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DICTIONARY 

OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



SCOFFIN SHEARES 



ACC. r-, . 



Class No. 



Book ;NU. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 




SCOFFIN SHEARES 



LONDON 

1Tl i, LE>ER, & co., 15 WATERLOO PLACE 
1897 



\Att rights reserved) 



LIST <OT WBITEES 



IN THE FIFTY-FIRST VOLUME. 



G. A. A. . 

J. G. A. . 

J. A-N 

W. A. J, A. 
J. B. B. 
H. F. B. . , 
G. F. R. B. . 
M. B. . . . , 
R. B. . . < 
T. B. 

D. J. B. . , 

E. M. B. . . 
H. L. B. . 
G. C. B. . . 
T. G. B. . , 

G. S. S. . . 
E. I. 0.. . . 
W. C-R. . . 
J. L. C.. . . 
W. S. 0. . . 
E, C-E. . . . 
A. M. C-E. . 

J. G 

T. C 

W. P. C. . . 

H. 

J. C-N. . . . 



G. A. AlTKEN. 

J. G. ALGER. 

THE REV. JOHN ANDERSON. 

W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 

THE LATE J. B. BAILEY* 

H. F. BAKER. 

G, F. RUSSELL. BARKER. 

Miss BATESON. 

THE REV. RONALD BAYNE. 

THOMAS BAYNE. 

D. J. BELGRAVE. 

E. M. BELOE, F.S.A. 

THE REV. CANON LEIGH BENNETT. 
G. C. BOASE. 

THE REV. PROFESSOR BONNEY, 
F.R.S. 

G. S. BOULGER. 

E. IRVING CARLYLE. 
WILLIAM CARR. 
J. L. CAW. 

W. S. CHURCH, D.M. 
ERNEST CLARKE, F.S.A, 
Miss A. M. COOKE. 
THE REV. JAMES COOPER, 
THOMPSON COOPEK, F.S.A. 
W. P. COURTNEY. 
HENRY CRAIK, C.B, 
JAMES CRANSTOUN, LLJX 



L. C. . . 
J. A. D. 
E. G. D. 

B. D. . . 

C. L. F. 
C. H. F. 
E. F-Y.. 

J. G. . . 
R. G. . . 
G. G. . . 
A. G. . . 
R. E. G. 
J. C. H. 
J. A. H. 
C. A. H. 
T. P. H. 
W. H. . 
C. L. K. 
J. K. 

A. L 

J. K. L. 
T. G. L. 
G, S. L. 
E. L, . . 

B. L, . . 
R. H. L. 
E. M. L. 



. . LIONEL GUST, F.S.A. 
. . J. A. DOYLE. 
. . E. GORDON DUFF. 
. . ROBERT DUNLOP. 
. . C. LITTON FALKINER. 
. . C. H. FIRTH. 

. THE RIGHT HON. SIR EDWAHD 
FRY, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
. . JAMBS GAIRDNER, LL.D. 

. RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D., C.B. 
. . GORDON GOODWIN. 
, . THE REV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 
, . R. E. GRAVES. 
. . J. CUTHBERT HADDEN. 
. . J. A. HAMILTON. 
. . C. ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
. . T. F. HENDERSON. 

. THE REV. WILLIAM HUNT. 
. . C. L* KINGSFORD. 
, . JOSEPH KNIGHT, F.S.A. 

. ANDREW LANG. 

. PROFESSOR J. K. LAXTGHTOK. 

. T. G. LAW. 

. G. S. LAYARD. 

. Miss ELIZABETH LEB. 

. SIDNEY LEE. 
, . R. H. LEGGE. 
. . COLONEL E. M. LLOYD, II.E. 



List of Writers. 



J. E. L. . 
J. H. Xi. . 

H. T. L. . 
J. B. M. . 
M* M. . . 

E. C. M. . 
D. S. M. . 
A. H. M. . 

C. M 

N. M 

S. J, N. , 
G. LB G. N. 

D. J. O'D. 

F. M. O'D, 
T. 0. . 

J. H. 0. . 
H. P 

A. F. P. . 

E. L. P. , 

B. P. . . . 
D'A. P. . . 

G. W, P. . 



. JOHN EDWARD LLOYD. 
. THE REV. 3. H. LUPTON, D.D. 
. H. THOMSON LTON. 
. J. E. MACDONALD. 
. SHERIFF MACEAY. 
. E. C. MARCHANT. 
. PROFESSOR MARGOLIOUTH. 
. A. H. MILLAR. 
. COSMO MONKHOUSE. 
. NORMAN MOORE, M.D* 
. S. J. NICHOLL. 
,. G. LE GRYS NORGATE. 
. D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 
. F. H. O'BONOGHUE. 
. THE REV. THOMAS OLDEN. 
. THE REV. CANON OVERTON. 
. HENBY PATON, 
. A. F. POLLARD. 
. E. L. POOLS. 
. Miss BERTHA PORTER. 
. D'ARCY POWER, F.RC.S. 
. PROCESSOR G. W. PEOTHERO, 



F. E. . . . 
W. E. E. . 
J. M. B. . 

F. S* 
T. S. . . . 
W. A. S. . 
C. F. S. , 
Li. S. ... 

G. S-H.. . 

C. W. S. . 
J. T-T. . . 

D. LL. T.. 
T. F. T. . 

E. H. V. . 

A. W. W. 
P. W. , . . 
W. W. W. 

C. W-H, . 

J. M. W. . 
S. W 

B. B. W. , 



FRASER RAE. 

W. E. EHODES. 

J. M. BIGG. 

THE EEV. FRANCIS SANDERS. 

THOMAS SECCOMBE. 

W. A. SHAW 

Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

LESLIE STEPHEN. 

GEORGE SXRONAOH. 

0. W. SUTTON. 

JAMES TAIT. 

D. LLEUFEB THOMAS. 

PROFESSOR T. F. TOXJT. 

COLONEL E. H. VETCH, U.K., 
C.B. 

PRINCIPAL A. W. WARD, LL.D. 
PAUL WATERHOUSE. 
SURGEON-CAPTAIN W. W. WEBB, 
CHARLES WELCH, F, 
J. M. WHEELER. 
S. E. WHEELKR. 
B. B. WOODWARD. 




DICTIONARY 



OP 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Scoffin 



Scogan 



SCOFFIK, WILLIAM (1655 P-1732), 
nonconformist minister, born about 1655, was 
a self-taught man and a good mathematician. 
He was probably a schoolmaster, who ob- 
tained orders. John Rastrick [q. v.] ap- 
pointed him curate of Brothertoft, a chapelry 
in the parish of Kirton, Lincolnshire. This 
curacy he resigned in August 1686, thus pre- 
ceding Rastrick in nonconformity. Soon 
after the passing of the Toleration Act (1689) 
he became the minister of a nonconformist 
congregation at Sleaford, Lincolnshire, where 
for over forty years he preached with accep- 
tance, and, though very poor, was noted for 
his charities. He died in November 1732, 
aged 77, and was buried on 12 Nov. He 
was married. 

He published : 1. ' Two Funeral Sermons 
on ... Katherine Disney/ &c,, 169:2, 12mo 
(preached at Kirkstead and Swinderby on 
18 and 20 May 1690). 2. A Help to True 
Spelling and Reading; with . . , Principles 
ot Religion in Easy Metre; a Scriptural 
Catechism ' (PALMEB). 3. / A Help to the 
Singing Psalm-tunes . . . with Directions for 
making an Instrument with one String . . . 
and a Collection of Tunes in 2 Parts' (id.) 

[Rastrick's Accoumt of his Nonconformity, 
1705 ; Calamy's Account, 1713, p, 401 ; Palmer's 
Nonconformist's Memorial, 1802, ii. 438 sq. ; 
Dickenson's Nonconformist Register, ed. Turner, 
1881, p. 312.] A. G. 

SCOGAST or SCOGGIBT, HENRY 
(1361P-1407), poet, born about 1361, be- 
longed to a Norfolk family which owned 
much land in the county. Henry was pro- 
bably educated at Oxford. In 1391 he suc- 
ceeded his brother John as lord of Haviles 
(BLOMBFIELD, Norfolk, vii. 141), but appa- 
rently frequented the court in London, and 
there made the acquaintance of Chaucer, 

VOL, LI, 



whose disciple he became. The latter ad- 
dressed to Scogan about 1393 a short poem (in 
seven stanzas) entitled 'Lenvoy a Scogan/ 
Chaucer speaks of Scogan in terms of affec- 
tion. Of the genuineness of the poem there 
is no question (CHATJCEB, Worlcs, ed. Skeat, 
i. 85, 396-7). ' Henricus Scogan armiger* 
was granted in 1399 letters of protection to 
attend Richard II on his expedition to Ire- 
land (CHAUCER, Works, ed. Tyrwhitt, vol. v. 
p. xv). Subsequently he became tutor to the 
four sons of Henry IV. In Caxton's and all 
later editions of Chaucer's 'Works' (until 
the appearance of Professor Skeat's edition 
in 1894) there figures * a moral balade of 
Henry Scogan squyer ' which was composed 
by Scogan * for my lord the prince [Henry], 
my lord of Clarence, lord of Bedford, and 
my lord of Glocestre, the king's sonnes, at a 
supper of feorthe [i.e. worthy] merchants in 
the Vintry at London, in the house of 
Lowys Johan,' a merchant (cf. Ashmole MS. 
59, No. 9). According to John Shirley [q. v.], 
the fifteenth-century copyist, Scogan interpo- 
lated 'in this poem three stanzas by Chaucer 
(Nos. 15-17). Shirley's suggestion has been 
generally accepted, and the three stanzas are 
printed among Chaucer's genuine poems in 
Professor Skeat's edition as a separate poem, 
under the title of ' Gentilesse.' Scogan, in 
his own verses, laments a misspent youth,, 
and apostrophises his master, Chaucer, 
That in his language was so curyous. 
Among the manuscripts at Corpus Christ! 
College, Oxford, there is a brief collection of 
proverbs, in metre, headed 'Proverbium 
Scogani ' (MS. 203, f . 22) ; the first line runs 
Flee from the pres and dwell wyth sothfastness. 

This is ascribed to Chaucer in Urry'is edition 
of that poet's works, and is certainly by 

B 



Scogan 



Scogan 



Henry Scogan. Scogan died in 1407. His 
possessions included the Norfolk manors ol 
teaynham, Helhoughton, Toft, Orwick, an<3 
Besterton. He was succeeded as lord oi 
Haviles by his son Robert. 

Shakespeare in <2 Henry IV (iii. 2) 
relates now Falstaff, in Henry IV's time, 
broke 'Skogan'shead at the court gate, when 
a crack not thus high: In 1600 Hathway 
and William Rankins prepared a book^of 
dramatic entertainment, in which ' Scoggin' 
and Skelton were leading characters (HENS- 
LOWE, Diary, p. 175). Ben Jonson, in his 
masque of the ' Fortunate Isles ' (performed 
9 Jan. 1624-5]), introduces two characters, 
named respectively Scogan and Skelton, and 
describes the former as 



A fine gentleman and a master of arts 
Of Henry the fourth's times that made disguises 
For the king's sons, and writ in ballad royal 
Daintily "welU' 

Inigo Jones made a fanciful sketch of Scogan 
for the use of the actor who took that part 
(cf. CUNNINGHAM'S Life of Inigo Jones). 

Shakespeare and Jonson doubtless em- 
bodied hazy traditions of Scogan, the friend 
of Chaucer. But his reputation as a serious- 
minded poet was obscured by the fact that 
half a century after he had disappeared 
another of his surname, JOHN SooaAN ( jtf. 
1480), is said to have acquired much wider 
fame in a very different capacity that of 
fool at the court of Edward IV. No 
strictly contemporary reference to John 
Scogan is discoverable, although the Chris- 
tian name was born at an earlier date by 
various members of the Norfolk family to 
which the poet belonged (cf. BLOHBHE&D, 
iii. 315, vii. 141). All that is known of 
the fool is derived from a volume purporting 
to collect his 'Jests,' which was compiled in 
the sixteenth century by, it is said, Dr. 
Andrew Boorde [q. v. J, a witty physician, who 
died in 1549. The anonymous editor otthe 




stock, no kindred, and that his friends did set 
him to sehoole at Oxford, where he did con- 
tinue till he was made master of art/ Warton, 
On no known authority, assigned him to Oriel 
College. The 'Jests' themselves include 
many that are familiar in 'The merie tales 
of Skeltoun * and similar collections of earlier 
date. The pretension that they were edited 
by Andrew Boorde was doubtless the fraudu- 
lent device of an enterprising bookseller, and 
it is not unreasonable to suspect that the 
whole was a work of fiction, and that Scogan 
is a fictitious hero. The tales supply a rough 
biography of Scogan, which, is clearly to a 



large extent apocryphal. According to them, 
he was educated at Oxford and graduated in 
arts. He prepared for the priesthood the son 
of a husbandman of the neighbourhood, and 
when the plague raged in Oxford apparently 
in 1471 withdrew with other tutors to the 
hospital of St. Bartholomew in the suburbs. 
Subsequently he dwelt in London, whence he 
removed for a time to Bury. At length he ob- 
tained the post of fool in the household of one 
Sir William Neville, whom it is difficult to 
identify. Neville brought him to court, and 
his wit delighted the king and queen. The 
former gave him a house in Cheapside. He 
went on progress with the court, and received 
rich gifts from the courtiers. Subsequently, 
by his freedom of speech, he offended the king 
and retired to Paris. He was well received by 
the French king, but was ultimately banished 
from France. Returning to England, he found 
himself still out of favour at the English court, 
and paid a visit to a friend named Everid, 
who resided at Jesus College, Cambridge. 
After travelling with Everid to Newcastle, 
he obtained pardon of the king and queen* 
Soon afterwards he died of a ' penllouscougV 
and was buried on the east side of West minster 
Abbey. The site of his grave was subse- 
quently occupied by Henry VIFs chapel. 
He married young, and had at least one son* 
Holinshed enumerates among the groat men 
of Edward IV's time 'Skogan, a learned 
gentleman, and student for a time at Ox- 
forde, of a pleasaunte witte, and kmte to 
mery devises, in respect whereof he wan 
called into the courte, where, giving luma^lf 
to his naturaU inclination o? mirthe and 
pleasant pastime, he plated many sporting 
parts, althoughe not in suche uncivil! manor 
as hath bene of hym reported.* HolinshtKl 
evidently derived his information from the 
book of * Jests ' traditionally associated with 
Scogan's name. 

No early edition of Scogan's < Jests* is 
extant, In 1565-6 Thomas Oolwell ob- 
tained a license for printing * the geystea of 
Skoggon gathered together in this volume/ 
The wording of the entry suggests that some 
of the ' geystes ' had already been published 
separately. The only argument adduced in 
favour of Boorde's responsibility for the 
publication lies in the fact that Colwell, the 
first publisher, had succeeded to the bu*m*Ag 
of Robert Wyer, who was Boorde's tegular 
publisher. The work was rapeatodly ra~ 
issued; an edition dated 1613 was in the 
Harleiau collection. The earliest now known 
is dated 1636, and the title runs, * The Ftrafc 
and Best Part of Scoggms Jests. Full of 
Witty Mirth and Pleasant Shifts, done by 
him in France and other places ; bdng a 



Scoles ; 

Preservative against Melancholy. Gathered 
by Andrew Boord, Doctor of physicke, Lon- 
don. Printed by Francis Williams, 1626,' 
12mo (black letter). An abridgment in 
chapbook form was issued about 1680, and 
again by Caulfield in 1796. Mr. W. 0. Haz- 
litt reprinted the full text in his l Old Eng- 
lish Jest-books' (1864, ii. 37-161). 

Numerous references to ( Scoggin's Jests ' 
in sixteenth and seventeenth century litera- 
ture attest their popularity. In 1575 the 
tract was in the library of Captain Cox,. 
'Scoggin's Jests' was coupled with 'The 
Hundred Merry Tales ' as popular manuals 
of witticisms in the epilogue of ' Wily Be- 
guil'd,' 1606 (written earlier). In 1607 there 
appeared a like collection of jests, under the 
title of ' Dobson's Drie Bobbes, son and heire 
to Scoggin.' ' Scoggin's Jests ' is numbered 
among popular tracts of the day by John 
Taylor, the water-poet, in his < Motto ' (1622), 
and in ' Harry White his Humour ' (1640 ?), 
as well as in the comedy called 'London 
Ohaunticleers '(1659). As late as 1680, at the 
trial of Elizabeth Cellier, one of the judges, 
Baron Weston, indicated his sense of the 
absurdity of the evidence of a witness who 
confusedly related his clumsy search after a 
suspected person by remarking, * Why, 
Scoggin look'd for his knife on the house- 
top. The words refer to Scogan's account of 
his search for a hare on the housetop (State 
Trials, vii. 1043). 

The frequent association of Scogan's name 
with Skelton's in popular literature is attri- 
butable to a double confusion, in that both 
Skelton and the elder Scogan were poets, and 
that on both Skelton and the alleged younger 
Scogan were fathered collections of jests. 
Drayton, in the preface to his ' Eclogues,' 
mentions that { the Colin Clout of Scogan 
under Henry YII is pretty* a manifest 
misreading for Skelton. Gabriel Harvey 
describes 'Sir Skelton and Master Scoggin' 
as 'innocents [when compared] to Signer 
Oapricio,' i.e. Harvey's foe, Thomas Nash 
(1567-1601) [q. v.] 

[Doran's History of Court Fools, pjp, 123-30; 
Hazlitt's Old English Jest-books, iu 37 seq. ; 
Shakespeare, ed. Malone and Boswell, 1821, 
xvii. 117-19; Chaucer's Works, ed. Tyrwhit; 
Biton's Bibliographia Poetica ; Warton'a Hist. 
of English Poetry.] S. L, 

SCOLES, JOSEPH JOHN (1798-1863), 
architect, born in London on 27 June 1798, 
was son of Matthew Scoles, a joiner, and 
Elizabeth Sparling, His pareixts were Roman 
catholics. ^Educated at the Roman catholic 
school at Baddesley Green, Joseph was ap- 
prenticed in 1812 for seven years to his kins- 
man, Joseph Ireland, an architect largely 



Scoles 

employed by Dr. John Milner (1752-1826) 
[q. v.], the Roman catholic bishop. During 
his apprenticeship, John Carter (1748-1817) 
[(j. v.J, through Milner's influence, revised 
his detailed drawings, and he thus had his 
attention directed at an early period to me- 
diaeval ecclesiastical art. Ireland, as was 
customary at that period, frequently acted 
as contractor as well as designer, and Scoles 
from 1816 to 1819 was resident at Hassop 
Hall, Bakewell, and in Leicester, superin- 
tending works for Ireland. 

In 1822 Scoles left England in company 
with Joseph Bonomi the younger [q. v.] for 
further study, and devoted himself to archaeo- 
logical and architectural research in Rome, 
Greece, Egypt, and Syria. Henry Parke 
[q. v.] and T. Catherwood were often his 
companions. He published in 1829 an en- 
graved ' Map of Nubia, comprising the coun- 
try between the first and second cataracts of 
the Nile/ from a survey made in 1824 jointly 
by him and Parke, and a map of the city of 
Jerusalem,' his plan of the church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, Jerusalem, with his drawings of 
the Jewish tombs in the valley of Jehosha- 
phat, was published by Professor Robert 
Willis fq ; v.Jin 1849. The plan of the temple of 
Cadacchio, contributed by Scoles to the sup- 
plementary volume of Stuart and Revett, was 
published without acknowledgment, Two 
sheets of classic detail, drawn by F. Arundale 
from sketches by Parke and Scoles in 1823, 
were published by Augustus W. N. Pugin 
[q. v.] in 1828. The illustrations to the 
article l Catacomb' in the 'Dictionary of 
the Architectural Publication Society' com- 
prise plans of a catacomb in Alexandria 
drawn in 1823 by Scoles, Parke, and Cather- 
wood. 

Meanwhile in 1826 he returned home and 
resumed his practice. In 1828 he planned 
and carried out the building of Gloucester 
Terrace, Regent's Park, for which John Nash 
[q. v.] supplied the general elevation. He 
showed his ingenuity by varying the internal 
arrangements behind iNash's elevation, and 
his artistic feeling by changing the propor- 
tions of Hash's details while preserving the 
contours of the mouldings. Nash passed the 
work with the observation that the parts 
looked larger than he expected. Gloucester 
Villa at the entrance to the park was solely 
due to Scoles ; and about the same period he 
erected a suspension bridge over the river 
Bure at Great Yarmouth, which in 1845 
gave way with fatal results, owing to con- 
cealed defects of workmanship in two of the 
suspending rods. 

" Scoles designed St. Mary's Chapel, South 
Town, Yarmouth (1830), 8t, Peter's Churc\ 



Scoloker 



Scoloker 



Great Yarmouth (1831), and St. George's 
Church, Edgbaston, for Lord Calthorpe. 
These, with some small additions and restora- 
tions to Burgh Castle and Blundestone 
churches, Suffolk, comprised all his work 
for the established church of England. His 
works for the Roman catholic church in- 
cluded Our Lady's Church, St. John's Wood 
(1832), St. Peter's Collegiate Church, Stony- 
hurst, Lancashire (1832), St. Ignatius, 
Preston, Lancashire (1835), St. James's, 
Colchester (1837), St Mary's, Newport, 
Monmouthshire (1840), St. David's, Cardiff 
(1842), St. John's, Islington (1843), the 
Immaculate Conception, Farm Street, Lon- 
don (1844), St. Francis Xavier's, Liverpool 
(1844), the Immaculate Conception, Chelms- 
jford (1847), the church and presbytery of 
Great Yarmouth (1848-50), the chapel of 
luce Hall, Lancashire (1859), and the Holy 
Cross, St. Helen's, Lancashire (1860). 

Scoles's design of the church of St. John, 
Islington, was censured by Pugin in a self- 
laudatory article on 'Ecclesiastical Archi- 
tectures ' in the t Dublin Review ' for 1843 ; 
but the plan given by Pugin was shown to be 
in error in an editorial article in the ( Builder ' 
of 1 April 1843. Among others of Scoles's 
works was the London Oratory, Brompton, 
with its library, the little oratory, and the 
temporary church, as well as a convent in 
Sidney Street, Brompton. The chapel of 
Prior Park College, Bath, designed by Scoles, 
was erected after his death by his son. 

Scoles was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects in 1835, was 
honorary secretary from May 1846 to May 
1856, and vice-president in 1867-8. To the 
society's proceedings he contributed papers 
principally on the monuments of Egypt and 
the Holy Land, the outcome of his early 
travels. 

He -died on 29 Dec. 1863, at his residence, 
Crofton Lodge, Hammersmith. 

. Scoles married, in 1831, Harriott, daughter 
of Robert Cory of Great Yarmouth. Four 
sons and eight daughters survived him. 
There is in the possession of his son, Mr. 
Augustus Cory Scoles, a watercolour draw- 
ing by John Hollins, A.R.A. [q. v.], repre- 
senting Scoles in the native costume henad 
adopted when in Syria. 

[Family papers and personal knowledge; Buil- 
der, 16 Jan. 1864.] S.J.N. 

( SCOLOKER, ANTHONY (A 1548), 
printer and translator, is believed to have 
been an exile from England on account of 
Ms evangelical views during the later years 
.of Henry VIITs reign. He appears to have 
lived, in Germany, learning the German, 



Dutch, and French languages. On the ac- 
cession of Edward VI he returned to Eng- 
land, and established a printing press in 
'Savoy Rents without Temple Bar.' For 
some time William Seres [q. v.] was his 
partner, and together they issued in 1548 
Bale's 'Briefe Chronycle of Sir John Olde- 
castell.' Among other books published by 
Scoloker were editions of Skeltou's poems 
and Piers Plowman's * Exhortation ;' his 
books are rarely dated, but they seem all 
to have been published in 1547 or 1/548. In 
the latter year he removed to Ipswich, where 
he lived in St. Nicholas parish, and set up a 
printing press. No book of his is known to 
have been published after 1548, and no 
mention of him is made in the registers of 
the Stationers' Company. 

Scoloker was also a translator ; the most 
interesting of his translations is * A goodly 
Dysputacion betwene a Christen Shomaker 
and a Popyshe Parson . , . translated out of 
ye German [of Hans Sachs] by A. Scoloker,' 
1548, 8vo (Brit. Mus.) The translation i 
not very accurate, but ' is racy, and even 
sparkling with humour* (GnosART, JTwfw- 
duction to Daiphantu*i ct. UEKFOKD, Ht. 
ReL of England and Germany, pp. 53 -4)* 
His other works are : 1. 'The iust reckt*nyn#, 
or accompt of the whole number of the y eaws 
from the beginyng of the woride unto this 
presente yere of 1547. A certaine and sure 
declaration that the worlde is at an end*. 
Translated out of the Germaine tongue by 
Anthony Scoloker, 6 July 1547' (HASSLITT, 
Coll. iii. 309). 2, 'A Notable Collection of 
divers and sodry places of the Sacrd Scrip- 
tures which make to the declaracyon of tha 
Lordes Prayer, gathered by P. viret, and 
translated out of theFrenche by A. Scolokor,* 
London, 1648, 8vo (Brit. Mus.) 3, < A Brfefe 
Sumnae of the whole Bible. A Christian in- 
struction for all persones younge and old, to 
which is annexea the ordinary for all degree. 
Translated out of Doutch into EngiysHht* 
by Anthony Scoloker/ London, 15$B r Bvo 
(HAZLITT, Coll I 37). 4. ' Simplicitie and 
Knowledge, a Dialogue,' of which no copy ia 
known to be extant (HEBFOBB, p. 64). 

Another ANTHONI SCOLOKKB (Jl. 1604), 
doubtless a relative of the above, was author 
of < Daiphantus, or the Passions of Loue/ 
1604. A copy, believed to be unique, is m 
the Douce Collection in the Bodleian Li brary , 
It was reprinted for the Boxburghe Club m 
1818, and again in 1880, with an introduc- 
tion by Dr. A. B. Grosart At the end was 
printed for the first time Balegh's x Passionate 
Mans Pilgrimage/ which was probably 
written in 1603; but the chief interest in 
the poem, consists in its references to Shake* 



Scorburgh 



Scoresby 



speare. In the epistle to the reader he is 
referred to as ' friendly Shakespeare/ which 
may imply that Shakespeare and Scoloker 
were acquainted. There are also various re- 
ferences to Hamlet, which seem to prove that 
Shakespeare intended Hamlet's madness to 
he real, and not merely feigned (GKOSAKT, 
Introdttction to Daiphantiis). 

[Authorities quoted: Works in Brit. Mus. 
Libr. ; Cat. Douce Libr.; Hazlitt's Handbook 
and Collections, passim ; Hunter's MS. Chorus 
Vntum ; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, 
1791, p. 748, ed. Dibdin, iv. 306-9; Kitson's 
Bibl. Anglo-Poetica ; Tanner's BibliothecaJBrit.- 
Hibernica; Corner's Collectanea, iii. 202; Acad. 
1884, i. 386; Sbrype's Eccl. Mem. n. i. 226 ; 
Shaktspeare's Centurie of Prayse (New Shak- 
.spere Soc.), p. 64.] A. F. P. 

SCORBURGH, SIB ROBERT DB (d. 
1340), .baron of the exchequer, derived his 
name from Scorborough in the East Riding 
of Yorkshire. He is no doubt the Robert de 
Scorburgh of .Beverley to whom there are 
some reterences in 1320 to 1322 (Cal. Close 
Rolls, Edward II, iii. 241, 385, 547), and 
who in 1324 had license to assign a lay fee 
in Beverley and Etton, for at his death he is 
described' as possessing the manor of Scoreby, 
together witn property in Stamford Bridge 
and Etton (Abbrev. Rot Origin. i. 274, ii. 
136). In August 1822 there is reference to 
an inquisition held by him (Cal. Close Rolls, 
Edward II, iii. 591), and he also served on 
other commissions in Yorkshire in 1325 and 
1326. His name appears in numerous com- 
missions of oyer and terminer in Yorkshire 
between 13 Feb. 1327 and 4 March 1333 
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward III, i. and ii. 
passim). On 27 March 1328 he was on a 
commission to survey the common ferry over 
the water of Hull ; in December 1329 he 
was a justice of eyre in Nottinghamshire, 
and in May 1330 in Derbyshire (ib. i. 290, 
465, 521). On 12 Feb. 1332 he was named 
on the commission of peace for the East 
Riding, and on 3 Nov. 1332 to assess the 
fifteenth in the city of London (ib. ii. 287, 
358). On 2 Nov. of the same year he was 
appointed one of the barons of the exchequer, 
and in October 1333 was appointed a justice 
of eyre in the liberty of Durham during the 
vacancy of the see (ib. ii. 362, 475). He was 
knighted in 1332, and on 7 Jan. 1334 was 
one of the proctors to carry out the agree- 
ment with the Count of Flanders (ib. ii. 479 ; 
Fcedera) ii. 875). On 16 July 1334 he was 
appointed chief baron of the exchequer at 
Dublin, at the same time as Robert de 
Scardeburgh [<j. v.] was appointed chief 
justice of the King's bench in Ireland (Cal. 
Pat. Rolk, Edward III, ii. 568). On4 Oct. 



1334 he was appointed to treat with the 
men of the boroughs and ancient demesne 
lands of the North Riding concerning the 
payment of the tenth and fifteenth. On 
26* Aug. 1335 he was on a commission of in- 
quiry concerning alleged extortions, and on 
16 Oct. 1336 was a commissioner for the 
arrest of suspected persons in Yorkshire (ib. 
iii. 39, 211, 367). On 28 July 1337 he was 
appointed a justice of the bench in Dublin, 
Robert de Scardeburgh being appointed chief 
justice the same day (ib. iii. 477). He died 
in 1340, when his property was committed 
to the custody of Wolfand de Clistere, be- 
cause his son Thomas was an idiot. 

[Parl. Writs, vol. ii. pt. ii. 1406; Rot. Parl. 
i. 420, ii. 28 ; Foss's Judges of England; autho- 
rities cited. In the indices to the Cal. of Patent 
Bolls Scorburgh is often confused with Bobert 
de Scardeburgh [q. v.], but it is quite clear that 
they were distinct persons, though, by a strange 
coincidence, they became judges in the same 
year, and both held office at the same time in 
Ireland. In the notices of their judicial ap- 
pointments in the patent rolls Scorburgh and 
Scardeburgh are correctly distinguished. It is 
not so easy to distinguish the references to Scord, 
Scorb, and Scharde as advocates in the year- 
books of Edward U and Edward III.] 

C.L.K. 

SCORESBY, WILLIAM (1760-1829), 
arctic navigator, the son of a small farmer 
at Oropton, twenty miles from "Whitby, was 
born on 3 May 1760. After attending the 
village school he was employed about the 
farm from the age of nine, and occasionally 
worked for neighbouring farmers* In his 
twentieth year he bound himself for three 
years as an apprentice to the captain of a ship 
called the Jane, trading from Whitby to the 
Baltic. He joined her in March 1780. He 
had already studied navigation, his knowledge 
and practice of which enabled him, in the 
second y^ear of his service at sea, to detect 
an error in the reckoning which would other- 
wise have caused the loss of the ship. The 
only reward he got was the ill-will of the 
mate, whose blunder he had exposed. JThis 
caused him to leave the ship at London in 
October 1781, and enter on board am ord- 
nance ship, the Speedwell, carrying out 
stores to Gibraltar. At the entrance of the 
Straits the Speedwell fell in with the Spanish 
fleet and was captured. Her men were taken 
to Cadiz, and thence sent inland to San 
Lucar de Mayor, from which, being carelessly 
guarded, Scoresby and one of his companions 
managed to escape. After various adven- 
tures they succeeded in reaching Cadiz, 
where they got on board an English cartel 
,and were taken to England. 



Scoresby 

On his return- home Scoresby engaged 
once more in farm, work during 1783 and 
1784. Meantime lie married the daughter 
of a neighbouring farmer, and, with the 
prospect of a family, his old ambition re- 
turned. In the spring of 1785 he engaged him- 
self on board the ship Henrietta, employed 
in the Greenland whale fishery, and for the 
next six years continued in her, going to 
Greenland each summer, and in the winter 
taking casual employment on board coasting 
vessels. After the voyage of 1790 the cap- 
tain of the Henrietta retired on his savings, 
and recommended Scoresby as his successor. 
The owner appointed Scoresby to the com- 
mand. After commanding the Henrietta for 
seven seasons, Scoresby's reputation in the 
trade stood high, and in the beginning of 
1798 he accepted the more advantageous 
offers of a London firm to command their 
ship, the Dundee of London. The Dundee 
was as successful as the Henrietta. In 1802 
he- joined a small company at Whitby, thus 
becoming owner of one-eighth of a new ship, 
the Resolution, of 291 tons, which he was to 
command on the same terms as had been 
given him by the London firm. From 1803 
to 1810 inclusive he sailed each season in 
her, and each season returned with a good 
cargo, the profits to the company being at 
the average rate of 25 per cent, per annum on 
the capital invested. 

At the end of the voyage of 1810 he re- 
signed the command of the Resolution in 
favour of Ms son, and himself took command 
of the John, belonging to the Greenock whale- 
fishing company, consisting -of four partners, 
of whom he was one. After the season of 
1814 he resigned the John in favour of his 
daughter's husband, and remained on shore 
in 1815, In the following year he was at sea 
again in command of the Mars of Whitby, 
belonging to one of his partners in the 
Resolution^ In the autumn of 1817 he 
bought, entirely on his own account, a teak- 
built ship, the Fame, brought into England 
as a prize from the French. He had hopes 
that she might be taken up by the govern* 
ment for a voyage of arctic discovery under 
the command of his son, and only at the 
last moment, when the government resolved 
otherwise, made up his mind to send her to 
the fishery. In 1819 and the three follow- 
ing years he took command of her himself. 
She sailed for another voyage in 1828, but 
was accidentally burnt at the Orkneys. 
Sooresby, having now acquired a 'handsome 
competence, 7 returned to Whitby, where he 
lived till his death in 1829. 

The net profits of Seoresby's thirty voy- 
ages as A captain were estimated at90*OQQ/,, 



Scoresby 



or an average of upwards of 30 per cent, per 
annum on the capital employed. He is de- 
scribed as of about six feet in height, and of 
extraordinary muscular power, a first-rate 
seaman and navigator, and of a judgment 
which, cultivated by experience and reflec- 
tion, became almost instinctive. It was this 
that, in May 1806 for instance, led him to 
force the Resolution through the pack into 
open water beyond the 80th parallel, when 
he attained the latitude of 81 30', long the 
highest reached by a ship, and completed his 
cargo in thirty-two days with ' twenty-four 
whales, two seals, two walruses, two bears, 
and a narwhal/ Exploration was not his 
business, but he did much to render arctic 
navigation more certain, and more feasible, 
by the introduction of new methods, and by 
inventions, such as the ice-drill, or improve- 
ments of fittings, such as the crow's ne$t r 
the shelter for the look-out at the masthead, 
in which he was accustomed to spond hours, 
or even days. He married, in 1783, Lady 
Mary Smith (Lady Mary being her Christian 
name, given her in commem oration ot her 
having been born on Lady-day), daxighter of 
John Smith of Cropton, and liacl issue. His 
son William is separately noticed. 

[Memorials of the Sea ; My Father (185 3 ), by 
William Scoresby the younger.] *L K. L. 

SCORESBY, WILLIAM (1789-18C7), 
master-mariner, author^ and divine, sou of 
William Scoresby (1760-1829) [q. v.l, was 
born at Cropton, near Whitby, on 5 Oct. 
1789. In the spring of 1800 he accompanied 
his father to the whale fishing, but on his 
return was again sent to school, and tayed 
there till 1803, when he was entered on 
board the Resolution whaler, as his father's 
apprentice. Year after year hu mado the 
Greenland voyage with Ins father ; in i8(X$, 
'as chief officer of the Resolution, when she 
was pushed as far north as 81 30', In the 
autumn of 1806 he entered the university 
of Edinburgh, -where he studied chemis-* 
try and natural philosophy, and attracted 
the notice of Professor John Playfair [q, v,], 
who showed him some kindness. In the 
course of the voyage of 1807 he made a sur- 
vey of Balta Sound in the Shetland Islua, 
and constructed an original chart of it* On 
his return in September he volunteered 
for service with the fleet at Copenhagen, to 
assist in bringing the Banish ships to Eng- 
land, was sent out with other volunteers, 
and, after assisting in getting the ships 
ready, was put in command of a gunboat. 
He and others similarly appointed repre- 
sented to tho admiral tfcat these gunboats, 
built for light draught in smooth water were 



Scoresby 



not seaworthy. The remonstrance was un- 
availing ; but scarcely had the vessel reached 
the open sea before she was found to be making 
water so fast that she had to be abandoned, 
Scoresby and his crew happily succeeding in 
getting on board the 74-gun ship Alfred. At 
Yarmouth he was put on board one of the 
prizes. At Portsmouth, on 21 Dec., he was 
discharged, He had had letters of introduc- 
tion, but did not present them, wishing to get 
some experience of a seaman's life in the navy. 
He describes it as excessively hard; but in the 
Alfred, the only man-of-war he was in, he was 
not uncomfortable or ill-used ; the squalor, 
discomfort, and hardship were on board the 
receiving ship, in the first instance, and the 
prize afterwards, where a small party of sea- 
men presumably men of indifferent charac- 
ter had to be "kept in order by a foul- 
tongued and hard-flogging lieutenant. His 
experiences were scarcely typical, though 
his account of them is interesting. 

On his way home from Portsmouth he 
made the acquaintance of Sir Joseph Banks 
[q. y.], who introduced him to some of the 
leading men of the day. The acquaintance 
led to a correspondence which was con- 
tinued till Banks s death. Probably at the 
suggestion of Banks, Scoresby began to make 
observations of natural phenomena and to 
study the natural history of the polar regions. 
He made a series of drawings of the forms of 
snowflakes as seen through a microscope, and 
collected many specimens of plants till then 
unknown. In November 1809 he renewed 
his studies at Edinburgh, and made the ac- 
quaintance of Professor .Robert Jameson [q.v.], 
who was attracted by his familiar knowledge 
of life in the polar seas, and laid parts of his 
journals before the "Wernerian Society, of 
which Scoresby became a member* On 5 Opt. 
1810, the day on which he attained his majo- 
rity, his father resigned to him the command 
of the Resolution, and his first voyage as 
captain, in the summer of 1811, proved most 
successful. In September he married Miss 
Lockwood, the daughter of a shipbroker of 
Whitby. After another prosperous voyage in 
the Resolution he changed into the Esk, anew 
and larger ship, in which he made the voyage 
of 1813, busying himself with scientific ob- 
servations. He invented an apparatus, which 
lie called a * marine diver/ for obtaining deep* 
sea temperatures, and by it established for the 
first time that in the arctic seas the bottom 
temperatures are higher than the surface. 

Xn the voyage of 1816, after making a 
promising start in the fishing, the Esk was 
nipped between two floes, and, as she got 
free, struck on a projecting tongue of ice, 
which left a large hole in her bottom. She 



Scoresby 

was in imminent danger of -sinking, but by 
the exertions of Scoresby, assisted by his 
brother-in-law Thomas Jackson, who com- 
manded the John, which was fortunately in 
company, the leak was so far stopped that 
the ship was brought safely to Whitby; the 
owners gave Scoresby a gratuity of 50, to 
which the underwriters added a handsome 
piece of plate. The voyage of 1817 proved 
unsuccessful, and, as the owners seemed dis* 
satisfied, he resigned the command of the 
Esk, and was appointed by Ms father to the 
Fame, a teak-built ship of his own. 

During the winter of 1817-18 he had a 
long correspondence with Sir Joseph Banks 
on the advisability of a voyage of discovery 
in the polar seas, and believed, with some , 
reason, that his representations largely in- 
fluenced the Royal Society and the govern- 
ment in their resolve to send out the expe- 
ditions of 1818, He had hoped that the 
Fame might be taken up for the purpose and 
himself appointed to the command; but 
learning from Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Bar- 
row [q. v,] that the commander would cer- 
tainly be an officer of the navy, he made his 
usual voyage to the Greenland fishing in 
the summer of 1818. During these years he 
was continually occupied with the problems 
of arctic geography, meteorology, and mag- 
netism> and contributed numerous papers to 
the ' Proceedings' of the Wernerian Society. 
In January 1819 he was elected a fellow of 
the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh, and in 
February, he communicated to the Eoyal 
Society of London a paper on the variations 
of the magnetic needle. 

In May 1819 he moved with his family 
to Liverpool, where he was occupied during 
the year in superintending the building of 
the Baffin, specially fitted for the Greenland 
trade, at a cost of 9,500J. She was launched 
on 15 Feb. 1820, sailed on 18 March, and 
returned on 23 Aug. with the largest cargo 
that had ever been brought in from Green- 
land. During his absence there was pub- 
lished 'Account of the Arctic Regions and 
Northern Whale Fishery ' (2vols. 8vo, 1820), 
a work on which he had been, engaged for the* 
last four years. It was at once recognised as 
the standard work on the subject, and may be 
considered as the foundation-stone of arctic 
science. In 1821 and again in 1822 he made 
the accustomed voyage. 

On his return to Liverpool in 1822 he was 
met by the -news of the death of his wife, 
to whom he was tenderly attached. From, 
his youth he had had strong religious con- 
victions, which had been intensified by the 
fervent piety of his wife. On his return from 
the voyage of 1828 he resolved to prepare 



Scoresby 



Scory 



liimself for the ministry, and in this view was 
entered at Queens' College, Cambridge, in- 
tending to take a degree as a * ten years' man ; ' 
at the same time he studied Latin and Greek, 
his only relaxation being the writing of scien- 
tific papers. In June 1824 he was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society. ^ By July 1825 
he was able to pass his examination at Cam- 
bridge with honour, and on 10 July he was 
ordained by the archbishop of York to the 
curacy of Bessingby, near Bridlington Quay, 
with the modest stipend of 40 a year. His 
former career had brought him an average 
income of 800J. 

In January 1827 he was elected a corre- 
sponding member of the Institute of France, 
and in May became chaplain of the mariners' 
church at Liverpool. He married again in 
1828, and in April 1832 was elected to the 
incumbency of Bedford chapel at Exeter. 
Tn 1884 he obtained the degree of B.D. as * a 
ten-years* man/ and in 1839 proceeded to 
that of D.D. About the same time he ac- 
cepted, from the Simeon trustees, the presen- 
tation to the vicarage of Bradford, a parish 
of a hundred thousand souls, where the work, 
both spiritual and temporal, was severe and 
the emoluments small. 

After five years at Bradford his health gave 
way ; six months' leave of absence, whicn he 
spent in a voyage to the United States, failed 
to effect a permanent cure, and in January 
1847 he resigned the living. He went for a 
second tour in Canada and the United States, 
and during his absence, in January 1848, re- 
ceived news of his second wife's death. He 
returned to England in the following March, 
and, having married for a third time, in Sep- 
tember 1849, he lived for the most part at 
Torquay, near his wife's family. He took 
voluntary clerical work, and occupied him- 
self with science and literature. In 1850 he 
pub&sbeij 'The Franklin Expedition/ 8vo; 
and in 186% 'My Father, being Records of 
.the Adventurous Life of the late w. Scoresby,' 
ftvo. 

During these later years he was working 
specially on the subject of magnetism, and 
r m F'ebruary 1856 he made a voyage to Aus- 
tralia and home, in order to carry out a 
Series of systematic observations. The 
Liverpool and Australia Steam Navigation 
Company gave him a free passage, with 
every facility for observing. Scoresby was 
back in Liverpool by 13 Aug, While pre- 
jring his journals and observations he com- 
pletely broke down, and, after six weeks of 
suffering, he djed at .Torquay on 21 March 
1S&7. t>n the 28th he was buried at Upton 
ohurcb, -where there is a monument to Hs 
memory, erected by subscription. By his first 



wife he had two sons, both of whom prede- 
ceased him. 

Scoresby was a voluminous writer, the 
larger part of his work consisting of contri- 
butions to scientific journals or of sermons* 
His nephew has enumerated ninety-one pub- 
lications, as well as *a variety of articles, 
lectures, essays, addresses, tracts, &c., in 
different theological, scientific, and literary 
journals.' His more important works, besides 
those already named, are: 1. 'Journal of a 
Voyage to the Northern Whale Fishery and 
Discoveries on the East Coast of Greenland/ 
8vo, 1823. 2. ' Memorials of the Sea/ l&no, 
1833. 3. ' Magnetical Investigations/ 2 vols. 
8vo, 1839-52. 4. ' Zoistic Magnetism/ 8vp, 
1850. 5, ' Journal of a Voyage to Australia 
for Magnetical Kesearch/ edited by Archibald 
Smith [q. v.], 8vo, 1859. 

[Life by his nephew, B. E. Scoreaby-Jaclcson, 
with a portrait after a photograph ; his wotka, 
especially the Account of the Arctic .Regions ; 
Journal of the Boyal Geographical Socitsty, vol. 
xxxviii. p. cxxxviii.] J. K. L. 

SCORESBY-JACKSON, ROBERT 
EDMUND (1835-1867), biographer, [See 
JACKSON.] 

SCORY, JOHN (d. 1585), bishop of Clu- 
chester and Hereford, was a Norfolk man, 
who became a friar in the Dominicans* house 
at Cambridge about 1530, signing the sur- 
render on its suppression in I #88. He pro- 
ceeded B.D. in 1539. In 1641 he was one 
of the six preachers whom Cranmer appointed 
at Canterbury (cf. STEYPB, Chmmr,p. 134). 
He was also one of Cranmer's chaplwns, lie 
was accused for a sermon preached on A aeon* 
sionday 1541, but nothing seems to have re* 
suited (ib. pp. 151 , 152). Xing Edward notes 
that when Joan Bocher rq.v.j was executed 
(2 May 1560) for heresy, wcory preached, and 
the poor woman reviled him, saying that he 
lied like a rogue and ought to read tho Bible 
(SiRYPEj Memorial*, n* L 835). He was 
about this time made examining chaplain to 
Ridley, bishop of Londonu In Lent 1&51 he 
called attention to the want of ecclesiastical 
discipline, and to the covetousaess of the rich, 
particularly in the matter of enclosures 



the king for his preferment, insisted again on 
these two evils (&. n. ii, 481). He was a 
commissioner appointed to revise the eccle- 
siastical laws (February 1551-2). Oa 28 May 
1562 he was translated to drichesterv 

On Mary's accession Scory was deprived* 
but submitted himself to Bonner, renounced 
his wife, did penance for being married, and, 



Scory 



9 



Scot 



having recanted and been absolved, was al- 
lowed to officiate in the London diocese 
(STBYPB, Memorials, in. i. 241, Cranmer, j>p. 
519, 1053). He is also supposed to have cir- 
culated Cranmer's 'Declaration concerning 
the Mass.' He soon, however, left England 
and went to Emden in Friesland, where he 
became superintendent of the English con- 
gregation, and where, at a safe distance, he 
wrote, in 1555, his ' Comfortable Epistle unto 
all the Faithful that be in Prison/ &c. He 
was also at Wesel, but fixed his residence 
in 1556 at Geneva, where he was also chap- 
lain to the exiles. 

At Elizabeth's accession he returned to 
England. He had a bad record, but he 
formed a link with the past too valuable to 
be lost. So he was marked out for prefer- 
ment. He preached before the queen in 
Lent 1559, took part in the disputation with 
the catholics on 31 March 1559, and on 
15 July 15o9 became bishop of Hereford, 
being one of the first bishops nominated by 
Elizabeth, When Henry III of France died, 
Scory preached at the solemn service held at 
St. Paul's on 8 Sept. 1559 (STBYPB, Grindal, 
p. 88), He also assisted at Parker's conse- 
cration, and preached the sermon on 17 Dec. 
1559 (STBYPB, Porter,?. 113). At Hereford 
he was much harassed. He wrote to Parker 

. p. 190) describing the condition of his 
iocese, which contained many chapels either 
unserved or served with a reader only ; some 
of the parish churches were in danger, owing 
to an interpretation of the statute for the 
suppression of colleges (STBYPB, Annals, u* 
i, 503), He also was troubled by the proceed- 
ings of the council for the marches of Wales, 
and had difficulties with the cathedral clergy ; 
but he obtained new statutes for the cathedral 
in 1582. He was accused of being a money- 
lender. In dogma he was sound enough, and 
signed the articles of 1562, and the canons of 
1571. He died at Whitbourne on 26 June 
1585. His wife Elizabeth survived till 
8 March 1592. A son, Sylvanus (STBYPB 
Annals, m. ii. 453), was prebendary of Here- 
ford 1565-9, fought in the Low Countries 
was M.P. for Newton, Hampshire, in 1597 
and,dyinginl617,wasburiedmSt. Leonard's 
Shoreditch, and left one son, Sylvanus, who 
died a prisoner in Wood Street counter 
in 1641, and another son, Edmund, knighted 
on 4 July 1618. 

Scory died rich, and left 600J. to chantabl 
tises. He published, besides a few sermons 
and theletter referred to : 1. ' Certein Works 
of the blessed Oipriane the Martyr/ London, 
1556* 2. <Two Books of the noble doctor 
and B. S. Augustine/ translated into Eng 
lish, 8vo, between 1550 and 1560. A curiou 



urvey of the lands belonging to the see of 
Hereford was made in 1557-8 by Swithun 
3utterfield under Scory's direction, and has 
>een preserved. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 511 ; Dixon's 
list. Church of Eugl. iv. 42 ; Notes and Queries, 
>th ser. i. 466, 7th ser. viii. 1 ; Narratives of the 
Reformation (Camd. Soc.), pp. 218, 227, 228 ; 
Strype's Works, passim ; Parker Soc. Publica- 
tions; Greyfriars' Chron. (Camden Soc.), p. 83.] 

W. A. J. A. 

SCOT. [See also SCOTT.] 

SCOT, DAVID (1770P-1834), orientalist 
and miscellaneous writer, born about 1770 at 
Penicuik, near Edinburgh, was sort of "Wil- 
iam Scot, a small farmer, who is said to have 
sold his cow to pay the expense of printing 
a theological pamphlet; Young Scot was 
educated at the parish school and Edinburgh 
University. He was licensed as a preacher 
by the presbytery of Edinburgh on 25 Nov. 
1795, Supporting himself by private teach- 
ing, he studied medicine, and graduated M JD. 
on 25 June 1812. He formed a close in- 
timacy with Alexander Murray (1775-1813) 
[q. v.] and Dr. John Leydenq.Vj, and under 
their guidance he made himself ^master of 
many Asiatic tongues, at the same time acting 
as tutor to candidates for the Indian service. 
In 1812 Scot was an unsuccessful candidate 
for the Hebrew chair in Edinburgh Univer- 
sity ; but, through the influence of Sir John 
Marjoribanks of Lees, he obtained the parish 
living of Corstorphine, near Edinburgh, to 
which he was presented on 22 Aug. and or- 
dained on 17 Nov. 1814. After a ministry 
of nineteen years he was appointed in 1833 
professor of Hebrew in St. Mary's College, 
St. Andrews. When on a visit to Edin- 
burgh to attend the meeting of the British 
Association, he was seized with a dropsical 
complaint, and died on 18 Sept. 1834. His 
wife survived him. 

Besides editing Dr. Murray's posthumous 
* History of the European Languages,' Scot 
was author of: 1. ' Essays on various Sub- 
jects of Belles Lettres ....,' Edinburgh, 
1824, 12mo, 2. ' Discourses on some important 
subjects of Natural and Revealed Religion/ 
Edinburgh, 1825, 8vo. 3. Key to the He- 
brew Pentateuch/ London, 1826, 8vo. 
4. 'Key to the Psalms, Proverbs, Eccle- 
siastes* and Song of Solomon/ London, 1828, 
8vo. He also wrote a Hebrew grammar 
(published 1834) for the use of his class ; it 
is said tnat he dictated it extempore to the 
printers. 

[Scott's Fasti, i 138; Murray's Biogr. Annals 
of the Parish of Colinton; Thomson's Diet, of 
Eminent Scotsmen,]; G-. 



Scotland 



IO 



Scott 



SCOTLAND, HENRY o*(1114P-1152). 

[See HENRY.] 

SCOTSTARVET, SIB JOHN OF (1585- 
1670), Scottish judge. [See Scon, SIR 
JOHN.] 

SCOTT. [See also SOOT.] 

SCOOT, ALEXANDER (152PP-1684P), 
poet, bora about 1525, is supposed ta have 
been the son of Alexander Scott, prebendary 
of the Chapel Royal, of Stirling, whose two 
sons, John and Alexander, were legitimated 
21 Nov. 1549 (Privy Council Register, xxiii. 
50), There is no evidence of his having 
.followed any profession, but allusions in his 
poems establish the fact that much of his 
time was spent in or near Edinburgh. In a 
sonnet by Alexander Montgomerie (1556 P- 
1610?) [q. v.], written apparently about 
1584, be is spoken of as * Old Scot/ and as 
then living* ; he probably died in that year 
or soon after. H e was married, but his wife 
eloped with a ' wantoun man.' 

Scott's extant work consists of thirty- 
six short pieces, the longest numbering a 
little over two hundred lines. They are pre- 
served only in the Bannatyne manuscript 
compiled in 1568 (now in the Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh). The earliest poem by 
Scott to which a date can be assigned is * The 
Lament of the Maister of Erskyn,' written 
in 1547. The two most important poems 
are^ < A New Yeir Gift to Quene Mary/ 
which throws much light on the -social me 
and lamentable condition of the people in 
1562 ; and * The Justing at the Drum/ a 
clever imitation of ' Chrystis Eark on the 
Grene/ in which the practice of the tourna- 
ment is ridiculed. The rest of the poems, 
written in a great variety of measures, are for 
the most part amatory, A few, in a satiri- 
cal vein, are very coarse. All are marked 
by felicity of diction and directness of ex- 
pression; Scott is called by Pinkerton 
' the Aaacreon of old Scotish poetry.' But 
among the -ancient minor poets of Scotland 
his place should be below Montgomerie. 
Allan, Bamsay first printed seten of Scott's 
poems in ' The Evergreen' (1724). An equal 
oumber was jpnted by Lord Hailes in 
* Ancient Scottish Poems: published from 
the Manuscript of GeorgtfBannatyne 7 (1770). 
Efteeft of the poems were included by Sib- 
bald in *A Chronicle of Scottish Poetry/ 
1&02, 4 yols. Svo. The first complete edition 
of the poems was issued by David Laing, 
Edinburgh, 1821. All the pieces are printed 
m 'the transcript of the Bannatyne manu- 
script wade for the Hixnterian Club, Glas- 
gow, 1874r-81, A small edition was printed 



-at Glasgow in 1882 for private circulation. 
A modernised and expurgated edition was 
issued by William Mackean, Paisley, 1887. 
The latest edition is that of the Scottish 
Text Society, with notes and memoir by the 
writer of this article (Edinburgh, 1895). 

[The printed editions of Scott's poems.] 

J O N* 



SCOTT, ALEXANDER JOHN (1768- 
1840), chaplain in the navy, son of Robert 
Scott, a retired lieutenant in the navy, and 
nephew of Commander, afterwards Rear-ad- 
miral, Alexander Scott, was born at Rother- 
hithe on 23 July 1768. In 1770 his father 
died, leaving his family in straitened cir- 
cumstances, and in 1772 his uncle, going 
out to the West Indies in command of the 
Lynx, took the boy with him. For the next 
four years he lived principally with Lady 
Payne, wife of Sir 'Ralph Payne (afterwards 
Lord Lavington) [o[. v.J, governor of the Lee- 
ward. Islands, who used to call him ' Little 
Toby.* In 1776 his uncle, Captain Scott, 
was posted to the Experiment on the coast 
of North America, where, in the attack on 
Sullivan's Island on 28 June, he lost his left 
arm, besides receiving other severe wounds, 
which compelled him to return to England 
and retire from active service. * Little Toby ' 
returned to England about the same time, 
and was sent to school. In 1777 Sir Ralph 
Payne procured for him a nomination to a 
foundation scholarship at the Charterhouse 
(admitted 5 Aug.), whence he obtained a 
sizarship at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 
1786. He was of a convivial disposition, and 
ran into debt. A good classic, he abhorred 
mathematics, but he duly graduated B.A* in 
1791. In the following November lie was 
ordained deacon to a small curacy in Sussex, 
and in November 1792 was ordained priest. 
But his college debts were pressing oa him; 
his uncle refused assistance, and in Fe* 
bruary 1793 he accepted the offer of a war- 
rant as chaplain of toe Berwick with CajH 
tain Sir Jona Collins, an old friend of his 
father. 

The Berwick was one of the fleet that 
went out to the Mediterranean with Lord 
Hood, and by the time she arrived oa the 
station Scott, who had devoted himself to 
the study of Italian and Spanish, had 
acquired a competent knowledge of both 
these languages. French he had previously 
mastered, so that he quickly became of 
special use to his captain in his intercourse 
with the Italians ana Spaniards. la March 
1795 the Berwick was captured, but Soott 
happened to be oa leave at Leghorn, and 
shortly afterwards was appointed by Sir Hyde 



Scott 



Scott 



Parker (1739-1807) [q. v.] to be chaplain of 
his flagship, the St. George. Parker con- 
ceived a warm friendship for him, and em- 
ployed him as a foreign secretary. 

Subsequently Scott accompanied Parker 
to the West Indies in the Queen. At Ja- 
maica, by Parker's interest with the governor, 
he was appointed to a living in the island, oi 
the value of 500?. a year, tenable with his 
chaplaincy. In 1800 Parker returned to 
England, and Scott went with him on leave 
of absence, joining him in the London when 
he hoisted nis flag as commander-in-chief ot 
the fleet going to the Baltic. With his re- 
markable aptitude for languages, Scott, who 
already had a good knowledge of German, 
quickly picked tip Danish, and was at work 
on Russian. After the battle of Copenhagen 
he was employed as secretary to the con- 
ferences on shore, Nelson, who had known 
him in the Mediterranean, making a special 
request to Parker for his assistance. After- 
wards, when Parker was recalled, he refused 
Nelson's invitation to come to the St. George, 
saying that he could not bear to leave the 
old admiral at the very time when he stood 
most in need of his company.' Nelson made 
him promise that he would come to him 
when he could leave Sir Hyde. 

In the last days of 1801 he learned that 
his living in Jamaica would be declared va- 
cant if lie did not return at once. He ac- 
cordingly went out in the TSmeraire, and 
arrived at Port Royal on 6 April 1802, when 
he was appointed by Sir John Thomas Duck- 
worth [q. v.l to be chaplain of the flagship, 
the Leviathan, and despatched on a secret 
message to Cape Francais, to try and ascer- 
tain the intention of the French in sending 
an army of twenty thousand men to St. 
Domingo after peace had been concluded. 
He failed to solve that puzzle, but found that 
sickness had so disorganised the flench 
ranks that nothing was to be apprehended 
from them. While returning to the admiral 
in the frigate Topaze the ship was struck 
by lightning, and he was seriously injured, 
To phvsicaf trouble was added the worry 
of fining, on arrival at Kingston, that his 
living had been given away by the go- 
vernor. Meantime, however, the governors 
of the Charterhouse had presented him t to 
the vicarage of Southminster in Essex, which, 
he visite? early in 1808, after his passage 
home. Nelson, who visited him while both 
were stopping in London, persuaded bcott 
to go out with him when *ffiDfc**L to S? 
Mediterranean command in may icvo. jae 
sailed in the Amphion, from which he was 
transferred, oiF Toulon, to the Victory. As 
private secretary and interpreter he was awe 



to render Nelson efficient assistance in a pri- 
vate capacity. Officially, he was chaplain of 
the Victory, and nothing else. The arrange- 
ment by which Nelson paid him IQOZ. a year 
was entirely a private one. He was fre- 
quently sent, as though on leave, to Leghorn, 
Naples, Barcelona^ or other places ; ^and the 
readiness with which he gained admission to 
fashionable society enabled him to bring back 
important intelligence, or occasionally to 
obtain concessions which would certainly 
not have been granted on formal application. 
He continued with Nelson on this footing for 
the whole time in the Mediterranean, during 
the chase to the West Indies, and till he 
landed at Portsmouth on 20 Aug. ^1 805. 
Before the end of the month he again joined 
Nelson at Merton, and on 15 Sept. sailed 
with him once more in the Victory. On 
21 Oct. he attended during the dying- ad- 
miral's last hours, receiving his last wishes. 
On the return of the Victory to England he 
attended the coffin as it lay in state at 
Greenwich, and till it was finally laid in the 
crypt of St. Paul's. . 

The only public recognition Scott received 
for his services was the degree of D,D. con- 
ferred on him by Cambridge on the royal 
mandate. The admiralty refused to acknow- 
ledge his unofficial services, and even stopped 
his time and pay as chaplain for the many 
weeks he had been absent from his^hip on 
leave. This was strictly in conformity with 
established usage, though the stoppage was 
eventually withdrawn. 

Scott settled down as vicar of Bctth* 
minster on a narrow income, scantily ex- 
tended by a small half pay. In 1816 Lord 
Liverpool presented him to the crown living 
of Catterick in Yorkshire, and at the same 
time he was appointed chaplain to the prince 
regent, which gave him the right of holduig 
two livings. From this time he lived prin- 
cipally at Catterick, engaged in the duties 
of his profession and accumulating a large 
library, mostly of foreign books. Among 
them were represented forty different Ian* 
ffuages, of many of which, however, his 
knowledge was very limited. He died at 
CattericS on 24 July 1840, and was buried 
in the churchyard of Ecclesfield, near Shef- 
field, on the 31st. InJulyl807hemamed 
Mary Frances, daughter of Thomas Byder, 
registrar of the Charterhouse. She died in 
September 1811, leaving two daughters, the 
younger of whom, Margaret, wife ot Dr. 
Alfred Gatty, vicar of Ecclesfield, is sepa- 
rately noticed [see GATTY]. 

[Becollectious of the Life of the Bev. A. J. 
Scott (by his daughter and son-in-lav, Mrs. mid 
Dr. Gtetty), mainly made up of Scott's letters 




Scott 

and diaries, quoted or paraphrased, and recol- 
lections of many friends of his active life. The 
memoir may be considered trustworthy so long 
as it speaks of matters that came under Scott's 
observation, and on which he was competent to 
form an opinion, but is somewhat discredited 
by the introduction of positive opinions on points 
of which he could know, nothing, e.g t the for- 
mation of the enemy's fleet at Trafalgar (p. 183) 
he being below in the cockpit in direct contra- 
diction of the account given by Collingwood; in- 
formation from Canon "W. Haig Brown.] 

J. K. L. 

SCOTT, ALEXANDER JOHN (1805- 
1866), first principal of Owens College, son 
of Dr. John Scott (d. 1836), minister of the 
Middle Church, Greenock, by his wife Su- 
sanna, daughter of Alexander Fisher of 
Dychmount (Hiaw SCOTT, .Fasft*,ii.240),was 
born at that town on 26 March 18Q5. He was 
educated at the local grammar school and at 
the university of Glasgow, which he entered 
at the age of fourteen and remained there 
until he was twenty-one. Having graduated 
M.A. in 1827, he was about the same time 
licensed by the presbytery of Paisley to 
preach in the church of Scotland'. He had 
previously obtained a tutorship inEdiriburgh, 
where he attended medical classes at the 
university. His first sermon after he was 
licensed was preached for the Rev. John 
McLeod Campbell [q. y.l who heard him 
* with very peculiar delight/ In thefollow- 
ingyear (1828) he made the acquaintance 
of Thomas ErsMne [q. v.] of Linlathen, after- 
wards one of his closest friends, and of Ed- 
ward Irving [q. v.], who invited him to be 
his assistant in London. He accented the in- 
vitation, without binding himseli to Irving's 
doctrinal views. Soon after his settlement 
in London his sympathies were excited by 
the wretchedness and ignorance of the poorer 
population, and he spent the winter months 
in preaching and teaching among the poor 
of Westminster. Towards the close of 1829 
he went to preach for McLeod Campbell at 
Row, and also at Port Glasgow, where his 
sermons on the Charisynctta or 'spiritual 
gifts ' of 1 Corinthians xii. led to an extra- 
ordinary exhibition of* speaking with tongues ' 
and 'prophesying in the church.' The move- 
ment and the so-called manifestations ac- 
companying it had great influence on Irving, 
much more than on Scott himself, who never 
felt the ' utterances ' to b'e convincing proofs 
of any genuine inspiration. The intimate con- 
nection -between the two divines was shortly 
afterwards severed, though their friendship 
continued to the end. In the summer of 
1830 Scott received an invitation to the 
pastorate of the Scottish church at Woolwich. 



Scott 



The necessary ordination involved subscrip- 
tion to the Westminster confession of faith. 
This he ctfuld not give, and he thought it his 
duty to embody his objections in a letter to 
the moderator of the London presbytery, in 
which he stated his inability to assent to the 
doctrine that 'none are redeemed by Christ 
but the elect only/ as well as his conviction 
that the ' Sabbath and the Lord's day were 
not, as stated in the catechism, one ordinance, 
but two, perfectly distinct, the one Jewish 
and the other Christian.' He also avowed 
his doubts as to the validity of the presby- 
tery's powers in ordination. On 27 May 
1831 he was charged with heresy before the 
presbytery of Paisley, and deprived of his 
license to preach, a sentence which was 
confirmed by the general assembly. Not- 
withstanding, Scott remained at Woolwich 
until 1846, as minister of a small congre- 
gation. 

Scott had always been an omnivorous 
reader and enthusiastic student of literature. 
In November 1848 he obtained the chair of 
English language and literature in Univer- 
sity College, London, and in 1851 was ap- 
pointed principal of Owens College, Man- 
chester, then recently established. With this 
post he held the professorship of logic and 
mental philosophy, of comparative grammar, 
and of English language and literature. Soon 
after his appointment he took part with the 
Rev. William Gaskell [q. v.] and others in 
starting the Manchester Working Men's Col- 
lege, an admirable institution, which WHS 
afterwards merged in the evening claKse at 
Owens College. The high standard at which 
the college curriculum was maintained dur- 
ing the institution's early days was duo to 
the influence of Scott and his follow profes- 
sors. He resigned the principalship m May 
1857, but continued to act as professor until 
his death. 

As a lecturer he was engaging and inspir- 
ing, though too philosophic and profound to 
captivate a popular audience. J>r. W, B, 
Carpenter ' never heard any public spi*akttt 
who could be compared with him in masterly 
arrangement of materials, lucid method of 
exposition, freedom from all redundancy, 
force and vigour of expression, beauty and 
aptness of illustration/ His addresses were 
unwritten, an<l a few only survive in poor 
reports. In September and October 1847 he 
lectured on Dante and other topics at the 
Manchester Athensaum, and a little later at 
the Manchester Royal Institution on i Euro- 
,pean Literature from 1460 to ltJQ&* Xte- 
tween 1850 and 1860 he delivered thirty-t wo 
lectures on historical and literary subjects 
at th Edinburgh Philosophical Intitution* 



Scott i 

When the Manchester Free Library was 
opened in 1852 he suggested that a series of 
popular literary lectures should be given in 
connection with that institution. The sug- 
gestion was adopted, and he delivered one of 
the courses himself, his subject being 'Poetry 
and Fiction/ Subsequently he gave a series 
of lectures at Owens College, extending over 
several years, on the * Relation of Religion 
to the Life of the Scholar/ In all these ad- 
dresses he made skilful use of his deep learn- 
ing and knowledge of the languages and 
literature of many nations. Of those printed 
in separate form the chief were : 1. ' Lectures 
Expository and Practical on the Epistle to 
the Romans/ 1858. 2. ' On the Academical 
Study of a Vernacular Language/ 1848. 
#. i Suggestions on Female Education/ 1849. 

4. < Notes of Four Lectures on the Litera- 
ture and Philosophy of the Middle Ages ; y 
printed for private circulation (by Thomas 
Erakine of Linlathen), Edinburgh, 1857. 

5. ' Discourses/ 1866 ; this posthumous 
volume contains early addresses on ' Social 
Systems of the Present Day compared with 
Christianity/ ' Schism/ and ' The First Prin- 
ciple of Church Government/ 

Scott's strong personal influence on all who 
were familiar with him is testified by Carlyle, 
Hare, Dunn, Bunaen, Fanny Kemble, and 
many others. Erakine in 1838 wrote : i Scott 
is in point of intellect one of the first, if not 
the first man I have known ; ' and in 1860 : 

* No man whom I have known has impressed 
me more than Scott/ Maurice dedicated his 

* Mediaeval Philosophy ' to him ; J. Baldwin 
Brown dedicated to h'im his * Divine Life in 
Man/ 1800 ; and George Macdonald, besides 
inscribing his novel of ' Robert Falconer ' to 
him. wrote two poems * to A. J Scott/ which 
are included in ixia * Poetical Works ' (1893, 
i. 271, 280), 

His health, always delicate, grew weaker 
in his later years. With the hope of gaining 
strength he went to Switzerland in the 
autumn of 186V>, but died at Veytaux on 
12 Jan. 1866, and was buried in the ceme- 
tery at Clarens. 

He married Ann Ker at Greenock in 
December 1880, and had an only son, John 
Alexander Scott, B. A., barrister-at-law, who 
died on 9 Jan. 1894, aged 48; and a daughter, 
who is still living. Mrs. Scott died in De- 
cember 1888. 

A marble bust of Scott, by H. S. Leifchild, 
was presented to Owens College in 1860 by 
bis students and those who attended his 
voluntary lectures. This is engraved in 
Shaw's * Manchester Old and New/ ii. 93. 
Two chalk portraits, one by Samuel Lau- 
rence (about 1848) and the other by F, J, 



5 Scott 

Shields, (1865), are hi the possession of his 
daughter, 

[Letters of Thomas Ersfcine of Linlathen, ed. 
Banna, 1878; Memorials of John McLeod 
Campbell, 1877; Mem. of Rev. Robert Story, 
1862; Thompson's Owens College, 1886; articles 
by John Finlayspn in Owens College Magazine, 
vols. xiii.and xxii.; Life of F.D.Maurice,! 884, u 
199, ii. 403 ; Kemble's Records of a Later Lite, 
ii. 283, 290 ; Journals of Caroline Fox ; Hughes's 
Mem. of Daniel Macmillan, 1882; papers on 
Irving by Dr. David Brown in the Expositor, 
1887; Recollections of A, J. Scofct, G-reenock, 
1878 ; Sunday at Home, 1881, p. 661 ; Manches- 
ter Examiner, 8 July 1880; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Mrs. Oliphant's notices of Scott in her Life of 
Irving (1st edit. ii. 103 seq.), although she ac- 
knowledges his 'power of impressing other minds 
around him, not only with his own marvellous 
powers of understanding, but with his profound 
spirituality and perception of divine things,' are 
unjust and misleading. A vindication of Scott 
appeared in the National Review, October 1862. 
Some information has been supplied by Miss 
Susan F. Scott and Mr. John Finlayson/J 

C. W. S. 

SCOTT, ANDREW (1757-1839), Scottish 
poet, son of John Scott, day labourer, and 
Kachel Briggs, was born at Bowden, Rox- 
burghshire, on 19 April 1757. Scantily edu- 
cated, he was for some time a cowherd, and 
then a farm-servant. At the a^e of nineteen 
he enlisted, and served with his regiment in 
the American war of independence. After the 
surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, 19 Oct. 
1781, he was for some time a prisoner of 
war in Long Island, returning to Scotland 
subsequently to the peace of 4 Jan. 1784. 
Being discharged, Scott settled at Bowden 
as a farm labourer, acting also as church 
officer for several years before his death, 
which occurred on 22 May 1839. He was 
married and had five children. His portrait 
was painted by George Watson (1767-1837) 
[q. v.] of Edinburgh. 

Stimulated in boyhood by the t Gentle 
Shepherd/ Scott was all through his mili- 
tary career a persistent versifier, and enter- 
tained his comrades with original songs. Sir 
Walter Scott, Lockhart, and others be- 
friended and encouraged him. A manuscript 
volume of his lyrics was lost by his com- 
manding officer, to whom the author had en- 
trusted it; but, although he could repro- 
duce only two numbers of the collection, 
his resources were not exhausted. Continu- 
ing to versify, he at length acted on the re- 
commendation of the Bowden parish mini- 
ster, and published a volume of lyrics in 
1805 (2nd edit. 1808). In 1811 he issued 
' Poems, chiefly in the Scottish Dialect/ and 
two further volumes of a siimlar character 



Scott 



Scott 



in 1821 and 1826 respectively. If somewhat 
defective in form, Scott's lyrics display ob- 
servation, descriptive facility, and quick 
appreciation of the picturesque features of 
Scottish rural life and character. 

[Autobiographical Sketch prefixed to 1808 
volume; Eogers's Modern Scottish Minstrel; 
Goodfellow's Border Biography.] T. B. 

SCOTT, BENJAMIN (1814-1892), 
chamberlain of London, son of Benjamin 
"Whinnell Scott, chief clerk to the chamber- 
lain of London, was born in 1814, and en- 
tered the chamberlain's office as a junior 
clerk. In 1841, on the death of his father, 
he succeeded him as chief clerk, and re- 
mained in the service of the corporation in 
that capacity during the chamberlainship of 
Sir James Shaw, Sir William Heygate, and 
Anthony Brown. On the death of Brown 
early in 1853, Scott received a requisition, 
as a liveryman of the Wheelwrights' Com- 
pany, to stand for chamberlain, the office 
being in the gift of the liverymen of the 
various companies. For nearly a century 
the post had been filled from the ranks of 
aldermen who had passed the mayoralty 
chair. Scott had for his opponent Alder- 
man Sir John Key [q. v,], who had been 
twice lord mayor (in 1830 and 1831). After a 
four days' poll, in which the expenses of the 
candidates together exceeded 10,000, Key 
was elected by the small majority of 224 
votes. At the end of 1853, owing to the 
continued friction produced by the contest, 
Scott resigned his appointments under the 
corporation, and a year later became secre- 
tary of the new bank of London, which he 
had taken part in establishing. In July 1858, 
on the death of Sir John Key, he again 
became a candidate for the office of chamber- 
lain, and was elected without opposition. 

His knowledge of finance macle him espe- 
cially useful to the corporation. Cn Black 
Friday 1866, through his judgment in in- 
vestments, the corporation lost not a penny, 
although they had at the time 700,000 out 
on loan. In 1888 the common council acknow- 
ledged his financial services by a eulogistic 
resolution and the gift of 5,0(JQ The pre- 
sentation addresses which he delivered when 
honorary freedoms were bestowed by the 
corporation were marked by dignity and elo- 
quence. In 1884 he published for the cor- 
poration * London's Roll of Fame,' a collec- 
tion of such addresses with the replies during 
the previous 127 years. 
^ For many years he devoted much spare 
time to lecturing to the working classes, 
and in December 1851 was the caief pro- 
moter of the Working Men's Educational 



Union, which was formed to organise lec- 
tures jtor workmen. For this society he 
wrote and published three * Lectures on the 
Christian Catacombs at Rome,' two ' Lectures 
on Artificial Locomotion in Great Britain,' 
and a ' Manual on Popular Lecturing/ He 
was a F.RA.S., and much interested in the 
study of astronomy and statistics. ^ In 1867 
he published a ' Statistical Vindication of 
the City of London.' 

He was a staunch nonconformist, tempe- 
rance advocate, and social reformer; and 
exerted himself strongly for the abolition of 
church rates, the promotion of ragged schools, 
state education, and preservation of open 
spaces, Towards the endowment of the 
nonconformist church in Southwark in me- 
mory of the Pilgrim Fathers he contributed 
2,000 He worked hard to promote the 
passing of the Oriminal Law Amendment 
Act of 1885, and published an account of 
his efforts in a pamphlet, 'Six Years of 
Labour and Sorrow.' He died on 17 Jan. 
1892, and was buried in Weybridge ceme- 
tery with his wife, who predeceased him by 
three days. He continued the exercise of 
his official duties till within a short time of 
his death. He married, in 1842, Kate, daugh- 
ter of Captain Gle^g of the dragoon guards* 
Four children survived him. 

His other publications were : 1, ' The 
Pilgrim Fathers neither Puritans nor Per- 
secutors,' 1866 j 2nd edit, 1869. 2. ' Sugges- 
tions for a Chamber of Commerce for tlie 
City of London,' 1867. 3. < Municipal Go- 
vernment of London,' 1882. 

[Scott's Memorials of the Family of Scott, 
1876 ; information supplied by J. B. Scott, esq. ; 
Bevie-wof Reviews, v. 139; City Press, 12 Dec. 
1891 p. 3, 30 Dec. 1891 p, 3, and 20 Jan, 1802 
p. 3 ; Guildhall Library Catalogue.] C, W-K. 

SCOTT, CAROLINE LUCY, LADY SCOTT 
(1784-1857), novelist, second daughter of 
Archibald, first baron Douglas (1748-1827), 
by Frances, sister of Henry, third duke of 
Buccleuch, was born on 16 BVb, 1784. She 
married, on 27 Oct. 1810, Admiral Sir George 
Scott, K.C.B., who died on 21 Dec, 1841. 
Lady Scott died at Petersham, Surrey, on 
19 April 1857. She must be distinguished 
from the contemporary novelist Harriet Anne 
Scott, Lady Scott [q. v.] 

Her first novel, 'A Marriage in High, 
Life/ 1828, 2 vols., was edited by the au- 
thor of * Flirtation/ i.e. her relative, Lady 
Charlotte Susan Maria Bury [a, v,] The plot 
is based on fact. The style is diffuse, but the 
interest is well sustained. Another edition 
appeared in 1857. Two other novels fol- 
lowed, likewise anonymously: *Trevelyan/ 
1837 (Standard Novels, No, 58), reprintod 



Scott i 

in the Railway Library 1860; and 'The Old 
Grey Church ' in 1850. Lady Scott's suc- 
ceeding works have her name in the title- 
pages. They are : 1. * Exposition of the 
Types and Antitypes of the Old and New 
Testament/ 1856. 2. * Incentives to Bible 
Study ; Scripture Acrostics ; a Sabbath Pas- 
time for young People,' 1860. 3. * Acrostics, 
Historical, Geographical, and Biographical/ 
1863. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Lodge's Peerage, 
1856, p. 189; Dod's Peerage, 1855, p. 482.] 

G-. 0. B. 

SCOTT or SCOT, OUTHBERT (d. 1564), 
bishop of Chester, probably a member of a 
family long settled near Wigan (Notes and 
Queries, 8th ser. viii. 218), graduated B.A. 
at Cambridge in 1534-6 as a member of 
Christ's College. He was elected fellow 
there in 1537. He graduated M.A. in 1538, 
B.D. in 1544, and D.D. in 1547. 

About 1544 Scot preached a remarkable 
sermon at St.. Paul's Cross, condemning the 
license of the times. In 1545 he complained 
to Gardiner, the chancellor of the university, 
of the performance at Christ's College of 
an interlude, called ^ammachius/ which re- 
flected on Lent fastings and the ceremonies 
of the church. He held a prebend in the 
Sepulchre Chapel in York Minster, and re- 
ceived an annual pension when that chapel 
was dissolved in 1547. He was rector o1 
Etton in Yorkshire in 1547, and of Beeford 
in the same county in 1549. He appears to 
have assented to the religious changes of 
Edward VPs reign. 

Soon after Queen Mary's accession Scot 
was chosen master of Christ's College, 8 Dec 
1553, and thenceforth took a prominent part 
in furthering the religious reaction. He was 
one of the Cambridge divines sent to Qxforc 
to dispute with Cranmer, Ridley, anc 
Latimer on the doctrine of the mass, and 
was incorporated D.D. there, 14 April 1554 
In the same month Bonner made him a 
prebendary of St. Paul's, and towards the 
close of the year he became vice-chancellor 
of Cambridge. He held that office again in 
1565-6* In the latter year he was nomi- 
nated by Paul IV to the see of Chester. 

Resigning the mastership of Christ's, Sco 
threw nimself energetically into the worl 
of his diocese, where his zeal provoked the 
admiration of his friends and the animosit; 
of his eilemies* In January 1556-7 Cardiria 
Pole placed him at the head of a commission 
to visit the university of Cambridge with th 
view of more completely re-establishing th 
Roman, catholic faith. Scot incurred grea 
obloquy by exhuming and burning th 
bodies of Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius, an 



Scott 

ecohsecrating the churches in which they 
ad been buried. 

Scot was a stout opponent of the early 
cclesiastical changes of Elizabeth, and spoke 
trongly against the royal supremacy and 
he new prayer-book. f He was one of those 
ppointed by the government to dispute on 
he controverted points between the Eo- 
manists and reformers at Westminster, 
Jl March 1559. He and his fellows, refusing 
o proceed with the disputation, were pro- 
nounced contumacious. On 4 April he was 
3ound in 1,OOOJ. to appear before the lords of 
the council as often as they sat, and not 
without license to depart from London, 
"Westminster, and the suburbs, also" to pay 
such fine as might be assessed upon him* 
STKYPE). Unable or unwilling to pay this 
ine, fixed at two hundred marks, he was 
committed to the Fleet, and on 21 June the 
commissioners for administering the oath^of 
supremacy deprived him of his bishopric., 
After four years' confinement in the Fleet, 
Scot was released on his bond that he would 
remain within twenty miles' distance from 
Finchingfield in Essex, and make his per- 
sonal appearance before the ecclesiastical 
commissioners when summoned. Considering 
this a penal obligation and not a parole 
tfhonneur, he found means to escape to Bel- 
gium, and took up his residence at Louvain. 
After assisting his exiled fellow-countrymen 
in their controversial labours with the Eng- 
lish reformers, he died at Louvain ' on the 
feast of St.Denys/(90ct. ?) 1564 (MoLAircrs, 
Hist. Lovaniertsis\ and was buried in the 
church of the Friars Minor. 

Scot was characterised as 'rigid* and 
froward/ but he possessed much learning 
and eloquence, and held uncompromisingly 
by his beliefs. He published the sermon 
which he preached at Paul's Cross in 1544, 
and some of his speeches are preserved in 
Foxe and Strype. 

[Laxisdo^ne MS. 980, ff. 241-2; Cooper's 
Athense Catitabr, i. 233 ; Bridgett and Knox's 
Catholic Hierarchy; Machyn's Diary (Oamden 
Soc.) ; Lamb's Cambr, Doc. ; Le Neve's Fasti ; 
Foxe's Aetes and Mon. ; Strype's Works, index ; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. xii. 343.] F. S. 

SCOCT, DANIEL, LL.D. (1694-1759), 
theological writer and lexicographer, born 
on 21 March 1693-4, was son, by the second 
wife, of Daniel Scott, a London merchant. 
The family was probably a branch of the 
Scotts of Staplaford Tawney, Essex [for his 
half-brother, Thomas, see under SCOTT, JO- 
SEPH NICOL]. Daniel was admitted to Mer- 
chant Taylors' School on 10 March 1704, but 
left to be educated for the ministry under 
Samuel Jones (1680P-1719) [q,. v.] at Glou- 



Scott 

cester (where in 1711 he was the 'bed- 
fellow ' of Thomas Seeker [q.v.j, afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury), and at Tewkes- j 
bury, where in 1712 Joseph Butler [q.v.] 
became his fellow-student. Seeker speaks 
highly of his religious character. From 
Jones's academy Scott proceeded to the uni- 
versity of Leyden, which he entered on ' 
13 Aug. 1714, aged 20, as a student in theo- 
loy. He appears again as a student of 
medicine on 20 June 1718, aged 25. He 
graduated LL.D. at Leyden on 16 May 1719. 
He is said to have graduated LL.D. at 
Utrecht, but his name is not in the Utrecht 
'Album Studibsorum,' 1886. While at 
Utrecht he became a baptist, and joined the 
Mennonite communion. He appears for some 
time to have exercised the ministry at Col- 
chester, and afterwards in London, but there 
is no record of his ministry. His main occu- 
pations were those of the scholar and the 
critic. His anonymous * Essay ' (1725) on 
the doctrine of the Trinity, elaborate and 
undoubtedly able, attempted the impossible 
task of a middle way between Ckrke and 
"Waterland, and satisfied nobody except Job 
Orton [q. v.l The first edition of the ' Essay ' 
is said to have been bought up and sup- 
pressed by Edmund Gibson [q.y.j, bishop of 
London. The notes to his version (1741) of 
St. Matthew show good scholarship ; he 
makes a point of proving that the Hebraisms 
of the New Testament have their parallels 
in classic Greek, and improves Mill s collec- 
tion of various readings, especially by a more 
accurate citation of oriental versions [see 
MIJ.L, JOHBT, 1645-1707] ; Doddridge, his 
personal friend, in his e Family Expositor, 7 
refers to Scott's notes as learned, ingenious, 
candid, and accurate. His labours as a lexi- 
cographer were encouraged by Seeker and 
Butler, to whom he severally dedicated the 
two noble volumes of his appendix to Ste- 
phanus's * Thesaurus,' a work of great merit, 
which cost him several hundred pounds and 
injured his health. The letter A, which fills 
more than half the first volume, is the only 
part printed as originally drawn up, the re- 
mainder being condensed. 

Scott died unmarried at Cheshunt on 
29 March 1759, and was buried in the 
churchyard on 8 April, His will, dated 
21 April 1755, was proved on 12 April 1759 
(P. C. C. 147 Arran ; cf. Notes and Queries, 
7th ser. x. 57). He published: 1. <Dis- 
putatio . . . de Patria rotestate Romana/ 
&c., Leyden, 1719, 4to. 2. An Essay to- 
wards a Demonstration of the Scripture- 
Trinity. By Philanthropus Londinensis/ 
&c., 1725, 8vo; 2nd edit., enlarged, 1738, 
8vo; 3rd edit. Sherborne [1778?], 12mo 



Scott 



(abridged by Robert Goadby [q. v.], with 
prefixed account of the author, probably by 
Orton); this edition is dated 1770 in the 
British Museum catalogue, but the post- 
script refers to a book published in 1772. 
8. * A New Version of St. Matthew's Gospel : 
with Select Notes . . . added, a Review of 
Dr. Mill's Notes/ &c., 1741, 4tp (the version 
is divided into thirty-four sections). 4. * Ap- 
pendix ad Thesaurum Grsecee Lingua ab 
Hen. Stephano constructum, et ad Lexica 
Constantini & Scapulae,' &c., 1745-6, foL 
2 vols. This appendix, reviewed in *Nova 
Acta Eruditorum' (Leipzig, May 1749, p. 
241), is incorporated in the edition of Ste- 
>hanus (1816-28) by Edmund Henry Barker 
q.v.], and is employed in the edition of 
Scapula (1820) by Bailey and Major* 

The British Museum catalogue erro- 
neously assigns to Scott a tract against 
Clarke, ' The True Scripture Doctrine of the 
. . . Trinity, continued,^ 1715, 8vo. This 
is the sequel to t The Scripture Doctrine of 
the ... Trinity vindicated ' (written before 
May 1713, with a recommendatory letter by 
Robert Nelson [q. v.] ), and erroneously as- 
signed to James Knigut, D.D. 

[Some Account, prefixed to Sherborne edi- 
tion of Scott's Essay; Gibbon's Memoirs of 
Watts, 1 780, pp. 886 sq. ; Protestant Dittsento's 
Magazine, 1705, p. 186 ; Orton s Letters to Dis- 
senting Ministers, 1806, ii. 136, 247 (needs cor- 
rection); Album Stttdioaorum Aendemise Lug- 
duno-Batavte, 1875, pp* 837, 858; Browne's 
Hist. Congr. Korf. and Suff* 1877, p. 26$ ; Not** 
and Queries, 8th ser. iv. 37; information kind iy 
furnished by Hardinge F Ctiffard, esq,, and by 
Dr. W. N. du Kieu, teyden*] A* G-, 

SCOTT, DAVID (1806-1849), painter, 
brother of William Bell Scott [a. v*] and the 
fifth son of Robert Scott [q. v.] the engraver, 
was born in the Parliament Stairs, High 
Street, Edinburgh, on 10 or 12 Oct. 1806, 
His father was a stern Calvmist, and the 
loss of his four elder sons by an epidemic 
when David was only a year old increased 
the gloom of a household where * merriment 
was but another name for folly ' (cf. SCOTT'S 
Memoir of David 8eott\ His melancholy- 
temperament sad morbid habit of self- 
anatomy were cultivated by the influences of 
his home, which, sometime after the birth of 
two brothers and a sister, was moved to St- 
Leonards, near Edinburgh, He was sent to 
school, but was chiefly instructed by his 
father, and learnt Latin and a little Greek. 
The chief amusement of the family was 
drawing, and among 1 the stimulants to 
David's active imagination were William 
Blake's illustrations to Blair's * Grave.* At 
this time he wrote many verses on such 



Scott 



Scott 



themes as time, death, and eternity. When 
about nineteen his father's health broke 
down, and for a short time he had to turn 
to engraving as a means of support for 
the family ; hut his heart was fixed upon 
imaginative design, and in a sketch, inscribed 
* Character of David Scott, 1826,' he has re- 
presented himself seated at the engraving- 
table with clenched hands and an expression 
of despair. He was soon allowed to have 
his way, and was one of the founders of the 
Edinburgh Life Academy Association in 
1827. He set to work on a huge picture of 
'Lot and his Daughters fleeing from the 
Cities of the Plain/ not finished till 1829. 
In 1828 he exhibited at the Scottish 
Academy ' The Hopes of Early Genius dis- 
pelled by Death.' To these pictures he 
added ' Fingal, or the Spirit of Lodi/ 'The 
Death of Sappho/ and * Wallace defending 
Scotland* (a small work), before he was 
elected an associate of the Scottish Academy 
in 1830. In 1831 he published six Blake- 
like designs in outline, under the title of 
'Monograms of Man,' and in the same year 
he commenced twenty-five outline illustra- 
tions to Coleridge's ' Ancient Mariner.' These 
designs, which are of extraordinary power 
and in close sympathy with the weird ima- 
gination of the poet, were published by Mr. 
A. Hill of Edinburgh, and by Ackermann 
' in London in 1837, but did not meet with 
the recognition they deserved. In 1832 he 
contributed five small plates to 'TheCasquet 
of Literary Gems/ and exhibited at the 
Scottish Academy * Sarpedon carried by 
Death and Sleep/ ' Nimrod/ ' Pan/ ' Aurora/ 
and a sketch of ' Burying the Dead.' In the 
same year his picture of* Lot' was rejected at 
the British Institution on account 01 its size. 
In the autumn of 1832 he went to Italy, 
where fresh disappointment awaited him. 
He was satisfied with none of the great 
masters. The frescoes of the Sistine Chapel 
appeared to him ^powerfully executed but 
full of defects/ His industry in Italy was 
prodigious, but his health was very weak. 
JSarly in 1833 he executed a series of very 
careful anatomical drawings from subjects 
in the hospital of the Incurabile, but; the 
principal result of his visit abroad was an. 
immense picture of 'Discord/ which was 
meant to typify by the rebellion of son 
against father the overthrow of the old order 
by the new. It was exhibited at the Scot- 
tish Academy in 1840 together with *Phi- 
loctetes left m the Isle of Lemnos/ ' Cupid 
sharpening his Arrows/ and 'The Cruci- 
fixion.' In the same year he sent to the 
exhibition of the Royal Academy the first 
of several pictures which he now painted 

VOfc. LI. 



from subjects in national history. This was 
' Queen Elizabeth at the Globe Theatre view- 
ing the Performance of "The Merry Wives 
of Windsor." ' It was hung high and passed 
unnoticed, a circumstance which, coupled 
with the rejection, two years before, of his- 
'Achilles addressing the Manes of Patroclus/ 
prevented him from ever sending another 
work to the London exhibitions, with the ex- 
ception of ' Pan ' in 1845. Soon after his re- 
turn to Scotland he set up a large studio at 
Easter Dairy House, near Edinburgh, where 
he painted * Peter the Hermit preaching the 
Crusades/ ' The Alchemist lecturin<jon the, 
Elixir Vitse/ an altar-piece of The Descent 
from the Cross ' for the catholic chapel in 
Edinburgh, and a number of other historical 
and poetical pictures. One of the latter, a 
small picture of *The Duke of Gloucester 
taken into the Water Gate of Calais/ was 
lent by Mr. R. Carfrae, who bought a great 
many of his works, to the winter exhibition 
of the Royal Academy in 1875. In Edin- 
burgh his remarkable powers attracted a 
considerable circle of enthusiastic admirers ~ 
and friends, among whom were the Rev. 
George Gilfillan, Dr. John Brown, author 
of ' Rab and his Friends/ whose portrait he 
painted ; Mrs. Catherine Crowe ('Night Side 
of Nature'), and Professor John Pringle 
Nichol [q. v.l He also received visits from 
Margaret Fuller and Emerson, whose por- 
trait he painted. This is now in the Public 
Library at Concord, Massachusetts, U.SA. 
In 1839 and 1840 he contributed to 
Blackwood's Magazine ' a series of articles^ 
mainly occupied with the spirit and motives 
of art. The first was called 'The Pecu- 
liarities of Thought and Style/ and the 
others were upon Raphael, Titian, Leonardo, 
the Caracci, and Caravaggio. A fragment of 
another upon ' Rubens, his Contemporaries, 
and Modern Painters/ was published, to- 
gether with a 'Memoir' (1850), by his 
brother, W. B. Scott. 

In 1841 he commenced a great picture, 
now in the Trinity House at Leith, called 
'Vasco de Gama^ the discoverer of India, 
encountering the Spirit of the Storm as he 
passes the Cape of Good Hope.' It was ex- 
hibited by the artist, but the venture re- 
sulted in a loss of 701. In 1842 he sent two 
cartoons to the competition for the paintings 
in the new Houses of Parliament 'Drake 
witnessing the Destruction of the Armada * 
and 'Wallace defending Scotland' but. 
neither these nor the two frescoes he sent 
in two years later attracted any notice* He 
also published a pamphlet entitled ' British, 
French, and German Painting, being a re- 
ference to the points which render the pro- 



Scott 



Scott 



posed painting 1 of the new Houses of Parlia- 
ment important as a public measure.' In 
1845 he sent to the Scottish Academy an 
extraordinary picture of ' The Dead rising 
.after the Crucifixion,' with figures larger 
than life, ' a work/ according to his brother, 
*to be looked upon once, with awe and 
wonder, not to be imitated, not to be spoken 
lightly of/ In 1847 he produced, in violent 
contrast to this terrible work, a picture called 

* The Triumph of Love/ in which he indulged 
in a riot of colour. Besides many powerful 
separate drawings of such subjects as 'The 
Sirens' and 'Self-accusation, or Man and 
tis Conscience/ he executed sets of drawings 
of 'The Anchorite/ 'Unhappy Love/ and 

* Scenes in the Life and Thoughts of a Stu- 
dent Painter.' Among his last works were 
forty illustrations to 'The Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress/ and a very beautiful series of eighteen 
imaginative designs to the ninth edition 
(1851) of Professor Nichol's 'Architecture 
of the Heavens/ Both series were engraved 
and published after his death. His last 
picture was * Hope passing over the Sky of 
Adversity.' Since his residence in Italy 
Scott's health had always been feeble, and 
he died at Easter Dairy House on 5 March. 
1849. On his deathbed, at the early age of 
forty-three, he said: 'If I could but have 
time yet, I think I could meet the public in 
their own way more and yet do what I think 
ffood.' An etching of his head, drawn two 
jiays before his death by his brother William, 
is reproduced in thelatter's 'Autobiography ' 
(L 261). 

Scott was a man of undoubted genius and 
spiritual imagination, perpetually setting 
himself tasks beyond his grasp. Unfortu- 
nately, even when he reached a high measure 
of success, as in his illustrations to ' The 
Ancient Mariner * and ' The Architecture of 
the Heavens/ he failed to reap the appre- 
ciation which his soul desired. In many 
respects like Benjamin Haydon, though of 
finer fibre and less robust physique, he was 
the victim of his own temperament, and hia 
life was a series of disappointments, the. 
result of restless and ill-fudged ambition. 
For some time before his death his perpetual 
sufferings were augmented by a nervous 
disease which chiefly affected the muscles of 
his neck. He kejt a diary which painfully 
reflects the sufferings of a highly sensitive 
mind tortured by disappointment, self-dis- 
trust, religious doubt, hopeless love, and, lat- 
terly, ill health. He wrote too a great many 
poems, chiefly during his last years. One 
of these, called 'Tra&lgar, or British Deed/ 
he offered in vain, for publication. His face 
wad figure were of uncommon beauty, and in 



his portrait of himself at the age of twenty- 
five he appears the very type of gloomy 
poetic genius. Most of his works are in 
private collections in Scotland, but 'The 
Vintager' and * Ariel and Caliban* are in 
the National Gallery at Edinburgh, and 
* Achilles addressing the Manes of Patroclus* 
in the Art Gallery at Sunderland. An ex- 
hibition of his works was held at 29 Castle 
Street, Edinburgh, in 1849. A reproduction 
of the fine portrait bust by Sir John Steell, 
U.S.A., in the National Gallery of Scot- 
land, is prefixed to John M. Gray's * David 
Scott and his Works/ 1884. 

[Scott's Memoir of David Scott, R.SA.; 
Autobiographical Notes of William Bell Hoott, 
ed. Minto ; Emerson's English Traits; Cunui.ig- 
gham's British Painters, ed. Honton; Liio of 
B. E. Haydon ; North British Reviow, No. xki. ; 
Hogg's Instructor, vol. iii. ; Art Journal, iu 
120; Blackwood, cxxx. 589; GUehriat's Lifuof 
Blake.] (X M. 

SCOTT or SOOT, GEORGE (d. 1085), 
of Pitlochie, Fifeshire, writer on America, 
was the only son of Sir John Scott or Scot 
[q. v.] of Scotstarvet, bv his second wife, 
Margaret, daughter of Sir James Melville of 
Hallhill. In 1685 he published at Edin- 
burgh The Model of the Government of the 
Province of East New Jersey, in America ; 
and Encouragement for such as design to bo 
concerned there.* It was, says the author, 
the outcome of a visit to London in 107% 
when heenjoyed 'the opportunity of frequent 
converse with several substantial and judi- 
cious gentlemen concerned in the American 
plantations/ Among these were James Drum- 
mond, fourth earl of Perth [q. v.l to whom 
the book is dedicated, and probably William 
Penn. The most valuable part of the work is 
a series of letters from the early settler* in 
New Jersey. ' The Model ' was plagiarised 
by Samuel Smith in his ' History of New 
Jersey/ 1721, and is quoted by Bancroft ; but 
James Grahame, author of the * Rise and 
Progress of the United States/ first attached 
due importance to it, It was reprinted for 
the New Jersey Historical Society in 1846, 
in W. A. Whitehead's * Bast Jersey undttr 
the Proprietary Government* {'2nd edition 
1875). Copies of the original, which are 
verv rare, are in the British Museum, the 
Edinburgh Advocates' Library, at Gottingea, 
in Harvard College library, and in the library 
of the New Jersey Historical Society, and 
two others are in private Bands in America* 
In some copies a passage (p. 37) recommend- 
ing religious freedom as an inducement to 
emigration is modified. In recognition of 
his services in writing the book, Scot re- 
ceived from the proprietors of Ea&t New 



Scott i 

Jersey a grant, dated 28 July 1685, of five j 
hundred acres of land in the province. On 
1 Aug. he embarked in the Henry and Fran- 
cis with nearly two hundred persons, in- 
cluding his wife and family ; but he and his 
wife died on the voyage. The wife is said to 
have been well connected. A son and a 
daughter survived. The latter, named Eu- 
pham or Euphemia, married in 1686, John 
Jolmstone, an Edinburgh druggist, who had 
been one of her fellow-passengers on the 
disastrous voyage to New Jersey. To him 
the proprietors issued, on 13 Jan. 1686-7, a 
confirmation of the grant made to Scot, and 
their descendants occupied a good position 
in the colony. Most of their descendants 
left America as loyalists at the revolution, 
bufc some of them are still living in New 
Jersey. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, Hi. 418 ; Preface 
to Whitehead's reprint in Appendix, 2nd edit. 
1 875, founded on East Jersey records, and his 
Early History of Amboy ; Alii bone's Dice. Engl. 
Lit. ii. 1955 , Catalogues of British Museum and 
Edinburgh Advocates' Library.] Gr. La GK N. 

SCOTT, SIB GEORGE GILBERT 
(1811-1878), architect, born in 1811 at 
Gawcott, Buckinghamshire, was the son of 
Thomas Scott, perpetual curate of that place, 
and grandson of Thomas Scott [q. vTj the 
commentator. Scott's mother was daughter 
of Dr. Lynch of Antigua, and was descended 
maternally from the Gilberts, a family of 
"West Indian proprietors. The members of 
the large household at Gawcott parsonage, 
including Miss Gilbert (Scott's great-aunt), 
who had been kissed by John Wesley, were 
bound by many traditions to the evangeli- 
cal party, and their pronounced religious 
opinions raised a social barrier between them 
and their neighbours. Scott was first edu- 
cated at home, but his father, who was an 
amateur in building operations, soon recog- 
nised in his son's love of sketching churches 
a predilection for architecture. After spend- 
ing a year (1826-7) in preparatory schooling 
with his uncle, the Biev. Samuel King, at 
Latimers, near Ohesham, he was accordingly 
articled in 1827 to James Edmeston, who is 
said to have been 'better known as a poet 
than an architect.' His evangelical views 
doubtless recommended him to Scott's 

father. 

At Edmestpn's office Scott got little en- 
couragement in the style which afterwards 
made him famous. His master, who had 
experimented with * Gothic* in a chapnl at 
Leytonstone, condemned it as expensive, and 
warned Scott's father that his pupil wasted 
his time in sketching mediaeval buildings. 

After the conclusion of his pupilage in 



Scott 

1831 Scott spent two months in sketchirg 
near Gawcott, and, returning to London, 
took lodgings with his brother John in 
Warwick Court, Holborn. .In order to gain 
practical experience he attached himself for 
a time to the firm of Grissell & Peto [see 
PETO, Sra SAMUEL MOETON], who appointed 
him superintendent of their works La pro- 
gress at Hungerford Market. 

In 1832 he began an engagement lasting 
two years in the office of Henry Roberts, 
trained under Sir Robert Smirke [q. v.], and 
assisted him in the working-drawings, exe- 
cution, and ' measuring up ' of the Fish- 
mongers' Hall. Scott looked back to this as 
a barren period; he did little sketching; 
' Smirkism and practical work * were, he con- 
sidered, chilling his natural tastes, and even 
in his two opportunities of pri vate Design (a 
rectory for his father's new living at Wap- 
penham, and a private house at Chesham) he 
was disheartened by a sense of deficient 
originality. 

The death of his father in 1834 threw upon 
Scott the necessity of immediate bread- win- 
ning. He was engaged at the time in assist- 
ing Kempthorne (an architect with whom he 
occupied rooms in Carlton Chambers, Regent 
Street) in preparing modelplans for the work- 
houses to be erected under the new poor law. 
Scott resolved to turn this special experience 
to account, and, besides issuing a printed ap- 
peal to his father's friends for general architec- 
tural patronage, went down to Wappenham 
and conducted, a vigorous canvass among the 
guardians of the district. This aggressive 
action, though an infringement of more re- 
cent ideas of professional etiquette, produced 
immediate fruit* He became architect to 
four poor-law unions, and engaged as clerk 
of the works (subsequently as collaborator) 
W. B. Moffat, a builder's son, whose acquain- 
tance he had made when both were pupils of 
Edmeston. 

Their combined exertions (for Moffat sur- 
passed Scott in the campaign of self-recom- 
mendation) produced a brisk and, at first, 
inartistic practice, which was supplemented 
by success in many competitions. Scott 
eventually took his companion into formal 
partnership, which terminated in 1845, after 
the erection of some fifty buildings of the 
workhouse class, the most successful of 
which were the union buildings at Dunmow, 
Belper, Windsor, Amersham, and Maccles- 
field, and the orphan asylum at Wanstead 
all, in yiasKElisabethan style. 

During his partnership with Moffat, Scott 
was not without ecclesiastical commissions. 
His first seven churches (at Birmingham, 
Lincoln, Shaftesbury, Hanwell, Turnham, 



Scott 



20 



Scott 



in 



Bridlington Quay, and Norbiton) were 
Scott's own opinion, ignoble. Though not 
actually uniform in design, they suffered from 
the wholesale method of his workhouse prac- 
tice. Their lack of chancels, their galleries, 
their stucco mouldings, and general disregard 
of the requirements of ritual are to be ex- 
plained and excused as the logical result of 
a training which, under his parents and his 
masters, had intentionally excluded the 
picturesque aspects of church worship and 
church architecture. 

Though Scott was not at the outset in 
sympathy with the high church ecclesiologi- 
cal party, it was bo an interview with Benja- 
min Webb [q, vj, the secretary of the Cam- 
bridge Oamden Society (a high-church orga- 
nisation), as well as to the writings of Augus- 
tus Welby Northmore Pugin [q. v.], and to 
a meeting with the latter, brought about 
through Myers (Pugin's builder), that he 
owed his first insight into the principles of 
Gothic art. He strengthened his knowledge 
of these principles by careful study in the 
competition for the Martyr's Memorial at 
Oxford, for which he was selected as archi- 
tect (1840). His first Gothic building of 
any size or artistic value was the church of 
St. Giles at Camberwell, during the progress 
of which his faith in Gothic architecture 
-was assured. 

Scott's first restoration was that of Ches- 
terfield church, followed shortly afterwards 
by works at St. Mary's, Stafford, and by a 
successful competition for the restoration of 
St. Mary's Chapel on Wakefield bridge. 
There he made the mistake, which he always 
regretted, of permitting the builder, who had 
got a good offer for the re-erection of the old 
front in a private park, to substitute new 
work in Caen stone for old work which 
should have heen left. 
. In, 1844 Scott achieved European reputa- 
tion by winning the open competition for the 
church of St. Nicholas at Hamburg,,the pre- 
paration for which made the occasion of his 
first continental journey. He was attacked 
in the ' Ecclesiologist ' (voL i. new ser. No. 4, 
p. 184) for designing a Lutheran place of wor- 
ship, and considered himself bound in self- 
defence to defend the Lutheran position in 
a paper, which was refused publication. The 
style adopted in the design of this building 
was German Gothic of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The work was the outcome of a 
special and careful study of German ecclesi- 
astical architecture. Scott did not then 
bww, what he afterwards realised, that 
Prance, not Germany, was the real cradle of 
Gothic church-building. 

In 1847 the chapter of Ely gave him his 



first appointment as restoring architect to a 
cathedral. The enthusiasm of George Pea- 
cock [q. v.], dean, of Ely, for Amiens Cathe- 
dral led him to pay his first visit to the great 
French churches, which was followed up iu 
later life by many continental journeys. 

The years between 1845 and 180^ were 
full of commissions and appoint meats involv- 
ing designs of new buildings, restorations, 
and reports. Among the minor work of 
this period were Bradfield church, Berkshire, 
rebuilt for the Rev. Thomas Stevenft (foun- 
der of Bradfield College, in the building of 
which Scott had an influential though "in- 
direct share); Worsley church, begun iu 
partnership with Moftat; St. Mary's, Not- 
tingham, finished by Moflat; St. Peter's 
Church, Croy don j the restoration or rebuild- 
ing* of churches at Aylesbury, Newark, Nant- 
wich, and Ellesmere ,* new churches at West 
Derby, Holbeck, London (St. Matthew, City 
Road), Haley Hill, near Halifax, and Ltan- 
more Common, near Dorking, Domestic 
and secular work was meanwhile represented 
by Pippbrook House, near Dorking; K el ham, 
Hall, near Newark? Hafodunos, near Lltm- 
rwst ; Walton Hall, near Warwick ; a row 
of houses in Broad Sanctuary, Westminnttir ; 
the town-hall at Preston ; and Brighton Col- 
lege. In spite of Scott's Gothic tendencies, 
he carried out during the same period a few 
classic or semi-classic works, such as thti 
chapel at Hawkstone and that at King's Col- 
lege, London, Partis College, and the re- 
modelling of St. Michael's Church, Oornhili. 

About this time a design was prttpaml for 
the cathedral of St. John, Newfoundland, 
and Scott's appointment as restorer at Ely 
Cathedral led to similar engagement** at 
Hereford, Lichfield, Salisbury, and Hipon. 

The additions at Exeter College, Oxford, 
including the chapel, a characteristic work 
on a French model, were the flrst of his col- 
legiate undertakings. 

In 1849 came the important appointment 
of architect to the dean and chapter of West- 
minster Abbey, which gave Bcott the oppor-* 
tunity^ for much careful and creditable work 
(especially in the restoration of the chapter- 
house and the monuments), and provided 
the materials for bis ' Gleanings from West- 
minster Abbey ' (published in 1882). The 
restored front of the north transept, some- 
times attributed to Scott, was mainly de- 
signed by Mr. J, L. Pearson, R A., the triple 
portals alone being of Scott's restoration. 
Scott indurated the monuments and other 
internal work with a composition of shellac 
dissolved in spirits of wine, a process which 
proved a failure when applied to the roof of 
the cloisters. 



Scott 



21 



Scott 



In 1854 Scott began, under the instruc- 
tions of Mr. E. B. Denison (now Lord Grim- 
thorpe), the reconstruction of Doncaster 
church, which had been destroyed by fire, 
and in the same year was again successful ha 
an open competition at Hamburg (this time 
for the Rathhaus), but his design was not 
carried out. 

The next year (1855) he was elected to 
the associateship of the Royal Academy, 
and he became a full member in 1861. 

The competition for the rebuilding of the 
war and foreign offices in the autumn of 
1856 was signalised by a stormy conflict be- 
tween the Gothic and classic schools of 
architecture, waged even in the House of 
Commons, Scott's first -design submitted in 
the competition was a sincere attempt to 
adapt the elements of French and Italian 
Gothic to the purposes of a modern English 
institution. Scott's name did not appear 
among the five premiated designs for the war 
office,, but he was placed third for the foreign 
office, .and it was subsequently discovered 
that the architectural assessors engaged to 
ad vise the judges had placed Scott's design se- 
cond for both buildings. In November 1858 
he was appointed architect, and set to work 
on certain necessary revisions of his design. 
The war office portion of the scheme was aban- 
doned, but it was arranged that Scott should 
be associated in a design for the India office 
with ([Sir) Matthew Digby Wyatt [q. v.], 
the official architect to that department. At 
this point the classical opposition gathered 
strength, and its cause was taken up in igno- 
rant warmth by Lord Palmerston. After pro- 
longed debates and controversy Scott was 
induced, by the threat of the appointment of 
a classical coadjutor, to prepare a fresh eleva- 
tion. Parliament gave orders for an Italian 
design to be submitted in comparison with 
the Gothic drawings. Scott sought a com- 
promise in the 'Byzantine of the early Vene- 
tian palaces/only to be told (on 8 Sept. 1860) 
by Lord Palmerston that it * was neither 
one thing nor t'other; a regular mongrel 
affair,' and that * he would have nothing to 
do with it.' Scott was thus forced either to 
abandon his appointment or to strike his 
colours as the Gothic champion. He chose 
the ktter course, accepted "Wyatt's collabo- 
ration as before arranged for the India office, 
and, after the purchase of some costly works 
on Italian architecture/ and a visit to Paris, 
produced a design which satisfied Lord Pal- 
merston. As might be expected, it encoun- 
tered stout opposition from Scott's old friends 
of the Gothic party, but finally passed the 
House of Commons in 1861, nearly five years 
afte* the competition was initiated* Psine 



years later he was commissioned to complete 
the block of buildings by the erection of the 
home and colonial offices. Scott's Gothic 
design is to be seen in the diploma gallery at 
the Royal Academy, 

In 1864 Scott was engaged in carrying 
out the Albert memorial. He entered, by 
royal invitation, a limited competition for 
this work [see COCKERELL, FREDERICK PEPYS], 
and submitted, besides his design for the 
monument, several schemes for the Albert 
Hall, which were not accepted. The suc- 
cessful project for the memorial was, in its 
author's intention, to be a ' kind of ciborium 
to protect the statue of the prince ; 7 in fact an 
attempt to realise the class of building of 
which a shrine is the supposed imitation in 
miniature. Another royal commission was 
the rearrangement of Wblsey's chapel at 
"Windsor to form a memorial to Prince 
Albert. To Scott was due the substitution 
of stone and mosaic for the timber and 
plaster of which the vaulting was formerly 
composed, but he had no responsibility for 
the marble inlay by Baron Triqueti, of which 
he disapproved. 

In 1865 Scott designed one of his finest 
works, the station and hotel at St. Pancras. 
He regarded it as the fullest realisation of 
his own special treatment of Gothic for 
modern purposes, and classed it in this re- 
spect with nis work OB. the town-hall at 
Preston, Kelham Hall in Nottinghamshire, 
and the old bank at Leeds. The idea of 
working the iron roof trusses of the station 
into the form of a pointed arch was due, not 
to Scott himself, but to the engineer of the 
company. The buildings of the Glasgow 
University, undertaken at about the same 
time, were designed in a manner which 
Scott had already adopted in the Albert In- 
stitute at Dundee, a 'thirteenth or four- 
teenth century secular style with the addi- 
tion of certain Scottish features. 1 

In 1866 Scott was one of the six archi- 
tects (afterwards increased to. twelve) in- 
vited to compete for the royal courts of jus- 
tice, The officially appointed judges decided 
in favour of two architects, George Edmund 
Street [q. v.l and Edward Middleton Barry 

Sq. v.], and the government, after much cori- 
usion, eventually displaced the latter. The 
competitors believed they had been unjustly 
treated. ^ Scott, who acted as chairman at 
the .meetings of tn# competitors, keenly felt 
his own failure (cf. Iteminiscences, p. 274). 

In 1870 the" Royal Institute of British 
Architects, which had awarded Scott its 
royal gold medal in 1859, invited hira to 
accept nomination as president, an honotir 
which he then declined. He, however, held 



Scott 



Scott 



the office from 1 873 to 1876. From 1868 he 
was professor of architecture at the Royal 
Academy, a post which he filled with great 
distinction. His lectures were published in 
1879 as l Mediaeval Architecture, 7 2 vols. An 
enterprise with which Scott was actively 
associated was the establishment of, the Ar- 
chitectural Museum, now located in Tuffcon 
Street, Westminster. 

In 1872 he received knighthood in con- 

sideration of his works for the royal family. 

On 19 March 1878 his health began to 

give way, and he died from a heart attack 

on the 27th of the same month. He was 

buried on 6 April in Westminster Abbey. 

_ The principal works still in progress at the 

time of Iris death were the refitting of the 

( choir ,at Canterbury, the restoration of 

Tewliesbury Abbey, the great hall of Glasgow 

University, the cathedral of Edinburgh, the 

church of St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington, the 

restoration of St. Alban's Abbey (since con- 

tinued, though on different lines, by Lord 

Grimthorpe), works at Beverley Minster,, 

the Hook memorial church at Leeds, and 

the restoration of the cathedrals of Salisbury, 

St. Davids, LicMeld, and St. Margaret's 

Church, Westminster. 

Scott married, on 5 June 1838, a second 
.cousin, Caroline Oldrid (her sister married 
his brother, the Rev. Thomas Scott). By 
her he had five sons, two of whom, George 
Gilbert Scott, F.S. A., and John Oldrid Scott, 
followed the profession of architecture, and 
carried out some of the works left unfinished 
at his death. 

In 1838, shortly after his marriage, Scott 
established himself at 20 (now 31) Spring 
Gardens, where he continued to conduct his 
,work till the, end of his life. He changed 
his residence in 1844 to St. John's Wood, 
afterwards to Hampstead, and in 1864 to 
Ham. About 1870 he left Ham for-Rook's- 
nest, near Godstone. In 1877, after a short 
return to Ham, he removed to Oourtfield 
House, South Kensington, where he died, 
. m The Builder ' (1878, p. 360) contains an 
incomplete list, dating from 1847, of 732 
buildings or projects with which Scott was 
connected -as architect or restorer or as the 
author of a report. Among these are 29 
cathedrals, British or colonial, 10 minsters, 
476 churches, 25 schools, 23 parsonages, 58 
monumental works, 25 colleges or collWe 
chapels, 26 public TmEding? 43 mansions, 
and various small ecclesiastical accessories 
Besides the buildings already mentioned, 
pecial alluatonmay Be made to the cJaapei 
oi St John's College, Cambridge, the addi- 
tions to *ew College, Ozford, tie Leeds in- 
rmary, the column to commemorate the 





Westminster scholars who fell in the Crhnea, 
the horseshoe cloisters, Windsor, and the 
restoration of St. Cuthbert's Church, Dar- 
lington. 

^ The principal works of cathedral restora- 
tion not already mentioned were those at 
Chester, Worcester, Chichester, Gloucester, 
Rochester, and Exeter. The work at Chi- 
chester consisted chiefly of the rebuilding of 
the tower and spire which had collapsed in 
1861. At Chester very extensive external 
renovation was thought necessary, owing to 
the extent to which the old stonework had 
become decayed. The restoration at Exeter 
led to litigation over the 'reredos/ in which 

i 1 t . A . _ .r 



the propriety of the use of sculpture was 
discussed (Phillpotts v. Boyd, L. fe. 6 l\ C 
485). Minor works were carried out at Win- 
chester, Durham, Peterborough, Bangor, and 
St. Asaph. 

Of Scott's style as an original artist it may 
be said that, starting (in his nmturer prac- 
tice) with a marked prejudice in favour of the 
fourteenth-century characteristics of English 
architecture, he subsequently changed his 
views, adopting in domestic and aecular 
work a modification of Gothic, and inclining 
m church work to that importation of French 
models of the thirteenth century which pre- 
vailed among his contemporaries* In a do 
sign submitted (1875) in conjunction with 
his son, John Oldrid Scott, for the parliament 
house at Berlin, he attempted to realise a 
development at which German Gothic might 
have arrived had it not been for the sub- 
mission to French influence. In restoration 
he showed an unrivalled power of search- 
ing for evidences, and a remarkable fertility 
in following up a clue or conjecturing an 
original design from a few remaining jfrafir- 
naents. * 

That Scott, as the greatest of architectural 
restorers, should have been the object of 
severe attack was natural Certainly he 
sometimes remodelled rather than restored, 
and more than once his critics were success- 
tul m convicting him of an excessive energy 
m renovation. In the last year of 8cott*$ 
life the growing opposition to the prevalent 
practice of architectural restoration with 
which bis name was identified took definite 
form, and the Society for the Protection of 
Ancient Buildings was inaugurated, 

Scott was an enthusiastic though not m 
accomplished writer, He published, besides 
various pamphlets, 1. * A Plea for the Faith- 
ful Restoration of Ancient Churchy' 1850, 
t. -Remarks on Secular and Domestic A rcht- 

*$*?* A 1 ?! 50 ' , s - Cleanings from West* 
minster Abbey/ 1 862. 

Many architects were trained in Ms office 



Scott 2 

among them George Edmund Street, R.A. 
[q. v.J, and Mr. G. F. Bodley, A.R.A. 

There are two portraits of Scott, both by 
George Richmond, R.A. one in the council- 
room of the Royal Academy, the other at 
the Royal Institute of British Architects. 
The steel engraving given in the ' Reminis- 
cences ' is also after a drawing by Richmond. 

[Personal and Professional Recollections, by 
Sir George Gilbert Scott, B.A., London, 1879 ; 
Builder, 1878, xxxvi, 339, 343, 3fiO, 391, 440; 
Building News, 1878, xxiv. 309, 339, 385 ; Diet, 
of Architecture.] P. W. 

SCOTT, GEORGE LEWIS (1708- 
1780), mathematician, born at Hanover in 
May 1708, was the eldest son of George 
Scott of Bristo in Scotland, who married 
Marion Stewart, daughter of Sir James 
Stewart, bart., of Ooltness, lord advocate of 
-Scotland* The father held diplomatic offices 
at various German courts, and was envoy- 
extraordinary to Augustus I, king of Poland, 
in 1712 (Caldwell Papers, Maitland Club, i, 
206-52). He was an especial friend of the 
elector (afterwards George I), whose names 
were given to the boy at baptism, and the 
Princess Sophia was his godmother. At 
the close of 1726, after his father's death, 
his mother moved to Leyden for the edu- 
cation of her children. George Lewis was 
called to the bar at the Middle Temple, be- 
came F.S.A, on 3 June 1736, and F.R.S. on 
5 May 1737, and was a member in 1736 of the 
Society for Encouragement of Learning. At 
this date Thomson the poet was one of his 
friends. In November 1750 Scott was made 
sub-preceptor to Prince George (afterwards 
George III) and his younger brothers, on 
the recommendation of Lord Bolingbroke 
through Lord Bathurst. Horace Walpole 
writes, ' You may add that recommendation 
to the chapter of our wonderful polities' 
(Letters, ii. 232) ; and as Scott was considered 
to be a Jacobite, his appointment caused 
considerable stir through the belief that he 
would inculcate in his pupils the doctrine of 
the divine right of kings. By July 1752 the 
tutors were divided into factions, and the 
quarrel lasted all the year (ib. ii, 293, 316- 
317). In February 1758 Scott was made a 
commissioner of excise, and he held that 
post until his death. 

Scott, who was a pupil of De Moivre, was 
celebrated for his knowledge of mathe- 
.maties. On 7 May 1762 he sent a long 
letter to Gibbon on the books which he 
should study in that science ; and Gibbon, on 
19 Oct. 1767, asked him to supply a paper 
< on the present state of the physical and 
mathematical sciences' in' England, for in- 
sertion in the 'M6moires LitUraires'de la 



Scott 

Grande-Bretagne' of Deyyerdun and him- 
self. In December 1775 Gibbon sent for his 
perusal a part of the * Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire ' (Misc. Works, i. 147, ii. 44- 
51, 68-7 1). T woletters from Scott to Robert 
Simson [q. v,l, the Scottish mathematician, 
with those which he received in reply, are 
given in Trail's ' Life of Simson' (pp. 113-. 
128). He was described by Lord Brougham 
as * perhaps the most accomplished of all 
amateur mathematicians who never gave 
their works to the world* (Philosophers 
temp. George III, 1855 ed. pp. 135-6). Dr. 
Burney speaks of him as an excellent musi- 
cian, and as performing on the harpsichord. 
He was an intimate friend of Dr. Pepusch, 
whom he assisted in drawing up a paper for 
the Royal Society on the genera and systems 
of the ancient Greek music (Dr. Burney, in 
REES'S Cyclop. 1819, vol. xxxii.) Miss 
Burney, who met Scott in 1769, described 
him as 'very sociable and facetious. He 
entertained me extremely with droll anec- 
dotes and stories among the Great and about 
the Court.' George Rose knew him ' long 
and very intimately/ and praised him as 

* amiable, honorable, temperate, and one of 
the sweetest dispositions I ever knew.' He 
was tall and big. Dr. Johnson was one day 
giving way to tears, when Scott, who was 
present, clapped him on the back and said, 
' What's all this, my dear sir? Why, you 
and I and Hercules, you know, were all 
troubled with melancholy/ The doctor* was 

* so delighted at his odd sally that he suddenly 
embraced him' (MBS. PIOZZI, Anecdotes of 
Johnson, pp. 50-1). 

Scott died on 7 Dec % 1780. His wife, who 
was separated from him, forms the subject 
of another article [see SCOTT, SABAH! Her 
friends condemned him for his bad treat- 
ment of her, and the rumour spread that lie 
had tried to poison her ; but there was no 
foundation for either charge.. The materials 
which Ephraim Chambers [q. v.] left for a sup- 
plement to his dictionary of arts and sciences 
were committed to Scottfs care for selection, 
revision, and expansion. The two volumes 
appeared in 1753, and he is said to have re^ 
ceived 1,500 for his services. 

[Gent. Mag. 1780 p. 590, 1805 ii. 811-12 
Miss Barney's Early Diary, i. 48-9, ; 165-6 
George Hose's Diary, ii. 188; Nichols's Ltt 
Anecdotes, ii. 93 ; Caldwell Papers, i. 28, JJitf 
iiptii.p. 161.] W.P.O. 

SCOTT or SCOT, GREGORY (d. 1576) 
divine, of .northern (possibly Yorkshire) de- 
scent, was educated at Eton, and was elected 
thence scholar of King's College^ Cambridge, 
in 1550. He graduatedB.A.. 1563-4and M.A. 
1557, He was presented by the queen to 



Scott 



,24 



Scott 



the rectory of Thimbleby, Lincolnshire, on 
11 March 1560 (RTMER, F&dera, xv. 587), 
and became chaplain to the bishop of Lincoln. 
On 2 May 1564 he was collated canon of the 
third stall in Carlisle Cathedral (LE NEVE, 
Fasti). Five years later he became chan- 
cellor of Carlisle, and in 1570 vicar-general. 
As prebendary he took strong action in 
suing for a remedy against leases of the 
lands of the cathedral made contrary to the 
statutes (September 1567 and June 1568) 
(State Papers, Dom. Eliz. xliv. xlviii. 4 and 
5. and Addenda xiv, 13 ; STBYPE, Annals, I. 
ii', 255-6). He was collated to the vicarage 
of St. Michael, Appleby, in 1569. ^Scot died 
in possession of -his prebend some time before 
November 1676. He wrote : ' A Briefe Trea- 
tise agaynst certayne Errors of the Romish 
Church very plainly, notably, and pleasantly 
confuting me same by Scripture and Auncient 
"Writers (in verse), b. 1., London, 1574, 8vo. 

[Corser's Coll. Angl.-Poet, v. 222; Ritson's 
Bi bl. Poet p. 326 ; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. 
Dibdin, iv. 569 ; Brydges's Re^tituta, iii. 490 ; 
Harwood's Alumni Eton p. 1 06 ; Strype's Grindal, 
p. 125; SH ect Poetry, Parker Soc.liii ; Grindal's 
Remains (Parker Soc.), p. 285 ; Cooper's Athense 
Cant.] W. A. S. 

SCOTT, HARRIET ANNE, LADY 
SCOTT (1819-1894), novelist, only daughter 
of Henry 'Shank of Castlerig and Gleniston, 
Pifeshire, was born in Bombay in 1819. On 
28 Nov. 1844 she'married Sir James Sibbald 
David Scott (1814-1885), third baronet 
[a. v.] She died at 18 Cornwall Gardens, 
Queen's Gate, London, on 8 April 1894. 

Lady Scott,, a highly accomplished woman, 
who should be distinguished from the con- 
temporary novelist, Caroline Lucy, Lady 
Scott (1784-1857) [q. v/|, wrote eight novels ; 
the first four were issued anonymously. Her 
boolis, though deficient in plot, display genuine 
powers of characterisation, and at times re- 
mind the reader of the style of Miss Susan 
Terrier. Thetitlesofthenovelsare: 1. 'The 
M.P/S Wife and the Lady Geraldine,' 1838, 

2 vols. 2. <The.Henpecked Husband/ 1847, 
S vols, ; other editions 1853 and 1865. 3. 
< Percy, or the Old Love and the New/ 1848, 

3 vols, 4. ., ' Hylton House and its Inmates/ 
1850, avals. 5. <The Only Child: a Tale/ 
1852, 2 vols. ; another edition 1865, in 
'Select Library of Fiction/ 6. < The Pride 
of Life,' 1854, 2 vols. 7. ' The Skeleton in 
the Cupboard,' I860,, 2nd edit. 1861. 8- 
'The Dream of a Life/ 1862, 3 vols. She 
also Qontributed to the ' Queen ' newspaper, 
and "to various magazines, and published a 
small boot entitled i Cottagers' Comforts, 
and- other Recipes in Knitting and Crochet. 
By Grandmother/ 188(7, 



[Notes and Queries, 8th ser. ix. 448, x. 186 ; 
Foster's Baronetage, 1883, p. 565;, in formation 
from Miss Henrietta Caroline Sibbald Scott, The 
Firs, Newbury, Berks.] <3c. C. B. 

SCOTT, ilELENUS, MJD. (1760-1821), 
physician, was born at Dundee, and studied 
medicine at Edinburgh from 1777 to 1779. 
He entered the medical service of the East 
India Company, and served chiefly in the 
Bombay presidency. On 24 July 1797 he 

, was created M.D.by the university of Aber- 
deen. After thirty years in India he returned 
to England, and began practice at Bath, 
On 22 Dec. 1815 he was admitted a licentiate 
of the College of Physicians, and in 1817 
began to practise as a physician in Bussell 
Square, London. In the same year he con- 
tributed an interesting paper to ^the 'Trans- 
actions ' of the Medico-Cmrurgical Society 
on the use of nitromuriaticacid in medicine. 
He used it in a wider range of disease than 
is now customary, but its frequent employ- 
ment in the treatment of enteric fever and 
other maladies at the present day originates in 

! his advocacy of its merits, lie attained to con- 
siderable practice, and diod on 16 Nov. 182 JU 
[Works; Munk's Coll. of Phys. iiL 142,1 

K, AL 

SCOTT, HENRY, EAEL OP DBLOBAINB 
(1676-1 730), third but second surviving son 
of James Scott, duke of Monmouth [q. v, 1 and 
Anne, duchess of Bucclench,was bom in 1 07& 
On 29 March 1706 he was created by Queen 
Anne Earl of Deloraine, Viscount Hermitage, 
and Baron Scott of Otoldielands, the main title 
being derived from the lands of Delonune in 
Kirkhope parish, Selkirkshire. He took his 
oath and seat in the last parliament in Scot- 
land in October 1706, ana voted in favour of 
the treaty of union. At the general election 
of 1716 ne was chosen one of the Scottish 
representative peers, and he was rechoatm m 
1722 and 1 727. In 1725 he was vested with 
the order of the Bath, and appointed g^nt Its- 
man of the bedchamber to G-eorge I, From 
the time of his accession to the peerage he 
also served in the army, bein^ appointed in 
1707 to the command of a regiment of foot, 
and promoted on 1 June 1716 to be colonel 
of the 2nd troop of horse-grenadier guards, 
on 7 April 1724 to fce colonel of the I6th 
regiment, and on 9 July 1730 to be colonel 
of the 3rd regiment of horse, with the rank 
of major-general in the army* His reputa* 
tion for courtesy and politeness derived 
from his royal ancestors is referred to ia 
.Young's Night Thoughts:' 

Stanhope in wit, in breeding DeloraSn* 

His mother, however, upon her deatfc In 
1723, reproached him with gracele$sne$8 and 



Scott * 

extravagance, and left him but 5Z. lie died 
suddenly on Christmas day 1730, and was 
buried at Lidwell in Sandtbrd St. Martin, Ox- 
fordshire. By his first wife, Anne (d. 1720), 
daughter and heiress of William Duncombe 
of Battlesden, Bedfordshire, he had two sons 
Francis, second earl; and Henry, third 
earl and a daughter Anne, unmarried. By 
his second wife, Mary, daughter of Charles 
Howard, grandson of Thomas, first earl of 
Berkshire, he had two daughters : Georgina 
Caroline, married to Sir James Peachey, 
master of the robes ; and Henrietta. His 
widow remarried, in April 1784, William 
"Wyndham of Ersham, Norfolk, died on 
12 Nov. 1744, and was buried at Windsor. 
She had been governess to the young prin- 
cesses Mary and Louisa, daughters of 
George II. 

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), 5. 409- 
410; Fruaer'a Seotts of Buccieuch, ii. 324; 
Burke's Peerage.] T. F. H. 

SCOTT, HENRY, third DUKB OF Birc- 
CLBUCK and fifth DUKB OF QUEENSBEERT 
(1746-1812), born on 13 Sept. 1746, was 
second but oldest surviving son of Francis, 
earl of Dalkeith, who died in the lifetime of 
liis father, and Lady Caroline Campbell, 
eldest daughter of John, second dute of 
Argyll and Greenwich. While still a child 
he became Duke of Buccleueh in succession 
to his grandfather, Francis, second duke 
(grandson of Jamett Scott, duke of Monmouth 
[q. v.]), who died on 22 April 1751 * He was 
educated at Eton, and afterwards had as his 
tutor and companion on his travels abroad 
Dr. Adam Smith, author of the ' Wealth of 
Nations/ who for this purpose resigned his 
university chair, and accepted a life annuity 
of 8QQ& After upending about two years 
in France and Switzerland, both the duke 
and his younger brother, who travelled with 
him, were seissud by fever at Paris, and, the 
latter dying, the duke returned home. He 
had contemplated a political life, but events 
altered his determination, and he settled in 
his ancestral home at Dalkeith* During the 
French war in 1778 he raised a regiment of 
fencibit'8, which, under his personal com- 
mand, were of cottHpieuous service in the 
*no popery riots' in Edinburgh in the fol- 
lowing year. To gratify his literary tastes 
he became a member of the Poker Club, 
formed in Edinburgh in 1762, and was the 
first president of the Koyal Society of Edba* 
burgh, which was instituted in 1783. 

On 23 Dee. 1767 he was invented with the 
order of the Thbtle, and in 1794 he was ad- 
mitted knight of the Garter. In 1810, on 
the death of William Douglas, fourth duke 



; Scott 

of Queensberry [q. v.], the notorious ' old 
Q./ tye succeeded to the title, and also to the 
, estates and other honours of the Douglases 
of Drumlanrig in virtue of an entail executed 
in 1706 by James Douglas, second duke of 
Queensberry fq . v,l, whose second daughter 
Jane married Buccleuch's grandfather. The 
suavity and generosity of ' Duke Henry ' ren- 
dered him highly popular, and his chosen 
friend, Sir Walter Scott, declared that 'his 
name was never mentioned without praises 
by the rich and benedictions by the poor.' 
He is said to have imitated James V of Scot- 
land in paying visits in disguise to the cots of 
his humbler dependents.who always profited 
thereby. He died at Dalkeith on 11 Jan. 
1812, and was buried there. 

He married, on 2 May 1767, Lady Eliza- 
beth Montagu (d. 1827), only daughter of 
George Brudenell Montagu* duke of Montagu 
[q. v.] By her he obtained large estates in 
England, tog-ether with personalty and jewels 
valued at 150,000/.; and he also succeeded 
on his mother's death to her property of 
Caroline Park, near Granton on the Firth of 
Forth. They had three sons and'four daugh- 
ters. The eldest son dying in infancy, Charles 
William Henry, the second, succeeded as 
fourth duke of Buccieuch and sixth duke 
of Queensberry, and, dying at Lisbon on 
20 April 1819, was succeeded by his second 
but eldest surviving son by his wife, the 
Hon. Harriet Katherine Townshend, fourth 
daughter of Thomas, first viscount Sydney. 

WALTER FRANCIS SCOTT, fifth DUKB OF 
BticoLEUCH and seventh DUKB OF QUBENS- 
BBKRY (1806-1884), born at Dalkeith on 
25 Nov. 1806, became duke in his thir- 
teenth year, and when only sixteen enter- 
tained George IV for a fortnight at Dalkeith 
House. He was educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, graduating M.A. in 
1827, and, as captain-general of the royal 
bodvguard of archers^ carried the gold stick 
at the coronations of William IV and Queen 
Victoria. He entertained the queen and 
prince consort at Dalkeith in 1842, when 
he was created a privy councillor. Being a 
staunch conservative^ he was made lord 
privy seal in Peel's ministry, from February 
184i} to June 1846, when he held for six 
months the ofEce of lord president of coun- 
cil. Having made a special study of agri- 
culture, the duke was in 1831 made president 
of the Highland Agricultural Society. Be- 
tween 1885 and 18i2, at his sole cost (over, 
half a million) he built the pier and break- 
water forming a harbour at Granton, and 
developing it as a port on the Firth of 
Forth. His interest in art, science, and lite* 
rature was recognised in his election to the 



Scott 



Scott 



presidency of the Society of Antiquaries in 
1S62, and to that of the British Association 
in 1867. The university of Oxford honoured 
him with the degree of D.C.L. in 1834, and 
that of LL.D, was added by Cambridge in 
1842 and Edinburgh in 1874, while Glasgow 
University elected him its chancellor in 1877. 
He also held the offices of high steward of 
"Westminster and lord lieutenant and sheriff 
of the counties of Midlothian and Roxburgh. 
He died at Bowhill, Selkirkshire, on 16 April 
1884, and was buried on the 23rd in St. 
Mary's Chapel, Dalkeith, being at the time 
of his death the senior knight of the Garter 
(or. 23 Feb. 1835). His personalty amounted 
to above 910,000. By his duchess, Lady 
Charlotte Anne Thynne, youngest daughter 
of Thomas, second marquis of Bath, he had, 
with .other issue, the present Duke of 
Buccleuch and Queensberry. 

[The Scotts of BnccleueTi, by Sir William 
Traser, i. 489-5t5 ("with portraits of the third 
and fifth dukes and their respective ducii esses) ; 
Lek]iart's Life of Scott, passim; G-. K. C.'s 
Peerage, s. v. * Buecleuch,'] H. P. 

SCOTT, HENRY YOUNG DARRA- 
COTT (1822-1883), major-general royal en- 
gineers, fourth son of Edward Scott of Ply- 
mouth, Devonshire, was born there on 
2 Jan. 1822. Educated privately and at the 
royal military academy at Woolwich, he ob- 
tained a commission as second lieutenant in 
the royal engineers on 18 Dec. 1840, After 
going through the usual course of profes- 
sional instruction at Chatham he was sta- 
tioned at Woolwich and Plymouth in suc- 
cession. Promoted to be first lieutenant on 
19 Dec. 1843, he went to Gibraltar in Janu- 
ary 1844, where ha was acting adjutant of his 
corps. While at Gibraltar he accompanied 
Arthur Penrhyn Stanley [q. v.], afterwards 
dean of Westminster, and his two sisters 
on a tour in Spain. In 1848 he returned to 
England, and was appointed assistant in- 
structor in field works at the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich. He was promoted 
to be second captain on 11 Nov, 1861, in 
which year he married. He was in the same 
jear appointed senior instructor in field 
works at the Boyal Military Academy. 

On 1 April 1855 Scott was promoted to 
be first captain, and was appointed in- 
structor in surveying at the royal engineer 
establishment at firomptou, Chatham, where 
he was the trusted adviser of the comman- 
dant, Colonel (afterwards General Sir) Henry 
Drury Harness ft. v.], in the reorganisation 
ot this important army school. At Chatham 
he had charge of the chemical laboratory, and 
to experiments enabled him to jperfect the 



selenitic lime which goes by his name. His 
system of representing ground by horizontal 
hachures and a scale of shade was perfected 
at Chatham, and adopted for the army as 
the basis of military sketching. During- his 
residence at Brompton, Kent, a drought 
occurred, and he, rendered invaluable assis- 
tance in establishing the present water- 
works in the Luton valley. 

On 19 May 1863 Scott was promoted to 
be brevet major, and oxi 5 Dec. of the same 
year to be regimental lieutenant-colonel. 
On 14 Dec. 18G5 he was seconded in his 
corps, and employed under the commission 
of the Great Exhibition of 1851 at South 
Kensington, in the place of Captain Francis 
Fowke [q.v.] He gained the complete con- 
fidence of the commissioners, and on the re- 
tirement of Sir Henry Cole was appointed 
secretary to the commission. 

The chief work by which Scott will be 
remembered was the construction of the 
Koyal Albert Hall at Kensington, with the 
design and execution of which he wa en- 
trusted in 18(J6. The design of the roof was 
unique, and there were many predictions that 
it would fail. Scott, however, had apent 
much labour in working out all the details, 
and never hesitated. When the time arrived, 
in 1870, for removing the scaffolding which 
supported the roof, Scott sent every one out 
of the building, and himself knocked away 
the>finai support The acoustic properties 
were a source of anxiety. At first there was 
a decided echo with wind iiwtrunumts, but 
the introduction of a * velarium * below the 
true roof cured the defect. On !20 May lb7L 
Scott was made a companion of the Bath 
(civil division,). 

On 7 June 1871 Scott was promoted to> 
be brevet colonel, and on 19 Aug. of the 
same year he retired from the army a$ im 
honorary major- general, but continued in his 
civil appointment at South Kensington, Oa 
3 Feb. 1874 he became an associate of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers; on 3 June 
1875 he was elected a fellow of the l&yal 
Society, and the same year a member of a 
select .Russian scientific society, on wbich 
occasion the czar presented him with a snuff- 
box set with diamonds* 

Scott was for some years examiner in mili- 
tary topography under the military educa- 
tion department. I!e was awarded nwhtla 
for service rendeml to tlieGrt'ftt Exhibition 
of London in 18fc> the Prussian Exhibition of 
1865, the Paris Universal Exhibition ofl87 
the annual London international Exhibition 
ot fine arts, industries, and inventions, the 
Dutch Exhibition of 1877, and the Paris In- 
temational Exhibition of 1878, He received 



Scott 



27 



Scott 



in 1880 a silver medal from the Society of 
Arts for a paper entitled * Suggestions for 
dealing with the Sewerage of London/ and 
the Telford premium for a paper he con- 
tributed in the same year, in conjunction 
with Mr. GK R. Bedgrave, to, the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, on the * Manufacture and 
Testing of Portland Cement. 7 He had pre- 
pared the plans for the completion of the 
South Kensington Museum, when, in 1882, 
the treasury, in a fit of economy, abolished 
his appointment as secretary of the Great 
Exhibition commissioners. This abrupt ter- 
mination of his connect ion with the museum 
,and anxiety for the future of his numerous 
'family helped to break down his health. He 
^designed the buildings for the Fisheries Ex- 
hibition, bufc was too ill to attend the opening. 
lie died at his residence, Silverdale, Syden- 
liam, on 16 April 1883, and was buried at 
Highgate, Scott's life was devoted to the 
public service and the advancement of scien- 
tific knowledge, but he failed to secure for 
himself any benefit from his inventions, 

Scott married, on 19 June, 1861, at 
"Woolwich, Ellen Selina, youngest daughter 
of Major-general Bowes of the East India 
Company's service* She survived him with 
fifteen children, 

Scott contributed to the ' Transactions of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects * 
(1857 and 1872) and to the * Professional 
Papers of the Corps of Royal Engineers' 
(new ser. vols. vi, vu, x, xi> xii, xvii, xx) 
papers chiefly dealing with his discovery of 
lus new cement and the construction of the 
Albert, Hall. 

[War Office Eecords; Boyal Engineers* Be- 
cords ; memoir by Canon Daniel Cooke in the 
Boyal Bngineers 5 Journal, 1883; Sir Henry 
CoWs Fifty Ytars of Public Work, 2 vols, 
1884.] B, H. V* 

SCOTT, HEW (1791-1872), annalist of 
the v Scottish church, son of Robert Scott, 
excise officer, was born at Iladdington on 
& Feb. 1791. He attended Edinburgh Uni- 
versity^ but graduated M*A, at Aberdeen. 
Per a time he found employment in collat- 
ing the old ecclesiastical manuscripts in the 
iiegister House, Edinburgh, where he was 
known as * the peripatetic index.' Licensed 
to preach by the Iladdington presbytery, be 
was ordained to a Canadian mission in 1*829 ; 
Jbut David Lafojj the antiquary persuaded 
Hm to remain in Scotland* He became 
assistant minister successively at Garvaid, 
Ladykirk, Cockpen, and Temple ; and in 1839 
was preferred to the charge of West Anstru- 
ther, Fifeshire, where he died on 12 July 
1872, He received the degree of BJ). from 
St. Andrews University, 



The labour of Scott's life was the ' Fasti 
Ecclesise Scoticanse/ 6 vols., Edinburgh, 
1866-71. This, work gives a notice, more 
or less complete, of every minister who has 
held office in the church of Scotland from 
1560 to 1839. On the score of exhaustive- 
ness and accuracy it is unique in ecclesias- 
tical biography. Scott personally visited 
nearly eight hundred parishes in search of 
material. Rewrote the whole of the ' Fasti ' 
on letter-backs, and used turned envelopes 
for his correspondence. With a stipend of less 
than 200/.a year he left about 9,000/., and bore 
part of the costs of publishing the 'Fasti/ 
He was an eccentric character, and curious 
stories are recorded of his miserly habits. 

[Gtotirlay's Anstruther, 1888; Conolly's Emi- 
nent Men of Fife, 1866 ; local information/! 

J, C. H. 

t SCOTT, STB JAMES (Jl. 1579-1 606), poli- 
tician, was the grandson of Sir William Scott 
or Scot (d> 1532) [q. v.], and eldest son of Sir 
William Scott of Balwearie and Strathmiglo, 
by his wife Janet, daughter of Lindsay of 
Dowhillj he was served heir to his father 
in 1579. In December 1583 his name ap- 
pears at a band of caution for the self-banish- 
ment of William Douglas of Lochleven ( Reg 
P. C. ScotL iii. 615). On 4 March 1587-8 
he was called to answer before the privy 
council, along with the turbulent Francis, 
earl of Both well, and others, for permitting 
certain border pledges to whom they had 
become bound to escape (ib. iv. 258). At the 
coronation of the queen on 17 May 1590 
he was dubbed a knight, but his enjoyment 
of the royal favour was of short duration. 
A catholic by conviction, and fond of fight- 
ing and adventure, he gave active and un- 
concealed assistance both to the Earl of Both- 
well and to the catholic earls of Angus, 
Enroll, and Huntly. He seconded Bothwell 
in his attempt to seize the king at Falkland 
Palace on 28 June 1592 (MotsiE, Memoirs, 
p. 95), and having, for failing- to answer con- 
cerning the * late treasonable fact,* been, on_ 
6 June, denounced a rebel (JReg. P. C. ScotL* 
iv. 765), he on 10 Nov. obtained caution to 
answer when required, and not to repair 
within ten miles of the king's residence with- 
out license (ib. v. 21). At the convention 
of estates held at Linlithgow on 31 Oct. 
1593 he was appointed one of the sham com- 
mission for the trial of the catholic earls 
(ib. p. 103), and, as was to be expected, 
favoured the act of abolition passed in their 
favour. It was probably through hip that 
Bothwell arranged his interview with the 
three catholic earls at the kirk of Menmuir 
in Angusia 1594, when a band was subscribed 



Scott 



Scott 



between them which was given into Scott's 
keeping (MoisiE, p. 121) ; but by the acci- 
dental capture of Bothwell's servant the plot 
was discovered, and Scott was immediately 
apprehended and lodged in the castle of 
Edinburgh, On 23 Jan. 1595 he was brought 
to the Tolbooth gaol, and kept there all 
night. On being interrogated he delivered 
up the band, and, according to Calderwood, 
made a confession to the effect that ' the king 
should have been^ taken, committed to per- 
petual prison, the prince crowned king, 
Huntly, Erroll, and Angus chosen regents/ 
Notwithstanding this extraordinary revela- 
tion,/ he was,* says Calderwood, 'permitted 
to keep his own chamber upon the 29th of 
January, and was fined in twenty thousand 
pounds, which the hungry courtiers gaped for, 
but got.not* (Hfotory, v. 359). Calderwood 
also publishes the heads of the band (ib. p. 
360), and Scott's confession is fully noticed 
in the record of the meeting of the privy 
council of 11 Feb. (Reg,. P. 0. Scott, v. 205), 
Nevertheless the matter does not appear to 
have been taken very seriously by the council, 
it being only too manifest that if the earls 
had the will, they had not the power to effect 
any such revolution. On 25 Jan. Scott ob- 
tained a remission under the great seal, much 
to the chagrin of the ministers of Edinburgh, 
who desired the task of excommunicating 
him (cf. CALDEBWOOD, v. 365). On 29 Aug. 

1599 he was required to give caution that he 
would keep the peace (Reg. P. C. Scotl. v. 
748). If during the remainder of his life he 
eschewed entangling himself in politics, there 
is evidence that he remained, as heretofore, 
restless and unruly. Having on 6 No v. 1 60 1 
been denounced for failing to answer a charge 
of destroying the growing corn of Patrick 
Pitcairne of Pitlour (ib. p. 301), he on 16 Oct. 
1602 found caution in three thousand merks 
not to harm him (ib. p. 702). On account 
of his repeated fines, Scott was compelled to 
sell various portions of his estates, until in 

1600 all that remained in his possession was 
the tower and fortalice of Strathmiglo, with 
the village, and the lands adjoining. On 
13 Dec. 1606 a decree was passed against 
Mm lying .at the horn for debt (ib. vii. 251), 
and various other decrees at the instance of 
different co ; mplainers were passed on subse- 
quent occasions (t6.passira). Before his death 
the remaining portions were disposed of, and 
he left no .heritage to his successor. The 
downfall of 1 the family affected the popular 
imagination, and gave birth to traditions 
more oirless apocryphal. According, to one 
of these, although hia inveterate Quarrelsome- 
ness made him lose his- all, he was very mean 
and miserly j and on oneoccasion, while look- 



ing over his window directing his servants, 
who were throwing old and mouldy oatmeal 
into the rnoat, he was accosted by a beggar 
man, who desired to be allowed to fill his 
wallet with it. This the harsh baron of Bal- 
wearie refused, whereupon the beggar pro- 
nounced his curse upon him, and declared 
that he himself should yet be glad to get 
what he then refused. The date of his death 
is not recorded. By his wife Elizabeth^ 
daughter of Sir Andrew Wardlaw of Tome, 
he had two sons, William and James, and a 
daughter Janet, married to Sir John BosweU 
of Balmuto. 

[Reg. P. 0. Scotl. vols. vi-vni. ; Calderwood's 
H ist. of Scotland ; Moysi e's Memoirs ( Bun natyne 
Club); Leitih ton's Hist, of Fife; Douglas's Ba- 
ronage of Scotland, p. 306.] 1\ F, H, 

SCOTT, JAMES (known as FmKOY and 
as CROFTS), DUKE OF MOMOUTH ANBBuc- 
CLBUCH (1649-1685), born at Rotterdam on 
9 April 1649, was the natural son of Charles II, 
by Lucy, daughter of Kichard Walter or 
Walters of Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire* 
Charles seems to have met Lucy Walters at 
The Hague, while she was fltili under the 
protection of Robert Sidney (third son of Bo* 
bert Sidney, second earl of Leicester [q.v.]), 
whom jMonmouth was said to closely refianvbl o 
(see CLABKB, Z>fe of James JJ, *. 491-2), 
Evelyn, who met her in Paris in August 

1649, when she went by the name of Barlow, 
describes her as a * browne, beautiful!, bold, 
but insipid creature.' After a narrow escape 
from being kidnapped as an infant (Htroivk 
Life, pp. 9-12), James was taken to Pari in 

1650, and in January 165G brought by his 
mother to England. Courted by the cava- 
liers, ' Mrs. Burlo ' was placed in the Tower 
with her boy, whom she declared to be the 
son of King Charles. On her discharges on 
12 July there was found on her a grant 
signed ' Charles R* of an annuity of five 
thousand livres ( WHXTELOCXB, p. 649), Ex- 
pelled from England, Lucy repaired at once 
with her child to Paris j but before long she 
became completely estranged from Charles* 
relapsed into evil courses, and died, wrote 
James II, ' of the disease incident to that 
profession ' (for pedigree see Dwra, Heraldic 
Visitations of Wales, I 228; Note* and 
Queries, 2nd ser, iL 374-6, but cf, M&ctl- 
lama Qeneakg. et Kerald, 2nd ser, iv 
265). 

After her death, the youth was entrusted 
to the charge of Lord Crofts, as whose kins* 
man he now passed, and by whose name he 
was known. His tutors were first an Eng- 
lish oratorian named Stephen Golfe or Gou#h 
[q, v.J, and then Thomas Iloss(& 1675) [q, vj 



Scott 2 

According to James II (Life, i. 490) this 
last appointment was not made nor the 
boy r s instruction in the protestant religion 
begun till Charles II had resolved to send 
for him to England. In July 1062 ' James 
Crofts/ after being presented to the kin^ at 
Hampton Court, accompanied him to White- 
hall, where he was assigned apartments in 
the privy gallery. Grarninont describes the 
furore created by his reception, but con- 
trasts his deficiency in mental accomplish- 
ments with 'the astonishing beauty of his 
outward form.' As early as 31 Dec. 1602 
Pepys mentions rumours of an intention to 
recognise him as the king's lawful son in the 
event of the marriage with the queen re- 
maining childless. Scandal asserted (GRAM- 
MONT, p. 295) that the Duchess of Cleveland 
for the sake of her children made love to him, 
and that this gave rise to the plan of marry- 
ing him without delay. According to Claren- 
don (Life, ii. 253~6),*Lauderdale, in order to 
baulk Albemarle's wish to secure this prize 
for his own son, suggested the choice of Anne 
Scott, by her father's death Countess of Buc- 
cleucli in her own right. She had 10,000. 
a year, besides expectations. Disregarding 
Clarendon's advice, Charles II resolved to 
follow French precedent, and own his natural 
son. Accordingly on 14 Feb. 16G3 Mr. 
Crofts' was created Baron Tyndale, Earl of 
Doncaster, and Duke of Monmouth (the title 
of Duke of Orkney having been abandoned) ; 
he received precedence over all dukes no1 
of the blood royal (PEPYS, 7 Feb.), and on 
28 March was elected a K.GL (CoLLiurs). On 
20 April of the same year ' the -little Dukf 
of Monmouth' (PjfsrYS) was married to th< 
Countess of Buccleuch 'in the king's cham- 
ber,' and on the same day (CoLUNs) they were 
created Duke and Duchess of Bucclmich, and 
he took the surname of Scott. Already on 
8 April 1663 he had been empowered to as- 
sume arms resembling the royal ; on 22 Apri 
1667 the royal arms themselves with the usua 
bar were granted to him ' as the king's dear 
son' (&.) Honours military, civil, and aca 
demical were heaped upon himduringthe first 
decade of his dukedom. The fact that th<* 
king continued to ' doat 1 on his son (PEPXfi 
20 Jan., 8 and 22 Feb. 1064), even so far a 
to bestow a place at court upon the youth' 
maternal uncle (&.), sufficiently accounts fo 
the repeated revival of the rumour as tc 
Ms intended legitimisation (id. 15 May an<^ 
19 Nov. 1663, 11 Sept, and 7 Nov. 1667) 
and for the early suspicion that this fondness 
produced unkindness between the king an 
hia brother (to. 4 May 1663). Meanwhil 
Monmouth was always in action, vaultin 
and leaping and clambering' (ib. 26 Jul 



Scott 

365), dancing in court masques (ib. 3 Feb. 
365), acting with his duchess in the l Indian 
jmperor' (id. 14 Jan. 1668), and accom- 
any ing the king to Newmarket for racing, to 
>agshotfor hunting, and on divers royal pro- 
gresses (Historick ?/<?, pp. 19-31). In 1665 
e followed the fashion in volunteering under 
he Duke of York, and was present on 3 June 
t the battle in Solebay (Life of James II, 
. 493). In the following year he obtained a 
roop of horse, preparatory to his being in 
668 named captain of the king's ' life guard 
f horse' (Historick Life, p. 20 ; cf. PEPIS, s. d. 
6 Sept. 1668). He was made a privy coun- 
illlor in 1670, an ugly year for his reputation. 
He may be freely acquitted of the indirect 
hare attributed to him in the death of the 
Duchess of Orleans, at whose interview at 
Dover with her brother he had assisted 
(RBRESBY,P. 82) ; but neither filial affection 
nor the brutality of the times can excuse his 
share in the assault upon Sir John Coventry 
. v.] for his reflection upon the king's in- 
iimacy with ' female actors' (id. ; cf. BTJRJTET, 
i. 496). Dry^den in his * Absalom and Achi- 
tophel/ pt. i. 1. 39, reproaches Monmouth 
under the character of Absalom with Am- 
non's (i.e. Coventry's) murder (cf. SCOTT and 
BAINTSBURY ad foe.) . Coventry escaped wit h 
his life ; not so an unfortunate beadle whom 
Monmouth and the young Duke of Albemarle 
killed as a sequel to beating the watch on 
28 Feb. 1070 (gee ' On Three Dukes killing 
the Beadle,' ap. Poems on Affair* of State). 
When in January 1670 Monmouth suc- 
ceeded Albemarle (Monck) as captain-general 
of all the king's forces, notwithstanding the 
opposition of the Duke of York, his first 
serious difference with the ktter seems to 
have taken place (Life of James II, i. 494-5 ; 
cf. DARTMOUTH'S note to BXTRNET, ii. 239). 
In 1072 he commanded the English auxiliary 
force against the Dutch under the eyes of 
Turenne and of Louis XIV himself, and on 
his return, in the company of the Earl of 
Feversham, to the seat of war in J673, he 
took an active part in the siege of Maestricht, 
which capitulated on 2 July. ' Much con- 
sidered 'ou account of his services (BtfRKBT, 
ii. 19), he was feted, pensioned, and, on letters 
commendatory from the king, elected chan- 
cellor of the university of Cambridge (lo July 
1674). In 1674 or 1675 the chancellor danced 
in Crowne's 'Calisto'at court, when Lady 
Wentworth, afterwards his mistress, acted' 
Jupiter (CBOWNB, Works, i. 248-9) ; before 
this he had been, involved in an intrigue 
with Eleanor, daughter of Sir Robert Need- 
ham (Hist. MSS. Comm, 7th Rep, App. p* 
305; cf, HORACE WILPOLE, Letters, ed. 
Cunningham, i. 381 and note). In February 



Scott 



Scott 



1678 he was sent at the head of a small 
iorce to protect Ostend against the French 
(REKBSBT, p. 128; BUKNET, ii. 127), and to 
raise the siege of Mons on the eve of the con- 
clusion of the peace of Nimeguen. He was 
now the ally of the Prince of Orange, to 
whose English marriage in the previous year 
he was said to have objected from motives of 
hoth interest and pique (OssoKY ap. BUBNET, 
ii. 61 n.) On his return to England in August 
he found the popish plot agitation just astir, 
and Charles II now began his policy of 
balancing the rights of his brother by the 
of his bastard son (BuRNBT, ii, 



po 



172). Monmouth more and more identified 
himself with the protestant movement ; de- 
tailed (24 Oct. 1G78) to the House of Lords 
his measures for de'aling with papists in the 
army and providing for the safety of the king 1 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. App. pt. ii. 
p. 88, cf. 7th Rep. App. p. 471), and was 
iumself proved on the testimony of Bedloe 
to be in danger of assassination. He lost no 
opportunity of heightening his popularity (cf. 
Autobiography of Hoffer North, ed. Jessopp, 
p. 38), and the report of his being the king's 
legitimate son was revived so vigorously that 
Charles II on two successive occasions thought 
itworth his while to declare solemnly (6 Jan.) 
and attest (3 March 1679) before the privy 
council that the story of his marriage with 
Lucy Walters was a fiction, and that, he 
had never been married to any woman 
but the queen. (EiLis, Original letters, 1st 
ser, iil 344-5), Already in April 1679 
Reresby (p. 167) wrote of him as ' the man 
in power/ It was with the distinct object 
of preventing Monmouth from being put at 
the head of an aggressive protestant admini- 
stration that Sir William Temple devised 
his scheme of a large privy council in which 
Monmouth, Shaftesbury, and their associates 
should be included, but would not be omni- 
potent. For to Monmouth, in conjunction 
with the Duchess of Portsmouth and Lord 
Essex, Temple attributed the overthrow of 
Danby, imputing to him the design of bring- 
ing Shaftesbury, with whom he was now in- 
timate, into power, and tampering with the 
succession (' Memoirs of Sir WVTemple, J pt. iii. , 
Works (fol. 1750), i. 333). On the otherhand, 
at court Monmouth was thought to have 
favoured Temple's scheme, using it as the 
occasion on which he c began to set up for 
himself' (]?EEESBY, p. 167). He was named a 
member of the committee of intelligence in 
matters both foreign and domestic, which 
was formed early in the year (SlDSTEr, Diary 
and Correspondence, i. 5 n.) 

After tlie Exclusion Bill had passed its 
second xeadingin the new House of Commons, 



parliament was prorogued, and a schism mani- 
ested itself among the opposition leaders. 
At the head of the party of action, along with 
Shaftesbury, stood 'exercituum nostrorurn 
generalis/ as Monmouth was designated in his 
writ of summons to the House of Lords (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. llth Rep. A])p. pt. ii. p. 90 ) ; nor 
was his popularity diminished when he was 
chosen to quell the insurrection which ensued 
in Scotland on the murder of Archbishop 
Sharp (JS.camen, p. 81), Monmouth arrived 
in Edinburgh on 18 June 1679, and his easy 
victory at Botkwell Bridge on 22 June vir- 
tually put an end to the rebellion. The 
clemency shown by him to many of the 
numerous prisoners taken in the battle (cf. 
SCOTT, Old Mortality) was disapproved by 
the Duke of York, and even by the king 
(BTJENET, ii. 236 n.'), but in conjunction 
with his military success insured him an en- 
thusiastic reception on his return to London 
(TEMPLE, u. s., p. 340). The king had again 
dissolved parliament, but Jamus was still 
in exile, and on the king's falling seriously 
ill in August Monmouth ventured to request 
that the duke might be prohibited from re- 
turning. Charles II, however, gave the de- 
sired permission, and the warm reception of 
the Duke of York by the king was, on the 
recovery of the latter (15 Sept. J, followed by 
Monmouth's being deprived of his commission 
as'general, and ordered to absent himself tor 
some time from the kingdom (LuTTitBLX., i* 
21). He was loth to go, and began to despair 
of his father (SIDNEY, Dary,L 127, 161 n.)> 
so that during the latter part of September 
there were various rumours in London aa to 
his movements and intentions(c. VerneyMSS. 
in Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App* p. 475)- 
Ultimately he left for Holland at the close of 
the month, after an interview in Arlington 
Gardens with the king, who insisted cm his 
departure, bxit told him it should not be for 
long (&.) His submission to the royal wish 
had beenadvised by his whigfriends (&CTBKBT, 
ii. 238) At the Hague he seemed in a melan- 
choly mood, went twice to church on one day f 
and was feasted by the fanatics at dinner 
(SiDKBt, i. 154, 166), During this visit the 
nrst personal approximation between Mon- 
mouth and the Prince of Orange seems to 
have taken place (ib. i. 190, 194)* 

At midnight on 27 Nov., the Duke of York 
being now in Scotland, Monmouth, though 
he had in vain sought to obtain the royal per- 
mission for his return, reappeared in London, 
where he was received with much popular 
rejoicing (RBR338BY, p. 181 j EVELYN, ri. 359$ 
LtTTTEBLL, i. 29), The king immediately 
issued orders for Monmouth's' chief military 
and civil olfices to be taken from him, and 



Scott 3 

for Monmouth to be formally sent out of the 
kingdomby order in council (Life of James II, 
i. 579 ; but see LUTTRELL, i. 26, 27). He re- 
fused to see the letter which Monmouth wrote 
in reply, or to be moved by Nell Gwyn's de- 
scription of the wan, pale looks of his un- 
happy son (1 Dec. 1679 ; Verney MSS. u. s. 
478). Monmouth ha his turn courageously 
held his own, quitting Whitehall for his house 
in Hedge Lane, and declaring that he would 
live on his wife's fortune (Life of James II, 
u. s.) In the meantime he made the most of 
his opportunities, worshipping in St. Martin's 
Church so as to provoke a demonstration of 
sympathy (Vemey MSS.}, and paying his 
court to Nell Gwyn (SIDNEY, i. 207) and 
others of his father's mistresses (ib. p. 298). 
About the same time (30 Jan. 1680) he was 
said to be involved in two guilty intrigues, 
one with Lady Grey, the other with Lady 
Wentworth (ib. i. 263-4). 

Faction now raged among ' Addressers' and 
' Abhorrers,' and in February 1680 the Duke 
of York returned from Scotland. London 
playhouse audiences clamoured against him, 
and vowed to be * for his highness the Duke 
of Monmouth against the world 7 (ib. i. 237), 
and in * An Appeal from the Country to the 
City,' attributed to Robert Ferguson [q. v.] 
(Ferguson the Plotter,}*. 42), which one Har- 
ris was unsuccessfully prosecuted for publish- 
ing, the succession of Monmouth was advo- 
cated on the ground that ' he who has the 
worst title makes the best king,' and that 
* God and my People* would in his case make 
a good substitute for ' God and my Right' 
(Life of Lord William Russell, i. 173). A 
design in which the Duchess of Portsmouth 
co-operated was talked of, to empower the 
king to name his successor (BURNBT, ii. 260-1 , 
:sf. SIDNEY, i. 15). But bolder projects were 
iiscussed in the' secret meetings by the chief 
Leaders of the opposition (RERESBY, p. 182), 
and it was determined to place the claims of 
Monmouth on a legal basis. 

Not a tittle of real evidence exists in favour 
of the supposed marriage between Charles II 
arid Lucwalters. Monmouth is said by Sir 
Patrick Hume (Marchmont Papers, vol. iii.) 
to have informed him, when about to start 
gu-the expedition of 1685, that he possessed 
proofe of ids mother's marriage, and Sir Pa- 
trick Hume may have told the truth. Nor 
can any significance be attached to the fact 
that in 1655, writing to her brother about 
Lucy Walters, the Princess of Orange twice 
referred to her as his wife (see HALLA.M'S note 
toComt. History f c. xii.) A story which ob- 
tained wide acceptance was to the effect 
that the contract of marriage between 
Charles and Lucy Walters was contained in 



Scott 

a black box entrusted by Cosin, afterwards 
bishop of Durham, to his son-in-law, Sir 
Gilbert Gerard. No proof of the existence 
of the box was given. The king remembered 
a report that Roas, Monrnouth's tutor, had 
actually, though in vain, sought to induce 
Cosin, whose l penitent' Lucy Walters pre- 
tended to be at Paris, to sign a certificate of 
the marriage (Life of James II, i. 491). Sir 
Gilbert Gerard was on 26 April summoned 
before the privy council, where he denied any 
knowledge of box or marriage contract (LirT- 
TRELL, i.42). Monmouth's partisans issued a 
pamphlet called f The Perplexed Prince,' and 
under the fashionable disguise of a romantic 
narrative which asserted the facts of the 
marriage Ferguson maintained the truth of 
the marriage story in able pamphlets feed 
FERGUSON, ROBERT, d. 1714]. Monmouth is 
said to have given Ferguson an annuity of 
fifty guineas. Ferguson's first pamphlet pro- 
duced a new declaration from Charles em- 
bodying the preceding two. 

In August of the same year Monmouth 
started on an expedition among 1 his friends in 
Wiltshire, Somersetshire, and Devonshire. 
Besides several smaller towns, Ilchester, II- 
minster, Chard, &c., he visited Exeter, where 
he was greeted by about one thousand ' stout 
young men.' Once in the course of this journey 
he touched for the evil. Dry den (Absalom 
and Achitophel,^\<. i.l. 741) cannot be wrong in 
supposing Shaftesbury to have suggested this 
quasi-royal progress, on which Monmouth 
was received with the utmost enthusiasm. 
In October he was back in London, where he 
still abstained from attending court (LxrT- 
TREIL, i. 56) ; on lord mayor s day he was 
received with loud acclamations in the city 
( Verney MSS. u. s. p. 479) ; in December he 
was present at Lord Stafford's trial (Heroick 
Life, p. 105). 

The Exclusion Bill had now passed the 
commons, but had been rejected by the lords. 
Just before the prorogation (10 Jan. 1681) 
the former house, among a series of defiant 
resolutions, voted one demanding the restora- 
tion to Monmouth of his offices, of which he 
had been deprived through the influence of 
the Duke of York (Life of Lord Russell, i. 
253). When a new parliament was sum- 
moned to Oxford, Monmouth's name headed 
the petition against its being held anywhere 
but at Westminster. At Oxford he appeared 
with a numerous following, and, like the 
other whig chiefs, kept open table, and did 
his best to secure the goodwill of the com- 
mons (LORD GREY, Secret History , p. 10). 
Shaftesbury's attempt to make the Exclusion 
Bill unnecessary, by inducing the king to 
name Monmouth his successor, having failed 



Scott 



Scott 



(NoBTH, Ecamen, p. 100), the Oxford parlia- 
ment was dissolved, and the reaction promptly 
set in. The protestant joiner, who in his 
dying speech represented himself as a kind 
of detective commissioned by Monmouth, was 
sacrificed, and Shaftesbury was put on trial 
for his life. Monmouth, like others, visited 
him on the night of his arrest (LTTTTRELL, i. 
106): but .the tories still hoped to separate 
Absalom and Achitophei, as is shown by the 
mitigations introduced by Dry^den into the 
second (December) edition of his great satire 
(published November 1681, and itself tender 
towards Monmouth). Part of this year was 
spent by Monmouth at Tunbridge Wells (ib. 
i. Ill, 118); in October he threw up his Scot- 
tish offices, rather than submit to a parlia- 
mentary test ; in November, returning from 
a visit to Gloucestershire, he became one of 
Shaftesbury's bail (#. pp. 143, 147), whereby 
he incurred the renewed displeasure of the 
king, who appointed the Dukes of Richmond 
and Grafton to vacant appointments formerly 
held by their half-brother (REKESBY, p. 225 ; 
LTTTTEELL, i. 150). Monmouth continued to 
maintain his attitude of resistance, thereby 
causing great uneasiness to his father, who 
for a time even feared that the murder of 
Monmouth'sintimate friend, Thomas Thynne, 
wouldbe popularly construed as a design upon 
the duke's own life (REBESBY, pp. 225, 228). 
On the other hand, the university of Cam- 
bridge obeyed the royal injunction to deprive 
Monmouth of the chancellorship (April 1682), 
and burnt his portrait in the schools. His 
tenure of office had been chiefly signalised 
Tby his letter to the university, in reproof of 
the secular apparel which the clergy and 
scholars were beginning to wear (PLTTMPTKE, 
Life of Ken,) i. 48 note). Monmouth himself 
seems in May to have been willing to submit; 
but he contrived to insult Halifax as having 
thwarted him in council, and was conse- 
quently severely reprimanded, and excluded 
from association with the king's servants 
(REEESBY, pp. 250-1 ; cf. LTJTTEELL, i. 189, 
and Hist. MSS. Comm.tth Rep. App. p. 352). 
Yet in August it was once more rumoured 
that the king intended to take him back into 
favour (LtTTTEELL, i. 215). 

But Monmouth was not his own master. 
According to Lord Grey (Secret History, p. 
15 seqq.) an insurrection had been mooted 
between Shaftesbury and Monmouth early 
in 1681, when the* king was again ill at 
"Windsor; in 1682, immediately after the 
election of tory sheriffs in July, Shaftesbury 
strongly urged the necessity of a rising, and 
it was with this view that a number of meet- 
ing* were held in the autumn (at one of which 
Monmouth and Russell agreed inrejeetingthe 



detestable* and 'popish' proposal to mas- 
sacre the guards in cold blood ; Life of Lord 
Russell, ii. 117), and that in September Mon- 
mouth went on a second progress in the west. 
On his return the insurrection was to be 
finally arranged, Sir John Trenchard [q. v.] 
having been engaged by him to raise at least 
fifteen hundred men in and about Taunton 
(GEBY, p. 18). Monmouth was met by 
multitudes at Daventry and Coventry (ib. 
i. 219), and he passed by way of Trent- 
ham, to Nantwich and Chester, where enthu- 
siasm reached its height, and he presented 
the plate won by him at Wallasey races to 
the mayor's daughter, his god-child, * Hene- 
retta'(.H&. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App. p. 
533). The progress ended by his arrest by 
the king's order in the county town of Staf- 
fordshire, of which he was lord-lieutenant. 
He arrived in London in the company of the 
serjeant-at-arms (23 Sept.), and, though he 
bore himself high under examination by the 
secretary of state, he was after some delay 
(Hist MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App. p. 359), 
bailed out by his political friends (LUTTRBU,, 
i. 222 ; see ' The Duke of Monmouth's Oaae/ 
in Somers Tracts, viii. 403-5). 

Shaftesbury bitterly inveighed apaint 
Monmouth's irresolution, and urged him on 
his release to return to Cheshire and begin 
the rebellion. He declined, but took part 
in the * cabals' of Russell, Essex, and Sidney, 
who were hatching the plot for the murder 
of the king and the Duke of York. Accord- 
ing to the most probable version of thae 
obscure transactions, Monmouth knew of the 
design to take the king's life on hin return 
from Newmarket in October. But he pro- 
tested against it (cf. Life of Lord llmM, 
ii. 51), and fell in with Ferguson's device 
of preventing it by keeping up preparations 
for a general insurrection, and by diverting 
money from the murder scheme* Monmoutli 
appeared in the city on the night of the 
king's return, having at the same time pre- 
pared everything for escape should it prove 
necessary (Ferguson the Plotter, p. 77 eqq.) 
After the breakdown of the first feye House 
scheme Shaftesbury, who was in hiding, con- 
tinued to press for a rising, while Monmouth 
continued to maintain a consenting but dila* 
tory attitude. At the end of October or be* 
ginning of November were held the two 
fatal meetings at Shephard's house in Ab~ 
church Lane, at both of which Ferguson and 
Eumsey were present, as well as Monmouth 
and his friends [see RtrssBLt, WiLtuar, 
LORD RUSSELL]. At the earlier of these meet- 
ings the night'of Sunday, 19 Nov., was tod 
for the rising in London, and Monmouth's 
house was appointed as one of the meeting* 



Scott 



33 



Scott 



places of the insurgents (for farther details 
see GREY, p. 28 seqq, j Ferguson the Plotter, 
pp. 86 seqq.) At the second meeting at Shep- 
Imrd's it was announced that the preparations 
were incomplete, and the rising was again 
postponed. Hereupon Shaftesbury fled the 
country. His flight (28 N ov.), succeeded hy 
his death (21 Jan. 1 683), deprived the whigs 
of the only chief who could command the 
support of London: it also snapped the link 
between the 'council of six' (Monmouth, 
Essex, Howard, Russell, Hampden, and Sid- 
ney) and the assassination plotters. The two 
factions still carried on their designs sepa- 
rately, and Monmouth in February 1683 paid 
a visit. to Chichester, where he was preached 
at in the cathedral on the subject of rebellion, 
But about this time Ferguson returned to Lon- 
don. The ' council ' or ' cabal/ to which Grey, 
according to his own account (p. 43), was now 
admit ted, resolved upon the simultaneous out- 
break of three risings in England (London, 
Cheshire, and the south-west) and a fourth 
in Scotland. Monmouth and Russell insisted 
upon the issue of a declaration in conformity 
with their views rather than with the re- 
publican sympathies of Sidney and Essex, 
and it was agreed that on the outbreak of the 
insurrection in London Monmouth should at 
once start for Taunton to assume the com- 
mand there. Lord Grey adds (pj>. 61-2) that 
Monmouth privately assured him of his be- 
lief that the insurrection would lead to little 
bloodshed, and speedily end in an accommo- 
dation between king and parliament, and of 
his detestation of a proposal to murder the 
Duke of York. Monmouth knew of the as- 
sassination plot, and kept up relations with 
the plotters, but it cannot be known how 
far his conduct was the result, of impotence 
or of a formed design to frustrate the scheme 
of assassination. 

The king's unexpectedly early departure 
from Newmarket ruined the plot before it was 
ripe (March), and 1 June its ' discovery ' began. 
A proclamation appeared 28 or 29 June offer- 
ing a reward of 500Z. for the apprehension of 
Monmouth, Grey, Armstrong, and Ferguson 
(LutTBBLL, i. 263). A true bill for high 
treason wasfound against Monmouth 12 July 
(ib. D. 267), and a proclamation against the 
fugitives was issued in Scotland (ib. p.. 270). 
Monmouth's actual proceedings are obscure. 
Report (ib. p. 279) asserted him to be .at 
Cleyes, where Grey was officiously nego- 
tiating for his entry into the service of the 
elector of Brandenburg (GREY, pp. 69-70); 
his biographer, Roberts, who cites no autho- 
rity, states that he retired to Lady "Went- 
worth's seat at Toddington in Bedfordshire, 
and was then reported to have escaped, to 

YOL, LI, 



the continent from near Portsmouth (L 148). 
He is said to have chivalrously offered to 
give himself up if he could thereby benefit 
Russell, who in the same spirit refused the 
offer (Life o/JRu^ell, ii. 25). Burnet (ii. 411) 
says that he was on the point of going beyond 
sea and engaging in the Spanish service 
when, 13 Oct., Halifax discovered his retreat, 
brought him a kindly message from the king, 
and with some difficulty persuaded him to 
write in return, craving the king's and th^ 
Duke of York's pardon, but protesting that 
all he had done had been to save his father. 
On 25 Oct. Charles II met Monmouth at 
Major Long's house in the city, and left him 
not unhopeful of mercy ; at another interview 
on 4 Nov. he instructed Monmouth what to 
say to the Duke of York. Another letter, 
drafted like the former by Halifax, and 
couched in a tone of great humility towards 
the duke as well as the king, was accordingly 
signed by Monmouth on 15 Nov., and in a 
final interview at Secretary Jenkins's office 
on 24 Nov. Monmouth, in the presence of the 
Duke of York, revealed to the king all he 
knew concerning the conspiracy, naming those 
engaged in it, but denying all knowledge of 
the assassination project. He was then pro- 
mised his pardon : * The king acted his part 
well, and I too ; the Duke of York seemed not 
ill-pleased ' (ROBERTS, i. 152-62 ; COLLINS, iiu 
376-8; WBLWOOD, Memoirs of Transactions 
before 1688, 1700 ; Life of James J/, i. 742- 
743 ; cf. Ifat. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App. 
p. 368; REEESBY, pp. 286-7; LUTTBBLL, 
i. 292). On the next day Monmouth was 
brought before the council and discharged 
from custody; his first visit was to the Duke 
of York, who took him to the king and queen 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. Rep. p. 101). The former 
sent him a present of 6,OOQ/. (LTTTTRELL, i. 
293). ' 

The king, however, ignored his promise to 
Monmouth (or what BURSTBT, ii. 411, .states 
to have been such), announced his confes- 
sion at the council, and even ordered the fact 
of it to be published in the * Gazette.* To his 
great chagrin, Monmouth, whose pardon had 
now passed the great seal, was thus exposed 
to the imputation of having confirmed the 
evidence given at the trials of Russell and 
Sidney. The Duke of York still continu- 
ing urgent, the king, at Ormonde's advice, 
called upon Monmouth to write a letter 
acknowledging his * confession of the plot ' 
(BTIBNET, i. 413) ; he complied, but was so 
perturbed by what he had done, that on the 
following day he prevailed upon the king to 
return him his letter. At the same time the 
king banished him from the court ([SPRA.T'B] 
True Account, &c., 1685; cf. Hist. MSS. 



Scott 



54 



Scott 



Comm. 7th Eep. App. p. 368 ; cf. REKBSBY, 

p. 288). 

After lodging for a time in Holborn and 
then at his country seat, Moor Park, near 
Hiekmansworth, Monmouth, though subpoe- 
naed on Hampden's trial, crossed from Green- 
wich to Zealand, where he arrived about 
January 1684 (LTTTTBELX, i. 294-5, 298). 
It is at least open to question whether he 
was not acting under advice from court ; he 
refused to go to Hungary into the^emperor's 
service, because it ' would draw him too far 
off 7 (Life of James II, i. 744). In March, 
April, and May he was reported to be living 
in great splendour in Flanders and at Brus- 
sels, provided with a command, an income, 
the title of royal highness, and his plate 
from England (LITTTEELL, i. 303, 30C ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 7th Kep. App. p. 499). In Oc- 
tober he was living luxuriously as the guest 
of the Prince of Orange at Leyden and The 
Hague, and treated by him with marked re- 
spect (LTTTTEEIL, i. 318; cf. MACAULAY and 
Life of James II, i. 744-5). Shortly before 
the death of Charles II, Monmouth paid a 
secret visit to England, apparently about 
.the end of November 1684 (cf. Hist M88. 
Comm. 7th Rep, App. pp. 378-9) j and it was 
believed that had the king lived a little 
longer he would have taken Monmouth back 
into favour. But Charles II died on 6 Feb. 
1 685, without recommending Monmouth with 
the rest of his natural children to his brother 
(EvELYff, ii. 444). Monmouth received the 
news with genuine grief, 

He was immediately banished from the 
Spanish Netherlands, whither he had with- 
drawn (LTTTTRELL, i. 333\ having been dis- 
missed by the Prince of Orange, so as to 
avoid a summons to give him up. According 
to Macaulay's authorities he pledged his 
word to the Prince and Princess of Orange 
to attempt nothing- against the government 
of England, and was advised by the former 
to serve the emperor against the Turks. 
Burnet asserts (iii. 14-15) that he was pre- 
vented by those around him from adopting 
so inoffensive a course. He was accompanied 
to Brussels by Lady Wentworth, who now 
lived with him as his wife. 

Monmouth had not engaged himself with 
the English and Scottish exiles before the 
death of Charles II. After the accession of 
James II he consented to see Sir Patrick 
Hume at Rotterdam, and discussed a con- 
certed plan of action between the other exiles 
and Argyll, Monmouth was soon ready to 
co-operate, and to conciliate republican feel- 
ing by promising not to claim the crown ex- 
cept by the common consent of those con- 
cerned, Ferguson wa&once more busy, and 



an interview between Argyll and Monmouth 
endedin anagTeementfor simultaneousaction, 
in Scotland and England under their respec- 
tive leadership (Marchmont Paper*, iii. 7-15; 
GBEY, p. 93). Meanwhile Monmouth hud 
been carrying on a correspondence with Eng- 
land (GREY, pp. 94-5). According 1 to Lord 
Grey, Monmouth and he determined to make 
the west, the scene of the English risiupr, and 
to land at Lyme Regis about the beginning 
of May, while other risings were to follow in 
London and Cheshire (i?>. pp. 99, 104-5), 
Though at the request of the English govern- 
ment the States-General consented to banish. 
Argyll, Monmouth, and Ferguson, the pre- 
parations were carried on with the conni- 
vance of the Amsterdam authorities. Tho 
money for Monmouth's expedition was pro- 
vided by pawning the jewels of the duk and 
his mistress, and by subscript ions from private 
friends, of whom Locke was one ; none eumo 
from England or from public sources. On 
2 May Argyll sailed, leaving behind Fergu- 
son and Fletcher of Sultoun to share Man- 
mouth's fortunes. Thus the Scottish en- 
terprise forced the hand of the Kngliftlu 
Monmouth embarked at Santfort unmolested 
on 24 May* and six days later joined hia 
petty armada in the Texei. It consisted of 
a man-of-war, the IMderenhergh, and two 
tenders ; on board were Lord Grey, Fletcher 
of Saltoun, Ferguson, a Brandenburg oi!ie*r 
of the name of Buyse, with a f<>w other 
gentlemen and men, including Monnumth, 
eighty-three in all (MACAiruY; cf. FBUUVHOMT 
ap. ECHARD, iii. 756 7, and in $\*rt;itwn the 
Plotter, pp. 209-12; BraNHT,iii.2tttt.) Bud 
weather kept Monmouth nineteen day at 
sea. As he passed the Dorset shire coast, he 
sent Thomas Dare, who jxwst'ssed great in- 
fluence at Taunton, to announce his coining. 
On 11 June the expedition itself wa otF 
Lyme Regis, and in the evening Monmouth 
went ashore (BoiiKUTH, i, 220 seqq.) Hw 
declaration, composed by Ferguson, whitth 
was read in the market-place, claimed for 
him, as ' the now head and eaj*tam-g**riml 
of the protestant forces of this kingdom,* a 
'legitimate and legal* right to the crown, 
but distinctly promised to leave the deter- 
mination of that right, to a free parliament 
(ROBERTS, i. 235-30 ; cf. KCHAKD, iii, 758- 
700). The declaration reached London on 
18 June, and three days later a bill of attain- 
der against him received the royal OR8t*nt, 
while a price of 5,000/. was placed upon his 
head (RBRESBY, k p. 832). 

Pour days were spent at Lyme, where 
Monmouth sojourned at the Ueorgtj Inn* 
Men came in fast, but though arm were 
landed for five thousand, they proved mostly 



StOtt 3 

unsuitable (EcHAED, iii. 787). A brawl in 
which * old Dare ' was shot down by Fletcher 
obliged Monmouth to dismiss -the latter, his 
best officer (ft. p. 762). His worst was Lord 
Grey, who on Sunday, 14 June, being de- 
tached to Bridport against a body of Dorset- 
shire militia, contrived to spoil what might 
have proved an effective success (ib. p. 763 ; 
cf. Fox, History of James II, 1808, pp. 239- 
240). . On 15 June, having learnt that the 
Devonshire militia under Albemarle and the 
Somersetshire under Somerset were marching 
on Lyme, Monmouth set forth at the head 
of from two to three thousand men, and all 
but crossed Albemarle on his march. He 
did not venture an attack (cf. DALBYMPLE, 
4th edit. i. 134, in censure), but encamped 
between Axminster and Chard. On 18 June 
he entered Taunton (cf. TOTJLMIJT, Histonj 
of Taunton, ed. Savage, p. 429). His recep- 
tion here, including the presentation of colours 
by the ' maids of Taunton ' (ROBERTS, i. 304), 
marks the climax of his undertaking. The 
number of his followers under arms had now 
increased to seven thousand men, and at his 
first council of war it was decided to con- 
tinue the advance. On 20 June he was pro- 
claimed king of England at Taunton market- 
cross, after which he assumed the royal style, 
both in a warrant for the impressing of scyfhes 
and in a letter to his ' cousin ' Albemarle 
(ELLIS, Original Letters, 1st ser. iii. 340 f cf. 
DALBYMPLE, i. 175), was prayed for, and 
touched for the evil. To avoid confusion, his 
followers called him ' King Monmouth/ an 
odd designation which long survived among 
the people (MACAULAY). A price was put 
upon the head of James II as a traitor, and 
the parliament at Westminster was declared 
a traitorous convention. 

On Sunday, 21 June, leaving Taunton open 
to Albemarle, Monmouth moved on to Bridg- 
water, where he met with an enthusiastic 
reception, and was proclaimed king by the 
mayor. Thence he proceeded by Glaston- 
bury, to Shepton Mallet, where (23 June) he 
%st communicated to his officers the project 
of an attack upon Bristol, where the Duke_of 
Beaufort was about to assume the command 
of a garrison of four thousand men. The 
Avon was successfully crossed at Keynsham, 
but bad weather made a retrograde move- 
ment necessary, and after a slight skirmish 
with some king's horse, Monmouth, whether 
or not moved by Beaufort's threat to fire 
Bristol, decided to forego the attack upon 
that city, though it had been the object of 
his movements since leaving Lyme. He 
likewise rejected a scheme of . marching by 
way of Gloucester into Shropshire and Che- 
shire, electing, in the hope of reinforcements, 



Scott 

to make for Bath instead. But Bath re- 
fused to surrender (26 June) ; the promised 
"Wiltshire regiments failed to appear, and 
Monmouth sent his chaplain. Hook, to Lon- 
don to hasten the rising of his. friends (FER- 
GUSON, p. 233). But he was losing heart, 
and appears to have been at times in a state 
of nervous prostration (WADE ap. ROBERTS, 
ii. 16-17). The engagement fought by his 
force at Philip's Norton against the advanced 
gnard of the royal troops under his halt- 
brother, the Duke of Grafton, was on the 
whole successful (27 June) ; but at Frome 
next day he received the news of Argyll's 
defeat, and relapsed into despondency (Fox, 
p. 256). Many of his followers deserted, and a 
suggestion (according to Wade Monmouth's 
own) was momentarily entertained-that the 
duke and his original following should escape 
by sea to Holland (EcHARD, iii. 766). It was 
now reported that a large body of peasantry 
had risen in Monmouth's favour and flocked 
to Bridgwater. Hither accordingly his army 
marched from Frome. Bridgwater was reached 
3 July, but the number of rustics assembled 
there was insignificant. Two days later the 
king's army under Feversham and Churchill, 
consisting of some two thousand regulars 
and fifteen hundred Wiltshire militia, en- 
camped on Sedgemoor, about three miles off. 
3-Trom Bridgwater church tower Monmouth 
recognised the Dumbarton regiment, formerly 
commanded by himself; but the want of 
discipline in the royal army was thought 
encouraging. At 11 P.M. on Sunday, 5 July, 
Monmouth led his army without beat of 
drum by a circuitous route of nearly six 
miles to the North Moor, where about 1 A.M. 
they crossed two of the l rhines * separating 
them from the royal army. A third, which had 
not been mentioned to Monmouth, stopped 
his progress immediately in face of the royal 
troops, and the battle began. About two thou- 
sand of Monmouth's troops, largely Taun' on 
men, took part in it ; the infantry led by him- 
self behaved gallantly, but -his horse under 
Lord Grey was easily dispersed. Whether 
or not .urged by Grey, Monmouth rode off 
the field before the fighting was over, and 
left his soldiery to their fate. Half of them 
were cut to pieces (MACATTLAY'S note in ch. 
v.; Hardwire State Papers, ii. 305-14; 
ECHARD, iii. 768-70, and Ferguson thePlotter. 
pp. 234-8), 

Monmouth, Grey, and Buyse, -with a party 
of about thirty horse, rode hard from the 
field of battle in the direction of the Bristol 
Channel, it is said to within twelve miles of 
Bristol. Rejecting the advice of Dr. Oliver, 
one of the party, to cross into Wales, Mon- 
mouth, Grey, and Buyse then turned south. 



Scott 



Scott 



They slept in Mr, Strode's house at Down- 
side, near Shepton JVIallet, and then went 
on in the direction of the New Forest and 
Lymington. On Cranbourne Chase their 
horses failed, and disguising themselves as 
rustics they pursued their journey on foot, 
Grey soon separating from the others. ^ Next 
day one of the search parties under Richard, 
lord Lumley, afterwards first earl of Scar- 
borough [q. v.l, and Sir "William Portman 
(1641 P-1690) [q. v.] came on Grey, and the 
day after (8 July) on Buyse, and not long 
afterwards, at 7 A.M., on Monmouth, hidden 
in a ditch. From Ringwood, whither he was 
taken with the other prisoners, Monmouth 
was carried under the guard of Colonel Leg^e, 
who had orders to stab him in case of dis- 
turbance, by Farnham and Guildford to 
Vauxhall, whence a barge conveyed him to 
the Tower. Hither his children had preceded 
him, voluntarily followed by their mother. 

Monmouth, whose courage had collapsed 
at the actual time of his capture (!)AL- 
BTMPIE, i. 141, and .), before leaving Ring- 
wood addressed to the king a letter (pub- 
lished at the time, and repr. in Life of 
James II, pp. 32-3; ECHARD, ni. 771, &c.), in 
which, with many servile protestations of re- 
morse, he entreated an interview in order to 
give to the king information of the xitmost 
importance. This possibly reckless assertion 
has been variously interpreted to have re- 
ferred to the Prince of Orange (cf. DAL- 
KTMPLB, u.s.) and to Sunderland (cf. MAO 
PHERSON, Original Papers, i. 146; Life of 
James II, ii. 34-6; Fox, p. 269). Mon- 
mouth also wrote from Rmgwood to the 
queen dowager and to Rochester (ELLIS, 
Original Letters, 1st ser. iii. 343 ; Clarendon 
Correspondent ce, ed. Singer, i. 1 43). James II 
granted the interview demanded, and it took 
place on the afternoon of the day of the pri- 
soner's arrival, at Chiffinch's lodgings (Liven 
of the Norths, ii. 6 n.) Monmoutn seems 
to have striven to exaggerate the humiliation 
of his position. The king's account of the 
interview (Life, ii, 36 seqq,), though devoid 
of generosity, bears the aspect of truth; it 
seems to imply, in accordance with the state- 
ment of Burnet (iii. 53), that already on this 
occasion Monmouth offered to become a catho- 
lic. He was reminded by Dartmouth that 
his having declared .himself king left him no 
hope of pardon, and the act of attainder pre- 
viously passed against him made any trial 
unnecessary. His execution was fixed for 
the next day but one after his committal to 
the Tower. His appeal to the king for a short 
respite, even of a day, was refused (Ems, 
Original Letters, 1st ser. iii. 346 ; Clarendon 
Correspondence, i, 144-5). It was dated 



12 July, and advised the king to send troops 
into Cheshire (see Original Letters of the 
Duke of Monmouth, in the Bodleian Library, 
edited by Sir George Duckett for the Ctimden 
Society, 1879). To the bishops, Turner and 
Ken, who visited him, while seeking to avoid 
discussion of his political conduct, he spoke 
with sorrow of the bloodshed it had occa- 
sioned (BtTRNET, iii. 5t'W3) ; and, probably for 
his children's sake, declared in writing that 
Charles II had often in private denied to 
him the truth of the report as to the mar- 
riage with his mother, as well as that the 
title of king had been forced upon himself* 
On the other hand he refused to avow regret 
for his connection with Lady Wentworth, 
which he maintained to be morally blameless. 
Under these circumstances the bishops felt 
unable to administer the sacrament to him 
(EVELYN, ii. 471). He was more yielding 
towards Tenison, then vicar of St. Martin's, 
who at his request attended him early on the 
day of his death, but he too \vithfi*ld the 
sacrament. On the same morning ( Wed m>s- 
day, 15 July) Monmouth took leave of his 
children and their mother ( HOB RIOT, H. U&- 
134; DALRYMPLB, i. 144; tiidnfy VorrwjMn-> 
$>wev,i.4tt.,26and.; BuRNtiT,L479; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 7th Rtp. App. pp. 204, 2CJ5, 5&K, 
285). On the scalfold he avowed himself a 
member of the church of England, hut de- 
clined specifically to profess the doctrin* of 
non-resistance or to utter a 'public uiul pur* 
ticular' condemnation of his rebellion. He 
attempted once more to vuulinnt hia relation 
with Lady Went worth; aft or some hesitation 
responded by an *Amen* to u xwpeuttu! invi- 
tation to join in a prayer for tm king; r*~ 
fused to make a dying speech, and <lit*d with 
perfect dignity, though the expcutiomr(j>hu 
Ketch) bungled lit ft work, According to a 
trustworthy eye-wit new, h(* tit ruck thes duke 
five blow and ( severed not hw head from 
his body till he cut it off with his knife * 
(Vemey MSS.) His remains were buried 
under the communion-table of St. IVter'a 
Church in the Tower (>fACAU LA T ; ftmntr* 
Tracts, i. 216; cf. TOULMIK, pp. 40,% ftOQ; 
PLtrarTBE, tife of Ken, I 217 *etm.) The 
abstract of his spj-Jtich on the acaifblu pub* 
lished by his partisans seems fiction. 

The duke had by his wife four sons and 
two daughters* One of the latter died m 
the Tower in August 1685. Of the aona. 
James, earl of Dalkeith, and Henry, cratted 
earl of Delorainfc in 1700, survived their 
father. The latter is noticed sapuiratety, 
James, the elder son (1674-1705), nmrmd 
in 1693 Henrietta, dauffhtw of Laurence 
Hyde, first earl of KocWter [q. v,] ; he was 
buriedin Westminster Abbey m March 1706, 



*, 



Scott 



37 . Scott 



leaving a son Francis (d. 1751), who suc- 
ceeded his grandmother (Monmouth's widow) 
as second duke of Buccleuch^ and was grand- 
father of Henry Scott, third duke of Buc- 
cleuch [q. v.] Monmouth's widow became 
on 6 May 1688 the wife of Charles, third 
lord Cornwallis (COLLINS) ; she was much 
"beloved by Queen Caroline when Princess of 
"Wales (see LADY COWPEE, Diary, 1716, p. 
125), and died, aged 81, on 6 Feb, ' 1731-2. 
In the spring of 1686 Lady Wentworth died 
at Toddington Manor, in an old plan of which 
two adjoining rooms are stated to be called 
*the Duke of Monmouth's parlour' and 'my 
lady's parlour' (liXBQ88 t Maffna Britannia, i. 
143). 

Macaulay has collected proofs of the at- 
tachment of the- west-country people to Mon- 
mouth's name, and of the credulity with which 
it waa intermixed (see also ELLIS, Correspon- 
dence (1829), i. 87-8, 177). The popular in- 
at inct rightly recognised the significance of the 
cause which he so imperfectly represented ; 
but he had in him many popular qualities 
and some genuine generosity of spirit. His 
personal beauty and graces, his fondness for 
popular sports, especially racing, which he 
loved as a true son of his father, and his 
bravery in war, were his chief recommenda- 
tions to general goodwill ; his intellect seems 
to have been feeble. But he was brought to 
ruin by , his moral defects, reckless ' ambition 
and wont of principle '"(EVELYN, ii. 471).^ 

The National Portrait Gallery contains 
two portraits of him, one by Sir Peter Lely, 
the other by his pupil, W. Wissing, who drew 
Monmouth several times. His house in Soho 
Square, which suggested the watchword 
1 Soho ' on the night of the march to Sedge- 
moor, was pulled down in 1773, his name 
surviving, not very creditably, in that of the 
neighbouring Monmouth Street (WALPOBDj 
Old and, New London^. 186-7> 

[G. Boberts's- Life, Progresses, and ^Rebellion 
of James, Duke of Monmouth (2 vols,, 1844), is 
a biography of rare industry and completeness, 
though occasionally dencient in vigour of judgr 
met. There is also a life of Monmouth in 
Oullins's Peerage of England {5th >ed.), ni.'365- 
3$7. The Historical Account of the Heroick 
Life and Magnanimous Actions of the Duke of 
IVlonmouth, &c., is & partisan panegyric, pub- 
lished in 1683. The other authorities are cited 
above.] ( .A.W.W. 

SCOTT, JAMBS, D.D. (1733--1814), 
political writer, son of James Scott, incum- 
bent of Trinity Church, Leeds, and vicar of 
'Bardsey, Yorkshire, by Annabella, daughter 
of Henry, fifth son of Tobias Wickhanij .dean 
of York, -was born at Leeds in 1733. He 
was educated at Bradford grammar school, 



St. Catharine Hall and Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1757, 
proceeded M.A, in 1760, B.D. in 1768, and 
D.D. in 1775. He was thrice successful in 
the competition for the Seatonian prize, was 
elected fellow of Trinity College in 1758, 
and was a frequent and admired preacher at 
St. Mary's between 1760 and 1764. He was 
lecturer at St. John's, Leeds, between 1758 
and 1769, and curate of Edmonton between 
1760 and 1761. In 1765, under the inspira- 
tion of Lord Sandwich and the pseudonym 
of * Anti-Sejanus,' he contributed to the 
'Public Advertiser* a series of animated 
diatribes against Lord Bute, which were re- 
printed in 1767 in ' A Collection of Interest- 
ing Letters/ He was also the author of the 
pieces signed * Philanglia ' which appear in 
the same collection, and of others published 
with the signature of 'Old Slyboots ' in 1769, 
and collected in * Fugitive Political Essays/ 
London, 1770, 8vo. In 1771, through Lord 
Sandwich's interest, he was presented to the 
rectory of Simonburn, Northumberland, 
where he spent twenty years and 10,000/. 
in endeavouring to get in his tithes. Worsted 
at law, some of his parishioners at length, 
made a determined attempt on his life, upon 
which he removed to London, where he died 
on 10 Dec, 1814, By his wife Anne, daugh- 
ter of Henry Scott, who survived him, he left 
no issue. 

Besides his political jeux tf esprit and his 
Seatonian poems, ' Heaven/ * Purity of Heart : 
a Moral Epistle/ and * An Hymn to Repent- 
ance' (Cambridge, 1760-3, 4to), Scott was 
author of: 1. 'Odes on Several Subjects/ 
London, 1761, 4to. 2. 'The Redemption: a 
Monody/ Cambridge, 1763-4, 3. * Every 
Man the Architect of his own Fortune, or 
the Art of Rising in the Church/ a satire., 
London, 1763, 4to ; and 4. * Sermons on 
Interesting Subjects-' (posthumously with 
his * Life l)y Samuel Glapham), London, 
1816, avo. 

[Thoresb/s Ducat. Leod. ed. Whitaker, i. 68; 
James's Bradford, pp. 245, 435; Grud. Cast.; 
Gent, Mag. 1814 n. 601, 1816 ii. 527; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 125, 724 ; lllustr. Lit. vii. 450; 
Walpole's Mem. Geo. Ill, ed. Russell Barker, 
ii. 191.] J. M, R. 

SCOTT, SIB JAMES (1790 P-1872), ad- 
miral, son of Thomas Scott of Glenluce iu, 
"Wigtownshire, and of Ham Common ia 
Middlesex, a cadet of the Scotts of Raebwn, 
was born in London on 18 June, probably in- 
1790. He entered the navy in August 1803 
on board the Phaeton, witn Captain, after- 
wards Sir George Cockburn (1772-1853) 
[q. vA and served in her for two years on. 
the East India station, In February 1806 



Scott 



Scott 



he joined the Blanche with Captain Lavie, 
and was present at the capture of the French 
frigate Gaierriere near the Faroe Islands on 
19 July. In September 1806 he was entered 
on board the Captain, again with Cockburn ; 
and in July 1807 in the Achille, with Sir 
Richard King. In April 1808 he rejoined 
Cockburn in the Pompe*e, and in her went 
out to the West Indies, where, in February 

1809, he took part in the reduction of Mar- 
tinique. He came home with Cockhurn in 
the Belle-Isle, and under him commanded a 
gunboat in the reduction of Flushing in July 
and August. On 16 Nov. 1809 he was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant of La Fleche, in the 
North Sea, and was in her when she was 
wrecked off the mouth of the Elbe on 24 May 

1810. In July he was appointed to the Bar- 
fleur on the Lisbon station, and in October 
was moved into the Myrtle, in which he 
seTedat the siege of Cadiz, and afterwards on 

, the west coast of Africa till April 1 812. He 
was then appointed to the Grampus, again 
with Cockburn, whom in August he followed 
to the Marlborough. In November that 
ship went out to the coast of North America, 
where Cockburn, with his flag in the Marl- 
borough, and afterwards in the Sceptre and 
Albion, had command of the operations in 
the Chesapeake. Scott, closely following 
the admiral, was constantly employed in 
landing parties and cutting-out expeditions ; 
and acted as the admiral's aide-de-camp at 
Bladensburg, Washington, and Baltimore. 
In consequence of Cockburn's very strong 
recommendation, Scott was promoted to be 
commander on 19 Oct. 1814. 

In May 1824 he commanded the Meteor 
bomb in the demonstration against Algiers 
[see NEALE^SIR HABRY BXTEEAKT)], and 
in the following November was appointed to 
the Harlequin in the West Indies. He was 
promoted to be captain on 8 Jan. 1828. 
From 1834 to 1886 he commanded the 
President in the West Indies, as flag-captain 
to Cockburn; and from 1837 to 1840 the 
President again, in the Pacific, as flag- 
captain to Kear-admiral Hoss. In 1840-1 
he commanded the Samarang on the China 
station, and had an active and important 
share in the several operations in the Canton 
river, leading up to the capitulation of 
Canton. He was nominated a C.B. on 
29 June 1841. He had no further service, 
"but was promoted in due course to be rear- 
admiral on 26 Dec, 1854, vice-admiral on 
4 June 1861, and admiral on 10 Feb. 1865. 
On 10 Nov. 1862 he was nominated a 
K.C.B. In accordance with the terms of 
the orders in council of 24 March 1866, as 
be had never hoisted his flag, he was put on 



the retired list. Against this and the re- 
trospective action of the order he protested, 
in vain. He died at Cheltenham on 2 March 
1872. He married in 1819 Caroline Anne, 
only child of Richard Donovan of Tibberton 
Court, Gloucestershire, and had issue one son. 
[O'Byrne's Nav. jBiogr. Diet.; Memorandum 
of Services, drawn up in 18-16, and printed, with 
remarks, in 1866, in the intention (afterwards 
postponed indetinite'y) of bringing his case 
before the House of Commons ; Times, 9 March 
1872; information from the family; cf. art. 
NIAS, SIB JOSEPH.] J. K. L* 

SCOTT, JAMES EGBERT HOPE- 
( 181 2-1873), parliamentary banister. [See 
HOPE-SCOTT,] 

SCOTT, SIR JAMES SIBBALD DAVID 

(1814-1886), bart., of Dunninald, Forfar- 
shire, antiquary, born on 14 June 1814, was 
eldest son of Sir David Scott of Egham, 
nephew and successor of Sir James Sfbbald 
of the East India Company's service, who 
was created a baronet in 180(1 The mother 
of Sir Sibbald Scott was Caroline, daughter 
of Benjamin Grindall, a descendant of Eliza- 
beth's archbishop. 

He graduated B.A. in 1835 from Christ 
Church, Oxford, was a captain in the royal 
Sussex militia artillery from 21 April 1846 
to 22 Jan. 1856, succeeded to the baronetcy 
in 1851, was J.P. and D.L. for Sussex anil 
Middlesex. He was a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and an active member of the 
Royal Archaeological Institute. Various 
contributions from him are to be found 
in volumes xxx-xxxiii. and xxxix. of its 
journal. 

His chief -work was * The British Army : 
its Origin^Progress, and Equipment,' a store- 
house of information on military matters, 
copiously illustrated. The first two volumes 
were published in 1868, and a third volume 
in 1880, bringing down the record from the 
restoration to the revolution of 1(188. 
^ In the summer of 1874 he paid a short 
visit to Jamaica, and his diary was published 
in 1876 under tlie title 'To Jamaica and 
Back.' It contains a sketch of the military 
and naval history of the island, and describes 
in some detail the outbreak of 1805. 

He died on 28 June 1885 at Upper Nor- 
wood. His wife, whom he married on 
28 Nov. 1844, is noticed separately [see 
SCOTT, HARRIET ANNE]. By 'her he aad 
three sons and four daughters. 

[Burke's Baronetage ; Times Obituary, 30 June 
1885.] B.M. L. 

SCOTT or SCOT, JOHN (ft. 1530), 
printer in London, may, as Herbert suggests, 
have been an apprentice of Wynkyn de 



Scott 



39 



Scott 



Worde. His first book, ' The Body of Policie,' 
was issued in May 1521, when he was living 
'in St. Pulker's parisshe without Newgate. 
It is clear that about this time, besides 
printing books in his own name, he printed 
some for Wynkyn de Worde. In 1528 he was 
printing in St. Paul's Churchyard, and eight 
books are known bearing this address, though 
only two are dated. In 1537 he had removed 
to ' Fauster ' Lane in St. Leonard's parish, 
where he printed six books, among them 
being the ballad of the battle of Agincourt 
and the still more celebrated ballad of the 
Nutbrowne Maid/ He also^ was for a time 
living * at George Alley gate' in St. Bptolph s 
parish, but the only book known printed at 
at this place is undated. At the present 
time twenty-five books are known to have 
been issued by this printer, all of them being 
of extreme rarity. His disappearance in 
1537 and the appearance of another printer 
of the same name at Edinburgh in 1539 have 
led to their being often mistaken for the 
same man, but the cbaract eristics of their 
work show that the two printers are distinct 
[see SCOTT or SCOT, JOHN, f,. 1550]. 

[Herbert's Typogr. Antiq. i. 317-18J 

E. Gr. D* 

gCOTT or SOOT, JOHN (/. 1550), printer 
in Scotland, has been considered by many 
writers as identical with the John Scott or 
Scot (Jl. 1530). [q.v.] who printed in London. 
Though one or two coincidences lend a,cer- 
tain appearance of probability to this theory, 
there is now little doubt that the two men 
are distinct. The Scottish printer appeared 
in Edinburgh in 1539, wnen he obtained 
a grant of some rooms' in the Cowgate, but 
for some time after we hear nothing of him 
as a printer. In 1547 he was in Dundee, for 
letters were issued in that year to John 
Scrymgeour, constable of Dundee, ordering 
Ijis arrest, though for what -ofi'enee is not 
stated- In 1552 Scot's -first dated book was 
issued, the catechism of Archbishop Hamil- 
ton. This was printed at St. Andrews,doubt- 
less in order that the work might be done 
under the personal superintendence of the 
archbishop, For a few years Scot worked 
on steadily at St. Andrews anil Edinburgh; 
but in 1562, while printing the * Last Blast of 
the Trumpet * by Ninian, Winzet [q.-yj, the 
Roman catholic schoolmaster of Lmlithgow, 
a raid was- made upon his office, by the magi- 
strates of Edinburgh, the book seized, and 
the printer dragged off to prison. His print- 
ing materials seem also to have been im- 
pounded and given two years afterwards to 
Thomas" Bassandyne, another printer. By- 
some means they seem to have found' their 



way again into Scot's hands, for in 1568 he 
printed an edition of the works of Sir David 
Lindsay of the Mount, at the expense of 
Henry Charteris, an Edinburgh merchant. 
This was followed by another edition of the 
same work in 1571, the last dated book 
printed^by Scot. Altogether twelve books 
are known by this printer, but there is ^no 
doubt that he produced many more which 
have disappeared. Their ephemeral nature 
and strong controversial tendency favoured 
their destruction. 

[JEdmond and Diekson's Annals of Scottish 
Printing, pp. 150-97.] & GK D. 

SCOTT or SCOT, SIB JOHN (1585-1670), 
of Scotstarvet, or more properly Scotstarver, 
Scottish lawyer and statesman, was the only 
son of Robert Scot the younger of Knights- 
Spottie in Perthshire, representative in the 
male line of the Scots of Buccleuch. Robert 
Scot succeeded to the office of director of 
chancery on the resignation of his father, 
Robert Scot the elder of Knights-Spottie, 
but, falling into bad health, resigned the 
office in 1582 in favour of his father, its 
former holder. Robert Scot the elder iu 
1592 again resigned the office to a kinsman, 
William Scot of Ardross, on condition that 
his grandson, John Scot, the'subjefct of this 
article, should succeed to it on attaining ma- 

'j.^. I.' 1. 1^. Jl J : 1AA6 'Tli a. Ai-mn+ /%_ 



jonty. 



which he did in 1606. The director- 



ship of chancery, which had been long in the 
Scot family, was an office of importance and 
emolument ; for though the .Scottish chan- 
cery did not become, as in England, a sepa- 
rate court, it framed and issued crowa char- 
ters, brieves, and other crown 'writs. The 
possession, loss, and efforts to regain this 
office played a large part in the career of Sir 
John. He was educated at St. Leonard's 
College, St. Andrews, which he appears to 
have entered in 1600, for he describes him- 
self in the register of 1603 as in his third 
year. After leaving St. Andrews he went 
abroad to study, and on his return was called 
to the bar in 1606. In 1611 he acquired 
Tarvet and other lands in Fife, to which he 
gave the name of "Scotstarvet, and six years 
later he was knighted and made a privy- 
councillor by James VI, in whose honour he 
published a Latin poem, * Hodceporicon in 
fcerenissimi et ihvictissimi Principis Jacobi 
Sexti ex ScotiH su& discessum/ 

In 1619 he had a license to go for a year 
to Flanders and other parts (P. C. Reg. xiL 
787), In 1620 he endowed the professor- 
ship of humanity or Latin in the university 
of St. Andrews, in spite of the opposition 
of the regents of St. Salvator, the first of 
many acts of liberality to learning. He did 



Scott 



Scott 



not practise much, if at all, at the bar, hut 
recommended himself to Charles I by a sug- 
gestion for increasing the revenue by altering 1 
the law of feudal tenure. He became in 1629 
an extraordinary, and in 1632 an ordinary, 
lord of session under the title of Scotstarvet. 
He was one of many Scottish lawyers and 
lairds who accepted the covenant, which he 
subscribed at his parish kirk of Ceres on 
30 April 1638, and in the following- Novem- 
ber he declined to sign the king's confession. 
In 1(MO he served on the committee of the 
estates for the defence of the country. In, 
1641 he was, with consent of the estates, 
reappointed judge by a new commission. 
During the war between England and Scot- 
land he served on the war committee in 1648 
and 1649. During the Commonwealth he 
lost the office both of judge and director of 
chancery. He made many appeals to be re- 
stored to the latter as an administrative, and 
not a judicial, office ; but, although he ob- 
tained an opinion in his favour by the com- 
missioners of the great seal, Cromwell gave 
it in 1652 to Jeffrey the quaker, who held it 
till the Restoration. Scot, through Monck, 
again appealed to Cromwell for the reversion 
of the office if Jeffrey died. Cromwell fined 
him 1,500/. in 1654 for his part in the war. 
But his later correspondence with Crom- 
well did not improve his character with the 
royalists, and on the Restoration he was 
fined 500/., and was not restored to the office 
of judge or that of director of chancery, 
which was conferred on Sir William Ker, 
who,, he'Jndignantly said, * danced him out 
of it, being a dextrous dancer/ Sir James 
Balfourwell describes Scot's public character 
in a few words : ' He was a busy man in 
troubled times.' But in spite of his mis- 
fortunes, Scot did not cease to be busy when 
peace came. He returned to Scotstarvet, 
where he engaged in literary work and 
correspondence. There he diecl in 1670, 
f Scot was thrice married : first, to Anne, 
sister of William Drumniond [q. v.] of Haw- 
thornden. the poet, by whom he had two 
sons and seven daughters; secondly, to 
Margaret, daughter of Sir James Melville of 
Hallhill; and thirdly, to JMargaret Monpenny 
of .Pitmilly, widow of Kigg of Aitherny, 
by each of whom he had one. son. The son 
by his second wife, George Scott (d. 168o), 
is separately noticed. ^ Sir John's male de- 
scendants became extinct in the person of 
Major-general John Scot, M.R for Fife, his 
great-great-grandson, who, at his death on 
24 Jan. 1776, was reputed the richest com- 
moner in Scotland. The general's fortune 
passed chiefly to his eldest daughter, who 
jwurfed Ure Duke of Portland, but the estate 



of Scotstarvet was sold to Wemyss of We- 
myss Hall. Its tower, which ftir John built, 
still stands, and the inscription, with his 
initials and those of his first wife, Anne 
Drummond, as the builders, and its date 
(1627) are carved on a stone over the door. 
Scot consoled himself for his disappoint- 
ment in losing office by composing 'The 
Staggering State of Scottish Statesman be- 
tween 1550 and 1 050.' In it he endeavoured 
to show the mean arts and hapless fate of 
all those who secured offices, but it was not 
published until a hundred years after his 
death (Edinburgh, 1754, 8vo), so can only 
have been a private soluce to himself and 
a few friends for whom manuscript copies 
were made. A more honourable resource 
was the public spirit which led him to de- 
vote the most of his time and a large part 
of his fortune to the advancement of learn- 
ing and the credit of his country in the 
republic of letters. The tower of Scots- 
tarvet became a kind of college, where he 
attracted round him the learned Scotsmen 
of the time, and corresponded with the 
scholars of Holland, Caspar Bariums, Isaac 
Gruterus, and others. In it his brother-in- 
law Drummond composed his i History of 
the Jameses 'and the macaronic comic poem 
JFolemo-Middinia,' which had its occasion 
in a dispute of long standing as to a right of 
way between the tenants of Scotstarvet and 
of Barns, the estate of Sir Alexander Cun- 
ningham, whose sister was DrummoncTs 
( betrothed. His intimacy with John Bleau 
! of Amsterdam led to the inclusion of a 
Scottish volume in the series of ' Delitits 
Poetarum ' then being issued by that enter- 
prising publisher. The Scottish volume, 
edited by Arthur Johnston [q. v.j k , and 
printed at the sole cost of Sir John Scot in. 
two closely printed duodecimo volumes, has 
preserved the last fruits of Scottish latinity. 
A more important work was the publication 
of detailed maps of Scotland in the great 
atlas of Blaeu. Scot interested himself in 
the survey of Scotland begun in 1608 by 
Timothy Pont [q. v.l Pout's drawings, after 
his death about 1614, were purchased by the 
crown. Scot caused them to be revised by 
Sir Kobert Gordon of Straloch and his eon, 
James Gordon, parson of Kothiemay, and then 
went in 1645 to Amsterdam to superintend 
their publication, dictating from memory, 
to the astonishment of the publisher, the 
description of several districts. The work was 
not issued till 1654, when it appeared a* 
* Geographies Blaeuanise volumen qutntum/ 
with dedicatory epistles to Scot both by 
Blaeu and Gordon of Straloeh, Other exam* 
pies of Scot's liberal and judicious public 



* *' 

, 1 



Scott 



Scott 



spirit were the establishment of the St. 
Andrews professorship of Latin and his en- 
dowment of a charity for apprenticing poor 
boys from Glasgow at the estate of Peskie, 
a farm of 104 acres, near St. Andrews. 

[The Staggering State of Scots Statesman ; 
Sir John fecot's Manuscript Letters in Advo- 
cates' Library; Register of Privy Council of 
Scotland, vol. xii. pp. ex, 716-18; Preface to 
Delitise Poetarum Scotorum, and Bleau's Atlas 
of Scotland ; Balfour's Annals ; Baillie's Letters ; 
Brunton and Haig's Senators of College of 
Justice; Memoir of Sir John Scot by Rev. ^C. 
Rogers ; Preface to reprint of The Staggering 
State, Edinburgh, 1872.] JE. 3M. 

SCOTT, JOHN (1639-1695), divine, born 
in 1639, was son of Thomas Scott, a grazier 
of Chippenham, Wiltshire, and served as a 
boy a three years' apprenticeship in London. 
Then altering his course of life, he matricu- 
lated at New Inn Hall, Oxford, 13 Dec. 1658. 
He took no degree at the time, but later 
in life proceeded B.D. and D.D. (9 July 
1685), He became successively minister of 
St. Thomas's, Southwark, perpetual curate of 
Trinity in the Minories (before November 
1678, NEWCOVRT, JRepertorium,i. 920), rector 
of St. Peter-le-Poor, 1 Feb. 1678 (resigned 
before August 1691 ; ib. i. 529), and rector 
of St. Griles-in-the-Fields, being presented to 
the last benefice by the king, 7 Aug. 1691 
(NEWCOUKT, Repertoriwn, i. 613). He was 
buried in the rector's vault in St. Giles's 
Church in 1695. He held a canonry of St. 
Paul's from 1685 till his death, but was never 
canon of Windsor, as stated by Wood. An 
engraved portrait of Scott by Vandergucht 
is prefixed to ' Certain Cases of Conscience/ 
1718, and another, by R. White, to his 'Dis- 
courses/ 1701. 

Besides twelve sermons published sepa- 
rately and preached on public occasions (all 
in the British Museum ; cL WOOD, Athena 
Q.ron. iv.415), Scott wrote: 1. 'The Chris- 
tian Life from its beginning to its Con- 
summation in Glory . . . with directions 
for private devotion and forms of prayer 
fitted to the several states of Christians,' pts. 
i. and ii., London, 1(581, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 1683- 
1686, 8vo j 6th ed. London, 1704, 8vo ; 9th 
ed. 1712, 8vo; 9th ed. [sic] 1729-30, fol. ; 
in French, Amsterdam, 1699, 12mo, 2 parts ; 
in Welsh, London, 1752, 8vo. The work ulti- 
mately extended to five volumes. 2. ' Certain; 
Cases of Conscience concerning the Lawful- 
ness of Joyning with Forms of Prayer hi 
PubJick Worship/ 1683, 4to; 1685, 4to (as 
'A Collection of Cases and other Discourses '), 
2 yols. 1694, foL ; 1718, 2 vols. In reply to 
this appeared *An Answer to Dr. Scot's 
Case against Dissenters concerning Forms of 



Prayer and the Fallacy of the Story of 
Common plainly discovered/ 1700, 4to, 
3. 'The Eighth Note of the Church Ex- 
amined, viz. Sanctity of Doctrine ' (in * The 
Notes of the Church as laid down by Car- 
dinal Bellarmin Examined and Confuted '), 
London, 1688, 4to; 1839, 8vo; and in Gib- 
son's 'Preservative against Popery/ 1738, 
vol. i., 1848, vol. iii. 4. 'The texts examined 
which papists cite out of the Bible for the 
proof of their doctrine and for prayers in an 
unknown tongue/ 1 688, 4to ; and in Gibson's 
'Preservative against Popery,' 1738, fol. ; 
1848, 8vo, vol. vii. 5. 'Practical Discourses 
upon Several Subjects/ 2 vols. London, 
1697-8, 8vo (vol. ii. with a separate title-* 
page and with dedication signed by Hum- 
phrey Zouch). 

Scott wrote a preface for the second edi- 
tion of J. March s sermons, 1699, 8vo, and 
his ' Works/ with the funeral sermon preached 
at his death by Zacheus Isham [q. v.], were 
collected in 1718 (London, fol. 2 vols.; Ox- 
ford, 1826, 8vo, 6 vols.) In. the ' Devout 
Christian's Companion/ 1708, 12mo ; 1722, 
12mo, are ' private devotions by J. S[cott]/ 
and some quotations from his book are given 
in P. Limborch's 'Book of Divinity * and 
other devotional works. 

[Le Neve's Fasti ; Newcotirt's Bepertormm ; 
Wood's Athene Oxon. ; Abr. Hill's Letters, p. 1 35 ; 
Iflham's Funeral Sermon, 160.5 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Hist. MSS. Comm, 3 Uth Kep. v. 140; Notes 
and Quorirts, 8th ser. xii. 344.] W. A. S. 

SCOTT, JOHN (fl. 1654-1696), adven- 
turer, first appeared on Long Island, New 
Netherlands, in 1654, when he was arrested 
by the Dutch authorities for treasonable 
practice with the neighbouring English. He 
represented himself as a disreputable boy 
who had got into trouble by annoying the 
parliamentary soldiers, and who had been 
transported to the plantations. In 1663 he 
was acting in England in conjunction with 
a number of respectable and influential New- 
Englanders, and with them petitioning the 
government to confirm a. purchase of land 
made by them from the Narragansett Indians 
and disputed by the inhabitants of Khode 
Island. Soon after he writes from Hartford, 
New England, denouncing the Dutch as in- 
truders on Long Island. After the conquest 
of New Netherlands, he persuaded some of 
the English settlers on Long Island to form a 

r visional government pending a settlement 
the Duke of York, with Scott himself 
for president, and he made some ineffectual 
attempts to exercise authority over the 
Dutch- settlements on Long Island. In 1064 
he was imprisoned by the government of 
Connecticut, and in tae next year he en- 



Scott 



Scott 



gaged in a dispute with them as to the pro- 
prietary' rights over certain lands on Long 
Island. Soon after Richard Nicolls, governor 
of New York, denounced Scott as * born to 
work mischief/ and as having brought about 
the dismemberment of New York through 
the grant to Berkeley and Carteret of the 
lands on the Delaware. In 1667 he told 
"Williamson, Arlington's secretary, a string 
of lies about New England. According to 
him, the antinomian disturbances in Massa- 
chusetts were caused "by Sir Henry Vane 
and his two mistresses, Mrs. Hutchinson and 
Mrs. Dyer. 

About this time Scott succeeded in im- 
posing on an unhappy widow, Dorothea 
Gotherson, a landholder on Long Island. 
Her maiden name was Scott, and John 
Scott seems to have pez'saaded her that they 
were akin, and to have swindled her out of 
a large sum. He then returned to London, 
In 1677 he made common cause with Titus 
Gates, and charged Pepys and his colleague, 
Sir Anthony Deane, with betraying the 
secrets of the admiralty to the French, a 
charge which was no doubt intended to strike 
at Pepys's superior, the Duke of York. Pepys 
and Deane were committed fortrial. Fortu- 
nately an inquiry into Scott's character dis- 
closed so many iniquities >not only the frauds 
connected with land already mentioned, but 
also kidnapping and theft of jewels that 
the prosecution was abandoned. , Among 
Scott's other crimes, he is said to have 
swindled the Dutch government out of 7,000/., 
and to have been hanged in effigy at the 
Hague, an honour which he also enjoyed at 
the Tiands of his regiment, whose cashbox he 
carried oC He likewise offered the French 
court information which should enable them 
to destroy our fleet. ,In this case, however, 
it is said that he played the part of a double 
traitor, since the information was worthless. 
In 1681 he killed a hackney coachman and 
fled the kingdom, but Was seen again in 
a seaman's disguise and reported to Pepys in 
1696. After this we hear .no more of him. 

[State Papers (Col. Ser.), ed. Sainsbury; 
Brodbead's History of New York ; Scott's 
Dorothea Scott j Pepys'e ]>iary.} J. A. D. 

SCOTT, JOHK (1730-1783), quaker poet, 
youngest son of Samuel Scott, a quaker 
linendraper, by his wife, .Martha Wilkins, 
was born in the Grange "Walk, Bermondsey, 
on 9 Jan; 1730. At seven he commenced 
Latin under John Clarke, a Scottish school- 
master of Bermondsey ; but his father^ re- 
moval to Amwell, Hertfordshire, in 1740 
interrupted his education*, He developed a 
taste for poetry, 'and wrote verses in the 



'Gentleman's Magazine ' between 17f>3 and 
1758. After 1760 he paid occasional visits 
to London, and made the acquaintance of 
John Hoole [q, v.l, who introduced him to 
Dr. Johnson. In November 1770 he took a 
house at Amwell, frequented Mrs. Montagu's 
parties, and made many literary friends. 
Among them was Dr. Beat tie, in whose de- 
fence Scott afterwards wrote letters to the 
1 Gentleman's Magazine' (March 1778). Dr. 
Johnson, who visited Scott at Amwell, wrote 
that he ' loved ' Scott, Scott published in 
1776 his descriptive poem, 'Aru well' (2nd 
edit. 1776, 4to; reprinted Dublin, 1776). 
His * Poetical Works ' (London, 1782, 8vo; 
reprinted 1786 and 1795) were attacked by 
the ' Critical Review ' (July 1782, p. 47), 
and Scott ill-advisedbp defended himself in 
' A Letter to the Critical Reviewers,' Lon- 
don, 1782^ 8vo. He next collected his ' Cri- 
tical Essays ; ' but before they were pub- 
lished he died at his house at Katcliff, 
12 Dec. 1783,, and was buried at the Friends' 
burial-ground there. In 1767 he married 
Sarah Frogley, the daughter of a self-edu- 
cated bricklayer, to whom he owed his first 
introduction to the poets. She died a year 
later with her infant, and Scott wrote an 
'JElegie '(London, 1769, 4to; 2nd edit. 1769), 
By his second wife, Mary, daughter of Abra- 
ham de Home, Scott left one daughter, Maria 
de Home Scott, aged six at his death. 

Johnson consented to write a sketch of 
Scott's life to accompany the ; Essays ; ' but, 
his death intervening, it was undertaken by 
Hoole, and published in 1785. A portrait 
by Townsend, engraved by J. Hall, which is 
prefixed; is said to be inexact,. 

Scott's verses were appreciated by his con- 
temporaries. Besides the works mentioned 
he wrote: 1. 'Four Elegies, descriptive and 
moral/ 4to, 1760. 2. ' Observations on the 
State of the Parochial and Vagrant Poor,' 
1773, 8vo. 3. * Remarks on the Patriot ' [by 
Dr. Johnson], 1775, 8vo. ,4, 'Digests of the 
General Highway and Turnpike Laws/ e., 
London, 1778, 8vo. 5. 'Four Morai Ec- 
logues/ London, 1778, 4to ; reprinted in the 
1 Cabinet of Poetry/ 1808. His collected 
poetical works and life, the latter based 
upon Hoole's, are included in the sertes of 
'British Poets' by Anderson, Chalmers, 
Campbell, Davenport Park, and Sanford. 

SAMTJBL SCOTT (1719-1788), elder brother 
of -the above, born in Gracechurch Streefo 
London, on 21 May 1719, settled at Hert- 
ford and became a quaker minister. Of sober 
temperament, inclined to melancholy, he 
was deeply read in the writings of William 
Law [q; v.y Francis Okely [q. v.J and other 
mystics, He published a 'Memoir of the 



Scott 



43 



Scott 



Last Illness' of his brother (n.d.), and died 
on 20 Nov. 1788. His ' Diary,' edited by 
Kichard Phillips, was published, London, 
1809, 12mo (2nd edit. 1811; reprinted in 
Philadelphia, and in vol. ix. of Evans's 
Friends' Library,' Philadelphia, 1845). One 
of his sermons is in ' Sermons or Declara- 
tions/ York, 1824. 

[Memoir by Hoole in Critical Essays, 1785 ; 
Mem. of the last illness, &c., by his brother, 
Samuel Scott; European Mng. September 1782, 
pp. 193-7; Gent. Mag. December 1783, p. 
1066 ; Boswell's Johnson, ed. Hill, ii. 338, 3ol ; 
Monthly Review, July 1787, p. 25; Chalmers's 
Biogr. Diet. ; Cussans's Hist, of Hertfordshire, 
vol.ii. 'Hundred of Hertford, 5 p. 119 ; Clutter- 
buck's Hist, of Hertfordshire, ii. 20, 76 ; Nichols's 
Lit. Illustr. vol. v., * Letters of Joseph Cockfield,' 
passim ; Pratt's Cabirietof Poetry, vol. vi.pp. 11- 
100; Forbes's Life of Beattie, ii. 107-12,122-6; 
Friends' Biogr. Cat. pp. 587-96.] C. F. S. 

SCOTT, JOHN, EAEL OF OLOISTMBLL 
(1739-1798), chief justice of the king's bench 
in Ireland, born on 8 June 1739, was the 
son of Thomas Scott of Urlings, co. Kil- 
kenny , afterwards of Modeshill and Mohubber, 
co. Tipperary, and Rachel, eldest daughter 
of Mark Prim of Johnswell, co. Kilkenny. 
Another account makes Thomas of Mohubber 
his elder brother, and gives as his father 
Michael Scott, and his mother a daughter of 
Michael Purcell, titular baron of Lough- 
more (cf. BTTRKE, Peerage \ FITZPATBICK, 
Ireland before the Union, p. 206). Both ac- 
counts, however, agree that his grandfather, 
the founder of the family, was a captain in 
King William's army and was killed during 
the wars in Ireland. After receiving an 
elementary education, probably at Clonmel 
school, where he contracted a friendship 
with Hugh Carleton, afterwards Viscount 
Carleton and chief justice of the common 
pleas, Scott was enabled through the gene- 
rosity of Carleton's father, known from his 
opulence as * King of Cork/ to enter Trinity 
College, Dublin, on 26 April 1756, and sub- 
sequently to pursue his studies at the Middle 
Temple. He never forgot the kindness thus 
shown to him, and afterwards, when Carle- 
ton's bankruptcy threatened to impair his 
son's prospects, he repaid his obligations in 
as generous a fashion as his position allowed. 
Still it was noticeable that even at this 
time his unblushing effrontery, coupled with 
his somewhat bronzed visage, gained for 
him the sobriquet, which stuck to him 
through life, of 'Copper-faced Jack.' He 
was called to the L*ish bar in 1765, and his 
diligence and aptitude for business soon pro- 
cured him a considerable practice. In 1767 
he married the widow of Philip Hoe, a 



daughter of Thomas Mathewof Thomastown, 
who, in addition to her personal attractions, 
possessed an annual income of 300J. 

At this time the dominant star in the 
Irish political firmament was that of Dr. 
Charles Lucas [q. v.], and among Lucas's pro- 
fessed followers there was none more devoted 
than Scott. He is said to have taken a very 
active part on the popular side at one of the 
early college elections, and in 1769 he was 
himself elected M.P. for the borough of 
Mullingar. His ability and determination 
to rise attracted the attention of the lord 
chancellor, Lord Litford 3 and, at his sugges- 
tion, Lord Townshend threw out to him the 
bait of office. The bait was swallowed with 
the cynical remark, ' My lord, you have 
spoiled a good patriot.' In the following 
year he obtained his silk gown, and in 1772 
was appointed to the lucrative post of coun- 
sel to the revenue board. So far as govern- 
ment was concerned the bargain was not a 
bad one. Night after night, with a courage 
and versatility which none could gainsay, he 
withstood the attacks on administration of 
Flood and the 'patriots' at a time when 
those attacks were most violent and perti- 
nacious. His services did not pass unre- 
warded. In December 1774 he succeeded 
Godfrey Lill as solicitor-general, and on. 
the death of Philip Tisdall [q. v.] he became 
attorney-genera 1 ! on 1 Nov. 1777, and a privy 
councillor. Shortly after his promotion, it is 
said that, encountering Flood in front of the 
House of Commons at the beginning of the 
session, he addressed him, ' Well, Flood, I 
suppose you will be abusing me this session, 
as usual? ' f When I began to abuse you,' 
replied Flood, ' you were a briefless barrister; 
by abuse I made you counsel to the revenue ; 
by abuse I got you a silk gown ; by abuse I 
made you solicitor-general ; by abuse I made 
you attorney-general, by abuse I may make 
you chief-justice. No, Scott, I'll praise you.' 
Scott, however, had his revenge during the 
debate on the perpetual mutiny bill in No- 
vember 1781, and the inimitable way in 
which he related his parable of ' Harry 
Plantagenet ' (Parl Register, i. 123), while 
it convulsed the house with laughter, must 
have wounded Flood deeply, ' The character/ 
wrote William Eden, describing the scene 
to Lord Loughborough, 'painted in great 
detail and mixed with many humorous but 
coarse and awkward allusions, was that of a 
malevolent outcast from ' all social inter- 
course of life, driven to madness by spleen 
and vanity, forlorn in reputation, and sunk 
in abilities ' {Auckland Corresp, i, 322). 

Still, it would be unfair to suppose that 
Scott's acceptance of office blinded him, any 



Scott 



44 



Scott 



more, than it did Flood, to the higher claims 
of country. At any rate, he was shrewd enough 
to recognise that without some extension of 
trade privileges the country was doomed to 
bankruptcy and discontent (cf. Beretford Cor- 
resp* i. 39, 64). His attitude was naturally 
misinterpreted by the public, and during the 
trade riots in November 1779 he narrowly 
escaped being murdered. As it was, every 
pane of glass in his house in Harcourt Street 
was smashed by the mob. He obtained com- 
pensation from parliament ;, though some re- 
marks of Yelverton, tending to exonerate the 
mob, so inflamed him that the house, was 
obliged to interfere to prevent a duel. But 
his personal feelings did not influence his 
political opinions, and to his- colleague in 
"London he wrote : ' Send us two men, or one 
man of ability and spirit ; send him with the 
promise of extension of commerce in his 
mouth as he enters the harbour,, uncon- 
nected with this contemptible tail of English 
opposition, meaning well to the king, to his 
-servants, and to the country, and he will 
rule us with ease j but if you procrastinate 
and send us a timid and popular trkkster, 
this kingdom will cost you more than 
America ; it will cost you your existence and 
ours ' (&. i. 81). The appointment of Lord 
Buckinghamshire was little to his taste,, and 
he inveighed strongly against the way in 
which he and his secretary, Sir Richard 
Heron, ' bungled * the business of government. 
His sentiments in regard to the claims of 
the Roman catholics were liberal, and oa 
17 July 1781 he remonstrated at length on 
the practice of appointing none but English- 
men to the chancellorship (Addit, 'MS. 
34417, f. 394). He refused to be badgered | 
into any premature expression of opinion as ! 
to the right of England to bind Ireland by 
acts of parliament, but astounded the house ' 
on 4 May 1782" by announcing ( in the most 
unqualified, unlimited, and explicit manner 
. . * as a, lawyer, a faithful servant to the 
crown, a well-wisher to both countries, and 
an honest Irishman, 1 that Great Britain pos- 
sessed no such right, and that if the parlia* 
menfc of that kingdom *vas determined to be 
the lords of Ireland, ' he for his part was 
determined not -to be their villain in con- 
tributing to it ' (ParL Regitf,e f r, i. 351). 

The declaration came .perhaps a littjte too 
late to save his reputation for sincerity, but 
it was early enough to- enrage the govern- 
ment against him j " and, without receiving 
one wotd of explanation, he. was at once 
dismissed from office by the Diffee, of Port- 
land,^ The, blow was- 'wholly unexpected, 
and, in the general opinion, wholly unjustifi- 
able. Overcome with mortification and pro- 

** i h ** j 



strated by rheumatic fever and other family 
misfortunes, he deserved the pity accorded 
to him. In a letter to Fitzpatrick, written 
with a good deal of dignity, he remon- 
strated against the injustice done him (Auck- 
land MS. 34419, f. 96). But fortunately 
the administration of the Duke of Portland 
was short-lived, and on 31 Dec. 1783 he was 
created, though not without a word of warn- 
ing on the part of Fox (GRATTAK, L'fe ~of 
Grattarii Hi. .112), prime serjeant by Lord 
Korthington. He made a fast friend 01 North- 
ington's successor, the Duke of Rutland, 
who recommended him for the post of chief 
j ustice of the king's bench whenever it should 
become vacant (Rutland MSS. iii. 77, 80), 
which it presently did by the death of John 
Gore, lord Annaly [q. v.] lie was promoted 
on 10 May 1784, and at the same time raised 
to the peerage by the title of Baron Earlsfort 
of Lisson Earl. Only one thing was wanting, 
Jleresford jocosely remarked, to complete his 
happiness ' the satisfaction of sitting ia 
judgment on his grace of Portland 7 (JBeres- 
ford Corresp. i.2o(5). And in thanking Eden 
for his assistance, Scott pouted out the vials 
of his wrath on the duke and his 'Dutch 
system,' promising to ' see whether it may not 
he possible to stop the torrent of favouritism 
and brutal oppression which has covered 
this country with dirt since we have been 
overflowed by the politics of republicans and 
Low Country folks '(Auckland AT&& 34419, 
f. 207). He was specially consulted in No- 
vember 1784 by the lord* lieutenant on the 
subject of a parliamentary reform, and his 
Opinion, which is merely recorded to have 
contained 'sentiments very freely stated/ 
was ^transmitted to Pitt, and seems to have 
carried great weight with government (Jtut- 
land MSS. iii. 148). On the tjuestion of the 
amended commercial propositions of 1785 he 
was strongly opposed to any attempt to force 
them through parliament, and predicted 
their rejection (#. iii. 231). And hearing 
him speak on the subject of holdings of 
leases of low value in August that year, 
AVoodfall, the reporter, declared that though 
it might be txu that he had been lucky, yet 
lie had * abilities enough to countenance good 
fortune' (AucJdand Corresp. i. 83). His 
severe illness in the spring of the ensu- 
ing year caused Rutland much anxiety, 
partly on his account, but chiefly because it 
threatened to deprive him of. Fitzgibbon's 
services in the lower house (Rutland M>S8, 
Hi. 300, 302). Fortunately he recovered, and 
it was largely due to his * very able conduct* 
that the magistracy bill of 1787 was carried 
through parliament 5 but in the following 
year he found it necessary for lus health to 



Scott 



45 



Scott 



go to Tunbridge Wells. His annual income 
at thia time appears to have amounted to 
15,000/., and on 18 Aug. 1789 he was created 
Viscount Clonmell. 

Early, however, in this year he committed 
the one great blunder of his official career. 
John Magee [q.vj, the spirited proprietor and 
editor of the, ' Dublin Evening Post/ had 
been sued for libel by Francis Higgins (1746- 
1802) [q. v.], called the ' Sham Squire,' a 
friend oi Scott's in his convivial hours. The 
chief justice, influenced by personal and 
political motives, caused a capias ad respon- 
dendum marked 4,000 to issue against 
Magee, It was a tyrannical act, but in the 
state of the law perfectly legal, and would, as 
Scott intended it should, have utterly ruined 
Magee had not the matter been brought 
before parliament by George Ponsonby [q. v.] 
in March 1790. A motion censuring such 
practices was adroitly got rid of by govern- 
ment, and a similar motion in the following 
year met a like fate. But in consequence of 
the severe comments made on his conduct in 
parliament and bv the press (cf. Scott to 
Auckland, Auckland MS. 34429, f. 451), an 
act was passed, directed specially against 
him, regulating the law of fiats. The discus- 
sion greatly damaged his judicial character, 
and Magee, during his temporary release in 
September 1789, revenged himself by hiring 
a plot of land which he appropriately called 
Fiat Hill, adjoining Temple Hill, the resi- 
dence of the lord justice, and inviting the 
rabble of Dublin to partake of some amuse- 
ments, terminating with a ' grand Olympic 
pig-hunt.' Much damage was done to Scott's 
grounds. The ' detested administration,' as 
Scott with reason called it, of Lord West- 
morland came to an end on 5 May 1791, 
and his successor, sympathising with his suf- 
ferings, advanced him to the dignity of Earl 
of Clonmell on 20 Dec. 1793. If subser- 
viency ever merited reward, Scott certainly 
deserved his. But his arrogant manner on 
the bench was sometimes resented by the 
bar, and, in consequence of his gross rudeness 
to a barrister of the name of Hackett, it was 
resolved ' that until the chief justice publicly 
apologised no barrister would hold a brief, 
appear in the king's bench, or sign any 
pleadings in court.' He was compelled to 
submit, and published a very ample apology 
in the newspapers, which, with much tact, 
he antedated as though it had been written 
voluntarily and without the censure of the 
,I?ar. Nevertheless Scott was not deficient 
in ability, and could, when he liked, behave 
with great dignity on the bench, His sum- 
ming up in Archibald Hamilton Eowan's 
case was as admirable as his behaviour to 



the publisher of the trial, Byrne, was the re- 
verse. Although his tendency was to make 
bis position subservient to government and 
bits own advancement, he ' never indulged in 
attacks on his country/ and never sought 
'to raise himself by depressing her.' II is 
reluctance to support the arbitrary measures 
that marked the course of Earl Camden's 
administration caused him to lose favour at 
the castle, and as time went on his opinion 
was less consulted and considered. * I think/ 
lie wrote, in his diary on 13 Feb. 1798, ' my 
best game is to 'play the invalid and be 
silent; the government hate me, and are 
driving things to extremities; the country 
is disaffected and savage, the parliament 
corrupt and despised.' 

He died on the very day the rebellion 
broke out, 23 May 1798. He left no sur- 
viving issue by his first wife, Catherine Anne 
Maria Mathew, the sister of Francis, first 
earl of Llandaff, who died in 1771 ; but by 
his second wife, Margaret, daughter and 
heiress of Patrick Lawless of Dublin, whom 
he married on 23 June 1779, he had a son 
Thomas (1783-1858), who succeeded him, 
and a daughter Charlotte, who married, in 
1814, John Keginald, earl of Beauchamp. 
Scott has been treated with scant justice by 
his biographers. His diary (published by 
Fitzpatrickinhis 'Ireland before the Union'), 
which ought to have been destroyed with 
his other papers, and was surely not intended 
for public or indiscriminate inspection, has 
been treated too seriously, and used mainly to 
emphasise his weaknesses and indiscretions. 
It is true that he was unscrupulous, pas- 
sionate, and greedy, that his language \vaa 
vulgar and his manner overbearing; but his 
chief offence in theeyes of whig aristocrats like 
Charlemont and the Ponsonbys was that 
he was a novus homo or upstart. His letters, 
on the other hand, reveal him as a man of con- 
siderable education and independent views, 
which he supported with no little ability. 

[Burke's Peerage ; Gent. Mag. 1798, i. S3&, ii. 
622, 651 ; Fitzpat rick's Ireland before the Union ; 
Grattan's Life of Henry G-rattan, ii. 141-7, iiu 
112,iv. 349; Wills's Irish Nation, in. 669-79; Offi- 
cial Returns of Members of Parliament ; Flood's 
Memoirs of Henry Flood, p. 135; Auckland 
Gorresp, ; Beresford Corresp. ; M'ltouepiU's 
Sketches of Political Characters, p. 13; Phillips's 
Curran and his Contemporaries, pp. 35-9 ; 
Barrington's Personal Recollections, i. 171, 222; 
O'Began's Memoirs of the Life of Curran y pp. 
57-9; Hardy's Life of Charlemont, i. 268-71 ; 
Seward's Collectanea Politica ; Parl. Register, 
i. 243, 344, 351, ii, 14, 16, 207, 208 ; SheiPs 
Sketches, Legal and Political; Rutland MSS. iii. 
passim; Charlemont MSS. ii. 178; Hist. MBS* 



Scott 

* 

Comm. 9th Rep. (Stopford Sackville's MTSS.), p. 
60 ; Pelham Papers in Addit. MS. 33101, f. 87; 
Auckland Papers in Addit. MS. 34417, ff. 394, 
408; ib. 34418 ff. 211, 284. 34419 ff. 96, 117, 
207, 395, 34420 f. 257, 3442 f. 219, 34429 f. 
451, 34461 f. 106.] R D. 

SCOTT, afterwards SCOTT-WARING, JOHN 
(1747-1819), agentof Warren Hastings, born 
at Shrewsbury in 1747, was the grandson of 
John Scott, whose third wife was Dorothy, 
daughter of Adam Waring of the Hayes, 
Shropshire. His father was Jonathan Scott 
of Shrewsbury (d. August 1778), who mar- 
ried Mary, second daughter of Humphrey 
Sandford of the Isle of Kossall, Shropshire. 
The second son, Richard, ror-> to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, and served with distinc- 
tion under Sir Eyre Ooote against Hyder Ali 
Khan and under the Marquis of Cornwallis 
in the war against Sippoo Saltaun. The third 
son, Jonathan Scott the orientalist, is noticed 
separately. The fourth son, Henry, became 
commissioner of police at Bombay. 

John, the eldest son, entered the service 
of the East India Company about 1766, and 
became a major in the Bengal division of its 
forces. He had been in India for twelve 
years before he knew War,ren Hastings, ' ex- 
cept by dining at his table in company with 
other officers ' of the same standing, but their 
intimacy after that time became close, and 
he was one of the intermediaries who, in No- 
vember 1779, patched up a temporary re- 
conciliation between Hastings and Francis 
(PA-REES and MBEIVALB, Sir P. Francis, ii. 
175-6). In May 1780 he was appointed to 
command a battalion of sepoys stationed in 
Chanar, 

_ 'Scott was sent by Hastings to England as 
his political agent, and he arrived in London 
on 17 Dee. 1781. This selection has been 
described as 'the great mistake of the life ' 
of Hastings (#. ii. 236-7), and the choice 
was without doubt disastrous, Scott was 
indefatigable in his labours for his chief, -but 
he lacked judgment. The printing-press 
groaned with his .lucubrations. Macauky 
asserts that ' his services were rewarded with 
oriental munificence; ' but though Scott was 
profuse in his expenditure for his patron, he 
r \%^ U l ld ^Participate in the prodigality. 
'When he left India Mr. Hastings was his 
debtor, and continued BO for many years' 
(Life of Charles Heade, 1 8). In 1782 Scott 
published, m the interests of Hastings, Ms 
'Short Review of Transactions in Bengal 
during ttw i last Ten Years/ and, two years 
later, his 'Conduct of his Majesty's late Mini- 
sters considered, 1 1784. In a note to p. 6 of 
this pamphlet he dealt with the payments 
winch he had made to the newspapers for 



46 



Scott 



the insertion of letters in defenceof Hastings. 
Innumerable letters, paragraphs, puffs, and 
squibs were attributed to him, and a curious 
bill for such to the amount of several hun- 
dred pounds was published in 1787 by the 
editor of the ' Morning Herald ' (Lit. Memoirs 
of Living Aut7iors, 1798, ii. 242). 

From 1784 to 1790 Scon sat in parliament 
as member for the Cornish borough of West 
Looe, and in 1790 he was returned for 
Stockbridge in Hampshire. A petition was 
presented against him, and on 22 Feb. 1793 
a prosecution for bribery seemed imminent, 
but the matter fell through. Hastings wrote 
to his wife on 13 Aug. 1784, * I am not 
pleased with Scott's going into parliament, 
and less with his annexing to it the plan of 
securing his seat for myself.' While in the 
House of Commons he * was always on his 
legs, he was very tedious, and he hai only one 
topic the merits and wrongs of Hastings.' 

The charges against Warren Hastings 
might have been allowed to drop, but Scott 
made the mistake of reminding- Burke on the 
first day of the session of 1786 of the notice 
which he had given before the preceding 
recess of bringing them before parliament. 
Scott desired Burke to name the first day that 
was practicable. The challenge was accepted, 
and Burke opened the subject on 17 Feb. 

During the course of 'the impeachment 
(1788-1795) a host of ineffectual letters, 
speeches, and pamphlets emanated from Scott 
His demeanour at the trial is depicted by 
Miss Burney (Diary, ed. 1842, iv. 74-5). 
He might be seen 'skipping backwards and 
forwards like a grasshopper.' ' What pity,' 
she exclaimed, ' that Mr. Hastings should have 
trusted his cause to so frivolous an agent ! ' 
< It was' the general belief/ she adds, that 
'to his officious and injudicious aieal the pre- 
sent prosecution is wholly owing.' 

In 1798,by the death of his cousin, Richard 
Hill Waring, Scott came into the Waring 
estates in Cheshire, which he sold in 1800 to 
Peel and Yates [see PEEL, SIB EGBERT, 1 750- 
1830] for 80,OOOZ. He consequently assumed 
the name and arms of Waring. A year or 
two later he bought Peterborough J&mse at 
Parson's Green, Fulham, and gathered around 
him a varied company of royal princes, poli- 
ticians, wits, and actresses (M. KELLY, Remi- 
niscences, ii. 263). He died at Half Moon 
Street, Piccadilly, London, on 5 May 1819. 
Scott was thrice married. His first wife, 
who brought him a fortune of 20,000, was 
Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Blackrie 
of Bromley in Kent, sometime surgeon- 
general on the Indian establishment. She 

^5? b v m oa 19 ^ pril 1745 > and died ^ 60ct; - 
1/96, being buried in Bromley churchyard, 



Scott 



47 



Scott 



under a marble monument, with a long and 
peculiar epitaph (WlLSOK, Hist, of Bromley, 
pp. 40-2). She was the mother of two sons 
T Edward, a distinguished civil servant in 
Bengal ; and Charles, who died youngand 
of two daughters, the elder of whom, Anna 
Maria, married John Reade of Ipsden House, 
Oxfordshire, was mother of Charles Reade 
the novelist, and died 9 Aug. 1863, a^ed 90 ; 
the younger, Eliza Sophia, married the Rev. 
George Stanley Faber [q. v.] Waring's second 
wife was Maria, daughter and heiress of 
Jacob Hughes of Cashel. A portrait of War- 
ing's second wife and two of her children was 
painted by J. Russell, R. A., and engraved by 

0. Turner, being published on 2 Jan. 1804. 
Waring's third wife was Mrs. Esten, a 
widowed actress notorious for her irre- 
gularities; on this union there was cir- 
culated an epigram concluding with the 
words : 

Though well known for ages past, 
She's not the -worse for Waring. 

His portrait, by John James Masquerier [q.v.], 
was engraved by C. Turner, and published on 
27 Feb. 1802. It is inscribed to Warren 
Hastings. 

Besides the pieces already mentioned, 
Scott wrote: 1. ' Observations on Sheridan's 
pamphlet, contrasting the two bills for the 
better government of India/ 1788 ; 3rd ed. 
1789. 2. ' Observations on Belsham's " Me- 
moirs of the reign of George III,"' 1796. 
3. 'Seven Letters to the People of Great 
Britain by a Whig/ 1789. In this he dis- 
cussed the questions arising out of the king's 
illness. On the subject of Christian missions 
in India he published : 4. { Observations on 
the present State of the East India Com- 
pany ' [anon.], 1807 (four editions) ; and 5. 'A 
Vindication of the Hindoos from the ex- 
pressions of Dr. Claudius Buchanan, in two 
parts, by a Bengal Officer,' 1808. A me- 
moir of Hastings by Scott is inserted in 
Seward's * Biographiana/ ii. 610-28. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 6th ed. p. 1425; 
Gent. Mag ; 1819, i. 492; Busteed's Calcutta, 
j>. 315 ; Trial of Hastings, ed. Bond, i. p. xxxv, 
ii. pp, xxxvi-xxxvii ; Cornwallis's Corresp. 

1. 364 ; Ormerod's Cheshire, ii. 12-13 ; Gleig's 
Hastings, ii. 354 et seq ; Macanlny^s Essay on 
Hastings; Life of Charles Keade, i. 1-10; 
Faulkner's Fulham, p. 301 ; Walpole's Letters, 
viii, 557; Overton's English Church, 1800-33, 
pp. 268-71.] W. P. C. 

SCOTT, JOHN (1783-1821), editor of the 
. 'London Magazine/ born at Aberdeen in 
1783, and educated at the Marischal Col- 
lege, Aberdeen, was probably the John Scott, 
* filius Alexandri Mereatoris/ who matricu- 



lated from that institution in 1797. His 
father is elsewhere described as an uphol- 
sterer. Byron was his schoolfellow, and on 
meeting at Venice in 1819 they compared 
notes cm their schooldays. At a very early 
date in life he went to London and was 
employed in the war office ; but the love 
of politics and literature soon led him into 
journalism. 

Scott at first started a weeldy paper called 
' The Censor.' He then became the editor of 
the ( Statesman/ an evening paper, and not 
long afterwards was engaged by John Dra- 
kard [q. v.] as editor of the ' Stamford News/ 
Under his editorial care there appeared, on 
10 Jan. 1813, the first number of ' Drakard's 
Newspaper/ a folio sheet of political and 
general news. With the new year its name 
was changed to ' The Champion/ and under 
the altered title the first number came out 
on Sunday, 2 Jan. 1814, it still remaining 
iinder Scott's editorship. A letter written, 
to him by Charles Lamb in 1814 on some 
articles for its columns is reproduced in Dr. 
G. B. Hill's < 4 Talks on Autographs ' (pp. 24- 
25). According to Horace Smith, this paper 
was sold in, 1816 to J. Clayton Jennings, an 
ex-official at Demerara, who had a quarrel 
with Downing Street, and it belonged after- 
wards to John Thelwall. Between 1814 and 
1819 Scott passed much time on the con- 
tinent and published in 1816 'A Visit to 
Paris in 1814/ London (4th edit. 1816), and 
in 1816 'Paris revisited in 1815 by way of 
Brussels, including a walk over the Field 
of Battle at Waterloo' (3rd edit. 1816), 
On Scott and these volumes Bishop Heber 
wrote in 1816: 'Who is Scott? What is 
his breeding and history? He is so de- 
cidedly the ablest of the weekly journalists, 
and has so much excelled his illustrious 
namesake as a French tourist, that I feel 
considerable curiosity about him* (X//, i. 
432). Thackeray described these books as 
' famous good reading ' ( The Newcomer ch. 
xxii.) Wordsworth wrote of the second 
of them, * Every one of your words tells.' 

Scott made "further collections for books 
of travel on the commission of the publishing 
firm of Longman, but returned to London to 
edit the newly established * London Maga- 
zine/ the first number of which appeared in 
January 1820. An account of the magazine 
and of 'its contributors is given in Talfourd's 
* Final Memorials of Charles Lamb ' (ii. 1-9). 
Talfourd styles the editor ' a critic of remark- 
able candour, eloquence, and discrimination/ 
who acted with the authority which the posi- 
tion demanded. Many illustrious writers con- 
tributed to its columns, the most famous of 
the articles during Scott's lifetime being the 



Scott 



Scott 



early 'Essays of Elia.' A long letter from 
Scott to the publishers of the magazine on 
Hazlitt's contributions is printed in Mr. W. C. 
Hazlitt's 'Four Generations of a Literary 
Family ' (i. 135-8). 

In Slay 1820 the editor, in an article on 
'Newspapers and the Magazines, 1 sharply 
attacked the criticisms of ' r L? that had ap- 
peared in ' Blackwood's Magazine/ and he 
followed up the attack by more elaborate 
articles in later numbers (i.e. in November 
1820, pp, 509-21, ' Blaekwood's Magazine ; ' 
December 1820, pp. 660-85, ' The Mohock 
Magazine;' January 1821, pp. 76-7, 'The 
Mohocks 7 ).. Lockhart, the chief object of 
Scott's assault, was urovoked into communi- 
cating with Scott with the intention of ex- 
tracting from him an apology or a hostile 
meeting. Some fruitless negotiations fol- 
lowed, and the matter went off for the time 
wit hLockliart's statement that he considered 
Scott 'a liar and a scoundrel.' But em- 
bittered statements continued to emanate 
from both parties and their friends, and a com- 
munication from Jonathan Henry Christie, 
an eminent conveyancer and an intimate 
friend of Lockhart, led to a duel between 
Christie and Scott. They met by moonlight 
at nine o'clock at Chalk Farm, near London, 
on 16 Peb. 1821, James Traill acting as \ 
Christie's second, and Peter George Patmore j 
[q. v.] assisting Scott. Christie did not fire j 
on the first occasion ; but the second time 
he fired in self-defence, and the ball struck 
Scott 'just above the hip on the right side, 
and, passing through the intestines, lodged 
in the left side.' It seemed for some time 
that the wounded man would live ; but he 
died, on 27 Feb. 1821, in his rooms in York 
Street, Co vent Garden, and was buried in 
the vaults of the church of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fielda, London. At the inquest a ver- 
dict of wilful murder was brought in by the 
jury. Christie and Trail! were tried at the 
Old Bailey on 13 April 1821, and were found 
not guilty, Patmore did not appear at the 
trial. Christie survived till 15 April 1876, 
aged 84. 

Byron wrote : ' Scott died like a brave 
man, and he lived an able one. A man of 
very considerable talents and of great ac- 
quirements, he had made his way as a 
literary character with high success and in 
a few years.' The testimony of Horace 
Smith ran: *He was invariably pleasing. 
In manner, appearance, deportment, mind, 
he was a perfect gentleman. He abounded 
in solid information, which he communicated 
with an easy, lucid, and unpremeditated 
eloquence/ 

Scott married Caroline, daughter of the 



printseller, Paul Colnaghi [q. v.] She was a 
beauty and a woman of superior talents* 
Their eldest boy, Paul Scott, died at Paris 
on 8 Nov. 1816, aged eight years and a half, 
as his parents were travelling to Italy. He 
was buried at Pere-Lachaise, where a pillar 
with an inscription was erected to his me- 
mory, and Scott wrote a pathetic poem on his 
loss, entitled * The House of Mourning,' which 
was published in 1817. Two infant children 
survived at the time of his death, and the 
family was left penniless, A subscription 
was raised for their benefit, and Sir James 
Mackintosh, Chantrey, Horace Smith, and 
John Murray were on the committee (Lon- 
don May* April 1821 , p. 859), Murray wrote 
to Byron, asking if he would give 1 0/. The 
response was a contribution of 30 as from 
' N. N/ 

Besides the works mentioned, Scott was 
author of: 1. ' Picturesque Views of Paris and 
its Environs. Drawings by Frederick .Nash. 
Letterpress by John Scott and M. P. B. de la 
Brossiere,' 1820-23; English and French; 
and 2, ' Sketches of Manners, Scenerv in 

v 

the French Provinces, Switzerland, and Italy/ 
1821 (posthumous). 

[Gent. Mag. 1821, i. 271-2, 569-70; New 
Monthly Mag. 1847, Ixxxi. 415-18, by Ilorace 
Smith; Byron's Second Letter on Bowles, Works, 
vi. 394-f5; JPatmore's My Friends and Ac- 
quaintance, ii. 283-7; Knight'** Life of Words- 
worth, ii. 26 1-72, Hi. 23 1; Sharp's Joseph {Severn, 
pp. 74, 88, 98 ; Sir W. Scott's Letter*, il 109-16; 
Lamb's Letters, ed. Ainger, i. 279, ii. 200; 
Moore's Byron, ii. 207, iii. 81, v, 143 ; Smilea'g 
J. Murray, i, 389, 420 ; Wainewright's Works, 
ed. Hazlitt; Black rood's Mag, xix. preface, 
pp. xvi-xviii ; Lang's Life of Lockhart, i. 250- 
282; Drakard's Stamford, p. 431; informatioa 
from Mr. J. M. BuUoch.j W. P. C. 

SCOTT, JOHN (1774-1837), engraver, 
was born on 12 March 1774 at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, where his father, John Scott, 
worked in a brewery. At the age of twelve 
he was apprenticed to a tallow-chandler, but 
devoted all his spare time to the study of 
drawing and engraving, and at the expira- 
tion of his articles came to London, wnere 
his fellow-townsman, Robert Pollard [q. v.], 
guve him two years* instruction, at the same 
time paying him for his work. On leaving 
Pollard he obtained employment from, 
AVheble, the proprietor of the * SportingMaga- 
zine, J and for many t years the portraits of 
racehorses published in that periodical were 
executed by him. The next work upon 
which Scott was engaged was W. B. Darnel's 
well-known 'British Kural Sports,' 1801, 
many of the plates in which were both de- 
signed and engraved by him. lie became 



Scott 



49 



Scott 



the ablest of English animal engravers, and 
hia ' Sportsman's Cabinet, a correct delinea- 
tion of the Canine Race, 1 1804; 'History 
and Delineation of the Horse/ 1809; and 
' Sportsman's Repository, comprising a series 
ok' engravings representing the horse and 
the dog in all their varieties, from paintings 
by Marshall, Reinagle, Gilpin, Stubbs, and 
Cooper/ 1820, earned for him great celebrity. 
A pair of large plates, 'Breaking Cover/ 
after Reinagle, and 'Death of the Fox/ after 
Oilpin, issued in 1811, are regarded as his 
masterpieces. Scott also did much work for 
publications of a different kind, such as Tres- 
ham and Ottley's 'British Gallery/ Ottley's 
' Stafford Gallery/ Britton's Fine Arts of 
the English School/ Hakewill's 'Tour in 
Italy/ and Coxe's 'Social Day.' He laboured 
unceasingly at his profession until 1821, 
when a stroke of paralysis practically ter- 
minated his career; during the last years of 
his life he was assisted by the Artists' 
Benevolent Fund, of which he had been one 
of the originators. Scott died at his resi- 
dence in Chelsea on 24 Dec. 1827, leaving a 
widow, several daughters, and one son, John 
R. Scott, who also became an engraver, and 
executed a few plates for the 'Sporting 
Magazine.' 

A portrait of Scott, drawn by J. Jackson, 
R.A., in 1823, was engraved by W. T. Fry 
and published in 1826. A crayon portrait 
by his son is in the print-room of the British 
Museum. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; G-ent. Mag. 
1828, i. 376 ; Sporting Mag. Ivii. 290 ; manu- 
script notes in print-room of British IMuseum.] 

F. M. O'D. 

SCOTT, JOHN (1777-1834), divine. 
[See under SCOTT, THOMAS, 1747-1821.] 

SCOTT, JOHN, first EARL OF ELDOCT 
(1751-1838), lord chancellor, third son of 
William Scott of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by 
his second wife, was born in Love Lane, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, on 4 June 1751 . Heraldic 
conjecture has sought to connect his family 
with the noble house of Scott of Balwearie, 
Fifeshire [see SCOTT, SIB WILLIAM, d. 1532] ; 
but, beyond the name, there is nothing but 
vague tradition to indicate a Scottish origin. 
The pedigree cannot be authentically traced 
further back than William Scott's father, 
also William Scott, who is described as yeo- 
man of Sandgate, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

The future chancellor's father, William 
Scott, -born about 1696, was apprenticed on 
1 Sept. 1716 to Thomas Brummel, 'hoast- 
man r i.e. coal-factor, or, in the local dialect, 
1 coal-fitter' of Newcastle-upon-Tyne; re- 
ceived the freedom of the town on 25 Aug. 

YOL. LI. 



1724, and was admitted to the full privilege 
of the ancient guild of hpastmen on 7 Sept. 
following. He prospered in business, became 
the owner of several 'keels' i.e. barges 
and a public-house, and died on 6 Nov. 
1776, having been twice married. His first 
wife, Isabella Noble (m. 11 May 1730), died 
in January 1734, leaving issue. By his 
second wife, Jane, daughter of Henry Atkin- 
son of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (m. 18 Aug. 
1740, d. 16 July 1800), he had issue thirteen 
children, of whom six reached mature age. 
Of these three were sons, viz. (1) William 
(afterwards Lord Stowell) fq. v.]; (2) Henry 
(baptised 2 Nov. 1748, d. 8 Dec. 1799); and 
(3) John, the subject of the present article. 
A dominie named Warden taught the 
boys their letters by the Scottish method of 
'muffling' the consonants, i.e. placing the 
vowel before instead of after them; and they 
were then grounded in the church catechism 
and the classics by Hugh Moises [q. v.] at the 
Newcastle free grammar school, where they sat 
on the same form with Cuthbert (afterwards 
Lord) Collingwood [q. v.] For Moises, John 
Scott retained so much regard that, as lord 
chancellor, he made him one of his chaplains. 
Though a fair scholar, John was at first in- 
tended for business; but at the suggestion 
of his elder brother, William, he was allowed 
to join the latter at Oxford in 1766. During 
the journey the Latin adage 'Sat cito si sat 
bene, ? which the coach bore painted on its 
panel, made so deep an impression on his 
mind that in after life he was never weary 
of quoting it as an apology for his inordinate 

Procrastination. He matriculated on 15 May 
766 from University College, where on 
11 July in the following year he obtained a 
fellowship, for which his Northumbrian birth 
made him eligible. He graduated B.A. on 
20 Feb. 1770, proceeded M.A. on 13 Feb. 
1773, was appointed high steward of the 
university on 18 Sept. 1801, and received 
the degree of D.O.L. by diploma on 15 Oct. 
following. 

In 1771 Scott gained the English-essay 
prize by a stilted Johnsonian dissertation on 
' The Advantages and Disadvantages of 
Travelling into Foreign Countries ' (see O.r- 
ford English Prize Essays, Oxford, 1836, vol. 
i.) At this time he had thoughts of taking 
holy orders, but abandoned the idea on gain- 
ing the hand of Elizabeth, the beautiful 
daughter of Aubone Surtees, a wealthy 
banker of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The lady's 
heart .had been his for some time, and, her 
parents refusing their consent to the match, 
she eloped with him by an upper story 
window and a ladder on the night of 18 Nov. 
1772. Next day, at Blackshiels, near Edin- 

E 



Scott 



Scott 



burgh, the pair were married, according to the 
rite of the church of England, by John 
Buchanan, a clergyman of the episcopal 
church of Scotland, who had a cure of souls 
at Haddington. They at once recrossed the 
border, and were soon forgiven by their 
parents, who joined in settling 3,000/. upon 
them. The marriage was re-solemnised in St. 
Nicholas's Church, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, on 

19 Jan. 1773. On the 28i;h of the same 
month Scott was admitted a member of the 
Middle Temple, where he was called to the 
bar on 9 Feb. 1776, elected a bencher on 

20 June 1783, and treasurer in 1797. While 
eating his dinners he lived at New Inn Hall, 
Oxford, where as deputy to the Vinerian pro- 
fessor, Sir Robert Chambers, he made 60 a 
year by lecturing on law, while ignorant of 
the rudiments of the science. He removed 
to London in 1775, and, after a brief residence 
in Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, took a 
little house in Carey Street, which he soon 
exchanged for a residence in Powis Place, 
Later on he removed to Bedford Square, and 
finally to Hamilton Place. 

Scott's maxim was that a lawyer should 
live like a hermit and work like a horse. He 
therefore withdrew from general society, and 
devoted his days and nights to professional 
study with such assiduity as for a time 
seriously to impair his health. The eminent 
conveyancer Matthew Duane [a. v.] received 
him as a pupil without fee, and to the perfect 
mastery of the technicalities of real-property 
law which he thus acquired he added a pro- 
found study of common law and equitv. His 
means were improved on his father's death 
by a legacy of 1,000, and in 1781 by another 
1,OOOJ. added to the settlement moneys by his 
father-in-law, through whose interest he ob- 
tained the general retainer of the corpora- 
tion of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, of which on 
18 Oct. 1774 he had received the freedom as 
a hoastman's son. He supported the candi- 
dature of his friend Andrew Robinson Bowes 
[see BOWES, M^BT ELEANOR, COTTKTESS op 
STKATHMOBB] for the representation of the 
borough in February 1777, and represented 
him before the House of Commons on the 
petitions read on 25 April following and 
18 Feb, 1782. The interest of another friend, 
Lloyd (afterwards Lord) Kenyon [q. v.], pro- 
' cured him a brief on tie Clitheroe election 
petition, read on 13 March 178L At West- 
minster he at first attended the court of king's 
bench, but, thinking Lord Mansfield had a 
preference for Christ Church msn, he soon 
crossed over to the other side of the hall. 
Before Thurlow he argued, on 6 Feb. 1779, a 
point of some difficulty on the construction 
of a will (BBowar, p. 31), and on 4 March 



1780 established the reputation of a sound 
equity lawyer by his successful argument in 
Ackroyd v. Smithson (ib. p. 503) on appeal 
from the rolls court. On 31 May 1781 he 
appeared, with Kenyon, before the House 
of Lords in support of the Duke of North- 
umberland's claim to the office of lord great 
chamberlain. 

On 9 May 1782 he appeared before the 
House of Commons for Peter Perring, of the 
Madras council, on the commitment of the 
bill to restrain him and Sir Thomas Rumbold 
[q. v.l from leaving the country. On 4 June 
1783 ne took silk, having first, with charac- 
teristic independence, vindicated his right to 
precedence before Erskine and Arthur Pigot, 
whose patents had been made out before his. 
Thurlow now procured his return to parlia- 
ment (16 June), as an independent king's 
friend, for Lord Wey mouth's borough of 
Weobley, Herefordshire, which he repre- 
sented until the general election of May 
1796, when he was returned for Borough- 
bridge, Yorkshire. His maiden speech, on the 
first reading of Fox's India Bill on 20 Nov, 
1783, was laboured and ineffective, and a 
later effort on the third reading (8 Dec.), in 
which he attempted brilliance and achieved 
pomposity, excited the amazement of the 
house and the cruel mockery of Sheridan. A ' 
beginning could hardly have been less pro- 
mising, but his able, independent speech in 
condemnation of the Westminster scrutiny 
was heard with respect on 9 March 1785; 
and, having thus shown Pitt the value of his 
support, he atoned for his temporary revolt 
by his defense of the commercial treaty with 
iFrance on 21 Feb. 1787. He had long been 
high in favour with Thurlow, from whose 
.brother Thomas, the bishop [q. v.] ? he ob- 
tained in this year (1 March) the post of 
chancellor of the county palatine of Durham. 
During the discussion of the charges against 
Sir Elijahjmpey [q. v.], 7-11 Feb. 1788, Scott 
exerted himself to secure Impey a fair trial 
according to form of law. On 5 March fol- 
lowing he made an ingenious defence of the 
government measure charging the East India 
Company with the cost of the transport of 
troops to the East. On 27 June 1788 he was 
made solicitor-general, and, somewhat it 
would seem against his will, knighted. In 
the following winter he ably defended the 
government scheme for providing for the re- 
gency by means of a bill passed by fictitious 
commission under the great seal a solution 
of an unprecedented constitutional problem 
ridiculed by Burke and the wits of the 
' JRolliad* as legal metaphysics, but which was 
probably the best that could be devised. He 
also drafted the bill introduced in the fol* 



Scott 



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lowing spring, "but abandoned on the re- 
covery of the King [see GEORGKE IV]. ^ 

On the meeting of the new parliament 
Scott incurred some unmerited suspicion of 
corruption by maintaining (23 Dec. 1790) 
the then not unconstitutional doctrine that 
the impeachment of Warren Hastings had 
abated by the recent dissolution. Holding 
Lord Mansfield's view of the respective 
functions of judge and jury in cases of libel, 
be so amended the measure introduced by 
Fox in 1791 as materially to modify its effect 
(31 May). In the debates on the government 
measures for the partial relief of Irish and 
Scottish catholics, passed in 1791 and 1793, 
he took no part. On Thurlow's dismissal, on 
15 June 1792, he tendered Pitt his resigna- 
tion, but eventually withdrew it at Thurlow's 
instance, and on 13 Feb. 1793 succeeded Sir 
Archibald Matfdpnald as attorney-general. 
Being thus identified with the vigorous and 
rigorous policy pursued by the government 
during the next few years, he became for the 
time the best hated man in England. The 
Traitorous Correspondence Act of 1793(which 
virtually suspended mercantile relations with 
France), the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act 
of the following year, the Treasonable Prac- 
tices and Seditious Meetings Acts of 1795, 
and the Newspaper Proprietors' Registration 
Act of 1798 were his handiwork. At the 
same time he made liberal use of the pro- 
cedure by ex-officio information for libel, and 
strained the law of constructive treason to the 
breaking-point. In the actual conduct of the 
prosecutions, even so severe a critic as Lord 
Campbell finds nothingto censure [see FROST, 
JOHN, 1750-1842; HARDY, THOMAS, 1752- 

1832 ; TOOKE, JOHK HORNE ; ERSEENTE, 

THOMTAS, LORD]. 

On 19 July 1799 Scott succeeded Sir 
James Eyre (1734-1799) [q. v,] as lord chief 
justice of the common pleas, having during 
the three preceding days been sworn serjeant- 
at-law and of the privy council and board of 
trade, and created Baron Eldon of Eldon, 
in the county of Durham, where in 1792 he 
had bought a fine estate. On 24 Sept. folio w- 
ing he took his seat, and on 27 m Feb. 1800 he 
made his first reported speech in the House 
of Lords, in support of a bill to continue the 
suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act. He 
also supported (4 A.pril) Lord Auckland's 
"bill prohibiting 1 the marriage of a divorced 
adulteress with her paramour, which passed 
the House of Lords, but was thrown out in 
the commons. In the debates on the union 
with Ireland he was conspicuous by his 
silence. The measure itself he probably dis- 
approved, and to the emancipation of the 
catholic population he was as adverse as the 



king, though he was too sound a lawyer to 
countenance the king's strange delusion as 
to the effect of the coronation oath (KENTOtf, 
Life of Lord Kenyon, p. 320). On Pitt's re- 
tirement he consented, not without demur, to 
succeed Lord Loughborough on the woolsack, 
and, if his notebook may be trusted, ( only in. 
pursuance of a prior pledge to the king, and 
on the understanding that he was to be the 
king's chancellor, not the minister's. He be- 
lieved that Addington had purposely kept 
him in ignorance of the true state of the 
.king's health, and, though he received the 
great seal from the king in council on 
14 April 1801, he regarded his tenure of it 
as conditional upon his recovery, and retained 
the chief-justiceship until 21 May, when he 
was succeeded by Lord Alvanley [ARBEIT, 
RICHARD PEPPER]. On three occasions during- 
this interval, viz. on 18 April, 30 April, and 
21 May, he procured the king's signature to 
a commission for passing bills. On the first 
and last of these occasions the king was 
unquestionably lucid ; whether he was strictly 
competent to transact business on 30 April 
admits of some doubt (COLCHESTER, Diary, 
i. 264-8 ; ROSE, Diaries, i. 344-52). 

In the common pleas Eldon gave proof, 
not only of a thorough mastery of law, but 
of a capacity for prompt decision which con- 
trasts curiously with the habitual dilatorinesa 
which he afterwards displayed in chancery. 
On the other hand he was too apt to confound 
the jury by the extreme subtlety with which 
he summed up. His judgments are reported 
by Bosanquet and Puller. As chancellor he 
made his first appearance in debate in sup- 
port of a bill, also favoured by Thurlow, for 
granting divorce to a wife whose husband 
had committed adultery with her sister 
(20 May 1801). He also supported the 
measure introduced to exclude Home To oke, 
by which clergymen were disqualified for 
sitting in the House of Commons (16 June 
1801) ; the convention with Russia which 
dissolved the armed neutrality (13 Nov. 
1801) ; and, though by no means warmly, the 
peace of Amiens (3 Nov. 1801 and 13 May 
1802). In the spring of 1804 the admini- 
stration was hampered, while its existence, 
then almost at the mercy of Pitt, was pro- 
longed by the lunacy of the king, which 
lasted, with hardly a day's intermission, from 
12 Feb. to 23 April. On 1 March, in answer 
to a question, in the House of Lords, Eldon 
stated that there was ' no suspension of the 
royal functions.' On 4 March and the next 
day be saw the king, and obtained his verbal 
consent to the Duke of York's estate bill. 
On 9 March, and again on 23 March, he 
aifixed the great seal to a commission which 



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to give the royal assent to certain 
bills. On 24 March, of his own motion, 
without consulting Addington, he had a 
tete-&-tete with Pitt. On 18 or 19 April the 
king, by Addington's advice, authorised him 
to open the negotiations which terminated 
in Addington's retirement and Pitt's return 
to power. As what passed between him and 
Pitt on 24 March has not transpired, the 
imputation of disloyalty to Addington cast 
upon him by Brougham, Pellew, and Lord 
Campbell rests on no substantial basis fsse 
ADDiireTON, HESTRY, first VISCOUNT SID- 
MOTTTH] (STANHOPE, Life of Pitt, ed. 1879, 
iii. 196, 211 et seq.) 

To the king his loyalty was above sus- 
picion, and it was requited with confidence 
and affection. To his diplomacy was en- 
trusted, in the summer of 1804, the delicate 
task of composing the feuds which distracted 
the royal iamily. By urbanity, tact, and 
dignity, he prevailed with the prince to see 
his father and converse with him for a short 
while on indifferent topics (12 Nov. 1804), 
and eventually (January 1805) to concede 
to him the exclusive charge of the Princess 
Charlotte. In the House of Lords his ener- 
gies were absorbed in defeating such proposals 
as the abolition of the slave trade and the 
emancipation of the debtor and the catholic 
(8, 24 July 1804,25 March, 10, 13 May 1805). 
On the collapse of the administration which 
followed Pitt's death, he somewhat tardily 
(7 Feb. 1806) surrendered the seals. The 
king parted with him with profound regret. 
< Lay them down on the sofa,* he said, point- 
ing to the seals, * for I cannot and will not 
take them from you. Yet I admit you can- 
not stay when all the rest have run away.' 
His retiring pension, by previous arrange- 
ment, was fixed at 4,OOOJ. 

Except to question the propriety of the 
acceptance by "Lord Ellenborpugh of a seat 
in the cabinet while retaining the chief- 
justiceship for which the only precedent 
was furnished by Lord Mansfield to fight 
again the battle for the creditors 1 and sugar- 
planters 7 supposed vested interests in human 
flesh, and to record his vote for Lord Mel- 
ville's acquittal (3 March, 14, 16 May, 
32 June 1806), Eldon took little part m 
public affairs during the shortlived admini- 
stration of All the Talents. Much of his 
leisure was occupied with the affairs of the 
Princess of Wales (Caroline Amelia Eliza- 
beth), as whose adviser he acted during the 
scrutiny into her conduct ; and solicitude to 
prevent the publication of ' the book ' brought 
him to "Windsor during the contest between 
the king and his advisers on the catholic 
question in March 1807. The coincidence 



raised a suspicion that he was privy to, if 
not the prompter of, the king's unconstitu- 
tional attempt to foreclose that question; 
nor did he in unequivocal terms deny the 
imputation, which is likely enough to be 
well founded. Lord Campbell's statement 
that he was concerned in the composition of 
' the book/ the publication of which he after- 
wards (1808) restrained by injunction, is 
improbable in itself and unsupported by 
authority. 

On the formation of the Portland admini- 
stration in 1807 Eldon resumed the great 
seal, which he retained for rather more than 
twenty years. During great part of this 
period the strength of his convictions, the 
dexterity and decision with which he en- 
countered emergencies, and a veritable 
genius for managing men, gave him para- 
mount influence in the cabinet. Few Eng- 
lish statesmen have been less trammelled by 
the maxims of the comity of nations or con- 
stitutional precedents and forms. Though 
naturally pacific, the subjugation of Napo- 
leon was to him an end which sanctified all 
means. The seizure of the Danish fleet in 
1807 he justified by the plea of necessity, 
while acknowledging that it was without 
colour of right ; the orders in council by 
which the entire seaboard under the domi- 
nion or control of France was declared under 
blockade, to the infinite damage of neutral 
commerce, and also the practice of searching 
neutral ships for British seamen, he de- 
fended on grounds which have since been 
generally repudiated by publicists,- and 
his plea for the detention of Bonaparte in 
1815, that he had neither king nor country, 
but had constituted himself an independent 
belligerent, and was thus at the mercy of his 
captors, was perhaps more subtle than sound. 
Napoleon disposed of, his foreign policy 
was simply non-intervention. An orator he 
never became, but the dignity of his person 
and the melody of his voice triumphed over 
the clumsy and circumlocutory character of 
his style. His power of personal fascination 
was extraordinary. Secure in his ascen- 
dency over the king, he regarded without 
anxiety but not without resentment the 
intrigues of Canning to oust him from office 
during the protracted crisis of September- 
October ISOyj and in the end it was Can- 
ning that retired, while the Duke of Port- 
land was replaced by Eldon's old associate, 
and intimate friend, Spencer Perceval. In 
1811, when the lunacy of the king became 
chronic, Eldon was still on the worst of 
terms with the prince, whom he further 
embittered by adnering to the view of the 
procedure to ponstitute the regency which 



Scott 



53 



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lie had advocated in 1788. The prince's 
friends accordingly sought to exclude him 
from the council which was to be associated 
with the prince during the first year of the 
regency ; and to this end the expedients by 
which a semblance of the royal assent had 
been given to bills while the king was pre- 
sumably unfit to transact business in 1801 
and 1804 were magnified into acts of 
iisurpation, the responsibility for which it 
was sought to fix upon Eldon individually. 
Instead of relying on his true defence the 
extreme gravity of the emergencies in 
which he had acted Eldon took refuge in 
evasive circumlocutions and appeals to his 
conscience. He triumphed, however: the 
motion was negatived by a large majority ; 
nor had the year of restricted regency ex- 
pired before the prince had flouted his 
( early friends,' and the administration had 
received a new lease of life. Eldon mean- 
while had renounced the princess, and de- 
voted himself to his { young master,' who in- 
vited him to his supper parties, gave him 
the endearing nickname of Old Bags, and 
trusted him implicitly in all matters public 
and private. His influence was paramount 
during the crisis which followed the assas- 
sination of Perceval, when with the skill of 
an old parliamentary hand he secured the 
failure of the overtures, which for the sake 
of appearances were made first to Lord 
Wellesley and Canning, and then to Lords 
Grey and G-renville ; and eventually formed 
Lord Liverpool's durable administration 
. (8 June 1812). He advised the prince and 
supported his parental authority during the 
first treaty for the marriage of the Princess 
Charlotte, and arranged her eventual 
marriage with Prince Leopold of Saxe- 
Coburg. 

Eldon concurred in conferring on Scot- 
land in 1815 the somewhat questionable 
boon of trial by jury in civil causes (55 Geo. 
HI, c. 42) ; and in 1819 in the abolition of 
trial by battle, and appeals of treason and 
felony (59 Geo. Ill, c. 46). A few other 
modifications of legal procedure are trace- 
able to his suggestion. But his normal at- 
titude towards innovations of all kinds 
continued to be one of determined hostility. 
He resisted the reforms of Sir Samuel 
Romilly q. v.] as stubbornly as catholic 
emancipation ; and, though he took no part 
in carrying the corn laws, he could conceive 
for the consequent disaffection no remedy but 
repression, and gave in 1817 his unqualified 
approval to Lord Sidmouth's circular in- 
structing magistrates to hold to bail before 
indictment for libel, to the suspension of the 
Habeas Corpus Act, to the revival without 



limit of duration of the expired Treason Act 
of 1796, and to the new and stringent Sedi- 
tious Meetings Act (57 Geo. Ill, cc. 3,6, 18). 
After the Peterloo affair (1819), the Six 
Acts, which placed public meetings at the 
mercy of magistrates, authorised domiciliary 
visits for the seizure of arms, provided a 
more summary procedure in cases of seditious 
libej, and subjected pamphlets to the same 
duty as newspapers, seemed to him the 
only means of preserving the constitution 
(60 Geo. Ill and 1 Geo. IV, cc. 1, 2, 4, 6, 
8,9). 

On the accession of George IV the un- 
popularity of the administration evinced 
by the Cato .Street conspiracy was aggra- 
vated by their treatment of the queen, the 
odium of which attached in an especial de- 
gree to Eldon. But though he supported 
the reference of the report of the Milan com- 
mission to a secret committee (7 June 1820), 
he had had no hand in its initiation [see 
LEACH, SIB JOHN] ; and in refusing the 
queen permission (27 June) to attend the 
subsequent debates on her case, -he merely 
enforced the rule excluding ladies from the 
house ; nor is he fairly censurable for declin- 
ing to present her petition, or deviate from 
the long-established parliamentary procedure 
by granting her discovery of the evidence 
against her. On moving (2 Nov.) the second 
reading of the bill of pains and penalties, 
he summed up the case for and against her 
with the strictest impartiality ; and it was 
as much in her interest as in that of the 
king and the administration that he depre- 
cated the abandonment of the bill after the 
third reading. He was now in as ill odour 
with the populace as in 1794 ; but as the 
coryphaeus of the gallant l thirty-nine who 
saved the thirty-nine ' -i.e. who defeated 
(17 April 1821) Plunket's statesmanlike 
measure of catholic emancipation he was 
enthusiastically toasted by ro^al ckurch and 
state men. 

In anticipation of his coronation George IV, 
by patent dated 7 July 183&, conferred on 
Eldon the titles of Viscount Encombe and 
Earl of Eldon. The patent was sealed on 
9 July, and on the same day the new earl 
took his seat as such in -the fouse of Lords. 
But while he thus reached the summit of 
his honour, his ascendency was already 
passing from him. The king was now 
swayed by Lady Conyngham, who had es- 
poused the catholic cause. The death of the 
queen opened the way for Canning's return 
to place. The administration was in need of 
new blood ; and on his return from Ireland, 
where he had treated Plunket with marked 
distinction, the king consented (January 



Scott 



54 



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1 822) to a coalition with the Grenville party, 
whereby catholic emancipation entered the 
sphere of practical politics. Eldon's chagrin 
at 'this arrangement he had a hatred of 
coalitions was mitigated by the exclusion of 
Canning from office. He was further consoled 
by the defeat of Canning's adroit ^attempt 
to initiate the process of emancipation with 
the catholic peer (21 June 1822). His 
failure to defeat the retrospective clauses of 
the Clandestine Marriage Act of this year 
(3 Geo. IV, c. 75), by which marriages con- 
tracted by minors without consent of their 
-parents or guardians were validated, further 
evinced the decline of his influence; and 
when Canning succeeded Lord Londonderry 
at the foreign office, his consternation was 
extreme. He adhered, however, tenaciously 
to the woolsack, and for the additional mor- 
tification caused by Huskisson's accession to 
the cabinet found some compensation in the 
defeat of the Unitarian Marriage Bill of 
1824 and of the Catholic Relief Bilbof that 
and the following year. When Canning suc- 
ceeded Lord Liverpool, Eldon deserted with 
the rest of the tories ( 12 April 1827), and 
was succeeded in the following month by 
Lord Lyndhurst. 

Mortification at his exclusion from the 
Duke of Wellington's administration in- 
tensified the obstinacy with which in the 
debates on the repeal of the Test and Cor- 
poration Acts (1828), and in the final 
struggle on catholic emancipation (1829), 
Eldon maintained what he knew to be a 
hopeless struggle, Plis resistance to the 
latter measure he carried to the point of 
seriously urging the king to withhold his 
assent in two prolonged private audiences, 
on# on 28 March, and the other in the fol- 
lowing- month. On the accession of Wil- 
liam IV he supported Lord Grey's amend- 
ment to the answer to the royal message 
(30 June 1830) with the view of postponing 
tne dissolution. Unmanned for a time by 
the -death of Lady Eldon (28 June 1831), he 
mastered himself sufficiently to lead the 
irreconcilable section of the opposition in 
the struggle on the parliamentary Beform 
Bill, Alter fiercely contesting the measure 
at every stage, he denounced (21 May 
18S2) the proposed creation of new peers as 
unconstitutional, and only withdrew his 
opposition when its futility was made ap- 
parent. Tithe commutation, the several 
reforms founded on the reports of the real 
property and common law commissioners 
and the Irish Church Temporalities Bill, 
also found hi him. a sturdy opponent (1831- 
1834). His great age and staunchness 
jnade him the idol of his party. Church 



men showed their gratitude by founding 
in 1829 the Eldon law scholarship, for 
which only churchmen and Oxford graduates 
were to be eligible ; and Oxford honoured 
her high steward hardly less than her chan- 
cellor, though the latter was the hero of 
Waterloo, at the commemoration of 1834. 

He survived to take the oaths to Queen 
Victoria (21 June 1837), and died of old age 
at Hamilton Place on 13 Jan. 1838, leaving 
personalty sworn under 700,000^ His re- 
mains were interred by those of his wife in 
the graveyard of Kingston Chapel, near En- 
combe in the Isle of Jrurbeck, where in 1807 
he had purchased a seat. The chapel, which 
he had rebuilt, contains his monument with 
an effigy by Chantrey. 

Eldon had issue two sons viz. (1) John 
( b, 8 March 1774), who died thirty-two years 
before his father, on 24 Dec. 1805, leaving 
issue by his wife (m. 22 Aug. 1804), Hen- 
rietta Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir Mat- 
thew White Ridley, bart., an only son, 
John (b. 10 Dec. 1805 ; d. 13 Sept. 1854), who 
from 1821 bore the title Viscount Encombe, 
and on his grandfather's death succeeded to 
the earldom and estates j (2) William Henry 
(b. 25 Feb. 1795, d. 6 July 1832)- and two 
daughters, viz. (1) Elizabeth (m. 27 Nov. 1817, 
George Manley Repton, youngest son of 
Humphry Repton [q. v.], d. 16 April 1862), 
and (2) Usances Jane (m. 6 April 1820 Rev. 
Edward Bankes, rector of Corfe Castle). 

Of middle height, well knit and active, 
with regular features, keen, sparkling eyes, 
and luxuriant hair, Eldon in the prime of 
life was almost the ideal of manly beauty. 
To please Lady Eldon he wore his hair 
rather long ; and at her instance, on his ap- 
pointment to the lord chief-justiceship, asked 
leave of George III to dispense with his 
wig out of court, but was met with the curt 
response, * No, no ! I will have no innova- 
tions in my time.' The liberty denied to 
the chief justice was, however, conceded to 
or usurped by the chancellor. As he ad- 
vanced in years thought and care added re- 
finement and dignity to his physiognomy 
without impairing the geniality of his smile 
or the urbanity of his manners. His consti- 
tution was as robust as his political prin- 
ciples; yet he wept with facility, even in 
public, sometimes, as on Rornilly's death, 
irom genuine feeling* sometimes, apparently, 
for effect. His political courage was un- 
doubted ; but he had little physical prowess. 
A single fall induced him to forswear riding 
in early manhood ; and though he was never 
happier than when among the birds at En- 
combe, he was so bad a shot that Lord 
Stowell rallied him with killing nothing but 



Scott 



55 



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time. Singularly careless of outward show, 
no chancellor more easily maintained the 
dignity of his office, none more readily threw 
oft the cares of state, not even Sir Christopher 
Hatton led the brawls more gaily than he. 
Intellectual society he shunned, and not un- 
wisely ; for he was ill-read, untravelled, and 
without either knowledge of or taste for the 
fine arts. Though in his own house he 
tolerated no politics Tmt his own, he never 
allowed party spirit to mar the ease and in- 
timacy of his social relations ; and an inex- 
haustible fund of entertaining anecdote made 
him a most engaging companion. In later 
life his capacity for port wine was prodigious, 
and his seasoned brain was rarely in any ap- 
preciable degree affected by his potations. 
He was a most devoted husband, restricting 
liis hospitality, and even discontinuing the 
levies which his predecessors had held, out 
of regard to La4y Eldon's wishes-; and was 
an affectionate father and grandfather if 
somewhat exacting he hardly forgave his- 
daughter, Lady Elizabeth, for marry ing with- 
out his consent, and .was not satisfied until 
Lord Encombe had given him a life interest 
in the Stowell estates. He was also a good 
landlord, and unostentatiously charitable. 
* Not to make the church political, but to 
make the state religious/ he defined as the 
object of church establishments ; he was him- 
self so neglectful of public worship that, 
with almost equal humour and truth, he 
was described as a buttress of the church ; 
and though a trick of sermonising, in season 
and out of season, clave to him throughout 
life, he turned a deaf ear on the verge of the 
grave to the spiritual admonitions of Bishop 
Henry Phillpotts [q. v.] 

Except in the disposal of the higher 
offices, his distribution of patronage was, on 
the whole injudicious, being chiefly deter-, 
mined by the caprice of the royal family or 
any other influence which might be powerful 
enough to overcome his habitual indolence ; 
and he was singularly, chary of giving the 
coveted silk gown to members of the bar. 
Yet he won the affection of all who pleaded 
before him, from , the grave and reverend 
seniors on the front bench to the young stuff- 
gownsman opening his first case, by the 
urbanity with which he treated them. Ex- 
cept by occasional sallies of wit, which, 
though rarely of a high order, served to 
vary the monotony of the proceedings, he 
seldom intervened during argument, but ap- 
peared to be wholly absorbed in attention, 
ids inscrutable features giving no indication 
of the effect produced upon him. At the 
close of the case he usually reserved judg- 
ment, though no one was by nature or train- 



ing better qualified to arrive at a speedy- 
decision. The material facts of the case he 
grasped with a celerity almost intuitive, 
while a memory well stored with precedents, 
and an understanding of metaphysical acu- 
men and subtlety, readily furnished him with 
the principles applicable to it. His indecision 
was due to an extreme scrupulosity, which 
caused him to review the case in all con- 
ceivable aspects long after he had in fact 
exhausted it, a propensity perhaps aggra- 
vated by a sense of his own instinctive pre- 
cipitancy. Hence his decrees, like his opi- 
nions, were overlaid by a multiplicity of fine 
distinctions, among which the ratio ded- 
dendi was not always easy to grasp. They 
were, however, seldom appealed from, hardly 
ever reversed ; nor, save so far as they have 
been rendered obsolete by legislative changes, 
has lapse of time materially impaired their 
authority. His gravest error, perhaps, was 
the extent to which he pushed the principle 
that the court will not protect by injunction 
works of an immoral, seditious, or irreligious 
tendency [see BrBON,GEOBeE GOBDOST, sixth, 
LOBD ; LA.WBEKCE,SIB WILLIAM; SOTTTHEY, 
ROBEBT ; and WOLCOT, JOHN], But, on the 
whole, .the jurisdiction by injunction was 
most judiciously amplified by him; and if 
he overstrained the law against forestalling 
and regratmg, and took a pedantically narrow 
view of the curriculum proper for grammar 
schools, he construed charitable bequests 
with exemplary liberality, and gave refine- 
ment and jprecision to the rules which govern 
the administration of estates in chancery and 
bankruptcy, the equities of mortgagors and 
mortgagees, and the remedy by specific per- 
formance. 

The arrears with which he was incessantly 
reproached, and which occasioned the crea- 
tion in 1813 of the office of vice-chancellor, 
the appointment in 1824 of a deputy-speaker 
of the House of Lords [GrFFOBD, KOBEBT, 
first BABONGOTOBD], and the ridiculous chan- 
cery commission of the same year, over which 
Eldon himself presided, were by no means 
wholly imputable to his dilatoriness. Chan- 
cery procedure had never been distinguished 
by despatch; and in Eldon's time a rapid 
and sustained increase of litigation combined 
with the unusually onerous nature of his 
political duties to render his position one of 
exceptional difficulty. Never were, the j udi* 
cial duties of the House of Lords more effi- 
ciently discharged than while he occupied 
the woolsack, though sometimes, as in the 
'case of the Queenberry leases (1319), they 
involved, the decision of the most intricate 
questions of Scottish real-property law. 
Nor does it fall to every chancellor to sway 



Scott 



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cabinet councils, to investigate a Berkeley- 
or Roxburghe peerage claim, or preside at 
the trial of a queen. Moreover, the relief 
afforded by the creation of the vice-chan- 
cellor's court fell far, short of what was an- 
ticipated. Not a few of the hasty decisions 
of Sir John Leach were overruled by Eldon 
on appeal or rehearing, and some on fresh 
evidence. This practice of admitting fresh 
evidence on .appeal or rehearing, however 
conducive to the interests of justice, was, 
certainly calculated to impair tte authority 
of the court below, and was severely criti- 
cised by James Abercromby (afterwards 
Lord Dunfermlrne) fa. v.] in the House of 
Commons on 24 Feb. 1824. Misled by an 
- inaccurate report of his speech,- Eldon pub- 
licly denounced the charge as an * utter 
falsehood,' for which breach of privilege he 
narrowly escaped the censure of parliament, 
and tendered an apology. With all his 
hesitancy, no judge knew better liow to 
make up for lost time ; and, when so minded, 
he would fairly weary out lis counsel by his 
energy and assiduity. That, after all, 'the 
quantity of business of which he disposed 
during his tenure of the great seal was not 
disproportionate to its duration is attested 
by the space occupied by his decisions, even 
when allowance is made for their 'prolixity,, 
in the l Reports ' of Vesey, jun., and his con- 
temporaries and successors, Kose, Beanies, 
Cooper, Merivale, Bnck, Swanston, Jacob 
and Walker, Jacob, Wilson, Turner and 
"Russell, Glyn and Jameson, Do wand Bligh. 
Eldon was F.R.S., F.S.A,, a governor of 
the Charterhouse, and a trustee of the Bri- 
tish Museum, He was painted by Thomas 
(afterwards Sir Thomas) Lawrence while he 
was attorney-general. His portrait by Wil- 
liam .Owen, painted in 1812, is in the Guild- 
hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, The National 
Portrait Gallery has a replica of another 
portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence the ori- 
ginal, done in 1824, is at "Windsor Castle 
and his bust by Tatham, done in 1831. 
Another portrait, by PickersgiU, is at Mer- 
chant Taylors' Hall, London. His visit to 
Oxford in 1834 is commemorated by one of 
Briggs's compositions, representing him 
elated, while Lord Encombe, in academical 
costume, bows to kiss his hand. The new 
library at University College, Oxford, con- 
tains a colossal statue of him in Carrara 
marble, on the same base with that of Lord 
Stewelijbofch'by George Kelson from models 
by Musgrave Lewthwaite. Engravings of 
his bust by Sievier, done in 1824, are at the 
British Museum. 

[Twiss's Life of lord -chancellor Eldon (1 844) 
' Lire* of Tvelve Eminent Judges 



(1846); Surtees's Sketch of the Lives of Lords 
Stowell and Eldon (1846); Lord Campbell's 
Lives of the Chancellors (1847); LawBeview, 
i. 249, ii. 276, iii. 44 ; Legal Observer, i. 193, 
209, xv. 208, 311; Law Mag. xxxiii. 347; 
Brougham's Memoirs, ii. 413, and Hiotorical 
Sketches of Statesmen (1839), ii. 54; Bennet's 
Biogr. Sketches (1867), p. 57; Gent. Mag. 
1817 it 554,1831 i. 648, 1832 ii. 186, 1838 i. 
313 ; Observations on the Judges of the Court 
of Chancery, and the Practice and Delays 
complained of in that Court (1823); Edinburgh 
Rev. xxxix. 246, Ixxxi. 131; Quarterly JRev. 
Ixxiy. 71 ; Westminster Rev. xlii. 456 ; North 
British Rev. ii. 212; Blackwood's Kdinb. Mag. 
xiv, 627, xviii. 212, Ixi 245 ; Brown's Cases in 
Parliament, ii. 146 ; Cases in the House of 
Lords (1781); Parl. Hist, xxiv-xxxvi, and 
Hansard's Parl. Deb. ; Howell's State Trials, 
xxiv-xxv. ; Commons' Journals, xxxvi. 437, 
xxxviii, 285; Lords' Journals, xxxvi. 279; 
"WraxalFs Mem. ed. Wheatley ; Romilly's Mem. ;. 
Buckingham's Memoirs of tae Courts and Cabi- 
nets of George III, the Regency, and George IV ; 
Phipps's Memoirs of Robert Plutner Ward, i. 
371, ii. 69 ; Diaries of James Harris, first Karl 
of Malmesbury (1844), iv. 31, 223; PelleVs 
Life of Sidmonth, ii. 277-9 ; Russell's Life of 
Fox, iii. 325; Stapieton's Life of Canning, p. 
207; Yonge's Life of Lord Liverpool; Lord 
Auckland's Correspondence; Plurket's Life of 
Lord Plunket; -Scarlett's Life of Lord Abinger, 
p. 89 ; Peel's Memoirs, ed. Stanhope and Card- 
well, i. 275 ; Greville's Memoirs of George IV 
and William IV ; B. I. and fl. Wilberforce's Life 
of William Wilberforce ; Arnould's Life of Lord 
Denman, i. 233 ; Martin's Life of Lord Lynd- 
hurst, pp. 262-0; Butler's Reminiscences, 4th 
edit, p. 135; Brand's Nawcastfe-upon-Tyne; 
Mackenzie's Newcasde-upon-Tyne, i. 217.] 

J. M. R. 

SCOTT, JOHN (1798-1846), surgeon, 
bom in 1798, was only son of James Scott, 
a general practitioner of medicine, living at 
Bromley in Kent. His father acquired a 
large practice, and was particularly success-* 
f ul in the treatment of chronic ulcers and of 
diseased joints. John Scott was educated 
first at a private school in Sevenoaks, and 
afterwards at the Charterhouse. He was 
then apprenticed to Sir William Blizard [q. v.], 
the senior surgeon to the London Hospital in 
Whitechapel. He was admitted a licentiate 
of the Society of Apothecaries on 2$ April 
3819, and a member of the Eoyal College of 
Surgeons of^England on 2 June 1820* 

He practised with his father at Bromley 
for a short time, but after marrying he came 
to London, and was living in New Broad 
Street in 1824 On 24 Nov. 1826 he was 
elected surgeon to the Ophthalmic Hospital 
in Moorfields in succession to [Sir] William 
Lawrence. Scott was elected .assistant sur- 



Scott 



Scott 



geon to the London Hospital on 18 July 
18^7. He was appointed full surgeon on 
28 March 1831, resigning on 3 Dec, 1845. 
He died at Brighton, after a prolonged ill- 
ness, on 11 April 1846. 

Scott revolutionised one department of 
surgery by introducing the passive treat- 
ment of diseased joints. His method, how- 
ever, was distasteful to his contemporaries 
owing to the unnecessary complications with 
which he surrounded it; but stripped of 
these, his principle remains a potent factor 
in surgery. He treated chronic ulcers by 
the method his -father had taught him of 
strapping the leg from the toes upwards, and 
he was thus opposed to Baynton's method, 
which consisted in applying the strapping for 
only a short distance above the ulcer, Scott's 
dressing and Scott's ointment are still known 
to every student of surgery, though they 
are now rarely used. His dressing had, as 
its base, a camphorated mercurial compound. 
Constant practice is said to have rendered 
him the most skilful bandager in London, at 
a time when bandaging in the London hos- 
pitals was almost a fine art. 

Scott was distinguished as a surgeon by 
the rapidity and by the general accuracy of 
his diagnosis. He displayed great decision 
and energy in the treatment of his patients. 
He was a bold, but not particularly brilliant 
operator, and he is said to have been the 
first surgeon in England to remove the upper 
jaw. He was of an uncertain and irritable 
temper, which disease sometimes rendered 
overbearing. 

His we-rSs are : 1. * Surgical Observations 
on ... Chronic Inflammations . . . par- 
ticularly in Diseases of the Joints/ 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1828 ; a new edit, by W. H. Smith, 
London, 8vo, 1857 : a most valuable work,, 
for it lays down very clearly the necessity 
for putting at rest diseased joints. 2.' Cases 
of Tic-douloureux and Qther Forms of Neu- 
ralgia/ 8vo, London, 1834. 3. 'Cataract and 
its Treatment/ 8vo, London, 1843 : the ob- 
ject of this work was to introduce a sickle- 
shaped knife, but the instrument never came 
into general use. 

^ [Medical Times and Gazette, xiv. 136; addi- 
tional facts contributed to the writer by Walter 
Kivington, esq., F.R.C.S. Engl., consulting sur- 
geon to the London Hospital, and. by E. J. 
Newstead, esq., secretary of the Eoyal London 
Ophthalmic Hospital.] D'A. P. 

SCOTT, JOHN (1794-1871), . horse- 
trainer, was born at Chippenham, near 
Newmarket/on 8 Nov. 1794. His father 
was a jockey and a trainer, who became , 
landlord of the Ship inn at Oxford, and 
died at Brighton in 1848, aged 97. At 



an early period John entered his father's 
stables, and at the age of thirteen won a 
fifty-pound plate at Blandfdrd. As a light- 

i i -i i i e> fN trr At IYT 



and Mr. Stevens of Bourton-on-the-Hill, 
Gloucestershire. In 1815 James Croft, the 
trainer of Middleham, put into his charge 
Sir William Maxwell's Filho daPuta, which 
ran at Newmarket against Sir Joshua. 
Shortly after this he was engaged as private 
trainer to Mr, Houldsworth of Rockhill in 
Sherwood Forest. The next eight years of 
his life were spent at Eockhill; he then 
trained for two years for the Hon. E. Pet re 
at Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, and brought 
out Theodore, the winner of the St. Leger 
in 1822 (BuiCK, Jockey Club, p. 280). In 
1825 he purchased Whitewall House, Mai- 
ton, with training stables, which accom- 
modated a hundred horses, and he resided 
there for the remainder of his life. For 
many years he had the best horses in Eng- 
land under his charge, and handled them 
with- unrivalled skill. Among his principal 
employers were the Duke of Westminster, 
the Marquis of Exeter, Lord Derby, Lord 
Chesterfield, the Hon. E. Petre, Mr. John 
Bowes, General Anson, Lord Falmouth, and 
Major Yarburgh. The first victory of note 
which he gained from Whitewall was the St. 
Leger of 1827, won by the Hon. E. Petre's 
Matilda. Many more triumphs at Doncas- 
ter followed. Before 1862 he trained in all 
sixteen winners of the St. Leger, 

St. Giles in 1832 was the first of six 
Derby winners which he trained, the others 
being Mundig in 1835, Attila in 1842, 
Cotherstone in 1843 (who also won the Two 
Thousand Guineas), Daniel O'Rourke (who 
unexpectedly beat Stockwell in 1852), and 
West Australian in 1853, the first horse that 
ever won the three great events the Two 
Thousand Guineas, the Derby, and the 
St. Leger. He also trained eight winners 
Of the Oaks. With Meteor he won the Two 
Thousand Guineas for Mr. Bowes in 1842, 
and with ImpSrieuse he beat Blink Bonny 
for the One Thousand Guineas in 1837, 
Among other horses trained at Whitewall 
were velocipede, one of the best horses of 
his generation, Lord Derby's Toxophilite and 
Caneiou, and Mr. Bowes*s Hetman Plat off 
and Epirus. The Whitewall horses would 
have gained more victories in the south of 
England had the facilities for travelling been 
what they have become. 

^John Scott was much esteemed by all 
his employers, and among his most intimate 
friends was Baron Martin, who, with Hud- 
ston "Read, was an executor of his will. At 



Scott 



Scott 



Whitewall Scott accumulated many curio- 
sities and numerous sporting pictures by 
Herring and Hall. He died at Whitewall 
House ^on 4 Oct. 1871, and was buried on 
9 Oct. in Malton cemetery, where a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory. A tablet 
in Norton church was similarly erected 
by public subscription. He married, first, 
Miss Baker, the daughter of an innkeeper 
at Mansfield j and, secondly, a lady who died 
at Whitewall Cottage in March 1891, aged 
90. His daughter by his first wife became 
the wife of Mr. Farrar the trainer, and by 
his second wife he left a son. 

[Times, 12 March 1891, p. 10; Sporting 
Review, September 1 855, pp. 153-5, with por- 
trait; Baiiy's Mag. April 1862, pp. 249-53, with 
portrait ; Scott and Sebcight ? by the Druid, 1862 
pp. 47-56 ; Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic 
New fl , 26 Dec. 1874, pp, 308, 315, with portrait ; 
Illustrated London News, 21 Oct. 1871, pp. 375, 
377, with portrait; F. Eoss's Celebrities of 
Yorkshire Wolds, 1878,, p. 145; Rice's History 
of the British Turf, 1879, ii. 225-30 ; Bell's Life 
in London, 7 Oct. 1871, p. 6, 14 Oct. p f 6; 
Black's Jockey Club, passim;, Taunton's Por- 
traits pf Race Horses/ 1888, ii. 127 et seq.,with 
portraits of the, horses mentioned in this article.] 

GK c. B. 

SCOTT, JONATHAN, LL.D. (1754- 
1829), orientalist, born at Shrewsbury in 
1754^ was the third son of Jonathan Scott 
of Shrewsbury by Mary, daughter of Hum- 
phrey Sandford of the Isle near that town. 
John Scott, afterwards Scott-Waring [q, v], 
was his eldest brother. Jonathan received 
his first education in the Royal Free Gram- 
mar School at Shrewsbury, but left in his 
thirteenth year to proceed to India with his 
two elder brothers, John and Richard. Jona- 
than was gazetted to a eadetcy in 1770, and 
two years, later to an e'nsigncy in the 29th 
native infantry of the Carnatic. He became 
a lieutenant in 1777, and finally captain in 
1778. His abilities gained him the patronage 
of Warren Hastings, then governor-general of 
Bengal, who appointed him his Persian secre- 
tary. Scott's official duties left him little 
time for literary work, but in 1784 he took 
part in founding the Royal Asiatic Society 
ot .Bengal, of which, body he remained a mem- 
ber until 1799. Hastings left India in Febru- 
ary 1785, and aa Scott resigned his commis- 
sion m January of that year, 'it may be pre- 
sumed that he .returned to England about 
the same time. 

In 1786, he published his first work. <A 
1 ranslation of the Memoirs of Eradut Khan - 
being anecdotes by a Hindoo Noble, of the 
Emperor Alumgeer Aurungzebe, and fcis 
successors Shaw Alum and Jehaundar 



Shaw/ This was followed in 1794 bv a 
< Translation of Ferishita's History of the 
Dekkan from the first Mahummedan Con- 
quests, with a continuation from other 
native writers, to the reduction of its last 
Monarchs by the Emperor Alumgeer Arung- 
zebe. Also with a History of Bengal from 
the accession of AH Verdee Khan to the 
year 1780,' 2 vols. 4to. These works were 
followed by the * Bahar Danush, or Garden 
of Knowledge j an Oriental Romance trans- 
lated from the Persic of Einaitit Oollah/ 
1799, 3 vols. 8vo, and by < Tales, Anecdotes, 
and Letters from the Arabic and Persian ' 
1809, 8vo, The last includes a number of 
tales translated from a fragment of a manu- 
script pf the Thousand and One Nights pro- 
cured in Bengal by James Anderson. 

In 1811 bcott published the work by 
which he is chiefly known, his edition of the 
'Arabian Nights Entertainments,' in (5 vols., 
12mo. Edward Wortley Montagu [q. v.] had 
brought back from Turkey an approximately 
complete manuscript of the work (now in 
the Bodleian) written in 1764. Scott pro- 
posed to make a fresh translation from this 
manuscript, and printed a description of it, 
together with a table of contents, in Ouseley's 
* Oriental Collection/ He abandoned the idea 
later on, and contented himself with revising- 
G-alland's French version (1704-1717), saying 
that he found it so correct that it would be 
useless to go over the original afresh. But he 
prefixed a copious introduction, interspersed 
with valuable notes illustrative of the man- 
ners and customs of the Mohammedans, and 
added some additional tales from other 
sources. The work, the earliest effort to 
render the Arabian Nights ' into literary 
English, at once became popular, and was 

_* t-i*^v _i TT i 4 ^ A A * ' .. 



f-w mf m,*,^*!* w**'vi T VMhJ 
882, 4 vols. 8vo, 
and again in 1890, 4 vols. 8vo. 

In 1802 Scott was appointed professor of 
oriental languages at the Royal Military 
College, but resigned that post m 1805, He 
held, about the same time, a similar position 
at the East India College at Haileybury. In 
both cases he seems to have been dissatis- 
fied not only with the pay, but also with 
,the status accorded him, holding that the 
professor of oriental languages ought to rank 
aa one of the principal officers. In 1805 the 
honorary degree of IXCX. was conferred 
upon him by the university of Oxford in re- 
cognition of his attainments in oriental lite- 
rature. Scott was generous towards rising 
talent, and his townsman, Samuel Lee [q.v.l 
the orientalist, owed much to his instruc- 
tion. He died on 11 Feb. 1829 at his resi- 
4ence in St. John's Row, Shrewsbury, and 
was buried near his parents in the bishop's- 



Scott 



59 



Scott 



chancel of old St. Chad's Church in the 
same city. He married his cousin Anne, 
daughter of Daniel Austin, M.A., rector of 
Berrington, Shropshire, who survived him. 
By her he had issue a son who died young, 
and a daughter, Anna Dorothea, who married 
her cousin, R. W. Stokes of London. 

[Gent. Mag. 1829, i. 470 j India Army List; 
Bengal Calendar, 1788.1 H. T. L. 

SCOTT, JOSEPH NICOLL, M.D. 

(1703P-1769), dissenting minister and physi- 
cian, eldest son of Thomas Scott, independent 
minister, was born at Hitchin, Hertfordshire, 
about 1703. His father, the son of Daniel 
Scott, a London merchant, by his first wife, 
and half-brother of Daniel Scott LL.D. [q.v.], 
was minister at Back Street Chapel, Hitchin 
(1700-9), and succeeded John Stackhouse as 
minister of a secession from the Old Meeting, 
Norwich, on 13 Oct. 1709. This secession had 
a meeting-place in the Blackfriars ; but about 
1717 differences were healed, and the elder 
Scott became minister of the Old Meeting. 

Joseph Nicoll became his father's assis- 
tant about 1725. A change of his views 
in the Arian direction was followed by his 
dismissal in 1737 or 1738. To his father 
this was a terrible blow ; his nervous sys- 
tem became permanently unhinged ; he died 
on 15 Nov. 1746, aged 66. Doddridge speaks 
of him as ' one of the holiest and most bene- 
volent men upon the earth.' He published 
two funeral sermons and an 'Attempt to 
prove the Godhead of Christ/ 1726, 8vo 
(sermon, John xx. 28 ; cf. his letters in H,UM- 
PHEEYS'S Correspondence of Doddridge, iii. 
424 sq.) 

Dismissed from the Old Meeting, Scott 
was established by his friends in a Sunday 
lectureship at the French church, St. Mary- 
the-Less. At first he drew considerable 
audiences, and was patronised by members 
of the church of England. Two volumes of 
his discourses (1743) contain many striking 
sermons ; one is on * the Mahometan Revela- 
tion considered ; ' others affirm the ultimate 
annihilation of the wicked, anticipating the 
position of Samuel Bourn (1714-1796) q. v.J 
of Norwich. His lecture was discontinued 
before the publication of the sermons. He 
studied medicine at Edinburgh, and gra- 
duated M.D. in 1744. For some years he 
practised in Norwich/ A Mr. Reynolds* a 
casual acquaintance and admirer, left him 
an estate at Felsted, Essex ; here he ended 
his days, dying on 23 Dec. 179. A monu- 
ment to his memory is in the Old Meeting, 
Norwich. 'The Gracious Warning/ a mo- 
nody on his death, by George Wright, was 
published in 1774, 8vo. .His widow (maiden 



name, Bell) died at Aylsham, Norfolk, in 
1799, aged 87 (Gent. Mag. 1799, Ixix. 352). 

He published: 1. 'Sermons ... in de- 
fence of all Religion . . . Natural or Re- 
vealed/ c., 1743, 8yo, 2 vols. 2. ' An Essay 
towards a Translation of Homer's Works 
in Blank Verse, with Notes/ &c., 1755, 4to 
(a spirited version of thirteen selected pas- 
sages from the ' Iliad '). He also revised the 
etymologies from classic and oriental lan- 
guages for an issue (1772, fol.) of the ' Eng- 
lish Dictionary/ by Nathan Bailey [q. v.] 

[Norfolk Tour, 1829, ii. 12i8; Nominaeorum 
qiri Gradum M.D. in Academia . . . Edinburgi 
. . . adepti sunt, 1846, p, 3; Browne's Hist. 
Congr. Norf. and Suff. 1877, pp. 267 sq. ; TJrwick's 
Nonconformity in Herts, 1884, p. 650; informa- 
tion kindly furnished by Hardlnge P. Giffard, 
esq., F.S.A.] A. G-. 

SCOTT or SCOT, MICHAEL (1175 P- 
1234^), mathematician, physician, and scho- 
lar, possibly belonged to the family of the 
Scots of Balwearie, near Kirkcaldy in Fife, 
whose ruined castle has been identified with 
Castle Wearie in the weird ballad of Lam- 
mikin. Sir Walter Scott erred in identifying 
him with Sir Michael Scot of Balwearie, who, 
with Sir David Wemy ss of Wemyss, was sent 
to fetch the Maid of Norway to Scotland in 
1290. The scholar died before 1235. More 
probably he belonged to the border country 
whence all the families of Scot originally 
came, and where the traditions of his magic 
power are common. He was probably born 
before 1180. After he had studied succes- 
sively at Oxford and at Paris (where he ac- 
quired the title of ' mathematicus'), he passed 
to Bologna, and thence to Palermo, where 
he entered the service of Don Philip, the 
clerk register of the court of Frederick II, 
in Sicily. Subsequently he continued his 
studies at Toledo. It has been conjectured 
by an anonymous commentator on Dante 
that Michael became the young king's tutor 
in Sicily, and that at Toledo he gained a 
knowledge of Arabic sufficient to enable him 
to translate 'the writings of Aristotle on 
Natural History and Mathematics.* At To- 
ledo he wrote his 'Abbreviatio Avicennse/ 
of which the colophon in the Vatican manu- 
script runs * Explicit anno domini MCCX/ 
That he gained a knowledge of Arabic at 
Toledo is corroborated not only by the evi- 
dence of .this and other works attributed to 
Hm, but by the contemporary authority of 
Roger Bacon (Opus Mcy'its, London, ed. 1735, 
p. 36). In another place (' Compendium. 
Studii/ Opera minora, ed. Brewer, p. 472), 
Bacon observes, with a touch of the jealousy of 
a rival scholar, * Michael Scot, like Herman/ a 
Germanbishop and scholar of the same period, 



Scott 



Scott 



' ascribed to himself many translations. But 
it is certain that Andrew, a Jew, laboured 
more in them. On which account Herman 
reported that Michael knew neither sciences 
nor languages/ After completing his studies 
at Toledo, Michael Scot became again at- 
tached to the court of Frederick II, with 
whom his name and writings, chiefly written 
at the request of Frederick, must always be 
intimately associated. He appears to have 
held the office or received the name of astro- 
loger at the court of that emperor, and he is so 
designated in the Bodleian manuscript of his 
work on astronomy (see below). An earlier 
work, the ' Liber Introductorius,' professedly 
treats of astrology and prognostics. 

Dean Milman discovered, or at least first 
pointed out, that Michael Scot, though his 
studies and works were chiefly secular, had 
taken holy orders and was patronised by the 
pope as well as by the emperor. On 16 Jan. 
1223-4 Honorius III wrote to Stephen Lang- 
ton urging him to find some benefice in his 
diocese for Master Michael Scot, who was 
distinguished for his eminence in science ; 
and on 31 May 1224 the same pope granted 
him a dispensation to hold benefices appa- 
rently in Italy, notwithstanding his election 
to the Irish archbishopric of Cashel. This 
had been by the direct nomination of the 
pope, contrary to the election of the canons, 
who had chosen the bishop of Cork. But 
Michael declined the office on the ground of 
his ignorance of Irish (THBINEB, Mowwnenta 
JSibernue et Scotia, p. 23; BLISS, Cal. Papal 
Letters, i. 94, 96, 98). Three years later, in 
1227, Gregory IX, the successor of Honorius, 
renewed the request that a benefice in the 
diocese of Canterbury might be given to 
Michael Scot, but he never received any pre- 
ferment in England or Ireland, though from 
the reference to * benefices ' which he was to 
be allowed to retain, it seems that he held 
more than one, probably in Italy (transcripts 
of papal letters in Addit. MS, Brit. Mm 
15352, ff. 214, 246 $ BLISS, Cal. Papal Letters, 
i 117). 

In 1230, according to Roger Bacon, ' Mi- 
chael Scot appeared [at Oxford], bringing 
with him the works of Aristotle on natural 
history and mathematics, with wise exposi- 
tors, so that the philosophy of Aristotle was 
magnified among those who spoke Latin* 
(apud Latinos). It is highly probable that 
this refers to a mission to the- universities of 
European which Frederick II sent Scot to 
communicate to them the versiqns of Aris- 
totle which Michael himself and other learned 
scholars in the emperor's service had made 
from the Arabic. He doiibtless visited Paris 
and Oxford, where he possibly met Bacon, 



He may even have revisited his native Scot- 
land, on whose borders there were various 
later traditions of his death and burial at 
Melrose, Glenluce, Holmcultram and Burgh 
under Bowness, Walter Scott of Satchells 
(1614P-1694?) [q. v.J, the historian of the 
clan, was shown what was alleged to be his 
tomb at the last-named place in 1629, but 
this date is too late for a trustworthy tradi- 
tion. It appears more probable that Michael 
returned to Italy, where the Italian tradi- 
tions evidently place his death, though with- 
out naming any particular site. He must 
have died prior to 1235, for in a poem of 
Vincent of Beauvais, written in that year, 
* veridicus vates Michael ' is referred to as 
dead, ' Sic accusator fatorum fata subivit.' 

His great fame and varied learning soon 
led to an accretion of legends round his 
name, which hid his real merits and trans- 
formed the man of science into a magician. 
A lew of the legends relating to him, despite 
the fact that their unhistorical character has 
been proved by recent research, deserve to 
be noticed, as they have given a theme for 
literary treatment to many of the masters 
of European literature, from Dante to Sir 
Walter Scott. 

Dante, in the ' Inferno,' c. xx., describes 

That other there, whose ribs fill scanty space, 
Was Michael Scott, who truly full well knew 
Of magical deceits the illusive grace. 

Villani records two of his prophecies whicK 
were fulfilled, that * the Dog ot Verona (Can 
Grande) would become the Lord of Padua* 
(lib. x. c. 139), and that l Foolish Florence 
of flowers will not long stand, but will fall 
into the dirt and live by dissimulation ' (adi. 
c. 18). 

Boccaccio uses as a well-known name to 
introduce one of his novels, * a great master 
in necromancy called Michael Scot, because 
he was from Scotland, who received much 
honour from many gentlemen, of whom some 
fltill live, and when he wished to leave laid 
this charge on two of his scholars, that they 
should be always ready to serve the pleasure 
of the gentlemen who had honoured him 
(8th day, 9th novel).' 

Scot is one of the great men accused of magic 
whom Gabriel Naud6 defends. He is said to 
have predicted the place of t he death of Frede- 
rick, ' that he should die in Firenze (Florence)/ 
The emperor, to avoid the prophecy, would not 
enter that town, or even^ fearing an equivoca- 
tion, Faenze, but met his fate at Firenzuola 
(Little Florence). Scot himself, according to 
the Italian legend, came to his own death in 
the vain attempt to baffle destiny. He had 
invented a form of iron helmet, called cere- 



Scott 



61 



Scott 



brerium, to protect his head from the blow 
of a stone, of not more than two ounces, 
which was to he, as he believed, the cause 
of his death, and having taken it off at^the 
elevation of the host a stone of that weight 
fell from the roof of the church, which killed 
him. One version of the story charges 
him with lifting his helmet in mockery or 
hypocrisy, as he, like the emperor, was ac- 
cused of infidelity. The Scottish tradition, 
on the other hand, which has gained circula- 
tion from its adoption by Scott in the * Lay 
of the Last Minstrel/ brought him back to 
his native country, where, especially in the 
south, * any work of great labour or antiquity 
is ascribed either to Auld Michael, Sir Wil- 
liam Wallace, or the Devil/ and, though tra- 
dition varied between Holmcultram and 
Melrose Abbey, * it was agreed that his Books 
of Magic were interred in his grave, or pre- 
served in the convent where he died' (Lay, 
canto ii. and notes). His death was attri- 
buted to his supjping the broth of a * breme ' 
sow (i.e. a sow in heat), and not to the fall 
of a stone, as in the Italian legend. The 
wonders worked by him through diabolic 
agjency, which he invoked by drawing a circle 
with his magic wand, and sometimes accom- 
plished by invisible rides through the air on 
a demon horse, or through the sea on a 
demon ship, grew with time and the inven- 
tion of storv-tellers. Perhaps one of these 
tales of his ride on a jet-black horse as envoy 
to the king of France from Scotland, when 
the first stamp of his steed rang the bells of 
Notre-Pame, the second threw down the 
palace towers, and, to avoid the third, the 
king granted all he asked, may have contri* 
buted to his erroneous identification with Sir 
Michael Scott, the ambassador to Norway in 
1290. 

A novel called 'Sir Michael Scot' was 
published by Allan Cunningham in 1828, 
and Coleridge projected a drama on his life 
which he deemed a better theme than Faust, 

Of those works attributed to Michael Scot 
which appear to be genuine, the following 
have been printed: 1. 'Liber Physiognomic 
Magistri Michaelis Scoti/ 1477, of which 
there are, it is said, eighteen editions in all, 
Latin, German, and Italian. It is some- 
times entitled * Liber de Secretis Naturae/ 
and bound up with a work attributed to 
Albertus Magnus, ' De Secretis Mulierum/ 
which accounts, as well as Scot's character 
as a magician, for the opinion that he dealt 
with forbidden subjects, or at least sub- 
jects better left to medical science. Scot's 
work contains a treatise on generation, as 
well as one on physiognomy. The former 
is worthless j the latter is a curious anticipa- 



tion of the line of inquiry since pursued by 
Lavater and others, and, like Lavater, it 
I differs from phrenology in treating not the 
j head only, but all parts of the body as sig- 
nificant of character. 2. A translation into 
Latin of Aristotle's work on natural history, 
i De Animalibus/ of which Scot probably 
made two versions, one entitled * De Animali- 
bus ad Csesarena ' and the other * Tractatus 
Avicennae de Animalibus/ It is included 
in the edition of Aristotle's works published 
at Venice in 1496, with the title 'Aristotelis 
Opera Latine versa, partim e Greco partim 
ex Arabico, per viros lectos, et in utriusque 
Linguae prolatione peritos, jussu Imperatoris 
Frederici II.' There seems to have been a 
separate print of this in 1493, and there are 
eight manuscripts of it in the Royal Library, 
Paris, and one in the Vatican, the colophon 
of which has been already mentioned. 
3. 'Qusestio Curiosa de Natura Solis et 
Lunee/ printed in 'Theatrum Chemicum/ 
vol. v., Strasbnrg, 1622 : a work on alchemy 
and the philosopher's stone. 4. l Mensa Phi- 
losophica, seu Enchiridion in quo de quses- 
tionibus memorabilibus et variis ac jucundis 
hominum congressibus agitur/ Frankfurt, 
1602, 12mo ; Leipzig, 1603, and frequently 
reprinted and published in English, under 
the title of 'The Philosopher's Banquet, 
1614 ; but this work is attributed by others 
to Theobald Anguilbert, an Irish physician, 
under whose name it was published in Paris 
in 1600. 

Whether the treatise on the 'Sphere of 
Sacrobosco' [see HOLYWOOD, JOHN] is by 
Michael Scot is not certain, but his author- 
ship is assumed by Kastner in his ' History of 
Mathematics/ where it is noted under the 
title * Eximii atque excellentiasimi Physico- 
rnra Mptuum Cursusque Syderii investiga- 
toris Mich. Scotti super Auctorem Sphoerae, 
cum qusestionibus diligenter enjendatis in- 
cipit Expositio perfecta, Illustrissimi Impera- 
toris D.I). Frederici precibus/ Bologna, 1495. 
This work is also attributed to Michael Scot 
in Sir Robert Sibbald's manuscript 'Historia 
Literaria Gentis Scotorum/ Advocates' Li- 
brary, Edinburgh. 

. The following works are still in manu- 
script : 

I. ASTEONOMT. 1. 'Astronomia* or 'Liber 
Particulars/ Bibl. Bodl. MtiS. Canon Misc. 
555, attributed in the colophon to ' Michael 
Scot, Astrologer to the Lord Frederick, Em- 
peror of Rome.' 2. * Liber Introductorius,* 
Bodl. MS. 266, has the colophon, * Expliciunt 
judicia secundum scientiam Michaelis Scoti 
grandis astrolcgi quondam Imperatoris Fre^ 
derici^ de terrtt Teuton ica/ and the preface 
says it was the second book composed by 



Scott 



Scott 



Michael Scot for the Emperor Frederick. 
8. ' Liber Magistri Michaehs Scoti_in quo 
continetur Magisterium Speciale/ MS. Bodl. 
No. 44 (see CARINI, Suite Scienze Occulte 
nel Media Evo, Palermo, 1872). 

IL ALCHEMY. 4. ' Liber Luminis Lu- 
minum,' MS. Riciardi Florence L. iii. 13, 119. 
6. 'De Alchemia/ Corpus Ohristi, Oxford, 
MS. cxxv. pp. 88 et seq. This work contains 
receipts by Scot, and among them one for 
the transmutation of lead into gold. 6. * Be 
Sphsera,' a translation of the Arabic work of 
Alpetroni,madein 123 7; MSS. Paris, Ancien 
Fonds, 7399, and Fonds de Sorbonne, 1820 
(JouBDAJN, Recherches, p. 133). 

III. TRANSLATIONS. 7. 'Translation of 
the Commentary of Averroes/ on the pseudo- 
Aristotelian work 'De Ccelo et Mundo,' dedi- 
cated by Michael Scot to Stephen de Pro- 
vins ; UlSS. Paris, Fonds de Sorbonne, 924, 
950 ; Venice St. Mark, vi. 54 ; Rome, Fondo 
Vaticano, 2089, 2184. 8. ' Translation of 
the Commentary of Averroes on the De 
Anima of Aristotle/ MSS. Paris Sorbonne, 
932, 943, Ancien Fonds 6504, Venice St. 
Mark, MSS. vi. 54. 9. ' Translation of 
the Nova Ethica ' of Aristotle from the Greek 
into Latin was attributed to Michael Scot in 
a thirteenth-century manuscript in the library 
of St. Omer, but the work, if by Scot, is not 
extant. 10. ' Certain Medical Receipts/ espe- 
cially on the urine, by Michael Scot, are given 
as taken from ' the* book of Master Michael 
Scot, physician to the Emperor Frederick, 
and from the works of other doctors in an 
Italian work on medicine; MS. Vatican, 
Fondo della Retina di Svezia, 1159. Other 
prescriptions of Michael Scot have been 
handed down. 

[Wood's Historia Univ. Oxon. p. 121 ; Life of 
Michael Scot m Tyiler's Scottish Worthies ; Life 
by James Bruce, Edinburgh, 1846; Histoire 
Litteraire de la France, xx. 43, contains a life 
by Daunou ; Biographie Universelle, 1825, tome 
xli, ; Sir W. Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel, 
and notes ; Kington's Life of the Emperor Frede- 
rick H; Milraan's Michael Scot almost an Arch- 
bis^ op, published by the Philobiblon Society, 
1 854. The earlier lives are all superseded by the 
Life and Legend of Michael S^ot (1175-1232), 
by the Rev. J. Wood Brown, M.A., 1897, which 
collects and supplements the results of Jourdain, 
Benan, and other French and Italian scholars, 
gives a full list of Scottish authorities and all 
references of importance to him in modem con- 
tinental literature. The writer is greatly in- 
debted to Mr. Brown for the perusal of the 
proofs^ M. M. 

SCOTT, MICHAEL (1789-1 835), author 
of ' Tom Cringle's Log/ born at Cowlairs on 
the outskirts of Glasgow 30 Oct. 1789, was 
fifth and youngest son of Allan Scott, a 



Glasgow merchant and owner .of a small 
estate at Cowlairs. Scott was educated at 
the high school, Glasgow, and between 1801 
and 1805 attended the university. In 1806 
he went to Jamaica to manage some estates, 
and there he met a Mr. Hamilton, who figures 
in* Tom Cringle's Log ' as Aaron Bang. In 
1810 he entered business in Kingstown. 
This compelled him to travel frequeAtly, both 
by sea and road, and the experiences of this 
time form the basis of the * Log.' In 1817 
he came to Scotland on a prolonged visit, 
and in 1818 he married Margaret, daughter 
of Robert Bogle of Gilmorehill, merchant in 
Glasgow. He returned to Jamaica imme- 
diately afterwards, but left the island finally 
in 1822 and settled in Glasgow. There he 
entered business on his own account", and 
became a partner in his father-in-law's firm, 
Bogle, Harris, & Co. of Glasgow, and Bogle, 
Douglas, & Co. of Maracaybo. He, was en- 
gaged in business until his death, which took 
place in Glasgow, 7 Nov. 1835. He left a 
large family. 

'Tom Cringle's Log* appeared in 'Black- 
wood's Magazine,' beginning with the Sep- 
tember number of 1829 ; the final chapters 
appeared in August 1833. The instalments 
were intermittent at first, and each had its 
own title. Blackwood advised that the 
papers should be connected so as to make a 
continuous narrative, and in the June issue of 
1831 ' Tom Cringle's Log ' was first used as 
a title, but then only as the title of a single 
paper. As the story appeared it received 
a warm welcome. Coleridge pronounced it 
to be 'most excellent,' but Captain Marryat 
thought it melodramatic. There is some doubt 
as to where the chapters were written, and 
Anthony Trollope in * The West Indies and 
the Spanish Main ' refers to a tradition that 
the work was written at Raymond Hall, the 
house which Scott occupied in Jamaica. 
Probably he there wrote most of the sketches 
which were worked up into the * Log.' It 
first appeared in book form at Paris in 1886, 
after Scott's death. Scott so successfully con- 
cealed his identity that he was dead before 
his authorship of ' Tom Cringle ' wa known. 

Scott's second story, * The Cruise of the 
Midge/ also appeared serially in * Black- 
wood's Magazine ' between March 1834 and 
June 1835. Like 'Tom Cringle's Log,' it 
was first printed anonymously in book form, 
at Paris in 1836. The effect is marred by a 
laboured jocosity, though the narrative is 
full of spirit and of observation at first hand. 
Both works have run through numerous 
editions. 

[Alii bone's Dwjt ; * Tom Cringle's Log,' with 
introduction by Mowbray Morris.] J. JEt, M. 



Scott < 

SCOTT or SCOT, PATRICK (JL 1620), 
author, followed James I from Scotland into 
England on his accession. In June 1618 he 
was engaged in the work of raising voluntary 
gifts for the supply of the king's exchequer 
by threatening divers persons with prosecu- 
tions for usury (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1618, p. 538). Six years later (August 1624) 
James I -trote a letter of recommendation on 
his behalf (ib. clxxi. 37). He would appear, 
from the general tone of his works, to have 
occasionally acted as tutor to Prince Charles. 
In 1623 and 1625 he appears to have been 
in Amsterdam, and to have observed closely 
the life of the separatist churches there (HAN- 
BTJEY, Memorials, i. 473). Scot's writings 
are remarkable for liberality of sentiment. 
They are: 1. * Omnibus et singulis affording 
matter profitable for all men, necessarie for 
every man, alluding to a father's advice or 
last will to his sonne,' London, 1619; (dedi- 
cated to King James and Prince Charles^. 
At the end are some verses, ' ad serenissi- 
marn Magnse Britannise Annam reginam de- 
functam. The work was rearranged and 
revised as ' A Father's Advice or Last "Will 
to his Son/ London, 1620. 2. 'Calder- 
wood's Recantation, or a Tripartite Discourse 
directed to such of the Ministrie and others 
in Scotland that refuse Conformitie to the 
Ordinances of the Church,' &c., London, 1622 
(epistle to the reader dated from Amsterdam, 
29 Nov. 1622). 3. < The Tillage of Light, or 
a True Discoverie of the Philosophical Elixir 
commonly called the philosopher's stone/ 
London, 1623 (dedicated to John, marquis of 
Hamilton, ' your devoted servant 7 ). 4. ' Vox 
Vera, or observations from Amsterdam ex- 
amining the late insolencies of some pseudo- 
puritans separatists from the church of Great 
Britaine/ London, 1625. 

[Authorities as in text ; Scot's Works.] 

W. A, S. 

SCOTT or SCOT, REGINALD or 
REYNOLD (1538 P-1599), writer against 
the belief in witches, was son of Richard 
Scot, second son of Sir John Scot (d. 1633) 
of Scots Hall in Smeeth, Kent [see under 
SCOTT, SIB WILLIAJMC d. 1350]. His mother 
was Mary, daughter of George Whetenall, 
sheriff of Kent in 1527. The father died 
before 1544, and his widow remarried Fulk 
Onslow, clerk of the parliament ; dying on 
8 Oct. 1582, she was buried in 'the church of 
Hatileld, Hertfordshire. Reginald or Rey- 
nold (as he signed his name in accordance 
with contemporary practice) was born about 
1538. On 16 Dec. 1554 his nucle. Sir Regi- 
nald Scot, died and- included him in the 
entail of his family estate in default of his 



3 Scott 

own issue, but this disposition was without 
practical result, Next year, when about 
seventeen, he entered Hart Hall, Oxford, 
but left the university without a degree. 
His writings attest some knowledge of law, 
but he is not known to have joined any inn 
of court. Marrying in 1568, he seems to 
have spent the rest of his life in his native 
county. His time was mainly passed as an 
active country gentleman, managing- property 
which he inherited from his kinsiolk about 
Smeeth and Brabourne, or directing the 
business affairs of his first cousin, Sir Thomas 
Scot, who proved a generous patron, and in 
whose house of Scots Hall he often stayed 
[see SCOTT, SIB WILLIAM, d. 1350, ad fin.] 
He was collector of subsidies for the lathe 
of Shepway in 1586 and 1587, and he was 
doubtless the Reginald Scot who acted in 
1588 as a captain of untrained foot-soldiers 
at the county muster. He was returned to 
the parliament of 1588-9 as member for New 
Romney, and he was probably a justice of 
the peace. He describes himself as- i esquire ' 
in the title-page of his 'Discoverie/ and 
is elsewhere designated ' armiger.' He wit- 
nessed the will of his cousin Sir Thomas 
on 27 Dec. 1594, and made his own will 
(drawing it with his own hand) on 15 Sept. 
1599. He died at Smeeth on 9 Oct. follow- 
ing, and was doubtless buried in the chxirch 
there. He married at Brabourne, on 11 Oct. 
1568, Jane Cobbe of Cobbes Place, in the 
parish of Aldington. By her he had a 
daughter Elizabeth, who married Sackville 
Turner of Tablehurt, Sussex. Subsequently 
Scot married a second wife, a widow named 
Alice Colly ar ? who had a daughter Mary by 
her former husband. His small properties 
about Brabourne, Aldington, and Romney 
Marsh he left to his widow. The last words 
of his will run : * Great is the trouble my poor 
wife hath had with me, and small is the com- 
fort she hath received at my hands, whom if 
I had not matched withal I had not died worth 
one groat.' 

Scot wrote two books, each in its own de- 
partment of high practical value, and indi- 
cating in the author exceptional enlighten- 
ment. In 1574 he published his 'Perfect 
Platform of a Hop-garden, and necessary in- 
structions for the making and maintainance 
thereof, with Notes and Rules for Reforma- 
tion of all Abuses.' The work, which is 
dedicated to Serjeant William Lovelace of 
Bethersden, is the first practical treatise on. 
hop culture in England; the processes are 
illustrated by woodcuts. Scot, according 
to a statement of the printer, was out of 
London while the work was going through 
the press, A second edition, ' now newly 



Scott 



Scott 



\ 



corrected and augmented/ appeared in 1576, 
and a third in 1578. 

More noticeable and no less useful was 
Scot's 'The Discouerie of Witchcraft, 
wherein the Lewde dealing of Witches and 
Witchmongers is notablie detected, in six- 
teen books . , . whereunto is added a Treatise 
upon the Nature and Substance of Spirits 
and Devils,' 1584. At the end of the 
Tolume the printer gives his name as Wil- 
liam Brome. 

There are four dedications one to Sir 
Roger Manwood, chief baron of the ex- 
chequer, another to Scot's cousin, Sir Thomas 
.Scot, a third jointly to John Coldwell [q. v.], 
dean of Rochester (afterwards bishop of 
Salisbury), and William Redman [q. v.], 
archdeacon of Canterbury (afterwards oishop 
of Norwich), and a fourth ' to the readers/ 
Scott enumerates no less than 212 authors 
whose works in Latin he had consulted, and 
twenty-three authors who wrote in English, 
The names in the first list include many 
Greek and Arabic writers ; among those in 
the second are Bale, Fox, Sir Thomas More, 
John Record, Barnabe Googe, Abraham 
Fleming, and William Larnbarde, But Scot's 
information was not only derived from books. 
He had studied the superstitions respecting 
witchcraft in courts of law in country dis- 
tricts, where the prosecution of witches was 
unceasing, and in village life, where the belief 
in witchcraft flourished in an endless number 
of fantastic forms. With remarkable boldness 
and an insight that was far in advance of his 
age, he set himself to prove that the belief 
in witchcraft and magic was rejected alike 
by reason and religion, and that spiritualistic 
manifestations were wilful impostures or illu- 
sions due to mental disturbance in the ob- 
servers. He wrote with the philanthropic 
aim_ of staying the cruel persecution which 
habitually pursued poor, aged, and simple 
persons, who were popularly credited with 
being witches. The maintenance of the super- 
stition he laid to a large extent at the door of 
the Roman catholic church, and he assailed 
with much venom credulous writers like 
Jean Bodin (1580-1596), author of ' D6mo- 
nomie des Sorciers ' (Paris, 1580), and Jaco- 
bus Sprenger, joint-author of 'Malleus Male- 
ficarum ' (Nuremberg, 1494). Of Cornelius 
Affrippa (1486-1535) and John Wier (1616- 
1588), author of ' De Ptettigiis Demonum ' 
(Basle, 1566), whose liberal views he adopted, 
he invariably spoke with respect Scot per- 
formed his task so thoroughly that his volume 
became an exhaustive encyclopaedia of con- 
temporary beliefs about witchcraft, spirits 
alchemy, magic, and legerdemain. Scotonlv 
fell a victim to contemporary superstition in 



his references to medicine and astrology. He 
believed in the medicinal value of the uni- 
corn's horn, and thought that precious stones 
owed their origin to the influence of the 
heavenly bodies. 

Scot's enlightened work attracted wide- 
spread attention. It did for a time 'make 
great impressions on the magistracy and 
clergy' (ADT). Gabriel Harvey, in his 4 Tierce's 
Supererogation,' 1593 (ed. Grosart, ii. 291), 
wrote : ' Scotte's discoovery of Witchcraft 
dismasketh sundry egregious impostures, and 
in certaine principall chapters, and speciall 
.passages, hitteth the nayle on the head with 
a witnesse ; howsoever I could have wished 
he had either dealt somewhat morecurteously 
with Monsieur Bondine [i.e. Bodin], or con- 
futed him somewhat more effectually/ The 
ancient belief was not easily uprooted, and 
many writers came to its rescue. After 
George Gifford (d. 1620) [q. v.], in two works 
published respectively in 1587 and 1593, 
and William Perkins (1558-1602) [q. v.] had 
sought to confute Scot, James VI of Scotland 
repeated the attempt in his ' Dsemonologie ' 
(1597), where he described the opinions of 
Wier and Scot as ' damnable.' On his acces- 
sion to the English throne James went a 
step further, and ordered all copies of Scot's 
' Discoverie' to be burnt (cf. GISBERT VOET, 
Selectawm Duputationum Theologicarivni 
Pars Tertia, Utrecht, 1659, p. 564). John 
Rainolds[q k v.] in ' Censura Librorum Apocry- 
phorum ' (1611), Richard Bernard in ' Guide 
to Grand Jurymen' (1627), Joseph Glanvili 
[q.v.l in ' Philosophical Considerations touch- 
ing Witches and Witchcraft' (1666), and 
Merie Casaubon in ' Credulity and Uncre- 
dulity ' (1668) continued the attack on Scot's 
position, which was defended by Thomas 
Ady in 'A Treatise concerning the Nature 
of Witches and Witchcraft' (1656), and 
by John Webster in ' The Displaying of 
Supposed Witchcraft' (1677). More in- 
teresting is it to know that Shakespeare 
drew from his study of Scot's book hints 
for his picture of the witches in ' Mac- 
beth,' and that Middleton in his play of the 
' Witch ' was equally indebted to the same 
source. 

^ Abroad the book met with a good recep- 
tion. A translation into Dutch, edited by 
Thomas Basson, an English stationer living 
at Leyden, appeared there in 1609. It was 
undertaken on the recommendation of the 
professors, and was dedicated to the univer- 
sity curators and the burgomaster of Leyden. 
A second edition, published by G. Basson, 
the first editor's son, was printed at Leyden 
in 1637. 

In 1651 the book was twice reissued in 



Scott ( 

London in quarto by Richard Cotes; the 
two issues slightly differ from each other in 
the imprint on title-page. Another reissue 
was dated 1654. A third edition in folio, 
dated 1665, included nine new chapters, and 
added a second book to < The Discourse on 
Devils and Spirits.' In 1886 Dr. Brinsley 
Nicholson [q. v.] edited a good reprint of the 
first edition of 1584, with the additions of 
that of 1665. 

[Dr. Brinsley Nicholson's Introduction to his 
reprint of the Discoverie of Witchcraft (1 886) ; 
"Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 679 ; Scott's 
Memorials of the Scot family of Scots Hall, 
188-90; Retrospective Review, v. 87-136; in- 
formation kindly given by Edmund Ward Oliver, 

S.L. 



SCOTT, EGBERT (1777-1841), engraver, 
son of Robert and Grizell Scott, was born 
on 13 Nov. 1777 at Lanark, where his father 
was a skinner. He attended the grammar 
school at Musselburgh, and at the age of 
ten was articled to Andrew Robertson, an 
engraver at Edinburgh ; there he also worked 
in the Trustees Academy. Scott first be- 
came known by some plates in Dr. James 
Anderson's 'The Bee' for 1793 and 1794, 
and a set of ' Views of Seats and Scenery 
chiefly in the Environs of Edinburgh/ from 
drawings by A. Oarse and A. Wilson, pub- 
lished in 1?95 and 1796. Though possessed 
of very limited abilities, he was esteemed in 
his day for his small book illustrations, of 
which he carried on an extensive manufac- 
tory in Parliament Stairs, Edinburgh, em- 
ploying many assistants. Scott's best work 
was in landscape, which he rendered with 
much truth of detail. He engraved all the 
illustrations to Barry's ' History of the Ork- 
ney Islands/ 1805, and to ' Scenery of Allan 
Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd/ 1808 ; he also 
for many years contributed plates to the 
' Scots Magazine/ and put in the landscape 
backgrounds of some of those for Bell's 
' British Poets/ which were sent to him from 
London for the purpose. He was employed 
by Henry Mozley, a publisher at Gains- 
borough (father of Thomas Mozley [q. v.] 
and James Bowling Mozley [q. v.]), for 
whose edition of Thomson's ' Seasons, 1804, 
he engraved four plates after John Burnet. 
Scott's latest work was a set of twenty views 
of * Scenery of Edinburgh and Midlothian/ 
1838, from drawings by his son, "W. B. 
Scott. He died early in 1841. By his wife 
Ross Bell, to whom he was married in 1800, 
he had two sons, David Scott and William 
Bell Scott, who are separately noticed. 
Among his pupils were John Burnet fq. v,], 
John Horsburgh [q. v.l and James Stewart 
(1791-1863) [q. v.j 

. TOL. LI. 



; Scott 

[Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. 
Armstrong; W. B. Scott's Memoir of David 
Scott; Autobiography of W. B. Scott, 1892.] 

F. M. O'D. 

SCOTT, ROBERT (1811-1887), lexico- 
grapher and dean of Rochester, born on 
26 Jan. 1811 at Bondleigh, Devonshire, was 
son of Alexander Scott, then rector there. 
His father moved to Egreinont Rectory, Cum- 
berland, and Robert attended St. Bees, and 
afterwards Shrewsbury School, then under 
Dr. Samuel Butler [q. v.], afterwards bishop 
of Lichfield, He entered Christ Church, 
Oxford (of which he was elected a student 
along with H. G. Liddell), in January 1880. 
He was Craven scholar in 1830, Ireland 
scholar in 1833, and in the same year gra- 
duated B.-A. with first class in the final 
classical school. In 1834 he gained the 
Latin essay, and became fellow of Balliol in 
1835, acting as tutor in that college (with 
Archibald Campbell Tait, afterwards arch- 
bishop of Canterbury) until 1840. He was 
ordained in 1835, and held the college living 
of Duloe, Cornwall, from 1845 to 1850. He 
was prebendary of Exeter from.1845 to 1866, 
and held the rectory of South Luffenham, 
Rutland, from 1850 to 1854, being select 
preacher at Oxford in 1853-4. In 1854 he 
was elected master of Balliol College, in suc- 
cession to Dr. Richard Jenkyns [q. v.], and 
in opposition to Benjamin Jowett, whose 
orthodoxy was questioned. Scott held the 
mastership until 1870, being also Dean Ire- 
land's professor of exegesis from 1861 to 
1870. He was dean of Rochester from 1870 
to his death, being again select preacher at 
Oxford in 1874-5. During Ms tenure of 
office Balliol College, which had already 
made marked progress under Dr. Jenkyns, 
became one of the most prominent colleges, 
if not the leading college, in the university. 
Dr. Scott joined to a most zealous and suc- 
cessful performance of his duties first as 
tutor, afterwards as parish priest, and sub- 
sequently as master of Balliol and as dean 
of Rochester, a zealous devotion to scholar- 
ship. This he displayed most conspicuously 
in the great Greek-English lexicon which he 
compiled with Dr. H. G. Liddell, dean of 
Christ Church, and which opened a new epoch 
in Greek scholarship in England. The work 
was begun, on the basis of Passow's lexicon; 
in 1836. After sevefa. years of labour the 
first edition was brought out by the Cla- 
rendon Press in 1843. Its revision continued 
for forty years to be the constant occupation 
of its joint authors, the seventh and en- 
larged edition being published in 1883. It 
remains the most complete and authoritative 
book of the kind. Dr. Scott was also the 



Scott 



66 



Scott 



author of 'Twelve Sermons' (1851) and of 
'University Sermons' (1860). He contri- 
buted to the ' Speaker's Commentary 7 a com- 
mentary on the Epistle of St. James, and 
was member of, the revision committee for 
the New Testament and the Apocrypha. 

Scott died at the deanery, Rochester, on 
2 Dec. 1887. He married, first, on 1 Dec. 
1840, Mary Harriet, daughter of Eear- 
admiral Thomas Folliott Bough, who died on 
6 Dec. 1845; and, secondly, on 7 June 1849, 
Mary Jane Ann, daughter of Major Hugh 
Scott, who died on 6 Jan. 1885. 

[G-uardmn, 14 Pec. 1887 (art. by Archdeacon 
Palmer) ; Campbell and Abbott's Life of Jowett, 
1897 ; personal knowledge.] H. C. 

SCOTT, ROBERT BISSET (1774-1841), 
military writer, born in 1774, is chiefly note- 
worthy in connection with military law. He 
was commissioned as lieutenant in the Tower 
Hamlets militia on 9 Nov. 1807. In 1810 
lie published anonymously his first work, 
* The Military Law of England (with all the 
principal authorities) adapted to the general 
use of the Army in its various Duties and Re- 
lations, and the Practice of Courts-martial/ 
He was himself brought to a court-martial 
by his colonel on 19 Dec. 1811 for neglect 
of orders and for breaking his arrest; but the 
court practically acquitted him, and even 
the private admonition which they adjudged 
was remitted. They considered that the facts 
brought forward in support of the charges 
were of a vexatious nature. 

Two years afterwards his colonel, Mark 
Beaiifoy [q. v.], was tried by court-martial, 
Scott being the prosecutor. The trial lasted 
from 26 Oct. to 24 Nov. 1813. The court ac- 
quitted Beaufoy of most of the numerous 
charges, but found him guilty of some irregu- 
larities in the enlistment of recruits, and of 
culpable neglect in not preventing illegal 
deductions from the mens pay. They sen- 
tenced him to be removed from the com- 
mand of his regiment, which he had held 
since it was first raised in 1797, but they 
stated that, in the conduct of the prosecu- 
tion, Scott had not been f actuated by that 
regard for the service which alone ought to 
influence an officer upon such an occasion.' 
The result was that, while the sentence 
was confirmed, Scott was informed that his 
farther services would be dispensed with 
(22 Jan. 1814). 

He then started a weekly paper, 'The Mili- 
tary Register,' and published in 1816 'The 
Stratagems of "War/ a translation of Fron- 
tinus. In 1880 he went to .Portugal to 
serve against Dom Miguel, and is said to 
have liberated Sir John Milley Doyle [q. v.] 



from prison; but this must be a mistake, 
for Doyle was liberated two years before at 
the instance of Sir Frederick Lamb. In 
1836, on the recommendation of Sir Herbert 
Taylor, William IV made him a pensioner 
of the Charterhouse, where he died on 
22 Oct. 1841. He was twice married. 

Besides the works mentioned, he pub- 
lished ' The Excellence of the British Mili- 
tary Code . . . exemplified,' London, 1811, 
8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1841, ii. 657; Hodder's History 
of the 7th Battalion Rifle Brigade (formerly 
Tower Hamlets Militia); Military Extracts in 
the library of the B..U.S. Institution which con- 
tain a full report of the two trials (vi. 408).] 

E. M. L. 

SCOTT, EGBERT EDEN (1770-1811), 
philosopher, born at Old Aberdeen in 1770, 
graduated M. A., at the University and King's 
College, Aberdeen, on 30 March 1785, was 
appointed regent on 8 May 1788, and, after 
holding in co-professoriate the chair of natu- 
ral philosophy interchangeably with those of 
Greek, mathematics, ana moral philosophy, 
held the last exclusively from 1800 until his 
death, which occurred at Edinburgh on 
21 Jan. 1811. His portrait is in the pos- 
session of the University of Aberdeen. Scott 
married at Old Aberdeen, on 19 Feb. 1797, 
iRachel Forbes of Thainstown. He was 
author of: 1. 'Elements of Rhetoric,' 1802. 
2. 'Elements of Intellectual Philosophy, or 
an Analysis of the Powers of the Human Un- 
derstanding/ Edinburgh, 1805, 8vo. 3. * In- 
quiry into the Limits and Peculiar Objects 
of Physical and Metaphysical Science/ Edin- 
burgh, 1810, 8vo. lie belonged to the 
Scottish, or common-sense, school of philo- 
sophy. 

[Scots Mag. 1797 p. 143, 1811 p. 159 ; Officers 
and Graduates of Univ. and King's Coll. Aber- 
deen (New Spalding Club), 1893, pp. 64, 259, 
320; Blakey's Hist. Ment. Phil. iv. 23.1 

j. k R. 

SCOTT, SAMUEL (1710 P-1772), marine 
painter, was born in London about 1710, 
From 27 to 81 May 1732 he made a celebrated 
'Five days' Peregrination' in the Isle of 
Sheppey in company with William Hogarth 
[q. v.j and other friends. The Journal of the 
' Five Days 7 was written by Ebenezer For- 
rest [q. v.j and published in 1782, illustrated 
with drawings by Hogarth and Scott, aqua- 
tinted by B. Livesay. The manuscript is in 
the King's Library at the British Museum. 
It was reprinted with the illustrations by 
Hotten in 1872. Between 1761 and 1771 
Scott exhibited three works at the Society 
of Artists, one at the Free Society, and one, 



Scott 6 

' A View of the Tower of London/ at the 
Royal Academy in 177L He was one of 
the early draughtsmen in watercolours, and 
has been called the father of English water- 
colour, but his chief works are in oil. He 
earned a considerable and well-deserved repu- 
tation by his shore and river scenes, which 
were well-drawn and painted, and enlivened 
with figures, some of which were supplied by 
Hogarth. Horace Walpole (who had a large 
collection of his works) says that they ' will 
charm in every age/ and that ' if he was 
second to Vandeveldt in seapieces, he ex- 
celled him in variety/ His views of London 
Bridge, the Custom-house Quay, and other 
pictures of the Thames earned him the name 
of the English Canaletto. He lived at 
Twickenham, but retired to Bath, where he 
diedinWalcot Street, of gout, 12 Oct. 1772, 
leaving an only daughter. His collection of 
drawings, prints, &c., was sold by Langford 
in January 1773. There is a good portrait 
of Scott by Hudson in the National Gallery 
and four of his pictures of London. He was 
the master of William Marlow [q. v.] 

[Walpole'a Anecdotes, ed. "Wonrom; Red- 
grave's Diet.; Bryan's Diet.; Q-raves's (Algernon) 
Diet.; Hogarth's Frolic (Eottea); Cat. of 
National Gallery.] 0, M. 



SCOTT, SARAH (<*. 1795), historian and 
novelist, was the younger daughter of Mat- 
thew Robinson (d. 1778) of West Layton in 
the parish of Hutton Magna, Yorkshire, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Drake, 
recorder of Cambridge. She was the younger 
sister of Matthew Robinson, second lord 
Bokeby, and of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu 
[q. v,], and as the two sisters were said to 
be ( as like as two peas/ she was nicknamed 
' The Pea.' About 1751 she married George 
Lewis Scott [q.^v.], and on 30 April 1752 
Mrs. Delany writes on the * foolish choice ' 
which Mrs. Scott has made for herself, add- 
ing that her husband was ' a very bad man * 
(Life and Correspondence, iii. 115). There 
were no doubt faults on both sides; for 
they parted 'through disagreement of tem- 
pers.' 

After the separation Mrs. Scott went to 
live with Lady Barbara (or Bab) Montagu, 
sister of George Montagu Dunk, second earl 
of Halifax [q. v.l and the two ladies united 
their income. They dwelt together until 
the death of Lady Bab in 1765, when Mrs. 
Scott, whose 'restlessness was one of her 
foibles/ continually changed her place of 
abode. She died in obscurity at Catton, near 
Norwich, on 30 Nov. 1795. By her last 
injunctions, all her letters and papers were 
burnt. Mrs. Scott was an industrious if dull 



r Scott 

writer. In her own day she was described 
as an ' excellent historian, of great acquire- 
ments, extraordinary memory and strong 
sense.' 

All of her works were published without 
her name. They comprised : 1. * History of 
Cornelia/ a novel (anon.), 1760. 2. 'Journey 
through Every Stage of Life ' (anon.), 1754, 
2 vols., a history of several fictitious cha- 
racters, mostly lovers. 3. * Agreeable Ugli- 
ness, or the Trial of the Graces' (anon.), 
1764. 4. 'History of Gustavus Ericson, 
King of Sweden, by Henry Augustus Ray- 
mond/ 1761, a scarce volume. 5. ' History 
of Mecklenburgh' (anon.), 1762 ; 2nd edit. 
1762. It was suggested by the marriage of 
George HE. 6. ' Description of Millennium 
Hall, by a Gentleman on his Travels/ 1762 ; 
2nd edit. 1764; 4th edit. 1778. An account 
of a country house and of the several ladies 
inhabiting it. A note by Horace Walpole 
on a copy of the second edition at the Bri- 
tish Museum states that it was written by 
Lady Barbara Montagu and Mrs. Scott. 
7. * Man of Real Sensibility, or the History 
of Sir George Ellison ' (anon.), 1766 (?), forty 
pages, This was afterwards expanded into 
' The History of Sir George Ellison/ 1766, 
2 vols. 8. ' Test of Filial Duty, in a series 
of Letters between Emilia Leonard and 
Charlotte Arlington/ 1772, 2 vols. : excel- 
lent morality, but dull reading. 9. ' Life of 
Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne* ' (anon.), 1772, 
an account of the most 'remarkable occur- 
rences during the civil wars of France/ 
This work acquired much reputation. 

[G-ent. Mag. 1795 ii. 1056, 1798 ii. 826; 
Brydges's Censura Literaria, i. 293-5 ; Notes and 
Queries, 7th ser. viii. 116; Gent. Mag. 1805, i. 
218-21, ii. 811-12 ; Doran's A Lady of the Last 
Century: Mrs. Montagu, 1873, and Letters of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu.] W. P. C. 

SCOTT or SCOT, THOMAS (1423-1600), 
archbishop of York. [See ROTHBEHAM.] 

SCOTT or SCOT, THOMAS, LOUD PET- 
GOEMO (1480 P-1639), Scottish judge, was 
second son of Sir William Scott of Balwearie 
[q. v.] and Janet, daughter of Thomas Lundy. 
Thomas obtained a charter under the great 
seal of the lands and house of Petgormo on 
2 Jan. 1526 (DoTTGLAS, Baronage, p, 304). 
On 19 Nov. 1632 he was appointed ordinary 
judge in place of his father, with the title of 
Lord Petgormo. He was a great favourite 
with James V, who made him justice plerk 
in 1636. He died in 1639. According to 
the legend related by Knox in his ' History 
of the Reformation, Scot visited the king 
at Linlithgow on the night of his own death 
'with a company of devils/ announcing 



Scott 



68 



Scott 



that he (Scot) was ' adjudged to endless tor- 
ment' (KNOX, History, ed, 1644, p. 25). 

[Brimton and Haig's Senators of the College 
of Justice.] & S- 31 * 

SCOTT, THOMAS (1580 P-1626), poli- 
tical writer, born about 1580, occurs as one of 
the chaplains to James I in 1616, being then 
B.D. He was incorporated in that degree 
at Cambridge in 1620 as a member of Peter- 
house, but the university records do not 
state where he originally graduated. He was 
rector of St. Saviour's, Norwich, and when 
Count Gondomar arrived in England to settle 
preliminaries for the marriage of Prince 
Charles with the infanta of Spain, he had 
the temerity to publish in 1620 a tract 
against the projected match. It was en- 
titled ' Vox Populi/ and purported to give 
an account of (Jondomar's reception by the 
council of state upon his return to Madrid 
in 1618. The ambassador is there made to 
explain his schemes for bringing England 
into subjection to Spain, to describe with 
evident satisfaction the crowds which went 
to assist at mass in his chapel in London, 
and to recount how he had won over the 
leading courtiers by his bribes. The whole 
story was an impudent fabrication, but at 
the time it was widely received as a piece 
of genuine history (GURDOTEK, Hist, of Eng- 
land, iii. 392, 393 ; cf. D'Ewus, Autobiogr. i. 
158). John Chamberlain on $ Feb. 1620-1 
informed Sir Dudley Carleton that 'the 
author of " Vox Populi " is discovered to be 
one Scot, a minister, bewrayed by the printer, 
who thereby hath saved himself, and got his 
pardon, though the book were printed beyond 
&ea ' (BiBtJH, Court and Times of James J, ii. 
226). Again, the Bev. Joseph Mead, writing 
on 10 Feb. 1620-1, tells Sir Martin Stute- 
ville that ' Scot of Norwich, who is said to 
be the author of "Vox Populi," they say is 
now fled, having, as it seems, fore-notice of 
the pursuivant' (ib. ii. 226). In 'Vox Regis' 
(1624) Scott gave in somewhat obscure bi- 
blical language an account of the motives 
which induced him to write ' Vox Populi/ 
and the consequences of that publication to 
himself. 'Vox Populi' was suppressed by 
royal authority. Dr. Samuel Harsnett, bishop 
of Norwich, was commanded to institute pro- 
ceedings against him (State Papers, Dom. 
James I, vol. cxxiv. nn. 20, 75). Scott's ab- 
sence from England was brief. He preached 
an assize sermon at Bury St. Edmund's on 
20 March 1622, being then * minister of the 
word' at St. Clement^, Ipswich, and chaplain 
to William, earl of Pembroke. But it is 
probable that Scott quitted England for the 
etherlands towards the close of 162$, whea 



he became preacher to the English garrison 
at Utrecht. There he continued writing 
pamphlets against the Roman catholics, 
many of which were published in England 
after Scott's departure. He was assassi- 
nated by an English soldier named John 
Lambert on 18 June 1626, as he was corning 
out of church, accompanied by his brother 
William Scott and his nephew Thomas 
Scott. The assassin was put to the tor- 
ture, but persisted in asserting that he was 
' never hyred or induced by the perswasions 
of any priest, Jesuit, or other person to at- 
tempt that bloudy act.' Although the man 
was evidently mad, and subject to strange 
hallucinations, he was condemned to death 
and executed, iis right hand being first cut 
off (BiRCH, i. -123 ; cf. A brief e and trve JRc- 
lation of the Afvrther of Mr. Thomas Scott, 
London, 1628,* 4to). 

There is a portrait of Scott, ' setatis sure 
45, anno 1624-,' drawn and engraved by Cris- 
pin de Pass. His portrait has also been en- 
graved by Marshall. 

Subjoined is a list of his writings, winch 
made a deep impression on the public mind 
at the time of their appearance : 1. ' Christ s 
Politician and Salomons Puritan/ London, 
1616, 4to, 2. * Vox Popiili, or Newes from 
Spayne, translated according to the Spanish 
coppie: which may serve to forwarn both 
England, and the Vnited Provinces, how 
farre to trust to Spanish Pretences. Impr. 
in the Year 1620/ sine loco, 4to. Reprinted 
in 1659 and 1679 under the title of * A choice 
Narrative of Count Q-ondomar's Transactions 
during his Embassy in England: By Sir 
Eobert Cotton, Knight and Baronet.' It is 
also printed in the ' Somers Collection of 
Tracts.' A minutely written contemporary 
copy, possibly in the author's autograph, was 
among Dawson Turner's manuscripts, sold in 
1859. 3. 'A Speech made in the Lower 
House of Parliament, Anno 1621. By Sir 
Edward Cicill, Colonell,' 1621, 4to; again in 
1624 (a forgery by Scott, cf. GARDINER, Hist, 
iv. 28). 4. 'A Kelation of some speciall 
points concerning the State of Holland. Or 
the Provident Counsellors Companion. By 
many reasons shewing, why for the good and 
security of the Netherlaud* vnited Prouinces 
Warre is much better then peace' (anon,)* 
The Hague, 1 62 1 , 4to. 5, ' The Interpreter, 
wherin three principall termes of State much 
mistaken by tlie vulgar [viz. Puritan, Protes- 
tant, Papist] are clearely unfolded,' inverse, 
Sine loco 1622, 8vo. The authorship has 
been ascribed to Scott (Addit. MS. 24942, 
p. 374). 6. * The Belgicke Pismire ; stinging 
the slothfull Sleeper, and awaking the Dili- 
gent, to fast, watch, pray, and worke out 



1 r 



Scott < 

their own temporal! and eternal! Salvation, 
with Fear and Trembling/ London two edi- 
tions), 1622, 4to. A popular tract in favour 
of the Low Countries, written to prejudice 
the English against the match which Vil- 
liers, Duke of Buckingham, was then nego- 
tiating. ' The Second Edition, to which is 
added, The Projector. Teaching a direct, 
sure, and ready way to restore the decayes 
of Church and State, delivered in a Sermon 
before the Judges in Norwich, 1620/ Lon- 
don, 1623, 8vo. 7. * Newes from Pernassus. 
The Politicall Touchstone, Taken from Mount 
Pernassus: Whereon the Governments of 
the greatest Monarchies of the World are 
touched. Printed at Helicon, 1622 f (anon.),. 
4tp. 8. ' The High-waies of God and the 
King. Wherein all Men ought to walke in 
Holinesse here, to Happinesse hereafter/ 
London, 1623, 4to. 9. ' A Tongue Combat 
lately happening betweene two English Soul- 
diers in the Tilt-Boat of Gravesend/ London, 
1623, 4to. In this tract are many phrases 
current among the common people at the 
time. 10. ' Exod. 8, 19. Digitus Dei/ being 
a sermon on Luke xiii. 1-5 [London, 1623], 
4tp. 11. 'An experimental! Discoverie of 
Spanish Practices : or the Councell of a well- 
wishing Soulder for the Good of his Prince 
and State/ two parts, 1623-4, 4to. 12. Vox 
Dei/ an assize sermon preached at St. Ed- 
-munds Bury on 20 March 1622, London 
[1624], 4tp. With a frontispiece containing 
thirteen portraits, viz. King James, Prince 
Charles, the king and queen of Bohemia and 
their children, the Duke of Buckingham, and 
the Earl of Holderness. 13. ' A Briefe In- 
formation of the Affaires of the Palatinate/ 
[anon.] 1624, 4to. ^ 14. 'Boanerges, or the 
Humble Supplication of the Ministers of 
Scotland to the High Court of Parliament 
in England/ Edinburgh, 1624, 4to. 1& 'Vox 
Regis' [1624], 4tp. 'With a frontispiece of 
King James sitting in parliament, Prince 
Charles and the king and queen of Bohemia 
kneeling before him, the bishops on his right 
and peers on his left. 14. * VothiSB Anglise : 
or the Desires and Wishes of England. Con- 
tayned in a Patheticall Discourse, presented 
to the King, on New-yeares Day last. 
Wherein are unfolded and represented manie 
strong Reasons ^. ... to perswade his Majes- 
tie to drawe his Royall Sword, for the re- 
storing of the Pallatynat and Electorat, to 
his Sonne in Lawe, Prince Fredericke .... 
Written by S, R. N. I./ Utrecht (two edi- 
tions), 1624, 4to. 17. 'Certaine Reasons 
und Arguments of Policie, why the King of 
England should hereafter give over all 
further Treatie, and enter into -frarre with 
the Spaniard '(anon,), sine loco. 1624, 4to. 



Scott 



or 



18. 'The second Parfe^of Vox Populi: 
Gondomar appearing ,in the Likeness of a 
Matchiavell in a Spanish Parliament * . .' 
Printed a* Goricocm by Ashuerus Janss, 
1624/ 4to. With an engraved title, includ- 
ing a whole-length portrait of Gondomar and 
two vignettes, 'The Spanish Parliament' 
and* The Council of English Jesuits.' The 
work is reprinted IB Morgan's 'Phoenix 
Britannicus ' (p. 341). 19. ' Vox Coeli, or 
Newes from Heaven, of a Consultation there 
held by King Henry 8, King Edward 6, 
Prince Henry, Queen Mary, Queen Eliza- 
beth, and Queen Anne. Whereunto is an- 
nexed two Letters, written by Queen Mary 
from Heaven ; the. one to Count Gondomar, 
the Ambassador of Spain, the other to all 
the Roman Catholics of England. Printed 
in Elisium, 1624/ 4to. Reprinted in vol. ii. 
of the ' Somers Collection of Tracts/ 
20. 'Symmachia: or, a Trve-Loves Knot. 
Tyed, betwixt Great Britaine and the 
Vnited Prouinces, by the wisedome of King 
lames, and the States Generall ; the Kings 
of France,, Deronarke, and Sweden, the 
Duke of Sauoy, with the States of Venice 
being Witnesses and Assistants. For the 
Weale and Peace of Christendom' (anon.) 
[Utrecht ? 1624?], 4to. 21. ' Aphorismes of 
State, or certaine secret Articles for the 
Re-edefying of the Romish Church, agreed 
upon and approved in Councell by the Col- 
ledge of Cardinalls in Rome, shewed and de- 
livered unto Pope Gregory the 15th, a little 
before his Death. Whereunto is annexed 
a Censure upon the chieffe Points of that 
which the Cardinalls had concluded/ 
Utrecht, 1624, 4to. Reprinted in vol. v. 
of the 'Harleian Miscellany.' 22. 'TheBel- 
gick-Sovldier : dedicated to the Parliament. 
Or, Warre was a Blessing 7 (anon.), Dort, 
1624, 4to. 23. ' The Spaniard's perpetual! 
Designes to an universal! Monarchic/ 1624, 
4to. 24. 'Englands Joy for suppressing 
the Papists, and banishing the Priests and 
Jesuites/ 1624, 4to. 25. 'Roberte Earle of 
Essex his Ghost, sent from Elizian : To the 
Nobility, Gentry, and Communaltie of Eng- 
land. Printed in Paradise 1624' (anon,), 
2 parts, 4to ; this tract, written against the 
marriage of Prince Charles with the Infanta 
of Spain, is reprinted in No. 5 of Morgan's 
6 Phoenix Britannicus/ in vol. v. of the ' Har- 
leian Miscellany ' and in vol. ii. of the ' Somers 
Collection of Tracts.' 26. ' Sir Walter Raw- 
leighs Ghost, or Englands Forewarner. Dis- 
couering a secret Consultation, newly holden 
in the Court of Spaine. Together, with his 
tormenting of Count de Q-ondomar ; and his 
strange aftnghfrment, Confession, and pub- 
lique recantation : laying open many tranche- 



Scott 



Scott 



ries intended for the subversion of England' 
(anon.), Utrecht, 1626, 4to. This tract, re- 
lating to Gondomar's transactions in Eng- 
land, is reprinted in vol. v, of the ' Harleian 
Miscellany/ 

^ There is in the Brit-well Library a collec- 
tion of twenty-four of tjie above tracts, in- 
cluding the speech to Sir Edward Cecil, to 
which has been prefixed the following general 
title : t The Workes of the most famous and 
reuerend Diuine, Mr. Thomas Scot, Batcheler 
mDiuinitie, sometimes Preacher in Norwich. 
Printed at Vtrick, 1624,' 4to. No other copy 
of this title-page is known. 

It is uncertain whether the political writer 
is identical with THOMAS SCOT or SCOTT (f,. 
1605), poet, who described himself as a gen- 
tleman, and who wrote several poetical works. 
It appears from a letter addressed by Locke 
to Sir Dudley Carleton on 2 Feb. 1620-1 that 
the minister of Norwich, then suspected of 
"being the author of '"Vox Populi/ had, in 
Somerset's time, been questioned about a 
* book of birds ' (Cal, State Papers, Dom. 
1619-23). The poetical writer published the 
following pieces : 1 , ' Four Paradoxes of Arte, 
of Lawe, of Warre, of Service [a poem]. By 
T. S./ London, 1602, 8vo. 2. < Philomythie 
or Philomythologie, wherein outlandish 
Birds, Beasts, and Fishes are taught to 
speak true English/ London, 1610, Svo; 
2nd edit, 'much inlarged,' London, 1616, 
8vo. Some copies of the second edition are 
dated 1622 ; others 1640. On sig. Ii of 
the second edition is the following title : 
'Certaine Pieces of this Age parabolizM, 
viz. Buellum Britannicum, Begalis Justitia 
lacobi. Aqui^nispicium. Antidotum Cecil- 
lianum.' This portion is sometimes found 
separately. A transcript of it, entitled l The 
Deade March/ was in 1859 in the library of 
Dawson Turner, and the compiler of the 
catalogue of his manuscripts- states th^t the 
author of the poems was supposed to be a 
native m of Lynn Regis. To 'Philomythie' 
there is a curious frontispiece engraved by 
Elstracke in which are figures of birds and 
"beasts; and at the top there are two half- 
lengths, one being of JSsop, while the other 
is believed by collectors to be a portrait of 
Scott, Of this book Collier says 'the 
author seems to Have been so fearful lest his 
satire should be considered personal and in- 
dividual, that ambiguity often renders him 
incomprehensible!' The most remarkable 
poem is entitled 'Regalis Justitia Jacobi/ 
in which Scott celebrates the impartial jus- 
tice of King James in refusing to pardon 
/Lord Sanquhat or Sanquier, for the deli- 
berate murder of Turner, the celebrated 
fencer, in 1612. 3. 'The Second Part of 



Philomythie or Philomythologie. Contain- 
ing certaine Tales of True Libertie, False 
Friendship. Power Vnited. Faction and 
Ambition,' London, 1616 and 1625, 8vo. 

[Addit. MSS. 5880 f. 94, 24488 f. 138; 
Ashmolean JMS. 1163, art. 2 ; Baker MS. 32, p. 
525; Bandinel's Cat. of Books, lots 1078-80, 
1144, and Cat. of Tracts, lots 750, 752; Bibl. 
Anglo-Poetica, pp.341, 342; Brydges's Censura 
Lit. (1807), iii. 381, iv. 32; Cat, of MSS. in 
Cambridge Univ. Library, iii. 153; Collier's 
Bibl. Account of the Barest Books, ii. 3*26 ; Col- 
lier's Bridgvter Catalogue, p. 278 ; European 
Mag, xv. 8 (January 1789); Granger's Biogr. 
Hist, of England, 5th edit. ii. 69 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn) iv. 2222 ; Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. v. 179, 3rd ser. x. 433, 5th ser.iii. 289, 
320; Biary of John ftous (Oamden Soc.), p. 6; 
Cal. of State Papers (Dom. 1619-23), pp. 208, 
218, 219,224, 462,468; Cat. of D. Turner's 
MSS. pp. 183, 184 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss) 
i. 412.] T. C. 

SCOTT or SCOT, THOMAS (& 1660), 
regicide, is said by Noble to have been the 
son of a brewer in London (Lives of the Regi- 
cides, ii. 169). Another authority describes 
him as probably descended from Thomas 
Scot, a Yorkshireman, who married Mar- 
garet, widow of Benedict Lee of Burston, 
and daughter of Robert Pakington (LlPS- 
COMB, Buckinghamshire, ii. 11). Scot was 
educated at Westminster school and at Cam- 
bridge (LiTDLOW, Memoirs, ed. 1894 ; WOOD, 
Athena, iii. 578). On 27 June 1644 his 
name appears in the list of the parliamentary 
committee for Buckinghamshire (HTTSBAJNTD, 
Ordinances 0/1646, folio, p. 511). In 1645 he 
was returned to the Long parliament, in 
place of Sir Ralph Verney, for Aylesbury 
(Return of Members of Parliament, i. 485 ; 
Memoirs of the Verney Family, ii. 218). He 
was one of those members of the commons 
who joined the army and signed the engage- 
ment of 4 Aug. 1647 (ETTSHWOBTH,VU. 755). 
In January 1649 Scot was appointed one of 
the commissioners for the trial of Charles I, 
signed the king's death-warrant, and was 
only absent twice during the trial (NAXSON, 
Trial of Charles T\ . He was elected a m em- 
ber of each of the nve councils of state elected 
during the Commonwealth, and in the elec- 
tion to the fifth was seventh on the list, 
.obtaining 93 votes out of 114 (Commons 9 
Journals, vii. 220). 

On 1 July 1649 the council of state ap- 
pointed Scot to ' manage the intelligence, both 
at home and abroad for the state/ and granted 
him 800J. a year for that object (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom 1 . 1649-50, p, 221). This in- 
volved the employment of spies and secret 
agents, both at foreign 1 " fcourts and among 



Scott 7 

\he exiled royalists, and gave Scot an im- 
portant influence both in foreign and dpmes- 
- tic policy. His papers have mostly perished, 
but in 1660 he drew up an account of his 
proceedings as an intelligencer which throws 
some light on the history of the Common- 
wealth (printed in the English Historical 
Revieiv, January 1897). Scot was a vehement 
supporter of the republic, opposed Crom- 
well's dissolution of the Long parliament in 
1653, and remained hostile to him through- 
out the protectorate. In the Protector's 
first parliament he represented Wycombe 
(though his election was disputed), and was, 
according to Ludlow, ' very instrumental in 
opening the eyes of many young members ' 
on the question of the legality of the new 
constitution (Mercurius Politicus, 6-13 July 
1654 ; LUDLOW, Memoirs, ii. 391). In con- 
sequence he was one of those members ex- 
cluded from the house for refusing to sign 
the engagement of 12 Sept. 1654, accepting 
the government as settled in a single person 
aud parliament. In 1656 Scot was returned 
to Cromwell's second parliament as member 
for Aylesbury, but failed in the attempt to 
be also chosen at Wycombe (Thurloe Papers, 
v. 316). The council of state, however, kept 
out Scot and about ninety more republicans 
whose protestation is printed in Whitelocke's 
1 Memorials ' (ed. 1853, iv. 274). All. those 
thus excluded were admitted in January 
1658 at the opening of the second session. 
Scot at once proceeded to attack the House 
of Lords, which had been established in ac- 
cordance with the ' Humble Petition and 
Advice.' On 29 Jan. he made a long oration, 
reviewing the whole history of the civil war, 
Justifying the execution of the king and the 
abolition of the lords, and .denouncing the 
attempt to put fetters upon the people of 
England by reviving a second chamber. 
' Shall I/ he said, ' that sat in a parliament 
that brought a king to the bar, and to the 
block, not speak my mind freely here ? ' 
(BtTRTOisr, Parliamentary Diary, ii. 382). 

In Richard Cromwell's parliament, Scot, 
who again sat for Wycombe, was equally 
prominent among the opposition. He pro- 
nounced a panegyric on the Long parlia- 
ment, attacked Cromwell's foreign policy, op- 
posed the admission of the members for Scot- 
land, and spoke against the recognition of 
Richard Cromwell and the powers given the 
Protector by the constitution (&, iii. 28, 107, 
219, 275, 473, iv. 34, 92, 228, 316, 453, 478 ; 
LTJDLOW, ii. 50V On the fall of Richard 
Cromwell and the, restoration of the Long 
parliament, Scot became a person of great 
influence in the new government. He was 
appointed a member of the council of state 



: Scott 

on 14 May 1659, and again on 31 Dec. of the 
same year (Commons' Journals, vii. 654, 800). 
He was also one of the six members of the 
intelligence committee (24 May 1659), and 
was finally given the sole charge of the intel- 
ligence department(10 Jan. 1660) (CaL State 
Papers, Dom, 1659-60, pp. 355, 374). When 
Lambert interrupted the sittings of the Long 
parliament (October 1659), Scot entered into 
correspondence with Monck, and took an 
active part in opposing the army (LtJBLOW, 
ii. 145, 159, 176, 209). In conjunction with 
Ashley Cooper, he made an unsuccessful 
attempt to seize the Tower (CHRISTIE, Life 
of Shaftesbury, vol, i. p. Ixxiv). When the 
parliament was once more restored he was 
made secretary of state ^17 Jan. 1660), and 
sent to meet J&onck on his march from Scot- 
land and congratulate him on his success 
(Commons' Journals, vii. 813, 816). Monck 
found Scot's company very irksome, regard- 
ing him as a spy sent by parliament, but 
treated him with great civility and professed 
to be guided by his advice (G-uioLE, Life of 
Monck, pp. 224, 226 ; PBICB, Mystery of His 
Majesty s HappyJRestoration, ed. Maseres, pp. 
754-61). After Monck's march into the city 
and his threatening letter to the parliament 
(11 Feb. 1660)> Scot was again sent as par- 
liamentary commissioner to him, and his re- 
ception opened his eyes to the fact that he 
had been deluded (ib. pp. 248, 252 ; PEICB, 
p. 768 ; LTTDLOW, ii. 222). The readmission 
of the members of the commons excluded 
in 1648 put an end to his secretaryship and 
his power, but before the dissolution of the 
Long parliament he- took opportunity to 
affirm the justice of the king's execution, 
saying that he desired not better epitaph 
than "Here lies one who had a hand and a 
heart in the execution of Charles Stuart ' (ib. 
ii. 250 ; Trial of the Regicides, p. 87). I^ud- 
low and some of the late- council of state 
hoped to raise money and troops fox a last 
effort to prevent the restoration of Charles II, 
but Scot, who had promised his assistance, 
finding the scheme had no prospect of suc- 
cess, and that his arrest was imminent, re- 
solved to retire to the coiimtrjr.fLTJDLOW, ii. 
252). In April 1660, finding himself, as he 
said, in danger of assassination, he took ship 
for Flanders. In spite of his disguise he was 
recognised at Brussels in June 1660, and at- 
tempts were made to seize him. In the end 
he was persuaded to surrender himself to Sir 
Henry de Vic, the king's resident at Brussels, 
in the hope of saving his life by thus obeying 
the royal proclamation for the surrender of 
the regicides. The credit of capturing him or 
persuading him to surrender was much dis- 
puted (CaL State Papers, Dora. 1670, p. 



Scott 72 



Scott 



649 ; A True Narrative in a Letter written 
to Col B. R. of the Apprehension of the 
Grand Traitor Thomas Scot, 1660, 4to ; Mr. 
Ignatius White his Vindication from all Im- 
putations concerning Mr. Scot,fyc., 1660, 4to). 
Scot was brought to England, and at once 
sent to the Tower (July 12). The House of 
Commons had excepted him from pardon on 
6 June, and the exception was maintained m 
the act of indemnity. Some promise of life 
appears to have been made to him if he 
would discover the agents from whom he 
had obtained information of the plans of 
Charles II during the time he was intelli- 
gencer. He drew up accordingly ' A Con- 
fession and Discovery of his Transactions,' to 
which he appended a petition for his life, 
apologising for his 'rash and over-lavish* 
words in parliament, and pleading his con- 
stant opposition to Cromwell (English His- 
torical Review, January 1897), but his reve- 
lations were not held sufficiently valuable ; 
he was tried with the other regicides on 
12 Oct. 1660. Scot pleaded not guilty, 
argued that the authority of parliament jus- 
tified his actions ; and, when his words aliout 
the king's death were urged against him, 
claimed that they were covered by the pri- 
vilege of parliament. He was condemned to 
death, and executed on 17 Oct. 1660 (Trial 
of the Regicides, pp. 82-85, 99). He behaved 
with great courage, and died protesting that 
he had' engaged in ' a cause not to be re- 
pented of (LuDiow, -ii. 315; Speeches and 
jPrayers of some of the late King's Judges^ 4to, 
1660, pp. 65-73). 

Scot had property at Little Marlow in 
Buckinghamshire, and was also for a time 
recorder of Aylesbury. During the Common- 
wealth he bought an estate from Sir John 
.Pakington at Heydon Hill, and was one of 
the purchasers of Lambeth House. He also 
made some small purchase of church lands, 
though he asserts that his official gains were 
small (LIPSCOMB, ii. 11, iii. 601; THTTRLOE, 
v. 711). Scot is charged with throwing 
down the monument of Archbishop Parker 
at tambeth, and causing his bones to be dis- 
interred (WooD, Athena, ii. 783 ; STRTPB, 
Life of Parser, pp. 494, 498 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 7thEep.p. 149). 

He was thrice married, first to Alice 
Allinson at Chesterford in 1626 ; secondly, 
to Grace Maleverer or Mauleverer (buried 
in Westminster Abbey 26 Feb. 1646) ; and 
thirdly to Alice (surname unknown), who 
petitioned to visit him before execution 
(NoBLE, Lives of the Regicides, ii. 197; 
CHESTER. Westminster Reg. p. 140). His 
son William was made a fellow of All Souls' 
by the parliamentary visitors of Oxford, and 



graduated B.C.L. on 4 Aug, 1648 (WooD, 
Fasti, ii. 62 j FOSTER, Alumni Oxonienses. i 
1326). In April 1666 William, who was 
then an exile in Holland, was summoned by 
proclamation to return to England. He pre- 
ferred to remain in Holland as a spy for the 
English government, who secured him by 
means of his mistress Afra Behn [q. v!] 
(CaL State Papers, Dom. 1665-6 p. 342. 
1666-7 pp. 44, 82, 135, 142, 145). Another 
son, Colonel Thomas Scot, was arrested in 
Ireland in 1CG3 for a plot, turned king's 
evidence, and was expelled from the Irish 
parliament (CA.RTE, Omo<2e,iv.l38; PEPYS, 
Diary, 1 June 1663). Alice Scot, daughter 
of the regicide, married William Rowe, who 
was scoutmaster-general in 1650 (THTJB- 
LOB, v. 711 ; Biographia Britannica, p. 3528). 
Scot the regicide, who never served in the 
parliamentary army, is often confused with 
Major or Colonel Thomas Scot (or Scott) 
who was elected member for Aldborough in 
1645, and was concerned in the mutiny at 
Ware in November 1047 (RTJSHWOETH, vii. 
876; Comnwntf Journals, v. 362; Clarke 
Papers, i. 231), He died in January 1648 
(CaL Clarendon Papers, i. 408). 

[The only life of Scot is that in Noble's Lives 
of the Begieides, ii. 169-99, which is full of 
errors ; see authorities cited.] C. H. F. 

SCOTT, THOMAS (1705-1775), hymn- 
writer, younger son of Thomas Scott, inde- 
pendent minister of Hitchin, Hertfordshire, 
afterwards of Norwich, brother of Joseph 
Nicql Scott, M.D. [q. v.], and nephew of Dr. 
Daniel Scott [q. v. J, was born at Hitchin in 
1705. He was probably educated by his 
father. As a very young man he took charge 
of a small boarding-school at Wortwell, in 
the parish of Redcnhall, Norfolk, and once 
a month preached to the independent con- 
gregation at JEIarleston in the same parish. 
In 1733 he became minister of the dissent- 
ing congregation at Lowestoft, Suffolk. He 
is said to have retained this office till 1738, 
but in 1734 he succeeded Samuel Say [q. v.] 
as colleague to Samuel Baxter at St. Nicholas 
Street Chapel, Ipswich ; henceforth he pro- 
bably divided his time between the two 
places till Baxter was disabled. On Baxter's 
death on 13 July 1740 he became sole pastor, 
and remained so till 1 701, when Peter Emans 
became his colleague, followed by Robert 
Lewin (1762-1770), and William Wood, 
P.L.S. (1770-1773). Except during the 
three years of Wood's able ministry, the 
congregat ion languished. On 26 April 1 774 
being in broken health, Scott was elected 
minister by the trustees of an endowed 
chapel at Hapton, Norfolk* lie died at 
Hapton m 1776, and was buried in the 



Scott 



73 



Scott 



parish churchyard. He was married and 
left issue. 

Scott met with some success as a hymn- 
writer. Some of his hymns (e.g. 'Absurd 
and vain attempt/ * Imposture shrinks from 
light ' ) are odes to independence of thought j 
but his 'Hasten, sinner, to be wise/ has 
great power, and, his * Happy the meek* has 
great beauty. Eleven of his hymns were 
first contributed to 'Hymns for Public Wor- 
ship/ &c., Warrington, 1772, 12mo, edited by 



beloved's Memoirs of ,W. Wood, 1809, p. 13 ; 
Miller's Oar Hymns, 1866, pp. 146, 148 ; Julian's 
Diet, of Hymnology, 1892, pp. 1019 sq. ; manu- 
script records of Hapton trustees; information 
kindly furnished by Hardinge F. Giffard, esq., 
F.S.A.] A. GL 

SCOTT, THOMAS (1747-1821), com- 
mentator on the Bible, son of John Scott 
(d. 1777), grazier, was born at Braytoft, 
Lincolnshire, on 4 Feb. 1747. He was the 
tenth of thirteen children, After seven years' 



William Enfield [q. v.l Most of his hymns schooling, latterly at Scorton, Yorkshire, he 
are contained in his * Lyric Poems ' (1773) ; was annrentiaad in Sft-nt,fimhfvr 1762 to aanr- 



others are in the 'Collection/ &c., 1795, 
12mo, by Andrew Elippis [q. v.], Abraham 
Rees [q. v.], and others. He .published four 
single sermons (1740-59), including a funeral 
sermon for Samuel Baxter; also: 1. 'A 
Father's Instructions to his Son/ &c., 1748, 
4to (verse). 2. ' The Table of Cebes ... in 
English verse, with Notes/ &c., 1754, 4to. 

3. 'The Book of Job, in English verse . . . 
from the original . . . with Remarks/ &c,, 
1771, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1773, 8vo ; a poor ren- 
dering ; the notes are better than the text. 

4. ' Lyric Poems, Devotional and Moral/ 
&c., 1773, 8vo. 

ELIZABETH SCOTT (1708P-1776), hymn- 
writer, sister of the above, was born at 
Hitchin about 1708. Her father writes of 
her (1 March 1740) as * one who devotes 
herself to doing good, as a protestant nun.' 
Her letter to Doddridge, 10 May 1745, shows 
that she was suffering from religious depres- 
sion, not unconnected with family troubles 
(HUMPHREYS, Correspondence of DoddMge, 
in. 424, iv. 408 sq.) She married (1), at 
Norwich, in January 1751-2, Elisha Wil- 
liams, formerly rector of Yale College, with 
whom in March 1772 she removed to Con- 
necticut ; (2) Hon. William Smith, of New 
York, whom she survived, dying at Wethers- 
field, Connecticut, on 13 June 1776, aged 
68. Prior to 1750 she had written many 
hymns; three manuscript collections are 
known, the largest containing ninety hymns. 
The first publication of her hymns was in 
*'The Christian's Magazine ' (edited by Wil- 
liam Dodd [q. v.]), 1763 pp. 565 sq., 1764, pp. 
42, 90, 182 sq.; the communicator of some 
of these signs * GL-T/ and was probably the 
grandfather of Thomas Russell or Cloutt 



^. v,] Nineteen of her hymns were given 
in Ash and Evans's baptist ' Collection/ 
Bristol, 1769, and twenty in Dobell's 'New 
Selection/ 1806. Of these about fifteen are 
in use; one of the best is 'All ,hail, In- 
carnate God/ 

[Browne's Hist. Congr. Norf. and Suff. 1877, 
pp. 268, 288, 348, 391, 530 ; Historic Notes in 
Fellowship, October 1893, March 1894; Well- 



was apprenticed in September 1762 to a sur- 
geon and apothecary at Alford, Lincolnshire, 
bat was dismissed in two months for some 
misconduct. His father then set him to the 
'dirty parts' of a grazier's work, and his 
health permanently suffered from exposure to 
weather. Having passed some nine years 
in menial employment, he learned that the 
land on which he laboured was bequeathed 
to one of his brothers. He turned again to 
his * few torn Latin books/ and at length, 
in 1772, left home in anger at his father's 
harshness. He applied to a clergyman at 
Boston on the subject of taking orders. The 
archdeacon of Lincoln (Gordon) gave him 
some encouragement, and he went up to 
London as a candidate for ordination, but 
was sent back for want of his father's con- 
sent and sufficient testimonials. He re- 
turned to a herdsman's duties ; but having 
at length fulfilled the required conditions, 



he was ordained deacon "at Buckden 
and 



20 



on 

Sept. 1772, and priest in London on 
13 March 1773, by John Green [q.v.], bishop 
of Lincoln. Appointed to the curacies of 
Stoke Goldington, and West on Underwood, 
Buckinghamshire, at 50J. a year, he taught 
himself Hebrew, and became a diligent 
student of the scriptures in the original 
tongues. He exchanged the Stoke curacy 
for that of Ravenstone in 1775. At a visi- 
tation in May 1775 he had made the ac- 
quaintance of John Newton (1725-1807) 
[q, v.], whom in 1781 he succeeded as curate 
01 Olney, Buckinghamshire. 

He had published on 26 Feb. 1779 a nar- 
rative of his religious development, under 
the title of 'The Force of Truth/ Cowper 
the poet revised the book ' as to style and 
externals, but not otherwise.' A more im- 
pressive piece of spiritual autobiography has 
rarely been written. With attractive can- 
dour it details the process by which a mind 
of singular earnestness, though of somewhat 
restricted compass, made it sway from a bald 
rationalistic unitarianism to the highest tvpe 
of Calvinistic fervour. Little by little Scott 
'Came, reluctantly enough at the outset, to 
share his friend Newt oil's absorbing religious- 



Scott 



74 



Scott 



ness, and with it the scheme of belief which 
was penetrated by so powerful a flame of 
piety. , 

At Christmas 1785 he removed to London 
to become joint-chaplain at the Lock Hospital, 
along with Charles Edward de Coetlogon 
[q. v.] at a salary of 80/.; he held a lecture- 
ship at St. Mildred's, Bread Street, which 
added 30; and every other Sunday, at six 
in the morning, he preached inSt, Margaret's, 
Lothbury, at ' 7s. 6d. a time/ His preaching 
was not to the taste of his hearers, who 
thought his insistence on practical points 
had an Arminian savour; and the intensity 
of his conscientiousness made him angular. 

On tbe proposal of Bellamy, the publisher, 
he agreed to write a commentary on the 
Bible, in a hundred weekly numbers, for 
which he was to receive a guinea a number. 
Scott began his task on 2 Jan. 1788; the 
first number was published on 22 March 
following. After the fifteenth number he 
was told that the continuance of the^work 
must depend on his finding money to* carry 
it on. This he endeavoured to do, with the 
result, that, the commentary having been 
finished (2 June 1792) in 174 numbers, 
Bellamy became bankrupt, while Scott lost 
all he had, and was saddled with a debt of 
600/. The printer who took over the work 
rendered no account of profits till compelled 
by a chancery suit. The sale of the second 
edition barely set Scott straight. He then 
sold the copyright, only to become involved 
in a second chancery suit, directed unsuc- 
cessfully against the arrangements for pub- 
lishing the third edition (1810). Apparently 
he had discharged his liabilities ana realised 
something^ under 1,000& His calculations 
were deceived; in 1813 he kad to meet a 
claim of 1,200J. For the first time he sought 
the aid of friends in the disposal of his stock. 
Charles Simeon [q. v.] and others came 
generously forward; in a few months his 
dues were paid, and he was master of some 



Apart, from pecuniary anxieties, the state 
of his health and the methods of his work 
made the preparation of his commentary a 
perpettial struggle with difficulties, painfully 
overcome by indomitable tenacity of pur- 
pose, According to his theory of exegesis, 
the sense of scripture is to be learned only 
from scripture .itself; hence the enormous 
labour which, he devoted to the examination 
and collation "of passages. His workman- 
ship is often clumsy, and sometimes hurried, 
but always, bears the marks of an impres- 
sive sincerity of -aim. The limitations of 
,his achievement are obvious, yet Sir James 
Stephen does not hesitate to speak of it as 



f 

1 the greatest theological performance of our 
age and country/ 

In 1801 his health compelled Scott to dis- 
continue his services at St. Margaret's, Loth- 
bury. On 22 July of that year he was in- 
stituted to the rectory of Aston Sandford, 
Buckinghamshire, a living which, deducting 
the outlay required for a new parsonage, 
yielded less than 100Z. a year, He was pro- 
moted on 25 March 1802 to be sole chaplain 
at the Lock ; but in the spring of 1803 he 
removed finally to Aston Sandford. Here 
in 1807, at the instance of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, lie undertook the training 
of missionaries, mastering for this purpose 
the Susoo and Arabic languages, and con- 
tinuing this labour till 18 14, when his health 
gave way. In 1807 he had received a 
diploma of D.D., forwarded from the * Dicken- 
sonian College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, by 
persons whose names I never before heard/ 

In a well-known passage of his ' Apologia' 
(1864, pp, 60-1), Newman has recorded that 
while an undergraduate he thought of visit- 
ing Aston Sandford to see a man ' to whom 
giumanly speaking) I almost owe my soul/ 
cott's ' Essays J had ' first planted deep ' 
in Newman's mind ' that fundamental truth 
of religion/ the doctrine of the Trinity. He 
signalises Scott's 'bold unworldliness and 
vigorous independence of mind * which, com- 
bined with ' the minutely practical character 
of his writings,' prove him * a true English- 
man ;' he sums the spirit of his life in the 
maxims * Holiness before peace ' and ' Growth 
is the evidence of life/ 

Scott died at Aston Sandford on 16 April 
1821, and was buried there on 23 April. His 
funeral sermon was preached by Daniel W ilson 
(1778-1858) [q. v.], afterwards bishop of Cal- 
cutta, at Haddenham (the next parish) church, 
that of Aston being too small for the occasion. 
Scott married, first (5 Dec. 1774), Jane Kell 
(d* 8 Sept. 1790), by whom he had issue 
John (see below), Thomas (see below), Ben- 
jamin (see below), and other children. He 
married, secondly (March 1791 ), alady named 
Egerton, who survived him. 

He published, besides single sermons and 
tracts: 1. 'The Force of Truth: an authentic 
Narrative/ c.> 1779, 12mo (many subse- 
quent editions; the received text is that of 
1798, 12mo). 2. ' The Holy Bible, with . . . 
Notes/ &c., 1788-92, 4to, 4 vols. (plates) ; 
the first volume is dated 1788, the remain- 
ing three 1792; of the first volume only 
there is a ' second edition/ dated 1792 ; 
2nd edit, (not so called), 1809, 4to, 4 vols. 
{no plates) ; 3rd edit. 1810* 4to, 5 vols. (no 
plates); 4th edit, (not so called), 1812, 4to, 
6 vols* (no plates); many subsequent re- 



Scott 



75 



Scott 



prints, and translations inWelsh and Swedish; 
a selection from Scott's commentary, and from 
the ' Exposition ' of Matthew Henry [q. v.], was 
edited by G. Stokes, 1831-5, 8vo, 6 vols., and 
is known as Henry and Scott's Bible. 
3. ' Essays on the most important Subjects 
in Religion/ &e., 1793, 12mo. 4. 'Sermons 
on Select Subjects/ &c., 1797, 8vo. 5. <Bun- 
yan's Pilgrim s Progress, with Notes, and . . . 
Life/ &c., 1801, Svo. 6. < Four Sermons on 
Repentance/ &c, 1802, Svo. 7. 'Chrono- 
logical Tables to the Bible/ &c., 1811, 4to. 
8. 'liemarks on. the Bishop of Lincoln's 
[George Pretyman Tomline] Refutation of 
Calvinism/ &c., 1812, Svo, 2 vols, 9. ' The 
Articles of the Synod of Dort . . . trans- 
lated/ &c,, 1818, Svo. Posthumous was 
10, 'Village Discourses, composed from 
Notes/ c., 1825, 12mo. 

His ' Theological Works ' were collected, 
Buckingham, 1805-8, Svo, 5 vols.; also 
1823-5, Svo, 10 vols., edited by his son and 
biographer, editor also of his ' Letters and 
Papers/ 1824, 8vo. His 'Tracts ' were edited, 
Glasgow, 1826, Svo, with a prefixed essay by 
Thomas Chalmers, D.D, [a. v.] ; a selection 
from his works was published, Edinburgh, 
1830, 8vo (portrait). 

JOHST SCOTT (1777-1834), eldest son of 
the above, born April 1777, was educated at 
Magdalene' College, Cambridge, graduating 
B.A. 1799, M.A. 1803. His preferment! 
were: curate of St. John's, Hull (1799), 
master of Hull grammar school (1800), vicar 
of North Eernby, Yorkshire (1801), also 
vicar of St. Mary's, Hull (1816). He died 
on 16 Oct. 1834, leaving a widow and family. 
He published * Five Sermons on Baptism/ &c., 
1809, 12mo, and some other religious pieces, 
"but is best known as the author of the * Life/ 
1822, 8vo, of his father, an ill-constructed 
book, incorporating an autobiographical nar- 
rative of the highest interest. 

THOMAS SCOTT (1780-1835), younger son 
of the commentator, born on 9 Nov. 1780, 
was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge, 
graduating B,A. 1805, M,A. 1808. His pre- 
ferments were : curate of Emberton, Buck-* 
inghamshire (1805), first perpetual curate of 
Gawcott Chapel, near Buckingham (1806), 
rector of Wappenham, Northamptonshire 
(1833). He died on 24 Feb. 1835. He mar- 
ried (1806) Euphemia, only daughter of Dr. 
Lynch of Antigua,, and had thirteen children, 
of whom nine survived him. Thomas, his 
eldest son, succeeded him as rector of Wap- 
yenham. He published some sermons and 
other pieces. A posthumous volume of nis 
'Sermons/ 1837, 8vo> was edited, with a 
brief ' Memoir/ by Samuel King. 
BjB^AMJNScoTT(1788-1830),the youngest 



son, born 29 April 1788, was educated at 
Queens' College, Cambridge, graduating B. A. 
1810, M.A. 1813. He began life as curate 
to Edward Burn [q. v,], and in 1828 became 
vicar of Bidford and of Priors Salford, War- 
wickshire. He died on 30 Aug. 1830, at 
Llandegley, Radnorshire, and was buried in 
the churchyard there. A posthumous volume 
of his ' Sermons/ 1831, Svo, was edited by 
his brother Thomas. 

[Life . . . including a narrative drawn up by 
himself, seventh edit., 1825 (with engraved 
portrait) ; Scott's Works ; Stephen's Essays in 
Ecclesiastical Biogr. I860, pp. 413 sq,; Funeral 
Sermon for Anne Scott, 1829; Funeral Sermon 
for Benjamin Scott, 1830; Memoir of Benjamin 
Scott, 1831 ; Gent. Mag. 1835, i. 103 sq., ii. 669 ; 
King's Memoir of Thomas Scott, 1837; Notes 
and Queries, 8th ser. xii. 344.] A. Gr. 

SCOTT, THOMAS (1745-1842), general, 
born on 25 Dec. 1745, was the second son of 
John Scott of MaUeny in Midlothian, by his 
wife Susan, daughter of Lord William Hay of 
Newhall, third son of John, second marquis 
of Tweeddale. The Scotts of Malleny were 
descended from John, eldest son of Sir Wil- 
liam Scott of Clerkington, appointed senator 
of the court of justice in 1642, by his second 
wife, Barbara, daughter of Sir John Dalma- 
hoy of that ilk, 

Thomas Scott obtained an ensigncy in the 
24th regiment of foot on 20 May 1761. In 
the following year he served in Hesse under 
Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, and carried 
the regimental colours, at the battle of Wil- 
helmsthal. In 1763, returning home, he was 
stationed in Ireland, and obtained his lieu- 
tenancy on 7 June 1765. In 1776 he went 
to America with his regiment, and served 
two campaigns under General Burgoyne 
with a company of marksmen attached to a 
large body of Indians. He acquitted him- 
self so well that lie was twice mentioned in 
the despatches, and received his company on 
14 July 1777. On 17 Oct. he succeeded in 
penetrating the enemy's lines and carrying to 
Sir Henry Clinton the tidings of Burgoyne's 
critical position at Saratoga. In 1788 he 
returned to Europe, and in 1791 served for 
six months with a detachment of the 53rd 
foot on board his majesty's ship Hannibal. 
In 1793 he served in the Netherlands under 
Sir Ealph Abercromby, and took part in the 
sieges of Valenciennes and Dunkirk. He 
received the rank of major for his exertions 
in the defence of Nieuport. On 27 Oct. 
1794 he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of 
one of the battalions of the 94th ; in 1795 
bie accompanied his regiment to Gibraltar, 
and in 1796 to the Cape of Good Hope. In 
1799 he took part in, the campaign against 



Scott 



Scott 



Tipu Sultan, and was present at the capture 
of Seringapatam. In the following year ill 
health compelled him to leave India, but the 
Indiaman in which he took his passage was 
captured by a French privateer in the Eng- 
lish Channel, and it was some weeks before 
he was exchanged. In 1801 he was ap- 
pointed colonel by brevet, in 1802 inspect- 
ing officer of the Edinburgh recruiting dis- 
trict, in 1803 deputy inspector-general of 
the recruiting service in North Britain, and 
in 1804 brigadier-general. He attained the 
rank of major-general on 25 April 1808, and 
-was nominated lieutenant-general on 4 June 
1813. Until he retired at the close of fifty- 
two years' service he was never unemployed 
or on half-pay. He received the rank of 
general on 22 July 1830. After his retire- 
ment he resided chiefly at Malleny, and was 
a deputy-lieutenant for Midlothian. There 
he died, unmarried, on 29 April 1842, and 
was succeeded by his nephew, Carteret 
George Scott. 

[Irving's Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen, p. 
463 ; Burke's Commoners of Great Britain, iii. 
]70; Douglas's Baronage of Scotland, i. 218; 
Army Lists of the period.] E, I. 0. 

SCOTT, THOMAS (1808-1878), free- 
thinker, was born on 28 April 1808. He was 
"brought up in France as & Roman catholic, 
and became a page at the court of Charles X, 
Having an independent fortune, he travelled 
widely, and spent some time among North 
American Indians, About 1856 he grew dis- 
satisfied with Christianity, and in 1S62 he 
started issuing tracts advocating ' free enquiry 
and the free expression of opinion.* These 
were printed at his own expense, and given 
away mostly to the clergy and cultured 
classes. Between 1862 and 1877 he issued, 
first from Ramsgate, afterwards from Nor- 
wood, upwards of two hundred separate pam- 
phlets and books, which were ultimately 
collected in sixteen volumes. Among the 
writers who contributed to the series were 
F. "W. Newman, William Kathbone Greg 
fq. v.], Df . Willis, Bishop Hinds, Rev* Charles 
Vpysey, M. D. Con way, Sir, Richard Davies 
Hanson [q. v.], Marcus Kalisch {q. v.], John 
Muir [q. v. ], John Addington Sy monds f q. v.l 
Thomas Lumisden Strange [q. v.], Edward 
Maitland, Edward Vansittart JNeale [q. v.l 
Charles Bray, Dr. George Gustavus Zerffi 
[q. y,], and R; Suffield. Scott also reprinted 
such works as Bentham's * Church of Eng- 
land Catechism Examined * and Hume's 
* Dialogues on, Natural Religion. 7 His own 
contributions to the series were slight, but 
he suggested subjects, revised them, dis- 
cussed all points raised, and made his house 



a salon for freethinkers. He was a com- 
petent Hebrew scholar, and saw through 
the press Bishop Colenso's work on the 
Pentateuch and Book of Joshua in the 
absence of the bishop from England. He 
also revised the work on * Ancient Faiths 
embodied in Ancient Names,' by Thomas 
Inman [q. v.] Scott put his name on * The 
English Life of Jesus, 1872, a work designed 
to do for English readers what Strauss and 
Renan had done for Frenchmen and Germans ; 
but the work is said to have been written in 
part by the Rev. Sir George W. Cox. Scott 
also wrote * An Address to the Friends of 
Free Enquiry and Expression/ 1865 ; t Ques- 
tions, to which Answers are respectfully 
asked from the Orthodox,' I860 5 ' A Letter 
to H. Alford, Dean of Canterbury,' 1 869 ; * A 
Challenge to the Members of the Christian 
Evidence Society/ 1871 ; 'The Tactics and 
Defeat of the Christian Evidence Society/ 
1871; ' The Dean of Ripon on the Physical 
Resurrection/ 1872 ; and ' A Farewell Ad- 
dress/ 1877, in which he stated his persuasion 
that * the only true orthodoxy is loyalty to 
reason, and the only infidelity which merits 
censure is disloyalty to reason.' He died at 
Norwood on 80 Dec. 1878. He was married, 
and his widow survived him, A portrait is 
given in * Annie Besant, an Autobiography ' 
fr.118). ** 

[National Beformsr, 5 Jan. 1870; Times, 
15 Jan. 1879; Liberal, March 1870; Tfn^ 
thinker, 24 March 1896,- Wheeler's Diet,, of 
Freethinkers j Brit. Museum Cat.] J. M. W. 

SCOTT, SXB WALTER (1490 P-1652), 
ofBuccleuch and Branxholm, Scottish chief- 
tain, born about 1490, was eldest ami of ^ir 
Walter Scott of BuccUmch (d. 1504)* He 
was fourth in lineal descent from Sir Wal- 
ter Scott (142(5-1469), who first took the 
territorial designation of Buccleuch, and was 
the first to acquire the whole barony of 
Branxholm, with the castle, which remained 
the residence of the family for several gene- 
rations. His mother, Elizabeth Ker of the 
Oessford family, was attacked in her resi- 
dence of Oatslack in Yarrow by an English 
force under Lord Qr<>y de Wilton in 1548, 
and, with other inmates of the tower, was 
-burnt to death. 

Walter Bcott was under age whtm he sue* 
ceeded his father in 1504, and his earliest 
appearance in history was at the battle of 
Hodden, 9 Sept* 1613; on the eve of the 
engagement he was made a knight. In 151$ 
-he joined the party of John Stewart, duke of 
Albany [q. v.], then appointed regent of Scot- 
land, and he opposed himself to Margaret, 
the queen dowager 5 but on Albany '& return 



Scott 



77 



Scott 



to France in 1524, Scott was imprisoned in 
the castle of Edinburgh under the pretext 
that he fomented disorder and misrule on- the 
borders. He soon escaped from ward and 
joined the Earls of Angus and Lennox in 
continued opposition to Queen Margaret and 
her government. In 1526, in obedience to a 
letter from James V, then a boy, requesting 
liis aid against the power of Angus and the 
Douglases, Scott assembled his kin and men, 
but was completely defeated by Angus, who 
had the king in custody, in a skirmish near 
Melrose on 25 July 1536. He was obliged 
to take refuge in France; but after the 
overthrow of the Douglases in 1528 he was 
openly received into the royal favour. 

In 1530 various attempts were made to 
reconcile the feud which had fallen out be- 
tween the S,cotts and the kinsfolk of Ker of 
Oessford who had been slain in the skirmish 
at Melrose. Formal agreements were entered 
into with a view to a pacification, but the 
result was not permanent (Minstrelsy of the 
Scottish Border, vol. i. p. clvi, ed. 1812). 
Owing to the influence of the Douglases, who 
had taken refuge in England, the borders 
between England and Scotland were at the 
time more than usually disturbed. Scott's 
lands suffered severely from the attacks of 
the English wardens and others, and he re- 
taliated with great effect (State Papers 
Henry VIII, iv. 625). In 1535 James V, 
with a view to peace, committed Sir Walter 
and other border chieftains to ward. 

On the death of King James in 1542 
Scott joined the party which opposed the 
marriage of the infant Queen Mary to an 
English prince, and, though constant over- 
tures were made to him by the English 
wardens, and he was at one time credited 
with an intention of delivering the young 
queen into the hands of King^ Henry (Hamil- 
ton Papers, i. 447), he scornfully refused all 
offers of amity with the English (ib. p. 467), 
and at the battle of Ancrum, 27 Feb. 1545, 
lie took a prominent part in defeating the 
English forces. Scott fought, too, at the 
battle of Pinkie on 10 Sept. 1547, where the 
Scots suffered a severe overthrow. As a 
result his lands lay at the mercy of the in- 
vaders, and during the next two or three 
years he suffered severely at the hands of 
the English wardens. In 1551 he was 
directed to aid in repressing the violence 
which prevailed on the borders, but in 1552 
he begged an exemption from some of his 
omcial duties on the ground of advancing 
years. The old feud with the Kers of Oess- 
ford still continued, and on the night of 
4 Oct. 1552 he was attacked and killed by 
partisans of that house. 



Sir Walter Scott was thrice married : first, 
to Elizabeth Carmichael (of Carmiehael), 
with issue two sons ; secondly, to Janet Ker 
(of Fernihierst), from whom he was appa- 
rently divorced; and, thirdly, to Janet 
Betoun or Beaton, whose name is well known 
as the heroine of the * Lay of the Last Min- 
strel/ and by whom he had two sons and three 
daughters. She was given to Sir Walter ' in 
mariag by the Cardinall [Beaton], his other 
wif being yet on lif ' (Hamilton Papers, i. 
740). Sir Walter Scott's eldest son died 
unmarried, while his second son, Sir William 
Scott, predeceased him, leaving a son Wal- 
ter, afterwards Sir Walter (d. 1574), who 
was father of Walter Scott, first Lord Scott 
of Buccleuch [q. v.] 

[William Eraser's The Scotts of Buccleuch, 
2 vols. 1878; Captain Walter Scott's .A True 
History of several Honourable Families of the 
Right Honourable Name of Scott, c ed. 1786 ; 
Letters and Papers Henry VIII, Foreign and 
Dom., vols. i. ii.] J. A-N. 

SCOTT, WALTER, first LOKD SCOTT 
op BuocLBtrCH (1565-1611), born in 1565, 
was the only son of Sir Walter Scott of 
Buccleuch (d. 1574), by his wife, Lady Mar- 
garet Douglas, eldest daughter of David, 
seventh earl of Angus, who afterwards mar- 
ried Francis Stewart Hepburn, fifth earl of 
Bothwell. The father, who latterly became 
a devoted adherent of Mary Queen of Scots, 
was privy to the design for the assassination 
of the regent Moray, and, counting on its 
occurrence, set out the day before with Ker of 
Ferniehirst on a devastating raid into Eng- 
land. In revenge his lands were laid wasi-^ 
by the Earl of Sussex and Lord; Scrope, and 
his castle of Branxholm blown up with gun- 
powder. He was a principal leader of the 
raid to Stirling on 4 Sept. 1571, when an 
attempt was made to seize the regent Lennox, 
who was slain by one of the Hamiltons 
during the melee. Buccleuch, who had in- 
terposed to save the regent Morton, his Idns- 
man, whom the Hamiltons intended also to 
have slain, was during the retreat taken 
prisoner by Morton (Diurnal of Occurrents, 
p. 248), and was for some time confined in 
the castle of Doune in Menteith (Reg. P. 0. 
Scotl ii. 156). 

The son succeeded his father on 17 April 
1574, and on 21 June was infefb in the 
baronies of Branxholm as heir to David 
Scott, his grandfather's brother. Being a 
minor, the Earl of Morton failing whom, the 
Earl of Angus was appointed his guardian. 
On account of a feud between Scott and 
Lord Hay, both were on 39 Aug. 1586 
ordered to find caution of 10,000 each for 
their good behaviour (ib. iv. 98). On 2 June 



Scott 



Scott 



1587 he and other border chiefs were sum- 
moned to appear before the privy council on 
9 June to answer ' touching good rule and 
quietness to he observed on the borders here- 
after, under pain of treason' (ib. p. 183) ; 
and on the 9th Kobert Scott gave caution 
for him in five thousand merks that he would 
appear on the 21st (ib. p. 189). Towards 
the close of the year he and the laird of 
Cessford were, however, committed to ward 
for making incursions in England (CALDEB- 
WOOD, History, iv. 641); but on 18 Dec. he 
found caution in 10,000 that on being libe- 
rated from the castle of Edinburgh he would 
by 10 Jan. find surety for the relief of ^the 
king and his wardens of * all attempts against 
the peace of England bygone and to come* 
(Reg. P. C. Scotl iv. 234). 

On the occasion of the queen's coronation, 
17 May 1590,Buccleueh was dubbed a knight 
(CALDBB.WOOD, History, v, 95). When his 
stepfather, Bothwell, was put to the horn in 
the following year, he was appointed keeper 
of Liddesdale, and on 6 July, with the border 
chiefs, he gave his oath to concur without 
'shrinking, shift, or excuse in Bothwell's 
pursuit 7 (Reg. JR. C. Scotl. iv. 649), a band 
to this effect being also subscribed by him at 
Edinburgh on 6 Aug. (ib. p. 667). Hardly 
had it been subscribed when the pursuit of 
Bothwell was declared to be unnecessary; 
but doubts of Buccleuch's fidelity being 
nevertheless entertained, hft next day gave 
caution in 10,000/. that he would go abroad 
within a month, and not return within the 
next three years (ib. p, 668) ; and on 29 Aug. 
he was relieved of the keepership of Liddes- 
dale (ib. p. 674), He, however, obtained letters 
permitting his return to Scotland on 12 Nov. 
1592 (TRASEB, Scotts ofJBwcleuck, ii. 250). 
On 22 May 1594 he was named one of a com- 
mission for the pursuit of Bothwell (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. v. 137), and at ' the king's earnest 
desire* he was in October following reap- 
pointed to the office of keeper of Liddesdale 
4 heritably in time to come (ib. p. 178). On 
the division of BothwelTs lands after his 
flight to France in 1595, Buccleuch obtained 

DBKWOOB, v. 863). As a follower 01 the 
Hamiltons he in the same year joined them 
in the league with the chancellor Maitland 
against Mar, The queen proposed that he 
should succeed Mar in the guardianship of 
the young prince, and when the king declined 
to accede to this arrangement, Buccleuch, 
with the bold recklessness of the borderer, 
proposed that both king and prince should 
be seized, and that, this "being done, Mar 
should be arraigned for high treason ; but 
the proposal was too much for the prudent 



chancellor. In the following year Buccleuch 
won lasting renown by his brilliant exploit 
in delivering Kinrnont Willie [see ABM- 
STRoiro, WILLIAM, fi. 1596] from Carlisle 
Castle. Not only was the achievement note- 
worthy for its clever daring ; it indicated the 
faculty of swift decision, and the high moral 
courage of a strong personality. Persuaded 
that he had justice on his side, Buccleuch 
never hesitated to defy all consequences. 
His simple, and to himself unanswerable, 
plea was that Armstrong, having been cap- 
tured during a truce, was not legally a pri- 
soner. It was scarcely to be expected, 
however, that Elizabeth would homologate 
this novel method of rectifying her repre- 
sentative's mistake, or that she would regard 
the deed as aught else than an illegal ou- 
trage committed by the king of Scotland's 
representative, and thus virtually in his name, 
In accordance with Elizabeth's instructions, 
Bowes, her representative, made formal com- 
plaint against it before the Scottish parlia- 
ment, and concluded a long speech by de- 
claring that peace could no longer exist 
between the two realms unless Buccleuch 
were delivered into England to be punished 
at the queen's pleasure. Although Buccleuch 
asserted that the illegality was chargeable 
only against the English warden (Armstrong 
not being in any proper sense a prisoner), he 
declared his readiness to submit his case to 
a joint English and Scottish commission. 
But the sympathy of the Scots being strongly 
with him, it was only after repeated and 
urgent demands by Elizabeth that arrange- 
ments were entered into for its appointment, 
and before it inet Buccleuch still further 
exasperated Elizabeth by a raid into Eng- 
land, in which he apprehended six Tyndale 
rievers, whom he put to death. Consequently 
the commission which met at Berwick de- 
cided that he should enter into bond in 33ng- 
land until pledges were given for the future 
maintenance of peace. He therefore surren- 
dered himself to Sir William Selby, master 
of the ordnance at Berwick, on 7 Oct. 1597. 
On 12 May 1599 he received from Elizabeth 
a safe-conduct to pass abroad for the recovery 
of his health, and in 1600 he was in Paris, 
when he gave evidence before the Cour des 
Aides in regard to the genealogy of one 
Andrew Scott, Sieur de oavigne ( 
Scotte ofBuccteueh, i. 172-3). 

After the accession of James VI to ^ 
throne of England, Buccleuch in 1604 raised 
a, regiment of the borderers, in command 
of whom he distinguished himself under 
Maurice, prince of Orange, in the war against 
the Spaniards in the Netherlands. On 4 March 
1606 he was raised to the peerage by the 



Scott 



79 



Scott 



title of Lord Scott of Buccleuch. He died 
in December 1611. By his wife Mary, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Ker of Oessford, sister of 
Robert, first earl of Roxburghe, he had one 
son Walter, who succeeded him as second 
Lord Scott of Buccleuch and two daughters : 
Margaret, married, first, to James, lord Ross, 
and, secondly, to Alexander Montgomery, 
sixth earl of Eglinton; and Elizabeth, married 
to John Master of Cranstoun, and afterwards 
second Lord Cranstoun. 

[Register Privy Council of Scotland, vols. i.- 
viii. ; Gal. State Papers, Scot. Ser. and For. Ser. 
during the reign of Elizabeth ; Histories of Knox 
and Calderwood ; Sir "William Eraser's Scotts of 
Buccleuch (privately printed) ; Douglas's Scot- 
tish Peerage (Wood), i. 251.] T. F. H. 

SCOTT, WALTER (1550?-! 629?), of 
Harden, freebooter, born about 1550, was 
descended from a branch of the Scotts of 
Buccleuch, known as the Scotts of Sinton. 
His father, William Scott, was first de- 
scribed as ' in Todrig/ a place .near Sinton in 
Selkirkshire, but afterwards as ' in Harden/ 
an estate which he acquired about 1550, or 
later, from Alexander, lord Home (Hist, 
MSS. Oman. 12th Rep. App. viii. p. 144 ; cf. 
Hegistrum Mogni Slffilli, vol. vii. No. 2114). 
Walter succeeded his father in 1663. In 
1580 his lands at Hoscote were raided by the 
Elliots, a rival border clan then allied with 
England. In June 1592 he assisted Francis 
Stewart, earl of Both well, in his attack upon 
Falkland Palace [see HEPBURN, FRANCIS 
STEWART, fifth EAKL OF BOTHWELL]; and, 
with his brother William and other Scotts, 
helped Bothwell in the winter of 1592-3 
to plunder the lands of Drummelzier and 
Dreva on Tweedside ; they carried off four 
thousand sheep, two hundred cattle, forty 
horses, and goods to the value of 2,00(k He 
also, with five hundred men, Scotts and 
Armstrongs, joined Sir Walter, first lord, 
Scott of Buccleuch, in his famous rescue of 
William Armstrong of Kinmont [q.v.], ' Kin- 
mont Willie/ from Carlisle Castle in 1596 
(Calendar of Border Papers, ii. 120-2), and 
complaints of freebooting were made against 
him about the same time by the English 
wardens. In October 1602 he joined with 
other border leaders in a bond to keep good 
rule. In December 1605 he was threatened 
with outlawry for hunting and riding in 
Cheviot and Redesdale, spoiling the king's 
game and woods ; while in 1611 he and 
Eis sons, Walter, Francis, and Hew, were 
bound in large sums to keep the peace with 
some of his neighbours. 

t Wat of Harden ' is said to have' died in 
1629; he was alive in April of that year 
(The Scotts of BucdeucTi, i, 256). His resi- 



dence is now one of the seats of his descen- 
dant, Lord Polwarth (CARKE, Border Me- 
mories). 

He married, first, about 21 March 1576, 
Mary, daughter of John Scott of Dryhope 
in Yarrow. The original contract is pre- 
served in Lord Polwarth's charter chest ( The 
Scotts of Buccleuch, vol. i. p, Ixx) ; an in- 
correct account of it is given by Sir Walter 
Scott in his 'Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Border' (i. 157, ed. 1812). By his first wife 
Walter had, with five daughters, four sons : 
Sir William, who succeeded to Harden; 
Walter ; Francis, ancestor of the Scotts of 
Sinton ; and Hew, ancestor of the Scotts of 
Gala. He married, secondly, in 1598, Mar- 
garet Edgar of Wedderlie, and had issue one 
daughter. Sir William Scott the younger, 
of Harden, who married Agnes Murray of 
Elibank, is the hero of the apocryphal tra- 
ditional story of ( Muckle-mouthed Meg,' 
The second son, Walter, was fatally wounded 
in October 1616 in a quarrel about rights of 
fishing in the river Ettrick. A tradition 
connected with the incident, graphically told 
by Sir Walter Scott in his notes to the 
* Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border,' is proved 
false by authentic record (Register of the 
Privy Council of Scotland, x. 667. xi. 20, 
98-101). 

[Many traditions of Walter Scott appear in a 
connected form in Border Memories, by "Walter 
Biddell Carre, 1876, pp. 73-9 ; Eegister of the 
Privy Council of Scotland, vols. i.-xiL"] 

J. A-N, 

SCOTT, WALTER, EARL off TARRAS 
(1644-1693), born on 23 Dec. 1644, was 
eldest son or Sir Gideon Scott of Highchester, 
who was the second son of William Scott ot 
Harden, and thus grandson of Walter Scott 
(1550P-1829P) tq.J.] When in his fifteenth 
year he was married by special dispensation, 
from the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, on 9 Feb. 
1659, to Lady Mary Scott, countess of Buc- 
cleuch in her own right ; she was then only 
in her twelfth year, and his father was one 
of the curators. Th youthful couple were 
separated by the civil authorities until the 
countess had completed her twelfth year, 
and she then ratified what had been done. 
The husband was not allowed to assume the 
wife's title, but the dignities of Earl of 
Tarras and Lord Almoor and Oampcastill 
were on 4 Sept. 1660 conferred upon him 
for life. The countess soon died, and after 
protracted legal proceedings their marriage 
contract was reduced, and he was disap- 
pointed of the provision set apart for him 
therein out of his wife's property. 

From 1667 to 1671 he travelled in France, 
Italy, and the Netherlands, and, returning 



Scott 



So 



Scott 



by the English court, lie endeavoured in 
vain to move Charles II to grant him a 
provision out of the Euccleuch estates. To- 
wards the end of Charles's reign he took 
part in the plots concocted for the exclusion 
of the Duke of York from the throne, and 
being arrested was, on his own confession, 
found guilty of treason and condemned to 
death on 5 Jan. 1685. Owing, however, to his 
confession he obtained a remission, and was 
reinstated in his honours and lands by letters 
of rehabilitation on 28 June 1687. lie died 
in April 1693. He married as his second 
wife, on 31 Dec. 1677, Helen, daughter of 
Thomas Hepburn of Humbie in Kast Lo- 
thian, and left by her five sons and five 
daughters. 

[The Seotts of Buccleuch, by Sir William 
Praser, i. 320-400 (with portraits of Tarras and 
his first wife).] H. P. 

SCOTT, WALTER, of Satchells (1614 ?- 
1694?), captain and genealogist, born about 
1614, was son of Robert Scott of Satchells, 
who was a grandson of Walter Scott of Sin- 
ton, by his second marriage with Margaret, 
daughter of James Riddell of that ilk. The 
captain's mother was Jean, daughter of Sir 
Robert Scott of Thirlestane. He spent his 
youth in herding cattle, but, running away 
in his sixteenth year, joined the regiment 
which his chief, Walter, first earl of Buc- 
leuch, raised and transported to Holland in 
1629. Prom that time he was, according to 
his own account, in active military service 
at home and abroad for fifty-seven years* 
He is said to have married and had a daugh- 
ter, whom he named Gustava in honour of 
the famous king of Sweden* But what is 
more certain is that at the advanced age of 
seventy-five he began his rude metrical 
* True History of several honourable fami- 
lies of the right honourable name of Scot, 
in the shires of Roxburgh, Selkirk, and 
others adjacent, gathered out of ancient 
chronicles, histories, and traditions of our 
fathers. 7 He describes himself on the title- 
page as 

An old scroldier and tic scholler, 
And one that could write nane, 
But just the letters of his name. 

He hired schoolboys to write to his dicta- 
tion. His work was originally printed in 
1688, and later editions appeared in 1776, 
1786, 1892, and 1894, 

[Prefacft to the 1894 edition Of the 'True 
History,' by John G. Winning.] H. P. 

SCOTT, SIB WALTER (1771-1832), 

author of the ' Wayerley Novels,' son of Wai- 
ter Scott by his wife Anne Rutherford, was 



born on lo Aug. 1771 in a house in the 
College Wynd at Edinburgh, since demo- 
lished. The * True History of several honour- 
able Families of the Right Honourable Name 
of Scot ' 1 1(568), by Walter Scott of Satchells 
fq. v.l was a favourite of the later Walter 
from his earliest years. He learnt from it 
the history of many of the heroes of his 
writings. Among them were John Scott of 
Harden, called * the Lamiter,' a younger sou 
of a duke of Bucclouch in the fourteenth 
century ; and John's son, William the * Bolt- 
foot,' a famous border knight. A later Scott 




tho horo of ninny legends [see SCOTT, WALTER, 
L r )f>0 Mti'20 p]. His sou, William Scott of 
Harden, was mado prisoner by G-ideon Mur- 
ray of Elibank, and preferred a marriage 
with Murray's ugliest daughter to the gal- 
Iowa, William's third son, Walter, laird of 
Raeburn, became a quaker, and suffered per- 
secutions described in a note to the * Heart 
of Midlothian.' Raeburn's second son, also 
Walter, became a Jacobite, and was known 
as * Beardie,' because ho gave up shaving in 
token of mourning for tho Stuarts. He died 
in 17:29. * Beardie * and his son Robert are 
described in the introductory ' Epistles ' to 
'Marmion.' Robert quarrelled with his 
father, became a whig, and set up as a farmer 
at Bandy Knowe. He was a keen sports- 
man and a * general referee in all matters of 
dispute in the neighbourhood.* In 1728 he 
married Barbara, (laughter of Thomas Hali- 
burton of New Mains, by whom he had a 
numerous family. One of them, Thomas, 
died on 27 Jan. 1823, in his ninetieth year. 
Another, Robert, was in tho navy, and, 
after retiring, settled at Rosubank, near 
Kelso. Walter Scott, tho eldest son of 
Robert of Sandy Knowe, born 1729, was the 
first of the family to adopt a town life. He 
acquired a fair practice as writer to the 
signet, His son says (AittMographwal Frag- 
ment) that he delighted in the antiquarian- 
part of his profession, but had too much 
simplicity to make money, and often rather 
lost than profited by his zeal for his clients. 
He was a strict Oalvmist; his favourite study 
was church history; and he was rather 
formal in manners and staunch to old 
Scottish prejudices. He is the original of 
the elder Fairford in ' Redgauntlet/ In 
April 1758 he married Anne, eldest daughter 
of John Rutherford, professor of medicine 
in the university of Edinbiirgh fa* v.] Her 
mother was a daughter of Sir John Swinton, 
[q, v.], a descendant of many famous warriors, 
and through her her son traced a descent 



Scott 



Sr 



Scott 



from Sir William Alexander, earl of Stirling 
[q. v.], the friend of Ben Jonson. Mrs. Scott 
was short, and ' by no means comely/ She 
was well educated for the time, though with 
old-fashioned stiffness ; was fond of poetry, 
and was of light and happy temper of mind. 
Though devout, she was less austere than her 
husband. Her son Walter had no likeness, 
it is said, to her or to his father, but strongly 
resembled his great-grandfatner 'Beardie/ 
and especially his grandfather Robert. 

Walter Scott, the writer to the signet, had 
a family of twelve, the first six of whom 
died in infancy. The survivors were Robert, 
who served in the navy under Rodney, wrote 
verses, and was afterwards in the East India 
Company's^ service. John, the second, be- 
came a major in the army, retired, and died 
in 1816. The only daughter, Anne, suffered 
through life from an early accident, and 
died in 1801. Thomas, who showed much 
talent, entered his father's profession, failed 
in speculations, was made paymaster of the 
70th regiment in 1811, accompanied it to 
Canada in 1813, and died there in April 
1823. Daniel, the youngest, who was bred 
to trade, ruined himself by dissipation, and 
emigrated to Jamaica. There ne showed 
want of spirit in a disturbance, and returned 
a dishonoured man, to die soon afterwards 
(1806). His brother Walter refused to see 
him, and afterwards felt bitter regret for the 
harshness. 

Walter Scott, the fourth surviving child, 
was a very healthy infant, but at the age of 
eighteen months had a fever when teething, 
and lost the use of his right leg (on this 
illness see a medical note by Dr. Creighton 
to the article on Scott in the* i Encyclopaedia 
Britannica/ 9th ed.) After various remedies 
had failed he was sent to Sandy Knowe, 
where his grandfather was living with his 
second son, Thomas. Scott's earliest recol- 
lections were of his lying on the floor in 
this house, wrapped in the skin of a sheep 
just killed, and being enticed by his grand- 
father to crawl. Sheepskins and other reme- 
dies failed to cure the mischief, which resulted 
in a permanent deformity; but he recovered 
his general health, became a sturdy child, 
caught from his elders a 'personal antipathy ' 
to Washington, and imbibed Jacobite preju- 
dices, due partly to the fall of some of his 
relations- at Culloden, He learnt from his 
grandmother many songs and legends of the 
old moss-troopers and his border ancestry. 
In his fourth year he was sent with his 
aunt, Miss Janet Scott, to try the waters 
at Bath, He was taken to London shows 
on his way; and at Bath was petted by 
John , Home, the author of i Douglas/ and 

VOL. Li. 



by his uncle, Captain Robert Scott. He 
learnt a little reading at a dame school, 
and saw ' As you like it ' at the theatre. 
He returned after a year to Edinburgh and 
Sandy Knowe, where he learnt to ride. Mrs. 
(Alison) Cockburn [q. v.] describes him in a 
letter of December 1777 as the ' most ex- 
traordinary genius of a boy ' she ever saw, 
In his eighth year he was sent for sea-bathing 
to Prestonpans, where a veteran named Dal- 
getty told him stories of the German wars, 
and where he first made acquaintance with 
George Constable, the original of Jonathan 
Oldbuck. 

In 1778 he returned to his father's house 
in George's Square, Edinburgh, and after a 
little preparation was sent, in October 1778, 
to the high school. A sturdy presbyterian, 
James Mitchell, also acted as private tutor 
to him and his brother. Scott had many 
* amicable disputes ' with the tutor about 
cavaliers and roundheads, and acquired some 
knowledge of the church history of Scotland. 
Mitchell testifies to his sweetness and intel- 
ligence. He did not, however, distinguish 
himself at school, where he was for three 
years under Luke Fraser, and afterwards 
under Alexander Adam [jj. v.l, the rector. 
He was an ' incorrigibly idle imp/ though 
' never a dunce.' He was better at the 
'yards' (or playground) than in the , class, 
and famous, in spite of his infirmity, for 
climbing the ' kittle nine stanes ' on the 
castle rock and taking part in pugilistic 
' bickers' with the town boys. Under 
Adam, however, he became a fair latinist, 
and won praise for poetical versions of 
Horace and Virgil, His mother encouraged 
him to read Shakespeare, and his father 
allowed the children to act plays occasionally 
after lessons. His rapid growth having 
weakened him, he was sent for a half-year 
to his aunt at Kelso, where he attended 
school and made the acquaintance of James 
Ballantyne, Ballantyne reports that he 
was already an incomparable story-teller. 
An acquaintance with Thomas Blacklock 
[q. v.], the blind poet, had led to his reading 
Ossian and especially the ' Faerie Queen/ 
of which he could repeat ' marvellous ' 
quantities. He also read Hoole's Tasso, and 
was, above all, fascinated by Percy's 
'Reliques.' He was already beginning to 
collect ballads. He says that he had bound 
up * several volumes ' of them before he was 
ten (LoCKHAKT, ch. iv.), and a collection at 
Abbotsford dates from about 1783. To the 
Eelso time he also refers his first love of 
romantic scenery. 

In November 1783 Scott began to attend 
classes at the college. He admired Dugald 



Scott 



Scott 



Stewart, and attended a few lectures on 
law and history. Finding that his fellows 
were before him in Greek, he forswore the 
language and gave up the Latin classics as 
well. He remained ignorant of even the 
Greek alphabet, though in later years he was 



e was, how- 



fond of some Latin poetry, 
ever, eagerly pursuing his favourite studies. 
With John Irving (afterwards a writer to 
the signet) he used to ramble over Arthur's 
Seat, each composing romantic legends for 
the other's amusement. He learnt Italian 
'enough to read Tasso and Ariosto in the 
original, acquired some Spanish, and read 
French, though he never became a good 
linguist. A severe illness, caused by the 
* bursting of a blood-vessel in the lower 
bowels/ interrupted his serious studies ; and 
lie solaced himself, with Irving, in reading 
romantic literature. His recovery was com- 
pleted at Rosebank, where his uncle Robert 
had recently settled, and which became a 
second home to him. He studied fortification 
on Uncle Toby's method, and read Vertot's 
' Knights of Malta ' and Orme's ' Hindostan.' 
Gradually he recovered, became tall and 
muscular, and delighted in rides and, in spite 
of lameness, walks of twenty or thirty 
miles a day. His rambles made him familiar 
with many places of historical interest, and 
he tried, without success, to acquire the art 
of landscape-painting. His failure in music 
was even more decided. 

He did not resume his attendance at 
college in 1785, and on 15 May 1786 he was 
apprenticed to his father as writer to the 
signet. Soon after this he had his only sight 
of Burns. As an apprentice Scott acquired 
regular business habits. He made a little 
pocket-money by copying legal documents, 
and says that he once wrote 120 folio pages 
at a sitting, His handwriting, as Lockhart 
observes, shows the marks of his steady prac- 
tice as a clerk. He began to file his letters 
regularly, and was inured to the methodical 
industry to be afterwards conspicuously dis- 
played in literature. The drudgery, how- 
ever, was distasteful at the time, 'in 1788 
he began to -attend civil-law classes, which 
then formed part of the education of both 
branches of the legal profession, He here 
made the acquaintance of young men in- 
tended for the bar, and aspired to become 
an advocate himself. His father kindly 
approved of the change, but offered to take 
him into partnership. Both, however, pre- 
ferred that the younger son, Thomas, should 
-take this position ; and Walter accordingly 
attended the course of study necessary for 
an advocate, along 1 with his particular chum, 
William Clerk, They ' coached ' each other 



industriously, and were impressed by the 
lectures of David Hume, the historian's 
nephew. Both were called to the bar on 
11 July 1792, ^ Scott having defended a 
thesis t on the disposal of the dead bodies of 
criminals,' which was a ' very pretty piece of 
latinity,' and was dedicated to Lord Brax- 
field [see MACQTTEBN, ROBBBT]. 

Scott was already a charming companion 
and was a member of various clubs; the 
' Teviotdale Club,' to which Ballantyne be- 
longed; 'The Club* (of Edinburgh), where 
he met William Clerk and other young advo- 
cates, and was known as * Colonel Grogg;' 
and the ' Literary Society,' where discussions 
were held in which, although Scott was not 
distinguished as an orator, he aired his anti- 
quarian knowledge, and gained the nickname 
'DunsScotus.' Scott's companions were given 
to the conviviality of the period ; and, though, 
strictly temperate in later life, he occasionally 
put the strength of his head to severe tests at 
this time. When the hero of * Rob Roy ' is 
persuaded that he had sung a song during a 
carouse, he is repeating the author's experi- 
ence. It seems, too, that such frolics occa- 
sionally led to breaches of the peace, when 
Scott was complimented as being the ' first 
to begin a row and the last to end it.' He 
fell, however, into no discreditable excesses, 
and was reading widely and storing his mind, 
by long rambles in the country, with anti- 
quarian knowledge. As an apprentice he 
had to accompany^ an expedition for the 
execution of a writ, which first took him 
into the Loch Katrine region. He made 
acquaintance with a client of his father's, 
Alexander Stewart of Invernahyle, who had 
been out in 1716 and 1745, and had met 
Rob Roy in a duel. Scott visitod him in 
the highlands, and listened eagerly to his 
stories. At a rather later period he visited 
the Cheviots, and made a careful study of 
Flodden Field. 

The 'Literary Society* encouraged him 
to take a higher place among his friends. 
He had ' already dabbled,' says Lockhart, 
* in Anglo-Saxon and the Norse sagas.' In 
1789 he read before the society an essay 
intended to show that the feudal system was 
the natural product of certain social condi- 
tions, instead of being the invention of a 
particular period. In the winter of 1790-91 
he attracted the attention of Dugald Stewart, 
whose class he was again attending, by an 
essay ' on the Manners and Customs of the 
Northern Nations/ On 4 Jan. 1791 he^was 
elected a member of the Speculative Society. 
He took great interest in its proceedings, 
was soon chosen librarian and secretary, and 
kept the minutes with businesslike regu- 



Scott 



Scott 



larity. An essay upon ballads which he 
read upon the night of Jeffrey's admission 
led to an acquaintance between the two, and 
Jeffrey found him already collecting the 
nucleus of a museum of curiosities. 

By this time he had also become qualified 
for ladies' society. He had grown to be tall 
and strong; his figure was both powerful 
and graceful ; his chest and arms were those 
of a Hercules. Though his features were 
not handsome, their expression was singu- 
larly varied and pleasing ; his eye was bright 
and his complexion brilliant. It was a 
proud day, he said, when he found that a 
pretty young woman would sit out and talk 
to him for hours in a ballroom, where his 
lameness prevented him from dancing. This 
.pretty young lady was probably Williamina, 
daughter of Sir John and Lady Jane 
Belsches, afterwards Stuart, of Fettercairn, 
near Montrose, born October 1776. She 
ultimately married, on 19 Jan. 1797, Sir 
William Forbes, bart., of Pitsligo, was mother 
of James David Forbes [q. v.], and died 
5 Dec. 1810. Scott appears to have felt for 
her the strongest passion of his life. Scott's 
father, says Lockhart, thought it right to 
give notice to the lady's father of the attach- 
ment. This interference, however, produced 
no effect upon the relations between the 
young people. Scott, he adds, hoped for suc- 
cess for * several long years.' Whatever the 
true story of the failure, there can be no doubt 
that Scott was profoundly moved, and the 
memory of the lady inspired him when de- 
scribing Matilda in ' Rokeby ' (Letters, ii. 18), 
and probably other heroines. He refers to the 
passion more than once in his last journal, 
and he had affecting interviews with her 
mother in 1827 (Journal, 1890, i. 86, 96, 
404, ii. 55, 62, 321). According to Lock- 
hart, Scott's friends thought that this secret 
attachment had helped to keep him free 
from youthful errors, and had nerved him to 
diligence during his legal studies. As, 
however, she was only sixteen when he was 
called to the bar, Lockhart's language seems 
to imply rather too early a date for the be- 
ginning of the affair (see BAIN'S James Mill 
for an account of the Stuart family ; James 
Mill was for a time Miss Stuart's tutor). 

Scott, on joining the bar, received some 
employment from his father and a few 
others, but had plenty of leisure to become 
famous as a story-teller among his com- 
rades. Among his dearest friends of this 
and later times was William Erskine 
(afterwards Lord Kinneder) [q. v.] At 
the end of 1792 he made his first excur- 
sion to Liddesdale, with Robert Shortreed, 
the sheriff-substitute of Roxburghshire. He 



repeated these * raids ' tor seven successive 
years, exploring every corner of the country, 
collecting ballads and occasionally an old 
border war-horn, and enjoying the rough 
hospitalities of the Dandle Dinmonts. A 
Willie Elliot of Millb urn holme is said to 
have been the original of this great creation, 
though a Jamie Davidson, who kept mus- 
tard-and-pepper terriers, passed by the name 
afterwards; and Lockhart thinks that the 
portrait was filled up from Scott's friend, Wil- 
liam Laidlaw [q. v.J Scott was everywhere 
welcome, overflowing with fun, and always 
a gentleman, even when ' fou/ which, how- 
ever, was a rare occurrence. Other rambles 
took him to Perthshire, Stirlingshire, and 
Forfarshire. He became familiar with the 
scenery of Loch Katrine. At Craighali in 
Perthshire he found one original of the 
Tully-Veolan of i Waverley/ and at Meigle 
in Forfarshire he met Robert Paterson [q. Y.], 
the real ' Old Mortality. 7 In 1796 he visited 
Montrose, and tried to collect stories of 
witches and fairies from his old tutor, Mit- 
chell. The neighbourhood of the Stuarts at 
Fettercairn was probably a stronger induce- 
ment, but his suit was now finally rejected. 
His friends were alarmed at the possible 
consequences to his romantic temper, but he 
appears to have regained his self-command 
during a solitary ramble in the highlands. 

Another line of study was now attracting 
his attention. In 1788 a paper read by 
Henry Mackenzie to the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh had roused an interest in &er- 
man literature. Scott and some of his friends 
formed a class about 1792 to study German, 
engaging as teacher Dr. Willich (afterwards 
a translator of Kant), and gained a know- 
ledge of the language, which was then a ' new 
discovery.' Scott disdained the grammar, 
but forced his way to reading by his know- 
ledge of Anglo-Saxon and Scottish dialects. 
William Erskine shared his zeal, and re- 
strained his taste for the extravagances of 
the German dramatists. He became Scott's 
most trusted literary adviser. Three or four 
years later James Skene of Rubislaw [q. v.] re- 
turned from Germany with a thorough know- 
ledge of the language and a good collection 
of books. Their literary sympathies led to 
the formation of another of* Scott's warmest 
friendships. 

The French revolution affected Scott 
chiefly by way of repulsion and by stimu- 
lating his patriotism. In 1794 some Irish 
students of the opposite persuasion made a 
riot in the theatre. Scott joined with such. 
effect as to break the heads of three demo- 
crats, and was bound over to keep the peace. 
He was keenly interested in the raising of 



Scott 



Scott 



a volunteer regiment In Edinburgh, from 
which he was excluded by his lameness. 
He joined, however, in a scheme for raising 
a body of volunteer cavalry. It was not 
organised till February 1797, when Scott 
was made quartermaster, * that he might be 
spared the rough usage of the ranks. He 
attended drills at five in the morning before 



corned by his friends at the bar and among 
the volunteers. They were both fond of the 
theatre, and heartily enjoyed the simple 
social amusements of the time. Scott's 
father was failing before the marriage, and 
died in April 1799. 

Although still courting professional suc- 
cess, Scott now began to incline to literature. 



visiting the parliament house, dined with | He had apparently written and burnt a boyish 
the mess, and became a most popular mem- poem on the 'Conquest of Granada ' about 

_ A * TV* '! i _L! * 



her of the corps. His military enthusiasm 
which excited some amusement among his 



1786 (LocKHAKT, p. 37), but afterwards 
confined himself to an occasional i sonnet to 



legal friends, was lasting. When, in 1805, his mistress's eyebrow/ In 1796 he heard of 
there was a false alarm of an invasion, he j the version of Burger's 'Lenore'by William 
rode a hundred miles in one day, from Cum- j Taylor of Norwich [q. v.], one of the first stu- 
berland to Dalkeith, an incident turned to ! denta of German literature. He was stimu- 
account in the * Antiquary * (LocKHAKT, ch. lated to attempt a rival translation, which he 
x i v% ) began after supper and finished that night in 

Scott's income at the bar had risen from a state of excitement which spoilt his sleep. 
24J. in his first year to 144Z. in 1797. Lock- He published this in October with a corn- 
hart gives some specimens of his arguments, panioa ballad, 'The Wild Huntsman;' the 
which apparently did not rise above the j publisher being one of his German class* 
average. In the autumn of 1797 he was per- The ballads were praised by Dugald Stewart, 



suaded by a friend to visit the English lakes, 
and thence they went to the little water- 
ing-place of Gilsland, near the i waste of 
Cumberland * described in ' Guy Mannering,' 
Here he saw a beautiful girl riding, and, 
finding that she was also at Gilsland, ob- 
tained an introduction, and immediately fell 
in love with her. She was Charlotte Mary 
Carpenter, daughter of a French refugee, 
Jean Charpentier. Upon his death, early in 
the revolution, his wife, with her children, 
had gone to England. They found a friend 
in the Marquis of Downshire, on whose pro- 
perty Charpentier held a mortgage. The 
son obtained a place in tlife East India Com- 
pany's service, and changed his name to Car- 
penter. The daughter is said by Lockhart 
to have been very attractive in appearance, 
though not of regular beauty, with dark- 
brown eyes, masses of black hair, and a 
fairy-like figure. She spoke with a slight 
^French accent. Scott, at any rate, was soon 
' raving ' about her. She was just of age. 
LordDownshire approved. Her brother had 
settled an annuity of 500?. upon her; and, 
though this was, partly dependent upon his 
circumstances, t\-olt thought that the in- 
come, with his <-\vn professional earnings, 
would be sufficient. They were therefore 
married at St. Mary's Church, Carlisle, on 
24 Dec. 1797. 

The Scotts settled at a lodging in George 
Street, Ed wburgh ; then at 1 Castle Street ; 
and in 1802 at 39 Castle Street, a house 
which Scott bought, and where fye lived 
till 1826, The bride's lively tastes were ap- 
parently not quite suited to the habits of 



George Chalmers, and others ; and his rival, 
Taylor, sent him a friendly letter. He had, 
however, many other rivals ; and most of the 
edition went to the trunkmaker. In 1797 
"William Erskine showed the ballads to 
Matthew Gregory Lewis [q. v.l of the 
* Monk,' who was then collecting the miscel- 
lany called ' Tales of Wonder ' (1801). He 
begged for contributions from Scott, whom 
he met on a visit to Scotland. Scott, though 
amused by Lewis's foible, was flattered by 
the attentions of a well-known author and 
edified by his criticisms. Lewis was also 
interested by Scott's version of Goethe's 
'Goetz von Berlichingen.' He induced a 
publisher to give 25 for it, with a promise 
of an equal sum for a second edition. It 
appeared in February 1799, but failed to ob- 
tain republication. Another dramatic per- 
formance of the time was the * House of 
Aspen/ an adaptation from 'Der heilige 
Vehme' of G. Wachter; it was offered to 
Kemble "by Lewis, and, it is said, put in re- 
hearsaL it was not performed, however, and 
remained unpublished* Meanwhile Scott 
had been writing ballads for Lewis, some of 
which he showed to his friend, James Ballan- 
tyne [q. vAwho was then publishing a news- 
paper at iCelso. Ballantyne agreed to print 
twelve copies of these ballads, which, with 
'a few poems by other authors, appeared as 
< A ^r. * T' a i e8 O f Terror 'in 1799. Scott 



had suggested that they would serve as ad- 
vertisements of Ballantyne's press to his 
Mends at Edinburgh, He was pleased with 
the result, and now began to think of pub- 
lishing his collection of * Border Ballads, to 



Scott's parents ; but she was warmly wel- | be printed by Ballantyne. 



ScOtt 5 

The office of sheriff-depute of Selkirkshire 
was at this time vacant, and Scott had the 
support of the Duke of Buccleuch in an ap- 
plication for the office. Scott's volunteering 
had also brought him into close connection 
with Robert Dundas, eldest son of Lord 
Melville, then the great distributor of Scot- 
tish patronage. Melville's nephews were also 
interested, and on 16 Dec. 1799 Scott was 
appointed sheriff-depute. It brought him 
300 a year for light work and a closer 
connection with his favourite district. Scott 
now set about his ballad collection ener- 
getically. On 22 April 1800 he wrote to 
Ballantyne, whom he proposed to entrust 
with the printing, and suggested, at the 
same time, that Ballantyne would find a 
good opening for a printing establishment in 
Edinburgh. Scott s ballad-hunting brought 
him many new acquaintances, who, as usual, 
became warm friends. Among them were 
Richard Heber [q. v.], the great book-col- 
lector, and, through Heber, George Ellis 
[q. v.J, then preparing his ' Specimens of 
Early English Romances/ They kept up an 
intimate correspondence until Ellis's death. 
Scott managed also to form a friendly alliance 
with the touchy antiquary, Joseph Ritson 
[q. v.] He took up John Leyden [q. v.], 
whose enthusiastic co-operation he repaid by 
many good services. He made the acquaint- 
ance of William Laidlaw, ever afterwards 
an attached friend ; and, through Laidlaw, 
of James Hogg (1770-1835) [q. v.], to whom 
also he was a steady patron. The first two 
volumes of the ' Border Minstrelsy/ printed 
by Ballantyne, were published early in 1802 
by Cadell & Davies, and welcomed by many 
critics of the time, including Miss Seward. 
Scott received 78J. 10$. for a half-share of the 
profits, and then sold the copyright to the 
Longmans for 500J. This price apparently 
included a third volume, which appeared in 
1803. Other editions followed when Scott 
had become famous. The collection included 
various introductory essays, and showed, as 
Lockhart remarks, that his mind was already 
stored with most of the incidents and images 
afterwards turned to account. The 'Min- 
strelsy * had been intended to include the 
romance of < Sir Tristram/ which he and 
Leyden had persuaded themselves to be the 
work of Thomas of Ereildoune [q. v.] Asmall 
edition of this was published separatelv bv 
Constable in May 1804. 

The * Minstrelsy ' included some imitations 
of the ancient ballad by Scott, Leyden, and 
others. 'Glenfinlas/ written for Lewis in 
1799, was, he says, his ' first serious attempt 
in verse.' Another poem, intended for the 
'Minstrelsy/ led to more important results 



'5 Scott 

(Letters, i. 22). The Countess of Dalkeith 
(afterwards Duchess of Buccleuch) sug- 

EI to him as a tit subject for a ballad the 
d of Gilpin Homer. Soon afterwards 
x f John Stoddart fq.v.l, on a visit to 



extravaganza ' 
tended. A verse or two from * Christabel * 
was actually introduced in Scott's poems; 
and Coleridge seems afterwards to have been 
a little annoyed by the popularity due in 
part to this appropriation and denied to 
the more poetical original, Scott in his pre- 
face ^ of 1830 fully acknowledges the debt, 
and in his novels makes frequent references 
to Coleridge's poems. The framework of tlie 
'Last Minstrel' was introduced on a hint 
fromW. Erskine or George Cranstoun [q.v.], 
to whom he had read some stanzas ; and its 
form was suggested by the neighbourhood 
of Newark Castle to Bowhill, where he had 
met the- Countess of Dalkeith. He read 
the beginning to Ellis early in 1803. The 
* Lay of the Last Minstrel ' was published at 
the beginning of 1805 by the Longmans and 
Constable on half profits. The Longmans 
bought the copyright on a second edition for 
500/., Scott thus receiving 769J, 6$. on the 
whole. It succeeded at once so brilliantly as 
to determine Scott's future career. 

Scott's literary occupations had naturally 
told against his success at the bar. His pro- 
fessional income had increased slowly, and 
in 1802-3 amounted to 228/.18s. In 1804 his 
father's business had dwindled in the hands of 
his brother Thomas, and his own prospects 
suffered. In 1804 the lord lieutenant of Sel- 
kirkshire complained that Scott's military zeal 
had interfered with the discharge of his duties 
as sheriff, and that he was legally bound to 
reside four months in the year within his 
own jurisdiction. Scott had, upon his mar- 
riage, taken a cottage at Lasswade, six miles 
from Edinburgh, where he spent his sum- 
mers. He now had to look out for a house 
in a more appropriate situation, and took a 
lease of Ashestiel on the Tweed, near Selkirk. 
On 10 June 1804 his uncle, Robert Scott, 
died, leaving him the house at Bosebank. 
He sold this for o,000/., and, with the sheriff- 
depute-ship and his wife's settlement, had 
now about 1,000 a year independently of 
his practice (LQCKHABT, ch, adii.) Ashestiel 
was in a rustic district, seven miles from the 
nearest town, and in the midst of the Buc- 
cleuch estates. He had plenty of sporting and 
a small sheep farm. He thought of making 
Hogg his bailiff, but took a fancy to Thomas 
Purdie, who had been charged with poach- 
ing, and had touched Scott's heart by his 



Scott 



86 



Scott 



apology. Purdie became his shepherd, then 
his bailiff, and remained till death aix at- 
tached friend. 

Scott now resolved, as he says (Introd. to 
theJ&tf^), that literature should be his * staff, 
but not his crutch/ He desired to be inde- 
pendent of his pen, though giving- up hopes 
of the highest legal preferments. He applied, 
therefore, through Lord Dalkeith (2 Feb. 



1805), to Lord Melville for an appointment, 
which he succeeded in obtaining in the follow- j 
ing year. Lockhart thinks (/;. ch. xv. p. 30) ' 
that, besides the Buccleuch interest, a hint of 
Pitt's, who had expressed admiration of the 
' Lay/ may have been serviceable. George 
Home, one of the * principal clerks of the 
quarter session/ was becoming infirm; and, as 
there was no system of retiring pensions, Scott 
was associated in the office, on the terms of 
doing the duty for nothing during Home's 
life and succeeding to the position on his | 
death. Some formal error having been made | 
in the appointment, Scott went to London ; 
to obtain its rectification, and was afraid j 
that upon the change of government advan- i 
tage might be taken of the mistake. His j 
fears were set at rest by Lord Spencer, then i 
at the home office, and the appointment was 
gazetted on 8 March 1806. Scott was for 
the first time received in London as a literary 
lion, and made the acquaintance of Joanna 
Baillie, ever afterwards a warm friend. The i 
duties of his clerkship occupied him from ! 
four to six hours daily for four days a week j 
during six months of the year, and, though j 
partly mechanical, required care and busi- 
nesslike habits and the study of law papers 
at home. It brought him into close connec- 
tion with his colleagues, the children of the i 
several families all calling the other fathers ! 
' uncle/ Soon afterwards he wrote a sons, j 
which James Ballantyne sang at a public 
dinner (27 June 1806), to commemorate the 
failure of Melville's impeachment. lie de- 
sired, as Lockhart thinks (ib. ch. xv.), to 
show that his appointment had not inter- 
fered with his political independence. The 
words 'Tally-ho to the Fox!' used at a 
time when Fox ? s health was beginning to 
collapse, gave deep offence ; and some friends, 
according to Cockburn (Memorials^ p. 217), 
were permanently alienated. The particular 
phrase was of course used without ungene- 
rous intention, and Scott paid a compliment 
to Fox's- memory in 'Marmion' soon after- 
wards. But he was now becoming a keen 
, partisan. Lockhart observes that during the 
whig ministry his tory feelings were * in a 
very excited state/ and that he began to take 
an active part as a local manager of poli- 
tical affairs. When Jeffrey playfully com- 



plimented him on a speech before the faculty 
of advocates, Scott burst into tears, and de- 
clared that the whigs would leave nothing of 
all that made Scotland Scotland. 

Ballantyne had removed to Edinburgh at 
the end oi 1802, and set up a press in the 
precincts of Holy rood House ( LOCKHART, ch. 
xi.) It was culled the Border Press, and 
gained a reputation for beauty and correct- 
ness. Soon after the publication of the 
4 Lay/ Ballantyne, who had already received 
a loan from Scott, found that more capital 
was needed ; Scott (ib. ch. xiv.) thought it 
imprudent to make a further advance, but 
agreed at the beginning of 1805 to become a 
partner in tiw business. The connection was 
a secret; and Scott, whose writings were 
now eagerly sought by publishers, attracted 
many customers. He arranged that all his 
own* books should bo printed by Ballantyne, 
while as a printer he became more or less 
interested in the publishing speculations. 
Scott's sanguine disposition and ma generous 
trust in other authors led him also to sug- 
gest a number of litorarv enterprises, some 
very costly, and frequently ending in failure. 
Money had to be raised ; and Scott, who 
seems to have first taken up Ballantyne 
somewhat in the spirit of a border-chief 
helping on of his clan, Boon caught the 
spirit of commercial speculation. The first 
scheme which he proposed was for a collec- 
tion of British poets, to be published by 
Constable. A similar scheme, in which 
Thomas Campbell was to be the editor, was 
in the contemplation of some London pub- 
lishers. After some attempts at an alliance, 
Scott's scheme was given up j but he took up 
with great energy a complete edition of 
Drytlen. In 1805 he was also writing for 
the ' Edinburgh Kevimv,' and had made a 
beginning of * Waverley ' (ib* clu xiv.) The 
name was probably suggested by Waverley 
Abbey, near Farnham, -which was within a 
ride of Ellis's house where he had been re- 
cently staying. The first few chapters were 
shown to "William Krsldne (ft. ch. xxii. p. 
20*4), and upon his disapproval the task was 
dropped for the time. Scott now adopted 
the habits which enabled him to carry out 
his labours. He gave up his previous plan 
of sitting tip late, rose at five, dressed care- 
fully, was at his desk by six, and before the, 
family breakfast had ' broken the neck of the 
day's work/ A couple of hours afterwards 
he finished the writing, and was his ' own 
man' by noon. At Ashestiel he rode out, 
coursed with his greyhounds or joined in 
' burning the water/ as described in ' Guy 
Mannermg.' He answered every letter the 
same day, ,and thus got through a surprising 



Scott 

amount of work. Lockhart describes (ib. 
ch. xxvii. j>. 256) how in 1814 a youthful 
friend of his own was irritated by the vision 
of a hand which he could see, while drink- 
ing his claret, through the window of a 
neighbouring house, unweariediy adding to 
a heap of manuscripts. It was afterwards 
identified as Scott's hand, then employed 
upon ' Waverley ; ' and the anecdote shows 
that he sometimes, at least, wrote into the 
evening. 

During 1806-7 Scott was hard at work 
upon 'Dryden,' and in the spring of 1807 
visited London to make researches in the 
British Museum. He was also appointed 
secretary to the parliamentary commission 
iipon Scottish jurisprudence (ib. ch. xvi.),and 
took much pains in qualifying himself for the 
duty. An essay upon the changes proposed 
by the commission was afterwards contri- 
buted by him to the * Edinburgh Annual 
Register^ for 1808 (published 1810), and 
shows his suspicion of the reforms which 
were being urged by Bentham among others 
(see BENTHAM, Works, voL y.) At the same 
time he was writing ' Marmion,' upon which 
he says (Introduction of 1830) that he thought 
it desirable to bestow more care than his 
previous compositions had received. Some 
of it, especially the battle, was composed 
while he was galloping his charger along 
Portobello Sands during his volunteer exer- 
cises (LoCKHAKT, ch. xv i.) The introductory 
epistles, which most of his critics thought 
a disagreeable interruption, were carefully 
laboured, and at one time advertised for 
separate publication (ib. ch. xvi. p. 154). 
TBhey are of great biographical interest. 
Constable offered a thousand guineas for the 
poem befb*e seeing it, and Scott at once ac- 
cepted the offer. He had a special need of 
money in consequence of the failure, at the 
end of 1806, of his brother Thomas. ( Mar- 
mion ' was published on 23 Feb. 1808, and 
was as successful as the * Lay.' The general 
applause was interrupted by some sharp 
criticism from Jeffrey in the 'Edinburgh 
Review.' Jeffrey, besides a general dislike 
to the romanticism of the newschool, strangely 
accused Scott of neglecting ' Scottish feelings 
and Scottish characters.' He sent the re- 
view, with a note, to Scott, with whom he 
was engaged to dine. Scott received him 
with unchanged cordiality, but Mrs. Scott 
sarcastically hoped that he Lad been well 
paid by Constable for his * abuse' of his host. 
Scott himself ceased to be a contributor to the 
' Edinburgh,' although his personal relations 
with Jeffrey were always friendly (see Letters, 
i. 436-40, 11. 32). Otner reasons sufficiently 
explain his secession. In November 1807 he 



r . Scott 

had proposed to Southey to become one of 
Jeffrey's contributors, in spite of certain at- 
tacks upon ' Madoc ' and < Thalaba.' Southey 
declined, as generally disapproving of Jef- 
frey's politics, and Scott was soon annoyed 
by what he thought the unpatriotic tone of 
the review, especially the ' Cevallos ' article 
of October 1808. He at once took up eagerly 
the scheme for the ' Quarterly Review,' which 
was now being started by Murray, who visited 
him i ^ ' f ' 



96 seq.) Canning approved the scheme, and 
Scott wrote to all his friends to get recruits. 
Lockhart says that he could 'fill half a 
volume with the correspondence upon this 
subject ' (see, too, Gifford's letters in Letters, 
vol. ii. appendix)* The quarrel with Jeffrey 
involved a quarrel with Constable, the pub- 
lisher at tnis time of the * Edinburgh/ 
Other serious difficulties had arisen. The 
edition of ' Dry den ' in eighteen volumes, 
with Scott's admirable life, had appeared in 
the last week of April 1808. He had worked 
hard as an editor, and received 756J., or forty 
guineas a volume. He had by, October 1808 
prepared an edition of the ' Sadler Papers' 
(published in 1809-10), and was at work 
upon a new edition of the ' Somers Tracts,' 
and now, besides some other trifles, had 
undertaken the edition of Swift, for which 
Constable offered him 1,500/. A partner of 
Constable's, named Hunter, an intelligent 
and honourable man, but strongly opposed 
to Scott in politics, was dissatisfied with the 
Swift bargain. Scott was bitterly offended 
at some of Hunter's language, and on 12 Jan. 
1809 wrote an indignant letter breaking off 
all connection with the firm. He had pre- 
viously engaged John (1774-1821) [q. v.] ? the 
younger brother of James Ballantyne, who had 
failed in business, to act as clerk under the 
brother. It was now decided to start a pub- 
lishing firm (John Ballantyne & Co.) in oppo- 
sition to Constable. Scott was to supply half 
the capital, and the other half was to be 
divided equally between James and John. 
According to Lockhart, Scott had also to pro- 
vide for James's quarter, while John had to 
borrow his quarter either from Scott or some 
one else (LOCKHABT, ch. xviii, p. 174). The 
new firm undertook various enterprises, es- 
pecially the ' Edinburgh Annual Register/ 
to which Southey was a contributor; and 
Scott now hoped, with the alliance of John 
Murray, to compete successfully with Con- 
stable. 

In the spring of 1&09 he visited London 
and saw much of his new acquaintance, 
John Bacon Sawrey Morri tt [q. v.], with whom 
lie stayed at Rokeby Park on his return. In 
London he saw much of Canning, Ellis, and 



Scott 



Scott 



/. , 



Croker. The first number of the ' Quarterly Re- 
view/ to which, he contributed three articles, 
appeared during his stay, and he had frequent 
conferences with John Murray concerning 
the new alliance with Ballantyne, This 
was soon cooled in consequence of John 
Ballantyne's modes of doing business (SMILES, 
John Murray, L 175). ^ Scott added tojhis 
other distractions a keen interest in theatrical 
matters. He became intimate with J. P. 
Kemble and Mrs. Siddons. In the summer he 
took a share in the theatre at Edinburgh, and 
induced Henry Siddons [q. vA the nephew of 
Mrs. Siddons, to undertake the management 
and to produce as his first play the * Family 
Legend* of his friend Joanna BailHe. This 
led to a friendship with Daniel Terry [q. v.] , an 
actor in the Edinburgh company, who shared 
Scott's taste for curiosities, dramatised his 
novels, and admired him so much as to catch 
a trick of personal likeness. 

In 1810 an act was passed to put in force 
some of the recommendations of the judica- 
ture commission. Compensation was made 
to the holders of some offices abolished. 
Scott had recently appointed a deserving old 
clerk to a vacant place and given the ' ex- 
tractorship' thus vacated to his brother 
Thomas. Thomas was now pensioned off with 
130/.ayear. The transaction was attacked as 
a iob in the House of Lords by Lord Holland. 
Thomas had been forced by his difficulties 
to retreat to the Isle of Man, and- did his 
duty at Edinburgh by deputy. The appoint- 
ment was apparently not out of the usual 
course of things at that period, Scott 
bitterly resented the attack, and ' cut ' Lord 
Holland soon afterwards at Edinburgh. The 
quarrel, however, -was made up in later 
years. Meanwhile Scott was finishing his 
third poem, ' The Ladyof tlie Lake/ He re- 
ceived nominally 2,000 J. for the copyright, 
but '' Ballantyne & Co.' retained three-fourths 
of the property. He had taken special care to 
be accurate in details, and repeated the king's 
ridefromLoeh Vennacharto StirUng,in order 
to assure himself tha:fc it could be done in 
the time. The poem was published in May 
3810, and equalled the success of its pre- 
decessors. There was a rush of visitor** to 
Lock Katrine, and the post-horse duty in 
Scotland rose regiHarly from that date 
(LooKHAEX, ch. xx. p. 192)v From Lock- 
Bart's statement, it appears that twenty 
thousand copies were sold in the year, the 
quarto edition of 2,050 copies being sold 
for two guineas. Thia success was even 
more xapid than that of the 'Lay' or 
4 Marmion/ though the sale of each of the 
'poems down to 1825 was about the same, 
peing in each ease something over thirty 



thousand. 'The Lady of the Lake' was 
praised by Jeffrey in the ' Edinburgh,' while 
Ellis (who reviewed it in the * Quarterly') 
and Canning entreated him to try next time 
to adopt Dryden's metre. The extraordinary 
success of these * novels in verse ' was iu 
proportion less to their purely poetical merits 
than to the romantic spirit afterwards more 
appropriately embodied in the novels. A 
poem of which it can be said that the 
essence could be better given in prose is 
clearly not of the highest class, though 
the lays include many touches of most 
genuine poetry. Scott himself never formed 
an exalted estimate of his own verses, 
Johnson's poems, he said, gave him more 
pleasure than any others, His daughter, 
on being asked what she thought of the 
* Lay/ said that she had not read it ; ' papa 
says there's nothing so bad for young people 
as reading bad poetry.' His son had never 
heard of it, and 1 conjectured as the reason of 
his father's celebrity that ' it's commonly 
him that sees the hare sitting' (LOCKHAET, 
ch, xx. p. 196), The compliment to the 
'Lady' which probably pleased its author 
most was from his friendt Adam Ferguson, 
who was serving in Portugal, and had read 
the poem to his comrades, while lying under 
fire at the lines of Torres Vedras (fb. ch. xxii. 
p. 206). Ferguson afterwards read to similar 
audiences the * Vision of Don Roderick/ in 
Spenserian stanzas, published for the benefit 
of the distressed Portuguese in 181L This, 
with an imitation of Crabbe and one or two 
trifles of the same period, seems to have re- 
sulted from his desire to try his friend's ad- 
vice of attempting a different style in poetry. 
After finishing the ' Lay,' Scott had again 
taken up * Waverley,' and again laid it aside 
upon a discouraging opinion from Ballantyne, 
who, it seems, "wanted more * Lays.' Scott's 
regular employment was the edition of 
Swift. Meanwhile the publishing business 
was going badly, partly owing to Scott's 
characteristic patronage of other authors. 
Anna Seward [q. v] had begun a correspon- 
dence with him on the publication of the^Min- 
strelsy.* She was not sparing of comically 
pedantic compliments, which Scott repaid 
with praises which, if insincere, brought a tit 
punishment. She died in 1809, and left 
him her poems with an mi unction to publish 
them. He obeyed, and the firm suffered by 
the three volumes, which appeared in the 
autunm of 1810. Another unlucky venture 
was the edition of Beaumont and Fletcher 
by Henry William Weber [g. y.] Scott had 
taken him for an amanuensis in 1804 when 
he was a half-starved bookseller's hack. 
Though Weber was a Jacobin in principles, 



r 



t, 
't 



ScOtt 8 

and given occasionally to drink, Scott helped i 
him frequently, till in 1814 he went mad ; 
and afterwards supported him till his death 
in 1818. Unluckily, Scott also put too much 
faith in his client's literary capacity, and 
lost heavily by publishing his work. Some- 
what similar motives prompted him to pub- 
lish the * History of the Culdees,' by his old 
friend John Jamieson [q. v.], and another 
heavy loss was caused by the 'Tixall' 
poetry. The * Edinburgh Annual Register/ 
in which he was glad to employ Southey, 
caused a loss of never less than 1,000/. a 
year. Scott's professional income, ho\yever, 
was now improved. The reconstitution of 
the court of session enabled Home to retire 
from the clerkship on a pension, and from 
January 1812 Scot fc received the salary, as 
well as performed the duties, of his office. 
The salary was fixed at 1,300/., which was 
a clear addition to his previous income. As 
his lease of Ashestiel was ending, he resolved 
to buy a place of his own. He paid 4,000/. 
for an estate about five miles further down 
the Tweed, to which he gave the name of 
Abbotsford. It included a meadow on the 
Tweed, one hundred acres of rough land, 
and a small farmhouse (a facsimile plan of 
Abbotsford in 1811 is given at the end of 
Letters, vol. i.) The neighbourhood of 
Melrose Abbey, to which the lands had 
formerly belonged, was an additional attrac- 
tion. Scott at once set about planting and 
building, with the constant advice of his 
friend Terry. lie moved into the house 
from Ashestiel in May 1812. He wrote 
here, amid the noise of masons, in the only 
habitable room, of which part had been 
screened off for him by an old curtain. He 
engaged as a tutor for the children George 
Thomson [q. v.], spn of the minister of Mel- 
rose, who lived with him ma&y years, and was 
the original of Dominie Sampson. While 
amusing himself with his planting and his 
children, he was now writing 'Kokeby' 
and 'The Bridal of Triermain/ He visited 
Morritt at llokeby in the autumn, to refresh 
his impressions, and the book was published 
at Christmas 1812, and was followed in two 
months by ' Triermain^ Although an edition 
of " three thousand two-guinea copies of 
1 llokeby ' was sold at once, and ten thousand 
copies went off in a few months, its success 
was very inferior tp that of its predecessors. 
Scott attributes this to various causes (Pre- 
face of 1830), such as the unpoetical charac- 
ter of the Roundheads. A * far deeper ' cause, 
as he aays, was that his style had lost its 
novelty by his own repetitions and those of 
his many imitators. He was writing with 
less vivacity j and Moore, in the * Two- 



Scott 

penny Postbag, 1 hit a blot by saying that 
Scott had left the border, and meant l to do 
all the gentlemen's seats on the way ' to 
London. Another cause assigned by Scott 
was that he tad been eclipsed by Byron, 
whose poems he cordially admired. Murray 
brought Scott into communication with 
Byron on the publication of t Childe Harold ' 
in 1812. Byron reported compliments from 
the prince regent to Scott, and apologised for 
the sneer at * Marmion ' in ' English Bards 
and Scotch Reviewers/ They afterwards 
meet on very friendly terms. Scott wrote 
a generous review of Byron, at his final de- 
parture from England, by which Byron was 
much gratified (Quarterly, vol. xiv.), and 
Lady Byron, though complaining of certain' 
misunderstandings, acknowledged Scott's 
good intentions, and was cordially received 
by hi m soon afterwards at Abbotsibrd. * The 
Bridal of Triermain,' which was composed 
as a relief to * Rokeby/ was published anony- 
mously, and Scott endeavoured to spread tbe 
impression that "William Erskine, who had 
suggested the poem and consented to humour 
the jest, was its author. 

The affairs of Ballantyne & Co. had now 
reached a serious crisis. Scott had made tip 
his personal quarrel with Constable in 1810, 
and had some friendly communications with 
him (ib. ch. xx. p. 192). The edition of 
Swift had remained on Constable's hands. 
In May 1813 Scott consented, though re- 
luct antly, to apply to Constable for help in 
Ballantyne's affairs, engaging that the pub- 
lishing business should be wound uj> if 
proper terms could be obtained. The print- 
ing concern was bringing in about l^OO/. a 
year. Constable examined the books in Au- 
gust, and reported that the liabilities were 
about lo,000/., and that the assets, if they 
could be realised, would about balance them 
(Archibald Constable, iii. 31). It was, how- 
ever, a period of financial difficulty, and -it 
was impossible to dispose of the stock and 
copyrights in time. An advance was neces- 
sary to meet the immediate difficulties. 
Scott hereupon applied to his friend, the 
Duke of Buccleueh, who had, as he observed, 
the * true spirit of a border chief (ib. iii. 28), 
and who at once agrejA to guarantee an ad- 
vance of 4,OQO by a Sondon banker. Con- 
stable had already in May agreed to take 
part of the stock of theBallantynes for 2,000/., 
which was ultimately resold to the trade at 
a great loss. Much more was still left on 
hand. John Ballantyne set up as an auc- 
tioneer, though he continued to act as Scott's 
agent for the * JVaverley Novels.* In January 
1816 a new arrangement was made, under 
which James Ballantyue became simply 



Scott 



Scott 



Scott's agent, receiving a salary of 40Q/. a 
year for managing the printing business. 
The affairs of this and the publishing busi- 
ness had become indistinguishable. John 
Ballantyne said that the publishing business 
was wound up with a clear balance of 1,000. 
in consequence of Scott's energy. The new 
firm took over, according to Lockhart (p. 
461), liabilities to the amount of 10,000/. 
Scott complained much in 1813 of having 
been kept in ignorance by his partners of 
the real state of affairs ; and it seems that 
the printing, as well as the publishing, office 
had been in difficulties from an early period, 
The printing business, however, was sub- 
stantially a good one, and, now that the 
publishing was abandoned, might be expected 
to thrive. 

For two or three years after the arrange- 
ment with Constable the affairs of the firm 
were in a very critical state, and Scott was 
put to many straits for raising money. He 
cordially admitted his obligations to Con- 
stable's sagacity and help, while he begged 
John Ballantyne to treat him ' as a man, 
and not as a milch-cow 7 ( LOCKHART, ch. 
xxvl p. 246). Scott, however, was sanguine 
by nature, and had sufficiently good pro- 
spects, His income, he says (24 Aug. 1813), 
was over 2,000 a year, and he was owner 
of Abbotsford and the house in Castle 
Street. He was clear that no one could 
ultimately be a loser by him. Just at this 
time the regent offered him the poet-laureate- 
ship, which he erroneously supposed to be 
worth 400J. a year. It had fallen into such 
discredit that he feared to be ridiculed for 
taking it, and declined on the ground that 
he could not write the regular odes then 
imperative, and that his legal offices were a 
sufficient provision. In the midst of his 
difficulties he was sending 50J. to Maturin, 
then in distress, and was generous to other 
struggling authors while pressed to pay Hs 
family expenses. 

Unfortunately, Scott had been seized with 
a passion for adding to his landed property. 
A property was for sale which would extend 
his estate from the Tweed to the Cauldshiels 
Loch ; and to raise the money he offered, in 
June 1813, to sell a An written poem (after- 
wards ' The Lord ofthe Isles ') to Constable 
. for 5,OOQZ. Though the literary negotiation 
'failed, Jbe bought the land, and was at the 
same time buy mg * a splendid lot of ancient 
armour ' for his museum. 

On 1 July 1814 appeared Scott's edition 
of Swift in nineteen volumes, which was re- 
viewed by Jeffrey in the ' Edinburgh ' at 
Constable's request. Jeffrey praised Scott, 
but his hostile estimate of Swift was thought 



by Constable to have injured the sale of the 
works. In the midst of his troubles Scott 
had accident ally found his old manuscript of 
* Waverley ' in looking for some fishing- 
tackle, lie thought that his critics, Erskiue 
and Ballantyne, had been too severe ; and in 
the last three weeks of June 1814 wrote the 
two concluding volumes. The book appeared 
on 7 July 1814. The first edition of one 
thousand copies was sold in five weeks, 
and a sixth had appeared before the end of 
a year. Constable had offered TOO/, for 
the copyright, which Scott said was too 
little it' it succeeded, and too much if it 
failed. It was therefore published upon 
half-profits. On 29 July Scott sailed upon 
a cruise with the lighthouse commissioners, 
in which he was accompanied by his friend 
William Erskine and others. They visited 
the Orkney and Shetland islands, and re- 
turned by the Hebrides, reaching Green ock 
on 8 Sept, The delightful journal published 
in Lockhart's ' Life ' gives a graphic picture 
of Scott's charm as a travelling compa- 
nion, and of his keen delight in the scenery, 
the antiquities, and the social condition of the 
people. lie turned his experience to account 
.'hePirate'and * The Lord of the Isles/ On 



returning he received the news of the death 
of his old friend the Duchess of Buccleuch, 
who, as Countess of Dalkeith, had suggested 
' The Lay of the Last Minstrel. 7 He found 
also that * Waverley ' was making a startling 
success. For the time he had other pieces 
of work in hand. Besides writing articles 
on chivalry and the drama for Constable's 
' Supplement ' to the ' Encyclopedia Bri- 
tannica,' and other minor pieces of work, he 
had finally agreed, while passing through 
Edinburgh, for 'The Lord of the Isles.' 
Constable gave 1J5QOJ. for half the copy- 
right It was rapidly finished, and pub- 
lished on 18 Jan. 1815, Though it was 
about as popular as ' Ilokeby,' Scott became 
aware that the poetical vein was being- 
exhausted. When Ballantyne told him or 
the comparative failure, he received the news 
after a moment with ' perfect cheerfulness/ 
and returned to work upon the conclusion 
of his second novel, ' Guy Mannering/ which. 
as Lockhart calculates, was written in six 
weeks, about Christmas 1814. The success 
of his novels encouraged him to make new 
purchases. ' Money,' he writes to Morritt 
in November 1814, 'has been tumbling in 
upon me very fast ; ' his pinches from * long- 
dated bills' are over, and he is therefore 
buying land {Letters, i. 351). 

For the next ten years Scott was pouring 
out the series of novels, displaying an energy 
and fertility of mind which make the feat one 



Scott 



9 1 



Scott 



of the most remarkable recorded in literary 
history. The main interruption was in 1815. 
All his patriotic feelings had been stirred to 
the uttermost by the concluding scenes of 
the war; and he went to France in August, 
visited "Waterloo, saw the allies in Paris, 
met the Duke of Wellington and Lord 
Castlereagh, was courteously received by 
Bliicher, and kissed by the hetman Platoff. 
For Wellington he had the highest admira- 
tion, and wondered that the hero should 
care for the author of a ' few bits of novels.' 
Scott's impressions on this tour were de- 
scribed by him in 'Paul's Letters to his 
" ^"^ " * oem on the 



Kinsfolk " (1815), and in a 
' Field of Waterloo/ published in October 
1815 for the benefit of soldiers' widows, and 
an admitted failure. His last poem of any 
length, 'Harold the Dauntless,' was pub- 
lished in January 1817, as by the author of 
* Triermain/ and had, says Lockhart, ' con- 
siderable success,' but not such as to en- 
courage him to further attempts in the same 
line. 

The ' Waverley Novels,' on the contrary, 
had at once become the delight of all readers, 
even of those who, like Hazlitt, detested 
Scott from a political point of view. Scott 
had determined to be anonymous, and the 
secret was at first confided only to his pub- 
lishers and to his friends Morritt and 
Erskine, In his preface of 1830, and in 
some letters of the time, Scott gives reasons 
for this decision which are scarcely convinc- 
ing. The most intelligible is his dislike to 
be accented as an author, and forced to talk 
about his own books in society. This fell in 
with his low estimate of literary reputation 
in general. He considered his writings 
chiefly as the means of supporting his posi- 
tion as a gentleman, and would rather be 
received as Scott of Abbotsford than the 
author of the ' Waverley Novels.' When 
writing his earlier books, as Lockhart shows, 
he had frankly consulted his friends ; but as 
he became more of a professional author, he 
was less disposed to wear the character 
publicly. It is probable that his connection 
with the Ballantynes had an effect in this 
change. He began to take a publisher's 
point of view, and was afraid of making his 
name too cheap. Whatever his motives, he 
adhered to his anonymity, and in agreements 
with Constable introduced a clause that 
the publisher should be liable to a penalty 
of 2,000/. if the name of the author were 
revealed (ib. ch. xliii. and liv. pp. -388, 
469). He says, in his preface, that he con- 
sidered himself to be entitled to deny the 
authorship flatly if the question were put to 
him directly. It "was reported that he had 



solemnly disavowed 'Waverley' to the 
prince regent, who entertained him at 
dinner in the spring of 1815. Scott, how- 
ever, told Ballantyne that the question had 
not been put to him, though he evaded the 
acknowledgment when the regent proposed 
his health as the ' author of Waverley' (For 
a similar story see SMILES'S John Murray, 
L 474). From the first, the most competent 
readers guessed the truth. It was suffi- 
ciently intimated by Jeffrey in his review of 
Waverley/ and the constant use in the 
novels of his own experiences gave unmis- 
takable evidence to all his familiars. T 



intimate friends, such as Southey and Sydney 
Smith, speak without doubt of his authorship. 
The letters on the authorship of * Waverley ' 
by John Leycester Adolphus [q. v.j in 1821 
gave a superfluous, though ingenious, de- 
monstration of the fact. Scott counte- 
nanced a few rumours attributing the novels 
to others, especially to his brother, Thomas 
Scott, now in Canada. Thomas, he sug- 
gested, need not officiously reject the credit 
of the authorship. Murray believed this re- 
port in 1817 : and a discovery of the same 
statement in a Canadian paper led a Mr. W. J. 
Fitzgerald to write a pamphlet in 1855 attri- 
buting the authorship (partly at least) to 
Thomas (see Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vols. 
i. and ii.) 

Scott said that his first suggestion of 
novels intended to -portray Scottish character 
came from Miss Edgeworth's Irish stories. 
He sent her a copy of ' Waverley ' and warm 
compliments from the anonymous author. 
Scott's sympathetic reproduction of the 
national characteristics was of course com- 
bined with the power, which distinguished 
his novels from all previous works, of giving 
life to history and to tiie picturesque and 
vanishing forms of society. Ills * feudalism ' 
and toryism were other aspects of his intense 
interest in the old order broken down by the 
revolution. He was also pouring out the 
stores of anecdote and legend and the vivid 
impressions of the scenery which he had 
been imbibing from his early childhood while 
rambling through the country in closp and 
friendly intercourse with all classes. Scott's 
personal charm, his combination of mascu- 
line sense with wide and generous sym- 
pathy, enabled him to attract an unprece- 
dentedly numerous circle of readers to these 
almost impromptu utterances of a teeming 
imagination. 

The first nine novels, in which these quali- 
ties are most conspicuous, appeared in five 
years ; the last on 10 June 1819. * Waver- 



' was followed on 24 Feb. 1815 by * Guy 
M'annering,' the hero of which was at once 



Scott 



Scott 



recognised by Hoss as a portrait of the Constable's jealousy of Murray that the pub- 
author himself ' The Antiquary,' which, as lisher, besides taking the second series of the 
he told Basil Hall (Fragments, iii. 325 ; and < TVlas of mv Landlord.' cleared the Auram 
see Archdeacon SINCIAIK, Old Times and 

_ * j 



Distant Places), was his own favourite, ap- 
peared in May 1816. The Black Dwarf 
and 'Old Mortality' appeared together, as 
the first series of the ' Tales of my Landlord, 
on 1 Dec. 1816. The * author of " Waver- 
ley "' was not mentioned on the title-page, 
but the identity was instantly recognised. 
Scotthimself reviewed this in the * Quarterly,' 
inserting, however, as Loekhart says, a gene- 
ral estimate of the novels written by \V. 
Erskine. The main purpose of the article is 
to give facts in justification of some of his 
Scottish portraits, especially his account^ of 

4.1,,, j* A ,*Ann*t + nifta in 4 t~\} A \'frk1*t ol if YT * wllIC*!* 



the covenanters in ' Old Mortality/ which 



Tales of my Landlord,' * cleared the Augean 
stable ' by taking the remainder of Ballan- 




>), 'Rob Roy 
31 Dec. 1817, and the ' Heart of Midlothian' 
in June 1818. This representation of the 
nobler side of the covenanting temjjer gave 
the best answer to McCrie's criticism, and 
the story caused, says Loekhart, an un- 
equalled burst of enthusiasm throughout 
Scotland. The third series of 'Tales of my 
Landlord,' including the ' Bride of Lammer- 
moor' and the 'Legend of Montrose/ ap- 
peared on 10 June 1819, 

The arrangements for publishing these 
novels were unfortunately carried on by 
Scott through the Ballantynes, of whom 
other publishers, such as Cadell and Black- 
wood, seem to have felt thorough distrust (see 
CONSTABLE, iii. 108, &c. ; SMI&ES, Murray -, i. 
462). John Ballantyne tried to work upon 
the eagerness of various competitors for the 
works of the popular author. The books 
were printed by James Ballantyne. Scott 
retained the permanent copyright, but sold 
the early editions for such a sum as would 
give half the profits to the publisher. * Guy 

nn f *MM* A.ita4 wfe *** * mt^* jfc Lk * ft < A. 1 *^* A j* J L j^ T ^^ ^i^ ^^-^^ ^. ^ 



tyne's stock for 5,270 two thirds of which 
was ultimately a dead loss. [This transaction, 
according to Constable (iii. 96), took place 
later.] Scott thus got rid of the last re- 
mains of the publishing business, and now 
supposed himself to be emerging from his 
difficulties. He was able, in consequence of 
some arrangement with Constable, to re- 
turn the Duke of Buccleuch's bond dis- 
charged (7 Jan. 1818). Finally, in Decem- 
ber 1818, Scott, who required money for 
land-purchases, building, and the expense of 
obtaining a commission for his son, made a 
bargain by which Constable bought the 
copyrights of all his works published up to 
that date for 12,000/. This included all the 
novels above mentioned and the poetry, with 
the exception of a fourth share ot * Marmion ' 
belonging to Murray. The Constables signed 
bonds for this amount on 2 Feb. 1819, but 
failed to pay them olF before their insolvency, 
Scott therefore retained some interest in the 
copyrights. Longman published the * Monas- 
tery/ and joined Constable in publishing the 
* Abbot/ Sut Constable published ail Scott's 
other works, and came into exceedingly in- 
tricate relations with Scott and the Ballan- 
tynes. 

* Ivanhoe,' which appeared at the end of 
1819, marked a new departure. Scott was 
now drawing upon his reading instead of his 
personal experience, and the book has not 
the old merit of serious portraiture of real 
life. But its splendid audacity, its vivid 
presentation of mediaeval life, and the dra- 
matic vigour of the narrative, may atone ^for 
palpable anachronisms and melodramatic im- 
possibilities. The story at once achieved 
the popularity which it has always enjoyed, 
and was more successful in England than 

_ _. _ ^ I,. b ^* ta k ^f i. 



Mannering' was thus sold to the Longman a any of the so-called 'Scottish novels*' It 
for 1,5001. on condition of taking 600J. of was Scott's culminating success in a book- 



^''V, 



selling sense, and marked the highest point 
both of his literaiy and his social prosperity. 
The year was indeed a sad one for Scott. 
He had been deeply grieved by the death of 
the (fourth) Duke of Buccleuch on 20 April 
1819* He lost his mother, between whom 
and himself there had been a cordial af- 
fection, on 24 Dec. Her brother, Dr. 
Rutherford, and her sister had died on the 
20th and 22nd of the same month. His 
own health was in so serious a state at the 
publication of the 'Tales* in June that 
the general impression -was that he would 

write no more. He had been suddenly at- 

sion Ballantyne worked so successfully upon tacked, in March 1817, by violent crampa 



John Ballantyne's stock Constable was 
vexed on being passed over, and the * Anti- 
quary ' was given to him on the usual terms ; 
but the first * Tales of my Landlord ' were 
sold to Murray and Blaciwood, who again 
took some of Ballantyne's stock (CONSTABLE, 
iii. 85). Constable, it seems, resented some of 
John Ballantyne's proposals, and- was un~ 
willing to be connected with the firm. On 
the appearance of * Rob Roy,' however, John 
Ballantyne again agreed with Constable, who 
gave 1,70Q for the copies, besides taking 
more stock, and Ballantyne himself gained 
1,2001. by the bargain. On the next occa- 



Scott 



93 



Scott 



of the stomach. Similar attacks were re- 
peated during- the next two years, and the 
change in his appearance shocked his ac- 
quaintances. In April 1819 Scott himself 
took a solemn leave of his children, in ex- 
pectation of immediate death. The Earl of 
Buchan had already designed a splendid 
' funeral, and tried to force his way into the 
patient's room to comfort him by explaining 
the details. The attacks caused intense 
agony, which- he bore with unflinching cou- 
rage. When unable to write he dictated to 
Ballantyne and Laidlaw in the midst of his 
suffering. The greatest part of the ' Bride 
of Lammermoor, the * Legend of Montrose/ 
and * Ivanhoe/ was written under these con- 
ditions (Ballantyne's full account is printed 
in Journal, i. 408). James Baiiantyne tes- 
tified to the remarkable &ct that Scott, 
while remembering the story upon which 
the ' Bride of Lammermoor ' was founded, 
had absolutely forgotten his own novel, and 
read it upon its appearance as entirely new 
to him. The attacks were repeated in 1820, 
but became less violent under a new treat- 
ment. 

Scott's growing fame had, made him the 
centre of a wide and varied social circle. In 
Edinburgh he was much occupied by his 
legal as well as literary duties, and kept 
early hours, which limited his social engage- 
ments. In the evenings he enjoyed drives 
in the lovely scenery and rambles in the old 
town. Every Sunday he entertained his old 
cronies, who were chiefly of the tory persua- 
sion. The bitterness of political divisions in 
Scotland divided society in to two sections, 
though Scott occasionally met Jeffrey and 
other whigs ; and Cockburn testifies (Me- 
morials, p. 267) that the only question 
among them at an early period used to be 
whether his poetry or his talk was the more 
delightful. The 'Edinburgh Beviewers' 
talked Adam Smith and Dugald Stewart, 
and aimed at epigrammatic smartness, while 
Scott simply poured out the raw material of 
tite ' Waverley Novels ; ' and one may easily 
believe that his easy humour was more 
charming than their "brilliance. He took 
part also in the jovial dinners, where he was 
the idol of his courtiers, the Ballantyne?, 
and where the dignified Constable occasion- 
ally appeared. Scott himself was temperate, 
ate^ little after & hearty breakfast, and was 
as indifferent to cookery as to music. He 
kept up the ponderous ceremonial of the 
* toasts ' and ' sentiments ' of the old-fashioned 
dinners (COCKBTTBN, Memorials, p. 40), at 
which the Ballantynes would rea,d speci- 
mens of the forthcoming novel. It was at 
Abbotsford that Scott was in his glory* 



He had from the first been eager to ex- 
tend his property. In 1816, according to 
Lockhart, the estate had grown from one 
hundred and fifty to nearly one thousand 
acres by purchases from small holders, who 
took advantage of his eagerness to exact ex- 
travagant prices. In 1817 he settled his old 
friend William Laidlaw on one of his farms 
at Kaeside. In 1 817 he also bought the house 
and land of Huntly Burn for 10,OOOJ., upon 
which next spring he settled Adam Fergu- 
son, now retired on half-pay. In 1819 he 
was contemplating a purchase of Faldonside 
for 30,OOOJ. This was not carried out, though 
he was still hankering after it in 1825 
(Letters, ii. 260, 347); but in 1821, accord- 
ing to Lockhart, he had spent 29,OOOJ. on 
land (Ballantyne Humbug, p. 93). He had 
set about building- as soon as he came into 
possession, and a house-warming, to cele- 
brate the completion of his new house, took 
place in November 1818. Beginning with 
a plan for an ' ornamental cottage/ he gra- 
dually came to an imitation of a Scottish 
baronial castle. 

At Abbotsford Scott was visited by innu- 
merable admirers of all ranks. American 
tourists, including Washington Irving and 
George Ticknor, English travellers of rank, 
or of literary and scientific fame, such as Sir 
Humphry Davy, Miss Edgeworth, Words- 
worth, Moore, and many others, stayed 
with him at different periods, and have left 
many accounts of their experience. His 
businesslike habits enabled him during his 
most energetic labours to spend most of his 
mornings out of doors, and to give his even- 
ings to society. His guests unanimously 
celebrate his perfect simplicity and dignity, 
as well as the charms of his conversation, 
and his skill in putting all his guests at their 
ease. The busiest Writer of the day ap- 
peared to be entirely absorbed in entertain- 
ing his friends. He was on intimate terms 
with all his neighbours, from the Duke of 
Buccleuch to Tom Purdie, and as skilful in 
chatting to the labourers, in whose planting 
he often to6k an active share, as in soothing 
the jealousies of fine ladies. He had annu- 
ally two grand celebrations, devoted to 
salmon-fishing and coursing, which brought * 
the whole country-side together, and gave a 
4 kirn/ or harvest-home, to his peasantry. 
Scott was always surrounded by his dogs, of 
whom the bulldog Camp and the deerhound 
Maida are the most famous. On Camp's 
death in 1809 he gave up an engagement for 
the loss ' of a dear old friend/ Mai da died 
in 1824, and was celebrated by an epitaph, 
translated into Latin by Lockhart. Even a 
pig took a * sentimental attachment ?J to him. 



Scott 



94 



Probably few men have charmed so many 
fellow-creatures of all classes. 

His family was now growing up. Scott, 
had made companions of his children, and 
never minded their interruptions. He cared 
little for the regular educational systems, 
but tried to interest them in poetry and his- 
tory by his talk, and taught them to ride 
and speak the truth. The boys were sent to 
the high school from their home. In 1819 
the eldest, Walter, joined the 18th hussars, 
in spite of his father's preference for the bar. 
Scott's letters to him are full of admirable 
good sense and paternal confidence. The 
eldest daughter, Sophia, married John Gibson 
Lockhart [q.. v,] in April 1820. The Lock- 
harts took the cottage of Chiefswood upon 
the Abbotsford estate, where they became 
valuable elements of Scott's circle. 

At the end of 1818 Lord Sidmouth in- 
formed Scott of the prince regent's desire to 
confer a baronetcy upon him. Scott's hesi- 
tation was overcome by the prospect of an 
inheritance from his brother-in-law, Charles 
Carpenter, who had left a reversion of his 
property to his sister's children. It was es- 
timated at 40,OOOJ. or 50,OGO/., though it 
turned out to be only half that amount. The 
actual appointment was delayed by his illness 
till 30 March 1820, when he went to London, 
and kissed the new king's hands. G-eorge IV 
at the same time directed Lawrence to 
paint a portrait of Scott, as the beginning of 
a series for the great gallery at Windsor. 
Both Oxford and Cambridge offered him an 
honorary degree in 1820 ; but he was unable 
to present himself for the purpose. In the 
same year he was induced to accept the 
rather incongruous position of president of 
the Royal Society of Scotland. If he knew 
little of science, he succeeded in making 
friends of scientific men and giving charm 
to their meetings. Scott was informed in 
1823 that the ' author of " Waverley " ' was 
elected member of the Roxburghe Club, 
and consented to act as locum tenant of 
the ' great unknown.' He founded the 
Bannatyne Club the same year, and took 
a very active part in it for the rest of his life. 
He was also about 1823 elected to 'The 
Club.' 

In 1821 Scott attended the coronation of 
George IV, and wrote a description for Bal- 
lantyne's 'Edinburgh Weekly Journal* 
(given in LOCKHART, p. 454, c,) In 1822 
he took a leading ,part in the reception of 
George IV at Edinburgh. He arranged the 
details ; coaxed highland chiefs and lowland 
baillies into good humour, wrote appro- 
priate ballads, and showed an enthusiasm 
scarcely justified by the personal character 



Scott 

of the monarch. Tie begged a glass out of 
which the king had drunk his health to be 
kept as a relic, and sat down upon it, for- 
tunately injuring only the glass (Locic- 
IIABT, ch. Ivi.) He was amused by the 
visit at this time of the poet Crabbe, with 
whom he had previously corresponded, and 
profoundly saddened by the melancholy 
death of his old, and it seems his dearest, 
friend, William Erskine. Scott had to 
snatch opportunities in the midst of the con- 
fusion to visit the dying man. During this 
period Scott's toryism and patriotic feelings 
wore keenly excited. In January 1819 he 
had taken extraordinary interest *m the dis- 
covery of the Scottish regalia, which had 
been locked \tp at the time of the union and 
were reported to have been sent to Eng- 
land. On the king's visit, he applied for the 
restoration to Edinburgh of * Mons Meg,' 
then in the Tower of London, which was 
ultimately returned in 1829. lie petitioned 
at the same time also for the restoration of 
the Scottish peerages forfeited in 1715 and 
1745. He had some connection with more 
important political aftuirs. The popular dis- 
content in 1819 had induced Scott and 
some of his neighbours to raise a volunteer 
force in the loyal districts, to be prepared 
against a supposed combination of Glasgow 
artisans and Northumberland colliers. The 
force was to be called the *Buccleucli legion, 1 
and Scott was ready to take the command. 
The political bitterness roused bv this and 
the queen's trial led to the starting of the 
notorious ' Beacou' in 1821. Scott was in- 
duced to be one of the subscribers to a bond 
for raia'ng the necessary funds. He was 
considered to be partly responsible for the 
virulent abuse which the paper directed 
against the whi#a, and which lea to the duel 
in which Sir Alexander Boswell [q. v,] was 
killed in March 182& Sir James Gibson 
Craig [q. v.] intended, according to Cockbura 
(Memorials, p. 882), to send a challenge to 
Scott, but refrained on receiving an assur- 
ance that Scott was not personally concerned. 
The paper was suppressed, and Scott was as 
much disgusted by the cowardice as by the 
previous imprudence. Cookburn complains 
that the young tories who indulged in this 
warfare were encouraged by his t chuckling 7 
over their libels instead of checking them. 
He was, as Cockburn says, nattered by their 
admiration into condoning offences, though 
there ' could not be a better natured or a 
better hearted man.* It must be added that, 
as Mr. Lang has shown (Life of Lockhart , L 
194, &c.\ Scott seriously disapproved of the 
personalities, and remonstrated effectually 
with Lockhart. Scott in 1*851 adopted plans 



Scott 



95 



Scott 



for the * completion of Abbotsford * (LooK* 
HAET, ch. liv.) The masonry was finished 
and the roof being placed in October 1822 
(ib. ch. Ivii.-lviii.) He amused himself by 
introducing gas, then a novelty, the glare 
from which was, as Lockhart thinks, bad for 
his health, and a bell-ringing device, which 
was a failure. During 18:24 he was occupied 
in personally superintending the decorations. 
Most of the furniture was made on the spot 
by local carpenters and tailors, to whom 
Scott showed his usual kindness. ' He speaks 
to every man,' said one of them, ' as if he 
were a blood relation/ The painting was 
carried out by a young man whom Scott had 
judiciously exhorted to stick to his trade in- 
stead of trying to rival Wilkie, and who 
prospered in consequence. At the end of 
1824 the house was at last finished, and a 
large party assembled at Christmas. On 
7 .Tan. 1825 there was a ball in honour of 
Miss Jobson of Lochore, a young lady with 
60,000/ who, on 3 Feb. following, was mar- 
ried to Scott's son Walter. Scott had 
bought a captaincy for his son for 3,500J. 
He now settled the estate of Abbotsford 
upon the married pair, in accordance with 
the demands of her guardian. 

The whole expenditure irjxm Abbotsford 
is estimated by Sir J. Gibson Craig at 
7G,000 (Letter to Miss Edgeworth). In 
the summer Scott made a tour in Ireland, 
visited his son, then quartered at Dublin, 
and Miss Edgeworth, who accompanied 
him to Killaruey. He was everywhere re- 
ceived with an enthusiasm which made the 
journey, as he said, ' an ovation.' He visited 
the ' ladies of Llangollen ' on his way home, 
and met Canning at the English lakes. A 
grand regatta, with a procession of fifty 
barges, was arranged upon Windermere, in 
which Wilson acted as ' admiral' and Words- 
worth joined the party. Scott reached 
Abbotsiord on 1 Sept., and soon heard the 
first news of approaching calamity. 

Scott's mode of life involved a large ex- 
penditure, but he was also making 1 apparently 
a very large income. The production of novels 
had been going on more rapidly than ever ; 
though after ' Ivanhoe ' there was a decline, 
of which he was not fully aware, in their cir- 
culation. He had begun the 'Monastery' 
before concluding * Ivanhoe.' It was pub- 
lished in March 1 820, and the 'Abbot ' followed 
in September. He agreed with the public 
that^the first was ' not very interesting,' and 
admitted that his supernatural machinery 
was a blunder. The ' Abbot' was suggested 
by his visits to Blair Adam, the seat of Chief 
Commissioner William Adam [q. v.], in sight 
of Lochleven Castle* The Blair Adam Club, 



consisting of a few of Adam's friends, met 
at his house to make antiquarian excursions, 
and Scott attended the meetings regularly 
from 1816 to 183L ' Kenilworth,' which 
had much success, appeared in January, and 
the 'Pirate' in December 1821. During the 
autumn he composed a series of imaginary 
' private letters' supposed to be written in the 
time of James I. On the suggestion of Bal- 
lantyne and Lockhart that he was throwing 
away a good novel, he changed his plan, 
and wrote the ' Fortunes of Nigel/ which 
appeared i n May 1 822. ' Peverii of the Peak ' 
appeared in January, * Quentin Durward' in 
June, and 'St. Ronan's Well' in December 
1823. ' Quentin Durward' was coldly re- 
ceived in England, though its extraordinary 
power was recognised after it had been re- 
ceived in France with an enthusiasm com- 
parable to that which had greeted ' Ivanhoe ' 
m England. In talking over the French 
excitement, Laidlaw told Scott that he was 
always best on his native heath. This, as 
Lockhart thinks, suggested ' St. Ronan's Well/ 
published December 1823, his only attempt 
at a novel of society. The experiment has 
been generally regarded as in this respect a 
failure, and James Ballantyne injured the 
story by inducing Scott to yield to his notions 
of propriety. The English sale showed a 
falling off, but in Scotland it was well re- 
ceived. The people of Innerleithen judi- 
ciously identified their well with that of 
St. Ronan's, attracted sightseers, and set 
up the St. Ronan's border games, where 
Hogg presided with the support of Scott. 
In June 1824 appeared ' Redgauntlet,' which 
was * somewhat coldly received,' The mag- 
nificent tale of Wandering Willie, which 
probably gives the best impression of Scott's 
power of story-telling, and the autobiogra- 
phical interest of the portraits of his father, 
himself, and his friend, W. Clerk (' Darsie 
Latimer '), give it a peculiar interest. The 
'Tales of the Crusaders' appeared in June 
1825, and though ( The Betrothed' is an ad- 
mitted failure, its companion, * The Talisman,' 
showed enough of the old spirit to secure 
for the two ' an enthusiastic reception/ 

This series of novels was produced under 
circumstances which had serious conse- 
quences for Scott's future. * Kenilworth ' was 
the last novel in which John Ballantyne 
had a share of the profits. The later novels 
were all published by Constable on terms 
which greatly affected Scott's position. Con- 
stable had printed at once ten thousand 
copies of * Rob Roy,' whereas the first edition 
of its predecessor had been only two thousand, 
and a second impression of three thousand 
copies had been required in a fortnight. A 



Scott 



Scott 



"t 



copy of John Ballantyne's agreement for 
* Kenil worth ' (in journal communicated by i 
Mr. A. Constable) gives the terms of sale for : 
it, -which were little varied in other cases, j 
Constable undertook to print twelve thousand : 
copies; he was to raise immediately 1,6001. ] 
and each of the Ballantynes 400/. for ex- j 
penses of publishing, and the profits to be , 
divided proportionally. Scott was to be ; 
paid 4,500. The retail price of the copies 
was 10s, a volume, or \L 10*., and they were 
apparently sold to the trade for about \L \ 
Scott thus enabled the Ballantynes to have j 
a' share in the profits, which Lockhart calls ; 
a l bonus. 7 He of course retained the copy- 
right. 

Besides allowing John Ballantyne this 
'bonus,' Scott had offered in 1819 to write ! 
biographical prefaces for a 'Novelist's Li- 
brary/ to be published for his sole benefit. 
Scott fulfilled this promise by several lives 
profixed to an edition of the ' Novelist's/ * ne 
first volume of which appeared in February 
1821. Ten volumes were published, but the 
scheme dropped after Ballautyne's death in 
June 1821. Ballantyne left *g,000& to his 
benefactor, but had unfortunately only debts 
to bequeath. In the following November 
Constable agreed to pay five thousand guineas 
for the copyright of the four novels ('Kexril- 
worth' being the last) published since those ! 
bought in 1819. ^ In June 1828 Constable ! 
bought the copyright of the next four pub- | 
lished (including 'Quentin Durward/ then 
just appearing) for an equal sum. Besides j 
this, he had advanced lt,000, on still un- 
finished works. Constable also gave 1,0002, 
for the dramatic sketch called 'Halidon 
Hiir (published in June 1822), which Scott 
wrote in two rainy mom ings at Abbotsford. 
This * wild bargain/ as Loekhart calls it, was 
made by Constable's partner, Cadell, ' in five 
minutes,' to the satisfaction of both partners 
(LOCKHART, ch. lv>, and CONSTABLE, iii. 216), 
Constable suggested that Scott might turn 
out such a work every three months. Both 
writer and publisher seem to have regarded 
Scott's genius as a perpetual and inexhaus- 
tible spring. Scott held that his best writ- 
ing was that which came most easily, and 
was ready to undertake any amount of work 
suggested. In March 1822 he says that 
Constable has 'saddled him with fortune, 1 
and made twelve volumes grow where there 
might only have been one. He admits that he 
is building * a little expensively/ but he has 
provided for his family, and no one could be 
indifferent to the solid comfort of 8,OOOJ. a 
year, especially if he < buys land, builds, and 
improves 7 (CONSTABLE, iii. 207). In 1818 
Lockhart says that Scott's income from his 



novels had been for several years not less 
than 10,OQO/. His expenses required steady 
supplies, and, as the advances involved an 
extension of credit, the publishers were 
naturally eager for new work which would 
bring in ready money, In 1823 the liabilities 
incurred began to be serious, and the novels 
were selling less freely. Constable and 
his partner, Cadell, were afraid of damp- 
ing Scott, and yet began to see that the 
supply was outrunning the demand, and 
even exhausting Scott's powers. Cadell 
reports in June 1823 that Scott was alarmed 
by the comparative failure of * Quentin 
I Jurward,' while Ballantyne had to meet en- 
gagements in July (CONSTABLE, iii. 271). 
Cadell told Scott that he 'must not be 
beaten or appear to be beaten. 7 He must go 
on with the novel in hand, but interpolate 
other work, such as a proposed volume on 
'Popular Superstitions/ Constable mean- 
while had fresh projects. He proposed a 
collection of Mnghsh poets. He would give 
Scott G,000/. for editing it and writing pre- 
faces 'as an occasional relief from more im- 
portant labours,' He then (February 1822) 
proposed an edition of Shakespeare (by Scott 
and Lockhart), of which, it is said, three 
volumes were actually printed, but sold as 
waste paper after the crash of 1820 (see 
CONSTABLE, iii. 241, and LANG'S Lwkkart, 
1 308, 396. In ' Notes and Queries/ 5th ser. 
L 843, it is said that some sheets are in exis- 
tence in America), In 1828 Constable had 
become alarmed at the transactions between 
his house and Ballantyne's, and proposed to 
Scott measures for redxicing the * floating 
balance* (CONSTABLE, iii. 275-86). Scott 
fully agreed, and said that he looked for- 
ward to sucjji an arrangement * without the 
least doubt or shadow of anxiety/ Con- 
stable's son David states, that by his desire 
an accountant was called in to make a plain 
statement of the accounts, but that his in- 
vestigations were stopped by Scott Scott, 
it is plain, was not seriously alarmed, and 
Constable was still sanguine, and before 
lon was contemplating another great under- 
taking enthusiastically. In May 1825 he 
expounded to Scott his scheme for the * Mis- 
cellany,* This series, intended to create a, 
popular demand for standard literature, was 
to start with a reprint of * Waverley ' (CoN- 
STABLB, iiL 307, 314), which was to^ be fol- 
! lowed bva'life' of Napoleon, to be writ ten by 
, Scott. Scott took up the ' life* at once, which 
: speedily expanded under his hands untiHt 
; oecarne too large for publication in the 'Mis- 
1 cellany. 7 Lockhart was painfully impressed 
; by the obvious effort which the drudgery of 
J consulting authorities imposed upon Scott. 



Scott 



97 



Scott 



Scott was at this time helping the widow 
and children of his brother Thomas (d. 1824). 
The son Walter went to India as an en- 
gineer, became a general, and died in 1873 
(Letters, ii. 363, &c.) 

Meanwhile the speculative fever, which 
culminated in the crisis of 1825-6, was reach- 
ing its height. Constable and Cadell found 
themselves in difficulties in the autumn. 
Hurst, Robinson, & Co,, their London 
agents, with whom they had many transac- 
tions, were hard pressed, having, it is said, 
indulged, among other things, in a large 
speculation upon hops. In November Lock- 
hart heard a report that Constable's London 
banker had ' thrown up his book.' He told 
Scott, who was incredulous, but drove at 
once to Constable by night, and came back 
with the news that the business was ' as firm 
as Benlomond.' Scott's alarm gave the first 
hint to his family of the closeness of the con- 
nection with Ballantyne. His subsequent 
history is fully told in the 'Journal 7 which 
he began to keep at this time. Though freely 
used by Lockhart, its publication in full in 
1890 first revealed the full interest of this 
most pathetic piece of autobiography. In 
December Scott was seriously alarmed, and 
at the end of the year borrowed 10,000 



raise upon Abbotsford. This, he thought, 
would make Ballantyne secure, but he was 
anxious about Constable. A severe attack 
of illness at Christmas was aggravated by 
anxiety. In January Constable, after a delay 
from illness, went to London, and found that 
matters were almost desperate. Among other 
schemes for borrowing, he proposed that Scott 
should raise 20,OOOJ. Scott, with CadelTs ad- 
vice, absolutely refused, saying* that he had 
advanced enough for other people's debts, and 
must now pay his own. This led to Scott's 
later alliance with Cadell, who had fallen 
out with his old partner. On 16 Jan. Scott 
received decisive news of the stoppage of pay- 
ment by Hurst & Robinson, which involved 
the fall of Constable and of Ballantyne. He 
dined that day with Skene, apparently in his 
usual spirits. Next morning, before going 
to the court, he told Skene that he was a 
beggar, and that his ruin must be made 
public. He felt * rather sneaking ' when he 
showed himself in court. Cockburn (Me- 
morials, p. 431) says that there was ao feel- 
ing but sympathy. When some of his friends 
talked of raising money, he replied, ' No, this 
right hand shall work it all off.' In spite of 
business, he wrote a chapter of 'Woodstock' 
every day that week, finishing ' twenty printed 
pages 'on the 19th. 
The liabilities of Constable, according to 

VOL. II. 



Lockhart, amounted to 256,0007., those of 
Hurst, Robinson, & Co. to near 300,0002., 
and those of Ballantyne & Co. to 117,000& 
The, first two firms became bankrupt and 
paid 2s. Qd. and Is. 3d. in the pound re- 
spectively. ^Much controversy followed, with 
little definite results, as to the apportion- 
ment of responsibility for this catastrophe. 
The immediate cause was the system of ac- 
commodation between the firms of Constable 
and Ballantyne. Sir J. Gibson Craig, who 
was thoroughly acquainted with the facts, 
throws the chief blame on Scott. Craig was 
in Constable's confidence from the first diffi- 
culties of 1813. Though a strong whig, he 
behaved generously as one of Scott's chief 
creditors. Constable's loss, according to him, 
originated 'in a desire to benefit Scott, 
which Sir Walter had always the manliness 
to acknowledge.' Constable had supported 
the Ballantynes, but had found it necessary 
to take bills from them in order to protect 
himself, When affairs became serious, he 
took all these bills to Scott, offering to ex- 
change them for those granted to Scott. 
Scott being unable to dp this, Constable was 
forced to discount the bills, and upon his in- 
solvency ^ Scott became responsible for both 
sets of bills, thus incurring a loss of about 
40,000. A similar statement is made by 
Lockhart, and no doubt represents the facts, 
though Lockhart's version is disputed by 
Ballantyne's trustees (Craig's letter of 1848 
in CONSTABLE, iii. 456-7, and a fuller letter 
to Miss Edgeworth of 1832 communicated 
by Mr. A. Constable). 

Constable was a shrewd man of "busi- 
ness, and engaged in speculations sound 
in themselves and ultimately profitable. It 
is, however, abundantly clear that, from 
want of sufficient capital, he was from the 
first obliged to raise credit on terms which, 
as his partner Cadell said, ' ran away with 
all their gams.' Cadell was anxious in 1822 
to retire in consequence of his anxieties 
(SMILES, Murray, L 185, &c.; CONSTABLE, 
iii. 286). Though Constable's regard for 
Scott was undoubtedly genuine, his advances 
meant that he was anxious to monopolise 
the most popular author of the day, and the 
profit on the ' Waverley Novels ' was a main 
support of his business. He was therefore 
both ready to supply Scott with credit and 
anxious not to alarm hirn by making diffi- 
culties. Scott was completely taken by 
surprise when Constable failed. ' No man,' 
he says (Journal, 29 Jan. 1826), ' thought 
(Constable's) house worth less than 150,0002.' 
Had Const-able stood, Scott woujhave stood 
too. The problem remains why Scott should 
not have been independent of Constable. 

H 



Scott 



Scott 



From 1816 to 1822 James Ballantyne had 
"been simply Scott's paid manager. In 1822 
Scott had again taken him into partnership, 
carefully defining the terms in a 'missive 
letter' (printed in the* Ballantyne Humbug'). 
Ee spoke of the business as ' now so flourish- 
ing.' Profits were to be equally divided ; 
but Scott undertook to be personally re- 
sponsible for bills then due by the firm to 
the amount of about 30,000 This sum 
had been increased before the bankruptcy to 
about 46,000 The substantial question in 
the controversy between Lockhart and 
Ballantyne's trustees was whether Scott or 
Ballantyne was mainly responsible for this 
accumulation of indebtedness. ^That Scott's 
extravagant expenditure contributed to the 
catastrophe is of course clear. Had he not 
wasted money at Abbotsford, he would have 
been able to put his business in a sound 
position. It is, however, disputed how far 
the accumulation of bills was caused by 
Ballantyne's shiftlessness or by Scott f s 
direct drafts upon the business. 

The Ballantyne connection had un- 
doubtedly been a misfortune. James was 
inefficient and John reckless. They had ap- 
parently been in debt from the first, and had 
initiated Scott in the system of bill-dis- 
counting. Scott was in a thoroughly false 
position when he concealed himself behind 
his little court of flatterers rather than 
counsellors. He became involved in petty 
intrigues and reckless dealing in money. 
The failure of the publishing house, indeed, 
was due in great part to Scott's injudicious 
speculations. A debt apparently remained 
when the publishing was finally abandoned, 
in spite of Scott's ultimate disposal of the 
stock. The printing business, however, was 
sound, and made good profits even after the 
crash, under James Ballantyne's management 
(cf. JSallcmtyne Tiwnbug, p. 109, and Itqpfy) 
p. 118). Why, then, should the debt have 
continued to grow when, after 1816, the 
publishing had ceased ? The new firm that 
is, Scott had taken over, according: to Lock- 
hart, some 10,Q(XW. of the old liabilities, and 
this, if not paid off, would of course accumu- 
late (LocsmBT, ch. Hi. p. 461.) Ballan- 
tyne's trustees, however, argue that Scott's 
assumption of the debt in 1822 proves his 
consciousness that it had been created for 
his private purposes. They show conclusively 
that Scott was fullv cognisant of all the bill 
transactions, and directing Ballantyne at 
every step in making provision for bills as 
they came due. When Scott had become 
aware of the entanglements of 1818, he had 
remonstrated energetically and done Lis best 
to clear them off. CouLJ he have submitted 



to a repetition of the same process on behalf 
of the ' flourishing (printing) business ' had he 
not been aware that the debt was being in- 
curred for his own requirements? Lockhart 
wonders that Scott, who could have told 
what he had spent on turnpikes for thirty 
years, should never have looked into his own 
affairs. Scott was not so ignorant as Lock- 
hart implies. He had apparently become 
accustomed to the bill-discounting, while he 
fully believed that he was investing the pro- 
ceeds safely. Lockhart denies {Ballan- 
tyne Humbug, p. 94) that Scott drew sums 
from the business in behalf of his own 
private needs. But the accounts published 
by the trustees show that large sums had 
been advanced during the partnership (1823- 
1826) for Scott's building and other expenses 
He had thus drawn out 15,000 more than he 
had paid in. Scott, of course, was personally 
responsible for these sums ; but he injured 
the firm by saddling it with a bad debt, 
Whatever, therefore, may have been Ballan- 
tyne's inefficiency, and the automatic accu- 
mulation of debt by renewing bills, it is 
hardly to be doubted that Scott encumbered 
the business by using it as his instrument 
in raising money for his own purposes. It 
belonged to him exclusively at the time 
when his outlay on Abbotsford was greatest, 
and he had been the real creator of the busi- 
ness. He seems to have spoken the simple 
truth when he told Lockhart on 20 Jan. 1826 
that he had not suffered by Ballantyne : < I 
owe it to him to say that his difficulties, as 
well as hit* advantages, are owing to me.' 

The Ballantynes also complain that 'the 
settlement of Abbotsford in January 1825 
put the bulk of his property beyond the 
reach of his creditors, without, as they state, 
due notice to Ballantyne* Scott, as Lock- 
hart urges, clearly imagined himself at this 
time to be perfectly solvent, and certainly 
did not in any way conceal the transaction, 
of which Constable at least was quite 
aware. Up to the last he seems to have felt 
not a trace of misgiving* 

Whatever blame Bcofet may deserve, his 
action was henceforth heroic* He resolved 
not to become a bankrupt, but to carry on 
the business for the benefit of his creditors. 



will/ he says (24 Jan, 1820), 'be their 
vassal for life, and dig in the mine of my 
imagination to lind diamonds , , . to make 
good my engagements, not to enrich myself/ 
The creditors, with few exceptions, behaved 

generously throughout* On 26 Jan, he 
eard that thejr had unanimously agreed to 
the proposed private trust* An attack upon 
the settlement of Abbotsford was afterwards 
contemplated by some of them ; and, accord- 



Scott 

ing to Sir J. G. Craig, it might certainly have 
been upset. Scott would then, he says, 
have felt it necessary to become a bankrupt 
(Journal, 16 Feb.) This would have been 
against the creditors' interests. The general 
feeling seems to have been that his bankruptcy 
would have been a national calamity, and 
that he should be treated with all gentleness 
in his attempt to atone for his errors. His 
son Walter made offers to help him which 
he declined ; and 'poor Mr. Pole, the harper/ 
who had taught his daughters music, offered 
to contribute all his own savings, amounting 
to five or six hundred pounds. Scott was 
deeply touched by this, and by the great 
kindness of Sir William Forbes, his old 
friend and successful rival in his first love 
affair. In the following year, when a credi- 
tor threatened Scott with arrest, Forbes 
paid the demand of 2,0007. from his own 
pocket, ranking as an ordinary creditor for 
the amount, and carefully keeping the trans- 
action secret till after Scott's death (LocK- 
HAET, ch. Ixxiv.) Scott's servants accepted 
the change with equal loyalty. His old 
coachman, Peter Matheson, became * plough- 
man in ordinary : ' the butler doubled his 
work and took half the wages ; and though 
Laidlaw had to leave Kaeside, which was 
let by the trustees, he came every week for 
a ramble with his patron. The house in 
Castle Street was sold, and Scott had to 
take lodgings during the legal session. The 
rest of tne time was spent at Abbotsford, 
where he had made all possible reductions. 

Scott's attention, even at this time, was 
diverted to a patriotic object. The proposal 
of government to suppress the circulation of 
small bank-notes was supposed to be inju- 
rious to Scottish banks ; and Scott attacked 
the measure in three letters of vehement 
patriotism, signed ' Malachi Malagrowther/ 
in the Edinburgh ' Evening Journal ' of 
March. A sensation was produced com- 
parable to that caused by Swift's ' Drapier's 
Letters;' and the government, though much 
annoyed at Scott's action, consented in May 
to drop the application of the measure to 
Scotland. Scott's pleasure at this success 
was dashed by a new calamity. Lady Scott's 
health had shown ominous symptoms. The 
news of her condition, he says (19 March), 
'is overwhelming. . . Really these mis- 
fortunes come too close upon each other I * 
She became gradually worse, and died on 
15 May. Lady Scott is not a very conspicu- 
ous figure in his life, and she apparently 
rather encouraged than checked his weak- 
nesses ; nor did he feel for her so romantic a 
passion as for his early love. He 'was, how- 
ever, an affectionate and generous husband j ; 



99 



Scott 



and many entries in the journal show that 
this catastrophe severely tried his stoicism. 
The younger son, Charles, was now at Ox- 
ford \ and his younger daughter, Anne, also 
in weak health, was the only permanent 
member of his household. Another anxiety 
which weighed heavilyj upon his spirits was 
the fatal diseases of fiis ' darling grandson,' 
John Hugh Lockhart. ' The best I can wish 
for him/ he says (18 March), ' is early death,' 
Though there were occasional hopes, the 
fear of the coming loss overshadowed Scott's 
remaining years. Scott hid his gloomy feel- 
ings as well as he could, and his family learnt 
their existence only from his journal. He 
was at his desk again soon after his wife's 
funeral. He had been encouraged (3 April) 
by news that ' Woodstock/ written in three 
months, had been sold for 8,228Z., * all ready 
money.' His chief employment was now 
the ' Life of Napoleon/ but he resolved to 
fill up necessary intervals by a new story, 
the * Chronicles of the Canongate.' * Wood- 
stock/ according to Lockhart, was a good 
bargain for the purchasers. Scott drudged 
steadily at 'Napoleon' till, in the autumn, 
he found it desirable to examine materials 
offered to him in London and Paris. He 
left Abbotsford on 12 Oct., and returned by 
the end of November. He was cordially re- 
ceived by his old friends in England, from the 
king downwards, and in Paris he declares 
(5 Nov.) that the French were ' outrageous 
in their civilities.' In the following winter 
he suffered severely from rheumatism, but 
stuck to his work, grudging every moment 
that was not spent at his desk. He was de- 
pressed by the sense of ' bodily helplessness/ 
and his writing became ' cramped and con- 
fused.' At the beginning of 1827 he was 
living quietly with his daughter, occasionally 
dining with old friends, and still heartily 
enjoying their society. On 23 Feb. he took 
the chair at a meeting to promote a fund for 
decayed actors. He allowed Lord Meadow- 
bank to propose his health as author of the 
' Waverley Novels/ and in his reply made 
the first public acknowledgment that he was 
the sole writer. 

Scott still found time to write various 
articles, including one for the benefit of 
B. P. Gillies, to whom it brought 100^, An- 
other gift of a year later was a couple of 
sermons written to help^ G. H. G-ordon 
when a candidate for ordination. Gordon 
was one of the countless young men whom 
he had helped ; after employing him as an 
amanuensis, he had obtained a place for him 
in a public office, and now allowed him to 
clear off debt by selling the sermons for 
250J. The ' Life of Napoleon' was published 



Scott 



TOO 



Scott 



in nine volumes in June 18:27. Loekhart 
calculates that it contains as much as five of 
the ' Waverley Novels/ and that the actual 
writing, after making allowance for absences 
and other works, had occupied twelve 
months. Though Scott had collected many 
books and consulted such authorities as he 
could, a work done at such speed, with 
powers already overstrained and amid press- 
ing anxieties, could not have serious his- 
torical value. It was, however, sold for 
18,000, and warmly received at the time, 
Goethe, who had just addressed a compli- 
mentary letter to Scott (dated 12 Jan. 1827) 
acknowledging his lively interest in his 
i wonderful pictures of human life/ speaks 
favourably ('Kimst und Altertlum') of the 
* Napoleon/ The book also led to a con- 
troversy with General G ourgaud, about whom 
Scott had published certain documents. 
There was some talk of a duel, which c plea- 
surably stimulated* Scott's feelings ; but the 
affair blew over without a challenge. 

Scott, having finished * Napoleon/ began, 
without a day's intermission (Journal, 
10 June 1827), a history of Scotland for 
children. The Lockharts were near him 
in the summer, and Scott told the story 
to the child before putting it on paper. 
The first series of the ' Chronicles of Canon- 
gate ' appeared in the early winter. He was 
discouraged by the reception of the novel, 
and only at Cadell's entreaty consented to 
make another start in fiction, The history 
published as * Tales of a Grandfather ' ap- 
peared in December, and was more * raptu- 
rously* received than any of his books since 
* Ivanhoe/ A second and third series ap~ 
peared in 1828 and 1829. Questions as to 
the copyrights of * Woodstock' and * Napo- 
leon ' had now been settled in Scott's favour. 
Affairs being simplified, Constable's creditors 
sold the copyrights of the 'Waverley 
Novels' and most of the poems. They were 
put up to auction and bought, half for 
Scott's trustees and half for Cadell, for 
8,500 The purchase enabled Scott to carry 
out a plan which appears to have been sug- 
gested by Constable in 1823 (CcNSTABioa, 
iii. 255). This was an edition of the works 
with autobiographical prefaces, which was 
carried out with singular success, and chiefly 
contributed to the reduction of the debt. 
Scott refers to it as the magnwn opws* A 
dividend of six shillings in the pound was 
paid at Christmas 1827, near 40,OQO/. having 
been raised in the two years by Scott's 
exertions. 

His labours continued monotonously 
through the next two years; The 'Fair 
Maid of Perth/ the last novel which shows 



unmistakable marks of the old vigour, ap- 
peared in the spring of 1828, and the cha- 
racter of the chief whose cowardice is made 
pardonable reflected his sorrow for his harsh 
judgment upon his brother Daniel. In the 
summer he was much troubled by the bank- 
ruptcy of his friend Terry, whom he en- 
deavoured to help. < Anne of Geierstein/ 
the next novel, was warmly praised by his 
friends at Christmas, to his groat encourage- 
ment. It was disliked by Ballantyne, but-, 
though the printer's judgment anticipated 
that of later readers, succeeded fairly on its 
publication in May 1829. His spirits were 
raised by the success of the magnum opiis, 
which was now coming out in monthly 
volumes, and by the end of the year reached 
a sale of thirty-five thousand. He was 
greatly shocked by the death of his favourite, 
Tom Purdie, on 29 Oct. (see LANG'S Lock- 
hart, ii. 56). 

In the winter Scott wrote the < Ayrshire 
Tragedy/ the least unsuccessful of his 
dramatic attempts. Soon afterwards, how- 
ever, on 15 Feb. 1830, a paralytic or apo- 
plectic attack showed that his toils were at 
fast telling. He submitted to a severe 
regimen, and an apparent improvement en- 
couragud him to struggle on. His family 
could see a. painful change. Writing was 
obviously injurious, and Cadell hoped that 
tho success " of the mtyimm opus would! 
induce him to confine himself to writing the 
prefaces. Cadell tried also to divert his 
attention to a catalogue of the Abbotsford 
Museum. Scott was taken by the scheme, 
but after beginning it insisted upon starting 
a new story.' He could still speak effectively 
at an election dinner, and he made a suc- 
cessful appeal through the papers to ^the 
people of Edinburgh to receive Charles X on 
his exile with dignified docorum. He retired 
at the end of the summer season from his 
clerkship on an allowance of 800J, a year. 
He declined an offer from the ministry to 
make up the deficiency of his income by a 
pension, after consulting his creditors, who 
generously agreed that he should obey his 
sense of delicacy. He also declined the 
rank of privy councillor, as unsuitable to 
his position. He passed the winter at 
Abhotsford, toiling at his new story, l Count 
Robert of Paris.' " Cadell and Ballantyne 
became alarmed at its obvious indication of 
declining powers, ad Ballantyne at last 
wrote a frank opinion of its future. Another 
seizure had shaken him in November, He 
summoned his advisers to consider the 
novel On 17 Dec. 1830 a meeting of Scott's 
creditors took place, when a further dividend 
of three shillings ia the pound was paid* 



Scott 



101 



Scott 



They unanimously Agreed to Gibson Craig's 
motion that he should be presented with his 
library and other furniture in recognition of 
his * unparalleled exertions/ Cadell and 
Ballantyne found him on the same evening 
soothed by this recognition of his sacrifices. 
Next day they discussed the novel. Scott had 
meanwhile written a third ' Malagrowther ' 
letter, denouncing parliamentary reform. 
Both his friends protested against the pub- 
lication of this ill-timed performance, when 
his success depended upon popularity. Scott 
was grea,tly moved, and, in CadelTs opinion, 
never recovered the blow. Alarmed by his 
agitation, his friends begged him to go on 
with ' Count Robert. 7 To. have condemned 
it would have been a * death-warrant/ He 
burnt the pamphlet but toiled on with the 
story, dictating to Laidlaw, who happily 
thought it his best work (7 March 1831). 
He wrote as many , pages in 1830, says 
Lockhart, as in 1829, in spite of his decay. 
The * Letters on Demonology/ in execution 
of an old scheme, was the chief result. 

In January 1831 Scott made his will, 
being enabled by his creditors' liberality to 
make some provision for the younger chil- 
dren. He had an attack more serious than 
any which had yet occurred in April 1831. 
He was afterwards distressed by an un- 
favourable opinion of ' Count Robert ' from 
his publishers. On 18 May he persisted, in 
spite of remonstrance, in attending an elec- 
tion at Jedburgh, to protest for the last time 
against parliamentary reform. A mob of 
weavers from Hawick filled the town and 
grossly insulted him. He was taken away 
at last amid a shower of stones and cries of 
* Burke Sir Walter!' At Selkirk, a few 
days later, he seized a rioter with his own 
hands. 

Scott after this took up his last novel, 
' Castle Dangerous,' in July, confiding in no 
one but Lockhart, with whom he was able 
to make a short tour in order to verify the 
descriptions of scenery. Lockhart's account 
of this last conscious return to the old 
haunts is especially touching. He afterwards 
finished both this and ' Count Robert/ which 
appeared together in November. His friends 
had now decided that a tour to a milder 
climate would offer the only chance of pro- 
longing his life. Captain Basil Hall [q.v.] 
suggested to Sir James Graham, then first 
lord of the admiralty, that a frigate might 
be placed at his disposal. The government 
at once adopted the proposal, to Scott's great 
pleasure ; and his eldest son obtained leave 
to sail with his father. Wordsworth hap- 
pened to reach Abbotsford on the day before 
Scott's departure, and wrote a fine sonnet on 



the occasion. Scott travelled to London by 
Rokeby, still writing notes for the opus 
magnum. He saw a few friends, but was 
distressed by the Reform Bill demonstrations. 
He sailed from Portsmouth on 29 Oct. in 
the Barham frigate, every possible attention 
being paid to him. He insisted on landing 
upon the curious island just formed by a 
submarine volcano, and wrote a description 
of it to Skene. He reached Malta on 
22 Nov., sailed for Naples in the Barham 
on 14 Dec., and there a month later heard 
of his grandson's death. He 1 made a last 
attempt at two novels, founded -on stories 
told to him at Naples, but became anxious 
to return to his home. On 16 April 1 832 he 
left for Rome, where he insisted upon visit- 
ing St. Peter's to see the tomb of the last of 
the Stuarts* Italian scenery suggested to 
him snatches of old Scottish ballads. He 
was still able to see a little society, and 
could at times talk like himself. On 11 May 
he left Rome, passed through the Tyrol, and 
down the Rhine. On 9 June at Nimeguen 
he was prostrated by an attack of apoplexy 
and paralysis. He was brought to London 
on 13 June in a half-conscious state ; the 
longing, for home, whenever he could express 
himself, induced his physicians to permit his 
removal. He left London on 7 July, and 
proceeded by steamboat to Newhaven, near 
Edinburgh. Thence he was taken by car- 
riage to Abbotsford, and roused to great 
excitement by the sight of the familiar scenes. 
He recognised Laidlaw, and for a short time 
was better, and able to listen to passages 
from the Bible and his favourite Orabbe. 
Once he made a pathetic effort to resume his 
pen ; but his mind seemed to be with Tom 
Purdie and his old amusements. He repeated 
the ' Burke Sir Walter ' and often the ' Stabat 
Mater.' A bill was passed, on Jeffrey's pro- 
posal, to provide for his duties as sheriff, as 
he was incapable of resigning. On 17 Sept. 
he spoke his last words to Lockhart : < My 
dear, be a good man,' and refused to let his 
daughter be disturbed. His eldest son had 
come to him, and on 21 Sept. 1832 he died 
quietly in presence of all his children. * It 
was so quiet a day/ says Lockhart, * that the 
sound he best loved, the gentle ripple of the 
Tweed over its pebbles, was distinctly audible 
as we knelt round the bed and his eldest sou 
Mssed and closed his eyes. 7 

Scott was succeeded in the baronetcy by his 
eldest son, Walter, who was born on 28 Oct. 
1801, and died on 8 Feb. 1847, when the title 
became extinct. His other children were : 
(1) Charlotte Sophia,born 24 Oct. 1799 (after- 
wards Mrs. Lockhart), who died 17 May 1837 ; 
her daughter, Charlotte, married James 



Scott 



102 



Scott 



Robert Hope-Scott [q. v.], and died in 1858. 
(2) Anne, born 2 Feb. 1803, and died unmar- 
ried 25 June 1833. (3) Charles, born 24 Dec. 
1805, died at Teheran, where he vrosattacM 
to the British embassy, in 1841, 

Scott is now lineally represented by the 
family of his great-granddaughter the Hon. 
Mrs. Mary Monica Maxwell Scott, now of 
Abbotsford j she is second daughter of J. B, 
Hope-Scott and wife of the Hon. Joseph 
Constable Maxwell (third son of William 
Maxwell, lord Herries). Mr. Maxwell as- 
sumed the additional surname of Scott on 
his marriage. 

Upon Scott's death the principal of the 
debt amounted to about 54,000, against 
which there was a life insurance of 22,000 
Cadell advanced the balance of about 
80,OOOJ. upon the security of the copyrights. 
A settlement was then made (2 Feb. 1833) 
with the creditors. The debt to Cadell ap- 
pears to have been finally discharged in 1847, 
when Cadell accepted the remaining copy- 
right of the works and of Lockhart's * Life/ 
fortunately prolonged by the Act of 1842. 
Abbotsford was thus freed from the debts of 
the founder (LANS-, Zookhart, ii. 297), 

Scott will be severely judged by critics 
whohold, with Carlyie, that an author should 
be a prophet. Scott was neither a Words- 
worth nor a Goethe, but an 'auld Wat' 
come again r and forced by circumstances to 
substitute publishing for cattle-lilting. The 
sword was still intrinsically superior in his 
eyes to the pen. His strong commonsense 
and business training kept him from practi- 
cal anachronisms, and gave that tinge of 
* worldliness ' to his character which Lock- 
hart candidly admits, but his life was an 
embodiment of the genial and masculine 
virtues of the older type so fondly cele- 
brated in his writings. A passionate patriot- 
ism in public and cordial loyalty to his 
friends mark his whole career. A chief (in 
one of his favourite quotations^ should be * a 
hedge about his friends, a heckle to his foes, 
He was too magnanimous to have persona! 
foes, and no petty jealousy entangled him 
in a literary squabble. His history is a long 
record of hearty friendships* His old chums 
Clerk, Erskine, and Skene; his literary ac- 
quaintajnces, George Ellis and Morritt ; his 
great rivals, Moore and Byron on one side 
and Wordsworth, Southey, and Coleridge on 
the 'Other j political antagonists such a 
Je-ffirey and Cockburn ; publishers who as- 
cribed their misfortunes to him, Constable 
and Ballantyne j the, feminine authors, Mis 
Seward, -Uoarawb Baillie, , Miss Edgeworth 
and Miss Austen (whose merits, though sh 
was personally unknown to him, he wa 



mong the first to recognise) ; and a whole 
ost of obscurer authors, Leyden, Hogg, 
laturin, Gillies, and others, are all names 
7hich recall a generous friendliness on Scott's 
art, which was in almost every case re- 
urned by good feeling, and in very many 
y the warmest affection. In his own circle > 
t Abbotsford and Edinburgh, including his 
amily, his servants, and his numerous de- 
pendents and associates, he was idolised, and 
was at once a warm and judicious friend. 
The same qualities make all appreciative 
eaders love him, even when the secret of 
he charm is not observed. No doubt these 
ualities are compatible with the characteris- 
;ic which, in its unfavourable aspects, is 
called pride. We may^ be induced to for- 
give him if, in the active discharge of his 
luties as friend and patron, he tooE a rather 
ow estimate of the functions of preacher or 
artist, and was blind to the equivocal prac- 
tices into which he was first seduced as the 
protector of an old friend. The pride, in 
my case, displayed itself as a noble self- 
respect and sense of honour when he was 
roused by calamity to a sense of his errors 
and made his last neroic struggle. 

Lockhart. gives a list of portraits of Scott, 
most of which were shown at the centenary 
exhibition of 1871. The catalogue then pub- 
Ished gives some interesting notices and 
photographic reproductions. A miniature 
:aken at Bath about 1776 belonged in 1871 
io D. Laing; an early copy is at Abbots- 
ford. A miniature of 1797, sent to Char- 
lotte Carpenter, is also at Abbotsford. A 
portrait by James Saxon, 1805, is engraved 
for the *Lady of the Lake/ Raeburn 
painted a full-length portrait in 1808 for 
Constable, with Hermitage Castle in the 
distance, and ' Camp/ A replica of 1809, 
with a greyhound added, is at Abbotsford. 
Baeburn painted other portraits, including 
a head for Lord Montagu, in 1822, and an- 
other, about the same time, for Chantrey. 
William Nicholson (1781-1844) [q, T.] 
painted a watercolour in 1816, and an etch- 
ing from it in 1817 for a series of eminent 
Scotsmen. He painted three others, one of 
which, and portraits of Scott's daughters, are 
at Abbotsford. Andrew Geddes (q. v.] made 
a sketch, for his picture of the discovery of 
the regalia in 1818. Another sketch was 
made by Joseph Slater, from which a por- 
trait was painted in 1821 for Sir K. H. 
Inglis. Thomas Phillips (1770-1845) [q. v,] 
painted a head ia 1819 for John Murray, the 
publisher. John Watson Gordon [q. v-i 
painted a portrait, with an Irish terrier, for 
the Marchioness of Abercorn in 1820; and 
one in 1820, frequently engraved. The 



Scott 



103 



Scott 



original sketch is in the National Portrait 
Gallery, Scotland, and there were many repe- 
titions. Gordon also painted Scott in his 
study at Castle Street, and painted a por- 
trait for Cadell in March 1830, seated with 
his greyhound ' Bran.' Sir Thomas Lawrence 
(see above) painted in 1822 a portrait for 
George IV, finished in 1826, now at Wind- 
sor Castle. Wilkie in 1822 made a study of 
Scott for his picture of ' George IV at Holy- 
rood' (now at Windsor), and finished the 
separate portrait for Sir W. Knighton. Gil- 
bert Stuart Newton [q. v.l painted a three- 
quarter portrait for Mrs* Lockhart in 1824, 
now at Abbotsford, said by Lockhart to be 'the 
best domestic portrait ever done.' Charles 
Robert Leslie f q.v.] painted a half-length for 
Mr. Ticknor in 1 824, now in America. In 1825 
Daniel Maclise [q. v.] made a sketch of Scott 
during his Irish tour, which was lithographed 
and largely sold. Another is in the 'Maclise 
Portrait Gallery ' (ed. Bates). John Prescptt 
Knight [q. v.] painted in 1826 a portrait, 'ill- 
<lrawn and feeble in expression/ engraved for 
Lodge's ' Portraits.' James Northcote [Q'V.] 
painted, inMay 1828, aportraitfor SirWilliam 
Knighton, in which the artist is introduced. 
Colvin Smith painted a portrait in 1828, of 
which he made as many as twenty copies 
for various people. John Graham-Gilbert 
[q. v.] painted a portrait in 1829 for the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh. A portrait by 
the same is in the National Portrait Gallery, 
which has also a portrait of Scott in his 
study, painted by Sir William Allan [q. v.] 
in 1831, and a sketch by Sir Edwin Landseer. 
Sir Francis Grant [q. v.] painted a portrait 
in 1831 ; and Sir Edwin Landseer, who had 
known Scott, painted him, after his death, in 
the ' Rhymer's Glen.' R. T. Lauder painted 
him as * Peter ' Paterson. Wilkie painted a 
picture of the Abbotsford family in 1817, 
and Thomas Faed a picture of Scott and his 
friends at Abbotsford. 

Ghantrey'made two busts of Scott, one in 
1820, presented to Scott, and copied in marble 
for the Duke of Wellington, and one in 1828, 
bought by Sir Robert Peel. The latter is 
now in the National Portrait Gallery, Lon- 
don. A replica of the former, executed by 
Mr. John Hutchison, R.S.A.,atthe expense of 
some of Scott's admirers, was placed in May 
1897 in Westminster Abbey. There axe' also 
busts by Samuel Joseph [q. vj of 1822, and one 
by Lawrence Macdonald in 1830. A statue 
made by John Greenshields at the end of 
Scott's life is now in the Advocates' Library 
at Edinburgh. Two casts of the head, one 
taken during life and the other after death, 
are at Abbotsford. 

The Scott monument designed by George 



Kemp, with a statue of the novelist by Sir 
John Steell, was erected in Princes Street, 
Edinburgh, and was inaugurated 17 Aug. 
1846. 

Scott's works are : 1. 'Disputatio Juridica,' 
&c., 1792 (exercise on being called to the 
bar). 2. The Chase and William and Helen 
. . . from the German of Biirger/ 1796 (anon.) 
3. ' Goetz of Berlichingen/ with the * Iron 
Hand/ a tragedy, 1799, translated from the 
German of Goethe, author of the ' Sorrows 
of Werter/ by Walter Scott, Advocate. Some 
copies have * William' (afterwards cancelled) 
instead of * Walter.' 4. 'Apology for Tales of 
Terror,' 1799 (twelve copies privately printed, 
includes some of his own ballads. For con- 
tents see Catalogue of Centenary Exhibition, 
where a copy from Abbotsford was shown). 
5. 'The Eve of St. John: a Border Ballad/ 
1800. 6. Ballads in Lewis's 'Tales of Won- 
der,' 1801. 7. ' Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Border' (anon.), vols.i. andii. 1802, vol. iii. 
1803. 8. < Lay of the Last Minstrel/ 1805. 
9. l Ballads and Lyrical Pieces/ 1806 (from 
' Border Minstrelsy' and the ' Tales ,of Won- 
der'). 10. 'Marmion: a Tale of Flodden 
Field/ 1808. 11. 'Life of Dryden/ prefixed 
to Works (fifty copies separately printed), 
1808. 12. 'The Lady of the Lake/ 1810. 
13. 'Vision of Don Roderick/^ 1811 (some 
poems collected in second edition of this). 
14. ' Rokeby/ 1813 (really 1812). 16. ' The 
Bridal of Triermain, or Vale of St. John' 
(anon.), 1813. 16. Abstract of Ej^bi^gia 
Saga' in Jamieson's 'Northern Antiquities/ 
1814 17. 'Waverley, or 'Tis Sixty Years 
Since/ 1814. The later novels^ except the 
' Tales of my Landlord' (four series), are ' by 
the author of Waverley.' 18. ' Life of Swift/ 
prefixed to. Works (1814), 19. ' Chivalry ' and 
the ' Drama ' in Supplement to ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica/1814. 20, Introduction to ' Border 
Antiquities/ 1814-17. 21. ' The Lord of the 
Isles/ 1815. 22. ' Guy Mannering/ 1815, 
23. 'Themdof Waterloo/*^- 24>Paul's 
Letters to- his Kinsfolk/ 1815, 25. ' The 
Antiquary/ 1816, 3 vols. 12mo. 26. ' Tales 
of my Landlord, collected and arranged by 
Jedediah Cleishbotham: the Black Dwarf, 
OldMortality/1817 (really 1816). 27. 'Harold 
the Dauntless, by the author of the Bridal 
of Triermain/ 1817. 2,8. ' The Search after 
Happiness; or the Quest of Sultan Solimaun/ 
and jSLembWs address on the * Sale room/ 
1817. 29. 'Rob Boy/ 1818, 3 vols. 12mo. 
30. ' Tales of my Landlord, 2nd ser. Heart 
of Midlothian/ 1818, 4 vols. 12mo. 31. Ar- 
ticles in * Provincial Antiquities of Scotland/ 
issued in two parts, 1819-26 (2 vols. 4to, 
1826), 32. 'Tales of my Landlord, 3rd ser. 
The Bride of Laramermoor: a Legend of 



Scott 



104 



Scott 



Montrose/ 1819, 4 yols. 12mo. 33. ' De- 
scription of the Regalia of Scotland/ 1819, 
16mo (anon.) 34. ' The Visionary, by Som- 
nambulus' (a political satire in tliree letters, 
republished from the 'Edinburgh Weekly 
Journal '), 1820. 35. ' Ivanhoe/ 1820 (really 
1819), 3 vole. 12mo. 36. ' The Monastery,' 

1820, 3 Tola. 8vo. 37, ' The Abbot/ 1820, 3 
vols. 8vo. 38. ' Kenilworth/ 1821, 3 vols. 8vo. 
39. Biographies in Ballantyne's * Novelists/ 

1821. 40. ' Account of George IV's Corona- 
tion/1821. 41. < The Pirate/ 1822, 3 vols. 8vo. 
42. 'Halidon Hill/ 1822. 43. ' Macduff s 
Cross' in Joanna Baillie's ' Poetical Mis- 
cellanies/ 1822. 44. 'The Fortunes of 
Nigel/ 1822, 3 vols. 8vo. 45. 'Peveril of 
the Peak/ 1822 (January 1823), 3 vols. 8vo. 

46. 'Quentin Durward/ 1823, 3 vols. Svo. 

47. 'St. Ronan's Well/ 1824, 3 vols. 8vo. 

48. ' Redgauntlet/ 1824, 3 vols. 8vo. 

49. 'Tales erf the Crusaders: The Betrothed ; 
The Talisman/ 1825, 4 vols. 50. ' Thoughts 
on the proposed Change of Currency . . . 
three Letters by Malachi Malagrowther/ 
1826 (from the ' Edinburgh Weekly Journal ' 
of March). 51. * Woodstock, or the Ca- 
valier; a Tale of 1651/ 1826, 3 vols. 8vo. 
52. * Life of Napoleon Buonaparte, Emperor 
of the French, with a preliminary view of 
the French Revolution, by the Author of 
Waverley/ 9 vols. 1827, 53. ' Chronicles of 
the Canongate : the Two Drovers ; the High- 
land Widow j the Surgeon's Daughter ; by 
the author of Waverley' (with introduc- 
tion signed Walter Scott), 1827. 54. ' Tales 
of a Grandfather/ 1st ser. 1828 ; 2nd ser. 
1829; 3rd ser. 1830 (Scotland); 4th ser. 
(France), 1830. 55. 'Chronicles of the 
Canongate (2nd ser.): St. Valentine's 
Bay, or the Fair Maid of Perth/ 1828. 
56. ' My Aunt Margaret's Mirror \ ' * The 
Tapestried Chamber/ and ' The Laird's Jock/ 
in the * Keepsake * for 1828. 57. ' Religious 
Discourses, by a Layman/ 1828. 58. ' Anne 
of Geierstein/ 1829, 3 vols, 8vo, 59. * His- 
tory of Scotland ' (Lardner's * Cabinet Cy- 
clopaedia'), 2 vols. 1830. 60. 'Letters on 
Demonology and Witchcraft* (Murray's 
'Family Library'), 1830. 61. 'House of 
Aspen/ in the ' Keepsake/ 1830. 64. ' Doom 
of Devorgoil : Auchindrane, or the Ayrshire 
Tragedy/ 1830. 63. 'Essays on 'Ballad 
Poetry/ 1830 (attached to octavo edition of 
' Poetical Works '). 64. ' Tales of my Land- 
lord (fourth series) : Count Robert of Paris : 
Castle Dangerous/ 1832. 

Scott edited ^the following : 1. ' Sir Tris- 
tram, an historical romance, edited from the 
AuchMeck MS./ 3804. 2. 'Original Me- 
moirs of Sir Henry Slingsby ' (with memoirs 
of Captain Hodgson), 1806. 3. 'Dryden's 



Works/ 1808, 18 vols.; reprinted 1821. 
4. 'Memoirs of Captain George Carleton' 
(fl. 172S) [q. v.], 1808. 5. 'Memoirs of 
Patrick Gary' [q. v.], 1808. 0. 'Queenhoo 
Hall/ by Joseph Strutt [q. v.], 1808. 7. ' Sad- 
ler Papers ' [see under CLIFFORD, ABTHTTK, 
and SADLER, SIR RALPH], 1809-10, 2 vols 
4to. 8. 'Somers Tracts '(2nd edit.), 1809-15, 
13 vols. 9. ' Poems of Anna Seward ' fq. v 1 
1810. 10. ' Secret History of the Court of 
Jamee 1/1811, 2 vols. 11. ' Memoirs of Sir 
Philip Warwick/ 1813. 12. 'Swift's Works/ 
1814 and (revised) 1824, 19 vols. 13. ' The 
letting of Humor's Blood in the Head Vaine/ 
by Samuel Rowlands [q. v.], 1814, 14. ' Me- 
morie of the Somervilles/ 1815. 15. 'Burt's 
Letters from Scotland ' (with Eobert Jamie- 
son,1780?-1844[q.v.l),1818. 16. 'Northern 
Memoirs/ by Richard Franck [q. v.], 1821. 
17. ' Chronological Notes of Scottish Af- 
fairs/ &c., by Sir John Lander, lord Foun- 
tainhall fq. v.l 1822. 18. 'Memoirs of 
Mine, do la RocUejaquelin ' (vol. v. of ' Con- 
stable's Miscellanv J ), 1827. Scott edited 
the 'Btumatyne Miscellany' in 1827, and 
contributed a memoir to the 'Bannatyne 
Memorial ' in 1829. lie wrote the 'B'an- 
natyne Garland, quhairin the President 
speaketh for thir first dinner; ' and printed 
for the club ' Lays of the Lindsays/ 1824 
(suppressed ; a copy at the Centenary exhi- 
bition), ' Auld Robin Gray/ 1824, and a re- 
port of the trial of Duncan Terig, 1831. 
He presented to the Roxburghe Club the 
' Court-martial on John, Master of Sinclair/ 
1828. 

Scott contributed many articles to the 
' Edinburgh ' and ' Quarterly ' reviews, of 
which lists are^ given in Lockhart and in 
Allibone's ' Dictionary.' lie wrote historical 
sketches of 1813 and 1814 for the 'Edin- 
burgh Annual Eegjster/ in which he also 
published a memoir of Leyden and some 
poems. 

Scott's poems were collected in 1820 in 
12 yols. 12mo; in 10 vols. 8vo in 1821, to 
which was added an eleventh volume in 1830; 
in 10 vols. 12mo in 1823 ; and in 11 vols, 8vo 
in 1830 (with author's prefaces). An octavo 
volume of ' Miscellaneous Poems ' in 1820 
includes ' Triermain/ ' Harold/ and various 
poems, first collected in the 12mo edition of 
that year. The poetry from the ' Waverley 
Novels 'was published in 1822. An edition 
in 12 vols. 8vo, edited by Lockhart, ap- 
peared in 1834, and was republished in 1 vol. 
m 1848. 

The ' Waverley Novels * were issued col- 
lectively by Constable, as he bought the 
copyright, as 'Novels and Tales' (12 vols. 
1820), ' Historical Romances ' (7 vols. 182L>), 



Scott 



105 



Scott 



and ' Novels and Romances ' (7 vols. 1824). 
'Tales and Romances' were published by 
Cadell in continuation, and two volumes of 
introductions (1827, 1833). The Collected 
edition, with the author's notes, appeared in 
48 vols. from 1829 to 1833. Cadell also 
published the Cabinet edition (25 vols. fcap. 
8vo, 1841-3), the People's edition (5 vols. 
royal 8vo, 1844-8), and the Abbotsford edi- 
tion (12 vols. impl. 8vo, 1842-7). The 
copyright of Scott's works was bought in 
1851 by Messrs. Black for about 27,OOOZ. 
after Cadell's death. They published a Li- 
brary edition of the ' Waverley Novels ' in 
25 vols. 8vo in 1852-4, Roxburghe edition 
(48 vols. 8vo, 1859-61), a Railway edition 
(1854-60), a Shilling edition (1862-4), and 
a Sixpenny edition (1866-8), each in 25 vols. ; 
and a Centenary edition in 25 vols. 8vo in 
1870-1. Many other editions have appeared, 
and it is stated that about three million 
volumes of one of the cheaper issues were 
sold between 1851 and 189Q (Scotfe Journal, 
ii. 108). Among the latest are the Dry- 
burgh edition, 1892-4, in 25 vols. 8vo, and 
the Border edition in 48 vols. 4to, 1892-4, 
edited by Mr, Andrew Lang. 

Scott's miscellaneous prose works were 
first collected in 1827 in 6 vols. 8vo, in 28 
yols. 8vo, 1834-6 ; and in 3 vols. royal 8vo 
in 1841. They include the * Lives of the 
Novelists/ the 'Life of Ley den' (from the 
< Edinburgh Annual Register'), < Paul's 
Letters/ the articles in the * Encyclopaedia/ 
and the * Border and Provincial Antiquities/ 
some reviews from the 'Edinburgh' and 
' Quarterly/ the < Life of Napoleon/ and the 
'Tales of a Grandfather. 3 

[The main authority for Scott is Lockhart's 
.admirable life. It appeared originally in seven 
volumes, 1837. Pages cited above refer to the 
one-volume edition of 1 841 . Scott's last Journals 
(1890) and his Familiar Letters (1894), published 
by David Douglas from the Abbotsford collections, 
are an important supplement. The first includes 
some extradts from Skene's unpublished re- 
miniscencesv Othro lives had been published by 
W, Weir, 1832, and by George Allan in 1834. 
References to Scott are to -be found in nearly 
every biographical work of the period, especially 
in Southey's Life and Correspondence, where 
Sautheys replies to Scott's letters in Lockhart 
are published, and the ' selections ' from his 
letters, and Cockburn's Memorials (pp. 40, 211, 
217,267, 280, 317, 382, 401, 430). Of books 
more especially devoted to Scott may be men- 
tioned the ' Refutation ' of misstatements in 
Lockhart by Ballantyne's trustees (1838), 
Lockhart's Ballantyne Humbug Handled, and 
the Reply to this by the trustees, 1839. Archi- 
bald Constable and his Literary Correspondents 
(1873), vol. iii., and Smiles's Memoir of John 



Murray (1891), also throw some light upon t 
publishing transactions. The present 
Archibald Constable has kindly contributed 
some unpublished papers. Mr. Andrew Lang's 
Life of J. Q-. Lockhart (1897) discusses some of 
these points and gives other valuable informa- 
tion. Other books are: Domestic Life and 
Manners of Sir Walter Scott, by James Hogs: 
(1834), which Lockhart resented, but which has 
some interest ; Recollections of Sir Walter Scott 
[by R. P. Billies], 1837, 'valuable and written 
in an admirable spirit,' says Mr. Lang ; Letters 
from and to C, K. Sharpe (1838), with many 
letters of Scott's ; Journal of a Tour to Waterloo 
. . . with Sir W. Scott in 1815, by the late John 
Scott of Harden (1842) ; Reminiscences of Scott, 
by John Gibson (one of Scott's trustees), 1871 ; 
Basil Hall's Fragments, iii. 280-328 (last 
voyage) ; Washington living's Abbotsford and 
Newstead Abbey (London, 1850); G. Ticknor's 
Life and Letters (1870), i. 280-4, 430, ii. 360, 
&e. (see also letters from Ticknor and Edward 
Everett in Allibone's Dictionary) ; R. Chambers's 
Life of Scott with Abbotsford Notanda (chiefly 
referring to W. Laidlaw), by R. Carruthers 
(1874); Centenary Memorial of Sir W. Scott, by 
C. S. M. Lockhart (1871), Catalogue of Library 
at Abbotsford, by J. G. Cochrane CMaitland 
Club, 1838); Abbotsford, the personal relics and 
antiquarian treasures of Sir W. Scott, described 
by the Hon. Mary Monica Maxwell Scott, with 
illustrations by W. Gibb (1893).} L, S. 

SCOTT, SIB WILLIAM (d. 1350), 
judge, and reputed founder of the Kentish 
family of Scot's Hall, is said to have been 
son of John Scott who resided at Bra- 
bourne, Kent, apparently as seneschal of the 
manor. But the pedigree of the Scot's 
Hall family has not been traced with cer- 
tainty before the fifteenth century. The 
judge, according to a wholly untrustworthy 
tradition, was descended from a younger 
brother of John de Baliol [q. v-.J kin^ of Scot- 
land, and also of Alexander de Baliol, [q. v.], 
lord of Chilham, Kent. William Scott makes 
his first appearance as a pleader in the year- 
book for 1330 (Michaelmas term). He was 
made serjeant-at-law in 1334-5, and on 
18 March 1336-7 justice of the common 
pleas, having been knighted the day before, , 
when the Black Prince was created Duke of 
Cornwall. In December 1340, with Chief- 
justice Sir Robert Parning [q. v.] and other 
judges, he sat at Westminster to try their 
delinquent colleague, Sir Richard de Wil- 
loughby [q. v.] He has been doubtfully 
identified with William Scott, who was 
knight marshal of .England, and is said, ac- 
cording to an epitaph recorded by Weever, 
to have been buried in Brabourne church in 
1350. But there was a William Scott who 
purchased land at Brabourne between 1352 
and 1396, and was assessed to the sixteenth 




Scott 



1 06 



Scott 



from 1349 to 1372. There is no proof, as is 
commonly stated, that the judge was lather 
of Michael Scott, who in 1346-7 was assessed 
to the sixteenth in Bircholt. 

Obscurity in the history of the family of 
Scott of Scot's Hall ceases with the settlement 
by Peter de Coumbe in 1402 of the manor of 
Combe or Coumbe in Brabourne on William 
Scott (d> 1434), who was escheator for Kent 
in 1425, sheriff in 1428, and M,P. in 1430. 
Before 1409 he married his first wife, Joan, 
daughter of Sir John de Orlestone (d. 1397), 
and by purchase or inheritance he acquired 
the manor and church of Orlestone, which 
had belonged to her family. He presented 
to the church in 1426, 1430, and 1433. He 
is believed to have built on the manor of 
llall the mansion-house afterwards known as 
Scot's Hall. To him also was probably due 
the reconstruction in the Perpendicular style 
of the chapel of the Holy Trinity to the south 
of the chancel in Brabourne church, at the 
entrance of which he directed that he should 
be buried (cf. WEEVEK). He died on 5 Feb. 
1433-4. His second wife was Isabella, 
youngest daughter of Vincent Herbert, alias 
Jftnch, of Netherfield, Sussex (ancestor of the 
earls of Winchilsea) ; she survived him, and 
remarried Sir Gervase Clifton, treasurer of 
the household to Henry VI, who resided at 
Brabourne. By his second wife William 
Scott had, with other issue, an heir, John, 
and William (d. 1491). The latter was lord 
of the manor of Woolstan, and founder of 
the family of Scott of Chigwell, Essex. 

The heir, SIB JOHN SCOTT (d. 1485) of 
Scot's Hall, a consistent Yorlust, was ap- 
pointed sheriff of Kent in 1,460, and, on the 
accession of Edward IV next year, was 
knighted and made comptroller of the house- 
hold. Edward IV, on the attainder in 1461 
of 'Thomas, baron de Eoos, and Jame$ Butler, 
earl of Wiltshire, gave him the castle and 
manor of Wilderton and Molash IE Kent 
and the manor of Old Swinford and Snods- 
bury in Worpestershire, with a life interest 
in the castle and manor of Ohilham. He was 
one of the negotiators of the treaty of com- 
merce with Burgundy, concluded at Brus- 
sels on 24 Nov. 1467, And of the marriage 
treaty [see MABGARETI DUCHESS OE Bra- 
CKcnipT], and one of the commission for the 
delimitation of the Pale of Picardy , appointed 
on IB June 1472. He was returned to par- 
liament for Kent in 1467, and was engaged 
in the following years on diplomatic nego* 
tiations with the Hanse Towns. In 1471 he 
succeeded Bichard Neville, earl Warwick, 
whom he was sent to arrest in France after 
the battle of Stamford (May 1470), as lieu- 
tenant of Dover Castle, warden of the Cinque 



ports, and marshal of Calais, and continued 
in active diplomatic employment. He died 
on 17 Oct. 148t5, and was buried in the north 
wall of the chancel of Brabourne church. 
His arms are in the north window of ' the 
martyrdom ' at Canterbury Cathedral. His 
account-book (1463-6) was printed in ' Ar- 
chieologia Cant.' vol. x. By his wife Agnes 
(A 1487), daughter of William de Beaufite of 
the Grange, Gillingham, Kent, he had, with 
two daughters, an heir, William. The state- 
ment that Thomas Kotherham [q. v.] was a 
younger son is without foundation. 

SIB WILLIAM SCOTT (1459-1624) of Bra- 
bourne was concerned in the siege of Bodiam 
Castle in 1483-4, for which and other delin- 
quencies he received a pardon on the accession 
of Henry VII* Rising in favour with that 
monarch, he was sworn of the privy council, 
appointed comptroller of the household, 
and created C.B. with Prince Arthur on 
29 Nov. 1489. He was also lieutenant of 
Dover Castle, warden of the Cinque ports, 
and marshal of Calais in 1490-1, sheriff of 
Kent the same year, in 1501 and 1516. 
In 1495 he succeeded fcp the manor of Bra- 
bourne on the death, without issue, of Joan, 
widow of Sir John Lewknor (killed at 
Tewkesbury 1471), The property came to 
her from her father Kichard, son of John 
IIalsham> and, by a settlement of 1464, was 
limited to John Scott and his heirs, failing 
Joan, Lowlmor's issue. John Scott's relation- 
ship to the Halshams and Lewkuors is not 
established. In 1519 Sir William attended 
Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, 
and figured amongthe grandees deputed with 
Wolsey to receive the Emperor Charles V on 
his landing at Dover on 28 May 1522. Scot's 
Hall he rebuilt in a style of such splendour 
as to make it long- the rival of the greatest 
of the houses of Kent, He died on 24 Aug. 
1524, and was buried in the chancel of Bra- 
bourae church. By his wife Sybil (& 1527) 
he left issue, A younger son, Edward (d. 
1535), married Alice, daughter of Thomas 
Fogffe, serjeant porter of Calais, and founded 
the family of Scott of the Mote, Iden, Sussex. 

His heir, SIB JOHN SCOTT (1484P-1533), 
was knighted by the young Prince Charles 
(afterwards the Emperor Charles V) for gal- 
lantry displayed in the campaign of 1511 in 
the Low Countries against the Duke of 
Guilders [see POTSTINGS, SXK EDWA.BD]. 
He entered the retinue of George Neville, 
lord Abergavenny, constable of Dover Castle, 
and had charge of the transport service on 
the landing of Charles V at Dover on 28 May 
1522. He was sheriff of Kent in 1627, and 
died 7 Oct. 1633. By marriage with Anne, 
daughter of Bcginald Pympe (said to be de* 



Scott 



107 



Scott 



gcended from John Gower, the poet), hie suc- 
cessors acquired the manor of Nettlestead, 
Kent. Their issue was, besides several daugh- 
ters, three sons, "William (d. 1536 s.p.)> 
Keginald, and Richard, who was lather of 
Keginald (d. 1599) [q. v.J author of 'The 
Discovery of Witchcraft.' 

Sir John Scott's second son, Sir Reginald 
Scott (1512-1554), sheriff of Kent in 1541 
and surveyor of works at Sandgate, died on 
15 Dee. 1554, and was buried at Brabourne, 
having married, first, Emeline, daughter of 
Sir William Kempe ; and, secondly, Mary, 
daughter of Sir Brian Tuke [q. v.] He had 
issue six sons and four daughters. 

Sir Keginald Scott's eldest son by his first 
wife, SIB THOMAS SCOTT (1535-1594), was 
soon prominent in public affairs in Kent. He 
was knighted in 1571, and was deputy lieu- 
tenant of the county. In 1575 he succeeded 
as heir to the manor of Isfettlestead. In 1576 
he served as high sheriff, and was knight of 
the shire in the parliaments of 1571 and 1586. 
He was a commissioner to report on the ad- 
visability of improving the breed of horses in 
this country, a subject on which he is said 
to have written a book ; was commissioner 
for draining and improving Romney Marsh, 
and became superintendent of the improve- 
ments of Dover harbour. At the time of 
the Spanish Armada he was appointed chief 
of the Kentish force which assembled at 
Northbourne Down. He equipped four thou- 
sand men himself within, a day of receiving 
his orders from the privy council. Renowned 
for his hospitality and public spirit, he died 
on 30 Dec. 1594, and was buried at Bra- 
bourne. The offer of the parish of Ashford 
to bury him in the parish church free of 
expense was declined. A long biographical 
elegy, which has been attributed to his cousin 
Reginald, is extant (Pscz, Collection of CM- 
rious Pieces, -vol. iii. ; SCOTT, Memorials of the 
Scot Family, REGINALD SCOT, Discovery, ed. 
Nicholson, pp. xv-xvii), He married three 
times, By his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir John Baker of Sissinghurst, he had 
six sons and three daughters? this lady's 
sister married Thomas SackviUe, lord Buck- 
hurst [q.v,] In 1583 Scott married, secondly, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Ralph Heyman of 
Somerfield ; she died in 1595 without issue. 
His third wife was Dorothy, daughter of John 
Bere of Horsman's Place, Dartford. Scot was 
this ladVs fourth husband ,- he had no issue 
by her (SCOTT, Memorials of the Family of 
Scot of Sc-ofs Sail, 1876, pp. 194-206, with 
portrait and win). 

Sir Thomas Scott's second son, SIB JOHN- 
SCOTT (157CW.61 6), was knighted in the Low 
Countries by Lord Willoughby, under whom 



he served as captain of a band of lancers 
(1588). He commanded a ship in the expe- 
dition of 1597 to the Azores ; in 1601 he was 
implicated, but not fatally, in the Essex 
rising. From 1604 till 161 1 he was M.P. for 
Kent, and in 1614 he sat for Maidstone. Ou 
9 March 1607 he became a member of the 
council for Virginia, and on 23 May 1609 a 
councillor of the Virginia Company of Lon- 
don ; to the former he subscribed 75/. He 
died on 24 Sept. 1616, and was buried in 
Brabourne church, Kent. He was twice 
married: first, to Elizabeth Stafford, a de- 
scendant of the Duke of Buckingham (be- 
headed in 1521); and, secondly, to Cathe- 
rine, daughter of Thomas Smith, the cus- 
tomer, and widow of Sir Rowland Hayward. 
Dekker in 1609 dedicated his Phoenix' to 
her and her father. 

The last Scott who occupied Scot's Hall 
was Francis Talbot Scott (1745-1787), ap- 
parently fifth in descent from Sir Edward 
Scott (d. 1644), fifth son of Sir Thomas 
(1535-1594). On Francis Talbot Scott's 
death the estate was sold to Sir J ohn Hony- 
wood of Evington. The old mansion was 
pulled down in 1808. There are many living 
representatives of the various branches of 
the family. The estates of Orlestone and 
Nettlestead were alienated in 1700. 

[Scott's Memorials of the Family of Scott of 
Scot's Hall (which, is at many points inaccu- 
rate); Weever's Funeral Mon. 1631, p. 260; 
Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, 'Athol ;' Hasted's 
Kent, ed. 1790, iii. 292; Foss's Lives of the 
Judges ; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. pp. 42, 43 ; Abbrev. 
Rot. Orig. ii. 99, 179; Paston Letters, ed. 
Gairdner; Metcalfe's Book of Knights; Cal. 
Eot. Pat, p. 134 1 Lyon's Dover Castle, ii. 244, 
245 ; Letters and Papers, Henry VIII ; Rymer's 
Fcedera, 1st edit. xi. 590-1, 599,737-59, 778,xiv. 
407-8 ; The French Chronicle of London (Cam- 
den Soc.),p. 87 ; Rutland Papers (Camden Soc.), 
pp. 72, 73; Chronicle of Calais (Camden Soc.), 
pp. 8, 15 ; Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles 
(Camden Soc.), p. 157; Hist, MSS. Comm. 9th 
Rep. App, p. 138 ; Brown's Oenesis of United 
States, esp. pp. 996-7 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1599-1616; and information from C R. Beaz- 
ley, esq. Valuable notes have heen supplied by 
Edmund Ward Oliver, esq.] J. M. R. 

SCOTT or SCOT, SIB WILLIAM, LORD 
BALWEABIB (d. 1532), Scottish judge, was 
elder son of Sir William Scott of JBalwearie, 
by Isobel, daughter of Sir John Moncrieff of 
Moncrieff. He accompanied James IV in 
bis expedition into England in 1513, and, 
being taken prisoner at the battle of Plodden, 
was obliged to sell a portion of his lands of 
Strathmiglo to purchase his ransom. In 
February 1524 he was chosen a commissioner 
to parliament, when he was appointed one 



Scott 



108 



of the lords of the articles for the barons, an 
honour frequently afterwards conferred on 
him, although obtained by no one else under 
,the rank of a peer. On 24 Nov. he was 
styled a justice, in the absence of the jus- 
tice-general, in a commission appointed to 
do justice on the ' malt makers ol Leith for 
common oppression through the exorbitant 
dearth raised by them, and of their causing 
through the whole realm' (Acta ParL Scot. 
ii. 315; Extracts from the Records of the 
Burgh of Edinburgh, 1403-1628, p. 529). 
On the institution of the college of justice on 
13 May 1532, he was nominated the first 
justice on the temporal side, but died before 
1 9 Nov. of the same year. By h is wife, Janet 
Lundy, daughter of Thomas Lundy of Lundy, 
he had two sons, Sir William, father of Sir 
James Scott (Jl. 1579-1606) [q. v.], and 
Thomas (U80P-1589) [q. v.] 

[Douglas's Scottish Baronage, p. 304 ; Brunton 
and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice, 
pp. 19, 20.] T. P. H. 

SCOTT, SIE WILLIAM (d. 1650), of 
Clerkington, was the eldest son of Laurence 
Scott of Harprig, advocate, clerk to the 
privy council, and one of the clerks of the 
court of session. In November 1641 he was 
knighted bv Charles I. Like his father, he 
was one of the clerks of session, and after 
the enactment of the act of classes rendering 
it impossible for those who took part in the 
engagement on behalf of Charles I to hold 
office, he was in June 1649 appointed an 
ordinary lord of session with tie title of 
Lord Clerkington, In 1645 he had been, 
chosen to represent the county of Hadding- 
ton in parliament, and in 1650 was chosen 
a commissioner for the county of Edinburgh. 
He was also one of the committee of estates, 
and took a prominent part in affairs at the 
period of Charles IPs recall to Scotland in 
June 1650. Se died on 23 Dec. 1656. By 
his first wife, a daughter of Morrison of 
Prestongrange, he had one son, Laurence; 
and by his second wife, Barbara, daughter 
of Sir John Balmahqy of Dalmahoy , bart., he 
had three sons and three daughters* The 
sons were: John, who succeeded his brother 
Laurence, obtained from his father in patri- 
mony the lands and barony of Malleny, and 
was the ancestor of the Scotts of Malleny 
James of Scotsloch ; and Robert, dean o: 
Hamilton, 

[Sir James Balfonr's Annals; Bishop G-uthryY 
Memoirs; -Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Brimton 
and Haig's .Senators of the College of Justice.] 

m TJI T3T 

SCOTT, SIB "WILLIAM (1674P-1725) 
of Thirlestane, Latin lyrist, eldest son o 
Francis Scott, bart, of Thirlestane, Selkirk 



Scott 

hire, and Lady Henrietta, daughter of Wil- 
iam Kerr, third earl of Lothian [q. v.], was 
born after 1673, in which year his parents 
vere married (FRAZJBR, Book of Jfucd&tch). 
le was admitted a member of the faculty 
>f advocates on 25 Feb. 1702, On 20 May 
719 he executed a deed of entail of his 
ands of Thirlestane. He died on 8 Oct. 
L725. Scott married, in 1699, Elizabeth, 
only surviving child of Margaret, baroness 
Napier, and her husband, John Brisbane, 
son of an Edinburgh writer. After her 
decease he married Jean, daughter of Sir 
John Nisbet of Dirleton, East Lothian, and 
widow of Sir William Scott of Harden. 
Francis Scott, son of the first marriage, be- 
came the fifth baron Napier (ancestor of Lord 
Napier and Ettrick) on the death of his grand- 
mother, who was predeceased by his mother. 

Scott contributed to Dr. Archibald Pit- 
cairne's 'Selecta Poemata/ 1726, proving 
bdniself a scholarly writer of sentimental 
and humorous lyrics, and an adept at maca- 
ronic verse. In the preface to the volume 
tiis literary merits are highly extolled by 
several contemporaries. A direct family 
tradition, starting from his son, assigns to 
him the somewhat broad but decidedly 
appreciative and diverting Scottish ballad, 
the 'Blythsome "Wedding;/ which is also 
claimed for Francis Sempill [q. v.] Scott's 
powers no doubt -were equal to the achieve^ 
ment ; and, though there exists nothing 
else or like character that is undoubtedly 
his, the tradition compels attention. 

[Douglas's Peerage ; FrazerV Book of Bros 
cleuch ; Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Mark 
Napier's History of the Partition of the Lennox; 
Johnson's Musical Musoum, ed. Laing; Allan 
Cunningham's Songs of Scotland.] T, B, 

SCOTT, WILLIAM LOUD STOWBLL 
(1745-1836), fourth child and eldest son of 
"William Scott of Newcastle on-Tyne, who 
was at various times a 'hoastman,' and 
* coal-fitter f or coal-shipper, and a small 
publican, by his second wife, Jane, daughter 
of Henry Atkinson, a local tradesman, was 
born 17 Oct. 1745 (0.8.) The public 
alarm at the Jacobite rebellion and General 
Cope's defeat at Prestonpans caused his 
mother to remove for her confinement to her 
father's country house at He worth, a place 
about three miles from Newcastle, and on 
the Durham side of the Tyne ; it is said that, 
as the town gates were shut and egress for- 
bidden, she was lowered from the walls into 
a boat. At any rate, but for the lucky 
accident of his birth in the county of l)ur~ 
ham, neither he nor his brother John, after- 
wards Lord Eldon [q. v.], was likely to have 
gone to Oxford. For some years William 



Scott 



109 



Scott 



Scott was educated at the Newcastle gram- 
mar school, under the Rev. Hugh Moises 
[q. y.J, fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, and, 
on his advice, he stood for and obtained a 
scholarship at Corpus Christi College, Ox- 
ford, open to persons born in Durham. Seven 
days after his election he matriculated, on 
3 March 1761. On 20 November 1764 he 
took his B.A. degree, and on 14 Dec. was 
elected on probation to a Durham fellowship 
at University College, and was admitted 
actual fellow on 14 June 1765. He was at 
once appointed one of the two college tutors 
and m this capacity earned the reputation of 
being <a ver useful in ' - 



ingenious man' (G- 
* 



being <a very useful, 

5? K S HlLL ' Ze ?, > 

eUl, 420); eventually he became senior 

tutor. He appears, however, from a letter 
to his father in 1772, to have found the 
work an excessive strain on his health. On 



> took his IVI.A. degree, pro- 

on *._,- on/fin 1 *7T 

j, ana. in I/ /o, 

, T .*i*^jiwid ; he was. after 

a contest, elected by convocation Camden 
reader m ancient history. He never pub- 
lished his lectures, and forbade his executors 
to do so; but they were very popular and 
almost as much esteemed as Blackstone's 
Vinenan lectures. Gibbon speaks of them 
with approbation from hearsay, and singles 
bcott out as a shining example amid the 
freneral iTif.*mayit.*r Q ,,.: ^ , -i - 



hn L eace <> 

the time ; Dr. Parr, who seems to have heard 
tb^m praises them highly (see Quart. Rev. 
tW,' *' ; nd , Mll 1 man > wl o saw the notes of 
them after his death, confirms Gibbon's state- 
ment MILMAN, Life of OMon, 1839, p. 83). 
Scott s mtunate friendship with Dr John- 
son beg at Oxford, and* continued tSl 
Johnson's death. Robert Chambers [q. v 1 
at school and college, brought 
^? John8(m s visiting 
y Ooll se. He accompanief 
Aiw ewoastle * Edinburgh in 
Await 1773, was elected a member of The 
Club m December 1778, and lived to be its 

ST nH 1Mmber ' ^ Mi Hawkins and 
Reynolds was an executor of Johnson's will. 



?"' *& tfJ^on, 



' - 



lie used freely in his edition of Boswell, but 
the former were sent by post to Sir Walter 
Scott, and, the mail being robbed, disap- 
peared j owing to Lord Stowell's advanced 
age they never were rewritten ( Croker Papers, 

Scott's wish had long been to go to the 
bar, and as early as 24 June 1762 he entered 
himself as a student at the Middle Temple, 
but his own caution and his father's reticence 
about his own means led him to put off his 
removal to London. In the autumn of 1776 
his father died, leaving him an estate in 
Durham named Usworth, the family house 
in Love Lane, Newcastle, and other pro- 
perty, worth altogether, according to Lord 
Eldon, 24,000/. In winding up his father's 
estate, he for some time continued his ship- 
ping business, and thus gained a practical 
experience, which was afterwards of profes- 
sional value to him. Accordingly he resigned 
his tutorship, and early in 1777 took chambers 
at 3 Kiiijfs Bench Walk, Temple,- but, 
retaining his Camden readership till 1785, 
he continued to reside occasionally in Oxford. 
He particularly interested himself in increas- 
ing the collections in the Bodleian Library, 
and assisted in raising the fund for the pur- 
chase of rare works at the Pinelli and Cre- 
venna sales. 

He elected to practise in the admiralty 
and ecclesiastical courts, and for that pur- 
pose took the degree of D.C.L. on 23 June 
1779, and was admitted a member of the 
faculty of advocates at Doctors' Commons 
on 3 Nov. in the same year. He was also 
called to the bar on 11 Feb. 1780. At first 
he was so unready a speaker that, although 
he had once spoken for his friend, Andrew- 
Robinson Stoney or Bowes, at the Newcastle 
election in 1777, he wrote out his argu- 
ments, and for several months read them in 
court from manuscript; but his talents, 
coupled with his singular combination of 
wide Beading in history and civil law, and 
practical experience of both college and ship- 
ping business, soon began to tell in the 
, special courts in which he sought to practise. 
[ Briefs ^and preferments alike were heaped 
upon him. * His success is wonderful/ writes 
John Scott in 1783, ; and he has been fortu- 
nate beyond example/ On 21 May 1782 he 
received the crown appointment of advocate- 
general for the office of lord high admiral, 
the emoluments of which in times of war 
were considerable ; in 1783 the archbishop 
of Canterbury appointed him to the sinecure 
office, worth 40Q a year, of registrar of the 
court of faculties. On 30 Aii. 1788 the 
bishop of London constituted him judge of 
the consistory court of London. On 3 Sept. 



Scott 



no 



Scott 



1788 he was knighted, and from the same 
day ran his appointment as king's advocate- 
general, in succession to Sir William Wynne, 
promoted to be dean of arches, though the 
patent was dated 28 Oct. On 24 Sept, 1788 
the archbishop of Canterbury appointed 
him vicar-general for the province of Canter- 
bury j and he was also commissary of the 
city and diocese of Canterbury, and chan- 
cellor of the diocese of London. On the 
death of Halifax, bishop of St, Asaph, he 
became master of the faculties on 3 April 
1790, and was elected a bencher of his inn 
on 5 July 1794, serving as treasurer in 1807, 
and finally, on 26 Oct. 1798, he was appointed 
judge of the high court of admiralty, and 
was sworn of the privy council. 

Scott had not been long at the bar before 
he sought to enter parliament. As early as 
1779 he wrote to his brother that he wanted 
to find a seat. When Sir Koger Newdigate 
retired from the representation of the uni- 
versity of Oxford in 1780, Scott and Sir Wil- 
liam Jones both came forward, but, as their 
friends saw, with little chance of success 
(Johnson to Mrs. Thrale, 9 May and 6 June 
1780), Sir William Dolben was returned. 

In 1784 Scott was elected for the close ' great jealousy every innovation with'respect 
borough of Downton, but was unseated on . to ecclesiastical property, expressed great 
petition ; he stood again in 1790 and won i doubt about the bill? His last prominent 
and kept the seat. At last, on Sir William ' appearance in the House of Commons was 
Dolben's death in March 1801, he was elected at the opening of the session of 1820, when 
for Oxford University, and continued to re- he moved the speaker, Manners-Sutton, into 
present it till his elevation to the House of the chair. Though his friends had long ex- 
Lords. During his first six years in the j pected a peerage for him, it was not till 1831 
House of Commons he spoke only once, on , that he received it ; when, on the occasion 
2 June 1795, when, having been mentioned | of the coronation of George IV, and by 
by Dundas as the legal adviser of ministers patent dated 17 July 1821, he was created 
with regard to the instructions sent to Sir * ... - .... - - ~ 

Charles Grey and Sir John Jervis in the 
West Indies, he was compelled to rise and 
take part in the debate. Afterwards he 
made occasional speeches and brought in 
bills on ecclesiastical and legal questions* 
He proposed Abbot, his fellow university 



amend the 21 Henry VIII as to Pluralities 
of Livings/ and was the basis of the broader 
act _passed by Lord Harrowby. But in the 
main Scott was a steady opponent of reform. 
On 25 May 1810 he declared himself opposed 



to any concession to the claims of the Roman 
catholics (Hansard, xvii. 183). On 23 Jan. 
1812 there was a long debate on excommu- 
nications by process from the ecclesiastical 
court, in which his speech in their favour 
was so strenuously and successfully replied 
to by Bomilly and others that he was 
obliged to promise to bring in a bill for their 
abolition, a promise which he fulfilled in 
July 1813, but ' very reluctantly, for he had 
little taste for reform ' (ROMILLY, Memoirs 
iii. 6) ; the bill passed as 53 George III* 
c. 127. Martin's bill for regulating the office 
of registrar in admiralty was so altered by 
his amendments that its supporters would 
have preferred that it should not pass at all. 
lie opposed the Chapel Exemptions Bill in 
1815 as being a relief of dissenters, and in 
1817 and 1818 resisted Gurwen's Tithes Bill 
* Scott,* writes Romilly (Memoirs, iii. 330)^ 
' who, as member for the university of Ox- 
ford, conceives himself bound to watch with 

OTftrtt. IP.fl.lrmfirtr frvc>t*\r irmrktratlyvr* -in'+U .., ~_.L 



member, upon his re-election as speaker on 
16 Nov. 1802. < Nothing could be more 
appropriate than his language,' writes Wil- 
berforce (Life, iii. 73). In 1803 he brought 
in the Curates Bill, which was thrown out 
in the House of Lords at the end of the ses- 
sion (CoLCHESTEB, Diary, i. 675). With 
his Clergy Residence Bill he was more suc- 
cessful. Under the sanction of the govern- 
ment he introduced it on 6 April, and it 



received the royal assent on 7 July (, 
Life of Lord Sidmouth, il 189). In 1804 he 
reintroduced the Curates Bill, but too late 
to pass it, and in 1805 feared to bring it 
in again, as he thought his university hostile 
to it. Subsequently it passed as an ' Act to 



a baron with the title of Stowell of 
Stowell Park, an estate which he had bought 
in Gloucestershire. He took his seat on 
5 Fob, 1822. His appearances in the House 
of Lords after his elevation to the peerage 
were rare, though on ecclesiastical questions 
his opinion was much deferred to. In 1823 
he moved for a committee to inquire into the 
state of the marriage laws, but hardly appears 
otherwise to have taken part in debate. 

On 14 Au, 1820 he resigned his office in 
the consiatorial court. His last decision in 
that court was Buding v. Smith (2 HAGKURD, 
Consistory JStepprfy 371}; but he clung 
tenaciously to his judgeship in the admiralty 
court, though he liad been tempted to resign 
it in 1808, when, on Sir William Wynne's 
retirement, he received, and, on Eildon's 
advice, refused, the offer of the more dignified 
but less lucrative office of dean of the arches. 
His faculties had begun to fail, more perhaps 
outwardly than in reality. Loss of sight 
and weakness of voice obliged Mm to em- 



Scott 



Scott 



a Sir C. Robinson, and afterwards Dr. 
on, to read his judgments for him. 
One of his judgments was given in the cele- 
brated case of the slave Grace, 26 Sept. 1827 
(MooBE, Memoirs, vi. 156). At length, on 
22 Feb. 1828, old age compelled him to re- 
sign. Sir Walter Scott writes, 24 May 1828 : 
' Met my old and much-esteemed friend, Lord 
Stowell, looking very frail and even coma- 
tose. Quantum mutatus ! He was one of the 
pleasantest men I ever knew ' (LOCKHABT, 
Life of Scott, vii. 135). For the rest of his 
life he lived principally at Earley Court, 
Berkshire, which he occupied in right of his 
first wife. Lord and Lady Sidmouth, his 
son-in-law and daughter, resided there with 
him during great part of the year, and Lord 
JEldon was a constant visitor. Down to 
April 1833 he was in communication with 
Lord Eldon about public affairs, but after 
that his mind gave way. He was never 
made aware of the death of his son in No- 
vember 1835, and though his will, which he 
made himself on 30 April 1830, made no 
provision for the event of his surviving his 
son, his daughter felt it to be useless to en- 
deavour to bring him to make arrangements 
adapted to the altered circumstances. He 
died at Earley Court in the afternoon of 
28 Jan. 1836, and was buried at Sonning, 
near Reading. His personalty was sworn 
under 230,000, and he left besides landed 
estates producing 12,000/. per annum. 

Scott married, on 7 April 1781, Anna 
Maria, eldest daughter of John B agnail of 
Earley Court, Berkshire, by whom he had 
four children ; only two grew up : Wil- 
liam, who was M.P. for Qatton from 1826 
to 1830, and died of intemperance on 
26 Nov. 1835 (Gent. Mag. 1836, i. 99) ; 
and Mary Anne, who married first, in 1809, 
Colonel Thomas Townsend of Honington, 
Warwickshire, and secondly, in 1823, the 
first Viscount Sidmouth. His first wife 
died on 4 Sept. 1809, during his absence on 
a visit to the Duke of Atholl in Scotland. 
He became acquainted with his second wife, 
Louisa Catherine, a daughter of Admiral 
Earl Howe, widow of John, first marquis of 
Sligo, whom he married 10 April 1813, 
through having to pass sentence on 16 Dec. 
1812, as presiding judge of the admiralty 
sessions at the Old Bailey, upon her son, 
the second marquis, for enticing two seamen 
to desert from a man-of-war at Malta and 
join the crew of his yacht. The story that 
Lady Sligo made the first advances for a 
marriage in the ' New Monthly Magazine ' 
for January 1846 is ill-founded, but the 
acquaintance of Sir William Scott and Lady 
Sligo certainly arose from this triaL The 



match was discountenanced by Lord Eldon, 
and was ill-assorted from the first, Scott 
was parsimonious and convivial, Lady Sligo 
domestic and open-handed. They lived un- 
happily, first at her house in Grafton Street, 
which was settled on Scott for life, and to 
which he removed from 5 College Square, 
Doctors' Commons, where he had lived over 
thirty years, and afterwards in Cleveland 
Row, but they soon informally separated, 
and on 26 Aug. 1817 she died, having borne 
him no children. 

In person Scott was below the middle 
height, fair-haired, corpulent in his later 
years, of a benign expression of face, and, 
though slovenly in dress, very courteous and 
polished in manner. There is a portrait of 
him, painted in 1812 for the Newcastle guild- 
hall, and engraved in Twiss's 'Life of Eldon/ 
vol. ii. His constitution was feeble in his 
early years ; he was always a great eater 
and drinker, a * two-bottle man ' (BOSWELL'S 
Johnson, ed. 1835, viii. 67), and a bon vivant. 
His brother said of him 'he will drink any 
given quantity of port.' Despite his excesses 
his bodily health remained good till he was 
nearly ninety. All his life he was a saving 
man ; the phrase ' the elegant simplicity of 
the three per cents' is his, and many stories 
were told of his niggardliness. Yet all his 
life, as ' Dr. Scott of the Commons ' and as a 
judge, he was welcome in the best society of 
his time ; he was a wit and a scholar, and, as a 
speaker, master of a cold, polished eloquence. 
^As a judge he stands in the front rank 
with Hale and Mansfield, and his services 
to maritime and international law are un- 
surpassed. His decisions are reported in 
the reports of Christopher Robinson (1798- 
1808), Edwards (1808-12), Dodsoix (1815- 
1822), and Haggard (1789-1821). Before 
Scott's time no reports of the decisions of 
the admiralty court had been published. 
He was thus little fettered by the judgments 
of his predecessors, and was free to be guided 
by the writers on Roman, canon, and inter- 
national law, and by the historical material 
with which his own reading had made him 
familiar. At the same time the circum- 
stances of the French wars poured into his 
court for decision the fullest and most varied 
series of cases in maritime law that has ever 
occurred.^ He thus enjoyed the greatest 
opportunity of giving unity and consistency 
to a whole department of English law, and 
for a generation he was rather a lawgiver 
than a judge in the ordinary sense of the 
term. Upon many maritime points his 
judgments are still the only law ; and, little 
popular as they were at the moment among 
the Americans, who often suffered by them, 



Scott 



112 



Scott 



they have been acce^ 

courts also as authoritative (see Life of 
Judge Story, i. 554). t There has seldom/ 
saysLord Brougham (*' Statesmen of the Time 
of George III,' Worte, ed. 1872, iv. 67), 
' if ever, appeared in the profession of the 
law any one so peculiarly endowed with all 
the learning and capacity which can accom- 
plish, as well as all the graces which can 
embellish, the judicial character. . . . His 
judgment was of the highest cast; calm, 
'firm, enlarged, penetrating, profound. His 
powers of reasoning were in proportion great, 
and still more refined than extensive. . . . 
If ever the praise of being luminous _ could 
be bestowed upon human composition, it 
was upon his judgments, and it was the 
approbation constantly, and as it were pecu- 
liarly, appropriated to those wonderful exhi- 
bitions of judicial capacity.' 

The British Museum Catalogue wrongly 
attributes to him ' The Essence of Algernon 
Sydney's work on Government, by a Student 
of the Inner Temple/ 1795, but he is said 
to have written 'Observations by Civis,' 1811, 



and 'Letters 
(anon.) 1812. 



on the Bullion Committee/ 



[In addition to authorities given above, see 
Dr. W. E. Surtees's Lives of Lords Stpwell and 
Eldon, 1846, reprinted with corrections from 
Colburn's New Monthly Magazine, vols, Ixxiv., 
Ixxv. Ixxvi. ; Twisa's Life of Eldon ; Townsend's 
Life of Lord Stowell in Lives of Twelve Irish Emi- 
nent Judges, reprinted from Law Magazine, xvi. 
23 ; Gent. Mag. 1836, i. 427 ; Quarterly Review, 
xxv. 46 (probably by Talfourd). Scott's most 
important admiralty judgments the Maria 1799, 
and the Giatitudine, 1801 are to be found in 
Kobi neon's Reports; a separate report of his 
greatest matrimonial case (Dalrymple ^. Dal- 
rymple) was published by Dr. J. Dodson in 1811 ; 
in 1857 a collection of these judgments was pub- 
lished by Clark of Edinburgh. His j udgment in 
the case of ' The mongrel woman Grace' is given in 
the New State Trials, ii. 273, and was published 
separately from his notes by Dr. Haggard in 
1827. He kept a diary * of considerable interest 
(Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iv. 292), which has 
not been printed.] J. A. H. 

SCOTT. WILLIAM (1797-1848), jockey 
brother of John Scott V 1794-1871 ) [q. v,] 
the trainer, was born at Ohippenham in 1797 
and first employed in the stables of his father 
who kept the Ship Inn, Ship Street, Ox- 
ford. In 1815 he received further instruc- 
tion under James Croft, the well-known 
trainer et Middleham, and was then in the 
service of Mr. Thomas Houldsworth unti 
1823. As a partner with his brother in the 
Whitehall training stables from 1825, he 
obtained the opportunity of riding many 



he best known and most successful jockeys 
f his day. Strength, judgment, ancl grace 
were the distinguishing points of his horse-* 
manship. His successes extended over a 
ieriod of rather more than twenty years, and 
ncluded four victories in the race for the 
Derby in 1832 for Mr. Robert Ridsdale on 
"It. Giles, in 1835 for Mr. John Bowes on Mun- 
dig, in 1842 for Colonel Anson on Attila, and 
n 1843 for Mr. Bowes on Cotherstone ; three 
ictories in the Oaks in 1836 for himself and 
lis brother on Cyprian, in 1838 for Lord Uhes- 
;erfield on Industry, and in 1841 for Lord 
Westminster on. Ghuznee ; nine victories in 
;he race for the St. Legerin 1821 for Mr. 
T. 0. Powlett on Jack Spigott, in 1825 for 
Mr. Richard Watt on Memnon, in 1828 for 
the Hon. E. Petre on The Colonel, in 1829 
or Mr. Petre on Rowton, in 1838 for Lord 
Chesterfield on Don John, in 1839 for Major 
Yarbur^h on Charles XII, in 1840 for Lord 
Westminster on Launcelot, in 1841 for Lord 
Westminster on Satirist, and in 1846 on Sir 
Tatton Sykes for himself. 

Sir Tatton Sykes, originally called Tib- 
thorjje, was bred by Scott in 1843. Ridden 
by his owner, he in 1846 started six times 
and won three times. At the Newmarket 
spring meeting he won the Two Thousand 
Guineas, at Epsom he ran second for the 
Derby, at Newcastle-on~Tyne he ran for the 
North Derby, at York he won the Knaves- 
mire Stakes, at Doncaster (as already stated) 
he won the St. Leger, and at Newmarket 
First October meeting he ran second for the 
Grand Duke Michael Stakes. After quar- 
relling with his brother, Scott set up train- 
ing stables of his own ; but he was not suc- 
cessful, and, falling into dissipated habits, he 
soon lost the greater part of his money. His 
last mount was on Christopher in the Derby of 

1847. He died at Highfteld House, near Mai- 
ton, on 26 Sept. 1848, and was buried at 
Meaux, near Malton, on 2 Oct. He married a 
daughter of Mr. Richardson, draj>er at Bever- 
ley, by whom he left a son and a daughter. 

[Scott and Sobright, by the Druid, 18(52, p. 47 ; 
Sporting Heview, October 1842 p. 249 (witti 
portrait), November 1846 pp. 298-301 (wiiti 
engraving of Sir Ttitton Sykes) December 1848 
pp. 407-10; Black's Jockey Club, pp. 361, &c. ; 
Taunton'tf Portraits of Knee Horses, 1888, ii. 30& 
(with portrait); BeU' Life in London, 1 Oct. 

1848, p. 3; see also * The Doncaster St. Leger' 
in Sir F. H, Doyle's Tho Eeturn of the Guards 
and other Poems, 1883, pp. 11-19.] <*, 0. B. 

SCOTT, WILLIAM (1818-1872), divine, 
bom in London on 2 May 1813, was the 
second son of Thomas Scott, merchant, of 



good horses, and very soon became one of 



Clement's Lane and Newington, Surrey. In 
October 18-7 he waa entered at Merchant 



Scott 



Scott 



Taylors* School, and on 14 June 1831 he 
matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, as 
Michel exhibitioner. He was Michel scholar 
in 1834-8, and graduated B.A. in 1835 and 
M.A. in 1839. Ordained deacon in 1836 and 
priest in 1837, he held three curacies, the 
last of which was under "William Dodsworth 
[q. v.] at Christ Church, Albany Street, Lon- 
don, in 1839 he was made perpetual curate of 
Christ Church, Hoxton, where he remained 
till 1860, and was widely known as ' Scott of 
Hoxton.' In 1860 he was appointed by Lord- 
chancellor Campbell ^ vicar of St, Olave's, 
Jewry, with St. Martin Pomeroy. 

Scott was an active member of the high- 
church party. When in 1841 its organ, the 
* Christian Remembrancer/ was set on foot, 
he was made co-editor with Francis (3-arden. 
In 1844, when it became a quarterly, James 
Bowling Mozley [q. v.] for a short time suc- 
ceeded Garden, but during a large part of 
the career of the paper, which ended in 1868, 
Scott was sole editor. He felt deeply the 
secession of Newman, who regarded Scott 
with respect (see a letter to Keble, 29 April 
1842, J. M. NEWMAN'S Letters, ed. Mozley, 
ii. 396). Though personally unacquainted 
with him, Scott wrote of Newman to J. B. 
Mozley that he had * lived upon him, made 
him my better and other nature.' Scott 
took a leading part in the agitation follow- 
ing the Gorham judgment. His ' Letter to 
the Rev. Daniel Wilson/ 1850, a reply to 
Wilson's bitter attack on the Tractarians, 
passed through four editions. In 1846 he 
joined Pusey and his associates in their efforts 
to prevent the ordination at St. Paul's of 
Samuel Gobat, the Lutheran bishop-elect of 
Jerusalem. Ten years later he was, with 
Pusey, Keble, and others, one of th eighteen 
clergy who signed the protest against Arch- 
bishop Sumner's condemnation of Archdeacon 
Denison. Scott's advice was much sought 
by Henry Phillpotts [q. v.l, bishop of Exeter, 
and by Walter Kerr Hamilton [q.v.], bishop of 
Salisbury. Dean Church was his intimate 
friendi He was among the founders of the 
' Saturday Review/ to which he constantly 
contributed, and was lon^ a zealous member 
of Mr. Gladstone's election committees at 
Oxford, voting lor him at his last candida- 
ture in 1868. 

In London Scott's influence was especially 
great. He was one of the prime movers in 
the formation in 1848 of the London Union 
on Church Matters, and from 1859 onwards 
was chairman of the committee of the Eccle- 
siological Society. He was one of the chief 
advisers of Milman and Mansel in the work 
of restoration at St. Paul's Cathedral, acting 
for some time as honorary secretary of the 

VOi,. U. 



restoration committee. In 1858 Scott was 
elected president of Sion College, then in 
process of reform, and next year published 
a continuation of the 'Account' of that 
foundation by John Russell (1787-1863). 

Scott died on 11 Jan. 1872 of spinal 
disease, and was buried in Highgate ceme- 
tery. He married Margaret Beloe, grand- 
daughter of William Beloe [q. v.], and had 
three sons and two daughters. 

In 1841 he edited, with additions and 
illustrations, Laurence's ( Lay Baptism in- 
valid; ' and in 1847, for. the Library of Anglo- 
Catholic Theology, the works of Archbishop 
Laud in seven volumes. Several of his ser- 
mons are in A. Watson's Collection.' His 
'Plain Words for Plain People/ 1844, cen- 
sured the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge for garbling theological works. 

[C. J.Bobinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' 
School ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; 
Crockford's Clerical Directory; Guardian, 17 Jan. 
1872, reproduced in Church Times, 19 Jan.; 
Times, J5 Jan. 1872; J, B. Mozle/s Letters, ed. 
Anne Mozley, 1885, pp. 155, 168/169, 321, 322; 
Church's Oxford Movement, p. 352, and Life and 
Letters, p. 145 ; Liddon's life of Pusey, iii. 77, 
442 ; Works in Brit. Mns. Libr. ; Men of the 
Reign and Notesand Queries, 4th ser. ix. 66, give 
wrong date of birth.] Gr. LB Gr. N. 

SCOTT, WILLIAM BELL (1811-1890), 
poet, painter, and miscellaneous writer, born 
on 12 Sept. 1811 at St* Leonard's, Edin- 
burgh, was the seventh child of Robert 
Scott (1777-1841) [q. v.], the engraver, by 
his wife Ross Bell, a niece of the sculptor 
Gowan. David Scott [q. v.], the painter, 
was an elder brother. The death in infancy 
of the four elder children of the family sad- 
dened the household for many years, and the 
parents joined the baptist body. William 
was educated at Edinburgh high school, and 
received his first art teaching from his 
father. He afterwards attended classes at 
the Trustees' Academy, and in 1831 was for 
some months in London drawing from the 
antique in the British Museum. Subse- 
quently be assisted his father, now an invalid, 
in his business as an engraver, which he 
carried on in a tenement overlooking Parlia- 
ment House Square, Edinburgh. He began 
to write poetry, and sought out Christopher 
North and other celebrities for advice and 
encouragement. Some of his poems appeared 
in ' Tait T s Magazine ' and in the ' Edinburgh 
University Souvenir ' for 1834. In 1837 he 
removed to London, where he supported him- 
self precariously by etching, engraving, and 
painting. His first picture, ' The Old Eng- 
lish Ballad Singer/ was exhibited in 1838 at 
the British Institution. In 1840 * The Jester ' 



Scott 



114 



Scott 



appeared in the Norfolk Street Gallery, and 
in 1842 he exhibited at the academy. ^ Down 
to his last appearance ab the academy in 1869 
he exhibited in all twenty pictures in London. 
In 1843 he sent a cartoon to the competition 
of designs for the decoration of the Houses of 
Parliament. The cartoon was unsuccessful, 
but procured him from the board of trade 
the offer of a mastership in the government 
schools of design at Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
He had already married Miss Letitia Mar- 
gery Norquoy, and, desirous of a fixed in- 
come, he accepted this otter, which gave him 
for twenty years a chief part in the or- 
ganising of art schools in the north under 
the department of science and art. When 
in 1864 he returned once more to London^ 
he continued his connection with the de- 
partment at South Kensington as artist em- 
ployed in decoration, and as examiner in art 
schools, till 1885. 

During Scott's stay in the north his lite- 
rary and artistic activity was very great. 
About 1855 he executed for Sir Walter 
Trevelyan at Wallington Hall a series of 
eight large pictures, with numerous life-size 
figures, in illustration of the history of 
Northumberland and the border. The scheme 
of decoration was completed in 1863-4 by 
the addition of eighteen oil pictures in the 
spandrils of the arches of the hall, on the 
subject of the ballad of Chevy Chase. In 
186*9 Scott began his lifelong friendship 
with Miss Boyd of Penkill Castle, Avr- 
shire, where in 1868 he painted a seriei 
of designs illustrating the 'King's Quhair 
in encaustic on the walls of a circular stair- 
case. In 1870 he bought Bellevue House 
in Chelsea, and divided his time for the rest 
of his days between London and Perth- 
shire, In London he had a large circle 
of friends, and was for fifty years in close 
contact with the chief literary and artistic 
coteries of the metropolis. His relations 
with Rossetti were especially intimate, anc 
he was acquainted with Mr, Swinburne 
The later years of his life were devoted to 
vmtin^his reminiscences. These appearec 
after his death in 1892 in two volumes 
' Autobiographical Notes of the Life of Wil 
liam Bell Scott ; and Notices of his Artisti 
and Poetic Circle of Friends, 1830 to 1882 
edited by W. Minto ' (with two portraits 
from etchings by himself J, The frankness 
and even surliness, of his tone and occa 
sional inaccuracy caused general irritation 
but the work is a valuable contribution t 
the history of literary and artistic society 
fcScott died, after several years of suffering 
from angina peetoris, on 22 Nov. 1890 at Pen 
kill Castle, Mr. Swinburne wrote memoria 



erses on his death (Athenaum, 28 Feb. 



is probably upon his poetry that Scott's 
eputation will ultimately rest. Blake and 
helley were his chief models, and Rossetti's 
riendship was a continual stimulus to him. 
ut he lacked Rossetti's intensity and artistic 
renius. Fundamentally lie was Scotch, and, 
n spite of the breadth of his sympathies, his 
oest poetry is mystical and metaphysical 
ather than romantic. He is an artist of 
he German schools, never of the Italian. 
His chief published designs are : 1. * Chorea 
ancti Viti ; or Steps in the Journey of Prince 
_egion: twelve Designs by W, B.Scott/ Lon- 
don, 1851, 4to. 2. 'William Blake: Etch- 
ngs from his Works by W. B. Scott, with 
descriptive text/ London, 1878, fol. 

His very numerous writings may be clas- 
iified under : I. POETRY.!. * Hades ; or the 
Transit : and the Progress of the Mind. Two 
Poems by W. B. Scott,' London/ 12mo, 
1838, with two illustrations. 2. l The Year 
of the AVorld: a Philosophical Poem on 
Redemption from the Fall, by William B, 
Scott/ Edinburgh, London, 18mo, 1846: 
this is Scott's only long poem ; the preface 
explains that the five parts were written at 
different periods. 3. 'Poems by William 
Bell Scott, -with three Illustrations/ Lon- 
don and Newcastle, 8vo, 1854. 4. ' Poems 
by William Bell Scott; Ballads, Studies 
from Nature, Sonnets, c, illustrated by 
seventeen Etchings by the Author and 
L, Alma Tadema/ London, 8vo, 1875 : this 
volume marks Scott's highest point of 
achievement in poetry ; many of the sonnets 
have gained a place in anthologies, J5. 'A 
Poet's Harvest Home : being one hundred 
short Poems, by William Bell Scott/ Lon- 
don, 16mo, 188& ; another edition, 'with an 
aftermath of twenty short poems/ London, 
8vo, 1893, 

II. AKT.L 'Memoir of [his brother] David 
Scott, containing his Journal in Italy, Notes 
on Art, and other Papers/ Edinburgh, 1850, 
8vo, 2. 'Antiquarian Gleanings in the North 
of England : being Examples of Antique Fur- 
niture, Plate, Church Decorations, c. . . . 
drawn and etched ' (with descriptions), Lon- 
don, 1851, 4to. 3. ' Half-hour Lectures on 
the History and Practice of the Fine and 
Ornamental Arts . . , with fifty Illustra- 
tions by the Author, engraved by W. J. 
Linton,*' London, 1861, 8vo ; these lectures 
were given to Scott's students at Newcastle j 
they were revised in 1867 and in 1874, 
4 'Albert Durer: his Life and Works ; in- 
cluding Autobiographical Papers and Com- 
plete Catalogues . . . with six Etchings by 
the Author and other Illustrations/ London, 



Scottow 



Scotus 



1809, 8vo ; a copy of this, with copious manu- 
script notes by the author, is in the British 
Museum Library. 5. ' Gems of French Art : 
a Series of Carbon-photographs from the 
Pictures of Eminent Modern Artists, with 
Remarks on the Works selected and an Essay 
on the French School/ London, 1871, 4to. 
6-7. Similar works on modern Belgian and 
modern German art followed in 1872 and 

1873. 8. The British School of Sculpture, 
illustrated by twenty Engravings from the 
Finest Works of Deceased Masters of the 
Art, and fifty Woodcuts: with a prelimi- 
nary Essay and Notices of the Artists,' Lon- 
don, 1872, 8vo. 9. ' Our British Landscape 
Painters, from Samuel Scott to David Cox 
. , . with a Preliminary Essay and Biogra- 
phical Notices/ London, 1872, 4to. 10. i Mu- 
rillo and the Spanish School of Painting : 
fifteen Engravings in Steel and nineteen on 
Wood ; with an Account of the School and 
its Great Masters/ London, 1873. 11. 'The 
Little Masters (Albrecht Altdorfer, Hans 
Sebald Beham, &c.)/ London, 1879, 8vo; 
this appeared in the * Series of Illustrated 
Biographies of the Great Artists ; ' it was 
republished in 1880. ^ 12. 'A. Descriptive 
Catalogue of Engravings, brought together 
with a view to illustrate the Art of En- 
graving on Copper and Wood from the 
Florentine Niello Workers in the Fifteenth 
Century to that of William Blate/ privately 
printed, London, 1880, 4to. 

Scott also edited a series of editions of the 
works of English poets, with more or less 
elaborate memoirs. The more important are : 
Keats's 'Poetical Works/ 1878, 8vo, four 
editions ; L. E. Landon's * Poetical Works/ 
1873, 8vo, 2 edits. ; Byron's ' Poetical Works/ 

1874, 8vo, 4 edits. ; Coleridge's ' Poetical 
Works' (illustrated), 1874, 8vo, 4 edits.; 
Shelley's * Poetical Works/ 1874, 8vo, 2 edits. ; 
Shakespeare's 'Works/ 1875, 8vo; Scott's 
'Poetical Works/ 1877, 8vo, 4 edits. 

[Memoir of David Scott and Autobiographical 
"Notes, mentioned above; Obituary notices in 
the Academy, xxxviii.529 ; Athenaeum, 1890, p. 
745 ; Times, 27 Nov. 1890 ; article by H. Buxton 
Foraan in Celebrities of the Century, 1890 ; 
Miles's Poets and the Poetry of the Century (Fre- 
derick Tennyson to Olough), 1891 J E. B. 

SCOTTOW, JOSHUA (1618-1693), 
colonist, seems to have come of a Suffolk 
family, and to have been born in England 
in 1618. He went out to Massachusetts 
with his widowed mother, Thomasina Scot- 
tow, about 1684. He was admitted a mem- 
ber of the ' old church' at Boston on 19 March 
1639, and allotted building land at Muddy 
River, or Brookline, the same year ; he also 
owned property at Scarborough (in Maine). 



He became a shipowner and merchant of re- 
pute in Boston. His name (usually with t cap- 
tain ' prefixed} frequently occurs in connec- 
tion with municipal matters. In 1665 he was 
summoned, alone 1 with the governor and com- 
pany of Massachusetts, in respect of some 
injury done to the ship Oleron. He was a 
pillar of his church, and prominent in its 
meetings for prayer. Sewall records ' a brave 
shower of rain while Captain Scottow was 
praying after much drought.' He died on 
20 Jan. 1693 (SEWALL, Diary). 

Scottow married about 1643, and ap- 
parently his wife and four children survived 
him. One of his daughters married Thomas 
Savage, from whom descended James Savage 
(1767-1845) [q. v.l the antiquary. 

Scottow was the author of some rare 
pamphlets: 1. 'Old Men's Tears for their 
own Declensions mixed with fears of their 
and posterities further falling off from 
New England's Primitive Constitution. Pub- 
lished by some of Boston's old Planters and 
some other,' Boston, 1691 ; in this he di- 
rectly attributes the losses of New England 
by disease and Indian raids to visitation for 
the sins of the public. 2. ' A Narrative of 
the Planting of the Massachusetts Colony, 
anno 1628, with the Lord's signal presence 
the first thirty years/ Boston, 1694 ; re- 
printed in 'Massachusetts Historical Re- 
cords ' (4th ser. iv. 279 sq.) 

[Collections of Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, especially 2nd ser. iv. 100, 4th ser. viii, 
631, and note.] C. A. H. 

SCOTUS or EBIOHNA, JOHN (JL 850), 
philosopher, was, as his first surname shows, of 
Irish origin ; and the fact is expressly stated 
by Prudentius, bishop of Troves (* De Praede- 
stinatione contra loannem Scotum,' xiv., in 
MIGHT'S Patrol. Lat. cxv. 1194 A). The 
supposition that he was a native of Scotland 
is altogether contrary to the usage of the 
word * Scotus ' at the time. To contem- 
poraries he was always known as Joannes 
Scotus or ' Scotigena. His alternative sur- 
name was used only as a literary pseudonym 
in the titles of his versions of Pionysius the 
Areopagite ; and this, as it is found in the 
oldest manuscripts, was not Erigena, but 
Eriugena or lerugena. That John formed 
it on the model of Grajugena has been in- 
ferred from the lines in which he celebrates 
his favourite author, St, Maximus: 
Quisquis amat formam pulchrae laodare sophiae 

Te legat assidmis, Maadme G-rajugena. 

- P- 1236.) 



The first element in the name is doubtless 
derived from firin (accus. rnn) : the alter- 
native form suggests ie/>o$ ; since Ireland was 

12 



Scotus 



116 



Scotus 



f) wpos- vy<ro$ Or vJjrroc r&v fep&v, and the 
omission of the aspirate occurs also in the 
translations of Dionysius (see FLOSS, prooam., 
pp. xix, xx, and L. TBAI T BE, Abhandl. der 
pkil. CL der tyl. Bayer. Akad. xix. 360, 
1891). "William of Malmesbury (pist, ad 
Petrum) read the word as Heruligena, and 
traced John to Pannonia; while in modern 
times Bale made him a Briton born at St. 
David's, Dempster {Hist. JEfccfr*. Gent Scot. 
i. 42, ed. 1829) derived him from Ayr, and 
Thomas Gale ('Testimonia* prefixed to his 
edition of the books de Divisions Nature) 
from * Briuven* in the marches of Hereford. 
The combination of 'loannes Scotus Eri- 
gena ' is perhaps not older than Ussher ( Vet&- 
rwnEpistolarwnHibemcarum Syttoge^. 57) 
and Gale ; and Gale, who prints* Joanne En- 
gena Scoto ' at the head of the version of 
St. Maximus, is careful to avoid either com- 
bination in his text ; nor is it found in Bale, 
Tanner, or Cave. At an earlier time, indeed, 
many writers believed John Scotus and 
John Erigena to be different persons, the 
former of whom, according to Trittheim (' De 
Script. Eccles.' in Opp, Hist, i. 252, ed. 1601), 
lived under Charles the Great, the latter 
under his grandson ; while Dempster in 1627 
made Erigena the earlier. 

Of John's earlier life nothing historical is 
recorded. There is indeed a fable in Bale 
which tells how he travelled to Athens and 
studied Greek, Chaldee, and Arabic for 
many years, returning thence at last to 
Italy and Gaul ; but Bale gives the clue by 
which to discover the real basis of his story, 
since he describes John as ' ex patricio gem- 
tare natus/ Now John, the son of Patricius, 
a Spaniard (see PABRTOIXTS, Biblioth. Grac. 
iii. 284, ed, Harles), was the translator of 
the 'Secreta Secretorum 7 currently attri- 
buted in the middle ages to Aristotle, and 
the facts above stated are a mere adaptation 
of. the account which John the translator 
gives of his own wanderings. Anthony 
AVood (Hut. and Antiq. of the Vnw, of 
Oxford, i. 39) carries back the identification 
of the two Johns to the authority of Roger 
Bacon, but simply because he used a copy 
of the ' Seereta Secretorum ' which contained 
glosses by Bacon (MS. Corpus Christ! Coll 
Oxon.No. cxlix) ; the translator's narrative, 
however, naturally occurs not in Bacon's 
glosses, but in his own preface (see on the 
whole question PootB, ttlustr. app. i.) The 
identification, with all that follows from it, 
is a modern invention. 

Wot less apocryphal is the story which 
makes John Scotus a disciple of Bede, and 
invited to Gaul by Charles the Great, feven 
Bale (u, 24, p. 124) npticed the anachronism, 



though in another place (xiv. 32, pt. ii. pp. 202 
seq.) he fell a victim to the contusion, attri- 
buting to the first John Scotus, whose exis- 
tence is doubtful, works by the second, and 
referring to the former a statement which 
Simeon of Durham ('Hist. Keg.' 9, | n 
Opp. ii. 116, ed. Arnold) makes of the latter. 
The confusion reappears in many other 
writers (e.g. POSSEVINUS, Apparatus ter, 
i. 989). A grosser variant of it, which 
made John Scotus one of the founders of 
the university of Paris, is older than Vincent 
of Beauvais, who cites it in his ' Speculum 
Historiale/ xxiii. 173, f. 308 (ed. Cologne, 
1494). The story is, in fact, an enlarge- 
ment of the legendary account which the 
monk of St. Gall ( l Gesta Karoli Magni,' i. 1, 
in PBHTZ, Mon. Germ. Hist. ii. 731) gives 
of the * merchants of wisdom* who came 
from Ireland, and were welcomed at the 
Frankiah king's court, assisted by an inter- 
polation in a rescript of Nicolas I (as given 
by BULOTS, Hist. Univ. Paris, i. 184), de- 
signed for the glorification of the antiquity 
of the university of Paris (PooiB, p. 56 n.3; 
KASHDAIX, Universities of Europe in the 



John Scotus, who was born, no doubt, in 
the first quarter of the ninth century, went 
abroad before 847, since Prudentius, who by 
that year wa$ already bishop of Troyes (Hist. 
lit. de la France, v, 241),^ speaks (De Pra- 
de$t. ch. i* p* 1012) of their former intimate 
friendship, which was clearly formed whea 
both were attached to the palace of king 
Charles the Bald, afterwards emperor. That 
John was employed there as a teacher, 
though possibly not even a clergyman 
(' null is ecclesiastic dignitatis gradibus in- 
signitum/says Prudentiufl, ib. ch. ii. p. 1043), 
appears from the tract written in the name of 
the church of Lyons, and attributed to Florus 
the deacon,* adversus Joannis Scoti erroneas 
definitiones ' (MiGNB, cxix. 103 A); John is 
here referred to as ' quasi scholasticus et 
eruditus* (compare the rhetorical preface to 
John's book * De Praedestinatione/ MIGNE, 
cxxii, 855 A, and the * Liber de tribus Epi- 
stolis,' xxxix, in MIONB, cxxi. 1052 A, com- 
monly ascribed to Bemigius of Lyons, but 
more probably written by Ebo of Grenoble; 
see II, SOHKORS, XRnkm-ar ErzbiscJiof von 
Rteim*, p. 128, n. 11, Freiburg, 1884). 

It was as a man of learning that John was 
requested by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, 
and Pardulus, bishop of Laon not, as Nean- 
der says (Hist* of Christian eliffion,vi. 106, 
transl, Torrey 1852), by the king- to write 
a reply to the monk Gottschalk, whose 
exaggerated statement of the Augustmmn 
doctriae of predestination had led to his 



Scotus 



117 



Scotus 



condemnation by the second synod of Mentz 
in 848, and again by the synod of Quierzy, 
a year later. John produced his tract * De 
Prsedestinatione ' early in 851 (see SCHBOBS, 
p. 115, n. 24, cf. p. 117, n. 30). Opening with 
the announcement that true philosophy and 
true religion are identical, he urged against 
Gottsuhalk's assertion of predestination to 
evil that such a doctrine was incompatible 
with the unity of God, since unity of essence 
implies unity of will, and that, as evil is 
merely the negation of good, it lies outside 
God's knowledge; otherwise he would be 
the cause of it, since what he knows he 
causes. Predestination can therefore only 
he spoken of in the sense that God permits 
his creatures to act according to their free 
will; the, only limit to the possibility of 
evil-doing is set by the order of the world, 
within which the creature moves and which 
he cannot overpass. John's reasoning was 
not well adapted to its purpose. His friends 
were startled by the unusual nature of his 
exposition ; and his contribution to the con- 
troversy only brought upon him indignant 
and contemptuous reproofs. His views were 
condemned by the synod of Valence in 855, 
where his arguments were described (can. 
vi., MASTSI, ConciL Collect, ampliss. xv. 6) 
as 'ineptas qusestiunculas et aniles pene 
fabulas Scotorumque pultes ' (* Scots' por- 
ridge ') ; and the condemnation was repeated 
at the synod of Langres in 859 (can. iii. 
MANSI, xv. 537 seq.) Whether before or 
after the composition of his tract on predes- 
tination, it is probable that John also en- 
gaged in the controversy touching the Holy 
Communion which agitated the Frankish 
domain in the second quarter of the ninth 
century. In S44 Paschasius Radbertus, the 
advocate of what became the accepted catho- 
lic doctrine, presented a revised edition of 
his book, < De Sacramento Corporis et San- 
guinis Christi,* to Bang Charles ; and in the 
course of the following years the question 
which he raised was eagerly discussed. 
That John did contribute to the controversy 
has been argued from the fact that a treatise 
on the subject bearing his name was con- 
demned by the council of Vercelli in 1050 
LiOTBANO, de Corpore et Sanguine Domini, 
iv., MiGOT, cL 413 seq.) ; but this treatise 
is generally believed to be the work of Rat- 
ramnus of Corbie. Still, the fact that a 
work very likely not John's was attributed 
to him is an indication that he was known 
to have taken part in the controversy against 
Paschasius; and the reference made to his 
teaching on the subject (HlNOMiB, de Pra- 
<fo ( xxxi, MiGNte, cxxv. 296), as well as 
the title of Adrevald's book ' de Corpore e,t 



Sanguine Christ! contra iueptias Joannis 
Scoti/ points in the same direction (cf. 
MA.BILLON, Acta Sanctorum O.S.B., sec. iv. 
2, prcef. pp. xliv-xlviii, Ixiv-lxvii; and 
0. VON NOOBDEST, Hwfanar Erzbischof von 
Rheims, p. 103 n. 2, Bonn, 1863> 

A further trace of John's activity at the 
court of Charles the Bald is furnished by 
his translations from the Greek. The grow- 
ing fame of the abbey of St. Denys had 
added a new interest to the name of Diony- 
sius the Areopagite ; and when the writings 
falsely ascribed to him were presented by 
Michael the Stammerer to Lewis the Pious 
in 827 (HiLDTOT, Rescript, adlmper. Ludov., 
iv. ; MIGNB, cvi. 16), there was a natural de- 
sire to have the means of reading them. At 
length, by the command of Charles the Bald, 
John Scotus made a translation (under the 
name of loannes lerugena) of tne books t De 
Cselesti lerarchia/ *de Ecclesiastica lerar- 
chia/ < de Divinis Nominibus/ ' de Mystica 
Theologia/ and ' Epistolse.' To the whole 
he subjoined a set of verses in which he 
extolled the glories of Greece by comparison 
with those of Rome ( Opp. p. 1194). W hether 
owing to these verses, in the presence of an 
angry dispute between the pope and the 
patriarch of Constantinople, or to the Neo- 
Flatonic complexion of the work itself, the 
orthodoxy of" the book was doubted, and 
Nicolas I ordered that it should be sent to 
him for approval. The date of this letter, 
which is only preserved as a fragment in 
the ' Decretum ' of Ivo of Chartres, iv* 104 
TMiGNE, clxi. 289 seq.), is quite uncertain 
(jAFPi, Reffistr. Pontif. Roman. No. 2833, 
ed. 2), and it has been placed variously in 
859 (CHBISTLIEB, p. 27), 861-2 (FLOSS, 
p. 1026), and 867 (Mraina, cxix. 1119). 

These are almost the only facts known to 
us on contemporary authority concerning 
John's life. The inference from a letter to 
Charles the Bald, written by Anastasius ' the 
librarian ' (MiatfE, cxxix. 739 seq.), that he 
was already dead in 875, is not justified by 
its language (cf . CHBISTLIEB, pp. 52 seq.) ; 
indeed, some verses Iby the Scot enable us to 
guess that he was still in Francia in 877, the 
year of his protector's death (Opp. pp. 1235 
seqq. ; cf. HXTBBB, p. 120). It is not until the 
twelfth century that we obtain from the 
writings of William of Malmeshury a fuller, 
notice of him. William descnbes in the 
' Gesta Pontifjcum,"v. 240 (pp. 392 seq., ed. 
N. E. S. A. Hamilton)^ the honour in which 
the sage^-a man little in person and of a 
merry wit was held by Chanles the Bald, 
and the intimacy with which they were as- 
sociated, both in serious studies and in the 
familiar intercourse of daily life. In this 



Scotus 



118 



Scotus 



connection two stories of John's lighter 
mood are told. One is the famous answer 
to the king's 'Quid distat inter sottum et 
Scottum P *- * Mensa tantum,' in regard to 
which it is to be observed that the play 
upon 'Scot' and *sot* was not, even in 
John's day, much leas in William's, a new 
one. After this William gives an account 
of his works and his later life, which he re- 
peats almost word for word in his letter to 
Peter (printed by GALE in Testimonia, ubi 
sujjra, and with a collation of a second manu- 
script by POOLE, pp, 317-20) and, more 
briefly, in his < Gesta Regum,' ii. 122 (i. 181 
seq., ed. Stubbs), This narrative has, how- 
ever, been often suspected because it relates 
liow John was invited by King Alfred to 
England, and what befel him there ; and it 
has been generally believed that this account 
has arisen from a confusion with another 
John, spoken of by Asser, bishop of Slier- 
borne, in his * Life of Alfred.' Asser, in fact, 
makes two separate statements. In one he 
says that Alfred sent to Gaul to obtain 
teachers, and called over two men, Grimbald 
(who has been mixed up, to the discredit of 
this notice, with a very late story bringing 
In the schools at Oxford, which was inter- 
polated by Archbishop Parker in hie edition 
of Asser) and John, 'Johannem quogue 
seque presbyterum et monachum, acemmi 
ingenii yirum, et in omnibus disciplinis 
literatorise artis eruditissimura, et in. multis 
aliis artibus artificiosum ' (* De Rebus gestis 
^Elfridi ' in Monum. Hist. Britann. 1 487 u), 
In the second passage Asser states that 
Alfred set over his newly founded monastery 
of Athelney 'Johannem presbyterum mo* 
nachum, scilicet Ealdsaxonem genere' (p. 
493 o), i,e. a continental Saucon by descent 
The .specification has the appearance of in- 
tending a distinction from the other John j 
and mediaeval writers uniformly agreed, as 
is not at all unlikelv, that the latter, the 
companion of Grimbald, was the same with 
John Scotus. Asser relates that John the 
Old Saxon was attacked in church by the 
servants of two Gaulish monks of his house, 
who wounded but did not slay him. 

William of Malmesbury's account of John 
Scotus has some points of resemblance to 
this, but more of difference. He says that 
John quitted Francia because of the charge 
of erroneous doctrine brought against him, 
He came to King Alfred, by whom he was 
welcomed and established as a teacher at 
Malrtesbury, but after some years he was 
assarted bythe boyg, whom he taught, with 
their styles, and so died, It never occurred 
to any one to identify the Old Saxon abbat 
of 'Athelaey with the -Irish teacher of 



Malmesbury with the name John as the 
single point in common until the late 
forger, who passed off his work as that of 
Ingulf, who was abbat of Croyland towards 
the end of the eleventh century (< Descr. 
Comp.' in Per. Angl. Script, post Bedam p 
870, Frankfurt, 1601) ; and the confusion has 
survived the exposure of the fraud. It is per- 
missible to bold that William has handed 
down a genuine tradition of his monastery, 
though it would be extreme to accept all the 
details of what happened more than two cen- 
turies before his birth as strictly historical 
see an examination of the whole question 
in Pooo, app. ii.) William adds that the 
body of the ' Sanctus sophista Johannes ' lay 
for a time unburied in the church of St. 
Lawrence, but was afterwards translated to 
the greater church, where it was placed at 
the left hand of the altar, with an inscrip- 
tion which he records (Gesta Pontif., Ep.ad 
Pc.tr, Gest. Reg. 11. cc.) Towards the end of 
the eleventh century, however, the tomb was 
removed by Abbot Warin, who destroyed 
also the monuments of previous abbats, and 
stowed away in a corner of St, Michael's 
Church (Gest. Pontif. v. 265, p. 421). 

The verses upon the tomb declared John 
to be a martyr, and he has accordingly been 
identified with the Joannes Scotus who was 
commemorated on 14 Nov. But this Joannes 
Scotus was biflhop of Mecklenberg, and suf- 
fered martydom on 10 Nov. (ADAM OF 
BKKSMEN, Qesta Hammalurg, JSccL Pontif, 
ill 60 ; c. MABILI.OK, Ada 8& 0. & #,, 
sec, iv. ii. 518), After 1686, in conse- 
quence no doubt of this confusion, the 
name was omitted from the martyrologies 
(see POOLS, p, 827 and n. 48). 

John Scotus's principal work, the five 
books *7rfpi (jfuJtreajv fUFptcr^tov, i.e. de Divisions 
Nature,' written in tne form of a dialogue, 
is of uncertain date, but plainly later than 
the tract 'de Pr&destinatione* (851) and 
the translations from the pseudo-fiionysius. 
It presents the author's developed system, a 
system which has been taken lor pantheism, 
but which is really a Neo-P}atonic mysti- 
cism. John's leading principle is that of the 
unity of nature, proceeding from (1) God, 
the first and only real being j through (2) the 
creative ideas to 3) the sensible universe, 
which ultimately is resolved into (4) its first 
Cause. Within this circle the four * divisions t 
of nature' are comprehended. The supreme 
Nature is expounded by alternate affirmation 
and negation, ' tine two principal parts of 
theology ' (Kara^anwJ and aTro^art/^) ; for 
that which may be asserted of God may also 
be denied of him, because he transcends 
humau conceptions* By this means John 



Scotus 



119 



Scotus 



attempts to reconcile contradictions. The 
ideas are the primordial causes of things, the 
effects of which are manifested in time and 
place in a series of * theophanies ; ' but the 
effects cannot be separated from the causes, 
and, in them, are eternal, though not eternal 
in the sense in which God is eternal, because 
the causes are derived from him : they are, 
however, coeternal with the Word, though 
here again not absolutely coeternal. Matter 
has no existence except as dependent on 
thought, and our thought (here the Scot anti- 
cipates, more plainly than St. Augustine, the 
famous argument of Descartes) is itself the 
proof of our being. The ideal world is wholly 
good, but as the creature passes from it into the 
world of matter, that which was one becomes 
manifold, and evil arises. But evil, being 
thus a mere accident of the material exis- 
tence, will cease when man, losing again the 
distinction of sex, returns to the primal 
unity. Not less remarkable is John's state- 
ment of the relation of reason to authority. 
Reason is a theophany, the revelation of God 
to man ; authority is one species of this re- 
velation ; it stands below reason, and needs 
it as its interpreter, for the Bible has many 
senses. If Scotus may here seem to antici- 
pate the later dispute which accompanied 
the beginnings of the scholastic movement, 
still more evidently does this appear in his 
treatment of the scope and functions of logic. 
The universals, he maintained, were words ; 
and although, in his view, there was a 
necessary correlation between . words and 
thoughts, and therefore between words and 
things, still it was open to his successors 
to neglect this association, and to lay a stress 
on the primary connection between logic and 
grammar (see PRANTL, ii. 24-37). Besides, 
the strict syllogistic method which John 
employed, and against which his opponents 
murmured, nmy well have had its influence 
upon later method. Yet it is hazardous to 
see in John Scotus the John who is men- 
tioned in a chronicle known only from 
Bulseus's citation (Hist. Univ. Paris, ii. 
443) as the founder of nominalism (cf. S. M. 
DETJTSGH, Peter Abalard, p. 100, n. 3, Leip- 
zig, 1883). In some respects he may be ac- 
counted the herald of the movement of the 
eleventh century, but in more he is the last 
prophet of a philosophy belonging to earlier 
ages. When, in the first years of the thir- 
teenth century, his books * de Divisione 
Naturse ' won a passing popularity through 
the teaching of Amalric of Bene, their pan- 
theistic tendency was at once detected, and 
the work suppressed by Honorius III in 
1225 (see his mandate printed by DEIOTUG, 
Chartul. Univ. Paris. L106 seq., Paris, 1889). 



It was not John's original writings, but his 
translations which exercised a notable in- 
fluence on mediaeval theology. 

Besides the works already enumerated, John 
wrote a series of commentaries on Dionysius : 
' Expositiones super ierarchiam ceelestem,' 
' Expositiones super ierarchiam ecclesiasti- 
canv (a fragment), and 'Expositiones seu 
Glosses in mysticam Theologiam ; ' ' Homilia 
in prologum S. Evangelii secundum loan- 
nem ' and a commentary on the Gospel itself, 
of which only four fragments are preserved ; 
' Liber deegressu et regressu animaeadDeum/ 
of which only a dozen sentences remain ; and 
a number of poems, some only fragmentary, 
which are remarkable for their macaronic 
combination of Greek and Latin. These have 
been edited by L. Traube in the ' Poetse Latin! 
JEvi Carolini ' (Monum. Germ, hist.') iii. 518- 
656 (1896) with a valuable introduction. 
John also translated the ' Ambigua ' of St 
Maximus, with a dedication to Charles the 
Bald. -This was edited, together with the 
' De Divisione Naturae/ by T. Gale, Oxford, 
1681. All John's known works and trans- 
lations were collected by H. J. Floss in, 
Migne's 'Patrologia Latina/ cxxii. (1853), 
whose edition represents the only attempt 
hitherto made (except for the poems) to 
construct a critical text. The editor's notes, 
however, on the 'Liber de Prs&destinatione ' 
serve rather for the edification of the Roman, 
catholic reader than for the scientific eluci- 
dation of John's opinions (cf.NooBDEN, Hinh- 
mar, p. 103, n. 2). Since Floss's book was 
published two more works claiming John's 
authorship have come to light* One is the 
brief life of Boethius, printed as ' Vita III ' 
in R. Peiper's edition (BoETii Philos. Con- 
sol, Leipzig, 1871), which is contained in a 
Laurentian manuscript, written in an Irish 
hand, of c. 1100 (described, with a facsimile, 
by G. VITBLLI and C. PAOLI, Collezione 
Fiorentina di Facsimili paleogrqfici, plate 4, 
Florence, 1884), and is there expressly de- 
scribed as ' Yerba lohannis Scoti. The other 
is a set of glosses on Martianus Oapella, dis- 
covered by the late M. Haureau (Notices et 
Extracts des Manuserits, xx. pt. ii. 6-220, 
Paris, 1862). 

[Bale's Script. Brit. Cat. ii. 24, p. 124; 
tTfesher's Veterttm Epistolarum Hiberniearum 
Sylloge (Dublin, 163*2); Oudin's Comment, de 
Script. Eccl. Antiq. ii. 234-47 (Leipzig, 1722); 
Hist. Lit. de la Prance, v. 416-29 (Paris, 1740); 
Cave's Script. Eccles. Hist. Lit. ii. 45 seq.(1743); 
Tanner's Bibl.Brit.-Hib. pp. 263 seq. (1748); 
biographies of John Septus by F. A. Stauden- 
maier (Frankfurt, 1834), T. Ohristlieb (Gotha, 
1$6Q), and J. Huber (Munich, 1801); and an 
anonymous 'Comment., de Vita ei Praeceptis 



Scotus 



130 



Scougal 



J<vannis Scoti Er gena?,* prefixed to Floss's edi- 
tion and umlrrstcxxl to bt> hi composition; 
0. von Prantl'a Gcsch. tlw I^>gik im Atand- 



Gcschiohte act Iiitcmtur diw MittelnUors im 
Abendtatidft, ii, 2A7-ft7 (Lei{MRig) *BO; Mtii- 
iinger'a 8chuoUs of Clmrlt* thw Great, ch. v*; 
Poole's Jllufctr. of the Htatnry of Sldwevai 
Thought, eh, il, and append, i* iul ii. (1884); 
0. Buehwald's Per LugOKlicgriif dm Jfohanmtft 
3eoiuB Srigona (Lei{ig, IH84); W<bb on tht> 
Dt> Divfoione Natune in Proc.of theArih(ot*lmn 
Society, vol. ii. ( 1892),] K. L. P. 

SCOTUS, MAR! ANUS (1028-1082 P), 
Irish monk. [See MAHIAKU&.J 

SCOTTJB, MACAUIUtf ( 115$), abbot 
of Wuwburg, [Sec MACAKHW.] 

SCOOTS, DUNS (1205 P-180K ?), school- 
man. [Si*o Dusrs, Jo \NKKS Hccmra,] 

SOOT7QAL, HEXttY (16CO-1078), Scot- 

tish divine, sun of Patrick Scoagal fq, v.], 

bishop of Aberdeen, was bow, probably at 

Leucnars, Fiteshtre, in June UNK), and was 

educated at King's Collie, Abmletm, whare 

be graduated MA, in 1008. He was a dis- 

tinguished student, and, afttT a precedent 

set in the case of George Gordon, first earl 

of Aberdeen [<j.v,], being * thought worthy to 

be a master where he had lately been a 

scholar/ he was immediately promoted to be 

4 regent ' or professor. The discipline of his 

class seems to have suffered, but Scougal has 

the credit of being probably the first pro&aaor 

in Scotland to teach the Baconian philo- 

sophy* On the other hand, he carefully 

guarded his pupils against 'the debauched 

sentiments* of the * Leviathan 7 of Hobbes, 

Ordained in 1672, Scougal was appointed 

minister of the parish of Auchterleas, Aber- 

deenshire, and as such held the position of 

precentor in the cathedral of Aberdeen. In 

his country cure he showed no less inde- 

pendence than in his chair at Aberdeen. In a 

year's time he was recalled from his pastoral 

duties to Aberdeen, having been elected by 

the bishop and synod professor of divinity at 

King's College, Scougal belonged to the 

school of Archbishop Robert Leighton [o . v,j 

and made it his aim to impress .his student* 

with a sense of the holiness of the function to 

which they were destined, as well as to in- 

struct them^in theology. Like Leighton, he 

employed his summers in visiting the con- 

tinent, and while passing through London on 

one such visit he was induced by Gilbert 

(afterwards bishop) Burnet fq. v.l then 

preacher at the rolls, to publish the onl^ 

one of his works which was issued in hi 

lifetime, /The Life of God in the Soul o 

Man.' Scouffal died of consumption at Aber 

deea on 13 June 1678, aged 28, and was 



ia the university chapel at King's 
College, He was unmarried. 

Si'ouga! is reckoned one of the saints of 
,he Scottish church, and his 'Life of God in 
.he Soul of Man ' is one of the few produc- 
ing of its clergy which have attained the 
rnnlv of a religious classic. The first edition 
1677) was published with the 
author'** consent, but without his name, by 
Gilbert Burnet, who supplied the preface, 
and probably also (though it is not enu- 
meratwl in the lint of Burnet's writings 
given by his son) a tract entitled 'An Ac- 
inunt of the Beginnings and Advances of a 
Spiritual Life/ which was bound up with it, 
Six impressions of this edition appeared be- 
iwwm 1677 and 1773, the fifth being under 
:ht) auspices of the Society for the Promo- 
tion of Christian Knowledge* In 1726, a 
Imndsaxne edition, discarding Burnet's tract 
md preface, \vas issued by Patrick Cock- 
burn fq v.], a son of the author's cousin ; 
in 172? a French translation appeared at The 
Hague* In 1742 an edition was printed at 
Newcastle ( from plates made by William 
Gad [q. v.] f goldsmith, in Edinburgh/ the 
inventor of stereotype printing, A cheap 
edition published at Edinburgh by Thomas 
and Waiter liuddiman, * price 64., or 5*. a 
dozen for giving away,' has a warm com- 
mandatory preface, dated 1739, by Principal 
William Wishart of Edinburgh university. 
A beautiful edition was published at Glas- 
gow by II. and A. Foulis in 1770. The 
latest, edition appeared at Aberdeen in 1892. 

In Scotland the work was held in high 
esteem, and although some of the more 
rigid presbyterians spoke of it bitterly as 
4 Arminian, it has been as much valued by 
many presbyterians as by the episcopalians. 
Perhaps the most remarkable testimony to 
its influence is the fact that Whitefield 
(LBCKt, W$t. of England in the Eighteenth 
Century, ii, 653) ' ascribed to it his first con- 
viction of that doctrine of free salvation 
which he afterwards made it the great ob- 
ject of his life to teach.' Charles Wesley 
gave the book to Whitefield, and it was a 
favourite with Jolm Newton* Southey and 
Alexander Knox were among its special 




V w~- v .*. **..- -~ _,... 

in a series of * Select Christian Authors/ pub- 
lished at Glasgow under the auspices of Dr. 
Thomfe Chalmers [q. v,] 

Besides some sermons (Glasgow, 1751), 
nine of which were prefixed to Cockbum s 
edition of the Life of God' (1726), Scougal's 
1 Reflections and Meditations ' and 'Essays, 
Moral and Divine/ written while he was a 



Scougal 



121 



Scougal 



student, were published at Aberdeen in 1740, 
and reissued in collected editions of his 
works, 1765, 1773, and 1830. William Orem 
[q.v.], in his 'Old Aberdeen' (1791), has 
preserved the ' Morning and Evening Ser- 
vice' which Scougal prepared for use in 
Aberdeen Cathedral; the prayers are printed 
in Nichols's ' Bibliotheca Typographical in 
Peter Hall's ' Fragmenta Liturgica' (Bath, 
1848), and in the Aberdeen edition of the 
'Life of God,' 1892. Patrick Cockburn 
states that Scougal left behind him three 
tracts in Latin, 'A Short System of Ethics,' 
'A Preservative against the Artifices of the 
Romish Missionaries,' and the beginning of 
a work on ' The Pastoral Care ; ' but these 
do not seem to have been printed, and the 
manuscripts are lost. 

There is a fine portrait of Scougal in 
the senatus room at King's College, Aber- 
deen ; a photogravure is prefixed to the latest, 
edition (Aberdeen, 1892) of his 'Life of 
God.' 

[Epitaph ; Funeral Sermon by 0eorge Gar- 
den, D.D.; Life and Writings of the Author, pre- 
fixed to Aberdeen edit. 1892 ; Grub's Eccl. Hist, 
of Scotland; Hew Scott's Fasti, iii. 650]. J. C. 

SCOTJGLAL or SCOUGALL, JOHN 
(1645 P-1730 ?), portrait-painter, is supposed 
to have been born in Leith about the middle 
of the seventeenth century, and to have been 
cousin of Patrick Scougal [q. v.], bishop of 
Aberdeen. The signature 'Dd. Scougal' 
appears upon a portrait dated 1654 at New- 
battle Abbey, but this artist's relationship 
to John Scougall is undetermined. In 1670 
Scpugall painted a portrait of Sir Archibald 
Primrose, lord Carrington [q. v.],lordjustice 
clerk, which now belongs to the Earl of 
Rosebery ; and at Penicuik House there are 
two portraits which, from an entry in an old 
* Book of Accompts ' preserved in the Char- 
ter-room there, were paid for in November 
1675. The entry is To John Scougall for 
2 pictures, 86/.' Scougall lived at Advo- 
cates' Close, Edinburgh, in a house one of 
the floors of which he fitted up as a picture 
gallery. In 1698 he made the copy of George 
Heriot's portrait which hangs in the hospital 
from an original by Van Somer, now lost, and 
in 1708 a minute of the Glasgow town council 
confirmed theprpvost'spurchase of full-length 
portraits of William III and Queen Mary 
from 'Mr. Scowgall, Limner in Edinburgh.' 
Four years later another minute 'ordaines 
William Gow, the^treasurer, to pay to John 
Scougall, elder, painter, fifteen pounds ster- 
ling money as the pryce of the picture of 
her majesty Queen Anne painted and fur- 
nished be him.' Sir Daniel "Wilson states 
that Scougall died at Prestonpans about 



1730, aged 85 (Memorials of Old Edin- 
burgh*)* 

The two bust portraits at Penicuik are 
perhaps the finest of the authenticated por- 
traits by Scougall, and show the influence 
of Vandyck in handling and colour. A por- 
trait of John Scougall by himself is in the 
Scottish National Gallery. 

Many inferior examples, influenced in 
style by Lely, are attributed to Scougall, 
and it is usually thought that there were 
two painters of the name. All the informa- 
tion we possess about the second, usually 
spoken of as the ' younger Scougall,' seems 
to be derived from one source, an article 
(said to be by the painter, Sir George Chal- 
mers [^. v.]) which appeared in the * Weekly 
Magazine ' on 16 Jan. 1772. The writer says 
* the elder Scougal had a son George, whom 
he bred a painter. For some time after the 
revolution painters were few. The younger 
Scougal was the only one whose great run 
of business brought him into an incorrect 
stiff manner, void of expression. His careless- 
ness occasioned many complaints by his 
employers ; but he gave for answer that they 
might seek others, well knowing that there 
was none to be found at that time in Scot- 
land.' Portraits at Riccarton House and 
elsewhere attributed to the younger Scou- 
gall are certainly inferior to those at Peni- 
cuik, but beyond this and the article referred 
to there is nothing to go by* 

[Weekly Magazine, Edinburgh, 1772; Smith's 
Icono^raphia Scotica, 1708; Wilson's Memorials 
of Old Edinburgh ; Gray's Notes on Newbattla 
and Penicuik ; Eedgrare's and Bryan's Dictio- 
naries ; Catalogues : Scottish National Gallery, 
Glasgow Corporation Gallery, B.S.A. Loan Ex- 
hibition, 1863, Scottish National Portraits, 
Ib84/l J. L. 0. 

SCOTJGALor SCOUGALL, PATRICK 

(1607 P-1682), bishop of Aberdeen, son of Sir 
John Scougal of that ilk, in the county of 
Haddington,was born about 1607. He was 
educated at the university of Edinburgh, 
where he graduated in 1624. Ordained in 
1636 by Archbishop Spotiswood [q. v.], he 
was presented by him to the parish of Dairsie 
in Fifeshire ; the church there had been built 
by the primate as a model for imitation in 
Scotland. Scougal so far complied with the 
dominant covenanters that in 1641 he was 
appointed by parliament one of the commis- 
sion for visiting the colleges of St. Andrews, 
lie was presented by Charles I in 1644 to 
Leuchars in the same county. In 1648 he 
removed as superstitious the ' crosier staffes 
and glorious partition wall, dividing the 
bodie or nave of the grand Norman church 
of that parish, *fira the queir/ with * divers 



Scougal 



122 



Scouler 



crosses about and beside them.' But if he 
accepted presbyterianism, he never ceased to 
be a royalist ; and when Charles II came to 
Scotland as king in 1650, Scpugal contributed 
IQQl. towards levying a regiment of horse for 
his majesty's service. This may have helped, 
after the defeat at Dunbar, to hinder his 
settlement at Oupar, to which he was unani- 
mously called; but in 1658 he was trans- 
lated to Salt on in Haddingtonshire. There, 
in his native county, he was surrounded by 
eminent men, who were much of his own 
way of thinking Robert Leighton [q. v.] 
(afterwards archbishop) was at Newbattle ; 
Lawrence Charteris [q. v.] at Yester ; while 
Robert Douglas [q. v.J was minister of Pen- 
caitland in the same presbytery. In 1661. 
Scougal was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed by the Scots parliament for ' trying 
the witches in Samuelston. 7 In October 1664 
he signified his compliance with the restored 
episcopacy by accepting a presentation from 
Charles II to the parish which he held ; in 
1664 he was promoted to the bishopric of 
Aberdeen, and on 11 April was consecrated 
at St. Andrews by Archbishop Sharp and 
others. ' In him,' says Bishop Burnet (Pre- 
face to the Life of Bishop Bedell, 1085), 'the 
see of Aberdeen was as happy in this age as 
it was in his worthy predecessor, Forbes' 
[see FOBBBS, PATBIOK, 1564-1635]. ' With 
a rare humility, tolerance, and contempt of 
the world, there was combined in him a 
wonderful strength of judgment, a dexterity 
in the conduct of affairs which he employed 
chiefly in the making up of differences,' ' and 
a discretion in his whole deportment,' The 
dissenters themselves seemed to esteem him 
no less than the conformists ; he could, how- 
ever, be severe enough on the quakers, who 
more than the covenanters opposed him in 
his, diocese, and his treatment of Gordon, the 
parson of Banchory, was harsh* In both 
instances, and indeed throughput his episco- 
pate, he was blamed for being too much 
tinder the influence of the primate. Sharp. 
One signal service, however, the church of 
Scotland. owed him: his courageous opposi- 
tion to the Test Act (1681). He thought of 
resigning his see on account of it ; and to 
him chiefly it was due that the privy council 
allowed it to be taken in a mitigated form. 
He died oh 16 Feb. 1682, in the seventy-fifth 
year of his age, and was buried in the south 
aisle of the nave of his cathedral, where his 
mpnument,bearinghis effigy, is still preserved. 
Bishop Scougal married, on 6 Jan. 1660, Ann 
Congaltoun, who died in 1696 j and had three 
sons John, commissary of Aberdeen 5 James 
(afterwards elevated to tne Scottish, bench 
by the title of Lord Whitehall) ; and Henry 



[q. v.] and two daughters : Catherina, who 
married Bishop Scrogie of Argyle; and Jane, 
the wife of Patrick Sibbald, one of the mini- 
sters of Aberdeen. 

Portraits of the bishop are in the univer- 
sity of Aberdeen. 

[Epitaph; Burnet; Keith's Cat. of Scottish 
Bishops; Grub's Eccles. Hist, of Scotland- 
Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. iii. 886.] J. 0. ' 

SCOULER, JOHN (1804-1871), na- 
turalist, the son of a calico-printer, was born 
in Glasgow on 31 Dec. 1804. He received 
the rudiments of his education at Kilbar- 
chan, but was sent very early to the univer- 
sity of Glasgow. When his medical course 
there was completed, he went to Paris and 
studied at the Jardin des Plantes. On his 
return Dr. (afterwards Sir William Jackson) 
Hooker [q* v.] secured for him an appoint- 
ment as surgeon and naturalist on board the 
Hudson's Bay Company's ship William and 
Mary. The vessel sailed from London on 
26 July 1824 for the Columbia river, touch- 
ing at Madeira, Rio, and the Galapagos. His 
companion on the voyage out and in many 
excursions at the several ports was the 
botanist, David Douglas [q. v.] His stay at 
the Columbia river appears to have lasted 
from April to September 1825 (Edinb. 
Jbum. 8ci. vols. v. vi.) Soon after his 
return to England Scouler shipped as sur- 
geon on the Clyde, a merchant vessel that 
went to Calcutta, touching by the way at 
the Cape and Madras. On his return to 
Glasgow he settled down to practice (gra- 
duating M.D. in 1827), till ho was appointed, 
18 June 1829, t professor of geology and 
natural history and mineralogy' in the 
Andersonian University (now part of the 
Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical 
College). In 1834 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of mineralogy, and subsequently of 
geology, zoology, and botany, to the royal 
Dublin Society, a post lie held till his re- 
tirement on a pension In 1854, when he 
returned to Glasgow. 

The state of his health in 1853 and 1854 
induced him to visit Portugal ; he also made 
a tour in Holland, and in later years visited 
Scandinavia. After his retirement he occa- 
sionally lectured, and he superintended the 
Andersouian Museum. He kad been elected 
a fellow of the lanneaa Society in 1829, 
and made LL,D, of Glasgow in 1850. He 
died at Glasgow on 13 Nov. 187L He was 
buried at Eilbarchan. 

Scouler was author of upwards of twenty 
papers on various natural history subjects 
and meteorology published between 1826 
and 1852. lie established, with two medical 



S co veil 



123 



Scratchley 



colleagues, the ' Glasgow Medical Journal,' 
and in 1831 was one of the editors of Cheek's 
'Edinburgh. Journal of Natural and Geo- 
graphical Science/ He contributed notes 
and an appendix to the fourth edition of 
Dr. King's ' Principles of Geology explained/ 
8vo, Edinburgh, 1853. Scouleria, a genus 
of plants, and Scoulerite, a mineral, were 
named in his honour. 

He bequeathed his books, which included 
many of great rarity, to Stirling's Library, 
Glasgow. 

[Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, iv. 194 ; infor- 
mation kindly supplied by Mr. J. Young, secre- 
tary Glasgow and West Scotland Technical 
College, by W. I. Addison of the Glasgow 
University, by A. H. Foord, assistant secretary 
Boyal Dublin Society, and by the librarian, Stir- 
ling's library ; Roy. Soc. Cat. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

B. B. W. 

SCOVELL, SIB GEORGE (1774-1861), 
general, was born 21 March 1774. He was 
commissioned as cornet and adjutant in the 
4th queen's own dragoons on 5 April 1798, 
became lieutenant on 4 May 1800, and cap- 
tain on 10 March 1804. He exchanged to 
the 57th foot on 12 March 1807. He went 
to the Peninsula in the following year, and 
was employed in the quartermaster-general's 
department throughout the war. He was 
present at Goruna, the passage of the Douro, 
Talavera, Busaco, Fuentes d'Onoro, Ciudad 
Rodrigo, Badajoz, Salamanca, Burgos, Vit- 
toria, the Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, the pas- 
sage of the Adour, and Toulouse. He com- 
manded the corps of guides and had charge 
of the postal service and the communications 
of the army till 1813, when he was appointed 
(on 15 June) to the command of the staff corps 
of cavalry. He had been made brevet-major 
on 30 May 1811, and lieutenant-colonel on 
17 Aug. 1812, having been mentioned in 
Wellington's Salamanca despatch. At the 
end of the war he received the cross with 
one clasp, and on Jan. 1815 was made 
K.C.B. 

He was again employed in the Waterloo 
campaign as assistant quartermaster-general, 
and in command of the staff corps of cavalry ; 
and during the subsequent occupation of 
France he was charged on different occa- 
sions with the duty of preventing collisions 
between the troops and the people. He 
received the medal for Waterloo and the 
Russian order of St. Wladimir (fourth class). 
On 2 Dec. 1818 he was placed on half pay, 
and on 23 March 1820 he was appointed to 
the command of, the royal wagon train. 
He became, colonel in the army on 27 May 
1825, major-general on 10 Jan. 1837, lieu- 
tenant-general on 9 Nov, 1846, and general 



on 20 June 1 854. He was lieutenant-governor 
of the Eoyal Military College, Sandhurst, 
from 25 April 1829 to 2 Feb. 1837, and go- 
vernor from the latter date to 31 March 
1856. He was given the colonelcy of his 
old regiment, the 4th dragoons, on 18 Dec. 
1847, and received the G.C.B. on 18 May 
1860. He died at Henley Park, Guildford, 
Surrey, on 17 Jan. 1861. There is a marble 
tablet to his memory in the church of the 
Royal Military College, and aportrait, painted 
in 1837, in the officers 7 room there. 

[Gent. Mag. 1861, i. 349 ; K. H. Calendar, iv. 
430; Wellington Despatches, Suppl. vols. vii.- 
adv.] JB. M. L. 

SCRATCHLEY, SIB PETER HENRY 
(1835-1885), major-general royal engineers, 
special high commissioner in New Guinea, 
youngest of thirteen children of Dr, James 
Scratchley of the royal artillery, and of his 
wife Maria, daughter of Colonel Roberta, 
commanding the troops in Ceylon, was born 
in Paris on 24 Aug. 1835. He was privately 
educated in Paris, and, after passing through 
the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, 
obtained a commission as second lieutenant 
in the royal engineers on 11 April 1864, and 
was promoted to be first lieutenant on. 
20 June of the same year. 

After studying at Chatham, Scratchley 
was sent to Dover, whence, on 24 July 
1855, he proceeded to the Crimea and did 
duty with a company of sappers and miners 
in the trenches before Sebastopol. He was 
present at the fall of Sebastopol, and took 
part in the expedition to and in the capture 
of Kinburn on the Black Sea. For his ser- 
vices he received the Crimean war medal, 
with a clasp for Sebastopol, and the Turkish 
war medal. 

On his return to England in July 1856 
Scratchley was stationed successively at 
Aldershot and Portsmouth. In October 1 857 
he joined in India the force of Major-general 
Sir Charles Ashe Windham [<j, v,] at Cawn- 
pore, and was appointed adjutant of royal 
engineers. He was present throughout the 
operations around the city against Tantia 
Topi from 24 to 30 Nov. 1857, and on 6 Dec. 
took part in the battle of Cawnpore, won by 
Sir Colin Campbell over the rebel Gwaliar 
force. He commanded the 4th company 
royal engineers in the subsequent opera- 
tions of the commander-in-chief ? s army. On 
18 Dec.he accompanied the column under 
Brigadier-general Walpole by Akbarpur to 
Itawa, where he was employed on 29 Dec. in 
blowing up the post held "by the rebels. He 
then accompanied the column to Manipuru 
On 3 Jan. 1858 this column joined that of 



Scratchley 



124 



Scratchley 



Brigadieivgeneral Seaton at Bewar, and on 
the 4th the combined columns under AVal- 
pole entered Fathgarh, taken on the previous 
day by Sir Colin Campbell. From 5 to 
14 Jan. Scratchley was employed, with five 
officers and one hundred men under him, in 
blowing up the nawab's fort at Farakabad. 
Scratchley was attached to a company of 
royal engineers during the operation before 
the final siege of Lucknow, and at the siege he 
was orderly officer to Brigadier-general Robert 
Cornells Napier (afterwards Lord Napier 
of Magdala) [q. v.], who was chief engineer. 
He was in the storming party under Adrian 
Hope which carried the Begam's palace on 
30 March, and was in personal attendance 
on Napier in the most exposed positions 
until the final capture of the city on 
21 March 1858. 

Scratchley was appointed adjutant of the 
engineer brigade of the army corps under 
Sir Hope Grant during the operations in 
Oudh. He marched from Lucknow on 
11 April 1858, and took part in the action 
at Bari on the 13th. On following up the 
enemy to Bitaoli it was found that the 
Begam and his army had already evacuated 
it, and the force then marched southward to 
protect the road between Lucknow and 
Cawnpore, then threatened at Onao. Scratch- 
ley reached Jalalabad fort, near Lucknow, on 
16 May, and remained there for some time. 
On 13 June he was at the action of Nawab- 
ganj. On 22 July he accompanied a force 
under Hope Grant, which relieved Man 
Singh at Shahganj, and marched thence to 
Faizahad, Ajudhia, and Sultanpur, where 
the rebels were repulsed on 28 Aug. 1858. 
Operations were then suspended until after 
the rainy season. 

In October 1858 Scratchley commanded 
the engineers of the column under Brigadier- 
general Wetherall, and, marching from 
Sariam, took part in the attack on and cap- 
ture, on 5 Nov., of Rampur-Kussia ; in te 
attack on Shankarpur and its capture on the 
9th ; in the passage of the Ghaghra on 
27 Nov.; and in the action of Machligaon 
on 4 Dec. Marching by the fort of Ban- 
hassia and by Gtonda, he arrived at Balram- 
pur on 16 Dec. -, thence he accompanied the 
column in pursuit of Bala Rao, brother of 
Nana Sahib, to Kandakot, where, on 4 Jan. 
1859, the rebels were driven across the 
border into Nipal, with the loss of all their 
guns, and Oudh was practically cleared of 
rebels. Scratchley was mentioned in des- 
patches by Major-general Windham, Bri- 
gadier-general WetheraU, and Sir Colin 
Campbell. Hereceived thelndian war medal, 
with clasp for Lucknow. 



On 1 Oct. 1859 Scratchley was promoted 
to be second captain. On the appointment of 
Napier to a command in the China expedi- 
tion Scratchley was chosen as his aide-de- 
camp ; but in April 1860 he was ordered in- 
stead to take command of a detachment of 
royal engineers proceeding to Melbourne for 
employment on defence works. He arrived 
at Melbourne in August, and was employed 
under the Victorian government to design 
the works and to superintend their construc- 
tion. He also filled the appointment of 
colonial engineer and military storekeeper. 
He threw himself with enthusiasm into the 
volunteer movement in the colonies, was one 
of the founders of and became honorary 
lieutenant-colonel of the Victorian artillery 
and engineers' volunteers. In September 
1863, the colonial legislature having failed 
to provide funds for the defence works, 
Scratchley resigned his appointment. He 
received the thanks of the government of 
Victoria for his services in the colony. 

Scratchley arrived in England at the end 
of 1863. On 15 March 1864 he was pro- 
moted to be brevet major for his war ser- 
vices. He was stationed at Portsmouth until 
October 1864, when he was appointed to the 
war office as assistant inspector of works 
for the manufacturing departments of the 
armv, and later he became inspector of 
works. 

Scratchley was promoted to be first cap- 
tain in the royal engineers on 20 Dec. 1866, 
regimental major on 5 July 1872, and brevet 
lieutenant-colonel on 20 Feb. 1874. In 1877 
he was selected by Lord Carnarvon, secre- 
tary of state for the colonies, to accom- 
pany Lieutenant-general Sir W illiam Jervois 
(then^ governor of the Straits Settlements, 
and, in July 1877, appointed governor of 
South Australia) on a mission to the Austra- 
lian colonies to advise as to their defences. 
Scratchley left England on 8 March 1877, 
and arrived in Sydney with Sir William 
Jervois on 30 April. In accordance with 
their able and elaborate report, the defence 
works of Sydney harbour, Port Phillip, Ade- 
laide, and Brisbane have been mainly con- 
structed. He was promoted to be regimen- 
tal lieutenant-colonel on 1 Oct. 1877, and 
was thenceforth engaged by the govern- 
ments of the different Australia^ colonies as 
their consulting military engineer and ad- 
viser. The fort, designed by him and exe- 
cuted under his orders, which protects the 
harbour of Newcastle was named after him 
by the New South Wales government to 
commemorate his services. He also de- 
signed and constructed, among other works, 
the fort on Bare Island, Botany Bay, the 



Scratchley 



125 



Scriven 



iron-casemated fort under George's Head, 
the alteration of the harbour batteries of 
Sydney and the battery for 25-ton guns at 
Middle Head, important portions of the Port 
Phillip defences. The works which protect 
Habart were improved by him ; Adelaide 
and Brisbane also received his attention. 

Scratchley was promoted to be brevet 
colonel on 20 Feb. 1879. He was made a 
companion of St. Michael and St. George on 
24 May of the same year for his services in 
Australia. In 1881 Scratchley was ap- 
pointed vice-president of a commission in 
ffew South "Wales to report on the military 
defences of the colony. He retired from ac- 
tive military employment on 1 Oct. 1882. 
with the honorary rank of major-general, but 
continued in his employment under the colo- 
nial office. In April 1883 he returned to 
England to consult the war office as to the 
general plan of defences for the colonies of 
Australasia, and as to the manufacture of 
heavy ordnance and details of fortifications. 

In the autumn of 1884 the imperial govern- 
ment, having repudiated the action of the 
Queensland government in annexing the 
whole of New Guinea, decided to declare a 
protectorate over south-east New Guinea, 
and on 22 Nov. Scratchley was gazetted her 
Majesty's special high commissioner for this 
territory. He arrived at Melbourne on 5 Jan. 
1885. The colonies were angry with the 
home government for the delay in dealing 
with New Guinea, by which portions of it 
had fallen to other powers. This irritation 
was not lessened by having to find 15,0007. 
a year among them for the maintenance of 
the government of the new protectorate. 
Scratchley's first duty was the delicate one 
of visiting each colony to arrange the quota 
of contribution. On 6 June 1885 he was 
made a K.C.M. G. On 1 5 Aug. he left Sydney 
to visit his government, arriving on 28 Aug. 
"by the specially fitted-out steamer Governor 
Blackall at Port Moresby in New Guinea. 
Here he established his seat of government. 
The difficulties were considerable, provision 
having to be made for the protection of the 
isolated white people as well as for the con- 
trol of the enormous and suspicious native 
population. In September he made an ex- 
pedition up the Aroa river, and later, accom- 
panied by H.M.S. Diamond and two other 
men-of-war, made a coasting voyage, in order 
to investigate the circumstances of several 
murders of white men. He died at sea just 
after leaving Oooktown for Townville, on 
2 Dec. 1885. He was buried in St. Kilda's 
cemetery, Melbourne, with public honours. 

A likeness, enlarged from the last photo- 
graph taken of Scratchley, hangs in Govern- 



ment House, Sydney. A book entitled 
* Australian Defences and New Guinea T em- 
bodies Seratchley's views on colonial defence. 
It was compiled from his diaries and notes 
by Mr. Kinloch Copke. 

Scratchley married, at Melbourne, Yic- 
toria, on 13 Nov. 1862, Laura Lilias, daugh- 
ter of Sylvester John Browne of co. Gal- 
way, by whom he had two daughters, Violet 
and Valerie, and a son Victor; they, with 
their mother, survived him. 

Scratchley contributed three papers to the 
' Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal 
Engineers : ' one of them was a ' Eeport on 
the Demolition of the Nawab's Fort, Fur- 
ruckabad/ 1858 (new ser.vol. viii.); another 
consisted of 'Notes on the Fort and En- 
trenchments of Kussia Rampoor in Oudh' 

() 

[Royal Engineers Records ; Despatches ; "War 
Office Records ; obituary notices in Royal En- 
gineers' Journal, vol. xvi. 1886 ; Annual Re- 
gister, 188$; Melbourne Argus and Sydney 
Morning Herald, December 1885 ; Times, 4 Dec. 
1885; Kaye's Sepoy War; Malleson's Indian 
Mutiny ; private papers.] R. H. V. 

SCRIBA or THE SCRIBE, ROBERT 
(Jl. 1170), theological writer. [See ROBERT 
OF BRIDUNGTON.J 

SCRIMGER, HENR? (1506-1572), 
professor of civil law in Geneva. [See 

SCRYMGEOtTR.] 

SCRJMGEOUR, SIR JAMES (1550?- 
1612), constable of Dundee. [See SCRYM- 
GBOUR,] 

SCRIVEN, EDWARD (1775-1841), en- 
graver, was born, according to his own ac- 
count, at Alcester, Warwickshire, in 1775, 
"but his name does not appear in the parish 
register of that place. He was a pupil of 
Robert Thew [q. v.] T and became eminent as 
an engraver, chiefly of portraits, in the stipple 
and chalk manner. He worked mainly for 
the publishers of expensively illustrated 
books and serials, such as the ' British Gallery 
of Portraits/ 1809-17 ; * Ancient Marbles in 
the British Museum,' 1814, &c. ; Tresham 
and Ottley's * British Gallery/ 1818 ; Lodge's 
'Portraits of Illustrious Persons/ 1821-34; 
Dibdin's ' JMes Althorpiante/ 1822 ; Jerdan's 
< National Portrait Gallery/ 1830-4; and 
Mrs. Jameson's 'Beauties of the Court of 
Charles II/ 1833. His few detached plates 
include * Telemachus and Mentor discovered 
by Calypso/ after R. Westall, 1810 ; portrait 
oi Rev. Richard Broomhead, after JT Allen, 
1818 ; portrait of Thomas, lord Clifford of 
Chudleigh, after S. Cooper, 1819; ' Miranda,' 
after W. Hilton, 1828 j and portrait of Dr.- 



Scrivener 



126 



Scrivener 1 



E. D. Clarke, after J. Opie, 1828. He also 
engraved a set of imitations of West's studies 
of heads for his picture of ' Christ Rejected.' 
Scriven worked with much taste and skill 
and extreme industry. He was a man of 
great active "benevolence among the mem- 
bers of his own profession, and a zealous 
supporter of the Artists' Annuity .Fund, in 
the establishment of which, in 1810, he took 
a leading part. He died on 23 Aug. 1841, 
leaving a widow and five children, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery, where a 
stone was erected to his memory by the mem- 
bers of the Artists' Fund. A portrait of 
Scriven, painted by A. Morton, was engraved 
by B. P. Gibbon as an illustration to Pye's 
< Patronage of British Art.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Pye's Patronage 
of British Art, 1845; information from the 
rector of Alcester.] P. M. O'JD, 

SCRIVENER, FREDERICK HENRY 
AMBROSE (1813-1891), biblical scholar, 
son of Ambrose Scrivener (1790-1853), a 
stationer, by his wife Harriet Shoel (1791- 
1844), was born at Bermondsey, London, on 
29 Sept. 1813. He was educated at St. 
Olave's school, Southwark, from 10 July 
1820 to 1831, when he was admitted (4 July) 
at Trinity College, Cambridge. He was 
elected scholar on 8 April 1834, and gra- 
duated B.A. as a junioroptimein 1835, M.A. 
in 1838. In 18&5 he became an assistant 
master at Sherborne, From 1838 to 1845 
he was curate of Sandford Orcas, Somerset, 
and from 1846 to 1856 headmaster of Fal- 
mouth school, holding also the perpetual 
curacy of Penwerris, which he retained till 
1861. He was presented to the rectory of 
St. Gerrans, Cornwall, in 1862, and in 1874 
became prebendary of Exeter. In 1876 he 
received the vicarage of Hendon, Middlesex. 
On 3 Jan. 1872 he was granted a civil list 
pension of 100. ' in recognition of his ser- 
vices in connection with biblical criticism 
and in aid of the publication of his works.' 
He was created LL.D. of St. Andrews in the 
same year, and D.C.L. of Oxford in 1876. He 
took an important part in the revision of 
the English version of the New Testament 
(1870-1882). He died at Hendon, Middle- 
sex, on 30 Oct. 1891, having married, on 
21 July 1840, Anne (d* 1877), daughter of 
George and Sarah Bloield. 

Scrivener devoted his life to a study of the 
text of the New Testament, His first impor- 
tant publication was a collation of about 
twenty manuscripts of the Gospels hitherto 
unexamined. This appeared in 1863, and was 
followed in 1868 by an edition of the Greek 
Testament. His transcript of the ' Codex 



Augiensis ' and contributions to New Testa- 
ment criticism were published in 1859; ' Col- 
[ations of the Sinaiticus and Cod. Bezse ' in 
1864; the * Cod. Ceaddse Latinus' in 1887. 
The * Adversaria Critica Sacra' were pub- 
ished after his death. His ' Plain Introduc- 
tion to the Criticism of the New Testament/ 
of which the first edition appeared in 1861, 
remains a standard work. The number of 
manuscripts recorded was ' about 1170.' In 
the second edition, published in 1874, the 
number reached t about 1277.' In the third, 
1883, it was raised to about 1,430, besides a re- 
cord of a large number contributed by Bean 
Burgon. After becoming vicar of llendon, 
Scrivener found much difficulty in keeping 
pace with the advance of criticism, and the 
strain of preparing the third edition of 1883 
was followed next year by a paralytic stroke. 
Nevertheless he continued to prepare a fourth 
edition, which was completed by the Rev. 
E. Miller after the author's death. The last 
edition records over three thousand manu- 
scripts. Scrivener also published ' A Sup- 
plement to the Authorised English Version 
of the New Testament/ 1845 (Pickering) ; 
'The Cambridge Paragraph Bible of the 
Authorised English Version,' 3 vols. 1870-3; 
and ' Six Lectures on the Text of the New 
Testament/ 1874. 

Scrivener held firmly to the traditional 
text of the New Testament, declining to ac- 
cept the theories of modern critics as to the 
comparative lateness of the textus receptus. 
His arguments have not found general sup- 
port as against those of Westcott and Hort. 

[Scrivener's Works; Times, 3 Nov. 1891 ; 
Athenaeum, 31 Oct. 1 891 , p. 580 ; S. P. Tregelles's 
Codex Zacynthhis, 1801, pp. xix, xxiii ; Radio's 
English. Bible, 1876, n. 205, 310; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. and Supplement ; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Qxon. (1715-1880); Classical Re- 
view, June 1896; Annual Register, October 
1891, p. 196,] E. O.M. 

SCEIVENEB, MATTHEW (ft. 1660), 
divine, was probably descended of the family 
of Scrivener of Sibtoft (MBTCALPB, Visitation 
of Suffolk^ p. 183), and was educated at Catha- 
rine Hall, Cambridge!, being a contemporary 
there with Henry Hickman [q. v,l before 
1647 (WpOD, Athena Own. iv. 370)* He 
became vicar of Haslingfield in Cambridge, 
and died shortly before 1688. He wrote: 
1. * Apologia pro S. Ecclesisa Patribus ad- 
versus Joannem Dalleum de Usu Patrum; 
accedit Apologia pro Ecclesia Anglicana ad- 
versus nuperum Schiema,' 1672, 4to, replied 
to by Hickman in *The Nonconformists' 
Vindication,* 1679. 2. < A Course of Divinity, 
or an Introduction to the Knowledge of the, 
true Catholic Religion, especially as pro- 



Scroggs 



127 



Scroggs 



fessed by the Church of England/ 1G74, foL 
3. ' A. Treatise against Drunkennesse de- 
scribed in its Nature, Kindes, Effectes, and 
Causes, especially that of drinking healths, 
to which are added two short Sermons of 
St. Augustine/ London, 1685. 4, 'The 
Method and Means to a true Spiritual Life, 
consisting of three parts agreeable to the 
ancient way' (posthumous), 1688, 8vo. 

[Authorities as in text; Scrivener's Works.] 

W. A. S. 

SCEOGGS, SIB WILLIAM (1623?- 
1683), lord chief justice, was born at Ded- 
dington in Oxfordshire about 1623. The 
status of his parents is somewhat doubtful, ' 
but his father, who is described as "William 
Scroggs of Deddington ' pleb.' (FOSTER, Alum. 
Oxon. 1500-1714, iv. 1326), was probably a 
retired butcher of considerable means. Dug- 
dale told Wood that Scroggs * was the son of 
an one-ey'd butcher near Smithfield Bars, and 
his mother a big fat woman with a red face 
like an ale-wife 7 (Athena Oxon. 1820, iv. 
119). North and Luttrell also state that he 
was a butcher's son (Lives of the Norths, 1890, 
i. 196 ; A Brief Relation of State Affairs, 
1857, i. 74), and the squibs with which he 
was assailed in after life constantly alluded 
to his father's business as that of a butcher. 

At the age of sixteen young- Scroggs 
matriculated at Oxford from Oriel College 
on 17 May 1639. He subsequently removed 
to Pembroke, where he became * master of a 
good Latin stile, and a considerable dis- 
putant ' (WooD, Athena Oxon. iv. 115). He 
graduated B.A. on 23 Jan. 1640, and M.A. 
on 26 June 1643. Wood says that Scrog 
was intended for the church, and that ] 
father had ' procured for him the reversion 
of a good parsonage/ but that having fought 
for the king as ' a captain of a foot company, 
he was thereby disingaged from enjoying it' 
(5. iv. 116). It is clear, however, that 
Scroggs had chosen the profession of the law 
before the civil war broke out, as he was ad- 
mitted a member of Gray's Inn on 22 Feb. 
1641. In the entry of his admission he is 
described as 'William Scroggs of Stifford, 
Essex, gent.' (FOSTER, Register of Admissions 
to Gray's Inn, 1889, p. 229). He was called 
to the bar on 27 June 1653, and his name 
appears for the first time in the 'Reports' 
as counsel for the defendant, in Campion's 
case, which came before the upper bench 
in Trinity term, 1658 (SiDEKUJsr, ii. 97), 
According to North, 'his person was large, 
visage comely, and speech witty and bold 
He was a great voluptuary and companion 
of the high court rakes. ... His debaucheries 
were egregious, and his life loose, which made 



lord chief justice Hales detest him' 
NORTH, Lives, i. 196). He was knighted by 
Charles II not long after the Restoration, 
>ut, greatly to Dugdale's annoyance, refused 
;o pay the fees which were due to the col- 
ege of arms (WOOD, Athene Oxon. iv. 119). 
The exact date of his knighthood is not 
mown. He is, however, designated by his 
itle in a petition which he presented to 
;he king in April 1665, alleging that he had 
been suspended from his place as 'one of 
:he city of London's council/ on account of 
his inability to walk before the lord mayor % 
on certain days of solemnity owing to the 
wounds which he had sustained in the cause 
of the late king (Col. State Papers, Dom. 
1664-5, p. 310). In January 1667 he ap- 
pears to have impressed Pepys by his argu- 
ments in the House of Lords in the Duke of 
Buckingham's claim to the barony of De 
Ros (Diary and Correspondence, 1848-9, iii. 
380). In April 1668 he was assigned as 
counsel for Sir William Penn, but the im- 
peachment was not proceeded with(CoBBETT, 
State Trials, vi. 876). 

On 23 June 1669 Scroggs was elected a 
bencher of Gray's Inn. He took the degree 
of the coif in October 1669, and on 2 Nov. 
following he was made a king's Serjeant 
(SlDERmr, i. 435 ; WYHOT, Miscellany, 1765, 
p. 297). On one occasion after he had be- 
come a serjeant, Scroggs was arrested on a 
king's bench warrant for assault and battery, 
Scroggs pleaded the privilege of his order, 
but Hale and the other justices of the king's 
bench decided against him. It would seem, 
however, that upon appeal to the exchequer 
chamber North gave his opinion that ser- 
jeants had a privilege to be sued in the court 
of common pleas only (NORTH, Lives, i. 90 ; 
LEVINZ, ii. 129; KEBLE, iii; 424; FREEMAN-, 
i. 389; Modem Reports, ii. 296). 

Through the influence of the Earl of 
Danby, Seroggs was appointed a justice of 
the court of common pleas, in the place of 
Sir William Ellis. He took his seat on the 
bench on 23 Oct. 1676, and ' made so ex- rf 
cellent a speech that my lord Northampton, 
then present, went from Westminster to 
Whitehall immediately, told the king he 
had, since his happy restoration, caused many 
hundred sermons to be printed, all which 
together taught not the people half so 
much loyalty; therefore as a sermon desired 
his command to have it printed and pub- 
lished hi all the market towns in England * 
(Correspondence of Henry Hyde, Earl of 
Clarendon, c., 1828, i. 2). On the removal 
of Sir Thomas Rainsford, Scroggs was re- 
warded for his subserviency to the court by 
Ms appointment as lord chief justice of Eng- 



Scroggs 



128 



Scroggs 



land. He took his seat in the court of king's 
bench for the first time on 18 June 1678 
(Hatton Correspondence, Camden Soc. Publ. 
new ser. xxii, 162). He was summoned to the 
assistance of the House of Commons on 
24 Oct., while Gates was detailing his lying 
narrative of the * popish plot: In reply to 
the speaker Scroggs said that he would use 
his best endeavours, ' for he feared the face of 
noe man where his king and countrie were 
concerned/ and, withdrawing into the 
speaker's chamber, 'he tooke informations 
upon oath, and sent out his warrants ' ( Auto- 
biography of Sir John Bramston, Camden 
Soc. p. 179; see also Journals of the House 
of Commons, ix. 521 ; Journals of the House 
of Lords, *m. 301), 

The first victim of the 'popish plot' was 
William Stay ley, who was tried in the king's 
bench by Scroggs for treasonable words 
against the king on 21 Nov. Scroggs re- 
peatedly put questions to the prisoner in 
order to intimidate and confuse him, and, 
when the verdict of guilty was pronounced, 
brutally exclaimed, 'JNow you may die a 
Roman catholic, and when you come to die, 
I doubt you will be found a priest too 
(COBBBTT, State Trials, vi. 1601-12). 
Edward Coleman, the next victim, was tried 
before Scroggs in the king's bench, for high 
treason, on 27 Nov. Gates and Bedloe were 
the chief witnesses against the prisoner, and 
Scroggs in his summing up had the indecency 
to declare that ' no man of understanding 
but for by-ends would have left his religion 
to be a papist '($. vii. 1-78). At the trial 
of William Ireland, Thomas Pickering, and 
John Grove, for high treason, at the Gld 
Bailey on 17 Dec., though it was clear that 
the testimony of Gates and his associates 
was perjured, Scroggs insisted that ' it is 
most plain the plot is discovered, and that 
by these men ; and that it is a plot and a 
villainous one nothing is plainer/ In sum- 
ming up the evidence Scroggs said : 'This is 
a religion ,that quite unhinges all piety, all 
* morality. . . They eat their God, they kill 
their king, and saint the murderer.' When 
the three prisoners were found guilty, Scroggs, 
turning to the jury, said: ' You have done, 
gentlemen, like very good subjects and very 
good Christians that is to say, like very 
good protestants and now mu.cn good may 
their thirty thousand masses do them ' (ib. 
vii. 79-144). On 10 Feb. 1679 Scroggs pre- 
sided at the trial of Robert Green, Henry 
Berry, and Laurence Hill, in the king's 
bench, for the murder of Sir Edmund Berry 
Godfrey, He made a violent harangue 
against popery, declared his implicit belief 
iu Prance's story, and expressed his ' great 



satisfaction that you are, every one of you 
guilty ' (ib. vii, 159-230), On the following 
day Samuel Atkins, a servant of Samuel 
Pepys, was tried before Scroggs in the king's 
bench as an accessory before the fact of 
Godfrey's murder. Atkins, however, esta- 
blished an alibi to the satisfaction of Scroggs, 
who declared that the prisoner appeared ' to 
be a very innocent man in this matter ' (ib. 
vii. 231-50). The next victims of the 
'popish plot' were five Jesuit priests Thomas 
Whitebread, William* Harcourt, John Fen- 
wick, John G avan, and Anthony Turner. 
They were tried for high treasonbefore Scroggs 
at the Old Bailey on 13 June. Fenwick and 
Whitebread had been previously tried for 
high treason, along with Ireland, Pickering, 
and Grove, but Scroggs had discharged the 
jury of them, as there was only one witness 
against them. Though Whitebread urged 
that no man could be put in jeopardy of his 
life the second time for the same cause, the 
objection was overruled by the court. In 
his summing up Scroggs declared that Dug- 
dale's evidence gave him * the greatest satis- 
faction of anything in the world in this 
matter/ and, turning to the prisoners, ex- 
claimed, * Let any man judge by your prin- 
ciples and practices what you will not do for 
the promoting of the same' (ib. vii. 311-418). 
On the following day he presided at the trial 
of Richard Langhorne at the Old Bailey for 
high treason. Though Langhorne produced 
several witnesses to disprove the evidence of 
Gates, Scroggs felt bound by his conscience 
to remind the jury that * the profession, the 
doctrines, and the discipline of the church of 
Home is such that it does take away a great 
part of the faith that should be given to these 
witnesses/ The jury found Langhorne guilty, 
and he was sentenced to death with the five 
Jesuits who had been tried on the previous 
day (ib. vii. 417-90). 

Gn 18 July Sir George Wakeman,WiUiam 
Marshal, William Rurally, and Jame* Corker 
were tried at the Old Bailey before Scroggs 
for high treason. On this occasion Scroggs 
disparaged the testimony of Gates and Bedloe, 
and implored the jury 'not to be so amazed 
and frightened with the noise of plots as to 
take away any man's life without any reason- 
able evidence/ Bedloe had the impudence 
to complain that his evidence was ' not right 
summed up 'by Scroggs, but the jury, tak-* 
ing their cue from the chief justice, brought 
in a verdict of not guilty (ib. vii, 591-688)* 
By this sudden change of front Scroggs at 
once lost all the popularity which he had 
gained by his brutal zeal for the protes- 
tant cause. Gates and Bedloe were furious, 
and he was assailed on every side by broad- 



Scroggs 



129 



Scroggs 



sides and libels, in which, he was commonly 
designated by the nickname of * Mouth.' 
The popular opinion was that Scroggs had 
been bribed by Portuguese gold (LTJTTBELL, 
i. 17-18 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App. 
pp. 474, 495, 12th Rep. App. vii. 160). This 
he solemnly denied, but the worth of his 
denial is questionable. Wood says that 
Scroggs mitigated ' his zeal when he saw the 
popish plot to be made a shooin^-horn to 
draw on others ' (Athents Oxon. iv. 116). 
One of his reasons for changing sides in this 
case was doubtless the implication of the 
queen in the charge brought against her 
physician, Wakeman ; another, the dis- 
covery that Shaftesbury had not ' really so 
great power with the king as he was thought 
to have' (NOETH, Lives, i. 198). At the 
Hereford assizes Scroggs tried Charles Kerne, 
for high treason as a popish priest; the 
evidence, however, was insufficient, and the 
prisoner was acquitted (COBBETT, St-ate 
Trials, vii. 707-16). Andrew Bromwich 
and "William Atkins, who were tried before 
Scroggs at the Stafford assizes, were not so 
fortunate, and both were condemned to 
death. To Bromwich Scroggs playfully 
said: 'Come, Jesuit, with your learning, you 
shall not think to baffle us ; I have of late 
had occasion to converse with your most 
learned priests, and never yet saw one that 
had either learning or honesty.' To the jury 
in the same case he significantly pointed put 
that they 'had better be rid of one priest 
than three felons * (ib. vii. 715 - 26, 725 - 39). 
After the assizes were over Scroggs visited 
Windsor, where he was received with, great 
favour by the king, who 'tooke notice to 
him how ill the people had used him in his 
absence. ' ' But," said he, " they have used 
me worse, and I am resolv'd we stand and 
fall together "' (Hatton Correspondence* i. 
192). 

On the first day of term (23 Oct. 1679) 
Scroggs in the court of king's bench made 
an exceedingly able speech in vindication of 
his own conduct. He declared that he had 
followed his conscience according to the best 
of his understanding in Wakeman's trial, 
'without fear, favour, or reward; without 
the gift of one shilling, or the value of it, 
directly or indirectly, and without any pro- 
mise or expectation whatever' (COBBBTT, 
State Trials, vii. 701-6). On 25 Nov. Scroggs 
presided at the trial of Thomas Knox and 
John Lane, who were convicted of a con- 
spiracy to defame Oates and Bedloe, but he 
declined to sum up the evidence, as the case 
was too clear (ib. vii. 763-812). In the fol- 
lowing month Scroggs unexpectedly met 
Shaftesbury at the lord mayor's dinner- 

VOL. 1,1. 



table, and, to the confusion of the exclu- 
sionists present, proposed the Duke of York's 
health (Hatton Correspondence, i. 207-10). 
He took part in the trial of Lionel Anderson, 
James Corker, William Marshal, William 
Russell, and Charles Parris, who were con- 
victed at the Old Bailey of high treason as 
Romish priests on 17 Jan. 1680. Corker and 
Marshal had been acquitted with Wakeman of 
the charge of being concerned in the ' popish 
plot.' The princ'pal witnesses against the 
prisoners were Oates, Bedloe, and Prance, but 
Scroggs on this occasion made no attempt to 
disparage their testimony (COBBETT, State 
Trials, vii. 811-66), 

Meanwhile Oates and Bedloe exhibited 
before the privy council thirteen 'articles 
of high misdemeanors' against Scroggs, 
charging him, among other things, with 
setting at liberty 'several persons accused 
upon oath before him of high treason ; ' 
with depreciating their evidence, and mis- 
leading the jury in Wakeman's case ; with 
imprisoning Henry Carr for printing the 
1 Weekly Packet of Advice from Rome, or 
the History of Popery; ' with refusing to take 
bail in certain cases ; with being * much ad- 
dicted to swearing and cursing in his dis- 
course/ and to drinking in excess ; and with 
daring to say in the king's presence that the 
petitioners ( always had an accusation against 
anybody.' Scroggs having 'put in an an- 
swer, the case was heard on 21 Jan. 
1680 before the king and council, who 
were pleased to rest satisfied with Scroggs's 
' vindication, and leave him to his remedy 
at law against his accusers 1 (LUTTRELL, 
i. 32; see NOETH, Lives, i. 190; COBBETT, 
State Trials, viii. 163-74). He pre- 
sided at the king's bench on 3 Feb., during 
the greater part of the trial of John Tas- 
borough and Anne Price for attempting to 
suborn Dugdale, of whom he thought ' very 
well' (COBBBTT, State Tna&,viii. 881-916). 
At the trial of Elizabeth Cellier, who was 
acquitted of the charge of high treason 'in 
the king's bench on 1 1 June, Scroggs refused 
to receive Daniel-field's evidence, and after 
exclaiming * What ! Do you with all mischief 
that hell h&th in you think to brave it in a 
court of justice P ' committed him to the king's 
bench prison (ib. vii. 1043-55). Scroggs 
presided at the trial for high treason of Roger 
Palmer, earl of Castlemaine fq- V 0> in the 
king's bench on 23 June. Though Danger- 
field on this occasion was allowed (after a 
consultation with the judges of the com- 
mon pleas) to give evidence, Scroggs again 
attacked his credibility, and summed up in 
favour of the prisoner, who was acquitted by 
the jury (ib. vii. 1067-1 1 12). An application 



Scroggs 



130 



Scroggs 



having been made in this term to the lung's 
bench that the l Weekly Packet 1 was libel- 
lous, Scroggs and his colleagues granted a 
rule absolute in the first instance forbidding 
the further publication of the newspaper. 
On 26 June Scroggs and the other justices 
of the king's bench gave the crowning proof 
of their servility to the court in trust rating 
Shaftesbury's attempt to indict the Duke^of 
York as a popish recusant by suddenly dis- 
charging the grand jury (Journals of the 
House of Commons^. 688-9). At the trial 
of Henry Carr for libel at the Guildhall on 
2 July, Scroggs still professed his belief in the 
< popish plot,' which he described to the jury 
as i the certainest of anything of fact that 
ever came before me.' Carr had attacked 
the chief justice in one of the numbers of the 
' Weekly 'Packet/ which had appeared soon 
after Wakeman's trial, but this did not pre- 
vent Scroggs from taking part in the pro- 
ceedings, and Carr was duly found guilty bjr 
the jury (ib. vii. 1111-1130; LXTTTRELL, i. 
50-1 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App. p. 
479). 

On 23 Nov. the House of Commons, after 
tearing evidence of the proceedings in the 
king's bench on 20 June, resolved that 'the 
discharging of a grand jury by any judge 
before the end of the term, assizes or sessions, 
whilst matters are tinder their consideration 
and not presented,' was illegal, and at the 
same time appointed a committee * to exa- 
mine the proceedings of the judges in West- 
minster Hall.' The report of this committee 
was presented to the house on 22 Dec., when 
it was unanimously resolved that Scroggs, j 
Jones, and Western should be impeached 
(Journals of the House of Commons, ix. 601, 
688-92). The articles of impeachment 
against Scroggs were eight in number. The 
first charged him with traitorously and 
wickedly endeavouring * to subvert the fun- 
damental laws and the established religion 
and government of this kingdom.' The second 
was for illegally discharging the grand jury 
of Middlesex before the end of term. The 
third was founded on the illegal order made" 1 
"by the court of king's bench for the suppres- 
sion of the ' Weekly Packet/ The fourth, 
fifth, and sixth were for imposing arbitrary 
fines, for illegally refusing bail, and for 
granting general warrants* The seventh 
was for openly defaming and scandalising 
several of the witnesses of the * popish plot.' 
The eighth charged him with * frequent and 
notorious excesses and debaucheries' and 
'profane and atheistical discourses' (ib. ix. 
697-9, 700). On 7 Jan. 1681 the articles of 
impeachment were carried up to the House 
of Lords by Lord Cavendish, and were read 



in the presence of Scroggs, ' who stood up in 
his place.' After Scroggs had withdrawn 
from the house, a motion for his committal 
was made, but the previous question was 
moved and carried. Another motion for an 
address to suspend him from his oHice until 
after the trial was defeated in the same 
manner. lie was ordered to find bail in 
10,0002., with two sureties in 5,OOOZ. each, 
and to put in his answer on 14 Jan. (Jour- 
nals of the House of Lords t xiii. 736-9). Be- 
fore that day came parliament was prorogued, 
and on the 18th it was dissolved. Term be- 
gan on 24 Jan., but Scroggs was absent from 
the king's bench, * nor did he come all the 
term to the court ' (LUTTRELL, i. 64). Three 
days after the meeting of the new parlia- 
ment (24 March 1681), Scroggs put in his 
Answer, denying that any of the charges 
amounted to high treason, and pleading not 
guilty. At the same time he presented a 
petition for a speedy trial (Journals of the 
House of Lords, xiii. 752). Copies of his 
answer and petition were sent to the House 
of Commons, but no further proceedings 
were taken in the matter, as parliament was 
suddenly dissolved after a session lasting 
only eight clays. 

On account of his great unpopularity it 
was thought expedient to remove him from 
the bench; and on 11 April 1681 Scroggs, 
much to his surprise, received his quietus. 
He was succeeded as lord chief justice by 
Sir Francis Pemberton [q. v.] As a reward 
for his servility to the court Scroggs was 
granted a pension of 1,500/. a year, while 
lus son was promoted to the rank of a king's 
counsel. lie withdrew to his manor of 
South Weald in Essex, which he had pur- 
chased from Anthony Browne in 1607. After 
a retirement of two years and a half Scroggs 
died at his town house in Chancery Lane on 
25 Oct. 1683, and was buried in South Weald 
church. 

Scropfgs married Anne, daughter of Ed- 
mund Fettyplace of Benchworth, Berkshire, 
by whom he had an only son, William (see 
below), and three daughters, viz. (1) Mary, 

t _ i- i ._ J " 10 t^l- 1&"X. . A)\ 



who died unmarried on IB July 1675; 




~, IPs reign ; , , 

who married, first, Anthony Gilby of Ever- 
ton in the county of Nottingham, barrister- 
at-law ; secondly, the Hon. Charles Hatton, 
younger son of Christopher, first baron Hat- 
ton, and, dying on 22 May 1724, aged 75, 
was buried in Lincoln Cathedral, 

Scroggs was an able but intemperate man, 
with a brazen face, coarse manners, a loud 
voice, and a brutal tongue, Neither his 



Scroggs ^ 

private nor his public character will bear 
much examination. He possessed little re- 
putation as a lawyer, but he was a fluent 
speaker, and had * many good turns of 
thought and language/ Indeed, he could 
both speak and write better than most of the 
lawyers of the seventeenth century, ' but he 
could not avoid extremities ; if he did ill it 
was extremely so, and if well in extreme 
also' (NoBTH, Examen, 1740, p. 568). His 
behaviour on the bench compares unfavour- 
ably even with that of Jeffreys. He fre- 
quently acted the part of a prosecutor rather 
than that of a judge. His summing up in 
some of the ' popish plot ' cases can only be 
described as infamous. In fine, he was un- 
doubtedly one of the worst judges that ever 
disgraced the English bench. But it should 
be remembered in passing judgment on his 
character that his faults and vices were 
shared in a greater or less degree by most of 
his contemporaries. Violent as his conduct 
appears to us, Scroggs can hardly be said to 
have strained the law as it then stood in any 
of the * popish plot ' trials, excepting perhaps 
in the cases of Whitebread and Fenwick. 
And though his motives may not have been 
disinterested, some little credit is due to him 
for the courage which he showed in the face 
of an angpry mob in helping to expose the 
machinations of Oates, Bedloe, and Danger- 
field. His colleagues in the king's bench, 
who shared with him the responsibility of 
these trials, were for the most part passive 
instruments in his hands. Sir Robert Atkyns 
[q. v.], however, who * was willing to avoid 
all occasion of discoursing with Scroggs/ had 
several differences of opinion with him, and 
on one occasion Scroggs reported him to 
Charles II because he presumed to say that 
' the people might petition to the king, so 
that it was done without tumult it was law- 
ful ' (Parl. Hist. v. 308-9). 

The reports of the thirteen state trials at 
which Scroggs presided were revised by 
himself, and he appears to have made con- 
siderable sums of money by selling to book- 
sellers the exclusive right of publishing them. 
Some of his judgments in the civil cases 
which came before him will be found in the 
second volume of Shower's ' Reports of Cases 
adjudged in the Court of King's Bench/ 
1794, pp. 1-159. Several of his letters are 
preserved in the British Museum (Addit. 
MSS. 28053 f. 114, 29549 ff. 62, 64, 68-75). 
His ' Practice of Courts-Leet and Courts- 
Baron'was published after his death, London, 
1701, 12mo; 2nd edit. London, 1702, 12mo ; 
3rd edit. London, 1714, 8vo ; 4th edit. Lon- 
don, 1728, 8vo. Sir Walter Scott introduces 
Scroggs into 'Peveril of the Peak* (chap. 



i Scroop 

xli.), and Swift refers to him in No. 5 of the 
' Drapier's Letters ' (Swiir, Works, 1814, vii. 
236-7). 

SIE WILLIAM SCEOGGS (1652 P-1695), 
only son of the above, was educated at Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, where he was a cho- 
rister. He matriculated at the age of seven- 
teen on 26 March 1669, and gradual ed B. A. 
in 1673. He was admitted a member of 
Gray's Inn on 2 Feb. 1770, was called to the 
bar on 27 Oct. 1(576, appointed a king's 
counsel in April 1681, and elected a bencher 
of his inn in May following. He was 
knighted at Whitehall on 16 Jan. 1681, and 
on 17 June following he presented an ad- 
dress to the king from some of the members 
of Gray's Inn, thanking him for dissolving 
parliament. He served as treasurer of his 
inn from November 1687 to November 1688. 
He married, first, in 1684, Mary, daughter 
of Sir John Churchill, master of the rolls, 
who died without leaving children ; and 
secondly, in 1685, Anne, daughter of Mat- 
thew Bluck of Hunsdon House, Hertford- 
shire, by whom he had issue, Scroggs died 
in 1695, leaving his widow executrix of his 
will (LurwrcHB, Reports, 1704, ii. 1510). 
She died on 23 April 1746, aged 81, and 
was buried at Chute in Wiltshire. His 
name appears more than once as counsel 
in the seventh volume of Cobbett's * State 
Trials.' 

[ Authoriti es quoted in the text ; Burnet's Hi st. 
of his own Time, 1833, i. 190-1, 227-8, 255-85 ; 
Wood's Life and Times (Oxf. Hist. Soc. Publ. 
No. xxi.),ii. 465, 506,515,537; Foss's Judges 
of England, 1864, vii. 164-71 ; Lord Campbell's 
Lives of the Chief Justices, 1858, ii. 4-23; 
"Woolrych's Memoirs of the Life of Judge Jef- 
freys, 1827, pp. 51-5, 316-17; Lingard's Hist* 
of England, 1855, ix. 172-92, 216-28; Sir J.F. 
Stephen's Hist, of the Criminal Law in England, 
1883, i. 383-404, ii. 310-13; Pike's Hist, of 
Crime in England, 1873-6, ii. 216-17, 218-29 ; 
Morant's Hist, of Essex, 1766, i. (Hundred of 
Chafford) 119 ; "Wright's Hist, of the County of 
Essex, 1836, ii. 534 ; Cussans*s Hist, of Hert- 
fordshire, i. (Hundred of Edwinstree) 162-3, 
( Hundred of Brautrhin) p. 44 ; Bloxam's Mag- 
dalen College Reg. 1853, i. 95 ; Le Neve's Pedi- 
grees of Knights (Harl. Soc. Publ. vol. viii.). pp. 
346, 369; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. xi. 378, 
468, 4th ser. iii, 216, 5th ser. vi. 207, 8th ser. 
v. 407, ix. 307, 439 ; Cal._ State Papers, Dom. 
1665-6 p. 192, 1667-8 p. 238 ; Lans.owne MS. 
(Brit. Mus.) 255 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. 
App. pp. 467, 471, 472, 494, 679, 8th Rep. App. 
i. p. 166, llth Rep. App. ii. pp. 46, 197-8, 13th 
Rep. Arp. v. 344-5, App. vi. p. 20 ; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities, 1890.1 <* F - & B - 

SCROOP, LAURENCE (1577-1643), 

Jesuit. [See ANDBRTON.] 



Scrope 



132 



Scrope 



SCROPE or SCROOPE, ADRIAN 1 

(1601-1660), regicide, son of Robert Scroope 
of Wormsley, Oxfordshire, by Margaret, 
daughter of Richard Cornwall of London. 
His family were a younger branch of the 
Scropes ot Bolton (BLORE, Rutland, pp. 7, 
9 ; TUWTBR, Visitations of Oxfordshire, p. 
327). Scroope matriculated at Hart Hall, 
Oxford, on 7 Nov. 1617, and became a stu- 
dent of the Middle Temple in 1619 (FOSTER, 
Alumni Own.) In November 1624 he mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of Robert Waller of 
Beaconsfiolcl, a cousin of the poet Waller 
(CHESTER, London Marriage Licenses, 1198). 
At the opening of the civil war he raised a 
troop of horse for the parliament (PEACOCK, 
Army Lists, pp. 54, 108, 2nd ed.), and in 
1646 was major in the regiment of horse com- 
manded by Colonel Richard Graves. When 
the army and parliament quarrelled Scroope 
took part with the soldiers, and possibly 
helped Joyce to carry off Charles I from Hol- 
denby to Newmarket (Clarke Papers, i. 59, 
1 19). He succeeded to the command of the 
regiment about July 1647 (#. p. 151). 

In June 1648, at the outbreak of the 
second civil war, Scroope was ordered to 
join Colonel Whalley in the pursuit of ^ the 
Earl of Norwich and the Kentish royalists, 
and he took part in the siege of Colchester 
(#. ii. 27 ; Cat. State Papers, Dom. 1648-9, 
pp. Ill, 116). At the beginning of July he 
was detached from Colchester to pursue tho ( 
Earl of Holland, whom he defeated and took ; 
prisoner at St. Neotw on 10 July (z?>. pp. 17- \ 
186 ; Report on the Duke of Portland's MS8. 
i. 478; RTTSKWORTH, vii. 1187). He was 
then sent to suppress some dist urbances at 
Yarmouth (ib. vii. 1216; Old Parliainmtary 
History, xvii. 338), caused by the threatened 
landing of the Prince of Wales. 

Scroope took part in the deliberations of 
the council of the army which resulted in 
the rupture of the treaty of Newport ; was 
appointed one of the king r s judges, and at- 
tended the meetings of the 'court with ex- 
emplary regularity. His name appears 
twenty-seventh among the signatures to the 
death warrant (Clarke Papers, ii. 54, 278; 
NALSOF, Trial of the Regicides, 1682). 

Scroope's regiment was one of those 
selected by lot for the expedition for the 
reconquest of Ireland (20 April 1649); but 
early in May 1649 they mutinied, refused to 
go to Ireland, and demanded the re-establish- 
ment of the representative council of agita- 
tors which had existed in 1047 ( The Eesolw- 
tions of the Private Soldiery of toL Scrooped 
Regiment of Horse, now quartering at Salis- 
bury, concerning their present J&rpediton for 
the Service of Ireland, 1649, folio; A De- 



claration from his Excellency, etc., concern- 
ing the present Distempers of part of Com- 
missary-Gen. Ireton's and of Col Scroope's 
Regiments, 1649, 4to). On 15 May Crom- 
well and Fairfax surprised the mutineers at 
Burford, and the ringleaders were tried by 
court-martial and shot (GARDINER, Common- 
wealth and Protectorate, i. 54-60). Scroope's 
regiment henceforth disappears from the 
army lists, and the soldiers composing it 
were probably drafted into other regiments. 
Scroope himself was made governor of Bristol 
(October 1649), a post which he held till 1655 
(.WHITELOCKE, Memorials, ed. 1853, iii. 113). 
In 1655 Bristol Castle and other forts there 
were ordered to be demolished, in pursuance 
of a general scheme for diminishing the num- 
ber of garrisons in England, though Ludlow 
asserts that Bristol was selected because 
Cromwell did not dare to * trust a person of so 
much honour and worth with a place of that 
importance ' (LTTDLOW, Memoirs, ed. 1894, i. 
394). 

In May 1055 Scroope was appointed a 
member of the council established by the 
Protector for the government of Scotland, 
at a salary of 600Z. a year (THURLOE, iii. 
423, iv. 127, 520). He did not distinguish 
himself as an administrator, and appears to 
have spent as much time as lift could out of 
Scotland (ib, vi. 92, 156; Cat. State Papers, 
Dom. 1658-9, p. 101). During the political 
revolutions of 1059-60 he apparently re- 
mained neutral, and for that reason had 
some prospect of escape when the Restora- 
"ion took place. He Rurreudered himself 
obediences to the king's proclamation 



(4 June 1000), and on 9 June the House of 
Commons voted that lie should have the 
benefit of the act of indemnity on payment 
of a tiue of one year's rent of his estates 
(Commons Journal*, yiii. 60). On 20 June 
he was accordingly discharged upon parole 
(ib. viii, 70). The'House of Lords, however, 
ordered all' the king's judges to be arrested, 
and excepted Scroope absolutely from pardon 
(Lords 1 Journals, XL 102, 114, 133). The 
commons on 13 Aug. reiterated their vote m 
Scroope's favour, but, as the lords remained 
firm, they finally (28 Aug.) yielded the point 
(Commons' Journal*, viii. 118, 139; MASBOST, 
Life of Milton, vi. 49, 85). This was an 
inexcusable breach of faith, as Scroope had 
surrendered in reliance upon the king's pro- 
clamation. On Scroope's trial (12 Oct. 1660) 
Hichard Browne, late major-general for the 
parliament, and now lord mayor elect of 
London, deposed that in a private conversa- 
tion held since the Restoration Scroope ^had 
used words apparently justifying the king's 
execution, and had refused to pronounce it 



Scrope 



133 



Scrope 



m urder. Scroope, who defended himself with 
dignity and moderation, pleaded that he acted 
by the authority of parliament, and that he 
'never went to the work with a malicious 
heart. 7 Sir Orlando Bridgeman, the presid- 
ing judge, treated Scroope with great civility. 
' Mr. Scroope/ he said, ' to give him his due, 
is not such a person as some of the rest;' 
but Browne's evidence, which had led to 
Scroope's abandonment by the commons, 
sealed his fate, and he was condemned to 
death (Trial of the Regicides, pp. 57-72, ed. 
1660). He was executed at Charing Cross 
on 17 Oct. An account of his behaviour in 
prison and at the gallows describes him as* a 
comely ancient gentleman/ and dwells on 
his cheerfulness and courage ( The Speeches 
and Prayers of some of the late King's Judges, 
4 to, 1660, pp, 73, 80). 

Scroope's eldest son, Edmund, was made 
fellow of All Souls' on 4 July 1649 by the par- 
liamentary visitors, was subsequently keeper 
of the privy seal in Scotland, and died in 
1K58 (FosTEB, Alumni Oxon. 1600-1714; 
WOOD, Fasti, ii. 146 ; BTJBROWS, Register of 
the Visitors of the University of Oxford, p. 
476). His brother Robert was about the 
same time made fellow of Lincoln Col- 
lege, and created by the visitors B.A. on 
19 May 1649 ( WOOD, Fasti, ii. 128). Scroope 
also left two daughters, Margaret and Anne. 

The regicide is sometimes confused with 
his distant kinsman, SIE ADRIAN SGBOPE or 
SCROOPED. 1667), son of Sir Gervase Scroope 
of Cockerington, Lincolnshire. Sir Gervase 
Scroope raised a regiment for the king's ser- 
vice, and was left for dead at Edgehill, where 
he received sixteen wounds, but survived to 
1655. The son served in the king's army 
during the war, and was made knight of the 
Bath at the coronation of Charles II (CLAREN- 
DON, Rebellion, vi. 97 ; RUSHWORTH, v. 707 ; 
BTTLSTRODEJ Memoirs, pp. 78, 85, 103). The 
fine imposed on father and son for their de- 
linquency amounted to over 6,000 (Calen- 
dar of Compounders, p. 1327). Sir Adrian 
Scroope, who died in 1667, married Mary, 
daughter of Sir Robert Carr of Sleaford, and 
was the father of Sir Carr Scrope [q. v.] 

(BLORE,pp.6,9). ' 

[A ' life ' of Adrian Scroope is given in Noble's 
Lives of the Regicides, ii. 200. Other authorities 
mentioned in the article,] 0. BL. JF. 

SCROPE or SCROOP, SIR CARR 
(1649-1680), versifier and man of fashion, 
was eldest son of Sir Adrian Scrope of 
Cockerington, Lincolnshire, knight ' of the 
Bath-(<Z. 1667) [see under SCROPE, ADRIAN]. 
His mother, Mary, daughter of Sir Robert 
Carr of Sleaford in the same county, died in 



1685, and was noted in her day l for making 
sharp speeches and doing startling things'*' 
(CARTWRIGHT, Sacharissa, pp. 234-6, 262-70, 
282-7). Their son was born in 1649, and 
matriculated fromWadham College, Oxford, 
on 26 Aug. 1664, being entered as a fellow- 
commoner on 3 Sept. He was created M. A. 
on 4 Feb. 1666-7, and baronet on 16 Jan, 
1666-7, (CaL State Papers, 1666-7, p. 357). 
Scrope came to London, and was soon 
numbered among the companions of 
Charles II and the wits 'who wrote with 
ease. 7 About - November 1676 he was in 
love with Miss Fraser, lady-in-waiting to 
the Duchess of York ; but her extravagance 
in dress one of her costumes is said to have 
cost no less than 300 so frightened him 
that he changed his matrimonial intentions 
(Hist. MSS, Comm. 12th Rep. App. pt. v. p. 
31). In January of the next year Catharine 
Sedley (afterwards Countess of Dorchester) 
[q, v.J quarrelled with him in the queen's 
drawing-room over some lampoon that she 
believed him to have written (ib. p. 37). 
Scrope fancied himself ridiculed as 'the pur-, 
blind knight ' in Rochester's ' Allusion to the 
Tenth Satire of the First Book of Horace/ 
and attacked Ms rival in a very free and 
satirical poem 'in defence of satire/ an imi- 
tation of Horace (bk i. satire iv). Rochester 
retorted with a vigorous lampoon, which ia 
-inted in his works (ed, 1709, pp. 96-8}, and 

irope made in reply a very severe epigram, 
^loxburghe Ballads, ed. Ebsworth,iv 570-1 ; 
JOHNSON, Poets, ed. Cunningham, i. 194). 
Many 'references to Scrope (he was a man of 
small stature, and often ridiculed for hia 
meanness of size) appeared in the satires of 
the period (cf. Roxburghe Ballads, iv. 569, 
&c.) He was a member of the ' Green Rib* 
bon Club/ the great whig club, which met 
at the King's Head tavern over against the 
Inner Temple Gate (SiTWJBLL, First Whig, 
pp. 85-6, 202). 

In 1679 Scrope was living at the north 
end of the east side of Duke Street, St. 
James's, "Westminster (CinsrisriN'GHAJff, ed, 
Wheatley, i. 534), and in August of the 
next year lie was at Tunbridge Wells for his 
health r and with 'a physician of his own* 
(CARTWRIGHT, Sacharissa, p. 289). He is 
said to have died in November ^ 1680, and 
to have been buried at St. Martin r s~in-the- 
Fields; the baronetcy thereupon became 
extinct. 

A translation by Scrope of the epistle of 

ppho to Phaon was- inserted in ' Ovid's 
Epistles translated by Various Hands/ 
numerous editions of which were issued be- 
tween 1681 and 1725, and it was reprinted 
in Nichols's ' Collection of Poems : (1780, i f 



Scrope * 

6-10 ; POPE, Works, ed. Elwin and Court- | 
hope, i, 93-103). Other renderings of Ovid 
by him are in the ' Miscellany Poems * of 
1684 (NICHOLS, Collection, i. 10-15). He 
wrote the prologue to Sir George Etherege's 
'Man of Mode, a song which was inserted 
in that play, and the prologue to Lee's * Rival 
Queens ' (ft.) His song of < Myrtillo's Sad 
Despair/ in Lee's ' Mithridates/ is included 
in Kitson's ' English Songs' (ed. 1813, i. 
69-70), and the song in the * Man of Mode ' 
is inserted in the same volume (pp. 177- 
178), 

A satirical piece, called 'A very heroical 
Epistle from my Lord All-pride to Dol-Com- 
mon ' (H>79), preserved in the * lloxburghe 
Collection of Ballads ' at the British Museum 
(iii. 819), and printed by Mr. Ebs worth in 
the fourth volume (pp. 575-576) of his col- 
lection, is supposed to have been written by 
Scrope. 

[Wood's Fasti, ii. 294; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Gardiner's Wadlmra College Registers, 
i. 253 ; Cunningham's Nell G-wyn, ed. Whotifcley, 
pp. xli-xlii ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. i. 429, 
619 j Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees ; Burke's Ex- 
tinct Baronetcies ; Moore's Carre Family, 1863 ; 
cf. a familiar epistle to ' Mr. Julian, Secretary to 
the Muses,' in Egerton MS. 2623, f. 81, which 
refers chiefly to Scrope, is printed in the Works 
of George Villiers, duke of Buckingham (1775, 
n. 142-5), and has sometimes been attributed to 
Dryden.] W, P. C. 

SCROPE, SIR GEOFFREY na 
(d. 1340), chief justice of the king's bench, 
"was younger son of Sir William le Scrope 
of Bolton, and brother of Sir Henry le Scrope 
(d. 1336) [q.v.] His mother was Constance, 
daughter and heiress of Thomas, son of 
Oillo de Newsham, variously described as of 
Newsham-on-Tees and of Jtfewsham-on-Tyne 
(Scrope and Growenor Roll, ii. 10, 58). Ucof- 
frey Scrope certainly had an estate at \Vhal- 
ton, near Morpeth, a few miles south-oast of 
which there is a Newsham, but. it is not upon 
the Tyne. Like his brother, Scrope adopted 
the profession of the law, and by 1316 he was 
lung's sergeant. He is also called ' valettus 
regis.' He was summoned to councils 
and parliaments, and occasionally sat on 
judicial commissions. In 13^1~ii he accom- 
panied Edward II in his campaign against 
the barons, and gaye sentence on Koger 
d'Amory at Tutbury. Both before and after 
this he was employed in negotiations with 
the Scots. He was raised to the bench as 
a judge of the common pleas on 27 Sept, 
1323, and promoted to the chief-justiceship 
of the king's bench on 21 March 1324. The 
email estate he held as early as 1312 in 
Coverdule, south of Wensleydale, he aug- 



Scrope 

mented before 1318 by the acquisition of 
the manor of Clifton on Ure at the entrance 
of the latter dale, where he obtained a 
license to build a castle in that year. Early 
in the next reign he purchased the neigh- 
bouring manor of Masham from the repre- 
sentatives of its old lords, the Wautons, who 
held it from the Mowbrays by the service of 
an annual barbed arrow (id. ii. 138 ; DUG- 
DALE, fictronctffc, i. 657 ; Ktrklnfa Quest, 
Surteos Soc., pp. 153, 334-9). Eltham 
Mandeville and other Vesci lands in Kent 
had passed into his hands by 1318. One of 
Edward IFs last acts was to invest him with 
the great castle and honour of Skipton in 
Craven forfeited by Roper, lord Cliiford. So 
closely was he identified with the court 
party that Mortimer was alleged to have 
projected the same fate for him as for the 
jDespensers (Parliamentary Writ#,u. ii. 244). 
But though Edward's deposition was fol- 
lowed by Scrape's removal from office, he 
received a pardon in February 1328, and 
was reinstated as chief justice. He was a 
soldier and diplomatist as well as a lawyer, 
and his services in the former capacities were 
in such request that his place had frequently 
to be supplied by substitutes, one of whom 
was his brother Henry, and for a time 
(1334-7) he seems to have exchanged his 
post for the (nominal) second justiceship 
of the common pleas. Again chief justice in 
1338, he finally resigned the office before 
October in that year on the outbreak of the 
French war (cf. Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, 
i. 155). 

In the tournaments of the previous reign, 
at one of which ho was knighted, Scrope 
had not disgraced the azure bend or of his 
family, which he bore with a silver label 
for di'(lVrence f and in the first months of Ed- 
ward III^s rule he was with the army which 
nearly joined battle with the Scots at Stan- 
hope Park in Weardale (i. i. 1S3). But it 
was in diplomatic business that Edward III 
found Scrope most useful. He took him 
to France in 1329, In 1831 and 1333 he 
was entrusted with important foreign mis- 
sions, lie had only just been designated 
(1334) one of the deputies to keep a watch 
over John Bnliol when he was sent on an 
embassy to Brittany and France, In 1335 
and again in 1337 Scottish affairs engaged 
his attention. Just before crossing to 
Flanders in 1338 Edward III sent Scrope 
with the Earl of Northampton to his ally the 
emperor, and later in the year he was em- 
ployed in the negotiations opened at the 
eleventh hour with Philip VI. He had at 
( least six knights in his train, and took the 
I field hi the campaign which ended blood* 



Scrope 



135 



Scrope 



lessly at Buironfosse (1339), Galfrid le 
JBaker (p. 65) relates the well-known anec- 
dote of Scrope's punishing Cardinal Bernard 
de Montfavence's boasts of the inviolability 
of France by taking him up a high tower 
and showing him her frontiers all in flames. 
He now appears with the formal title of 
king's secretary, and spent the winter of 
1339-40 in negotiating a marriage between 
the heir of Flanders and Edward's daughter 
Isabella. Returning to England with the 
King in February, he was granted two hun- 
dred marks a year to support his new dignity 
of banneret. Going back to Flanders in 
June, he took part in the siege of Tournay, 
and about Christmas died at Ghent (MuEi- 
MTJTH, p. 120 ; LE BAJOSR, p. 73). His body 
was carried to Coverham Abbey, to which he 
had given the church of Sadberge (F&dera, 
iv. 4L7). Jervaulx and other monasteries 
had also experienced his liberality. Besides 
his Yorkshire and Northumberland estates, 
he left manors in five other counties. Scrope 
was the more distinguished of the two notable 
brothers whose unusual fortune it was to 
found two great baronial families within the 
limits of a single Yorkshire dale. 

Scrope married Ivetta, in all probability 
daughter of Sir William de Eoos of Ingman- 
thorpe, near Wetherby. A second marriage 
with Lora, daughter of Gerard de Furnival 
of Hertfordshire and Yorkshire, and widow 
of Sir John Ufflete or Usflete, has been 
inferred (Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, ii. 104) 
from a gift of her son, Gerard Utfiete, to 1 
Scrope and his mother jointly in 1331; but 
Ivetta is named as Scrope's wife in 1332 
(Whalley Coucher Book}. 

By the latter he had five sons and three 
daughters. The sons were: Henry, first 
baron Scrope of Masham [q. v.l ; Thomas, 
who predeceased his father; William (1325 P- 
1367), who fought at Cressy, Poitiers, and 
Najara, and died in Spain; Stephen, who 
was at Cressy and the siege of Berwick 
(1356); Geoffrey (d. 1383), LL.B. (probably 
of Oxford), prebendary of Lincoln, London, 
and York (Test. Ebor. iii. 35, but cf. Scrope 
and Grosvenor Roll, ii. 110). The daughters 
were Beatrice and Constance, who married 
respectively Sir Andrew and Sir Geoffrey 
Lutterell of Lincolnshire; and Ivetta, the 
wife of John de Hothom. 

[Rymer's Fcedera, original edit.; Scrope and 
Grosvenor Roll, ed. ISTi colas, 1832 ; Foss's Judges 
of England,, iii. 493;' Murimuth in Bolls Ser, ; 
Galfrid le Baker, ed. Maunde Thompson ; Tea- 
tamenta Eboracensia, (Surtees Soc.);'Dugdale's 
Baronage ; Le Neve's Fasti EcclesieeAnglicnnje; 
Whalley Coucher Book (Chatham Soc.) ; Scrope s 
Hist. Castle Combe, 1852.] J. T-T. j 



SCROPE, GEOBGE JULIUS POU- 
LETT ([1797-1876), geologist and political 
economist, was born on 10 March 1797, being 
the second son of John Poulett Thomson, 
head of the firm of Thomson, Bonar, & Co., 
Russia merchants, of Waverley Abbey, Sur- 
rey, and of Charlotte, daughter of Dr. Jacob 
of S alisbury . Charles Edward Poulett Thom- 
son, lord Sydenham [q. vj, was his brother. 
George was educated at Harrow school, and 
after Keeping one or two terms at Pembroke 
College, Oxford, migrated in 1816 to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, graduating B. A. in 1821. 
But while still an undergraduate he had be- 
come a keen student of geology, influenced by 
Professor Edward Daniel Clarke [q. v.] and 
Professor Adam SedgwickTq. v.J, then at 
the outset of his career. With his parents 
he had spent the winter of 1817-18 at Naples, 
where Vesuvius then active on the one 
side and the Phlegrsean fields on the other, 
naturally directed his thoughts to the phe- 
nomena of volcanoes. In 1819 he returned 
to Italy and extended his studies to the 
volcanic districts of the Campagna, visiting 
the following spring the Lipari Islands and 
Etna, besides making the tour of Sicily. In 
the spring of 1821 he married Emma Phipps 
Scrope, heiress of "William. Scrope (1772- 
1852) [q. v.] of Castle Combe, Wiltshire, 
and assumed her name. His geological work 
was in no way interrupted. In the same 
year, in June, he 'went to Auvergne, and 
spent six months in examining its extinct 
volcanos with those of the Velay and Vivar- 
rais. This done, he again visited Italy, where 
he arrived just in time to witness the great 
eruption of Vesuvius in October 1822. when 
the upper part of the cone about six hun- 
dred feet in height was completely blown 
away. He also examined the Ponza, islands 
and studied all the different volcanic dis- 
tricts of Italy from the Bay of Naples to the 
Euganean hills, returning to England in the 
autumn of 1823, by way of the districts of 
like nature in the Eifel, the vicinity of the 
Rhine and^ the north of Germany (ScEOPB, 
Considerations on Volcanos, p. vii ; Geologic 
cal Magazine, 1870, p. 96). 

In 1824 he joined the Geological Society, 
and his reputation became so speedily esta- 
blished that in 1825 he was elected one of 
the secretaries, his colleague being Charles 
Lyell [q. v.] At that time Werner's notions 
that basalts and suchlike rocks were chemical 
precipitates from water had led astray the 
majority of geologists. The triumph of the 
'Neptunists/ as the disciples of Werner were 
called, over the * Plutonists,' whose leaders 
were James Hntton (1726-1797) [q. v,] and 
John Play fair [q. v.], seemed assured. But 



Scrope 



136 



Scrope 



Scrope had put Werner's notions to the 
surest test the evidence of nature and 
found them to be ' idols of the cave ; ' so 
that in 1828 he published the results of his 
Studies in a book entitled ' Considerations ou 
Volcanos.' It is full of accurate observa- 
tions, careful inductions, and suggestive in- 
ferences; it enunciates emphatically the 
doctrine afterwards developed by Lyell and 
called * Uniformitarian, 1 but as it was neces- 
sarily controversial, was much in advance of 
its age, and had ventured into a cpsmological 
speculation, it did not meet with a generally 
favourable reception. The book was re- 
written, enlarged, and published under the 
title < Volcanos ' in 1862. But Scrope's * Geo- 
logy andExtinctVolcanos of Central France/ 
published in 1826, produced a stronger im- 
pression and established the author's reputa- 
tion as an accurate observer and sound 
reasoner. A second and revised edition ap- 
peared in 1858, and this is still carefully read 
by every geologist who visits Auvergne. 
Lyell, who reviewed the first- edition in the 
' Quarterly Review/ xxxvi. 437, justly called 
it the most able work which had appeared 
since Playfair's 'Illustrations of the Ilutto- 
jaian Theory/ In the same year (18^6) Scrope 
was elected F.R.S. 

He was also much in advance of his con- 
temporaries in recognising the action of 
rivers in the formation of valleys, and was 
the author (among other contributions to 
the subject) of an important paper on the 
Meuse, Moselle, and other rivers (Pi w?. Geol. 
8oc. L 170). His views were practically 
identical with those of Lyell, whom at this 
time he might be said, as slightly the 
senior in geological work, to lead rather than 
to follow; and when Lyell's 'Principles 
of Geology 1 appeared in 1827, the book 
was reviewed by Scrope (Quart. Itey. 
xlii. 411, liii. 406). He expressed agree- 
ment with the author on almost all points, 
except that he thought Lyell was going 
rather too far in maintaining that geological 
change in all past time had been not only 
similar to, but also in all respects uniform 
with, what could now be witnessed, and he 
was more ready than his friend to admit the 
possibility of a progressive development of 
species. Some geologists would maintain 
that Serope's divergences from the author of 
the ' Principles ' indicated a yet clearer per- 
ception of the eartVs history. In short, it 
may be said that if Scrope had continued t,o 
devote himself wholly to geology, he would 
have probably surpassed all competitors. 

But he also felt a keen interest in poli- 
tics, in which his brother, afterwards Lord 
Sydenham, was taking an active part, and 



his energies were gradually diverted into 
another channel. Having settled down at 
Castle Oombe, the family seat of the Scropes 
in Wiltshire, he had been impressed, espe- 
cially from his experience as a magistrate, 
with the ( hardships of the agricultural la- 
bourer's life, and he threw himself heartily 
into the political struggle which was then 
in progress. In 1833, after the passing of 
the tirst reform bill, he was returned to par- 
liament as member for Stroud (having un- 
successfully contested the seat in 183:2) and 
represented the borough till 18(58. Here he 
was an energetic advocate of free trade and 
various social reforms, especially that of the 
poor law. But these reforms were urged by 
his pen, for he was a silent member. His 
juimphlets, both before and after his entry 
into parliament, were very numerous. Seven- 
teen stand under his name in the British 
Museum catalogue, bufc it is believed that 
seventy would be nearer the truth, for 
Scrope's fertility in this respect got him, in 
the House of Commons, the sobriquet of 
* Pamphlet Scrope/ In 1833 ho published a 
small volume on ' The Principles of Politi- 
cal Economy' (2nd edit. 1874) and another 
(in 187:2) on * Friendly Societies. 7 Pie also 
wrote a life of his brother, Lord Sydenham 
(1843). 

Still geology was not deserted, for in 1856 
and again in 1809 the ' elevation theory ' of 
craters advocated by Humboldt, Von Buch, 
and other continental geologists brought 
Scrope back into the field. This theory, 
though mortally wounded by himself and 
Lyell, showed signs of life until his two 
papers ( Quart. Journ. GeoL Soc. xii. 326, xv 
50&) extinguished it. Auvergne was again 
studied by him in 1857, while preparing the 
revised and enlarged edition of his work on 
Central France, which appeared in 1858* 
Kor must a very important and suggestive 
paper be forgotten, which attributed t lie folia- 
tion of crystalline rocks to differential move- 
ments of the materials while the mass was 
still in an imperfectly solid condition (Geo- 
logist, 18/38, p. 361). 

In 1867 Scrope received the Wollaston 
medal from the Geological Society, and on 
his retirement from parliament in the fol~ 
lowing year geology again obtained a larger 
share of attention. He lived in retirement 
during the later years of his life, but his in- 
terest in the science was unabated j and 
'when he could no longer travel, he aided 
younger men less wealthy than himself to 
continue the study of volcanic districts. 
Though for some time he suffered from failure 
of sight, like his friend Lyell, and from eoine 
of the usual hifinxiitk'S of age, he could still 



Scrope 



137 



Scrope 



wield the pen, and the short notes and con- 
troversial letters which appeared during the 
last few months of his life showed no symptom 
of mental decline. He died at Fairlawn, 
near Cobham, Surrey, 19 Jan. 1876, and 
was- buried at Stoke d'Abernon. He had 
sold Castle Combe after the death of his 
wife, who for many years had been an in- 
valid in consequence of an accident when 
riding, not long after her marriage. Late in 
life he married again, and his second wife 
survived him. There was no issue by either 
marriage. 

Scrope, according to the Royal Society's 
* Catalogue of ScientificPapers,' was the author 
of thirty-six regular papers, the majority on 
volcanic geology and petrology , but in addition 
to this department of science and to political 
studies, he took great interest in archaeology, 
contributing papers on this subject to the 
'Wiltshire Magazine/ and publishing in 
1852 (for private circulation) an illustrated 
quarto entitled ' History of the Manor and 
Ancient Barony of Castle Combe, Wilts/ 
His position as a geologist may be best de- 
scribed in words used by himself in his 
earliest publication, written at a period 
when the Huttonian theory was generally 
discredited, viz. that the science ' has for its 
business a knowledge of the processes which 
are in continual or occasional operation 
within the limits- of our planet, and the 
application of these laws to explain the ap- 
pearances discovered by our geognostical 
researches, so- as from thjese materials to 
deduce conclusions as to the past history of 
the globe 5 (Considerations on Volcanos, Pref. 
p. iv). It is, perhaps, not too much to say 
that though two or three of his contemporaries, 
by a more complete devotion to geology, at- 
tained a higher eminence in the science, not 
one of them ever surpassed him in close- 
ness and accuracy as an observer or in 
soundness of induction, and firm grasp of 
principles as a reasoner, 

[Obituary notices, Nature, xiii. 29 J (A. 
G[eikiel), Academy, ix. 102 (J. W. Judd), 
Athenaeum, 29 Jan. 1876 ; Geol. Mag. 1876, p. 
96, also memoir with .portrait, 1870, p. 193; 
Quart. Jcwr.GeoL Soe. xxxii. Proc. p. 69 ; Proc. 
Boy. Soc. xxv. 1, mentioned in Lyell's Life and 
Letters and in Life of Murchison by A, Geifcie 
(portrait, h\ 108) ; also information from Prof. 
J. W. .Tudd and B, F. Sco^t, esq., bursar of St. 
John's College, Cambridge.] T, 0. B. 

SCROPE, SIB BENBY EH(<Z. 133G),chief 
justice of the king's bench, was the eldest son, 
of Sir William leScropeof BoJtoninWensley- 
diile. His mother was Constance, daughter 
of Thomas, son of Gillo de Newsham. His 
brother Geoffrey is separately noticed. Their 



father, who was bailiff of Richmondshire in 
1294, and was knighted at the battle of 
Falkirk, came of an obscure family origi- 
nally seated in the East Riding and North 
Lincolnshire. No connection can be esta- 
blished with the Scrupes of Gloucestershire 
or with Richard FitzScrob [see RICHARD, 
Jl. 1060]. The name is said to mean crab, 
and a crab was their crest. Scrope's pater- 
nal estate was small (JZirkby's Quest, pp. 
150, 152, 17G). He studied the law, and 
tirst appears as an advocate in 1307, the 
year before his elevation (27 Nov. 1308) to 
the bench of the common pleas. Attaching 
himself to Edward II, with whom he went 
to Scotland in 1310, Scrope withdrew from 1 
the parliament of 1311, in which the mag- 
nates placed restraints upon the king, and 
was peremptorily ordered to return. Ed- 
ward entrusted him with a mission to 
Wales in 1314, and, on shaking oft' the 
control of the magnates prompted him. 
(15 June 1317) to the chiei-justiceship of 
the king's bench. Five years later Scrope 
received a share of the estates forfeited by 
the Earl of Lancaster's supporters, to which 
Edward added early in 1323 the Swaledale 
lands of Andrew de Harclay [q. v.] But 
towards the close of that year, for some un- 
explained reason, he was superseded as 
chief justice. He was almost immediately, 
however, appointed justice of the forests 
north of Trent, received a summons with 
the justices to the parliament of 1325, and 
in March 1326 was trying Yorkshire offen- 
ders by special commission (ParL Writs, 
II. i. 284, 335). On Edward Ill's accession 
he was replaced (5 Feb. 1327) on the bench 
as ' second justice ' (the title was new) of 
the common pleas, his old post being 
occupied by Ids' brother (Foss ; cf. Scrope 
and Grosvenor Roll,\\. 13). In the summer 
he held an inquiry into a fray between the 
English and rlainaulters at York (Fatdera, 
iv. 292), From 28 Oct. 1329 to 19 Dec. 
1330 he took the place of his brother, then , 
absent abroad, as chief justice of the king's 
bench. On the 'latter date he was made 
chief baron of the exchequer, a post which 
he held until -his death, though for a moment 
in November 1333 transferred to be chief 
justice of the common pleas ; perhaps with- 
out his consent, for within twenty-four 
hours he received a new patent restoring 
him to his old; ])lace. Like his brother, 
Scrope was a knight banneret. He died 
on 6 Sept. 1336, and was buried in the 
Premonstratensian 'abbey of St> Agatha at 
Easby, dose to Richmond, the patronage of 
which, , with Burton .Constable and other 
lands, he had purchased from the .descendant 



Scrope 



'38 



Scrope 



of Roald, constable of Richmond, who 
founded it in 1151. Scrope was considered 
its second founder. He had greatly ^aug- 
mented his paternal inheritance (Kirby 1 * 
Quest, pp. 230, 335-7, 354, 358). His 
wife was Margaret, daughter either of Lord 
Iloos or of Lord Fitzwalter. She after- 
wards married Sir Hugh Mortimer of Ohel- 
marsh, Shropshire, and lived until 1357. 
Their three sons William, Stephen, and 
Richard were all under age at his death, 
William, born 1320, distinguished himself 
in the French and Scottish wars, and died 
17 Nov. 1344, of a wound received at the 
battle of Morlaix in Brittany, two years 
before. He left no issue, and his next 
brother, Stephen, having predeceased him, 
the estates passed to Richard (13:27 P-1403) 
[q. v.], first Baron Scrope of Bolton and 
chancellor of England. 

[Foss's Judges of England, iii. 499 ; Scropo 
and Grosmior Roll ed. Nicolas, 1882, i. 94-5, 
98, 127, 132, 142, 145, 222, ii. 11 ; Rotttli Par- 
liamentorum, ii. 10; Parliamentary Writs, ed. 
Palgrave; Rymer's Fcedero, orig. ed. ; Inquisi- 
tiones post mortem, ii. 72, 125 ; Kirkby's Quest 
(Puttees Soe.) ; Dngdale's Baronage and Origines 
Jxm<liciales ; Scrope's Hist, of Castle Combe, 
1852.] . J, T-T. 

SCROPE, HENRY 113, first BABON 
SCROPE OF MASHAM (1315-1391), was the 
eldest son of Sir Geoffrey le Scrope [q.v.], 
by his first wife, Ivetta de Iloos. Born hi 
1315, he won his spurs early at Halidon Hill 
(19 July 1333). Just before his father's death 
in 1340 he fought at Sluys, and, after making 
the Scottish campaign of 1341, he accom- 
panied Edward III to Brittany in the next 
year; after which he served in Ireland under 
Ralph d'Ufford, and then accompanied the 
king to Flanders in 1346* Scrope is said to 
have fought as a banneret both at Creasy 
(26 Aug. 1346) and Neville' s Cross (17 Oct.) 
This may be doubted. He was certainly 
present at the siege of Calais (1346-7). 
During the truces he was chiefly employed 
on the Scottish border, but took part in 
August 1350 in the famous sea-fight oiF 
"Winchelsea, known as Espagnols-sur-la- 
Mer. A few months later (25 Nov.) he was 
summoned to parliament as Lord Scrope* 
The designation * of Masham ' first appears 
when the representatives of the elder line 
came to sit in the House of Lords, no doubt 
for distinction. In 1355 Scrope went to 
Picardy with the king, and returned with 
him on the news of the loss of Berwick. 
For three years he was almost exclusively 
occupied on the border, but in 1359 he pro- 
ceeded to Gascony, and next year figured 
with five other Scropes in Edward life de- 



monstration before Paris. Peace being made 
he took up (18 Feb. 13G1) the onerous post 
of warden of Calais and Guisnes, which he 
apparently held until his appointment as 
joint warden of the west march towards 
Scotland (1370) and steward of the house- 
hold (1371). At Calais he had frequently 
conducted important negotiations, and as 
late as July 1378 was sent on a mission to 
the king of Navarre. He sat on the com- 
mittee of the upper house appointed to con- 
fer with the commons in the Good parlia- 
ment ; was on the first council of Richard IPs 
minority, and continued to attend parlia- 
ment down to 1381, Spending his last 
years in retirement, he died on 31 July 1391 9 
and was buried in York minster. Scrope 
increased the family estates both in and out 
of Yorkshire, where he acquired Upsal 
Castle, near Thirsk, the seat of a family of 
that name down to 1349, which gave a second 
territorial designation to some of his de- 
scendants. All that is known of his wife 
is that she was called Joan (P Upsal, cf. 
Testammta Morawnna, in. 3i2). They had 
five or six sons, of whom the fourth, llichard 
(1350 P-1405) [q. v.], was archbishop of York, 
and two daughters. 

The eldest Bon, Geoffrey, married a daugh- 
ter of Kalph, lord Neville (d. 1367), and alter 
the peace of Br&igny went on a crusade with 
the Teutonic knights into heathen Lithuania, 
where he perished in 1302 at about twenty 
years of age. 

The second son, William, after the peace 
followed the Earl of Hereford to Lombardy 
and the taking of Satulia (Attalia) in Asia 
Minor (1301 ). He died in the East, and may 
be the Scrope buried at &teembria (Misvri) 
on the west coast of the Black Sea (Sffrope 
and Groflvewtr JRvll, i. 70, 12o, 166) ; Nicolas 
(ib. ii. 106), however, refers these exploits to 
"William, son of Sir Geoffrey le Scrope fq. v.] 

The third son, Stephen, * forty and up- 
wards ' in 1391, was knighted by the king of 
Cyprus at Alexandria in 1365 (ib. i. 124), 
ana accompanied John of Gaunt into Guienne 
in 1#73 ; he married (before 1870) Margery 
(d, 29 May 1425), daughter of John, fourth 
lord Welles, and widow of John, lord Hunt- 
ingfield, succeeded as second Baron Scrope 
of Masham in 1391, and died on 25 Jan. 
1406 ; his son Htjnry, executed in 1415, is 
separately noticed. 

The youngest son, John (& December 
1405), married (c. 1390) Elizabeth, daughter 
and coheiress of David de Stwbolgi, earl of 
Atholl, and widow of Sir Thomas Percy (d. 
1386), second aon of the first Earl of North- 
umberland (ef Testammta Eborctc&taia, L 



Scrope 



139 



Scrope 



The daughters were : (1) Joan, who mar- 
ried Henry, second baron Fitzhugh of Ra- 
vensworth (d. 1386); and (2) Isabel (b. 
24 Aug. 1337), who married Sir Robert 
Plumpton of Plumpton,near Knaresborough. 

[Rotuli Parliamentarian* ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
original edit. ; Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, ed, 
Nicolas, i. 104, 105, 112, 127, 145, 242, ii. 112- 
120, Gent. Mag. 1 805, ii. 798; TestamentaEbora- 
censia (Surtees Soc.) ; Scrope 1 s Hist, of Castle 
Combe, 1852.] J. T-T. 

SCROPE, HENRY LE, third BARON 
SCEOPE OF MASHAM (1376P-1415), eldest 
son of Stephen, second baron [see under 
SCEOPE, HENBY LB, first BARON SCROPE OF 
MASHAM], by Margery, widow of John, lord 
Huntingfield, was * upwards of thirty years 
old ' at his father's death in January 1406*. 
He accompanied John Beaufort on the cru- 
sade to Barbary in 1390 (DEVON, Issues, p. 
245). On the suppression of Thomas Mow- 
bray's rebellion in 1405, Scrope received a 
grant of his manors of Thirsk and Hoving- 
ham (DuGDALE, i. 659). He and his father 
must have carefully dissociated themselves 
from Mowbray's fellow-rebel, Archbishop 
Richard Scrope [q. v.], who was Scrope^ 
itet? 



uncle. Immediately alter succeeding to his 
father's honours, he assisted in escorting 
Henry IVs daughter Philippa to Denmark 
on her marriage. In May 1409 he exe- 
cuted an important mission in France with 
Henry Beaufort. Scrope enjoyed the friend- 
ship and confidence of the young prince 
of Wales, then in opposition. According to 
Menstrelet, they sometimes shared the same 
bed (ed. Pantheon Litter aire, p. 366 ; cf. 
Gesta Henrici V. p. 11 n.) When the prince 
ousted Archbishop Arundel (January 1410) 
from the chancery, in favour of Thomas 
Beaufort, he put in Scrope (who was also 
given the Garter) as treasurer. Next year 
he took his second wife, Joan Holland, from 
the royal family, the lady's father being 
half-brother of the late king, Richard II. 
"When, at the end of 1411, the prince for the 
time retired from the government, Scrope 
resigned the treasurership, 16 Dec. 1411 
(WYLIE, History of Henry IV, iv. 61). 

After the accession of Henry V Scrope 
was entrusted with delicate foreign negotia- 
tions. In July 1413 he accompanied Bishop 
Henry Chichele [q. v.] on a mission to form 
a league with the Duke of Burgundy 
(F&dera, ix. 34). He headed the embassy 
to Charles VI in the early months of 1414, 
and another in the summer to Burgundy 
(ib. ix. 102, 136). At the end of April 1416 
he contracted to serve in France with thirty 
men at arms and ninety archers, and as late as 
27 May there was talk of sending him again 



to John of Burgundy (#. ix. 230; Ord. Priry 
Council, ii. 167). His complicity, therefore, in 
the plot discovered at Southampton on 20 
July to dethrone Henry in favour of the Earl 
of March (' if King Richard be really dead ') 
caused general surprise. It seemed strangely 
inconsistent with his character as well as his 
past career. He himself pleaded that he had 
become an accessory in order to betray the 
conspiracy (Hot. Part iv. 66). It has been sug- 
gested that Scrope was drawn into the plot 
by his connection with Cambridge, whose 
stepmother he had married for his second 
wife. She was a daughter of Richard II's 
halt-brother, Thomas Holland, second earl 
of Kent (d. 1397). Rumour ascribed the 
conspiracy to bribery with French gold ; if 
so, it is possible that Scrope was the go- 
between. His claim to be tried by his peers, 
though allowed, availed him nothing, and the 
king marked his sense of Scrope's ingratitude 
by refusing to reduce the sentence to simple 
beheading, as in the case of his fellow-con- 
spirators, the Earl of Cambridge and Sir 
Thomas Grey. Immediately after his con- 
demnation (5 Aug.) he was * drawn 'right 
across Southampton, from the Watergate to 
the place of execution outside the north gate. 
His head was sent to York to be placed on 
one of the bars. His lands were forfeited, 
and those in Wensleydale and its vicinity 
granted to his cousin and neighbour, Henry, 
lord Fitzhugh. Others, perhaps Upsal and 
his East Riding estates, went to Sir William. 
Porter (t&. iv. 213: DTTGDALE, i. 660). In 
his interesting will (23 June 1415) ne be- 
queathed numerous books in Latin and 
French (Fcedera, ix. 272). 

Though twice married, Scrope left no 
issue. His first wife was Philippa, grand- 
daughter and coheiress of Guy, lord Bryan, 
a famous warrior and knight of the Garter, 
and widow of John, lord Devereux (d. 1396). 
Though related in the third and fourth de- 
grees, they married without a dispensation, 
but the difficulty was surmounted by the good 
offices of his uncle, the archbishop (11 July 
1399). She died on 19 Nov. 1406. Scrope 
married secondly, about September 1 41 1 , Joan 
Holland, daughter of the second Earl of Kent. 
He was her third husband, and after his 
death she took a fourth, Sir Henry Broin- 
flete, dying in 1434. 

Scrope had four younger brothers, of whom 
the eldest, Geoffrey, died in 1418 (Test. 
Ebor. iii. 35), and the youngest, William 
1394?- 1463) was archdeacon of Durham 



.) 
The 



e second brother, Stephen, took orders, 
became secretary to his uncle the archbishop, 
prebendary of Lichfie}d and York, and arcii- 



Scrope 



140 



Scrope 



deacon of Richmond (1400-1418). He was 
chancellor of tlie university of Cambridge in 
1400 and 1414, and is said to have written 
* queedara de rebus Anglicis ' (TANNER, p. 
658). Dying on 5 Sept. 1418, he was buried 
near the archbishop in St. Stephen's Chapel 
in York minster, which was now the family 
burial-place, and afterwards known as the 
Scrope Chapel (Test. Ebor.L 385, iii. 33; 
Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, ii. 135). 

The third brother, John (1388-1455), was 
admitted by Ilenry V on his deathbed^to be 
the victim of injustice owing to the inclu- 
sion of the entailed estates m his brother's 
forfeiture. The king made Fitzhugh and 
Porter, the grantees, promise to surrender 
them. But, though John Scrope was on the 
council of regency for Henry "V I, he did not 
recover them all till 14:26, after Fitzhugh's 
death (Rot. Parl iv, 213, 287). In 142(5 he 
was summoned to parliament as fourth Baron 
Scrope of Masham. He was afterwards em- 
ployed in important foreign negotiations, and 
by favour of Humphrey of Gloucester held 
the office of treasurer of England from 26 Feb. 
1432 to July 1433. He died on 15 Nov. 
1455. By his wife Elizabeth (d, 1466), 
daughter of Sir Thomas Chaworth of Wiver- 
ton, Nottinghamshire, he had three sons and 
two daughters. The only surviving son, 
Thomas (1429 P-1475), succeeded him a,s fifth 
baron, married about 1453 Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Ralph, seventh lard Greystock, and 
perhaps for that reason (his father-in-law 
being a Lancastrian) did not definitely throw 
in his lot with the Yorkist cause until the ac- 
cession of Edward IV ; his four sons, Thomas, 
Ilenry, Ralph, and Geoffrey (a clerk), each 
in turn held the barony. On the death, 
without issue, in 1517 of Geoffrey, ninth 
baron, the title fell into abeyance between 
bis three sisters (or their issue) : Alice, wife 
of Sir James Strangways of Harlcsey ; Mar- 
garet, wife of Sir Christopher Banby of 
Thorpe Perrow 5 and Elizabeth, wife 01 Sip 
Ralph Fitz-Itandolph of Spemiithorno. 

[Rotuli ParHamentorum ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
original edition ; Ordinances of the Privy Coun- 
cil, od. Nicolas ; Scrope and G-rosvenor Roll, 
ed. Nicolas, ii. 133, 136; TastaTm'nta Ebora- 
censia (Surtees Soc.) ; Dugdale's Baronage; Tan- 
ner's Bibliotheca Briton meo-Hiberniea; L& 
Neve's "Fasti Bccleaiae Anglicanse.] J. T-r, 

SCROPE, HENRY IB, ninth BABOS 
SCROPE op BoitfON (1834-1592), was the 
second and eldest surviving 1 son of John le 
Sorope, eighth baron (d. 1549), who had 
"been oxit in the pilgrimage of grace, by Cathe- 
rine, eldest daughter of Henry Clifford, first 
earl of Cumberland. John le Scrope, fifth 
'baron Scrope of Bolton [q. v.], was ms great>- 



great-grandfuther. Born in 1534, Scrope 
acted as marshal of the army which Eliza- 
beth sent in March 1560 to assist the Scot- 
tish protestants in the siege of Leith. Two 
years later he was appointed governor of 
Carlisle and warden of the west marches 
offices which he held to the end of his life. He 
served as the intermediary in Elizabeth's 
secret intrigues against the regent Moray in 
1567. When next year the news of Mary 
Stuart's flight and warm reception at Car- 
lisle reached Elizabeth, Scrope, then in Lon- 
don, was at once ordered back to his post, in 
company with Sir Francis Knollys [q. v.], to 
take charge of the too fascinating fugitive. 
The border position of Carlisle necessitated 
her removal on L3 July to Scrope's castle at 
Bolton in Wensleydale, < the highest walled 
castle ' Knollys ' had ever seen.' Here she 
prepared her defence with Lesley and Mel- 
ville, and received encouraging messages 
from the Duke of Norfolk through his sister, 
Lady Scrope, who seems also to have con- 
veyed to hor the surest ion of a marriage 
with Norfolk. On 20 Feb. 1500 Mary was 
removed to Tut bury. Lady 8crope's" rela- 
tionship to Norfolk/ the proximity of Bolton 
to Scotland, and the Catholicism of the neigh- 
bouring families, made it an unsafe place of 
keeping. Local tradition asserts that Mary 
once escaped and got m far a what is now 
known a the '(Juoen's Gap' on Leyburn 
Shawl before she was overtaken. A few 
months later the Earls of Northumberland 
and Westmorland made thpir ill-starred at- 
tempt to rescue Iwr from Tutbury. Though 
the latter was his wilVs brother-in-law, 
Scrope was active iti the suppression of the 
rifting, and forwarded to Cecil an appeal made 
bv 'Westmorland in a letter to Lady Scrope 
(CaL State Paprrs, 1/3H6-79, p. 210). In 
the spring of 1570 he ravaged ISskdale and 
Annandale (FROITD&, ix, L>(56) He occurs 
as a member of the council of the north in 
1574 (Cal. State Papery p. 463), received 
the Garter on 23 April 1584, and retained 
the wardettflhip of tlm wat marches until 
his death in IftOi (to. 1 591-4, p, 125; CAM- 
DEN, j>, 468 ; l)uw>AU3, i. 657). The date is 
Hometi mes apparently incorrectly given 
as 10 May 1591 (Httt/ns, p, clxxxiii). At 
Bolton Hall are portraits of Scrope (set, !22) 
and hi^two wives. lie married, first, Mary 
(d, 1558), daughter of Edward, first baron 
North [q, v,l, by whom ho had a daughter 
Mary, who became the wife of William 
Bowes of 8f reattawi, near Barnard Cattle ; 
and, secondly, Margaret (d, 1592), daughter 
of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey [q. v,j, the 
poet, by whom he left two aons, Thomas and 
Ilenry* Thomas (d. 1601)) succeeded him as 



Scrope 



141 



Scrope 



tenth baron, and was the father of Emmanuel 
Scrope (1584-1630), who was created earl 
of Sunderland on 19 June 1627, and, leaving 
no legitimate issue, was the last of his line. 
Some of the family estates passed to Lord 
Snnderland's illegitimate daughters, Mary, 
wife of Charles Paulet, first duke of Bolton 
[q.v.l, and Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Savage, 
third earl Rivers. 

[Gal. State Papers ; Scrope and Grosvenor 
Roll, ed. Nicolas, 1832; Camden's Annals of 
Elizabeth's Reign, ed. 1675; Bugdale's Baron- 
age; Beltz's Memorials of the Order of the 
Garter ; Grainge's Castles and Abbeys of York- 
shire ; Fronde's Hist, of England.] J. T-T. 

SCROPE, JOHN LE, fifth BAEON SCBOPE 
OF BOLTON (1435-1498), was son of Henry, 
fourth "baron, by Elizabeth, daughter of his 
kinsman, John, fourth lord Scrope of Masham, 
and was born on 22 July 1435 [see under 
SCBOPE, HENKY LE, 1370-1415], Inheriting 
the Yorkist politics of his father, who died 
on 14 Jan. 1459, he fought with "Warwick 
at Northampton and was 'sore hurt' at 
Towton (Paston Letters, ii. 5). Edward IV 
gave him the Garter which had belonged to 
his father, the Duke of York. He took part 
in the gradual reduction of the Lancastrian 
strongholds in the north, and may have been 
at the battle of Hexharn in 1464 (WAVEiff, 
p. 441). 

Scrope was aggrieved, however, that Ed- 
ward did not rest ore to him the lordship of the 
Isle of Man, of which his family had been 
divested by Henry IV, and in 1470 he began 
to raise Richmond shire for the recalcitrant 
Nevilles. But on Warwick being driven out 
of the country he made his peace, and, though 
he adhered to Warwick during the short 
Lancastrian restoration, Edward overlooked 
his inconstancy and employed him in nego- 
tiations with Scotland in 1473. In 1475 he 
accompanied the king to France. As he still 
persisted in quartering the arms of Man, he 
was ordered to relinquish them during the 
expedition, without prejudice to his right, if 
any (JFcsdera, xii. 2). In the next year he 
went on a mission to Rome with Earl Rivers 
(Paston Letters, iii. 162). He held a com- 
mand in the Duke of Gloucester's invasion 
of Scotland (1482), and took part in the sub- 
sequent negotiations with the Duke of Albany.- 
Gloucester, when king, sought to confirm 
Serope's support by a grant of lands in the 
south-west, with the constableship of Exeter 
Castle. He was also governor oi the Pleet. 
Nevertheless he kept his position under a fifth 
king. In 1492 he was retained to go abroad 
with Henry VII, and as late as August 1497 
assisted in raising the siege of N orham Castle. 
Scrope died on 17 Aug. 1498* 



His first wife, whom he married before 
1463, was Joan, daughter of William, fourth 
lord Fitzhugh (d. 1452) of Ravensworth 
Castle, Richrnondshire. She bore him a son, 
Henry, sixth baron of the Bolton line, and 
father of the seventh baron, t stern and 
stout/ who fought at Flodden, and whose 
portrait is still at Bolton Hall. 

Scrope married, secondly, Elizabet h, daugh- 
ter of Sir Oliver St. John (by Margaret, 
widow of John Beaufort, duke of Somerset) 
and widow of William, lord Zouche of 
Haryngworth (d. 1463). She was still living 
in 1488 ( Rot. Parl vi. 424). By her he had 
a daughter Mary, who married Sir William 
Conyers of Hornby. His third wife was 
Anne, daughter and heiress of Sir Robert 
Harling of East Harling in Norfolk, and 
widow of Sir William Chamberlayne, K.G., 
and Sir Robert Wingfield. She survived 
Scrope only a few weeks. 

A daughter Agnes married, first, Chris- 
topher Boynton ; and, secondly, Sir Richard 
Radclitie [q. v.], the adviser of Richard III. 

[Rotuli Parliament orum ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
original edit.; Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, ed. 
Nicolas, ii. 61, 76 ; Testamenta Eboracensia (Sur- 
tees Soc.) f iii. 94, 149 ; Ramsay's Lancaster and 
York ; other authorities in the text.] J. T-T. 

SCROPE,JOHNa662?-1752),judge,son 
of Thomas Scrope or Bristol, a scion of the 
family of Scrope or Scroop of Wormsley, 
Oxfordshire [see SCEOPE, ADRIAN], was born 
about 1662. Bred a strong protestant, he 
entered the service of the Duke of Mon- 
mouth, and carried despatches, in the dis- 
guise of a woman, between Holland and Eng- 
land. On the revolution of 1688 he entered 
himself at the Middle Temple, where he 
was called to the bar in 1692. .On 13 May 
1708 he was appointed baron of the newly 
constituted court of exchequer in Scotland, 
with a salary of 5002. a year and 1000/. a 
year for giving up his practice at the Eng- 
lish bar. lie "was also one of the commis- 
sioners of the great seal in the interval 
(20 Sept~19 Oct. 1710) between its surrender 
by Lord Cowper and its delivery to his suc- 
cessor, Sir Simon Harcourt. Chi 28 March 
1722 he was returned to parliament for Ripon, 
but retained his Scottish judgeship until 
25 March 1724, when he resigned, having on 
the preceding 21 Jan. received the post of 
secretary to the treasury ; he held the latter 
until his death. In 1727 he was returned 
to parliament for Bristol, of which he was 
afterwards elected recorder* Scrope is cha- 
racterised by Tindal (cited in Parl. RisL 
viii. 1196) as 'perhaps the coolest, the most 
experienced, faithful, and sagacious friend 
the minister (Walpole) had, 7 He adds that 



Scrope 



142 



Scrope 



< he was greatly trusted in all matters of the j 
revenue, and seldom or never spoke but to 
facts, and when he was clear in his rcoint.' 
On his motion on 23 April 1729 an incre- 
ment of 116,000*. was voted for the civil 
list ; he defended the salt duty bill against 
Pnlteney's criticisms on its second reading, 
2 March 1731-2 ; he supported the motion 
for the exclusion of Ireland from the colonial 
su<mr trade, 21 Feb. 1732-3, and the subse- 
quent proposal (23 Feb.) to draw on the 
sinking fund to the extent of 5QO,000/. for 
the service of the current year. His fidelity 
to Walpole during the heated contests on 
the excise bill of the same year (14 and 
16 March), and the motion for the repeal of 
the Septennial Act, 13 March 1733-4, lost 
him the Bristol seat at the subsequent gene- 
ral election, when he was returned (30 April) 
for Lyme Regis, Dorset, which he continued 
to represent until his death. On Walpole's 
fall he was summoned by the committee of 
secrecy to give evidence as to the minister's 
disposal of the secret-service money, but de- 
clined to be sworn (14 June 1742), saying 
that he was fourscore years of age, and did 
not care whether he spent the few months 
he had to live in the Tower or not, but that 
the last thing he would do was to betray the 
king, and next to the king the Earl of Or- 
ford. On 8 Dec. 1744 he opposed the^ bill 
for doubling the taxes on places and pensions. 
He died on 21 April 1752. There is a por* 
trait of Scrope in the treasury, presented in 
1776 by the Bight Hon. George Onslow. 

Scrope was author of *Exercitatio Poli- 
tica de Give Protestante in Republica Pon- 
tificia ' (a tractate against the papal power), 
Utrecht, 1686, 4to ; and joint author with 
Baron Clerk of 'Historical View of the 
Forms and Powers of the Court of Exche- 
quer in Scotland,' Edinburgh, 1820, 4to [see 
CLBBK, SIR JOHN], 

[Oolltos's Peerage, Lii. 302 ; Visitation of Ox- 
fordshire (Harl. Soc.) ; Burnet's Own Time, 
1823, v. 34871.; Luttreli's delation of State 
Affairs, vi. 300, 304, 633 ; Walpole's Letters, 
ed. Cunningham, i. 176, 178, 198; Coxe's Me- 
moirs of Sir Kobert Walpole, ii. 619 ; Seyer's 
Bristol, ii. 577, 580 ; Parl. Hist. vin. 702, 1015, 
1196, 12H, 1328, ix. 482, xi, 441, xii, 825, xiti. 
1031 ; Hist. M$S. Oomra, 8th Rep. pt. i. A pp. 
pp. 79, 85; Swift's Works, ed. Scott, xvi. 64, 66; 
Gent, Mag, 1752, p. 192; Poss's Lires of the 
Judges ; notes fcindly supplied by G\ L. Ryder, 
esq.] J- M. R. 

SCROPE, RICHABD LB, first BAEON 
SCBOFB op BOLTON (1327P-1403), chancellor 
of England, was the third son of Sir Henry 
le Scrope (d. 1336) fa. v.], chief justice of 
the king's bench, and ms wife Margaret. At 



the age of seventeen (November 1344) he 
succeeded his eldest brother, William, in their 
father's estates. lie had already served with 
this brother in Brittany, but won his first 
laurels at Neville's Cross, where he was 
knighted on the field, after which he lost no 
time in joining the king before Calais. There 
was hardly a campaign in France or Scotland 
for forty years to follow in which Scrope was 
not engaged. He early attached himself to the 
service of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, 
in whose train he fought at Najara (1367), 
and in nearly all his subsequent expedi- 
tions down to 1 385. This association went far 
to determine the part he played in the critical 
domestic politics of the closing years of Ed- 
ward IIFs reign. On 8 Jan. 1371 Scrope 
who had once (13(>5) sat for his county in 
the commons was summoned to the upper 
house, and on 27 March succeeded Bishop 
Brantingham as treasurer on Sir Robert Thorp 
taking the great seal from William of Wyke- 
ham. This substitution of lay for clerical 
ministers was not particularly successful. 
It was Scrope no doubt who, on a tax upon 
parishes being proposed, estimated their 
number at forty thousand, while in reality 
there were only 8,600, lie laid down his 
ofllce in September 1375 to take up the 
(joint) wardenship of the west marches 
against Scotland. 

On Richard IPs accession Scrope became 
steward of the household, an oilice to which 
the minority gave unusual Importance. He 
figured prominently in the first two parlia- 
ments of the reign, in the second of which, 
held at Gloucester, the great seal was trans- 
ferred (29 Get, 1378) to him. He remained 
chancellor for little more than a year, giving 
way to Archbishop Sudbury on 27 Jan. 1380, 
and returning to the business of the Scottish 
border. But on 4 Dec. 1381 he again became 
chancellor and a member of the commission 
headed by Lancaster to inquire into the state 
of the royal household* But as the nominee 
of parliament and Lancaster (who between 
1380 and 1384 retained his services for 
life in peace and war), Scropo was soon at 
variance with the young king. He refused 
to soal Richard's lavish grants, and, when 
royal messengers demanded the^great seal 
from him., would only surrender it into the 
king's own hands (11 July 1382). He 
told Richard that he would never again 
take office under him (WALSMWHIAM, ii. 68). 
Retiring into the north, Scrope resumed 
his activity as warden on the border, and was 
in both the Scottish expeditions of 1384 and 
1885. It was on the latter occasion that he 
challenged the right of Sir Robert Grosvenor 
to bear the same arms as himself -viz, azure, 



Scrope 



143 



Scrope 



bend or. This was not the first dispute of 
the kind in which Scrope had engaged. At 
Calais in 1347 his right to the crest of a 
crab issuing from a coronet had been unsuc- 
cessfully challenged (Scrope and Grosvenor 
Holl, i. 62). Again, before Paris in 1360, a 
Cornish squire named Carminowe, who bore 
the same arms, had questioned his right to 
them. It was then decided that both were 
entitled to bear them Carminowe because 
his ancestors had borne them since the time 
of King Arthur, and because Cornwall was 
*un grosse terre et jadis portant le noun 
dune roialrne ; ' and Scrope because his fore- 
fathers had used this blazon since the days 
of William the Conqueror (ib. i. 50, 214). 
The bearings were simple, and their re- 
currence easily explicable in districts so iso- 
lated from each other as Yorkshire, Cheshire, 
and Cornwall. Nevertheless, after a trial 
extending over nearly five years [see under 
GBOSVENOR, SIB ROBERT, for details], in 
which doubts were thrown on the gentility 
of Scrope as the son of a ' man of law,' 
judgment was finally given (27 May 1390) 
entirely in his favour. He got his adversary 
excused a fine incurred by non-payment of 
the costs, and the two were publicly recon- 
ciled before the king in parliament. The re- 
cords of the trial and depositions of the 
witnesses, printed by Sir Harris Nicolas in 
1832, throw much incidental light upon the 
early history of the Scrope family and upon 
the details of Edward Ill's wars. Scrope's 
son, the Earl of Wiltshire, abandoned the 
crab crest for a plume of feathers azure, 
leaving the former to the Masham branch. 
There is an impression of the * sigillum de 
Crabb ' in the * Testamenta Eboracensia 7 
(ii. 187). 

The celebrated controversy had been in- 
terrupted by the political crisis of 1386-9, in 
which Scrope sided with the king's oppo- 
nents, and sat on their commission of govern- 
ment. His opposition at least was disinte- 
rested, for he spoke out boldly in parliament on 
behalf of his much maligned brother-in-law, 
Michael de la Pole, earl of Suffolk [q. v.] (Rot, 
Parl. in. 216-17). On Richard's resuming 
power and ruling with more deference to his 
subjects 7 susceptibilities, Scrope was more 
than once employed in negotiations with 
Prance and Scotland, and occasionally acted 
as a trier of petitions in parliament. But 
his advancing age induced him to devote 
much of his time to good works and the 
completion of his great castle at Bolton* 
The abbey of St. Agatha at Easby, close to 
Richmond, in which his father, its second 
founder, IB.J buried, had already experienced 
his generosity, He now (about 1393) set 



aside an annual rent of 100/. to provide 
twelve additional canons to pray for himself 
and his family. The fine late decorated re- 
fectory is said to have been his work ( Testa- 
menta JEbomcensia, i. 274). He got the 
church of Wensley made collegiate, and fur- 
nished the chapels of St. Anne and St. Os- 
wald at Bolton with a priest apiece (Dcro 
DALE, i. 655). His castle of Bolton, placed 
on the north side of "Wensleydale five miles 
west of Wensley, was now rapidly approach- 
ing completion. The license to creuelkte 
had been granted in 1379, but the contract 
with the builder is at least a year earlier. 
Though lie lived to see it finished, Scrope 

fassed most of his later life at l Scrope's 
nn, J Holborn, or at the manor of Pisho- 
bury in Hertfordshire, purchased in 1394 
(WYLIE, ii. 193). As the last stones of 
Bolton Castle were being placed in posi- 
tion, Richard took his belated revenge upon 
his old adversaries of 1386. But Scrope's 
former moderation or his eldest son's favour 
with the king procured an exception in his 
favour. On 29^ Nov. 1397 a lull pardon 
issued to e Sir Richard le Scrop, an adherent 
of the Duke of Gloucester ' (Fcedera, viiu 
26) . On the king's overthrow two years later, 
the odium incurred by Scrope's son as a chief 
agent of his tyranny threatened his father 
with a new danger. He appeared in the 
first parliament of Henry IV, and < humbly 
and in tears ' entreated the new king not to 
visit the sins of the son upon his father and 
brothers. Henry graciously consented that 
they should not be disinherit ed for "Wiltshire's 
treason (-Rot Parl. iii. 458). With one ex- 
ception on the occasion 01 the attainder of 
the conspirators of Christmas 1399 in January 
1401 this was Scrope's last public appear- 
ance. He died on 30 May 1403, and waa 
buried in the abbey of St. Agatha. ILL 
1 Testamenta Eboracensia ' (ii. 186) is a no- 
tice of a pension which he had to grant to 
a person seriously wounded by himself an4 
nis servants in York Minster, 

By his wife Blanche (d. q,fter 1 378), daugh- 
ter of Sir William dela Pole of Hull, Scrope 
had four sons, of whom the eldest, William, 
earl of Wiltshire (d. 1399), is separately 
noticed. 

The second son, Roger, succeeded him 
as second baron, but died in the same year- 
(3 Dec.), when his son Richard (b. 1393?), by 
one of the coheiresses of Robert, lord Tiptoft, 
became third baron; Richard's grandson waa 
John le Scrope, fifth baron Scrope of Bolton 

[<!' V 
The third son, Stephen, whom his father 

married to a second Tiptoft coheiress, became 
in her right lord of BenUey, near 



Scrope 



144 



Scrope 



and of Castle Combe, Wiltshire, where lie 
founded a family, which lias lasted to our 
own day [see SCKOPE, WILLIAM, 1772-1852], 
In 1397 he served as justice of Munster, 
Leinster, and Uriell. He was one of the few 
who remained faithful to Pachard II until his 
arrest, but under Henry IV became joint 
keeper of B-oxburghe Castle (1400) and de- 
puty-lieutenant of Ireland (1401). lie won 
a victory there at Callan in September 1407, 
and died of the plague at Castledermot on 
4 Sept. 1408. His widow married (January 
1409) Sir John Fastolf [q, v.] He left a son 
Stephen and a daughter Elizabeth (W?LIE, 
ii. 124, Hi. 162, 168; DBVON, Issues, p. 280; 
Testamenta Eboracensia, iii. 38 ; HOLINSHBD, 
Ireland, p. 66). 

The fourth son, Richard, is only mentioned 
in a deed, dated 31 Oct. 1300 (Scrope and 
Grosvenor Roll, ii. 53). In consequence of 
an ambiguous expression in Scropo's will 
(Testamenta Eboracemia, L 272), Richard le 
Scrope [q. v.], archbishop of York, lias often 
been considered his son, even since Sir Harris 
Nicolas's convincing proof of his real parent- 
age (Scrope and Grosvenor Hull, ii. 121). 

Some authorities doubtfully give Scrope a 
second wife ; but they are not agreed whether 
she was a Margaret, daughter of Sir John 
Montfort, or a lady named Spencer. The 
fact seems doubtful. 

[Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Bymer's Fc&dera, 
original edit.; "Walfiingham's Historia Angli- 
cana (Rolls Ser.) ; Testamenta Eboracansia (Sur- 
tees Soc ) ; Scrope and G-rosvenor Roll,od. Nicolas, 
2 vols. 1832 (the second volume contains pedi- 
grees of both branches of the Scropas, lives of 
their members down to 1405, and biographies 
of most of Scrope's witnesses) ; Quarterly Review, 
April 1836; Dugdale's Baronage ; Wylie'a Hi story 
of Henry IV.] J. T-T, 

SCROPE, RICHARD IB (I860 P-1406), 
archbishop of York, probably born about 
1350, was fourth son of Henry, first baron 
Scrope of Masham [c[. v], by his wife Joan, 
and was godson of Richard, first baron Scrope 
of Bolton [q. v.], who refers to him in his 
will as ' my most dear father and son T ( Test* 
JKbor. i 272; Scrope and Grvsvenor Itolt, ii. 
121 ; WYLIB, ii. 194 ; cf. Historians of York, 
iii. 288). He was thus uncle to Henry le 
Scrope, third baron Scrope of Masham [q. v.], 
executed in 1415. He is said to have gra- 
duated in arts at Oxford and in law at Cam- 
bridge (ib, ii, 306), The former statement 
lacks proof. By 1375 he was a licentiate in 
civil law, and by 1386 doctor m both laws 
(GODWIN, i.321; Ev33SHAM,p.71)> His uncle 
of Bolton presented him to the rectory of 
Ainderby Steeple, near Northallerton, in 1367, 
but he was not in deacon's orders until 1376 



( WHITAKBK, i, 260). In November 1375 he 
became an official of Bishop Arundel at Ely, 
and in 1376 warden of the free chapel in 
Tickhill Castle, then in John of Gaunt's 
hands (GODWIN ; HUNTER, i. 236). Ordained 
priest in March 1377, he is said to have held 
a canonry at York, and next year became 
chancellor of the university of Cambridge 
(LE NEVE, iii. 509 ; WVLTE, ii. 200). In , 
1382 he went to Rome, and was made audi- 
tor of the curia. Appointed dean of Chiches- 
ter (1383?), a papal bull on the death of 
"William Rede or Reade [q.v.] in August 
1385 provided Scrope to that see, and ap- 
parently the canons elected him (Li3 NEVE, 
i. 256 ; llio DKN, ix. UG). But the king insisted 
on putting iu his confessor, Thomas Rush- 
hook [q. v.], bishop of Llandaif. Scrope was 
still at Rome, and was nominated notary of 
tho curia on 28 April 1386 (WYLIB, ii. 201). 
Urban VI promoted him by bull at Genoa 
on 18 Aug. in that year to be bishop of 
Coventry and Liehfuild, and consecrated 
him next day (Fwdera, vii. 541). The tem- 
poralities were restored to him on 15 Nov. 
In August 1387 he was installed in the 
presence of Richard II, then on progress, and 
swore to recover the lost estates of the 
see and refrain himself from alienations. 
t Sure,' fluid Kichard, * you have taken a bi$ 
oath, my lord ' (Anylia Sw.ra, i. 450). He 
went on a mission to Scotland in 1392, and 
acted as a conservator of the truce with 
that country in 1394 (F&dem, vii. 765; 
IwueSj p. 247). In 1397 he journeyed to 
Borne to seek the pope's consent to Hichard's 
pet project of canonising Edward II (ib. 
p. 264). The king spent the following 
winter with him at Lieuiield on his way to 
the Shrewsbury parliament. On the death 
of liobttrt Wald'by [<|. v.], archbishop of York, 
Kichard ignored t he choice of the chapter, and 
at his request the pope translated Scrope 
thither by bull (2 June 1398). 

Acquiescing in the revolution of 1399, 

Scrope was a member of the parliamentary 

commission which went to the Tower ^on 

29 Sept. and received Richard's renunciation 

! of the crown. In parliament next day, 

j after an address on the text, * I have set my 

' words in thy mouth/ he read this surrender, 

and afterwards joined the archbishop of 

Canterbury in enthroning the new king. 

AVhen Henry, on his Scottish expedition in 

the summer of 1400, found himself straitened 

for money, Scrope exerted himself to fill the 

void (WytiB, i. 1&>). His loyalty would 

appear, however, to have been shaken by the 

discontent of the Perev t with whom he was 

closely connected. Not only were they 

imuwificeut benefactors of his cathedral 



Scrope t< 

church, but his younger brother, John, had 
married the widow of Northumberland's 
second son, and his sister Isabel was the 
wife of Sir Robert Plumpton of Plump- 
ton, a wealthy tenant of Northumberland, 
near Spofforth. Hardyng, a retainer of the 
Percys, claimed (p. 351), after Scrope's 
death, that their rising in 1403 was entered 
upon 'by the good advice and counsel of 
Master Richard Scrope.' But he does not 
seem to have given them any overt support. 
They appealed, indeed, in their manifesto to 
his testimony that they had in vain sought 
peaceful redress of their grievances, but they 
joined his name with Archbishop Arundel's 
(ib. p. 353). When Henry came to York to 
receive Northumberland's submission, Scrope 
celebrated high mass in the minster (ib. ii. 
211). It is hardly fair (WYLIE, ii. 210) to 
connect his presence (with his suffragans) at 
the translation of the miracle-working bones 
of John of Bridlington [q. v.] on 11 May 
1404 with the treasonable interpretation given 
two years before to the obscure prophecies 
attributed to this personage. Henry him- 
self had in the interval granted privileges in 
honour of the 'glorious and blessed con- 
fessor* (ib. i. 272 ; Annales, p.^388). 

Scrope joined the primate in stoutly re- 
sisting the spoliation of the church pro- 
posed by the ' unlearned parliament of 
October 1404. Mr. Wylie thinks that he 
attended a council of the discontented lords 
in London as late as Easter (19 April) 
1405 ; but this is putting some strain upon 
Ilardyng's words (p. 362). It is certain, 
however, that in taking up arms at York in 
May, Scrope was acting in concert with 
Northumberland and Bardolf, who took ad- 
vantage of Henry's departure for Wales to 
raise the standard of rebellion beyond the 
Tyne. One of the rebel lords, Thomas 
Mowbray, earl marshal [q, v.], was with 
him. the archbishop first made sure of 
local support by privately circulating a 
damaging indictment of Henry's govern- 
ment, which he declared himself ready to 
support to the death. It hit some very real 
blots on Henry's administration, and the 
known discontent which these had excited, 
and the high character of Scrope, gave 
reason to hope that the uprising would be 
general. Assured of armed support, he 
placarded York with the manifesto of the 
discontented in English. After a protest 
against holding parliament in places like 
Coventry under royal influence and inter- 
ference with free election, three heads of re- 
form were laid down. The estates of the 
realm, and particularly the clergy, were to 
be treated with less injustice, the nobles to 



Scrope 



be freed from the fear of destruction, and 
the heavy burden of taxation to be lightened 
by greater conomy and the suppression of 
malversation. If these reforms were effected, 
they had the assurance of the Welsh rebels 
that Wales would quietly submit to English 
rule (Annales Ilenrici, p. 403; WALSIJJ&- 
HAM, ii. 422). The procedure foreshadowed 
followed the precedent of those armed de- 
monstrations against Puchard II for the 
redress of grievances in which Henry him- 
self had engaged. If Scrope indeed were 
really the author of another and much 
longer manifesto at trib uted to him (Historians 
of Fork, ii. 292), he was not going to be 
content with less than the deposition of a 
'perjured king' and the restoration of the 
'right line.' But Mr. Wylie (ii, 214) has 
thrown great doubt upon his authorship of 
this document. It would seem to follow, 
though Mr. Wylie does not draw the con- 
clusion, that Scrope was not prepared to gx> 
the lengths which the Percys went when left 
to themselves, unless indeed we assume that 
his quasi-constitutional plan of campaign was 
a mere blind, like Henry's first declarations 
on landing in 1399. 

Scrope expounded his manifesto in the 
minster, the neighbouring clergy in their 
churches. Gentle and simple, priests tind 
villeins, flocked armed into York. The 
citizens rose in a body. The archbishop ap- 
peared among them in armour, urging and 
encouraging them to stand fast, with the 
promise of indulgence, and, if they fell, full 
remission of their sins. A ' day of assign- 
ment ' had been arranged with Northumber- 
land, but the rapid movements of the Earl 
of Westmorland and the king's second son, 
John, the wardens of the Scottish marches, 
disconcerted their plans. On 27 May Mow- 
bray, Scrope, and his nephew, Sir William 
Plumpton, led out their 'priestly rout,' 
which soon grew to eight thousand men, 
under the banner of the five wounds, to join, 
the forces gathering in Mowbray's country 
near Topcliife. But at Shipton Moor, some 
six miles north-west of York, on the edge of 
the forest of Galtres, they encountered the 
royal army. Westmorland, not caring to 
attack with inferior numbers, is said to have 
waited for three days and then resorted to 
guile. He sent to demand the cause of all 
this warlike apparatus. Scrope replied that 
their object was peace, not war, and sent him 
a copy of their manifesto. The earl feigned 
approval of its tenor, and proposed a personal 
conference with the archbishop between the 
armies. Scrope accepted, and took the re- 
luctant Mowbray with him. Westmorland 
assured him that nothing could be more 

L 



Scrope 



146 



Scrope 



reasonable than his proposals, and that he 
would do his best to get the king to adopt 
them. The little party then shook hands 
over this happy ending, and the earl proposed 
that they should drink together in order to 
advertise their followers of their concord. 
This done, he suggested that as all was now 
over, Scrope could send and dismiss his 
wearied men to their homes. Nothing 
loth, they at once began to disperse. Scrope 
did not realise that he had been duped until 
Westmorland laid hands on his shoulder 
and formally arrested him. This remarkable 
story is related by writers absolutely con- 
temporary with the events ; but Otfcerbourne 
(i. 256), who wrote under Henry V, repre- 
sents the surrender as voluntary. Another 
version, based on the report of an eyewitness, 
ascribed the treachery to Lord Fitzhugh and 
the king's son John of Lancaster, duke of 
Bedford [q. v.] (Historians of York, iii. 288), 
Scrope and his companions were sent to 
Pontefract to await the decision of the king, 
who was hurrying up from Wales. On his 
arrival Scrope requested an interview, which 
Henry refused, sending Sir Thomas Beaufort 
to take away his crozier, which he only relin- 
quished after a stiff tussle^ declaring that 
none could deprive him of it but the pope, 
who had given it (Annales Henrici, p. 407 ; 
cf. WALSINQHAM, iL 423). Determined 
that York should witness the punishment of 
those who had incited her to treason, Henry 
carried his prisoners (6 June) to Scrope s 
manor of Bishopthorpe, some three miles 
south of the city. Before leaving Pontefract 
he had appointed a commission, including 
Beaufort and Chief-justice Gascoigne, to try 
the rebels, to which the Earl of Arundel and 
five other peers were now added (WtUB, ii, 
230). Arundel and Beaufort received power 
to act as deputies of the absent constable 
and marshal The trial was fixed for Mon- 



day, 8 June. The archbishop of Canterbury, 
who arrived in hot haste early that morning, 
to deprecate any summary treatment of a 
great prelate of the church, was persuaded 
by the king to take some rest on tue under- 
standing that nothing should be done with- 
out his co-operation. But Henry was deeply 
incensed against Scrope, and Lord Arundel 
and Beaufort took care his anger did not cool. 
He called upon G-ascoigne to pass sentence 
upon Scrope and his Fellow-traitors. The 



three prisoners were brought before Ful- 
thorpe, Arundel, Beaufort, and Sir Ralp'i 
Euer, and Fulthorpe at once declared them 
guilty of treason, and by the royal orclt^r 
sentenced them to death ($., but tf.Annales 
Henrici, p. 409). 

Scrope repudiated any intention of injur- 
ing the king or the realm, and besought the 
bystanders to pray that G od's vengeance tor 
his death should not fall upon King Henry 
and his house. No time was lost in carry- 
ing out this hasty and irregular sentence. 
Atllrod in a scarlet cloak and hood, and 
mounted on a bare-backed collier's horse 
'scarcely worth forty pence/ Scrope was 
conducted towards York with his two com- 
panions in misfortune. He indulged in no 
threats or excommunications, but as he went 
he sang the psalm * Exaudi.' lie cheered the 
sinking courage of young Mowbray, and 
rallied the king's physician, an old acquaint- 
ance, on his having no further need for his 
medicine ( Ckron. ed. ilus, p, 46). Just under 
the walls of York the procession turned 
into a field belonging to the nunnery of 
ClomentUorpe. It was the feast of St. 
William, the patron saint of York, and the 
people thronged from the city to the place of 
execution and trod down the young corn, in 
spite of the protests of the husbandmen and 
Scrope's vain reauest that the scene ^might 
bo removed to ttie high road. While his 
companions met thtiir death he prayed and 
remarked to the bystanders that he died 
for the laws and good government of Eng- 
land. When Ilis turn came he begged the 
headsman to d<>ul five blows at his neck in 
memory of tho five sacred wounds, kissed 
him thrice, and, eomnumding his spirit to 
God, bant his nck for the fatal stroke 
(QASCMQKB, p, LW). As his head fell at the 
fifth stroke a faint smile, some thought, still 
played over his features (Amiatex, p. 410). 

\Vith the king's permission, his remains 
were carried by tour of the vicars choral to 
the lady-chapel of the minster, where they 
were interred behind the lust column on the 
north-eaft in the pot which became the 
burial-place of his family (Wraa, ii. 284). 
A more injudicious piece of complaisance it 
would be hard to imagine. It gave a local 
centre to the natural tendency of the dis- 
contented Yorfcskinsmen to elevate their 



chief justice, "who knew the law, refused to 
sit in judgment on a prelate (GASCOIGNB, p. 
226). Another member of the commission, 
Sir William Fulthorpe, a man learned in the 
law, though not a judge, was then instructed 
to act as president. While the king and 
Archbishop Arandel were breakfasting the 



fallen leader, the ft rat archbishop to die a 
traitor's duatlx, into a sainted ^ martyr. 
Miracles began to be worked at his tomb, 
the concourse at which grew so dangerous 
that after three months the government had 
it covervd with logs of wood and heavy 
atom* to keep the people off. This only gave 
rise to a new legend that an aged man, 



Scrope 



147 



Scrope 



whom Scrope in a vision commanded to re- 
move these obstacles, lifted weights which 
three strong men could barely raise (GrAS- 
COIGHSTB, p. 226). Subsequently the prohibition 
on bringing offerings to his tomb was re- 
moved, and they were devoted to the recon- 
struction of the great tower. The tomb 
still exists. Henry having averted the 
threatened papal excommunication, Scrope 
never received ecclesiastical recognition as a 
saint or martyr, despite the appeals of the 
convocation of York in 1462. But he was 
popularly known in the north as Saint Ri- 
chard Scrope, under which appellation mis- 
sals contained prayers to him as the * Glory 
of York ' and the ' Martyr of Christ.' 

Scrope's high character, his gravity, sim- 
plicity, and purity of life, and pleasant man- 
ners are borne witness to by the writers most 
fi iendly to the king (Annales Henrici, p. 403 ; 
"WALSIITGHA.M, ii. 269). Walsingham speaks 
vaguely of his ' incomparable knowledge of 
literature^ His manifesto, preserved only 
in a Latin translation, was meant for the 
popular ear, and the translator's criticism of 
the ' barbarousness and inelegance 5 of his 
original is probably a reflection on the Eng- 
lish language rather than on Scrope's style. 
A late York writer attributes to him several 
sequences and prayers in use in the minster 
( Historians of York, ii. 429). It was during 
Scrope's archiepiscopate that the rebuilding 
of the choir, in abeyance since the death of 
Archbishop Thoresby, was resumed and 
carried to completion. The Scropes, with 
other great Yorkshire families, were muni- 
ficent ^supporters of the work. An alleged 
portrait of Scrope in a missal written before 
1445 is mentioned in * Notes and Queries/ 
2nd ser. i. 489. A drawing in watercolours 
by Powell, from a stained-glass window 
formerly in York minster, is in the National 
Portrait Gallery. 

[There is a meagre notice of Scrope's earlier 
career in the Lives of the Bishops of Lichfield 
by Whitlocke (c. 1560) in Anglia Sacra, i. 450; 
a brief and inaccurate life is contained in the 
early sixteenth-century continuation of Stubbs's 
Lives of the Archbishops of York by an un- 
known author (Dr. JRaine suggests William de 
Melton [q. v.]) This is printed in the Histo- 
rians of the Church of York, vol.ii. (Rolls Ser.) 
The fullest and best modern biography will be 
found in the second volume of Mr. Wylie's 
History of Henry IV, though his judgment of, 
Scrope is perhaps too severe. It should be com- 
pared with Bishop Stubbs's estimate in his Con- 
stitutional History, vol. iii. There is a short 
life by Sir Harris Nicolas in the second 
volume (p. 121) of his edition of the Serope and 
Grrosvenor Roll, 1832. The chief original authori- 
ties are the Annales Henrici IV, Contiiiuatio 



Eulogii Historiarum, and Walsingham's Historia 
Anglicana in the Rolls Ser.,- Otterbourne's 
History and the Monk of Evesliam's Chronicle, 
ed. Hearne ; Thomas Gascoigne's Account of the 
Trial and Execution printed at the end of his 
Loci e Libro Veritatum, ed. Thorold Rogers, and 
confirmed in many points by the Chronicle 
edited by Dr. Giles, 1848; Gascoigne also pre- 
served, and his editor has printed, the exposi- 
tion by Northurnbf rland, &c , of the causes for 
which Scrope died. Another account, based on 
the report of an eyewitness, of Scrope's rebellion 
and execution is printed from a manuscript in 
Lincoln College, Oxford, in Historians of York, 
iii. 288 -91. A lament for Scrope occurs in Hymns 
to the Virgin (Karly English Text Soc. 1867), 
another was printed in the Athenaeum, 4 Aug. 
1888; Higden's Polychronicon (Rolls Ser.); see 
also Rymer's Fcedera, original ed. ; Devon's 
Issues of the Exchequer; Godwin, DePrsesuli bus 
Amrlise, ed. Richardson, 1743 ; L* Neve's Fasti 
Ecclesiae Anglicanse, ed. Hardy; Testam i nta 
Eborai-ensia(SurteesSoc.) ; Hunter's South York- 
shire; Wh : taker's Richmondshire ; Yorkshire 
Archaeol. Journal, viii. 311.] J. T-T. 

SCROPE, THOMAS (d. 1491), bishop 
of Dromore, was also called BRADLEY from 
his^ birthplace in the parish of Medburne, 
Leicestershire; in the Austin priory there 
he is supposed to have received his early 
education. His epitaph (WEEVER, p. 768) 
affiliates him to the noble family of Scrope. 
In the bull appointing him. bishop he is 
called Thomas Scropbolton (TANNER, p. 658), 
and the barons Scrope of Bolton were lords 
of Medburne and patrons of Bradley priory. 
His great age at his death and the arms 
on his tomb formerly in Lowestoft church 
(Scrope of Bolton quartering Tiptoft, diffe- 
renced by a crescent) suggest that his father 
may have been one of the two sons of 
Richard le Scrope, first baron Scrope of 
Bolton [q. v,], who married Tiptoft heiresses. 
Roger, who became second baron, had, how- 
ever, a son Thomas who was an esquire as 
late as 1448. Nor do the pedigrees give a 
son Thomas to Roger's younger brother, 
Stephen, ancestor of the Scropes of Castle 
Combe, and his wife, Millicent Tiptoft. He 
may perhaps have been illegitimate. 

It does not appear what authority Bale 
and Pits had for the statement that, before 
becoming a Carmelite at Norwich, Scrope had 
been successively a Benedictine monk and a 
Dominican friar. Possibly his dedication of 
two of his works on the Carmelite order to 
Richard Blakney, a Benedictine, suggested 
his having been a membtr of the same order 
(TANNER). One of these books was written, 
as early as 1426. He dedicated a translation 
of a foreign treatise on hib order to Cyril Gar- 
land, prior of the Norwich Carmelites. But 

L2 



Scropc 



148 



Scrope 



before the date just mentioned he had 
adopted the stricter life of an anchorite, and 
about 1425 excited the indignation of Thomas 
better or Walden [q. v.] by going about the 
streets clothed in sackcloth and girt with 
an iron chain, crying out that 'the New 
Jerusalem, the Bride of the Lamb, was 
shortly to come down from heaven prepared 
for her spouse.' According to his epitaph, 
he was drawn from his retirement by Eu- 
genius IV, to whom he dedicated another of 
his books. It was probably Eugenius who 
sent him as a papal legate to lihodes. Ni- 
cholas V in January 1449 (? 1450) made him 
bishop of Dromore in Ireland, and he was con- 
secrated at Rome on 1 Feb. 1450 (TANNER ; 
cf.WARE,i. 261). He still held that see when, 
on 24 Nov. 1454, he was instituted to the 
rectory of Sparham, Norfolk. He is usually 
said, on the authority of Pits, to have re- 
signed Dromore about 1400, but there is some 
reason to suppose that this date is too late 
[see under MistN, RICHARD], He had been 
vicar-general of the bishop of Norwich since 
1450, and remained his suffragan until 1477 
(STITBBS, ReffMtrvw, Sacrum, p. 148 ; TANNER). 
lie was instituted to the vicarage of Trowse, 
Norfolk, on 3 June 1466, and collated to 
that of Lowestpffc on 27 May 1478 (ib.) In 
his old age he is said to have given all his 
goods to pious works, and to have gone 
about the country barefoot every Friday in- 
culcating the law of the decalogue (BALE). 
He died on 25 Jan. 1491, nearly a hundred 
years old, and was buried in Lowestoft 
church. A long Latin epitaph was inscribed 
on his monument. 

Scrope wrote : 1. ' De Carmelitarum In- 
stitutione.' 2. * De Sanctis Patribus Or<U iris 
Carmeli' (Bodl. MS. Laud, G. 9), written 
in 1426. 3. ' De Origine et Vita Sanctorum 
xvii Ordinis Carmeli/ 4. Another work on 
the same order, dedicated to Eugenius IV, 
of which Bale had a manuscript. 5. ' Com- 
pendium Historiarum et Jurium/ in nine 
books. 6. 'Privilegia Papalia/ 7. <De 
Fundatione, Antiquitate, Regula et Confir- 
matipne ordinis Oanneli' ('MS. olim in 
auctione Oecilhy note by TANNER). 8. * De 
Seetarum Introitu ad Angliam/ 9. * De sua 
Profectione ad Bhodios.' 10. * Sermones de 
Decem Prseceptis/ 11. An English version 
of the * De peculiaribus Carmelitarum Q-estis 
of Philippe Hibot of Chalons (MS. Lamb 
192 f.), dedicated to Cyril Garland. 

[Scrope and Gtosvenor Boll, ed. Nicolas. 5i 
72; Inland's Commentarii de Scriptoribus 
Britanmcis ; Bale's Scriptores Majoris Bri 



; Pits, Be Ilhistr. Anglise Scriptoribus 
Tanner's Bibliotheca BriTnnicoHibernica 7 
Fuller's Worthies ; Ware's Catalogue of Irish 



bishops; Cotton's Fasti Ecclesue Hihornicte, iii. 
278 ; Nichols's History of Leicestershire, ii. 609 ; 
Store's History of Rutland; Tanner's Notitia 
Monastics, ed. 1787; Blomefield's Norfolk.] 

J. T-T. 

SCROPE, WILLIAM LE, E AKL OP WILT- 
SHIRE (1851 P-1399), was eldest son of Itt- 
chard, first baron Scrope of Bolton [q. v.], by 
Blanche de la Pole, sister of Michael, earl of 
Suffolk [q. v.] The date of his birth is ini- 
niown, lout cannot have been much after 1350 
f he was with John of Gaunt in his dash upon 
Sarfleur in 1369 (Scrope and Grosvcnor Hott, 
i. 106). Four years later (July 1373) Scrope 
accompanied John into Q-uienne, and was 
ihere again in 1378 (ib. pp. 118, 122, 136). 
Die seems to have passed thence into Italy to 
she camp of Charles, duke of Durazzo, who, 
^n command of his uncle Louis of Hungary's 
armies, was co-operating in 1 379 with the 
Genoese fleet in a great blockade of Venice 
(ib. i. 172; BAKU, JUstoire de Fenise, ii. 
1:22). Whether his crusade to Prussia pre- 
ceded or followed this adventure there are 
no means of determining (Scrope and Gros- 
vettor Roll, i. 172). lie was made seneschal 
of Gascony on 28 May 1388, and held this 
office until 1892. ' From JL386 to 1389 he 
combined with it the captaincy of Cherbourg, 
and from tha latter date that of Brest, lie 
was not continuously absent from England 
during these years, however, for about 1389 
he did some injury to the bishop of Durham 
and his servants, sufficiently grave to be 
atoned for by presenting a jewel wort JL 50(U 
at the shrine of St. Cuthtert (DUGDALE, i. 
601). On his final return Richard made 
him vice-chamberlain of the household (Fe- 
bruary 1393) and, after a fashion set in the 
previous reign, retained his services for life 
in consideration of a grant of the castle, 
town, and barton of Maryborough in Wilt- 
shire, In the same year Scrope bought the 
Isle of Man ' with its crown ' (his legal title 
was Dominus de Man) from the childless 
William Montacute, second earl of Salisbury 
[q, v.], and subsequently figured in treaties as 
one of the allies of his sovereign (S r r, DENYS, 
ii. 364). He quartered the legs of Man with 
the arms of Scrope. * Miles -providus et 
preedives* the chronicler calls him (Annales 
llimr&i II, p. 157), His position in the 
household, and posnibly his relationship to 
Richard's former friend Suffolk, gave Scrope 
the ear of the king. In 1394 he became con- 
stable of Beaunmris, a knight of the Garter, 
and constable of Dublin Castle. Crossing to 
Ireland with Hichard, he was promoted (Janu- 
ary 1395) to be chamberlain of the household, 
and made chamberlain of Ireland (June 1 395 ). 
With the Earls of Eutland and Notting- 



Scrope 



149 



Scrope 



1mm, Scrope negotiated the French marriage 
(liJ9G) which contributed so greatly to Ri- 
chard's unpopularity. He returned from 
another French mission in the spring of 
1397 to become one of the chief agents of 
Ilichard's long-delayed vengeance upon his 
old antagonists of 1388. Scrope was one 
of the seven who appealed Gloucester, 
Arundel, and Warwick of treason at xTot- 
tinghain in August, and again, clothed in 
suits of the king's colours, before the famous 
September parliament of that fatal year. 
"Warwick was sentenced to perpetual impri- 
sonment under his care in the Isle of Man. 
His servants were accused of treating the 
earl inhumanly. Scrope's reward was the 
earldom of Wiltshire (the only county in 
which he had as yet estates) and a share of 
the confiscations. As a special favour, his 
earldom was granted (29 Sept.) to him and 
his heirs male for ever, while the other ap- 
pellants received peerages limited to the heirs 
male of their bodies. Barnard Castle in the 
bishopric of Durham, Pains Castle and other 
lands in the march of Wales, and two Essex 
manors (all of which had belonged to War- 
wick) fell to his share, along with several 
lucrative offices in Wales and the newly 
created principality of Chester (DUGDALE, i. 
662 ; Rot. Parl. iii. 354). In the adjourned 
session at Shrewsbury (January 1398) Ri- 
chard forced Wiltshire on the clergy as their 
proctor, and appointed him ambassador to 
Scotland and captain of Calais Castle. On 
17 Sept. he became treasurer of England. 
John of Gaunt dying in February 1399 and 
his banished son being disinherited, Wiltshire 
received custody of his castles of Pickering 
and Knaresborougrh with the curious Quali- 
fication * to hold till such time as the JDuke 
of Hereford 'shall by law recover them out 
of the king's hands ' (DuGDAXE, i. 662 ; Trai- 
son, p. 286). Before starting for Ireland, 
Richard appointed Wiltshire an executor of 
his will with a legacy of two thousand 
.marks, and left him to assist the regent (the 
Duke of York). On hearing of Henry of Lan- 
caster's landing, York gathered troops to take 
the field against him, and told off (12 July) 
Wiltshire, with Sir JohnBussy, Sir Thomas 
Green, and Sir William Bagot, to guard the 
young queen at Wallingford (Fcedera, viii, 
83). But Henry's rapidity and the recalci- 
trance of York's troops compelled a change 
of plan, and they all went into the west to 
await Bichard's arrival. While the regent 
halted at Berkeley, Wiltshire and his "three 
companions pushed on to Bristol. On 28 July 
Henry appeared before the city and sum- 
moned Sir Peter Courtenay to surrender the 
castle, promising free egress to all but Wilt- 



shire, Bussy, and Green (Bagot had escaped). 
On these terms the castle was given up and 
the three put under arrest. Next day, in 
deference, it is alleged, to the clamour of the 
populace, who would gladly have torn them 
limb from limb, and in view of the danger of 
carrying them about in the pursuit of Ri- 
chard, who had now landed, they were given 
a hasty trial before a court purporting to be 
that of the constable and marshal, condemned 
as traitors, and immediately executed (An- 
nalesj p. 246; EVESHAM, p. 153). Henry 
sent their heads to London. Even the 
friendly annalist betrays an uneasy con- 
sciousness that this short shrift was not 
readily justified. Henry had probably not 
yet claimed the crown, and the judges were 
only constable and marshal designate, the 
actual holders of these offices being with, the 
king. The fact that part of the inheritance 
wrongfully withheld from him was in Wilt- 
shire's possession must have given Henry a 
personal grudge against him. There is no 
doubt that in the popular mind Wiltshire 
and his three associates were specially identi- 
fied with Richard's later tyranny, and their 
unpopularity appears very clearly in the 
political songs and in ' Richard the Redeless* 
(ii. 154), where Langland alludes punningly 
to the short work that Henry made of the 
' Schroff [rubbish] and schroup.' The Lan- 
castrian historians are unmeasured in their 
denunciation of Wiltshire. The human race 
hardly contained one more infamous and 
cruel, according to Walsingham (ii. 213). 
He was charged with farming the royal es- 
cheats and planning the destruction ot many 
magnates in order to swell his profits (An- 
nales, p. 240). Norfolk had "brought this 
latter accusation against him in 1397 (Hot. 
Parl. iii. 360). But in the absence of proofs 
we may leave it doubtful whether he was 
quite so black as they painted him. 

His sentence was confirmed by an attainder 
in the first parliament of Henry IV (&. iii. 
353). The portrait reproduced in Scrope's 
* History of Castle Combe ; seems to be one 
of the set .of constables of Queenborough 
painted by Lucas Cornelisz [q. v.] under 
Henry Vin,-and is probably quite ima- 
ginary. Wiltshire left no issue by his wife, 
Isabel, daughter and coheiress of Sir Mau- 
.rice Eussefl of Dorset. All his lands being 
forfeit^, the king granted her a small pen- 
sion ($. iii, 383). She married, secondly, 
Thomas de la Ryviere ; and, thirdly, Stephen, 
Haytfield, dying on 1 May 1437. 

[Rotuli Parliatnentornm ; Eymer's Feeder^ 
original edit. ; Scrope and Grosvenor Boll, ed, 
Nicolas, 1832'; Walfein^ham's Historia Angli- 
cana and Annales Eicardi 1J (with Tiokelowc), 



Scrope 



Scrymgeour 



in Rolls Series ; Monk of Evesham, ed. Hearnc ; 
Chronique de la Traison (Bngl, Hist, Soc.) ; 
Dugdale's Baronage; Beltz's Memorials of the 
Order of the Garter ; Notes and Queries, 4th 
ser. iii. 437, 599; Nichols's Koyal Wills.] 

J. T-T. 

SCROPE.WILLIAM (1772-1852), artist 
and sportsman, son of Richard Scrope, D.D, ? 
was born in 1772. He was a direct de- 
scendant of Richard, first baron Scrope of 
Bolton [q. v.], lord treasurer to Edward III, 
and succeeded to the property of the Scropes 
of Castle Combe, Wiltshire, on the death of 
his father in 1787. In 1795 the Scrope estates 
of Cockerington, Lincolnshire, also passed to 
him [see under SCROPE, ADRIAN]. Scrope 
was an excellent classical scholar, a keen 
sportsman, and one of the ablest amateur 
artists of his time. lie painted views in 
Scotland, Italy, Sicily, and elsewhere, exhi- 
biting occasionally at the Royal Academy, 
and later at the British Institution, of which 
he was one of the most active directors. 
He was frequently assisted in his work by 
AVilliam Simson, R.S.A. [q. v.] Through- 
out his life Scrope was a devotee of deer- 
stalking and salmon-fishing, and he pub- 
lished two well-known boons, * The Art. of 
Deerstalking,' 1838, and' Days and Nights of 
Salmon-fishing in theTweed/ 1 843, both illus- 
trated with plates after Edwin and Charles 
Landseer, Wilkie, W. Simson, and others. 
They are valuable contributions to the lite- 
rature -of their subjects, and have been re- 
issued, the former in 1885, the latter in 
1883. Scrope rented a place near Mel rose, 
where he lived on terms of great intimacy 
with Sir "Walter Scott (LoCKHAltT, Life of 
Scott, 1845X He was a member of the 
Academy of St. Luke at Rome, and a fellow 
of the Linnean Society, He died at his 
Louse in Belgrave Square, London, on 20 July 
1852. He was the last male representative 
of his family. He married, in 1794, Emma 
Long, daughter of Charles Long, esq., of 
Grittleton, Wiltshire, and had an only daugh- 
ter and heir, Emma Phipps ; she married, in 
1821, George Poulett Thomson, who then 
assumed the name and arms of Scrope [see 
SCBOBE, GEORGE JULIUS POULETT]. 

[0ent. Mag. 1852, ii. 201 ; Athenaeum, 18.52, 
p. 800 ; G-. P. Scrope's History of Castle Combe, 
1852; Graves'fi Diet, of Artists.] F. M. O'D. 

SCBYMGEOim or SCBIMGEE, 
HENRY (1506-1572), professor of civil law 
at Geneva, was descended from the ancient 
family of the Scrymgeours or Serimgers of 
Budhope [see SCBYMGEOTTR, SIB JAMBS]. He 
was the second son of Walter Scrimger p] 
Grlasswell, provost of Dundee, and was born in 



:hat city in 1506. II is sister Isobel married 
Richard Melville of Baldo vie, and was mot her 
of James Melville [q. v.], professor of theo- 
logy at St. Andrews. Another sister, Mar- 
piret, became the wife of John Young, bur- 
jess of Edinburgh, in 1541, and her second 
son was Sir Peter Young of Seatoun, tutor 
of James VI. After a preliminary training 
in the Dundee grammar school, Scrimger was 
sent to the university of St. Andrews, where 
lie passed his course of philosophy with great 
applause. lie then proceeded to the uni- 
versity of Paris, and subsequently studied 
civil law at Bourges under Eginar Baron 
and Francois Duaven. There he formed an 
acquaintance with Jacques Amyot, professor 
of Greek and afterwards a cardinal. Being 
appointed secretary to Bernard Bocnetel, 
bishop of Rennes, he visited Italy with that 
prelate, who had boen appointed ambassador 
from the court of France. Though profess- 
ing the catholic religion, Scrimger had been 
influenced by the reforming spirit of his col- 
lege companions, George Wishart, George 
Buchanan, John Erskine of Dun, and Pro- 
vost Haliburton ; and while he was at Padua 
he came in contact with Francesco Speirn, 
who, it was stated, ' died under great horror 
of mind in consequence of his recantation 
of the protestant religion.' 

Having resolved to adopt the new doc- 
trines, he was invited by the syndics and 
magistrates of Geneva to settle there, and 
was appointed professor of philosophy. A 
year or two afterwards his house was burnt 
clown, and lie was reduced to great straits; 
hut two of his former pupils sent ^ him 
money, and Ulriek Fugger, a munificent 
patron of learning, invited him to Augs- 
burg, where, during a residence of several 
years, he formed a noble library of printed 
books and manuscripts. On his return to 
Geneva he resumed the duties of his pro- 
fessorship of philosophy in 1563. His name 
appears us one of the witnesses to Calvin's 
will in 1504, and he was nominated to the 
chair of civil law in the university of 
Geneva in 1565. The freedom of the city 
was conferred upon him, and on 3 Jan* 
1569-70 he was elected a member of the 
council of forty (Frogman* Bwgraphiques 
et Histpnques extmitx de$ Rcyistres du Con- 
*eil d'fitat de la Rtpublique de Gmkve, 1815, 

P- !) 

His nephew, James Melville, in an account 
of Andrew Melville, says: 'In Genev lie 
ahead fyve years. . , , Tlxer he was^ weill 
aequented with my earn, Mr, Hendrie Scrym- 
geour, wha, be his lerning in the laws and 
polecie and service of xnanie noble princes, 
haid attciucd to grait ritches, couquesit a 



Scrymgecmr 



Scrymgeoiir 



prettie roum within a lig [league] to Genev, 
and bigg-it thairon a trim house called " the 
Vilet," and a fear ludging within the town, 
quhilks all with a douchtar, his onlie bern, 
he left to the Syndiques of that town' 
(Autobiography and Diary, Wodrow Soc. 
1842, p. 42). He enjoyed the friendship of 
literary men of all shades of opinion through- 
out Europe, and was in close companionship 
with Calvin and Beza, as well as with George 
Buchanan, Andrew Melville, and*bther lead- 
ing reformers in Scotland. While at Geneva 
he composed valuable notes upon Athenaeus, 
Strabo, Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, the 
Basilics,Cornutus, Palsephatus, Demosthenes, 
Cicero's * Philosophica,' and Eusebius's * Ec- 
clesiastical History.' These Scrimger in- 
tended to publish ; but that intention was 
frustrated, owing to a dispute between him 
and Henry Stephen the printer, who sus- 
pected him of a design to set up a rival esta- 
blishment. Most of these notes came even- 
tually into the possession of Isaac Casau- 
bon, who published some of them as his 
own. Scrimger died at Geneva in Novem- 
ber 1572. 

Scrimger's only published works are: 
1. * Exemplvm Memorabile Desperationis in 
Francisco Spera propter abivratam fidei Con- 
fessionem, Henrico Scoto [i.e. Henry Scrim- 
ger] avtore/ printed in 'Francisci Spieree 
. . . Historia . . .' (Geneva ? 1549 ?), 8vo, 
pp. 62~9o (cf. Notes and Queries, 8th 
ser. viii. 433). 2. ' AvTOKparopcoi/ 'lovo-rwta- 
vovj *Iovarrivov, Aeovros veapal Starlets, 
\Iov(TTtvtavov eSi/era. . . . Ivstiniani quidem 
opus antea editum, sed nunc primum ex 
vetustis eKemplaribus studio & diligentia 
Henrici Scrimgeri^ Scoti restitutum atque 
emendatum, et viginti-tribus Constitutioni- 
bus, quae desiderabantur, auctum/ Geneva, 
1558, fol. Scnmger's text is the basis of the 
current edition of the ' Novellas' by Ed, 
Osenbriiggen, Leipzig, 1854. 

Scrimger bequeathed his manuscripts to 
his nephew, Sir Peter Young of Seatoun, 
whose brother Alexander brought them to 
Scotland in 1576. The care of this unique 
library devolved upon Dr. Patrick Young, 
and it is stated by Thomas Smith ( Vita II- 
Iwtrium Virorum, 1707, under 'Peter Juntas/ 
p. 4) that * the most valuable portions of it 
passed into public collections through his 
[Sir Peter's] son,, Dr. Patrick Young/ 
Scrimger's autograph f Commentaria in Jus 
Justinianeum/ his ' Collectanea Grseco- 
Latina/ and other manuscript works by him 
were sold in London at th,e dispersal of the 
library of Dr. Jonn Owen (1616-1 683) [q.v.l 
dean of Christ Church, on 26 May 1684 (i- 
bliotheca Oweniana, p. 32). 



[Btichanani Epistolse, 1711, p. 17; Dempster's 
Hist. Eccles. Gent. Scot. 1627. p. 586; European 
Mag. 1795 ; Irving's Lives of Scotish Writers, 
i. 176; Mackenzie's Scotch Writers, ii. 471; 
Michel's Ecoasats en France, ii. 262; Millar's 
Burgesses of Dundee, 1887; Moreri's Grand 
Dietipnnaire, 1740, vii. ' S.,' p. 200 ; Notes and 
Q-ieries, 5th ser. xii. 322, 402, 6th ser. i. 265; 
Senebier's Hist. Litteraire de Geneve, 1790, i, 
365; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 657; Teissier's 
Eloges des Hommes Savans, 1715, ii. 383; 
Terasson's Hist, de la Jurisprudence Romaine, 
1750, p. 431 ; De Thou's Hibtoria, 1733, iii. 69, 
70.1 T. 0. 

SCRYMGEOUE, SIR JAMES (1550 P~ 
1612), of Dudhope, constable of Dundee, 
was descended from Sir Alexander Oarron, 
called ' SMrmisheour/ who was standard- 
bearer to Alexander I (1106-1124), an office 
still held as hereditary by the representative 
of the family. Among Sir James's notable 
ancestors were Sir Alexander (d. 1310?), the 
companion4n-arms of Sir William "Wallace, 
from whom he received confirmation of the 
estate of Dudhope and the office of constable 
of Dundee in 1298 ; Sir James, who fell at 
the battle of Harlaw in 1411 ; James (dL 
1503), a prominent member of the Scottish 
parliament ; and James (d. 1544), constable 
and provost of Dundee, and also a distin- 
guished M.P. As the latter died without 
male issue, the succession fell to his cousin, 
John Scrymgeour of Glaister (d. 1575), who 
was the father of Sir James. He was re- 
turned as heir to his father's estates in 1576, 
and succeeded to the hereditary offices of 
constable of Dundee and ' vexillarius regis/ 
On 6 Feb. 1576 Scrymgeour was admitted 
burgess of Dundee, and for more than thirty 
years took an active part in national and 
municipal affairs. He was a man of indomi- 
table will, unscrupulous in his exercise of 
feudal power, and tyrannical towards those 
who opposed him. His name appears with 
ominous frequency in the register of the privy 
council, to which complaints were repeatedly 
jnade of his oppressions. He considered that 
the office of constable of Dundee gave him 
arbitrary control of the burgh ; and he often 
imprisoned in the dungeons of Dudhope Castle 
those who resisted his authority. On more 
than one occasion he was denounced as a 
rebel by the privy council, but his position as 
favourite of James VI enabled him to defy 
these sentences of outlawry. In 1582 he 
fell into the more perilous 'error of joining 
with the Gowrie party, and for this offence 
he was banished from the three kingdoms; 
but he fled to England and disregarded the 
futile attempt of the king to secure his exile* 
from England and Ireland. In 1586 he re- 



Scrymgeour 



152 



Scudamore 



turned to Scotland, and once more became 
tlie king's favourite. He formed one of the 
band of noblemen despatched to Denmark to 
arrange for the marriage of James VI with 
Anne of Denmark in 1*589, and was present at 
the wedding ceremony in Opsloe, near Chris- 
tiania, Norway. Scrymgeour was knighted 
for his services. After the death of James 
Hall burton (friend of the regent Moray) in 
1588, Scrymgeour became provost of Dundee, 
and was afterwards twice reinstated in that 
office by the direct command of the king. 
He sat as a minor baron in four conventions 
(1594-1604), and represented Dundee in the 
parliaments of 1600 and 1605 and Porfarshire 
in those of 1605 and 1607. He was subse- 
quently appointed one of the commissioners 
from Scotland to confer as to the union of the 
crowns, and seems to have enjoyed the full 
confidence of the king in this matter. Jlis 
formal return as heir to the constableship was 
not made till 16 Dec. 1010, wiih the purpose 
of having his son's right to the office rendered 
indisputable. He was twice married : first, 
to Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert Carnegie 
of Kinnaird, who died childless; and, se- 
condly, to Dame Magdalen Livingstone, 
widow of Sir Alexander Erskine of Gogar, 
who survived him and was mother of John 
(see below) (see Scottish Renew, xxii, 850-1), 
Scrymgeour died at Holyrood on 13 July 
1612. 

He was succeeded by his son, JOHN SCKY M- 
GEOUB, VISCOUNT DUDHOPB (d. 1643}. John 
did not take a leading part in politics. He 
represented Forfarshire in the parliaments 
of 1612, 1617, and 1621, and Argyllshire from 
1628 till 1633. He was one of the Fortar- 
shire barons that met James VI at Kinnaird 
when that monarch revisited Scotland in 
1617. On 15 Nov. 1641 he was created 
Viscount Dudhope and Lord Scrymgeour 
by Charles I when in Scotland. By his 
marriage with Margaret Setoun of Par- 
.broath, Fifeshire, he had two sons* His 
death took ]>lace on 7 March 1643. 

He has oiten been confused with his elder 
son, JAMBS ScftYMGEOTO, who succeeded as se- 
cond VIBOOTOI DuDHppE(^.1644) T and tooka 
more prominent part in politics. The latter'a 
character nearly resembled that of his grand- 
father. He was admitted burgess of Dundee 
on 9 July 1619. He was an ardent royalist, 
and was with Charles I at Marston Moor, 
where he received what proved to be a mortal 
wounfl. He died on 2-i July 1644, leaving 
a widow, Isabel Ker, daughter of the first 
duke of Boxburghe, two sons, and two 
daughters. 

The elder son, JOHN SOBYMGBOTTE, third 
VISCOUNT DUDHOPE and first E^RL off DUN- 



E (d. 1668), was one of the royalist loaclei-s 
during the civil war. In 1648 he joined 
with the Duke of Hamilton and General 
John Middleton, afterwards first earl of 
Midclleton [q. v.], in the attempt to rescue 
Charles I, and was present in command of 
a troop of horse at the battle of Preston. 
He succeeded in escaping to Scotland after 
the royalist defeat. He attended Charles II 
at StirlingjOastle in 1651, and marched with 
him to England on the expedition that ter- 
minated at Worcester. Again he escaped 
uninjured, and then he joined Middleton in 
the abortive campaign in the north in 16/34, 
He was captured in the braes of Angus by a 
party of Cromwelliim soldiers, and sent 
prisoner to London, where he was detained 
for some time. At the Kestoratiou his 
loyaltv was rewarded. He was made a privy 
councillor and created Earl of Dundee on 
8 Segt. 1660. lie survived till 23 June 1668. 
By his marriage in 1644 with Lady Anne 
Ramsay, daughter of "William, earl 'of Dal- 
housie, he had no children, and the title 
became extinct. Ilia widow married Sir 
Henry Bruce of Clackmannan, whose family 
is now represented by the Earl of Elgin and 
Kincardine. 

[I)<Mglfl8*8 Peerage, sub voce Scrymgomir; 
Register of Privy Council, vols, iii-viii.; Mil- 
lar's Boll of Eminent Burgees of Dundee, pp. 
49, 83, 109,164; Scrymgeour M8S. in Dundee 
Charter-room ; Reg. IvVug, fc% 1/546-1620 ; Fus- 
ter'e Members of Parliament of Scotland.] 

A. H. 11 - 

SCUDAMOBE, SIB CHARLES, M.D, 
(1779-1849), physician, third son of AVilliam 
Scudamore, a surgeon, and his wife Elizabeth 
Ilolfe, was born at Wye, Kent, where his 
father was in practice, in 1779. His grand- 
father and great-grandfather were surgeons 
at Canterbury, and descended from an ancient 
Herefordshire family seated at Ballingham 
in that county. He was educated at the 
ancient grammar school of the town, of which 
the Hev. Philip Parsons was then master, He 
began his medical education as apprentice to 
his father, and continued it at Guy's and St, 
Thomas's hospitals in Ixmdon for three years, 
after which ne settled in practice as an 
apothecary at Highgate, and there remained 
for ten years. He began medical study at 
Edinburgh in 181S, and graduated M.D. at 
Glasgow on 6 May 1814, reading a thesis 
*De Arthritide,' which was published at 
Glasgow in 1814. He was admitted a licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians of London, 
SO Sept. 1814, and began practice as a 
physician in Holies Street, London. He had 
some knowledge of chemistry, and in 1816 
published in London * An Analysis of the 



Scudamore 



153 



Scudamore 



Mineral Water of Tunbridge Wells.' In 
the same year he published the book by 
which he is best known at the present 
day, l A Treatise on the Nature and Cure 
of Gout/ dedicated to Matthew Baillie 
[q. v.] It is based on the author's observa- 
tion' of about one hundred cases of gout, and 
contains one of the first contributions to the 
study of the distribution of gouty changes 
throughout the body. He mentions that 
there were at the date of his graduation only 
five hackney carriages and less than twenty 
private carriages in Glasgow, 'and attributes 
the rarity of gout there to the constant 
walking even of the rich citizens. 

He is the first English author who men- 
tions the frequent presence of a circular 
chest, instead of an elliptical one, in persons 
subject to gout. These original observations 
are accompanied by an abstract of the chief 
books on gout and by many pages of obsolete 
pathological theories. He showed little capa- 
.city for observing disease at the bedside, but 
had acquaintance with morbid anatomy. A 
second edition appeared in 1817, a third in 
1819, and a fourth in 1823, In 1820 he 
published ' A Chemical and Medical Report' 
on several English mineral springs, and in 
that year was appointed physician to Prince 
Leopold of Saxe-Gotha. In 1824 he wrote 
'An Essay on the Blood/ in 1825 one 
* On Colchicum/ in 1826 ' Observations on 
Laennec's Diagnosis/ and in 1827 ' A Treatise 
on Rheumatism/ which is an interesting 
picture of the period when rheumatic fevei 
was beginning to be separated in medica 
writings from chronic rheumatism, and when 
the relation of heart-disease to rheumatic 
fever, though known from the clinical teach- 
ing of David Pitcairn [q. v.], was but imper 
fectly observed. Scudamore treated rheumatii 
fever by bleeding, purgatives, colchicum, tar 
tar emetic, opium, and quinine. He went tr 
Ireland in March 1829 in attendance on tin 
Duke of Northumberland, then appointee 
lord-lieutenant, who knighted him at Dublin 
on 30 Sept. 1829, He was also admitted an 
honorary member of Trinity College, Dublin 
during his stay in Ireland. In 1830 he pub 
lished a book of ,' Cases illustrating th 
Remedial Power of the Inhalation of lodin 
and Conium in Tubercular Phthisis/ of whicl 
a second edition appeared in 1834. He spen 
part of every year at Buxton, and was 
physician to the Bath Charity there, an 
published * An Analysis of the Tepid Springs 
of Buxton '(1820). In 1839 he printed a 
* Letter to Dr. Chambers' on gout, repeating 
his former views. In April and May 1843 he 
visited Grafenberg, and on his return pub- 
lished a small book on the water-cure treat- 



ment. His last work, published in 1847, 
was ' On Pulmonary Consumption/ in which 
totes of cases of small value are embedded 
n a mass of compilation. He married, in 
811, Georgiana Johnson, but had no cliil- 
.ren. He died in his London house, 6 Wim- 
pole Street, of disease of the heart, 4 Aug. 
.849. 



[Munk's Coll. of Phys. iii. 127 ; Medical 
Times, London, 1849, xx. 168 ; Works.] 

N. M. 

SCUDAMORE, FRANK IVES (1823- 
1884), post-otiice reformer and writer, the 
son of John Scudamore, solicitor, of an old 
Herefordshire family [see SCTJDAMOBB, JOHN, 
first VISCOITNT SCCDAMORB], by his wife 
Charlotte, daughter of Colonel Francis Down- 
man, li.A. and niece of Six Thomas Down- 
man [q. v.], was born at Eltham in February 
1823, and educated at Christ's Hospital. Sir 
Charles Scudamore, M.D. [q. v.], was his uncle. 
On leaving school he at once entered the post 
office (1841), and, on the amalgamation of 
the receiver-general's and the accountant- 
general's offices in 1855, was appointed chief 
examiner of the united department. In 1856 
he became receiver and accountant general, 
and while holding that post was, after 
George Ohetwynd of the money-order office, 
mainly instrumental in the elaboration of 
the scheme for government savings banks. 
Scudamore explained theproposed-inachinery 
to Mr. Gladstone, who, as chancellor of the 
exchequer, warmly adopted his^ scheme, and 
obtained the necessary authorisation from 
parliament in 1861. He wrote several small 
tracts to explain and popularise the induce- 
ments to thrift which the savings banks 
offered. A treasury minute of 5 July 1866 
testified to the value of his services to this 
and to the kindred schernes of government 
insurance and annuities. In 18t>5 he drew 
up a report upon the advisability of the state 
acquiring the telegraphs (which were then 
in the hands of a few private companies) 
upon the lines of a scheme first suggested 
by Mr. F. E. Baines, Throughout a series 
of delicate negotiations Scudamore was em- 
ployed as chief agent, and it was mainly due 
to his exertions that the way was prepared 
for the acts of 1868 and 1869; the first en- 
titling the state to acquire all the telegraphic 1 
undertakings in the kingdom, and the second 
giving the post office the monopoly of tele- 
graphic communication. In 1870 the Irish 
telegraphs were successfully transferred to 
the post office by Scudamore, under whose 
directions they were completely^ reorganised 
and brought into one harmonious system* 
In the meantime he had been prompted assis- 



Scudamore 



154 



Scudamore 



tnnt secretary (18C3) and soon afterwards 
second secretary of the post office, and in 
1871 he was madeO.B. Later on, his eager- 
ness for progress and impatience of obstacles 
led to some conflict of opinion, which waft ter- 
minated by his resignation in 1875. Among 
other changes made by Scudamore was the 
introduction of female clerks into the postal 
service, every department of which for at least 
ten years before his resignation had boon 
indebted to his energy and administrative 
ability. lie afterwards accepted an otter of 
the Ottoman government to go to Constan- 
tinople to organise the Turkish international 
post office, and projected some useful re- 
forms j the sultan conferred on him the order 
of the Medjidieh in 1877; but when, after 
interminable delays, Scudamore found that 
his projects were not seriously entertained, 
he gave up his post. He continued to live 
at Therapia, and found relaxation in literary 
work. His talent was shown as early as 
1861 by one of his happiest efforts, a lecture 
on the fairies, entitled * People whom we 
have never met.' Another diverting volume 
contains his papers, entitled 'The Day 
Dreams of a Sleepless Man,' London, 1875, 
8vo, His somewhat casual and allusive 
style appears to less advantage in ' France 
in the East ; a contribution towards the con- 
sideration of the Eastern Question' (London, 
1882), which is a plea for the good intentions 
of France in south-eastern Europe, and de- 
nounces the policy of preserving the inte- 
grity of the Ottoman empire. He also wrote 
largely in < Punch ' and in the ' Standard,' the 
'Scotsman,' the 'Comic Times,' and other 
papers. He died at Therapia on 8 Feb. 1884, 
aged 61, and was buried in the English ceme- 
tery at Scutari, He married, in 1851, Jane, 
daughter of James Sherwin, surgeon, of 
Greenwich, and left issue. 

[Times, 9 Feb. 188*; Ann. Beg. 1884 ; Kelly's 
Upper Ten Thousand, 1875 ; Barnes's Forty 
Years at the Post Office ; Spielmann's History of 
Punch, p. 361 ; private information.] T, 8, 

SCUDAMORE, JOHN, first VISCOTTKT 
ScvDAjioRE (1601-1671), eldest son of Sir 
James Scudaraore, who married, in 1699, at 
St. James's, Glerkenwell, Mary, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Throckmorton, and widow of Sir 
Thomas Baskerville, was baptised at Holme 
Lacy, Herefordshire, on 22 March 1601. 
The Holme Lacy branch of the Scudamore 
family probably diverged from the main 
stem settled at Kentchurch, Herefordshire, 
late In the fourteenth century. Another 
branch migrated to Canterbury about 1650, 
and from it are descended Sir Charles Scu- 
damore [q. vj, William Edward Scudamoro 



[cj. v.], and Frank Ives Scudamore [q. v.l 
Sir James was the son of Sir John Scuda- 
more (d. 14 April 1623) of Holme Lacy 
kniprht, M.P. for Herefordshire in five par- 
liamtmts, standard-bearer to the pensioners 
and gentleman usher to Queen Elizabeth, as 
his grandfather, in turn, John Scudamore 
(d 1571), high sheriff of Herefordshire and 
rebuilder of Holme Lacy, had been one of 
the four gentlemen ushers to Henry VIII. 
The Sir John of Elizabeth's day was a friend 
of learning, a benefactor of Bodley's library 
and an intimate with its founder, who praises 
his ' sweet conversation;' and a special 
patron of the mathematician, Thomas Allen 
(1542-103:2) [q. v.] (cf. Letters from Eminent 
JPmom, ii. 203). Sir James, the viscount's 
father, a gallant soldier, accompanied Essex 
to Cadiz, where he was knighted in 1596 
(OAMDEN, Annals, 1030, bk. Iv. p. 94 s.v. 

* Skidmore '). He was held up as a pattern 
of chivalry as Sir Scudamour in Spenser's 

* Faerie Qucerie,' the fourth book of which is 
devoted to his ' warlike deedes ' on behalf of 
l)uessa ; and he is similarly commemorated 
in Iligford's * Institutions of a Gentleman/ 
where is a picturesque description of his tilt- 
ing before Queen Elizabeth and a bevy of 
court ladies, * Famous and fortunate in his 
time/ says Fuller, he was M.P. for Here- 
fordshire 1004-11, and 1614, subscribed 371. 
to the Virginia Company, and, dying before 
his father, at the age of fifty-one, was buried 
at Holme Lacy on 14 April 1619,' 

John was educated under a tutor at 
Holme Lacy until KJ! tt, when, on 8 Nov., 
he matriculated from Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford t (he was created M.A. on 1 Nov, 1642), 
He is said to have entered at the Middle 
Temple in tho follovving year (though there 
is no record of this in the register), and he 
soon afterwards obtained license to travel. 
Having enmit about three years abroad, he 
was appointed by the Earl of Northampton 
to be captain of horse in Herefordshire, His 
family had been famous for generations for 
their horsemanship and breed of horses. On 
1 June 1620 he was created a baronet, and 
he was M.P. for Herefordshire in 1620 and 
1624, and for the city of Hereford in 1G25 
and 16:28. He was sworn of the council 
of the marches on 25 Aug. 1823. He soon 
became a person of mark at the new cout, 
and was specially attached to Buckingham, 
whom he accompanied on the llochelle ex- 
pedition. He sincerely lamented the duke's 
death (of which he sent an early account in 
a letter to Laud), and was present at his 
funeral. On 1 July 1628 he was created 
Baron Dromore and Viscount Scudamore of 
Sligo,and shortly after Uis elevation retired 



Scudamore 



Scudamore 



to liis country seat. He was an assiduous 
student, learned in history and theology, but 
during his retreat paid much attention to 
grafting and planting orchards, and is cre- 
dited with introducing into his native county 
the redstreak apple 

Of no regard till Scudamore's skilful hand 
Jmprov'd her, and by courtly discipline 
Taught her the savage nature to forget, 
Hence styl'd the Scudamorean plant 

(PHILIPS, Cyder, bk. i. lines 503-6). A zealous 
royalist throughout his career, Scudamore 
was enthusiastically attached to the English 
church. Moved by the arguments of Sir 
Henry Spelman [q. v.], he repaired at great 
expense and endowed the dilapidated abbey 
church of Door (Dore), and restored the 
alienated tithes of several churches which 
his ancestor, Sir John, receiver of the court 
of augmentations under Henry VIII, ac- 
quired upon the suppression of the monas- 
teries (cf. STEPHENSON, Hist, of Llanthony 
Abbey, pp. 22, 27). He became a devoted 
admirer of Laud, who often visited him in 
, his journeys to and from St. David's when 
bish'op of that see, kept up a correspondence 
with him as archbishop, and co-operated in 
his plans for the rebuilding of St. Paul's. 

At the close of 1634 Scudamore was ap- 
pointed by Charles I as his ambassador in 
Paris. He sailed in June 1635, and was 
received graciously by Louis XIII, who pre- 
sented him with his portrait- and that of his 
consort, Queen Anne of Austria. The ex- 
penses of his journey and first audience 
amounted to 8&21. Shortly after his arrival 
Scudamore made a vain effort to purchase 
a valuable manuscript of the i Basilica ' 
(Basilica), or digest of laws commenced 
by the Emperor Basilius I in 867, and 
completed by Leo VI in 680. After 
the contract of sale was signed, Riche- 
lieu interposed to prevent this treasure 
leaving France (cf. MOBTTBETJIL, Droit By* 
zantin, 1844; Foreign Quarterly Review?, 
vii. 461), but Scudamore caused his son to 
translate ' The Sixty Sixe admonitory Chap- 
ters of Basilius to his sonne Leo/ which was 
printed at Paris in 1638 (the copy of this 
rare work in the British Museum bears the 
Scudamore armorial book-plate, but in the 
catalogue it is wrongly attributed to 
J. Scudamore, author of * Homer a la Mode'). 

In February 1636 Scudamore was directed 
to serve a writ upon Lady Purbeck (who 
Lad escaped the clutches of the .high com- 
mission and fled to Paris), commanding her 
to return to England. Richelieu again 
intervened, and .sent a guard of fifty archers 
for the lady's protect ion (Scudamore to Coke, 



March 1636, State Papers, French, ap. GAB- 
DINEB, Hist. viii. 145-6). 

During his residence in Paris Scudamore 
had a private chapel fitted up in his own. 
house, with candles and other ornaments, 
upon which severe strictures were passed 
(CLARENDON); he also gave some leading 
Huguenots to understand that the Anglican 
church deemed them outside its communion. 
It was doubtless to correct this bias that in 
1636 the staunchly protestant Robert Sidney, 
second earl of Leicester [q.v.], was joined to 
Scudamore in the emhassage. The ambassa- 
dors, however, managed to work harmoni- 
ously together. To Milton, Hobbes, and Sir 
Kenelm Digby, Scudamore showed many 
courtesies when they visited Paris. In May 
1638 he introduced Milton to Grotius, then 
Swedish ambassador in Paris ( MILTON, De- 
fensio Secunda), With the latter Scudamore 
was on confidential terms, arid he commu- 
nicated to Laud Grotius's scheme for a 
union of the protestant churches (Swedish, 
Danish, Norwegian, and English), excluding, 
however, the Calvinists and Presbyterians, 
for whom Scudamore had a special dislike. 

During the summer Scudamore announced 
the birth of Louis XIV, and paid elaborate 
compliments to the French queen, who ; had 
been childless during twenty-two years of 
married life. Notwithstanding these ameni- 
ties, a serious slight was shortly afterwards 
put upon Lady Scudamore by the queen, 
and the difficulty was only solved by Lady 
Scudamore's return to England. Scudamore 
himself hinted that his recall would be 
welcome ; this was granted at the close of 

1638, and he crossed to England in January 

1639. On his return to Holme Lacy he was 
met by a troop of horse from among his friends 
and tenants, was made high steward of Here- 
ford city and cathedral, and kept open house 
at Holme Lacy with great magnificence the 
followingChristmas. He continued his corre- 
spondence with Laud, who warned him * not 
to book it too much/ and with Grotius, and 
encouraged by his patronage Thomas Far- 
naby [q. v.], Robert Codringtpn ,[q. v.], and 
John Tombes [q. v.], who dedicated to him 
several works. In 1641 there was some talk 
of Scudamore being appointed to the vacant 
secretaryship of state. Foreseeing the ap- 
proach of the troubles, he laid in at Holme 
Lacy a stock of petronels, carbines, and 
powder. After the outbreak of the war in 
the west, in April 1643, he "betook himself 
to Hereford and put himself under Sir 
Richard Cave's orders. When, however, a 
few days afterwards, Waller made a dash 
for the city, most of Cave's men deserted, 
and he had t-o surrender at discretion. 



Scudamore 



Scudamore 



Scudamore was released upon condition of 
submitting himself to parliament in London* 
On going thither he found that his house 
in Petty France (a house adjoining that 
in which Milton subsequently wrote * Para- 
dise Lost') had been sequestered and all 
his goods seized and inventoried. He re- 
ceived news, moreover, that various outrages 
hud been perpetrated at his country houses 
at Llnnthony and Holme Lacy, but these 
were happily checked by Waller, who sent 
courteous apologies in answer to Lady 
Scudamore's remonstrance. Scudamore soon 
discovered his mistake hi appealing to par- 
liament. Irritated by the king's confisca- 
tion of Essex's estates in Herefordshire, 
they ordered the sale of his goods in Petty 
France and at the Temple, refused the tine 
that he offered, and committed him to the 
custody of the serjeant-at-arms. He re- 
mained in confinement for three years and 
ten months, when his affairs were settled 
tipon his paying a fine of 2,690/., his son 
James being subsequently included in this 
composition (November 1647 ; CaLfor Cowr 
poundvn$i 1643). In all, however, owing 
to the forced sales of his goods, the se- 
questrations, and his gifts to the royal cause, 
he ^stimated that he lost 37,69Q. by the 
civil war, quite apart from the munificent 
alms ^ which he distributed to distressed 
royalists. Scudamore was much broken by 
his confinement and by the wreck of the 
royalist fortunes. 

During his later years he devoted himself 
almost exclusively to study and to the 
seeking out and relieving of impoverished 
divines. Among those lie ' secretly ' bene- 
fited were Dr. Edward Boughen [q. v.l John 
Bramhall [q. v.l Thomas Fuller (1608-1661 ) 
ft. Y.I Canon Henry Rogers (1585P-1658) 
[q. v.l Dr. Sterne, and Matthew "Wren [q. v.l 
?cf. WALKED, Su/crinyt of the Clergy, p. 36 ; 
GIBSOK, pp, 110, 112, where are enumerated 
upwards of seventy clergymen in receipt of 
alms from him), From 1630 he allowed 



tinction under Prince Maurice, and success- 
fully defended Hereford in July-August 1045 
against Alexander Leslie, first earl of Leven 
[q. v.l The siege was raised upon the ap- 
proach of Charles on 1 Sept., when Scudamore, 
who was forthwith knighted, remarked that 
the Scotch mist had melted before the sun 
(Letter to the Lor dDiyby concerning the Siet/e 
I of Hereford, 1645, 4to). Less than four 
I months later (18 Dec.) the gates were opened 
j by treachery, but Scudamore crossed the 
! Wye on the ice, and escaped to Ludlow. 
Sir Barnabas died, impoverished in estate, 
on 14 April 1658. 

The tirst viscount's son, James, baptised 
on 4 July 1624, M.P. for Hereford in 164:* 
and for Herefordshire 1601-8, accompanied 
his father to Paris, where he spent some 
years after 1639, and died in his father's lite- 
time, in 1 668, at the age of forty-four. He 
appears to have been a friend of John 
Evelyn, To him has been wrongly attributed 
a vulgar parody in verse entitled * Homer j\ 
la Mode' (16ti4), which was the work of 
his distant kinsman, James Scudamore of 
Christ Church, Oxford (son of John Scuda- 
more of Kentchurch, 1603-1069), who was 
drowned on 12 July 16C6; he was at 
Westminster, and there is extant a curious 
letter from his grandfather to Busby asking 
the master's acceptance of a cask of cider 
(cf, NKIKOLS, Lit Xltwtr. v. 895 j 




many 

books and other gifts to the dean and chapter 
of Hereford* llishop Keimett stated that 
he gave in all not le?s than 50,OOOZ. towards 
religious objects. He died on 8 June 1671, 
and was buried in the chancel of Holme 
Lacy church. He married, on 12 March 
1614-1 5, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
Sir Arthur Porter of Llanthony, Gloucester- 
shire. She died, aged 52, and was buried at 
Holme Lacy in December 1651. Some six 
years later died Scudamore's younger bro- 
ther, Sir Barnabas, who served with dis- 



Alumni We&tvnon. p. 154). The first viscount 
was succeeded by his grandson, John Scuda- 
more (1050-1697); he married Frances, 
daughter of John Cecil, fourth earl of Exeter, 
by Frances, daughter of John Manners, earl 
of Rutland; the 'impudentest of woman,' 
wrote Lady Caraden, she ' eloped with a Mr. 
ComngHby, who waa thought to have got all 
Lord SldcJmore's children' (Rut land Paper*)* 
The peerage became extinct upon the death 
of the third viscount, James Seudamore, on 
2 Dec. 1716. lie was educated at Gloucester 
Hall, Oxford, where ho was contemporary 
with the poet John Philips and with An- 
thony Alsop, who dedicated to him in 1698 
his * Fabularum yEftopicaruxn Delectus ' 
(PiiiLrjps, 6y/<?r, 1791, p. t>2 ??.) He was 
M.P, for Herefordshire 1705-1715, and for 
Hereford 1716, and was created D.C.L. at 
Oxford on 12 May 1712, when Hearne met 
him, ' an honest man/ His widow died of 
small-pox in 1720, and her death occasioned 
Pope's allusion, 'and Scud'more ends her 
name'( Works^ ed. El win and Court hope, ii. 
486), her houses having been favoured re- 
sorts of some of Pope's circle. There is a 
fine portrait by Kneller of Lady >Scucla- 
more and her daughter at Sherborne Castle. 
Some of the second viscountess's character- 



Scudamore 



157 



Scudamore 



istics descended to her granddaughter, the 
last viscount's only daughter and heiress, 
Prances (d. 1750). She was born on 14 Aug. 
1711, and married, on 28 June 1729, Henry 
Somerset, third duke of Beaufort. In 1730 
an act was passed authorising the duke to 
use the additional name and arms of Scuda- 
more, pursuant to the settlement of the third 
viscount; but before this act came into 
operation the duke proved the incontinence 
of his wife and divorced her (cf. The New 
Foundling Hospital for *F#,1784; H. Wai- 
pole to Mann on this ' frail lady,' 10 June 
1742). Upon his death in 1746, Lady 
Frances married Charles Fitzroy (afterwards 
Scudamore), natural son of the first Duke of 
Grafton, and their daughter, Frances Scuda- 
more, conveyed the estates of the Scudamores 
to Charles Howard, eleventh duke of Norfolk, 
whom she married on 2 April 1771 ; she died 
a lunatic on 22 Oct. 1820. 

The portraits of the first Lord Scudamore 
and his wife, with those of other members of 
the family, and those presented by Louis XIII, 
are now at Sherborne Castle, Dorset. Some 
of the property passed through a daughter 
to the Stanhope family, whence the earls of 
Chesterfield, present owners of Holme Lacy, 
bear the name of Scudamore-Stanhope. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss; Wood's Fasti i. 263 ; 
Collins's Baronetage, 1720, ii. 175; CMlins's 
Peerage, 178 1, suppl. p. 422, andi. 211 ; Burke's 
Extinct Peerage ; G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage; 
Wootton's Baronetage; tt eat. Mag. 1805 i. 483, 
1817 i. 99-100 ; Chester's Marriage Licenses ; 
Nichols's Progresses of James I, Hi. 608 n, ; 
Collins's Letters and Memorials, 1746, ii. 28, 
97, 142, 174, 380-405. 440 sq.; Matthew Grib- 
son's View of Door, Horn* Lacy, and Hempsted, 
1727 ; Military Memorial of Colonel John Birch 
(Camd. Soc.); Spelman's Tithes, ed. 1647, 
Grotius' De Veritate, 1718, pp. 364-6 ; Huichin- 
eon's Herefordshire Biographies, 1890, p. 98 
C. J. Bobinson's History of the Mansions am 
Manor-houses of Herefordshire, passim ; Bun- 
combe's Herefordshire; Hoare's Modern Wilt- 
shire; auillim'sHemldry; Webb's History of th< 
Civil War in Herefordshire, passim ; Havergal'! 
Fasti Herefordenses, p. 184 ; Gardiner's Hi^t. o 
England and Civil War ; State Papers, Dom 
vols. 1635-43, passim; Masson's Life of Milton 
vol. i. passim; Wheatley and Cunningham' 
London, iii. 541; Brown's Genesis of Unitei 
States of America, ii.9$>8; ^notes kindly given b} 
W. R. Williams, esq., and by John Hut-hinson 
esq. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

SCUDAMORE, WILLIAM EDWARD 
(1813-1881), divine, only son of Dr. Ed 
ward Scudamore of an ancient family, for 
merly seated at Kent-church, Herefordshire 
and nephew of Sir Charles Scudamore 



M.I), [q. v.], was born at "Wye in Kent 
n 24 July 1813. Having been educated at 
school "in Brussels, at Edinburgh high 
chool, and then at Lichfield, he entered fct. 
ohn's College, Cambridge, as a sizar ou 
July 1831, and graduated E.A. as ninth 
wrangler in 1835. He was on 14 March 
837 admitted a fellow of his college, whence 
le proceeded M.A. in 1838. After serving 
or a short time as assistant master at Oak- 
lam school, he went to Minto in Roxburgh- 
hire as tutor in the family of Gilbert Elliot, 
econd earl of Minto [q.v.] He made in- 
luential friends in the north, and was in 
March 1839 presented to the living of Ditch- 
ngham in Norfolk, the patron of which is 
>ound under an old trust to elect a fellow 
of St. John's; he had been admitted to 
deacon's orders by the latitudinarian bishop 
Mward Stanley [q.v.] in the previous year. 
El is views were largely fashioned by the 
Dxfbrd movement, which found an exponent 
at Cambridge in John Fuller Russell [q.v.] 
BLe set to work to undo in his parish the re- 
sult of upwards of ninety years' neglect by 
non-resident rectors. He restored the parish 
church , built a school, and raised subscriptions 
for a chapel-of-ease in an outlying portion of 
the parish. In 1854, partly through his in- 
fluence, a small penitentiary, managed by 
sisters of mercy, was opened in Shipmeadow. 
In 1859 the penitentiary was transferred to 
Ditchingham, and, by his strenuous exer- 
tions as warden, both sisterhood and house 
of mercy were greatly enlarged. At a later 
date an orphanage and hospital were built, 
and are still carried on. His leisure he de- 
voted to patristic and liturgiolog^ical studies, 
and he published in 1872 his * Notitia 
Eucharistiea* (2nd edit, enlarged, 1876). 
This is at once a storehouse of archaeology 
and of sacramental doctrine. Scudamore 
followed the guidance of Hooker and the 
Anglican divines of the seventeenth century 
(cf. HEBZOG, Reliff. Encycl. ed Schaff, ii. 
1352). But his high-church sympathies, 
while tempered by erudition, were blended 
with puritan feeling. He dissented from 
the extremer views of the English Church 
Union, and urged its members in the inte- 
rests of historical truth to modify their posi- 
tion* When the union issued an authorised 
* Reply ' to his * Remarks ' (1872), he rejoined 
in a temperate ' Exposure r (1873), convict- 
ing his adversaries of error on several points 
ofecelesiology. 

Scudamoro was more widely known by 
his devotional works, especially by his ' fclteps 
to the Altar' (1840), which reached a sixty- 
seventh edition in 1887, and has been trans- 
lated into Hindustani and frequently re- 



Scudder 

printed in America. The writer expressed 
obligation in the preface to the devotional 
works of Ken and Wilson and to the * Ofti- 
cium Eucharisticum ' of Edward Lake [q.v.] 
Utterly unworldly, he received only 401. for 
the book, in spite of its enormous sale. From 
Scudamore's * Incense for the Altar ' (1874) 
Dr. Pusey printed some selections in his 
'Hints for a First Confession 7 in 1884 
Scarcely less popular was his ( Words to 
take with us' (1859, 8vo ; 6th ed. 1879). 

Scudamore died at Ditehingham rectory 
on 31 Jan. 1881, and was buried in the 
parish cemetery. His wife Albina, daughter 
of John King, died 7 June 1898, aged 85, 
leaving two sons and one daughter. 

In addition to the works mentioned above 
and several single sermons and small tracts, 
he published ; 1 . ' An Essay on the OfHce of 
Intellect in Religion, 1 1849, 8vo. 2, * Letter* 
to a Seceder from the Church of England,' 
1851, 12mo. 3. 'England and Rome: a 
Discussion of the Principal Points of Diffe- 
rence/ 18,55, 8vo. 4. The Communion of 
the Laity,' 1855. 5. 'Litanies for Use at 
the various Reasons of the Christian Year/ 
1860. _ 6. The North Side of the Table : an 
Historical Enquiry,' 1870, 8vo. 7. t< H"Qpa 
rfjs npoorvxw 1 873, 8vo. 8, * The Diocesan 
Synods of the Earlier Church,' 1878, Hvo 
(all the above were published in London), 
Among other elaborate articles to Smith's 
' Dictionary of Christian Antiquities* (1875- 
1880) he contributed those on ' Fasting-/ 

* Images/ i Oblation,'* Lord's Prayer/ * Lord's 
Supper/ and ' Relics. 7 

[Robinson's Mansions and Manors of Here- 
fordshire, pp. 135 sq. (with ScnicUmorfl pedigree); 
Luard's Graduati Oantabrigiense, 1884; notes 
from E. F. Scott, enq,, of St. John's College; 
Guardian, 2 Feb. and 9 March 1881; Church 
Times, 11 Feb. 1881; Times, 7 Feb. 1881; 
Davenport's ScwiamorG and Bickersteth ; or 
Steps to the Altar and Devotions of the Re- 
formers compared, 1851 ; works in British Mu- 
eoum Library ; private information*] T, S. 

SCUDDER, HENRY (d. 1659?), divine, 
was of Christ's College, Cambridge, lie was 
afterwards minister at Drayton in Oxford- 
shire, and in 1633 was presented by the king 
to the living of Oollingbourne-Ducis, near 
Harlborough, Wiltshire. Ho held pwsby- 
terian views. In June 1643 he was sum- 
moned to the Westminster assembly of 
divines (RTOHWOHTH, pt iii. vol. ii. p. 338). 
When in June 1645 an order came from the 
House of Commons to pray for the forces, 
Scudder was one of the four preachers 
assigned to Aldgnte. On 6 April 1647 he 

* made report of the review of the proofs of 
the " Confession of Faith" of the seven tot 



Scudder 



chapters and part of the eighth.' On 9 I<H 
1648 liia name was added to the committee 
for the scriptures. 

Scudder preached before the House of 
Commons in October 1044, on a fast day at 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, and his sermon 
was printed by request of the house (Com- 
mom JWflrto,ui.6&),082). He died before 
tue Restoration, and his successor at Colling- 
bourne-Ducis was instituted in 1660. He was 
buried in the church, but. the tomb has been 
removed. He married Elizabeth, daughter 
of George Hunt, for fifty years rector of 
Collmgbourne-Ducis. She died when little 
over twenty. Her sister married William 
Whately [q. v.], Scudder's fellow-student 
at Christ's College, and subsequently vicar 
oMSanbury, whose life Scudder wrote in 
1639-40. A monument to Scudder's wife 
in the chancel wall of Leamington parish 
church was destroyed by fire in 1699, but 
the inscription is correctly preserved in 
Dinghy's 'History in Marble' (Caraden 
Soc.) A daughter married John Gravle 
[q. v,] in 1045. J 

Scudder was author of a celebrated de- 
votional work entitled * The Christian's 
Daily Walko in Holy Stcuritle and Peace/ 
Tlm^ sixth edition, issued in 1635, has an 
* Epistle to the Header/ by John Davenport 
[q. v.], dated from Coleman Street, &5 April 
16:27, Davenport writes that * the first 
coppie waa more briafe [ but P], upon occasion 
of a second letter, wherein some other cases 
were propounded, the judicious author not 
onlyjiandled these arguments largely in his 
public minifttery, but al.no added more par- 
ticularR for his friends full satisfaction in a 
second coppy. 1 The title-page describes it 
as 'tirnt^ intended for private xise; now 
through importunitie published for the com- 
mon #0nd.' A German translation by Tluo- 
dore llnak appeared at Frankfurt in 16#6. 
The book WUH Jrwmentiy reiHtied, The edi- 
tions of 1090 and 1761 have commendations 
by John Owen, D.I), [q. vj, whoHe portrait is 
prefixed, and by Kichard Baxter [q. v.] The 
latter could not remember ' any book which 
is written to be the daily companion of Chris- 
tians, to guide them in the practise of a holv 
life/ which he preferred to it, A fifteenth 
edition was issued in 1813. The final edition 
of 1820, containing Davenport's epjstle and 
Owen and Baxter's recommendations, has 
an introductory essay by Thomas Chalmers 
(1780-1847) [q.v.] 

Scudder also published: 1. 'A Key of 
Heaven : the Lord's Prayer opened and ap- 
piyed/ 1682, 12mo; dedicated to ' Mr, Thomas 
Crew, and to all IUB hopefull children,' and 
has a preface by It, $ibb$ of Gray's Inn, who 



Scully 



159 



S eager 



describes it as ' written without affectation.' 
2. * Prototypes, or the Priinarie Precedent 
Presidents out of the Booke of Genesis. With 
Mr. Whatelye's Life and Death/ 1640, fol., 
and 1647. Here Scudder had the assistance 
of Edward Leigh [q. v.], who was, like him- 
self, one of Whately's executors. A portrait 
of Scudder was engraved hy Sherwin in 
1674. 

[Authorities cited ; "Fuller's Hist, of Cambridge 
University, 1655, p. 92 ; Mitchell and Struthers's 
Minutes of the Westminster Assembly, pp. 108, 
252, 346,364, 407,483, 502; Hodgson's Entries 
in Parish Registers of Collinghourne-Ducis, re- 
printed from the Wiltshire Archaeological Maga- 
zine, xxvi. 320; private information; Granger's 
Biogr. Hist. ii. 183 ; Brook's Lives of the Puri- 
tans, ii. 504, 505 ; Bromley and Evans's Cat. of 
Engr. Portraits; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Allibone's 
Diet. Engl. Lit.] <*. LB G-. N. 

SCULLY, DENYS (1773-1830), Irish 
political writer, eldest surviving 1 son of James 
Scully, a landed proprietor of Kilfeacle, co. 
Tipperary, was horn at that place on 4 May 
1773. He entered Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1794, and is said to have been the 
first catholic student admitted for two hun- 
dred years. After a short residence he left 
without graduating, and studied for the Irish 
bar, of which he hecame a member in 
Michaelmas term 1796. He practised on the 
Leinster circuit with success until delicate 
health compelled him to retire. He became 
known as one of the leadingcatholic agitators, 
and joined the important deputation which 
was appointed in February 1805 to wait 
upon Pitt with a petition to the House of 
Commons for emancipation. Pitt declined to 
present the petition, but Fox and Granville 
consented, and laid it before the house on 
2o March. Scully prepared a famous 'State- 
ment of the Penal Laws/ which appeared in 
1812, and resulted in the prosecution of the 
printer, Hugh Fitzpa trick, who was fined 
200Z. and imprisoned for eighteen months. 
Besides this work, which ran through several 
editions, Scully helped Edward Hay [q. v.~ 
to prepare his account of the harsh treat- 
ment to which the Wexford people had been 
subjected previous to 1798, and also wrote 
many able articles in the Dublin morning 
and evening 'Post.' In 1803 he published 
a pamphlet against the union, 'An Irish 
Catholic's Advice to his Brethren, how to 
estimate their Present Situation, and repe] 
French Invasion, Civil Wars, and Slavery. 
He died on 25 Oct. 1830 at Kilfeacle. 

VINCENT SCTTLLY (1810-1871),lawyer and 
politician, son of Denys Scully, was born in 
Dublin on 8 Jan. 1810, and was educated at 
Oscott, Trinity College, Dublin, and Trinity 



College, Cambridge, but did not graduate 
at either university. He was one of the 
editors of the 'Oscotian' (from 1826). In 
1833 he was called to the Irish bar, and 
speedily obtained a good practice. In 1840 
le became a queen's counsel. He was elected 
M.P. for Cork in 18-"52, and remained its mern- 
until 1857. He was re-elected in 1859 
and sat till 1865. He died on 4 June 1871. 
He was the author of some able pamphlets 
on the Irish land question, one of which, 

* Free Trade in Land ' (1853), made many 
novel proposals, It is accompanied "by a 
debenture map, and was reprinted in 1881 
by his sonVincent, together with ' Occupying 
Ownership of Land (Ireland)/ Scully's 

* Transfer of Land Bill (Ireland),' introduced 
into the House of Commons in 1853, was 
praised for its ingenuity. 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography ; 
obituaries in Irish papers; O'Donoghue's Poets 
of Ireland, p. 223; information from "Vincent 
Scully, esq,, Cashel.] D. J. O'D. 

SEAFIELD, EAELS OF. [See OGILVY, 
JAMES, first EAEL, 1664-1730; OaiLvr, 
JAMBS, third EAEL, 1714P-1770.] 

SEAFORD, BAEONS. [See ELLIS, 
CHAELES ROSE, first BAEON, 1771-1845; 
ELLIS, CHAELES AuarrsTTTS, second BAEON, 
1799-1868.] 

SEAFORTH, EAELS OF. [See MAC- 
KENZIE, KENNETH, fourth EAEL, d. 1701 ; 
MACKENZIE, WILLIAM, fifth EAEL, d. 1740.] 

SEAFORTH and MACKENZIE, 
LOED. [See HUMBEESTON, EEANCIS MAC- 
KENZIE, 1754-1815.] 

SEAGAR, JOHN (d. 1656), divine. [See 
under SEGAE, FEANCIS.] 

SEAGER, CHARLES (1808-1878), 
orientalist, born in 1808, was son of John 
Seager (1776-1849) of Evesbateh, Worces- 
tershire, rector of Welsh Bicknor, Mon- 
mouthshire, from 1803 till his death on 
27 May 1849. The father contributed emen- 
dations and observations on Greek authors 
to the * Classical Journal,' published a sup- 
plement to Johnson's ' Dictionary ' in 1819, 
and editions of Viger's * Greek Idioms/ 1828, 
Hoogeveen's 'Greek Particles, 1 1829, Bos's 
Greek Ellipses/ 1830, Hermann's ' Doctrine 
of Metres/ 1830, and Muittaire's Greek Dia- 
lects/ 1831. 

Charles was matriculated as a memher of 
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 30 Nov. 1832, 
and while a member of that society he ob- 
tained the Pusey and Ellerton scholarship in 
1834. In that year he was elected a scholar 
of Worcester College, and in 183G he gained 
the Kennicott Hebrew scholarship. lie gra- 



Seager 



160 



Scager 



duated B.A. on 25 May 183U, and M.A, on 
24 April 1839. For some time lie was a 
pupil of Dr> Pusey, under whom he gave 
public lectuivs in Hebrew. lie took orders 
in the established church, and, his residence 
in Oxford being contemporary with the rise 
of the tractarian party, he 'became closely 
associated with the movement, and assisted 
materially in the publication of the literature 
connected with it. He was one of the earliest 
members of the secession to Rome ; in Janu- 
ary 1842 Pusey wrote to Newman asking 
him to correct Seager's romaniwing tenden- 
cies j Newman made the attempt, but Seager 
was received into the catholic church on 
12 Oct. 1843 at St. Mary's College, Oscott 
(GoNDOtf, Convcmon tie ceHt-ci:nr/ttfmf? wiWa- 
trps angliccmti, pp, 86, 100). His conversion 
caused Pusey much pain and embarrassment 
(Lii>DON, L\fe of Pusey, il 141, 229, 230, 
377). 

When the catholic university college was 
established, by Monsigiior Capet, at Kensing- 
ton, Seager was appointed to the chair of 
Hebrew and comparative philology. His 
knowledge of oriental languages wits exten- 
sive, but his special forta lay in the Semitic 
branch, Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac being his 
chief study. During the latter part of his HiV, 
however, he devoted considerable attention 
to the languages of Assyria and Kpfypt, and 
he was a regular attendant at the classes in- 
stituted by the Society of Biblical Archeo- 
logy for instruction in those tongue. Pro- 
fessor Sayce and Mr. P. Le Page itenouf, the 
lecturers at those classes, were among hia 
most intimate friends. I Ce was a member of 
the council of the Society of Biblical Ar- 
chaeology, and took a yrotniwmt part in the 
discussion of the various subjects brought 
before the meetings, Shortly before liis 
death he was readmitted a member of the 
university of Oxford, from which he had 
been expelled on his adhesion to the church 
of Rome. A decree was passed enabling 
him to replace his name on the books with- 
out payment of the usual fees. He died 
suddenly at the H6tel de Ville, Florence, 
while attending the congress of orientalists. 
on 18 Sept, 1878. His widow died at 
Ilamsgate on 27 March 1893. 

His works are; 1. *The Smaller Hebrew 
and Chaldee Lexicon of Professor Siraonis, 
translated and improved from his second edi- 
tion/ London, 1882, 12mo* 2, 'Gnecorum 
casuum analysis. De vera casuum verbo- 
rum, inflect ionumque in genere, natura et 
online . . . brevis disputatio/ London, 1833, 
1 2mo. 3, < The Daily Service of the Anglo- 
Catholic Church, adapted to farailv or pri- 
vate worship. By a Priest/ ftanbury, 



1838, U>mo. 4. * Auricular Confession. Six 
letters in answer to the attacks of [the Rev 
\V, S. Brieknell] one of the city lecturers' 
on the Cutholie principle of private confes- 
sion to a priest. . . . By Academicus/ Ox- 
ford 1842, 8vo, 6, Mflcoleaiie Anglicans 
Oflicia Antiqua: Portiforii sen Breviurii 
Sarisburiimsis, annotations perpetua illus- 
trati, et cum Breviariis Eboracensi, Here- 
fordensi, et llomano coraparati, Fasciculus 
Primus/ London, 184% lihno; 2nd part 
London, 1855, Izhno. The first portion of 
the 'fasciculus primus* had been separately 
published, London, 1842, 12mo* 6, "The 
Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola 
translated from the authorised Latin ; with 
. . , a preface by the Right Rev. Nicholas 
"Wiseman, D.D., Bishop of Melipotamus,' 
London, 1847, Iftono. 7. ' Faithfulness to 
Cilrftce* On the Position of Anglicans hold- 
ing- the Real 1'n^ence; with considerations 
on the 8i n of unlawful obedience/ London, 
1 85(), I sJmo. 8, The Female Jesuit abroad ; 
a true and romantic Narrative of True Life: 
including om account, with iutorical rt^- 
minisctmws, of Bonn and the Middle Rhine,' 
London, 1853, 8vo, 9, ( The Cumulate Vote, 
aft a modt k rativs of State oscillations/ Lon- 
don (tf *ciit ion*), IH67, Bvo. 10, ' Plutocracy 
as a .Principle; or, does the pOBsession of 
property involve, as a moral right, that of 
political powtff? A letter in which are im- 
partially pnsnted both Hides of the ques- 
tion,' 2ml ndit. London, 1867, Bvo. 1 L The 
Snftrapfe as a Moral IHght; what are its 
groundH? 1 ' London, 1807, 8vo. 

lie was also a contributor to the * Classical 
Museum ' and to the 'Transactions of the 
Society of Biblical Archaeology,' 

[Academy, 2H Scpfc. 1878, p. 315; Athempum, 
July I8")p.823, 2lSept, 1878p,72nnd28 Sept. 
p* 403 ; Ifodlmn Cat, iv, 846; Browne's Annals 
of the TnuTarinn Movement, pp. 7tt, 87 : Letters 
" ' 86, 86; Letteni of Nevv- 



ofXB. 

man, ed. Anne 



ussley; Thomas Mozle/s Be- 
el ; Clergy List, 1841, p. 175 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 iv, 1269; 
Gondon's Motifs <le Conversion de dix Ministres 
Anglicaos, pp, 151-202; Halkott and Lain^s 
Diet* of Anonymous Literature, pp. 200, 559 ; 
TaWet 1878 ii, 068, 377, 400, 408, and 1 April 
1893 p. 504; Times, 23 Sept. 1878, p. 9, 
eol.6.f T.C. 

t SEAGER, EDWARD (1812-18B3), 
lieutenant-general, was bom on 11 Jime 
1812, and, lifter serving in the ranks for nine 
years and one hundred and eighty-eight 
days from 1832, became a cornet of the Brh 
Hjjfut dragoons on 17 Sept. 1841. He was 
adjutant from 5 Oct. 1841 to 25 Oct. 185*, 
being gazetted lieutenant 011 29 June 1843, 



Seager 



161 



Seally 



captain on 26 Oct. 1851, and major 31 Jan. 
1858. He served with his regiment in 
the Crimean war of 1854, and up to February 
1855, and was present at the battles of 
Alma, Balaclava (where he was wounded), 
Inkerman, and the siege of Sebastopol. On 
28 June 1855 he was appointed assistant 
military secretary to Major-general Lord 
"William Paulet [q. y.j, commanding on the 
Bosphorus, and continued in the same office 
under Sir Henry Knight Storks [q. v.] until 
the end of the war on 31 July 1856, when 
he was rewarded with a medal and four 
clasps, the fifth class of Medjidie, &nd the 
Turkish medal. Later on he served in Cen- 
tral India, 1858-9, was present at the action 
of Boordah, was mentioned in the despatches, 
and received a medal. From 5 Aug. 1859 
to 5 Aug. 1864 he was lieutenant-colonel of 
his regiment, and was then gazetted a brevet 
colonel in the army. From 3 Nov. 1864 to 
31 Jan. 1870 he was acting quartermaster- 
general in the Dublin district, and from 
1 April 1873 to 3 April 1878 inspecting 
officer of yeomanry cavalry at York. On 
15 Jan. 1870 he became a major-general, and 
on 1 July 1881 was placed on the retired 
list with the rank of lieutenant-general. On 
10 May 1872 he received one of the rewards 
for * distinguished and meritorious services,' 
and on 2 June 1877 was gazetted C.B. He 
died at Sion House, Scarborough, on 30 March 
1883. 

[Hart's Annual Army List, 1872, pp. 35, 50; 
Official Army List, June 1880, pp. 150, 1205, 
1215 ; Times, 2 April 1883, p. 7.] G. 0. B. 

SEAGER, FRANCIS <JL 1549-1563), 
poet. [See SEG^K.] 

SEAGRAVE, EGBERT (1693-1760?), 
divine, son of Robert Seagrave, vicar of Twy- 
ford, Leicestershire, 1687-1720, was born 
there on 22 Nov. 1693. He was admitted 
subsizar at Clare Hall, Cambridge, on 8 Nov. 
1710, and graduated B.A. in 1714, M.A. in 
1718 (Grad, Cantabr. 1659-1823, p. 418). 
Seagrave, although ordained, held no cure, 
but acted as an extra-parochial clergyman, 
and preached in many places. He was one 
of the earliest to join tne Oxford methodist 
movement, and, anxious to stir the church 
of England from her lethargy, published 
anonymously *A Remonstrance addressed 
to the Clergy/ London, 1731, 8vo, and 'A 
Letter to the People of England, occasioned 
by the falling away of the Clergy from the 
Doctrines of the Reformation/ by Paulinus, 
London, 1735. To the fourth edition, 1739, 
he put his name. It was answered by an 
anonymous writer in 'An Appeal to the 
People of England in defence of the Clergy/ 

VOL. LI. 



Seagrave next wrote in 1739, in defence of 
George "Whitefield, f An Answer to Dr. 
Trapp's Four Sermons/ which was answered 
in Trapp's ' Observations on the Conduct and 
Writings of Mr. Seagrave/ London, 1739, 
8vo. Further vindications of Trapp ap- 
peared, and Seagrave issued, in further vin- 
dication of Whitefield, ' Remarks upon the 
Bishop of London's Pastoral Letter.' On 
8 Sept. 1739 he held a dispute with Ebenezer 
Hewlett, an unlettered person at Blackwell's 
coffee- House. Some account of this was pub- 
lished by Hewlett in 'Mr. Whitefield's 
Chatechise (sic), being an explanation of the 
doctrine of the methodists/ London, 1739, 
8vo. 

In the same year Seagrave commenced 
preaching regularly on Sunday evenings at 
Lorimers' Hall, Cripplegate. Later he gave 
a Tuesday and a Thursday lecture. For the 
use of his congregation there he prepared 
'Hymns for Christian Worship' (London, 
1742, 8vo ; 4th edit. 1748, reprinted 1860), 
Thirty of the hymns were his own. Among 
them are two still in common use, viz. ( Now 
may the Spirit's holy fire/ on the opening- of 
a place of worship (included in Whitefield's 
' Hymns for Social Worship/ 1758, and in 
Toplady's * Psalms and Hymns') ; and ' Bise, 
my soul, and stretch thy wings/ also in 
Whitefield's hymn-book. 

Seagrave was preaching up till 1759. He 
probably died soon afterwards. His other 
works are : 1 . * Six Sermons on the Manner 
of Salvation/ London, 1737, 8vo. 2. 'A 
Draught of the Justification of Man different 
from the present Language of our Pulpits/ 
London, 1740, 8vo, being a continuation of 
the 'Letter to the People of England/ 
3. * Observations upon the Conduct of the 
Clergy, with an Essay towards a real Pro- 
testant Establishment/ 1738 ; 3rd edit. 1740, 
8vo. 4. ' Christianity: how far it is and is 
not founded on Argument/ London, 1743, 
8vo. 5. * The True Protestant, addressed to 
the University of Cambridge/ 4th*jdit. 1751, 
8vo. 6. 'The Principles of Liberty, or the 
Right of Mankind to judge for themselves 
in matters of Faith/ London, 1755. 

[Wilson's Hist, of Diss. Churches, ii. 559, iii. 
315 ; Miller's Singers and Songs of the Church, 

&152; Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, p. 1 035; 
otes and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 142, 250, 3U; 
Hymns and Spiritual Songs, &C M with & Sketch 
of the Author's life, by Daniel Sedgwick [q.v.] t 
1 860 ; Evangel. Mag. 1 814, p. 304 ; Tyerman's Life 
of Whitefield, i. 212, 278, 285, ii. 294 ; Griffith's 
Brand out of the Fire, 1759.] 0. F. S 

SEALLY, JOHN (1747 P-1796), mis- 
cellaneous writer, born in Somerset about 
1747, was educated at Bristol grammar 



Seally 



162 



Seaman 



school, with a view to ordination. He may 
possibly be identical with * John Sealy,' son 
of John Sealy of Bridgwater, Somerset, who 
matriculated" from Hertford College, Oxford, 
on 22 May 1760, aged 18, and graduated 
B.A.. in 1764 (FosTEB, Alumni Ouwi. 1715- 
1886, s. T.) The death of his uncle and patron 
obliged him to enter a solicitor's office, which 
he soon quitted to learn the business of a 
merchant under Malachy Postlethway t [q. v.l 
His master's strictness was so little relished 
"by Seally that, with some assistance from 
his mother, he betook himself to authorship 
and journalism as a means of livelihood. 
During a visit to Manchester he^persuaded a 
wealthy heiress to elope with him, but was 
overtaken by the father at Worcester, The 
lady ia said to have died brolcen-heartod, and 
Seally consoled himself by marrying, in 1700, 
a reputed rich widow of double his age, only 
to find, some years later, that she had^ no 
money and a husband (the Rev. William 
Lewis) still living. In the meantime Seally 
sought occupation as a writing-master and 
accountant. About 1767 he established a 
school in IVtdg water Square, Westminster 
and after some years' successful tuition took 
holy orders. ' In 1790 he was presented to 
the vicarage of East Meon with Froxfield 
and Steep, Hampshire* He died in Queen 
Square, Westminster, in March 1795, After 
Ins separation from Mrs. Lewis he married 
Mary, eldest daughter of Joseph Humphreys, 
rector of Ellisfiela, Hampshire, and of North 
Stoke, Somerset, who survived him (notes 
from Seally's will, proved in 1?* 0, 0* on 
22 April 1795). 

Seally was elected fellow of the Boyal 
Society on 60 June 1791 (THOMSON, Hut 
JRoyal Soc. Appendix iv. p. ixii). During a 
sojourn in Home m 1774 he obtained ad- 
mission to the Roman Academy (Arcadia] 
"by a eulogy on Maria Maddelana Fernandez 
Corilla, poet-laureate of Italy* He was also 
M.A. and LTLD. A portrait engraved by 
Thorowgood is mentioned by Bromley, 

Seally contributed occasional verses t< 
various magazines, projected a short-livee 
political paper signed ' Britannicus/ con- 
ducted for some time the 'Universal Mu 
seum' and the * Freeholder's Magazine/ anc 
was concerned in the ' St. James's Magazine, 
edited by Bobert Lloyd [q. v.] He lUj 
published several novels, poems, and school 
books, including: 1. 'The Loves of Calistc 
and Braira, or the Fatal Legacy/ 12mo 
London, 1776; a French translation wa 
published at Paris in 1778, % t Moral Tales 
after the Eastern manner/ 12mo, London 
(1780?). 3. * The Marriage of Sir Gawaine 
an opera,, 1782. 4 ' A complete Geographica 



Dictionary/ 2 vola. 4to, London, 1787. 
6, * The Lady's Encyclopaedia/ 3 vols, 12mo' 
London, 1788. ' 

[Notes and Queries, 7th ser. xi. 287, 395 
Btucor'a Biogr. Dram. (1812), vol. i. pt. ii. p! 
637 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; information from the 
icar of East Moon.] G-. G. 

SEAMAN, LAZARUS (<i 1675), puri- 
an divine, was a native of Leicester, where 
he was born of poor parents early in the 
eventeenth century. On 4 July 1623 he 
was entered as a sizar at Emmanuel Col- 
ego, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A, 
n 1627, M.A, in 1631. Straitened means led 
urn to leave Cambridge and teach a school, 
apparently in London. He was chosen lee- 
;urer at St. Martin's, Ludgate, and became 
chaplain to Algernon Percy, tenth earl of 
tfortliumherland [q* v.] In 1642 he was pre- 
sented by Laud to the rectory of Allhallows, 
EJread Street ; Laud had promised this pre- 
sentation out of ' court esie ' to Northumber- 
,und, and complains that, though aware of 
this, Sir Henry Montagu, first earl of Man- 
chester [q. v,], had written, commanding him 
in the name of the House of Lords togive the 
benefice to Seaman (Ilixt, of the Troubles, 
1095, p, 199). In 1643 he was nominated 
a member of the Westminster Assembly of 
divines, and he was a regular attendant 5 
the beat thing he said was on 18 Feb. 1646, 
In no institution did God go against na- 
ture.* By a private discussion on transub- 
stantiation, held about this time against two 
Romish priests, he was the means, according 
to William Jonkyn [q. v.], of preventing the 
conversion of a noble family to the Boman 
catholic church* 

On 11 April 1044 Seaman was admitted 
master of Peterhouee, Cambridge, by Edward 
Montagu, second earl of Manchester [q. v.], 
in the room of John Coain [q. v."], ejected on 
IS March. Calamy reports that he dis- 
charged the duties of the mastership with 
* abundant honour ;* Walker relates^ that at 
the Kestoration the fellows, in a petition to 
the crown, complained of his * unstatutable ; 
government/ 

On 6 Nov. 1645 Seaman was placed on 
the committee of accommodation designed 
by parliament to arrange terms for the comr 
prenension of the independents; the project 
fell through, as the independents rejected , 
comprehension and insisted on toleration* 
He was one of the remonstrants (26 May, 
1648) against the toleration of 'separate 
congregations,' and maintained in the West- 
minster Assembly the divine right of the * 
presby terian discipline. At the second meet- 
ing (8 Nov. 1647) of the provincial assem- 



Seaman 



163 



Seaman 



bly of London, Seaman, a member of the | 
first London classis, was moderator. In 
September-November 1648 he was one of 
the four presbyterian divines commissioned 
to the Isle of Wight to recommend their 
case to Charles in discussion with the king, 
aided by episcopalian divines ; Charles com- 
plimented Seaman on his ability. In Janu- 
ary 1649 he signed the ' Vindication ' drawn 
up by Cornelius Burges, D.D, fa. v.], pro- 
testing against the king's trial. Me proceeded 
D.D. in 1649. In 1653 he was vice-chan- 
cellor, and in 1654 was appointed by Crom- 
well one of the visitors of his university. 

Cosin was restored to the mastership of 
Peterhouse on 3 Aug. 1660. Seaman held 
aloof, with William Jenkyn and a few 
others, from the negotiations with Charles II 
in the presbyterian interest, and was looked 
upon as an uncompromising man, whom it 
was useless to tempt with offers of prefer- 
ment. He resigned his benefice in conse- 
quence of the Uniformity Act ; his successor, 
Kisden, was appointed on 26 Aug. 1662. 
On the passing 01 the Five Miles Act, 1665, 
Baxter drew up a statement of reasons for 
not taking the oath which exempted from its 
operation ; Seaman persuaded him to abstain 
from publishing it, and recommended a 
policy of 'silent patience/ He privately 
ministered to a congregation of his former 
parishioners, preached publicly after the 
great fire of 1666, and after the indulgence 
of 1672 built a chapel in Meeting-house 
Yard, Silver Street^ Wood Street, Holborn. 
"Wood, who knew him personally, refers to 
him respectfully as ' a learned nonconformist.' 
He died in Warwick Court, Newgate Street, 
about 9 Sept. 1675 ; Jenkyn preached his 
funeral sermon on 12 Sept. ; an elegy on his 
death was issued (1675) as a broadsheet. 

Seaman was a man of much learning, 
noted as a casuist, charitable in disposition, 
and a model of prudent reserve. He is 
chiefly remembered for his library, number- 
ing upwards of five thousand books, which 
was the first sold in England by auction. 
The catalogue was published with the title 
* Catalog-us Variorum et Insignium Librorum 
instructissimee Bibliothecse . * . Quorum Auc- 
tio habebitur Londini in sedibus Def uncti . . . 
Cura Gulielmi Cooper Bibliopolae/ &c., 1676, 
4to, pp. 137. A notice "To the Reader' 
states that ' it hath not been usual here in 
England to make sale of Books by way of 
Auction,' though this was ( practised in other 
countreys.' Pour rules of sale are given, and 
the auction was to begin on 8 Oct. and con- 
tinue each day at 9 A.M. and 2 P.M. till the 
books were sold. Of the two British Mu- 
seum copies (821, i. 1 and 11906, e.l)of the 



catalogue, the former, once in the possession 
of Narcissus Luttrell, has the prices added 
in manuscript. The highest sum obtained 
for a single lot was 87. %s. for the set of St. 
Chrysostom (Paris, 1636) ; the highest for a 
single volume was 11. 15s. for Servetus's 
'Dialogorum deTrinitate Libri Duo/ 1532, 
8vo. Over 7007. was realised in all (Biblio- 
graphica, i. 376). 

Besides sermons before parliament (1644- 
1647), before the Lord Mayor (16oO), and a 
farewell sermon (in the London collection, 
1663), Seaman published: 1. ' The Atarpi&ri 
proved to be Hapadiarpi&fj. A Vindication of 
. . . the Reformed Church . . . from Misrepre- 
sentations concerning the Ordination/ 1647, 
4to (against Sidrach Simpson [q. v.l and Ed- 
mund Ohillenden [q. v.]). 2. 'His Majesties 
Papers . . . with an Answer ... by ... Mr. 
Seaman/ 1648, 4toj reprinted as* The Papers 
which passed between His Majesty . . , and 
Mr. Seaman . . . concerning Church-govern- 
ment ' [1649], 8vo. He prefixed an address 
to * A Glance of Heaven/ 1638, by Richard 
Sibbes, D.D. [q. v.] For the Turkish ver- 
sion of the catechism by John Ball (1585- 
1640) [q. v.], erroneously ascribed to him, 
see SEAMAN, WILLIAM. 

[Funeral Sermon by Jenkyn, 1675 ; Baxter's 
Beliquiae, 1696, ii. 229, iii. 13 ; Wood's Athena 
Oxon. (Bliss) Hi. 777, 1122, iv. 213 ; Calamy's 
Account, 1713, pp. 16 sq. ; Calamy's Continua- 
tion, 1727, i. 17; Walker's Sufferings of the 
Clergy, 1714, ii. 152; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches of London, 1810, iii. 6sq.; Neat's Hist, 
of thePuritans(Toulmin), 1822, vol. iii. ; Mitchell 
and Struth era's Minutes of the Westminster As- 
sembly, 1874, pp. 62, &c.; Longman's Magazine, 
December 1893 (by Mr. A.*W.Pol1ard) ; informa- 
tion kindly furnished by the Master of .Emmanuel 
and the Master of Peterhouse.] A, Gr. 

SEAMAN, WILLIAM (1606-1680), 
orientalist, and first translator of the New 
Testament into Turkish, was born in 1606. 
In 1623-4 he matriculated at Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, graduating B.A. at the same 
time, and M.A. in 1626. In 1628 he became 
rector of TJpton-Scudamore, a living in the 
gift of Queen's College, Oxford, which he held 
up to the time of his death. Soon after his in- 
stitution he travelled to Constantinople, anH 
there entered the service of Sir Peter Wyche 
[q. v.], the English ambassador, though in 
wnat capacity does not appear. Twells, in 
a note to his 'Life of Dr, Edward Pocock ' 
(London, 1740), doubtfully states that Sea- 
man was chaplain to an English ambassador 
at the Porte, Sir Peter was ambassador from 
1628 to 1639, and Thomas Hunt was his 
chaplain from 1628 till 1636. In 1652 Sea- 
man published a translation from the Turkish 

1*2 



Seamus 



164 



Searle 



of Ilojah EfFendi's ' Reign of the Sultan Or- 
chan,' and dedicated it to Lady Jane -Merick, 
who had formerly been the wife of Sir Peter 
"Wyche. Seaman states as the reason of his 
presenting the work to her: * Not only be- 
cause (during my youth) I began the study of 
the Turkish language while I was a ^servant 
of your family, but likewise as having had 
my education, in the use of my pen, under 
the Right Honourable Sir Peter Wyche 
(your then noble husband) in the time of 
liis embassie there.' 

After 1650 Seaman, at the instigation of 
the Hon. Robert Boyle, who contributed 
60J. to the cost of the undertaking, com- 
menced his magnum opw, the translation 
of the New Testament into Turkish, and in 
1659 he published the three epistles of 
St. John, under the title * Specimen S.S, 
Scripture . . . Turcice redditee opera GL S.' 
In the following year he prepared, also at 
the desire of Boyie, a Turkish version of the 
'Short Catechisme' of John Ball (1585- 
1040) fa. v.] This work (of which a copy 
exists m the Bodleian Library) is a small 
octavo, printed apparently at Oxford, There 
is neither title-page, author's name, nor 
date. 

The New Testament was completed and 
published in quarto at Oxford in 1606. It 
as a creditable monument of Seaman's erudi- 
tion and industry, and remained for a century 
and a half the only printed Turkish version. 
In 1670 Seaman published a Turkish gram- 
mar, concerning which several letters passed 
between himself and Dr. Pococke, who be- 
stowed great care and pains in correcting 
and improving the style of the Latin preface 
and epistle dedicatory. In the dedicatior 
Seaman acknowledges the assistance he hac 
received from Boyle, who contributed 20J 
(to be paid in books) towards the cost of the 
work, and to Cyril Wyche, the son of his 
former patron, Sir Peter. At this time Sea- 
man had a house in Whitecross Alley, Moor- 
fields. He died on 7 Nov. 1680, and was 
buried in the church of Upton-Scudamore 
having held the rectory for fifty-two years 
He is stated to have been a moderate non- 
conformist. He was married and left issue 
[Twells's Life of Dr. Edw, Pocock; Court 
Books of the Levant Company ; information from 
the Rev. B. Powley, rector of TJpton-Scudamore 
Wiltshire.] H. T. L, 

SEAMUS DAIX (Jt. 1712), Irish poet 
[See MA.COUAIET, 



SEAHOHBTELD, ROWLAND (1565? 
1622), bishop of Bristol, born in 1564 o 
1-565, entered Merchant Taylors' School u 
1575, and matriculated as fellow from St 



ohn's College, Oxford, on 6 July 1582 
ged 17. He graduated E.A. on 11 Oct 
586, M.A. j>n $ J une 1590, and B.D. ori 
June 1597, being dispensed from the 
sual exercises on the ground that he was 
engaged on certain duties at the command 
f the archbishop of Canterbury. 7 He 
graduated D.D. on 1 June 1608, maintaining 
n his theses that various forms of religion were 
ncompatible with unity of faith; that no 
ne could be saved by the faith of another ; 
and that heretics should be compelled to 
onform outwardly. lie was appointed 
roctor of the university on 21' April 1596, 
,nd was licensed to preach on 17 Feb. 1605-6. 
!n 1601 he was made vicar of Evenley, 
Northamptonshire, and rector of Burthrop, 
Gloucestershire, and in 1606 he became vicar 
f Charlbury, Oxfordshire. On 18 March 
618-19 lie 'was elected bishop of Bristol, 
)eing consecrated on 9 May following, and 
receiving back the temporalities on the 28th. 
Ie died on 1 1 Oct, 1622, and was buried in 
Bristol Cathedral. John Manningham de- 
scribes him as ' a dissembled Christian, like 
an intemperate patient which can gladly 
leare his physicion discourse of his dyet 
and remedy, but will not endure to obserue 
them * (Diary, Camd. Soc. p. 11). By his 
wife Anne, daughter of Ralph and Mary 
Hutchinson, he had one or more sons. The 
stone placed over his grave was subsequently 
removed to make room for the communion 
table* 

[Wood's AtThense Oxon, ii. 861 ; Godwin, De 
raesul. Angliw, L Richardson; Lansd, MS. 
984, f. 23 ; Cal. State Papers, Bom. 1619-23, 
pp. 44, 459 ; I> Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy ; Clark's 
Beg. Univ. Oxon. paswm; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1 500-1 714; Clods's Memorials of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company, p. 685; Robinson's Keg. 
Merchant Taylors' School, i. 22,] A. F, P. 

SUABLE, THOMAS (1777-1840), rear- 
admiral, son of James Searle of Staddles- 
combe, Devonshire, was born on 29 May 
1777, He entered the navy in November 
1789, served on the Mediterranean, home, and 
Newfoundland stations, and in 1796 was in 
the Royal George, flagship of Lord Brid- 
port, hy whose interest he was made lieu- 
tenant, on 19 Aug., to the Incendiary fire- 
ship. In 1797 he was in the Prince, flag- 
ship of Sir Roger Curtis; in 1798, in the 
Nemesis frigate, on the North American 
station, and in 1799 commanded the Courier 
cutter in the North Sea. On 26 Nov. 1799 
he was made commander on the recommen- 
dation of Lord Duncan, who was greatly 
pleased with his activity during the year, 
and especially with his gallant capture t* a 
large French privateer on 23 Nov From 



Searle 



165 



Seaton 



June 1800 to October 1802 lie was employed 
in the transport service ; and from July 
1803 to April 1804, with the Portsmouth 
division of sea-fencibles. During 1804- 
1805-6, he commanded various small vessels 
off Boulogne and the north coast of Erance, 
and in December 1806 was appointed to the 
Grasshopper brig for service in the Mediter- 
rean. His service in the Grasshopper was 
marked, even in that age, ' as dashing in the 
extreme.' On 11 Dec. 1807, off Cape Palos, 
he engaged a heavily armed Spanish brig of 
war with two settees in company ; captured 
the brig and drove the settees to seek safety 
in flight. Lord Collingwood ofiicially re- 
ported the affair as * an instance of the zeal 
and enterprise which marked Searle's general 
conduct.' On 4 April 1808, in company 
with the Alceste and Mercury frigates, he 
assisted in destroying or capturing a convoy 
of merchant vessels at Rota, near Cadiz, 
after dispersing or sinking the gunboats that 
escorted them, and silencing the batteries of 
Rota, which protected them. This last ser- 
vice was performed by the brig alone ' by 
the extraordinary gallantry and good con- 
duct of Captain Searle, who kept in upon 
the shoal to the southward of the town so 
near as to drive the enemy from their guns 
with grape from his carronades, and at the 
same time kept in check a division of the 
gunboats that had come out from Cadiz to 
assist the others engaged by the Alcestes 
and Mercury. It was a general cry in both 
ships : " Only look how nobly the brig be- 
haves"' ([Sir] Murray Maxwell [q. v.] to the 
secretary of the admiralty, Gazette, 1808, 
p. 670). Consequent on Maxwell's letter 
Searle was advanced to post rank on 28 April 
1808, though the promotion did not reach 
him till July; and meanwhile, on 23 April, 
being in company with the Rapid brig, on 
the south coast of Portugal, he fell in with 
two richly laden Spanish vessels from South 
America, under convoy of four gunboats. 
The merchant ships ran in under the 
batteries of Faro, by which they were pro- 
tected ; but the brigs, having captured two 
of the gunboats, driven the other two on 
shore, and silenced the batteries, brought off 
the ships, with cargoes of the value of 
60,000* 

On leaving the Grasshopper, Searle was 
presented by the crew with a sword of the 
value of eighty guineas, and shortly after, 
by Lloyd's, with a piece of plate worth one 
hundred guineas. In 1809 he commanded 
the Frederickstein in the Mediterranean ; in 
1810-11, the Elizabeth in the North Sea and 
at Lisbon ; and in 1811-12, 'the Druid in 
the Mediterranean. On 4 June 1815 he was 



nominated a C.B. In 1818-21 he com- 
manded the Hyperion frigate in the Channel 
(in attendance upon George IV) and in a 
voyage to South America, whence he brought 
back specie to the amount of half a million 
sterling. From 1836 to 1839 he was captain 
of the Victory, then guardship at Ports- 
mouth ; and on 9 Nov. 1846 was promoted 
to the rank of rear-admiral. He died at 
Kingston House, Portsea, on 18 March 1849, 
and was buried at the garrison chapel, 
Portsmouth. He is described as a man of 
middle height, strongly built, black hair, 
dark complexion, and remarkably handsome. 
He married, in November 1796, Ann, daugh- 
ter of Joseph* Maddoek of Plymouth Dock- 
yard and Tamerton Foliot, and by her had a 
large family ; eight daughters survived him. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Marshall's Roy. 
Nav. Biogr. v. (suppl. pt. i.) 309; James's 
Naval Hist. (ed. cr. 8vo) ii. 379-80, 382, 413- 
414, iv. 270-1, 326, 329-30 ; service-book in 
the Public Record Office ; information from his 
great-grandson, Mr, W. J. Eichards of Ply- 
mouth.] J. K. L. 

SEATON. [See also 



SEATON, BAEOH-. [See COLBOEJ^E, SIB 
JOHN, 1778-1863,] 

SEATON, EDWARD GATOR (1815- 

1880), author of the Handbook of Vaccina- 
tion/ was born at Rochester in 1815, where 
his father, a retired naval surgeon, was in 
practice. He was educated at Edinburgh 
University, where he graduated M.D. in 
1837, and, then joining his father at Roches- 
ter, was appointed surgeon to the North 
Aylesford union. Purchasing a small 
practice, he settled at 77 Sloane Street, 
London, in 1841, removing^ to 33 Sloane 
Street in 1852, and remaining there until 
1862. He took an active part in founding 
the Western Medical Society, of which he 
was secretary, librarian, and afterwards 
president, with the Epidemiological So- 
ciety he was connected from its founda- 
tion in 1850 (serving as president in 1869). 
A committee of the society conducted in- 
quiries concerning small-pox and vaccina- 
tion, and reached the conclusion that the 
disease had much increased in foreign 
countries. The report, drawn up by Seaton, 
was presented to parliament (Parliamentary 
Papers, 1852-3, No. 434, and 1854-6, 
No. 88). The outcome of the inquiry was 
the Compulsory Vaccination Act of 1853. 
Among other papers printed by him were 
'The Protective and Modifying Process of 
Vaccination J {Journal of Public Health and 
Sanitary Review, 1856-7, ii. 101, 343-68) 
and an ' Account of an Epidemic of Small 



Seaton 



166 



Seaton 



Pox in Jamaica/ 1851-2 (Tram. Ejridemto- 
lof/ical Soc. 1858, m>. 1-12). In 1858 
Seaton "was appointed an inspector under the 
general board of health, and was engaged 
in reporting on the state of vaccination in 
England, which he found to be deficient 
and requiring an amendment iu the^ law. 
He contributed the article on vaccination to 
Reynold's < System of Medicine ' (1866, L 
483-519), and published his well-known 
'Handbook of Vaccination ' (1808), a 'lie- 
port on Animal Vaccination,' and * On the 
recent Small-pox Epidemic with reference 
to Vaccination/ in the new local govern- 
ment series iu 1874. His efforts led to im- 
proved arrangements for public vaccination* 
In 1872 he oecame a fellow of the Royal 
College of Physicians, and represented Great 
Britain in tlie sanitary conference held at 
Vienna in 1874. From 187 1 he acted as assis- 
tant medical officer to the local government 
board, and in June 1876 succeeded John 
Simon, C.B., as medical officer. In this 
capacity his sound clear judgment proved of 
great value. He died at the residence of 
his son-in-law, Thomas Spooner Soden, at 
48 Ladbroke Grove, Netting Hill, London, 
on 31 Jan. 1880, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery. 

Besides the works enumerated, he wrote : 
* General Memorandum on the Proceedings 
which are advisable in Places attacked by 
Epidemic Diseases/ 1878 ; < Chelsea Vestry : 
Annual Reports of the Medical Officer of 
Health/ 1885-90. 

[Dudgeon's Official Defence of Vaccinations, 
Leicester, 1876; Medical Ti men and Gazette, 
SI Jan. 1880, pp, 137-8 ; Proceedings of Medical 
and Chirurgteal Society, 1875, viti. 485 ; Lancet, 
31 Jan. 1880, pp. 188-0; Trans. Bpidemiolo- 
gical Soe. 1880, iv. 48 1-2. ] 0. 0, & 

SEATON, JOHN THOMAS (fi, 1761- 
1806), portrait-painter, was son of Chris- 
topher Seaton, a gem-engraver, who was a 
pupil of Charles Christian Keisen [q. y,],and 
Sied in 1768, Seaton was a pupil of Francis 
Hayman [q. v.], and also studied in the St. 
Martin's Lane academy* He and his father 
were "both uaemlbers 01 the Incorporated So- 
ciety of Artists, and signed their declaration 
roll in 1766. He resided for some time at 
Bath, whence he sent portraits to tha exhi- 
bition of the society, and in 1774 he ex- 
hibited portraits at the Boyal Academ; 
His portraits were usually small full-lengtl 
in a landscape. He subsequently went to 
Edinburgh, where he practised with repute 
as a portrait-painter, and was living in 1806. 
A portrait by him of "Walter Macfarlan (d, 
1767) of Macfarlane is in the Scottish Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery. 



[Jtedgravo's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet, 
of Artiuts, 1760-1893; Sequier's Dictionary of 
Painters,] f, Q 

SEATON THOMAS (1684-1741), divine, 
hymn-writer, and founder of the Seatonian 
prize for sacred poetry at Cambridge, born 
tit Stamford in 1*584, was admitted a sizar of 
Clave Hall, Cambridge, in 1701, under the 
tuition of Mr. Clarke, bedel of the univer- 
sity. He graduated B. A. in 1704, was elected 
a fellow of his college, and commenced M.A. 
in 1708, After taking holy orders, he became 
chaplain to Daniel, earl of Nottingham, on 
whoso presentation he was instituted to the 
vicarage of .Ravenstone, Buckinghamshire, 
on 9 hov. 1721. He died at Havenstone on 
18 Aug. 1741, and was buried there on the 
23rd. A large tombstone was erected to his 
memory in the churchyard, with a Latin 
inscription, which has bean printed by Lips- 
comb (Hist* of Buckinghamshire, iv* 820, 



By his will he devised his estate at Kis- 
linguury, Northamptonshire, to the univer- 
sity of Cambridge, on condition that out of 
the rents a j>rize should be annually awarded 
to a master of arts of that university who, 
in the judgment of the vice-chancellor, the 
master of Clare Hall, and the Greek pro- 
fessor, had composed the best English poem 
on the attributes of the Supreme Being or 
some other sacred subject. The first poem 
was printed in 1750, and the publication has 
continued uniformly to the present time, ex- 
cept in 1706, 1769, and 1771. Many of these 
compositions will be found in 'Musse Sea- 
totuamo. A complete Collection of the 
Cambridge Prize Poems, from their first in- 
stitution * * . to the present time. To which 
are added two poems, likewise written for the 

frize, by Mr* Sally and Mr, Scott ' (London, 
778, 8vo). 

Seaton -was himself the authorof : 1. '.The 
Divinity of our Saviour proved : in an Essay 
on the Eternity of the Son of God/ London, 
17 19, 8vo 5 in answer to WhXston. 2. ' The 
Conduct of Servants in Great Families. 
Consisting of Dissertations upon seyewil Pas- 
sages of the Holy Scriptures relating to the 
Office of a Servant/ London, 1720, 12mo. 
8* * The Defects of the Objections against 
the New Testament Application of the Pro- 
phecies in the Old, exposed ; and the Evan- 
gelists Application of 'em vindicated/ Lon- 
don, 1726, 8vo. 4. ' A Compendious View 
of the Grounds of Religion, both Natural 
and Beveal'd : in two dissertations, 7 London, 
1729, 12mo. & * The Devotional Life ren- 
derM Familiar, Easy, and Pleasant, in seve- 
ral Hymns upon the most common occasions 
of Human Life. Composed and collected 



Seaton 



167 



Seaton 



by T. S,/ London, 1734, 12mo; reprinted ! 
Oxford, 1855, 12mo. 

[Addit. MS. 5880, f. 39 b ; Cambridge Book 
of Endowments, p. 152 ; Camden's Britannia, 
ed. Gough, ii. 177 ; Carter's Cambridge, p. 394; 
(Jooke's Preachers' Assistant, ii. 298 ; Cooler's 
Annals of Cambridge, iv. 243 ; Critical Review, 
17*2, p. 69 ; Graduati Cantabr. 1823, p. 419 ; 
Kotes and Queries, 3rd ser. ii. 506.] T. C. 

SEATOET, Sis THOMAS (1806-1876), 
major-general, born in 1806, was the son of 
John Fox Seaton of Pontefract, and after- 
wards of Clapham. In July 1822, being then 
sixteen years and five months old, he ob- 
tained a cadetship in the East India Com- 
pany's service, and on 4 Feb. 1823 he was 
commissioned as ensign in the first battalion 
of the 10th native infantry of the Bengal 
army. In July he was transferred to the 
second battalion of the 17th native infantry, 
stationed at Ludhiana in the Punjab. This 
battalion was soon afterwards converted into 
the 35th native infantry. He served with 
the first battalion (which had become the 
34th) from October 1824 till July 1825, but 
then returned to the 35th, and remained in 
it till 1857. His commission as lieutenant 
was dated 1 May 1824. He took part in the 
siege of Bhartpur, and was afterwards sta- 
tioned at Meerut and in the Lower Pro- 
vinces, where he married Caroline, daughter 
of J. Corfield of Taunton, Somerset. On 
2 April 1834 he was promoted captain. In 
1836, having lost his wife, he went to England 
on furlough for three years, and returned to 
India in 1839, having married, as his second 
Tvife, Elizabeth, daughter of J. Harriman of 
Tivoli, Cumberland. 

He found that his regiment was engaged 
in the campaign just opened in Afghanistan, 
and hastened to join it by way of the Bolan 
Pass. In his autobiography he has given a 
vivid picture of the sufferings of the convoy 
to which he was attached in crossing the 
desert of SHkarpur to Bagh in the intense 
heat of June. He rejoined his regiment at 
Kabul on 8 Sept. 1839, and remained there 
for two years, except for a short expedition 
over the Hindukush to Bamian. In October 
1841, when the regiment was about to re- 
turn to India as part of Sale's brigade, the 
general rising of the Afghans took place 
[see SALE, SIB ROBBBT BJWBY} The bri- 
gade had to reopen the Koord Kabul Pass, 
and to fight its way to Jalalabad, which it 
reached n 12 Nov. 

The defence of Jalalabad lasted five 
months, and in the course of it Seaton hac 
opportunities of showing his resource. He 
was sent to destroy the walls of an outlying 
fort which might give cover to the enemy 



jut they proved too hard for spade and pick, 
and he had no powder to spare. There was a 
unken road at the foot of the wall, and the 
soil was soft ; so he threw a dam across the 
ower part of the road, and turned a little 
stream into it. In a few hours the wall fell, 
in the first two months of the defence the 
rtock of wine and spirits ran out, but Seaton 
contrived to make a still with some washer- 
men's pots and a matchlock barrel, and sup- 
plied his mess with spirits as long as there 
was sugar left. 

The cordial friendship between the two 
nfantry regiments of the brigade the 13th 
British light infantry and the 35th native 
infantry was one of the most notable fea- 
tures of the defence of Jalalabad. They en- 
tertained one another at parting, after their 
return to India, and the 13th presented to 
:he 35th a piece of plate, which passed into 
Beaton's possession when the 35th was dis- 
banded in the mutiny. Seaton received the 
medal awarded to the ' illustrious garrison/ 
and was made C.B. He was given the local 
rank of major on 4 Oct. 1842. 

From 1842 to 1851 he held the appoint- 
ment of brigade-major at Agra. After three 
years' furlough in England he rejoined his 
regiment at Sialkot on 31 Jan. 1855, and 
took command of it. He had become major 
in the regiment on 17 Nov. 1852, and lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the army on 20 June 1854. 
In May 1857 he went to 'Simla on account 
of his health, but within a week he was sent 
to Umballa to take command of the 60th 
native infantry, a regiment which was ripe for 
mutiny. A few days afterwards the troops at _ 
Umballa set out for the siege of Delhi; but 
this regiment, in spite (or because) of its 
known condition, was detached on the march 
to intercept a body of -mutineers at Rohtak. 
By dexterous handling Seaton delayed the 
inevitable outbreak for a fortnight ; but on 
10 June the regiment drove away its officers, 
and marched to join the mutineers in Delhi. 
The officers made their way to the British 
camp, where there was much surprise at 
their safe arrival ; and Seaton served as a 
field * officer during the earlier part- of the 

On 23 July he was dangerously wounded, 
and after the fall of Delhi he was sent up to 
Simla, In November he was again ready fot 
duty, and was made lieutenant-colonel^ oi 
the 1st European fusiliers, his commission 
bearing date 27 June, He was made 1 colonel 
in the army on IS Oct. With a force of 
2,300 men, including his own regiment, he 
escorted a large convoy from -Delhi through 
the Duab, to join the commander-in-cliief. 
He had engagements with the mutineers 



Seaward 



168 



Seaward 



near Bibrarn, at Patiali, and at Mainpuri, in 
which he defeated them by skilful tactics 
with little loss. 

He joined Sir Colin Campbell at Fateh- 
garh on 7 Jan. 1858, and was left in com- 
mand there as brigadier during the siege of 
Luclmow. * You'll be mobbed, my dear 
friend/ said Sir Colin, ' as soon as I leave, 
but you must hold out till I come back/ He 
had only a small force, but finding that the 
mutineers were mustering in large numbers 
in the neighbourhood, he marched out on 
the night of 6 April, fell upon a body of 
them at Kankar, and routed them so 
thoroughly that the main road to the north- 
west was no longer in danger. In this bril- 
liant affair his men ' had marched, out and 
home, forty-four miles, had fought an ac- 
tion, defeating the enemy with considerable 
loss, and capturing their guns, ammunition, 
tents, stores, and baggage, and they had re- 
turned home safely with the captured guns, 
without leaving behind a single straggler, 
and, in spite of the tremendous heat, doing 
all in a little over twenty-two hours/ 

In June he was sent to Shahjahanpur, and 
on 8 Oct. he surprised and defeated theOudh 
mutineers at Bunhagong, In the following 
spring his brigade was broken ii]>, as the 
fighting was at an end ; and he retired soon 
afterwards with the rank of major-general. 
His retirement bore date 80 Aug. 1859* He 
had been made K.OJB. on 24 March 1858, 

After spending several years in England, 
lie settled in France on account of the milder 
climate, and he died at Paris on 11 Sept. 
1876. 

Seaton's autobiography, 'From Cadet to 
Colonel/ was published in two volumes in 
1866, and reprinted in one volume in 1877. 
It is a well-told story of an Indian soldier's 
career. He also wrote some papers on Tret- 
cutting and Wood-carving/ ibr a boys* maga* 
zine, and they were reprinted as a manual 
in 1875. 

[Prom Cadet to Colonel ; Stoequeler's Memo* 
rials of Afghanistan, pp. 213-27; Mnllesoa's 
Hiat of the Indian Mutiny ; Annual Kegister, 
1876 j Illustrated London News, 23 Sept. 1876.] 

SEAWABD, JOHN (1786-1858),' civil 
engineer, son of a builder, was born at Lam* 
beth, London, in January 1786, and began 
life as a surveyor and architect, working 
with his father. He was afterwards engaged 
by Grillier & Co,, contractors for the erection 
of Yauxhall Bridge; the direction of that 
work was entrusted to Seaward, and this 
circumstance brought him the acquaintance 
of Jeremy Bentham and Ralph and James 
Walker. He next managed some lead*mines 



in Wales, acquired a knowledge of chemis- 
ry, and became friendly with Woolf, Trevi- 
;hick, and other mechanical engineers. Re- 
turning to London, he superintended the con- 
struction of Gordon's, Dowson's, and other 
docks on the Thames, and became agent for 
the Gospel Oak Ironworks in Staffordshire. 
He was at the same time connected with the 
Imperial and Continental Gas Company, and 
introduced gas lighting into several towns in 
France, Belgium, and Holland. In 1823 he 
made drawings for a new London Bridge of 
three arches, each of 230 feet span. In 1824 
he established the Canal Ironworks, Mill- 
wall, Poplar, for the construction of ma- 
chinery, more particularly of marine engines. 
The first vessel built there in 1825, the lioyal 
George, was intended to run between Dover 
and Calais. lie joined the Institution of 
Civil Engineers as a member in 1826, and 
was a frequent attendant at the meetings, 

A younger brother, SAMUEL SEAWARD 
(1800-1842), joined John about 1826; the 
brothers produced machinery for every part 
of the world, and made the name of Seaward 
widely known. In 1829 they assisted in 
the formation of the Diamond Steam Packet 
Company, and built the engines for the boats 
whlcu ran between Gravesend and London. 
Of these, the Buby and the Sapphire were 
types for speed anu for accommodation. In 
1836 the brothers brought out the direct- 
acting engines for the Gorgon and Cyclops, 
known as Seaward's engines, nearly dis- 
pensing with the heavy wide-beam engines 
which up to that period were in general use. 
Their auccesfi was complete, and the saving 
obtained in the consumption of fuel by the 
double-alide valve, both lor the steam and ex- 
haust, with other improvements, caused the 
government to entrust the Seawards with 
the building of twenty-four steamboats and 
some smaller vessels. At the same time 
they adapted their engines to the vessels of 
the East India Company, the Steam Naviga- 
tion Companies, and the ships of foreign 
governments. They early advocated the use 
of auxiliary steam power for the voyage to 
India, and experimented with the Vernon in 
1839 and 1840 with great success ( Trans. 
Instlt ofCiiil J%/n<?ers, 1842, iii. 385-401). 
They also designed large swing-bridges, dredg- 
ing machines, cranes, and other dock- appara- 
tus, besides machinery for lead, saw, ana sugar 
mills. Among the improvements and inven- 
tions for which John Seaward was personally 
responsible were the tubular boilers, which 
are still used in the royal navy, the discon- 
necting cranks for paddle-wheel engines, the 
telescopic funnel, the self-acting nozzles for 
feed and for regulating the saturation of the 



Sebbi 



169 



Sebert 



water in marine boilers, the double passages 
in cylinders both for steam and eduction, the 
cheese-couplings used to connect and discon- 
nect the screw propeller to and from the en- 
gines, and other minor improvements. 

The death of Samuel Seaward, who was 
a F.R.S., at Endsleigh Street, London, on 
11 May 1842 (Mm. ofProc. of Instit. of Civil 
Enffineers, 1842-3, ii. 11-12), threw upon 
John Seaward the entire management of 
the Canal ironworks. In the construction 
of the engines of the Amazon, eight hundred 
horse power, he produced one of his most 
perfect works. The vessel unfortunately - 
was destroyed by fire on her first passage to 
the West Indies on 4 Jan. 1852. He <Lied at 
20 Brecknock Crescent, London, on 26 March 
1858, 

He was the author of: 1. 'Observations 
on the Rebuilding- of London Bridge, with 
an examination of the Arch of Equilibrium 
proposed by Dr. Hutton, and an investiga- 
tion of a new method for forming an arch of 
that description/ 1824. 2. ' Observations on 
the Advantages and Possibility of success- 
fully employing Steam Power in navigating 
Ships between this country and the East 
Indies,' 1829, signed J. S. & Co. For ' The 
Steam Engine,' by Thomas Tredgold, 1850, 
he contributed articles on * Steam Naviga- 
tion,' Vessels of Iron and Wood/ the ' Steam 
Engine/ and on * Screw Propulsion/ 

[Minutes of Proc. of Instit. of Civil Engineers, 
1859, xviii. 199-202; Gent. Mag. May 1858, 
p. 566; Cat. of Scientific Papers, 1871, v. 609.1 

GK C. JB. 

SEBBI, SAEBBI, or SEBBA (.695?), 
king of the East-Saxons, was the son of Sae- 
ward. The father was, jointly with his two 
brothers, Sexred [q. v.] and another, king of 
the East-Saxons; he was a heathen, and was 
slain in battle by the West-Saxons in or about 
626 (Mon. Hist. B)*it. p. 637; BEDE, Hi$t, 
JEccl. ii. c. 5 ; HENRY OP HrannraDON", p. 57). 
Sebbi became king about 665, succeeding his 
kinsman Swithelm, the brother and successor 
of Sigebert the Good (q. v.J who succeeded 
his cousin, Sigebert the Little [<j. v.], who 
was the brother of Sebbi ; he reigned con- 
jointly with his nephew, Sighere [q. v.], son 
of Sigebert the Little, under the overlord- 
ship of the kingsof Mercia (M on. Hist Brit. 
u.s.; Hist. JEccl. iii. c. 30), In the early 
years of his reign the great pestilence of 664 
was raging, and under the pressure of this 
calamity a large number of the East-Saxons, 
with Sighere at their head, relapsed ^ into 
heathenism (ib. ; Hist, ofEpid&mosin Britain, 
i. 4-5). Sebbi, however, remained faithful 



to Christianity. On hearing of the relapse 
of the East-Saxons, Wulf here [q.v.], king of 
Mercia, sent Bishop Jaruman (d. 667 ?) to 
recall them to the faith. His success was 
complete. Erkenwald [q. v.], who was ap- 
pointed bishop of London in or about 675, 
was no doubt supported in his work by 
Sebbi, who appears as attesting a charter 
granted by one of his kinsmen to the nun- 
nery of Barking, founded by the bishop (Co- 
dex Diplomatics, vol. i. No. 35). Sebbi, 
who was much given to prayer, acts of 
charity, and good works, and whose charac- 
ter, men said, was more befittinga bishop than 
a king, desired to abdicate, and become a 
monk, but was prevented by his wife, who 
refused to be separated from him. When, 
however, he had reigned for thirty years, and 
had fallen into great weakness from the 
disease of which he died, he told his wife 
that he could no longer live with her in the 
world, and, having with difficulty obtained 
her consent, went to Waldhere [q. v.], the 
bishop of London, and received from him the 
monastic habit, giving him a large sum for 
the poor, and reserving nothing for himself. 
As he lay in sickness upon his bed with his 
thegns around him, who had come, to ask 
about his health, he saw in a vision three 
men in shining garments, one of whom told 
him that on the third day his soul should pass 
from his body without pain and in the midst 
of glorious light. He died at the ninth hour 
of the third day following (in or about 695), 
A stone coffin nad been prepared for him ; it 
was found to be too short inside ; the length 
of the cavity was increased ; it was still too 
short, but suddenly, in the presence of Bishop 
Waldhere, one of the Mngps sons, and many 
others, was found to have been lengthened 
miraculously (Hist. Eccl. iv. 11). Sebbi was 
buried in St. Paul's Church, London, where 
his tomb in the north aisle was shown until 
the great fire of 1666* He left two sons, 
Sighard and Suefred, who succeeded him. 

[Bede's Hist. Eccl. iii. c. 30, iv. cc. 6, 11 J 
Kemble's Codex Dipl. vol. i. Nos. 35, 38 (both 
,Engl. Hist. Soc.); Mon, Hist. Brit. p. 637; 
Henry of Huntingdon, p. 57; Will, of Malmes- 
bury's Gresta, K^gum, i. 98 (both Rolls Ser.) ; 
Diet. Chr.Biogr. s.v. ' Sebbi,' by Bishop Sttibbs ; 
Dugdale's Honasticon, i. 438-9 ; Dugdale's Hist, 
of St Paul's, ed. Ellis, pp. 32, 64 ; Oreightoa's 
Hist, of Epidemics, i. 4-5.] W. H. 

SEBERT. [See also SKSEBEKT.] 
SEBERT, SABERET, or SABA (d. 
616 r% first Christian king of the East- 
Saxons, son of Sledda, king of the Eas1> 
Saxons, by his wife Eicula, sister of Ethel- 
bert or JSthelberht (552 P-616) [q. v.], king 
of Kent, reigned in dependence on his uncle 



Sebright 



170 



Seeker 



Ethelbert,and became a Christian soon after 
the latter's conversion. He and his people 
received Mellitns [ct v.] as their teacher and 
bishop. The founder of St. Paul's Church in 
London, the chief city of the East-Saxons, 
was, however, not Sebert, but his superior 
king, Etlielbert. Sebert is said to have 
founded Westminster Abbey, but this is a 
late legend. He died soon after Ethelbert, 
in or about 616, and was succeeded by his 
three sons, who had remained heathen, and 
under whom the East-Saxons relapsed into 
heathenism [see under SEXKEB]. In 1308 a \ 
tomb, said to be that of Sebert, was opened ! 
in Westminster Abbey for the purpose of ' 
translating the relics, and the right hand and 
forearm of the body were found uudecayed. 

[Bede's Hist. Eccl. ii. cc, 3, 5 ; A.-S. Chroa. 
an. 604, ed. Plummet ; JfCemble's Codax DipL 
No. 555 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Monastics, i, 265, 
288-91 ; Ann. Paulini ap. Chron. JBdw. I and 
Edw. II, i. 266 (Rolls Ser,) ; Diet. Chr. Biogr. 
art. 'Seberfc/ by Bishop Stubbs,] W. H, 

SEBBIGHT, SIE JOHN SA.UNDERS 
(1767-1840), seventh baronet, of Besford, 
Worcestershire, and Beechwood, Hertford- 
shire, politician and agriculturist, born on 
23 May 1767, was the eldest sou of Sir John 
Saunders Sebriffht, sixth baronet, by Sarah, 
daughter of Edward Knight, esq,, of Wol- 
verley, Worcestershire. The father, a colonel 
of the 18th foot and lieutenant-general in 
the army, represented Bath in three parlia- 
ments (1761-1780), and died in March 1794. 
The family settled in Worcestershire early 
in the fourteenth century ; it came originally 
from Sebright Hall, near Great Baddow in 
Essex (see NASH, Worcestershire, I 78-9). 
Edward Sebright, who was high sheriff of 
Worcestershire in 1622, was created rst 
baronet in 1626, and proved himself a zealous 
royalist; he inherited from his uncle, William 
Sebright (d. 1620), who was M.P. for Droit- 
wich in 1572, the manor of Besford, Wor- 
cestershire, which the uncle purchased, 
B The seventh baronet served for a short 
time in the army and was attached to the 
staff of Lord Amherst. He always took 
some interest in military matters. He was 
elected M.P. for Hertfordshire on 11 May 
1807, and continued to represent the county- 
till the end of the first reformed parliament 
He disclaimed connection with any 'party, 
but, while always anxious to support the 
executive, generally acted with the more 
advanced whigs. He was a strong advocate 
of economy in administration, of the abolition 
of sinecures and unnecessary offices, and of 
the remission of indirect taxation* He was 
iii principle a free-trader. 



Sree from most of the prejudices of the 
country squire, he showed his liberality most 
signally in his attitude towards the game 
laws. On 5 April 1821 he seconded Lord 
Oranbornes motion for an inquiry into the 
game laws, and supported all subsequent 
bins for their amendment. In 1826 he at- 
tributed the increase of crime chiefly to 
their influence (ParL Debates, 2nd ser. xiv. 
1242-3). In 1824, and again in 1828, he 
spoke in favour of the repeal of the usury laws 
and he * detested monopolies of all kinds/ 
As a practical agriculturist, owning land 
in three counties, Sebright gave his opinion 
(17 Dec. 1830) against any allotments larger 
than kitchen-gardens, but was willing to try 
an experiment on a larger scale (ib. 3rd ser. 
ii. 995). 

When, on 1 March 1831, Lord John Rus- 
sell moved for leave to bring in the first Re- 
formBUljSebright, as an independent member, 
seconded the motion (ib. 3rd ser, ii, 1089 ; LB 
MABCHANT, Althorp, p. 208), and cordially 
supported this and the succeeding reform bills. 
On 17 Dec. 18&J ho was returned for Hert- 
fordshire, at the head of the poll, to the first 
reformed parliament, but retired at its close. 

In 1809 he published a valuable letter to 
Sir Joseph Banks on < The Art of Improving 
the Breeds of Domestic Animals ' (am. 8vo). 
Bebright was also author of * Observations 
on Hawking, describing the mode of breaking 
and managing several Kinds of hawks used 
in falconry/ 1820, 8vo ; andof * Observations 
upon the Instinct of Animals/ 1880, 8vo. 

He died on 10 April 1840, A portrait of 
him was engraved by S. Reynolds from a 
painting by Boileaa. lie built and endowed 
a school at CheyereU's Green, and a row of 
altnfthouses for sixteen paupers in the parish 
of Iftamstead, Hertfordshire, where some of 
the family property lay. He married, on 
6 Aug. 179$, Harriet, heiress of Richard 
Crofts, esq, of West Harling, Norfolk. She 
died in August 1826, leaving, with seven 
daughters, a son, Hir Thomas Gage Saunders 
Sebright (1802-1&64), who succeeded as 
eighth baronet. 

[Wotton'fc Baron etage, 1771, i. 261-3 ; Burke's 
Peerage and Baronetage, 1893 ; Walford's County 
Families ; Ifagbfc Worcestershire, i 78-9 (with 
pedigree) ; Cussans's Hertfordshire, iii. pt. i. 
pp 106, 113; Parl. Debates, 1807-34; Evans's 
Oat. $ngr. Portraits j Foster's Alumni Qxon.; 
Brit. Him. Cat, j Donaldson's Agricult. Bio- 
graphy, p, 97.3 <* L H* 



SEOKER, THOMAS (1893-1768), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury^ was born at Sibthorpe, 
a village in Nottinghamshire, in 1693, 
Thomas Becker, his father, who was a pious 
disinter, lived on a small estate that he 



Seeker 



171 



Seeker 



owned there. His mother was a daughter 
of George Brough, a gentleman-farmer at 
Shelton, also a village in Nottinghamshire. 
Having been educated at the dissenting aca- 
demy of Timothy Jollie [q. v.] at Atter- 
cliffe, the son was sent in 1710, partly, 
it would seem, at the expense of Dr. Isaac 
Watts, to study divinity, with a view to en- 
tering the dissenting ministry, under Samuel 
Jones (1680P-1719) [q.v.], who kept an 
academy, first at Gloucester, and then at 
Tewkesbury. Here he met some fellow-stu- 
dents who distinguished themselves in after 
life, notably Joseph Butler, afterwards bishop 
of Durham; Isaac Maddox, who became 
bishop of .Worcester ; and Samuel Chandler 
[q. v.J, the nonconformist writer. There 
were sixteen pupils, and Seeker, in a letter 
to Dr. Watts,' gives an interesting account 
of their studies. Unable to make up his mind 
to which religious community to attach him- 
self, he abandoned for the time the intention 
of entering the ministry, and in 1716 began 
to study medicine. He went to London 
and attended the best lectures there, and 
went over in 1718-19 to Paris, where he first 
met his lifelong friend and future brother- 
in-law, Martin Benson [q-v.], afterwards 
, bishop of Gloucester. He kept up a corre- 
spondence with Butler, who extracted from 
his powerful friend, the Rev. Edward Talbot, 
a promise that he would persuade his father, 
William Talbot, bishop of Salisbury, to pro- 
vide for Seeker, if the latter would take 
orders in the church of England. Seeker 
had already written to a friend intimating 
that he was not satisfied with the dissenters, 
In the summer of 1720 he returned to Eng- 
land, and was introduced to Talbot, who died 
of small-pox, in the following December, hav- 



attended to the wishes of his dying son, and 
provided for all three. Seeker, under the 
influence of Butler, Benson, and S. Clarke, 
was won over to the church. He had no 
university degree, but at Leyden, on 7 March 
17:20-1, he received his M.D. degree, having 
written for the occasion a theme of unusual 
excellence, 'De Medicinl Static^,' (Leyden, 
1721). He then entered as a gentleman- 
commoner at Exeter College, Oxford, and 
graduated by virtue of special letters from 
the chancellor In December 1722 he was 
ordained deacon, and on 28 March 1723 was 
ordained priest by Dr. Talbot, now bishop of 
Durham, at St. James's, Westminster, where 
he preached his first sermon. He was in 
high favour 'with the bishop, who in 1724 
grave him the valuable living of Houghton-le* 
Spring, On 28 Oct. 1725 he married Catha- 



rine, the sister of his friend Benson. She 
had been living since Edward Talbot's death 
with his widow and daughter, and Mrs. 
and Miss Talbot continued to live with 
the Seekers after the marriage. Seeker was 
an active parish priest at Houghton, where 
his knowledge of medicine was of great 
service to his poorer parishioners. But, for 
the benefit of Mrs. Seeker's health, a sort of 
exchange was effected with Dr. Finney, 
rector of Ryton and prebendary of Durham, 
to both of which posts Seeker, having 
resigned Houghton, was instituted in London 
on 3 June 1727. In July 17S2 he was ap- 
pointed chaplain to the king at the instance 
of Bishop Sherlock, who was much struck 
with a sermon he heard Seeker preach at 
Bath. In August he preached before Queen 
Caroline (the king being abroad) at St. 
James's Chapel Royal, and from that time 
became an attendant at the queen's philo- 
sophical parties. 

In May 1733 Seeker, on the recommen- 
dation oi Bishop Gibson, was appointed to 
the rectory of St. James's, Westminster. He 
proceeded D.C.L. at Oxford, not being of 
sufficient standing for the D.D. degree ; and 
he preached on the occasion the Act sermon 
' On the Advantages and Duties of an Aca- 
demical Education,' which pleased the queen 
and contributed to his further advancement. 
In December 1734 he was nominated bishop 
of Bristol, and on 19 Jan. following was 
consecrated to that see in Lambeth, chapel. 
He still retained both the rectory of St. 
James's and the prebend of Durham, for 
which, however, there was some excuse, as 
Bristol was the poorest bishopric in England. 
It was at this time that he drew up his 
'Lectures on the Church Catechism J for the 
use of his parishioners at St. James's. Among 
the regular worshippers at his church was 
Frederick, prince of Wales, who now resided 
at Norfolk House, and Seeker baptised many 
of the prince's children. George II had been 
impressed by Seeker's sermon on the death 
of Queen Caroline, and he charged the bishop 
to try and bring about a reconciliation be- 
tween him and his son; but the attempt 
proved abortive, and Seeker incurred for a 
time the royal displeasure. 

In 1737 he succeeded Dr. Potter as bishop 
of Oxford, and in this capacity his modera- 

; tion and judgment stood him in good stead. 

i Oxford was a stronghold of Jacobitism, and 
the bishop was a staunch supporter of the 
Hanoverian government ; but, though lie 
never concealed his opinions, Seeker con- 
trived to avoid collision with those with 
whom he disagreed. As bishop of Oxford he 
was brought into contact with Sarah, duchess 



Seeker 



172 



Seeker 



of Marlborough, who resided at Blenheim. 
He frequently visited her there, and was 
made one of her executors. In 1748 Mrs, 
Seeker died, leaving no issue. In 1760 he 
was installed dean of St. Paul's, in succession 
to his friend Butler, who was made bishop of 
Durham. This again was a sort of exchange, 
made at the instance of the lord chancellor, 
Hardwicke. Seeker resigned St. James's^and 
his prebend at Durham in favour of a friend 
of the chancellor's. In 1768, in spite of his 
breach with the court, he became archbishop 
of Canterbury, being confirmed at Bow 
Church on 21 April, He was reconciled to 
C-Jeorge II before that kind's death, and with 
his successor, whom he Bad baptised, con- 
firmed, crowned, and married, he was a 
favourite. George III gave him in 1761 a 
miniature of himself, which descended 
through the bishop's niece to the Rev. Seeker 
Gawthern, of Car Colston. For ten years 
Seeker filled the post of primate creditably, 
if not brilliantly. In his later years he suf- 
fered severely from the gout, lie died of a 
caries of the thigh-bone on 3 Aug. 1768, and 
was buried in a covered passage leading from 
Lambeth Palace to the north door of Lam- 
beth church. At his own request neither 
monument nor epitaph was placed over his 
remains. 

Seeker was a favourable specimen of the 
orthodox eighteenth-century prelate. He 
had a typical horror of t enthusiasm/ and 
deprecated the progress of methodism, though 
he was alive to its earnestness and piety, and 
did not persecute its adherents. His early 
training probably enabled him to distinguisn 
between the attitude of the Wesleys and 
that of the dissenters. John Wesley de- 



step they took, and never regarded their 
movement as a secession. Seeker's remarks 
on methodism in his charges show great 
discernment, and for that very reason were 
not likely to please any party. On the other 
hand, he had no sympathy with the whig 
theology of the time, and sjoke of the 
'Hoadleian divinity * as ' Christianity secun- 
dum usum Winton/ He was not beyond 
his age in the matter of pluralities, thinking 
it no shame to hold a valuable living, and a 
prebend, or an important deanery, m con- 
junction^ with a bishopric. But on almost 
all public questions he was on the side of 
enlightenment and large-hearted chanty. 
Anti-Jacobite though he was, he protested 
against the persecution of the Scottish epi- 
scopal clergy after the rebellion of 1746. He 
-was strongly in favour of .granting the epi- 
scopate to the American church [see SHABP, 
GaiiraiLB], following ,in this, as in many 



points, the example of his friend Butler; and 
Lie incurred great disfavour both in England 
and in America by advocating the scheme. 
Kot long before his last illness he defended 
indignantly the memory of his old friend 
Butler from the absurd charge that he had 
died apapiwt (cf. Seeker's three letters signed 
* Misopseudes' in St. James'* Ckron. 1767). 
He was foremost in opposing the Spirituous 
Liquors Bill of 1743, which unquestionably 
wrought much mischief. He supported the 
repeal of the Jews 7 Naturalisation Bill of 
1753, but so reasonably that fanatics thought 
he was arguing against the repeal. Though 
unbending as a churchman, he had the happy 
knack of disentangling the personal from 
the theological side oif the question, and 
maintained friendly relations with many 
leading- dissenters, such as Doddridge, Watts, 
Leland, Larclner, and Chandler. He was 
liberal with his money, and very happy in his 
family relations. He showed the potency of 
his friendships, among other ways, by cheer- 
fully undertaking the rather thankless task 
of re vising and correcting his friends 1 writings. 
Butler's * Fifteen Sermons' and 'Analogy^ 
are said to have had the benefit of his 
revision ; certainly Dr* Church's ' Answer to 
Middleton/ and * Analysis of Lord Boling- 
brokers Works/ and Dr, Sharpe's * Answer to 
the Hutchinsonians ' were corrected by him. 
On the other hand, he is raid to have been 
somewhat stiff and reserved to those with 
whom he could not sympathise, He cer- 
tainly made several enemies. Horace Wai- 
pole is particularly bitter against Seeker, 
bringing outrageous charges against him; 
and a less reckless writer, Bishop Hurd, in 
the well-known ' Life of Warburton ' pre- 
fixed to his edition of Warburton's 'Works/ 
depreciates Seeker's learning and abilities. 
Bishop Porteus defended his old friend and 
benefactor against both writers. Other cham- 
pions were Bishop Thomas Newton, who de- 
scribes him as ' that excellent prelate/ and 
Mr. Johnson of Connecticut, who thought 
'there were few bishops like him ;' while 
William Whiston, who disagreed with his 
views, called him * an indefatigable pastor/ 
Even Horace Walpole owns that he was 'in- 
credibly popular in his parish/ 

As a writer Seeker is distinguished by his 
plain good sense. The range of his know- 
ledge was wide and deep, lie was a good 
hebraist, and he wrote excellent Latin. The 
works which he has left to the Lambeth 
library are valuable ^quite as much from his 
manuscript annotations as for their own 
worth. Judging by his printed sermons, 
one would hardly rank him among the great 
pulpit orators of the English church. But he 



Seeker 



Seckford 



purposely, his biographer tells us, composed 
them with studied simplicity, and the reader 
misses the tall commanding presence, and 
the good voice and delivery of the preacher. 
Archbishop Seeker's printed works include 
no fewer than 140 sermons. Four volumes of 
' them were published in his lifetime and the 
rest after his death. His other printed 
works are : Five Charges,' delivered by him 
to his clergy as bishop of Oxford in 1738, 
1741, 1750, and 1753 respectively, and 
4 Three Charges ' as archbishop of Canterbury 
in 1758, 1762, and 1766. All these give a 
valuable insight into the state of the church 
in the middle of the eighteenth century. His 
'Instructions given to Candidates for Or- 
ders after their subscribing the Articles' 
(1786 ; 15th edit. 1824) deal with the ques- 
tions in the ordination service. .They are 
short, but sensible and earnest. His Oratio 
quam coram Synodo Provincise Cantuarien- 
sis anno 1761 convocata habendam scripse- 
rat, sed morbo prsepeditus non habuit Archi- 
episcopus/ is remarkable for its excellent 
latinity. His thirty-nine ' Lectures on the 
Church Catechism ' (1769, 2 vols.), written 
for the use of his parishioners at St. James's, 
were published in two volumes after his 
death. He also wrote, in repljr to a colonial 
criticism of the scheme of appointing bishops 
in America, * An Answer to Dr. Mayhew's 
Observations on the Charter and Conduct 
of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts r (1764). The 
subject of bishops for America also drew 
from him a 'Letter to the Right Hon. 
Horatio Walpole, Esq./ dated 9 Jan. 1750-1, 
but not published until 1769, after his death, 
in accordance with his instructions. Seeker 
argues in favour of the modest proposal that 
'two or three persons should be ordained 
bishops and sent to our American colonies.' 
All these works were collected in 1792 in 
four octavo volumes. 

A portrait by T. Willes was mezzotinted 
by J. McArdell in 1747. A later portrait 
by Reynolds, now at Lambeth, was engraved 
by Charles Townley (1797) and by Henry 
Meyer (1825). A copy of this portrait, pro- 
bably by Gilbert Stuart, is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London. 

[A Review of the Life and Character of Dr. 
Thomas Seeker, archbishop of Canterbury, by 
Bishop Beilby Porteus [1770] ; Seeker's Works in 
four vols. ; Abbey's English Church and its Bi- 
shops, 1700-1800; Abbey and Overton's English 
Church in the Eighteenth Century ; Hunt's Reli- 
gious Thought in England ; Brown's Worthies of 
Nottinghamshire, p. 247; Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. xii. 344; Monthly Repository, 1810 p. 
401, 1820 p. 65, 1821 pp, 193-4.] J. E. 0, 



SECKER, WILLIAM (d. 1681 ?), divine, 
preached at Tewkesbury and afterwards at 
All-Hallows, London Wall. He may have 
been the William Seeker who was appointed 
rector of Leigh, Essex, on 30 Aug. 1667, and 
died there before November 1681 (NEWCOTJRT, 
Repert. Eccle*. ii. 384). 

Seeker's sermon on ' A Wedding Ring fit 
for the Finger, or the Salve of Divinity on 
the Sore of Humanity, laid open at a Wed- 
ding in St. Edmunds' (? Edmonton), Lon- 
don, 1658, 12mo, was very popular, and was 
often reprinted (cf. edits, at Glasgow, 1850, 
12mo; New York, 1854, 16mo). It was 
translated into Welsh, ' Y Fodrwy Briodas/ 
Brecon, 1775 (two editions), and as <Y 
Cristion rhagorol,' Bala, 1880, 8vo. Seeker 
also dedicated to Sir Edward and Lady 
Frances Barkham of Tottenham, who _ had 
befriended him, a volume of sermons entitled 
'The Nonsuch Professor' (London, 1660, 
8vo). This was republished (Leeds, 1803, 
12mo ; London, 1891), and was edited, with 
'The Wedding Ring/ by Matthew Wilks, 
London, 1867, 12mo j it was several times 
reprinted in America. 



[Kennet's Register, p. 594 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Darling's Cyclop. Bibl. ; works above mentioned ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iv. 
49.] & P. S. 

SECKFORD or SACKFOBD, THO- 
MAS (1515 P-1588), lawyer, second son of 
Thomas Seckford, esq., of Seckford Hall, 
Suffolk, sometime M.P. for Oxford, by Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir John Wingfield, knt., 
of Letheringham, was born about 1515, and 
educated, it is believed, at Cambridge (COOPER, 
Athena Cantabr. ii. 18). He was admitted 
a student of Gray's Inn, London, in 1540, and 
was called to the bar, being Lent reader of 
that house in 1555 (FosTBE, Gray's Inn Ad- 
mission Register i p. 14). He was sworn one 
of the masters of request in ordinary on 9 Dec. 
1558, and he also held the offices of sur- 
veyor of the court of wards and liveries and 
steward of the court of Marshalsea. His 
name appears in a commission for the esta- 
blishment of orders and regulations for the 
prison of the Fleet (1561) ; in a special com- 
mission of oyer and terminer for the county 
of Surrey (15 Feb. 1565-6), under which 
Arthur Pole [q. T.J Edmund Pole, and 
others were tried and convicted of high trea- 
son; and in another commission (12 June 
1566) for the trial of offences committed 
within the verge of the queen's house. He 
was appointed one of the commissioners for 
causes ecclesiastical in 1570. On 1 Aug. 
in that year he was included in the special 
commission of oyer and terminer for the 



' Securis 



174 



Securis 



city of London, under which John Felton 
was convicted of high treason. He was re- 
turned for Ipswich, and probably also for 
Bridgnorth, to the parliament which met on 
8 May 1572; but it is difficult to determine 
whether it was he or his father who sat in 
four parliaments for Ipswich and the county 
of Suffolk. On 14 April 1573 he was, with 
others, empowered to deliver the gaol of the 
Marshalsea. His father died in 1575, and 
he, being the eldest surviving son, succeeded 
to the paternal estate. lie built *a very 
faire house in Ipswich within the newe 
barre gates.' His name figures in a special 
commissioner of oyer and terminer for the 
county of Middlesex (20 Feb. 1 685-6), under 
which Dr. William Parry (d. 1585) [q. v.] 
was tried and convicted for conspiring the 
death of the queen. He was buried at Wood- 
bridge, Suffolk, on 15 Jan. 1587-8, 

He was a munificent benefactor to the 
town of Woodbridge, where he founded and 
endowed almshouses, in which twenty-four 
poor men and women still find an asylum in 
old age. Seckfbrd assisted William Harri- 
son (1534-1593) [q. v,] in describing ' the 
rivers and streams of Britain/ and Harrison 
dedicated to him his * Description of Scot- 
land 1 in Holinshed's 'Chronicles' (bk. ill) 

[Addit. MSS. 10080 ff. 22, 37, 19097 if. 
34:9 b> 378-85 ; Baga de Secretis ; Record of the 
House of Gournay, pp. 808, 809; Parliamentary 
Hist, of England, 1762-3, iv. 207 ; Oal. State 
Papers, Bom. 1547-80 p, 248, 1581-90 p. 281, 
Addenda, 1566-79 p. 649, 1680-1626 p. 788; 
Strype's Works (Index); Topographer and (ienoa- 
Ingisr, i. 551; Wright's Elizabeth, ii. 62, 184, 
228, 246.] T. 0. 

SECTJEIS, JOHN (JL 1566), medical 
writer, was born in. England. His name 
was a latinised version or the English sur- 
name Hatcnett. He studied at the univer- 
sity of Paris for two years about 1550, being 
then very young. He attended and admired 
the lectures of Jacobus Sylvius, and studied 
pharmacy in the shops of several apothecaries, 
tie afterwards studied at Oxford, and in 
1554 published A. Gret Galley lately com 
into England out of Terra noua laden with 
plusitions, poticaries, and surgions/ It is a 
dialogue on the tokens and qualities of foolish 
and misguided physicians* He went to live 
in Salisbury, and seems to have been licensed 
to practise physic by the bishop. Hepresented 
a memorial to the bishop on the granting" of 
episcopal medical diplomas. It contained 
seven proposals that every one who wished 
to practise physic in the diocese, and was 
not a graduate of a university, should only 
do so on receipt of a diploma from the bishop 



or his chancellor ; that surgeons should be 
required to show that they'could read and 
write ; that apothecaries should not prescribe 
physic; that no unlicensed person should 
practise ; that no one should assume a uni- 
versity degree which he did not lawfully 
possess; that mid wives should be sworn 
before the bishop; and that apothecaries' 
shops should be inspected from time to 
time by physicians. He mentions the Col- 
lege of Physicians of London in this memorial 
with great respect. In 1561, and perhaps 
earlier, he began to publish ' A Prognostica- 
tion ' for the year, a small black-letter book, 
combining with information as to law terms 
advice as to when it was wise to let blood or 
take lenitive medicine. Then after a short 
preface, in which he says that he likes to 
practise physic better than to prophesy, there 
follows a prognostic of the weather for each 
month. He seema to have continued these 
till 1580 (Wool)). The edition of 1562 
ia in the British Museum. In 1566 he pub- 
lished *A Detection and Querimonie of 
the daily enormities and abuses committed 
in physick.' It is a small black-letter book, 
written in racy idiomatic English, with a 
Latin dedication to the universities of Ox-? 
ford and Cambridge, printed in italics. It 
discusses physicians, surgeons, and apothe- 
caries, and lays down rules for the education 
and conduct of each* Bo expresses his belief 
in the power of the royal touch of the kings 
of England and of France. There is a pre- 
face of tux eight-line stanzas of English 
verse, and at thw end a peroration * to bothe 
the universities * in four stanzas of the same 
kind. This book was reprinted in 166*2 with 
liecord's * Judiciail of Urines.' The date of 
his death ia unknown. Wood (Athena Qxon. 
i, 458) states that John Securis (or llatchett) 
was at New College, Oxford ; but the original 
register shows that Thomas Securis (or Hat- 
chett), and no other of the name, was ad- 
mitted a scholar 19 June 1552, and that his 
place was iilled !> Nov. 1558. He was a 
native of Salisbury, and was admitted on the 
foundation at Winchester in 1546 (informa- 
tion kindly sent by Dr. J. E* Sewell, warden 
of New College, Oxford). 

A contemporary MICHAEL SECXTBIS or HAT- 
CHKXT (JL 1545), a doctor who lived in the 
* new borough of Bar urn/ was author of i Libri 
Beptem de Antiquitate ac illustri Medicinse 
Online,* extant in Digby MS. 202 in the 
Bodleian Library, which also contains some 
other medical opuscula by the same author 
(see MACBA*, Cat, CWL MSS. Bodl ix282- 
285). 

[Works ; TArmer*HBM.p. 659 j Aikin'a Bmg*. 
Msruoir* of Medicine, 1780,] U. & , 



Sedding 



Sedding 



SEEDING, EDMUND (1836-1888), ar- 
chitect and musician, son of Richard and 
Peninnah Sedding of Summerstown, near 
Okehampton, Devonshire, was born on 20 June 
1836. John Dando Sedding [q. v.] was his 
younger brother. He early displayed anti- 
quarian tastes, which led to his visiting cathe- 
drals, abbeys, and churches in England and 
France. In 1853 he entered the office of 
George Edmund Street [q. v.], where he de- 
voted "himself to the study of Gothic archi- 
tecture. For some time he resided as an 
architect in Bristol, and, after again spend- 
ing a period in London, removed about 1862 
to Penzance, where he obtained a large 
practice. In Cornwall he built or restored 
the churches of Gwithian, Wendron, Altar- 
nun, North-hill, Euan, St. Peter's, Newlyn r 
and St. Stephen's, Launceston, while he had 
in progress at the time of his death a new 
church at Stockport, a rectory, and two 
churches in Wales, the restoration of Bigbury 
church, and a mansion at Hayle for Mr. 
W. J. Rawlings. 

Sedding was a performer on the harmonium 
and organ, and an admirer of ancient church 
music. He was for a time precentor of the 
church of St. Raphael the Archangel, Bristol, 
and organist of St. Mary the Virgin, Soho. 
He greatly exerted himself in the revival of 
carol singing, and his books of Christmas 
carols were very popular. In 1865 his health 
failed, and he died at Penzance on 1 1 June 
1868, being buried at Madron on 16 June, 
He married, on 18 Aug. 1862, Jessie, daugh- 
ter of John Proctor, chemist, Penzance, by 
whom he left four children. 

His chief musical compositions were : 1. * A 
Collection of Nine Antient Christmas Carols 
for four voices,' 1860; 6th edit. 1864. 2. 'Jeru- 
salem the Golden : a hymn/ 186L 3. ' Seven 
Ancient Carols for four voices,' 1863 ; 2nd 
edit. 1864. 4. 'Five Hymns of ye Holy 
Eastern Church/ 1864. 5'. < Sun of my Soul ; 
a hymn set to music in four parts/ 1864. 
6. < Litany of the Passion/ 1865. 7, ' The 
Harvest is the end of the World/ 1865. 
8. ' Be we merry in this Feast : a carol/ 1866. 
To F. G. Lee's * Directorium Anglicanum/ 
2nd edit. 1865, he supplied fifteen quarto 
pages of illustrations* 

[Julian's Hymnology, 1892, pp. 211, 21 2 j 
Western Morning News, 17 June 1868, p. 2; 
Church Times, 1868, vi. 230, 241; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. 1878-82, pp. 641, 1334 ; 
Street's Memoir of &. E. Street, p, 20.] 

a a B. 

SEEDING, JOHN DANDO (1838-1891), 
architect, second son of Richard and Peninnah 
Sedding, and younger brother of Edmund 
Sedding [q, v.J was born at Eton on 13 April 



1838, and in 1858, like his brother, entered 
the office of George Edmund Street [q. v.] 
He made a close study of ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture and decorative work connected with 
churches. After his architectural training 
was completed he mainly confined himself to 
designing embroidery, wall-papers, chalices, 
patens, and other goldsmith's work ; but in 
1872 he achieved a success in planning the 
church and vicarage of St. Clement's, Bourne- 
mouth. Thenceforward his architectural 
practice steadily grew. In 1876 he made 
the acquaintance of and submitted sketches 
to Mr. Ruskin, who told him that * he must 
always have pencil or chisel in hand if he 
were to be more than an employer of men 
on commission.' Sedding took this adjura- 
tion to heart. He endeavoured to form a 
school of masons and of carvers and modellers 
from nature, and succeeded in exerting a re- 
markable influence over his workmen by his 
vigilant interest in the details of their craft. 
He himself was tireless in drawing and 
studying flowers and leaves, and from such 
studies he derived nearly all his ornamental 
designs. Elected F.R.LB.A. in 1874, by 
1880 he had an office in Oxford Street, Lon- 
don, and between that date and his death he 
built, among other works, the church of the 
Holy Redeemer at Clerkenwell ; St. Augus- 
tine's, Highgate ; St. Edward's, Netley; All 
Saints, Falmouth; St. Dyfrig's, Cardiff; 
Salcombe Church, Devonshire; the Chil- 
dren's Hospital, Finsburv; and Holy Trinity- 
Church, Chelsea (unfinished). He became 
diocesan architect for Bath and Wells, de^r 
signed the pastoral cross for the cathedral, 
and did much valuable work upon the 
churches of the diocese. He probably ex- 
celled in the additions and restorations which 
he executed in many of the small parish 
churches of the west of England, notably at 
Holbeton, Ermington, and Meavy in Devon- 
shire; and in designing chancel screens, 
reredoses, altar crosses, and decorations he 
showed a happy originality. He moved 
his residence in June 1888 from Charlotte 
Street to West Wickham in Kent, and be- 
came an enthusiastic gardener, with a strong 
prepossession for cut-yew hedges and arcades, 
and other topiarian devices, writing in 1891 
his very suggestive 'Garden Craft, Old and 
New.' Before it was published he died at 
Winsford Vicarage, Somerset (where he was 
engaged on some restoration) on 7 April 
1891, A few days afterwards died his wife, 
Eose, daughter of CanonTinling of Gloucester. 
Posthumously appeared his * Art and Handi- 
craft' (189S), embodying his views on the 
claims of architecture, some of which had 
already been expounded in an original paper 



Seddon 



176 



Seddon 



rend before the Edinburgh art congress in 
1889. Younger men in his profession de- 
rived much inspiration both from his work 
and from his utterances. Two black-and- 
white port-raits are prefixed to ' A Memorial 
of John Sodding,' privately printed, 1892. 

[Garden Craft, with memorial notice, by _the 
Jtev. E. F. Russell; Memorial of J. Sediling, 
1892, with a short appreciation by H. Wiis m; 
Builder, 11 April 1891; Boase and Courtney's 
Bihlintheca Cornubiensis ; Times, 10 April 
1891.] T. S. 

SEDDON, FELIX JOHN VAUGTIAN 
(1798-186")), orientalist, son of William 
Seddon, attorney, of Pendleton, near Man- 
chester, was born in 1798, and educated at 
the Manchester grammar school In IB 15 
he went to India, where he resided fifteen 
years, and during* his stay acquired an inti- 
mate knowledge of several oriental lan- 
guages. He was in 1820 appointed registrar 
of Itangpur, Bengal, and at the outbreak of 
the Burmese war, in 1824, accompanied the 
army as translator and accountant to the 
agent of the governor-general. lie trans- 
lated the articles of war and artillery exer- 
cise into Munipuri, for use of the 'native 
levy, and prepared a grammar and dictionary 
of the language of Assam. When his health 
failed in 1880, he was engaged on a com- 
parative dictionary of the Munipuri, Siamese, 
and Burmese tongues. At a later date he 
assisted in translating the Bible into some 
Indian language. On 12 July 183# lie was 
elected professor of oriental languages at 
King's College, London, and published in 
1835 i An Address introductory to a Course 
of Lectures on the Languages and Litera- 
ture of the East/ 8vo. In 1837 he again 
went out to India, intending to og>en 
a college at Lucknow, a project in which 
William IV took much interest; but when 
he arrived there he found that the king of 
Oude was dead, and his successor was op- 
posed to the plan* This and other difficulties 
obliged him to abandon the undertaking. 
He was afterwards appointed preceptor to 
the nawab Nizam, and for his services re- 
ceived a pension* The latter part of his life 
was spent at Murshidabad, Bengal, where he 
died, unmarried, on 25 Nov. 1865, 

[Manchester School Eegistet (Chatham Soc,), 

a. 244.3 a w. a 

SEDDOH, JOHN (1644-1700), call- 
grapher, born in 1644, became master of Sir 
John Johnson's free writ ing school in Priests 
Court, Foster Lane, Cheapside. Massey de- 
scribes him as a 'celebrated artist/ and says 
lie exceeded i all our English penmen in' a 
fruitful fancy, and surprising invention, in 



the ornamental parts of his writing' He 
died on 13 April 1700. 

The following performances of his passed 
through the rolling press : 1, < The Ingenious 
Youth's Companion. Furnished with variety 
of Copies of the Iland in Fashion. Adorned 
with curious Figures and Flourishes in- 
vented and performed t\ la Volee/ London 
[1690], oblong Bvo. It contains fifteen 
plates engraved by John Sturt. 2. <The 
Pen-man's Paradise, both Pleasant and Pro- 
fitable, or Examples of all y tt usuall Hands 
of this Kingdom**. Adorn'd with variety of 
Figures and Flourishes done by command of 
Hand. Each Figure being one continued & 
entire Tract of the Pen ' [London, 1695], 
oblong 4to. It was engraved by John Sturt, 
and contains thirty-four plates, besides the 
portrait of the author from a drawing by 
William Faithorue. 3, ' The Penman's 
Magazine: or, a new Copy Book of the Eng- 
lish, French, and Italian Hands, after the 
best Made ; Adorn'd with about an Hundred 
Now and Open Figures and Fancies/ Lon- 
don, 1 705, fol. The writing copies were ' per- 
formed' by George Shelley [q, v.] of the Hand 
and Pen in Warwick Lane, the figures and 
fancies being by Seddon. The whole work 
was BupurvUed by Thomas Read, clerk of 
St. Gile*8-intue-Pields, formerly one of 
Seddon'a scholars. Prefixed to it is a lauda- 
tory poem by Nahum Tate, poet laureate. 

[tvHUH*8 Cat. of Engraved Portraits, n, 9373; 
MaHHuy'8 Origin and Progress of Lotto rs, ii. 128 ; 
Noble's Contin. of Granger, i, 311; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd sor. xi. 201 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

1 T.C. 

SEDDQtf, JOHN (1719-1769), Unitarian 
divine, son of Peter Seddon (1089-1731), 
dissenting minister at Ptmrith, Cumberland 
(1717-19), and Oockey Moor in the pariah 
of Middleton, Lancashire (1719-31), was 
bom in 1719 at Lomax Fold, Little Lever, 
in the parish of Bolton, Lancashire. On his 
father's death, Seddon's education was un- 
dertaken by the congregation of Cross Street, 
Manchester; he was at Stand grammar 
school under William Walker; at the 
Kendal Academy (entered 178S) tinder 
Caleb Rotheram, JD.IX [q. v.]-, and at Glas- 
gow University, where ne matriculated in 
1789, and is aaid to have graduated M.A., 
but of this there ia no record. On leaving 
Glasgow he became assistant at Cross Street 
to Joseph Motturshead [q. v.], and was 
ordained on 22 Oct. 1742, He was a 
preacher of facility and power, and pursued 
a line of singular independence in theology. 
Priestley, when at Warrington (1761-8), 
speaks of Secldim as * the only Socinian 
in the neighbourhood,' adding, * we all won- 



Seddon 



177 



Seddon 



dered at him.' He embodied Ms views in 
a series of six sermons, of which the first 
was preached on 27 May 1761. A contem- 
porary account describes the excitement pro- 
duced by his utterances ; Ms outspokenness 
won for Mm increased respect, though he 
made few converts. The sermons were not 
published tiH 1793, when they were out of 
date, but they are noteworthy for their time 
as anticipating the historical argument of 
Priestley. Seddon lived on good terms 
with neighbouring clergy, especially with 
John Clayton (1709-1773) [q.v.], the Ja- 
cobite fellow of Manchester collegiate church. 
He was beloved for the amiability of Ms 
temper and Ms charity to the poor. After 
a long illness he died on 22 Nov. 1769, 
and was buried in Cross Street Chapel. He 
married, in 1743, Mottershead's eldest daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth (d. 1765), and left a son, 
Mottershead Seddon, His library was sold 
on 26 Feb. 1770. He edited^ with preface, 
*The Sovereignty of the Divine Admini- 
stration/ &c., 1766, 8vo, by Thomas Dixon 
(1721-1754) [see under Dixoisr, THOMAS, 
M.D.] His * ^Discourses on the Person of 
Christ/ Warrington, 1793, 8vo, were edited 
with ' An Account of the Author/ by Ralph 
Harrison fjq . v.], at the suggestion of Joshua 
Toulmin, D.D. [q. v.] 

[Harrison's < Account/ 1793 ; Tonlmin's 
Memoirs of Samuel Bourn, 1808, p. 253; 
Monthly Eepository, 1810 p. 322, 1818 p. 430 ; 
Butt's Memoirs of Priestley, 1832, i. 59 ; Baker's 
Memorials of a Dissenting Chapel, 1884, 
pp. 30 sq. 143 ; Nightingale's Lancashire Non- 
conformity (1893), v. 98 sq. ; Cross Street Chapel 
Bicentenary, 1894, p. 49; extract from manu- 
script minutes of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Widows' Fund (for date of birth), per the Rev. 
P. M. Higginson ; extract from Glasgow matricu- 
lation register, per W. Innes Addison, Esq.] 

SEDDON*, JOHN (1725-1770), rector 
of Warrington Academy, son of Peter 
Seddon, dissenting minister successively at 
Ormskirk and Hereford, was born at Here- 
ford on 8 Dec. 1725. He appears to have been 
a second cousin of John Seddon (1719-1769) 

64. v.], with whom he has often "been con- 
used. He was entered at Kendal Academy 
in 1742, under Caleb Rotheram, D.D. [q.y.J, 
and went thence to Glasgow University, 
where he matriculated in 1744, and was a 
favourite pupil of Francis Hutcheson (1694- 
1746) [q. v.J and William Leechman [q. v.l 
On completing his studies he succeeded 
Charles Owen, D.D. fa. v.], as minister of 
Cairo Street Chapel, Warrington, Lancashire, 
where he was ordained on 8 Dec. 1747. t 
Soon after his settlement the Percival I 

VOL. II. 



family left the established church and at- 
tached themselves to Seddon, * a liberal 
divine of Arian persuasion,' Seddon gave 

Private tuition to Thomas Percival (1740- 
804) [q. v.], who described him as scholar, 
preacher, and companion * almost without au 
equal/ 

Owing to the closing of the academies at 
Kendal (1753) and Findern, Derbyshire 
(1754), which had been due to private en- 
terprise, a project was launched in July 1754 
for establishing in the north of England a 
dissenting academy by subscription. Seddon 
was one of the most active promoters of the 
scheme ; it was due to him that the final 
choice fell upon Warrington rather than upon 
Ormskirk. On 80 June 1757 he was elected 
secretary, and when the academy opened at 
Warrington on 20 Oct. he was appointed 
librarian. As secretary he did not get on 
well with John Taylor (1694-1761) [q. v.], 
who had been appointed to the divinity chair; 
the trustees, however, sided with Seddon 
against Taylor. Discipline was always a 
difficulty at Warrington; with a view to 
better control, in 1767 the office of 'rector 
academics J was created, and bestowed upon 
Seddon. At the same time he succeeded 
Priestley in the chair of belles lettres ; his 
manuscript lectures on the philosophy of lan- 
guage and on oratory, in four quarto volumes, 
are in the library of Manchester College, 
Oxford, 

Taylor's difference with Seddon originated 
in a controversy respecting forms of prayer* 
On 3 July 1750 a meeting of dissenting 
ministers took place at Warrington to con- 
sider the introduction of * public forms ' into 
dissenting worship. A subsequent meeting 
at Preston on 10 Sept. 1751 declared in 
favour of ' a proper variety of public devo- 
tional offices.' Next year the * provincial 
assembly' appointed a committee on the 
subject; a long controversy followed. On 
16 Oct. 1760 a number of persons in Liver- 
pool, headed by Thomas Bentley (1731- 
1780) fa.v-], agreed to build a chapel for 
nonconformist Hturgical worship, and in- 
vited several dissenting ministers to pre- 
pare a prayer-book. Taylor declined, and 
wrote strongly against the scheme. Seddon 
warmly took it up. On 6 Jan. 1762 he 
submitted 'the new liturgy' to a company 
of * dissenters and seceders from the church ' 
at the Merchants' coffee-house, Liverpool. 
This compilation, published 1763, 8vo, as 
* A Form of Prayer and a New Collection of 
Psalms, for the use of a congregation of 
Protestant Dissenters in Liverpool,' is often 
described as Seddon's work; he edited it, 
but had two coadjutors ; of its three service^ 

N 



Seddon 



178 



Seddon 



the third was by Philip Holland [q. v.]; the 
remaining contributor was Hicham Godwin 
(1722-1787), minister at Gatoacre, nwir 
Liverpool Tha book was used in the Octagon 



8tlf MA. In January 1777 he was curate of 
the ehapelry of Stratford, near Manchester, 
which he hld until his death, For a time 
he was also curate at St. George's, Wigan, and 



Chapel, Liverpool, from its opening on j from 1789 incumbent of Lydgate, Saddle- 
5 June 1703 till L>6 Feb. 1770, after which j worth, in the parish of Kochdale. His living 
the building was sold, and converted into J at Stwtibrd was sequestered for debt aftei 
St. Catherine's Ghurt'h [now OI^TTON, j Iw had been there two or three years, At 
KICHOLAS, D.I).] Seddon declined to be- j Wigan he was unpopular, and generally lie 
come the minister of the Octagon Chapel, ; appears to have been negligent of his duties, 
and in his owo. ministry practised extern- and ' a clever but erratic pareon of the Doctor 

Dmltl species, 1 as James Crossley styled him 
(Maw/tester School Jffr//, i.^116)* He married 
ior meanH a young lady of good family neat 
Manchester, and died in 1706, on his passage 
to the West Indies, as chaplain of the 104th 
or royal regiment of Manchester volunteers. 
He waa author of, apart from sermons: 
1, * Characteristic Strictures, or Remarks on 
upwards of One Hundred Portraits of the 
most Eminent Persons in the Counties of 



porary prayer* 

Beddon was a main founder (17/38) of the 
"Warringtou public library, and it first 
president. He was the iirwt wwtarv (17(U) 
of the Lancashire and Cheshire Widows* 
Fund. He died suddenly at Warringtwt on 
23 Jan. 1770, and WAS buried in Cairo Street 
Chapel. He married, in 1757, a daughter 
of one Hoskina, equerry to Frederick, prince 
of Wales, but had no issue, Bin wife's 
fortune was invested in calico-printing 
works at Stockport, and lost* She survived 
him. A valuable selection from his letters 
and papers was edited by Robert Brook 
Aspland [0. v,X in the * Christian Reformer * 
(1854 pp, 224 aq., ,158 an., 613 q., 1855 
pp. 365 sq.) A silhouette likeness of Seddon 
is in Kendriek's 'Profiles of Warrington 
Worthies/ 1854. 

[Funeral Sermon, by Philip Holland, in Hol- 
land^ Sermons, 179$, vol. ii, ; Brief Momoiv, by 
At-pland, in Christ iun Koformor, 1854, pp. 224 
sq.; Seddon Papers, in Christ inn Ktifoitner, ut 
supra; Monthly Repository, 1810, p.^4'28; 
Turner's Historical Account of Warrington 
Academy, in Monthly KopoKitory, 1810 ; Taylor's 
Account of the LHttoimhin) Controversy on 
Prayer, in Monthly Repository, 18'-i2, pp. 20 itq. ; 
Bright's Historical Sketch of Warringttm 
Academy, in Transactions of Historic Society 
of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol. xi. (11 Nov, 
1858), also separately printed, 186$, and 
abridged in Christian Reformer, 1861, pp, 68*2 
$q.; Nightingale's JUancashire Nonconformity 
(1892), iv. 217 w. (1893), vl 128 aq.; manu- 
script volume of letters relating to Octagon 
Chapel, in library of Renshaw Street Chapel, 
Liverpool ; extract from Glasgow matriculation, 
register, per W. Innes Addison, Esq.] A. G-. 

SEDDOK THOMAS (1753-1796), au- 
thor, sou of John Seddon, fanner, of Pendle- 
ton, near Manchester, was born in 1758 t and 
receired part of his education at the Man- 



Lancaster and Chester/ London, 1779, 4to 
[anon.]; a series of libellous and satiric 
sketches which gave great offence. 2. i Let- 
ters written to an Officer in the Army on 
varionn subjects, Religious, Moral, and Poli- 
tical, with a. view to the Manners, Accom- 
pHfthmtmtB, and proper Conduct of Young 
' 



Wamngton, 1786, 2 vols. 8vo, 
8, * Impartial and Free Thoughts on a Free 
Trade to the Kingdom of Ireland 7 [1780], 
8vo. 

[Manchester School Regittter, i. 115(Chetham 
Poc.) ; Fostor'B Alumm Oiou. 1714-188G; 
Baiby's Old Stratford, 1878, p. 45; Clarke's 
&huoi Candidas, ed. J. E. Bailey, 1877, p. 17.] 

C* W, S. 

SEDB03ST, TIIOMAR (1831-1856), 
landscape-painter, son of Thomas Seddon^ a 
well-ltnown cabinet-maker, was born in 
Aldersgate Street, |jondo,on 28 Aug. 1821. 
He waa educat*xl at a school conducted ou 
the Pestalozzian syfttem by the Eev. Joseph 
Barren at Stanmore, and afterwards entered 
his father's business, but he found its duties 
HO irksome that in 1841 he was sent to Paris 
to study ornamental art. He attained great 
efficiency as a draughtsman, and on. his re- 
turn he made designs for furniture and super- 
intended their execution. In 1848 he gained 
the prize of a silver medal and twenty 
pounds offered by the Society of Arts for a 
design for an ornamental sideboard. He also 
practised drawing from the life, and in 1849 



Chester grammar school. He was intended , visited North Wales and stayed some weeks 
by his father for the medical profession, but i at Bettws-y-Coed ; there he began his first 
himself chose the church* though he was ill- j real studies of landscape, which he continued 
suited for it. He matriculated from Ma#~ ! in the following year at Barbizon in the 
dalen HatJ, Oxford, on 2 March 1776, but ! forest of Fontainebleau. In 1860 he took an 
wasted his time, ran into debt, and took no active part in establishing the North London 
degree, although he afterwards styled him- 1 school of drawing aud modelling in Camden, 



Sedgwick 



179 



Sedgwick 



Town for the instruction of workmen. His 
first exhibited work, ' Penelope/ appeared at 
the Royal Academy in 1852, but next year 
he went to Dinan, and, turning his attention 
to landscape-painting, sent to the Royal 
Academy a picture of * A Valley in Brittany/ 
which was followed in 1854 by a large picture 
of the ruined monastery of ' Lhon, from 
Mont Parnasse, Brittany/ He then, without 
returning to England, set out to join Mr. 
William Holman Hunt in Egypt, and reached 
Alexandria on 6 Dec. 1853. He spent some 
months in. Egypt and in, the Holy Land. 
During his stay at Cairo he painted a portrait 
of Sir Richard Burton in Arab costume, and 
made some careful and highly finished studies 
and sketches of eastern life. His * Sunset 
behind the Pyramids ' was rejected at the 
Royal Academy in 1855, but three of his 
oriental pictures, * An Arab Sheikh and 
Tents in the Egyptian Desert/ ' Dromedary 
and Arabs at the City of the Dead, Cairo/ 
and an 'Interior of a Deewan, formerly 
belonging to the Copt Patriarch, near the 
Esbekeeyah, Cairo/ were in the exhibition 
of 1856. Many commissions followed, and 
Seddon, after returning to England in 1855, 
revisited Egypt in quest of fresh materials 
for his pictures ; but within a month of his 
arrival at Cairo he died of dysentery in the 
church mission-house there on 23 Nov. 1856. 
He was buried in the.protestant cemetery at 
Cairo. 

Seddon left unfinished a large picture of 
'Arabs at Prayer.' An exhibition of his 
works was held at the Society of Arts in 
1857, when an appreciative address was de- 
livered by Mr. John Raskin. His picture of 
'Jerusalem and the Valley of Jehoshaphat 
from the Hill of Evil Counsel/ painted on 
the spot in 1854, was purchased by sub- 
scription and presented to the National 
Gallery. His brother, John Pollard Seddon, 
the architect, published his 'Memoir and 
Letters ' in 1858. 

[Memoir and Letters of Thomas Seddon, by 
his brother, 1858 ; Athenaeum, 1857, i. 19 ; Red- 
grave's Dictionary of Artists of the English 
School, 1878; Journal of the Society of Arts, 
1857, pp. 360-2, 419; Royal Academy Exhi- 
bition Catalogues, 1852-1856.] R. E, GK 

SEDGWICK, ADAM (1785-1873), geo- 
logist, was born on 22 March 1785 at Pent 
in the dales of western Yorkshire. He was 
the third child of Richard Sedgwick, per- 
petual curate of Dent, by his second wife, 
Margaret Stums. Till his sixteenth year 
he attended the 'grammar school at Dent, 
of which, during this time, his father be- 
came headmaster. Adam was next sent to 
the well-known school at Sedbergh, There 



he remained till 1804, when he went up to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, as a sizar. For 
a few months before he read with John 
Dawson [q.v.l, the surgeon and mathema- 
tician, who had helped fco bring him into the 
world. An attack of typhoid fever in the 
autumn of 1805 nearly proved fatal. He 
was elected scholar in 1807, and graduated 
B. A. in 1808, with the place of fifth -wrangler. 
The examiner, who settled the final order of 
the candidates, is said to have considered 
Sedgwick the one who showed most signs of 
inherent power. 

Sedgwick continued at Cambridge, taking 
private pupils and reading for a fellowship. 
The latter he obtained in 1810, but at the 
cost of serious and possibly permanent in- 
mry to his health, In May 1813 he broke a 
blood-vessel, and for months remained in a 
very weak state. In 1815, however, he was 
able to undertake the duties of assistant 
tutor, and he was ordained in 1816. 

The great opportunity of his life came in 
the early summer of 1818, when the Wood- 
wardian professorship of geology became va- 
cant [see HAILSTONE, JOHN], Though Sedg- 
wick was practically ignorant of the subject, 
and his opponent, the Rev. George Cornelius 
G-orham [q.v.], was known to have studied 
it, he seems to have so favourably impressed 
the members of the university that he was 
elected by 186 votes to^ 59. Hitherto the 
office had been almost a sinecure ; Sedgwick, 
although the income was then only IQO a 
year, determined to make it a reality. He 
at once began earnest study of the subject, 
spending part of the summer at work in 
Derbyshire, and gave his first course of lec- 
tures in the Easter term of 1819. It was 
soon evident that a wise choice had been 
made. Sedgwick's lectures became each year 
more attractive. His repute as a geologist 
rapidly increased, and he took a leading part 
in promoting the study of natural science in 
the university. One instrument for this pur- 
pose was the Cambridge Philosophical So- 
ciety, in the foundation of which he was 
one of the most active. He interested him- 
self in the geological collection of the uni- 
versity, which he augmented often at his 
private expense, and saw transferred to a 
more commodious building in 1841. 

In 1818 Sedgwick was elected fellow of 
the Geological Society ; he was president iu 
1831, and received its Wollaston medal in 
1851. He was made fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1830, and gained the Copley 
medal in 1863. In 1838 he was president 
of the British Association, and served as 
president of the geological section in 1837, 
1845, 1853, and 1860. He was made hon,o> 



Sedgwick 



1 80 



Sedgwick 



rary D.O.L, of Oxford in 1860 and honorary 
LL.D. of Cambridge in 1866. 

Though Sedgwick spent much time in the 
field during the vacations, he seldom left 
the British Isles, and to Ireland he went but 
twice. He visited the continent only four 
times, going as far as Chamonix in 1816, to 
Paris in 1827, to the Eastern Alps with 
Murchison in 1829, and he made, with the 
same companion, another long geological 
tour in Germany and Belgium in 1839. 

Meanwhile Sedgwick engaged^ in much 
university business. He was senior proctor 
in 1827, and in 1847 he was made Cambridge 
secretary to Prince Albert when the latter 
was elected chancellor of the university, and 
from 1850 to 1852 served as a member of a 
royal commission of inquiry into the con- 
dition of that university. He was appointed 
by his college to the vicarage of bhudy- 
Camps (tenable with his fellowship), de- 
clined the valuable living of East larleigh 
offered him in 18S1 by Lord-chancellor 
Brougham, accepted a prebendal stall at 
Korwich in 1834, and declined the deanery 
of Peterborough in 185S. At Norwich, as 
in Cambridge, he stimulated an interest in 
science, and was hardly less popular as a 
preacher than as a host. But this removed 
him from Cambridge only for two months 
in the year. He delivered his usual courses 
of lectures till the end of 1870, though in 
later years he not seldom had to avail himself 
of the services of a deputy. 

He died after a few days' illness very 
early in the morning of 27 Jan* 1873, and 
was buried in the chapel of Trinity College. 
It was determined to ouild a new geological 
museum as a memorial, and a large sum was 
collected for the purpose, but this scheme 
has not yet been carried out (1897), His 
name is commemorated by the 'Sedgwick 
Prize * (for an essay on a geological subject), 
founded by Mr. A. A, Vansittart in 1863. 

Sedgwick was quick in temper, but sym- 
pathetic, generous, and openhanded ; a lover 
of children, though he never married* As 
a speaker and lecturer he was oftea discur- 
sive, sometimes colloquial, but on occasion 
most eloquent. He possessed a marvellous 
memory, and was an admirable raconteur. 
Thus his humour, his simplicity of manner, 
and Ms wide sympathies made him welcome 
among *all sorts and conditions of men/ 
from the roadside tavern to the royal palace* 
A reformer in politics, he was not without 
prejudices against some changes. The same 
was also true in science. Though so emi- 
nently a pioneer, new ideas met sometimes 
with a hesitating reception* He was rather 
slowly convinced of the former great exten- 



sion of glaciers advocated in this country 
by Louis Agassiz and William Buckland 
[q.v.J, never quite accepted Lyell's uni- 
iormitarian teaching, and was always strongly 
opposed to Darwin's hypothesis as to the 
origin of species. But he had a marvellous 
power of unravelling the stratigraphy of a 
complicated district, of co-ordinating facts 
and of grasping those which were of pri- 
mary importance as the basis of induction. 
A certain want of concentration diminished 
the quantity and sometimes affected the 
quality of his work, but any one whose 
good nature is great and interests are wide, 
who is at once a professor in a university 
and a canon of a cathedral and active in 
both must be liable to many serious inter- 
ruptions. Moreover, Sed^wick's health, after 
his election to a fellowship, was never really 
good. His eyes, especially in later life, gave 
him much trouble ; one indeed had been 
permanently injured in 1821 by a splinter 
from a rock. ^ fie seems to have met with 
more than his share of accidents falls, a 
dislocated wrist, and a broken arm. 

It is^ evident that he disliked literary 
composition and was somewhat given to 
procrastinate. But, notwithstanding these 
drawbacks, he left an indelible mark on his 
own university, and will be ever honoured 
as one of the great leaders in the heroic age 
of geology. At the outset of his career, as 
he stated in his last published words, * three 
prominent hopes' possessed his heart to 
form a collection worthy of the university, 
to secure the building of a suitable museum, 
and to ' brinj together a class of students 
who would listen to my teaching, support 
me by their sympathy, and help me by the 
labour of their hands/ These Taopes, as he 
says, were fully realised (Catalogue of the 
Cambrian and Silurian Fossils, &c., Pref, 
p. xxxi), 

Sedgwick in his prime was a strikingfigure : 
almost six feot nigh, spare but strongly 
built, never bald, close-shaven, with davk 
eyes and complexion, strongly marked fea- 
tures, overhanging forehead, and bushy eve- 
brows, A portrait in oils by Thomas Phillips, 
RA,, dated 1832, and owned by Mr, John 
H. Gurney of Norwich, was reproduced for 
the < Life and Letters ' (1890), as was also a 
fine crayon portrait by Lowes Dickinson, 
dated 1867, now ia the Woodwardian Mu- 
seum at Cambridge. Busts of Sedgwick by 
H. Weekes and Thomas Woolner are ia 
possession of the Geological Society, London, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Sedgwick never published a complete book 
on any geological subject, though he wrote 
a lengthy introduction to the description of 



Sedgwick 



181 



Sedgwick 



' British Palaeozoic Fossils in the Geological 
Museum of the University of Cambridge' 
by Professor McCoy (1854), and a preface to 
' A Catalogue of the Cambrian and Silurian 
Fossils/ in the same collection, by John Wil- 
liam Salter [q.vjand Professor John Morris 
[q.v.] (1873). He appears in the ' Royal 
Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers ' as 
the sole author of forty papers and joint- 
author of sixteen, published for the most part 
in the ' Transactions J or the 'Quarterly Jour- 
nal of the Geological Society,' the * Trans- 
actions of the Cambridge Philosophical So- 
ciety,' or the * Philosophical Magazine/ Of 
these the more important can be grouped in 
five divisions : 1. ' On the Geology of Cornwall 
and Devon/ a subject which was dealt with 
in the first of his more important communi- 
cations, read before the Cambridge Philoso- 
phical Society in 1820 (Trans. C. P. & i. 
9). Other papers follow, some of tnem 
written in conjunction with Murchison. In 
these the order of the rocks beneath the 
new red sandstone of the south-west of 
England was worked out, the stratigraphy of 
the Carboniferous deposits and of the under- 
lying Devonian system was gradually esta- 
blished, and some valuable contributions 
were made to the history of the various 
crystalline masses in Devon and Cornwall, 
including those in the Lizard peninsula. 

2. The next group of papers, small in 
number, deals with the ' new red sandstone ' 
in the northern half of England, giving the 
results of field work between 1821 and 1824. 
One of them describes the mineral charac- 
ter and succession of the magnesian and other 
limestones, the marls, and the sandstones, 
which extend along, the eastern flank of the 
Pennine range from the south of Northum- 
berland to the north of Derbyshire, dwelling 
more particularly on the lower part ; another 
deals with the corresponding rocks, breccias 
and conglomerates, with sandstones, marls 
and thin calcareous bands, on the western side 
of the -same range, more especially in the 
valley of the Eden. The part of the new 
red sandstone more particularly worked out 
t>y Sedgwick has since been termed Permian^ 
but his diagnosis of the relations of the 
strata, their marked discordancy from the 
underlying carboniferous and their closer 
affinity with the overlying red rocks, since 
called Trias, has proved to be correct. 

3. A- third group deals with a yet more 
difficult questionthe geology of the lake 
district and its environs. The researches just 
named were carried downwards through the 
underlying carboniferous rocks^antJ then the 
intricacies of the great central massif were 
attacked. This task more especially occu- 



pied the summers from 1822 to 1824, and 
its results were published in papers, dating 
from 1831 to 1857. A more popular ac- 
count was also given in five letters addressed 
to Wordsworth, published afterwards in 
Hudson's 'Complete Guide to the Lakes' 
(1853). 

4. A fourth group includes a large num- 
ber of miscellaneous papers, published at 
various dates and on different geological 
topics. Among the more important of these 
may be noted * On Trap Dykes in Yorkshire 
and Durham y (1822) ; ' On the Association 
of Trap Rocks with the Mountain Limestone 
Formation in High Teesdale ' (1823-4) ; two 
in 1828, written in conjunction with Mur- 
chison one on the Isle of Arran, another 
on the secondary rocks in the north of Scot- 
land; one (with the same coadjutor) on the 
Eastern Alps (1829-30); and last, but not 
least, the classic paper * On the Structure of 
Large Mineral Masses, &c./ read before the 
G-eological Society of London, and published 
in their ' Transactions ' (iii. 461). 

5. The fifth and largest group deals with 
the geology of Wales. Seagwick first took 
this in hand in the summer of 1831,, when he 
was working for part of histime with Charles 
Robert Darwin [q.v.] Commencing with the 
rocks of Anglesey for a base, he worked over 
Carnarvonshire, and in 1832 carried on his 
researches into Merionethshire and Cardigan- 
shire. In 1834 he accompanied Murchison 
over the district on the eastern border of the 
principality, on which the latter had been 
engaged. The results of these and of later 
visits, more especially in 1842 and 1843, 
were described from time to time in verbal 
communications to the Cambridge- Philoso- 
phical Society and to the British Association, 
out the first systematic papers were read to 
the Geological Society in 1843 (Proc. GreoL 
Soc. voL iv. pt. i. pp. 212 ; Quart. Journal 
Geol. Soc. i. 5). Others followed in 1844 
and 1846. Soon after Murchison had pub- 
lished his ' Silurian System/ in 1889, it be- 
came evident that difficulties existed in cor- 
relating the work done by the two geologists 
in their several districts, and a controversy 
gradually arose concerning the limits of the 
Cambrian system as established by Sedg- 
wick and oi the Silurian system of Murchi- 
son (names which were first used about 
1835). The general structure of north Wales 
had been determined by Sedgwick as early 
as 1832, and subsequent investigation in this 
region has confirmed the general accuracy of 
the order in which he placed the beds and 
of the main divisions which he established ; 
while it has been proved that Murchison had 
confused together two distinct formations, 



Sedgwick 



182 



Sedgwick 



the Oaradoc (Bala of Sedgwick) and that 
now called Upper Llandovery (the May 
Hill sandstone of SedgwickX and had also 
fallen into serious error as to the stratigraphy 
of his own Llandeilo beds. The dispute 
reached an acute stage in 1862, when Sedg- 
wick read two papers to the Geological So- 
ciety of London. He considered that m 
regard to these, especially the former, the 
council of this society had dealt unfairly 
with him ; and from 1864, after another dis- 
pute over a paper ' On the May Hill Sand- 
stone/ &c., he ceased to be on terms of 
friendship with Murchison and was estranged 
from the society. By these papers, which em- 
bodied the results of investigations in 185:4-3, 
the distinction of the true Caradoc and of 
the May Hill sandstone was established. 

Sedgwick was also author of a * Discourse 
on the Studies of the University of Cam- 
bridge 7 This book originated in a sermon, 
preached in the chapel of Trinity College at 
the commemoration of benefactors on 17 Dec. 
1882. Next year it was published, by re- 
quest, after several months 7 delay. It ran 
through four editions in two years, and in 
1850 was republished as a bulky volume, 
with a very long preface (cf. Notes and 
Queries, 8th ser. xn. 344). 

[There are frequent references to Sedgwicfc in 
the lives of Buckland, 0. parwiu, Lyeli, and 
Mwchison, and obituary notices appeared during 
1873 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, 
the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 
and other scientific periodicals ; but these have 
"been superseded by the above-named Life und 
Letters of the Keverend Adam Sertgwick, by 
J. W. Clark and T. McK. Hughes (ifivols, Cam- 
bridge, 1890).] T. G, B. 



SEDGWICK, DANIEL (1814-1879), 
hymnologist, was born of poor parents in 
Leadenhall Street, London, on 26 Nov. 
1814. After serving an apprenticeship, ^he 
became a shoemaker. In 1889 he married 
and joined the strict baptist congregation at 
Providence Chapel, Grosvenor Street, Com- 
mercial Road. Already in 1837 he had given 
up shoemaking to commence dealing in 
secondhand books. He gradually worked up 
a connection among collectors, mainly of 
theological literature. His customers in- 
cluded George Offor [q* v.1, William Bonar, 
the collector of hymn-books, and Alexander 
Gardyrte, whose collection of Scottish poetry 
is now in the Mitchell Library, Glasgow. 
His shop was at 81 (afterwards renum W*>4 
93) Sun Street, Bisliopsgate. In 1840 he 
taught himself writing, and acquired a neat 
and clear hand, but never gained any facility 
in literary composition. In 1859 he com- 
menced publishing reprints of the rarer hymn- 



writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, under the general title of ' Library 
of Spiritual Song. 7 The first of the thirteen 
issues consisted of the hymns of William 
Williams (1717-1791) [q,v.] Pursuing his 
studies in hymnology, ne produced in 1860 
'A Comprehensive Index of many of the 
Original Authors and Translators of Psalms 
and Hymns,' with the dates of their vari- 
ous works, chiefly collected from the origi- 
nal publications (2nd edit, enlarged 1863). 
Thenceforth he was recognised as the fore- 
most living hymnologist, He was consulted 
by men of all opinions by Charles Haddon 
Spurgeon, when compiling Our own Hymn- 
book,' 1866, and Josiah Miller, when writing 
* Singers and Songs of the Church/ * Hymns 
Ancient and Modern ' owed from its earliest 
days something to his assistance ; and when 
Sir Koundiill Palmer (Lord Selborne) was 
compiling his ' Book of Praise' in 18(>2 the 
sheets were submitted to Sedgwick's inspec- 
tion, when he identified the majority of the 
compositions. In fact, hardly a hymn-Look 
appeared in his later days in which his aid 
was not acknowledged. His manuscripts, 
which are now preserved in the Church 
House, Westminster, were used in Julian's 
< Dictionary of Hymnology/ He died at 
93 Sun Street on 10 March 1879, and was 
buried in Abntty Park cemetery. His wile 
survived him j he had no issue. 

Sedgwick prepared indexes of authors for 
the English editions (on the title-pages of 
which he figures as editor) of the American 
works : * Pure Gold for the Sunday School/ 
1877, and * The lloyal Diadem Songs for the 
Sunday School,' 1^7, both by K. Lowry and 
W. II. Doane, His six catalogues of scarce 
religious poetry are of bibliographical value. 
[Information kindly supplied by W, T. Brooke, 
68q, ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. 1892, ii. 409, 
4-51 ; Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, 1892, pp. 
1036-7; Bookseller, May 1879, p. 424; Ihe 
Earthen Vessel, July 1879, p. 19; JRonndell 
Paltner's Book of Praise, 1863, preface, p. v; 
(X H. Spurgeon's Our Own Hymn-book, 18o6, 
preface, p, ix ; Hymns Ancient and Modem, 
Biggs** edition, 1867, preface, p, x.] <* C. B. 

SEDOWICK, JAMES (1775-1851), 
author, eon of James Sedgwick of West- 
minster, was born in London m 1775, .tie 
matriculated from Pembroke College, Ox- 
ford, on 30 Oct. 1797, but did not graduate. 
He was called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple on M Jan, 1801. In 1809 he was 
appointed a commissioner of excise at 
Edinburgh, and in 1811 Chairman of the 
excise board. In 1816 he was nominated 
by the treasury to a seat at the London 
excse board, bu*. his patent was cancelled 



Sedgwick 



183 



Sedgwick 



in consequence of the prince regent having 
promised the Marchioness of Hertford that 
Colonel Sir Francis Hastings Doyle should 
have the first vacancy. By way of com- 
pensation Sedgwick was appointed examiner 
of the droits of admiralty accounts, with 
his previous salary of 1,500J. a year. He 
was promoted by patent, dated 25 Aug. 1817, 
to be chairman of the board of stamps. At 
the beginning of 1818 he conducted an 
inquiry into the conduct of the stamp revenue 
in Scotland, and discovered great ^abuses. 
His effort to secure the permanent dismissal 
of the officer to whom the disorder was attri- 
butable proved, to his irritation, unsuccessful. 
At the same time he gave offence to^ Lord 
Liverpool and the government by printing 
* Observations' on the position of affairs and 
engaging in controversy in the < Morning 
Chronicle' respecting the inquiry. His 
fourteen letters were reissued in the form of 
three pamphlets. When, in 1826, the board 
of stamps was dissolved, he alone of all the 
members was denied a pension. In 1828, 
however, he received a small retiring allow- 
ance of 400Z. a year. Henceforth he had a 
grievance, and the greater part of his life 
was spent in memorialising successive ad- 
ministrations or petitioning parliament. In 
1845 he published another series of ' Letters 
addressed to Lord Granville Somerset and 
others ' on * The Dissolution of the Board of 
Stamps, with Strictures on the Conduct of 
Sir John Easthope as proprietor of the 
< Morning Chronicle/" The 'Morning, 
Chronicle' had ceased to print his com- 
plaints. He was a director of the County 
Fire Office. He died, from the effects of a 
fall, on 26 Jan. 1851 at his house, 3 Church 
Street, Kensington. He was married, and 
left one daughter. 

Besides the works already pientwraea, 
Sedgwick wrote: 1. <An Abridgment of 
the Modern Determinations in the Courts ol 
Law and Equity,' being a supplement to 0. 
Viner's < Abndgment,' 1799. 2. ' Remarks on 
the Commentaries of Sir W. Blackstone,' 
1800 : 2nd edit. 1804. Underthe signature 
of < A Barrister ' he published : 3. Hints to 
the Public on the Nature of Evangelical 
Preaching,' 1808 ; 2nd edit. 1812 : this work 
was replied to by W. B. Collyer, 1809. 4. 
<A Letter to the Ratepayers of Great 
Britain on the Repeal of the Poor Laws, to 
which is subjoined the outline of a plan for 
the abolition of the poor rates at the end of 
three years, 1883. Sedgwick edited the 
edition 1 of Sir G. Gilbert's 'Law 



sixth , 

of Evidence/ 1801. He is said to have con- 
ducted the ' Oxford Review' January 1807 
to March 1808 fifteen monthly numbers. 



[Gent. Mag. April, 1851, pp. 436-7 ; Times, 
30 Jan. 1851, p. 4; Biogr. Diet, of Living 
Authors, 1816, p. 310.] G-. 0. B. 

SEDGWICK, OBADIAH (1600P-1668), 
puritan divine, son of Joseph Sedgwick, 
vicar of St. Peter's, Marlborough, "Wiltshire, 
afterwards of Ogbourne St. Andrew, Wilt- 
shire, was born at Maiiborough about 1600. 
He matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, 
on 18 June 1619, aged 19, removed thence 
to Magdalen Hall, and graduated B.A. on 
5 May 1620, M.A. 23 Jan. 1623. He was 
tutor (1626) to Sir Matthew Hale [q. v.] 
Having taken orders, he became chaplain 
to Horatio, baron Vere of Tilbury [q. y.J, 
whom he accompanied to the Low Countries. 
Returning to Oxford, he commenced B.D. on 
16 Jan. 1630. His first preferment (1630) in 
the church was as lecturer at St. Mildred's, 
Bread Street, London, where his puritanism 
got him into trouble. On 6 July 1639 he 
was presented by Robert Rich, second earl 
of Warwick [q. v.], to the vicarage of 
Coggeshall, Essex, in succession to John 
Dod. On the opening of the Long par- 
liament he regained his lectureship at^St. 
Mildred's, and became a preacher against 
episcopacy. Wood says that he used 'in 
hot weather to unbutton his doublet in the 
pulpit, that his breath might be the longer.' 
In the autumn of 1642 he was chaplain to 
the regiment of foot raised bv Denzil Holies 
f q v 1 He was a member of the Westmin- 
ster Assembly (1643), and in the same year 
was appointed a licenser of the press. On 
6 Octf 1643 he spoke at the Ghiildhall m 
favour of the league with Scotland for the 
prosecution of the war, and his speech was 
published in 'Foure Speeches/ 1646, 4to. In 
a sermon of September 1644 he preached for 

< cutting off delinquents.' He held for a short 
time the rectory of St Andrews, Holborn, 
on the sequestration (13 Dec. 1645) of John 

Hacket Fa.*.]; bu * next y ear Q* eiolB Ma 
1646) he was appointed to the rectory of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, and resigned 
GoffffeshalL where John Owen (1616-1683) 
Tq. v.] succeeded him (18 Aug.) He was^a 
member of the eleventh London classis in 

ecclesiastical views were not rigid, for on 
20 March 1664 he was appointed one of 
Cromwell's < triers,' and in August of the 
same" year was a clerical assistant to the 

< expurgators.' His health failing, he resigned 
St Paul's in 1656, and was succeeded by 
'his, son-in-law, Thomas Manton [q.v.J He 
was a man of property, being lord 01 tn'e 
manor of Ashmansworbh, Hampshire. Ite- 
tirincr to Marlborough, he died there at the 
beginning of January 1658, and was buried 



Sedgwick 



184 



Sedgwick 



near his father, in the chancel of Ogbourne 
St. Andrew, A portrait of Sedgwick, en- 
graved by "W. Richardson, is mentioned by 
Bromley. By his wife Priscilla he had a 
son Robert, baptised at Coggeshall on 19 Oct. 
1641, who was a frequent preacher before 
parliament, and published many sermons 
between 1639 and 1657. 

Besides these and a catechism, he pub- 
lished: 1. * Christ's Counsell to ... Sardis/ 
1640, 8vo. 2. ' The Doubting Beleever,' 1641, 
12mo ; 1653, 12mo. 3. 'The Humbled Sin- 
ner,' 1656, 4to; 1660, 4to. 4. 'The Fountain 
Opened/ 1657,4to. 6. ' The Riches of Grace/ 
1657, 12mo; 1658, 12mo. Posthumous were : 

6. < The Shepherd of Israel/ 1658, 4to. 

7. ' The Parable of the Prodigal/ 1660, 4to. 

8. 'The Anatomy of Secret Sins/ 1660, 4to. 
9* The Bowels of Tender Mercy/ 1661, fol. 

JOHN- SEDOWICK (1601 P-1643), puritan 
divine, younger brother of the above, was 
born at Marlborough about 1601, entered at 
Queen's College, Oxford, in 1619, removed to 
Magdalen Hall, was ordained deacon at 
Christmas 1621, admitted B.A. 6 Dec. 1622 
(after four refusals, as he had used the title 
of the degree before obtaining it), proceeded 
M.A. 7 July 1625, B.D. 9 Nov. 1633 (incor- 
porated at Cambridge 1638). After holding 
curacies at St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate (Lon- 
don), Chiswick( Middlesex), and Coggeshall 
(under his brother), he obtained (1 April 
1641) the rectory of St. Alphage, London 
"Wall, on the sequestration of James Halsey, 
D.D. He was chaplain to the Earl of Stam- 
ford's regiment. He died in October 1643, 
and was buried at St. Alphage's on 16 Oct. 
His funeral sermon was preached by Thomas 
Case [q. v.J He was twice married; his 
second marriage (1632) was to Anne, daugh- 
ter of Fulke Buttery of Ealin$, Middlesex, 
"Wood cites a posthumous notice of him in 
the ' Mercurius Aulicus/ which says he had 
but one thumb, had been reprieved from the 
pillory in 1633, and was or bad character* 
He published four single sermons (1625-41), 
and ' Antinomianisme Anatomized, 1643, 4to. 

A younger brother, Joseph ( -ft, 1653), was 
batler of Magdalen Hall on 7 Nov. 1634, 
aged 20, B.A. 2 March 1638, afterwards M, A, 
and fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. 
He published: 1. 'An Essay to the Dis- 
covery of the Spirit of Enthusiasm/ 1663, 
4to. 2, ' Learning's Necessity/ 1653, 4to* 
Another Joseph Sedgwick was prebendary 
of South Scarle in Lincoln Cathedral, and 
died on 22 Sept. 1702, aged 74 (Lu NEVE, 
JFo*^ ii. 207). 

[Wood's Atheuse Oxon. (Bliss), in, 65, 442, 
1090, iv. 751 ; W.ood's Fasti (Bliss), i. 392, && ; 
Poster's Alumni Oxon, 1892, iv. 1331 ; Baxter's 



Keliquise. 1696, i. 42; Walker's Sufferings of the 
Clergy, 1714, ii. 171 ; Brook's Lives of the 
Puritans, 1813, ii. 485 sq., iii. 295 sq. ; Neal's 
Hist, of the Puritans (Toulmin), 1822, vol. iii. ; 
Dale's Annals of Coggeshall, 1863, pp. 155 sq.; 
Mitchell and Struthers's Minutes of Westminster 
Assembly, 1874, p. 219 sq.; the baptismal 
register of St. Peter's, Marlborough, does not 
begin till 1611.] A. G-. 

SEDGWICK, THOMAS, D.D. (fl. 1550- 
1565^), catholic divine, received his educa- 
tion m the universitv of Cambridge, where 
he became a fellow, first of Peterhouse, and 
afterwards of Trinity College. He studied 
theology and was created DJ). In June 
1550 he held a disputation with Bucer at 
Cambridge on the subject of justification by 
faith (STBYPB, Life of Cranmer, pp. 203, 
583, folio). He was instituted to the rec- 
tory of Erwarton, Suffolk, in 1552. In 
1553-4 Bishop Gardiner recommended him 
to the president and fellows of Peterhouse 
for election to the mastership. Similar 
letters were addressed to them by the bishop 
on behalf of Andrew Peme [q. v.l The 
fellows nominated them both, and thelbishop 
of Ely selected Feme, Sedgwick was elected 
Lady Margaret professor of divinity in 1554, 
and he was one of the learned Cambridge 
divines who were deputed by the university 
to dispute with Cranmer, Ilidley, and Lati- 
mer at Oxford, where ha was incorporated 
D.D. on 34 April 1554 (Oxford Univ. 
Reghttr, i. 224), On 12 March 1555-6 he 
was admitted to the vicarage of Enfield, 
Middlesex, on the presentation ^ of Trinity 
College. He resigned this living as well 
as the Lady Margaret professorship in 1556, 
and on 80 May in that he was admitted to 
the rectory of Toft, Cambridgeshire. He was 
also one of the commissioners for religion 
and the examination of heretical books, and 
took an active part during the visitation 
of the university by Cardinal Pole's dele- 
gates in 1556 and 1657, In the latter year 
he was chosen regius professor of divinity. 
In 1558 he was presented to the vicarage of 
Gainford and the rectory of Stanhope, 
both in the county of Durham (HUTCHIJST- 
SON, Durham, iii. 267, 353). Sedgwick 
firmly adhered to the ancient faith, and in 
the Sbt of popish recusants drawn up by 
the commissioners for ecclesiastical causes 
in 1561 he is described as i learned, but not 
very wiae,' and restrained to the town of 
Richmond or within ten miles compass about 
the same ( STBYPB, Annats, vol, i. chap, 
xxiv.) He was living in 1567, when George 
Neville, master of the hospital at Well, be- 
queathed him 4& (Rkhmonfohire Wills, p 



Sedgwick 



185 



Sedley 



[Addit. MS. 5832 f. 152, 5843 ff. 76, 77 ; 
Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, ii. 85, 95, 103, 
172; Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 213, 553; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. early series, iv. 1331 ; 
Graham's Reformation Gleanings, pp. 158, 164:; 
Newcourt's Bepertorium, i. 601 ; Wood's Fasti 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 146.] T. C. 

SEDGWICK, WILLIAM (1610?- 
1669 ?}, puritan and mystic, son, of William 
Sedgwick of London, was born in Bedford- 
shire about 1615. He matriculated at Pem- 
broke College, Oxford, on 2 Dec. 1625. 
aged 15, and graduated B A. 21 June 1628, 
M.A. 4 May 1631. His tutor was George 
Hughes [q. v.] On 5 Feb. 1634 he was in- 
stituted to the rectory of Farnham, Essex ; 
next year he was incorporated M.A. at 
Cambridge. He held the living of Farnham 
till 1644, when he was succeeded by Giles 
Archer (instituted 27 April) ; but in 1642, 
leaving Farnham in charge of a curate, he 
removed to London. On 5 Oct. 1641 a pe- 
tition was preferred against William Fuller 
(1580 P-1659) [<j, v.], dean of Ely and vicar 
of St. Giles-without-Cripplegate, by the 
parishioners of Cripplegate, complaining that 
he had hindered the appointment of Sedg- 
wick as Thursday lecturer at St. Giles's. In 
1642 Sedgwick became chaplain to the regi- 
ment of foot raised by Sir William Constable 
[<i . v.] In 1644 he became the chief preacher 
in Ely, and by his evangelistic labours gained 
the title of 'apostle of the Isle of Ely.' 
His relations to ecclesiastical parties were 
not unlike those of William Dell [q. v,] and 
John Saltmarsh [q. v.] Wood says he was 
sometimes * a presbyterian, sometimes an in- 
dependent, and at other times an anabaptist/ 
It would be more correct to class him with 
the * seekers.' Calamy says his * heart was 
better than his head. He was very ready 
to listen to any claims to prophetical power. 
A woman in the neighbourhood of SwafF- 
ham Prior, Cambridgeshire, proclaimed the 
near advent of the day of judgment. Sedg- 
wick adopted her date, and announced it at 
the house of Sir Francis Russell of Ohippen- 
ham, Cambridgeshire (father-in-law of Henry 
Cromwell). Nothing happened on the day 
fixed, but during the night following ' there 
arose on a sudden a terrible tempest ^ of 
thunder and lightning.' From this abortive 
prophecy Sedgwick got the name of ' Dooms- 
day Sedgwiek/ At the end of 1647 he 
waited on Charles I at Carisbrooke Castle 
with his < Leaves of the Tree of Life.' 
Charles read part of the book and gave it 
back, saying he thought 'the author stands 
in some need of sleep/ In 1652 he was 
attracted by John Reeve (1608-1658) [q. v.l 
the 'prophet' of the Muggletonians, and, 



without becoming a disciple, contributed to 
his ' quarterly necessity ' till Reeve died. In 
June 1657 he explained his position in a 
correspondence with Reeve (Sacred Remains* 
1706, pp. 1 sq.) 

His preaching at Ely being terminated 
by the Restoration, he retired to Lewisham, 
Kent. In 1663, having conformed, he became 
rector of Mattishall Burgh, Norfolk, and he 
died in London about 1669 (WOOD). 

His writings, quiet in tone, are not want- 
ing in spiritual feeling, nor devoid of pathos. 
Besides two sermons before parliament (1642 
and 1643) he published: 1. 'The Leaves of 
the Tree of Life,' 1648, 4to. 2, 'Some 
Flashes of Lightenings of the Sonne of Man,' 
1648, 4to ; reprinted 1830, 12mo. 3. ' The 
Spirituall Madman ... a Prophesie concern- 
ing the King, the Parliament/ 1648, 4to. 
4. ' Justice upon the Armie Remonstrance,' 
&c., 1649, 4to. 5. ' A Second View of the 
Army Remonstrance/ 1649, 4to. 6. 'Mr. 
W. S.'s Letter to ... Thomas Lord Fair- 
fax in prosecution of his Answer to the 
Remonstrance of the Army/ 1649, 4to ; 
part of this, with title 'Excerpta qusedam 
ex W. S. remonstrantia ad Generalem Ex- 
ercitus/ is in 'Sylloge Variorum Tracta- 
tuum/ 1649, 4to. 7. ' Animadversions on a 
Letter ... to His Highness ... by ... Gen- 
tlemen. . .in Wales/ 1656, 4to. 8. 'Animad- 
versions upon a book intituled Inquisition 
for the Blood of our Soveraign/ 1661, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon, (Bliss), iii. 894; 
Wood's Fasti (Bliss), L 438, 460; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1892, iv. 1332; Calamy's Ac- 
count, 1713, pp. 114, 117; Davids's Evang. 
Nonconf. in Essex, 1863, pp. 285, 566 sq.] 

A. G-. 

SEDLEY, CATHARINE, COTOTESS o* 
DOBCHESTEB (1657-1717), born on 21 Dec. 
1657, and baptised eight days later at St. 
Giles-in-the-Fields, was the only child of 
Sir Charles Sedley [q. y.] f by Catharine, 
daughter of John Savage, earl Savers. As 
early as June 167S Evelyn spoke of her as 
' none of the virtuous, but a wit. 7 In 1677 
Sir Winstone and Lady Churchill were 
anxious for a match between their eldest 
son (afterwards first^Duke of Marlborough) 
and Catharine, his distant kinswoman. She 
was not good-looking, they admitted, and 
she squinted, but she was rich. The nego- 
tiation was soon broken off (WoiSEuer, 
Life of Marlborougk, i. 189). Catharine be- 
came a familiar figure atWhitehall, Barillon 
describing her as clever, but very pale and 
thin. She soon supplanted Arabella Churchill 
(whom she excelled both in ugliness and im- 
pudence) in the good graces of the Duke 
of York. Charles II conjectured tiiat she 



Sedley 



1 86 



Sedley 



must have been prescribed to his brother by 
his confessor as a sort of penance, Dorset 
made some rather brutal attacks upon her 
lack of beauty and love of tinery, notably in 
the verses 'Tell me, Dormida, why so gay,* 
1680 (State Poem*, iii. 395). Catharine 
herself was astonished at the violence of the 
ducal passion, 'It cannot be my beauty/ 
she said, * for he must see I have none ; and 
it cannot be my wit, for he has not enough 
to know that I have any/ The Roman 
catholics were the chief targets of her caustic 
tongue, and they apprehended, not with- 
out cause, that upon James's accession she 
might occupy a position similar to that of 
the Duchess of Portsmouth, "When James 
came to the throne he resolved that he would 
see his mistress no more, and bade her re- 
move from Whitehall to the house in St. 
James's Square (No. 21, formerly occupied 
by Arabella Churchill), which he had pur- 
chased for her, at the same time increasing 
her allowance from 2,00(ML to 4,()00/. per 
annum. But despite these precautions, some 
three months later, whether by accident or 
design, the pair met, at Chitlinch's and the 
amour was renewed. The revival of the 
intrigue was attributed to a design on the 
part of Rochester and Dartmouth to neu- 
tralise a catholic queen by a protentant mis- 
tress. Though report assigned to him a suc- 
cessful rival in Colonel Graham, the keeper 
of tJjte privy purse, the king was content to 
believe himself the father of Catharine's 
children, and on 19 Jan. 1686 a writ passed 
the privy seal creating her Baroness of Dar- 
lington and Countess of Dorchester, with an 
enhanced pension of 5,0001. per annum* 
Such a gratuitous insult ifor the honour was 
unsought by the shrewd Catharine) provoked 
the furious resentment of the catholic 
camarilla, For two days the queen refused 
both food and speech, while James, stricken 
by a tardy remorse, had recourse to a scourge 
(which curious love-token his wife subse- 
quently bequeathed to the convent of 
Chaillot). Tiie countess was ordered to with* 
draw from Whitehall to her own house, 
and thence to Flanders, Quite unabashed', 
she wrote that the number of convents in 
Flanders would render the air too oppres- 
sive for her; but eventually, after a persona 
interview with her lover, she consented to 
go to Ireland, where her friend Kochester 
was viceroy. She found Dublin * intole- 
rable' and the Irish 'mallincoly' (autogr 
letter in Mr. A, Morrison's Collections, iii 
128). She returned in August 1686, and 
was visited with great secrecy by James 
but her political importance was gone. Shi 
bore the revolution with complete equa 



imity, and in May 1691 William and Mary 
granted her a pension of 1,500/. per annum, 
while in 1703 her former pension of 5,000 J. 
vas renewed by a grant in the Irish parlia- 
ment In August 1690 she married Sir 
David Colyear, second baronet, who was 
created in 1699 baron, and four years later 
Sari Portmore. She was conspicuous at the 
coronation of George I (L.A.D Y COWPER, Diary, 
>. 57i.) She is supposed to have made a 
)ious end, dying at Bath on 26 Oct. 1717. 
L)r, Johnson may have had this supposition 
m his mind when he wrote in the * Vanity 
of Human Wishes : ' * And Sedley curs'd the 
:orm that pleased a king.' 

By her husband, Earl Portmore, who sur- 
vived till 2 Jan. 1730, she had two sons 
David, viscount Melsington (d, 1729), and 
Charles Colyear, second earl of Portrnore 
(tt 1785). 

By the Duke of York (afterwards James IT) 
she seems to have had several children 
tvho died young. Dnngeau mentions in 
February 1(386 that two of her sons by tlie 
king were being educated in Paris. The only 
child who lived to maturity was apparently 
Lady Catharine Darnley; she married, on 
28 Oct. 1699, James Annesley, third earl of 
Anglesey, from whom, on account of alleged 
cruelty on his part, she was separated by act 
of parliament on 12 Juno 1701 (of. Eist. 
j/W&SL Comm. 10th Hep. App, iii. 336), After 
his death, in January 1701 -2, she married, 
secondly, on 16 March 1706-6, John Shef- 
field, first duke of Normauby and Bucking- 
ham fq. v,] ; she died on 13 March 1748, and 
was interred, with almost regal pomp, in 
Westminster Abbey. Her extravagant pride 
in her rank was conspicuous even on her 
deathbed (e WALPOIB; British Champion, 
7 April 1743). By her first husband she had 
an only daughter, Catherine, who married 
William, son of Sir Constan tine Phipps [q. v,], 
lord-chancellor of Ireland* By her second 
husband she had a son Edmund, who suc- 
ceeded to the title and estates, but, dying 
unmarried during his mother's lifetime, be- 
queathed to her all the Mulgrave and 
Normanby property. These estates she left 
by will to her grandson, Constantine Phipps, 
first baron Mulgrave, whose grandson, Con-' 
stantine Hnry PJjipps fq. v.J, on his eleva- 
tion to the marquisate, assumed the title of 
Normanby. 

Portraits of Lady Dorchester, by Kneller 
and Dahl, were at Strawberry Hill, while an 
anonymous portrait of her, in a low toss 
with red drapery, is in the possession of Earl 
Spencer (Cat. Nat Portr. 1866, No. 1022). 

[G. B, C.'s Pear*g s.v. Anneslay, Darlington, 
Dorchester, and Portmore; LuttrelTs Diary, vol, 



Sedley 



187 



Sedley 



iv. passim ; Evelyn's Diary, ii. 84, 248 ; Reresby's 
Diary, passim; Burnet's Own Time; EJlis 
' Corresp. ii. 92; Poems on State Affairs, 1716, 
passim; Dangeau's Memoires, i. 303; Diary of 
Henry, earl of Clarendon, ed. Singer; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. A pp. pp. 173, 176 ; Ma- 
zure's Hist, de la Revolution, ii: 149, 170 ; Lady 
Cowper's Diary; Lingard's Hist, of England, 
x. 201 sq.; Macaulay's Hist. 1858, ii. 70 sq.; 
Ranke's Hist, of England, iv. 285 ; Jesse's Mem. 
of the Court of England under the Stuarts, iv. 
491 ; Dasent's St. James's Square, pp. 181-2; 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iii. 281, 438.] 

T. S. 

SEDLEY, SIR CHARLES (1689P-1701), 
wit and dramatic author, -was born about 
1639 at Aylesford in Kent. He was the 
youngest and posthumous son of Sir John 
Sedley (or Sidley, as the name was properly 
spelt), baronet, of Southfleet in Kent, whither 
this ancient family had moved its seat from 
the neighbourhood of Romney Marsh. Sir 
John Sedley^s wife Elizabeth was the daugh- 
ter and heiress of the learned Sir Henry 
Savile (1549-1622) [q. v.] < An Epitaph on 
the Lady Sedley ' was written by Edmund 
"Waller (Poems, ed. Drury, p. 243). Their son 
Charles succeeded to the title and estates 
after his elder brothers William and Henry 
had both died unmarried (CoLinre). Sedley 
entered Wadham College, Oxford, as a fellow 
commoner on 22 March 1655-6, but took no 
degrees. After the Restoration he entered 
parliament as one of the members (barons) 
for New Romney. The earliest of many 
notices concerning him in Pepys's e Diary 7 
-refers to a shameful drunken frolic in which 
he, Lord Buckhurst (afterwards Earl of Dor- 
get), and Sir Thomas Ogle engaged at the 
Cock Tavern In Bow Street, and for his 
share in the orgie he was fined 500Z. in the 
court of king's bench. Chief-justice Foster 
is said to have observed on this occasion that 
it was for Sedley ' and such wicked wretches 
as he was that God's Danger and judgments 
hung over us, calling him sirrah many times' 
(PEPYS, s.d. 1 July 1668 ; cf. JOHNSON'S Lives 
of the Poets, s.v. Dorset). Five years later 
Sedley and his boon-companion Buekhurst 
were guilty of a similar escapade, and when 
they were threatened with legal proceed- 
ings, the king was reported to have inter- 
fered on their behalf, besides getting drunk 
in their company (PEPYS, 23 Oct. 1668). On 
16 Nov. 1667 Pepys speaks of Lord Vaughan 
as * one of the lewdest fellows of the age, 
worse than Sir Charles Sedley ; ' on 1 Feb. 
1669 he alludes to the brutal assault con- 
trived by him upon the actor Edward ^Kynas- 
ton [q. v.], who had presumed upon his strik- 
ing personal resemblance to Sedley by appear- 



ing in public dressed in imitation of him. 
On 4 Oct. 1664 and 18 Feb. 1667, however, 
Pepys listened with muck pleasure to Sedley 's 
witty criticisms at the play. 

Sedley married, on 23 "Feb. 1657, at St. 
Giles's-in-the-Fields, Catherine, daughter of 
John Savage, earl Rivers, by whom he 
had one daughter, Catharine [q . v.], who be- 
came the favourite mistress of James, duke 
of York, and was by him created Countess 
of Dorchester. According to a well-known 
anecdote, Sedley is said to have declared 
himself to be even in civility with King 
James, who had made his daughter a coun- 
tess, by helping (through Ms vote in the Con- 
vention parliament) to make the king's 
daughter a queen. But, supposing the ear- 
liest of the prose papers printed as Sedley's, 
entitled 'Reflections upon our Late and Pre- 
sent Proceedings in England,' to be genuine, 
he at the time of the Revolution favoured 
delay till the question as to the birth of the 
Prince of Wales should have been settled, 
and, only in the event of this proving impos- 
sible, supported the succession of the Prin- 
cess of Orange in her own right and without 
her consort. This contribution to the pam- 
phlet literature of the crisis furnishes a good 
example of Sedley's clear and facile prose 
style. The parliamentary speeches attri- 
buted to him, bear largely upon the advan- 
tages of retrenchment, and in general reflect 
the opinions of a moderate tory. Notwith- 
standing the continued interest in public 
affairs exhibited in these speeches, Sedley is 
said to have withdrawn from London as 
much as possible after the death of Charles II. 
In January 1680 his skull was feactured by 
the fall of the roof of the tennis-court in the 
Haymarket, and he narrowly escaped with 
his life (Satton Correspondence, Camd. Soc, 
i. 216). He died on 20 Aug. 1701. A por- 
trait was engraved by Vandergucht (BBOM- 
LET>, 

The literary reputation of , Sedley among 
his contemporaries equalled his notoriety in 
the world of fashion and scandal. King 
Charles II is said to have told him that 
1 Nature had,given him apatent to be Apollo's 
viceroy/ and to have frequently asserted that 
' his style, either in writing or discourse, would 
be the standard of the English, tongue.' 
Flatteries were lavished on him by Rochester, 
Buckingham,andShadwell(seeLAjsrGBAiNE); 
and Dryden introduced him, under the ana- 
grammatic designation of Lisideius, as one 
of the personages of the dialogue published 
in 1668 as ' An Essay of Dramatic Poesy.' 
Dryden dedicated to Sedley ' The Assigna- 
tion' (1673)-, where he calls him the Tibullus 
of his age, and recalls the genial nights spent 



Scdlcy 



188 



Scdulius 



with him *m jtlfusnnt mid for th* u>nt purt wlmt may bp called the * rambling* comedy 
iiitf rttvtivt' tUsnwmO of t h* uj?i. This worthless piece is supposed 

\VIun tlu literary remains of 8i*U*\v ar , to |ly just about the time of Monek'sde- 
<*\Rnitm*<l. t!*y arc found v>ry itn|wrf*r! ly to elaruf mn in favour of the Restoration. ' Bel- 
warrant tht.*irrontompon^vrt,*|HtttittMn. l!U lamirn, or th M tat was* (1687), founded on 




mt to h 
as vqual in nutrit vtn to SitMfritnn! 



n*nt * of thu Karl f IVmbrokt* muy b hw, ! of hi* play 8. Th character of the heroine 
but it haw !MO taia Rttritmttt! to Butler* wn iw<l to b inti k iKW as an exposure of 
SiMllfyV ntiiMiranmtte yt*r,m* cmti|mfn* iittk* tlu l)m'iu*8t) of Chnvland (cf. GENBST, i, 
that in notiwabhsamUH mt to hi* ri'fjiirtUul ir5). Tho author, in his prologue, need 

liartlly luivti ankt'd : 
| H i* r not trnn^ to m>o, in mxeh an age, 
T| w pulpit gia the bcator of the st^ige? 

R^y alw rfuptmU Fmch original wWcli 



turnH of dtrttnn, tlw vil*'t of whih is *'- 
lianml hy th ttnHtuiiM mmpXiiMtr of hta 




although a HcentiouH, in not m a rui# an 

obmwuH writer. Hw hn al**o li'ft a 

of translations and adaptation^ tncltirUng 



StHlly f g poema, together with those of 






a Berks of cpi^ramH from Martial 
The plays of Sir Charles 



the title of * lloauty th Conqueror, or the 

TTk j ft * i *: At * . > i 



\ Biiirt.! in Prt>a and 
Author's Life, written 






by an Eminent Hand, 
2 vK 1776 (tha MctmotrH are nugatory; ToUi. 




are made to speak and do like Romans,' It 
would be more appropriately compared with 
Dryden's * All for Love' (1*678), W is too 
frigid and uninteresting a oompoaition, espe- 
cially in its earlier portions, to sustain the 
comparison, It is in heroic couplets, largely 
interspersed -with triplets, to which Sedley 
particularly addicted. 'The Tyrant 



5, 027-0 } Nwt H<! Qurj*s f 8th ser. xii. 844 ; 
Popys'ft l)Hry; Lftagbaine'a EnIih Dramatic 
I'ot8, 16i pp. 485-8 ; Oenest's Eiwrliah Stoge*] 

A* W. W, 

SEDULIXJS (<?, 828), commentator on 
the Script imm, has often been confounded by 
mediaeval writers with Gc&Htts Sedulius the 
poet, wfco Tvas the author of the * Carmen 




blank verse, widca tfce printer terribly con- 
' 



4es 



Tbe comedy of 'The Mulberry-garden' 
partly founded on Moliere's 'fieole 
aris/ is an example, composed partly 
easy prose, partly in rhymed couplets, of 



* Pallantus and Eudora,' printed 165S (see have a religious purpose ; but Usaher has 
T, x 150)* This romantic drama is in shown that Camus Sedulius tbe poet 

flourished in the fifth century, and must be 
differentiated from the commentator who 
even quotes the poet, and is sometimes termed 
junior, in allusion to his later date. 



, 

Ware identified the later Sedulius with a 
Britiah bwhop of iriiiU buth, who is said to 



Seebohm 



189 



Seed' 



Have been at Rome in 721, and there signed 
the decrees of a Roman council; but Lanigan 
considers this a mistake, and nothing seems 
to be known of the bishop in question. 

He is with more reason identified with the 
Sedilius or Siadhal, son of Feradach, who 
was abbot of Kildare, and died in 828. He 
is described by Hepidanus, a monk of St. 
Gall, who wrote in 818, as Sedulius Scotus, 
a ' distinguished author/ The works of Se- 
dulius consist of a Latin commentary on the 
Epistles of St. Paul, drawn from the works 
of the fathers, and one on the Gospel of 
St. Matthew, collected from various sources. 
They are frequently quoted by Archbishop 
Ussher in his * Religion of the Ancient Irish/ 
and they have been published in the ' Biblio- 
theca Patrum/ where they are assigned to 
' Sedulius Scotus/ According to the * Annals 
of the Four Masters/ Sedulius was abbot of 
Kildare, and died in 828. 

[Ussher's Works, iv. 245-58, 291-3, vi. 319- 
332; Lanigan's Eccl, Hist. i. 17, iii. 255; 
Bibliotheca Patrum, torn. vi. ; Labbe apud Ba- 
re >nius, De Scriptoribus JEcclesiasticis, pp. 149 
152.] T. 0. 

SEEBOHM, HENRY (1832-1895), or- 
nithologist, born on 12 July 1832, was eldest 
son of Benjamin Seebohm of Horton Grange, 
Bradford, Yorkshire (who came to England 
from Germany in 1815), by his wife Esther 
Wheeler, of Hitchin, Hertfordshire. His 
parents belonged to the Society of Friends, 
and he was educated at the Friends' school, 
York, where- he developed a taste for na- 
tural history. At an early age he engaged 
in business, and ultimately settled at Shef- 
field as a manufacturer of steel. His spare 
time was devoted to ornithology, and from 
time to time he made journeys into Hol- 
land, Greece, Asia Minor, Scandinavia, Ger- 
many, and Siberia to collect and study birds 
in their native haunts. 

One of his most successful expeditions 
was to the valley of the Lower Petchora in 
1875, with Mr. Harvie-Brown, when the 
eggs of the grey plover and of many rare 
species of birds were obtained. The account 
of this voyage, as well as of a trip to Heligo- 
land, whither he went to study the migration 
of the birds at the house of the celebrated 
ornithologist, Herr Gatke, was given in his 
* Siberia in Europe/ 8vo, London, 1880. In 
1877, accompanied by Captain "Wiggins, he 
visited the valley of the Yenesei, where further 
ornithological discoveries of great importance 
were made, and recorded in his * Siberia in 
Asia/ 8vo, London, 1882. Later he visited 
Southern Europe and South Africa to study 
European birds in their winter quarters, and 
to collect materials for his work oil ( The 



Geographical Distribution ot the Family 
Charadriidse/ 4to, London, 1887. 

_ Seebohm joined the British Ornitholo- 
gists 7 Union and the Zoological Society in 
1873 ; he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Geographical Society in 1878, and was one 
of the secretaries from June 1890 till his 
death. He was elected a fellow of the 
Linnean Society in December 1879. 

In later years he resided at South Kensing- 
ton and Maidenhead. He died on 26 Nov. 

1895. ^ 

Besides, the works already named, Seebohm 
was the author of: 1. * Catalogue of Birds 
in the British Museum, vol. v., Turdidse/ 
8vo, London, 1881. 2. ' A History of British 
Birds and their Eggs/ 8vo, London, 1883 5. 
3. < Classification of Birds/ 8vo, London, 
1890; supplement 1895. 4. "The Birds of 
the Japanese Empire/ 8vo, London, 1890. 
5. 'Geographical Distribution of British 
Birds/ 8vo, London, 1893. 6. ' Address to 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union/ 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1 893. He also contributed upwards of 
eighty papers, chiefly on ornithological sub- 
jects, between 1877 and 1895, to the * Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society/ 'The 
Ibis/ and other scientific publications. He 
left unfinished a work on t The Eggs of 
British Birds ' and on ' Thrushes/ 

He was a liberal contributor to the na- 
tional collection during his lifetime, and at 
his death left his whole ornithological col- 
lection to the British Museum (Natural His- 
tory). 

[Times, 28 Kov. 1895; Nature, 5 Dec. 1895, 
p. 105; Athenaum, 7 Dec. 1895, p. 794; Ibis, 

1896, pp. 159-62; information kindly supplied 
by his brother, Mr. F. Seebohm; Brit. Mns. 
(Nat. Hist.) Cat.; Royal Soc. Cat.; Zool Re- 
cord.] B. B. W. 

SEED, JEREMIAH (1700-1747), divine, 
born in 1700, was son of Jeremiah Seed, who 
graduated B.A. from Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1682, and was rector of Clifton, 
Westmoreland, from 1707 until his death in 
1722 (Grad. Cant. p. 346 ; NICOLSON and 
BURN, Hist, of Cwrib. and West. i. 414). 
He was educated at Lowther grammar school, 
and matriculated on 7 Nov. 1716 at Queen's 
College, Oxford, proceeding B,A. on 13 Feb. 
1721-2, and M.A. 1725 (FOSTER, Alumni, 
1715-1886,iv. 1271). He was chosen a fellow 
in 1732, and Jbecame for some years curate to 
Dr. Waterland, vicar of Twickenham, whose 
funeral sermon he preached on 4 Jan. 1741 
(2nd edit, London, 1742). Seed was pre- 
sented by his college in the same year to the 
rectory of Knight's Enham, Hampshire, 
where he remained until his death on 10 Dec. 
1747. 



Seelc'y 



190 



Seeley 



Seed was much, admired as a preacher. Dr. 
Johnson remarked that he had * a very fine 
style/ but 'he was not very theological.' 
Others deemed his preaching * elegant but 
languid/ Two sermons were published during 
his lifetime ; others posthumously as * Dis- 
courses ' (London, 1743, 8vo; 0th, 1766). 
' The Posthumous Works,' consisting of ser- 
mons, essays, and letters < from the original 
manuscripts/ was edited by Joseph Hull, 
M.A., fellow of Queen's College, London, 
and was printed for M, Seed (? his widow), 
1750, 2 vols., with a portrait by; Hayman, en- 
graved by Ravenet, Other editions appeared, 
2 vols., Dublin, 1750; London, 1770, 8vo, 
1 vol. ; and the work is said to have been 
translated into Bussian. 

[Chalmers's Biogr. Diet.; Bose'sBiogr. Diet.; 
Barling's Cyclop. Bibliogr. ii. 2688-9; Gent. 
Hag. 1747, p* 592; London Mag. xvi. 581; 
Lysons's "Environs of London, m. 580; Boswell's 
Johnson, ed. Hill, iii. 248.] C. F. S. 

SEELEY, SIR JOHN EOBEBT (1834- 
1895), historian and essayist, born in London 
on 10 Sept. 1834, was third son of Itoben 
Benton Seelejr [q. v.], publisher. From his 
father Seeley imbibed a love of books, to- 
gether with a special bias towards history and 
religious thought. He went first to school 
under the Rev. J. A. Barren at Btanmore, 
It was a school where no prices were given, 
but where more attention than usual was 
paid to English literature. From Stan- 
more he went on to the ^City of London 
school, then already winning a reputation 
under Dr. George Ferris Wuidborne Mor- 
timer [q. v.l Here he made such rapid pro- 
gress that he entered the sixth form when 
little over thirteen. But the work was too 
hard for him, and physical exercise was neg- 
lected. His health suffered ; he was obliged 
for a time to leave school. Forced to give 
up his classics, he took to reading English, 
and obtained a knowledge of English au- 
thors very rare in boys of his age. He had 
already read through * Paradise Lost' four 
or five times before he left school. In 1852 
he went to Cambridge, entering the uni- 
versity as a scholar of Christ's College. He 
studied classics principally ; he read widely, 
not neglecting the accurate scholarship in 
vogue at Cambridge, but paying attention 
by preference to the literary qualities and 
the philosophical and historical contents of 
his authors. He impressed at least one of 
his teachers by his remarkable command 
of language and expression. In society he 
was somewhat reserved and shy, but he 
made some warm friends. Among his con- 
temporaries at Christ's wereC. S. Calverley, 
W, (now Sir Walter) Besant, Skeat, Peil'e, 



and other men \vho afterwards came to dis- 
tinction, Seeley was known as one of the 
ablest of an able set. His conversation was 
noted for its dialectical subtlety and terse- 
ness, and, though not. combative, he never 
shrank from thorough discussion. Ill-health 
compelled him to defer his degree for a year, 
but in 1857 he graduated, his name appearing, 
along with three others, at the top of the 
classical tripos. The senior chancellor's 
medal, which he also obtained, marked him 
out as, upon the whole, the best scholar of 
his year. 

Shortly afterwards he was elected to a 
fellowship in hi a own college, and was ap- 
pointed classical lecturer. This post he held 
for two years. In 1 855) he published, under 
the pseudonym of John Robertson, his first 
book, a volume of poems, which contains a 
poem on the choosing of David, versifications 
of several jjsalrns, and a series of historic 
sketches, chiefly monologues of historic per- 
sonages His mind was clearly busy on the 
two topics which interested him most through 
life- religion and history; but the dramatic 
and personal element is more prominent than 
in HIM later works. In 1 859 ho left Cambridge 
to take the post of chief classical assistant 
at his old aenool. In 1863 he was appointed 
professor of Latin in University College, 
London. Here lie remained for six years. 
But the study of his professorial subject did 
not satisfy him ; his mind was actively at 
work on the problems of Christian doctrine 
regarded from an hiatorical point of view. 
In 18(55 he published ' Ece Homo,' in some 
respects the most remarkable of his works. 
It is an attempt to present the life, work, and 
teaching of Christ m a simple and positive 
form, avoiding textual and other dubieties, 
sketching and connecting the larger features 
rather than elaborating details^ He as- 
sumes in general the authenticity of the 
gospel narrative, but deals with the person 
of Christ on its human side only. The book 
immediately attracted attention, and, though 
intentionally uncontroyersial, provoked a 
storm of controversy, in which Mr, Glad- 
stone (Good Words, IK. SB et sqq.), Cardinal 
Newman, Dean Stanley, and others took part. 
Its title and the limitation of its scope were 
held to imply a denial of certain doctrines 
which the author deliberately avoided dis- 
cussing, In the preface to a subsequent 
edition he defended himself Against miscon- 
structions, without however committing him- 
self to positive assertions on the subjects in 
question. The book was published anony- 
mously, but the secret of its authorship was 
not long maintained. In the preface to the 
ftist edition Seeley hinted at another volume 



Seeley 



Seeley 



dealing with some of the topics omitted in ' 
< Ecce Homo. 7 But * Natural Religion,* 
published in 1882, cannot in this sense be 
regarded as a sequel to the former work. 
- 'Isatural Religion' avoids discussing the 
supernatural basis of faith, but does not 
therefore deny its existence. It endeavours 
to widen the conception of the word * reli- 
gion,' which the author declares unduly 
narrowed, and to establish the possibility of a 
reasonable religion without the supernatural 
element. The work was not so well received 
as ' Ecce Homo.' The style is equally vigo- 
rous, the argument as lucid, but the subject 
is devoid of that personal interest and asso- 
ciation possessed by the earlier book, while 
the view of religion which it advocates 
. appeals only to the few, 

In 1869 Seeley became professor of modern 
history at Cambridge in the place of Charles 
Kingsley, and at Cambridge he remained 
for the rest of his life. He had as yet pub- 
lished nothing historical beyond some short 
papers, but historical speculation had inte- 
rested him from early years. His lectures at 
once made a great impression. ^ They were 
carefully prepared, epigrammatic in style, 
animated in delivery, attractive and stimu- 
lating from the originality, width, and sug- 
gestiveness of their views. For many years 
his classes were large, a'nd were by no means 
confined to those who were making history 
a special study. Besides lecturing, he held 
weekly classes for the purpose^ of discussing 
historical and political questions with ad- 
vanced students. These gatherings were 
called * ' conversation classes/ but they be- 
came, at least latterly, a sort of monologue 
in which the professor took his^ class through 
a regular course of political science. 

In the inaugural lecture which he de- 
livered when appointed professor he definec 
his view of the connection between history 
and politics, and laid down the lines on which 
his teaching was consistently to run through 
out his tenure of the professorship. He in 
sisted on the principle that a knowledge o 
history, but especially of the most recent hia 
tory, is indispensable to the politician. An( 
"by history he meant political historyno 
biography, nor the history of religion, art,o 
society, but the history of the state. With 
this view, when the historical tripos was 
established at Cambridge in 1873, he infused 
into it a strong political element. He woul 
indeed have preferred to call it a politica 
tripos, and to make history subordinate t 
politics. His lectures were, with few excep- 
tions, confined to the history of the last tw 
centuries, and his attention was mainly give 
to international history, to the action an 



eaction of states upon each other. The his- 
ory of Great Britain as a member of the 
European system was, he maintained, a sub- 
ect strangely and unduly neglected in favour 
f domestic or constitutional history by 
British historians. 

For some time Seeley's labours were not 
estricted to Cambridge. The income of his 
hair was at first very small, and he was 
ompelled to supplement it by giving lect ures 

the large towns of the north and in Scot- 
and, where he achieved a high reputation 
s a lecturer. Some of his public addresses 
and other papers were collected hi a volume 
ntitled ' Lectures and Essays/ and pub- 
ished in 1870. The most important of these 
are perhaps the essays on the * Fall of the 
iloman Empire' and on 'Milton/ and his 
naugural lecture at Cambridge. 

While still professor of Latin Seeley had, 
at the request of the Oxford University Pi-ess, 
legun an edition of the first decade of Livy. 
A volume containing the first book of Livy 
was published in 1871. The introduction is 
original and suggestive, and displays his capa- 
city for forming clear and positive conclu- 
sions on complicated historical problems. 
But such antiquarian research was not very 
congenial to him, and he never continued the 
edition. 

Some years after he became professor of 
listory an anonymous benefactor made an 
addition to the income of the chair, while 
about the same time the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press gave a practical illustration 
of the endowment of research by paying in 
advance for a work on which Seeley was 
engaged. He was thus enabled to give up 
extraneous employment, and to devote him- 
self to his professorial lectures and to the 
book in question. This book, ' The Life and 
Times of Stein/ is probably Seeley's most 
solid and lasting contribution to fiistorical 
knowledge, but it was not one of ^ his most 
successful productions. He had little taste 
for personal detail or for simple narrative, 
and the character of Stein hardly lends itself 
to attractive biographical treatment. ^ But 
as an elucidation of the anti-Napoleonic re- 
volution, and of the share taken by Stein 
and Prussia in the revival of Germany, the 
book has no rival in the English language. 
'The Expansion of England/ published in 
1883, was a greater success so far as public 
reputation is concerned. This little volume 
consists of lectures delivered in the uni- 
versity, very slightly altered or amplified for 
publication. It sketches with a remarkable 
unity of view and vigour of treatment the 
great duel with France which began with 
the revolution of 1688 and ended with 



Seeley 



192 



Seeley 



Waterloo. No previous writer had so suc- 
cinctly and so pointedly emphasised the co- 
lonial aud commercial aspects of that struggle. 
The book was eagerly taken up by a very 
large public: it drew attention, at an oppor- 
tune moment, to a great subject; it substi- 
tuted imperial for provincial interests ; and 
it contributed perhaps more than any other 
single utterance to the change of feeling re^ 
specting the relations between Great Britain 
and her colonies which marks the end of the 
nineteenth century. 

The study of British foreign policy occupied 
Seeley during the greater jjart of the re- 
mainder of his life. His original intention 
was to write a detailed history of this subject 
during the period covered by the ' Expan- 
sion.' But he found it necessary to supply 
an introduction, and, in tracing the origin of 
those principles and antagonisms on which 
the policy of the eighteenth century was 
based, he was gradually forced back to the 
reign of Elizabeth. It was the protestant 
reformation, definitely adopted by Elizabeth, 
which in his view determined all the subse- 
quent relations between England and the 
great maritime states of the continent. Thus, 
what had been intended for a short introduc- 
tion gradually swelled into a considerable 
book, which he left completed, but not finally 
revised at his death. It was published in 
1895, under the title 'The Growth of British 
Policy/ 2 vols. In this work Elizabeth, 
Cromwell, and William HI are displayed as 
the great founders of the British empire, and 
religion and commerce as the leading motives 
which directed their action. Before actually 
setting to work on this book Seeley had pub- 
lished (1886) a concise 'Life of Napoleon/ 
expanded from an article in the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica.' It is a masterly summary 
of Napoleon's aims and actions, but is written 
perhaps from too hostile a point of view, 
and, while doing justice to Napoleon's great 
powers, deprives him of all claim to origi- 
nality as a statesman. A little book on 

* Goethe/ published in 1893, and a volume of 

* Lectures on Political Science/ issued pos- 
thumously, complete the list of Seeley's pub- 
lished works. The volume on Goethe is an 
amplification of some papers published in the 
'Contemporary Review' in 1884. It is a 
study of Goethe the philosopher and teacher, 
rather than of Goethe the poet or the artist. 
As in the essay on Milton, it is rather what 
the author had to say than the way he said 
it which seems to have been most interest- 
ing- to Seeley. This little volume was under- 
taken as a relief from severer work, for which 
illness made him unfit, 

The kst years of his life were rendered 



less productive than they might have been by 
the attacks of the disease cancer to which 
tie eventually succumbed. He was elected 
fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cam- 
bridge, in October 1882, and in 1894 was 
made K.C.M.G. on the recommendation of 
Lord Rosebery. He had long been in some- 
what weak health, and suffered much from 
insomnia; but he bore his troubles with 
marvellous patience, and attended to his pro- 
fessorial duties whenever not actually inca- 
pacitated by illness. He died at Cambridge 
on 13 Jan. 1895. 

In his teaching of modern history Seeley 
adopted, though he did not formulate, the 
view that * history is past politics, and poli- 
tics present history.' Historical narrative 
without generalisation had no value for him ; 
he always tried to solve some problem, to 
trace large principles, to deduce some lesson. ' 
If the conclusions which he reached could 
be made applicable to present difficulties, so 
much the better. History was to be a school 
of statesmanship. So eager was he to esta- 
blish general principles that his conclusions 
occasionally appear paradoxical, and are 
sometimes open to dispute. But his method 
is at once stimulating and productive, and 
his whole conception of the subject tends to 
place it on a high level of public utility. 
Of the duties of the individual towards the 
state Seeley formed a high ideal, and, though 
not an active politician, he held strong poli- 
tical views. In later life he was a liberal 
unionist, and on more than one occasion 
raised his voice in public against home rule. 
He was for several years closely connected 
with the Imperial Federation League, and, 
though he never traced out any definite 
scheme of federation, there was nothing that 
he had more at heart than the maintenance 
of the union between Great Britain and her 
colonies. In university politics he took little 
part ; the routine of academic business and 
the labour of examinations were alike dis- 
tasteful to him. He never, even in his 
younger days, went much into society. In 
1869 he married Mary Agnes, eldest daugh- 
ter of Arthur Phillott, by whom he had one 
child, a daughter, who survives him. 

His chief published works are: 1. * David 
and Samuel, with other Poems, original and 
translated, by John Robertson/ 1859. 
2. ( Ecce Homo/ 1865. 8. < Lectures and 
Essays/ 1870. 4. 'The first Book of Livy, 
with an Introduction, Historical Examina- 
tion, and Notes/ 1871. 5. ' English Lessons 
for English People ' (written in collabora- 
tion with Dr. Abbott), 1871. 6. 'The Life 
and Times of Stein, or Germany and Prussia 
in the Napoleonic Age/ 1878. 7. ' Natural 



Seeley 



193 



Seeley 



Religion/ 1882. 8. 'The Expansion of Eng- 
land.' 9. 'A Short Life of Napoleon I/ 
1885. 10. 'Goethe reviewed after Sixty 
Years/ 1893. 11. * The Growth of British 
Policy: an Historical Essay/ 1895. 12. * Lec- 
tures on Political Science/ 1895. 

[Articles in the Cambridge JReview and the 
Christ's College Magazine by Professor Hales ; 
article in the Cains College Magazine by Dr. 
Venn; memoir prefixed to the Growth of British 
Policy, by Professor Prothero; private infor- 
mation.] G-. W. P. 

SEELEY, EGBERT BENTON (1798- 
1886), publisher and author, son of Leonard 
Benton Seeley, publisher, was born in 1798 
in Ave Maria Lane, London, where his 
father (the son of a bookseller at Bucking- 
ham) had established himself as a bookseller 
and publisher about 1784. The business 
was afterwards removed to 169 Fleet Street. 
Kobert Benton served in his father's busi- 
ness until 1826, when he took control of the 
publishing branch of it, and entered into 
partnership with Mr. Burnside. In 1827 he 
opened a shop at 10 Crane Court, from which 
in. 1830 he removed to 172 Fleet Street, and 
in 1840 to 54 Fleet Street, In 1854 he en- 
tered into partnership with Mr. Jackson and 
Mr. Halliday (who both died a few years 
later), and in 1857 he relinquished his inte- 
rest in the business to his second son, al- 
though for some years he continued to render 
active help in the management. 

Seeley was brought up in the traditions of 
evangelical churchmanship, and his publica- 
tions were mainly confined to books expound- 
ing evangelical opinions. He issued an edi- 
tion of the works of Richard Cecil [q. v.] in 
1838, biographies of Hannah More (1838), 
John Newton (1843), and Henry Martyn 
(1855), and many of the publications of the 
Church Missionary Society. He was inti- 
mate with the Rev. Edward Auriol, Dean 
Boyd, and Dean Champneys, whose works 
he published. 

Seeley joined his friends in promoting 
many religious and philanthropic movements. 
He was one of the founders of the Church 
Pastoral Aid Society in 1837, and of the 
Society for Improving the Condition of the 
Labouring Classes in 1844, and he served 
on the subdivision of parishes commission in 
1849. With the Earl of Shaftesbury he 
exerted himself in supporting the factory 
bills. He was a member of the metropolitan 
board of works from 1856 to 1857. He died 
at 59Hilldrop Crescent, CamdenTown, Lon- 
don, on 31 May 1886, leaving Leonard Ben- 
ton Seeley (see below) and three other sons 
and six daughters. The second son, Mr. 
Richmond Seeley, succeeded to the publish- 
VOL, LI. 



ing firm. His third son, Sir John Kobert 
Seeley, is noticed separately. 

Seeleypersonally engaged in literary work, 
on both religious and historical lines, sending 
many contributions to the ' Times/ the ' Morn- 
ing Herald/ the * Record/ the ' Morning Ad- 
vertiser/ and * Fraser's Magazine.* One of 
his most thoughtful works was his ' Essays 
on the Church, by a Layman/ 1834, whicli 
went through many editions. Its object was 
to show that church establishments were in 
accordance with scripture, and that secession 
from the communion of the English church 
was not justifiable. More interesting was 
Seeley's 'The Greatest of the Plantagenets, 
Edward I/ 1860, which reappeared as ' The 
Life and Reign of Edward I/ 1872. Here 
Seeley successfully defended Edward I from 
the contemptuous strictures of Hume and 
other historians,and proved his greatness as a 
ruler, an opinion that later writers ha?e gene- 
rally adopted. Seeley's other writings were : 
1. * Essays on Romanism/ 1839. 2. 'Me- 
moirs of the Life and Writings of M. T. Sad- 
ler/ 1842. 3, ' Remedies for the Perils of 
the Nation: an Appeal/ 1843. 4. 'The Church 
of Christ in the Middle Ages/ 1845. 5. 'The 
Atlas of Prophecy, being the Prophecies of 
Daniel, with an Exposition/ 1849. 6. ' The 
Pope a Pretender: the Substance of a Speech/ 
10th edit. 1850. 7. ' A Memoir of the Rev, 
A. B. Johnson/ 1852. 8. * The Life of W. 
Cowper/ 1855. 9. ' The Life of J. Wesley/ 
1856. 10. 'The Spanish Peninsula: a Sketch/ 
1861. 11. 'Is the Bible True? ' seven dia- 
logues between James White (a pseudonym) 
and E. Owen, 1862. 12. 'Have we any 
Word of God?/ 1864. 13. 'Is the Bible 
True? Seven dialogues by a Layman/ 1866. 
14. ' Essays on the Bible/ 1870. 15. ' The 
Life and Writings of St. Peter/ 1872. 16. 'Tha 
greatest of the Prophets, Moses/ 1875. 

LBOHTAED BENTOH" SEELEY (1831-1893), 
the eldest son, born in 1831, was educated at 
the City of London school and at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he was fifth wrangler, 
was placed in the first class of the classical 
tripos, and in the first class in the moral 
sciences tripos, graduating B.A. in 185:?, and 
M. A. in 1855. In 1854 he was elected fellow 
of Trinity College. On 30 April 1855 he was 
called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn ; he prac- 
tised as a conveyancer and equity draughts- 
man, and his written opinions displayed much 
care and learning. He died at 1 Great James 
Street, London, on 30 Oct. 1893. He edited 
'Euclid,' 1875; 'Horace Waljjole and his 
Works, select Passages from his Writings/ 
1884; 'Fanny Burney and her Friends/ 
1890; and 'Mrs. Thrale, afterwards Mrs. 
Piozzi ; a Sketch of her Life and Passages 

o 



Seeman 



194 



Seemann 



from her Diaries and Letters/ 1891 (Times 
2, 3 Nov. 1893). 

[Times, 1 July 1886, p. 1, 3 July p. 7; Pub 
lishers' Circular, 15 June 1886, pp. 601-2, with 
portrait; World, November 1893,] Gr. C. B. 

SEEMAN or ZEEMAN, ENOCH 
(1694-17-44), portrait-painter, was born in 
1694 at Danzig in Germany, where his father 
was settled as a painter. It is possible thai 
the famous German ' virtuoso J painter, Bal- 
thasar Denner, who received some of his early 
instruction in painting at Danzig, may have 
been a pupil of Seeman's father, for some 
of Seeman's early paintings were executec 
in imitation of I)enner*s manner. Among 
these were a portrait of himself at the age o: 
nineteen, and an old woman's head in which 
the wrinkles, hair, fabric of clothes, are de- 
lineated in the minute manner which is seen, 
in Denner's works. Seeman was brought 
by his father, when young, to London, and 
practised there as a portrait-painter with 
great success. He resided in St. Martin's 
Lane, and at first styled himself 'Enoch 
Seeman, junior/ He was a good portrait- 
painter, and his portraits of ladies were 
much admired. The conventionalities, how- 
ever, of costume and posture have destroyed 
the value of his portraits. His portraits or 
portrait-groups were sometimes on a very 
large scale, such as the imposing picture of 
the Lapland giant, Gaianus, painted in 1734, 
now at Dalkeith Palace, and the family group 
of Sir John Oust [q.v.] at Belton House, 
Grantham. Seeman frequently painted his 
own portrait, in which he is seen in an 
animated attitude, with long flowing hair. 
One example is in the royal picture gallery 
at Dresden, and was engraved by J. G. 
Schmidt. Another, with his daughter in 
hoy's clothes, was at Strawberry Hill. A 
portrait by him of Sir Isaac Newton, formerly 
m the possession of Thomas Hollis, F.S.A., 
was engraved in mezzotint by J. MacArdell. 
Seeman also painted George II, Queen 
Caroline (a portrait of whom by him is in 
the National Portrait Gallery), and other 
members of the royal family. He died- 
suddenly in 1744. His son, Paul Seeman, 
painted portraits and still life, and his three 
brothers were all painters and ingenious 
artists, one of whom, Isaac Seeman, died in 
London on 4 April 175L The name is some- 
times, but erroneously, spelt Zeeman. 

[Vertue's Diaries (Brit Mus, Addit. MSS 
J3074, 23076, &c.); Walpole's Anecdotes of 
Painting ; Bedgrave's Diet, of Artists.] L. 0. 

SEEMAN]Sr,BERTHOLDCAEL(1825- 

1871), botanist and traveller, born at Hano- 
ver on 28 Feb. 1825, was educated at the 



Lyceum there, then under Grotefend, the 
celebrated cuneiform scholar, from whose 
son he received his first botanical teaching. 
Seemann's first botanical paper, l Descrip^ 
tipnes Plantarum Novarum vel minus cog- 
nitarum/ published in ' Flora ' in 1844, was 
written when he was seventeen. After 
graduating at Gottingen, he in 1844 came 
to Kew and worked under John Smith the 
curator (1798-1888), in order to fit him- 
self for travel as a botanical collector. In 
1846 Sir "William Jackson Hooker [q. v.j pro- 
cured Seemann's appointment as naturalist 
toHJLS. Herald, under Captain H. Kellett, 
C.B., then engaged on a hydrographical sur- 
vey of the Pacific. Seemann started at once 
for Panama. Finding that the Herald had 
not returned from Vancouver, he explored 
the Isthmus, finding many new plants, be- 
sides hieroglyphics at Veraguas, which he 
described in a paper read before the Archaeo- 
logical Institute. He joined the Herald in 
January 1847, and remained with her till 
June JL851. Almost all the west coast of 
America was explored, and three cruises were 
made into Arctic seas. In Peru and Ecua- 
dor Seemann travelled with Mr. (afterwards 
Captain) Bedford Clapperton Trevelyan Pirn 
^q. v.Tfrom Payta through the deserts and 
Dver tne Andes to Guayaquil ; and in Mexico 
he went from Mazatlan over the Sierra Madre 
to Durango and Chihuahua, narrowly escap- 
ing the Oomanche and Apache Indians. In 
1848 the Herald was ordered to Behring 
Strait to search for Franklin, first in com- 
pany with the Plover and afterwards with 
the Enterprise and the Investigator. Herald 
[sland was discovered, and a higher latitude 
than any previously attained in that region 
was reached, while Seemann collected many 
jlants and anthropological specimens relat- 
ng to the Esquimaux, visited Kamtchatka 
and the Sandwich Islands several times, 
and finally came home by Hongkong, Singa- 
K>re, the Cape, St. Helena, and Ascension. 
The Botany of the Voyage/ which was 
published between 1852 and 1857, with 
analyses by J. D. (now Sir Joseph) Hooker 
and one hundred plates by W. H. Fitch, 
comprises the floras of Panama, north-west 
Mexico, West Esquimauxland, and Hong- 
kong. Seemann's * Narrative of the Voyage,' 
published in two volumes in English in 1853, 
was translated into German in 1858. Its 
author was made Ph.D. of Gottingen, and 
was elected a member of the Imperial Aca- 
emy Naturae Curiosorum (now the Leo- 
)oldine Academy) under the title of Bon- 
)land. In the same year he began, in con- 
unction with a brother, who died in 1868, 
o edit a German journal of botauy under 



Seemann 



195 



Seffrid 



tlie name of ' Bonplandia/ of which ten 
quarto volumes were published at Hanover 
between 1853 and 1862. In 1857 he went 
to Montreal, representing the Linnean So- 
ciety at the meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 
and took the opportunity to visit the United 
States. In 1860 he was commissioned, with 
Colonel Smythe, R.A., to report on the Fiji 
Islands, before the English government ac- 
cepted their cession. His letters, written in 
the voyage out, to the * Athenaeum ' and the 
1 Gardeners' Chronicle/ were translated both 
into French and into German. He made the 
ascent of Vorua and BukuLevu. His report 
'On the Resources and Vegetable Products 
of Fiji' was presented to parliament, and 
in 1862 was published separately ^as 'Viti: 
an Account 01 a Government Mission to the 
Vitian or Fijian Islands? The appendix con- 
tained a catalogue 'of all the previously 
described plants of the islands, and some 
new species were described in t Bonplandia/ 




began 

the issue of a * Flora Vitiensis/ in ten quarto 
parts, with one hundred plates by Fitch. Of 
this, nine parts, written by himself, were 
published before his death ; the tenth, deal- 
ing with the cryptogamic plants, and by 
various hands, was issued in 1873. 

After discontinuing the issue of 'Bon- 
plandia' in 1862, Seemann in 1863 began 
the publication of the * Journal of Botany, 
British and Foreign ;' from 1869 Dr. Henry 
Trimen [q. y.l and Mr, J. G. Baker were 
associated with him in the editorship. la 
1864 some French and Dutch capitalists 
sent him to Venezuela to report on its re- 
sources. Near the Tocuyo he discovered a 
valuable bed of anthracite. From March to 
August 1866, and during 1867, he accom- 
panied Captain Bedford Pirn to Nicaragua. 
Seemann's letters to the *Athenjeum' and 
to the ' Panama Star and Herald ' were re- 
printed in 1869 as * Dottings on the Roadside 
in Panama, Nicaragua, and Mosquito/ One 
result of these journeys was the purchase by 
English capitalists of the Javali gold mine, 
Chontales, Nicaragua, of which Seemann 
was appointed managing director. He had 
also the management of a large sugpar estate 
near Panama. The climate ruined his health, 
and he died at Javali of fever on 10 Oct, 
1871. Seemann married an Englishwoman, 
who predeceased him, leaving one daughter. 
He became a fellow of the Linnean So- 
ciety in 1862, and was a vice-president of 
the Anthropological Society and a fellow 
of the Royal Geographical Society In 



botany he made a special study of Camellia 
and Thea, of which he published a synopsis 
in the Linnean ' Transactions * (vol. xxii.>, 
and of the ivy family, his account of which 
was reprinted from the * Journal of Botany ' 

1868. He introduced into cultivation 
the cannibal tomato, eaten with human flesh 
in the Fiji Islands, the candle-tree (Par- 
mentiera cerifera), and several handsome 
species of palm. Regel dedicated to him 
the genus Seemannia, gesnerads, natives of 
the Andes. 

Besides the botanical works and books of 
travels already mentioned, Seemann ^was 
author of the following scientific treatises : 
1. 'Die Volksnamen der amerikanischen 
Pflanzen/ Hanover, 1851, 8yo. 2. 'Die in 
Europa eingefuhrten Acacien/ Hanover, 
1852, 8vo. 3. 'Popular History of the 
Palms,' London, 1856, 8vo. 4. < The British 
Ferns at one View,' with illustrations by 
W. Fitch, London, 1860, 8vo. 5. Hanno- 
versche Sitten imd Gebrauche in ihrer 
Beziehung zur Pflanzen welt/ Leipzig, 1862, 
16mo. 6. ' Revision of the Natural Order 
Hederaceae/ London, 1868, 8vo, He also 
wrote descriptions in English and German 
of the 84 Coloured Plates of Endlicher's 
'Paradisus Vindobonensis/ 1858, folio, an4 
translated from the German descriptions of 
' Twenty-four Views of the Vegetation of the 
Coasts of the Pacific/ by F, H. von Kittlitz, 
1861, 8vo. He wrote prefaces to L J. Ben- 
jamin's ' Acht Jahre in Asien und Afrika/ 
1858, to "W. T. Pritchard's * Polynesiau 
Reminiscences/ 1866, and to Lindley and 
Moore's ' Treasury of Botany/ 1865. 

Seemanu, who displayed remarkable ver- 
$atility, wrote numerous articles in periodi- 
cals in English, German, and other languages. 
He was also a musical composer, and wa* 
author of three short German plays which 
enjoyed popularity in Hanover. Their titles 
ran: 'WaM macht Qual/ Hanover, 1BC7, 
8vo ; * Der Wohlthater wider Willen/ Hano- 
ver, 1867, 8vo; and 'Die gelben Rosen/ 
Hanover, 1867, 8vo. 

[There is a lithographic portrait of him in 
the Journal of Botany for 1872: Gardeners' 
Chronicle, 1871, p. 1678; Proceedings of thft 
Linnean Society, 1871-2, p. buriv; Edwards's 
Photographic Portraits of Men of Eminence, 
1866 : Appleton's American Dictionary.] 

** a s. B. 

SEFFRID, SFBD>, SEINFRH), or 
SAFRED 1C (d* 1204), bishop of Chiches- 
ter, was archdeacon of Chichester when, in 
1178, he was made dean of that church. He 
was consecrated bishop of Chiehester ou 
16 Nov. 1180. He was on the side of the 
monks of Christ Church, Canterbury, in their 

02 



Segar 



196 



Segar 



quarrel with Archbishop Baldwin, and was 

employed by Urban HI and the king in con 

nection with the dispute in 1187 and 1188 

In 1187 a large part of his cathedral church 

built by Bishop fealph LufFa, and consecrate* 

in 1108, was destroyed by a fire which pro 

babty began on the roof. He used all mean 

at his command to repair the damage. Th 

triforium suffered little, hut the clerestory 

had to he rebuilt ; stone vaulting was suli- 

stituted for the wooden roofs of the nav 

and aisles, the eastern limb was almos 

wholly rebuilt and much lengthened, the 

chapels on the eastern sides of the transept 

were added, and pointed single-light windows 

took the place of the Norman windows in 

nave and choir (STEPHENS). The church 

was dedicated in September 1199, but the 

rebuilding was not finished in Seffrid's life- 

time. Senrid is said also to have rebuilt 

the bishop's palace. In 1189 he was present 

at the coronation of Richard I, and at the 

great council at Pipe well. He strongly con- 

demned the outrage inflicted by the chan- 

cellor on Geoffrey (d. 1212) [q. v.], arch- 

bishop of York, in 1191, and wrote to the 

monks of Canterbury declaring that he was 

ready to take part in avenging such an insult 

to the whole church. He was ordered by 

the king, then in captivity, to come to him 

in Germany in 1193 in company with the 

chancellor (Roe. Hov. iii. 212). He was 

present at the new coronation of Richard on 

17 April 1194, and at the coronation of John 

on 27 May 1199. In September 1200 he 

was too ill to attend the archbishop's synod 

at Westminster. He died on 17 March 

1204. With the consent of the dean and 

chapter of Chichester he made statutes for 

the canons and vicars of the cathedral, which 

strengthened the independence of the chap- 

ter, and he regulated the residence of the 

canons and the duties of the dignitaries of 

the church. He founded a hospital for 

lepers half a mile to the east of Chichester, 

and another farther off in the same direc- 

tion. 

[Stephens's Mem. of S. Saxon See, pp. 65-9, 
321 ; Gervase of Cant. i. 295, 385, 412, 491 
Epp. Cantor. pp. 57, 151, 167, 345, Gesta' 
Henri* II de (B. Abbas), ii. 28, Bog. Hov ii 
254, m. 15, 212, 247, ir. 90, B. deWo, ii.' 
169, Ann. Winton, ii. 73,79, andWav. pp. 242 
252, 256, ap. Ann. Monast. (these six Boll s Ser ) - 
Godwin, De Praesulibus, p. 503, ed. Bichardson 1 

W. H. 



> FRANCIS (fl. 

49-1563X translator and poet, whose name, 
variously spelt, is that of an old Devonshire 
family was probably the ' Francis Nycholson, 
ate Seagar,' who was made free of the 



Stationers' Company on 24 Sept. 1557 He 
was the author of: 1. A brefe Declaration 
of the great and innumerable Myseries and 
Wretchednesses used i[n]Courtes ryall,made 
by a Lettre whych mayster Alayn Charatre 
wrote to hys Brother. Newly augmented, 
amplified and inrytched, by Francis Segar 
U..U, 1549, 12mo. A fragment of this 
tract is in the Bodleian Li 



It 






probably a new edition of Caxton's transla- 
tion of .Alain Chartier's ' CuriaU Prefixed 
to it are five four-line stanzas * to the reader* 
by Segar (RiTSON, Bibliographia Poetica, p 
327; HAZUTT, Handbook, p. 96). 2. <Cer- 
tayne Psalmes select out of the Psalter of 
l)a vid, and drawen into Englishe metre, wyth 
Notes to every Psalme in iv. partes to Svne-e 
by F. S. Printed by William Seres/ London 
1553, 8vo. This is dedicated in Sternhold's 
stanza to Lord Russell, by < your lordeshyps 
humble orator, Francys Seager/ There 
are nineteen psalms, followed by a poem in 
the same metre entitled 'A Description of 
the Lyfe of Man, the Worlde and Vanities 
thereof (Lowin>ES, under Psalms, p. 1996; 

IBDIN, Typographical Antiquities, iv. 200) 

. 'The Schoole of Vertue and Booke of 
?ood Nourture for Chyldren and Youth to 
learne theyr dutie by newly perused, cor- 
rected and augmented by the fyrst Auctour 
F. S. With a briefe Declaration of the 
Dutie of eche degree. Printed by William 
Seres/ 1557, 16mo. An acrostic giving the 
author's name ([Seager) is prefixed to this 
volume, which is divided into twelve chap- 
ters of doggerel rhyme. This is the earliest 
mown edition of a once popular work. It 
ias been reprinted