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1888 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

OWENS PASSELEWE 

ijtMtmflHtflBi'irtfff fWlfHT"t M f* M r*fl ii I INI iiiHHilHiiiiiiBiiilniiliil I* i 't^t^'igiliiiLlti^Viiti^llUMiiB/i'ilii* >^l) l lil*<*iM'i'l>hr V^'W'i^l 

prr 

V ?/ 



iasis No. 



Fiook" No. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



SIDNEY LEE 




YOU 



OWENS PASSELEWE 



LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1895 

[All rights reserved] 



Class No. 



Book No. 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE FOBTY-THIBD VOLUME. 



G. A. A. . G. A. AITKEN. 

J. G. A. . . J. G, ALGER. 

J. W. A. , . J. W. ALLEN. 

W. A. J. A, . W. A. J. ARCHUOLD. 

B. B-L. . , . RICHARD BAGWELL. 

G. F. B. B. . G. F. BUSSELL BARKKR. 

M. B. , . . Miss BATESQN. 

B. B THIS BKV. BONALD BAYNE. 

r -T- B THOMAS BAYNIS. 

C. B. B. . . C. B. BJBASHMBY. 

H. E. D. B. THE Itav. H. B. D. BLAKISTON, 
G. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 
T. G. B. . . THE BBV. PROFESSOR, BONNKY, 
F.B.S. 

G, S. B. ... a 8. BOULOTJR. 

W. Bx. . . MAJOR BIIOADFOOT. 

W. C~R. . . WILMAM GARB. 

A. C. .... Aimiuit CATICS, 

H. M, C. . . THE LATE H. MANNERS Cm- 

CHESTER. 

MIHB A, M. CLICRKE. 
Tnowi'BON CooMit, F.S.A, 

W. P. GOUIITNMY, 

LIONEL OUST, F.S.A. 
J. A. DOYLE. 
Boitifiitx DUNLOP. 
a H. 



A, M. C. 
T. C. . , 
W P. 0. 
L. C, . . 
J. A. D, , 
It. IX . . 
C. 1L F, , 



J. a F. . 

B. G. . . . 
J. T. G. . 
G. G. . . . 

A. a ... 

B. E, G. . 
J. M. G. , 
J. G. H. . . 
J. A. H. , . 

C. A. H. . < 
E. G. H. . . 
W. A. S. H. 
G. B. H. . . 
W. H. . . . 
W. H. H, . 
T. B. J. . . 
L T. K. . . 

C. K 

X L. K. . , 

'. K 

'. K. L. 

T. G. L. . . 

E. L 

. L 

B. H L. , . 

M. L. , , 

3, L. 



. J. G. 

. BIOHARD GABNETT, LL.D,, C.B. 
. J. T. GILBERT, LL.D., F.S.A. 
. GORDON GOODWIN. 
. Tina BBV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 
. B. E. GRAVES. 
. THE LATE J. M. GRAY, 
. J. CuTHBMiiT HADDISN. 
. J. A. HAMILTON. 
- C, ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
. E. a. HAWKJBJ. 
W. A. S. HEWINS. 
PROFESSOR G. B. HOWER. 
THE BBV. WILLIAM HTINT. 
THIS BJEV. W. H, HUTTON, B.D. 
THE BJBV. T. B, JOHNSTONE. 
J. TAYLOR KAY. 
CHARLES KENT. 
C. L. KINOSFORD. 
JOSEPH KNIGHT, F.S.A. 
PROI-EBSOR J. K, LAUUHTON. ' 
T. G. LAW. 
Mifls ELIKABMTH LEU. 
BIBNKY LICK, 
BOBIN H. LKCKOS. 
COLONML E. M. LLOYD, B.E. 
JOHN EDWARD LLOYD. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



J. H. L. . 


. THE EEV. J. H. LUPTQN, B.D. 


D'A. P. . . 


. D'AnoY POWER, F.R.C.S. 


W. D. M.. 


. THE BEV. W. D. MACRAY. 


E. B. P. . 


. B. B. PROHMKK. 


E. C. M. . 


. E. C. MARCEANT. 


J. M. B. . 


. J. M. Riao. 


LTVT M 


MlSS MlDDLETON 


H. E. . . . 


HKRIIIGRT J&i\ 


. uLt J.U.. . 

A. H. M. . 


. A. H. MILLAR. 


C. J. B.. , 


. THE Rwv, C. J. ROBINSON, D.CJ 


C M 


COSMO MONKHOUSE. 


T. S, . . . 


THOMAS BBGcowfei'* 


N. M 


NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 


W. A. 8* . 


. \V, A. SHAW. 


G. P. M-Y. 


. G. P. MORIARTY. 


C. F. S. , 


, Mififl C, FELL SMITH* 


J. B. M. . 


. J. BASS MTJLLINGER. 


G. G. a . 


. G. GUKOOUY SMITH. 


A. N. . . . 


ALBERT NICHOLSON. 


B. H. B, . 


B 1 H'HijjSiiY 


G. LE G. N. 


. G. LE GRYS NORGATE. 


L. S 


TiKHi'jt F STFI*J i JCN 


B. J. O'D. 


. D. J. O'DONOGHtJE. 


G. S-H.. , 




F. M. O'D. 


. F. M. O'DONOGHUE. 


c. w. a . . 


C* W. BUTTON. 


C. F. E. P. 


. C. F. B. PALMER. 


JL B. T. . . 


H. B. TMwm F.S.A. 


W. P-H. . 


. THE LATE WYATT PAFWORTH. 


T. F, T* . , 


Fnomwott ^ J.\ TIH.IT. 


C. P-H. . . 


CHARLES PARISH. 


E. V, . . 


THIS LATK UBV. CANON VBNAWWW,, 


F. S. P. . 


F. S. PARRY. 


B. H, V. . , 


COLON t^i* B. 11. Vimw, B.K,, C.B, 


J. F. P. . . 


J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 


G* W, , * . 


OWAWAM WAIJ,\H, 


C. P 


THE BEV. CHARLES PJJATTS 


ty tx? vcf 




A. F, P. . . 


A. F. POLLARD* 


0. W-H. * . 


CAI*KH W^t.cji, F.H.A. 


S. L.-P 


STANLEY LANE-POOLE, 


B. B. W. . * 


B. B* W<!>WA1U>, 


B. P. 


Miss PORTER. 


WtXf 


r 






* W * * 


WABWICK Wiumi, KH.A. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Owens 



Owens 



OWENS, JOHN (1790-1846), merchant, 
and founder of Owens College, Manchester, 
the first and for four yours tho only college 
of tho Victoria. University, was born in.Mun- 
elustor in 1790, His father, Owen Owens, 
d, native of Holy well in Flintshire, went to 
Manchester wkcvu a young 1 man, and started, 
in business a>s a hat-lining makur, ultimately 
becoming, with tho aid of his son John, currier, 
furruw, manufacturer* and shipper. Ho mar- 
ried in his twenty-fifth year Sarah llum- 
phreyw, who wan BIX years older than himself; 
and Ke died in 1844, aged 80, John was the 
eldewt of three children, tho other two also 
sonsdying in childhood. He was educated 
at, a private school (Mr. Hotheraall's) in the 
township of Ardwi ck, ManehcBter. Ho waa ad- 
mitted early into partnership with his father 
(1817), and the business greatly increased. 
According to his principal clerk, 'he was 
considered ono of tho best buyers of cotton 
iu tho Manchester market, A keen man of 
business, it was also his custom to purchase 



in partnership as a producer of cotton yarns), 
the latter made the generous suggestion that, 
instead of leaving it to a man who had more 
than enough, he should found a college in 
Manchester where his principles might "be 
carried out. He died unmarried on ^9 July 
1846, at his house, 10 Nelson Street, Chorl- 
ton-ivpon-Medlock in Manchester, aged 56 
years, and was buried in the churchyard of 
St. John's, Byrom Street, Manchester, where 
tho whole family rest. By his will, dated 
31 May 1845, he bequeathed tho residue of 
his personal estate (after bequests to rela- 
tives, Mends, charities, and servants amount- 
ing to 52,056.) to certain trustees, * for the 
foundation of an institution within the par- 
liamentary borough of Manchester, or within 
two miles of any part of the limits thereof, 
for providing or aiding the means of instruct- 
ing and improving young persons of the male 
sex (and being of au age not less than four- 
teen years) in such branches of learning and 
science as are now and may be hereafter 



A few corrections have l^ccn made in this volume 
since its publication. 



of education, and strongly disapproved at all 
university testa. Accordingly, when, towards 
the end of his life, he offered his fortune to his 
friend and old schoolfellow, George Faulkner 
(1790? -1862) [q,v,] (with whom he was 
vox*. 



or friends under whose immediate care ha 
shall be. . . , Subject as aforesaid, the said 
institution shall be open to all applicants for 
admission without respect to place of birth, 
and without distinction of rank or con- 



Owens 



Ovvtram 



dition in society/ The net amount realised neighbouring landowner. Having acquired 
from the legacy was 96,654/. 11*. 6<Z, Ac- a taste for theatricals, ho communicated to 
cordino-ly Owens College was founded, and Oliver Goldsmith hus desire to po on Urn 
was opened in 1851. The first premises, which stage, and the latter introduced him to Our* 
were in Quay Street, Deansgate, hadformerly rick about 1771. JIo had a handsome and 
been the residence of Richard Cobden. They commanding figuro and HIIII^ well, having- 
were at first let to the college by George received tuition from Wo r^anund Ante, and 
Faulkner, the first chairman of the trustees, was quite successful when 1m appeared m 
and were in 1854 presented by him to the the provincial theatrew. Of hi.s many purls 
institution. In 1871 the Owens College was the best was Teugite in the ' Commit toe ' 
incorporated by act of parliament, and in and Major O'Klaherly in the < West, Indian/ 
1873 the college was installed in the fine and he was already popular when h< mndo 
buildings in Oxford Street,which were erected his London debut aU.Wenf. (<ard<n in I77>t. 
by public subscription from the designs of He was admitted a member of llie fainutm 
Mr. Alfred Waterhouse, R.A. Owens's' Literary Club 'on Goldsmith's reenmmon- 
generous bequest has been largely increased elation, and in .177'! married Jane Mill, tho 
by later endowments. daughter of a tradesman of Shtvwdtuii'v, 

I and a distant relative of (he Milts !i|* 



[Thompson's Owens College, Manchester , **<- a Ban ven 
86 : personal information.] J. T, K. Ilftwktwltjy in Wiropsh 



1886 : personal information.] ' J. T, K. I -HawKe8u;y m rsuropsuuv, Tli. first t-hild of 

the marnupi was Sydnev, i }n 

OWENS, JOHNLENNERGAN(/.17SO), celobrntcci ' i ,a<Iy M lupin j 
actor, was born in Ireland, to which country SYDNKY], Owoiinon nppe;ired on t he 1 >uh- 
his performances seem to have been confined, Hix stage m October 177<!, nnd 
He succeeded Henry Mossop [q.v,] at Smock there smne yeavn, heeomin^ purt-pntpni'tor 
Alley theatre, and was held as Zanga in the of Crow Street Theatre, in 17s.'i t after a 
'Revenge 'to have approached more nearly quarrel \vtlh IU'.M munnirer, hi- 
than any other actor of the time to his original i'iehamhh> K 

All that survives concerning him is a repu- leas than a ywr. .,, 

tation for persistent inebriety. Coming on carry on theatres nt KilkeunvT' 
the stage as Polydore in the ' Orphan/ he was and'Sligo w<u-e, failures, und ' in I \'\H h. JV 
hissed for obvious intoxication. Advancing tired from the. HtH<>'e, lie tiii'ti hi I hthlin nt 
to the front of the stage, he delivered with a the house, of bin Hon-in-lnw, Sir Vrfiiur 
scowl the following words in his soliloquy, Olnrlw, at Urn emt of Mnv isi** n r 
'Here Im alone and fit for mischief/ and buried at IrmhttuviL outride t) M . ,MI V 
put himself in a fighting attitude. Tim h * ' 



announced for Zanga he beggedsome money to him, 



lib liindne,, r heart t , 

mmnm " 




sir, John 



Owens, sacov U 

dates of Hs birtu 



[Thespian Dictionary; Down's Annals of the 
Stage, ed.Lowe.] j. ^ 

OWENS, OWEN (A 1598), divine.' [Soo 
under OWEN, JOHN, 1580-1051, bishop of 
St Asaph.] * 



N, BOBERT (1744-1812), ac- 
tor, TO bora i in the barony of Tyrawley CD, 
Mayo, in 1744. His p^ents were poor 
people named MacOwen, which their son 
afterwards enghshed into Owenson He 



[Hrit, MUM, ( 1 aL; TheNjon 
ii, 20? ; O'K, 



OWENBON, MIM* MYDNKY 



. at a , 

a short time as steward to a 



, , , - 

1679), divine, (ton of H-.tu-rt Owtrm, wn 



< ,i.r>vi.i!r, t 
on 17 March 1W*( AW wVwT,' 
ser Xi 205). Or, 1* My HUtt J ( , 4' ^ J 
mttd a war of Trtiily t'uli,. r , ( brid K , 



Owtram 



Oxberry 



where he graduated B.A. in 1645. He was ' 
afterwards elected to a fellowship at Christ's 
College, where he graduated M,A. in 1649, 
In 1655 he held the university office of junior 
proctor, and in 1660 he was created D,I). (LE 
NEVE, Fasti, ed, Hardy, iii. 624). His first 
church preferment was in Lincolnshire, and 
he subsequently obtained the rectory of St. 
Mary Woolnoth, London, which he resigned 
in 1666. He stayed in London during the 
plague in 1605 (Addit.MS. 5810, p. 290). On 
SO July 1669 he was installed archdeacon of 
Leicester. On 30 July 1670 he was installed 
prebendary of Westminster, and ho was also 
for some time rector or minister of the parish 
of St. Margaret, Westminster . ITo died on 
28 Aug. 1070, and was buriodinWesfaninster 
Abbey, where a monument, with a Latin in- 
scription, was erected to his memory (!)AKT, 
Wt^tmimaxttniumj a. (520), His will, dated 
5 Nov. 1077, was proved in London tt Sept. 
KJ7D (P, 0. 0. 1 1i>, King'). Ho bequeathed 
lamln iu l)orbynhms and Lincolnshire, and 
It ft. legacies to tlio children of his brother 
Francis Owtram, doeuasod, and of his Misters 
.Barbara Hurley and Mary Sprenthall, both 
(licensed, and Jane Stanley, tlum living. An 
elaborate catalogue of his library was com- 
piled by William Cooper, London, 1(581, 4to, 
Owt ram's widow lived forty-two years after 
him, until 4 Oct. 17^1 (OuusTUK, Westminster 
Abbey Kpyitttrw, pp. 107, 304). 

Owtram WON a * nervous and accurate writer,' 
and an excellent preacher, and he was re- 
puted to have extraordinary nkill in rabbi- 
nical learning. Baxter spoaks of him us one 
of the best and ablent of tho conformists. 
Ills principal work is ' DeSacrifieils libriduo ; 
quorum ultoro t,xplicantur omnia Judttjorum, 
nonnulla (tentium Profanarum Sacrifioia; 
altoro Samficimn Chmli, Utroque Feele* 
sum Oatholicro his cle rebus Sontentia contra 
iFaustum Hocinum, ejusquo sectatores do- 
femUtuiV London, I(i77, 4to, dedicated to 
Thomas Osborno, earl of Danby. An Eng- 
lish translation, entitled ' Two 'Dissertations 
on Sacrifices/ with additional notes ^and in- 
doxos by John Allen, was published in 1817. 
After his death Joseph Hindmarslx pub- 
Iwlwd under his name six ' Sonnons ^upon 
Faith and Vrovidonco, and other subjects/ 
London, 1680, Bvo, It was stated that these 
had been taken down in shorthand, 



but thoy are not genuine, In order to do 
to his memory, hia relatives caused 



*Twenty Rormonfl preached upon several occa- 
aionH' to be published from ' the author's own 
copies/ by James Gardiner, D.D,, afterwards 
biHhop ot Lincoln (1682, 2nd ed., corrected, 
London, 1097, 8voX Prefixed to the volume 
is a portrait of Owtram, engraved by H, "White, 



[Biogr. Brit. v. 3289 ; Coolce's Preachers' As- 
sistant, ii. 254; Life of Thomas Firmin, p. 14; 
3-ranger's Biog, Hist, of England, 5th ed. v. 41 ; 
Kennetfc MS. 62, f. 228 ; Kennett's Register and 
Chronicle, p, 843 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), ii. 
93, iii. ^ 361; Newccmrt's Repertorium, i. 463, 
922 ; Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. i. pt. ii.p, 466 ; 
Autobiography of Symon Patrick, 1839, pp. 82, 
245, 246; Peck's I)esidorata Curiosa, vol. ii. 
iib. xiv. pp. 5, 37 ; Sharp's Life of Archbishop 
Sharp, i. 16 ; Silvester's Life of Baxter, iii. 19, 
78, 13 1 ; Ward's Life of Dr. Henry More, p. 78 ; 
Hist, of Westminster, ii. 52.] T. G. 

. OWTRED (1315 P-1396), Benedictine 
theologian, [See UHTKED.] 

OXBERRY, WILLIAM (1784-1824), 
actor, tho son of an auctioneer, was born on 
18 Dec, 1784 in Moorfields, facing Bedlam. 
According to a memoir supplied to Qxberry's 
* Dramatic Biography, he was well educated, 
and placed at the age of fourteen under the 
care of Stubba, declared to be an artist of ami- 
nonco.' Showing no aptitude for design, he 
was transferred to a bookseller's shop kept 
by one Kibtwu, and thence to the oifice m 
Tottenham Court Road of a printer named 
Soalo, an amateur actor. Here his dis- 
position for tho stage was fostered, and 
he is depicted studying Douglas in one 
corner, whilo in another his master was 
rehearsing Glcualvon. At a stable near 
Queen Anno Street, and subsequently at the 
theatre in Berwick Street, he took parts such 
as Hassan in the ' Castle Spectre ' and Hoase 
in 'Macboth/ After he had made a public 
appearance in a malthouse in Edgware his 
indonturos wore in .1802 cancelled, and he 
appeared under Jorrold, at the Watford 
theatre, as Antonio in the ' Merchant of 
Venice.' A performance of Dan in ' John 
Bull' revealed some talent in low comedy, 
and, after appearing at' Sheerneas, and playing 
Richard ILL at Godalming, he joined, as 
low comedian, the company of the Worthing, 
ITytho, and Southend theatres, under Trot- 
ter, For some time subsequently he made 
an occasional appearance in Shylock, Has- 
san, and other characters. More frequenly 
he was seen in parts such as Lope Tocho 
in the ' Moxtntaineers/ and Old Frost in 
the 'Irishman in London.' In 1806 he mar- 
ried, at Southend, a young actress playing 
subordinate parts in the company, named 
Catherine Elizabeth Hewitt. In the follow- 
ing year he attracted the attention of Henry 
Siddons [q,v,],by whom he was recommended 
to the K enable management at Co vent Gar den* 
At a salary rising from 6/, to 8J, a week, he 
made his first appearance on 7 Nov. 1807 as 
Robin Koughhead in 'Fortune's Frolic.' Hie 
performance was * cold, constrained, and 

B 2 



Oxberry 



Oxbcrry 



predicted that the public would not got; u HI I 
toMr. Oxberry's face, for, 'though ho dun 
played some knowledge of the art oi a 
Lyer, it was not sufficient ' to render him 
VdiiUe acquisition to the London 
boards' (new set, ii. 300). On 14 Nov. bo 
plavedLUDuberly^liasDan^Hmvlasin 

the 'Heir at Law,' a part ho ^substituted toi 
hat of Zekiel Homespun. After this hoc IH- 
appears from the bills. At the close ot the 
season he was released from Ins engagement, 
and went to Glasgow, wherehe mm e a .success 
as Sir David Daw in the < Wheel oi Korl une, 
His benefit brought him 70Z. O.Ur/ and Um 
name of Sir David clung to him in hoothmil, 
In Aberdeen he accepted, with some reluct- 
ance, the character of Michael Ducas in A < 1- 
ritha,' with the result that ho way accept ed u 
i tragedian, and played Glemilvcm, MaeMh, 
Shylock, and Richard. After returning to 
Glasgow he accepted from Raymond an en- 
garment in London at the Lyceum, then 
confined to operatic performances, and known 
as the English Opera House, and appeared in , 
a piece by Henry Siddons, called 'The Knusian | 
Impostor/ in which he made, a success, Ho 1 
was tlien engaged .for the Lyceum by A mold, j 
at a salary rising from 7/. to W. A u engage- 1 
ment at Drury Lane followed, and ho played ! 
for the first time with the burnt-out com- ,; 
pany at the Lyceum, 25 Sept. 1800, an tlu> 
Lay Brother in the 'Duenna,' He was, 1 
20 Nov.. the original Oulfee, a black ser- 
vant, in ''Not at Home,' by U. 0. Dalian; 
and played, 24 Feb. 1810, John Lump in 
the ' Review.' The following season ho waH { 
the original Laglast in AllinghamV ' Trans- j 
formation, or Love and Law ; ' Daniel, a i 
countrv fellow, in Masters'^ 'Lost and 
Found"; ' Fabian in Dimond's e Peasant Hoy ? ' 
Zedekiah in Arnold's ' Americana ; ' and 
Timothy Scamp in Leigh's t Where to find a 
Friend-;' and in 1811-12, Sir UharlwOwivafl I 
in Moore's ' M.P., or the Jilue-Rl ockmg 1 ; ' j 
Dick in' Bight or Wrong;' Gregory in' 
Kenney's * Turn out ! ' ; AbrahanudoH in ! 
'Quadruped,' an alteration of the ' Tailors ;' ' 
md Petro in Arnold's 'Devil's Bridge/ 
ifter the opening of the new Drury Lun 
theatre hia name is not traceable until the 
close of the season r when lie played, for Mw 
Kelly's benefit, Lord Listless in i Rich and 
Poor/and Gregpry in an act of 'Killing no Mur- 
der/ At Drury Lane he remained until the 
close ofthe seasoii of 1819-20, playing part H 
such as John Grouse in the 'School for 
Prejudice ; ' Gracqbo in Maasinger'fl < Duke 
o Milan ;' Haster Stephen m Joiwon's 



M^vorv Man in his Hunmnr;* MOSCM in tho 
'School tor Scandal: 1 Don !Arolo in ih<* 
'Critic;' Slender in the * Merry \Yive.s nt" 
Windsor; ' Pominujue in * OeMPund Uiunb ; f 
Simon Purt* in * A hold SlroKe for a \Vilo;' 
Bullock in tho l Keci'iiitin^ OiUcer ; * and 
JohThornborry >" ' '"bn MuM,' U* *i*rptd' 
many original parts in plays, dramalh* nr 

Soane T and others. Ainony; the tno^t nuio- 
worlbv \vt*n' Sjmlittvi 1 in * I''in*i Itupre-'dtins/ 
ly Horace Sinit li: i'-unc in lln* * Maid and 
the Magpie;' I'Viiu* I'Vaiteis in * Klnddi-n 
l'iiId,' nn adaptaliun ot' Sentl^ * Mnrininti ;' 
Humphrey (Jull in Snnsie'.-, 'Ihvnrf nf 
Naples;' ,J<maihnn Cnrry in Moiirrii'fr'M 
4 Wanted tt \\'itt*:' hotnini*^ San^n tn 
*(iiiy Manneritus' jtnd 1'Viar Tiu-lv in \\\^ 
1 Hebrew/ SnuneV nduptutiuti nf i}^ TaliN- 
mnn, 1 Pjnm Mlli-tnii rrdui'iiuHU' 1 '^tluriis 
nt. I)ntvy I*nne, he I'l'l'ii-i'tl n MtU-r n\' l;*/, 
a w*u*K, 'and * starred ' at the mmm 1 theutri^i, 

Wells. 

Oxhorry \vim tor u ltiii( tini ( u*inu;r <*J' 
the Olvtupif* Ituf flie rvpi'riwenf t^'il'ijupd,, 

Ui'rtd cliophmuf* nt Hnii\ I..MIM, n hu^ 
otMiterary and tltfulrteal rciMrt, UvtuTi-v 
told his tfwM**, ' W i \ m'jtli'.i. nit n lVtda\, 
CMWvetsitf SimUi' on n Snnda\, and rlmpj.** 
i*very day/ Here lu'du'd M Jim** !^; r *l, <*f 
1111 upupli'(*tic titttittr in purl to tVi'* 1 lumvj i 
Hcc:i>rdin^ t* utioiher nrctmnt, uf drlimun 
tremeiiH, His rvummt ir** iti n titnlt in Si, 
(Jli'.inent Ihment 'hutvh, Stnuut, 

otily to John Kwery ,'(, \,\ m lM*is Juhn 
Lninp, Itoiuit UHit^ldieud^ \r, Hi Simdrr, 
Sir l)tvil I>uw, nn*l l*(r are hdd In huv* 
been nilHUrpa^^Ml, HU fu'M^He^nn Jhf \*-ry 
ellet'tive, ntid in ntun t v jiat'l 1 * IM S tud* v d l* n ** 
itbovt* niedioerify. 
Ovliprry WIH nnihnrof; I, 'Th^Tiii'rttrtrul 

IHmo, *The Kut^rtnitifditi 



and Memoirs u 
^nwhtul linHp 
I^IIKK *i, *Th* 



**f Li 



lit,, Lmidtw, iH'Jt-i, 1 nth., I''m, ft, 



Itimo, Hi* nUu *di 
Drnmn/ fmwiH!ing *t' I lt |4itv4 with fm^fw* 
toryrtmmrb^le^^voli*, JwlM LMjnmiwn>ti* 
*TIw*Atri'iw f All Work, 1 |iU>iul in JlwtU 
on H Muv JHJO, in which Mr'*, MisMlmilt 
Mtl win (tj, v, | UHi*tMti'ti huff H tj*^n 
Mj t*onu*rftti * Il* wmtiti 



an 



t t lit- Utyw 1*11*, | 



Oxberry 

sumably during the period of his ill-starred 
management. He is responsible for an adap- 
tation of Scott's 'Marmion/ played at an 
outlying theatre. For a short period he edited 
the ' Monthly Mirror/ to which, and to the 
* Cabinet/ he contributed fugitive pieces. Ox- 
berry was over five feet nine inches in height, 
and in his later years obese, dark in com- 
plexion, and with a small and piercing eye. 
Passionate and nnconciliatory, he was yet 
held, thanks to his powers of mimicry and his 
readiness to drink, a popular man and a boon 
companion, A portrait of Oxberry by De- 
wikle, in theGarriek Club, shows him asPetro 
in Arnold's * Devil's Bridge,' An engraving 
of him as Leo Luminati in 'Oh! this Love ' 
is in the 'Theatrical Inquisitor' (vol. i.) ; arid 
a second, presenting him in private dress, is in 
< )xberry'a ' Dramatic Biography,' a work pro- 
jected by Oxberry, and edited after hie death 
by his widow ; it was published in parts, be- 
ginning 1 Jan. 18:25. After the completion 
of tlui first volume in April 1B25 the issue 
was continued in volumes, and was completed 
in live vols. in 18:20 (Advertisement to the 
J)rff)}K(fi( t ItioijFftfihy ; JVotfti and Qiwripftj fitlx 
#er. i. f)75, 4 IH, 4fi7 ). Among other occupa- 
tions, Ox berry wan a printer and a publisher. 

[The best miuoimt of Oxberry is that given 
hi Oxbm-y'K Dramatic Biography, vol. i, 1825. 
Kurtluu' part.iVulfirH aro wuppliod in tho Theatri- 
cal liii[iuHitv for Nov. 1812. Lives appear in 
tho (loorgian Kra and in the Biographical 
Dictionary of Living Authors, 1816.] J. K. 

OXBERRY, WILLIAM IITCNRY 
(ISOH-lHoli), actor, aotx of William Oxberry 
[<j. v.l was born on iil April 1808, and re- 
ceived Itis preliminary education at Merchant 
Taylors' School, which ho entered in Septem- 
ber 181(1 (RowtfHON, Ittywtar of Merchant 
Ttn/htM 1 Ncfawl, ii. i20!&). At a school in 
Ktmt wh Town, kept by a Mr, Patterson, ho 
reee.lved Home training 1 in acting 1 . On leaving 
t bere his education wtifl continued under John 
Clarke, tho author of * Ravenna/ and tho 
.Rev. R t "Nixon. First; placed in hia father's 
printing-office, he became afterwards, like 
him, * the, pupil of an eminent artist.' Ho 
WHH then apprenticed to Septtnnw Wray, a 
surgeon of Salisbury Kquaro, Fleot Street, 
whem he remained until hin father's death, 
About the be^mnin^ of 18^/> ho appeared at 
the private theatre in .Uawatorno Street an 
Abel Day to the Captain Carolers of 3/rank 
IMatthews, A ft or ]>layin^ Tommy in 'All 
at Coventry/ ho mndo his first, professional 
a]>peanuic(^ at Uio Olympic ot> \ ho occasion of 
tne htMiefit of h'w Rtepfather William Jje.man 
Rt>cle[q, v.], on 17 JMavuli 1 8^5, as Sam Swipes, 
LiHtou^H prt in 'Kxchaug-e no Robbery.' 
lie was then employed by Leigh Hunt, who 



Oxberry 

was conducting the 'Examiner/ but soon 
returned to the stage, playing in Chelmsford, 
Hythe, Manchester, and Sheffield, and join- 
ing Hammond's company at York and Hull. 
In the autumn of 1832 he acted at the 
Strand in the ' Loves of the Angels and the 
Loves of the Devils/ both by Leman Rede. 
He went with Miss Smithson to Paris at the 
close of this season, and played low-comedy 
parts at the Italian Opera. [Returning to 
England, he accepted a four years' engage- 
ment at the English Opera House (Lyceum^), 
of which, with disastrous effect upon his 
fortunes, he became manager- He was sub- 
sequently at the Princess's. In the autumn 
of 1841 he succeeded Keeley at Co vent Gar- 
den, and, as Oxberry from the Haymarket, 
played Flute in 'A Midsummer Night's 
])ream,' In 1842 he was again at the Ly- 
ceum, appearing principally in burlesque, 
and winning a reputation as a comic dancer, 
but talcing occasional parts iii farce^ such as 
Victim in Oxenford'a 'My Fellow Clerk.' 
In January 1843 he was at the Princess's 
playing the hero, a jealous husband, of 'A 
Lost Letter,' In June he was a ridiculous 
old schoolmaster in Pooie's drama ' Tho 
Swedish Ferryman/ and in September was, 
with Wright and Paul Bedford, at the Strand 
playing in 'Bom bastes I^uvioso ' and the 
* Three Graces.' Returning to the Princess's, 
lie played with tho Koeleys and Walter Lacy 
in MoncriolFs farce 'Borrowing a Hus- 
band/ and in 1844 was Wambain the opera 
of ' Tho Maid of Judah/ a version of ' Ivan- 
hoe.' In February 184.5 ho was Sir Harry 
in ' High Life below Stairs/ and in April 
Verges to Miss Cuahman's Beatrice, In 
July he was the original Mrs, Caudle to the 
Mi*. Caudle of Compton in l Mr. and Mrs. 
Caudle.' Ho was under tho Vestris manage- 
ment at Co vent Garden. Thoro were, few 
theatres at which ho was not seen, and he 
managed for a time the Windsor theatre. 
A very little man, with a quaint, peculiar 
manner, ho was a lively actor and dancer in 
burlesque, but was said to rarely know his 
part on lirst nightn. Oxberry was a mem- 
ber of the Dramatic Authors* Society, and a 
somewhat voluminous dramatist. II iw plays 
have never been collected, and many of them 
never printed, IHuicambo's collection gives 
' The Actress of all Work, or my Country 
Cousin/ one act ; ' The Delusion, or Is she 
Mad P ' two acts ; * The Idiot Boy/ a melo- 
drama in three acts'; * Mutteo Falcone, or 
the Brigand and hia Son/ one act ; ' Norma 
Travefttio ; ' ' The Pasha and hifl Pots, or 
the Bear and the Monkey,' These are in 
tho 'British, Museum Catalogue/ Other 
plays assigned to him aro : ( Tho Throe 



Oxburgh 




of Heidelberg,' ' me i^ion King,' 'The 
Scapegrace of Paris/ and very many bur- 
lesques. He claimed to have left behind 
thirty unacted plays, which he trusted would 
be inven after his death for the benefit 
of his widow and three children, otherwise 
unprovided for. Up to his death be was, 
with Charles Mathews and Mine, Vestns, 
playing in ' A Game of Speculation and 
the 'Prince of Happy Land.' His death, 
through lung disease, augmented by_some- 
what festive habits, took place on ^9^eb. 
1852 By a curious and painful will, printed 
in the ' Era ' for 21 March 1852, and written 
four days before he died, he left such pro- 
perty as he possessed to Charles Melville, a 
tragic actor better known in the country 
than in London, in trust for his children. 
He expressed many wishes concerning his 
funeral which were not observed; asked that 
his heart might be preserved in some medical 
museum as a specimen of a broken one, hoped 
that a benefit might Ibe given him to pay his 
debts, which were moderate; and left mes- 
sao-es of farewell to many well-known actors, 
Oxberry is responsible for ' Oxberry's 
Weekly Budget of Plays/ fol. 1843-4, con- 
sisting of thirty-nine plays edited by him ; 
and ' Oxberry's Dramatic Chronology ; ' 8vo 
[1850]. This work, which is of little value 
or authority, was announced to be continued 
annually. A. portrait as Peter White in 
' Mrs. "White ' accompanies a memoir in the 
'Theatrical Times' for 20 Feb. 1847 (ii, 
49). 

[Worts cited. The list of his characters ia 
principally derired from the Dramatic and Mu- 
sical Review, 1842 etseq.; Notes and Queries, 
Sthser. vol. v.] J. K, 

OXBURGH, HENRY (.1716), Jacobite, 
was a member of a Roman catholic family of 
Irish origin. He was born in Ireland, and 
served for a short period in James II's army, 
bebga captain in theregiment of his kinsman, 
Sir lieward Oxburgh of Bavin, King's County; 
but he migrated to France in 1696, and took 
service under Louis XIV. He returned to 
Englan^ about 17 00, and purchased an estate 
in Lancashire. Retaining strong Stuart pre- 
dilections, he was unwilling to forego the 
hopes with which the aspect of affairs during 
the last, years of , Anne s reign had inspired 
ijoe Jacobite party. In the spring of 1715 
it w&s understood that lie was to hold a 
eoi^maniLin the English contingent of Mar's 
Jacobite, army, fearly in October the Jacobite 
^neralkBngland, the incompetent Thomas 
Forster [q-v.], granted him a colonel's com* 



Oxburgh 

mission in the name of tho Pzvtemlor, A ft r 
oining the Scottish contingent at Hot him vy 
n 19 Oct., and dispensing, without Mood- 
shed or violence, the posse cvmitttfiM which 
md mustered, somo twenty thousand atroutf, 
under the Earl of Carliele/the small Jueobtto 
brce under Forster and Penventwat.rr [soo 
RATOLIITB, JAMES, third EAIU, Ki80-17Ui'] 
occupied the small town of IVurith. Thenco 
a party was detached under Oxbur^h to 
Lowther Hall to search for armH, and, if pon- 
sible,to seixe Viscount; Lotwdnh 1 . Tin* liittor 
had discreetly left the imuusion in thi earo 
of two aged women. Neither them nor nt 
Hornby Castle, the Beat of the tmturioim 
Colonel Francis Chartem [q, v,"], whither 
Oxburgh conduct edafom#in#'partyonH Nov., 
were any depreciations committtnl^ An in- 
ferior 13 ritish force under (hnml Wills, nub* 
sequontly reinforced hv Geneml ( 1 nnmttir f 
was encountered at IVston, timl^ F<rwtt* 
promptly Burrend(!ved nil Jiotiou of further 
resistance. On L'i Noy, he nent Oxburgh to 
negotiate the capitulation of t hi* town, ( >x- 
burgh prepowd that the inwurj;vni nlumld 
lay down their arm* tw in-iwonerM ^ \\ar 
but ho found Wilts liy no inennH inelint^no 
treat. Ho would not. enter upon terms wit h 
rtibelfl. After entreaty, Will* only reh-nted 
so far aa to promise th'at if the rehels would 
lay down tlieir arms to mirrender ut dis- 
cretion, lui would protcel. them IVoiu Mug 
cut to pieces until he reecuvod further 1 iwliTM 
from the gov<*nuntnt. This Htiinl,y oHieer 
had only one thousand wen under IUH rou- 
mand; novprthnloHH t htu*( t he^nuitiberin^'MW 
Enfylish and 10HH Seotn, wt>re finally indiu*'d 
by Forster to accept thenn ti'rmH f and hi thn 
course of tho day hud down thrir nrtun. 
Colonel Oxburgh WUH conveyed, with t!m 
other Jacobite oille.erH, to London, and emu* 
mitttid to the Martthalwea pfinon, lie wnn 
arraigned on 7 May 17HS, and, after a purely 
formal defence, he wan found guilty and HCU- 
tonced to death, II WUH hunted, drnwn, 
and quartered at Tyburn on Moiuhiy, 14 May 
1716, Tho fact o hi head binn^ 'dis|lnyi'*l 
upon one of tho spikt i n on tiw top of '!\*mil 
Ba'r provoked much indignation nnioti^ thn 
tories, and caused a certain amount nf re- 
action in the popular feeling toward** tin* 
remaining 1 Jacobite prinoiwrH, In ilu* doeu* 
ment which hts left hi the haudw of th* Hht^riir 
at the time of IUH execution, Oxburgh Mtnttnl ; 
* I mlefht have hoped from the ifreat <thnructtr 
Mr. Wills ffavo mo at Preaton C when 1 trt^t*ul 
with him for a surrender 1 ) of the ckiw*iu*y of 
the Prince now on the throno (to which, ho 
said, we could not better entitle ourwitvw* 
than by an early submiswon) that, wtttsh 
surrendered thmfcclve# Prisoayrs at 



Oxenbridge 



Oxenbridge 



cretion, on that Prospect, would have met 
with more lenity than I have experienced, 
and I believe England is the only country 
in Europe where Prisoners at Discretion are 
not understood to have their Lives saved,' 

Patten described Oxbur^h as ' of a good, 
mild, and merciful disposition, very thought- 
ful, and a mighty zealous man in his con- 
versation, and more of the priest in his ap- 
pearance than the soldier.' A rough portrait 
waa engraved to adorn his dying 1 speech, and 
this has boon reproduced for Gaulneld's * Por- 
traits of .Remarkable Persons' (ii. 138-41). 

[Mahou'y Hint, of England, i. 254; Burton's 
Hist, of Scotland, viii. 31 1 ; Patten's Hist, of 
the La to HobclHon, 1717, p. 115, &e. ; Hibbert- 
Ware'tt Shito of Puvtieu in Lancashire in 1715, 
passim ; D'Altori's King JanWs Irish Army List, 
p. 8.51; ^ Historical Ki-gi.slor, 1716, pp. 222-3; 
CobbH.tVuSlato Tviala ; JDoran'fl Jacobito London, 
i, UH ; HVOH of Twolvo Bad M<m, otl. Scccombe, 
pp. l'2tf 7; NobloVi Continuation of rancor, iii, 
4(J1 ; A Tnui Copy of n ^uptir (lolivonul to tho 
ShcriilH of Loiulou by Colonol Oxbur^h, 17 1C, 
M.| T, S. 

OXKHimmGE, JOHN (1008-1074), 
puritan tliviuo, born at Uavonfcry, North- 
um]>t.onHhiri,on H() Jan. !COS,waH oldont son 
onjau^l Oxonbrid^v., M.I), of Christ Church, 
Oxford, jiud a practitioner at Davontry, and 
uiVrwanlH in Lonilon, His mother was 
Kutheriiw, dau^Jito.r of Thoman ll'arby, by 



of Handy, third won of Sir GeorgoThrogmor- 
ton of Coughton. Wood confiusos him with 
another John Oxrnibridgo, a commoner of 
Lincoln ( JollojLfii, ( )xibrd, in 1 (>&% anno atatw 
18. Ho WMH, in fact, admitted a jxmaionnr of 
Kmnuuuiol College, Omu bridge, on 8 April 
1(120, an<l matriculated in July of the flame 
yt,ar Migrating 1 ufterwardw to Oxford, he 
entoml Mivgdulou Hall, proceeded B,A. on 
1 1J Nov* 1 (Wrtjamltsommeneed M, A. on 18 J uno 
IDJJl (Wool), ,l<\t*ti 0,mi, I 488, 400). Ha 
l)icamo a tutor of Magdalen Hall ; ancl in 
ordor to pronioto 4.ho bettor govornmont. of 
tho fiocioly, h drew up a document which 
ho porntiatliul lug scholars to subscribe, lie 
Hum xhibit< i d a contempt for tho college 
Ht-HtiitoH which Usd to liifl deprivation of 
ofl'uui on i37 May 10'U. Laud was cliau- 
ct^llor of tho university, and his wontonco on 
Ox*mbri(lpo in pjintocl in Wharton's ' ,U- 
tnainB of Laud,' ii, 70. It rocitoa that, both 
by tlm ftmthnony of witnosaes xi])on oath 
and by IUB own confession, tho tutor had 
' bcnm found guilty of a strange, singular, 
and aujwrHtiltouB way of dealing with his 
scholars, by twrmuulmg 1 and causing some of 
thorn to fitiuKcribo aa votarioa to 



eevoral 
articles framtjd by himself (as ho protends*) 



for their better government j as if the statutes 
of the place he lives in, and the authorities 
of the present governors, were not sufficient/ 
The vice-chancellor, Brian Duppa [q. v.l, was 
thereupon informed that Oxenbridge should 
* no longer be trusted with the tuition of any 
scholars, or suffered to read to them publicly 
or privately, or to receive any stipend or 
salary in that behalf/ Oxenbridge left the 
hall, and subsequently married his first wife, 
Jane, daughter of Thomas Butler, merchant, 
of Newcastle, by Elizabeth Clavering of 
Callaley, aunt to Sir John Clavering of Ax- 
well. Forborne time he preached in Eng- 
land, showing himself to be ' very schisma- 
tical/ and then he and his wife, who ' had 
an infirm body, but was strong in faith/ 
took two voyages to the Bermudas, where 
ho exercised the ministry. In 1641, during 
the Long parliament, he returned to Eng- 
land, and preached ' very enthusiastically in 
his travels to and fro.' london, Winchester, 
and Bristol are enumerated in the list of 
towns which he visited, A manuscript me- 
moir quaintly remarks that he and hia wife 
'tumbled about the world in unsettled times/ 
In January 1643-4 he was residing at Great 
Yarmouth, where he was permitted by the 
corporation to preach every Sunday morn- 
ing before the ordinary time of service, pro^ 
vided he made his * exercise ' by hall-past 
eight o'clock in the morning. He thus 
preached for months without fee or reward ; 
but at his departure the corporation pre- 
sented him with 15J. His next call was to 
Beverleyyto fill the perpetual curacy of the 
minster, in the patronage of the corporation, 
His name occurs in the list compiled by 
Oliver under the date of 1646 (CtavjSK, 
JBwerky, p. 868). Two years afterwards he 
was- nominated by the committee of plun- 
dered ministers as joint preacher with one 
Wilson at St. Mary's, Beverley (PoirisoN, 
Xkmrlac, p, 368). Wood, in a venomous 
article, states that while Oxenbridge was in 
the pulpit ' his dear wife preached in tho 
house among her gossips and others ; ' and 
the manuscript memoir remarks that her 
husband, ' a grave divine and of great minis- 
terial skill . . loved commonly to have her 
opinion upon a text before he preached it ... 
she being a scholar beyond what ia usual in 
her sex, and of a masculine judgment in the 
profound points of theology'/ 

From Beverley Oxenbridge went to Ber- 
wick-upon-T weed, where a week-day lecture- 
ship in the gift of the Mercers' Company, 
London, had been founded by one Fishborne 
in 1625, and a new church, commenced in 
1648, was finished in 1652 by the exertions 
of Colonel George Penwick, the governor 



Oxenbridge 



8 



Oxenbridge 



, , of Berwick, p. 183), In the 
will of his mother, dated 1651, Oxenbridge 
is described as of Berwick) and in April 
1652 he was with another congregationalist 
minister in Scotland, On 25 Oct. 1652 he 
was appointed a fellow of Eton College, in 
succession to John Symonds, deceased (Addit. 
MS. 5848, f, 451 ; HA.EWOOD, Alumni Eton. p. 
74). Before his removal to Eton he had formed 
a friendship w,ith Andrew Marvell [q. v.], 
and among the manuscripts of the Society 
of Antiquaries there is a letter from Marvell 
to Cromwell, dated from Windsor, 28 July 
1653, bearing- his testimony to the worth of 
Mr, and Mrs. Oxenbridge (MSS. Soc. Antiq. 
Lond. 138, f. 66). Mrs. Oxenbridge died on 
25 April 1658, at the age of thirty-seven, 
and was buried at Eton. In the college 
chapel a 'black marble slab near Lupton's 
chapel, under the arch against the wall over 
the second ascent to the altar/ once recorded 
her virtues in a Latin inscription, styled 
f canting ? by Wood, and written by Marvell 
{LE NEVE, Monumcnta Anglican^ 1050-79, 
p. 18; MARVELL, Works, ii. 195). 

Oxenbridge offended Wood by marrying, 
'before he had been a widower a year,' a 
'religious virgin named Frances, the only 
daughter of Hezekiah Woodward, the schis- 
matical vicar of Bray, near Windsor; ' but 
the lady died in childbed in the first year of 
her marriage. Oxenbridge still rema! ned at 
Eton, and on 25 Jan. 1658-9 preached there 
the funeral sermon on Francis Kous [q. v,l 
one of Cromwell's lords, who died provost 
of Eton. On the Restoration in 1660 he was 
ejected from liisfellowship, and the monument 
to his first wife was defaced and eventually re- 
moved, though another, in memorv of his se- 
cond wife, was allowed to remain, lie now re- 
turned to Berwick-upon-Tweed, and preached 
there until he was silenced by the Act of Uni- 
formity in 1662. Again he < tumbled about 
the world in unsettled times/ and ' in the 
general shipwreck that befel nonconformists 
we find him swimming away to Surinam 7 

m 3 e ^ e 1 In T dies ' ' an En lish colony first 
*ttlad by the Lord WiUoughby of Parham ' 
(MATHER, MagwUa Christi Americana. 1702 
x Sunnam was soon seized by the 



'ordained' to it on 4 May KJ70 ^ 

of the Ma#mc?iuwtf# Historical . ., ,, M 

p. 193). In 1(>7^ ho was appointed one ol' 
the licensers of the pmss. He died suddenly 
on 28 Dec, 1074, being- seized with apoplexy 
towards the close of a sermon which he was 
preaching at Boston. J Us will, dated liMan. 
1073-4, is printed in the, ' Sussex Archaeo- 
logical Collections/ 18(10, p. 21 n. 

By his first wife he had issue Daniel Oxen- 
bridge, M.I,).; JJathahua, who bccaim* the, 
wife of Richard Scott of Jamaica, a gentle- 
man of groat estate ; and two other daugh- 
ters, Elizabeth and Mary. HIM daughter 
Theodora, by his second wife, married on 
21 Nov. 1'77, the Key. Peter TJmte'hcr 
afterwards pastor of Milton, iMawwac' * 

and dial in J C97, 

Wood says : ' This person WH a 
liodg-podg of opinions, not, enHily to be 
scribed; waH of a roving and rumbling head 
spent much, and dud, I think, but in a 
moati condition.' Far different is tbo eh?i 
racter of him given by Kmer.smt, the pastor 
of the church at Bo.sitm in 1S3:, J , who atnten 
that Cambridge, ' IH reckoned byih> iutH. 
riaria of iionton atnon^' the most ehvnnt* 
writorfl^aa wtdl an iwwt, *i<njuenf prcueher.H 
of hiH time. Liko Inn great, nnd ^ond pre- 
decessor, he WUH Hincereiy nttjichtMl to ihn 
congregational interest ; ami the pi.'t v which 
he ehermhod at h^art exhibited itwdV in hm 
habitual convt^rwation,' 

Ilia works aro; I, 'A double \\'nteh- 
word; or tlie Duty of Watching antl Wntrh- 
mg to Duty; both echoml from Hevef, l<j r, 
and Jor. IK), 4, r>. Lomlon, Jut;!, HVO- 
2. 'A Seasonable Prtipositiim in*wmHJftiif 
tho Gospel by Ohristinn ( 1 nbmie,'* in tlm 
Contimmt of ( Ittaiana : being- mime giejuun^H 
of a larger Diriconrne drawn, but not m\* 
lished. By John < )xenbri(lge a Hilly \v*tnue 
too inconsiderable for m givnt, a \V'irk, nti 



fortheEngM With hii Krid^ 
to Bartados m 1667, and tlence proceeded to 
He married his third 



iiiiuM- 
ewtauco from Above' [ London (f), 107(J *MI 

pi '*- 3 ' '< Hmnmi 't, tbn Auiv..|^,rv 
Election o(:lov<>rnor,^c tf in Nn\ v iCutflnnd'/ 
1672, on JloHea viii, 4, Jttd K e Warren hnd 
acopyonhm wrmon in lWK) f tho only <tm 
probably m (mstence, 4, ' A S,.rnmu im tlm 
i'Ood/ printed at H,wtw. 



of 



urch or mee 

jaett s- Shortly 
he was unanimously invited tn 
ite pastor, and he w 



_ , MrtHwwhuw)ttH, by Wiliiuw' inirr 
gooper, London, lgo t 8v, wprintwl from ..... 

.Addit M8S. TsnTl U^l^'oa *'aft*" Amhfr- 
sons Hwtjof tho Colonial ChuU, ii,' aYi-H 
Bakers KorthamptonHhird, i. ;j;i;{ * j' (w t,, P ^ 



WtMJ, 



Oxenclen 



Oxenden 



in. 2/V7, IWO, iv. 217, vi. p, v, viii, 277 ; Palmer's 
NtrtuMwtmnniHtK* Memorial, 1802,i, 200; Pontoon's 
Bovorlno, pp, 1U58, 48-") ; Wood'w Atli. Oxon. iii. 
-108, V,)U, 101i(), 1'Vsti, i. 438, 460; Notca and 
Queries, Hth nor. viii. 203,'] T, 0, 

OXKNDEN, ASIITON (1808-1892), 
bishop of Montreal, fifth sou of Sir Henry 
Oxonden, Hovonth baronet, who died in 18JJ8, 
by Mary, daughter of CohmeA Graham of St. 
Lawrence, near Canterbury, waa born at 
Broom o Park, (Canterbury, on 20 8ept, IBOiH. 

Kducatod atjUumsgatc and ut. Harrow, ho 
matriculated from Uiuvernity College, Ox ford, 
on Juno lH:JO y graduated ilA. JHiil, M.A. 
IHoi), mid wan created ]),!). 10 July 18(10, 
In Decemb( k r IH.'iii he wan ordained to tho 
curacy of Harhatn, Kent, whoro bo intro- 
ducetf wi'ekly oottngw lednroH, In IHJiH 
h<* resignt'd IHB charge, and during* tho fol- 
lowing Kovon yiarH was ine.apae.it at ed for 
work hy coutinuou.s ill-health. From 18-H) 
to 1S(UI* ho wasreelor of Pluckh^y with Pov- 
in|4't<m, Kent, mul itt IStVt WJIH ninths an 
honornry eunou oft 1 antert)ury Outh< k dral. At 
riuckley lu^ lirwt, conimene.etl extoniporH(^oUM 
preaching, and wroto the ' Uarluun TractM, 1 
in May l' S( > 1 ^ he wan elected hinhop of Mont- 
real tuul metropolitan of Canada by tho 
(nwuitau provincial nynod. He wan con- 
Ht*cvatod in \\VstniiuHtor Abbey on 1 Au^,, 
and in>tiilled in Montreal Cathedral on 
f Sept, Three-fourthH of the population of 
tin* city wcn^ Uoman cathohcn, but tho 
church of Kn^'huid ]>o.swi k Hneil t\velv* chnrchoa 
thero heHtil*8 the (*atliedrul* Oxcndou pro 
nid*d over nine dinccHes* Uo anniduously 
fit tended to bin emwopal <lntien, gonondly 
living in Montreal during tho winter, and 
vi.si(Uij4' the country dintnctn iti tho Hiiuinior, 
IH-tumlth cuuHt'd*h'm veHt^naliou of tbo 
hihhopric in 1KTH, and on Inn return to Hng- 
luml he attetidetl tin* Pan-Anglican synml. 
Ki'din Hi Mny 1H7D to 1HS4 ho wan vicar of 
JSf, StephenV, near Canterbury! and from 
1H7!) tn iHH-i luMjtlit'iated aw rural dean of 
I'nntrrhury. He died at Hinrvitr-, France, 
*iii i!^ Fe! iHUif, having inurried on 14 June 
IHVJ Surnli, daughter ot'Joneph Jlrmre Urad- 
hltaw of London, hanker, by whom ho had a 
daughter, Mury Anhtou Oxendtui, 

The hinhon wrot e numeronn nitiatl theologi- 
citl \vorkH,\vlu'ch the authorV plain andHimplu 
hingiin^orcndcrtnl very popular, *Tho Path- 
way of Safety,* 1H5*J, wan winch appreciated 
hv the poorer chi^eH, and ultimattdy rtsacheda 



* The (Jhrihtian Life,* 1877, went to 
forty-Heven tlunt^and, and th ' Barham 
TmetH* N<w. I to 4U nfter running to many 
edit UH in theirtiriginal form, wtsr 



With Charles Henry Ramaden, he wrote in 
1858 'Family Prayers for Eight Weeks/ 
which was often reprinted. Oxenden's 
name is attached to upwards of forty-five 
distinct works. Besides those already men- 
tioned, the most important were: 1. 'The 
Cottage Library,' 1846-61, 6 vols. 2. < Con- 
firmation ; or, Are you ready to serve Christ? ' 
1847 ; tenth thousand, 1859, 3. ' Cottage 
SoruumH,' 1853. 4. ' Family Prayers/ 1.858 ; 
ttrded. 1BGO. 5, 'Tke Fourfold Picture of 
tho Sinner/ 1858. 0. * Fervent Prayer/ 
1800 ; fifth thousand, 1861, 8. 'God's Sles- 
flapfo to the Poor; Eleven, Sermons in Plucldey 
Church ; ' 3rd ed, 1801. 9. ' The Home be- 
yond ; or, Happy ( )ld Age/ 1 861 ; ten thousand 
copioH, 10. ' Sermons on tlxo Christian Life/ 
1 801 , 11.' Words of Peace/ 1863. 12,' The 
Paml tlos of our Lord explained/ 1 804, 13, * A 
Plain History of; the Christian Church/ 1804, 
14. *()ur C'fum'.h and her Services/ 1806. 
Jo. MWisiou/ 1808, 10. 'Short Locturos 
an t-.hu Sunday C-Jo^x'tH/ 18()0. 17. ' My First 
Yctir in Canada/ 1H7L 18, ^ A Simple Ex- 
position of tho Psalms/ 187i2. 19. 'Counwel 
tt) th(i Gonlivined/ 1 878 ; ton thousand copies. 
J(), * Short (lomwtmtfl on tho OoHpola/ 1885, 
; or, Christian Unices and 



[Tho History of my Life : an Autobiography 
hy tho Ki^ht Kov. A* Oxondon, 1891; Plain 
Stu'inoiiH, 1803; Momoir, pp, xiiUlxxxv, with 
portrait; 0raplm\ 6 March 1892, p, 298, -with 
portrait; TimoH, 2!J Fob, 1802, p. 9 ; Q-uardian, 
'24 Fob, 1802, p, 2C>3.] G. C. B. 

OXEHDEN, HriiGKOUGE (1020-1609), 
governor of tho fort, and ialand of Bombay, 
third HOU of Sir Jamea Oxondon of Deno, 
Kont, luiiu-lit, and of Margarot, daughtor of 
Tlunnaw Novinwou of KtiHtry, Kent, wan bap- 
t'mtnl at Wingham on April 1(5^0. Tho 
fntnily of ( tewlim, or Oxinclen, lm hoenroHi- 
dent in Ktmt ninco tho reig'u of Htmry HI. 

Uoorgo Oxtindtm npc^tit hia youth in India, 
atul on y-l Nov. JUKU. vraB knight od at 
Whilohull* At the time the London East 
India Company, after many uneortaiutios of 
i'ortiiino, had hooix Htrtsugtlu'iiod by tho ^rnnt 
of a now charter by Charhswl \, but tho king's 
marringts to a prinWuH of ,1'orttigal Luvolvod 
thts company in a dillioult erinis, Tht^ inland 
ofJiombayhad, utulor tlu> marriago treaty, 
bt*(*n ctnlnd by Portugal to Kn^'land, and it 
lay within tlus conmnny's tonitoviofl. Tho 
court of dmsctorH in March HHil ronolved to 
ruBtoro their trade m I ho Kant JndioM, and 
doMirtid to mako tho actiniHitiou of Bombay 
by tho crown Horvo uioir own intr<sHtn* 
At'.cordin^ly thoy ppointwl r on 19 MarciK 
lOtW, Sit* (Usorgo Oxondou to tho portt. of 
preaidoiit and chief director of all their ailairs 



Oxenden 



10 



Oxenden 



'at Surat, and all other their factories in 
the north parts of India, from Zeilon to the 
Red Sea.' A salary of 3001. per annum anc 
a gratuity of 2001. per annum were providec 
for him, so as to remove him from all temp- 
tations to engage in private trade. The 
company further obtained from the king a 
warrant under the privy seal to Oxenden, 
authorising him, in the company's name, to 
seize and send to England such persons not 
in their service as might be engaged in pri- 
vate trade. 

Oxenden found on his arrival in India that 
the position of the company was very critical. 
The company's trade was limited to the pre- 
sidencies of Surat and Eort St, George, and 
to the factory at Bantam. The king's troops 
were coming from England to keep down 
private trade. Sir George Oxenden was in- 
structed to assist them, and to abstain from 
embroiling the company with foreign powers. 
The States-General of Holland were en- 
deavouring to wrest from England the su-'j Company at 

premacy of the sea in Asia, and they bitterly On 14 July 1 WJH JxvmleVuiied at StmH 
resented the recentaction of the Portuguese, k man whonc probity nnd ]"atH d 
The English troops arrived, but were unable enabled the P iLc,y I oi'Sm U vs., v 
to obtain the immediate cession of Bombay, the company'* ritfhtM md , m me v a, 
rf Tn tT^ ^denwasprevented from who, to tho esteem ol'lhmr e v t , m 
assisting them by increased complications, the respect of the Dutch and I' 1 v , I , 
France joined Holland m threatening the as of the native irovm'n , \ i 

company's trade, while the mogul chieftains o S^t" 1 u c mim ^ v ! 1 a " 

showed themselves jealous of English pre~ monument over Hir C * J, 1 t Sn, ,' 



zebe, and an extension of the privileges of 
trade to the English, with an exemption of 
the payment of customs for one year. 

But both the, Dutch and the ,l/rtneh main- 
tained their warlike attitude, and activo 
hostilities seemed imminent, Accordingly, 
in March 1667, Charles II ceded Bombay to 
the East India Company, The latter now 
determined to revive their western trade, 
and commissioned Oxonden to take J>OMMH- 
sion of the island of Bombay. In Au^u.st, 
following the court of directors appointed 
turn governor and commamler~in*ohiet' of 
Bombay, with power to nominate a deputy*, 
governor to reside on the island, but, he w?m 
placed under the control of the ptvmdent 
and council of Surat, OniM .September 1(!(C 
;lie island was formally ceded l>y the royal 
roops to the iiew governor, The Kn^fish 
officers and privates tbere were invited to 
ntor tho company^ service, and fhu.H tho 
rst military establishment of (lie Must India 



n 
P" n *' 



BM N ..... " "> > 
''" W 1 1,-npv, wl. 

- Ot } Jlln " 1(i(i(> ' WllH ' M - (> " 

' T? t T'W llllr "" t ' 
1 , atter8 ' 1 l , (J,,,,^,,, 



return for the company's aid aeainst 
Dutch. Both these offers were S^Oxen 
den's consideration ^hen, in JaZary W63 
Surat was suddenly attacked by a for of 
Matattas, consisting of some four thousand 
hwLrate the,command of Sevagee. The 

aiaktsmts fled, the governor shut himself T>,, [ ffn- 8 * ? f tllft Huit Il " li " 'rni 
the mtle, Wle Oxenden and the K*w? f n h ? "'*, i. 188: 
ny's servants fortified theEnglish fac- 30/ plS^v - 1 ^?' Ol1 ' Yull> - " 



Oxcnden 



Oxenden 



Jjootls Abboy, Kent. His uncle Sir George, 
governor of Bombay, and Iria distant cousin, 
JU'iiry Oxonden, the poot, are separately 
noticed, He was entered at Trinity Halt, 
Cambridge, as a scholar on 8 July 1667, gra- 
duated LL.U, 1073, M.A. per titerafi reyian 
1(575, and IJLI), 1079, and on 14 July 1674 
wits incorporated at Oxford. Haying been 
for Home tuno a fellow of Trinity Hall, lie was 
oloeted its imjBtor and admitted on 21 Feb. 
1(>HH0, rmnainiutf in that posit ion until liia 
death. In 1 (M ho was appoint od vice-chan- 
cellor of Uuumiverwity, and from 1695 to 104)8 
lio repreaented it in parliament. On 12 J uly 
\( J7V) be was udmitt ed to the College of Aclvo- 
oatoft ; Iw bonium the regius professor of civil 
law at Cambridge inl6H-l,andHueeeeded Sir 
TbomuH Kxton [q, v."|, who died in 1088, aw 
oilieial or dean oi trie urcluss, dean oft ho peeu- 
liiu'H, and vieui^etieral to the ArohbiHhop of 
( 'antorlwry ; but the datu of law admiHuion to 
thene posts is given by Nowcourt and others 
an* 1* 1M>, ItllU.* He was also chancellor of 
the dioeene of London, All Ihoau oilicoB ho 
retained for his life. 

Oxenden contributed Latin verses to tho 
collect ionn of powns by members of t'am- 
bridge University on (I ) tlie marriage, of tho 
Pvm<'essAnne,lOH,'J ; (53) the death of Charles 
atul tho accession otManios, 1684-5; (H) the 
birth of the prince, 'JOHH; (4) tho accession 
of William and JMury, K5H9; (5) tho death 
of (iiunm JVIury, KJDi 5j (tl) tho death of 
tbe ljukoof OlotioeHter, 1700'; (7) the doath 
of William and tho accc.HHioii. of Anno, 170^. 
HIM conduoti in the proceeclingw against 
AVatwm, the binhop of St. J)avidw, waa con-* 
Burod in tho wldivtw to tho reader, pwlixed 
to * A lar$e Kovi<wof th summary View of 
tho Artidefl agninBtth<^HiHhop of St. Dayidw,' 
winch in ufttially attribuliid to .Robert Ker~ 
guHon (c/, 17 14 ) [(j, v*"|, nndfurther (liHclonurcH 
were, promised in a lat^^r tract, Tho reader 
WHH npecially rttpU'Httid to com]m>re ()x(^n- 
den'n linen in the Cambridge poems on tho 
birth of the prince with IUB BubHej^uent 
retnnrltH on him and Kin/jf Jainos, who bad 
previously forjri van and pref(^,rrod him, Oxen- 
du advised TillotHon, archbishop of (Jau- 
ferlmry, on tho h^al points arising out of 
1lurn<.VnconwwaUon UB Biwhop of Salisbury. 
(iUwu, Life (>/* Tillttftum, ]). U,"U), 

Oxenthni died at Doctors' Coinmonn on 
SJOorai lVb. 17<)a -S, aud WUH buried with 
IUH nticeHt.orn at Win^ham, in a vault under 
tho Houth or Dene chancel, Ho gave 40/. for 
the purchase of bookntor the library at Trinity 
llall^ind intended to have founded a scholar- 
ship for a Kentish clergynian'HHon, but <lii y d 
before the niat.ter wa settl^U UiH widow, 
liowover, left 150/ for au additional echokr- 



ship of the sarno kind, Ilia wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Jiasil Dixwell of Broome, 
Kent, was one of the maids of honour to Queen 
Hary, and died at Bath on 18 Sept. 1704. 
Their eldest son, Henry (d. 1720), and his 
next brother, George, both succeeded to the 
family baronetcy. 

Snt GEORGE OXENB-EN (1694-1775), an ' ex- 
tremely handsome' man, married tlie eldest 
daughter and coheiress of Edmund Duncli 
[q. v.], and was notorious for his profligacy. 
Ho seduced his eister-hvlaw, Bell Duncli, 
wife of Mr. Thompson, and was thought to 
be the father of tho third Earl of Orford, 
Sir George represented in parliament for 
many years tho borough oi Sandwich in 
Kent, and WIIH m turn a lord of the admiralty 
and of tho treasury, His character and his 
gallantries tiro painted in Lord ITervey's 
'Memoirs' (ii, lU(i), Lady Mary "Wortley 
Montagu'w 'Works' (ii, 196, iii. 409), and 
Horace Waljwlo's 'LetterB' (ed, Ounning- 
hatu, i, ;M!2 ? vii. l IU). A half-hmgth portrait 
of him was at Kimbolton Oastle, tho aent of 
the .Duke of Manchester. He died at Beno 
in January 1775. 

[ITttHtocVrt Kont, iii. 000 ; Arohncologia Can^ 
tiuna, vi. 277 ; Gooto'H Civilians, p, 101 ; Lo 
NOVO'H J ( "aKti, iii, (H)8 t (550, 6^7, (580; Btsrry'9 
KontGenou'logioH; JJ<jtham'H Baronotngcs, iii, 30- 
31 ; Z^oHtor's Ahinnii Oxon. ; "Wootl's Athorine 
Oxon, ii. 337; Nowooxirt'N Ki'portoriutn Ki!l, 
Lend, i, 446 j hifonnutiou from Mr. 0, K. S. 
lieadlam of Trinity Hall.] W, P, C, 

OXENDEN or OXINDEN, HENRY 
(1000-1070), poet, oldest son of Kichard 
Oxindon (1C88-J29), of Little Maydekin in 
1-Jarham, Kent, by Katherino, daughter of 
Hir Adam Sprakeling of Canterbury, was 
born in tho parituh of St. Paul's, Canterbury, 
on 18 Jan, 1609, Sir JTenry Oxindon (d. 
1020) of Dene in "Win^liam, in the same 
county, was his grandfather (I)#nton 2?<///"s- 
f^'j cf, Gent May. 179<J, i, 406); and\Sir 

I lenry Oxenden (d. 1686), who wan M.P, for 
Sandwich in 1660, and "who was created a 
baronet on 8 May 1078, and Sir George 
Oxemlon [q, v,], governor of Bombay, were 
his first cousins (MO UASTBD, Kent, hi. 090). 

I 1 o matriculated from Corpus Ohristi College, 
Oxford, on 10 Nov. 10:20, and graduated 
B, A. 1 April 1(5127, lie was appointed rector 
of Hadnage in Bucking'hampihiro in 1003, and 
hold that houotico until his dtmth in Juno 
1070, lie wan buruul on 1 7 June at Denton 
in Kent, He nuirriod, lirst, on 28 Dec. 1 6352, 
A tine (d. 1040), daughter of Sir Samuel 
IVyton, by whom ho had a son Thomas, Iwp- 
tirtod on i^7 l^^.b, 1(5^3; secondly, on 15 Sept. 
104*2, Katherintv(//, 1 W), daughter of James 
Gallon, by whom ho left no male issue. 




Oxenedes 



12 



Oxenford 



Oxinden was author of: L 'Rehgionis 
Funus et Hypocrite Finis,' 1647, 4to. A 
satirical poem upon the growth of mushroom 
sects, in Latin hexameters, to which is pre- 
fixed an engraved head of the author. 2. ' Jo- 
bus Triumphans/ 1651, sm. 8vo, a poem of 
similarcharactertotheforegoing,butofmuch 
greater merit, It has commendatory verses 
by Alex Ross, "William Nethersole of the 
Inner Temple, and others. The author was 
much flattered by a report that this poem 
was read in foreign schools. 3. ' ELKVV 
0a<nAc7; or an Image Royal,' 1660, 12mo, 
4 'Charles Triumphant: a Poem, 1660, 
12mo. He also indited an epitaph in English 
verse on Sir Anthony and Dame Gertrude 
Perceval (this is printed from the tombstone 
in Denton Church in Brydges's * Censura 
Literaria,'x. 25), and prefixed some commen- 
datory verses to Boss's ' Muses Interpreter' 
(1653). 

[Archseologia Cantiana, vi, 276-283, where 
are given Qxinden's arms and seal, -with some 
directions respecting his funeral, and a pedigree 
of the family of Oxenden or Oxinden; Wood's 
Athens OAOQ. ed Bliss, iii. 923 ; Foster's Alumni 
Ozon. 1500-1714; Hunter's Chorus Vatum, vi, 
f. 1 1 1 , in Brit. Mns. Addit. MS. 24492 ; Brydges's 
Censura Lit. x 359; Gent. Mag. 1796, i. 466; 
Xowndes's Bibliographer's Man. (Bohn), 1756; 
Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, 1779, iv. 58,] 

T. S. 



or OXNEAD, JOHN DE 
(d. 1293 ?), is the reputed author of a chro- 
nicle published by Sir Henry Ellis in 1859 
in the Kolls Series. The sole evidence in 
favour of Oxenedes's authorship is based on 
the title, of the'manuscript (Cotton MS. Nero 
I). 11), which was then believed to be the only 
one extant. But the fact that the title is not 
in the handwriting of the original scribe, 
which is that of the early part of the four- 
teenth century, but in a hand of the middle of 
the sixteenth century, considerably weakens 
the statement. It has been regarded, how- 
ever, as satisfactory by many writers. "Whar- 
ton in ' Anglia Sacra' (i. 405) and Smith in his 
4 Catalogue of the Cotton MS.' treat Oxenedes 
as the author. Tanner has given him a 
place in his 'Bibliotheca ' (JBibl, Britannico- 
Mibernica t p. 567), and Sir Henry Ellis 
seemed to have no doubt as to the author- 
ship, though his edition was not very care- 
fully compiled, and he is especially negligent 
in His account of the sources from which the 
Hulmeian Chronicle is derived (cf. Intro- 
duction, pp. vi sq. with Mon. Hist. Germ. 
Scriptt. xxviii. 598), Moreover, the dis- 
covery of another manuscript, belonging to 
the Duke of Newcastle, just after Ellis's edi- 
tion was printed off, has somewhat vitiated 



his conclusions. This manuscript is in a four- 
teenth-century handwriting, and is regarded 
as having been transcribed, not from tho Cot- 
ton MS., but from a common lost original. 
A collation of the Duke of Newcastle's MS. 
with the Cotton MS., made by Mr. ; l\nowleM, 
was published as an appendix to Klhs's tnli- 
tion. It is not clear from the printed edition 
whether this manuscript also ascribes the 
authorship to Oxenedes. 

Nothing is known positively about Ox* 
enedes, His name is plainly derived from 
the little village of Oxnead, on the Bim? 
in Norfolk, about four miles south-mint, of 
Aylsham, and it is therefore usual to naaumo 
that he was born there. It is clear that- tho 
chronicle ascribed to him is the work of a 
monk of the great Norfolk Benedict ino 
monastery of St. Benet's, Hulm, which is 
situated in the marshes lower down the Bure, 
about ten miles from Oxnead, It in note- 
worthy, however, that Oxnead did not be- 
long to the monks of St. BenotX amHtn 
name is not mentioned either in tho chrouitito 
or in the cartularies of that house. 

The chronicle of Oxeneclen extenda from 
the time of Alfred to 1203, The earlier por- 
tion is a compilation of no groat value, Up 
to 1258 the writer mainly follow** John of 
Wallingford, Between 12/38 and 12D2 tho 
narrative is derived from tho Bury St, I'M- 
munds chronicle of John de Tayster and hw 
continuatora. Up to 1280 there in pmd'.ica 1 ly 
nothing fresh added by the Holme writer 
except some details of the baronn 1 warn in 
1264 and 1265. After ,1281) a good deal of 
Norfolk history is mentioned which >H not 
found elsewhere, but vory little of any im* 
portance that aflecta general history, ' Tho 
chronicle deals fully with tluvuilmrs of Ht 
Benet's, Hulnie, and brealcB oft' abruptly iu 
the middle of a sentence ^ 



.election of Robert Winchelsey HH arch bishop 
of Canterbury in March J21I-J. It in tlioti^ht, 
to be evident, from the back of the leaf being 
left blank, that the abrupt ccmcluwum to dm* 
to the author haying ceased liis .lubtjiip, HO 
that the death of the writer 'probably took 
place in 1293, A short chronicle of Ht 
Benet's, which is appended to tho Nwcatlw 
manuscript, also ends in 1204, 

[The Introduction of Sir Honry Ellin to }m 
edition of the Chronicle in tho ItullH Bor'uw alwuld 
be compared with tho brief btit v-luabl Intro- 
duGtion by Dr, Lioborrnarm to tho oxt,rntn <*t>iH 
earning imperial affuira printed by him in 
Monumenta G-wmaniBa Historica, feiptowB. 
xviii, 598 sq.] 7 p f 

OXENFOBD, JOHN '(181S-1877),' dm 

matic author, critic, and translator', born at 
Camberwell on 12 Aug. 1812, wa* ulmrmt. 



Oxenford 



Oxenham 



rntiroly HU-tuluoat(Ml, though lor upwards 
of two yours In* \vnn a pupil of S, T, .Krioud 
(of. 7Vw/'A\ 5?(i I'Vb, 1H77), Boing- intended 
for the lo^al jiroiVsHiou, ho WUH urtirlod to n 
London solicitor; his uinno first appoiuvs in 
Ohti'ko'M * Law List' in 1HJJ7. It in utatod 
that' his undo, Mr*. AlHiijyfiT, tntondod him 
to write tho monry-nmrkot article for t-ho 
*Tunos/ ami that ho assisted in Alsag'orVi 
ollioo in Jlirohin Ltinc for somo yoars, and 
that ho wrote soundly on tiommiMvial and 
(hmnt'ijil imtltorrt botbro do voting hiuiHolf 
out iroly to lih'rattuv and tho drama (of, Mr<r^ 
4 March 1H77), llo boounio woil ncquaintod 
with (?onnan Italian, French, and Spanish 
Utoruturo in tho original, and ho trnnslalod 
( 'uldoron^ * ViduoM Smno ' in Hwh a immnor 
as to ovoko a t'tilo^y from (?, II. LOWO.H 
(cffr LtiWHM} fin/it* r/r /V//tf ttntl (VA/mw), 
Among othor works, Oxon ford also triuwlattul 
a lutyfo portion of HoSardo'n * Orlando Jnna- 
morn to/ MIior(*K ^rartnUo/iJootho^' DMi- 
tun^f utul Wahrhoit'l London, l8i()),.Jni k obs'H 
4 Holhirt/ Knno KisohovV * Kranois Hacon/ 
4 IHo \Viilil\w\viiitds<'luiftin/ l^ckonnnnn^ 
1 <\wvorsatiou of (Joo-lho*( (Condon, 1850) 
of whio.h it was HIIU! that (h^ translation 
posntwod 'qiuilitioH nf stylo HUporiot* to tho 
original 1 (Athvutrnw^ iM lAb, 1H77). Ho 
ulsi) odltcd Mii^oFs * (lotnjjloto 1 Dictionary of 
tho Uormnn and J^n^lish Lan^nagVH/ 1H57, 
tJvo, and * Tho Ulnstratod Hook of Fronch 
Hon^s from tlw Sixtoonth to tho Nino.to.<mth 
O^ntnry,' 1855, 8vo and assisted Francis 
Miitfbr'to transla1(^ \\\(\ words of tho Wanner 
nhu*tions for tho Albort Ilullporfonnamutt) 
in 1877, An ossay by him on * Ironodasm 
in Philosophy 'for tho'* Wt*8tminstorUovi(*w/ 
barttulonWchoponhauorV ' Partu^t und l*ara- 
lipomnna/e^roatod u considorablo amount, of 
int^rost at a tinio whon Schoptmhiuior was 
little known and loss nndorstood itiKn^land, 
Oxonford'fl ossay 'may bo called without 
exaggorution tho foundation of Sehopon- 
hauor's fanm both in his own and in other 
countries' (Fortnightly MMMW, December 
1876), 

But Oxcnxford T a intoroata were largely ab- 
fiorbod by tin* ntago, and a dramatist and 
dramatics critic ho achieved his widest ropn- 
tution. H'm oarliosf. dramatic eiForts wero 
4 My Follow 01rk'(lM3) and* A Bay woll 
apout* (Knglirth Opera Itou8e T 4 ApririBSr>) t 
which ]>aHsed through many editions, and 
wan translated into Gorman and Dutch, An 
ineomploUi lint, containing tho titles of sixty* 
oight. playH, .fee,, by Oxenford, ranging from 
tho abovo-mtmtionod works to l The Porter 
of Havre ' (prodmwd at tho Vrincosft^ Theatre 
on 15 St*pt. IH75), IB givon in the ( Musical 
World 1 fur 10 March 1B77 (c JJrit. 



Cttt.) A piece by him called ' Tho Ilomlock 
Dran^ht/ which m not gonorally inclnd(ui in 
tho lists of his dramatic works, was produced 
about 18-18, when tho cast included tho elder 
Karron, I^i^h Murray, and Mrs, Stirling- (of. 
fira, 11 Marc.h 1S77J. Oxenford also wrot<^ 
a lar^e numhur of librettos, including- those' 
to Alacfarren'fl oponiM, t Hobin Hood* and 

* Ilolvellyn ' (soo, MAOKAUKEN, Sru G. A,, and 
lUNiHTKK, Life of <7. A. Mttcfarrc)^ paa- 
nim), to Bomsdiot/8 * Kiohurd Cuun- tie Lion' 
and * Lily of KiUarnoy, 7 UKS iarco * Twioo 
Killed* \\m traiwlattstl and played in (?or- 
inany, and (in the form of an Opera, ' Bon 
Soir, Mousiour Pantalon,' the imisio by A, 
UIMHUI) at) tho C)p6ra Coniiquo in .Paris in 
185 1. 

About 1850 Oxenford hotmrao dramatic 
critic to I ho ^Timon' nownpaptn 4 , and ludd 
that position for more than a quarter of a 
century. In lSo'7 IKS visited America, nnd 
mibNoquontly made a tour in Spain. Kroni, 
(nich country ho Mont a Morion of nrtieh'H to 
tlu *Tnne/ ()-\ent\rd was at all limow a 
voluminouH writer to tho periodical mn^n- 
yanos of his day, and contributed tho article 

* Moliero ' to tlm M Vnuy ( Jychpnlia.' ( hvin^ 
to ill-lumlth, ho wnw compelhul to resign bin 
jn'ofoHHional *ipjoiut-niontH Homo tinio helbre 
hJM death, winch toolc placo f from heart - 
tlisoaHOat ^H Trinity Square, Southwark, oti 
iil Feb. 1877, Mi^hteen months woviouHly 
lu^ had joined the Uomnn catholic ohurcll, 
and after his death a requiem masfl, with 
munic by Herr Meyer Lutz, was pi^rformod 
at Ht. (feor^e* Cathedral, Southwark, JIo 
wan buried at Kotusal ( Ireon on 28 Fsb. (cf f 
Catholic Standard $ Musical WuM 9 7 April 
1877, p. 240). 

()x<nford was amiable to weakness, and 
tho exc(^Hive kindlintiHfl of IHH dispOHition 
(saufltd him so to err on tho side, of leniency 
an to render hifl opinion as a critic practically 
valueless. It wa his own boast that * nono 
of those whom he had censured ever went 
home disconsolate and despairing 1 on account 
of anything 1 he hud written. 7 lliw literary 
work," in prose and verse alike, shows much 
facility, 

[A sketch of OxonfoTd appcwrod in Tinwloy's 
Magazine in March, 1874; Academy, 1877, ii. 
194; Athowmur), 1877, i. 258; Watford's Men 
of the Time, 9th edit.; Annual Ko^iator, 1877, 
ii. 138 ; ^rifilwh Cyclopedia, London, 18&7, 
vol. iv, col, 673 ; BritiHh Museum Catalogue ; 
Times, 23 Feb. 1877, p, 5 col, 6, 20 Fob. p, 4 
coL 4; authorities cited in the* t< v xt.] H. H. L, 

OXENHAM, IIENUY NUTCOMBE 

(18^9-1888), lioman catholic writer, eldo.st 
son of William Oxtsnhara, a clergyman of 
the cUurcb, of England, and second master 



Oxenham 



Oxenharn 



at Harrow School, by his wife, a sister o 
Thomas Thellusson Carter, afterwards hono 
rary canon of Christ Clmrch, Oxford, wa 
born at Harrow on 15 Nov. 1829. He wa 
educated at Harrow and Balliol College, Ox 
ford, where he obtained a classical scholar 
ship on 27 Nov. 1846. He graduated B.A 
(second-class classical honours) in 1850, and 
proceeded M.A. in. 1854. An easy and per 
suasive speaker, and an earnest high church 
man, he aired his views at the union, of whicl 
he was president in 1852, and thus spoilec 
his chances of a fellowship. He took holy 
orders in the church of England, and was 
curate first at Worminghall, Buckingham 
shire (1854), and afterwards at St. Bartholo 
mew's, Cripplegate. 

During his residence at "WbnninghaT 
Oxenham published a. thin volume of re- 
ligious verses, intensely catholic in senti- 
ment and of considerable literary merit, en- 
titled '' The Sentence of Kaires and other 
Poems,' Oxford, 1854, 8vo ; 2nd edit. Lon- 
don, 1887; 3rd edit., with additions anc 
suppressions, and the title ' Poems,' London, 
1871. He also edited * Simple Tracts on 
Great Truths, by Clergymen of the Church 
of England/ Oxford, 1854, 8vo, and coin- 
piled a * Manual of Devotions for the Blessed 
.Sacrament/ London, 1854, 8vo. 

In November 1857 Oxenham was received 
into the church of Rome by Dr. (afterwards 
Cardinal) Manning [q.v.J at Bayswater. In the 
following year he justified his secession in a 
' letter to an Anglican friend ' entitled ' The 
Tractarian Party and the Catholic Revival/ 
London, 8vo. He took the four minor orders 
in the church of Kome, but scrupled to go 
further, being unable to rid himself of his 
belief in the validity and consequent indeli- 
bility of his Anglican orders. After some 
time spent at the Brompton Oratory, a place 
was found for him on the professorial staff 
of St, Edmund's College, Ware, and he 
afterwards held a mastership at the Oratory 
School, _ Birmingham. In middle life he 
studied in Germany under Dr. Dollinger, for 
whom he always retained a profound venera- 
tion. _In 1865 he published 'The Catholic 
Doctrineof the Atonement/ London, 8vo (2nd 
edit. 1869), a work of some value as a con- 
tribution to the history of theological theory 
and in 1866 a translation of Dr. Dollinger's 
' First Age of Christianity and the Church ' 
London, 2 yols. Svoj 3rd' edit. 1877. 

With a view to promoting a better under- 
standing between the Roman and Anglican 
churches, Oxenham greeted the appearance 
of Pusey s ' Eirenicon ' by the publication of 
a sympathetic letter to his friend Father Wil- 
liam Lockhart [q. v.], entitled 'Dr. Pusey's 



"Eirenicon" considered in relation to Ca- 
tholic Unity/ London, 1806, 8vo; 2ndo<Ut, 
1871 ; and a 'Postscript on Catholic Unity ' 
among the 'Essays on the Reunion of Chris- 
tendom/ edited by the Rev. F. G. Leo, 1SU7. 
In 1870 he contributed to the ' Saturday Re- 
view' a series of papers on the proceeding 
at the Vatican council, which were wriltim 
with much pungency in a spirit of intone 
hostility to ultramontanism, and woro widely 
read, In 1872 he published a translation of 
Dr. Dollinger's 'Lectures on tho Reunion at' 
the Churches/ London, 8yo. Ilo atttmdod 
the synod of ' old ' catholics held al; BQJIU, 
under Dollinger's presidency, in Hm)ttrnl)iT 
1874, and had at first some sympathy whh 
the movement which it initiated, but of ita 
later development he entirely disapproved. 
For the English version of Bishop Ilefoln'rt 
monumental work, 'The History of OhriM- 
tian Councils/ Edinburgh, 1.871 ~8tt, tt vols. 
Svo, Oxenham edited and translated Urn 
second volume, which was published in 
1876. The same year appeared his ' Catholic: 
Eschatology and Univoraalism/ u reprint, 
revised and expanded, of a serieR of artirhv* 
from the 'Contemporary lieview/ vol. xxvii. 
(cf. a reply by the Kov. And row Jukes m 
Contemporary Re vim, vol. xxviii, July 187H, 
and Oxenham's rejoinder in tho C/uwtitttt 
Apologist, October 1870). In 1870 hi^dilcd, 
under the title 'An Emmieon of the Kigh* 
ieenth Century/ a reprint of an anonywouM 
' Essay towards a Proposal for Oat hoi it* Tom* 
munion/ first published in 1704, and com- 
monly ascribed to Joshua Basset [q, v.] In 
1884-5 he reprinted from the ' Saturday Re- 
view 7 'Short Studios in EccltwiuHtieaf II i* 
;ory and Biography/ and 'rthoH Studio^ 
thical and Religious/ London, ^ VO!M, 8vo, 
^Tall, thin, dark-haired, dark-eye.d, anil 
with the mien and gait of the reduce, ( )xen- 
iam mig-ht have sat to a painter fur Ml 
> enseroao/ In fact, however, ho. was a keen 
)bserver of men and things, had little tiapn- 
iity for abstract thought, and still UHH of 
he submiasiveness oharaotoristic of a lovul 
and humble catholic. Throughout life* ha 
etained his Affection for the church of Kng* 
and, his belief in the validity of her onWn, 
md the friendship of somo of her most, din* 
inffuished clergy, while he occasionally at- 
ended her services. lie was alao an active 
member of a theological society which, from 
ts comprehending thinkers of almewt ail 
hades of opinion, was humorously oallwd thft 
Panhsereticon/ Oxenham died, in thw full 
ommunion of the Roman catholic church at 
is residence, 42 Addison Road, Ktmstmrtlm, 
n 23 March 1888, and was buried at Ohia 
urst, Kent, 



Oxenham 



Oxford 



1 Widos tho works montionod above, Oxen- 
Jwm, who WUH lor many yewrw a regular 
contributor to Urn * Saturday Reviow,* WIIH 
tho. author of sovoral roli^'ioius tract a mul 
of a * Momoir of Liouttmunt Rudolph de 
LLsh>, R.N.,' .London, 188(J, Svo. 

fKostor's Alumni Oxon. ; IJnaso and OonrN 
w*y*H IJihl, OoruuU. p. 1 J&U9, and Collect Coraiik 
p. (M(> ; Obituary Hi^mul VieoNimuM, i.o, John 
Oakloy [<j. v,] ropriuttul from Manohhator 
Uuuniian 27 mul 31 M'aivh 1888, Wookly 
.K*tfiHt<'r J1 Atavi'h 1888, Satunlay Boviuw 
Jil March 18HB, Athonnmm ;il March 1888, 
Times !M Maivh 1H88, Ohmvh Timow 20 March 
1MB, Tahlot 7 Nov. 1857 and 31 March 1888, 
tiuunlmn tti) Kob., i!l March, and 28 March 188H; 
"WurdVi Hist. t>f St. Kdrunml'w Oolli^o, pp. 2">H, 
27^ ; KrtiiNi'h'rt Hop, KVnn, Oonf. Buna, Ifin^lish 
translation, ml U. 1*. Liildnu, p, xxxix.] 

J. 'AT, ft. 

OXENTTAM, JOHN (^ 1575), Hoa-eap- 
tnin, t>f a g'ood Dovonshiro fmnily Hutthul at 
South TrtAvlon, was with Drako in 157:3 at 
tlm nipturii of Nombro do Dion ['son I)HAKK, 
Hut KUANCIH). Jin Is wpoknu of aw llioHhip\s 
conk, a rating \vhih in a small privntiu^r 
pt'obahty comH])oiut(Hl with that of tlw nio- 
<l(rn jMUvor* In 1hn march HOWWH the rth- 
tnuM, ()xfnham following Drako^wiountod thy 
1no at tho top of tlw ridgo, and in ronponao 
to Uralco'n prayi'rthat it ini#ht bo grantou! to 
him to wail on tho South Soa, whi(sh lie had 
junt woon t k Haid to havo aunworud tliat, by 
Uod'fl graco, ho would follow him. ( )u ttluur 
ridnfn to Mn^land Drako was for soino timw 
(employ od i n 1 rtdand ; and when two yours had 
paHtfwi away, Oxunham, whoso reputation as 
a man of eoimifjo and ability stood hifjh, ro- 
milvtul to mako ilw atiom])t. 'by himHtdf. lie 
accordingly iitt-od out a whip of 1^0 tons, 
witli a crow of Hovwity mnn, and Hailed for 
tho iHthmuH, whoroho ilnnvhis whip aground 
in a mnnll cnudt, buriwl her guns and storm, 
and, with hia itum, marchud acronn the Ith- 
muH till, coming to a fltrtuim which ran to 
tho south, thoy built a pinnace ' 45 foot 
long by tho l<ol/ and in it Hailed down into 
thn South Boa, having with thorn mximgrooH 
nn guidoH, At tho Ittta of Poarla thoy lay 



, 

omi tt*ti days, and then captured two annul 
barlw carrying jyold and ailvor from Quito 
to Panama, With this trtwwire and some 
pwu'lw found in thu island they returned to 
tho ri wr down which t.hoy had come, stupidly 
dumiirtswg thu prices near ita mouth, and 
allowing them to SOB which way they took. 
Indians from tho island had already given 
the alarm at Panama, and a strong party 
of uwn, commanded by Tuan de Ortega, had 
lituni mmt out to look for thorn, ^ Baarch- 
Ing along tho coast, Ortega was directed by 



tho prizes to the river the English had en- 
tered; and when in doubt as to the particu- 
lar branch, lie was further informed by the 
foatlwra of fowls, which the English, aw they 
plucked the birds, had carelessly thrown 
into tho stream. Ortega was thus able to 
follow^ them up with, certainty, and coming- 
on their camp, from which they lied at the 
iirwt alarm, recaptured all the booty. Oxen- 
ham nuule an atttvwpt to recover the pro- 
perty, but was beaten off with heavy loss. 
lie then retreated for his ship, but this had 
been found and removed by a party from 
Nombrc do J)iow, whence also a body of two 
hundred munkctoors was flont to hunt down 
tho En^'liwh. Some, who wore sick, fell at 
onco into their hands; tho vest, including 1 
Oxenlmni, were handetl ovtir by the negroes. 
They wore taken to Panama, and, being; un- 
ablo to show any connuisHion or authority, 
wt>re, for tlio most part, put to death there, 
as ]>irutt i ,s ; but (Xvonham and t,wo others, the 
master and the pilot, wore Hent to .Lima and 
tluiro han^tui Diat Oxenham was a man of 
ruda courage would appear certain, but tho 
whole conduct of tlm adventure shows him 
to have boon without taut or discretion, llw" 
oxcitod tho ill-will of his own men, and 
made thorn suspect him of intending (o cheat 
thorn out of their sharo oJ: the plunder; ho 
failed to win the ail'uction or loyalty of the 
notfroos j and a flncceasion of blunders, such 
as those by which Ortega wan informed of 
the lino of his retreat, could have no other 
result than defeat and ^ ruin. The later 
fiction of his intrigue with a Spanish lady 
has been worked with advantage into 
Ivingaley's ( Westward Jlo 1 ' 

[Ifakluyb's Principal Navigations, iii, /520 ; 
Purchafl his Pilgrimes, i\% 1180; Tho Obsorva- 
tioun of vSir Riolmrcl Hawkins in Tho Hawkins's 
Voyages (Hakluyt, Soc.), p. 322; S(Uith/ 
British Admirals/in. 108.] J. K. 1. 

OXFORD, EAKLS OF, [See VHUK, Ho- 
in?HT 3)K, third KAKL of the first creation, 
1 1 TOM 331 5 VEKM, JOHN DK, seventh J^AUT*, 
118-10 ; Vwitw, KOITOT DM, ninth EAUL, 
18!3-180iJ ; VKUW, ATJUKUVDM, tenth EAKL, 
3340P-1400; VBKHI, JOHN DK, thirteonth 
EARL, 1 448-1 r>15 ; VKRTJ, JOHN pw, sixteenth 
EABL, 1/J1SP-1502; VJBUB, EBWAKD m, 



j 

, eighteenth EAHL, 1598-10^5 ; V 
BY m, twentieth KAUL, 1020-1703 ; HAR- 
r, KOBBBT, first KAIIL of tho second 

creation, 1601-1724; HARLM, EDWARD, 

second EARL, 1689-1741.] 

OXFOBD, JOHN o (d. 1200), bishop 
of Norwich, presided, according to Hoger of 
Wendover (wlls Sor, i, i^O), at the council 



Oxford 



Oxford 



of (Marcndon 'do maiulato ipsins roj>is/ 
l;j Jan. 1 UU. Early in February he was 
sent to Sens,with GeoilVey Kidel [q. v.], arch- 
deacon of Canterbury, and afterwards bishop 
of Kly, to ask from "Alexander Til his can- j 
sent to tin 1 eonstitutmnMof Clarendon and the ] 
mibHtitutum of Roger oH'ont FKveque ( q, v,] t I 
archbishop of York, for Beehet as papal ; 
legate. The former request was refused, the | 
latter grant I'd in a modi Hod form (',l//r/wV//.s ; 
jtor M< Itititoi'yufsltv/ttMoi) T/wmtin /Mft'f, , 
Rolls Ser. v/85-ti, l-ii, i. JiH). John r- , 
turned to England, bearing letters from the , 
pope dated Sens, 27 Keb. t and wan with i 
Henry 11 at. Woodstock Jn March ( KYTON, j 
Itinerary of Unity II, p. 70), In Novem- j 
ber, aft IT Becket's Highl, he was sent with , 
several bishops and others on an embassy to | 
Louis \\\ and the ( 'omit of Flanders, to rt 1 - | 
quest that. they would not receive the arch- j 

bishop (Ol-JUVANK OF OANTKHWRV, Rolls \ 

Soi\ i. iiH)), They wero not favourably iv- j 
ct'ivt i d,an<l John ofOxford, after a^ain visit- 
ing 1 the, p<)]>e unHueiM^sfnUy (Muttriti/#, i 
(it ), went, on to the KmpmsM Matilda, to 
whom lid accused Ueeket of oontMiding for , 
church privih'geH for the sake of pinvsonal ! 
amhilion ami worldly lucre (//>, Holln SIT. | 
v. Mr* 0), lit April or May linn he was. 
Hcnt with Richard of llchester o, v,|, arch- j 
deacon of Poitiers, and afterwards bishop of, 
Winchester, to negotiate \vilh the Kmperor | 
Frederic 1 about the innrnago of the king's ! 
daughttr Matilda to Henry the Lion of| 
Saxony- Tluiy wen* present, at. the council I 
of Wiu7,burg on \\'hitHundny, ii!J May (full j 
account-M in Mtitmulti v, \W rititj,') At this , 
(louncil, HO Kredtn'ic solemnly declared, the >; 
KnglLsh envoys swori* on their own behalf! 
awl that- of their master to obey tlm uutU I 
pope Paschal. ,Iolin of Oxford lattr on im ' 
solemnly denied that he hnd taken any such j 
oath (/'//, v, 450), but he, was always hence- ; 
forth known umong Hecket*H party by MUM 
niclcnnme <jf ' Jurat or, 1 On his return he uc- ; 
companied the king in his disastrous expe- 
dition against the North* Welsh, Hhortl t y 
after thifl, on th appointment of Henry of j 
Beaumont to tlm WHS of Hayeux, ho wan i<l 
d*ttnofSuliHlmry(Lw NnvH, 7'W/ t ed, Hardy t 
ii. (II *; KrroNi JVtWwrj/, p, Hii), in pit 
of tlw proviouH injunction* of Alexander 111 
that no one shoultl be appointed without th 
conB(nt of this canona, tho greater part of 
whom wwre in exik (Material^ in A)$> W)J2). 
On Whitsunday, 12 June lltttt, Betkt at 
V^zelay formallv extern muni cat ed him )>- 
cause tieliad ' fallen into damnablt^ htn'i^y by 
taking the oath to the eiwperoFj and had com- 
muntcated with thw Hcbismatic Archbishop 
of Cologne, and had uyurjHjd tlw dcauery of 



Home, Bceket 

Archbishop of 

//.*, vi, oM, Tin* 

eees^, He ro- 



Salisbury contrary to the pope's decree" 
(AfafmHb, v, .*5S.'t,';iSH, ;>;{, &<. ) This seu- 
tenco was confirmed by the pope (fft, p, JMi!). 
Th(*, hishop and chapter of Salisbury were 
at; the, same time warned not to admit- him to 
the deanery, On ^4 June the bishopfc of the 
province of rnt.erbury appealed \u the pope 
apiinst the sentence, and .locelin, hisho| of 
Salisbury, warmly espoused the cause of.fuhn 
of Oxford, and \VRH in eonsetjuence suspended 
by the- archbishop, John of < )\ford appears to 
have abandoned the title of dean for u time 
(KvTON, JfiHtwtrtfi p. 10LM. He was sent in 
November on a mission to 
wrote at once to warn the 
Main?; against him { JA// 
mission had cousitlenibli 
cured his own absolution and continuation 
in the deanery, nfier he hud surrendered 
it absolutely into the pope's, hand*, He 
induced the pope to send two nirdittttls 
Otto nnd \V ill iatn. to report upon the dilute 
between Henry nnd Meehet< fie tipprtu'M 
further toluiVi* obtained a dispensntitui from 
the pope for the marriage of H*'ury*H MU 
(Jtoilrey to (Nnstiuu*e, tlu* beires--* u'f Brit* 
tuny, which opened n prospect of u vu^t 
coalition auiou^' the hohlers of ^rrat KrnuK 
HelVt under the Mn^lish kin^ und ltu>?ilc to 
UtiuinVIli^vi, Mn t l UU 17, K>! .1,170 1; 
KYTON, Itinrt'tny, pp, U)i*, ItKl), l^rotostM 
reached Koine from ^\ cry tjunrt i r against this 
change in the pupal attitude; but the d^nn 
of Salinbury returnc*! in triumph, boiintinK 
everywhere of hi* sueet^s ( t }ftttwittl#i vl.lfl*i 
4*t pUhHinO, MJravisMmum in eccleHiu (liklli* 
cnnnHcniutnluin fecit JohntuteM de OxenefWd 
quiHiutpepjunoth* Homniut tnm facile inum* 
phavit/ wrote Alice, ju*e of Lutiin VU, t*> 
the pope (///, p, 4HH), In Kughmd he \\HH 
still more vigorous in nctitut. In Jnuuury 
11*57 he had an interview with the Kinjj 1 in 
(itiii i nne, and wan sent mtoKn&huMt, Lniul-* 
liijf at Snutlnunpttm, he fouud the Bi^hrui of 
Hereford waiting to cross over to Beeuet, 
* On finding: him hi* forbad* 1 him t<> proceed, 
lirnt in the name of the luin/und then of the 
pope. The bishop then inquired , * , whether 
he had nny letters to that purpose. He 
iiHHerted that lie. hnd, and that the pope fttr- 
bnde him And the other bishops ns %vell either 
to attend [Beckett | mimtuouH or obey jhtmj 
in any particular until th nrrivul of a l^nto 
de latero domim pttjpits . . . Tlw bisl^op in* 
winti'd <m Hieing tht^ Mtnrs ; but Iw mid thnt 
ho had mmt thorn on with his twg$ng*s to 
WinhHUr. . Whim tlw Hwhop of Lon- 
don saw thu lofttirM, hit crid aloud, AM if n- 
ahl< to r*mtrain himself, "Then Thoninsshnll 
no more be. my nr^hbislwp " ' (/^ vi* !51 % J), 
Da 10 Aug. 1109 tlw king htmt Julm of 



Oxford 



Oxlee 



Oxford to meet the new legates Gratian and 
Vivian, and he took them to Dom front, and 
was present at the interviews which ensued. 
In November he was sent to Benevento to 
negotiate further with the pope. In January 

1170 he returned, bringing letters from the 
pope ; he had secured the issue of a new 
commission to compose the quarrel (/&, vii. 
204 seq, 236, &c.) Before many months peace 
had been made, and Becket was escorted to 
England by his old foe, * famosus ille jurat or 
decanus Saresberiensis ' (Materials, iii. 115, 
116, vii. 400 ; GARNIBR, p. 160), The duty 
was faithfully performed, and the firmness 
of John of Oxford alone prevented outrage 
upon the archbishop by his enemies on his 
landing (Materials, iii. 118, vii. 403-4; GAE- 
NIEK, p. 164X He was not at Canterbury at 
the time of Becket's murder ; but early in 

1171 he returned to the king, and during the 
next few years remained either with him or 
with his eon, the young king Henry (EYTON, 
Itinerary, passim). In 1175 his long ser- 
vices received a further reward. On 26 Nov. 

.1175 the king, at Eynsham, conferred on him 
the see of Norwich, ' concorde Norwicen- 
sium , . , archiepiscopi conventia, cardinalis 
auctoritate. 7 He was consecrated ' bishop 
of the East Angles' at Lambeth by the 
Archbishop Richard of Dover [q. y.] on 
14 Dec. (RALPH DE DIOBTO, Bolls Ser. iii. 403; 
LBNBVB,2fowfc',ed. Hardy, ii. 459). In 1176 
he was despatched, with three companions, 
to escort the king's daughter Johanna to 
Sicily. The hardships ot the journey are 
fully narrated by Ralph de Diceto (Kolls 
Ser. i. 416-17). He delivered the lady in 
safety on 9 Nov., and returned at once to 
report to the king the success of his embassy 
(ib. pp, 416, 417). In the reconstruction of 
the judicial system in 1179 John was ap- 
pointed, with the bishops of Winchester 
(Richard of Ilchester) and Ely (Geoffrey 
Ridel), * archrjusticiarius ' (ib. ii. 435). In 
his later years he appears to have retired from 
political life. He was present at the corona- 
tion of King John (RoGEE OF HOVBDHN", iv. 
90). He died on 2 June 1200, His life affords 
a striking example of the entire absence of 
specialisation among the men whom Henry II 
employed in his great reforms. He was, as 
diplomatist, judge, statesman, and ecclesias- 
tic,, one of the most active of the agents 
through whom Henry II carried out his 
domestic and foreign policy. 

Dr. Giles (Joanms Saresberiensis Opera^ol. 
i . pref. pp. xiv-xv) attributed to John of Oxford 
a treatise * Summa de poenitentia/ of which 
manuscripts exist in the Bodleian Library 
and in the Burgundian Library, Brussels. 
Tanner had previously assigned this to John 
xj/m. 



of Salisbury. But there is no evidence m- 
ternal or external to support its ascription 
to either author. No literary works are as- 
cribed to John of Oxford by any contempo- 
rary writer, but he was a patron of other 
writers, and among them Daniel of Morley 
[q. v.], who dedicated to him his ' Liber de 
Naturis Inferiorum et Superiorum.' 

[Materials for the Life of Archbishop Thomas 
Becket (Rolls Ser,), ed. Robertson and Sheppard, 
7 vols. ; Gervase of Canterbury (Rolls Ser,), ed, 
Stubbs; Gamier de Pont Sainte-Maxence, ed. 
Hippeau, Paris, 1859; Lord Lyttelton's History 
of Henry II; Lives of Beeket by Robertson 
(1859), and Morris (2nd ed. 1885); Stubbs's 
Constitutional History of "England ; Eyton's 
Itinerary of Henry II ; Pipe Rolls ; Jones's Fasti 
JGcclesiae Saresberiensis.] "W. H. H. 

OXIJSTDE]Sr, HENBY (1609-1670), poet. 
[See OXENDEN.] 

OXLEE, JOHN (1779-1854), divine, 
son of a well-to-do farmer in Yorkshire, was 
born at Guisborough in Cleveland, Yorkshire, 
on 25 Sept, 1779, and educated at Sunder- 
land. After devoting himself to business 
for a short time he studied mathematics and 
Latin, and made such rapid progress in 
Latin that in 1842 Dr. Vicesimus Knox 
appointed him second master at Tunbridge 
grammar school. While at Tunbridge he 
lost, through inflammation, the use of an eye, 
yet commenced studying Hebrew, Chaldee, 
and Syriac, In 1805 he was ordained to 
the curacy of Egton, near Whit by, In 1811 
he removed to the curacy of Stonegrave, 
from 1815 to 1826 he held the rectory of 
Scawton, and in 1836 the archbishop of 
York presented him to the rectory of Moles- 
worth in Huntingdonshire. 

Oxlee's power of acquiring languages, con- 
sidering that he was self-educated, has rarely 
been excelled. He obtained a knowledge 
more or less extensive of 120 languages 
and dialects. In prosecuting his studies he 
was often obliged to form his own grammar 
and dictionary. He left among his numerous 
unpublished writings ,,a work entitled 'One 
hundred and more Vocabularies of such Words 
as form the Stamina of Human Speech, COKCH 
mencingwith the Hungarian and terminating 
with the Yoruba/ 1837-40, A large portion 
of his time he spent in making himself 
thoroughly conversant with the Hebrew law 
and in studying the Talmud. His only 
recreation was pedestrian exercise, and heat 
times walked fifty miles to procure a book 
in Hebrew or other oriental language, He 
was a contributor to the * Anti-Jacobin 
Review 1 ,' ' Valpy's Classical Journal,' the 
'Christian Remembrancer,' the 'Voice of 
Jacob/ the 'Voice of Israel/ the 'Jewish 

o 



Oxlec 



18 



Oxley 



Chronicle,' the 'Jewish Kepository,* the 
* YorliHluremuu/ and 'Sermons for Sundnyn 
and Festivals.' lie died at Molesworth ree.- 
tory cmi*OJin. 1 85 U leaving two children hy 
hiH\vifo t a daughter of John H. A. Wornop 
of Howdeu Hall, Yorkshire: John thtee (tf^ 
. ]80i3), vicar of Over Silton 18-lH, rector of 
Ckrweaby 18M (both in Yorkshire), nnd an 
unmarried daughter, Mary Anna Oxlce, 

In a minute .study which Oxlce nwdo of 
the Hebrew writings he was led to differ on 
many important points both from the Jewish 
and "Ohrwtiau interpreters. HIH wo^t im- 
portant work is ' The (Christian Uoctrinc of 
tlw Trinity, the Incarnation, and the Atone- 
nwnti eoumdcrcd and maintained >n tlw 
Prineiplew of Judaism,* tt vok isjo otK 
I hiring the thirty-four years which elated 
between the publication of the first awl third 
volumes ho wan busy collecting materials,, 
The work contains amass of ulwtruse learn- 
ing. He hold that the Jewish rnbbN were 
well aware of the doctrine of the Trinity, 
nnd that hi the Talmudu the three perwwH 
of the (lodhead are clearly mentioned nnd 
offcon referred to. In his *Stx Lett em to 
the Archbishop of Oauterbury/ iHUi ft, hi* 
stated his reasons for declining to fake any 
part in the society Jor tlie convmsma of tin* 
Jmvs, and his grounds for not believing in t he 
personality of the (le.vil. Duriti^ tni yrarn be 
with an Israelite resnertiu^ tlu* 



ISNrt, |. 2l>< ; information from thn Hv. J.A, 0. 
<K\U'<%tho\"itMr;t^t\Ski^fnn HridH,Thii-sk;NtitfH 
nnd Quorio"*, Sili f*(r, viii, 'JIU,'?,] u. 0, H, 

OXLKY, J( )H X (1781 J8i>s>, AnHtralum 
explorer, born in Mn^lund in 1781, entered 
the roynl nuvy, in which he uw uctivo ser- 
vice in vnriouH pnrtH <>f th< world, ntid ob- 
tained (i HtMitnmntVt comuif^ion on l!o Nov. 
1H)7, H(^ went out to Auntriilm, and was 
unpointed Hnrveyor^encral of New South 
\\uleHoti I Jnn, Islt?, Out? April 1817/m 
coinputty with t'mmin^hnm, kingV 



, 

i-hnrii'f* Fnt/er, eolonml btttimint, \ViUiam 
Pnrr^ninernb^MHt^uuirM^htofberH.beMfjU'ted 
' on nn explnrinijf cxpinlitton in tlu^ interior of 
Anstmlin. Tbey returned tin *JU Au^. to 
Hut hurM, hviifitrin^t heir tuneteetuvceliH* 
truvel trnced fbe Luchhu) nmi Maetpinrin 
river-i, ntuunl the Hrll nnd Kli/nbeth riv<*r,M, 
MtdleV rivulet, find MuuutM Ainyott, MeU 
ulle, rniiiHii^biHn, Sttmrf, llyn^, Umunrd 
and Hnuev, On **0 Mny 



Heven letit^rn, addressed to J, M., it Jew* are 
printed in the * Jewish Repository/ tHif iH, 

His worlvH in(dud*Hl with ntnny rott* 
trovorNial jiamphletH attd Home nennoiiH". 
L 'Three Letters to the Archbishop I^w- 
re.nce of Oashel on the Apocryphal Publica- 
tions of his Uracc(Knoeh r K/,rn and (mtinb) 
on the Age of the Sephcr Xoiu* and on tlse 
Two (^eiu^ahjg'it^H of Christ us given in tlw 
<U>Ht)clH()f Ht. Matthew imd St, Luke, 1 IK^L 
I)r, Nicholls, re^ius profewsr^r of divinity at 
Oxford, expressed his wonder how th'im 
mcn,s(inunilnr of correct extractn from early 
and late Jewish writers contained in thin 
vohmm could poKsib!y*have been obtained by 
a scholar working aftme* & 4 Three Letter*?* 
to Mv, (I Wellbeloved, Tutor of the Uw<* 
tartan (Hh^e, York, on tho Folly of Mepitmf- 
ing from the Mother <*hur<th.* 

lip alwo loft many unpublished works. In* 
eluding an Armenian and an Arabic 



[T!ortto*s Manual of Biblical Bibliography, 
18M, pp. 183, 184; Oimt, Mug. 1H54 pt, I, 
p, W> 185*5 pt, I. pp, 203-4 ; Whithy tUxHt**, 
19 .Deo. 1857; Church toiew, n Mn^ii HKU2 
pp, 175-6, 10 May p. 204; Hmiih'H (Hd 
Yorkshire, 188^ pp, &&-% fwifh |Hrfmit)j 
Bartle'a Synopsis of Bnglish if iutury, tttut &l 



; t n tfuMremnrJutblejonruey the party traveled 
(the whole of the cmtntrt between Monnt 
; Hnrritt ami tNul Mnc<|imrH% currying n. 

, of th way* tli'tctttcnng nnd nntninu 0e IV^I 
' and HaHftngt rivets nnd l*ort Mnequarie, 
i The iviuH'i showed t he need ofttndingit track 

the rumour of a great tnhimi ^ea, < hi ;*.*!( )et* 

hH;'H O,\ley tarf'd in the M-ruiniii with 

Lieutenant Stirling nnd Mr Mw rnincKe 

to find a **it< for n peuul ^rtUeiitent north of 

jS\dm\v* They t*\amutt*t! IW* CnriiM in 

HI Nov. nnd Boyue ri^eron II Nov., rencbtng 

i Mojvton Huy on 1"* XtH 5 ,; there they found 

(n white nwn nnmnl !*Nt{>blef, wlto gn\o 

' of ihe liri^bnne ri\er on which the f|utul 

i ttf (jntM*nhlunti now nijuuK A Heuleuieiit 

WHH formed there in \ugiHt IH^$, On 

the leginbttive coutieil of Nr^ Sonth WaleH* 

He mitrrietl the tbn^hfer oj ,1nmen M*rhm 

of New South Wl'a, lv whom he had ^ 

i family, lie died nn fi Mny IH'JH, 

j Oxley WHM author of * NWnfivt* of Two 

j K\}>i'tiittimM into the Interior of New Smith 

With**, nntbr th** oruVr* of the Hnfili Uo* 

v^rnincntj in $H|7 tH* ^ London* lHt$lj t ft*l 

of it M'hnrf of l*?sn of the lnf'riortif New 

; Htmth Waltm 1 1 IH'J'J). HIM nntm* hit* Wn 

twloptetl IIH thi* nm* nf wvernl giUwM in Nww 

Houth Waltm itiul Victoria, 



il, M, C, 



Oxley i 

OXLEY, JOSEPH (1715-1775), quaker, 
eldest son of John Oxley and Ann Peck- 
over of Fakenham, Norfolk, was born at 
Brigg in Lincolnshire on 4 Nov. 1715. His 
parents dying before he was eight years old, 
he was brought up by an uncle, Edmund 
Peckover. After nve years at a school at 
Sankey in Lancashire, he was apprenticed to 
a clockmaker at Scarborough, When about 
twenty-three he took a situation in London. 
Soon after he attended a large meeting 
held by George Whitefield [q. v.] on Ken- 
nington Common, and, being extremely short 
in person, was almost crushed to death, until 
noticed ' by a gentlewoman in a coach, who 
fanned him/ This event, he says, led to his 
conversion, and he shortly became a minister 
of the Society of Friends, making continual 
visits in that capacity to Scotland, Ireland, 
and all parts of England. 

In 1741 Oxley returned to Fakenham and 
opened a shop. On 28 June 1744 he married 
Elizabeth Fenn of Norwich, where he esta- 
blished himself as partner in a prosperous 
woollen manufacture. In 1753 his wife died, 
and on 5 Jan. 1757 he married, at Hunting- 
don, Mary Burr, like himself a minister. 

In July 1770 Oxley sailed for America, 
where he visited the meetings in many states. 
His letters, published by John Barclay as 
No, 5 of his * Select Series/ under the title 
'Joseph's Offering to his Children: being 
Joseph Oxley's Journal of his Life, Travels, 
and Labours of Love in the Faith and Fel- 
lowship of our Lord Jesus Christ/ London, 
1837, contain much interesting information 
about the colonies of Virginia, Maryland, 
and New England. The work was reprinted 
in vol. ii. of the ' Friends' Library/ Phila- 
delphia, 1838, &c. 

Oxley returned to Norwich in April 1772, 
and died there suddenly on 22 Oct. 1775. 
He was buried in the Friends' burial-ground 
at Norwich. 

[Journal mentioned above ; Janney's Hist, of 
Friends, iti. 392 ; Piety Promoted, pt, ix. 1796, 
pp. 43-7 ; Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books.] 

C F S 

OXNEAD, JOHN OF (1293 P)', chroni- 
cler, [See 

OYLEY. 



OZELL, JOHN (d. 1743), translator, son 
of John Ozell of a Leicestershire family, was 
educated at the free school of Ashby-de-la^ 
Zouch, and subsequently at Christ's Hospi- 
tal. He chose to enter an accountant's office 
rather than proceed to Cambridge and enter 
the church ; and this preference, though it 
excited the derision of Theophilus Gibber and 
others of his biographers, enabled him ' to 



> Ozell 

escape all those vicissitudes and anxieties in 
regard to pecuniary circumstances which too 
frequently attend on men of literary abilities.' 
He became auditor-general of the city and 
bridge accounts, and also of St. Paul's Cathie-? 
dral and St. Thomas's Hospital. Notwith- 
standing this 'grave attention to business, 
he still retained an inclination for, and an 
attention to, even polite literature that could 
scarcely have been expected.' His attentions ' 
to literature took the form of a series of trans- 
lations from foreign classics which were tole- 
rably accurate and probably useful in their 
day, though, as Chalmers significantly says, 
' it was his misfortune to undertake works 
of humour and fancy, which were qualities 
he seemed not to possess himself, and there^ 
fore could not do justice to in others.' Among 
his translations was one of Homer's ' Iliad/ 
done from the French of Madame Dacier, and 
dedicated to Richard Steele (5 vols., London, 
12mo, 1712 ; also 1714 and 1734) j this was 
doubtless the cause of Ozell being promoted 
to a mention in the 'Dunciad/ which pro- 
voked the following extraordinary advertise-, 
ment in the ' Weekly Medley' for 5 Sept. 
1729 : ' Asfor my learning, the envious wretch 
[Pope] knew, and everybody knows, that the 
whole bench of bishops not long ago were 
pleased to give me a purse of guineas for 
discovering the erroneous translations of 
the Common Prayer in Portuguese, Spanish, 
French, Italian, &c. As for my genius, let 
Mr. Cleland show better verses m all Pope's 
works than Ozell's version of Boileau's " Lu- 
trin" which the late Lord Halifax was so 
pleased with. , .Let him show better and 
truer poetry in the u Rape of the Lock " than 
in Ozell's u Rape of the Bucket," which because 
an ingenious author happened to mention in 
the same breath with Pope's, viz., " Let Ozell 
sing the Bucket, Pope the Lock," the little 
gentleman had like to have run mad, and 
Mr. Toland and Mr. G-ildon publicly declared 
Ozell's translation of Homer to be as it 
was prior, so likewise superior to Pope's . , , 
(signed) John Ozell/ Pope responded in a 
satire of eight lines, called ' The Translator/ 
in which feowe is also gibbeted as one of 
Ozell's chief sponsors.^ Swift seems to have 
shared his friend's opinion of Ozell's merit, 
as in his sardonic 'Introduction to Polite 
Conversation/ speaking of ' the footing upon 
which he stands with the present chief reign*- 
ing 1 wits/ he remarks; 'I cannot conceal withr; 
out ingratitude the great assistance I have 
received from those two illustrious writers, 
Mr. Ozell and Captain Stevens. These and 
some others of distinguished eminence in 
whose company I have passed so many agree- 
able hours, as they have been the great re- 

o2 



Ozell 



20 



Ozell 



tfners of our language, so it has been my 
chief ambition to imitate them ; and bwit 
elsewhere speaks of Ozell's < Monthly Amuse 
menu/ generally some French novel or play 
indifferently translated. In 1728 John Bundy 
fa vJ commenced issuing a translation o 
Catrou and Rouille's < Roman History,' and 
thus anticipated Ozell, who considered that 
he had been ill-used, and gave vent to his irri- 
tation in some absurd squibs, ' The Augean 
Stables cleansed of Historical, Philological, 
and Geographical Trumpery/ and ' Ozell's 
Defence.' His only other original work was a 
rather amusing little volume, entitled ' Com- 
mon Prayer not Common Sense, in several 
Places of the Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, 
French, Latin, and Greek Translations of the 
English Liturgy. Being a Specimen of Re- 
flections upon the Omissions and Errors in 
the said Translations/ London, 1722, 8vo. 
Ozell died at his house in Arundel Street on 
lo Oct. 1743, and was buried in the church 
of St. Mary Aldermanbury, 

* Though in reality,' says Gibber, ' Ozell 
was a man of very little genius, yet Mr, 
Coxeter asserts that his conversation was sur- 
prisingly pleasing, and that he had a pretty 
good knowledge of men and things,' His 
translations are certainlyof mediocre quality. 
They include : I/ Monsieur de Porceaugnac ; or 
Squire Trelooby/ from the French of Moliere, 
1704, 4to. 2. ' Characters Historical and 
Panegyrical of the greatest Men that have 
appeared in France,' from the French of C. 
Perrault, 1704, 8vo. 3, ' Lutrin . , , render'd 
into English from t&e French of Boileau,' 
1708, 8vo (reissues in 1714 and 1752). 4, ' The 
Jealous Estremaduran/ from the Spanish of 
Cervantes, 1710, 8vo. oV'Le Clerc's Ac- 
count of the Earl of Clarendon's History of 
the Civil Wars,' from the French, 1710, 8vo 
(pt. I only). 6. f Dialogue upon Colouring/ 
from the French of R. de Piles, 1711, 8vo. 
7.* The Works of Monsieur Boileau, , . to which 
is prefixed his Life by Mr. Des Maizeaux/ 
1712 t 8vo. 8. ( ' Britannicus and Alexander 
the Great/ from the French of Racine, 1714, 
12mo. 9. ' The Cid ; or the Heroic Daughter/ 
from the French of Corneille, 1714, 12mo 
10. 'The Litigants: a Comedy/ from the 
French of Racine, 1715, 12mo. 11. ''The 
most celebrated Popish Ecclesiastical Ro- 
mance ; being the Life of Veronica of Milan/ 
from the French of Freyre (commenced by 
tJeddes and completed by Ozell), 1716, 8vo j 



12. ' Oato of Utica : a Tragedy from tin* Fri 
of Dea Champa/ 17KJ, I2mo ('damnably 
translated/ according to Popo). 1,1. * Dis- 
sertation upon the Whips and Tories/ from 
the French of Hapiu Thoyran, 1717, Hvo. 
14, i Logic; or tlw Art of Thinking/ from 
the Fronch ol 1 Nioolo, 1717, IDnw. lo, l Thn 
Spanish Polo-Oat/ from tho Spanish of Ca,s~ 
tillo Solorzano (commomwd ny Sir I{o#ir 
L'Bsfcrangtf), 1717, i&uo, \(\\ 'Tho Fair 
of Saint Gormain/ from t!w French, 1718 f 
8vo, 17. 'Mcmioirn and Oh.wvations m hin 
Travels ovor Kn^Iand/ from tho Frnrh ot 
Francis Maximilian MUson [<j, v,], 171U, Hvo* 

18, 'Maniiup Oapitolituts ; a 'I'ra^r<ly/ from 
the Frtmch of Do la FOHHO, \7\\\ 12mo, 

19. 'The History of Don Qmsoto/ a revi- 
sion of Motttuix's tranHlnt ion, 1 710, 1 ifuw> { n v - 
issntid 17^, I75(i f 17(50, IHOJi). *J{), 'Tho 
History of tho Uovolurions that luipponod in 
the GovornmontH of \\u\ Roman (tipul>H(% f 
from tliu Fnnich of U f Auhruf t 170 t Hvo 
(reissued 1721, 1724, I7JW, 1710, 1770). 
21. 'An Ewway conc(;rnin^ tlu^ W**UCOKH of 
;hfl Human lIiidorHtantling/from tlu Kn'tuih 
of Iliwt, 1725, Hvo ^ * Spanish Amn- 
monts/ from tiio Hpaninh of (laHtiilo Hfilor- 
zano (oommonctKl by I/KHtrau^O, I7i*7,iUnu>. 
2$, 'Persian LnttifH/ from 1hi Frcarh of 



T Scapin/from MolttNrn, 17*U), li^mo. lift. *Thu 
^IiHor: a Oomtuly from MoliAro/ ITJii*, Hvt, 

*iO, 'The Advwituroa of T4ftua^htw/ triuin- 
ated from Ffawlon, 17Hf), Hvo, U7, * Tlut 

A,rt of Pleasing 1 m (Jtmvorwvtiiin/ from th 



The Workfl of Uiihrlnii 
.ranslation), revitwd and ttoinpnr*d with tlin 
new edition of M, L l)u ( -hut/ I TUT, l^mo 
reiaauwd 1750, 1781, 1807, 1HH, IH(U). 
^9. < The Life of Girvautw/ from thit HjuintMh 
if MayanH y Siwcar, 173H, Hv<* MK *A 
Voyago into the Lnvant/ from tho Fr^u^h of 
?ittondtiToixrnofort, 1741, Hvo, lU.SSpnnjHh 
:lhodomontadeH/ from th French <f limn- 
ome, 1741, 8voj 1744, 



[Ohalmer*fl Biogr, |1}t*f, 

)ramatica ; Nicholn'H nhihtj'iUJwnH of Lit, HUt* 
i 726 ; Gibber's Livt*H of thtt IVtifH, \y t jj^^ ^ * 
"acob's Lives of Dramatic l\^^ p, liiH ; Hwif(/ij 
Works, ed. Scott, vi, W t ix, W) ; Pow*n Worki* 
d, El win and Court hww, !v, 1122, 4A,*Ufi4, v| 

ature, i, 472; Gent. Mug, J743, p, 54 ; 
Mus Cat.) x* 



Paas 



21 



Pace 



PAAS, SIMON (1695P-1647), engraver. 

[See PASS.] 

PABO (Jt. 520 P), North British king, was, 
according to the oldest Welsh genealogies 
(Harl MS. 3859), the son of Oenau ap Coel 
Odebog (Cymmrodor, ix. 174, 179). Later 
documents make him the son of Arthwys ap 
Mor ap Cenau (Itengiort MS. No. 636 ; lolo 
MSS. p. 126), but he appears to have be- 
longed to the beginning rather than to the 
end of the sixth century. In mediaeval 
"Welsh literature Pabo is styled t post Pry- 
dain ; ' this title appears in the early genealogy 
as * p. priten,' and is thus shown to be really 
' post Prydyn,' i.e. the pillar of Pictland or the 
north, ' Pryduin ' for * Prydyn ' being a com- 
mon medieval mistake (RHYS, Celtic Britain^ 
P. 296). Though a northern warrior, Pabo 
is alleged by tradition to have been buried at 
Llanbabo in Anglesey ; the tombstone, bear- 
ing a representation of him in royal array, 
with a (now partially defaced) inscription, was 
discovered in the seventeenth century ( Cam- 
brian Register, ii. 486-7), and is ascribed by 
Longueville Jones (Arch&ol. Cambr. 1861, 

>. 800), West wood (Lapidarium Walli<%, p. 
93J, and Bloxam (Arch&ol. Cambr, ]874,p, 
110) to the reign of Edward III. Llanbabo 
(' the church of Pabo') is a chapel of Lland- 
deusant, and therefore is probably later than 
Pabo's time ; it may, however, have been 
built to mark a spot already hallowed by 
his grave, Pabo is assigned a place among 
the welsh saints in two of the printed lists 
(lolo MSS.~lQ5 f 126), and the second gives 
some particulars of his history, but both, as 
Phillimore has shown (Byeyones, 1890, pp. 
482, 533-4), are quite untrustworthy. Rhys 
believes a misreading of * Pabo priden * to be 
the source of the Palomydes of Malory (Ar- 
thurian Legend^ p. 298). Pabo's festival 
was 9 Nov. (Mo MS. 152). 

[Harl. MS, 3859 ; lolo MSS* ; Bees's Welsh 
Saints.] J.E.L. 

PACE, JOHN (1523P-1590 P), profes- 
sional fool, born about 1523, was probably 
son of John Pace, a brother of Bichard Pace 
[q. v.] (cf. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
vol iv. pt. iii, pp. 1472-3). The elder John 
Pace was appointed custumer of Lynn, Nor- 
folk, in 1522 (13 Hen, VIII), and was after- 
wards settled in London (ib. p. 2344, vol. iii. 
pt. ii, p. 889), Educated at Eton, John the 



Ii 



younger was elected a scholar of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1539. He apparently left 
the university without a degree, although he 
was popularly credited with being a master 
of arts. That he was soon attached in tie 
capacity of jester to the court of Henry VIII 
is often stated, but the statement rests on no 
contemporary authority, and it is possible that 
those who credit Pace with the distinction 
confuse him with another professional fool, 
Robert Saxton, ordinarily called Patch, who, 
after attending Cardinal Wolsey with great 
fidelity until his death, entered the royal 
service (CAVENDISH, Life of Wolsey), There 
seems, however, little doubt that Pace be- 
came jester in the household of the Duke of 
Norfolk before Henry VIII's death, and that, 
in Elizabeth's reign, he was transferred to 
the court. That a man of education like 
Pace should have voluntarily assumed * thff 
fool's coat' often excited hostile comment. 
To such criticism Pace's friend, John Key- 
word [q. v.] the epigrammatist, once answered 
that it was better for the common weal for 
wise men to ' go in fools' coats ' than for fools 
to ' go in wise men's gowns ' (CAMDEN, -Zfe- 
maincs, ed. 1857, p. 314). Two examples of 
Pace's wit are extant, but neither reaches a 
high level of excellence. Cardinal Allen re- 
lates in his ' Apology ' (p. 58) that when the * 
English government interdicted the circula- 
tion of catholic books in England, 'madde J, 
Pace, meeting one day with M. Juel ["i.e. John 
Jewel, bishop of Salisbury], saluted his lord- 
ship courtly, and said, " Now, niy Lord, you 
may be at rest with these felowes, for you 
are quit by proclamation." ' Bacon relates in 
his ' Apophthegms ' ( Works, ed. Spedding, 
Ellis, and Heath, vii, 125) that 'Pace the 
bitter fool was not suffered to come at the 
Queen because of his bitter humour. Yet at 
one time some persuaded the Queen that he 
should come to her; undertaking for him 
that he should keep compass. So he was 
brought to her, and the Queen said: " Come 
on. Pace ; now we shall hear of our faults." 
Saith Pace: "I do not use to talk of that that 
all the town talks of,"' Pace was dead before 
1592. 

Nash, in the * Address to the Printer' 1 ' of his 
'Pierce Pennilesse ' (1692), complains that 
the printer's haste in sending the book 
through the press had prevented him from 
' which he had 

the Duke of 



appending * certayne epistles ' ^ 
written ' to the Ghost of Pace, 



Pace 




Pace 



known elsewlere. 

^S^S ; S:^^5p 

Doran's Court Tools.] b - 

. ' PACK EICHAED (U82M536), diplo- 
matist and dean of St. Paul's, Commonly 
idto have been born in or near Windwter 
about 1482. His epitaph, as ntm. in Wee- 



l^OZ-. ma GJMVU.J/-, "" D. -_.(-, ^1 

ver, wHch states that he died m 1532, aged 
about 40, is clearly wrong The place and 
time of his birth can be only inferred from 
Ms < De Fructu.' There he tells us that lie 
was brought up under the superintendence 
of Thomas Langton [q. v.], bishop of Win- 
chester, in a'domestica schola ' which the 
bishop had established ; and that his skill m 
music as a boy, attracted the bishop's notice. 
Langton, who was bishop of Winchester from 
1493 till 1500, made him his amanuensis, 
and in due time sent him to study at that 
< nursery of arts,' Padua, Wood thinks it 
probable that, before going abroad, he studied 
at Queen's College, Oxford, of which Langton 
had been provost. Pace passed from Padua 
to Ferrara, where Erasmus, writing in 1521, 
speaks of having met him (Ep. dlxxxix.); 
and he also spent some time at Bologna, 
-where he was encouraged to continue his 
studies by a legacy of 10J. a year for seven 
years left him by his old patron (KENNBTT, 
Manuscript Collections, xlv.^02), On his 
return to England he is said to have en- 
tered, or re-entered, Queen's College, Oxford, 
It was probably about this time that he took 
holy orders; for on 1 May 1510 he was made 
prebendary of South Muskham, Southwell, 

Towards the close of 1509 Pace went in 
the retinue of Cardinal Bainbridge [q. v.], 
archbishop of York, to Rome. Bainbridge, 
like Langton, had been provost of Queen's, 
and hence, probably, his selection of Pace. 
"When the cardinal perished by the hand of 
an assassin, on 14 July 1514, his rival at the 
papal court, Silvestro Gigli f q. v.], bishop of 
Worcester, was strongly, though it would 
seem unjustly, suspected of having instigated 
the murder. Pace exertecj himself to the ut- 
most to trace out the author of the crime, 
and thus exposed liimself to OKgli's enmity. 
But his byalty to his master was noticed 
with favour by Pope Leo X, who recom- 
mended him to the English king. On Ms re- 
turn to England in the spring of!515, he also 
brought with him a recommendation to Wol- 
sey from Sir Richard Wingfield, brother of 
the ambassador at the court of Maximilian, 
Henry VIII made him his secretary (WEAR- 
ION, De- Decanis, p. 237). 

'In October 1515 Pace'waS seritjby Wol- 



on a difficult and somowhut. dangerous 
mission. Henry had become jealous of the 
growing power of France. 1 1 or prest i^e had 
been greatly increased by her unexpected 
victory over the Swiss at the battle of Ma- 
rignano (U Sept*) The, Swiss, sore at their 
.repulse, might possibly he, induced to attack 
afresh the forces of Francis I on their side of 
the Alps, Pact* wan ent rusted wit h a limited 
amount of English gold ami unlimited pro- 
mises. There is an interesting letter from 
the English envoy to AVolsoy, November 
1.515, from Zurich,' in Cotton MS. Vitell, B, 
xviii. (printed in I*I,ANTA'S llixtonf of the 
Helvetic Omtft'tlttwy, *i- -l-'l w\ ( l ; and partly 
reprinted iiifottt. Mtty, 1H15, pt, i, pp. JWK 
809). Pace's extant letters graphically do 
scrioa the incidents of his mission : ihiui- 
aatiablo gwod of tho t^winn, tlu^ indiscretion 
of Sir Robert Wingfield, the eapHeen and 
embarrassments of Maximilian, which com- 
bined to render abortive the scheme of 
wresting Milan from the French, II JH nego- 
tiations with tho Swiw led more ^than on<^e, 
to his impri8onment T but in the midst of bin 
cares he found tinw to compone his trentine, 
'Do Fructu, 1 It wan written, UH heteUn UH in 
the preface, in a public bath (hypornu*to) 
at poiifttanct*, far from hooks or learned 
society, 1 lift friend KrusmuK wu offended 
for a time by ft pannage which he interjm'trd 
as a reflect ion on his poverty, but the cloud 
soon ptiHsed away* Tho people of ( ^oimttMice 
also found fault with some rewarkM on the 
drunltcimeHa prevailing among th*'Ui, On 
the title-page the autliordescriben hinwelf 
' primarhiH Hecretarius 1 of th*^ !*% it term 
wlxich aoeniH ratht k r to denote the kiu^V chief 
personal secretary than what we should now 
call a (secretary 'of state (m* HUI-JWKK, il 
64), His tact and untiring fitemy were duly 
appreciated at home, and on mn return in 
1516 ho was appointed Hoeretnry of htatt^ 
(BuwT'iR, i. 140)j Ixwdew being rewarded 
with benefices in the church, 

On Sunday B Oct. 1518, when a pace be- 
tween England and France waMnhout to ht* 
ratified by a marriage contract tM*tween f !m 
French, infant hmr *uul the nhuost equally 
infantine PrinctAH Mry of Knglutul t I'tu*^ 
niacle, before a gorgmum \hrong iu Hi. PnttTn 
Cathedral, 'a good and atiilicietitly long urn*- 
tion,' 'De Pace/ on the blcHHingn of pencis 
After the death of Maximilian, on ! J?UL 
1519, Henry, Franefo I T nnd (Itarlen {nt*w 
king of CaHtila) wora all regardeil it caitdi- 
dates for the imperial throne, With a vi*<w 
to sounding- the electors, without appearing 
too openly in the matter, Henry went "* 
into Gorman y. Pace obtained * '' 



June and July of the electoral priutien, 



i 



Pace 



Pace 



pained no support for his master, and attri- 
buted his failure to his late arrival on the 
field. He suffered a severe attack of fever in 
Germany, which recurred in November, a 
few months after his return. His sovereign 
and Wolsey were satisfied with his exertions, 
and the deanery of St. Paul's was one of 
many rewards conferred upon him (25 Oct. 
1519). He was prebendary of Bugthorpe, 
York, 1514; archdeacon of Dorset, 20 May 
1514; treasurer of Lichfield 1516, resigned 
1522. He was also made archdea.con of 
Colchester on 16 Feb. 1518-19, resigned in 
October of the same year; rector of Bar- 
wick in Elmet, near Leeds, 4 Feb. 1619 
(Duchy of Lancaster Records in Public 
Record Office, communicated by the Rev. 
F. S. Colman) ; prebendary of Exeter on 
21 March 1519; vicar of St, Dunstian's, 
Stepney, on 12 May 1519, resigned in 
1627 ; prebendary of Finsbury, London, 
on 22 Oct. 1519; vicar of Llangwrig, 
Montgomery (this Pace?) 1520; preben- 
dary of Combe, Salisbury, on 16 Dec. 
1521 ; rector of Bangor, Flintshire (this 
Pace P) 1522 to 1527 ; dean of Exeter, 1522, 
resigned 1527. He was undoubtedly dean 
of Salisbury for some years ( Cal. of Letters 
and Papers, Henry VIII, vol. iv. pfc. iii. p, 
699, and v. No. 364, under 1521) and 1631 
respectively). 

In April 1520 he was made reader in Greek 
at Cambridge, with a yearly stipend of 10. 
(Letters and Papers of Henry Fill, iii. 1540). 
There seems no evidence oi' his having dis- 
charged this oiHce ; Richard Croke was the 
actual lecturer during that year. There is 
little doubt, however, that it was largely 
owing to the representations made to the 
king by Pace arid More that Greek chairs 
were now founded both at Cambridge and 
Oxford. Erasmus has preserved for us a 
lively scene in which one of the Oxford 
* Trojans/ who resented the introduction of 
the new learning into the university, was 
playfully confuted in argument in Henry's 
presence by those two congenial spirits 
(AeciUM, ftchokmaster, ed. Mayor, p. 245). 

But events more exciting than academic 
lectures soon occupied Pace. In June 1520 
he was in attendance on his sovereign at the 
Field of the Cloth of Gold, and when all the 
joust^ and feasting were over, he again 
preached there on the blessings of peace. 
The strain of incessant work and excitement 
told upon him, and he wrote to Wolsey that 
he was ill both in mind and body. In the 
following year Pace translated into Latin 
Fisher's sermon preached in support of the 
papal bull against Luther, which was pro- 
mulgated in London on 12 May 1521. 



On 2 Dec. 1521 Leo X died, "Wolsey 
aimed at the papal throne, and the king en- 
tered cordially into the plans for his minis- 
ter's advancement. Accordingly Pace was 
at once despatched to further Wolsey's inte- 
rest with the powerful republic of Venice. 
Henry said that he was 'sending his very 
heart.' Pace was a favourite with the Vene- 
tian cabinet. Their ambassador in London, 
Giustinian, mentions that he l had already 
received [probably on his return from Swit- 
zerland, some five years before] greater 
honours ' from the republic i than became his 
private capacity ; that he had been admitted 
into the bucintor on Ascension Day ' (RAW- 
DON BROWN, iL 142). But, with all his 
adroitness, Pace could not effect the object 
of his mission. On 9 Jan. 1522 Cardinal T'or- 
tosa was elected as Adrian VI. Pace con- 
tinued some time in Home, but in the inter- 
vals of business sought rest, as he had done 
before, at Constance, by translating into 
Latin some short treatises of Plutarch. The 
book was printed at Venice in January 1522 
(i.e. 1522-3), and a second and corrected 
edition appeared in the same year. In the 1 
preface to the later edition, dedicated to Cam- 
peggio, he speaks of the pestilence at Rome, 
and of his own infirm health. 

Pace remained in Italy for more than a 
year. On the death of Adrian VI, on 14 Sept. 
1523, he was at Venice, but was ordered to 
Rome to support once more Wolsey's candi- 
dature for tlie papacy ; but Clement VII was 
elected, and Pace went home. He was wel- 
comed by an ode from his friend Leland, 
Pace had soon fresh employment abroad. 
He had been commissioned to detach the re- 
public of Venice from the side of France, in 
the conflict in which it was expected Francis I 
would soon be engaged with his power- 
ful vassal, Charles, constable of Bourbon. 
Pace's conduct in these transactions shows 
to less advantage than before. Vanity and 
presumption betray themselves, Wolsey was 
believed to be jealous of his influence with 
the king, and to be keeping him away from 
court. It is possible that he was conscious of, 
Wolsey's secret dislike. More probably his 
health'was failing, and his mind was sharing- 
the weakness of the body. In October 1525 
the doge himself urged Pace's recall, on the 
ground of his ill-health. 

No permanent improvement followed his 
return to England. On 21 Aug. 1526 coiul- 
j utors were appointed for him in his deaneries, 
and his mental malady increased. In 1527 
he removed from the deanery of St. Paul's to 
Sion, near Twickenham ; and letters written 
by him from, that retreat 'to a foster-brother,!; 
John Pace, refute any notion of ill- usage a t : 



Pace 



Pacifico 



the hands of Wolsey (MtLMAN, quoting- %- 
mer, xiv. 96), Equally unfounded, accord- 
ing to Brewer (ii. 388 ra.), is the statement, 
in 1529, of the imperial ambassador, Chapuys, 
that Pace was kept for two years in imprison- 
ment by Wolsey, partly at the Tower, partly 
at Sion House. He was probably under 
some restraint owing to the nature of his 
malady, and he seems to have had enemies 
who used him unkindly in his days of depres- 
sion. His friend Robert Wakeheld, writing 1 
to the Earl of Wiltshire, speaks of the ill- 
treatment Pace endured at the hands of ' an 
enemy of his and mine, or rather a common 
enemy of all.' The letter was written after 
1532, and the oppressor may have been Gar- 
diner (MlLMAN, p. 185). 

A false rumour of Pace's death was cur- 
rent in 1532, and was generally accepted. 
George Lily, a contemporary, says that ho 
died ' paulo post Lupsetum,' who died about 
the end of 1530. The true date of his death 
is 1536. On 20 July in that year a dispen- 
sation was granted by Oranmer to Kichurd 
Sampson, bishop of Ohichester, to hold tho 
deanery of St. Paul's in cotmnendairi, l obeunto 
nunc Kicardo Paceo, nuper illiua eccl&siio 
Decano' (Letters and Papers, xi, 54, ecL 
Gairdner). Pace was buried in the chancel 
of St. Dunstan's, Stepney, near tho grave of 
Sir Henry Colet. His epitaph, preserved by 
Weever, was not to be seen there when 
Lysons wrote in 1795. 

Pace was an amiable and accomplished 
man. His skill in the three learned lan- 
guages is praised by his contemporaries, lie 
was the friend of More and of Erasmus, and 
Erasmus in his extant correspondence ad- 
dresses Pace more frequently than any other 
correspondent. 

Pace wrote : 1. ' Kichardi Pacei, invictiw- 
simi Regis Anglite primarii secretary, eivsque 
apvd Elvetios oratoris, I)e 'Frvctv qui ex 
doctrina percipitvr, Liber. In inclyta Ba- 
silea.' The colophon has ' Basileea apud lo. 
Frobenivm, mense viijimi. An. M.B.xvii,' 
It is in small 4to, pp. 1J4. There are several 
prefatory addresses. The dedication to Dean 
Colet is at pp. 12-16. 2. ' Oratio Richard! 
Pacei in pace nvperime composita et fcedoro 
percusso: inter muictisflimum Anglisaregem, 
et Francorum regem Christianissimum in 
sede diui Pauli Londini habita/ The colo- 
phon has ' Impressa Londini. Anno Verbi 
mcarnati. M.B.xviij. Nonis Decembris per 
Bichardum Pynson reg-ium impressorem.' It 
ha ten leaves, not numbered (described in 
the .British Museum Catalogue as a 12mo) ( 
This was translated into French, and pub- 
lished the same year by Jehan Gourmont at 
Paris, with the title: ' OraisS en la louenge 



de la Paix . . . pnuneeo par Mi'.ssiro Richard 
Pacee A Lomlms/ &c. (a copy in in tho 
Gronvillo Library of tho ItritiHh MiustMiui). 

3. 'Plvtarchi Chwomoi Opvscvla Dt^ (far- 
rulitutttdo. Anarohia . , , ct(% . , , poroxhnium 
Kiiihanluni Paceum Anglin* orat t)nnn ch'gan- 
tLssimo versa.' The colophon has l \Vaofiis 
per Bornadinutu ch \ iulibuH \Vnotuux 
mense Tauuario M.D.xxii, 1 A corrected ( v <ti- 
tlon of thin, or rather of tlu> t-rwitio * Do 
Auaritia' in it, wan issued latrr in tlw Hamo 
year by tho samo printorH. .Both are thin 
quartos, Tins dodiration of tho iirst is to 
Outhbert [Tonwtiulll, bi.shop of London. 

4. Ijatin trannlat ion of I v HhorVtfl<rmmi againHt 
Luther, printed in ' lonnuis KiM*h<rii. , 
Oponi, Wiri'i'bvrgi, 1 ir>l>7 f pp. !M7iJ wj. 

From 15M to 1T^4 tho dfM[>athoH ol' Patnj 
are at tho Public K*rord ()fho. A . {>rofuco 
to 'EccloHuiHtow 1 in ulno nncrilx^l to him. 

[Brewor'n Koi^n of Honry V11I, i. U2 nqq,; 
Miltnau*fl Kt. i'aui'H, 18<m f pp, nUmjq.; Waotl't 
Athonm, o<l. JJliwH, voU i, ('>!. <M ; Ki'mwtt'n Mann* 
script CollortiotiH, vol. xiv. (I^uiNtlowuti MM, t}7^ 
f. 10'2); Lo NOVO'H Fasti; Wuk*rtold'H Kotnor 
Codicis(l/)28?) loaf ()* Sy v<n*H) ntui leaf !*, lit,; 
Bukor MS, No, Ji/5, in Univ. lahwrv-, C 1 
Lxipsct's Kpintoli' alii|Vt)t KrvtliN)Pt 
( LnpHot- WUH Paw's Hticpotary) ; J<i 
i. 13(> Hcjq, ; Lily'w Kln^m t prttflxtKl t.o l*auli 
fovii Dt'HcriptionoH, 1/S61, )>, JHJ ; Wtuirion, I)t 
DocaniH, p. 2U7 ; Huwihm ltrijwu* Four Ymrs 
at tho Court of Honry VIII, ii, H^ St<*,, j Kllirt'e 
Original Lottery, j. 100,113; Wilmm'a l*rMW0 
to TrauHlation of Fishw's iS^rmott in l<Wh**i'ii 
Opp. 1697, i). 1S74; Htow*ii Survey, cl, 8tryt 
1720, vol ii. Apjn I |n 07; KlyotV The (lo- 
vorntmr, ed. Croft, i, 1H w,] J. It I/, 

PACE, THOMAS (d. 1533). [floe 

VINUXOBT,] 



FACIFIOO, DAVII) (1784 1HM), C>rw* 
trader, uallintf himmlf Lo Mun'ntior Pact- 
ilcoaixd Uon rncUico, WUH a Fortti^utmo Jtnv 
by extraction, but WUH horn a BnttHh*mhj**ok 
at Gibraltar in 178 i. From tHl# h*i wan in 
buaixu!H in tho wmport. of LHJ^OS, Portugal; 
afterwards h<% roHidtHl at, Mortotn ; hut, owing 
to tho aid wluuh h^ r^ntl^nni to flu* liberal 
causo, his property wit* onllm'tittl by Dim 
MifruoL On ^8 ('Vh JH.Io ht* WIIH nniUMd 
rttignesei consul in Morocco, nmi on 5 Jan* 
37 PortujfimHti couttl-^MH*rtti in <)ntw; 
but tho complttintu against him boranni it* 
numrou8 that h WHH tliMiiiihHtu! from thts 
aoryice on iJl Juu* 1H4^, Soon aft or thin 
period ho flttlwl at Athens aH a nurtrhant. 
In that city it was customary to cMi*hrat0 
Easter by burning an <%y of Juttnit Icm* 
riot. In 1847, out of oompluttfttt to Jkron 
Rothschild, then residing 



Pack 

ceremony was prohibited ; but, Pacifico's 
house happen i ug to stand near the spot where 
the burning usually took place, the mob in 
a state of excitement tore down and burnt 
the dwelling and its contents, Pacifico 
claimed compensation, not only for his fur- 
niture, &c., but, also for lost papers relating 
to his claims on the Portuguese government, 
and laid his damages at the exaggerated 
sum of 26,018/. At the same period Dr. 
George Finlay [q. v,], the historian of Greece, 
had also a claim against the Greek govern- 
ment. The Greek ministry delaying to make 
compensation in these anc! other cases, Lord 
Palmeraton, in January 1850, sent the British 
fleet to the Pirtwia, when all the Greek ves- 
sels and other ships found within the waters 
were seized. The French government, then 
in agreement with England, sent a commis- 
sioner to Athens to endeavour to arrange 
terms. This attempt at conciliation, however, 
resulted in a quarrel between France and 
England, and the French ambassador, M. 
Drouyn de Lhuys, withdrew from London. 
The House of Lorda, on 18 June 1850, by a 
large majority, passed a vote of censure on 
Lord Pulmeraton for his conduct in this 
matter, but the resignation of the ministry 
was prevented by a vote of the House of 
Commons on 129 June, when there waa a 
majority of 46 in favour of the government. 
Ultimately Pacifico received one hundred 
and twenty thousand drachmas for the 
plunder of his house, and fiOO/. sterling as 
indemnity for his jjtsrsonal sufferings. Thus 
ended an event which nearly evoked a Euro- 
pean war, and disturbed the good relations 
between England and France, 

Pacifico, who finally settled in London, 
died at 16 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, cm 
12 April 1854, and was buried in the Spanish 
burial-ground, Mile End, on 14 April. 

[Hansard's Debates, 1850, and particularly 
PalmetHfcon'8 Speech onPacifico' claims, 26 June 
1850, col. 380-444 ; Correspondence respecting 
the demands made upon the Greok government 
in Parliamentary Papers (1850), Nos. 1 157, 11 79, 
1209; 1211, 1226, 1230, 1233, (1851), Nos, 1297, 
1415 ; Finlay'fl History of Greece, 1877, vii. 209- 
214 ; McCarthy's History of our own Time, 
1879, iL 41-42; Gordon's Thirty Years of Fo- 
reign Policy, 1855, pp. 412-25 ; Ashley's Life of 
Lord Palmeraton, 1876, i. 176-227; Jewish 
Chronicle, 19 April 1854, p, U ; Gent. Mag, 
June 18$4, p, 666,] G-. B 



PACK, SIR DENIS (1772P-182S), 
major-general, is described as a descendant or 
Sir* Christopher Paeke [q. v.], lord mayor of 
London, whose youngest son, Simon, settled 
in WeRtmeathj Ireland, Denis, born about 
1772, was son of Thomas Pack, 1),IX, dean 



5 Pack 

of Kilkenny, and grandson of Thomas Pack 
of Balliuakill, Queen's County (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 118). On 30 Nov. 1791 
he was gazetted cornet in the 14th light 
dragoons (now hussars), and served with 
a squadron of that regiment which formed 
the advance guard of Lord Moiras force in 
Flanders in 1794. Pack volunteered to carry 
an important despatch into Nieuwpoort, and 
had much difficulty in escaping from the place 
when the French invested it. He was sub- 
sequently engaged at Boxtel and in the win- 
ter retreat to Bremen. After that retreat 
the 14th squadron was transferred to the 
8th light dragoons, to which it had been 
attached, Pack came home, obtained his 
lieutenancy in the 14th on 12 March 1795, 
and commanded a small party of dragoons 
in the Quiberon expedition, during which he 
did duty for some months as a Md-officer 
on Tale Dieu. He received his troop in 
the 5th dragoon guards on 27 Feb. 1796, and 
served with that regiment in Ireland in 1798. 
He had a smart affair on patrol near Pro- 
sperous with a party of rebels, who lost 
twenty men and eight horses (CANNOtf, IX ist 
MM. of Brit, Army, 5th P. 0. N, Dragoon 
Guards, p. 47), and commanded the escort 
which conducted General Humbert and other 
French officers to Dublin after their surren- 
der at_ Ballinamuck. He was promoted 
to major 4th royal Irish dragoon guards 
from Aug. if 98, and on 6 Dec, 1800 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel 71st higli- 
landers, He commanded the 71st at the re- 
capture of the Gape of Good Hope in 1 806, 
where he was wounded at the landing in 
Lospard's Bay, and in South America in 
1806-7, where he was taken prisoner, but 
effected his escape. Subsequently he com- 
manded the light troops of the army in two 
successful actions with the enemy, and in 
"Whitelocke's disastrous attack on Buenos 
Ayres, in which he received three wounds, 

*In 1808 he took the regiment to Portugal, 
commanded it at the battles of Holeia (Roliea) 
and Vimeiro (GtmwooD, Wellington Jbe*p.. iii. 
92) ; in the retreat to and battle of Coruna; 
and in the Walcheren expedition in 1809, in 
which he signalised himself by storming one 
of the enemy'Hi batteries, during* the siege of 
Flushing, with his regiment, He became aidtv 
de-camp to the king with the. rank of colonel 
on25 July 18 10, was appointed w.ith local rank 
to a Portuguese brigade under Marshal Bores- 
ford, and commanded it at Busaco in 1810, 
and in front of Almeida in May 1811. When 
the French garrison escaped, Pack pursued 
them to Barba del Puerco, and afterwards, by 
Sir Brent Spencer's orders, blew up the de- 
fences of Almeida (cf. G-UIWVOOD, v. 



Pack 



Pack 



204). At the capture of Ciudad Rodrig'O 
Paclc, who had been named a British^ briga 
dier-general (ib. v. 487), was sent with m 
Portuguese brigade to make a false attacl 
on the outwork of the Santiago gate, wlucl 
was converted into a real attack (ib. v. 473) 
He distinguished himself at the battle o 
Salamanca, and was honourably men! 10 nee 
for his services in the operations again a* 1 
Burgos. He became a major-general on 4 Juu< 
1813 ; was present with his brigade at Vifr 
-toria, and, when in temporary command o; 
the 6th division in the Pyren6es,was wpundoc 
at Sauroren. He commanded a division ai 
the battles of Nivelle, the Nive, Orthex, and 
Toulouse, where he was wounded and honour- 
ably mentioned. For his Peninsular services 
in which he was eight times wounded, he 
received the Peninsular gold cross and seven 
clasps. He was offered a brigade in the ex- 
pedition to America (ib. vii. 427-8), but. was 
appointed to command at llamsgate instead 
#e was made K.O.B. 2 Jan. 1815, 

Pack commanded a brigade of Picton's 
division at Q.uatre Bras and Waterloo, 
where he was again wounded (medal) [ib. 
viii. 147, 150). This was his last foreign 
service. He held the foreign orders of the 
Tower and Sword in Portugal, Maria Theresa 
in Austria, and St. Vladimir in Russia Ho 
was appointed colonel of the York chas- 
seurs m 1816, lieutenant-governor of Ply- 
mouth 12 Aug. 1819, and colonel 84th foot 
9 Sept. 1822. He died at Lord Bereaford's 
house in Upper Wimpole Street, London, 
24 July 1828. In 1828 his widow erected a 
monument to him, surmounted by a marble 
bust by Ohantrey, in the cathedral church of 
St.. Canice, Kilkenny, of which his father 
had been dean. 

Pack married, 10 July 1816, Lady Eliza- 
beth Louisa Beresford, fourth daughter of the 
secondEarl of Waterford, and sister of the first 
marquis. After his death Lady Pack married, 
in 1831, Lieutenant-general Sir Thomas 
fteynell, K.O.B., who had been one of 
Pack's majors in the 71st, and who died in 
1848. She died 6 Jan, 1856. 

[Army Lkts; London Gazettes; Hildyard's 
Hist, Rec, of Brit. Army, 71st Highland Light 
Infantry ; Gurwood's Wellington Desp. vols, iii,- 
viiL; Napier's Hist. Peninsular War (rev. eel) 
passim; Gent. Mag. 1823 pt. it, pp, 372-3, 1828 
pt.ii.p,478 Philippart's Koyal Military Calen- 
dar, 1820, vol. iv., contains a lengthy biography 
of Pack, with a particular, account of his services 
in South America in 1806-7.] H, M. 0. 

, PACK, GEORGE (/. 1700-1724), actor, 
first came on the stage as a singer, and, beintr 
< as they flay a smock-fac'd youth," used to 
sing .the female parts in dialogues with that 



great master, Mr. Leverid^, who has for 
many years charm VI with hiw mmily voice' 
(CHBTWOOW, p. LW), Ju the latter" part of 
1099 or the beginning of 17(K) Betierton re 
vived ut Lincoln's Inn Fields the, 'First l*ur 



*urt 



, 

of King 1 Henry IV ' revised by himself, In 
this .Puck Ls first heard of an Westmoreland, 
In l7GiJ lie, wan the original St rat odes iu 
Howe's ' Tamerlane ;' O^le, a fort inu'-htmte.r, 
in Miu Carroll's (Ontlivre) 'Beau's Duel/ 
#1 Oct., where he, also wing 1 'a whimmeal 
' and Frane/wo in tlu ' Stolen 



song 1 ; and bnuieiseo in the ' Stolen Heires 
31 1 )ec. j and pbiyed, nays ( Jenest , other Him 
party in tragedy. On I'M April 170'i he w 




WUH the original Pinc.h (tlm biter) it 
Kowo.'s comedy, *Tho Bittr; f on $2 Fob, 
170") Hoc tor in the 'Uamester/ an adapta- 
tion by Mrs, Oarroltof LeJouour*oi'I?e^uard, 
and played for his benefit in * Love Hot rayed, 
cn-tlio Agreeable Disappointment/ At thenmv 
house tiree.ted for the company by Sir John 
Vanbrugh in the Haymarkct hn wan, W Oct., 
1705, the original Brass in Vanhru^h'M H-on- 
iederat^y/aiul on iJ7 Dee. Lope in* Mistuktt/ 
Vanbrug'h'H adaptation of ' L D^pit Atnoit* 
rtnix/and on ^.'i A\\#* 1 7tHi Jo in 4 Advent imw 
in Madrid' by Mm Pix In the tbl lowing mi- 
son, 170(> 7, ( I played Kitoin the' HtemJting 
Oilicer,' Sosia in ' Amphitryon/ Funphigtou 
in tlio 'City U(ir<rtK/ Uabby BUHV in *ltar- 
tholomow I 1 air/ ami other partn, and \VUH tho 
original llobin in Mrn, (VrrollV * l*latonick 
Lady/ On 1 Nov. 1707 ho wa tho original 
Sauntor in Oibb<V ' Dtiublo Uallant/ Hm 
first rocordtul appearanco at Drury Lane wiu 
on 6 Fob. 170H as Sir Mannerly \ShaIiow iu 
Orowne'w 'Country Wit/ Here, or with tluj 
J)rury Lana company at tlw lluymark***, lio 
;)layed many i>aHn, inelndinfcTattle in * Ltivu 
,'or Love./ ^Tribulat ion in the, * Alchemist/ 
Umeippe m tho 4 HiunorouH Lieutenant/ 
Abel ni tho ' C'Oitnnittoo/ ltttd(irii(o in 
Otbollo/ Hoau in * /Kwop/ Uruhh in ' Loyii 
and a JiottlH/ Puny in tlui * < 'ut t *r of< f oleinan 
Street/ and ovtral original <*lmrm k toi*H Uu 
MOflthnportnnt ofwhieh wero Marplot in Mrw. 
3t,mtlivre'a ' Jiiwy-Hotly* and in * Marplot, or 
ih He,conclj>art of the, BuHy-Itodv/*uid ("nj^ 
amMixmnn(<lharlcHHhn<iweiri4*VairQtuilior 
M'Deal/ IlttwnalHO,<m 27 April 17I4,t,lMMri- 
jinal LiaHardo in Mr,(Vnthvr*i' * Wondtr/ 
with Itidi at the rnbuilt theatre in Lincoln 1 !* 
,nn Fieldn, he wa on HJ Feb. 1715 Sir 
Anthony Thinwit in MoUoy'n * iVrploxod 
Jouplo, or M intake npon Mmtnko/ borrowed 
rom * Lo Cocu Imnginuirti/ On 1 Fb I? lfc$ 



Pack 



Pick 



he was the original Qbadiah Prim in * A Bold 
Stroke for a Wife,' and on 19 April Madame 
Fillette in Molloy's * Coquet, or the English 
Chevalier,' In Leigh's ' Pretenders,' 20 Nov. 
1719, he was the original Sir Vanity Halfwit. 
On 19 Jan. 1721 he was the first Teartext, 
a sham parson in Odell's * Chimera.' This 
appears to have been his last original part. 
On 10 March 1722, for the benefit of Mrs, 
Bullock, he played Marplot, the bill an- 
nouncing it as * being the first time of his 
acting this season, and the last time he will 
act on any stage.' He reappeared, however, 
on 21 April 1724 at Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
and for Mrs. Knight's benefit played Daniel 
in 'Oroonoko.' On 7 May 1724 he had a 
benefit, on which occasion the * Drummer' 
and the * Country Wake' were given. In the 
latter piece he played Friendly, This is his 
last recorded appearance. 
After his retirement from the stage Pack 
took a public-house at the corner of the 
Hay market and Pall Mall, which he called 
the * Busy Body,' placing over it his own 
full-length portrait as Marplot. This, which 
is said to have been highly executed, has 
perished, and no engraving of it can be traced. 
The period of his death has been asked in vain* 
Ho was certainly dead in 1749, Ohetwood 
say a the name o the tavern which Pack took 
was the Globe, His best parts were Mar- 
plot, Maiden in ' Tunbridge Walks,' and Mizen 
in the l Fair Quaker of Deal.' ' Indeed,' save 
Chetwood, 'nature seem'd to mean him lor 
those sort of characters.' Pack went once 
to Dublin, and experienced a storm at sea, 
by which he was so frightened that to shorten 
the voyage he returned by the north of Ire- 
land and Scotland. So lasting were the effects 
of this terror that he chose to go a long way 
round sooner than cross the river by a boat. 
Being asked by a nobleman to go to France 
for a month, he said, ' Yes, if your Grace will 
get a bridge built from Dover to Calais, for 
Gads curse me if ever I set my foot over 
salt water again P He was, says Ohetwood, 
unmarried, and left no relatives behind him, 
[Such particulars as survive concerning Pack 
are given hi Chetwood's General History of the 
Stage, 1749, A list of the characters he played 
longer than is hero supplied appears in G-eneBt's 
Account of the English Stage. The particulars 
concerning his tavern sign are sxippliod in Notes 
and Queries, 5th sor. vii. 180, in an editorial 
communication , presumably from Doran ; Gibber's 
Apology, ed. Lowe, and Boron's Annals of the 
Stage, ed. Lowe, have also been consulted.] 

J. K 

PACK, RICHARDSON (1682-1728), 
miscellaneous writer, born on 29 Nov. 1682, 
was son of John Pack of London, gentleman, 



who settled at Stoke Ash in Suffolk, and 
served as high sheriff of that county in 1697. 
His mother was daughter and coheiress of 
Robert Richardson of Tudhoe, Durham. 
After spending a year or two at a country 
school, where his time was wasted, he was 
admitted in 1693 to the Merchant Taylors* 
School, London. On 18 June 1697 he ma- 
triculated as a fellow-commoner from St. 
John's College, Oxford, and stayed there 
for two years, when he left without taking 
his degree. As his father intended him for 
the law, he became in 1698 a student of the 
Middle Temple, and, after eight terms stand- 
ing, was called to the bar ; but he preferred a 
more active life, and joined the army. His first 
command was obtained in March 1706, when 
he was promoted to the head of a company 
of foot. His regiment served with Marshal 
Starembery in November 1710 at the battle 
of Villa Viciosa, where his bravery attracted 
the notice of the Duke of Argyll, who ad- 
vanced him to the post of major, and remained 
his friend ever after. His subsequent move- 
ments are ascertained from his poems, for at 
every place of abode he indited epistles to 
his friends on the hardships in the life of a half- 
pay officer. He was at Mornbris in Catalonia 
m October 1709, when he addressed some 
lines to John Creed of Oundle in Northamp- 
tonshire, and during the winter of 1712-13 
he was writing to the Campbells from 
Minorca. In June 1714 he was at Ipswich, 
and in the following August was dwelling at 
Stoke Ash, He had returned to town in 
1719, and was living in Jermyn Street, St. 
James's, but by 1722 he was at Bury St. 
Edmunds in Suffolk, There he remained for 
some years, and in the spring of 1724 was 
seized with a dangerous illness, from which 
he recovered by the care of Dr, Mead. Early 
in 1725 he moved to Exeter, but he followed 
Colonel Montagu's regiment, in which he was 
then a major, when it was ordered to Aber- 
deen. He died at Aberdeen in Sept ember 1728. 
Curll printed for Pack in 1719 'The Life 
of T. P. Atticus, with remarks,' translated 
from the Latin of Cornelius Nepos ; and in 
1735 there appeared 'The Lives of T, P. 
Atticus, Miltiades, and Cimon, with remarks. 
By Richardson Pack. The second edition/ 
Ife had intended translating most, if not all, 
of the lives, but laziness, love of pleasure, and 
want of health diverted his purpose. When. 
Curll issued in 1725 a volume called 'Mis- 
cellanies in Verse and Prose, written by 
the Right Honourable Joseph Addison,' he 
added to it/ an essay npon the Roman Elegiac 
Poets, by Major Pack,' which seems to have 
originally appeared in 1721. The English 
essay was by him, but the translation into 



Pack 



Packe 



Latin was by another hand. It was included, 
both in English and Latin, in Bolm's edition 
of 'Addison's Works,' vi. 599-604. Many 
versions from the Latin poets were included 
in the ' Miscellanies ' of Pack. 

The first volume in the British Museum 
of these ' Miscellanies -in Verse and Prose/ 
which was printed by Curll, bears on the 
title-page the date of 1719, but the dedica- 
tion by Pack to ' Colonel William Stanhope, 
envoy-extraordinary and plenipotentiary ut 
Madrid,' is dated from London in June 1718. 
In it are translations from Tibulluw and 
Propertius, and imitations of Horace and 
Virgil, with many poetic epistles to his 
friends. It also contains ^ prose ' essays on 
study and conversation' in two letters to 
his friend, Captain David Campbell. The 
second edition of the i Miscellanies' is dated 
in 1719, and there were added to it. more 
translations, with the essay upon the Roman 
elegiac poets, the life of AtticuB, the prologue 
to Sewell's 'Tragedy of Sir Walter Kalwigh,' 
and the life of Wycherley. This memoir, a 
very meagre and unsatisfactory production, 
was prefixed in 17^8 to an edition of the 
' Posthumous Works of Wm.Wyehorley.' 

Curll was faithful to Pack throughout hia 
life, and in 1725 issued his ' Now Collection 
of Miscellanies in Prose and Verne/ to which 
are prefixed < An Elegiac Kpistlo to Major 
Pack, signed W. Bond, Bury St. EdmundH, 
1725,' and several shorter piocos by various 
hands. It included a letter from Dennis 'on 
some remarkable passages in tho life of Mr. 
Wycherley,' which was inserted in tho first 
volume of the 'Letters of John Dcnnm/ 
1721, Both seta of ' Miscollanioa ' wort* 
printed at Dublin in 1726, and there ap- 
peared in London in 1729 a posthumous 
volume of 4 The whole Works of Major R, 
Pack, in Prose and Verse, now collected into 
one volume/ a copy of which is in thu Dyco 
collection at the bouth Kensington Muntmm. 

In March 1718-9 Curll advertised a pooin 
"by Pack, entitled ' Morning,' and priced at 
fourpence; and he printed in 1720 a tale 
called ' Religion and Philosophy, with live 
other pieces. By Major Pack, 1 Pack'w pro- 
logue to Sewells 'Tragedy of Sir Walter 
Raleigh T was deemed 'excellent,' and his 
epilogue to Southerno'fl ' Spartan I )amo * was 
'very muchadmir'd' (cf. POI>E, Workx, 187:2 
ed, viii. 109), Lines to Pack by Sowdl aro 
in Sewell's ' New Collection ' (1720), in his 
' Poems ' (1719), and his l Posthumous Works * 
(1728). Some of them, including 1 a second 
set, 'written to nim t at St.. Edmondfl-Bury, at 
the decline of the South-Stw, T (17 k 22),' are 
printed in Nichols's ' Collection of rooms' 
(viL 145-9) ; and two of Pack's poems arc 



inserted in Southey'a * SpeeinuniH of the 
Later English Poets J (I iJbU-70). 

The * Letter- from a supposed N un in Portu* 
gal to a Gentleman in Krane.e., by Colonel 
Pack/ which was added to a volntne of 
' Letters written ItyMiu Manley, HUM, 1 and 
reissued in 17^5 a * A Slago-couch Journey 
to Kxotor, by Mrs. Mauley, with tho Foreo 
of Love, or tho Nun's (Complaint, by tho 
Hon. Colonel Pack,' haw IMMU aUrilmUnl to 
him, but tho dato on the fivnt. volume and 
tho do-soription of tlu^ author render tho 
HBcript ion nu[)t > olal)U i 

[JiioolAs PoctH, ii. liiH-IH ; Cibhii^M PontH.iv. 
77-80 ; Font or' H Alumni Oiton. ; Hobiimtni's 
Mon-hauti Tnylorn, i, '{IU ; Nuton attd Qutirion, 
3rd 8<a\ v. 118, ix, iHl-12; CurlTa Mis(N%lliuirt f 
1720; I'liok'H Wm-kH/l W. P. (\ 

PACKE, Srn (HIlirSTOPHKR (irsm^. 
1(>8^), lord mayor of London, won of Thomas 
Pac-ko of Kottoring 1 or (hiti'ton, NoiMhntnp* 
tonshire, by ( 1 ntherittf* his wife, WHS born 
about InOJ^, Ih* Menus to buve btMn npnren- 
tieed at an cmrly i\u to one Jtilm Koiutrick, 
who died in I(tM^ mul left him a lepiey of 
1001. l^u'ke marritMl a kinnwoninn of IUH 
Miastcr Ki k iulrirk, sel, up in btiniiMNSH in tlm 
woollen tnule on IHM <v\vn luvouut, atul MOOU 
amnNHinl n Inr^t* fortune, l\(\ \VIIM un intlu- 
enlinl member of th^ I)VH}MM^ ( 1 uuijmy of 
\vhieJ) he tie.eiune a iVfeiuntt, nntl he nerved 
the ollieeof mnMi i rtn KUH. (>nlH)rt, HIM, 
by an onliuitiu'.e of put*numen< t be WUH ap 
pointed a tnmte for applying tbw hishojm* 
landn to tlu* une of the < 'mumt>n\veaU \\ ( 1 1 tm- 
HAND, (JM'Hiun of /W/VAv O/v/^/v, HJHJ, 
9"J2'5). His ronneetinn \vitb m\tnu*ipnl 
allairw bemin on -i Oet, U!-I7 ( when Iw wim 
I eltn'ttd alderman of C'ripplegute wunl On 
inidHummor day \(W h<* WUH fboneu mo t*f 
j the HhoriiVnof London and MitUIWcXiUwl on 
| iJOt'fc. following wuH^U'HiMi Hli<*rinuiHtf(N>rn* 
lull, but- (bidined to diwrt t'ripple^nti* wur<l 
(6VVy Hvcunh, * H< i portiry ? * Hevnnnhon ami 
AwlnvwH, foL5()4//), HIM wealth, atility,iuul 
sfwil fortb(^ jmrlinmentnry t-nuHi* MUIHI br 
him toctwiNivo public employment, In 
and perhajm earlier, be \\HH o ff tin* tnm- 
xnisstontvftt of tuistomn (*S?r//i /V/^rrx, Horn, 
1050, p, Ull), He WMH ai^o a prominent 
mmmber^ and HiibHequetitly goviM*uor, of tint 
Company of Merchant Advent urern, und 
probably n tbin aeeount WUH htnjiMMitly np- 
pointed, with other aldenuen, to athim* tb*i 
Ct'uuu'i! in tiomtiu*mnl rnntroverMie>t(/^, lfif>,H - 
ltS54 pp. (U-5, Uifil pp, HH, .11% 
pp 17CV*^ H * r >^*)* Aiwmiing to 
nurton* 'D'mry* (l^M, i, HUH 10), 
fought hard at fhu meetingof tho 
of trade <m ti Jan* ItiWJ- 7 ior tlio nujnopo 
of the MercIiauU Adviiuutrew (wf whiuu 



Packe 



Packe 



was then governor) in the woollen trade. 
The committee, however, decided against 
him. In 1054 he was one of the treasurers 
(with Alderman Vyner) of the fund collected 
for the relief of the proteatants in Piedmont 
(State Prt/wvr, Dorn, 1654, passim). This 
involved him in .considerable trouble. The 
money was kept hack for several years; 
various instructions were given him by the 
council for its disposal, and nearly 8,000/. 
of the amount was lent by the treasurers to 
public bodies (if). 1059-00, p, 589). Ulti- 
mately the matter came betbre the House of 
Commons, which resolved, on 1.1 May 1060, 
that the money should be paid to the trea- 
surers by 2,000/, monthly from the excise, 
the house also ' declaring* detestation of any 
diversion of the money (ib. 1660-1 ; cf. also 
ih, 1657-8 and 1059 ~l>0 passim), Packe was 
also one of the city militia, and treasurer at 
war, receiving in the latter capacity three- 
pence in the "pound on all contributions re- 
ceived or paid by him (Aff/ttery of the Good 
Old Oauw, 1660, pp. 44-5). 

Packe became lord mayor on 29 Uct IOM, 
and on 26 March 1655 the Protector, on the 
advice of the council of state, thanked him 
and the rest of the militia commissioners 
of London < for their forwardness in execu- 
tion of their trust ' (Oal State Paper*, Dora. 
Ser, 1655, p. 96), He received orders from 
the council on 3 July to prevent a meeting 
taking place < in the new meeting-house at 
Paul's ' at which one John Bicldle [q. V -J 
was to argue against the divinity of Jesus 
Christ (ib, p. 224). The council also ap- 
pointed him one of the committee of trade 
on 12 July (ib. p. 240), and he was knighted 
by Cromwell at Whitehall on 20 Sept, 
(State Papm, Dom. 1655, pp. 393-4). On 
81 Oct. he was made an admiralty commis- 
sioner (ib. p. 402), Packe was also chosen 
with others on 15 Nov, 1655 to meet the com- 
mittee of council appointed to consider the 
proposals of Manasseh Ben-Israel [q. v.J on 
behalf of the Jews (ib. 1655-6, p. 23). Oi 
25 March 1656 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners for securing peace in the city 
of London (ib. p. 238). In the following 
August Packe was presented by the nackne; 
coachmen with a piece of plate to stand thei 
friend to keep out the parliamentary soldier 
who were then seeking civil employment (w 
1656-7, p. 75). The sum of 16,OOOJ, wa 
still due to the state from Packe and his fel 
low commissioners of customs, and, aite 
several petit ions and Inquiries by the treasury 
Packe and two others were discharged from 
a share in the obligation, but Alderma 
and Richard Bateman were not ac 
.. 1666-7, pp. 84, 25S-4, 291-3 



057-8, pp. 8-9, 106-7). In September 1657 
acke appears as one of the committee of 
arliament for farming the customs (ib. 1657- 
658, p, 94), and on 25 March he was made, 
vith Sir Thomas Vyner, treasurer of the 
ind for the relief of protestant 'exiles from, 
> oland and Bohemia, In January 1655-6 
Cromwell and his council proposed to send 
*acke, with Whitelocke, on an extraor- 
inary embassy to the king- of Sweden^so as 
to manifest the engagement of the city in. 
his business, and in it to put an honour 
iponthem' ( WHITELOCKE, Memorials, 1682, 
,619). 

Packe was a representative of the city 
n Cromwell's last parliament, summoned on 
7 Sept, 1656, and on 23 Feb. 1657 he 
brought forward his celebrated ^ ^rernon- 
trance/ afterwards called * a petition and 
ad vice/ desiring the Protector to assume the 
itle of king, and to restore the House of 
uords. This was agreed to by the House of 
Commons (Journal^vii. pp. 406, 512). Packe, 
vith another city alderman, Robert Titch- 
borne, was a member of the new House of 
^ords early in 1658. The new lords ob- 
tained no right of precedency over their 
brother aldermen (State Papers, Dom. 16(33- 
1664, pp. 371-2). On 11 May Packe Jent 
4,000/, to the state to pay the wages of the 
leet lately returned into port (ib. 1658-9, 
pp. 17, 290). On the Restoration Packesigned 
a declaration, 5 June 1660, together with 
;he lord mayor, one of the sheriffs, and ten 
other aldermen, of ' their acceptance of His 
Majesty's free and general pardon, engaging 
by 'God's assistance to continue His Majesty's 
loyal and obedient subjects ' (City Records, 
< Repertory,' Alleyne, fol. 83 b). But he was 
included by the commons (13 June 1660) in 
a list of twenty persons who were to be 
excepted from the act of pardon, and _ to 
sutler certain penalties, not extending to life, 
to be determined by a future act of parlia- 
ment. This clause was thrown out by the 
lords on 1 Aug. ; but on the next day they 
resolved that sixteen persons, among whom 
Packe was included, should be disqualified 
from holding in future any public bffice or 
employment under penalty of being excepted 
from the act of pardon (Parliamentary Ins- 
tory of England, 1808, iv. 70-1, 91). Packe 
was accordingly, with six other Common- 
wealth lord mayors, removed from the office 
of alderman, his last attendance at the court 
of aldermen being on 7 Aug. 1660. His in- 
terest at court, however, nearly availed him 
to procure a baronetcy for Christopher, his 
'younger son, a errant for which was issued 
on 29 March 1666; but, for some unknown 
cause, the title was not actually conferred 



Packe 

(State Papers, Dom. 1665-6, p. 322, 1666-7, 
p. 467). f 

Packe's city residence was in Basinghall 
Street, immediately adjoining Black well 
Hall, the headquarters of the woollen trade 



Packe 



PACKE, ciiiusTopiirait (/. TU), 

chemist, set uj> hifl luborntory in 1(570 at the 
sipn of the 'fllolni and OluMnical Furnaces 'in 
Little, MoorfwMs, London, and styled him- 
self a professor of* (dtomieal mo.dioim*. He 



\, Survey of London, 1720, bk, iii. p. 68), j practised as a quuck under powerful pufrron- 

1 i i i 1 ,. n if _ _ j. 1 . 1_ .. _ ..1 ,_ 1 ' . . i, I . i I* i I t f 11 i * w . 



He also had a suburban house at Mortlake 
(LYSONS, Environs of London, 1796, i, .176). 
On 2 March 1649-50 the lease of the manor 
of Prestwold in Leicestershire was assigned 
to him by the corporation, who held it in 
trust for the orphan children of John Acton 
(City Records, 'Repertory,' Foot, fpL 74). 
Shortly afterwards this manor, with the 
neighbour ing one of Cotes, was assigned to 
him by Sir Henry Skipwith, the steptather of 
these orphans (NICHOLS, Leicestershire, vol. 
iii. pt. i. p. 354). After his retirement from 
public office, he spent the remainder of his 
life at the mansion of Cotes. lie also pur- 
chased on 19 Jan. 1G48-9, lor 8,1 74 l(k (>&, 
the manor of the bishops of Lincoln at Kuck- 
den in Huntingdonshire, which was for aomo 
time his occasional residence. 

Packe died on 27 May 1682, and WAR 
buried in Prestwold church, Leicestershire, 
where there is a fine monument to his memory 
on the north wall of the chancel (ligured 
and described in NICHOLS'S Ztf/cwfa/w/M/T, 
vol. iii. pt. i. p. 360, and plate 53). The Latin 
inscription states that he was about eighty- 
four years old at his death. 

Packe was thrice married : first, to Jane, 
daughter of Thomas Newman of Nowbury, 
merchant draper, by Ann, daughter of John 
Kendrick, who was mayor ox Heading in 
156o; secondly, to Anne, eldest daughter of 
Simon Edmonds, lord mayor of London ; mid 
thirdly, to Elizabeth (born Richards), widow 
of Alderman Herring. He had no issue by hia 



age, including that of the Hon. Robert Uoyle 
and Edmund Dickinson fq. v. ), physician* to 
the kirg, and in 108 1 ho' circulate!! a list of 
hia specifics, 

In ](>SO ho brought out in goodly folio a 
translation of the f Works of then highly ex- 
perienced and famous ohymlst, John Uiulolph 
Glauber,'ueeompauied l)y the original copper- 
plates, which he. hud purehuwed at Aiuwinr- 
dam. Tins under! nldiu>- occupied him threo 
years, and ho Hceured a large number of nub- 



^ Ills other publications wore ehicily tlo- 
wigned to m-omote the wale of bin Hpeeiiic.vuul 
art* as follown; 1, * I)e Sueeo I'unereatieo; or 
a Physical and Anatomical Treat inc of t-Iw 
Nature and OfHee of th< PumwitioU Jutn/ 
l^nm, London, KJ7-1,- a translation tVum tlu\ 
Latin of U, d<* (u'uaf. *J. UolM-rt C'onrh'n 
1 Praxis Oatholira; or IhMJountrymnn'H Ihn- 
vorHal Jlomody/ with additions* by himself 
PJmo, Londoii, KlSO, ;j t * <) n( , ' ' htundmi 



and fifty three t'ltytmeal Aphorism,' l&uo 
London, IOHH, from the Lutw of Kivmifa 
Suburban us, with additions From that of 
lienmrduH (J. IVnotiw, -1. Minemlogia; or 
an Accotint of the^ Pn^umtion, manifold 



first and third wives; but by his second wife, oinew ... an also an Mswiv npoii tlu* 
Anne, who died in 1657, he had two aona, Acnrrimum PhiloHonhorum/ or Vini'tfur 
Christopher and Simon, and three dnughtery, Antimony/ Hvtt, Lt>ndtm 170H- n t ihV w 
Anne, Mary and Susanna, HIB portrait in ! of which !H a atalotfm of his m<*'<Urim< wi 
engraved by Basire, and published by Nicholn I their price*, ' 

(History of Leicestershire, vol. iii, pt, i, pi. 50, I A aon, I'll 
T). d55), from an original painting by (>ro- himself ' " 



a -short Diseoiirse of'fhA Nature ntitl Tne^ of 
the Sulphur* of MinrmlM ami MetaU in (-ur* 
iug DUeaMeM/Hvo t L*mdon ( ItitKi, ft, * Medela 
Ojiymiea; or an Aeeotint of the Vert ut^ and 
of a Select Number of Ohymuwl MMi- 

of 

't(l 

with 



lius Janssens, still in the poH8sion of th 
family, It represents him in IUH oflicial 
robes as lord mayor, with laced band and 
tassels, and laced rulHes turned over tlwlvo 
ot his gown, his right hand rating on a tablo, 
[Nichols's Hist, of Iioicostewhiro (whovo, how- 
ever Packos parentage is incorrectly given); 
Ca. State Papers, Dom. 165,5-6, piJm; A*h~ 
moles Berkshire; Masson'a Milton, pawrim; 
Vmtauon of London, 1633-4 (Harl. Boc-.^ p. 17 

' 



n ' > ryp(3 ' 54 ' i 
H tt rlemnMi SC elany r tii.484; informat oa 



A, S, Newman,] 



an cluink/ 
thn M Jold^n H W 
ton Stm^t, ("ov*nu Uar<l<n 
an edition of \m fiitlu*rV 
dtttwl) and 'An Anwir to 
to J>r, Junt* on tl4 



nmt*d tm tho 
| U Hotttbauip- 
Ho twhlfohwi 
iii * (ttn 
I>r. 



Ward'* Drop and Pill, wtnwn hi 

2 1 u A ym , ^ 
8vo London, I7' 



PAOKE, 
/ 4 ), 



of Mr, 



), p 
n [ 



m v. 
ncrt 



1< wt HOU of C!h 
chwiiint, wn burn nt Ht 
*, on tt Mawrh 1W<1, 



Packe 2 

was admitted to Merchant Taylors' School on 
11 Sept. 1695 (Register, ed. Robinson, i.334). 
He was created M.D. at Cambridge (comitiis 
regiis)in 17 17, and was admitted a candidate of 
the College of Physicians on 25 June 1723. At 
the request of Robert Romney, the then vicar, 
he gave an organ to St. Peter's Church, St. 
Albans, which was openexl on 16 Jan. 1725-6 
(ClUTTUKB ITCK, Hertfordshire, i. 120). About 
1726 Packe settled at Canterbury, where he 
practised with much reputation for nearly a 
quarter of a century. He died on 15 Nov. 
1749 (Gent. Mag. '1749, p. 524), and was 
buried in St. Mary Magdalene, Canterbury, 
He had married on 30 July 1726, at Canter- 
bury Cathedral, Marv Randolph of the Pre- 
cincts, Canterbury (Reg. Harl. Soc. p. 77). 
His son Christopher graduated M.B.in 1751 
as a member of reterhouse, Cambridge, prac- 
tised as a physician at Canterbury, and pub- 
lished < An Explanation of ... Boerhuave's 
Aphorisms . . . of Phthisis Pulmonalis/ 1754. 
He died on 21 October 1800, aged 72, and was 
buried by the side of his father. 

Packe had a heated controversy with Dr. 
John Gray of Canterbury respecting the 
treatment of Robert Worgor of Hinxhill, 
Kent, who died of concussion of the brain, 
caused by a fall from his horse. The rela- 
tives, not satisfied with Packed treatment, 
called in Gray and two surgeons, who, Packe 
alleged in letters in the ' Canterbury News- 
Letter' of 8 'and 15 Oct. 1726, killed the 
patient by excessive bleeding and trepanning, 
He further defended himself in ' A Reply to 
'Dr. Gray's three Answers to a written Paper, 
entitled Mr. Worger'a Case/ 4to, Canterbury, 
1727, 

Packe wrote also : 1, ' A Dissertation upon 
the Surface of the Earth, as delineated in a 
specimen of a Philosophico-Choropfraphical 
Chart of East Kent/ 4to, London, 1737. The 
essay.had been read before the Royal Society 
on 25 Nov. 1736, and the specimen chart 
submitted to them. 2. *'AyKoypa<ia, sive 
Convallium Descriptio/ an explanation of a 
new philosophico-chorographical chart of 
East Kent, 4to, Canterbury, 1743. ^ The chart 
itself, containing a 'graphical delineation of 
the country fifteen or sixteen miles round 
Canterbury/ was published by a guinea sub- 
scription in 1743. 

His letters to Sir Hans Sloane, extending 
from 1737 to 1741, are in the British Museum, 
Additional (Sloane) MS. 4055. 

[Munk's Coll, of Phy&. 1878 ; Smith's Bibl. 
Cantiana ; Gough's British Topography.] 

PACKE or PACK, CHRISTOPHER 

( //. 1790), painter, born at Norwich in 1750, 
was son of a quaker merchant belonging to 



t Packer 

a family which claimed connection with that 
of Sir t/hristopher Packe [q. v.], lord mayor 
of London. Pack showed an early taste for 
painting, but at first was engaged in his 
lather's business. On that, however, being 
seriously injured by pecuniary losses, Pack 
adopted painting as a profession, and came 
to London. He made friends with John 
Hamilton Mortimer [q. v.l, and also obtained 
an introduction to Sir Joshua Reynolds, mak- 
ing some good copies of the latter's portraits. 
In 1786 he exhibited a portrait of himself 
at the Royal Academy, and in 1787 two 
more portraits. He then returned to Nor- 
wich to practise as a portrait-painter, and 
shortly after went to Liverpool. Having a 
recommendation from Reynolds to the Duke 
of Rutland, then viceroy in Dublin, he re- 
sided there for some years, and obtained 
success as a portrait-painter. About 1796 
he returned to London, and exhibited ali the 
Royal Academy two portraits, together with 
' Gougebarra, the Source of the River Lee, 
Ireland/ and ' Edward the First, when Prince 
of Wales, escaping from Salisbury, is rescued 
by Mortimer. 7 He continued to practise 
aher this, but did not again exhibit. The 
date of his death has not been ascertained. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Pasquin's Artists 
of Ireland ; Royal Academy Cat.] L. C. 

PACKER, JOHN (1670 P-1649), clerk 
of the privy seal, born in 1570 or 1572 at 
Twickenham, Middlesex, studied for a while 
at Cambridge, but subsequently migrated to 
Oxford, where he matriculated as a member, 
of Trinity College on 13 March ^ 1589-90 
(FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, iii. 1104). 
He did not graduate. Under the patron- 
age of Lord Burghley, Thomas and Richard, 
earls of Dorset, and the Duke of Bucking-- 
ham, he became a great favourite at court. 
On 11 July 1604 he obtained a grant in 
reversion of a clerkship of the privy seal 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1603-10, p. 131). 
Writing to Sir Thomas Edmonds on 17 Jan. 
1610, he states that Thomas, lord Dorset, had 
asked him to be his travelling companion in 
France (Court and Times of James J, 1848, i. 
104 ; cf. Brit Mus, Addit. MS. 4176). In 
August 1610 he was sent as envoy to Den- 
mark (WlNWOQI), Memorials, iii. 213). With 
Francis Godolphin he had a grant on 23 March 
1614 of the office of prothonptary of the chan- 
cery for life (Cal, State Papers] Dom. 1611- 
1618, p. 228)1 In June 1615 he was acting 
as secretary to Lord-chamberlain Somerset 
(ib, p. 294), and in 1616 was filling a similar 
office for Bucl.ingham. On 7 March 1617 
he was granted an annual pension of.ll.5J. 
from the court of wards on surrendering a 



Packer 

like pension from the exchequer and treasury 



of the chamber (ib. p. 440)." As evidence of 
the social distinction to which he had at- 
tained, Camden in his ' Annals' states that 
the Marquis of Buckingham, Baron Haye, and 
the Countess of Dorset were sponsors at the 
baptism of one of his children in Westmin- 
ster Church on 24 June 161 8. He was now rich 
enough to buy from Lord Dorset the manor 
of Groombridge in Speldhurst, Kent. In 
1625 he rebuilt Groombridge Chapel, in grati- 
tude for the safe return of Charles, prince of 
Wales, from Spain, on which account it was 
afterwards called St. Charles's Chapel, and 
endowed it with SO/, a year (ib. 1660-1, 
p. 347). Charles, pleased 'with his loyalty, 
granted him at his coronation the manor of 
Shillingford, Berkshire, where he occasionally 
resided (ib. 1629-31, pp. 355, 357). He also 
owned Donnington Castle in Shaw, Berkshire 
(Archaologia, xliv. 474), and an estate at 
ChiltonFoliatt, Wiltshire. In 1628-9 he was 
elected M.P. for West Lpoe, Cornwall. He 
was one of the commissioners for inquiring 
into the abuses of the Fleet prison in 1686 
( Cal State Papers, Dom. 1635, p. 80). When 
Charles in March 1639-40 asked those of his 
subjects on whose loyalty he thought he could 
rely for loans of money, Packer refused to 
comply with his request, and forthwith allied 
himself with the parliament (ib. 1639-40, 
pp. 511, 522), He may have imbibed sound 
constitutional notions from his friend Sir 
John Eliot, but his refusal was looked upon 
as base ingratitude, His property, excepting 
Groombridge, was thereafter sequestered by 
the royalist forces. Donnington Castle was 
garrisoned for the king, and withstood three 
sieges by the parliamentarians (LYSONS, Mag. 
Brit. < Berkshire/ i. 356). On 19 Nov. 1641 
he paid a /free gift' of IQQl. for the affairs of 
Ireland into the chamber of London, and was 
thanked for it (Commons' Journals, ii, 320) ; 
and on 1 May 1647 he was appointed a visitor 
of the university of Oxford ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1645-7, p. 551). Packer died in his 
house, ' within the college of Westminster/ 
in February 1648-9, and was buried on the 
15th at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 

By license dated 13 July 1614 he married 
Philippa, daughter of Francis Milk of South- 
ampton (CHESTER, London Marriage Li 



Packer 

and John Packer, M.D. (1626-1708), of Chil- 



ed, Poster, col. 1006), and had, with other 
issue, four sons, all graduates of Oxford, viz,: 
KobertPacker,M,P.(1616~1687),of Shilling- 
ford ; George Packer (1617*1641), fallow of 
AHSouls College; Philip Packer (1620-1 683) 
of Groombridge, a barrister of the Middle 
Temple and one of the original fellows of the 
Royal Society (HiSTBD, mt, fol ed. i, 432 ; 
THOMSON, ffi&t. of Roy. $oo< Appendix, iv.)f 



ton Foliatt, a fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians (JVluNK, CollofPhys. 1878, i. StiO), 
Packer is represented as being an excellent 
man of business, but self-seeking, avaricious, 
and treacherous. Among the Lansdowno 
MSS. in the -British Museum (No. (ilNJ) is a 
neatly written book of Greek and Latin vorwos 
composed by him while at Cambridge, and 
entitled ' Elizabetha, aive AupfustiHHinuu An- 
glorum Priuoipis Encomium,' It is dedicated 
to Lord Burghloy, whom Packer nddronww 
as his ' Mittceuaa,' A valuable collection of 
letters and state papora formed by Pucker 
passed, after .several changos of ownerwhip, 
into the hands of Mr. U, JI, Fortescuo of 
Dropmore, Buckinghamshire, Thoy wero 
calendared in the 'Historical Manuscripts 
Commission/ 2nd Rep. pp. !() 63, and a Ntiloc- 
tion of them waa edited by Mr, fl. U, (Jardi- 
ner for the (>amdon Hooioty in 1871, under 
the title of * ForteMcue Pttporn/ 

[Chostor's Rigit(ira of WoHtminHtor Abhoy, 
pp, 65, 60 ; Foaror'fl Alumni ()x(m, 1/iOO- 1714; 
Nichols's ProproSHOH of JMUOH I, i, 't<lH, CM ; 
Bacon's Workn, cut. Sp<ddiug, xL xii. atiti. &\v t 
Symondfl'fl Diary (Oamd. Hoc.)) <}, <K 

PACKEB, JOHN HAVMAN (I70- 
1806), actor, born in I7fi(), wan originally n 
aaddler, and followed that occupation* in 
Swallow Sfcroet, London, He joined Drury 
Lano xinch^r Clarriek, and IK ftiuiul playing 1 
Agrippa in Oap(ll*H nrratigenjent, of *' An- 
tony and Cleopatra' on H Jim. 1750, Uo 
waa on xU May th original Briton, jun. t in 
MoxuonM * Il(irtHH, or Antigullinim/ t)n"rn 
in'Ardtm of Kovrnhnm ' lollowi'd, und on 
31 Oct. 1750 howiiH th< origittul 
' High Life balow Stairrt* 1 lh* WUH HM, 
at the outset Hueond and third rti^ 
and seldom got boyond thrtn, In hi^lator 
yearn h all but lupwd into utility jmrtH, Kn 
list of characttn-H IUIH hct'n givtn and na 
part H(H?mH to huvu htMm xpccinlly HHnoriitfrd 
with his name. In addition tu Urn charm-tern 
named, ho wim, in Rt^d'n * Ut'gi.MhT Utlii***,* 
the original Gulwcll, the rnncullv JuvpHr of 
the oflicc, on 25 April 17U1, Ht* ul M o plnvw! 
the following jjartH, nomt* til' thctn ormitinl : 
PiBanio in <0y minium/ Krpt'man m thti 
'Musical Lady/ Aimwrll in th * ji(*nux* 
in 'Two 



of Vorona,' Don Kottrigo in 
vira/ StmiW in Havard' 



MnlletV 4 KI-. 
* KljMmi*nt/ 



Orsmo in < Twelfth Night; VMliW In , 
Shorulnn's ' Dupn/ Don Philip or Oatavin in 
' f 



' She would and s 
Murphy^ 'Ohoit 



would t, f Wuwlvil In 
Dorilatit in an ubridir* 



inent of Wychwtoy'H * tJuiuifrv WilV/ th 
Karl of Suflblk m I)r, Krnitklln'n * Hurl 
Warwick/ Ptitwt, a mtuta^r, "m 



Packer 



33 



Packer 



' Peep "behind the Curtain, or the New Re- 
hearsal,' Zopiron in Murphy's i Zenobia,' and 
very many others. His line in his later life 
was, as a rule, old men in tragedy and senti- 
mental comedy. He remained at Drury Lane 
until 1805, when he retired, incapacitated by 
old age, and died on 15 Oct. 1806. His 
private life is said to have been exemplary. 
He was buried in St. Paul's, Covent Garden. 
A portrait in the Mathews collection in the 
G-arrick Club is ascribed to Kornney. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Gril- 
liiarid's Dramatic Mirror; Thespian Dictionary;* 
Catalogue of Mr. Mathews' s Gallery of Thea- 
trical Portraits, 4to, 1833; G-ent. Mag. 1806, 
pt, ii.p. 1894/1 J. K. 

PACKER, WILLIAM (/. 1644-1660), 
soldier, entered the parliamentary army early 
in the civil war, and was a lieutenant in 
Cromwell's 'ironsides ' in 1644. In the spring 
of that year he was put under arrest by Major- 
general Crawford for disobedience to orders, 
but obtained his release by the intervention of 
Cromwell. Cromwell explained to Crawford 
that he * did exceeding ill in checking such 
a man, which was not well taken, he being a 
godly man \Manc7i e$fer\*i Quarrel with Crow- 
well, Camd. Soc, 1875, p. 59). Carlyle sup- 
poses Packer to be the officer referred to in 
Cromwell's letter of 10 March 1643-4, but 
that officer was a lieutenant-colonel (CAR- 
LYLB, Cromwell, letter 20). In 1646 Packer 
was a captain in Fairfax's regiment of horse 
(SKRTCJGB, Anylia Redimva, eel. 1854, p. 331). 
He sided with the army in its quarrel with 
the parliament, and was present at the siege 
of Colchester in 1648 (Rusii WORTH, vi. 471 ; 
Clarke Papers, ii, 38). At the battle of 
I) unbar he seems to have commanded Crom- 
well's own regiment of horse in the absence 
of its major, and took part in that flank 
attack on. the Scottish army which decided 
the issue of the battle (GfARDiNER, Hist, 
of the Commonwealth, i. 325 ; Memoirs of 
Capt, John Hodyson, p, 147, ed, 1806). In 
10>f>:2 Packer became major of the regiment, 
and, as such, was colonel in all but name, re- 
ceiving the salary and exercising all the 
functions of the office on behalf of Cromwell. 
He was still noted for his godliness, and on 
17 July 1653 received a license from the 
council of state authorising him to preach in 
any pulpit in England, if it was not required 
at the time by its legal possessor '(Gal, State 
Papers, Dom. 1653-4, p. .18), In 1656 
Packer acted as deputy major-general for 
Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, and Hert- 
fordshire, and had the honour of proceeding 
against Edmund Waller until the Protector 
interfered in behalf of the poet (ib. 1605-6 p, 
305, 1656-7 p, 153), Several of his letters 

VOL. XLUJ, 



concerning his proceedings in this office are 
printed among Thurloe's ' Papers ' (v. 187, 
222, 409). By this time he had become a 
man of property, and bought, in conjunction 
with some brother officers, the royal manor 
of Theobalds, Hertfordshire. G-eorge Fox 
mentions him as a great enemy to the quakers, 
and describes an interview between himself 
and Packer (Fox, Journal, p. 139). In Crom- 
well's second parliament he represented 
Woodstock ; but he had become discontented 
with the policy of the Protector, and joined 
the opposition in the parliament and the 
army. Cromwell, after failing to convince 
him of the error of his ways by argument, 
deprived him of his command. According 
to Packer's own account, his opposition to 
the revival of the House of Lords was the 
cause of his dismissal. 'I thought it was 
not u a lord's house," but another house. But 
for my undertaking to judge this, I was 
sent for, accused of perjury, and outed of a 
place of 6QOJ, per annum, I would not give 
it up. He told me I was not apt ; I that nad 
served him 14 years, ever since he was 
a captain of a troop of horse till he came to 
this power j and had commanded a regiment 
seven years: without any trial or appeal, with 
the breath of his nostrils I was outed, and 
lost not only my place, but a dear friend to 
boot ' (BURTON, Parliamentary Diary, iii. 
165), Packer was returned to Richard Crom- 
well's parliament as member for Hertford, 
but on a petition he was unseated (ib. iv, 
249, 299). On the restoration of the Long 
parliament that assembly restored Packer to 
the' command of his old regiment, regarding 
him as a sufferer for republican principles ; 
but having taken part in the promotion 'of a 
petition which the house considered dange- 
rous, he was cashiered by vote of 12 Oct. 1059 
(Common^ Journals, vii. 698, 796). He con- 
sequently assisted Lambert to expel the par- 
liament, and was one of the leaders of the 
army during the two months of military rule, 
which followed. But the restoration of the 
parliament at tliQ end of December put an 
end to his jjower ; the command of his regi- 
ment was given to Sir Arthur Haselrig, and 
Packer was ordered to leave London on pain 
of imprisonment (ib. vii. 806, 812), "When 
Lambert escaped from the Tower, Packer 
was immediately seized and committed to 
prison (15 April 1660). The Restoration en- 
tailed upon him the loss of the lands he had 
purchased, and, though he escaped punish- 
ment, the government of Charles II con- 
sidered him dangerous, and more than once 
arrested him on suspicion of plots. His wife 

j Elizabeth petitioned for her husband's re- 
lease in August 1661 1 stating that he lied 

V i) 



Packington 



34 



Paddock 



been for three months closely confined in the 

Gate House without being brought to trial 

(Cal State Papers, Dom, 1661-2, pp. 128, 

457), His subsequent history and the date 

of his death are unknown. 

[Authorities cited in the article.] C. H. F 

PACKINGTON. [See PAKINGTON.] 

PADAKISr (/. 550), Welsh saint, is the 
subject of a life printed from the Oottonian 
MS. Vesp. A. xiv. in ' Oambro-British Saints ' 
(188-197), and, in a shorter form, in ' Aeta 
Sanctonim,' 15 April, ii. 378, and Cap- 
grave's * Nova Legenda Anglise/ pp. 258-9. 
It was abridged about 1200, Philliniore thinks 
(Cymmrodor, xi. 128), from a fuller narra- 
tive. According to this account, Padarn 
was born of noble Breton parents named 
Petran and Guean, who both took ^up the 
religious life upon his birth. While still 
a youth he joined his cousins Cadfan, Tyd- 
echo, and 'Hetinlau' (Trinio?) in their mis- 
sion to Britain, and with 847 companions 
founded a church and monastery at a place 
called ' Mauritana.' Thence lie visited Ire- 
land; upon his return he founded monas- 
teries and churches throughout Coved ijion 
(Cardiganshire), and set rulers over thorn. 
Maelgwn G-wynedd (d, 550?) sought to injure 
him, but was himself struck blind, and only 
regained his sight upon ceding to tho saint 
the district between the Olarach and the 
Kheidol. David, Teilo, and Padarn journeyed 
together to Jerusalem, and were there con- 
secrated bishops by the patriarch Padarn, 
according to this life, spent the close, of hiw 
career in Brittany, where ho founded a 
monastery at Vannes;- the jealousy of \m 
brothers finally drove him to seek a homo 
among the Franks, in whoso country he died 
on 15 April. Bhygyfarcli's 'Life of St. 
David' (Cambro-firitish Snintti, pp, L'$5~(i) 
and the 'Lite of Teilo ' in the * Liber Lan- 
davensis' (ed. Ehys and Evans, pp. 103 )') 
also narrate the Jerusalem incident. 

According to the 'Genealogies of the 
Saints,' Padarn was the son of Pcidrwiv (( )ld 
Welsh Petrun), the son of Emyr Llyiuw 
(Myuyrian Archaioloffy r $n.& eel. pp. 41 fij 4"JH ; 
Cambro-British Saints, p. SJ60 ; Zola Mti& 
103, 132) ; the Triads speak of him us one of 
the three hallowed guests of the Fwle of 
Britain (Myvynan Arch. pp. 891, 40^). 

Padarn stands for the Latin Patornus, and 
the Welsh saint has therefore been identified 
with the bishop of this name who was at the 
council of Paris in 657, But this Pater nua 
was bishop of Avranches, not of Vannes, 
and his life, aa, narrated by Venantiua Por* 
tunatus, is not to be reconciled in other par- 
ticulars with the Padarn legend. Two 



bishops of Vannes in tho fifth century boro 
the name Piiternus,and it has boon Hugg'e.sted 
that Padarn's supposed connection with tho 
see rests upon a confusion with erne of lua 

' 



earlier namesakes (llADiUN and 
Councils, i. 145 n.) 

Padarn has been regarded not only as a 
bishop, but also u.s founder of a dioecHo of 
Llaubadarn, which is fuipposod,ontho ground 
of the position of the ehure.heH wliieh an^ 
dedicated to him nndhiM followerw within t.hn 
district, to have indhulwl Norl-h (Cardigan- 
shire, with partH of Breeknoelvshire, Iviulnor- 
shire, and Mont^oinei-yHliin* (IJiMM, /jfV/.v// 
There \vaM(^er(.}iinly at radititin 



in the time of Oirnhlun (la 
riuw ffitmbritPi ii. !) that. Llnnhadarn l^nwr 
had been ' cathedral is, 1 atul (hut one of the 
blsliops had been killed by hin own peopli\ 
GooiFn^y of Monniouth wayn that (Vim^, St.. 
David'B aucoi'HHor, wan at lirnt bishop ttf 1 4 luu- 
badarn, but th(U'e in no other evithnuv iur 
the asHiuuptioiu The eluirehes ttetlinifotl to 
Padaru are Llunhfularn l^a\vr Llanlxtchtrti 
Oclwyn, and Llannatlarn Tnf I'^lwy^ in 

vdigunHhire; Llnnhtulnrn Kytiydtl, Lluu- 
badarn Fawr, and Hanbadam y iiam^ iu 
liadnorrthiro. 

[AuUiui'ilieHeittHl.J ,l, K, L, 

PADDOCK, TOM (WM IWJJJ), m^i- 
liwt, was lioru probably hi iH'JJi at Ifftloiteli, 

oveeHlerHhii'o, \vhe k nee he ohtuitun! hin HO* 
briquet oi' t-he t Ut k tltliteh neiHtlr-jmiufm*,* A 
burly pu^tuu'ioiiH tariner'n boy, he ilevrlnju'ii 
a lante tor boxing and lH*eittne a ^troiugv 
enduring, and resolute fi^htir t hut never t- 
buntcl to Ihe first rank UK a i*ii<ntilu* hoxet% 
\Vheu IUH pfofoHHiouiil <*nrt k ei* roiunnMieeti in 
1H-1-J IUH lu*i^'ht. wiiM iivt* teet ten uutt n halt* 
inches, and IUH fighting weight wi**t\v*'lv 
atone, In 1HI i he brut JVrsonrt, niul, m>} 
ing vai'iouM tne.n rnxm afterwuvds, tu'ituirtni a 
rnputalion for ntauneh oourn.y:*', In IHfttl li* 
was defeated by Hendin'o ( William Thotitp. 
son of Kott'inghain), a very nhiftv piM'ionu^r, 
who WUH dedare<l winner* in eouH*(|u< v ne*Mf 
afoul blow whi(di liin eojulttrt had invih'd t 



\\w 



yoarn latir Pmldoek wan dnl 
to he champion of Mi^bwd through 
faulty of Harry Broowe, but loriVitcd 
position next year ( 185*!} to Bill IVrry (th* 
Tiptou Shwh*r), I ft* inade two uHUtv'Mxrul 
attumptB to repin tho honour, f*n*!dot*k 
wan long 1 atuhitiouH to light Suv**fH, who \VHH 
ready to moot him ; but when' the mt^iiitg 
was in profennof nrru3ftj(jmit , l*dd*mk f**U 
ill BayerH vinitwl him in th* !ioHpitni nnd f 
learning that he waw poor^jriMi^nmNiy KHVH 
him 5/. On IUH rtn*<v**ry i* rtm<*WHi )UH 
application to fight ftayms for (buckam^hiu* 



Paddy 



35 



ship ; but being unable to raise the usual 
stake of 200, he appealed to his opponent to 
waive 501, , a request which was at once 
granted. The fight came off in 1858, and 
Paddock was defeated in twenty-one rounds, 
which occupied an hour and twenty minutes. 
It is worthy of record that in the last round 
Sayers, having delivered a crushing blow 
with liis left, had drawn back his right hand 
to complete the victory ; but seeing his adver- 
sary staggering forward at his mercv, instead 
of hitting he offered his right hand in friend- 
ship, and led him to his seconds, who ac- 
cepted defeat. Paddock's last fight took 
place in I860. His opponent was the gigan- 
tic Sain Hurst, who gained the victory by a 
chance blow. 

Paddock died of heart-disease on 30 June 
1863, leaving a reputation for straightforward 
conduct, ' real gameness, and determined per- 
severance against all difficulties.' 

[Milos's Pugilistica, iii. 271, with portrait; 
Fustiaua (editor of Bell's Life in London) for 
tho results of buttles, and Bell's Life for their 
dotiiils ; obituary notice in Bell's Life, 5 July 
1863.] W. B-T. 

PADDY, SIK WILLIAM, M.D. (1554- 
1034), -physician, was born in London, and 
entered the Merchant Taylors' School in 1569, 
having among his schoolfellows Lancelot 
Androwes fig. v.], Giles Tomson (afterwards 
bishop of Gloucester), and Thomas Dove 
(afterwards bishop of Peterborough). In 157 1 
he entered aa a commoner at St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, and graduatedB.A. in July 1573, 
On 21 July 1589 he graduated M.D. at Leyden, 
and was Incorporated on that degree at Ox- 
ford on 22 Oct. 1591. He was a contemporary 
at St. John's with his friend Dr, Matthew 
Gwinne [q. v.], and for many years occupied 
rooms in college. He was examined at the 
College of Physicians of London on 28 Dec. 
1589, admitted a licentiate on 9 May 1590, and 
a follow on 25 Sept. 1591. He was elected a 
censor in 1595, and again from 1597 to 1000, 
and was four times president of the college 
1600, 1010, 1611, and 1618. His only pub- 
] ished work appeared in 1603, a copy of verses 
lamenting the death of Queen Elizabeth, 
beginning with the unmelodious line ' Ter- 
minus hue rerum meus hue me terminus 
urget ; ' and after praise of her successor, of 
whom he says ' solus eris Solomon/ ending 
with the wish 'Sic tamen ut medica sis 
sine, salvus, ope.' James I appointed him his 
physician in the first year of his reign, and 
Knighted him at Windsor on 9 July 1 608 (Msx- 
CAOTGI, Book of Knights). When James I was 
at Oxford on 29 Aug. 1605, Paddy argued be- 
fore him against two medical theses, 'Whether 
the morals of nurses are imbibed by infants 



Paddy 

with the milk/ and ' Whether amoking to- 
bacco is favourable to health.' A manuscript 
note of Sir Theodore Mayerne [q. v.] shows 
that the former was a point on which James 
had some personal feeling, and the latter ex- 
pressed one of his best-known prejudices; so 
it may easily be supposed that Paddy ob- 
tained the royal applause. In 1614 the Col- 
lege of Physicians appointed him to plead 
the immunity of the college from arms- 
bearing before the lord mayor, Sir Thomas 
Middleton, and the recorder, Sir Henry Mont- 
agu. He spoke before the court on 4 Oct. 
1614, and pointed out the nature of the acts 
14 and 32 Henry VIII, which state the 
privileges of physicians. A point as to sur- 
geons having arisen, he also maintained tliat 
* physicians are by their science chirurgeons 
without further examination '(GooDALL, Coll. 
of Physicians, p. 379). The recorder decided 
in favour of the claim of the college. Paddy 
attained to a large practice, and enjoyed the 
friendship of Sir Theodore Mayerne and of 
Dr. Baldwin Hamey the elder. Mayerne 
praises him in his preface to his edition oi, 
Thomas Muffett's [see MUFPETT, THOMAS] ' In- 
sectorum Theatrum/ published in 1634. On 
7 April 1620, with Matthew Gwinne, he was 
appointed a commissioner for garbling to- 
bacco (KrMER, Fmdera, xvii. 190). It is 
to this office that Dr. Raphael Thorius [q. v.] 
alludes in the oulogium on Paddy, with 
which his poem * De raeto seu Tabaco ' (Lon- 
don, 1626) begins : 

Tu Paddaeo fave, nee enim praestantior alter 
MorbifugfB varias vires agnoscere plantse. 

He was attached to his fellow-collegian 
William Laud [q. v.], and when the puritans 
expressed disapproval of a sermon preached by 
Laud at St. Mary's, Oxford, and persecute!:! 
him in the university, Paddy called on the 
Earl of Dorset, then chancellor of Oxford, 
and spoke to him in praise of Laud's cha- 
racter and learning. He sat in parliament 
as member for Thetford, Norfolk, in 1604-1 1. . 
When in March 1625 James I was attacked 
by the acute illness, complicating gout, of 
which he died, Paddy was sent for to Theo- 
balds, and, thinking the king's case despe- 
rate 1 , warned him of the end, which ensued 
two days later. In Paddy's copy of the f Book 
of Common Prayer' (ed. 1615;, preserved in 
St. John's College, Oxford, there is a manu- 
script note which records the king's last- 
solemn profession of faith. Paddy died in Lon- 
don on 22 Dec. 1634. He was a munificent 
benefactor of his college at Oxford, to which 
he gave an organ, 1,800J. for the improve- 
ment of the choir, and 1,000^, towards the 
commons, as well as many volumes to the 

1)2' 



Pacing 



Pagan 



library. He gave SO/, to the College of Phy- 
sicians. His tomb is in the chapel of St. 
John's College, and the college possesses a 
portrait of him in his robes as a doctor, 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys. i. 100 ; Hnmoy's 
Bustorum aliquot Keliquise, manuscript in library 
of College of Physicians of London ; Sloane M8. 
2149, in Brit. Mus. ; Olode's Memorials of the 
Guild of Merchant Taylors, London, 1875 ; Wil- 
son's History of Merchant Taylors' School, 2 vola, 
London, 1812 and 1814, in which his poem is 
printed, p. 602 ; Wood's AthenseOxon.; Fontor'a 
Alumni Oxon.] N. M. 

PADBIG (373-463), saint. [See PA- 
TRICE:.] 

'PADUA, JOHN OF (jl. 1542-1540), 
architect, received two royal grants, in 1544 
and in 1549 respectively. In the earlier grant 
an annual wage or fee of two shilling's par 
day was given to ' our well-beloved servant 
Johannes de Padua/ t in consideration of tho 
good and faithful service which [he] has done 
and intends to do to us in architecture and in 
other inventions in music.' The fee was to 
commence from the feast of Easter in tho 
thirty-fourth year of Henry VIII ; and ho is 
further described as ' Devizer of his mujoHty'fl 
buildings.' Walpole states that ' in one of 
the office books which I have quoted thero 
is a payment to him of 36/. 10s. j * but tlii 
book has not been identified. No doett 
mentary evidence of any work to which hi 
name can be attached seems accessible, al< 
though it is clear, from the terms of tluw 
grants, that both Henry VIII and Kdward V! 
benefited by his skill in architecture as wol 
as in music. Attempts have been mndo tc 



I PAGAN, IflOBKL (tf. ISiM ), vei'Mfier, a 
' native of New (lumnock, Ayrshire, passed 
her life mainly in tho neighbourhood of Muir- 
kirk in that, comity, She lived alone, in a 
hnt previously used as a brick-store, and 
' scorns to have conducted unchallenged an 
unlicensed trallic in spirit nous liquor, ('on- 
: vivial companions frequently cavouwd with 
i her in the evenings, and enjoyed her Hin.u'tn^ 
I and recitation of vei-wos by lleiWlf and olhev.s! 
i Lamo from infancy, rtho \VUH an exceedingly 
ungainly woman, and she was* misanthropical 
both IVom temperament and slighted allee* 
tioiiH, OtlendorH dreaded her vituperation, 
Her quaint character and her undouhted 
abilities lp(, her popular, and mn-ured her 
tho meatus oflivclihood, Shi* dii*l on S Nov. 
18^ I ? probahly in her ei^htietli venr, and 
wan buried in Muirkirk churrhvard, wh<ro 
an inwtn'ihed stinv* mnrkM her p'n've, 
A '(Collection of Som^s jutd I*tt 
obul Pa^an wan puhlLshed in < 
about ISOfn These uncouth Uric,*- 



Uv 



nuttnnn inoui*M, in which 



to 



identify him with Sir John Thynne [a, v, 
of Longleat, John Thorpe [q. v.], the leading 
architect of the Elizabethan period, and I )r 
John Cains or Keys (1510-1573) fq, v.] of 
Cambridge, but the results reached as yet 
may safely be ignored, Canon J. E, Jackson, 
claimed that Henry VIII's Johannos de .Padua 
was identical either with John I'aclovaui of 
Verona, a musician (who published aovoral 
works on mathematics, architecture. &c be- 
tween .1688 and 1589), or with Giovanni or 
John Maria Padovani of Venice, a designer 
in architecture and musician. 

[Eymer's Fcedera, fol. 1713. xv, 34, ffivos the 
patent 36 Henry VIII, p. 21, m. 30, and tho 
patent 3 Edward VI, p. 4, n, 21, in xv, 84; 
Walpole s Anecdotes of ' Painting, 4to 1702' 
Jackson, in Wiltshire Archaeological and Natuml 
History Magazine, 1886, vol. xxiii.; Bulkier 
20 June 1868.^ Adam (^iel^ud, in a paper on 

^fT'r 1 ? 6 ^ 0118 tlle ^oHdinga there by' tt 
or 'the John of Padua; see English Illustrated 
Magazine/November 1889.] W P H 



'Orook and Plaid, 1 which are nof m Inn* 
volumes Btirus, wht> had the iWmer m>n^ 
taken down in 1 787 from the Mi^m^ of th* 
Rev, Mr, (Uuuie, HeeniH to have rextMul aud 
iinishod it for JohuNon*H ' Musical Musentu* 
(iv, i}4!), }J1(I, ed, IKVJ), ( l uuuin^liami.S*i//^ 
oftit'tttfttHtttuLWty reckh'ftsly attribute* it 
to *a gt v ntlemun of the nuim* of l*ngau* of 
wluim there in no tract*; Strut her*, in * Ifitfti 
of (Caledonia/ |^ives Isobel Pa^tn Utf the 
author; and the original t\m\i of the IvHt* in 

1 hef'H If, nn HPellH to be uil* 



and Plaid' -a mmplo uml tlniuty m^nml t 
not to ho ccmfnumh'd with II, H, HuhltirH 
ufywith tlui mum* title sin* t-louriv |m,H- 
Bcd qualiti^H that would hw **nnlilml hor 
to oompoKo 'CV Uio Viiwt'H In tin* Knn\v% f 
[Contoinpnrnrios uf UttniH, ami HIM Mitre Hti 
ctmt, PotflH of Aymliiro; .InhttHiMtV Muwtml Mu- 
seum; UotftnVN SfottiMh MujHtml,) T* U* 



sou of JttincH Pajjfan atitl KH^nbeih 
stock, wa born ou IH OH, 1HI I at T 
ri tho parish of Tinwuld, near 
where hiH fatlun* wan a hhwhe?, Tlie fitmilv* 
omovetl to l)umfriw whortly nft0r JmneA 
)irth, and hn roceivi*d ft HOU?H! mhunfio at 
ha academy of that town. On leaving 
ehool ho wan apwrnitiml UK a mwpONimr m 

olnon of tho * fJuwfm* Oourinp,* \ ' ' 
vardH bimamo a ntpuptur for tU 



Pagan el 



37 



Paganel 



soon left to become partner in a printing 
firm in London ; but in 1839 he settled in 
Glasgow on the staff of the ' Glasgow Herald/ 
and also edited a little broadsheet, 'The 
Prospective Observer. 7 

In 1856 he was appointed successor to 
George Outrarn [q_. v,] as editor of the ' Glas- 
gow Herald/ which he converted from a tri- 
weekly into a daily paper. Under his editor- 
ship the * Herald ' 'became one of the first pro- 
vincial daily papers, Pagan died in Glasgow 
on 11 'Feb. 1870. 

In 1841 Pagan married Ann McNight- 
Kerr, a native of Dumfries, and a personal 
friend of Robert Burns's widow, Jean Ar- 
mour. He had three sons (two of whom 
died in infancy) and two daughters. 

Pagan was a devoted student of Glasgow 
history and antiquities, and published: 
1. ' Sketches of the History of Glasgow/ 8vo, 
Glasgow, 1847. 2. t History of the Cathe- 
dral and See of Glasgow/ 8vo, Glasgow, 185.1. 

3, ' Glasgow Past and Present ; illustrated 
in Dean of Guild Reports- . . ,/ 2 vols. 8vo, 
Glasgow, 1851 (vol. iii. published in 1856; 
another edition, 3 vols 4to, Glasgow, 1884). 

4. 'Old Glasgow and its Environs/ 8vo, 
Glasgow, 1864. 5. ' .Relics of Ancient Archi- 
tecture and other Picturesque Scenes in Glas- 
gow/ thirty drawings by Thomas Fairbairn. 
With letterpress description by James Pagan 
and James H. Stoddart, folio, Glasgow, 1885. 

[In Memoriam Mr. James Pagan, printed for 
private circulation; Stoddart's Memoir in * One 
Hundred Glasgow Men : ' private information.] 

G. S-H. 

PAGANEL, RALPH ' (fl. 1089), sheriff 
of Yorkshire, was jjrobably a member of the 
Norman family which held land atMontiers 
Hubert in the honour of Lieuvin (OftDEBicus 
VITAXIS, v. 69), In 1086 he held ten lord- 
ships in Devon, five in Somerset, fifteen in 
Lincolnshire, fifteen in Yorkshire, and others 
in Gloucestershire and Northamptonshire 
(Ei>M8, Domesdai/, i. 464). He received the 
lands which had belonged to Merleswain 
(FREEMAN, William Rvfus, I 31). In 1088 
he was sheriff of Yorkshire, and seized the 
lands of "William of St. Calais, bishop of 
Durham, at the command of William II, 
whose cause he defended at the meeting at 
Salisbury in November 1088 (ib, I 81, 90). 
In 1089 he refoiinded the priory of Holy 
Trinity, York, and made it a cell to 
Marmoutier ; to it he gave Drax, his chief 
Yorkshire vill (Mon. Angl. iv. 680). His 
wife's name was Matilda, and he had four 
eons William, Jordan, Elias, and Alan. 

The eldest son, WILHAM, founded a house 
of Austin canons at Drax or Herlham in 



the time of Henry I, by the advice of Arch- 
bishop Thurstan (Mon. Angl. vi. 194). He 
confirmed his father's grant to Selby (ib. iii. 
501). It was probably he who was defeated 
at Montiers Hubert in 1136 by Geoffrey 
Plantagenet (ORDERICTTS VITA.LIS, v. 69). 
He married Avicia de Romeilli and died be- 
fore 1140 ; his daughter Alice married Robert 
de Gaunt [see GAUNT, MAURICE DE]. 

Another William Paganel, lord of Mon- 
tiers Hubert and Hambie, married Juliana, 
daughter of Robert of Bampton in Devon- 
shire, and had a son Fulk (Mon. Angl. v. 202). 
William Paganel appears 011 the Yorkshire 
pipe rolls, 11(50-2, 1164-5, 1167-9, and in 
the 'Liber Rubeus,' 12 Henry IT, as holding 
under the old enfeoffment fifteen knights' 
fees, and half a fee under the new. 

Ftmc PAGANEL (d. 1182), baron of Hambie 
in Normandy, was a constant attendant on 
Henry II when abroad. He is found attest- 
ing a charter at Silverston, 1155, urging a 
claim on lands in possession of Mont St. Mi- 
chel, 1155 (R. D:H MONTH, ed. Delisle, ii. 341 ) ; 
in 1 166 he was at Fougeres in Brittany, 1 1 67 at 
Valognes,1170 at Mortain and at Shaftesbury, 
1178 at Mont Ferrand and Caen, 1174 at 
Falaise, 1175 at Caen, always with the king. 
In 1177 he held an assize at Caen, acting- as 
king's justiciar; in 1180 he was at Oxford, 
where the king confirmed his gift of Renham 
to Gilbert deVere (-4 Wm>. Plac. p, 98, Essex), 
and perhaps in this year he confirmed his 
father's grants to Drax (Mon. Angl. iii, 196). 
In this year he paid one thousand^ marks for 
the livery of his mother's honour of Bampton 
( Rot. Pip. Devon. 26 Henry II, quoted by Dug- 
dale), In Jnne 1180 he was at Caen and at 
Bur-le-roy, and in 1181 at Clipston with the 
king. He married Leacelina de Gripon or de 
Subligny, sister of Gilbert d'Avranches (STA- 
PLHTON, Hot. Scaco. vol.ii.p.vi), and had four 
sons and three daughters, Gundreda (ib. vol. i. 
p.kxix), Juliana, and Christiana (Mon, Angl 
v. 202), His eldest son, "William, married 
Alianora de Vitro 1 , and died in 1184. 

His second son FULK (d. 1210 P), forfeited 
Bampton, but recovered it in 1199 on payment 
of one thousand marks (Rot. Obi. 1 John, m. 
22). In 1190 he confirmed his father's grant 
to Drax (Mon. Angl, vi, 196). In 1203 he was 
suspected of treachery to John (Rot. Norm. 
4 Job. in dorso m, 2), but was restored to 
favour on delivering his son as a hostage (Rot. 
Scacc. vol. ii. p, ccxliv). He died about 1210. 
He married first a Viscountess Cecilia, and, 
secondly, Ada or Agatha de Hinnez (Mon. 
Angl. v. 102), and had two sons,William and 
.Fulk.. "William (<2. 1216 P) sided with the 
barons against John ; his lands were seized, 
and he died about 1216. He married Petro- 



Pagan ell 

nilla Poignard (Hot. Scacc. vol. ii. p. Iv), The 
younger son, Fulk, did homage to Henry III 
iu Brittany, and tried to induce lum to re : 
cover Normandy (MATT. PARIS, Ghrm. Maj. 
in 197). He was disinherited by Loms -LA 
(ib p 198). The Yorkshire family died out 
in the fourteenth century, William Paganel 
was the last of his family summoned to lav- 
liament as a baron in the reign of Mward 11 
(LisoNS. Devon, p. li). 

ADAM PAGANEL (ft. 1210), a member of the 
Lincolnshire branch of this family, founded 
a monastic house at Glandford Bridge in the 
time of John. The Lincolnshire Paynelks ot 
Boothby were an important family to the 
time of Henry VIII (LELAND, Itin. i. 25). 

[Dugdale's Baronage; Sbaploton's Rotuli 
Scftcc-ftrii Normannise; Ey ton's Court and Itine- 
rary of Henry II; ArchseoL Instit. Proc.^1848; 

id authorities cited,] 



Page 



an 



M.B. 



Berkley [POO Dirnu-n*, JOHN (SurroN) UK|. 
His seal" is shown in ' 'Monastieon Angli- 
canum/ v. 20& Nichols (Mwwtt'rMv, iv. 
220 ii. 10, Jii. llti) given tho anus of tho 
Paganoli family. 

[Pugdalo's Baronage; Staplotun's Kotuli 
Scaccarii Normanniiw; Ky ton's Court and It lib- 
rary of Henry JL] M. U, 



PAGANELL or PAINEL, GERVASE 

(fl. 1189), baron and lord of Dudley Castlo, 
was the son of Ralph Paganell, who defended 
Dudley Castle against Stephen in 1138 (ttocu 
HOY. I 193), and in 1140 was governor of 
Nottingham Castle under the KmpreHsM and, 
His grandfather was Fulk Paganoli, whoBO 
ancestry is unknown, but who succeeded to 
the lands of William Fitzansculf before 1 1 00, 
and founded the priory of Ticliford, noar New- 
port Pagnell, Gervase appears in tho pipe 
rolls of Bedfordshire 1162-3, and of North- 
amptonshire 1166-8, In 1166 he certified 
his knights' fees as fifty of ( the old tmfuott- 
ment, six and one-third of the now (Lib. 
Nig. ed. Hearne, i. 139), He joined with 
the younger Henry in his rebellion, April 
1173" (EYTON, Court and Itin. p, 172), In 
1175 his castle was demolished (lUx.Pl! m-3 
DICETO, i. 404), and he paid five hundred 
marks for his pardon (JPtpe Roll Soc. 2*2 
Hen. II, Stafford). About 1180 he 
founded a Cluniac priory at Dudley in pur- 
suance of his father's intention, and made it 
subject to "Wenlock (EriCF, Shropfih'ire t ii, 
62, n. 16). In 1181 he witnessed the king's 
charter to Marmoutier at Chinon (Mon, AngL 
vii, 1097). In 1187 he confirmed his father's 
grants to Tykeford (ib, v. 202), and in 1189 
was at Richard I's coronation (BiOTiniOT, 
ii. 80). He also made gifts to the nunnery 
at Nuneaton (DvGDALE, Warwickshire, p* 
753). He married the Countess Isabella, 
widow of Simon de Senlis, earl of "Northamp- 
ton [q. y.], and daughter of Robert, earl of 
Leicester, His son Robert died under age, 
and his lands passed to his sister (not his 
daughter, as she is sometimes called ; Mon. 
AngL Y. 202), who married John de Somery, 
baron of Dudley, and secondly, Roger de 



18-15), admiral, l)orn at. Ipswich on 7 Fob, 
17(15, ontonul tho navy in Novcmbor 17?S, 
under the patrontigo ot Sir t'ldwurd Hn^'lu^ 
fq, v,l, with whom lu* wont out in tho KMi 
Indies in tho Suporb, and in hor was pn^cnt 
in tho liral four not ions with Sutlron, ^ hi 
Decombor 17K2 bt^ was nppointoii uv.f injf lio\t- 
tonant of tho l')xotor,und in hr took part in 
tho fifth action, on l'() Juno 17HJJ, In AupiM, 
ho was movocl itito tho WoiVf^tor; in tho 
lollowin^ February to tho Li^nrd slooj; nud 
in Septombor to tho Kur\ dico fri^at o Ju which 
ho rotunuul to Kn^innd in July I7HA, HIH 
committHionttH liout onant wantbon <'oniinuod, 
dating from i!t> Nov. I7H4, From I7HU tu 
1790 ho waH on tho Jamaica station tn th* 
AtvMi frigates couiniandt*d by Tuptnitj Pofor 
Uainior ftj* v,|, whom ho iUliowcd t<> tlm 
Monarch in tlio (Jbnnnol for a few moutlm 
during tboSpnniHbanniHHont, In Hoooitdu'i' 
1700 ho wtw appointed to tbo Minor\n, in 
which ho wont out to tin* Ka*t Indian; in 
AugUHtho WHH tratwlorrotl to tho < Vown, ami 
in her rotun\od to Kn^lnnd in July 17t*i.', In 
Jantiary 17U!i ho wan appoint od to tboStdf>dk, 
again with Ittihu(r,rttHn ti wiring of I71M 
wtmt out tn hor to tho Vlant hulion, tn Hop- 
tombw Hainior protuotod !m tti tMiitimnntt 
tho Jlobart nioop, a promotion aftorwnrdH 
conlii'mod, but only to datu iVom 1*J! Ajrit 



In c(mHtqwnt'.o of Pn^oV 
anco with oimtorn H(*U^, ho WHS owioivtt, iti 
January 17U(! to pilot tho ntjtuidron throii^H 
tho intricate jmnnaffon It'ittlui^ to tho ,Mo 
IUCCUH, whicth woro tulion poH^rHMion of with- 
out roHiHtttiico, ami prt^vod u vor^v rtoh jrb% 
eachof thocnptninH pronont roootvtn^, it \vn 
aaid, 15,(KK)/, UniortiuiHtoIy for i*^o,Mino 
important dospatchoH woro fouin! ou hoard a 
Dutch bri# which wit takon on tho \vny, iunl 
the Holwvt was wft with thorn to (*uionttn. 
Page waH than abwont whow Ambovnit WHH 
capturod, and did not wliaro in tho \mm 
money (JAHi-^, 2Vfli>, JHht, i. 4\h), in Ho- 
comber 1790 iw convoyml tbo Ohina lru*lt 
from Ptmang to Hoiniky with n can* ni 
success for which ho WHH Hpmlly tftttHki'd 
by the govunimont, and by tbo m^roftuutH 
preaentecl with flvo luindrod uitionh. In 
February 17^7 ho WUH itppo 



Page 



39 



Page 



captain of the Orpheus frigate, but a few 
months later lie received his post rank from 
the admiralty, dated 22 Dec. 1796, and was 
ordered to return to England. In January 
1800 he was appointed" to the Inflexible, 
which, without her lower-deck guns, was 
employed during the next two years on 
transport service in the Mediterranean. She 
was paid oft 1 in March 1802, and in November 
Page commissioned the Caroline frigate, in 
which in the following summer he went to 
the East Indies, where he captured several 
of the enemy's privateers, and especially two 
in the Hay of Bengal, for which service the 
merchants of Bombay and of Madras seve- 
rally voted him a present of five hundred 
guineas. In February 1805 he waa trans- 
ferred to the Trident, as flag-captain to 
Vice-admiral Rainier, with whom he re- 
turned to England in October, In 1809-10 
l k age commanded the sea-fencibles of the 
Harwich district, and from 1812 to 1815 the 
Puissant guard-ship at SpUhead, He had no 
further service afloat, but became, in course 
of seniority, rear-admiral on 12 Aug. 1819, 
vice-admiral 22 July 1830, admiral 23 Aug. 
1841. During his retirement he resided 
principally at Ipswich, and there he died on 
3 Oct. 1845, He had married Elizabeth, 
only child of John. Herbert of Totneas in 
Devonshire; she died without issue in 1834. 
[Statement of Services in Public Bocord 
Omctt ; 0' Byrne's Nav. Biogr, Diet. ; Marshall's 
Hoy, Nav. Biogr. i. 767; K-alfe's Nav. Biogr. iv. 
260.] J- K- L - 

PAGE, DAVID (1814-1879), geologist, 
waa born on 24 Aug. 1814 at Lochgelly, 
Fifoahire, where his father was a mason and 
builder. After passing through the parochial 
school, he waa sent, at the age of fourteen, 
to the university of St. Andrews, to be edu- 
cated for the ministry. He obtained various 
academic distinctions ; bixt the attractions of 
natural science proved superior to those oJ 
theology, so that when his university course 
was ended he supported himself by lecturing 
and contributing to periodical literature, 
acting for a time as editor of a Fifeshire 
newspaper. In 1843 he became < scientific 
editor 7 to Messrs. W. & E, Chambers in 
Edinburgh, and while thus employed wrote 
much himself. In July 1871 he was ap- 
pointed professor of geology in the Durham 
University College of Physical Science at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, But his health already 
was failing, owing to the insidious advance 
of paralysis, and he died at Newcastle on 
March 1879, leaving a widow, two sons 
and one daughter. 
Page was elected F,G,S. in 1853, waa 



(resident of the Geological Society of Edin- 
burgh in 1863 and 1865, and was a member 
f various other societies. In 1867 the uni- 
ersity of St. Andrews honoured him with 
the degree of LL.D. 

He contributed some fourteen papers to 
scientific periodicals, among them those of 
:he Geological and the Physical Society of 
Edinburgh and the British Association, 
But his strength lay not so much in the 
direction of original investigation as in that 
of making science popular ; for he was not 
only an excellent lecturer, but also the 
author of numerous useful text-books on 
geological subjects. Among the best known 
of them at least twelve in number are 
'The Earth's Crust' (1864, Edinburgh; 6th 
edit. 1872), the text-books (both elementary 
and advanced) of * Geology ' and of ' Physical 
Geography; ' these have gone through nume- 
rous editions, and 'Geology for General 
Readers 7 (180C; 12th edit. 1888). The 
Handbook of Geological Terms ' (1859) was 
a useful one in its day. Page is also sup- 
posed to have aided Robert Chambers [q. v.] 
in writing the 'Vestiges of the Natural His- 
tory of Creation. 7 He did real service ioi 
awakening an interest in geology among the 
people, especially in the north ; for, as it was 
said in an obituary notice, by his clear method 
and graphic illustrations i geology lost half 
its terrors by losing all its dryness.' Indus- 
trious and unwearied, with literary tastes 
and some poetic power, he was a good teacheu,. 
and was generally respected. 

[Obituary Notices in Nature, xix. 444 ; Quart. 
Joiirn. Geol. Soo. 1880, Proc. p. 39; Trans., 
Edin. Geol. Soe.iik p. 22.0.] T. G, B. 

PAGE, SIR FRANCIS (1661 P-l 741),, 
judge, the second son of Nicholas Page, 
vicar of Bloxham, Oxfordshire, was admitted 
to the Inner Temple on 12 June 1685, and 
called to. the bar on 2 June 1690. In Fe- 
bruary 1705 he appeared as one of the coun- 
sel for the five Aylesbury men who had 
been committed to Newgate by the House 
of Commons for the legal proceedings which 
they had taken against the returning officer 
for failing to record their votes (HOWBLL, 
State TnaU, 1812, xiv, 850). The House 
of Commons thereupon resolved that Page 
and the other counsel who had pleaded on 
behalf of the prisoners upon the return of 
the habeas corpus were guilty of a breach 
of privilege, and ordered their committal to 
the custody of the sergeant-at-arms (Jour- 
nals of the House of Commons, xiv. 652). 
Page, however, evaded arrest, and parlia- 
ment was soon afterwards prorogued in 
order to prevent a collision bet ween the two 



Page 



D Page 

as that is the case, the odds are against mo. 
Uivo my respect H to the judge, and loll him 



twill not coutoml with oiw that haw 
f m' t and h< ( tuny ill I up 



tho 
tho 



houses. At the genorul election in May 
1708 Page was returned in the \vhig in- 
terest to the House of Commons for Hunt- 
ingdon. He continued to represent that 

borough until the dissolution in August | blank as heploasort' 1 ' (JonNwoN, JJV/iv, isjn, 
1713, but no report of any speech by him is ; xi. iWi ".) Fielding makes Purl ridge toll a 
to be found in the ' Parliamentary flistory,' j story of a trial hoforo Page of a lmr,MeHtealer 
He was elected a bencher of 'the Inner j who, having m at od by way of defoneo that 
Temple in 1713, and, having boon knighted ' ho had found the horws wan 
by George I on iH Jan, 1715, was made a answered hy tho Judge: * Ay ! thou 
king's Serjeant on the 28th of the. names lucky fellow, 
month. On 15 May 1718 ho way appointed 
a baron of the exchequer in the room of Sir 
John Fortescuo Aland [q.v.] Pago wa 
charged by Sir John Oopo in tho 11 on NO of 
Commons on 1 Fob, ITtfsJ ' with ondouvour- 
ing to corrupt the borough of Haulmry in 
the County of Oxwi for the, tuisuing 1 (Section 
of a Burgofls to servo in Parliament Tor tho 

said borough' (H>. xix. 7i.'i), After tho evi- , , r , ., , 

deuce had been hoard at tho bar of the IIOUHO quoto.M his oxii>porati>if>; lumm^ue to the jury 
he was acquitted, on M- Feb., by tho narrow (JoiitfMN, JJ W/r,v x* Mti7 Sj ; \\lule SMVM^I* 
majority of four votes ('/ft. xix, 744, 745; HOI'S 
also Part. Hist* vii. *.)(> I - 5), ( )n 4 Nov. 1 7"M 
Page was tranKfnrrod from the ox chequer to 

the court of common pleas, and in Soptom* | wi-nm, tinytith /VAv t M(^ xi, rt.'itl), AM i r n 
her 17^7ho waw removoel totho kin^'H bone!*, | \vu tottering out of emrt one tiny tuwnr 

ho ohhso of hi,s lifo,un neuuniuhtiitv* .N|H|>JK 
id intiuireit iU'ttr hi hrttltlt ; * My dour <s1 



art a 

huve travelled tho circuit 
tho.se forty ycurs, und never found a hnr.se 
in my lifti ; but. I will tetlthoo what, friend, 
thouNvast mon IncKy (ban thou didst ko\v 
of; feu* thou didst not unly Iind a horse, but 
a halt or too, 1 promise' t T/t< ///>/r*r// t>f Tnm 
/fvw, lik. viii, ohnp \iJ Jn(niMu, in his 
(KTt)tint of tho trial of Hiolmrd Sjivg* for 
tin* murder of Janjes Siwlnir, n*lrrs to 
PHgow * usual insolonco nud Htnenty,' nnd 



wrote n bitter ' chnrncter * of him, 
^ with tbe wnnls * !'uir Trutli, in 
couvtM where junt ice should {>t'e-*id<* ' (t'uAt^ 



where ho nat until IUH death, lie died at 
iMiddlo Anton, Oxfordshini, on 10 Or.!-. 1741, 
a^ed 80, and was buried in Steeple Aston 
Church, where he had previously erected a 
huge monument, with full-length li^uren of 
himself and of hit) Hocoud wifo by Peter 
Scheomakerrt [<|, v/] 

Page haa loft bolund him a most nnenvi^ 
able reputation for coarsened and brutality, 
which is hardly warrant < s d by th< few re- 
ported caRt->R in whic.h he. took part, Among 



n 



the trial* <'f 



( volt 

John 
Wttte 



he nnswored with uncoHm-mitr* irony, ' 
HOO I keep hiutging * 
l^gn took pnrt 

Truth) xv, l-u!H 1 tOIJ) j of \Yilluuu Union 
for forgt^ry (M, xviii, \i\l l Hh; ivf jutm 
Huggins, warden of tho Meet i*n*iMin for 
tlie mtirdnr of I'M ward Ante ti/i, \vbi, \\\M 
H70) ; anil of ThtunftH Hauibridgo j i j, v, j, war- 



his contemporaries hi v v>as known by the i den of tho Meet Primm, for tho murder of 
immc of ' th hanging judge,' t'opo* thua ! Kobert ( 1 nstoll (///, \viii. HH t**V), 



,OH to him in tho *l)imcid' (book iv 
lines ^7i?0); 

Morality, by hor fnlso (hiardians drawn, 
Chicane in 'Furs, and Canute! ry in Lawn, 
OiiHpa, m they tvait<sn at each end the ford, 
And dies, when JLhilnenH giv^s her Pngc the word, 

And af?ain in his 'Imitations of Horace' 
(satire i, linen 81 -2): 

SlttTider or poison dread from PoliV raga, 
Hatd wordw or hanging if your jwlge lui "' 



on upjtefii t* tht^ 
cotnuitMMituiiTM for 



inont i llntoliiroM r*j> 

lordn dob^ntox from tit 

the forfeited oHtnteH JH given nt Homo 

in Stmugo'H * Reports' OTH*\ i, Urt 

PUIJO lufirriwl, ilvwfon 1H Heo, 
hidhi White of UtwnwU'hi Kent* who wn 
buried at BloxhuH), n^fortlhhiro, Ho jwu*>* 
riod, H<*oud!v <m U <)(t, 17or>, 

Mir ThomHM WJu'uit', tmrl 
^iott!Hitirt% who died on l\\ 
i, ngod 4L lit* lefr, nn 



of 



witk By hin will, which wnn tlit* 



Though the ( name was originally loft blank ^ ., ....,. .._.., ..,,. r 

in the^lasfc line, Page, nccordiwif to Bit John much HUgittiwttjoftm^LfmWImmH'Uur Hurd* 
Hawkins, sent his cleric to complain of tho | wicko f ha dovinod lm OxfarMiWH **mut> ft* 
insult Whereupon Pope ' tolcf the jonng > his grtmt-mtphow, l*VnuciH Kottntis M\ rail- 
man that the blank might be mipplwd by ! dition that lm took ftm **iirjjnm* of " 




"your master ia not only a judgii, but a poet: I for Oxford Univcniity from 17(JH to JK>! 



Page 



4* 



Page 



and died unmarried at Middle Aston on 
24 Nov. 1803. Soon after his death the 
Middle Aston estate, which had been pur- 
chased by his great-uncle about 1710, was 
sold to Sir Clement Cottrell Dormer, and 
the house in which the judge had lived was 
pulled down, 

Page is said to have written ' various poli- 
tical pamphlets' in his early days- at the bar 
(GRANGE % eel. Noble, iii. 203), 'but of these 
no traces can be found. His judgments and 
charges seem to have been remarkable more 
tor the poverty of their language than for 

anything else. 'The charge of J- P 

to the Grand Jury of M x, on Saturday 
May 22, 1736 ' (tendon, 1738, 8vo), a copy 
of which is in the library of the British 
Museum, is probably a satire. There are 
engravings of Page by Virtue, after C, 
d'Agar, and J, Richardson, The massive sil- 
ver 11 agon which Page presented to Steeple 
Aston Church on his promotion to the bench 
is still in use there. 

[Wing's Annals of Steeple Aston and Middle 
Aston, 1875; loss's Judges of England, 1864, 
viii, 143-6 ; LuttrelKs Brief Historical Eolation 
of State Affairs, 1857, V. 518, 524, vi. 20, 118, 510 ; 
Historical Begitto, 1715, Chron, Diary, p. 31, 
1H8 Chron, Becistw, p. 22, 1726 Chron. Diary, 
p. 41, 1727 Chron. Diary, p. 48; Granger's 
Biogr. Hist, of England, continued by Noble, 
1806, iii. 203-5 ; Hone's Year Book, 1832, pp. 
613-14; Pope's Works, eel. Ehvin and Court- 
hope, iii, 284-5, 295,482, iv. 101-2, v. 257-8, is. 
143 ; Martin's Musters of the Bench of the Inner 
Toraple, 1883, p. 63 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1 8B6, iii. 1056 ; Official Return of Lists of Mom- 
twrH of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 11, 21, HI, 154.-, 
107, 180, 192, 206; Kotos and Queries, 3rd ser. 
i. 13, 153, 237, ii. 383, xii, 401, 6th ser. i. 345, 
618, 8th ser. iv. 68, 275, 513, v. 93,] 

CK F. B. B. 

PAGE, FREDERICK (1769-1834), writer 
on the poor laws, son of Francis Page of New- 
bury, Berkshire, bom in 1769, matriculated 
from Oriel College, Oxford, on 14 July 1786. 
Leaving the university without a degree, he 
was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 
1792, and became a bencher in 1826. His 
attention was first drawn to the poor laws by 
the manner in which the poor rate affected his 
property. Having been assessed to the whole 
amount of the tolls for the navigation of the 
Kennet between Reading and Newbury, 
which were collected by his agent, he ap- 
pealed to the Berkshire quarter sessions, 
where the rate was confirmed. The case was 
tried in the lung's bench in 1792, with the 
same result. Page served as overseer in three 
different pariahee inl704,1801, and 1818. He 
communicated the result of his experience 



in 179-1- to hia friend, Sir F. Eden, who in- 
serted it verbatim in his work on the poor 
laws (State of the Poor, i. 576-87). Subse- 
quently to 1818 Page paid great attention to 
the administration of the Select Vestries 
Act, to the principle of which he became a 
convert after three years' experience. He 
also repeatedly visited the continent and the 
southern counties of Ireland to investig-ate 
the condition of the poor, He died at 
Newbury on 8 April 1884. 

Page published: 1. 'Observations on the 
present State and possible Improvement of 
the Navigation and Government of t lie River 
Thames/ Reading, 1794, 12mo. 2. ' The Prin- 
ciple of the English Poor Laws illustrated 
and defended by an Historical View of Indi- 
gence in Civil Society, with Observations 
and Suggestions relative to their improved 
Administration/ Bath, 1822, 8vo ; 2nd edit., 
with additions, London, 1829, 8vo. 3. ' Ob- 
servations on the state of the Indigent Poor 
in Ireland and the existing Institutions for 
their relief, being a sequel to " the Principle 
of. the English Poor Laws, &c,' ;j London, 
1830, 8vo. 

[Durnford and East's Reports, iv. 543-50; 
G-ent, Mag. 1834 i. 564, ii. 659; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, p. 1056.1 

W. A. S. H. 

PAGE, JOHN (1760 P-1812), vocalist 
and compiler of musical works, was born 
about 1760. On 8 Dec. 1790 he was elected 
lay-clerk of St. George's, "Windsor, and re- 
tained the post until 1795 (GnovE), Page 
had been connected with St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral since about 1785, when he described 
himself on the title-page of the i Anthems ' 
as conductor of the music for the anniver- 
sary meeting of the charity children. On 
other publications, in 1798 and 1800, he 
described himself as ' of St, Paul's.' On 
10 Jan. 1801 he was appointed vicar-choral 
of St, Paul's, He was a professional member 
of the Catch Club between 17 92 and 1797. 
He died on 16 Aug, 1812, at 19 Warwick 
Square, Newgate Street. 

"Page wrote little if any original music, 
but was an industrious compiler of 'Har- 
monia Sacra ' and other less valuable collec- 
tions of sacred music. Among his pxiblica- 
tionsare: 1. 'The Anthems and Psalms as 
performed at St. Paul's Cathedral on the 
l)ay of the Anniversary Meeting of the 
Charity Children, arranged for the Organ/ 
&c., 1785 P 2. ' Divine Harmony/ psalm 
and hymn tunes by Henley and Sharp, 1798. 
3. .* Harmoma Sacra/ anthems in score by 
masters of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
eighteenth centuries, 1800, 5. * Collection of 



Page 



Page 



Hymns- by several Composers,' 1SO-J-. 4. ' Fes- 
tive Harmony/ dedicated to members of the 
Catch Club, 1804, 6. < Burial Service, &c., 
for the Funeral of Nelson,' 1806. He pub- 
lished also several collections in co-operation 
with Battishill and Sexton. 

[Grove's Diet. ii. G32, where a list of the con- 
tents of Harmonia S-icra is given; Gent. Mug. 
1812, ii, 196; Baptie's Musical Biography, p. 
170.] L. M. M. 

PAGE, SAMUEL (1574-1630), poet and 
divine, a native of Bedfordshire, was HOU 
of a clergyman. lie was admitted scholar 
of Christ Church, Oxford, 10 June 1587, and 
matriculated on 1 July following, #od 'L'J. 
He graduated B.A. on 5 Feb. .1590-1, and 
on 16 April in the same year became fellow, 
He proceeded M.A, 15 March l,TO-4, 1U). 
12 March 1003-4, and D,D. (i Juno Kill. 
< In his juvenile years he was accounted/ 
according to Francis Meroa, ' ono of tho 
chiefeat among our English poets to bo- 
wail 'and bemoan the perplexities of love in 
his poetical and romantic writings.' After 
taking holy orders, he served aw a naval 
chaplain, and joined the expedition to Ondis* 
in 1595 as chaplain to the admiral, the Karl 
of Nottingham. In J597 he became viear of 
St. Nicholas, Deptford or Wast Greenwich, 
lie held the living with his chaplaincy. I le 
died at Deptford, and was buried in his 
church on 8 Aug. 1(5)0. 

Page's poetical works consisted of a poem 
prefixed to Ooryat's 'Crudities ' ( H51 1 ), and 
of ' The Love of Amos and Laura,' tin heroic 
poem by S, P., which appeared in the win- 
cellaueous collection of vovso entitod *A1~ 
cilia/ London, 1613; thim edition waa ro~ 
printed by Dr. Grosart in 1879. In tho 
second edition ([London, 101 i)) Pago's work 
has a separate title-pag-o, and to it are pre- 
lixed two six-line sta-twin adclroBHod * to my 
approved and much rcspectod friend Issf'wikj 
Wanton].' In tho third edition, London, 
1628, these lines are replaced by aix ad- 
dressed by 'tho author to hi boolc.' Both 
Collier and Sir Harris Nicolas wrongly as- 
signed the poem to Samuel PurchuB. 

Pago also puhlinhod numo.rouB Hormonw 
and religious tracts, Tho chief arts : 1 , * A 
Sermon preached at tho Death of Sir Richard 
Levcson, Vice-admiral of .England/ London, 
1605 ; reprinted in Brydgen's ' RoHtitnta/ 
ii. 226-87- 2, 'Tho Capo of Good Hope: 
Five Sermons for tho UHO of tho Merchant 
and Mariner. Preached to the WorHhipful 
Company of the Brethren of tlw Triwtw 
House ; and now published for the general 
Benefit of all Sea Men/ London, IB 1 (5, Tim 
first sermon is dedicated to Sir TUomaaSwitli, 



governor of tho Ktust India Compuny, 
& 'God bo thanked: a Sermon of Thanks- 
giving for the Happy SiuuviW oft ho KngHsho 
Pleetes .sent forth by 1ho Honorable Com- 
pany of Advent urors to tho l^iist Inditss. 
Preached to the Honourable Governor and 
ConnnitteeR, and t-ho whole Company of 
their good Ship the Hope Moivlwnt, luippily 
returned at Deptford on Manndy Thursday, 
5) March KUtV London, Uil<>, t. * The 
Allegiance of the Clearer: a Senmtn 
preached at, the Mooting of tho whole <'lotyio 
of the Dyoense of Uoehest< 4 r, to tnlve the 
Oath of Allogianro to his most I^xe(>llen1. 
Majesty at* (h'(iene\vieh, iNoyemh, , ItilO/ 
London, KHH ; dedieatod to the bishop of 
London, T>. * Tho Snppor of t he 1 rf or*t : a Sor-* 
mon ]reiuih(l at Hampton, Sopt, 10, 1(515,* 
.London, !(>!(); doilioatod to Iituly Anno 
Howard of KfTmgham, U, *Tlio Uowotly of 
Drought/ t-\vo wu'ttums, the Jirst- prt^nehod at. 
DeptJord Ii() July HUH, the N'eoml ,'4*nnoni 
*A Thanksgivit\g tor l\iiin/ London, HUi), 
Dedicated to * my hwiourotl frioml, Sir John 
Scott, kut.' V, * A Mannal of iMvnto D- 
votions/ edited by Niehnlns Sna|H i of (ry*n 
Inn, Ki.'U, H 4 *A Godly an*! lininiod I'XjVt- 
sition tnth^ Lor<lw JVity^r writ ton by Snuinol 
Page, &(*,, published shtec his l>outh liv Na 
tliaiuol Snape of ( Jrays lnm% K^IJ,,* Litminn, 
1(.'}1 ; tlotlioMted to LojnLkot'por ( 'ovontry, 

Watt also iiseriht'H to Pnyo * ModitnliinH 
on the Tenth RsihnV London, ItKitK lio, 

[CJniHart'H Jntriui. to his roprint of Aletlia; 
iSjioildui^rt Hneon, vi, Hi? ; Wiiti*H Hihl. Itrit.; 
Ila/.litt.'H (Inlh't'titWH atul Not*8, Int w**. }. l\ ; 
KoHtt'V'H Aluutui ; Wmr K^ii, i, vi/)0, 2t>tJ, iL 
JM4, Athi'mis ii. 2t)H, >lMr>; Kt>i"tlo l'lu'Hlury 
to i\\(\ funeral HiTtnnn ; Urvdj't'H'M Heifituta, it* 
U2; CorHoi'V} (,'olltu't, AnwiiHt'ont. t, Kt UK ; 
Hilil, (!u, of Ih'ttlgwiUup Intu'upy, uiui 
eeumertm, ) \V, A\ H, 

^lJ, TIIOMAH ( 1HOH JM77), eivil en- 
gineer, l)orn in Lomlon on *Jtl Ort, IHOH, 
wan oldest won of Robert I*ngoof Nug*s Head 
Court, HIM inthor t a HnliHtorJlrM In Grneen 
church Street, London, and tjion at ill Murk 
.Lane, went- to Peru on buHjnt'.MH, ntul mot. 
with his death through an luridont ul Are* 
quipa, Thomas waw lututnttnl for tho MOJH, 
Horvieo, but, at. tho su^<*tu!i of Thomas 
Teltbvtl, ho turuotl his attention to eivil **m 
gineering, Hts ilrst omjiloymeitt WHK u 11 
draughtsman in HomM*(t^ino wnrkHHf Leetln, 
wheru ho remaiueti for two ymir. lit^ null* 
HtMjutnitlv <mtennl th* oliiV** of 
IMoro, Iw andntoet t for witom bt* mmlo 
measnremont <jf Wont minnt or Abbov, 
wan elected an awHoeiato of tbo lHtitufi 
of (Jivil Ktttfhuuw on SJ April lH.'i*1 utid f 
camo a member on JH Apnl IHUT, In J 



Page 



43 



Page 



he, was appointed otic of the assi 
iitwrs, muUvr Sir I. K, .Krumd, on the Thames 
Tunnel works. On the retirement ol'llidiard 
Beamish in 1836, he became acting-engineer 
until the completion of the tunnel, 25 March 
l R'i *J 

In' 184 2 he made designs for the embank- 
ment of the Thames from Westminster to 
Blackfriars ; the metropolitan improvement 
commissioners accepted his designs, and the 
government established for their considera- 
tion the Thames Kmbankment oiHce .in 
Middle Scotland Yard in connection with 
the department of woods and forests, Ihe 
now olliee wan placed under Pago's control, 
and he thenceforth acted as consulting en- 
ginoor to the department of woods and 
fowwtH. But diilicultioH arose, and the em- 
bankment scheme was for the time aban- 
doned, In January 1844 he made, a survey 
of the Thames front Batterwea to Woolwich, 
showing the tidal action of the river. In 
1845 he prepared plans for bringing the 
principal linos of railway to a central ter- 
, to bo built ujxrn land proposed to bo 



; ww WA*V v *i'w .,_..-.-.- g. 4 

rue from the Thames between llun- 

mdord Market and Waterloo Bridge. In 
the wuno year, in connection with Joseph 
D'Aguilar Samuda, he designed a railway 
to connect the Brighton system with that 
of the Kofltorn CountieR Company, by a line 
to \nm through the Thames Tunnel and under 
the London Docks. * 

In 1840 lie reported on the relative merits 
of llolyhead and Port Dinllaon as packet, 
stations for the Irish mail service, and pre- 
pared plans for harbours at these places, and 
also for docks at Swansea, At the instance 
of the government lie made designs for the- 
embankment of the southern Bide of the 
Thames between Vauxhall and Battersea 
bridges, and for the Chelsea suspension bridge. 
Those works were subsequently carried out 
under his directions. The bridge was opened 
in March 1858, and the Albert Embank- 
ment on 24 Nov. 1869. In May 1854 he 
commenced Westminster new bridge, which 
was built in two sections, to obviate the 
necessity of a temporary structure; the old 
structure remaining while the first halt oJ 
the now one was built, and the second halt 
bein<r completed after the first was open 
to traffic (cf. Parliamentary Paper*, 185J 
No 622 pp. 1-18, 70, 1856 No. 389 pp 
IJQ 64-7, 62-9). The result was the most 
commodious of the London bridges. It wa 
completed and finally opened on 24 Maj 
1862. Constructed without cofferdams o 
centres, it caused no interruption to th 
traffic by land or by water. His plan to 
Blackfriars Bridge was accepted, but no 



carried out. He was engineer for the town 
of Wisbech; and one of nis most important 
reports, written in 1860, dealt with that 
town and hia project of improving the river 
Nen from Peterborough to the sea. As 
engineering and surveying officer he held 
courts and reported on proposed improve- 
ments for Cheltenham, Taunton, Liverpool, 
Falmouth, Folkestone, and Penzance. He 
interested himself in gunnery, and invented 
a system for firing guns under water. He 
died suddenly in l*aris on 8 Jan. 1877. He 
published a 'Report on the Eligibility of 
Milford Haven for Ocean Steam Ships and 
for a Naval Arsenal,' 1859. 

fMin. of Proc, of Insiit. Civil Engineers, 1877, 
xlix, 262-5 ; Times, 20 Jan. 1877, p. 10 ; Men 
of tho Time, 1875, p, 779.] 0. 0, B. 

PAGE, SIB THOMAS HYDE (1746- 
1821), military engineer, -was the son of 
Itobert Hyde Page (d. 1704), by Elizabuth, 
daughter of Prancis Morewood, and great- 
granddaughter maternally of Sir Georgo 
Devereux; let,, of Sheldon Ball, Warwick. 
lis grandfather -was John Page, who mar- 
iecl "Sarah Anne, sister and sole heir ot 
Thomas Hyde; the latter claimed descent 
rom Sir Robert Hyde of Norbury, Cheshire, 
ancestor of the Earls of Clarendon. 

At Woolwich Page received as the first 
cadet a gold medal from George III. He 
was appointed sub-engineer in 1774, and 
ieutenaut later in the same year. In 1775 
Lord Townshend, then master-general ol 
the ordnance, requested Page 'to take a 
view of Bedford Level/ with the purpose oi 
improving the general drainage in the 
county. This he did, and hia manuscript 
report to Lord Townshend, dated 31 March 
1775, is preserved in the library of the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers. Going with hia 
corps to North America, he distinguished 
himself in his capacity as aide-de-camp to 
General Pigott at the battle of Bunker s Hill 
07 June 1775), and was severely wounded 
(PoKTBR./J&tt. CorpsQfR.-&,i.2QS).. Lieu- 
tenant-colonel John Small, who was major ot 
brigade to General Pigott at the battle, writing 
to Page inl790, speaks of having witnessed his 
professional intrepidity and skill. In coxise- 
auexxce of his wound he received an invalid 
pension. In 1779 he raised and organised 
one of the first volunteer corps in the king- 
dom known as the Dover Association. 

Captain Page was ' engineer of the coast 
district/ in 1782, when the board of ordnance 
(LordTownshend being master-general) took 
into consideration the 'want of wholesome 
fresh water where dockyards and garrisons 
were established,' The Parade within the 



Page 



44 



Page 



1794), daughter of John Woodward 
merly a captain in tho 70th rogimont) of 
King-wold, Kent; mul, thirdly, Mary, widow 
of Captain Kverett, U.N. llo had issue by 
his second wifo only -vix. three, sons and t\vo 
daughters, Ills eldest son, Robert 1'age, of 
Holbrook, Somerset, was born U!) Sept, 17!'^, 
married in 1815, and had nine children (see, 



Portraits of Kir Thomas Hyde Pagt^nul his 
soeoml Vv'ifu the first by Sir Joslmn KVynohln, 
and the second by Sir Thotuaw Lawrenee - 
are in tin* possession of Sir Thomas H\ile 
Crawley-Boovey, hart., at Klnxley Ahhi'v, 
Another portrait- of Sir Thomas by Li Hither- 
bourg is in tho possession of a i;Tan< Ida tighter, 
Miss Pago, of 10 Somerset l'laei\ llath. 

INige- published ; 1. M 1 onMileru( tons upon 
the Slato <if Dover Ilnrbuur/ ranterhur, 



1784, .Ho. 
Sir T, fl. 
the Kau Brink 
8vi)j hruc't. . 



'Minut 
'agi on th 



garrison of Sheerness was the first place fixed 
upon for the intended well, and the works 
were placed under Page's direction. He de- 
termined to try to sink through the quick- 
sands by means of two cylindrical frames of 
wood of different diaipeters, excavating with- 
in the small circle first, and lowering it pro- 
gressively as the large circle was formed 
above it. The experiment failed, and Page 
was much blamed. In the House of Com- 
mons the experiment was said to bo ' not a 
well for freshwater, but a sink for tho money 
of the public.' A second attempt was made, 
this time in Fort Townshend at Sheerness, 
and was successful. Page's report upon tho 
Sheerness well is dated .12 May 1783. Plims 
and sections are published in the 'Philo- 
sophical Transactions of the Uoyal Societyy 
vol. Ixxiv., together with, an account, of shtii- 
lar wells in treacherous soils at Harwich and 
Lanclguard Fort. An account of tho borings 
will also be found in 'The lieauties of Eng- 
land and Wales ' (1808, viii. 708-9). Pngo 
also constructed the ferry at Chatham, and his 
system of embankments for military works 
and inland navigation gained him tho gold 
medal of the Society of Arts. Ho was chief 
consulting engineer in the impnnement; of 
the Port of. Dublin, of "Wicklovv Harbour, of 
the inland navigation of Ireland, and of tho ! 
Royal Shannon and Newry canals, llo <{i- | 
rected the repairing of tho disastrous breach i 
in the dock canal at Dublin in 17^,an<l WIIH 

chief engineer for forming tho JNe,w Out from 

Eau Brink to Kino's Lynn, a problem of un~ , ,,,,,, ,,,, ,., , 4UVlt 

vigation and drainage that had pimled vu- I upon tho KmlwnlnwMit of 

gineers since the time of Charles L ... 

On 10 July 1783 he was elected a follow 

of the 'Royal Society, being duMcribod in his 

certificate of candidatnro as ' Oapt, Thomas 

Hyde Page, of St. Margaret Struct, West- 
minster, one of his Majesty's Engineers, a 

Gentleman well versed' in MeehanioH and 

many other Branches of Experimental Philo- 
sophy/ He signed the charter-book and 

was admitted into the society on tho namo 

day, He was knighted on 23 Aug. 1788, but 

states in his 'Account of the Oommoncomtint 

and Progress in sinking Wella at fthonrnosH/ 

p. 10, that he 'considered the knighthood to 

have reference to his military serving and 

not to the well at Sheorness,* In tho follow- 
ing year (1784) ho was transferred to tho 

invalid corps of the Koyal Engineers, I Us 

died at Boulogne on 30 June 1821 (Twicttt 

5 July 1821). 
Page married, first, in 1777, Siwnnna, 



of the Kvul^ner 
Seenmi ItViulitt;*; 
Drainage Hill, 1 Ltm<lnn t !V! 
M)bserva(ii>nH on t In* {nvM- 
of the I'\ns * ih 



State ol'lhe Sonlh Level 
printed in 177T), <1, 'The UepurlMU'Ok.i'r* 
valimis on the Mentis (if Draining the Scmth 
and Middln Levels aT the hens/ tut pl;Ht% 
I71M, Wvo, tract. H, * An Aremtnt <i' tin* 
(V)miueneement and Pro^h'M in iSiukiuj^ 
Wells uf Shi^enU'sH/iVe,, Lt>utlit\ I7HV, Hvn, 
<5. i lI.epoilM relative to Dublin Unrlutitr ami 
adjiuient- (Joust wmle \\\ tMyn.seuiietiet* ni 
t)r<li!i*rt (Venn the 1 MuiTiuiH (\vnt\vitilt^ } Lm'il 
Li<ut>nant oi' IrHawl, in the Vinr 
Dublin, 1S01, Hvo, tnu*t 



ncoMe \ijn>n tlw Sea Cu 
Welln, 1801, Hvo, tract* 

l; private hifupnuitiim; I 



, 

widow of Edmund Bastard of Kitlwy, Devon- 

' 



shire, and sister of Sir Thomas ' 

Boevey, bart., of Flaxley Abbey, 

shire ; secondly (in 1783), Mary Albiuia 



PAGE, WILLIAM (15t0 JtUii 
bom at Harro\v-outhillill in UriK 
ciliated at Hallinl ("olhxe, <Ktw 4 l, 7 
UKHi, Uonrmluntod H.A, iid April 
on 15 Dm 1 ,, iolliwiu|jf appenrn <ui tlu 
te,r of )MrHoH usitig the HntHemn 



tlivim% 
, mnfri 



(% July), wan iuenrpdratfd ut t 1 ajiibrit^h 
HJlfi, ttudin IGUlbiuMitmUVHiw of AllSttiU' 
(IU), 1^ July H>^Lnud |).l).r> July 
o,f, tiMp frtjwrti) JJotii, nun I, <cUx!, 
In JB^H i) lw WUM np]H>int4*(l t by 

uHtir of ih ^mtiur*hutl *f 
Ho WH a Mtrwttf nuppurtrr <jf ! ho 
<sourt diviium, In HJ;il hwrot<a 'JuMtihni- 
tiotu)f Iowint tlm Nainttof JimiH with 



an Examination of nueh ^ 

asaro nmdo by Mr. Pryiuut in n. H'jly to 

Mr. Widdowi <!on<urnit tin* 



mont/wilh a dedicatiou utllr*'*Ht'dtf (>At'a'il 



Page 



45 



Paget 



TTui varsity, Hoaring'of the, proposed publi- 
cation, Archbishop Abbot's secretary wrote 
to Page that tin* archbishop 'is much of- 
fended that you do stickle and keep on foot 
fluoli questions, and advises you to with- 
draw from these and t,he like domestic 
broils ; and if your trimtise be at the press, 
to give it a stop, and by no means to suffer 
it to be tlivulftiKl 1 (Lambeth, 31 May 1681). 
On hearing of the prohibition, Land wrote 
from Fulham to the vice-chancellor of Ox- 
ford 2:2 June 1032, commanding- the book 
' to be presently set to Bale and published, 
It is, as I am informed, in defence of the 
canon of the church, and modestly and well 
written, aud his majesty likes not that 
Prynne should torn am unanswered' ( WOOD), 
In* 1639 Page issued a translation of Thomas 
& Kewpis's * Imitatio Ohristi,' It is largely 
borrowed from an English translation pub- 
lished at Paris in 163U by ]VL C., confessor 
to the English nuns at Paris ; but Page 
omits many "passages of a Romanist tendency, 
lie dedicated the book to Walter Ourll, 
bishop of Wincheater, to whom he was act- 
ing as chajlam.. His epistle to the ' Christian 
Header ' is practically addressed to the 
Boman catholics, and, in the spirit of Laud's 
views, demands reciprocal charity between, 
them and Anglicans. 

Page was subsequently presented to the 
rectory of Hannington, Hampshire. On 
the outbreak in 1642 of the civil wars he 
withdrew from Reading school, doubtless to 
joia the royal army. He was sequestered in 
1(544 from his mastership by the committee 
for Berkshire (Hist. MSS. Coinm, llth Rep. 
vii, 1,89). Eight years later (7 Oct. 1652) he 
claimed arrears for nine months, l but it ap- 
peared that he had received all which was 
due at Michaelmas 1042, and in November 
foil owing the school was made a magazine for 
the king's army ' (ift. p. 1 91 ). Early in 1 645-6 
he was seipiestered from the rectory of Han- 
niufftcm by tho parliamentary committee for 
Hampshire (Addit. M 15670, f. 14). In 
August the rectory was certified to be void 
by delinquency ami non-residence (*7, f. 350, 
5* Aug. 1(146).* On 10 Jan, KUG--7 ha^vas 
appointed to the rectory of East Locking 1 ^ 
Btn'kshire, by his collide, All Souls, which 
had bought' the advowson in 1032. ^ This 
bimofieo Page appears to have held till his 
death, 

At the Restoration Page made a vain 
effort to recover the schoolmasterflhip at 
"Uwulinff (HiM, M&& Comm* llth Bep. vil 
1$)4,< 25$),' He died on 24 Feb. 1 6(53, _ in 
the rectory of KaRt Locking, and was buried 
iu the -chancel of hw church. 
Boaides the works noted, Page wrote: 



1. 'Certain Animadversions upon some Pas- 
sages in a Tract [by John Hales [q. v.] of 
Eton] concerning Schism and Schismatics,' 
Oxford, 1642, 4to. 2, 'The Peace Maker, 
or tx brief Motion to Unity and Charity in 
Religion/ London, 1652, IBmo, He edited, 
and contributed a letter on non-resistance to, 
( A Sermon preached at Dorchester, Dorset, 
on 7 March 1 632, by John White 7 (London, 
1648), In Bodl. MS, 115 are two unpublished 
tracts: ' A Widow indeed, A Book of the 
Duties of Widows, and a Commendation of 
that State to his Mother ; ' and * Woman's 
Worth, or a Treatise proving 1 by sundry 
Reasons that Women doe excel Men/ 

'The Land Tempest . . , an Abstract 
Epitome, or Effects of the Woes of these 
Wars. By W. P., a plundered Preacher in 
the County of Gloucester ' (25 June 164.4), 
does not seem to be by X^age. 

[Coatos's Hist, of Reading, p. 337 ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.; Fosters Alumni; Wood's Atheriee 
OXGII, iii, 653, Fast i i, 337 ; State Papers, Dom. 
Car, I, 12 July, 1634, ecbexi. 69; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. llth Rep. vL 186; Addit MS. 15670; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 334 ; in- 
formation kindly supplied by the Rev. J, G-, 
Cornish, rectox* of Locldngo.] W, A. S, 

PAGEHAM or PAGHAM, JOHN IXB 

(d, 1158), bishop of Worcester, probably u 
native of Pagham, Sussex, was one of the 
clerks of Archbishop Theobald, and was con- 
secrated by him to the see of Worcester on 
4 March li51. He assisted at the consecra- 
tion of Roger to the see of Yorlc on 10 Oct. 
1154, and at the coronation of Henry II on 
19 Dec. He gave the churches of JBensing*- 
ton, Oxfordshire, and Turkdean, Gloucester- 
shire, to the monastery of Oaney, gave the 
prior of Worcester possession of Ctitsdean, 
Worcestershire, and is stated to have given to 
the see a manor called f Elm Bishop' ( GOD- 
WIN), said to be a misreading for Olive or 
Cleve,with Marston, near Stratford- on- A von. 
He died at Home in 1158, it is said on 
31 March (La NEVE). 

[G-orvaae, i. H2, 1,59 ; Ann. of Tewke.slniry 
Ann. of Osney, iv. 26, 30, ap. Ann. Monast. i. 
48 (Rolls .Sari) i* Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i, 
475 ; .Thomas's Account of Bishops of Worcester, 
p. Ill; Godwin, De Praesulibus, p. 457; Lo 
Nevo'a Fasti, iii. 49, ed. Hardy.] W. H. 

PACKET, Sm ARTHUR (1771-1840), 
diplomatist., second son of Henry Bayly 
Paget, firat earl of Uxbridge of the second 
creation, by Jane, eldest 'daughter of the 
Very Rev. Arthur Champagne, dean of 
Ckmmacnoise, was -bom on 15 Jan. 1771. 
Ha entered Westminster School on 10 April 
1780, was elected on to the foundation in 



Paget 



Paget 



1783, and thence to Christ Church, (Me d, 

whence he matriculated on 8 June I/ 87, but 

took no degree. In 1791 he entered the 

diplomatic service, and on 22 Nov. 1794 was 

returned to parliament for Anglesey, which 

he continued nominally to represent until 

1807 On the abandonment by Prussia oi 

the defence of Holland, July 1794, he was 

despatched -to Berlin as envoy extraordinary 

to recall King Frederick William to a sense 

of his obligations. His conduct of this. de- 

HcatemissFon is commended by Lord Mal- 

mesbury (Diaries, m, 130, 148, lb-4, JLy). 

Obtaining no satisfactory assurances from 

the king, he withdrew to Pyrmont abo^t 

Christmas, and, on the passage of the Waal 

by the French, returned to England by way 

of Brunswick and Holland. Some letters 

from him to the Countess of Lichtenau, 

written during this perilous journey, m 

which, as a last resource, he implores her to 

use her influence with the king on behalf ot 

the Dutch, are printed m 'Apologia dor 

Grafih von Lichtenau,' ^ Abtk, 1808, pp. 

241-51 Paget was accredited successively 

envoy extraordinary to the elector palatine 

and minister to the diet of Hat isbon, 22 May 

1798, envoy extraordinary and mmiat or pleni- 

potentiary to the court of Naples, 1 7 Jan. 1 SCO, 

and to that of Vienna, 21 Aug. 1 801 . ,11 w des- 

patches from Vienna, July 1802, alter Bona- 

parte's reorganisation of the smaller ( airman 

states, contained a remarkable prediction ot 

the eventual acquisition by Prussia of thn 

hegemony of Germany. In 1H05 ho contri- 

buted materially to the formation of tho third 

coalition against France, and reportwlita total 

discomfiture by the battle of Austorlitas, 2,1 )oc, 

1805, His gloomy despatch on tho day after 

the battle is said to have contributed to the 

death of Pitt (Yoira, Life, of the, Second 

Earl of Liverpool, I 78, 205). llocallod m 

February 1806, he was accredited, 15 May 

1807, ambassador to the Ottoman Porte, On 

the signature of the peace of Tilsit on 7 July 

following, he apprised tho Sultan of tho 

secret article by which tho provisions in fa- 

vour of Turkey were rendered nugatory, and 

exhausted the resources of suasion and 

menace, even bringing tho British ileot. into 

the Dardanelles, in the endeavour to detach 

the Porte from the French alliance. Tn 

this, however, he failed. In May 1H09 ho 

was recalled, and retired on a ponaion of 



1840, and was buried in Kensal Green 
cemetery on 1 Aug. , 

Pan-et married at llecltheld, Hampshire, on 
16 Feb. 1809, Lady Augusta Jane, Vane, 
'second daughter of John, tout h earl of Vv rst- 
morland, within two days of hor divorce 
from John, second baron Hormgdon, nitor- 
wards earl of Morley, By her he had several 
children who survived him, 

[Barker and Stonnin^s Wowtminntor School 
Bog Welch's Almmri Wustmon. j>. 41(1; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; MhnoiwH d'un Hommw dKlaU 
PariB 1831, iii. 41, 124, ix, 440; Ann, Ivcg, 
ISOO'APP. to Chron. p. KJO; Omit, Mug. 1805 
p. 11(55 1 BOO p. 181, 1B15 ^ ' l*W V- 

814* Sir' (Hlboi't Elliot's Li to and LHtmu iii. 
13,5 Haydn's Dignities, oil. (Vkorhy; Nirulns's 
British Knighthood, Ordur of tho Buttn iJhron. 
List,,! J - M ' U ' 

PAGET, CJHAULKS (d. HUH), ratlmlir 
exile and eonHpiratnr, fourth s<ux of William, 
first baron Pa^^t fq. v.|, and Anno, dnughtrr 
and htiimw of Henry l*nat.<n, w|^ WHS in- 
triciilattHl us a iVllo\voommmn>r of timtvuh* 
and OaiuH (\)lhg t Oiunl.rid^s on k J7 May 
]55iK HIM oldtsr brother Tluituns, third Imr.iii 



,, 

Paget waa sworn of the privy council on 
4 Jan. 1804, and nominated on 21 May fol- 
lowing K.B. His installation in tho or<U.r 
took place on 1 June 1812, and on 2 Jan. 
1815 he was made G.OJi lie died at 
his house in Gvoavenor Street on 26 July 



of "Trinity flail wh^ti QuMm KUr.nhcth \ i^itni 
tho nnivt^sity in Augunt lotU, but hi* dui*M 
not appnar to* havo tnlum inl'groi HNmi'KU, 
Af/irnfe (ftwtnbr, iii. 5H). I -nar hm tut hir H 
will ho bounnw cntttltul to tlu^ mnnur ol % 
Wustoti-Awton and otJii v r land.H in IVrhy - 
Hhirk no\vaa*oaltmlt<imHtH'ftthnlicsnml 
qnittod Kngland/in dwctmtont with ifM<Mvlt- 
HiaHtical constitution, about lf>7^, and iix'*l 
hie roHuliwo in Park Thori* ho Invnim* 
Hocrctary to Jaintun Ho.fitou ,< v,j, iirt^t 1 
hifllwm of UlaHgow, who \van (^uon Mary 
Bt'.tiart'.H ambaKsador at tho Fnnich riwrt, 
and ho wan Btnm joinod in tho (iiliro with 
Thotmw Morgan (IHia -Hi(HJ?)j q, v.| Morgan 
and I*agot woro in constant convHimudt'Wo 
with (Uaudo do la HoisHolioro Nnu hj, v*| 
and Gilbert Carlo, tho two HOWUM-JOK who 
livod with the qnoon in Kngtaml, und Mltov 
four gowmod from t liono.ofoH hall t IMMIMOHI H 
altairn at their ploftntmV i'ag*t and Mor- 
gan flocretly o|moHod An'hbiht>|> Houtm t 
Mary*H amb'aKMitdor, iiud wrung from him 
the VdminiHtrutiim of tho tjueen'M dowry in 
Franco, whih wan about thirty miljmn 
crowns a year. Joining tlieWMolvon aft*r* 
wardH with* I)r Owen Lewin | tj, v.) in UOHMS 
and falling out with Pr* Allen and Kutht;r 
TarflonK, tSoy ware, the r,aue of muolt *Hvi- 
aion among tno ratholiow (PAIWONH, *SVrw </ 
Jhmwticatt Jt)i/fi<*ultiM, Stony htirnt MS, 
No. 41H, qtKtt*d in Hwttrtlit uf th# Hnyli*h 
Catholics) ii. i&JOn,) Pam>im Htaten that 



Paget 



47 



Paget 



the original cause of Paget and Morgan's 
division from Dr. Allen und himself was 
their exclusion, by desire of the Duke of 
Guise and the Archbishop of Glasgow, from 
the consultation held at Paris in 1582 rela- 
tive to the deliverance of the Queen of Scots, 
and the restoration of England to catholic 
unity by means of a foreign invasion (ib. 
ii. 899'). Thenceforward Paget and Morgan 
inspired Mary with distrust of Spain and the 
Jesuits, 

During all this time, while apparently 
plotting against Queen Elizabeth, Paget was 
acting the part of a spy, and giving political 
information to her ministers. As early as 
8 Jan, 1581 --2 he wrote from Paris to secretary 
Walsingham in these term a : ' God made me 
known to you in this town, and led me to 
offer you affection ; nothing can so comfort 
me as her Majesty's and your favour.' 
Again he wrote, 'on U 2B Sept, 1582: * In my 
answer to her Majesty's command for my 
return to England, assist me that she may 
yield me her favour and liberty of conscience 
xn religion, . . . If this cannot be done, then 
solicit her for my enjoying my small living 
on this side the sea, whereby 1 may be kept, 
from necessity, which otherwise will force 
me to seek relief of some foreign prince,' 
On 23 Oct. 1582 he informed Walsingliam of 
liia intention to go to lloium for his health, 
and to drink English bear, lie professed, 
dutiful allegiance to Elizabeth, and hia 
readiness to be employed in any service, 
matter of conscience in religion only ex- 
empted* 

In September 1H83 Paget came privately 
from Rouen to England, assuming the name 
of Mopo, It is alleged that the object of 
hia journey was to concert measures for an 
invasion by the Duke of Guise and the King 
of Scots. For a time he lay concealed in the 
house of William Davies, at; Patching, Sus- 
sex. On the 8th he had an interview at 
Petworth with the Earl of Northumberland. 
He was afterwards secretly conveyed to a 
lodge in the earl's park, called Oonigar Lodge, 
-where he lay for about eight days. His 
brother, Lord Paget, was sent for to Pet- 
worth, where Charles and the earl had several 
conferences. On the 16th Charles Paget 
met in a wood, called Patching Copse, "Wil- 
liam Shelley, esq., who was subsequently 
convicted of treason (Baya de Secretis, 
pouch 47). 

Lord raget, -writing to his brother on 
25 Oct. in the flame year, said his fitay in Bouen 
was more misliked than his abiding in Paris, 
considering that he consorted with men like 
the* Bishop of Boas. He added that ho was 
sorry to hear by some good friends that 



he carried himself not so dutifully as he 
ought to do, and that he would disown him 
as a brother if he forgot the duty he owed 
to England. From this letter it would seem 
that Lord Paget 1 s interview with his brother 
at Petworth must have been of a more in- 
nocent character than has been generally 
supposed. However, about the end of No- 
vember Lord Paget fled to Paris, and thence- 
forward became suspected of complicity in 
all his brother's treasons. On 2 Dec. L583 
Sir Edward Stafford, the English ambassador 
to France, wrote from Paris to Walsingham : 
1 Lord Paget, with Charles Paget and Charles 
Anmclel, suddenly entered niy dining cham- 
ber before any one was aware 'of it, and Lord 
Paget says they came away for their con- 
sciences, "and for fear, having enemies.' They 
also told him that 'for all things but their 
consciences they would live as dutifully as 
any in the world.* 

Erom this period Charles Paget, in con- 
junction with Morgan and other malcontents 
at home and abroad, continued their ma- 
chinations, which were, of course, well 
known to the English government ; and in 
June 1584 St. afford, the English ambassador, 
made a formal demand, in the name of Queen 
Elizabeth, for the surrender of Lord Paget, 
Charles Paget, Charles Arundel, Thomas 
Tlirpckmorton, and Thomas Morgan, they 
having conspired against the life of the Eng- 
lish queen, The king of France, however, 
refused to deliver them up, although he soon 
afterwards imprisoned Morgan, and forwarded 
his papers to Queen Elizabeth. 

It is clear that Paget was regarded with 
the utmost distrust and suspicion "by Wal- 
singham, who, in a despatch sent to Stafford 
on 16 Dec. 1584, says : * Charles Pag-et is a 
most dangerous instrument, and I wish, for 
Northumberland's sake, he had never been 
born/ In May 1686 Paget, on account of 
illness, went to the baths of Spain. He was 
attainted of treason by act of parliament in 
1687. 

Although all his plots had signally failed, 
lie appears still to have clung- to the idea that 
the protestant religion in England could be 
subverted by a foreign force. Writing under 
the signature of ' Nauris/ from Paris, to one 
Nicholas Berden alia* Thomas Rogers, 31 Jan, 
1587-8, he observed, in reference to the anti- 
cipated triumph of the Spanish Armada: 
'When the day of invasion happens, the 
proudest Councillor or Minister in England 
will be glad of the favour of a Catholic 
gentleman, 1 In the same letter he stated that 
all Walsingham's alphabets or ciphers had 
been interpreted by him. 

In March 1587-8 he entered the service of 



Paget 48 

the king 1 of Spain, and went to reside at 
Brussels, His name appears in the list of 
English exiles in Flanders who refused to 
sign the address of the English fathers of the 
Society of Jesus (Douay Diaries, p. 408). 
With his habitual treachery, he continued 
his correspondence with Queen Elizabeth's 
government. To Secretary Cecil he wrote 
on 26 Dec. 1597 : 'I am incited to boldness 
with you by your favour to my nephew 
Paget, and the good report I hear of your 
sweet nature, modesty, and wisdom. I desire 
ardently to do a service agreeable both to the 
queen and the king of Spain, I am under obli- 
gation to the one as an English subject, and 
to the other as a catholic prince who has re- 
lieved me in my banishment.' He added that 
* His Highness ' was willing to treat with 
allies, and particularly with the queen, that 



Paget 



the crowns of England and Spain might re- 
turn to their old amity (State Papers, Dom. 
Eliz. vol. cclxv. art. 63). On 27 April 1508 
he wrote from Liege to Thomas Barnes in 
London : 'Lam unspeakably comforted that 
the queen inclines to listen to my humble 
suit. The profits of my laud are worth SQQL 
a year to myself; it is a lordship called 
Weston-upon-Trent. ... I cannot capitu- 
late with the Queen; but the greater my 
oifence has been, the greater is her mercy in 
pardoning and restoring me to my blood nnd 
living 1 , showing the liberality which makes 
her famous, and obliging me to spend my 
life at her feet ' ($. vol. cclxvi. art* 1 1(5). 

The English catholic exiles eventually 
split into two parties one, called the Spanish 
faction, supporting the claims of the infanta 
to the English crown ; while the other, do- 
nominated the Scottish faction, advocated 
the right of James VI of Scotlaud. Paget WUB 
the acknowledged head of the Scottish fac- 
tion, and in 1599 he threw up hia employ- 
ment under the king of Spain, and returned 
to Paris (ib. vol. celxxi, art, 74), Among 1 
the State Papers (vol. cclxxi, art. 74) is a 
letter from a catholic in Brussels to his friend, 
a monk at Liege, giving a detailed account 
of Paget and his ' ' practices.' The. writer 
says that 'from the first hour that his yeans 
permitted him to converse with men, he has 
been tampering in broils and pruetices, be- 
twixt friend^ and friend, man and wife, and, 
as_ his credit and craft increase, botwixt 
prince and prince,' 

Animated by intense hatred of the Spanish 
faction, Paget lost no time after his arrival 
at Paris in putting himself in communica- 
tion with Sir Henry Neville [q. v.], the Eng- 
lish ambassador, ^ who forwarded a detailed 
account of the circumatanees (,o Hir Robert 
Cecil in a despatch dated 27 June (0,8,) 



1599. Cecil seems to have been by no means 
anxious to encourage Paget, but Neville was 
more favourable to him. Paget said he felt 
himself slighted by the English government, 
but he nevertheless seems to have given from 
time to time important intelligence to Neville 
and to Ralph Winwood [q. v.] t the sueeeed- 
ing ambassador at the French court. His nt- 
tainder appears to have been reversed in the 
first parliament of James I, probably by t lie- 
act restoring in blood his nephew William, 
lord Pag'cfc, and it is presumed that he returned 
to England. Ilia paternal estate, including 
the manor of Weston and other manors in 
Derbyshire, was restored to him on ll July 
1603; and on 18 A.u&\ in the sumo yeaV 
James I granted him I200/, per annum, part 
of a fee-larm rent of 71(>A reserved by a 
patent of Queen Klizabeth, best owing "the 
lands of Lord Piijj'et on William Pa^et und 



his heirs. He died, probably in 
about the beginning 1 of February HH1 
leaving a good estate to tho HOUH of one of 
his sisters, 

His works are : 1. A proposition for call* 
ing 1 the Jesuits out of rlu^land, by menus 
of tho French Icintf, during the treaty, nnd 
entitled 'A, Brief Note of the IWUmn that, 
divers Jesuits bavo had for killing Prhuvn 
and chunking' of St afes,' June 1 fi!M, Manu- 
script in the Hl;at<* Papers, Dom, IClix, vol 
eel.vvii, art., 07, k 2. * Answer to Dolman 
[Jtobert Parsons] ou the HumwMon to tlw 
i^n^'Hsh Crown,' Purls, ItiiX), John Petit* 
writing from hie^e to lNttn' llalinw, U5 July 
(O.S/) 1(500, remarks; *A book han eoum 
out in answer to that one on the auwtwiiiin 
to the crown of Kn^land, \vhivh i all forth" 
Scot, but T eannot pet si^ht of it. (?lither<n* 
was the author, and he bein^ dead, nwrlw 
Paget has paid tor its printing 1 ' (O/A tittttv 
J'ftfww, Doiu, l^l\ f /,. l")i) t s 1(>01, pp^iTM^ 4'H)h 
It aj)]>ears that the latter part of tho hook 
was written by Pug'et, .'{ 'An ,\nHW*M'* 
mado by me, Charles Pn^i't, Mst]vier t toet*r 
tayno vntrutluw and iniMityt, tiu*hin#* my 
selie, (^)titayned in a booke ihy Ufthert Pur- 
sons] intitled a brjetV ApoUgie up deiVm^ 
ol tiie ( 1 atholieke Ilienirehii*^ HuburdijUHfinn 
in Kn^'hnjdts vV eet, f Printed with Dr. Hum- 
phrey Kly'n K'ertaine Bridle Not** vpm ^ 
Bnefe Apolog'ie set out vuder tho numi* of 
thtj PneMtas vnittul to tht* -Vrehpriewt/ 



161; 



, 

v. 18-V7; FromlaV Hint, of Eu^latui 1803, xi. 
' 



214, J 



, h'JO; Hardwieke Hfain mierj*, \ f ai 
Hurl, Ma 288/ff, mi, !;*, 



iv, < 



Paget 



49 



Paget 



Howell's State Trials ; Jewett's Reliquary, ii. 
185 ; Lansd. MS. 45, art. 75; Lingard's Hist, of 
England, 1851,viii. 165, 168, 169, 189, 199-211, 
390; Murdin's State Papers, pp. 436-534; Ni- 
chols's Progr. Eliz. 1st ed. iii. 171 ; Plowden's 
Eemavks on Panzani, pp. 104-12; Records of 
the English Catholics, i. 435, ii. 472; Sadler 
StatePapers,ii. 243, 257, 260 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Eliz. and Scottish Ser. ; Strype's Annals, 
iii. 136, 218, 308, 416, 474, App. p. 44, iv. 163, 
164, fol.; Turnbull's Letters of Mary Stuart, 
pp. 100-4, 116, 120-6, 130, 367, 368*; Tytler's 
Scotland, 1864, iv. 115-20, 308, 309, 337, 338 ; 
"Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Winwood's Memorials ; 
Wright's Elizabeth, ii. 486.] T. C, 

PAGET, SIR CHARLES (1778-1839), 
vice-admiral, born on 7 Oct. 177S, was fifth 
son of Henry Paget, earl of Uxbridge, who 
died in 1812 [see under PAGET, HENRY, first 
EARL OF Uxu RIDGE, ad Jin."] Henry William 
Paget, first marquis of Anglesey [q. v.], Sir 
Arthur Paget [q. v,] 7 and Sir Edward aget 
[q. v.], were elder brothers. He entered the 
navy in. 1790 under the patronage of Sir 
Andrew Snape Doug-las, and, having served 
in different ships in the North Sea and 
the Channel, was on 8 June 1797 promoted 
to be lieutenant of the Centaur guardship in 
the Thames. On 2 July 1 797 he was promoted 
to the command of the Martin sloop in the 
North Sea, and on 18 Oct. 1797 was posted 
to the Penelope in the Channel. From Oc- 
tober 1798 to April 1801 he commanded the 
Brilliant in the Channel, and afterwards the 
Hydra in the Channel and Mediterranean till 
November 1802. On 30 March 1803 he com- 
missioned the Endymion frigate, and com- 
manded her for the next two years in active 
cruising in the Channel, the Bay of Biscay, 
and on the coast of Spain or Portugal. He 
was superseded in April 1805. fie after- 
wards commanded various frigates or ships 
of the line in the Channel, and from 1812 to 
1814 the Superb in the Bay of Biscay and on 
the coast of North America, From 1817 to 
1819 he was in command of one of the royal 
yachts in attendance on the prince regent ; 
on 19 Oct. 1819 he was nominated a K.O.H.; 
on 30 Jan. 1822 he was appointed groom of 
the bedchamber j and on 9 April 1823 was 
promoted to the rank of rear-admiral, From 
,1828 to 1831 he was commander-in-chlef at 
Cork, and was nominated a GKC.II, on 3 March 
1832; on 10 Jan, 1837 he was made vice- 
admiral, and commanded on the North Ame- 
rican and West Indian station till his death 
on 27 Jan. 1889. He married, in 1805, Eliza- 
beth Araminta, daughter of Henry Monck of 
Foure, co. Westmeath, and by her had a 
large family. 

In 1870 a picture, painted by Schetky, 

VOL. xr-m, 



was presented to the United Service Club by 
Sir James Hope [<j. v.], and by his authority 
appears to be certified as representing an in- 
cident in the career of Paget. The picture 
was lent to the Naval Exhibition of 1891, 
and, apart from its merit as a painting, ex- 
cited a good deal of attention from the sin- 
gularity of the subject, which was thus de- 
scribed: ' Towards the close of the long 
French war, Captain the Hon. Sir Charles 
Paget, while cruising 1 in the Endymion fri- 
gate on the coast of Spain, descried a French 
ship of the line in imminent danger, embayed 
among rocks upon a lee shore, bowsprit 
and foremast gone, and riding by a stream 
cable, her only remaining one. Though it 
was blowing a gale, Sir Charles bore down 
to the assistance of his enemy, dropped his 
sheet anchor on the Frenchman's bow, buoyed 
the cable, and veered it athwart his 'hawse. 
This the disabled ship succeeded in getting 
in, and thus seven hundred lives were rescued 
from destruction. After performing this 
chivalrous action, the Endymion, being her- 
self in great peril, hauled to the wind, let go 
her bower anchor,, club hauled, and stood off 
shore on the other tack.' It is impossible to 
say from what source Schetky got his story, 
which is in itself most improbable ; it may, 
however, be observed that Paget did not 
command the Endymion towards the close 
of the war, and that a careful examination of 
the Endymion's log during the time that 
Paget did command her shows that there was 
no incident resembling what has been, de- 
scribed and painted, 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. ii. 854,; Official 
Documents in the Public Eecord Office; Foster's 
Peerage, s.n. ' Anglesey/] J. K. L. 

PAGET, SIE EDWARD (1775-1849), 
general, born on 3 Nov. 1775, was fourth s6n 
of Henry Paget, earl of Oxbridge, who died 
in 1812 [see under PAGET, HENKY, first EAEL 
OF UXBKIDGE, ad fin.~\ His brothers Henry 
William, Arthur, and Charles, are noticed 
separately. Edward entered the army on 
23 March 1792 as cornet in the 1st life- 
guards. On 1 Dec. 179:2 he was captain in 
the 54th foot, on 14 Nov. 1793 major, and 
on 30 April 1794 became lieutenant-colonel 
of the 28th foot. He served in Flanders and 
Holland till March 1795, when he was or- 
dered with his regiment to Q,uiberon, was re- 
called, and ordered to the West Indies under 
Sir Balph Abercromby. Twice driven back 
by storms, he finally landed at Portsmouth in 
January 1796, and in July went to Gibraltar, 
and, remaining on the Mediterranean station, 
was present on 14 Feb. 1797 at the action off 
Cape St. Vincent. On 1 Jan. 1798 he wan 

E 



Paget 



5 



Paget 



ma de colonel in the army and aide^e -ca mp 
inff j the same year he was at thy 
o/ Minorca, and in 1801 served 



vernor, ou*21 May. 



nour, and 



Towor tui 
nmdii a (i, 
lit* was a r. 
and wnamudi* 



1801 and was wounded in the last : . 
sent at the investment of Cairo and Alexan- 
dria, and was given as a hostage to the 1< ranch 
army at Cairo till they embarked m July 
1801 Having returned to England late in 
180l' he was in October 1803 appointed bri- 
gadier-general on the staff at Fermoy m Ire- 
land j on 2 July 1804 he removed to Kn^laml, 
and was made major-general on 1 Jan. IN)*) ; 
for most of that year he was stationed ut 
Eastbourne, and proceeded in October with 
his regiment to Cuxhaven and Bremen, re- 
turning in February 1806', In Jutio he WHS 
sent to the Mediterranean, and placed m 
command of the reserve in Sicily, whence, m 
January 1808, he returned with tho part of tho 
army which was under Sir John Mporo [ q, v. | 
On 23 Feb. he became colonel of tho Mth 
foot, and in April accompanied Sir John 
Moore to Sweden in command of the reserve, 
On his return to England in June ho wan 
immediately ordered to Portugal, and plneed 
by Sir Hugh Dalrymple in command of tjie 
advanced corps of his army. But atfain join- 
ing Sir John Moore in Spain, bo commanded 
the reserve at Coruna on 16 Jan. IHQD^uml 
was responsible for the victorious iawio of tho 
battle, For his part in this victory ho re- 
ceived a medal, and was appointed to the 
staff of the Peninsular army under WelluBley, 
with the local rank of lieutenant-general, and 
command of the left wing of tho army, 1 1 e 
conducted the advance from Coimbra to 
Oporto, and on 12 May 1809, in the action 
before Oporto, lost his right arm, .He wu ' ftj.v, 
mentioned in the despatches on this oceanum will 
as having borne the first brunt of tho enemy'H 
attack and rendered most important service, 
On 4 June 1811 he was promoted lieutenant* whetuw lie 
general, After a rest in England, he returned ford , 
to the Peninsula as second in command to Alumni 
"Wellesley,- but within a few months, whilo 18125 to 
reconnoitring alone, fell into an ambush, ami duat ed B, A , 
was made prisoner, so that he lost th rent tlu* Ox Fun! 
of the campaign. 

On 26 I)ec, 1815 Paget was removed to 
his old regiment, the 28th foot, On iil Oct. 
1818 he was made captain of Cowea 



ieved m ("Vvliw, fit* 
nmtluot ot th< Bur- 
urfion un 



as soon as In* \vas rel 

WRH iT.sponNJhlo for th 

mese campaigns of 1K:M 

regard to tho Hurra kpur mutiny in 

also sovoroly eritins<Ml, nml flu* ministry nf 

tho day rontomplnUKi his ivnili, Th Uukc 

of Wellington, howmvr, int*rv<nunl on tin- 

half both of him unil l-m-tl AwhriNt, dofrml- 

ing 1 their proHo<liiujM ( /Wvr M^ If V//W/;/iw t t <* 

l)<>.ywtt t Jn\*i i?ni! wr, vol. ii,) Pnj^vf hrmmn 

full pMicntl on 7 May iStMi. Il ivturmMl 

to Kug'land in l^ltf, ntul rHiml fn ('mv^, 

where he msitlefi at t he cast lc t ill Im dent h <m 

tfJMny 18 (t>, He WUH burinl m thoeomrtery 

at ( -helsea Hospital, of \vhirh he \vs u K n ** 



miuun*?, tinu In 
v*r hruv\ 



Sword <m ; 



mnrrrt, 



April 
tnt* nf i 
off ho t 
oi'tho 

:'t^ 
rm i 



nf tho 
i wan 



vn, nl \M\hnjj, 
u\nl Miltturv 



Uon, Fnu 
liaui, fipwt- 
th hirth * 

fourth da 
woutli \v 



ay 



iM\H \\i\\*n\ , fourt 
lord nuc't, ^ho dj-d in M 
f IHH* Htihl, I'Vniiri** Mduurd l 
>ndly,in l^l"*, I<dy Hurvi*f L 
i^ht'T of Un 1 iltird Muti of l 
ho hon* htsu thri't* H*JIH uud 



\\ it- 
Wl \\\ 



Two ortrnitH 



during 

0nt. Mug, lH4 
MinlH, | 

PACIKT, 



u^ ti tho family, 
t'H of licit in!t (itMitMVdN *lit5n 
tlu* IVfiiirmlir Wnr, v*l, i ; 
4 vol, it,; Army 



A, H. 



, 
where he resided for a time ; but on 4 Nov. 



1820 he received a commission as 
of Ceylon, and administered the colony un 
eventfully from August 1821 to March 1820, 
Meanwhile, on 3 Jan. 1822, he had been ap- 
pointed Commander-in-chief of the forces m 
the East Indies, and took up his new duties 



1HO(J ( WIIH H 

!V lUH 



FltANnS MIKVAHU I 

! IHI<I ftUf}lMt\ hnfll UU t?l 

tte^t nun tt' Sir I'.thvurd 
fit>{ wifi% FrutH**f4 ( thuigh 
: hmt Hu^ut, On 111 Sept, h 
I t \Vi^hitift)iir St"Ii**l 



to Thrift tnntr*'h t 
on U Juno JM 4 W *| { Kon 



n M^ 



To 



mHtf^up, nmt jj 
! M,A. in JHM). 
uont of tK*t.M ho It*nf hiw 
In IH.* h* wit* jr*wmt ! d 
to to nwtory of KlfWd, rttr Lirhfhdd* niul 
far worms yt*rH wnn rhujjluiu to ir, Hwgotj 
bkhopof Bfttfi ntut W**tlM, Klford C'hijrt*li 
wan carefully r^torml und*r hin nuxpit*< in 



1&48, ttn<) it** 

<4f tuniunl tvtinton 



count of tlm 
Klfowl on 4 
on tbt Bth, 



n 



On ^* Juno IBIO fa* 



t 

tlti*m 



Paget 



Fanny, daughter of William Chester, rector 
of Denton, Norfolk. 

Paget's most important work is a privately 
printed volume entitled * Some Records of 
the Ashtead Estate and of its Howard Pos- 
sessors : with Notices of Elford, Castle 
Kising, Levens, and Charlton,' 4to, Lichfield, 
1873, a. valuable but uncritical compilation 
from family papers and other private sources. 

His views on church and social reforms 
found expression in many pleasantly written 
tales, among which may be mentioned: 
1 . ' Caleb Kniveton, the Incendiary/ 12mo, 
Oxford, 1833. , 2. < St, Antholin's, or Old 
Churches and New,' 8vo, London, 1841 ; a 
protest against building churches after the 
' cheaj) and nasty ' method. 3. ' Milford 
Malvoisin, or Pews and Pewholders,' 8vo, 
London, 1842. 4. 'The Warden of Berk- 
ingholt, or Rich and Poor,' 12mo, Oxford, 
1843, 5. 'The Owlet of Owlstone Edge/ 
8vo, London, 1856. 6. ' The Curate of Oum- 
berworth and the Vicar of Roost,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1859. 7, ' Lucretia, or the Heroine 
of the Nineteenth Century/ 8vo, London, 
1868; a satire on the sensational novel. 
8. ' The Pageant/ and many others. To 
vols.- ix,, xvi,, and xviu. of 'The English- 
man's Library/ 121HO, 1840, &c., he contri- 
buted < Tales of the Village ; ' while to ' The 
Juvenile Englishman's Library/12mo, 1845, 
&c., of which he was for some time editor, 
he furnished ' Tales of the Village Children/ 
two aeries; 'The Hope of the Katzekopfs/ a 
fairy tale, issued separately under the pseu- 
donym of * William Ohurne of Staffordshire/ 
12mo, Rugeley, 1844 (on which an extra- 
vaganza in verse, called l Eigenwillig, or 
the Self-willed/ was founded, 8vo, London, 
1870), and ' Luke Sharp.' While examin- 
ing the manuscripts at Levens Hall, West- 
moreland, he came across some letters from 
Richard Graham (1679-1697), youngest son 
of Colonel James Graham (1649-1 730) [q. v.], 
who died prematurely while keeping terms 
at University College, Oxford, and his tutor, 
Hugh Todd. These formed the materials of 
a volume which he called ' A Student Peni- 
tent of 1G9/V 8vo, London, 1875. He also 
published several volumes of sermons, prayers, 
and religious treatises. His last work, en- 
t itled ' Homeward Bound/ 8vo, London, 1876, 
attracted some attention, In 1840 he edited 
Bishop Patrick's 'Discourse concerning 
Prayer' and 'Treatise of Kepentance and of 
Fasting-/ to rank with the series of reprints 
from the writings of English bishops issued 
by John Henry Newman, 

' [Guardian, 16 Aug. 1882, p. 1124; Halkett 
turn Ltiing's Diet, of Anon, and Pseud, Lit,] 



PAGET, LORD GEORGE AUGUSTUS 
FREDERICK (1818-1880), general, sixth 
son (third by the second marriage) of Henry 
William Paget, first marquis of Anglesey 
[({. v.], born on 16 March 1818, was edu- 
cated at Westminster School, and on 25 July 
1834 was appointed cornet and sub-lieute- 
nant in the 1st lifeguards, in which he be- 
came lieutenant on 1 Dec, 1837. On 17 Aug. 
1840 he purchased an unattached company, 
and exchanged to a troop in the 4th light 
dragoons (now hussars), and was promoted 
major in that regiment on 30 Jan, 1846, and 
lieutenant-colonel on 29 Dec. the same year. 
Becoming a brevet colonel on 20 June 1854, 
he went out in command of the 4th light 
dragoons to the East, landed with it in the 
Crimea, and at the Alma andBalaklavawas 
next senior officer of the light cavalry brigade 
to Lord Cardigan [see BRUDDNEL, JAMES 
THOMAS]. In the famous charge of the ' six 
hundred/ Paget's regiment at first formed 
the third line, and he appears to have done 
his utmost to fulfil Lord Cardigan's desire 
that he should give him 'his best support.' 
With the remnants of his own regiment and 
the llth hussars (from the second line o"f the 
brigade), which lie held together after the 
first line had melted away at the guns, he 
was enabled to check the Russian pursuit, 
and was one of the last to leave the Valley 
of Death. He commanded the remains of 
the light brigade at Inkerman, and immedi- 
ately afterwards he went home with a view 
to retirement from the service, an arrange- 
ment he had contemplated at the time of his 
marriage before the outbreak of the war. 
Although his bravery was never questioned, 
his return at this critical period exposed him 
to much invidious comment in the news- 
papers, which probably induced him to re- 
consider his plans. 

Paget went back to the Crimea on 23 Feb. 
1855, was reappointed to the command of 
the light brigade, and was in temporary com- 
mand of the cavalry division during the ab- 
sence of Sir James Yorke Scarlett [q, v,], Lord 
Lucan's successor. Together with his wife, 
who accompanied him to the Crimea, Paget 
was one of the small group ofpersonal friends 
who gathered round Lord Raglan's death- 
bed. Paget commanded the light cavalry 
brigade at Eupatoria and in the operations 
under General d'Allonville, and until a month 
before the evacuation of the Crimea (C.B., 
medal and clasps, Legion of Honour, third 
class of the MedjicliS, and Sardinian and 
Turkish medals). He became a major-general 
on 11 Nov. 1861, commanded the cavalry 
at Aldershot in 1860-2, and the Sirhind 
division of the Bengal armv from 1862 to 



Paget 



Paget 



1865, when he came home, and was appointed 
inspector-general of cavalry. He was nomi- 
nated a lieutenant-general and K.C.B. in 
1871 and general in 1877; was appointed 
colonel 7th dragoon guards in 1868, and 
succeeded Lord de Ros in tlie colonelcy of 
his old regiment, the 4th hussars, in 1874. 
Paget represented Beanmaris in the whig 
interest from 1847 to 1857. He died very 
unexpectedly at his residence in Farm Street, 
Mayfair, London, 30 June 1880. 

Paget married, first, on 27 Feb. 1854, his 
cousin Agnes Charlotte, youngest daughter of 
Sir Arthur Paget [q. v.] ; she died 10 March 
1858, leaving two children. Secondly, on 
6 Feb. 1861, Louisa, youngest daughter of 
Charles Heneage, and granddaughter on her 
mother's side of Thomas North, second Lord 
Graves; she survived Paget, and married 
the Earl of Essex in 1881. 

Paget in May 1852 addressed a letter to 
Lord John Russell on the establishment of 
an army reserve, which was printed for pri- 
vate circulation. He proposed that, instead 
of the revival of the militia, a bill for which 
was before the house, a reserve force should 
be established by compelling all soldiers who 
left the service at the end of ten years, under 
the act of 1847, without re-engaging, to serve 
five years after discharge in a reserve, which 
was to undergo six days' local military train- 
ing in each year. Paget's ' Crimean Jour- 
nals 'were printed for private circulation 
in 1875 ; but after the appearance of King- 
lake's book he appears to have revised them, 
and, in accordance with a wish expressed in 
a memorandum found among his papers they 
were published by his son in 1881. 

[Foster's Peerage, under 'Anglesey;' Hart's 
Array Lists; Army and Navy Gazette, July 
1880; Paget's Light Cavalry Brigade in the 
Crimea (London, 1881), which contains interest- 
ing information respecting the battles of Bala- 
klava and the Tchernaya ;_ Kin glake's Invasion 

392, vii. 382, 484, ix. 287.]"" ' ^H^M^C ^ 
PAGET, SIB GEORGE EDWARD, 



fellowship in his college, and at once began 
the study of medicine, He entered at St, 
Bartholomew's Hospital, and, after studying 
medicine in Paris, graduated M.B, at Cam- 
bridge in 1833, M.L. in 1836, and M,I), in 
1838, 

In 1839 he became physician to AdcUm- 
brooke's Hospital, an of lice whioh he hold 
for forty- live years; and in the same year 
he was elected a fellow of tho Koyal Col- 
lege of Physicians of London. Ho resided 
in Cains College, Cambridge, was lmrwar of 
the college, and gradually came, inlo prac- 
tice as a physician. Ho sweeodml in 1H12 
in persuading the university to insf itut o bed- 
side examinations for its medical decrees, and 
these were the first regular clinical examina- 
tions held in the United Kingdom. Tim ex- 
ample of Cambridge has mnco boon follwvM 
by all other examining hoclms, In July lMf>l 
he was elected Linacvo loetnror on uirdidno 
at St, John's Collogo, On his marring 1m 
vacated his fellowship, and took n hi WHO m 
Cambridge, In 185(5 (J he WOH prowdenf, of 
the Cambridge PuiloHOphir.al 8ooul.y, ami in 
1856 was elected a imnlwr of the council of 
the senate. In 18(53 1m wius o.hfwm repre- 
sentative of thn univomity on the (tnnernl 
Council of Medical Education and Rey-intm- 



M.D. (1809-1892), 
of Samuel Paget an 



^ ician, seventh son 
his wife, Sarah Eliza- 



, a- 

beth Tolver, was born at Great Yarmouth 
Norfolk on 22 Dec. 1809. After being at a 
smaU school in his native town, he was sent 
to Charterhouse School in 1824, and in addi- 
? to the regular work, which was then, 
under Dr Russell, jrholly classical, he studied 
mathematics; so that when a mathematical 
master was appointed, Paget was top of the 
school in that subject HeVtered Gonv lie 
in October 



tion, of which ho was oloctcd premdcnf in 
1869, and re-eluctod in 187-1. la 1H7*J ho 
was appointed to tho rt^m.s proroHsnr,ship nf 
physic at Carabrid^^, whicli ho hold till IUM 
death. Except Franciw (llmon fq, v. ), fin WH 
the moat distin^uiHhod of tlu nf<Mtpf of 
the chair from its foundation in 1AU), Ho 
delivered tho Ilarvmmioration at tli(,Jolh^ 
of Physicians in 1H(5(), and it wiw Hft^rwnrtl.H 
printed, Be had in 18-19 printed nn inf<" 
resting letter of Harvey to l)r, .Smnwl Wnnl 
master of Sidney BUHSOX Oolh'pMind In IKAt! 
a Notice of an Unpublmhnd Mumwrrfot uf 
Harvey/ The lettor to J)p. Ward hud Huthh-d 
him to establish tlu^enninmicsHof^Julit^ntm 
Harvey de MusculiH/ No. 4BU in thn Sloano 
collection m the Britwh MnKntim. Mom afi tr 
taking his deree h vinitnd 



o 

Hempstead, Esex, and had four whtn luiuin 
ot tne bust on his m<mum*mt,of which hn kitt 
one and gave the others to tlw Oollomt of 
Phyaimana, Oaius Ooliflgw, and Hfc, HanFmlo. 
mews Hospital, He wan idimtod F.HX in 
1H73, and received an honorary 



was made K.O.B., 
1 /T 6 ?? nt t 



187 



in IHH7 



n 

of 



.Paget had mat influent in th 
si 7, due to his upright ekwaatw, \ 
quaintance mtk univermty affoiw, and 



Paget 



S3 



Paget 



power of lucid statement. His lectures 
were excellent, though he had the disad- 
vantage of having often to lecture to students 
not sufficiently advanced in their studies to 
profit to the full by his instruction. He was 
always clear and interesting, and commanded 
the close attention of his audience. His social 
qualities were of a high order, and his conver- 
sation was always both pleasant and instruc- 
tive. He never allowed an attack upon Cam- 
bridge, medicine, or Harvey to pass unan- 
swered, and his ability was prominent in such 
a reply. He was attached to all the harmless 
traditions of the university. Asa physician, 
teacher, and examiner, he was in the highest 
degree kind and courteous. His first medical 
publication was ' Cases of Morbid Rhythmi- 
cal Movements ' in the ' Edinburgh Medical 
Journal ' lor 1847. In the ' MedicalTimes and 
Gazette' of 24 Feb. 1855 he published ' Case of 
involuntary Tendency to Fall precipitately 
forwards,' and in the 'British Medical Jour- 
iial' for 22 Sept, 1860 'Case of Epilepsy with 
some Uncommon Symptoms' these were 
peculiar automatic bursts of laughter; 10 Dec. 
.1887, 'Notes on an Exceptional Case of 
Aphasia ' of a left-handed man who, having 
paralyaia of the left side, had aphasia; 5 Jan. 
.1 889, ( Remarks on a Case of Alternate Partial 
Anesthesia.' In the ' Lancet' for 11 and 
18 April 1868 he published ' Lecture on 
Gastric Epilepsy/ and on 4 July 1885 ' Case 
of Remarkable Risings and Fallings of the 
Bodily Temperature.' 

He died on 16 Jan. 1892 of epidemic influ- 
enza, and was buried at Cambridge. Four 
lectures were published by his son after his 
death two on alcohol, one on the etio- 
logy of typhoid fever, and one on mental 
causes of bodily disease, A portrait of him 
aa an old mail is prefixed to tho memoir of 
him by his eon ; and his portrait, in a red 
gown, was. painted at an earlier age, and 
i in possession of his family. His bust, in 
marble, presented by his friends, is in Adden- 
bvooke's Hospital, Cambridge. He married, 
on 11 Dec. 1851, Clara, youngest daughter of 
the Rev. Thomas Furdell, vicar of Button in 
the Isle of Ely. He had ten children, of 
whom seven survived him. 

[Some Lectures by tho late Sir George E, 
Pa get, edited by Charles "E. Paget, with a, me- 
moir, Cambridge, 1893 ; information from Sir 
James Paget, bart. ; personal knowledge,] 

N. M. 

PACKET, HENRY, first EARL o- Ux- 
BKiDttE (d, 1743), was son of William, sixth 
lord Paget [q[.v.], by Frances, daughter of 
the Hon. Francis Pierrepont. He was elected 
M.P. for Staffordshire m 1695, l'98, 1701, 
1702, 1705, 1708, and 1710-11, In April 



1704, when Prince George of Denmark was 
constituted lord high admiral, he was ap- 
pointed one of his council. From 10 Aug. 
1710 to 30 May 1711 he was a lord of the 
treasury, from 13 June 1711 until September 
1715 was captain of the yeomen of the guard, 
and on 14 June 1711 was sworn of the privy 
council. On 31 Dec, 1711 he was created 
Baron Burton of Burton, Staffordshire, and 
succeeded as seventh Baron Paget of Beau- 
desert on 25 Feb. 1713. He acted as lord 
lieutenant of Staffordshire from March 1713 
until 30 Sept. 1715. On 13 April 1714 he was 
appointed envoy extraordinary to Hanover, 
was created Earl of Uxbridge on 19 Oct., 
and made a privy councillor on 16 Nov. 
He was also recorder of Lichfield. In Sep- 
tember 1715 he resigned his employments. 
He died on 30 Aug. 1743. Uxbridge mar- 
ried, first, Mary (d. February 1735-6), eldest 
daughter and coheiress of Thomas Catesby 
of "Whiston, Yorkshire, who brought him a 
son; and, secondly, on? June 1739, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir William Bagot of Blithefield, 
Staffordshire, by whom he had no issue. 

In the British Museum are letters from 
Uxbridge to John Ellis, 1698 (Addit. MS. 
28882, 'f. 159); Secretary Vernon, 1700 
(Addit. MS. 28885, f. 324) ; Lord-treasurer 
Barley, 1714 (Adclit. MS. 8880, f. 161); and 
Lord Strafford, 1719 (Addit. MS. 31141, 
f. 246 ; cf. Tanner MS. cccv. art. 31, in the 
Bodleian Library). 

His only son, THOMAS CATESBY PAGET, 
LOBD PAGET (d. 1742), was one of the gentle- 
men "of the bedchamber to the Prince of 
"Wales, and on the latter's accession to the 
throne as George II was, on 4 July 1727, 
continued in the same post. He was elected 
M.P. for Staffordshire on 3 Feb. 1714-15 and 
on 22 March 1721-2. He died at Drayton, 
near Uxbridge, Middlesex, in January 1741- 
1742. By his marriage at Gray's Inn Chapel, 
on 3 May 1718, to Elizabeth, second daughter 
of John, third earl of Bridgwater (FOSTER, 
JR.eff. Gray's Inn, p. Ixxvi), he had two sons, 
Henry and George (1721-1737), Duringthe 
interval of bad weather in hunting seasons, 
Paget composed for his own amu sem&nt 
sundry pieces in verse and prose. Such 
were: 1. 'An Essay on Human Life/ 4to, 
London (1734) ; a close imitation of Pope. 
Two third editions in 1736, 8vo and 12mo, 
profess to be ' corrected and much enlarg'd by 
the author/ who is described in one of them, 
to be the author of the then anonymous 
' Essay on Man ' (cf. POPE, Works, ed. El win 
and Conrthope, li. 262). Under this pre- 
text, Paget's ' Essay on Human Life 7 was 
printed in a supplement to the ' Works ' of 
Pope in 1767. 5. <f\.n Epistle to Mr, Pope, 



Paget 



. in Anti-heroics/ 4to, London, 1737. 3, 'Some 
Reflections upon the Administration of Go- 
vernment' (anon,), 8vo, .London, 1740. Ilia 
writings were collected in a volume ent it led 
' Miscellanies in Prose and Verae,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1741, now very scarce (\VALJ,>OLU, Roi/al 
and Noble Authors^ ed, Park, iv. 177-80). 
Paget's letters to his mother and father are 
in Addit. MS. 8880, f. 161. 

His son, HENEY PAGET (1719-1769), who 
succeeded his grandfather in 1743 as second 
Earl of "Oxbridge, was chiefly remarkable for 
an inordinate love of money. Peter Walter, 
the notorious usurer, who had boon his 
steward, "bequeathed to him in 174(> the 
principal part of his immense wealth (Lipfl- 
OOMB, JBuckinffhamshire, ii. 69(1). Uxhriclgo 
is said, however, to have continued to Wal- 
ter's daughter, Mrs. Bullock, (luring- her lifo 
the payment, of a very largo annuity, hint ead 
of availing himself to the full of the loti er of 
her father's will ( Monthly May. x ii. tS7), I fo 
died unmarried on 10 Nov* J7G9, and the 
earldom became extinct. 

But the barony~in-fee, of Paget devolved 
on Henry, son of Sir Nicholas Bayly, by 
Caroline, great-granddaughter of Vt'illiam, 
fifth baron Pagtit [q, v.] Henry Bayly as- 
sumed the surname of Paget ; was summoned 
to parliament in 1770 as ninth Baron Paget; 
was created Earl of Uxbridgo in 1784; ami 
by his wife Jane, ohKst. daughter of Arthur 
Ghampagnfi, dean of GlonmachoiHe,was fat hor 
of Henry William, first marquis of Angle- 
Se 7 fa- v j> Arthur [q. v,], Edward [q, v.'j, and 
Charles [q, v.] 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. 181 2, in. 207, V. IOU2; 
Doylo's Official Buronago, iii. 5 .18.] C>, G, 

PAGET, HENttY WILLIAM, first 
MABfttris OF ANniTWHY (170H-1M54), waft 
eldest son of -Henry Pagot, earl of Uxbridgfi, 
who died in 1812 [see under PAIUW, UBNUY, 
first EARL OF UXUBUJGTM, <i& fin.] II m 
younger brothers Arthur, Charles, and Ed- 
ward are noticed separately. Born iu London 
on 17 May 1768, he was educated at "Wtwt- 
minster School and at Christ Church, Oxford. 
In 1790 he entered parliament aa member 
for the Carnarvon boroughs, which ho repre- 
sented till 1796; he was afterwards JVLP, 
for Milborne Port in 1796, 1802-4. 1800, 
and 1807-10. He served in tho Stafford* 
shire militia, which was commanded by his 
father j and in September 1798 ho rained a 
regiment of infantry, the Staffordshire voiiu*. 
teprs,. chiefly from his father's tenantry. 
This was one of twelve regiments added to 
the establishment on the outbreak of the 
war with France, and became the 80th of 
the line.. He was giveu4ho temporary rank 






of lieutenant-colonel ll? Sept, 17(W. Three 
months afterwards he took his regiment to 
Guernsey, and in Juno 17tM they joined the 
army under the Duke of York iu Inlanders. 

The success of Jourdan at Klourus and 
Churloroi in that month obliged the allies 
to evacuate the Netherlands, Tho British 
army fell hack before, Pichogru from Touruay 
to the Dutch frontier ; it eventually had to 
cross tho Rhine, and embarked for Kngland 
at Bremen in the following .spring. lA>r a 
considerable part of this time Lord Paget 
(as he tlie.n was), though a soldier of only 
twelve mouths' service, was in command of 
a brigade. Sir Harry ( 1 alvert, who was on 
the Duke of York's stall 1 , ways that in the 
autumn there was only one major-general 
available for iive brigades of infantry, and 
this was partieularlv detrimental to the HOP* 
vice, because 'the. field oiHecrs are many of 
them boys, and have attained their rnnll by 
moans suggested by government at homo' 

Iu 17%, to give him a permanent posi- 
tion in the army, Pugot was commissioned 
as lieutenant in the 7th royal fusiliers on 
11 I\l arch, captain in the li.'ird fusiliers on 
25 March, major in the Moth foot on 1 J U Mv, 
and lioutonant^colouel of tho Hlth li^ut 
dragoons on If) June. He wan made colonel 
in the anuy on X May ITJMi, nnd on U April 
of the following year he became HoutoiwnN 
colonel of the 7th light dragoon^, 

la the expeditionary force half ICnglinh, 
half Hussiun- -which was sent toH<tlluud in 
17J)1 under the Duke of Ynrk, he hml com* 
inand of the cavalry brigade, which cou- 
flisted of his own and three other n-gtmentM, 
TJit^ operatiouH wen* confined to the jn- 
niontory north of Amsterdam, \vhirh *1M 
not v\vi\ much scope for ntvulry nction; hut 
in the battle of Hcrgen, 2 Oct., he made 
good use. of an opportunity. Vnndnmmi*, 
who was engaged with AbeivroinbyH divi- 
sion on the sandhills by the count, weeing 
that Hom British guns 'wore unsupported, 
charged at the head of his cavnlrv nn<l nii 
twwl them just befon^ night fall ^ but Fit* 
was charged in IUM turn by Pnget with tho 
Iftth light (ImgooiiH, fho gnim were reco 
vortid, and he wan pursued for nearly nmiio 

in tho afluir at KaMt,ricum ( tlm British 



cavalry tignm 



took 



fivu huudrtHl priM<merH, Hut the expedition 
had provwd a faiJuro. (hi JH Oct,hoHtiliti*H 
cottNtid, and the unny HH^mbttrkud ibr Kii- 
land, 

Pagot now devotml himwlf to hia regt- 
mant, of which he became cnlrmtil m Itf Mity 
1^0] , and inudu it one af the \w*>( in tho nrmy* 



Paget 



55 



Paget 



He became major-general on 29 April 1803, 
and lieutenant-general on "26 April 1808. He 
went to Portugal in 1808, but was unattached 
and not engaged. In the latter part of that 
year he was given the command of the cavalry 
"division which was sent out to join the army 
of Sir John Moore. He landed at Corufia, 
and, in spite of great difficulties from want of 
supplies, succeeded in joining Moore at Sala- 
manca on iM Nov. On 11 Dec, Moore moved 
northward, and on the 20th united with 
Baird at Mayorga. Next clay Paget, with the 
10 tli and 1 5th hussars, pushed on to Sahagun, 
which was occupied by the French. He 
arrived there before daylight, and, sending 
the 10th straight on, he led the 16th round 
the town to cut off the enemy's retreat. But 
the alarm had been given, and ho found six 
hundred dragoons drawn np in line to receive 
him, The 15th was only four hundred 
strong, and the 10th was not in sight, but 
he charged, routed the enemy, and took 107 
prisoners. 

The retreat began three daya afterwards. 
It was full of fluttering 1 for all, but especially 
trying to the cavalry because of the want of 
sh'oea for the horses, Half of the horses 
were lost, and those that remained had to 
be destroyed at Ooruna, as there was no 
room for them in the transports. Yet the 
cavalry played its part well in covering 
the rear of the army and imposing respect 
on the enemy. At Mayorga, on 26 JDec., 
Paget, seeing a strong 1 body of French horse 
on a hill, sent two squadrons of the 10th 
against it, who charged up the hill, killed 
twenty men, and took one hundred prisoners, 
Three days afterwards, at Benavente, General 
Lefobvre-Desnouettes, fording the Eslawith 
BIX hundred men of the chasseurs i\ cheval, 
pressed upon the British cavalry piquets. 
The latter kept the French in check until 
Paget brought up the 10th, and then, charg- 
ing with the 10th in support, they drove 
the French back across the river, and took 
seventy prisoners, including the general. The 
clay before this affair Moore nad himself 
written : ' The only part of the army which 
Las been hitherto engaged with the enemy 
has been the cavalry, and it is impossible 
forme to say too much in their praise. . , , 
Our cavalry is very superior in quality to 
any the French have, and the right spirit 
has been infused into them by the example 
and instruction of their two leaders, Lord 
Paget and Brigadier-general Stewart/ 

Paget saw no further service in the Penin- 
sula, He commanded an infantry division 
in the Walcheren expedition, and remained 
in that island till 2 Sept. 1809. For the next 
five years he was unemployed. He became 



Earl of Uxbridge by the death of his father, 
13 March 1812, and was made G.C.B.2 Jan. 
1815. 

A few months later, in the spring of 1815, 
lie was ordered to Flanders. He was appointed 
to the command of the whole of the cavalry 
and horse artillery in the army nndertheDulte 
of Wellington, though, until the morning of 
Waterloo, the Prince of Orange retained the 
control of the Dutch and Belgian horse. 
The cluke left him full discretion in handling 
the cavalry, i I felt,' he says, ' that he had 
given me carte blanche, and I never bothered 
him. with a single question respecting the 
irfovements that it might be necessary to 
make ' ( Waterloo Letters, p. 3). On 17 June 
he was told to remain at Quatre Bras as 
long as he conveniently tiould, to give time 
for the army to retire on Waterloo. He 
remained there till 1 I>.M., and then retired 
in a leisurely way before the French advance. 
After passing through Genappe, he placed 
Ha old regiment, the 7th hussars, on the 
high road, some two hundred yards behind 
it, with the 23rd light dragoons in support. 
As soon as the lancers, who headed the 
French advanced guard, issued from Genappe, 
they were charged by the hussars ; but the 
latter were not able to penetrate them, and 
the action went on for some time with 
alternate success. At length Uxbridge sent 
forward two squadrons of the 1st lifeguards, 
which overthrew the lancers and pursued 
them into Genappe. The retreat was then 
continued slowly, unmolested except by artil- 
lery fire, ' It was the prettiest field-day of 
cavalry and horse artillery that I ever wit- 
nessed/ Anglesey wrote, 

On the l'8th, when the English left was 
attacked by D'Erlon's corps, about half-past 
one, Uxbriclge directed General Ponsonby to 
charge the French columns, already shattered 
by the fire of Picton's troops. While the 
union brigade was dealing with the infantry, 
"Oxbridge himself led forward Somerset's bri- 
gade (chiefly consisting of household cavalry) 
against a brigade of Milhaud's cuirassiers, who 
were upon the left of D'Erlon's corps, and who 
had routed a Hanoverian battalion which 
was advancing to support the garrison of La 
Haye Sainte, General Shaw Kennedy says 
that this was ' the only fairly tested fight of 
cavalry against cavalry during the day. It 
was a fair meeting 01 two bodies of heavy 
cavalry, each in perfect order.' The French 
brigade, which seems to have been numeri- 
cally weaker, was completely defeated, and 
the English horsemen swept on in spite 
of all the efforts of Uxbridge to stop them 
by voice and trumpet. He went back to 
bring up the second line, to cover the retire- 



Paget 



Paget 



ment of the first, but it was too far to the 
rear. He owned afterwards that it was a 
mistake on his part to lead the attack him- 
selfa mistake, too, which he had made 
once before, and had had reason to regret. 
The household brigade, like the union bri- 
gade, while brilliantly successful, lost nearly 
half its strength, mainly from having to de- 
fend itself, when scattered and exhausted, 
against fresh cavalry. Uxbridge claimed that 
the effect of this charge was such that for 
the rest of the day, 'although the cuiras- 
siers frequently attempted to break into our 
lines, they always did it molkmcnt^ and as 
if they expected something more behind the 
curtain; ' but other observers hardly bear out 
this impression. 

He received a wound in the knee from 
one of the last shots fired in the battle, and 
his leg had to be amputated. The limb was 
buried in a garden in the village of Water- 
loo ; a monument was placed over it, and it 
is still a source of income to the proprietor. 
A more genuine memorial was erected on the 
summit of Craig y Dinas, Anglesey/ in com- 
memoration of the couaiimmato skill and 
undaunted bravery 7 displayed by him at 
Waterloo. The first stone of the column was 
laid on the first anniversary of the battle, 
He was created Marquis of Anglesey on 
4 July 181 />, in recognition of his services. 
He was made a knight of the Garter in 1818, 
and acted as lord high steward at the coro- 
nation of George IV. Ho became general in 
the army on 12 Aug. 1810, 

When Canning formod lufi ministry, and 
the Duke of Wellington resigned the master- 
generalship of the ordnance, as well as the 
commanderahip-in-chief, Lord Anglesey was 
appointed to succeed him in the former post, 
which carried with it a seat, in the cabinet. 
He was master-general from 80 April 18^7 
till 29 Jan, 1828. He them succeeded Lord 
Wellesley as lord-lieutenant in Ireland 
(27 Feb.) The Duke ^of Wellington had 
become prime minister in January, and the 
change was supposed to be of his making, 
but in fact the appointment had been Nettled 
before the new ministry was formed, and 
they merely confirmed it, Anglesey's sym- 
pathies were with the Ganningitfi portion 
of the government, and when they seceded 
m May he intimated to the duke that ho 
might find it necessary to follow their 
example. His relations with the duke and 
Peel, not thoroughly cordial to begin with, 
soon became strained, Ireland -was in a fer- 
ment, and the ^Catholic Association, under 
O'Connell's guidance, was forcing 1 forward 
the question of catholic emancipation, which 
the king would not hear of, and which the 



ministry was pledged to him not to enter 
xipon. ' God bloHS you, Anglesey ! 1 know 
you are a true protestant, the king" had 
said, when Anglesey took leave of him before 
going to Ireland. * * Sir,' ho replied, * 1 will 
not be considered either protestant or 
catholic; I go to Ireland determined to act. 
impartially between them, and without tho 
least bia.s either oneway or the, other ' ( (rnrillr 
Memoirs, i. 154), He soon came to the con- 
clusion that some confession must, be made. 
Writing to the new chief secretary on "2 ,1 uly 
to explain the situation, he snid : * I abhor 
the idea of truckling to the* overbearing 
catholic (le.nwg'ojjues. To mitke any move- 
ment towards conciliation under the prcst nt 
excitement and system of terror would re- 
volt me; but 1 do* most eonseiontitwsly,und 
after the. most earnest consideration of thn 
subject, give if. us my conviction that the 
first moment of composure nud tranquillity 
should be set/I'd to signify the intention of 
adjusting the question' (trt'ttfut/tun l)r#- 
pcrf?kw t Huppl, iv, f>:JI ). 

With these views ho tried to culm the 
public feeling. Ho was nver.sc ta intcHWcnco 
with processions mid meetings; and in his 
conversation and his answers to uddresses ho 
showed bis wish to have, theuuest ion set tied, 
The king wanted to recall him in August, 
but thn duke was unwilling to tnlio tbnt 
Htep without such reasons as would wit My 
the public, and on 11 Nov. wrote a strong 
letter of remonstrance to him, complaining 
especially of the countenance shown by t ho 
lord-lieutenuul to members of the Untholic 
Association, A correspondence followed, 
which the duke regarded ns. l wtumprrate ' ou 
Anglesey's wide, and on i!8 l>c<\ the, duke 
in forme A him that, an this etmvspowli'WH 
had left them in a relation which <wght 
not to exist, the king had decided to recall 
him, Anglesey's departure, from Ireland wan 
hastened, but it was not caused, by hi 
letter to J)r. Curt in, the Human eat Unlit: 
archbishop of Ariiuigh. Hr. Curtis bad drawn 
from the Dubs of Wellington it letter, in 
which ho said that he should not despair of 
aooing a aattKlaetory remedy if party spirit* 
disappeared, and reeommondm tfiut tbu* 
question should b<!s buried in oblivion for a 
time. On seeing this letter, Anglesey wrotn 
to Dr. Curt m dtasmiting front th<* tlul(*H 
opinion, and ndvininpf, on the contrary, that 
* all constitutional (in contradistinction to 
merely legal) means should bo resorted to 
to forward the cause ; but thnt ? at th wttitm 
time, two mofit, jwiti<mt,forheurnnco, the most 
Rubmismve obedioiUMi to the laws, should b** 
inculcated 1 (Annual /V//^/(r, 1 8^8, p, lf>0), 
This lotlor, written on %ti Duc n was published 



Paget 



57 



Paget 



on 1 Jan. 1829, and led to his immediate re- 
call, though he continued to hold the ollice 
of lord-lie utenant till March. Anglesey's 
general attitude, and especially his latest ac- 
tion, had made him very popular in Ireland, 
and the day of his departure was kept aw a 
day of mourning in Dublin. The door seemed 
to be closed more firmly than ever against ca- 
tholic emancipation; but the Duke of Wel- 
lington had been gradually breaking down 
the king's resistance, and on 6 Feb. tlie relief 
bill was announced from the throne. 

When Lord Grey became prime minister, 
Anglesey was again made lord-lieutenant, 
on 23 Dec. 1830; but the agitation for re- 
peal had now taken the place of that for 
emancipation, and he at once found himself 
at war with O'Oonnell. * Thing's are now 
come to that pass that the question is 
whether he or I shall govern Ireland,' An- 
glesey wrote, a month later, when it had 
been determined, after a long consultation 
with the law oilicers, to arrest IVConnelL 
O'Connell thought it best to plead guilty, but 
the war between thorn continued, and by 
July O'Connall was writing : * I wish that 
ridiculoualy welf-concoited Lord Anglesey 
were once out of Ireland, I take him to be 
our present greatest enemy/ The lord-lieu- 
tenant had to ask for stringent coercion acts, 
which were distasteful to a section of the 
whig cabinet, and the renewal of which was 
in fact the cause of its break-up in 1834, 
But before that time Anglesey had left Ire- 
land, Ho was succeeded by Lord Wcllealey 
as lord-lieutenant in September 1833. The 
most satisfactory work of his vice-royalty was 
the establishment of the board of education, 
in which he took an active part, This brought 
him into close relations with Archbishop 
"Whately. 

When Lord John Russell formed his 
ministry in 1846, Anglesey became for the 
second time master-general of the ordnance, 
on 8 July, and remained so till 27 Feb. 1852. 
It was during his tenure of the office that 
the letter of the Duke of Wellington to Sir 
John Burgoyne drew general attention to the 
defenceless state of our coasts, but little came 
of it at the time. He was made field-mar- 
shal on 9 Nov. 1846, and lord-lieutenant of 
Staffordshire on 9 Nov. 1849. He had been 
lord-lieutenant of Anglesey since 21 April 
1812. After holding the colonelcy of the 
7th light dragoons for more than forty years 
lie exchanged it for the horse-guards, on 
20 Dec, 1842. 

lie died at the age of eiphty-six, on 
29 April 1854, and was buried m the family 
vault in Lich field Cathedral. His portrait 
was painted by Lawrence, and a copy of it 



(by W. Ross) is in the United Service Club, 
lie was tall, with a courteous bearing; im- 
petuous, but not wanting 1 in shrewdness and 
j udginent. He was no speaker, but he showed 
his readiness in repartee on a well-known 
occasion. At the time of Queen Caroline's 
trial a mob of her sympathisers, who knew 
he was no friend of hers, insisted on his 
cheering her. He complied, and gave ; * The 
Queen, and may all your wives be like her I ' 

He had married (25 July 1795) Lady 
Caroline Elizabeth Villiers, third daughter 
of the Earl of Jersey, by whom he had three 
sons and five daughters ; but in 1810 she ob- 
tained a divorce, and he then married Char- 
lotte, daughter of Earl Cadogan,the divorced 
wife of Henry Wellesley, afterwards Lord 
Cowley, by whom lie had three sons and three 
daughters, The third son of the second mar- 
riage, George Augustus, is separately noticed. 

His eldest son by his second marriage, 
LOKD CLABENOE EDWARD PAG-HC (1811- 
1895), was educated at Westminster School, 
and joined the navy in 1827. He served as 
a midshipman on board the Asia at Navarino. 
He was captain of the Princess Royal, of 91 
guns, in the expedition to the Baltic in 1854, 
and during the blockade and bombardment 
of Sebastopol in 1855 ; he also took part in 
the expedition to Kertch and Yemkal6 
(medals, Sevastopol clasp, and fourth class ot 
the JVIodjidie). lie attained Hag rank in 1858, 
and was made a rear-admiral of the red in 
1803, vice-admiral In 1 865, admiral in April 
1870, and was placed on the retired list in 
1876. Prom 1859 to 1866 he was secretary 
to the admiralty in Lord Palmcrston's second 
administration, and from 28 April 1866 to 
28 April 1869 was commander-in-chief in the 
Mediterranean. He was a privy councillor, 
and became a G.C.B. in May 1886, He re- 
presented Sandwich in the liberal interest 
from 1847 to 1,852, and from 1857 until he 
took command in the Mediterranean in 1866. 
He died at Brighton on 22 March 1895. He 
married, in 1852, Martha Stuart, daughter of 
Admiral Sir Kobert Otway, G-.C,B.,by whom 
he left issue. Lady Clarence Paget' died at 
Brighton on the day after her husband's death, 

Anglesey's second son by his second mar- 
riage was LOBD ALFRED HENEY PAGET (1816- 
1888), for many years equerry and clerk- mar- 
shal of the royal household. He was educated 
at Westminster School, became a lieutenant 
in the blues on 14 March 1884, purchased an 
unattached company on 20 Get, 1840, and 
exchanged into his father's regiment, the 7th 
hussars, in which he served for several years; 
he rose finally to the rank of general on the 
retired list in 1881. He was chief equerry 
to the queen and clerk-marshal from July 



Paget 



Paget 



1846 to March 1852, from December 1852 to 
March 1858, and from June 1859 to August 
1874, when he resigned the office of chief 
equerry only. He represented Lichfield in. 
the whig- interest from 1837 to 1865. Ha 
died on board his yacht Violet at Inverness 
on 24 Aug. 1888, leaving a family by his 
wife Cecilia, second daughter and coheir 
of George Thomas Wyndham of Cromer 
Hall, Norfolk. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage; Napier's War in 
the Peninsula ; Siborne's Waterloo Letters ; 
Wellington Despatches, with Suppl. ; Fitzpatrick'a 
Correspondence of Daniel 0'Uonnoll ; A Brief 
Sketeh of the Marquis of Anglesey's Adminis- 
tration (Dublin, 1829); "Wai pole's Life of Lord 
John Russell ; Gent- Mag, 1854, pt, i. p. 6H8; 
Statement of Services in Public .Record OJTieo.] 

E, M. L. 

PAGET, JOHN (d. 1640), nonconformist 
divine, is believed to have boon descended 
from the Pagets of llothley, Loicostornhiro. 
This is the more likely inasmuch as Robert. 
Paget, minister at Dort, 1038 85, who oditod 
one of John Paget.'s works, and was evident ly 
a kinsman, described himself aa a Loicestor- 
shire man (Album Studiufwrim Luy<L Ara<L) 
He was educated at Trinity College, (Cam- 
bridge, proceeding B.A, in ',1504, and ALA. 
in 1598. In the latter year, al'to.r having 
held some other benefices, ho was appoint o< I 
rector of Nantwich. Ejected lor noncon- 
formity, he went in .1604 'to Holland, Thcro 
for two years he was chaplain to an Kng- 
lish regiment, but in 1007 llm pn^bytory of 
Amsterdam appointed lam mjniwlor of' the 
newly founded English preabytwian church 
in that town, at a stipend oC 150 llorinH, 
He remained in that poHt till 10;i7, wlwn 
he resigned on account of ago, Ilt^ onjoyocl 
the friendship of James I'a daughter KlUa- 
beth (1590-1002) [q. v.] llo engaged in 
controversies on infant baptism and church 
government with Henry Ainy worth, John 
Savenport, and William Beat, Davtmport 
denounced him as an 'unjust doer, 'tyrannical 
in government and corrupt in doctrine; but 
he was held in honour by the Amsterdam 
authorities, and found amusement in the dirt* 



hn 



of Trinity College, Cambridge, KiOo* B.A, 
1608, and M.A. H31:J, succeeded him at 
Amsterdam, but returned to England about 
1639. Ho was incumbent of Blacldoy, near 
Manchester, till l(>46, rector of St, ChadX 
Shrewsbury, till IGoG, and rector of Stoek- 
port till his death in 1(500. Ho was iaUuT 
of Nathan Puget [q, v.] 

[Register of Cambridge TJruvoraity; prof aw 
to Mt'ditjttiona of Death; Wag(MUuu*'n Hist, of 
AinHtonlam ; Oal, of Stato .PajuirH, Dorn. 1010 
and 108;") ; Earwukor'n East OlioHluro, 1H7H ; 
Steven's Hiwt. of Scottish CJuu-di at Rot tcrthuu, 
1832,] J. u. A, 

PAGET, JOHN (ISOH IKOi>), tt^ri<*ul 
turiat and writer <m Hungary, wott of Joh 
ragot, by his wiiV, Anna Hunt, was born 
Thorjw fc>atchvilli, I^ni'isslcrslurts in IHOS, 
llo ontrrr.d MauchcHtrr ('ollr^<% York, aw a 
lay Htudont in ItfiW, In is^M ho proctM'dcil 
to Wdinbur^h U'niv(rsily, , studied turtlifiiH^ 
and tfmdimti'd M,D,, but" never practised ur 
tuscd tin? title of doctor, tlumgh \m furtber 
purMited thcHtudy of mc<lii i ino in Parin and 
Italy, In Italy he- incl.t-hci Hanm<\s l\>ly.\(>ua 
'(V/, 1S7S), widow of ijamu 
Ufuiily, whom hv inarrunl in 18H7 
at Umuo, After travelling in Iluu^nry ho 
devoted himself |,o the <bn'elti|ttueut of bin 
wife's e,Mtat<^ atu^ quirted a high repufaliou 
as a Hcii'iitilu", n^TicuIlurmt atttl a benetieen! 
landlord, introducing an hujirovetl breed of 
caUhs ami paying ^ptvial att*ntum to vini 
culture, Tu the uuiturian chutvh u 
vanla, of which 1m wan a xealoiw 



, me n e iH- 

sermons of his adversaries. Ho died, pro- 
bably in the vicinity of Amsterdam, three 
years after hia resignation. His works com- 
prise: 1, < A Primary of the Christian .Reli- 
gion' (rare), London, 1001. 2. 'An Arrow 
against the Separation of the Browniatn/ 
Amsterdam, 1618, 8, 4 Meditations of Death' 
(dedicated by his widow to the princes pala- 
tine), Dort, 1639, 4 ' A Defence of Church 
Government/ 1641. 5. 'A Censure upon a 
Dialogue of the Anabaptists,' 164& 
THOMAS PAGES (& 1000), h'e brother, sizar 



, , 

ho nuult^rcd tnuti^y important HerviceM, *MJH^ 
e.ially at, the, tmw (1H">7) wheu itn cdnca* 
tioual nywt em was t hnMUetunl by t he W*UUVH 
of the Austrian ft<vtnuetit.' He dieil ut, 
UyfwH on 10 April J8JW, and wsm buried n \. 
KoloMviir on Ja April Hi eUler nun tlioil 
in ehildhood; IIIH yonng'or HOH, Oli\tr (It. 
f> Stipt, 1H4I, tf. H) Oct. I8H;I}, w .rvd utuler 
Uaribuldi in Sicily, married iu ihOl, ami lell 



l^got jmbliHhml: I, < Ilungnry unil Trim- 

1855, Hvo, ^ vok; tmiiMlntiHl into Uonmui 
byK, A, Moriatry, Lfnpxig, IH4^, *>, (:u\* 
taHaniHm in TruitHvlvuniu/ in J, It Btwnt'H 
' Umtarianimn Mxliibitml/ ^o^ 1H4U, Hvo. 
Ho ocwwionaltv r<mtributwl to tlm * (JiirU- 
tlan Unfonnt*r/ II IK wiftMjuhliHluul M>IUH/<- 
horu 6a Sehwom Utussuw, &, (jouriuv in 
Italy and fiwiteurlaiul), K<lo*8var r 18-W, 



[Inqniwr, 00 April 
MiiffVflto, 1803, j>p, 90 q, 
traa); infnrmutioo from 



(utanmir, with t)*r- 
'6ttHi, 

A, ( 



59 



Paget 



PAGET, NATHAN, M.P. (161o-l(i70), 
physician, son of ThormiH Puget, rector of 
Stcu'.kport, Ohoshhv, and nephow of John 



. 

Vaget (d, KMO)[<.v. ], was bom 
in 1615. Ho graduated MA. at ^ 

and on 25 Nov. Ki.'JN entered U8 a. studout of 
medicine at. Leydon, where he graduated M .D. 

3 Autf. U>M, lie began practice in England, 
outside London, and was admitted an extra 
licentiate of the College of .Physicians of 
London ! April 1 040. 1 lo was incorporated 
M,I). at Cambridge 8 .Juno KU2, and was 
elected a follow of the College of Physicians 

4 Nov. UU(>. He was nominated physician 
to the Tower by the council of state of the 
Commonwealth* on JU Dec. 1619 (^UBNON, 
Milton, iv, ir>l), He WUH one of the HOVOII 
physicians who aided .KranciH (UiHsxm [q, v.] 
in'the obHonationH preparatory to tho pub- 
lication of tho * Tract at t us cUi Hachitide' in 
lor>0 ; and ho waa a i'ritmd of Milton, whose 
third wife WRH Ins cousin* Jle was a censor 
of llin College of Physicians in 1055, 1(557, 
l(Jf>J), 1001), and 107W, and he delivered the 
Itarvoiati oration in 1004, lie livoeMn Cole- 
man Street, a locality tlum much alfocted by 
puritans (Oowunr), JJia will, dated 7 Jan, 
1070, was proved 15 Jan, 1679, and gave SQL 
a y oar for thirty years to tho College of Phy- 
meimm. Jle diod in January 1079, His li- 
brary was sold by auction SJi Oct. 1081. 

LMunk'a Coil, of Phys, i, 243 ; GUiswrn's De 
RueUititle, Loydon, 1071, preface; Gont. Mag, 
1813, pt. ii. p* U; Maaaon's Life of Milton.] 

N JMf. 



PAGET, THOMAS, third BABON 
(d. 1590), was second son of "William, first 
"baron Pag-et [q. v,], by Anne, daughter and 
heiress of Henry Preston, esq. Charles Paget 
[q, v,] was his Brother ; he matriculated as a 
fellow-commoner of Gonville and Cains Col- 
lege, Cambridge, on 27 May 1559 (Goon-m, 
Athene Cantabr.m. 4), On the death of his 
brother Henry, on 28 Dec, 15GB, he succeeded 
to the title of Lord Paget, and to the estates of 
the family. Being a Roman catholic, and de- 
clining to conform to the established religion, 
he was subjected to imprisonment. There is 
a letter from him to the privy council, dated 
Windsor, 17 Nov. 1580, in which he states 
that he had been restrained of his liberty for 
fourteen weeks. IE a letter to Sir Francis 
Waleinghara, dated 10 Jan. following, he 
desired to be excused from attending St. 
Paul's on the following Sunday, at the time 
of the sermon, 

William Overton [q[. v.], bishop of Coven- 
try and Lichfield, in a letter to the council, 
dated 20 May 1582, complained that certain of 
Fagot's servants or oihcers, under pretence 



:>f serving writs, came into Colwich church 
on East or Sunday and arrested clivers per- 
sona; moreover, Paget being bound to fiu<l 
communion bread for tho parishioners of 
Burton-upon-Trent, ' his officers would have 
forced them to use little singing 1 calces, after 
the. old popish fashion, varying nothing at all 
in form from the mussing bread, save only 
somewhat in the print.' In a letter from the 
name prelate to Lord Burghley in February 
following is this paSiSago : ( Tlle Lord Paget 
also and his coniVderat.es arc not idle, but 
attempt must unjust suits and indictments 
against me and mine,' 

On the detection of Francis Throgmor- 
tons conspiracy in November 1583, Paget 
fled to .Paris. On % Doc. he wrote thence to 
hiw mother, Lady Paget. Ho trusted she 
\\ ould not mislike the stop he had now taken, 
that he might enjoy liberty of conscience and 
tho free exercise' of his religion-^ I Jo had not 
clone this upon any suddon motion, but after 
a long time and do liberation. To Lord 
Burghley ho explained that he had been long 
minded to travel, for two reasons one for 
euro of the jyout; tho other, of more moment, 
for the satisfying- of Inn conscience, about 
which lie had' been with himself at a mar- 
vellous conflict almost three yearn. Paget 
spent much time in Paris with his brother 
Charles, 

The queen issued a fruitless proclamation 
commanding Paget to return to England. 
In June 1584 the English ambassador at Paris 
made a formal demand to the king of France 
for the surrender of Paget and others, but 
the French king declined to comply. 

Paget viaitel Milan and Rome, residing 
in the English College at the latter place, 
with two servants, from 22 Feb. till 19 March. 
1684-5. His brother states that he met with 
a cold reception in that city. Afterwards Ja 
went to Spain, and obtained from the Spanish 
monarch a pension of one hundred and eighty 
crowns a month. In 1587 he was attainted 
of treason by act of parliament, his estates 
and goods having been seized immediately 
after hia flight from England. He died at 
Brussels in the early part of 1690. 

He married Nazaret, daughter of Sir John 
Newton of Burrs Court, Somerset, and widow 
of Sir Thomas Southwell, of Woodrising, 
Norfolk. By this lady, from whom he was 
separated on articles in 1581-2, and who died 
on 16 April 1583, he had an only son, Wil- 
liam, fourth baron Paget [q. v.] 

(Blomefleld'B Norfolk, ii. 33S, x. 270, 277, 280; 
Camden's Elizabeth, 1635, pp. 261, 389 ; Collect, 
Topogr, et Q-oneal. v, 83; Oollins'e Peerage 
(Brydges); Proude's Hist, of England, 1893, xi. 
64, 402; Hardwicke State Papers, i. 212, 240, 



Paget 

241 ; Lansd. MSS. 34 art. 7, 62 art. 50 ; TVTurdin' 
State Papers, pp. 439-531 ; Gal. State Papers 
Dom. Eliz. and Scottish Ser. ; Strype's Annals 
iii. 61, 98, 136, 217, 247, Append, pp. 27, 31 
Turabull's Letters of Mary Stuart, pp. 104, 105 
130 ; Tytler's Scotland, 1864, iv. 114 ; Wright' 
Elizabeth, ii. 256.] T. C. 

PAGET, WILLIAM, first BARON PAGET 
OF BEAUDESBBI (1505-1563), born in 1505 
at "Wednesbury it is said, was son of Wil 
liam Paget, a sergeant-at-mace of the city o 
London, His father was connected with ai 
old Staffordshire family, but this seems tc 
have been discovered after Facet's death, tine 
his low birth was often objected to by the 
courtiers. He was educated at St. Paul's 
School under William Lily [q. v.], anci 
at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, presumably 
during the mastership of Stephen Gardinei 

Ej. v.J He must have given early proof o 
is ability, for he was one of those supported 
at the university by members of the B'oloyn 
family. He is said, while at Cambridge, to 
have been an earnest protestant, to have dis- 
tributed books by Luther and other (jenuans, 
and to have read Melanch thorn's ' Rhetoric : 
openly in Trinity Hall (S'nm'is, Memorial, 
I. i. 430). But it is not probable that he was 
earnest in matters of religion at any time, 
and it is not likely that Gardiner, who, aa 
Wolsey's secretary, had boenengugod in per- 
secuting 1 heretics in 1626, would navo allowed 
any protestant lecturing to go on in hiw col- 
lege. He does not seem to have taken any 
degree at Cambridge, but he remained a 
good friend to the university, of which lie was 
afterwards high steward. In 1547, when in- 
volved in a dispute with the townspeople, 
the university appealed to him for help 
(STKTPB, Cranmer, p, 238), and this no doubt 
was the occasion 01 his being appointed, in 
February 1647-8, a commissioner to Kettle 
the matter. He was also, in November 1648, 
appointed one of the visitors of the univer- 
sity, and was present at the disputation in 
the summer of 1549, when Grmdal, then a 
young man, argued about transubstantiation 
(SiiOTE, Griridal, p. 6, and Ckeke, p. 40)* 

Oa leaving the university lie was takon 
into the household of Gardiner, who sent him 
to study in Paris for a time, and received 
him ao-ain when he returned, In 1628 he 
was ill of the plague, In 1529, obviously 
through Gardiner's influence, he was sent to 
France to collect opinions from the univer- 
sities on the subject of the divorce. In IW2 
lie became clerk of the signet, and the same 
year was sent out to furnish Cranmer, than 
ambassador to the emperor, with instructions 
as to what Henry was prepared to do against 
the Turks who had recently invaded Hun- 



60 



Paget 



gary (STRYPE, Crnnmer^ p. 1(5). A few 
months later he appears to have been Kent 
on a mission to the elector of Saxony, and in 
1634 he was again abroad to confer with tho 
protestant princes of Germany (for bin in- 
structions w&Lcttcrs and Papers, llcnnj Flit, 
vi. ,148). He went by way of France to Ger- 
many in lotf? with Christopher Mont [q, v,"J 
to induce the Smalealdie league to reject tho 
pope's overtures. On 18 Oct. 1537 ho wan 
Knighted, When the marriage with Anno 
of Clev(\s had boon arranged, 1'ngot, who 
could no doubt spoak Gorman, was appointed 
her secretary in Ifi.'JJ). On 10 Aug. 15-10 ho 
was Hworn in an clerk to the privy council 
(Acts of the Privy (-otoici^vu, 4), and in tho 
same year his ollico of clerk of the signet WHH 
sec. u red to him for life, On 1 .hint? 1A41 ho 
had a grant of arms. On ~M Sept, 1541 ho 
wasacnt aw an ambassador to Knmoo in order 
to perform the dolicalo service of explaining 
tho sudden fall of Catherine Howard, but ho 
scorns to have given sat isturtion, as on UJ t >oe. 
1541 tho council inercMHed hi.s emoluments 
by ton shillings a day (/A. vii, fc JUH, *J8;$ t ;i5^). 
Jlo WUH promoted on IUH return, liooonung a 
privy oouueillor and one of tho wrc.roturios tf 
stato on Xti \pril 1A4.H, and dork of jmrlia- 
meat on 11) May 1/J4IJ; lio now rosigiM'd UIH 

orkHhij) to tho privy council, 

AH secretary of Htato Pngot. %VHH brotiglit 
into very clono rolationH with the king, un<l 
lor tlio (dosing years of tho reign hf* ami tho 
Karl of Hortford, io whom he ntrongly nt- 
tachoci himself, wore probably Henry'* chief 
advinerH. On lit) Jtino 1544 INigot, \VriothoH- 



,cy, and Suffolk woro commissioned to treat 
with tho KaH of Lennox as io Scottish ailnir 
ind tho marriage of Lennox with Margaret, 
iho king's mcoo. Ho wtmt to Boulogne with 
tho king in tho namo year, and took pitrt in 
*ihii subsequent negotiations^ and with John 
aftorwards Sir John) Mason fij, v, ] he ro 
wived tho olliec of must or of the POM(M willtm 
and without tho realm. In 154r> lie took 
>art in tho new negotiations with theOor- 
nan protest nnts, Ho mado Kdward, princ.o 
f WaloH, a present of a sandbox hi HVJl? t and 
ww onn of tboso who visited Anno Askew 
q, v,| in tho Tower, and tried to clmngo 
icr opinions, A ILonry grew older, ho re- 
iod greatly on Pnget * Ho consulted liim 
,bout liis will, loft him fl(X), and nppointml 
lim on of tbo governors of tho young 
winco during Im mint>rity. JtjHt bcforo nntl 
ust aftor Henry's death on i^H Jan, lf>l<$ 
547, Hertford had conlbrpnces with I*itgofc 
itpic, MwnorialA, n, I, l?) t and Pngot 
ava him advice which Hertford <lwlino<l to 
ollow, Tliroo <Uys after Ilwry'n death ho 
eaci aloud part of Henry 1 * will in purlin- 



Paget 



6r 



Paget 



mont, and ho played tho loading part in tho 
plot formed U) set it. aside (of, DIXON, Hint, 
ofChwrk tifJKnfftmui, iii. M2). 

In the now reign Paget appears as tho 
friend of tin* Protector, but ho inclined to 
courses of greater moderation, lie proposed 
a protectorate in the council. Ho had ovi- 
dmitdy carefully eousiderod tho state- of Eng- 
land, and wrot e. to Somerset that for tho time 
there was no ^religion in tho country. His 
state paper on tho foreign relations of Kng- 
land, written for tho instruction of tho 
council, also shows how well ho could ox- 
plain his views (it is printed in STUYPB'H 
Motwriah, n. i. H7). HIM own position at 
once improved, 1 le WUH mado K.G, on 17 Fob, 
15-M-7, comptroller of tho king's household, 
on 4 March 1 f)4(5-7 a commissioner for deter- 
mining tho houndarioH of Boulogne, and on 
1 July 15-17 chancellor of tho Duchy of Lan- 
caster. Hia friendship for Somerset declared 
itself in Bovoral letters of warning an to the 
policy he was pursuing; one, dated 8 May 
1549) forma (lotton MS. Tit, F, tt. On 8 May 
IfvIO ho WUH a commissioner to visit Oxlbr'd 
University, but howaH not in favour of rigo- 
TOUR measures against the catholics. When 
tho heresy commissions worts issued, ho dis- 
approved, telling Somerset that to alter tlio 
state of a nation would take ton years' delibe- 
ration, lionet) ho gladly sot on in Juno to 
Brussels to try and persuade tho emperor to 
join with the foigliflh in an attack on France 
(cf. yTRYra, Memorials, u, i. 242-9), He 
was respected at the mnporor'a court ; but the 
tumultfl in England, upon which ho had a 
difficulty in placing a satisfactory construc- 
tion, prevented anything from being done. A 
curious conversation, in which he took part, 
in the course of the negotiations respecting 
the prerogative of tho French crown us com- 
pared with that of England or Germany, 
has bean preserved (tZ. p, 150). He advised 
a firmer course with the rebels than that 
which the Protector had taken, although his 
own brother was a leader in the western 
rising (cf. DTXON, ffist. of Church of JSnp- 
land, iii. 63-4). His negotiation with the 
emperor closed the same year, and he wrote 
a remarkable letter to Sir William Petre 
[q, v.] ('Alas, Mr. Secretary, we must not 
think that heaven is here, but that we live in 
a world 7 ) explaining his failure, 

Paget, as a friend of Somerset, Buffered a 
good deal for his sake. He remained with 
him during the revolution of October 1649, 
but none the lews he was in communication 
with the lords of the opposite party, and 
showed them how Somerset might be captured 
(ib iii* 158), On 3 Dec. 1549 he was created 
Baron Paget of Beaudesert, Staffordshire 



(Lordx Journals, i, ,1(55). John Burcher, 
writing to Bullinger, 12 I)ec. ]549, said he 
had been made president of Wales (8 /Mrich 
Lettm, p. G(U); he also gained the Lon- 
don house of the bishop of Exeter, and 
other lands besides, but ceased to be comp- 
troller. In January 15-10-50 he had a com- 
mission to treat with the king of France. H e 
waw a witness against Gardiner in Decem- 
ber, and Gardiner reproached him with having 
' neglected honour, faith, and honesty,' and 
with having 'shown, himself of ingrato "malice, 
desirous to hinder his former teacher and 
tutor, his former master and benefactor, to 
whom he owed his first advancement.' In 
May 1551 he was appointed one of tho lords- 
lieutenant for Slailordshire and Middlesex, 

Paget had incurred the haired of War- 
wick, who feared him, and the party op- 
posed to Somerset hoped to ruin Paget and 
tho Protector together. I to was arrested 
and committed to the Fleet on 2 1 Get, 1 551 
on a charge of conspiring against Warwick's 
life, but waa removed to the Tower on H Nov. 
Tho charge was absurd, Tho murder was 
to have boon carried out at Pagnt/s house. 
But Paget had taken the part of the council 
against Somerset in many things; ho hud 
ralmlced him for courting popularity, and he 
knew his weakness far too well to join in any 
such adventure with him, This probably 
every one recognised. Action was conse- 
quently taken against Pagot on another 
ground. He had resigned his comptrollor- 
nhip when made a peer, but had kopt his 
other appointments, lie was now degraded 
from the order of the Garter, on 22 April 
1/352, on tho ground of insufficient birth, 
really in order that he might make room for 
Lord Guilford Dudley. His accounts as chan- 
cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster were in- 
quired into, and he was found to have made 
large profits at the expense of the crown. On 
16 June 1552 he was charged with his offences 
before the court of Star-chamber, and con- 
fessed, as he had already done before tho 
council. It seems that he had sold timber 
for his own profit, and taken lines on renew- 
ing and granting leases. He was fined 6,000/., 
and all his lands and goods were placed at the 
king's disposal; Sir John Gates succeeded 
him in the chancellorship of the duchy, and 
the other courtiers hoped for a share In the 
spoils. John Ponet [q. v,] wrote tauntingly 
afterwards : ' But what at length becorameth 
of our practising P. P He is committed to 
ward, his Garter with shame pulled from his 
legge, his Bobe from his backe, his Coat 
Armour pulled downe, spurned out of Wind- 
sor Church, trod underfoot,' &c, ( Treatise of 
Politique Power, ed, 1642, p, 64), But Paget 



Paget 



Paget 



was able to extricate himself from his cliiH 
culties. Pie had been ordered to go down hit 
Staffordshire, but, urging his own health am 
that of his wife, was allowed to stay in London 
from June till Michaelmas 1562, In Be 
cember a pardon was granted to him for al 
excepting crown debts, and he was allowec 
to compound for his fine. In April 1558 * 
part of the amount still due from him wn 
remitted, and he was again received intc 
favour. 

At the death of Edward he joined Queen 
Jane's council. He signed the letter to Lore; 
JRich on 19 July 1553, exhorting him to b< 
firm in her cause ; but he probably acted under 
compulsion, as on 20 June he sanctioned the 
proclamation of Queen Mary in London, am 
with Arundel set off to bring her thither, lit 
conducted Northumberland from Cam bridge 
to the Tower, became one of Mary's privy 
council, took, with his wifo, a prominent 
part in the coronation, and was restored to 
the Garter on 27 Sept. 1/553, Ho was com- 
missioned to treat as to the queen's marriage 
in March 15 53-4-, and was entrusted with 
large discretionary powers. Ho resisted 
Wyatt, and Strype seems right 
ing that at heart he was a Roman catholic 
(cf. DIXON, Hist,, of the Church of England, 
iv, 162). He would not, however, agree to 
either the bill which made it treason 
arms against the queen's husband or that 
directed against heretics, nor would he 
to exclude Elizabeth from tho succession, as 
Gardiner suggested ; ho thereby, for a timo, 
incurred the ill-will of the quoon and of Gar- 
diner, and it was proposed to imprison him. 
The fact probably was that ho was of tole- 
rant disposition, and, although ho afterwards 
showed some inclination to accept the per- 
secuting policy (cf. ib, p. 171) and fiat on 
a heresy commission in January 1554-5, ho 
argued for very gentle measures of repres- 
sion. In August 1554 the high steward- 
ship of Cambridge University, which had 
been taken from him at Mary's accession, 
was restored to him, He, Sir Edward 
Hastings, and Sir Edward Cecil went to 
Brussels in November 1554 to conduct Car- 
dinal Pole to London on his mission of rt- 
conciliation, 

With Philip, Paget was in high favour, 
and, after _ Gardiner's death in November 
1555, Philip strongly urged Mary to appoint 
him chancellor in Gardiner's place, But 
Mary refused, on the ground that he was a 
layman, and Heath succeeded to the oMce 
^see MA.EY I]. Paget, however, waft made 
lord privy seal on 29 Jan, 1655-6, In 
being at Brussels with King Philip, 
to have planned the seizure of Sir J< 



, he is said 
ohn Chake 



[q. v.] and Sir Peter Carow, which 
in Cheke/s recantation (seo STUYPH, <7/Wiv, 
p. 108, who relies on Ponot j but cf. DIXON", 
iv. 609), Ho formed one of an embassy 
to France in JM\y lofiO. Anno of Cloves, at 
her death on 17 \Tuly 15o7, loft him u ring'. 
At Elizabeth's accession, according toOoopor, 
he desired to continue in oilier, but he. had 
retired from tho council in November IfioH, 
and ho ceased to bo lord privy seal in favour 
of Sir Nicholas Bacon at the beginning of 
tho now reign. Ho certainly gave Klizuhoth 
advico on one or two occasions, Pagot died 
on 9 June l./50tt at- West Drayton House, 
Middlesex, and was buried at West Dray ton. 
A monument was erected to hi memory in 
Lichfiold Cathedral A portrait by Holbein 
was in 1890 in tho possession of the Duke of 
Manchester, and has boon several tinms en- 
graved. His commonplace hook was said 
to be, in IB 18, in the possession of Lord BOH- 
ton, Pagot was a man of ability without- 
much character, Ho wan eiiroful of bis os- 
tato ; Richard Ooxo j q, v/| complained 1 o hint 
of tho general rapacity of tho courtiers with 
some reason, though he may nnt have been 
worse than tho other court iors of Kd ward VI, 
Tu Henry 1 VII TH timo ho had many grant* 
'cf. Dvp.-ltwppnifPuhli AVwcAs 1 , App. ii. I Ot h 
kep, p. 247) and bought olwreh lands {cf, 
TANNHU). The chief grant, hn soeunul was 
"hat of Hoandosorti In Sl.uHhrd.Mhm', which 
lias since boon tho chief seat of tho familv 
which he (bunded. He married Anno, dangln 
;er and heiress of Henry Fronton, who came of 
a Westmoreland family, and by hor loft four 
sons. Henry, tho eldent, was nmdo a knight 
of tho Bath at Mary's coronation * uwmod 
lathering daughter of Hir Henry Knovm, of 
:5udkonluwn, Norfolk, and had 'a (laughter 
Wssaboth, who died ;young* Ho succeeded 
ns father, and, dying in 1/WH, was succeeded 
jy his brother thomas, third baron Paget 
q, v.] _ Charles, the third sun of tho iirst 
iaron, is also sepamtely noticed, 

( Strypo's Works, punnim ; I Hxn*M Hist,, of Urn 
Jhurch of Kngl, i, lfi/5, &(.; Pnrkor Sw, J'ubl. 

t^rtractiHiii trough's Indnx); (Jcmm'r'MAtlnMiH* 
"antubr. i, 22^1 j Htutw PaprH, ilwiry VII 1; 
eta of tho Privy Council, vol. vii. t ami ml Un- 
out, 1542fi8 ; LotttTH and Papnm, Hnry VtU ; 
lalvSlato Papow, For, Sor. ir>J7*.f>;i; NicolawVt 
'rivy .Purfja KXJHUIHUH of LVinct'HM Mary, p 2^4 ; 
it, Jtemwntf of Ktlward VI fUoxb, C!b), ppl 
:xvin, <fec,; fltaiftirdshire Collations, 71. ii, H, 
:, 1001, xii* 194; Ttamntft Yt.uf4 pp. 
2-8; Shaw's SfraHhrflKhir, p, 21 2 j 8?mnin*H 

iothnca Btaffi)rdimiM, p. 842; Narrative 
f the Haformntion, p, 130, Machyn 1 * Diary* p. 
0, &e,, Sorrier of Lord Groy of Wilton, p. 
Chron, of QUAAII Jan and Qu^au Mapy, pp. 
7,&o., Trmlyaa Papen, ii, U, TrouWw cun- 



Paget 



Paget 



nected with the Prayer Book of 1549, pp. 54 
&e., all in tho Camden Soc, ; Ty tier's Edw, VI 
i. '2-U; Lloyd's State Worthies, p. 01) ; Burke'i 
Peerage, p. 37 ; Gontloman' Mug. 1818, i. 119 
Froudo'8 Hint, of EngL v. 2, &c,, vi. 30, vii, 18 
Kc.] W. A, J. A, 

PAGET, WILLIAM, fourth BAKON 
VAOMT (157:2-1(529), born in 157:2, was son oJ 
Thomas, third baron Pagot 'q. v.], by Namret 
daughter of Sir John Now kin "of Barr'a 
Court, Somorjwt, and widow of Sir Thomas 
Southwell of Norfolk, He was a staunch 
proteHtant, In 1587 ho matriculated at Ox- 
ford as a mwnbor of Ohriflt (Church, ami 
graduated BA. on^/5 Feb. lf>89 -SK) ( FOSTER 
Mumni Own. 1500 17 M, ui. 1107), Ho 
was with Ksaox at tho talcing- of Cadiz in 
1590, being then a knight, and on $$ July 
1597 a portion of ^tho lands forfeited by hifl 
fathnr'H attaimlm' in 1/180 was granted to him 
in fo farm (LVHOITH, Middle w Pnrish 
p, 34; 6W. AYflfr ,/tyww, Dom. 1505 7, p. 
408), Tn 1598 he wan in atl'wulanoo on Sir 
Kobwt (Veil whon ambassador at Pam, and 
afterwards travelled into Italy (ih. I 98- 
1 001, p, 48), James I restored him to his 
lands and honours (ih. 1603-10, p. iJ2), and 
from 1(H)5 to 10:28 ho waa summoned to par- 
liamtmt as Baron Paget, In May Kt'8, 
during- the debate in tho lords on Weston's 
cluustf in tho petition of right which had 
boon rqjttetod by tho commons, Buckingham 
proposed by way of concession to change tho 
words ' sovereign power 7 into ' prerogative/ 
an amendment winch puzzled tho house. 
Paget, in a speech of some length, suggested 
that the judges should be asked their opinion 
(QAJUHNKB, Hut. ofl2ngrland,vi. 281). lie died 
at, his house in "Westminster on 29 Aug. 1629, 
and waa buried in the church of West Dray- 
ton, Middlesex (will registered in P. C, G* 110, 
Barrington). A curious account of the dis- 
section of his body i$ in Rawlineon MS, C. 
402, art. 12 (Cat. Codd. MS8, Mbl J&odl., 
Rawl MS,, pars V. faac. ii, p. 853), In 1602 
he married Lettice, daughter and coheiress 
of Henry Knollys of Kingsbury, Warwick- 
shire (Cat. State Papers,' Dom. 1601-8, p, 
248), by whom he had three sons : William, 
fifth baron Paget, who is separately noticed, 
and Henry and Thomas, who both died un- 
married. Of four daxighters, Anne, the 
youngest, married, first, Sir Simon Harcourt 
of Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire ; and, se- 
condly, Sir William Waller, general of the 
parliament's forces. In 1643 Lady Paget 
was assessed at 600, but, as she had pre- 
viously lent the parliament 200/., she was 
discharged of her assessment on 25 July 
( Cal. of Committee for Advance of Money, 
p, 193; Commons' Journals j ill 181), 



[Collins's Peerage, ed, 1812, v, 187; Nichols's 
Progresses of James I, ] G. G, 

PAGET, SIB WILLIAM, fifth BABOW 
PAGET (1609-1678), born in 1609, was eldest 
son of William, fourth baron Paget [q . v.] lie 
was made KJft. at the coronation of Charles I 
on2Feb,162r) (MKTOALFK, Book of Knights,^ 
180J,and on 18 Dec, 1627 matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, but did not graduate 
(FOBTEE, Alumni O.ron, UXXM714, iii, 107). 
In 1 (539 Ins was summoned to parliament. On 
tho quoation of procodwiey of supply being 
moved in tho llouaoof Lovely, 24 April 1640, 
he voted against the king 1 (Lords' Journals, 
iv. 67), and on 18 Aug 1 , 'following he was 
among the poors who petitioned the king-, 
then at York, t<^ summon a parliament for 
the rodrass of ^riwvuncwflfNALaoN 1 , Collection, 
x.437). On Fob, 1648 hLs father-in-law! 
Lord Holland, appointed him keeper of New 
Lodge Walk in Windsor Forest ( Cul Skate 
PftppM, Dom, 1641- ii, p. 279). The same year 
lie was constituted by tho parliament lord 
lieutenant of Bucldnpfhamalure (WHITE- 
TJOOKM, Mwnarialti, p. ^5(5), and on 23 May 
addressed a lottor to Lord Holland from 
Beuconsfield/ .shewing the ^reat readinesae of 
that county to obey the ordinanee of tho par- 
liament touching 1 the militia,' When, how- 
ever ho found that the parliament actually 
nirtant to have rocourflo to arms, he joinecl 
the king- at York, and stated his reasons in 
a letter road to the House of Commons on 
20 Juno, He was accordingly discharged from 
his lieutenancy on 24 Junto (Commons' Jour- 
nals, ii. 635, 638)* Pag-et's two letters were 
printed in broadsheet form, On 2$ June he 
undertook to maintain thirty horse for the 
king (Qal State Papers, Bom. 1641-3, pp, 
340-4), but he eventually raised a regiment, 
which did good service at the battle of 
Edgehill on 23 Oct. (SATODEBBOST, Life of 
Charles 1, p, 584). He was one of the lords 
who at Oxford, on 27 Jan. 1643-4, signed a 
declaration, by the king's command, of the 
most probable meana to settle the peace of 
the kingdom (RU&TTVVORTH, Hist, Coll.pt, iii. 
Tol, ii. p. 566), He had his estate seques- 
;ered, ancl was obliged to compound for it 
)y purchasing- fee-farm rents of 750/. upon 
t (cf. his petition in Cal. State Papers, Bom. 
L660-1, p. 334). In 1644 he was assessed at 
2,0()OZ,, but the assessment was respited 
until further order (Cal. of Comm, for Ad- 
vance of Money, p. 476). On 28 Nov. 1644 
the House of Commons accepted 5QO. in 
discharge of part of his fine, and ordered the 
sequestration to be taken off upon payment 
of 500, more (Commons' Journals, iii! 707). 
At the Bestoration Paget and his wife xm- 
successfully petitioned the kingfor grants and 



Paget 



6 4 



Paget 



in Old Palace Yard, West- ! against* his will, Pag-et consented to stay. He 
buried at West Drayton. | finally quitted tho Turkish court at Adria- 
bo Lady Frances Rich (d. noplohiMay 1702, laden with presents; and, 



sinecures to make good their losses (Eg. MS, 
&549, f. 102). He died intestate on 19_0ct, 
1678, at his house 
minster, and was 

By his marriage to ,, 

1672), eldest daughter of Henry, earl oi Hol- 
land, he had three sons and seven daughters, 
His eldest son and successor, William, sixth 
baron Paget (1637-1713), is separately 
noticed. His funeral sermon was preached by 
John Hey nes, ' preacher of the New Church, 
"Westminster, 5 and published in 1078. 

Evans (Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 11. 
807) mentions a quarto drawing of Pagvt in 
colours. 

[Oollins's Peerage, 1812, v. 187-9; Claren- 
don's History, ed. Macray ; Cul, of Comm. for 
Compounding; Gal. State Papers, Dom. 1(M4 
1645 pp. 160, 513, 1655 p, 592, 1060-7 ; York- 
shire Archaeolog. and Topogr. Journal, vii. 71, 
74*, 76.] & & 



asking that Pa#et might not bo recalled us ho 
urgently deairnd (#. iv. 4(M, 49L'), Much 



PAG-ET, WILLIAM, sixth BATNW P 
(1637-1713), born on IGFob. 1037, waaoldost 
son of William, fifth baron Paget [q. v,] In 
1656 he was allowed to travel abroad ( Cal, 
State Papers, Dom, l()55-6, p, 577). Ho took 
his seat in the House of Lords on 2 ft Nov. 1 ()78 ? 
and in 1681 signed tho petition against the par- 
liament being held at Oxford, IIo was prewent; 
at the trial of Edward Fitaharris [q. v,'| in 
1681 (LtTTTEBLL, Brief Historical Melttthm, 
i. 95), and at that of tho seven hishops on 
29 June 1688, In November KtfW ho wtiw a 
witness in favour of Algernon Sidnoy (ib t i. 
290), and in February 108-1 was a witness for 
John Hampden the younger [q, v.l (if). \. IWH). 
On the landing- of tlio I'rmeo of Orunpfu ho 
was one of the peers who potitionod tho king* 
to call a ' free parliament, ITo Huhsoquenitly 
voted for the vacancy of the throno, and for 
settling the crown on tho Prince and Princess 
of Orange. On their accession ho was, in 
March 1688-9, constituted lord limitcmant 
of Staffordshire (ib. i. 518), and in tho fol- 
lowing September was appointed ambassador 
at Vienna (ib, i. 578), ,U*e remained th<sw, 
with the exception of a brief viait to Kn^lmtd 
in the summer of 16t)2, till 'February KM8, 
when, being appointed ambassador-extraor- 
dinary to Turkey, he travelled through 
Hungary and the Turkish territories to Con- 
stantinople (ib, vols. ii, and ii.) By hifl pru 
dent negotiations the treaty of poacu between 
the imperialists, the Poles, and the Turkw 
was signed at Carlowitz on S36 Jan. 1(590; 
and, soon after, the peace between Muscovy, 
the State of Venice, and the Turks, He made 
himself so popular in Turkey that the sultan 
and grand vbier wrote to William III in 
March, thanking him for his mediation, and 



reaching Vienna in July, Mta\< k d thoro till to- 
wards tho mid of Novmnbrr, to adjust n, dis- 
pute botwoon tho (iniporor mid I!H> grand 
seignior concerning thf* limits of thir n j sp<nv 
tive territories in tlio province of Honnia. 
Having MtMwl t.ht^ inatt or, he hml aii<lit>nnn)f 
leave of th (Mptror and tinpn',MH, who guvo 
him Heveml rich gifts, and wtnt in Diu-cmbor 
to tho court of lluvaria to oilrr Mngln<rs 



the cmporor (//;. v, "S^2], Ho 
arrived in London in April 170'S (ib* v, ^H7>, 
and ]3reHon1e(l Quren Anne with twelve tiiu* 
Turkish hows, which t.he graiul seignior hud 
givon him (//A v.-'WH). On XM June he \y 
rouppointod lord lietittntHnt of StaflordHlure, 
Tn January 170H l*ng>t. WIIM mvain gaxettetl 
ambiiNHador (vv'traordinnry to the emperor, in 
order to compose Home fresh tiitteivtiee.H IK*- 
tween him and fhe I*t)rfr(/^, v.Til-), lie died 
at liis houm in Blonmnhury Stjtuin*, Ltnulon, 
on H Feb. 1713, nntl WHM huri^tl in th^ 
churcli of St, (Ult'Min-tii^-KittlH, Hi* tuar- 
ri(d I'Yances (c/, IT-UM, tlun^hter of I'VimrK 
yonn^iM' son of KNiherl I'jerri'jtont, eitrl of 
Kin^Hton, by svlwm he hnd !MMUI two MIMS 
Williatu, wiio (lied tnunnrried in bin iuther'?H 
liletinu^; and Henry, his HwnvM.sur, <r*ntini 
Karl of Uxhr*ul^i\ who IM nutieetl '"jtfinitely, 

Pn^i^t'H (JeHpiitehi^Miuul lotted, H5SU 1700, 
aro in Additional MM, HMHOj liin iiwtriu'tinn.** 
a amlwNHJidor to Turkey, HJl^arr in K|jj i r- 
ton MS. U18, which also contains lot tern and 
papers from him to Lord Hhr*\vs)iurv, Sir 
K, Southwell, ud otluTH, dutrd IfV.Kl I, 
OopioH of IUH credentials untl instrnetiunM,, 
dated K)i' ami IWrt, will be i\nuul iu A<1 
ditioiuil MS8. ^S!);jihm4l*H!M*J, An nmmnt 
of his oxtniordinHry expenses in Ttirlov iVonn 
KIIK! until 1HII5 w*m AU<iitionnl MS, ij^^Ji, 
f, K), He nnnntuined u correspundence with 
Sir W, I). Colt in HJ1K) \, pr(Herved in Ad- 
ditional MS, HOi)5; and mhlre^rtla letter 
(Addit, MS, 21fifil, f, H} to Ue*;yo S(i*|H 
neVf his toiMtJorary successor ut Vienna, i 
1701. 

Caret's portrait, a half-length minintuns 
dated HR55, belongs t<> l^iHutcntutUtttilonet 
Leopold l*ng( k h, 

lpollm* Poflm^fl, 1812, v, 1M-9J; will 
re^interudin P. 0, C\ 00, l^imlw; LuttreH'H Hrii'f 
Historical Kfllntion, ii, 4H5, 491), 1527, 5/52, Afirt, 
iii. 7, 189, 470, iv, 20H, 4AO, 7l, v, A2, HO, 210, 
218; Cat, of Firwf KxhiWtion of Nationul l*ur* 
traita at South Kensington (ISM), p, 148,1 

a. a, 



Pagit 6 

PAGIT or P AGITT, EPHRAIM (1575 ?- 
1647), heresiogra^her, son of Eusebius Pagit 

El-v.J, was born in Northamptonshire, pro- 
ably at Lamport, about 1575. He matricu- 
lated from Christ Church, Oxford, on 25 May 
1593, being eighteen years old. There is no 
evidence of his graduation, but he is said to 
have been a great linguist, writing fifteen or 
sixteen languages, On 19 Aug. 1601 he was 
admitted to the rectory of St. Edmund the 
King, Lombard Street. In May 1638 he wrote 
a series of letters addressed to Cyril Lucaris, 
patriarch of Constantinople, and other 
patriarchs of the Greek church, commending 
to their notice his own i Christianographie/ 
the translation of the English prayer-book 
into Greek by Elias Petley, and Laud's con- 
ference with Fisher. 

On the outbreak of the civil war Paget 
was silenced, and retired to Deptford, Kent. 
He was always a strong royalist, and in 
favour of the prayer-book ; yet he took the 
covenant, and in 1645 he joined in a peti- 
tion to parliament for the establishment of 
presby terianism, probably as a preferable al- 
ternative to independency. His standard 
of doctrine he finds in the articles of l our 
mother/ the church of England. He died 
at Deptford in April 1647, and was buried in 
the churchyard. He married the widow of 
Sir Stephen Bord of Sussex. 

His accounts of sectaries are valuable, as 
he makes it a rule to give authorities ; and 
they take a wide range, since he treats 
every deflection from Calvinism as heresy, 
and every approach to independency as fac- 
tion. 

He published: 1. 'Christianographie; or, 
a Description of the sundrie Sorts of Chris- 
tians in the World,' &c., 1635, 4to ; many 
reprints ; best edition, 1640, fol. 2. * Here- 
siography ; or a description of the Hereticks 
and Sectaries of these latter times/ c., 
1645, 4to ; two editions same year ; many 
reprints ; sixth and best edition, 1662, 8vo. 
3. 'The Mystical Wolf,' c., 1645, 4to 
(sermon on Matt. vii. 15 ; reissued with new 
title-page, ' The Tryall of Trueth,' &c.) His 
nine letters to the patriarchs of Constanti- 
nople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Mos- 
cow, and of the Maronites, also to Prince 
Jtadziwil of Poland and John Tolnai of 
Transylvania, are in Harl. MS. 825. All 
are duplicated in Greek and Latin j two are 
also in English, and one in Syriac. 

[Wood's Athena Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 210 sq.; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 174; 
Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, iii. 62 sq. ; 
the Lamport registers do not begin till 1587, 
those of Oimdle in 1625 ; Pagitt's works,] 

A, G. 

VOfc, XLIII, 



> . Pagit 

PAGIT, EUSEBIUS (1551 P-1617), 
puritan divine, was born at Cranford, North- 
amptonshire, about 1551. At twelve years 
of age he entered Christ Church, Oxford, as 
a chorister. According to his son's account, 
given to Fuller, ' he brake his right arme 
with carrying the pax; 7 the litib was per- 
manently disabled, and he was in the habit 
of signing himself * lame Eusebius Pagit.' 
He was afterwards student of Christ Church, 
and stood high in philosophy, being { com- 
monly called the golden sophister.' Though 
he is said to have taken no degree, Cole 
is doubtless right in identifying him with 
the Eusebiua Paget who matriculated at 
Christ's College, Cambridge, on 22 Feb. 1563- 
1564, and commenced B,A. in 1567. He is 
said to have been vicar of Oundle, North- 
amptonshire, but this seems incorrect. In 
1571 he was suspended from preaching for 
not subscribing the articles, and at this time 
he had no benefice. On 21 April 1572 he 
was preferred to the rectory of Lamport, 
Northamptonshire. On 29 Jan. 1574 he was 
cited before Edmund Scambler [q. v.], then 
bishop of Peterborough, for nonconformity, 
was ^uspended, and shortly afterwards was 
deprived. He subscribed Cartwright's book 
of discipline (1574), and with John Oxen- 
bridge, B.D., was arrested and taken to 
London by order from Archbishop Grind al, 
for taking a leading part in the presbyterian 
associations of Northamptonshire and "War- 
wickshire. 

Subsequently he was presented to the 
rectory of Kilkhampton, Cornwall. He told 
the patron and the bishop (probably John 
Walton, elected 2 July 1579) that he could 
not conform in all points, and was admitted 
and inducted on this understanding. His 
attitude was peaceable and his ministry 
laborious and popular. In March 1584 he 
was brought up before his ordinary and en- 
joined to an exact conformity. Towards 
the end of 1584 articles of accusation, 
founded on his preaching, were exhibited 
against him before the high commission by 
Farmer, curate of Barnstaple, Devonshire. 
He appeared before the commission, pre- 
sided over by Archbishop Whitgift, on 
11 Jan, 1585. The articles were dropped, 
and he was charged with refusing to use the 
prayer-book and to observe the ceremonies. 
In his written defence he admitted his obli- 
gation to use the prayer-book authorised by 
the Uniformity Act of 1559 (this was Ed- 
ward VI's second prayer-book), and denied 
that lie had ever refused to do so. He 
allowed that he had not exactly followed 
that book, but ^leaded that there was no 
copy of it provided for his church; that 



Pagit 



Pain 



greater liberty in varying from the statu- 
tory form than he had taken was used by 
Whitgift. himself, by his own bishop (Wal- 
ton), and by other bishops and clorgy ; that 
his conscience would not allow him to 
follow the prescribed forma in every parti- 
cular, and that his bishop had promised to 
refrain (as he legally might) from urging 
him to do eo. lie claimed a conference with 
his bishop or some other to be appointed by 
the commission, relying apparently on the 
'quieting and appeasing' clause in tho pro- 
face to the prayer-book, lie was imme- 
diately suspended. On his preaching, with- 
out stipend, after suspension (though it 
appears that he had tho queen's pardon, and 
had obtained a release from AVlutgift, but 
not from the commission) he was deprived 
for ignoring the suspension, disusing tho 
surplice and the cross in baptism, and omit- 
ting parts of the prayers. Counnt)l*s opinion 
adverse to the legality of the deprivation 
was brought forward without effect, and the 
living wus filled up, 

l*agit now set up a school ; but tho high 
commission required him to take out a 
license and subscribe the articles, This ho 
scrupled at- On ft June 1591 ho uddroHnwt 
an appeal to Sir John Hawkins or II'awkyuH 
[q. v.J, who had previously stood IUH friend, 
asking his intercession with KlixubdJi. Ho 
stated that he abhorred schism, and had 
novev boon present iu any 'sopanito assembly/ 
"but had always adhered to and communi- 
cated in his parish church. JNoal says ho 
remained silenced till the death of Whit- 
gift (~ J 9 Fob, 1604). On i>l Sept. HJIH ho 
obtained tho rectory of St. Anno and St 
Agnes, Aldersgato Streot, London, which ho 
held till his death. He died in May or 
June 161.7, and was buried in his uhurdt, 
His son it)phvaim is poparatoly noticed. His 
name is spelled Pagit and Pagett ; thw fovmor 
seems to be his own spelling, 

He published : 1 * * A Gotllio and Fruitofull 
Sermon , , . upon , . . what Provision ought 
to be made for tho Mynistor/ &c, [ IfiHOH, 
8vo, 1588, 8vo (on tithes), & 'Tho His* 
tone of tho Bible, briefly collected, by way 
of Question and Answer,' &o., Mitt, 1-mo 
(often reprinted and tmnslut.tul into l^rouoh 
and German). & * A ( lodly Sermon , . 
at Detforel,' Bvo, 158(5, Itinw. 4, ' A ( W,- 
chism/ 1591, Bvo. His 'Latin OutHcluHm* 
is mentioned by Hnylyn, * Acrinw Rodivivus/ 
1070, p. 850. He translated Calvin's har- 
mony of the first three gospels with his com- 
mentary on St. John, * A Harmon ig vpon 
Matthew, Mark/ &c., lf>84, 4 to. 

[Fuller's Worthies of England, 1002, u, 
290 sq. ,- Wood's Athene Oxou, (Bliss), 1L 20-1 H<^; 



NowconrtVi Import. I'M. 370S t i. U78; Srrypr's 
Whit gift, 1718, iv, 377, and appendix ; l?niip'nV 
NoHliiimpUmshiro, 17!U, ii. Utt.iiUi); Hr-xik'n 
Liven of tho Purituiw, 181!1, ii. !2f);iq,; NVo.ru 
Hurt, of tho ruritnrw, LS22, i, ,'i.VlNq.; Ctit ( \4 
manuscript Athonu? CantJihr.i Ilarl. MS(S, S1,'{, 
if. H aq, ; Mt)i % rk*(^ MiumscriptH, l^intan Con- 
trovorwy, IK I ill) sq. (also oopiml ut iK 2(il q., 
niul in StuMiul Pjirt uf a Hifi,sfor t fV, 570 sq,) t 
all in Or. WilliaiuN'-M Library; Douse uu<l t\mr(. 
noy'H IHlil, Oornub, | A. <J. 

PAGULA, WILLIAM (i/. L'^OP), thoo- 
Ionian, whuwt 1 tinino is nisog'ivi*!! an Pu^hum, 
Pa^hnnor, and Pn^luinorus, Iitut a grcnl. n- 
pulution among' lu.s rontomt>orari*M for pioty 
and erudition. After havui^ ubt-uinoti hin 
do^rooH In ounon nnd civil law and in 
theology, ho hroaiuo vioar of fhn rliurch tt* 
AV'inkiioM, mntr Windsor (IlfcJO), vvhoro \w 
dovntotl hi.s itiao to Htudy iuui \\Htinjtf, U* 
wrotii; L *Suunna Hunuuannu tit* jur rn- 
nonico paritor at^ divitm/ Hl, v. *'( H'tduin 
Hacordotindoxti'itm, 1 HK t. i, * ( hMihtm Nncrr- 
doti Hirikstrtuu/ ntlloii ulso * I)?* 
autMrdotum'{r.f* MS t in Huilinl < 1 
ibrdt C*tMi(x HO, with tn\ futiHtii 
'Oiliuiu th'uli HUtMTtlotis/ vvhti'fi frratM of 
confos.sion, a))snlutioii t aiul tlu* Min'hiot* uf 
tlii^nuiMM), L 'Sjnruluw lii*lijiu^>nu,' 
lib, 1 M dinliontod to Kdward fl I, Ahuwn'ri|it, 
oopioH ol* his \vrit in^H HIT to bi' fouitd in th* 
colloj'o lilirancM at ('HuibriiUi^ ami (Kfonl, 
at Lumlotli,nntl iu oilier onibrtlml librartf^ 
but nono uf \\wrn noom to buvi b*i*n print IM!, 

110 diod about. 1*150, and wan burioU in IUM 
clutivh, 

Wnltor HarriHj, in hin tlitioti of Wai'*M 
* Works* (i, M<),4MmfuM(>M I'n^tibt \vtili Wil- 
liam <lt* l*inl (<}. v, I, bishiipof MtMith. Abvjv, 

111 bin * History oi tin* ( 'urtnc'lilis,* ntri'i'ullv 

i'H bolwiM'ii {}u* t\vu, Oiulin Hfok'.s 
'n^ulawith Waitt-r l*nrltiT((tnnU 
tonm Puivlioro), la whnm i'ii.H nnt-nbi's tbo 
HUIIIO works n to J'ag'ttla, but to whutn Jm 
g'lvt'H a soparnlo uoiictMn liis npp'{Mli\ No, 
10, PilH HtatoM that bfOutH bt-on uiutbb to 

liino in whivb l'nfkr \\vnl, 
IMtH, Dt^ Ulwrtr, Augliji' Scnptt, p. 47*1 ; IAt 
'itiH, Uibl, Lat.iu,, v, 1HI ; Omlw, l)n 
'ltH, iti, Hj57; Witr<, JM Hwjrt, 
Walt IT IIuhriM; Fnriuii^iH IVrtuohti* 1 ! 
a Alt^ro do UtwuiHt^ Lvotin, until Tji 
HiUU Hrit-nik p,67H; Nut4i aiut QuruH, Hf,h 
r, vi it, 20a] J, <|, j|\ 

PAIN. [Hut* aim) PA INK ami PAY.VH,] 

PAIN, JAM IIS (I77DF ]K77) t tin* 
un^r, urcbiti'Ct mid ImiliW, WHH HUM ^t* 
Puin, u>l gntndHun ul' William Pain 
'q.v,'| Burn nbtuit 177i* nt Inl^woilb in 
waattppreutiml with u 



Pain 



67 



Paine 



brother,GBOKGB_RiOHAitDPAiN(1798P-1838), 
who was born in London about 1793, to John 
Nash [q. v.], architect, and subsequently the 
two brothers entered into business together 
as architects and builders. George exhibited 
at the Royal Academy designs in the Gothic 
style in 1810-14, while living at 1 Diana 
Place, Fitzroy Square. About 1817, when 
Nash designed Loughcooter Castle, co. Gal- 
way, for Charles Vereker, viscount Gort, he 
recommended the brothers as builders. They 
consequently went to Ireland. James settled 
at Limerick and George at Cork. While 
practising as architects ' they often carried 
their own designs into execution. James 
was appointed architect to the board of first- 
fruits lor the province of Minister, where a 
large number of churches and glebe-houses 
were built, altered, or repaired by him and 
his brother. Their churches of Buttevant, 
Midleton, and Carrigaline, with a tower and 
spire, are among the best specimens of the 
Gothic architecture of the period. The man- 
sion, Mifcchelstown Castle, near Cork, for 
the Earl of Kingston, is the largest and per- 
haps the beat of their designs ; it is in the late 
thirteenth-century 'style. An engraving ap- 
pears in. Nealo's 'Seats of Noblemen and 
Gentlemen/ 4to, 1825, 2nd ser, vol. ii. 

Others of their works were the gaols at 
Limerick and Cork ; Bael'a, Ball's, or Bawl's 
bridge, consisting of one arch, over the 
abbey stream at Limerick (1S31); Thomond 
bridge, over the river .Shannon at Limerick, 
between 1830 and 1843; and Athlunkard 
bridge, about a mile distant, consisting of 
five large elliptic arches. 

George died in 1838, aged 45, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Mary, Shan- 
don, co. Waterford. James retired, and died 
in Limerick on 13 Dec. 1877, in his ninety- 
eighth year, and was buried at the cathedral 
of that city, 

[Noalo (as above); local information; Dic- 
tionary of Architecture of the Architectural 
Publication Society, which adds the names of 
many other buildings.] W. P-H. 

PAIN, WILLIAM (1730P-1790P), writer 
on architecture and joinery, published a 
series of practical treatises. The earliest 
was ' The Builder's Companion and Work- 
man's General Assistant,' 92 _ plates, fol, 
1759, chiefly dealing with work in the Chip- 
pendale style. This was followed by ' The 
Builder's Pocket Treasure ; or, Palladio de- 
lineated and explained/ 44 plates, 8vo, 1763 ; 
and compilations of the same description ap- 
peared in 1774, 1780, and 1782. < The British 
Palladio; or, Builder's General Assistant,' 
&e. 7 42 plates, 'fol, 1785, was reissued in 1793, 



1797, and 1804. The date 1770, usually 
assigned to Pain's death, is obviously too 
early. A William Paine died in the Isle of 
Thanet on 27 July 1771 (Gent. Mag. 1771, 
p. 378), but the architectural writer must 
have died after 1790. < W. Pain/ of 1 Diana 
Place, Fitzroy Square, who .exhibited at the 
Royal Academy designs in the Gothic style 
in 1802 and 1807, was possibly a son. 

Another son, James, a builder and sur- 
veyor, assisted his father in his latest pub- 
lication, and left at least four sons, three of 
whom (Henry, James [q, v.], and George 
Richard) were pupils of the architect John 
Nash. 

[Dictionary of Architecture ; Catalogue of 
Royal Academy.] W. P-H. 

PAINE, [See also PAIK and PAYNE,] 

PAINE or PAYNE, JAMES (1725- 
1789), architect, born in 1725, is said to 
have become a student in the St. Martin's 
Lane Academy, where he attained the power 
of drawing the figure and ornament with 
success (Diet, of Arch.) He states that he 
began as a youth the study of architecture 
under Thomas Jersey (d. 1751), and at the 
age of nineteen was entrusted with the con- 
struction of Nostell Priory in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire for Sir Rowland Winne, 
bart., * after a design seen by his client during 
his travels on the continent 7 (NEAXE, Seats, 
vol. iv. ; WOOLFE and GANDON, Vitruviw Bri- 
tannicus, fol., London, 1767/vol. i, pi. 57-63, or 
pi. 70-3). About 1740 he erected two wings 
at Ous worth. House, Yorkshire, for William 
Wrightson (NEALE, Seats, vol. v,; WOOLFB, 
i. pi. 89-92), and he refers to 'several gentle- 
men's buildings in Yorkshire' as executed 
prior to 1744, when he was employed to design 
and build (as was then the practice with, 
architects) the mansion-house at Doncaster. 
This was completed in 1748 ; and he published 
a description, with twenty-one plates (fol., 
London, 1751). 

Paine was, until 1772, a director of the* 
Society of Artists of Great Britain, and nu- 
merous designs by him appear in the 'society's 
1 Catalogues ' from 1761 onwards. But the 
fullest account of his work appears in his 
' Plans, &c., of Noblemen and Gentlemen's 
Residences executed in various Counties, and 
also of stabling, bridges, public and private 
temples, and other garden buildings. The 
first volume or part was issued in 1767, the 
second part in 1783, together with a second 
edition of the first, and the book contained 
altogether 175 fine plates. Among the plans 
are the stabling and some bridges at Chats- 
worth for the Duke of Devonshire (1758- 

3T2 



Paine 



68 



Paine 



1763); Oowick Hall, Yorkshire, for Viscount 
Downe; Gosforth, Northumberland, for Oh. 
Brandling, esq. ; Melbourne (now known as 
Dover) House, Whitehall, for Sir M. Feather- 
stonhaugh,bart. ; Belford, Northumberland, 
for Abraham Dixon, esq. ; Serlby, Notting- 
hamshire, for Viscount Galway; Stockeld 
Park, Yorkshire, for William Middleton, es(j, ; 
Lumley Castle at Sandbeck, Yorkshire, lor 
the Earl of Scarborough (WATTS, Seats of 
the Nobility, #c., 1779-90, pi. x.) ; ByweH, 
Northumberland, for William Feuwiek, esq. ; 
" " **" "" Ola- 



Axwell Park, Durham, for Sir Thomas 




Lord Petre(NHAXT3, 2nd scr. vol.ii,; WIUQHT, 
Essex, vol. ii.; WATTS, pi. .17); Wardour 
Castle, Wiltshire, 'lor Henry, eighth lord 
Arundel (NflAua, vol. Hi,; Builder for 1858, 
xvi. 548); Stapleton Park, Yorkshire, for 
Edward Lascelles, esq., afterwards JOarl of 
Harewood (NKALE, vol. iv.); Brocket; Hall, 
Hertfordshire, for Sir Matthew Lamb, atler- 
wards Lord Melbourne (ih. i^nd HIT. vol. v.); 
Hare Hall, near Komford, Essex, for J. A, 
Wallenger, esq, (WiwmT, /&w.r, vol. it.; 
NEALU, vol. i.) ; Shrubland Hall, Sullblk ; 
and other smaller works. In London ho de- 
signed Lord Petre's house in Park Lane; Dr. 
Heborden's house, and another for the lion. 
Thomas Fitzmaurico, both in Pall JM all. 1 1 i 
work also included bridges at Richmond and 
at Chilling-ton, Staffordshire, bowicles Hcvenil 
ceilings and * chimneypioeos/ one being for 
Sir Joshua lleynohls, P.R.A., in Leicontor 
Square, two at Melbourne House, ^and 
another in Park Lane. These were of IUH 
own peculiar design and execution ('Lettern 
of Sir W, Chambers, .1769,' in Journal of 
Royal Institute of llritixh ArcbitwtA, 
p, 4). The bridges of Chertaoy ( 
Surrey, ii. 281), Walton, and Kew 
3rai, Itrentford, p. 168) were built in 1 7H3 
from his designs, and at tho flame tim 
Salisbury Street in tho Strand was laid out 
by him. 

His plans are well arranged and commo- 
dious, and the buildings soundly constructed ; 
but some of the designs are meagro imita- 
tions of the Italian school. (3 wilt, in IUH 
memoir of Sir William Chambers (6'w/7 
Architecture, 1825, p. xltx), remarks that 
'Paine and Sir Kpbert Taylor divided the 
practice of the profession between them until 
Ilobert Adam entered the Hat, and distin- 
guished himself by tho superiority of his 
taste in the nicer and more delicate parti 
of decoration,' 

Paine held the appointment under the 
king's board of works of clerk of the works 



(or resident archit net) at iron wich II ospit ul , 
mcl held alikopost afterwards at Richmond 
>Jew Park and Newmarket. Finally He wan 
attached to the hoard of works as * architect 
to the king,' hut was displaced in 17H V 2, very 
soon after his appointment ;, by Burko's Ko- 
;brm liill, without gratuity or pension, l\\ 
1771 Paino waa elected president of tho So- 
jioty of Artists of Ureat Uritaiu, * Chambers 
Liid* Paine, who wore leading members in tho 
jociety, being both architects, wero equally 
dosirous that tho funds should l)o laid out m 
iho docoration of Homo oditieo adapttul to tho 
objects of the institution. Thin occasioned 
much debate*, acrimony, and rivalry among 
their rospoctivo partisans' J(*AI/I\ Itift f 
Wrtf) ii. ilo). At length Pnino dosignod for 
the society tho aeadomy or oxhihii ion rtxims, 
noar Kxotor Uhango, Stmnd, and on L'-l July 
1771 laid tho first stono (Aunuttt tttyixtpr). 
r Pho exhibition in tho now huildiwgH wan 



by K. Lloyd, with music by \V Htuik, \VHH> 
recited (j(Iv{n in i/t. p< iJiMiV '^ huiUlin^ 
n aftorwunlrt Huhl f ami in 17iH) WUH 
co)ivert<Ml in<o tho LyoiMim ThoHtn*. Iix 
17(H Pni no \VUH living in a. HpnriottM luus tu 
Hi, JMarMn'rt Lani% which Ho Hud Iitiilt for 
himself; ho remavod in 17(1(5 to Salisbury 
, and about 1785 to A<ldloslojuMvrSiyo.H 
, iu*ar (thortsoy^ to whioH ho IK Haiti ti> 
have made additionniu tho KliEulnMhanHfyl* 1 ; 
there ho is ntutod to huvo lonnoil a itno ool- 
lootiou <tf drawiugn, In !7HH ho was hiifh 
rijr for Sum*,y, and in the romjinHHtoii of 
the poac^ for KHHOX, Middlosox, ami Surr*y, 
tSonu^ moutliH M'owiinK IUH doath ho rotir**l 
to Frawo, nuu <1U1 tHoro about- November 
7HO, iu t)io wont^-third yoar of hi^ it^o (M. 
1780, p, iiJW), A'HOH JIUUOM in Hopanttoly 
uuHi. Of h 



.,. , hm two duughUMPH, tht* vouugor 

was marrkd a.ft,orl777 to Tilly Kttm|^ v,J 
the painter. 

At tho South Remington MttHHim thorn 
are two volumes of drawhigH, ouo baving 
twenty-thrw oxamulos of roHotti*H, &c, f and 
this otlior having forty-four oxumnlon of omu* 
nionts, vaBi k s, mirror-fnutios, vSsc,, both of 
which may bo attrthutod to Paino, 

Thorois it stipplod portrait, of Puino dated 
179H ; a similar plato t>y P* Fnloomtt t on- 
graved in 17(15) by 1), P. Parisot; a sinall 
ono by P. llaymaii, ongravod bvdOrignam, 
prefixed to IUH publication of iVftl* Thoro m 
also tho brilliant picture of IVim* and his son 
James by Sir Joshua Reynolds, pnmttKi in 
Juno 17U4. Thia i now in tho thnvormry 
gallery at Oxford, tli son having boquoathed 
it to tno Bodleian Library* It was ongmvod 
in 17(U by J Watson, and sliows a w^roll 
iuacribed * GhiirUtr uf tho fcjoebty of ArtistHj' 



Paine 



Paine 



but this was only granted 26 Jan. 1765 (PrE, 
Patronage, 1845, pp. 116, 136). 

[Dictionary of Architecture ; Gent. Mag. 1 789, 
ii. 1153; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Catalogues 
of the .Society of Artists of Great Britain and 
of the .Royal Academy of Arts ; Pye's Patronage 
of British Art, 8vo, 1845; Literary Panorama, 
1807-8, iii. 809, 1013, 1226.] W. P-H. 

PAINE, JAMES (d. 1829 ?), architect, 
only son of James Paine the elder [q. v.], 
was instructed at the St. Martin's Lane 
Academy, and exhibited * stained drawings ' 
at the Spring Gardens exhibitions of 1761, 
1764, and 1790. He then appears to have 
travelled in Italy. On his return he sent to 
the exhibitions of the Royal Academy of 
Arts architectural drawings in 1781, 1788, 
and in 1788 an ' Intended Bridge across 
Lough Foyle at Berry.' In 1791 he was one 
of the original fifteen members of the 'Archi- 
tects' Club' (MULVANY, Life of Gandon f 
1847). 

His father, by his will dated February 
1786, probably left bis son independent,, 
which may account for his name not being 
found in later * Catalogues ' of the Royal 
Academy. In the library at the South Kenr 
sington Museum is a large volume with 
* J. Paine, jun. Archt. Rome, 1774,'' on the 
outside, containing fifty-seven drawings of 
studies at Home, all signed by him, being 
plans of four palaces, views at Albano and 
Tivoli, measured drawings of the Fomte 
Rotto, and a number of statues with their 
measurements. In. 1788 he had residences 
in both North End, Hammersmith, and 
Salisbury Street. On 12 March 1830 Mr. 
Christie sold the pictures, a few casts, books 
of architecture, &c., 'the property of J. 
Paine, Esq., Architect (deceased).' Among 
them were the account and other books by 
Nicholas Stone, sen. [q. v.],and his son, Henry 
Stone [q. v."], formerly belonging to Vertue 
(quoted in w AXPOLB s Anecdotes), and now 
preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum. His 
portrait was included with his father's in 
the picture painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
in 1764, 

[Dictionary of Architecture ; Sale Catalogue 
in Sir John Soane's Museum.] W. P-H. 

PAINE, THOMAS (1737-1809), author 
of the ' Bights of Man/ born 29 Jan. 1736- 
1737 at Thetford, Norfolk, was the son of 
Joseph Paine, by his wife Frances (Oocke). 
The father was a freeman of Thetford, a 
ataymaker, and a small farmer. He was a 
member of the Society of Friends, who had 
a small meeting-house at Thetford. The 
mother belonged to the church of England; 
and though the register, which is defective 



at the time of Paine's birth, does not record 
his baptism, his sister was baptised in 1738, 
and Paine was himself subsequently con- 
firmed. Paine's father was registered as a 
quaker at his death, and the son, as he often 
avows, was much influenced by quaker prin- 
ciples. He was sent to the grammar school, 
but did not learn Latin, on account, he says, 
of the objections of the quakers to the Latin 
books used at school. He showed mathe- 
matical ability, and 'rather repressed than 
encouraged ' a turn for poetry. At the age of 
thirteen Paine was put to his father's busi- 
ness. The usher at the school had told him 
stories of life at sea, and Paine tells us in his 
' Rights of Man' (pt. ii. ch. v.) that he joined a 
privateer when 'little more than sixteen. 7 He 
entered on board the Terrible, commanded by 
Captain Death, but was brought back by his 
father's remonstrances. He afterwards, how- 
ever, went to sea in the King of Prussia. War 
with France was dec jfored 28 May 1756, and the 
Terrible was taken m action 28 Dec. Paine 
must therefore have been nineteen at the time 
of these adventures, He soon returned to stay- 
making. He worked for two years in Lon- 
don, and 1 <^at this period or in 1766-7) showed 
his scientific taste by buying a pair of globes 
and attending the lectures of the self-taught 
men of science, Benjamin Martin (jq. v.] and 
James Ferguson (17*10-1776) [q. v!j He also 
became known to the astronomer John Bevis 
[q. r.] In 1758 he moved to Dover, and in 
April 1759 set up as a staymaker at Sand- 
wich. On 17 Sept. 1769 he married Mary 
Lambert. His business was unsuccessful, 
and he moved to Margate, where his wife 
died in 1760. 

Paine now managed to obtain an ap- 
pointment in the excise. He returned to 
Thetford in July 1761, where he was a super- 
numerary officer. In December 1762 he was 
sent to Grantham, and in August 1764 to 
Alford. His salary was 50Z. a year, on which 
he had to keep a horse. On 27 Aug. 1765 
he was discharged for neglect of duty by 
entering in his books examinations which 
had not been actually made. On 3 July 
1766 he wrote an apologetic letter to the 
board of excise begging to be restored, and 
on 4 July it was ordered that he should be 
restored ' on a proper vacancy.' Meanwhile 
he worked for a time as a staymaker at Diss 
in Norfolk. He was then employed as usher, 
first by a Mr. Noble in Goodman's Fields, and 
afterwards by a Mr. Gardiner at Kensington. 
Oldys, a hostile biographer, reports that he 
preached about this time in Moorfields, and 
that he made some applications for ordination, 
in the church of England. He was appointed 
excise officer at Grampound, Cornwall ou 



Paine 



15 May 1767, but asked leave to wait, for 
another vacancy, and on 19 Feb. 17(>8 was 
appointed to Lewes in Sussex. "He lodged 
with a quaker tobacconist named Samuel 
Ollive ; here he became the friend of Thomas 
* Clio ' Rickman [q. v.], afterwards his bio- 
grapher, Kickman describes him as a strong 
whig-, and a member of a club which met at. 
the White Hart. Pamo WIKS an eager and 
obstinate debater, and wrote humorous and 
political poems; one upon the death of Wolfe 
became popular, and was published by him in 
his magazine at Philadelphia. On LH> Atnrc.lv 
1771 he married Elizabeth, daughter of his 
landlord, Ollive, who had died in ,1 7(55). M rs. 
Paine and her mother, who had carried on the 
tobacco bxisiness, opened a grocer's shop with 
Paine's help. In 177^ the excisemen \vero 
agitating for a rise in their salaries; they 
collected money, and employed Paine to 
draw up a statement of tluur grievances, and 
to agitate in London. Pour thousand copies 
of Paine's tract were printed, lie distri- 
buted them to members of parliament and 
others, and sent one, with a letter asking 1 for 
a personal interview, to Goldsmith. Tho 
agitation failed, and soon afterwards (ft April 
1774) he was dismissed from the exei.se, 
Oldys says that he had dealt; in Ninng^led 
tobacco, but the official document (given 
in CONWAY, i. 20) states simply that, ho 
had left his business without leave, and 
gone olF on account of debts. Jlis shavo in 
the agitation would not tend to roeommond 
him to the board, alt-hough, according to 
Oldys, one of the commissioners, G, ,U 
Scott, had been pleased by his manners, and 
tried to protect him, Jl'is debts were dis- 
charged by the sale of his goods, but a peti- 
tion for replacement in his ollicc WUH disre- 
garded. 

On 4 Juno ]774 a deed of separation was 
signed by Paine and his wife, IVwo de- 
clined to explain the cause of this trouble, 
when Rickman upoko to him, and it remahw 
unknown. lUckman declares, however, that. 
Paine always spoke tenderly of his wile, and 
sent her money without letting lior know 
whence it came. A letter published by OldyH 
from his mother to his wife, and dated 
'27 July 1774, speaks bitterly of lm ' micluti- 
fiu" behaviour to his parents, and of his 
'secreting BQl, entrusted to him ' by tlio ex- 
cisemen, The letter was produced with a 
view to injuring Paine by Oldys, and is not 
beyond suspicion. It was published, how- 
ever, when Paine might havo challenged it* 
Oldys says that the mother was ececnt ric and 
of ' sour temper,' and Paine, though wpeakbg 
affectionately of his father, never rciura to 
her. Paine's wafe, from whom the letter muat 



o Paine 

have come, survived till I SOS j and it is staled 
in a deed of 1800 that she did nut Know 
whether her husband was alive or dead 

(( 1 ONWAV, i, 4 W). 

Paine wont to London, 0. L. Scott, ac- 
cording to Oldys, introduced him to Frank- 
lin, to whom ho might, also have become 
known through his scientific friends, Krunk- 
lin gave him a letter, dated '!() Sept, 1 77 I, to 
Ba(iho(Franklin\sHnn-iii-la\v) describing him 
as an ' ingenious, wort by young man,' and 
suggesting that ho might, bo helped to em- 
ployment, as clerk, surveyor, or usher, Pnino 
reached America on .'JO Nov. 177I, and ob- 
tained many friends at Philadelphia through 
Franklin's introduction, lie, became c.ott- 
iioet t d "with Robert Ait kin, a bookseller in 
Philadelphia, who was anxious to start a 
magaxhio. The first number of this, tlw 

* Pennsylvania Magazine or American Mu- 
tfomu,' appeared at tho end of January 177*X 
Paine contributed from the first, and noon 
afterwards became, edit or, with a salary ol'AO/, 
a year, JJo \vroto art teles nl tacking slavery 

' and complaining of the inferior portion of 
women, and others showing It is republican 
tendencies. lie mnde nrijwu'ntnnco with 
Dr. Hush (set* KushVi loiter in (*IIKI;TH\M, p, 
I !2l ) t who had already written against shivery* 
j Ivnsh clniniM to hnxo .sugifest ed PaineYi tiovt. 
p(M*roriuance ( Tho Hrwt. blood of the Ame- 
rican war was shod in the .skirmish at Lex- 
ington (19 April iV7"), nd Palm* resnlvrd 
to express the wmtimont, whieh hnd bm^ 
boon growing up, though hitherto not, 
avowed, in favour of indeijemletteo of the 
colonies, IVuio had already hpnii*n out in 
it h*t t<*r t.o the * PenUKvlvmiUi Jotirnal f * siii'iried 

* Jluimmiw* (IH Och, 1775). in tho Hiu 
mouth Franklin bud Hiij^t"stetl that bn 
nhould prepare a history ot* tht* tvttnMactiotts 
which had led to the tvnV, Piuno WIIH already 
at* work upon a pamphlet, which hi* nhmveil 
to lluwh and a few fViendH, Bell, a HcHtiinh 
bookseller, ventured to print it, other puli- 
lishers having d<*clinod ; and it appeared H 
i Common HOUM T on 10 Jan. 177<i Krioudg 
and o.neniie.H agree in jiHcribing to it nn tui 

' etrec.t;. In a letter dated H April 



btum sold lie lixml the price HO low that lm 
wan finally in dttbt to the publtMher, Thopam- 
nhltjt wafl anonymous, and wan atJImt attri- 
buted to Franklin, John Adams, and others, 
though tha atithorHhip w<w noon Imowiu A 
controversy followed in th i IVniiMy 
Journal/ in which Faino, undor tlw 



, 

'Oato/ tlw Kov. "William Smith, tory preni- 
dent of the university (f Hnljidelphin. 
Pamo thus bccamo famous, lly wa^ k^owa 



Paine 



Paine 



to Jefferson, and is supposed by Mr. Conway 
to have written the suppressed clause against 
the slave trade in the declaration of inde- 
pendence, He resigned his magazine, and 
joined the provincial army in the autumn of 
1776. After a short service under llober- 
deau, he was appointed in September a volun- 
teer aide-de-camp to General Nathaniel 
Greene, then at Fort Lee on the Hudson. 
In November the fort was surprised, and 
Paine was in the retreat to Newark (his 
journal is printed in Almon's ' Remem- 
brancer ,'1777, p, 28). At Newark Paine began 
writing his ' Crisis,' It appeared, 19 Dec., 
in the * Pennsylvania Journal,' and began 
with the often-quoted words, ' These are the 
times that try men's souls.' It was road at 
every corporal's guard in the army, and re- 
ceived with enthusiasm. (In the London 
edition of Panic's ' Political Works/ 1819, a 
paper with which Paine had nothing to do 
as erroneously printed before this as the first 
< Crisis,') 

On L 2l Jan, 1777 Paine was appointed 
, secretary to a commission sent by congress 
to treat with the Indiana at Eastern, Pennsyl- 
vania ; and on 17 April he was made secre- 
tary to tho committee of foreign affairs. On 
20 "Sept. Philadelphia was 'occupied by the 
British forces, ana congress had to seek re- 
ftigo elsewhere. On 10 Get, Paine was re- 
quested to undertake the transmission of 
intelligence between congress and Washing- 
ton's army. A letter to Franklin of 16 May 
1778 (given in COFWAY, i. 102-13) describes 
his motions at this time. Paine, after send- 
ing oil" liia papers, was present at several 
military operations, and distinguished him- 
self by carrying a message in an open boat 
under 1 a cannonade from the British fleet. 
He divided his time between Washington's 
headquarter at Valley For^e and York, 
where the congress was sitting. He- pub- 
lished eight 'Crises' during 1777 and 1778. 
The British army evacuated Philadelphia in 
June 1778, and Paine returned thither with 
the congress. The ' Crises/ vigorously written 
to keep up the spirits of the Americans, 
had additional authority from his official posi- 
tion. 

In January 1779 Paine got into trouble. 
The French government had adopted the 
scheme suggested by Beaumarchais for sup- 
plying funds to the insurgents under cover 
of an ostensible commercial transaction, 
The precise details are matter of contro- 
versy. The American commissioners, Silas 
Deane, Franklin, and Arthur Lee, had written 
from Paris stating that no repayment would 
bo required for tho sum advanced. Bea 
marchais, however, sent an agent to congress 



demanding payment of his bill ; and Deane 
was thereupon recalled to America to give 
explanations. Deane was suspected of com- 
plicity with Beaumarchais, and made an un- 
satisfactory statement to congress. He pub- 
lished a paper, appealing to the people, and 
taking credit for having obtained supplies. 
Paine, who had seen the official despatches, 
replied in the ' Pennsylvania Packet ' of 
15 Dec. 1779, declaring (truly) that the 
matter had been in train before Deane was 
sent to France, and in a later letter inti- 
m ated that the supplies were sent gratuitously 
by the French government, This was to reveal 
the secret which the French, although now 
the open allies of the Americans, desired to 
conceal. The French minister, Gerard, there- 
fore appealed to congress, who were bound 
to confirm his statement that the alliance had 
not been preceded by a gratuitous supply. 

Paine, ordered to appear before congress, 
was only permitted to say ' Yes ' in answer 
to the question whether lie was the author 
of letters signed ' Common Sense.' He 
offered his resignation (6 Jan. 1779), and 
applied for leave to justify himself. He 
desired to prove that 'Deane was a ' rascal/ 
and had a private 'unwarrantable connec- 
tion ' with members of the house. The let- 
ters were suppressed j and though a motion 
for dismissing him was not carried, the 
states being equally divided, he resigned his 
post. G6rard, according to his despatches 
(CoNWAY, L 184), fearing that Paine would 
' seek to avenge himself with his charac- 
teristic impetuosity and impudence/ offered 
to pay him one thousand dollars yearly to 
defend the French alliance in the press. 
Paine, he adds, accepted the offer, and began 
his functions. Afterwards, however, Paine's 
work proved unsatisfactory, and Gerard en- 
gaged other writers. Paine stated in the 
following autumn tliat G6rard had made 
him such an offer, but that lie had at once 
declined to accept anything but the minister's 
'esteem 1 (see Fame's letter to Pennsyl- 
vania, Packetj reprinted in ALMON'S Re- 
membrancer for 1779, p. 293, c.) Paine'a 
conduct in the affair was apparently quite 
honourable, though certainly very indiscreet. 
Deane was dishonest, and Paine was de- 
nouncing a job* The revelation was not in- 
consistent with the oath which he had taken 
to disclose nothing * which he shall be 
directed to keep secret j ' _but it showed a 
very insufficient appreciation of the differ- 
ence between the duty of a journalist and of 
a public official. Discretion was never one 
of Paine's qualities. 

Paine, who liad published his c Crises, 7 like 
his 'Common Sense/ at prices too low to be 



Paine 



remunerative, was now in difficulties. His 
salary, which had been only seventy dollars 
a month, had hitherto supported him, and 
he was now obliged to become a clerk in the 
office of Owen Biddle. He appealed to the 
executive council of Pennsylvania to help 
him towards a proposed collection of hit* 
works, He asked for a loan of 1,5001. for a 
year, when he would be able to propose a 
publication by subscription. The council 
asked Gerard whether he would be offended 
by their employing Paine, He replied in 
the negative, though making some com- 
plaints of Paine's conduct, On 2 Nov. 1779 
the Pennsylvania assembly appointed Paine 
their clerk, and in that capacity he wrote a 
preamble to the act for the abolition of 
slavery in the state, which was parsed on 
1 March 1780. He published three more 
'Crises' in the course of this year. On 
4 July the university of Pennsylvania gave 
him the degree of M.A. The financial posi- 
tion of the insurgents was becoming' almost 
desperate, and Washington addrowwd a let- 
ter to the assembly, speaking of the danger- 
ous state of feeling in the army. Paino had 
to read it, and he suggested next day a 
voluntary subscription. Ho drew IUK own 
salary, amounting to 1,()99/, ]*, 6d, nnd 
started the subscription with a sum of five 
hundred dollars, Mr, Oonway (i. KJ7) givou 
accounts according to which Vnints received 
over 6,500/, between November 1770 and 
June 1780 ; but the currency was eo depre- 
ciated that the true value cannot be in- 
ferred, and pounds seem to be confused with 
dollars. A subscription was rained of 4()(M. 
'hard money' and 101,800 'continental* 
At a meeting held soon afterwards it; was 
decided to abandon this plan and form a 
bank, which was of service in the autumn, 
and led in the next spring to the constitu- 
tion by Robert Morris of the Bank of North 
America. Paine published at the <\m\ of the 
year a pamphlet called < PublicOood ' in oppo- 
sition to the claims of Virginia to the north* 
western territory. After the war a motion 
in the Virginian legislature to reward Paine 
for his services was lost on account of thia 
performance. 

Paine resigned his position as dork at 
the end of the year, stating his intention to 
devote hiraselt to a history of the revolu- 
tion, He had also ^ a scheme for going to 
England, where he imagined he could open 
the eyes of his countrymen to the folly of 
continuing the struggle by a pamphlet as 
effective as 'Common Sense '(see lutter to 
Greene in COHWAY, i. 109, and note in Rigfttt 
of Man, pt. ii, chap, v.) Congress now re- 
eolved to make an application to the Breach 



2 Paine 

government, for a loan, and entrusted the 
mission to Colonel Laurens, an aide-de-camp 
of \Vasbington. Lauren* took Paine as bus 
secretary, Paine intending 1 to wake his expe- 
dition to Kngland aft er completing the busi- 
ness. They nailed from Host on in Kebmarv 
1781, and bad a favourable reception in 
France, Paine was persuaded to give up 
the English plan, nnd rot timed with Laurens 
in a French frigate, ranching Boston on 
iJf> Aug. 1781, with i}/)(K), 000 Hvrcs In 
silver, besides military stores. Sixteen ox 
teams were went with the money to Pbila~ 
dolpbia. Washington WHH meanwhile ad- 
vancing with Uoehamheau upon Yorktmvu, 
and the surrender of (Virnwallis ended tho 
campaign. He bwl to obtain a loan from 
Koefmmbenu, which was repaid from tho 
money brought by Lauren*. Paine refers 
to tins mission in bin published 'Letter to 
Washington,* 1790* In 180H be nuked a 
reward from congress, churning to have mndo 
tho original suggestion of applying for a 
loan, and stating that the advance upon 
Yorldtvwn was only made possible by tho 
money obtained (Letter printed in the Ap- 
pendix to Oin-JMTiiAM), American* wern 
probably capable of asking tor loans without; 
raine.*s suggestion. On tho virtual conclu- 
sion of the war t Paine appealed to Washing* 
ton for some recognition of his services, and 
stated that he thought of retiring to Fnuice 
or Holland. At tiw suggestion of Wash- 
ington, Robert Morris, nnd Livingston 
HO Feb. 17HU\ ft salary of eight hundred 
aollarN wan allowed to him front the, secret, 
se.rviee, money in order to enable him 1o 

this arrangement (< JON WAV, i, htf>), and 
wrote iJvo more Menses ' in 178;*. The htMt, 
appeared on 10 April 1783, the eighth nnni- 
voimry of Lexington. Paine took jmrt in 
a controversy excitedly the refuwtl of Rhode 
Island to join in imposing a cimtinental dti 

"with a view to the formation of a su, 
union* H was not proposed for the 
vtmtion elect e<i in 17H7 to frame the const H 
tion of tlm United States Paine had retired 
fco a small houfie at Hordentown, New *hnwv 
on tho oBt bunk of tho i)oiaw(ms and wtm 
devoting himsolf to nwehftmcal contrivances. 
In 1784 tht tat of New York pnmenteri to 
him the estato of New Itot'hotlt*, of about 
277 acttiB^ thft conflncfl-t^d proj^^rty of a 
loyalist, Washington wrot-fl lettera on bin 
behalf, Pennsylvania voted 5(MU, to him in 
December, and <jcmgre in Octobtr J7H5 
gave him thre thounand dollam, Puin*% ut 
the beginning of 1786, wrote hlii * IHwnrtn- 
* / mainly in dofonce of the Bank of 



Paine i 

North America. He was now, however, 
devoting himself to an invention for an iron 
bridge. He consulted Franklin, and his 
plans were considered by a committee of the 
Pennsylvania assembly, who were proposing 
n, bridge over the Schuylkill. At the end of 
March 1787 he wrote to Franklin that he 
intended to go to Europe with the model of 
his bridge, and was anxious to see his 
parents. He sailed in April, went to Paris, 
where he waw received as a distinguished 
guest, and laid his model before the academy 
of sciences. In August he reached London. 
His father, who had shortly before written 
an ailectionate letter to him (CONWAY, i. 
222), had died in 1786; but he went to 
Thetlbrcl, where his mother was still living, 
and made her an allowance of 9,s-, a week, 
She died in May 1790. Paine had brought 
to .London some papers, approved by Car- 
dinal de Brienne, in favour of friendly rela- 
tions between France and England, and 
presented it to Burke (Preface to Rights of 
Man), The real purpose of this overture is 
explained by a pamphlet called * Prospects 
on the Rubicon, which Paine published on 
hia arrival. The French were in close alliance 
with the Butch republican party ; but the 
Prussians intervened in the autumn to sup- 
port the stadtholder, who represented the 
opposite politics. Pitt made a secret treaty 
with the kin^ of Prussia, and was prepared 
to support him if necessary in a war with 
France. Paine's pamphlet is directed against 
Pitt's scheme, and insists chiefly upon the in- 
capacity of England to stand another French 
war* Do Brienne naturally wished to stimu- 
late the English opposition against Pitt's 
policy, which, however, succeeded, as the 
French, shrank from war. Paine thus became 
known to Burke, Fox, the Duke of Portland, 
and other whig politicians. He employed 
himself, however, chiefly upon his bridge, 
the construction of which was undertaken 
by Messrs. Walker of Rotherham, Yorkshire. 
It was brought to London and set up in 
June 1700 at Leasing (now Paddington) 
Green for exhibition. The failure of an 
American merchant, Whiteside, who had 
some interest in the speculation, caused 
Paine's arrest for debt, but he managed to 
pay; the mon ey . The bridge was finally broken 
up in 1791 (OI.DYS). The first attempt at an 
iron bridge was made, according to Mr. 
Smiles (Life of Telford), at Lyons in 1755, 
but- it failed. In 1779 the first iron bridge, 
constructed by Abraham Darby [q. v.], was 
opened at Ooalbrookdale. According to 
Mr. Smiles, the bridge over the Wear at 
Bunderland, opened in 1796, was constructed 
from the materials of Paine's bridge, and hi$ 



; Paine 

designs were adopted with some modifica- 
tion. The credit has also been given to 
Rowland Burdon, who actually executed the 
plan (see Emycl. Brit. 9th edit. art. * Iron 
Bridges '). It would seem that, in any case, 
Paine's scheme must have helped to suggest 
the^work. He wrote about other scientific 
projects to Jefferson, and had a strong taste 
tor mechanical inventions. But his attention 
was diverted to other interests. 

In the early part of 1790 Paine was in 
Paris, where he was entrusted by Lafayette 
with the key of the Bastille for transmission 
to Washington. In November appeared 
Burke's ' Reflexions on the Revolution,' and 
Paine immediately replied by the first part 
of the ' Rights of Man.' Johnson, the radical 
publisher, had undertaken it, but became 
frightened after a few copies had been issued 
with his name, and handed it over to Jordan. 
Paine went over to Paris, leaying his book 
to the care of Godwin, Holcroft, and Brand 
Holies. It appeared 13 March 1791, and 
succeeded rapidly, Paine, writing to Wash- 
ington on 2 July 1791, to whom the book 
was dedicated, says that he has sold over 
eleven thousand out of sixteen thousand 
copies printed. It was reprinted in America 
with a preface, stating that it was approved 
by 'the secretary of state' i.e. Jefferson. 
Jefferson and Mallison made some attempt 
to secure a place in the cabinet for Paine. 
The federalists disapproved. Washington re- 
plied diplomatically to Paine's letter, and 
' Publicola,' who was supposed to be John 
Adams, and was really his son, John Quincy 
Adams, attacked him in the * Columbian 
Sentinel.' 

Paine went to Paris directly after the pub- 
lication, and gave the work to Lanthenas for 
translation. He was present at the return 
of the king from the flight to Varennes on 
26 June, and was assailed by the crowd for 
not having a cockade in his hat. He was 
one of five who formed themselves into 
the SociSte* R6publicaine. Condorcet, and 

?robably Brissot, published a placard on 
July suggesting the abolition of monarchy, 
and started 'Le R6publicain,' a journal of 
which only one number appeared, containing 
a letter irom Paine. Paine returned to 
London, but abstained from attending a 
meeting to celebrate the fall of the Bas- 
tille for fear of compromising supporters. 
Another meeting was to be held on 4 Aug. 
to celebrate the abolition of feudal rights in 
France. The landlord of the Crown and 
Anchor closed his doors. A meeting was 
then held at the Thatched House tavern on 
( 20 Aug., and a manifesto, signed by Home 
! Tooke as chairman, and written by Paine, 



Paine 



74 



Paine 



was issued, expressing; sympathy with the 
French revolution and demanding reforms in 
England (see Itiyhts of Mmi, t A pp.) 

Paine lodged with his friend Kickman, a 
bookseller, and met many of the reformers: 
Lord Edward FitzGertild, Mary WollHtonc* 
craft, Sharp the engraver, llonmey, ' Walk- 
ing' Stewart, Home Toolve, and others, are 
mentioned by Rickman, Ho was toa.sted by 
the societies which were beginning to spring 
upj and beg'au the second part of the 'Ki^lits 
of Man.' His printer, Chapman, buoamo 
alarmed, and handed over the sheets which 
he had printed to Jordan. Paine also gavo 
a note to Jordan (dated 10 Fob, 109:2). In 
it Jordan was directed, if questioned by any 
one in authority, to give Panic's name us 
author and publisher. On 14 May Jordan 
received a summons,* ho pleaded guilty, and 
#ave up his papers (Addrcnn to AtMrMMN), 
Paine was summoned on SI, May. lie wroto 
to the attoruoy-ftonoral stating that ho was 
prepared to meet the case fully, and hud 
ordered his attorney to put in an appouwiuv. 
He appeared in court on 8 Juno, when, the. 
trial was postponed to December. Ho also 
published letters to Pandas (() June), to 
Lord Onslow (17 and iH Juno), who had 
fiiimmoned a county mooting 1 at JOpHom, anil 
to the sheriit'of Sussex (LK) June), who had 
summoned a meeting at Lowes. ,1 le Hpoko ut 
a meeting of the t friends of tho Pooplo' ou 
12 Sept. Ilia friends hoard that ho would 
be arrested for his speech, Tho next own- 
ing 1 he was at tho houflo of Johtuson,tho pub- 
lisher, when William JJlnko (Orr,ciuHT, L(fo 
of Blake, y, bJ) told him that ho would bo 
a dead man if he wont homo. 1 1 o si art ed at 
once with John Frost (17^0-18-1^) [q, v,], 
who took him by a circuitous route to 1 tovtsr, 
They were searched by the cuskom-houHo 
officer, upon whom Paine raado an imprea* 
eion by a letter from "Washington, and wore 
allowed to aail, twenty nmmtos boforo a 
warrant for Pained arrest arrived from Lon- 
don. 

The attorney-g-enoral, Archibald Mac- 
donald [q, v.], explained in the trial that he 
had not prosecuted the first part, beeauflo ho 
thought that it would only reach tho 'judi- 
cious reader.* The second had boon industri- 
ously, circulated in all shapes and sizes, <jvon 
as a wrapper for 'children's sweetmeats,' 
It was said, in fact, that two hundred thou- 
sand copies had been circulated by 1708 
(ImpartialMemoirs), The real reasons wore 
obvicpa, The respectable classes had taken 
alarm at the events in France, Tho old and 
new whigs had fallen out, and tho reforming 
societies were becoming numerous. The 
/Society for, Constitutional Information/ of , 



which Ilorno Tooko was tho leading- mem- 
ber, thank*' d Paine on (lit* appearance of each 
part of his book, Tho * Corresponding So- 
ciety/ formed at tho Inhuming of 17SL*, and 
afliliatod to tho ' CJonstit u< ional/ with nume- 
rous other woeiotic.M which now sprang up 
throughout tho country, joined in commend- 
ing L'aino'sbook.vmd oircnhtlod onpios in nil 
direct ionw. *Tho Kighl.s of Muu* WH tluiH 
juloptiul HH tht v mnnifosto of tlio party \vhicli 
sympathised wi(h (hi* {''vouch rov<ltition 
A It hough I hoy (lisnvi)\vod till intontioti,s of 
violence, tho govorning <*lnss'H Muspoctod 
them of Jacohinisni, nud a prosecution of 
Pino WUM inovitulilo, (TIn trials of Hardy 
and Homo Tooko in 17{H,roportod in SStalo 
'Friuls/ volw, SAhv-v., givo a full htsfory of 
tho.so Htx'iotios and t lioir relation \n Pnino> 
st>o also reports of Committee of Secrecy, 
1701, in ./Vr/> /lixt. x,\\i, Tol, ^o.') Pnino 
on ! July handed over I,OI)0/ M nnnh*jl by 
tho sale of tho ' Rights of Alan, to tho Con- 



Htitutiotml Society 
(hilpnutu luul tdlere*! him s 
AO()/ M ami l,0()0/, f for tho second jmrt nl, 
(liHe.re.tit. sfap;eHof (lie puhlicntiun {/A. \.\ii, 
UK'i), but Pisino preferreil to keep tin* botk 
in bin own hands, ft* was Mi^t,';e.sfetl (Cox*- 
\VAY, i, .'{J.O) that the tuoney WHS really to 
bo paid by government with n view to HUJH 
prosrtingtlio book. It iM t howevtM', highly iui- 
probable that, goveriunent would gtuu'atifeo 
to pay IniMh-immoy with so Hide hiuMirily 
for ponnanoiit- cilect. The trial took plan* 
ou IK Dec. 1791 1 , Paine wrote H letter from 
Pavift (jl Nov. 170^*) to the tittnrnoy*geuo* 
ml, nayiug that, lit* lm<l biisiue.ss of toi) much 
import unco to ho present, mtti caivtl ttothtu^ 
for the rt'Hult. Ho mgpNtiiI that the ujor- 
iu\y*^onoral and 'Mr. ({mlph* nji^ht tKn 
wurning from the (txntujjles mndo of similar 
jHU'floiuuu Francis Krskiiu% who tiefoiuled 
him, tried to treat, thin letter an a forgery, 
but convict-ion, if buforu doubtful, lnnm* 
now Inevitable, 

Sevtu'al proHOcutiona for pWihiff or otr* 
culating tho * Kightn of Man' foiii>wo<! in 
179% na tho alarm in Kn^Iandi bocuiws irtnro 
intjmao (()OKWAT, ii* ii?8 w*, fjlvon a lint), 
Pftino wtiB walcomml ^nthnuiHfiraily m 
Franco. On *M Aug. thu titlo of Fnsnr-h 
citia!(ju had l*ou eonfttrrttd upon him and 
othor ctilobritiim by tJu national aw^nibJv, 
On 6 Sopt, IHJ wna tjluctwl by tlm Pan <lo 
Calais n member of the convuntiim* Tho <li 
partm^nta of Owo and Puy (! I)f*hj aim* 
elected him. Paino was nnt by fftlutt'H aiul 
public addruBHtw, and on ]i) iScpt, roat;ho<l 
raria, Ha apiwarod that night at tlm u- 
tional uHHumbly* Fro^t report H woxt <!ay 
Trials, xxiv, 5^(1) tbat 1'ttUio way i** 



Paine 



Paine 



good spirits, though ( rather fatigued by the 
kissing,' On 3. 1 Sept, the abolition of royalty 
was decreed, and on 11 Oct. a committee waa 
appointed to Irani o a constitution, which in- 
cluded Inline. Brissot, another member, had 
already become known to him in America, 
The king's trial was now the absorbing ques- 
tion, Paine published several papers on tho 
subject, lie was unable to speak French, 
but gave in translations of his addresses, 
lie voted for the ' detention of Louis during 
the war, and his perpetual banishment after- 
wards.' He (suggested that the United States 
might be the * guard and the asylum of Louis 
Capet, and urged, on tine final vote for im- 
mediate execution, that the United States 
would be offended by the death of their 
benefactor, Paine's courage exposed him to 
the denunciations of Marat, but la's friends, 
the Girondists, were not yet crushed. Paino 
nsed his influence to obtain the release of a 
Captain Griraston, by whom ho had been 
struck at a restaurant ; and another instance 
of his interference on behalf of an arrested 
person is told by Landor, Tho constitution 
framed by the committee was ready during 
the winter, but postponed by the influence of 
tho. Jacobins, and, though adopted by tho con- 
vention In June, never came into operation, 
[Paine co-operated in forming it with Con- 
tlorcet, and was instructed to prepare, with 
Condoreot and others, an address to the people 
of England. Tho fall of the Girondins put 
an end to tin's and to Panic's influence, He 
luid been denounced by Marat for his attempt 
to save the king's life, and gave some evidence 
at Marat's trial in April. On 20 April, dur- 
ing tho crisis of tho struggle, ho wrote to 
Jelferaon expressing despondency, and saying 
that he meant to return to America when 
the constitution was settled. Paino, however, 
was not personally involved in the catastrophe 
which befell tho Girondists in June, Ho was 
greatly depressed, and for a time sought for 
consolation in brandy* He lodged in a house 
which had formerly belonged to Mme, de 
Pompadour, saw a few friends, and rarely 
visited tho convention. He now occupied 
himself in writing his * Ago of Beason,' Ho 
had just finished the first part when lie was 
arrested, 27 Dec, 1793. Mr, Con way main- 
tains that his arrest was caused by certain 
intrigues of tho American minister, Gouvor- 
neur Morris. Morris was hostile to the re- 
volution, and desired to break off the French 
alliance for the United States. Certain 
American ships had been detained at Bor- 
deaux, and when their captains appealed to 
Morns, ho was alow to interfere in such a 
way as to remove their grievance. They ap~ 
plied to Paine, who suggested a petition to 



congress, which succeeded. Morris thought 
that Paino was intriguing against him, and 
intimated to a French official his objections 
to an influence ' coming from the otlier side 
of the Channel.' Shortly afterwards Paine 
was denounced in the convention (3 Oct.), 
and in December it was decreed that 
t foreigners should be excluded from public 
functions during the war;' and Paine, thus 
excluded from the convention, was considered 
liable to arrest under a previous law as citi- 
zen of a country at war with France. 

Some Americans resident in Paris peti- 
tioned for Paine'a release, but received an 
evasive answer. Paine applied to Morris, 
who made, in consequence, a very formal and 
lukewarm remonstrance. Paine in vain re- 
(jucistsd a further i reclamation.' He remained 
in prison, and Robespierre made a memoran- 
dum for his trial {Letter to Washington). 
He seems to have been marked for execu- 
tion l\y tho committee of public safety, dur- 
ing th eir struggle with llobcapierre, and thinks 
that he owed his escape to a fever which made 
him unconscious for a month. He also says 
(Letter to Oiti.x<m# of the United States)*,}^, a 
chalk-mark placed against the door of his 
room as a signal for the guillotine escaped 
notice by an accident, After the death of 
liobeapierro, appeals were made to Merlin 
de Thionvillo by Lantlxenas, who had trans- 
lated the 'Age of .Reason;' and Paine him- 
self wrote to the committee of public safety 
and to the convention. Monroe had arrived 
in Paris as Morris's successor in August. 
Upon hearing of this, Paine sent him a me- 
morial, to which Monroe replied cordially j 
Monroe claimed Paine as a citizen of the 
United States, in a letter (S Nov. 1794) to 
the ' committee of general surety/ and Paino 
was immediately set free, after an imprison- 
ment of over ten months. He had employed 
part of the time in the composition of the 
second part of the ' Age of Reason/ 

Paine became the guest of Monroe, and was 
restored to the convention. On 3 Jan. 1795 
he was first on a list of persons recommended 
for pensions on account of literary services, 
He did not accept the offer. The convention 
declined to sanction a proposal from Monroe 
that Paine should be employed on a mission 
to America. He was still in bad health, 
but on 7 July was present at the convention, 
when the secretary read a speech of his pro- 
testing against the limitation of the franchise 
to direct taxpayers, This was also the sub- 
ject of Ms pamphlet on t The first Principles 
of Government,' published in July. Paino 
was naturally aggrieved by the neglect of 
the American government to interfere on 
hi& behalf. Ho wrote a reproachful letter to 



Paine 



Paine 



Washington (22 Feb. 1795), which he sup- 
pressed at Monroe's request. On 20 Sept 
te wrote another, calling upon Washington 
to clear himself from the charge of * treachery ; 
and, having received no answer to this, lu 
wrote and published a letter, dated 8 Aug. 
1796. It is a long and bitter attack upon 
"Washington's military career, as well as 
upon his policy as president. Paine'a very 
intelligible resentment at Morris's inaction 
is some palliation, though wot an adequate 
excuse. 

Paiue's ' Age of Reason ' had .strengthened 
the feeling against him in England, Th 
chief answers were : Gilbert Waken" eld's ' Ex- 
amination' (1794) and Bishop Watson's 
* Apology for the Bible' (1790). Thomas 
Williams was convicted for the publication 
in June 1797, when Paine published 
vigorous letter to Erakine, who wuw counsel 
for the prosecution, During the following 
years the publication of Paine's booka in 
England was a service of dnmgor, and by all 
the respectable writers he was treated as the 
typical f devil's advocate.' Paine remained at 
Paris till the peace of Amiens. He ntayod 
with Monroe for a year and a half. In 1H.U 
a sum of 1,118 dollars was paid to Monroe 
by act of congress for moneys paid to Puiiio 
or on his account. Afl or finishing tho second 
part of tho * Age of Keason/ Paino had & 
severe relapse in tho autumn of 1705, Karly 
in 1790 he went into tho country to recover 
his health, and in April published a pamphlet 
against the ' English System of Vinunct*,' 
Cobbett, who had fiercely attacked Paine*, aiscl 
in his earlier writings defended Washington 
against him, became the panegyrist of his old 
enemy upon long afterwards reading thia 
pamphlet, which expressed his own views of 
paper money. Paine was for a time the guest 
of Sir Bobert Smith, a banker in Paris, Lady 
Smith had made Paine's acquaintance juat 
before his arrest, and they carried on a com- 
plimentary correspondence. Monroe waa re- 
called at the end of! 700, and Paine, aftor pre- 
paring to return with him, was deterred by a 
prospect of British cruisers in the Channel 
He afterwards took xip his abode with Nicolas 
de Bonneville, a French journalist, who had 
translated some of Paine'fl workfl, and boon 
one of the^five members of his 'Kopublican 
Club.' Paine wrote a few papers, made sug- 
gestions to French ministers, and aubflcribod 
a hundred livres in 1798 towards a descent 
upon England. Napoleon, it is Raid, invited 
him to join, the expedition, and Paine hoped 
to proclaim liberty at Thetford under Na- 
poleon's wing. The hope of such a consum- 
mation recurred to him in 1804, when he 
published a pamphlet in America upon tho 



then expected invasion, Palmes philanthropy 
had auonehed any patriof.it; weakness, hi 
1707 ho established in Paris aycct of * Theo- 
philanlhropistH/ conni-sling of five families, 
and delivered an inaugural nddnw. Jt. wa 
supported l>y Lnrfn^lHcro-Lo'poiLux of flu* 
Directory, but waa wipproHHud in October 
1801. 

Jollei'Hoi*, now president of the United 
States, offered Paine a pnnsnge to America 
in a ship of war, Paine declined tho oiler, 
upon hearing a report that JoHorson hntl 
apologised for making it. He decided, how- 
ever, to vet-urn ; hi friend Sir Kobert Smith 
diodjiuut tho Bonnoville,s promised to follow 
him to America, He lumled at. Baltimore on 
ttO Oet J80& II is property hud risen in value, 
and was expect ed to produce t ()()/, a year, 
Some, of his iYiondn, mieh an Hush and Samuel 
Adams, had bocu alienated hy tin* * Age of 
Hejusoa,' H(^ Htayol t however, wit h .7e<fer* 
on, who consulted him nhout the Lommntiu 
jnnxmaHo and other political nlFairH, nixl 
publinhod variouH piunphlet^ and nrticlen in 
ilui follmvinff yearn, but without tiny marked 
dleot, lie went, to Honlentown early in iKOtt, 
jind, though wel(ornetl by IH.M own party, WHS 
hooted by an orthodox mob on a vtMit to New 
York HlmytlynftenviirdH, Mine, Honneviile, 
with toer thr^e chil*lrm renche<l America w 
tho autumn. Hh<^ we.ttled in PaineV luniw 
at. Hord<*nto\vn aHateacher of French, Kind- 
ing Bordentown dull, who followed I*nwe tr> 
Kfnv York in 1804, Her huMbuml wan under 
Burvwlknco in Fmuee, uad eoultl neither 
follow hwr nor ftmul her nioney, Paine }ml 
to pro TO that ho waw not legally r**(*ponHtih> 
for hor dt^bts. Ho, now rtmolvell to m i ttle nt 
Now UocheHo, whore Mme, Bounevtlle begun 
to keep ht)UHO for him, Hero, nt (ItriHtimw 
1804, ti nian named Oornck, who owed him 
mom\y,firwlagun into PninoVwinm, DomrJc 
ap}>oarfl to liavoboen drunk, and, although he, 
was arwHtocl, tho charge WUH not prcHnetl, 
]\Iui, Bmni(vill agdiu went to New Yurie 
to toach Prciifih. "i*aiue put her youuger 
childrmi to school in Nt^w Koehel'lo, and 
wont Juto ft lodging Ho found IUH incomo 
mulficitxt,and applied to Jeffernou to olttuin 
for him aomti reward for punt Ki*rvic(H from 
Virginia, lie spent tho winter IH05-H in 
Now York, in tho hotwo of William </arvor r 
whortilunoin<jd Klihu Palmer in a Meintic pro- 
paganda. Ho wroti^ for Jhihwr'n owan, * Tho 
Profipect/ PalmordwMlm IHOfl Pampgavoa 
part of hifl reply to Binhop Watwm to !*nlm<ir* 
widow, who publinhed it in tho'Theophilnn* 
opiHt' in 1H10, Another part, given to 
, BonnftviU,(!iHappflwd* Early in IH(HI 
Pitine returned to Now Kochello, ntul luul 
'.o soil the house at Bordoutown far 



Paine 



Paine 



hundred dollars. Paine was dejected by his 
unsatisfactory position, and his health was 
beginning to tail. Hia vote was rejected at 
New JLtochelltt, on tlus ground that ho was 
not an American citizen; and, in spite of 
his protests, ho failed to get; his claim recog- 
nised, Tie lot his farm at Now Eoehelle, 
and lodged with a painter named Jar vis in 
New York. In August 1800 he writes that 
he has bad a fit of apoplexy. Ilia last book, 
an * I3asay on Dreams, continuing 1 the argu- 
ment of the * Ago of IleaHon/ had boon 
written previously, and was published in 

1807, In the autumn, of that year he was 
much irritated by attacks in a New York 
paper, which led, in the next year, to a bitter 
controversy with James Glieetham, editor of 
the ' American Citizen,' Oheotham was an 
Englishman, and had been a disciple of 
Paine. Paiuo now attacked him for desert- 
ing Jefferson while still enjoying the govern- 
ment patronag'(\ Paine, in the beginning of 

1808, again applied to congress for Homo re- 
ward, lie, was anxious about money, lie 
lodged during ten months of 1808 with a 
baker named Hitt in New York, Ha after- 
wards went to a miserable lodging at 
(M Partition Street, and contracted to sell 
his farm at New Uoehella for ten thousand 
dollars, In July 1808 ho moved to a bettor 
house in Herring Street, near Mme, Bonne- 
ville. In January 1809 he made his will, 
leaving all his property to Mme. Bonneville 
and her children ; and in April moved to a 
house, now 59 Grove Street, where Mme, 
Bonnoville came to nurse him. He died there 
on 8 July 1809. 

Paine was more or leas 'ostracised' by 
society during his last stay in, America, 
Political and theological antipathies were 
strong, and Paine, as at once the assailant 
of Washington and the federalists and the 
author of tlxe ' Age of Keason/ was hated by 
one party, while the other was shy of claim- 
ing his support. It has also been said that 
his conduct was morally offensive, and 
charges against him have been accepted 
without due caution. His antagonist, Cheet- 
ham, made them prominent in a life published 
in 1809. He accused Paine of having se- 
duced Mme. Bonnevilie, of habitual drunken- 
ness, and of disgustingly filthy habits. The 
e-harges were supported by a letter to Paine 
from Carver, with whom Paine had lodged. 
Mme, Bonnevilie immediately sued Cheet- 
ham for slander. Oheetham made some at- 
tempt to support his case with the help of 
Carver, but Carver retracted the charge ; 
it completely broke down, and the jury at 
once found Cheetham guilty. Oheetham was 
sentenced to the modest fine of 150 dollars, 



The judge, said to be a federalist, observed in 
mitigation that his book t served the cause of 
religion/ It is very intelligible that Mme. 
Bonne vi lie's position should have suggested 
scandal, but all the evidence goes to show 
that it was groundless. Paine's innumerable 
enemies never accused him of sexual immo- 
rality, and in that respect his life seems to 
have been blameless. The special charges of 
drunkenness made by Oheetham and Carver 
are discredited by this proof of their charac- 
ter ; Carver's letter to Paine was written or 
dictated by Oheetham, and seems to have 
been part of an attempt to extort money. 
Carver afterwards confessed that he had lied 
as to^the drink (OoNWAY, ii, 388-404). 

It is admitted, however, that the charge 
of drinking 1 was not without foundation. 
Paine confessed to Riokmnu that he had 
fallen into excesses in Paris, Mr, Con way 
thinks that this rotors solely to a few week's 
in 1701). Even Cheotlwm (p. 91)) admits 
that the habit began at the time of the 
Fronch revolution. It soems, indeed, that 
Paine had occasionally yielded to the ordi- 
nary habits of the clay. Ilia publisher, 
Chapman, at the trial in 1793, spoke of 
Fame's intoxication on one occasion. It 
was ' rather unusual/ he says, for Paine to 
bo drunk, but ho adds that when drunk he 
was given to declaiming upon religion ($tate 
7 T m&, xxii. 402), A similar account of an 
after-dinner outburst upon religion ia given 
by Paine'a friend, Henry Redhead Yorke, 
who visited him in Paris in 1802, found him 
greatly broken in health, and speaks also of 
the filthy state of his apartment (sea YORKE, 
ZettersfrwiParfylBU, ii. 338-69). Mr. Con- 
way says that his nose became rod when he 
was about fifty-five, i.e. about 1792. In 
America Paine changed from brandy to rum, 
Bale was told that he took a quart of rum a 
week at New Eochelle, and in 1808 his 
weekly supply seems to have been three 
quarts. Ho had, it appears, to be kept alive 
by stimulants during one of his illnesses, 
and his physical prostration may account for 
the stimulants and for some of the slovenly 
habits of which Carver gives disgusting, and 
no doubt grossly exaggerated, details, Paine 
had been neat in liis dress, * like a gentleman 
of the old school ' (says Joel Barlow) j but 
after corning to New York, the neglect of 
society made him slovenly (ToDD, Joel Bar- 
low, p. 286). Barlow's account, though Mr, 
Oonway attributes it to an admission of a 
statement by Oheetham, indicates a belief 
that Paine's habits of drinking had excluded 
him from good society in his last years* On 
the other hand, various contemporary wit^ 
nesses, including Jarvis, with whom Paine 



Paine 



Paine 



lodged for five months, deny tlie stones of 
excessive drinking altogether j and Itickman, 
who was with him, says that he had given 
tip drinking and objected to laying in spirits 
for his last voyage. The probability is that 
the stories, whicli in any case refer only to 
the last part of his career, were greatly ex- 
aggerated. Various stories circulated to show 
that Paine repented of his opinions on his 
deathbed were obviously pious fictions meant 
to ' serve the cause of religion.' 

Paine' was buried at New .Uoehelle on 
10 June 1809. His bones wero dishurncd by 
Oobbett in 1819, and taken to .Liverpool. 
They were left there till after CobbottVi death, 
and were seized in 1836 as part of tho pro- 
perty of his son, who became bankrupt m 
1836. They were last heard of in posses- 
sion of a Mr. Tilly in 1844. A. monument 
was erected at New Kochelle in 18IJJK 

Paine was about five feet nine inches in 
height, with a lofty forehead and prominent 
nose, and a ruddy complexion, clean shaven 
till late in life, well made and active, a good 
rider, walker, and skater, Mr, Gomviiy Htat CH 
that there are eleven original portraits. TJui 
best known is that by .Uonmey (17D1*), en- 
graved by W. Sharp in 17M and '17(H. 
Another, considered by Mr. Cotnvay an the 

' 



beat likeness, was painted by John '\Vesley 
Jarvis in 1803, and now belongs to j\Jr, <1. ll. 
Johnston of New "York. A bust by (-lark 
Mills, in the National Museum at Washing- 
ton, was taken from this picture. Jarvis 
made a cast of Paiue's face after death. A 
bust, founded upon his, is in the rooms of 
tho New York Historical Society. 

Paine is the only English writer who ox- 
presses with uncompromising sharpness the 
abstract doctrine of political rights held by 
the French revolutionists. ,11 w relation to 
the American struggle, and afterwards to 
tho^ revolutio^ of 1780, gave him a unique 
position, and hm writings became, tho sacred 
books of tho extreme radical party in Kng 
land. Attempts to mipprcs^ tnam only 
raised their inthumco, ana tho writings of 
the first quarter of tho century aro full of 
proofs of the importance attached to the.m by 
friends and foes, Paine deserves whatever 
credit is duo to absolute devotion to a creed 
believed by himself to bo dcmon,strably truo 
and beneficial Ho showed undeniable 
courage, and is free from any miHpir.mn of 
mercenary motives, Ho attached an exces- 
sive importance to his own work, and was 
ready to accept tho commonplace that) hw 
pen had been as efficient an Washington'^ 
sword, Ho attributed to the power of lm 
reasoning all that may more fitly bo ascribed 
to the singular litiiess of lug formula) to ex- 



press the political passions of tho time, 
Though unable to sec. that his opponent 8 
could be anything 1 but fools and knaves, 1m 
has the merit of sincerely wishing' that tho 
triumph should bo won by reason wit limit 
violence, With a little more ' human nature/ 
ho would have shrunk from insulting Wash- 
ington or encouraging u Napoleonic invnsiou 
of his native country. But- Paine's bigotry 
was of tho logical land which can nee only 
one side of a question, and imagines that nil 
political and religious questions are nssimplo 
as tho first propositions of Kncliil. This 
singular power of clear, vigorous exposition, 
made him unequalled us 11 pamphlet eor in 
revolutionary times, when compromise wan 
an absurdity, He also showed greatwhrewd- 
ness and independence of thought in his 
eritu-mmttofthe Bible, He,suid f iwiml, little 
that had not been antieipated by tin* Kng- 
lish deists and their French tlisciplos; J>iit, 
lie writes freshly and independently, if some- 
times coarsely, j\lr, < -onway lays turn-h stives 
upon his theism; and in the prelheo to thi* 
f Agi> of Reason* (jit, ii.) he claims t, \^ 
warring ngtunst Urn rxtvssi's of the revolu- 
tionary H]irit in religious as well u?t politirul 
mat UTS, f riji critical remnrlv*, however, a re 
morn (Directive than u tl^mn \\ hieh iu neither 



original nor resting upon nny diMinei 
Nojihieal ground, His subMimtwl merit's will 
hoditteivntly judged ut'rnnlitu*; tobN render-," 
estimate of the vnlue (if tin* iloetrinen of 
abstract righUaud tf /i/W/iliM*w wit Jt whieh 
he.^ sympathised, There run he ontv on** 
opinion UH to hiH pouvr of I'Vpn^in^ h'u 
doctrincH in a form nuitablo * fnr (he UM* *>r 
th( prior/ 

Pained works tire: 1, 
(printed 177i\ 

to Urn People called Qimker.V 1770, -L * !Hu 
logMie betwi^en (ieneml Muulgomerv nml nn 

American Delegate/ 1770, f>, * The (Vt^.v 1 
/i,i(.*i j 



(1(5, incltitltng 

Irom H> Dec, 1770 to *JM 

(. Tuhlic tltuxl/ J7HO. 7, 



Ahhfi lUynal/ 17Ki* 

H. 'Thought* on the Pourj.; $n; t 

i>. * DiHHert.at'iouH on Uovernmorit, the 



rv f unmlier 
April ITsr, >. 
i,i'thr to Mm 
in I'Venelu, 



Jtank 



and Paper Money/ 17S{$, 
10, ' Pronpectw on tho Rubicon/ 1787 |jv- 
prlntedin 17i);i UH * Prospect M on the War 
imd UK* Paper Ounvwy*). U. f Letter to 
Sir (L Htnutou' (on iron bridges), ITHH. 
i * AddreMH and Ih^lumtmu of the Friend?-* 
of UiuvevMal Peace nnd Uherty/ i?() Ang* 
I7iI. l*i, 'Tim ItightM of Man; beittg nn 
Atmwer to Mr, iiurlteV attack on the Kjvneli 
Unvcjlntion/ 1701 (Tim wood 



aud practuv/ tjni>rtn 



Paine 



79 



Painter 



The catalogue of the British Mu- 
seum mentions some twenty-live answers). 
14. 'Letter to the Abb6 Sieyes,' 1792. 
3 5, * Four Letters on Government ' (to Dun- 
das, to Lord Onslow (two), and the Sheriff 
of SUSBOX), 1 792 (also separately), 16. ( Letter 
addressed to the Addressers,' 1792, 17. * Ad- 
dress to the Republic of France' (also in 
French), 25 Sept. 1792, 18. 'Speech in 
Con volition on bringing Louis Capet to Trial, 
.iiO Nov. 1792.' 19. Reasons for wishing to 
preserve the Life of Louis Capet,' January 
1793 (also in French). 20. < The Age of 
"Reason' (at London, New York, and Paris), 
1 71)4, and in French by Lan therms ; ( Age of 
lleason,' pt, ii., in London, 1795; 'Age of 
Keawon/ pt. Hi,, to which is prefixed an 
' Kasay on Droamw/ New York, 1807; Lon- 
don, IB 11 (tins catalogue of the British 
MuHtiuni monUoiiH about forty answers,) 
21, * Dirtsortations on the First Principles of 
Government,' 171)5 (Paino'a speech in the 
Convention, 7 July 1795, is added to second 
edition), 22, < Decline and Fall of the Eng 1 -* 
liHh System of Finance,' 1796; 2,3, 'Letter 
t-o ( loorg'u 'Washington./ 1796, 2-.1. ' Agrarian 
JiiHtioo opposed to Agrarian Law and to 
Agrarian Monopoly ; being 1 a Plan for 
ameliorating the* Condition of Man by creat- 
ing- in ivvwy Nation a National Fund,' &e,, 
171)7* 25, '* Letter to People of France and 
the French Armies,' 1797. 26. ' Letter to 
Kraldno/ 1797 j to this was appended 
("27) * Discourse to the Society of Theophilan- 
thropLstR,' also published aa * Atheism Ee- 
futed' in 1798. 28; 'Letter to Oanrille 
Jourdan on Bells . , . ' also in French, aa 
< Lettre , , , aur IDS' Cultes/ 1797. 29, < Mari- 
time Compact: on the Rights of Neutrals at 
Sea/ 1801 (also in French), 30. * Letters to 
Oittatmfl of the United States/ 1802 (reprinted 
in London, 1817). #1. * Letter to the People 
of England on the Invasion of England,' 

1 804. 32. ' On the Causes of Yellow Fever,' 

1805. 83. ' On Constitutions, Governments, 
and Charters/ 1805, 34 * Observations on 
Gunboats/ 1806. 

Mr. Conway gives the titles of some later 
pamphlets which are not in the British Mu- 
seum. Posthumous were a fragment of his 
reply to Bishop Watson (181.0) and an 

* itsBay on the Origin of Freemasonry ' 
(1811). Paine also contributed to tlio 

* Pennsylvania Magazine ' and to the * Perm- 
By Ivania Journal ' in 1775-6, and to the 
''Prospect' in 1804-6.* A collection of his 
' Political Works ' appeared in 179)2, and was 
translated into French (1798) and German 
(1794"). A fuller collection was published 
by Sherwln in 1817. The 'Theological 
Works' were published by Carlile in 1818, 



Volumes of * Miscellaneous Letters and 
Essays/ with hitherto unpublished pieces, 
appeared in 1819, arid in the same year his 
J Miscellaneous Poems,' Mr. Conway is edit- 
ing a new edition of the works, the first 
volumes of which appeared in 1894. 

[The Life of Paine by Moncuro Daniel Con- 
way, 2 vols. 8vo, 1892 (3rd edit. 1803), is founded 
upon most elaborate research, and gives hitherto 
unpublished documents, Mr. Conway, though an 
excessively warm admirer, ia candid in hin state- 
ments of evidence. Paine' B manuscri pts were left 
to Mmo. Bonnovillo, and possibly included an au- 
tobiography seem by Yorke in 1802. The papers 
wero all duHtroyod by n iire while in pobsossion 
of Qonoral Bonnovillo, Mine. Bonnevi lie's son, 
Of other lives, the first wn.s the Life of Thomns 
Pain, author of the Rights of Mon, with a Defence 
of hia Writings, by Francis Oldys, A.M., of the 
University of 'Pennsylvania/ 1791. The 'De- 
fence' waB a mystification mount to attract 
Paine's diseiploH. Oldys i said to have been 
the pseudonym of the antiquary, George Chal- 
mers (1742-1825) [q. v,], then a clerk in the 
council of teuly, The president, Lord Huwkos- 
bury (afterwards firwt. Lord Liverpool), is Haid 
by JShorwin to have employed him and paid him 
flOOi?. for writing it. Chalmers was bitterly 
hostile, and ready to accept any gossip a^amsi. 
Paine; but his statemontB of verifiable fact NIVOTII 
to bo correct. The book wont through 1 ton 
editions in 1701-3. Impartial Memoirs (1793) 
is a sixpenny tract, adding little, Choetham's 
Life (see above) appeared in 3800 ; the Life by 
Paige's friend, Thomas Olio Biekmnn, and a Life 
by W. T. Slierwin, also an admirer, in 18 ID, An 
American Life, by G. Vale (1841). depends chiefly 
on the preceding; it is en Paine's side, and gives 
accounts of Cheetham's trial, &c.] L. S. 

PAINTER, EDWARD (1784-1852), 
pugilist, was born at Stratford, four miles 
from Manchester, in March 1784, and as a 
young- man followed the calling of a brewer. 
A quarrel with a fellow-employ 6 in the 
brewery, called Willdns a man of heavy* 
build led to a formal fight in the yard of 
the Swan Inn, Manchester, where Paintor 
quickly defeated his opponent, and showed 
unusual power as a boxer, After receiving 1 
some training under his fellow-countryman 
Bob Gregson, he was matched to fight ,T. 
Coyne, an Irish boxer from Kilkenny, six 
feet in height, and weighing fourteen stono, 
Painter weighed thirteen stone; his height 
was five feet nine inches and three-quarters. 
The men met at St. Nicholas, near Margate, 
on 23 Aug. 1813, when, after a light of 
forty minutes, the Irishman was beaten, T. 
Alexander, known as ' The Gamekeeper/ 
now challenged Painter, and a contest for 
sixty guineas a side took placo at Moulstvjr 
Hurst, Surrey, ou 20 Nov. 1813* In. the' 



Painter * 

twentieth round the victory seemed falling 
to the challenger, but Painter, with a 
straight well-directed hit, stunned ' The 
Gamekeeper,' and became the victor. He waa 
now deemed a match for Tom Oliver [q, v.], 
but in the fight, which took place on 1? May 

1814, his luck for the first time deserted him. 
For a purse of fifty guineas he next entered 
the lists with John Shaw, the lifeguardsman, 
at Hounslow Heath, Middlesex, on 18 April 

1815, when the height and weight of Shaw 
prevailed, after a well-contested fight lasting 
twenty-eight minutes. On 28 July 1817 
Painter met Harry Sutton, 'The Black,' at 
Moulaey Hurst, and after forty-eight minutes 
found himself unable to continue the on- 
counter. Not satisfied with tho result, he 
again challenged Sutton to meet him at 
Bungay in Suffolk on 7 Aug. 1818. Tho 
event excited great interest, 'and, notwith- 
standing rainy weather, fifteen thousand 
persons assembled. There was a quadrangle 
of twenty-four feet for the combatants to 
engage in, with an outer roped ring for tho 
officials. Outside this stood tho spectators, 
several rows deep, and throo circles of 
wagons surrounded tho whole, giving tho 
ring the appearance of an amphitheatre, In 
this encounter Sutton, although ho fought 
with great spirit, yielded at tho close of tho 
fifteenth round, 'At Stepney, on 21 March 
] 817, Painter undertook for a wngcr to throw 
half a hundredweight against Mr. Donovan, 
a man of immense proportions, and heat him 
"by eighteen inches and a half. Ho waft 
equally good at running. On 7 Nov. 1817, 
on tho Essex Tload, in a five-mile race 
against an athlete named Spring, ha ran the 
distance in thirty-five minutes and a half. 

The well-known Thomas Winter Spring 
was the next to engage with Painter, the 
fight coming off on Mickleham Downs, Surrey, 
on 1 April 1818 ; when, after thirty-one 
rounds, occupying 1 eighty-nine minutes, the 
newcomer was victorious, Tho same won 
were then matched to fight on 7 Aug. 1818, 
at Russia Farm, five miles from Kingston. 
In the first round Spring was floored 'by a 
blow over the eye, from which, although ho 
continued fighting to the forty-second round, 
he never completely recovered, Painte.r now 
became landlord of the Anchor, Lobster 
Lane, Norwich, and intended to fi^ht no 
more, but on 17 July 1820 again met 



opponent, Tom Oliver, at North Wakham, 
and on this occasion was the victor. It is 
remarkable that Painter in the first attempt 
was defeated by Oliver, Sutton, and Spring, 
but that in each case on another trial ho 
proved to be the conqueror, For many years 
he lived at the Anchor, then removed to tho 



3 Painter 

White Hart Inn, Market Place, Norwich, 
He died at the residence of his son, * near 
the Ham/ Lakenham, Norwich, on 18 Sept. 
1852, and was buried in &t. -Peter's church- 
yard on SS Sept. 

[Milos's PugiliHtica, 1880, ii 74-88, with 
portrait, but tho dates of his birth and death 
aro both incorroot; Fights for fcho Champion-* 
whip, by tho editor of Boll's Li fo in London , 18(K), 
pp. Sl-3, Ai!>-7i 00-2; FKstiunu, by tho editor of 
Mi's Lifo ia London (18(54), p.Oi ; The Fancy, 
by an Operator, 1820, i. Hi) 8 400, with portrait; 
Boll'B Life in London, 26 Bonu 1852, p. 7. ] 

U. 0. II 

PAINTER, WILLIAM (IfiiOMfian, 
author, in said to havo sprung from a Kentish 
family, but he is described in tho Cambridge 
University register in 1554 as a nuttvo of 
Middlesex, and may possibly have boon son 
of William Painter, wt.ixeu and wooloomher, 
of London, who applied about IM.'J for tho. 
froodom of tho rity. Ho matriculated as a 
sixar from St. Jolm'K College, Cambridge, in 
Novombor 1554, On tho JiOlh of the name, 
month he, waw admit tod both Hoelvkeoper of 
tho oollogo and a scholar on tho 1/ady Mar- 
ffarcit-'s iouiulal-ion. In 15o(J ho r(H*tnvod a 
scholarship on tho liorosfonl foiuulation, 
but. ho. soomH to hvt loft t-ho umvomty 
wit-hout a dog'voo, B^fon^ ITilK) ho boonm'o, 
luiadiuasttir of tho school at SovonoaliM, do- 
apititi the ro^'iilationH whioh rotjuirod Mhc* 
grammar maKtor 1 to bo a bachelor of urttt in 
worno univorHity. With tho post wo!it a bount* 
and a salary of fi()^ a year, (hi Si6 April 
l/3(iO he vvaH onlainod deacon by <3rinul 
biHhop of London. In February 1 5*00- 1 he Ml 

tbi onlnamw in tho Tower of I jtmdt w, That, 
ofluw ho retained till ht death, n i Hitlingnar 

KubHtantial private, fortune by burrowing 
freely from the public funds under IUH (ton- 
troL Il<^ purchrtMod two manor,** in thn 
parish of (Huingham, Kimt, vi?!. t Hast< H ourt 
and TwulalL In 1HHB bin prtweeilingrt ox* 
cited tho mwpitnonH of th govt i mmetit f aud 
he and two colltsagueB were ordered to refund 
to tho treasury a Hum of 7>07IV, Painter mm- 
fe.HHod that hoowed the queen l,()70/ I7/f, &/, 
Tn 1587 he wa reported to huvt% mmlt^ falno 
tmtritw m hm accrmntH in colluMton with 
AmbroBO I)udley t wirl of Warwick [<j. v/], 
maatorof tho ordnan<sw, In I54H Vtuntor^ 
eon Anthony confoHHwl to irragularitiea com- 
mittod by IUH fatlier and himne-lf at tho onl* 
nance olhco ; but when Paintor's ofFonaiH wor<3 
mow apocifieally defhujd an tho alo of war 
material forhi awn protit in lf>75nml I57(* 
ho denied tho truth of tlw'HlandmwH infor- 
mations,' Painter mudo a nuucupativo will 



Painter 



8 1 



Painter 



14 Feb. 1593-4, and died immediately after- 
wards. He was buried in London. He had 
married Dorothy Bonham of Cowling, who 
died at Gillingham, 19 Oct. 1617, aged 80. 
By her he had four daughters, besides his 
son Anthony. The son, who is usually de- 
scribed as ' of Gillingham,' married Catherine, 
daughter of Robert Harris, master in chan- 
cery, and was father of William Painter, who 
obtained, before 1625, a reversionary grant of 
the office of master of the revels (COLLIER, 
Annals of the Stage, i. 419). A Richard 
Painter (b. 1615), son of Richard Painter of 
Tunbridge, Kent, is said to be descended from 
the author. He graduated from St. John's 
College, Oxford (B,A. 1636 and M.A. 1640), 
and contributed to the Oxford collections of 
verse in 1638 and 1642. 

Painter is remembered as the author of 
'The Palace of Pleasure,' a valuable collection 
of one hundred stories or novels, translated 
from the Latin, Greek, French, and Italian. 
'The Cytie of Cyvelite, translated into Eng- 
lesshe by william paynter,' was entered on 
the ' Stationers' Registers ' by the publisher, 
William Jones, in 1562. 15 ut whether, as 
is commonly assumed, this entry refers to 
Painter's ' Palace/ or to some other work by 
him which is no longer extant, is open to 
question. In 1566 William Jones took out 
a new license for the 'printing of serten his- 
toryes collected oute of dyvers ryghte good 
and profitable authours by William Paynter.' 
There is no doubt that the work noticed thus 
was the first volume of 'The Palace of Plea- 
sure,^ which was published in 1566, and was 
described on the title-page as ' beautified, 
adorned, and well furnished with pleasaunt 
Histories and excellent Nouells, selected out 
of diners good and commendable Authors 7 
(London, by Henry Donham for Richard 
Tottell and William Jones). It was dedi- 
cated to Painter's official superior, the Earl 
of Warwick, and a woodcut of Warwick's 
crest, the bear and ragged staff, appears on the 
title-page. Sixty novels were included, A 
second volume, containing thirty-four stories, 
was issued in the following year, 1567, with 
a dedication to Sir George Howard, and an 
apology at the close for the temporary omis- 
sion, owing- to the unexpected size of the book, 
* of sundry novels of merry devise/ The first 
volume was reissued without alteration in 
1569. The whole work was republisbed, by 
Thomas Marshe, in 1575, ' eftsones perused, 
corrected, and augmented, 7 with seven new 
stories. The second volume is undated. This 
is the definitive edition, and was reprinted, 
with a biography of Painter, by Joseph 
Haslewood, in 1813 (3 vols.), and again by 
Mr, Joseph Jacobs in 1890 (3 vols.) 

vor/. XLIIL 



Painter's reading- was exceptionally wide, 
and he practically first made the Italian 
novelists known to English readers. The 
sources of his book may be classified thus : 
three stories (i. 6, 7, ii. 1) are derived from 
Herodotus ; three from Lilian (i. 8-10) ; 
three from Plutarch (i. 27-8, ii. 3) ; thirteen 
from Aulus Gellius (i. 14-26); six from Livy 
(i. 1-4, ii. 6, 8) ; one from Tacitus (ii. 14) ; 
three from Quintus Curtius (i. 12-13, ii. 2). 
Among Italian writers no less than twenty- 
six come from Bandello, either directly or 
through the French translations of Belleforest 
or Boaistuau du Launay(i. 11 40-6 ii 4-5 
7,9-10, 21-30, 32-3, 35). Sixteen come from 
Boccaccio (i, 30-9, ii. 16-20, 31); two each 
from Cinthio's ' Ecatomithi ' (ii. 11, 15) and 
from Ser Giovanni .Fiorentino's ' Pecorone ' 
(i. 5, 48) ; one each from Pedro di Measia's 
' Selva di varie Lezzioni' (i, 29), Straparola 
(i. 49), Masuccio's ' Novellino,' through the 
French ' Oomptea du Monde Avantureux' (i. 
66); Guevara's ' Letters' (ii. 12); and <Pau- 
aanias and Manitius 1 (ii. 13). Sixteen are 
from Queen Margaret's 'Heptarneron'(i. 50- 
65). The second edition included (ii. 34) a 
translation from the Latin of Nicholas Mof- 
fan's (or i\ Moffa's) account of the death of 
the Sultan Solyman, which Painter com- 
pleted in 1557, 

The work was very widely read by Eliza- 
bethan Englishmen. It largely inspired 
Roger Ascham's spirited description of the 
moral dangers likely to spring from the dis- 
semination of Italian literature in English 
translations (jSeholemaster, ed, Arber, pp. 77- 
85). Many imitators of Painter sought to 
dispute with him his claims to popular favour 
(cf. FuNTOtf, Certaine Traylcall Discourses^ 
1507; FOBTESCTTE, Fore&te, 1571). A very 
obvious plagiarism was George Petti e's ' Petite 
Palace of Pettie his Pleasure,' 1576. George 
Turberville [q. v.l and George Whetstone 
[q. v.] also followed closely in Painter's foot- 
steps. But it is as the mine whence the Eliza- 
bethan dramatists drew theplots of their plays 
or poems that Painter's work presents itself in 
the most interesting aspect. Shakespeare's 
' Rape of Lucrece,' ' Coriolanus, ' Timon of 
Athens, 1 ' All's well that ends well,' and 
'Romeo and Juliet' all owe something to 
Painter, and the influence of his book may 
be traced inWilmot's ' Tancred and Gismund ' 
in George Peele's * Mahomet and Hyren the 
Fair Greek;' in Webster's 'Appius and Vir- 
ginia,' ' Duchess of Main/ and 'Insatiate 
Countess;' in the 'Widow' by Ben Jon- 
son, Fletcher, and Middleton ; in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's 'Triumph of Death ;' Flet- 
cher's ' Maid of the Mill ; ' Shirley's ' Love's 
Cruelty;.' Marston's 'Dutch Courtesan' and 



Paisible 



Pakeman 



1 Sophonisba ; ' and in Maasingvr'H * Pic- ; funurd ^* hcft*r. Hrr Majesty and th< new 
tun>.' ^ ! Kwf of SjuiiiCfhe mvHMon iM'in^ HifMv<vn 

Painter also freely translated Into Kn#- i (inn hy Anne nt Winder uf tho Atvhdulm 
lish, with many original additions, Willium , Charley l*tt HI Uu\ i;'o't, From flint year 
Fulko's ' Antipro^nostnum 1 (I fit JO), Hu ha j until I7lt Painthle rmnw>sMl the tune'* tn 
boon oroditixl with a similar attack on an- ! ISIMC'H djuttM'H f*r tlu* htrUiday fttivata nf 
trology, entitled Fouro Groat Lyorn * , . ! the IJUI'IMI, while he tl^rribml iiimnelf in hia 



trology, entitled Fouro Omit Ly<M\s 
Written by W. P.,' London, by li 



n.d^, and with a broiulside in of 



verse (of wluch a copy bi.dnn^H to the >Snrioty j waiary 




l>rf>t-cd an * Gulielmus Paint (M*, Gnt/ 

A fine sig'naturo of Painter in appended, 
\vithtkoae of Philip Sidney and Jolm rowoll, 
to an acknowled|?ni v nt of tho receipt of am- 
munition by Sir ThoiflRH LtMf^hton, x t<} vernt>r 
of tho Island of GuornHt^y. It is dntetl H Juno 
1585, and m now in the Ilee.ord OlHuo. 

[JIuutor's wanusrript (Jlmrus Vatum, in Hrit, 
Htis. Addit, JM-8. 4 2.l'Ji)() ft", liOOfi^j Cmtjw* 
Athene Ciuitulir, ii, 5^8-9; Oollitir'n Kxtwrts 
from tho Rtationeva* Hi^ist'r, i, (10, 121, 16/>, 
ii, 105-7 ; Colltor'H Bibliographical AtH'ouuf, i. 
IS, ii. 8G7; Haslowoiul'H Introduction tn IUN 
roprint of tho * Palace of Pli^aHuiv; 1 Mr, J* 
Jneobs's prefatory maMor izi hinsprint.J W, L, 

PAISIBLE, JAM MS Cl()or 17^1), 
flauti.st and oompowr, a native, of JVatu'ts 
born about .1(J5(J, JH said to have come to Eng- 
land about 1(>8() ('Kih'iH), He had putruns 
amonpf hifl compatriotw. Tliu Duehen^e de, 
Massarin, with tJio holp of Al, de Ht, Kvre- 
niontl, g-avo oxqulsito <joncrt; at 



\vill nx having hn* tti lt*r wrvin* nud in tlmt 
muNiti*mr/ with urr?'ar of 

nf St. MwtiVrt-in- 
f^r notnr your?* !nfir his <lntfh 
jnro uhtnif August J7i.M* HIH 
n, r/;!U 1, l*,*t ( r La 
ur, IUH! I'Vatunn Miou* 
**f |>r(i*rfv in 



1 



part 



triw 



(jtintr 



would 



Bow, Oliwlsoa. .For thono St. KvrtUHurn invnerv 
molodioB woro worked up and Hupplitnl with ^^^S. Jl 



harmony and accompnnnnontH by thn intmi- 
cian, msultiuff m swell alig'ht drawing-room 
musical flcanen as * Idylo,' < LOB Op6ra, u ho 
Noces d'laabelUV and*' Otmcwt d Oholf^y/ 
In one of those Bcent^s Puiuiblo IH introduml 
by name, and may be supposed to have BUU^ 
the partthat of a young muHtdart An- 
other character ia 'axx old poet* (S3t, Evru* 
moud f ). 

Parlsz, Vieillard ; parley Paiwibla ; 
Goiitereai-vous au bowheur m 



This, as well as a lively sketch of tlw mu- 
sician given by St. Kvrumond in a nota to 
the duchoas, must belong 1 to a date prior to 
3700. St, Evremond describes PaiMible aa 
indolent, but with easy and ajrreeabb man- 
ners, 

On 4 Deo, 1680 he procured a license from 
the vicar-general for his marriage with am 
Mary Davis, About 1691 he began to supply 
overtures and musical interludes to the Lcm* 
.don theatres. la 1703 hie music was per- 



of S 



tlm 
will, 



Am- 



i, 'th*i'ltm* ntul Inti*r- 

Ktlwnrd UK*" ItJiH : r, ( to 

<M Th<< Spjnu*th Wu -<M * 

guin*nV Fnr^w.d!" in IM- 

5U.V H, IhhiH inr Mtttrn 



, , , 

f Sir J*hn Fnl^tuJl? ITtHK 10, *Sh<* 
who \vnwM ntif/ |7t/i, th * I*MVI% 



to Mr, Iwrtiti'V f)ttin*is t ' 17tK l { 
Six SountiiM uf r\v* I*nrff<, tor 
/ t7HM" If*, * Sh S^HH of 
t* Kluft^rt niut a BUM*/ 17tH) tf 
mttmi' bv i*nimlli* fur ttuf* in 
in HrittMh Mumuim AiMitiimnl 
Th< Mr. 
r tf it huri 
mv )u hw 



Di*'t. of Mimic, ii, 



. , , 

Hint, of Mwic, pp, 7J4, 7*M ; St, 



Hnwkum*N 



1703-4; 



, 1/40 ( 



, 

Ji, U* ; will 
t foi. i24j 



i,(\0, 

flpui*,] 

FAIBLKY, flrnt 1U>. [Hw 



t PAKBMAN, THOMAS .. , 

di4itin{f divme r WM hum in^fHil or 1HU| 
and procoeddd in i(&0 to ClartJ (*tJlfy*s (!am- 
bridge, whmu^ ha gmduatwi H,A, it* HW:{ f 
M,A 1007, H WA thon ttniployw! far noma 
years w a comicior iit ( tho lung f print* 
liousa, About IttttHa potifcton was itn*wmttHi 
by him ad thruo othtir cnrnictorn, nil 
of arty, complftining that, * nofi * " 
the work IB graator than ew # 



Pakeman 



Pakenham 



of correctors has been curtailed, and SOZ. per j 
annum taken off their pay by the farmers of 
the customs.' Archbishop Laud noted on 
the petition that the petitioners are to be 
continued in their pay and places until such 
time as he has time to hear them himself 
(Cal. State Papers, 1634-5, p. 407). 

Subsequently Pakeman joined the non- 
conformist ministry. On 28 Jan. 1643 he 
' began to be minister ' at Little Hadham, 
Hertfordshire (Parish Register). He signed 
a petition from ministers in Hertfordshire, 
presented to the lords on 24 July 1646, 
praying for church government according to 
the covenant (Lords' Journals, viii. 445 ; 
cf.Addit. MS. 15670, ff. 288, 361, 442). 

Before September 164? Pakeman was offi- 
ciating as minister at Karrow-on-the-Hill, 
Middlesex:. He was ejected by the Act of 
Uniformity, 1662. He then commenced to 
take pupils, and, owing to his excellent dis- 
cipline, ' he had,' Calamy says, 'the instruc- 
tion and boarding of several children of per- 
sons of quality and figure.' Both here and 
at Old Brentford, whither he shortly removed, 
he continued to preach and to administer the 
sacrament. He was assisted in his classes 
by Ralph Button [q. v.], who lived next 
door. On the passing of the Five Mile Act 
Button was imprisoned ; but Pakeman, by 
leaving Brentford, escaped. For a time he 
lived and preached constantly at Mrs. Meth- 
wold's, 'in Brompton, near Jvnightsbrid^e,' 
and thence he was received into the family 
of Erasmus Smith, where, Calamy says, he 
continued some years. 

In 1685 he settled with his children in the 
city, and attended the ministry of Richard 
Kidder [q, v.] at the church of St. Martin 
Outwich, where he sometimes received the 
sacrament. He also preached at the house of 
his son Thomas, who matriculated at St. Ed- 
mund Hall, Oxford, 18 Oct. 1662, aged 17 
'(FosTEB, Alumni Qxon. early, series, p. 1107). 
On one occasion, when, not more than three 
or four neighbours were present, the city mar- 
shal seized both Pakeman and his son, and 
carried them before Sir Henry Tulse, the lord 
mayor (1684-5), who fined them, Pakeman 
removed to Stratford in 1687, where he con- 
tinued his ministrations. He held that ' all 
adult persons who came to hear ought to re- 
ceive the sacrament.' At Stratford he em- 
ployed a schoolmaster at his own expense 
to teach the poor children to read. Pake- 
man, who died in June 1691, is called by 
Baxter ' a grave, sound, pious, sober, and 
peaceable divine ' (lldiquice, iii. 1 97). 

Besides Thomas, above mentioned, and 
Elizabeth, bom in 1646, married at Bushey 
'2:2 Sept, 1603 to Shadrach Brise of Kingston- 



on-Thames (CHESTER, Marriage Licenses, 
3. 186), Pakeman had seven children born 
and baptised at Harrow before 1659. 

[Calamy and Palmer, ii. 457 ; Kennett's Reg. pp., 
830, 905; Calamy's Account of the Ejected Minis- 
ters, 1713, p. 468 ; Calamy's Abridgment, 1702, 
p. 279; Urwick's Nonconformity in Hertford- 
shire, pp. 751, 752; Registers of Harrow, per 
;he Rev. F. H. Joyce, and of Little Hadham, per 
:he Rev. James M. Bury ; Register of Cambridge 
University, per J. W. Clark ; those of Much 
Hadham and of Clare College have also been 
searched by Dr, Stanley Loathes and Dr. Atkin- 
son.] C. F. S. 

PAKENHAM, SIB EDWARD 
MICHAEL (1778-1815), major-general, 
second son of Edward Michael, second baron 
Longford, and his wife Catherine, second 
daughter of the Right Hon. Hercules Long- 
ford Rowley, was born at Longford Castle, 
co. Westmeath, 19 April 1778. His younger 
brother, Sir Hercules Robert Pakenham, is 
noticed separately. After a perfunctory edu- 
cation, he became, at the age of sixteen, a 
lieutenant in the 92nd foot (an Irish corps 
afterwards drafted), 28 May 1794 ; was made 
captain a few days later, and promoted to 
major in the 33rd or Ulster light dragoons 
on 6 Dec. in the same year, before he was 
seventeen. On 1 June 1798 he became major 
in the old 23rd light dragoons (disbanded 
in 1802), with which he served in Ireland 
during the rebellion. On 17 Oct. 1799 he 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel 64th' foot, 
and commanded that regiment at the re- 
duction of the Danish and Swedish West 
India islands in 1801. Socially, Pakenham 
appears to have been a general favourite. In 
the officers' mess of the 64th (now the Prince 
of Wales's North Staffordshire regiment) are 
some silver cups presented by the inhabitants 
of Sainte-Croix, one of the captured islands, 
in token of the esteem in which Pakenham 
and his officers were held by thenu He com- 
manded the 64th at the capture of St. Lucia 
on 22 June 1803, when he was wounded. 
Beturning home, he became a brevet colonel 
in 1805, and was appointed to a lieutenant- 
colonelcy in the 7th royal fusiliers, the first 
battalion of which he joined at Weymouth 
in 1806, and commanded at Copenhagen in 
1807 and the reduction of Martinique in 
1809, afterwards returning with the battalion 
to Nova Scotia. Pakenham joined Lord Wel- 
lington (who, in 1 806* had married his sister 
Catherine) in the Peninsula after the battle 
of Talavera. There he was employed as 
an assistant adjutant-general to the fusi- 
liers; the officers of the battalion placed 
his portrait in the mess, and presented him 
with a sword of the value of two hundred 



Pa ken ham 



8 4 



Pake nil am 



guineas. He was appointed deputy adju- 
tant-general in the Peninsula on 7 March 
1810 (GtTKWQOD, Wellington 7>ty>. iii. 80H) ; 
commanded a brigade, consisting of tho two 
battalions 7th fusiliers and tho Cameron 
Highlanders, in Sir Brent Spencer's division 
at Busaco and Fuontes cTOnoro in 1810 
(CANNON, JEKst. jRec,. of Brit. Army, 7tli Fum- 
liers), and received the local rank of major- 
general in the Peninsula in 1811. His .ser- 
vices with the headquarters stall* during that 
year were noted in orders (Guitwooi), iv 
669). At the battle of Salamanca, 2 July 
1812, described by "Wellington a the best 
manoeuvred battle in tho whole war, Walton- 
ham was in command of tho third division, 
which broke the French contro, The two 
armies faced each other, and had boon mov- 
ing 'On parallel lim\s for three dayw. They 
saw clearly, from opposite rising grounds, 
what went on in either camp, us tho, valley 
between was not more than half a mile wide,, 
Marmont's design was to intorponu between 
Wellington and Badajos ; Wmltn$ton\s ob- 
ject was to prevent this. In tluur oagomcHB 
to gain their point, tho Fronch leading; divi- 
sions outmarched those ( following, and thim 
formed a vacant space in the contro, which 
Wellington saw, and at onco turned to ac- 
count. ' Now's your time, Nod,' ho Haid to 
Pakenham, who was standing- near him ; and 
the words were scarcely spokon bolbro Pahon- 
ham gave the word to'hifl' division, and com- 
menced the movement which won tho battlo 
(Gleig in Ari'MTON's En^d, ofAm?)\ Mint/r,) 
Wellington wrote to tho 1 torso (< unrein on 
7 Sept. following' : < I put Palumham to tho 
thirddiyision, by u enoral Picton'rt dasirowhen 
he was ill ; and I am very glad I did HO, as [ 
must say ho made the movement which led 
to our success in the battle* of 3$ July hint 
with a celerity and accuracy of which I doubt 
if there aro very many capable, and without 
both it would not liavo answered itn owl 
Pakenham may not bo tho brightest Ron i UK, 
but my partiality for him does not load 
me astray when I toll you that he is ono of 
the best we have* However, he Icoqw tho 
division till General Colvilio [ece Court LUJ, 
SIR CHARMS] or some other shall return to 
it, and will thereupon go back to his Funilier 
brigade ' (GUEWOOD, vi, 484). Pakenham 
commanded the division at the capture of 
Madrid (ib. vi, 26) He became a major- 
general 4 June 1812, and in April 1813 was 
recommended for tho post of adjutant-gene* 
ral (ib. vi, 424), He commanded the sixth 
division atSauroren (battle of the Pyrdnfira) 
(ib. vi, 640), was madeK.B. 11 Sept, 1813, 
was appointed colonel of the 6th West, India 
regiment the same year and was present as 



\i- 
\\^ 

, ho 



adjutant-g'enoral in t he sneeco< 

(if*, vii. It'tt), tioi, tfio, -1 ;io). I 

#ohl cross and chisps for Marliniqu 
Kuentes d'Onoro, Salamanca, 

rooonslitufion of tho order of the Hath 
wan mado U.O.B. -1 Jan. lSIf>, 

Tho death of General Ross (of Hladens- 
burg-) before Washington (in ISM) led to 
tho selection of Pakcnhan* in command (ho 
British force that, had hitherto operated on 
the Chesapeake, which wan now to ho oni-* 
ployed Hpu'nHf. New Orleans Pakcnham 
outfht to have joined it at. Januuca, whither 
reinforcements were sent ; but adverse wind* 
detained him, jnulhe did not reach his conn 
maud until after a landing had been effected 
at Now Orleans, nnd an action had (akem 
place, in which each side lost more than two 
hundred men. II* found the arnn in a false 
position on a narrow neck of land flanked 
on one side, by tho Mississippi river, and on 
tho other by an impassable morass He bad 
opposed to him one of the ablest genera IN tho 
United States has produced -Andrew Jack- 
son, After a cost l k v reeomwiNHaneo, Pa.ken- 
bam erected bastions of hotheads of sui/ar 
and inountoit tin them t-hirty $tms; but on 
1 Jan* 18 If> these were destroyed bv tho 
American ihu In tho week that followed 
both sides were reinforced, It w just mm- 
Hilile that, if Pnkenbam bud been* patirnt 
to wait thodovolopmont of bis plans, 
ht have curried tho American linen 
New Orleans, It WHH hw In- 
tention to attack nn both sides of tho river 

t <^u H Jan, IHtA, but tliero wan 

lelay in mwsu% and In* uufortunatelv sent 
\\\> tlu^i^nal roelit*t befovo Itis tuenontht^ 
wt^Ht sido of tho river wort* rcndy, \l^ was 
lulled in tho miHuccessful assault that fol- 
lowed (Oloitf in Awun'oN's /^<v/c/, iifAmw. 
Biw/i\) Tho entorpriHe cost t he life of p^t' 
ham'8 second in command, Sir Samuel 
fq.v/J, and over tliree (linuHund oilice 
men in killed or wounded, 

under 4 Longford; 1 Army 



nntj 



Ilmt, HetHmiH of Urit, Army, lUth Foot 
7th Royid KuiIiorHj ilurwrnuVH UVlItm^m 
vulu, ill iv, vi, mul vii. ; Nmnr'fs 



. , 

ham bv tlu> Intti Kv, <L U, {Uet^ it 
hnewl. ot AnuuMenn ni(^ra|tby (all mh*r bio* 



mthoext^me); (}big's lir'itinh Army ii," 
ington Una Nww Orlmnj*;) if, m, o, 

PAKBNHAM, Sm HKHOUUM o- 
BEHT (1781 1 HfiO), litntUmnnt.genernt, third 
won of Kd ward Michmd, r-"' 1 ^ * 



, m^ 

lord, and to wife Cftthorim*, tiucuud duugh- 



Pakenham 



Pakenham 



ter of the Right Hon. Hercules Lang- 
ford Rowley, was born 29 Sept. 1781. He 
was brother of Sir Edward Michael Paken- 
ham [q. v.], and brother-in-law of the great 
Duke of Wellington, He was appointed 
ensign 40th foot on 23 July 1803, became 
lieutenant 3 Feb. 1804, was transferred to 
the 95th rifles (now the rifle brigade) in 
April the same year, and obtained his com- 
pany therein 2 Aug. 1805. He served in the 
expedition to Copenhagen and in Portugal, 
where he was slightly wounded at Obidos 
16-17 Aug. 1808. < He is really one of the 
best officers of riflemen I have seen/ wrote 
Sir Arthur Wellesley, recommending him for 
promotion (GuBWOOD, Wellington Despatches, 
iii, 129). He was promoted to a majority in 
the 7th West India regiment 30 Aug. 1810, 
remained with the Peninsular army, and was 
assistant adjutant-general of Picton's division 
up to the fall of Badajos, where he was severely 
wounded (gold cross for Busaco, Fuentes 
d'Onoro and Ciudad Rodrigo, and Badajos). 
After being repeatedly recommended for 
promotion, he was made a brevet lieutenant- 
colonel 27 April 1812, was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel 26th Cameronians 3 Sept. 
1812, and transferred as captain and lieu- 
tenant-colonel to the Coldstream guards 
25 July 1814, from which he retired on 
half-pay in 1817. He was made brevet 
colonel and aide-de-camp to the king 27 May 
1825, became a major-general 10 Jan. 1837, 
was appointed colonel 43rd light infantry 
9 Sept. 1844, commanded the Portsmouth 
district from 1843 to 1846, and became a 
lieutenant-general 9 Nov. 184.6. He was 
made O.B. "4 June 1815, K.O.B. 19 July 
1838, and had the Peninsular silver medal 
and Roleia and Vimeirp clasps. He died 
suddenly at his residence, Langford Lodge, 
co, Antrim, on 7 March 1850. 

Pakenham married, in November 1817, 
Emily, fourth daughter of Thomas Stapyl- 
ton, lord Le Despenser, and had issue six 
eons (one of whom was killed at Inkerman 
and another at the relief of Lucknow) and 
three daughters. 

[Burke'a Peerage, under 'Longford;' Army 
Lists ; Gurwood's Wellington Despatches, vols. 
iii. iv. and v.; Naval and Military Gazette, 
16 March 1850.] H, M. C. 

PAKENHAM, SIB RICHARD (1797- 

1868), diplomatist, the fifth son of Admiral 
Sir Thomas Pakenham [q. y.J, by his wife, 
Louisa, daughter of the Right Hon. John 
Staples, was bom at Pakenham Hall, Castle 
Pollard, in Westmeath, on 19 May 1797, 
He completed his education at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, and, apparently without waiting 



to take a degree, entered the foreign office on 
15 Oct. 1817 as attache to his uncle, the Earl 
of ^Clancarty, at the Hague. His next ap- 
pointment was as secretary to the legation 
in Switzerland (26 Jan. 1824). Promoted on 
29 Dec. 1826 to the same position in Mexico, 
he was made minister plenipotentiary to the 
United Mexican States on 12 March 1835. In 
this capacity he seems to have been popular 
and efficient. Perhaps the most troublesome 
of his negotiations was for the abolition of the 
slave trade: the Mexican government ob- 
jected to the right of search, and the negotia- 
tions dragged on for four years, but he ob- 
tained the treaty in 1 841 . He was in Mexico 
during the war between that kingdom and 
France, and in February 1839 was despatched 
to Vera Cruz, with the object of trying 
to effect a reconciliation between the two 
countries. On 13 Dec. 1843, while on leave 
in England, he was made a privy councillor, 
and on 14 Dec. appointed envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary to the United 
States of America. Here some thorny ques- 
tions awaited him. One of his first duties was 
to take up that of the Oregon boundary. In 
this negotiation, though he did not carry the 
British points, he obtained the approval of his 
government. The attitude of Great Britain 
regarding Texas proved of greater difficulty. 
The relations between the two governments 
were not very cordial,, and irritation was 
easily provoked on both sides. Pakenham 
left "Washington on leave of absence in May 
1847, and, after remaining in Europe for ftn 
unusually prolonged period, ultimately pre- 
ferred to retire on pension rather than return 
to the States. He resumed his career on 
28 April 1851 as envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary at Lisbon. Here 
his diplomatic work was less arduous, and 
he rapidlv ingratiated himself with the royal 
family of Portugal. In May 1855 he came 
to England on leave, and at his own request, 
on 28 June, retired on pension, "but almost 
immediately (on 7 Aug/) was sent back to 
Lisbon on a special mission to congratulate 
Pedro V on attaining his majority. Pie re- 
turned to England once more in October 
1855, was awarded a diplomatic pension of 
the second class, and retired to Coolure, Castle 
Pollard, where he died, unmarried, on 28 Oct. 
1868. 

[Foreign Office List, 1868 ; Times, 31 Oct. 
1868 ; Burko's Peerage, s,v. ' Longford ; ' official 
information.] C, A. H. 

PAKENHAM, SIB THOMAS (1757- 
1836), admiral, third son of Thomas Paken- 
ham, first lord Longford, was born on 29 Sept. 
1757. He entered the navy in 1771 on board 



Pakenham 



Pakingion 



the Southampton, with Captain Macbride, 
with whom he moved to the Orpheus in 
1773, In 1774 he was on the coast of G uinea 
with Cornwaliis in the Pallas, and in 1775 
was acting- lieutenant of the Sphinx on tho 
coast of North America. In tne following 
year he was promoted by Lord Shuldham to 
be lieutenant of tho Greyhound frigate, and 
while in her saw much boat service, in the 
course of which he was severely wounded, 
In 1778 he joined tho Coura^eux, com- 
manded by Lord Mulgrave, in tho fleet under 
Keppel, and was present in tho notoriottM 
action of 27 July, In tho following spring 1 
he was moved into tho Europe, goinpf to North 
America with the flag 1 of .Roar-admiral Ar- 
buthnot, and on 21 Sept. 1779 was promoted 
to the command of tho Victor sloop, newly 
captured from tho enemy. Ho was then Kent 
to the Jamaica station, where, on ii March 
1780, he was posted by Sir Peter Parker the j 
elder [q,v.] to the San Oarloft. His old wound, 
received while in the Grtsyhound, broke out 



im-Hi, JAMKH, L<mt>], In 1 Tito no was turned 
over to thoHJ-jrun whip Junto, in tin* oaptmti 
of which, on 1 Juno, ho had had a principal 
hand. Ho WIIH afterwards for m>nm tinm 
nuiHtor-pnoml of Mm ordnance in Ireland 
and hud no further service in t hu navy, ( hi 
141'Yb, 17iH) 1m wiiH promoted to bo mu* 
admiral, viro-ftdmind on ^? April 1KU, and 
ndmival onfll July ISiO. If** wiw nominated 
a (UJ.R on &) May 1R>0, and died on a 1'Vb. 
1K% lie married in 17M Louina T daughter 
of the, Uitfht. Hon. John Staple*, mid hud a 
largo family. Ill* fifth son Uiclumi m eim~ 
rately noticed* 



'a Hoy, NHV, Hm^r. ,\ U7; KnlM 
. n.220; Bnttaon'H NHV. mid Mil Alti- 
irK; Horvion Boukm thtil'uMie Kcr 



RAKINflTON, WWOTHV, lain- (,/, 
JU?H) T reputed author of the ' Whole Duty 

a ff am, and compelled hlm'tJrroTui^rtfri'k'^ j l^ru^^y K^ 

hud m tlm ,*., T n^,_ i*un i.- ! -| ftUK h ttir ()f j^| ;n Aia(lpHJI%y it } l*""*> 

nienhire and t widow of William HtrhiWd! 
^hewiiH horn in or near Ltmdonjmt th*Mlt* 



, g- 

land in the autumn. In JDoeombor 17HO ho 



^,,_, _,_ ,.,,, v v*, v .**ti .Hi ,* /vjv,,v,ijj,m.u 

was appointed to tho Crescent of i n 
attached to tho flout und(U' Dnrby, whui rt<- 
lieved Gibraltar in April 1781, and wnw 8int ' 
ou to Minorca in company with the Flora ("woo 

WlLTJAMft-FllUMMAK, WlUitAM 1HKUH] P On ! 

their way back, in puasin/? through tho j 
straits, they fell in, on {JO May, with two ' 
Dutch frigates, one of which, tho Cantor, 
struck to the Flora, -while the other, tho 
J3n.ll, overpowered and captured the Crea- 
cent The Crescent was imraodiutttly recap- 
tured by the Flora, tho Brill makW her 
escape,- but both Croacout and Caator had 
received so much damage in the action that 
they fell into the hands of two French friimtea 
on the way home, 1 J) June, tho Flora escaping 
ZJakenham lind, however, refused to resume 
the command of the Crescent, maintaimnjr 
that by hw flurrender to the Hrill hh com- 
mission was cancelled, and that when re- 
captured the ship was on the same footimr 
as any other pme (BBATBOJST, v. 390), For 
the loss of hie ship he was tried by court- 
martial and honourably acquitted, ft being- 
proved that he did not Htrike the nac- tilLby 
the fall of her maata and the disabling of 
her guns, further resistance waa impoRHiblo, 
lie was therefor at one appointed to tho 
Mmerva frigate, which he commanded m 
the following year at the relief of Gibraltar 
by Lord Howe, In 1793 he ownmiMioned 

Stfil n TT C V ble ' a ^ , in ^ er took P arfc the 
battle of I June 1794. when his conduct was 

of w particularly brilliant 



. , HM nnr- 

rjodj m whaty^ar in unknown, to Sir Jultn 
nlunon ( 1 :>()., last)) | q . v . |,of W.^i woH 
m!. j 1m hnttHo wim t )M iwvluin 
' 



. iwu 

oi I)r. Ilniry Hammond [, v, fmrn '|< 
unt 

ili 
tin* 



, v, 

until JJiimmomlVa^ntlj in HHiO 
Udy Jl*ttkini*m 



^* whilo Hammond oeeupied it, 
tho natural rtwort of eminent ilivinen of nimi- 

trow, Tottmm f (hinnin^ and Kidman who 
acted iui llannuond'H mniutonHi, all viaitiMl 
Wtwtwood, and wereLmly I Ntkwgf on Wn mi- 
liar fnendn. When, therefons the flmt edi* 
turn of the * Whole Duty of Mnn 1 nmwuri'd 
aiumyniouHlv in I t5r,8 ( umiw the tit le of Tim 
J. raetjco of ChriHtian (ira^tm, or tlm Whole ' 
&e,) with an nddrttwi to tho puhliHher, (Jn/- 
thwait,by Hammoml t in which Hammond 
naid that ho had read over all fhoHheotw it wim 
not unnaturally conjectured that th book 
came from tlw houne in which \u\ wnw Uu*n 



linff, and roii K i(nm 



gold medal [see also GAM- 



,,< tin\Mia umr. HU*i tuuiii4 MJ Mir 

author. Lettwrs from Iwr to ] tihop Morloy nnti 

others (communicated to the wntw bylxird 

Hampton) re utill pnumrvml nt 

they show bv thmr nx^tiant oo 

not merely t&at Lady Palm K tmi mirjmwiHi 

most IftdwH of her tunu in oducfttion, but thnt 

e h Wa b k 



Pakington 



8 7 



Pakington 



The first public allusion to her reputed 
authorship was not made till 1697 eighteen 
years after- her death when Dr. George 
Hickes [q. v.] dedicated to her grandson his 
Anglo-Saxon and Moeso-Gothic grammar in 
his 'Linguaruni Septentrionalium Thesau- 
rus.' Hickes there says that Lady Paking- 
ton's practical piety, talents, and excellence 
in composition entitled her to be called and 
esteemed ( ' clici et haberi ' ) the authoress of 
the * Whole Duty.' In a pamphlet published 
in 1702, ' A Letter from a Clergyman in the 
Country,' &c., it is. definitely asserted that 
Archbishop D.olben, Bishop Fell, and Dr. 
Allestree all agreed from their own know- 
ledges that the book was written by Lady 
Pakington, and that she would not allow this 
to be made known during her life. In 1698 
a clergyman named Caulton made a declara- 
tion on his death-bed that Mrs. Eyre, a 
daughter of Lady Pakington, had nine years 
before shown him a manuscript of the book, 
which she affirmed to bo her mother's own, 
original copy a manuscript which has, how- 
ever, never since been seen, and which most 
probably was a copy made by Lady Dorothy 
for her own use from the original before pub* 
lication. But, at the same time, Mrs, Eyr$ 
asserted that none of the other books alleged 
to bo by the author of the 'Whole Duty' 
were written by her, except ' The Causes of 
the Decay of Christian Piety;' whereas Fell, 
who was certainly acquainted with the secret, 
declares in his preface to the collected edition 
of the ' Works/ of the writer of the ' Whole 
Duty/ published in 1084, that they were all 
the work of ono author, then deceased; and of 
this author he speaks in the masculine gender. 
The language, moreover, throughout the 
various books by the writer of the ' Whole 
Duty ' is that of a practised divine, as well as 
of a scholar. There is evidence tlxat the writer 
was acquainted, not merely with Greek and 
Latin, out also with Hebrew,, Syriac, and 
Arabic. He was one, too (as is shown by a 
passage in vii. of the ' Lively Oracles ' pub- 
lished in 1678), who had travelled l in popish 
countries' among those 'whom the late 
troubles or other occasions sent abroadj 

Of the many persons to whom the author- 
ship has been at various times ascribed, 
viz., Archbishop Sterne, Bishop Fell, Bishop 
Henchman, Bishop Gliappell of Cork, Abra- 
hamWoodhead, Obadiah Walker, Archbishop 
Frewen, William Fulman, and Kichard Al- 
lestree, besides one or two others, the pre- 
ponderance of evidence seems so strongly to 
lie in favour of the last-named as practically 
to admit of little doubt on the matter. In 
behalf of Allestree an argument from agree- 
ment of time, learning, character, and friends, 



was put forth by the Rev. Francis Barham in- 
an article in the ' Journal of Sacred Litera- 
ture' for July 1864 (pp. 433-5), and this view 
has been very strongly and convincingly ad^. 
vocated, mainly from the internal evidence 
of style and vocabulary, by Mr-, 0. E. Doble, 
in three articles in the ' Academy ' for No- 
vember 1884. Mr. Doble concludes that Alles* 
tree was the author of all the printed worka> 
as well as of one on the ' Gpvernment of 
the Thoughts,' still remaining in. manuscript 
(Bodl. MS.,, Ka-wlinson, C..700,,a copy made 
from a copy written by Bishop Tell), but 
that Fell probably edited, and to a certain 
extent revised, them all. The external evi- 
dence for this, view is chiefly, and suffi- 
ciently, found, in an anonymous note in a 
copy of the < Decay' (1675), which formerly 
belonged to White Kennett, and is now in 
the Bodleian Libnary; this note is couched in 
the following terms : ' Dr. Allestr.ee was w 
thor of this book, and wrote it in, th very 
same year wherein he went thro' a course 
of chymistry with Dr. Willis, which is the 
reason why so many physical and chymical 
aUusions are to be found in, it. And the 
copy of it came to, the press in the doctor's 
own handwriting, as. Tim Garthwaite [the 
publisher] told the present Archbp. of Cant. 
[Tenison], and his Grace affirm'd to, me in 
Sept. 1,713 ' (cf. Bibliographer, ii, 94 ; and for 
o,n account of a manuscript in the Bodleian 
Library, ib, p. 164, and HEARNH'S Diary v 
1885, i, 281). 

Lady Pakington died on 10 May 1679, 
leaving one son and, two daughters, and was, 
buried in Hampton-Lovett church,, Worcest 
tershire, on 13 May, ' being buried in linnen, 
the forfiture pay d according to the act ' (Burial 
Register). On a monument erected to her 
and her husband, in the following century, 
by her grandson, she is said to be 'justly re-* 
puted the authoress of the " Whole Duty o 
Man," ' A portrait of her, ' Powle del.,' en-, 
graved by V. Green, and published on 1 Jan,, 
1776, is to be found rn Nash's ' History o 
Worcestershire' (1781, i. 352), where is 
printed a summary criticism, of her alleged 
authorship by ' one who had examined the. 
question,' and who concludes, thttt she was 
only a copyist of the ' Duty.! 

[Besides the authorities cited above, soe 
Ballnrd's Memoirs of British Ladies, 2nd edit. 
1775, pp. 220-35, where Lady Pakingttm'e author- 
ship is maintained; Letters of W. Parry, H, Owen, 
ami GK Ballard, pp. 125-134, vol. ii. of Letters hy 
Eminent Persons, 1813 ; notes by Dr. Lort in 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, ii. 597-604; several 
communications in the first and third series of 
Notes and Queries. Evelyn in his Diary, tinder 
date of 16 July 1692, says that he was told by 



Pakington 



.Pakington 



Bishop [Teniscm] of Lincoln that one J)r, Chaplin 
of University College, Oxford, was the author of 
the 4 Duty ; ' cf, Atterbury's Sermons, 1737, iv. 
45; for Archbishop Sterne's chum see Biblio- 
grapher, 1882, ii, 73-9. There is nothing among 
Lady Paldngton's papers at West wood (awjording 
to information courteously given by Lord Hamp- 
ton) that throws any light upon the author- 
ship.] W. D, M. 



SIR JOHN (d. 1500), 
serjeant-at-law, was eldest sou of John 
Pakington, by Elizabeth, daughter ^uid 
heiress of Thomas Washlxwrno of Stanford, 
Worcestershire. Ho entered the Inner 
Temple, and was Lent reader in IfiSJQ. Ho 
must have had influence at court, nw on 
21 June 1509 he was made chorogrnpher of 
the court of common pleas. ^ On 3 Juno 
1513 he had a grant of land in Gloucester- 
shire, and in lf> 1,5 was a collector of aids for 
that county. His place at the common pleas 
was regranted toliimnelf and AnKtin Pukhtg- 
ton on "12 Oct. l/3^o, and in 15:21) ho became. 
treasurer of the Inner Temple, On 5 April 
1629 he had an extraordinary grant from 
the king namely, that he might wear his 
hat in his presence and ill tho pvononco of 
his successors, l or of any other pormwH 
whatsoever, and not to be uncovered on any 
occasion or cause whatsoever again.st hirt 
will and good liking,' and that, if niado a 
baron of the exobcquor orHorjoant-at-law, ho 
should be exempt from knighthood. In 16JW 
he was made serjeant-at-law, and wafl not 
knighted. IIo was heavily fined in Ift.'il for 
a misdemeanour in tho conduct of his olli<u>. 
In 1535 he was niado a juHt.ioo of 'North 
Wales, and a commusHioner to conclude and 
compound for all ihios and dobtw duo to 
Henry VIL On 31 Aug. 1/540 IIH bocauw 
custps rotulorum for VVorwRtorHhiro, On 
29 Sept. 1/540 ho was commiMMionor to in- 
quire what jewels, <fec., had boon embodied 
irom, the shrine of St, David's, For tho rent 
of his life he worked in Wai OH, where ho in 
spoken of a a judge, but he lived chiefly at 
Hampton-Loyott In "Woreewterahire, 

Henry VnianrichedPaldnglon with many 
grants, and knighted him on his return from 
Boulogne in J545. JTo wan from timo to 
time in the commiBwion of tho peace lor 
various counties Under Kdward VI ho wan, 
in 1551, nominated a member of tho council 
for the Welsh marches. 1 \ e WUM Bind to own 
thirty-one manors at tho timo of lu dwith, 
Henry VIII had given him 'Woat'.wood, 
Worcestershire, and other estates, and ho 
had trafficked in abbey lnnd to om oxtwit 
(cf. Dsp.-fteepw of lid L JRwwYfo, 10th Jtop, 
App. pt. ii. p, i247), but tho account iiniHt. have 
been exaggerated, IB the subsidy roll, in 



which tho valuations wore always unduly 
low, ho was ratrd at no more than />()/. a 
year. Pakington died in ir<>0, and wtw buried 
at Hampton-Ijovott, .He married Ann<% 
Booxningty daughter of Htuiry DucroB, nhcritf 
of London! and widow of Robert Fair- 
thway tt ? and porhnpa nl.soof one Tychbotw. 
Sheditnl in lodH. Uy her lie hud twodaugh 
tors; Ursula, who nmrriod William Sciulu- 
inoro, and Jiridgot, who inrri*d Sir John 
Lyttvlton of Frankloy, WorcpstcrHliirc, mid 
atYor bin donth thn< olhrr huHbandn. Hi,s 
grand-ncplunv, Sir Jnlin Pakington (15-iU 
J(Wf)), is Hopuratdy noticed. 

[ Lotto,rH and hijuw, Henry VHT, v. (ifi7.&<*,; 
tu'OH of tlui Privy Council, vii, '*<>, *\\\\ 
Worci'Kit'whiro, i, <'}/iH ; IturkcV I'Ututct 
, p. *U'ft; Mt^oulf'H Kni^titH, |>. \\l\ ; 
Annuls of tlu> Kuiorimitinti, in, ii 467 
ltf, n, ii. 101.] W, A, JT, A* 

LNCJTON, SiuJOJ1X(iniO 1(^5), 
^ wan (lu* non of Sir Tliutwm Pnlvin^*' 
ton. lUn grnndfadM'!*! Uobort Pulungtmi, 
youugtr brothi^r of Sir John Pakiugtnu ('/. 
lf>(50) )'((. v,), \va a London imwn% WHH 
j\IJ*. for thn city in lVH t \va luui'dcri'd 
in London in K>H7* tuttl wan buriod at St, 
PnnrrnH, NmllorVi Lam*, Tiio i'atlnr r Tho- 
ma Palvingfon, iiihrritinl from Jtin wothrr, 
ApifH (or Kulhnrtao), tlaughtor of Sir John 
Baldwin (r/, lr-ir>) |q, v,] Inrgo ^Ntatcn in 
and near Ayirtlury in Htu*kinghiuHlur*% 
and WUH ulno lu^ir to JIIH uucl< ( r Sir John 
PnkingUuu lli\ wim knight ml by (jiu^u 
Mary on L* O^t. U5*i t nud WJIM wheritt' of 
WofiM'Htt'p in 1WU. I!o <H<d at Hath l'!ar% 
Jlolborn, on li Jutm 1671, and wan hurii 1 *! 
at Aylwhurv *** tho lL*th llo imarrimi 
Dorothy (IWi ^ 1577), daughter of Sir Tho- 
WHIM Kitnon of Hon^mvo i Suflblk, by 
whom ho had t-wu duuffhtern ami ono HOU* 
IliK wtdow^ who WHH hin Moto oKctMUrix, 
Homo coh-brity by hi*r iutorforoitct* in 
nowntf mat torn, On -I Muy 1A71? M!JH 
a writ in ht k r <wn nauto H * lord find 



owiuu* of tho town of A ylrnhury,* appoin 

O.H for ilw con*t 1 itut i nry, Sho aft or* 



in Biu*kinf(hnmKhm% niul died ^ May loi"7. 
John, tho ouly HOII of Sir Thoiua^ horn lu 
1549, wim tuiueitti'd at <JhHt <*huvh t <>x- 
ford, gTadunttd B,A. on LH Her, Uitiitj nnd 
wan a wtudeut of LiiU*oln*H Inn in 1570, 
Pakington attract wl tho <tic* of Q.uoeu 
Klissabuth in hor pro^reHH ti> Worcent^f ht 
August lf>7/i, whou !M invited him to 
court. In London Iw lived for a fnv yearn 
in groat ttplmidnnr, and outmn bin fortune, 
Ho wan remarltuhlo both for hw wit and lltti 
beauty of hia pmwm* Tho iiu^n, whotuuk 



Pakington 



Pakington 



great pleasure in his athletic achievements, 
nicknamed him 'Lusty Pakington,' It is 
said that he once laid a wager with three 
other courtiers to swim from "Westminster 
to London Bridge, but the queen forbade 
the match. From 1G87 to 1001 Pakington 
was deputy-lieutenant ibrWorceater, Inlf>87 
ho was knighted. In 1593 ho was granted 
by the crown a patent for starch (NoAKE, 
Worcestershire Nuffgtete, p. 272 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 6th Rep. p. 277, Oth Rep. p. 257, 
7th Rep. p. 94), The queen, to help him 
in his financial diiliculties, maclo him bow- 
bearer of Malvern Chase, and is said to have 
given him a valuable estate in Suttblk ; but 
when he went to the place and saw the difc- 
tress of the widow of the former owner, he 
begged to have tho property transferred to 
her. Strict economy and a period of retire- 
ment enabled him to pay his debts, and a 
wealthy marriage in 1598 greatly improved 
his position, Pakington devoted much atten- 
tion to building, and to improving his estates 
in Worcestershire, Tho central portion of the 
house at West wood, which alter the civil 
war became the residence of the family, was 
his work. He olao constructed a lake at 
Westwood, which unfortunately encroached 
on the highway. Ilia right to alter the road 
being questioned, ho impetuously had the 
embankments cut through, and the waters 
of his lake streamed over the country and 
coloured the Severn for miles. He was 
sheriff for the county of Worcester in 1.691 
and in 1607. In Juno 1603 he cntertainec 
James I with great magnificence at his 
house at Aylesbury, In 1()07 Pakington, as 
justice of the jwace for Worcestershire, re- 
sisted the jurisdiction claimed by the counci* 1 
of Wales over the county (WRIGHT, Ludlow 
p. 419). 

Pakington died in January 1024-5, anc 
was buried at Ayksbury, He married, in 
November 1598, Dorothy, daughter of Hitf 
plirey Smith, Queen Elizabeth B silkman, an 
widow of Benedict Barnham [q. v.] By he 
he had two daughters and a son (sec below) 
Tho union was not a happy one. Early ii 
1607 Pakington 'and his little violent lady 
, . . parted upon foul terms,' In 1617 she ap 
pealed to the law, and Pakington was force 
to appear before the court of high commi's 
won, and was committed to gaol, It wa 
tho imploasing duty of Lord-keeper Bacon 
(who had married Lady Pakingt era's daugh 
ter, Alice Barnham) to give an opinion 
against hia mother-in-law. In 1028 ah 
quarrelled with her sons-in-law respecting 
the administration of her husband's estate 
win eli wart tranwferretl to the sons-in-law in 
February 1039 (Lords' Journals,- iii. pp, &J7 



62, 872, iv. pp. 23-4). In or about 16:29 

lie took a third husband (Robert Needham, 

irst viscount Kilmorey), who had already 

een thrice married, and died in November 

631. Subsequently she became the third 

wife of Thomas Erskine, first earl of Kellie 

q.v.] He died on 12 June 1639, and she 

)robably died about the same date. There 

s a portrait of Pakington at Westwood 

?ark, Worcestershire. Of his three children, 

Anne, his elder daughter, married at Ken- 

ington, on 9 Feb. 1618-19, Sir Humphrey 

Ferrers, son of Sir John Ferrers of Tarn- 

worth Castle, "Warwickshire; and, after his 

decease, Philip Stanhope, first earl of Ches- 

terfield. His second daughter, Mary, mar- 

ried Sir Richard Brooke of Nacton in Suffolk. 

The only son, JOHN PAKINGTON (1600- 
L634), born in 1600, was created a baronet 
.u June 1020, and sat in parliament for Ayles- 
Diu-y in 16^3-4. He married Frances, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Ferrers of Tamworth, by 
whom he had one son, John (1620-1680), 
who succeeded to the title, and is separately 
noticed, and one daughter (Elizabeth), who 
married, first, Colonel Henry Washington, 
and, secondly, Samuel Sandys of Ombersley in 
Worcestershire. Pakington died in October 
1624, and was buried at Aylesbury. Bis 
widow married at St. Anthplin, Budge Row, 
London, on 29 Dec. 1626, 'Mr. Robert 
Loasly, gent.' (Karl. Soc. Publ. Meg. viii. 61). 
The similarity of name may account for 
the improbable statement frequently made 
that she became the second wife of Alex- 
ander Leslie, first earl of Leven [q. v.] 

[Burke's Peerage, art, ' Hampton;' Stow's Sur* 
voy,vol. i. bk. iii. p. 29 ; Wotton's Baronetage, ed. 
Kimber and Johnson, i. 180-6 ; Bacon's Works, 
eel. Spedding, Ellis, Heath, vii. 569-85, xi. 
1*3-14; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, iii. 375; 
Hash's Worcestershire, vol. i. p. xviii ; Metealfe's 
Knights, pp. 113, 221; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1 7 14; Nichols's Progresses of Queen 
Elizabeth, iv. 76 et seq.; Strype's Ecclesiastic! 
Memorials, vol. iii, pt. ii. p. 181 ; Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1603-10 p. 398, 1611-18 
p. 475 ; Official list of M.P.'s, vol. i. pp. xxix, 
456; Orridffe's Citizens of London, pp, 168-70; 
Hepworth Dixon's Personal Hist, of Lord Bacon, 
pp. 139, U5, 146, 154, 243-4; Lloyd's State 
worthies, pp. 616-17 (a glowing character ot 
Palmipjton) ; Gout. Hag. 1828, pt. ii. p. 197; 
JJiflhop of 'London's Marriage Licences (Hurl. 
Soc. Publ. xxv.), p- '256 j Kegistors of Kensing- 
ton (Harl. Soc. Publ. xvi.), P- 67.] B. P. 



-, SIB JOHN (1620-1680), 
second baronet, royalist, was tlie only son of 
Sir John Palungton (1600-1624), first baro- 
net [see under PAKINGTON, SIB JOHN, 1549- 
l(ji2/>], Ho was born in 16520, and succeeded 



Pakington 



Pakington 



to the baronetcy on the death of his lather 
before he was four years of ago. On tho 
death of his grandfather, in the following 
year, he became the ward of Thomas Co ventry, 
lord Coventry [q. v.] On 9 May 10JW ho took 
the oath of allegiance, and on the follow- 
ing day was granted permission to travel 
abroad for three years, with the proviso 
that he was not to visit Koine, lie dooH 
not, however, appear to have left Kng- 
larid, and in March 1030-40 was returned 
to parliombat for the county of WorcoHtor 
and for the borough of Aylo.sbnry, He 
represented the latter till Anguwt 104^, 
when he was disabled to sit in conyeqtunieo 
of his having put tho commission of array 
into execution in behalf of tho king*. .11 o 
was present at the battlo of Kinoton on 
24 Oct. 1642, On 23 March I(j4f>~($, hav- 
ing 1 voluntarily surrendered himself to tho 
speaker to compound, ho was ordered by 
the House of Commons into tho euntody of 
the sergeant-at-anna, and to appejiv at; the 
bar on tho following- morning, On $2 April 
1646 he begged for bail in order to pro- 
secute his composition, ' being much im- 
paired in health by his long restraint in 
tin's hot season.* Hie request WUH granttul 
on 28 May following. On 24 Oct.. lite h'tm 
was fixed at half the nominal value of Jus 
estate. Against thifi decision ho remon- 
strated on 5 Jan, 1046-7, and on 15 July 
the line was reduced to one-third, II o wart 
assessed for 3,OOOJ, by tho committee for tho 
advance of money on (J March 1047-8, and 
on 26 Sept. 1648 aenuefltorod for non-pay- 
ment. On 3 March J (U8-9, on payment, of 
<J,OQO/., he was granted jxmsoHHion of hw 
estate, and was aasifltod in enforcing the 
payment of rent from his tenants. Early in 




ton's estate) as a reward for their services to 
the parliament. ^ The request waa granted 
on It Dec. Pakmyton received some abate* 
meixt of his fine m consoquonce, In the 
conveyance drawn up, Thomas Scot [q, v,], 
regicide, burgess of Ayloetmry, contrived to 
include other property and privileges over 
and above the pasturage granted, to which 
Pakington in tig great extremities, and 
owing^ to the ' dureaae and menaces ' of Scot 
and his confederates, was forced to a#ree on 
20 Jan, 1649-00, 

Pakington obeyed tie summons of 
Charles II, and appeared at the rendezvous 
at Pitchcroft, near Worcester, on SWAuff, 
1651 , with a reinforcement of hoim He was 
taken prisoner at the battlo of Worcester 
on 3 Sept, 1651, and was indicted at the 



Lent assizes itt K>oiJ, HUM estates \voro 
again sequestered. His trial for appearing 
at Pitehoroft, did not actually take place till 
Lent Kin??, when ho WHS nequittod. lu 
accordance with his own pot it ion, permission 
to compound for his property at two yearn' 
value was grunted him on *M Aug. 14154. At; 
th(^ etui of December he wnw again arrested, 
and went to London, with Sir Ileziry Lyttel- 
ton, high sheriff lor XX'ortvwt-ei*, for being iti 
p<H,M<,Msion of unuM t mul was iinprisnned in 
tho Towor till Se]leiulier KMV). lli,s nniue, 
wan included in a lint of plottrrn gainst llm 
J^-otodor lai<l Infnrethe ImiliHs of Kidiler- 
niiuaternnd justieeHof tb(*penn for Wntves- 
Wr in Juno IH*">5. In September !<!")'.> IUH 
estutOM Were again twlerini t< be Meizoti, bo 
lu'itig suHpect**l of eomplielt v tn tlu* ri.^ing 
of Sir (jeorge !imih ( I<i HIS,J)| ({( v , | Ho 
%VH summoned to defend himself in < Mober, 
but the mntttr nppent'M to liv* pm* no i'ur- 
thor, and the UestdnUton in Mny following 



many o 



.t the 

HiulhiM wife made theiv bouse tbe 
syltun of Hinry Ilummoud (q, v. ) nml of 
il's friemls, JUKI Wentwnmi 
nn the bemlquartern of tin* oltl 
lug'h-cbureh party, 

In K5(>0 it KHrt/rf 4 t (KK)/, tn * ICiiwnrd 
Ore^ory ' \va explained fy the Ktnpf to be 
meant for the benefit of I'ulihi^'ton, but WHH 
pUHsed in imothiT nnws * l ( nti th t*\umnl 
nbotiUl 1)0 pr(*judi(ual/ I'nking'ton Nat in 
parliament an nu^nber for Woree.HterHbiro 
from IWU to H57ib A Npeetn! bill for 
j^ hi eonnt rained ronvi'yuiu'o of Hey* 
w in January KM!* "<) wunreftcl in tfm 

TI^lay !t!fil t but wann 
till May 10lM hi Novernbor UIU1 
ton intormetl Hir Kflwnrd Ni<holu (|. v, | of 
tho dincoytMry of ft mippostHl preKhytorinn 
plot in hm iH^hliourhutnl, nd forwarded 
liim someintorfept^d lottera wliteh had been 
brought to him, Hoveral imnintiTH, Baxter 
among tho rinmlwr, w*ro implicated, and 
arrests wow imulo, Tho letters wero jr- 
bably forgorioN t mul t -.hn chnr^*H wero never 
proved. Andrew Yammton [q, v,'j, who 
wroto an a<oont of the wltVtr in 10H1, 
regftrdf^d ^Pahinjfton m tho inventor of tho 
plot f which frequently wont hy hm amo) 
and the wrifm* of fho lottery Pakingtou 
wtia tho inthnftto friend of Binhop Morloy 
faoe Moiafiir, (lomiH] nnd of Bar Halpli 
Clare [qv,], and thu cmo into collision 
with Richard Itoton Baxter awumstl 
Pakinffton of having intercepted a letter of 
hi*, wmch proved to he of a pun*ly privatt* 
natura, and of wending it to London, llo 
him as * tho mm that hotly fol* 



Pakington 



lowed such work.' lie was approved by the 
king as deputy-lieutenant lor Worcestershire 
on 10 March '1662-S. 

Pakington died in January 1670-80, and 
was buried at llampton-Lovett. lie married 
Dorothy, daughter of IUH guardian, Lord 
Coventry [oo 1 'A.K iNcmw, LADY DOKOTHY], 
by whom he had one won and two daughters. 
llo made no will, but administration was 
granted to hin son in March 1080. 

SIB JOHN PARINOTON (UMO-1088), third 
baronot, the only won, matriculated ut Christ 
Church, Oxford,' on iJ May !(#._() ,H) May 
]()(Ji> a liconao waa granted to him to travel 
for three yearn with hm tutor, l)r, Yerbury, 
and in July 1007 ho wan at Bnnla (6W. 
$t(ttt> PftjMfi, K507, p, SWO). Ilo spout a 
rotirud lite at WcHtwood, Htudying and be- 
friending t ho neighbouring clergy, ( ieorgo 
lliclw[q. v.], dean of Worcester, was much 
at WoHtwood, wroto many of hia works 
there, and roemvtnl Pakington'H dying in- 
structions aw to hiw ImrutL Under IHekcH's 
tuition ho became one of tho iinest Anglo- 
Saxon scholars ofhiH time, Ho raprosimtcd 
WoreoHtiTshirtt in purliatmmt from l(5Ho to 
1087. Ho dim! in March 1088, ,11 xnarriod, 
on 17 Due. KJOH, Margaret, smmd daughter 
of iSir John Koyt, bnrt., of Kbrington, 
(HoumsUsrHhiro ( Kbringttm pariah register). 
11 IH only Hon, Joint, in Neparatoly noticed. 

[liurkrt'H Ptfwntfo, art, * Hampton;' Cal. of 
State Papm-H, 1037- -8, 1040, 1064, 1665, 1000- 
KJ61, 1001-2, l(J<>,1-4, 1004-/5, HKJ7; WoUon'w 
linronotngo, i. 187 ct uoq. ; Niwh's Worcwfltw- 
shiro, i. ii/>2 (piuligvoo), n, App, cvi,; Calon- 
dar of Conmu'ttce for Compoutuliiig, pp. JiO, 
7120, llO'l-fi; Cftl. of Commit-too for tfio Ad- 
VHuo.e of Monoy pp. HOC. .7 ; Oflloiul LIH!H of 
H.IVw, i, 480, 4^4, 5H1, 5*50; Lorda' Journals, 
xi, 522, 00/5; Comnjons' Journals, ii, 729, iv. 
48U, M7, vi. 4 20, 331, vii. 200, viii 470, Mf>; 
reo'fl Worccwtor, i* 278, 285 ; Onso of Sir 
John Pakington (oontomporary flh^ot); Byl- 
wHtw's Kt'liq. Biatoriarw, pt, ii, p. 38.3 ; 
Yarronton'H Full Diwovory, pftSHim ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1600-17H; Hichott^ Thesaurus, 
B-ef. pp. ii-iv.] B, P. 

PAKINOTOIT, SIB JOIIN (1671-1727), 
politician and alleged original of Addison's 
1 Sir Kogor do Covorlciy^/ born on 10 March 
3071, waa only won of Sir John Ptilkmgt.Qn, 
of Wewtwood, Worcoatorwhm), the third baro- 
net [see undr PAKTNCWON, SIK JOHN, 16^0- 
1680]. II IH mother, Margaret (d* 1690), was 
second daughter of Sir John Ktsyt, Ibart,, of 
ISbrington, (Jllouceatorahiro, Dorotliy, lady 
Fakington [q, v.], was his ^andtnother. 
Pakington^ father^ who died in 1688, en- 
trusted his education to the care of Lord 
Woy month and hw brothers, James and 
Henry Frederick Thynne. ] 



Pakington 

t Hearne ( Collections, eel. Doble, ii. 56) men- 
tions Pakington as one of the writers of St. 
John's College, Oxford ; but if he was at the 
university for a time, he did not take his de- 
gree. On 5 March 1600, although not yet 
nineteen, he was elected M.P. for Worcester- 
shire, and he sat for that county until his 
death, except in the parliament of 1695-8, 
when he voluntarily declined the position. 
In July 1702 he_was elected for Aylesbury, 
where some of his ancestors lived, as well as 
AVorcestershire (Return of Members of Par- 
liament), In 1691 he married Frances, eldest 
surviving daughter of Sir Henry Parker, 
bart., of Honington. Warwickshire (Harl. 
Soc. PM, xxxi. 191). 

Pakington's political views made them- 
solvoa conspicuous in the House of Commons 
in December 1699, when he proposed an ad- 
dress to the king to remove Gilbert Burnet 
[q. v.], bishop of Salisbury, from the office of 
preceptor to the Duke of Gloucester, on the 
ground that he was unfit for that trust be- 
cause ho had hinted that William III came 
in by conquest. The matter, however, pro- 
ceeded no further (LtrmiELL, Brief Relation 
qf State Affairs, iv. 592). By 1700 Paking- 
ton tyaa a widower, and on 26 Aug. a license 
was granted for his marriage, at All Saints, 
Oxford, to Hester, daughter and heiress of 
Sir Herbert Perrott of Harroldston, Pem- 
brokeshire (JEfarl. &oc. Publ xxiv. 237) j she 
died in 1715. 

On 8 Nov. 1702 Pakington made complaint 
to the house against William Lloyd (1627- 
1 71 7 ) [q. v.l, bishop of Worcester, and his son, 
William Lloyd, respecting the privileges of 
tho house, The matter was taken into con- 
sideration on the 18th, when evidence was 
given that Lloyd had called upon Paking- 
ton not to stand for parliament, had tra- 
duced him to his clergy and tenants, and 
had threatened those who voted for him. 
Lloyd's son had alleged that Pakington had 
voted for bringing in a French government, 
and the bishop's secretary had said that 
people might as .well vote for the Pre- 
tender, The rector of Harnpton-Lovett (of 
which living Pakington was patron) deposed 
that the bishop had charged Pakington with 
drunkenness, swearing, and immorality, and 
had urged against him a pamphlet written 
in vindication of the bill against the trans- 
lation of bishops. Lloyd said that Paking- 
ton had published three libels against him 
and other bishops, and he denied that he was, 
as Pakington alleged, author of ' The Cha- 
racter of a Churchman ' (see Sowers Tracts, 
1813, ix f 477-81). The house resolved that 
the conduct of the bishop, his son and agents, 
had been ' malicious, unchristian, and arbi- 



Pakington 



Pakington 



trary, in high violation of the liberties ami 
privileges of the Commons of England.' lu 
an address to the queen they prayed that 
Lloyd might be removed from his posit ion 
of lord almoner; and the attornoy-gonoral 
was ordered to prosecute Lloyd's .son when 
his privilege as a member of tho lower House 
of Convocation expired. The 1 1 ouao of Lords 
urged that every one had a right to be hoard 
in his own defence before suilbring punish- 
ment; but on L 20 Nov. the commons were 
informed that Anno had agreed to remove 
Lloyd from his place of almoner. On the 
25th the evidence was ordered to be printed 
(The Evidence given at the Itaroftlw Hotrw, 

f Sir John 



of Commons upon the complaint of 
Pakmt/ton . , . together with the 
in</$ of the JEfowe, 1702; KAPIK, cent, by 
TINIJAL, 170;}, iii, 480-7). Tho foud con- 
tinued till 1705, when (6 Juno) Palungt.on 
wrote to Lloyd that dissenters wore moro 
in the bishop's favour than church mon, and 
complained of annoyance to Jus friends, 
which would compu Hiiro, if it did not stop, 
to right himself again ( II HA UN 13, Co/lwtintttt, 
eel, lioblo, i. 25, lii/5 : British Muaoum, Add, 
MS. 2800S, f. 290). 

When the bill for provtmting occasional 

conformity camo before the houwo in No- 

vember ,170^ Pukingtion made a wpoooh in \ 

which he donouncod dhoso who stood neutral 

in matters so nearly concerning tho church, 

and said that the trimmers had u hatred of 

the Stuarts which came to thorn by inheri- 

tance (CoiMEi'T, Parl. Hut. vl. IfiJi), in a 

debate on 7 .Doc. 17Qf>, which arose out of a 

resolution of the loms that any one who 

said the Church of England waa in dangor 

was an enemy to tho queen, church, and 

kingdom, Pakington drew attention to tho 

licentiousness of the proas, tlio numerous 

libels against tho church, tho moroaso of 

presbyteriau convontidoH, and the lords' 

resolution itself, aa proofs that the church 

wag in danger. Tho commons, howovor, 

agreed with the lords, in apito of Paking- 

ton's argument that the lords' resolution 

would bo a conyuniimt weapon in tho hands 

of any ovil minister who might wish to 

abolish episcopacy (lb t vl 508). Pakingion 

found anotlier opportunity for expressing his 

high tory vim on 4 Fob, 17()7,whon tho 

Act of Ratification of tho Articltm of Union 

with Scotland was before tho houso, Ho 

said he was absolutely against tho union, * a 

.measure conducted by bribory and corrup- 

tion -within doors, and by forcu and violence 

without,' When the tumult that followed 

had subsided, ho modiltod aliglitly his ro~ 

mark, asked whether persons who had ho- 

trayed their truat were tit to it iu tho 



house, and point ml out tliiUcuIlios in Itaving 
in ono kingdom twochurolu,s whioh claimed 
to bo 4 juro divino ' (ib. vl o(0). Tin* union, 
however, WUH HOOU npprovod by tho IUWHO, 

On llnrloy'n dismissal from" tho otlioo of 
lord trouwmvr on 27 July 17 U, Pakiugttui 
WHS singlod out; for high ollioo, ami \vuis 
probul)ly oflorod a rommi^ionorship of tho 
treasury (HovKK, Annal^ ]>. 71.H). Upon 
(Juoon Atnto ? H tlonth, live days later, ho ami 
his friomls were nooossarily'itujoh 



and on r> Aug. i*uktuglon matlo a complaint 
nga.in.st ,Hr, Kn(l< i lif]e for nut attending her 
majesty when Kent for liy the J)ul v < of ( h<- 
mtm<le; but the matter dropped when it \VIIH 
found that. Rmloliire WHN nut in hm plnoti Su 
\\\H houso, no tmo seroiuling the tnotit>n of 
expulsion (MoYUU, IWfiwtf Nutr, AnguM. 
171-1, p, IW; n"t'utirurt/t /W/wt, 'JIU), 
In Sopt ember 1 7 15, immetHati'Iy after tho 
outbreak of tho rebellion on bolinlf of ihn 
older Pretender, Stanhope acquainted tho 
Imuso that there wan just nituso tu nnspeel, 
HLV imnnbers, inolnding- Paltmghw, find that. 
i.lto king <hsirod thermment oft ho OOHUUOUH 
to their arrest. The linuso remlily oowurreil, 
and an fuhlross of tluinks \van jiresentotl. 
.Fukingttm roooivod warning through tlw 
laiullonl of a noMthouHe between < )xtonl nnl 
Worcester, when* hc^ was a good customer; 
for a friendly messenger got the first, hur^e, 
niul tho king's inessttigii did not urriv<^ nt. 
VVestwotul until #ix hours after Sir *lihn 
kmw of tho warrant of arrest-. Ho WHH, 
howovor, wuitmg lur tlm uiosHenger, and 
naul ho was quite willing to go uf> ta t<nvn 
by tho^t age-conch next day, which ho <!M ; 
uu<l f after oxanuimt ion before the emmcil, he 
proviul Im innocence, and WB hoitoumtilv 
actjuit.tod (A full ttntt ttut font irk Xamitiw 
of tkt rttfwtt/wt fatrriti { 'nnttjimny ant/ fnwt- 
t/tt> CVw*/ , ", , SV> /**// 
1 71 5). FtMir years later 
(7 J)oa 171^) Paluittfttm npuko il^ninat tho 
po(M-aKH bill, wliou ho founu hhuMelf tm tho 
wuno Htdn UH ihoWaboloHumi Steeh*. * For 
my own part,' ho said, * I never diwo tti lio 
a Lord, but I have a nou nud may <* day 
havo that nmbititm j and I hope to lenvn 
him a boUor claim to it than a certain fwul 
mnn|Stunh(i>e| had when ho WH mude a 
peer, llo iilso ojipiwod tho measure homut> 
it waa prejudicial to tho rights of tho heir 
to tlui tlirono, and would romler t 
On>r#o f and his son 



(ttktary (tnti /*mwv/%/i ttf the 
17-11, i, ^t\ iHM) 



'/ 



rakm^tnu was made recordorof W wrest or 
on Ul Fel>. 17^5,1111(1 ho diod on 1*1 Aug* 
17^7, and wan huriml with Im aiicehtor* nt 
Hmaptou-JLovotfc, m aiicorilaijco with tho 



Pakington 



Pakmgton 



wirth expressed in tho, will whirh ho, made, 
three days before his (loath, Tho cost of 
the funeral wns not lo exceed L'OO/. The 
will was proved on 27 Oct., und a largo and 
olaborato niouumout WHH erected ou the, 
north Hide of the elmucel in tho church. 
This wns moved into (he Pakin^ion chapel 
when tho church wn restored in 185S 0. 
Pahing'ton's etllgy, by J. Rnso, reclines on 
tho marbles tomb, and an inseriptiou pre- 
pared, i us tho will shows, beforehand states 
thutho \vnHaniuduhjvntfutheivi kind master, 
charitable, and loyal ; * he, spoko his mind in 
parliament without reserve, neither touring 
nor (Uttering those in power, but despising 
all their oilers of title mid preferment upon 
base and dishonourable ( ompl lances,* Charles 
Lyttolton |q, v. |, bishop of Carlisle, aftor- 



ton had a secret pension from tho whig minis- 
ter of AtH)/. a year, charged ou tho Salt ( Mliee ; 
but this JH Inmlly probable, ami hyttcltou 
was not. a friendly critic, 

By his first wife Pahmgtouhwl two sons - 
John, who dietl at. Oxford in 17lL\ aged 
nineteen, unrl Thonuts, who entered Balliol 
College in 1715, aged nineteen, and died at 
Homo in 17lM und two daughters, Mar- 
garet and Frances, the latter of whom mar- 
ried Thomas, viscount Tnieey (ef, LmTtuiu,, 

No. 40, ed, Nichols, l7H(5 t U, f)(), v, Wi-I ({) 

By hia second wife he had a sou, iterbert 
IVrrott, who Hiieeocdod his fat her an baronet 
and M.P, for WorceHtewhhv, and who had 
two sons, John and Herbert I Wrott, after- 
wards Mixth and seventh baronets, Tho titlo 
becatnt^ extinct upon tho death of Sir John 
Pakinpfton, eighth baronet, in 18-10, but was 
revived in I KM in favour of John Somerset 
Russell, wm of IClimbeth, eldest daughter of 
the seventh baronet [mni PAKINUTOK, JOHN 
SoMKUHUTf first HAUON 11 \MTTON]* 
, i^ikin^dou in btst known, not as a typical 
hitfh tory and cthurchiniui, btit HH tho sup- 
posed original of the Sir Roger tlo Coverley 
of tho 'Spectator.* lie Heems^ however, to 
have no junt claim to that, distinct -ion. Tho 
name of tho famouH country g-enthmmn wa 
taken from the old count ry duncc^und Tir.kell, 
Adflinon'w editor, nays that tho wholo of tho 
churae-tem in tho periodical were fmgwsd } 
while tho Hjiootatnr hiniHoli' said (No, 2(52), 
* When I! prnao an Imufcinnvy namo at the 
head of a character, I oxaminu ovory sylla- 
ble and hitter of it, that it may not bear any 
resemblance to one- that m real,' It is true 
that. KJuHtaco Budgoll vaguely ftrto(l, in 
i}n\ imdatni to his * The-ophrantuH,' that most. 
of tixy characturw iu thu 'Spuctator * oxiatod 




it was nnduratood that Sir Eog-er was drawn 
MV Sir John .Pakington, a toiy not without 
House, but abounding in absurdities. It is 
dtihcult to understand how this story arose, 
for tho two characters have remarkably few 
points of resemblance beyond the fact that 
thoy woro both baronets of Worcestershire. 
Sir linger wan a bachelor, because he had 
boon eroded in love by a perverse widow, 
whilo Pakington married twice. In March 
17] I, when the 'Spectator 'was commenced, 
IWmgton was 150, and an energetic and 
militant ^politician ; Sir Koger was 55, had 
no enomiea, and viaitod London only occa- 
sionally, when his old-world manners seemed 
atrango to those who saw him, though in 
IUH youth he had boon a fino gentleman 
about, town. Sir Roger had, indeed, been 
more than once returned knight of the shire ; 
butPakitigtonaat continuously in the house. 
Hir .Roger was not given to lawsuits, though 
he Hat on tho bench at assizes, and at quarter 
BCHHWUH gained upphiuso by explaining- ' a 
ptmsage in the Uarae Act;' but Pakington 
waw a lawyer and a recorder, and able to 
take procioedingB with success against oppo- 
nentHliko JHshop .Lloyd.- Sir Hoger would 
hardly havo hpposod* a bishop, though he 
xvoro Lloyd or Burnet, JJoth came into 
their estates when tli(\y were young ; but Sir 
llogor, unlike Pakington, was a much stronger 
tory in tho country than in town. Near 
Oovorlcy ITall were tho ruina of an old abbey, 
jxnd tho mansion was surroundod by l pleas- 
ing walks . , . struck out of a wood, in the 
midst of which the house stands;' and there 
had been a monastery at Westwood, and the 
house was surrounded by two hundred acres 
of oak-trees ; but the description of Ooverley 
Hall would apply to many country houses 
besides Wostwood, Kven if the idea of 
Oovorloy Hall woro taken from Westwood, 
there would bo no fluiliciont ground for say- 
ing that Pakington was the prototype of 
Sir Roger, 

George Jlickes [q. v.], and others who 
would not. take tho oaths to William III, 
found a temporary refuge at West wood in 
1 (189* There Hickes wrote a great part of 
his' Linguarum Soptentrionalium Thesaurus, 
and ha subsequently dedicated his ' Gram- 
matica Anglo-Saxonica ' to Pakington. 

[Hash's History and Antiquities of Worcester- 
shire, i. 186, 350-3, 536-40 (with views of West- 
wood) ; Lipscombo's History of the County of 
Buckingham, ii. 14, 15; Burke's Peerage and 
Extinct Baronotago ; Fonlwr'n Alumni Oxom- 
wwos; State Papers, Treasury, 1G97-1702 Ixii, 



Pakington 



94 



Pakington 



79, 1708-1714 cxxxv. 9, cliii. 7, clxxii. 8; 
.Additional MS. (Brit. Mus.) 24121, f. 142; 
Tanner MSS. (Bodleian) cccv. 231 ; Notes am 
Queries, 1st ser. i. 367, 2nd ser. iii, 46, 7tl 
ser. ii. 447; Tindal's continuation of Bnpln 
iv. 212, 358-9; Wytm's History of Quee: 
Anne, i. 216-17, 390-1, 481 ; Wills's Sir Bogo 
do Coverley; information furnished by Lon 
Hampton, the Eer. Edwin Lowis, and Miss 
Porter.] GK A. A, 

PAKINGTON, JOHN SOMERSET 
first BAKON HAMPTONT (1799-18HO), born on 
20 Feb. 1799, was the son of William Russell 
ot'PowicJk Court, Worcestershire, by his wile 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Herbert Perrott 
Pakington, bart., of Westwood Park in tho 
same county. He was educated at Eton and 
Oriel College, Oxford, where he matriculated 
on 18 Feb. 1818, but did not graduate. On 
the death of his maternal uncle, Sir John 
Paldng'ton, bart,, in January 18JJO, tho 
baronetcy became extinct, and the ert 
descended to him and his aunt, Anne Pale- 
,ing-ton (who died unmarried in 184(i), as 
coheirs-at-law [see under PAicnwroN, Siu 
JOHN, J 071-1727]. On 14 March L8.'U he as- 
sumed the surname of Pakington in lieu of 
Il\mdl(Zondon (fasettt*, I88l,pt, i, p. 400), 
Ho unsuccessfully contested, in tho conser- 
vative interest, IDast Woreofttorfthiro in De- 
cember 18.S2, and West Woreeatorahiro in 
May 1833 and January 1 835. At tho general 
election in July 1837 ho WUH returned to 
parliament for J)roitwich, and continued to 
represent that borough until tho dissolution 
in January 1 874. Ho wpoko for the firat timo 
in the House of Commons, in the debate on 
Canadian af lairs, on 22 January 1H38 (7V/. 
Debates, ftrdsor. xl, 340 -5:2). In the HOHHiou 
of 1840 ho flucooftflfuHy carried through tho 
house a bill for the amendment of the Halo 
of Beer Act, the principle of which wart that 
no one should be allowed to noil intoxicating 
liquors unless ho had a definite rating quali- I 
fication (3 and 4 Viet, c, 01). While sup- 
porting the vote of want of confidence in tin* 
whig ministry on 20 Jan. 1840, ho blamed 



181,1 (tttrl. Debates, 3rd ser. Ixxiv. 7 IS ^>) f 
but votod against the bill for the repeal of tho 
corn laws in tho followingHossion. On 1 3.1 uly 
J840 he was created a baronet of fcho Unit oil 
Kingdom. In the HO.&SUJU of 181-7 ho intro- 
duced a bill for tho more wpootly trial and 
punishment of juvenile oflondorn (?A. xo. 430 
437), which received tho roval absent in, I uly 
of that year (10 and 11 Viet c, Hsty On 
7 Fob. 1848 he wan nominated a momhor of" 
tho Holect committee appoint od to inqtiiro 
into the condition mulpnwportsof nu^iu*nitil 
coflet*. planting 1 in tho Kiust andWost, Indite 



Beutinek wan tho 
1SI7 H ( vol. xxni, 
Lnrtt (uvpit* /j?^//- 



of which Lord (Source 
chairman (tttt'l. /V;'rr 
ptrt. i,-iv. ; HOO DIHIUM 
tmrk ; ft Political ttfw/r<t])/tt/, 18oi*, pp. f>^S) , 
5oO) t and on 3 July*lHJH ho wius di.ioatoii 
in Im attempt to impono a diilorontiul tint v 
on^su^ar of Uk por c\vt, in favour of tho 
British colonios by a majority of i\ (htrf. 
) 3rd Her. c. 4-1 () 14, 78), In tho 
iful through 
the OommtnjH a hill for tho mvvouf ioti of bri- 
bery at; elect ionn (??;, ou, IOU- /<)), which wan, 
howovor, thrown out in tho lonlw (ih, c*vit, 
1 1 10), ilin Lnroony Stimmury JunnUirtiou 
Bill wart jwiMwul in tlm following HONNion ( l;t 
uul 14 \ ict. o, 37)* On tho fornuition of 



. 

lH5iJ, Paktngton WH.H tuttuittoU to th privv 
council and appoint otl myroturyfor war ami 
lie t'olonioN ( hwthiH {/ttzcttt< % 185^ i, 0)13 4 }, 
VH coloulnl Hoorotnrv lu^ had olwrgo of tlu* 
nil for granting a rtwiwntativt* nuiMtitu* 
lion to tho colony of No\v tfoalaw! ( lo nttd 
Viet, c. 753), which ho introdutttui into tho 
IOUHO of (tommouH on J Mnv IH^ (PttrL 
mtex, iJnl wr. cxxi, Ht* 11^1*108), On 
he dofoat of tho government in OonnulnT 
,85^, ho rotirod from oiliro with tho n*st of 
im colluagui^H. llo wan nppoitttvd a nuMiihnr 
>f tho committee of inquiry into t.ho <oudi- 
ion of tho army heforo Sohnntopot on ^,'t JVh, 
1855 (/Voi /W/w,^, iHol r> f vitL ix,) On 



March following ho introduce an iHuru- 
turn bill, which contained tho goriu of tho 










Ktriitirion wan romwrnxl, lu, 
WH OH thu Heenlnr HVMimn in 



itligi*; 

d upon tho 



u J -, V1 , 1 -., 5 - ton 

, m 1W i W4 , hw Hi 11 for , I cxllv '' m-M), lint 

amendmg the law respecting tho ollioo of ; it. II,, V ot.l for tlw third 

emuuv coroner was pa,,,,! ,7 an ( lVi t,e.Oath.s Hill tm sr, J un " 



WH 
willuln>w 

of" Im 



,.. tm 

2' fP v A d r allysi T? 1 l ; dt wwwmdroad- mombt-w of hm own parlv (ft C v ;!( 7 
mgofrocl'sMaynootdCollogeB.Uonir.April ' Karly In tho following awimi ( 7 . 



Pakington 



95 



Pakington 



the appointment of a royal commission on 
popular education (ib, cxxviii. 11,84), On 
8 March 18 ">8 he was appointed iirst lord 
of the admiralty in Lord Derby's second ad- 
ministration, and on 25 Fob, 1859 he an- 
nounced in his speech on the navy estimates 
that the government had determined to make 
the experiment of building* two iron-cased 
ships, which were afterwards known as the 
Warrior and the Black Prince (ib, clii. 910^ 
912; and aee clxix, 1100-1). Upon Lord 
Derby's defeat in June 1859 Pakington re- 
signed office, and was created a G.O.B. on the 
30th of that month (London Gazette, 1859, 
vol. i, pt. ii. p, 2861). He waa appointed first 
lord 01 the admiralty again in Lord Derby's 
third administration in" June 1866; and on 
8 March 1867 succeeded General Peel as 
secretary of state for war (id. 1867, vol. i. 
pt. i. p. 1694). While returning; thanks for 
his re-election at Droitwich on 18 March 1867 
he indiscreetly revealed the secret history of 
the ministerial Reform Bill (see Jfarrow'tf 
Worcester Journal, 16 March 1867), in conse- 
quence of which his colleagues war exposed 
to much ridicule, and the measure became 
known as the * Ten Minutes Bill.' He re- 
mained in office as secretary of war until 
Disraeli's resignation in December 1868, 

At the general election in February 1874 
Pakington waa defeated at Droitwich, 
and on 6 March following he was created 
Baron Hampton of Hamptbn-Lovatt, and of 
Wtmtwood in the county of Worcester, He 
took his seat in the House of Lords on the 
10th of the same month (Journals of the 
J'Xwm of Lord*, cvi, 9-10), and spoke there 
for the first time on 22 May following, when 
he moved a resolution in favour of the ap- 
pointment of a minister of public instruction 
(Part. Debate^ 3rd ser. ccxix, 683-8). 
lie was appointed first civil service com- 
missioner HI November 1875, and spoke for 
the last time in the House of Lords on 1. Aug. 
1 879 (ib. 3rd ser. ccxlviii. 1837). He died in 
Eaton Square, London, on 9 April 1 880, aged 
81, and was buried on the 16th in the family 
mausoleum in Hampton - Lovett Church, 
where there is a stained-glass window to his 
memory. 

Hampton was a conscientious and pains- 
taking administrator. Though a staunch 
churchman himself, he was tolerant in re- 
ligious matters ; and his views on the sub- 
ject of education, especially with regard to 
unsectarian teaching-, were considerably in 
advance of his party, 

He married, first, on 14 Aug". 1822, Mary, 
only child of Moroton Agiionby Slaney of 
Bhinual, Shropshire, by whom he had one son, 
John Slaney, who succeeded as second Baron 



Hampton, and died on 26 April 1893, His 
first wife died on 6 Jan. 1843. He married, 
secondly, on 4 June 1844, Augusta Anne, 
daughter of the Right Rev. George Murray, 
D.D., bishop of Rochester, by whom he had 
one son, Herbert Perrott Murray, who suc- 
ceeded as third Baron Hampton on the death 
of his half-brother. His second wife died on 
23 Feb. 1848. He married, thirdly, on 

5 June 18-51, Augusta, daughter of Thomas 
Champion deOreapigny, and widow of Colonel 
Thomas Henry Dayies of Elmley Park, Wor- 
cestershire, by whom he had no children, 
His widow died on 8 Feb. 1892, aged 92. 

He was chairman of the Worcestershire 
quarter sessions from 1834 to 1858, and was 
gazetted lieutenant-colonel of the Worcester- 
shire yeomanry cavalry in November 1859. 
He was an elder brother of the Trinity House, 
and served as president of the Institute of 
Naval Architects for twenty-one years. Ho 
was created a D.C.L* of Oxford University 
on 7 June 1803, and in October 1871 presided 
over the meeting of the Social Science Asso- 
ciation at Leeds. Three of his speeches were 
separately published, as well as an address 
on national education delivered by him on 
18 Nov* 1856 to the members of the Man- 
chester Athenmum, London, Bvo. 

[Walpole's Hist, of England, yola. in. iv. v. ; 
M'OarthyV Hist, of our own Times; Turber- 
ville'tt Worcestershire in tho Nineteenth Century, 
1852; Memoirs of an Ex-Minister, 1884, i. 
278, 351, ii. 28, 74, 188, 358, 3C7 ; Men of the 
Time, 1879, pp. 484-6; Annual Begiater, 1880, 
pt.ii.pp, 159-60; Times, 10 arid 16 April 1880; 
Illustrated London News, Berrow's Worcester 
Journal, and the Worcestershire Chronicle for 
17 April 1880 ; Burke's Peerage, 1893, p. 658 ; 
Poster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, p. 1058; 
Stapylton's Eton School Lists, 1864, pp. 73, 81; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890; Official Ke- 
turns of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. 
pp. 372, 389, 406, 423, 438, 455, 471, 487.1 

G. P. B. B. 

PAKINGTON, WILLIAM (d. 1390), 
chronicler, was clerk and treasurer of the 
household of Edward, prince of Wales [q. v.], 
the ' Black prince/ in Gasconv. He was, it 
is believed, a native of Warwickshire, where 
there are two villages named Packing'ton 
(TtfLLEB, Worthies, ii. 474), though there 
is also a village with that name on the 
border of Leicestershire, besides a hamlet in 
Weeford, Staffordshire. In 1349 he was 
presented by the king- to the rectory of 
East Wretham, Norfolk, and in 1377 held 
the wardenship of the royal hospital of. St. 
Leonard at Derby. Richard II appointed 
him keeper of the wardrobe in 1379, and on 

6 Jan, 1381 chancellor of the exchequer. 



Palairct < 

He was a canon of Windsor, and at onetime 
rector of Ivinffhoe, Buckinghamshire, and 
was presented by tho king to the living of 
"Wearmouth, Durham. On 20 Sept,. 1 M 1 t ho 
king- appointed him archdeacon of Canter- 
bury , and on 28 Doc, he was admitted to the 
deanery of Lichliold, which ho resigned on 
SO April 1390, He received a prebend of 
York in April 1 383, was dean of the iv ival freo 
chapel of St. Mary, Stallbrd, in W4, and was 
installed prebendary of Lincoln in Or.tober 
1389. Shortly before Iiifl death, which took 
place on or before ^5 July l.tSH), he received 
from tho orown a prebend hi tlu eollru'iato 
church of St IMith in Tarn worth, Sullord- 
shire, and was also appointed prebendary of 
St. Paul's, London. Ho wrote a e.lmmielo 
in French from tho ninth year of King 1 .John 
tn his own time, and dedicated it to lYmeo 
Edward, and is said to have recorded tho 
prince's exploits. Lolaml translated Novowl 
extracts from a French epitome of this diro- 
niclft, and inserted them in his 'Collectanea/ 
From these extracts Mr* Maunde Thompson 
(Chronicun GalfritU Lc Balwr, pp, IS.'* -4) 
concludes 'that much of Pale melon's chro- 
nicle must have been word for word the same 
as the revised edition of the French ** Brute/' * 
observing that this may perlmpn uflbrd a 
clue to tho authorship of tho second edition 
of the French verflion of tho prow 'Unit* 
chronicle, compiled in the rci^'ii of I'M- 
ward III, and ending at; L'WJi, 

[Lftland'n Comment, do Heriptfc. Ilrit. <\ '102, 
ii. 365, <xiL Hall, ami Ooiloctanofi, i. 454 sq. (Uml 
edit.) ; Balo'n Cat. Seriptt, Brit, eont. vi, c, BH, 
p. 490 ((-(I, 1557), acldft nothing to JUlaiul, Imt 
divider Pakmgtoii'g Chronicle into two bookn, 
the 'Hintoria* and the * Acta qumquo 
Tanner's BibK Hrit. p. r>09; FulWV 
ii. 474, od, Kichols ; Lo Novti'n l^unti K 
i. 41, 562, ii. 171, ill 209, .W od, Himly; 
Thompson's Chron, Galfr, lo Baker, pp. IH3-4.1 

W. IL 

PALAIEET, ETJAS (17l^l70r>\ phi 
lolog-or, born in 17liJat Hottordam, WIIH <lo- 
flcendedfrom a French family that had taktn 
refuge in Holland on tho revocation of tho 
edict of Nantes, jAftor atudying at Leyden 
ho took holy orders, and htH'ame HiiceeHHiveJy 
preacher at Aurclonburg (1741)^ Dooniik 
(1740), andTournay. On coming to I^nglatid 
he acted a$ pastor of the French church at 
Greenwich, and of St, John's Church, Hwtul- 
fields, and latterly preatther in tho Dutch 
chapel at St. James's, WeHtminatijr. II m 
abilities attracted tho not kso of John l'"gerton 
[q. v.], successively bishop of Bangor atul 
Durham, who made him his chaplain* IV 
lairet died in Marylabime on 2 Jan, )7iJ5 
(Cbnt. Mag. 1765, p, 4G), He left ail km 



Palairct 

1 property to IUM wife Mar^unt ( /Vo/w//' Act, 
//Wr, L\O.Ll ITtto; will in 1\0.(; HJJ, Uu-sln 
worth). 

Ili.s wrilinipfH nre : I, * llisloiro dn Palri- 
ftrclu* Joseph wise en vr.s hrroujues/ Svo, 
L(>yden, IT.'i'S, i', * ObNfrvalione,s pliiloh)- 
^ieo-eritteje iti sueros Nvi Ktpdt'ris lihros, 
quorum pliirima loca t>\ uutorihuM potissi- 
nuun (ineei.s ovpnuiuitur,' Hv< Lt^vdcn, 
175^ ; Hcvenilof Pnlniret's explanations were 
c-alletl iti question in ih> * Art a rnuUtoruui 
hipsieuHiuu) ' for 17">7\ pp, IM S, and bv 
0!uirhM Louis JinuiM' in tlu fh'M volume of 

M St riet uninun Ferieuliun/ *K * l*roeve vnit 

liMiipfeboe-kin dv$ NiMi\veu A'rrbontls/ Svo, 
h<\vden, 17A1, 't, 4 S|riiM<u oxt'ivitaf iontuu 
philoln^ieo-eritienruiu insnrros Novi lAotleris 
IthroH, 1 Hvo, London, I7*")o (another etlit, 
17t>0) ; tuttMidetl as a pi'osportns of a twine*! 
edit ion of II'IH 'O}Mt*rvutinne,s/ f), 'Tlu'SJUtntHi 
Kllipsiunt I*ntiiuuMiin t niv< voemu qtt, 1 !* iti 
senuoiio Lntitto MHppre^n* intticantur/ Wvo, 
Lnndou, 1700 (new e{tt, hy R II, Hnrk^r, 
lS v ji)), This useful booh is Weompuuied by 
a doul)le index of authorn uml \vonK li 
t.he prefuee Pnlniret promiH<! n i*evH*Ml eili- 
tion of Lawberlurt HMM*H 'KllipHen (JruM*!**/ 
but he died befor* itn eomplH iou. lHl7oi5 
he < i orvet'tetl for \Vi!liim Howyerflu* *Aja\* 
and ' MltTti'ii " of SnphwIrNt publihlitnl in 
175H, HIM annotatiouH on the treali^en of 
Xenoptumthe l^phenian are printed in I*, II. 
IVm'lhampVi editi*n f that writer (4(0. 
lliwrlcm, IH1H). 



landoti ; Nrnwlh- Biogmphto Utu'v<*pH^lln (Mi- 
chaud); NmtvoHMrio^mphiMUmn'aio; NtHtoWif 
Lit, ArnwL ii. 3W f 3L% 71.| (i a 

PAL AIRBT t JOHN ( HJ07 i77-t) ( rwtttor t 
born in KHJ7 At Miwtaiitmit, WI*H a^ont of tin* 
Stn,t(w-(JonomI in London and I^ronehtottehet* 
to three of thiu*hih!ron of Uonr^o II ( J*rin<*t* 
Williinu, ttfh'rwartln I>ukt of C'uitttwn k !nntl 
and the l*rint*eHH*M Mnry uul Louwi). H** 
died in the imrinh of St! .lantoHV, WHi 
wter, in 1774 ((ft>ut M<tt/ t 177-t, p f ( JH). 
hud bo(n twit^e married, und b*ft two 
ohn mid David and thm* 



Ho wroto^ l, ( ( NouvoIto 
appmudretl bion liroot i\ bienortho 
liimo, Lomtim, 17^1 <l*Jth miititm IJoM; 
now edit, by Kornmy^ Hvo f Horltn, I*V). 
a* * Abreg^ HUP IH SeleucoH ot war lew ArtM, 
(n Kran^om ^, on An^Iotn/ Hv, f^mdoit, 
17.1H (1740, I7'H ( Hth lw !it, ri^viHi'ii bv M. 
Iht Mitriru 



tion byUottlob Lwlwitf Mnntor uppourod 
Hruuwit*k and Hihl*'iicim iu 17 IU) 3. * 



Palavicino 



97 



Palavicino 



New Royal French Grammar/ 8vo, London, 
1738 (3rd edit,, the Hague, 1738 ; 8th edit., 
London, 1769). 4. ' Nouvelle Introduction 
si la Geographic Moderne,' 3 vols. ISrno, 
London, 1754-5, 5. * Atlas M6thodique,' 
fol. London, 1754 (53 maps). 6. ( Recueil 
des Regies d'Aritkmetique,' 4to (Paris? 
1755?), 7. ( A Concise Description of the 
English and French Possessions in North 
America,' 8vo, London, 1755 (in French, 
1756). 

His correspondence with Count Bentinck 
in 1750, 1758, and 1761, in French, is among 
the Egerton MSS. in the British Museum, 
Nos. 1727 and 1746. A letter from him to 
the Duke of Newcastle in 1757 is in Addi- 
tional MS. 32871, f. 381. 

[Aa's Biographieoh Woorclcnboek der Neder- 
landen; Nouvelle Biographic Uirirerselle (Mi- 
chaud); Nouvelle Biographic Genurale; Nichols's 
Illustr. of Lib. iv. 034; Will in P.C.C. 26, Alex- 
ander; Will of ]i31izaboth Pukiret, -widow of his 
son Diivicl, in P.C.C. 183, Major.] G-. G-, 

PALAVICINO, SntHORATIO (d. 1600), 
merchant and political agent, came of a cele- 
brated Italian family, the elder branch of 
which possessed a district on the Po called 
the Stato Palavicino, while the younger 
branch settled at Genoa; several members 
of it were appointed regents of Genoa by the 
Dukes of Milan, and more than one became 
a cardinal. One was in the service of the 
English kings, Henry VIII and Edward VI. 
Horatio's father, Tobias Palavicino, was pro- 
bably a merchant, and was living in 1579. 
Horatio was born at Genoa, but early in life 
was sent into the Netherlands, where he re- 
sided for some time ; thence he proceeded to 
England, where he was recommended to Queen 
Mary, and appointed collector of papal taxes. 
On Mary's death, Palavicino, according" to 
tradition, abjured his Romanism, and, appro- 
priating 1 the sums he had collected for the 
pope, laid the foundations of an enormous 
fortune. Devoting himself to commercial 
enterprise, he seems to have extended his 
"business operations to most quarters of the 
globe. The wealth he thus acquired made 
him an important financial agent, He lent 
largely to Queen Elizabeth, Henry of Na- 
varre,' and the Netherlands, and always at, 
a usurious interest; so greatly was Eliza- 
beth indebted to him that the fate of the 
kingdom was said to have depended upon 
him ; while on one occasion he furnished 
Henry of Navarre with no less than one 
hundred thousand French crowns. Pala- 
vicino's position as a collector of political 
intelligence was equally important, and his 
numerous commercial correspondents fre- 
quently enabled him to forestall all other 

VOL.'-XLUI. , 



sources of information. He was himself often 
employed by the government to furnish in- 
telligence from abroad; he was acting in this 
capacity in 1581 . In June he appears to -have 
experienced some trouble for refusing to go to 
church (STRTPE, Annals, I. iii. 57, 273). In 
1583 he was at Paris befriending William 
Parry (d. 1585) [q. v.] In April 1584 
Richard Hakluyt [q. v.] wrote to Walsing- 
ham that Palavicino was willing to join in 
the western voyage. In 1585, when Philip 
Howard, first earl of Arundel [q. v.], was 
imprisoned, he sought the aid of Palavicino, 
as being * an honest man,' in preparing 1 his 
defence. On 7 Feb.- 1585-6 Palavicino was 
recommended by Burghley to Leicester in the 
Low Countries, and in the same year he was 
granted a patent of denization. In 1587 he 
was knighted by Elizabeth, on which occasion 
Thomas Newton [<j_. v.] addressed to him an 
ode, which was printed that year in his ' II- 
lustriurn Aliquot Anglorum Encomia,' and re- 
published in the second edition of Leland's 
' Collectanea,' 1770, v. 174. Early in 1588 he 
was in Germany ; he returned before the sum- 
mer, and asked to serve against the armada. 
He was consulted by Burghley about, raising 
money to meet the invasion, equipped a vessel 
at his own cost, and was present as a volun- 
teer during the operations in the Channel and 
at Calais. It is generally stated that he com- 
manded a vessel against the armada, and his 
portrait is among the captains commemorated 
m the House of Lords' tapestry (MoitANT and 
PINE, Tapestry of the House ofXords, p. 16) ; 
but his name does not appear in the list of 
captains (MintDiw, pp. 01 5-20 ct Papers re- 
lating to the Armada, ed. Laughton, paSsim). 
In the following October Palavicino at- 
tempted on 'his own account a political in- 
trigue, in which the English government was 
probably not implicated, though Walsing- 
hani rnay have suggested some such scheme 
to Palavicino (ib. iL 199 nJ) He wrote to 
Alexander Farnese, the Spanish commander 
in the Netherlands, suggesting a scheme by 
which Alexander was to assume the sove- 
reignty of the Netherlands to the exclusion ol 
Philip, was to guarantee the cautionary towns 
to Elizabeth until her advances to the Dutch 
had been repaid, and to receive the support 
and perpetual alliance of England. Alex- 
ander rejected these proposals with indigna- 
tion, declaring that had Palavicino recom- 
mended them in person he would have killed 
him ; he sent a detailed account of the affair 
to Philip, who suggested that Palavicino 
should be invited to Flanders, and should 
be punished after he had disclosed all the 
information he could (MOTLEY, United 
, ii. 639-41). 



Palavicino 



In February 1589-90 rulavicino was sent 
into Germany, with an allowance of fiO.s-, a 
day for diet; in July he. wont. as envoy to 
the French king- ; in November he was a^ain 
in Germany, which he revisited in 1591 and 
1592, maintaining a correMpondeneo with the 
government, Sir Thomas Bodley |q. v,J am- 
bassador at the Hague, and other diplo- 
matists. Ilia principal business was the 
negotiation of loans for the KngTish and 
J)uteh governments, lu 1594 he once more 
applied for license to g'o abroad^ but his 
active employment ceased soon afterwards, 
and he retired to his manor of Habraham, 
near Cambridge, where he died cm t5 July 
1600. He was buried there on 17 July, and 
Ilia funeral was kept on 4 Au#, His will is 
given in the ' Calendar of State Papers,' The 
queen owed him nearly l^OOO/., which sub- 
sequently formed a matter of frequent dis- 
pute between his sous and tho government, 
and was never fully paid. 

Palavicino was t an ext remo miser,' ami 
' in every way distant from amiable, but he 
possessed the best abilities/ Horace \YnI- 
polo says ho was an arras paintei', and cer- 
tainly he supplied Elizabeth with amis, but 
that lit) painted arras himself is not so clear, 
He was also Italian architect, to tho queen. 
A number of his letters, writ ttm in a beauti- 
ful hand, are extant; in the Ootton JNINS. iu 
tho British Museum; his 'Narrative of tho 
Voyage of the Spanish Armada,' &c,- t is 
printed in the 'Calendar of State- Papers,' 
under date August I5H8, but it contains 
many errors; ho is also said to have published 
some Italian psalms (If), J594, p. 4(W), but 
these are not known to be extant, Theophllua 
Field Jq. v.], afterwards bishop of Hereford, 
contributed to, and edited/An Italian's Dead 
Bodie stucke with English Mowers; Hlcgtes 
on the Death of Sir Orntio Pallavicino/ Lon- 
don, H)OQ, which he dedicated to Palavieino's 
widow. Bishop Hull also wrotn 'Oortaine 
Verses written and sent, in way of comfort, to 
her Ladiship/ which were printed iu 'Album 
sen Nigrum Anvieormn in obit., Uor, PuU- 
vkiini,' London, 1(100, 4to, The following 
quaint epitaph, quoted by llomce Walpole, 
was found among 1 t.he manuscrtptH of Hir John 
Carew of Usbington : 

Horo lies Horatio I'nlava/.ouo, 

Who vobb'd the Poptt to lend tlio QIHWIUI; 

He was a tliif.fu, A Un^fey Thou lycHt, 

!For wliis ? H roblAl but Ant ichnst, 

Him duath with bcHonui swept from 

Into the bosom of old Abrmu. 

But then eamo Hurcules with IIIH club, 

And struck him down to 



It had, however, been previously printed in 
a small volume of poetry, * Itecroatiou* far 



5 Palavicino 

ingenious Headpieces, nr a, pleasant (iro\n 
for their \\ its 1o walk in," tVc., 1<>07. 

\VbiIe in the how Countries Palavieino 
married a certain 'very mean peivtw/\vhom 
he <lid not wish to ucKnouled^e us his wife 
while his father was alive; by her he had 
one son, Kilward, whom, in deference to the 
wish of his second vnle, he declare*! illicit i-* 
nmte and disinherited. Many \ ears after his 
first wife's death Pahu ieino married at Frank* 
fort, on l?7 April lolH Anne, dnUi*hter of 
K^idius Hois{ man of Antwerp ; sh* received 
patent of denkaliott ui MnnJan*! in the t'ol- 
ine; year. By her I *a!a \ieino luio* t\\o 
and n daught i r Henry, who died o 
I { Oct. l(llo, without is^ue ; nii'l Tt!ii\ who 
was born on *JH May l.V.Kl nt nahrnhiuu, 
which was prohuhh the oernsiou of un ode 
of twenty Hfan/iiK in Adtlitionul MS. *,!*J**S,'i 



liuuen/ TobicHqtutndered hi* frt!hfr*s 
wns iiuprisoucd iu tlu* Kl'rt ftn*l hn, lc, i n - 
ing' three .sons and dnitghfcr. rntn\ieiiMM 
family becanu* ohwely coiiitocffd with th 
(Vowwells by u rpuiurlvrthle M'rie.s of mar 
rin^os, His widow, a v*nr nud u 4uy ut'ter 
his death* inrrinl Sir o!h*r Cromwell, the 



and Tohtis mnrried* on 10 A|u*il ItHir*, Su' 
OliverV t\vo ilHUjfhtiTM hy it jr\um> JHIU*- 
riiitfe, < *uthnriea*lIiin**; and thtMtau^htor, 
Hiiptimit uinrnrd Sir OIi^ir'n *'t}i^i HOU tttiti 
heir, Hi'ry. Hnbseqttenf ly ntiollu^r tui*m1tt*r 
of the i'ntuhy, PettT l'alftvicinM ( r*uo tit Kn^* 
land nsii wortthnnf WUH )(nt^)t(t*titn HMnno 
1UH7, and died in February MW (Ln Ni:u: f 
JCtifyfitfii p, -II l 1 ). 
|Authoriti**H qiwhnl j (Nithm 

f, - 



HOP, 

7f(t, HHO, &*,; 

ColliiiM'H Li'ttt^fH nd M^juor'sal^, n, iUU, ir*It, tit, 
li H ; ItymorV Kunh'ni (SylliiluiH), it, HtU, U* 



ii Sm* I, Sir II, 
)H5!(,)i} Itott 7; 
^i. Wuruuia. i, 
um(* uf rrim- 
i, it, 



of t 



Wjil(Hl'*s Atn^' 

18(1 j Nublo'w Mi'tmtiMoi' tb num(* 
w41, , W HO; JWkV I^iilrt'Hlii r 
A 2 j ('aindt'is'H itHtHttnia, it. 1*'{H Ui 

wt, -d, HiMtrrtts AJJI, i, 171 i ^Wi^ii' 
' 



I, i, HW ;|, I lift, ii -IOH, ttt 'ij,; J*ti, 
l u (17(1* v. 266-tij Umj&hV ('ttnuimi, ii. 
l^iJ^fM rt'lntiiiK to tlto Arntmht (Snvy U^ 
*Sut%)j MiiHriiMiV MiUan, ii, yo*, f*'i7 : 
Somcrw TtwtH, 1, 4-J/i ; MMmnl'N I'Wx, i, H t l j!U; 



f jMV2; Collu<rV HiM, J*it. i, iK ( *' I; tli-iu, 
Mng % lHh1 t, OH, JHAI i, 2.1M Uj N'otw and 
QunriflK, 4tll M*^ viit, 't3'^ 5UH, 5th *i\ xi, '.Ml*, 
xiii 3, 215, 7th er ix. 23S^J A. K 1** 



Paley 



Paley 



PALEY, FREDERICK APTHORP 

(181.5-1888), classical scholar, was the eldest 
son of Edmund Paley, rector of Easingwold, 
near York, where he was born 14 Jan. 1815. 
lie was grandson of Archdeacon William 
Paley [q. v.] Educated at Shrewsbury, and 
at &t. John's College, Cambridge, he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1838, but, owing- to his dis- 
like of mathematics, he was unable to take 
a degree in honours. To classical studies he 
was devoted from early youth, although his 
interests were always wide, and as a boy he 
was a good mechanician and fond of natu- 
ral science. In 1838 he published his first 
book, a translation of G. F. Schomann's ( De 
Cornitiis Atheniensibus.' He proceeded M.A. 
in 1842, and received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. of Aberdeen in 1883. 

From 1838 to 1846 he was in residence at 
Cambridge, and, in addition to reading with 
pupils, assiduously studied classics and ec- 
clesiastical architecture, He was an original 
member of the Cambridge Caraden Society, 
'became honorary secretary and member of 
committee, and he contributed largely to the 
'* Eeeksiologist ' while that paper was the 
organ of the society. He eagerly supported 
tho restoration of the Round Church at Cam- 
bridge, During the progress of the Oxford 
movement ,_ by which he was greatly influ- 
enced, he identified himself with the high- 
church party in his university. In 1846 he 
was suspected of having encouraged one of 
his pupils named Morris, a former pupil of 
Henry Alibrd [q, v.], to join the Roman church 
( ALFORD, An .Earnest Dissuasive from joining 
the Church of Rome, London, 1846), and he 
was ordered by the master and seniors to 
give up his rooms in college (Cambridge 
Chronicle, 81 Oct., 11 Nov., 26 Dec. 1846, 
26 July 1851). 

He accordingly left Cambridge, but not be- 
fore he had himself become a Roman catholic. 
He now sought employment as private tutor. 
From 1847 to 1850 he was tutor to Ber- 
tram Talbot, heir to the earldom of Shrews- 
bury. In 1850 he obtained a similar post in 
the'Throckmorton family, and accompanied 
thorn on a visit to Madeira and Tenenfte for 
the benefit of his pupil's health (cf, Classica 
llcmcw, iii, 82). From 1852 to 1856 he was 
non-resident tutor in the family of Kenelm 
Digby, He married in 1854, and after a 
brief "sojourn at \^ ^ estgate, Peterborough, 
where lie took private pupils, he returned to 
the university in 1860, on the partial re- 
moval oP religious disability, and settled at 
63 Jesus Lane, Cambridge. He subsequently 
lived at 17 Botolph, Lane. 

Since 1844 an edition of ' ^Eschylus,' with 
Lathi notes by him, had been appearing in 



)arts, and, though coldly received abroad, 
;he work was meeting with success in this 
country. During his absence from Cambridge 
of fourteen years (1846-1860) he had studied 
and written incessantly. Not content with 
producing several books on classical and 
architectural subjects, he had carefully 
studied botany and geology. He investigated 
the habits of earthworms, and contemplated 
a work on this subject, but his design was 
anticipated by the appearance of Darwin's 
book. In 1878 he published his discoveries, 
in tabulated form, in two articles, entitled 
' The Habits, Food, and Uses of the Earth- 
Worm' (HAEDWICKE, Science Gossip. 1878. 
Nos. 162, 163). 

From 1860 to 1874 he was an assiduous 
private tutor at Cambridge. His pupils found 
in him a stimulating guide, who never con- 
sented to teach solely for the examinations. 
He examined in the classical tripos in 1873-4, 
In 1874 he was selected by Manning to be 
professor of classical literature at the new 
catholic university college at Kensington, 
and removed to Lowther Lodge, Lonsdale 
Road, Barnes. The college proved a failure, 
and Paley ceased to be professor in 1877. 
He was classical examiner to the university 
of London (1875-1880), and to the civil ser- 
vice commission. 

In 1881, owing to weakness of the chest 
and lungs, he removed to Bournemouth. He 
bought a house in Boscombe Spa, which he re- 
named < Apthorp.' There lie died 9 Dec. 1888, 
He was buried in the Roman catholic church- 
yard, Boscombe. He was twice married : 
first, 31 July 1854, at Brighton, to Ruth, 
sixth daughter of u. M. Burchell, esq., oi 
Scotsland, Bramley, Surrey (Times, 2 Aug. 
1854) ; she was killed in a carriage accident 
near Peterborough 26 May 1870, and ^vaa 
buried in Peterborough cemetery; lie married, 
secondly, on 3 Oct. 1871, at Clifton, Selena 
Frances, youngest daughter of the late 
Rev. T. Broadhurst of Bath (Times, 6 Oct. 
1871). He left two sons and one daughter 
by his first wife j his second wife survived 



Much of his published work is good, 
notably his introductions to the plays of 
Euripides, which are models of clearness, and 
his * Manual of Gothic Mouldings,' which is 
admirably compiled. He was never at lei- 
sure, but he lacked patience for research. 
For years Donaldson's ' New Cratylus ' and 
' Varronianus ' formed his ultimate court of 
appeal in classics. He possessed scarcely 
any works by foreign scholars, and he neveV 
read German. With authors like the Latin 
'poets, full of recondite learning, he was not 
competent to deal, His Greok and Latin 

H2 



Paley 



TOO 



Palcy 



compositions were marked by Hueney tmd 
delicate taste, and his epigrams _ were ad- 
mired; yet his English translations wore 
deplorable. Jlis defence of Euripides against 
the aspersions of A. W. Schlegel and his 
school was well reasoned, penetrating, and 
convincing. As an annotator of the (ireek 
dramatists he exhibited intimacy with their 
diction, but showed no poet.ic imagina- 
tion. 

To the Homeric controversy Paley con- 
tributed a theory that the % * Iliad ' and 
'Odyssey' as we 'have them were first put 
together out of a general stock of traditions, 
either, in or not long below the ago of 
Pericles. His thoory was not accepted in 
England, but. altvacted notice in (lennany, 
Another theory in which he placed firm faith 
was the SSolar myth/ which he introduced 
into his books at every opportunity, until at 
last he applied it to the exegesis of St. John's 
Gospel, In tho^Tounialof Philology '(voKx,) 
he wroten, paper 'On certain engineering dilli~ 
eultieft in Thueydides's account of the escape 
from Plat am,/ wherein he sought to prove that- 
the story told by Thucydides is impossihlo, 
and to that mid he made use of his knowledge 
of geology ( of. Cltt&wd, ,AVr/V//<, iv, 1 ), This 
article created a school of critics in ( lennany 
who impugn the credibility and accuracy of 
Thueydides, P>nt Paley 'M opinion did not 
meet with general assent, 

Paley's chief publications were: L f The 
Church Restorers ; a Tale treat ing of Ancient, 
and Modem Architecture nnd ('hnrelt De- 
coration/ London, 1814, Svo, i2. * Keclesio- 
legist's (hiide to Churehew at Cambridge/ 
1844, l^mo. ft. * Illustrations of Baptismal 
Ponts/ 1844, Svo; only part of the letter- 
press t8 his, 4. */KsehyH quw Hnpcrnnnt' 
omnia/ 18-14-7, 7 pin.; in one vol. 1H50, Thin 
work laid the foundation of Pnlev's reputa* 
tion as a Greek scholar, fi, * Manual of 
Gothic Mouldings/ I84o T Svo ; lhul ed, 18 17 ; 
3rd od, with additions by \V* M, Ka \vcett, 
M.A, 18G5; 4th ed, Is77; r>th ed, IHNL 
<^, * Manual of (Jothie Architecture/ 1H4(I, 
1'jmo. 7. * A Brief Review of the Argu- 
ments alleged in Defence of tho ProteMtant 
Position/ London, 1S48, Hvo, H, M)n the 
Architecture of Peterborough Cathedral/ 
Peterborough, 184i), Hvo, i), A Proper- 
tins, with English Notes/ London, l8f>'i, 
Svo; -'nd od. !H7i\ 10. t>vid' KiiBti/ 18M, 
ISmo; i^iul ed. 188(5; blew, i, and iii, 1888, 
31, f Th Trngedies of /KschyluH, with 
English Notes/ London, 1855, 8vo ; !hid od. 
1861 j 3rd ed, 1870 ; 4th ed, 1879, Tina i,s 
the first of Paley's contributions to tlw 
Miibliothoca Olassina/ 1L\ 'Tho TrugcdicH 
of Kuri]>ides/ 8 vols, London, 18G7, &cj 



*n<l ed, 187^, iSrc. IX, ' .IvsehyluM : n Uicen- 
sion <i* the Text/ ("ainbrid^e, 1S5S, Hitun; 
* ramhritljjfe (}r'i v k ud Latin T'\ts/ It, k A 
few Words on Wheat -euro/ L*>udmt } INV,< ( 
15. * Nott's on twenty Parish riwrehes 
round Peterhornun'h/ ISoi), If>, * Mora of 
Peterborough/ 18<>I), 17, * Tho Mpies t' 
Ilcsiod, M'ith iOtljilish Nfrs/ Lnfuhuu lSIl t 
Svo; l!ntl eil, ISS.'J, For this \\orK Pah-v 
riMid fourteen utuuuseripis. is, "Theoen'tUM, 
with short Latin Nnii**/ (\nnbritlijf\ I si!. 1 1, 
Svo; :hul <d, IStiU, PJ, * A Pr*M 1'rnn^Ia- 
tion of , Ksehylus/ London, IStU, S\o; ^ml 
ed. 187L UiX * The Iliad uf HOUMT, \vilh 
Kn^lish Notes/ tf vols, London, JSjlii, Svo; 
^nd el 1HSL LM, * Ycisn 'jVniuhiliou't 
from ProportiiiM, I'oolx I*'i\e, \\l\\\ l\**\\+w{ 
Latin Text and brief iMi;!li^h Nuh*-/ Lon-- 
don, lS<i<>, Svo, : J 'J* MIowWV* Him!, !, ML/ 
lSiI7 t sehool edit ion, L'.'J, 'Jlotuer'-* I Ism!, L 
XIL; lleeen^ton of the *IVM/ ( f jtlfiibri*li:% 
1S(57 ICnio. i* I, M)n the Luti' l>atr ni t'nn 
posite t *luu*ni'trr nf our Iliii.H un*l < *d\ .p\/ 
1SUS, tttK :>.V * Sol*rf Kpi^rni^tf Miirnal/ 
with W, 1). Stone, rnthrii|^s JN\ s\o, 
l!(L <Tho t)*(M itf Pimlur, tvun-Juh'tl int^ 
VJngliMh ProMi\ \\iiii iftfrotittetioh nud 
Notes,' ISHS, Svn, l!", * K'litjoiH Ti'M 
and Nafinnul t u'ner.sitit^/ IS'L S\o, 
'JS, * Arisfotb'^ Hi hies V,, N,, t mugful *'d 
into I'muli'-h/ JSVJ, S\o, ;*!J, *Arehii('*-< 
turn! Notes on (*nrtiih*l Prior\ I'hiu'rli,* 



Penee, \\ith Mnj4ltxli Notew/ 1S7I, iU, 1 Plulo*.j 
PhiJt'biis t triumlntet! with NofoV ls7-J, N\M, 



with L li HjuulvH, ii voln, Tiunhrid^o, 
187-L 8voj ^ml mi, 1HMJ, ,1,1, ' Ahlhn% 
-Lyeithw, with it vei'Mtou in Lut'ni H^XJI- 
meters/ 1M7I. J4, * VurinitH Hemliis^M tit 
UeinostheueH Be fnla b^ntione, for Jho 



ltHl \vitli 

A*(tOH/ lH7*"i, rtv*t* 1lK * Arifitojdutiti'H* At*hur- 
niiuw, with Mnglinh Nott^/ 1S7U, Mvo, 
*'J7 ^HotneruM Peririin ietnt umtmm iiuiii- 
titn wit. (puiritnr/ 1S77, H n'oiiutiotitiiiio 
in Hcholiit .F,M'hyii MMli<i/ rnuthritlj^i% 

rojjfn, wtilt 



mine exntfuit nn reliifuJn <V*li rurmimmi* 
nnt'muiom jure hnbim itu/' Lojufoti, |H7S t 
Hvo, 41. '(juinttm SmyrtutuH, tuiti th* 
u Homer" of the Trngir" P<H*tw/ lrfJHi'*tJ 
1H7IK 11 *t)u Piwt-Mj>ic or ImiiutU** 



Wit; Smart Suyiug'H from Ureek 

Writings/ two WiuM, IrtO-l,liJm. 44,*So- 
j)hoclt, wjrli Kuglih Nitten/ Loiukm, lHHtJ f 

HVO? voi n, of HJttvdiwVi'tiiHoju -ir*. * POWH 

by AUVud, Ixird limyw, ditt! with J*ru* 



Paley 



101 



Paley 



face on the latest School of English Poetry,' 
London, 1881, 8vo. 46, ' Bibliographia 
C-irseca: an Enquiry into the Date and Origin 
of Book-writing among the Greeks/ Lon- 
don, 1881, 8vo. 47. l A Short Treatise on 
Greek Particles and their Combinations,' 
1881, 8vo. 48. 'On Professor Mahaffy's 
"Epic Poetry" and "History of Classical 
Greek Literature," ' 1881, 8vo. 49. ' ^Sschyli 
lAibulse *lKtride$, Xorj<popoL, cum scholiis 
Grnecis et brevi adnotatione critica/ Cam- 
bridge, 188/8vo. 50. 'The Truth about 
Homer, with Remarks on Professor Jebb's 
" Introduction," ' London, 1887, 8vo. 
51. 'The Gospel of St. John: a Verbatim 
Translation from the Vatican MS. ; with the 
notable Variations of the Sinaitic and Beza 
MSS., and brief Notes/ 1SS7, 8vo. 52. ' Frag- 
ments of the Comic Greek Poets, with 
llemlerings in Verse/ London, 1S88,, 8vo : 
and ed, 1892. 

Paltry also contributed many articles and 
reviews of classical books to the * Edinburgh 
Review/ the ' American Catholic Quarterly/ 
' I lermatliena/ the ' Journal of Philology,' the 
* Transactions of the Cambridge Philological 
Society,' ' Fraser's Magazine/ the '-Journal' 
of Hell en ic S tiul ies/ ' Atlxenrmim/ ' Academy/ 
' JMaom ill an's Magazine/ &c, He also edited 
in i Cambridge Greek Texts with Notes' the 
greater part of the Greek tragedies- s<epa^ 
rately, his work for this series being con- 
tinued until his death. Every new edition 
of his books was practically a new work. 

[Tho Catalogues of the British Museum and 
of the Cambridge University Library ; infor- 
mal ion kindly communicated by Mrs. Paley, 
Apthorp, Boacombo, "W. B, Paley, esq., Messrs. 
0. Jtoli & Sons, Professor J. E. B. Mayor, 
A.W. Spratt, esq., Kev, Thomas ' Field, Bigby 
Jtoctory, Brigg, Lincoln; Kwglo, June' 1889 ; 
Cambridge Chronicle, 31 Oct. 18-16, H Nov. 
1846, 4 Juno 1850, 26 July 1851 ; Times, 6 Oct. 
1871, 12 Doc. 1888; The Boclesiologisfc, vols. 
i,~iv, ; Clawsioal Review, Hi. 80; Academy, 1883,, 
p. 406; Athonixmm, 15 Dec. 1888; ^Bev. S. S, 
Lewis in Burslan's Jahresbewdat, xvi. 15.1 

E..C. M. 

tALEY, WILLIAM (mS-1805), arch- 
deacon of Carlisle and author of the 'Evi- 
dences of Christianity,' born at Peterborough 
in July 1743, and baptised in the cathedral on 
ei(.) Aug. following, was the eldest child oi' 
"Will lain Paley. The elder Paley, son of Tho- 
mas Paley, owner of a small estate at Lang- 
clifie in the parish of Giggleswick, Yorkshire, 
in which the Paleys had boon settled for many 
g'enurat-ions (see WTFITAKEB, Graven, pp. 140, 
1 45), was a sizar at Christ's College, Oam- 
bridgu, graduated" B. A, in 1733-4, and in 1735 
became vicar of Helps ton, Northamptonshire, 



He was also a minor canon at Peterborough. 
On 10 July 1742 he married Elizabeth Clap- 
ham of Stackhouse in Griggleswick. In 1745 
he was appointed headmaster of Giggles- 
wick grammar school, with a salary of 80/., 
afterwards raised to 200J. Pie held this post 
until 1799, when he died on 29 Sept. at the 
age of 88 ; his wife having died on 9 March 
1796, aged 83. The mother was a keen, 
thrifty woman of much intelligence, She 
had a fortune of 400, which at the time of 
her death had been raised by good mana-e- 
ment to , 2,200 J. The father, a homely, sen- 
sible man, absorbed in his teaching, managed, 
with the help of a legacy of 1,500 J. ; to ' scrape 
together ' 7,0'OOJ. (E. PALEY in Paley's Works, 
1830,'vol. i.p. xxiii). Their family consisted of 
William and three daughters. William jPaley, 
the son > was educated at his father's school. 
He was a fair scholar, but specially interested 
in mechanics,, He was too clumsy for boyish 
games, and his chief amusement from child- 
hood was angling. Though very kind to 
animals, he also joined in the then universal 
sport of cockfighting. A visit to the assizes 
at Lancaster interested him so much that he 
afterwards played at judging his school- 
fellows; ancl after the sight of a travelling 
quack, he tried to extract a sister's teeth. 
On 16 Nov. 1758 he was entered as a sizar 
at Christ's College, riding to Cambridge 
with his father. He fell off his pony seven 
times on the road, his father only turning 
Ins head on such occasions to say, * Take care 
of thy money, lad.' He returned to his home, 
and was sent to learn mathematics under 
William Howarth at Topcliffe, near Kipon. 
On 3 Aug. 1759 he- was present at the 
trial of Eugene Aram at York, in which he 
was profoundly interested, remarking that 
Aram got himself hanged by his own clever- 
ness. 

In October 1759 he began his residence at 
Christ's, his father prophesying that he would 
Tbe a great man, for he has by tar the clearest 
head I ever met with in my life.' On 5 Dec. 
lie was elected to a scholarship appropriated 
to Giggleswick school; on the following day 
to a foundation scholarship and a Mildmay 
exhibition,- and on 26 May 1761 to a scho- 
larship founded by a Mr. Bunting. Anthony 
Shepherd, the college tutor, who became 
Plumian professor in 1760, thought him too 
good a mathematician to profit by the col- 
lege lectures, but required his attendance 
at the Plumiari lectures. Paley was very 
sociable, and joined in the laugh at blunders 
caused by his frequent absence of mind, and 
his uncouth country dress and manners, He 
said' 'afterwards (according to Mcaclley) that 
lie was idle, tliough not immoral, for his 



Palcy 10. 1'aloy 

first two yeans, Om* morning, after A jovial , n*t u }*vfntrr to 1'nlr* und his frirnd John 

evening IUMVHH waked by a wm&pniiion whn I*H\V 0*K IMO) i|, v,\ Mvnn! wrtni-'hT 

had come to toll him that ho wasiv'damned in liti' 4 *, unl ^,u of IM\^'JI IMniund Ia\v 

fool' for wasting his abilities with mrn \vh> *f>v , *h'H ?nu^f r nf IVr* rlu-n^-jin.! Knj/Jt- 

luid no ability to wasti*. Ph\v wn*t duly brnii'** j>n*tr ^r t r.u.jhn.t;,', rn1v'mni 

impressed, took to <>rly rising an<l M-Htf* l.iv^ In^suf^' utfuntUr fru-ntf-, ju*l jn.Htfc r\. 
made work, and bmunn wrnior wranjrh'r, ' rnt'^iMn.-* f%;?K<-r in th,. \nrufinn'-, l,nu tirn. 

Ilia aon doubts tlu k Ktory T prinripulty hrnn' Mn.'; it ,11*; ;iml i\ilr\ u !?MM*\ 'I hi-s unfit 

tuo t\vo yoaiK u ( k mss .scnim o w uuum- u* t M ^ hi i, ,tuil rijM>rIun \i -ntnvf 

patinlo Avith othor tacts, llioovt'nt tuny in 1 \\iili intu. f 1}*^ IJM ! fhr K'pnfiittttn uf 

misdated, Palt'y was intimate with I mutu {h i i"r}l*'>;r In- rh <r iM-hm-., 1 ,-nv tmiK 

son of CowptTN ]\h*.H, I'luvin, in th** \riir 1 fhr nmiln innt^* -., uhilr Pt!i<\ h'rfttrftl niutu 

below him; and was a privat pupil <f John ' nii'liU'hiisu^t tut-ml., un*t fh (MM 1* Tn.}'}. 

"VVilrton, sonior wrun^hir in 1701, ami nfh-r- ntrit,' !lr b^Ttirr 1 ?*|" . I,M-K ( * CM thrtV--!i* 

Pah'y had to l?ip his act for thi <b'jjri'i of tM'omsli d (H f r lnr*r'. s * 
B.A, lIctoldtluMmuU'rator* UiHnmlWni^on , f^A 1 \j(l< ti \." !'. ISib 
(aftr\vards bishop of Llnmhur), that hi' pro* ' *m hirK* f Jmf K**' ^i 
posed to dif(nd th^ Ihtwin ttuktn froi nw* lur*"* upm uthrr '.ubit** ; 




tradio.it divit 

a fright to way that Urn umsfrroi'hta 
had objtwtod to lus <hf<Mttling wtit'h 
trini^. ,Hy Watson^ advin* ht thfrc 
WM't('da'iion'bnfon*'r,otilradi<Mt. '( 

Awwhitetii M<'u<lly mid I'J, l*nln- vnry in fh* Thirf> nw' Avlt*! M^-T tin u'U\Mhrl<Mi* 
dotaila), John Fmvfq, v, |ot l tViu^tniltrr r |MMU'-' tim^miu-h JM il.r* .vif,iat.'tt *tiimt 
John Uo<l(luim Kvoi'i>,waHhiM<jjij*in-iit t n?iit ; ",'|ith t -.niM"i ir.*jf M 4 fi t > , muia 4 fhtnt in 
wan Mernu^ to liini in i\w ntuthi'mutit-ui m^MMm! \uli r;u-h nfli v/ If wa- uni*** 
trijum of 17(5,1, Palcy wan ivrmiwu'wW ? mh!*' l* nnjtj*Mu t . fhuf MM- :uj^ - i nmltt 'v-, 
byShcphi-rd to IH HiM'oml Uf*lnT in thtMini' | JUT! uuy nuui i. to|Mo U U iMiu.nu 
d(uny of a Mr. HmrKon t (tn't-nwirh, Hr ; Pni;\ J^lMiVil Li I)M ' il\.,.,j rjnf* 1 ,-^ 
oflrn wont tothc LondtuMh.'nttvM, nml wi\v { IM'^l K\ fl,. w. rt i^J,.^ ,*r j,,,; , n H j m a 
(iarndc. Ho ntlfudi-d trials ut thf ul,{ < j,. rtr J 4 | m j r w f , i , ; it ; ^M;, t| v ' vUm m 
Ilai oy, and Kaiinnl cmmhmwi*Mi^of rmiii- j J*.ml, hiM M4 , HlfUJ3Hf( , ; M ',| t j^j^ {m| 
iittMaw. In h(IMmwuumf.tfihtim'mlT l H ilrtmi'.l ft* j M m in fh.' ' i'rufhrA 4 tmfltnm 
pmeH at (,nm irui|(' hy nn ivwiy runijmn!*^ i tf 1 7i ;' IW n* tvin\itiintt ni i hr t*niti ,f tth 



took tlu t'pi<Mrt k an sidts hut wuHv IOHJ tlii* J ulVaHl i*t K***^* JUHHIVI.^S^I'/ If 

IIJH Latin disst'rtutiniu lh\ mwl nft'rwnl,H jmmphi"! unit 
i that hi* had cntcnnl ( 'junbHdtr** i 



P nffi* 
, v ut M'r 
In 2Uilti.it 



u, 177 C,, f ,,,. I , ^HM,,,! r^.mtm. ,. 
i',,[,n m,,| U.-r, ... ,,lli,.,,,lK , . ,1 
- '""" . t.'lM,,r,!,i;TI. Th-vi.^),, 

HIM rtM-t ,iii,,n, I'nt.- w,t ,,r- ,,!v r.-.'.-ii...l l,i)' it,,< i.tui,.,, iV,. | M , m 

w,,,.,, v ,. Mr . wv ,.,,,,,.,| ,, ,(,,; . .r 
. v.|,t hi.,, vii-rf (J*. W) *M. wii,,!,' 'fr, w ,)- *. i, , .^ Sh,.i,l,,r. 



n , - . 
M ( v , n .M t " "...i n..!,,,. A m * ht, 









twcoum 1788, but cnttwtudlu.dmiwr.fc | 



Paley 



103 



Paley 



tiou to his public duties, and, according to 
Meadlcy, had shown his dislike for the prac- 
tice of ' rooting ' (the cant terra for prefer- 
ment-hunting 1 , invented by Paley according 
to the ' Universal Magazine ') by declin- 
ing to become private tutor to the son of 
Lord Oamden. E. Paley, however, says 
that the offer was not actually made. lie 
declined another offer from Prince Ponia- 
towski to become tutor to a Polish noble. 
Long afterwards, when Pitt attended the 
university church in 1784, Paley jocosely 
suggested as a suitable text : * There is a kd 
here who hath five barley loaves and two 
small fishes ; but what are they among 1 so 
many ? ' The story is often told as though 
lie had actually preached the sermon, Paley 
had also the credit of protesting 1 (in 1771), 
-with his Mend Law, against their senior 
tutor's oiler of Christ's College Hall for a 
concert patronised by .Lord Sandwich, until 
a promise had been given that Sandwich's 
mistress should not lx$ present (M^ADiEr, 
1810, p. 65). On 8 May 1775 he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Musgrave, Cumber- 
land, worth about 80Z. a year, by the Bishop 
of Carlisle. In the same autumn, lie became 
engaged to Miss Jane Hewitt, daughter of a 
spirit merchant iu Carlisle. He returned to 
Cambridge, and on 21 April 1776 appeared 
for the last time as preacher at "Whitehall, 
having been appointed in 1771, On 6 June 
ho was married to Miss Hewitt at Carlisle, 
and finally left Cambridge for Musgrave. 
He had been prselector in his college 1767-9, 
Hebrew lecturer (probably a sinecure) from 
1768 to 1770, and taxer in the university 
1770-1. His wife was a very amiable 
woman, but compelled by delicacy to a quiet 
life. Paley tried farming on a small scale 
by way of recreation. He failed, however, 
to pay his expenses, and gave it uj>. By the 
end of 1776 he received the vicarage of 
Dalston, Cumberland, worth 90J. a year, and 
in 1777 the vicarage of Appleby, worth 200/. 
a year, resigning Musgrave. He divided 
the year between his. two parishes, and at 
Appleby was intimate with the master of 
the grammar school, Richard Yates, whose 
epitaph he wrote in 1781. He welcomed 
tlie barristers on the northern circuit, espe- 
cially his old tutor Wilson. In 1 780 he was 
installed a prebendary at Carlisle, with an 
income of 400/f. a year ; and in August 1782 
resigned Appleby on becoming 1 archdeacon 
in succession to his friend John Law, who 
had been promoted to the bishopric of Clon- 
fert. The archdeaconry was a sinecure, the 
usual duties being performed by the chan- 
cellor. The rectory of Great Salkeld, worth 
1X01. a year, was annexed to it, 



Paley was now urged by his friend Law 
to expand his lectures into a book. The re- 
sult was the ' Principles of Morals and Politi- 
cal Philosophy. 7 Paley had offered the manu- 
script to Faulder, a publisher in Bond Street, 
for 3QO/. Faulder was only willing to give 
250/. The negotiation was entrusted to the 
Bishop of Clonfert, who was in London, 
Paley meanwhile received an offer of 1,000^. 
from Milliken, a Carlisle bookseller, who 
must have had a higher opinion than most 
of his successors of the commercial value of 
ethical treatises. Paley communicated the 
offer to the bishop, who luckily received the 
letter before completing the bargain with 
Faulder. Faulder agreed to give 1,000 be- 
fore the bishop left the house. The book 
was published in 1785, was adopted at once 
as a text-book at Cambridge, and went 
through fifteen editions daring the author's 
life. Faulder must have made a good bar- 
gain. The famous illustration of the 4 pigeons ' 
in the chapter on ' Property ' got for him the 
nickname of c Pigeon Paley.' Law warned 
him that it might exclude him from a bishop- 
ric. ' Bishop or no bishop/ said Paley, ' it 
shall go in ' (E. PALBY, p. cclvi). 

At the end of 1785 Paley became chan- 
cellor of the diocese upon the death of Richard 
Burn [q. v.], author of l The Justice of the 
Peace? He took an active part in 1789 in 
the agitation against the slave trade, and 
drew up a paper which has disappeared, 
though a summary was published _ in the 
newspapers^ Paley presided at a public meet- 
ing held at Carlisle on 9 Feb. 1792 for the 
same purpose, and drew up some printed re- 
solutions (given in MEADLEY, Appendix, pp. 
139-62). The mastership of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, was offered to him in the same 
year by_ Bishop Yorke of Ely; but, after some 
hesitation, he decided that his position at 
Carlisle was too satisfactory to be abandoned 
(E. PALEY, p. cxlviii). The offer is acknow- 
ledged in his dedication of the 'Evidences.' 
In 1790 appeared his most original book, the 
'Horra Paulmae.' It had less success than 
the others* He soon afterwards, however, 
received an application from some divines at 
Zurich for leave to translate it into German 
(E. PALEY, p. clvii). His wife died in May 
1791, leaving four sons and four daughters. 
In May 1792 he was presented by the dean 
and chapter of Carlisle to the vicarage of 
Aldingham, near Great Salkeld, worth 140?. 
a year. In 1793 he vacated Dalston for the 
vicarage of Stanwix, near Carlisle, to which 
he was presented by the new bishop, Vernon 
(afterwards Harcourt) . He had, he sai d, three 
reasons for changing : Stanwix was nearer his 
house in Carlisle, was worth GO/, a year 



Paley 

more, and his ' stock of sermons was recu; 
ring too rapidly.' He Jmd published h 
' .Reasons for Contentment ' in 1702, as 
warning- against the revolutionary princi pi < 
which were then exciting alarm. Palo 
thought this his best but it was his least sue 
eessful performance, lie always refraino 
from talang any active part in politics o 
professedly belonging 1 to a party, This littl 
book, though characteristic in its eomfortabl 
optimism, dealt too much in generalities t 
catch popular attention. In 1794, however 
appeared his book upon the ' Evidences o 
Christianity/ which succeeded brilliantly 
Ills services as a defender of church am 
wtate now clearly entitled him to preferment 
In August, 1794 Bishop Portous, who hac 
been a fellow of Ohrist/H College with him 
gave him the prebend of St. Pun eras in tin 
cathedral of St, Paul's. It was worth abou 
ISO/, a year, and did not involve residence 
In January 1705 Bishop Pretyman gave, hin 
the subdcanery of Lincoln, worth 7()()/ o 
year, when he' resigned Ins prebend anil tlu 
chancellorship at Carlisle. He held tlu 
archdeaconry till May 1805, He performed 
hia exercises for the I), I), degree at Oam- 
bridge directly after hia institution at Liu- 
coin, and amused his audumco at. a cnnwn 
ad deruin by lengthening the penultimate 
of profitym. Before he had left Cambridge 
Bishop Harrington of Durham offered him 
the rectory of Bishop- Wem'mouth, worth 
LiMQ/, a year. He was inducted 1-1 March 
1795, and vacated Stanwbc and Aiding- 
ham. 

Paley lived from thia tune at Monkwenr* 
mouth, oxce.pt during his three months' an* 
nnftl residence at Lincoln, lie avoided all 
trouble about tithes, which he had described 
in the ' Moral Philosophy' as 'noxious to 
cultivation and improvement/ by granting a 
lease, for Jilts to the landowner!*, .He, con- 
gratulated himself upon avoiding the rinks 
of collection, though at nouns diminution of 
income. A, remark reported by Mcadley 
that he now did not care for bad harvest H is 
denied l)y hin son, and, if made, was no 
doubt intended HS a joke, On M j^c, 
371)5 ho married Mm iJobmHwi of Carlisle, 
lie, lived^eornfortably and hospitably, was a 
good whiHt-player, and amused his neigh- 
bours bylus peculiaritien of horsemanship in 
the park. He was appointed justieeof the 
peace, and is said to have shown himself 
irascible in that capacity. An nt.tempt to 
limit the number of licenses to puhl icehouses, 
in which ^his brother magistrates failed to 
support "him, brought him some t rouble, 

In 1800 he was for tho first timo attacked 
by a complaint which firequeatly 



104 



Paley 



and involved great suffering. He was or- 
dered to give up all public .speaking, Un 
was sent to Buxton in 1KO\ where lie made 
acquaintance with I)r, JnmcsChnTit* |q, v, | of 
Liverpool. His physician, John (larlv (17-U - 
1S05) [q* v. | of Newcastle, spoke highly oft ho 
courage which ho. displayed, and says thaf. 
he wa.s at that time writ injv the twenty-sixth 
chapter of hirt * Natural Theology, ' in" \vhttdi 
he cnvtdls upon the. relief ^'iveii by intervals 
of ease, This, his last book, appeared in the 
same year, Ho was still able to amuse him- 
self by reading and spoke with j^o-iit admi- 
ration of Mnlthun's essay tin * Population/ 
the second edition of whieh appeared in 

CM, In JS05 he lu'^au his ri'sttlenee iu 
Lincoln, where be wan soon prostrated In a 
violent attack of his complaints and <fii'd 
jnweefully on iitf May ISO.X UK wns burirtl 
in (Vrljsle Cathedral on 4 June by the sidn 
of his first, wife* He left * a wry competent 
fortune/ 

Puloy %yn above the average htn^Itt, and 
in later lite stout* lie was curiously clumsy, 
made grotesque tfwtii'ula turns, ami tnlKetl t M 
Aleadlcy and Bout n^veo, with hrond nortli- 
onutry^iceetit, His son only admits * a 
want of Mmcmenf,' His \oin wits wi'nK, 
Jtough deep ; and h( m creatttf 1 1 h< n\vk want 
Ileet. of his pulpit apjiearanccM U\ his ttown- 
ight Miucttrity, litn son ajiolu^lMrM for hi,s 
ibrupt coiu'lus'uius liy wtyiug flint hr.stopped 
vheu he bad tu> tnruv to* way. The ouly ori- 
ginal portrait is siiid to iV um> tukc'u by 
{omney, nfter 17^0, for his frintd Law, In 

W it, was iu tin* )MisMi*Hston of Lord Klli- 

ough, Ijttw'H nephmv, llvln rcpri'Mi-nted 
vith a fishing-rod in lii hum!, Thf ttuHrnit. 
scribed to Sir W, Boeoiiey in il>e Nutioun! 
*ortrait (Jallcry in suit! to'bp n copy of thin 
AWw (turf (Jutwiw, ,'5rd MIT, u. i*HS f JHiK 
,ord Mlb-nborottgh HtntfH that Pnlcy rom- 
ostui bis Ijookrt under jwh'tint of ti^biug, 

iu the HtateinrtttH nf Miuulley nntl hi* 
oil, he seeuiH to have been n ptlur nn^lort 
alisfied with u nibble in tin* I*WU'M oi 4 a 
ay's Hportr, 1 h was ^J'VMH to brooding over 
is books, often writing and teaching hm 
tns at tlu^ same tiin**, nwl turning *vry 
dd motiient torn-count* Though int*tiiodicnl 
i^ tho diHtributiou f>f IUH t title, l*ithv habit 
f Hcruwlit^ilnwrt strnv thnughtH i wttn 1 - 
nIs^Hpoilt bin hftmlwrituig, which wnn <*I*mr 
i his youth, bttt. aftenvurdn IMMMIUJI* ntimwi 
|^ihlo (u fmwhiiilo in ffivnu ly M, t^tley^ 
[is ttotebookH becnni<i a *eonfuH(*d, mc?oiu 
nt, nntl blfttted miwM/ in which citnustic 
i'tuiln were mixed with frugmwits of urgu- 
f ent and hiuf H for nurmoiw. 1 1* wnn, how^ 
vir, very particular nbout fmm'tutttiou, 
tho only legibly part yf lib ittwiuucrinU 



Paley 



Paley 



* prodigious commas,' ' as long as the printer's 
nose,' 

Paley, .like his friends the Laws, inherited 
the qualities of a long line of sturdy north- 
country yeomen. lie was the incarnation 
of strong common-sense, full of genial good 
humour, and always disposed to take life 
pleasantly, As a lawyer, the profession for 
which he thought himself suited, he would 
probably hare rivalled the younger Law, who 
became Lord Kllenborougli. lie had no ro- 
mance, poetic sensibility, or enthusiasm ; but 
was thoroughly genial and manly, lie was 
u vory^afctionate father and husband, and 
fond, like Sydney Smith, of gaining know- 
ledge from every one who would talk to him. 
lie only met ono person in his life from 
whom he could extract nothing, The phrases 
about hia conscience and others given above, 
oft on quoted to prove his cynicism, seem 
rather to .show the humourist's tendency to 
claim motives lower than the true ones,' 

.Nobody has surpassed Paley as a writer 
of text- books; Ho in an unrivalled expositor 
of plain arguments, though he neither snowed 
nor claimed much originality, His morality 
is ono of the best statements of the utilita- 
rianism of the eighteenth century, On tho 
publication of his * Moral Philosophy,' Ben- 
tlmm, then in Russia, was told by G." Wilson 
1 hat his principles had been anticipated by 
' a parson and an archdeacon,' Bentham 
was stirred by the news to bring out his 
own * Principles of Morals and Legislation,' 
1 785) (see BKNTHATW, Work*, x. 168,165,167, 
H)")), As 'Wilson said, Paley differed from 
Bentham chiefly by adding tie supernatural 
sanction, which appears hi his famous defi- 
nition of virtue as * do ing good to mankind, 
in obedience to the will of God, and for the 
sake of , everlasting happiness' (Moral P/n- 
hmiphy, bk, I, eh. vi.) Paley acknowledged 
in his preface his great obligations to Abra- 
ham Tucker ; btit,'in fact, he neither did nor 
professed to do more than give a lucid sum- 
mary of the position of previous moralists 
of the same way of thinking. He differs 
from his predecessors chiefly in accepting 
more frankly a position which his opponents 
regarded an untenable* The limitations of 
liis intellect appear in his blindness to tho 
dilUoulti.es often expounded by more subtle 
thiukers. Tho book upon the 'Evidences J 
i,s, in tho same way, a compendium of a 
whole library of argument produced by the 
orthodox opponents of the deists during the 
eighteenth century, and his 'Natural Theo- 
logy' an admirably clear account of the a 
p<wtt*rwri arguim^nt congenial to his mode 
of thought, and given with leas felicity by 
many other popular writers, lu some notes 



published by his son (p. ccxxxiv) there are 
references to Boyle, Kay, Derham, and many 
other well-known authors; and he was 
helped by his friend Law and by John 
Urmkley [q. v.] with various suggestions, 

1 aley's common-sense method has been dis- 
credited by the later developments of philo- 
sophy and theology. In theological questions 
he sympathised with his friend Jebb and 
other Cambridge contemporaries, such as 
Irend, Wakefield, Walsh Watson, and Hey, 
some of whom became avowedly Unitarian ; 
while others, taking Paley's liberal view of 
the Thirty-nine Articles, succeeded in recon- 
ciling their principles to a more or less 
nominal adherence to the orthodox creed. 
Paley's laxity has been condemned. It is 
defended m his ' Moral Philosophy,' and ap- 
pears variously in his letters to a son of Dr. 
Perceval, who had scrupled about taking 
orders (printed in MBA.DLEY, App. p. 130 
seq., and WAYLAND, p, xvii seq., from PuRr 
CEVA'L, Literary Correspondence). A writer 
in the ' Christian Life and Unitarian Herald ' 
of 11 July and 2 and 2^ Aug. 1891 seems to 
prove satisfactorily, from Paley's notes for 
his lectures, now in the British Museum, 
that he accepted the -Unitarian interpretation 
of most of the disputed- texts. But, how- 
ever vague the interpretation put upon tho 
subscription by Paley, there is no reason to 
doubt his absolute sincerity in believing that 
the doctrines which he accepted could be 
logical ly proved. Whether his peculiar com- 
promise between orthodoxy and rationalism 
can be accepted is a different question. His 
books, as fie says in the preface to the 
' Natural Theology,' form a system, contain- 
ing the evidences of natural. and of revealed 
religion, and of the duties which result from 
both. The system has gone out of fashion ; 
but the c Evidences ' still hold their place as 
a text-book at his university, presumably 
from their extraordinary merits of style ; 
and the ' Natural Theology ' is still men- 
tioned with respect by many who dissent 
from its conclusions, or hold that it requires 
modification, 

Paley has been sometimes accused of pla- 
giarism, His own statement in the preface 
to the 'Moral Philosophy' is a -sufficient 
answer to the general charge. He was writ- 
ing a text-book, not an original treatise, and 
used whatever he found in his notes, in 
which he had inserted whatever struck 
him, often without reference to. the original 
authors. He refers, he says, to no other 
books, even when uswng the thoughts, and 
' sometimes the very expressions,' of previous 
writers. If a writer upon theology were 
fpa^'idden to use old arguments, the num- 




Paley 106 

ber of theological books \vould be limit 01 
indeed. Paley \s textbooks are so wellwrittei 
that they have been treated as original trea- 
tises, and an avowed summary of a whol 
literature is condemned for including tli' 
familiar arguments. Stress has also been Ian 
upon special illustrations. Ilallam showt- 
that Paloy adopted some illustrations frou 
Puflendorf (Lit. of Ihtropt*) 185-1, iii, -117) 
Tho famous illustration of tho watch has boot 
said to be a plagiarism from Niouwontyt 
an English translation of whoso ' Religious 
Philosopher' reached a third edition in 1 750 
The question is discussed in the 4 Athoiwmm 
for J 8-18 (i. 80,3, 907, 93). Tho watch was, ii; 
fact, a commonplace. It occurs iu Tuckers 
'Light of Nature ' and mniiy ot.hor writers 
and is traced by 1 lallam (ib. ii, W>) to a ]>as- 
sage iu Cicero's t Natura Duorum ' (for other 
reierenees see STKPIIMK, Mntjlish Tlwuyht) i, 
409). 

Paley advised his pupils, if they .should 
have to preach every Sunday, t to make one 
sermon and steal fiVe'(R "PALMY, p, xei), 
He apparently acted upon this principle, 
His son, in publishing womo posthumous 
sermons, says that only ono ia* stolon, but 
adds that three are said to bo founded upon 
sermons by Flettwoocl ; and a correspondent 
of t Notes and Queries' (1st nor. xi. 4S-1) 
states that another is slightly altered from a 
sermon by Bishop Portions. 

Paley's works are: ,1. A Defence of the 
"Considerations on tho Propriety of requir- 
ing a Subscription to Articles of Faith " [by 
Bishop (.Kdmuml) haw]/ anon. 1774. & 'Ob- 
servations on the Character and Kxamplts of 
Christ, and an Appendix on tho Morality of 
the Gospel/ annexed to Bishop Law's M?e~ 
flections,' 1770. 3. ' Caution rocommendod 
in the Use and Application of Scripture 
Language/ visitation sermon preached at 
Carlisle ^cm 15 Julv 1777, Cambridge, 1777, 
a^ain, 178^. 4. * The (Clergyman's (3ompa 
niou in visiting tlie Sick/ attributed to 
Paley, is merely a reprint of an old compi- 
lation (see K PAr.MY, p, xovii), 5, * AdviVo 
addressed i,o thti Young Clorgy of tho DIOOOHG 
of Carlisle' (ordination Btninon on iJ9 July 
1781 ), 1788, 6. ' A DiHtinction of Ordom iii 
the! Church defended upon PrinciploM of Public 
Utility ' (preached at Dublin on the couw.im* 
tiou of the Bishop of Clonlbrt, on 21 Sm>t 
1782), 1781 7. 'Principhts of Moral and 
Political Philosophy/ 17H5, A Ho,vtnteontli 
edition of this appeared in 1809. An edition, 
with notes by A, Bain, appeared in IHOjJ,an<i 
one, with notes byU. Wiuitoly, in 1859, An 
'Analysis ' by C, V. Le ( Jrim reacluul a fourth 
edition in 1823. The chapter on tho Bri 
tiak constitution was reprinted separately in 



Palcy 



170^. S. *Th<* Young* Christian iustnuMcd 
in Konding and in the Priticiplos of Uolijion ; 
coni])ilod for tho. ust* of thr Suntlay-solioolH 
in Carlisle/ A charge of plagiuri.sm was 
made against this by J. Robrtsnn t imthor of 
a s|H41ing-hook from which Paloy lind np- 
proprinttMl passages. Pu ley's clover and 
amusing answer is given by Moadloy ( App. 
p. lot)), and iu Nichols's ' AnoednloN ' (iii. 
oCW). 0. Mloiw Pnnlinjr; or tho Truth of 
tlu Script are History of St. Paul ovincotl by 
a Comparison of the Kpistlo.s \vhich hour hi's 
name with tin* Acts of tho Apostles and 
Avith ono another/ 17JH). A sixth edition 
appeared in ISUt)- otiitioiiM, with notes, X-c., 
by J, Tnt<\ b,V T. K. HirKs, and by J. S, 
Howson ppoun v d in ISfO, iSoO^ntid 1S77 
rospectively, A (iceman trnn,s!atinn \vns 
publLshod iu 17!>7, 10, '(-hnrge to tfie 
(Jlorgy of th. Dioooso of Cnrlislt*/ 17iU) 
11. Mloasons for( 'mttenfiwtit ; n<h!ressotl to 
th< Lahouriug Part of the Hi ( iti>h Public/ 
17t)5, l^t, * Memoir of Bishop Kdmund 
Luw/ in Uuto.hin.sonV* * History of ( 1 umher 
htnd^ (17!M) and tho * Knryclnptnlin Bri~ 
tn.uiu(*a/ntitl roprinto<l,%\ ith not\s by Annoy- 
mous, iu liS(K), Pi 1 A \*tew <f'the ICvi- 
doucos of (Christianity/ !7iU* A fifteenth 
edition appeared in I Si I ; otlitifrnw, with noti*M 
byT, U. fiirks, U. I*oiH, nud It, Wluttely, 
appoanul iu IKIH, lSf>0, ,uul lNo! resjuv- 
tivoly, An * Analysis/ first puMLshcd nt* 
( 1 umhriflgo in 17i)r>, went, throtiglt MOUTH! 
oditiims, nd others huvo winco njiponrod, 
thymoH for nil tho tint horn mmtod in tho 
first oi^ht chaptorM 1 WHM published nt (Sun- 
bridge in 187^ and nn HnnlyHis, with l eitch 
chapter suininuriMotl in voi-so/ by A. J. \\"i(* 
hint-urn, iu 1702, U, * Han^vrH incidental 
to tho Uhwnl (tlmnu'tor ' (sermon nf. vSt, 
Mary's, Cambridgt*, on A July 17H5), 17t5, 
< \mstt\ St^rmon nt Unrhiuu/ 17^)5^ 
' Natural Theohjgy ; or Mvidcnro of thn 
Ht(ico and Attributes of the IMiy (ol- 
kctod from tho Ajitjenrnncos of Nut urn/ 
iHOii. Atwonti<tlHHUtionnppenro4 in iHiHl 
'Nnturnl Tht^olo^y/ puljli^hetl 18,15 H, in- 
cludos PulnyV 1 Ntttural Thoolniyy ' in VO!H. 
ii, and iii,, with notos by Lortl'lh-otigJium 
ind Sir (I Boll Tho other volumes are dm- 
wtntioiiH by Broughntiu An ItnUan truim- 
ation aipponrod in IHOH, and a SpntHHh in 
18^5. 17. Mormons on Hovernl Suhjootw/ 
jrinto.d in <>l'tlii*mui to tho, mithorV will, 
or distribution nmnng th inhnhituntM of 
Ttsliop- Woarnumt h, A nurroptit ioun reprint 
nductul PnloyV (xi*tr to publish thin, 
ind to hand over tlw procoods to olmritios, 
)thor at^rmoHH wora uthlod in H, PuIovV <U- 
ion of hm works. IK ' Honuons and 1WtH, 
o, 1, a, !, r>, , MO, 11, 



Palfreyman 



107 



Palgrave 



14, 15. 19. ' Sermons on Various Subjects/ 
edited by R Paloy, 125. The first collec- 
tive edition of Paley's works appeared in 
8 vols. in 1805-8 ; one by Alexander Chal- 
mers appeared in 5 vole, 8vo in 181.9 ; one by 
li. Lynam in 4 vols. 8vo in 1.825 ; one by Ed- 
mund Puloy in 7 vola. 8vo in 1825, and again 
in 4 vols. in 1888 ; and one by I). S. Way- 
land in 5 vols. in 1887, A one-volume edi- 
tion was published in 1851. 

[A lifo of Fuley, in Public Characters (1802, 
pp. 97-127), waa road by Paley hiinaclf, who made 
a fuw uoteH upon it, used by hi a son ; another 
appeared in Aikin'8 General Biography, 1808, vii. 
5B8-92, A careful Life by G. W. Muadloy, his 
constant companion ' atBiahop-'Wcarmouth,'wns 
publiHhod in 1809, and a second edition, enlarged, 
in. 1 B 10. A, longer Life, by his won Edmund, was 
proiLxod to tho odidon of his works in 182/5, It 
jm 1 Indus nomo specimens of his notebooks, &e,, 
but givoH fewer facts than Meaclley's, whom it 
cwroetN on particular points, though hia general 
accuracy is acknowledged. Othor lives- IIH that 
in Ghalmin-s, one byLvnam prefixed to works in 
1823, and ono by ,1). S. Way laud prefixed to 
works in 18IJ7 depend upon Mead Icy. A good 
doMt'.riptiun of Paley's loot-urea is given in the 
Universal Magazine for 1805, ii, 414, 509, by 'a 
pupil/ probably "VV. Frond [q. y.] An account 
of his ' convurtiations ' at Lincoln, in the New 
Monthly Jleviow for 1827, is by Henry Digby 
Jtest [q, v,] ; cf, Notes ami Queries, 8th ser. viii, 
204 ; information has been kindly given by tho 
uwHtor of Christ's College.] L, S. 

PALFREYMAN, THOMAS (< 1G89P), 
author, \vaa a gentleman of the chapel royal, 
together with Tallis, Farrant, Hunnis, and 
other well-known musicians in Edward VI's 
reign. He continued in otlice till 1589, ap- 
parently the year of his death (Cheque-Book of 
Chapel Royal, ed. Eimbault, pp. 4, 195). John 
Parkhurat [q. v.], tho bishop of Norwich, ad- 
djressed an epigram to Palfreyman and .Robert 
Couch conjointly, and complimented them 
on their proficiency alike in music and theo- 
logy. Palfreyman seems to have lived in 
the parish of St. Peter, Cornhill. The fol- 
lowing works, all religious exhortations, are 
assigned to him: 1. 'An Exhortation to Know- 
ledge and Love of God,' London, 1660, 8vo. 
a. 'Tho. Palfroyman his Paraphrase on the 
Romans ; also certain little tracts of Mart. 
Oellarius/ London, n.d. 4to. 3. 'Divine 
Meditations/ London, by Henry Bynneman 
for William Norton, 1572, 8vo; dedicated 
to Isabel Ilarington, a gentlewoman of the 
Queen's privy chamber. 4. 'The Treatise 
of Heawmly Philosophic: conteyning therein 
not ontVly the most pithie sentences of God's 
sacred Scriptures, but also 'the sayings of 
cortaino Amieient and Holio Fathers, Lon- 
don, by William Norton, 1578;' a 4to of 



nine hundred pages, dedicated to Thomas, 
earl of Sussex (Brit, Mus.) Unpaged lives 
of Moses and David are prefixed ; there follow 
long and tedious chapters on God, on Faith, 
and on various vices and virtues. 

In 1567 Palfrey man revised and re-edited 
1 A Treatise of Morall Philosophy, contain- 
yngc the sayinges of the wyse, 7 which Wil- 
liam Baldwin had first published in 1547. 
Palfrey man's version of 15(37 is described as 
' no we once again augmented and the third 
tyme enlarged.' It was published by Richard 
Tot tell on 1 July 1507, and was dedicated 
to Henry Hastings, earl of Huntingdon (Brit. 
Mus.) It was a popular book, and new edi- 
tions appeared in 1575, 1584, 1587, 1591, 
1590, ICiiO, 1620, and 1630. 

One Thomas Palfreman, described as a 
plebeian and native of Oxford, matriculated 
from All Souls' College on 8 July 1586, aged 
54. He may have been a son of the author. 
A second Thomas Palfryman proceeded B.A. 
from New Inn Hall, Oxford, on 14 May 1633 
(M.A. 1636), was incorporated at Cambridge 
in 1651, and became vicar of Tlireclcinghara in 
1637, and of Haceby, Lincolnshire, in 1638. 
His son, of the same names (B.A. from Corpus 
Chriati College, Oxford, 166:4, M.A. 1665),was 
made vicar of Youlgrave, Derbyshire, in 1685. 

[Hunter's manuscript Chorus Vatum, Brit. 
Mus, Addit. MS. 24490, f. 498 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Hazlitt's Handbook ; 
Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ; Lowndes's IMbl, Man.] 

S. L. 

PALGRAVE, SIB FRANCIS (1788- 
1861),historian,born in London in July 1788, 
was of Jewish parentage, his father being 
Meyer Cohen, a member of the Stock Ex- 
change, He was educated at home by Dr. 
Montucci, from whom he acquired a great 
facility in Italian. At eight he translated 
the ' Battle of the Frogs and Mice [ into 
French from a Latin version, and this was 
pubished by his father, with the title, 
' 'O/zT/pov (3arpa%o[jivp[jLa.'xia . . tradiute de la 
version Latine d'E. Berg^re . , . par M. 
Francois Cohen de Kentish Town, ageOcle 
liuit ans,' London, 1797, 4to, pp. 58 (Brit. 
Mus. Cat,\ Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 
66). In 1803 he was articled toLoggin & 
Smith, solicitors, of Basinghall Street, Lon- 
don, and afterwards acted as their managing 
clerk till 182S, when he took chambers in the 
King's Bench Walk, Temple. In 1827 he was 
called to the bar (Middle Temple), and was for 
several years principally engaged in pedigree 
cases before the House of Lords. In 1823, 
the year of his marriage, he had embraced 
the Christian faith, and at the same time 
changed the surname of Cohen to Palgrave, 
the maiden ziame of his "wife's mother. 



Palgrave 



108 



Palgrave 



Palg-rave had for a long- time devoted his 
leisure to literary and antiquarian studies, 
and in 1818 edited a collection of Ang'lo- 
!Norman chansons. Prom 1814 till 1821 h 
was a constant contributor to tho l Edin- 
burgh' and 'Quarterly 5 reviews, and ho 
afterwards made occasional contributions 
till 1845. One of his most important articles 
\vafi on the ' Pine Arts in Moreneoi ' 
JRwie.to) June 1H40), in which ho gave expres- 
sion (as also in his * .Handbook for Travellers 
in Northern. Italy') to certain VMWH of art 
which havo since found wide acceptance. 
Part* of this article wtia extracted by tho 
former of Shelley's letters (in 1852), and 
passed oif as the genuine composition of t ho 
pout. In 18:21 JM^ruve first g-avo attention 
to the publication of the public, vucordw, and 
in August 18&J a plan proposed by him was 
approved by the Commission of Jlocords. 
Prom 1827 to I8M7 ho iuliUid for tho Ivceord 
Commission the * Parliamentary Writs,' tho 
* Jtotuli Curing Regis/ the l Knlentlar of the 
Treasury of tho Exchequer,' 'Doewumit'H am 
Kecords illustrating 1 the JUnlory of Scol 
land/ and wrote his 4 Kssayupon tlte Ovi^'inn 
Authority of tho 1C inq-'s Council.' In JS.'i 
ho published a ' History of Ku^land ' in th< 
An^lo-Saxon period for the family Library 
In I8r']ii ho publi.slied 'The K,i.snati(t Pro^i'e.s,-. 
of the English Common weal lh, J Tliirt booli 
was, ou its appoaranci*, pnmmnmul bv Uu 

' the most) luminous work that IUIH bonn ]>ro- 
dueed on thcj (surly iiusl.it ut ions of KnghnuU' 
1'algrave's friend, llallam, d^scrilnnl ifc 
(Middle stf/ett, H)th od, 1>5,% yol, i, pvef, to 
up, nottis, xii) a,s a work displaying 'otuui- 
farious reading and a fearless .spirit,/ though 
it. did not alwayn carry conviction te, a 
scopHcal timipera intent, ".IVt^imauHiiyfl that 
it Htill 'rtunains a jiiwnomble book/aiui 
its aut.hor's 'characteriHl-ic union ofm 
daring, and inguauity' ( 



(Joutnmt* 



In 1832 1,'nl^ravft \va laujLflittMl, ntul w 
mtbsequently one of tho Municipal Oorporu- 
liona conunLssicijuHU Iu IWiM he \VIIH ap- 
pointed deputy - Jcimpci' of her majcHty'H 
rtjr!ord,an ollic-owliich lit* hold till luH'diMith, 
Palgravp gatlumul tog-othor at. thh rol Ls oiiuso 
the national mnniimsntfl that had till f him 
toon diKptwd in fifty-six oiHcim, and tho 
erection of the fh'Ht blockof i\u\ Ut^jord lU'po- 
sitory \vas due to hifi ^xortionn, AH doputy 
keeper he iasiusd twouty-two annual report , 
heflinninyAvithl840. Iul8ol I'algrave pub- 
lished the first volume of his ' Jjiintory of 
Kormandy and England/ volume iUppwrod 
in 1857, but volumwuiii. and iv. wnpul>lislmd 
poatUmuouBly. Tlio ' Jfldiuburglx ' wviuwor 



(April 18r>9, pp. 'ISO f) connuontod Hoverely 
on tho eccentricity and discnr.sivtniosM of 
Puljyravc'rt Hlylo, HOIUO faults of which worts 
probably duo to hiw having dictntcd tlu* work 
to an amiinmm.sLs. Mr. Fretunan th'r.larcH t hut, 
lie ha found some of ral^rnvc'N theories moro 
fascinating tluin sound, but reinurltM tJiat. 
Palgrave was pr(-r.nuntnt 'in usHiM'tin^ 1 tlw 
pToad truth 1 that imperial ideas intlnonced 
Kuroponn politics long aft^r A.n 't7(>, Pnl- 
gnivti was aecnwr.d by oni k of his critics of a 
' fanaticism T for medieval lusl.orinns, but, 
Pal^rave biniseJf naid that, when IK* bepiu 
to write, ( a dead set had been made nt tlw 
middle n^es,' There can be nn queMion UH 
ioluH st^vvicc.H bulb in popularising and in 
promoting tluMu-iticalstudy of niedimvnl his- 
tor in Kntflntul, 

ieti on f.luly iStll, a^'ed 7, nt 
his house nt IhunpNtead Uroui, Huinp t st**a<l, 
when* ho lived tioxt dour to Sir llowlnnd 
I lill of tlm 1'tKst OJI'uv ( \V\i,vnfU), OM unit 
nh*n t v.-iiK)), H(hnd been fWiinMV 
ytiars a follow of tb< v fvoynl Sneict.y, A por- 
trait, by G, Richmond, painted in 'is 14, is in 
the possession of ULs turn, .Mi\ K, JI lmlin 
I'ulp-avo, KU.S, 

Pal^ravi^ married, m '18i\'^ l^li/.abctb, 
dn tighter of Ouwsnu Turner ttf (reat \\\r 
uimitJi, by whom be lutd issue (1) J-Vuneis 
Turner Pal^rave (ft, iHiM), tu\v {u'tif*sMf of 
jxietrv a! Oxford; (l*) Willinui (fillurd Pal* 
p'avejq, v, |,tbe Mostpru traveller; (.'M Hubert 
Harry In^lis Pal^rave (//. J^U7), R1\,S, j 
(4) {Sir Itt'W'innld 1 ( \ 1), rjil^mv*' (/>, 18;MM, 
ap))i)iuttHl clerk to. tho \ IUUHC of Ctuniuon.s in 
1H8U. 

i*l^rav<*M principal publicatinns nre m 
fullow.s : 1. OfjLJJiHiv /^ar/)ii^i/u'r^<ti^Af, Lon- 
don, 17i)7 t 4to (tmnslatcd ; cn abuse K 
ii. *(/y ouHuyt uno cluuiMtn*, ,iles ^rmvnitwa 
{e la, , t conuuun* dc Kn^leirjw 
' by I',], l^lH r Itn, VTlm 

" 



, f ,, r n, 

l*Mrlimmtttry Writs", , .o>ll(H i t<ul niul e 



}),y 



4, 



hi* 

' UiHtoryof Kn^lnnd/ vol, 1, only, toniloti f 
IH31, liftno^l Family Uihrnry). ' tt. *(*on- 
iilirttory Reform/ London | 1H;'U !,Hyo. 7.* Tho 
IMwuuul J'rogww of the- Mn^liMh Ouuuniin- 
iviMillh* (An^lo-Sa,\nn ]H'riul), i? purtn, Lon^ 
Inn, lNte,Jto, 8, *OlwTvutionH on , , tho 
lOMiahlinhnKMit of Ntnv Mtuitctjial tttifpom** 
ionw/ Lontlon t iHiiiJ, privately prinf<d, ^vo; 
tnotluir ed, lK!tti,Hvo, 0. ^Vn I'^Hiivoti tho 
Jrigi'nal Ant hot-it v of Htt Kintf'H OounclL' 

U*J I U..^ t 1 A i I )> * !'/ " It * ! *< i 

n< i^nvO* ,H/ tv'H UU UlH'Dtl HnyflH t*(i. llV I 

H.15, Wvo, 1 1, 'The Atittt'ut KalendarH*iui(t 
nvuntorii* of the TreaHin*y of Jlin MitjeHtv'H 

ttcuU ttud llocurdw Hiutmting thyJiibtury 



Palgrave 



log 



Palgrave 



of Scotland/ vol. i. 18,57, Hvo. 13. 'Truths 
and Fictions of tho Middle Ages: the Mer- 
chant and the Friar/ London, 18#7, 8vo. 
14, ' Annual Reports of the Deputy-Keeper 
of the Public 'Records' (Sir F. P.), 1840- 
1861; also * Index* to the same, published 
nt London, 1 8()5, fol. 1 5. ' .Los nonis et armea 
du Chivalri's et Bachelers tje feuretit en la 
batuylle a, Uoi^librigo'e,' ed. P. [1840?], fol. 
"10. ^Handbook for Travellers in Northern 
"Italy,' 184iij liJnio; and later editions to 
1877, 8vo, 17, 'The Lord and the Vassal; 
, familiar Exposition of the Feudal System 
in the Middle A^es,' 18-14, 8 vo. J8/'Th 
Jllstory of Normandy and England/ 4 vola. 
London , 1 85 1 -(54, 8 vo, 

[Tho above account 1 , i principally based on tho 
Memoir in Oont, Miig. 1HG1, pt. ii. pp, -1 4 1-4-1, 
Heo also 2,'Jrd Roport of tho Dtspnty-Kfopor of 
tlx^ Public .RocorcLs (T, 1). Hardy), pp, !i, 4; 
Urit, MUH. Oat/] W. W, 



PALGEAVE, WILLIAM GIFFOR1) 

(1.8iil> -.1888), diplomatist, .second son of Hir 
[Francis "Pal^nive [q, v,|, deputy-keeper of 
the Public Keeordw, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of I)awon Turner, banker, of (.{coat 
Yarmouth, was born at 2$ 'Parliament 
Kireet, \\^8t minster, $4. Jan. 38:2(5. Ho 
was sent to Charterhouse (1838 - 1844), where 
lie won tho #old medal for chiHsical vei'se, and 
became captain of the school, Thence lie 
went to Trinity College, Oxford, where ho 
had g'ahuul an open, scholarship, and at the 
ago of twenty, after only two and a half 
years' residenee, he graduated, taking a first- 
class in Ut&rw JtwiiftnloMW and a second-class 
in matlKUtiatics, Ho already felt the attrac- 
tion of the East, and, turning aside from the 
promise of distinction in England which was 
before him, lie at once went to India, and 
received a limit on ant* commission in the 
8th .'Bombay regiment of native infant ry, lu- 
tooritmayas'he did, his father's linguistic apti- 
tude, educated as he was beyond most Indian 
subalterns of his tima, fearless, energetic, and 
resourceful in -character, ho appeared to have 
the prospect of a rapid rise in his profession ; 
but early impressions derived from reading 
a translation of tho famous Arab romance 
( An tar 'returned upon him when in the East, 
andgave him a bent towards missionary work 
among the Arabian peoples, He became a 
convert to .Roman Catholicism, .was received 
into a Jesuit establishment in the Madras 
presidency, and was ordained a priest, For 
-fifteen years he continued connected with the 
Italian' and French branches of the -order, 
lie, was employed in its missionary work in 
Southern India until June 1853, when he 
proceeded to ilonm After engaging- in study 



there until the autumn of that year, he went 
to Syria, where he was for some years a suc- 
cessful missionary, particularly in the town 
of Zaliloh. He made many converts, founded 
numerous schools, and acquired an extra- 
ordinary familiarity with Arab manners and 
habits of life and thought. 

The often-repeated" story that he had 
officiated as 'Imaum'in mosques is with- 
out foundation. His own repugnance to 
.Mohammedanism and the rules of his order 
alike made it impossible ; but he could, and 
did, pass without diJficulty for. a native of 
the East, When the Druse persecution of 
the, 'Maronitos broke out, he was invited 
by the Maronite Christians, among whom 
lie had acquired great influence, to place him- 
self at their head and give them the bene- 
fit of his military training 1 ; hut, though will- 
ing to counsel them as 'a friend, he could 
not as a Jesuit take up arms and load them. 
From the massacre at Damascus of June 1 8(11 
he escaped with bare life, and the Syrian 
mission being for tho time broken up, lie re- 
turned to Western Europe. Napoleon III 
obtained from him a report, on the causes of 
the persecution of the Syrian Christians., and 
lie also visited Knglaud and Ireland. Later 
in 1 H(>1 he delivered lectures in various parts 
of Ireland on the Syrian massacres, which 
W(3re afterwards republisheclfrom newspaper 
reports, under the -title ' Pour Lectures on 
the Massaavofl of the Christians in Syria/ 
London, 1861, 8vo. In 1802 he returned to 
Syria, 

For many years Arabia had remained closed 
to Europeans. Palgrave now undertook an 
adventurous journey across Central Arabia, 
which he accomplished in 1802 and 1803. 
His object was to ascertain how far mis- 
sionary enterprise was possible among pure 
Arabs, but he also accepted a mission from 
Napoleon III, who furnished funds for the 
journey, for the purpose. of reporting on the 
attitude of the Arabs towards France, and 
on the possibility of obtaining pure Arabian 
blood-stock for breeding purposes in Europe. 
Passing as a Syrian Christian doctor and mer- 
chant, ho found his best protection in his In- 
timate acquaintance with Arabian manners, 
speech, and letters. But he. -carried his life 
in his hands.; for/ in the midst of the W r ahabi 
fanatics of Central Arabia, detection would 
certainly have been his ruin, Once at Haill 
he was* recognised as having been seen at 
Damascus, and at Biadh he was suspected 
and accused of being an English spy, but 
natural hardihood and presence of mind, aided 
by good fortune, secured his safety. The re- 
sult of his journey he embodied in one of 
the most fascinating of modern books of 



Palgrave 



no 



Palin 



travel, his i Narrative of a Year's Journey 
through Central and Eastern Arabia/ pub- 
lished in 18(15 (2, vols. London, 8vo. A French 
translation by E. Jonvtwux appeared at Paris 
in 18U6, and an abridgment of the same trans- 
lation iu. 1809). For a time the obscurity 
which hung- over the objects of his mission 
excited a certain amount of hostile criticism 
respecting his motives in undertaking- thin 
daring' and adventurous exploration ; hut its 
merit and the address with which it was 
carried out never were in question, Shortly 
before his return to England, finding mission 
work in Arabia impracticable, ho, with the 
consent of his superiors, severed liin connec- 
tion with the Society of Jesus, and engaged 
in diplomatic work for the English govern- 
ment. 

In July 1865 he was despatched to Abys- 
sinia on a special, mission to obtain from King 
Theodore the release of Consul Cameron and 
Ins fellow captives, lie was directed to re- 
main in Egypt till June 18(5(5, whmi ho re- 
turned home, and was at once appointed 
British consul at Soukhcmm Kal6, Next 
year he was transferred to Trebizond, Whilo 
stationed there he made extensive journeys 
in the north of Asia Minor, and \m obser- 
vations were embodied in a c Report on tho 
Anatolian Provinces of Trobixond, &IVMS, 
Kastcmoutti, and Tart of Angora,' iu 18(H 
(Catalogue of Foreign 0/fiw .Library). It is 
clear that he was keenly alive to the corrupt- 
ness and melHoioncy of Ottoman rule as ho 
observed it in Trebmmd, in Turkish Georgia 
(1870), and on tho Upper Euphrates (187:2). 
In 1873 he was appointed consul at Sk 
Thomas in the West Indies; in 1876he wan 
transferred to Manila j two years later ho 
was appointed for a short time consul -gcrno* 
ral in Bulgaria, and in 1879 ho \vas sent 
to Bangkok, His health, never strong after 
the hardahipR to which he was exposed dur- 
ing his return journey after quitting Arabia, 
mitfored severely by the Siamese climate, and 
liitt appointment to be mmistor-roHident in 
Uruguay hi 1884 was welcomed an Ukoly in 
lead to his restoration to health, fn (bin, 
lipwever, ho was disappointed, II o died 
of bronchitis at Monto Video on ,'JO Sept. 
1888, and his body was brought to England 
and buried In St. Thomas 1 ** cemetery, Ful- 
liam. 

In spite of his brilliance, liis official ninun- 
was less distinguished than might have boon 
anticipated. He wan a great linguist, and 
acquired languages with extreme OUHM-- 
Japanese, for example^ ho learnt colloquially 
in two months but his interest in them WIN 
not that of a philologiBt; ho learnt them 
only for practical use, aud wliou lio uu longor 



required them ho otvisod to speak thorn. Ho 
was a learned student of Dante, a good 
Latin scholar, aud something of a botanist, 
and wherever ho went, u>s his writings show, 
he was a keen observer, Some years uflep 
quitting the. Society of Jesus, ho oaiuo under 
tho intluoneo of various oastent religious 
systems, especially tin* Shiutoism of Japan, 
Ihirt form of religious belief had attracted 
him during a trip to Jnpan, whioh ho had 
visited while temporarily on leave from bin 
duty at Bangkok. During the last threo 
yeans of his life ho became ro< i onril<Ml to tlm 
l^mmnoatlmlieehmvluamLlioil iu tlmt faith* 
In 1878 tho Koyal (Jeo^mphieal Society, to 
which iu February !S(5t ho bad rommuni- 
oatodtho geographical result M ofhis Arnbinn 
journey, (lodoil Iiim a follow, and lie wan 
alw> a medallist of the Kivneh <Mogniphionl 
Society awl a nunnbor of th* 1 Royal Asintio. 
Society, lie married, iu lHU,s, 'Kthi*nno t 
daughter of (i. M Simpson of Ntrwieb t by 
whom 1m had throe WHIM, Thtro is an in- 
graved mmlallmn-poi'f rnit of him, from n v*^y 
lifelike roIii^'hyT, \Voulnot\l I. A M urofi\Ml ti> 
his ' Arabia,' and a photograph iu tlio memoir 
in * Men of Mark,' 

His published writhes wro in mWition 
to thoHi^ im^ntiinied : I, * Homuum A^hn,' a 
fa.soinating romance of KuNtew liiV (:]nt 
(ulit, L> voLs, H7^ t L<mdon t Svo; .'tn! edit, 
on Ka.stom <u*Mtinns* 



, 

or SeonoH and Stutlion in many liumU* 
Twolvt^ esHnyH ropntitod front *' I'Viwor'M/ 
'(Jornhtll/ aiul otlu'p porm<iiniK London, 
1887, Hvo. 5, * A Yimou of Lift*; Hewhlune.* 
and Reality/ a long nn<! mysHoitl roligtotH 
poow, ptiblinhod poKthumtniHly iw IH01, with 
\vhich lu^ hud boon occupied 'altnoMt f lit tho 
tlnw, of his death, 

[I'roftuw to A Vimtm of Lifn; l*r^wtlt^ ^ 
tho H)yal (leo^raphimlSijoi^ty, N f uvituhor 1HHH; 
Thornpwm CoofnT'ti Men <!' M.irk, vol. iv, ; Timi*^ 
2 ()tt- 1HHK; AthoiUHtm, <i(K't, JHHH; Sutiinfnv 
Uviow <J (M,, 1KHH; uifoniuiliou frni HiV 
Pulgrnw, K(MJ,, ami M*, K T, Ial- 
J A. II. 



f WILLIAM ( JTO iM 
nt Honof Itiehard hUin, who 
Sarah Dunlon, wwdmrn at ,Mortkk*%* 
mx 10 Nov. 1KR While a private tutor 
ho publiMhod in Juno iH^wliim livinir nt, 
Southampton, <Tho IVmunn if vKnclivhtrt, 
triuiHlat a ou a now pJuu, with wmmw iKng- 
lih (tntuml and Kxplanatarv Note*, 1 On 
17 IhM, lHL J SHm iimiriuitliitttrf fVoin Hf,, Atlmtt 
Hall, Oxford, but IIOHOOU njigrafetl to Trinity 



, M 

5^ uud M,A, IB5L Hu WHH admittuil ad 



Palin 



Palk 



at Oxford on 21 June 1861. Palm was 
ordained deacon by the Bishop of London on 
Trinity Sunday, 1833, as curate in charge o; 
StiHbrd in Kssex, and he remained in that 
position for more than twelve months, In July 
18JM he was instituted to the rectory, and he 
continued to be rector of Stillbrd until his 
death. Between 1861 and 18(53 the parish 
church was restored through his exertions 
With the assistance of one of his daughters, 
lie compiled an account of ' StilFord and 
its Neighbourhood, Past and Present/ con- 
taining a description of twenty parishes in 
8out.li Ksse\% which was printed for private 
circulation in 1871 ; and in the following- 
year he issued in the same manner a supple- 
mentary volume, entitled ' More about Stif- 
ford and its Neighbourhood/ Both volumes 
contain many extracts from parish registers, 
nnd are full of information on social life in 
country districts during the past century. 
lie died in the roctory-liouse at Stillbrd on 
K> Oct. 1882, and was buried in Stiflbrd 
churchyard. 

Palm's wife was Emily Isabella Slaugh- 
ter, daughter of Stephen* Long, solicitor, of 
Southampton Buildings, London. She was 
born in London on 7 July 1818, and died 
at St illbrd cm 27 March 1878. Their chil- 
dren were : Emily Isabella Jane, who has 
contributed to Shipley's ' Lyra Messianica/ 
' Sunday,' the < Child's Pictorial/ and other 
papers : William Long, an artist ; Mary Eliza, 
who was married to Croslegh Dampier Cross- 
ley of SeaitclifFe, Lancashire ; and Fanny 
Elizabeth, who has also written verses for 
children. 

Palm's other works consisted of: 1. 'Vil- 
lage Lectures on the Litany,' 1837. 2. * Bel- 
lingham: a Narrative of a Christian in Search 
of the Church/ 1839. 3. ' History of the 
Church, of England, 1688-1717/1861. He in- 
tended, if encouraged, to bring the narrative 
down to the middle of this century, and the 
remaining- portion was * in a state of forward- 
ness/ but it was never published. The labour 
involved more research than was practicable 
for a country parson. He also wrote a paper 
on 4. 'The Weekly Offertory: its Obligations, 
Uses, Results, 7 which went through two 
editions. 5. c Squire All worthy and Farmer 
BHmt on the Weekly Offertory: a Dialogue/ 
1843. 6, ' Ten Reasons against Disestablish- 
ment,' 1873 and 1885. 7, 'The Christian 
Month: Original Hymns for each Day of the 
Month, set to music by Miss Mounsey.' Two 
hymns by him were contributed to Orby 
Shipley's ' Lyra Messianica/ 1,864. From 
1853 to 1857 ho edited the 'Churchman's 
Magazine/ and he contributed' frequently to 
various church periodicals. 



[Men of the Time, 1865 ed. ; Hist, of Stiffor.l 
pp. 72, 179-80; Guardian, 25 Oct. 1882, p. 1485 ! 
Foster s Alumni Oxon.] W. P C 

PALK, SIR ROBERT (1717-1798), 
governor of Madras, was the eldest son 
of Walter Palk, seventh in descent from 
Henry Palk, who was possessed of Ambrooke, 
Devonshire, in the time of Henry VII. Ro- 
bert was born at Ambrooke in December 
171 7 ; he was at first intended for the church, 
took deacon's orders, and proceeded to Madras 
as one of the East India Company's chap- 
lains. He eventually, however, renounced 
his orders, and entered the civil service. He 
had by 1.753 risen to the rank of member of 
the Madras council. In June 1758, during 
the contest for the Carnatic between Ohunda 
Sahib, favoured by the French, and Mahom- 
med All, favoured by the English, Palk was 
deputed envoy to the rajah of Tanjore, and 
prevailed on that prince to give assistance 
to the English candidate. In January 1754, 
after the close of the contest, Palk and 
Vansittart were the two delegates appointed 
to discuss terms of settlement with the 
French agents, Lavaur, Kir jean, and Bausset, 
at Sadras,a Dutch settlement between Pondi- 
cherry and Madras. After an angry dis- 
cussion of eleven days, in the course of which 
the^ English accused the French of forging 
an imperial letter in support of their claims, 
the conferences were broken off. In April 
1754 Palk was again sent to Tanjore, the 
rajah of which had been wavering in his 
affection for the English, and for a second 
time succeeded in confirming his allegiance. 
Peace was eventually signed on 11 Jan. 1755, 
Mahommed Ali being at last recognised 
nabob of the Carnatic, and in January 17/35 
Palk was sent to Arcot with Colonel Stringer 
Lawrence, with whom he now formed a life- 
long friendship, to conduct the nabob in 
triumph to Madras. 

In October 1763 George (afterwards baron) 
Pigot (d. 1777) [q.v.], the governor of Madras, 
resigned office. He was succeeded by Palk, 
who found himself called upon to formulate 
;he relations between the English and the 
Deccan powers, Mahommed Ali had incurred 
leavy debts to the English, on account of their 
assistance to him during the past war. He 
md made cessions of territory and granted 
assignments on his revenue. But this being 
.nsufticient, he endeavoured to augment his 
ncome by plundering the weaker princes in or. 
Bordering on his own dominions. Palk, while 
ready to give the nabob any reasonable assist- 
ance in maintaining order within his actual 
Boundaries, declined to help him in a policy 
of aggression. While, therefore, he assisted 
him to crush the rajah of Madura in October 



Palk 



112 



Pa 1 1 ad i us 



1764, he protected tlio ruler of Tan j ore, Tul- 
juji, against, him. Inspito of many representa- 
tions from the nabob, Palk refused to sanction 
au attack on Tulja-ji; and when a dispute 
arose between, the rulers of Tanjore and tht, 
Carnatlc regarding 1 the right of repairing tlu 
great embankment of the Kavori rivor, Palk 
decided in favour of Tanjore. (For Palk's 
policy regarding Tanjoro, see numerous Ictt 
in KOUH'S ApjH'HtfLr, Nos. vu x. xii, xiii.') 

In 17()5 Robert lord (Jlivo [q. v/j, obtained 
a grant from the moglnil of the live districts 
known us the Nort hern Sircars for the Madras 
presidency. (Colonel Oalliaud was thorefon 
sent ii]) (Vom Madras to talco possession of t hem, 
But the nixum of the Deecan, to whom they 



and invaded the Oaruatic with a lar^e army. 
Palk, alarmed for Madras, hurriedly direct oil 
Calliaud to come to terms with tho ni/,am ? 
and on 1$ Nov. 17(>(> a treaty was signed ad 
Hyderabad, by which (vhn company agreed to 
leave the sircar of (huil.ur iu tho, hands of 
the uizam's brother, Uasnlut Jiiu^, and to 
pay a tribute of oi<>'ht lacs a year lor the 
remaining lerritory. This treaty is repro- 
bated by all historians as a. ^TMVO net of 
{msiUanimity. Thoworsf'.urUrle in tho t realy, 
lowever, was that by which the Kn^'lish pro- 
mised to give the. nizam military assistance 
'to settle the n Hairs of his government in 
everything- that is rig'ht and proper,' a vag'Uo 
expression which in volvodthe Mad ruM^overu- 
merit the following* year in the ntxunus 
attack on Ilydcr AH, the sulUin of Mysore, 
Palk resigned his governorship, and roturucd 
home in January 1 767, and it would HOOIU, 
from Ily dor's own words (see WILKH, J/w* 
ton/ ofMt/Mor)> that this enterprise on tlu 
part of tho English was veully duo to Mr, 
J3ourchier, Palk'B auci^essor. 

On his return to England Palk, who had 
accumulated a large fortune out in Tndia t 
purchased ITnldon House in Devonshire, tho 
former seat of tho Chudleig-h family, which ho 
greatly enlarged. ,11 is old frioiul, Ot^neral 
.Lawrence, resided with him, and on his death 
in 177rleft all his property to Palk's children, 
In return Palk set up a larg'O monument to 
Lawrence's memory on Pen Hill, Devonshire, 
Palk, who took a great interest in political 
matters, was momber for AshhurUm, Devon- 
shire, from 17(57 to 17UR, awl from 1774 to 
1787, On 19 Juno .177:4 ho was eroutod a 
baronet Bo was a tory in sentiment, but 
resented Lord North's act, passed in I77% 
for the regulation of tho East India (Jompauy, 
and took xvp an independent attitude- on 
matters connected with India, Tho Warren 
Hastings correspondence In the Ih'Itwh 
Museum contains a larg number of letters 



written by Sir Robert Palk from 17<J)f<> 17Si 
to Warren .Hastings, Thoy are mainly oc- 
cupii'd with sketches of current events, hut 
show that Ptxlk strongly supported his friend's 
interest's in parliament and at tlu Kast hidia 
House. Palk died at llultlon flous(> in May 
1708. .Pa Ik St. rail, which separates CVylou 
from India, was named afh'r Iiinu 

lie married, on 7 Feb. 17(11 , Aunt 1 , daughter 
of Arthur Yansit tart , of ShottcslmmK, H^rK* 
shins by whom IK V had tlirco daught<rs and 
one son, named l/awivuce, after (he family 
rri(nd,< u v n( k ral Lawrence. I le was succeeded 
in the baronetcy by his sou Lawrence (t/ t 
|H];r), M,p, for DeVnnshiiv, and Sir Law- 
ri'uce's grandson, nlso mnnecl LMWITUIM* iiml 
for ninny years M.P.,wns raised to the piM'r- 
nge iiS) April 18K)as Lord iftddun; 1m died 
J Mnrtdi lSS:J T nd was suctM-ederl by Law- 
ivncf* llesk((h PalK, the s>cnnl lord Unlduu, 
| lliwtitn'cs of India hy Mnrslutirm ;uu! Mill; 
WilksVi Hisl.of Mysnor; Ornn'V Military TJMUV 
actions in Hindostnn- OornwjilliM ('nrn'spiui 
; KNuis's Appendix ; HtNf.nitd M.uintvturnt 
of (hi* Mast Italia Company; Letters tVntt ftn 
Must India (Vtiupany'MSi'iM'HHH ; \Ynnvu Haisliii"s 
(!onv'Kjicjml(MU',; PolwhtdoM Hiht of Drvnnshiio; 
VIag. 17D8, pt, i. p, 1 !.'; !>i'liinV Jt,int- 
of Mnghuui; IturkoV JWr.'W. | 

{. i, Al v, 

Al>nrS (,//, 1,11 ?)juvhdcncmt and 
missionary to Ireland, is often eoni'iined with 
S(. Patrick (t[, v.j He was dnubtli'ss a nnli\ 
,>f a (fi'(*elv city in Snuthem (lunl, nud \um 
Sherehy brought, into rvlntinu wilh St, <MM*" 
uwnuH of Auxerre with whom biHiutlbn 
ritutively nHsoc.inted, Tin* highly ItMil>ti'tl 
tradition as to his British origin iv.stn on fh<* 
tut hority of late writirs, like Antonius Pus^* 
tile jcstttf, nnd n mniginnl uith* iu a 
nuuuscript. at Trinity ('ollege, Dublin/ Poll, 
euere, 1 He IH mainly known fnm 
i fe\vreferf!UC(*H math* to him liy Ins C(Hifim 
)orary Prosper of Aquilmm*. * Kirst, uiuicr 
AJ>.4ii(, we- are told t hut Agncohi t lu* I *<*lngiau 
corrupted Ote (-huwhi'M uf Hritaiu by tin* 
minim of his doctrine^ but that PWM r**hiM 
im WHS stirred up by th* dencon rrtUmliuri 
o Mend UernmmtH, lirnhnpof Aux*'rrs ti> <li- 
lace the heri^ticH, ntttl diren't tlm Hnhmn to 
tht^cutholic faith, Secondly, un<f*r I*U, Pal- 
huliiiH is^nift to Imv* btu Mintt Mo the SfotH 
that bolitmj in Jlhrmt UH tlunr fimt HiMliop, 
by the twlinntitm of I*ojm 0*I**Mt int*,' ami 
the same act in referred to AH a poof tlmt 
* while the pope laboured to ktuj> tm* Uomt* 
irtluiul nitholic t ho at> made t hp barbmvnttf 
island (?hmtia, by ordaining u binltop for 
tho Scots/ 

Tho mission of PaHndiuH m nlm refitt*mi 
to by Bt'de, by tbo H)Jd KugltMb Uimmicla* 



Palladius 



Pallady 



(which copies Bede confusedly), and by vari- 
ous Irish writers from the ninth century. The 
only information supplied by these sources 
worthy of acceptance is that Palladius, though 
lie founded some churches in Ireland, was un- 
successful in his mission, quitted the country, 
crossed over into Britain, and died there very 
shortly after his landing. 

Many doubtful traditions are recorded of 
Palladius' by later writers. In the scholia on 
'Fiacc'sHymn' he is said to have landed de- 
finitely in Wicklow, and founded there seve- 
ral churches, including* ' Teach-na-Roman,' or 
i the House of the Romans/ which is identi- 
fied with a site called Tigrony in the parish 
of Castle Mac Adam, co, Wicklow; but, not 
being well received, he went round the coast 
of Ireland towards the north, until driven 
by a ^reat tempest he reached the extreme 
part of Modheidh (Kincardineshire?) towards 
the south, where he founded the church of 
Fordun, ' and Pledi is his name there.' 

The * Second Life of Patrick \ ('Vita Se- 
cunda ') says the missionary arrived among 1 
the hostile men of Leinster, but managed to 
baptise 'others' and build, besides Teach-na- 
Roman, a church called Cellfine, identified 
with Killeen Gorman (where he left the books, 
relics, and tablets given him by Oelestine), and 
another church, Domnach Arda, identified 
with Donard in West Wicklow, ' where are 
buried the holy men of the family [or at- 
tendants] of Palladius.' After a short time, 
concludes this story, the saint died i in the 
plain of Grirgin, at a place called Forddun. 
But others say he was crowned with mar- 
tyrdom.' 

The ' Fourth life of Patrick' names the Lo- 
genians as the people among whom Palladius 
arrived, says a few believed in his message, 
but most rejected it, ' as God had not pre- 
destined the* Hibernian people to be brought 
by him from the error of heathenism,' and 
asserts that the preacher's stay in Ireland 
was only ' for a few days/ 

The North British traditions about Pal- 
ladius are comparatively modern and unau- 
thentic, and can hardly be traced beyond the 
* Scoticllronicon ' of John of Fordun in the 
fourteenth century. The ' Breviary of Aber- 
deen' (1509-10) contains the oldest known 
calendar, which marks 6 July as the festival 
of Palladius' Apostle of the Scots.' 

According to the 'Tripartite Life of St. 
Patrick/ Palladius was accompanied by 
'twelve men' when he went * to preach to the 
Gael/ and landed at Inver Dea in Leinster ; 
Ilia chief opponent was Nathi, son of Garrchu ; 
he died of a natural sickness, after leaving 
Ireland, in the land of the Picts, and was 
buriwd in Li com urn (Calendar of Oenyus) 

VOL, XHII. 



A curious entry in the ' Leabhar Breac ' de- 
clares that Palladius was sent * with a Gospel' 
by Pope Celestine, not to the Irish direct, but 
' to Patrick, to preach to the Irish/ 

The churches of Palladius were, according 
to 'The Four Masters' and Jocelyn, all built 
of wood. 

Prosper makes it clear that Palladius was 
sent to Ireland after its conversion to Chris- 
tianity, and not to undertake its conversion. 
Some Irish writers, in order to connect St. 
Patrick directly with Rome and to magnify 
his labours, have misquoted Proaper's words, 
and have misrepresented Palladius as being 
sent by Pope Celestine to convert Ireland for 
the first time, to have failed in his attempt, 
and to have been succeeded by Patrick, who 
finally effected' the conversion of the Irish. 
The truth seems to be that Palladius arrived 
long after Patrick had begun his mission, 
which was conducted independently of papal 
sanction, and that both before and after Pal- 
ladius's arrival in Ireland Patrick's work 
proceeded, at any rate in the north of Ireland, 
with uninterrupted success. The later Irish 
biographers of St. Patrick have transferred 
some facts, true of Palladius only, to the 
successful ' Apostle/ and mingled the legends 
of both saints together. 

[Prosper of Aquitai no's Chronicle; Bede's Eccl. 
Hist, i. 13; Old English Chronicle, A.D. 430; 
ancient lives of St. Patrick, cf. especially the 
Tripartite Life, ed. by Whitley Stokes, pp. 560-4 
(Rolls Ser.); Breviary of Aberdeen for 6 July 
1509-10; Nennius'3 Hist, of Britons, esp. c. 55; 
Todd's St. Patrick, pp. 278-80, 284-98; Reeve's 
Adamnan; Hadrian and Stubbs, i. 18, and vol. ii. 
pt. ii. p. 290 ; Life in Diet, of Christian Biogr. ; 
Bright's Church Hist. pp. 349-50 ; Shearman's 
Loca Patriciana, esp. pp. 25-35, 402-12, 463-6; 
Stokes's Ireland and the Celtic Church, esp. p. 23 ; 
Olden's Church of Ireland (National Churches 
Series), esp. pp. 10, 14, 406-12; Warren's Li- 
turgy and Ritual of Celtic Church, esp. pp. 30- 
32 ; Ussher's Eccles. Brit. Antiq. t. vi. c. xvi. ; 
Bollund, torn. i. Maii, p. 259 ; Rees's Essay on 
the Welsh Saints, p. 128 ; and see art PATRICK.] 

C. R, B. 

PALLADY,EICHARD (JL 1533-1555), 
architect of the original Somerset House, 
Strand, was educated at Eton College, whence 
he was, in 1533, elected to a scholarship at 
King's College, Cambridge, hut he does not 
appear to have taken a degree. In 1548-9, 
conjointly with Francis Foxhal, he purchased 
of the crown, for 1,522J. 16*. 3d,, the chantry 
of Aston, near Birmingham, with the manor 
of Ingon, Warwickshire, and other property, 
He became 'overseer of the works of the Duke 
of Somerset in the Strand/ London, which 
were commenced in 1546. The functions of 



Palliser 



Palliser 



the ' overseer ' soem to have ombraeocl at 
this period those of both architect and sur- 
veyor, and hence it is safe to credit Pal lady 
with the design of Somerset House. Tim 
suggestion that John of Padua [c(. v.] win 
responsible reals on no good authority. The 
works there, were interrupted by the Dulcet 
loss of power on 14 Oct. 1540, but were sub- 
sequently revived, and were still in operation, 
in 1636. Meanwhile, in October 1 /340, Pal lady 
was, with other servants and friends of tho 
duke, committed to the Tower ; but ho wan 
liberated on 25 Jan. following, on entering 
into his recognisance in a thousand marks to 
be forthcoming before the lords of the council 
upon reasonable warning, to answer nuoh 
charges as should be brought against him. In. 
1554 and 1555 he was involved in litigation 
respecting the tithes of Wart on in Lanca- 
shire, of which he bad a lease from tho dean 
and chapter of Worcester, 

His wife's name was Anno. 'The Oon- 
fession of Anne Pal lady as to Coxo'suvHort 
to Lady Waldegrave/ elated .IfiCJl, in in tho 
Public'Record Oiliee (cf. Cul. State I'tyuM, 
Dom. 1547-80, p. 174). 

[Havwood's Alumni Kfccm. 4to, 17^7, p< l/>4 ; 
Goopor's Atlionic (Janlabr. 8vo, 18AH, i, llifl; 
Strypo'w Mum. it. App. p. 02, and Li to of Sir T, 
Smith, p. 42; Tytlur*H Kdward VI, and Mary I, 
pp. '272, 275; Jhic.itus LiiuouNtrms i, liliO, iiOS, 
302; Dup.-Kuepur Publ. Kucowlw, Hth Ivop, A pp. 
ii.7.1 W. I'., H. 

PALLTSEB, FANNY IWUY (IM/i- 
1878), writer on art, born on &J Sept. 1805, 
waa daughter of Joseph Marryat, ALP,, of 
Wimbledon, by his wifo Charlotte, daughter 
of Frederic Geyer of Bo-ston, New Kn^land. i 
She was a sister of Captain Frederick Muvryut. ! 

|, v.], the novelist. In 18IW she murrieil 
upturn Richard Bury Pallise.r, who died m j 
lH5i2, and by whom she had IHHIW four sons i 
and two daughters. She took a leading part 
in the organisation of the international men 
exhibition held at South Kensington in 1H7-L 
She died at her reMiclenee, W Unwell Road, 
Kensington, on 10 Jan. 1878, and was buried 
in Urompton cemetery. 

She was -a frequent contributor to tho 
* Art Journal' and the * Academy/ and WUH 
tho author of; 1. 'The Modern Poetical 
Speaker, or a Collection of Pieces adapted 
forliecitation . . . fromtho Poe.tBof the Nine,- 
ttsftnth Century, 1 1/mdon, 1845, Kvo, ii. 'His- 
tory of Laeo,' with numerous illuHtmtions, 
London, 1865, 8vo; r<l edit. 1875. Thin 
was translated into French by the Oomtemso 
de Clermont Tonnerre. JJ, * Brittany and its 
Byways : flome Account of itn InluibitantH and 
its Antiquities,' London, 1800, 8vo. 4. r IIiH- 
toric Devices, Ikdgas, and War Criow,' Lon- 



don, 1S70, Svo; 
a writ's of papers on tlu> HiibjtM-t. in t-ho 'An. 
Journal.' fi. 'A I) i Mcriptivo (''ntaloj^ui* of 
t-li( v LacMMind Kmbmidory in tin 1 ; South K<n- 
MusiMun/ IS71 ; *ud t^dit, IS7; 
odit. ISS1. (i, 'Mottoes for Monuments; 
or Kpita|)lis ,si k l(U't'd tor Si udy or Applica- 
tion. Illustrated with IVsi^ns by Klaxuuut 
and others,' London, 1H7L', 8vo, 7, 'Tim 
China (-ollt'i'tor's I*oelvet Companion/ Lon- 
don, lH7<l,Kvo; iind edit. 1S7, 1 "), 8, *AUnf 
'History of (lermany to the, But 1 1n of Konitf- 
gratss/'rm tho plan of iMrn, iMarkhamV w*Il- 
ltno\vu hisloriert, 

She translated from tho Frwu*hM!nnd~ 
book of tho Arts of the Middle A>(<^/ 1H55, 
by L Lahart* 1 , and l History *if tlu t Vnmne 
Art* and * History of Furniture,' LS7K, htith 
by A, Jiu*(|U(iuurt. She nlso assisted lirr 
eltlewt brother, ,lo,-eph Mnrrynf-, in revising 1 
the second edition ^1S."7) of hls elnbomt-n 
i History of Tottery uiul IN^eelniu/ 

[ Acwit'iny, W* *fatu 1M/H, p, 7it; Art lounmt, 
1878, p, lilH ; Profuro to Kltr<nM 4 o Murryut'n 
Lil'tv ot* CUpfiiin Mai't'j'at ; Krli^juvrv, \viii. 

" 



KR, HIU nntui (17^ irt>\ 

adtnirnl, of an <ihl fntntly Inug* net tied tji 
VorLshtre, was son of Hit^h Puilisi^ n enp 
tain in the nnny, who \VUH wounded at Al- 
inunxa. HIM mother \viin a dinit'.bterof 1 Inin- 

5)hny Ilobinwm of ThieKet Hutt, V*irU shire,, 
le \VUH lnM*n it Kirk Pei^hlon in the West, 
Jlidintf nu iit? Feh, 17'?^ .'J, In 171*> be WM 
entered us a midshipman nn lurd the AM- 
borough, t'oininuntlfdhy her brother, Nieljobn 
Ivobinwon. Two years Inter he tuoved, with 
UobtuHon, tt* the Kenuin^ton, in wbirh he 
remuine.d three yenrs, lie WIJM then for a 
few mouths in (740 in the Deptford Mt>re 
filtip and In t-he Tipfer, nnl iwrlv in 17 H 
juiitt'd hirt unele in the Mssex. lie jw^nl 
bis examitiatioa on IL* Mny 1711^ rtiui, eon-* 
tinuing* in the Msnex^ WUH promotetl to the 
rank of Heuteniint on 1H Sept, 174L In fbe 
bi^inuinjjf of the winter UobinMon wnHwuper- 
Boded in the wtuuntind by Hirluird Norris, 
HOII of Sir John Norris ( itiiJO^ 174U) ft|, v.l, 
and Painter, etmtinuin^ with hitn, WHM ftrnt 
lieutenant of the Rsnex, in the net ion olf 
Toulon, on tl Feb. t7i$ i Uee MATIHIWH, 
TuoM.iH; Lirs'vot'K, UiniAun], Afterwards 
PalltHer, with Home of the other lieutenant M 
of the Mnse.v, preferred it elutrge of (nnvunliee 
and iniHconduet n^ainst N<rri, who llml from 
his trial nnd die<l in obwurity, 

On 8 J,uly 1740 FalliHer \vn promoted to 
be commander of the, Weasel, ami on ii5 Nov. 
to bn captain of tlin (7aptiii t #mu# out to 
t,ha Went, tndien with the, hroud pennttnt of 
Gmwmodorw Legg'.nOn I^*g 



Palliser 



1*5 



Palliser 



1747) Palliser was moved into the 50-gun 
ship Sutherland, and in the following March 
was severely wounded by the accidental ex- 
plosion of the arm-chest, so that he was 
obliged to return to England for the recovery 
of his health. By December he was ap- 
pointed to the Sheerneas frig-ate, in which 
he was sent out 'to the East Indies with 
news of the peace. He joined Boscawen on 
the Coromandel coast in July 1749, and re- 
turned to England in the following April, 
when the ship was ordered round to Dept- 
ford and was paid off, 

In January 1753 Palliser was appointed 
to the Yarmouth, guardship at Chatham, 
from which in March he was moved to the 
Seahorse, a small frigate employed during 
that and the next year on the coast of Scot- 
land in the prevention of smuggling and 
of treasonable intercourse with France and 
Holland. In the end of September 1754 the 
Seahorse was ordered to refit at Sheerness j 
thence she went to Cork, and sailed in 
January 1755, in charge of a convoy of trans- 
ports, for Virginia. By taking the southern 
route, a course with which the navigators of 
the day were not yet familiar, he avoided 
the winter storms, and arrived in the Chesa- 
peake in less than eight weeks, with the 
ships in good order and the men in good 
health. After waiting some months in 
Hampton Eoads, he sailed for England on 
26 July, Commodore Keppel taking a passage 
with him, and arrived at Spitkead on 22 Aug. 
[see KEPPEL, AUGUSTUS, VISCOUNT]. A month 
later he was appointed to the Eagle at Ply- 
mouth, and on joining her was sent early in 
October on a cruise off Ushant, where he 
captured several vessels coming home from 
N ewfounclland, Within a fortnight he wrote 
that he had 217 prisoners on board, and he 
had sent some away. His cruise continued, 
apparently with equal success, till 22 Nov. 

During 1756 the Eagle was one of the 
fleet cruising off Ushant and in the Bay of 
Biscay under Ha wke, Boscawen, or Knowles, 
and in 1757 was with Holburne off Louis- 
bourg. During the summer of 1758 Palliser 
commanded the Shrewsbury in the fleet off 
Ushant under Anson ; and in 1759, still in 
the Shrewsbury, took part in the operations 
in the St. Lawrence leading up to the re- 
duction of Quebec. In 1760 he was with 
Sir Charles Saunders [<j. v.] in the Medi- 
terranean, and for some time had command 
of a detached squadron in the Levant. In 
1762 he was sent out to Newfoundland with 
a small squadron to retake St. John's j but 
that service had been already accomplished, 
and he returned to England. In April 1764 
lie was appointed governor and commander- 



in-chief at Newfoundland, with his broad 
pennant in the Guernsey. This was then a 
summer appointment, the ships coming home 
for the winter; but in Palliser's case was 
twice renewed, in 1765 and 1766, during 
which time he acted as a commissioner for 



adjusting the French claims to fishing rights, 
and directed a survey of the coasts, which 
was carried out by James Cook [q. v.], after- 
wards known as the circumnavigator. 

In 1770 Palliser was appointed comp- 
troller of the navy, and on 6 Aug. 1773 was 
created a baronet. On 31 March 1775 he 
was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral, 
and was shortly afterwards appointed one of 
the lords of the admiralty, under the Earl 
of Sandwich [see MONTAGU, JOHN, fourth 
EABL or SANDWICH], In_the same year, by 
the will. of his old chief, Sir Charles Saunders, 
he came into a legacy of 5,OOOZ., and was 
appointed lieutenant-general of marines in 
succession to Saunders. On 29 Jan. 1778 
he was promoted to be vice-admiral of the 
blue ; and in March, when Admiral Keppel 
was appointed to the command of the Channel 
fleet, Palliser, while still retaining his seat 
at the admiralty, was appointed to command 
in the third post under him. 

For three days (24-27 July) the English 
and the French fleets were in presence of 
each other, Keppel vainly trying to _ bring 
the enemy to action. On the morning of 
the 27th Palliser's squadron was seen_ to 
lave fallen to leeward, and Rear-adiniral 
Campbell, the captain of the fleet, ^made a 
signal to it to make more sail. This was a 
matter of routine, and it does not appear that 
Keppel had personally anything to do with 
the order ; but Palliser was much annoyed, 
and his annoyance increased when Keppel 
was enabled, by a shift of wind, to bring the 
enemy to action without waiting for the line 
to get into perfect order, or for Palliser to 
get into his place. After a partial engage- 
ment the two fleets drew clear of each other, 
and Keppel made the signal to reform_the 
line, hoping to renew the battle. Palliser, 
however, did not obey. He had attempted, 
with the rear squadron, to renew the action 
at once, and had wore towards the enemy, 
but, finding himself unsupported, wore back 
again. In spite of signals and messages, he 
did not get into his station till after night- 
fall. When the next day broke the French 
fleet was not in sight, and Keppel returned 
to Plymouth. 

Keppel made no complaint of Palliser, and 
the fleet soon left for a cruise off Ushant. 
In its absence the failure was ascribed m the 
newspapers to Palliser's conduct, and on the 
return of the fleet Palliser rudely desired 

I 2 



Palliser 



1x6 



Palliser 



Keppel to write to the papers and contradict 
the report. Keppel refused, whereupon Pal- 
liser applied to the admiralty for a court- 
martial on Keppel, which resulted in au 
acquittal. The London mob celebrated the 
triumph of the popular party by ffuttinpr 
Palliser's house in Pall Mall, and by burning 
Palliser in effigy. In York they are said to 
have demolished the house of Pall wor'a sister, 
who went mad with the fright (WALPOLTJ, 
Zetters, vii. 180). The story was probably 
exaggerated. 

The court-martial on Keppol had pro- 
nounced the charges ' malicious and ill- 
founded.' Palliser consequently resigned his 
appointments, aucl applied for a court-martial 
on himself. Jveppel was directed to proparo 
the charge, but positively refused to do HO, 
The admiralty, under the presidency of tho 
Earl of Sandwich, were determined that tho 
court should sit and should acquit their col- 
league. The court was packed in a way till 
then unknown : whips were ordered to son if 
their captains were supposed to bo hostile ; 
ships were called in if their captama weni be* 
lieved to be favourable, Tho trial lawtod for 
twenty-one days ; but there wan no protw- 
cutor, there were no chargon, and the pro- 
ceedings were rather of the nuturo of a court 
of inquiry, Finally, after throe days of loud 
and angry contention, the court found that 
PailiBer'a ' conduct and behaviour woro in 
many respects highly exemplary and merit o- 
rioufi ; ' but, thoy aoMud, thoy * catmot help 
thinking it waft incumbent on him to havo 
made known to hin commaiidor-in-oluof tho 
disabled state of tho Formidable, winch ho 
might have done.' Thoy were of opinion that 
in other respects he was i not chargeable wit U 
misconduct or misbehaviour,' and acquit tod 
him accordingly, but neither uiumimouflly nor 
honourably, A fair and independent court., 
with a capable prosecutor, would probably 
have arrived at a very diflorout conclusion, 

PalLLsor at oneo requested to be reinntatod 
in the ofliceR winch he had resigned. Though 
Lord Sandwich shrunk from granting thin 
request, he appointed Paliuser governor of 
Greenwich Hospital next year, on the death 
of Sir Churl o.fl Hardy tho younger [q, v/) A 
strong but vain protest was made uy tho op- 
position in the llouKoof Commons/ Keppol. 
m the course of the debate, said 'he had 
allowed the vice-admiral behaved gallantly 
as he passed the French line ; what ho had 
to complain of was the vice-admiral'H neglect 
of signals after the engagement ; for if tho 
lion gets into liifl den and won't come out of 
it, there's an end of the lion,* On the down- 
fall of the ministry no attempt waa made to 
disturb Palliser at Greenwich li 



an admiral on i24 Sept, 1787, and died at his 
country seat of Vach in Buckinghamshire, 
on H) March 179^, 'of a disorder induced by 
tho wounds received on board tho Suther- 
land,' which for many yoars had cauftod him 
much suH'oring. He wn.s Imriod in tho parish 
church of Ohalfont St. (Hies, whore thoro in 
a monument to Inn mwnory. Ho wan un- 
married, and homuwithod tho bulk of hia 
fortune to bin illo^itimato son. Tim tit It) 
doflcondo,d to his gratul-nophew, tlu^h l*al- 
lisnr Walt crw, who took tho name of I'alliMor, 
and from him to hiw won, on whowo donth it 
hooamo oxtiuot. Till 177*1 Pullinor always 
fii^ntul hm namo PallwHor; in tin*, utnnu*rof 
177iJ ho dropped ntio /*, and always aftor* 
wardn nipnod PnlHwor* Urn pwfrnit, by 
Dance, wan itx tho poHHortwinn of tbiv hint 
haronotf who gavo a copy of it to thti IVmtod 
Hall at Groonwidi, It lnw botu on^rav*nl 

Pallisor'n Hturactor WUH vory dirtowutly 
onttmatod by iho factioun of th* <iay, nnd his 
conduct on" "27 July 177K romnhiH a myn- 
tory; but tlu friend of Suinulorn, I^icltor, 
Mark Hobinwon, and (< nodal! can wourooly 
havo hoon ot horwiwo than a oapublo and bravo 
oili(r It IH ptwHifolo that tho pain of hinttM 
woundn i*on<lorod him irntit!}lt k , and l*?d in hin 
quarrel with Koppol. It wan churm'toriHtic 
of Lord JSamlwich to utiUno it tor party pur- 



k'fl Bi<gr, N f av, v. *tHH; Nuvnl 
xxxix.BJ); Kur*pim Ma 
of thn (onHH"Miirtinl on 
(pttblinlu'd) ; Kt*|i!Hl*H Li to 
Hul(>rationNon t)io rMnMpl<Hof Nnvul UiMoi 
(37K1); i*arl, Hint, xx, xxi.f l^MttHon'i* Nnv. 
Mil MoinoirHj OtlUual LtiU^rg, &;, in tho P 
Jt*HH)ra OtHw,] J. K, 

FALLIBEE, JOHN (lW)7.iSK7) t 
gmpht*r and tjploror t lorn tu *2tf Juu, 
wtw oUhnt wm of Wruy l*alHMor (<L 1HH^)^ 
of Ooitirfiffhi t'o, VVutorfordH(uiiotHt* tiottto 
naut-colonol of tho Watorford art i 1 l*ry mi 1 i t m f 
by Anno t datt^htor of John Ult'tlntunoK of 
Annngift, co, Titiporary. Hir WtUiam 1'alli- 
flor [q v/| WIIH IUH youn^or brother. John 
wftfl'Bhoriir of Wntt^ford dtmittf IH-l^mtit 
fiwvod in tho Watorford artillory militia AIV 
a captain* In IH47 ho not out on A hunting 
expodit'um among \\\v\ Imliaim of tho wontoru 
and nnrth-wtmt om tlint rit'tw < >f A morica ; iintl* 
aftor going through many Htrungn nntl dun- 
gtsrouH ft<lvwnturo, rotumod to ftnglandnn<l 
whi'd in I8f>lt his iixpi*rion<t undor tho 
of 'AdvtmturoA of a HwUor in th'i 
Prairies,' of which tho atghth 
with illustration**, and th titlo 
altered, awnwrwt in 1H5U, In tho follow* 
ing year, Hwnry Laboufthttrot (q 
tary of stato for the eulonitm, on tha 



Palliser 



117 



Palliser 



mendation of Sir Roderick Murchison, the 
president of the Royal Geographical Society, 
agreed to undertake the exploration of 
British North America between the parallels 
of 49 and 50 north latitude and 100 to 
115 west longitude. The treasury subscribed 
5,OOOZ. for the purpose, and Palliser was on 
31 March 1857 appointed leader of the ex- 
pedition, to be assisted by Lieutenant Bla- 
Idston of the royal artillery as astronomer, 
Mr. Bourgeau as botanist, and Dr. Hector as 
the geologist. His instructions were to ex- 
plore a large part of the far west region of 
America to the shores of the Pacific, and 
topographically determine the British North 
American international boundary line from 
Lake Superior in Canada, across the main 
chain of the Rocky Mountains, and thence 
to the western sea-coast. 

In 1857 Palliser explored the White Fish 
and Kaministoquviah rivers, and inspected 
the country between the southern branch of 
the Saskatchewan and the boundary of the 
United States, besides determining the pos- 
sibility of establishing means of communi- 
cation between the rocky regions of Lakes 
Superior and "Winnipeg and the prairie 
country, On a second expedition in 1858 
he proceeded to approach the Rocky Moun- 
tains from the Buffalo Prairie, between the 
North and South Saskatchewan, and then to 
explore the passes through the mountains 
lying within the British territory. For the 
results of this journey he was, in May 1859, 
awarded the Patron's or Victoria gold medal 
of the Royal Geographical Society. In 1860 
lie again proceeded towards the South Sas- 
katchewan river, following the course of the 
Red Deer river. He went westward to the 
Rocky Mountains, from the point whence he 
had turned in his first season's exploration, 
and thus completed the survey of the hitherto 
unknown prairie region. He also examined 
the country to the west of the Columbia 
river, establishing the fact of the connection 
of the Saskatchewan plains east of the Rocky 
Mountains with a route into the gold-mining 
regions of British Columbia. On his return 
to England he was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society, and on 30 May 
1877 was awarded the companionship of St.. 
Michael and St, George. He died unmarried 
at Comragh, co. "Waterford, on 18 Aug. 1887, 

[Men of the Time, 1865, p. 640; Times, 
29 Aug. 1887, p. 6 ; Parliamentary Papers, 1859, 
Session- 2 No. 2542, 1860 No. 2732, and 1863 
No. 3 1 64 ; Proc. of Koyal Geogr. Soc. London, 1867, 
1858, 1859; Wrangham's Z'ouch.] Gr. C.'B, 

PALLISER, WILLIAM (1646-1726), 
archbishop of Cashel, son of John Palliser, 
wua bom at Kirkby Wisk in Yorkshire, and 



received his early education at Northallerton 
under John Smith, At the age of fourteen 
he entered Trinity College, Dublin, of which 
he became a fellow in 1668, He received 
deacon's orders at Wexford in November 
1669, and priest's orders on the 28th of the 
following January, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin. Palliser was elected * medicus ' in 
Trinity College, Dublin, in October 1670, and 
appointed professor of divinity in that univer- 
sity in 1678. In the same year he delivered 
a Latin oration at the funeral of James 
Margetson [q. v,], protestant archbishop of 
Armagh, ralliser in October 1681 resigned 
his fellowship in Trinity College for the rec- 
tory of Clonfeacle, co. Tyrone. Four days 
after his retirement he was readmitted to 
Trinity College by dispensation, on his re- 
signing Clonfeacle. Henry Hyde, second earl 
of Clarendon [q_. v.l, lord lieutenant of Ire- 
land, in a letter in 1685 to the archbishop of 
Canterbury, in reference to a possible vacancy 
in the provostship of Trinity College, Dublin, 
mentioned Palliser as the * fittest man' for the 
post ; and added, * He is of great learning and 
exemplary piety : he would make a very good 
bishop. 1 

By patent dated 14 Feb. 1692-3 Palliser 
was appointed bishop of Cloyne, and received 
consecration at Duhlin on the 5th of the fol- 
lowing month. He prepared, in compliance 
with a governmental order, an account of 
the diocese of Cloyne in 1693- 4, and furnished 
with it a plan for union of parishes. 

Palliser was translated to thearchbishopric 
of Cashel in June 1694, and continued to oc- 
cupy it till his death on 1 Jan. 1726-7. The 
great wealth whiQh he accumulated was in- 
herited by his only son, William Palliser 
Archbishop Palliser made a gift of commu- 
nion plate to the cathedral of Cashel, He 
gave donations of money to Trinity College, 
Dublin, to which he also bequeathed a large 
number of his books, on condition that they 
should be always kept together as a collection 
in the library of the institution, and desig- 
nated ' Bibliotheca Palliseriana.' 

[State Letters of Henry, Earl of Clarendon, 
1765; Ware's Works, by Harris, 1739; Boulters 
Letters, 1770 ; Mant's Hist, of Church of Ireland, 
1840; Brady's Parochial Records, 1863 ; Taylor's 
Hist, of University of Dublin, 1845-89.] 

J. T. G-. 

PALLISEK, SIB WILLIAM (1830- 
1882), major, the inventor of ' Palliser shot,' 
was the fifth and youngest son of Wray 
Palliser (d. 1862), and was younger brother 
of John Palliser [q. v.] and of Wray Kichard 
Gledsfcanes Palliser (see adfm.), of Comragh, 
co, Waterford. He was born at' Dublin on 
18 June 1830, and was educated at Kugby 



Palliscr i 

and at Trinity College, Duhlin. Tlience he 
went to Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and, after 
spending some time at Sandhurst, he obtained 
a commission us ensign in the rillo brigade 
on 2'2 April 1855. On o 1 ! Aug. of that year 
he became lieutenant. He joined the first 1 . 
battalion in the Crimea, but saw no active) 
service, The battalion returned to Kn^huul 
in June 185(5. In ,1858 he exchanged into 
the 18th hnssars, and on 5 Aupf. 1850 ho 
was promoted captain. He was aide-de- 
camp to Sir W. Knollys at Aldershot, for a 
time, and on 6 July 1H(>0 he went to Dublin 
as brigade-major of cavalry. He remained 
there till 18(54, when ho accepted an un- 
attached majority on 4 Oct. In December 
1871 he retired altogether from the army. 

While he was still an undergraduate at 
Cambridge he had turned his mind to rilled 
ordnance and projectiles. Rome shot of his 
designwe.ro tried at vShooburynosH in iHfh'J, 
and a rilled mortar in 1855. Ho took out a 
patent for projectiles on 1 J July 1851 t and 
another for improvements in broechloading 
rilles, &c., on 8 March 18(50, Two yearn later 
he made the llrst steps towards the, three 
inventions which proved most fruitful, and 
with which his name is chiefly identified. 
On 11 Nov. 18(5:3 ho patented ' improvements 
in the construction of ordnance and in the 
projectiles to boused therewith,' and defined i 
Ida principle an being to form the barrel of! 
concentric tubes of different metals, or of 
the wanie metal differently treated, 'no that 
as nearly AS possible, owing to their respec- 
tive ranges of elast icity, when one tube is on 
the point of yielding, all the tubes may be 
on the point of yielding,' One application 
of this principle wiifl to insert tubes of coiled 
wrought iron an inner tube of morn ductile, 
and an outer of less ductile, metal -in a cast- 
iron gun suitably bowl out, ({tins so treated 
were found on trial to give excellent results, 
and the method afforded means of utilising 
the large stock of enst-iron smooth-bore I 
ordnance* Sixty-eight-pounderHinoot h-bores ' 
were converted Into 8()poumler rifled guns, j 
and 8-inch and ^-pounder smooth-bores into i 
rilled 64-poumlerB, at one-third of the cont of 
new gum Some thousands of these 'turn* 
verted guns' have taken their place in the 
armament of our fwtrcssttmiml coast bat terien. 
A month later, G Dec, J8(i^, 'Palliser took 
out a patent for florew-bolt*i, the object of 
which wtifl to <;auHe the extension due' to any 
strain to be placed along the shank, insteatl 
of being,as heretofore, eon fined to the screwed 
part, by making the stem or shank of the 
bolt slightly smaller in diameter than the 
bottom of the thread of the screw. Tim wua 
cially Intended for the bollu used in so- 



:8 Palliscr 

curingarmour-platcs, and the principle prnvcil 
no effectual that Pall isor bolts without elaMtc, 
washers were found to stand better than 
ordinary bolts with them, Supplemented UH 
it afterwards was by (laptain Muglish's pro- 
posal of spherical nuts and coiled washers, 
the 'j>lus thread, 1 as it has been since called, 
sat isfactorily sol ved the very difficult problem 
of armour-bolts, 

On ~7 May 18<!8 he took out a patent for 
chill-east ing project lies, whet her iron or nt eel, 
uud either wholly or partially. James Na>- 
myth | <j, v, I haw claimed priority IUTO, as he 
.suggested the use of chilled east-iron shot at 
the mooting of the British Assnnatinn in 
October 18(}^ {*tufi>/)itH/ntp/n/) p. -I,,'!)), Hut, 
whether or not, I'allisor owed the idea, to 
him, au unverified su^pvstion does not go far 
to lessen the credit due to the man who 
worked it out experimentally both for shot 
andshell, overcame practical difficulties, such 
as the, tendency of tin* shot to fly if cooled 
too quickly, an 1 determined the best form of 
head for it, the otfiva.1. The, failure of ^j^* 
myth's comnresNcd-WMol target hhovscd that 
the proposals of even the uhhvst men ctmnol 
be adopted indiscriminately, and it was only 
by degrees that chilled shot jmned tbri'r 
value. When tried in November iMJt tltev 
were found to bo a marked improvement *! 
ordinary cast, iron, hut it was not till IM'( 
that they were recognised as aetwillysupm'ior 
t o steel for tlnMitt ark of wrought iron anno w, 
while their COM. wan only one-fifth. In f hut- 
year they were intrmlw'ed inti the service, 
and the manufacture of wteol jtrojirtilen 
ceasetl Owing to thi* introtluctinn of n\ eel- 
faced armour, stool nhut huvt* now $iu 
HUptH'seded them. 

It wouhl ntt, be 4HMV to fhul a parallel 
instanctMjf inventive activity exerted suj-wc- 
cessfull^vju thrco diilerent 'direct ions in tlm 
space oi ni; K months, i l ulllser*s invent ions wen* 
developed in subsequent patents, uf which 
ho took out fourteen deulm>r with gunn, bolts, 
and project lies, between l.M>7and iK^l, Ho 
also patented improvement * in fa>l!eni^hlor 
railway-chairs, in jHHvderitiapt/in-M, und in 
boots ami shoes, between iMM an<i Ih7it, 
In j8(J(i he ptihiiwhcd ' Notes of recent K\*- 
perimtmtHat HluJi'IwmHwt.'hut withdrew it, 
soon aftt^rwards, IhtVing thitMit^i* uf Purin 
ht^ wrote several let tern to the 'Time*' and 
srnni* leading articles in it, which wen* nftiT- 
wards embodied in a pamphlet on *Tlu* Uwt 
of Karthi^n KortrcH.sc for tlm Defence of 
.London, and m a Prevent ivn ftmtinnt In- 
vtwion 1 (Mitchell, 1H7J), He proponet! to 
Burround London wit ha duun <)M4unvi'ttii 
earthworl(H, about fiv milen ajmrt, 
iug from Chatham to " *' 



Palliser 



119 



Palmer 



the moat, important strategical points between, 
this chain and the coast by similar works, 
or clusters of works. What he proposed has 
since been partially carried out. In acknow- 
ledgment of his services he was made C.B. 
(civil) in 1868, and was knighted 21 Jan. 
1873. In 1875 he received the cross of a 
commander of the crown of Italy. Alter 
unsuccessfully contesting 1 Devonport and 
Dungarvan, he was returned to parliament 
in 1880 for Taunton as a conservative. He 
headed the poll, beating Sir Henry James, 
who was returned with him, by eighty-one 
votes. In 1868 he had married Anne, daugh- 
ter of George Perham. 

He died in London 4 Feb. 1882, and waa 
"buried in Brompton cemetery. Before his 
death he complained that he was ' persecuted 
to the bitter end' by oflicials in the war 
office, and this complaint has since been re- 
peated by others, who have said that the 
treatment he received hastened his death. 
The grounds of it, as stated before the royal 
commission on warlike stores in 1887, are 
that, although his principles of gun con- 
struction were adopted for the conversion of 
old cast-iron guns, he could not get them 
applied to new guns ; and that when he peti- 
tioned in 1877 for a prolongation of his patent 
for chilled shot, it was opposed by the war 
oflico and refused, although the war depart- 
ment had no interest in the question, direct 
or indirect, as it had the free use of the in- 
vention. The answer made to this charge 
was that the war ollice had not opposed the 
prolongation. It had only asked that, if 
granted, the rights of the crown should be 
reserved, as Palliser had already received 
15,000/. as a reward for this invention. The 
prolongation was refused because the ac- 
counts rendered were not in sufficient detail, 
and because 'it was shown that there had 
already been a clear profit of 20,000/. from 
royalties on shot and shell made for foreign 
governments. The same course had been 
taken by the war office in regard to the pro- 
longation of the patent for guns, for which 
Palliser had received 7,600^. from the war 
department. 

WKAY RICHARD GLEDSTANES PALLISER (d. 
1891), one of Sir William's elder brothers, 
became sub-lieutenant R.N. 13 May 1845, and 
lieutenant 28 Feb. 1847. He distinguished 
himself in 1854 in expeditions against Chinese 
pirates, being in command of the boats of her 
majesty's frigate Spartan, of which he was 
first lieutenant. He stormed three forts, 
mounting seventeen guns, and he boarded the 
chief vessel of a pirate fleet and rescued a 
French lady who was a prisoner in it. In the 
act; of boarding he himself fell between his own 



boat and the other, and broke several ribs. 
For his gallantry in these actions he was 
made commander 6 Jan. 1855. In 1857 he 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Fitz- 
gerald of Muckridge House, co. Cork. He was 
placed on the retired list as a captain 21 April 
1870, and died in June 1891. 

[Proceedings of the Institution of Civil En- 
gineers, Ixix. 418 ; Professional Papers of the 
Corps of Royal Engineers, xiii. 128, xiv. 163, 
xvi. 125 ; Minutes of Evidence taken before the 
Royal Commission on Warlike Stores in 1887, 
pars. 2402-7, 4167-60, 6775-87,8612-23; Cata- 
logues of the Patent Office; Times obituaries, 
6 Fob. 1882, 16 June 1891.] E. M. L. 

PALMABIUS, THOMAS (ft. 1410), 

divine. [See PALMEK.] 

PALMER, ALICIA TINDAL (ft. 1810), 
novelist, is described as a native of Bath. 
Her first book, a novel in three volumes, 
'The Husband and Lover,' was published in 
1809, In the next year appeared ' The 
Daughters of Isenberg : a Bavarian Ro- 
mance/ in four volumes. It was sharply 
ridiculed by GifFord in the 'Quarterly' (iv. 
61-7). Miss Palmer had previously sent him 
three II. notes. Gilford did not return the 
money, but affected to assume that it was 
intended for charitable purposes, and wrote 
to Miss Palmer that, as she had not men- 
tioned the objects of her bounty, he hoped 
the Lying-in Hospital would not disappoint 
her expectations (MURRAY, Memoir and Cor- 
respondence^. 180-1), In 1811 Miss Palmer 
published a third novel in three volumes, * The 
Sons of Altringham/ written, so the preface 
states, to defray the expenses of the admis- 
sion of a boy to the Deaf and Dumb Asylum. 
All three books are written in a high-flown 
and inflated style, and are without literary 
importance. In 1815 appeared Miss Palmer's 
'Authentic Memoirs of Sobieski.' Among 
the subscribers were Lord Byron and Ed- 
mund Kean. 

[AHibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.ii. 1492; Biogr. 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816.] E, L. 

PALMER, ANTHONY (1618P-1679), 

ejected independent, son of Anthony Palmer, 
was born at Great Comberton, Worcester- 
shire, about 1618, In 1634, at the age of 
sixteen, he became a student of Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, graduated B.A. on 7 April 
1638, was admitted fellow on 29 Nov. 1640, 
and graduated M.A. on 16 Dec. 1.641, taking 
orders shortly afterwards. He subscribed 
the league and covenant of 1643, but seems 
never to have been a presbyterian. In 1648 
he signed the Gloucestershire ministers' tes- 
timony. In October 1649 he resigned the 



Palmer 



120 



Palmer 



fellowship, took the engagement, and was 
admitted to the rectory of Bourton-on-tho 
Water, Gloucestershire. lie wan one of the 
assistant commissioners for ({loucestorshiro 
to the 'expurgutors ' (appointed by ordinance 
of 28 Aug. 1(>54). Wood says ho was ' ana- 
baptistically inclin'd/ which means that, in 
accordance with the terms of his comnns~ 
sion, baptists (who abounded in (iloucester- 
shiro) were not as such excluded from the 
ministry. At, the Restoration he was driven 
from his rectory by royalists, and his ^nods 
were plundered 1 '. He put in a curate to do 
duty for him, ' but he boinpf diHtnrbed, they 
got one to read the common prayer ' (Woon), 
Ha withdrew to London, and was ejected 
from his living by the Uniformity Act 
(L(iG^), "Wood says he was privy to the 
fanatical plot of JNovomhor KHi^ for which 
Thomas Tong-uo and othm'H were tried on 
11. Dec. and executed on iJ!2 Dec, ; but this 
is improbable. Uo gathered a congregational 
church at Pinners' Hall, Old Broad Street, 
whore, on tho indulgence of 1(>72, a joint 
lecture by prcsbyterian and congregational 
divines was established by London mer- 
chants. Palmer was not one of the. lec- 
turers, lie was ' of good ministerial abilities/ 
according to (Jalamy. He died on ^(5 Jan. 
1079, and was buried in the Now Bethlehem 
graveyard, Moorlielils (site in Liverpool 
Street, opposite the .Broad Street railway 
station). 

He published: 1. * The Raines I'oHturtun 
Dark Timofl, 1 &c., 1050, Hvo, & 'The Tem- 
pestuous Soul calmed, 1 &c., lOH^i, Hvo ; 10uS T 
Hvo; 107JJ, 8vo. 8. ' The Scripture Rail to 
the Lord's Table/ &a, lOfil, Hvo (against 
the i Humble Vindication/ 1051, by John 
Ilumfrey [q* v."]) 4. { Memorials 01 (lotlii- 
JICSH and Chrini ianity/ &., li^mo ( WOOD), 
6. 'The Christian's Freedom by Olmst'vS;o,, 
iSJuao (Wool)). (J. 4 The Uospcl Now Crea- 
ture/ &o., 1658, Hvo ; 1074, Hvo, 

Another ANTHONY PALMMU (<L HHW) was 
admitted to the rectory of Bratlon Fleming, 
Devonshire, about 1045, was ejected in 1($<W, 
and died in Sept omber 1 09& 

[Wood's Athwim Oxon, (BUnn) ii, 180, iii. 
1192 wq,, FHHti (Wm\ I 500, ii. 3; Oalumy'H 
Abridgment, 1713 p. 805, Account, 17KJ p. HI (5, 
Continuation, 1 727> i, 5a, 3iJO nq, 40t'J ; Wiinou'H 
Diseentirig Churches of London, 1H08, ii, 25t> w|*| 

A, U 

PALMER, ANTHONY ( 1 075 F 1740), 
New England pionmsr, probably born in Kng- 
land about 107/5, want out at tin <mrly agu to 
Barbados, and made there a eonw durable for- 
tune as a merchant at Bridgetown, In 1707 
h was induced to invest m land in Phila- 
delphia, and, migrating thither, continued lua 



mercantile ventnreH with success. In 170.S 
he \vtiw summoned to the provincial council of 
Pennsylvania, of whie.h he nnnaiiuul a menihfT 
till hi.s death. In 1718 he became a justice 
of the peace, .shortly aftenx r ard.s a jnd^'o oT tho 
court of common puaH,and in 17*0 one of (ho 
first mtiHterH in chanet^ry. In 1747 he, wan 
president of tin* council, and in May, when 
Governor Thonuw rosig'iuMl, he assuiuod \\M 
udmiiiirtt ration of thr colony, and g'oventetl 
it., for eighteen months, through a pu*itd of 
fjreat anxiety, Kn^land was at war with 
France and Spain, who.se privateers wero 
making constant doscenls on the coast' of 
Delaware, The as.semhly, coul rolled )>y 
qualcev.H, dei^liiK'd to (akt* ineiisunvs of ile.fenee, 
J 'aimer induced his gov^nnnncut to a<^t- ind- 
pendent ly, at\d was remtiHiiihly suecHMtul, 
About the name tiuu^ he, made treat ion of 
friendship with several Indian tribes, 4*spe- 
oially those of the Six Nations. 

In 17JK) he purchase<l Kainnnn Manwiott 
at. Philadelphin, and, cutting up part, of Um 
grounds into building 1 lot s,beeame the founder 
of what is now Mm Kensington diwtru't- of 
Philadelphia. Hern he lived in great- stato 
till his death in Muy 17-U>. 

His daughter ThomaKino married t-be son 
and heir of Sir William Keitlt, ^ovcrntn 1 of 
J > enus < ylvnnia, 

[Tint collections of the, MaHKii-ohtiwottH Hin- 
torii'ul K(UMty,| (% A, U, 

PAL'MKK, HAIUIVRA, ( 

; nud DUCIUISH OK ( 



PALMER, rHAKKKS JOHN 
18<Sii), historian of Oivat Vurintuitlt, unly 
HOU of John Uanhy Palmet*, esi{,, by Anne, 
daughter of Oharh'B Hiart,wj,, of <iurl*8 
ton, Sullbik, was bom at. \ nrmouth on 
1 Jan* IH05, The family had been settled 
in that town since the beginning of the six"- 
tt?(*ntih t^entury* ( 1 hnrles was otiunUi'di ut a 
private w^hool at. Vnrmoittli ( and in 1H*J*J wan 
itrtioltHl to Ivobert (Ntry, l'\R A f , an attorney, 
nnfhir whom he had previously nerved for 
two years, in order to qualify liunsi*lf to iw- 
come a notary puhii(% lit* was admit t*ul au 
iittorn\v in June 18:27, and ])rnct'iMed at 
Yarmouth until physicnl inlinuities tteces* 
mtated his retirement, Kor many yearn iw 
remdml at Ko 4 South (juny> in a houso 
which IHH fatlmr hud purelwHeti in IHOO, itnil 
which in a fino Hpetiitnen of KHxuuetlwn 
architiictun** Hu wcnnje an alderman of 
the old corporation, rind in Augunt 18.15 WJIH 
elected mtty<r; but.thtqmKshig of the Muni- 
cipal Corporation** Act prevented \m tnlung 
tho oath in tho following 1 Hoptoiubor, ami 
the now corporation ulmitotl IJarth a$ chtuf 



Palmer 



121 



Palmer 



magistrate. Palmer occupied a seat in the 
reformed corporation as a representative of 
the south ward. In 1854 he was elected 
mayor, and was re-elected in the following 
year, lie alao served as deputy-lieutenant 
for the county of Suffolk. He was the chief 
promoter of the Victoria Building Company ; 
the erection of the Wellington pier was in 
great measure due to Jus energy ; and he took 
a prominent part in the establishment of the 
assembly and reading rooms. In 1830 lie 
was elected a fellow of the Society of An- 
tiquaries. Ho due.d at his residence, Villa 
Graham, Great Yarmouth, on 24 Sept. 1882. 

He married Amelia Graham, daughter of 
John Mortlock Lacon, esq,, but had no issue 
by her. 

Palmer edited 'The History of Great 
Yarmouth, by Henry Manship [q.v.J/ Great 
'Yarmouth, 1854, and wrote * The History of 
Great Yarmouth, designed as a Continuation 
of Manslup's History of that Town,' Great 
Yarmouth, 1856, 4to. 

His other works are: 1. ' The History and 
Illustrations of a House in the Elizabethan 
Style of Architecture, the property of John 
Dunby Palmer, Esq., and situated in the 
borough-town of Great Yarmouth,' privately 
printed, London, 1838, fol,, with numerous 
drawing's and engravings by H, Shaw, F.S.A, 
A copy in the British Museum is entitled 
' II lustrations of Domestic Architecture in 
England during the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth/ and prefixed to it is a portrait of the 
author (private plate), engraved by W. Holl 
2. ' A Booke of the Foundacion and Anti- 
quity e of tht Towne of Great e Yermouthe : 
from the original manuscript written in the 
time of Queen Elizabeth : with notes and 
an appendix, Edited by C. J. Palmer,' Great 
Yarmouth, 1847, 4to. Dedicated to Dawson 
Turner. The reputed author of the manu- 
script is Henry Manship the elder, 3. ' Re- 
marks on the Monastery of the Dominican 
Priars at Great Yarmouth/ Yarmouth, 1852, 
8vo, reprinted from vol. iii. of the ' Norfolk 
Archaeology. 1 4. ' The Perl ustration of Great 
Yarmouth, with Gorleston and Southtown/ 
8 vols. Great Yarmouth, 1872-4-5, 4to, 
5* 'Memorials of the Family of Hurry, of 
Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, and of New York, 
'United States/ Norwich, privately printed, 
1873, 4to, with plates. 

Palmer also edited, with Stephen Tucker, 




poured ' Leaves from the Journal of the late 
Chan. J. Palmer, F.S. A. Edited, with notes, 
by Frederick Danby Palmer/ Great Yarmouth, 
1892, 4to, with portrait prefixed, 



[Information from Frederick Danby Palmer, 
esq. ; Yarmouth Mexvury, 30 Sept. 1882, p. 5; 
Times, 28 Sept. 1882, p. 9, col. 5; Q-ent. Mag. 
1856, pt. ii. p. 687 ; Solicitors' Journal, 7 Oct. 
1882, p. 731 ; Law Times, Ixxiii. 388 ; Guardian, 
1882, pt. ii. p. 1341 ; Notes and Queries, 1 Get. 
1892, p. 280 ; Martin's Privately Printed Books 
(1854), p. 473.] T. C. 

PALMER, CHARLOTTE (/. 1780- 
1797), author, was engaged in the profes- 
sion of teaching. In 1780 she published 
with Newbery a novel in five volumes, 
'Female Stability; or the History of Miss 
IJelville, ' It is written in epistolary fashion. 
On the title-page the author is called the 
late Miss Palmer, yet in 1797 appeared 
1 Letters on Several Subjects from a Precep- 
tress to her Pupils who have left School.' It 
was addressed chiefly to real characters. 
Among the subjects are dress, choice of 
books, and clandestine marriage. The book, 
which ends with a poem entitled 'Pelew/ 
referring to Prince Lee-Boo, is a curious and 
instructive picture of the manners of the 
time (WELSH, Bookseller of Last Century, 
P. 281). 

Miss Palmer's other works are: 1. 'In- 
tegrity and Content: an Allegory/ 1792. 

2. ' It is and it is not : a Novel/ 2 vols. 1792. 

3, *A newly invented Copy-book/ 1797. 

[Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ii. 1492; Biogr. 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816.] E. L. 

PALMER, EDWARD (Jt. 1572), and- 
uary, was the son of a gentleman of Comp ton 
Icorpien, Ilmington, "Warwickshire, and be- 
longed to the old family of Palmer in that 
neighbourhood (cf. DXTGDALE, Warwickshire, 
ed. 1730, p, 633). Pie was educated at Mag- 
dalen Hall, Oxford, and appears in the list 
of its students in 1572 {University Register, 
Oxf. Hist. Soc., vol. ii. pt. ii, p. 38). He 
took no degree, but, living on his patrimony, 
devoted himself to heraldry, history, and 
antiquities. He became known to learned 
men of his day, especially to Camden, who 
calls him (Britannia, 'Gloucestershire') a 
curious and diligent antiquary. He does not 
appear to have published anything, but Wood 
(Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 28 ; cf. Gent. 



.) 1815, pt. ii. p. 233) states that he made 
'excellent collections of English antiquities, 
which, after his death, coming into the hands 
of such persons who understood them not, 
were therefore. . .embezzled, and in a manner 
lost. He had also a curious collection of coins 
and subterrane antiquities, which in like sort 
are also embezzled.' A note by him on the 
valuation of coins current is in Cotton MS. 
Otho, E. X., fol. 301, b. ii. 
[Authorities cited above.] W. W, 



Palmer 



122 



Palmer 



PALMER, EDWARD H UN UY (1SIO- 
18t&), orientalist, was born cm 7 Aug. I^U> 
at Cambridge, where his father William 
Henry Palmer kept a private school. On 
his mother's side ho inherited Scots blood, 
for his maternal groat-grandfather belonged 
to the clan Ohisliolm, and waa handed for 
his share in the rebellion of 1745. Loft an 
orphan in infancy, Palmer was brought up 
by an aunt at Cambridge, and his cducii- 
tion was carried on at the Perse grammar 
school, where lie reached the sixth form be- 
fore he was iifteen. So far he was a mode- 
rate classic and no mathematician, and per- 
haps the only sign of his future linguistic, 
achievements wan his learning Romany at, 
odd times on half-holidays by haunting tlin 
tents of gipsies, talking with tinkers, and 
spending his poelcot-money on itinerant pro- 
ficients in tho tongue, lie thus acquired a 
fluency in Romany and a knowledge of gipsy 
life and ways, which rivalled oven t hat of M r- 
C, G, Leland. On leaving school, at tho ago. 
of sixteen, ho entered tho oflico of Hill & 
Underwood, wine merchants, of Kast cheap, 
London, and for three years performed tho 
ordinary duties of a junior clerk, especially 
in connect ion with the business at, the docks. 
In his scanty leisure ho set himself to learn 
Italian by iroquonting caf6s where political 
refugees resorted, and conversing with organ- 
grinders, conjurors, and sellers of pliister- 
cavSt images, 'lie thus collected a remarkable 
vocabulary and was said to bo able to talk 
in several Italian dialects, In a similar 
manner ho learned to speak French fluently, 
and his BuccesH in. acquiring languages in an 
unsystematic conversational, way made him 
in later yearn a 'firm upholder of tho owl 
method as opposed to the ordinary gramma- 
tical routine- prescribed in English Hchoolw. 
His London evenings wore often spent at 
the theatre, where ho formed a lifelong 
friendship with Henry Irving; or else, in 
mesmeric experiments, in which ho exhibited 
extraordinary powers. 

In 1859 ho developed grave symptoms of 
pulmonary disease, and returned to (-am- 
bridge prepared to (lie, but; suddenly and 
mysteriously recovered, Wlulo regaining 
his strength, Palmer took to amateur acting; 
wrote a iarce, 'A Volunteer in IHfUoulttw/ 
which was performed at tho Cambridge 
Theatre in IBtiO; worked at drawing and 
modelling; and published clover verse after 
the 'Ingoldsby Legends ' typo, under the title 
<Ye Hole in y Walle' (I860, 4to, after- 
wards reprinted in 'The Bong of tho Reed,' 
1877), which was illustrated uy his own and 
a friend's pencil. About the close of IHliO 
he made the acquaintance of Seyy id* Abdul- 



lah, son of Soyyid Mohammad Khan Pahfi- 
dur of Oudh, and teacher of Hindustani at 
Cambridge, Tho acquaintance ripened into 
deep regard, and led Palmer to enter upon 
that study of oriental languages to which 
the rest of his brief life was devoted. In 
this pursuit, he was greatly aided by other, 
orientals thon residing at Cambridge, especi- 
ally by the Nawab Ikba,l-ad-dawl<i of Oudh. 
Palmer's progress was phenomenally rapid, 
lie learnt Persian, Arabic, and Hindustani; 
and as early as IStJl! presented 'elegant and 
idiomatic A*rabie verses 'to the lord almoner's 
professor, Thomas Preston. Palmer is said 
to have devoted eighteen hours a day to his 
studies. H is indi (Terence to games and .sports 
ami positive, dislike to exercise left him un- 
usual time for work; button the other hand, 
his eminently Noeial instinct tended to long 
evening symposia, 

Some 'fellows of St. John f M (1(tlep;u at 
length diseuvereil his remurlmblo gifts, unti 
hv their inlluemv hr wus admitted its ust/,ur 
to St., John's on *M Jet, IStW. He nintrieu- 
lated on 1) Nov. following, uiut on H5 Jum 
IS(i5 was awnnleil a foundation scholarship, 
He graduated H.A. on 4 April iStiT, with a 
third class in the rluMsienl tripos, asul pro- 
ceeded i\I,A,, in absence, in iHJunelKTO; 
hut. hiw main energies were given as nil under* 
grjuluuUi to t>rientnl studies, Paring this 
period he catalogued the Pen-iian, Arnh"u% nnd 
Turkish mnnuHeriptM <f King's uwl Trinity 
(-olle^'e (1S70), uud lsi> tf the university 
library; and the uuiver^it-y librarian, Henry 
Hnitlslittw, bore weighty testimony to the* 
value of INUiuerV work' (Better prefixed to 
Cttt. AVw//*" tWt' *'/* sw piililished by iloyul 
Asiatic Soeiety, 1H7*). Palmer also cult I* 
vatcd tho habit of writing in Persian and 
Urdu by contributing frequently in thow 
languages to the 4 Oudh Ahhbur and other 
linliau uewspupers, un<l attrat^tetl un ud- 
tmring clientele among tho pumlitHuf lliu- 
dust an. \\1ien he ucconipanietl his friend, 
the Nawab Ikbal-ml-dawlnto Paris in 1H(>7, 
t>he latter wrtjto a testimonial in which ho 
stated that Palmer Mpoke and wrote Arabic, 
lVrsiau T and Hindustani, likt 1 " one who had 
long lived in Urn universiticw of the Kast 
( HKHANT, />{/> uf ti. //. IWmrr, pjn 4i ( *1H). 
In 1HGH ho irtfwot! an * ndilress to the peupSt* 
of India/ in Arabic niut KngliMh, on th 
death of St*yyid Mohatnitiud Khun Huluidur* 
Ho hnd also given proof of IHH kw>wledgo of 
a dllUcult branch of Ptiwiiui wholnrship in a 
little work entitled ^Oriental MyHtttMrtm : a 
troiLtist} on th Hufiistiis and Unitarian Theo* 
Hophy of tho IVmuuH* (jHU7) t found* *d <t 
the. ^Maksad-t Alwil' of 'AyJx ibn Mohmo- 
mad Nafasi, prcaorvcd iu nutuuMcript tit 



Palmer 



123 



Palmer 



Trinity College ; and he had translated ( 1 8(55) , 
Moore's 'Paradise and the Peri ' into Per- 
sian verse. He was a member of the French 
Soci6t6 Asiatiq vie and of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. Ou the strength of his publications 
and the testimony of many orientalists, native 
and European, Palmer was elected to a 
fellowship at St. John's College on 5 Nov. 
1867, after an examination by Professor E. B. 
Cowell, who expressed his ' delight and sur- 
prise ' at his ' masterly ' translations and 
* exhaustlesa vocabulary ' (BESANT, Life t pp. 
48, 49). 

The fellowship left Palmer at ease to pur- 
sue his studies. His ardent desire was now 
to visit the East, He had already (1867) 
sought for the post of oriental secretary to 
the British legation in Persia, and his candi- 
dature was supported by high testimonials, 
especially from India ; but such an appoint- 
ment was not in accordance with the tradi- 
tions of the foreign office, and Palmer, to 
his keen regret, never saw Persia. Another 
opportunity of eastern travel, however, pre- 
sented itself in 1809, when he was selected 
to accompany Captain (now Sir) Charles 
Wilson, ICE,, Captain Henry Spencer Pal- 
mer [q. v.], the Kev* F, Holland, and others, 
in their survey of Sinai, under the auspices of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund, His prin- 
cipal duty was to collect from the Bedouin 
the correct names of places, and thus establish 
the accurate nomenclature of the Sinai penin- 
sula. He thus caxn.o for the first time into 
personal relations with Arabs, learnt to speak 
their dialects, and obtained an insight into 
their modes of thought and life. Moreover, 
the air of the desert greatly invigorated his 
health, which had suiiered by excessive ap- 

flication and confinement at Cambridge 
BEBANT, Life, p. 70). In the summer of 
1809 he returned to England, only to leave 
again on 16 Doc. for another expedition. 
This time he and Charles Francis lyrwhitt 
Drake [q. v.] went alone, on foot, without 
escort or dragoman, and walked the six 
hundred miles from Sinai to Jerusalem, 
identifying sites and searching vainly for 
inscriptions. They explored for the first 
time the Desert of the Wanderings (Tih),and 
many unknown parts of Edom and Moab, and 
accomplished a quantity of useful geogra- 
phical work, In this daring adventure 
Palmer made many friends among the Arab 
sheykhs, among whom he went by the name 
of <Abdallah Eilendi ; and numerous stories 
are related of his presence of mind in moments 
of danger and diiliculty, and of his extra- 
ordinary influence over the Bedouin, for 
which, perhaps, his early experiences among 
the Hoxnawy had formed a sort of initiation, 



The adventurous travellers went on to the 
Lebanon and to Damascus, where they met 
Captain Richard Burton, who was then con- 
sul there, and with whom Palmer struck up 
a friendship. The return home was made in 
the autumn of 1870 by way of Constanti- 
nople and Vienna, where he formed the ac- 
quaintance of another famous orientalist, 
Arrninius Vamb6ry. A popular account of 
these two expeditions was written by Palmer 
in t The Desert of the Exodus : Journeys on 
foot in the Wilderness of the Forty Years' 
Wanderings J (2 vols. 1871, well illustrated 
with maps and engravings) ; and his Syrian 
observations of the Nuseyriya and other 
societies led to an article in the 'British 
Quarterly Review' (1873) on 'the Secret 
Sects of Syria ; ' while the scientific results 
of the second expedition were detailed in a 
report to the Palestine Exploration Fund, pub- 
lished in its journal in 1871, and afterwards 
(1881) included in the volume of ' Special 
Papers relating to the Survey of Western 
Palestine.' Among other matters dealt with 
was the debated site of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and of course Palmer was easily able to 
prove that the ' Dome of the Hock ' was 
built in 691 by the Caliph 'Abd-el-Melik, 
and was not, as Fergusaon had maintained, 
erected by Constantino the Great. Although 
he never again took part in the expeditions 
of the Palestine Fund, he devoted mudh 
time and interest to the work of the society. 
In 1881 he transliterated and edited the 
' Arabic and English Name-lists of the Sur- 
vey of Western Palestine,' and assisted in 
editing the ' Memoirs ' of the survey (1881- 
1883) ; and in connection with his Palestine 
studies, he wrote, in collaboration with Mr. 
Walter Besant, a short history of Jerusalem, 
the City of Herod and of Saladin' (1871; 
new edit. 1888). 

Palmer now resumed his residence at Cam- 
bridge, where, for the most part, he studied 
and wrote and lectured for the next ten 
years. His enthusiasm for university work 
received a severe check at the outset by his 
rejection as a candidate for the Adams pro- 
fessorship of Arabic, in 1871, in favour of 
William Wright [q, v.] In the same year, 
however, the lord almoner's professorship 
became vacant, and Palmer was appointed by 
the then lord almoner, the Il^n. and Very 
Ilev. Gerald Wellesley, dean of Windsor. The 
poet was worth only 40J, 10s. a year, but it 
enabled him to retain his fellowship though 
married ; and on the day after his appoint- 
ment, 11 Nov. 1871, he married Laura Davis, 
to whom he had been engaged for several 
I years, In 1873, in consequence of the crea- 
tion of the triposes of oriental languages, 



Palmer 



124 



Palmer 



his salary was increased by 250. by the 
university with the condition that he shoulc 
deliver three concurrent courses of lectures 
on Arabic^ Persian, and Hindustani, eacl 
term, and reside at Cambridge for eighteen 
weeks in the year. To this incessant and very 
moderately paid work he added many othei 
labours, He was one of the interpreters to 
the Shah of Persia during his visit to Lon- 
don in 1873, and wrote an account of it 
in Urdu for a Lucknow paper, lie pub- 
lished a ' Grammar of the Arabic Language ' 
(1874), which he afterwards reproduced in 
more than one modified form, lie brought 
out a useful ' Concise Dictionary of the Per- 
sian Language' (1876; 2nd edit, 1884), of 
which the English-Persian counterpart was 
edited from his imperfect materials after his 
death by Mr. Guy Le Strange (1883), 

Palmer's chief contributions to Arabic 
scholarship were 'The Poetical Works of 
Beha-ed-din Zoheir of Egypt, with a Metrical 
English Translation, Motes, and Introduc- 
tion 7 (2 vols. 187H-7; the third volume, 
which should have contained the notes, waa 
never published), and his translation of the 
Koran for the * Sacred Books of the Kant ' 
(vols, -vi. and ix,, <The Quran/ 1880), The 
former is the most finished of all his works, 
and is not only an admirable verwon of 
a typical Arabic writer of twtf da wwW, 
but is the first instance of a translation of 
the entire works of any Arabic, poet, Pnlmor'a 
verse was good in itneff, UH ho hud shown in the 
little volume of translations from the Persian 
and original pieces published in 1877 under 
the title of 'The Song of tho Rood;' and his 
translation of Zoheir, by a happy URO of oqui- 
valent English metaphors ana parallel ino- 
trical elfocta, joproaents the original with 
remarkable skill. His KorUn is also a very 
striking performance, It ia immature, lutRtily 
written, and defaced by oversights which 
time and caro would have avoided ; but it 
has tho true Desert ring 1 , a genuine orien- 
tal tone which is not found in the same de- 
gree in any^ other version, IT in * Arabic 
Grammar/ like everything lie did, took up 
new ground in Europe, though his method 
is familiar to the Arabs themselvoH. lie 
was no born grammarian, and distasted rultm ; 
but he could explain and illustrate the clifH- 
culties of Arabic inflexion, syntax, and ! 
prosody in a luminous manner, after the 
fashion of the Arabs, his mantes* HIM other 
works were a brightly written little life of 
* Haroun Alraschid, Caliph of Bagdad * (New ; 
Plutarch Series, 1881), full of characteristic 
anecdotes and verses from Arabic sources, i 
but without any pretence to historical grasp 
or research; an * Arabic Manual,' with ox* 



ercises, &c, (1881), based upon his earlier 
grammar; a brief ' Simplified Grammar of 
Jlinduatani, Persian, and Arabic 7 (188^; 
2nd edit. 188/5), in one hundred pages; and 
two littlo books on Jowiah history and geo- 
graphy, written for the Society for tho Pro- 
motion of Christian Knowledge (1874). 

"Besides these, he revised Henry Murtyn's 
Persian Now Testament for the BihloSooioty; 
examined, in 1881^, in Hindustani for tfio 
Civil Service Commission," assisted Kirilu* 
Magnusson in translating ,Runob<>rg T s * Ly- 
rical Songs ' from the Finnish (1 878) ; edited 
Pioreo Butler's translation of Oohlenschla- 
gor'a ' Axel og Wai borg' from tin* Danish, 
with a memoir (187-1) ; joined 0, G, Loland 
and Mms Tuekoy in producing* Knglish( Upsy 
Songs in Romany, with Metrical Kn^liHii 
TruniSlutionw' ( 1875); edited Tnibner*.s Korion 
of ^ Simplified (JrintuuarM;' road vorne tran- 
lationw from the Arabic to tho HabelutHt -lub, 
which wt^re printed in their* HocreiitionH/and 
afterwards published in a morion of papovH on 
'Arab Humour' in the 'Temple lljir Ma^'a* 
2iine>;' wrote articloH on ' Haft?/ and * Leger- 
demain ' for tho * KncyclopjodiM BritantuVa;' 
indited burlesques for < 1 awbrid^o amateur 
actors^ and helped to edit tho * Mag'lo/ a St. 
John's Col lego mapixtno, and * MoniUH; 1 and 
developed a marvellous talent in conjuring 1 , 
which ho exhibited inlogvrdonminont'ortain- 
incnts for charitable objects. Originally with 
a view (soon abandoned) to Indian prac.tico, 
ho was called tot ho bar in lH74at the Middle 
Ttnj>le, and even wont on the eastern circuit 
for two or throe years, taking briefs occa- 
sionally but ehicilynMan amusement and by 
way oi i tidying humanity,. 

A man of HO many talentn find humwmi 
was scanuly in tuno with univerMity pre- 
cision. The death of his wife, after a long 
lllneHfl, in 1H78, unettled 1um and thuga 
hemarnod ajjain in tho followingyoar ? Palmer 
grew tired oi college life and lectures; ho was 
drawn morn and mnre towards London and 
iway from (^unbridgo, In 1^81 he threw up 
lis locturoH, retaining only t he prof< worship, 
with its nominal salary, and entered a now 
>haso of his earoor, m a journalist, II o had 
ilroady written for the* H'tit urday Hoview/t he 



,* arid oecanumally fort he moM, 
"n addition to t^heHo, ho nuw f at theagt* of 
forty-onft, began regular jtmrnalinin on tho 
Htnlj" of the * Huwdurd,* where U ac.t^-d an a 
UHoful fuul rapid, though not perhaps very 
powerful, leadw-writw on tuiciu! and general, 
out not political (unlwaennt em), iopieH, irtnn 
Auguflt IHHt until hU depart uro tbrKgyptou 
a secrot-BorvU'.t* tnianion on U) Jtme 1HHL, 

So far n tho purpone and origin of thtB 
miaakm aro known, lUlmur wu wut by Mr* 



Palmer 



125 



Palmer 



Gladstone's government to attempt to detach 
the Arab tribes from the side of the Egyptian 
rebels, and to use his influence, backed by 
English gold,with the sheykhs of the Bedouin, 
to secure the immunity'of the Suez Oanal 
from Arab attack, and provide for its repaii 
after possible injury at the hands of the par- 
tisans of Arftbi (BrasANT, Life, pp, 253-4), 
On his arrival at Alexandria, on 5 July 1882, 
lie received instructions from Admiral Sir 
Beauchamp Seymour (afterwards Lord Alces- 
ter) [q, v.] to proceed to Jaffa, thence to enter 
the desert and make his way to Suez, inter- 
viewing the principal sheykhs on the route. 
On the 1 1 tli Palmer had vanished, but *Ab- 
dallalx ElFencli was riding his camel through 
the desert in great state, armed and dressed 
in the richest Syrian style, giving handsome 
presents to his old acquaintances among the 
Tiyaha, and securing their adhesion to the 
Khedive's cause against his rebel subjects 
in Egypt, The attitude of the sheykhs was 
all that could be desired j and Palmer re- 
ported in sanguine terms that he had 'got 
hold of some of the very men whom Arabi 
Pasha has been trying to get over to his 
side; and when they are wanted I can 
have every Bedawi at my call, from Suez 
to Gaza, ... I am certain of success ' (Jour- 
nal to his wife, in BJBSANT, pp. 270 if,) 
After three weeks' disappearance in the de- 
sert, during which he endured intense fatigue 
under a burning sun, and carried his life in 
his hand with the coolness of an old soldier, 
Palmer evaded the Egyptian sentries and got 
on board the fleet at Suez on 1 Aug. The 
next day he was in the first boat that landed 
for the occupation of Suez, and was engaged 
in reassuring the non-combatant inhabitants. 
He was now appointed interpreter-in-chief 
to her majesty's forces in Egypt and placed 
on the staff of the admiral (Sir W. Hewett). 
His work among the Bedouin seems to have 
given unqualified satisfaction to the admiral 
and to the home government as represented 
by the first lord of the admiralty (Lord North- 
brook), and Palmer himself was convinced 
that, with 2Q,00(M. pr30,OQ(V, to buy their alle- 
giance, he could raise a force of fifty thousand 
Bedouin to guard or unblock the Suez Canal. 
On Aug. a sum of 20,000 was placed at his 
disposal by the admiral; but Lord North- 
brook telegraphed his instructions that, while 
Palmer was to keep the Bedouin ' available 
for patrol or transport duty/ he was only to 
spend ' a reasonable amount' until the general 
came up and could be consulted. How far 
the friendly Arabs would have kept their pro- 
mises if the 20,000/. had ever reached them 
cannot of course be known. The prompt 
energy of Sir Garnet (now Viscount) Wolse- 



ley m occupying the canal probably antici- 
pated any possible movement on their part; 
but the fact remains that they gave the in- 
vaders no trouble, and this may possibly have 
been due to Palmer's presents and personal 
influence. The bulk of the money never 
reached them, however, owing to the tragic 
tote which overtook the fearless diplomatist, 
lie had been busily engaged for several days 
m arranging for a supply of camels for the 
army, but on 8 Aug. he set out to meet an 
assembly of leading sheykhs, whom he had 
convened to arrange the final terms of their 
allegiance. In accordance with Lord North- 
brook's instructions, he took with him only 
a l reasonable amount ' of money 3,OOOJ. in 
English gold for this purpose, to beg-in with. 
He was ordered to take a naval officer as a 
g-uarantee of his official status, and out of 
seven volunteers he chose Flag-lieutenant 
Harold Charrington. Captain William John 
Gill, E.E. [q. y.l, the well-known traveller, 
also accompanied him, with the intention of 
turning aside and cutting the telegraph-wire 
which crossed the desert and connected 
Cairo with Constantinople. Two servants 
attended them, besides camel-drivers ; and a 
certain Meter Abu-Sofia, who falsely gave 
himself out as a prominent sheykh, acted 
as a guide and protector. Their destination 
was towards Nakhl, but on the way Meter 
treacherously led them into an ambuscade 
on the nig-ht of 10-11 Aug. They were 
made prisoners and bound, while their bag- 
gage was plundered. There was at the time 
an order out from Cairo for Palmer's arrest, 
dead or alive; but it is probable that the 
original motive of the attack was robbery. 
On the following morning, 11 Aug., the 
prisoners were driven about a mile to the 
Wady Sudr, placed in a row facing a gully, 
with a fall of sixty feet before them, and five 
Arabs behind them, told off each to shoo't his 
man, Palmer fell by the first shot. The rest 
were despatched as they clambered down the 
rocks or lay at the bottom. The facts were 
only ascertained after a minute and intricate 
inquiry held by Colonel (now Sir Charles) 
Warren, RE., who was sent out by govern- 
ment with Lieutenants Haynes an'd Burton, 
R,E,, on a special mission, which ended in 
the conviction of the murderers. The frag- 
mentary remains of Palmer, Gill, and Char- 
rington were brought home and buried in 
the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral on 6 April 
1883. * 

A portrait of Palmer, by the Hon. John 
Collier, hangs in the hall of St. John's Col- 



[Personal knowledge; "Works of Palmer men- 
tioned above; Besant's Life and Achievements of 



Palmer 



126 



Palmer 



E. H. Palmer, 1883 (a sympathetic but highly 
coloured and uncritical biography by an intimate 
friend); Parl. Papers, C. 3494, 1883; Haynos'H 
Man-hunting in tho Dusoi-t, 1804; Brit. MUM, 
Cat.; information from the master and Mr, 
11. R Scott, senior bursar, of St. John's Colleen, 
Cambridge, tho librarian of King's College, and 
from the rogistrary of the university.] S, L.-P. 

PALMER, ELEANOR, LADY (17:20?- 
1818), born about 1720, was tho daughter 
and coheiress of Michael Ambrose, a wealthy 
brewer, second son of William Ambrose of 
Ambrose Hall, eo. Dublin. During the period 
of Lord Chesterfield's vicoroyalty of Ireland 
(1745-7), Miss Ambrose was pre-eniiuent 
among the court beauties. Ghestertiold him- 
self greatly admired her, and was said to have 
called her f the mofit dangerous papist in Ire- 
land.' At a ball given at Dublin Castle on 
the anniversary of the battle of the Boy no, 
when she appeared with an orange lily at her 
breast, the lord lieutenant improvised tho 
lines : 

Say, lovely Tory, whoro's tho jost 
Of wearing oranpo in thy brimst^ 
When that same breast, uncovered shows 
The whitonoaH of tho rebel ro.se ? 

In 1752, when tho Gunnings were proving 
formidable rivals, Mm Ambrose was married 
to linger Palmer of Castle Laokin, Mayo, 
and Kenure Park, co, Dublin, who was then 
member for Portarlington. lie was created 
a baronet on !5 May 1777. By him Him had 
three sons: Francis, who predeceased her; 
John Kogor, the second bavouet, who died 
Feb. 1811) ; and William Henry, third baro- 
net, who died ^0 May 18*10, leaving three 
Rons and three daughters aw tho issue of his 
second marriage with Alice Franklin, Lady 
Palmer survived her husband, and, though 
rich, lived for some time before her death 
almost alone in a small lodging in Henry 
Street 1 , Dublin. Here it was that Richard 
Lalor Sheii visited her. lie, gave a highly 
coloured account of his visit, declaring that 
she was ' upwards of a hundred years old, 1 
and was excessively vehement in her support 
of the catholic claims. With every pinch of 
snuff she poured out a sentence of sedition, 
A half-length portrait of Lord Ohostorde.ld 
hung over the ehimnoypiooo of the room. 

Lady Palmer died at Dublin, in full pow- 
seftsion of her faeult ies, on 10 Feb. 1H18, aged 
98, A pastel, seen at the. Dublin National 
Portrait Exhibit 5oninlB7ii, has nhice. perished 
by fire, Seductive (jys,adaxxlit)gcomplexion, 
and an arch expression, were tho leading 
features of tho portrait* 

[Burke's Peerage and Bnronotagn, 1802 ; 
Lodge's Genealogy of tho Powaj>o; Burkc'n 
Bomaiice of the Ariatocru-cy, iL 0-0 ; 



vSkot ehes, Logal and Political, od, Savago, i, 13G- 
138, tho account being iiroprint of an article in 
the Now Monthly Mai*, for February 1827 on 
tho 'Catholic Bur;' (Jtrnt, Mat?. 1818, i. W; 
Miss OenirdVi (Vlohratod Irish Beauties of tho 
L:is(.Conliiry, ISOo, }[). 14-28; Webbs Ootupond, 
Irish JRio^r., art, k Aiubroso.'] 0. LK (i, N. 

PALMER, 8ru OKOKVHKY (ir>H8>- 

1H70), attnrney-izetK^nl t.oC'hiirlcM FI, son of 
Thomas Pulmer of Oarlton, .Northampton- 
shire, by Catherine, daughter of Hir Kdwnnl 
Watson of Uorkin^ham in the same county, 
was born in 15i)H, In KJilJJ ht v \VUH calltMlio 
tht 1 bar at tho Miildlo Temple, of which 
inn he was elected treasurer in 1(U)1, He, 
was one of tho original members of the Lon^ 
piu'liauKMit'/mwhiehhe reprtsentetlStamlbnl, 
Lincolnshire, and on S) Keb. 1(510 1 was 
mhhul 1.0 tho committee for wlesuistical 
allairs, As oiw of tlu x managers of Strnf- 
fonrs impeachnuMit In* advocated, L* S April 
KUl, tin* lift couth and wixtoonlh articles (of 
arbitrary government) with conspicuous 
numeration, Iln was one of the signatories 
ol" tho prot ostnt ion of i May following in 
deteuct^ of tlteprotestant religion, hut., on the 
passing of the net pcrpotuaf iiu; the parlia- 
wont, joined tho Hi t lo knot of * voting men ' 
(ainon^ them Hyde aiul I ( 'uli\lnntl} who 
rallied to t.hekitijn atul formed his new council, 
Palmer protest od with animation n^ninst 
I[a,inpde)r,s motion for the printing of tho 
remonstrance in the course of the heated 
debate of :J'J l^Nov, HUUnmlin tlioovcifinl 
tompor of tJu^ house his protest, \VHM very 
Hourly tho (MUIMC of hloodslied (ftttrt. *UV*V, 
cJxii, fol, 180); ho WHH thronton<Ml with 
ox|)ulMit)u from tho house and at tunlly coin- 
mittiul to tho Tower, but was released tvn 
H Dec. After t-ht* rot o fur putting tht mi- 
litia ordinance into execution on Jit) April 
lUl'j, Pnlmer wit,hdrc\v froiu tho Uoimoof 
(Joimnoiw, lie was a member of tho royalist 
]mliamont which met, at Oxford on &} Jan. 
U''13 *I, H< k wan one, of ( 'harle^'M comnns* 
motion* for tho negotiation of the abortive 
treaty of Uxbndjjfo, January February HMI - 
it5-15 t and u later no^olialion which !li<l not 
advance beyotul the stago of overluro (Do- 
comber 1(1 if>). Ho rem;iined in Oxford 
during tho sit^o, and ou thn nitrrender of 
thcjilacn (^ Juno UHi>) hud lot torn of com- 
position for his estates. Tin* ttswoHMtnont wn 
eventually (Sefitembor HUH) lixod nt 5(H)/< 

On t) Juno ltJiy> 1 Buhner WHH committal to 
th t Towor on wunpieion of raining forcon 
tt^niuHl, tho ftovormwmt, but wan probably 
releuHod in tno following Hoptotnbnr 

On tlio Host oration Palmer wan made at* 
tornoy-g-onoral, $\) May 1 <(), About, the 
anmo timu h wub kuightud andappoiutedto 



Palmer 



127 



Palmer 



the chief-justiceship of Chester, but held that 
otlice for a few months only. A baronetcy 
was conferred upon him on 7 June following. 
lie retained the attorney-generalship until 
his death, which took place at his house in 
Hampstead on 5 May 1670. His remains 
were interred in the parish church, Carlton. 

Palmer married Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Francis Moore, serjeant-at-law, of Fawley, 
Berkshire, and had issue by her four sons 
and three daughters, 

Palmer edited, in 1633, the reports of his 
father-in-law, Sir Francis Moore [q. v.l A 
volume of cases partly drawn from Godfrey's 
manuscript < Reports ' (Lansdowne MS. 1080), 
appeared with judicial imprimatur, in 1678, as 
1 Lea Reports de Sir Gefrey Palmer, Chevalier 
et Baronet ; Attorney-General a son trea ex- 
cellent Majesty le feoy Charles le Second/ 
London, fol. They consist of cases chiefly 
in the king's bench from 1619 to 1629, and 
are considered to be of respectable authority, 
"Whether Palmer did more than edit them 'is 
doubtful. 

Prefixed to some copies is a fine engraving 
by White of Palmer's portrait by Lely. 
Another portrait, by an unknown hand, 
was, in 1860, in the possession of Mr. G. L. 
Watson. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon, ii. 61 ; Wotton's Baronet- 
age, 1741, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 19 ; Granger's Biogr. 
Hist. ICngl., 2nd edit., iii. 371 ; Bridges's North- 
amptonshire, ii. 292; Gardiner's Hist. Engl. ix. 
287, x. 77, 79; Commons' Journals, ii. 81, 324, 
335, v. 21; Dugdale's Orig. p. 222; Verney's 
Notes of Long 1 Parl. (Camel. 'Soc.); Whitelocke's 
Mom. pp. 39/125, 182, 338; Bramston's Auto- 
biogr. (Camd. Soc.), p. 83 ; Clarendon's Rebel- 
lion, od. Miicray, 1888, bk. iii. 106, bk. iv. 
52-8, 77w, bk. viii. 211, 233, bk. ix. 
164; Clarendon's Life, ed, 1827, i. 67; Cal. 
Clarendon State Papers, i. 371, 445; Romem- 
brancia, 1878, p. 205; Thurloe State Papers, i. 
/>6, iii. 537; Rush-worth's Hist. Coll. iv. 573, 
viii. 426-88; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1645-7 
p. 486, 1650 pp. 537, 563, 566,1655 pp. 204, 309, 
088, 1659-67; Lunsd. MS. 504, f. 75; Addit. 
MSS. 29550 if. 52, 64, 29555 f. 27 ; Hist. MSS. 
Cornm. 5th Rop. App. p. 153; Pepys's Diary, ed. 
Lord Braybrooke, i. 108, iv. 498; Wallace's 
Reporters, 1882, p. 224.] J. M. R. 

PALMEE, GEORGE (1772-1853), 
philanthropist, horn on 11 Feb. 1772, was 
eldest son of William Palmer of Wanlip, 
Leicestershire, arid of London, merchant 
(1768-1821), by Mary, the only daughter 
of John Horsley, rector of Thorley, Ilertfjprd- 
shire, and sister of Dr, Samuel Horsley, 
bishop of St, Aaaph. John Horsley Palmer 
[q. v,j was his younger brother. George was 
educated at the Charterhouse, which he left 
to enter the naval service of the East India 



Company. He made his first voyage in the 
Caruatic in 1786. In 1788 the narrow escape 
from drowning of a boat's crew under his 
command directed his attention to the equili- 
brium of boats and the means of preventing 
them from sinking. When commander of the 
Boddam in 1796 he received a complimentary 
letteHrom the court of directors for his con- 
duct in an encounter with four French fri- 
gates. Palmer's last voyage was made in 1799. 

t In 1802 he entered into partnership with 
his father and brother, Horsley Palmer, and 
Captain Wilson as East India merchants and 
shipowners at 28 Throgmorton Street, Lon- 
don. In 1821 he held the office of master 
of the Mercers' Company, and in that capacity 
he attended the lord mayor, who acted as 
chief butler at the coronation of George IV 
on 19 July 1821, carrying the maple cup 
from the throne (Times, 20 July 1821, p. 3). 
In 1832 he was elected chairman of the 
General Shipowners' Society. He first be- 
came connected with the National Lifeboat 
Institution in 1826, and thenceforth devoted 
much time to its interests, and his plan of 
fitting lifeboats was adopted until 1858, 
when it was superseded by the system of 
self-righting lifeboats. Lifeboats on. his plan 
were placed by the institution at more than 
twenty ports, He was deputy-chairman of 
the society for upwards of a quarter of a 
century, and never allowed any of his own 
ships to go to sea without providing them 
with the means of saving life. In February 
1853 he resigned his office, when the com- 
mittee voted him the gold medal with their 
special thanks on vellum. 

In 1832, when South Shields became a par- 
liamentary borough, he was a candidate in 
the conservative interest for its representa- 
tion, but was not elected. He afterwards 
sat in parliament for the southern division 
of Essex from 1836 to 1847, being successful 
in three severely contested elections. In 
1845, after encountering much opposition, 
he obtained legislative enactments pro- 
hibiting timber-laden vessels from carrying 
deck cargoes. 

He served as sheriff of Hertfordshire in 
1 818, and afterwards as sheriff of Essex. For 
many years he supported at his own cost a 
corps of yeomanry, and acted as colonel of 
the corps. He died at Kazeing Park, Essex, 
on 12 May 1853, having married, on 29 Dec. 
1795, Anna Maria, daughter of William Bund 
of Wick, Worcestershire. She died on 1 3 Oct. 
1856, having had five children: George, born 
on 23 July 1799, captain West Essex Yeo- 
manry; William (1802-1858) [q.v.]; Francis, 
born 17 Sept. 1810, also a barrister, 5 May 
1837; Anna Maria, who died young j an'd 



Palmer 



128 



Palmer 



Elizabeth, who, in 1830, married Robert Bid- 
dulph, M.P. 

He was the author of ' Memoir of a Chart 
from the Strait of Allass to the, Island Bouro, 1 
1 799, and of ' A New Plan for fitting all Boats 
so that they may be secure as Life Boats at 
the shortest notice,' 1828, 

[The Life Boat, or Journal of tlio National 
Shipwreck Institution, July 1853, pp. 28-32; 
Illustr. London News, 21 May 1853, p. 402; G-ont, 
Map;., June 1853, pp. 656-7; Times, 24 Oct. 
1872,] G. C. B, 

PALMER, SIR HENRY (d. 1611), naval 
commander, was of a family settled forsomo 
centuries at Snodland,noar Hoche8tor,whenco 
they moved in the fifteenth century to Tot- 
tington by Aylesford, Jle is first montiomid 
as commanding a squadron of the queen's 
ships on the coast of Flandera in 1 T>7(). .From 
that time ho was constantly employed in tho 
queen's service, In 1580 and following years 
lie was a commissioner for the repair and 
maintenance of Dover harbour. In 1587 he 
had command of a squadron bolero Dunkirk, 
and in 1588, in the Antelope, commanded in 
tho third post under Lord Jlimry Seymour 
in the, Narrow Seas. When thin squadron 
joined the fleet under tho lord admiral hoforo 
Calais on 27 July, Palmer wan Html; to Dover 
to order out vessels suitable to be uwed lor 
fimwips. Before- these could bo mint, lire- 
ships, hastily improvised, drove tho enemy 
from their anchorage, and Palmer, rejoining 
Sevmonr, took a brilliant part in tho battle 
oil Gravelines on tlio &)th. Whon Seymour, 
with tho squadron of the N arrow SIMM, wan or- 
dered back from tho pursuit of tins Spaniard^ 
Palmer returned with him, and continued 
with him and afterwards with tlio flout, till 
the end of the season* Ho remained in 
command of tho winter guard on tho coat. 
of Flanders, 

Through the next year he continued to 
command in the Narrow $eaH, and iu Sep- 
tember convoyed tho army ncrfWH to Nor- 
mandy. JJe was employed in similar Herviee 
throughout tho war, hiw Rquadron sometimes 
cruising as far an tho count of Cornwall, or 
even to Ireland, but remaining lor tho most. 
part in the Narrow Boas, and in IfiMJ block- 
ading Calais. On !>0 Dec. 151)8 ho was ap- 
pointed comptroller of the navy, in place of 
William Borough [q.v.], and in 1000 had 
command of tho defence* of tho Thames, I n 
1001 he again commanded on tho coast of 
Holland. After tho peace- lie continued in 
the oiHce of comptroller till his death. J Ee 
died on 20 Nov. 1611 at How tots in Hckfls- 
borne, an estate which he had bought-, lie 
was twice married ; firat to Jane, daughter 



of Edward Isaac, and widow of Nicholas 
Sidley; secondly, to Dorothy, daughter of 
Scott, and widow of Thomas llernden. 
By his first wife he had two sons, of whom 
the younger, Henry, succeeded his father as 
comptroller of the, navy by a grant in re- 
version of 17 Aug. 101]'. tlowlotH was left 
to .Palmer's stepson, Isaac Bidley, who made 
it over to his half-brother Henry. 

A portrait of Palmer, by Mart GhoeruertK 
the younger [q. v,], belonged to David 
Lai n g, 

[HiiHtod's Hint, of Kent, in 191, iii, 715; 
GulondarH of State Papers, Dom. ; Do font of tho 
fcSyairitjb. Armada (Navy liocordu Hoc.)'] 

J. K, L, 

PALMER, HENRY RPKNOKU (I8W- 
18M), major-general royal enpfincerw, young- 
est son <!f Colonel John Kroke Palmer of 
the Kast India (Mmpanv'H ,s<M'vieo, by Inn 
wife Jane 1 , daughter of John JnmeM, es<j t , of 
Ti-uvo, (Cornwall, und Mister of Lieut enant- 
geuerat Sir Henry Juiuc.s |ij. v.|, royal ( n^i- 
nier,M, wan born at. Hangnlore, Xladraw pre,si 
dency,on-10 April 1KJH Ut\ \van ediUNited at. 
privule wehooLs at. I^ath,and by pnvatn tutorrt 
at Wooiwieh and PlunjMteati, and in January 
lS5(j oblninodadiiiiHsio)) to I hi* praetiealelasa 
of t.he Royal Military Academy at Wool- 
wich, at. a public compel it ion ; be secured t !u^ 
Hevmith phtce among forty HiicccH.sful nindi- 
dati'H, of whom he WUH t.he yotingesL lln 
was gazetted a lieutenant in the royal (n- 
gintun'M on ^0 Dtui,, and went to Uhutlmm to 
j(o through the umutl <u)iU'He of professional 
instruction. From (lhatham hi* went, to the 
southern dintrictnt the end of lHr>7,und wan 
quart tu'iul at Portaniouth and in thti Inlo of 
\Vigbt, 

In October 1 808 Pnlim*r WUH appointed to 
the expedition to British (^oltunoia under 
Colonel Richard (Jlement Moody [u, v,J 
Tho expivlition WUH originated * by Lord 



t 

aiul coiwirttml of nix otlitnn'H and 150 picketl 
tterH, Hurvf\vorM, ^c,, from the royal iw- 
.rH, with the double object of acting HH 
a military force to proHcrvo oYder nnd to cany 
out engineering workn and nurveyn for tho 
im]rovoi(^nt of tlm newly c.nntted colony. 
During l> almer'H wervict^ with tho rxjuuiititm 
he watt actively engaged in making mirvnyd 
and exploratiojiH, among thorn a reeoimaiH- 
wamwj fijtrvtiy of the iammm (Cariboo gohl 
region in IBO^, a(uompliHht)d undt^r gt + eut 



dilliulti8 In that year he ami Im iiarty 

ldrenw 



re only aavwt by hm coolness and mldrenw, 
and hia ktiovvledga of the Indian dnirtu^t^r, 
from wtiiHHucnj by tho Bella Coola Indianw at 
North JJunUnck fc urm, TUu ivjjortt* uud maj)a 



Palmer 



129 



Palmer 



prepared by him in connection with these 
surveys were published from time to time in 
the parliamentary and colonial blue-books* 
Palmer also had a share in superintending- 
the construction of roads, bridges, and other 
public works in the colony, among them the 
wagon road through the formidable canon 
of the Fraser river, between Lytton and 
Yale. 

Polmer returned to England at the end 
of December 1863, and joined the ordnance 
survey. He went first to Southampton and 
then to Tunbridge, Kent, from which place, 
as headquarters, he conducted the survey of 
the greater part of Kent and East Sussex, 
and parts of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire. 
He was promoted second captain on 4 March 
I860. 

In the autumn of 1867 he was appointed 
one of the assistant commissioners in the 
parliamentary boundaries commission, under 
Mr. Disraeli's reform act, having for his legal 
colleague Joseph Kay [q. v.] Their district 
embraced the parliamentary boroughs in 
Kent and East Sussex, and the subdivision 
of "West Kent and East Surrey for county 
representation. At this time he was engaged 
with his friend, Pierce Butler, of Ulcombe 
Rectory, Kent, in setting on foot a project 
of a survey of the Sinaitic Peninsula, which 
was ultimately brought to a successful issue. 
He went to Sinai in October 1868, and re- 
turned to England in May 18G9, when he 
resumed his survey work at Tunbridge. 
Palmer contributed to the handsome volumes 
(published by the authority of the treasury) 
which were the fruits of the expedition, some 
two-fifths of the descriptive matter, together 
with the computation of the astronomical 
and other work of the survey ; the drawing 
of several of the maps and plans and the part 
editingof the whole work also fell to his share. 
After his return home he often lectured on 
the subject. Palmer was promoted major on 
11 Dec! 1873. In this year he was recom- 
mended to the astronomer-royal by Admiral 
(I. H. Richards, then * hydrographer to the 
admiralty, for a chief astronomership in one 
of the expeditions to observe the transit of 
Venus. He was nominated chief of the New 
Zealand party, and went through a course of 
practical preparation at the Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, during which he gained 
the full confidence of Sir George Airy. He 
left England in June 1874, accompanied by 
Lieutenant (now major) L. Darwin, R.E., 
and Lieutenant Crawford, R.N., as his assist- 
ants. For his exertions and achievement in 
the work of observation of the transit lie was 
highly praised by the astronomer-royal in his 
< Report to the Board of Visitors/ 1875. 

vol. xun. 



Before leaving New Zealand, Palmer, at 
the request of the governor, the Marquis of 
Normanby, undertook an investigation of the 
provincial surveys throughout the colony, 
with the view of advising as to the best 
means of placing the whole system on an 
intelligent and scientific basis. He spent 
three or four months on this work, and em- 
bodied his recommendations in a blue-book 
report. He received the thanks of the 
government, and his report was adopted as 
a guide for future reforms. He rendered 
assistance to the French in determining the 
longitude of Campbell Island, for which 
he received the medal of the Institute of 
France. Palmer returned to England in 
June 1875. 

Resuming military duty, he went to Bar- 
bados in November 1875. He was appointed 
aide-de-camp to the governor, Sir John Pope- 
Hennessy [q. v.], and remained in this post 
through the riots of 1876, and until the 
governor's departure from the colony. In 
January 1878 he went to Hongkong, where, 
in addition to his ordinary duties, he was ap- 
pointed engineer of the admiralty works, and 
was again given the post of aide-de-camp to 
the governor. On 1 July 1881 he was pro- 
moted brevet lieutenant-colonel. In this 
year he designed a physical observatory for 
Hongkong, to comprehend astronomical, 
magnetical, meteorological, and tidal ob- 
servations. The design and report were ap- 
proved by the Kew committee of the Royal 
Society. Though the scheme was somewhat 
reduced for economical reasons, the obser- 
vatory was built in conformity with the 
design, and competent authorities regard it 
as a standard guide for observatories of that 
class. Palmer declined in 1882 to take charge 
of another expedition to observe the transit 
of Venus, but he made in that year an exact 
determination of the Hongkong observatory 
station at Mount Elgin, Kowloon, with in- 
struments lent to him from the United States 
surveying ship Palos. 

On 1 Oct. 1882 Palmer was promoted regi- 
mental lieutenant-colonel, and was ordered 
home. On his way he stayed at the British 
Legation in Tokio, Japan, and was requested, 
at the instance of Sir Harry Parkes [q. v.], by 
the Japanese government to prepare a project 
for waterworks for Yokohama. He com- 
pleted two alternative schemes of water- 
supply, one from Tamagawa, and the other 
from Sagamigawa. 

On Palmer's arrival in England in July 
1883, he was appointed commanding royal 
engineer of the Manchester district. In the 
autumn of 1884 the Japanese government 
applied to the British government for Palmer's 



Palmer 



130 



Palmer 



services to superintend the construction of 
waterworks in accordance with hia design. 
Permission was given, and Palmer readied 
Japan in April 188.5, and the works were 
at once started, On 1 July 1885 Palmer 
was promoted brevet colonel, and on 1 Oct. 
1887 ho retired on a pension, with the 
honorary rank of major-general, The same 
date saw the successful completion of _ tho 
waterworks, and in November he received 
from the emperor of Japan the third class 
of the order of the Rising Sun, in recognition 
of his services* Subsequently he received 
the queen's permission to wear the order, 
He also designed water-supply works for 
Osaka and Hakodate, and harbour works 
for the Yokohama Harbour Company, and 
a water-supply by means of a large irrigation 
siphon for Misakamuni in ITiogo Kim, which 
was successfully carried out under his di- 
rection in 1889", His schomo for a water- 
supply to Tokio is now being executed. In 
1889 he undertook the superintendeueo of 
the Yokohama harbour works which he had 
designed, and was appointed engineer to the 
Yokohama Docks Company. It was while 
engaged iti designing an extensive aystem of 
graving docks and a repairing basiu that ho 
died at Tokio on 10 March IHO.'J. 

Palmer was a man of clear, vigorous in- 
tellect and brenclth and liberality of view, 
He had an extraordinary faculty for rapid 
calculation, and a rare power of assimilating 
and marshalling facts. 1 lo took a lively in- 
terest in Japan, and his graphic lottom to 
the ' Times/ written in a gen ml and sympa- 
thetic spirit, did much to familiar wo Eng- 
lishmen with tho remarkable people among 
whom ho dwelt, lie poBHasRod a KUOU SOUHO 
of humour and power of anecdote. 

Palmer married, on 7 Oct.. 1HOIJ, at Now 
"Westminster, British Columbia, Mary June 
Pearson, daughter of Archdeacon Wright, 
by whom he left a largo family* 

Palmer was a iron uont contributor to maga- 
zines and periodical literature* II o was also 
the author of the following works ; L * Ord- 
nance Survey of tho Peninsula of Binai, &<v 
by Wilson and Palmer,' foi. 18u'9. 2. < Tho 
Ordnance Survey of tho Kingdom : its object H, 
mode of execution, history, and prommt con- 
'ditionj' reprinted, and' slightly altorod, 
from ' Ocean Highways,' Svo, London, IB7& 
8, * Ancient History from tho Monuments t 
Sinai from tho Fourth Egyptian ,1 )y nasty to 
the .present day/ London, 1878, Bvo; new 
edition, revised throughout by Professor 
Sayce, Svo, London, 1892. 

[Royal Engineers' Records ; War Office Be- 
cords ; private sources ; Koyal Engineers' Journal, 
May 1893, obituary notice,] B, H, V, 



PALM.KR, HKUBKttT (UMM 1017), 
puritan diving younger son of Sir Thomas 
Palmer, lent-. (//* lOi*r>) T mid grandson of Sir 
Thomas I 'aimer ( 1 MO-l OiW) j q. V,] of Wing- 
ham, Kent, was born at \Vinjjhnm in ItiOl, 
and baptised on iJS) March* His mother w 
tho eldest daughter of Herbert IVlham i>f 
Ovawloy, Sussex, lie learnt French almost n* 
aoonas'Kuglish, and always spoke it fluently, 
Uis childhood was marked by precocious re- 
ligiousness. On M March ItHtJ lit 1 was ad- 
mitted fellow-eonmumor in St, .John's Col- 
h^gt^, Cambridge; ho graduated H.A, 1(5 ID, 
JM ,A, 1 (W^, anil was ilrc( td follow of ( Jumis* 
Ot)ll<^go on 17 -July l(>L'fS, Hi* tuok onlriM 
inl0^l,ttndprotwio(llt,I>. in UJtil. In l(t'(J, 
on hia way to vinit his brother, Kir ThoinnH 
Palinor, hurt, (d, KWHi), at Wingluun, ho 
proachod at C!nntorhury Cnthodntl. Tho ro* 
port of his Mormon ronchod tin* tar.M of Dolmo, 
miuiHttn*of (hi* French ohtnrh at Canterbury, 
who mado hi nruunintfituM^ at- Winghnm, 
got. him to pivaeu again at. St, (Joor^v^s^ 
Canterbury, ami mado (llortM to proctiro his 
Ht*tthMmnit an l(rtun*f. Hn wan HcouHrd by 
Abbot- for a Sunday ufionioou 
at St, AlphngoV, Caulorbury, 
but did not, UH Clarko wupposi'M, ronigu U'H 
fellowship, llo, niMod U8 a Hpirit uul iiilviNor, 
boing coiiHultrtl aw ' a kind of omvl<C ntul 
did mtich roligmtiw vimtiug* though without 
past oral charts OmiKinwillv ho pronohml ! 
thtt Krouoh <*onjfvogation ; tuo IttNii tiuu* ho 
ntood in thoir pulpit bin diminutive npj>en,r- 
anco ' startled ' an <ild lady, who mod out, 
'Ilola, f^Ui ntuiH (lira conk on taut tcyr'' 
Though not Hmiplmg at tho prtweribtHl eero- 
mouios f (uul Htrougly oppt^ing tho Hojiaratiht 
party, ho, rosint td the. * innovation*** favour*Hl 
by Laud, ilt^ \vaHaHirl(*d tor hin puntauinni^ 
but- tho proHooutiou provetl abortive* Abuul 
KiUO tho douu, Innac Hargmvo |tj. v,| ptit 
down hm ItH'tureMh'm, on tho ground that ho 
had gono boyo-iul UIM otliet* by nttoohiMing 
and that IUH feoturo drow * taetitniH pornous* 
out of other parishes; the lecture WHK tv 
in (uuiHotjueuco of an inttuetit tally 
pntitinn to Abbot,, lltH friomta 
by Thomas Fiuch (?/, 1UH9), affor- 
wurdw Marl of YVinchilNott, twin* unHUtvehM- 
fully endeavoured to wtnutro for him a pr- 
bend at. Canterbury. On tho roHtgiwtimi of 
Thomaa Turner, Laud* then bish<*p of Lou- 
don, pwmmted hhn t at tho inHUwe of * a 
great. n.ohlownn,' to tho rectory of Anhwoll, 
uwtfordshirci ; ho wa instituted J) Fob, uml 
inductttd 18 Keb, 1&2* Laurl, on 1m trial, 
rafwrred to tluw among otltur MviliiC( of hn 
impartial patromtgo of morit; ho declined 
tho religious muuHtrationt* of Palmer during 
hb impriaoniucaxt iu tho Towor wid at this 



Palmer i, 

block. In 1632 Palmer was made univer- 
sity preacher at Cambridge. At Ash well he 
matured his system of catechising, giving 
prizes of bibles to those who could read, 
and 5$. to illiterates, on their reaching a 
proficiency which fitted them for admission 
to communion. Robert Baillie, D.D. [q. v.], 
reckoned Palmer * the best catechist in Eng- 
land'.' Pie originated the method of break- 
ing up the main answer into preparatory 
questions, to be answered by ' yes ' or ' no.' 
In 1633 he refused to read the ' Book of 
Sports.' He got his parishioners to bind 
themselves by subscribing a compact against 
drunkenness, sabbath-breaking, and so forth. 
He took sons of noblemen and gentry as 
boarders, under a resident tutor. Preaching 
a visitation sermon at Hitchin in 1638, he 
spoke freely against * innovations. 7 In 1641 
lie was chosen, with Anthony Tuckney,D,D. 
[q. v.], clerk of convocation for Lincoln diocese. 
On 19 July 1642 he was appointed by the 
House of Commons one of fifteen Tuesday 
lecturers at Hitchin, Hertfordshire. 

Palmer was appointed an original member 
of the Westminster assembly of divines by 
the ordinance of 12 June 1643. He removed 
to London, placing Ashwell in charge of 
John Crow, his half-brother, who became his 
successor (28 Sept. 1647), and was ejected 
in 1662. On 28 June 1643 he preached a 
political sermon before the House of Com- 
mons, whose thanks he received through. Sir 
Oliver Luke. He became preacher at St. 
James's, Duke Place, and afterwards at the 
' new church ' in the parish of St. Margaret's, 
"Westminster (represented since 1843 by Christ 
Church, Westminster). He was also one of 
the seven morning lecturers at Westminster 
Abbey. On 11 April 1644 he was appointed 
by the Earl of Manchester master of Queens' 
College, Cambridge, in room of Edward 
Martin, D.D. [q. v,] ; in this capacity lie was 
an able disciplinarian. Refugee students from 
Germany and Hungary were liberally assisted 
by him; he gave benefactions for the in- 
crease of the college library. In the West- 
,rainster assembly, of which he was one of 
the assessors (from January 1646), he had 
much to do with the drawing up of the 
' directory,' and was anxious for a clause 
about pastoral visitation, which was not in- 
serted. As regards ordination, he differed 
both from presbyterians and independents, 
holding (with Baxter) that any company of 
ministers may ordain, and that designation 
to a congregation is unnecessary. He joined 
Lightfoot in pleading for private baptism. 
His chief work was in connection with the 
assembly's ' Shorter Catechism/ though he did 
not live' till its completion, To him was due 



i Palmer 

the excellent method by which each answer 
forms a substantive statement, not needing 
to be helped out by the question. 

He died in August or September 1647, and 
is said to have been buried in the t new 
church,' Westminster ; no register of the in- 
terments in that place is discoverable. There 
is an entry in the register of St. Mary the 
Leas, Cambridge, not very legible, which has 
been read as giving 14 Aug. as the date of 
his burial there. Mr. W. G. Searle says he 
was present at an election of fellows on 
17 Aug., and thinks he died on 11 Sept.; 
his successor was elected on 19 Sept. He 
was unmarried^ His portrait, in Clarke, 
shows an emaciated visage, sunk between. 
his shoulders ; he wears moustache and thin, 
beard, skull-cap and ruff,with academic gown, 
and leans onacushion. SymonPatrick[q.v.], 
whom he befriended at college, calls him i a 
little Brooked man,' but says he was held in 
the highest reverence. He left a benefaction 
for poor scholars at Queens' College. 

lie published, in addition to sermons be- 
fore parliament (1643-6) : 1. ' An Endeavour 
of making the Principles of Christian Re- 
ligion plain and easie,' &c., 1 640, 8vo. 2. ' Me- 
morials of Godlinesse and Christianitie,' &c., 
1644-5, 12mo (three several pieces, the first 
reprinted ; the second is ' The Characters of 
a believing Christian, in Paradoxes and seem- 
ing- Contradictions; ' this was printed, with 
epistle dated 25 July 1645, in consequence 
of a surreptitious edition, issued 24 July, a 
reprint from which was included in the 
'Reraaines,' 1648, 4to, of Francis Bacon 
[q. v.], and has often been cited as Bacon's) ; 
13th edit. 1708, 12mo; reprinted in Dr. 
Grosart's ''Lord Bacon/ &c., 1864, 8vo. 
3. 'Sabbatum Redivivum ... the First 
Part,' &c., 1645, 4to (undertaken, and nearly 
finished, 'many years 'before, in conjunction 
with Daniel Cawdry [q.v,], and published 
as an exposition and defence of the Sabbath 
doctrine of the Westminster divines) ; the 
three remaining parts appeared in 1652, 4to. 
Robert Cox [q. v.] praises the work for its 
1 great logical acuteness, perfect familiarity 
with the subject, and exemplary moderation 
and fairness.' 4. ( A full Answer to . ,. . 
Four Questions concerning Excommunica- 
tion,' &c., 1645, 4to. He had a hand in 
' Scripture and Reason pleaded for Defen- 
sive Arms/ &c., 1643, 4to. In the 'Baptist 
Annual Register,' 1798-1801, edited by John 
Rippon, D.D. [q. v.], three of Palmer's letters 
of 1632 are printed. Dr. Grosart has a manu- 
script volume of sermons in Palmer's auto- 
graph dated 21 April 1626, 

[Foulis's Hist, of the Wicked Plots, 1662, p. 
183; Clarke'b Lives of Thirty-two English 



Palmer 



132 



Palmer 



Divines, 1077, pp. 183 eq. ; Life by Philip 
Taverner, 1681; Middletcms Biographm Evan- 
pelica, 1784, iii. 190sq.; Brook's Lives of the 
Puritans, 1813, iii. 76 sq, ; Noal's Hisb, of the 
Puritans (Toulmin), 1S22, iii. 102 sq., 403 sq. ; 
Burke's Extinct Baronotci es, 1 84 1 , p. 602 ; Laud's 
Works, 1854, iv. 298; Symon Patrick's Works, 
1858, ix. 416 ; Grrosart's Memoir in ' Lord Bacon 
not the Author of the Christian Paradoxes,' 1865 ; 
Cox's Literature of the Sabbath Question, 1805, 
i. 237 sq. ; Searle's History of Queens' College 
(Cambridge Antiquarian Society), 1871, pp. 632 
sq. ; Mitchell and Struthors's Minutes of Wost- 
minstor Assembly, 1874; Mitchell's Westminster 
Assembly, 1883; Urwick's Nonconformity in 
Herte, 1884, pp. 771 sq, ; Colo MSB. vii. 156sq. ; 
Notes and Queries, 8th sor. viii, 204.] A. 0, 

PALMER, SIR JAMES (d. 1657), chan- 
cellor of the order of the Garter, was third 
son of Sir Thomas Palmer (1540-1626) [q. v.l 
of Wingham, Kent, by Margaret, daughter of 
John Pooley of Badley, Suilblk, Palmer ob- 
tained a place in the household of Jumoa I, 
and on 27 April 16:22 wua appointed a gentle- 
man of the bedchamber, with an annual salary 
of 200 &, afterwards raiaed to 600J, lie appears 
early in life to have become ono of the per- 
sonal friends of Charles when Prince of 
Wales, and to have continued so after his ac- 
cession to the throne. As an amateur artist of 
some merit Palmer shared the kinpfe taatoR, 
and assisted him with advice and in other 
ways in the formation of the celebrated royal 
collection of pictures. He i known to havo 
copied several pictures in the royal collection, 
probably on a small scale, as ono of Titian's 
4 Tarquin and Lucrotia ' is not ed among the 
king's collection of limnings aa done by 
James Palmer after Titian, and (riven by him 
to the king, Palmer was one of the governors 
of the royal tapestry works at MoHlake, and 
in the catalogue of Charles Fs collection is 
mentioned ' a little piece of Bacchus his feast, 
of many young children and angels, which 
the king delivered with his own hands to 
Sir James Palmer, for him to use for a pattern 
for the making of hangings, the which he 
has sent to Mortlack amongst th tapifltry 
works*' Five pictures in the same collection 
are noted as * placed in the Tennis Court 
Chamber at Sir James Palmer'e lodgings. 1 

When Sir Thomas Eoo [q, v], chancellor 
of the order of the Garter, was absent on a 
diplomatic mission, Palmer was appointed 
his deputy in February 1638, and m that 
capacity on 22 May moved the kmg to revive 
the ancient usage for the ladies of knightB to 
wear some of the decorations of the order* 
He served three times as Koa'fj deputy, and 
on 2 'March 1645 succeeded him as chan- 
cellor. The civil wars and the ensuing Com- 
monwealth must, however, have prevented 



him from receiving any of th? fmolmruMitB 
of the oilico, and lie died in 10'57 before t.ho 
restoration of the monarchy. Palmer's col- 
lect-ion of pictures, which included many 
from Charles I's collection, wan wold by 
auction on 20 April 1 (180. Palmer was twice 
married : first to M artha, daughter and hoi msn 
of Sir William Oorard of Dorney, Bucking 
hnmshiro; she died in 1017, and was buried 
at Enfiekl m Middlenex, wluro a mcmuitKMit 
by Nicholas Htontnvaa <uvctKl to her moinory. 
her ho was fatJior of Sir Philip Palmor 



to Thomim Jenyrw of Haycfl in 
Palmer marritHl r sccou(lly,Oat,h(n'iiie t (lau^ht or 
of William Herbert, lord POWIH, and widow 
of Sir Robert Vaughan, by whom he wan 
father of Jlo^er Palmer (aftorwardu Karl of 
CaniUmiainu) [tj-v.], whone marriage with tlm 
celebrated Barbara Villiers | q. v,] ho did hit* 
boat to prevent, 

[WHlpolu'o Anocd. of Painting (wLWortwtn) ; 
Aahmolu'H Order of tho Oartor; Haydn'n Hook 
of t)igniti; Oal of tftulo Bvpow. ",l>om. Hot 
1022, IGM, &e;i L. a " 

t PALMER, JAM KS (1585 -1 WK)) f royalist; 
divine, watt born in the parinh of St./ Mar- 
^aret'n, WtHttninHt*r, in July 1585, and wan 
tuluoatod firnt at Ma^dalono C^olli^t*, (%ni- 
idf^o (tho admiMmon n^iHt<n*H of which only 
bcpfin in 1(544), and tibw[uontlv at Oxford, 
Ho gradual tnl B,A HKH ii, M,A, HU)r>, and 
B,U, HUliat (^iunbridgo f nnd 4 wuft incorpo-* 
ratod at Oxford J) July 1H11/ Ho wan or- 
daint^d priw^t by Bancroft, and (i II) April 
1010 wan appointed by tlw dum and chapter 
of WiwitmiMtw vicar of fit* Brid^'w, H*u*t 
Street, In raidd lo lifo Iu^ Hhowtd BOIIMI puritan 
prudiloctionH, and inibrmationH of div^rn trr<v 
gularitiefl^ woro laid ttg&iiwt him in HJH7, 
Ho waAAaid to omit 'tlu^prayorfor UuvbiMhopn 
and the rtwt <>f tluj ftl^rg'y, and to ruad divino 
stU'vicoHOniotitut'H in hin gown, and Honictiin^ft 
without wthor HtirpHw or fyown, in IUH cloak* 
(A?ft/0 J; typwvr, Pom. OharloH l t <*x:<lxxtH Kov 
167), tn Mardi KU 1 2 th Houmi of Com- 
waona ordered Palmar to allow th<* fron uao 
of his pulpit to Hinwon Ash twice a wek 
(C<mmum Journal*, II 47t)). Palmor appears 
to havo preached frequently before both 
houflOft of pftrliament on their monthly dayn 
of humiliation* ( )n 1 H < )ct, 1 045 he remgned 
hie vioarago, on account of failing Jiealr-h, to 
the committee forplundorwl miniwt twiMdit. 
MS, \m&> f. 370). On the iflth of tho fol* 
lowing month Tfiomafl Oolwman wa>* tms- 
aontod to the living &* p 405X Walker 

the fluttering and ejocttid clergy. Ho i cer- 
tainly not to be confounded with tho Palmer 
for whom Charles domand^d A safe-conduct 



Palmer 



133 



Palmer 



on 5 Dec. 1645, in order to bring proposals 
of peace (' Mercurius Rusticus' under date, 
quoted in NEWCOTJRT, and Notes and Queries*, 
6th ser. vi. 83). Having 1 acquired a competency 
by frugality (according to HATTON'S New View 
of London), he spent his time, after his volun- 
tary sequestration, ingoing * up and down to 
look for poor ministers' widows that were 
sequestered, though sequestered himself, in- 
quiring for objects of charity.' He built 
and endowed a new almshouse over against 
the new chapel at Westminster for twelve 
poor people (LLOYD, Worthies, p. 512 ; 
WALKEK, Sufferings, ii. 174). Attached were 
* a free school and a commodious habitation 
for the schoolmaster, and a convenient chapel 
for prayers and preaching, where he con- 
stantly, for divers years before his death, once 
a week gave a comfortable sermon.' He en- 
dowed the foundation with a 'competent 
yearly revenue of freehold estate, committed 
to the trust and care of ten considerable 
persons of ye place to be renewed as any of 
them dye.' Within tine last ten years the alms- 
houses have been re-established in a new 
building in Rochester Row, Westminster. 
The educational portion of the endowment 
has been merged with other endowments in 
the united Westminster schools, and in the 
day-schools belonging to this institution there 
are a number of Palmer scholarships, pro- 
viding free education without clothing (Notes 
and Queries, ubi supra). 

Fuller warmly declared that he found more 
charity in this one sequestered minister than 
in many who. enjoyed other men's sequestra- 
tion&(J5T&. Cambr. p. 173). Palmer died on 
6 Jan, 1669-60, and was buried in the church 
of St. Margaret's, Westminster, where a fine 
monument was erected to his memory by Sir 
William Playter, bart., l a loving friend/ 
This monument now occupies a central place 
on a pier of the north wall of the church. 
The monument is of early classic design, and 
attributed to the school of Inigo Jones, and 
bears Palmer's bust and arms. The bust has 
all the appearance of being 4 a faithful portrait, 
is painted in proper colours, with a black 
gown and black cap. 

Palmer was probably unmarried, and should 
doubtless be distinguished from James Palmer 
who obtained a license to marry Elizabeth 
Robinson of St. Mary, Whitechapel, on 8 Nov. 
1609 (Harl. Soc. Publ xxv.316). In several 
authorities Newcourt and Walker, followed 
by Bailey (Life of Fuller, pp. 406, 689) 
Palmer is incorrectly called Thomas Palmer. 

[Foster's Alumni Qxon. 1500-1714; Addit. 
MS. '15669, ff. 370, 405 ; Notes and Queries, 6th 
per, vi. 83-4, 136; Harl. Soc. Publ. xxv. 316; 
Waleott's Memorials of Westminster, p, 294; 



State Papers, Dom. Car. I, ccclxxi ; Stow's Sur- 
vey, bk. vi. p. 45 ; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 
315 ; Fuller's Hist, of Cambridge, p. 173 ; 
Walker's Sufferings, ii. 174; Lloyd's Worthies, 
p. 512 ; Bailey's Fuller, p. 406 ; Lords' and Com- 
mons' Journals.] W. A. S. 

PALMEB, SIR JAMES FREDERICK 
(1804-1871), first president of the legislative 
council of Victoria, youngest son of John 
Palmer, rector of Great Torrington, Devon- 
shire, and prebendary of Lincoln, and of Jane, 
daughter of William Johnson, was born at 
Torrington in 1804. His great-uncle was Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. He was educated for the 
medical profession, and for some years prac- 
tised in London, where he was, till 1838, the 
senior surgeon to the St. George's and St. 
Jameses Dispensary. His health seems to 
have- failed, and induced him to go out, in 
1839, to New South Wales ; he practised as a 
doctor at Port Phillip for some time, and then 
he began business as a manufacturer of cor- 
dials, eventually becoming a wine merchant. 

Taking a prominent part from the first in 
the social and political life of the new settle- 
ment, Palmer was made mayor of Melbourne 
in 1846, and in that capacity laid the founda- 
tion-stone of the Melbourne hospital. In 
September 1848 he was elected to the legis- 
lature of New South Wales as member for 
Port Phillip, for which he sat till July 1849. 
On the separation of Victoria he became, on 
29 Oct. 1851, member of the legislative coun- 
cil (the single chamber) for Normanby district, 
and was elected speaker, though he frequently 
left the chair and interposed in debate. On 
23 Nov. 1855, when the constitution was 
altered, he was elected for the western pro-- 
vince to the new legislative council,, of which 
he became president on 21 Nov. 1856. He 
was re-elected five times, resigning in October 
1870 on account of the. ill-health which had 
compelled his absence in England from March 
1861 to 18 June 1862. For several successive 
years he was- chairman of the commissioners 
of education, and president of the board under 
the system instituted in 1862. He was 
knighted in 1857, On 23 April 1871, soon 
after his retirement, he died at his residence, 
Burwood Road, Hawthorn, and was buried 
at the Melbourne general cemetery. 

Palmer edited, with notes, ' The Works of 
John Hunter ' the anatomist, ia 4 vols. 8vo, 
with a 4to volume of plates, 1835-7, and 
compiled, in 1837, a glossary to the* Dialogue 
in the Devonshire Dialect' of his great-aunt, 
Mary Palmer [cj_. v.] 

He married, in 1832, Isabella, daughter of 
Dr. Gunning, C.B., inspector of hospitals. 

[Melbourne Daily Telegraph, 24 April 1871 ; 
Mennell's Diet, of Austral. Biogr.] C. A. H. 



Palmer 



134 



Palmer 



PALMGB, JOHN (d. 1007), (loan of 
Peterborough, a native of Kent , mut rieulutod 
as n pensioner of St. John's Oollogo, ("Sam- 
bridge, on 25 Oct. 15(17, and bowing scholar , 
on 9 Nov. 1508, lie grwjuatod H,A, in I 
1571, waa admitted fellow of lun col logo on 
12 March 1573-**, and prnowdwl M./V. in- 
1575, Inl578,wlum(,iuecu Klizabothvisitod 
Audloy Knd, Palmer was one of tho oppo- , 
nonta m a philosophy deputation hold hoforo 
hor by mombera of tho uwvorHity ("2(\ July). 
In 1570-80 Palmer took tho part ontichanl 
when Thomas Legged play of ' Uiolumlurt 
Tortius ' was poribrnwd boforo tho miowt in ( 
the hall of fcSt John's College, unu ho ac- 
quitted luniflolf with great cmlit. Fuller, | 
howovor, tells ua that ho * had hw homl HO i 
posBost with a princoliho humour that ovor ' 
after ho did, what tluui ho ndwl, iu IU'H 
prodigal oxpencofl,' Through tho mfluonco 
of Lord Bm'ghluy ho WIIH onablod to turn 
from tho fltudy of tho civil law to divinity. 
On 12 July 1580 ho wan indonwrutud in tho 
dogvoe of *M,A , at Oxford, Ho WUH mmlo 
junior doan of IUH eollo$o (Si, JolmV) on 
!il Jan. 1584 fi, principal locturorou 10 July 
ir>85, senior Follow on 'i Fob* loM-7, Honior 
bursar on $) Fob, l58(i--7, on of tho procturrt 
of the university in !5H7,and m*nitr doiiu on 
ii-l B<ipt. '1 58^). About tho mimn t iiuo lu^ WHM 
riHsommondtul by Lord Hurghloy fnv tho, pt*st 
of public orator, but wan not oloetod. In 
1 587 and 1588 ho took part in tho pvorootU 
ingB for tho oxpulsiou of I^vornru Digby 
[q. v,] from ]UB follownlap at Si; Jolni'n ( -tif* 
log(\, and thus iucnrrod tlu* tiisapimH'fd of j 
Whitgifti, who connulorod that ho and tho 
master, Whitulcor, 'had <kuilt t , , contrary j 
to their own statutes; . contrary to tlu* 
vulo of charity; ho might say of honesty also/ , 
Palmer wrotu to Lord Burghh^dntod i Nuv 
1590, bogging fur* good favour and protec- 
tion' during some misunderstandings at St. ' 
John's College (Lftmttoww Mti, UH j}15]), 
Ho was elected to t.lie mastership of Magda- 
lene College, and ereatod D.I), in 15S)5, On 
150 Nov. 1507 lie was granted tho deanery of 
Petorbovough (admitted !1 Dec,), on H March 
1597-8 obtained tho advowson of Btanton , 
in Porbyshire, and on 1H Nov. 1(105 tlte |jro* : 
bend of Dernibrd in Lichiiuld (Juthodral (ad- 
mitted 26 Nov 4 ) 

Palmer was a noted sp<mclthrift, It is 
said that he sold the lead olf the roof of ( 
Peterborough Cathedral to help him out of j 
his pecuniary difficulties, He rosigmul t.he 
mastership of Magdalene College in 100 i and 
died in prison, where ho was confined for 
debt, about June 1(J07* 

Some^ Latin verses, * Martis at Mercnrii 
Contentio,' in 'Academito Catitabngitmsls 



ohttutu , , I*hifij>|uSidiuii,' Lon- 
don, 1587 (m>, *H> I), by Jn!m 1'ahurr, tny 
Ivave beou by the deun of I*otirl>orough, or 
thy may havo boon by 

j'oittf VUM*;H ((L KH-t), nrehtlonoon of 
Ely, who -wan <lrctHl to Trinity <-ttllpgi, 
(."tunbritlgi*, from \V*Hfntinstor in 157*% 
mutricututiMl n a tfc'nwmrr vn *JtJ May 
157t5 T and bocmno tVflnxv in IHHiJ, 1I< gr- 
duatod H,A in K*70, M,A. in U*s;j, and 
B,D. m $*V,^ In two boautifully \\rit ttn 
Latin lottorn to H\ir^hioy (|f>sl nnt! lAMtJ), 
Palmor b^ggod for hin int4rrnt in procuring 
him a iollownhtp nt 'IVtitity (VHogo { /,^/ix- 
/foww MAW. ;!n t No. UH, r, T'i nnl at, No. -IS, 
f IJ.'O* Un wan jirfNontfu! to thn %irmg 
oi % Nofmuntim in YoHtahin* in toUi,nmito 
thnt of Truntphigttnt in t Vutbr'ulfii* in l^ti*. 
()nf> Juno KUii th*MpUM*!i, wlu^n cha|tluiu 
ho wiw j)rt*Mrnt*d hint to n tuvhrntl (tirntt 
wtnll) nnu tbf^ r<*hd*MM*orv nJ' Kly. \\'ith it 
hi* hoM tho rtu'ttiry *>f \\tibuvtou mul \jonr* 
ngo of HniltlmhniUt hot It ia {Vtnbndift'Mhir** 
(.-IfAAV, ,y*V,oSl^ f, HtJK Ho wrt!* juvM'MhMl 
to tho. liviugH of South Sotni'rtMttH, 1 iitu*olu- 

rt% on 1-1 Mim f h loiHi V, nud Ahvnlfnn, 



o, on 



Ijiui otjutraot^d u rh 
TtiotnnK Howarit'Kcl 
I'!HHO\\ with Kntbt i ri 
Knovitjutoof hittf 
(Jont* dor.d/ (///n 
Hurl &). xxv, it 



ry n 
lilnrr 
Mi jn* 



n Sr 
tonl Park, 
NVillinm 



Hog, 



r. II* 4A7 8 ; KoKto 



Htixat^th, ik* 114; Itnkor'n Ifi^.ufSi. 
ft', ("nmbriilgo (Mayor), |*jj, 177 H; 



.Nu'tmbo, ii, KHl; li NYvt'V K.wti 
(Hnniy), i* 8A2, .Vi4, AD7i ii. AM, tii* <lliO, fii),'* ; 
Str)'p'HWiutgift,t. 517 i IlitywijutltMul Wright 'H 
CJumwMtij,^ tImyTraiiHtu*tio!iH, t. fjll ; Hh^vjmV 
Auualu, vol. iii, pt, iL pp, (UH$-7j Cut, Jiintn 

I<mtt)'H WurkMt vnh vl. p, J/tU; A*Uit MM, ftHtO, 
iT*tf^7t2AA Mly Kjic<i|!al Ktsvn'tlH (<}idbouH} t 
pp. 4f}H f 4H7 ; IttiuUiHniti Kly, p *I7H ; VWi 1 - 
UonornlV Ilaoku ut Huiutwut IlmtH^ vi, f IHO; 
JjiuiHtloWftfi MHH, 4 A, Art f, JiJU 2It Mny }AK/t; 
Cambridge Umwnuty iUviMUiVN* IK* th H*v 



PALMER, JOHN (W*0 1700p) f rnlcial 
lawyw and {HtbUt; t)fHcial, csrtint* from Bur* 
badoato New York tt Httlo h^fom lH75,and 
in thftt yaar wa appointed ran^ir of Htaton 
Iskmi, than <;0ntituttd a c|mmto jrirt<li<t* 
tion* By a uftgt* not uncommon at thut 
ha held ofHca In ftfivaral cf>)onUm, In 
2 ho WM ajj|Knntod a member of the 



Palmer 



135 



Palmer 



council of East New Jersey, and in 1684 of 
that of New York. Earlier in 1684 he had 
been raised to the bench as judge of the court 
of oyer and termiuer at New York. Two 
years later he was sent by Dongan, the go- 
vernor of New York, to act virtually as de- 
puty-governor at Pemaquid, an outlying 
dependency to the north. There Palmer 
yeeins to have incurred odium by his arbi- 
trary conduct in the matter of land titles. 
In 1687 he was sent by Dongan as a spe- 
cial commissioner to Connecticut, to advo- 
cate the union of that colony with New 
York. Iii the same year he was sent to 
report for the king on colonial 



ncr 

nflairs. When James II attempted to con- 
solidate the northern colonies under the go- 
vernment of Andros, Palmer returned as a 
councillor to the new province, and was 
imprisoned by the Boston insurgents in lotfy 
While in prison he wrote a justification o: 
the policy of Andros and his supporters, and 
circulate!! it in manuscript hi New England 
After the proclamation oi William 111 a 
Boston, Palmer, together with Andros, wa 
sent back to England. He there publisher 
ids pamphlet under the title 'An Impartial 
Account of the State of New Eneland, or 
the late Government there vindicated (1689). 
It is a laboured production, and contrasts 
unfavourably with the vigorous writing ot 
Increase Mather on the opposite side. It 
was rcpublished in the next year at Boston 
with alterations, and both versions are re- 
printed in the ' Andros Tracts.' 



vith Priestley, and was a member of a fort- 
nightly clerical club .which arranged the 
matter for the ' Theological Repository/ In 
.782 Priestley recommended him, without 
effect, as colleague to Joseph Bretland [q.v.] at 
Exeter. Palmer died of paralysis at Birming- 
ham onTuesday, 26 Dec, 1786, and was buried 
in the Old Meeting graveyard on 2 Jan. 1787 ; 
Priestley preached (8 Jan.) his funeral ser- 
mon. He married, first, at Macclesfield, 
Miss Heald ; secondly, in 1777, the- eldest 
daughter of Thomas "White, dissenting minis- 
ter at Derby, by whom he left one daugh- 

ter. 

He published: 1. c Free Remarks on a 
Sermon entitled "The Requisitioa of < Sub- 
scription not inconsistent with Christian 
Liberty,"' &c., 1772, 8vo, anon. & 'A 
Letter to Dr. Balguy,' &c., 1773, 8vo (reply 
to the archidiaconal charge, 1772, by Tho- 



mas Balguy 
Shorthand; being 



, , 

a. .' A New System of 
an Improvement upon 



Audi 1 ' 



[Ikodhoad's Hist, of New York vol. ii. ; The 
udroB Tracts (Prince Soe.) ; Palfrey B Hist of 



Now England, vol. iii.] 



J, A. D. 



PALMEB, JOHN (1742-1786), Unita- 
rian divine, son of John Palmer, wig-maker, 
was born at Norwich in 1742. Be was a 
protefffi of John Taylor, D.D, [q.,v.], the 
Hebraist, who began his education, and, on 
becoming divinity tutor at Warrmgton aca- 
demy, placed Palmer (1766) at school m 

ar- 



. . . Byrom,'c., 1774, 8vo. 4. < An Ex- 
amination of Thelyphthora,' c., 1781, bro 
Tsee MAD AN, MARTIN]. His contributions 
to the 'Theological Repository' (1769-71) 
are signed G. H. ; ' contributions m later 
volumes (1784-6) are signed < Christoplulos, 
' Symmachns,' and l Erasmus.' A letter from, 
him is printed in Priestley's 'Harmony of 
the Evangelists '(1780). 

[Theological Repository, 1788, pp. - 217sq, 

memoir by Priestley) ; Monthly Expository, 

814 DP 203 sq.; Butt's Memoirs of Priestley, 

831* 1. 334, 339, 356, 362, 380, 390, 401 -sq.; 

Urwick's Nonconformity in Cheshire, 1864, pp. 

35 415; Beale's Memorials of the Old Meet- 

ng,' Birmingham, 1882; manuscript records of 

Allostock congregation,] A. G-. 

PALMER, JOHN (1729 P-1790), unita- 

ian divine, was born about 1729 in South- 

vark, where bis father was an undertaker. 

His parents were independents, and he was 

educated for the ministry, m that body, 

under David Jennings, D.D. [q.v.] In 175o 



emy, 

Congleton, Cheshire, under Edward Har- 
wood, D.1). [q-v.] He entered Warrmgton 
academy in 1759; Priestley was, froml/bl, 
one of his tutors. In his ^year he was 
constant supply (14 May 1763 to 15 Aug 
1 70*1) at Allostock, Cheshire. Some _ eccen- 
tricities hindered his acceptance m the 
ministry- He kept a school at Macclesfield 
Cheshire. In 1772 he became minister o 
Kinff Edward Street Chapel, Macclesfield 
There was an orthodox secession irom In 
ministry; he consequently resigned m 1779 
and removed to Birmingham without regula 
charge being in independent circumstances 
At Birmingham he renewed his acquamtanc 



unaer j-'Uivm ucu-u-iMg",^'*-- UT.- --j _ , ~ { , 
he became assistant to John Allen M.D. (d. 
31 Dec, 1774, aged 72), presbyterian minis- 
ter at New Broad Street, London. On 
Allen's removal(1759) to Worcester, Palmer 
became pastor. The congregation declined, 
and ceased in 1772 to contribute to the 
3 byterian fund. On the expiry of the 
lease of the meeting-house (1780) the con- 
firmation waa dissolved, and Palmer left the 
ministry. He was a man of ability and 
Darning; his defence of free-will against 
Priestley shows power. His religious views 
coincided with those of his friend, Caleb 
Fleming D D. fa^.] From 1768 he was a 
trustee of Dr. Daniel Williams'* foundations. 
After 1780 he lived in retirement at Islmg- 



Palmer 



ton, where he died on iJO June 1790, aged 
61. He married a lady of consiuerablo 
wealth. 

Ho published, in addition to funwnl ser- 
mons tor George II (17CK)) and Caleb Flom- | 
ing (1779), and a funeral oration for Timothy 
Laugher (1769) : 1. * Prayers for the use of 
Families; c., 1773, Svo; 2nd edit. 1785, 
8vo. 2. 'Free Thoughts on the Inconsis- 
tency of conforming to any Religious Test as 
a Condition of Toleration,' &t%, 1779, 8vo, , 

3. * Observations in Defence of tho Liberty ' 
of Man as a Moral Agent,' &c., 1779, Hvo, ; 

4. t An Appendix to tho Observations,' &o,, ' 
1780, Bvo, 5. * A Summary View of tho 
Grounds of Christian Baptism,' &C,, 17H8, 
Svo (a defence of infant baptism). He wit tod 
(1760, 4to) tho posthumous comment aries of 
John Alexander (1730-1765) fq.vj 

[Wilson's I)isontnK Chuvdtoa of London, 
1808, ii. 227 sq. ; Hutt'a Momoh'H of PriwtU'y, 
1831-2, i, 328 sq., ii. 72, /)3B; Juromy'* Jft'iinby- 
torian Fund, 1885, pp, 2, 1G-1,] A. U. 

PALMER, JOHN (1742? 1798), actor, 
orn in tho parish of 8t. Luko'w, Old " 
London, about 174^ was son of a imvnto 



born in tho parish of 8t. Luko'w, Old Street, j 
London, about 174iJj was son of a privato 
soldier. In 1759 tho father served under t ho 



Marquis of G ranby, and mibsoquently, on U: 
marquis's recommendation, became a bill* i 
fltickerand doorkeeper at Drury LaneTheat re, 
When about eighteen the son John recited 
before Garrick as George Baniwell and Met* 
cutio j but Garrick found nopromiso in him, 
and joined his father in urging him to enter 
the army* Garrick even got a small railit ary 
appointment for him ; but 1 Calmer rei'iwod to 
follow his counsel, and entered the shop of a 
print-seller on Luclgate II ill. 

On 20 May I7t&,for the benefitof hm father 
and three others, he made, lu first appoaratico 
on any stage, playing Buck in the * English- 
man, in Paris/ This performance ho repeated 
for benefits on tho 21st, SMth, and i-'tttlu 
Palmer was then engaged by Footo, who aattl 
that his ' tragedy was d d bad,' but * his 
comedy might do' for the 'little) theatre in the 
Hay market./ now known as tho II ay market, 
whore, in tho summer of 170*J, he was the ori 
ginal Harry Scamper, an Oxford student, in, 
Foote's ' Oracle.' Being roftiHed an (engage- 
ment by Garrick, whom ho still faito:! to 
please, he joined a country company under 
Herbert, and played, at StuiiHeld, Richmond 
in * Richard III/ Koturnmg to London, ho 
played, for the benefit of his father and othora, 
Georc-e Barnwell in the ' London Merchant-/ 
He then re-engaged with Footo, but was 
dismissed in the middle of tho season. After 
acting at Portsmouth he was engaged by 
Garrick, at a salary of 2Q& a week, for Drury 



6 Palmer 

Lane, but, did not get higher than tho < Hlieer 
in 'Richard III' (m*t ii. He,, i.) 1<W hin 
father^ bonolit Pulmor appeared aa Dirk in 
tho 'Apprentice. 1 At tho Haynwrket, in the 
aummerof I7^H,liewnH tho original Sir Uogt v r 
PowhiH in Footed * Patron,' feeing riftisi*d at 
Prury Lune nn increHi of nalnry^ he went to 
GolchoHhu*! un<hir HurHt, and wa,s HO lightly 
^Kt^omod that, but for the interee^Hion of 
MrH. Webb, aiuu'treHHof infltK'tjee, ho would 
have town diMehnrged. in Norwirli he married 
a Minn BerrougliHj who had taken a box for 
hiH benefit. He then gave, ut Hnw|wtend 
auo 1 Highgate, and in viiriouH Country towim, 
L H *l*4ctn* on Hcudn/ nud, ni'ler 

with a Ht rolling <*omjum\\ rrturnml 
to London, In 17iU r after refusing otlern 
for Dublin and Oovent Uitr<len,ho engaged 
with (iamek tor Pvary Lutie, ut a wnlary >f 
2r>^. a week, rained in aiifwr to hia reniou * 
Htra*u*e to H(V. 11*^ appeared on 7 Oet, 17W 
an Sir Harry Hengle m the SlealouM Wife,* 
He tippoaM in the Inlln UH * J* Palmer/ Innug 
thUH ntHtinguiMhed from hiw nnmeHnkis thi^ 
elder John Palmer, known an Mlentlomau ' 
Palmer (Nee below), who took lending buU 

* <i company. 

Returning in the mummer to the Hay- 
^ Palmer wa tm U July 17H? tin* ori- 
ginal Iriuttrtm in the moek tragedy of th^ 
*TailorH/ and twted Hen Hudgo in f he 4 Beg- 
gar'n Opera/ Morttm in HiirtnonV *ltunt*'Srt 
of Hnliwbury/ im|>orted from Crow Stroef. 
Theatw, Dublin^ to th Ltr<l William of 
JMtHH Palmer from Ihihlin, fippareutly no 
r<dutU>n f and Young Hakiwh m the ' School- 
boy/ Hnok at Drurv I AIUS he wan < t *M < H*t. 
17(J7 tht^ original \Viltm in UarrickV A Pe^p 
behind the Curtnin, or the. New HehenrnfU j 1 
Furiuval^ fl. worthier harriHttr in Kennel/rt 
'WWowM Wife;' on &'Uiw, !7<iH Sir Harry 
Newhurgh in KollyV ' Kuln l)elu*iu*y/>i(l 
^1 Mareh, Oupt^un Hlang in HiekerHtalfr'a 
'Almeut Mun/und played alo Young Wiltl- 
ing in tlm * Liar/ and Colonel Tamper iu ' Tlw 
Deuce IH in him/ 

Th tlea(>U of '(limtlemnn I'almer'in 17<W 
was f(llowed by tlu engagement- of Join* 
Palmer lor four yearn, at awilary nning frmn 
forty to jifty nluflingrt a week. 1*hi* parin an- 
HigiMnl him iwreaMed in numb(*r nnu import* 
anciit Tho death of Holland mul tho wM'eHhion 
of other actor* alm> tumtributed to hin d- 
vatuiomtmt* Jt was, iwhied, wliib^ rcjilacin^ 
* (lontlumctn Palmer* u Hnrrourt in I!HH 
'Country Girl/ ttomowhcru b^tweint 17MJ 
and 171J8 -mowt likely in 17U7 that Jm;k 
Plaumblo, m tho mnjond Palmer wiw gene* 
rally call*)d, OBtablmhed hirnwelf in Oarriek 1 H 
favour. He oiforotl I/) play th |Mvrtwth 
wlucb bo was quit^ unfamifmr, tbo fullowiii^ 



Palmer i 

day. * Read it, you mean,' said Garrick, who 
held impossible the mastery of such a cha- 
racter within the time accorded. When at 
rehearsal Palmer read the part, Garrick ex- 
claimed : * I said so ! I knew he would not 
study it.' At night Palmer spoke it with 
more accuracy than was often observable 
when better opportunities had been afforded 
him. Garrick also engaged Mrs, Palmer, who 
had never been upon the stage, and who, hav- 
ing through her marriage with an actor, for- 
feited the wealth she expected to inherit, was 
glad to accept the twenty shillings a week 
which, together with friendship never for- 
feited, Garrick proffered. Mrs. Palmer's ap- 
pearances on the stage appear to have been 
few, and are not easily traced. The initial J. 
was dropped in 1769-70 from the announce- 
ments of Palmer's name in the playbills. 
The omission gave rise to Foote's joke, that 
Jack Palmer had lost an I. Palmer was 
disabled for some months in consequence of 
an accident when acting Dionysius in the 
'Grecian Daughter/ to the Euphrasia of Mrs. 
Barry. The spring in her dagger refused to 
work, and she inflicted on him in her simu- 
lated fury a serious wound. In 1772 Palmer 
relinquished his summer engagement at the 
Haymarket in order to succeed Thomas King 
(1730-1805) [q. v.] at Liverpool, where he 
became a great favourite, and established 
himself as a tragedian. One circumstance 
alone militated against his popularity. He 
was said to ill-treat his wife. Alarmed at 
this report, he sent for that long-suffering 
lady, who came, and hiding, it is said, the 
bruises on her face inflicted by her husband, 
who was both false and cruel, walked about 
Liverpool with him and re- established him in 
public estimation. Not until 1776 did he re- 
appear at the Haymarket, which, however, 
from that time remained his ordinary place 
of summer resort. The retirement of Smith 
gave Palmer control all but undisputed over 
the highest comedy. Tribute to his special 
gifts is involved in his selection for Joseph 
Surface on the first performance of the* School 
for Scandal/8 May 1777, a character in which 
he was by general consent unapproachable. 
Himself addicted to pleasure, for which he 
occasionally neglected his theatrical duties, 
he had a pharisaical way of appealing to 
the audience, which exactly suited the charac- 
ter ? and invariably won him forgiveness. 
This it was, accompanied by his / nice con- 
duct ' of the pocket-handkerchief, that secured 
him the name of Plausible Jack, and esta- 
blished the fact that he was the only man who 
could induce the public tobelieve that his wife 
brought him olTspring every two months. She 
brought him, in fact, eight children. After 



7 Palmer 

a quarrel with Sheridan, Palmer, approach- 
ing the dramatist with a head bent forward, 
his hand on his heart, and his most plausible 
Joseph Surface manner, and saying, * If you 
could see my heart, Mr. Sheridan/ received 
the reply, < Why, Jack, you forget I wrote 
it.' On 30 Aug. of the same year, at the 
Haymarket, he further heightened his repu- 
tation by his performance of Almaviva. 

In 1785 Palmer, yielding to his own ambi- 
tion and the counsel of friends, began to 
build the Royalty Theatre in Wellclose 
Square. Deaf to remonstrances, he persisted 
in his task, though the only licenses, wholly 
ineffectual, which he could obtain were those 
of the governor of the Tower and the magis- 
trates of the adjoining district. This build- 
ing he opened, 20 June 1787, with a per- 
formance of ' As you like it/ in which he 
was Jaques to the Rosalind of Mrs. Belfille, 
and l Miss in her Teens/ in which he was 
Flash to the Miss Biddy of Mrs. Gibbs. The 
contest for places was violent. Apprehen- 
sive of an interference on the part of the 
authorities, he gave the representation for 
the benefit of the London Hospital. At the 
close Palmer read an address by Murphy, 
and said that performances would be sus- 
pended for the present. On 3 July the 
theatre was reopened for the performance of 
pantomimes and irregular pieces. Though 
backed up by friends, some of them of in- 
fluence and wealth, Palmer was never able 
to conquer the opposition of the managers 
'of the patent houses. A pamphlet warfare 
began with '.A Review of the present Con- 
test between the Managers of the Winter 
Theatres, tha Little Theatre in the Hay- 
market, and the Royalty Theatre in Well- 
close Square/ &c., 8vo,1787. This, written in 
favour of Palmer, was an s wered anonymously 
by George Cokaan in 'A very plain State of 
the Case, or the Royalty Theatre versus the 
Theatres Royal/ c., 8vo, 1787. In the same 
year appeared ' Royal and Royalty Theatres ' 
(^by Isaac Jackman), ' Letter to the Author 
of the Burletta called "Hero and Leander/" 
* The Trial of John Palmer for opening tlie 
Royalty Theatre, tried in the Olympian 
Shades/ and t The Trial of Mr. John Palmer, 
Comedian and Manager of the Royalty 
Theatre/ &c. In 1788 appeared < The Eastern 
Theatre Erected/ an heroic i comic poem/ 
the hero of which is called Palmerio, and 
' Case of the Renters of the Royalty Theatre.' 
The polemic was continued after the death 
of Palmer, a list of the various pamphlets 
to which it gave rise being supplied in Mr. 
Robert Lowe's * Bibliographical Account of 
Theatrical Literature.' Improvident and 
practically penniless through lite. Palmer 



Palmer 



138 



Palmer 



ascribed to the treatment ho received in con- 
nection with this speculation, in which 
nothing of his own was embarked, his subse- 
quent, imprisonment for debt and the general 
collapse of his fortunes. 

In such difficulties was ho pinned that 
ho resided for some period in IUH dresam^- 
room in Drury Lane Theatre, and when ho 
was needed elsewhere he was conveyed in a 
cart behind theatrical ncenery, On 15 Juno 
1789 ho gave at the Lyceum an entertain- 
ment called 'As you like it/ which hogun 
with a personal prologue written by Thomas 
Bellamy [q. v,"| lie also played at WOIVOH- 
ter and elsewhere, took the part of Henri 
<lu Bow, the hero in a spectacle founded on 
the taking of the BastiUe, and, while a pri- 
soner in the Kuloa of the King's Bench, deli- 
vered three times a week, at a salary of 
twelve #uinoiw a week, Stevens's ' Lecture on 
Heads.' On 9 Nov. 1781) DruryLanoThoatro 
was closed, and Palmer, as a rogue and vaga- 
bond, was committed to the Surrey gaol, The 
public demanded him, however, and 1 7HO {)() 
is the only season in which ho was not Been 
at Drury Lane. 

On 18 June 1798, the last night of the Hoa- 
son at Drury Lane, Palmer played father 
Philip in the 'Castle Spectre' of 'Monk 1 
Lewis, and Oomus, tho former au original 
part in which ho had been first Keen on the 
14th of tho previous December, llo then 
went to Liverpool, and was in low spirits, 
bewailing 1 tho death of his wife and that, of a 
favourite son, Ue was announced to play in 
the ' Stranger/ but the performance waw do- 
lerred* On -J Aug. 1798 ho attempted this 
part. No support of his frumds could choor 
him. Ho went through two acts with grunt 
elloct. In the third act ho waa much agi- 
tated, and in tho fourth, at tho question of 
Baron Stoinfort relative to his children, he 
endeavoured to proceed, foil back, heaved a 
convulsive sigh, and died, the audience suppos- 
ing, until tho body was removed and tho 
performance arrested, that ho was merely 
playing his part, An attempt to reap a 
lesson from tho incident, was made by say- 
ing that his last words wro, 'Tnora "IB 
another and a better world/ It was said, too, 
that this phraso, which occurs in tho third 
net, was to be placed on lu tomb* Whit- 
luld, however, who played Stoinfort, told 
"Frederick Reynolds positively that Palmer 
fell in his presence, which is* irreconcilable 
with this edifying version, A benefit for 
his children was at once held in Liverpool, 
an address by Thomas Koacoe [q. v,") being 
spoken, and realised a considerate sum* A 
benefit at the Hay market on JH Aug. 
brought nearly 70Q; a third was given on 



1") Sept,, tin* opening m^'ht at Orury Lane, 
when tho 'Stranger wan repeated. 

One of tho most versatile as well UH the most 
competent and popular of actors, Palmer 
played an enormous number of characters, 
principally at Drury Lane, (JoneHt/H list., 
which is far from complete, and does not 
even include nil Palmer 1 H original character^ 
anxountsto over three hundred ^'paniU]>art,s 
FjXoept.Minpn^ characters and old men, {.hero 
was nothing* in which ho was not waio, and 
thoro wort 1 many things in which ho was fore- 
most, ATI idea of his versatility may bo ob- 
tained from a fowof thoelumu'lonnvith which 
he wan entHust otl. These include Wollbom in 
'A Now Way to pay Old Ucbu/ Kacoin tho 
^Alchemist/ Pierre, Mereutio, laehimo, In go, 
Bastard in * King John/ SIciuler, Tea^uo, 
Trappntiti, Young Mavlow, Jaqm^s, Buck- 
inglmiu in 4 llonvy X'llI/ l^ord, t Uuwt in 
' llamlot' ami Ilumlot, ( 'olonol Koiguwoll, 
Itobadill, Vulontino, nnd lion in * Lovo for 
Ijovo/ ('OinuH, Pt^ruchio, Lofty iti tho^Oood 
Nutunul Man,' Pulf lu t-lto "* (^fitio/ Lonl 
Koppiugton, Lord Townly, Knlslall' in tho 
' Morry WIVOM of Wiiuinor' nut! IIiMU'y l\\ 
pt. i, Touchstone, Ilonry X'UI, hlvlo, 
NacdufF, Macbeth, Octnvinn in tlu^ *Moun- 
tninocrs/Shylock, PvonpiTo, l^oricourt in thi^ 
' Bolli*\H Slhitngom/ lunUiuiuntoruhlo others, 
Not lens nuworotmHVo hiHon^innU'hanu'torM, 
Of tht^Ho throo Htniul pnnuiuontly forth, tho 
most tuiUHpic.uouM of all boin^ Joseph Siirtuco, 
which Hotnns tuver to hnvo boon wo well 
plnyod sine.**; Almnvivain ' Spanish Hurbtr/ 
luul Dick DowhiH, ( Hhor original charactorH 
tndudo (olonol Hvana nx tho *Sc,luMtl tor 
RakoM,' Oaptaiti Dormor in * A Word to the, 
WIHO, DionywuM in iMuruliyV Mirooinn 
Uaughfor/ Loowon in tho * School for Wivon/ 
Siward LU * Mutihln, 1 Sir Potrono-1 Kbiwh in 
*()ld(3tty Manners/ Solyman in tin* 'Sultnn/ 
Jiusk Uuhrittk iu tlu* * Sploon, 1 1'Jnrl Kdwin 
in tho * Huttlo of Utwtingw,' Ornngor in 
4 Who's thoDupoP' Htmer in tho M'ritic/ 
\VoodvilIo in tho 'Ohuptor of Accident / 
ContriiHl, in thu ' Ix>rd of tho Manor/ Sir 
Harry TrUlo in th * htymro/ Almoran In 
tho *Fair (JircaHwan/ Pruuw of Armgon in 
tho yiuee so naint*(l Lord (iayvillo in tho 
'IlmrcHs/ Don Ot'liivio iu th** * School for 
(hiardianH/ Sir Frtdorifk Fashion in *So 
duotkm/ MnrcolhiH in * Julia, or tho Italian 
Lovor/ Random in * Way and Moann/ Do-* 
motriua in tho, 'Ornok Hlavw/ Vouttg Manly 
in tho *Fffitivo/ *S,vdouhain in thw * Whool 
of FortuntJ/ Httltodotu tti tho Mtulian Monk/ 
and Tonnngo in tho* l^ly Club/ In tragedy 
Palmar WIIH Hncc*)Hful in tluwo, nartaloin iu 
which, as in Rtukoly, fa^o t &. (limmubtimt 
is required. In cumaly, thunkn partly to hi.i 



Palmer 



139 



Palmer 



line figure, there are very mnny parts in -which 
lie was held perfect. Ilia Young Wilding in 
the 'Liar' was by some esteemed his greatest 
character. Captain Flash, Face, Diclc in the 




Sneer, Don John, Volpone, Sir Frederick 
Fashion, Henry VIII, Father Philip in 
i Castle Spectre, 1 Villoroy, and 'Brush are 
named as his best parts. Boaden^ declares 
him 'the moat mm vailed actor of modern 
times ! ' and says ' he could approach a lady, 
bow to her and Beat himself gracefully in 
her presence. Wo have had dancing- 
niastors in great profusion since his time, 
but such deportment they hayo either not 
linown or never taught/ Jlis biographer 
pays that hts want of a * classical education' 
was responsible for his deibets, which con- 
Hinted of a want of t.uato and discrimination, 
and t.lio resort to physical powers when judg- 
ment WUH at fault His delivery of CoUina's 
f Odu to tluiPassionw ' was condemned as the 
one undertaking beyond his stnmgth, and he 
is charged with unmeaning and ill-placed ac- 
cents, Dibdin says thai, he was vulgar, 
ami Charles Lamb says that ' ibr^ sock or 
bnsldu tliere was an air of swaggering gen- 
tility about Jack Palmer, lie was a gentle- 
man with a slight infusion of the footman.' 
In Captain Absolute, Lamb held, ( you 
thought you could trace his promotion to 
Homo lady of quality who fancied the hand- 
some fellow in a top-knot, and had bought 
lam a commission,' In Dick Amlet he do- 
seriboH Jack as unsurpassable, John Taylor 
condemns his Falstau as heavy throughout. 
Among innumerable stumus circulated con- 
corn ing Palmer is one that lus ghost appeared 
after bis death, lie was accused of forgetting 
bin origin and giving himself airs. He claimed 
to have frequently induced the shun IPs officer 
by whom lie WUH arroattid to bail him out of 
prison. In his late years Palmer's unreadi- 
ness on llrrtt night ft was scandalous. 

TluMivtthorehip is ascribed to him of * Like 
JVluBtw, Liko M.im,'8vo, IB 11, a novel in two 
volumes, with a preface by George Colman 
the younger. 

Portraits of Palmer in the Garrick Club 
include one by Ruwll, which was engraved 
by J, Oollyer in 1787, a second by Arrow- 
Bin ith as Gohenberg in the * Siege of Belgrade,' 
a third by Parkinson as lachimo, and a fourth, 
anonymous, as Joaoph Surface in the screen 
HCOUQ from the * School for Scandal/ with 
King as Sir Peter* Smith as Charles Surface, 
and Mrs. Alnngton as Lady Teazle, A fifth, 
painted by/jofany, representing Palmer as 
tuce m the .' Alchemist/ with Garrick as 



Abel Drugger and Burton as Subtle, is in the 
posaesaiou of the Earl of Carlisle. 

oiiEKTPALMEB (1757-1805?), the actor's 
brother, played with success impudent foot- 
men and other parts belonging to Palmer's 
repertory, and was good in the presentation 
of rustic characters and of drunkenness. He 
was born in Banbury Court, Long Acre, Sep- 
tember 1757 , was educated at Brook Grreen, 
articled to Grimaldi the dancer, appeared as 
Mustard Seed in ' Midsummer Night's Dream.' 
at Drury Lane when six years old, played in 
the country, and acted both at the Hay- 
market and Drury Lane. , He survived his 
brother, and succeeded him in Joseph Sur- 
face and other parts, for which he was in- 
competent. Lamb compares the two Pal- 
mers together, and says something in praise 
of the younger. Portraits of { Bob ' Palmer 
by Dewilde, as Tag in the ' Spoiled Child/ 
and as Tom in the l Conscious Lovers,' are 
in the Mathews collection in the Garrick 
Club. Another brother, 'William, who died 
about 1797, played in opera in Dublin, and 
was seen at Drury Lane, 

JOHN PAWIBII the elder (d. 1768), known 
as 'Gentleman Palmer,' but who does not seem 
to have been related to the subject of this 
memoir, was celebrated as Captain Plume, as 
Osric, and as the Duke's servant in ' High 
Life below Stairs ; ' he was also a favourite in 
Orlando and Claudio, but especially in such 
' jaunty parts ' as Mercutio, His wife, a 
Sliss i'ritchard, played from 1756 to 1768, 
and waa accepted as Juliet and Lady Betty 
Modish, but was better in lighter parts, 
such a$ Fanny in the ' Clandestine Marriage.' 
' Gentleman Palmer,' who has been frequently 
confused with his namesake, died on 23 May 
1768, aged 40, his death being due to taking 
in mistake a wrong medicine, 

[A Skateh of the Theatrical Life of the late 
Mr. John Palmer, 8vo, 1798; Genest's Account 
of the English Stage ; Doran's Annals of the 
English Stage, ed. Lowe; Thespian Dictionary; 
Gi ililand's Dramatic- Mirror; _ John Taylor's 
Records of my Life ; Boaden's Lives of Siddons, 
,T. P. Kemble, Jordan, and Inchbald; Adolphus's 
Life of Bannietw ; Dibdm's History of the Stage ; 
Clark Russell's Representative Actors; Georgian 
Era ; Duttoa Cook's Half-hours ^ith the Players ; 
(Jarrick Correspondence; Walpole's Letters, ed. 
Cunningham; Bernard's Retrospections; Cxim- 
berland^s Memoirs ; O'Keeffe's Hecollections ; Ox- 
boiry's Dramatic Magazine ; Theatrical Kevi^w ; 
Tate Wilkinson's Wandering Patentee; Era 
Almanack, various years, &c.] J. K, 

, PALMER, JOHN (1742-1818), pro- 
jector of mail-coaches, born at Bath in 1742, 
Vas the son of John Palmer, a prosperous 
brewer and tallow-chandler, and a member 



Palmer 



140 



Palmer 



of an old Bath family. His mother, Jane, 
was one of the Longs of Wraxall Manor. 
Wiltshire [see LONG, SIB JAMBS], and she and 
her husband are commemorated on a tablet 
in the chancel of Weston Church, Bath. 
John Palmer the elder died on 18 April 1788, 
aged 68, and Jane Palmer on 4 Jan, 1788, 
also aged 68. Young Palmer was educated 
at first privately at Colernes and afterwards 
at Marlborough grammar scuool. His father 
designed him for the church, but, although 
he preferred the army, he was ultimately 
placed in the counting-house of the brewery. 
He kept up his spirits by hunting with a 
pack of hounds which belonged to a clerical 
relative ; at. the end of a year's hard work, 
however, his career as a brewer was ter- 
minated by incipient consumption, and he 
was compelled to leave Bath. 

His father had in 1750 become proprietor 
of a new theatre in the centre of Bath, and, en- 
couraged by its success, had opened ia 1707 
another theatre in Orchard Street in a no w dis- 
trict of the city, which also proved a profitable 
speculation. In 1768, having the mipport of 
the corporation, he accordingly obtained from 
parliament (8 Geo. Ill, cap, 1 0) an act grant- 
ing him a practical monopoly of theatrical 
property in JBath for twenty-one, wars, The 
young Palmer acted throughout this business 
as agent for his father in London, whore he 
made some important friendHlupH, but BOOH 
after hie return to Hath, with MBtored health, 
he took the main control* The elder Palmer 
withdrew from the affairs of the Bath theatre 
in 1776, and on liJ April in that year a now 
patent was granted to 'John Palmer the 
younger, citizen of Hath/ and IUB executory 
licensing him to establish a theatre at Bath 
for eight yoarw, from ^5 March 1789 (Patent 
Jtotor, 16 Geo. Ill, pt, iv.) In 1779 Palmer 
became lessee also of the Bristol theat.ro, but 
he confided tho management to ot hers ( LATE- 
NT EB, Annals of Bristol in the Ify/ht tenth Otfi- 
jfwrt/, p. 4#9). By working the two houses 
together, however, he was able to f^ive ex- 
cellent entertainments in each city, usually 
on alternate days. The Bath theatre became 
famous for the performances of Henderson, 
King, Abingdon, ElUHton,Siddon8,&c.,whom 
it introduced to public notice. 

In the course of his journeys on business 
connected with the theatre, Palmar had ob- 
served that the state post was the Blowout 
mode of conveyance in the country, The mail 
took three days between London and Bath, 
a journey Palmer frequently accomplished 
in' one ; and letters of importance were con- 
stantly sent by stage-coach, in Hpite of heavy 
fees, Palmer was well acquainted with tlio 
wealth which had been acquired by Ralph 



Alien [q. v.], of Prior Park, through the in-r 
stitution of cross-posts, and in 1782 he pre- 
pared a plan for the reform of the postal 
service, the main idea of which waa that the 
mails should be conveyed by stage coaches in- 
stead of by postboys on worn-out horses. The 
coach was to be guarded, to carry no outside 
passengers, and to travel at a speed of eight 
or nine miles an hour ; and the miuls wore to 
leave .London, at eight in the evening, in- 
stead of after midnight, und xvere not to be 
detained for government letters. In October 
the plan was brought under tho notice of 
Pitt, then chancellor of tho exchequer, 
through Mr, Pratt, afterwards Lordramden, 
Palmer's friend* One of Palmer'fl arguments 
waa that tho service would be NO much im- 
proved that an increase of tho porting would 
be justified ; and Pitt, anxttuiH to avoid an in- 
crensed eoal-tax ? at once took up tho (juoKtion, 
which wan rotorwd to the pout oilico for ob- 
servations. In August 17HJJ tho, pom, oflieo 
declared that tho plan was impmet ioablo, But. 
on Ul June 17H-1 Htt hold a conference, at* 
which wore prewent the post maul orH-gHuvral, 
Palmer, and the oiHetalN who hud reported 
agtiiiiHt. the scheme, with the rontilt that Pitt 
directed thut tho plau whould bo tried on tho 
.London and Bristol road, Painter iwsistod 
at the departure of tho firot wjuleoaeh from 
BriMol on i! Aug. Kvory obstruction WUH 
placed In the way by tho local pOHtuwHtera 
on the route, but they were at once warned to 
Htrictlyoboy Palmo/Hordorn, (hi X'tt Aug. tho 
treasury Buggonted that tho mail-coach Her- 
vice shoula bt^ <ixteude<l to Norwich, Not- 
tingham, Liverpool, and Mano.tioMf.tir, By 
the autumn of 1785 mail-coachoM woro run- 
ning, not only to those tx>wnH, but atnt* to 
"Lo.odfi, (1louct k Hter, Swfuwott, Hereford, Mil- 
ford Haven, Worcester, Binuin^luuw, SlinnvK- 
bury, Ilolyhoad, Kxoti^r, PortHinouth, Dover, 
and other places. A nervice to Kdinbur^h 
was t v Btabiirthod in 17BO, In February 17H"> 
the Brintol merchantH and tlio Bath corpora* 
turn pawed r<wolutioiiHof thunlmto Pahuop 
(Jfath Chrmirlt,M Koh, 17H5), 
The Hervices to places lvin# oft the main 
adH were for a time thrown into much 
disorder, But thoHodilttoulttoH won tgrudu ally 
overcome, and the jMmt-olUc re vonuo during 
tho quarter ended o Jan, 17H7 was 7.%<XXU,, 
a compared with #l,(XXM.in theorr<jond- 
ing- quarter of 1781, The number of letter* 
conveyed grew larger in ftpitts of the incwmu 
in tlie rate of pofttago, the explanation btnng 
that thfl temptation to send eorroHpowUmce 
clandtmt/iutsly at a heavy charge wa^ wo\v 
removed, 

I^hnor WHR not a diitw^Rtul rofonnor, 
and he prosacd for aaubbtantial 



Palmer 



141 



Palmer 



tion. He had been verbally promised through 
Pitt's secretary, Dr. Pretyxnan, in case the 
plan succeeded, two and a half per cent. 
on the increase of the post-office revenue 
during 1 his life, with a general control of 
the office and its expenditure. But delays 
aro.se in settling the terms. In March 1786 
the postmaster-general endeavoured anew 
to procure the abandonment of Palmer's 
scheme. Pitt, however, was satisfied with 
Palmer's refutation of the allegations made 
against him, and on 11 Oct. Palmer was 
appointed comptroller-general of the post 
ollice. 

In his capacity as comptroller-general 
Palmer corrected many of the irregularities 
of the service, but the parliamentary com- 
mission of inquiry of 1788 still found nume- 
rous gross abuses in the post office. Of Palmer 
himself, however, they reported that he had 
exceeded the expectations held forth by him 
with regard to despatch and expense; the 
revenue was augmented, and answers were 
returned to letters with a punctuality never 
before experienced, at a lower rate per mile 
than of old, They therefore .thought Palmer 
entitled to the compensation he claimed, viz. 
bis expenses up to 2 Aug. 1784, and two and 
a half per cent, on the total increase of 
revenue, as compared with an average of the 
revenue at that time, such allowance to in- 
clude salary and expenses. 

From June to October 1787 Palmer was 
in France, by direction of the treasury, 
for the purpose of settling with the inten- 
dant-g6n6ral of the posts there a daily com- 
munication with England under improved 
regulations, as well as a similar plan for 
otlier parts of the continent. He did not 
succeed, and before his return Lord "Walsing- 
ham, a man as energetic as Palmer him- 
self, had become postmaster-general. Palmer's 
jealousy was aroused as soon as"Walsinghair 
gave any instructions affecting the inland 
post, ana the friction between the postmaster 
and the comptroller quickly became intense 
(JOYCE, History of the Post Office). 

A commission of inquiry was held in 
1789 to consider Palmer s appeals for pay- 
ment for his improvements in the postal ser 
vice, and, after much discussion, the treasury 
on 2 July 1789, granted two warrants, one 
for the payment of arrears, the other a war 
rant in place of that of 1786, appointinj 
Palmer surveyor and comptroller general 
Among further reforms which Palmer now 
introduced was the establishment of a sepa- 
rate newspaper office; before the postmaster 
general knew anything about it, the office wa? 
established, a staff of. sorters appointed, an 
their wages fixed, When Walsmgham aske 



or particulars in order that the plan might 
e properly sanctioned and the appointments 
onfirmed, Palmer refused to comply with the 
equest. Pitt pointed out that Palmer had 
ower to suspend, but not to appoint, post- 
free servants. To this decision, however, 
s in other cases, Palmer paid no attention. 
Thenceforth the breach between Palmer and 
iis official superior widened. In March 1790 
liord Chesterfield was joined with Walsing- 
larn in the office of postmaster-general, and 
"?almer's autocratic policy was more effec- 
ually hindered. A quarrel between himself 
tfid his friend Charles Bonnor [q. v.], whom 
le had made deputy-controller, further jeopar- 
dised his position. Matters came to a head 
3arly in 1792, when the postmasters-general, 
n consequence of some discrepancies in the 
accounts, directed that letters for the city for 
the first delivery should be checked. The 
merchants in the city met on 15 Feb. and 
complained of the consequent delay in the 
receipt of their correspondence. Bonnor, the 
deputy comptroller, who owed everything 
;o Palmer, published a pamphlet (' Facts re- 
.atingtothe Meeting on the Fifteenth of Fe- 
bruary at the London Tavern '), in which he 
alleged that the meeting had been promoted 
)y Palmer to obtain an enlargement of his 
Dowers; that Palmer had supplied to the 
ihairman material for the attack, and that 
;he delay complained of was a wilful contri- 
vance of Palmer's. A few days afterwards 
E^lmer suspended Bonnor, and the post- 
masters-general, failing to extract from Pal- 
mer any explanation of this step, suspended 
tiim (7 "March). On 2 May Pitt suggested 
that there should be a court of inquiry into 
the whole controversy. Soon, however, Bon- 
nor gave Walsingham a number of private 
letters, many of them compromising, which 
had passed between Palmer and himself 
during their intimacy. Pitt thereupon agreed 
that the postmasters-general must take their 
own course. Palmer was dismissed, but not 
in express words ; a fresh list of the esta- 
blishment was prepared, and from this list 
Palmer's name was omitted, A little later 
Pitt granted Palmer a pension of 3,OOOZ. 
(from 5 April 1793). Bonnor became comp- 
troller of the inland department, but after 
two years he was dismissed. 

Palmer's plan had brought with it economy 
as well as safety and speed. Before 1784 the 
annual allowance for carrying the mails was 
4J. to QL a mile ; in 1792 the terms for the 
conveyance of mails were exemption from 
tolls and an annual allowance of rather over 
Bl. a mile. Palmer had estimated the total cost 
of his pUn at 30,0007. a year ; the actual cost 
was slightly over 12,OOOZ, (JOYCE, History of 



Palmer 



142 



Palmer 



the Post Offiw, p. 200). Before 1784 tlion 
had been constant robbery of the mails, in- 
volving' great expense in preventions ; from 
1784 to 1792 no mail-coach was stopped or 
robbed. In 1788 no leas than 3UQ towns 
which had formerly had a post thrice a week 
had one daily. The speed had been increased 
from five or six miles to seven miles an hour, 
in spite of badly made and hilly roads ; and 
the old and unsatisfactory conches had all 
been replaced by 179^ by coaches supplied 
by a patentee named Beaant (ib, pp. 5382-3). 
Honours came to Palmer from many quar- 
ters. He had been presented with the free- 
dom of Liverpool, York, Hull, Chester, Mae- 
clesfield, Edinburgh, Ennis, Aberdeen, Port'h, 
Glasgow, Gloucester, Inverness, and other 
towns; tokens had been struck in his honour, 
and a silver cup given him by the Glasgow 
chamber of commerce; this was presented in 
1 875 to the Bath corporation by his grand- 
daughter (hiAlT.W t AMI(tl$oftJMMOf[(lt p, 2 

Palmer would have held a higher position a 
a postal reformer if ho had aimed at cheapen- 
ing postage instead of merely so improving 
the service as to justify inoronHod rates. 

Palmer had #ivon up the manag-omont of 
the Bath Theatre in 1785, appoint in# ot.horw to 
carry on that biuunoHR, aw well aw a lar^'o Hjwr- 
macetl manufactory iu Hath which belonged 
to him (Notw and ^<w#,r>tliHw. vi, f> 1 -I 1 fi). 
In 1790, and again in 1801), ho U*HH choson 
mayor of Bath, and whilo occupying Unit 
position published a circular lottor, pvopcw- 
ing a general subscription for tho public sur- 
vice. IIo himself gavo liberally, and hin 
wife's relatives, the Lon^H, contributed 
three thousand guineas (Annual /?w/w;>/fi/, 
1820, p. 72). Palmer was cluwon iSl.l*. lor 
Bath in 1801, IKOtf, 180, and 1807 ; but ho 
accepted the Chiltioru Hundreds in 1808, 
whon his son, Charlos Palmar (1 777-1 Hf>l) 
(wee bolow), was oloclwl in IHH phico. 

From 1794 Palmar propel hi grtnvancos 
connected with the post oilico upon tho trou- 
ftnry, A committee of tho houso reported in 
Palmer's favour in 1709, but his claims to 
remuneration beyond \m pmiaion of fyOOOJ, 
were overruled by Pitt'fl g-ovornmont, A ft;or 
Pitt'a death the quostum wan rooponed, tho 
agitation being henceforth mainly ecmdwtod 
by the claimant's son Charles. Finally , in 1 8 1 8, 
Lord Liverpool's government introduccMl a hi II 
for the payment to Palmer of fiO,0(K)/. from 
the consolidated fund without any foe or de- 
duction, and without affecting the pension of 
8,0007. a year granted in 1793. This bill 
(53 Geo. Ill, cap. 157), the fourth which had 
been introduced, was road a third time in t-ho 
commons on 14 July 18J8, and waa at onw 
accepted by the lords, who thus brought to 



a close a struggles which had coat Palmer 
1 :*,<)<)()/. 

Palmor died at Brighton on 16 Au^, 18IS, 
Ilia remains wore convoyed to Hath, and 
laid in the abboy church in tho pnvs^uct^ of 
tlui mayor and corporation ; but thoro is no 
iuso.ription, Palmiir marriocl, on iJ Nov- 17W5, 
Mia Pratt, probably a rt^lat-ivt^ of hl.s fnt'iul, 
Lord Cam<l(m (Gtwt* Mat;. 178<>, ii. 005)? 
but this must have b(on a atujond marring*, 
for in 1788 ho do.Hcribtnl himsolf m having 
six childron, and bin oldost w>u wan born in 
1777. BtinidcH hi.H cldtvst non, Oharl'H T a son 
John bocamo a captain iu the navy, whiln 
a third son, Kdmund Palmor, <Ul, y alno in 
th navy, (liHtinguinluHl himnolf in ISM by 
cnptuving 1 a Ffronoh frigate, nttd married a 
nioco of Lord t5t, Vinotnit* This Ituly had 
in hor poHscHsion (IHtM) a pntntiug of hor 
fathor-in^law a man of horolc MM by 
Gainnborough, 

OHAUMSH PALMAR (1777 1851), th( oldest 
son, lx>rn at Woston nt j ur Bath on t5 May 
1777, WAS oducnttnl at Mou aud Oriol ('of- 
lops Oxford, and ontorod tlu* ai'nty UH rornot 
in tho 10th dragoons in May 17SH5.' lli'nwiMl 
during tho, \vhol^ of tho Peninsular war wit b 
his r(^ini(nt, of which h<^ act'd as Iitut< 
nnnt-(!t>lnjul from May 1810 to iNov< k mbt*i' 
MM, Tho priuoo ro^fnt nmioiutiMl him on< 
f hirt ai(h i M-d(^o,uinp on S !<t*b, 1811, and bo 
hold tho appoint mont until bo waHprotnototl 
major-geunral ci ^7 May \Wft t Ho ivpro- 

tiul linth In t.ho whi^ intorent from 1SOS 
to IHi'tt, and again fmm I8!H) to ISU7, l!o 
waw a largo vino-growo? in tho (1irontlt% ami 
boeamo, upon IUH tatbor'n drath,tho propric*- 
tor of tho Baththoatro. Ho ll*'d on IT April 
1851, having inarriinl Mary MHxnboth, oldest, 



combo llotwo, BaokiugbarnHhirt*, llo print rtl 
a * Spooeh on tho Static of tho Nation on t.bo 
Third Ht^idin^ of tho Inform Bill,* iw:^> 
Military (Mw<!<n\ 18L*0, iv, iMH; 
SMITH, Varlittmntx af tint/land, IHi t, L ^7 
; <f<>nt. Mat/, \m\, ii, UL>). 
[Tho fulloHt ami bnt account of Pithm*?'* 
work at. t1u juwt oifii*( in to bo found in Jm'tVh 
History of th< Port. Oifi^n 1Mb* Tho milwn. 
juont fmt'liatatmtary Htrag^lo IH dmerifanl nt 
mgUi in tho^Ptti'liaintmtary DoluitoM, v>k \% t 
i+ xiv. sex. smii, xvi* Thn Paporn wiUt ivw to tin* 
A^reemont wit.h t Mp, Paliuw, 1707 coatuin tho 
roptwontation of l*almr f eaw Thn rt** 
r tho various oluct commit tuoH which wn- 
Paltnar'n CHH wora w*itrintl in IK1H 
n a parliamuntavy papj? nutubarod 222; tlu^ 
ividoTH'f* taktm in 1 81 ft IN irivon In pn^w 20, 
VTuwh*H Halph Allen, John Paliwr,awl tho Knjy- 
mh Powfc Ottltfo, 1 $HO and Ltwitm'N lltx MajcHty'n 
MailH, IBG5, may nltto be conHtill-od. For Pul- 
mar's eonucctiou with Buth, roftnwieo should bo 



Palmer 



Palmer 



made to Peach's Historic Houses in Bath, 2nd 
sor. 1884, pp. 1 15-1 9, Rambles about Bath, 1876, 
pp. 217, 234, and Street Lore of Bath, 1893, 
p. 140; Penley'a Bath Stage, 1892, pp. 24, 25, 
33-8,47-9,64,95,117, 122; Warner's History 
of Bath, 1801, pp. 214, 336, 864; Earle's Guide 
to the Knowledge of Barh, 1864, pp. 227-9; 
Annual Biography, 1820, pp. 66-83; Genest's 
Account of the English Stage, vols. v. &c.; 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vols. v. and vi. The 
writer of this article has been indebted for in- 
formation to the Bev. E. H. Hardcastle, and for 
suggestions to both Mr. Joyce, C.B., and Mr. 
Peach of Bath.] G-, A. A. 

PALMER, JOHN (^.1818), traveller, 
apparently a native of Lynn, Norfolk, sailed 
from Liverpool on '28 March 1817 on a visit 
to the United States and Canada. During 
the voyage he had for companions William 
Cobbett and his two sons. Soon after his 
return to England on 28 Feb. 1818, he pub- 
lished his ' Journal of Travels in the United 
States of North America and in Lower 
Canada,' 8vo, London, 1818, It contains 
particulars relating to the prices of land 
and provisions, remarks on the country and 
the people, an account of the commerce of 
the principal towns, and a description of a 
pair of sea-serpents that were said to have 
been seen off Marbleheacl and Cape Ann in 
1817. A Butch translation of the book ap- 
peared at Haarlem in 1820, 8vo. Sydney 
Smith, in noticing the ' Journal ' in the 
' Edinburgh Review ' for December 1818, p. 
1 38, described it as having been written by 
a ' plain man, of good sense and slow judg- 
ment/ 

[Allibone's Diet, of Authors, ii. 1493 ; Apple- 
ton's Cyclop, of Arner. Biogr.] Q-. G-. 

PALMER, JOHN (BERNARD) (1782- 
1852), mitred abbot, born on 15 Oct. 1782, 
was son of William Palmer, a small farmer 
in the parish. of Gharniouth, Dorset, and was 
bred a low churchman. In 1806 he came to 
London to seek employment, chanced to at- 
tend the services at the Roman catholic 
chapel in Warwick Street, Regent Street, read 
'The Garden of the Soul/ and was converted 
to Roman Catholicism, He then entered 
the service of Thomas Weld of Lulworth 
Castle, Dorset, and in 1808 became a novice 
in the Cistercian monastery of St. Susan, 
Lulworth, where he was professed by the 
name of Bernard on 21 Nov. 1810. Harassed 
by government in 1817, the Lulworth com- 
xa unity found an asylum in the abbey of 
La Meilleraie (Melleray), near Nantes, where 
Palmer received minor orders. In 1831 the 
abbey of La Meilleraie was suppressed and 
dissolved by Louis-Philippe's government, 



and, though a few of the monks were per- 
mitted to remain, the majority emigrated to 
Ireland, and founded the abbey of Mount 
M elleray , co. Waterford. In affiliation to this 
monastery was established in 1836 a little 
community of about nine brothers in Charn- 
wood Forest, Leicestershire. At first they 
resided in a cottage, where they were joined 
in March 1837 by Palmer, just released from 
confinement in Nantes. He'had been detained 
there, notwithstanding the representations 
of the British consul, since the suppression of 
the abbey of La Meilleraie. 

In 1837 the monks removed from the 
cottage to a little monastery which had been 
built for them in its immediate vicinity from 
funds contributed by Ambrose Lisle Phillipps 
and others of the faithful. On 31 July 1838 
Palmer received priest's orders, and in 1841 
was appointed superior of the house. The 
community rapidly grew in numbers, and in 
1844 the monastery was abandoned for anew 
and much larger structure, built in Pugin's 
severest lancet style, on a neighbouring emi- 
nence, to which was given the name of Mount 
St. Bernard. The major portion of the funds 
was contributed by the Earl of Shrewsbury 
and Ambrose Lisle Phillipps, the residue 
being raised by public subscription [see DE 
LISLE, AMKROSE LISLE MAKCH PHILLIPS], 

By decrees of the congregation l de propa- 
ganda fide,' ratified by Pius IX on 9 May 
1848, the monastery was constituted an abbey 
with independent jurisdiction, in union witii 
the general chapter of the Cistercian Congre- 
gation of Strict Observance, that is to say 
in the Trappist obedience, in France, and 
Palmer was appointed abbot. As such he 
was consecrated on 18 Feb. 1849, with mitre, 
crosier, ring, and gloves. As the first 
English mitred abbot since the Reformation, 
Palmer occupies a conspicuous position in 
the history of the catholic revival of the 
nineteenth century. He possessed in an 
eminent degree the characteristics of the 
saint profound humility, boundless charity, 
and habit of severe self-mortification. After 
a long and painful illness, borne with exem- 

?lary patience, he died of dropsy on 10 Nov. 
852, On the 13th his remains were interred 
in a vault beneath the chapter-room of the 
abbey. 

[Tablet, 20 Kpv. 1852; Catholic Directory, 
1853, p. 181;G-ent. Mag. 1853, pt. i. p. 101; 
Concise History of the Cistercian Order, 1 852 ; 
Metr. and Provinc. Oath. Almanac, 1855 ; 
Oliver's Collect, illustrating the History of the 
Catholic Beligion,p, 371 ; An Appeal to the Ca- 
tholics of England in behalf of the Abbey Church 
'of St. Bernard, Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire, 
1842,] , . JT.M.R., 



Palmer 



144 



Palmer 



PALMEK, JOHN HORSLKY (1779- 
1858), governor of the Bank of England, 
born an 7 July 1779, was the fourth son of 
William Palmer of Nazeing Park, Essex, 
merchant of London, magistrate and high 
ssheritFof Essex, by his wife Mary, only daugh- 
ter of John Horaley, rector of r jfhorley, Hert- 
fordshire, and Nowington Butts, and sister 
of Bishop Samuel Horaley. One brother, 
the Rev. William Jocelyn Palmer, was father 
of lloundell Palmer, first earl of Selborne 
[q, v.] Another brother, George Palmer [q. vj, 
entered into partnership with him awl Cap- 
tain Wilson as East India merchants and 
shipowners in 1802. Elected a director of 
the Bank of England in 1811, and governor 
from 1830 to 1832, he was one of the lead- 
ing authorities of the time on currency and 
finance. In 1 882 he gave evidence before the 
committee of secrecy on the Bank of England 
charter when he explained the causes of the 
panic of 1 825, and the principle by which the 
hank regulated its issues (AVpor/, pp, 7-70). 
lie supplemented his arguments before the 
committee with *The Causes and Conse- 
quences of the Pressure upon the Mom\y 
Market; with a Statement of the Action of 
the Bank of England from 1 Oct. 18#J to 
L>7 Dec. 1836,' London, 1837, Ryo. This im- 
portant pamphlet, which is still ofVonfl'ulerablo 
value, called forth replies from Samuel Jonort 
Loyd (afterwards Lord Overstono) Fq. v.] t 
Samson Ricardo, and other writers, Palmer 
then published his ' Reply to the Reflections 
. , , of Mr. Samuel Jonos Loyd on the Pam- 
phlet entitled u Causes and OonHoquencoB," 7 
&c,, London, 18iJ7,8vo. This controversy did 
much to establish his reputation. On 4 I >ec* 
1839 he was appointed a member of the royal 
commission on bankruptcy and insolvency, 
In 1840 he was examined at groat length by 
the select committee on banks of issue (/fa* 
port, pp. 103-41). When ho retired from 
active business, in April 1857, he was senior 
director of the Bank of England, lie died 
at Hurlingham, Middlesex, on 7 Fob. 1858, 

Palmer 'married, first, in November 1810, 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Belli, and eister- 
in~law of Archbishop Howley, by whom he 
had issue three sons and tnree daughters,, 
On her death, on 22 Juno 1839, lie married, 
secondly, on 8 July 1841, at Lambeth Palace, 
Jane Louisa, fifth daughter of Samuel IVpvfl 
Oockerell of Westbourna, Middlesex Sue 
died without issue on 13 Oct. 1865, In addi- 
tion to the pamphlets mentioned above, Pal- 
mer published * Reasons against the proposed 
Indian Joint-Stock Bank, in a Letter to (i G. 
de H. Larpent, Esq.,' London, 1830, 8vo> | 

[Burke'fl Peerage, ,v 'Solborne;' Gent 3VTa# 
1832 ii. 171, 1840 i, 83> 1841 ii. 313, 1858 I 



i. 341 ; Hankera' Mag. 18/18, p, 208 ; MaHunm'ft 
History of tho Currency, pp. 173 8; tfraneisV* 
History of tho Bank of Kngland, i, 346, ii. ttii, 
182; Gilbart/H Works, iv. pp. 257-9, 277, 278 ; 
M'Culloch's Literature of Political Economy, 
pp. 181, 182.] W, A. S. H. 

PALMERjformcrlyBtrDwoKTHjJOSKPH 
(1756-1815), iniHCclhincous writer, horn hi 
1756, nopluwof tho Rov. William Budworth 
[q. vj, master of Browood Hehool, Stallord- 
ahiro, was flon of Joseph Buclwort ,h, originally 
of Coventry* At an early ago ho joimul thn 
72nd rogiment, or royal Manchester volun- 
toora, Ife \vaw promoted to tho runic of lu k u 
tonant, And procio<Uul with tho rotfitmmt to 
Gibraltar, In the couwt* of th m^ of that 
fortrosK hy tho eombtiuMl iorcf^B of I^ranco and 
Spain, ho wasflovoroly wounded, I Iti rotunnnl 
homo with hin rop^inuit in 17H.% and a<*<oi>t*ul 
a cadotuhip in tho I U>ngal artillery, though ht* 
did not lonjf remain in India* SuhMoquont ly 
ho rot ired from tho 8orvioo;tout. in tlto wV 
occaaionod l>y tho Fnmeh revolution, ht 
volunteered an a captain in tho "North I lump- 
whiro militia. Shortly Aftt*r loavin^ tint 
army ho married KltxalxUh, Hiatcu* of Koj*vr 
Pihner, eHtj,, of Hu.sh f near Dublin, and ot 
ralmorHtown,co. Mayo, and Hiu*eoo<Iod,in her 
rifjht, on the doeoaMe ofher brother in 1H1 1, 
to tho ontatoB and name of Palmer* Ho wan 
elected a follow of tho SoeJoty of AntHjuarios 
on 4 Juno 1795 (Hnuou, C'//nmo/o///m/ fM, 
p, 58), lie died at Kut,houruo, HUMMOX, on 
1 Hopt, 1H15, and wan Ijuritnl on tho Mth iu 
tho churchyard of Wont Mtmloy, Surrey, 
to which parish lui had boon a liberal bti- 
faotor^ 

His only danprhter and olt^ hciroH, KrntiiA 
Mary, became the wifo of \V A, Maaldmum, 
of Nwtowu Park, M, P. for Lymiugton, K 
died on 15 Nov. lHti5. fttrtul 4ii i(*w 

,%, pt ii, p, (m\ 

Palmor wroto much in the * (}(nilotnan 1 n 
Magtusinn,' undor tho &mmi \\m * Rambl*r/ 
Hifl works aro: I, *A Fortniwht*ft Rnmblw 
to tho LakoH in Wtmorolantl f Lancawbin^ 
and Cumberland, By a Rambler, 1 l,<m<lon, 
1792, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1705; 3rd edit, 1 810; 
dodicatiul to William Noble, bunker, T(j tho 
lattcw edition woro added * A Uo-vmit to 
J^tittermore, January 17U5/ and * Half-pay.* 
Many interRt.in# awxsdot*^ of the ait^o of 
Gibraltar, including particulars of bin own 
military awryicw, occur in pp !^>8 # 
Ii, t Half-pay [a poem]. Written at Gibraltar 
on a very stormy evening, with the melan- 
choly prosper t of going upon Half-pay/ 1 794 j 
dedicated to Colonel Hans Bloane, M,R 

*The Lancaahire Collinr-Oirl A true 
Storv/ in * Gentleman's Magazine/ 1795, 
pfc. L p, 197, This talo waw widely di- 



Palmer 



145 



Palmer 



Beminated by the Society for Circulating 
Serious Tracts among the Poor, but with ' 
some alterations not approved by the author. ; 
4. 'The Siege of Gibraltar: a Poem,' 'Lou- ! 
don, 1795, 4to. 5. ' A View of the Village ' 
of Hampton from Moulsey Hurst. With the 
original " Lancashire Collier-Girl," 'London, 
1797, 12mo. 6. ' Windermere : a Poem,' 
London, 1798, 8vo. 7. A memoir of his 
father, the Rev. "William Budworth, and an 
account of an interesting conversation be- 
tween Bishop Hurd and himself, are in Ni- 
chols's ' Literary Anecdotes,' vol. iii. 

[Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 181 6, pp. 45, 
418 ; Philip John Bud-worth's Memorials of 
the Parishes of G-reensted-Bud worth, Chipping 
Ongar, and High Laver, Ongar, 1876, 8vo; 
Gont. Mag. 1811 pt. ii. pp. 403, 404, 1815 pt. ii. 
pp. 285, 388, 1835 % pt, ii. p. 663 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. iii. 334-40, viii. 445, ix. 140, 141, 155-7, 
x. 644 ; Upcott'a English Topography, p. 125; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit., under ' Budworth.'] T. C. 

PALMER,, JCJLINS (d. 1556), martyr, 
was the son of Roger Palmer, mercer or 
upholsterer, who was sheriff of Coventry in 
1525 and mayor in 1533 (Mayors, Bailiffs, 
and Sheriffs of Coventry, 1830, p. 3, &c.) 
His name Julins was apparently a form of 
Joscelin, and has been generally misspelt 
Julius. He was born at Coventry, but at 
an early age entered Magdalen College 
school, Oxford, where he was for some time 
a pupil of John Harley [q.v.J afterwards 
bishop of Hereford. He then became clerk 
at Magdalen College, and graduated B.A. in 
March 1547-8; in 1549 he was elected 
fellow, and in 1550 was appointed reader in 
logic. He soon attracted notice by his un- 
compromising Koman catholic opinions, and 
in 1552 was accused of having written 
libellous verses on the president. Palmer 
denied the charge, but attacked the reformers 
with such vehemence that his name was 
struck off the list of, fellows before July. 
He then became a tutor in the household of 
Sir Francis Knollys [q. v.] 

On the accession of Mary he was restored 
to his fellowship, but a perusal of Calvin's 
' Institutes ' began to unsettle his religious 
opinions, and his orthodoxy was further 
shaken by reading Peter Martyr's ' Com- 
mentary on the First Epistle to the Corin- 
thians ' [see VEKMIGLI, PIETKO MA.RTIEE] 
and witnessing the execution of Ridley and 
Latimer, which he '"strongly denounced. He 
now became as vehement a protestant as he 
Lad before been Roman catholic, absented 
himself frpm mass, and made a point of 
walking" out whenever obnoxious ceremonies 
occurred in the church service. He avoided 
a second expulsion from his fellowship by 

VOL, 3XIII, 



voluntarily leaving Oxford, and obtained the 
grant of a mastership in Reading grammar 
school. He was not long left in peace, for 
his study was searched by some of his ene- 
mies, and various anti-Roman catholic manu- 
scripts discovered, including a poem called 
1 Epicedium,' written in answer to an epitaph 
on Gardiner by Peter Morwen [q. v.] They 
threatened to inform against him unless he 
at once left Reading. Palmer sought shelter 
with his mother, who, after her husband's 
death, had retired to Eynsham, but she 
refused it on account of his heretical opinions. 
He now apparently obtained letters from the 
^resident of Magdalen, recommending him 
for a mastership in a school in Gloucester- 
shire ; but an incautious visit to Reading to 
secure his manuscripts and arrears of pay 
led to his arrest. He was brought before 
the mayor, Robert Bowyer, and then taken 
to Newbury. Here he was examined before 
the consistory of Dr. Jeffrey on 16 July 
1556, and, after refusing to subscribe certain 
articles drawn up for him, was condemned 
to be burnt. - The sentence was carried out 
on thr^ybllowing morning at the sandpits, 
which tradition identifies with some pits 
near the town on the Enbourn road (New- 
lury and its JEnvirons, pp. 91-102). Besides 
his answer to Morwen, Strype attributes 10 
Palmer various fugitive pieces, which were 
never printed and are not known to be 
extant. 

[Bloxam's Reg. of Magdalen College, vol. ii. 
pp. xlvi, Iii, Ivii, 7-38, iii. 105-6, iv. 135 n. ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; Foxe's Acts 
and Mon. viii. 201-19, 721-2, and Martyrs, ed. 
1888, pp. 767-74; Wood's Fasti Oxon. i. 125, 
232; Strype's Annals, i. 737, ii. 512, and Eccl. 
Mem, i. 82, 574-85; Fuller's Worthies, ed. 
1662, iii. 120, and Church Hist. ed. Brewer, ii. 
466, iv. 181; Narratives of the Reformation 
(Camden Soc.), pp. 85-131, 341 ; Harleian Alts. 
425 ; Wordsworth's Eccl. Biography, iii. 125-6 
Soames's Hist, of the Reformation, ir. 474-6 ; 
G-locester Ridley's Life of Kidley, p. 670 , 
Carwithen's Church of England, ed. 1849, i. 373; 
McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia; Colville's 
Warwickshire Worthies, pp. 561-4 ; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser.i. 43.1 A. F. P. 

PALMER, MRS. MARY (1716-1794), 
author, eldest daughter and third child of 
Samuel Reynolds, master of the grammar 
school of Plympton Earl, Devonshire, by his 
wife, Theophila Potter, was a sister of the 
great painter, Sir Joshua Reynolds [q. v.] 
She was born 9 Feb. 1716, and was thus 
seven years Sir Joshua's senior. Her fondness 
for drawing is said to have had much in- 
fluence on him when a boy. In 1740 she 
furnished 60/., half of the premium paid ta 



Palmer 



146 



Palmer 



Thomas Hudson [q, v.], the portrait-painter, 
for Reynolds, and nine years later advanced 
money for his expenses m Italy, 

Miss 'Reynolds married, 18 J uly 1740, John 
Palmer of Torrington, Devonshire. II \vaa 
educated for a solicitor, but never praetimxL 
In 1752 lie built a house at Great Torrington. 
(now known as Palmer House), and it was 
Jbhere that Dr, JohiiHon stayed with tho Pal- 
mers when visiting Devonshire with Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. It i told that when Dr. 
Johnson was asluul "by Mrs, Palmer if ho lilted 
pancakes, ho replied, 'Yen; but T never ^et 
enough of thorn/ Whereupon Mrs. Palmer 
had a good supply served up, and the doctor 
ate thirteen, rulmer died in the autumn of 
1770, his wife surviving him until S37 May 
1794. 

Mrs. Palmer had two sorw -Joseph, dean of 
Oashel, and author of * A Four Mouths' Tour 
in Franco,' 2 vola, 1,770, and John, lion* mnon 
of Lincoln and three daughtorw : Mary, 
Theophila (familiarly known as Oily), arid 
Elizabeth, Maty and Oily- Hptmt much lime 
in London with their uncle, Sir Joshua 'Roy- 
noldty who painted Mary's portrait, lie had 
great affection lor them, and mndn Mary hia 
heiress- She inherited nearly I (){),()()()/,, and 
married, in l79:!,Murrough O'Brieu, fifth earl 
of Inchfyum, flubHequently created Murquia 
of Thomoncl, Dying without IHHUO, she loft 
the property to 'her brother John. Oily Hat 
for many of Sir Joshua's fancy subjects, 
notably for the * Strawberry Girl,' In 1781 
she married Uobert Lovell Gwatkin of Kil~ 
lion, Cornwall, who is doHcribod by MJHH 
Edgmvorth as a true i Koast Beef 'of old 
England, king and constitution man,* The 
same writer, in a letter to hot ewter, tinted 
29 March 1831, thus apoaks of Mrs, Owat- 
kin : ' She lias been very pretty, and, though 
deaf, is very agreeable eutlniHiantically and 
affectionately fond of her uncle indignant 
at the idea of MB not having himaelf written 
the "DisGOurnefl ;"" Burke or Johuson, in- 
deed ! no fluch tiling ho wrote thorn him- 
self* I am evidence; houwwl to employ mo 
aa his secretary' 1 ' (!!AKB, Life and I*tt&r 
of Maria jBdyauwrth, ii. I BO -I). 

Misfl Burney often mot the Palmors at 
Sir Joshua's house, ' The Mias Palmers added 
to the grace of his table and of hia ovouing 
circles by their pleaHinff manners and the 
beauty of their persons, 'Tho eldest MIBS 
Palmer &eems to have a better underat amling 
than Ofy; but 0% has the most pleasing 
face' (Dtary of Mme. JD'Arbtoy, i, 108), 

Mrs. Palmer was tho author of the admi- 
rable ( Devonshire Dialogue.' It is the best 
piece of literature in the vernacular of Devon, 
and gives eonxe account of customs and charac- 



ters peculiar to tho west of Knp-latid. It was 
written in the middle nf the oi^hteenth cen- 
tury to illustrate the most striking peculiari- 
ties of tho west ern dialect . During her life- 
time, the manuscript was shown to a few 
friends ; extracts were taken from it, and 
from time to timo inwerttnl in various porio- 
clicalw without ao.kwuvlinlgmont. A portion 
appeared in 1HH7 with a glossary by J, F. 
Palmtr; a complete vormon \vnH\vlited by 
Mi\s, (Uvutkm in INM.nml thoro in an tuUtioti 



dated IHtJtK Tlie Httl< hiol< haw lnvu many 
]>riutedj and ivsatilhsohl by the local 



Then* are two port rait M of Mra, Palmer by 
Sir Joshua iicymjM^ both in tho posstwiou 
of her groftt -grandson, Mi\ (uurgo, Stawell 
of <lroHt Tnrrin^lon. Ono ptnlmit was 
paint od about. 1747 t and tlm ot.lur when 
MTM, Palmer wan appaivntly about wixt.y 
yeum of uge, 

['I/i'Hlio'H Lifnnf 7?f'y)mMfl, pitNfthn ; Allibono, 
ii, 1770; jntbriuntion kindly supplied by Sip 
h\ H. Pnarco-IOtl^nuubu,] K,',L, 



PALMEE, RICHARD (tl 1195), 
Hhojt of AloHMinu, WHH Inirn in Kngttmd of 
TM)bli,^)a,Hutagt\ and wtis oducatctl in Kvatu'o, 
UIH Hiirnam(\ may indinito t-hut. ho had boon 
on a pilgrimngi^ to Palcntino boforo not t ling 
in Sicily, whcri'jliko many of bin t*oiutrytaou 
about thiH ttmc, hi* fotuul employment under 
tht^NormaukingH* I lowuHoneof tho principal 
counHellorn of willium tho Bad, and early 
in that monarch*** reign, perhaps in 1 155> wtin 
(din'jed l>mhop of Kyructuw, Tho l!rt mention 
of Richard m*emK to occuronf I Doc, 1 157,whon, 
aH elect, of ^yracuBe, ho witjioHHinJ ac^harter 
of William tho Bad (1*.IUH1, S/7w Atorra, 
i, 74). Whoii, in 1 HU William waH im- 
priwonod )>y Homo of hi nobleH at Palomu^ 
Ilichard wan foromoRt in running tho peopl(\, 
and l>y IUM eloquence oxtnted tJiom to thw 
roctuu it wan Richard aUo who in 
mitigated Willitun'a wruth ugamwt 
Salerno, undwuvod that city fVouidoHtruction, 
Wluin William tho Bad <tuut early in UH(<, 
liichard wan by IUH will appointed ono of 
tho ohioi' connnellorH of h'm HOU William tho 
Goori Richard wft anxious iu obtain tho 
archbiwhopric of Palermo, which o wan 
then vacant. In thiw ontleavour ho had for 
a rival OtwtUitt, tho bisliop of Agrtgentnm, 
or OjrgontL (ientiHw, by accufsitig uiohard 
of prido and aw^anct*, Htirwd trp the other 
biHnopH ngainnt him* Tho opposition failed 
for a time,, but wna aft4rwartl ramswod, on 
tho ground that Uichard had caused tho rt*- 
xnoval of (laito Pofcrua from the court by 
calling in Gilbert., count of Gravina, an grand 
countable, UuntiliB aud IIIB aupportorja cou* 



Palmer 



147 



Palmer 



trived to procure from Alexander III a sum- 
mons for Richard to come to the papal court 
for consecration, hoping by this means to re- 
move him from the royal presence. Kichard 
evaded the command for the time, and then, 
by bribing Richard de Mandra, count of 
Molise, the royal constable, induced the 
count and Margaret, the king's mother, to 
declare that his presence was necessary for 
the royal service, and that his consecration 
must be postponed till a more fitting occasion. 
Peter of Blois [q. v.], "who came to Sicily in 
company with Stephen of Perche in 1167, 
twice makes reference, possibly in allusion 
to Richard, to the absorption of the Sicilian 
prelates in affairs of state (JEpist. 84, ap, 
MIGNE, cc. 1461, and De Institutions Epi- 
scopi, MIGNE, ccyii. 1110). During the early 
part of the reign of William the Good, 
Kichard Palmer discharged the duties of 
chancellor, in conjunction with Matthew the 
Notary ; but Stephen of Perche, a kinsman 
of the queen, was chosen archbishop of 
Palermo, and then made chancellor. Stephen 
endeavoured, by the gift of two casals or 
villages, to appease Richard, who neverthe- 
less opposed the chancellor when, in 1168, 
he had Peter the Notary imprisoned, declaring 
that such a proceeding was contrary to 
Sicilian, if not to French, custom. According 
to one account, it was to Richard that Peter 
of Blois appealed against the attempt to 
force a brother of the Count of Loricello on 
the canons of Girgenti in place of Gentilis 
(PiKEi ; P. BL.ESEKTSIS Mpist, 10, ap. MIGNE, 
ccvii, where the letter is given as addressed 
to Q-. capellanum regis Siciliae). Eventually 
the disturbances in Sicily were composed by 
the resignation of Stephen of Perche, and on 
29 Sept. 1169 Richard was one of those who 
were appointed Consulares Curise ' during 
the king's minority (G-R/EVltfs, iii. 728). A 
short time previously Richard had at length 
been consecrated, and had obtained from 
the pope, on 28 April 1169, the pallium, 
together with the privilege that his see was 
to be immediately subject to papal authority 
(MiGKB, cc. Epist, 616). 

During the few previous years Richard 
had been in correspondence with Thomas 
Becket. In 1168 Thomas wrote to him thank- 
ing him for his letters, and recommending 
to him his .nephew Geoffrey. In 1169 
Thomas thanked Richard for his kindness to 
his relatives in their exile, and asked his 
favour for Stephen of Perche. But in another 
letter to the Bishop of Ostia, Thomas accused 
Richard of having supported ' our persecutors 
with money and advice/ and alleged that he 
had been won over by the hope of obtaining 
the bishopric of Lincoln (Materials for His- 



tory of Thomas Becket, vi. 396, vii. 26, 143). 
Richard is said to have counselled the 
marriage of William the Good with Joanna, 
daughter of Henry II of England, and lie 
appears as one of the witnesses of the mar- 
riage settlement (Ro&. Hov. ii. 97). When 
Joanna came to Sicily in 1177, Richard was 
one of the envoys sent to meet her with the 
fleet at St. Gilles, and took part in her coro- 
nation. He witnessed a charter on 12 Dec, 
1172 as < rpgisfamiliaris '(GKJEVIUS, iii. 733). 
At Syracuse he adorned his church with 
mosaics, and inserted glass in the windows. 
Richard was translated to the archbishopric 
of Messina before 9 Feb. 1183, when Lucius III 
ordered his suffragans to obey him (Docu- 
menti per servire alia Storia di Sicilia, 1st 
ser. i. 32). He was archbishop of Messina 
when Richard I captured the city during his 
stay in Sicily in 1190. The archbishop was 
one of the supporters of Tancred, and on 
4 Oct. formed one of the embassy who en- 
deavoured to avert the English king's wrath 
(RiOHAED OF DEVIZES, p. 22, Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) On 15 Feb. 1195 he obtained protec- 
tion for himself and his church from the 
emperor, Henry VI (Document^ i. 33). He 
died on 7 Aug. 1195, and was buried in the 
church of St. Nicolas at Messina. His tomb 
bore the inscription : 

Anglia me genuit, inatruxit Q-allia, fovit 
Trinacris ; huic tandem corpus et ossa dedi. 

Some of Richard's charters as archbishop 
of Messina are printed in the ' Document! 
per servire alia Storia di Sicilia/ 1st ser. i. 
34-9. He is described as a learned and 
eloquent man (Huo-o FALCAISTDTTS, 290 0). 
Bale gives him a place in his * Centuries ' 
(xiii. 74) as author of a book of epistles. 
None of Richard's letters seem to have sur- 
vived, though he apparently corresponded 
with Thomas Becket and Peter of Blois. 
The latter author, after he was settled in 
England, wrote to Richard, perhaps about 
1180, refusing an invitation to return to 
Sicily, and urging him to return himself, and 
spend his last years in his native land 
(Epist.&Q). 

[The Chronicles of Romuald of Salerno and 
Hugo Falcandus, ap. JVtnratori viii.; Pirri'a 
Sicilia Sacra, ap. Grsevius, Thesaurus Antiq. et 
Hist. Sicilian, ii. 74, 82, 293-5, 608-11, iii. 
728; Petri Blesensis Epist, 10, 46, 84, ap. 
Migne's Patrologit;, ccvii. ; Document! per servire 
alia Storia di Sicilia, 1st ser. vol. i. fasc. i., Soc. 
Siciliana per la Storia patria ; Caruso's Bibl 
Hist. Sicilise, ii. 985-6 ; La Lumia's Storia di 
Sicilia sotto Guglielmo il Buono, pp. 56-7, 66, 
68-9, 73, 78, 124, 174; other authorities 
quoted.] C. L. K. 

L2 



Palmer M Palmer 



PALMEE, UKWAIii), M.1M</. W$** <?'' h .v h ' T \ 'Hiti vin-i ,1011,^,*!.^ to pro, 
physician, was a native, of London, Ho pitwh< tm- mi ;trrvi t whn^o jnti'm\v \YUM m* 
UoredOhrist'HOullo^N(^mhri(tg'.>,.uulthrro tlnmnl Uy th,' I -rf^Mmr ttmtrh n,l wim 
graduated B,A. in I ATI). U< tnigmtiMl to , HO lit tit' ppnrm|'M \* l^r huMmm! that, 
Feterhonso, ami tlun'o iHHmmn M.A, in L>tt, | uu' honour \\w hfrrn.h torvni np^n turn, 
He recoivod a liiumHO to praKi> in London' nnr tint ho ovi-r UKr hn r^nt in the Imh 
from theCollogoof rhyHiciimwn April KM, ! HMUW id l,nr<K I ho 'iirl ww* it UMiimn 
and was dieted a follow in 1'Vlmwry 1W. onthnlt<\ jtml !ma in* vnl<* hntJmrn fton, 
Hewasnino tunoH ctmHor brtwtMn KW untl t nnrmn rit/.roy MM ru/Jjn,( nviur^tir?4 
]619 r waw tmimuw from UWl to lW4, mid } Dru$;oKSort'HVrmN JmptiviMlbyiijtrii'Mt, 
president in 1U20. On 5 No\, HHi* ho af* ; upm \vhnh thiyvmuirsM hml Ituu r**lmttim'il 
tendod \vitrh Dr. John (lillanlut thohMlnidoot\ by a miniMiT^f tin* rhurrh of 



Henry, prince of Wnh'N. Siv'rftl lon^r rou- Si, MarptrH,s \\ "*tnHtnv, on 
aultatioiiHWrnUn.ld with Sir Tht'odtw* May-j t^'if. 'this inHMi-HMiiinl u Mtilcnf 
onie [q,v.] ; J)r.Jolm Huimnond, Dr, Hrnry hjunrr.^, wlurh I'tuliMl in Uly <V 
Atkina [q- v.l and Dr, Hntltn% and in the dwrtintf hor hM|Hnd ni thn lut 
prefitn of Sir Thoman (luilUm^r untl Sir abr-uul Hr iruvi'HiM in Inuuv n 
bavid Murray (K)(i7 -10^> | tj, v.], in O- iiul *riwnl in (h. l.rvnnf, tit th^ 
tobm* KHii, and tlw msnlt wan thiit,onthu ^innarnn onmHti^i h> \hnru 
opinion of thtunajori^y, a pnwnpt ion known | (Vrnnnj \ W\\, H<< nl^ 
as diawcordium wan g-tvnn to tin* prints with of VorkVlI^rf tlitnti^ f!t^ 
no goodullbct, for hodunl noxt tiny. Palmar | on \\lwh h* \vv*^\ in 
waaproftentatthnpoHt-mortoni oxHtntnation, ; trn^!aft j J tnfo Kn^Jnh 
and mtho original rqmrt hiHHi^nHturtMiintls ; undrr th*' hM* * A i*ln*rf 
fourth of tho nix phyHirintiH. In tlu* rojntrt, j tin* Mnft'riul Pn'/.u'.M-* i 
aspviuto-d by Mayorn<, hw nunu^ is laht, It** f w*t*n Ut 4 ^!';^' 1 !* JM *'^ !J 
diad tuu'ly hi KW5, Un<l *dit. 1*V'A ' s vt, 

[Hunk's Coll...!'!']^, i. 1 10 ; M >,.,,, < > r m ' ' 'j 1 ." 1 1 "' lllvil!l " f 
Modica, London, 1701 ; orit'iiiitt rm*tml in UN-tmt'it , r n l** s " tunHh*jt'tni \\tn F t 
Offlco; Htrtto Paporw, Ixxi. 20.1 N - W. j V ( llini * 'nrwur |n, 



FALMEE, ROUMU, MAUL OK (\\MTI, i: . vntton *i* tho luudfy nt' 
MAINJ'J (l<jJM 17()A), diphnnntiht and lUJihnr, wlurh ittvnhrt! tuns itt 
waaoWost wm of Sir Jntnort I*almr jij, v.lof \Vtllina Llut 'ij, v,', nti 
Haytis, Middlosox, and Hornby ( 1 nurt t Htu'k* Hf, Awtph trf, inhhM^iHpl 
inghamwhiro, by hin wvond wif*\ (-athonmt, Abt*ut ilnn twn In* w<^ 1 
davightt^r of Sir William H<Hw*rt K.H., from thr niuni'^H, nn4 in 
createul Lord i*oww in I(i74 t and nlirlf Sir ' pimiott Sir ! 
Kohrt Vaughun of Llydiarth, Montgomery" j ( 
elurtj, | 

llogor Pahn<r wan born nt Uorn<v Court i * 



>( 'o, (^atnbridg<\ whirh hi* wUwti , \\n* Mi*t*ntt<t tHift'h \\nf, tu whirl 
on v j* r > March HJ5^, On ^MM., HlntJln* WH : m\v M^nins iti* v*nsmtni t* 
admitted a ntudnnt at th** lunor TiMnpli%hut j thtnutt tunu of I07T, unit MW *J 
waHnotcalltid tothohar. Anard*nt loynliHt, ; following y 4 ur wit* ilHH*njtrj"4 
ho waH priwi'iiti'd only by Inn youth from i of {'omnium* n it j^nf by 
serving nmW tlu* rovnl ntandartf during tlw? !<j, v, ! , %vli* Hwr* Jbnf h^ l*ii*i 

civil war, and huKarAi'd bin lifo in flu* plots , iuutttH *f iin'ltuni Strung**, liitr f 

that pratM'dwi th* UfHtoratton, On M April j1uMtrt'r *>f J*'KMH in Ku^lnml* w ttivMrt* fmin 
1 659 no marriftl, at t htuthnn'h of Ht , f " 



by Ht Paul's, London, Bitrbum | ^* VH.UKKH, j <*Mrin t nntUiint Itt* huit 

BxuBAKAf Dtu'HHHH <*K < 'wuvKt^ANi*], only ' HUH' lijMit|i|irolai jt<n *f f in* Witiif 

daughter of William VilliwH, iirnt vmcouiit ' null ithnnt tb* kingV *|i*atb/ A 



$wUr#) p. *J30 n*) Upon fcha HuHtornt ion M rn, wwi* ttrr*^tw 

Palmer Wamti tHtnuntriHHof tho king, who, (ft) Oct.), hi . 

by patent of 11 l)c l<WJl HUHIU) h't hun-^ 107H -U, Whitt* ^waiting His* trial Uu }*ul* 
band, then M, P for NwwWi minor, to th Imh tihul H tmrrutivi* of tin* ulfirin^M nf litritiMf 
peerage by thtj tit h of Karl of (*nHtlmmum%'- vi^timH, tntit)mi *Th* C^imj^tnltMrn i r i 
co. Kerry, with reiaamcUr limit d to Im Bhon Vww at* th^ ktu Try Jn in *!( uw tu 



Palmer 



149 



Palmer 



the Present Plot against his Majesty and 
Government,' London, 1679, 4to. 

Gates having 1 meanwhile fortified his case 
by the fabrication of fresh evidence, Castle- 
maine was examined before the king in 
council, and re-committed to the Tower on 
suspicion of complicity in the so-called Meal- 
tub plot on 2 Nov. 1679. He remained a close 
prisoner until his trial before Lord-chief-jus- 
tice Scroggs at the king's bench on 23 June 
"U)8G. The crown was represented by At- 
torney Sir Creswell Levinz [c[.v.], Solicitor- 
general Sir Heneage Finch [see FINCH, HENE- 
AG:E, first EABL OF AYLBSFOBD], Sir George 
Jellroys [BOO JHHTKGYB, GBOBGB, first BARON 
], solicitor-general to the Duke of 



"Y ork, and Sir Francis Wythens [q. v.] Castle- 



discretion in several audiences, which Inn<i - 
cent terminated by violent fits of coughhjg. 
Irritated by this treatment, Castlemaine at 
last sent him a written memorial not ob- 
scurely hinting at his possible departure if 
it were to continue. Innocent replied drily 
that he was his own master, and added 
significantly that the morning hours it was 
summer were best for travelling in Italy. 
Castlemaine remained, however, until, at In- 
nocent's instance, he was recalled by James, 
who humbly apologised for his agent's exces- 
sive zeal. On 16 June 1687 Sunderland, as 
president of the privy council, was compelled 
to write to the pope, begging pardon for the 
ambassador's misbehaviour (cf. abstract of 



maino defended himself, and with such signal 
skill and courage that, though much inter- 
rupted and browbeaten by court and counsel, 
liti completely discredited the evidence of the 
informers and secured an acquittal. 

Castlcmaine was a member of the little 
cabal of catholics who formed James II's 
secret council; and when the king deter- 
mined to establish overt relations with Rome, 
Oaatlemaino was accredited ambassador to 
the curia. He embarked at Greenwich on 
1 5 Feb. 1(185-0, and reached .Rome on Easter- 
<we (13 April, N.S,), but, though privately re- 
em ved by the pope (Innocent XI), did not 
enter the city in state until 8 Jan. 1687 
(N.8<) The delay was owing partly to In- 
nocent's illness, and partly to the elaborate 
preparations which Castlemaine thought it 
necessary to make in order to sustain his 
master's dignity, His major-domo, John 
Miclxaol Wright, has left a curious account 
of his pompous entry, and the cold recep- 
tion accorded him by the pope (cf. list of 
authorities infra, and the satirical odo upon 
the embassy in Po&mft on Affairs of State, 
171(5, ii, 402). Oastlernaine's instructions 
wore to solicit a cardinal's hat for the queen- 
coiiHort'B uncle, Prince Einaldo d'Este; a 
bishopric m partibm for the king's most 
trusted adviser, t he Jesuit Ed ward Petre [q.v.J ; 
and to attempt the'reconciliation of Innocent 
with LouiB XIV. He found Innocent by no 
means propitious. He had no intention of 
being reconciled to the author of , the Galil- 
ean acliism I\A long as the Galilean schism 
continued ; he hadlittle faith in the stability 
of Jamtw T B throne, and less in the policy of 
attempting the forcible conversion of Eng- 
land, With much ado, Caatlemaine induced 
him to confer the coveted hat on Prince 

Rinaldo, 2 Sept. 1686. In regard to Petre, 
IUH holinosw proved inexorable. Not content 
with a first, or oven a second refusal, Oastle- 
wiaine pressed his suit with more zeal than 



correspondence between the English court 
and the pope in DOD'S Church History, in. 
424-5). 

Castlemaine reached London in August 
1687, and was consoled with a place in the 
privy council, being dispensed from the oaths, 
and with bounties to the amount of between 
1,800J. and 2,OOOZ. His name appears among 
the signatures to the certificate of the "birth 
of the Prince of Wales, dated "Whitehall, 
10 June 1688 (Addit. MS. 27448, f. 342). 
On the subsequent flight of the king, Castle- 
maine left Whitehall for his country seat in 
Montgomeryshire, taking with him, under a 
privy seal, plate from .the royal household, 
for which damages were afterwards (22 May 
1091) recovered against him, to the value of _ 
2,5QO., the privy seal being held invalid by 
reason of its being subsequent to the ' abdi- 
cation,' He was arrested at Oswestry, sent 
back to London, and committed to the Tower 
in February 1688-9, for ' suspicion of treason- 
able practices.' On 28 Oct. 1689 he wa8 brought 
to the bar of the House of Commons, and 
examined touching his embassy to Borne. 
He pleaded in justification the express com- 
mand of the king, but was recommitted to 
the Tower on the capital charge of ' endea- 
vouring to reconcile this kingdom to the see 
of Rome,' and 'other' (unspecified) 'high, 
crimes and misdemeanours. On 10 Feb. 
1689-90 he was released, giving his own re- 
cognisance in 10,OOOJ., and those of four 
sureties in 5,OOOZ. each. He was excepted 
from the act of indemnity, and was recom- 
mitted to the Tower in the following August 
on suspicion of complicity in the Jacobite 
plot, but was released on bail on 28 Nov. 
In 1695, having been for some years abroad 
in France and Flanders, he fell under sus- 
picion of adhering to the king's enemies, 
was summoned to attend the Irish parlia- 
ment on 12 Sept., and, failing so to do, was 
indicted of high treason. To avoid outlawry 
he returned to England, surrendered himself 



Palmer 



150 



Palmer 



on ^8 b\ih. H54K) <>, ami \VUH commit tod to 
the Tower on suspicion of complicity in tlm 
assassination plot, but. WHH released without 
trial, on condition of going over-sen^ ou 
18 July fidlowing'. 

died at (^vestry on -1 July 



1705, and wtus buried in tho vault of hi 
mother's family at WelHhvoul. His \viio' 
eldcHt daughter, Amu^vho bore tho surname 
1'almor until her marriage in HMO with 
ThomaH Lommi'd, Fifteenth lord Unrro mid 
tmrl of 8uHox, wan one of the trustees of 
Oufifcloniuinc'H will, dated JJO Nov. UiiM) f by 
which tho bulk of bin property passed to bin 
jitrplurw, OharlcB I'ulmer, 

CftHtlomaino \vaw a loyal ami devout 
catholic, an accomplished linguist awl ma- 
thtmiatidan, and the inventor of a globe. 
described in a pamphlet published by him iu 
1079, entitled 'The, Km>'lish (Uube; heing- a 



Btaoan mmo)on(spii'ornit^ \viu-nn" 
nary Globes <lo and much more,' A full-leu^th 
portrait- of him, in a red clonk and lar^e \vi$ r 
is in tho poKNCMHum of Marl Pmvis ; a three- 
quarter-length, in tho pillei'y at nnnieyOi)urt, 
wan engraved for Anthony Ibimilton'M * Mfi- 
inoiroH do (Jrammonl/ ed, !7i)H; a IwH- 
lontfth, by Hir (JodlYey Knellor, formerly at. 
Strawberry Hill, was engraved to illustrate 
tho brief notice of him in Horace Witlpole'n 
M loyal and Noble, Author/ ed, I'nrlt, v. 



niaino wa aul.hor of: I, 'An Account of 
tho ProHc-nt War between the VemtianH ami 
Ttirlin; with the Stato of ('andie; in a Let- 
tor tt> the King[CharleH IJ jiVtmi VI^UUMS* Lon- 
don, I6(j(t, Hvo; Dutc.h aiuiOormun traimla* 
tionfl, tho latter in* Uiariuw Kuropnum'Th. 
xvii*, AmHtcrdiwn and ! ( Vuukfort-<ni-tbe* 
Main, 1008, 4to* & *A Eeply to the Aunwor 
of the CathoUque, Apology; or a deere Vin* 
dication of tho Uatholujue.H of Hng'htud from 
all matter of fact chared ap;ainnt tJtem by 
thwir KnomioH/ London, l<iH, Hvo, i. * A 
full Anflwor and Uonfutat ion of aHCiuutaUitm 
Pamphlet J by William Lloyd | (tailed a Sea- 
sonable DiHcourKo, whewing'tho neoeHnity of 
maintaining . . . tho oHtabliwhwl .Religion in 
opposition to Fopnry,* Antwerp, Ki73, 4to 
4. 'The Catholiquo Apology, with a Hn])ly 
to the Answer; together with a chwr Uofu- 
tation, of tho Soasonablo PiHcourMUj itn rea- 
sonable Defence and Dr, Du Moulin^ Aiwwer 
to Philanax ; as also Dr, 8tilUn^lIo^t' lawt 
Gunpowd6r*Trottson Sormon, hin Attaquo 
about the Treaty of Murmtar, and all matter 
of fact charg'd on the J^n^liwh Catholitmoa 
by their EnemioB/ Antwerp, 1074, 8vo, 
6. 'The Earl of OMtlewahio'i* Manifesto/ 
1681, 8vo (a uai'rative of lua trial for com* 



plieit) in the j>upi,'<h plot, with a brief apology 
, tor tin* Kimiau entholie fait h ami vindication 
of the In) ally of Rmnnu etitholienK 

IMiniMlt'Ht'.iUt Hi-mM, i. HW- 17, IM 5; ('ol- 

pli'ln PtMTHs-' 1 , it.lSUl Ivnvits'M Pi ttltrroof tho 
I'tUun-r^ uf Su'*Nr\; i **i.it S'iu.utM i ' i Shm't and Tru^ 
Aecuvmf - ut" th* littt* ^"nr hrUu'cu th* Hutch and 



tiiu't- lNM'i 4 ,-ijr * P.diurr ;' IUIUM* Teiuplt* AdtuisHtuu 
1J(^. loll -MJr.ti, p. Itiil ; (\il,Slutf r;HM*rH,l)om. 
KV.'.S I* pp. '"'Kl, ii;!I t lttU / ; Prpyn'M t'iary, tnl, 
\V|'ntli;v. JHUH, t, '^nu t it. VNM ; Lilt. Hiborn, i. 
1'i't-r }p. i* k U ; Mp^niuJtr'-i BurUiii^hiini^hire, 
iii '.'.7H, I,*Ml^ 1 'hlVetMr.tMnr< l;unl,ril Af'hl:d!, 
ITHt), iv, HH; hniM^riiMvh HiM, Ku;*l, in, -HH ; 
ti^m^rf*'* l'i"^r, lli-4, Kn|,*i, -Ifh edit, iii, Ii!iK ; 
Ifin^tU'dV HIM, Knj:L ix 7/) ; Mu'juthiy*M Hint, 
Knr.i, ii.-t>> tJ, iti.olt t Hunirt'htJwu'rinn^iui.), 
iJt'iJOil; Kthn(*onvHjt,nt, KltH,i :to, ;n; \Vrl- 
vuottV Motutiitx I'd, Aluwfi'.H, JH'JO, p. Ida ; Ciuu- 
puna di r.ivi'llt, !,** Hrrt irr 'Stuart f*uH,( Mn'iuiiitt- 
mi-liiiyo, i, l*-i;' t ii, S 1 -!, Kh, JH'j, 1-U ; TnMninnhMm^ 
Went iij'iiiMti'uti rt h> ("nryll, Pnrifi, 1K!),1, ii, 1*0 
<t Hvt{, ; Kht^p, Full ilt'H IttiiiM^ i^tiuvHt di'it, 
U*n). p, MHt; t'iurKr\ Lit'*' otMsuucM H, ii, 7'- 
77; LuitreHV IMatimtoi' Sut \t!iii'{ ttmlor'N 
HiM, Mit, Kur.l.. ti'i**)!, and SMti. Tuth, IHU2. 
itl. 47 t't HI-IJ ; Imtikiud <iu/,rHi ( 7 lU Felt, UJHU . 
UJH7 ; Sm*n*t St-rvh^ot rh;u*h'n II HilImut II, 
(i'itiudrli Su,) i Ihiut'trj* Slain TrulN, Xi. ' A rUH ; 
Ihwt, M.^S, I'ouuu, Hh U^p.App p, IMH, />th Hop, 
A|m.mt,aHa,J>4'>,7tK Ui'ft,Aj|, pp. H*MU<VMM, 
loth Heft, App.p, V*ti;t; rhuvntUmniui UoHn^ti't* 
OOWMJ*, ii, i^7 ; Iriwh Uowm* *>f LM|'I)H i, 501 ; 
Miifkitttohh'H lievohitsni) uf UiHH, j*|*. 7.H.O; 
Wright "H Rni^^tje.'lm d*'llu fi>l tuu^ f iupVNi d'U' 
lIlttH(r w '" (*nut" di CijHtrhuuiur ; ' 



Addit, MS. IflJUiU (D'A 



jM, ft'. UH. 4, 



f, I!W, 2K!J2 f, 1l; Itu1k<4l nml 

Auon, mid iWmiim. Ut>) J. M. H, 

E, UOUNIMSU^fW MAUL tir 



Heeou<l hnuuf William Jot-olyu t*ulmt'r,r*tur 
of Fininere and of Mixhury* (>, \fortlnh ire, by 
Ihirot-IuMt Ht(*hnrd^on t ditti^hterof the l{iv 
William Hwwdoil tif (iltuJHtums VorkHhiro^ 
%VHH ijorn *it Mixbury tu 7 Nnv. IHI*J Hm 
gmtulfatlier, William Palmer of Nu/.intf Park, 
Wulthaifti MHMi^v t WUH a H<M<tn of tho ttneieutf 
family of Calmer of V\'iitjttp s Leteewt 



Oopr^o !*uhuer (q, v( of Ntuing 1 Park, tho 
philanthropist and jmuthwtiu wttn htft uiude, 
ami William Ptdmer ( (lHOa- IrtfjH) [q.v,|, 
Onwhrtm profenHttr of civil law, wa !UH flrnt 
eouHJn, HIM fat lwr, William *f<t*ilyn Puhner, 
was a^radttnte of lkiwmwo(Wio$ f Oxford 
(RA. 17W, M.A.IWJ, and IU>, 1H1 1 ), ioi*- 
of privattt moauM, ho oxwlcd u 



Palmer 



Palmer 



mount influence over his parishioners, and was 
equally beloved and respected by them. He 
died at Mixbury on 28 Sept. 1853, aged 75. 
He had five sons besides Roundell, and five 
daughters. The eldest son, William, even- 
tually seceded to the Roman church [see 
PALMEB, WILLIAM, 1811-1879] ; the fourth 
son, Henry Roundell, entered the East India 
Company's marine service, and was lost at 
sea in 1835 ; the fifth, George Horsley, suc- 
ceeded his father as rector of Mixbury ; while 
Edwin, the youngest, became archdeacon of 
Oxford in 1878, and died on 17 Oct. 1895. 

After two years (1894-5) at Rugby, Roun- 
dell was transferred to Winchester College, 
of which Dr, Gabell was then headmaster, 
in the autumn of 1825, There he had for 
contemporaries Robert Lowe (afterwards 
Lord Sherbrooke) [q. v.]; Edward (after- 
wards Lord) Cardwelt [q. v,] ; Anthony Trol- 
lope [q. v.Jj William Monsell (now Lord 
Emly); and. William George Ward [q. v.] 
After gaining his full share of school laurels, 
he matriculated on 3 May 1830 from Christ 
Church, Oxford. His academic course was 
brilliant in the extreme. Besides an open 
scholarship at Trinity College (1830), he 
gained in 1831 the chancellor's prize for 
Jjatin verse (subject, 'Numantia'), and in 1832 
both the Ireland Greek scholarship and the 
Newdigate prize, with a poem on ' Staffa, 1 
The latter, written, as the conditions required, 
in the metre of Pope, exhibited occasionally 
the influence of Wordsworth. In 1834 Pal- 
mer won a first-class in the classical schools 
and the JSldon law scholarship, and in 1835 
a Magdalen fellowship and the chancellor's 
Latin essay prize (subject, 'De Jure Clientele 
apud Romanes '). He graduated B. A. in 1834 
and M. A. in 1836. He also distinguished him- 
self on the tory side in the debates of the 
Union Society, and in the autumn of 1833 
formed, with several friends, including W. G. 
Ward, Archibald Campbell Tait (q. v.], after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury, John 
Wickens [q* v.], and George Hellish [q. v.] 
(both subsequently judges), a separate society 
called the ' Rambler ' club. This society came 
into being as a protest against the election 
of Edward Massie (1806-1893), a graduate 
of Wadham and Ireland scholar, as president 
of the Union. An animated debate followed 
in the Union on the momentous question 
whether the Ramblers should be permitted 
to retain their membership of the parent 
society, and that oratorical contest was the 
occasion of the spirited mock Homeric Greek 
poem, 'Uniornachia' fsee JACKSON, THOMAS, 
1812-1886], With Tait and three other 
undergraduates, Palmer spent the long vaca- 
tion of 1833 at Seaton in Devonshire. The 



young visitors impressed the imagination of 
a local bard (the Rev. J. B, Smith, a dissent- 
ing minister), who referred to them in a pub- 
lished effusion entitled ' Seaton Beach' (Lon- 
don and Exeter, 1835), auguring, with sin- 
gularly happy presage, that Tait 'a mitred 
prelate ' might ' hereafter shine,' while Pal- 
mer might 'win deserved applause' as 'an 
ermined judge.' The poet, who had noticed 
Palmer's zeal in collecting rare pebbles on 
the seashore, also credited him, with an ambi- 
tion to explore l nature's laws.' This estimate 
was fully justified by Palmer's habit through 
life of seeking relaxation from professional 
work in a study of many branches of natural 
history, and especially of botany. 

A high-churchman from the first, he took 
at this time a keen interest, but no active 
part, in the ecclesiastical controversies which. 
had already begun to agitate the university. 
Of the friends whom he had made as an 
undergraduate, those with whom he was most 
closely associated in after years were Thomas 
Legh Claughton (afterwards bishop of St. 
Albans), Charles Wordsworth (afterwards 
bishop of St. Andrews), and John Wickens. 
During 1 his later career at the university he 
formed intimate relations with Frederick 
William Faber [q. v.] (afterwards superior of 
the London Oratory), and his early predilec- 
tions for theological discussion were thereby 
stimulated. But science and literature always 
shared with theology his intellectual inte- 
rests. From Charles W ordsworth he learned 
and Faber learned from him to study and 
appreciate the poetry of William Words worth, 
and he watched with admiration the develop- 
ment of Tennyson, who was his friend and 
neighbour when he subsequently settled at 
Blackmoor, and who dedicated * Becket ' to- 
him in 1884, 

But the study and practice of law were 
to be the business of Palmer's life. In No- 
vember 1834 he entered the chambers of 
the eminent conveyancer William Henry 
Booth; and on 9 June 1837 he was called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, of which on 
23 April 1849 he was elected a bencher, and 
in 1864 treasurer. While waiting for briefs 
he contributed to the ' British Critic,' but only 
on colourless topics, such as Greek grammar 
(see British Critic, October 1840), and he 
maintained his connection with the univer- 
sity in other ways. In the contest for the 
poetry chair in 1842, which the narrow 
ecclesiastical spirit of the time converted 
into a party question, he actively supported 
the 'Tractarian* candidate, Isaac Williams; 
and on the suspension of Dr. Pusey, on 2 June 
1843, for preaching a sermon on the mystery 
of the holy eucharist, which was censured 



Palmer 



152 



Palmer 



by a court of ' Six Doctors,' he expressed a 
decided opinion that the action of the vico- 
chancellor was illegal. Academic dignities 
wore freely bestowed on him as his career 
advanced. lie was created D.O.L, and au 
honorary fellow of Magdalen in 180:3, and 
honorary student of Christ Church in 1 807. 
From 18151 to 1803 he was counsel to the uni- 
versity and deputy steward, and on the (loath 
of Lord Carnarvon in 1 891 lie was appointed 
high steward, 

To the practice of the law Palmer brought 
a mind as keen and subtle an that of one of 
the great medieval schoolmen, a raro power 
ot' easy and persuasive speech, a learning 
and knowledge of affairs equaRy wide, pro- 
found, and exact, the abstemiousness of un 
ascetic, a vigorous constitution, untiring 
energy, and a high and chivalrous sense oJt 
the duty of the advocate. Though the equity 
bar was never stronger than in his day---* 
among his many rivals were Richard 'BothoH 
(afterwards I ord Westbury) fq. v.'| and 1 1 ugh 
MeCalmont (afterwards .foirl^Oatms [q, v,] 
he rose rapidly in his profession, soon made 
a large income, and took silk in Hilary vaca- 
tion 1849. 

According to Lord Wostbury, Palmer's 
only defect as an equity pleader was a habit 
of pursuing a iitio train of masoning on a 
matter collateral to his main argument., a 
delect resulting from that subtlety of mind 
with which nature had superabundantly en- 
dowed him, and which, kept under due con- 
trol, makes the consummate lawyer, This 
subtlety, united with vast learning, oompro-* 
heusivonoss of view, and the inexhaustible 
patience which he applied to tho mastery of 
the most intricate complications of law and 
fact, gave to his opinions while counsel some- 
thing of tho weight of judicial decisions, 
In court his rare gift of lumiuoun exposition 
and the singular persuasiveness of his man- 
ner lent to his arguments an air of irro- 
fragableness which during the zenith of his 
powers caused him to be regarded by clients 
as all but indispensable. His style was wo- 
vorely simple, and was rarely relieved by 
action. lie seldom iixod his eyes on tho 
judge, but seemed rather to bo talking to 
himself, yet all the while ho was perfectly 
alive to tlxe impression he was producing both 
on the bench, and within the bar, and knew 
as if by instinct when to develop a point 
which, had told, and how to glide stealthily 
over a weak place in hln argument, His 
memory was prodigious, BO that he rarely 
needed to refer to his brief, and wan able to 
ineet unforeseen emergencies by prompt re- 
ferences to cases in point. 

Before becoming a law officer of the crown 



i 



Palmer had little or no experience of com- 
mon-law practice, and ho never found it pos- 
sible to acquire tho needful dexterity in cross- 
examination, and the peculiar tact, mdispen- 
able for addressing juries, Finding the work 
xtrcmoiy irksome,, ho protected himself' as 
tar as possible from retainer in such cases by 
charging unusually heavy fees. When re- 
tained, however, he spared no pains to tit 
himself for the discharge of his duty. 

While his reputation at the bar WHS steadily 
rising, Palmer was returned to parliament in 
the IVolito interest for Plymouth at the 
general election of July 1H17. Like most 
equity lawyers, ho did not show to great 
advantage on tho floor of tho House of 
( 1 ommons; but his speeches, if rarely im- 
passiouod, were always lucid and wtiig'hty, 
and an extremely pure accent and melodious 
enunciation wo.nl. far to compensate for a 
somewhat monotonous delivery. His maiden 
speech, on the government- of Now Zealand 
bill (IN Dee, 1H.J7), was a warm eulogtum on 
the bishop of New #euland (U, A, Sohvyn), 
whoso recent political action had elicited 
much nd verso comment, both in tho colony 
and at home. 

Though nominally a conservative* Palmer 
was in truth an independent, and lout, an 
earnest support- t,o the movement, for tho 
emancipation of the Jews ( //ttttnardj 3rd 
Her, xcviii, (51^). In regard, however, to all 
that concerned the church of HSnglaud, and 
tins traditional methods of higher culture, 
his conservatism was intense, and led htm to 
:>pposo, in IWfiO, tho government plan for a 
commission of inquiry into the state of tho 
universities. His opposition to the ooolosi- 
ant.icnl titles bill, introduced in consequence 
of the* No Popery ' hubbub raised on occasion 
of tho so-called papal aggression, brought him 
into collision with the dominant fooHngaftho 
country; ami at the election of July IHW ho 
lost his seat, but, hiw rival, Uharlos John Mare, 
wan unseat CM! on petition, and Palmer was 
roturnod in his stead on ^ Juno 1H&J. To 
the Oxford University bill of 1H54 ho gayti 
a qualified support, and wan indefatigable in 
amending it in committee, In tho groat 
pitched battle of February -March lH57,on 
Palmorston's Chinese policy, ho fought under 
(lobden's standard, and led, in a speech of 
groat power, the ttmil assault on tin* govern- 
ment Defeated at the subsequent general 
election, he did not. re-enter parliament until 
ho succeeded Sir William Athortou as woli- 
ek,or~gonoral in Lord PalmorsUm'fi ministry 
on ^B Juno 18(51, Ha was then roturnod for 
Richmond) Yorkshire, which Heat ho retained 
until his elevation to tho peerage, ( )n fi Aug. 
IBtU ho was knighted, On 2 Get, 1803 he 



Palmer i, 

was advanced to the attorney-generalship, 
which he held until the fall of Lord John 
Bussell's second administration in July 
1866. 

On the accession of Mr. Gladstone to 
power, in December 1868, Palmer declined 
the great seal and a peerage rather than 
consent to the disendowment of the Irish 
church. He had taken no part in the debates 
raised in the session of 1867 on Mr. Glad- 
stone's resolution on the subject. On the 
second reading of the Irish church disesta- 
blishment bill he attacked it strongly as an 
act of injustice '(22 March 1869), and voted 
with the minority against it next day. He 
did his best to amend the measure in com- 
mittee. But on other questions he gave an 
independent support to the administration. 
On the reference of the Alabama dispute to the 
international court of arbitration at Geneva, 
he appeared as counsel ibr Great Britain, and 
argued a hopeless case with the utmost 
patience, tact, and ability. He was generally 
said at the time to have refused the offer of 
a fee of 3Q,000. for his services, but he is 
known to have accepted remuneration on a 
satisfactory scale, and the popular story can- 
not be corroborated, 

On 15 Oct. 1872 Palmer succeeded Lord 
Ilatherley as lord chancellor, and was sworn 
of the privy council. Three days later he 
was raised to the peerage of the United 
Kingdom by the title of Baron Selborne of 
Seiborne in the county of Southampton. In 
1865 he had purchased the Temple and Black- 
moor estates (of about eighteen hundred 
acres) in the parish of Selborne, Hampshire, 
and he built there a house on the site of 
Blackmoor farmhouse. While digging the 
foundations the workmen discovered a rich 
hoard of Koman pottery and coins, an ac- 
count of which Selborne contributed to the 
edition of Gilbert White's ' Natural History 
of Selborne/ published in 1875. He procured 
the formation of Blackmoor into a separate 
ecclesiastical district, to the endowment of 
which he contributed not only a large sum 
of money, but also a church, a parsonage, 
and schools. 

As lord chancellor, Selborne at once pro- 
ceeded to grapple in a large and statesmanlike 
spirit with the urgent and formidable problem, 
of judicature reform upon which a royal com- 
mission had already reported. His measure, 
if carried in its original form, would not only 
have united the superior courts of law and 
equity and London court of bankruptcy into 
one supreme court in two principal divisions, 
original and appellate, but have transferred 
to the latter division the appellate jurisdic- 
tion, not only of the privy council but of the 



3 Palmer 

House of Lords, in all but ecclesiastical cases 
or such as originated in Scotland, Ireland, or 
the colonies or dependencies of the crown. 
So radical a reform, however, found favour 
neither with the profession, nor with the 
public, nor with the House of Lords ; and, 
though the appellate jurisdiction of the privy 
council in admiralty and lunacy matters was 
transferred to the new court of appeal, that of 
the House of Lords was preserved intact. 
The London court of bankruptcy was also 
permitted to retain its independent existence, 
though it has since been merged in the su- 
preme court. With these and some less im- 
portant modifications the measure became 
law on 5 Aug. 1873, and effected a most 
salutary reform. Besides putting an end 
to the multiplicity of courts of original juris- 
diction in which English justice had been 
administered for centuries, it provided for 
the gradual fusion of law and equity into a 
common system. The first effect indeed of 
the attempt to administer law and equity 
concurrently was to increase the uncertainty 
incident to both, and old practitioners loudly- 
denounced the ' fusion ' as sheer * confusion; ' 
but the gain to our jurisprudence in pre- 
cision and symmetry is already apparent, 
and must in the end do more to expedite 
and cheapen the administration of justice 
than the most ingeniously devised system 
of procedure. 

As a law lord sitting in court Palmer dis- 
played a conspicuous reverence for precedent, 
which never degenerated into superstition. 
He knew exactly how to . penetrate to the 
true ratio decidcndioi a case, and so to elicit 
universal principles from particular decisions, 
and how to draw a fine distinction without 
falling into the vice of hair-splitting. Hence, 
both as a judge of first instance, sitting for 
Lord Komilly at the rolls court in 1873, and 
as lord chancellor, he contributed not a little 
to the extension and refinement of some of 
the leading doctrines of our equitable juris- 
prudence. The principal fault of his judg- 
ments was an appearance of excessive elabo- 
ration, the facts being stated with perhaps 
supererogatory fulness and minuteness, and 
side issues pursued at tedious length. In 
these respects they compare unfavourably 
with those of his great contemporaries, Lord 
Cairns and Sir George Jessel. 

With the return of the conservatives to 
power under Disraeli in February 1874, Sel- 
borne was succeeded on the woolsack by Lord 
Cairns. As a member of the opposition, he 
took a leading part in the debates in the 
upper house. His speech of 20 May 1878 on 
the constitutional question involved in the 
transport, during peace and without consent 



Palmer 



Palmer 



of parliament, of troops belonging to the 
Induin native army from India to Malta 
is, witli the reply of Lord Cairns, tho locus 
clnntiivus on that important topic. Notwith- 
standing his lughchurchmanship, ho sup- 
ported Archbishop Tait's Public Worship 
.Regulation Bill of 1874 and the Burials Hill 
of 1880, But the first measure he only re- 
garded as a jrnVato 1 , 

On tho formation of Mr. Gladstone's se 
coud administration Selborne returned to 
the woolsack, 28 April 1880, and on!*!) Pee, 
188iJ, on the occasion of the opening of the 
now law courts in tho Strand, was created 
Viscount Wolmer of Blackmoor hi the county 
of Southampton, and Karl of Selborne, Ski- 
borne fully ooncuri'od in Mr. ( i! ladst one's 1 risk 
policy 80 far aa it was merely agrarian, and ho 
retained oilice until the fall of the adminis- 
tration in Juno 188/5. Ho was prevented 
from entering 1 Mr, Gladstone's third cabinet 
(formed ia February 1880) by inability to 
follow his former e'hief in his sudden es- 
pousal of the cause of home rule, The 
grounds of his dissent Selborne matin public 
m a letter to the 'Times' of &J April 188(5, 
As a liberal- unionist ho played a potent if 
not very prominent part in tho long struggle 
which followed, and, in September iSii.'l, 
spoke witli eileet in tho House of .Lords 
against the Home little Bill presented by 
Mr. (Uadstoue'a government. Meanwhile 
he succeeded in eiieeting Home minor but 
useful meats urea of law reform, and took part 
in tho agitation against the proposal of Lord 
Kosebery'fl ministry to disestablish and din- 
endow the Welal! ehuroh (1898-4). His 
intoroHt hi public ailnirs remained unabated 
until his death, which took place at his 
residence, Blackmoor, Petersliefd, on 4 May 
181)5. Ilewua then in hie eighty-third year, 
Mis remains were interred on 8 May in tho 
church of St. Matthew, Blackmoor, which ho 
had himself built. 

At all periods of hia lifo a devout and loyal 
son of the church of England, Selborne ad- 
mirably illustrated her history and litera- 
ture both in hiB hymnal, entitled 'Tho Book 
of Praise' (Oolden Treasury series), London, 
1863. and in Im * Notes of some .Passages 
in tie Liturgical History of tho English 
Church' (London, 1878, Hvo), Ho also 
contributed to tho i Kneyelopmdia Britan- 
nica/ 9tlx edit, (18H1), a ncholarly article 
on hymns, of which a separate reprint ap- 
peared in 189UJ under tho title * Hymns : 
their History and Development in tho Greek 
and Latin Churches, Germany, and Great 
Britain/ London, 8yo, The depth of his re- 
ligious convictions m apparent in his inau- 
gural addmia as rector of the umvemty of 



St. Andrews, 21 Nov. 1878 (published in 
pamphlet fornOjUnd his address as president 
of the Wordsworth Society, 7 July iKStf 
( yVvw.sYr&"fWrt of the iron/A twth ^w.^V'/y, 
No. viii.) I'n i A Defence of the Church of 
England against Distvslublishment, 1 London, 
ISSO, Svo, -Ith edit, IMS, and ''Ancient 
f (1 ne,ts and Kiel ions eonrerning Churches and 
Tithes/ London, 1K8S, Svo, he reproduced 
and reinfoniod with much learning and 
lucidity (he argument of Seldon in favour 
of the unlirokcn continuity of the reformed 
church of Mngland with the church founded 
by St.. Augustine. 

* Bel borne- was for some years chairman of 
the house of Jaymeu of the province of Can- 
terbury. Ue wtvs elected a fellow of the 
Uoynl Society on 7 June lH(I() t and was an 
hen, LLJ.). of Cambridge University. From 
liis early years IM was a member of tho 
Mercers' Company, as his father and grand-* 
fat hevhad been boioro him, and he was elected 
master in 1H70, During his mastership ho 
visited tho company's estates in Ireland, and 
also attended carefully to homo uiliursof tho 
corporation, 

Welbome's portrait in oils, as un old mana 
pmNterpieeoby Mr.U, l<\ Watts, U.A.lmngs 
in the drawing-room at Lincoln's Inn, where 
also an engraving by W, Holl, from aslceteh 
of his profilt* l>y Mr. Richmond, U,A., shows 
hitu as lu^ was in early manhood. A third 
jn^rtrait, paiut.ed by Sir, Oulons, IB in tho 
hall of Magdalen College^ Oxford; a fourth, 
a good Ukeness by Miss Husk, is in tho hall 
of Trinity College, Oxford; and a fifth, by 
j\lr, Wells, in in the Mercers' Hall, London, 

Solborne married, on 2 Feb. IH*1H, Lady 
Laura Waldcgravo (<L 1885), neeond daugh- 
ter of William, eighth earl Waldegrave, by 
whom he had issue one son, William Waldo.- 
grave, viscount \Volmer, his succeasor in title 
and estate, and four daughters, 

Selhorne left autobiographical memorials, 
which are to bo published. 

[Kofltor'H Alumni Oxou.; WartV W. O.Ward 
and tho Oxford Movmnont t ad W*0 Ward and 
tho Catiholic Hovivul; DavitlHoti ami Ib'tilium's 
Lifo of A, 0, Tait 5 Nmvnuut'H LtstUn'H, od. Anno 
Mo'/loy, iL 323 ; Charltw Wt>t'dsworth' Annals of 
my Knrly Lifo, 1800-48, mid Amialw of my W(\ 
18'17-^Oj Qrovillu Mi'iuoirH, pt. it. vol. i>i p. 400; 
Times, O^May I8tr>; Holieit<jrH* Jtmwml, 11 May 
liJOil; private informution,| J. M', R. 

PALMBE, SAMIIKL (<L 17S24), pam- 
phleteer, wan educated for the dissent ing 
ministry under John Kor or Korr, M,D,, 
notdd as a jinnconfonniRi teaehur of philo* 
sophy at Bethmil (3rw?u (aftjirwartm at 
Ihghgato), On the dwtth of Htmry Head 
Talnier succocded him (about 1008) 



Palmer 



Palmer 



ter of the presbyterian congregation in Gravel 
Lane, Southwark. John Dunton describes 
him (1705) as an excellent preacher without 
notes, a diligent catechist, a good classic, and 
* beloved by all the clergy and gentlemen of 
the church of England, who have had an 
opportunity to know him.' In 1703, in the 
midst of the t occasional conformity ' agita- 
tion, Samuel Wesley (1662P-1785) [q.v,], 
father of John "Wesley, published a ' Letter ' 
to parliament censuring the dissenters' pri- 
vate academies. Palmer published anony- 
mously a spirited * Defence of the Dissen- 
ters' Education in their Private Academies : 
in answer to Mr W : y's , . . Reflections/ 
1703. In reply to Wesley's ' Defence ; of his 
' Letter,' Palmer issued in 1705, with his 
name, a t Vindication of the Learning, 
Loyalty, M'orals, and most Christian Beha- 
viour of the Dissenters towards the Church 
of England,' This Dunton thought con- 
clusive, and Matthew Henry [q, v.l wrote 
highly of it. Of Wesley's ' Eeply ' (1707) 
Palmer took no notice. Palmer's pamphlets 
throw important light on the aims and 
methods of nonconformist training. Be- 
tween October 1706 and October 1709 Pal- 
mer took orders in the established church. 
Orton's Northampton manuscript of 1731 
alleges that he thought himself neglected 
by dissenters, On 20 April 1710 he became 
vicar of All Saints' and St. Peter's, Maldon, 
Essex, and held this living till 1724, the year 
of his death, according to Morant. There is 
no entry of his burial at Maldon. Wilson 
cites a doubtful rumour that ' his conduct 
became scandalous. 7 

He published, in addition to single ser- 
mons (1703-26 ?) and the pamphlets noticed, 
'Moral Essays on ... English, Scotch, and 
Foreign Proverbs/ &c., 1710, Svo. _, 

[Morant's Hist, of Essex, 1768, i. 334 ; Pro- 
testant Dissenters' Magazine, 1799, p. 13; Wil- 
son's Dissenting Churches of London, 1814, iv. 
196 ; Dunton's Life and Errors, 1818, i, 370 sq., 
ii. 724 ; "Williams's Memoirs of Matthew Henry, 
1828, p. 184 ; Calatny's Own Life, 1830, i. 459, 
ii. 505 ; information from the Rev, E. R. Hor- 
wood, Maldon.] A. G-. 

PALMER, SAMIJEL ' (d. 1732), printer, 
worked in a house in Bartholomew Close, 
London, afterwards occupied by the two 
Jameses the typefounders (KowB MOKES, 
Dissert, upon English Typogr. Founders, 1778, 
pp. 61-3). In 1725 Benjamin Franklin < got 
into work at Palmer's, a famous printing 
house in Bartholomew Close/ where he 'con- 
tinued near a year,' and 'was employed in 
composing the second edition of Wollas- 
ton's "Religion of Nature'" (Autobiography 
in Works, Boston [1840], i, 56-9). In March 



1729 Palmer circulated a prospectus of ' The 
Practical Part of Printing, in which the 
Materials are fully described and all the 
Manual Operations explained ' (BlGMORE and 
WTMAN, Bibliography of Printing, ii. 109). 
But as the letter-founders, printers, and book- 
binders feared l the discovery of the mystery 
of those arts ' (PSALMANAZAR, Memoirs, 1765, 
P. 240), the Earls of Pembroke and Oxford, 
Dr, Richard Mead [q. v.], and others, per- 
suaded him to change his plan, and write a 
history of printing, of -which several parts 
were actually published about two-thirds 
of the book when Palmer died. 

On 15 Feb. 1731 a printing-press was set 
up at St. James's House for the Duke of 
\ork and some of the princesses to work 
under Palmer's supervision (Gent. Mag, i. 
79). Although his business was large and 
successful, and he was ' a sober, industrious 
man, and free from all extravagance, 'Palmer 
ultimately became bankrupt (PSALMANAZAR, 
p, 242). He was ailing two years before hia 
death (History of Printing, p. 311), which 
took place- on' 9 May 1732 \0ent. Mag. 1732, 
p. 775). He ' was a good printer, but a bad 
historian, ignorant, careless, and inaccurate ' 
(J. Lewis's ' Letter to Ames ' in NICHOLS'S 
Illustr. of Lit. iv. 174). Dibdin speaks still 
more contemptuously of * that wretched pil- 
ferer and driveller, Samuel Pakaer ' (BibL 
Decameron, il 379). 

Palmer's ' History of Printing ' was com- 

Eleted after his death by George Psalinanazar 
I, v.], the Formosan impostor, who expressed 
the hope that he would 'find the materials 
in so good an order that there will be little 
to do but to print after his [Palmer's]' manu- 
script/ In his * Memoirs ' (^p. 241-3), how- 
ever, Psalmanazar claimed to have written 
the whole book. It appeared as ' The 
General History of Printing, from its first 
invention in the City of Mentz to its first 
progress atid propagation thro' the most 
celebrated cities in Europe, particularly its 
introduction, rise, and progress here in Eng- 
land,' London, 1732, 4to. A 'remainder' 
edition was issued by A. Bettesworth and 
other booksellers with a new title in black 
and red, 'A General History of Printing 
from the first Invention of it in the City of 
Mentz,' &c., 1733. Ames's copy of the 
1 History/ with manuscript notes, was pur- 
chased by Bindley in 1786. The second part, 
containing the practical part, ready for print- 
ing, was also in the possession of Ames 
(NiCHOXS, Lit. Anecdotes, >v. 264). 

It could not have been, as is sometimes 
stated, Palmer the printer who accompanied 
John Dunton as apprentice and servant in 
his American tour, since- Dunton relates 



Palmer 



156 



Palmer 



(Life and Errors, 1818, i. 131) how 'Sain, 
having- a greater fancy to shooting than 
bookselling, got a post in the army, and, 
riding to see his captain, was drown'd.' Nor 
should the printer be confounded with the 
Samuel Palmer who collected Greek and 
Syriac manuscripts in the East (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecd. i. 640, 645, 649). 

[Gough's Memoir of Amos in Dibdin's ed. of 
Typogr, Antiq. i. 33, 45 ; Hansard's Typogruphia, 
1825, pp. 75, 78 ; Timperley's Encyclopaedia,, 
1842, pp. 61-7-8 ; Reed's Old EugHsli Letter 
foundries, 1887.] H. 11. T. 

PALMEE, SAMUEL (1741-1813), non- 
conformist biographer, was born at Bedford 
in 1741. He was educated at the Bedford 
grammar school, and studied for the ministry 
(1758-62) at the Daventry academy under 
Caleb Ashworth, D.I), [q,'v.] In 1762 he 
became afternoon preacher to the independent 
(originally presbyterian) congregation at 
Mare Street, Hackney, and was ordained on 
21 Nov. 1763, From 10 June 1763 he occa- 
sionally assisted "William. Langlbrd, 1),D, 
(1704-1755), at the Weigh-house Chapel, 
Little Eaatcheap, and waa the regular morn- 
ing preacher there from 20 June 1765 to 
28 Dec, 1766. He then succeeded William 
Hunt as morning preacher at Mure Street, 
and remained in charge of the congregation, 
which removed in 1771 to St. Thomas's 
Square, till his death. For some years, from 
about 1780, he had a boarding-school. He 
was a (juiet, instructive preacher, with little 
animation but some pathos, his theological 
views being closely allied to those of his 
friend, Job Orton [q. v.] As a pastor he 
was exemplary j his influence on younger men 
was great j and he early adopted the Sunday- 
school institution in connection with his 
church, Henry Foster Burder fa, v.] was 
his assist ant from October 1811 but Palmer 
remained active in his charge to the last, 
preaching with vigour on the Sunday pre- 
vious to his death. He died on %ti Nov. 
1818, and was interred on 6 Dec, in the 
burial-ground at St. Thomas's Square. II is 
funeral Bewmon was preached by Thomas N. 
Toller of Kott ering, Northamptonshire, Ho 
left a nume.ro us family, His son Samuel en- 
tered Daventry academy in 1786, and be- 
came a schoolmaster at Chigwell, Essex. 

Palmer's reputation rests on hie 'Pro- 
testant Dissent era' Catechism* and his' Non- 
conformist's Memorial.' The catechism waa 
undertaken at the request of several minis- 
ters, who wanted a supplement to the 
"Westminster assembly's * Shorter Cate- 
chism,' giving the grounds of dissent. The 
manuscript, was revised by Philip Furneaux 
[q, v.] ana Job Orton, and published hi 177-, 



12mo. Its two sections deal with the history 
and principles of nonconformity. It was im- 
mediately successful, reaching a third edition 
in 1773, and it has been constantly reprinted, 
with additions and revisions by various 
editors ; the twenty-ninth edition was pub- 
lished in 1890, 8vo. A translation into Welsh 
waa first published in 1775, 1 &no. An edition 
adapted for Irish presbyterians waa published 
at Belfast, 18:34, 1 iJrno. As it was too long 
for its original purpose, Palmer issued ' The 
Protestant Dissenters' Shorter Catechism , . . 
a Supplement to the Assembly's/ &c., 1783, 



At Orton's suggestion Palmer undertook 
an abridgment of the ' Account of the Minis- 
ters . . ". Ejected/ &c., 1713, 8vo, by Ed- 
mund Calamy, D,D. [q. v,] ; incorporating the 
* Continuation/ &c,> 1^27, 8vo, tf vols., and 
rearranging the county lists of livings alpha- 
betically. The work was published in parts, 
as 'The Nonconformist's Memorial,' &<;,, 
1775-8, 8vo, 2 vols. ; an enlarged edition, 
with inferior portraits, was published m 
1802-8, 8vo, 8 vols. Palmer should be con* 
suited for his additions ; otherwise he docs 
not supersede Calamy, Ho took pains with 
his work, and created fresh interest in the 
subject; but his corrections of Oaiainy arcs 
inadequate, ho omits important documents, 
his bibliography is slovenly, and his typo- 
graphical errors are vexatious* 11 is projected 
additional volumes on tho lives of the earlier 
puritans, and i an account of the principal 
dissenting ministers since the ejectment/ 
were never executed, 

He published funeral sermons for Samuel 
Sanderson (1770), Caleb Ashworth, TUX 
(1775), Samuel Wilton, 1X1), (1778), John 
Howard (1790), llabakkuk Crabb '(1795), 
and other separate sermons (1774-90); also: 
1. 'The Calvinism of the Protestant Pitt- 
Renters asserted/ to,, 1786, Bvo. 'A, 
Vindication of tho Modern Difisentera/ &c%, 
1790, Bvo, against William Hawkins (1722- 
1801) [<|.v,] 3. 'An Apology for the Chris- 
tian "Sabbath/ 1799, Bvo, Ik 'Memoirs of 
, . , Hugh Farmer' [q, v.], &c., 1804, Bvo 
(anon,) 5, ' Memoirs of . , , Matthew Henry/ 
1809, 4to, prefixed to * Henry's MiHcellanooua 
Works ; ' also separately, ($. * Dr. Watts no 
Socmian/ &c*, 181*% Bvo, He edit<l, xvit.U 
notes, Johnson's * Life of 'Watts/ 1785, Bvo, 
and Orton's 'Lettera to Dissenting Minis- 
ters/ &c. ? 1806, 8vo, 2 VO!B., with memoir. 
He contributed to the ' Prottmtant DisHontfrt 
Magoasinp ' and 'Monthly Itopcwitory.' MIB 
life of Samuel Clark, the Daventry tutor, 
is^ in the 'Monthly Ilepository/ 1 .80(1 ; that 
of (Mob Ashworth, DJ), [q/v.], is in the 
same magazine, 



Palmer 



157 



Palmer 



[Funernl Sermon, by Toller, 1814; Monthly' 
Depository, 1814 p. 65, 1822 pp. 164, 286; 
Orton's Letters, 1806, ii. 127, 129, 133, 143; 
Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London, 1808, 
i. 186 sq.] A. G. 

PALMER,, SAMUEL (1805-1881), 
poetical landscape-painter, the son of a book- 
seller, was born in Surrey Square, St. Mary's, 
Newington, on 27 Jan. 1805. A delicate 
and very sensitive child, he was not sent 
early to school. His nurse, Mary Ward 
(afterwards his servant), was a woman of 
superior mind, and his father taught him 
Latin and Greek, and encouraged a love for 
the Bible and English literature, especially 
the older poets. Later he was sent to Mer- 
chant Taylors* School ; but his father soon 
removed him, in order that he might study 
art, lor which he had shown some inclina- 
tion. "When he was nearly thirteen years 
old he lost his mother, a shock from which 
he is said not to have recovered for many 
years, It was now settled that he was to 
be a painter. He received his first lessons 
from an obscure artist named Wate, and in 
1819 was fortunate enough to have three of 
his landscapes accepted at the Royal Aca- 
demy, and two at the British Institution. 
One of the latter (either ' Bridge Scene ' or 
* Landscape- Composition ') was bought by a 
Mr. Wilkinson for seven guineas. In this 
year his address, given in the Royal Aca- 
demy Catalogue, was 126 Houndsdltch, but 
next year it was 10 Broad Street, Blooms- 
bury, 

Palmer exhibited sparingly at the Royal 
Academy in 1820, and from 1822 to 1826, 
and at the British Institution in 1821 and 
1822. During this period he formed the ac- 
quaintance of John Linnell [q, v.], his future 
father-in-law, who gave him valuable coun- 
sel and instruction in art. Linnell intro- 
duced him to John Varley [q. v.], William 
Mulready [q. v.], and William Blake (1757- 
1827) [q, v.] The introduction to Blake took 
place in 1824, when Blake was about half- 
way through his illustrations to Job. Though 
Blake was sixty-seven years old, and had but 
three more years to live, his imagination and 
power of design were at their highest, and 
had a profound influence upon Palmer. Their 
intercourse lasted about two years when there 
was a temporary breakdown in Palmer's 
health; and partly on this account, and 
partly in order to make designs from Ruth, 
he, accompanied by his father, left London 
for Shoreham, near Sevenoaks in Kent, where 
he remained for about seven years at a cot- 
tage named ' Waterhouse.' 

A small competence enabled them to live 
with extreme frugality in the simple enjoy- 



ment of a country life, pnssed in the midst 
of beautiful scenery and cheered by con- 
genial companionship. Among their friends 
and visitors were George Richmond (now 
RA.), Edward Calvert [q.v.] both ardent 
admirers of Blake a cousin named John 
Giles, and Henry Walter, an animal-painter. 
This little society went by the name of ' The 
Ancients.' The days were spent in painting 
and walking, the evenings in reading Eng- 
lish poetry and music, and they were fond of 
nightly rambles. Palmer at that time played 
the violin and sang, but he afterwards gave 
up the practice of music to devote himself 
more exclusively to painting. At Shoreham 
he painted in oil, and made many water- 
colour sketches from nature and studies in 
poetical landscape, mostly in sepia and ivory 
black. The subjects were principally pas- 
toral or scriptural, and were treated in a 
spirit of primitive simplicity akin to that of 
Blake's wood-engravings to Thornton's 'Pas- 
torals/ which had also a strong influence OR 
E. Calvert. In these years of poetical 
musing in the presence of nature, seen by 
the light of his favourite poets, the ideal of 
his art was formed. The only works ex- 
hibited from 1827 to 1832 were < The De- 
luge, a sketch,' and ' Ruth returned from 
Gleaning,' which appeared at the Royal 
Academy in 1829. In 1832 his address in 
the Royal Academy Catalogue is 4 Grove 
Street, Lisson Grove, a small house bought 
with a legacy, and here he settled in this or 
the following year. 

A sudden activity marks this period. In 
1832 he took a sketching tour in North 
Wales, and sent seven works to the Royal 
Academy, in 1833 six, and in 1834 five, as 
well as a like number to the British Insti- 
tution. About this time he paid his first 
visit to Devonshire, a country the scenery of 
which, with its i heaped-up richness,' gave 
him all he desired in landscape. This visit 
is marked by a * Scene from Lee, North 
Devon/ which appeared at the Royal Aca- 
demy in 1835, and the exhibited drawings 
of the next two years tell of a visit to North 
Wales. 

In 1837 Palmer married Hannah, the 
eldest daughter of John Linnell. The mar- 
riage, in deference to the views of his 
father-in-law and to his after regret, was 
performed at a registry office, His friend 
George Richmond having taken to himself a 
wife about the same time, the two couples 
went off together to Italy, where Palmer 
and his wife stayed two years. Mrs. Palmer 
made copies from the old masters for her 
father, and also sketched from nature. Some 
of her Italian views were exhibited at the 



Palmer 



158 



Palmer 



Royal Academy in 1840 and 1842, They 
seem to have spent moat of their time in 
Koine, but made some stay at Naples. Pal- 
mer's first contribution to the Uoyal Academy 
after his return waa * .Pompeii, the Struct of 
the Tombs' (1840), which was followed by 
other Italian drawings in 1841 and 1 842. 
In the latter ye,araaon was born to him. He 
had confined himself almost, if not (entirely, 
to water-colour whilo ho was abroad and 
though he resumed painting in oils after his 
return from Italy, and novor lost, tho, desire 
to work in that medium, he practically aban- 
doned it after 1N-1I5, when lie was elected an 
associate of the (now Royal) Society of 
Painters in Water-colours. After this ho 
left oiF exhibiting at the Royal Academy 
and the British Institution, and contributed 
only to the exhibitions of his society. In 
the Itrst year or two ho exhibited many 
Italian drawings, delicate in colour and care- 
fully drawn, but not strongly distinguished 
from the work of other men, Henceforth his 
subjects were mostly English pastorals 
aged oaks and cornfields, gleaners and nut- 
ting-parties, gipsy-dolls, and rising storms- 
or belonged to the classes of i Romantic,' 
* Classic, or ' IdoaL' Among the latter wore 
illustrations of the * Pilgrim's Progress 7 and 
Spenser, and such designs us *Sl, Vt\\\\ land- 
ing in Italy,' * Robinson Crusoe guiding his 
llaft up the Creek/ ' Farewell to (Calypso/ 
or ' Mercury driving away the Cattle of Ad- 
inotus/ In 1H55 ho exhibited for tho first 
time a drawing from Milton, ' Tho Dell of 
Oomufl,' which wan followed by two other 
illustrations from the same masque in 1850, 
Hia favourite effects worts twilight, muiHots, 
and moonlightH ; and once he went out of 
liis usual course to record in a striking draw- 
ing an unusual phenomenon, <Tho Comet of 
1859, an Been from the ttkirta of Dartmoor, 1 

During these yearn he eked out his slender 
income by giving drawing lessons. In 18UJ 
he again visited North Wales. In 1B45 ho 
wan at Margate, and spent some time at 
Princes Risborough, BuckinglmmRhiro, In, 
184(5 he made some drawings, which were 
engraved on wood, for the illustration of 
Dickena's * Pictures from I'taly.' In 1847 ho 
lost his only daughter (born '1844), an event 
which he felt intcnBoly, and which canned 
tim to leave Lion drove for Ktmmugton 
(U Victoria Road) in the spring of 1 848, In 
December of this year hia father died, At 
Victoria Road and at 6 Dover Place, Marl- 
borough Place, Kensington, whither he moved 
about 1850, ho commenced the practice of 
etching. Among his neighbours a ml friends 
in that locality were T. ( >, Barlow, R, A., and 
0. W. Cope, EA* the former an cngravur,, 



and the latter as clever with the etelung- 
needlo as the paint-brush, lie was eleeted 
a member of the Klching Society in 1853, 
hia probationary cr.ehing being a beautiful 
little ))late called 'The Willows.' Ten out 
of Palmor's thirteen etchings were executed 
at Kensington. 

In 180-1- Palmer was elected a full member 
of the Water-colour Society, to which ho 
continued to contribute from two to eight 
drawings annually. In lS5ti he undertook 
nine illustrations to Adums'tf ( Sacred Alle- 
gories.' In 1857 ho .sketched in Cornwall, 
and in iSoH and 18(50 in Devonshire, On 
sketching 1 excursions, with no luggage but 
one spare rthirtj and associating much with 
the country folk, 1m travelled a great donl 
on foot, and often walked throughout tho 
night. 

11<, still found it hard to mako a living, 
and grew despondent and tired even of hi 
work, and in 1H(U he sustained averynevem 
blow in t)i( v , death of bin olden!, son ai the 
age of nineteen, lie removed from London, 
and after a year's ntay at HcigHte, took up 
his residence at Furze Hill I louse, Mend 
Vale, Uodhill, where ho spent tho remaining 
twenty yearn of bis life. Although he did 
not produce much, partly through failing 
health and partly from uin excessive euro 
and deliberation, it is to thin period that hm 
Uncut work belongs, 

J.t WIIH due to the Hympalhctic Hugg(*Htion 
of ft Htrangiu*, Mr. b. \L Valj>y, that Palmer 
found a field in which he could exorcise all 
hitt finest fneulUcB and employ them to 
realinn the droanm of a lifetime. Thin wan a 
commiMHion for druwingH in illustration of 
' L'Allegpo* and * II PenseroHO/ two of thorn* 
'minor poems' of Milton, a braMH-ehimped 
copy of whie.li, given to him by his nurse on 
her death-hod, he had carried with him 
wherever he wont for twenty yoara. f 
never,' he once wrote, ' know wueli a flaered 
and home-felt delight an when endeavouring, 
in all humility, to realise, after a sort, tho 
imagery of Milton.' Fortunately the grow* 
ing inlirmitieM of hin body Ktum to have been 
accompanied by an incrcuHo in tho elcarneHrt 
and completeness of IU'H imagination p and 
though he took long about thoHo drawings, 
fearing to part with them till they hnd ri 1 "* 
coiv(*d thoso l final goHHumor toucheH and 
tenderneHfHeH ' which he comparud to the * lew 
last Hunglows which give the fruit.8 their 



oflft/ they mfiy be rtigarded aH the mi- 
preme oxprwHsinn of the man and the art-int, 
nrillinnt, rich, and powerful in colour, thty 
are finiHhe.d to a degree seldom attaino<l,iuid 
yet, despite their (elaboration, contain no 
touch unfe.lt or 



Palmer 



159 



Palmer 



These wore all exhibited at the "Water- 
colour Society in the following order : i The 
Lonely Tower,' *A Towered City,' nnd 
'Morning/ 1868 (winter exhibition), 'The 
Curlew/ 1870 (summer), < The Waters Mur- 
muring/ 1 877 (summer), ' The Prospect ' 
and* The Eastern (-Into/ 1881 (winter), and 
'The Bellman/ 188:2 (Hunimer), The last 
two were perhaps tho finest of all, 

Among other iine drawings belonging to 
this period were: ' The Brother come Homo 
from Sun,/ ' The Chapel by the Bridge/ The 
Golden Hour/ ' Lycidas/ 'A Golden City' 
(a dream of Home), 'Tityrua restored to iiia 
ratrhuony/ and t Sabrina. 1 

At Uedhill he again took up his etching- 
needle and added Ihreo more plates ('The 
Bellman/ 'The Lonely Tower/ and ' Open- 
ing the .Fold') to the ton he had finished at 
Kensington. Palmer delighted in etching 
oven more than in painting 1 , and his plates 
aro like bin drawings visioiw of tender 
poetry, powerful and Mubtle in illumination, 
and iinished to the hint degree, For the 
Ktching Club, besides hi probationary plate, 
'The Willow/ he executed fleven'plulo.s. 
Thcso were publiHhud by the Club: 'The 
Vino' (two mibjeetH on one plate), in 18/32; 
' The Sleeping Shepherd/ 'The Skylark/ and 
'The Kining Moon/ in 1HH7; 'Tlio Herds- 
man ' in IH(U>, ' The Morning of Life ' in 1 H72, 
and 'The Lonely Tower 1 in 1880. 'The 
IJerdHman'a Cottago/ a fmn.sot wcene, wa8 
published aw { Hunrino, ' in tho ' Portfolio ' for 
November 1872; ' Christ matt' in ' A Memoir 
of B. Palmor,' 1882; 'The Marly Ploughman' 
in Hanierton'H ' Ktehing and I^tehern ;' ' The 
Bellman/ by t.ho Fine Art Society, in 1879 ; 
and < Opening this Void' in the artist's t Eng- 
lish Voraion of the 'KeloguHH of Virgil/ 
published powthumouHly in 1883. 

On this work of 1 ranslating and illustrating 
the Eclogues ho had boon engaged for many 
years before bin death, Of the illustrations, 
only one had been completely etched. Four 
more ware m progress and were completed 
by his aon, Mr. A. IT, Palmer, The five 
piatefl,wil'hphotographic reproductions of the 
remaining designs, were published with the 
translation, 

During his later years his circumstances 
were easier, his prices higher, his commissions 
constant, and little occurred to disturb the 
even tenor of his life. He saw few visi tors, 
and aeldom left home except now and then to 
pay a visit to Mr, J. 0* Hook (now B, A,) at 
Cliurt, but spent most of his time in musing 
and meditating over his designs and reading 
Ids favourite authors, One of the very few 
new friends he made was Mr. J, Merrick 
Head of Re i gate, his legal adviser and exe- 



cutor, who possesses several choice examples 
of his art. 

^ After a life distinguished by its innocence, 
its simplicity, and its devotion to an artistic 
ideal for which he sacrificed all worldly 
considerations, Palmer died on 24 May 1881. 

Palmer was one of the most original and 
poetical of English landscape-painters, and 
almost the last of the ideal school of land- 
scape, which, based mainly on the pictures of 
Claude, was represented in England by Wil- 
son and Turner, and many others. Claude, 
Turner, Blake, and Linnell had a distinct 
influence in developing Palmer's genius, but 
his work stands apart by itself. As a man 
he was loved by all who knew him. His 
circle of acquaintances was small, but his 
friendships were deep, His religious convic- 
tions were strong, his opinions on other points 
conservative in character, and often founded 
on slender knowledge, but they were always 
the result of much reflection, The warmth 
of his feeling and a genuine vein of humour 
added vivacity to his conversation and corre- 
spondence. His translation of the ' Eclogues 
of Virgil ' is unequal and diffuse, but shows 
true poetical feeling and contains some beau- 
tiful passages ; but his best prose (as in the 
preface to this volume, and his delightful 
letters, many of which have been published) 
is superior to his verse. 

A collection of Palmer's works was ex- 
hibited shortly after his death by the Pine 
Art Society, and seventeen of his finest 
drawings were lent to the winter exhibition 
of the lioyal Academy in 1893. 

[Life and Letters of Samuel Palmer by A. H. 
Palmer; Samuel Palmer : Memoir by A. H. 
Palmer; Notes by F. G-. Stephens on Exhibition 
of Palmer's works at the Fine Art Society in 
1881 ; Shorter Poems of John Milton, with illus- 
trations by Samuel Palmer and preface by A. H. 
Palmar; Robot's 'Old' Water-colour Society; 
Gtilchrist'a Life of William Blake; .Story's LiVe 
of John Linnell ; Life of Edward Gal vert ; An 
English Version of the Eclogues of Virgil by 
Samuel Palmer ; Athenseum, 4 June and 5 Nov. 
1881 ; Portfolio, November 1872.] 0. M. 

PALMEB, SHIRLEY /1786-1852), 
medical writer, born at Coleshill, Warwick- 
shire, %7 A,xi. 1786, was son of Edward 
Palmer, solicitor, by his second wife, Bene- 
dicta Hears. Educated at Coleshill grammar 
school, and at Harrow, under the Kev. Joseph 
Drury, D.D., Palmer became a pupil of Mr. 
Salt, surgeon, of Lichfield, father of Henry 
Salt [q. Y.j, the Abyssinian traveller, and 
subsequently studied under Abernethy at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, London. He became 
a member of the Royal College of Surgeons 
in 1807, and graduated M.P, at Glasgow in 



Palmer 



1 60 



Palmer 



1815. Settling at Tamworth, StatTordshire 
lie was twice elected high bailiff" of the 
town. In 1.831 he established a practice at 
Birmingham,, but still maintained his resi- 
dence and connection at Tamworth. He 
died 11 Nov. 1852, at Tamworth, and was 
buried in the new churchyard, which had 
once formed part of his garden. Ho married, 
on 29 Sept. 1813, Marie Josephine Minette 
Breheault, a French refugee of good family. 

Palmer published : 1. 'The Swiss Exile/ a 
juvenile denunciation of Napoleon in heroic 
verse in thirty or forty pages (4to, n. d.), 
dedicated to Miss Anna Seward. 2. 'Popu- 
lar Illustrations of Medicine/ London, 1 829, 
8vo, 3. l Popular Lectures on the Verte- 
brated Animals of the British Islands/ Lon- 
don, 1832, 8vo. 4. ' A Pentad-lot Dictionary 
[French, English, Greek, Latin, and German] 
of the Terras employed in Anatomy/Physio- 
logy, Pathology, practical Medicine/ <&e,, 
London, 1845, 

Palmer edited tire 'New Medical and 
Physical Journal /along with William Shear- 
man, M.D., and James Johnson, from 1815 
to 1819 ; the ' London Medical Exposi- 
tory/ along with 1). Uwins and Samuol 
Frederick Gray, from 1 8 1 9 to 1 2 1 . To both 
periodicals ho contributed largely, as well as 
to the 'Lichiitild Mereury' while John 
"Woolrich was cd i tor, and to the first live 
volumes of the ' Analyst/ 

[His works in the British Museum ; Bimm,s'i 
Bibliothoca StaffordionsiH.] 0. J?\ K, P. 

PALMEE or PALMABIUS, THOMAS 
( ft. 1410), theological writer, WUH a friar of 
the house of Pomin loans m London. lie took 
the degree of doctor of theology, and asmsted 
in 1412 at the trial of Sir John Oldeaatlo 
(PoxB, Ac,ts and Monmwnta f iii. ttitt), 'W4 ). 
He was a friend of Richard Olilltml [ q, v.'j, 
bishop of London ; was skilful in disputation, 
and wrote orthodox works to repair the 
schisms of the church, Thesis wore : 1 . ' Super 
facienda unione/ which Iceland saw at Westo 
minster (Coll. iii, 48), 2, ' De Adoratiow) 
Jmapnum Hbellns,' beginning ' Nuixjuld 
domini nostri crucifix i/ now in tho Morton 
College MS, Ixviii. f. 18ft, The second part 
is entitled ' Do Veneratione Sanctorum,' and 
begins ^Tnwttatum eta sanctorum vtmern 
tione/ 8. * Oe original! peocato* (MB. M fir- 
ton, zft,)j beginning ' Ego cum aim pulvia 
et cinis/ Tanner ascribes the rest of the 
manuscript to him ' Da perugrinatione/ on 
the pilgrimages to Canterbury but the ma- 
nuscript does not name Palmer as the author, 
4. ' De indulgentiis/ 

[Tanners BibL Brit ; Pits, De Jllustribus 
Auglise Scriptoribus, p, 69 L] M. B 



PALMER, SIR THOMAS (a. Ifto^), 
soldier, was tho youngest of the three sous 
of Sir Edward .Palm or, by his wife, tho sister 
and coheiress of Sir Kieharol Clement, of tho 
Moat, Ightham, Kent. 11 is grandfather, John 
Palmer, of Angmering, Sussex, was a member 
of a liimily that had settled in Sussex: in tho 
fourteenth century ; and of his father's two 
younger brothers/llobert was the founder of 
the Palmers of Purlin m in Sussex, while Sir 
Thomas served with distinction in the garrison 
at Calais. He was early attached to the court, 
and in 1515 ho was serving at Tonrnny. On, 
28 April, 151.7 he was one of the feodariew of 
the honour of Richmond. The same yeav ho 
became bailiir of the* lordship of Barton-mi* 
Hnmbor, Lincolnshire. lie was a gentleman* 
usher to the king m 1 511), and at the Field of 
the Cloth of Gold in Ifii'O. On 22 Aug. 151.0 
he was made overseer of petty customs, of t he- 
subsidy of tonnage and poundage, ami rrgin 
lator of tho euHtom~hou8o wherries; in IWL 
he became surveyor of tho lordnhip of llenloy- 
in-Ardtm, and he also hud an annuity of 2()f t 
a year, He served in the expedition of 1 tll'8, 
and the ame year bud a grant, of the manor 
of Pollicot, Buckinghamshire. Tin* next year 
he had a further grant of ground in tho 
parish of St. Thoman the Apostle, London, 
On 10 Nov. ir>, l j;j he wan Icuighted at Calais, 
where lie had become captain of Newen~ 
hum 1 'ridge, lie was favourably noticed by 
Henry VI II, who playod died with him, 
and in Ifil'M be became knight-porter ot 
Calais, an olliee of considerable importance, 
lie was taken primmer 'by tho French in 
an expedition from (I nil-men, and had to ran- 
Horn himself, lie gave an account of thin 
and other serviceB to Cromwell in a letter of 
IfiJH^ He acted a commisHioner for Cuhiw 
aiul its marcb(>s in .15^5 in the <!olltctit)U 
of tints tentliH of fjpiritualitiow, Palmar wiw 
at tho altair of the Bridge of Ardo in 1540, 
and ^ tho next year, wanting to Mocnre a 
spocial pension, had leave to como over to 
London to try and HiKwrc it. In July 154.% 
when treasurer of (.luisnufl, he went with 
the fortso under Sir John Wallop against* 
tho French, and in Augimt 1545 Lord ' firay 
sent him on a meswage t,o the king. In thm 
yoar he was captain of tha 'Old Man* nt 
Boulogne, presumably reHigning it to }m 
jrothor. 

When Henry ^ VIII died, Palmer had 
cured a reputation for unbounded oourugts. 
Though ha hated Someraat, he was at first a 
member of his..party, and was told of for ser- 
vice on tlia border. In 1548 ha several timos 
distimjuifihod himflelf by bringing pro viflionw 
nto Haddington ; but, having command of 
the lancea in an expedition from Berwick, 



Palmer 



161 



Palmer 



his ' sellfwyll and glorie in that joorney dyd 
cast awaye the whoalle power, for they were 
all overthrowen.' He seoms none the less 
to have continued to hold his appointments 
at Calais, On 11 June 1550 he was sent with 
Sir Richard Lee to view the forts on the 
Scottish border, and provide for their re- 
pair. 

Palmer, on 7 Oct. 1551, was the first to 
disclose Somerset's treason, the declaration 
being made in Warwick's garden (cf. DIXON, 
Hist, of the Chwch of England, ii. 393, 397- 
398). He had evidently hoped to rise with 
Northumberland ; having secured several 
monastic grants, he was building himself a 
house in the Strand. On 18 Feb. 1551-2 he 
had a pardon for all treasons, doubtless to 
clear him from all suspicion as a former fol- 
lower of Somerset ; and on 3 March follow- 
ing he was appointed a commissioner for 
the division of the debatable land on the 
borders. He was an adherent of Lady Jane 
Grey, and had been too prominent to 
escape when Northumberland tell. He was 
sent to the Tower on 25 July 1553, arraigned 
and condemned on 19 Aug., and brought out 
for execution on 22 Aug., with Sir John 
Gates, the Duke of Northumberland, and 
others. He had heard mass before execution, 
and taken the sacrament in one kind ; but 
when he came on the scaffold, covered with 
the blood of those who had just been be- 
headed, he made a manly speech, in which 
he said that he died a protestant. 

Of Sir Thomas's two elder brothers, the. 
first, Sir John, known as ' Buskin Palmer' 
.or * Long Palmer/ was sheriff of Surrey and 
Sussex successively in 1533 and 1543. He 
became a noted dicer, and, having been con- 
stantly in the habit of winning money from 
Henry VIII at cards, lie was hanged, though 
upon what exact grounds or at what date is 
uncertain. 

His second brother, SIR HENRY PALMER 
(d. 1559), 'of Wingham' in Kent, was a 
man of much greater repute. He commenced 
a soldier's career by serving as a * spear of 
Calais/ but about 1535 he became actinj 
bailiff of Guisnes ; he was bailiff in 1539, am 
in the same place held the offices of master 
of the ordnance, treasurer, supervisor and 
warden of the forest. He- was a gentleman 
of the king's household in 1544. He dis- 
tinguished nimself greatly in the capture of 
Boulogne in 1544, and had his arm broken. 
He now came to Boulogne as member of the 
council, and as early as Io46 was master of 
the ordnance. In August 1549 he retired from 
the Bullenberg, with leave of Lord Clinton, 
and levelled the walls. He was in consequence 
degraded, and Lord Clinton reprimanded. 

VOL, XLIII. 



Palmer was not a coward, but saw that the 
smallforts could not be held if more men were 
not supplied. His place as captain of ' the 
Old Man ' seems to have been given to Sir 
John Norton. When Queen Mary came to the 
throne he must have been in great danger, 
He was arrested by Sir Thomas Moyle in July 
1553, but was soon at large, as in December 
he was at Calais again. He stayed on there 
during Mary's reign. In December 1559 he 
made an expedition from Guisnes with Lord 
Grey, and was badly wounded in the arm. in 
an attack on a fortified church. In the French 
attack on Calais in 1558 he was reported to 
be killed, but he seems only to have been 
taken prisoner, and was subsequently ran- 
somed. He returned to his seat at Wing- 
ham, which he had secured after the disso- 
lution of the monasteries in 1553, and he 
died there before September 1559. The pedi- 
gree of 1672 states that there was a portrait 
of him at "Wingham, Sir Henry Palmer 
married Jane, daughter of Sir Richard Wiude- 
bank of Guisnes, and left three sons Su 
Thomas [q. v.], { the Travailer,' Arnold, ana 
Edward. 

[Letters and Papers, Henry VIII ; Chron. of 
Calais, p. 42, &c., Chron. of Queen Mary and 
Queen Jane, p. 21, &c. t in the Camden Soc. ; 
State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. x. ; Ordinances of 
the Privy Council, vols. vii., &c. ; Lit. Rem. of 
King Edw. VI (Roxb. Club), p. 353, &c.; Cal. of 
State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1547-80, p. 105, Add. 
1547-65, p.492,For.Ser. 1553-8, p. 230 ; Froude's 
Hist, of Engi. vol. vi. ; Zur. Letters, 3rd s-r. 
(Parker Soc.), pp. 367, 577; Metcalfe's Knights; 
Pedigree of the Palmers of Sussex, 1672, pri-s 
vately printed 1867; Strype's Mem. of the Kef. 
n. i, 123, &c., ii. 207, &c., in. i. 24, &c., ii, 182, 
&c., Annals, i. i. 64, n. ii. 22, &c., Cranmer, 
p. 451 ; Betham's Baronetage, i. 212, &c.; Nico- 
las's Privy Purse. Expenses of Henry VIII and 
of Princess Mary ; Hasted's Hist, of Kent, iii. 
700, &c.] W. A. J. A. 

PALMER, SIB THOMAS (1540-1636), 
' the Travailer,' born in 1540, was the third 
son of Sir Henry Palmer of Wingham, Kent, 
by his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Richard 
Windebank of Guisnes, and was nephew of 
Sir Thomas Palmer (d. 1553) [q. v,] He 
was high sheriff of Kent in 1595, and in 
the following year went on the expedition to 
Cadiz, when he was knighted. In 1606 he 
published * An Essay of the Meanes how to 
make our Travailes into forraine Countries 
the more profitable and honourable/ London, 
4to. Here Palmer discussed the advantages 
of foreign travel, and some of the political 
and commercial principles which the traveller 
should understand. The book is dated from 
Wingham, where the author is said to have 



Palmer 



162 



Palmer 



kept, with great hospitality, sixty Ghrist- 
mases without intermission, He was created 
n baronet on 29 June 1621. He died on 
2 Jan. 1625-6, aged 85, and was buried at 
AVingham. He married Margaret, daughter 
of John Pooley of Badley, Suffolk, who died 
in August 1.625, aged 85. Of his three sons, 
nil knighted, Sir' Thomas died before his 
father, and was himself father of Herbert 
Palmer [q. v.] The second son, Sir Koger, 
was master of the household to Charles I, 
and the third son, Sir James, is noticed sepa- 
rately. 

The ' Travailer ' must be distinguished from 
Thomas Palmer or Palmar, a Roman catholic 
scholar, who graduated B. A. from Braaenoso 
College, Oxford, in 1553, but who subse- 
quently became a primary scholar of St. 
John's College, and was in 1503 appointed 
principal of Gloucester Hall. lie was a 
zoalous catholic, and, after a steady refusal 
to conform, ho had in .1504 to retire from 
his headship to his estates in Essex, whwo 
persecution is said to have followed him, 
Wood describes him as an excellent orator, 
and 'the best of his time for a Ciceronian 
style' (Fosraw, Alumni O.ron. lfiOO-1714; 
WOOD, Fasti, ed. Bliss, i, 1/50 j DODD, C/wreh 
History, ii. 90). 

[Cul. State Papers, Dow. T31iwil>oth, cclix. 2; 
Wood's Athene Oxon, (Blins), iii. ll'M ; Bm'ry'a 
KontG-onealogioH. p,2f>9; HrtHtod's Koiit,iii,7()0; 
Burkc'n Kxlmct JJju*onutapo,nppoiuUx ; NoteH and 
Queries, 8th sor, viii. 243-4 J W, A. M. H. 

PALMEE, THOMAS (f, 1(5>M 1060), 
independent minister and agitator, bonx about 
1 6*20, was said to lw a clergyman's aon. In 
1044 he became, probably after serving as a 
Holdier, chaplain to Sldppon's regiment, lie 
was vicar, or perpetual curate, of St. Lau- 
rence Pountney from 24 Nov. 1(544 to 
tW April 1040. Early in the latter year he 
was presented by the Westminster assembly 
to the rectory of A ston-upon-Trent in Derby- 
shire, The living had been sequestered from 
a royalist, Richard Clark or Clerke, who in 
April 1 646 made an elfort to regain possession 
of the parsonage, A fifth part of the value 
of the rectory was allowed to Clark's wife by 
the committee for plundered mintHterH on 
33 June* Tn March 1 040-7 Palmer obtained 
an ordinance from the lords for settling 1 him* 
self in the rectory, when he disputed the ri$ht 
of Clark's family to the portion of the revenue 
allotted to them. 

Palmer has been identified with the Thomas 
Palmer who matriculated from Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 22 Jan, 1648-9, waa demy 
from 1648 to 1655, graduated B,A. on 26 Feb. 
1-2, was chosen fellow of Magdalen in 



1658, and graduated M.A. on 13 June 1054, 
In 1058 he communicated the articles agreed 
upon by the independent ministers at Oxford 
to the congregations of Derbyshire and Not- 
tinghamshire, He attended meetings of the 
Nottingham presbyteriau classis in 1658 and 

1659. In 1059 ho described himself as 
' pastor of a church of Christ in Nottingham/ 
He waa ejected from both rectory and fellow- 



ing meetings on the premises of a rich brewer 
at Limohouse, and a year later, though di- 
guiwed, was taken prisoner at Egorton in Kmit, 
and imprisoned at Canterbury, Early in 1(503 
he waa residing in Hope Alley, Little Moor- 
fields, London, and dtwcrilwd UH a dangerous 
person, holding the Fifth-monarchy opinions, 
About June ho was imprisoned at Nott ingluuu 
for preaching in convwitieloH. hi the autumn 
of 160ft he diHthigiUBluul himself IIH an agi- 
tator in the Famltvy Wood plot, having under- 
taken to raise a troop of UOVHG to rniwt at 
Nottingham on 1$ Oct. lie witrt Mpeciully 
mentioned in the Mng'n proclamation of 
10 Nov. UJOtt for 'The Discovery and Apjw- 
Iwnwon of Divorfl TrayterouH ConwpiratovH,* 
but eHcapod from Nottingham to London. 
In tlu* HUtutner of 1606 Palmer is utiittui t><> 
have gone to Ireland l to do miadiiei? H(^ 
IH di win bod an a tall man, with ilaxen hair, 
Jlt^ pjiblirthed : J, * Tlit^ Saint's Support in 
tht'Ro wad Timwrt/ London, 1644, 2. * Chris- 
tian'n Freedom, or <lod'fl Dwd of (Hft to IHH 
SaintH,' London, 1646 (Woon). il < A Sw- 

j mon on 1 (Uor. iii, %'2, 2V London, KU7 
(Wool)). 4, 'A Littto View of thiw 

' Old World, in two books. I. A Map of 
M onarehy , . . II, An Epitome of Papacy/ 
London, 1 650, 



Atlionw (BliHH), vol. iv. col. 1104; 
Hint, of iSt, Laurou^H Ponntnoy, pp 
Ol'^lO^; Addit, MSS, 15070 if. 129/209, iio-Kfll 
if, 167-8; lliHt, MS8. Oonmi. (Hh Hep, p. 103; 
Ptjck'w ,l)dHidt>rata Curi<ma, p. 611 ; Jhirrown's 
lio^. of Vimtorn of Univ. of Oxford, p. -518; 
Puhnev'a NoncouforniiMt/H Memorial, i, 392; Car- 
pontor's ProwhytontusiHrn in Nuttiughtun, pp, fJ0, 
JJ8; CaUHtato Paporn, lWU~;i, Dom, iSor. pp. 161, 
6f>5; Lord JournalH, ix, fi0, 74, m,l28; The 
Ititi4ligecet, UO Nov. IGfitt, pp, 111-12; State 
Piipow, 1662-8, htvii, (54), 1(}G4, xcii, (58 i) $ 
(24), ci, (-20 i),J B. P. 

PALMEE, THOMAS PYSHE (1747- 
180S), Unitarian minister, was born at J<*k- 
well, in tli pannli of Northill, Hodfordfthire, 
in July 1747, lli mothtir bolonpti to the 
Palmor family of Naztiing Park, ERHOX ffifl 
^r PAT.MBE, GKOB<IB and JOHN iloRK* 
, Ilia father, who was the xoproaoutativa 



Palmer 



163 



Palmer 



of the family of Fyshe of Essex, assumed the 
additional name of Palmer. Having received 
his elementary education under the Rev. Mr. 
Gunning at Ely, Palmer was sent to Eton, 
,and thence to Cambridge, entering Queens' 
College in 1765, with the purpose of taking 
orders in the church of England. He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1769, M.A. in 1772, and B.D. 
in 1781. He obtained a fellowship of Queens' 
College in 1781, and officiated for a year as 
curate of Leatherhead, Surrey. While at 
Leatherhead he was introduced to Dr. John- 
son, and dined with him in London ; on which 
occasion they discussed, according to Boswell, 
the inadequate remuneration of the poorer 
clergy. About this time the writings of Dr. 
Priestley of Birmingham, advocating progres- 
sive unitarianism, so powerfully influenced 
Palmer that he decided to abandon the creed 
in which he had been reared, and to renounce 
the brilliant prospects of church preferment 
that were open to him. A Unitarian so- 
ciety had been founded by William Christie, 
merchant, at Montrose, and Palmer offered 
his services as a preacher (14 July 1783). 
In November 1783 Palmer reached Montrose, 
and remained as Christie's colleague till May 
1785. At that date he removed to Dundee 
to become pastor of a new Unitarian society 
there, and ne founded the Unitarian church 
still in existence in that city. At the same 
time he preached frequently in Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Arbroath, and Forfar, and formed 
Unitarian societies in all these places. In 
1789 he took temporary charge of the society 
at Newcastle. In 1792 his sermons in Edin- 
burgh attracted the attention of literary 
circles, and several pamphlets were published 
in refutation of his doctrines. 

When the agitation for political reform 
began in 1792, Dundee became one of its 
chief centres in Scotland. A society called 
the * Friends of Liberty ' was formed in 1793, 
and met in the Berean meeting-house in the 
Methodist Close, beside the house where 
Palmer lived in the Overgait. The society 
was composed mainly of operatives. One 
evening in June 1793 Palmer was induced 
to attend a meeting, when George Mealmaker, 
weaver in Dundee, brought up the draft of 
an address to the public which he purposed 
circulating as a handbill. Mealmaker's 
grammar was defective, and Palmer revised 
it, modifying some strong expressions. 
When it left nis hands it was no more than 
a complaint against the government for the 
extravagant war taxation in which the 
country had been involved, and a claim for 
universal suffrage and short parliaments. 
The address was sent to be printed in Edin- 
burgh in July 1793, The authorities 



foolishly alarmed, and interpreted the dis- 
semination of this and similar documents as 
the beginning of a new reign of terror. 
They determined to meet the anticipated revo- 
lution in time, and, in the belief that they 
were attacking a revolutionary leader, Palmer 
was arrested in Edinburgh on 2 Aug. on a 
charge of sedition as the author of the docu- 
ment. At the preliminary legal inquiry he 
refused to answer the questions put to him, 
pleading his ignorance of Scots law. He 
was confined in Edinburgh gaol, but after- 
wards liberated on bail. An indictment was 
served upon him directing him to appear at 
the circuit court, Perth, on 12 Sept. to an- 
swer to the charge of treason. The presiding 
judges wereLord Eskgrove (Rae) and Alexan- 
der, lord Abercromby ; the prosecutor waa Mr. 
Burnett, advocate-depute, assisted by Allan 
Maconochie, afterwards Lord Meadowbank 
[q. v.] ; and Palmer was defended by John 
Clerk, afterwards Lord Eldin [q. v,], and Mr. 
Haggart. A number of preliminary objec- 
tions to the indictment were offered, one of 
these being founded on the spelling of his 
name * Fische ' instead of ' Fyshe,' but these 
were all rejected. One of the first witnesses 
was George Mealmaker, who admitted that 
he was the author of the address, and stated 
that Palmer was opposed to its publication. 
Other officials of the 'Friends of Liberty' 
corroborated, and the evidence proved nothi ng 
relevant to the charge beyond the fact that 
Palmer had ordered one thousand copies to be 
printed, but had given no instructions as to 
distribution. Both the judges summed up 
adversely, and, when the jury found the ac- 
cused guilty, he was sentenced to seven years' 
transportation. The conviction of Palmer, 
following so close upon that of Thomas Muir 
[q. v.], raised a storm of indignation among 
the whig party throughout the kingdom; 
' and during February and March 1794 re- 
peated attempts were made by the Earl of 
Lauderdale and Earl Stanhope in the House 
of Lords, and by Fox and Sheridan in the 
House of Commons, to obtain the reversal of 
the sentence. But the government, under 
Pitt, was too strong for the opposition, and 
these efforts were unavailing. Palmer was 
detained in Perth Tolbooth for three months, 
and was thence taken to London and placed 
on the hulk Stanislaus at Woolwich, where 
he was put in irons and forced to labour for 
three months with convicted felons. On 
11 Feb. 1794 he, Skirving, and Muir were 
sent on board the Surprise with a gang of 
convicts to Botany Bay. Their embarka- 
tion took place at this date in order to fore- 
stall the debate on their case in the House 
of CommoiiSj though the vessel did not leave 

M 2 



Palmer 



164 



Palmer 



Britain till the end of April. The suffering 
they endured on the pjiHsu^o, and the mdi^- 
nities put upon tlioni, were fully detailed in 
the < Narrative*' winch Palmer wrote after i 
landing. The vessel arrived at 1 , Port Jackson, 
Now South Wales, on 25 Or,t., aiKUs Palmer 
and hiw companions had letters of introduc- 
tion to the governor, they were, well treated, 
and had contiguous hcmsort asNig-ned to them, 
In two letters (now in the POMBOHNIOU of tho 
Kev. H. Williamson, Unitarian minister, IMm- 
dtM*), dated Juno 1705 and August J7U7, 
.Palmer speaks enthusiast ienlly oH.he climate 
and natural advantages of the infant colony, 
which had been founded in 17M, ( * I have > 
scruple/ he, writ en, ' in saying' it i the, tinest 
country I ever aw. An hone-st and active 
^ovoruor might soon make it a region of plent y, 
In spite of all potsyihic rapacity and robbery 
(on Uionurt ofthootUciulH), 1 am clear that, it. 
will thrive against, every obstacle. 1 BesitloM 
cultivating the land, the. exiled reformers 
constructed a small vessel, and traded to 
Norfolk Island, establishing a dangerous 
but luerntivo business. At the close of 17W 
Palmer and his friend James Kills who hud 
followed him from Dundee as a colonmU- 
combined with others to purchase a vessel m 
which they might return home, as Palmer's 
sentence expired in September !S(H). They 
intended to trade on t lie homeward way, and 
provisioned tho vessel for six months; but 
(heir hopes of securing cargo in Nc\v ^(it- 
land were dtmippoiuted, ami they were de- 
tained oil' that c.oust for tweutv-six weeks, 
Thcneo they sailed to Tongatalw, where a 
native war" prevented them from landing. 
They steered their course for the Fiji Islands, 
where they wore, well received ; but while 
making for Uonia, one of tin*, jifroup, their 
vessel struck on a reef, Having relit led 
their ship, they started for Macao, then 
almost the only" Ohini'Hti port opun to foreign 
traffic. Adverse Htorms drove them about 
the Pacific until their provisions were cx 
hausted, and they wow compelled to put in 
to Ouguan, onn of the Ladrcme. IslandB, then 
under Bpanish rule, though they knew that 
Spain and Brit am were at war. The Spanish 
governor treat ed them as prisoners of war, 
At length Palmer was attacked with dysen- 
tflry, a difwaatt that had originated with htm 
when confined in the hulks, and, m he lind 
wo mwlicimw with him, his enfeebled consti- 
tution succumbed. II died on 2 Junn 180*2, 
and was buried by the sflaahorc. Two ynr 
afterwards an American captain touched tit 
the Isle of Ga^uan, and, having awcertnined 
where ]Palmer End been buried, IIB caused tha 
"body to be exhumed and conveyed on hoard 
hia vessel, with the governor' j permission. 



Tho remains were taken to Boston, MIUSHH,- 
olnuiott.s, and reint erred in the cemetery 
there, Of Palmer^ immediate relatives three 
i no survivor, the hint of them he-ing bin 
nephew, ("harloH Fv^he Palmor, who was 
member for Reading from IHlHto IHH4, whon 
he retire<l. A monument xviw erect ed in tho 
dalton huryinf^gTound, Kdinhurgh. in 1844 
to commemorate Pahuor T Alnir, and their 
fellow-martyrs in the cause, of reform. 

Palmer's publications wen* few and fra$- 
niontary* being' mostly mupfa/.iuo. artichsnnnd 
pamphlelH, To thi* * theological KepoHJt.ory' 
he contributed regularly in 17S9 IK), tmtlw 
the signature * Aiifi'lo-ScotUH/ In 17i) ho 
published a controversial pamphlet entitled 
4 An Attempt to re tut c a Sermou by U, IK 
In^lis on tihe (unlhead of JCHUM (UiriHt, and 
to restore tho long-lowt Truth of tin* Kirwt 
( 1 ommnndment, ) His * Narrative, of tho 
Sutlering'H of T, K Pahuer nntl W, Skirving 1 
Wai* puwiwhod in 171^7, Several ofhiH lelters 
liave hetuj published in tho biographies of 
leading 1 conti*mporary unitariann, 

[Millar*H Martyr of ItnfiU'iu; A! 
pomt-ory, vi, KIA; H'lHhu' Memoir trf T 

nent Unitrmnn, ii. 214; Hcuton'H Anstnilinu 
Dit't. of l)iit<N, IH71K p, 100 ; BouwtilVH JohtiHftn, 
ed Itirkbwk Hilt, i, 407, iv, \^L ; Annual Hoc;. 
171),H, p. 40; Wrotn Ma^ 171K'$, pp, fttlh, 617; 
Christ tan Hofurtnei', iv, 't;iH ; Monthly Mag, xviu 
H.'i; Trial of Paliwn-, twl. Hkirving/17Uii ; local 
infiM'titattou,) A. H, M. 

PALMKH, WIL1JAM (IfiWP 



diviius of Nottmglwiuflhtre descent ( 
jfkt, nf Fnimttiwhttm, t>, iiiU), wan born 
about foHO (epitaivh), Ho waft nducat(ul at 
Pembroke Hail, Cambridge, and graduated 
HA, in IftWMK). !Iw wan eb^ted fellow of 
tiint houne iti 1^00, while (h'indal, who re- 
nwmed his constant patron, %VHH master, lift 
took holy orders in 15<H), nnd thrt^ ytMim 
later became, ClHndalV chaplain. From 
24 Kept, I5t)r> to 1 i Aug. 1574 he was w- 
himtlary of Mora in the cathedral church of 
8t, Paul's; from L J () Dec, 15(!U till U Oct. 
1570 vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry; ami from 
17 Juno 1570 to 1^ April 157*** prebendary 
of Uiccnll, in the cathedral church of York. 
According to the catholic bintorian, Ni- 
rfiolftfi Sanifew, Palmer perwintcd in attend'- 
in^; TUnmuft Percy, wwmth onrl of North- 
umberland fq, v.f, on t-ho fjcaftohl, in 157^, 
againnt tlus mrY* xproH wih, On Ui Oct. 
1575 Iw waft collatcia to the prolxmd of Nor- 
well PaliHlwll in tht* churcn of Routhwdl. 
Thin prebend he held till hin <ltith. On 
l,H March 1570-7 he* oiliciated at the 
thronisution of Edwin Handyn [q, v]^a 
binhop of York (B'rxty^B, Aunatu, n,'ii, 4^ 



en- 



Palmer 



165 



Palmer 



In the disputation with the Jesuit William 
Hart, who was executed at York. 15 March 
1583 (DoDD, iii. 162), Palmer was associated 
with Hutton on account of his logical powers. 
Bridge water (Aquepontanus), the catholic 
historian, represents Palmer as worsted, Pal- 
mer sat in the convocation of the province of 
York in March 1586, which granted a subsidy 
and benevolence to the queen (STRYPE, Whit- 
gift, i. 499). In 1598 he was made D.D. at 
Cambridge, and in 1599 was a member of 
the i commissio specialis de schismate suppri- 
mendo ' (24: Nov. 1579 ; RYMEB, F&dera, xvi, 
386 ; Pat. 42 Eliz. 31 M. 24, 302). He was 
also rector of Kirk Deighton, York, 5 March 
1570, to some time before 8 June 1577, and 
of Wheldrake. Yorkshire, from 7 Feb. 1576- 
1577 to his death in 1605. He died at 
Wheldrake on 23 Oct. 1605, and was buried 
in York minster. In the south aisle of the 
choir there is a mural tablet bearing an in- 
scription (FRANCIS DKAKE, Bboracum^. 508), 
which speaks of his wife, Anna, the daughter 
of the memorable Dr. Rowland Taylor [q. v.], 
the martyr parson of Hadley. Seven of Pal- 
mer's children by her survived him. In tho 
Tanner MSS. at the Bodleian Library, No. 50, 
are notes of a sermon preached by Palmer at 
Paul's Cross 11 Aug. 1666, on 1 Cor. x. 12. 

[Cooper's Ath. Cant. ; Willis's Cathedrals, i. 
80 ; John Bridge water's (Aquepontanus) Coocer- 
tatio Eccl. Cath. in Anglia adversus Calvino- 
papiatns et Puritanos, 1588, pp. 48, 106>; 
Hutton Corresp. (Surtees Soc.), pp. 57, 66 ; 
Hiiwes's Hist, of Framlingham, p. 331 ; Drake's 
Eboi'acum, pp. 232, 359, 508, 567 ; Coxe's Cat. 
of fanner MSS. ; Strype's Grindal, p. 279 ; 
Annals, n. ii. 42, Whitgift, i. 499 ; Newcourt 
Report, i. 181, 386; Dodd's Church Hist, ed, 
Tierney, iii. 1-52; Taylor's Eeclesia Leodiensis; 
information kindly furnished by Rev. J. W. Gel- 
dart, rector of Kirk Deighton, and by Rev. Sidney 
Smith, rector of Wheldrake.] W. A. S. 

PALMER, WILLIAM (1824-1856), 
the Rugeley poisoner, second son of Joseph 
Palmer of ^Rugeley, Staffordshire, a timber 
merchant and sawyer, by Sarah Bentley, his 
wife, was born at Rugeley, where he was 
baptised on 21 Oct. 1824. After receiving 
his education at the grammar school of his 
native town he was apprenticed to a firm of 
wholesale druggists at Liverpool, from which 
he was dismissed for embezzlement. He was 
then apprenticed to a surgeon at Heywood, 
near Rugeley, where he misconducted him- 
self, and ultimately ran away. He afterwards 
became a pupil at the Stafford Infirmary, and 
subsequently came up to London to complete 
his medical studies, and was admitted a 
student of St. Bartholomew^ Hospital. He 
was admitted a member of the Royal College 



of Burgeons on 10 Aug. 1846, and was ap- 
pointed house-surgeon to Mr. Stanley at St. 
Bartholomew's on 8 Sept. 1846. Resigning 
this post in the following month, he started 
as a general practitioner at Rugeley, and on 
7 Oct. 1847 married Ann, an illegitimate 
daughter of Colonel Brookes of Stafford, by 
whom he had five children, all of whom, 
except the eldest, died in infancy. After 
carrying on a very limited practice for several 
years he took to the turf, and became both 
the owner and breeder of racehorses. Falling 
into pecuniary difficulties, he got involved in 
a number of bill transactions, which appear 
to have begun in 1853. On 29 Sept. 1854 his 
wife died of ' bilious cholera.' At her death 
he received 13,000/. on policies which he had 
effected on her life, though he only possessed 
a life interest in his wife's property to the 
extent of 3,000^. Nearly the whole of this 
insurance money was applied to the dis- 
charge of his liabilities, and he subsequently 
raised other large sums, amounting together 
to 13,500/., on what purported to be accept- 
ances of his mother's. 

Palmer's brother Walter died suddenly in 
his presence on 16 Aug. 1855. Owing to the 
suspicious circumstances of Walter's death 
the insurance office refused to pay Palmer a 
policy of 1 3,000. which he held on hisbrot lier's 
life, and he was thus deprived of the only 
means by which the bills couldbe provided for. 
On 15 Dec. 1855 Palmer was arrested on the 
charge of poisoning his friend John Parsons 
Cook, a betting man, who had died at the Tal- 
bot Arms, Rugeley, in the previous month. 
In consequence of the suspicions which were 
aroused by the evidence given at Cook's in- 
quest the bodies of Palmer's wife and brother 
were exhumed, and at the inquests verdicts of 
wilful murder were found against Palmer in 
both cases. It was also commonly reported 
that he had murdered several other persons 
by means of poison. The excitement became 
so great in the immediate neighbourhood that 
it was considered, unadvisable that Palmer 
should be tried at Stafford assizes. The lord 
chancellor accordingly introduced into the 
House of Lords, on 5 Feb. 1856, a bill em- 
powering the queen's bench to order certain 
offenders to be tried at the Central Criminal 
Court, which received the royal assent on 
11 April following (19 & 20 Viet. cap. 16). 
Palmer was tried at the Old Bailey on 14 May 
1856 before Lord-chief-justice Campbell. 
The attorney-general (Sir Alexander Cock- 
burn) and Edwin James, Q.C., assisted by 
W.H. Bodkin, W. N. Welsby, and J. W. 
Huddleston, conducted theprosecution ; whil a 
Mr. Serjeant Shee, W. R. Grove, Q.C., with 
J, Gray, and E, V. H. Kenealy, were retained 



Palmer 



1 66 



Palmer 



for the defence. Palmer was found guilty 
on '27 Mny, after a trial which lasted twelve 
days. True bills for the murder ofhis wife 
and of his brother Walter had also boon re- 
turned against Palmer, but, in consequence 
of his conviction in Cook'a case, they were 
not proceeded with. He wan removed from 
Newgate to Stafford gaol, outside which ho 
waa hanged on 14 Juno 1H5<), He was buried 
within the precincts of the pritmn in accord- 
ance) with tho terms of the went once. 

The trial excited an extraordinary inte- 
rest, ' enjoying the attention not only of this 
country, but of all Europe' (Life of fowl 
Ohancdlor Gnmjtiell, 1881, iL 844). Camp- 
bell, who summed np strongly against tho 
prisoner, devoted fourtotm continuous hourn 
to the propan.tion of hifl address (tb. iu JM5). 
Whou tho verdict was returned, Palmer wrote ' 
upon a slip of paper, which ho handed to hin 
attorney, 'Tlui riding did it '(/SfyyVwwfl B((l 

181)0, p. 182), (Jockburn greatly distin- I 
guiHhod hinuself by hia mafltorly conduct, of 
tho prosecution, and IN wiid to have replied at 
tho end of the C.URO without the aid of a winglo 
note. Thoprosntmtumlwdto rely upon eimuu- 
ntantial evidence alone, but it in impoHMihloto 
suggest any innocent explanation of Palmer's 
Conduct. It. WH ' proved to demonstration,' 
wjyw Sir FiUJumcH Sttph(n/ that ho wan in 
dire need of money in order to avoid a pro- 
mention for forgery; that bo robbed IUH 
friend of nil he had by a HurioH of devieon 
which hu nuiHt have instantly diBCovertMl if 
ho had Jived; that hn provided lumnelf with 
tho moans of committing tho murder juwt 
before OookV death ; and thatluM*ouldn(uthur 
produce the poison hti had bought nor Hug- 
gost any innocent roanon for buying it 7 
( (icnerat View <\f th$ Criminal L<tw rj/'/s'w//- 
Ifrrtd, p. 27 1 ). The theory of tho prosecution 
waa burtod mainly upon the (loath having 
boon caused by Htryc.hnhw, though no Htrych- 
nine WH diMcoverod in tho body. Tho fjwst 
that antimony was found in tuo body waa 
never Horiounly diK]>utod, Prolxibly tht^ro waft 
some mystery in the cast* which wan never 
diwcovwrtid, for Palmer averted to tho last 
that Cook * was not jxutmed by atrychnino,* 
Indeed, Palmer is said tohavo tx^on 'anxioaa 
that Dr Ilorapath should examine tho body 
for strychnine, though awnrothat he miid he 
could detect the fifty-thoufiandth part of a 
grain J (. p, 271) t Possibly Palmar may 
have discovered aome way of administering 
that drug which rendered detection impos- 
sible. His vwdux oprrandi throughout boars 
a curious resemblance to that of Thomas 
Griffiths Wainowright [q, v.j 
In Mansfield ana Nottingham there was 



a general belief that Lord G<orgo 
tinck waa one of Palmer's many victims 
(.TKNNINOH, JRambfa among the Hills, 1880, 
p. 144 ) t but, beyond the fact that Lord Ooorgo 
waa in tho habit of making bets with Palmer, 
thcro does not appear to bo tho fllightwat 
foundation for tho belief. Tho authoralnp 
of * A l-K^tt(5r to tho I jord Chief Juticc Oamp- 
boll/ &c. (London, 1856, Hvo), in which hm 
conduct of the trial wan vehonwntly at- 
tacked, WHH diHC.laixuod by tho Rov. Tliomas 
Paltnor, t,ho poinonerV brothor, whoso name 
appeared on the title-page. 

['IlluNtrutod Lifo, Career, mid Trial of Wil-' 
15am L'almnr of liitpjelny, contniinng an un- 
iihrid^ul edition of tho "Thww* Report of his 
Trial ior Poisoning John ParnoriH CJook, 18.50; 
(Vntrul Criininnl ("trnrt rpotMtwlin^**. Ififtfi-fi,' 
^liv, /5-2ii/i ; Steph<>' Oononil View of the 
Criminal Law of Kngland, 1800, pp. 231-72; 
Tnylor on Puisonii^: by Stryehmmi, with (^oin- 
mentis on tho Medical Kvitjenoo ^iven at tho 
Trial of Witlmtn Pahnor, 185U; Trtylor'n Prin- 
<MpltH mul PzMictitott of MiMltcal .hiriHprtKlenc**, 
IHHJJ, i. 1(0, 1117, 377, 4-tti*;t,ii. 020 30; Phar- 
nuwV'Utii'ul Journal, xv 532 4 xvi. ft.-U ; ftf. 
Bmlholonuiw'H Ilopiul ReportH^ v, 241 ; Antntnl 
Il<^iHlop t 18*16 <;hrosh pp. m\ t)2, 1K50 Ohr-m. 
pp. 3H7-ft3i) ; HI, Liuitlon Nt^wn, 24 Mny I 
" ' 



Lifo, MM^p, litijSUObnlKhiro Advoniwer, 
22 DIH\ 1 H55 ; Hinitimn 'Biblrothwu . 



villo Momoirn, 3wl Htir,, t87, ii. 40 7 ; Noton mid 
Oth n<*r, ix, Ct), U, F* K. B, 



PALMER, WILLIAM (1 ():! -18B8), 
yano^r u<l h k gal anthor nocond son of 



CSoorgn Palmer [a, v/] of Nfmnng- Fark^Kntti^x, 
IVL1** ibr tho Hout hern divmitm of that, county 
from 1WW to lH47 t by Anna Maria, daughter 
of Willinm Bund of 'Wi^k ICpiwcopi, Worces- 
tin*Hhir*v WUH horn t>n J) Nov. 180& He matri* 
cnktocl atOxford (Ml, Mary Hall) on 16 Feb. 
iHi&jfifHuluutod H*A.in 18*25, and proceeded 
M.A, in IH^H, In May IKW hn was willod t,o 
thnlmrat tho Inn^rTnniph^ wlwiru h acquired 
a lurgft praot'ir,^ an a (onv*\yancor. In 183tj \w 
was appointed to tli prof^HHorwhip of civil 
law at urtmlmm C(*llogt% which hcuiold until 
hi dfiath on ii4 AprillHrjK. Palmcir was a 
man of high principle ami unoatentatiouH 
philanthropy* Ho did not naarry. 

He ie a at nor of the following: L ' An In- 
quiry into the Navigation Laws/ London* 
18#5, 8m 2, 'Digcouraa on the Graham 
Foundation; or two introductory Lectures 
delivered at the lioyal Exchange,* London, 
1 &J7, Bvo, & < The I4iw of Wreck conidftwl 
with a Yi<jw to its Amendment/ London, 
IB4H, Bvo. 4. ' Principle of thw I^gal Pro- 
for the Relief ojf tho Poor, Jfcour loc* 



Palmer 



167 



Palmer 



tares partly read at Gresham College in 
Hilary Term 1844,' London, 1844, 8vo. 

[Guardian, 28 April 1858; G-ent. Mag. 1843 
pt. ii. p. 181, 1858 pt. i. p. 679; Fosters 
Alumni Oxon. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. M. R. 

PALMER, WILLIAM (1811-1879), 
theologian and archaeologist, eldest son of 
William Jocelyn Palmer, rector of Mixbury, 
Oxfordshire, by Dorothea Richardson, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. William Roundell of Gled- 
stone, Yorkshire, was born on 12 July 1811. 
Archdeacon Palmer and Roundell Palmer, 
first earl of Selborne [q. v,], were his brothers, 
He was educated at Rugby and Oxford, 
where lie matriculated on 27 July 1826, and 
was elected to a demyship at Magdalen Col- 
lege. In 1830 he obtained the chancellor's 
prize with a Latin poem, ' Tyrus,' and a 
first-class in the classical schools. In 1831 
he graduated BA. (17 Feb.), and in 1832 
took deacon's orders and a Magdalen fellow- 
ship. In 1833 he proceeded M. A., and gained 
the chancellor's prize with a Latin ' Oratio 
de Comoedia Atticorum/ printed the same 
year. During the next three years he was 
tutor in the university of Durham, during 
the three years 1837-9 examiner in the clas- 
sical schools at Oxford, and from 1838 to 
1843 tutor at Magdalen College. 

An extreme high churchman, Palmer an- 
ticipated in an unpublished Latin introduc- 
tion to the Thirty-nine Articles composed for 
the use of his pupils in 1839-40 the in- 
genious argument of the celebrated * Tract 
XC.' He took, however, little active part in 
the tractarian movement, but occupied his 
leisure time in the study of various forms 
of ecclesiastical polity and theological belief. 
In 1840 he visited Russia in order to examine 
oriental Christianity in its principal seat, and 
to obtain if possible an authoritative recogni- 
tion of the Anglican claim to intercommunion. 
Letters of commendation and introduction 
from Dr. Martin Joseph Routh [q. v.], pre- 
sident of Magdalen College, and the British 
ambassador at the Russian court, gained him 
the ear of the highest functionaries in the 
Russian church. The difficulty of persuad- 
ing them that the church of England was a 
branch of the catholic church was greatly 
aggravated by the recent admission to com- 
munion by the English chaplain at Geneva 
of Princess Galitzin and her eldest daughter, 
both of whom had renounced the Ghreek 
church. Prince Galitzin had sought by letter, 
but had failed to obtain, from Archbishop 
Howley [q. v.] an opinion on the question 
whether apostates from the Russian church 
could lawfully take the communion in the 
church of England, At the prince's desire 



Palmer corresponded with the ladies, t s he 
younger of whom he induced to return to 
the Russian church. During his stay in 
Petersburg he edited R. W. Blackmore's 
translation of Mouravieff's * History of the 
Church in Russia/ Oxford, 1842, 8vo. His 
claim for admission to communion in the 
Russian church, pressed with the utmost per- 
tinacity and ingenuity for nearly a year, was 
at length decisively rejected by the metres 
politan of Moscow. 

On his return to England in the autumn 
of 1841, Palmer submitted to Bishop 
Blomfield, as ordinary of continental chap- 
lains, the question on which Archbishop 1 
Howley had maintained so discreet a reserve, 
and received an affirmative answer. Too 
late to break a lance in defence of ' Tract XC./ 
he was in time to repel with animation a 
charge of* Romanism ' levelled at himself (cf. 
his Letter to the Rev. C. P. Golightly ; his 
Letter to a Protestant-Catholic, both pub- 
lished at Oxford in 1841, 8vo ; and his -Eeztfey 
to the Rev. Dr. Hampden, Oxford, 1842, 8vo). 
An able 'Protest against Prusso- Anglican 
Protestantism/ which he lodged with Arch- 
bishop Howley in reference to the recently- 
established Jerusalem bishopric, was, at the 
archbishop's request, withheld from publica- 
tion. He issued, however, the notes and ap- 
pendices thereto, under the title * Aids to Re- 
flection on the seemingly Double Character 
of the Established Church/ Oxford, 1841, 
8vo, and recurred to the same topic in an 
anonymous l Examination of an Announce- 
ment made in the Prussian State Gazette 
concerning- the " Relations of the Bishop of the 
United Church of England and Ireland in 
Jerusalem" with the German Congregation 
of the Evangelical Religion in Palestine/ 
Oxford, 1842, 8vo. 

Bent on renewing his application for ad- 
mission to communion in the Greek church, 
Palmer early in 1842 visited Paris, and 
laid the whole case before Bishop Lus- 
combe [q. v.], in whose chapel the Princess 
Galitzin, then resident in Paris, was in the 
habit of communicating. He had several in- 
terviews with the princess, but failed to 
alter her views. Bishop Lusconibe refused, 
however, to furnish her with a certificate of 
communion on the eve of her departure for 
Russia, and thus Palmer on his return to 
Petersburg was able to exclude her from 
communion in the English chapel there. His 
second application for admission to commu- 
nion in the Russian church, though supported 
by letters commendatory from Bishop Lus- 
combe and a vast magazine of ingenious dis- 
sertations of his own on the position of the 
church of England in the economy of Chris- 



Palmer 



teudom, only elicited an express and explicit 
rejection on the part of the Russian church 
of tho Anglican claim, to catholicity. After 
it minute examination of the cut ire* case, tin* , 
holy g-ovorniiift synod declined to admit him j 
to communion unless he acknowledged the ' 
Thirty-nine Articles of religion to he' in their 
j>lain literal sense and spirit ' a full and per- 
tect expression of the faith of the churches 
of Kn^lund and Scotland, and to contain 
forty-four heresies ; unless he renounced and j 
anathematised the said heresies, the Thirty* j 
nine Articles as containing them tint! the j 
churches of England and Scotland as impli- 
cated in thorn; and furl her admitted the 
Greek church to he the. (ecumenical church, j 
and were received into tho same as a \ 
proselyte, j 

The oecumenical character of the (3 reek 
church Palmer readily ndmitted ; he !?-o 
renounced and anatlwimi fined the forty- 
four heresies, hut demurred to Unir alleged 
presence in tho Thirl v-nino Articles. On 
the question whether what he had done* 
amounted to a renunciation of the churches 
of Kn^hind and Scot hind. lie appealed to 
Bishop Luseomhe and the. Scott Uh Kjnseopul 

On his return to Kn^'lnnd Palmer occupied 
himself itt the composition of a * Harmony 
'<vf Autflicun Doctrine with the Doctrine of 
the Kaislern Ohurch ' ( Alienleeu, ISUi; ( Jreek 
1 radiation, A ihcns, IXol )nud in the prcpit ra- 
tion of IUN eiiHe for the Scottish Kpiscopnl 
College, Tho latter, which occupies a thick 
and closely printed volume, entitled *An 
Appeal to tho Scottish Bishops nnd Hor^y, 
and pnorally to the (Jhurch of their U 



unheard h ( y the 
in J 4 



he St-ottinh 1'ytnscopal Synod 
4 Minhur|fh on /Sept, tHlk 
Soon after the decision of tlw privy rotuict! 
in tht> (^orhnm <'iwt in lHf>*J iSihm'r nin 



> in 

admission to tho Ureek church, hut 
rucoilod before the unconditional rehaptJHm 
to which he wa required to mihmit, In 
1 H5tt appeared hts learned and im^eniouK* Din- 
Bortatlon<m Huhjects relating to th* Ortho- 
dox or KaHtern-Oatholia Communion/ Lon- 
don, 8m On the <v of tho (Crimean war 
he studied tho tjwwtion of th Holy Place* 
at Jerusalem* Tho winter of 185,1 4 ho 
passed in Egypt, H afUsrwurdn wont into 
retreat under rassaglia tit Home, nnd there 
was received mto tho Uomtm dtuwh, the ritn 
of haptim beinjaf dwponsud with, in t htt chttpui 
of the Roman G>lh*g( on ^H Keb, 1855, 

For the rest of his Hf Palmer raided at 
Honwj in th Piassxa di Santa Maria in Cum* 
pitelli t where he diad on 4 April 1H70, in hi 
eiatty-eighth year. His remains woro i 



^ Palmer 

(& ApriU in thecctuetery of S, Lorenxo in 

Tnliner WUH a profoumUy learned theolo- 
gian, and (whn he chose) a brilliant writer, 
His piety WN deep antl fervent t and, though 
a trenchant controversialist, he wa one of 
the mot tttnittlle of men, hi later life, no{ 
\yithrttamlin^ ImjUen health, he made hi hit- 
rtous researches in ec<deinHtical hi.^orv and 
urcweolo^Vt He left \oiuntinouH innuu- 
MTtpts, ciuetly autolno^rnphical, l)r, N\v 
mim. to \yluwi h< used to pay an umm.'il visit 
at. Hirmin^hnnu edited after his tlenth hi 
*NoteMof H \ h tMt to the Uussinn Thurch in 
the Years IHH), JSJl/ Lfnd*m t 18SL, Hvo, 

HeNtdcM the worlvH nitititMel nhnve, Pnl- 
HUT wttti tutthor of the fnllowiu^ 1 : L * Short 
Poenw nud Hvinns, the Ijifterun^t h 1Vn>s* 
lations,' Uvf*rd t IMJ}. ;>, Ttmtw} IttMt/xmA 



wr/i 



it 



rmv, Athens, 



(he TurKi^h < v hieMtiim,* l*nndti t ls,'s, (>, An 
tutritutu'ttoit to Karh Christ tan ^\iulu>ltHm; 
beiujr the IWcripfton of a Scnei of Mwr- 

<ttnHSeM t nnd Sctilphu'rd Snrcophji^i ; \vith 
three Appendices/ LohdtMl, tS'tJI, Svn ; J1CW 
edition, unler the htl*' ' Kurlv t'hriMliun 
SywUdirtw : tt Serii-n of ( 'oin|M^j}ions/ *fv:c, f 
ed, J, U, Noiiht'ote nod \V, H, Hrownloxv, 
L<*nd<tti r I.Ss\fil, T. * I'fgvpiifiu ( -hrotiicli'ts: 
with a Hnnittmy uf Satnvd and K^ryptian 
t'hroiuitogv, andnn Appendix on linhy'huiau 
and AHHvrittn AntiqutticM/ London', i^tM, 
** voln. Hvo, H, M'ommiMitulio in Lthrum 
nittiteljH/ Uimjit, 1X7-1. SI, * The Patriarch 
ISieon and the IWr/JVom the UuHHtan, L<m- 

|Hu^J7 Seliool He^.j lilomtn*n Magd. < 1 oll, 
Uoj,;, ; iMmter'n Alinuni Ogttn, ; O\tor<l Honours 
JiiM j NMttmof Vinit t* the iJtiHHiiUi Clum'tu 

Appeal,- K^yptitut t?linim*lt'H (httrottnction); 



, ,,, t , 

vi, t TuhleU 17 Mnrvh IH*W, nud 12 April 
IH/iJ; Uunnliiui, j> uml Hi April; Timw, 
J2 April IH7t>; Amti^im W*, i.JHK; dhnvl^n 
WtMH^witrth'x Aftimh of my i/ite t 1H47 fir pp, 
7} H; LidiltmV Kile of |*uV ( y, ii, 2H7; Altuw'w 
JJft**H IhriHtftn, p, (IH7; H, <, Kirwun ttrowru; 1 * 
Aimul*of th*Tri*nnn M*v<nu*it, 1H1IK p, 1KO; 
T, M*wl*\v*H UtnuiftiM'ttiu'tih* Orimhy* Metnoiw 
of Hoj^MSwitf, ii, i!ij Mtmth, 187'^ p. H18 ; 
North A mm 1 , Htv, 1HHJI, pt, i. Ill; Kclm*ti 
i^viw, July 186^; Ihjhlin lim'iw, vol. xli. ; 
Ibmhim Ililm/M ial, H^ypt,] J, M, K, 



PALMER, WJLL1AM (IMOn JHH5), 
:> ui William l^lmur, military oilicor, of 



Palmer 



169 



Palmer 



St, Mary's, Dublin, was born on 14 Feb. 
1803. He graduated B.A. at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in 1824, and, after taking holy 
orders, migrated to Oxford, where he was 
incorporated at Magdalen Hall 20-23 Oct. 
1828, and proceeded M.A. 28 Jan. 1829. 
From Magdalen Hall he removed to Worces- 
ter College in 1831. In 1832 he published 

* Origines Liturgicaj, or Antiquities of the 
English Ritual and a Dissertation on Pri- 
mitive Liturgies,' Oxford, 2 vols. 8vo ; 4th 
edit. 1845, a learned and scholarly work on 
a subject then much neglected, which brought 
him into personal relations with Keble, 
Hurrell Froude, Hugh James Rose, John 
Henry Newman, and others of the party 
afterwards known as tractarian. He brought 
to Oxford an intimate knowledge of the 
controversy with Koine, gained by a study 
of Bellarmine and other eminent Roman 
catholic apologists. His own principles were 
fixed in the high-church school. Papers by 
him against dissent appeared in Hugh James 
Rose's ' British Magazine ' in 1832. In the 
following year he published a vigorous pam- 
phlet against comprehension, entitled ' Re- 
marks on Dr. Arnold's Principles of Church 
Reform/ London, 8vo, and formed, in con- 
cert with Rose and Hurrell Froude, the 
' Association of Friends of the Church,' for 
the maintenance t pure and inviolate ' of the 
doctrines, the services, and the discipline of 
the church. The association was at once 
turned to account by Newman as a vehicle 
for the circulation of the ' Tracts for the 
Times,' of which one, and one only, was con- 
tributed by Palmer. His keen eye, practised 
in the polemics of Rome, soon detected the 
trend of the movement, and he held aloof 
from it on Newman's rejecting his suggestion 
of a committee of revision. 

In 1 838 he published an ingenious l Treatise 
on the Church of Christ/ London, 2 vols. 
8vo ; 3rd edit. 1842, designed to prove that 
the church of England was a branch of the 
catholic church co-ordinate with the Roman 
and Greek churches. Of this work, Mr. 
Gladstone wrote in the l Nineteenth Cen- 
tury,' August 1894, that it was 'perhaps the 
most powerful and least assailable defence 
of the position of the Anglican church from 
the sixteenth century/ In 1840 appeared his 

* Apostolical Jurisdiction and Succession of 
the English Episcopacy vindicated against 
the Objections of Dr. Wiseman in the Dublin 
Review ' (vols. v. vii. and viii.), London, 8vo. 
The game year he contributed to the ' Eng- 
lishman's Library' (vol. v.)/ A Compendious 
Ecclesiastical History from the Earliest 
feriod to the Present Time,' London, 12mo. 
On th6 appearance of Dr. Wiseman's attack 



on ' Tract XC.,' Palmer published a trenchant 
counter-attack, entitled ' A Letter to N. ' 
Wiseman, D.D. (calling himself Bishop of 
Melipotamus), containing Remarks on his 
Letter to Mr. Newman,' Oxford, 1841, 8vo ; 
reprinted, with seven subsequent letters in 
reply to Wiseman's rejoinder, under the title 
* Letters to N. Wiseman, D.D., on the Errors 
of Romanism,' Oxford, 1842, and London, 
1851, 12mo. In this controversy Palmer 
displayed regrettable heat (cf. an anonymous 
pamphlet, attributed to Peter Le Page Re- 
nouf, entitled The Character of the Rev. 
W. Palmer as a Controversialist, &c., London, 

1843, 8vo). 

The appearance in 1843 of Palmer's ' Nar- 
rative of Events connected with the Publi- 
cation of Tracts for the Times,' London, 8vo, 
precipitated the crisis which led to the 
secession of W. G. Ward and Newman. 
Ward replied at enormous length in the 
celebrated * Ideal of a Christian Church,' 

1844, and Newman unveiled the inner 
workings of his mind in his ' Development 
of Christian Doctrine,' 1845. Palmer replied 
to both books in his ' Doctrine of Develop- 
ment, and Conscience considered in relation 
to the Evidences of Christianity and of the 
Catholic System, 1 London, 1846, 8vo. The 
1 Narrative ' was reprinted, with introduction 
and supplement, in 1883 (London, 8vo), and 
is the primary authority for the history of 
the earlier phases of the tractarian move- 
ment. In 1875 he issued, under the pseu- 
donym * Umbra Oxoniensis ' and the title 
' Results of the Expostulation of the Right 
Hon. W. E. Gladstone in their Relation to 
the Unity of Roman Catholicism/ London, 
8vo, a clever and acrimonious attack on the 
papacy. 

Palmer was instituted to the vicarage of 
Whitchurch Canonicorum, Dorset, in 1846, 
and held the prebend of Highworth in the 
church of Sarum from 1849 to 1858. He 
claimed and assumed the title of baronet on 
the death of his father in 1865. He died in 
London in 1.885. 

Palmer married, in October 1839, Sophia, 
eldest daughter of Admiral Sir Francis 
Beaufort, K.C.B., by whom he had issue an 
only son, who survives. 

Palmer is characterised by Newman as the 
only thoroughly learned man among the 
initiators of the tractarian movement ; and 
Perrone described him as < theologorum 
Oxoniensium facile princeps/ and added, 
'* Talis cum sit, utinam noster esset ! ' Dplliri- 
ger also held a high opinion of his abilities. 

[Dublin Grar).; Palmer's Narrative, cited 
above ; Fosters Alumni Oxon. ; Clergy List ; 
Newman's Apologia, chap, ii. ; Newman's Lette-rs, 



Palmeranus 



170 



Palsgrave 



1891, Kssayw, Critical and Historical, 2nd edit, 
i. 143-86, ii. 45*; Mozluy's Keminisconces, i. 
308; Liddon's Life of Pusey; Wordsworth's 
Annals of my Early Life, pp 340-3; Church's 
Oxford Movement; Cox's Recollections of Ox- 
ford, 1868; Stephana's Life of Walter Farquhar 
Hook, ii, 63 ; Heresy and tichism, by Right Hon. 
W. E.Gladstone, Nineteenth Century, Aug. 1894 ; 
Notes and Queries, 7th sor. i. 349, 494,] 

J, M. R, 

PALMERANUS or PALMERSTON, 
THOMAS (/, 1306-1316), theological 
-writer. [Sco THOMAS HIBBUNIOUS,] 

PALMERSTON, VISCOUNTS. [See 
TEMPLE, HBNUV, first VISCOUNT, 1673 P- 

1757? TBMPL'B, IlENttY, Second VlHOOtTKT, 

1739-1802 ; TEMPLE, HJBNEV JOHN, third 
VISOOTOT, 1784-1 865.] 

PALMES, SIB BRYAN (1 509-1 G54), 
royalist, born in 1590, wan oldofit HOW of 
Sir G-uy Palraos of Aahwell, Rutland, and 
Lindloy, Yorkshire, by Anne, daughter of 
Sir Edward Stafford (FoHTHB, IVWure 
Pediffiwt, vol* \L) On ,17 March 1(514-15 
he matriculated at Oxford from Trinity Col- 
lego (Fotm-nt, Alumni O.wn. ir>00-l714 iii. 
1111), but did not ^raduato. 1 lo was elected 
M.P. for Stamford in 1025-($, and for Aid-* 
borough, Yorkshire, in 1(>!JO-40. An inti- 
inato friond of William Hrownw (1591 1(545) 

iq, v,], h nmdo a tour in Frun(ui with him* 
irowno addresatid to I*ahuo8, who wan thon 
Hlaying at Saiunur^liiflhiunorouHpocin, wvit" 
ton at ThouatH, on the 'most intohirablo 
jangling of tho IVipistH 7 btlls on All WainU* 
*Ni^ht ' (BKOWNK, Itonw, od. (Goodwin, ii. 
iWO). At tho otitbroak of tho civil war 
Palmes raised a roghnont for tho kiuf? ((M, 
*8t(tte.Pftpe.rfi t Dum* 1(J4(M), HowaKlcni^htwl 
on 21 April l(M-2(MwTCJAi,ifio,/j?o^<^ l ,jK ; w^A//, 
p. 19B), and croated D.OJj. afc Oxford on 
i or 2 Nov. following On 20 Oct. 1040 1m 
was forced to oorapound for IUH ontato for 
081 /. (Oat. of Comm.for Com/wundiwj, pp. 
801, 1.H10, 1043), and on 1 Sopt* 1651 was 
aHHBHStKl at 2(K)/., but no proceodingfl worn 
taken (CW. of Cmnm, for AdvanceofMonet/ t 
iii, 1#88), Palma ditwl at Lindloy aboiit 
August 1654 (Admtmttt ration Ac,t Hook, 
P,C,0., 1653-4, vol. ii, f. (517). By his wile 
Mary, daughter and cokeirtwA of (^tirvaao 
Teverey ot Staple ford, Nottinghamshire, 
who died bofore him, he had threo sons and 
four daughtorfl, 

[Wood's Fasti Oxou, ed. Bliss, ii, 41; CaL 
State Papers, J)om t 1640^1, pp. 492, 577; 
Yorkshire Arehaeolog, and Topograph, Journal, 
i. 5.] G, (>. 

PALSGBAVE, JOHN (d, 1554), chap- 
lain to Henry VIII, waft a native of London, 
where he received his elementary education* 



Subsequently he entered Corpus Christ i Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and proceeded to the degree 
of B,A, (Addit. MS. 6878, f. 63). He then 
migrated to tho university of .Paris, where 
he graduated M.A., and acquired a thorough 
knowledge of French. From the privy purso 
expenses of Henry VIII in January IfiliN 
1513, it appears that Palflgrave,who had boon 
ordained priest, was * scolemawter to my Lady 
.Princes/ i.e. Mary, the king's BUS tor, who 
afterwards married Louis XII of Franco. 
On til) April 1514 he was admittod to tho 

5>rcbcnd of Portnoolo in tho church of St. 
Aiul, London (LK NMVJO, Fasti, ii, -128), 
Having instruct od tho Priuoosn Mary in tlio 
Fronch tongue, ho accompanied hor to Franco 
on hor marriage, atul sho nt^vor forgot hi 
aervicoH ( BUI-JWKU, Letters and Mnmrinfa of 
flewy F//r t vol. ii. pt, ii. pj>. M5J), I-HK)). 
On *J April 1515 ho wroto from Puris to 
Wolnoy bogging that, PalMgvuvt^ might havo 
tho living of Kgylwfold in tho diocowt^ of 
Durham, or tho archdeaconry of Derby* In 
1510 ho WIIH collated by Atwati'r, binliop of 
Lincoln, to tho bonofico of AM! v ford by, LOH*OS 
torshirts vacant by thn death of Uoury Wil- 
cocks, I).(7.L M whort< exocutorH w*vts ordonul 
in 15tJ*J to pay him (JH/. for dilapidations, 
IIo also obtained tbo ri'ctorit'w of Ahh^rtoix 
and llolbrook iti Sutlblk, and Cawnton, Nor^ 
folk. Sir Thonius Mor**, writing 1 to Erasmus 
in 1517, tnontions that l*alsgravo was about 
to go to Louviiin to study law, though ho 
would continue las Urook : ami Latin; and 
Knisnuis, in a lottor from Louvain, dutod 
17 July tho Maine vwir, informs Moro that 
PalHgravo luid loft for KnglautL In lf2tt ho 
ontonnlintoa contract with Uichard Pynwon 
[(j, v.],Htatioimr of London, for t.lui printing of 
sixty roams of papt r at 0#* H^, a roam ; atul 
thtu'o m ftnothor indontuw for printing 750 
copuiH of I > alHgravo's ' Liisclansisstnntmt do la 
langue FnmcoyHo/ onn of tho carlioHt at- 
tempts to explain in Kngliwh tlm ruhm of 
Frone.h grammar. Pynson (mgugod to print 



daily a shoot on botli sides, and Pulsgmvo 
undertook not to kct^p him waiting for * copy/ 
This curious contract hns boon printed, with 
notea, by Mr. F. J. Furnivull, m the IMiilo 
logical Society, London Jl 808], 4to, 

In 15^5 among tho oificers and councillors 
appointed to bo rHaid<nit and about the person 
of llonry Fitxroy, duko of Richmond, natural 
son of Ilenry V (II, tlum six years of agt^ who 
had been appointed lieutenant-general north 
of tho Trent, was Palsgrave, his tutor, who was 
allowed throe servants and an annual stipend 
of IW, 6#. 8^, (NiOHor.8, Mzmoirofthe /)?//;/? 
Of Richmond^ 1855, pp xxiii, xxiv), His mg* 
nature is attached to several of the docu- 
ments issued in that and subsequent yeary by 



Palsgrave 



171 



Palsgrave 



the council of the north. Writing to the king 
with reference to his pupil in 1529, Palsgrave 
asserts ' that according to [my] saying to you 
in the gallery at Hampton Court, I do my 
uttermost best to cause him to love learning, 
and to be merry at it ; insomuch that without 
any manner fear or compulsion, he hath 
already a great furtherance in the principles 
grammatical both of Greek and Latin/ In 
another letter, addressed to Lady Elizabeth 
Tailboys the same year, he remarks: 'The 
King's Grace said unto me in the presence 
of Master Parre and Master Page, I deliver, 
quod he, unto you three, my worldly jewel j 
you twain to have the guiding of his body, 
and thou, Palsgrave, to bring him up in virtue 
and learning.' 

In 1529 Palsgrave thanked More for his 
continued friendliness, and acknowledged 
that he was more bound to him than to any 
man, adding : ' I beseech you for your accus- 
tomed goodness to continue until such time 
that I may once more tread under foot this 
horrible monster, poverty/ At this period 
he told Sir William Stevynson that all he 
had to live by and pay his debts and support 
his mother was little more than 50l for 
Alderton, 'and Holbroke be but 20A, Kay- 
ston 18/., my prebend in Polles 4/., and my 
wages 20 marks ; and was indebted 92/. J 
Stevynson was asked to tell his old pupil, 
the queen-dowager of France, that Palsgrave 
desired the benefice of Cawston, Norfolk. In 
the Record Office there is a draft ' obligation/ 
dated 1529, by which Palsgrave undertakes 
to pay Thomas Cromwell 71. 6s, 8d, on his 
procuring a papal bull, under lead, called a 
union, for uniting the parish church of Alder- 
ton to the prebend of Portpoole in St. Paul's 
Cathedral. 

In 1631 he repaired to the university of 
Oxford, and the next year was incorporated 
M,A. there, and took the degree of B.D. 
(WooD, Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, i, 121). On 
28 Oct. 1532 he informed one William St. 
Loe that he was about to keep house at 
Blackfriars, where ( I could have with me 
your son, Mr. Russell's son, a younger brother 
of Andrew Baynton, and Mr. Noryce'a son, 
of the king's privy chamber.' He intended 
previously to spend some time at Cambridge 
' for three reasons : (1) I am already B.D., 
and hope to be D.D. ; (2) I could get a man 
to help me in teaching, as this constant at- 
tendance hurts my health. And I go to 
Cambridge rather than Oxford, because I 
have a benefice sixteen miles off.' 

On 3 Oct. 1533 he was collated by Arch- 
bishop Cranmer to the rectory of St. Dun- 
stan-m-the-East, London (NEWCOUET, Re- 
pertorium, i. 334), and on 7 Nov. 1545 he was 



instituted to the rectory of Wadenhoe, 
Northamptonshire, where he resided until 
his death, which took place in 1554, before 
3 Aug. (BRIDGES, Hist, oi Northamptonshire. 
ii.390). * 

His principal work is : 1. ' Lesclarcissement 
de la Langue Francoyse, compose par maistre 
Jehan Palsgraue Angloys, natyf de Londres 
et gradue de Paris/ London, 1530, black- 
letter, folio, with dedication to Henry VIII. 
Pynson seems to have printed only the first 
two parts of two sheets and a half (signed A 
in four, B in two, c in four), and fifty-nine 
leaves. After these comes a third part, with 
a fresh numbering of leaves from 1 to 47-3. 
The printing was finished on 18 July 1530 
by John Haukys, this work being the only 
known production of his press. The king's 
grant to Palsgrave of a privilege of seven 
years for his book is dated at Ampthill 
2 Sept. anno regni XXII. The book was 
originally intended to be a kind of dictionary 
for the use of Englishmen seeking to acquire 
a knowledge of the French tongue. In this 
respect it has been superseded by later works, 
but it is now used in England for another 
purpose, as one of the best depositories of 
obsolete English words and phrases ; and it 
is of the greatest utility to those who are 
engaged in the study of the English language 
in the transition state from the times of 
Chaucer, Gower, and Wiclif to those of 
Surrey and Wyat. In his epistle to the 
king's grace the author says he had written 
two books before on the same subject, and 
had presented them to Queen Mary of France, 
and also to the Prince Charles Brandon, 
duke of Suffolk, i her most worthy espouse.' 
These were probably manuscript books, as 
no such printed works are known (Addit. 
MS. 24493, f. 93). Very few copies ' of the 
original ' Lesclarcissement ' are now in exist- 
ence. Two are in the British Museum, one 
containing manuscript notes by Sir Nicholas 
Harris Nicolas. Perhaps one reason for its 
scarcity was the determination of the author 
that other teachers of French should not ob- 
tain copies. Consequently he ' willed Pyns<on 
to sell no copies to any other persons than such 
as he should command to have them, lest his 
profit by teaching the French tongue mi^ht be 
mynished.' The copy in the Mazarin Library 
at Paris is the only one known in France. This 
was reprinted at the public expense under 
the auspices of the minister of public instruc- 
tion and the editorship of F. Genin, Paris, 
1862, 4to, pp. 889. It is included in the 
'Collection de Documents InSdits sur 1'His- 
toire de France.' 

His other works are: 2. 'Joannis Pals- 
gravi Loiidinensis Ecphrasis Anglica in 



Paltock 



172 



Paltock 



Oomur.cliatn Acolasti. The Comedy of A colas 
tus translated into cure Knglysshe tongui 
after suche manor aschylderne arc taught ii 
the G rammer 'Schole, fyrst worde for worclt 
. . , and afterwards aecordynge to the senci 
, . . with admonitions . , . for the more per 
fyte instructyngo of the lerners, and ... a 
brele introductory to ... the dyvers sorto, 
of meters/ Latin and English, London (Tho 
Berthelet), 1540,4to (Brit. Mua.); dedicate 
to Henry VIII. This work was original!) 
written in Latin by William Fullonius. 3, 'An- 
notations verborum.' 4. ' Annotationes par- 
ticipiorum/ 5. ' Epistolw ad divei'HOB.' 

He probably, either with or without hi* 
name, printed other works. One John "Wil- 
liamson, jun,, writing 1 to Cromwell, says 
* FleaHe it you also to know that I have sent 
you oon Tluindroth bookes entitled u L(, 
Myrour de Verite," whlche 1 have receyved 
this present daio of Maister Palstave' (ELL.ia 
Original Letters, 3rd ser, ii, 91^). 

I)avy, on the authority of Watt, erro- 
neously ascribes to Palsgrave, through a 
curious blunder) the authorship of * Oute- 
clrismus. Translated by W. Tumor, Doctor 
of PlnYicke/ London, 157^, 8vo (/(///<"/ 
$uffok.i<mm&i i, 93). The real title of thi 
work IB 'The Oateehi-sme , . . uned in the 
dominions that are under . . . Prinee Fre- 
tlerikti the Palsgrave of the Rhene,' London 
(R. Jolmea), 1572, 8vo. 

[Addifc, MSS, 10105, f. , r >7 fl, 191 (Jfi, f, 1)3; 
AMCH'N Typogr, Auticj, (Ilorhurt), pp. -1IJ5, 470 
(I)ibdin), in. iJG32; BaWw Biogr. Drum, 18P2, 
i. r )60, ii. 4; Bulo'u Seriptt. llrit. (Jut. pars i, p, 
710; Boloe'H AutHul, vi* 344; Brinvur untl 
Oairdnei'^H Lcttorn and Momorialw of HcujryVIU; 
Cx>pov's Athena* Cantabr, \. 119, 545 '/Dodd'H 
Church Hist, i* 228 ; Fostor'n Alumni Oxoiu 
tiarly seriftfi, iii. 11 II ; Knniafc M.S. 40, f, 8tt; 
Ijowndea'e BibL Man, (Bohri), pp. 636, 835), 
849, 1760; Pal grave Family MomorialH, t>y 
Palmw and Tiwker, p. 203; PitH, De Atiglim 
tSuriptotibuH, p, 703 ; Tannor'w Bibl, Brit, p, 571 j 
Mm Wood's Lett-ore, i, 1BO, 202,] T. C, 

FALTOCK, EOBEET '(1007-1707), ro- 
mancw-writar, born in 1097,, wan only BOH of 
Thomas Pal took of St. Jama's, WtwtminHtisr, 
Ilia father was tho third husband of hia 
mother, Anne, whone firwt and stjcond hus- 
bandn wore towpwcti volyMr, JohnHon of Wood- 
ford, 'Essex, and Kdwiwl Curio or Ourll (<L 
\ 601 ), jeweller, of lied Lioti Sauarw, Ilolborn, 
His gmndfathtir, John Paltock (1624 1682), 
attorney, ol'Thavio'fi tnn, London, who mar- 
ried on 14 Sept, 1648 Elizabeth (1.631-1707), 
fourth daughter of Francia Btawarcl of Branch* 
ir;g, Hertfordshire) (C/HiMtHK, Ltmdm Mat** 
rings Licence*) eel. Foster,, col, 1013 ; OLTTT- 
in, iii. 150), benefited 



greatly under the will (P.0.0. 81, I'enn) 
of his uncle, Thomas Paltock (</. UiTO), of 
Botwoll, in the parish of Hayes, Middlesex, 
and of Kingsfcon-upon-Thamos, and left pro- 
perty in London, Sutlblk T Middlesex, Easox, 
and Hertfordshire (will in P.C.C. 81), 
Cottle). After the death of Robert's father i n 
1701 (cf. LetterH of Administration, P.0,0. 
Ii2 April 1701) hia mother Lived chiefly 
at/ EnlioUl, Middlesex. Robert weeins to 
have been a favourite with his paternal 
grandmother, for in her will, proved on 
7 Feb. 170l'-7, aho loft him, on Hi.s corning 
of age, one hundred and irt'ty pounds and her 
house at. Knliold,prnvided thai, lun- dnughter, 
Elizabeth Pal took, nhould dio without lawful 
i88ue (will in Commifimri/ Court of Lwi(km, 
Bk. 170U -7, f, ^17). IlfibertV ni!>thor died 
at En field ITI January 1711 ['2 (Parish Ito- 
^'iHter), leaving her son to t he euro of her 
Moving 1 friends,' Robert Ni^'lit inhale and 
John Grene, or Ortion, <f Mulieh'i (will iu 
P.0,0. 7o, Barn as). Like many of Ins 
kitisfolk, Robert, became an attorney, an<l 
for several years resided in (nenunt\s Inn, 
.London, h'roni t lie will of IUH bvotlior-in- 
law, Ih'inley Skinner (>/, 17(>1) of .R,ymci 
Intrinsiea, Dorset, sometime consul, at Leg- 
horn, it is elear that, before August 1751) 
Paltoek had quitted Clement's Inn for a 
residence in Buck Lam*, Ht, JUary, Lambeth 
(will iti PCXU. '185, Simpson), 

Paltook died in Bade Lane on 520 March 
<57 (of. Letters of Administration, P.CUX 
April 1707), and was buried at Ryrne In- 
trinsica (Huron INK, />>/w/, Jlrd *ed, iv, 
!1)JJ"4), By his inurrhigo to Anna, daughter 
trf John SkiruuM-, Italian merchant, of Austin 
Friars, ,London (/*/> ii, H(H>), h( had isnue 
Tolm (IT.'Jl 1780), a 'Jiongal merchant ; 
Robert (7>, 3787), mirgoon at Hymo Intrin- 
sica, who became po8.seH.sor of the Skinner 
woperty thero on th death of 1m coiirtin, 
oftuor Boddhigton, in March 1795 (ih. iv, 
02) ; Anna^ who * married a clergyman wit.h 
nght cluldnm ; ' and Eleanor, who njarried 
ifio, JVIrrt* Pnltock wan buried at. St;, Mary, 
Lambeth, on 14 Jan, 1707 (Par. Bag 1 ,) 

Paltock'n lutne reatn endtirin^ly on hia 
original and fuftcinatmtf mtnanoo, ontithid 
'Tho Life and Advcnturosof Peter WIlkitiM, 
L OorniBh Man , , With an Introduetioti 
iv B 8. ; a piirtflongftr in the Hector,* 2 voN. 
2 njo, London, 17ol j withplateflbyBoitard, 
t ia dedicated to Elizabeth, countena of 
Northumberland, whom Paltock took (so lus 
gallantly asaurad har) as the prototype of 
\i$ ench:inttng heroine Youwarkae, 'the in- 
reduction and dedication are signed with 
he initials * E, P., J and for many "years tho 
,uthor f s fuU name wfta unknown. But m 



Pal took 



173 



Paman 



the ' Monthly Magazine ' for December .180:3 
(j). 379) a correspondent signing himself 
' ljibernat.ua ' gave the author's name cor- 
rectly, and added that the present was not 
the original title, ' that being u Peter Pan- 
tile," or something like it, which the book- 
sellers objected to.' It has been plausibly 
suggested that Paltock' named his hero after 
John Wilkins, bishop of Chester, who, in the 
second part of ..his ' Mathematical Magick/ 
had seriously discussed the question whether 
men could acquire the art of flying. The 
original agreement for the sale of the manu- 
script of * Peter Wilkina ' was brought to 
light in 1885 at a sale of books and manu- 
scripts which had once belonged to Robert 
Dodsley the publisher, and was acquired by 
Jamea Oroasloy [q. v.] of Manchester, a por- 
tion of whose library was sold in 1884. 
According to this document, Paltock re- 
ceived for the copyright "201, j twelve copies 
of the book, and ' tins cuts of the first im- 
pression' (proof impressions of the illustra- 
tions). Some copies of the book are said to 
be dated 1750, which is probable, as it 
appears in the list of new books announced 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine' for November 
1750. An edition appeared immediately 
afterwards at Dublin, so the book must have 
had some sale, despite the sneering criticism 
of the t Monthly Review.' A new edition 
appeared at London in 1 783, and another at 
Berwick in 1784, It was included in Weber's 
'Popular Romances/ 3812, and published 
separately, with some charming plates by 
StothardJ in 1816, 2 vols. 12mo. Within the 
last fifty years it has been frequently issued, 
entire or mutilated, in a popular form. An 
excellent reprint of the original edition, with 
some of the quaint plates by Boitard, was 
published Tinder the editorship of Mr. A. H. 
Bullen in 1884, 2 vols. Svo. < Peter Wilkins ' 
afforded material for a pantomime, 'with, 
songs/ produced at Sadler's Wells in 1800. 
A 'melodramatic spectacle in two acts/ 
founded on the romance, was acted at Op- 
vent Garden on 16 April 1827 (printed in 
vol. xxv. of Lacy's 'Acting- Edition of Plays'). 
In 1763 a French translation by Philippe 
Florent de Puisieux was issued at Paris, 
3 vols. 16m o, and was included in vols. xxii.- 
xxiii. of De Pert-he's * Voyages Imaginaires 7 
(1788-9). A German translation was pub- 
lished in 1767 at Brunswick, Svo. 

Of ' Peter Wilkins ' Coleridge is reported 
to have spoken in terms of enthusiastic ad- 
miration (Table-Talk, ed. 1851, pp. 331-2). 
Southey, in a note on a passage of the 
' Curse of Kehama/ says that Paltock's 
winged people ' are the most beautiful crea- 
tures of imagination that ever were devised/ 



and adds that Sir Walter Scott was a warm 
admirer of the book. With Charles Lamb at 
Christ's Hospital the story was a favourite ; 
while Leigh Hunt never wearied of it (cf. 
his essays m London Journal, 5 Nov. 1834; 
JBoo7efor a Corner, ed. 1868, i. 68). 

In 1751 appeared a dull tale called ' Me- 
moirs of the Life of Parnese, a Spanish Lady : 
interspersed with the story of Beaumont and 
Sarpeta, Translated from the Spanish manu- 
script, by R. P., Gent./ London, 12mo. As 
it is dedicated to Frances (1723-1810), wife 
of Commodore Matthew Mitchell or Michell 
(1706-1752), M.P., of Chitterne, 'Wiltshire, 
who was Paltock's second cousin, there can 
be no doubt that Paltock was the author, 
although the book is unworthy of him. 

Paltock 'has been doubtfully identified 
with the *R. P., Biographer/ who published 
in 1753 * Virtue Triumphant and Pride 
Abased in the Humorous History of Dicky 
Gotham and Doll Clod ' (Notes and Queries, 
5th ser. ix. 372). The ' Monthly Review/ 
in some six lines of condemnation, considers 
it to have been written for the express en- 
tertainment of the kitchen, but no details are 
given, and no copy of the book is accessible, 

[Athenseum, 2 Aug. 1884 p. 145, 16 Aug. 1884 
p. 206, 14 Feb. 1885, p. 215; Introduction to 
Peter Wilkina, ed. Bullen, 1884; Bojtse and' 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; Boase's Collect. 
Cornub.; "Will of Edward Curll in RC.C. 186, 
Vere; Will of Robert Paltock in P.C.C. 105, 
0-ee, 1705; Chitterbuck's Hertfordshire), ii. 119; 
Hoare's Wiltshire Hundred of Heytesbury, i. 
172,174-5; Hutchins's Dorset, 1803, ii. 603; 
Allibone's Diet. ii. 1495; cf. both Foster's and 
Harleian Society's editions of Chester's London 
Marriage Licenses ; Notes and Queries, 3rd eer. 
xii. 445, 8th ser. viii. '204*] G. G-. 

PAMAN, -HENRY, M.D. (1626-1695), 
physician, son of Robert Paman, was born 
at his father's estate of Chevington, Suffolk, 
in 1(326, He entered as a sizar at Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, on 22 June 1643, where 
William Bancroft [q.v.] was his tutor. They 
became friends for life. He migrated to St. 
John's College on 22 July 1646, graduated 
B.A, the same year, and was elected a fel- 
low of that college. He became M.A. in 
1650, and was Incorporated M.A. at Oxford 
on 11 July 1655. On 20 June 1656 he kept 
an act for a medical degree before Professor 
Francis Glisson [q. v.], maintaining the thesis 
'Morbis acutis convenit dieta temussima' 
(note in Glisson's handwriting, vol. iii.'of his- 
papers). In the same year he was senior 
proctor, and in 1658. he graduated M.D., 
being incorporated M.D. at Oxford on 13 July 
1669. He was elected public orator at Cam- 
bridge on 5 March 1674, and held office till 



Pandulf 



174 



Pandulf 



9 July 1 681. Eight Latin letters written by 
him in this capacity were printed under thl 
title 'Literaa Academic Cantabrigiensis ab 
Henrico Paman cum esset orator publicus 
scripts ' (WAKD, Gresham Professors, ap- 
pendix, p. xvi). They are addressed to the 
astronomer, John Hovel, on 12 May 1674 
to 'James, duke of Monmouth, on 12 June 
1674, and twice without date; to Charles 13 
on 1,1 Sept. 1674; to Chief-justice Sir Francis 
North } to William, duke ' of Newcastle, on 
7 Aug. 1676; to Bancroft, archbishop of 
Canterbury, on 8 Jan. 1677. In 1677 Paman 
went to reside in Lambeth Palace with Arch- 
bishop {Bancroft, On 21 June 1679 he waa 
appointed professor of physic at Greaham 
College, and on 1 Dec. 1679 he was elected 
F..R.S. In 1688 he was admitted a candidate 
at the College of Physicians, and elected a 
fellow on 12 April 1687. He graduated 
LL.D.at Cambridge in 1684, and was there- 
upon appointed muster of the faculties by 
Bancroft. He resigned his professorship on 
21 June 1681). When Bancroft declined the 
oaths to William III and left Lambeth, 
Paman also declined, and gave up his master- 
ship of the faculties. Ho wont to livo in the 
parish of St. Paul, Coven 1: Garden, whore he 
died in Juno 1695 ho was buried in the 
parish church, lie was rich, and, after pro- 
viding for his relations, loft considerable 
sums of money and books to St. John's Col- 
lege, to Emmanuel College, to the Oollego 
of Physicians, and to his .native parish* 
Though he published nothing himseli, ho is 
known to every reader of medicine, because 
a Latin letter by him to Dr. Thomas Syden- 
hum [<j.v.] is published in SydcmhamVi works 
as a preface to the treatise ' I)tj LuiaVeneriuo 
historiti ot curatione,' It praises Sydonham's 
method, and urges him to write on this sub- 
ject. Sydonham (ed. Pechey, 1729, p. 244) 
saya that Paman had long been 1m friend, 
and adds, 1 1 always valued your friendship 
as a most precious thing,' 

[MtmVfl Coll. of Phys. i. 446; Ward's Liros 
of the Professors of Graham College, 1740 ; 
manuscripts in Slonne collection in Brib. Mua. 
3309 vol. iv,, and 4rl(>2 vol. iii; Patrick'B Autob. 
18m), p. 140,1 N.JS1 

PAHDTJLF (d, 1220), papal legate and 
bishop of Norwich, IB usually identified with 
Pandulf us Maaea,a member of a noble Pisan 
house- of that name, who was made cardinal* 
priest of the Twelve Apostles by Lucius III 
m December 118^, discharged some important 
papal legations, and wrote the lives of som 
of the popes (MuKATOBi, jRer. Xt&l Setiptore^ 
vol. iii. pt I p. 276 ; cf. however, MAS LATHI 13, 
Tr&or.fo ChrmolayW) c, 1188, who refers to 
, Af ewtarw Stmchc d* 1 Cardinal^, I) 



Ciaconius, in his life of Pandulf Mason, has 
also told us that he was made subdeacon by 
Calixtus II (1119-1124), so that, if the re- 
ceived identification is accepted, our Pandulf 
must have died more than a hundred years 
after receiving the subdiaconate. Moreover, 
Oinconius so early as 1677 clearly pointed 
out the error of identifying Pandulf the 
English legate with Pandulf Maaca. Never- 
theless the identification is still often made, 
and even in so accurate a work as Dr. Stubbs'a 




waa never a cardinal at all (he is only called 
cardinal in John of Ypret? Chron* tie St. 
Jtertin in BoTTairKr, xvlii, 004), and when 
he first crosses English history is regularly 
described as tho pope's subdeacon simply 
(see the life of Pandulf us Masca in Cu- 
coNiirs, Hut. PontiftGum Itom. <>t & It. K 
Cardinalnmij i. Ilf4 15, Rome, 1677; cf. 
also MuiUTOitr, Jfar. Ital. foriptorw, vol. iii. 
pt. L pp. 276-8, which corrects and adds to 
tho biography of Ciaconius). 

Paudulf was a Roman by birth (Ami. 

vrcwt&r, p, 404), ami bocama a clerk of the 
papal court under Innocent I IT. When the 
quarrel between Innocent III and King John 
with regard to the tlisputocl miccMwion to 
the archbishopric of Canterbury had alr*mtly 
lasted more than four years, John began to 
roaliso the nec<5,sHity of ending tho Btruggle, 
and boflought tho popo to Htmd envoys to 
treat with him about peace (Ann, Mitrton, 
pp, 209- 1 0). InTiocetit acctmtixl the Kngl iwli 
Inng'H advances, and Belected Paudulf for the 
mission, along with a knight of 8t, John 
named brother Durandus, Pandulf is vtb* 
riontflly doacribecl as 'magifltor* (Ann. O*wy t 
p* 55), 'domini papm subdiaconns* (MATT, 
PABIS, ii. 581 ; WtKB8,p. 56), and * quidam 
do capollanis domini papm 1 (Ann, Mart/am, 
(>, *J6), Tho pope caliB both envoy A * lami- 
liares nofltroH/ anclinMagna Oharta and other 
official documents Pandulf is called < domini 
:>apflo Bubtiiacontia at fatniliaris' (cf. John'** 
bmiHflkm, JFwdwa, I 115; Ann. Burton, 

Sil8). The nunoioa renchefl JSngland at, 
the end of July 1^11 ('poatftmtum B. Jacobi ; f 
Ann, Wawrl&fi p. 2(i6), As they travellod 
through ^ England they wero received with 
extraordinary domonstrationB of popular ro- 
oicing (Ann. Owuy, p 55 ; WYKHS, p, C6). 
Fohn came back from his Welsh expedition 
to meet them in August at Northampton. A 

at council of nobles also assembled at tho 
e place. The Burton 'Annals '(pp. 209 
^17) preserve a long and almost suspiciously 
minute and circumstantial account of the 
negotiations that enwued* The-nwicios de- 



Pandulf 



"75 



Pandulf 



inanded the restoration of Langton and the 
exiled bishops. John answered angrily that 
he would hang Langton if he could catch 
him, and that he was only bound to obey 
the pope in things spiritual. Pandulf replied 
that John was equally bound to obey the 
pope in things temporal as in things spi- 
ritual. A long and angry historical con- 
troversy ensued, in which Pandulf said that 
John was striving to uphold the infamous 
laws of William the Bastard, rather than the 
excellent laws of Saint Edward. At last 
Pandulf formally promulgated John's excom- 
munication, and declared the English ab- 
solved from their allegiance. John did his 
bes to frighten Pandulf, and hanged and 
mutilated various criminals in his presence 
to break his resolution. But the undaunted 
subdeacon remained firm, and actually saved 
one of the criminals, who was a clerk, from the 
royal sentence. John did not venture to do 
violence to the papal envoys, and they safely 
returned to the continent. The only results 
of the mission were that some of the king's 
clerks returned with them to open up further 
negotiations with the pope (Ann. Margam, 
p. 31), and that the interdict was slightly 
relaxed in the case of dying persons (Ann. 
Waverley, p. 271). Pandulf now joined 
Stephen Langton and the exiled bishops in 
Flanders (Ann. Dunstable, p. 36). He then 
returned to Rome (Ann. Osney, p. 55 ; Ann. 
Margam, p. 31). Perhaps he accompanied 
Langton, who also went to Rome about the 
same time. It should be added that some 
writers, including Dr. Pauli (Geschichte von 
England, iii. 865-6), reject the whole story 
of this first mission, believing it to be based 
upon the fancy of the Burton annalist, who 
described the great scene between the king 
and the papal envoy. But, though this is cer- 
tainly suspicious, there seems other evidence 
for the fact of the mission (Ann. Waverley,-^. 
271 ; Ann. Margam, pp. 30-1 ; Cont. FLOR. 
WIG. ii. 169; Flores Hist. ii. 140; MATT. 
PAKIS, Hist. Major, ii. 531 ; Chron. Rotoma- 
gensis in BOUQUET, xviii. 360). Many of these 
writers, however, may simply copy the Burton 
and Waverley annalists ; the silence of earlier 
writers like Walter of Coventry (ii. 211), 
and the absence of any reference to the matter 
in either English or papal documents, make 
for the sceptical view. 

John's difficulties now came to a crisis, 
and the negotiations renewed by his envoys 
at Rome were vigorously pressed forward. 
On 27 Feb. 1213 Innocent wrote to John, 
announcing a fresh embassy. Pandulf and 
Purandwereagainthe nuncios. They brought 
with them the hard conditions of John's sub- 
mission, drawn up at Rome with the consent 



of John's envoys (Flores Hist.iL 143 ; Calen- 
dar of Papal Letters, i. 37). Passing through 
France, Pandulf saw Philip Augustus, and 
forbade him invading England until the 
mission was accomplished. Two templars 
preceded Pandulf over the Channel. Early 
in May they were graciously received by 
John at Ewell, near Dover. On 13 May 
Pandulf himself saw the king at Dover, and 
threatened him with immediate French in- 
vasion if he would not submit to the holy 
see. On 15 May John's humiliation was 
completed, 

Before numerous witnesses John formally 
surrendered his crown to Pandulf, as the 
pope's proctor, and received it back from the 
nuncio s hands as a fief of the holy see (the 
documents of submission and reconciliation 
are printed in the Annals of Burton, pp. 218- 
223; RYMEE, Fcedera, i. 108, 111-12; Epp. 
Innocentiilll, ed. Migne. The impression pro- 
duced in Europe is well illustrated in W. 
Brito's Philippidos in BOUQUET, xvii, 233). 
Pandulf received 8,000/. as an instalment 
of the compensation promised for the damage 
sustained by the church during the interdict. 
Matthew Paris tells us, in his rhetorical way, 
how Pandulf trampled this money under foot 
as an earnest of the future subjection of 
England to Rome (Hist. Major, ii. 546). 
Pandulf seems soon after to have returned 
to France, where he gave the 8,OOOZ. to the 
exiled bishops, and persuaded them to go back 
to England. The return of Langton and the 
bishops ended the acute phase of the struggle. 

Pandulf held an interview with Philip 
Augustus at Gravelines (BOUQUET, xviii.604, 
but cf. ib. 565, which says at Calais), where 
the French were waiting to invade England. 
Philip thought himself cheated by the pope, 
and was very angry with Innocent and his 
agent for accepting the submission of John, 
and thus frustrating his expected easy con- 
quest of England. But Pandulf was soon 
back again in England, where he now busied 
himself in settling the complicated details 
that still remained to be arranged before the 
relations of England and Rome again became 
normal. A personage of greater weight than 
the humble subdeacon now appears on the 
scene. Nicholas, cardinal bishop of Tusculum, 
was appointed papal legate before 6 July, and 
sent to England to complete Pandulf s work. 
He arrived in England about Michaelmas. 
Pandulf was jointly commissioned with him 
to inquire about arrears of Peter pence, due to 
the pope from England (Epp. Inn. Ill, iii. 
960, ed. Migne). He was also still empl6yed 
in collecting money to compensate the suf- 
ferersfrom the interdict, in mediating between 
John and the Welsh, and other business. He 



Pandulf 



176 



Pandulf 



attended the solemn relaxation of the in- 
terdict by the legate and Langton at St. 
Paul's (Flores Hist. ii. 148). He exacted 
100,000 marks from John for damages (Cal. 
Papal Letters, i. 40 ; Epp. Inn. Ill, iii. 953, 
ed. Migne) . The records of Evesham ( Chron. 
Evesham, pp. 231-4) show how his heavy 
hand was felt in every monastery in England. 
Pandulf at this time constantly crossed and 
recrossed the Channel (' ultro citroque discur- 
rens,' WALT. Cov. ii. 223). In June 1214 he 
was at Anjou (Fcedera, i. 122). Matthew 
Paris says that he was now sent to Home by 
the legate, against whose actions the English 
"bishops had appealed. This must have been 
early in 1214, At Home he fought fiercely 
with Simon Langton [q. v.], who was also 
there (Hist. Major, ii. 571-2). But it was 
a defeat for Pandulf that the bishop of Tus- 
culum's mission was brought to an end, 
though this fact necessitated his own presence 
again in England. He remained in this 
country for nearly all the rest of John's reign, 
He was at the king's side during the critical 
struggle of 1215 (ib.' ii. 589). He is men- 
tioned in the preamble to Magna Charta as 
.one of the faithful band who adhered to John 
to the last, and by whose counsel the great 
charter of liberties was issued on 15 June 
1215 (Select Charters, p. 296). In article 62 
of the charter Pandulf is associated with the 
archbishops of Canterbury and Dublin, and 
some other bishops, as sureties for the gene- 
ral pardon and pacification promised by the 
Icing (z&..p. 305). But John immediately 
sought means of repudiating his word, and 
saw no better way out of his difficulties than 
to keep the pope and Pandulf thoroughly 
on his side. The bishopric of Norwich had 
been vacant since the death of John's old 
minister, Bishop Grey, in 1214 On 18 July 
he urged the prior and convent to make an 
election, according to the advice of Peter des 
Heches [q. v.] and other prelates, and the man- 
date of the pope. Before 9 Aug., on which day 
he is described as bishop-elect, Pandulf seems 
to have been in some way elected to the 
vacant see (PAULI, iii. 443, from JRot. Pat. 
p. 152. LB NEVE, Fasti JSccl Any I. ii. 460, 
ed. Hardy, is certainly wrong in putting the 
election as late as 1218). In August 1216 
Pandulf is described by the pope as bishop- 
elect (Cal Papal Letters, i. 141: cf. also 
Ann. Dunstable, p. 43 ; Ann. Tewkesbury, p. 
61 ; and Ann. Worcester,?. 405). All these 
three qhroniclers date the election in 1215. 
The Worcester 'Annals' also saj he was 
elected * praecepto domini papse.' But there 
may well have been some irregularity in the 
election. On 16 Aug. a papal letter was laid 
before the assembled bishops at Brackley, 



when the archbishop was ordered to excom- 
municate the king's enemies, and Pandulf 
was associated with Peter des Roches, bishop 
of Winchester, and the abbot of Reading in 
compelling obedience to this mandate (WALT. 
Cov. ii. 223). John now persuaded Pandulf 
to go to Rome and explain to Innocent the 
miserable plight of his new vassal (RiMER, 
Fcedera, i. 135 ; cf. MATT. PARIS, ii. 613). 
On 13 Sept., the same day, Pandulf witnessed 
at Dover a charter to St. Oswald's Priory, at 
Nostell (Cal. Papal Letters, i. 52). He was 
there on 4 Sept. (Fcedera, i. 137). But before 
Pandulf had started for Rome Innocent III 
issued on 25 Aug. a bull quashing Magna 
Charta. The arrival of the bull in England 
doubtless made Pandulf 's journey unneces- 
sary. Anyhow, he remained in England, where 
he now ventured to excommunicate by name 
the leaders of the baronial party, who in their 
turn appealed to the Lateran council then 
about to sit (WALT. Cov. ii. 224). Langton 
nowresolved to set out for Rome, but Pandulf 
suspended him on the eve of his taking ship 

(COGGESHALI, p. 174; MATT. PARIS, ii. 629- 

630. WALT. Cov. (ii. 225) says followed 
him across the Channel and suspended him 
abroad). John seized Lang-ton's estates, and 
Innocent confirmed Pandulf 'a action. After 
the barons in their despair had called on Louis 
of France, the arrival of Cardinal Gualo, a 
new papal legate, again relegated Pandulf to 
the subordinate position which he had held 
during the mission of Nicholas of Tusculum. 
Pandulf s movements during the first two 
years of the reign of Henry III are not 
easy to trace. His name occurs in few 
English state papers, and the chroniclers 
tell us little of his movements. The 
' Annals of Worcester' (p. 409) make the k 
'* bishop of Norwich 7 present at the new 
Worcester Cathedral on 7 June 1218, and 
this could only have been Pandulf. But he 
may well have spent most of his time at 
the 'papal curia, where he is now described 
as ' papal notary ' ( Cal. Papal Reg. i. 56) 
and the l pope's chamberlain' (ib. i. 57). He 
obtained by the papal favour various bene- 
fices in England, including preferment in 
the dioceses of Salisbury and Chichester, as 
well as the church of Exminster, which, 
however, was contested against him by one 
Adam Aaron, who claimed to be in lawful 
possession of it, and had a sufficiently strong 
case for Honorius III to refer its examina- 
tion to the archbishop of Canterbury on 
18 July 1218 (ib. I 56). Pandulf was also 
charged with the collection of a crusading 
twentieth (ib. i. 57), an employment which 
may well have brought him again to Eng- 
land. He was not, however, consecrated to 



Pandulf 



177 



Pandulf 



the bishopric of Norwich, though now 
generally recognised as bishop-elect. On 
12 Sept. 1218 Pandulf was appointed papal 
legate in England, in succession to Cardinal 
Gualo, who had begged for leave to retire 
from the thankless post (ib. i. 58). A few 
days earlier (4 Sept,) Pandulf was allowed 
to""* provide for ' his * kinsman Giles/ a 
papal subdeacon, with any suitable bene- 
fice in his diocese, despite Giles already 
holding the distant archdeaconry of Thessa- 
lonica (ib. i. 58). And on the same day 
Honor ius issued an injunction that the 
"bishops in whose diocese Pandulf possessed 
benefices were not to molest him or dispose 
of his rights (ib. i. 58). A nephew of Pandulf, 
who took his uncle's name, was included in 
his household during his legation in Eng- 
' land (ib. i. 70). 

G-ualo left England on 23 Nov. 1218, and 
Pandulf arrived on 3 Dec. (CoGGESHALT,, p. 
263 ; cf. Ann. Waverley, p. 291), The new 
prelate's arrival synchronised with most im- 
portant events in England, William Mar- 
shall, earl of Pembroke, died in May 1219, and 
with him expired"the exceptional authority 
entrusted to the regent. The ministers now 
governed in the name of the youthful king. 
Hubert de Burgh, the justiciar, and Peter 
des Roches, bishop of Winchester, the tutor 
, of the king, were the most important of 
* these. The chancellor had been practically 
suspended, and his functions were carried 
out by a vice-chancellor, Ralph Neville. 
Hubert and Peter were not in agreement 
between themselves. These circumstances 
made it easy for Pandulf to practically 
exercise the first place in the state, John's 
surrender of the Mngdom having given the 
pope an admitted temporal authority in ad- 
dition to the spiritual authority inherent in 
his office. From the death of Pembroke to 
his own recall in the summer of 1221, a 
space of rather more than two years, Pan- 
dulf almost acted as king of England. 

The success of Pandulf 's administration is 
the best proof that his love of money was not 
incompatible with statesmanlike capacity. 
Truces were made with France and Scot- 
land, the revenue was increased, the country 
prospered under the peace, and the absence 
of the leaders of the civil war on crusade 
gave men time to forget the ancient dis- 
sensions. The young king was crowned 
a second time at Westminster, on which 
occasion Pandulf, though present, judiciously 
left to Archbishop Langton the duty of 
officiating at the ceremony (Ann. Dunstaple, 
p. 57). Pandulfs correspondence, printed in 
Shirley's 'Royal Letters' (vol. i.), shows, 
however, that no details of government were 
VOL. XLIII. 



too minute to occupy the legate's atten- 
tion. We find him appointing colleagues 
to the sheriffs in their work of collecting the 
revenue (Royal Letters, i. 27), stimulating 
the sluggishness of the justiciar and the 
bishop of Winchester in repressing the 
Jewish usurers (ib. i. 35), and taking so 
active a part in the administration of Gas- 
cony that the first business of a returned 
seneschal was to seek out an interview with 
him (ib. i. 49). Though suffering from ill- 
health, Pandulf did not relax his efforts. 
He undertook troublesome journeys to 
Wales or the borders in the vain hope of 
pacifying Llywelyn. He vigorously used 
the papal name to put down adulterine 
castles.' He drove away usurping castel- 
lans from royal castles, and would not allow 
any subject to have more than one such 
stronghold in his charge. He secured 
faithful custodians for the remaining strong- 
holds, and forbad the election of new castles 
(Ann. Dunst. p. 65; Royal Letters, i. 100, 
121, 535, cf, p. xxiii). He excommunicated 
the Earl of Albemarle for delaying to sur- 
render his castles. He procured the re- 
sumption of large tracts of royal domain. 
He persuaded the king of Man to surrender 
his island to the pope, as John had sur- 
rendered England (CaL Papal Letters, i. 
69). The communes of southern France 
wrote imploring his protection, or justifying 
their conduct (Royal Letters, i. 122, 132, 
141). In peremptory tones he \>ade the 
ministers put down robberies, or redress his 
servants' grievances. 

Though not specially greedy for himself, 
Pandulf obtained from the pope permission 
to convert for the payment of his debts, * as 
far as it can be done without scandal/ the 
proceeds of non-conventual churches in his 
diocese and the manors in his gift (CaL 
Papal Letters, i. 68). Nor was his influence 
less upon the church than on the state. The 
large number of letters of Honorius III 
calendared in Mr. Bliss's * Calendar of Papal 
Letters ' shows that in most matters Pan- 
dulf acted in direct obedience to his master's 
injunctions, though the same source gives 
plenty of evidence of the self-restraint of 
pope and legate alike, and of their dedire to 
avoid giving cause for scandal. Pandulf 
filled up bishoprics and smaller benefices at 
his pleasure, appointing, for example, John, 
abbot of Fountains, by papal provision to 
the bishopric of Ely (ib. i. 74 ; WILT. Cov. 
ii. 241), receiving the resignation of bishop 
William of Saint Mere TEglise of London 
(Ann. Dunst. p. 65), and protecting foreign 
holders of English preferments against the 
greediness of English lords and their clerks 

- . N 



Tandulf 



Pandulf 



(Ttm/al Itfttpwti i. 77). He attended some 
famous ecclesiastical ceremonies, such as tho 
translation of St. Thomas of Canto rhury 
( Ann. JlrnnondMy, p. 454), where he also 
gave place to Langton. to officiate at tho 
ceremony iti hw own cathedral. It was by 
Pandulf Is advice that Lang! on ordered the 
feast of St. Thomas tho .Martyr to be ob~ 
served in Kughuul with the same solemnities 
as a Sunday (\V.u,T. (<ov, \\, ii40). Pandulf 
attended tlm laying' of the, first Htone of tho 
present Salisbury Cathedral (Ann, '/VwAvw- 
/wr// T p, 0(5). He busied himself in pro- 
moting a crusade, obtaining a graduated tax 
from England, which was destined to help 
tho king of Jerusalem (Ann. Dunntttpfo) p. 
<i7); but he allowed the necessities of state 
to absolve Hubert do Burgh from the cru- 
sading vow which he had taken (/'/>. p. li?H; 
(W, Ptt}Htl ./x'/Vcw, i, M. It in strongly 
to Pandulf Vt credit that an KttgUsh chro- 
nicler (Mw$ Hint. ii. 173) fdumld testify 
emphatically to the legate's great. services w 
appeasing t lie still hot factions of Kngland 
and in ending the last remnants of civil 
war. 

Despite Pandulf's tact, bin great, activity 
and lugh-handod action could not but pro- 
vnko opposition, He joined with Peter des 
IJochos m demanding the appointment of a 
Poitevin noble to act as seneschal of Poiton 
and ( hticnno in succession tniicoHYey Neville 
(f/, I *i*r>) | IK v. j, who had n>signed in Novein- 
(>er li'lU, lint the cry of the citizens of Niort 
that there could come no worst* calamity to 
the land than the investment of one of their 
feudal noighbmu's with royal authority over 
them was answered by Hubert de l$itrgh t 
who, after a long struggle, procured the ap- 
pointment of im Kuglish HenoKchnL Hence- 
forth Paiululf and the just iciar were sworn 
enemies. But Pandulf had already an enemy 
in Archbishop hanglon. When he j'trst 
came to Midland, HonoriuH HI bnd directed 
him not t seek for consecration as bishop of 
Norwich, on the ground that as bishop-elect 
he did not owe the obedience to Inn twtro- 
pmittm which naturally followed upon bin 
cousecraf ton { fttitftr/ TWiVw, i. *5'IJJ), But 
despite thin, Lungt on per.MtHted in t-tt*mpt 
to bring him under his jurisdiction, HO that 
PiiuduH bnd to get n second bull from itome 
to k<"p him fr* ( i* from th* prtmat<**s 
rity, Lnn^tonand Unhurt now me 
Prefare to Ihtifttl Jtt'ttei 1 *, , xxiv "X\vi)tn 
have joined together to make Paudulf'spo^H 
tion iiiiposMtbb, l^ungt on, thwarted at home, 
omts wliere \m great influence 
upon IToiiomtji to proiniw tliAt, m 
long &i Imiifam livml, tba l*tattm* power 
should ba dliwhtirged by tlw wchWht>p of 



Canterbury, and that no special legate a 
Ittttw should bo sent to Kngland (Ann. Dnn- 
xtapjf^ p, 74). The pope, must have writter 
to Pandulf ordering him to resign bus lega- 
tion. On 10 July 1M Pandulf solemnly 
resigned his functions in the presence 
several bishops at Westminster (/'Vows- /, 
ii, 172-'$). Langton himself did not get 
bade from Uotiio until August, 

The legate's abrupt retirement 
Kinoothcd over bv his lacing sent by tin* king 
on a mission to Poitou to procure a proton* 
gat ion of the (nice (Ann, thtn$ttt})ft\ p. 75) 
Krt>m Poitou he went to Home. Then* wart 
no longer any reason for delaying his eonse< 
eration to tin* bishopric to which he had been 
elected seven years before. ( hi iit) May l~Si 
Pandulf was consecrated bishop of Norwich 
by Honorius H 1 in person (Ann, JHrnv/r//' 

Paixlulf's name is tiot very closely asso-i 
eiatcd with the Knglish diocese, though he> 
made some contrihutinm towards the repair 
of tho fabric of his church {(Vrro^p, 'UHl 
He was still attached to the service of, 
Henry HI. In llliM he was present at the* 
funeral of Philip AitgtHiu.s at Saint Denis 

It was believed in Kiui'hmd that he urued| 
the pope not to allow Philip's sou Louis VU I. 
to be crowned until lie had redeemed a 
former oath of restoring Nornwitdy to Kug- 
land. Hut * not withstanding this,* says tin* 
clironich*r t ' Louis wan duly crowned * \ Ann, 
Dmwt. p, HI). After the- cm-imnt ion PnmluH 
VIIH went by Hinry 1H T ulong with tht^ 
lunhop of Hly, to densnud from Louis the 
ftdfllment of his former promines, but nothing 
came of this ( UAMMI in:i*ota;i;Hii t \tJ Jf p, lill 
MATT, l^uts, iti, 77 H). 

Piuiduif hiwiu after appears again nt Home, 
where in Jiilio he guve goort ndvit'e with n 
sttnmg Auti-Kronclt bins tt> Henry !H*jy 
proctors at the curia t A*J//'// /*r///r.*/i, !^o7) 
lie tiled at Home ( Atw, /IW/vWc// p. MO!) 
on 10 Aug, l^:*tt (ttwt, 1'Yoit, \Vm. ii, 17 K 
Jolm tie TVHt*r in Pr.ut/s Mw. f/rrw 
x xvui, "x7h Stuhtm 



* , 

AtttftiwtttuWi p, *IK) put* hw death tin 1H Sept, 
His body wn tnk** to Kughwd and buried 
tn Norwich Cathedral (r**rniK* ji, 'ISM; 

ttH, Mntrml Mwntnirnt** p. HUH)* f 

(AnimU of Miir^nm, Tuwk^bury, 



in 

r, Wig, (Kn 

^rtt of Urn l(ij<u uf Hi*ry tH, vol. i,, with Or, 
" 



Purist Hint, Mujof, voK it, mttl iii 
r,); Klortw Hint<riiirum, il (HolU 



Paniter 



179 



Panizzi 



tew, vol. i. 1198-1304; Ralph de Coggeahall 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Rymer's Fcedera, vol. i. pt. i. (Re- 
cord edit.) ; Walter of Coventry (Rolls Ser.) ; 
EpistoltB Innocenti i III in Migne's Patrologia 
Latina, vols. ccxvi. ccxvii, ; Godwin, De Praesuli- 
bus Angliae (1743), pp. 429-30 ; Le Neve's Fasti 
Ecel. Angl. ii. 460, ed. Hardy ; Stubbs's Const. 
Hist. vols. i. and ii., and Select Charters ; Pauli's 
Geschichte von England, vol. iii. ; Pearson's Hist. 
of England, especially ii. 1 24-8 ; Ciaconius's Vitse 
Pontificum et Cardinalium, vol. i.] T. F. T. 

PANITER. 



[See 

I, SIR ANTHONY (1797-1879). 
principal librarian of the British Museum, 
was born on 16 Sept. 1797, at Brescello in the 
duchy of Modena. His father, Luigi Panizzi, 
was the son of a lawyer named, like his son, 
Antonio : his mother, Caterina Gruppi, was 
likewise of a family connected with the law. 
Panizzi received his education at a school at 
Reggio, whence he proceeded to the univer- 
sity of Parma, and graduated in the faculty 
of law in 1818. He then commenced prac- 
tice as an advocate, obtaining considerable 
distinction, and, notwithstanding his youth, 
receiving the office of inspector of the schools 
of his native town from the Duke of Modena, 
who entertained a personal regard for him. 
This favour did not prevent his conspiring 
with other young patriots to overthrow the 
worst of all the petty Italian tyrannies of 
that epoch. He was initiated as a Carbonaro 
in March 1820, and himself admitted others. 
In May 1822 the assassination of a police 
agent redoubled the fears and vigilance of 
the government, and, as a consequence of 
the inquiries set on foot, Panizzi was arrested 
in October of that year. Escaping by the 
connivance of an official, he fled to Lugano, 
and there published, with the fictitious im- 
print of Madrid, a pamphlet ' I Processi di 
feubiera,' denouncing the cruelties and judicial 
iniquities of the Modenese government. The 
work was rigidly suppressed and is now ex- 
ceedingly rare. The government indicted 
Panizzi in his absence, sentenced him to death 
as contumacious, and debited him with the 
costs of the legal proceedings, for which he 
disclaimed responsibility in a humorous letter. 
After a short stay at Lugano he made his way 
to London, where he was welcomed by Ugo 
Foscolo, who despatched him to Liverpool 
with a letter of introduction to Roscoe, the 
chief patron of Italian literature in Eng- 
land. Roscoe received him most kindly, 

Provided him with numerous clients for his 
talian lessons, and introduced him to the 
intellectual society which Liverpool at that 
, time boasted, one of whose members, Francis 
JELaywood, the translator of Kant, "became a 
' lifelong friend. Panizzi had, in all proba- 



bility, already become known to Brougham 
through Foscolo, and their intimacy was 
cemented when, in 1827, he accompanied the 
great advocate to Lancaster, to the famous 
trial of Edward Gibbon Wakefield [q. v.], 
involving points of continental marriage law 
on which Panizzi's aid was of material ser- 
vice. Brougham requited him by the doubtful 
"benefit of procuring him, in 1828, the Italian 
professorship at University College. The 
emoluments of the post soon proved to be a 
disadvantageous exchange for the tuition he 
had carried on so vigorously at Liverpool ; 
but this incited Brougham, as chancellor and 
an ex-officio trustee of the British Museum, 
to provide for him more effectually by securing 
his appointment as assistant librarian in that 
institution in April 1831. 

The administration of the museum was at 
that time at a lower ebb than at any period 
of its history. There were eminent men 
among the officers, and the collections had 
lately been enriched by^ two most magni- 
ficent additions, the Elgin marbles and the 
king's library ; but the premises were anti- 
quated, the grants insufficient, and the entire 
system of government unenlightened and il- 
liberal, Panizzi's immediate official superior, 
the Rev. Henry Hervey Baber [q. v.], was a 
man of great capacity, but there was nothing 
for him to do worthy of his abilities, and 
still less for his subordinate, whose official 
time was mainly occupied for several years 
in writingout the titles of uncatalogued pam- 
phlets in the king's library, or of the French 
revolutionary tracts presented by John "Wil- 
son Croker. Panizzi's attention was naturally 
much given to literature ; he had already pub- 
lished an Italian grammar and chrestomathy 
for his scanty flock at University College, and 
he now carried on with vigour his great edi- 
tion of Boiardo's t Orlando Innamorato r and 
Ariosto's ' Orlando Furioso/ the first volume 
of which had been published in 1830. Hia 
rescue of Boiardo, long completely eclipsed by 
the fame of his adapter Berni, was the great 
Ii terary achievement of his life. The prelimi- 
nary essay, which occupies most of the first 
volume, was valuable in its day as an indica- 
tion of the indebtedness of European chivalric 
fiction to Celtic romance, but has inevitably 
"been superseded. He also thoroughly purifiecl 
his author's much-corrupted text, and subse- 
quently published an elegant edition of his 
minor poems. The work endeared him to 
patrons of Italian literature like Thomas 
Grenville [q. v.JWilliam Stewart Rose [q.v.], 
and Lady Jjacre, and promoted his intimacy 
at Holland House, where he soon became a 
favourite guest and the wielder of a social 
influence entirely disproportloned to his pub- 

.. : . ' ' ' Jsr 2 



Panizzi 



i So 



Panizzi 



lie position or pecuniary circumstances. An- 
other literary undertaking, the preparation 
of the catalogue of the library of the Royal 
Society, produced an embittered quarrel, 
which fortunately terminated in a pamphlet 
instead of a lawsuit. 

In 1834 the trustees, dissatisfied with the 
unsatisfactory progress of a subject-catalogue 
of the museum library, which had long been 
in progress according to n an^am* f n j i.~ 



rary, wc a ong ee 
in progress according to a scheme framed by 
the Rev. Thomas Hartwell Home [q v 1 
called upon Baber to prepare a plan for an 
alphabetical catalogue. Baber proposed that 
the execution of this work should be en- 
trusted to the superintendence of Panizzi 
but an inferior plan was adopted, and Panizzi 
shared the task with others. It soon ap- 
peared that he performed more work than 
any two of his colleagues, and a sub-com- 
mittee of trustees recommended that his 
salary ^should be raised in consequence, 
The rejection of this proposal by the gene- 
ral board occasioned Grenville's secession 
from the trustees' meetings. At this time 
tne governing body was imperatively sum- 
moned to set its house in order by a parlia- 
mentary committee presided over by Mr 
Sotheran Estcourt, but mainly inspired by 



, 
! 



to which Panmi contributed important 
evidence and ample statistical information 
though set on foot through the intrigues of 
a discarded minor official, produced vfluab?e 

n srvV C DStltUted 5? e P ch in "he 



everybody. The progress of the catalog 
was by no means equally smooth and Zil 
The trustees left it optional with fflrf 
to undertake or decline this vast addition 
to his ordmary labours, which he acco e d 
m December 1838. The next stun 
frame the catalogue rules, in' which" ^ 
the assistance of Jones, \Vatts, and ot 
1 amzzi proved, himself the createst 1 
lator the world of libraria^ship i, l( 
seen, and his work, in essentials, will , 
be superseded. Some of the r, l ( T ni 
over-minute, and the undertaking in ? 
some respects have been planned ou too , 
tensive a scale,- but tho real causes of th 
lays winch excited so much criticism 
insufficiency of staff and the unf,, 
decision of the trustees, in spite of 1> 
warnings to proceed in strict alpha!, 

n' " d pr , mt each Iettw " *"m 

could be made ready for tho proas 
occasioned enormous hindrance firm 
ascertaining, or rather trvinis- to 
what books should come "undor a particular 
letter, and afterwards in carry h," , fT 
'prmtang of one portion of t hi L a 1, 
simultaneously with tho prom, K f 
another. The only visible ,,4lt < f U ', 
labours for many yearn was (,h 
volume printed in 1841, and K T,at 









ev Henry Francis Gary [qv occasion "^ r, " mu8t be dmittd tut " ',Z 
much comment and remonstmnce bu dld not f the advantages of print W 
inevitable, Gary beino- hv lit. ' j . as regarded , the circulaHmi nf ti. * u '"' r 
incapable of tS&e "of ?7 * dmissi n or the economy of pan Ii;I cataIf ^ 11H 

^&^^<^ 






o uin nis lite in -England --~-,.~j v^ms i/u mt* success t\t' I'n * *' j^* 

fefsSSs-^ 



asury or with Dul)li/x.tmi;*;i _ii_ . 







H^ngV^r/'r^v^ ^s: 

of Jonf, Md^VattfJ iS? a jf^ ll f K^ 09 



Panizzi 



Panizzi 



and his successors, has elevated the museum 
library from the sixth or seventh to the 
second, if not the first, place among 1 the 
libraries of the world. One of the most im- 
portant additions it ever received, the be- 
quest of the Grenville Library in 1846, was 
entirely due to Panizzi's personal influence 
[see GEENVILLE, THOMAS]. 

By 1848 the public dissatisfaction with 
the administration of the museum in most 
of its departments prompted, however, 
far more by lack of space than by dis- 
trust of the staff had reached a point 
which was held to justify the appointment 
of a royal commission of inquiry. The idea 
seems to have arisen with the men of 
science, who were justly scandalised at the 
crowded condition of the natural history col- 
lections; but the centre of interest speedily 
shifted to the printed book department. 
Panizzi's success in rebutting all the accusa- 
tions brought against his management was 
universally acknowledged, and the most im- 
portant result of the investigation was to 
virtually transfer the administration of the 
museum to him from the secretary, whose 
mind gave way during- the sittings of the 
commission; while the commissioners' pro- 
posals for a more radical change of system 
were allowed to drop. Two years afterwards 
the insufficiency of space, so far as regarded 
the library, was effectually remedied for a 
long time, by Panizzi's grand conception of 
the reading-room and its annexes, by which 
he will be better remembered than by any 
other of his achievements. The waste of 
space through the emptiness of the great 
quadrangle must have struck every one, but 
no suggestion for occupying it with an ad- 
ditional library appears to have been made 
except by Thomas Watts in 1836. Professor 
William Hosking [q. v.l and Edward Haw- 
kins (1780-1867) [q. v.], Keeper of antiquities, 
brought forward m 1845-50 schemes for a 
central hall for sculpture, which passed un- 
noticed. Panizzi's first design was sketched 
by him on 18 April 1852, and submitted to 
the trustees on 5 May following. It merely 
contemplated a flat-roofed building, and it 
does not precisely appear when the striking 
architectural feature of the dome was added. 
After a controversy with Wilson Croker 
and Sir Charles Barry, who wished the space 
to be devoted to a central hall for anti- 
quities, Panizzi's plans were approved by the 
trustees and the government, and it would 
now be universally admitted that the world 
contains no edifice more carefully devised, 
down to the minutest details, or better 
adapted to subserve the double purpose of 
storage for immense contents and accommo- 



dation for a numerous public. The founda- 
tions were laid in May 1854, and the build- 
ing was inaugurated by a reception given 
by Panizzi on 2 May 1857. A year previously 
he had^ become principal librarian, having 
succeeded Sir Henry Ellis on 6 March 1856; 
The minor improvements introduced by him 
during his nineteen years' tenure of office as 
keeper of printed books are far too numerous 
to be noticed here ; but one, the stricter en- 
forcement of the Copyright Act, must be 
mentioned, on account of the obloquy to 
which, it for a tune subjected him. 

As principal librarian Panizzi displayed 
the same energy and administrative capacity 
that he had exhibited in a subordinate 
station, but no very important question 
agitated his term of office, except one in 
which he unfortunately took the wrong side. 
He was a strong advocate for the removal of 
the natural history collections, chiefly, it 
was thought, from impatience and dislike of 
the men of science, whom he could never 
endure. ' He would/ said Macaulay, 'give 
three mammoths for one Aldus.' It is in- 
deed improbable that any influence would 
have prevailed upon any government to 
sanction the large expenditure which the 
proper accommodation of all the multifarious 
collections of the museum at Bloomsbury 
would have entailed ; and if proper accom- 
modation for all was not to be provided, it 
was better that a part should be removed. 
It is also true that some vehement opponents 
of the dislocation of the museum, in their 
zeal for the interests of art and archaeology, 
worked against their own object by their 
grudging recognition of the claims of science. 
It is nevertheless to be regretted that Panizzi 
should have supported the removal other- 
wise than as a necessary evil. Wiser ad- 
ministrative measures were the trisection of 
the unwieldy department of antiquities, a 
fourth subdivision being added subsequently, 
and the appointment of a superintendent of 
all the natural history collections in the 
person of Professor Richard Owen Fq. v ,] 
The most remarkable acquisitions during 
Panizzi's administration were archaeological, 
including the Temple vases and bronzes, the 
Parnese sculptures, the fruits of excavations 
at Haliearnassus, Camirus, and Carthage, 
and the Christy collection of prehistoric an- 
tiquities. The great Cast ellani purchase came 
immediately after his resignation, but his 
influence was believed to have contributed 
to it. Another important transaction in 
which he was deeply concerned was the ad- 
mission of the staff of the museum, whose 
friend he had always been, to the benefits of 
the Civil Service Superannuation Act, a 



Panizzi 



182 



Panizzi 



measure -which had the additional advantage 
of establishing the position of the museum 
as a recognised branch^ of the civil service, 
The staff expressed their sense of obligation 
in the presentation on different occasions of 
Panizzi's bust by Marochetti and portrait by 
Watts, both of which are deposited in the 
museum. His resignation took place in June 
1866. He had wished to resign a year earlier, 
but retained his post for a time in deference 
to the representations of the trustees. 

Dunng the whole of his official career at 
the museum Panizzi had lived a second life 
of incessant occupation with politics, espe- 
cially as they affected the movement for the 
liberation of Italy, and he had attained to 
great influence through his association with 
two very dissimilar classes of people-Italian 
patnotsand whig ministers. He enjoyed the 
lull confidence of Russell, Palmerston, and 
Clarendon, and as early as 1845 effected a 
temporary reconciliation between Thiers and 
Palmerston Thiers wrote him confidential 
letters on the Spanish marriages, and his re- 
phes may rank as state papers. This influ- 



country. 



been a Carbonaro when 



spent a considerable time at Biarritz. But 
although he was much caressed, and himself 
conceived a warm attachment to the em- 
peror, the sturdiness of his Italian patriotism 
seems to have proved unpalatable. Cavour 
wished to make him director of public in- 
struction, but he refused to be drawn away 
from England, although he accepted an 
Italian senatorship. 

Panizzi's last years were passed in retire- 
ment at his London residence, 31 Blooms- 
bury Square, almost in the shadow of the 
museum. Their chief events were an all but 
fatal illness early in 1868, and the distinction 
of K.C.B. conferred upon him in 1869 Some 
few years later, at a suggestion from hHi 
quarters, he elaborated, with all his old 
energy, a scheme for placing the South Ken- 
sington Museum under the administration of 
the trustees of the British Museum which 
was discussed for a time, but produced no 
result. His last years were severely trial by 
bodily afflictions, but cheered by the atteu- 
tions of many old friends, among whom M> 
Gladstone was conspicuous. ^rdMon 
8 A ? ril 1879 > and kterred at St 
catholic cemetery, Kenaal Green. His 



. 



Even when Italian freedom had 

been won, Panizzi was engaged to exercise a 
wholesome supervision over Garibaldi during 
the latter's visit to England. The most dra- 
matic episode of his political activity was his 
championship of the Neapolitan state pri- 
soners, whose cause he stimulated Mr Glad- 
stone to undertake. He went to Naples'at con 
siderable personal risk to inquire into their 
case and, when his efforts on the spot proved 
fruitless, organised, partly at his own ex- 
pense, an elaborate scheme for their escape 
For four years/ says Mr. Gartwright in the 
$ M ?? 1 7 ^< 4 ne clung to his idea' 
collected by indefatigable energy the means 
necessary for its realisation, and 'finally 
brought it to the verge of execution. No in- 

Satfl* "f v Hfe is / nytllin S like so illus- 
trative uof hw power for bold conception, and 
for making men and things bend We his 
steady, persistent, and subtle will.' At a 
later period he seemed likely to play a part 
in * rench polities, having been introduced 
bjhisfnend Prosper M^rimee into the inmost 
circle aroand Napoleon IH with whonT he 



-""' *".* Y w^cia, u, .ueu country in iius 

youth, he would have entered public life and 
risen to the highest honours of the state 
Diverted to a narrower sphere, hifi energies 
sufficed t to regenerate and remodel a creat, 
institution which but for him might Ion g 
have lagged behind the requirements of tho 
age. His services to the museum are to be 
measured, not so much by what he actually 
effected for it, great as some of these achieve- 
ments were, but by the new spirit which ho 
infused into it, the spring of all that it has 
done and 13 doing after him. His principles 
of administration have been thus summarised : 
(i) Ihe museum is not a show, but an in- 
stitution for the diffusion of culture. (2) It 

X, a 1 ^T rtme ? t rf 1 ** C 1 service, and 
should be conducted in the spirit of other 
public departments. (3) It should bo 
managed with the utmost possible liberality 
Views like;hese were congenial to a nature 
whose mam attribute was magnanimity, 
except tor an occasional pettiness in hunting- 
and worrying small offenders, Panizzi's faults 
equally with his merits, belonged to a warm 
and impetuous nature, capable of any exer- 



Panke 



Panter 



tion where a great end was to be gained, and 
not always entirely scrupulous in its pursuit, 
but capable also of tender affection and dis- 
interested kindness. On some few points he 
was narrow and prejudiced, but in the main 
his judgment, both of men and things, was 
remarkably sound ; and he was equally at 
home in the broadest principles and in the 
nicest minutise of administration, His plans 
for the extension of the library were con- 
ceived in the most catholic spirit. His dis- 
taste for science was undoubtedly a great 
disadvantage to him, but it redounds the 
m ore to his credit that he should have pro- 
vided as well for the scientific as for any 
other department of the library. His lite- 
rary tastes were those of a scholar of the 
eighteenth century. He read and re-read 
Dante, Virgil, and Horace. He superintended 
Lord Vernon's magnificent edition of Dante, 
wrote on the identity of the Aldine type- 
cutter, Francesco da Bologna, with Francesco* 
Francia (1858, a privately printed pamphlet 
written in Italian), and occasionally contri- 
buted to the 'Foreign Quarterly,' 'Edin- 
burgh/ and * North British ' Reviews, and to 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica J (8th edit.) 

[Pagan's Life of Sir Anthony Panizzi^ 1880; 
Cowtau's Biographical Sketch of Sir Anthony 
Panizzi, 1873 ; Cow tan's Memories of the British 
Museum, 1872; Edwards's Founders and Bene- 
factors of the British Museum; Lettere ad 
Antonio Panizzi di uomini illustri e- di amici 
Italiani, pubblicate da Luigi Fagan; Prosper 
Merimee's Lettres a M. Panizzi (Panizzi's own 
letters to Merimde were destroyed in the burning 
of the latter's house under the Commune) ; W. C. 
Cartwright in the Quarterly Review, vok cli. ; 
B. Garnett in the Athenaeum of 19 April' 1879;. 
personal knowledge.] B. G-. 

P ANKLE, JOHN (JL 1608), divine, is 
stated by Wood to have been a * very fre- 
quent and noted preacher of his time . . t 
well read in theology . . . and a yery zealous- 
enemy in his writings and preachments, 
against the Papists.' He was educated at 
Oxford, but at what college i& not known,. 
Upon leaving Oxford he held the vicarage- of 
Broadhinton, Wiltshire, and afterwards the- 
rectory of North Tidworth, Wiltshire,, both 
in the Salisbury diocese. His last work is 
dated from Salisbury, where, according to 
Wood, he ' had some cure.' 

He was author of: 1. ' Short Admonition, 
by way of Dialogue, to all those who 
hitherto upon pretence of their unworthinea 
have dangerously in respect of their Salva- 
tion withdrawn themselves from comming 
to the Lordes Table,' &c., Oxford, 1604, 8vo. 
2. 'The Fal of Babel by the Confusion of 
Tongues, directly proving against the Papists 



of this and former ages 5 that a view of their 
writings and bookes being taken, it cannot 
be discerned by any man living what they 
should say, or howbe understoode, in the 
question of the sacrifice of the Masse, the 
Keall presence or Transubstantiation, &c. 
By John Panke,' Oxford, 1608, 4to; 1613, 
4to. This is dedicated from Tidworth, 1 Nov. 
1607, to the heads of colleges at Oxford. 
3. * Eclogarius, or Briefe Summe of the 
Truth of that Title of Supreame Governour, 
given to his Majestic in causes spirituall and 
Ecclesiasticall, &c. ; not published before. 
By John Panke,' Oxford, 1612, 4to. 4. ' Col- 
lectanea, out of St. Gregory the Great and 
St. Bernard the Devout, against the Papists 
who adhere to the present Church of Rome, 
in the most fundamental Points between 
them and us/ Oxford, 1618, Svo. This is dedi- 
cated ' from the Close at Sarum, 24 January 
1618,' to George Churchowse, mayor of 
Sarum. It was reprinted at Salisbury, 1835, 
8vo t under the title of ' Romanism condemned 
by the Church of Borne/ 

[Wood's Atheuce Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 274; 
Hoare's Modern Wiltshire, Hundred of Ambres- 
bury, p. 92 ; Brit.. Mus. Libr. Cat.] B. B. 

PAKMUBB, EAELS OF. [See MATTLE, 
PATRICE, first EAEL, d, 1661 ; MAULEJ JAMES, 
fourth EARL, 1659 P-1323; MATJLE, HABRY, 
titular EARL,, d. 1734.] 

PA2STMUKE, BAROIS& [See MATTLE, 
WILLIAM RAMSAY, first BARON- PAJTMURE of 
Brechm and Navar, Forfarshire, 1771-1852 ; 
MATJLE, Fox, second BARON PANMUEE (of the 
United Kingdom), and eventually eleventh 
EARL OF DALHOTJSIE (ia the peerage of Scot- 
land), 1801-1874.] 

PANMTJRE, LORB OF. [See YALOGNES, 
PHILIP DE, d. 1215J 

PANTEB,, DAVID (d. 1558), bishop of 
Ross, son of David Panter, who was brother 
of Patrick Panter [q. v.] His mother was 
Margaret Crichtoun, widow countess of 
Rothes. He first appears as vicar of Car- 
stairs, and subsequently as prior of St. Mary's 
in Galloway, and as commendator of the 
abbey of Cambuskenneth. He was in France 
in February 1541-2 on some unknown errand, 
and on 31 March 1543 was sent thither with 
Sir John Campbell of Lundie on a mission 
to the French king. He had already acted 
for some time aa secretary to James V. He 
returned in June with John Hamilton, abbot 
of Paisley, in time to assist Cardinal Bea- 
ton's opposition to the English matrimonial 
schemes of -the English court. The letters 
of the English ambassadors, preserved in 
Sadler's ' Papers/ and Buchanan's "bitter 



Panter 



184 



Panton 



criticism testify to the strength of his in- 
fluence on behalf of Prance. In December 
he was ordered by the governor to deliver 
back, according to custom, the badge of 
knighthood of the Golden Fleece to the Em- 
peror Charles V. In 1545 he was elected 
bishop of Ross, and in May of that year was 
sent on a mission to the king of France, 
the emperor, and Mary of Hungary. He was 
abroad for sevenyears. On his return he re- 
ceived consecration to his bishopric at Jed- 
burgh, before a brilliant assembly of the 
Scots nobles. He died, according to Holin- 
shed, at Stirling on 1 Oct. 1558, and was suc- 
ceeded in the bishopric by Henry Sinclair 

Some of his official letters are printed in 
Ruddiman's 'Epistolae/1724, vol. ii.(cf.pref.) 

[Lesley's History; Holinshed's Chronicles'; 
Buchanan's Hi story; Sadler Papers, i. 221 et seq.; 

TTftlf,h' HsitalnrMi^ rtP Riclnrtv^P. 1 n_ n & 



THEB, PATEJC(1 1519) 

^ 



Museum. A selection formed the first volume 
of Ruddiman's i Epistolae Jacobi Quart! 
Jacobi Quinti, et Mariee Regum Scotorum ' 
published ; in 1724 [see PANTER, DAVID], A. 
reproduction of his signature will be ibund 
in Small's edition of the < Works of Gavin 
Douglas* (vol. i, p. Ixxxv). 

[Preface to vol. i. of the Epistol*, described 
above; Boece's Murthlac. et Aberdori. Kpiscopp 
Fitse (Spalding Club); Bueluumn's History ' Ex- 
chequer Rolls of Scotland, vol. xiii.; Pinkerton 
vol. n.; Keith's Catalogue of Bishops ; Gard- 
ner's Letters of Richard III. (Rolls Ser.), vol 
ii. p. Ixvi; Smith's Days of James IV, p. 189 1 * 

O. G. S. 

PANTIN, THOMAS PINDAR (1792- 
366), theological writer, son of Thomas 
Pantm of St. Sepulchre's, London, born in 
1792, matriculated from Queen's ColWe 
Oxford, 24 June 1817, and graduated B A 
m '21 and "^ A "~~ i^^^ 



born 



1470 at 



lertlll. He 

~. vv.x*u.iw* j.jj. Kjwuuiaud, and later was a 
fellow student with Hector Eoece [q. v,] at 
the College Montaigu at Paris. He returned 
about 1500, and was appointed rector of 
Feteresso in Mearns, and preceptor of the 
Maison-Dieu at Brechin. James IV en- 
trusted him with the education of Alexan- 
der, his illegitimate son, afterw 
bishop of St. Andrews, and in 1505 gave 

city he wrote the remarkable series of state 
letters on which his reputation as a latinist 
rests. In 1510 he appears as custumar- 
general for Scotland, ffe was probably soon 
afterwards elected abbot of Cambuskenneth 
which title he held in 1515-16. After ' ' 
death of James IV he fell into-disg 
account of his opposition to theregeL , 
duke of Albany. In August 1515 he was 
^prisoned in Inchgarvie in the Firth of 
-forth, and his property was confiscated He 
TOjBoon, however, Teconciled,and,h e set out 



o Q 10/3^ TT is death 

on ^ sept. Ittbb. ^He was succeeded at; 
Westcote by his kinsman, John Wiclifie 
Jrantin. 

Pantin wrote several small polemical 
Roman catholic 
certain PaBsapoa 
Duty of granting 
s ,- relating to tho 

^iu"~rn Cyo , f , e Bish P and the Idolatry 
ot the Church ot Rome/ Lutterworth, 1829. 



- .o, and Scrip- 

. ,j wherein also its Claims 

Opposition to Popery and Dissent arc 

^nfrf^ edi f' ed /A Vi - tl1 - ad %? nftl notes," iViaiiop 
btillmgfieets ' Onjnnes Britamiicjo ' (3 vols 
Oxford 1842), and -Bishpp Bull's 'Oorrup- 

3 of the Church of Rome,' with a pre- 

and notes (London, 1836), 

M^ 08 ^ ^ ur ??i 9? on ' J 71 5-1 888; Gonfc. 
iu.dg, iht>, n. 559; Dai-liner's Cycl Biblinar 
pp. 2283, 2852; Brit. Mu ^ i - - g 



- -_ ^s. 1513. 
His official letters are extant in 

^ S ^l thr u e in tlie Advocates 1 
wy, iiidmburgh, and one in the 



.sffiara ffij^ss^ifflssas 
- - '^TM"^"^^ 

on whom Panton had' . settled an annuity! 

J,ne Jiyans manuscripts consisted of more 
ighty volumes, some of which were 
^tmoughthegTeaternumberwere tran- 



Panton iJ 

scripts from the "Wynsstay and Hengwrt 
libraries (Myvyrian Arch. 2nd ed. p. xii). 
Panton's collection was deposited in the 
library of his residence, Plas Gwyn, in the 
parish of Llan Edwen, Anglesey, North Wales 
(CARLISLE, Topogr. Diet, of Wales, l Llan 
Edwen'), and was opened freely to anti- 
quaries. Panton died in 1797. The manu- 
scripts were left to his son, Paul Panton of 
Plas Gwyn, who allowed the editors of ' The 
JVlyvyrian Archaiology of "Wales' to make 
free use of them for that work (Preface, dated 
1801). In 1852 the manuscripts were de- 
scribed (WILLIAMS, Diet, of Eminent Welsh- 
men, s.v. ( Panton 7 ) as still in the library at 
Plas Gwyn. JJn 1875 many of the manu- 
scripts were said to be in the possession of 
Paul Panton, R.N., of Garreglwyd,Holyhead, 
Anglesey, a descendant of the original owner 
(NICHOLAS, County Families of Wales, 1875, 
i.47). 

[Authorities cited above.] W. W. 

PANTON, THOMAS (d. 1685), gambler, 
was youngest son of John Panton, the re- 
presentative of an old Leicestershire family, 
living at Ashby-de-la-Zouch. When the 
nucleus of a regular army was formed by 
Charles II in 1661, Panton, who appears to 
have attended the king abroad and already 
enjoyed a titular colonelcy, obtained a com- 
mission in his majesty's life-guards, and 
also held a captaincy in the foot-guards- He 
drew his pay from both regiments till 1667, 
when, having become a Boman catholic, he 
resigned his commissions into the king's 
hands during a review in St. James's Park. 
He won the favour of several of the ladies about 
the court, and relieved them of considerable 
sums at the card -table. Some of his gal- 
lantries are recorded by Lucas, but it was 
as a card-player that Panton really excelled. 
' There was no game,' says Lucas, ' but 
what he was an absolute artist at it, either 
Tiponthe Square or Foul play. . . . His chief 
game was Hazard, and in one night at this 
play he won as many thousand pounds as 
purchased him an estate of above 1,5QOJ. a 
year/ After this coup, Panton married, 
bought the manor of Cuxhall in Bucknall, 
and other estates in Herefordshire, and 
entirely abjured all games of chance. He 
speculated, however, in property about Lon- 
don, bought from Mrs. Baker, about 1670, 
the well-known seventeenth-century gaming- 
house known as 'Piccadilly Hall,' improved 
this property, and in 1671 began building a 
' fair street of good houses/ now known as 
Panton Street, between the Haymarket and 
Hedge Lane (Dorset Street). He died in 
1685, and was buried oa.26 Oct. of that 



5 Panton 

year in Westminster Abbey. His widow 
Dorothy resided in 'a capital mansion on 
the east side of the Haymarket ' until he? 
death on 1 April 1725, at the age of eighty- 
four; she was buried by the side of her 
husband on 5 April. Her will, dated 1 June 
1722, was proved on 8 April 1725 by her 
eldest son, Brigadier-general Thomas Pan- 
ton. The latter carried intelligence of the 
battle of Blenheim to the States-General 
(BoYER, Anne^. 154), was severely wounded 
at Malplacjuet on 11 Sept. 1709 (PELET, 
Mem. Milit. ix. 370), took the news of the 
capture of JDouay to the court of St. James's 
in 1710 (LUTTRELL), and returned to the camp 
at Bouchain in September 1711, bearing the 
queen's inquiries as to Marlborough's health 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. lOthKep. App. p. 143). 
He became major-general 1 May 1730, lieu- 
tenant-general 5 Nov. 1735, and died 20 July 
1753, the oldest general in the army (BEAT- 
SOK, Political Index, ii. 130; Gent. Mag. 
1753, p. 344). Panton's eldest daughter, 
Elizabeth (d. 1700), married about 1679 
Henry, fifth lord Arundell of Wardour. 
Another daughter, Dorothy, married, in 1675, 
William Stanley of Chelsea, and predeceased 
her husband, who died of delirium tremens, 
under strange circumstances, in 1691 (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 13th Rep. App. v. 347). 

[Lucas's Memoirs of Celebrated Gamesters, 
pp. 59-67; Chester's Westminster Abbey Begis- 
ters, pp. 214, 313; Remembrdncia City of Lon- 
don, 1878, p. 19 K.; D' Alton 'sArary Lists, pb. i. 
pp. 1, 27 ; Letter-books of John Her vey, first 
earl of Bristol, 1895 ; Wheatleyand Cunningham's 
London, Hi, 26-7 ; Thornbury's London, Old and 
New, vol. iv. ; Gr.E.C.'s Peerage, i. 158 ; Luttrell's 
Brief Hist. Relation, vi, 393 ; Timbs's Century 
of Anecdote, i. 37.] T. S. 

PANTON, THOMAS (1731-1808), 
sportsman, born in 1731, was son of Thotnas. 
Panton, who was master of the king's run- 
ning-horses at Newmarket. A sister, Mary, 
married in 1750 Peregrine Bertie, fourth duke 
of Aneaster. Thomas Panton the younger 
lived as a country gentleman at Fen Ditfcon 
in Cambridgeshire, and was high sheriff for 
that county in 1789. He kept foxhounds, and 
is said once to have killed a fox close to the 
Rubbing House at Newmarket, after a twenty- 
five mile run without a check. The time, 
unhappily, is not recorded. His chief reputa- 
tion was gained as an owner of racehorses ; 
he was a member of the Jockey Club in 1753, 
within a few years of its foundation, and 
figured conspicuously on the turf until his 
death. That he enjoyed a good character may 
be assumed from the fact that the author of 
that scurrilous book ' The Jockey Club ' (1792) 
could find no harm to say of him. * Tommy 



Pantulf 



1 86 



Pantulf 



Panton's address '' is one of the ingredients 
prescribed in the poetical squib ' A Receipt 
to make a Jockey.' He won the Derby in 
1786 with Noble. His best horse probably 
was Feather. He died on 29 Nov. 1808 at 
Newmarket. 

[Black's Jockey Club and its Founders; Post 
and Paddock by H. H. Dixon; Ann. Keg. 1789 
1808 ; Gent. Mag. for 1808.] J. A. D. 

PANTULF, HUGH (d. 1224?), sheriff 
of Shropshire, was a son of Ivo, grandson of 
William Pantulf or Pantolium [q.T.j He first 
appears as a witness to a charter at Shrews- 
bury, 1175-6 (EYiotf, Shropshire, viii. 154), 
and in 1178 was amerced for a trespass on the 
king's forest in Northamptonshire (DuGDALE, 
Baronage,i. 434). After Michaelmas 1179 
he was made sheriff, and remained in office 
till Michaelmas 1189 (Erxoff, ix. 165). In 
1186 he witnessed a charter at Feckenham 
(ErroN, Court and Itinerary, p. 270), and 
towards the close of that year acted as 
justiciar in the Staffordshire circuit, and 
sat at Lichfield. In 1187 his tour extended 
through Staffordshire, Shropshire, Hereford- 
shire, Worcestershire, and pleas and conven- 
tions were held and tallages assessed by him 
(ib. p. 281). In 1188 he was at Gedding- 
ton, Northamptonshire, with the king, and in 
February 1189 (ib. p. 298) a fine was levied in 
the Curia Regis at Shrewshury before Hugh. 
Again in that year he held pleas in Glouces- 
tershire, Herefordshire, Shropshire, and Staf- 
fordshire. In 1190 he was in the king's court 
at Westminster (ErroN, vii. 12). He received 
lands in Herefordshire from Richard I ( Testa 
de Nevill, p. 56). In 1204 he was the king's 
messenger, with a safe-conduct to Gwenwyn- 
wyn, prince of Powis (Rot. Pat. p. 45), and 
in 1206 he was at John's court at Nottingham. 
He was charged with waste and neglect in 
controlling the stores of the royal castles 
during his sheriffdom,and made to pay part of 
the deficiency on the sheriff's ferm, amount- 
ing to 360J. Is. 10 , of this he was excused 
200/. (EYTOH-, iii. 68). His name appears on 
the scutage rolls of 1194-7. In the ' Testa 
de Nevill (p. 54-5) he is stated to have held 
by barony. He died before December 1224. 
He married Christiana, daughter of William 
Fitzalan [q. v.], and received as her dowry 
Badminton in Herefordshire, which he 
granted to LiUeshall Abbey in 1215-18, He 
had five sons William, Ivo, Alan, Hugh, 
and one JL, prebendary of Bridgnorth. 

WILLUM^. 1233) succeeded. him. Pro- 
bably it was he who in 1210 served John in 
his Irish campaign, and received grants of 
Uud in Kilkenny, Cells, and Carrickfergus, 
Jawre, and Dublin, for which in 1224 he 



was charged 8L 11 s. 4=d. (ErTOK, ix. 167, n.) 
Before 1226 he married Hawise FitzWarin 
(ib. vii. 75). In December 1225 he was 
ordered to render account at Westminster 
for a fifteenth taken in Shropshire (ib. ix, 
168), where he held five knights' fees of 
the lands escheated from Robert of Belleme 
[q. v.] In 1226 a close writ ordered the settle- 
ment of a dispute between him and Madoc ap 
Griffin at Brornfield to be made at Oswestry. 
He died in 1233. By a second wife, Alice, 
he left one daughter, Matilda, who married, 
first, Ralph le Botyler, and them Walter le 
Hopton. and died before 1292 (DUGDALE, pp. 
434-5). 
[Authorities cited.] M. B. 

PANTULF or PA3STTOLIUM, WIL- 
LIAM (d. 1112?), Norman knight, was one 
of Roger of Montgomery's tenants in the dis- 
trict of Hi^rues in the diocese of S6ex, His 
mother's name was Beatrice, and she held 
lands ' apud Fossas ' (not identified). Wil- 
liam received large grants of land, and held 
authority in Roger's earldom of Shrews- 
bury, founded after 1071. He held eleven 
manors in Odenet Hundred, and Worn was 
their head. In 1073-4 he was in Normandy, 
and o-ave the two churches of Noron, near 
Falaise, and St.. Evreux in Cache, with forty 
marks to establish a cell at Noron, and tithes 
of all the churches and places and goods 
which should belong to him. The monks of 
St. Evreux contributed IQl. to a pilgrimage 
to the shrine of St, Giles, near Nismos, 
which he was about to make. On 23 Oct. 1077 
he was present with William I at the con- 
secration of the church of Bee, and then 
went with a former abbot of St. Evreux to 
serve Robert Guiscard in Apulia. lie was 
treated with honour, and was offered a gift 
of three cities if he would stay, but he re- 
turned to Normandy. In December 1082 he 
fell under suspicion of complicity in the 
murder of the Countess Mabel, Earl Roger's 
mother, who had deprived Pantulf of his 
castle of Piretum (Perai en Saonnais). Pan- 
tulf had had dealings with the murderer, 
Hu^h of Jalgey, and took refuge with his 
family at the monastery of St. Evreux, He 
submitted to the ordeal of hot iron before 
the king's court at Rouen, and was acquitted. 
He gave four silk altar-cloths from Apulia 
to St. Evreux as a thank-offering. His estates 
were confiscated by Earl Roger (ORDBRiCTis 
VITALIS, ii. 433), but in 1085-6 he was in 
possession of twenty-nine manors in Shrop- 
shire, and others in Staffordshire and War- 
wickshire. After the death of William I, in 
1087, Pantulf revisited Apulia, and in June 
1092 gave the relics of. St, Nicholas to Norou, 



Paoli 



187 



Paoli 



Robert of Belleme [q. v.] deprived him of 
his lands for an unknown reason, and when 
Belleme ' rebelled, in 1102, Pantulf offered 
him his services. They were rejected, and 
he turned to Henry I, who put Stafford 
Castle in his custody, with two hundred 
soldiers. Pantulf detached Belleme's Welsh 
ally, Prince lorwerth ab Bleddyn [q. v.], by 
negotiation, and he persuaded the garrison 
of Bridgnorth to surrender to the king. The 
fief of Roger de Courcelles was probably his 
reward for these services (EiTON, Shropshire, 
viii. 46). 

In 1 1 1 2 Pantulf and his wife Lescelina and 
sons Philip, Ivo, and Arnulf confirmed their 
gifts to St. Evreux, and granted sixty marks 
in silver to the new church, which William 
did not live to see completed. Pantulf died 
about 1112. His eldest son, Philip, succeeded 
to his Norman, his second son, Robert, to 
his English, estates. 

ROBERT (Jl. 1130), according- to the cartu- 
lary of the nunnery of Caen, robbed the nuns 
of six Bounds of silver (ORDERlcus, ed. Le Pr6- 
vost, iii. 221 n.~) In the Bedfordshire pipe roll, 
1130 (p. 104), an entry is found concerning 
a trial by combat between him and Hugh 
Malbanc, whose estates were contiguous to 
Robert's. 

Ivo (d. 1176 ?), probably Robert's son, suc- 
ceeded him. He attested a charter of Stone, 
Staffordshire, 1130-5, a royal charter in De- 
cember 1137-8 (Pipe Roll}, and made grants 
to Shrewsbury and Combermere Abbeys, 
1141-55. He appears in 1165 in the 'Liber 
Niger (ed. Hearne, i. 144), and in the Staf- 
fordshire pipe rolls of 1167 and 1168-9. He 
made a grant to Haughmond Abbey in 1175- 
1176, and died about 1176. He had three 
sons by a first wife Hugh q. v.], Hameline, 
and Brice, and two by Alice de Verdon 
W T illiam and Norman (EKDESWICZ, Stafford- 
shire, p. 493). 

[Ordericus Vitalis, ed. Le Provost, vols. ii. iii. 
and iv. ; Eyton's Shropshire, ix. 157 sqq, and 
passim, and Court and Itinerary of Henry II; 
JDugdale's Warwickshire, i. 32, 90-5; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, iii. 693, 727, 860, 864; Ercles- 
wick's Staffordshire, pp. 14, 139, 493 ; Dug- 
dale's Baronage, i. 434 ; G-aston le Hardy's paper 
on Un Gentilhomme Normand an. XI, Siecle in 
Mem. Soc. Antiq. Norman. 3rd ser. vol. vi. Dec. 
1867, p. 735.] M. B. 

PAOLI, PASCAL (1725-1807), Corsican 
general and patriot, born on 25 April 1725, 
in the village of Rostino in Corsica, was 
the second son of Hyacinth Paoli, one of the 
leaders of the Corsican revolt of 1734 against 
the Genoese. Pascal's mother was Dionisia 
Valentini, daughter of one of the lesser 
nobles or caporali. Clement, Pascal's elder 



brother by ten years, was another patriot 
leader of the Corsicans. In 1736 Theodore, 
baron of Neuhof, having been proclaimed 
king by the Corsicans, the Genoese (to whose 
exchequer the French government was deeply 
indebted) applied for French help to expel 
Theodore and re-establish their own supre- 
macy. A French force, under the Marquis 
de Maillebois, defeated Hyacinth Paoli in 
the Nebbio in 1738, and disarmed the 
islanders. Pascal, then a boy of fourteen, 
went into exile with his father to Naples. 
There he was placed at the military college, 
under a Jesuit tutor, Anthony Genovese, pro- 
fessor of philosophy and political economy. 
After a brilliant career at the academy, Pas- 
cal received his commission as lieutenant in 
the cavalry regiment, mainly composed of 
Corsican exiles, of which his father was colo- 
nel. The young officer obtained a colonelcy 
and won distinction by his daring conduct 
of an expedition against the bandits of Cala- 
bria. In the meantime, the French having- 
evacuated .Corsica in 1741, the islanders' re- 
sentment of the Genoese yoke grew more 
acute, and in 1752 they again took up arms, 
and proclaimed Jean Paul Gaffori gene- 
ralissimo. The Genoese procured Gaffori's 
assassination on 2 Oct. 1753, and the indig- 
nation tlrus aroused rendered any reconcilia- 
tion impossible. 

Thereupon a new constitution was decreed, 
and, after some temporary expedients, the 
Corsicans decided to offer the dictatorship 
to Pascal Paoli. Under his father's advice, 
Pascal had been preparing himself, as if 
with some presentiment of the ' high de- 
stiny awaiting him, to acquire a complete 
mastery of the art of government. When, 
the assembled chiefs of Corsica finally re- 
solved upon offering him the post Qf ruler 
of the island, Paofi was just entering his 
thirtieth year. On 29 April 1755 he dis- 
embarked in Corsica at the mouth of the 
river Golo, and on 25 July 1755 the supreme 
council elected him their generalissimo. His 
chief opponent at the outset was his former 
colleague and compatriot, Emmanuel Matra, 
who, jealous of the power awarded to Paoli, 
stirred up a civil war against him, and suc- 
ceeded in enlisting the support of the Genoese. 
Matra surprised Paoli in the convent of 
Bozio, and the patriot was only saved by 
Matra's death in March 1756. Paoli vigo- 
rously carried on the war against the Genoese, 
and, having driven them successively from 
Bastia, Cal vi, and San Lorenzo, he eventually 
drove them out of Ajaccio. Despairing of 
reconquering Corsica by their own arms, 
Genoa turned once more for aid to France, 
and a secret treaty was -signed at Coinpiegne 



Paoli 



188 



Paoli 



on 7 Aug. 1764 by which the French pro- 
mised their military aid to the Genoese for 
the apace of four years. During those years 
Paoli vainly appealed to the European powers 
against theaction of France. Count Marbceu: 
landed six: battalions in the island in October 
1764, and occupied most of the strong places 
After four years of armed truce, diversified 
by the capture of Capraja by Paoli, both 
Genoese and patriots realised that their re- 
spective situations were untenable in the 
presence of a strong French force. By the 
treaty of Versailles, negotiated between Choi- 
seul and the Genoese plenipotentiary Sorba 
on 15 May 1768, Genoa finally yielded up 
Corsica to France in consideration of the ex- 
pense in which the French crown was in- 
volving itself by its efforts to reduce the 
island. The Paolists were naturally no party 
to the treaty, and they determined upon a 
vigorous resistance. Their defence of iso- 
lated situations was heroic, but the dispro- 
portion of forces did not admit of a doubt- 
ful issue to the contest. Large reinforcements 
reached the French from Toulon, to the num- 
ber of twenty-two thousand men, under Count 
Vaux. A decisive battle took place on 9 May 
1769 at Pontenuovo, and the Corsicans, after 
fighting heroically under the personal com- 
mand of Paoli, were completely defeated. The 
French conqueror^ immediately , afterwards 
entered Gorte, and a little later on overran 
the whole island. Paoli retired to the neigh- 
bourhood of the parish church of Yivario 
with a few followers. Near Vivario the 
remnant of his army, reduced to 537 men, 
was surrounded by four thousand of the 
enemy. Paoli addressed a stirring harangue 
to his compatriots, urging them at the risk of 
a glorious death to cut their way during the 
night through the French troops, This they 
did, and, after lying concealed for two days 
in the ruins of a convent on the seashore, 
Paoli, with some of his friends, embarked on 
an English frigate at Porto Vecchio, and on 
16 June 1769 waa landed at Leghorn. He 
was received with the greatest enthusiasm, 
the. English ships displaying their colours 
and discharging their artillery, A few days 
afterwards his brother Clement, with about 
three hundred other fugitives, including 
among them some of the most noted chiefs, 
reached Leghorn in another English vessel. 
The Italian princes received the exiles with 
great hospitality, the Grand Duke Leopold 
of Tuscany assigning lands to such among 
them as chose to settle in his dominions, 
Maay entered the service of the king of Sar- 
dinia, and a few others went to Minorca. 
Everywhere the Cursican refugees were re- 
ceived with respect and admiration. The 



total loss sustained by the French troops in 
conquering Corsica exceeded ten thousand 
men, of whom 4,324 were killed. 

During Paoli's fourteen years' rule he 
virtually stamped out the vendetta, which 
for centuries had decimated the population. 
He promoted throughout the island agricul- 
ture, commerce, and other civil occupations. 
He established a university at Gorte ou 
25 Nov. 1764, and a school in every village 
in Corsica. He organised an army ; he formed 
a flotilla. His revenue was one million livres, 
or 40,000/. sterling, and he founded a mint 
at Murato (cf. BOTTA, Storia <Z Italia, bk. 46). 
On 21 Sept. 1769 Paoli arrived in London. 
Wesley records in his ( Journal ' (iii. 370) 
that ' the great Paoli landed in the dock at 
Portsmouth but a very few minutes after he 
(Wesley) had left the water-side ; ' adding, 
' surely He who hath been with him from his 
youth up hath not sent him into England 
for nothing.' On 10 Oct. Boswell, who had 
visited Paoli in Corsica and had published the 
first biography of the hero, presented him to 
Dr. Johnson, who observed to Boswell after- 
wards that ' Paoli had the loftiest port of any 
man he had ever seen.' The prime minister, 
the Duke of Graffcon, obtained for the exile 
a pension of 1,200A a year on the civil list, 
which the general enjoyed for twenty years. 
He was introduced at court, and graciously 
received by George III, Later on he was 
elected a member of The Club, where he 
became the intimate personal friend of the 
Johnsonian group, more particularly of Dr. 
Johnson himself, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Ed- 
mund Burke, and Oliver Goldsmith. 

Soon after the first outburst of the great 
French revolution, when the convention 
decreed that Corsica was thenceforth merely 
one of the departments of France, Mirabeau 
proposed, from the tribune of the National 
Assembly, that General Paoli should be re- 
called from exile to rule once more over 
Corsica. Resigning his pension before quit- 
ting England^ Paoli repaired to his native 
.and. Immediately on his arrival he waa 
elected mayor of Baatia and commander-in- 
chief of the national guard, In April 1790 
Paoli appeared at the bar of the National 
Assembly in Paris, where he waa received 
with enthusiasm. He there delivered an 
address to the assembly, in the coiirse of 
which he promised fidelity to the new order 
of things in France. On being presented to 
Louis XVI, Paoli was appointed by the king 
ieutenant-general and military commandant 
)f Corsica. Returning to the island, he re- 
asserted his authority and re-established his 
maternal rule, During the autumn of 1791 
Napoleon Bonaparte, then in his twenty* 



Paoli 



189 



Paoli 



second year, was brought into personal 
communication with Paoli, who took so 
prescient a view of the future emperor's 
character, and at the close of one interview 
said to him prophetically, 'You were cast in 
an antique mould ; you are one of Plutarch's 
men. The whole world will talk of you' 
(STENDHAL, ViedeNapoleon, i. 85). Paoli was 
rapidly estranged from the republican govern- 
ment at Paris. He was attacked in nume- 
rous pamphlets, some of which are very scur- 
rilous, issued at Paris by Philippe Buonarroti 
and others (a number of these are bound 
together in the British Museum, F. 1116). 
The execution of the king- made him despair 
of obtaining- any further advantage from Cor- 
sica's association with France. His hope 
thenceforth was to secure the political inde- 
pendence of his fellow-countrymen by bring- 
ing them under the protection of England. 
The Bonapartes being directly opposed to this 
policy, and in favour of Corsica's amalgama- 
tion with France, Paoli ordered the summary 
arrest and expulsion of every member of that 
family from the island. They fled from Calvi 
to Marseilles, while the Paolists burned the 
family mansion at Ajaccio and sacked the 
whole property of the Bonapartes in Corsica. 
At Paris Paoii's name was inscribed on the 
list of proscription. In the meantime Paoli 
rallied his compatriots around him in Corsica, 
and applied to the British commanders in the 
Mediterranean, both naval and military, to 
assist him in driving the French garrisons 
out of the island. This was successfully 
accomplished with the co-operation of Ad- 
miral Viscount Samuel Hood [q. v.] and 
General Sir David Dundas. A sufficient force 
was landed at Fiorenza on 8 Feb. 1794, and 
Bastia surrendered on 10 June. A deputa- 
tion meanwhile had been despatched to 
London by Paoli, offering, in his name, the 
sovereignty of Corsica to George III. The 
acceptance of this offer by the king of Eng- 
land was announced on 17 June, and two 
days afterwards Sir Gilbert Elliot (later 
xaised to the peerage as first Lord Minto) 
[q. v.] provisionally assumed viceregal autho- 
rity over the Corsicans. Paoli had expected 
to be nominated viceroy, but on learning of 
Elliot's formal appointment in 1795, he for a 
second time settled in England. On leaving 
Corsica he earnestly recommended his com- 
patriots to remain firm in their allegiance to 
the British crown as their only security for 
political independence. In 1796, however, 
disaffection to English rule was so widespread 
that the English evacuated the island, which 
has since been united with France. 

On returning to London Paoli resumed his 
pension, and though he lived, according to 



his wont, in a most liberal and hospitable 
' manner, he contrived to save enough to leave 
his relatives in Italy no inconsiderable pro- 
perty. His house was at No. 200 Edgware 
Eoad, where, on 5 Feb. 1807, after a short 
and painful illness, he died at the age of 
eighty-two. His remains were interred on 
13 Feb. in the old catholic cemetery at. St. 
Pancras, at the end of what was thenceforth 
called the Paoli Avenue. A tomb was erected 
on which was engraved a long Latin inscrip- 
tion penned by Francisco Pietri. A cenotaph 
to Paoli was afterwards placed in the south 
aisle of Westminster Abbey, over which was 
placed a white marble bust of him by Flax- 
man.^ Eighty years after his interment his 
remains were, by permission of the British 
government, exhumed on 31 Aug. 1889 (see 
Times, 2 Sept.), and were removed to Corsica, 
in obedience to the express desire of its in- 
habitants. A monument was raised in his 
honour upon the site of his birthplace by the 
council general of the island. 

Lamartine has welL said of Paoli, in his 
' History of the Girondins,' that his glory is 
out of all proportion to the smallness of his 
country: ' Corsica remains still in the place of 
a mere province, but Paoli assumes his among 
the ranks of great men/ The nobility of his 
character was illustrated by his whole life, 
both in exile and in power, by his daring on 
the battlefield and his wisdom in council, by his 
own heroic acts and by the striking tributes 
paid to him by the greatest among his contem- 
poraries. Alfieri inscribed to him his tragedy 
of ' Timoleon.' Frederick the Great seat 
him a sword of honour emblazoned with the 
words ( Patria Libertas/ Napoleon, in spite 
of the deadly antagonism in which they had 
parted, had the magnanimity, at the close of 
his career, to express his regret, in the 
' Memorials of St. Helena/ that he had never 
been able, in the midst of all his pre^ccupa- 
tions with great affairs, to summon Paoli to 
his side, to consult with him, when, as em- 
peror and king*, he was virtually master of 
Europe. Besides Flaxman's bust of Paoli ia 
Westminster Abbey, there is another ad- 
mirable effigy of the Corsiean general in the 
portrait painted bv Richard Cosway in the 
Eoyal Gallery at Florence. A fine engrav- 
ing from this forms the frontispiece to Klose's 
life of the patriot, while another engraved 
portrait appears in the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine ' for 1768 (p. 174). Paoli's only literary 
remains are a volume of letters and mani- 
festos. 

[MHrehalSebastiani's Life of Pascal Paoli, under 
the pseudonym of Pompei's Jfetafc actuel de la 
Corse, Paris. 1821 ; Arrighi's Histoire de Paoli, 
2* vols, Paris, ,1843; Klose> Lebea Pask&l 



Papillon 



Paoli, Brunswick, 1853 ; D'Ona's Pasquali de 
Paoli Genoa, 1869 ; Bartoli's Histoara de PHScal 
Paoli! nouvelie edit, revue, Bastia, 1889; Bos- 
cell's Account of Corsica, London, 1768; flos- 
^ell's Life of Dr. Johnson, London, 1790; 
Lencisa's Pasqnale Paoli e le Guerre ^dipen- 
denza della Corsica, Milan 1790 j Neuboff a 
Description of Corsica, with Life of Paoli, Lon- 
don 1795; Feydel's Das corsische Kleeblatt, 
Bonaparte, Theodore und Paoli, especially pp. 
66-86 Ztz, 1803; Burn aby's Journal of a lour 
in Corsica, with eixty-three letters from General 
Paoli to the author, London, 1804 ; A Review of 
the Conduct of General Pascal Paoli, addressed 
to the Bight Hon. William Beckford, London, 
1770 Disc-curs du General Paoli (Deputation de 
Corse), et re>nse du President de I'Asserablee 
Rationale, Paris, 1790 ; II General e de' Paoli ai 
suoi compatiiotti-Traduzionedi lettere diufSeio 
al Generale de Paoli de' due commissanj Plem- 
potenziarj di Sua Maesta Britannica nelMedi- 
terraneo, il Vice-Ammiraglio Lord Hood ed il 
Cavaliere George Elliot, &c., Corte, 1794; 
Botta's Storia d' Italia, continuata da quella del 
Gnicciardini sino al 1814', 4 vols. quarto, Italy, 
1826.] C - Kt 

PAPILLON, DAVID (1581-1655?), 
architect and military engineer, younger son 
of Thomas Papillon, captain of the guard and 
valet-de-chambre to Henri IV of France, by 
his wife Jeanne Vieue de la Pierre, was born 
in France on 14 April 1581. The family was 
Huguenot, and contributed a victim to the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew. To it belonged 
Clement Marot's friend, Almanque Papillon 
(1487-1559), author of 'Le Nouvel Amour,' 
and valet-de-chambre to Francois I ; pro- 
bably also Antoine Papillon, the friend of 
Erasmus. In 1588 David Papillon's mother 
sailed with him and his two sisters for Eng- 
land. Their ship was wrecked off Hythe ; 
the mother perished, the children were saved, 
and, though their father continued to reside in 
France until his death, were brought up in 
England, probably by relatives domiciled in 
London. David adopted the profession of 
architect and military engineer, throve, and 
purchased an estate at Lubbenham, Leicester- 
shire, and built thereon Papillon Hall. He 
was treasurer of Leicestershire from 1642 to 
1646. He published in 1645 an ' Essay on 
Fortification,' and gave effect to his prin- 
ciples in the following year by fortifying Glou- 
cester for the parliament. He was author of 
a moral and religious essay entitled 'The 
Vanity of the Lives and Passions of Men,' 
London, 1651, 4to; and left in manuscript 
a philosophical essay oil forms of govern- 
ment, entitled ' Several Political and Military 
Observations,' and a French version of the 
* Comfort to the Afflicted,' and two other 
works of the puritan divine, Robert Bolton 



, v.] He probably did not live to see the 
Restoration. A portrait, engraved by Cross, 
is prefixed to his ' Essay on Fortification.' 

Papillon married twice. His first wife 
(m. 1611, d. 1614) was Marie, daughter of 
Jean Castel, probably pastor, as Papillon was 
deacon, of the French church in London. 
His second wife (m. 4 July 1615) was Anne 
Marie, granddaughter of Giuliano Calan- 
drini, a convert to the reformed faith, who 
migrated from Lucca to Lyons between 1557 
and 1567, and died at Sedan some time after 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 

Papillon had issue by both wives, his 
seventh arid youngest child being Thomas 
Papillon [q. v.] 

[A. F. W. Papillon's Memoirs of Thomas 
Papillon, 1887.] J- M. R. 

PAPILLON, THOMAS (1623-1702), 

merchant and politician, third son of David 
Papillon [q. v.] by his second wife, Anno 
Marie Calandrim, was born at Hoehamptou 
House, Putney, on 6 Sept, 1623, He went to 
school at Drayton, Northamptonshire, was 
articled in 1637 to Thomas uhambrelan, a 
London merchant, and in the following year 
was apprenticed to the Mercers' Company, of 
which he received the freedom in 1646. 

Papillon was implicated in the riotous pro- 
ceedings of 26 July 1647, when the mob broke 
into St. Stephen's and forced parliament to 
rescind the recent ordinance by which ("lie 
city of London was deprived of the control 
of its militia. When the independent party 
regained the ascendency (August), he slipped 
off to France to avoid arrest, but returned in 
November, and was committed to Newgate 
in the following February, but, after some 
demur, was released on bail, About the 
same time he began business on Ins own ac- 
count as a general merchant, and thereafter, 
except to petition the council of state against 
an illegal impost on lead in 1653, and to de- 
fend the autonomy of the French church, of 
which he was a deacon, against the privy 
council in 1657, took little or no part in pub- 
lic affairs until the Restoration. He was 
then placed on the council of trade and 
foreign plantations, and in 1663 on the di- 
rectorate of the East India Company, which 
he had entered on its reconstruction in 1657, 
Pie continued to serve on the directorate 
until 1670, and in 1667 watched the interests 
of the company at Breda during the negotia- 
tions with Holland. He was also on the 
directorate from 1675 to 1682, with the ex- 
ception of 1676, when, having given offence 
to the king, he was excluded at Ids instance. 
The reason of hia ill-odour at court was pro- 
bably the stout, and eventually successful, 



Papillon 



191 



Papillon 



resistance which he had offered in the law 
courts to a claim by the farmers of excise 
for excessive duty on brandy. He was 
deputy-governor of the company in 1680 
and 1681. 

Papillon was returned to parliament as 
member for Dover on 11 Feb. 1672-3, and 
kept the seat until the dissolution of 28 March 
1681. During that period he was a frequent 
and effective speaker, and sat on sixty-eight 
committees. A staunch adherent of the 
country party, he censured in committee of 
the whole house (March 1676) the vexatious 
pass system by which English merchant 
ships were deprived of protection on the 
high seas unless provided with government 
licenses, and supported (18 Feb. 1677-8) the 
motion for making the army vote conditional 
on the disclosure of foreign alliances. A 
strong protestant, he evinced the courage of 
his opinions by moving on 18 Nov. 1678 the 
committal to the Tower of the secretary of 
state, Sir Joseph Williamson [q. v.]; but, 
while sharing the popular ' popish plot ' in- 
fatuation, he rose superior to the preter- 
natural suspicion which it engendered in 
others. A friend to Ireland and free trade 
within the United Kingdom, he opposed in 
May 1679 the bill for continuing the act pro- 
hibiting the importation into England of Irish 
cattle, Out of doors he made himself ob- 
noxious to the court by identifying himself 
with the defence of the menaced corpora- 
tion of Dover, and by his spirited, though 
unsuccessful, assertion, on occasion of the 
indictment of Lord Shaftesbury at the Old 
Bailey (24 Nov. 1681), of the right of grand 
juries to examine witnesses in secret [see 
'COOPER, ANTHONY ASHLEY, first EAEL OP 
SHAFTESBTJRY], His candidature for the 
shrievalty of London in the following year 
thus became the occasion of a trial of strength 
between the court and the country parties. 
(For details see MOORE, SIR JOHN, 1620- 
1702, and NORTH, SIR DTJDLEY). On 6 Nov. 
1684 a subservient jury awarded Sir John 
Moore