the present writer, accom- 
panying editions of his 'poems, and a remarkable 
article on the Poems of 1853 by Froude, in the 
Westminster Review (January 1854). The 
ethical aspects of Arnold's teaching are examined 
in John M. Robertson's Modern Humanists, 
1891 ; in Gr. White's Matthew Arnold and the 
Spirit of the Age, 1898 ; and in W. H. Hudson's 
Studies in Interpretation, New York, 1896. 
An interesting sketch of Arnold as a teacher 
is given in Sir Joshua Fitch's Thomas and 
Matthew Arnold in the Great Educators Series, 
1897. A few additional letters were printed 
with Arthur G-alton's Two Essays upon Mat- 
thew Arnold, 1897. There is an interesting 
estimate of Arnold as a thinker in Crozier's My 
Inner Life, 1898, pp. 521-9.] R. Q-. 

ARNOLD, SIR NICHOLAS (1507?- 
1580), lord justice in Ireland, born about 
1507, was the second but eldest surviving 
son of John Arnold (d. 1545-6) of Churcham, 
Gloucestershire, and his wife Isabel Hawkins. 
His father was prothonotary and clerk of 
the crown in Wales, and in 1641-2 was 
granted the manors of Highnam and Over, 
also in Gloucestershire. Nicholas Arnold 
was one of Henry VIIFs gentlemen pen- 
sioners as early as 1526; after 1530 he 
entered Cromwell's service, and was by him. 
employed in connection with the dissolution 
of the monasteries. In December 1538 he 
was promoted into the king* s service, and a 
year later he became one of Henry VIIl's new 
bodyguard. On 10 Jan, 1544- 5 he was re- 
turned to parliament as one of the knights 
for Gloucestershire. In the same year he was 
in command of the garrison at Queenborough, 
and in July 1546 he was sent to take charge, 
with a salary of 26s. 8d. a day, of Boulogne- 
berg, a fort above Boulogne, which passed 
with it into English hands by the peace of 



Arnold 

that year. Arnold at once reported that the 
fort was not in a position for defence ; but 
Somerset in 1547 did something to remedy 
the fault, and when on 1 May 1549, four 
months before declaring war, the French 
attacked Boulogneberg, they were completely 
defeated. Arnold had only four hundred 
men and the French three thousand ; Arnold 
was wounded, but the French are said to 
have filled fifteen wagons with their dead 
(WRIOTHESLEY, Chron. ii. 11). A fresh 
attack was made in August, when Arnold, 
recognising the hopelessness of a defence, 
removed all the ordnance and stores into 
Boulogne, and dismantled the fort. For 
the remainder of the war and until the 
cession of Boulogne Arnold acted as one of 
the council there. He was knighted some 
time during the reign of Edward VI, and 
during the latter part of it seems to have 
travelled in Italy (Cal. State Papers, For. 
1547-53, pp. 227, 237, 242). He returned 
to Englanc in time to sit for Gloucester- 
shire in Edward VI's last parliament (Fe- 
bruary-March 1553). 

Arnold made no open opposition to Mary's 
accession, but he fell under suspicion at the 
time of Wyatt's rebellion. On 9 Feb. 
1553-4 the* sheriff of Gloucestershire re- 
ported to the council ' words spoken by 
Arnold relative to the coming of the king 
of Spain,' and Wyatt compromised him by 
saying that he was the first to whom Wil- 
liam Thomas [q. v.] mentioned his plot to 
assassinate the queen. On 21 Feb. Arnold 
was committed to the Fleet, being removed 
to the Tower three days later. He remained 
there until 18 Jan. 1554-5, when he was 
released on sureties for two thousand pounds. 
On 23 Sept. following he was even elected 
to parliament for his old constituency, but 
he still maintained relations with various 
conspirators against Mary, and in January 
1555-6 was implicated in Sir Henry Dudley 
"q. v. Su-)pl.] and Uvedale's plot to drive the 
Spaniards from England [see UVEDALB, 
RiCHAEDj. On 19 April he was again com- 
mitted to the Tower (MAOHYN, J)iary, p. 
104), and his deposition taken on 6 May is 
still extant ( Cal. State Paper *,Dom. 1547-80, 
p. 82). On 23 Sept. following he was removed 
to the Fleet, where he was allowed * liberty 
of the house/ Soon afterwards he was re- 
leased on condition of not going within ten 
miles of Gloucestershire, and even this re- 
striction was relaxed on 3 Feb. 1656-7. 

After the *accession of Elizabeth, Arnold 
became sheriff of Gloucestershire 1558-9, 
and in 1562 he was selected to go to Ireland 
to report on the complaints against Sussex's 
administration. Froude describes him aa 



Arnold \ 

< a hard, iron, pitiless man, careful of thing's 
and careless of phrases, untroubled with 
delicacy and impervious to Irish enchant- 
ments.' Accorcing to a more reasoned 
estimate he was * a man of resolution and 
industry, who cared little for popularity, 
and might be trusted to carry out his orders' 
(BAGW.ELL, Ireland untor the Tudors, ii. 50). 
Sussex resented the inquiry, especially into 
the military mismanagement, and put ob- 
stacles in Arnold's way ; but Arnold made 
out a case too strong to be neglected by the 
English government, and in 1564 he was 
sent back to Ireland with Sir Thomas 
Wroth (1516-1573) [q. v,] and a new com- 
mission. Sussex was granted sick leave, 
and on 24 May 1/J64 Arnold was appointed 
lord justice during the lord deputy's absence 
(Rist. MSS. Comm. 15th Itep. App. iii. 
135). He made a rigorous inquisition into 
military abuses, but in the character of rulor 
he was hardly so successful, II o trusted 
too implicitly iu Shane O'Noill's professions 
of loyalty, and encouraged him to attack 
the Scots in Ulster; he treated the O'Connors 
and Q'Koillys with harshness, archbishop 
Loft. us with rudeness, and waa unduly par- 
tial to Kildure. His intentions were ex- 
cellent, 'but he was evidently quarrelsome, 
arbitrary, credulous, and doticiont in porwonnl 
dignity/ His request to be appointed lord 
deputy was relumed, and ou ihUuno 1505 he 
was recalled, Sir Ilonry Sidney fq. v.] being- 
selected to succeed Sussex. 

After Arnold's return to England a series 
of articles was presented againwt him by 
Sussex, but, beyond calling up Arnold to 
reply, the council took no further steps 
against him, Arnold henceforth confined 
liimself to local affairs ; hn hud boon returmsd 
to parliament for Gloucester c.ity in January 
15<)2-3, and on 8 May 1,57^ was again 
elected for tho county. Ho waa commis- 
sioner for tho collection, of a forced loan iu 
11569, and he was also on commissions for 
the peace, for the restraint of grain, and for 
enforcing tho laws relating 'to clothiora. 
Much of his energy wus devoted to im- 
proving tho breed of English horses; as 
early as 1546 he had boon engaged iu 
importing; horses from Flanders, and in his 
* Description, of England/ prefixed to J lol'm- 
shed, William HarriHon (-584-ir>03) fq. v.] 
writes, 'Sir Nicholas Arnold of late" hath 
bred the best horses in TCn jlund, and written 
of the manner of their production,' No truco 
of these writings has, however, been dis- 
covered. 

Arnold died early in 1581, and was buried 
in Oluircham parish church (C*huc,(>#t(>r*1>> 
Notes and Queries, iv. itfO, 271 iXnyuis, 



Arnold 



mortem Kliz. vol cxcv. No. 94; tho order for 
the imjnisition is dated 19 Juno 158 1, but the 
inquisition itself is illegible). Ho married, 
first, on 19 JimolfaM), IVargarot, daughter of 
Sir William Doimywof Dyrhani, (ilouooHtor- 
shire, by whom ho had JHHUO two HOUR and a 
daughter; the elder won, Rowland, married 
Mary, danghtor of JolmlJrydffiw, tirst baron 
OhandoH q. v.], and waa father of Dorothy 
wife of Sir Thomas Lucy (1551-1005) [HOC 
under LUCY, Snt TIIOMAH (15JW l(00)j. Uy 
his nccond wile, a lady named I sham, A mold 
had isHiio ono son, John, who aottlod at 
Llanthony, 

[OuL Letters and Papers, TTonry VTTI; Cal. 
Stato PaperH, Dom. 1547-80, Kor. 1547-^" 
Irish ir>0-7r>, nticl Carow MHS, vol. i.; Cul, 
Fiarits, Irdimd, Kliz.; llwt. MSH. Oonmi. 15th 
Hop. App, iii. piiHHim; ActN of tho Privy Oowicil, 
od. Diincnt; LascolloH'H Libwr Mnnoruru Uil>, * 
Lit. Uomaiiw of Kthvard VJ (lloxlmr^ho Club) ; 
"VVriothoslov'tj Chron. ; Chron. Quotm ,Innt^ and 
Mnehyn'H DiaryjJJumdnn Hoc.); ()<K Hot. Mnm 
bewof Parl.; Visitation of (31<mcoHl.orHhiro, 10U3 
(Harl.Soc.); Bagwell's Iroland nndor Mu-iTudorH, 
vol. ii,; Froudo'a IT int. of Knpflmul ; Hurko's 
Landed Oontry ; Notos and liuoriew. Till HOP. vi 
287, 394. J " 



, TITOWTAR (182 1900), pro- 
of MnglinU literature, wwnul HOJI of 
Dr. Thomiw Arnold (\ t v.'| of Itugby, atul 
younger brother of IV atthmv Arnold' fq, v. 
^ u I ) P^i was bom at Lahdiam, StaincM, on 
t'iO Nov. 1H&J, Likn IUH brother Matt.how 
ho was privately tiaught by Herbert Hill, a 
cousin of Itohort Houthny,' and thcui, afUu' a 
vear at WiiuihtjNtor (is;m7), was entered afc 
-iug-by, where hi.s luunte.r wan ,Iainw IVinco 
Loo. Tho vacations wore npeitt at Kox How 
in "WoHtnjontlrtml, aiul Arnold had a ol(ar 
rccollod.ion of Sonthey unil of WortlnwoHh 
at Uydal Mount, rooiVm^ tho onnol, that 
h hud junt compoHl, * M (luu'e no nook of 
Knglinh ground Hoc.nroH' llo wan ide(;ku,l 
to a HcholarHliip at UnivorMit.y (Jollign, Ox- 
ford, in 1^4^ matric.ulating on *2(\ Feb., 
graduated Jl.X IS45, M.A. )H5, and wan 
ontenul of Lincoln'fi Inn on & r > April 1RKJ. 
His <u>llego rooum w<*ro oppowito thono of 
Arthur Wtanliiv, and anmall dnbatmg Moointy, 
'Th ( I)oa(l<v 'brouprhfc him hito iulimato 
rolationH with Stanloy, Jowett, Whnirp, and 
Olough. Ho intst (Jlough near Looh N(s in 
the long vacation of 1H-I7, nnd HUppli(Hl tho 
poet with one or two of the i neulontH forming 
the Hta]jlo of hiw* liot-hio ofTober-na- VnolicJi' 
(in which pawn ho liimsolf HjfiiroH wit.h 
littlo concealment, an * Philip'). AI tho Himm 
year ho aecunUul ^a olorkBhip in tho colonial 
ollico, hut lie d it, for a lew luont-lw only, tor in. 
November 1847 ho took a cabin puduago to 



Arnold 



77 



Arnold 



Wellington, New Zealand. During the sum- 
mer of 1848 he attempted to start- a small 
farm 011 a clearing in the Makara Valley, two 
sections of which had been purchased by his 
father; but this scheme proved abortive, and 
early in 1849 he started a school at Fort Hill, 
near Nelson. Plis chief friend in New Zea- 
land was Alfred Domett [q. v.] (Browning's 
'Waring'), through whom he was offered, 
but refused, a private secretaryship to Gover- 
nor (Sir) George Grey. His emoluments at 
Nelson were small, and he was smarting 
under a certain sense of failure when in 
October 1849 he received a letter from Sir 
William Denison offering him the post of 
inspector of schools in Tasmania, which he 
gladly accepted. He performed the duties 
without intermission for six years and a 
half from January 1850. At Hobart Town, 
where his headquarters were, he married on 
13 June 1850 Julia, daughter of William 
Sorell, registrar of deeds in Hobart, and 
granddaughter of Colonel Sorell, a former 
governor of the colony. His life at the Nor- 
mal School in Ilobarfc was uneventful dur- 
ing the next few years, but his mind was 
oscillating upon religious questions, and in 
January 1850 he was received into the Ro- 
man catholic church by Bishop Willson of 
Hobart. This step incensed many of the 
colonists, and Arnold was glad to accept 
eighteen months' leave of absence ; he sailed 
for England with his wife and three chil- 
dren in July, doubling Cape Horn in a small 
barque of four hundred tons, and arriving at 
London in October. A few months later he 
was asked by Newman to go to Dublin, 
with a prospect of employment as professor 
of English literature at the contemplated 
catholic university. While there, between 
1856 and 1802, lie gradually put together 
his useful * Manual of English Literature, 
Historical and Critical ' (1862 ; a work con- 
siderably improved in successive editions, of 
which the seventh, preface dated Dublin, 
December 1896, is the last). Newman re- 
signed the rectorship of the university in 
1858, and in January 1862 Arnold followed 
him to Edgbaston, accenting the post of first 
classical master in the Jirmingham Oratory 
SchooL About this time he made the ac- 
quaintance of Lord Acton, and wrote seve- 
ral articles in his review, the ' Home and 
Foreign.' 

Early in 1865 Arnold's growing liberalism 
began to alienate him from the oratorians. 
Newman would not allow one of his boys to 
receive Dollinger's ' The Church and" the 
Churches/ which Arnold had selected for a 
prize, Tlais convinced him that his ' con- 
n'ection with the Oratory was not likely to 



he prolonged/ and he thereupon left it and 
the church of Rome. After taking advice 
with Arthur Stanley, then canon o:' Canter- 
bury, he built a house (now Wycliffe Hall) 
in the Banbury Road, Oxford, and decided 
to take pupils there. He was candidate for 
the professorship of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford 
in 1876, but his election was prevented by 
the announcement that he had rejoined the 
church of Home. He now sold his house at 
Oxford, and after a brief interval resumed 
literary teaching in Dublin, He was elected 
fellow of the Royal University of Ireland in 
188:2, his status being improved by his ap- 
pointment as professor of English language 
and literature in the University College, St. 
Stephen's Green. His later life was unevent- 
ful, After 18S7 he settled exclusively in 
Ireland, and he made pilgrimages in 189Sto 
the shrine of St. Erigit at Upsjua in Sweden, 
visiting at the same time the scene of the 
main action of Beowulf, about Rb'skilde, and 
in 1S99 to Rome. Early in 1900 he brought 
out an autobiographical volume entitled 
'Passages in a Vandering Life; ' he writes 
in an agreeable style of a life of which he 
laments, with needless bitterness, that the 
greater -mrt had been ' restless and unprofit- 
able.' lie died at Dublin on 12 Nov. 1900, 
and was buried in Glasnevin cemetery, leav- 
ing several children, the eldest of whom, 
born at Hobart in 1851, is the novelist, Mrs. 
Humphry Ward. After the death of his 
first wife in 1888 he married, in 1890, Jose- 
phine, daughter of James Benison of Slieve 
I-ia^se!!, co. Cavan. 

Besides his well-known * Manual of Eng- 
lish Literature/ Arnold wrote ' Chaucer to 
Wordsworth: a Short Jiistory of English 
Literature to the present day' (London, 
1868, a vols. 12mo; 2nd ed, 1875). His 
editions of English classics are numerous 
and valuable. They include: 1. 'Select 
English Works of John Wycliffe from Ori- 
ginal Manuscripts/ 1809-71, 3 vols. 8vo. 
2, ' Beowulf: an Heroic Poem of the Ei ^hth 
Century, with a Translation/ 1876. 3. Eng- 
lish Poetry and Prose, a Collection of 
Illustrative Passages, 1596-1832, witli Notes 
and Indexes/ 1879 ; new ed. 1882. 4. 'The 
History of the English by Henry of Hunt- 
ingdon/ 1879. 5, 'The Historical Works 
of Symeon of Durham/ vols. i. and ii, The 
last two texts were edited for the Rolls 



A fine portrait of Thomas Arnold is pre- 
fixed to his autobiographical volume, show- 
ing his marked resemblance as an older 
man to his brother, Matthew Arnold. An 
excellent crayon likeness of him as a 
younger man, by Bishop Nixon of Tas- 



Arnould 



78 



Asaph 



mania, is in the possession of Miss Arnold 
of Fox How. 

[Arnold's Passages in a Wandering Life, 1900; 
Times, 13 Nov. 1900; Literature, 17 Nov. 1900; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon.; The Tablet, 17 Nov. 
1000; Men and Women of tho Time, 13th ed.; 
Matthew Arnold's Letters, 1894; Alii bone's Diet, 
of English Literature ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

ABNOULD, SIR JOSEPH (1814-1880), 
j udge of the high court of Bombay and author, 
eldest son of Joseph Arnould, M.D., was born 
at Camberwell on 12 Nov. 1814. His father 
was owner of White Cross in Berkshire, and 
deputy lieutenant of the county; the pro- 
perty eventually passed to Sir Joseph. Edu- 
cated at Charterhouse, he went to Oxford, 
where he was admitted at Waclham College 
on 4 Oct. 1831. He was Groodrid^o exhibi- 
tioner 1833, 1834, 1835, and Hocy (Greek) 
exhibitioner 1833 to 1835. In 1834 ho won 
the Newdigate prize for English verse, the 
subject being 'The Hospice of St, Bernard, 7 
This was recited by him on 11 June, whou 
the Duke of Wellihgton was installed chan- 
cellor of the university. Arnould thereupon 
interpolated two lines to the e fleet that he 
whom 

1 ... a "woi'ld could not subdue 

Bent to thy prowuus, chief of Waterloo 7 

(PvcitOFr, Oxford Mffmorif.8, ii. 4), Writ- 
ing to his wife, John Wilson Crokor, who 
was present, styled the verses * very good, 1 
adding that, after the last word had been 
spoken, the whole assembly started up, and 
*some people appeared to me to go out of 
their senses literally to go mad' (The 
Croker Pavers, ii. 928). 

Arnould graduated BA, on 18 May 1836, 
having taken, a first class. In 1840 \e was 
elected moderator of philosophy ; he became 
probationer fellow on 30 Juno 1838, and on 
..1 Jan. 1841 he cooned to bo a fellow owing 
to his marriage, and he removed his name on 
25 June 1841* He had been entered at tho 
Middle Temple on 10 Nov. 1836, and he was 
called to the bar on 19 Nov. 1841. For a 
time he shared chambers with Alfred Domett 
[q. v,J, the poet Browning's * Waring.' He 
practised as a special pleader, and went the 
aome circuit, lie became a contributor to 
Douglas Jerrold's ' Weekly Newspaper,' many 
of the verses on social questions being from his 
pen. H e was afterwards engaged as a leader- 
writer for the ' Daily News/ He continued 
to practise at the bar, and in 1848 he gave 
to the world a work in two volumes on the 
* Law of Marine Insurance and Average. 7 It 
was so well received as to be wnrinted at 
Boston, in America, two years later with 
some additions* * , 



In 1859 Arnould accepted at the hands of 
Lord Stanley, secretary of state for India, 
a seat on the bench of tho supreme court 
of Bombay, He was knightec on a Feb. 
1859, He was roappnintod to a like ollice 
in 1862, when the supreme court, wits con- 
verted into the hi^h court of judicature. 
He retired in 18(U, wlum tho 'natives of 
Bombay presented an address in praise of 
his services, and founded an Arnould scho- 
larship in their university to commemorate 
what -ie had dono to promote tho study of 
Mohammedan and Hindu law. A fruit of 
liia leisure after his return to England was 
the 'Memoir of tho first Lord Deimmn,' in 
two volumes, which was published in 1878. 

Arnould died at Florence on 1(5 Fob. 1886. 
lie was twice married: first, in 1811, to 
Maria, eldest daughter of II. G. Ridyewuy; 
and, secondly, in 18(50, to Ann Pitcuirn, 
daughter of Major Carnegie, CXB. 

[Private information ; FoNtw's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886; Lint of CartlniHiaiiH, p. 7; Gar- 



inpr'N RogiHtorH of Wmlhum College, it, 346, 
3-17; Timus, 18 Fob. 1880.] R. It. 

ASAPH, or, according to its Wolwh forms, 
ASBAF, AHHA, or AHA (Jl. 570), Wolnh saint, 
wius the^on of a North Wolwh prince named 
Sawyl (in old Wolwh, Hamuil) Kwiiaol, HOH 
of I'abo [q. v.] Tim opithot liunuml 
('of tho low hoa'd') applied to Pabo's son 
(sec Ilarhuun MS, .W>9 printed in Y Qym* 
mrodor, ix, 171), col. I), wiw changod in all 
tho lator gonaalogioR (oo Afi/tn/rfftn Arc/iaio~ 
fogy, 1870, ;>p. 415-7: lolo MtiK lOSi, 100) 
into^ Buucu(l ('of tho high houd '), thus 
confotind'ui^ Aflaph'w father with a Cilamor- 
gan chieftain of thonamo of Mawyl Bonuchd, 
who is doflcribod in th Welsh triadH as one 
of ' the thrco ovorb(jai*ing OUOH of Britain * 
(see remarks of Mr. KUHUTON i^iiLniMoun 
in Jty&GimW) tind 8<>r, i, 483-5)* The ganea- 
logicB alno roproHmt Anaph m nophw of 
Dunawd, fonndw of Bang-or THCood, and 
cousin of D(iniol, firflt bishop of Banker in 
Carnarvonshire (ef .lUHiNQ-GouLD, Liw* of 
Saints^ App. vol. 13(1). Ilia mother, tfwcm* 
ansedf was granddaughter of Ouncdda 
Wleclig, being the dau^.'itw of Rhun * Hael * 
(or th g(mtwoufi) of ,einuc (C(tmbn)~Krit> 
$8. 20ft) or, as ho in olwewhi^j (sallod, Ilhuf- 
awn of Khyfonio (lolo MS. 52S3), which 
was tli name of th cantrov in whieli St. 
Asaph is situated* lie hixniwlf wan probably 
a native of tlu* adjoining cantrov of Togimgl, 
which corr(sponcfl to tho wt^twrn half of 
tho^main portion of the modern FUatahiro, 
a district whore many pi aeon still bt*ar his 
namft, such as Llanaoa (his church), Pant- 
asaph (his hollow) near Holywell, Fiynnon 



Asaph 



79 



Aebseh 



Asa (his well) at Cwm, and Onen Asa (his 
ash-tree) (THOMAS, p. 5). 

The saint, who is said to have been * parti- 
cularly illustrious for his descent and beauty/ 
is first heard of in connection with the mis- 
sionary efforts of Oyndeyrn or Kenti^ern 
[q.v.], the exiled bishop of the northern 
JBritons of Strath Clyde, who about 560 
established a monastery at the confluence of 
the rivers Clwyd and Elwy in what is now 
Flintshire. The site may indeed have been 
selected owing to the cordial welcome which 
the house of Sawyl seems to have extended 
to Kentigern, as the person named Cadwallon, 
who invited Kentigern to the place (JoCELYN 
of Furness, Vita S. Kentigerni, c. 23), is 
probably to be identified with a nephew of 
Asaph and a grandson of Sawyl (,?HILLI- 
w QBE, loc. cit), Sawyl's own attachment to 
Christianity may also doubtless be inferred 
from his epithet of Benisel. Asaph himself 
became a disciple of the missionary, ' imita- 
ting him in all sanctity and abstinence,' and, 
according to the legend, succouring him on 
one occasion by carrying in his woollen habit 
some burning charcoal to warm his shivering 
master. On his return to Strath Clyde about 
570, Kentigern, who 'bore ever a special 
affection ' for Asaph, appointed him his suc- 
cessor. It is surmised that it was in Asaph's 
time that the monastery was elevated into a 
cathedral foundation, and that, though Ken- 
tigern was the founder of the monastery, 
Asaph was in fact the first bishop of the see. 
The name of Kentigern does not seem to 
have ever been associated with the nomen- 
clature of either cathedral or diocese, which, 
though originally known by the Welsh name 
of Llanelwy, has since about 1100 also borne 
the English name St. Asaph, both which 
names co-exist to the present day. * Bangor 
Assaf ' is also a name applied to the cathe- 
dral in one manuscript (lolo MS. 128), The 
old parish church of St. Asaph, however, 
consists of two equal and parallel aisles, 
known respectively as Eglwys Cyndeyrn and 
Eglwys Asa-)h, and in this respect served 
as the mode_ for most of the churches of 
the Vale of Clwyd. The dedication of this 
church and that of Llanasa (which is similar 
in form) is to St. Asaph in conjunction with 
St. Kentigern. 

The anniversary or wake of the saint used 
to be celebrated by a fair held at St. Asaph 
on 1 May, on which day he is believed to 
have died, probably about 596. He was 
buried, according to tradition, in the cathe- 
dral. He is said to have written a ' Life of 
St. Kentigern,' which, though not now extant, 
probably formed the basis of the life com- 
piled in 1125 by Jocelyn of Fatness (for 



which see Bishop FORBES'S Historians of 
Scotland, vol. V.-, PINKEKTOIT, Vitcs Antiq. 
SS. Scotia, 1789). A sayinf attributed to 
him has, however, survived 'Quicunque 
verbo Dei adversantur, salutihominum invi- 
dent ' (CAPGRAVE). Myn bagl Aasa' (' By 
Asaph's crosier') appears as a mediaeval oath 
(LEWIS GLYN- COTHI, p. 371). 

His well, Ffynnon Asa, in the parish of 
Cwm, is a natural spring of great volume, 
described as ' the second largest well in the 
principality. ' It was formerly supposed to 
'Lave "lealing powers, and down to some 
fifty years af o, if not later, persons bathed in 
it occasiona.ly. It is now chiefly noted 
for its trout (WM. DAVIES, Handbook for 
the Vale of 'Clwyd, 1856, pp. 185-6). At St. 
Asaph ' the schoolboys used to show . . . 
the print of St. Asaph's Horseshoe when he 
jumpt with him from Onnen Hassa (Asaph's 
Ash-tree), which is about two miles oft'' 
(WiLLis, Survey, ed. Edwards, 1801, ii. 11). 

[A fragmentary life of St. Asaph, compiled 
probably in the twelfth century from various 
sources of written and oral tradition, was for- 
merly preserved in a manuscript volume called 
Llyfr Coch, or the Red Book of Asaph, the ori- 
ginal of vhich has long been lost; but there 
exist two co Dies of portions of the volume, at 
Peniarth anc in the bishop's library respectively 
(as to the latter see Arch. Cambr. 3rd ser. xiv. 
442). See also Life of St. Kentigern, nt snpra ; 
Acta Sanctorum, Mail, i. 82 ; Baring-GtouldPs 
Lives of the Saints, 1897, vol. for May, p. 17,cf. 
January, p. 187, and App. vol. 136, 171-2; 
D. R Thomas's History of the Diocese of St. 
Asaph, 1874, pp. 1-6, 61, 179, 219, 271-3, 287, 
292; Rees's Cambro-British Saints, pp. 266 t 
593 ; Rice Rees's Welsh Saints, p. 268 ; informa- 
tion kindly supplied by the Rev. J. Fisher, BJX 
of Ruthin, from notes for his projected Lives of 
Welsh Saints.] D. la, T. 

ASHBEE, HENRY SPENCER (1834- 
1900), bibliographer, the son of Robert and 
Frances Ashbee (bom Spencer), born in 
London on 21 April 1834, was apprenticed 
in youth to the large firm of Copestake's, 
Manchester warehousemen, in Bow Church- 
yard and Star Court, for whom he travelled 
for many years. Subsequently he founded 
and became senior partner in the London 
firm of Charlet Lavy & Co., of Coleman 
Street, merchants, the parent house of which 
was in Hambur . At Hamburg- he married 
Miss Lavy, and about 1868 organised an 
important branch of the business at Paris 
(Rue des Jeuneurs), where he thenceforth 
spent much time, Having amassed a hand- 
some fortune he devoted his leisure to travel, 
bibliography, and book collecting. He com- 
piled the finest Oervantic library out of Spain, 



Ashbee 



Ashe 



and perhaps the finest private library of the 
kind anywhere, if that of Sonor Eonsoins at 
Barcelona be excepted. He indulged in 
extra-illustrated books, the ;jem of ais col 1 
lection being a Nichols's 'Literary Anec- 
dotes,' extended from nine to forty-two 
volumes by the addition of some live thou- 
sand extra plates; he possessed an extra- 
ordinary series of books fluatrated by Daniel 
Chodowiecld, the German Cruikshank ; and 
he formed an unrivalled assortment of 
Kruptadia. Of these he issued privately and 
under the pseudonym of ' Piwanus Fraxi, 7 
between 1877 and 1885, a very scarce and re- 
condite catalogue ' Notes on Curious and 
Uncommon Books' in three volumes, en- 
titled respectively 'Index Librorum Prohi- 
bitorum ' (London, 1877, 4t;o), 'Conliiria 
Librorum Absconditorum' (1879), and 
'Catena Librorum Tacendovum' (1885), In- 
troductory remarks and au index accom- 
pany eacn volume. Nearly all the books 
described are of the rarest possible occur- 
rence. Not only is the work the first of 
its kind in England, but aa a pfiiide to tho 
arcana of the subject it far excels the bettor 
known 'Bibliographic des principaux 
otivrages relatlfs *\ 1'amour ' ( 1 Jrnssels, 1 8( M , 
6 vohO of .Tubs Gay. Tho bulk of AshluuAs 
Cervantic literature, early editions of Mo- 
liore and Le Sago, and other rare books to 
the number of "8,704 (in ir>,299 volumes) 
were bequeathed upon his death to tho Bri- 
tish Museum, where they will be marked by 
a distinctive bookplate. 

Ashbtie was the joint author with Mr. 
Alexander Graham of * Travels in Tunisia' 
(TVmw, 10 Aug. 1888), and in 1880 ho 
brought out his* f Bibliography of the Bar- 
bary States Tunisia,' a model, like all his 
bibliographical compilations, of thorough 
and conscientious work. In 1890, as a 
member of a small * 3oci6t6 des Amis do 
Livres,' he contributed * The Distribution of 
Prospectuses ' to ' Paris qui orio/ a Biiraptu- 
ous little volume, with coloured plates de~ 
signed by Paul Vidal (Paris, 1890, 120 
copies'), and in the following year he con- 
tributed a paper on * Marat on Anglotorre ' 
to'LeLivre' of his friend Octave Uasanno 
(this was also printed separately). In 1895 
was issued by the Bibliographical Society 
of London the fruit of Ashbee's labour (if 
many years, 'An Iconography of Bon 
Quixote, 1605*1895* (London, 8vo, with 
twenty-four very fine illustrative engrav- 
ings ; the first sketch of this had appeared 
in the ' Transactions of the Bibliographical 
Society' for 1893). Subsequent to tais, as 
liia dilettantism grew pore and more rev 
fined, he was contemplating a most elaborate 



bibliography of every fragment, of printed 
matter written in the "French language by 
Englishmen, Ashboo was a corresponding 
member of the Hoyal Academy of Madrid, 
and an original member of tho Bibliophiles 
Contemporains and of tho Bibliographical 
Society of .London. ITe contributed oeea- 
sionally to ' Notew and ( v ),neries ' from 1877 
onwards, mainly on Cervantie matters* and 
as lato as ii8 April UHK) he addressee! the 
1 loyal Society of British Artists upon his 
favourite subject of M)on (juixoU*.' llo 
divided most of his time between European 
travel (ho was an exeellent Iw^uiHOand his 
houye in Bloomslmry (latterly in KedlVml 
Square); he died, a^ed (>(>, on l!9 July 11)00 
at hiH recently acquired country Heat of 
Fowler's Park, navvkhurst. 1 1 is 'hotly was 
cremated and the anhoH interred in tho 
family vault at Kcn&il Ureen, lie was 
survived by a widow, an only son, and 
three (laughters. In addition to hi.s be(|uest 
to tho Britisb Muwiiun, 1m bequeathed to 
tho South Kensington (Victoria and Albert) 
Museum a collection wlueh comprises ifoi 
works, mainly wutor-colour drawings, in- 
cliuling early works by Turmn 1 , Houington, 
Prout, Oattemmle, 0(5 Winl, (Joxens, Duvitl 
Cox, William Hunt, and John Varley, llo 
bequeathed to tho National (lallery a fmo 
Lm<lsea*>e (' llivor seeno wit.h ruitis') by 
Itu'-harc Wilson [q, v.\ mid J\Ii\ W. P. 
Frith's ' Uncln Toby and Widow Waduian/ 
A water-colour <imwing by Sir James 1). 
Linton of ,*A (b k nthnnnn seated in his 
Library ' was a portrait of Ashbeo; it was 
sold at (^hristitj's on W) March 11)01. 



[Timofl, 1 Axig, 1000; Atlh'iiwum, 4 AUJX 
1900; NotoH aud Uuer'uw, 7th nf*r, ix. 80, lot), 
Oth Kpr. vi, 12'2; StaaUard, 9 Nov. 1900; pri- 
vate information; Itrit. MUH. Out 1 .] T. M. 

ASHE, THOMAW ( 1 8 -1 880), -)oot, 
wan born at. Stoekpovt, (.-hoHhiro, in "H)J(i. 
His fathor* John Asb (//. 1 87!) j, originally 
a Mnncho^tor mimufacturtr and an amateur 
artist, msolvwl late in lifts to tiiku holy 
orders, WUH ^repanul for ordination by hiH 
own son, and hecumQ viar of St., Pauffl at 
Orewo in IttCJO, Thomas WUH oduttattul at 
Rtockport ppriunraar school and St, plohn'n 
College, Oamhrulffo, where }w tsnterod aa 
a Hwar in 1855 and pfradtuite.d B.A, HH nonior 
Optimo in 1M59, llo to')k up KchobiHtic 
work in Poterboroug'h, wan ordained deacon 
in 1859 and prkst in IMO; at KiwterlWJO 
ho became curaio of Silvnrntoni^ North- 
Araptonwliiro. Uufc cltirinil work proved 
distasteful, a ( id ho p^ave himself entirely to 
schoolmaHti^rinp! 1 , In lHfi5 ho benune inatho- 
inatical ami modem form master at Learning* 



Askham 



81 



Astley 



ton College, whence he moved to a similar 
post at Queen Elizabeth's school, Ipswich. 
He remained there nine years. After two 
years in Paris he finally settled in London 
in 1881. Here he was engaged in editing 
Coleridge's works. The poems appeared in 
the ' Aldine Series ' of poets in 1885. Three 
volumes of prose were published in Bohn's 
'Standard Library;' 'Lectures and Notes 
on Shakspere-' in 1883, 'Table Talk and 
Omniana ' in 1884, and * Miscellanies, /Es- 
thetic and Literary/ in 1885. Ashe died 
in London on 18 Dec. 1889, but was buried 
in St. James's churchyard, Sutton, Maccles- 
field : a portrait is given in the ' Illustrated 
London News' and in the 'Eagle 7 (xvi. 
109). 

Ashe was a poet of considerable charm. 
He wrote steadily from his college days to 
the end of his life ; but, although his powers 
were recognised by some of the literary 
journals, his poems failed entirely to gain 
the ear of his generation, A lack of vigour 
and concentration impairs the permanent 
value of his larger poems ; but tae best of 
his shorter lyrics have a charm and grace 
of their own which should kee^> them alive. 
One or two are quoted in . Ir. William 
"Watson's anthology, ' Lyric Love ' (* Golden 
Treasury Series '). His works are : I. l Poems,' 
1859, 8vo. 2. 'Pryope and other Poems/ 
1861, 8vo. 8. ' Pictures, and other Poems/ 
1865, Svo. 4. ' The Sorrows of Hypsbyle. 
A Poem/ 1867, Svo. 5, 'Edith, or love 
and Life in Cheshire. A Poem/ 1873, Svo. 
6. < Songs of a Year/ 1888, Svo. His work 
was collected in one volume in 'Poems' 
(complete edition), London, 1885, Svo. 

[A selection from Ashe's pootry is given in the 
Poets and tho Poetry of tlio Century, vol. vi. 
(A. H. Miles). It is mado by Mr. Havelock 
Ellis, who prefixes n-n Introduction, for which 
the facts were supplied l>y the poet hiraaolf. 
See also the same writer's article on Thomas 
Ashe's Poems in the Westminster Review, 1886 ; 
The PJagle (St. John's Coll. Cambr. Mag.), xvi. 
109-34; Croekford's Clerical Directory." 

jfc. B. 

ASKHAM, JOHN (1825-1894), poet, 
was born at Wellingborough, Northamp- 
tonshire, in a cottage just off the Market 
Street, adjoining 1 White Horse Yard, on 
25 July 1825. His father, John Askham, a 
native of Raunds in the same county, was 
a shoemaker, and his mother came from 
ICimbolton, The poet, who was the 
youngest of seven, received very little edu- 
cation, but was at WeUingborough Free 
School for about a year. Before he was ten 
he was put to work at his father's trade. He 
worked some time for Messrs. Singer, "but 

VOI. I. SUP. 



ultimately set up for himself. Amid in- 
cessant toil he found means to educate him- 
self, and his earliest publications give evi- 
dence of a cultivation much beyond that of 
his class. He composed his first verses at the 
age of twenty-five, and later contributed 
poems to local newspapers. He acted as 
librarian of the newly formed Literary In- 
stitute at Wellingborough before 1871, 
when he was elected a member of the first 
school board of the town. In 1874 he be- 
came school attendance officer and sanitary 
inspector of the local board of health. 

Askham published four volumes by sub- 
scription, and through one of his subscribers, 
George Ward Hunt [q. v,], he received a grant 
of 50 from the queen's bounty fund. His 
publications were entitled: 1.' Sonnets on the 
Months and other Poems/ 1863. 2. 'De- 
scriptive Poems, Miscellaneous Pieces and 
Miscellaneous Sonnets,' 1866. 3. 'Judith 
and other Poems, and a Centenary of Sonnets,' 
1868. 4. 'Poems and Sonnets,' 1875, 
5. ' Sketches in Prose and Verse/ 1893. 

Askham is a good example of the unedu- 
cated poet. He was especially fond of the 
sonnet. The fidelity of his nature poetry was 
remarkable when it is considered that, unlike 
his predecessor, John Clare (1793-1864) 
[q. v.], he had rare opportunities of enjoying- 
country life. In his later years he was ren- 
dered helpless by paralysis. Pie died at Clare 
Cottage, '"(VeUingborougli, on 58 Oct. 1894, 
and was buried on 1 Nov. in Wellingborougk 
cemetery. He was twice married. By the 
first wife (born Bonharn) he had three daugh- 
ters ; the second (born Cox) survived him. 

[Biographical Sketch (with portrait) prefixed 
to Sketches in Prose and Verse; obituary 
notifies in local papers (WeHingborough News, 
Northampton Mercury, &c., 2 Nov. 1894), and 
in Times, 29 Oct. 189i; Works (only 'Sonnets 
on the Months' is in the British Museum); 
private information. The Annual Register 
(ohit.) misirints the name and gives wrong 
date of deaL-i.] O. LB G. N. 

ASTLEY, Sm JOHN DUGDALE (1828- 
189-4), the sporting baronet, a descendant 
of Thomas de Astley, who was slain at 
Evesham in 1265, and of Sir Jacob Astley, 
lord Astley [q. v.~|, was the eldest son of 
Sir Francis Dugdale Astley (1805-1873), 
second baronet (of the 1821 creation), of 
Everleigh, near Marlborough, by Emma 
Dorothea (d. 1872), daughter of Sir Thomas 
Buckler Lethbridge. Born at Rome in a 
house on the Pincian Hill, on 19 Feb. 1828, 
John was educated at Winchester and Eton, 
and matriculated as a gentleman commoner 
at Christ Church, Oxford, on 4 June 1846. 
About a year later, by the pressing advice 



Astley 5 

of the dean, he went down from Oxford, 
heavily in debt, and in September 1847 was 
sent, to study tho French language at 01 arena 
in Switzerland, whore ho amused himself by 
shooting gelinottea on the mountains. 

In March 1848 he waa gazetted ensign of 
the Scots fusiliers, and for tho next few 
years his diary is full of his diversions in 
the shape of racing, cricket, boxing, punting, 
and running he himself being a first-rate 
sprinter at ".50 yards. In "1849 he travelled 
to Gibraltar overland by way of Seville, 
where he witnessed the commencement of 
a bull tight with disgust, and Madrid, 
where he endeavoured to get. up a running 
match. In February 1854 lie sailod for tho 
Crimea with his battalion in the Simoom, 
took an active part in the battle of the 
Alma, was rather severely wounded in the 
neck, and invalided home, In April 18*35 
he again volunteered for active service, and 
he givo.s a frankly humorous account of the 
conflicting motives that 'jromptwl him to 
take this step. He reac'iud Balaclava in 
May, was made a bro vet-major, and was 
relegated for the greater part of the time to 
hospital duty in the town. At .Balaclava 
he became celebrated as a promoter of sport 
throughout the three armies, French, Kug- 
liah, and Sardines, as he designates the 
Italian troops. On his return ho was pro- 
moted to a captaincy without examination, 
and subsequently became a Uout.unant- 
colonel on the retired list. TIo obtained 
the Crimean medal with two clasps and tho 
Turkish order of tho Medjidie. 

On 22 May 1858 Afltloy married Eleanor 
Blanche Mary, only child and heiress of 
Thomas GK Corbet (d. 18(18) of ISlsham 
Hall, Brigg, a well-known Lincolnshire 
squire. His wedding trip was on the point 
of coming to a premature conclusion at; 
Paris whim ho opportunely -won 1,500/. on 
the Liverpool Cup, Quitting the army in 
the following year, he began to devote him- 
self to racing, tho sport which ' in his heart 
ho always loved best/ and with which ho 
was chiefly identified, notwithstanding his 
fondness for hunting and shooting, and his 
pronounced predilections for tho oinder path 
and, tho priz ring, During the lifetime of 
his father-in-law, who had a horror of the 
tnrf, he raced under the borrowed name of 
Mr. S. Thellufison, training in Drowitt's 
stable at Lewes, whore he learnt by his own 
experience the difficult art. of "Hitting horses 
together, at which he obtameu a proficiency 
rare among -gentlemen. A real horse lover, 
and probab'.y one of the iinest judges of 
horseflesh in England, he took an intense 
interest in everything connected with the 



Astley 



stable, and know his animals with * tho 
intimacy of a tout or a trainer.' In 18(5<) 
he was chosen a member of tho Jockey Club. 
About the samo thno Drowitt retired from 
his profession, and Asfcloy thenceforth had 
horses with Jilanton, Jon hawwou, mid other 
woll-lmown trainors. Ho owned a number 
of good horses and won a grout many stakes, 
mainly of this lesser magnitude; ho also 
betted with tho greatest, freedom and pluck, 
and was never HO happy aw when making a 
match. With his usual candour ho admits 
that, ho originally took to bolting, aa ho 
subsequently took to anthorwhip, " for the 
nuDosoof 'diminishing tho doiioit ' at his 
ban-tors', fn all, during twenty-six years, 
he won by hotting ^8,0(iK/., but' ho did not 
put by his winnings, and at tho etui of that 
time was, ho informs us with frank com- 
posure, ' dead broke/ While tho turf re- 
mained his business anmsmnonti Astloy had 
still plenty of time to devote to other forms 
of sport. JIo describes tho Say era and 
lleonan prize light of 17 April 18(50 with 
the gusto of a^eoimoissour, and ho moralises 
in an impressive way upon 1.1m degeneracy 
of later gladiators, whose exhibitions he 
niWH'tholess continued to patronise until tho 
end of his life. In 1875 hn made the ac- 
quaintance of Captain WoM>, the Channel 
hero, ami arranged several swimming tour- 
naments for his bnnotit. Tn April 1877 ho 
matched M. 1*. Wont on, tho celebrated Ame- 
rican pedestrian, against. Dan O'Loary in a 
walking match of l-l^ hours for 500/, a wide. 
O'Loary won, as ho admiringly records, by 
ahtntt ;)luck, covering fteO miles in tho 
allottee time, and boating VYVslon by ten 
miles, llo arranged a number of similar 
contests, and was bandy recouped by tho 
gato money. 

Aslloy sucwodod to the baronetcy on 
M July 1 87:5 ; ho became a J. P. for Lincoln- 
shire and Wiltshire, and in 1871 lie was 
returned to parliament, for North Lincoln- 
shire in. tho conservative interest., but, lost 
his Heat in the general election of 1880, 
lie died at 7 Park Place, Ml* James's Street, 
on 10 Oct. 18iM, and was buried on 1(J OeU 
at KLslmm, his death evoking expressioim of 
regret from the whole sporting community 
in England. lie loft issue -Sir 'Francis 
Kdmund (loorge AHlloy- Corbet, the fourth 
and present baronet, three other HOIIH, and 
four daugh torn. 

Sir John A at ley published a fow months 
before Inn death ' Fifty Ywirn of iny JLifo in 
the World of Sport at Homo and Abroad' 
(London, vols, Hvo), -which contains four 
portraits of 'The Matt*,' as Antley was 
JLUOWU among' his iiHwociata, and wan dudi- 



Atkinson 



Atkinson 



cated by permission to the Prince of Wales 
(afterwards Edward VII). "Written in a 
breezy style, abounding in slang, these me- 
mories disarm the critic by their frankness 
no less than by the complete sans gene of 
the narrator, whose gambling propensity 
appears throughout as indomitable as his 
p.uck. The book went rapidly through 
three editions, and was described by the 
' Saturday Review J as ' the sporting memoir 
of the century.' 

[Times, 16 and 17 Oct. 1894 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886; Burke's Peerage; Debrett's 
Baronetaae: Saturday Keview, 9 June 1894; 
Field, 20 Oct. 1894 ; Land and Waiter, 20 Oct. 
1894= ; Astley's Fifty Years of my Life, 1894.] 

T. S. 

ATKINSON", SIB HARRY (1831- 
1892), prime minister of New Zealand, whose 
full name was Henry Albert Atkinson, was 
born at Chester in 1831. Educated at Ro- 
chester school and at Blackheath, he emi- 
grated to Taranaki, New Zealand, in 1855. 
He settled as a farmer at Har worth, about 
four miles from the town of New Plymouth, 
and at the outbreak of the Waitara war in 
1860 was elected captain of a company of 
Taranaki volunteers, winning distinction at 
the engagements of Waireka and Mahoe- 
tahi, jYom 1863 to 1864: he commanded 
the Taranaki Forest Rangers, a body of bush 
scouts and riflemen which has been de- 
scribed as the worst dressed and most effec- 
tive corps the colony ever possessed. In the 
opinion both of the men he led and of com- 
petent onlookers, Major Atkinson's prudence, 
'^raverjr, and untiring energy placed him 
very high among the officers who had to 
overcome the peculiar and very great diffi- 
culties of New Zealand bush warfare. At 
the end of 1864 he became minister of de- 
fence in the cabinet of Sir Frederick Aloy- 
tsius Weld [q. v.] and urged the adoption of 
the ' self-reliance policy ' with which Weld's 
name is identified. This was that the im- 
perial troops, of which ten thousand had 
"Deen engaged in the war for each unit of 
whom the colonists were paying 40J. a year 
should be dispensed with, and the de- 
fence of the settlers entirely entrusted to the 
militia and volunteers. Gradually this was 
done, but the Weld ministry was put out of 
office in October 1865, and from 1868 to 
1873 Major Atkinson did not sit in parlia- 
ment. It was in the two years' struggle 
(1874-6) between centralism and provin- 
cialism, which ended in the abolition of the 
provinces into which New Zealand had 
r ;>een divided, that his energies brought 
Major Atkinson into the front rank of the 
colony's politicians. Though neither emo- 



tional nor graceful as a speaker, he was per- 
haps the most effective debater of his day in 
the House of Representatives, where his com- 
mand of facts and figures, clear incisive 
style, and bold straight-hitting methods 
made him feared as we J. as respected. Three 
times prime minister (in 1876-7, in 1883-4, 
and in 1887-91) and four times colonial trea- 
surer (in 1875-6, in 1876-7, in 1879-83, and 
in 1887-91), he was from 1874 to 1890 the 
protagonist of the conservative party. In 
addition to the abolition of the provinces he 
did away with the Ballance land tax in 
1879 [see BALLANCE, JOHN, Suppl.], imposed 
a property tax, raised the customs duties in 
1879 and 1888, and gave them a quasi-pro- 
tectionist character, greatly diminished the 
public expenditure in the same years, and in 
_887 reduced the size of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and the pay of minister members 
of parliament. He advocated compulsory 
assurance as a provision for old age, and the 
perpetual leasing instead of the sale of crown 
'lands. In 1888 he was created KC.M.G. 
In 1890 his health broke down ; on the fall 
of his last ministry, in January 1891, he be- 
came speaker of the legislative council ; on 
^11 June 1892 he died very suddenly of heart 
disease in the speaker's room of the council 
chamber. Though not well known outside 
New Zealand, his name is held in high esteem 
there as that of a brave and energetic colo- 
nist, a clear-headed practical jjolitician, and 
a sagacious leader in difficult times. 

lie was twice married : by his first wife he 
had three sons and a daughter ; by his second, 
two sons and a daughter. 

[Gisborne's "New Zealand Rulers and States- 
men (1840-1897), 1897; Grace's Recollections 
of the New Zealand War, 1891) ; Rusdeii's JUisf.. 
of New Zealand, Melbourne, 1896; Keeves's 
Long White Cloud, 1899; Mennell's Diet, of 
Australasian Biography; New Zealand news- 
papers, 28 June 1892.] W. P. R. 

ATKINSON, JOHN CHRISTOPHER 
(1814-1900), author and antiquary, born in 
1814 at Goldhanger in Essex, where his 
father was then curate, was the son of John 
Atkinson and the grandson of Christopher 
Atkinson (d. 13 March 1795), fellow of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He was educated 
at Kelvedon in Essex, and admitted as a 
sizar to St. John's College, Cambridge, on 
2 May 1834, graduating B.A. in 1838. He 
was ordained deacon in 1841 as curate of 
Brockhampton in Herefordshire, and priest 
in 1842. 2le afterwards held a curacy in 
Scarborough. In 1847 he became domestic 
chaplaiii to Sir William Henry Dawn ay, 
seventh viscount Downe, who in the same 



Atkinson 



Atkinson 



year presented him to the vicarage of Danby 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire, which he 
held till his death. 

Atkinson was an ideal antir uary , endowed 
with a love of nature as wcL a.s a taste for 
study. Ills pariah was in the rudest part of 
Yorkshire, and on his arrival he found that 
clerical duties had "been almost neglected. 
He set himself to learn the history of his 
parish cure and to gain the friendship of 
Iiis -parishioners, and in hoth objects he suc- 
ceeded. By constant intercourse with the 
people he acquired a unique knowledge of 
local legends and customs. In 1867 he pro- 
pared for the Philological Society i A Glossary 
of the Dialect of the Hundred of Lonsdalo/ 
which was published in tho society's * Trans- 
actions, 7 This was followed next yoar by 
' A. Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect' (Lon- 
don, 4to), to which, at tlie instance of the 
English Dialect Society, ho made 'Additions' 
in 187(1 In 1H72 he published tho first 
volume of 'The History of Cleveland, Ancient 
and Modem/ London, -4to. A fni^nuinl, of 
the second volume appeared in 1M77, but it 
was not completed, 'fy far his best known 
work, however, was (,ho (shunning collection 
of local legends and Iraditiona which he pub- 
lished in 1801, with the title 'Forty Yoara 
in a Moorland Parish.' This work, which 
reached a second edition in the same yoar, 
has been compared to Gilbert White's ' Natu- 
ral History of Selborno/ and "wrhaps Ht.il L 
more closely resombloB Hugh ML'lor's ' Scenes 
and Legends of tho Nortlfof Scotland/ Be- 
sides these more Hurloas compilations Atkiu- 
son was the author of several delightful 
books for children. In 18.S7 ho received tho 
honorary degree of D.O.L. from Durham 
University, and in 1801 ho waa installed in 
tho proboncl of Holme in York Cathedral. 
In 1808 lie received a grant of 100/. a year 
from tho civil liat. 

Atkinson died at Tho Vicarage, Danny, on 
31 March HK)0. llo WUR thrive married: 
first, at. Scarborough on 11 Dec. 1KI9, to 
Jane Hill (<LZ April 1800), oldoat daughter 
of John Hill Coulaon, of Scarborough ; 
secondly, on 1 Fob, 1 802, at Promo Sol wood, 
to Goorgma Mary, eldest daughter of Barlow 
Slade of North 1 louse, Frorao; and thirdly, 
on 28 April 1884 at Amoliff elmrch, to 
Helen Georgina, eldest daughter of Douglas 
]&own,Q,. p., of A.rncliirilall, Northallorton. 
He had thirteen children, Besides tho works 
already mentioned he was the author of: 
1. 'The Walks, Talks, Travels, and Exploits 
of two Schoolboys,' London, 1859, 1 iJmo; new 
edit. 1892. 2. 'Play-hourRandllalt-holidaya; 
or, Further Exioriencoa of two Bchool* 
boya' London, 18UO, ,8vo; new edit. 189:2. 



3. 'Sketches in Natural Tlistory; with an 
Essay on Reason and InslinK/ London, 18(>1 T 
llimo; tunv odit. 1N(W>. 4. t JVitisli .Hirda' 
EggH and N(\sl,,4 popularly d(>ar.ribod,' Lon- 
don, J801, 8vo; nc'.w odit. JHOS. r>. < Htanton 
Oh-ango; or, A.t a I*nvat^ TutorV/ London, 
181U, Svo. (>, ' Lost; or What cauio of a 
Slip from "Honour Bright,,' 1 ' London, "IH70 
12mo. 7. 'Tho Liwl.of llio ( iiant, KilloiV Lon- 
don, ISOl, 8vo; no.w <ulit. IMj);i, N. SSconas 
iuFairy-land/ London, lHl)2,8vo. ll(*. tulitnd: 
I. ' Oartularium Abbatlnin do W hi toby' 
(Surtotvs So.), I H7D, 2 vols. Hvo. L>. ' QuartW 
Sosaiona Ilocordrt 1 (North. Riding 1 Record 
Hoc..), IHHJi-na, volH. Kvo. :j. ' Lonwlftle 
Olosaary: KnriuiHHOoiu'.lior Ho(lc' ((/hotliam 
Hw.), l8S(i-7, o vols. -Ito. -t, * Hartnlarmm 
Abbalhiin do Ri(vall(.' (SnrtdOH Soe.), IHK9, 
Svo. Jl(^ also c.ontnbutod many pnporft to 
various archnolo|j;it*al Hoci(^t.i<^ f and in 1872 
Wedgwood (q. v,|tortv 
ol' Mnfyliuli .Mt.yiuolo/ 



vise his ' l)i<il,ionary ol' 

fTinuH, ?> Api-il 1 .)()(); Alhoimim, 7 Anvil 
01); (Juanlisui, U April 1 il)0; Tho \h\g\ $ 
' 



1901) 



Mu and Womou of 
tho Tiling 1HO,">; Smuhiy MM^. I (SIM, ]>p, U;U 
120; Siijiplcnictil. t.o AJlilnmn'M Did, of Kngl, 
Lit.,; Or<n:)vl\)iHr,s Clerical I)ini'l.| E. 1. 0. 

ATKINSON, THOMAS W1TLAM 
(1709 -18(U ), at'chil,<u'X and trav'llw, WJIB 
born of hunibl(*pan i nta^oa.t(.'awthonu, York- 
shire, on March 17UU, and rcmivtnl a Hcanty 
odiufal.ion at, tho villn^o Mc.hool, Loft; an 
orphan wlnti u c-bild, ho Ix^an to otirn hiw 
own living at tho ag'n of ei^'ht, fivHt on a 
fttrm, thoti as a brir, Mayor's labourer and 
quarry man, and Huhsrqmmtly in a fltono- 
maHon 1 H yard. Uy thn I hue ho \vaHtwonty lus 
wan a fcitonu-carvor, and in that ca]mci1.y i*xe- 
cutod Hoioj4'o)d work on chim'Jionat IturnH* 
Icy, AMhtDn-iindor-Lynoj and i i lnnwhori, At 
the* liiHli-tuuncd town h<^ HiMtlt'd Torn, whilo 
as a tiMioIu.T of drawing. About thin liino 
ho devoted hiuiMulf to tho Htudy of <ioUii 
architecture, and in IS'JO pulilinliiMl a (olio 
volume entitled ' (loiliic OrmunentM 
from the, rlille.vont MaMu'dralH Hml 
in England,* In 18 y J7 IMS went to London, 
and established himweli' an an are.hitedi in 
Upper Stamforcl Street, IXlattklYiarH, Anion^ 
his works at t hiw time wan tho church of St. 
Nicholas, at Low*r Tooting, (ipecltnl about 
IHJJL A little later he obtained many im 
portant o,ommiHsionH in tho neij^libourhood 
of Manchester, including the M uncheHt.or and 
Liv(ir,)ool 1 )irttrit. Bank in Spring 1 Uardenw, 
in 1B):4, About I W> Iw removed to Man- 
chester, whores he bf^an bin ])pinchal work 
aw anarcliitec,t,Si. Luko'H ehurt!h,(-he.etham 
Hill This building, designed in a modilied 



Atkinson 



Atlay 



perpendicular style, together with his Italian 
villas ^and other structures, had a marked 
effect in improving the architectural taste of 
the district. He remained at Manchester 
until 1840, after experiencing some reverses, 
owing probably to a too liberal expenditure 
on wor-is of art. 

Returning to London Atkinson was not 
more fortunate, and in 1842 he went to 
Hamburg, then to Berlin, and lastly to St. 
Petersburg T where he abandoned architec- 
ture as a profession for the pursuits of a 
traveller and artist. This was in 1846, about 
which period he seems to have visited Egypt 
and Greece. By the advice of Alexander 
von Hurnboldt he turned his attention to 
Oriental Russia, and, being furnished with 
every facility by the Russian government, 
including a blank passport from Emperor 
Nicholas, he set out in February 1848 on 
his long journey, accompanied by his newly 
married wife. His travels extended over 
39,500 miles, and occupied him until the 
end of 1853. Plis avowed object in this 
expedition was to sketch the scenery of 
Siberia, and he brought back many hundreds 
of clever water-colour drawings, some of 
them five or six feet square, and most valu- 
able as representations of places hitherto un- 
known to Europeans. He kept journals of 
his explorations, which were written with 
much power and freshness. On his return 
to England he published them with some 
amplifications. The first volume was en- 
titled 'Oriental and Western Siberia: a 
Narrative of Seven Tears' Explorations and 
Adventures in Siberia, Mongolia, the Kirghis 
Steppes, Chinese Tartary, and part of Cen- 
tral Asia. "With a Map and numerous Il- 
lustrations/ London, 1858. There followed 
in 1800 a second volume called ' Travels in 
the Regions of the Upper and Lower A moor 
and the Russian Acquisitions on the Con- 
fines of India and China/ London, 1860. 
This work was highly praised by the ' Athe- 
naeum' on its publication, but its autheiir 
ticity was subsequently questioned. Doubts 
were raised whether Atkinson had perso- 
nally travelled on the Amur, and the book 
was shown to be in the main a plagiarism 
of Maack's work on the same topic published 
in St. Petersburg in 1859' (Athenaum, 
9 Sept. 1899). Meanwhile in 1858 Atkinson 
read a paper before the British Association 
' On the Volcanoes of Central Asia.' In the 
same year he was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society, and in 1859 a 
fellow of tie Geological Society. To the 
' Proceedings ' of the former body he contri- 
buted in 1859 a paper on a ' Journey through 
some of the highest Passes in the Ala-tu and 



Ac-tu Mountains in Chinese Tartary/ and 
in the < Journal ' of the Geological Society in 
1860 he wrote ' On some Bronze Relics found 
in an Auriferous Sand in Siberia.' 

Atkinson in person was the type of an 
artistic traveller, thin, lithe, and sinewy, 
' with a wrist like a rock and an eye like a 
poet's; manner singularly gentle, and air 
which mingled entreaty with command.' 

He died at Lower Walmuer. Kent, OH 
13 Aug. 1861. 

He was twice married ; the second time, 
in 1847, to an English governess at St. 
Petersburg-. ^ She wrote an interesting ac- 
count of the journeys she took with her huy- 
band, entitled Recollections of the Tartar 
Steppes and their Inhabitants/ London, 
1863. On 13 June that year she was 
granted a civil list pension of 100 One of 
j.is two surviving children, Emma Willsher 
Atkinson, wrote"' Memoirs of the Queens of 
Prussia/ 1858, and 'Extremes, a Novel/ 
1859. His son, John William Atkinson, 
who died on 3 April 1846, aged 23, was a 
marine painter. 

[Diet, of Architecture, i. 119; Athenaeum, 
24 Aug. 1861 ; Builder, 31 Aug. 1861, ^. 590; 
Proc. Royal Geogr. Soc. vi. 128 ; Boase's IVIodtirn 
English Biography, i. 104; Axon's Annals of 
Manchester; Royal Academy Catalogues, 1830- 

c f w. s. 



ATLAY, JAMES (1817-1894), bishop 
of Hereford, was the second son of 'the .Rev. 
Henry Atlay by his wife, Elizabeth Rayner 
Hovell. Born on 3 July 1817 at Wakerly 
in Northamptonshire, he was educated at 
Grantham and Oakham schools, and entered 
St. John's College, Cambridge, aj a founda- 
tion scholar in 1836. He was elected to a 
Bell university scholarship in 1837, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1840 as a senior optime and 
ninth classic. In 1842 he was elected to a 
fellowship, and he proceeded M.A, in 1848, 
B.D. in 1850, and D.D. in 1859. After being 
ordained deacon in 1842 and -Driest in the 
following year, lie held from 1~343 to 1846 
the curacy of Warsop in Nottinghamshire, 
and from 1847 to 1852 the vicarage of 
Madingley near Cambridge. In 1856 he 
was appointed Whitehall preacher, and in 
1858 and the following year was one of 
the select preachers before the university ; 
but it was by his work and influence as 
tutor of St. John's from 1846 to 1859 that 
he made a mark among his contemporaries 
which spread far beyond the walls of his 
own college. 

In 1859 the trustees of the advowson of 
Leeds elected Atlay as vicar in succession 
to Walter Farquhar Hook [q. y.] The out- 



Atlay 



86 



Attwood 



going incumbent had raised Leeds to tke 
position which it still occupies as the most 
important parochial cure iu the north of 
England, and Atlay carried on the work of 
liis "Kedeceseor with conspicuous success. 
His businesslike qualities won him the re- 
spect of a great mercantile community, and 
lus sincerity and earnestness of character 
proved irresistible to churchmen and non- 
conformists alike. He initiated a great 
scheme of church extension, and his organis- 
ing capacity made Leeds tlio best-worked 
parish in the kingdom. lie was appointed 
canon-residentiary at L'ipon in 1S(>1 ; in 
1867 he refused the bishopric of Calcutta, 
but in 1868 he accepted the oiler mado him 
by Disraeli, the prime minister, of the bishop- 
ric of Hereford in succession to Komi DicV 
son Ilampden [q. v.] 

Atlay brought to the miniagnmout of his 
diocese the same thoroughness which had 
marked his career at Leeds and Cambridge, 
llarely quitting it except, to attend the 
House of Lords or convocation, ho lived and 
died among his own pnoplu. .lie made a 
point of officiating 1 in every church of a wide 
though sparsely populated dioeese ; his grout 
parochial experience rendered him the trusted 
counsellor and guide of his clorgy ; his geni- 
ality and franknuHH, united to a thus presence, 
endeared him to all who were brouglit noar 
him, Archbishop Benson described him as 
' the most beautiful combination of entlm- 
siaam, manliness, and modesty.' A conser- 
vative in politics, he exorcised in convocation 
by his strong conimonsensc and sagacity an 
influence which was scarcely suflpoutftd o'ut of 
doors, and in 1880 Archbishop Benson selee.ted 
him as an assessor in the trial of JULshop King 
of Lincoln for alleged ritual offences At lay 
was a high churclimau of the old school, but 
he en'oyed tho respect of all parties in I ho 
charc,i, and the peace of his <liocoo WUR \m~ 
broken daring the stormiest ocdu-siastienl 
controversies, lie died on i24 Doc. 18!)4, 
after a long illness, and was buried in ' tlio 
ladye arbour ' under tho walls of his cathe- 
dral. 

Atlay was married in 18/30 to Frances 
Turner, daughter of Major William Martin 
of the East India Company's service, by 
whom he left a numero u s family. One of Ms 
sons, the Rev, George William Atlay, attached 
to the Universities'" Mission, to Central A frica, 
was murdered by natives on the shores of 
Lake Nyassa in August 1B95 ; another, 
Charles Cecil, died in March 1900 of wounds 
received at Wagon Hill, Ladysmitk, while 
serving in the imperial light horse. 

There are two portraits of Atlay: one by 
E, A. Fellowes Prynne (1882), the other by 



the Hon. Jolm Collier (189,'J). The latter 
was a presentation from 1 ho diocese, anil there 
is a replica of it in tho palacn at Hereford. 
There is also a fine ree.umbent o.lligy in 
Carrara marble in the north transept of 
Hereford cathedral, erected by public sub- 
scription. 

[Times, 25 Pea 1891 ; Loo<l Moroury, 25 Dec. 
1894; Chronicle of dantrrbury Convocation, 
JAibruary 1805; personal information.) 

,J. B. A. 

ATTWOOD, THOMAS ( 178:5 -IKfiO), po- 
litical reformer, horn a,t tluwno House, in 
tho parish of Ilalesowen, Worcestershire, on 
Oct. 17HI5, WU,H tho third won of Matl.hiart 
Attwood ( 17-l() 1S;-J(J), a, banker of JJinniny- 
ham, by his wile Ann (<-/, S ( )<*(,. I S.'M ), daii^ i- 
t<sr of ThotuuH Adams of Oak(mnrn Jlouso, 
Ilalesowen. Jli^ was educnUul at the ^nun- 
mar sc.hool a(. 1 InloHowiMi, and afl.(r\var<lH at 
that at "\VolvwImmplmi. ( )n leaving Hohool 
about 1HOO, h<^ ent.ored hJH lather's Twuik in 



.New Stnu^t, liimiin^hnin. On 9 Sept. I 
when a I^rwne.li invnsiou was ex^ecUul, hn 
wiis pfazeUod a captain in th(Uiirt, bal.laliou 
of the Jjoyal ninnin^hain volunteer infantry, 
and retained his commission till H Mafeh 
liS()5. In 1S(,)( he inarriiMl, and took up his 
residence at the Larc.luw, S )a,rkbrook, near 
IJirmiiifrhani, whence in [HI he rtiinoved 1<> 
tlio CrHC,(nt, Uirinin^ham, In October IH1 1 
ho was elected hi^'h bailiU' of Kinuingliaiu. 
In tlio following yoar \w first took a promi- 
nent part in public ail airs, liy ajjfiUUn^ for 
the repeal of tho onlens in 'council which 
restricted British trade with tho eonlinent 
and the United States. Attwood and 
Richard Wpoonor W(^n^ e.hnsen to re])r(*senti 
to government tho position of the manufae* 
turinff interest of the town, The orders 
were partially revoJuul iu June, and ou 
(5 Oct., IHliJ the artisarm of .Birmingham 
prostnite.d Attwood with a silver em in, 
acknowled^nn*nt of his services, fn 8ii.'i 
he fnnko vehemently against the renewal of 
the ^last India (Jtunpnny's dwrter, and, ]>ro- 
ceeding' to London, exerted himself to or^ 
paniso a ])arliamontnry opposition, A IMioupfh 
the charter wan wnowod, many of its con- 
ditions were modified, and tlio company's 
monopoly of trade was abolished, 

In 1815 or J.H10 Attwood first appealed 
to th "wblic on the sub'eet of the currency, 
which Became hen co fort 4 tliB cent-ral interest 
of his life. I To was opposed to the policy of 
govonmumt in reducing tho "n\]m\" currency 
whilo spticie was Bcarct*. In ais own woptls, 
' by limiting the amount of our iwmy ' tho 
government 'have limited our TOCMLIIR of ex* 
changing cowmoditicfl, and this #ivtifl the 
limit to consumptiou, and tho limit to con- 



Attwood 



Attwood 



mption gives the limit to production.' In 
16 he published his first currenc am- 



sum 

1816 e puse s rst currency pam 
phlet, 'Tae Remedy, or Thoughts on the 
Present Distress.' It reached a second edi- 
tion, and was followed in 1817 by 'Pro- 
sperity Restored, or Reflections on the Cause 
of the Public Distresses ' (London, 8vo), and 
by ' A Letter to Nicholas Vansittart on the 
Creation of Money, and on its Action upon 
National Prosperity/ in which he main- 
tained that ' the issue of money will create 
markets, and that it is upon the abundance 
or scarcity of money that the extent of all 
markets principally depends.' Attwood's 
arguments had some influence with Van- 
sittart, and Cobbett complained that in 1818, 
at the suggestion of Attwood, the chancellor 
of the exchequer ' caused bales of paper money 
to be poured forth as a remedy against the 
workin ;s of those evil-minded and designing 
men wao were urging the people on for par- 
liamentary reform.' His ' Prosperity Re- 
stored ' attracted the notice of Arthur Young 
(1741-1820) [q. v.], and a correspondence 
ensued, which terminated in the pu olication 
by Attwood of 'Observations on Currency, 
Population, and Pauperism, in Two Letters 
to_Arthur Young' (London, 1818, Svo). In 
this work he urged that 'every increase of 
the population carries with it the ample 
means of its own support ; at least so long 
as the circulating medium is kept equivalent 
to its purposes and as a single acre of land 
remains to be cultivated or improved in the 
country.' Animated by these principles 
Thomas Attwood and his brother Mattaias 
opposed Peel's bill in 1819 for the resump- 
tion of cash payments by the bank of Eng- 
land. In 1819 he published two letters of 
remonstrance addressed to the prime mini- 
ster, the Earl of Liverpool. 

In 1 830 Attwood, most of whose connec- 
tions were members of the tory party, de- 
finitely declared himself of opposite convic- 
tions by founding, on 25 Jan., the ' Birming- 
ham Political Union for the Protection of 
Public Rights.' The object of the Political 
Union was to secure the adequate represen- 
tation of the middle and lower classes in the 
House of Commons. Similar associations 
were rapidly formed all over the country, 
including the notable Northern Political 
Union, founded by Charles Attwood (1791- 
1875), Thomas's brother, at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, about 1830, These unions enthusias- 
tically supported Earl Grey's government 
during the passage of the reform bill. On 
3 Oct. 1831 an open-air meeting was con- 
vened upon Newhall Hill to protest against 
the rejection of the reform bil~ by the House 
of Lords A resolution, supported by a hun- 



dred thousand men, was massed and trans- 
mitted to Lord John Russe.1, who replied, in 
reference to the opposition in the House of 
Lords, 'It is impossible that the whisper of 
a faction should prevail against the voice of 
a nation/ The Birmingham Union was un- 
justly accused by the tory press of having 
sent emissaries to Bristol to organise the 
riots which took place there, and of having 
secretly introduced ten thousand men into 
London to promote a revolution. The whig 
ministry became uneasy at the power of the 
unions, and at their elaborate organisation 
under leaders of various ranks with powers 
to act in cases of emergency. Alarmed at 
the turbulent proceedings in London, they 
issued a proclamation on 22 Nov. against such 
organisations, This manifesto, however, was 
met by the Birmingham Union with a 
motion abandoning the idea of organisation, 
and reverting to the principle of simple 
association. They thus avoiced the possi- 
bility of their position being declared illegal. 
On 7 May 1S32 the government were de- 
feated in the House of Lords, and imme- 
diately resigned. The result in Birmingham 
was that a number of the more wealthy in- 
habitants joined the Union, which " had 
hitherto been confined to the poorer classes. 
On 10 May an immense meeting was held 
on Newhall Hill, the banners and trophies 
being covered in black drapery. It was 
proposed to refuse payment of the taxes, 
'jut Attwood succeeded in persuading- his 
audience to confine themselves to more legal 
methods of resistance. Attwood was also 
in constant communication with the Lon- 
don unions and exerted his influence to pre- 
vent any outbreak of violence. The populace 
was devoted to him, and on a rumour that 
he was to be arrested his house was guarded 
by armed men. On the news of t!ie rein- 
statement of Lord Grey ten thousand people 
assembled round Attwood's dwelling to cele- 
brate the triumph. On 19 May he had an 
interview with Lord Grey at the treasury, 
when the prime minister acknowledged his 
indebtedness to Attwood's exertions, and 
expressed his desire to make some return, 
Attwood, however, declined any reward, re- 
marking that his action had been on public 
grounds alone. On the rumour of fresh op- 
position from the Duke of Wellington, Att- 
wood proposed to assemble a million men on 
Hampstead Heath. On 23 May he received 
the freedom of the city of London, and five 
days later he made a triumphal entry into 
Birmingham amid great enthusiasm. At this 
time he was the * idol of the populace, his 
portraits were in every shop window, ballads 
in his praise were hawked through every 



Attwood 



88 



Attwood 



street, . , . and twenty boroughs selected 
him to represent them in parliament/ Cob- 
bett, in t Jie ' Political Register,' styled him 
< King Tom/ 

On 7 June 1832 the reform bill received 
the royal assent. On 12 Dec. Attwood and 
Joshua Scholefield [see under Scnox.Hvn3LD, 
"WILLIAM] were returned to parliament un- 
opposed for the new borough of Birmingham. 
In the House of Commons, like other popular 
leaders, he failed to maintain the nrwtation 
he had acquired outside. His YGJOIUCIICO 
of manner, his violence of expression, his 
incessant advocacy of his views on the cur- 
rency, and, above nil, his disregard for party 
interests disruulilicd him for success. On. 
12 Feb. 1S33 he made a strong attack on 
Lord Grey's Irish policy in his maiden speech, 
and expressed his sympathy \vith Daniel 
O'Oonnell, a course of action which alienated 
protestant feeling. A motion, wliich 1m 
brought forward on 21 AfiLrch ' that a j>vuonil 
committee bo appointed to inquire into tho 
causes of the general distress e.visl ing nniong 
the industrious classes of the Unih'd King- 
dom, and into tho most oilnfituiil moiuiH of 
its relief/ was defeated, ih hoiug universally 
understood that it aimod at rectifying tho 
currency. On 20 May a mooting of two 
hundred thousand men Jit Newhall 1 1 ill peti- 
tioned the king to dismiss Iho ministry ; but 
it was clear that many middle-class supporters 
had been alienated by Att wood's support, of 
O'Connell. On 18 Jan. 18v)(>, at; a intuiting 
at the Birmingham Town I hill, Att. wood 
threatened the opponents of reform -with tho 
wrath of twenty luilliotiw of men. This 
extravagance caused Bon jam in Disraeli to 
addrosa to Attwood the third of his 'Let- 
ters ,of Kunnymedo/ a vapid rebuke of a 
ridiculous boast The Political Union, which 
had fallen into abeyance on the passagn of 
the reform bill, was revived in May ISJ57 
as the llefoym Association, a title which WUH 
soon abandonee! for tho older rln^-uation. 

Year bv year Attwood became more, de- 
mocratic in hie political principles, ami hu 
allied himself wit * tho chartist w. The growth 
of the ohurtiat movement alienated many of 
the moderate advocates of reform anil com- 
pelled the remainder to take amoro uA'tromo 
position. Liberals of birth, rank, or wealth 
gradually disappeared from the ranks of his 
supporters. The Birmingham Political Union, 
which already had proclaimed thomsolvuB in 
favour of universal" suffrage, the ballot, and 
annual parliaments, were easily brought to 
give a formal adhesion to the charter. Att- 
wood f ave his enthusiastic support to the 
great c-iartist petition* But, though his own 
language had not formerly bce froe from 



menaces he recoiled from the violence of tho 
more advanced chartists, and constantly de- 
precated their throats of appeal to phy.siml 
force. IiiMurdi IHJWthe Hirmintfhum dole- 
gutos withdrew from tho National Convon- 
tion, protesting a gainst an appeal to anna. 
On! 4 Juno ISJii) m presented the, c,ha,rtiRts" T 
monster national petition to tho House of 
Commons. It demanded universal HiiUVngo, 
v<^te by ballot, animal parliaments, the* pay- 
ment, of members of parliament', and tho 
abolition, of tho pnnorly qualilinition for 
mt'inbo.rs. On 1 12 ,)u y h<* moved that tho 
house form itself into a, eonnnittce, for tho 
purpose of considering tho p<tition, but his 
motion was rejecltMl ly a larj^e majoritv. 

Attwood found thnt he htnl lost, |)o])u' arity 
by his tardy nnudintioti of phvsiml forc,o, 
mid the riotw w lioh broke out 'in Birming- 
ham iisc^lf in July IH.'.'J showed that his 
induenet^ wis jyotie! Many e,ha ( r|,ists also de- 
nounced his pet seheme of a paper rnrromvy. 
Mortified by his position, ho determined to 
retina from public lifn, n-iulin December IKW 
IK^ published, a, somewhnt (juenilouH farewell 
address to his eoustil .uentw, and for two warn 
nought at St. lleliers t,o reirniit his hea.lth, 
wliidi had been impaired by his labours, hi 
JS-llihewas nMi<st,i<l bysixtt^en thoiisjuul 
inhabitants of l ; .irmingham U> ro-entor ]ioU- 
ticnl lilo^and 1m aU,cin])ttsl without, success 
to organise, a ^National Union/ which was 
to hold * tho ministers of tho erown legally 
responsible for the welfare of Iho people? 
lie, died on (J Marr.h 1HW at. Mllorliis (3'roab 
JMulvm-n, the house of thn physician Walter 
Johnson, and was buried in Tlanley ehurc.h- 
yard, near Upton-on-Scvern, On 7 July 
iHMhi slatun of him by John Thomas was 
nuveijed in HlophtMiHoii 1'lnce, Now Street, 
IJirminghuin, Ailwood was twice married, 
On li! J\lay IHOCI, at Ilarhouruo e.hureb, ho 
marruul his lirint.wilo Mlixuboth, (Ablest daugh- 
ter of William (Vrless (//. ^l Juno 17H7) 
of tho Uavonhurst, Ilarbourne, and aunt, of 
Kdward AugustuM Freeman |<p v. Nnppl/J 
Jiy ]ier Atiwotwl bad four sous and two 
chuighttiw. The e,hle,st, daughter, Angela (<L 
i JO N o v ; 1 870), married Daniel ISoll Wiilttn 
ikild of Nw X(ialand, and was mother of 
(Jharles Marcus Wakeiiold, Attwood'tt bio- 
grapher, Attwood married, wwwdly, on 
iiO."uno 18-1/3, Kiixab^th, <laughtt>r of j'oseph 
(Irico of llandflwortli Hall, StullonlHhirej 
Bhu diod without iwaiw on ^U Juno 1K8B, 

[Wakefli'lil's Life qf Att, wood, 1886 (with pot*- 
traits), ^iriiiUfd for private circulation; JatVmy's 
HintH f'or a History of Birmiti^hutu, puhliMluul in 
tho Birmingham Journal, l)oe. 18f>f> to Jun 
1850; Kunnymodtt LotlwH, ed Hitchmun, 18Ho; 
Laugford's Coutury of Diniiinglmin LiiVs 1G8, 



Ayrton 



8 9 



Baber 



ii. 529-50, 612-48 ; Langford's Modern Birming- 
ham and its Institutions, 1873, i. 92-3, 391-2, 
432, 436 ; Burritt'a Walks in the Black Country, 

1868, pp. 16-22 ; Bent's Old and New Birming- 
ham, 1880, pp. 349-50,354, 396-414, 450-61; 
Dent's Making of Birmingham, 1S94 ; Greville 
Memoirs, 1888, ii. 210, 211, 220; DouUeday's 
Political Life of Sir B. Peel, 1856, ii. 23 ; 164, 
250; Mrs. Grote's Life of G rote, 1873, pp. 78-9; 
Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell, 1888, i. 
1 99-200 ; Graham Wallas's Life of Francis Place, 
1896.] K I. C. 

AYRTOtf, ACTON SMEE (1816-1886), 
politician, born at Kew in 1816, was a son 
of Frederick Ayrton (student at Gray's Inn 
27 Jan. 1802, barrister-at-law about 1805, 
and afterwards practising at Bombay), who 
married Julia, only daughter of Lieutenant- 
colonel Nugent. Acton Ayrton went to 
India and practised as a solicitor at Bombay, 
returning about 1850 with a moderate for- 
tune. On 30 April 1853 he was called to the 
bar at the Middle Temple, with the inten- 
tion of devoting himself to apolitical career. 

Ayrton sat in the House o: Commons from 
1857 to 1874 as liberal member for the Tower 
Hamlets. His long 1 speech, on 24 April I860, 
in support of the abortive bill for reforming 
the corporation of the city of London {Han- 
sard, clViii. 69-85) attracted attention. To- 
wards the end of his life he resumed his 
interest in that movement. In 1866, when 
addressing a meeting of working men in his 
constituency, he reflected somewhat severely 
on the queen's retirement from public life 
owing to the death of tho prince consort, 
and was rebuked with dignity by John 
Bright, who was present at the meeting. 
In the administration formed by Gladstone 
at the end of 1868 Ayrton was nevertheless 
appointed parliamentary secretary to the 
treasury, and liolcl the post until 11 Nov. 

1869. i'rom that date, when he was created 
a privy councillor, to August 1873 he was 
first commissioner of works. 

His administration as commissioner of 
works was not popular, but was marked by 



zeal for economy in the public interest. He 
possessed great ability and varied knowledge, 
with conspicuous independence of character ; 
but his manners were brusque, and he came 
into personal conflict with numerous men. 
of eminence with whom his official duties 
brought him into contact. He cut down the 
expenditure on the new courts of justice, 
treated Alfred Stevens [q. v.], the sculptor 
of the Wellington monument at St. Paiil's 
Cathedral, as a negligent contractor, and, 
but for the interposition of Itobert Lowe, 
would have forced him to surrender his 
models (MARTIN", Life of Lord SherbrooJte, 
ii. 379-80). He also had protracted diffe- 
rences with Sir J. D. Hooker, the director 
of Kew Gardens, Sir Algernon "West, ' in 
some very complicated negotiations, made 
peace between them,' and thought Ayrton 
the * more reasonable man of the two 
(WEST, Recollections, 1832-86, i. 14). With 
two other members of the ministry (Glad- 
stone and Lowe) Ayrton was in March 1873 
un; Listifiably caricatured at the Court Theatre 
in '.London in the burlesque called { The Happy 
Land,' which was written by W, S. Gilbert 
and Gilbert a Beckett [q. v.] 

In August 1873 Gladstone deemed it pru- 
dent to transfer Ayrton from the office of 
commissioner of works to that of judge-ad- 
vocate-general. He resigned with the rest 
of the ministers in March 1874, and Ayr- 
ton's political career came to a somewhat 
inglorious end. At the general election of 
1874 he contested the Tower Hamlets again 
but was badly "beaten, and after the redis- 
tribution of seats in 1885, in a contest for 
the Mile End division of the Tower Hamlets, 
only 420 votes were tendered for him. 

]?or the last few years of his life he was 
a daily free uenter of the Reform Club. He 
died at the Mount Bore Hotel, Bournemouth, 
on 30 Nov. 1886. 

"Times, 2 Dec. 1886 (p. 9), 3 Dec. (p. 6), 
4 Dec, (p. 6); Annual Reg. 1886, pp. 168-9; 
Memoir of G-. E. Street, pp. 168-70." 

W. P. C. 



B 



BABER, EDWARD COLBOUNE 

(1843-1890), Chinese scholar and traveller, 
the son of Edward Baber and a ,,-reat-nephew 
of Henry Hervey Baber [q. v.", was born at 
Dulwich on 30 April 1843. 'He was edu- 
cated under his father at Rossall junior 
school and (1853-62) at Christ's Hospital, 
whence he obtained a scholarship at Magda- 
lene College, Cambridge, Ho graduated 



B A, from Magdalene in 1867.^ ^ In July 1866 
he obtained in open competition a student 
interpret ership for China or Siam, and pro- . 
ceeded at once to Peking, where his merit 
was soon recognised by the British minister, 
Sir Thomas Wade. After working ten hours 
a day for six months at the language he 
mastered three thousand characters, and 
finished tho colloquial course in the most 



Babington 



Babington 



rapid time on record. He passed quickly 
through the various grades of the service, 
was nrst-class assistant in 1S72, when he 
filled for a short time the post of vice-consul 
at Tarnsuy in Formosa, and in 1879 was 
raised to the post of Chinese secretary of 
legation at Peking 1 . In the meantime he 
had made three very interesting journeys in 
the interior of China. The first of these 
was made in 1876, when Baber acconnanied 
Thomas (Irosvenor across Yun-nan to Bhaino, 
on the Burmese frontier, to investigate tlio 
murder of A ugustus "Raymond Margary [q. v.], 
of which expedition he drew up a map and a 
narrative, forming the substance of the olli- 
cial blue-book issued in 1877, This second 
was an adventurous tour through the Sze- 
Chiien highlands in 1877, during which he 
visited and studied the language, spoken and 
written, of the remarkable indigenous tribe 
of Lolos, completing much that was at- 
tempted by Baron von Hiehthoi'on in 187ii. 
A detailed account of this journey, enriched 
by a great amount of miscellaneous infor- 
mation as to Chinese customs and habits of 
thought, was -muted in 18SO under the title 
'Travels and Researches in Western China* 
(with three maps), as part i. of the first 
volume of the Royal Geographical Society's 

* Supplementary Tapers/ In 1878 he jour- 
neyed from Clmngching northward by a new 
line of mountain country, occupied by the 
Sifun tribes, to the now well-known town 
of Tachienlu on the great Lhaasa road, and 
wrote a valuable monograph ontho 'Chinese 
Tea-trade with Thibet' ('Sinpl. Papers,' 
1886, ;>t. iv.) On 28 May 1H88 ho received 
one of the Royal Geographical Society 'B 
medals, with a highly complimentary address 
from the president, Lord Abordare. In 1885 
and 1886 ho was consul-general in Korea, 
and soon afterwards received the appoint- 
ment of political resident at Bhamo on the 
Tipper Irawadi, where he died unmarried on 
10 June 1890, at the age of forty-seven. In 
addition to the works mentioned, Baber, while 
in England during 188tt, skilfully condensed 
a narrative of his friend Captain William 
John Gill's t Journey through China and Kant- 
em Tibet to Burmah,' which was ismied in 
November 1888 as 'Tho River of Golden 
Sand.' A portrait of Baber is given in the 

* Geographical Introduction ' to this work. 

[Proceedings of Koyal Geographical Society, 
1883, 1886, and 1890; Yule's Introduction to 
Gill's Rivor of Golden $;md, 1883 ; Athenaeum, 
1800, i. 831 ; Times, 23 June 1807.] T, S. 

BABOTGTON, OHA11LES OAKDALE 
(1808-1895), botanist and archaeologist, wa 
born at Ludlow on 23 Nov. 18C8, Hid 



father, Joseph Biibin^ton (1 708-1 R2ff), at 
the time of ( Jhurhw'n birth a physician, after- 
wards took holy ordern. II (i had a fond noun 
for botany, con! ributiul to Sir James Kdward 
Smith's ' Kngliwh liotany,' and taught \m 
son the elements of the wcioneo. The bola- 
nist's mother WIIH Catherine, daughter of 
John Whitter of Uradninch, Devonshire. 
His grandfather was Thomas liabington of 
Uothiey Ttiitipln, IKMII* l<<^icoHtM', and his 
pedigree. H( arts from William do, Hab'mgton 
of liabington Parva, now known MM Jtaving- 
ton, near llcxhain,in the thirttumth o-outury 
\)])iHji'ft/*/ticn 9 ii. i)-l, viii. ^<it>, 
hw and (ipHcnlw/ist) i, 1-S7, 
Memorials of (Jlwrlw Car dale 
JJtthingtm, 1H07). 

After Home privnlo tuition an<l two yoaw 
(18^1-^) at t.lm ChartcrhouHo, Ha,l)ington 
was HiMit. to apri vato Htthool k<pt l>y William 
IlutohiiiH at J->a1h, in whiHi city'liis father 
had bt'on cnni])nllwl by bad lnal(.h to wMtlo. 
JJi'ibco going up to ('ninbri<lgn lJahin,ton 
cunio nndtu'i.lu 1 induetK^rof William Wi.lr- 
foree (({. v,|, a Irioiul of his fa(,h<T, an ho 
afUirwar(lM(!ainourulorl.hat.()f(5harl< i ,s Simoon 
[q. v,"| Il(^ (mt< 4 ro(l St. John'H (Jolh'go in 
October IHiiO, gnulunting U.A. in January 
18150, and ])roc<u(ding M.A. in Mnrch 1SJW, 
During bin lirst, torn) Spnrxhtmu Inc.lnrod at 
(laru bridge, and a Phrenological Society WIIH 
formed, of which IJabiugton Ix^caino a mom- 
btjr, but it lasl^d only a lew mouthn ; thu 
botanical ItH-.turnH of John Slovens 
[q, v.), which IwaUondod from 1H^!7 to I 
and entomology, prove*! mor< aXt.ractivc^. 

liabington'.s iirnt pnbliHluHl ]>n, >cr wan on 
Oambrulgo entomology in iho J\ nj^uxino of 
Natural J I into ry' for lHiJ{); ho wan ono of 
tho iouudiTH of (ho Mntotnological Society 
in 183;i ; earned the Hohriquet of * UtHith'rt 
liabington,' and in his * Dyti.scidm Darwini"* 
aiuw 1 in tho 'TranHa<:t.i<iH of the Mntomologi- 
cal Society' for 18 11- iJ took part in the di* 
scription of tho ' Heiiglti* eollcetionH, A 
1'iHfc of IUH entomological pnperH JM giv<m in 



i. S&, iift; but all worn published boforo 18-14, 
and Inn collodion wa prmwtod to tlui 
univcmuly. In 1H*K) Babmgton btwaniu a 
follow of the (Jambmlgn Philosophical So- 
ciety, ami ho WUH for many yearn itn 8uoro 
tary. In the samu year ho joined tho Lin- 
noan Society, and ]aid tlio 'iimt of a long 
serioB of botanical vinitM to North Wiilon. 
In iBJJJi, ontho occawion of'tho iirst mooting 
of the Brititth AHociat.ioti at Cambridge, ho 
was necrotary of (.ho natural luntory wection, 
and from that year until 1 871 ho WJIH very 
rarely absent from the annual ( mooting of 
the association, acting a*j pycalduut o- tho 



Babington 



Babington 



section in 1853 and 1861, and as local secre- 
tary at the second Cambridge meeting- in 
182. m h * 

Babington's first independent publication 
dealt with his favourite study of botany. It 
was his 'Flora Bathoniensis' which first ap- 
peared in 1834, a supplement being added 
in 1839. The critical notes and references 
to continental floras which this little work 
contains indicate the main characteristics of 
Babington's subsequent botanical work. In 
1834 he made the first of many excursions 
into Scotland, and in 1835, with two Cam- 
bridge friends, Robert Maulkin Lingwood 
and John Ball [q. v. Suppl.], his first tour 
through. Ireland. In this latter year he re- 
cords in his journal the commencement of 
his magnum opus, the 'Manual of British 
Botany/ the first edition of which did not, 
however, appear until 1S43. In the interim, 
in 1837 and 1838, he visited the Channel 
Islands, and in 1839 published his account 
of their flora as ' Primitiae Florae Sarnicse.' 
In 1836 he was one of the founders of the 
Ray Club, of which he acted as secretary 
for fifty-five years, and he was on the coun- 
cil of the Ray Society, to which the club to 
some extent gave rise in 1844. The influ- 
ence of the successive editions of the' Manual' 
upon field botany can hardly be over-esti- 
mated. Sir James Edward Smith's acquisi- 
tion of Linnets herbarium, followed by the 
long isolation of England during the Napo- 
leonic war, had left the botanists of the 
country wedded to the Linnrean system and 
ignorant of continental labours in systematic 
and descriptive botany. Babington, in the 
first four editions of ais work, harmonised 
English work with that of Germany, and in 
the later editions also with that of France 
and Scandinavia, each edition being most 
carefully corrected throughout. 

Babington's interest in archaeology was 
second only to his love of botany. r Jhe full 
journals w'hich he kept throughout his life, 
and which were afterwards published (Me- 
morials, Journal, and Botanical Correspon- 
dence, Cambridge, 1897), are, like those of 
Bay, half botany, half archeology. To the 
publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, of which he was in 1840 one of the 
founders, he contributed more than fifty 
papers (oy. ctt. pp, 463-4) ; and having joined 
the Cambrian Archaeological Association in 
1850, he acted as chairman of its commit- 
tee from 1865 to 1885. It was said of him 
and his cousin, Churchill Babington [q. v. 
Sujrpl.], Disney professor of archaeology, that 
'either might 11 the chair of the other,' 
He was one of the ' four members of the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society ' who, in 



1848, published an 'Index to the Baker 
Manuscripts,' and in the ' Catalogue of Manu- 
scripts ' in the Cambridge University Library, 
edited by Charles Hard wick (18:21-1859) 
[q. v.] and Henry Richards Luard [q.v.], lie 
undertook the heraldic and monastic cartu- 
laries ; but, finding himself deficient in neces- 
sary medieval scholarship, he made way 
after the third volume, for George Williams 
(1814-1878) [q. v.] and Thomas Bendyshe. 
In 1851 he published, through the Cam- 
bridge Antiquarian Society, ' Ancient Cam- 
bridgeshire ; or, an Attempt to trace Roman 
and other ancient Koads through the County/ 
of which a much-enlarged edition was pub- 
lished in 1883. 

But Babington was still pursuing his re- 
searches in natural history. In his Channel 
Island flora, Babington had evinced an inte- 
rest in the critical study of brambles which 
resulted in his publishing in 1846, in the 
'Annals^nd Magazine of Natural History' 
of which he had acted as an editor from 
1842 and in a separate form, 'A Synopsis 
of British Rubi,' which was followed in 1869 
by^ a more complete work, entitled 'The 
British Rubi,' which was issued at the cost 
of the University Press, and the revision of 
which occupied the last years of his life. 
The study of brambles brought Babin^ton 
into daily fellowship with Fenton John An- 
thony Hort [q. v. Suppl.] In 1846 Babing- 
ton made his only excursion beyond the 
limits of the British Isles, visiting Iceland 
for a few weeks, and it is characteristic of 
the thoroughness of his method that the list 
of plants published immediately afterwards 
in the < Annals' was revised, with full refer- 
ences to other workers, in the Linnean So- 
ciety's l Journal' for 1870. In 1860 he pub- 
lished his ' Flora of Cambridgeshire/ wjich 
set the example of an historical examination 
of the earlier authorities ; and, on the death 
of Professor Henslow in the following year, 
Babington succeeded him. By that time, 
wrote his friend, Professor J. E. B. Mayor 
(Memorials, p. xxi), ' his name in Cambridge 
stood by metonymy for Botany in general. 
Thus when a weed be^an to choke the Cam 
... it was christened 3abingtonia pestifera.' 
Babington's lectures were on those mainly 
anatomical lines that are now considered out 
of date ; and, though his classes dwindled, 
he had little sympathy with histolo;ical and 
physiological detail. After his health failed 
lie gave up half his professional income to 
his deputy, but Detained his chair in order 
to save the university chest the increased 
salary payable to his successor. One of his 
main interests was the improvement of the 
herbarium of the university, for which he 



Babington 



Babington 



secured the appointment of an assistant', and 
upon which lie almost always spent more 
than the amount provided by the university, 
Essentially a field naturalist, ho visitod 
almost every part of the British Isles in hia 
search for plants, and always jjroierrud^tQ 
share his pleasure with others, his most- fro 
Client companion from 184-5 to 1885 being 
^Villiam Williamson Newbould [q. v.] 

Babington had always had a strong inte- 
rest in evangelical mission work, and al'tor his 
marriage at Walcot, near Uath, on 3 April 
1866, to Anna Maria, daughter of John 
"Walker of the Madras civil service, this 
interest was intensified. The Church Mis- 
sionary Society, the London City .Mission, 
the Irish Church Missions, tho Uganda, 
Zenana, and China Missions, the roscue 
work of Dr. Barnardo, and the pro1.cst.ant 
propagandist*! in Spain and Italy rouuived 
their .xeartiest support. Jani Alii of Oormw 
Ghristi College, Lie Mohammedan missio- 
nary, looked upon tho Bul)i nitons' houso a,s 
his homo, In 1871 Babington practically 
founded a cottage homo for orplian girls at 
Cambrid ^e. In 1874 he published t ho ' .1 1 is- 
tory of tae Infirmary and Chapel of the Hos- 
pital and College of SL John tho KvuiitfoliHt. 
at Cambridge/ while the siiccossive editions 
of the 'Manual/ numerous papers, and his 
journal showed that his interest in botany, 
and especially in bramble, continued un- 
abated until 'tlio end. From 1H8(> to 1801 
Babington annually visited Braemar. He 
died at Cambridge on 22 July 1895, and was 
buried in. Cherry Ilinton cluiruhyard. 

Babington was at his death the oldest 
resident member of the university, and the 
oldest fellow of the Linnean Society. lie 
had been elected a fellow of the Geological 
Society in 1835, of the Botanical Society of 
Edinburgh in 1830, of the Society of Anti- 
quaries in 1859, of the .Hoyal Soc.ioty in 
1851, and of St. John's College, Cambri'dgo, 
in 1882. The name Ilabinyttima was given 
to a genus of liestiacejo by Ijindloy in 
but this is now merged in Liim6's 
JBaechea. Species of A triples and 
and a variety of Allium, however, bear the 
name fiabingtonii, His portrait, by Wil- 
liam Vizard, is in the hall of his col lego, and 
another is reproduced from a pencil, wketch 
by Mrs* Hoare, taken in 1820, in the ' Memo- 
rials.' Hia herbarium of nearly fi fty thousand 
sheets and sixteen hundred volumes of bo- 
tanical works were bequeathed to the uni- 
versity. The Hoyal Society's Catalogue (i, 
136-9, yii. 62, ix/91) enumerates 182 papers 
by Babington published prior to 1882, and 
others are enumerated in the ' Memorials/ 

Babington's separate publications have 



alrnady been numtinnod in chronological 
order, The successive odil ions of his * Manual 
of British Botany' were published in 1K1J, 
1847, 1851, luriHJWW, 1W7, 187-1, and 1881. 
Each was in one volume, liJmo, n,ncl con- 
sisted of a thou.Mimd r,opios. A ninth edi- 
tion, under thn odhorshiji of Mmsiu Jlenry 
and JumuK djrovew, is HOW in propanitinn. 

[Memorials, Journal, and IJoUiiM'al Oormsp. 
of ClmrloH Cardult! ItubiD^toTi, (Jambri(lp;o, 1 807. J 

U. H. B. 

BABINGTON, CllllUClin^ (18^1- 
1881)), weholar, only son of Mul.thew Dralco 
Babington, n?clor of Thrin^stoiu^ Leicc.Htor- 
sliire, wciH born at IttuuiliU'o in thai county 
on 11 Marc.li ISiM. lln was conntu'-ledwitii 
the Mawiulny family, and ulightly, OH his" 
niothfir'sHido, wil h Iliatof Mio pool Ohiu'cJull. 
Charles Ctu'dale Habiii^ton |<j, v. Suj)">l. ] wa,a 
his fatih(ir\s r,ou,siu, I (\ WUN onttii^M, at Hl>, 
John's (;<)11(^( T (^anihridp 1 , iti ,18119, and 
g radt iiti.nd 1J.A, in 18'1,'{, bc/ni^ thoHnvnnllj, in 
the cliLHHuuil Irij)os 7 aiul a senior optiiun'H in 
niathomatittH. Ih was olocted a fellow and 
onlainecliu IH-IO, i)i which yoarlK'^aiiKul tho 
Jlulnoan essay, wrilin^' on * Christianity in 
relation to tho Abolition of Slavery,' iSomu 
four yoavH prtiviou.sly he had vindicated his 
youthful love of natural history in a contri- 
bution to Poll-w'rt* History anil Autiqu' 
of Charnwood l\)iv,Ht' (irfl^, -llo). I lo 
cluuted M.A, in IH-KJ, and S.T.IJ. in 18W5, 
proceeded D,l), in 1870, ami wan el<M',ted an 
iionomry follow of St., .lolmXOuwbrultfo, in 
1880. in 1HU) WUH publi,sh(Hl at Ca,inhridg'o 
hifl able tlelcncu of Ihn Mn^lish c.hM^'y and 
g-entry of tho H(w<ml couth < i .uitury a^uiuHt 
Macaulay'H aspersions in tho fjunotm third 
chapter of tho * History of Kn^lumP (7f//% 



. ( Uad,stono,i 

'History, 7 was strongly hn >rtWHi!(l with 
bin^tou'rt (WHays, and consi< innul that ho had 
convicted JVlacuubiy a,t Initst of partiality. 
In 1850 ho wus ontniHtoti by thti uuivotMity 
with tho tusk of willing 1 tin* mumtly dw- 
co veered iVa|jfiuonlH of * Tho < )nitioiw of flypo- 
ridoH a{fiiiHfc DomoHtJu^noH, nncl for Lyco- 
ohron and for Kuxonippun' from tho papyri 
1'ound at TluvbtB in Uppor Mgypt, and liis 
edition WUH IHSIKM! in two votumcH (1850 
and 1858), In 1855 hi^ brought; out, an 
edition of 'Tho JJiwflts of Christ 'H Douth, 1 
Rupposed to lw by tho Italian rofonuor, Acuno 
Palpario. In IHfiO ho oditod lor tlin U,olKs 
Renos Pucock's M?opr(8Hor/iind in 1805, for 
tho same Kork% tuts two First, volumes of 
ITigdcn'a * rolyclironicou.' In IKtW ho \VUH 
olectod Ditmoy profoswur of ar<*.luwolofjfy at 
Oambridgo, axul puhHshod Ins introdutilory 
lecture. Hia contributions to the ' Die* 



Bacon 

tionary of Christian Antiquities' were very 
considerable (including' the articles on medals, 
glass, gems, inscriptions, seals, rings, and 
tombs), and of great merit. Jlis favourite 
studies, beside numismatics, were botany 
and ornithology. After 1866, in which year 
he left Cambridge and accepted the rectory 
of Cockfield in Suffolk, he was able to con- 
centrate his attention upon this last and 
best loved study, and the result was his very 
thorough monograph on l The Birds of 
Suffolk"' (1886), a storehouse of facts upon 
the ornithology of the county. During his 
last years he took up the study of conchology, 
and formed a fine collection 'both of British 
and exotic shells. Pie was an exemplary 
parish clergyman, and his archaeological 
competence secured the adequate and taste- 
ful restoration of Cockfield church during 
his incumbency. The last stage was marked 
by the erection of a new organ in 1887. He 
died at Cockfield on 12 Jan. 1889, and was 
buried in the parish churchyard. A stained 
glass window was erected to his memory in 
January 1890. He married in 18G9 a daugh- 
ter of Colonel John Alexander Wilson, II. A., 
but left no issue. Besides his separately 
printed works, his contributions to the jour- 
nals of learned societies, such as the t Numis- 
matic Chronicle' and Hooker's 'Journal of 
Botany,' and the ' Suffolk Institute Papers' 
were numerous. His house was a small 
museum of natural history, coins, and Greek 
vases, and he brought from Cambridge in 
1866 a fine collection of books. 

[Bury and Norwich Post, and Suffolk Herald, 
22 Jan. 1889 ; West Suffolk Advertiser, 14 Juno 
1890; Guardian, 15 Jan. 1889; Grraduati Can- 
tab.] T. S. 

B AGON, Src JAMES (1798-18P5), judge, 
son of James Bacon, by his wife Catherine, 
born Bay, of Manchester, was born on 
11 Feb. 1798. His father's origin and his- 
tory are obscure, but he was in intermittent 
practice as a certificated conveyancer at 
Somers Town and elsewhere within the 
metropolitan district between 1805 and 1825. 
The future judge was admitted on 4 April 
1822 member of Gray's Inn, and was there 
called to the bar on 16 May 1 827. He was 
also admitted on 3 Oct., 1833 member, and 
on 8 May 1845 barrister ad eundem, at Lin- 
coln's Inn, where, on. taking silk, he was 
elected bencher on 2 Nov. 1846, and treasurer 
in 1869. 

For some years after his call Bacon went 
the home circuit, and attended the Surrey 
sessions, reported and wrote for the press, 
He is said to have been for a time sub-editor 
of the ' Times ; ' and the admirable style of 



93 



Bacon 



his Judgments shows that he might have 
achieved high literary distinction had not 
the demands of a growing practice proved 
too exacting. Eventually he limited himself 
to conveyancing, chancery, and bankruptcy 
business, of which he gradually obtainec his 
full share. In 1859 he was appointed under- 
secretary and secretary of causes to the 
master of the rolls, and on 7 Sept. 1868 
commissioner in bankruptcy for the London 
district. From the latter 'office he was ad- 
vanced to that of chief judge under the 
Bankruptcy A ct of 1869, wll ich misconceived 
statute lie administered with perhaps as much 
success as its nature permitted from its com- 
mencement until its repeal, and the trans- 
ference of the bankruptcy jurisdiction to the 
queen's bench division of the high court of 
justice, in 1883. 

Shortly after his appointment to the chief- 
judgeshb in bankruptcy Bacon succeeded 
Sir WiLiam James as vice-chancellor on 
2 July 1870, and he held the two offices 
concurrently till 1888. He was knighted on 
14 Jan. 1871. The .Judicature Acts of 1873 
and 1875 preserved the title of vice-chan- 
cellor during the lives of the existing vice- 
chancellors, while giving them the status 
of justices of the high court, and providing 
that no future vice-chancellors should be ap- 
pointed. Though junior in office Bacon was 
considerably senior in years to vice-chan- 
cellor Malms, as also to vice-chancellors 
Wickens and Hall. Yet all three died while 
the veteran was still dispensing justice with 
undiminished vigour; and he tlms became 
the last holder of a dignity of which he re- 
membered the creation in 1813. 

Bacon after 1883, when the chief-judge- 
ship in bankruptcy was abolished, continued 
his labours as vice-chancellor. lie was still 
hale and hearty when on 10 Nov. 1886 he 
retired from the bench at the age of eighty- 
eight. He was then sworn of the privy 
council (26 Nov.) He died of old age at 
his residence, 1 Kensington Gardens Terrace, 
Hyde Park, on 1 June 1895. 

Bacon married, on 23 April 1827, Laura 
Frances (d. 1S39), daughter of William 
Cook of Clay Hill, Enfield, Middlesex, by 
whom he left issue. 

Bacon's career embraced in its patriarchal 
span a whole era of gradual but incessant 
reform, which is without a parallel in our 
legal history. It was therefore no wonder 
that a vice-chancellor, who had sat at the 
feet of Eldon, and grown grey under St. 
Leonards, should exhibit some of the foibles 
of an old practitioner confronted with a 
new order of things, or that a considerable 
proportion of his judgments should be re- 



Baden-Powell 



94 



Badger 



versed or modified on appeal. Nevertheless, 
to have united tit. so advanced an age and 
for so long' a period the chief-judgeship in 
bankruptcy with the vice-chancellorship re- 
mains a prodigious feat of mental and physical 
vigour. 

Bacon was one of the most courteous of 
judges, and had also no small fund of wit 
and humour. His pungent obiter dicta not 
unfrequently enlivened the dull course of 
proceedings, and the clever caricature 
sketches with which he illustrated his notes 
provided relaxation for the lords-j usticos of 
appeal. 

[Foster's Hen at the Bar; Gray's Inn Adm. 
Beg. ; Lincoln's Inn Kocorils ; Law Lists, ] 806- 
1815, 1828, 1847, 1800, 1871, 1885; Bnrko'a 
Peerage, 1894; Foster's K-ironotiige ; Times, 
3 June 189.5; Ann. Hog. 1895, ii. 183; Law 
Times, 8 .Tuno 1895; Law Jonrn, 13 Nov. 1880, 
17 Feb. 1894, 8 Juno 1895; Saturday Jioviow, 
8 Juno 1895; Pump Court, February 1S95; 
Ballantine's From the Old World to tho Now, 
p. 209 ; Solborne's Memorials, Personal and 
Political, i. 291, ii. 164; Men and Women of 
tho Time, 1891.] J. M, R. 

BADEN-POWELL, Sti* OEOUGK 

(1847-1898), author and politician. [Soo 

POWELL.] 

BADGEK, GEORGE PERCY (181/3- 
1888), Arabic scholar, bom at Ohelmsford 
in Essex in April 1815, was a ' winter by 
trade, His youth was sni-mt at .'lalta, and 
Ids knowledge of the Maltese dialect was 
the foundation, of his love of Arabic. Ho 
flaunt the greater part of IHUfi and J83(> at; 
liairut improving his acquaintance with 
Arabic. At Birejik ho visited tho expedition 
under Francis Itawdon Gnosnoy [c . v,] for 
the exploration of tho Euphrates valley. On 
returning to Malta ho was associated with 
Ahmad JFaris Kilondi in the editorial de- 
partment of tho Church Missionary Society, 
lie returned to England in 1841, studied at 
the Church Missionary Sodoty'a Institution 
at Islington, and was ordained deacon in 
1841 and priest in tho following year. On 
account of his intimate knowledge of tho 
East, and his unrivalled colloquial know- 
ledge of Arabic, he was chosen by William 
Howley [q.v."|, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and by Charles James lUomfiold [((.vlj, 
bishop of London, as delegate to tho Eastern 
churches, and more especially the Nestorians 
of Kurdistan. He was employed on this 
mission from 1842 till ] 844, and ho visited 
the Nestorians a second time in 18oO. In 
his book on 'The Nestorians and their 
Kituals' (London, 1852, 2 vols, 8vo),-a 
work of permanent value to students of 



comparative _ theology, ho gave a history of 
the community and an account of his two 
expeditions, bosidun a translation of the prin- 
cipal Nestovian rituals from tho Syriac. On 
returning to I^nglaiul from hLs first oxpodi- 
tion in 181-5, J-iadgisr was appointed govern- 
ment chaplain on tho Bombay onlabliHlunont, 
and a year later lus was uppointud chaplain at 
Aden. When. Sir J amen ( )utram [q. v.] was 
sonHoAdon in 185-1 as commandant and poli- 
tical agent, ho placed wmM'ulurabJo reliance hi 
dealing with l.lie Arab tribes on Jladgor'a 
knowledge of the mitivo chiefs and on his in- 
flueiKUi witli thorn. When ho was appointed 
commandor-in-chiof of the .Persian oxpodi- 
tion in November 1 H">({ ho ohtainod the a)>- 
pointmont of Hadgur UH st-all' c.liapkiu and 
Arabic inlorprotor to tlio foreo. At tho 
conclusicm of the campaign of 1 857 .Badger 
roctnvocl tho war modal, lu 1800 ho was ap- 
pointed coadjutor to Colonel (Sir) William 
Marcus Ooghlan to settle tho dillbroncos 
which had arison betwoen tho sons of the 
renowned Sayy id Sa'id, the Hayyid Thuwainy, 
who ruled ovnr Oman, atid tho Sayy id 
TYlajicl, who ruled ovur Sa'id's J^ast African 



Jtadgftr returned to Kngland in 18(J1, and 
in Oct.()bor aocompaniod Outram on a visit 
to Kgypt;. In 1H(W In^ rei-ired from tho urn"- 
vice, and devoted himself chiefly to lite- 
rature, In IH7*J ho was appointed secretary 
to Sir IFoTipy Bart lo I^dward Krere [ (\. v.], on 
a mission to /aiixihar to negotiate thtt sup- 
pr<.ssion of the slave trade with the sultan, 
tSayyid Burgasli. hi recognition of his nor- 
vi<jos Badger was created DXJ.L. hy the 
archbishop of Canterbury in 1H7J. Two 
years later h<^ was nppoint'ed to attend upon 
the sultan of Xuiixiluir during IUM visit to 
Kngland, In 1H7'J h<( was tmm,tttul a knight 
commander of tho order of tho Crown of 
Italy, and in 1880 he wiis nominated by tho 
sultan of Zanzibar a knight of the ( learning 
Star. 

In 1881 Badger published 'An NngliNh- 
Arabio Lexicon' (London, 8vo), which has 
remained the standard work of its kind. It. 
was especially notable lor its command of 
current Arabic nomenclature and phraseo- 
logy, 

Badger diinl in London on 21 Fob. 1888 
at iil Leamington Uoad Villas, WoHtbouruo 
Park, and WUH bun<d on Xtt Keh, at. Keunal 
(Iroon <unet(ii i y. Besides the works already 
mentioned, he was tho author of: L * De- 
scription of Malta and Uosw,' Malta, 1HJJ8, 
12mo; fith edit, entitled MiiwtnricAl (luido 
to Malta and Cow/ 1878. & Moment i 
della lingua Inclose, sulla base delia (Iritm- 
matica di \'entroi,' Malta, 18/50, 12wo. 



iggallay 



9S 



Bagnal 



3. ' Government in its Relations with Edu- 
cation and Christianity in India,' London, 
1858, 8vo. 4. ' Sermons on the State of the 
Dead, Past, Present, and Future,' Bombay, 
1861, 8vo; 2nd edit. London, 1871, 8vo. 
5. ' A Visit to the Isthmus of Suez Canal 
Works/ London, 180:2, 8vo. He edited for 
the Hakluyt Society The Travels of Lodo- 
vico di Varthema,' London, 1863, 8vo, trans- 
lated by John Winter Jones [q. v.], and 
Salil Ibn Eazik's ' History of the Imams and 
Seyyids of Oman,' London, 1871, 4to. He 
also translated Isidore Mullois's ' Clergy and 
the Pulpit/ London, 1867, 8vo, and contri- 
buted the article ' Muhammad and Mu- 
hammadanism ' to Smith's ' Dictionary of 
Christian Biography' (1882). 

[Badger's Works ; Academy, 3 March 1888; 
Stock's Hist, of Church Miss. Soc. 1899, i. 340- 
350; Times, 23 Feb. 1888; Crockford's Clerical 
Directory; Goldsmid's James Outrnm, 1881, 
ii. 89, 90, 176, 376; Mart menu's Life of Sir 
JSartle Frere, 3895, ii. 71, 151 ; Men of the Time, 
1887 ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. Supplement.] 

H 1 T f 1 

BAGGALLAY, SIE RICHARD (1816- 
1888), judge, eldest son of Richard Bag- 
gallay, merchant, of London and Kingthorpe 
House, Tooting, Surrey, by Anne, daughter 
of Owen Harden, was born at Stockwell, 
Surrey, on 13 May 1816. Like his con- 
temporary, William Baliol Brett, Viscount 
Esher ]q. v. SuppL], he was an alumnus of 
GonviLe and Caius College, Cambridge, 
where he read hard, graduating B.A. (four- 
teenth wrangler) in 1839, and proceeding 
M.A. in 1842. He was Frankland fellow of 
his college from 1845 until his marriage in 
1847, and honorary fellow from 1880 until 
his death. Admitted student at Lincoln's 
Inn on 23 March 1837, he was there called 
to the bar on 14 June 1843, and elected 
bencher on 13 March 1861, and treasurer in 
1875. lie practised with distinction in the 
rolls court, which during Lord Romilly's 
later years attracted most of the talent of 
the equity bar, took silk in 1861, and was 
made counsel to the university of Cambridge 
in 1800. He was returned to parliament for 
Hereford on 14 July 1865 as a conservative 
reformer, found no difficulty in accepting 
Disraeli's scheme of household suffrage, suc- 
ceeded Brett as solicitor-general on 1C Sept. 
1868, and was knighted as the government 
went out of office (9 Dec.) In the meantime 
he bad lost his seat, which he failed to re- 
cover at a subsequent contest (30 March 
1869). lie re-entered parliament in 1870, 
being returned on 17 Oct. for Mid-Surrey, 
which seat he retained at the general elec- 
tion of February 1874, and until his eleva- 



tion to the bench. The return of his party 
to power in 1874 reinstated him in the office 
of solicitor-general (27 Feb.), and on the 
early retirement of Sir John Karslake he 
was advanced to the attornev-ffeneralship 
(20 April). 

As attorney-general he piloted the Judi- 
cature Act, of 1875 through committee, and 
under that measure he was created (29 Oct. 
1875) justice of appeal, for which was soon, 
afterwards substituted the title of lord-jus- 
tice of appeal, and was sworn of the privy 
council. 

On Ba ;gallay thus devolved no small por- 
tion of tJe heavy burden of construing the 
Judicature Acts, and determining the course 
of procedure under the new system which 
they introduced. The task proved to be be- 
yond his physical powers. In the summer 
of 1882 his health broke down, and a pro- 
longed rest failed completely to restore it. 
He retired from the Dench in November 
1885, but assisted occasionally in the de- 
liberations of the privy council until shortly 
before his death, which took place at Brigh- 
ton on 13 Nov. 1888. 

Baggallay was a sound lawyer but hardly 
a stron7 judge. He married, on 25 Feb. 
1847, Marianne, youngest daughter of Henry 
Charles Lacy of Withdean HaU, Sussex, 
by whom he left issue. 

[Gal. Univ. Camb. 184.0-5; Grad. Cant,; 
Foster's Men at the Bar ; Lincoln's Inn Records ; 
Law List, 1843, 1861, 1862, 1875, 1876; Gent. 
Mag. 1847, i. 543 ; Members of Parliament 
(official lists) ; Hansard's Parl. Deb. 3rd ser. 
clxxxii. 1578, elxxxvi. 1223,ecx-ccxxvi ; Times, 
14 Nov. 1888 ; Ann. Reg. 1868 ii. 252,254, 1888 
ii. 179; Law Times, 5 Dec. 1885, 24 Nov. 1888 ; 
Law Journ. 5 Nov. 1875, 27 May 1882, 17 Novr. 
1888; Solicitor's Journ. 17 Nov. 1888; Burke's 
Peerage, 1888; Foster's Baronetage; Men of 
the Time, 1884.] J. M. ft. 

BAGNAL, SIB HENRY (1656P-1598), 

marshal of the army in Ireland, born about 
1556, was son of Sir Nicholas Bagnal [q. v. 
SuppL] and his wife Eleanor, daughter of Sir 
Edward Griffith of Penrhyn. He was edu- 
cated at Jesus College, Oxford, but seems to 
have left the university without a degree 
and ^one to serve with his father in Ireland. 
On C May 1577 he was associated with his 
father in a commission for the government 
of Ulster (Cat. Plants, Eliz.No. 3021), and 
in the following year he was knighted. In 
August 1580 he was, with Sir William 
Stanley, in command of the rear of the army 
when Arthur Grey, baron Grey de Wilton 
^q. v.], was defeated by the Irish in Glenma- 
Ture (BAGWELL, Inland under the Tudors, 
iii. 61). On 26 Aug. 1583 he was granted 



Bagnal 



9 6 



Bagnal 



in reversion his father's oifice of marshal of 
the army, and his name was generally in- 
cluded iii the commissions for the govern- 
ment of Ulster, for taking musters, and sur- 
veying lands. In September 1584 lie went 
to attack thirteen hundred Scots who had 
landed on llathlin island under Angus M'ac- 
doimell, but the ships which should have 
co-operated failed to appear, and the invaders 
were not driven off until Stanley's arrival. 

In 1586 Bagnal visited England, and on 
1G Sept, of that year he wrote to Edward 
Manners, third earl of Hut land [c. v.] ? whose 
cousin he had married, saying t mt he was 
' very desirous for his learning's sako to be 
made a parliament roan,' and asking it' tho 
earl had a borough to spare. Thirtnon days 
later he was returned to the English parlia- 
ment for Anglesey ; ho was also oloctod for 
Grant.ham on 124 Oct., but the latter return 
was cancelled. 

In October 1590 Sir Nicholas Bagnal 
resigned his office of marshal on condition 
that his son Henry was appointed to succeed 
him ; he received the post on 5M Oct., and 
was on the same day sworn of tho privy 
council. On 1 8 May 1501 ho was made chief 
commissioner for the government ol! Ulster, 
and soon afterwards ITirjh O'Neill, oarl of 
Tyrone [q. T.], whoso f rst wifo liad just 
diotl, made overtures to Bagnal for tho liand 
of his sister Mabel. 1 tognal contemptuously 
refused to entertain tho proposal, and, to 
keop Mabel out of Tyrone's reach, removed 
her to Turvey, near Swords, the houao of 
Sir Patrick 'Barnowall, who had married 
another sister. Tyrone, howovor, persuaded 
Mabel Bagnal to elopo with him, and t.hoy 
were married in August 1501 by Thotnart 
Jones (1G50M619) [q.v.~, bishop of Mouth. 
Bagnal refused to pay jia sister's dowry, 
and a ftvud began between tho two which 
led to Tyrone's revolt and Bagmil 1 B doath. 
The countess of Tyrone appears to have 
soon repented of her marriage, and died in 
1506. 

Meanwhile, in Roptembor 1501$, Bagnal 
invaded ."Fermanagh Irom the wide of Mona- 
,?han to attack "Jugh Ma^uiro [q. v,], who 
liad defeated Sir Ttichard l>mgham [<j, v.] at 
Tulsk. At Enniflkillon he was joined by 
Tyrone, and together they dofoatoc.^Mapfuire 
on 10 Oct. ; both claimod the credit for the 
victory, but this was Tyrone's last service 
to the English crown uiulor Elizabeth, and 
henceforth lie and Bagnal were at open war, 
In May 1595 Bagnal relieved Mcmaghan, 
which was besieged by Tyrone, but in the 
following July his lands were wasted right 
up to the gates of Newry ( Cal, BW& Papers, 
Irel, 1592-6, pp. 319, 340). In December 



159G he revictuallnd Armagh, aucl again in 
June 1597, nearly capturing Tyrone on the 
latter occasion. In 15{)S Tyrone sat down 
before the fort on thn Hl.whwjitor, and in 
August Bagnal, wan nont to ivliovo it; ho 
was given four thousand foot, 1h mo hundred 
and twenty horso, and four Jiold-piocoN. His 
military capacity was not, howovor, groat; 
nor was ko popular with kin in on, who had 
earlier in tho your almost opouly nuitiniod 
(//;. 1598-9, p. 7)9), Ul-fortmm attomlod this 
expedition from the start, but it roachod 
Armagh without lighting, and thonco Hot 
out for tho Yollow Kord on tho Ulaekwattvr, 
kooping to tho right: of tho main road to 
avoid tho noL'oflsity of frontal attacks. On 
14 Aug tho Knglish oiicoiintunul a Hupovior 
for co of Tyrone's men, wow tali mi by sur- 
piiso, and hnmptMvd in 1hoiv oporal ions by 
tho bogs. Bagnal himsidf was wlain oarly 
in tho action, and lvin Inxly loll into Tyrono'*rt 
liamln (of. ^ W. lt<ttjh>ld t J/*W.viii.'H)i)-ll!2; 
JnquiittjHMtMMi'tMHi Klix, vol. cdxi. No. (U). 
In all tho Kngliwh lo.st 855 Icillod and JWW 
woinuhul; tho moral ollrot. of tlun Irinh vio,- 
tory was ononnotis, and lod to tlm g( k ii(n*al 
rising of ir>!)9 1(501, which tuuirly wrested 
Ireland from Klixabotli'H grns"). 

Bagnal marriod lOlonnor, uau^htor of Sir 
John Savago of Uoc.k Savngo, >y his wife 
Dlizaboth, diutghtor of ThonuiH Miuuiors, 
oarl of 1 Jutland <j, v. "| ; by hor, who mir- 
vivod him, ho hue IMHUO UinM< HOIW and four 
chuightfU's, of whom Anno married LowU 
Bayly [q, v.|, bishop of Hangor. 

fOal. >St,at< PaporH, Irol. l.OKO 98 pn-SHtrn; (Jul. 
FiatitM, Klk ; (Jal. Onniw MSS. ; UiHl, MSH. 
(Joium. lf>th K^p. A pp. iii. U!M ; Kullaud MSM. 
i.l71-ii f 207,.'M; hiiHrt'lh'H'H Lihp Mun, Itih,, 
Visit, of ClioNhiro (IL'irl, Hue.), p. L>()-1 ; I^wt-oi'^ 
Alutuui Oxou. ir(K) I7M; Tho lldiijuary, x, 
110; Anualn of Ilio Knur MaMorn; (Ittx'w 
llibnrniiii An^licatia; ifa^wull'H Jruland imdoir 
tho TuilopH.] A, R 1 J . 

BAGNAL, Rut N10UOI,AS (IfilOP- 
"15 ( ,)()P), raarhal of the army in Ireland, 
bom about 1510, wan nu*ond HOII of John 
Manual (d. 155S), a Uilor by Irai'lo and 
mayor of Nowc.HHlltMiiuler-I^ymo in lf)10, 
15aa, 15^(5, Ifirtl, nd !{{/ by \m wife 
Khuuior, diiujfliter of Thojniis W'hittin^ham 
of Middlowic.h, Oht^Hhins and nocond eousin 
of William VVhittin^luun |(j. v,], doati of 
Durham ( Fm'fc CfoMiv, Ilarl. Rt>. p. i->-18 ; 
Tbfi Krttfjtmri/, x. 1 10), IHs iUUr brot.hor, 
Sir Ralph Bii'jifiial, wan ono of lloury VIU'H 
mttlinfc court iurs, Hti^matim^d l>y Kdwurd 
Underbill tho * Hot (Uw-uilliT 1 (Nttn\ of the 
JRef urination, pp. 15H, SJi 0) ; li WUH granted 
Dieulaoms Ablmy, StHiVordfthipo, in 15.^-3, 
sat in tlio paiiiamiuit of Octubur I55!i, pon- 



Bagnal 



97 



Bagnal 



sibly for Newcastle-under-Lyme, the return 
for which has been defaced, made some sort 
of protest against the reconciliation with 
Rome, and f.ed to France, where he was 
implicated in Sir Henry Dudley's conspiracy 
(Cat. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 80). 
On 19 Jan. 1558-9 he was elected for 
Staffordshire, and in January 1562-3 for 
Newcastle-under-Lyme. He squandered the 
lands granted him by Henry VIII largely in 
indiscriminate charity, and Elizabeth is re- 
ported to have promised him in the last re- 
sort the full run of her kitchen. 

Nicholas was a ;entleman pensioner of 
Henry VIII, and in _539 was sent to Ireland. 
There he became acquainted with Con 
O'Neill, first earl of Tyrone ~q. v.], and on 
7 Dec. 1542 the Irish council, "at the earnest 
suit of Tyrone,' begged Henry VIII for the 
'pardon of one Nic. Bagnalde, late the 
king's servant, who fled on account of a 
murder' (Letters and Papers, 1542, No. 1182). 
This appears to have been granted. Bagnal 
returned to England in April 1544, having 
'served five 7ears with great credit,' and 
took part in t:ie campaign in France in the 
following summer. In March 1546-7 he was 
appointed by Edward VI marshal of the army 
in Ireland (Acts P. C. 1547-50, pp. 77, 462 ; 
Cal Fiants, Edward VI, No. 13). In Au- 
gust 1548 he was with the lord deputy, Sir 
Edward Bellingham "q. v.], when the Irish, 
who had invaded Kildare under Cahir O'Con- 
nor, were defeated with great slaughter. In 
November 1551 he was sent by Croft to 
expel the Scots who had invaded Dufferin. 
He was knighted in the same year, and on 
22 April 1552 was panted the lands of St. 
Patrick's and St. Mary's abbeys in Newry, 
and the manor of Oarlingford. On Mary's 
accession Bagnal lost his office of marshal, 
which was conferred on Sir Georfe Stanley. 
He does not appear to have offeree any overt 
opposition to * Gary's government, but pro- 
bably he shared his brother's pro test ant views, 
and on 7 May 1556 he was lined a thousand 
pounds (Acts P. 0. 1554-6, p. 268), On 
12 Jan. 1558-9 he was elected to Eliza- 
beth's first parliament as member for Stoke- 
on-Trent. 

Much to Bagnal's annoyance, Stanley was 
continued as marshal in Ireland by Eliza- 
beth, and on 23 April 1562 he wrote to the 
queen complaining that his lands brought 
him in nothing owing to the depredations of 
Shane O'NeiL *q. v.], whereas while he was 
in office they were worth a thousand pounds 
a year. Bagnal, however, had to be content 
with a mere captaincT until Sir Nicholas 
Arnold's recommendations induced her to 
reappoint him marshal in 1565, when Sir 
VOL, i. SUP, 



Henry Sidney [q.v.] became deputy. Bagnal's 
patent was dated 5 Oct. 155, but he had 
scarcely taken up the office when, early in. 
1566, he entered into an agreement to sell it 
and his lands to Sir Thomas Stucley [q. v.] 
Sidney and Cecil both urged Elizabeth to 
confirm the bargain, but the cueen was 
justly suspicious of Stucley, and 3agnal re- 
mained marshal. 

In this capacity he did good service 
a 'ainst the Irish in Ulster ; he rebuilt 
Newry and made it, unlike most of the 
Elizabethan settlements in Ireland, a real 
colonial success, with the result that Newry 
became an effective bridle for Ulster. He 
held the office of marshal for twenty-five 
years, and was appointed to many other 
commissions besides. On 6 May 1577 he 
was nominated ' to have the principal rule 
throughout the province of Ulster' (Cal. 
Fiants t Eliz. No. 3021). On 26 Aug. 1583 
his son Sir Henry obtained the reversion of 
the marshalship, and acted henceforth as his 
father's deputy. Nevertheless, Sir Nicholas 
was on 6 July 1584 appointed chief com- 
missioner for the government of Ulster, and 
in April 1585 he was returned to the Irish 
parliament as member for co. Down. In 
January 1585-6 Sir John Perrot [q. v,] com- 
plained that Bagnal was old and not able to 
perform his duties as marshal. This was 
possibly the beginning of the feud between 
!3agnal and Perrot, which lasted until the 
lord deputy was recalled ; on one occasion 
(15 July 1587) there was an affray between 
the two in Perrot's house (Cal. State Papers, 
Ireland, 1586-8, pp. 353-60). On 20 Oct. 
1590 Bagnal resigned the omce of marshal 
on condition that it was conferred on his 
son, Sir Henry. His name does not again 
occur, and he died at the end of 1590 or 
beginning of 1591. 

Batjna.. married, about 1555, Eleanor, 
daughter of Sir Edward Griffith of Pen- 
rhyn, and left issue five sons and six daugh- 
ters, Of the sons, Sir Henry is noticed 
separately, and Sir Samuel was knighted by 
Essex at Cadiz in 1596 (CORBETT, Drake's 
Successors, p. 97), was made commander-in- 
chief in Ulster on 28 Sept. 1599 during 
Essex's absence, and became marshal in 
1602. Sir Nicholas's daughter Mabel eloped 
with the famous Earl of Tyrone [see under 



[Cal, State Papers, Ireland ; Cal. Carew 
MSS. and Book of Howth ; Cal. Fiants, Ireland, 
Edward VI-Elizabeth ; Acts of the Privy Coun- 
cil, ed. Dasent ; Hist. MSS. Counn. 15th Eep. 
App. iii. 142, 154. 217; Off. Ret. Members of 
Parl. ; Lascelles's Liber Munerum Hib. ; Erdes- 
wick's Staffordshire, p, 493 ; Ward's Hist, of 



Bagot 



Bagot 



Stoke-on-Trenl, p. 346 ; Bagwell's Ireland under 
the Tudors; The Reliquary, ed. Jewitt, x. 110.] 

A. F. P, 

BAGOT, SIB CIIAULES (1781-1843), 
diplomatist and governor-general of Canada, 
born at BlitMelc House in Staffordshire on 
23 Sept, 1781, was second surviving son of 
William, first baron Bagot of Bagots Brom- 
ley, by his wife Elizabeth Louisa, eldest 
daughter of John St. John, second viscount 
Bolingbroke. "William Bagot, second baron 
Bagot [c .v.], was his brother. Educated at 
Eugby, ae matriculated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 26 Oct. 1797, and graduated B.A. 
in 1801, and M.A. three years later. On 
12 Nov. 1801 he was admitted to Lincoln's 
Inn. Entering into politics, ho took his seat 
as member for Castlo llising on 22 Juno 1807, 
In the following August he became parlia- 
mentary undersecretary for foreign affairs 
under Canning, with whom he formed a close 
friendship, but at the close of the year he 
accepted the Chiltorn hundreds. Turning to 
diplomacy he was appointed minister-pleni- 
potentiary to Franco on 11 July 18 1,4. He 
gave place to the Duke of Wellington in 
August, and was sent as envoy-extraordinary 
anc, minister-plenipotentiary to the United 
States on 31 July If 1 5. Before his departure 
lie was sworn of the privy council (4 Dec. 
1816), Besides Bottling tho irritation con- 
sequent on tho American war of 181.2-14 
and improving the trade relations butweeu 
the United States and tlxo British provinces, 
lie secured tho neutrality of tho great lakes. 
This arrangement, though it was in the form 
of exchange-notes between Bagot and acting- 
fiocretary Kuah (28 April 1817), was ratified 
&s a treaty by the American senate, and was 
proclaimed by President Monroe on 28 April 
L818. It has since subsisted in full force to 
<the common benefit of tho neighbouring' 
peoples. On his return to England Bagot 
waa created G.O.B. (20 May 1820). 

On 23 May 1820 he was nominated am- 
bassador to St. Petersburg. His chief duty 
was, in the language of Canning, 'to keep 
the czar quiet, 1 because 'the time for Areo- 
pagus and the like of that is gone by/ lie 
soon became a persona gratissima with the 
-emperor. His subsidiary work included the 
withdrawal of the ukase of 16 Sept. 1821, 
which proclaimed the North Pacific a closed 
sea. 1-6 made some progress also in defin- 
ing the boundary between the Russian and 
British possessions in North- west America, 
though the actual treaty was not signed till 
1825. 

On 27 Nov. 1824 Bagot went to Th 
Hague. In a letter to Lord Liverpool 
Canning- says of this position : t It is the 



best tiling the .secretary of state has to give, 
and the only thing he can ^ive to whom ho 
pleases. ... I sent Granvi lo to The Hague 
only to keep it open for Bagot.' The experi- 
ment of tho reunited Netherlands was then 
in course of trial under the guarantee of 
Europe. The of fort of William I to assimi- 
late Holland and Belgium in law, language, 
and religion by legislative force was bringing 
about its natural result, Reparation of 'the 
peoples. Bagot had no actual share in tho 
rinal settlement for tho independence of 
Belgium, which was concluded in London in 
1831, but he used his inihumco to secure 
favourable terms and an ollVictivo boundary 
for tho now kingdom of Belgium. In April 
1835 a special mission to Vienna brought 
his diplomatic cantor to an <md. 

Ou the retironuMit of Lord Amhorst in 
1828 from the gpvornor^nnralHliip of India 
the post was oli'orod to Ingot but docliaod, 
He accepted a similar appointment to Canada 
on 27 Sept. 18-11, and ontorod on lus duties 
on 12 Jan. following. Ills torm of oilico was 
short but memorable, Tho provmco was in 
a transitionary state, Tho Union Act of 
1840 had conform! on tho nnitod provinces 
of Upper and Lower Canada rosponw'iblo go- 
vernment, and liagot'a predecessor, Gharlos 
TQdward l*oiilU Thomson, Lord ftydmiham 
[q, v.], had oponod tho first nniliod parlia- 
ment at Kingston on 13 Juno 18-11, but. no 
efficient ministry was in oxistonco, To har- 
monise the executive, whoso mombors wore 
nominated by the crown, wit.li the oloettnl 
united legislature of tho French and Kng* 
Hsh pro vinous, was tho main object of Ragot's 
rule, llo acted with commendable caution. 
Doforrinj,' tho mooting of tho logwlativo as- 
sembly, 'w> Hijt himself to strongtlion the 
existing administration, For this -wrppno 
ho first made, a tour of Upper Canauu llo 
viwitod Niagara, laid the found at ion-Htono of 
King's OoLogo, recuivod and ropliwd to ad- 
dresses from municipal bodios, and intor* 
viewed ,loa<ling men. Uo lailod t<o (umciliate 
tho extreme tor'um, who oxptuMit^l that, OH a 
well-known coiiBervativo tuid tho nominee 
of Lord Stanley, he woul<l iiHHuro thmr 
power. llo accepted tlio swrvicos of an ftcl- 
vancod reformer like (Sir) .Francis II hick A 

Sj. v,], and hold lumBolf aloof from party in- 
uonceB. 

Ho next turned hiw attrition to Lower 
Canada and tho Fronch-spoaking population 
His chettrl'ul disposition, his rouclmeBB to 
meet all clrtHBes o; hor maji^sty's s\ibjocts, hia 
generous hospitality, couplod with the win- 
ning Icinduw of his wife, captivated tho poi> 
sonal regard of a population who wore al- 
ready propoHBOKaecl in lua favour by roaeon 



7 



OF 



v . r - 



B: 







EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



SUPPLEMENT 



VOL. I. 



ABBOTT 




LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO,, 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1901 



right* rtservttt\ 



Baillie-Cochrane 



100 



Baines 



graphy.' In 1881 he started a monthly anti- 
quarian magazine, tho 'Palatine Note-Boole/ 
which ran tor just over four years and ceased 
with the forty-ninth number in 1885. He 
collected many works on stenography with 
a view to writing a history of that art, 
and he possessed a valuable library of anti- 
quarian and general literature. In 1886 ill- 
ness put an end to his studies and projects, 
He cied at Manchester on 23 Aug. 1888, 
and was buried at St.retford church on 27 Aug. 
His collection of Fuller's sermons, completed 
and edited by Mr. W. E. A. Axoix, was pub- 
lished in 1891. 

His other works, irrespective of contri- 
butions to the Chethani Society, include: 
1. 'Life ota Lancashire Hector during the 
Civil War,' 1877. 2, "The Grammar School 
of Leigh,' 1879. 3. 'John Whitakor,' 1879. 
4. 'Join Bee and the Stoganographia of 
Trithemius/ 1879. He edited reprints of 
' Manchester Al Hondo,' 1 880 ; Dee's < Diary,' 
1880 ; and John Byrom's ' Journal/ 1882. 

[Personal knowledge; Academy, 8 Sopt. 
1888; Manchester Quarterly, October 188 ft; 
Manchostpt* G-uardmu, 24 Aug. 1888 ; A Liwb of 
the Writings of John Ellington Bailey, by 
Ernest Axon, 1889; Notes and Qtioruw, 7th nor, 
vi. 180; H. JLJriorloy's Morgan Jta'orloy, 1 900.1 

j. a. A. 

BAILLIE-COCHRANE, ALEX. IX U. 
W. 0., first BARON LAMINUTON, l81(WL8i)0. 
[See C 



BAINES, Sm EDWARD (1 800-1 00), 
journalist and economist, was born at LocdH 
on 28 May 1800, boing the BOCOIH! son of 
Edward Barnes [q. v."| by his wilt) Charlotte, 
daughter of Matthew * Talbot, cui-rior, of 
Lie<Ls. Ilia earliest education was received 
t a private school at Leeds. Theneo ho was 
removed to the protcstant disscntera' gram- 
mar school at Manchester, known also as tho 
New College, at which the eminent chomifit, 
John Dalton [ty.'v.], was mathematical maa- 
,ter. While at Manchester, in his 'fifteenth 
year, lie became a Sunday-school toucher in 
the congregational chapel, arid ecmtimuul to 
4each in the Sunday-wchoola of his deno- 
mination until his election to parliament in 
1859. In 1815 he entered the of lice of tho 
i Leeds Mercury ' and became a reporter of 
public meetings* In this capacity he was 
oresent on 1C Augj. 1819 at the ''Peterloo 
Massacre.' In 1818 ho was promoted to the 
editorship of the paper, and from that time 
frequently contributed its leading articles. 
paring some years be was actively engaged 
in sell-education, especially in political eco- 
nomy and subjects of social interest. He 
visited the cotton, mills, settlement, and 



school of David Dale [q. v.] and Robert won 
[q.v.J, and attended loctures at the lirat rao- 
clmmcs' inatitutci founded in London by Dr. 
George Birkboek [j.v.] in lHli4. Jiei.wom 
1825 and 1880 he frequently lectured in tlw 
towns of Yorkshire in favour of an oxtenflioii 
of these institutions. Ilo travelhwl in tho 
north of England, producing in 1 HiiJ) a ' Com- 
panion to the Jjakea of Cumberland, WoHt- 
moroland, and Lancashire/ \vhu--h \)ixsstMl 
through t,li WJG editions. 1 1 o next went abroad, 
visiting lielgium, Switzerland, Italy, and 
France. A literary memorial of this tour 
was < A Visit io the VaudoiH of Puwlmont,' 
publiflhod in lr>5 (Trawlkri? IMmry, vol. 
vii.) Whilo at Roiioti lu^ acquainted liimHolf 
with the detail* ol th< Krench cotton indimtry, 
and -mbliwhod a hstfror in t lin M jotidn Morcurv ' 
(1,3 flay IKaO^To tho llneuiploytul 'W ore- 
men of Yorl<Hhiro and LanmHluroon Mus Pro- 
sont; DLsrmsH and on Mac.hiimry,' The objnct 
of tliiR addroHH WIIH to chock tho destruction 
of mills and looms which in 1 HiJO wan a com- 
mon crime in t.ho factory dint-rio-tH. HainoB 
pointed out that) wliihs Mnglinh workmen 
wcrodefltroyingmaclimery thoir I'Yonoh com- 
petitoi-B wturo im proving it. Tho lol.Urwau 
RO olloctivo that it wan circulated by tho 
niagi8trafc(iH of LancuMluro ami ^^HkH^^m^. 

()nhiH return to Kn^laiKUtaincHthrnwhim- 
flftlfinto tlui various I ibtiral mov^mnntHoftho 
day. llo-wnH one of tho <nrly atlvo<a((w of the 
' laws, ouwhic.h lunvro((> HO- 



. , 

cipation (IH29), and in JHIW) Umt, ', 
in a leading artic.lo in tb * Lwdn llorcury/ 
tho adoption of Brougham a candidatn for 
Yorlwhiw* [HOO .UuoutniAM, HMNHV Pwruu, 
1UROK HKOUUIIAM and VAUX). In 1H,% 
lie puluinhnd a ' 1 lifltory of tilu^ (Jotton Mauu- 
facl.uro of Oroat l|riuin, f Ht.ill a utaudard 
authority, I HH activity in connection with 
mechanicH'iiiHtituteH bore fruit in IK>7, whwi 
Umon of 



, 

which ultimately extendtul ita operatioiiB to 
tlu^ whole of Yorkwhirtj. He pnssidiul at tho 
; ubiltu-i inuoding of this orgamtwtum hl<l in 
^j3(?d in June 1HH7, lie W,H an advocate 
of a public education independent of tho 
state, an attitude partly dw to his noncon- 
formist sympathies, but welcomed by many 
of tlio leading reformers of that day. Ilie 
viewB wore et forth in a number of pam- 
phlets and in a Aarioft of 'Crosby Hall ,Lc- 
turcB * on the projyrcHft and tiHittiimcy of volun- 
tary edncatiouin England, publiwhed hUHIB 
(see alwo 'Mmnfs up<m Mdvmtiwial tfutywttt, 
ed. A, Tlili, 185?). Wh<m the country was 
definitely committed to tho j>rirushl<j of tho 
endowment of olomontary ocLucat'.on by tho 



7 



OF 



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B: 







EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



SUPPLEMENT 



VOL. I. 



ABBOTT 




LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO,, 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1901 



right* rtservttt\ 



Baker 



102 



Baker 



of observation. His father ab first intended 
that he should be his successor in business, 
but a very short experience of office work 
was enough to show that such a career 
would be unsuitable. Probably the only 
reason which ke;)t Baker from engaging in 
travel sooner taan he did was his early 
marriage (3 Aug. 1842) to Henrietta 
Biddulph, daughter of Charles Martin, 
rector of Maisemore. He now spent some 
months in Mauritius, assisting his brother, 
John Baker, in the management of his 
father's estate, but it was not till 1845 that 
the ' spirit of wandering ' seized on him in a 
fashion not to be denied (BAKER, Eiyht 
Tears in Ceylon, p. 374). Possessed of 
moderate independent means, his ardour for 
sport led him urst to direct his attention to 
Ceylon. His first visit in 1846, in which he 
was accompanied by his wife, was mainly 
spent in big game hunting, but he was so 
fascinated by the fine country and the joys 
of a hunter's life that he went home in 1847 
determined to return as a colonist. Per- 
suading his brothers John and Valentino to 
follow his load, he set about the establish- 
ment of an English colony at Newera Eliya, 
a station 6,000 ieet above sea level and 
115 miles distant from Colombo by road, 
He purchased land from the government, 
and chartered a vessel for the convoy of hia 
party, consisting of eighteen adults, who 
sailed from London in September 1848 en 
rente for the now settlement. Initial diffi- 
cult ies were overcome by the spirit of the 
leader, a somewhat barren, soil was in course 
of time rendered fertile, and some of the 
original settlers still (1901) remain on what 
is now a flourishing estate. 

During nine years spent la Ceylon Baker 
explored, in the course of most adven- 
turous hunting expeditions, many of the 
more difficult and unknown tracts of the 
island, and established for himself a remark- 
able reputation as a hunter of big game. 
His first book, entitled 'The Rifle and 
Hound in Ceylon/ which appeared in 1853, 
is a vivid narrative of incidents m the sport 
in which he was so constantly engaged, 
Fever from exposure in the jungle 'Dogan, 
however, in 1354 seriously to affect his 
health, and was the immediate cause of his 
return, with his family to England in 1856. 
After the shock occasioned Vy the sudden 
death of his wife from typhus fever at 
Bagaeres-de-Bigorre (29 Dec. 1865), Baker 
sought to lighten his trouble \>y travelling 
to Constantinople and the east of Europe. 

In March 18o9 he undertook the manage- 
ment of the construction of a railway con- 
necting the Danube with the Blact Sea 



across the Dobrudsha, and threw himselt 
with all his energy into the task (letter from 
Baker to Lord "Wharncliilb, #0 March 1859, 
quoted in * Sir S. Baker : a Memoir '). About 
tins period, when travelling in Hungary, ho 
first met Florence, daughter of llerr Finian 
von Saas, whom ho married in 1860, and 
who became his devoted ful Low-traveller. 
On the completion of the Black Sea rail-* 
way lie for a time travelled in Auia Minor, 
spending several months in the neighbour- 
hood of Sabanga at the ond of 1860 and 
beginning of 1861 mainly for purposes of 
sport, 

Stimulated, doubtless, by thp example of 
John II aiming Spoke [q.v.J, with whom ho 
was acquainted, he now determined on travel 
of more ambitious nature. In a letter to 
his sister, 20 Jan. 1801 (ib. p. 41 ), ho stated 
his project, which was to push on into Con- 
trol Africa from Khartoum, winking for the 
high ranges from which ho believed the Nile 
to derive its source. 'For the last) few 
years,* ho wrote, * my dreamfl have boon of 
Africa/ Lovo of adventure and tho flhoot- 
ing of big game impelled him on IUH <xmrno, 
and without Booking it Baker may bo wild 
to have stumbled on IUH mmcrion in life (Sir 
Samuel Jiaker: a Memoir, p. 4,1 ). Ills first 
object wan to meet Spoke and Jain OB Augus- 
tus Grant [q. v. SuppL], who -wore exported 
to reach the White Nile AOUIO time in 1 80& 
As Baker arrived at Cairo 21 March 1H01 , ho 
decidod to occupy hie time and fit himnulf 
for Ha task by a "irolimimuy expedition in 
exploration of tho 'Nilo tributaries of AbyH- 
sinia, Starting from Berber with IUH wife 
and "but a small following, ho made for KOB- 
sala, whore ho engaged camel H und carriers 
lie crossed tho Atbara at Korraiu and tod 
lua headquarters at Soil, just above tho con- 
fluence o;'tluit river and" tho Bet it. Iloro ho 
made a stay of nvo montliH, and explored 
the Setit river, but moat of tho time wa 
s^ont in big game hunting, ^ JTiH 'irowww hi 
ta field won for him tho MeudnlLp and ud- 
miration of the Hamran Arabs, themBelvos 
mighty hunters* Ho explored other tribu- 
taries of tho Atbara, including tho JJahr-er- 
Salam and the Angareb, and followed up 
the course of the llehad to ifcs confluence 
with the Blue Nile. Thence ho marched to 
Khartoum, whore ho arrived on 1 1 June 
1862. The value of tho work of exploration 
during this fourteen monthH* journey and of 
the observations proving the N ilo sediment 
to be due to the AbvHHiman tributaries was 
publicly recognised ^y Sir JLlodorick Mur- 
chison [c , v.], president of tho Boyal Go^ 
graphical Society. Baker had alao during 
the period gained for hlraaoU experience at* 



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correct the account of the extent of the 
Albert Nyanza to tlio south, Baker's name 
will ever be associated with the solution 
of the problem of the Nile source. The 
fact also that the whole expedition had been 
independently devised and the charges 
thereof defrayed by the traveller added not 
a little to the honour of his achievement. 
On his return to England in October 1866 
he found that the go.d medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society had already been 
awarded to him ; and in the following year 
he was presented with the gold medal ot the 
Paris Geographical Society, and his services 
were recognised in August 1866 by the 
honour of knighthood. Baker became an 
honorary M.A. of Cambridge in 1866, and 
was elected F.E.S. on 3 Tune 1869, He 
published his account of the expedition, en- 
titled 'The Albert Nyanza, Great Basin of 
the Nile, and Explorations of tho Nile 
Sources/ in 1866, and the work immediately 
became popular, and many editions have 
boon issued. 

Baker now spent a few cuiot years in 
country life at Iledenham I_all, Norfolk, 
which ~ie rented for a term. Ho hero pre- 
pared his book on tho Nile tributaries for 
the press, and wrote his tale of ad venture, 
' OtiHt up by the Sea,' which was published 
in 3 808. lie was, however, soon to bo again 
actively employed ; and at tho beginning of 
1869, by request, travelled in the suite 
of the IMnco of 'Wales on his visit to 
Egypt and journey up tho Nile* The Khe- 
dive Ismail entered into communication with 
him to secure hie services under the Egyptian 
government, and on 1 A-wil 1869 he was 
appointed governor- general of the Equatorial 
KLe basin for a term of four years, with 
tho rank of pacha and major-general in the 
Ottoman army. The objects of his com-* 
mand were set forth under the firman by 
which he was appointed. They included tho 
subjection to Egyptian authority of the 
countries situate to the south of Gondokoro, 
the suppression of the slave-trade and the 
introduction of regular commerce, and the 
opening to navigation of the groat lakes 
a pout the Equator. To cany out this am- 
bitious programme Baker was provided with 
some twelve hundred Egyptian and Souda- 
nese troops, and a groat quantity of supplies 
of all kinds. He was the first Englishman 
to undertake hifh office under the Egyptian 
government, and in accepting the command 
was in no way supported by the English 
foreign office. The first difficulty of the 
new governor was to arrive at his soat of 
government ; his intention had boon to pro- 
ceed by the Nile from Khartoum to Gondo- 



koro, but tho period of high flood was lost 
owing to the transport vessels promised 
by tlie government not bein^ ready, and 
after a fruitless struggle witu the Hudd- 
covered stream, he was obliged to full back 
and wait for tho next Kilo ilood. II o 
started again with Lady Baker on 1 Bee. 

1870, and the expedition -jasain^ through 
the Bahr Ez Z6raf branch o the rivor made 
its way with enormous diiliculty by cutting 
canals through liho sudd. Gondokoro was 
reached on 15 April 187J, and was formally 
annexed to Egyptian sovereignty on ^(> M.ay 

1871, As tho station was practically in tho 
possession of tho aLave-tradei'H, Baker was 
rorced for a supply of porfrerfl and provisions 
to como to terms with tho grout dealer, 
Ahmed Akad, who leaded from tho Egyptian 
government the monopoly oi" tho ivory trade. 
The hostility, however, of tho traders wtm 
hardly veiled, and the Ban tribesmen wove 
by thorn incited to attack Baker'0 force, and 
were only partially subdued after very 
troublesome fighting. Leaving a garriflon 
at Ciondokoro the new governor ntarted on 
23 Jan. 187!2 with iJlii oilicerH and men on 
his journey so ulh; he ORtubltahed stations at 
Afuddo and Faliko, and punhod on through 
Unyoro, which country 1m publicly declared 
at Maaimli on 14 May" 1H7U to be under the 
protection of the Egyptian government, 
riut the young king, Kabroga, behaved with 
a duplicity worthy of hia lalhor, KamroHi, 
and, encouraged by the alave-tnulern, at- 
tacked Baker 'H force -when incapacitated by 
drugged or poisoned plantain wine. Though 
able to boat oil* tho attack through the 
devoted bravery of hi Soudanese body- 
guard, Baker was obliged to abandon hi 
position at MaHindi on 14 Juno 187SJ, and 
only after seven cluyH* lighting through con- 
stant ambuscades in the long gmwH on the 
line of march, and allot being forced to 
abandon the bulk of hw baggage, did he 
succeed in reaching Uionjfa'H country. That 
sovereign^ claim to the Lcingtthip of Unyoro 
the govenxor-jfenoral now wirpnorted, and 
also communicated with Mtena, king of 
Uganda, who despatched troopa to Unyoro 
in his support. (, n IUH return to Faliko ho 
was attacked by Aba Saiid, the dave-elealor, 
whom he defeated and captured after a 
pitched battle, and by thin Buccefls ajraiu 
established hifl authority. He returned to 
Gondokoro on I A~>ril 1H^3, leaving garriHonti 
at the stations w^iich he had formed on be- 
half of tho Egyptian government, and on 
20 May, his period of command having um- 
pired, started on his return journey to Khar- 
toum* 

Baker's services to Egypt were rocoguisod 



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to the navy. After serving on the home, 
Halifax, and East India stations, lie was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant on 13 Oct. 
1792. In 1793 he had command of the 
Lion cutter, in 1794 of the Valiant lugger, 
and on 24 Nov. 1795 was promoted to be 
commander for ?ood service in carrying out 
despatches to tlie "West Indies. In 179G-7 
he commanded the Fairy sloop in the North 
Sea, and on 13 June 1797 was posted to the 
Princess Royal, apparently for rank only. 
In January 1799 ae was appointed to the 
!28-gun frigate Nemesis, in which, on 26 July 
1800, when in command of a small squadron 
oft" Ostend, he met a number of Banish mer- 
chant vessels under convoy of the frigate 
Freya. It was a favourite contention of 
neutrals that the convoy of a ship of war 
was a guarantee that none of the vessels 
carried contraband, and that they were there- 
fore exempt from search. This the English go- 
vernment had never admitted, and, in accord- 
ance with his instructions, Baker insisted on 
searching 1 the Danish ships. The Frcya re- 
sisted, but was quickly overpowered, and, 
together with her convoy, was brought into 
the Downs. Aftor some negotiations HBO 
WHITWOBTK, CHAKLES, KABL] the aJfiiir 
seemed to be amicably arranged, and the 
Freya and her convoy were restored ; but 
the Emperor of Kussia mndo it a pretext for 
renewing the 'armed neutrality/ which he 
induced Denmark to join, a coalition which 
immediately led to the despatch of the fleet 
under Sir llydo Parker (1739-1807) [q.v.j 
and the battle of Copenhagen. Baiter's 
conduct had received the entire approval of 
the admiralty, and in January 1801 he was 
appointed to the 36-gun frigate Phoebe, 
which he commanded on the Irish station 
till the peace of Amiens in October 1801. 

On the renewal of the war in 1803 he com- 
missioned the Phoenix of 42 guns, attached 
to the Channel fleet undor (Sir) William 
Cornwall! off Usliant and in the Bay of 
Biscay. On 10 Aug. 1806, being then to the 
north-west of Cape Finisterre, he fell in with 
and, after a brilliant and well-fought action of 
rather more than three hours' duration, cap- 
tured the French 46~gun frigate Didon, which 
, had been sent oil* acorn Ferrol on the 6th 
with important, despatches from Villoneuve 
to Admiral Allemand, who was on his way 
to join him with five sail of the line. In con- 
sequence of the capture of tho Didon, Allo- 
mand never joined Villeneuve, and his ships 
had no further part in the campaign. On 
14 Aug the Phoenix with her prize joined 
the English 74-gun slap Dragon, and the 
next day the throe ships wore sighted by 
"Villeueuve, who took for granted that they 



were a part of the English iloot under Corn- 
wallis looking for him; and, not caring to 
risk an encounter, turned south to Cadiz, 
and the fate that befell him olV Capo Trafal- 
gar. Baker meantime took his prize to Ply- 
mouth, and, returning to his former (station, 
on 2 Nov. sighted the French wquadron of 
four ships of the lino under Dnmanoir, escap- 
ing from Trafalgar, Knowing that Sir Richard 
John Strachan ("q. v.] was oil* Ferrol, he at 
once steered thither, and the wume night joined 
Strachan, to whom he gave the IIUWH which 
directly led to the capture of the four French 
ships on 4 Nov., the Phumix with the other 
frigates having an important part in the 
action. A fortnight later Baker WUB ap- 
pointed to the Didon, from which, in May 
1800, ho was moved to the Tribune, which 
he commanded for the noxt two yearn in the 
Bay of Biscay with diMtinguwlied, BUCCOHB. 
In May 1808 lie joinod UioVunpuard an flay* 
captain to J^ar-admiralC'SirjTliomau ItarUe 
^q. v.] in the Baltic. On leaving her in 1K1 1, 
ae spent Home time in Sweden ; and from 
1812 to 18lr> commanded the 7-1 -gun whn 
Cumberland in the Wewt IndiuH, in t,ho Nort i 
Sea, and in charge of a convoy of Kuub 
Indiamen to the Capo* Jn 1814 the JViueo 
of Orange conferred on him the order of 
William of the Netherlands, and on 4 Juno 
1815 he was made a O.B. lie wan appointed 
colonel of marinoH on 1% Aug. 1819, was pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral on 10 .July IKtfl, 
was Commander-in-chief on th coast of 
South America from 18125) to 18M, WUH 
nominated K.G.B, on 8 Jan. 18JJ1, Locarno 
vice-admiral on 10 Jan. 18,17, and was 



awarded a ffood-soryico rxjiwion of "ML a 
year on 10 Fob. 1842. I e died afc \m roni- 
donco, The Shrubbery, "Waluier, Kont, on 
26 Feb. 1845. Bakur married tlio daughter 
of Count Booth, a Swoxlinh iioblo, and by 
her had tfevoral children; IUH twcoud HOJI, 
Iloraco Mann Baker, died a lieutenant in 
the navy in 1848, 

[P'Bvrno'B Nuv. JHo/j. Diet. ; MurHhuUVi Koy< 
Nav Bio$. ii. (vol. i, pt. ii,), 8ii^) ; Jatmw'n 
Navul IJiBtory, volfi, iii. uiul iv. ; Ohevuli(4 >f a 
Hist, do la Marino FraneaiHu, vol. in, ; Trondt-'u 
illoH Navalffl do In Fmnco, vol iii,; Oo&t. 
184/) t pt. i. p. 4,'iO. ) J, K. L, 

BA&ER, THOMAS BAR WICK 
LLOYJ) (1 807-1886), ono of the found* nm of 
the reformatory school ytm, born in 1807, 
was the only son of ThomuH John Lloyd 
Baker (d. 184*1 ) of Ilardwicku Court, ( \ loucow- 
tershire, and of Mary, (laughter oi' William 
Sharp of Fulham, and nicco of (kanviilo 
Sharp [q. v.] Lilco his father, Baker went, to 
Eton and to Olirist Church, Oxford, wliere ho 
matriculated iu iBlitJ but did not graduato. 



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attack of the Hedan by the way of the 
cemetery and the suburbs of Sebastopol, was 
mentioned in despatches. He was present 
at the fall of the fortress on 8 Sept., and 
returned to England in July 1856. He re- 
ceived the war medal with clasp and the 
1 Turkish and Sardinian medals. In Novem- 
ber 1857 he embarked with his regiment for 
India, and served with the field force in 
Central India in pursuit of Tantia Topi in 
1868. He was successful in obtaining ad- 
mission to the stall' college, and -mssec out 
in 1862. In the following year -ie accom- 
panied the 2nd battalion of the Royal Irish, 
which had been recently raised, to New 
Zealand, where he was deputy assistant adju- 
tant-general to the forces m New Zealand 
from 20 March 1864 to 81 March 1806, and 
assistant adjutant-general from that date 
until the end of April 1807. lie served 
during the Maori war of 1864 to I860 in 
the "Wuikato and the Wanganui campaigns; 
he acted as assiwtant military secretary to 
Lieutenant-general Sir Duncan Cameron in 
the action of Jtangiawhia on 20 Nov. 18(53, 
and was stall' oilicor to tho force nndor 
Ma'or-goneral Carey at the nnfluccoflaful at- 
tac c of Orakau on Ul March 1864, when lie 
lod one of tho throe columns of assail It ; ho 
wasproatmt at its capture on 2 April. Jfo 
was mentioned in despatches for tho gal- 
lantry, untiring energy, and zeal which he 
evinced (London Gazette, 14 May and 
14 June 1804), and received the war medal 
and a brevet majority. 

On 2 Oct. IfcTiJ Baker was appointee! as- 
sistant adjutant and qunrtormnHter-genoral 
of the expedition to Ashanti ,and accompanied 
Sir Garnet Wolsoloy to the ( I old Coast. He 
served throughout the campaign, wan pre- 
sent at the action of Es-saman on 14 Oct., 
took part in tho relief of Abrakrampa on 
5 and Nov., in tho battles of Amoaful ou 
81 Jan, 1874, and of Ordah-su and the cap- 
ture of Kumasui on 4 Fob. From J4 Oct. 
1873 until 17 Doe. 1874- ho performed tho 
duties of chief of tho staff in addition jto 
tlioso of quartorauiBter-goneraL For law ser- 
vices ho was mentioned in cleflpatcshes b/Sir 
Garnet Wolstsley, who attributed to Baker's 
untiring energy much of tho fluccoss that 
liad attended "tho operations, and expressed 
tho opinion that ho posRsHd ' every quality 
that is valuable to a staff oilicor.' ikker was 
promoted to a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy; 
received tho medal with clasp, and was rnaio 
a companion of the ordor of the Bath, mili- 
taiy division. 

On his return from Ashanti Baker was 
appointed a deputy assistant quartormastcr- 
geaeral on the headquarters staff in London 



on 22 May 1874, and an assistant adjutant- 
general on 10 Nov. 1875. Ilo was made an 
aide-de-canip to the queen, with rank of 
colonel in the army, on 21 April 1877. Ho 
was attached to tho Russian army during 1 
the Kusso-Turkish war of 1877, and was 
present at the principal operations. In No- 
vember 1878 ho wont to India as military 
secretary to Lord Lvtton, the governor- 
general. He was with tho vicoroy at Simla 
when Sir Louis Cavagnari was murdered at 
Kabul in September 1879. Sir Frodorick 
(afterwards Earl) Roberts was also at Simla 
on leave of absence from IUH division in the 
Kuram valloy ; and on boing ordorod to ro- 
join at once, and to advance on Kabul to 
exact retribution for tho out.rago, ho applied 
for Bailor's .services to command the Slid in- 
fantry brigade. 

Bakor accompanied Uobortsto Krmun, and 
on 19 Sept. ho repulsed an attack on the 
entrenchments of Im brigade at tho Slmtar- 
garchm ^pans. On 1 Oct. tho whole of the 
Kabul field force was aHHomblod in tho Logar 
valley; on the Oth Baker commanded the 
troops in the 8uc<;twlul battle of Charawa, 
and on tho 9(,h was with, Roberts at the 
occupation of Kabul. In November Bakor 
was Honl. in command of a forces to Maidan, 
on tho Kabul-(<lmxm rond, whorohoropulHod 
an attack and ruturnod to Kabul. On 8 Doo, 
he again commanded a foroo botwoon Ar- 
gandeh and Maidan, to co-opwnto witli tho 
other columns ongaged in the operations for 
the dostruciion of a fonnidaUo Afghan com- 
bination, but on lioaring of the failure of 
MOMMY'S column ho rotnrned t.n Kabul* On 
L'J "Dec. ho attacked tho AfghutiH on tho 
Takht-i-Shah hill, and on tho Mt.h ho agniu 
attacked thorn on tho A.smai hnights, but was 
forced by superior wuniborH to withdraw. 
The army was then conwntrattKi in tho 
Shorpur outronehmontH, An attack in force 
folio wod on 12iJ Dec:,, wlutn Bukor took part 
in tho comploU) doftwit and diHp(%rHion of tho 
Afghans. I Jo Hliorttv aft.(r commanded an 
expedition into Kohwtan and dotroyd a 
fortiliod post. 

Aftor the arrival at ICa))ul of Sir Donald 
Stewart [<;. v. SuppL] from Kandahar, and 
the news o; th dwantmr at Maiwand, ,Balfor 
was givt^n tho command of ono of tho in- 
fantry brigades of the force with which "Ro- 
berta loft; Kabul ou 9 Aug, 18HO for tho 
relief of Kandahar, Tho colobratod march 
was accompli B! led in throe wo.oka, Bak(^ 
with bin brigade, took a prominent :wrt in 
t/ho battle o: Kandahar on I K<nt. 3Co thon 
returned homo. For his Horvfcofl in tin we 
campaigns he was montiontsd in doHpatchoa 
(&. 16 Jan,, 4 May, and 3 Bee. 1880), ro- 



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stubborn resistance Shakir Pasha was en- 
abled to retreat in safety from his position 
at Kamarli. In recognition of this success 
Baker was promoted ;>y telegram from the 
porte to the rank of ferik or lieutenant- 
general. During the retreat of Suleiman's 
army he commanded the rearguard, and it 
fell to him to burn the bridge at Bazardjik 
over the Maritza. Later, however, in the 
war, becoming disgusted at the unaccount- 
able abandonment of strong* positions by the 
Turkish generals, he requested permission to 
return to England. Baker published in 
1879 his book entitled ' War in Bulgaria : a 
Narrative of Personal Experience '(London, 
2 vols. 8vo), in which he confined himself 
to describing the operations in which he as- 
sisted. He continued in the Turkish ser- 
vice, and after the conclusion of the war 
was commissioned to superintend the carry- 
ing out of the proposed Turkish reforms in 
Armenia, In 1882 he entered the Egyptian 
service on the oiFer bein* made to him of 
the command of the newly organised Egyp- 
tian army ; but on his arrival at Cairo this 
offer was withdrawn, and he was givon the 
command of the police, Bakor was con- 
vinced that the police would sooner or later 
be wanted as a military reserve, and concen- 
trated his attention rather on the flemi- 
rnilitary gendarmerie than the polico proper 
(MILNBB, Egypt, p. 332). His desperate en- 
deavour to relieve Tokar with 3,500 Egyp- 
tian troops and gendarmerie, little bettor 
than rabb,e in, discipline, met with complete 
defeat at El Tob on 5 Fob, 1884. His own 
account of the action was that, on the 
square being threatened by a force of the 
enemy less than one thousand strong, the 
Egyptian troops threw down their arms and 
rail, allowing themselves to be killed without 
the slightest resistance (ib. -), 109), lie 
acted on the intelligence stair of the force 
under Sir Gerald Graham [q.v, SmpL], and 
guided the advance of the army to tao second 
battle of El Teb on 29 Feb. 1884, on which 
occasion he was wounded. 

Bakor remained in command of the Egyp- 
tian police till his death, which took ^lace at 
Tel-el-kebir from angina pecfcoris on "J Nov. 
1887. He was buried with military honours 
in the English cemetery at Cairo. 

In a despatch from Lord Salisbury to Sir 
Evelyn Bnring (now Lord Cromer), dated 
5 Pec, 1887, tlie great regret of her ma; oaty's 
government was expressed at his tleaU, and 
acknowledgment was made of the important 
services he had rendered to the Egyptian 
government. His great military aoUties 
were, however, wasted in the command of a 
civil force; they were such that 'his career 



might have been among 1 the most brilliant in 
our military service '( TYmeff, 18 Nov. 1887). 

He married, on 13 Due. 18(55, Fanny, only 
child of Frank Wormald of Pottorton Hall, 
Aberford, by which marriage there were two 
daughters, the younger of whom only sur- 
vived her father and married Sir John Oar- 
den, bart. 

Besides the works mcmtionod in the text 
Baker wrote a pamphlet cm army reform 
(1869, 8vo) and ' Organisation of Cavalry ' 
for the * Journal of the Koyal United Services 
Institution/ 

[Times, 18 Nov. 1887; Annual KoRifltor, 1887; 
Sir Samuel Baker, a Memoir, by Murray and 
Whito, 1895; Baker's works; private informa- 
tion.] W, C-K 

BALDWIN", HOBTCKT (1804-1858), 
Canadian statesman, bom in Jforlc (now 
Toronto), in Upper Canada, on 12 May 1804, 
was eldest son of William Wurron Baldwin, 
a physician of Edinburgh, who Hottlod in 
Canada in 1798 in company with IUB lather, 
Robert Baldwin of Summer Hill, Knock- 
more, co. Cork, Ireland, and there ongugod 
in practice as a barrister. If in motlior wan 
Phaabp, daughter of William Willeockfl, 
sometime mayor of Cork in Ireland, and later 
judge of the noma district in, Upper Canada, 
llobert received hifl education at tho Home 
district grammar flchool undor John Slrachan 
[q.v.], and iu 1819 began tho study of law, 
On bt'ing admitted an attorney and cal lod 
to tho bar of tho province in '.trinity term, 
18S/5, he was takon into partinorHhn by IUM 
father, and from that time conduct^' a lar jfo 
and profitable buRinoBH until JH-IR, whon !io 
retired from active practice, Four ywu*H 
previously ho had inherited a largo property 
m Canada. On two occamonH ho waw t roa 
surer of tho Law Society and honorary lusad 
of the Upper Canada bar, holding- oitieo for 
the first time in 184-7 and 1848, and again 
from 18/50 till MB death. 

Baldwin's name IH inwnarably conmwtml 
with the introduction IMC oHtabliHhmont in 
Canada of parliamontary govttmm<w1i. UIH 
pxiblic life catojs from 18&X, wluin lus was an 
unsuccosHful candidate for York. Ho won 
the seat in January IBttO, but wa clofoattul 
after the dissolution in Juno following, and 
did not a^ain enter tho legislative aiSHwnbly 
until 18L-1, after tlus union of Upper witli 
Lower Canada, atul tho grant, to the colony 
of responsible or parliamentary govornwwni 

Meantime Baldwin drew u"> the aflom- 
bly's petition to tho king-, dntuc. lHii9, which 
protested against the ^ovornorV diRmifwal of 
a judge, John Walpo.e Willw [q, v.'] This 
document contains what IB docuuul to bo the 
first request on the part of a British colony 



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resolutions passed unanimously. In this 
manner was parliamentary rule formally 
introduced into the colonies. 

Lord Sydenham died shortly afterwards, 
and was succeeded by Sir Charles Bagot [q. v. 
Suppl.], who first organised in Canada govern- 
ment by means of a cabinet. The existing 
administration was threatened with defeat 
at the opening of the next session (1842), A 
reorganisation thereupon took place. Bald- 
win took ollice with Sir Louis Lafontatne. 
They accepted the portfolios of attorney- 
general for Upper and Lower Canada respec- 
tively, and became the actual leaders of the 
government, though their pre-eminence in 
the council was not official. Lafontaiue 
took charge of the affairs of Lower Canada, 
while those of Upper Canada and matters 
common to the east and west fell into Bald- 
win's hands. Baldwin was defeated on re- 
turn to his constituents after accepting- of lice, 
but was chosen by acclamation to represent 
Ittmouski in Lower Canada, The jVonch 
Canadians seized the opportunity to express 
their appreciation of hw services on thoir 
behalf. Baldwin and Lafontaine's adminis- 
tration, which lasted from September of] 842 
to September of 1843, marks tho first period 
of cabinet government in Canada. 

With Sir Charles Bugot's suo,coflor, Sir 
Charles Theoplrihis (afterwards Lord) M'ofc- 
calfo [q. v.], who professed his adherence to 
responsible government in Lord Sydtwlwm's 
understanding of the term, Baldwin and his 
colleagues came into conflict. The occasion 
was tho making of certain local appoint- 
ments by the governor on IUH own authority. 
The council remonstrated, and, as thoir re- 
monstrances were of no avail, resigned. The 
house which was then Bitting approved their 
action ly; a vote of two to one. A suasion 
of turmoil was brought to an early close, 
followed by ft ministerial interregnum that 
lasted nearly nine months. At length Mot- 
calf e gathered together a tolerably complete 
cabinet, dissolved the house, and entered the 
electoral arena with all the force he could 
command. He defeated Baldwin by a small 
majority, and sot William Henry l)rapcr 
(lftOl-1877) in power. But Draper proved 
no less tenacious than Baldwin of the, rights 
of his position, and tho ultimate effect of 
MetcaLVs action was to strengthen respon- 
sible government in the parliamentary seme 
of the term, which was not thenceforth 
called in ^question in Canada. 

After four years in opposition Baldwin re- 
sumed office in March 1S48 with Lafontoine 
under the governor-generalship of Lord 
Elgin. The administration, known again 
as the Lafontaine-Baldwin government 



(although Baldwin was never nominally 
prime minister), was once more framed on 
the basis of a double leadership. As in his 
earlier administration, Baldwin took charge 
of Upper Canada and matters common to 
east and west. Tho amount; of ccmHtructive 
legislation dlected was unprecedented in 
Canada. Among the special nioaHures UHSO- 
ciated with Baldwin's name in bin own 
section, Canada went, now tho province of 
Ontario, are: equal division of intoHtatoH 1 
land among claimants of the same degree; 
the organisation of the municipal system 
substantially as it now exists ; the ewtabliflh- 
ment of Toronto University on a non-sec- 
tarian basis; the oroc.l.iou of divuuon or 
small-debt courts, of the courts of common 
pleas and chancery. Ht had a principal 
share also in the fo, lowing acts, which \voro 
of common benefit to both sectioni* of tho 
colony: the taking over of the -)0t-oflico 
from the imperial authorities; tin fleUlo- 
ment of the civil list question; the freeing 
and enlargement of tho catials ; tint opening 
of the St. Jjawrence following the repeal of 
the British navigation laws ; tho abolition of 
the old preferential tariff. One act, of Inn 
administration urounecl great oppoHition in 
tho province. Known an tho Rebellion 
Losses Hill, its purpowo wan to connmiMuto 
thoBo pmwnw in .Lower (Junudu w w had 
sutterec. Ions from the rebellion of 1HU7 8, 
and were not actually guilty of troutum. A 
similar statute had been panned for Upper 
Canada. Tho bill was hl< ;, to be unjuHt to 
the loyal population, bub it WUH really an 
act of local justice. Oat of the agitation 
arose a movement, diielly among the Kng- 
llsh-tnealdng people, for tho annexation of 
Canaua with the United Staton. .Baldwin 
mot- this with determined boldneHH; nor wart 
ho IUSH hostile to a demand for Canadian 
independence, a Hulmtcliary ruUox of the name 
discontent. Since 1850 there IWH been no 
eoriouH leaning in cither of bluma <Unt(5tit)WH hx 
DritiHlx North America, 

Tho occasion of Ba)dwm f A retiw^neut wan 
a motion to inquire into the working of tho 
court ^ of chancery, which hud ;uHt }>on 
established. The, hoitHO rnjocted tuunotiou, 
but, aa a majority from Upper Canada 
favoured it, lie interpreted thtur vottj an an 
exprcemon^of non-confidence in him, He 
resigned hi portfolio to tho regret both of 
opponents am;, colluaguoH. In the enMuhi $ 
erections (18/31) he again Holkuted the HU ,'- 
frageof IHB old conBtitacmcy, tho North Itid- 
ing of York, but was defeated by one of hin 
nominal supporters. In fact, n<w JHBUOB or 
plmflos of iHsues wore amiug, and, as time 
wont on, there was a widening breach bo- 



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8vo). lie also wrote a prefatory descrip- 
tion of the districts dealt with in a ' Baro- 
metrical vSurvey of India,' issued in 1853 
under the editorship of a committee, of 
which Balfour was chairman, and in 18f)(> ho 
"mbUtahed * Localities of India exempt from 



In 1857 appeared at Madras the work by 
which Balfour is best known, ' The Ency- 
clopedia of India and of Eastern and 
Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial, and 
Scientific.' This book embodied groat ex- 
perience, vast reading, and indomitable in- 
dustry. A second edition in five volumes 
appeared in India in 1878, and between 1877 
and 1884 Balfour revised tho book for pub- 
lication in England. After the first edition 
the word 'Cyc",opcodia' was substitutod in the 
title for t Encyclopedia/ The third edition, 
which was published in London in 1885, 
waa at many points superior to tho earlier 
impressions. Balibur's outlay on it was 
lavish and ungrudging, but the usefulness 
of the work was soon generally recognised, 
and the whole expenditure was met within 
two years. 

From 1858 to 1R(J1 Balfour was com- 
missioner for inveslignting tho clobtH of 
the nawab of the (Jaruatic, at whose 
court he was for many years political agent, 
lie acted for a short period an assistant, 
assay master at the Madras mint, and in the 
military finance department of India he was 
at Madras examiner of xnculic-al aeeounts. 

In 1 H(W ho joined the administ rative grade 
of the Madras medical stall! Ho was do mty 
inspector-general of hospitals from 18t>^ to 
1H70, and during this period he served as 
deputy surgeon-general in the Burmah divi- 
sion, the Straits SettknmmtN, tho Audamuns, 
twice in tho ceded districts, twic in the 
Mysore division, and for four years with tho 
Hyderabad subsidiary foreo and Hyderabad 
contingent, 1 1 o d ispl ay ed the utmost on orgy 
in the personal inspection of IUH distric.U, 
and proved his continued interest in Heieutilie 
matters by instituting tho Mynore MuHiuim 
in 18(10, and by publishing at Madras a work 
on * The Timber Trees, Timber, and Fancy 
"Woods, as also tho Forests of India and of 
Eastern and South orn Asia,* which reached 
a second edition in 18(12, and a third in 1 870. 

From 1871 to 1 B7(i Balfour was, as surgeon- 
general, head of the Madras medical depart- 
ment. In the second year of 1m period of 
office he conferred a great benefit on the 
natives of India by drawing the attention of 
the Madras government to the necessity for 
educating women in the medical ;wofoampn, 
native social customs being such tliat native 
women were debarred aliko from receiving 



visits from medical nion and from attending 
at tho public hospitals and dispensaries. As 
a result tho Madras Modical College was in 
1875 opened to women, and his services in 
this direction woro commemorated in I8i)l 
by the endowment at. Madras University of 
a ' Balfour memorial' gold modal, with* the 
object of encouraging the modieal education 
of women. IklfourVi last puhliealions before 
leaving India woro two pamphlets with tho 
general title ' Miulinil Hints to the People 
of India/ Tlioy hore respectively the sub- 
titles, ' The Vy'd'uui and tho llalcirn, what 
do they know of Medicine r" and * Imminent 
Medical Men of Asia, Africa, Muro , and 
America, who have advanced Medical 
Science/ Both appeared at Madras m 1875, 
and reached uocoud odi lions in tho following 
year. 

In 1870 Balfour finally returned to Kng- 
land with a good service pension, after forty- 
two years' rosidimcn in India. Before his 
departure public acknowlodgnionti of his 
labours was made in an address present oil to 
him at Madras by the Hindu, Mohamme- 
dan, and Kuropean communities. His por- 
trait was placed in tho Government Central 
Museum, 

In Hngland, besides preparing for the *>roH 
the third edition of us ' Mm'.yc.lopaul ,a of 
India,' he issued * Indian Forestry' (1HH5) 
and 'Tho AgriouHimil l*twt.H of .India and of 
Eastern and Son thorn Asia, Vegetable, Ani- 
mar(I8H7). lie died on H J<H',. 18HS) at 
107 (Uout:(ster 'IVrratu^, \\ydu Park, at tlio 
age of seventy-six. Ho marritul, on ii-l May 
1H/W, Mm dtJost daughter of J)r t (Ulchriati 
of M adras, 

Hal four was a fellow of tho Madran (Tni- 
yorsity, and a earroHpomling mombor of tho 
linporitil Royal Ueologieal InHtiit.uto of 
Vionna. In addition to tho works enume- 
rated above, ho translated into Hindustani 
Dr. ,!. T. Conquest's ' OuUwoH of Midwifory/ 
andprocim^d and printed at. his own ux m\w 
translations of the wanie work in Tumi-, To- 
lugu, and Oumimso, lie, also tratwlat.ed into 
HindiiBtani (Uei?*H * Astronomy,' ami pnv- 
;)ared in 1H54 a (.iglot Hindustani and Ktip* 
Jsh ' Statistical Map of tho World/ whic, i 
was also roudmjcl and printed in Tatuil and 
Telugu, To jwrioditsul literature he matlo 
a largo numbor of contributUnw on vimoua 
subjects, a Hwt of which is given in tho 
' Oyclopiedia of India' (!Jrd (idit, JH85), 

HIH oldor brother, Si u (IwouuH BAiamnB 
(1 BOO- 1804), general and politician, was bom 
at MontroRo in 1809, lie wan educated at 
tho Military Aeadomy at Addtacombo, en- 
tered tli Madras artillery in 1825, and in tho 
following yar joined tho royal ttrtlUory, and 



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or trying to measure, the height of the hills 
around with a mountain barometer. 

Brought up as a 1 Ionian catholic, Ball at 
thirteen was sent for three years to the R-o- 
naan catholic college at Oscott, whence he 
went on to Christ's College, Cambridge, being 
admitted in 1835. There, like Darwin, he 
fell under the influence of Professor John 
Stevens Hcnslow [<:. v.], whose botanical 
lectures he attended", and in whose family 
the * wild Irishman ' was a prime favourite. 
He came out as twenty-seventh wrangler in, 
1839, but was prevented by his religion from 
taking a de ?ree. After Leaving the university 
Ball travelled for four years in different 
parts of Europe, seeing much of men and 
manners, and also of mountains and tlowers. 
A valuable paper on the botany of Sicily 
was one of the results of these oarly travels. 
In 1845 he stayed for some time at Zermatt 
in order to study glaciers, making a series of 
observations. The conclusions he was led 
to, however, coincided so closoly with those 
of James David Forbes fq. v.] that he re- 
frained irorn publishing thorn, though he 
afterwards contributed several *>aj>ers to the 
' Philosophical Magazine/ in waich he con- 
tested the hypothesis with regard to tho 
action of glaciers in the formation of Alpine 
valleys and hike basins that had boon lately 
^ut forward. Ball was called to tho Irish 
Dar in 1845, but never practised. In 18*16 , 
lie was appointed assistant poor-law com- ' 
mismoner. This was at the period of the 
Irish potato famine, Tho work was severe, 
and in the following year ho was forced by 
ill-health to resign. In 1848 ho stood un- 
successfully for the borough of Sligo. In 
3 849 he was again appointed aa second com- 
missioner, a post which lie hold for two 
years, when lie resigned it in order to stand 
as a liberal for counts Oarlow, for whioh he 
was elected on 20 Ju'y 18/5& In tho IIouso 
of Commons lie advocated most of tho liberal 
measures that have since become law : the 
disestablishment of tho church of Ireland, a 
readjustment of land tenure, the reduction 
ot rents, and a new land valuation. lie was 
not a froc uent or a lengthy sneaker, but he 
made so decided a mark in tie house that 
in 1855 Lord Palmeraton oflbred him the 
under-secretarysliip for tho colonies. 

In this position (which he hold for two 
years) Ball was able to advance the interest 
of science on aovoral notable occasions, It 
was mainly due to his energetic representa- 
tions that 'the Palliser expedition wa$ pro- 
perly equipped and sent out to ascertain the 
sest^ routes within British territory for 
ximting* by rail the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts, Canada and British Columbia. 



Among tho results of thin ontorpmo WUH tho 
discovery of four -jractieublo passes, one of 
which is now fol owed by tho Canadian 
Paciiic .Railway psoo PALLIHKK, JOHN]. 

.Ball was also instrumental whilo in olllco 
in inducing tho homo government to give 
its su-nort to Sir W. Hooker's o (Torts for 
the pu xieatiou of Horns of nil our colonies, 
compiled on a definite system, which ho 
himswlf drew up, an umWt'alcing equally 
important whether from tho commercial or 
from the scientific point of view. 

The combination of RciwntUic zeal and 
sound /iidjinent) a,s to tho extent of tho sup- 
port w.wu sciunco might reasonably claim 
:rom the state that Ball displayed while at 
the colonial oflieo lo<l to his opinion being- 
often ftrtkod, and sometimes acted on, ,But 
to tho ond of Iris life ho deplored tho com- 
parative indilt'onmcG to science, and tho 
ignorance of its practical bearings on tho 
prosperity of nations, nhowa by the .British 
treasury, as well a by British travellers and 
administrators in all quarterns of tho globe. 

In 1H58 Ball contcHtod lJm<^rirk, llm 
ardent sympathy with Italian libtrt.y(0avour 
and Quint-uio Hi>lla woro among' his closo 
friMidfi) did him Iiarm on this occasion with 
the Irish priostsjuid through t.hoir action he 
was d(vfoato.<l aftur a )a< k n contosti, ThiB 
rosiilt ho accept tul, dospito Htibsoquunl. o]>por- 
tunitios of a Meat oflbrwl him, ILH a dolinito 
diBchargo from public life, and oilhu). 

To a man wilJi th lasttH ho had shown 
from childhood thoro wus littlo struggle in 
resigning lumwolf to tlm carc.or of a natural 
philosopher. At tho sawo moment a doJinil'tt 
direction was givmi t,o his Inimiro by IUB 
nomination OR tho first) president of tho 
Alpine Club. That asHociutiou (founded in 
1857) was compoHttd of a flmall band of 
enthuaiafltic lovorn of tho mountains, who, 
having in common on of tho ohiof pltMuwruB 
of tliwir lives, wora anxiouH to provido ilxod 
0]>portunitiofl for meeting 1 , computing notoH, 
and dovolojring proj(jct.fi for n<w advt*ntuwH 
or oxtndd nwearchds. Ball was soltwtwl 
as the man who most thoroughly nnitud in 
himself and rqm^Htmlitul tlm various tuotlvoH 
which inspired tlui i!rst nunnl )or of t ho t'luh 
the sscjat lor adventure, tlio lovo of th<s glories 
of the mountuinfl, or Uio patimt puruit jf 
natural acionce in th many branchuH that 
are open to tho moimtainmjr, 

lie found another link with the Alps in 
hia first wifo, a dau^htr of tlw Nohilo Al- 
berto Parolini, a cistinguifihod naturalist, 
through whom ho subsomumtly came into 
property near Ikmflano, Tho t-ask ho mm 
mi Iximsolf was tho compilation of a jjuido 
to the whole Alpine chain from the Col di 



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college at Cambridge on 3 Oct. 1888. Ho 
was alwo a fellow of the Linnean, Geo- 
graphical, and Antiquarian Societies of Lon- 
don, and of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Besides the works mentioned above Bull 
published papers in tho Cambridge 'Mathe- 
matical Journal 1 on physical science, in the 
' .Philosophical Magazine, 1 and in the ' Re- 
ports T of the British Association, on the 
geological action of glaciers and on other 
subjects, on botanical subjects in the 
1 Botanical Magazine,' ' Journal of Botany/ 
the ' Proceedings of the Linnean Society/ 
' The Linnrca/ and the ' Bulletin do la 
800161.6 Botanique de France.' On Alpine 
subjects he contributed to tho first series of 
' Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers ' (which he 
edited), 1859, 8vo, and to the * Alpine Journal.' 
lie wrote the art.iclo t Alps ' in the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica T (Oth edit.), and an article 
in the ' Edinburgh Review/ 18(51, on glacier 
theories, lie contributed occasionally to 
the ' Saturday Review ' and * Nature.' lie 
was also the author of a tract (1847), ' What 
is to be done for Ireland P' (2nd edit. 1840), 
and an article in 'Matttmllan's Magazine/ 
1873, on Daniel O'Connell. 

[Biographical notices in Proceeding of tho 
Royal Society, 1881M)0, vol. xlviii. p. v ; Pro- 
ceedings of tho Royal Geographical Society, 
1^00, xii. J)0 ; Journal of IJotnny, 'Doctimbor 
1880; Alpirw Journal, vol. xv. No, 107, fcV 
brunry 1800, with portrait; ProcuodingH of th* 
Liimoan Society, 1 888-00, p. 00 ; Koyal Soi'ioty'H 
Cat. of Scicmtiiic Papers ; Brit. MUH. Oat] 

D, w; F. 

BALL, JOHN THOMAS (1,815-1898), 
lord chancellor of Ireland, waa the oldest 
son of Major Benjamin Marcus Ball, of tho 
40th regiment of foot, an officer who served 
with diKtitictioti in tho peninsular cam- 
paign; Uia mother was Elizabeth, daughter 
ofOuthl)(Tt,Fol,tuBof JIollybrook,co. Oarlow, 
Boll probably owed BOUIO of his most cha- 
racter'Htic qualities to his paternal grand- 
mother, Penelope Paumier, a member of an 
old Huguenot family settled in Ireland II o 
was born in Dublin on SM July 1H15 and 
was educated at Dr. StMit.h'B school in Uut- 
laml S( uare, Dublin, and at Dublin Univer- 
sity, jJnto'mg Trinity Gollogc in 1H81 at 
an unusually early ago, ho obtained a clasHical 
scholarship in 1H88, and in 1835 pnwluatod 
as Btmior moderator and gold rntidallimt in 
ethics and logic, i'To was an actives member 
during hia collude days of tho College His- 
torical Society, .ioldin^ in JKJ7 the oilice of 
^resident. In 18',14 lie took this dograe of 
^iL.D, During tho latter part of hia college 
career, and in his earlier clays at the bar, 
Ball woe a frequent contributor to tho 'Dublin 



University Magazine,' ami WHB intimately as- 
sociated with wane I5utt[f^, v.], Samuel and 
MortimorO'Sullivan [q. v,f,,JoHoph Hheridan 
Le Farm [q. v.J, nnd'otliorH. Bali's contri- 
butions worn for tho most part concurnnd 
with historical and biographical subjeetH, 
but he also wroto Homogracolul vorHoa.* All 
his writings ovince wouud classical Bcholar- 
ahi'j and novero ami lawtidiouB taste. In 
IK-xO ho was calliid to the Irish bar, whuro 
lie quickly rose to an omimmt ponilion, and 
in 1H54 lui wan called to tho inner bar. As 
a queen's counsel li'us practice lay nuiinly in 
the ecclesiastical courts, and later in tho 
probato and matrimonial division, wluiro 
ais knowledge of civil law and argtuncnla- 
tive subtlety rapidly raised him to tlw load- 
ing posit.iou. In lK(ft tho primate, Marcus 
Beresford |^<{. v. Suppl.], appointed him vicar- 
goiwjral ol the proviuct of Arnwflh. Tliin 
appointmont marlcoil tho commeucnneiit of 
Lis active intorost in the aJlairn of the U'inh 
church, of which ho wan a duvotwl immihur. 
In IHU.TBall was oluotud a bomther of tht 
King's Inns, and in lH(5/> was nuulo queoti'n 
advocate in Inland, In tho same year he 
first appeared in tho arena of politicH, coming 
forwart, at the gonnral election of iH(>r> a a 
candidate for tli<^ university of Dublin in 
the character of an independent churc.lnuatu 
Tho agitation ugaitiHt tho Irish oHla)>liHh** 
ment had already coinnien<iiul ; and Ball, for- 
seein^ the fiorcitnosn of tho storm, coutmellod 
legiH'.ation for eculnsiaHtical reform. Hiw 
policy involved tlie admisMion of <lellcmncioH 
which the majority of churchmen wnro not 
prepared to own, and I tall was defeated at 
the polls. In 1K07 Hall was nominated am 
a member of t,ho royal commisHion appointed 
by Disraeli to inquire into tho slate of tho 
church of Ireland, and m the following year 
became a member of the conservative ad- 
ministration as solieitor-general for Ireland, 
Later in tho name year ho VWM advanced to 
be atlioTOoy-general, for Ireland, 

In tho meantime Oladstono'H declarations 
had rained the issue of disestablishment in a 
direct form, and w face of tho impending 
peril the conservative electors of Dublin 
1 Jnivorsity reoogniHed tho importance of 
making Ball's abilities and knowledge of 
ecclesiastical ullkirs available lor the defence 
of the threatened instil ution. Accordingly 
he was at tho general gleet ion of IMH re- 
turned to parliament as member for the uni- 
versity, ' Upon him from that moment 
devolvod^ the tusk of inspiring, instruetmg, 
and inspiriting all tho opposition that WUM 
possible in a hopeless minority of 1^0 to tho 
mighty purpoHo which had rallied and united 
, the liberal party * ( Times). On the iutroduc- 



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trait of Ball by Mr. Walter Osborne is in 
the hall of the king's Inns at Dublin. 

Apart from his judicial eminence, Ball 
merits remembrance as one of the few Irish- 
men who have been strong enough to impress 
their convictions upon English statesmen, 
As an orator he achieved with great rapidity 
an extraord inary reputation. In his writings 
lie was studiously sparing of ornament, and 
both of the treatises mentioned above suffer 
in point of form from excessive condensa- 
tion. But their judicial tone will always 
render them valuable. 

[Bull Wright's Records of Anglo-Irish Families 
of Ball; Dublin Univ. Mag,, A-wil 1875; 
obituary notions in the Times, 18 Jarch 1898, 
and in Dublin Daily Express of same duto ; 
private information.] C, L. P. 

BALLAISTOE, JOHN (1839-1 893), ~>rime 
minister of New Zealand, born in 18t'&, was 
the eldest son of Samuel Ballance, farmer, of 
Glenavy, Antrim, Ireland. When fourteen 
lie was apprenticed to an ironmonger in 
Belfast, and at eighteen was employed in 
the same business in Birmingham. While 
still young he emigrated to New Zealand 
and settled as a small shopkeeper at Wau- 
panui, but soon abandoning sliopkecning- for 
journalism founded the ' Wanganui 11 oral d.' 
In the Maori war of 1807 he helped to orga- 
nise a company of troopers and rocoivec. a 
commission, of which he was, however, de- 
prived by the minister of defence on account 
of certain critical articles on the operations 
of the war printed in his newspaper, llis 
conduct in the iield had been goo<, and the 
war medal was afterwards awarded him. In 
1875 he entered the House of tteproBonta- 
tives and took an active part in Abolishing 
that part, of the New Zealand constitution 
tinder which the colony was for twenty-three 
years divided into provinces. Ballance then 
joined the liberal party formed in 1 877 under 
Sir Goorge Grey [q* v, SuppL], quickly made 
liis mark us a fluent and thoughtful debater, 
and in March 1878 became treasurer in 
Grey's ministry, On his motion a tax on 
the unimproved value of land was imposed 
in the same year ; but in 1879, after a pain- 
ful altercation with his chief, Ballance left 
the government and refused to rejoin it. The 
Grey ministry full, and a property tax re*- 
placed tlie land tax, 

In 1884- Ballance again became a minister, 
under his former colleague, Sir Itobort Stout ; 
this time his portfolios wore lands and native 
affairs. Kindly and pacific in dealing with 
the Maori, he aimed ai substituting concilia- 
tion for armed force, and in this nicknamed 
the ' one policeman policy ' he was entirely 



successful. As minister of lands ho endoa* 

voured to plant bodies of unemployed work- 

men on the soil as peasant farmum holding 1 

allotments under per wtual huine from tho 

crown in state-aider. village HeUletmmts. 

Though some of thewe failed, moro >r<wpin*ed< 

Ejected from ottiee in 1HH7, liaLunoe WUH 

elected leader of tho liberal opposition in 

1889 and formed a ministry hi J aiuiary 1 8J)1 , 

on tho defeat of Sir Harry Atkinson [q, v, 

Sup')L] Though in tailing health he did 

not jiositato to Htako hi miiUBt.ry'AoxistmKU) 

on a aeries of progroiwivp xneumuus of a re- 

markably bold and experimental kiwi, Thoso 

with which ho \viifl mowt closely and porHo- 

nally concerned wero : (1) th Abolition of 

the property tax, and tho Hub.sUtutiou there* 

for of a graduated laud tax and iueome tax; 

(2) tho change of life tenure of MiwtM in tho 

legislative council tho upper houii of tho 

colony's parliament- to A tenure of Hoveu 

years; (8) tho extension of thn HulIVug to 

all adult women; (4) tho roHtrtetioti of pro- 

perty votoi'H to one electoral roll, In addi- 

tion Bnllanoo obtained from tho colonial 

oilicu tho admission that the viceroy nhould 

act on tho advice of his nunlstern in ronpoot 

of nominations to th<s upp(srh<>UH; ulHothafc 

he Hhould take tlu mime advi<uj wluni ox<p- 

ciwing the prerogative of mercy, Another 

bouofmial meufiure of lialliinco*ri pliicod lur^o 

Maori ronorvofl in the North Inland un(',or 

the public trustee, opening them to nettle- 

ment, but pro^orving fair rentw for the native 

owners. As prtmiior ho showed luioxjxtctod 

constructive ability and managing wkill, tho 

progressive policy of hin winwtry took tlio 

country by Ntorm f and diieily to" tliia it is 

due that hw party Htill goverun the colony. 

Ballance lummilf did not livo to ws t.fio 

ellect of thin 8UcoHH, At tho height of bin 

popularity h<i died after a Hovnro Hurgi<*al 

operation on 27 April JHJW. Ho WIIH iitnun 

o: q[uiot xnunnor y amiable ttun'ier, Himple and 

unassuming in hin way of .iio, yet Holid, 

widely read and well informed, ami, though 

sensitive to critinimu andpublie opinion, vt*ry 

far from being \,\M rauli, oinptv f weak dema- 

gogue he was Homet.imeH callotl, Ilu was 

twice married, but left no ohilrlron, 

[Gisborno'H KulorH imd Statdsmon of Now %<sa* 
land, 2nd edit., l07 ; HVH'H Long Whft 
Cloud, 1808; Ohamcttu" Sketch, Tho II on, John 
Ballance, by Sir Hubert Hl,ont, in Hoviow of U<H. 
riowe (AuHtrnlian wlition), JVtotlKmrmt, 180IJ. 
Seo alao Now Xoalaud uuwHpaporfl, 28 April to 
10 May 1893/1 W. P. It, 



WILLIAM (1813- 
1887), 8arjoant-at4aw t born in IIowliuul 
Street, Tutteiiham Court Ivoad, on 3 Jau. 



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Ballantyne 



work characterised by a greater urbanity i 
not by a greater coherence tluin its prede- 
cessor. lUllantine, who at the close? of his life 
was ono of eight surviving serjeants-at-law, 
died at Margate on 9 Jan. 1887. Ho married 
on 4 Dec. 184 L Klim, daughter of Henry 
Gyles of London. Ilia son, Mr. Waller 
Balhmtine, was M.P. for Coventry 1887-95. 

Hallantine was lor many years a well- 
known figure in metropolitan and especially 
in theatrical and journalistic society. His 
intimate knowledge of human nature made 
him a tower of strength for the defence 
in criminal trials, lie was a brisk and 
telling speaker, but owed law unique posi- 
tion rather to his skill as a cross-examiner 
and to the fact that he was a recognised 
adopt in the art of penetrating the 
motives and designs of criminals. lie 
was generally credited with being the 
orignal of Oliaflanbniss in Trolkno'n novel 
of ' Orley Farm/ The value of ,iis career 
as a pattern for the, profession was not un- 
questioned. According to the ' Law Times' 
' ho died very poor indeed, 7 and * left 
behind him scarcely any lesson, even in 
his own poor biography, which the rising 
generation of lawyers could profitably learn,' 

A good Woodfmrytyw portrait was pre- 
fixed to 'The Old Work" and the New,' 1884. 

[Homo Experiences of a Barrister's Li Co, 
18H2; Poster's Men at the Bar, 1JW5, p, 21; 
Boawo'H Modoru Knglinh Biography, 1802, p. 
147; Mon of thn Time, 12th od. 1887; ( i iuut. 
Mug. 18fl3, i. 101 ; Illustratwl News, 18M, i. 
317, and 22 Jnn, 1887 (portrait) ; Times, 10 Jan. 
1887 ; Law Times, 15 Jan. 18B7,] T, S. 

BALLANTYNE, ROBERT MTOITARL 
(1825-1894), writer of boys' books, bom at 
Edinburgh on 24 April 1825, was the son of 
Alexander Ballantyne, a younger brother of 
James Ballantyne fq, v.j, the printer of 
Scott's works, lie used himself to toll how 
his father was employed to copy for the 
*)ress the early novels of the Wavwley Hurit*H, 
because liis handwriting was leant luiown to 
the compositors. Ills eldest brother was 
James Uotet Ballantyne [<j.v.], tho dintiii- 
guifllxod orientalist. 

"When a boy of sixteen Robert Michael 
was apprenticed by his father aa a clerk in 
the service of the Hudson's Bay Fur Com- 
pany! at a salary commencing at iiOJ. lie 
wont out to Rupert Land in 1841 , and spent 
six; years for the most part in trading with 
the Indians. lie kept a rough diary of his 
doings, and on his return to Scotland iu 
1846 this was published by Black wood as 
'Hudson's Bay; or, Life in the Wilds of 
North America-' For tho next seven years 



he occupied a post in the printing and pub- 
lishing lirm oi Thomas Constable of Kdin- 
bnrgh. In November ISo5 tho Edinburgh 
mblisher, William Nelson, surest ed to 
! iallautytK^ that ho should write a book for 
boys, embodying some of his experiences iu 
tho ' ;freat lone and,' This was rapidly eom- 
poao(", and suce(\s,sfully issued in lHr>(i as 
' SnowflaltoH and Sunbeams; or, the Young- 
Fur Traders,' tlui lirst part of the title, bt^ng 1 
dropped in subsejuent. e<litions. ' From tliat 
clay to this,' wrot.e Hallantyno in I SOU, * I 
"have lived by making story l)ooks for young 
folks/ In his second book, MIngava: a 
Tahi of Eskimo Lund 7 (1857), he again 
drew upon the great, north-west, In his 
third, 1 lie 'Corn I Island' (IS/57), in describ- 
ing what he had not neon, he made a some- 
w-iat. humorous blunder in regard to tho 
cocoanut, which ho described as growing in 
the form familiar to the KngHsh market. 
Thenceforth ho determined l to obtain infor- 
mation from tin* fountain-htMid.' Thus, iu 
wriling'Tlm Lifo Boat, '(lS(M>),ho went down 
to lUmsgntti and made the ar.quaintanee of 
Jarman, the coxswain ol the lifeboat there; 
in preparing 'Tho Light house* (IHOfi) hu 
oblainod ptrmission from the Northern 
Lights (lorn mission to visit tho Boll Uock, 
and studied St.evonsonYi account of tho 
building ; t o obtain local colour for * Kight ing 
the Flames' (ltSU7) Im served with tho Lon- 
don salvage corps an an amateur fireman; find 
' Deep Down ' (IHBS) took him among tho 
Cornish miners, ,1 Iu visited Norway, Canada, 
Algiers, and the Capo Colony for materials 
respectively for * Kriing tho Bold/ *Thn 
Norsemen of the West/ 'The Pirate City/ 
and 'Tim Settler and the Savage/ He got; 
Captain Shaw to read the proofs of * light- 
ing tho ^Klanu'n/ and Sir Arthur Blaekwood 
those of ' Post Haste,* 

In such utorieH an tho above, to which may 
be added 'This World of hw 1 (1800), 'Tim 
Dog CniMoo' (1HM), 'Tho (lorilla Hunters' 
(1WJ2), 'The Iron Horse' (1H71), ami 
* Black Ivory' (IS/^)^ Ballantyne continued 
the sueeesses of Mayrm Ittncl. But hin 
HuecesH is tht* more remarkable iuaHmuc.h as, 
though his boolw am nwrly always iuHt.ru<j- 
live, and his youthful heroes embody all tho 
virtues inculcatttd by Dr. Smiles, his talcw 
remained geiuunely popular among boy 
(despite the rivalry of Juhw Vurno, Henty, 
and Kingston) for 'a period of nearly forty 
years, during which Bullantyue produced a 
of over eighty volumes, II o was a 



thoroughly religious man, au aotlvtj 
porter of tho volunteer wewmuwt in its 
early days, and no mean draughtsman, ix* 
kibituig \vatur-colourtj for many ycturu at thy 



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Barkly 



Tliomas Bardolf succeeded his father as 
fifth baron in 1386. He bad married, before 

8 July 1.S82, Amicia, daughter of Ralph, 
second "baron Cromwell, and aunt of Ralph, 
fourth baron Cromwell [q. v.], and had on 

9 May 1383 been enfeoflfed by his father of 
the manor of Jteakington. His mother in 
her will requested Henry Percy, first earl of 
Northumberland ("q, v.],' to superintend the 
arrangements for her funeral, and Bardolf a 
daughter Anne married Sir William GliUbrd, 
Northumberland's rig] it-hand man. Bardolf 
therefore naturally followed the political 
load of the Percies during Uiehard U'B reign. 
On 5 April 1309 he received letters of pro- 
tection on going to Ireland with the king 
(UvMtiit, viii. 79), but there is little doubt 
that, he, like Northumberland, joined Henry 
of Lancaster when he landed' in Yorkshire 
in the following July, and from the begin- 
ning of Henry IV'a'roigii he was an active 
member of the privy council (Nicolas, Ordi- 
nances, &c. i. lOtt sqq.) On 9 Fob, 1400 ho 
offered to assist Henry against '.ho French 
or the HcofcB ' without wag-as or reward/ and 
accompanied tho king on hia invasion of 
Scotland in tlu? following Auguat, 

Tho loyalty of the Pereies to Henry TV 
was, however, Hhortli ved, and 1 tardol t'appoars 
to have been implicated to HOMO extent iu 
Hotmnr'fl rebellion of M0'5. He in wtid to 
have aoon convicted of trwwon and pardoned 
(G%/wz., eel. Oiles, p. 42), but oven Mr, 
Wylie is unable to throw light on this 
obscure affair. In any caws Itardolf seems 
to have been fully restored to favour, and 
continued a regular attendant at the privy 
council until the beginning of 1405. Secretly, 
however, he was privy to tho plots formed 
in tho winter of 14 1)4-5, Even at the council 
board he had shown a refractory disposition 
in opposing grants and other measures, and 
when, in May IdOfi, Henry summoned him 
to Worcester to serve against tho Welsh, 
Bardolf disobeyed the order and made hm 
way to Northumberland, On 12 Juno his 
property was declared confiscated, and ou 
the 19ta the peers found that he had com- 
mitted treason, but suggested that a pro- 
clamation should be made orclerinj him to 
appear -within fittoon days of Micmimmer, 
or else to bo condemned by default. Instead 
of appearing at York on 10 Aug., tho date 
toe, Bardolf, with Northumberland, lied 
to Scotland, Some of his lands wero granted 
to Prince John, afterwards Duke of Bedford, 
and others to Henry and Thomas Beaufort. 
Boon afterwards the Scots proposed to 
surrender Northumberland and Bardolf in. 
exchange for the Earl of Douglas, who had 
been captured by the English at Iloruildou 



Hill ; but the two poors escaped to \Vali8, 
To Bardolf is ascribed the famous tripartite 
treaty dividing Knghmd and Wales between 
Owen Gleudowor [q. v,], Sir Edmund Mor- 
timer (1370-1 409 Pj [q, v.], and the Karl of 
Northumberland, which was now Holemnly 
agreed to. 1 hiring 1 the wprmg of 1 4()(> North- 
umberland and Bardolf remained in Wales, 
giving what help they could to Owen Glen- 
dower, but in .Tuly they nought .siiler refuse 
at PnriB. There thoy nvn'OHnnted themselves 
aa the Hupporte.ru, not o. 1 the psoudo Richard, 
but of tho young- Karl of March ( UAMHAV, i. 
112, lltJ). They fniled, however, to obtain 
aiiy material Hupporl., were equally IWHUC- 
cmsful in .Klnu(l(,r,s, and finally roUirnnd to 
Scotland. Thoy hud Hlill Homo Hecret Http- 
porUsr,s in the north of I^nglatxl, whero tho 
irevalont dirtorder wiuned to oiler Homo faint 
7iopca of HucctwH. In January 1407-8 they 
crossed tlw I'WCVM!, and advanced to Thirnk, 
whore they Issued a munileHto, But their 
following was Hma.ll, and on H) Fob. thoy 
wero dotoatod by Wir Thoman Itokeby [q, v,] 
at Jtramlmm Moor, Northumberland \vart 
killed, and Bardolf, who WOH capt.ured,(lied 
of InHWoundH the mime ni^hu HIH body 
was (Miartered, and ]>art-H of it. Hont to Lou- 
don, ! jynn, HhrowHlmry, and York, the l 
be.inp exhihitexl at Lincoln (KnylM 
<H!. DavieH,p. U4), Lord Hardolf Hguv 
mnumtly in Slwktvnoare'H * Honrjj IV, part 
ii. ;' the other Bar^olf, PirttoL'N (Vinnd, who 
appwu'H in both partn, and alwo iu ' llonry V/ 
soottiH to b(5 entirely imaginary. 

.Bv hia wife, who diet- ou I July 14LM* 
Barcolf had IHSUO two datu^hterrt: Anne, 
who married iirnt. Sir William OliUbnl. 
and secondly Sir Reginald Oobham; and 
Joati (1390-1447), who married Sir William 
Phelip (im-1441) of Denniugton, Huilolk, 
and Kr])inglnim, Norfolk [of. art* KUIMNU* 
HAM, Siu THOMAS']. He'Herved at Agin- 
court, waa captain of llarilwtr 14^1-14^1 
treaaurer of the houNtOioId to Henry V, anu 
chamberlain to Heury VI, and on li Nov. 
14-.'i7 wa8 croat.ud Dttron J^ardolf; <m hifl 
death iti 144-1 the peerages boeamo tixt.inct, 

| Full dut4iilfl of IUrUolt*H Hfs with anr,ilo w* 
fori-neon to tho original authorittoH, uro g'vim in 
Wylio'w Hint, of Il^nry J V and Kamuy*H Lan- 
caster and York. Tho <'liif ar <>wlinant* of 
tho Privy Council, J. Nicoliw; KtHuli Purl,; 
Rynu'ir'tf Fwulora, vul. viii, ; Oal. ,Ht, Pat, ; (Jul, 
Rot. Olnus.; HUMHOX AwhieoL Coll, vol. xi.; 
BlDmofiolcrs Norfolk, piwwim; 0, K. C[okayno]'H 
Oomploto Towage,] A, i'\ P. 

BABRLY, 'SIR HRNUY (1815 1BOB), 
colonial govomor, born in 181 5, -wan the only 
son of ^Ffliittafl Bavldy of Montea^le m ( ltoMH- 
shiro, a Wost ludia merchant* Ko received a 



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Barlow 



tcr of Sir Thomas Simson Pratt [q. v.] By 
his first wile ho had two sons. 

Hi 8 son, ABTHUB CHOIL STITAKT BAEKLY 
(18-4 3-1 890), colonial governor, was educated 
at Harrow, arid became a lieutenant in the 
carabineers. In November I860 ho was 
nominated private secretary to his father in 
the Mauritius, and afterwards filled the same 
office at the Cape of Good Ho >c. In August 
1877 he was appointed a resident magistrate 
in Basutoland. lie took part in the IJasuto 
campaigns in 1879 and 1880, and in November 
1881 was appointed chief commissioner of the 
Seychelles. In January 1886 he became 
lieutenant-governor of the Falkland LslandH, 
but returned to the Seychelles in the fol- 
lowing year. In 1888 he was nominated 
governor of Heligoland, where he remained 
until its transfer to Germany in Auguwt 
1890. He died on i27 Sept. 1800, while on 
a visit to Stapleton Park, Pontofract. 

[Mon and Women of tho Tiino, 1895; Times, 
22,26,27 Oct. 1808; Kostor'H Haroiiolngo mid 
Knightages Colonial Oitko Lints ; Ollieinl Ru- 
turris of Mwnhors of Park; (hint. Mag. IS 10 
ii. $86, 1857 ii. 327, !M6 ; Kod way's Hint,, of 
British Gniuim, 189-1, iii. 100-12; Gunluor'ti 
Hint, of Junmien, 1873, pp. 448, 452 ; MolUno's 
Life and Timea of Mir J. 0. Molbono, I JUKI, pjw- 
flim ; MiLrriuonu 1 *) Lifo of Krorti, 180"), ii, 171, 
173 ; Tlioal'a South Africa (Story oftho Nation*), 
1804, p. 320 ; Reply of ProHidont [Jurors to tho 
DcBpatchoH of Sir II. Harkly(()llit i ial Oornwp. of 
South African Kcp.). 1874; Bowcm'n Thirty 
Years of Colonial Government, o<L S, Latin- 
Poolo, 1880, ii, 7fi-C, 81, 223; Chiogr. Journal, 
1808, i. 621-2.] JB. I. 0. 

BAJRLOW, PETEU WILLIAM (1809- 
1BK5), civil engineer, born at Woolwich on 
1 Fob. 1800, was tho eldest son of Peter 
Barlow [q, v." In 18i(1 ho became a pupil 
of I lenry Ktuiuflon l^ilmor, then acting' us 



Blatant engineer to Thomas Telford [<j, v,] 
Under Palmer ho wan engaged on tho Liver- 
pool and Birmingham Canal and tho now 
London Dockw. Jn 1827 he WIIH ducted an 
asHociato member of tho. Institution of Civil 
Engineers, In 18&J- and 18'$5 he wafl em- 
ployed in surveying the county of Kent for 
the London and Dover railway, and in IfcJiJCJ 
he was appointed resident engineer, under 
Sir ^William Oubitt [q. v.], cm the central 
division of the line between Edenbridg-c and 
Hoadcorn, In 1838 and 1H3S) tho sections 
from Edtmbridgo toltodhill and from I load- 
corn to Folkestone wore placed in his hawk; 
in 1840 ho became resident engineer of tho 
whole line; and subsequently JIB was ap- 
pointod enginoer-in-ehiof. In 1R4S he de- 
signed and executwd the Tunlmdgo Wells 
branch, a Hue remarkable from the fact that 



it was executed, with tho consent of the 
landowners and occupiorw, before tho act, of 
parliamont sanctioning 1 it was obt.aiiuul. 
During tho next eight years ho was engaged 
on tho extension of the Tmibridge Wells 
branch to 1 1 anting, l.ho North Kent, tins 
Ashford and Ilasl.ings, and tho Uodhill and 
Reading rail ways, nnd from iKfiOho was em- 
ployed m connection with tho Newt-own and 
Oswestry, the Londonderry and I'hmiskilh'ii, 
and the Londonderry and (Joloraine railways. 
On HO Nov. lH4r> ho WUM elected a follow" of 
the Royal Hocitty, 

In 1858 Itarlow inv(Hti^at.ed, with tho 
asHiHtanco of inodelH of lar^-e nixe, tho con- 
struction of hridgtw of f^rent sp, i ui t p?ivin|jf 
eiHpecial attention to thn prohh*m of Ntillenifir 
the roadway of HUS]>(Mi.sion bridjjfeH, It hat. 
been suppowrd that to imiko a HUwperiHiou 
bridge an Htill' an a girder bridge it WRH 
nocoHsary to use lattice prdnrn HulluMontly 
strong to hear the load of tliein.selv<M, anil 
that. Hucli Ixsiu^ th<i cao HUHpoiision chains 
were UHelewn, iarlow, howovcr, showed tho 
poHHibility of Htillnninpi'HitMpiMiMiou hrid(.uH hy 
comparatively li^ht parallel g'irderH <^xtend- 
ing from pier to pier. Hurjoy/H e.oncluj-ioiiH 
have b(on confirmed by William John MHO 
quorn Itankino |"<|. v.]' (Manual, of Ap^lM 
Mtrhanir^ od. Millar", 1HOH, p, 370). VVhilo 
invosti^atinif this prohlnin Harlow nxMiuitu k <l 
tiho groat railway and road hrid^o at Niu^u-ra, 
and on IUH return pnhlisluxl M Hwwval lonw 
on tho Niagara Railway SuNpi^nnion Bridge' 
(London, 1NOO, Hvo). 'Hlmrtly alltirwardn a 
company wan formed for constriK-.tiug a 
bridge across l-.lws Tham^H at LainhiMh, of 
wlxichho wan appointed en, 'imor. r l 1 hiH wirn 
rope HtiHpwiHiou bridge, wauth wan opom^l 
on 11 Nov. 180^, eoutnmetl duigonal Ht.rtitH 
in conn<<',tion with the vortical tien from 
which the roadway wa HiiHponthul, In t.luH 
way a Hiillicient dtgrou of HtilVneM waw at- 
tnined to permit lar^n gan niaiiiH to be laid 
acroHH the brid jfn wit, lout; auy^ leakage, I <am- 
both bridgo, * t ,10 eheapnHt hridge in Londoti/ 
which cont with itn a-prondieH 45,001 )/., wan 
-)iircha,s(d hy tho Metropolitan Hoard of 
Vorks (WiiHATr.KV and UUNNWUHAM, Xrm- 
donPtwt and /Vwwntf, 1H91, ii, JJ5H), 

During tho coiiHtructjon of tLm hridgn tho 
procoMH of sinking or forcing into tho clay 
the cast-iron cy. indent which formed tho 
pitTH fiuggenttul to Barlow th* idea that nmsh 
cylinders could easily Ixulriven horizontally, 
and could bo employed in Huitahlo soils for 
tunnelling under river bods. In accordancu 
with thoo theories the Tuww nubway WIIH 
constructod in 1HOO and 1H70 by eixcavating 1 
a tunnel through the clay bod of t.li Thaauw 
by moans of a wrought-irun shield, eight feet 



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Barnard 



titled * Callings from Nature,' He moved 
to Ebury Street, London, in 1847. Ilia first 
independent work was a plate in the line 
manner from. John Phillip's t Courtship,' exe- 
cuted in 1848, and this led to a close friend- 
ship with the painter, the most important of 
whose pictures he subsequently engraved. 
These include 'Dona Pepita,' l8fi8; 'The 
Prison Window/ 1860; 'The House of 
Commons in I860,' I860; 'Prayer in Spain,' 
1873; ' Highland Breakfast/ 1877 ; and tho 
celebrated 'La Gloria, 7 1877. Barlow was 
the executor of Phillip's will, and drew up 
the catalogue of the collection of his works 
which was brought together at tho London 
international exhibition of 1873. Tu 1HH6 
lie engraved Millais'a ' Huguenot/ and in 1 805 
his ' Mv First Sermon/ and during tho latter 
part 0'., his life was largely engngod upon 
that artist's works. Tho portraits of Bright, 
Gladstone, Tennyson, Newman, Lord Salis- 
bury, and other public characters, painted 
by Millais for Messrs. Aguow, were all on- 
graved by Barlow, Other woll- known plat <vs 
'yy him are the M)tath of Ohatterton, after 
It. Wallis; portrait of Sir Isaac Newton, 
after Kneller ; portrait of Churl ea DidcoriB, 
after Frith; and several after Lamlseor, 
Maclise, AnwcMl, and Sant. Barlow en- 
graved Turner's ' Wreck of the Minotaur' 
for the Earl oi* Yarborough, who presented 
the plate to the Artists' Gonoral Benevolent 
I nt it lit. ion, and for tlio samo charity ho in 
185(J executed a large etching of 'turner's 
* Vintage of Macon,' This ho thirty years 
later undertook to complete in mezzotint., 
and he had just accomplished tho work at 
the time of iis death. Barlow was eloetod 
an associate en graver of the Royal Academy 
in 187,% a fuL associate in 1876, and nn 
academician in 1881, I Jo was a mombcw 
and for many years secretary of tho Etching 
club, and in 188(5 was appointed director 
of the etching class at South Kensington. 
Barlow was a very accomplished (mgravor, 
and one of tho last survivors of tho oldW.hool 
of mes5zotin.tr and mixod work, Ho died at 
his house, Auburn Lod^e, Victoria Koad, 
Kensington, on 24 Dec. 1889, and was bitritsd 
in the ."irompton comotory. 

Portraits of him were painted by John 
Phillip in 1856, and by MQaift in 188fl, and 
he sat for the fig-ur of tho sick ornitholo- 
gist in the latter^ picture, *The Ruling Pas- 
sion ; ' Millais'a portrait ia now in the Old- 
ham Corporation Art Gallery, and is repro- 
duced from a photograph in the * Manchester 
Quarterly,' April 1691. A photographic por- 
trait, with biographical notice, appeared in 
Mr. F, G, StepaWs < Artists at Homo,' 1884. 

Barlow married, in 1851, Ellen, daughter 



of James Cocks of Oldham, who survives. 
In 1891 the Oldham corporation acruirod an 
almost complete collection of JBarJow'e en- 
gravings. 

[Memoir by Mr. Hurry Thornbor, reprinted 
from tho Manchester Quarterly, April 1801; 
Athonamm, 28 Due. 1889 ; Times, U8 .Doc. 1880 ; 
Manchester Kmiing News, 27 Doc. 188!); twtoa 
kindly supplied by Mr. 0, W, Button, and private 
information.] F. M, O'l). 



BARNAKD, F11E1 )F/IUOK (1 8-KM Hfl(J), 
humorous artist, ymuitfost child of Mrlwaril 
Barnard, a mnnufacturixig 1 silvorHmith, \va 
born in Angul Street, SU MaHan'H-lt^Orand, 
London, on !>(> May 184(>. Jin wtudiod iirst 
at lIc.athorh^y'Hnrt scshool in NownuuuStrcot, 
wboro aro still pronorvod nomo clovnr cariea- 
tunw exueutod by him of bin mawtor and 
fellow pupils, anil later undw Bonnat in 
Paris, HIM narlicMt publication wan a Hot of 
twenty charcoal drawing ontitlod 'Tbo 
Teoplo of Paris, 1 and ho bccamo a very 
popular artist in black tvn<l white, cluofly ex-* 
colling in tljo dtdintmtion of tlu^ typos and 
xnannorH of tho lownr ortlors of society, AH 
enrly^is 1803 ho had eont-ributod to * launch/ 
and for two yoar.s lu^ was cartoonist to * Fun/ 
Harnard -was ono of tho most Nytupathotic 
and succoHsful of tho hitrj)i'ctrs of (UlinrloH 
Dickons; tlw majority of tJus ouf'H in llm 
houHohold edition of that author's works 
(1H71-9) aro from his poncil, and botwiion 
1879 and 1HH4 IM m\\M\ tliroo eorion of 
* Character Slwtchon from I )ickons/ ITo also 
illustratod novols by Justin Mawrthy, II, K. 
Norris, arid othws, and much of Ins work 
appeared in < Good Words,* * ()no a Wwjk/ 
and the * Illuwtratod London NOWR/ A lino 
edition, of Banyan's * Pilgrim's ProgrosH,' 
mainly illustrated by Barnard, ap-Hmrtul in 
1880. Ho collaborated with Mr. <*, U. HiwH 
in his MIow thn I'oor Livo/ IHH.1, and 
during 1880 and 1887 workod in Atnoricafor 
Mossrs. Harper Brothers, Amotig his latosft 
productions was a sorios of pimillnl ctharactom 
drawn from Hhakospoaro and UickimHy whush 
appeared in Mr, II any Furniss'H wookly - our- 
na, entitled *Lika Joko' in 180-1 and ' 895, 
Barnard jmint-Gd a f<nv oil pictures of gt'<^afc 
merit, which apjwaml from tirat to tiwo 
at the Royal Aetidumy, and vrwi brought 
together at the exhibition of * Mn^'iah 
IIumoriatB in Art/ 1889, Of thH<s th bvsti 
aro ^My first Pantomime* and ' My last Pan- 
tomimo' (tho, property of Hir Knnfy Irving), 
*Tlie Jury X^ilj^rim's PrognjfiH,* ** Saturday 
Ni^lit in. tho Kaat End,' and ' Tho Orowil 
T):'bre the Quartls' Band* St. Jainws'H 'Park.' 
Barnard naarriwd in 1870 Alico Farafiij,a 
niece of Miehad Faraday [q, v/J llt> was 



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sonally he would never accept a privilege 
which involved the renunciation of his 
rights as a British subject, lie was there- 
fore regarded with some favour by President 
Kruger, and his persuasions wore to some 
extent responsible for the president's consent 
to the extension of the Cape railway into 
the Transvaal; he failed, however, to induce 
the president to withdraw his support from 
the Netherlands railway, or to '-rant mu- 
nicipal government to Johannesburg. He 
was naturally not initiated into the secret 
of the Jameson raid of December 1805, which 
he afterwards denounced in unmeasured 
terms; but his nephew, Mr. S. B. Joel, was 
one of the reform committee of Johannes- 
burg, and after tho raid Barnato went to 
Pretoria to plead on the prisoners 1 behalf; 
he also threatened to close clown all his 
mines and throw twenty thousand whites 
and a hundred thousand 'KalUro out of em- 
ployment unless the prisoners were released, 
when their release was effected Banwto pre- 
sented to Mr. Kruger the two marble lions 
which guard the entrance to what was then 
the presidency at Pretoria. 

Barnato's health began to fail in 1807, 
and on 14 June he threw himself ^overboard 
from the Scot, not far from Madeira, on his 
way from Capo Town to Southampton ; the 
Capo legislature adjourned ou hearing tho 
news ; his body wan recovered and brought 
to Southampton, where, on tho 18th, a 
coroner's jury ret u mud a verdict of ^ death 
by drowning while temporarily insano.' 
Barnato was buried on the 520th by tho 
side of his father in "Willoatlen cemetery ; a 
portrait is prefixed to Raymond's ' Memoir,' 
5le married in 1875 at Jumborloy, and hift 
widow, with two sons and ono daughter, 
survived him. 

Barnato possessed a wonderful financial 
aptitude, untiring industry, and a genius for 
stock exchange speculation. Jlo retained 
his ignorance through life, read nothing not 
even the newspapers, and amused himself 
with the drama of the lower sort, with 
"ir'usti-fighthigy and horse-racing. He was, 
However, generous, good-natured, and freo 
from snobbery* lie did not live to com- 
plete the mansion ho common cod building 
m 1895 at tho corner of Park Lane and 
Stanhope Street. The management of his 
business afFairs devolved upon his nephew, 
"Woolf Joel, who was assassinated at 
Johannesburg in March 1898, and buried in 
"Willesden cemetery on 19 April (see Times, 
20 April 1898). 

[Memoir by H, Baymond, 1897; Times, 
16 and 21 Jane 1897; Cape Timon, 36 Juno; 
Cape Argus and Johannesburg Star, 17 Junej 



Cecil Khodos, by Vindox, 1000, chap, vi. ; Fits- 
^M! ride's Trunsviuil from Within, 1800; J 
"VIeOall Theal'B South Africa, od. 1890.1 

A. F. P. 

BARNBY, Sm JOS HIM I (IMH-IHM), 
composer and conduct.or, non of Thomas 
Haruby, an organist, WUH born at York on 
12 Aug. 1H38. At tho age of woven ho bo- 
came a chorister in 1.1m minuter, a six of hm 
brothers had been before him. Uo began to 
teach music at tho ago of ton, and wan au 
organist and choirmiiHtor at twol vo. At HIX- 
teen bo entered tho Royal Academy of MUHIC 
as a student, and (in lH5(>) wan narrowly 
defeated by (Sir) Arthur Sullivan [q, v. 
Suppl-1 in tho competition for tho firnt klon- 
delssoiin scholarship. Aftor holding tho 
orguniHtnlfn of Mitcham church for a whort 
time Jtormy returned to his nativo city, 
whore for four yoarn ho taught mn.su 1 .. lie 
then definitely wottlod iu London, wlun'o 
auccoHHively hold Uio following app 
us organ iHt and choirmasl,or: St, 

(Juoonhitho (.'iO/. ])or annum); St. 

tho LosHjWoklminwter; St.. Andrew's, Wollrt 
Streot; (lSOJi-71); St., AunoV, Soh(IH7I- 
,1880). Tho HervieoHat St. Andniw'w brought 
him a groat reputation by roawm of thoir 
liigli standard of intiH-pn^lation and lh<^ mo- 
dern character of the muHio r<mdortl tliort^ 
epociiilly that of (Jounod, with which Baniby 
wan much in sympathy. Mr. Mdward Lloy<l 
was a member of tho choir. At St. AttnoV, 
Soho, Burnbv introduced t-he lowH-knowii 
PasHiou mimic (St. John) by J, S, ltm$h, 
which was perfortued with (>p<ilnwtrul aotumt- 
])animnt, thou quite a novelty iu a pariah 
cluirch. 

In 1801 Barnby became mnmcnl adviHrto 
MwsflTH. Novello, which a|poititmait bo held 
till 187<i At the itmtigat^in of Mtwrn 
Novello 'Mr, Jowmh Harnb^H^'.hoir" wan 
formed under IHH ftondmst(Hliip in 1807, tlio 
YS,.*. (. ( >n(j ( jit, being given at St. JamowVi Hall 



on $$ May. From 1809 cowwrU were given 
under tlu! d<.Higtintit>n ' < )ru,torio OonwrtH, 1 at 
whic.li the low pitch (tlwpnmn twnml) was 
introduced, and Heveral great works wens 
revived and admirably performed, e,g* H,n- 
del'H Mo.])ht,ha/ I5(H*thov(^n*H great HMIHH in 
I), and Badi'M * St. Mtthw I*iiHHum.' At; 
tho end of 187^ the choir wa atualgamaUul 
with that cowluctutl by M. Uouno<l t and, m 
the Royal Albert Hall' Choral Society (now 
Royal 'Choral Society), began to give con- 
certs on l^Fub. 187*;i ,Kor the remaining 
twenty-threw yearw of bin life Jlarubywm- 



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Barnes 



In June 1 835 lie left. Merc and settled in Durn- 
gate Street, Dorchester, with a promising 1 
school, transferred in 1837 to a larger house 
in South Street. On 2 March 1838 he pub 
his name on the books of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, as a ten years' man. During 
the next six years he contributed some 
of his best archaeological and etymological 
work to the pages of the * Gentleman's Maga- 
zine.' The variety of subjects indicates a 
great amount of reading, while his more 
sustained investigations at this period of the 
laws of harmonic proportion show his apti- 
tude for abstract speculations. In '18-14 tho 
* Poems in the Dorset Dialect ' were "issued 
in London by Uussoll Smith. A cordial 
admirer of tho new poet was found in the 
Hon, Mrs. (Caroline) Norton [q. v.], who did 
much to give publicity to Barno.s's ppnins. 

Barnes was ordained by tho Jlmhop of 
Salisbury on 28 Fob, 1847, and, while re- 
taining his school, entered upon new duties 
as pastor of Whitcombo, throo miloa from 
tho count? town, llo was concentrating a 
great deal of his time now upon Anglo- 
Saxon, of which bis ' JMoctus' appeared in 
1849, In the followin % year he graduated 
B.D, at Cambridge. n 185^ ho resigned 
his curacy, and soon afterwards bocamo a 
trusted contributor to tho nowly started 
'Introspective Uoviow. 1 In 1854 'he bogau 
reading Persian (and honcoforth, after I'o- 
trarch, he was perhaps most nearly infhumcod 
by Baadi), and published hi ' Philological 
Grammar/ a truly remarkable book, for the 
copyright of which ho received 6. In 1H58 
appeared a second series of Dorset pomns 
undor the title * Ifwomely Hhymos/ fluvoral 
of the pieces in which notably t Tho Vaioofl 
that be Gane' were effucti vcly rendered into 
"Fnmch for De Chatolain r s * ltaatit6H do la 
1*016810 Anglaise. 7 Barmw had already a~)~ 
poarod a,s a lecturer upon arehologica,i su > 
)ects, and he was now (mcourogod to give 
readings from his dialect poems in "tho 
various email towns of Dorset, Ho received 
an invitation from Macroady at Slwrborno, 
and from the Duchona of Sutherland at 
Stafford HOURQ. In 1859 he had a visit from 
Luc'um Buonaparte, who had bean attracted 
by the poem*, and at whono flugguBtum 
Barnes now translated ' Tho Song of Solo- 
mon 'into the Dorset dialect. In 1800 he 
was enlisted as a writer for the newly 
founded * Macmillan's Magazine*' In April 
1861 he was granted, at the instance of 
Palmerston, an unsolicited pension of 70J, 
from ^thft civil list. The year was fully occu- 
pied in the preparation of his most ccmmdcrr 
able philological work, devoted to the theory 
of the fundamental roots of the Teutonic 



speech, and entitled *Tiw/ after the god 
from whom tho race dorivod their name. 
In 1862 lift received from Captain Seymour 
Dawfton Pamor an oflor of tho ructory of 
Came, which ho gladly aoc.opt.od. 

Barnoa was iudne.ted into (amo church 
on 1 Dec. 1802. "JIo madn an adiuirablo 
country parson, homuly and unconvnnt.ional 
aa his rhymes, a scholar with Iho widest- in- 
torostH, wlOH active horizon wan yot strictly 
bounded by tlui Dorndi-sliirn fu^<lH and up- 
lands. Ilia work upon Ui t DorHoUhiro 
(vlossary J incroaswl hm adniiratioti for t,h(^ 
vernacular and his dinlik(M>r latininod forms. 
llo was indignant at tho introduction of 
such words as ^Uototfraph and hic.ycln, for 
which ho woulc, huvo suhst.it u(.od Htmpi'int 
and wh(Uilsac1dlo, A, collicitiv<^ edition of 
tho dialoct pooiufl uppoanul in 1870, and of 
tho poet at this latn period of his earner Mr. 
Hardy contributed to tho Atluwwum ' 
(10 Oct. 18HO) an mtm'eHtmjj vijfnotto, 
Until about 188'J there* wow ' low li^uroa 
nioro familiar t-o tho oyo in tho county town 
of Dorso.t on a markt't day thati an aged 
clergyman, quaintly att-irod* iti capod cloak^ 
kne,e,-bre.ech(*H t and* buclthnl shoes, with a 
liuithor satchel slung over his shouldorn atid 
a stonfc Htair in IUM haud, He Heeined UHually 
to profor tho luitUllo of the street, to tho 
pavement, and to bo thinking of uiattorw 
which had nothing to do with tho HCOUO 
buioru him, llu ploddod alon ^ with a broad, 
firm tread, notwithstanding t iw slight Ht-oop 
occHsioneA by his years. Kvery Haturday 
morning ho might/ have been" mien thus 
trudging up tho narrow South Street, hm 
shotjH coated with mud or duHl< nrcortUng t>o 
the Htattt of thu roudw botwet^n his rural 
homo and Dot'chenter, and a little, groy dog 
at his hiwlft) till ho roachotl \}\u four (ircmft- 
ways in tho c.oniro of tho town. Halting 
th(U*o opposite tho public olooh, ]w woul(. 
^ull his old-faHhiouotl watrlx from iin do]> 
L V)b and sot it with groat precision to London 
time/ 

Until ho was well over eighty ho went on 
working with the sumo remarkable grasp of 
power and variety of interests, Ho/tVuui at 
'Jarao rectory on 7 Oet, 1HH(J, and was buried 
four days latw in thu village churchyard* 
B;/ his wife, wlio diad on ^1 Juno 185^, ho 
lo:t issue two nons and three daught <rH. At 
a meeting convened by the Bishop of 8ali 
burv, shortly al'twr Barnen'H death, it was 
decided to commemorate tho * Dorwitfthiro 
BurnB* by ostabliHlung a * BurnoH itxhibU 
tion ' at tti DorohoHter grammar nchool, A 
bronze Htatuo of tho poet by Uowtoo Mull ins 
lias boan eroct<ul in thu churchyard of 
Peter's, 



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Barttelot 



sung- by Braliam. In these curly attempts 
Burnett's strength of talent and vein of 
poetic feeling were at once recognised, and 
ae was advised to cultivate the higher 
branches of his art (Quarterly Musical 
Magazine, 1821-8, passim). Ilia music to 
Wolfe's 'Not a Drum was hoard,' had extra- 
ordinary merit; but ho iirst won popularity 
through ' The Light Guitar,' sung by Tudame 
Vestris. Henceforward he produced song's 
and ballads with surprising facility, some of 
the moat melodious of them (' Rise, gontlo 
Moon/ t My Fatherland,' and others) joing 
composed for the plays with music them in 
vogue. Eor the Lyceum, and especially tor the 
Olympic, where Ikrnett waamuaical director 
in 181*2, he composed a numbor of musical 
farces. 

Tliis inartistic employment wearied a 
musician of the calibre of Burnett, whose 
aim it became to wed music to poetry in 
true dramatic form, and whoso ambition 
seems to have bn to writo a national 
Enplish opera. But Iiis 'Mountain Sylph/ 
which was produced at the Lyceum on 
25 Au^, 1834, was written under tim itmpint* 
tion o: lopmdary fomst magi and mountain 
spectres Delongiiig to Germany. It; mot 
nevertheless with the earnest; commcmdation 
of contemporary critics, and after sixty yours 
compels admiration. 

The traditional Kn^lLsh romance of * Fair 
Rosamond/ on the ot'ier hand, allbrded Bur- 
nett a subject which might have awakened 
lasting national iriteroHt* ,111s opura on the 
sublet was produced at. Drury Lano on 
28 J\ib. 1 HtfT, But the librettists ^orverwvly 
reduced the story to the level of 'iurleHquo. 
The melodies and recitatives after the Htylo 
of Parcell, and the orchestration modelled 
on that of Weber, were wasted upon an 
absurd straining after 'a huppy end' (cf. 
Musical PF<>/M, March 1887, p >. 17^, 

SubHtic ucMitly Barnett openou St., 
Theatre .or English opera, bat he 
there little SUCCUMB. lliBconaultationfl with 
Bishop, liodwttll, and others oix the boat 
means of reforming opera resulted in the 
promise of a patent for the oHtabliHhmcnt 
of English <nra from William IV, who, 
however, diet immodmtnly afterwards. 

Barnett now devoted himself to the teach- 
ing of singing (publishing in 1844 a ' School 
for the Voice/ which showed his mastery of 
that subject) and the composing^ of Bongs, 
part- songs, and instrumental music. Thee ; 
when sot to poetry, were generally distin- 
guished by a tender yot virilo strain of 
melody, but in the case of many of his two 
thousand pieces he bad to be content with 
humdrum * words for music.' 



After a rosidrnro for Hovorul yoars from 
184Gonward.s at Oholtnuham, Banuitt with- 
drew to the grout <u- quiet of the Cotnwoldtt. 
lie died on 1(> April 1800, in his m^hty- 
oifrhth year. He wius buried at Leckhann- 
ton, near Choltmiham. Unmarried in IHJ;7 
the youngest: daughter of Robert Lindloy 
[q. v.], the violoncellist. She survived him 
until February 18M. Of their children, 
two daughters, who formerly sang un<ler 
the names of Uosmunda antl Clara K>oria, 
are now Mrs. It. M. J^ranrilloTi and Mr, 
lltmry M,, .Ro^<. k rH. A portrait, in oils 
of Barnetfc at the a-jfo of 



was painted l^y a French artist., and "in now 
in th* poascHrtfon of Mrs. It. K, Kmnnllon, 
and another painting by Sydney I'ng^ti bu~ 
longs to bin Htm, Mr. Mugc.im itamctt; ; an 
engravt'd ]>ortrait< in givtiu in Athol Al'uy- 
hew'w * Jorum of runt;ti.' 

Havii(t.(.'8 openiH are: I. "The Mountain 
Sylph/ prodiuMul and :>uliliMhe(l IH.'H, rt*- 
vlved 18;UJ. *2. * Fair 'tosamond/ SiH 'lVb. 
LWJ7. . < Karinelli, 1 8 I'wb. 1H0, -I, * Kath- 
leen/ unpublished. lie also published an 
oratorio, ' The OmnipreHomw of tlw IMty/ 
18>)0. A long* lint, of notion, duet.s, part- 
HongH, pi(>,o.eH t and nniHical furceH is Hiipplunl 
in Browu'H ' Kiogniphie.al ^Dictionary* and 
Brown and HtruUon'H * 



Mag, IH1), p, '10; Theatrical fn- 
IHUi, piiNMini ; Uiogrnph, %*i. 4A> ; 
uHitNtl JVIotuortoN, p, 2!I8; DUV<\V"H 
. of Un^litih MUHIC, pp. 4<JH (> ; droWn 
Diet, of MUHU, i t MO, -180; pvivulu in formation ; 
authoriluw aitutl.] L, M. M. 

BARTTBLOT, SIR WALTKU BAU,T- 
TKLOT, liml. Imronut (IHLH) 18U.U polit.i- 
cian, born on 10 ()d.. 1H;JO ,t Itichmond^ 
Surrey, wan tlw eldest HOU of Oeorge Hurt,- 
tclot (1 788-1 HT^), of v^topham lloitne, Pul- 
borough, HuHHex, by Emma, youngest dnugh- 
tor of JamoH Wnodbri<l^o of Kiehmund, 
The family bad been neaped in HUNHH.X for 
Boveral ct^nturitw. Tho fat.lMT nerved with 
ditinction in the royal hoi-He artillmy cluriujf 
the penitiHular war. 

Walt.er wan educated al, Htip'by, and 
served in the Utvoyul tlrntfooiiM froin 1HJVJ 
to 1853, when he retired with i\w rank of 
captain. Jle WHH aftorwnrda honorary 
co-onel of the 8nd battalion royal MUHWCX 
regiment. From I)iwmnlM4r 18(K)"to 1HH5 h 
was one of the conMervative m^tnlxTH for 
West SiWHttx. Tlwsn li WHH rt nrncd for the 
newly constituted HorKham divinion, and 
held the seat until hfo death, I lo waH a fre- 
quent apwaker in the House of OommonR* 
On 14 April 18(14 he moved an amendment 
to the budget bill, the purport of .which wan 



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136 



Bate 



carriers, and on 11 Juno 1888 (when ho had 
been at Yambuya nearly twelve months) ho 
started on the march eastwards to seek out 
Mr, Stanley. TheKanzibariR began to dowert 
with thoir loads within four daya, arid it 
was found necessary to disarm t-iom, On 
24 Juno Barttolot, with fourteen 2anibarin 
and three Soudanese, went back to Stanley 
Falls, and soon after his arrival had a pulavor 
with Tippoo-Tib, who gavo him full powers 
to deal with the carriers. He then rctminod 
his march, and rejoined his main body at 
Banalya (or Unari'a) on 17 July, an Arab 
encampment on the Aruwimi. Hero, on 
19 July, he was shot through thu heart by 
an Arab in a hut, while endeavouring to put 
a atoj) to the nxmoyanca caused him by the 
man's wife beat ing a drum and by unautho- 
rised firing. The man, who ran away, was 
tried and executed at Stanley Falls some 
(lays later. Barttelot's body was buried near 
the spot where he fell by Sergeant Bonny, 
the only European who was then with tine 
rearguard of the expedition, A month later 
Mr. Stanley arrivoc at Yambuya on 17 Aug. 
1HN8, On his return to England he threw 
blame upon Barttolot and the other oi!ie*r 
loft with him at Yambuya for their conduct 
in failing to follow him. Much controversy 
eiiHued; but the published narratives of all 
tlxo members of the rearguard, while diflr- 
ing on some secondary points, provod the 
mnoKsibiltty of leaving the camp without 
suticient carrion* and whilu its oeeupantN 
were in an enfeebled condition, Barttelot 
was a severe disciplinarian, had a somewhat 
hasty temper, anu was mivcrtwd in dealing 
with orientals, but his character was freed 
of all serious reproach. 

A brafl tablet to his rnmnorr was erected 
in Stopliam church by his brotaw olttccrA of 
the 7 tli fusiliers, and another by his com- 
panions in the Kxnin exptulition. A tablet 
was also placed in the memorial chapel, 
Sandhurst, and a stained glawa window in 
Storringdon church. 

[For Sir Wai tor Karttivlot HOC Ihirlca'ft IWrupro; 
Mon of the Time, 1 3th edit* ; Timo, 3 T\b. 1 803 ; 
flutwox Daily KOWH, 3 l<>b, ; Hansard'a Purl, 
Debates, paHeira ; Luey'H Diary of Two Parlia- 
ment), i. 434, ii. 210, 211 ; J, McCarthy's Ho- 
miniNCGnccB, ch, stxxiii. 32. 

Fo Major Barjtolot neo Li To (with DiarioH 
and Letter) by hifl hrolhor, 1800 (French edit, 
1891); Stanley's In DarkoHt Africa, i. 117-20, 
and chap, xx. ; and tho narratives by J. 8. 
.Tampon (edit Mrw. Jjumww), J. K, Tronp, and 
H, Ward, mo&t ojf which have portraita of Ikrt- 
telot, See also A Visit to Stanley^ Rearguard 
by J. B* Wexnor (an ongineer in serricoof Oon^o 
Free State), chaps, x, xi,; Ulaclcwood, Awiniat 
1S90,] 0. LIB 0. N. 



BATE, CIIAKJXS HPIONCK (J8H) 
1880), ftiontifi(j writer, horn at Troni<^k 
llouwn, in tlici parish of St. (Jlwmmt, noar 
Trnro, on 10 Maro.h 1810, was t.ho <li<wt. MOU 
of Charity Bat o 1 1 7HS). - 1 87a), a Truro dontint,, 
\vlio married, at S(;, Olninnnt,, ITarrint H-)onoo 
(17SH-1H70). Ho wan ij<Jur.at<d at. VVuro 
grammar Hchnol from iH^i) t.c> 1H,'J7, and, 
aft(r boiii^ in tho Hiir^nry of Mr. Hl^wutt 
for two y<uu*H, <lovot<d liitiiHolf to d<mtiHtry 
undor his fatlxir'H hint ruction. Whou (jnali- 
lii k d ho uHlabliuluul liiniHolf at Swanmsa iu 
1841. 

In this W<lnh nnnport, Hato mdo tho ao 
quaixitanon of many w.iontific. HtudcntH, and 
t-ook iif tho Ktudy of natural hintory. On 
tho visit of tho British AnMociation to Swun- 
flou in IH'icS IHJ boratno a mombor of tho 
Roo.i^ty, and on mow than ono wibHoquout 
occoHion waH tho pronidanl. of a noct ion. llo 
was mainly inHtrumontal in pixxuirin^ itn 
viwt to Pfymouth in 1H77, and wan a vice* 
proHulont oV the int^tin^. 

Jkto loft WwaiiHoa in 1851, and Kottlod at 
B Miil^ruvo Plan^ Plymouth, whithor lug 
lathor had long mneo niigrat.id IVom Truro, 
lio su(!(*(MMlod to his fath<^r*H pwrtlro HH a 
dontint, and rose to bo tlm leading mombor 
of tho profcHHion outMi<lo London, romving 
tho lirsonno of tho Royal Oiillcgii of SurgnotiH 
iu 1H<}(). Jlo wan l(t<l a niombor of tho 
Odontological Sociot.y in lH5(i f n<l ud-od UH 
its vi(M-pn'Hidnt from 1H(K) to 1HOL\ n ml IIM 
its pr(^i(li k nt \n 18H5, boing tho Hrot dtmtmt 
in tho jn'oviwuw to fill that ollicv Tho 
dental ftoction of tho intwmtimml modical 
congroHH, hold in London in IHHl, Hcmni 
hiH Hovvir.t'H aw vi<*ii-pn'Hi<bnit, and in IHM^ 
ho wan tho pwmdont. of tho HHltHb Dtm<al 



All this inntitutionH ronnor.tod with Ply- 
mouth b<m<lit<x! by HIIJO'H ntluwiw. Ho 
wan (tctul a n)ombr c^f thti 1 My mouth In* 
Htitution in I8ut* t norvcd UK MtH*rotry from 
1H54 to IB(i(),pi^Htd(nt in iWll i5 umf JiWM) - 
1870, and mtmibor of tho council from IHfitt 
to 1H8J.L Tla WUM a uraUr of tho muwwm 
and tho <Mlitor of tht^ * Tmnact ioim ' of th 
society from lH(Ji) to 1883, and in mmrly ivry 
year IVom Wti to 188^ bt^ liH.urt*df bofwr 
its jntb(rB, Bath WHH ono of tho i'mmdtw 
of the Dt^vonwhiro AKwuuaUon, Httior gono 
secretary ( in 180^, iuul prtwdent in 
contributing many piiporn to itH ' Tn 
tioiw/ ottp(H:Iully on tho autiquitiofl of Dari.- 
moor, a ugtriet very ftimitiar to him, 

Uato yfm univornally rtcogiitBiid an tho 
grcattiHt living authority on cniHtact'iv* Ho 
ftomjHpondod with ThomaB Kdwiml fc v,*J 
about thorn from IH^J, und lmtwtttn''W01 
aud 1805 received from Edward 'multitude 



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Bateman 



[Itarke'a Landed Gentry ; Worthing Gazette, 
8 Doc. 1897; Times, 2 Deo. 181*7; Allibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit; Simma's Bibliothom Staf- 
ford.] K I. 0. 

BATEMAN, JOHN FREDEKTO LA 
TUOBE-, formerly styled JOHN FKHDHKIO 
BATEMAN (1810-1889), civil onginoor, born 
at Lower Wyke, near Hull lax, on 30 May 
1810, was the eldest son of John Bateman 
(1772-1851), by his wife Mary Agues, daugh- 
ter of Benjamin La Trobo, a Moravian mis- 
sionary at tail-field, near Ashton-under-Lyne. 
At tlie age of seven he was sent to the 
Moravian school at Fair field, and two years 
later to the Moravian school at Ockbrook, 
returning 1 after lour years more to the Fair- 
field school. "When fifteen ho was apprenticed 
to a surveyor and mining engineer o. 1 Oldham 
named Dunn, and in IKJ.'i he commenced 
business on his own account aw a civil engi- 
neer. Jn 18IU lie investigated the causes of 
the floods in tho river AUdlocsk, _ which led 
him to study hydraulic questions move 
closely. In l8f'Jr> ho was associated with 
(Sir)* William Fuirhairn fq, v.], who early 
appreciated his ability, in laying out the, 
reservoirs on tho river Bann in Ireland, 
From that tiroo ho way almost continually 
eunloyed in tho construction of reservoirs 
an<! waterworks, In all his undertakings ho 
advocated soft water in preference to hard, 
and favoured gravitation schemes whero they 
were practicable to avoid tho necessity of 
pumping, lie devoted much attention to 
methods of measuring rainfall, accumulated 
a quantity of statistics on the subject, and 
wrote several papers describing his observa- 
tions* 

The greatest system of waterworks which 
Bate.man undertook wus that connected with 
Manchester* In 1844- ho was first conwiltecl 
in regard to tho Manchester and Snlford 
water amply, About 1H40 the project was 
formed o:' obtaining water from t.ie Penuino 
lulls ; tho works in Longdendale were, com- 
menced in 1848 and wore finished m th 
spring of 1877, In 1H84 Batemun pubHshed 
a 'History and Desc.ription of the Mancluwtor 
"Waterworks } (London and M'aiwilwwtor, 4 to), 
which deals with many points of interest to 
the student of hydraulic engineering. Tho 
Longdenclale scheme, hoxvover, had btum 
designed to supply a population less than 
half that of Manchester in 188!^, and it was 
clear that additional sources of supply must 
be looked for. At Batuman'a suggction tho 
corporation resolved to construct new works 
at IJake Thirlmoro. A bill was introduced 
into parliament in 1878, and, after rejection, 
was passed in 1879, and Bateman superin- 
tended tho commencement of tho new works, 



In. this undertaking ho was associated with 
Mr. Georgo Hill of Manchester, 

In 1852 ho was requested to advise tho 
town council of UlaHtfow in regard to the 
water supply of tho city. In the parlia- 
mentary session of 1H5-I--5, on Ikteman's 
advice, a bill was obtained for tho supply of 
water from Loch Katrine. Tim works wuro 
commenced in tho spring 1 of 1S50 and wero 
completed by Marc.h 1800. They extend 
over thirty-four miles, and wore, described 
by James M. Gale a worthy to * be.ar <.oin- 
parison with thn most, nxUmsivo a|ueduct8 
in the world, not excluding tho.su of ancient 
Uonic' (Trannartumd of the Jiwtitutwn of 
Jbif/iwws in MW/rrwf/, 180.^-4, vii, Ii7). 

Ainonp; othor import-ant. walervvorlis by 
Bateman may be tmMitionnd t ho Hysl*<uuH for 
'Warriiipftcm, Ace.ritij^tou, <)l<lhuui, Ashtou,, 
Itlackbiirn, St,t)ck<bil T Unli(aK t Dewnbury, 
St. Helens, Kemhd, lJellast. T Dublin, New- 
e,a,stl(^oii-Tytu% Ohorley, Holt.on, Darweu, 
J\Iac<'l<'s{i(l<l, (MieHtiM 1 , (firhenhnnd, (Houces- 
t(r, Aberdare, IVrth, l^jrlar, Wolvorhanip- 
ton, (>)luo Valley, (lolue and iMarntlon, and 
(Jheltonlwm, In lH5fi lui prepared an im- 
portant paper for the British Association M)u 
th present, H< ato of our Knowledge, on tho 
Supply of Water to Towns,' enuneiutin^ 
the general nature of tlie problem, giving 
an historical ouUine of previous measures, 
(enumerating the variotin H(unes from whieh 
towns e.ould bo supplied, awl discussing t heir 
com])fira1ive merits. In lH(Jft he 'mblLsluul 
a pamphlet M)n the Supply of r Vtitor to 
London from tlio Woures tf the. Uivei* 
SCW<TU' (\Ve.Htminster, Hvo), which emitwl 
cousiderable discuMsion. Ilo <bsif(ne<l unid 
Hurv(^yed the schema ut bin own expense, at 
tho cost of <I,0()OA or ri,()00/, A joyal nm 
iniwsion was held, and in 1H(!H it. nnorted 
'very much in favour of the project., t wa 
purely a gravitation se,Iume, dt^i^ncd tit nu 
eHt,iinatd outlay of 1 1 ,-HX ) t c) v j;i/, t,o convey 
to London 2{K)JOOO/KX) KidloiiH of wut^r n 
day. Hattanan was eonneded with vurinuH 
harbour and dock {.rusts throughout t,h 
Hritinh Isles, including the Clyde Navigatiim 
Trust, for whidiho WHH eonsult-in^ engine*^ 
andtlu^Mlianmm Inundation Inquiry in 1H(W, 
en which lie was employed by government, 
In addition to his many undertakings at 
lioma Bateman curried out several works 
abroad. In 1H<J9 he prop<jsed, in a pamphlet 
entitled 'Channel I In i I way,' written in con- 
junction with Julian John Uevy, to count ruc.t 
'a submarine railway between Kraiuie and 



England in a caflt-mm tube. In the 
year ho w<nt out as iwprttMmitattyo of tho 
Iloyal Society, on tlte mvitAtifui of the lch 
dive, to attend tha opening of the Kiu 



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Dahar on 24 Nov. 1858. lie received the 
medal and clasps. 

When the mutiny was finally suppressed 
Champain became executive engineer in the 
public works department at Houdah, and 
afterwards at Luclmow, until February ,18(>:2, 
when lie was selected to go with Major (SSiv) 
Patrick Stewart [q. v. SuppL] to I'cruia on 
government telegraph duty. At that time 
there was no electric telegraph to India. 
The attempt to construct one undor a go- 
vernment guarantee had failed, and it was 
determined to malco a line by the Persian 
Gulf rout e directly undor government, Cham- 
puin proceeded with Stewart to Bushahr, and 
thence in Juno to Teheran, where negotia- 
tions wore carried on with the Persian go- 
vornment. In 1805 the line was practically 
completed, and on StmvnrtAs death in tluit 
year Ohampain WUB appointed to Assist Sir 
Frederics Goldsmitl, the chief director of the 
Tndo-Kuropean Government Telegraph de- 
mrtmmit. II o wpotit the greater part of 
.806 in Turkey, putting the Baghdad 'uirt 
of the lino into tin etlieient stain, nn<- in 
1867 went to St. Petersburg to negotiate 
lor a npecial wire through Uunsia to join 
the Persian syntom. Thin vimt gave nun to 
intimate and friendly relations with Uene- 
ral I-aiders, diruetor-genenil of Itust-mm tele- 
graphs, which proved of advantage to the 



On bin way out from England in Septem- 
ber 1BOD, to fluperintwid the laying of a 
second tulcgrnuh cablo from Buwhahr to 
Jaahk, Ohampam wan nearly drowned in the, 
wreck of the Htearawhi') Oanuitic oil* the 
island of Shad wan in tie Ked Sea, After 
coming to the nurfaco ho anHLsted in Having 
lives and in ^ecurin^ HUCC.OUI*. lu 1870 ho 
succeeded Sir Frederic Goldflniid a,H chief 
director of the government Indo-Kuropoan 
telogrtnh. 

In tlie yoarfl from 1870 to LS72 Persia 
euflernid from a sovoro famine, and Champain 
took an nctivo intret in the Manmon HOUMO 
relief fund, of which he waa for Home time* 
secretary, IIo arranged for its dUfcributiou 
in Persia by the telegraph stair, and had 
the satisfaction of finding it very well done. 
His sound judgment and unfailing tact, 
together with a power of oxpre.HRmg liifl 
views clearly and concisely, enabled him to 
render important service at the periodical 
international telegraph conferences us the 
representative of the Indian government. 
Special questions frequently arose tho settle- 
ment of which took him to many of the 
European capitals, and in the ordinary coursa 
of his duties he naado ropoatcd yisitfl to 
India, Turkey, Persia, and tag Persian Gulf* 



In 188-1 the shah of Persia presented him 
with a magniiiwmt sword oi honour, hi 
October 1HH5 Chamnaiu went for tho last 
time to the Porsiau Gulf to lav a third eahlo 
between Busltahr and Jashk, afterward** 
viisit.ing Calcutta to confer with government. 
On his way home ho \vont to J)elhi to seo 
hia old friend Sir Frederick (now Karl) 
Roberts, from whom he learned that he had 
been rniulo a knight commander of tho order 
of St. Michael awl St. George. 

Ho died at San Uemo on 1 Feb. 1887* 
Tho .shah of Persia himsoirsont. a telegram to 
his family expressing his great regret for tho 
IOHM of Hatoman-C'hanipain, 'tnii a lainnG 
taut, do souvenirs inotla<;ablos en Perse,' a 
very unusual departure from the rigid eti- 
quette of tho court of Teheran. Ho married 
in 1H(55 Harriet* Sophia, daughter of Sir 
.Frederick Currie, first baronol (d. 1875). 
Sho survived her husband with nix HOUH and 
two daughters of the marriage. Throe oim 
ar< in tho army and one in tho navy. 

Bat Oman-Cham pitin \vns a member of tho 
council of tho Royal Geographical Society 
and of the Society of Telegraph KngmoerN. 
llu was an accompliHhi it (l draught snuuu In 
the Albert Hall Exhibition of ls7.'ta gold 
medal was awarded to a Persian landscape 
which ho hd painted for his friend > w ir 
Hubert, Murdoch Smith [q,v. Suppl,'] Many 
of the illustrations to Sir 1'Vetlorie Goltf 
Hmid'H 'Telegraph and Tra\'(l * are front 
original sketches iu watorcoluur by 
man*Champain. 

[India Oflli'o RoconlH; DCS latelu'N ; I 
History of t.h (JorpH <f iloyal Ktij^ 
Vihart's Addim'ombe, itn llertwM and Mwi of 
Notio; OoldHnnd'H Telograpli utul Travel; tho 
Koyal Ku^incers Journal, 1HH7 ohit-nary noiu'o 
by'Wir U, M, Smith; Tinws, li Foh. 1HH7; Ann. 
Hop. 1H87 ; Kayo'H Hintory <*f tlu Sopoy War; 
Mallcstm's HtHtory of the Indiiui MtiUny; Nor* 
taa' Narrafivo of tho ( 1 iunpuij/ii of tlin Uolhi 
Army ; Mtulloy's A Yoap'H C'litupuignitig in India 
and other Worko ou tho Indian Mutiny. I 



BATES, HARRY 

born at Stuvena^o, Hertfordnhmvm ^(t 
1850, wan AOU of Joseph and Aunts Hatert of 
that town. Afl a lad i wa apnrenliwul a 
carver to MtwHp, Hridley <fe Farmer of 
(W WoRtmmHtor Bridge Road, and worked 
between IRHUand lH79on thornamtitttliou 
of many churelu^ in eourne of building or 
Towtorafion in the provinces* Ueturnhig to 
London, ho was abl to twmlfwo hin work 
with attendance* at eliifweB in tlie Lambeth 
art scliool. Jul Dalou was tmichei* of 
modelling tlioro, and, although Baten had 
only three moathtt of his tuaching, it b im* 



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in AUsopp's oiUoaa at Burtou-on-Tront, under 
the conditions of which ho frottod a good 
deal. In tho meantimo, however, ho had 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Alfred Hansel 
Wallace, then English master at tlio _ colle- 
giate scliool, Leicester. The works of Hum- 
boldt and Lyell, and Darwin's reccmtly 
published 'Journal* (183?)), proved a bond 
of communion between thorn. They were 
both also enthusiastic entomologist^ and 
were alike growing 1 dissatisfied with their re- 
stricted coLecting- area, The friends l>o#an to 
discuss schemes for pping abroad to explore 
some unharvested region, and these at length 
took definite shape, mainly owing- to the 
interest excited by a little book by William 
II. Edwards on ' A Voyage up the J liver 
Amazon, including a residence at Para' 
(New York, 18.17). This led Mr, Wallace to 
propose to Bates a joint expedition to tho 
Amazons, tho plan being to eollectjarpfoly 
and dispose of duplicates in London iu order 
to defray expwin, while gathering facts 
towards solving the problem of tho origin 
offlpocies. They embarked at Liverpool in 
a small trading vessel of 1 ite tons on ii(i April 
1848, and arrived oIlTaracm 5J7 May. Bates 
mado Pani bin headniarterH until Nov. 
3851, when he Htjirttu", on his long voyage to 
the TapajoH and the Upper AmaseoiiH, which 
occupied a period of woven yearn and a half, 
it was from I 'aril that he and Mr. Wallace 
in Aujriwfc 1848 made an exrurwion tip the 
river 'Joeantms, the third in rank among the 
streams which make up the AmnznuR HyHtem, 
of tho grandwir and pur.uliaritiuH of which he 
wrote a Htriking account In Snptwnlwr 
1849 he Btarted on, his first yoygo up the 
main stream in a small sailing venne! (a 
service of Btwimors was not eNtablinhed 
until 1 858), and ruar.luxl Santartmi, which 
he subsequently made his headquarters tor 
a period of thro years; but on turn journey 
he pushed on to Obydrm, about iifty mihw 
f Hither on, Here he secured a piuwttflu in a 
cuberta or small venne-l jrnceodin^ with 
merchantliwo up the Rio Tu^ro. l\iw de,s 
tination of tho boat WUH AtTanuofl on the 
Barm of the Hio Negro* a spot, rendered 
memorable by tho visit of tho Dutch 
natural wt,H, Spix and Mart ma, in 1HS30. 
Here, Rome thousand miltw from Parti, in 
March 1850 Bates and Wallace parted com- 
pany, Minding it mow convenient to uxploro 
separate diatricta and collect independently/ 
"Wallace took the northern parts and tri- 
VutarieB of the Amazon*, and Battw kopt to 
the main stream^ which, from tho direction 
it seema to take at the fork of the Kio Nwgro, 
is called the Upper Ama%onn, or the Soli* 
inocns, After sailing three hundred and 



sevonty miln tip tho Solimoens, 
'one uniform, lofty, impervious, atud humid 
forst/ BatH arrived on lMny-dy IHfiO at 
K^'a. Here \w Hpent mvirly l.\velv muutlw 
boforo returning to Pnni, and thus fnirthe<l 
what; may bo considered as his preliminary 
.survey of the vti-st collect ing 1 ground wliteh 
will ill ways be iiHHoriated with II'IH nntne* 
In Novmnher IHol hn a^aia arrived at 
Santarem, where, after a n-nideun^ nf nix 
months, lie cioinmeneed nrmn^eitientH ttir un 
excursion up the Httle-Kuown TnpnjoM river, 
which in mag'fiitude Htumlrt .sixth auuxtfc tliei 
triljutarieH of the AUIUTIOUH. A Htny wart 
mado at the Niwill Helt.lment. of Av\vros t 
and frotn this pot. an expedition WUH imnJe up 
tlm (hiparit a brnnoh river \vhieh enters thu 
Tapujos about, eight milivi above iL At thin 
time' ho WHH 1-hrown into <')ntwot with 
MundtirucMl InliuiM, and WIIM nhle t iu* 
quiro much valuable, et.hmiln^inil intormn- 
t.ion. The furthest point up the Anm/iwa 
Hyntom tluit he visited (In Sipt. \Wi\ wim 
St. I*ault>, a few len^'uen north emit of Tuba- 
tinj^a and the Peruvian frontier, 

I'rom June 1 K5 J utit il Kehrunry J M V.> Butes 
inado his hemU uartTM l,-J(M) milew above 
1'ani, at Kpi t a p.iire whieh hiMiuule fftmiliitr 
by name t every Murtipi'itn nitturuli^t IIM tin* 
homo of eut'OUiolo^ieal (UneoverioH of the 
highest interest. At I'.jjfii he found five 
huiulred and fifty new and Utim't nprrieM 
of butterilien nlon** (flu* outsitle tola! of 
Knftlinh Hpetiie beinff no more than hUly- 
HIX). On the wiugn *f thMt in^M'tn he 
wrote in a memorable. pn,ssn^<s *Nnfuro 
writi H an on a tablet the Mnry nj 1 the m*nlitl 
cations of Mpe.eieM/ I hiring th* whole of hid 
sojourn amid the Hrit/.ilinn f*rt*nt IUM HJMU*U 
lations were fnjtfdximuttn^ to the theory **i* 
natural neWt.oti, and tipon t!te {mblirutiim 
of the, 'Origin of S jeeien 1 (November |Mi%U) 
he b(cam<^ a HtauniM uttrl thorou^h^oin^ ml* 
herent of the Ihirwiuian hvpntht^i-i, 

(hi H Ki*h, 1H5U Uiifi'fi left KKH for KK- 
lan<i, having Hjwmt eleven of the bent yenw 
of hin life within four decrees i*f the finiiitor, 
amtm^ 1 many dheoum^i'WHU^ ittui ut th 
detriment of lus )nMtlth k Imt to the ptnimi* 
ne.nt ennehin*ist of our Unowt*Ml^i tf oiu **f 
th<i tnoHti intereHtitj^ re^ionM of tht fflohts 
During hit* wtay in th* AuuixotiN he hnct 
learned Ourinnrt aiul I*or!uj(*H% hitd 4m* 
covortnl over ei^ht ihmtHnntl Hpeeien new to 
HdwtGM, and by the nale <if K HnnmenH hud 
made a profit of about MOO/, !, < m\M from 
Para o ^Iuwe W*0, nn*l u KM tun nrrival 
Hot to work itt, oru* upon JUM t*nUi*(M ionH. 
Hin nhiloHuphitt inni^ht w*m tirnt fully i**hi- 
bited in !* celebrated jm]Mtr y mitl lMfow fclw 
Linn^un Hodety on Sit Junw JHUJ, f t?tiiifri-< 



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ing advantages and disadvantag es) merits a 
place of high, honour among English prose 
extracts. 

Photographic portraits are in the Royal 
Geographical Society's * Transactions/ 1892 
(p. 245), and in Edward Clodd's short me- 
moir of Bates prefixed to the 1892 reprint 
(from the first edition) of t The Naturalist 
on the Amazons * (frontispiece). 

[Memoir of H. W. Bates by Edward Clodd, 
1892; Royal Geo2?. Soc. Trans. 1892, p> 177, 
190, 245 sq.; Times, 17 Feb. 1892; lllustr. 
London News, 27 Feb. 1892 (portrait 1 !; Clodd's 
Pioneers of Evolution, 1897. 124-7 ; Grande 
Encyclopedia, v. 755 ; A. E. Wallace's Travels 
on the Amazon and Rio Negro, aai Darwinism ; 
Darwin's Life and Letters, ii. 243 sq.] T. S. 

BATES, THOMAS (1775-1849), stock- 
breeder, horn at Matfen, Northumberland, 
on 16 Feb. 1775, was the younger of the 
two sons of G-eorge Bates by Diana (d. 
1822), daughter of Thomas ifoore of Bi- 
shop's Castle, Salop, and was descended 
from a family long settled in the district. 
Bates was educated at the grammar school 
at Haydon Bridge, and afterwards at 
Witton-le-Wear school, where 'he never 
joined in his schoolfellows' games, but 
would sit for hours in the churchyard with 
a book' (T. BELL, History of Shorthorns 
(1871), p. 110). At the age of fifteen he 
was called home to assist in the manage- 
ment of his father's farms. Before he was 
eighteen he became tenant of his father's 
patrimony at Aydon White House. In 
1795 his mother's" first cousin, Arthur Blay- 
ney of Gregynog, Montgomeryshire, who had 
always been expected to leave his property 
to Thomas (his godson), died, bequeathing 
all his heritage to Lord Tracy, a stranger 
in blood ; and this was a great disappoint- 
ment to Bates and his family. 

He now threw himself with 'quadrupled 
energy into an agricultural career/ anc on 
attaining his majority became tenant of his 
father's small estate of Wark Eals, on North 
Tyne. Becoming intimate with Matthew 
and George Culley [q. v.], throu h a family 
marriage. Bates was introduced, to a lar je 
circle of agricultural acquaintances on tae 
Tees, including Charles and Robert Colling 
[q. v. SuppL] In 1800, at the age of twenty- 
five, Bates took a twenty-one years' lease 
of two large farms at Halton Castle, at a 
high rent, and with a view to stocking them 
'purchased his first shorthorn cows from 
Charles Colling, giving him for one of them 
the first one hundred guineas the Collings 
ever sold a cow for' (BEii, p. 100). 

He speedily achieved renown as a breeder 
of taste and judgment, and at Charles Col- 



; ling's famous Ketton sale in 1810 he bought 
j for 185 guineas a cow called Duchess, which 
. was the foundress of a well-known tribe of 
i shorthorns. He exhibited his cattle at the 
. local shows from 1S04 to 1812. Wishing to 
! follow out the principles of George Culley 
! in regard to experiments and trials, he em- 
j bodied his views in 1807 in an elaborate 
letter, which he styled f An Address to the 
Board of Agriculture and to the other Agri- 
i cultural Societies of the Kingdom on the 
importance of an Institution for ascertaining 
; the merits of different breeds of live stock, 
1 pointing out the advantages that will accrue 
therefrom to the landed interest and the 
kingdom in general.' In 1809-10-11 he 
spent his winters at the university of Edin- 
burgh to study chemistry, and took, after his 
fashion, copio"us notes of the lectures on 
various subjects he attended. In 1811 he 
was sufficiently well off to buy a moiety 
of the manor of Kirklevington, near Yarm, 
in Cleveland, for 30,000, 20,OOOZ. of which 
he paid in cash. About ten years later, 
when his lease of Halton ran out, he bought 
Ridley Hall on the South Tyne, and resided 
there "till 1831. He then removed to Kirk- 
levington, where he lived for the remainder 
of his life. 

He engaged in correspondence with most 
of the leading agriculturists of the day, <and 
aired his own views very freely. Lord Al- 
thorp is said to have remarked to another 
guest when Bates paid him a visit at Wise- 
ton for the Doncaster meeting of 1820, 
'Wonderful man! he might become any- 
thing, even prime minister, if he would not 
talk so much ' (C. J. BATES, p. 164). Bates 
was a man of remarkable force of character, 
but his love of argument, his combativeness, 
and his plain speaking did not make him a 
universal favourite. 

Owing to his dissatisfaction with the 
awards at the Tyneside Society's show in 
1812, he gave up showing cattle at agricul- 
tural meetings for twenty-six years, and did 
not again exhibit until the first show 
of the Yorkshire Agricultural Society, held 
at York in 1838, when he won five prizes 
with seven animals. A year later he made 
a great sensation at the first show of the 
then newly established English Agricul- 
tural Society, held at Oxford in 1839, with 
his four shorthorns, all of which won the 
prizes, and one of which, called ' Duke of 
Northumberland/ was said to be ' one of the 
finest bulls ever bred' (Farm. Mag. 1850, 
p : 2). Bates continued showing and win- 
ning prizes at subsequent meetings of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of En -land 
(under which name the English Agricu.tural 



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practical application of meteorological science 
was that :or the use of storm signals, con- 
cerning which he had a protracted contro- 
versy with the hoard of trade. He foretold 
the long drought of 1868, and was serviee- 
ahle to the Manchester corporation in en- 
ahling them to re -ulate the supply of water 
and so mitigate the inconvenience that en- 
sued. On another occasion he predicted the 
outbreak of an epidemic at Southport. 

Bis later years were passed at Birkdale, 
near Southport, where he died on 7 Oct. 
1887. In religion he was a churchman and 
a staunch Anglo-Israelite. 

He married, in 1865, Mary Anne, sister of 
Norman Robert Pogson [c . v.], the govern- 
ment astronomer for Macras, and left an 
only son, named after himself, who succeeded 
him as meteorologist to the corporation of 
Southport. 

[Memoir by Dr. James Bottomley inHemcirs 
and Proc. of the Manchester Literary and Phil. 
Soc. 4th ser. i. 28 ; Proc. Boyal Soc. vol. xliii. ; 
Nature, 20 Oct. 1887, p. 585; Manchester 
Guardian, 10 Oct. 1887; information kindly 
supplied by Baxendell's widow and son.] 

0. W. S. 

BAXTER, WILLIAM EDWARD 
(1825-1890), traveller and author, horn on 
24 June 1825 at Dundee, was the eldest 
son of Edward Baxter of Kincaldrum in 
Forfar, a Dundee merchant, by his first wife, 
Euphemia, daughter of William Wilson, a 
wool merchant of Dundee. Sir David Baxter 
[q. v.] was his uncle. He was educated at 
the hijh school of Dundee and at Edin- 
burgh "University. On leaving the university 
he entered his father's counting-house, and 
some years afterwards became partner in 
the firm of Edward Baxter & Co. In 1870 
that firm was dissolved, and he became senior 
partner of the new firm of W. E. Baxter & Co. 
He found time for much foreign travel and 
interested himself in politics. In March 
1855 he was returned to parliament for the 
Montrose burghs in the liberal interest, in 
succession to Joseph Hume [q. v.] } retaining 
Ms seat until 1835. After refusing office 
several times he became secretary to the 
admiralty in December 1868, in Gladstone's 
first administration, and distinguished him- 
self by his reforms and retrenchments. In 
1871 -ie resigned this office, on becoming 
;oint secretary of the treasury, a post whic'-i 
ae resigned in August 1873, in consequence 
of differences between him and the chancellor 
of the exchequer, Rohert Lowe. He was 
fiworn of the privy council on 24 March 1873. 
Baxter continued to carry on business as a 
foreign merchant in Dundee till his death. 
He c ied on 10 Aug. 1890 at Kiacaldrum. 



In November 1847 he married Janet, eldest 
daughter of J. Home Scott, a solicitor of 
Dundee. By her he had two sons and five 
daughters. 

Besides many lectures Baxter published : 
1. 'Impressions of Central and Southern 
Europe/ London, 1850, 8vo. 2. 'The Tagus 
and the Tiber, or Notes of Travel in Por- 
tugal, Spain, and Italy/ London, 1852, 2 vols. 
8vo. 3. * America and the Americans/ Lon- 
don, 1855, 8vo. 4. Hints to Thinkers, or 
Lectures for the Times/ London, 1860, 8vo. 

[Dublin Univ. Mag. 1876, Ixxxviii. 652-64 
(with portrait) ; Dundee Advertiser, 1 1 Aug. 
1800; Official Return of Members of Parl.; 
Foster's Scottish M.P.'s; Alii bone's Diet, of 
Engl.Lit.; Burke's Landed Gentry.] E.I. C. 

BAYNE, PETER (1830-1896), journalist 
and author, second son of Charles John 
Bayne (d. 11 Oct. 1832), minister of Fodderty, 
Ross-shire, Scotland, and his wife Isabella 
Jane Duguid, was born at the manse, Fod- 
derty, on 19 Oct. 1830. He was educated 
at Inverness academy, Aberdeen grammar 
school, Bellevue academy, and Marischal 
College, Aberdeen, where he took the degree 
of M.A. in 1850. While an undergraduate 
at Aberdeen he won the prize for an En - 
lish poem, and in 1854 was awarded tae 
Blackwell prize for a prose essay. From 
Aberdeen he proceeded to Edinburgh, and 
entered the theological classes at New 
College in preparation for the ministry. 
But bronchial weakness and asthma mace 
preachin an impossibility, and he turned 
to journalistic and literary work as a -pro- 
fession. He began as early as 185C" to 
write for Edinburgh magazines, and in the 
years that followed much of his work ap- 
peared in Hogg's ' Weekly Magazine ' and 
Tait's * Edinburgh Magazine.' He wap 
fora short time editor of the * Glasgow Com- 
monwealth/ and in 1856, on the death ot 
his friend, Hugh Miller "q. vj, -vhose life 
he wrote, succeeded him "in Edinburgh as 
editor of the ' Witness.' A visit to Germany 
to acquire a knowledge of German led to his 
marria ;e in 1858 to Clotilda, daughter of 
Genera. J. P. Gerwien. Up to this point his 
career had been uniformly successful, and his 
collected essays had brought him reputation 
not only in Scotland but in America also ; 
but in 1860 he took up the post of editor 
of the c Dial/ a weekly newspaper planned 
by the National Newspaper League Company 
on an ambitious scale in London. The ' Dial 
proved a financial failure. Bayne not only 
struggled heroically to save the situation by 
editorial ability, but he lost all his own pro- 
perty in the venture, and burdened himself 



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1887. He also became in 1850 editor of the 
* Edinburgh Guardian,' whose staff included 
many Edjnbur ;h residents of intellectual 
distinction, and to which he himself contri- 
buted humorous letters under the signature 
of * Juniper Agate.' In 1854 his health 
broke down (* he had a weak heart and only 
half a lung/ says Sir John Skelton), and he 
retired to RumhiH House in Somerset, the 
seat of the Cadburys, and a second home to 
him since Ms early boyhood, where he passed 
two years. He there wrote a tract on the 
Somerset dialect, and an essay on Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton, published in the 'Edinburgh 
Essays,' 1857. In 1856, having recovered 
his health, he returned to London as a con- 
tributor to the * Leader,' which had passed 
into the hands of Mr. E. F. S. Pigott, after- 
wards examiner of plays. The new series 
was more brilliant t'ian successful, but ere 
its definitive abandonment Spencer Baynes 
had been appointed examiner in philosophy 
for the university of London, and, marrying 1 
Miss Gale, had settled in the neighbourhood 
of Regent's Park. In 1858 he Became as- 
sistant editor of the * Daily News, 5 where he 
rendered invaluable service, especially upon 
questions of foreign policy. His steacy sup- 
port of the federal cause during the American 
civil war exercised a wholesome influence 
upon public opinion, and his foresight was 
amply justifiec by the event. If t!ie same 
could hardly be said of his advocacy of the 
cause of Denmark in the difficult question of 
the Schleswig-Holstein duchies, it procured 
him a nattering invitation to Copenhagen, 
where he was received with muca distinc- 
tion. A second breakdown of health occa- 
sioned by overwork compelled him in 1864 
to seek for a less exacting occupation, which 
he obtained by his election to the chair of 
logic, metaphysics, and English literature in 
the university of St. Andrews. 

Baynes's academical post exercised an im- 
portant influence on his subsequent career. 
He now had to instruct in literature, and, 
although far from neglecting the other de- 
partments of his professorial duty, lie gra- 
dually became more interested in the new 
pursuit. It compelled him to make a more 
exact study of Shakespeare than he had 
previously done, and with the vigour of 
a fresh mind he approached it on sides in- 
sufficiently explorec before him. His inte- 
rest- in his own local Somerset speech, into 
which he had already translated the ' Song 
of Solomon' for Prince Louis Lucien Bona- 
parte, led him to investigate more especially 
Shakespeare's obscure and unfamiliar words, 
and to bring the study of the midland dia- 
lects to bear upon them a line of research 



of particular value, inasmuch as it alone 
should suffice to dispel the hallucinations 
of the advocates of tae 'Baconian theory.' 
Two extremely valuable articles in the 
' Edinburgh Review ' * Shakespearian Glos- 
saries ' and ' New Shakespearian Interpre- 
tations,' reprinted in his ' Shakespeare Stu- 
dies ' were the result of these pursuits. 
His experience as a teacher led him to con- 
sider tae question of Shakespeare's school 
learning, and his three essays on 'What 
Shakespeare learned at School,' which ap- 
peared in 'Eraser ' for 1879 and 1880, based 
as they were upon a thorou-h investigation 
of the ordinary grammar scnool curriculum 
of Shakespeare's time, and illustrated by 
passages from his writings, exploded for ever 
the assumption that the poet must neces- 
sarily have been an ignorant man. Inquiries 
of this nature tended to beget a strong 
local interest in Stratford-on-Avon ; he 
visited and explored the town and neigh- 
bourhood, and the result was seen in jis 
comprehensive and most remarkable article 
on Shakespeare in the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica.' As regards the ligat which may be 
thrown upon Shakespeare by an accurate 
knowledge of the local circumstances sur- 
rounding him, this essay is matchless; as 
regards the critical study of his writings it 
is no less notably deficient, not by error, but 
by simple omission. On the one hand, it 
surprises and delights by the presence of so 
much more than could have been reasonably 
looked for, and, on the other, disappoints by 
the absence of much which would have been 
looked for as a matter of course. The essay, 
with three others relating to Shakespeare, 
and another on English dictionaries, was 
published under the title of 'Shakespeare 
Studies ' in 1894. 

Except for these. Shakespearian labours 
and the discharge of his professorial duties, 
Baynes's time was entirely engrossed from 
1873 onwards by the superintendence of the 
ninth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica.' The editor effaced the writer, for he 
did not even furnish the article on Sir 'Wil- 
liam Hamilton, which might have been ex- 
pected, and that on Shakespeare is his only 
contribution. As editor he was most effi- 
cient ; those who worked under his direction 
must ever retain the most agreeable recol- 
lection of his judicious conduct of this great 

the extent of his knowledge, and his uniform 
courtesy and considerateuess. The labour 
became too severe for one of his delicate 
constitution; in 1880 Professor William 
Robertson Smith [q. v." was associated with 
him, and the energy of Ms colleague relieved 



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Bazalgette 



Inst, Civil Eng. xxiv. 280). Over eighty- 
three miles of large intercepting servers were 
constructed, a densely popu.atec area of over 
a hundred square miles was dealt with, and 
the amount of sewage and rainfall which 
could be discharged per diem was estimated 
at 420,000,000 , -aliens. The total cost of 
the works was ^,600,000/. The royal com- 
mission which was appointed in 1882 to con- 
sider the metropolitan sewage discharge, in 
their first report of 31 Jan. 1884-, bore strong 
testimony not only to the excellence of the 




construction.' They also drew attention to 
the powerful influence which had been exer- 
cised through these works in improving the 
general hea.th of the metropolis (Report of 
the Royal Commission on Metropolitan 
Sewage Discharge, London, 1884). 

The other great engineerin - work with 
which Bazalgette's name wi' always be 
coupled is the Thames embankment. The 
idea of building such an embankment is a 
very old one, in fact it was proposed by Sir 
Christopher Wren, but it was not until 1862 
that an act was passed empowering the me- 
tropolitan board of works to carry out the 
work. At one time it had been intended 
to put the control into the hands of another 
body appointed specially for the purpose. 
The wori, at any rate as regards the Vic- 
toria embankment, was considerably com- 
plicated by the arrangements necessary for 
the low-level sewers and for the Metropo- 
litan District Railway. The first section 
from Westminster to Blackfriars was com- 
pleted and opened by the prince of Wales 
on 13 July 1870. The Albert and the 
Chelsea embankments and the new North- 
umberland Avenue completed eventually 
the original scheme, the total cost bein 
2,150,OOOZ. The engineering features or 
these works were described in detail in a 
2aper read before the Institution of Civil 
.engineers by Mr. E. Bazal-ette, a son of 
Sir Joseph Bazalgette (Proc.Inst. Civil Eng. 

In addition to these two great works Sir 
Joseph was responsible for a large amount 
of bridge work within the metropolitan area 
thrown upon his shoulders by tie Metropo- 
litan Toll Bridges Act of 1887. Alterations 
had to be made in many of the old bridges, 
and new bridges were designed for Putney 
and Battersea, and a steam ferry between 
.North and South Woolwich. Simultane- 
ously with this work a considerable amount 
of embanking and of alteration of wharf 
levels was carried out in order to diminish 



the danger of flooding at high tides in the 
low-level districts of the metropolis. 

Bazalgette remained chief engineer to the 
, metropolitan board of works until its aboli- 
tion in 1889, and replacement by the London 
j county council, anc he presented altogether 
thirty-three annual reports setting forth in 
detail the engineering works which he de- 
signed on behalf of the board. 

He joined the Institution of Civil En ;i- 
neers in 1838, he served as a member of tie 
council for many years, and became presi- 
dent of the institution in 1884. He was 
made C.B. in 1871, and, after the completion 
of the embankment, was knio-hted in May 
1874. He died on 15 Marca 1891 at his 
residence, St. Mary's, Wimbledon Park. He 
married, in 1845, Maria, the fourth daugh- 
ter of Edward Kough of New Cross, Wex- 
ford, and had a family of six sons and four 
daughters. There is a portrait in the pos- 
session of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
a replica of a painting by Ossani, and a bronze 
bust, forms part of a mural monument which 
has been erected by his friends on the 
Thames embankment at the foot of North- 
umberland Avenue. 

Besides the paper and reports mentioned 
above and his presidential" address (Proc. 
Inst. Civil Eng. Ixxvi. 2), Bazalgette wrote 
a great number of valuable professional re- 
ports. The chief of those re.ating to drain- 
age and water supply are : Report on Drain- 
age and Water Supply of Rugby, Sandgate, 
Tottenham, &c., London, 1854. Data for 
estimating the sizes and cost of Metropolitan 
Drainage Works, London, 1855. Reports 
on Drainage of Metropolis, London, 1854, 
1855, 1856, 1865, 1867, 1871 ; Drawings and 
Specifications for Metropolitan Main Drain- 
age Works,London, 1859-73; Tract on ditto, 
London, 1865 ; Reports on Drainage of Lee 
Valley, London, 1882 ; Report on Sewerage 
of Brighton,Brighton,1883; Thames Conser- 
vancy and Drainage Outfalls, London, 1880 ; 
J*? S r P urif y in :' the Thames, London, 
1871 ; Report on Taames, London, 1878. 

Bazalgette also wrote Reports on Metro- 
politan Bridges, London, 1878, 1880, and 
on Communications between the north and 
south of the Thames below London Bridge 
London, 1882. e ' 

Other reports of a miscellaneous character 
are: Short Account of Thames Embankment 
?SlA bb y Mills Pum P in g Station, London, 
1868; Metropolitan anc. other Railway 
Schemes, London, 1864, 1867, 1871, 1874 ; 
Inspection of Manure and Chemical Works, 
London, 1865 ; Boring operations at Cross- 
ness, London, 1869; Metropolitan Tram- 
ways, London, 1870 5 Asphalte for Pave- 



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Beach 



paid spy, under cover of an active member- 
ship of the Fenian body. Le Caron con- 
tinued in direct and frequent communica- 
tion "with, the British or Canadian govern- 
ment front this time till February 1889. 

Immediately after his return he resumed 
relations with the Fenian leader O'Neill, 
now United States claim-agent at Nashville. 
On 31 Dec. 1867 O'Neill "aecame president 
of the Fenian organisation (Irish Republi- 
can Brotherhood), and soon afterwards Le 
Garon began to organise a Fenian circle in 
Lockport, Illinois. As ' centre ' of this he 
received O'Neill's reports and sent them 
and other documents to the English govern- 
ment. At this time Le Caron was at 
Chicago as resident medical officer of the 
state^ penitentiary (prison), but resigned the 
position in the course of the year, when he 
.was summoned by O'Neill to New York, 
and accompanied him to an interview at 
Washington with President Andrew John- 
son, the object of which was to obtain the 
return of the arms taken from the Fenians 
in 1866, He was now appointed military 
organiser of the 'Irish Republican Army,' 
and sent on a mission to the eastern states. 
At the Philadelphia convention of December 
1868 a second .nvasion of Canada was re- 
solved on by the Fenians. Le Caron, who 
was entrusted with the chief direction of 
the preparations along the frontier, paid a 
visit to Ottawa and arranged with the Cana- 
dian chief commissioner of police (Judge 
M'Mieken) a system of daily communica- 
tions. He dissipated some suspicions that 
were entertained of him by the Fenians, and 
early in 1869 he was appointed their assis- 
tant adjutant-general, and forwarded to the 
authorities copies of the Fenian plans of 
campaign. He had already obtained a domi- 
nant influence over Alexander Sullivan, an 
important member of the brotherhood, and 
in the winter of 1869 he further strengthened 
his position by providin O'Neill with a 
loan wherewith to cover Ms embezzlement 
of Fenian funds. 

Early in 1870 Le Caron, who now held 
the rank of brigadier and adjutant-general, 
bad distributed fifteen thousand stand of 
arms and three million rounds of cartridge 
along the Canadian frontier. Owing to in- 
formation furnished by Le Caron to the 
Canadian authorities, the invading force at 
once (26 April) fell into an ambush, and 
were obligee to retreat. O'Neill was ar- 
rested by order of President Grant for a 
breach .of the neutrality laws. Le Caron 
t^J?? 1 hls ft^oww to Malone, but on 
the 27th made his way to Montreal. Next 
day lie set out forOttawa,tmt wasarrestedat 



Cornwall as a recognised Fenian, and was only 
allowed to proceed under a military escort. 
After a midnight interview with M'Micken 
he left Canada early next day by a different 
route. 

After the repulse of the second invasion 
Le Caron resumed his medical studies, but 
was soon invited by O'Neill, who suspected 
nothing, to help in the movement bein/ pre- 
pared in conjunction with Louis Riel q. v.] 
~e Caron betrayed the plans to the Canadian 
government. In consequence of his action 
O'Neill was arrested with his party at Fort 
Pembina, on 5 Oct. 1871, just as they had 
crossed the frontier, and Riel surrendered at 
Fort Garry without firing a shot. O'Neill 
was given up to the American authorities, 
but was acquitted by them on the ground 
that the offence was committed on Cana- 
dian soil. Le Caron incurred some blame in 
Fenian circles in consequence of the failure 
of the last movement, and for the next few 
years was chiefly occupied in the practice 
of medicine, first at Detroit (where he gra- 
duated M.D.) and then at Braidwood, a 
suburb of Wilmington. But at Detroit he 
watched on behalf of the Canadian govern- 
ment the movements of Mackay Lomasney, 
who was afterwards concerned in the at- 
tempt to blow up London Bridge with dyna- 
mite j and he was still in the confidence of 
former Fenian friends. 

Le Caron was not an original member of 
the Clan-na-Gael (the reorganised Fenian 
body). But by circulating the report that 
his mother was an Irishwoman, he gradually 
regained his influence and obtained the 
1 senior-guardianship f of the newly formed 
camp at Braidwood, He was now able to 
send copies of important documents to Mr. 
Robert Anderson, chief of the criminal de- 
tective department in London. In order to 
do this, however, he was obliged to evade by 
sleight of hand the rule of tie or -anisation 
that documents not returned to Headquar- 
ters were to be burned in sight of the camp. 
The years 1879-81 witnessed what was 
called ' the new departure ' in the Irish- 
American campaignag-ainst England, where- 
by an 'open' or constitutional agitation (re- 

TVt*asmta*-l i* T!M._J l j_i _ T i " ^ 



i c " i"^*".'*u".ujLv/jLici)j. ttKIL'tUjlUJU ITo 

presented in Ireland by the Land League 
and its successor) was carried on side by 
side with the old revolutionary Fenian move- 
ment The relations between the two were 
very intricate, and Le Caron was closely 
connected with both. He entertained at 
Braidwood and professionally attended Mr. 

> Michael Davitt when he came to America 
to organise the American branch of the 
Land League, and early in 1881 he saw 

, much of John Devoy, who represented the 



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curate at Brooke in Norfolk and Sopley in 
Hampshire, he applied for the office of naval 
chaplain, and was appointed to H.M.S. 
Sybillein that capacity (8 Dec. 1852). For- 
tunately for students the Sybille was sent 
to the China station, and, taking advanta 'e 
of the opportunity thus offered him, he de- 
voted his spare time to the study of the 
Chinese language. So proficient did he he- 
come in the colloquial as well as the literary 
dialect that during the war of 1856-8 he 
acted as naval interpreter. But his main ob- 
^ect in studying the language was to qualify 
"jimself forthe task of elucidating the dark 
phases of Chinese Buddhism. In this un- 
dertaking he was one of the pioneers, and 
happily left many of the results of his labours. 
On ais return to" England he was appointed 
chaplain to the marine artillery, and later 
to the Pembroke and Devonport dockyards 
in succession. He was at Devonport from 
1873. In 1877 he was appointed rector of 
Falstone in Northumberland. Three years 
later he was transferred to Wark in the same 
county, and ultimately (1888) to Greens 
Norton in Northamptonshire. In all these 
changes of scene he remained constant to 
his Chinese studies, and some of his best 
work was done in the country rectories 
which he occupied. In 1877 he was ap- 
pointed professor of Chinese at University 
College, London, and in 1885 the degree of 
p.C.Li. (Durham) was conferred upon him 
in recognition of the value of his researches 
into Chinese Buddhism. He died at Greens 
Norton on 20 Aug. 1889. Amon ; his prin- 
cipal works were : 1. 'The Trave-s of I?ah- 
hian and Sung-yunj translated from the 
Chinese,' 1869. 2, ' A Catena of Buddhist 
Scriptures from the Chinese,' 1871. 3. The 
Romantic Legend of Sakya Buddha, from the 
Chinese/ 1875. 4. 'Texts from the Buddhist 
Canon/ 1878. 5. 'A Life of Buddha by 
Asva-hosha Bodhisattra; translated from 
the Chinese/ 1879. 6. 'An Abstract of four 
Lectures on Buddhist Literature in China/ 
1882. 

[Boase's Collectanea Cornubiensia ; personal 
knowledge; information kindly given by Dr. 
JUdii Wright] R.K.D. 

BEALE, THOMAS WILLEET (1828- 
1894^, miscellaneous writer, only son of Fre- 
derick Beale (. 1863), of the music publish- 
ing firm of Cramer, Beale, & Adcison of 
Regent Street, was born in London in 1828. 
He was admitted student of Lincoln's Inn 
on 18 April 1860, and was called to the bar 
in 1863; but music claimed his interests, 
and, having received lessons from Edward 
Boeckel and others* he managed operas in 



London and the provinces, and toured with 
some of the most notable musicians of his 
time. Under the pseudonym of ' Walter 
Maynard/ which he frequently used, he 
wrote an account of one of t:iese tours, 
with reminiscences of Mario, Grisi, Giu- 
glini, Lablache, and others, entitled 'The 
Enterprising Impresario* (London, 1867). 
He originated the national music meetings 
at the Crystal Palace with the object of 
bringing meritorious jjoung musicians to the 
front, and took a leacftng part in the institu- 
tion of the New Philharmonic Society, at 
wjhich Berlioz conducted some of his com- 
positions by Beale's invitation. It was under 
jiis management that Thackeray came out as 
a lecturer. He wrote a large number of 
songs and pianoforte pieces, besides ' Instruc- 
tions in the Art of Singing ' (London, 1853), 
and a series of * Music Copy Books J (Lon- 
don. 1871). In February 1877 he produced 
at the Crystal Palace a farce called ' The 
Three Years' System/ and a three-act drama, 

* A Shadow on the Hearth ; ' an operetta, 

* An Easter Egg/ was produced at Terry's 
Theatre in December 1893. His autobio- 
graphy, l The Light of other Days as seen 
through the wron end of an Opera Glass/ 
was published in : vols., London, 1890. He 
died at Gipsy Hill on 3 Oct. 1894, and was 
buried at Norwood cemetery. Late in life 
he married the widow of John Robinson of 
Hong^Kong; she was a good singer and 
musician. 

[Autobiography as above; Musical News, 
13 Oct. 1894 ; Musical Times, November 1894 ; 
Brown and Stratton's British Musical Bio- 
graphy.] J. C. H. 

BEARD, CHARLES (1827-1888), uni- 
tarian divine and author, eldest son of John 
Belly Beard [c = . v.] by his wife Mar- (Barnes), 
was born at Higher Broughton, Manchester, 
on 27 July, 1827. After passin- through 
his father's school, he studied at Manchester 
New Colle-e (then at Manchester, now Man- 
cheater CoJege, Oxford) from 1843 to 1848, 
graduating B.A. at London University in 
1847. He aided his father in compiling the 
Latin dictionary issued by Messrs. Cassell. 
In 1848-9 he continued his studies at Berlin. 
On 17 Feb. 1850 he became assistant to 
James Brooks (1806-1854) at Hyde chapel, 
Gee Cross, Cheshire, succeedin j in 1854 as 
sole pastor, and remaining till, the end of 
1866. He had accepted a call to succeed 
John Hamilton Thorn, [q. v.] at Renshaw 
Street chapel, Liverpool, and entered on this 
char -e on 3 March 1867, retaining it till his 
death. In Ms denomination he took first 
rank as a preacher, and was equally success- 



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a set of initials for an edition of *olpone.' 
These were finished only a week or two before 
his death. 

Beardsley nad musical gifts of a high 
order; the charms of his conversation were 
great; and he had an extraordinary know- 
ledge of books for so young a man. Certain 
sotto wee whisperings of his art were, 
perhaps, to be accounted for by the want of J 
physical balance of the peitrinaire. Through- 
out his life he suffered from weakness of the 
lungs, and his abnormal activity had seemed 
to Ms friends to be at least j>artly due to a 
desire to forestall death, and, in sj>ite of its 
imminence, to leave a substantial legacy 
behind him. Few men have done so much j 
work in so brief a s;oace of time work, 
moreover, which was aTways deliberate and 
finished in the true artistic sense. Shortly 
before his death Aubrey Beardsley was re- 
ceived into the church of Rome. He died 
of consumption at Mentone on 16 March 
1898, and was buried there. 

^Beardsley's critics see in his art three 
distinct phases : first, a romantic and Pre- 
Raphaelite phase, in which the influence of 
Burae-Jones and Puvis de Chavannes may 
be traced; secondly, a purely decorative 
phase, based mainly on t ^e Japanese con- 
vention ; thirdly, a more delicate and com- 
plex way of seeing things, induced by his 
study of French art in tie eighteenth cen- 
tury. To these Mr. Arthur Symons would 
add a fourth manner, adumbrated in the 
'Volpone'^ initials, in which the grotesque 
forms of his- earlier styles are discarded for . 
acquiescence in nature as she is or may be. 
The weak point in his art is its capricious- 
ness^ He fails to convince us completely 
of his sincerity. His peculiarities seem oc- 
casionally to nave no sounder foundation 
than a wish to be different. They too often 
lack that inevitable connection with a root 
idea which should characterise all design. 
On the other hand, his inventions betray 
extreme mental activity, and his technique 
a hand at once firm, delicate, and sympa- 
thetic. To some the strange element in Jiis 
work seems merely fantastic; to others it 
appears morbid in tlie last degree, if not 
worse. One anonymous critic describes his 
art as * the mere glorification of a hideous 
and putrescent aspect of modern life. 7 A 
more sober judgment might call him a pagan 
infected with a modern interest iii psycho- 
logjy. A list of his works, complete to the 
end of 1896, was compiled by Mt. Aymer 
Valknce for the ' Book of Fifty Drawings ' 
(1897). * ^ 

The best portrait of Beardsley is the photo- 
graphic profile, with his remarkable oands, 



reproduced in ' The Works of Aubrey Beards- 
ley ' (2 vols. 1899, 1901). 

[Times, March 1898; Athenaeum, March 
1898; Academy, March 1898; Studio, April 
1898; The Yellow Book, pts. 1-4; Savoy, pts. 
1-8 ; The Works of Aubrey Beardsley, vol. i., 
The Early Work, with biographical note by 
H. C. JSlarillier, 1899, and vol. ii., The Later 
Work of Aubrey Beardsley, 1901 ; A. B., by 
Arthur Symons (Unicorn quartos, No. 4), 1898; 
A Book of Fifty Drawings, with catalogue by 
Aymer Vallance; private information.] W. A. 

BEAUFORT, EDMUND, styled fourth 
DUIE OF SOMERSET (1438 P-1471), born about 
1438, was second of the three sons of 
Edmund Beaufort, second duke of Somerset 
[q. v.], by his wife Eleanor, daughter of Ri- 
chard de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick [q. v.] 
After the defeat of the Lancastrians in 1461, 
Edmund was brought up in France with 
his younger brother John, and on the execu- 
tion of liis elder brother Henry Beaufort, 
third duke of Somerset [q. v. Sup-o-.], Edmund 
is said to have succeeded as Eburth duke. 
He was so styled by the Lancastrians in 
February 1471, but his brother's attainder 
was never reversed, and his titles remained 
forfeit. In a proclamation dated 27 April 
1471 Edmund is spoken of as 'Edmund 
Beaufort, calling himself duke of Somerset. 1 
He returned from France when Edward IV 
was driven from the throne by "Warwick's 
defection, and on 4 May 1471 commanded 
the van of the Lancastrian army at the 
battle of Tewkesbury. His position was 
almost unassailable (see plan in RAMSA.T, ii, 
379), but, for some unknown reason, after 
the battle began he moved down from the 
hei -hts and attacked Edward IV's right 
flank. He was assailed by both the king 
and Richard, duke of Gloucester, and was 
soon put to flight, his conduct having 
practically decided the battle in favour of 
the Yorkists (Arriuall of Edward IV, Cam- 
den Soc. pp. 29-30; WABKWORTH, p. 18; 
HAIL, p. 00). He was taken prisoner, and 
executed two days later, Monday, 6 May 
1471 ; he was buried on the south side of 
Tewkesbury Abbey, under an arch (DiDE, 
Hist, and Antiq. of Tewkesbury^ pp. 21-2). 
His younger brother John had been killed 
during tlie battle, and as both died unmar- 
ried, 'the house of Beaufort and all the 
honours to which they were entitled became 
extinct,' 



[Arrivall of Edward IV and Warkworth'a 
Chron. (Camden Soc.); Hall's Chronicle: Poly- 
dora Vergil; Cal. Patent Rolls ; Stubbs's Const. 
Hist. iii. 208, 2lO^Kamsay's Lancaster and 
York, ii. 380-2; Doyle's Official Baronage: 
Gr. E. C[okayne]'s, Complete Peerage; flotes 



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brother, Edmund Beaufort, was styled fourth 
Duke of Somerset by the Lancastrians, By 
a mistress named Joan Hill, the third duke 
left a son Charles, who was given the family 
name of Somerset, and whose descendants 
became dukes of Beaufort [see SOMKRSET, 
CEAELES, first EAEL or WOBCESIEE], 

[CaL Rot. Pat.; Rymer's Feeders; Rotuli 
Parl.; William, of Worcester and Stevenson's 
Letters (Rolls Ser.); English Chron., ed. 
Davies, Gregory's Collections, Three English 
Chron., aod Warkworth's Chron. (Camden Soc.); 
Polydore Vergil; Hail's Chronicle; Paston Let- 
ters, ed. Gairdcer; Fortescne's Governance of 
England, ed. Plummer ; Arthur de Richemont, 
Matthieu B'Escouchy and Chastellain's Chro- 
niques (See. de THist. de France) ; Beaucourt's 
Charles VII; Stnbbs's Const. Hist. vol. iii. 
passim; Ramsay's Lancaster and York; Doyle's 
Official Baronage; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete 
Peerage.") A, F. P. 

BEAUFOKT, JOHN, first EABL OF 
SOMEESET and MAjaams OP DOBSET and of 
SOMERSET (1373 f-1410), born about 1373, 
was the eldest son of John of Graunt [see 
JoHff, 1340-1399], bv his mistress, and 
afterwards his third wife, Catherine Swyn- 
ford Tq. v.] His younger brothers, Henry 
Beaufort, cardinal and bishop of Winchester, 
and Thomas Beaufort, earl of Dorset, are 
separately noticed, and his sister Joan was 
married to Ralph Neville, earl of "Westmor- 
land [q. y .] Henry IV was his half brother. 
The Beauforts took their name from John 
of Gaunt's castle of Beaufort in Anjou, 
where they were born, and not from Beau- 
fort Castle in Monmouthshire. It was 
afterwards asserted (ELLIS, Original Letters, 
2nd fser. i. 154) that John Beaufort was ' in 
double advoutrow goten/ but he was pro- 
bably born after 1372, when Catherine 
Swynfprd's first husband died; by an act 
of parliament passed on 6 Feb. 1397, shortly 
after John of Gaunt's marriage to Catherine 
Swynford, the Beauforts were legitimated. 
This act, though it ' did not in terms acknow- 
ledge their right of succession to the throne 
. . . did not in terms forbid it ' (BENTLET, 
Excerpta Historica, pp. 152 sqq.), but when, 
in 1407, Henry IV confirmed Richard ITs 
act, he introduced the important reservation 
*ercej>ta dignitate regali' (STUBBS, Const. 
Hist. iii. 58-9). 

John Beaufort's first service was with 
the English contingent sent on the Duke of 
Bourbon's expedition against Barbary in 
1390, They sailed from Genoa on 15 May 
of that year, and landed in Africa on 
22 July. On 4 Aug. an attack was begun 
on El Maiadia,but after seven weeks* in- 
effectual siege, the Englishforce re-embarked, 



reaching England about the end of Septem- 
ber. Beaufort was kni-hted soon after- 
wards (Doyle says in 1391), and in 1394 he 
was serving with the Teutonic knights in 
Lithuania. Probably, also, he was with. 
Henry of Derby (afterwards Henry IV) at 
the great battle of Nicopolis in September 
1396, when the Turks defeated the Christians, 
and Henry escaped on board a Venetian 
;alley on the Danube. Returning to Eng- 
.and, Beaufort was, a few days after his 
legitimation, created (10 Feb. 1396-7) Earl 
of Somerset, with place in parliament be- 
tween the earl marshal and the Earl of 
Warwick. He then took part, as one of 
the appellants, in the revolution of Septem- 
ber -897, which drove Gloucester from 
power and freed Richard II from all control 
(SitrsBS, iii. 21). On 29 Sept. he was 
created Marquis of Dorset, and in the same 
year was elected K.Gr., and appointed lieu- 
tenant of Aquitaine. His was the second 
marquisate created in England ; the creation 
is crossed out on the charter roll, and on 
the same day he was created Marquis of 
Somerset, but it was as Marquis of Dorset 
that he was summoned to parliament in 
1398 and 1399, and he seems never to have 
been styled Marquis of Somerset. He re- 
mained in England when Richard II banished 
his half brother Henry of Derby, was ap- 
pointed admiral of the Irish fleet on 2 Fe~3. 
..397-8, and constable of Dover and warden 
of the Cinque Ports three days later; on 
9 May following he was made admiral of 
the northern fleet. 

He had thus identified himself to some 
extent with the unconstitutional rule of 
Richard's last years, and probably it was 
only his relationship to Henry IV that 
saved him from ruin on Richard's fall. He 
was accused for his share in Richard's acts 
by parliament in October 1399, and pleaded - 
in excuse that he had been taken by surprise 
and dared not disobey the king's command. 
He was deprived of his marquisates, and 
became simply Earl of Somerset, but there 
was never any doubt of his loyalty to the 
new king, his half brother. lie bore the 
second sword at the coronation on 13 Oct. 
1399, was appointed great chamberlain on 
17 Nov., and in January followin ; was, with 
Sir Thomas Erpingham [q. v. Suppl.], put 
in command of four thousand archers sent 
against the revolted earls. On 8 Nov. 1400 
he was granted the estates of the rebel 
Owen Glendower, but was never able to take 
possession of them. On 19 March 1401 he 
appears as a member of the privy council, 
and four davs later was appointed captain 
of Calais. 3e was sent on a diplomatic 



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was increased by the discussion which fol- 
lowed a paper on * Some supposed Differences 
in the Minds of Men and "Yomen with re- 
gard to Educational Necessities/ which she 
contributed to the British Association at Nor- 
wich in 1868. In March 1870 the ' Women's 
Suffrage Journal * was started, and 31iss 
Becker acted as its editor and chief contri- 
butor to the end of her life. She published 
in 1872 an important pamphlet on the* Poli- 
tical Disabilities of ^ omen,' first printed in 
the 'Westminster Review,' and in 1873 an- 
otherpamphlet entitled * Liberty, Equality, 
and Fraternity: a Reply to Mr. Fitzjames 
Stephen's Strictures on the Subjection of 
Women. 7 Her labours for the society were 
incessant. She directed its policy and or- 
ganised the movement as a whole. There 
was hardly an important women's suffrage 
meeting or conference held in any part of 
the kingdom in which she did not take part. 
Her public speaking was marked not only 
by extreme clearness of utterance, but by its 
lucid statement of fact, its grasp of subject, 
and logical force. She naturally came to be 
a familiar figure in the parliamentary lobbies, 
where her political capacity was fully re- 
cognised. 

At the election of the first Manchester 
school board in 1870, she was a successful 
candidate for a seat, and she was re-elected 
at the seven subsequent elections, always as 
an independent or unsectarian member. She 
kept special watch over the interests of the 
female teachers and scholars, and in the 
general work of the board she bore an active 
and influential part. 

For many years she never missed the 
annual meetings of the British Association, 
and often took part in the discussions. When 
she attended the meeting in Canada in 1884, 
she wrote some descriptive letters to the 
'Manchester Examiner and Times. 7 She 
died at Geneva on 18 July 1890, and was 
buried there in the cemetery of St. George. 

A portrait of Miss Becker, tainted by 
Miss B. L. Dacre, hangs at the o3ice of the 
central committee of the Women's Suffrage 
Society, Westminster, pending the time 
when it can be offered to the National Por- 
trait Gallery. 

[Memorial number of the Women's Suffrage 
Journal, August 1890 ; Manchester Examiner 
and Times, 21 July 1890; Britten and Boul- 
ger's English Botanists, 1893, p. 13; Rojal 
Soc. Cat. of Scientific Papers, vii. 118; Shaw's 
Old and New Manchester, ii. 75 (with portrait) 
communications from Wilfred Becker, esq., Man* 
Chester, also from Miss Helen Blackburn, 
Westminster, who is engaged on a life of Miss 
Becker.] C. W. S. 



BECKETT, GILBERT ARTHUR A. 
(1837-1891), humorist. [See A BECKETT.] 

BECKMAN, SIB MARTIN (d. 1702), 
colonel, chief engineer and master gunner of 
England, was a Swedish captain of artillery. 
His brother, a military engineer in the ser- 
vice of Charles I during the civil war, was 
taken prisoner by the parliament forces 
in 1644, but soon after escaped. In 1653 
he joined the royalist exiles at Middelburg, 
the bearer of important information from 
England, and died before the Restoration. 
Martin Beckman in 1660 petitioned Charles 
II for the place of royal engineer, formerly 
enjoyed by his brother, and mentioned that 
he * was ruined and severely injured, by an 
; accident at an explosion in the preparation 
of fireworks to be shown on the water in 
the king's honour.' He was accordingly em- 
ployed as an engineer, and his skill in labora- 
tory work led to his appointment on 6 June 
1661 to the expedition under Lord Sand- 
wich as ' firemaster with and in his majesty's 
fleete. 1 

He sailed from Deptford with the fleet on 
13 June in the ship Augustine, and, after a 
short time at Alicante, proceeded against 
the^ pirates of Algiers; but, the enterprise 
failing, the fleet bore, away for Tangiers, of 
which possession was taken as part of the 
dowry of Catherine of Braganza [q. v." on 
30 Jan. 1662. Here Beckman made plans 
of the place and of such fortifications as 
he considered necessary, estimated to cost 
200,000& A governor and garrison were 
left there, and the fleet proceeded to Lis- 
bon to escort Queen Catherine to England. 
Beckman arrived with the fleet at Ports- 
mouth on 14 May. Plans of the actions at 
Algiers were made by him and engraved. 

A jplan of Tan iers was sent home before 
the eet returnee, and Pepys mentions in 
his 'Diary' under date 28 Feb. 1662, that 
he presented to the Duke of York from Lord 
Sandwich ' a fine map of Tangiers, done by 
one Captain Martin Beckman, a Swede, that 
is with my lord. We stayed looking over 
it a great while with the duke.' This map 
is in the collection of George III in the 
British Museum. 

In 1663 Beckman was committed a pri- 
soner to the Tower of London. He stated, 
in a petition to the king and council for a 
trial, that he had been aalf a year a close 
prisoner through the malice of one person 
for discovering the designs of the Spaniards 
and others against his majesty. He there- 
upon left England. After the raid up the 
JVTedway by the Dutch fleet under De Ruy- 
ter in 1667, he wrote on 24 June to the king 



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vessels and machines, with the troops under 
Tollemache, and arrived with the fleet at 
Camaret Bay on 7 June, when the land 
attack failed. Dieppe and Havre were then 
reduced to ruins by Beckman's bomb-vessels, 
and the whole coast so harassed and alarmed 
that the inhabitants had to be forcibly ke~)t 
in the coast towns. Having returned to t. 
Helens on 26 July, Beckman and his bomb- 
vessels went with the fleet under Sir 
Glowdisley Shovell to the attack of Dunkirk 
and Calais in September, and then returned 
to England. He afterwards visited the 
Channel Islands and reported on the de- 
fences of Guernsey. His plans of St. Peter's, 
Castle Cornet, and the Bouche de Vale, with 
water-colour sketches, are in the British 
Museum. 

On 22 May 1695 Beckman was appointed 
to the command of the ordnance train and 
the machine and bomb-vessels for the sum- 
mer expedition to the straits of Gibraltar, 
and took part in the operations on the coast 
of Catalonia, returning home in the autumn. 
His demands for projectiles for his bomb- 
vessels were so large that the board of 
ordnance represented that parliament had 
made no provision to meet them. He exer- 
cised a similar command in the summer ex- 
pedition under Lord Berkeley, which sailed 
at the end of June 1696 to * insult the coast 
of France/ On 3 July Berkeley detached 
a squadron of ten ships of war under Cap- 
tain Mees, R.N., an Beckman with his 
bomb-vessels. They entered St. Martin's, 
Isle of Hhe, on the 5th under French colours, 
which they struck as soon as they had an- 
chored. They bombarded the place all that 
night and the following day, expending over 
two thousand bombs and destroy inj the best- 
part of the town. On the 7th taey sailed 
for_01onne, where a like operation produced 
a similar result, and then rejoined the fleet, 
returning to Torbay. Tliese enterprises 
created such alarm "that over a hundred 
batteries were ordered by the French mini- 
stry to be erected between Brest and Goulet, 
and over sixtv thousand men were continu- 
ally in arms :br coast defence. 

Early in 1697 Beckman surveyed all the 
bomb-vessels, ten of which he reported to be 
in good condition and fitted to take in 
twenty mortars * which are all we have ser- 
viceable.' On the general thanksgiving for 
peace on 2 Dec. Beckman designed the fire- 
work display before the king and the royal 
family in St. James's Scuare, London; his 
drawing representation o: it is in the Kin^s 
Library. British Museum. 

Lack of money for defences caused Beck- 
man as much difficulty as his predecessors 



and successors in office. Representations of 
insecurity in regard to Portsmouth, for ex- 
ample, in 1699 led to many plans and re- 
ports, but nothing was effected. 

Beckman died in London on 24 June 
1702. He appears to have married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Talbot Edwards, keeper of 
the crown jewels. She was buried at the 
Tower of London on 12 Dec. 1677. Two 
sons, Peter and Edward, were also buried 
there on 7 Feb. 1676 and 29 June 1678 re- 
spectively. The board of ordnance wrote to 
Marlborough that Beckman's death was a 
very great loss. The post remained unfilled 
for nine years. 

[Board of Ordnance Eeeords ; Royal En- 
gineers' Records ; Royal Warrants; Cat. of State 
Papers, 1644-1702; various tracts on Fortifica- 
tion. &c.; Addit. MSS. Brit. Mns.; Story's 
Impartial Hist, of Wars in Ireland, and Con- 
tinuation, 1693; Bayley's To^ver of London, 
1821 ; Life, Journals, and Correspondence of 
Samuel Pepys, 1841 , also Diary of same ; Gul- 
den's Gravesend ; Pocock's Gravesend and Mil- 
ton, 1797 ; f Field of Mars, 1801 ; Rapin's Hist. ; 
Hume's Hist. ; Charnock's Biographia Kavalis, 
1795; Campbell's British Admirals; Lord Car- 
marthen's Journal of the Brest Expedition, 
1694 ; Present State of Eiirope, 1694 ; Hasted's 
Kent ; Burke's Seats and Arms ; Xennett's Re- 
gister ; Strype ; Cannon's Hist. Records of the 
18th Royal Irish Regiment.] R. H. V. 

BEDFORD, FRANCIS (1799-1883), 
bookbinder, was born at Paddington, Lon- 
don, on 18 June 1799. His father is believed 
to have been a courier attached to the esta- 
blishment of George III. At an early age he 
was sent to a school in Yorkshire, and on his 
return to London his guardian, Henry Bower, 
of 38 Great Marlborough Street, apprenticed 
him in 1817 to a bookbinder named Haigh 
in Poland Street, Oxford Street. Only a 
part of his time was served with Haigh, and 
in 1822 he was transferred to a binder named 
Finlay, also of Poland Street, with whom his 
indentures were completed. At the end of 
his apprenticeship he entered the workshop 
of one of the best bookbinders of the day, 
Charles Lewis [q. v.], of 35 Duke Street, St. 
James's, with whomhe worked until the death 
of his employer, and subsequently managed 
the business for Lewis's widow. Itwasdurino- 
this period that Bedford's talent and indus- 
try attracted the notice of the Duke of 
Portland, who became not only one of his 
most liberal patrons, but also one of his 
staunchest and kindest friends. In 1841 
Bedford, who had left Mrs. Lewis's esta- 
blishment, entered into partnership with 
John Clarke of 61 Frith Street, Soho, who 
nad a special reputation for binding books in 



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1866; lie had fourteen children : six sons 
and eight daughters. His eldest son, Gilbert, 
was member of parliament for the central 
division of Glasgow, 1885, and for the Inver- 
ness district of burghs, 1892-5. Another son, 
John Alexander, -was a justice of the peace 
and closely connected for many years with 
philanthropic and educational work in Man- 
chester ; he died in October 1896. Both 
brothers were partners in the well-known 
firm of Beith, Stevenson, & Co., East India 
merchants, Glasgow and Manchester. 

An excellent portrait ofDr.Beith, painted 
by Norman McBeth, was presented to him 
by his congregation in Stirling, and is in the 
possession of his son Gilbert in Glasgow. 

Dr, Beith was a voluminous writer. Be- 
sides many pamphlets on public questions, 
he published: 1. * A Treatise on the Baptist 
Controversy' (in Gaelic), 1823. 2. 'A 
Catechism on Baptism/ 1824. 3. 'Sorrow- 
ing yet Rejoicing, a Narrative of successive 
Bereavements in a Minister's Family/ 1839. 
4. 'The Two Witnesses traced in History/ 
1846. 5. 'Biographical Sketch of the Rev. 
Alex. Stewart, Cromarty/ 1854. 6. ' Christ 
our Life, being a Series of Lectures on the 
first Six Chapters of John's Gospel/ 2 vols. 
1856. 7. Scottish Reformers and Martyrs/ 
1860. 8. 'The Scottish Church in her re- 
lation to other Churches at Home and 
Abroad/ 1869, 9. < A Highland Tour with 
Dr. Candlish/ 1874. 10. * Memoirs of Dis- 
ruption Times/ 1877. 11. ' The Woman of 
Samaria/ 1880. 

[Personal knowledge; private information; 
Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scotican, n. i. 61, 70, 101, 
ni. i. 43.] T. B. J. 

BELCHER, JAMES (1781-1811), prize- 
fighter, was born at his father's house in St. 
James's churchyard, Bristol, on 15 April 
1781. His mother was a daughter of Jack 
Slack (A. 1778), a noted pugilist, who de- 
feated John Broughton [q. v.J in April 1750. 
*Jim' Belcher followed the trade of a 
batcher, though he was never formally ap- 
prenticed, and signalised himself when a lad 
bv pugilistic and other feats at Lansdown 
fair. He was a natural fighter, owing little 
to instruction in the art. His form is de- 
scribed as elegant ; he was, at any rate,,good- 
humpured, finely proportioned, and well- 
looking. He came to London in 1798 and 
sparred with Bill Warr, a veteran boxer, of 
Oovent Garden. On 12 April 1799, after a 
fight of thirty-three minutes, he beat Tom 
Jones of Paddington at Wormwood Scrubbs. 
On 15 May 1800 Belcher, aged 19, met Jack 
Bartholomew, aged 37, on Finchley Com- 
mon, and after seventeen rounds knocked 



him out with a ' terrific ' body blow. On 
22 Dec. 1800, near Abershaw's -ibbet on 
Wimbledon Common, he defeated Andrew 
Gamble, the Irish champion, in five rounds, 
Gamble being utterly confounded by his 
opponent's quickness. On 25 Nov. 1801 he 
met Joe Berks of Wem, and defeated him 
after sixteen rounds of desperate fighting. 
He fought him again on 20 Aug. 1802, and 
Berks retired at the end of the fourteenth 
round, by which time he could scarcely 
stand and was shockingly cut about the 
face. Tn April 1803 he severely punished 
John Firby, * the young ruffian/ in a hastily 
arranged encounter. Next month he ha*d 
to appear before Lord Ellenborounfh in the 
court of king's bench for rioting and fighting, 
upon which occasion he was defended by 
Erskine and Francis Const [q. v.], and was 
merely bound over to come up for judgment 
upon his own recognisance in 400/. 

In July 1803 Belcher lost an eye owing 
to an accident when playing at rackets. 
His high spirit and constitution forthwith 
declined, but he was placed by his friends in 
the ' snug tavern ' of the Jolly Brewers in 
Wardour Street. Unhappily he was stirred 
by jealousy of a former -pupil, Hen Pearce, 
the * Bristol game-chicken/ once more to 
try his fortune in the ring. He had a terri- 
ble battle with Pearce on Barnby Moor, 
near Doncaster, on 6 Dec. 1805. 'He dis- 
played all his old courage but not his old 
skill or form, and was defeated in eighteen 
rounds. He fought yet again two heroic 
fights with Tom Cribb the first on 8 April 
1807 at Moulsey^ in forty-one rounds, waen 
Belcher would have proved the winner but 
for his confused si^ht and sprained wrist 
the second on 1 Fe D. 1809, in answer to a 
challenge for the belt and two hundred 
guineas. Belcher was a -ain defeated after 
a punishin; 1 fight in thirty-one rounds, 
though the sest judges were of opinion that, 
had -Belcher possessed his once excellent 
constitution and eyesight, Cribb must have 
been the loser. This was Belcher's last 
fight. He was one of the gamest fighters 
ever seen in^the prize-ring, and probably the 
most rapid in his movements : l you heard 
his blows, you did not see them/ A truly 
coura;eous man, Belcher was in private life 
ood-aumoured, modest, and unassuming; 
jut after his last fight he became taciturn 
and depressed. He was deserted by most 
of his old patrons : one of the best of these 
was Thomas Pitt, the second lord Camel- 
ford, who at his death on 10 March 1804 
left him his famous bulldog Trusty. Bel- 
cher died on 30 July 1811 at the Coach and 
Horses, Frith Street, Soho, a property which 



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Bell 



Child ' (1867), < The Octoroon ' (1868), < The 
Last Kiss * (1869), show a decline in power, 
and are full of religious sentimentality or 
pseudo-classical elegance. He exhibited for 
the last time in 1S79. Good engravings of 
some of his most popular statues, ( The I laid 
of Saragassa,' * Ba'Ses in the Wood/ and 

* The Cross of Prayer/ were published in the 

* Art Journal.' Bell presented a collection 
of models of his large works to the Kensing- 
ton Town Hall. 

Bell took an active part in the movement 
which led to the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
and afterwards to the foundation of the 
South Kensington (now Victoria and Albert) 
Museum. He published 'Free-hand Out- 
Ike,' 1852-4; an essay on 'The Four Pri- 
mary Sensations of the Mind/ 1853 ; and 
'Ivan III, a Dramatic Sketch,' 1855. In 
1859 he received a medal from the Society 
of Arts for the ori ination of the principle 
of entasis as appliec to the obelisk. A paper 
by Bell on this subject was published in 
1858 as an appendix to an essay by Richard 
Burgess on the Egyptian obelisks in Rome. 
Bell's last literary work was a theoretical re- 
storation of the 'Venus of Melos' (Magazine 
of Art, 1894, xvii. 16, with a portrait of Bell). 

In -private life BeJl endeared himself to all 
who Lmew him. He had retired from the 
active exercise of his profession for many 
years before his death, which took place on 
14 March 1895 at 15 Douro Place, Ken- 
sington, where he had resided for more than 
forty years. 

[Times, 28 March 1895 ; Athenaaum, 6 April 
1895; Biograph, 1880, iii. 178-85.] C. D. 

BELL, THOMAS (/. 1573-1610), anti- 
Romanist writer, was born at Raskelf, near 
Thirsk, Yorkshire, in 1551, and is stated to 
have been benefited as a clergyman in Lan- 
cashire. Subsequently he became a Roman 
catholic, and bein 'hot and eager, in that 
profession,' hisjndiscretion led to his impri- 
sonment at York, where he was 'more 
troublesome to the keeper than all the rest of 
the prisoners together.' This was in or 
about 1573. In 1576 he went to Douay 
College, and in 1579, when twenty-eight, 
entered the English college at Rome as a 
student of philosophy. In 1581, being then 
a priest, he was in the English seminary at 
Home, and in the following March (1582) 
was sent into England. A few years later 
(1686) he appears as the associate of Thomas 
"Worthington [q. v.] and other priests in 
Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, and else- 
where, He was mentioned in 1592 as one 
ill-affected to the government, and he shared 
tae fate of other seminary priests in being 



arrested. He was sent to London as probably 
a valuable prize, but he forthwith recanted, 
and was sent back to Lancashire to help in 
the ' better searching and apprehending of 
Jesuits and seminaries.' After this employ- 
ment he went to Cambridge, where he began 
the publication of his controversial writings. 
They comprise : 1. * Thomas Bels Motives : 
concerning Romish Faith and Religion/ 
Cambridge, 1593, 4toj 2nd ed. 1605. 2. 'A 
Treatise of Usurie,' Cambridge, 1594, 4to. 
3. 'The Surrey of Popery,' London, 1596, 
4to. 4. 'Hunting of the Romish Fox,' 
1598. This is entered on the ' Stationers' 
Register,' 8 April 1598, and Bell himself 
claims the authorship in his ' Counterblast,' 
fol. 44. A more famous work with the 
same title had, however, been published by 
Dr. William Turner (d. 156S) [q. v.l, dean 
of Wells, in 1543 (Basle, 8vo). 5. 'The 
Anatomie of Popish Tyrannic, wherein is 
conteyned a Plain Declaration ... of the 
Libels, Letters, Edictes, Pamphlets, and 
Bopkes lately published by Ue Secular 
Priests, and English Hispanized Jesuites,' 
London, 1603, 4to, 6. ' The Golden Balance 
of Tryall,' London, 1603, 4to ; annexed to 
this is ' A Counterblast against the Vaine 
Blast of a Masked Companion, who termeth 
Himself E. 0., but thought to be Robert 
Parsons, the Trayterous Jesuite.' 7. 'The 
Downefall of Poperie, proposed by way of 
challenge to all 3nglisS Jesuites and ... 
Papists,' London, 1604 and 1605. 4to; re- 
printed and entitled 'The Fall of Papistrie' 
in 1628. Parsons, Bishop Richard Smith, 
and Francis Walsmgham (1577-1647) [q. v." 
wrote answers to this. 8, 'The WoefuL 
Crie of Rome/ London, 1605, 4to, 9. ' The 
Popes Funerall: containing an exact and 
pitiy Reply to a pretended Answere of a 
. . Libell, called the "Forerunner of Bells 
Downfall." . . . Together with liis Treatise 
called the Regiment of the Church,' London, 
1606, 4to. 10. 'The Jesuites Ante-past: 
containing a Reply against a Pretended 
Aunswere to the Downefall of Poperie' 
London, 1608, 4to. 11. 'The Tryall of the 
New Religion,' London, 1608, 4to. 12. 'A 
Christian Dialogue between Theophilus, a 
Deformed Catholike in Rome, and Hemi ;ius, 
a Reformed Catholike in the Churca of 
England,' 1609, 4to. 13. 'The Catholique 
Triumph: conteyning a reply to the pre- 
tended answere of B. C. |"i.e. Parsons] lately 
published against The Tryall of the New 
3eligion,'London, 1610, 4to. 

In his ' Jesuites Ante-past ' (No. 10) he 
states that Queen Elizabeth granted him a 
pension of fifty pounds a year, which 
James I continued to him. 



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[Obituary notices in the TransactioDS of the 
Boval Asiatic Society, October 1892, p. 880, the 
Indian Lancet, Calcutta, 1896, vii. 29-31, and 
the Times, 29 July 1892.] D'A. P. 

BELLIN, SAMUEL (1799-1893), en- 
graver, son of John Bellin of Chigwell, 
Essex, was born on 13 May 1799. He 
studied for some years in Borne, where he 
made some excellent copies of celebrated 
pictures, and acquired great facility as a 
draughtsman. On his return to England, 
about 1884, he devoted himself to engraving, 
and became one of the leading workers in 
mezzotint and the mixed method. His plates, 
which are all from pictures by popular Eng- 
lish painters of the day, include * The Meet- 
ing of the Council of the Anti-Corn Law 
League,' after X R. Herbert; 'Heather 
Belles, 1 after J. Phillip; 'The Council of 
War in the Crimea,' after A. Egg ; ' The 
GentleWarning,' after F.Stonej 'The Heart's 
Resolve,' and 'The Momentous Question,' 
after S. Setchell ; ' Milton composing " Sam- 
son Agonistes,"' after J. C. Horsley ; ' Open- 
ing of the Great Exhibition of 1851,' after 
H. C. Selous; ' Salutation to the Aged 
Friars,' after C. L. Eastlakej 'Dr. Johnson's 
Visit to Garrick,' after E. M. Ward ; and 
portraits of the Prince Consort, Lord John 
Russell, and Joseph Hume, M.P, His latest 
plate appeared in 1870, when he retired from 
the profession. Bellin drew and etched on 
three plates a panoramic view of Home from 
Monte Pincio, which he published, with a 
dedication to the Duke of Sussex, in 1835. 
He was an original member of the Graphic 
Society- He died at his house in Regent's 
Park Road, London, on 29 April 1893. 

[Athenaeum, 6 May 1803 ; Andresen's Hand- 
buch fur Kupferstichsammler.] F. M. 0*1). 

BEltfNETT, SIR JAMES RISDON 
(1809-1891 ), physician, eldest son of the Rev. 
James Bennett, D.D. [c. v.], nonconformist 
minister, was born at 2tomsey on 29 Sept. 
1809. He received his education at tie 
Rotherham College, Yorkshire, of which his 
father became principal j and at the age of 
fifteen was apprenticed to Thomas Water- 
house of SheiLelcL In 1830 he went to Paris, 
and afterwards to Edinburgh, where he gra- 
duated M.D. in 1833. In the autumn of the 
same year he accompanied Lord Beverley to 
Rome, and spent two or three summers in 
his company and that of Lord Aberdeen. 
On his return to En -land in 1837 he became 
physician to the Aldersgate Street dispen- 
sary, and lectured on medicine at the Caar- 
ing Cross Hospital medical school, and also 
at Grainger^ private school of medicine. In 



1843 he was appointed assistant -ohysician 
to St. Thomas's Hospital, and in ..849 full 
physician. On the foundation of the City 
of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest 
in 1848 he was appointed physician to that 
institution ; and irom 1843 to its dissolution 
in 1857 acted as secretary to the Sydenh'am 
Society. In 1875 he was elected F.R.S. 

Settlin in Finsbury Square on his mar- 
riage in 1841, he enjoyed for many years a 
good position as a consultant, especially in 
connection with chest diseases, having been 
one of the first to introduce into this country 
the use of the stethoscope. In 1876 he was 
elected to the office of president of the Royal 
Colleje of Physicians, and was knighted 
in 1881. He then removed to Cavendish 
Square, where he died on 14 Dec. 1891, 

He married, in June 1841, Ellen Selfe, 
dau -liter of the Rev. Henry Page of Rose 
HiL, Worcester, by whom he had nine 
children, of whom six survived. 

His published works include a translation 
of ' Kramer on Diseases of the Ear/ 1837 ; 
an essay on e Acute Hydrocephalus,' which 
obtained the Fothergillian gold medal of the 
Medical Society of London in 1842, and was 
published in the following year; and the 
' Lumleian Lectures at the College of Phy- 
sicians on Intra-thoracic Tumours/ 1872. 

[Private information from members of the 
family ; Men and Women of the Time, 13th ed. 
1891; Times, 16 Dec. 1891.] J. B. N. 

BEN1STETT, WILLIAM COX (1820- 
1895), miscellaneous writer, born at Green- 
wich on 14 Oct. 1820, was the younger son 
of John Bennett, a watchmaker of that 
place, He was educated at Greenwich in 
the school of William Collier Smithers, but 
when he was nine he was compelled, by 
the death of his father, to remain at home 
to assist his mother in business. Bennett 
took much interest in the affairs of his 
native borough, and succeeded in effecting 
several useful reforms. In 1868 he proposed 
Gladstone to the liberals of the borough as 
their candidate, and assisted to secure his 
return by very strenuous exertions. He 
was a member of the London council of the 
Education League. In 1869 and 1870 he 
was employed on the staff of the ' Weekly 
Dispatch ' as a leader writer and art critic, 
and subsequently he contributed to the Lon- 
don ' Fijaro/ He died on 4 March 1895 at 
his residence at Eliot Cottages, Blaekheath, 
and was buried at Nunhead cemetery on 
8 March. 

Bennett was well known as a writer of 
songs. His chief works are: 1. 'Poems/ 
London, 1850, 8vo ; new edit. 1862. 2. ' War 



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S. Barnabas', Pimlieo/ his volume of * The 
last Sermons preached at St. Paul's, Knights- 
bridge, and St. Barnabas', Pimlico/ and ' A 
Farewell Letter to his Parishioners,' were 
all printed in 1851. 

The dowager Marchioness of Bath had 
"been a member of Bennett's congregation at 
Portman Chapel, and had remained ais friend 
ever since, As the guardian of her son, not 
yet of age, she appointed Bennett to the 
vicarage of Frome Selwood, Somerset. 
The last incumbent of this living had been 
a low churchman, and opposition was raised 
at Frome to a ritualistic successor. The 
bishop of the diocese declined compliance 
with a petition praying him to refuse insti- 
tution, and Bennett took possession of the 
benefice in January 1852. The appointment 
was brought before the House of Commons 
by Edward Horsman [q. T.I on 20 April, 
8 and IS June 1852, but the matter ulti- 
mately was dropped. 

Bennett issued in that year * A Pastoral 
Letter to the Parishioners of Frome' (3 
editions), The fine church of the parish was 
in a bad state of repair and neglect. He at 
once took measures to restore it, and by 1866 
the works were completed at large cost. In 
his new charge he continued the practices 
which had marked his rule at the eaurch of 
St. Paul's, Knight abridge, and it was 'round 
him that the battle chiefly raged when it had 
passed beyond the cloisters and combination 
rooms of the university/ In 'A Plea for 
Toleration in the Church of England in a 
Letter to Dr. Pusey' (1867 ; 3rd edit, 1868), 
and in the essay of < Some Results of the 
Tractarian Movement of 1833,' contributed 
by him to the second series of Orby Shipley's 
'Church and the World' (1867), Bennett 
made use of some unguarded expressions on 
the Pteal Presence in the Sacrament. The 
words in the 'Plea for Toleration' were 
altered at the instance of Dr. Pusey, and the 
pamphlet in the amended form reached a 
thirc edition. But the council of the Church 
Association, acting through Thomas Byard 
Sheppard of Selwood Cottage, Frome/ the 
nominal promoter of the proceedings, brought 
these publications before Sir Robert Joseph 
PMUimore [q. v.] 5 the dean of arches, on a 
charge of heresy against Bennett. Phillimore 
at first declined to entertain the charges, but 
was ordered by the privy council to consider 
them, and on 23 July 1870 decided that 
the defendant had not broken the law of the 
church. Appeal was made to the privy coun- 
cil, and on 8 June 1872 PhiUimore's view 
was upheld. Bennett was not represented 
Toy counsel on any of these occasions (Annual 
, 1872, pp. 213-27). 



Bennett continued to work in his parish 
and to take martin the services of liis church 
until three days before his death. He died 
at the vicarage, Frome, on 17 Aug. 1880, 
and on 21 Aug. was buried near the grave 
of Bishop Ken, on the south side of the 
chancel. Bennett married, at Marylebone 
in 1828, the eldest daughter of Sir William 
Franklin, principal inspector-general of the 
army. She diec at Frome on 2 Aug. 1879. 
His only son, William Henry Bennett, went 
out to Burmah in a regiment of native in- 
fantry, and died at Proine, Burmah, of fever, 
on 22 Aug. 1854. 

Bennett published many single sermons, 
and edited or wrote prefaces to the works of 
sacred writers, especially of Mrs. Lear. The 
most important works taat he edited for her 
were (1) 'Tales of Kirkbeck/ two series; 
(2) ' Our Doctor and other Tales of Kirk- 
beck;' (3) 'Tales of a London Parish;' 
(4) 'Cousin Eustace, or Conversations on 
the Prayer-book;' (5) 'Lives of certain 
Fathers of the Church in the Second, Third, 
and Fourth Centuries.' His own works 
comprised, in addition to those already men- 
tioned: 1. 'Sermons on Marriage,' 1837. 
2. 'The Eucharist, its History, Doctrine, 
and Practice/ 1837; 2nd edit. 1846; 3rd 
edit. 1851. 3. 'Sermons on Miscellaneous 
Subjects,' vol. i. 1838, vol. ii. 1840. 
4 'Neglect of the People in Psalmody 
and Responses/ 1841, 3 edits. 5. 'Guide 
to the Holy Eucharist,' 1842, 2 vols. 

6. ' Lecture Sermons on the Distinctive 
Errors of Romanism,' 1842, 3 edits. 

7. * Letters to my Children on Church 
Subjects,' 1843, 2 vols. ; 2nd edit. 1850. 

8. ' The Principles of the Book of Common 
Prayer considered,' 1845. 9. 'Crime and 
Education : the Duty of the State,' 1846. 
10. The Church, the Crown, and the State : 
two Sermons on the Judicial Committee of 
the Privy Council,' 1850, 4 edits. 11. ' Ex- 
amination of Archdeacon Denisoa's Proposi- 
tions of Faith on the Holy Eucharist,' 1857. 
12. 'Why Church Kates should be abolished,' 

1861, 2 edits. 13. ' History of the Church 
of St. John of Frome/ 1866. 14. ' Mission 
Sermons preached at St. Paul's, Knio-hts- 
brid^e/ 1870. 15. 'Defence of the Catholic 
Faita : a Re^ly to the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells/ 1873. 16. 'Dream of the King's 
Gardens: an allegory. By a Protestant 
Churchman/ 1873. 17. ' Catechism of De- 
votion/ 1876. 18. 'Foreign Churches in 
relation to the Anglican : an essay towards 
Reunion/ 1882. Bennett edited ' The Theo- 
logian ' and < The Old Church Porch/ 1854- 

1862, 4 vols. (from the latter of which were 
reprinted the five volumes of 'The Church's 



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a handsome fortune, and left his widow and 
his only son, Ed ward White Benson the elder, 
in reduced circumstances. Edward White 
Benson, the archbishop's father, set up as 
a chemical manufacturer in Birmingham, 
where the archbishop was born on 14 July 
1829. The house was 72 Lombard Street. 
In 1843 the archbishop's father died, his end 
being hastened by the failure of his business j 
and the widow, a sister of Sir Thomas Baker 
of Manchester, who lived on in a small house 
hi the closed works upon an annuity given 
her by her husband's partners, had much 
difficulty to provide for her six surviving 
children. 

At the age of eleven the boy entered 
King Edward's School, Birmingham, then 
under the government of James Prince Lee 
[q. v.], an inspiring teacher, to whom Ben- 
son used to say that he owed all that he 
ever was or should be. Bishop Westcott 
was at that time one of the senior boys in 
the school. Another pupil, Joseph Barber 
Lightfoot [q. T.], who was nearer Ms own 
age, became Benson's most intimate friend, 
and remained so to the end of his life. A 
devout and imaginative boy, he had already 
conceived the hope of enterin holy orders. 
He read with eagerness the "Lracts for the 
Times' and other ecclesiastical literature, 
and secretly recited, with Lr;htfoot or other 
select associates, the Latin Hours in a little 
oratory which he fitted up in the dismantled 
works. A tempting commercial prospect 
was refused, and in 1848 he went up to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, as a subsizar. 

His mother died suddenly in 1850, ex- 
hausted by the strain of nursing her children 
through typhus fever, the eldest girl having 
died a few Sours before. Her annuity ending 
with^ her life, the family was left almost - 
penniless. Friends came to their aid, but it 
Is a proof of the strength of Benson's early 
convictions that he would not allow his 
youngest brother to become dependent upon 
nis uncle at Manchester, who was a uni- 
tarian, lest he should be drawn away from 
the faith of the church. Benson was him- 
self set^ free from pecuniary anxiety by the 
generosity of Francis Martin, the bursar of 
Trinily, who became a second father to him. 
His declamation at Trinity in praise of 
George Herbert made a profound impression 
upon those who hearc or read it. He 
graduated BjL in 1852, being placed eighth 
in the classical tripos, and a senior optime 
m mathematics; he was also senior chan- 
cellor's medallist. 

In that autumn he went as a master to 
Eugby, under Edward Meyrick Goulburn 
L<J. v. SuppL], where he lived in the house of 



his cousin, Mrs. Sidgwick, widow of the Kev. 
William Sidgwick of Skipton, Yorkshire, 
and mother of Henry Sidgwick "q.v. Suppl." 
^ext year he was elected fellow of Trinity", 
but he never resided upon his fellowship. 
He was ordained deacon in 1853 by his old 
master, Lee, then bishop of Manchester, and 
priest at Ely in 1857. In 1859 he was 
married to Mrs, Sidgwick's daughter Mary, 
to whom he had been attached from her 
early childhood. 

In January of that year, 1S59, Benson had 
entered upon his first independent duties. 
His health had suffered at Rugby. He had 
been thinking of taking work at Cambrid -e. 
At one moment he was on the point of be- 
coming domestic chaplain to Tait, bisho^ of 
London, afterwards archbishop. Just Gen 
Wellington College was being constituted, 
and on the recommendation of Dr. Temple, 
who had succeeded Goulburn at Rugby, 
and who there foisned a lifelong friendship 
with Benson, the prince consort offered 
Benson the mastership. Here he had the 
first opportunity of exercising his peculiarly 
constructive genius. Wellington College 
was his creation. From the moment of his 
acceptance of the mastership of the still un- 
born institution he began to remodel the 
scheme that had been set before him, the 
prince consort supporting him at every point 
until his death in 186:.. Instead of the 
charity-school for a few sons of officers 
which it would otherwise have been, he 
made Wellington College one of the great 
public schools of England. He persuaded 
the governors to ;?ut the whole control of 
the school into t"ie hands of the master, 
instead of entrusting the commissariat to a 
steward and secretary responsible only to 
themselves. His whole soul was put into 
every detail of the arrangements. The 
chapel especially which was dedicated to 
the Holy Ghost and its services had, the 
deepest interest for him. To plan how the 
boys were to be seated, the windows deco- 
rated accordin to a careful scheme, the 
capitals carvec with plants native to the 
district, gave him delightful employment. 
He drew up a characteristic book of aymns 
and introits for use in the chapel. Though 
severely simple, there was an impression 
of care about the services which sometimes 
gave strangers the feeling that the college 
was very ' high church/ One such visitor 
wrote to the governors to complain of the 
extreme sermon he had heard ; it turned out 



Charles Kingsley. 
The boys with whom he began were diffi- 



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parts of the diocese. He' was the first bishop 
to appoint a canon whose business it should 
be to conduct missions in the diocese and to 
gather a community round him for the pur- 
pose. He formed a"divinity school, like that 
at Lincoln, under the charge of the chan- 
cellor of the cathedral, for the training of 
candidates for holy orders. Meanwhile he 
found it needful to obtain a new cathedral 
for the see. There had been assigned for 
the purpose a small plain parish church, un- 
distinguished except by an interesting little 
southern aisle, and in almost ruinous condi- 
tion, Cornwall at the time was much 
impoverished, and the effort to find the en- 
dowment of the see was enough to exhaust 
the resources of its church people. Many 
thought that it would be best in the circum- 
stances to aim at building a good-sized 
church of the same type as the old. But 
the bishop was more ambitious, His en- 
thusiasm at length carried every one with 
him. John Loughborough Pearson [q. v. 
Suppl.l was chosen as the architect ; and on 
20 May 1380 the foundation stone of the 
present beautiful cathedral was laid by the 
Prince of "Wales (as Duke of Cornwall). 
The bishop took the keenest interest in the 
progress of the work. As archbishop he 
was present at the consecration of Truro 
Cathedral on 3 Nov. 1887. It was, he said, 
'a most spiritual building.' He left to it 
his pastoral staff, his rin ;, and other relics. 

Among other works waich the bishop took 
lip with ardour was the foundation of a 
first-rate high school for girls at Truro, to 
which he sent his own daughters. He put 
on a new footing the ancient grammar school, 
though his hopes with regard to it were 
hardly fulfilled. He threw great energy 
into the organisation of Sunday-school work 
in the diocese, and into the maintenance of 
church day schools in the places where they 
still remained. It was his principle to make 
the most of what he found existing, He 
took a guild for the advancement of holy 
living, which had proved useful in a few 
Cornish parishes, and developed it into a 
powerful diocesan society with many 
branches. A devotional conference, which 
had been started by the Cornish clergy some 
years before he came, received an access of 
strength, and led on to the holding of dio- 
cesan retreats. The yearly conferences with 
the^ clergy and representative laity in the 
various rural deaneries, begun by Bishop 
Temple, gave him opportunities which he 
greatly valued. The ciocesan conference at 
Truro, as well through the statesmanship of 
its president as through the skill and labour 
of its secretaries, Mr. Carlyon and Mr. J. E. 



Cornish, became famous for its businesslike 
character. The interest which he took in 
every detail of -parochial work in every corner 
of his diocese had a most stimulating effect. 
"Wlxerever he preached he told the people 
things about their church, or about their 
patron saint, or about the history of the 
place, of which they were ignorant. His 
attitude towards the prevailing dissent of 
Cornwall was that of personal friendliness 
towards all who sought to do good, while he 
felt bound to endeavour so to reinvigorate 
every department of church life that the 
people mijht of themselves return to what 
they would feel to be the most scriptural 
and spiritual religion. 

Besides his diocesan work, Benson, in 
spite of the remoteness of his see, was un- 
failing in his attendance at convocation and 
at the meetings of the bishops. The con- 
ciliar idea was a powerful motive with him, 
and he was always indignant when bishops 
allowed diocesan engagements to interfere 
with their wider duties as ' the bishops of 
England.' He was appointed to serve on 
the royal com mission upon ecclesiastical 
courts in 1881, and laboured hard upon it. 

Since his appointment to Truro the eyes 
of churchmen had been fixed upon him, and 
when Archbishop Tait died, in December 
1882, the queen, act ing through W. E. Glad- 
stone as prime minister, ofered him the 
primacy. Tait himself had foreseen that 
Benson would be his successor, and had for 
some time past taken him into relations of 
close intimacy. He gave him rooms in Lol- 
lard's Tower. His son-in-law, Dr. Kandall 
Davidson, remained as chaplain to the new 
archbishop. The appointment was calculated 
to give peace and confidence to the church, 
which had been greatly agitated by ritual 
prosecutions. Archbishop Tait on his death- 
bed prepared the way for better times, and 
Benson carried on the tolerant policy. No 
ritual prosecutions, except that of Bishop 
King, took place during his primacy. 

Benson had not sat in the House of Lords 
before his translation to Canterbury. But 
as soon as he became archbishop he made it 
his duty constantly to attend the sittings of 
the house, even when there was no ecclesias- 
tical business before it. Everything that 
concerned the nation concerned in his opinion 
the church. A conservative by trainin 5 and 
temperament, he was glad to speak and vote 
on matters that were of larger than party in- 
terest. In the first year of his archiepisco- 
pate, he spoke warmly in favour of the new 
extension of the franchise. 'The church/ 
he said, i trusts the people/ When many 
churchmen were inclined to fight the pariah 



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others, that largely contributed to repel the 
attack. 

It was seen that the Welsh suspensory 
bill was only a first step to general dis- 
establishment, and the arcSbishop took mea- 
sures in view of the larger issue. He orga- 
nised an enormous meeting in the Albert 
Hall (16 May 1893), preceded by a great 
communion at St. Paul's, consisting of both 
convocations and the houses of laymen, to- 
gether with other elected representatives of 
the laity. It was not only an imposing de- 
monstration : it was the beginning of a new 
organisation for the defence of the church, 
wJiich gradually absorbed the older ' Church 
Defence Institution/ and exists now as the 
Central Church Committee for Church De- 
fence and Instruction. The organisation is 
one to touch every parish, and the work is 
chiefly that of diffusing true information on 
the sub'ect of the church. Quieter times 
followec ; but the organisation still exists. 

The event of Benson's primacy which is 
generally considered to "Se the most im- 
portant was the trial of Dr. Edward King, 
">ishop of Lincoln, before him for alleged 
ritual offences, In 1888 the body known as 
the Church Association prayed him, as me- 
tropolitan, to judge the case. Only one un- 
doubted precedent since the Reformation 
could be adduced for the trial of a bishop 
before his metropolitan. The charges them- 
selves were of a frivolous character. The 
archbishop might have declined upon that 
ground to entertain them. The strongest 
pressure was brought u*)on him to do so. 
To this course he woulc not consent. He 
saw that, if he did so, the complainants 
would apply to queen's bench for a man- 
damus, and that, if the mandamus were 
granted, he should be forced to hear the case 
after all ; while if it were refused on the 
ground that he had no jurisdiction, he would 
je in the position of having claimed, by the 
use of his discretion, a power which the queen's 
bench did not recognise. Besides, in the 
abeyance of other courts which high church- 
ratn could acknowledge, he was not sorry to 
give proofs that there was a really spiritual 
court in existence, before which they might 
plead, _ In former cases, before the public 
worship regulation court, they had fe,t un- 
able to produce their evidence. While peti- 
tions were poured in upon him. hes-sincr him 



i! IDS 1116 SUIT, .oenson nad tiie strength. 
^ ,t unsupported, to determine to proceed 
with it, if his jurisdiction were once esta- 
blished. The prosecution appealed to the 
-jn?y council upon that question, and the 
;ndicial committee decidec that the luris- 
(i'et ion existed. 



On 12 Feb. 1889 the trial opened. The 
bishop's counsel began by a protest against 
the constitution of the court, alleging that 
the case ought to be tried before the bishops 
of the province. Benson allowed the ques- 
tion to be fully argued before him, and on 
11 May gave an elaborate judgment, assert- 
ing the competence of the court. The hear- 
ing of the case proper began in the following 
February. The archbishop sat with five 
bishops as assessors. Judgment was given 
on 21 Nov. the archbishop's eldest daugh- 
ter having died a few weeks before. Mean- 
time he had been laboriously occupied, even 
during his brief holiday in Switzerland, in 
studies bearin upon t.ie case. From his 
youth up he had taken a great interest in 
liturgica. matters, and so brought to the 
case the knowledge of an expert. His 
jutl -ment was a masterpiece of erudition as 
wel. as of judicial lucidity. But the main 
merits of it were, first, that it refused to 
base itself upon previous decisions of the 
privy council, but went de novo into every 
, question raised, admitting the light of fresh 
evidence; and, secondly, it treated the 
prayer-book not as a merely legal document 
to be interpreted by nothing beyond its own 
explicit language, but in an historical manner, 
with an eye to the usages of the church be- 
fore the Reformation. The chief points of 
it were that it allowed the celebrant at the 
eucharist^tp assume what is called the east- 
ward position, the mixing of water with the 
wine in such a way as not to constitute a 
* ceremony/ the ablution of the vessels before 
leavin the altar, and the use of candles at 
the ce.ebration when not rec uired for the 
purpose of giving light. Benson's judg- 
ment was, in the words of Dean Church, 
' the most courageous thing that has come 
from Lambeth 'ibr the last two hundred 
years.' In those of Bishop Westcott, it 
' vindicated beyond reversal one master prin- 
ciple of his faith, the historic continuity of 
our church. The Reformation was shown 
to be not its beginning but a critical stage 
in its growth.' 

While Benson thus spent himself for the 
good of the church at home, he bestowed 
more-care upon the church abroad than any 
archbishop of Canterbury before him. He 
threw himself into the missionary work " 
the church not only with ardour and 
city, but with a philosophic largeness of v * w . 
The founding oJ a new mission, like that to 
Corea for example, gave him profound de- 
light. He guided the young church on the 
Niger through a most grave crisis. When 
the bishop o: Madagascar returned to En<*- 
land at the moment of the French occupa- 



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Benson 



veneration. The following day, Sunday, he 
went to the early celebration of the holy 
eucharist, and received, kneeling beside his 
wife. After breakfast he returned to the 
church* cheerful and seeming unusually well, 
for the morning prayer, and sat in Glad- 
stone's place. "While the absolution was 
being pronounced he died, by a sudden 
failure of the heart. The body was con- 
Teyed on the 14th to Canterbury, where it 
lay in the * crown ' of the cathedral, visited 
by multitudes of mourners. The funeral 
took place on Friday the 16th, in the presence 
of the Duke of York and a vast congre^a- 
tion. He was the first archbishop buried in 
his own cathedral since Pole. 

The archbishop was survived by his wife, 
by three sons (Mr. Arthur Christopher Ben- 
son of Eton College, Mr. Edward Frederic 
Benson the novelist, and Mr. Robert Hugh 
Benson) and by one daughter, Margaret. 

Most men engaged in such arduous and 
multifarious work as Archbishop Benson 
would have given up all hope of consecutive 
study. Benson clung to his reading with 
indomitable perseverance. His hours of 
sleep were reduced to a minimum. Every 
day before breakfast, which was an early 
meal hi his household, he secured time for 
earnest study of his New Testament. For 
some years before his death he took as the 
topic for this study the Eevelation of St. 
John. One result is the suggestive and 
stimulating volume upon that book published 
since his death (' The Apocalypse,' 1900). 
Besides this, from his Wellington days on- 
wards, he worked hard whenever oppor- 
tunity came, and chiefly at midnight, upon 
Cyprian, He undertook the work mainly 
as a corrective to the desultory habit of 
mind likely to be produced by such a mix- 
ture of external duties, and as a relief from 
care. He went with extraordinary thorough- 
ness into the minutiae. He used half play- 
fully to persuade himself that the ' Cyprian ' 
was his onlv serious life-work, and that all 
else was only so much interruption. Few 
things ever -ave him such pleasure as a visit 
in 1892 to Jartha ;e and the scenes with 
which his mind had so long been familiar. 
The history liyed for him with a wonder- 
ful vividness and freshness, and continually 
threw light for him upon the daily problems 
from which he had turned to it as a refuge. 
He lived to complete his task, all but for a 
few verifications, and the book was pub- 
lished in 1897, a few months after his death. 
It would have been & great book if written 
by a man of leisure ; for one in a position 
like his it is nothing short of marveLous. 

Archbishop Benson's was a personality of 



very large and varied gifts. He had the 
temperament of a poet and a dramatist, with 
swift insight and emotions at once profound 
and soon stirred. He was naturally sanguine, 
though, like other sanguine persons, liable 
to great depression. His was the very op- 
posite temper to that which made Butler 
refuse the primacy of a 'falling church. ' 
Benson showed ' no alacrity at sinking/ said 
a leader-writer in the ' Times/ looking back 
at the difficulties which would have drowned 
a weaker man in the first days at Wellington, 
He was a masterful ruler, and was deter- 
mined to carry through whatever he felt to 
be right. Yet, reliant as he was upon his 
own judgment (under God), no man was 
ever more careful to consult every one con- 
cerned, or more loyal to those whom he 
consulted. By nature passionate, he learned 
to control his temper without losing the 
force which lies behind it. His industry 
knew no bounds. 'The first off-day since 
this time last year/ he wrote towards the 
end of a so-called holiday abroad. Three 
secretaries as well as himself were in- 
cessantly en -aged upon his letters. *The 
penny post/ he said, ' is one of those ordi- 
nances of man to which we have to submit 
for the Lord's sake.' The business of the 
see of Canterbury rose in his time to an un- 
precedented amount, so that he used to say 
that he needed a college of cardinals to do 
it. He did nothing in slovenly fashion, but 
went to the bottom of everything. His 
curious literary style was due to his de- 
termination to get behind the commonplace 
and conventional. Details fascinated him; 
he seemed wholly absorbed in them. His 
position made him a trustee of the British 
Museum, and his mind would be on fire for 
days with the thought of some ornament 
lately brought from Egypt or ^Efina. He 
would expatiate at length upon tae way to 
choose oats or to fold a rochet. He was 
devoted to animals, always wondering 'what 
they were.' In social life he was notable 
for genial freedom and courtliness. With 
all his gentleness and his rich store of affec- 
tion, he had an almost unique dignity of 
bearing. 

None of the painted pictures of Archbishop 
Benson are_ wSolly satisfactory as portraits. 
The two principal pictures are one by Lau- 
rence, in the possession of Mrs. Benson, 
painted at the time of his leaving Welling- 
ton; and one by Herkomer at Lambeth. 
The portrait in t!ie hall at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, was painted after his death. His 
fine features seemed, in spite of the rapid 
changes of expression, which made him look 
almost a different man at different moments, 



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Bentley 



Bent and his wife in and around the southern 
Dart of tlie Arabian peninsula, which from 

field for his observation and travel. By his 
expeditions in the winter of 1893-4 and 
1894-5 he added much to European know- 
led^e of the Hadramut country, but his at- 
tempts in 1893, 1894, and 1895 to penetrate 
the Mahri district were unsuccessful. In 
November 1896 he traversed Socotra and 
explored the little-known country within 
fifty miles of. Aden. His last journey of ex- 
ploration was throu jh the Vafei and Fadhli 
countries in Marcji 1897, an account of 
which was given by Mrs. Bent to the Royal 
Geographical Society, and published in the 
* Royal G-eographical Journal ' (xii. 41). 

Bent died, 5 May 1897, at 13 Great Cum- 
berland Place, London, W., from pneumonia 
following on malarial fever, which developed 
after his return from Aden, and was buried 
at Theydon Bois, Essex. 

Though naturally inclined to the study of 
archaeology rather than to geo_graphical dis- 
covery, his antiquarian knowledge was in- 
sufficient to enable him to make a complete 
use of the opportunities which his journeys 
afforded. A portrait of Bent is contained in 
his book on ' 'The Ruined Cities of Mashona- 
land,' and a photogravure portrait is prefixed 
to Mrs. Bent's volume on * Southern Arabia.' 
Bent edited in 1893 a volume for the Hak- 
luyt Society entitled 'Early Voyages and 
Travels in the Levant, with an Introduction 
giving a History of the Levant Company of 
Turkey Merchants/ and he contributed many 
articles to reviews and magazines. * Southern 
Arabia,' published in 1900, 8vo, though 
mainly written by Mrs. Bent, contains much 
matter derived from Bent's journals. 

Bent's notebooks and numerous drawings 
and sketches remain in the possession of Mrs. 
Bent, 

[Journal of the Boyal Geographical Society, 
ix. 671; Times, 7 May 1897; Bent's works; 
private information.] "W. C-s. 



BENTLEY, GEORGE (1828-1896), 
publisher and author, born in Dorset Square, 
London, on 7 June 1828, was the eldest sur- 
viving son of Richard Bentley (1794-1871) 
fq. v.J and Charlotte, daughter of Thomas 
Botten. He was educated, first, at the school 
of the Rev. Mr. Ppticary, Blackheath, where 
Benjamin Disraeli had been a pupil, and, 
secondly, at King's College, London, where 
he sat on the same form as Dr. Lionel Beale. 
At the age of seventeen he entered his 
father's publishing office. He served as a 
special constable when a fear of breaches of 
tie peace by the Chartists existed in 1848, 



his beat being the same as Louis Napoleon's. 
The following year he was in Rome when it 
was forcibly occupied by the French. 

Prom his marriage m 1853 until 1860 
Bentley lived in a aouse in Regent's Park. 
He then moved to Slough and occupied a 
house in Upton Park. Several years later he 
bought land at Upton and built a house for 
himself. He was interested in meteorology, 
and he kept records and charts of the rain- 
- fall durin many years. 

From 1359 onwards Bentley largely shared 
with his father the business of publishing; 
yet he found time for literary work also, 
writing an introduction to an edition of 
Maginn's ' Shakspeare Papers' and 'Rock 
Inscriptions of the Jews in the Peninsula of 
Sinai.' When his firm purchased * Temple 
Bar Magazine ' in 1866 he became its editor, 
holding that office till death and writing 
severa. papers for it, which he collected anc. 
orinted for private circulation. After his 
lather's death in 1871, he had a verv arduous 
task, as the resources of the firm Jtad been 
crippled owing to a decision of the House 
of Lords denying copyright in England to 
works by American authors, to the commer- 
cial failure of * Bentley's Quarterly/ and of 
a newspaper called Young England,' and 
to a heavy loss on the complete edition of 
Horace Walpole's 'Letters,' which Peter 
Cunningham edited. However, Bentley, by 
his energy, perseverance, and tact, eventually 
placed the business on a more solid basis, 
with the result of reaping great pecuniary gain. 
Under his guidance the firm greatly improved 
its position both in the trace and in public 
estimation. The office of publisher in ordinary 
to her majesty, which his father had enjoyed, 
was continued to him and to his son. 

In 1872, Bentley achieved an extraordi- 
nary publishing feat of printing. Two copies 
of t!ie American case concernin the * Ala- 
bama Claims J had been delivered, in London 
the one to the government, the other to 
Bentley & Son. The documents filled a 
large quarto of five hundred pages, and 
among them were many coloured maps. ' In, 
seventy-two hours afterwards, by the dili- 
gence of the Chiswick Press, a facsimile re- 
print was published [by Bentley] in this 
country, many days in advance 01 the go- 
vernment issue ' (Leaves from the Pasty pri- 
vately printed in 1896, p. 109). Reference 
to this prompt action was made by Glad- 
stone, then prime minister, in the House of 
Commons. 

The record of Bentley's life is chiefly a 
list of the books which he published, the ma- 
jority consisting of works of fiction, travel, 
Jiistory, and biography. He prided himself 



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182 



Beresford 



1874, 8vo. 3. Botany,' 1875, 8vo; one of 
the * Manuals of Elementary Science * issued 
by the Society forPromoting Christian Know- 
ledge. 4. ' Medicinal Plants/ 1875-80, 8vo ; 
written in conjunction with Henry Trimen 
" :.v.], with excellent coloured plates by D. 



[Pharmaceutical Journal, 1893-4, p. 559 ; 
Proceedings of the Linnean Society, 1893-4, 
p. 28.] . S. B. 

'BERESFORD, MARCUS GERVAIS 

(1801-1885), archbishop of Armagh, was 
second son ,of George De la Poer Beresford, 
bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, and of 
Frances, dau hter of Gervais Parker Bushe, 
and niece of Henry Grattan [q. v.] He was 
born on 14 Feb. 1801 at the Custom House, 
Dublin, then the residence of his grand- 
father, John Beresford "q. v.], the Irish 
statesman, and received ais education first 
at Dr. Tate's school at Richmond, and after- 
wards at Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated B,A. in 1824, M.A. in 1828, 
D.D. in 1840. Entering the ministry he 
was ordained in 1854, anc. was preferred to 
the rectory of Kildallon, co. Cavan, in 
his father's diocese, which he held for 
three years, and was then appointed 
to the vicarages of Drung and Larah. 
In 1839 he was appointed archdeacon of 
Arda,gh, and remained in this position until, 
on tie death of Bishop Leslie, who had 
succeeded his father in the see, he was ap- 
pointed bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh. He 
was consecrated in Armagh Cathedral on 
24 Sept. 1854. Eight years later in 1862 
on the death of his cousin, Lord John 
George Beresford [q. v.], Beresford was ele- 
vated to the Irish primacy, and was en- 
throned in Armagh tJathedral. With the 
archbishopric he also held the bishopric of 
Clogher, which was re-united to the see of 
Armagh by virtue of 3rd and 4th Wil- 
liam JV, cap. 37, but which in the dises- 
tablished church of Ireland has been revived 
as an independent see. By virtue of his 
office Bereslbrd was prelate of the order of 
St. Patrick, and a member of the Irish privy 
council. He was on several occasions sworn 
a lord-justice for the government of Ireland 
in the temporary absences of the viceroy. He 
received the honorary decree of D.O.L. from 
Oxford University on 8 * une 1864. 

In the earlier years of his episcopate Beres- 
ford took no forward part in church affairs 
outside Ms diocese. But he was pre- 
eminently fitted to guide the church of Ire- 
land through the troubled waters she en- 
countered in tne first years of his primacy, 
In the stormy controversies provoked by 



Gladstone's measure of disestablishment 
and disendowment, as well as in the difficult 
task of remodelling 'the constitution of the 
church when disestablishment had been con- 
summated, the primate earned the reputation 
of an ecclesiastical statesman. In the dis- 
cussions on the Irish church which preceded 
the more acute stages of the agitation, Beres- 
ford was among those who favoured the 
timely adoption of a measure of reform ; and 
with this view was an active promoter of the 
candidature of John Thomas Ball ]c . v. Suppl.] 
for the university of Dublin in ' 65. This 
policy savoured too much of Erastianism to 
satisfy the more militant section of Irish 
churchmen (vide Letters of ArchbMop 
Magee, vol. i.) Beresford had no place in 
the House of Lords during the debates on 
disestablishment, his brother archbishop, 
Richard Chenevix Trench [q. v.], having the 
right for that ' turn ' of a seat in parliament. 
But the primate bore a large part in the ne- 
gotiations for terms for the church which 
followed the adoption by the House of Com- 
mons of the principle of Gladstone's bill. 
He was a ready debater, and proved an ad- 
mirable chairman in the general synod over 
which he presided. In educational matters 
Beresford was a strong advocate of the 
system of united secular and separate reli- 
gious education, and in this respect reversed, 
on his accession to the primacy, the policy 
pursued by his predecessor. 

Beresford died at the Palace, Armagh, on 
26 Dec. 1885, and was buried in Armagh 
Cathedral. Beresford was twice married: 
first, on 25 Oct. 1824, to Mary, dau -liter of 
Henry L'Estrange of Moystown, and widow 
of R. E. Digby of Geashifl (she died in 1845) ; 
secondly, on 6 June 1850, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of J. T. Kennedy of Annadale, co. 
Down, and widow of Robert George Bon- 
ford of Rahenstown, co. Meath (she died in 
1870). He left a lar *e family, of whom the 
eldest son, George J. Beresford, sat from 
1875 to 1885 as M.P. for Armagh city in the 
House of Commons. 

A portrait of Beresford, executed shortly 
after his accession to the primacy by Catter- 
son Smith, P.R.H.A., is in the possession of 
his eldest son. A copy of this portrait, which 
has also been engraved, was executed by the 
artist's son, and is in the collection at the 
Palace, Armagh. An earlier portrait, also 
by Catterson Smith, painted when Beresford 
was bishop of Kilmore, is in possession of the 
primate's second son. 

[Burke's Peerage; Life of Archbishop Tait; 
Letters and Memorials of Archbishop Magee; 
Life of Bishop Samuel Wilbertbrce by MB. son, 
voL iiL ; private information.] C. L, F. 



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Berthon 



King's Colle -e school, and studied chemis- 
try with C. l-iemigius Fresenius, and after- 
wards -with Justus Liebi ; at Giessen, where 
he graduated Ph.D. His doctoral thesis 
was probably a oaper on limonin, a bitter 
principle which Se discovered in the pips of 
oranges and lemons (published in Buchner's 
'Kepertorium fur die Pharmacie' and abs- 
tracted in LIEBIG'S Annalen, 1841, xl. 317). 
In 1845 he began his career as an analyst 
and lecturer on chemistry in Derby, and be- 
came known for his interest in questions 
concerning food and hygiene. In 1851 he 
served as a juror at the Great Exhibition. 
In 1852 he published the first edition of 
* Household Chemistrv/ a popular work, of 
which the fourth edition, published in 1862, 
was called 'The Science of Home Life/ and 
the seventh edition, published in 1869, ' The 
Student's Chemistry.' 

In 1855 Bernays was appointed to the 
lectureship in chemistry at St. Mary's Hos- 
pital, London ; he resigned in I860, and ac- 
cepted a similar post at St. Thomas's Hos- 
pital, which he retained till his death. Ber- 
nays was also public analyst to St. Giles's, 
Camberwell, and St. Saviour's, South wark, 
was for many years chemist and analyst to 
the Kent Wafer Company, and sometime 
examiner to the Royal College of Physicians. 
He died from bronchitis at Acre House, 
Brixton, on 5 Jan. 1892, and was by his 
own desire cremated at Woking. 

Bernays was a genial man and a capable 
and popular teacher ; he took a great inte- 
rest in social matters . 'enerally, and gave 
over a thousand free puDlic lectures durin 
his lifetime. Besides the works mentioned 
above he published a small manual on food 
in 1876, an essay on ' The' Moderate Use of 
Alcohol True Temperance/ published in the 
' Contemporary Review' anc reprinted with 
essays by others in * The Alcohol Question/ 
various editions of 'Notes for Students in 
Chemistry/ and miscellaneous lectures on 
agricultural chemistry and other subjects. 
He also carried out investigations on the 
atmosphere of Cornish mines and on danger- 
ous trades, and made inventions in water 
filtration. He was a fellow of the Chemical 
Society and of the Institute of Chemistry. 

He married Ellen Labatt, daughter of 
Benjamin Evans ; she died on 6 Feb, 1901 
(7*Ws,8Feb. 1901). 

[Obituaries in the Times, 9 Jan. 1892 ; Jotirn. 
Chem.Soe..lS92,p. 488, by T[homas] S[teven- 
aon]; Chemical News, bw. 85; Nature, xlv. 
258; Brit. Med. Jota-n. 1892, i. 148 ; The Ana- 
lyst, 1892, xviL 60, and index to vols. i-xx.; 
Brit. Mas. Cat,; King's Coll. OaL; Bernays's 
own works.] P. J. E, 



BERTHON, EDWARD LYON (1813- 
1899), inventor, born in Finsbury Square, 
London, on 20 Feb. 1813, was the tenth child 
of Peter Berthon, who married in 1797 a 
daughter of Henry Park [q. v.] of Liverpool. 
His father was great-grandson of St. Pol le 
Berthon, the only son of the Huguenot 
Marquis de Chatellerault, who escaped the 
persecutions that followed the revocation of 
the edict of Nantes in 1685. He found a 
refuge in Lisbon, whence his son proceeded 
to London, Peter Berthon was an army 
contractor, who was reduced from wealth to 
comparative poverty by the wreck of a 
number of his ships and the end of the 
war on the downfaL of Napoleon. In 1898 
young Berthon was sent to Liverpool to 
study surgery under the care of James Daw- 
son (who had just taken over Henry Park's 
practice), and with Dawson he continued for 
more than four years. At the end of this 
time, having engaged himself to a niece of 
Mrs. Dawson, he went to Dublin to finish his 
course at the College of Surgeons there ; but 
a violent attack of pneumonia, and, on his re- 
covery, his marriage on 4 June 1834, seem to 
have put an end to his medical studies. He 
spent the greater part of the next six years 
travelling in France, Switzerland, and Italy. 
Durin tins time he also employed himself 
with philosophical experiments. From child- 
hood he had shown a remarkable aptitude 
for mechanical science; as a boy he had 
constructed an electrical machine, and had 
been in the habit of giving demonstrations 
to his companions. While at Geneva on his 
weddin i tour he noted the date, 28 June 
1834 ae conceived the idea of applying the 
screw to nautical propulsion. C?o him it 
seems to have been absolutely new, and, as 
far as practical adaptation went, it really 
was so. In the autumn of 1835 he carried 
out a series of experiments with twin screws 
on a model three feet long, and arrived at 
the two-bladed propeller as now used. The 
model was then sent to the admiralty, 
but was returned some few weeks after- 
wards with the opinion that ' the screw was 
a pretty toy, which never would and never 
could propel a ship.' This so far discouraged 
Berthon that he never completed the patent 
and allowed the matter to rest. In 138 he 
read in the newspaper of the invention of 
the screw propeller by Francis Smith [q. v,], 
and naturally assumed that Smith had got 
the idea .from his abandoned sketch in the 
patent office. When he returned to Eng- 
land iii 1840 he went ' to have it out with 
the supposed pirate/ It appeared, however, 
that Smith's design was as original as Btjr- 
thon's, though his experiments had led him 



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Bessemer 



His father, Anthony Bessemer, himself ^ a 
notable inventor and engineer, was born in 
the city of London, but with his parents 
passed over to Holland in early childhood, 
and was in due time apprenticed to an en- 
gineer. Before he was twenty he took a 
conspicuous part in the construction and 
erection of the first steam pumping engine 
set to work in Holland. At the age of twenty- 
one the elder Bessemer went to Paris, and, 
although possessing scantT means and few 
friends, he quickly attained high distinction, 
becoming a member of the French Academy 
of Sciences five years after his arrival. Later 
he was appointed to a leading position in the 
Paris mint, where his artistic skill in die-sink- 
ing and engraving, and his invention of a 
copying machine, brought him reputation 
and abundant means, V^ith the French Re- 
volution, however, reverses came, and An- 
thony Bessemer barely saved his life and 
lost nearly all his fortune. He escaped to 
England and settled in the Hertfordshire 
village of Oharlton, where Henry Bessemer 
was born. The pursuits followed by the 
elder Bessemer in tae secluded village shaded 
the course of Henry Bessemer's life. The 
former established a small factory at Charl- 
ton for the manufacture of jold chains, and 
this was subsequently abandoned for a more 
important enterprise, that of type-founding. 
This business was undertaken in association 
with William Caslon, the representative of 
the well-known family whico. for two pre- 
vious generations had been connected with 
this industry [see under CASLON, WILLIAM]. 
The skill of the elder Bessemer as a die- 
sinker rapidly brought considerable success 
to the new business. 

Henry Bessemer, inheriting the energy, 
inventive talent, and artistic feeling of his 
father, was brought up amid congenial sur- 
roundings ; except for the time c evoted to 
an elementary education, the whole of his 
early years were spent in his father's work- 
shop, where he found every opportunity and 
encouragement for developing his natural 
inclinations. At the age of seventeen he 
came to London to seek his fortune, possess- 
ing a knowledge of all that his father and 
the Charlton factory could teach him. This 
was in. 1830 ; he appears to have first turned 
Ms knowledge of easily fusible alloys, and 
of castin them, to good account, and to 
have made a trade in art work of white 
metal, and afterwards in copper-coating 
such castings, the earliest practical applica- 
tion of electro-plating. His work brought 
him into notice. He occasionally showed 

it at the exhibitions of the Royal Academy 

at Somerset House. From art castings to 



embossing metal, cards, and fabrics, was a 
natural step, and in this his skill as a 
draughtsman, and his ability as a die-sinker, 
inherited from his father, gave him special 
advantages. The fly press at first, and 
afterwards the hydraulic press, in its then 
primitive form, enabled him to turn out 
large quantities of embossed work in different 
materials, and for this he found a ready 
market. 

His connection with Somerset House 
(through the annual art exhibitions), and 
the attention he was then paying to stamp- 
ing and embossing work, led to his first 
great invention. At that time (about 1833) 
it was notorious that frauds on the govern- 
ment, -by the repeated use of stamps affixed 
to deeds, were perpetrated to an alarming 
extent, involving a loss to the revenue of 
100,000^ a year. - This fraud Bessemer 
rendered impossible by the invention of per- 
forated dies, so that a date could be in- 
delibly impressed on every stamp. His 
gift of this invention to the government 
was to have been recognised by a permanent 
official appointment, but, fortunately for 
the inventor, the promise was not kept, 
although it was recognised many years later 
by a tardy bestowal o: knighthood. Greatly 
disappointed at the result of this, his first 
great invention, Bessemer turned to another 
direction in order to make a livelihood. He 
purchased plumbago waste at 2s. Qd. a pound, 
which, after cleaning and lixiviation, he com- 
pressed into blocks under hydraulic pressure, 
and cut into slips for making pencils; as 
the ^lumbago in this shape found a market at 
4 "_0s. a pound, the industry was a profitable 
one. After a time he disposed of the secret 
of manufacture for 200 Lievertin 3 to early 
experience, Bessemer now turned ais atten- 
tion for a while to type-founding, the novel 
idea of his process being that of casting 
under pressure ; this was followed by notable 
improvements in engine turning, an occupa- 
tion which brought him into contact with 
Thomas De La Rue [q. v." , founder of the 
printing house. About 188 he invented a 
type-composing machine that was used at 
the printing offices of the ' Family Herald, 1 
and was capable of setting five thousand 
type an hour. It was at this time too that he 
invented and perfected a process for making 
imitation Utrecht velvet. The mechanical 
skill and artistic capacity of the inventor 
proved useful in this industry, for he not 
only had to design all the machinery re- 
quired, but to engrave the embossing rolls 
himself. His arrangement with the manu- 
facturers was to emxma the velvet supplied 
to him at a fixed price. At the commence-* 



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June 1859, however, that the first Bossemer 
steel was run direct from the converter, the 
decarbonising agent having been put into 
the charge after the blast had done its work. 
From this time the manufacture proceeded 
steadily on a constantly increasing scale. 
Subsequently, in 1879, the Bessemer process 
reached its ultimate stage of perfection, 
owing to the discovery by Sidney Gilchrist 
Thomas [q. v.] of a means of eliminatin ; 
phosphorus in the Bessemer converter, and. 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel was 
thereby greatly facilitated and cheapened in 
both England and America. The Bessemer 
process from 1865 onwards experienced- the 
competition of the Siemens process for mak- 
ing steel ; this process was largely employed 
in Great Britain after its invention in that 
year [see SIEMENS, SIB WILLIAM], but Bes- 
semer's earlier invention has conspicuously 
maintained its superiority of output for the 
whole world. 

A claim was made by Robert Forester 
Mushet [q. v.] to have anticipated Bessemer's 
invention altogether, and to have been the 
first to carry it to a successful issue. But 
there is no doubt that Bessemer worked in- 
dependently of Mushet, and was not ac- 
quainted with Mushet's experiments till he 
had completed his own. He consented to 
the award of the Bessemer medal of the Iron 
and Steel Institute to Mushet in 1890, and 
bestowed on him an annuity of 300/. Mushet 
stated his case in 1883 in * The Bessemer- 
Mushet Process, or the Manufacture of 
Chea-3 Steel/ Bessemer told his story in an 
unpu Dlished autobiography. 

^Vithin five years of 1859, the date of the 
completion of Bessemer's invention, the 
Bessemer process had been adopted by all 
the steel-making countries of the world, and 
its real value was understood, though no one 
would have ventured to prophesy the vast 
developments that were in store for it. Re- 
verting to the cause which had first led him 
to this line of investigation, Bessemer soon 
after 1859 made a speciality of gun-making 
at Sheffield, and manufactured some hun- 
dreds of weapons for foreign governments. 
No ^dpubt indeed exists that, but for the op- 
position to the use of steel for ordnance in 
this country, that material would have been 
used in the British services twenty years 
sooner than was the case. The Bessemer 
steel exhibits at the London International 
Exhibition of 1862 jave a good idea of the 
state of the manuracture at the Sheffield 
works at that date. These exhibits included 
locomotive boiler tube plates, from one of 
which a disc 23 in. diameter and } in. thick 
had been cut, and stamped into a cup 11 in. 



was admitted through the tuyeres into the 
charge for about ten minutes, when a violent 
explosion of sparks and flame and melted 
slag occurred, lastinj some minutes. As 
soon as this had subsided the charge was 
tapped from the converter, and the metal 
was found to be wholly decarbonised mal- 
leable iron. After many experiments the 
fixed converter was replaced by one mounted 
on trunnions ; in its ear.iest form this arrange- 
ment was patented in February 1856. 

The success of Bessemer's experiments 
attracted considerable attention, and this 
was increased to widespread enthusiasm on 
the reading of his famous -paper before the 
British Association at the Cheltenham meet- 
ing in 1856. This paper was entitled ' On 
the Manufacture of Malleable Iron and Steel 
without Fuel/ The result of the paper was 
remarkable. Bessemer's reputation as a 
practical man of science was such that the 
statements he made were accepted without 
question, and within a month of the date of 
the meeting he had received no less than 
27,000. from ironmakers in different parts of 
the country for licenses to use the invention. 
But Besserner's victory was not yet quite 
decisive. Trials of the process were hastily 
made by the licensees, without due care and 
knowledge, resulting for the most part in 
failure. Enthusiasm -ave place to discredit, 
condemnation, and a3use, and for a while 
Bessemer's reputation and the Bessemer 
process were in danger of extinction. The 
great inventor, however, was not easily dis- 
couraged ; he carried out new experiments 
at Baxter House, spent thousands of pounds 
in the construction of fresh plant, and in 
1858 he was able to show his numerous 
licensees why they had failed, and how they 
could make higher-class steel with certainty. 
Thus he justified the claims made in his 
Cheltenham paper of 1856, and proved that 
he had passed the experimental stage of 
manufacture. Then followed a violent op- 
position on the part of the steel trade, which 
was mefc by Bessemer erecting in 1859 his 
own works in Sheffield, and starting in busi- 
ness as a steel maker. Those works be- 
came financially successful ten years after 
they^were opened, and have continued to 
flourish till tie present time. In June 1859 
Bessemer was selling tool steel (for the first 
time quoted on the metal market), the price 
being 2 4*. per cwt. But this steel was 
not made by tae red Bessemer process. The 
melted iron, having been quite decarbonised 
by the air blast, was granulated by being 
ran into water, and was then remelted in a 
crucible with sufficient manganese to return 
the desired amount of carbon. It was in 



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lenses. From this lie was led to a series of 
interesting experiments on the application 
of solar heat for the production of jigh tem- 
peratures, and he hxned to do much with 
iis solar furnace. E"e also kid out with 
characteristic originality and skill a diamond 
cutting and polishing plant for one of his 
grandsons. 

The universal adoption of his inventions 
in the manufacture of steel gave Bessemer 
a world-wide public reputation, although he 
made few contributions to technical litera- 
ture. His famous British Association paper 
was excluded from the * Transactions ' of 
that body. In May 1859 he read a paper 
before the Institution of Civil Engineers on 
the * Manufacture of Malleable Iron and 
Steel.' In 1886 he contributed a paper to 
the Iron and Steel Institute on t Some Earlier 
Forms of the Bessemer Converter,' and again 
in 1891 he read a second paper 'On the 
Manufacture of Continuous Sheets of Mal- 
leable Iron or Steel direct from the Fluid 
Metal.' A. more recent paper to the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers on some 
early experiences of the Bessemer process 
concludes the list of his publications, though 
letters from him to the ' Times/ ' Engineer- 
ing/ and other papers were not infrequent. 

Considering the great services he rendered 
to the whole world, the recognitions he re- 
ceived were richly deserved. The legion of 
honour offered to him by the French em- 
peror in 1856 he was not allowed to accept. 
The Albert gold medal was awarded him ay 
the Society of Arts in 1872 for his services 
ia developing the manufacture of steel. In 
1868 his name appears as one of the foun- 
ders of the Iron and Steel Institute, of which 
he was the president from 1871 to 1873. On 
retiring from office he presented the insti- 
tute with an endowment for the annual pre- 
sentation of a Bessemer gold medal. This 
has been bestowed on distinguished metallur- 
gists of many nationalities. He was elected 
in 1877 a member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, which conferred on him the Tel- 
ford gold medal in 1858 and the Howard 
quincuennial prize in 1878 ; and he became 
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1879. It 
was also in that year he was knighted for 
services rendered to the inland revenue office 
forty years before. He was given the freedom 
of the city of Hamburg, and on 13 May 
1880 he was presented with the freedom of 
the city of London in a gold casket at a 
specially convened meeting in the Guild- 
hall. He was also honorary member of 
many foreign technical societies, and he had 
the satisfaction of knowing that no less than 
six. thriving manufacturing towns in the 



United States and one county (in Alabama) 
were named after him. The towns are in 
Michigan, Alabama (chief town of the county 
of Bessemer), Pennsylvania, Virginia, Wyo- 
ming, and North Carolina. 

Sir Henry Bessemer died at his residence 
at Denmark Hill on 15 March 1898, and was 
buried at Norwood cemetery. He married 
in 1833 Anne, daughter of Richard Allen of 
Amersham ; she died a year before him. He 
was survived by two sons and a daughter. 

His portrait, painted by Rudolph Leh- 
mann, was bequeathed to the Iron and Steel 
Institute; another portrait hanjs on the 
wall of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers' building in New York. 

During the fifty-six years that intervened 
between Bessemer's first patent specification 
(that relating to an invention of machinery 
for casting type, dated 8 March 1838) and 
his last patent specification (that relating 
to his invention cealing with ships' saloons, 
which was completed in 1894), the records 
of the patent office show that he pro- 
tected no fewer than 114 inventions, an 
average of two a year, although, as may be 
supposed, the number is not evenly distri- 
buted. His life may be divided into three 
epochs, each of them full of momentous con- 
sequences to himself, the last of the highest 
importance to the world. The events mark- 
ing these epochs were : The invention of a 
means for defacing government stamps ; the 
invention of Bessemer bronze powder and 
gold paint; the invention of the Bessemer 
steel process. Nearly all the many minor 
incidents of an incessantly busy life may be 
said to have led up to, or to have grown out 
of, these three great inventions. The first 
saved the revenue 100,OOOZ. a year; the 
second, conducted during forty years as a 
secret process, brought Bessemer a sufficient 
income to prosecute his experiments in the 
manufacture of steel; and the third has 
revolutionised the commercial history of the 
world. ' The invention [of Bessemer steel] 
takes its rank with the great events which 
have changed the face of society since the 
time of the middle ages. The invention of 
printing, the construction of the magnetic 
compass, the discovery of America, and the 
introduction of the steam engine are the 
only capital events in modern history which 
belong to the same category as the Bessemer 
process' (Address of the Hon. Abram S. 
Hewitt to the Iron and Steel Institute, 1890). 

[Bessemer left behind him a completed auto- 
biography, but it is scarcely likely to be pub- 
lished. The only bio ;raphy of him in existence 
is a monograph by tae present writer, written 
for the American Society of Meahauical Engi- 



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ably painstaking and conscientious (Musical consisted of four sons and a daughter, all of 
Heraldj October 1900, p. 293). He "was whom were identified with the stage some 
deeply studied in Handel's music, and edited under the name of Beverley and others under 
his concertos and large selections of airs from that of Roxby ; of these Henry Roxby 
the operas and oratorios. A Handel- Album, Beverley and Robert Roxby are noticed 
whic-. extended to twenty volumes, was ori- separately. Beverley at an early age de- 
ginally intended to consist of selections from ve.oped a remarkable aptitude for drawing, 
the lesser-known instrumental works ar- and quickly turned his attention to scene 
ranged for the organ ; it was afterwards painting. Under his father's management 
taken from more varied sources the operas of the Theatre Royal, Manchester, in 1830, 
especially. He arranged for organ some hun- i he painted a striking scene of the 'Island of 
dreds of excerpts from other great masters' Mist ' for the dramatic romance of ' The 
vocal and instrumental works. Another of Frozen Hand.' When in 1831 his father 
Best's editions was * Cecilia ' (1883), a collec- and his brothers Samuel and Robert Roxby 
tion, in fifty-six parts, of original organ [o i . v.] took over the control of the Durham 
pieces by modern composers of various cpun- circuit, comprising Scarborough, Stockton, 
tries; it "included his own sonata inD minor, Durham, Sunderland, and North and South 
a * Christmas Pastorale/ a set of twelve pre- Shields, Beverley followed their fortunes, 
ludes on English psalm-tunes, a concert- and for a few seasons played heavy comedy 
fugue, a scherzo, and several other pieces of besides paintm ; scenery. His work at Sun- 
his own composition, ' The Art of Organ- derland createc a very favourable impres- 
Playing ' (1869) is a very complete and tho- sion, although one of his -predecessors there 
roughly practical instruction Dook, ranging had been CLarkson Stanfie'd, In December 
from the rudiments of execution to the 1838 he was specially engaged to paint the 
highest proficiency. At the bicentenary of major portion of the scenery for the panto- 
Bach's birth in 1885 Best be^an an edition mime of ' Number Nip * at Edinburgh, his 
of Bach's organ works, which !ae almost com- principal contribution being amoving dio- 
pleted before he died, rama Depicting scenes from falconer's ' Ship- 

Best was somewhat eccentric and in the wreck/ On 1C Sept. 1839 his brother, Harry 
main a recluse. He associated little with Beverley , assumed the control of the Victoria 
other musicians. He would not ;*oin the Theatre in London for a short time, and 
Royal College of Organists, and refused to there he painted for the first time in the 
olay on any organ whose pedal-keyboard metropolis, executing the scenery for the pan- 
aad been constructed on the plan recom- tomime of * Baron Munchausen/ 
mended by that college. For many years In December 1842 Beverley was engaged 
he refused to let any other organist play on as prinehal artist by Knowles of the Theatre 
his own organ. He kept the tuner in at- Royal, Manchester. In 1845 he executed a 
tendance at his recitals in St. George's Hall, beautiful act drop for the new Theatre Royal 
and would leave his seat in the middle of a Manchester, which remained in use for a 
performance to expostulate with him ; on c uarter of a century. At the same house in 
one occasion he^mformed the audience that Tune 1846 some magnificent scenery from 
the tuner received a princel- salary and his brush was seen in the opera of Acis and 
neglected his work. He would indulge his Galatea.' A little earlier in the year he 
fancies to the full in brilliant extemporisa- had been engaged by Maddox as principal 
tions when a church organist, but his recitals artist at the Princess's, London. In July 
in St. George's Hall were invariably re- the scenery for the revival of Planches 
strained and classical 'Sleeping Beauty' was from his brush, as 

[Musical Herald, January 1890 and June were tne vividly imaginative backgrounds 
1897; Montbly Musical Record, July 1871; ln tne Christmas pantomime of ' Tae En- 
Musical Times, June and July 1897 ; Brown chanted Beauties oz the Golden Castle/ In 
and Stratton's British Musical Bio -raphy, p. 44. Easter 1847 he provided a beautiful setting*. 
All these accounts differ in details.; E. D. with some in-enipus transformations, for 
R-FTPT _____ ^^ the revival of ^Midsummer Night's Dream/ 

?7?Sa? T ' ^^ LT \ M ^OXBY While still continuin- his association with 
(1814P-1889), scene painter, born at Rich- the Princess's, Bever.ey proceeded to the 
mond, Surrey, apparently in 1814, was Lyceum under the Vestris-Mathews rMme 
youngestsonof WiluamRoxby (1765-1842), (1847-55), where his scenery illustrated the 
awell-^ownactor-manau-er,who,ontaking extravaganzas of Planche. Combining as 
to the boards, had addec to his name the Planche said, 'the pictorial talent of Stan- 
suffix of Beverley, from the old capital of field with the mechanical ingenuity of [WU- 
tbe east riding of Yorkshire. The family liam] Bradwell [the meijhSiirt/Bewley 



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of a London Playgoer; Stirling's Old Drnry 
Lane ; files of the Illustrated London News ; 
Williams's Some London Theatres Past and Pre- 
sent ; Barrett's Balfe ; Button Cook's Nights at 
the Play ; The Dramatic Essays of G-. H. Ljwes ; 
Era Almanack for 1873 and 1874 ; Magazine of 
Art for 1888, 1889, 1895, and 1897 ; files of the 
Newcastle Weekly Chronicle.] W. J. L. 

BICKERSTETH, EDWARD (1814- 
1892), dean of Lichfield, born on 23 Oct. 
1814 at Acton in Suffolk, was the second 
son of John Bickersteth (1781-1855), rector 
of Sapcote in Leicestershire, by his wife 
Henrietta (d, 19 March 1830), dau ;hter 
and co-heiress of Georje Lang of Ley .and, 
Lancashire. Henry Bickersteth, baron Lang- 
dale [q. v.], and Edward Bickersteth [q. v.~ 
were his uncles ; Robert Bickersteth q. y/ 
was his brother. Edward entered Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge, graduating B. A, 
in 1836, M.A. in 1839, andD.D. in 1864 
He also studied at Durham University in 
1837. In that year he was ordained deacon, 
and in 1838 was curate of Chetton in Shrop- 
shire. In 1839 he was ordained priest, and 
became curate at the Abbey, Shrewsbury. 
From 1849 to 1853 he was perpetual curate 
of Penn Street in Buckinghamshire. In 1853 
he became vicar of Aylesbury and archdeacon 
of Buckin hamshire. In 1866 he was nomi- 
nated an jonorary canon of Christ Church, 
Oxford. He was select preacher at Cambridge 
in 1861,1864, 1873, and 1878, and at Oxford 
in 1875. In 1864, 1866, 1869, and 1874 he 
presided as prolocutor over the lower house 
of the convocation of Canterbury. During 
his tenure of office an address to the crown 
was presented by the lower house requesting 
that a mark of the royal favour should be 
conferred on him, but nine years elapsed 
before he was installed dean or: Liehfield on 
28 April 1875. As prolocutor he was ex 
ojficio member of the committee for the re- 
vised version of the Bible, and he attended 
most regularly the sittings of the New 
Testament section. 

His chief achievement as dean was the 
restoration of the west front of Lichfield 
Cathedral, which was commenced in 1877 and 
completed and dedicated on 9 May 1884. He 
resigned the deanery on 1 Oct. 1892, and died 
without issue at Leamington on 7 Oct. He 
was buried at Leamington on 1 1 Oct. He was 
twice married: first, on 13 Oct. 1840, to 
Martha Mary Anne, daughter of Valentine 
Yickers of Cransmere in Shropshire. She 
died on 2 Feb. 1881, and on 12 Oct. 1882 
lie married Mary Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Whitmore Wylde-Browne of The Wood- 
lands, Bridgnorth, Shropshire. She survived 
him. 



Bickersteth, who was a high churchman, 
was the author of numerous sermons, 
charges, and collections of prayers. He , 
also published: 1. * Diocesan Synods in 
relation to Convocation and Parliament/ 
London, 1867, 8vo j 2nd edit. 1883. 2. 'My 
Hereafter,' London, 1883, 16mo. He edited 
the fifth edition of * The Bishopric of Souls ' 
(London, 1877, 8vo), with a memoir of the 
author, Robert Wilson Evans [q. v.], and 
in 1882 contributed an exposition on St. 
Mark's Gospel to the 'Pulpit Commentary.' 

[Lichfield Diocesan Mag. 1892, pp. 169-70, 
185 ; Liverpool Courier, 10 Oct. 1892 ; Guardian, 
12 Oct. 1892; Church Times, 14 Oct. 1892; 
Burke's Family Records, 1897, pp. 70-1; Men 
andWomen of the Time, 1891 ; Simms's Biblioth. 
Stafford. 1894.] E. I. C. 

BICKERSTETH, EDWARD (1850- 
1897), bishop of South Tokyo, Japan, born at 
Banningham rectory, Norfolk, on 26 June 
1850, was the eldest son of Edward Henry 
Bickersteth, bishop of Exeter (from 1885 
till his resignation in 1900), and Rosa (d. , 
2 Aug. 1873), daughter of Sir Samuel Bignold. 
Educated at Highgate school, he obtained 
in 1869 a scholarship at Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1873 and 
M.A. in 1876. In 1874 he won the Schole- 
field and Evans prizes. He was ordained 
deacon in 1873 and priest in 1874 by the 
bishop of London. From 1873 to 1875 he 
was curate of Holy Trinity, Hampstead. In , 
1875 he was elected to a fellowship at bis ' 
college. Mainly through his exertions the 
Cam aridge mission to Delhi was founded, and 
in 1877 he left England as its first head. The 
work grew under his care, and the influence 
of his example was felt beyond the limits of 
his own mission. He returned home in im- 
paired health in 1882, and was appointed to 
the rectory of Framlingham, Suffolk. He had, 
however, resigned the living and was prepar- 
ing for a return to Delhi when he was offered 
the bishopric in Japan. He was consecrated 
and sailed for his diocese in 1886. The same 
powers shown at Delhi were even more 
conspicuously displayed in the organisation 
of the Nippon Sei Kokwai, the native Japan 
church of the Anglican communion. Under 
the incessant work of the diocese Bicker- 
steth's health again gave way. He came 
home, and, after a long illness, died on 
5 Aug. 1897. Bickersteth represented a 
third generation of missionary zeal, but his 
churchmanship was more distinctively Angli- 
can than that of Edward Bickersteth [q. v.] ; 
his grandfather. His position is well repre- 
sented in his volume o: lectures, t Our Heri- 
tage in the, Church/ London, 1898, 8vo. 



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deuce on 29 May 1889, lie was severely 
pressed by the ' Times ' counsel as to Ms rela- 
tions with the Fenians, and as to his connec- 
tion with theland agitation. He would admit 
no cognisance of the management or disposal 
of the league accounts, though he was ad- 
mittedly one of the treasurers, always taking 
shelter "under the plea of defective memory. 
His advocacy of boycotting formed an im- 
portant feature in the whole case. Bijgar 
advocated the extreme doctrine that any 3oy- 
cotting short of physical force was justifi- 
able, and extensive extracts from his speeches 
are cited in the report of the judges to sup- 
port their findings on that count. His ad- 
dress to the court, delivered on 24 Oct., 
occupied only about a quarter of an hour. 

Parnell considered Big jar a valuable auxi- 
liary, and he enjoyed unbounded popularity 
among the Irish members ; while his oppo- 
nents came in time to recognise his honesty 
and good nature. He died of heart disease 
at 124 Sugden Road, Clapham Common, on 

19 Feb. 1890. A requiem mass, said for him 
the next day at the Redemptorist Church, 
Clapham, was attended by the Irish mem- 
bers, and the body was then, taken to Ire- 
land and buried in St. Patrick's Church, 
Donegal Street, Belfast, on 24 Feb., the 
funeral being the largest ever seen in the 
town. He was, after his conversion, a 
devout Roman catholic. During the later 
years of his life Biggar was in very comfort- 
able circumstances. One result of his re- 
sidence in Paris in 1882 was a breach of pro- 
mise suit by a lady named Fanny Hyland, 
who in March 1883 recovered 400 J. damages. 
He was unmarried, and the bulk of his for- 
tune was left to a natural son. 

Probably no member with less qualifica- 
tions for public speakin ever occupied so 
much of the time of the House of Commons. 
None practised parliamentary obstruction 
more successfully. "With a shrill voice and 
an ugly presence, he had no pretensions to 
education. But he had great shrewdness, 
unbounded courage, and a certain rough 
humour. 

[O'Brien's Life of Parnell, i. 81-5, 92-3, 109- 
111, 135-6, 19&, 254-5, 301, ii. 1, 2, 122-8; 
Lucy'fi Diary of Two Parliaments (1874-85), and 
Diary of Salisbury Parliament, with two sketches 
by Sarry Furniss; O'Connor's Gladstone's House 
of Commons, and Parnell Movement; Men of 
the Time, 12th edit. ; Illustrated London News, 

20 NOT. 1880 (with portrait) ; Times, 20-25 Peb. 
1890 ; Weekly Northern Whig, 22 Feb. 1890 j 
fieport of the Special Commission, 1890; Mac- 
donsld's Dimy of the Paraell Commission, 1890 ; 
McCarthy s Eeuriniaeenees, ii. 398.] 

G. LB G. N. 



BINGHAM, GEORGE CHAKLES, 
third EARL OF LTJCAST (1800-1888), field- 
marshal, born in London on 16 A^ril 1800, 
was eldest son of Richard, second earl, by 
Elizabeth, third daughter of Henry, third 
Earl of Fauconberg of Newborough, and 
divorced wife of Bernard Edward Howard, 
afterwards fifteenth Duke of Norfolk. 

Lord Binjharn was educated at West- 
minster, and was commissioned as ensign in 
the 6th foot on 29 Au j. 1816. He exchanged 
to the 3rd foot guards on 24 Dec. 1818, went 
on half-pay next day, and became lieutenant 
in the 8th foot on 20 Jan. 1820. He ob- 
tained a company in the 74th foot on 16 May 
1822, again went on half-pay, and on 20 June 
was gazetted to the 1st life guards. He was 

fiven an unattached majority on 23 June 
825, and on 1 Dec. was appointed to the 
17th lancers. He succeeded to the com- 
mand of that re jhnent as lieutenant-colonel 
on 9 Nov. 1826, and held it till 14 April 
1837, when he went on half-pay. During 
the term of his command the regiment re- 
mained at home, but he himself witnessed 
the campaign of 1828 in the Balkans, being 
attached' to the Russian staff. The order of 
St. Anne of Russia (2nd class) was con- 
ferred on him. 

He was M.P. for county Mayo from 1826 
to 1830.^ On 30 June 1 839 his father's death 
made him Earl of Lucan, and in 1840 he 
was elected a representative peer of Ireland, 
He was made lord lieutenant of Mayo in 
1845, and for several years devoted himself 
mainly to the improvement of his Irish 
estates. He became colonel in the army on 
23 Nov. 1841, and major-general on 11 Nov. 
1851. 

In 1854, when a British army was to be 
sent to Turkey, Lucan applied for a brigade, 
and on 21 Feb. he was appointed to the 
command of the cavalry division. It con- 
sisted of two brigades a heavy brigade 
under James Yorke Scarlett [q. v.] and a 
light brigade under Lord Cardigan [see 
BBTTDENELL, JAMES THOMAS". Tie latter 
was Luean's brother-in-law ; " mt there was 
little love between them, and no two men 
uould have been less fitted to work together. 
There was soon friction. Cardigan complained 
of undue interference, and Lucan complained 
that his brigadier's notions of independence 
were encoura -ed by Lord Raglan, 

At the batt.e of the Alma (20 Sept.) Lucan 
was present, but the cavalry was not allowed 
to take an active part in it. When the army 
encamped in the upland before Sebastopol 
the cavalry division remained in the valley 
of Balaclava, to assist in guardin the -oort. 
On 25 Oct. the Russians advanced, on fiala- 



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Lucan, and is reproduced in Fortescue's 
1 History of the 17th Lancers,' 

[Times, 12 Nov. 1888 ; G. E. C[okayne~'s Com- 
plete Peeraje; English Cavalry in the Army of 
the East; Xinglaka's War in the Crimea; Rus- 
sell's letters to the Times ; Hansard, 3rd ser. 
vol. cxxxviL ; Report of the Chelsea Board.] 

E. M. L. 

BINtfS, SIB HENRY (1837-1899), third 
prime minister of Natal, son of Henry Binns 
of Sunderland and Croydon, a quaker, was 
born at Snnderland, Durham, on 27 June 
1837, and educated at Ackworth from 1847 
to 1852, and then at York. In 1858 he 
migrated with some relatives to Natal, ar- 
riving on 14 Sept., and thus he was con- 
nected with Natal almost from its first exist- 
ence as a separate colony. He decided to 
devote himse'. f to agriculture, and bought a 
property called Umhlanga at Eiet River, 
near Phoenix, in Victoria county, which in 
1860 he turned into a su-;ar estate. Subse- 
quently he amalgamated his estate with 
those of his relative, Robert Aeutt, and a 
friend, and in 1868 returned to England to 
float the Umhlanga Yalley Sugar Estate 
Company, of whiej. he became the jeneral 
manager, only retiring finally in 189^. 

Binns did not enter public life till com- 
paratively late. In 1879 he was selected by 
Sir Garnet (now Viscount) "Wolseley as a 
nominee member of the legislative council 
Tinder the Crown Colony system of govern- 
ment. In 1883 the elective element was 
introduced into the council, and he became 
member for Victoria county, for which he 
sat without interruption till his death. At 
the close of 1887 Binns was appointed one 
of three delegates from Natal to the confer- 
ence which assembled at Bloemfontein from 
30 Jan. to 18 Feb. 1888, on the question of 
& South African customs union. At this 
time only a partial union was inaugurated, 
which Natal did not join. In 1890 he was 
one of three delegates who arranged for the 
extension of the Natal government railway 
to Harrismith in the Orange Free State. 
In December 1893 he was sent on a mission 
to India respecting the question of Indian 
coolie labour for tie su~-ar estates, and the 
return of labourers to taeir native country 
on the expiration of their indentures. 

Originally opposed to the idea of self- 
government for Natal, Binns was so far recon- 
ciled^to the idea by 1893 that he acquiesced 
in Sir John Robinson's policy directed to 
introducing the reform ; but he declined to 
Join the first ministry under the new con- 
stitution, and so became a sort of leader of 
the opposition, whose duty it was, as far as 
possible, to support tie ministry. It was a 



curious application of the form rather than 
the full spirit of the constitution of the 
mother country. In 1897, after the succes- 
sive retirements of Sir John Robinson and 
Henry Escombe [q. v. Suppl.], Binns was 
appointed prime minister. He took office 
on 5 Oct. 1897 as colonial secretary and 
minister of agriculture, but soon resigned 
the latter portfolio. He threw himself into 
the work of his position with remarkable 
energy. The discontent of the Natal civil 
service was successfully met. An extradi- 
tion treaty with the South African republic 
was concluded on 20 Nov. 1897. It was 
his idea to offer a given monthly supply of 
coal for the use of her Majesty's fleet, as a 
contribution from Natal to mark the queen's 
year of jubilee. His first session of parlia- 
ment be ;an on 24 Nov. 1897, and was chiefly 
occupiec with the incorporation of Zululand. 
He then turned his attention to the one 
subject on which his mind was particularly 
bent the entrance of Natal into the South 
African customs union. In May 1898 a 
conference on the subject was held at Cape 
Town, at which he was the chief delegate 
from Natal. A convention was settled, in 
compliance with which Binns, on 20 May, 
introduced a resolution in favour of the union 
into the Natal parliament. The policy was 
bitterly opposed, and it took all Binns's energy 
and determination to carry the enabling bill 
through the assembly. It was read a third 
time in the assembly on 30 June, and its 
success was thus assured. On 6 July his 
health failed so completely that he could 
not enter the house for the remainder of 
the session. He spent some time on the 
Berea, and seemed better on his return to 
Pietermaritzburg in December 1898. In 
January 1899 he attended the postal con- 
ference at Cape Town. He was present at 
the opening of the Natal parliament on 
11 May, but he soon became ill again, and 
died on 6 June 1899. The assembly ad- 
journed for the rest of the week. His body 
lay in state at the vestibule of the House of 
Assembly and was buried on 7 June at the 
military cemetery, Pietermaritzburg. 

Binns's political life was marked by his 
courage and persistence. He was a pungent 
speaker, who rarely wasted words a good 
critic of finance. He was a sound business 
man, and liis name will always be connected 
with the building up of the sugar industry 
in Natal; he was a director of the Natal 
Bank and of the Durban, Telephone and 
Tramways Companies. He was also a cap- 
tain of mounted rifles. He was made K.C.M.GK 
in 1898. 
Binns married in 1861 his cousin Clara, 



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Birch 



The egyrrtologist's father, also Samuel 
Birch (178C P-1848), matriculated from St. 
John's College, Cambridge, in 1798. He 
graduated B.A. as tenth senior optime in 
the mathematical tripos in 1802, gained the 
second member's prize for a Latin essay, 
and was elected a fellow of his college. He 
-nroceeded M.A. in 1805, and D.D. in 1828. 
lie was for forty years professor of geometry in 
Gresham College, London. He became rector 
of St. Mary Woolnoth and St. Mary Wool- 
church-Haw in 1808, a prebendary of St. 
Paul's Cathedral (occupying the Twyford 
stall) in 1819, and in .834 vicar of Little 
Marlow, Buckinghamshire, where he died 
on 24 June 1848, He published many ser- 
mons preached before distinguished people. 

Samuel, the eldest son, was born in Lon- 
don on 3 N OT. 1 813. He was sent to prepara- 
tory schools at Greenwich and Blackheath, 
and he entered on 3 July 1826 the Merchant 
Taylors' School, where he studied for five 
years, leavinf in 183L For one year he and 
(Sir) Edwarc Augustus Bond [q. v. Suppl/, 
afterwards principal librarian of the Britis J. 
Museum, were fellow-pupils. Before Birch 
left school he had, at the suggestion of an ac- 
quaintance of his grandfather who was in the 



study of 

made ~ood progress in the difficult language. 
In 1833 he was promised an appointment in 
China, and, although the promise was not 
fulfilled, he continued his study of Chinese. 
In 1834 he entered the service of the com- 
missioners of public records, and, on the re- 
commendation of William Henry Black [c . Y.], 
assistant-keeper of the public record office, 
aided the keeper, (Sir) Thomas Duffus Hardy 
"q. v.l For seventeen months he worked side 
'5y side with Bond. His salary was then 40J. 
a year (Report from Select Committee on 
Record Commission. London, 1836, -). 340, 
]S T o. 8848). On 18 Jan, 1836 he became 
assistant in the department of antiquities at 
the British Museum, where his first duty 
was to arrange and catalogue Chinese 
coins. Soon ar'ter his appointment there (he 
used to tell the story with great glee) his 
grandf ithrc called to see him, and, in answer 
to a question as to what he was about, on 
being told that he was cataloguing coins, 
exclaimed, 'Good God, Sammy! aas the 
family come to that ? ' At an early period 
in, his Chinese studies lie began to examine 
carefully the writings of ChampoILion on 
the decipherment o: the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics, but it was not until he entered 
the British Museum that he threw himself 
heart and soul into the study of egyptology. 
For a short time, in 1832 and 1833, he had 



hesitated about accepting Champollion's sys- 
tem of the decipherment of Egyptian in 'its 
entirety ; but when he had read and con- 
sidered the mixture of learning and nonsense 
which Channollion's critics, Klaproth and 
SeyfFarth, hac written on the subject, he re- 
jected once and for all the views which they 
and the other enemies of Champollion enun- 
ciated with such boldness. To Le-Dsius in 
Germany and to Birch in England oelon TS 
the crecit of having first recognised tae 
true value of Champollion's system [cf. arts. 
WILKINSON, SIB JOHN GABDNEB; YOTTNG-, 
THOMAS, 1773-1829]. They were so firmly 
persuaded of its importance that Lepsius 
abandoned the brilliant career of a classical 
scholar to follow the new science, and Birch 
finally relinquished the idea of a career in 
China, to the great regret of his grandfather, 
to be able better to pursue his Egyptian 
studies in the service of the trustees of the 
British Museum. Birch's earliest known 
paper ('On the Taou, or Knife Coin of the 
Chinese') appeared in 1837, and it was a 
year later that his first writing on Egyptian 
matters saw the li -ht. From this time on- 
wards he continuec, to write short papers on 
numismatics, to translate Chinese texts, and 
to edit papyri for the trustees of the British 
Museum. Besides this work he found time to 
write lengthy explanatory notes for works 
like Perring's < Pyramids of Gizeh ' (3 pts. 
1839-42), and frequently to supply whole 
chapters of descriptive text to books of 
travellers and others. In 1844, the year 
which saw the publication of the third part 
of his ' Select Papyri in the Hieratic Charac- 
ter,' he was made assistant keener in the 
department of antiquities at the British Mu- 
seum, which appointment he held until 1861. 
In 1846 he was sent by the trustees to Italy 
to report on the famous Anastasi collection 
of Egyptian antiquities, which was subse- 
quently purchased by them ; and ten years 
later he was again sent to Italy to report, 
in connection with Sir Charles T. Newton 
[cj. v. SuppL], on the Campana collection 
of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman vases, coins, 
&c. In 1861 the trustees of the British 
Museum divided the department of antiqui- 
ties into three sections; William Sandys 
Vaux [q. v.] became keeper of the coins and 
medals, Newton keeper of the Greek and 
Roman antiquities, and Birch keeper of the 
oriental, British, and mediaeval antic uities. 
In 1866 a further subdivision was mace, and 
the British and mediaeval antiquities were 
placed under the keepership of (Sir) Arthur 
Wollaston Franks [q. v. Suppl.] ; Birch was 
thus enabled to devote his whole official time 
to the study of the Egyptian and' Assyrian 



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versity of Aberdeen in 1862, and by Cam- 
bridge UniversitT in 1875 ; and taat of 
D.C.L. by Oxford University in 1876. He 
was honorary fellow of Queen's College, Ox- 
ford: president of the oriental congress which 
met in London in 1874; officier de 1'instruc- 
tion publique de 1'universite de Paris ; Rede 
lecturer at Cambridge in 187o ; and presi- 
dent of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 
from 1870 to 1885. The emperor of Ger- 
many conferred u?on him in 1874 the order 
of the Crown, and" the emoeror of Brazil the 
order of the Kni -ht of tae Rose in 1875. 
Birch was kind-'iearted and genial, shy 
among strangers, and so modest that he was 
content to a" .ow much of his best work to 
appear only in the volumes of others. 

The following are Birch's principal inde- 
pendent works: 1. 'Analecta Sinensia/ 
..841. 2. ' Select Papyri in the Hieratic 
Character/ 3 pts. fol. 1841-4. 3. * Tablets 
from the Collection of the Earl of Belmore/ 
1843. 4. * Friends till Death 1 (from 
Chinese), 1845. 5. * An Introduction to the 
Study of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics/ 1857. 
6. 'History of Ancient Pottery/ 2 vols. 
1858. 7. ? M6moire sur une Patere/ 1858. 
8. 'Select Papyri/ pt, ii. 1860. 9. 'De- 
scription of Ancient Marbles in the British 
Museum/ pt. ii. 1861. 10. Chinese Widow' 
(from Chinese), 1862. 11. ' Elfin Foxes' 
(from Chinese), 1863. 12. 'Papyrus of 
Nas-Khem/ 1863. 13. 'Facsimiles of 
Egyptian Relics,' 1863. 14. Facsimiles of 
two Papyri/ 1863. 15. * Inscriptions in 
the Himyaritic Character/ 1863. 16. 'The 
Casket of Gems' (from Chinese), 1872. 
17. ' History of Egypt/ 1875. 18. ' Fac- 




talogue of Egyptian Antiquities at Alnwick 
Castle/ 1880. 22. 'The Coffin of Amamu ' 
(unfinished). Birch made the following 
important contributions to the publications 
of others : * Egyptian. Antiquities ' (in the 
* Synopsis of the Contents of the British Mu- 
seum J ~, 1838 ; * Remarks on E yptian Hiero- 
lyphies' (in 'Pyramids of GFizeh/ by J. S. 
Perring), 1839 ; < Remarks' (in Cory's Hora- 
pollo Kinus '), 1841 ; * Descriptions ' in 
Arundale and BonomTs * Gallery of Anti- 
guities/ 1842, 1843 ; List of Hiero jlyphics ' 
in Bunsen's ' Et's Pla 14 * 




vol. v.), 1867. With Sir Henry Rawlinson 
[q.v,] he prepared * Inscriptions in the Cunei- 
form Character/ 1851 ; and with (Sir) Charles 
Thomas Newton [q. v.Suppl.] ' Catalogue of 
Greek and Etruscan Vases La the British 



Museum/ 2 vols. 1851. He revised in 1878 
Sir J. G. Wilkinson's ' Manners and Customs 
of the Ancient Egyptians.' Birch was also 
author of numerous papers in the * Nu- 
mismatic Chronicle/ ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine/ ' Proceedings J and ' Transactions ' of 
the Royal Society of Literature, ' Archseo- 
lojfia/ ' Revue Archeologique ' (Paris), 
' Tournal of the Royal Archaeological Insti- 
tute/ ' Journal of the British Archaeological 
Association/ ' Classical Museum/ ' MSmoires 
des Antiquit^s de France ' (Paris), ' Aegyp- 
tische Zeitschrift/ Chabas's 'Melanges/ 
< Month/ ' Nature and Art/ ' Phoenix/ l Pro- 
ceedings ' and ' Transactions ' of the Society 
of Biblical Archaeology, 'Records of the 
Past/ 'English Cyclopaedia/ Transactions 
of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society/ ' En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica/and many periodicals. 

[Times, 29 Dec. 1885; Athenaeum, 2 Jan. 
18s6 ; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. January 1886 ; 
Saturday Review, 2 Jan. 1886 ; Brighton Daily 
Kews, 5 Jan. 1886 ; Manchester Guardian, 
6 Jan. 18S6 ; Academy, 2 Jan. 1886 ; Le XIX" ' 
Siecle, 11 Jan. 1886; Illustrated London News 
(with portrait), 2 Jan. 1886 ; and in Revue 
Egypto..ogique, iv. 187-92. All these were re- 
printed by W. de Gray Birch, his son, in I886 k 
The fullest account of Birch's life and work will 
be found (with portrait) in Trans. Soc. Bibl. 
Arch. ix. 1-41, by E. A. Wallis Bud 70 ; a good 
account of his work up to 1877 wU be found 
(with portrait) in the Dublin University Maga- 
zine, 1877.] E. A. W. B. 

BLACK, WILLIAM (1841-1898), no- 
velist, -was born at Glasgow on 9 Nov. 1841. 
After , receiving his education at various 
private schools he studied for a short time 
as an artist in the Glasgow school of art, 
but, becoming connected with the ' Glasgow 
Citizen/ gradually exchanged art for jour- 
nalism. His contributions to the ' Citizen ' 
included sketches of the most eminent 
literary men of the day. He came to Lon- 
don in 1864, and obtained some standing as 
a contributor to the magazines. In the same 
vear he published his first novel, 'James 
Merle, an A-utobiography/ which passed ab- 
solutely without notice from the literary 
journals. In 1865 he became connected with 
the * Morning Star/ and in the following year 
went to Germany as correspondent for that 
paper in the Franco-Prussian war, with, as he 
ioimself admitted, no special qualification for 
the part but a very slight smattering of Ger- 
man. During most of the very short cam- 
paign he was under arrest on suspicion 
of being a spy, but the observations he made 
in the Black Forest aided the success of his 
excellent novel, 'In Silk Attire' (1869), 
part of the scene of which was laid there. 



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by severe discipline, he added a depth, of 
learning, a breadth of view, a sobriety of 
judgment, and an inexhaustible patience, 
which made his decisions as nearly as pos- 
sible infallible. Few causes celebres came 
before him daring his seventeen years' tenure 
of office as judge of first instance; but the 
dignity and impartiality with which he pre- 
sided at the trial (28 Oct. 1867) of the Man- 
chester Fenians were worthy of a more 
august occasion; and his charge to the 
grand ; ury of Middlesex (2 June 1868) on 
the bi'-l of indictment against the late go- 
vernor of Jamaica, Mr. Edward John Eyre, 
though not perhaps altogether unexception- 
able, is, on the waole, a sound ; weighty, and 
vi 'orous exposition of the principles appli- 
cajle to the determination, of a question of 
great delicacy and the gravest imperial con- 
sequence. The consolidation of the courts 
effected by the Judicature Acts of 1873 and 

1875 gave Blackburn the status of justice ^of 
the high court, which numbered among its 
members no judge of more tried ability 
when the Appellate Jurisdiction Act of 

1876 authorised the reinforcement of the 
House of Lords by the creation of two judi- 
cial life peers, designated 4 lords of appeal in 
ordinary.' Blackburn's investiture with the 
new dignity met accordingly with universal 
approbation. He was raised to the peerage 
on 16 Oct. 1876, by the title of Baron 
Blackburn of Killearn, Stirlingshire, and 
took his seat in the House of Lords and was 
sworn of the privy council in the following 
month (21, 28 Nov.) In the part which he 
thenceforth took in the administration of 
our imperial jurisprudence, Blackburn ac- 
quitted himself with an, ability so consum- 
mate as to cause his retirement in December 
1886 to be felt as an almost irreparable loss. 
The regret was intensified by t:ie discovery 
of a curious flaw in the Appellate Jurisdic- 
tion Act, by which his resignation of office 
carried with it his exclusion from the House 
of Lords. This anomaly was, however, re- 
moved by an amending act. He died, un- 
married, at his country seat, Doonholm, 
Ayrshire, on 8 Jan. 1896. 

Blackburn was a member of the royal 
commissions on the courts of law (1867) and 
the stock exchange (1877), and presided 
over the royal commission on the draft 
criminal code (1878). He was author of a 
mastrly ' Treatise on the Effect of the Con- 
tract of Sale on the Lejal Eights of Pro- 
perty and Possession in 3oods, Wares, and 
'Merchandise/ London, 1845, 8vo, which 
held its own as the standard text-book on 
the subject until displaced by the more 
Gompreliensive -work of Benjamin. A new 



edition, revised by J. C. Graham, appeared 
in 1885. As a reporter Blackburn colla- 
borated with Thomas Flower Ellis [q. v.] 

[Eton School Lists; Foster's Men at the Bar, 
and Peerage, 1880 ; Burke's Peerage, 1896 ; Grad. 
Cant. ; Gal. Univ. Cambr. ; Times, 10 Jan. 1806; 
Ann. Eeg. 1863-8, 1896, ii. 127 ; Law Times, 2, 
9, 16 July 1859, 13 June 1868, 16 Dec. 1886, 
15 Jan. 1887, 18 Jan. 1896 ; Law Mag. and Law 
Rev. xxv. 256 ; Law Journ. 18 Jan. 1896 ; Camp- 
bell's Life, ed. Hard castle, ii. 372 ; Pollock's 
Personal Remembrances, ii. 86 ; Stephen's Lifo 
of James FitzJsimes Stephen ; Finlason's Report 
of the Case of the Queen v. Eyre, 1868, p. 53; 
Lords' Journ. cviii. 424; Parl. Papers (E. C.), 
186S-9 C. 4130, 1878 C. 2157, 1878-9 C. 2345; 
Ballantine's Experiences, 1890, pp. 248 et seq., 
333.] J.M. R. 

BLACKIE, JOHN STUART (1809- 
1895), Scottish professor and man of letters, 
eldest son of Alexander Blackie (d. 1856) 
by his first wife, Helen Stodart (d. 1819), 
was born in Charlotte Street, Glasgow, on. 
28 July 1809. His father soon removed to 
Aberdeen, as manager of the Commercial 
Bank. Blackie had his early education at 
the burgh grammar school and Marischal 
College (18fl-4). In 1824 he was placed 
in a lawyer's office, but as his mind turned 
towards the ministry, after six months he 
went up to Edinburgh for two more years 
in arts (1825-6). He gained the notice of 
i Christopher North,' but was prevented by 
* a morbid religiosity ' from doing himself 
;"ustice. He then took the three years' theo- 
logical course at Aberdeen. The divinity 
professors, William Laurence Brown [q. vl] , 
and Duncan Mearns [q. v.], seem to have in- 
fluenced him less than Patrick Forbes, pro- 
fessor of humanity and chemistry at King's 
College, who turned him from systems of 
divinity to the Greek testament. It was 
on the advice of Forbes, whose sons were 
going to Gottingen, that Blackie was sent 
with them in April 1829. At Gottingen he 
came under the influence of Heeren, Ottfried 
Miiller, and Saalfeld. The following session 
(after a walking tour) he spent in Berlin, 
hearing the lectures of Schleiermacher and 
Neander, Boeckh and Kaumer. From Berlin 
he travelled to Ital;?, having an introduction 
from Neander to 3unsen, then in Rome. 
Bunsen met one of his theological difficulties 
by telling him that ' the duration of other 
people's damnation was not his business, 1 
After a few months he was able to compose 
an archaeological essay in good Italian (' In- 
torno un Sarcofago/ Rome, 1831, 8vo). 
From a Greek student at Rome he learned 
to speak modern Greek, and grasped the 
idea that Greek is ' not a dead but a living 



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had previously done duty as told of William 
Edmonstoune Aytoun fa. v.] Perhaps his 
hest service to the Edinburgh University 
was his long and energetic labour in connec- 
tion -with the founding and endowment of 
the Celtic chair, instituted in 1882, shortly 
after he had become an emeritus professor. 

During the whole of his Edinburgh career 
he had been growing in public favour, till 
his genial eccentricities were relished as the 
living expression of a robust and versatile 
nature. His boundless good-humour made 
amends for his brusc ue manner and for his 
somewhat random torusts, frankly delivered 
with great gusto in his cawing, cackling 
voice. Wita a rich fund of Scottish pre- 
judices he combined a very outspoken 
superiority to local and sectarian narrowness, 
He became the most prominent feature of 
the patriotic and literary life of Edinburgh, 
and as a breezy lecturer made his personality 
felt in all parts of Scotland. Always fond 
of movin "_; about, his public appearances be- 
came stO more frequent after his retire- 
ment from his chair. He kept up his love 
of foreign travel ; his last visit to Greece was 
in 189... Till May 1894, when he was 
attacked with asthma, his health and 
strength were marvellous. His last public 
appearance was at the opening of the college 
session in October 1894. He died at 
9 Douglas Crescent, Edinburgh, on 2 March 
1895, and, after a public funeral service in 
St. Giles's Cathedral, was buried in the 
Dean cemetery on 6 March. He left 2,500Z, 
to the Edinburgh University for a Greek 
scholarship, limited to its theological stu- 
dents. His portrait was painted (1893) by 
Sir George Keid. His clear-cut features, 
shrewd grey eyes, and long white hair (for 
some time during the fifties he had worn a 
carious grey wig) were made familiar in 
countless photographs, engravings, and 
caricatures, which reproduced his jaunty air, 
the plaid thrown about his shoulders, his 
huge walking staff, and his soft hat with 
broad band. He never wore spectacles. 
He married, on 19 April 1842, Eliza, third 
daughter of James Wyld of Gilston, Fife- 
shire, but had no issue. His half-brother, 
G-eorge S. Blackie, professor of botany in the 
university of Tennessee, died in 1881, 
aged 47. 

It is difficult to classify Blackie's writings, 
in^ which prose and verse were often inter- 
mingled. Nothing he has written has kept 
so permanent a place as his hymn, ' Angels 
holy, high and lowly,' written by the banks 
of the Tweed on his wedding tour (1842) 
and first published in ' Lays and Legends * 
(1857). 



His chief publications were: 1. 'Faust 
. . . translated into English Verse/ 1834, 
8vo; 1880, 8vo. 2. 'On Subscription to 
Articles of Faith,' Edinburgh, 1843, Svo. 
3. 'University Reform/ Edinburgh, 1848, 
8vo. 4. 'The Water Cure in Scotland/ 
Aberdeen, 1849, 8vo. 5. 'The Lyrical 
Dramas of ^Eschylus . . . translated into 
English Verse/ 1S50, 2 vols. 8vo. 6. ' On 
the Studying and Teaching of Languages/ 
Edinburgh, 1852, 8vo (English and Latin). 
7. 'On t^e Advancement of Learning in 
Scotland/ Edinburgh, 1855, 8vo. 8. Oays 
and Legends of Ancient Greece, with other 
Poems/ Edinburgh, 1857, 8vo. 9. ' On 
Beauty/ Edinburgh, 1858, 8vo. 10. 'Lyrical 
Poems/ Edinburgh, 1860, 8vo. 11. 'The 
Gaelic Language/ Edinburgh, 1864, 8vo. 
12. i Homer and the Iliad/ Edinburgh, 1866, 
4 vols. 8vo. 13. 'Musa Burschicosa . . . 
Songs for Students/ Edinburgh, 1869, 8vo. 
14. ' War Songs of the Germans/ Edinbur 'h, 

1870, 8vo. 15. 'Four Phases of Mora.s: 
Socrates, Aristotle, Christianity, Utilita- 
rianism/ Edinburgh, 1871, 8vo. 16. ' Greek 
and English Dialogues ... for Schools/ 

1871, 8vo. 17. ' Lays of the Highlands and 
Islands/ 1871, Svo. 18. * On Self Culture/ 
Edinburgh, 1874, 8vo. 19. 'Horse Hel- 
lenicse/ 1874, Svo. 20. 'Son#s of Religion 
and Life/ 1876, 8vo. 21. 'The Language 
and Literature of the ... Highlands/ 
Edinburgh, 1876, Svo. 22. 'The Natural 
History of Atheism/ 1877, Svo. 23. 'The 
Wise Men of Greece . . . Dramatic Dia- 
logues/ 1877, Svo. 24. 'The Egyptian 
Dynasties/ 1879, 8vo. 25. ' Gaelic Societies 
. . . and Land Law Reform/ Edinburgh, 
1880, Svo. 26. ' Lay Sermons/ 1881, Svo. 
27, 'Altavona . . . from my Life in the 
Highlands/ Edinburgh, 1882, 8vo. 28. ' The 
Wisdom of Goethe/ Edinburgh, 1883, Svo. 
29. 'The ... Highlanders and the Land 
Laws/ 1885, Svo. 30. ' What does History 
teach ? ' 1886, Svo. 31, ' Gleanings of Song 
from a Ha^py Life/ 1886, Svo. 32. ' Life 
of Robert Burns/ 1887, Svo. 33. ' Scottish 
Song/ Edinbur -h, 1889, Svo. 34. 'Essays/ 
Edinburgh, 1890, Svo. 35. 'A Song of 
Heroes/ 1890, Svo. 36. 'Greek Primer/ 
1891, Svo. 37. ' Christianity and the Ideal 
of Humanity/ Edinburgh, 1893, Svo. 

In 1867-8 he published some pamphlets 
on forms of government, and a debate on 
democracy with Ernest Charles Jones [q . y.j 
He contributed to the volumes of 'Edin- 
burgh Essays ' (1856-7) and prefaced a good 
many books on subjects in which he was 
interested. Selections of his verse were 
edited in 1855 (with memoir) by Charles 
Rogers (1825-1890) [q.v.], and in 1896 (with 



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advanta 'e and therefore took up educational 
work, -which he never liked, and for -which 
he was ill-adapted. He became in 1855 
classical master at Wellesley House School, 
Twickenham Common. His dreams of dis- 
tinction gathered in those days around poetry 
rather than prose, and his first book, a thin 
and scarce volume, appeared in the same 
vear, entitled * Poems by Melanter,' the most 
ambitious of which was a drama, ' Eric and 
Karine/ founded on the fortunes of Eric XIV 
of Sweden. It was quickly followedat 
an interval of a few months by ' Epullia,' 
which was also published anonymously. This 
book contains a felicitous translation from 
Musaeus of the story of Hero and Leander, and 
an ambitious patriotic ballad on the battle 
of the Alma. But of more account is the 
beautiful invocation ' To my Pen' perhaps 
the most finished and certainly the most 
fanciful of Blackmore's Terse. t The Bugle 
of the Black Sea, 1 a patriotic poem suggested 
by the war then in progress in the Crimea, 
appeared in 1855. Ee also translated some 
o: the idylls of Theocritus, and his renderings 
were printed in ' Fraser's Magazine.' This 
was followed in 1860 by ' The Fate of Frank- 
lin,' on the title-page of which his name for 
the first time appeared as of ' Exeter College, 
Oxon. M.A., and of the^ Middle Temp.e.' 
He wrote the poem in aid of the fund for 
the erection of a statue of the explorer in 
his native town of Spilsby. 

Shortly before this Blackmore's uncle, the 
Her. H. H. Knight, died, and bequeathed to 
him a sum of money which enabled him to 
realise one of the dreams of his life a house 
in the country encompassed by a large gar- 
den. His father, who in. his closing years 
(he died suddenly in the autumn of 1858) 
was extremely kind to the young couple, 
took great interest in this scheme, and 
helped aim to carry it into effect. Blackmore, 
in his walks about Twickenham when a 
master at Wellesley House, had seen a plot 
of land at Teddington which he coveted, and 
he now bought it and built himself, well 
back from the road there was no railway 
in those days a ">lain substantial dwelling 
which he called G-omer House, a name sug- 
gested by that of a favourite dog; and there 
lie remained for the rest of his life, culti- 
vating his vines, peaches, nectarines, pears, 
and strawberries, in enviable detachment 
from the world. His knowledge of horti- 
culture was both wide and exact, and he 
devoted himself, with an. enthusiasm and 
patience which nothing chilled or tired, to 
the lowly tasks of a market gardener. Un- 
fortunately for himself he had received no 
business training, and was>in consequence 



somewhat at the mercy of the men he em- 
ployed, more than one of whom robbed him 
to a considerable extent. He was an expert 
in the culture of grapes and exotic plants, 
and for long years his fruit and flowers, and 
notably his pears, of which he was especially 
fond, found their way regularly to Covent 
Garden market, where, at one time dis- 
gusted by the extortions of the middle men 
he set up a stall. Late in life he declared 
that his garden of eleven acres, far from 
being remunerative, represented on an aver- 
age 250Z. a year out of pocket. He loved 
quality in fruit, and would send far and 
wide, regardless of expense, for choice speci- 
men treea and plants, whereas the English 
public, he was never tired of asserting, had 
set its heart on quantity. 

After Blackmore's settlement at Tedding- 
ton, the earliest product from his pen was 
' The Farm and Fruit of Old,' a sonorous and 
happy translation of the first and second 
Geor ics of Virgil, which appeared in 1862. 
Scho.ars recognised its merit, but their 
approval did not sell the book. Dis- 
heartened by the languid reception of hia 
work in verse, alike original anc in transla- 
tion, Blackmore sought another medium of 
expression, and found it in creative romance. 
His first novel, l Clara Vaughan,' appeared 
in 1864, when he had entered his fortieth 
year, and it marked the beginning of his 
renown. In spite of the dramatic situations 
of the book and the remarkable powers of 
observation which it revealed, ' Clara 
Vaughan' was regarded as a curiously un- 
equal sensational story, dealing with the 
unravelling of crime, and yet lit up by ex- 
quisite transcripts from nature. It appeared 
without its author's name, and rumour 
attributed it at the time to a lady novelist 
who was then rapidly approaching the height 
of her popularity. * Oradpck Nowell ' a 
name suggested by a veritable man so called, 
who once owned Nottage Court, and whose 
name is still conspicuous on a tablet in 
Newton church, w:iich Blackmore said he 
used to gaze at as a child durin the sermon 
was published in 1866. ' Cradock Nowell' 
was described by its author as a tale of the 
New Forest. It was the only book in which 
he laid himself open to a charge of a parade 
of classical scholarship. It gave him a vogue 
with people who, as a rule, care little for 
fiction, but its allusions proved caviare to 
the general, and taxed the patience of the 
circulating libraries. * Cradock Nowell/ 
notwithstanding this, is one of the best of 
Blackmore's heroes, and in Amy Rpsedew 
he jave the world one of the most bewitching 
. of lieroines. It was in 1869, with his third 



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forth on the least provocation in the give 
and take of ordinary talk. He loved peace 
and quietness supremely, sat _ lightly to the 
verdict of his neighbours, minded his own 
"business, was scrupulously honourable, and 
cultivated his garden hardly less assiduously 
than the philosophic mood. He had scarcely 
any intimates ; one of the most trusted was 
Professor (Sir) Richard Owen, with whom 
he had much in common beyond the game 
of chess, and whom he introduced into 
* Tommy Upmore/ All his novels, except 
1 Clara Yaughan 3 and part of ' The Maid of 
Sker/ were written in his plain brick house 
at Teddington. His day was divided be- 
tween his garden and his manuscript. The 
morning was held sacred to the vines and 
pears, tlae afternoon and early evening to the 
task of composition. He detested London, 
and in later life seldom went beyond Ms own 
grounds, except once a week to church. His 
.avourite poets were Homer, Virgil, Shake- 
speare, and among modern men Matthew 
Arnold. His skill with the lathe was quite 
out of the common, and he carved some 
ivory chessmen delicately and curiously. He 
was a keen jud^e of fruit, and often gave Ms 
friends delightful and quite unpremeditated 
lessons in its culture. Blackmore was a tall, 
square-shouldered, powerfully built, digni- 
fied-looking man, and was the picture of 
health will fair complexion and high colour. 
[Personal knowledge and private information.] 

O T "D 

BLADES, WILLIAM (1824-1890), 
printer and bibliographer, the son of Joseph 
Blades, was born at Clapham on 5 Dec. 18i4, 
and was educated at the Stockwell and 
Clapham grammar schools . He was appren- 
ticed on 1 May 1840 at his father's printing 
firm of Blades & East, 11 Abchurch Lane, 
London. Shortly after the expiration of his 
apprenticeship he was admitted a partner in 
tSe business, and soon he and his brother 
conducted it under the style of Blades, 
East, & Blades. He turned his attention to 
the typography of the first English press, 
and in 1838 undertook to write an introduc- 
tory note to a reprint of Caxton's edition of 
the * Governayle of Helthe,' His Caxton 
studies were conducted in a thoroughly 
scientific manner. New biographical facts 
were discovered in searching tae archives 
of the city of London, and, instead of blindly 
adopting the conclusions of Lewis, Antes, 
Herbert, Dibdin, and other preceding biblio- 
graphers, he personally inspected 450 vp- 
tumeB from Caxton's press, preserved in 
various public and private libraries, and 
carefully collated, compared, and classified 
them* Each volume was critically examined 



from the point of view of a practical printer, 
and arranged according to its letter. The 
career of each class of type was traced from 
its first use to the time when it was worn 
out and passed into strange hands. This 
inquiry was more important in his eyes 
than the recording of title-pages and colo- 
phons. Every dated volume thus fell into 
its proper class, and the year of undated 
volumes was fixed by its companions. Such 
was the way in which the story of Caxton's 
press was written. The first volume of the 
1 Life of Caxton ' appeared in 1861, and the 
second two years later. It was only one of 
many books, articles, and papers devoted by 
Blades to the study of England's first print- 
ing-press, A notable result of his labours 
was to give an increased value to the Caxton 
editions. His careful and systematic methods 
had much in common with those of Henry 
Bradshaw [q. v., Suppi.], with whom he 
carried on a friendly correspondence ex- 
tending over twenty-five years (G. "W. 
PROTHEEO, Memoir of B. Bradshaw, 1888, 
pp. 73-6,99,201, 25o,363). 

Blades took a leading part in the organi- 
sation of the Caxton celebration in 1877, 
was a warm supporter of the Library Asso- 
ciation founded, the same year, and read 
papers before several of the annual meetings 
of that body. His ' Enemies of Books ' 
(1881), which was the most popular of his 
literary productions, was a discursive ac- 
count of their foes, human, insect, and ele- 
mental. In a series of articles in the ' Printers' 
Register ' in 1884 he supported the claims of 
William Nicholson (1733-1815) [q. v.] as 
the English inventor of the ateam press 
against the contention of Goebel on behalf 
of the German, Eoenig. 

He was a keen and honourable man of 
business, ever alive to modern improvements 
in the mechanical part of his cabling. His 
writings were chiedy devoted to the early 
Mstory of the art of printing and besides 
the books mentioned ^elow Jie contributed 
many articles to trade journals and biblio- 
graphical periodicals. He was an ardent 
collector of books, pictures, prints, medals, 
jettons, and tokens relating to printing. He 
took an active share in the municipal work 
of his city ward (Candlewick), was a mem- 
ber of the council of the Printers' Pension 
Fund, and a liveryman of the Scriveners' 
Company. He died on 27 April 1890 at his 
residence at Sutton, Surrey, in his sixty-sixth 
year, leaving a widow, to whom he was 
married in 1862, and seven children. 

He published: 1. 'The Governayle of 
Helthe, reprinted from Caxton's edition/ 
London, 1858, 8vo. 2, ' Moral Prouerbes ; 



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History of the celebrated "Book,"' 1813, 
8vo [see CAROLINE AMELIA ELIZABETH]. He 
also contributed a life of Dr. Johnson with 
an edition of his poems to 'The Laurel' 

posed by John JFox . . . and now entirely (London, 1808, 24mo), and compiled a gene- 
rewritten . . . by the Rev. J. Milner, M.A.' ral index to the 'British Critic/ vols. xxi- 

xlii, ; to him is also attributed ' Paris as it 
was, and as it is ' (London, 1803, 8vo). 



catholic disabilities induced him to publish 
an edition of Fox's * Book of Martyrs ; ' this 
appeared as 'An Universal History of 
Christian Martyrdom . . originally com- 



(London, 1807, 8vo) ; the use of the pseu- 
donym ' the Rev. J. Milner * was inexcusable, 
as a well-known Roman catholic divine, 
John Milner [q.v.], was then living ; subse- 
quent editions of Blagdon's work appeared 
in 1817, 1837, 1848, 1863, 1871, and in 
1881 ; and in 1892 was published a version 
by Theodore Alois Buckley, described as 
c abridged from Milner's edition.' 

In 1809 Blagdon came into conflict with 
William Cobbett [q.v.], and in October of 
that year he published a prospectus of 'Blag- 
don's Weekly Political Register,' which was 
' to be printed in the same manner as Cob- 
bett's Register ; ' with the first number was 
to commence 'The History of the Political 
Life and Writings of William Cobbett,' who 
was compared to Catiline. Blagdon's 
' Weeklv Register ' never seems to have 
appeared, and the * Phoenix/ another of his 
ventures, soon came to an end. In 1812, 
with a view to exposing French designs on 
England, Blagdon brought out ' The Situa- 
tion of Great Britain in 1811. . . .' trans- 
lated from the French of M, de Mont -aillard 
(London, 8vo) ; this evoked a rep.y from 
Sir John Jervis White Jervis, who describes 
Bla -don as ' a gentleman well known in the 
wal^s of literary knowledge and of loyal 
authors.' In 1814 Blagdon published f An 
Historical Memento , . . of the public Re- 
ioieinga ... in celebration of the Peace of 
L814, and of the Centenary of the Accession 
of the House of Brunswick' (London, 4to), 
and in 1819 a * New Dictionary of Classical 
Quotations ' (London, 1819, 8ro). He died 
in obscurity and poverty in June 1819, and 
a subscription was raised for Tiis destitute 
widow and children (Gent. Mag. 1819. ii, 
88). 

Besides the works mentioned above, Blag- 
don was author of : 1. *The Grand Contest 
. * . or a View of the Causes and 
probable Consequences of the threatened 
Invasion of Great Britain,' 1803, 8vo. 

2. 'Remarks on a Pamphlet entitled "Ob- 
servations on the Concise Statement of 
Facts by Sir Home Popham," ' 1805, 8vo. 

3. * Aut lentic Memoirs of George Morland,' 
1806, fol. ; this contains many engravings 
of Morland's pictures. 4. 'The Modern 
Geographer,' 1307, 8vo. 5. ' Langhorne's 
Fakes of Flora . . . with- a Life of the 
Author/ 1812, Svo. 6. 'Letters of the 
Princess of Wales, comprising the only true 



i c 



[Blagdon's Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Gent. 
JMag. 1819, ii. 88; Biogr. Diet, of Living 
Authors, 1816; Reuss's Register, 1790-1803, 
i. 109 ; Edward Smith's Life of Cobbett, ii. 
47-8 ; Watt's Bibl. Britannica.] A. F. P. 

BLAIKIE, WILLIAM GARDEN 

(1820-1899), Scottish divine, born at Aber- 
deen on 5 Feb. 1820, was the second son of 
James Blaikie (1786-1836) of Craigiebuckler, 
advocate, and provost of Aberdeen from 1833 
to 1836, by his wife, the daughter of Wil- 
liam Garden, a land surveyor. His aunt, 
Jane Blaikie, married Alexander Keith 
(1791-1880) [q. v.] In 1828 he entered the 
Aberdeen grammar school, then under James 
Melvin [q. v.] He was one of Melvin's most 
brilliant scholars, and entered Marischal 
College in November 1833. His third 
divinity session (1839-40) was spent at 
Edinburgh, and in 1841 he was licensed to 
preach by the Aberdeen presbytery. On 
22 Sept. 1842, on the presentation of the Earl 
of Kintore, he was ordained minister of Drum- 
blade, the early home of Dr. George Mac- 
donald. On 18 May 1843 he signed the 
deed of demission and joined the Free Church 
of Scotland. Most of his congregation 
seceded with him, and a church was erected 
for their use. 

Early in 1844 Blaikie was invited to 
undertake a new charge at Pilrig, in the 
rising district of Leith Walk, Edinburgh. 
He was inducted on 1 March, and continued 
there for twenty-four years. During this 
period he manifested a strong concern for 
the welfare of the -ooor. He promoted the 
foundation and too. part in the manage- 
ment of the model buildings which still 
form a feature of the district. In 1849 he 
published 'Six Lectures to the Working 
Classes on the Improvement of their Tem- 
poral Condition ' (Edinburgh, 16mo) ; which 
in 1863 he transformed into * Better Days 
for the Working People' (London, 8vo), a 
publication which attained remarkable popu- 
.arity, and which was praised by Guizot. 
The latest edition appeared in 1882. He had 
also other literary interests. From May 1849 
to 1853 he edited The Free Church 'Maga- 
zine^' and from 1860 to 1863 ' The North 
British Review.' 

Li 1868 Blaikie was chosen to fill the 



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nos,' and ' Still Waters run deep/ Among 
Ids original characters at the Criterion -were 
Talbot in Mr. Gilbert's < FoggertVs Fairy / 
15 Dee. 1881; Brummies in H. ,'. Byron's 
* Fourteen Days/ 4 March 1882 j Ferdinand 
PettigrewinAlberyV Featherbrain, 3 23 June 
1884; Barnabas Goodeve in the * Candidate/ 
29 NOT. ; General Bletchingley in Mr. Bur- 
nand's * Headless Man/ 27"July 1890. At 
Daly's theatre he was, 2 Feb. 1895, Smoggins 
in f An Artist's Model; ' Duckworth Crabbe 
in the 'Chili "Widow/ Mr. Arthur Bour- 
chier's adaptation of M. le Directeur/ 7 Se-3t. ; 
and Commodore Van Giitt in the ' NewBa 3y/ 
28 April 1896. His last appearance in Lon- 
don was at the Criterion as Thomas Tyndal 
in Four Little Girls/ by Mr. Walter Stokes 
Craven, produced 17 July 1897. Besides 
being what is known as a 'mugger/ or maker 
of comic faces, Blakeley was a genuine come- 
dian, and was accepted as Hardcastle in 
' She Stoops to Conquer.' In showing self- 
importance, in airs of assumed dignity, and 
in the revelation of scandalised propriety, he 
stood alone. He died at Criterion House, 
Clovelly Terrace, Walham, London, on 
8 Dec. 1897, and was buried in Fulham 
cemetery. 

[Personal knowledge ; Era newspaper, 1 1 Dec. 
1897 ; Scott and Howard's Blancharc; The Dra- 
matic Peerage.] J. JL 

BLAKISTON, THOMAS WRIGHT 

(1832-1891), explorer and ornithologist, was 
born at Lymington in Hampshire on 27 Dec. 
1832. 

His father, JOHN BIAZISTQIT (1785-1867), 
major, was the second son of Sir Matthew 
Blakiston, second baronet, by his wife Anne, 
daughter of John Rochfort. He served in 
the Madras engineers and in the 27th re-i- 
ment (Enniskillens), was present at tae 
battle of Assaye, and engagec at the capture 
of Bourbon, Mauritius, and Java, and during 
the Peninsular war from Yittoria to Tou- 
louse. He published ' Twelve Years of Mili- 
tary Adventures' anonymously in 1829, and 
'Twenty Years in Retirement* with his 
name in 1836. He died on 4 June 1867 at 
Moberley Hall, Cheshire. On 26 Sept. 1814 
he married Jane, daughter of Thomas "Wright, 
rector of Market HarborougL 

His second son, Thomas, was educated at 
St. Paul's (proprietary) school at Southsea, 
and at the Royal Military Academy at Wool- 
wich, from which he obtained a commission 
in the royal artillery on 16 Dee. 1851. He 
served with his regiment in England, Ire- 
land, and Nova Scotia, and in tie Crimea 
before Selastopol, where his brother Law- 
rence was killed in the battle of the Redan 
oa 8 Sept. 1865. In 1857 BlaJdstou was 



appointed, on the recommendation of Sir Ed- 
ward Sabine [q. v.l, a member of the scientific 
expedition for the exploration of British 
North America between Canada and the 
Rocky Mountains, under the command of 
John Palliser [q. v.] He was chiefly em- 
ployed in taking observations on the mag- 
netic conditions, temperature, &c. ; but in 
1858 he crossed the Kutanie and Boundary 
passes independently, and published at Wool- 
wich in 1859 a ' Report of the Exploration 
of Two Passes through the Rocky Moun- 
tains.' During the Chinese war of 1859 Bla- 
kiston was left in command of a detachment 
of artillery at Canton, and there he organised 
his famous exploration of the middle and 
upper course of the Yang-tsze-Kiang, the 
idea being to ascend the river as far as the 
Min, and then cross the province of Sze- 
chuen, and reach north-western India via 
Tibet and Lhassa. The party consisted of 
Blakiston, Lieutenant-colonel H. A. Sarel, 
and Dr. Alfred Barton, who still survives, 
and with the Rev. S. Schereschewsky as in- 
terpreter, four Sikhs, and three Chinese, set 
out from Shanghai on 12 Feb. 1861, con- 
voyed by Vice-admiral Sir James Hope's 
squadron, which left them at Yo-chau on 
16 March. They reached Pingshan on 25 May, 
having travelled eighteen hundred miles from 
Shanghai, nine hundred miles further than 
any other Europeans, except the Jesuits in 
native costume. The country there being- 
much disturbed by rebels, they were obliged 
to retrace their route on 30 May, reaching 
Shanghai on 9 July. Blakiston produced a 
surprisingly accurate chart of the river from 
Hankow to Pingahan, published in 1861, for 
which he received in 1862 the royal (patron's) 
medal of the Royal Geo-raphical Society. 
Partial narratives were published in the So- 
ciety's Journal, vol. xxxii., by Sarel and Bar- 
ton, while Blakiston prepared in October 
1862 a longer account of their ' Pive Months 
on the Yang-tsze/ with illustrations by Bar- 
ton and scientific appendices. This is still 
treated as a text-book for the country (cf. 
A. J. LITTLE, Through the Yang-tse Gorges, 
1888). 

^ Before returning to England Blakiston 
visited Yezo, the northern island of Jaoan. 
Having resigned his commission in 1362, 
he entered into an arrangement with a sub- 
stantial firm, and returned to Yezo in 1863, 
via Russia, Siberia, and the Amur river. 
He settled at the treaty -port of Hakodate, 
and founded sawmills for the export of 
timber to China. This business had to be 
abandoned owing to the obstructions of the 
Japanese government; but he remained in 
Hakodate as a merchant, executed surveys 



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intended to prepare the public mind for this pallv the former ; and other miscellaneous 
fiteT)i -works. His dramatic efforts included plays 

Blakman is stated in the title of the for the eastern or minor theatres, -written 
printed copy of his book to have been a often for 10*. an act, To west-end playgoers 
'bachelor of divinity andafterwards a monk he is principally known as having for thirty- 
of the Charterhouse of London.' The cor- seven years supplied the Drury Lane panto- 
rectness of the latter part of this statement mime. These works were not devoid of pretti- 

ness and fancy, in which respects they have 
not since been equalled. Alone or with 
various collaborators he also wrote panto- 
mimes for other London and country theatres, 
amounting, it is said, to one hundred in all. 



is rendered probable by the existence of a 
copy of Higden's 'Polychronicon 7 in the 
Ashburnham collection inscribed at the foot 
of the first page, * Liber domus beate Marie 
de Witham ordinis Carthusiensis ex dono 

m.JohannisBlakman.' The volume is bound His plays have never been collected, very 
in crimson morocco with the royal arms, few of them having been printed. Elan- 
each book having an illuminated initial with chard contributed to most of the comic rivals 
the arms of Eton College and a marginal to 'Punch' and to various literary ventures, 
ornament in gold and colours. Nothing is and was associated with many well-known 
known as to the date of Blakman's death, men of letters, from Leigh Hunt to Edmund 
An inscription in the west wall of the Grey Yates ; was theatrical critic of many capers, 
Friars Church, London, ' fr. Johannes including the ' Sunday Times/ the ' "V Weekly 
Blackeman ob. 31 Jul: 1511 ' must, as the Dispatch,' the ' Illustrated Times,' the ' Lon- 
dates show, refer to another person. A don Figaro,' the ' Observer,' and ultimately 
third contemporary of the same name was a f-Tio'Tioil-o-Taloorra-nli ' r TnfliiryAaftivTniml'wvft 
benefactor of St. John's Hospital, Coventry. 
[Oxford City Documents, ed. J. E. T. Rogers, 
1891, p. 314; Epiatol* Academicse, ed. H. An- 
etey, 1898, i. 175 ; Hearne's Duo Eernm AngH- 
carum Seriptores, 1732, i. 285-307 ; Harwood's 
Alumni Etonenses, 1797 ; Lyte's Hist, of 
.Eton College, 1877 ; Harl. Soc. T. 193 ; Collect. 
Topogr. ii. 156, v. 398 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th 
Rep. App. 1881, 105 a \ Brodrick's Memorials of 
Merton College, 1885, p. 233.] I. S. L. 

BLANCHARD, EDWARD LITT 
LAMAN (1820-1S89), miscellaneous writer, 
the son 



the ' Daily Telegraph.' To successive numbers 
of the ' Era Almanack ' he contributed * The 
Playgoer's Portfolio/ and he wrote frequently 
in the ' Era.' A mere list of his productions, 
theatrical and other, would occupy columns. 
He ke^t a diary, edited in 1891, after his 
death, 3y Messrs. Clement Scott and Cecil 
Howard, which is a memorial of arduous 
and incessant struggle and, until near the 
end, of miserable pay. It furnishes a delight- 
ful picture of one of the kindest, most genial, 
and lovable of Bohemians a man with some 
of the charm of a Charles Lamb. After a 



of William Blanchard [<j. v.], co- long and distressing illness he died of creep- 
median, was born at No. 28 (originally 31) ing paralysis (4 Sept. 1889) at Albert Man- 
Great Queen Street, London, was educated sions, "Victoria Street, and was buried on the 
at Brixton, Ealing, and Lichfield, accom- 10th in the Kensington cemetery at Han well. 

_~_?/vJ 1*1 JPr.4.1**.** 4.* XT \7. 1- i~ TOO! *.J T i T j 1 i _ _ .T 'J.'_ 



panied his father to New York in 1831, and 
was in 1836 sub-editor of Pinnock's i Guide 
to Knowledge/ In 1839 he wrote for ama- 
teurs his first pantomime, in which he played 
harlequin. Under the pseudonym of ' JFran- 
cisco Frost,' and subsequently under his 
own name, he wrote countless dramas, farces, 
and burlesques. In 1841 he edited Cham- 
bers's 'London Journal,' and subsequently 
founded and edited 'The Astrologer and 
Oracle of Destiny ' (1845, 29 Nos.), and alsc 
edited the 'New London Magazine' (1845. 

He is responsi 

Thomas Dugdale's * England and Wales De- 



Blanchard was twice married, his second wife, 
to whom a complimentary performance was 
given at Drury Lane, surviving him. In his 
* Life ' by Scott and Howard his third name is 

E'ven as Leman; on his tombstone it is 
iman. 

[Personal knowledge; Yates's Becollections 
and Experiences, p. 210 ; Scott and Howard's 
Life, 1891 (with portrait) ; Era, 7 and 14 Sept. 
1889; Men of "the Time, 12thed.; Athenaeum, 

J. K 



Oracle of Destiny ' (1845, 29 Nos.), and also 7 Sept. 1889 1 
edited the 'New London Magazine' (1845, 

2 Nos.) He is responsible for editions of BLAND, NATHANIEL (1803-1865), 

Thomas Dugdale's * England and Wales De- Persian scholar, born 3 Feb. 1803, was the 

Uneated'(2vols t 1854,1860),andWillough- only son of Nathaniel JBland of Randalls 

by s* Shakespeare;* was author of 'Temple Park, Leatherhead. His father's name was 

Bar * and 'Brave without a Destiny,' novels ; originally Crumpe, but after leaving Ireland 

wrote many illustrated guides to London and and purchasing Randalls Park he took, in 

other places, including BradshaVs * Descrip- 1812, the surname of his mother, Dorothea, 

tive Railway Guides ; ' furnished entertain- dau ;hter of Dr. Bland of Derriquin Castle, 

ments for W. S. "Wbodin and Miss Emma co. Xerry, an eminent civilian. 

Stanley; songs comic and sentimental, princi- Bland entered Eton in 1818, matriculated 



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Blew 



pal ajent of the Brandling family _ who 
owned the extensive Middleton collieries in 
that district. On 10 April 1811 he obtained 
a patent (No. 3431) for a new species of loco- 
motive, developing some of theideas embodied 
in the locomotive constructed by Richard 
Trevithick [q. v.] in 1803, but combining 
with them a new plan to overcome the pre- 
sumed difficulty of securing adhesion between 
the engine wheels and the rails. This was 
effected by means of a racked or toothed 
rail, laid alon-; one side of the road, into 
which the tootaed wheel of the locomotive 
worked as pinions work into a rack. The 
boiler of Blenkinsop's locomotive was of 
cast iron, of the plain cylindrical kind with 
one flue the fire being at one end and the 
chimney at the other. It was supported 
upon a carriage resting without springs, 
directly upon two pairs of wheels and axles, 
which were unconnected with the working 
parts, and served merely to support the 
weight of the engine upon the rails, the pro- 
gress being effected wholly by the cog-wj.ee! 
working into the toothed rack. The engine 
had two cylinders instead of one as in 
Trevithick's engine. The invention of the 
double cylinder was due to Matthew Murray, 
of the firm of Teuton, Murray, & Wood, 
one of the best mechanical engineers of 
his time ; Blenkinsop, who was not him- 
self a mechanic, having consulted him as to 
all the practical details. The connecting 
rods gave the motion to two pinions by 
cranks at right angles to each other ; these 
pinions communicating the motion to the 
wheel -which worked into the cogged rail. 

The first experiment with Blenkinsop's 
engine was mace on "Wednesday, 24 June 
18..2. Upon that day ' at 4 o'clock in the 
afternoon the machine ran from the coal 
staith to the top of Hunslet moor, where six 
and afterwards eight waggons of coal, each 
weighing 3- tons, were looked to the back 
part. Witi this immense weight, to which, 
as it approached the town, was superadded 
about fifty of the spectators mounted upon 
the waggons, it set off on its return journey 
to the coal staith and performed the 'ourney, 
a distance of about a mile and a haf, in 23 
minutes, without the slightest accident' 
(Leeds Mercury, 27 June 1812). The 
machine was stated to be capable, when 
lightly loaded, of moving at a speed of ten 
miles an hour. A drawing and description 
of it with the official specification were given 
in the 'Leeds Mercury' of 18 July 1812. 

Blenkinsop's engine has an undoubted 
claim to be considered the first commercially 
successful engine employed u~)on any rail- 
way. The locomotives mace upon the 



Blenkinsop pattern began working regularly 
in August '-812, hauling 30 coal wagons a 
distance of 3J miles witnin the hour. They 
continued for many years to be thus em- 
ployed and formed one of the chief curiosi- 
ties of Leeds, being greatly admired by the 
Grand Duke (afterwards the czar) Nicholas 
in 1816. George Stephenson saw one of the 
'Leeds engines ' at Coxlodge on 2 Sept, 1813, 
and his first locomotive constructed at 
Killingworth was built to a large extent 
after the Blenkinsop pattern ; but he soon 
saw his way to get rid of the cog-wheels, 
and it was his second locomotive of 1815 
which ranks as the direct ancestor of the 
present machine (cf. KODBBT. STEPHEN-SON'S 
Narrative of My Father's Inventions). 

Blenkinsop died at Leeds on 22 Jan. 1831, 
'after a tedious illness, aged forty-eight/ 
A beautiful model of his engine of 1812 was 
exhibited at a conversazione of the Leeds 
Philosophical Society in December 1803, 
and a photograph of this model with ex- 
planatory notes has since been placed in the 
Leeds Philosophical Hall. 

[Leeds Mercury, 29 Jan. 1831 ; Taylor's Bio- 
graphic Leodiensis, 1865, 327 ; Smiles's Lives of 
the Engineers, 1862, iii. 87, 97; Woodcrofl's 
Index of Patentees, 1617-1852 ; Trevithick's 
Life of Bichard Trevithick, 1872, 208 ; Stuait's 
Descriptive History and Anecdotes of the Steam 
Engine.] T. S. 

BLEW, WILLIAM JOHN (1808-1894), 
liturgiologist, only son of William Blew of 
St. James's, Westminster, was born in that 
parish on 13 April 1808, and educated with 
John Henry (ar'terwards Cardinal) Newman 
[q. v.~ at St. Nicholas's school, Ealing, and 
at Oxford, where he matriculated from Wad- 
ham College in October 1825. He was 
elected Goodridge exhibitioner of Wadham 
in 1826, graduated B A. on 13 May 1830, 
and M.A. on 13 June 1832. He was curate 
of^Nuthurst, Sussex, from 1832 to 1840, 
bein" ordained deacon in 1832 and priest by 
the sishop of Chichester in 1834. From 
1840 to 1842 he was curate of St. Anne's, 
Soho, and in 1842 became incumbent of St. 
John's, Milton-next- Gravesend, where he 
was free to give a high church tone to the 
services. In 1850, owin; to a difference 
with his bishop, he retired :rom active clerical 
work and devoted himself mainly to litur- 
gical and theological studies. He had mar- 
ried after his father's death in 1845, and re- 
sided at his father's house, 6 Warwick 
Street, Pall Mall East, where he died, aged 
86, on 28 Dec. 1894. 

Blew was a scholar of some repute. He 
published translations of the ' Iliad ' in 1831, 
^Eschylus's ' Agamemnon' in 1856, and 



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Blochmann 



Piussel Wallace (1899) and the publication of the history of ten ant-right and Agricultural 
of ' The Poetical Works of Mathilde Blind ' Holdings Acts. ' If a tenant be at never so 



(a selection edited by Arthur Symons, with 
a memoir by Dr. Garnett, 1900, 8vo). 

There was more character in Mathilde 
Blind than she could quite bring out in her 
poetry, though no effort was wanting. The 
consciousness of effort, indeed, is a draw- 
back to the enjoyment of her Terse. Some- 
times, however, especially in songs, sonnets, 
and the lyrics witi which she was inspired 
by sympathy with the destitute and outcast 
classes, she achieves a perfect result; and 
the local colouring of her Scottish and many 
of her oriental poems is fine and true. Some 
of her sonnets are exceedingly impressive ; 
she nevertheless did her powers most real 
justice when her singing robes were laid 
aside, and her reputation would be enhanced 
by a judicious selection from her correspon- 
dence. 

[Memoir prefixed to IMathilde Blind's collected 
poems, 1900; Miles's Poets and Poetry of the 
Century; personal knowledge.] R. G-. 

BLITH, WALTER (JL 1649), agricul- 
tural writer, issued in 1649 a work en- 
titled 'The English Improver, or a new 
Survey of Husbandry. . . . Held forth 
under Six Peeces of Improvement. By 
Walter Blith, a Lover of Ingenuity,' Lon- 
don, 1649. This edition has two dedica- 
tions : one * To thole of the High and Ho- 
nourable Houses of Parliament ; ' and another 

* To the Ingenuous Reader.' Of this book 
Thorold Rogers says in his ' Six Centuries 
of Work and Wages' (p. 458) : ' The parti- 
culars are those commonplaces of agriculture 
which are found in all treatises of the time/ 
In 1652 it was re-issued in a revised form 
as ' The English Improver Improved, or the 
Survey of Husbandry Surveyed/ with ' a 
second part containing six newer peeces of 
improvement/ and with an engraved title- 
page headed < Vive la Eepublick/ which con- 
tained representations of horse- and foot- 
soldiers, and of agricultural operations. The 
edition of 1652 contains seven dedications 
or preliminary epistles : to 'The Eight Ho- 
nourable the Lord Generall Cromwell, and 
the Council of State ; ' to The Nobility and 
Gentry; ' to ' The Industrious Eeader; ' to 

* The Houses of Court and Universities ; ' 
to *The Honourable the Souldiery of these 
Nations of England, Scotland, and Ireland ; ' 
to * The Husbandman, Farmer, or Tenant ; ' 
to *The Cottager, Labourer, or meanest Com- 
moner.' 

In the first dedication Blith refers to 
eight/prejudices to improvements/ the first 
of which is interesting from the. joint of view 



paines or cost for the Improvement of 
!ais Land, he doth thereby but occasion a 
greater Rack upon himself, or else invests his 
Land-Lord into his cost and labour gratis, or 
at best lyes at his Land-Lord's mercy for re- 
quitall, which occasions a neglect of all 
ood Husbandry, to his owne, the land, the 
Land-Lord, and the Common wealth's suffer- 
ing. Now this I humbly conceive may be 
removed, if there were a Law Inacted by 
which every Land-Lord should be oblige'd 
either to give him reasonable allowance for 
his cleaie Improvement, or else suffer him or 
his to enjoy it so much longer as till he hath 
had a Proportionable requitall.' In the 
fifth decication Blith signs himself * Your 
quondam brother, fellow-souldier, and very 
servant, Walter Blith/ and some commen- 
datory verses prefixed to the book, signed 
'T. C./ are addressed ' To Captain W. 
Blith upon his Improvement.' lie would 
therefore seem to have been a captain in 
the parliamentary army. There was a ' Cap- 
tain Blith 1 of the king's ship Vanguard 
in 1642. 

[Blith's English Improver, 1649, 1652.] 

E. C.-E. 

BLOCHMANN, HENRY FERDI- 
NAND (1838-1878), orientalist, born at 
Dresden on 8 Jan. 1838, was the son of 
Ernest Ehrenfried Blochmann, printer, and 
nephew of Karl Justus Blochmann, a dis- 
tinguished pupil of Pestalozzi. He was 
educated at the Kreuzschule in Dresden and 
the university of Leipzig (1855), where he 
studied oriental languages under Fleischer, 
and afterwards (1857) under Haase at Paris. 
In the following year he came to England, 
eager to visit India and to study the eastern 
languages in situ*, and as the only means 
open to him of getting there he enlisted in 
the British army in 1858, and went out to 
India as a private soldier, after the example 
of Anquetil du Perron. His linguistic and 
other abilities had, however, become known 
on the voyage to India, and soon after his 
arrival in Calcutta he was set to do office- 
work in Fort William, and gave lessons in. 
Persian. In the course of about a year he 
obtained^his discharge, and for a time entered 
the service of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Company as an interpreter. He was be- 
friended by the Arabic scholar, Captain 
(afterwards Major-general) William Nassau 
Lees ,[q.v.], the principal of the Madrasa and 
secretary to the board of examiners, who 
had assisted in obtaining his discharge, and 
through whom he obtained, at the age of 
twenty-two, his first .government appoint- 



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Blomefield 



in high estimation as a work of reference, tion fo 

and specially praised, as re-ards the ornitho- copied out while a boy at Eton, and knew 
logical details, by Charles Lucien Bonaparte, almost by heart. He edited the t Natural 
Before he had completed it, at the earnest History of Selborae ' in 1843, and one of his 
request of Charles Darwin, he undertook to latest interests was the welfare of the Sel- 
edit the mono^ra^h on the ' Fishes ' for the borne Society, before which on 14 May 1891 
1 Zoology of tSe 7oyage of H.M.S. Beagle/ he read a delightful paper on < The Records 
published in 1840. The post of naturalist of a Eookery.' 

to the Beadehad first been offered to Hens- In 1871, throu}!! his connection with the 
low and then to Jenyns, but he hesitated to Chappelow fami.y, the descendants of Ed- 
leave his parochial work, and joined Hens- ward Chappelow of Diss, whose sister mar- 
low in recommending Darwin ibr the place, ried Francis Blomefield, the historian of 
Upon the same grounds a few years later he Norfolk, a considerable property devolved 
refused to stand for the chair of zoology at upon him, and he adopted the name of 
Cambridge. In October 1849 the state of Blomefield. Extremely methodical and regu- 
his wife's health compelled his removal to lar in all his habits, he retained his mental 
Ventnor, and his resignation of the vicarage vigour almost to the last, and died of old 
at Swaffham Bulbeck, where his narisMoners age at 19 Belmont, Bath, on 1 Sept. 1893, 
subscribed to a handsome testimonial for aged ninety-three. He was buried in Lans- 
him. In the autumn of 1850 he settled at down cemetery, Bath, on 5 Sept. He mar- 
South Stoke, near Combe Down, Bath, but ried, first, in 1844, Jane, eldest daughter 
two years later moved to Swainswick, and of the Rev. Andrew Edward Daubeny (1784- 
while there during eight years served the 187 7), a brother of Professor Charles Daubeny 
curacy of Woolley, and for a year or two of of Oxford. His first wife died in 1SGO, and 
Langiidge as well. In 1860, upon the death he married, secondly, in 1862, Sarah, eldest 
of his first wife, he settled finally in Bath, daughter of the Rev. Robert Hawthorn of 
"With that city his name will be associated Stapleford. 

as the founder (18 Feb. 1855) and first presi- Blomefield's attractive personality is re- 
dent of the Bath Natural History and Anti- vealed in his < Chapters in my Life ' (pri- 
quarian Field Club, and the donor of the vately printed at Bath in 1889), a short 
* Jenyns Library,' a munificent gift, now autobiography written with the greatest sim- 
housed in the Royal Literary and Scientific plicity and directness. It contains interest- 
Institution. This contains over two thou- ing vignettes of Charles Darwin, Buckland, 
sand volumes, mostly works on natural his- Heberden, Wollaston, "Whewell, Daniel 
tory, and his choice herbarium of British Clarke, and Leonard Chappelow, and nothing 
plants, consisting of more than forty folio that he relates is second-hand, 
and an equal number of quarto volumes, the In addition to the works mentioned above, 
result of his life-work in this branch of Jenyns published, in 1846, a kind of supple- 
science. He had originally extended his ment to White's ' Natural History/ under 
studies from zoology to botany under the in- the title ' Observations in Natural History : 
fluence of Henslow, and upon his friend's with an Introduction on Habits of Observ- 
death he wrote a masterly memoir of him, ing, as connected with the study of that 
published in 1862. The * Proceedings ' of Science. Also a Calendar of Periodic Phe- 
the Bath Field Club abound with -papers and nomena in Natural History.' The material 
addresses from his pen. Not the least valu- for this was collected mainly while he was 
able are those on the climate and meteo- editing White's book, which he was scrupu- 
rology of Bath. It was entirely at his in- lously careful not to overload with notes. In 
stance that the small observatory was erected 1858 appeared his * Observations on Meteo- 
in the Institution gardens in 1865. rology,' dated Upper Swainswick, near Bath, 

During the close of his career he was held 18 j"eb. At Bath, in 1885, he jjrinted for 
in honour as the oatriarch of natural history private circulation some highly interesting 
studies in Great Britain. He was elected a ' Reminiscences ' of William Yarrell and o_* 
member of the Linnean Society in Novem- Prideaux John Selby. A large number (55) 
ber 1822, and in the same year was elected of scientific memoirs, contributed to the 
into the Cambridje Philosophical Society. 'Transactions' of learned bodies, are enume- 
He was an original member of the Zoologi- rated at the end of his ' Chapters in my Life/ 
S& ft 826 }' Entomological (1884), and Ray r Times , n Sept . 1893 . Bat]l Chronicle, 
(1844) societies, while he joined the British 7 kSep t. 1893 ; Chapters in my Life, 1889 ; Works 
Association shortly after its institution, and i n British Museum Library ; Illustrated London 
was present at the second meeting held at News, 9 and 16 Sept. 1893 (with portrait); 
Oxford inl832. He had the greatest venera- Guardian, 14 Sept. 1893.] T. & 



Blomfield 



223 



Blomfield 



BLOMFIELD, Sin ARTHUR WIL- 
LIAM (1829-1899), architect, fourth son of 
Charles James Blomfield [q. v.~, bishop of 
London, by his wife Dorothy, caughter of 
Charles Cox, was born at Fulham Palace on 
6 March 1829. He was brother of Admiral 
Henry John Blomfield and of Alfred Blom- 
field, bishop-suffragan of Colchester. He 
was educated at Rugby and at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 
and M.A. in 1851 and 1853 respectively. 
On leaving college he was articled for three 
years to Philip Charles Hardwick (1822- 
1892), son of Philb Hardwick [q. v.], 
then architect of the Bank of England, and 
hefollowed up this training in 1855 by a conti- 
nental tour in company with Frederick Pepys 
Cockerell ~q. v.] Though his architectural 
schooling Sad not been under Gothic influ- 
ences, Blomfield showed, when in 1856 he 
opened his first office in Adelphi Terrace, 
that Gothic was to be the style of his choice. 
His family connection with the clergy soon 
assured him occupation in various church 
works. He joined the Architectural Asso- 
ciation (established about 1846 for junior 
architects), of which he became president 
in 1861, and subsequently the Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects, of which he was 
elected fellow in 1867. Later (in 1886) 
he became vice-president of the institute, but 
declined nomination to the presidentship. 

Blomfield's works, though mainly eccle- 
siastical, were not exclusively so, nor wholly 
Gothic. In 1883 he succeeded to his old 
master's post of architect to the Bank of 
England, for which he built the law courts 
branch, his most important classic building. 
On the death of George Edmund Street 
[q. v.] in 1881, Blomfield was associated 
with Street's son, Arthur Edmund, in super- 
intending the erection of the law courts. 
He was also a trustee of Sir John Soane's 
museum. The works with which Blomfield 
felt the most satisfaction, probably as being 
least hampered therein by questions of money, 
were the private chapel at Tyntesfield (the 
residence of the late William Gibbs), Privett 
church, Hampshire (designed for William 
Nicholson), and St. Mary's, Portsea (begun 
1884), which was due to the_ liberality of 
William Henry Smith [q. v.[ His most 
important productions other tjian churches 
were Denton Manor, near Grantham, Lin- 
colnshire, for the late Sir William Welby 
Gregory, bart. ; the Whitgift Hospital Schools 
at Croydon ; the King's Schools at Chester ; 
the Bancroft School at Woodford for the 
Drapers' Company ;' the Sion College Library 
on the Thames Embankment; and the 
Queen's School at Eton College, attached to 



which is the ' Lower ' school chapel. One of 
Blom field's principal works for the church 
was the complete scheme for the Church 
House in Dean's Yard, Westminster, which, 
though the great hall block was opened for 
use in 1896, is at present only partially 
completed. Blomfield designed more than 
one church for the colonies or for Englisli 
congregations abroad, such as the cathedral 
of St. George, George Town, Demerara, built 
largely of timber on a concrete raft, owing 
to insecure foundations ; a church for the 
Falkland Isles, for which most of the materials 
were exported from England ; the church of 
St. George at Cannes, consecrated 1887, and 
built as a memorial to the Duke of Albany ; 
the little English chapel at St. Moritz ; and 
(in 18S7) the important church of St. Albau 
at Copenhagen, in connection with which 
he was elected an honorary member of the 
Danish Academy and received the order of the 
Danebrog (3rd class) from the king of Den- 
mark. _n 1888 he was elected an associate 
of the Koyal Academy; in 1889 he was 
knighted, and in 1891 was awarded the gold 
medal of the Eoyal Institute of British 
Architects for his distinguished works. 

Blomfield admitted the possibility of indi- 
viduality in ecclesiastical art, and even held 
that * where convenience is at stake we ought 
not to be too much confined by the precedent 
of mediaeval architecture.' In the matter 
of materials he felt that architects ought not 
to allow blind adherence to tradition to de- 
prive them of the benefits of modern discovery. 
He instanced the advisability of sometimes 
making use of iron columns in the nave of a 
church, and he even carried this particular 
suggestion into practice in the small church 
of tit, Mark, Marylebone Road. In spite of 
these unconservative views he was rightly 
regarded as a conscientious restorer, and had 
four cathedrals under his care at various 
times Salisbury (for repair of tower), Can- 
terbury, Lincoln, and Chichester, in the case 
of the two latter succeeding to John Lough- 
borough Pearson [q. v., Suppl.], with whom 
he was in 1896 consulted as to the restora- 
tions at Peterborough. He was also diocesan 
architect to Winchester, and built the cathe- 
dral library at Hereford. The work of 
restoration by which he will be best known 
is his complete and skilful rebuilding of the 
nave and south transept of St. Mary Oyerie 
(St. Saviour's, Southwark). These operations, 
costing 60,000, were in progress from July 
1890 to February 1897. The south porch is 
entirely Blomfield's creation, and the nave, 
which is of fine ' early English ' work, may 
perhaps be looked upon as rather a revival 
than a restoration j it replaced a structure of 



Blomfield 



224 



Bloxam 



comparatively modern date, remarkable only his working drawings with his own hands, 

for the complete absence of beauty, dignity, and even wrote the whole of his own corre- 

or practical convenience, and for a total dis- spondence in a handwriting which to the 

regard of the many evidences, still extant, last retained exceptional beauty. He died 

of & the character and detail of the original suddenly on 30 Oct. 1899, and was buried at 



building (see F. T. DOLLMAJ*, The Priory of Broadway, Worcestershire, where he had his 

St. Mary Overie, Southwark, London, 1881, ----- l ~ f - : ~ - ^ ----- 

4to). 



Blomfield worked for many years at an 
office in Henrietta Street, at the corner of 
Cavendish Square, but latterly his residence 



country home. There is in the possession 
of the family an oil portrait by Mr. Charles 

Blomfield excelled in the charitable but W. Furse, exhibited in the Royal Academy 

unremunerative art of keeping down the exhibition in 1890. 

cost, and among his triumphs in this direc- He was twice married : first, in I860, to 

tion is the church of St. Barnabas, Oxford, Caroline, daughter of Charles Case Smith, 

in which, abandoning his usual and favourite who died in 1882, and was the mother of 

' perpendicular ' English Gothic, he adopted the two sons mentioned below ; and secondly 

an Italian manner, making use of the basilica to Sara Louisa, daughter of Matthew Ryan, 

tvpe of plan and adding a campanile. The who survives, 
caurch, though erected at a small cost, is 
singularly efiective. 

He carried out several works in connec- 
tion with schools and colleges besides the and office were at 28 Montagu Square and 
examples already mentioned, such as the 6 Montagu Place. In 1890 he took into 
chapels at Selwyn College, Cambridge, and partnership his two sons, Charles J. Blom- 
at Malvern College ; additions to the library ield and Arthur C. Blomfield, who were 
and master's house at Trinity College, Cam- associated with him in the design of the 
bridge; the junior school at St. Edmund's, Magdalen College choir schools and other 
Canterbury ; a chapel for a school at Cavers- buLdings. They continued several of their 
ham, Reading ; school buildings at Shrews- father's works after his death, including the 
bury; and the ' great school,' museum, and development of the Church House scheme 
other buildings at Charterhouse, Godalming, and the additions to the parish church at 
Among his London works not already noted Leamington, and succeeded him in his appoint- 
were the Royal College of Music ; the im- ments at the Bank of England, St. Cross 
-Dortant church of St. John, Wilton Road; Hospital, Winchester, and St. Mary Redclifie, 
"St. Barnabas, Bell Street, Edgware Road ; Bristol. 



St. Saviour's, a striking brick building in 
Oxford Street; St. James's Church, West 
Hampstead ; and the rearrangement of the 
interior of St. Peter's, Eaton Square. Men- 
tion may also be made of the churches of 
Leytonstone, Barking, Ipswich, and Chig- 
well, the West Sussex Asylum, and various 
important works for the Prince of Wales 
at and near Sandringham; in the diocese 
of Chichester alone, besides restoring or 
repairing twelve old churches, Blomfield 
built no less than nine new ones, of which 
the most important are All Saints and Christ 
Church at Hastings, St. John at St. Leonards, 
St. Luke at Brighton, St. Andrew at Worth- 
ing, and St. John at Bognor. 



[Builders' Journal, 1899, p. 207 ; Architect, 
1899, p. 276, with good photographic portrait ; 
Times, 1 Nov. 1899; R.I.B.A. Journal, 1899, 
vol. vii. No. 2, p. 36 ; Chichester Diocesan Ga- 
zette, December 1899, No. 72 ; information from 
Mr. Arthur Conran Blomfield ; personal know- 
ledge.] P. W. 

BLOXAM, JOHN BOUSE (1807-1891), 
historian of Magdalen College, Oxford, bora 
at Rugby on 26 April 1807, was the sixth 
son of Richard Rouse Bloxam, D.D, (d. 
28 March 1840), under-master of Rugby 
school for thirty-eight years, and rector of 
Brinklow and vicar of Bulkington, both in 
Warwickshire, who married Ann, sister of 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A. All the six 



Blomfield, who was a rowing man when sons were foundationers at Rugby school, 



and all attended, as chief mourners, the 
funeral of Lawrence in St. Paul's Cathedral 
(D. E. WILLIAMS, Sir T. Lawrence, ii. 524- 
568). 
Bloxam was sent in 1814 to Rugby school, 



young, and had occupied the bow seat in his 
college eight, when head of the river, was 
fond in middle life of taking recreation in 
acting, in which his fine voice, expressive 

clean-shaved face, and real dramatic talent 

made him unusually successful. In his pro- where he was a school-fellow of Romidell 
fessional work he was unfailingly industrious Palmer, lord Selborne (SBLBOENB, Mem orials, 
and an excellent draughtsman. In spite of I. i. 74-5,311-15), and obtained an exhibition 
the fact that his large practice necessitated for the university in 1826. He matriculated 
the employment of a good staff of assistants from Worcester College, Oxford, on 20 May 
and pupils, he drew a large proportion of 1826, and was bible clerk there from that year 



Bloxam 



225 



Bloxam 



to 1S30. From 1830 to 1835 he held a demy- 
ship at Magdalen College, and graduated 
B.A. from that college on 9 Feb. 1835, 
having been in the fourth (honorary) class 
in classics in 1831. He was ordained by 
the bishop of Oxford deacon in 1832 and 
priest in 1833, and took the further degrees of 
M.A. in 1835, B.D. in 1843, and D.D, in 1847. 

In July 1832 Bloxam became chaplain 
and classical master in the private school at 
"\Vyke House, near Brentford, of which Dr. 
Alexander jamieson was principal, and 
from 1-833 to 1836 he was second master at 
Bromsgrove school. He was elected pro- 
bationer fellow of Magdalen College in 1835, 
and came into residence in 1836. He served 
as pro-proctor of the university in 1841, and 
he held at his college the posts of junior 
dean of arts (1838 and 1840), bursar (1841, 
1844, 1850, 1854, and 1859), vice-president 
(1847), dean of divinity (1849), and libra- 
rian (1851 to 1862). From 1837 to February 
1840 Bloxam was curate to John Henry 
Newman at Littlemore. He was in full sym- 
pathy with the tract arians. A carriage acci- 
dent in a Leicestershire lane introduced him 
to Ambrose Phillips de Lisle. They corre- 
sponded in 1841 and 1842 on a possible re- 
union of the Anglican and Roman churches 
(PTTBCELL, Life of De Lisle, i. 178-298, ii. 
9-10, 225-7). In 1842 he proposed going 
to Belgium to 'superintend the reprinting of 
the Sarum breviary ' (ib. i. 234-5). He was 
well acquainted with William George Ward 
[q. v.] (\VILPEID WARD, W. G. Ward and 
the Oxford Movement, 2nd ed. pp. 111. 
153-5, 190-201, 305, 338). He continued 
to live at Oxford until 1S62, where he was 
conspicuous as * a striking figure, spare and 
erect, with reverent dignity/ 

Bloxam was appointed by his college to 
the vicarage of Up-oer Seeding, near Steyn- 
ing in Sussex, in Fe Druary 1862, and vacated 
his fellowship in 1863. Newman paid 
several visits to him in this pleasant retreat, 
and he was probably the last survivor of 
the cardinal's Oxford associates. By Lord 
Blachford he was called 'the grandfather of 
the ritualists.' He died at Beeding Priory, 
Upper Beeding, on 21 Jan. 1891, having en- 
joyed wonderful health almost until the end 
of his days, and was buried in Beeding church- 
yard. A crayon drawing by Laurence of 
Bloxam and his brother Matthew when 
children is in the school museum at Rugby. 
He is a prominent figure in Holman Hunt's 
picture of the ceremony on Magdalen College 
tower on Mayday morning. 

The labours of Bloxam in illustration of 
the history of his college were inspired by 
deep affection, and he worked at his task 

VOL. i. SUP. 



with unflagging zeal. His f Register of the 
Presidents, Fellows, Demies, Instructors in 
Grammar and in Music, Chaplains, Clerks, 
Choristers, and other Members of St. Marv 
Magdalen College, Oxford,' came out ii 
seven volumes, describing the choristers, 
chaplains, clerks, organists, instructors in 
grammar, and demies. Their publication 
'oegan in 1853 and ended in 1831, and an 
index volume was issued by the college in 
1885. His collections 'for the history of 
the fellows, presidents, and non-foundation 
members were left by him to the college, 
together with much of his correspondence/ 
and on them the Rev. W. D. Macray has 
based his t Register of the Members of St. 
Mary Magdalen College, Oxford,' two vo- 
lumes of which have been published. The 
appendix to the third volume of E. M. Mac- 
farlane's catalogue of the college library 
contains a * Catalogus operum scriptomm 
vel editorum' by its chief alumni which 
Bloxam had gathered together. In that 
library is a ' Book of Fragments,' privately 
printed by him in 1842, waich gives a series 
of extracts from various books on eccle- 
siastical rites, customs, &c. It ends abruptly 
at p. 286, having been discontinued on 
account of a similar publication entitled 
1 Hierurgia Anglicana 7 brought out by the 
Cambridge Camden Society. 

Bloxam edited for the Caxton Society in 
1851 the Memorial of Bishop Waynflete, 
by Dr. Peter Heylyn,' and he collected the 
series of documents entitled 'Magdalen Col- 
lege and James II,' which was published by 
the Oxford Historical Society in 1886. He 
assisted Dr. Ilouth in his 1852 edition of 
Burnet's * Reign of James II; ' he possessed 
many relics of Routh, and gave much infor- 
mation on his life to Burgon (Twelve Good 
Men, i. 47). E. S. Byam dedicated to 
Bloxam the memoir of the Byam family 
(1854), and he assisted W. H. Payne Smith 
in editing the volume of M. H. Bloxam's 
collections on i Rugby, the School and Neigh- 
bourhood.' 

He possessed four volumes of ' Opuscula,' 
containing many letters of Newman and 
prints of the chief persons at Oxford, which 
are now among the manuscripts in Magdalen 
College Library. He was also the owner of 
several curiosities belongin * toAddison which 
had been preserved at BLton, near Rugby; 
they are now the property of Mr. T. H. 
"\Yarren, the president of Magdalen College. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Rugby School Re"-, 
i. 120; Magdalen Coll. Reg. vii. 323-4; 
Guardian, 28 Jan. 1891, p, 131, 11 Feb. p. 224; 
Newman's Letters, ii. 298-324; JMacray's Mag* 
dalen Coll. Beg. vol.i. preface,] W. P, 0. 



Bloxam 



226 



Blyth 



BLOXAM, MATTHEW HOLBECHE 
(1805-1888), antiquary and writer on archi- 
tecture, was born on 12 May 1805 at Rugby, 
where his father, the Rev. Richard Rouse 
Bloxam (who married Ann, sister of Sir 
Thomas Lawrence) was an assistant master. 
He was one of ten children, and brother to 
Andrew Bloxam [q_. v.] and Dr. John Rouse 
Bloxam [q. v. Suppl.] In 1813 he entered 
Ru 'by school as a pupil in his father's house, 
anc in 1821 was articled to George Harris, a 
solicitor in Rugby. It was during profes- 
sional visits to the registers of country 
churches that Bloxam made the early obser- 
vations which led to his subsequent know- 
ledge of ecclesiastical architecture ; and while 
still under articles he began collecting the 
notes which, in 1829, he published as the first 
edition of ' The Principles of Gothic Archi- 
tecture elucidated by Question and Answer ' 
(Leicester, 1829, 12mo). For its date this was 
a remarkable book, and it justly entitled its 
young author to rank among the authorities 
of the Gothic revival. It had certainly been 
preceded by the writings of Thomas Rick- 
man [q. v.], a friend of the author, to whose 
kindred work he owed a certain debt, but it 
was several years ahead of the publications 
of Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin "q. v.], 
and twenty years earlier than John Henry 
Parker's [q, v." * Introduction to the Study 
of Gothic Architecture/ which has been its 
principal rival in the hands of students. A 
seconc edition appeared in 1835, after which 
a rapid succession of issues ;ave evidence 
both of the value of the wor.s and of the 
popular interest in the Gothic revival. The 
catechetical form of the first five editions 
was abandoned in the sixth (1844). Fresh 
issues were almost continuous to 1849, and 
when the tenth edition of 1859 was ex- 
hausted no less than seventeen thousand 
copies had been sold in England ; a German 
translation, by E. Henktmann, was also 
Issued at Leipzig in 1845. At the sug- 
gestion of Sir George Gilbert Scott [q. vT], 
Bloxam set himself to prepare an enlarge- 
ment of his work, which, in his anxiety for 
completeness and accuracy, he withheld from 
publication till 1882, when it was issued in 
three volumes, containing additional chap- 
ters on vestments and on church arrange- 
ments, as well as a bibliography of previous 
editions. The illustrations of this ~30ok are 
good specimens of the wood-engraving of 
Thomas Orlando Sheldon Jewitt [q. v.] 
Bloxam's other published volumes were: 
* A Glimpse at the Monumental Architec- 
ture and Sculpture of Great Britain/ Lon- 
don, 1834, 12mo ; and * Some Account of 
the Rectory and Rectors of Rugby/ 1876, 



8vo. ' Fragmenta Sepulcralia/ an unfinished 
work, was privately printed in 1876, as was 
also, in 1888, a full catalogue of all his pub- 
lished works under the title < A Fardel of 
Antiquarian Papers/ Two of his books were 
cited in evidence in the case of Churton v. 
Frewen (Law JRep. Equity Cases, 1866, 
vol. ii.) 

Many of Bloxam's writings are to be found 
in the * Arcliseplogia ' of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, of which he became a fellow in 1863, 
in the 'Archaeological Journal/ the * Archaoo- 
logia Camb rensis/ and in the ' Transactions ' of 
such societies as the Warwickshire Field 
Club. Among them are important papers on 
* Warwickshire during the Civil Wars/ ' Me- 
diaeval Sepulchral Antiquities of Northamp- 
tonshire/ { Effigies and Monuments in Peter- 
borough Cathedral/ and * The Charnel-vault 
of Rothwell, Northamptonshire.' He wrote 
in all no less than 192 of such essays. He 
was one of the honorary vice-presidents of 
the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great 
Britain, and an officer or member of a great 
number of local antiquarian societies. In 
spite of his archaeological work Bloxam did 
not abandon the profession in which he had 
been trained, and did not resign until 1872, 
after forty years' service, his post as clerk to 
the magistrates for the Rugby division. He 
died on 24 April 1888, and was buried in the 
grounds of the Norman chapel of Brownsover. 

To Rugby boys of many generations Bloxam. 
was known as an enthusiastic Rugbeian. He 
compiled various notes on the history of the 
school, subsecuently collected by the Rev. 
W. H. Payne-Smith in a posthumous volume 
(1889, 8vo), entitled Rugby : the School and 
the Neighbourhood/ which also contains a 
brief biography and a portrait 

[Notice by C. E. S. in Academy, 28 April 
1888, vol. xxxiii. ; Annual Register, 1888.] 

P. W. 

BLUNT, ARTHUR CECIL (1844-1896), 
actor, [See CECIL, ARTHUR.] 

BLYTH, SIB ARTHUR (1823-1891), 
premier of South Australia, son of William 
31yth, who emigrated from Birmingham to 
Adelaide, and of Sarah, daughter of the 
Rev. William Wilkins of Bourton-on-the- 
Water, Gloucester, was born at Birmingham 
on 19 March 1823, and educated at King- 
Edward the Sixth's school in that city until 
1839, when he left England with his father to 
settle in South Australia. Here he entered 
into business under his father in Adelaide as 
an ironmonger ; the firm ultimatelv became 
well known under the style of Blyth Brothers, 
His brother Neville was also a member of 
assembly, and held office in South Australia, 



Blyth 



227 



Boase 



Blyth soon commenced to take an inte- 
rest in public life. He became a member of 
the district council of Mitcham, near which 
lie resided, and later chairman of the coun- 
cil ; he was also elected a member of the 
central road board, and became a prominent 
member of the Adelaide chamber of com- 
merce. He joined the first volunteer corps 
raised in South Australia during the Crimean 
war, and became a captain. In 1855 Blyth. 
entered a wider sphere, and became member 
for Yatala district in the old mixed legis- 
lative council, taking a prominent part, in 
the movement which led ur> to the establish- 
ment of an elective counci- ; he was in 1857 
chosen member for Gumeracha ia the first 
elected council. 

On 21 Aug. 1857 Blyth first took office as 
commissioner of works in Baker's ministry; 
but this lasted only till 1 Sept. From 
12 June 1858 till 9 May 1860 he held the 
same office under Reynolds. From 8 Oct. 
1860 to 17 Oct. 1861 he was treasurer 
under Waterhouse, and a^ain, on 19 Feb. 
1862, after a short interval, he came back to 
the same office. This was the ministry which 
carried Sutherland's Act and adopted apolicy 
which was much criticised as to the assign- 
ment of waste lands and immigration. In 
March and April 1863 Blyth represented 
South Australia in the conference on tariffs 
and other matters of interest to all the 
colonies. On 4 July the ministry fell. On 
4 Au T. 1864 he again came into office, taking- 
Lis o.d post as commissioner of lands and. 
immigration. The chief political question at 
this time was that of squatting; in November 
a great attack was mace on the government's 
policy, and on 22 March 1865 it fell. On 
20 Sept. 1865 Blyth again became treasurer 
under Sir Henry Ayers for a little over a 
month, being out of* power a;ain on 23 Oct. 
On 28 March, 1866, however, Ae became chief 
secretary and premier in a ministry which 
held together much better, not falling until 
3 May 1867. He now took a rest from 
politics, and paid a two years' visit to 
England. On ais return to South Australia 
he was re-elected to the assembly as member 
for Gumeracha, and on 30 May 1870 became 
once more commissioner of lands and immi- 
gration under John Hart [q. v. SuppL] In 
August 1871, in consequence of the loss of 
the land bill^various efforts were made to 
reconstruct this government, and finally on 
10 Nov. Blyth became premier and treasurer, 
holding office till the dissolution of parlia- 
ment, when he was thrown out on 22 Jan. 
1872. On the retirement of Sir Henry Ayers 
he was again sent for, and became premier 
for the third time. -He held office as chief 



secretary from 22 July 1873 to 3 June 1875, 
and this may be considered his -Drincipal 
ministry. He had to deal with the disap- 
pointment over the Northern Territory ; he 
met with ^reat opposition on the immigra- 
tion question, anc his free education bill 
was lost in the legislative council. His 
policy, however, was marked by caution and 
financial prudence ; and his "fall in June 
1875 was mainly due to Boucaut's promise 
of a bolder and more magnificent policy of 
public works which carried away the elec- 
tors. At the general election of 1875 he 
changed his seat and became member for 
North Adelaide. On 25 March 1876, when 
the Boucaut ministry was reconstructed, he 
became treasurer, and retired on 6 June, being 
appointed agent-general for the colony in 
England, where he arrived in February 1877. 

In England Blyth was for many years a 
familiar figure in colonial circles, and greatly 
respected as representative of his colony. In 
1886 he was executive commissioner for 
South Australia at the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition ; in 1887 he was associated with 
the Hon. Thomas Playford, the premier, in 
the representation of the colony at the first 
colonial conference held in London in April- 
May in that year. He died at Bournemouth 
on 7 Dec. 1891, and the South Australian 
parliament, on hearing the news* moved a 
vote of condolence with his widow and sus- 
pended their sitting. Blyth's career had 
lieen eminently that of the official. He was 
constantly called into office by ministers of 
different type; his general bent was for 
liberal measures, but he did not connect 
himself with any great reform or achieve- 
ment. He was a man of somewhat nervous 
temperament, with some sense of humour ; 
he was chiefly marked by those characteris- 
tics which fitted him for official life method, 
conscientiousness, punctuality, and courtesy. 
He was a prominent member of the synod 
of the church of England in South Australia. 
He was created KC.M.G. in 1877. and C.B. 
in 1886. 

Blyth married in 1850 Jessie Anne, daugh- 
ter of Edward Forrest of Birmingham, who 
survived him only a fortnight. They left 
one son and two daughters. 

[Adelaide Observer, 12 Dee. 1891; Mennell's 
Diet, of Austral. Biogr.; Hosier's History of 
South Australia ; official records.] C. A. H. 

BOASE, CHARLES WILLIAM (1828- 
1895), historian and antiquary, born in 
Chapel Street, Penzance, on 6 July 1828, 
was the eldest child of John Josias Arthur 
Boase (1801-1896), who married at St. Cle- 
ment, near Truro, on 4 July 1827, Charlotte 



Boase 



228 



Boase 



(1802-1873), second daughter of Robert 
Sholl of Truro (cf. Times, 12 Sept. 1896, 
p. 9). George Clement Boase [q_. v. Suppl.] 
was a younger brother. 

Charles was sent to the Penzance gram- 
mar school to 1841, and to the Truro 
grammar school from that date to 1846. 
At Truro he gained several medals and 
prizes, and durhir four years (1846-9) he 
aeld from it an B-iot scholarship at Exeter 
College, Oxford, where he matriculated on 
4 June 1846. Prom 1847 to 1850 he com- 
bined with it an open scholarship at his 
college, and on 18 JLay 1850 he graduated 
B.A. with a second class in classics. He 
was elected to a Cornish fellowship on 
30 June 1850, proceeded M.A. in 1853, and 
was ordained deacon at Cuddesdon by Bishop 
Wilberforce on 4 March 1855. 

From the day of his matriculation to that 
of his death Boase dwelt at Exeter College. 
lie witnessed its rebuilding, and took an 
especial interest in the construction and 
fitting of its library buildings. He was 
assistant tutor 1853-5, tutor 1855-84, lec- 
turer in Hebrew 1859-69, lecturer in modem 
history 1855-94, and librarian from 1868. 
Between 1857 and 1875 he examined in 
various schools, and he was appointed in 
1884 the university reader in foreign history. 
He resigned this last appointment and his 
college lectureship of modern history (which 
he held for nearly forty years) in the sum- 
mer of 1894, but he retained the place of 
librarian. He died in his rooms at Exeter 
College on 11 March 1895, and was buried 
in St, Sepulchre's cemetery, Oxford, on 
13 March, 

Boase had acquired vast stores of know- 
ledge, which were given ungrudgingly to 
others, and he was endowed with much quiet 
humour. He had long studied the history 
of Exeter College and its alumni, and in 
1879 two hundred copies were printed for 
private circulation of his annotated ' Register 
of the Rectors, Fellows, Scholars/ &c., with 
an historical introduction (cf. Edinburgh 
Review, October 1880, pp. 344-79). A 
second edition, but without the introduction, 
came out in 1893, and a third edition, with 
the introduction revised and greatly ex- 
panded, forms vol. xxvii. of the publi- 
cations of the Oxford Historical Society, 
the cost of the printing, a sum exceeding 
200?., being defrayed by the author. The 
second part of the college register, contain- 
ing a similar list of the commoners, being 
' all names other than those in the previous 
volume/ was issued by him in 1834. He 
contributed to Mr. Andrew Clark's { Colleges 
of Oxford* the article on Exeter College. 



On the formation of the Oxford Historical 
Society in 1884 Boase was one of the honorary 
secretaries, and he acted on the committee 
to ] June 1892. Much of its success was 
due to his judgment and energy, and its first 
publication consisted of the * Register of the 
University of Oxford, 1449-63, 1505-71/ 
which he compiled and edited. He also 
wrote the preface to J. E. Thorold Rogers's 
'Oxford City Documents, 1268- 1665,' which 
the society issued in 1891. The volume on 
< Oxford ' in the ' Historic Towns ' series, a 
c veritable storehouse of materials/ was 
written by him, but much of the information 
which he had collected was omitted. 

Boase edited, with Dr. G. W. Kitchin 
(afterwards dean of Durham), the transla- 
tion in six volumes of Leopold von Ranke's 
* History of England/ being himself respon- 
sible for the rendering of the first volume, 
In conjunction with Jiis two brothers he 
compiled an 'Account of the Families of 
Boase or Bowes/ tracing his ancestors back 
in West Cornwall to the end of the six- 
teenth century. The first edition was printed 
at Exeter in 1876 (seventy-five copies only 
for private circulation), and the second ap- 
peared at Truro in 1893 (a hundred copies 
only for private issue, and ten of these con- 
tained five additional sheets). Pie contri- 
buted to the l Literary Churchman/ ' Aca- 
demy/ and 'English Historical Review/ 
wrote the article on the ' Macedonian Em- 
pire ' in the ' Encyclopaedia Britunnica ' (9th 
edit.), and the lives of 1 the* Cornish saints in 
Smith's ' Dictionary of Christian Biography.' 
The account of the deeds and writs (1306- 
1836) in the Dawson collection at the Pen- 
zance public library was compiled by him 
(Cat. of Library, 1874, pp. 330-343). His 
library and manuscripts, including great col- 
lections on Cornish genealogies, were dis- 
persed at the time of _iis death. 

[Account of Boasa family ; Athenaeum, March 
1895, pp. 345-6, 378; Academy, 16 March 
1895, p. 237; Oxford Mag. 13 March 1895, pp. 
285-6, 1 May 1895, pp. 310-11 ; private know- 
ledge.] W. P. C, 

BOASE, GEORGE CLEMENT (1829- 
1897), bibliographer, born at Chapel Street, 
Penzance, on 20 Oct. 1829, was the second 
son of John Josias Arthur Bo'ase and 
younger brother of Charles William Boase 
[c^. v. Suppl.] He was educated at Regent 
tlouse academy and the grammar schoo. at 
Penzance, and for a short time in 1844 at 
Bellevue House academy, Penryn, From 
that year to 1846 he was in a local bank at 
Penzance, from 1847 to 1850 he was with 
Nehemiah Griffiths, ship and insurance 
, broker, at 2 White Hart Court, Lombard 



Bodichon 



229 



Boehm 



Street, London, and from 1850 to 1854 he 
was a clerk -with Eansom & Co., bankers, at 
1 Pall Mall East. 

Boase sailed for Australia on 29 April 
1854, and was at first corrector of the press 
on the ' Age ' newspaper of Melbourne, then 
gold-digger at Simpson's Ranges, and nest 
in a general store. During 1855-64 he was 
tutor with the Darchy family on the Mur- 
rumbidgee river, ISi ew South Wales, and on 
Lachlan river, and was also correspondent 
of the Sydney Mornin- Herald.' In 18S4 
he returned to Englanc, and managed the 
business of "Whitehead & Co., provision 
merchants, from 1865 to 1874, when he re- 
tired into private life and occupied himself 
in biographical and antiquarian literature. 
During these years of leisure he lived suc- 
cessively at 15 Queen Anne's Gate and at 
36 James Street (now 28 Buckingham Gate), 
where he collected a unique library illus- 
trative of the biography of the nineteenth 
century. He died at 13 Granville Park, 
Lewisham, on 1 Oct. 1S97> and was buried 
at Ladywell cemetery on 5 Oct. 

Boase was the joint author, with Mr. 
TV. P. Courtney, of the ' Bibliotheea Cor- 
nubiensis ? (1874-82, 3 vols.), and the sole 
author of a kindred volume, entitled i Col- 
lectanea Cornubiensia' (1890). "With his 
brothers he compiled the several editions of 
*The Families of Boase or Bowes,' and 
helped in the compilation of the works on 
Exeter College by Sis brother, Charles Wil- 
liam, and the ' Modern English Biography * 
of his youngest brother, Frederic. He com- 
piled with Mr. W. P. Courtney, for Professor 
Skeat, the Cornish portion of the < biblio- 
graphical list of the works in the various 
dialects of English' (English Dialect Soc. 
1877), and he assisted the Rev, John Ingle 
Dredge in his tracts on Devonshire biblio- 
graphy. He was a frequent contributor to- 
* Notes and Queries J and the ' Western An- 
tic uary. J He supplied 723 memoirs to the 
' I ictionary of National Biography/ the last 
appearing in vol. lix. 

[Times, 5 Oct. 1897; Notes and Queries, 8th 
ser. xii. 301-2 (1897) ; Account of Boase Family; 
personal knowledge.] W. P. (X 

BODICH03ST, BARBAEA LEIGH 
SMITH (1827-1891), benefactress of Girton 
Colle *e, was the eldest child of Ben;aniin 
SmitJ. [see under SMITH, WILLULM, 1756- 
1835], and was born at Wathington, Sussex, 
on 8 April 1827. She early showed artistic 
ability and was taught water-colour drawing 
by William Henry Hunt [q. v.] and other 
artists, and was taken to visit J. M, W. 
Turner in his studio. Her father's political 



associations made her acquainted with most 
of the anti-corn-law -ooliticians, and she took 
great interest in aL questions relating to 
the education of women and the general 
improvement of their position in the state. 
She wrote a very brie: but lucid pamphlet 
on the laws relating to women, wSich was 
of service in procuring the passing of the 
Married Woman's Property Act. She had a 
house in Algiers, and in 1857 married Dr. 
Eugene Bodichon, whom she had met there. 
He died in 1886, and they had no children. 
She built for herself a small house at Sea- 
lands Gate, in Sussex, and had also a house 
in London, 5 Blandford Square, and at all 
her residences exercised much hospitality. 
William Allingham, Dante Gabriel Rossetfi, 
William Bell Scott, Richard Cobden, and 
their friends were often her guests, and she 
was a friend of Marian Evans, best known as 
George Eliot. She recognised the authorship 
of * Adam Bede/ and wrote at once to the 
authoress, who afterwards gave her a copy of 
the three volumes inscribed 'To Barbara 
L. S. Bodichon, the friend who first recog- 
nised ine in this book, I give it as a remem- 
brance of the moment when she cheered me 
by that recognition and by her joy in it. 
George Eliot, 7 July 1859.* The personal 
description of Eomola was drawn from 
George Eliot's recollections of her. She 
may justly be re ;arded as the foundress of 
Girton College, t le plan of which was pro- 
posed by her between 1860 and 1870, and to 
which, when it began at Hitchin, she gave a 
thousand pounds, and afterwards bequeathed 
more than ten thousand pounds. She worked 
assiduously at water-colour painting, and 
often exhibited pictures. Her talent lay in 
open-air effects of sunlight and cloud, inland 
and on the coast, and such great artists as 
Corot, Daubeny, and Henry Moore admired 
her work. 

She had a small house at- Zennor in Corn- 
wall, and while sketching there in May 1878 
had an attack of hemiplegia. She partially 
recovered, but had further attacks and died 
at Scalands Gate, Sussex, in 1891 . Her por- 
trait was more than once painted, but never 
-well, and the best likeness of her is a drawing 
by Samuel Laurence. Letters and accounts 
of her are in Mr. Cross's * Life of George 
Eliot.' 

[Personal knowledge ; papers and letters." 

K. ]. 

BOEHM, SIB JOSEPH EDGAR, first 
baronet (1834-1890), sculptor, was born at 
Vienna on 4 July 1^34. I3e was of Hun- 
garian nationality; but his father, Joseph 
Daniel Boehm (1794-1865), was director of 
the imperial mint of Vienna. He married,, 



Boehm 



230 



Bolton 



on 5 Feb. 1825, Louisa Anna, daughter of 
Dominick Lussman, inspector of imperial 
chateaux in Luxemburg at Hetzendorf. 
The elder Boehm was a man of taste, and 
had formed a collection of fragments of 
antique sculpture. Prom these the son may 
have received his first impetus towards 
modelling, but in the end it was rather by 
the Italians of the Renaissance than by the 
Greeks and Romans that he was mainly in- 
fluenced. In 1848 he came to England, 
where he worked for three years, chiefly in 
the British Museum. After this he studied 
in Italy, Paris, and "Vienna, winning the 
* First Imperial Prize ' in the latter city in 
1856. In 1862 he settled in London, and 
took out letters of naturalisation three years 
later. In the year of his arrival he made 
his debut at the Royal Academy with a 
bust in the then unfamiliar material, terra 
cotta. In 1863 he exhibited statuettes in 
the same material of Millais and his wife. 
Boehm's work soon became -popular, and, 
from about 1865 to the end of his life, 
commissions came to him in an unbroken 
stream from fashionable oatrons as well as 
from the government, l^or some years he 
had almost a monopoly in providing statues 
of public men and of members of the royal 
family. His works are so numerous that it 
is impossible to give anything like a com- 
plete list of them here. Among the more 
notable are, in London : Lord Stratford de 
Redcliffe, Lord Beaconsfield, and Dean 
Stanley, in Westminster Abbey ; the Wel- 
lington monument at Hyde Park Corner; 
Lord Lawrence, Sir John Burgoyne, and 
Lord Napier of Ma -dala, in Waterloo 
Place; Carlyle and WLliam Tyndale on the 
Embankment ; and Darwin in the Natural 
History Museum ; in Bombay, the eques- 
trian statue of the prince of Wales ; in Cal- 
cutta, that of Lord Napier of Magdala, of 
which the group in Waterloo Place is a 
replica; at Colombo, Sir William Gregory; 
and in Canterbury Cathedral, the recumbent 
figure of Archbishop Tail He also pro- 
duced statues of Queen Victoria, of the first 
king of the Belgians, of the Duke of Kent, 
Princess Alice and her daughters, Prince 
Leopold, and Dean Wellesley. All these 
are at Windsor, where also t!ie recumbent 
figure of the prince imperial, excluded from 
Westminster Abbey by popular objections, 
has found a place. Among his innumerable 
busts are those of Gladstone, Huxley, Lord 
Rusehery, Lord Russell, Lord Wolseley. 
Lord Saaftesbury, and Millais, the last- 
named in the Diploma Gallery at Burlington 
House, His last important work was a 
fitatue of the German Emperor Frederick 



for Windsor Castle. Among his few ' ideal ' 
works the best known, and perhaps the best 
is the ' Young Bull.' 

Boehm was elected an A.R.A. in 1878, 
and an R.A. in 1880. He was a member of 
several foreign academies, lecturer on sculp- 
ture at the Royal Academy, and sculptor-iu- 
ordinary to Queen Victoria. He was created 
a baronet on 13 July 1889. He married, on 
20 June 1860, Louise Frances, daughter of 
F. L. Boteler of West Derby, Liverpool. He 
died in his studio, at 25 Wetherby Gardens, 
London, very suddenly, on 12 Dec. 1890, and 
was succeeded in the baronetcy by his only 
son, Edgar Collins Boehm. 

As a practical sculptor Sir Edgar Boehm 
takes a aigh place in the English school, but 
as an artist he scarcely deserved the patronage 
he received. In the large bronze popula- 
tion with which he endowed his adopted 
country, it would be difficult to find a single 
true work of art, while some of his produc- 
tions, notably the "Wellington group at Hyde 
Park Corner, fall lamentably short of their 
purpose. 

[Athenseurn, 1890, ii. 861 ; Men of the Time, 
13th edit. ; Burke's Peerage, 1890.] W. A. 

BOLTON, SIB FRANCIS JOHN (1831- 
1887), soldier and electrician, son of Dr. 
Thomas Wilson Bolton, surgeon, of London 
and Manchester, was born in 1831. He en- 
listed in the royal artillery, in which he rapidly 
rose to be a non-commissioned officer, getting 
his first step as acting bombardier at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia. He o Dtained a commission as 
ensign in the Gold Coast artillery corps on 
4 Sept. 1857, and served in the expedition 
against the Crobboes in September, Jctober, 
and November 1858, being present at the ac- 
tion of Crobboe Heights on 18 Sept. He was 
promoted to be lieutenant on 9 Nov. In June 
and July 1859 he was adjutant in the expe- 
dition against the Dounquah rebels, which 
resulted in the capture of all the rebel chiefs. 

On his return to England Bolton was 
transferred to the 12th or East Suffolk regi- 
ment of foot and promoted to be captain on 
21 Sept. 1860. He was for several years 
enga *ed in conjunction with Captain (after- 
wares Rear-admiral) Philip Howard Colomb 
[o^. v. Suppl.] in developing a system of visual 
signalling, applicable to naval and military 
operations, which was adopted by the autho- 
rities. He also invented and perfected an ap- 
plication of the oxy-calciurn light for nigSt 
signalling. The wuole apparatus fitted into 
a "ooxfor transport, and was admirably adapted 
for its purpose. The * Army and Navy Signal 
Book J was compiled by Bolton and Colomb, 
assisted by an officer of royal engineers, and 



Bonar 



231 



Bonar 



was used -with good results during the Abys- 
sinian campaign in 1867. 

From Ib67 to 1869 Bolton was deputy- 
assistant quartermaster-general and assistant 
instructor in visual signalling at the School 
of Military Engineering at Chatham under 
Captain (afterwards Major-general) Richard 
Hugh Stotherd [c[. v.], instructor in tele- 
graphy. He was promoted on 8 July 1868 
to an unattached majority in consideration 
of his special services in army signalling. 
Bolton was largely instrumental in 1871 in 
founding the Society of Telegraph Engineers 
and Electricians, of which he "became hono- 
rary secretary. He edited the ' Journal ' of 
the" society, and was afterwards vice-presi- 
dent. In 1871 he was appointed by the board 
of trade under the Metropolis Water Act to 
be water examiner to the metropolis. He was 
promoted to be lieutenant-colonel on 15 June 
. 877 ? and retired from the military service 
with the honorary rank of colonel on 1 July 
1881. He was knighted in 1884. 

Bolton interested himself in electrical 
matters, and the beautiful displays of coloured j 
fountains and electric lights which formed , 
prominent features of the exhibitions at i 
South Kensington from 1883 to 1886 were 
designed by him and worked from the central 
tower under his personal superintendence. 
Bolton died on 5 Jan. 1887 at the Royal 
Bath Hotel, Bournemouth, Hampshire. 

He was the author of * London Water 
Supply,' 18S4, 8vo, of which a new and en- 
larged" edition, with a short exposition of the 
law relating to water companies jenerally, 
by P. A. Scratchley, was published in 1888 ; 
'Description of the Illuminated Fountain 
and of the Water Pavilion/ 1884, 8vo, ori- 
ginally delivered as a lecture at the Inter- 
national Health Exhibition. 

Bolton married in 1866 Julia, second 
daughter of R. Mathews of Oatlands Park, 
Surrey ; she survived him. 

[War Office Records ; obituary notices in the 
Times of 7 Jan. 1887, in the .Royal Engineers' 
Journal of February 1887, and in the Annual 
Register and other periodicals.] R. H. V. 

BONAR, HORATIUS (1808-1889), 
Scottish divine, second son of James Bonar, 
second solicitor of excise, Edinburgh, was 
born in Edinbur ;h on 19 Dec. 1808. Edu- 
cated at the high school and the university 
of Edinburgh, he had among* his fellow- 
students Robert Murray McCheyne [c ._ v.] 
and others, afterwards notable as evangelists. 
Licensed as a preacher, he did mission work 
in Leith for a time, and in November 1837 
he settled at Kelso as minister of the new 
North Church founded in connection with 



Thomas Chalmers's scheme of church exten- 
sion. He became exceedingly popular as a 
preacher, and was soon well known through- 
out Scotland. In his early years at Kelso he 
anticipated the methods of" the evangelical 
alliance by frequently arranging for eight 
days or more of united prayer. He beg-an 
the publication of parmhlets supplementary 
to his ministerial work, and he gradually 
produced evangelical books, such as * God's 
Way of Peace ' and 'The Night of Weeping,' 
the sale of the former almost immediately 
disposing of two hundred and eighty-five 
thousand copies, while of the latter an issue 
of fifty-nine thousand was speedily ex- 
hausted. For the advancement of his work 
in his congregation and his Sunday-school 
classes, he began in Leith the composition of 
hymns, continuing the practice in Kelso and 
afterwards. He ;*oined the free church in 
1843. On 9 A-oril 1853 he received the hono- 
rary degree o^ D.D. from Aberdeen Univer- 
sity. He was appointed minister of Chalmers 
Memorial Church, Edinburgh, on 7 June 
1306. He was moderator of the general as- 
sembly of the free church in May 1883. A 
man of extraordinary energy and versatility, 
Bonar was one of the last among notable 
Edinburgh preachers to conduct services in 
the open air, and this he frequently did on a 
Sunday in, addition to the regular work for 
his congregation. He died in Edinburgh on 
31 July 1889. 

Bonar married in 1843 Jane Katherine, 
third daughter of Robert Lundie (d. 1832), 
minister of Kelso. She sympathisedfully with 
his work, and is herself said to have written 
religious verse. She predeceased him, as did 
also several members of his family. He was 
survived by three daughters and a son, who 
became a free church minister. 

As a hymn- writer Bonar was able to con- 
secrate a passing mood by giving it a tan- 
gible expression in verse. His best hymns 
are spontaneous, fluent, melodious, and devo- 
tional. Occasionally they are genuine lyrical 
poems, as e.g. 'When the weary seeking 
rest ' and ' I heard the voice of Jesus say,' 
which Bishop Eraser of Manchester thought 
the best hymn in the language. His ' Hymns 
of Faith and Hope ' were soon sold to the 
number of 140,729 copies. The standard 
value of his work is illustrated in the * Scot- 
tish Hymnary* used in common by the 
three Scottish presbyterian churches and 
the- Irish presbyterians in which eighteen 
of his hymns occur, along with devotional 
lyrics drawn from all possible sources. 
Early influenced by Edward Irving, who 
delivered in Edinburgh three series of lec- 
tures on the Apocalypse (1828-9-30), Bouar 



Bonar 



232 



Bond 



steadily adhered through life to the belief 
in the Second Advent, urging his views in 
' Prophetic Landmarks' (1847) and the 
' Coming and Kingdom of our Lord Jesus 
Christ ' (,1849), as well as in the 4 Journal of 
Prophecy,' which he edited. 

Bonar published numerous religious tracts 
and sermons; edited 'Kelso Tracts,' many 
of which he wrote ; and contributed to the 
* Imperial Bible Dictionary' and Smith's 
'Bible Dictionary.' He was for a time 
editor of 'The Presbyterian Review/ 'The